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TROCHID^C 



PLATE 1 




MANUAL 



OF 



Structural and Systematic, 



WITH ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE SPECIES. 



/< 



By GEORGE W. TRYON, Jr, 

CONTINl'KD BV 

H. ^Y A. PILSBRY. 




V^ol. XI. 

TROCHID^, STOMATIID/E. rLEUROTOMARIID/E, HALIOTID^. 



PHILADELPHIA: 
Published by the Conchological Section, 

ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES, COR. igTH AND RACK STS. 

1889. 






Binder & Kelly, Printers, 518 Minor Street, Philadelhhia. 



The Editor desires to express his sincere thanks to the subscribers 
to the Manual of Conchology for their continued patronage, 
and for the many kind expressions of interest in the continuation 
of the work which he has received. 

The introduction in the present volume of full synonymic refer- 
erences into the text of the work, and the practice of giving de- 
scriptions extending to every character shown by each species, are 
innovations which the author trusts will lighten the labor of those 
who have occasion to consult the Manual. 

All descriptions which are not drawn from specimens are followed 
by the authority from whom they are taken, in parenthesis. This 
acknowledgement serves also to indicate the species lacking in the 
Academy's collection, and shows the amount of material upon 
which the present work is based. 

H. A. p. 

March, 1889. 



I^a determination precise des especes etdeleurs caracteres distinctif-, fait la 
premiere base sur laquelle toutes les reclierches de I'llistoire naturelle doivent 
etre fondees; les observations les plus curieuses, les vues les plus nouvelles, perd- 
ent presque tout leur merite, quand elles sent depourvues de cet appui, et malgr^ 
I'aridite de ce genre de travail, c'est par la que doivent commencer lous ceux qui 
se proposent d'arriver a des resultats soHdes. CuviER. 




MANUAL OF CONCHOLOGY 



Family TROCHIDjE. 



Animal similar in general form to the Turbinidse. Epipodial line 
beai'ing one, several, or many smooth or ciliated cirrhi on each 
side; head with a short, broad rostrum ; intertentacular lobes sim- 
ple or digitated, separate or united across the front, sometimes obso- 
lete. Jaws developed or absent. Radula rhipidoglossate, rhachidian 
teeth always present and well-developed ; lateral teeth generally 5 
on each side, sometimes more numerous ; marginal teeth narrow, 
very numerous. 

Shell nacreous within, conical, pyramidal, subglobose, turbinate or 
helicoid ; aperture entire, tetragonal or rounded ; peristome gener- 
ally not continuous. Operculum circular, thin, entirely corneous, 
formed of numerous gradually increasing whorls, nucleus central. 

The Trochidie are like the Turbinidte in the possession of a na- 
creous test and in the principal structural characters of the animal. 
They differ from that family in having a corneous, never calcareous, 
operculum, Avhich is always multispiral. 

The family is represented by numerous littoral species on nearly 
all coasts, and numbers also many deep sea forms. 

Since very early times many species have been well-known to 
naturalists. The name Trochus, according to Fischer was used for 
the first time by Rondelet, in 1558, who assembles under this title a 
rather miscellaneous assortment of univalves, including a true 
Trochus. Linnaeus' genus Trochus is composed principally of true 
Trochidre, but contains also species of several very different families. 
Lamarck still further restricted the group by eliminating several 
genera ; and in more recent times the labors of Gray, H. and A. 
Adams and others, have contributed much toward a systematic ar- 
rangement of the family. 

The more extensive works upon the Trochidse are the following. 

A. Adams. 

Contributions toward a Monograph of the Trochidse, in Proc. 
Zool. Soc, 1851, pp. 150-192. 
(5) 



6 TROCHID^. 

Dr. p. Fischer. 

Monog. Genre Troque, in Kiener's Coquilles Vivantes, Paris, 
1880. 
R- A. Philippi. 

Monograph of Trochus in Syst. Conchylien Cabinet, ed. 2 
(1846 to about 1856). 
LovELL Reeve. 

In Conchologia Iconica vol. xiii. (1861.) 
Adams' monograph contributes numerous descriptions of supposed 
new forms, without figures, measurements or comparison with known 
species. The work as a whole is an unmitigated nuisance. Philippi's 
monograph describes scores of " species " founded upon coloration or 
other equally trivial characters. His descriptions are generally 
very good, and the figures assist one to identify most of the forms. 
Reeves' work is very incomplete. The monograph by Fischer is an 
altogether thorough and reliable work. 

The primary division of the Trochid?e is attended with consider- 
able difficulty. I have adopted the following four 

Subfamilies. 

Trochininj<:. Animal with frontal lobes; jaws wanting; lateral 
teeth never more than 5 on each side of the rhachidian, or some- 
times with an obsolete sixth tooth. Shell pearly ; peristome incom- 
plete. 

GiBBULiNiE. Frontal lobes present ; jaws present ; lateral teeth 
frequently exceeding 5 on each side. Shell pearly ; peristome in- 
complete. 

IjMBONiiNiE. Rostrum short, rounded, with lateral beards; eyes 
on long peduncles ; tentacles subulate, the left attached to a siphon- 
shaped frontal appendage; mantle reflexed over the edge of the 
aperture ; jaws present ; lateral teeth 6 on each side. Shell polish- 
ed, scarcely pearly, peristome incomplete. 

Delfhinulin.e. No frontal lobes ; jaws present. Shell pearly in- 
side ; aperture circular, peristome continuous. 

Synopsis of Genera and minor groups. 

Subfamily I. Trochinin^. 

Genus TROCHUS Linne. 

Shell conical, strong, imperforate or false-umbilicated, the axis 
always solid, the spire more or less elevated, whorls numerous, 



TROCHUS. 7 

generally carinated at the periphery, sometimes rounded, more or 
less flattened beneath ; aperture rhomboidal, very oblique ; columella 
twisted, its edge generally folded or dentate, generally toothed at 
base ; sculptured usually with spiral beaded ridges. The species are 
all old world in distribution. 

Subgenus Trochus, (sensu stricto.) 

Shell large, thick, solid, the spire pyramidal or conical, periphery 
angulated, base flat or convex ; outer and basal lips smooth within, 
the columella with a strong fold above, ending in an obtuse tooth 
below\ T. uiloticus L., etc. 

Subgenus Cardinalia Gray, 1857. 

Shell conical ; base plano-concave, Avithout false-umbilicus ; outer 
lip smooth within ; columella short, arcuate, simple, Avithout a fold 
above, ending below in an acute denticle. 

Indo-Pacific Province. 

Subgenus Tectus Montfort, 1810. 

Shell pyramidal ; base flat, without false-umbilicus ; aperture 

rhomboidal, very oblique, angular, wider than long ; outer lip lirate 

Avithin ; columella very short, vertical, with a strong spiral fold, 

ending anteriorly in a knob or point. Type, T. mauritianus Gniel. 

Indo-Pacific Province. 

Subgenus Infundibulum Montfort, 1810. 
Shell conical, false-umbilicate ; columella more or less folded 
above, its edge straight, oblique, toothed or simple, with or without 
a tooth at base. Type, T. concavus Gmel. 

Indo-Pacific and Australasian Province. 

Section Lamprostoma Swainson, 1840. 

Shell conical with nearly flat base and angular periphery ; all 
over granose-lirate ; columella tortuous above, its edge denticulate; 
basal and outer margins of aperture generally lirate within. Type, 
T. maculatus Linn. 
Section Infundibulum (sensu str.). 

Shell conical, periphery angular, base nearly flat, or concave ; 
outer surface smooth, costate or granular ; outer lip not lirate with- 
in ; columella inserted in the center of the axis, strongly folded 
above, its edge smooth, not toothed nor notched at base. Type, T. 
concavus Gmel. 



TROCHUS. 

Section Infundibulops Pilsbry. 

Similar to Infundibulum, but the columella thin straight and 
simple from its insertion in the center of the false-umbilicus to its 
union with the basal lip. Type, T. erythrreus Brocc. 

Indian 0. 

Differs from Infundibulum in lacking the strong fold of the 
columella. 

Section Ccelotrochus Fischer. 

Similar to Infundibulops, but with the false-umbilicus very deep 
and narrow, penetrating deeper than the columella which is inserted 
upon its edge, not in the center of the axis. Type, T. tiaratus Q. 

et G. Neiv Zealand. 

Section Anthora Gray. 

Shell elevated, conical, granulose above, lirate below; base plano- 
concave, false-umbilicus shallow, bicostate, outer and basal lips 
smooth within, columella oblique, with a small fold above, its edge 
simple. Type, T. viridis Gniel. New Zealand. 

Section Pr^ecia Gray. 

Columella twisted, simple; false-umbilicus deep, narrow, Avith a 
distinct narrow central spiral rib ; throat striated. Type, T. ele- 
gantulus Wood. 

Section Belangeria Fischer. 

Shell conical, solid ; outer lip of aperture lirate within ; columella 
with a small fold above, its base curving and denticulate where it 
unites with the denticulate basal margin ; false umbilicus narrow, 
Type, T. scabrosus Phil. 

Subgenus Clanculus Montfort, 1810. 
Shell conical, conoidal or turbinate ; generally granose-lirate all 
over; periphery rounded or angular, base flat or convex, false- 
umbilicate ; aperture oblique, usually obstructed by teeth, the outer 
lip usually lirate or dentate within, columella with a tooth-like fold 
above, terminating in a tooth at the base ; false umbilicus with a 
crenated border. Type, T. pharaonius Linn. 

Mediterranean, Indian 0., and Pacific. 

Genus MONODONTA Lamarck, 1799. 
Shell imperforate, turbinate, ovate or globose-depressed, the 
periphery rounded ; surface smootli or spirally ridged ; columella 



TROCHUS. y 

simple, arcuate and spread upon the base at its insertion, below 
tuberculate, swollen, ending in a tooth, or simple ; outer lip smooth 
or lirate within. 

Subgenus Monodonta Lam. 

Shell turbinate-conic, very heavy, thick, solid; columella strong, 
cylindrical, bulging or more or less toothed near or at the base ; 
aperture as high as wide. 

Section IVIonodonta (restricted). 

Shell smooth or spirally ridged ; outer lip |)licate within ; colu- 
mella short porcellanous, terminating abruptly in a tooth, between 
which and the basal margin there is a square notch or channel. 
Type, M. labio L. Indian 0. 

Section Austrocochlea Fischer. 

Shell like Monodonta s. str., but columella only slightly toothed 
at the base, not notched ; outer lip lirate within. Type, M. constricta 
Lam. Australasia. 

Section Osilinus Philippi. 

Shell smooth or obsoletely spirally grooved ; outer lip smooth 
within ; columella swollen and convex in the middle, pearly, con- 
tinuous below with the basal lip. Type, M. turbinata Born. 

McdiUrranean Sea. 

Subgenus Diloma Philippi. 
Shell globose or depressed-conic ; aperture large, very oblique ; 
columella not prominent, flattened, not cylindrical, generally con- 
cave, arcuate, and slightly denticulate at the base or smooth. 

Section Diloma (restricted). 

Shell globose, depressed or conic, imperforate, black ; smooth or 
spirally grooved ; columella wide, concave, porcellanous; lip mar- 
gined with an iridescent band which extends across the parietal 
wall. Type. M. nigerrima (Gmel.) Phil. 

IF. Coast S. America. 

Section Neodiloma Fischer. 

Similar to the preceding, but without the parietal band of irides- 
cent nacre; surface smooth, grooved or lirate ; unicolored, spotted 
or tessellated ; columella with one or two denticles at base, or 
smooth. Type, M. lethiops Gmel. Australasia. 



10 TROCHUS. 

Section Chlorodiloma Pilsbry. 

Shell like Diloma but rather more conical, less nacreous ; colora- 
tion, variegated, consisting of fine lines of dark on a lighter ground ; 
columella generally green ; umbilicus perforate or subperforate. 
Type, M. crinita Phil. Australasia. 

Section Oxystele Philippi. 

Shell depressed conical, dark or variegated in color ; aperture 
large, oblique ; columella concave, arcuate, thin-edged, perfectly 
simple and curved below, above spread over the umbilical area as 
a rounded, well-defined pad of callus. Type, M. merula Lam. 

S. Africa ; Japan. 

Genus CANTHARIDUS Montfort, 1810. 

Shell ovate-conic or pyramidal imperforate, smooth or spirally 
sculptured outside, brilliantly iridescent within ; colors generally 
bright and variegated ; aperture less than half the length of shell, 
longer than wide, ovate; columella usually more or less folded or 
toothed near the base. Australasian Seas. 

Subgenus Cantharidus Montfort. 
Section Cantharidus (restricted.) 

Shell rather thin, ovate-pointed, whorls striated, or smooth ; col- 
umella rather straight, simple, not toothed. Type, C. iris Chem. 

Section Phasianotrochus Fischer. 

Shell thick, solid, polished, ehmgated ; ovate-pointed ; aperture 
ovate, longer than broad ; columella arcuate, bearing usually a tooth- 
like projection in the middle. Type, C. badius Wood. 

Subgenus Bankivia Beck, 1848. 

Shell imperforate, elongated, narrow, conical, thin, but slightly 
pearly ; aperture small, about one-third the length of shell ; col- 
umella slightly twisted, subtruncated toward the' base. Type, C. 
varians Beck. 
Section Leiopyrga H. & A. Adams. 

Shell perforate, elongated, narrow, somewhat turrited, thin, the 
whorls convex, rounded or carinated ; aperture oval, small, columel- 
la arcuate, not truncated at base. Type, C. picturata Ad. 

Subgenus Thalotia Gray, 1840. 
Shell imperforate, elevated-conical, thick, solid, granulated or 
s])irally ribbed ; periphery rounded or obtusely angular ; aperture 



TROCHUS. 11 

small, ovate, outer lip thick, crenulated within ; columella toothed 
at base, subtruncated. Type, C. conicu^ Gray. 

Section Odontotrochus Fischer. 

Shell conical, elevated ; periphery acutely carinated ; columella 
toothed below, truncated. Type, C. chlorostomus Mke. 

Genus GAZA Watson, 1878. 
Shell trochiforni, nacreous both on the surface and throughout ; 
delicately sculptured, with a reversed lip thickened internally by a 
nacreous callus ; the pillar twisted direct, in front angulated and 
pointed, behind entirely parted from the lip, and in the umbilical 
region spread out in a nacreous pad. ( Watson) Type, G. da?dala 
Watson. Fiji Is. 

Subgenus Microgaza Dall. 1881. 
Shell flattened, rotelliform, resembling a Gaza without reflected 
lip or umbilical callus, brilliantly nacreous when fresh, and having 
a distinctly scalariform umbilicus. (Dall) Type, M. rotella Dall. 

Barbados. 

Genus CALLOGAZA Dall, 1881. 
Shell resembling Gaza Watson, but with the umbilical pad re- 
flected only partly over the umbilicus ; the pillar straight, passing 
without notch or mucronation into the reflected basal margin of the 
aperture ; nacreous layer in this shell covered with a thin non- 
nacreous layer, which appears to be covered by a delicate epider- 
mis. (Dall) Type, C. superba Dall. 

Genus BEMBIX Watson, 1878. 

Shell conical, high, carinated, tumid on the base, umbilicated, 
thin, nacreous, covered with a thin membranaceous epidermis. ( Wat- 
son) Type, B. teola. Japan. 

Genus CHLOROSTOMA Swainson, 1840. 

Shell conical, umbilicate or imperforate, solid ; spire elevated or 
depressed ; aperture oblique, subrhomboidal, the outer lip smooth 
within ; columella arcuate, above continued in a callus over or half- 
Avay around the umbilicus, which when oj^en shows one or more 
spiral ribs inside ; base t)f columella with two or more denticles. 
Type, C. argyrostomum Gmel. 

Chinese and Japanese Seas, W. Coast America, West Indies. 



12 TROCHUS. 

Subfamily II. Gibbulin^e. 
Genus GIBBULA Risso, 1826. 
Shell usually perforate or umbilicate, conical, the spire moderate- 
ly elevated ; whorls often gibbous or tuberculose beneath the sutures, 
smooth or spirally ribbed ; the last generally angular at the periph- 
ery ; aperture subrhomboidal ; columella oblique, dentate or sub- 
sinuous at base ; outer li^) acute. Type G. magus L. 

Subgenus Gibbula (restricted.) 
Section Gibbula. 

Shell nodulous or tumid beneath the sutures, spire elevated, um- 
bilicated or imperforate, generally conspicuously painted with 
longitudinal stripes of red or brown. 

European and Australian Seas ; Indian 0.; Red Sea. 

Section Eurytrochub Fischer. 

Shell small, spirally Urate, depressed, umbilicate; last whorl de- 
flected toward the aperture ; aperture oblique rounded-quadrangular, 
the terminations of the lips approaching, connected by a callus ; 
outer and basal lips crenulated within. Type, G. danieli Crosse. 

Oceanica. 

Section Calliotrochus Fischer. 

Shell minute, turbinate, shining, narrowly perforated ; whorls 
convex ; aperture subcircular. Type, G. phasianellus Desh. 

Indian 0. 

Subgenus Monilea Swainson, 1840. 
Shell solid, depressed-conical, sharply striate and spirally lirate, 
umbilicated, the umbilicus partly filled by a prominent spiral funicle 
within it which terminates at the columella ; outer lip lirate within; 
columella sinuous, terminating in a point or denticle at base. Type, 
G. callifera Lam. Oceanica. 

Section Solanderia Fischer. 

Umbilicus narrow, columella arcuate, obliquely plicate, terminat- 
ing in a strong anterior tooth. G. nucleus Phil. 

Subgenus Aphanotrochus Von Martens, 1880. 
Shell conical, perforated ; columella with finely denticulated edge; 
outer lip lirate within. Type, G. obscurus Wood. 

Indian Ocean. 



TROCHUS. 13 

Subgenus Enida A. Adams, 1860. 
Shell depressed-conical, widely umbilicate, whorls convex, con- 
centrically granose-lirate, sutures canaliculate, last whorl carinated 
or angulated ; aperture subquadrate ; outer lip simple, or lirate 
within ; inner lip reflexed ; umbilicus large, margin crenulated. 
Type, E. japonica A. Ad. Japan. 

Genus MINOLIA A. Adams, 1860. 

Shell widely umbilicated, delicate, thin, smooth ; whorls rounded; 
spire depressed; aperture circular, the outer lip and columella thin, 
simple, acute ; umbilicus without an internal funicle or rib. Type, 
M. punctata Ad. Oceanica. 

Genus CIRCULUS Jeffreys, 1865. 

Shell minute, widely umbilicated, thin, with spiral striie ; whorls 
rounded ; spire depressed ; aperture rounded-quadrate, the columella 
and outer lips thin, simple, acute. Type, C. striatus Phil. 

European Seas. 

Genus TROCHISCUS Sowerby, 1838. 

Shell large, orbicular, umbilicated, solid, depressed, smooth ; spire 
low-conical, formed of rapidly widening flattened whorls ; aperture 
subquadrangular, outer lip acute, sinuous, columella simple, some- 
what sinuous. Type, T. norrisii Sowb. California. 

Genus LIVONA Gray, 1842. 

Shell large, turbinate, thick, solid, umbilicate, whorls rounded ; 
aperture rounded-quadrangular, smooth and silvery within ; outer 
lip acute; columella arcuate, simple, spreading half around and 
partly over the umbilicus in a white callus which is deeply notched 
in the middle. Type, L. pica L. 

Genus PHOTINULA H. & A. Adams, 1854 

Shell imperforate, orbicular, depressed, rather thin, whorls round- 
ed, smooth or spirally striated ; aperture wider than long, outer lip 
acute, columella spreading in a callus pad at its insertion, simple at 
base. Type, P. coerulescens King. Southern Seas. 

Genus MARGARITA (Leach) Auct. 

Shell umbilicate, obicular, conoidal or depressed, thin ; not va- 
riegated ; whorls rounded, smooth or spirally lirate ; aperture sub- 



14 TROCHUS. 

circular, peristome simj^le, acute, the margins apjiroaching ; columella 
arcuate, simple, thin. Type, M. heliciua Fab. 

Arctic and Subarctic Seas. 

Subgenns Bathymophila Dall, 1882. 

Shell when immature like Margarita ; adult with a broad flattened 
columella, which has a blunt tooth, rough or granulated, at its end. 
Type, M. euspira Dall. 

Genus SOLARIELLA Searles Wood. 1842. 

Shell umbilicated, conical ; Avhorls with spiral granose lirse ; 
umbilicus with carinated margin. Type, S. maculatum AVood. 

Subgenus Turoicula Dall, 1881. 

Shell globose] y conical, white, thin ; umbilicus reduced to a chink 
under the thin callus of the upper part of the pillar lip ; mouth 
rounded rectangular, margins all thin; columella concave; outer 
surface with tuberculose ridges. Type, M. imperialis Dall. Cuba. 
(This group is placed under Calliostoma by Fischer. Its position is 
problematical until the structural details are known.) 

Genus CALLIOSTOMA Swainson, 1840. 
Shell imperforate or rarely umbilicate, conical, rather thin ; whorls 
smooth, spirally ridged or granular, the last angulated at the periph- 
ery; aperture quadrangular; columella simple, usually ending an- 
teriorly in a slight tooth. Type, C. zizi2:)hiuum L. 

Subgenus Calliostoma (restricted.) 
Axis imperforate, its lower termination covered by a slight ex- 
pansion of the columella. The sections of this subgenus are given 
in the text. 

Subgenus Eutroohus A. Adams, 1863. 

Shell umbilicated ; columella ending in a point or tooth below. 
Type, C. javanicus Lam. 

Genus TURCICA H. and A. Adams, 1854. 
Shell conoidal, thin, subdiaphanous, imperforate ; whorls with 
transverse series of granules, the last rounded on the periphery; 
columella thick, spirally twisted posteriorly, ending anteriorly in an 
obtuse, prominent jjoint ; outer lip thin, simple, acute (H. & A. Ad.) 
Type, T. monilifera A. Ad. Australia. 



TROCHUS. 15 

Genus BASILISSA Watson, 1879. 
Shell conical, carinated, umbilicated, nacreous; last whorl sinua- 
ted above ; pillar straight, but slightly oblique, thin, hollowed out 
above, hardly toothed in front, but strongly angulated at base ; 
mouth rhoniboidal, terminations of peristome not approaching nor 
connected by a callus. Type, B. lampra Watson. 

N. Pacific 0. 

Genus EUCHELUS Philippi, 1847. 
Shell globose-turbinate, umbilicate or imperforate; whorls round- 
ed, spirally granose lirate ; aperture subcircular, outer lip thick, 
crenulate within, columella with a tooth or a notch at the base ; 
operculum with few whorls. Type, E. atratus.Gmel. 

Indian and Pacific Oceans. 

Subgenus Olivia Cantraiue, 1835. 

Shell conoidal, imperforate, whorls rounded, cancellated ; apei'ture 

rounded, lirate within, the lip with a strong varix outside ; columella 

sinuous, terminating in a strong truncate tooth at base. Type, O. 

tinei Calc. Mediterranean. 

Subgenus Perrinia H. and A. Adams, 1854. 

Shell trochiform, imperforate, whorls flattened, cancellated ; aper- 
ture quadrangular, outer lip lirate within, columella short, nearly 
straight, with several tubercles near the base. Type, P. anguliferus 
A. Ad. 

The position of this group is problematical. 

Subfamily III, Delphinulin.e. 
(See Manual of Conchology, x, p. 266.) 

Subfamily IV, IJMBONiiNiE. 

Genus Umbonium Link, 1807. 

Shell with a very thin pearly layer inside, orbicular, depressed, 

imperforated, whorls flattened above, bright, smooth or spirally 

grooved ; aperture wider than high, outer lip thin, acute ; umbilical 

tract covered by a heavy pad of callus. Type, U. vestiarium Linn. 

Indian and Pacific Oceans. 

Genus ETHALIA H. and A. Adams, 1854. 
Shell orbicular, turbinately depressed ; whorls convex, smooth or 
transversely striated, the last rounded at the periphery ; umbilicus 



16 TKOCHUS. 

partly closed by a callus deposit ; columellar lip ending anteriorly 
in an obtuse dilated callus. Type, E. guamense, Q. et G. 

Genus ISANDA H. and A. Adams, 1854. 
Shell orbicular-conoidal, polished ; aperture longer than wide, 
subquadrate ; umbilicus open, perspective, the margin crenulated. 
Type, I. coronata A. Ad. 

Genus CAMITIA Gray, 1847. 
Shell orbicular, depressed, smooth, polished; axis imperforate; 
columella spirally twisted above, forming a false-umbilicus, with 
the margin simple ; columella with the edge edentulate and ending 
in a point.. Type, C. pulcherrima Gray. 

China, Japan. 

Genus UMBONELLA A. Adams, 1863. 
Shell globose-conoid, solid, porcellanous, polished, narrowly um- 
bilicate; aperture subquadrate, lip simple, dilated anteriorly; um- 
bilicus narrow, margin crenate rugose. Type, U. murrea Reeve. 

Japan. 

Genus CHRYSOSTOMA Swainson, 1840. 
Shell globose, solid, thick, spire very short ; aperture rounded, the 
parietal wall bearing a heavy callus which wholly or almost covers 
the narrow umbilicus. Type, C. paradoxum Born. 



Genus TROCHUS Linn., 1758. 

TrocJuis Linn., Syst. Nat., x, p. 756. — Pyramidea Swainson, 
Malacology, p. 350. — Eochia Gray, Guide Syst. dist. Moll. Brit. 
Mus., p. 148. (1857.) 

Animal with 1 to 4 pairs of cirrhi upon the e])ipodial line, which 
are not ciliated ; frontal lobes between the tentacles simple or folia- 
ted, distinct or united into a vail. The formula of teeth is oc 5 . 1 
. 5 . 00 or CO . l-\-b . 1 . 5-|-l . cc. 

The central and lateral teeth have more or less expanded lateral 
margins, and bear cusps which are smooth on the cutting edge, with 
minute denticles one or several in number at the sides. There is 
frequently a narrow oblong plate, without cusp, lying between the 
5th lateral and the inner marginal tooth, usually more or less con- 
cealed by the expanded outer margin or supporting-wing of the 5th 
lateral. This seems to me to be a rudinientary or rather, degenerate 
lateral tooth ; not the inner marginal tooth, as Dr. Troschel and 



TROCHUS. 17 

others have held. The reduction in number of the teeth in Tro- 
chidfe appears to i)roceed by the h)ss of the outer laterals, never by 
obsolescence of teeth in the central portion of the radula. (Compare 
the related ftimily Turbinidse, where the rule is specialization of the 
radula by the loss of the central tooth, as in Orthoviesus, or by the 
loss of its cusj), as in Bolma, Cookia and Pomaulax; in the last group 
the inner lateral also has lost its cusp. Vide Manual, vol. x, pp. 
163, 187.) PI. 50, fig. 1, Trochus niloticus L. ; pi. 50, fig. 2, T. 
fenestratus Gmel. ; pi. 50, fig. 3, T. maculatus, L. ; pi. 50, fig. 4, T. 
tiaratus Q. and G. 

The central teeth in all of the subgenera of Trochus, including 
Clanculus, differs from those of the following genus, Mondonta, in 
being widest in the middle, tapering toward the cusp and the base ; 
whilst in jMonodonta and its subgenera the latero-basal angles are 
prominently ])roduced. 

The operculum (pi. 1, £ 6) is circular, corneous, thin, with num- 
erous (8 to 12) narrow whorls, the nucleus central. 

Subgenus Trochus (s. str.) 

T. NILOTICUS Liune. PI. 1, figs 5-8. 

Shell large, ponderous, conit*al, appearing subperforate, covered 
by a corneous striate, brown or yellowish cuticle usually lost on the 
upper whorls ; colorbeneath the cuticle white, longitudinally strij^ed 
with crimson, violet or reddish brown, the base maculate or radiately 
strigate with a lighter shade of the same ; spire strictly conical, apex 
acute, usually eroded, whorls 8-10, the upper ones tuberculate at the 
sutures, and spirally beaded, the following flat on their outer sur- 
faces, smooth, separated by linear sutures, the body-whorl expanded, 
dilated and compressed at the obtuse periphery, more or less convex 
below, indented at the axis; umbilical tract covered by a spiral 
pearly deeply entering callus; aperture transverse, very oblique; 
columella oblicjue, terminating in a denticle below, and with a strong 
spiral fold above, deeply inserted into the axis. 

Alt. 80-100, diam. 100-120 mill. 

Indian Ocean; New Ireland; Neio Caledonia; North Australia, 
etc. 

Trochus niloticus L., Syst. nat. xii, 1767, p. 1227. 

Operculum pi. 1 fig. 6, circular, thin, corneous, orange-brown, coin- 
posed of about 10 whorls. 
2 



18 TROCHUS. 

Vae. maximus Koch. PI. 1, fig. 9. 

Shell less ponderous than T. niloticus ; form strictly conical ; 
whorls of the spire decidedly plicate or tuberculate, planulate ; 
body- whorl not dilated at the periphery ; base flat, concentrically 
grooved ; columella less oblique than in the type. Alt. 95, diam. 
95 mill. India 0. ; Cochin- China ; Viti Is. 

T. maximus Koch, in Philippi, Ahhild. u. Beschreib., Trochus, t. 
iv, f. 3. 1844. — T. marmoratus Kiener, Sj). et Icon., t. 11. — T. nilo- 
ticus Rve., Conch. Icon., f. 3. 

T. maximus is an arrested or primitive form of niloticus. In the 
conic form, flat, lirate base, and sculptured spire, it exactly resembles 
an immature specimen of the latter species ; but at the same time, it 
retains these characters in adult individuals. I do not know whether 
both occur in the same locality ; if they do, I would incline to consider 
them distinct. The finest suite I have seen of the T. maximus is from 
the Viti Is., collected by the late Andrew Garrett. 

Since the above was written I have seen a discussion of these two 
forms by Dr. von Martens (Ann. and Mag. N. H., 1869, p. 97.) 
T. maximus is considei-ed distinct from niloticus, and the differences 
indicated by this distinguished zoologist. 

T. ACUTANGUEUS Chemnitz. PI. 2, fig, 10. 

Shell conic-pyramidal, axis imperforate but appearing sub-umbili- 
cate, solid, thick, white, longitudinally flammulate with bright red ; 
spire conic, apex acute, whorls 10, spirally encircled by numerous 
(about 10 on upper surface) beaded lira^, which are separated by 
superficial interstices ; above the sutures there is a series of short 
folds or knobs which usually become obsolescent upon the periphery 
of last whorl ; body-whorl obtuse at the periphery, nearly flat below, 
indented around the false umbilicus, obsoletely concentrically lirate, 
the lirse about 9 in number, red and white articulated, interstices 
white ; aperture transversely rhomboidal, somewhat I'cnuided ; colu- 
mella nearly vertically descending, subdentate at base, above with 
a profoundly entering spiral fold; parietal wall bearing a heavy 
transparent callus, which is excavated around the axis. 

Alt. 55-70, diam. 45-60 mill. 

East Indies ; Philippines ; N. Australia. 

Trochus acutangulus Chemnitz, Conch. Cab., v, p. 81, t. 167, f. 
1710. 1781.— T. conus Gmel., Syst. Nat., xiii, p. 3569. (1788)— T. 
elatas Lam., An. sans Vert., vii, p. 21. 1822. — T. alius Perry, Con- 
chology, t. 47, f 3, (1811)— T. turris Phil. Zeitsch.f. Mai, 1846, p. 



TROCHUS. 19 

102,— r. alius Phil. Conch. Cab. ii, p. 217, t. 32, f. 7.— T. senatorius 
Phil, Conch. Cab. ii, p. 324, t. 46, f. 7. 

The T. altits of Philippi is doubtfully placed here. It has more 
acutely carinated periphery than any actangulus I have seen. I 
have copied Philippi's figure on PI. 9, fig. 96. This species is the 
type of Gray's group Rochia. 

Subgenus Cardinalia, Gray, 1840. 

T. viRGATUS Gmelin. PI. 5, figs. 43, 44. 

Shell imperforate, conic-pyramidal, solid, white, above longitudi- 
nally broadly flammulated with red ; spire somewhat attenuated 
and concave on its up])er portion, then slightly convex, the sutures 
linear, whorls nearly planulate, apex acute ; sculpture of spire con- 
sisting of spiral prominently beaded lirse, about eight on each whorl; 
whorls 10, the last carinated at the periphery; base plano-concave, 
indented in the center, finely, densely lirate, the line minutely beaded, 
red, articulated with Avhite, the interstitial furrows white ; aperture 
subrhomboidal, denticulate within the base ; columella short, oblique, 
ending in a tubercle below, simply entering, not plicate, above, 

Alt. 45, diam. 40 mill. 

Indian 0.; Red Sea. 

T. virgahis Gmel., Syst. Nat, xiii, p. 3580. — Philippi, Conchyl. 
Cab., p. 4, t. 1, f 4, 5. — Reeve, Conch. Icon., f 69. — Fischer, Coq. 
Vlv., p. 97, t. 27, f 1; t. 28, f 1. 

The plano-concave finely lirate base, simple columella and tooth- 
less aperture at once separate this species from other Trochids. 

Subgenus Tectus Montfort, 1810. 

Teetus Mojjtf., Conch. Syst. i, p. 187. — Pyramis Schumacher, 
Essai d'un nouv. Syst. Vers test., p. 232, (1817.) 

T. obeliscus Gmelin. PI. 2, figs. 13, 14. 

Shell imperforate, solid, thick, strictly conical, the spire more or 
less attenuated above, the apex acute; color yellowish or grayish, 
more or less mottled and marbled with green or brown, base white, 
green or brown ; whorls 12-14, the upper ones slightly exserted and 
plicate, tuberculate or undulating at the sutures, the folds or tuber- 
cles obsolete on the lower whorls; upper whorls encircled with one 
or two spiral series of small tubercles or beads, which are increased 
to about five series on the middle whorls ; last whorl beaded, but 
smoother than the preceding, or radiatel^ finely wripkled, or nearly 



20 TROCHUS. 

smooth, angulate at the periphery ; base flat, concentrically lirate, 
the ribs smooth, wide, separated by shallow grooves, obsolete 
toward the outer margin; aperture transverse, very oblique, sub- 
triangular, the outer wall grooved within, the basal margin straight, 
not concave in the middle, deeply notched at its junction with the 
columella, sculpture inside with revolving acute plicpe, corresponding 
to the lirse which revolve around the central area outside ; columella 
very short, with a very strong acutely cgirinated spiral fold. 

Alt. 75, diam. 75 mill. 

Indian and Pacific Oceans; Samoan, Viti and Philippine Is., New 
Caledonia; N. Australia, etc. Singapore (Archer.) 

T. oheliseus Gmel., Sijst. Nat., xiii, p. 3579, 1788. — T. pyramis 
Born, Test. Mus. Cces., 1780. — T. pyramis Phil., Conchyl. Cab. p, 
2 — Reeve, Couch Icon., f. 8. — T. acvtus Lam., An. sans Vert., 1822, 
vii, p. 23. — T. tabidus Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 74. 

I believe that this is the T. pyramis of Born; but since there is 
some doubt about it, I have followed the precedent of Dr. Fischer 
in adopting Gmelin's name. T. acutns Lam. is an immature indi- 
vidual, (pi. 2 fig. 13). ^ 

Var. ccERULESCENS Lamarck. Pi. 4, fig. 26. 

Form more slender than in the type ; spiral beading sub-obsolete; 
color dark greenish, obliquely strigate with brown ; base green, brown 
or yellowish ; outer wall of aperture (in the specimens I have seen) 
not grooved within ; other characters as in the type. 

T. ca^rulescens Lamarck, An. sans Vert., vii, 1822, p. 18. — T. 
prasinus Menke, 3Ioll. Nov. Holl. Spec, p. Ifi, 1843. 

Var. TABIDUS Reeve. PL 43, fig. 1. 

Whorls obliquely irregularly wrinkled, tubercled tow'ard the apex; 
base obsoletely grooved. Avstralia {Reeve'). 

T. DENTATUS Forskal. PL 3, fig. 23. 

Shell large, imperforate, conic-turreted, solid, heavy, grayish pink, 
but unicolored and dull ; whorls about 12, planulate, more or less 
obviously finely radiately wrinkled, often showing a few spiral rows 
of beads, finely, very obliquely striate, but all this surflice sculpture 
often obsolescent ; periphery of whorls and at the sutures armed with 
distant strong radiating solid knobs, about six to ten on the last 
whorl ; base flat, smooth, partly polished, with an appearance of 
obsolete concentric liriie about. the central portion, white, or with a 
zone of blue or of green or ])oth colors surrounding the axial tract ; 



TROCHUS. 21 

aperture transverse, rather wide, rhomboidal, the basal margin reg- 
ularly curved, 6 to 8 plicate within near the columellar termination; 
columella very short, the fold stout, heavy, directed downward. 
Alt. 80, diam. 70, mill. Red Sea; Persian Gulf. 

Trochus dentatus Forskal, Descr. Animallmn, p. 125, 1775. — T. 
pyramidalis Lamarck, An. sans Vert., vii, 1822, p. 17. — T. foveola- 
tus Gmelin, Syst. Nat. xiii, p. 3580. 
T. TRiSERiALis Lamarck. PI. 4, fig. 30 ; pi. 3, fig. 20. 

Shell turreted-couic, imperfiarate, solid, heavy, flesh-colored, light- 
er beneath ; whorls about 12, somewhat convex toward the lower, 
concave toward the upper part, the u})per whorls with a single sub- 
median series of rather prominent tubercles, the lower with about 
four subequal series of small, separated, rather acute tubercles, the 
surface between them minutely wrinkled; base nearly flat, spirally 
Urate, the lirte becoming narrow toward the outer edge ; aperture 
rhomboidal, outer and parietal walls more or less lirate within, base 
with a deep seated spiral fold near the columella within ; columella 
strongly, acutely folded, the fold directed downward. 

Alt. 45-50, diam. 36-40 mill. Philij)pines. 

T. triserialis Lam., An. sans Vert., vii, p. 22, 1822. — T. aeutus 
Rve., Conch. Icon., sp. 20, (non T. aeutus Lam.) (pi. 3, fig. 20.) 
T. FABREi Montrouzier. Pi. 3, figs. 21, 22. 

Shell imperforate, conic-pyramidal, whitish, with a fulvous epider- 
mis mottled with roseate ; whorls about 14, subplauulate, separated 
by linear, flexuous sutures, obliquely striate, sometimes nodulose 
above the sutures, with spiral granulose lira3, on the upper whorls 
three, on the lower four to six in number; last whorl carinated, 
margined at the suture ; base planulate, concentrically lirate, the 
liraj flat, about 15 in number, the interstices radiately striate ; aper- 
ture transverse, rhomboidal, the basal margin plicate within ; col- 
umella short, strongly spirally plicate truncate. 

Alt. 50, diam. 37 mill. (Fischer.) 

Lifou, Loyalty Archipelago ; Quaternary of the Isle of Pines, New 
Caledonian Archipelago. 

T.fabrei Montrouzier, Journ de Conch., xxvi, 1878, p. 64, 206. — 
Fischer, Coq. Vivantes, p. 384, t. 116, f. 1, la. 

Nearly allied to the T. triserialis, but differing in the sculpture, 
which consists of granulose lirse, instead of series of independent 
pustules. The larger figure is from a fossil example from the Isle 
of Pines. 



^2 tRochuS. 

T. FENESTRATUS Gmeliii. PI. 4, figs 28, 29. 

Imperforate, solid, conic, white or grayish, mottled and maculated 
with green, brown or olive, base unicolored, white ; apex acute ; 
whorls 9-11, the apical ones smooth by erosion, the following armed 
around the lower margin with radiating squamose or (on the last 
whorl) solid tubercles, which are usually laterally compressed on the 
lower whorls, and number 12 to 20 on the last whorl ; entire surface 
above the periphery covered with fine oblique wrinkles, which are 
more or less beaded by a few (3 to 5) revolving lirse ; base flat, con- 
centrically lirate, the lirje 8 to 14 in number, the outer ones crenu- 
lated by fine radiating wrinkles w^iich are continued a short distance 
inward from the periphery ; aperture transverse, the outer and 
parietal walls lirate within, the base more or less strongly uni-lamel- 
late ; columella w ith a strong downward directed acute fold. 

Alt.30-35, diam. 28-32 mill. 

Indian 0. ; Java ; Sooloo Is. ; Philippines ; Viti Is. ; Navigator Is.; 
New Caledonia, etc. 

T. fenestratus Gmel., Syst Nat. xiii, p. 3582, 1788^— T. circum- 
sutus Gld., U. jS. Expl. Exped., t. 13, f. 220. — T. crenulatus Kve., 
Conch. Icon., f. 17, (non T. crenulatus Lam.) — T. exaltattis Phil., 
Conch. Cab. II, p. 108, t. 17, f. 8.— T. e.valtatm Eve., Co7ich. Icon., 
f. 16. — T. caparatus Philippi, Conchyl. Cab., p. 107, t. 17. f. 7. 

A variable form, which, however may be readily recognized by 
the sutural knobs and secondary sculjDture of fine wrinkles above, 
and by the crenulated or beaded line around the outer edge of the 
base. 

T. nodueiferus Lamarck. PL 3, figs 18, 19. 

Shell large, ponderous, solid, imperforate, conic ; whorls about 12, 
planulate above, prominently knobbed around the sutures and pe- 
riphery, the tubercles about fifteen in number on the last whorl; 
there is usually visible a secondary sculpture of fine subobsolete ra- 
diating wrinkles ; base flat, very obsoletely lirate, smooth, polished, 
white or tinged with green around the central portion ; aperture 
smooth within ; columellar fold strong, heavy, directed downward; 
color pinkish, more or less mottled with rose ; old specimens uniform 
grayish. Alt. 70, diam. 75 mill. 

Red Sea (Forskal) ; Philippines. 

T.noduliferus Lam., An. sans Vert., vii, p. 18, 1822. — T. forskali 
(Bolt.) MoRCH, Cat. Yoldi, p. 158. — T. dentatus (in part) Philippi, 
Conch, Cab. II, p. 7. 



TROCHUS, 23 

The figure given by Reeve, (f. 18) differs from specimens from 
the Philippines before me in having the nodes vaulted on the lower 
whorl. Upon all the specimens I have seen, the upper nodes only- 
are vaulted, the lower ones are solid, as in the following species. 

From T. dentatus, the greater number and smaller size of the 
peripheral tubercles with separate this species. The proportions 
are different, too ; noduliferus being broader at the base. 

T. MAURiTiANUS Gmelin. PI. 4, figs. 24, 25, 27 ; pi. 2, figs. 11, 12. 

Shell imperforate, conical, solid, marbled and maculated with 
green, brown and rose-color on a whitish ground ; whorls 10-12, 
planulate, bearing vaulted or solid tubercles which project at the 
sutures and upon the periphery of the last whorl, where they num- 
ber about 16 ; whorls covered with oblique small folds, so interrupt- 
ed as to appear more or less in spiral series ; base fiat, white and 
yellowish, unicolored, all over concentrically Urate, the lirse smooth, 
narrow, separated by shallow grooves as wide or wider than the 
ridges, and continuous within the aperture upon the parietal wall ; 
aperture transverse, the outer wall lirate within, the basal margin 
straight, bearing, within, a strong acute revolving lamella, opposite 
to a similar but smaller one upon the parietal wall ; columella 
short, with a very strong acute median spiral fold. 

Alt. 40-60, diam.. 40-55 mill. 
Indian 0., Madagascar, Seychelles, Red Sea {Jonas) Philippines. 

T. mauritianus Gmel., Syst. Nat, xiii, p. 3582, 1788. — Tectus 
pagodalis Montfort, Conch. Syst. ii, p. 187, 1810. — T. costifer 
Jonas, Zeitschr. f. Mai., 1846, p. 123. — Philippi Conchyl Cab., p. 
113, t. 19, f. 1 ; t. 41, f. 9. 

The above description applies to the typical form of this species, 
the prominent characters of which are the smooth, subequal basal 
lirse, closely wrinkled upper surface, with projecting peripheral tu- 
bercles, and strongly uni-lamellar basal and parietal walls of the 
aperture. I have not examined enough specimens to say with any 
degree of certainty how constant these characters will prove to be. 
I observe considerable variation in the sculpture of the aperture in- 
side in the species of this group ; the lirse being sometimes complete- 
ly absent in species which normally possess them. AVhether the 
same variations attend the strong lamellae of the present species, I 
cannot say. 



24 TROCHUS. 

T. ARCHiTECTONicus A. Adams. PI. 42, fig. 1, 

Shell conical, imperforate, whitish ; whorls flat, suhimbricating, 
longitudinally costate, the ribs tliick, rounded, subnodose ; base flat, 
concentrically strongly Urate ; coluraeila short, tortuous, truncate 
anteriorly ; margin of lips fimbriated. (Adams.) 

Signet Bay, North Australia (Drivg^ 

Pyramis architectonlcus A. Ad., P. Z. S., 1857, p. 152. — Trochus 
architectoiiicus Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 22. 

Evidently allied to the preceding. Reeve's figure is copied on my 
jilate. 

Subgenus Infundibulum Montfort, 1810. 
Infundibulum Montf., Conch. Syst., p. 167. — Carinidea Swain- 
son, Treatise on Malacol., p. 350. — Polydonta Schumacher, Essai 
d'un nouv. Syst. etc., p. 231, (1817) and of H. & A. Ad., Gen. Rec. 
Moll., i, p. 414, and other authors, (not Polydonta Fischer de Wald- 
heim, (1807) — Lamprostoma Swainson, Treatise on Malacol., p. 350. 

Section Lamprostoma Swainson, 1840. 
T. MACULATUS Limie. PI. 9, figs. 100, 1, 2, 3. 

Shell conic, solid, heavy, falsely umbilicate ; spire strictly conic, 
or swollen and somewhat convex below, accuminate above, or some- 
times constricted around the upper part of the last whorl ; whorls 
about 10, quite planulate, or concave toward the upper, convex to- 
ward the lower margins, the last carinated at the periphery, flat be- 
neath ; color of upj^er surface consisting of longitudinal stripes or 
flames of brown, purplish, magenta, rose or coral red on a ground of 
Avhite, corneous, pink or olive-tinted, the flames occupying more space 
than the ground color or vice versa ; sometimes the coloration con- 
sists of very narrow numerous radiating lines, usually broken into 
tessellations articulating the line ; the base is radiately painted with 
zigzag flames, or more frequently, narrow lines, either continuous or 
interrupted, often broken into a maculated or a finely tessellated pat- 
tern, sometimes unicolored lilac, or even white ; sculpture of upper 
surface consisting of spiral beaded lirje, usually numbering six to eight 
on each whorl, the beads either laterally compressed like longitudinal 
folds or rounded and separate ; base concentrically sculptured with 
numerous (about 10) fine, more or less beaded lira; aperture 
transverse subtrigonal, outer lip lirate within, basal margin slightly 
curved, four or five dentate, parietal wall sometimes calloused and 
lirate, sometimes smooth ; columella heavy, subvertical or oblique, 



TROCHUS. 25 

its margin irregularly dentate or nearly smooth, usually with a deep 
notch at its union with the basal lip; umbilical tract funnel-shaped, 
spirally feebly Urate or nearly smooth, not conspicuously bi-lirate. 

Alt. 45, diam. 38 mill. 

Philippines ; Viti Is. ; Singapore; Kingsmill Id. ; Indian Ocean. 

T. maculatus Linn., Syst. Nat. x, p. 756. — T. caUicorcus Philippi, 
Zeitschr.f.3IaLl8i9, p. 150. (Juv.) (pi. 9, fig. 33)— 7^ r/ft».s Reeve 
(non Phil.) Conch. Icon., no. 13, 18()2. — T. gmelini Jonas, Zeitschr. 
f. Mai, 1846, p. 123. — ? T. spoigleri (Chemnitz et Gmel.) Philippi, 
Kust. Conch. Cab., p. 43, t. 9, f. 9. — T. smaragdus Reeve, Conch. 
Icon. t. 12, f. 66. (pi. 9, f. 39)— T. rvgulosus Koch, Zeitschr. f. Mai., 
1848, p. 128,— Philippi, Conchyl, Cab., p. 217, t. 32, f. i^.—T.ac^d- 
angidus Menke in Philippi, Conchyl. Cab., p. KU, t. 16, f. 12. (not 
of Chemnitz). — T. Jonasi Philippi, Conchyl. Cab., p. 260, t. 38, f. 
9, 10. 

This excessively variable form may be distinguished from its 
allies when typically developed, by the more numerous series of 
granules, more sharply carinated periphery, irregularly denticulate 
columella, obsoletely spirally plicate umbilical tract, etc. After care- 
fully studying a large series of specimens from many localities, I 
am constrained to unite a number of forms heretofore considered 
distinct. I have little doubt that T. creniferus, T. incrassatus, T. 
flammulatus and some other forms will finally prove to be included 
in the range of variation of the protean maculatus. 

T. spongleri is a doubtful synonym. Vide T. sacellum Phil. 

Var. VERNUS Gmelin. PI. 9, fig. 99. 

A form in which the red and brown stripes art replaced by cold 
brown and green ; the ground color is pure white or tinged with 
bluish green. 

Trochus vermis Gmel., Syst. Nat. xiii, p. 3571 — T. granosus Rve., 
(non Lam.) Conch. Icon., sp. 97, 1862. 

Var. tentorium Gmelin. PI. 7, figs. 66, 73. 

Differs from the type in being obviously longitudinally plicate, 
especially on the lower part of each whorl. 

Philippines; Viti Is. 

T. tentorium Gmel., Syst. Nat. xiii, p. 3571. 

Var. VERRUCOSA Gmelin. PL 7, figs. 64, 65. 

Similar to T. maculatus, but each whorl encircled around the 
base by a series of prominent tubercles or short folds ; last whorl 



26 TROCIIUS. 

constricted around the upper part ; aperture strongly Urate within, 
parietal wall lirate, or bearing a single acute spiral lamella. 

Indian Ocean ; Zanzibar (Reeve) ; Java (Fischer) ; V'di Is. (Acad. 
Coll.) 

T. verrucosa Gmel., Syst. Nat. xiii, p. 3572. 

The following variety is probably identical with this. It also is 
connected with the typical maculatus by intermediate examples. 

Var. GRANOsus Lamarck. PL 6, figs. 51, 60. 

Convexly conical, solid, thick, the last whorl constricted around 
the upper portion ; periphery obtuse. 

Alt. 80, diam. 33 mill. ; alt. 45, diam. 40 mill. 

Indian 0. ; New Caledonia (jNIontrouzier) ; Phllljjpines (Acad. 
Coll.) 

T. granosus Lam., An. sans Vert., vii, p. 20. — Pohjdonta glbber- 
ula A. Ad., P. Z. S., 1851, p. 155. 

The last locality, measurement and figures are for P. gibberula Ad. 

Var. iNCARNATus Philippi. PL 8, figs. 80, 81. 

Conical, altitude and diameter about equal ; roseate ; upper sur- 
face granulate, and on the lower whorls and around the periphery 
strongly plicate-tuberctdate ; base flat, concentrically lirate, the 
lira3 feebly granose, seven or eight in number. Alt. 26 mill. 

T. incarnatus Fh'il. , Zeitschr. f. 3Ial. 1846, p. 103. — Kust. Conch. 
Cab., t. 16, f. 3. 

Var. suBiNCARNATUs Fischer. PL 8, fig. 77. 

Allied, according to Fischer, T. maculatus, but differing in the 
following characters : the form is more conic, last whorl less convex, 
less elevated, the spiral Yirve on the inferior part of the last whorl 
less conspicuous, the longitudinal folds strongly developed, render- 
ing the pei'iphery dentate ; T. incarnatus diflers from this species in 
being less conical, smaller, more elongate, with fewer lirse on the 
base (7 or 8 instead of 12), etc. Alt. 32, diam. 39 mill. 

Indian 0. Mossi-Be, near Madagascar. 

T. siibincarnatus Fischer, Journ. de Conch., 1878, p. 24. — Coquil- 
les Vivantes, t. 119, f. 6. — T. Incarnatus Rve. (iion Phil.), Conch. 
Icon. sp. 68. 

T. INCRASSATUS Lamarck. PI. 6, figs. 48-50. 

Conical, thick, heavy, solid, whitish, radiately striped above and 
below with purplish red ; outlines of spire convex ; whorls 7 to 8, 



TROCHUS. 27 

coarsely graiuilose in about 5 or 6 spiral series, of which the upper 
series is most prominent ; periphery rounded ; base a little concave, 
with about 7 concentric granulose or subgranulose line ; aperture 
strongly lirate within upon the parietal and outer wall, basal margin 
with four or five teeth ; columella dentate ; umbilical tract nearly 
smooth or obsoletely spirally plicate. Alt. oO, diam. 30 mill. 

T. incrassatus Lam., An. sans Vert., vii, 1822, p. 20. — Philippi, 
Conchyl. Cab. t. IcS, f. :] --Fischer, Cog. Vlv. p. 113, t. 87, f 1. 
Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 77. 

Typically narrower, more solid than T. crenlferits, with heavier 
parietal callus and not so strongly tuberculate around the periphery. 
T. incrassatus Phil, may be a synonym of T. creniferus. 

Var. CRENIFERUS Kiener. PI. 7. figs. 67, 68. 

This is a form closely related to T. maculatus, T. flammulatus and 
T. sandwichensis, but more especially to T. incrassatus, and some- 
what intermediate between these species in characters. It is strong 
thick and solid ; the form is conical ; the diameter exceeds the alti- 
tude ; the outlines of the spire are slightly convex, the whorls near- 
ly planulate, generally a little concave in the middle. The sculpture 
consists of four series of distinct, clearly cut, rounded granules upon 
each whorl, of which the upper and lower are elongated, like short 
folds, and apparently formed by the coalescence of the granules of 
two rows ; upon the last whorl the sculpture sometimes seems to con- 
sist of oblique regular rather coarse folds, cut about the median por- 
tion by three narrow spiral furrows. There is a trace of the very 
fine secondary sculpture of minute oblique wrinkles upon many 
specimens, like that of T. flammulatus, but less strongly developed. 
The folds crenulate the periphery. The base is slightly convex to- 
ward the outer edge, concave in the middle, concentrically six-lirate, 
the lirse rather coarse, sometimes very superficial, and are regularly 
beaded. The aperture is brilliantly nacreous within ; the outer lip 
is lirate within ; the parietal wall is lirate, and colored like the base 
except for a slight deposit of whitish callus ; the basal margin is 
thick, nearly straight, nearly smooth, or slightly dentate ; the col- 
umella is oblique, pearly, quadri-dentate ; the umbilical area is 
funnel-shaped, lined with a heavy white, porcellanous coat, which 
does not extend within the aperture, nor to the edge of the columella ; 
it is obviously bi-lirate, one rib revolving at the lower edge and 
terminating in a denticle at the angle where the columella joins the 
base, the other sometimes bifid, a little within the cavity, not attain- 



28 TROCHUS. 

ing the columella edge. There is no notch at the junction of the 
columella and basal lip. The outer lip is slightly crenulated by the 
ribs on the outside. The ground-color is whitish or greenish ; the 
purplish red radiating flammules ot the upj^er surface may be either 
parallel with, and occupying the interstices of the ribs, or obliquely 
crossing them ; sometimes the whole surface of the upper whorls is 
suffused with purplish red or with sea green (a color which under- 
lies the red all over) ; the base is radiately marked with dark red, 
which forms continuous stripes, or is interrupted into small blocks 
which articulate the line. Toward the aperture there is a green or 
bluish tract. 

Alt .32, diam. 89 mill. ; Alt. 30, diam. 32 mill. 

Ceylon ; New Caledonia (Fischer) Sanchvich and Vitl Is. (Phil. 
Acad, coll.) 

T. crenilerus Kiener, Sp. Coq. Viv., t. 34, f. 3 (sine desc.) 
Fischer, Coq. Viv., p. 109, t. 34, f. 3. — T. eustephes Piiilippi, Zeit- 
schr.f. Mai., 1849, p. 153, and Conchy I. Cab., p. 293, t. 43, f. 6. 

T. FLAMMULATU8 Lamarck. PI. 7, fig. 75 ; PI. 8, figs. 78, 79. 

General form similar to T. maculatus ; thick, solid, heavy; upper 
surface longitudinally flammulate with dark red, the stripes distinct 
and broad, about as wide as the intervening whitish spaces; the 
stripes of the last whorl are continued over the obtuse periphery 
upon the base, where they become narrower, often bifurcate, and 
are zigzag. The sculpture above is like that of T. maculatus, the 
rows of granules about five or six on each whorl and the lower ones 
compressed, narrow ; there is, besides, a fine, superficial, secondary 
scul{)ture of slightly oblique longitudinal minute wrinkles, which are 
continued over the periphery u])on the base, forming there a finely 
shagreened pattern by the intersection of fine incremental stride. 
The base is rather more convex than in the typical maculatus, and 
its outer portion is nearly free from spiral line. These number 
about six; they are finely, closely crenulated by the wrinkles of the 
surface. The outer lip of the aperture is not crenulated, the other 
characters of the aj)erture and columella are precisely as in T. 
creniferus. 

Alt. 37, diam. 37 mill. ; Alt. 42, diam. 38 mill. 

Seychelles ; Ins. Reunion, etc. 

T. flammulaius Lam., An. s. Vert., vii, p. 20. — Philippi, Conchyl. 
Cab., p. 112, t. 18, f. 8— Fischer, Coq, Viv., p. 98, t. 27, f. 2. 



TROCHUS. 29 

T. MiRABiLis G. B. Sowerby, Jr. PL G, ng. 55. 

Shell rather solid, fleshy-white, with longitudinal reddish -brown 
flames; whorls 10, flatly convex, deeply excavated at the suture, 
encircled spirally with strong granular ribs, between which the 
interstices are deep and plicated ; spire acute ; base rather convex, 
with rather a broad excavation, and a deep umbilicus above the 
columella ; aperture nearly square, ridged within ; columella fur- 
nished with nodulous plaits. Alt. 40, diam. 30 mill. (Soiverby.) 

Moluccas. 

T. (Folydonta) mirabills Sowb., P. Z. S. 1875, p. 126, t. 24, f. 7. 

The roughly granular libs and the deeply excavated suture are 
its chief characters. (Soiverby.) 

T. sANDWiCHENSis Souleyet. PI. 1, figs. 1-3. 

Rather straightly conical, falsely umbilicate, thick, solid ; outlines 
of spire nearly straight, apex, acute; whorls about 8, the last ob- 
tusely angulated at the periphery ; sutures scarcely impressed ; 
color of uj)per surface grayish or corneous white, broadly longitudi- 
nally striped with red or purplish, the red sometimes covering the 
whole surface, sometimes reduced to small maculations or narrow 
lines; base with narrow zigzag radiating red stripes. The sculpture 
of the upper surface consists of s])iral series of very regular, deeply, 
separated rounded granules or beads, five or six rows on each 
whorl ; on the periphery and base the granules are smaller ; on the 
base the rows are more separated, and sometimes have minute inter- 
calated beaded lirul?e in the interstices; there are 12 to 15 rows of 
beads on the entire last whorl. The aperture is small, strongly 
lirate inside the outer lip ; basal margin thick, dentate ; parietal 
wall callous, strongly lirate, deep crimson colored ; columella ob- 
lique, irregularly 3 or 4 dentate ; umbilical tract with a heavy 
white callus inside, obsoletely spirally bi- or tri-plicate. 

Alt. 25, diam. 24 mill. Sandwich Is. 

T. sandtvichiensis Eydoux et Souleyet, Zoo/, du Voy. de la 
Bonite, pi. 37, f. 23, 24. — T. inte.ttm Kiener, Spec. gen. Trochus, 
t. 87, f. 2. — T. metallicus Reeve, Conch. Icon, f. 94. — T.^tenehricais 
Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 81, 1861. 

The nearly rectilinear spire, distinct, regular granulation, and 
the deep red parietal wall are diagnostic marks of this species. 



30 TROCHUS. 

T. CALCARATUS Souverbie. PI. 2, fig. 15 ; PI. 8, figs. 83, 84. 

Shell false-umbilicate, elate-conic, solid ; spire with nearly recti- 
linear outlines ; whorls about 9, planulate, the last carinated ; 
sculpture of upper surface consisting of spiral series, four or five on 
each whorl, of regular, closely arranged granules, which are either 
rounded, bead-like, or laterally compressed ; and upon the periphery 
of each whorl, a row of radiating, minutely perforated pustules, — 
numbering on the last whorl 28 ; the base is concentrically sculpt- 
ured with 6 to 7 concentric, densely granose lirse; it is slightly 
convex, radiately striped with brown or purplish; color of upper 
surface, whitish, broadly striped with red, })urplish or brown ; usu- 
ally blue when rubbed; aperture lirate within on outer and parietal 
walls; basal margin concave, thick, dentate within; columella 
oblique, plicate within, quadridentate ; umbilical tract white, bi- 
plicate. Alt. 32, diam. 28 mill. 

Ins. Art and Duperry, N. Caledonian Archipe/ago ; Phi/ippines. 

T. (Polydonta) calcaratus Souverbie, Journ. de Conch., 1875, p. 
41, t. 4, f 7.— T. pustulosus Fmh., ZeiUeh. f. Mai. 1849, p.l 88, 
Conehyl. Cab. p. 305, t. 44, f. 6, (pi. 8, fig. 85).— Reeve Conch. 
Icon., f. 86.— T. hiHtrio Reeve, P. Z. S., 184<S, p. 52, Co7ich. Icon., 
18()1, f 90 (pi. 8, fig. 87).—.^ T. cumingn A. Ad. P. Z. S. 1851, p. 
150. T. cumivgii Reeve, Conch. h:on., f 88. 

This form, like T. tubiferus Iviener, is prinripally distinguished 
by the fistulous or perforated [)eripheral tubercles. I have some 
hesitation in referring here as synonyms T. pustulosus Phil., and 
T. histrio Reeve. The first was described from a very young speci- 
men ; the latter was not well described, and as was his custom in 
Trochus, only a back view was given by Reeve, so that positive 
identification is difficult. For these reasons I adopt the French 
naturalist's name for the species. 

T. cumingii (Ad.) Reeve (PI. 43, fig. 11,) may be the young of this 
species, but on account of the slender form I hesitate to place it 
here. It is at all events a young shell. Specimens which agree 
exactly with Reeve's figure are before me. They exhibit about 7 
planulate whorls, the sculpture of which consists of about five or six 
spiral granulose lirte on each whorl ; the lower third or half of each 
whorl is strongly plicate, each fold terminating in a solid tubercle 
at the periphery ; of these tubercles there are 18 on the last whorl ; 
the base is flat, somewhat concave, 6 to 7 lirate ; outer lip lirate 
within; basal lip and columella thin, without teeth, as is usual in 



TROCHUS. 31 

young shells of this group. Color greyish, more or less green 
tinged, and maculate with purplish brown, the lower part of each 
whorl encircled by a purplish or red band ; base minutely macu- 
late with reddish. Alt. 11-12, diam. 9-10 mill. 

Locality, Philippines. 

T. FASTiGiATus A. Adams. Vol. x, Pi. 43, fig. 60. 

Shell conical, imperforate, red, variegated with longitudinal white 
maculations ; whorls plane, concave in the middle, ornamented 
above with three series of nodules, furnished with subspinous nod- 
ules at the sutures; base plane, concentrically lirate, the lirre cren- 
ulated ; columella posteriorly canaliculate, anteriorly truncated ; 
lip angulate in the middle. (^Adams.~) 

Trochus fasUgiatus A. Adams, P. Z. S., 1851, p. 150. — Reeve 
Conch. Icon., f. 87. 

Evidently allied to T. calcaratns Souv. 

T. L ACINI ATus Reeve. PI. 42, fig. 16. 

Shell excavately umbilicated, rather sharply conical, green, stained 
with purple-brown ; whorls rather concavely flattened, regularly 
spirally granulated, neatly plicately tubercled at the margin, tuber- 
cles descending ; l)ase flat, grain-ridged, ridges rather distant. 

(Reeve.) 

T. laciniatus Reeve, Conch. Icon., f 7G (1861). 

Similar in form and sculpture to T. tubiferus, Kn., but diflers in 
the smooth-edged columella. 

T. TUBIFERUS Kiener. PI. 6, figs. 62, 63. 

Shell conical, altitude and diameter pbout equal, false-unibilicate, 
solid, thick; spire with rectilinear or slightly convex outlines ; whorls 
about 9, planulate, or a little concave, the last carinatcd and sj)inose 
at the periphery ; color above grayish, maculated with purplish 
brown and faint green ; base radiately striped, lineolate or maculate 
with brown ; upper surface of whorls closely granulose, and each 
whorl bearing at its periphery about 17 radiating perforated short 
spines ; base slightly convex, with 10 to 12 narrow closely granulose 
concentric lirte ; aperture white within, outer and parietal walls 
strongly lirate, parietal wall the same color as the base, but overlaid 
with a white callus; basal margin straight, very thick, dentate; col- 
umella oblique, its edge convex, quadri-dentate, within spirally 



32 TROCHUS. 

plicate ; umbilical area white, funnel-shaped/ callous, i-ather narrow, 
obsoletely spirall_y costate. 

Alt. 35, diam. 36 mill. 

New Caledonian ArcMjyelcigo ; Uvea; Viti Is. 

T. tubiferus Kiener, Spec. gen. Troque, t. 37, f. 3. — Fischer, 
Coq. Vlv. p. 116.— r. coneiimus Phil., Zeitsch.f. Mai, 1846, p. 105. 
(young.) — Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 15. — Polydonta squamigera A. 
Ad., p. Z. S., 1851, p. 155.-2! obesus Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 75. 
(pi. 8, fig. 82.) 

The numerous Vnx of the base separate this form from T. calcara- 
tus, with which it agrees in the perforated or fistuloses])ines. These 
are sometimes subobsolete, and frequently solid on the last whorl. 

T. SQUARRosus Lamarck. PI. 6, figs. 60, 61. 

Shell umbilicate, conic-pyramidal, thick, radiate with white and 
and rose color ; whorls 9, the embryonic smooth, the following 
planulate, sculptured with spiral series of regular beads the remain- 
ing whorls subexcavated in the middle, with three series of granules 
on the upper part and a series of oblique short folds below ; last 
whorl carinated, with 16 to 24 folds crenulating its periphery ; base 
planulate, with six concentric granulose lirae, separated by interstices 
as wide as the ridges; aperture rhomboidal; lirate within ; umbilical 
area spirally plicate. 

Alt. 35, diam. 40 mill. (Fischer.) 

Ins. RciDiion ; Upolu; Sajichvich Is. 

T. squarrosus Lam., An. s. Vert, vii, p. 20. 1822. — T. regius 
Desh. in Lam., An.''s. Vert. ed. 2, ix, j). 155. (non regius Reeve, 
Conch. Icon, f 10.)— 71 obUtus Reeve, Conch. Icon. t. 16, f. 98. 

T. RUBRiCATus Philippi. PL 7, figs. 70, 71. 

Shell fiilse-umbilicated, conical, wliitish, maculated with purplish 
red; whorls 8^ separated by an undulating suture, planulate, the 
apical eroded, the following obliquely, finely striate, spirally lirate 
with 5 to 6 lirie, the three upper ones distinct, two or tliree lower 
obsolete; lower part of the whorl nodose, the nodules prominent; 
last whorl carinated, crenulated at the ])eriphery with 16 nodules; 
base marked with radiating, flexuose lines and 8 to 9 concentric, 
granulose, lirie, the interstices between those in the center wider and 
marked with minute parallel lirre; aperture rhomboidal, lirate with- 
in; basal margin plicate; columella oblique, umbilical area funnel- 
shaped, with a spiral ridge. 

Alt. 17, diara. 22 mill. (Fischer.) Japanese Seas. 



TROCHU8. 33 

T. rubricat us J* HIL. Zeitschr. f. Mai., 1848, p. 125. — Conchyl. Cab., 
p. 213, t. 31, f. 13.— Fischer, Coq. Viv., p. 352, t. 110, f. 1. 
Typical specimens of this form I have not seeu. 

T. CREBRiGRANATus Reeve. PI. 6, figs. 56, 58, 59. 

Shell unibilicate, conical, elevated, thick, whitish yellow, flam- 
miilate with roseus; whorls 11 to 12, planulate, the first whitish, 
eroded, the following spirally cingulate, the cinguli granose, unequal, 
ou the last whorl five, of which the first, fourth and fifth are larger 
than the others, the fourth most prominent; last whorl slightly 
elevated, carinate and crenulate at the periphery, planulate beneath, 
radiately subcostate and concentrically cingulate, the ridges about 
7, granose ; aperture rhomboidal, lirate within, the basal margin 
crenated ; columella oblique ; its edge six-nodose ; umbilical area 
plicate. Alt. 24, diam. 19 mill. (Fischer.) 

Habitat unknown. 

T. crebrigranatm Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 89, 1861. — Fischer, 
Coq. Viv. p. 307, t. 97, f. 3. 

In its elongated, narrow form, crenulated periphery, and serrate 
unequal tubercles, this species is very distinct. (Fischer.) 

T. LINEATUS Lamarck. PI. 7, fig. 76. 

Shell false umbilicate, acutely conical ; whorls 9, planulate, whit- 
ish, ornamented with narrow, close, obliquely descending rosy or 
purple lines, and sculptured with numerous small, inconspicuous, 
granose spiral lirse ; upper whorls subnodose at the sutures, the lower 
nearly smooth ; last whorl carinated, a little compressed in the mid- 
dle, planulate beneath, and ornamented with radiating lines and 8 
to 9 concentric Vine; aperture rhomboidal; columella straight, with 
4 or 5 teeth ; basal margin tuberculose within. 

Alt. 40, diam. 38 mill. (Fischer.) 

Australian Seas. 

T. lineatus 1j AM.. An. s. Fer^., vii, p. 23. — Fischer, Coq. Viv., p. 
100, t. 28, f. 2.—T. hanleyanus Reeve, P. Z. S., 1842, p. 184; Conch. 
Syst, ii, t. 118, f. 11 ; Conch. Icon. f. 2. (Not T. hanleyanus Phil.) 
? T. eurjramvms Phil., Zeitschr. f. Mai. 1849, p. 153; Conchyl. Cab., 
p. 299, t. 43, f. 17 (PI. 43, figs. 4, 5). 

The T. hanleyanus of Reeve (PI. 12, figs. 84, 85) may perhaps be 
considered a variety. 

3 



34 TROCHUS. 

T, SACELLUM Pliilippi. PL 6, figs. 54, 57. 

Shell false-umbilicate, conical, thick, reddish, maculate with white ; 
whorls about eight, obliquely striate, spirally cingulate, cinguli 
numbering 6 on the penultimate whorl, the first (upper) large, com- 
posed of tubercles confluent two by two ; second and third composed 
of distinct tubercles, fourth and fifth have the tubercles connected, 
forming radiating costa?, sixth composed of spiniform tubulose tuber- 
cles alternating with simple grains ; last whorl carinated, creuulated 
at the periphery (by about 18 nodes), below plano-convex, w-hite 
and red variegated, concentrically lirate, lira? granose, equal, about 
8 in number, separated by concentrically striate interstices ; aperture 
rhoniboidal, lirate within; columella plicate-dentate; umbilical 
area white, sj)ira]ly sulcate. Alt. 17, diani. 18 mill. (Fischer.) 

China ; Japan. 

T. sacellum Phil., Conch. Cab. p. 309, t. 44, f. 13. — Reeve, 
Conch. Icon., f. 93. — Fischer, Coq. Viv. p. 412. 

Var. PHiLiPPiNARUM Fischer. PL 6, fig. 57. 

Short, red, the peripheral tubercles less developed. 

Luzon, PhiVqjpines. (Cuming.) 

T. sacellum Reeve, Conch. Icon., t. xiv, f. 78. — Var. fi (T. philip- 
pinarum Fischer Coq. Viv. t. 120, f 5. 

The T. sacellum is probably, as Lischke declares, merely a nodose 
form of T. spengleri (Chemnitz) Gmel. If this be true, Dr. Fischer's 
var. /S. jyhilippinarum is neai'ly synomymous with the typical 
spengleri. My reason for not ado[)ting the latter name is that the 
figure of Chemnitz, copied by Philippi, is so very poor that one would 
scarcely recognize it for the present species. Fig. 12, pi. 43, re- 
presents the T. spengleri var. a of Lischke. The synomymy, if we 
admit T. spengleri to be identical with the species under considera- 
tion will stand as follows : 

(Typical form.) 

Trochus Spengleri grandinatus, perforatum, etc. Chemnitz, Conchyl. 
Cab. V, p. 92,t. 169, f. 1631. (1781.)— T. spengleri Gmelin, Syst. Nat. 
xiii, p. 3571, no. 27. (1788.)— Philippi, Conchyl. Ca6. II, p. 43, t. 9, 
f. 9. — Lischke Jap. meeres- conchyl. p. 93. 

( Var. A. periphery with obtuse nodes.) 
^'Trochidi pyramldales umbilicati," etc, (in part) Chemnitz, 
Conchyl. Cab., p. 100, t. 170, f. 1653. — Trochus pijramis fi, Gmelin, 
Syst. Nat. J xiii, p. 3573, no. 39, — T. spengleri var. /5, Philippi, 



TROCHUS. 35 

Conchyl. Cab. II, p. 44, t. 10, f. 15. — T. sacellum Reeve, Conch. 
Icon. f. 78, 93. — T. sacellum var. /?, (or T. philippinarum) Fischer, 
Coq. Viv., p. 412. 

( Var. B. periphery ivith acute spine-like nodes.) 
Trochus sacellum Philippi, Conchyl. Cab. II, p. 309, t. 44, f. 13. — 

Fischer Coq. Viv. p. 412. 

I quote Chemnitz merely because authors have referred to his 

figures. The first binomial name is that of Gmelin. 

T. ROTA, Dunker. PL 12, figs. 75-77. 

Shell conical, white or greenish, marbled or spotted irregularly 
with red maculations ; whorls planulate, subgranose, encircled above 
with two or three spiral series of tubercles, costate below, the folds 
thick, suboblique, produced at the periphery into 17 to 18 obtuse 
spines ; base concave, bearing 7 to 8 concentric subnodose lirse ; 
false umbilicus deep, contorted; columella subnodose; basal lip 
subserrate ; aperture rhomboidal, fauces sulcate. 

Alt. 20, diara. 25 mill. (Dunker.) 

Japan ; (Nagaski, Decima, Ooshima). 

T. rota Dkr., Malak. Bldtt., vi, p. 238, 1860. — Moll. Japonica, p. 
21, t. 3, f. 4.— LiscHKE, Jap. Meeres.- Conchyl., 1869, p. 94, t. 6, f. 
20, 21. — Polydonta gloriosum Gould, Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., 
1861, p. 19.— O^m, p. 158. 

This lovely species is closely allied to T. spengleri, but is distin- 
guished by the following characters : the form is broader ; the 
whorls are more constricted above the peripheral nodes ; the granu- 
lation is finer, and often on the last whorl is Avholly lost, or trans- 
formed into small, irregular ridges ; the peripheral nodes are narrow, 
long, often claw-shaped and crooked ; the base is slightly concave, 
and the ground color is greenish. (Lischke.) 

Figs. 76, 77 represent a depressed variety. 

T. BiCRENATUs Gould. PI. 16, figs. 62-65 ; PI. 12, figs. 68, 69. 

Shell low, pyramidal, acute at apex ; base and height nearly the 
same ; base flat, pale yellowish, marked with delicate equal and 
equidistant beaded revolving lines ; umbilical pit like a vortex, ot a 
smooth ivory white polish ; whorls 7 to 8, slightly excavated ; basal 
edge acute, and furnished with about 15 scallops; above this are 
three lines of beaded granules, arranged also in oblique lines, which 
extend in the form of slight folds to the edge of the periphery, pro- 
ducing, by their extension, three or four crenulations of a rose-tint 



36 TROCHUS. 

between each of the scallops, so that the periphery, when viewed 
below, appears doubly crenulated ; columella sharp, contorted ; 
aperture trapezoidal ; color flamed alternately darker and paler 
brown. (Gould.) Alt. 15, diam. 21 mill. 

Singapore (Phil. Acad. Coll.). 
T. hicrenatus Gould, Proc. Bod. Soc. Nat. Hist, iii, p. 106, 1849. 
U. S. Expl. Expecl, xii, p. 175, t. 13, f. 221. 

Two specimens of this species marked "Singapore" are before 
me. Tiiey differ from the type as figured and described by Dr. 
Gould in various characters. One of them is figured on PI. 12, 
figs. 68, 69. The whorls are planulate, spirally granose-lirate, the 
lir?e about 8 on each whorl, but sometimes nearly obsolete ; the 
lower third of each whorl is strongly, regularly folded, the folds 
scalloping the periphery ; the base is flat, very finely, subobsoletely, 
concentrically granose-lirate ; the coloration above consists of fine 
close obliquely descending narrow red lines on a white ground ; be- 
neath of radiating narrow lines. Alt. 17, diam. 22 mill. 

T. iGNOBiLis Philippi. PI. 12, figs. 82, 83. 

Shell elevated conical, whitish, painted with rufous radiating 
flexuous lines ; whorls 6 to 7, ])lanulate, above with four spiral fur- 
rows, the last obtusely angulated ; base flattened, with 6 to 7 con- 
centric sulci; center false-umbilicate ; columella contorted above; 
aperture rhomboidal ; outer lip with four revolving liraj within, 
parietal wall with one, the base with three spiral line, ending in 
denticles; columellar edge f)ur toothed. 

Alt. 18, diam. 17 mill. {Philippi.) 

Sandwich Is. 

1. ignobilis PiiiL. Zeitschr.f. Mai. 1846, p. W2.— Conchijl. Cab. 
p. 98, t. 16, f. 5. 

A species unknown to me save by Philippi's description and 
figure. It may, perhaps, be allied to T. scabrosus, Phil. 

T. TRicATENATus Reeve. PL 43, figs. 7, 8. 

Shell excavately umbilicated, rather obtusely conical, solid, some- 
times fulvous white, flamed with rose, sometimes greenish flamed 
with ash-olive ; whorls narrowly three-chained at the upper and 
lower parts, encircled around the middle with three rows of strong 
grains, basal margin rounded; base rather convex, closely serially 
grained, sparsely spotted. {Reeve.) 

Habitat unknown. 



TROCHUS. 37 

T. tricatenatns Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 91. (1861.) 

The whorls of this species are encircled with three rows of bohl 

wart-like grains, bound above and below by a narrow, transversely 

stretched chain. {Reeve.') 

Compare T. sandivichensis, a species with which this may prove 

identical. 

Section Infundibulum (s. sfr.) 

T. KADiATUs Gmel. PI. 8, figs. 88-93. 

Shell false-umbilicate, rather solid, conical, the spire with nearly 
straight outlines, apex acute, generally eroded and orange-colored ; 
whorls about 7, planulate, sometimes a little concave in the middle ; 
color whitish ; tinged with green, and radiately striped with broad 
or narrow crimson flames, base white or pink, radiately marked or 
minutely speckled with red; upper surface sculptured with granu- 
losa spiral lirse, 5 or 6 on each whorl, uneven in size, the upper row 
largest; last whorl angulate at the periphery; base nearly flat, con- 
centrically Urate, the lir?e granulose, rather coarse, with broad inter- 
spaces, which are frequently occupied by revolving lirulre or stria; ; 
aperture large, subrhomboidal, lirate within ; basal lip thickened, 
crenate ; columella oblique, strongly plicate above, its edge nearly 
smooth ; umbilical tract funnel-shaped, rather broad, with a central 
rib ; parietal wall scarcely callous, showing the color of the base, 
and with a white spiral rib in the middle. 

Alt. 25, diam. 30 ; alt. 23, diam. 25 mill. 

Indian 0.; Red Sea; Singapore; Madagascar; Ceylon. 

T. radiatus Gmel., Syst. Nat. xiii, p. 3572, No. 33. — Philippi 
Conch. Cab., p. 46, 1. 10, f. 6-8. — Reeve, Conch. Icon.,f. 80. — Fischer 
Coq. Viv., p. 304, t. 97, f. 1. — T. vivldus Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 72, 
1861 (PL 8, fig. 86).— r. mrgillatus Reeve, Conch. Icon., £ 85 (pi. 
42, fig. 8).— T. fedivus Philippi, Conchyl. Cab., p. 116, t. 19, f. 5 
(PI. 43, figs. 9, 10.) — T. eucosmus Philippi, Zeltschr. f. mat. 1848, 
p. 104, et Conchyl. Cab., p. 260, t. 38, f 11.—.^ T. nobllis Philippi, 
Conchyl. Cab., p. 86, t. 15, f. 6, (= T. gemmosus INIke., Sj^ec. Moll. 
Nov. Hall., p. 16, teste Philippi). — .? T. infascatus Philippi, Conchyl. 
Cab., p. 329, t. 46, f. 15 (PL 43, figs. 2, 3). 

The conspicuously radiate color pattern and the sculpture, con- 
sisting of coarse granulose lirre with interstitial liruhie both above 
and below, as well as the wide umbilical tract and eroded corneous 
or orange apex, will serve to distinguish this form. 



38 TROCHUS. 

T. TEXTiLis Reeve. PL 42, fig. 7, 

Shell excavately umbilicated, rather broadly conoid, pinkish- 
brown, sparingly speckled with black ; whorls concavely flattened, 
finely spirally granulated, basal margin rounded ; base rather con- 
cave, ridged, ridges smooth, alternately larger, profusely dotted 
with purple-red. {Reeve.) Cape of Good Hope (Reeve.) 

T. textilis Reeve, Conch Icon., f. 82. (1861.) 

Of a sombre rose-brown hue, freckled with an irregular network 
of black, the base of the shell being profusely dotted with a rich 
purple-red. (Reeve.) 

Known to me only by Reeve's description and figure. The local- 
ity is doubtful. 
T. VENETUS Reeve. PI. 7, figs. 69, 74. 

Shell false-umbilicate, conical, thick, ornamented with wide green- 
ish and purplish longitudinal streaks ; whorls 7 to 8, the first eroded, 
the following sj^irally lirate, the lirse granose, numbering five on the 
penultimate whorl, the upper ridge large, composed of oblique, oblong 
tubercles, the lower ridges narrow ; last whorl angulated, planulate 
beneath, with 5 to 6 concentric narrow lirse; aperture subquadrate, 
lirate within ; basal margin thickened ; columella oblique, without 
teeth, contorted above ; umbilical area funnel-shaped, with a single 
spiral funicle. Alt. 31, dam. 31 mill. (Fischer.) 

Moluccas (Reeve.) 

T. venetus Reeve, Conch. Icon., 1862, t. xvi, f 99a, 99b.— Fischer, 
Coq. Viv., p. 348, t. 109, f. 3. 

A species allied in form, sculpture and coloration to the group of 
T. flammulatus or T. radiatus, but without teeth on the columella. 
T. CHLOROMPHALUS A, Adams. PI. 12, figs. 62-65. 

Shell false-umbilicate, thick, conoid, apex acute ; whorls 8, the 
first yellowish, the following planulate, greenish, ornamented with 
flexuous brown lines ; separated by a slightly impressed suture, 
spirally cingulate, the penultimate whorl with about 7 granose un- 
equal ridges, the upper two large, third and. fifth smaller ; last whorl 
carinated, plano-concave beneath, with 7 concentric lirse, slightly or 
not at all granulose, sepat;ated by obliquely striated interstices ; aper- 
ture rhomboidal, grooved within, the basal margin subcrenate ; col- 
umella oblique, folded above, compressed in the middle and toothless; 
umbilical area funnel-shaped, like an umbilicus ; bordered with in- 
tense green. Alt. 19, diam. 22 mill. (Fischer.) 

Japanese Seas ; Nagasaki. (Lischke.) 



TROCHUS. 39 

Infu7idibulwn chloromphalns A. Ad. P. Z. S. 1851, p. 153. — T. 
chloroviphalus Lischke, Jap. Meeres Conchy/., p. 92, t. 6, f. 17, 18. 
— Fischer, Coq. Viv. p. 285, t. 92, f. 4. 

The following varieties are diagnosed by Dr. Fischer : 

Var. /3. Form normal ; umbilical area not margined witli green. 
Var. MEDERi Fischer. PI*. 12, figs. 66, 67. 

More elongated, ornamented with wide deep brown longitudinal 
bands, the spiral lirie of the base separated by intermediate lirulse. 

Alt. 19, diam. 21 miU. 

Avon Is. 
T. NiGROPUNCTATUs Reeve. PL 42, figs. 2, 3. 

Shell rather largely, excavately umbilicated, shortly conical, ash- 
green, obliquely flamed with black ; whorls flatly convex, spirally 
very closely gemmed with regular grains ; base grain-ridged, inter- 
stices crispately decussated, ridges dotted with black ; dots conspic- 
uous, distant. (Reeve.) 

Natal 

T. nigropimc'taius RvE., Conch. Icon., f. 71. (1861.) — T. hanley- 
anus Philippi, Conchy I. Cab., t. 16, f. 2. (not T. hanleyanus Rve.) 
T. subvirklis Philippi, Zeitschr. f. Mat, 1848, p. 126. — Conchyl. 
Cab., p. 259, t. 38, £ 7. (pi. 42, figs. 4, 5.) 

The surface of this species is grained with unusual regularity, and 
the base is very characteristically S])rinkled at rather distant inter- 
vals with blue-black dots. {Reeve.) 

I consider the locality doubtful. 

T. KOCHii Philippi. PI. 5, figs. 36, 37. 

Shell conical, broad, rather solid ; spire conic, apex generally 
eroded, corneous or orange colored ; whorls about 7, a little convex, 
whitish, painted with oblique flexuose or angular brownish green 
radiating stripes, nearly the whole surface sometimes suflfused with 
bright green by the erosion of the outer layer ; the sculpture consists 
of inconspicuous incremental stride and very oblique subobsolete 
folds ; base very obsoletely Urate; flat, the middle portion (umbilical 
tract) excavated, concave, strongly spirally grooved, the sculpture 
not extending into the aperture nor to the edge of the columella, 
which is nacreous ; aperture very oblique, large, very iridescent and 
neither Urate nor toothed within ; basal lips and columella simple, 
forming a regular curve ; columella with a strong dentiform fold 
above ; parietal wall eroded, green, nearly smooth. 

Alt. 32, diam. 38 ; alt. 28, diam 40 mill. 

Indian ; Red Sea. 



40 TROCHUS. 

T. kochii Phil., Abbild. u. Beschreib, i, t. iv, f. 8, 1844. — Fischer, 
Coq. Viv. p. 120 — T. listeri Kieuer, Species, t. 39, f. 2, (no?i 
Wood). 

A distinct, well-marked form. The broadly concave base, round- 
ed periphery, etc., sufficiently characterize it. 

T. coNCAVus Gmelin. PI. 43, fig. 13. 

Shell false-umbilicate, regularly conic, concave below ; color 
greenish and roseus, under a dull grayish-green cuticle ; outlines of 
spire nearly rectilinear ; whorls 7 to 8, planulate, very obliquely 
striate, radiately corrugated, and covered with a very minute 
secondary sculpture of radiating, fine, close wrinkles ; last whorl 
acutely carinated at the periphery ; base concave, concentrically 
lirate, the lirse about 6 to 8 in number, granose in the young, nearly 
smooth in the adult ; aperture very oblique, covering half the base, 
outer lip crenulated by the folds of the outside ; basal margin 
straight, thin, simple ; columella oblique, with a strong fold above, 
projecting into the aperture, insertion very deep parietal wall lirate; 
umbilical tract white or yellowish, spirally costate in young, smooth 
in fully adult specimens. Alt. 35-40 diam. 45-47 mill. 

Indian 0. ; Seychelles ; Madagascar, etc. 

T. concavus Gmkl., Syd. Nat. xiii, p. 3570, no. 21. — and of 
authors generally. 

A very distinct form, with aperture so oblique as to resehible a 
Calyptr?ea. 

Section Infundibulops Pilsbry, 1889. 

T. ERYTHR^us Brocchi. PI. 5, figs. 32-35. 

Shell conical, false-umbilicate, rather thin and inflated ; apex acute ; 
whorls about 7, somewhat concave and generally traversed by 
several conspicuously granose lirse in the middle, a little gibbous above 
and below, obliquely undulate below the sutures, and frequently on 
the periphery also, the whole surface more or less finely spirally 
lirate, the liras subgranulose ; base convex, concentrically lirate 
with about 7 granose narrow lirse, their interstices generally occupied 
by cencentric strife ; color cinereous grayish or pinkish, striped and 
maculated above with reddish; unicolored pinkisli or radiately mark- 
ed below; aperture large, smooth and pearly within, the basal lip 
simple ; columella oblique, very deeply inserted, its entire edge 
nearly straight, not dentate ; umbilical tract deep, narrow, pearly. 



TROCHUS. ■ 41 

bearing a single strong spiral white rib near its base, which does not 
attain the edge of tlie columella. Alt. 33-35, diam. 37-40 mill. 

Red Sea. 
T. eriithrcen,^ BROCcnr, Cat. dl una ser. di Conchlglle, etc., p. 29. 
(1819-1823.) — T. kochil Kiener, Spec. r/en. Trochus, t. 35, f. 2. (no7i 
T.kochuV\u\.)—T.fidlluJoi^AHZeitschr.f. Ma/., 1846, p. 125.— 
PHiLiprr, Conchy/. Cab. p. 288, t. 42, f. 10. — ? T. crebri/iratus Jonas, 
Zeitschr.f. Mai., 1840, p. 125— Philippi, Concliy/. Cab., p. 289, t. 
42, f. 11.' (pi. 42, fig. 14, 15.) 

T. SAGA Philippi. PL 14, figs. 14, 15. 

The shell is conical, the whorls almost completely ])lanu]ate, the 
suture not impressed; on the examples before me the last wliorl is. 
descending, wliilst the lower margin of the [Penultimate projects, and 
passes with a blunt rounded angle to the level base. The sculpture 
upon the upper side consists of 8 or 9 spiral series of granules ; 
upon the base of to 7 feebly develo])e(l concentric line; the last 
whorl shows fine obsolete longitudinal costie ; aperture and colum- 
ella precisely as in T. erythrieus to which this species is closely 
allied. The coloration in the exam[)les before me is very constant, 
yellowish white with broad red rays, the base white, the lirre articu- 
lated with red. Alt. 17, diam. 20 mill. (Phl/lppl.) 

Habitat unknoivn. 

T. saga Phil, Zeitschr.f. Mai. 1840, p. U)^.— Conchy/. Cab. p. 99, 
t. 16, f.'o. 

The above paragraph, from Philippi, contains all the information 
I possess about this form, which is evidently closely allied to T, 
erythr?eus. 

T. CARINIFERUS (Bcck) Recve. PL 5, figs. 38-42. 

Shell false-umbilicate, wide-conical, rather thin, dark green, the 
upper surface irregularly broadly maculate with crimson or purplish 
red, the ribs of the base articulated with the same ; whorls about 6, 
somewhat convex, the upper surface of each whorl with usually four 
or five spiral closely granose lirse, in the interstices between which 
sharp microscopic oblique and spiral strise are visible under a lens ; 
body-whorl carinated at the periphery, usually with six lir?e on the 
upper surface, convex beneath, concentrically lirate, the lime very 
narrow, feebly granose or nearly smooth, separated by wide lightly 
obliquely striate interspaces, the inner lira^ closer ; aperture rliom- 
boidal ; columella not folded above, but straight from the insertion 



42 TROCHUS. 

to the base, its edge simple ; umbilical area deep, rather narrow, 
white, smooth, with a spiral rib just inside the margin, and with its 
outer border tinged with red. 

Alt. 14, diam. 16 mill ; alt. 18, diam. 21 mill. 

Indian ; Madagascar ; Zanzibar ; Red Sea ; Chinese Seas ; 
Lieivkiew Is. (Philippi.) 

T. cariniferus Beck in Reeve, Conch. Syst. ii, t. 118, f. 8, 1842. 
(no description). — Philippi, Conch. Gab., t. 38, f. 6; — Fischer, Coq. 
Viv., p. 229, t. 75, f. 1, 2. 

The straight columella shows this species to be nearly related to 
T. erythra^us. The description is drawn from typical examples from 
Madagascar. A variety differing in coloration is figured by Fischer. 
(see pi. 5, fig, 40). 

Section C(ELOtrochus Fischer, 1880. 
Coelotrochus Fischer, Coq. Viv., p. 417. 

T. TiARATUS Quoy et Gaim. PL 12 figs. 72-74. 

Shell very deeply false-umbilicate, depressed conical, rather thin; 
spire with slightly convex outlines; apex acute, lemon yellow when 
eroded ; whorls 5 to 5^*, nearly planulate, but the upper margin of 
each whorl prominent and projecting beyond the periphery of the 
preceding ; last whorl carinated at the peri|)hery ; sculi)ture above 
consisting of spiral lirie, about 5 to 8 on each whorl, cut into close 
oblique beads, the interstices obliquely finely striate, one or two 
of the broader ones usually with a central riblet ; color whitish or 
yellowish, finely tessellated or articulated with reddish brown, the 
tessellations formed by the disintegration of narrow radiating stripes, 
which are on the base frequently continuous ; base nearly flat, with 
seven or eight concentric close fine line, which are crenulated in a 
peculiarly irregular manner by distinct short oblique impressed 
marks, the interstices finely rad lately striate ; aperture subrhomboi- 
dal, smooth within ; columella oblique, nearly straight, with an 
obsolete, scarcely perceptible fold above, inserted upon the side of the 
umbilicus, not in its center ; umbilical area white or yellow, smooth ; 
false-umbilicus deep and narrow, but partly filled by a white callus, 
not tapering to a point. Alt. 10, diam. l-Sj mill. 

T. tiaratus Q. et G., Voy. de V Astrolabe, iii, p. 256, t. 64, f 6-11, 
1832.— Kiener, Spec. Troque, t. 22, f. 2.— Hutton, Cat. Mar. Moll. 
N. Z., p. 36.— Fischer, Coq. Viv. p. 90.— and of other authors.— T. 



TROCHUS. 43 

delicatulus Philippi, Zeitschr.f. Mai. 1846, p. 105. — Conchy I. Cab., 
p. 176, t. 28, f. 1. (pi. 12, figs. 70, 71.)— Polyodonta elegans Gray, 
in Yate's Account of New Zealand, p. 309. 1835. 

This small trochid is evidently allied to the preceding species in 
the peculiarly straight columella and the somewhat tumid aspect of 
the upper part of each whorl. From T. erythrreus and its allies the 
flat base, and especially the insertion of the columella o?i the side, 
instead of in the center of the false-umbilicus will at once separate 
this form. Dentition (pi, 50, fig. 4.) 

T. CHATHAM ENsrs Hutton. 

Whorls flat with an elevated upper edge, and, together with the 
base, spirally striated ; columella with a slight posterior fold, anterior 
portion nearly smooth ; axial cavity small, smooth ; white with pink 
or brownish purple markings ; base wliite with interrupted pink 
spiral lines. Alt. 7], diam. 9 mill. (Hutton.') 

Chatham Is. 

Pohjdonta chafhamerisis Hutton, Cat. Mar. Moll N. Z., 1873, p. 
36. 

Section Anthora Gray, 1857. 

Anthora Gray, Guide Sy><t. dist. moll. Brit. 7)ius., p. 148. 
T. viRiDis Gmelin. PI. 3, figs. 16, 17 ; Vol. x, pi. 40, fig. 21. 

Shell conical, solid, false-umbilicate ; spire conic, with nearly 
straight outlines, apex a(*ute ; whorls about 7, nearly planulate, or 
sometimes a little bulging at the upper and lower margins, the last 
whorl carinate at periphery ; color dull gray, whitish or greenish ; 
sculpture of upper surface consisting of five series to each whorl of 
rounded, bead-like granules, between which are visible numerous 
very minute spiral strise, in the interstices of which oblique in- 
cremental stride are prominently shown (under a lens) ; base plano- 
concave, concentrically striate, the striae unequal, disappearing 
toward the outer edge ; aperture suboval, brilliantly nacreous 
and iridescent within, outer lip lirate within, basal margin thick- 
ened, subdentate, uniting with the columella in a regular curve; 
columella oblique, with a deej) fold near its insertion, smooth within ; 
umbilical area with 3 or 4 spiral ribs ; parietal wall smooth, covered 
with a brown callus. Alt. 20, diam. 19 mill. 

Neiv Zealand ; Chatham Is. ; Norfolk Id. 

T. viridis Gmel., Syst. Nat. xiii, 1788, sp. 34, p. 3572. — Reeve, 

Conch. Icon, f. 79. (Vol. x, pi. 40, fig. 21). — Polydonta tuberculata 



44 TROCHUS. 

Gray, in Diefferibach, Travels in New Zeal., p. 239. — T. aclnosus 
Gould, U. S. Expl. Expecl, f. 217 (pi. 3, figs. 16, \1).—T. fidvolahris 
HoMBR. ET Jacq,., Voy. ail Pole Sad. pi. xiv, f. 14-16. — Polydonta 
tritoiiis A. Ad., P. Z. S. 1855, p. 132. 

The synonyir.y of this species was worked out by Dr. Fischer. 
There is but little variation in the several suites I have examined. 
The more prominent characters are the regular beads, the secondary 
sculpture of fine stria?, the striate base, and especially the brown; 
parietal callus. 

The animal is yellowish brown, foot reddish or purplish brown 
filaments white, three on each side. The head lobes are smooth and 
rounded, and joined together across the head ; the eyes are on rather 
long white peduncles. 

Section Pr/ECIa Gray, 1857. 

Piwcla Gray, Guide Syst. dlst. moll. Brit. 3Ius., p. 148. 
T. eleoantulus Wood. PI. 14, figs. 16, 17. 

Shell perforate, conical, white, maculated with red or brown, 
yellowish beneath; whorls 9, the first 7 exactly conical, planulate, 
ornamented with 4 or 5 spiral series of small granules, the lower 
margin nodulous, and with a double row of granules ; penultimate 
whorl convex, nodose below, the nodules heavy ; suture profound ; 
last whorl convex, ornamented with about 15 or 16 oblong nodules 
around the periphery, plano-convex beneath, with 7 to 9 concentric 
lirpe ; umbilical area broad, yellowish, with a spiral ridge; aperture 
subrhombic, canaliculate within, the basal margin plicate ; col- 
umella tortuous, denticulate below and within. 

Alt. 25, diam. 23 mill. (Fischer.) 

Ceylon ( Wood.) 

T. elegantulus Wood, Ind. Test, suppl., t. 5, f. 9. — Reeve, 
Conch. Icon. f. 96. — Fischer, Coq. Viv., p. 194, t. 63, f 1. — T. hys- 
ginus Valenciennes, Voy. de la Venus, Moll., t. 4, f 3. 

A shell of remarkable form ; the first 7 whorls are flat and form an 
exactly conical spire ; the two last whorls are convex, globose, and 
bear a series of nodules on the lower part. (Fischer.) 

Section Belangeria Fischer, 1880. 

Belangerla Fischer, Coquilles Vivantes, p. 415. 
T. scABRosus Philippi, PL 12, figs. 78-81. 

Shell fivlse-umbilicate, conic, thick, solid ; outlines of spire nearly 
straight ; whorls 6 to 7, i)lanulate, the last often constricted, carinate 



TROCHUS. 45 

at the periphery ; color whitish, h)n<;itudiiially flanimuhite with 
brown, base radiately marked with narrow brown stripes, often 
broken into tcsselhvtions ; sculpture consisting of about four spiral 
cinguli, of which the middle two are granidose ; the ui)per and lower 
are wider, smooth or obsoletely granose ; base convex, with 6 or 7 
concentric narrow^ feebly granose lirse, the interstices minutely 
concentrically striate ; aperture oblique, rounded rhoraboidal, outer 
lip lirate within, columella and basal lips thickened, denticulate ; 
columella folded above ; umbilical area white, false umbilicus very 
narrow, with a spiral sulcus and fold within. 

Alt. 15-17, diam. 14-16 mill 

Indian Ocean; Bombay; Ghina{f). 
T. scabrosus Philippi, Zeitschr. f. Mai. 1850, p. WO.— ConcJnjl. 
Cab. p. 29 ^ t. 43, f. 3.— Fischer, Coq. Viv. p. 335, t. 104, f 2. 

V 

Unfigared, insafficleidly described species of Trochns, Polydoiita, etc. 
P. PALLiDULA A. Adams. (PL 42, fig. 6.) 

P. testa elevato-conica, albida, maculis luteolis picta ; anfractibus 
planis, cingulis tuberculorum ornata, tui)erculis inferne in costas 
excurrentibus ; basi convexa, cingulis granosis ornata, cavitate con- 
torta uml)ilicum simulante; columella superne soluta, niargine 
tuberculato-dentato ; labro iutus lirato, inferne denticulato. 
Ad., p. Z. S. 1851, p. 155.— Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 92. 

Habitat unliuotvn. 

P. CORRUGATA A. AdauiS. 

P. testa elevato-conica, albida, rufo-fusco variegata; anfractibus 
planiuseulus, sulcis transversis sulcisque obliquis nodoso-reticulatis; 
inferne oblique costatis, costis nodosis ornatis ; basi plauiuscula, in 
medio concava, excavata, umbilicum mentiente ; columella superne 
soluta, margine tuberculato-dentato ; labro intus lirato, inferne 

denticulato. (A. Ad., P. Z. S. 1851, p. 155.) 

Habitat unknown. 

P. (Infundibulum) neptuni a. Adams. 

P. testa elevato-conica, lateribus convexiusculis, viridi-fusca ; an- 
fractibus planis, cingulis granosis transversis ornatis, ultimo angulato, 
basi planiusculo, cingulis granosis instructo, centre excavato, 
umbilicum mentiente ; columella superne soluta, margine tuberculato- 
dentato, labro intus lirato, ad marginem intus laivigato. 

(A. Ad., P, Z. S. 1854, p. 132.) 

China (Mus, Cuming.) 



46 . TROCHUS. 

A greenish brown species, witli regular transverse rows of headed 
ridges, and with the Literal outlines convex ; the color is a uniform 
greenish bi'own. (Adams.) 

P. (Infundibulum) ^mulans a. Adams. 

P. testa depresso-conica, pseudo-umbilicata, albida, rufo-fusco 
radiatim picta ; anfr. planis, cingulis transversis granulorum ornatis, 
serie bituberculata ad suturas ; basi eonvexiuseulo, rubro radiatim 
ornata, ac cingulis confertis, concentricis crenulatis instructo ; regione 
umbilicali infundibuliformi, alba ; columella superne tortuosa, mar- 
gine simplice. (A. Ad. P. Z. S. rSo4 j), 182.) 

China. (Mus. Cuming). 

A handsome species, variegated with broad radiating red-brown 
markings, and with a conspicuous double row of tubercles at the 
sutures. (Adam.i). 

P. (Infundibulum) concinnum A. Adams. 

P. te.'^ta conica, pseudo-umbilicata, lutescente, fusco-vividoque 
variegatim picta ; anfr. planiusculis, cingulis transversis granulorum, 
cingulis distantioribus, interstitiis liris moniliformibus ornatis; anfr. 
ultimo ad peripheriam angulato; regione umbilicali infundibuliformi, 
albida, basi laevigata, cingulis concentricis articulatis ornata ; colum- 
ella recta, margine simplice. (A. Ad., P. Z. S. 1854, p. 132). 

China Seas (Mus. Cuming). 

This is a small but handsomely variegated species, with the false- 
umbilicus infundibuliform and of a whitish color, and with the base 
of the shell adorned with concentric zones articulated with dark 
brown. (Adams). 

Infundibulum californicum A. Adams. 

I. testa dej^resso-conica, pseudo-umbilicata, albida, viridi rufoque 
variegata ; anfr. planis, supra angulatis, ultimo angulato, cingulis 
tuberculorum subdistantium multiformium ornata ; interstitiis long- 
itudinaliter oblique costatis, basi concava, cingulis confertis crenula- 
tis insculpta ; regione umbilicali infundibuliformi, vividi, linea alba 
elevata cincto ; columella su])erne tortuosa tuberculata. 

(A. Ad. p. Z. S. 1851, p. 153). California, 



TROCHUS. 47 

P. MARi^ A. Adams. 

Testa turbinato-coiiica, <i,raiiulata, all)ida, rubro niaculata ac flam- 
miilata ; anfr. coiivexiusculus, ultimo rotundato, plicato-noduloso, et, 
ad suturas, corrugato, granulis in seriebus permultis, fequalibiis, 
regularibus confertis depositis, basi cingulis granosis exsculpta, cavi- 
tate coiitorta, um!)iHcum meiitiente, cingulo elevato, in dente unico 
terminato exhibente ; labro intus sulcato. (Adavis.) 

Habitat luiknown. 

A very beautiful finely granulated species, with the last whorl 
rounded and having many of the eharacters of Claviculus, \_sic] 
thus showing the close affinity of the two genera. {Adams.) 

A. Ad. F. Z. S. 1«55, p. 223. 

P. (Infundibulum) lacertinum Gould. 

Testa depresso-conica, cinerea et olivaceo variegata ; anfr. 10, sub- 
concavis, supernis seriatim granulosus, et ad suturam inconspicuam 
subcrenulatis ; ultimo imprimis granulis compressis obliquis seriatim 
cincto, tunc serie minori, denique ad peripheriam duobus majoribus ; 
basi vix convexo, liris granulosis fusco maculatis insculpto ; umbil- 
ico lato, polito, nacreo ; columella lobato, flexuosa ; fauce margarita- 
cea ; apertura dolabriformis ; labro acuto. 

Alt. 25, diam. 25 mill. (Gould, in Proc. Bost. Soe. Nat. Hist, viii, 
1861, p. 19). 

Hong Kong Harbor. 

Resembles P. hanleyanus Rve. but has fewer series of granules 
and is granular beneath. ( Gould). 

Subgenus Clanculus Montfort, 1810. 

Clanculus Montf., Conch. Systematique, p. 191. — Monodonta, in 
part, Lamarck and other authors. — Fragella Swains.-, Shells and 
shell-fish, p. 352.— Otovia Risso, Hist. Nat. Eur. Merid., iv, p. 132, 
1826. — Clancidopsis Monterosato, Bull. Sac. Malac. Ital., v, p. 
222, 1879. 

The animal of Clanculus bears four pairs of tentacular filaments 
on the epipodial line. The dentition (T. pharaonius, pi. 50, fig. 5,) is 
similar to that of Trochus, but the body of the tooth is more expand- 
ed, the centrals and laterals bearing large lateral supporting-wings. 

I was at first inclined to treat Clanculus as a genus distinct from 
Trochus ; but on account of the difficulty of so defining the group 
that its species may always be distinguished from Trochus, and the 
lack of any tangible anatomical character differing from the latter 



48 TEOCHTIS. 

genus, I do not see my way clear to make such a separation. Con- 
chologieally, such species as C. villanus Phil., are very near to T. 
scabrosus Phil., etc. ; and finally, when we see that neither the teeth 
of the columella nor of the outer lip are constant in nearly all the 
species, nor the form of shell, peculiar umbilicus nor granulated 
sculpture can be depended on for generic characters, it is clear that 
the group can have no higher rank than Tectus, Infundil)ulum, and 
other subdivisions under Trochus. 

As to the grou{)ing of the species I have not been able to discover 
any mode of division into sections wholly satisfactory to myself 
Perhaps the species are best grouped by a division into two sections ; 
Clanculus including those with strong basal tooth to the columella, 
and Clanculopsis for species with only a small denticle at the base. 
Each of these sections may be divided into species with the columella 
solute or tortuous a'love, inserted at or near the center of the axis in 
the bottom of the false umbilicus, and those with tiie columella 
inserted ui)on the edge of the umbili(;us, and not deeply entering. 
Perhaps this last distinction is the more fundamental of the two. 
There are a number of species which greatly resemble species of 
Gibbula of the section Eurytrochus. Of course the resemblance is 
wholly superficial, as there is no real relationship between the forms. 

Section Clamculus (s. atr.) 
T. PHARAONius Linne. PL 15, figs. 54-56. 

Depressed conoidal with rounded periphery and profoundly 
umbilicate axis, very strong and solid, densely granulate, coral red ; 
spire conoidal, its outlines scarcely convex ; Avhorls about 6, some- 
what convex, separated by well impressed sutures, the last large, 
deflected anteriorly, bearing 18 or 19 crowded, closely granose 
cinguli, of which the 1st, od, 5th, 7th, 9th and two upon the base are 
composed of alternate black and white granules ; upon the base the 
granulation is finer ; the base is convex, a trifle indented toward the 
center ; aperture oblique, subtetragonal, peristome with a marginal 
row of black and white dots ; outer lip plicate within, with a short 
]>licifbrm tubercle above : basal lij), outer margin of the umbilicus 
and parietal wall provided with wrinkle-like plicae ; columella very 
oblique, terminating below in a square prominence, contorted above, 
and inserted on the side of the umbilicus ; umbilicus white, and 
within the strongly radiately plicate marginal rib, smooth. 
Alt. 18, diam 23 ; alt. 16, diam. 18 mill. 

Bed Sea, 



TR0CHU8. 49 

Trochus pharaoniiis L. Syst. Nat, x, p. 757, no. 506. — (and of 
authors generally). — Monodonta pharaonis Woodward, 3Ian. of 
Moll pi. 10, f. I'i. 

Specimens of a dark brown color, with alternating brown and 
black series of granules above are before me. 

T. puNicEUS Philippi, PI. 15, figs. 59-61. 

This form differs from pharaonius in being more finely granulate, 
the last whorl bearing 20 or 21 cinguli, of which the 4th and 9th, as 
well as one or two upon the base, are articulated with black ; balance 
of shell coral red, or sometimes more or less articulated with white ; 
last whorl more deflected anteriorly than in T. j)haronius. 

Alt. 18-19, diam. 22-23 mill. 

Zanzibar. 

Monodonta pimicea Phil., Zeitschr.f. MaL, 1846, p. 100. — Trochus 
puniceus Phil., Conchyl. Cab. p. 73, 1. 14, f. 2. — Fischer, Coq. Viv., 
p. 167. — Trochus pharaonis var. Kiener, Spec. Trochus, t. 56, f. la. 

T. FESTivus Tapparone-Canefri. PL 14, fig. 18. 

Shell elevated-conoid, encircled by granose lirse, base depressed ; 
whorls depressed, slightly tumid below, separated by moderately 
distinct sutures, ornamented with 5 unequal granulose cinguli on 
the penultimate, 13 on the last whorl, the interstices sculptured with 
oblique longitudinal stride, crossed by nearly obsolete spiral strite, 
giving the shell a granulose appearance ; umbilicus small, its margin 
dentate ; columella oblique, its edge reflexed, terminating in a plicate 
tooth below ; labrum dentate within, with a conspicuous tubercle 
above ; color rosy-brown, (in specimens worn nearly smooth,) orna- 
mented with rose, black and rarely white granules, except the first 
and third cinguli, which are unicolored. 

Alt. 12, diam. 14 mill. (Tapparone-Canefri.) 

Bay of Bias, New Guinea. 

Clanculas festivus Tapp.-Can., Zool. del viaggio della fregata Mag- 
enta, p. 58, t. 1, f 10. (1874.) 

Differs from T. pharaonius in the less numerous spiral cinguli 
(5 instead of 7 on the penultimate, 13 instead of 17-19 on the last 
whorl,) by the coloration, etc. It is perhaps more nearly allied to the 
group of T. stigmatarius than to T. pharaonius. The n&me festivus is 
preoccupied by Philippi iu Trochus. 
4 



50 TROCHUS. 

T. LiMBATus Quoy et Gaimard. PL 11, figs. 39, 40. 

Shell depressed eonoidal, carinate at periphery, umbilicate, whitish 
or yellowish, maculated with brown, generall)^ with a series of 
blotches at periphery and beneath suture, the intervening space 
unicolored or more or less tessellated ; base tessellated or radiately 
flamed ; spire low conical, apex acute, smooth ;• whorls 5 to 6, convex 
just below the sutures, then flattened, and at the periphery carinated '> 
sutures subcanaliculate ; last whorl scarcely descending anteriorly, 
above with 6 to 8 spiral closely granose einguli, beneath with 7 to 9 
similar concentric einguli, the interstices both above and below 
closely, sharply, obliquely, microscopically striate ; base slightly 
convex ; aperture tetragonal, oblique ; outer lip four or five-lirate 
within, the upper fold somewhat enlarged, subdentiform ; basal mar- 
gin and marginal rib of the umbilicus finely plicate ; columella 
oblique, nearly straight, its edge reflexed and plicate-dentate ; term- 
inating below in a small square denticle, inserted above upon the 
side of the umbilicus ; umbilicus rather wide, funnel-shaped. 

Alt. 14, diam. 18 mill. 

Adelaide, Victoria, Purt Western, Australia. 

Trochus limbattis Quoy et Gaimard, Voy. de V Astrolabe, iii, p. 
245, t. 63, f. 1-6.— Philippi, Conch. Cab. p. 212, t. 31, f 10-12.— 
Fischer, Coq. Viv. p. 214, t. 71, f. 2. — T. depressus ("Gmel.") 
Philippi, Conchyl. Cab., ]>. 77, t. 14, f. 6. 

The coarser granulation will serve to separate this form from the 
several following species ; the reflexed, crenulated edge of the colum- 
ella is also characteristic. The basal margin of the aperture is 
expanded, in fully adult individuals. 

T. VARiEGATUs A. Adanis. PI. 14, fig. 19. 

Shell depressed-conical, light colored, variegated with reddish 
brown ; whorls tumid above, ornamented with granose einguli, the 
interstices longitudinally striate ; last whorl acutely angulate ; base 
plane ; umbilicus crenulated ; columella twisted above, the margin 
reflexed, crenulated, terminating below in a biplicate tooth ; lip 1am- 
ellarly toothed within, the upper tooth larger. (Ad.) 

Id. Of Siquij or, under stones. (Cuming). 

Clancidus variegatus A. Ad. P. Z. S. 1851, p. 160, no. 27. — Teni- 
soN-WooDS, Proc. Roy. Soc. Tasmania, 1877. p. 40. — Tapparone- 
Canefri, ZooL del Viaggio della Fregata Magenta, ]). 57, t. 1, f, 11, 



TKOCHUS. 51 

Of this form Tenison- Woods says : A rather thin depressedly 
conical shell, acutely angulate at the base, which is flat, granular, 
with oblique microscopic striai betAveen ; pale brownish red ; larger 
than any of our species except the two preceding, 18 to 20 mill. diam. 
whorls 5. I cannot distinguish this shell from C. zehrides of the 
same author. Tasmania; S. Australia, 

Tapparone-Canefri has figured this species. The British Museum 
specimens are said to be more vividly colored than his examples. 
His figure is copied on pi. 14, fig. 19. 

T. uNDATOiDEs Tcnison-Woods. PI. 13, figs. 99, 100. 

Shell turbinately conoid, rather small, somewhat solid, opaque, 
reddish rose with indistinct purple spots ; whorls 5J, flat increasing 
rapidly, margined below, girdled with 6 series of rounded granules, 
of which the lowest line is the smallest, and increasing gradually in 
size to the suture, which is coronate and broadly canaliculate; the 
base is flattened, ornamented with 8 spiral lines of close rose colored 
granules; aperture rhomboid, with a thickened labrum, which is 
lirate inside ; columella with two obtuse, blunt tubercles above and 
below, and intermediate small obsolete teeth ; umbilicus narrow, 
white, with a rather conspicuous white margin. 

Alt. 10, diam. 10 mill. (Tenison- Woods.) 

Dredged near ''Sow and Pigs," Port Jackson N. S. Wales. 

Clanculus imdatoides, Ten.- Woods, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W. 
iv, p. 22, (1880.) 

In shape and appearance this shell is a little like C. undatus 
Lam., but is smaller and the whorls flat. (Tenison-Woods.) 

T. MAxiLLATus Meuke. PI. 42, figs. 17, 18. 

Shell orbiculate-convex, jjale brown, obscurely punctate-articulate, 
or black, transversely granulate-cingulate ; whorls nearly plane, the 
last subangular, base plane ; cinguli above 6, granose, beneath 7, 
smooth ; umbilical cavity with crenate margin ; aperture rhomboidal, 
ringent ; outer lip with 6 teeth, the upper one largest; basal tooth 
of the columella large, obtuse, bifid, three on the columella margin. 
(Philippi.) 

Also a very distinct species, allied to T. corallinus Gm. by its size, 
the grains on the margin of the umbilicus, and the large bifid tooth 
on the end of the columella ; but it is more depressed, the base is flat, 
the granose lirpe are narrower, their interstices showing fine oblique 
strise under the lens; the teeth inside the outer lip are fewer in 



52 TROCHUS. 

number; finally the edge of the columella shows reflexed blunt 
denticles, or rather, folds. The color is pale brown, decked with 
darker dots, or blackish. Alt. 6, diara. 9 mill. (Philippi.) 

W. Coast Australia. 
MonodontamaxlllataM.'E^K'E., Spec. Moll. Nov. Holl., p. lA.— Troclnis 
ma.villatus Philippi, Conchyl. Cab., p. 236 t. 36, f, 2. 

T. PHiLiPPii Koch. PI. 42, figs. 9-11. 

Shell conical, perforate, fuscescent, marbled with purple or white, 
whorls plane, ornamented with a series of nodules at the suture, 
then 3 or 4 series of granules, the last angulated ; base plane, 
sculpture with 7 rows of granules ; aperture rhomboidal ; lip lirate 
within ; columella oblique, subsolute above, terminating below in an 
acute tooth. (Philippi.) 

The shell is conical, perforate ; the whorls are flat, but appear 
terraced because a nodose carina projects on the upper part, below 
the sutures ; below this there are 2 or 3 minutely granose spiral 
lirffi, and one more strongly granose, forming the angle of the last 
whorl. The base is flat, and has 7 granose concentric lira?. The 
angle surrounding the very narrow umbilicus is indistinctly grained. 
The aperture is rhombic, the fauces sulcate, the columella very 
oblique, somewhat solute above, terminating in an acute tooth below. 
The color seems to be quite variable ; some exam[)les are brown, 
with large white spots and dark jjurplish-red granules, others are 
reddish-brown, with white and purple granules, etc. 

Alt. 11, diam. 12j mill., or smaller. Perhaps this species is 
identical with Monodonta granulata Gray, (Capt. King's Survey, 
etc., aj)pendix, p. 47.) (Philippi.) 

Adelaide, Australia. 

T. philippii Koch, in Philippi, Ahhild. u. Beschreib., i. Truchus, 
t. 2, f. 1.— Conchyl. Cab., p. 238, t. 36, f. 4. 

T. OMALOMPHALUS A. Adams. PI. 15, fig. 52. 

Shell low conical, acutely carinated at periphery, deeply umbilieate, 
grayish or brownish, with subsutural and peripheral brown blotches, 
the carina white and brown articulated, sometimes visible at the 
sutures, base radiately painted or finely tessellated ; spire somewhat 
slender toward the acute a})ex ; whorls rounded, the last descending 
a little below the peripheral carina anteriorly, bearing above, 8 to 10 
closely finely granulose spiral cinguli, separated by regularly, ob- 
liquely and sharply striate interspaces ; base concentrically finely 



TROCHUS. 53 

granose-lirate, the lirpe 10 to 12, much finer than those of the upper 
surface ; aperture subtetragonal, oblique, outer lip Urate within, 
slightly plicate-tuberculate near its upper angle ; basal lip rounded, 
ex])anded, denticulate ; columella oblique, a little convex, ending 
below in a square centrally sulcate tooth, its front margin reflexed 
and finely denticulate, inserted above upon the side of the umbilicus ; 
umbilicus wide, funnel-shaped, smooth within, margined by a smooth 
rib. Alt. 10, diam. 14 mill. 

Port Jackson, Sydney, Australia. 

Clanculus omalomphahis A. Ad., P. Z. S. 1851, p. 162. — Trochus 
homalomphalus Fischer, Coq. Viv. p. 235, t. 81. f. 2. — Watson, 
ChaMe)iger Gasteropoda, p. 51. 

Like the preceding species in coloration, form of spire, base and 
aperture ; but more finely granose both above and below, the umbili- 
cus wider, its margin smooth. C. omalomphalus is more acutely 
carinated than the next species. 

T. FLORiDus Philippi. PI. 10, figs. 12, 12a. pi. 14, figs. 12, 13. 

Shell low conical, subcarinate at the periphery, the carina evanes- 
cent toward the termination of the last whorl, deeply umbilicate ; 
color light brown or grayish, striped with rich brown, the markings 
somewhat interrupted around the middle of the upper surface of the 
last whorl, the stripes more numerous and narrower at the periphery 
than upon the upper surface, and continued upon the base, or fading 
out there, and replaced by dots of brown on a light ground ; sutures 
deeply impressed ; whorls about 5, the apical ones acute, pale pink, 
the following closely granose-cingulate, the last with about 17 to 21 
closely beaded cinguli, of which the 8th or 9th usually forms the 
peripheral angle, all above that being subequal and equally spaced; 
those of the base are more crowded and finer ; the interstices are 
sharply, finely obliquely striate ; body whorl deflected toward the 
aperture, and a2:)pearing gibbous ; aperture subhorizontal, subtetra- 
gonal ; outer lip with a finely plicate thickening or rib within, and 
a strong tubercle near the upper angle ; basal margin expanded, 
crenulated, and bearing a small but distinct central, very oblique 
fold within ; columella very oblique, with a strong bij^licate tooth 
below, a wide triangular projection at the middle, the whole edge 
reflexed but not distinctly crenulate as in the preceding two species, 
the insertion upon the side of the rather wide umbilicus, which has 
a radiately crenulated marginal rib ; parietal wall wrinkled. 

Alt. 8-9, diam. 11-12 mill. 

Port Jackson, Aiisiralia. 



54 TROCHUS. 

Trochus fioridus F111L.IFFI, Conchyl. Cab. p. 243, t. 36, f. 15. — 
Zeitschr.f. Mai. 1849, p. 156. — Wathon, Challenger Gasteroj). p. 52. 
— Clanculus gibbosus A. Ad. P. Z. S. 1851, p. 162. — Fischer, Coq. 
Viv. p. 237, t. 81, f. 3. 

This form may be distinguished from the preceding by the nearly 
round periphery ; the outer lip is much depressed and straightened, 
producing a very oblique aperture ; the sutures are profoundly 
impressed ; the granulose cinguli of the upper surface are equal, 
and separated by sharply crispate interstices. 

T. ANUS Philippi. PI. 14, figs. 34-36 ; pi. 11, figs. 43-45. 

Shell low-conic, solid, subangulate at periphery, with a rather 
wide umbilical excavation, whitish, maculated with brown below 
the sutures, the remainder of the shell tessellated, black and white, 
pinkish or yellowish toward the apex ; whorls 5 to 6, somewhat con- 
vex, spirally gran ose-1 irate, the lirse 5 or 6 on the penultimate, 12 or 
13 on the last whorl, of which the 6th is at the periphery ; the fine- 
ly beaded lirse are separated by minutely spirally and obliquely 
striated interstices as wide as the ridges ; the body-whorl is a little 
deflected anteriorly, flattened and excavated in the center beneath; 
the aperture is contracted, very oblique, tetragonal ; the upper lip is 
straight, with a strong tooth midway between its insertion and the 
outer angle of the aperture ; the outer and basal lips are well curved, 
thickened and plicate-denticulate within ; the columella is very 
oblique, its edge reflexed and bearing 4 or 5 large tubercles, one at 
its insertion; terminating below in a strong quadrangular bifid tooth ; 
parietal tract bearing strong white wrinkles ; umbilical excavation 
penetrating but little deeper than the insertion of the columella, its 
border plicate-denticulate. Alt. 9-11, diam. 12-15 mill. 

Australia. 

Trochus anus Phil., Zeitschr.f. Mai., 1848, p. 101. — Conchyl. Cab. 
p. 266, t. 39, f. 7.— Fischer, Coq. Viv. p. 324, t. 101, f. 3. 

This species is allied to T. floridus, etc, but differs in the shallow 
umbilicus, very heavy columellar teeth and coarser sculpture. In the 
form of the aperture anus is very similar to floridus ; like that species, 
it is nearly horizontal, and obstructed by large teeth. T. limbatus 
is more strictly conical, with less developed teeth than anus, and has 
a more deeply perforating umbilicus. T. clanguloides, with equally 
strongly developed teeth, is far more finely sculptured, and has a 
deeply entering columella. 



TROCHUS. 55 

T. FLAGELLATus Philippi. PI. 19, figs. 3, 4. 

Shell conoid, iiinbilicate, granulate, white, painted with bi-anehing 
stripes of reddish purple ; whorls convex, the last rounded ; base 
convex, white ; penultimate whorl with six series of granules, 
the interstices wide as the ridges, obliquely striate ; last whorl with 
eight series of granules above, nine on the base ; columella oblique, 
solute above, the edge rugose-denticulate, terminating below in a 
prominent tooth ; outer lip rugose and dentate within. 

The whorls are pretty convex, especially above ; the last is round- 
ed, deflected anteriorly and flattened ; the penultimate whorl has six 
series of granules, which are the same width as their densely striate 
interstices ; the last whorl however has eight, two new ones having 
been intercalated on the lower part, the eighth prominent, forming the 
periphery. The base is rather convex, and has nine close granulose 
lirse. The granules on the border of the umbilicus are but slightly 
developed. The aperture is about as in T. pharaonius. The color 
white, with numerous dark rose-red radiating, sometimes branching 
stripes above. Alt. 10, diam. 15 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 

Separated from T. personatus and T. anus by the more numerous 
lirse of the base ; from T. morum by the convex base, etc. 

Troclms flagellatus Phil., Zeitsehr.f. Mai. 1848, p. 105. — Conchyl. 
Cab. p. 267, t. 39, f. 9. 

This is a species which I have not been able to identify. It 
is evidently closely related to T. floridus. Philippi's description 
and remarks are translated above, and his figures copied on my 
plate. 

T. MORUM Philippi. PL 14, figs. 31, 32. 

Shell conical, umbilicate, granulate, flesh-colored, at the sutures 
and around the periphery rufous-maculate ; whorls planulate, 
the last acutely angulate, with 6 series of granules, the interstices 
wide as the ribs, obliquely striate ; base flat, with 10 grauose lirse ; 
columella oblique, contorted above, the margin reflexed, crenulate, 
terminating below in a bifid tooth ; lip dentate and rugose within ; 
the superior tooth large ; umbilical margin crenulate. 

The shell is pretty regularly conical, and consists of 6 to 7 slightly 
convex whorls, of which the upper are angulated in the suture, the 
last rather sharply cariuated at the periphery, scarcely deflected 
anteriorly, and flattened toward the aperture, as in the other species 



56 TROCHUS. 

of the section Clanculus. The granules of the upper surface are 
hemispherical, regular, rather separated, and stand in 6 rows ; on the 
base they are less distinct and in 10 rows ; the interstices are as wide 
as the granules ; the close incremental striae with which they are 
marked give them a very pretty appearance. The aperture and 
umbilicus show nothing characteristic. Alt. 12, diam. 17 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 

Distinguished from T. anus and T. personatus by the number of 
lirse on the base ; from T. flagellatus by the flat base, sharply cari- 
nated last whorl, etc. 

T. morum Phil., Zeitschr.f. Mai. 1848, p. 109. — Conchyl. Cab. p. 
265, t. 39, f. 5. 

Another species autoptically unknown to me, and not mentioned 
by authors except Philippi. His description and remarks are above 
translated in full. Compare T. floridus, T, clangulus and the forms 
mentioned by Philippi. 

T. PERSONATUS Philippi. PI. 14, figs. 29, 30. pi. 19, figs. 91, 92. 

Shell low conical, heavy, solid, umbilicated, carinated, white, or 
scuffused with a faint rose tint, with a series of small rose-colored 
maculations above the periphery and sometimes at the suture, base 
white or faintly marked with rose around the outer border ; whorls 
about 5, slightly convex, separated by subcanaliculate sutures ; out- 
lines of spire a little convex ; first two whorls smooth, eroded, the 
following granose-lirate, the penultimate with 5 or 6, the last with 
11 or 12 series of very distinct rounded granules, the 5th or 6th 
forming the periphery, the interstices decussated by fine oblique and 
spiral striulte, which are sometimes obsolete ; last whorl carinated at 
the periphery, slightly deflected toward the aperture, and much 
flattened there ; base a trifle convex, the middle portion concave 
toward the umbilicus ; aperture tetragonal, very oblique, the upper lip 
straight, bearing a strong tubercular tooth midway ; outer and basal 
lips well rounded, thickened and plicate-denticulate within, the basal 
margin decidedly expanded and curved; columella very oblique, 
concave toward the insertion, its edge scarcely reflexed, simple, bear- 
ing a single triangular projection or tooth below the middle, and 
terminating in a very strong, quadrate, biplicate tooth at base ; 
l^arietal wall wrinkled ; umbilicus penetrating deeper than the inser- 
tion of the columella, bordered by a plicate rib, 

Alt. 10, diam. 14; alt. 10, diam. 12 mill. 

Australia. 



TROCHUS. 57 

Monodonta ringem Piiilippi, Zeitschr. f. Mah 1846, p. 99. (not 
M. ringens IVIke, also a species of Clanculas.) — Trochus personatus 
Phil., Conchyl. Cab. p. 78, t. 14, f. 7. (about 1847.) 

This species is allied to T. anus Phil, but differs in the deeper 
umbilicus, the smooth, not tuberculate edge of the columella, the 
stronger development of the teeth, more di.stinct granulation, and 
other characters. The aperture is almost horizontal ; the umbilicus 
and aperture are both narrower than in T. anus. The peristome is 
much thickened inside. 

T. ocHROLEUcus Philippi. PI. 13, figs. 95, 96. 

Shell conoidal, umbilicate, isabella-colored, sculptured with very 
fine subgranose line, about 11 on j^enultimate, 40 on last whorl; 
whorls rather convex, the last scarcely angled ; margin of the 
umbilicus dentate ; columella very oblique, not solute above, ter- 
minating below in a simple denticle ; lip thickened and corrugated 
within. 

The form is just like T. vieilloti Payr. ; the shell consists of 6 to 
7 rather rounded whorls, the last one not angulated to speak of, and 
with a rather convex base. The spiral cinguli gradually increase in 
number, so that on the penultimate there are about 11, on the last 
whorl about 40 of them. On the upper whorls they are distinctly 
granulose, on the last almost entirely smooth. The umbilicus is 
pretty narrow, its margin dentate ; the columella is very oblique, 
not free above, with a small but prominent denticle below ; the out- 
er lip is thickened within, with five folds, but near the edge with 
numerous wrinkles. The color is isabella-yellow. 

Alt. 8, diam. 12 mill. (Philippi.) 

Habitat unknown. 

Trochus ochroleucus Philippi, Conchyl. Cab. ji. 243, t. 36, f. 16. 
.(after 1853.) 

T. CLANGULUS Wood. PI. 10, figs. 5-7. 

Shell conical, with decidedly higher spire generally than C. flor- 
idus, subcarinate, nearly rounded at the periphery, very deeply 
umbilicated ; color brownish, or, more frequently a beautiful emer- 
ald green, much ])aler below, the upper surftvce broadly radiately 
maculate with crimson, the flames not extending below the periphery, 
which, with the base, is dotted with the same shade ; spire usually 
attenuated toward the acute rose-colored apex ; whorls about 6, con- 
vex, the last deflected anteriorly, spirally sculptured with about 18 



58 TROCHUS. 

closely granose cinguli, of which 5 to 8 princi2:)al ones are above the 
periphery, their interstices bearing granose riblets, and sharp oblique 
stripe ; on old individuals the disparity in the size of the lirse of the 
upper surface is often scarcely apparent ; the base bears nuich finer, 
closer, granulose lirse ; aperture very oblique, subtetragonal, outer lip 
plicate within, the tooth near the superior angle but slightly devel- 
oped ; other details of aperture and umbilicus as in the T. persona- 
tus, save that the parietal area is scarcely wrinkled. 

Alt. 12, diam. 13 ; alt. 10, diani. 12| mill. 

Port Jackson, Australia. 

Trochus clangulus Wood, Ind. Test. Suppl. t. 5, f 31. 1828. — 
Philippi, Conchyl. Cab. t. 36, f 8. — Fischer, Coq. Viv. p. 234, t. 
81, f 1. 

This form is closely allied to C. floridus ; differing in the lesser 
development of the superior tooth of the lip, the smoother parietal 
area, and (typically) the greater altitude. C. floridus, too, has much 
deeper sutures, rounder whorls, and, especially, the ribs of the upper 
surface are equal, whilst in C. clangulus they are alternately large 
and small. 

In the obsolescence of the superior tooth of the aperture, this 
sj^ecies forms a transition from the preceding to the following 
group of sj)ecies ; whicli, whilst closely allied to the foregoing, differs 
in the less developed teeth within the aperture. 

*** 
T. MiNiATUs Anton. PL 10, figs. 23, 24 ; pi. 14, figs. 24, 25. 

Shell conical, carinated at the periphery, deeply umbilicated, 
painted with crimson and brown radiating bifurcating stripes above, 
the apical whorls crimson, the base convex, radiately strigate or fine- 
ly tessellate with brown ; whorls about 6, suliplanulate, but with a 
slightly salient central carina above, spirally finely granose-lirate, the 
lirse narrow, close, about 8 to 12 in number on the upper surface of 
the last whorl, the 5th forming a slightly projecti;ig carina ; base 
finely lirate, the liraj granose, about 15, subequal, or sometimes 
alternately smaller, the interstices radiately striate ; aperture rather 
large, subrhomboidal, the outer lip lirate within, base crenulate, 
expanded ; columella long, straight, strongly dentate at base, obsolete- 
ly folded above, inserted upon the side of the umbilicus, which is 
smooth within, bordered by a slight, smooth rib. 

Alt. 12J-15, diam. 15-17 niilL 

South African Coasts. 



TROciius. 59 

T. miniatus Anton, Verzeich., p. 58, 1839. — Philippi, Conchyl. 
Cab., p. 99, t. 16, f. 10.— Fischer, Coq. Viv. p. 212, t. 83, f. 1.— 
Clanculus carina.tus A. Ad., P.Z. S. 1851, p. 162. 

In its conical form, densely granose-lirate sculpture and the carina 
in the middle of the ujjper surface of the whorls, this form is quite 
distinct. 

Var carinatus a. Adams. PI. 14, fig. 24, 25. 

A form which differs slightly from the type in its somewhat great- 
er altitude ; the peripheral carina of the penultimate whorl is exsert- 
ed ; the coloration consists of short alternate crimson or brown 
dashes below the suture, and brown tessellations on a white ground 
in the center of the base, the intervening space unicolored, brown, 
save the carina, which is articulated with white. 

Alt. 15, diaTu 16 mill 

Algoa Bay, Australia. 

T. ALOYSir Tenison-Woods. PL 14, figs. 20-23. 

Shell small, conical, carinated, umbilicated, whitish or corneous, 
marked above with zigzag radiating stripes (sometimes broken into 
dots) of sepia or black, below unicolored white or sparsely dotted 
with black, peripheral carina ornamented with a series of black 
spots ; spire rather straightly conical, apex acute, whorls about 6, 
se2:)arated by subcanaliculate sutures ; upper surface spirally sculp- 
tured with about 6 coarse, conspicuously granose lirse, of which the 
first and the sixth (or peripheral) are most prominent; base slightly 
convex, bearing 6 to 7 concentric, coarse, conspicuously granose 
separated lirre ; aperture rhomboidal, outer lip iridescent and plicate 
within ; basal margin rounded, denticulate ; columella oblique, 
nearly straight, slightly folded above, bidentate at base ; nmbilicus 
with (in fully adult specimens) a crenate marginal rib, white within, 
and perforating scarcely deeper than the insertion of the columella. 

Alt. 8-9. diam. 9-11. 

Tasmania. 
Clanculus aloysii Ten.- Woods, Proc. Roy. Soc. Tasmania, 1875, 
p. 155. 

A small species, quite distinct in the black and white coloration. 

T. DOMINICANUS Tenison-Woods. 

Shell small, depressed, turbinate, broadly umbilicatc, rather solid, 
bluish brown and obscurely spotted and clouded ; Avhorls 6, rather 



60 TROCHUS. 

convex, and obliquely neatly and thickly striate, striae passing over 
the ViYve but not over the granules ; aperture obliquely quadrate ; lip 
thickened within, throat pearly ; columella obsoletely unidentate, 
subreflected ; umbilicus white, smooth ; base flattened, spirally and 
smoothly lirate. Differs from known species in the smoothly lirate 
base and the absence of tubercles around the lip, columella or umbili- 
cus. (Tenisou- Woods). Alt. 7 2, diam. maj. 10, min. 8 mill. 

S. coast Tasmania. 

Clanculus dominicana T.-WoOD, Proc. Roy. Soc. Tasm., 1876, p. 
144. (1877.) 

This species and the three following are known to me only by the 
original descriptions. 

R. RAPHAELi Tenison-Woods. 

Shell small, depressedly conical, rather solid, blackish olive, but 
tessellated with white at the sutures ; whorls 4 to 5, flattened, girdled 
with irregular spiral granulose lirse, sometimes alternating and some- 
times with minute granulose lines intervening, granules larger at the 
margins ; shell universally covered with minute transverse oblique 
lines ; last whorl subacutely angular at the periphery ; suture 
canaliculate ; base flattened, ornamented with spiral granulose lines 
and oblique striie ; umbilicus white ; aperture quadrate, silvery, 
pearly, conspicuously lirate ; columella wide, conspicuously tuber- 
culate anteriorly ; lip dentate. ( Tenison- Woods). 

Alt. 6, diam. maj. 6, min. 05 mill. 

George s Bay and Long Bay, Tasmania. 

G. raphaeli Ten.-Wood, he. cit., p. 144. 

T. ANGELi Tenison-Woods. 

Shell small, turbinate, depressed, orbicular, rather solid, sordid 
white and clouded red, irregularly keeled all over, with the interstices 
finely, irregularly, neatly obliquely lirate, and peculiarly punctate ; 
larger keels smooth or obsoletely granular ; whorls 5, convex, the 
last obtusely angular ; base flat or slightly convex and spirally lirate 
with equal lirse and spotted brown, interstices transversely neatly 
striate ; aperture subquadrate, lip closely dentate, throat conspicuous- 
ly lirate ; columella obtusely unidentate ; margin of the umbilicus 
regularly tuberculate with rounded granular tubercles. 

Alt. 5, diam. maj. 6, min. S] mill. {Tenison-Woods^ 

Long Bay (in 10 fms.) ; Blackman^s Bay, Ihsmania. 

C. angeli T.- Woods, loc. cit, p. 144. 



TROCHUS. 61 

T. PHILOMEN.E Tenison-Woods. 

Shell depressedly conical, white ; whorls 5, at the suture canalic- 
ulate, concave, with both margins beaded, within the margins 3 to 4 
Urate; lirje ornamented with round shining granules, interstices 
very finely obliquely striate ; last whorl acutely angulate and mar- 
gined ; base flat, spirally granulosely lirate ; aperture obliquely 
squared ; outer lip lirate witliin ; columella unidentate and corruga- 
ted ; umbilical margin spirally dentate. 

Diam. 11, alt. 10 mill. (Tenison-Woods). 

Tasmania. 

Clanculus philomeme Ten.-Woods, Proc. Roy. Soc. Tasvi. 1875 p. 
155. 

One specimen. A very distinct white shell with moniliferus whorls 
rising in stages. (Tegison- Woods). 

I have not seen this species. It is evidently closely related to the 
preceding. 

T. YATESi Crosse. PI. 10, fig. 13 ; pi. 14, fig. 33. 

Shell conical, very solid, angulate at the periphery, with a veiy 
shallow umbilicus; white, variegate with maculations and radiating 
zigzag stripes of puri)lish red ; whorls 5, planulate, turgid below the 
subcanaliculate sutures, the apical ones when not eroded spirally 
striate, the following granose-lirate, the last bearing on its upper 
surface five coarse beaded lirae, the fifth forming the periphery ; 
base slightly convex, bearing six beaded lirse ; interstices between the 
lirse finely obliquely striate ; aperture rounded-tetragonal, pearly 
within ; outer lip lirate within ; basal lip curved, subdenticulate ; 
columella short, hardly perceptibly folded above, dentate below ; 
umbilicus perforating scarcely deeper than the insertion of the 
straight columella. Alt. 8, diam. 11 ; alt. 10 j, diam 11 mill. 

Giilf of St. Vincent, S. Australia. 

Clanculus yatesi Crosse Journ. de Conch. 1863, p. 379, t. 13, f. 1. 
—Fischer, Coq. Viv. p. 399, t. 118, f. 4. 

A solid little species, allied to the preceding, but differing in 
coloration etc. The specimens before me exceed the types in altitude. 
A variety from Tasmania is of a uniform deep j)urple color, (pi. 14, 
fig. 33.) It may be called var. purpuratus. 

T. DUNKERi Koch. PI. 14, figs. 26, 27 ; pi. 15, figs. 57, 58. 

Shell imperforate, having a little hollow or depression at the place 
of the umbilicus, orbicularly conoid or subdepressed, thick, solid ; 



62 TROCH US. 

whorls 5, the first whitish, often eroded, the last brownish, purplish 
or red, obliquely striated, and ornamented with spiral granulose lirse, 
3 on penultimate, 8 or 9 on last whorl, of which the first is composed 
of larger beads, and the fourth forms the periphery, the interstices 
about as wide as the lirje ; last whorl somewhat gibbous and descend- 
ing toward the aperture, which in adult specimens is somewhat con- 
tracted and subtrigonal, outer lip with a few deeply entering lirae 
Avithin, the uj^per one terminating in a small denticle ; columella 
short, concave, smooth, terminating in an acute narrow denticle, 
.which is separated from a similar smaller tubercle on the base by a 
narrow notch. Alt. 8, diam. 11 ; alt. 8, diam. 9 ; alt. 9, diam. 11-13 
mill. 

Adelaide, Cape Rich e, St. Vincent'' s Gulf, S. Australia ; Port Philip, 
Melbourne, Bass, Straits. 

T. {Monodonta) dunkeri Koch, in PHrLirpi, Abbild. u. Beschr. 
neuer Conchyl., i pt. 3, p. 67, t. 2, f. 5. 1843. — Philippi, Conchyl. 
Cab., p. 237, t. 36, f. 5.— Clanculusrubens ("A. Ad.") Angas, P. Z. 
S. 1865, p. 178. — Texisox-Woods, Proc. Boy. Soc. Tasmajiia, 1878, 
p. 40.— Tiochiis dunkeri Fischer, Coq. Viv., p. 361, t. 96, f. 2, 
(1880).— Brazier, Proc. Boy. Soc. Tasmania, 1886, p. 202. 

The typical form of this shell is shown in figs. 26, 27 of ])1. 14 ; the 
figures and descri})tion given by Fischer are of a depressed variety. 
In several s})ecimcns measured by me the altitude is nearly equal to 
the diameter. The synonymy was first worked out by Mr. Brazier, 
from whose excellent description the first lines of my own are 
quoted. This shell is allied to the T. yatesi, but is more solid, more 
compact, and less carinated at the periphery ; its spiral lirse are fewer 
than in that species. The umbilicus is remarkably shallow for a 
Clanculus. 

The two following species are similar to certain forms of the section 
Claneiilnpsis in lacking a distinct tubercle at the base of the col- 
umella ; I am however inclined to group them with the preceding 
species, which they resemhle in general aspect. 

T. GurxKKNsis Gmelin. PI. 10, figs. 3, 4. 

kSlioll conical, very solid, rallicr depressed, angulate at tlie periph- 
ery, deeply umbilicate, whitish, painted with hi'oad radiating purplish 
brown stripes above, base with narrow radiating stripes or tessella- 
tions of the same shade; whorls about 6, phmulate or slightly con- 
cave above, the apex whitish, eroded, the succeeding whorls spirally 
beaded, the last whorl slightly descending anteriorly, bearing on 



TROCHUS. 63 

the upper surface about 7 spiral beaded lira^, tlie interstices oblique- 
ly finely striate; base subplanulate, concentrically sculptured with 
about 7 or 8 beaded Vivx ; aperture rounded rhoniboidal, the outer 
and basal lips thick, evenly and finely plicate within ; columella 
oblique, deeply entering, conspicuously fielded near its insertion, its 
edge denticulate near the base, and passing into the basal margin 
with a regular curve ; parietal wall bearing a white wrinkled callus, 
the umbilical margin of which is dentate; umbilicus wide, deep, 
scarcely narrowed as it penetrates, bordered by a strong acutely 
dentate rib. Alt. 13-16, diam. 18-20 mill. 

Guinea; Gaboon; Liberia. 

Trochus gidneensis Gmel. Syst. Xat. xiii, p. 3574, no. 49, 1788. — 
Philippi, Conchy L Cab. p. 71), t. 14, f 9. — Fischer, Coq. Viv. p. 
221, t. 72, f. 3. 

This species, together with T. villanus constitutes a group which 
diflfers from the typical forms of Clanculus in lacking the strong 
tooth at the base of the columella. 

T. VILLANUS Philippi. PI. 11, figs. 58, 59 ; pi. 14, fig. 28. 

Shell conical, very solid, cinereous-olive or purplish, lighter 
beneath, sparcely dotted with black; whorls about 6, slightly con- 
vex, sj)irally lirate, the last encircled by about 14 granose separated 
lirte, of which about 6 are on the upper surface, their interstices 
bearing spiral stripe ; last whorl obtusely angular at the periphery, 
slightly convex beneath, a little descending anteriorly; aperture 
rounded-tetragonal, outer and basal lips plicate within, columella as 
in T. guineensis but longer; umbilicus narrow, deep, parietal wall 
slightly calloused, wrinkled. Alt. 22, diam. 22 mill. 

W. African coads ; Guinea; Gold coast; Gaboon. 

Mondonta villana Philippi, Zeifschr. f. Mai. 1846, p. 101. — 
Trochus villanus Phil. Conchyl. Cab. p. 74, t. 14, f. 3. — Fischer, 
Coq. Viv. p. 220, t. 72, i\ 2. 

More elevated than T. guineensis, less carinated at the periphery, 
and witli narrower umbilicus. The parietal callus is much heavier 
in T. guineen.-is. 



64 TROCHUS. 

T. MAUGERi Wood. PI. 10, figs. 25-27. 

Shell conical, with nearly straight sides carinated, solid, thick, 
false-umbilicate, reddish or yellowish brown, more or less dotted 
minutely Avith a slightly darker shade; whorls about 8, flat above, 
the sutures scarcely marked ; the first whorls of the apex when not 
smooth by erosion are spirally lirate, the Ynce dotted with red ; 
succeeding whorls very closely, finely granulate in spiral series, the 
last Avhorl with about 7 rows of granules above, carinate at the 
periphery, slightly deflected anteriorly; base nearly flat with nu- 
merous (15 to 20) close finely beaded concentric lirulte; aperture 
very oblique, tetragonal; upper lip straightened, wrinkled within; 
outer and basal lips thick, curved, crenulate within ; columella very 
oblique, its edge denticulate, slightly tortuous above, and inserted in 
the center of the axis, below terminating in an acute or squarish 
narrow tooth; j)arietal wall and umbilicus rugose, the latter bound- 
ed by a plicate-denticulate rib. Alt. 2()-2o, diam 25 mill. 

Port Jack-Mon, Au.ttralia. 

T. mifugerl Woi">D, Iiid. Te-<tnc€o. suppl. t. 5, f 27a, p. 220. — 
PHtLippi Conch ijl. Cab., t. 36, f. 9.— FtscHKR, Coq. Viv. p. 218, t. 
72, f 1. 

A handsome species, formerly very rare. The form is more strict- 
ly conical than usual in Chmculiis, The fine granulation nearly 
uniform, color, minutely dotted with darker and beneath usually 
with white, are characters separating maugeri from other species. 
The specimens before me are iVom Port Jackson, collec-ted by 
Brazier. 

T. NODULOSus A. Adams PL 13, fig. 3. 

Shell turbinate-conoid, imperforate, whitish, variegated with red; 
whorls transversely sulcate, ornamented with gianose cinguli, above 
■\vith a coronal series of tubercles; suture canaliculate; last whorl 
spirally sulcate, at the periphery tuberculate, the base rather flat- 
tend, concentrically granosedirate ; coluuiclla solute above, tortuous, 
anteriorly tuberculate; margin of the umbilicus crenulated ; lip 
transversely sulcate within, nuirgin dentatedirate. {A. Ad.) 

TdSinania, (Cuming.) 

Clancuhi.^ nodulosm A. Ad. P. Z. S. 1854, p. 39, t. 27, £ 2. 

This species has most of the characters of a Clanculus, but the 
wdiorls are nodulous and not granular. (Adams.) 

The pecies has not been been noticed by Tasmanian nor Aus- 
tralian conchologists. 



TROCHUS. 65 

T. UNDATUS Lamarck. PI. 40, figs. 1, 2. 

Shell large, depressed conoid, excavated, false-unibilicate in the 
center beneath, cinereous or rose colored, radiately striped with 
brown or black, the stripes sometimes broken into irregular macula- 
tions, especially on the base ; whorls about 6, convex around the 
upper part, then flattened, obtusely angulate at the perijihery, the 
base flattened, concave toward the center ; sutures subcanaliculate ; 
apex acute, eroded ; following whorls finely granose in spiral series, 
of which there are 10 to 12 on each whorl ; last whorl somewhat 
deflected anteriorly, bearing about 30 spiral granose ridges, very 
close and fine upon and below the peripheiy, coarser above and 
around the umbilicus, the interstices obliquely striate ; aperture 
oblique, tetragonal, outer and basal lips thickened and plicate 
within ; columella oblique, inserted nearly in the bottom of the 
broad umbilical excavation, its edge reflexed and bearing about 10 
denticles, twisted near the insertion, terminating below in a simple 
tooth ; parietal tract wrinkled ; umbilicus with a plicate border, and 
in the middle a strong, sometimes crenulate, spiral funicle. 

Alt. 18-22, diam. 28-e35 mill. 

S. Australia; Tasmania. 

T. undatus Lam. An. sans. Vert, vii, p. 28, no. 61 (1822). — 
Fischer, Coq. Viv., p. 168, t. 56, f. 2. — Philippi Conchy L Cab., t. 
33, f. 4. — Monodonta tmdata Lam. Encyc. Mcth., t. 447, f. 3. — 
Trochus smithii Wood, Ind. Test., Suppl. t. 5, f. 20a. 

The largest and one of the most beautiful sjDecies of Clanculus. 
It is apparently more nearly allied to T. maugeri than to any other 
species of the genus. 
T. pusiLLus H. Adams. PL 43, fig. 6. 

Shell trochiform, solic, encircled by granose lirje, alternately 
minute, the interstices densely obliquely striate; rosy, marked with 
white maculitions; suture canaliculate; whorls 6, convex ; the last 
convex beneath, with granose concentric lirse ; umbilicus crenulated, 
white; aperture diagonal, subcircular; columellar tooth prominent, 
compressed ; lip simple, sulcate within. {Adams.) 

Alt. 5, diam. 7 mill. 

Nexv Hebrides. 

Clanculus pusillns H. Ad., P. Z. S., 1873, p. 207, t. 23, f. 9. 

T. CLANGULOIDES Wood. PL 10, figS. 10, 11. 

Shell globose-conic, very solid, deeply, narrowly false-umbilicate, 
fawn colored, lighter beneath and roseate at the apex, sharply 



66 TROCHUS. 

granose-lirate, usually with every second rib articulated with dots 
of white or black or both; whorls about 6, the upjjer ones nearly 
fiat, the penultimate and last convex, the former with 7 or 8 spiral 
distinctly granose lirte, the last with about 18, of which the 7th 
usually is upon the periphery, interstices finely obliquely striate ; 
last whorl deflected anteriorly, rounded at the periphery ; base some- 
what convex ; aperture oblique, small, contracted ; outer lip bearing 
within a strong tooth above, and an inconspicuous rather acute 
thread at the place of the periphery; basal lip expanded, curved, 
slightly denticulate ; columella very oblique, slightly tortuous above 
and very deeply entering, terminating below in a strong plicate, 
tooth, and with a smooth margin, save for a small denticle im- 
mediately above the basal tooth ; parietal tract wrinkled ; uml)ilicus 
with a plicate-denticulate border. Alt. 10-12, diam. 12-15 mill, 

Australia, Port Jackson ; Watson's Bay; New Caledonia; Viti Is. 

T. clangnloides Wood. Ind. Testaceo. suppl., t. 6, f 39. — Fischer 
Coq. Ftv., p. 369, t. 113, f 2. 

In the typical form, the 1st, 3d, 5th, 7th and 9th line, and one or 
two upon the base are articulated with black. A tray of specimens 
from the Viti Islands, received from the late Andrew Garrett, differ 
in having only the 3d and 7th lirse, and one upon the base so marked. 
I need not compare clangnloides with T. persouatus and its allies, — 
species with similar strongly developed teeth — for the deeply enter- 
ing columella of the present species at once sej^arates it. 

T. ROBERTSi Pilsbry. PI. 13, fig. 4-7. 

A form similar in color-pattern and sculpture to T. clangnloides, 
l3ut differing notably in the greater altitude, more turbinate form, 
and greater development of the teeth ; in these characters it is like 
T. stigmatarius, which is, however, quite different in coloration. The 
spire is elevated conical, the apex tinged with orange ; the upper 
whorls are nearly flat, separated by a' linear suture, w^hich becomes 
more deeply'impressed at the last whorl; the body-whorl is slightly 
convex, rounded at the periphery, deeply deflected and flattened 
toward the aperture ; the base is rather flattened, about as in T. 
clangnloides ; the sculpture consists of spiral series of closely set 
rounded granules, the series or cinguli a little separated on the upper 
surface, closer beneath ; these number 17 or 18 upon the last wdiorl, 
the 7th being upon the periphery, just as in T. clangnloides ; the 
interstices between lirae are finel}' obliquely and spirally striate, the 



TROCHUS. 67 

spiral stripe often a little difficult to distinguish ; this gives the inter- 
stices at times a granulate a})pearance under the lens. The aperture is 
nearly horizontal, tetragonal ; superior lip straightened, bearing a 
very large sub-bifid squarish tubercle in the middle ; place of the 
periphery marked inside by an entering lamellar fold ; basal margin 
curved, slightly expanded, bearing two or three fold-like denticles 
inside, edge minutely denticulate ; columella oblique, deeply enter- 
ing the narrow umbilicus and inserted in the center of the axis, 
slightly dentate above, bearing a narrow tooth below the middle, 
and terminating in a large, heavy bi- or triplicate tooth ; parietal 
area covered by a white callous bearing numerous wrinkles, one or 
two of which enter the aperture ; umbilicus surrounded by a radiately 
strongly plicate callous. Coloration as in T. clanguloides. 

Alt, 12 J, diam. 13 ; alt. 11, diam. 11 mill. 

Red Sea. (Dr. Beadle.) 

On old specimens the compression and deflection of the last whorl 
gives the shell a bullet shape. The aperture is like stigmatarius, 
coloration and sculpture like clanguloides. In this combination of 
characters the species is quite distinct. Similar specimens marked 
Lord Howlands Id. are before me. The species is named in honor 
of Mr, S. Raymond Roberts, author of the Monograph of CyprseidEe 
in the Manual. 

T. LARGiLLiERTi Philippi. PI. 11, figs. 51, 51, 

Shell perforate, conoid, apex acute; whorls 6J, the first rosy, 
following whorls convex, grayish, spotted with white and black at 
the narrow sutures ; spirally lirate, lime granulose, numerous, 8 to 
10 on the penultimate whorl ; last whorl rounded, concentrically 
lirate beneath, liras 8 to 10, gray and brown articulated; aperture 
oblique, i-homboidal, lip dentate above ; basal margin plicate, colu- 
mella oblique, dentate at base ; parietal callous wrinkled ; umbilicus 
bordered by strong white plicie. Alt. 14, diam. 1(3 mill. {Fischer.) 

Habitat unknoivn. 

T. larrjillierti Phil., Zeitschr. f. Mai. 1848, p. 109.— Conchyl Cab. 
p. 265, t. 39, f. 6.— Fischer, Coq. Viv., p. 216, t. 71, f. 3. 

T. FLOSCULus Fischer. PI. 11, figs. 56, 57. 

Shell narrowly perforate, conoid, thick, apex acute ; whorls 7?, 
the first rosy, smooth, the rest convex, separated by linear sutures, 
spirally lirate, the lirce granose, 6 on the penultimate whorl, of which 
the 1st, 3d, oth are entirely reddish, the 2d, 4th, 6th composed 



68 TROCHUS. 

of alternating white and black granules ; last whorl globose, bearing 
15 or 16 lirse, somewhat convex beneath, the concentric Vine uniform 
yellowish-brown, often in pairs, separated by single alternately white 
and black articulated lirte ; aperture oblique, rhomboidal ; lip thick- 
ened, plicate, dentate above, columella oblique, terminating in a 
large, plicate, contorted, truncate tooth ; umbilicus profound, narrow, 
its border crenulated ; parietal callous wrinkled. 

Alt. 11, diam. 11 mill. (Fischer.) 

Seychelles Is. 

T. varus (Dufo) Fischer, Sp. et Icon, genre Trochus, t. 96, f. 1. 
—T.fiosculus Fischer, Coq. Viv., p. 300, t. 96, I 1. (1880.) 

This form was at first identified by Dr. Fischer with the T. rarus, 
of Dufo (Ann. cles. Sc. Nat. 2e. Ser. xiv, 1840, p. 188). This form, 
however, cannot be certainly determined from Dufo's miserable 
desci'iption, and had better be dropped altogether; or, as Fischer 
suggests, be relegated to the synonymy of T. pharaonius. 

T. MARGARiTARius Philippi. PI. 13, fig. 90. 

Shell conical, umbilicate, ornamented with granose cinguli (about 
7 on penultimate whorl), brown, the 2d and 4th cinguli ornamented 
with black, 6th and 7th with alternating brown, white and black 
granules; margin of the umbilicus dentate; columella solute above, 
terminating in a plicate tooth below ; lip dentate within. 

The grains of the second and fourth rows are much smaller than 
the rest, and are formed of alternating white and black grains. The 
base shows 10 concentric rows of granules, in which every fourth 
granule is black. The aperture and the umbilicus are formed just 
as in T. pharaonius. In all varieties the ground-color is a dirty 
flesh-color, and alternating series of granules white and black 
articulated. Alt. 12, diam. 14 mill. (Philippi.) 

Monodonta margaritaria Phil., Zeitschr. f. Mai. 1846, 'p. 100. — 
T. margaritarius Phil., Conchyl. Cab., p. 74, t. 14, f. 4. 

Philippi quotes as possibly the same as margaritarius the figure 
of T. clangulus, in Wood's Index Test. It is not that species, how- 
ever. It may be allied to stigmatarius. 

T. AMffiNus Koch. PL 42, figs. 19, 20. 

Shell elevated conical, false-umbilicate, granulate ; whorls plane, 
the last rounded-angulate ; granose cinguli 4 or 5, first and third 
pale pink, second, fifth and basal (6 to 7) cinguli whitish, every 



TROCHUS. 69 

fourth granule In-own ; aperture rhoniboidal, lip smooth within ; col- 
umella oblique, solute above, terminating below in a strong tooth, 
margin reflexed. (Fhilippi.') 

Allied to T. pharaonius. The shell is elevated conical, with a 
rounded angle on the periphery, the base elevated but not rounded. 
The whorls are about 8, the uppermost forming a rosy apex, pretty 
smooth, the following elegantly encircled ])y series of granules, act- 
ually 12 in number, but only 4 shown upon the upper whorls, the 
suture running upon the middle of the fifth. The interstices are 
somewhat narrower than the ridges, and under a lens are seen to be 
finely, densely, oliliquely striate. The first and second rows of 
granules are \)a\e flesh-colored ; the rest have regularly 3 white 
granules, then a brown one. The aperture is rhombic, with rounded 
outer portion. The outer lip is thickened within, but simple, 
smooth ; the columella oblique, solute above, its edge reflexed, below 
ending in a strong tooth, near which is a denticle. The false- 
umbilicus is rather narrow, with smooth margin. 
Alt. 8i, diara. 7^ mill. (Philippi.) 

Habitat unknoivn. 

T. amcenvs Koch in Philippi, Conchy!. Cab., p. 100, t. 16, f 1. 

I have seen nothing in nature or the books like this form. The 
lack of folds within the outer lip is difl'erent from the numerous 
species of Clanculus having similar elevated conical form. 

T. STiGMATARius A. Adams. PI. 15, fig. 53 ; pi. 19, figs. 5-8. 

This is a globose- conoid, solid, false-umbilicate species, very 
similar to T. clanguloides, but diflfering in the following characters: 
It is more solid, more elevated, somewhat the shape of a Minie ball. 
There are 6 to 7 whorls, the sutures somewhat impressed ; the penul- 
timate is encircled by 6-8, the last whorl by 18 (more or less) gran- 
ulose Yirx, every alternate rib of the upper surface and two or three 
of the base roseus, articulated with dots of brilliant rose-red, the 
ground-color faint pinkish or yellowish. The base is quite convex ; 
the aperture tetragonal, contracted by teeth and the deflection of 
the superior margin, which is straightened, bearing a strong tooth, 
below which the outer and basal lips are well rounded, and bear, 
within, a few plicse. The columella is short, very deeply entering 
the profound, narrow umbilicus (much narrower than in T. clangu- 
loides) ; anterior edge of the columella as in clanguloides; terminat- 
ing below in a very large, heavy, trifid quadrangular tooth, much 



70 TROCHUS. 

larger than the corresponding part in T. clanguloicles ; parietal 
callous slightly wrinkled ; umbilicus border with only one or two 
denticles. Alt. 12-14, diam. 11-12 mill. 

Philippines; TJpolu; Ins. Phoenix, Art, Neiv Caledonian Archijiel' 
ago ; Guan, Marianne Archipelaffo ; Viti Is. 

Clanculus siigmatarius A. Ad., P. Z. S.,lS51,p. 161. — Fischer, 
Coq. Viv., p. 217, t. 71, f. 4. 

A beautiful rose-dotted species, of which many sjiecimens collected 
by Pease and by Garrett are before me. 

T. UNEDO A. Adams. PL 10, figs. 17, 18. 

Shell elate-conic, very solid, narrowly false-umbilicate, red or 
reddish brown, dotted with black; rosy at apex; outlines of spire a 
little concave toward the apex ; whorls about 7, nearly flat alcove, 
sutures linear, impressed, last whorl descending anteriorly, encircled 
by about 13 or 14 granose lirae every second one, or on some spec- 
imens every one articulated with black dots ; the interstices finely 
spirally and obliquely striate ; base convex ; aperture tetragonal, the 
outer lip bearing within a strong tubercle above, and a few plicxe on 
the outer and lower part ; columella short, oblique, with a very 
slight fold above, very deeply entering the profound, extremely 
narrow axial pit, and at the base terminating in a large squarish 
trifid tooth ; parietal tract finely wrinkled ; umbilicus bounded by 
a plicate rib. Alt. 12-16, diam. 11-15 mill. 

Ins. Art, Neiv Caledonian Archipelago (Montrouzier) ; Viti Is. 
(Garrett.) 

This species diflTers from T. stigmatarius in the same way that that 
form differs from T. clanguloides. It is higher, narrower, more acute 
than stigmatarius ; the color is darker ; the lirae of the body-whorl 
less numerous, and the umbilicus narrower. The microscopic spiral 
lines in the inter-liral interstices also constitute a perfectly tangible 
and characteristic difference. 

T. ceylanicus Nevill. PL 11, fig. 48. 

Shell small, conical, solid, whitish or yellowish, radiately striped 
above with sepia, alutaceous or reddish brown, the stripes at the 
jDeriphery frequently branching, and with additional stripes inter- 
calated between them, all of which continue upon the base as narrow 
rays, or are there broken into tessellations ; whorls 5 to 6, slightly 
convex, spirally granose-lirate, the last bearing 12 or 13 lirse, the 
upper six larger, separated by obli(|uely striate interstices about as 



TROCHUS. 71 

wide as the ridges, basal lir?e finer, closer, more minutely granose ; 
last whorl bluntly angulate at the periphery, slightly convex beneath, 
slightly deflected anteriorly ; aperture oblique ; outer and basal lips 
curved, with a plicate thickening or rib within, and a small pliciform 
denticle above ; columella very deeply inserted in the nai-row, pro- 
found umbilicus, its middle portion subdentate, terminating below in 
a strong tri-plicate tooth ; umbilicus with a strongly crenulate 
marginal rib. Alt. 7, diam. 7 mill. 

Ce^jlon. 
Clanculus ceylanicus G. and H. Nevill, Journ. Asiatic Soc. 
Bengal, xxxviii, 1869, p. 157, t. 17, f. 7. — Fischer, Coq. Viv., p. 
303, t. 96, f. 3. 

A small brown-radiate species, somewhat similar to T. clangu- 
loides in form. The more characteristic marks, aside from form and 
coloration, are the narrow, deep umbilicus, with centrally inserted 
deeply entering columella, the large, trifid basal tooth, and the 
number of granose spiral ribs, which is fewer than in allied forms. 

T. THOMASi (yrosse. PI. 10, figs. 14, 15. 

Shell conic-globose, umbilicate, maculate with white on a ground 
of reddish carmine ; whorls 5, convex, spirally traversed by five very 
finely granulose lirte, the first two small, third larger, fourth small, 
fifth larger than the others; suture profoundly impressed, canalicu- 
late, last whorl with 8 lir?e on the base encircling the umbilicus ; 
columella unequally bidentate, the basal tooth larger, compressed ; 
lip at base obsoletely denticulate, elsewhere edentulous ; aperture 
oblique, less ringent than most species of Clanculus, fauces sulcate, 
nacreous ; umbilicus wdiite, in young shells smooth, in adults ob- 
soletely creuulated. Alt. 6-62, diam. 6j mill. (Fischer.) 

Is. Art, Nerv Caledonia. 

Clancnlus thomasi Crosse, Journ. de Conch, x, 1862, p. 405, t. 13, 
f A.— T. thomasi Fischer, Coq. Viv., p. 321, t. 101, f. 1. 

A variety is olivaceous green, maculate with white, the apex rosy. 

It is a small species, with very prominent, compressed basal tooth, 
and slight crenulations at the margin of the umbilicus, the right lip 
not dentate. 

T. satrapius von Martens. PI. 39, figs. 25. 

Shell conoidal, unibilicate, granulate-cingulate, cinguli unequally 
elevated, smaller ones interpolated, numbering 5 to 6 between suture 
and periphery, 7 to 8 on the base of the last whorl ; periphery 



72 ' TROCHUS. 

obtusely angulated; granules of rosy-red and white subalternating ; 
suture moderate ; aperture very oblique, subquadrangular, fauces 
sulcate, corresponding to the ridges of the exterior ; outer margin 
obtuse, subcrenulated ; basal margin plicatulate ; columella disjoined 
and prominently denticulate above, oblique, with 1 or 2 tubercles 
where it joins the basal margin ; umbilicus narrow, margin not 
crenate, with an elevated fold within, white. 

Alt. 14, diam. 14 J mill. {Martens.) 

Persian. Gulf; Aden. 

T. satrapius Mart., Vorderas. Conchxjl.,^. 100, t. 6, f. 50. — T. ton- 
nerrei Nevill, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Beng., 1874, p. 27, t. 1, f. 3, and 
I. c. 1875, p. 103. 

T. coRALLiNus Gmelin. PL 10, figs. 1, 2. 

Shell globose-conic, umbilicate, coral-red or brown, marked 
beneath the sutures with narrow flames of white and maculations 
of brown, and on the base dotted with white ; spire conic, acute ; 
sutures subcanaliculate ; whorls 5 to 6, convex, spirally granose- 
lirate, the last rounded, encircled by 14 or 15 conspicuously granose 
equal ridges, the interstices finely obliquely striate, and with more or 
less obvious spiral striae ; aperture oblique, subtetragonal ; outer lip 
plicate within, dentate above, the tooth usually bifid ; basal margin 
curved, crenulate within ; columella inserted deep in the rather 
narrow umbilicus, bearing a strong dentiform fold above and a large 
quadrangular biplicate tooth at the base ; parietal wall wrinkled ; 
umbilicus white, smooth within, with a crenulate margin. 

Alt. 9, diam. 11 mill. 

Mediterranean and Adriatic Seas. 

Trochus corallinus Gmel., Syst. Nat. xiii, p. 3576 (1788), and of 
most authors. — Monodonta couturii Payrandeau, Cat. desc. et. Mcth. 
des Annelides et des Moll, de Vile de Corse, p. 134, t. 6, f. 19, 20 
(1826). — Otavia corallina, Risso, Hist. Nat. VEnr. Merid. iv, p. 133. 
— ? Trochus roseus von Salis, Reisen ins Konigreichs Neapel, p. 376 
(1793). — Clanc'ulus corallinus, Bucquoy, Dautzenberg et Doll- 
Fus, Moll. Mar. du Roussillon, p. 409, t. 50, f 1-4 (1885). — Trochus 
multigranatus Philippi, Zeitschr. f. Mai. 1848, p. 147. — Conchyl. 
Cab., p. 239, t. 36, f 6. (PI. 19, fig.s. 14, 15.) 

A common Mediterranean species exhibiting considerable varia- 
tion in color. The deep brown fjrni is var. hrunneus Requien. (Var. 
atra Monts. is a synonym.) Philippi's T. multigranatus was described 



TROCHUS. i o 

from a specimen with 16 series of granules upon the body-whorl. 
The species is somewhat allied to T. ceylanicus, bnt is larger, less 
conical, and has a different color-pattern. The large basal tooth 
will separate it from other jNIediterranean forms. I have not 
thought it necessary to quote in the synonymy every author who has 
written on this well-known species. 

T. ERUBESCENS Philippi. PI. 42, figs. 12, 13. 

Shell conoidal, white, radiate with red ; whorls slightly convex, 
deeply separated by the suture, granulate, granules of the penul- 
timate whorl in 5 to 6 series, 7 on the last, 12 to 14 on the base; 
false-umbilicus with a denticulate margin; aperture subrhomboidal ; 
columella straight, denticulate above, subsolute, the margin crenula- 
ted. (Philipjii.) 

The shell is conoidal, somewhat broader than high, granulate. 

The whorls are but slightly convex, but separated by a deep suture, 

the lower ones with 5-6 rows of granules, of which the three upper 

are crowded, the two lower wider apart. In the interstices there are 

two elevated lines, which also become rows of granules at last. The 

false-umbilicus is denticulate on its margin. The almost vertical 

columella has a tooth above, and three denticles on the edge. The 

outer lip is plicate wathin, but less obviously to the touch than to the 

sight. The color is ■whitish Avith pale red flames. From T. kraussi 

this species is distinguished by the more depressed shell, less convex 

whorls, paler color and much njore numerous series of granules of 

the base. Alt. 11, diani. 14 mill. (Philippi.) 

Habitat unknown. 

T. eruhescens Philippi, Conchyl. Cab., p. 101, t. 16, f 13. 

Seems to be a variety of T. kraussi. 
T. BERTHELOTi d'Orbiguy. PL 11, figs. 46, 47. 

Shell small, globose-conic, very similar in form to T. corallinus ; 
"whorls 5, acutely gran ose-li rate, brown, below the sutures more or 
less maculated with blackish, base dotted with white ; last whorl en- 
circled by 11 sharply granose ridges, those of the base profoundly 
separated by deep grooves, Avider than the ridges ; aperture as in T. 
corallinus, but the tooth at base of columella more pointed, smaller. 

Alt. 6-8, diam. 8A-9 mill. 

Madeira, Azores and Canary Is. 

Monodonta bertheloti d'Orb., in Webb et Berthelot, Hist. Xat. des 
Canaries, p. 81, t. 6, f 17-20. — Trochus bertheloti Philippi, 
Conchyl. Cab., t. 39, f 17.— Fischer, Coq. Viv., p. 295, t. 95, f 1. 



74 



TROCHUS. 



Allied to T. corallinus, but easily distinguished by the deeply 
separated lirjB of the base. 

T. CRUCiATus Linne. PI. 11, figs. 60, 61 ; pi. 19, figs. 16, 17. 

Shell globose-conic, narrowly umbilicate, spire conic, apex acute,, 
pinkish ; dark brown, blackish or pink, radiately maculated with 
white below the sutures, and dotted with white around the center of 
the base ; whorls 5 to 6, convex separated by canaliculate sutures, 
spirally granose-lirate ; body -whorl rounded, encircled by about 13 
lir?e, those above the periphery granulose, about as wide as the 
interstices, those beneath more separated, smoother ; interstices finely 
spirally striate ; base convex ; aperture subcircular, oblique ; outer 
and basal lips rounded, finely crenulate within ; columella slightly 
concave, bearing a small denticle at base and above near the in- 
sertion ; parietal wall nearly smooth ; umbilicus deep, narrow, 
smooth, and white within, bordered by a strong smooth or obsoletely 
crenulated marginal rib, and surrounded by narrow tract of white. 

Alt. 8-9, diam. 9-10 mill. 

Mediterranean Sea; Cape Verde Is. (Rochebrune.) 

T. cruciatus, Linn., Sijst. Nat. xii, p. 1228. (1767). — Hanley, 
ipsa Linn. Conch., p. 315, t. 5,f. 6. — Fischer, C07. Viv., p. 298, t. 
95, f. S.—Monodo7ita vieillotii Payrandeau, Cat. des Annelides et des 
Moll. Corse, p. 135, t. 6, f. 21-23 {im&).— T. vieillotl Philippi, 
Conchyl. Cab., p. 80, t. 14, f. 13, and of other authors. — T. med- 
iterraneus Wood, Ind. Test. SuppL, t. 5, f. 32. — Clanculus cruciatus^ 
BucQuoY, Dautz. et Dollfus, Moll. mar. du Roussillon, p. 411, t. 
50, f. 5-12. 

A species of about the size of T. corallinus. The obsolescence of the 
teeth will distinguish this form from any other Mediterranean 
Clanculus. The subgenus Clanculopsis of Monterosato is based upon 
this character ; but in view of the great variation observed in the 
teeth of nearly related species, and of the fact that this shell is really 
very closely allied to T. corallinus I am not inclined to give any 
systematic value to the division. 

Var. GLOBOSO-CONICA Arad, et Ben. (Conch, viv. mar. della Sieilia,. 
p. 171.) 

Whorls with a broad subsutural margin lacking line ; last whorl 
with four, penultimate and antepenultimate with three granose lirse. 
A form said by Aradas and Benoit to be constant, though rare. I 
have not seen examples. 



TROCHUS. * 75 

The following variations have received names. They are scarcely 
distinct enough to be called varieties, for typical examples of all 
three occur in one of the sets before me. 

Var. nigrescens Requien. (-brunnea Req.,-monochroa Mouts.) 
Color uniform brown or blackish, without white flammules. 

Var, rosea Mouts. (pi. 19, fig. 13.) Rose-colored, with or without 
white markings. 

Var. Candida Monts.'(pl. 19, fig. 12.) Entirely white. This and 
var. rosea are abundant in the Gulf of Gabes, Tunis. (See Moll 
du Roussillon, p. 413.) 

T. KRAussi Philippi. PI. 10, figs. 8, 9. 

Shell umbilicate, conoid, moderately thick; whorls 5, convex, 
separated by canaliculate sutures; first whorls eroded, whitish, the 
rest roseus, cinereous or brownish, oi'nameuted Avitb a few radiating 
white streaks, spirally granose-lirate, tlie lirse 6 on the penultimate 
whorl, the fifth larger, more prominent, simulating a carina ; last 
whorl angulate, plano-convex beneath, concentrically cingulate, the 
cinguli granose, about 7, the interstices sometimes bearing concentric 
liruke; aperture rhomboidal, lip within thickened, sulcate, basal 
margin crenulate ; columella tuberculose, above twisted plicate, be- 
low obsoletely truncate ; umbilical area white spirally plicate, mar- 
gin crenulate; parietal callous thin, wrinkled. 

Alt. 19, diam. 12 mill. (Fischer.) 

TF. Coast of Africa. 

Monodonta kraussi Philippi, Zeltschr. f. Mai. 1846, p. 100. — T. 
kraiissi Phil. Conchy I. Cab., p. 82, 1. 14, f 14. — Fischer, Coq. Viv., p. 
377, t. 114, f 4. 

Allied according to Dr. Fischer, to T. cruciatus L. but distinguished 
by the less rounded whorls, shallower sutures, closer spiral lirje, 
smaller tooth at base of columella and by the well developed um- 
bilical crenulations. 

T. JussiEUi Payrandeau. PI. 11, figs. 36-38 ; pi. 19, fig. 11. 

Shell depressed-globose conic, umbilicate, polished, shining, black- 
ish, olive or purplish brown, uuicolored, dotted or tessellated with 
white, often with shoit flames of white beneath the sutures and 
always more or less marked with white around the umbilicus ; spire 
conical, sutures simple, impressed ; whorls 5 to 6, convex, the upper 
surface marked with obsolete, frequently almost imperceptible line, 
the interstices between them finely spirally striate ; base smoother, 



76 TROCHUS. 

lightly concentrically marked around the center; aperture rounded, 
outer and basal margins crenulated within ; columella bearing a 
small tooth above and below, concave between them, deeply entering 
the umbilicus, but inserted on its edge ; umbilicus rather deep, 
smooth within, bordered by an irregularly crenulated rib. 

Alt. 11, diam. 14 mill; alt. 8^ diam. 9 mill. 

Mediterranean and Adriatic Seas. 

Monodonta jussicei Payr. Cat. Annelides et Moll. Corse, p. 136, t. 
6, f. 24, 25 (1826). — M.jussieui Philippi, Enum. Moll. Sicil. ii, p. 
157 (1844).— Troc/ms jussievi Phil., Conchyl. Cab., p. 81, t. 14, f. 
11. — Fischer, Coq. viv., p. 238, t. 82, f. 1. — Clanculus jussieui Bucq., 
Dautz. et Dollf., 3Ioll. Mar. du Rouss., t. 50, f. 13-20, p. 413.— 
Clanculus hlainvillei Cantraine, Malac. Medit. et litt. t. 6, f. 14, 14a ; 
Bull. Acad. Brux., ix, p. 344. — Trochus glomus Philippi, Enum. 
Moll. Sicil., ii, p. 157, t. 25, f. 16 ; Conchyl. Cab. p. 82, t. 14, f. 15. 

To be consistent, Payrandeau's original spelling of this name ought 
to be revived ; but since the emended form used by Philippi has 
been adopted by all modern authors we would perhaps in this case 
lose rather than gain by a rigid adherence to principle. The species 
was named in honor of M. Adrien de Jussieu, " professeur au 
Jardin du Roi." 

It is a variable form in size, coloration and sculpture ; the surface 
is remarkably smooth and shining for a Clanculus. The following 
color varieties are described by Messrs Bucquoy, Dautzenberg and 
Dollfus. (Moll, du Roussillon, p. 415.) 

Var. GLOMUS Phil. (pi. 19, figs. 9, 10). More decidedly lirate 
iibove than the type. This is a transition form to T. cruciatus. 

Var, striata Monts. Small, polished, under a lens showing fine 
spiral lines. (Gulf of Gabes, Tunis.) Var. blainvillei (pi. 11, 
fig. 36). Conspicuously tessellated. Var. roseo-carnea Monts. 
Roseate or violaceus in color. 

T. spadiceus Philippi. PI. 9, figs. 97, 98 ; pi. 11, figs. 52, 53. 

Shell umbilicate, conoid, thick, shining; whorls 5i, convex, the 
first vivid rose-color, following chestnut-brown, subcanaliculate at 
the suture, in the middle subangulate, minutely spirally cingulate, 
the ridges about 9 on the penultimate whorl ; last whorl carinated, 
slightly convex beneath and paler, white and brown maculate, con- 
centrically marked with about 9 delicate lira?, the interstices radi- 
ately striate ; aperture subtrapezoidal, plicate within ; lip double, 



TROCHUS. 77 

basal margin denticulate; columella oblique, granulose without, 
above contorted, truncated below ; umbilical area white, with au 
interior spiral ridge, crenulated at margin; columellar callous obso- 
lete. Alt. 10, diam. 14 mill. (Fischer.) 

W. Coast Equatorial Africa ; Annahon Id. 

T. spacliceus Fhil, Zeitschr.f. Mai. 1848, p. 125.— ConchyL Cab., 
p. 239, t. 36, f. 7. — DuNKER, Ind. Moll. Guin. infer, coll. p. 17. t. 2, 
f. 43-45.— Fischer, Coq. Viv., p. 390, t. 117, f. l.— T. ludwigi 
Krauss, Die. Sudaf Moll. p. 99, t. 5, f. 33 (1848).— Philippi 
Coachyl. Cab., p. 323, t. 46, f. 5. 
Allied to the preceding by the comparatively smooth shell. 

T. ludwigi Krauss (pi. 13, figs. 93, 94) seems to be an immature 
form of spadicus, and if so probably has priority ; for the preface of 
Die Sudaf. Moll, is dated January, 1848. The diagnosis of Krauss 
is as follows : 

Shell obliquely conoidal, apex acute, umbilicate, roseate, sculpt- 
ured with irregular delicate transverse stride, which are subgranulose 
below the suture ; whorls 6, convex ; separated by subcanaliculate su- 
tures, the last subangulate; base convex, striate, with two white-spotted 
cinguli around the umbilicus ; umbilicus white, bounded by a prom- 
inent margin ; columella oblique, solute above, unidentate, base (4 
or 5) denticulate ; aperture rouuded-rhomboidal ; lip acute, callous 
and denticulate within. Alt. 2, 4, diam. 3 lines. (Krauss.) 

Cape of Good Hope. 

T. ATROPURPUREUS Gould. PL 15, figs. 50, 51 ; pi. 11, figs. 28-32; 

pi. 13, figs, 86-87. 

Shell depressed, conoid, umbilicate, dark purplish or ferrugineous 
brown, unicolored, the apex carmine; whorls 6, convex, grauose- 
lirate, the sutures narrowly subcanaliculate, last whorl rounded at the 
periphery, abruptly briefly deflected anteriorly, encircled by 16 or 
17 finely, very regularly but feebly granose lirae, which are Avider on 
the base ; aperture rounded, outer and basal lips regularly curved 
thickened and finely crenulated within ; columella deeply entering 
the profound umbilicus, bearing a minute denticle above and at the 
base ; umbilicus profound, smooth within, bordered and constricted 
by a marginal rib bearing about four white teeth, the largest near 
to the parietal wall of the aperture. Alt. 7, diam. 9 mill. 

Samoan and Viti Is.; Soronr/, New Guinea; San Christoval, 
Solomon Is. ; Txduila, Navigators' Is. 



78 TROCHUS. 

Trochus (Monodonta) atropiirpureus Gld., Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. 
Hist, in, p. 107 (1849).— U. S. Expl. Exped. Shells, p. 189, t. 13, f. 
224. — Trochus savioensis Hombron et Jacquinot, Voy. au Pole 
Sud. etc., Zool, V. p. 58, 1. 14, f. 21-25 (1854).— Fischer, Coq. Viv., 
p. 239, t. 82, f. 2. 

A solid little species, evidently allied to the group of T. cru- 
ciatus ('' Clanculopsis "). Numerous specimens before me show little 
variatiim. The more notable characters are the uniform dark color 
with rosy apex, the very regular and superficial cutting of the Wvve 
into beads on every part of the surface, and the teeth around the 
umbilicus. 

T. BATHYRHAPHE E. A. Smith. PI. 11, figs. 34, 35. 

Shell depressed-conic, the l)ase flattened, olive-green, the apex 
green, ornamented with deep brown granules, rather widely umbil- 
icate; whorls 5i, convex, separated by a narrowly canaliculate suture, 
encircled by granose lirse, aljout 7 on penultimate whorl ; last whorl 
with roundly angulated periphery, encircled by about 14 granulose 
lirfe, umbilicus white, surrounded b}' a white granuliferous rib, and 
with a smooth rib within ; aperture oblique, beautifully pearly, 
lirate within, lip with the outer margin crenulated, at the base 
strongly lirate ; columella inserted on the whorl above, oblique, 
dentate below. Alt. 62, diam. 82 mill. (Smith.) 

San Christoval, Solomon Is. 

Trochus ( Clanculus) bathyrhajihe Smith, Journ. Linn. Soc. London, 
xii, p. 557, t. 30, f. 17 (1876). 

Distinguished from atropurpureus by the difference of color, 
more rounded spire, and the peculiarity of the umbilicus. The main 
color of bathyrhaphe is a very dark olive-green, the apex being 
bright green ; the granules of the infrasutural series, which are con- 
siderable larger than the rest, are dark brown at intervals, two 
or three together being of this color, and those between them of the 
same hue as the shell. The granules on the base are subalternately 
reddish-brown and greenish. (Smith.) 

T. MiCRODON A. Adams. PI. 13, figs. 91, 92. 

Shell depressed conoidal, thick, solid, of a reddish-brown hue, 
interstices between the ribs, chocolate colored, above marked with a 
few broad yellowish or flesh-tinted maculations radiating from the 
sutures toward, l)ut not quite I'eaching the peri])hery, which with the 
base, has the ribs sparcely dotted with white ; spire low-conic, apex 



TROCHUS. 79 

roseate ; suture distinct, not canaliculate ; whorls 5, moderately 
convex, encircled by lirte more or less distinctly jri'finulate, very 
unequal in size, numbering, on the last whorl about 14, the inter- 
stices closely obliquely striate, and usually bearing a minute central 
riblet ; body-whorl descending anteriorly, rounded at the periplierv ; 
base convex, the revolving lirse more superficially and much more 
closely cut into granules than those of the upper surface, and also 
broader, flatter, and equal in size, numbering 6 to 7, one or two 
around the umbilicus Avhite, dotted with yellow or reddish, the 
remainder reddish-brown, sparcely articulated on the ribs with 
white, sometimes radiately marked with narrow white stripes ; 
aperture oblique, somewhat contracted, subcircular ; outer and basal 
lips thickened, finely crenulated within ; columella oblique, with a 
tooth-like fold above, solute, and deeply inserted upon the side of the 
umbilicus, middle portion concave, with a reflexed subdenticulate 
edge, ending beneath in a minute denticle ; umbilicus profound, 
smooth and polished within, bordered by a strong rib bearing 6 or 
7 projecting white teeth, the upper one the largest. 
Alt. 9, dlam. 12 mill. 

Andaman Is. 

Clanndus microdon A. Ad., P. Z. S. 1851, p. 162. — E. A. Smith, 
P. Z. S. 1878, p. 818, t. 50, f 21. 

A species belonging to thq group of atropurpureus, bathyrhaphe, 
etc., including species in which the base of the columella is scarcely 
toothed, but passes into the basal margin in a regular curve, bearing 
several subequal denticles, the columella above inserted upon the 
side of the umbilicus instead of in the center of the axis as in the 
typical Clanculopsis. From T. atropurpureus, which seems to be its 
nearest ally, T. microdon differs in the larger size, variegated color- 
ation, and irregularity of the sj^iral ribs on the uj^per surface. 

T. PLEBEius Philippi. PL 10, figs. 19-22 ; pi. 13, figs. 1, 2. 

Shell small, depressed, umbilicate, pinkish brown, gray or vellow, 
the ribs articulated with dots of black and white, often forming 
radiating lines above, zigzag beneath, where yellow replaces pink in 
the ground-color ; spire low-conic, apex acute ; whorls about 5, 
coarsely Urate, the sutures subcanaliculate ; body-whorl obtuselv 
angular at the periphery, its upper surface encircled by 4 coarse, 
somewhat beaded Virse, the upper two contiguous, the third separated 
by wide intervals above and below it, the fourth peripheral, usually 



80 TROCHUS. 

formed of two ridges close together, the interstices bearing numerous 
fine spiral strire and sharp microscopic incremental striee ; base con- 
vex, concentrically sculptured with numerous (6 to 9) smooth stride, 
in the intervals between which very numerous microscopic striulse 
revolve ; aperture rounded, oblique, outer and basal margins thick- 
ened and very minutely crenulated within ; columella oblique not 
tortuous above, nor entering the umbilicus, but inserted upon its 
side; front edge nearly straight, denticulate at the base; umbilicus 
wide, not very deep, its margin somewhat denticulate. 
Alt. 7, diam. 10 mill. 

S. Australia ; Tasmania. 

T. plebejus Phil. Zeitschr. f. M'd. 1851, p. 41, and Conchyl. C-ib. 
p. 326, t. 46, f. 10.— Fischer, Coq. Viv., p. 243, t. 83, f 2, 2a.— 
Clanculus nodiliratus A. Adams, P. Z. S. 1851, p. 163. — -C. nodolir- 
atus Tenison-Woods, Proc. Roy. Soc. Tasmania, 1877, p. 40. 

Both Adams and Philippi proposed names for this form in 1851. 
I give precedence to that of the latter author because the description 
is better, and is accompanied by excellent figures. The species 
when typically developed is easily recognized by the very coarse 
sculpture of the upper surface, and the minute concentric striation 
of the base and interstices. To this (typical) form Dr. Fischer gave 
the mss. name T. muscarius, which he considers a var. /?. of plebejus. 
There are also smoother forms exhibitingnumerous lir?e above, which, 
Avhile still unequal in size, are not nearly so prominent as in the 
types. These specimens (pi. 13, figs. 77, 78) have a rounded pe- 
riphery, and only the upper few lirjeare granulose. In the Academy 
collection they are marked C. ruhicundus Mighels ; but I have seen 
no description of such a species by that author. The ground color 
is yellowish, obliquely, narrowly radiate above and below with 
blackish lines, edged anteriorly with white, the lines of base and top 
uniting in a V-shaped angle on the periphery, when the pattern is, 
not too much interrupted. 

T. BiCARiNATUS Angas. PI. 11, figs. 33. 

Shell umbilicated, turbinate, solid, very dark purplish-brown ; 
whorls 6, prominently keeled in the center, the last whorl with two 
keels, one above and one below the j^eriphery, sculptured all over 
with distinct separated rows of regular, close-set bead-like nodules, 
those on the keels being double the size of those between them, the 
interstices crossed with fine oblique strife ; outer lip strongly dentate 



TROCHUS. 81 

"within, and surrounded by a row of black spots at the margin ; col- 
umella nearly straight, with a small tooth-like projection' at either 
end, the margin of the false-umbilicus dentate, with an incurved 
tooth above, and crenate at the base, around the umbilical margin 
white; interior pearly white. Alt. 12, diam. 16 mill. (Angas.) 

Port Darwin, N. Australia. 
a bicarinatas Angas, P. Z. S. 1880, p. 419, t. 40, f. 4. 

This shell is remarkable from its having too strong keels on the 
last whorl, and also on account of its uniform dark brown color. 
{Angas.) 

T. GRANOSUS Brazier. 

Shell conoid, spire prominent, apex white, smooth; whorls 4j, 
flattened, spirally encircled with four rows of beaded grains, the 
two upper near the suture being the smallest, interstices with very 
minute oblique striee, ornamented with white and light brown 
flames ; suture deep, last whorl large and inflated, having rive 
beaded rows of grains, the last being contiguous to the suture ; base 
slightly convex, finely grained ; aperture oblique, triangularly 
ovate; peristome denticulated ; columella white ; umbilicus marginal 
plicated and denticulated below. 

Alt. 6, diam. maj. 5i, min. 4i mill. (Brazier.) 

Barnard Is., No. Ill, N.-E. Australia. 
Clanctdus granosus Brazier, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, ii, p. 
43 (1878). 

Found in crevices of large blocks of coral. I cannot determine 
the specific relationships of this unfigured Clanculus, as the descrip- 
tion gives no details of the structure of the columella. 

T. RiNGENS Menke. PI. 11, figs. 49, 50. 

Shell perforate, conical ; whorls 7, the first smooth, yellowish, 
following planulate, separated by canalicidate sutures, maculate with 
chestnut and white, spirally cingulate above with 4 elegantly gran- 
ulate ridges, the upper and lower the larger , last whorl acutely 
carinated ; base slightly convex, ornamented with 8 to 9 granose 
cinguli ; aperture rhomboidal, oblique, narrow ; basal margin sul- 
cate-denticulate ; columella strong, oblique, terminating below in 
a large tooth, ringent above ; columella callous, ringent, plicate. 

Alt. 10, diam. 11 mill. (Fischer.) 

S. Australia, Port. Lincoln; Van Diemen's Land. 
6 



82 TROCHUS. 

Mo7iodonta ringens ^lEyKE, Spec. Moll. Nov. Holl. p. 14, no. 53 
(not M. ringens Phil. 1846). — T. ringens Philippi, Conchyl. Cab., 
p. 235, t. 36. f. 1.— Fischer, Coq. Viv., p. 213, t. 71, f. 1. 

May be known by the conical form, not depressed nor gibbous 
like the majority of Clanculus. It is sometimes quite narroAV, the 
altitude greater than the diameter. 

T. LACEYi Sowerby Jr. PL 18, fig: 21. 

Shell conical, grayish-brown, all over covered with series of mi- 
nute granules ; whorls 6, conspicuously bi-angulate ; last whorl slightly 
convex beneath; umbilicus white, deeply excavated; aperture 
oblique, fauces iridescent, obsoletely sulcate ; columella obscurely 
folded above, conspicuously uniplicate at base. 

Alt. 14, diam. 13 mill. (So^verby.) 

Port Elizabeth, S. Africa. 

Clnnculus laceyi SowB., Jonrn of Conchol. (Leeds) vi, 1889, p. 11, 
t. 1, £ 16. 

An interesting bi-angulated species, more conical than C. car- 
inatus. (Sotob.) 



Unfigured, imperfectly kjiotvii and uisufficiently de-scribed species of 
Clanculus. 

The following species are known to me only by the descriptions, 
which are reprinted in full below. A few have been recognized by 
Australian naturalists, and in these cases I have given such addi- 
tional information as is accessible to me. Most of those descriptions by 
A. Adams, without either locality or measurements are mere trash. 
Such careless work does not deserve recognition. 

The arrangement is alphabetical ; but the original sequence of 
the descriptions may be determined by the species number. 

Clanculus acuminatus A. Adams. C. testa elevato-conica ; 
spira acuminata, fusca, nigro-fusca punctata, cingulis transversis 
subdistantibus granorum ornata ; interstitiis lineis transversis et 
longitudinalibus decussatis ; margine umbilici subnodulosa ; col- 
umella margine reflexo, integro, basi dente simplici magno terminata; 
labro intus lirato. 

Sibonga, island of Zebu, under stones. (Cuming.) 

Froc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1851, p. 160, no. 31. 

Clanculus albinus A. Adams. C. testa conoidea, albida, cing- 
ulis granorum coufertis ornata, granis nonnullis fusca-punctatis ; 



TROCHUS. 83 

anfr. eonvexis, ultimo rotundato ; margine umbilici plicato-dentato ; 
columella callosa, jilicis duahus transversis, basi dente triplicato 
terminata ; labro superne inflexo, intu.s lirato ; tuberculo magno 
trisulcato prope marglnem superiorem. 

Habitat unknown. 
L. c. p. 160, no. 32. 

Clanculus brunneus a. Adams. C. testa depresso-coiiica, fusca, 
cingulis granorum subdistantibus ornata ; interstitiis longitudinaliter 
elevata striatis; anfr. planiusculis, ultimo acute angulato, umbilici 
margine plana ; columella transversim plicata, margine fimbriata, 
basi dente bi-plicato terminata ; labro intus lirato, lira suprema 
majore. 

Habitat unknown. 

L. c. p. 161, no. 37. 

Clanculus cingulifer A. Adams. C. testa elevato-conoidea, 
carneola, cingulo albo rufoque articulate ornata ; anfr. rotundatis, 
cingulis transversis granosis sculptis ; basi concava, peromphalo 
albo rosea radiato, margine plicato ; columella crassa, supra nodosa, 
infra uniplicata ; basi dente triplicato terminata ; laljro intus lirato ; 
tuberculo maximo prope margine superiorem. 

Habitat unknoivn. 

L. c. p. 160, no. 28. 

Clanculus conspersus A. Adams. C. testa orbiculato-conica, 
rufescente, albo rubfoque variegata, cingulis moniliformibus trans- 
versis ornata, cingulo infra suturam majore, anfractii ultimo angu- 
lato ; columella antice plica magna transversa terminata, postice 
subcanaliculata vix tortuosa ; labro intus valde dentato-lirato. 

Habitat unknown. 

L. c. p. 163, no. 46. — TenisonAVoods, Proc. Boy. Soc. Tasmania, 
1877, p. 40. 

TenisonAYoods says of this species: A trochiform coarselv gran- 
ular shell, with last whorl subangular, variegated red and white ; 
toothed on the inner lip. Alt. 11, diam. 13 mill, whorls 4j. 

N.-E. Tasmania; Bass' Sts. 

Clanculus depictus A. Adams. C. testa conoidea, pseudo- 
umbilicata, albida, viridi fuscoque radiatim 2:)icta, cingulis sub- 
granosis insequalibus ornata ; anfr. planis, ultimo ad peripheriam 
angulato; margine umbilici simplice ; columella superne uniplicata, 



84 TROCHUS. 

inferne tuberculis tribus parvis iiistructa ; intus lirato, margine 
Isevi. 

Bombay (Cuming.) 

A prettily variegated conical species, somewhat resembling a 
Polydonta in appearance. (^4. Ad.) 

P. Z. S. 1854, p. 316. 

Clanculus edentulus a. Adams. C. testa orbiculato-conoidea, 
sordido rufa, albo variegata, cingulis transversis granosis sculpta ; 
anfr. parum convexis, umbilici margine subcrenulata ; columella 
supra plicata, infra edentula, margine infra tuberculis tribus ; labro 
intus subsulcato. 

Habitat wihioivn. 

P. Z. S. 1851, p. 162, no. 40. 

Clanculus jucundus Gould. Testa parvula, depressa, ovato- 
conica ochracea vel rufescens; anfr. 5, convexis, j^rope suturam 
tessellatis, interdum omnino strigatis, liris in?equalibus cinctis, ad 
anfr. majores gemmatis ; sutura canaliculata ; basi rotundato ; um- 
bilico crenulato ; dente columellari eminente, acuto ; labro intus 
sulcato. Alt. 5, diam. 5 mill. 

Sydney, N. S. W. 

About the size of C. minor. 

Proc. Post Soc. Nat. Hist, viii, p. 17 (March, lSQl).— Otia 
Conch., p. 156. 

Clanculus maculosus A. Adams. C. testa elevato-conoidea, 
rgfo-fusca, maculis albidis variegata ; anfr. rotundatis, cingulis 
granorum ornatis, interstitiis oblique striatis, margine umbilici 
crenulato ; columella supra tuberculo magno instructa, basi dente 
bij)licato terminata ; labro intus lirato, lira suprema maxima. 

Habitat unknown. 

P. Z. S., 1851, p. 160, no. 29. 

Clanculus minor A. Adams. C. testa parva, conica, albida, 
fasciis rufo-fuscis radiatim ornata ; anfr. planis, cingulus transversis 
granosis sculpta, anfractu ultimo angulato, basi planiuscula, margine 
umbilici crenulata ; columella tuberculo decurvato terminata ; labro 
intus lirato. 

Id. of Masbate, sandy mud, 7 fms. (Cuming.) 

L. c. p. 161, no. 36. 

Clanculus nigricans A. Adams. C. testa depresso-conica, 
umbilicate, nigricante ; anfr. planis, cingulis quinque granulatis 
ornata, ultimo angulata, carinis j^lanis duabus in parte inferiore, 



TROCHUS. 85 

cingulis 5-6 articulatis sulcisque intermediis sculpta ; umbilici 
margine crenulato ; columella recta, superne soluta, in parte super- 
iore tubercLilata, extus tuberculis tribus instructa ; labro intus Isevi. 

Habitat unknown. 

L. c. p. 162, no. 41. 

Clanculus ormophorus a. Adams. C. testa depresso-conica, 
umbilicata, anfr. rotundatis, cingulis granorum a?qualibus ornatis, 
cingulo primo, secundo et tertio granis fuscis alhis alternantibus, 
quarto granis fuscis ornato ; anfractu penultimo gibboso, ultimo 
rotundato ; umbilico crenulato ; columella callosa, subreflexa, basi 
dente triplicate. 

Habitat imknown. 

L. c. p. 159, no. 26. 
Trochus planospirus Kiener. 

This species is known only by two illustrations in Kiener's Spec, et 
iconogr., genus Trochus, pi. 5Q, fig. 3 (copied on my pi. 11, figs. 41, 
42). One of these figures is probably C. floridus Phil. ; the other is 
a different species, but it is practically unidentifiable because of the 
total lack of knowledge Ave have of the aperture. 

Clanculus sulcarius A. Adams. C. testa parva, albida, fasciis 

fuscis radiatim ornata, cingulis distantioribus granorum instructa, 

interstitiis longitudinaliter oblique striatis ; anfr. parum convexis ; 

margine umbilici crenulato ; columella dente pliciformi ; labro intus 

crenulato. 

Id. of Masbate, sandy mud, 7 fms. (Cuming;) 

P. Z. 5'., 1851, p. 160, no. 30. 

Clanculus textilosus A. Adams. C. testa conoidea, spira 
acuminata, cingulis granorum insequalibus ornata, primo, tertio et 
sexto coccinea, secundo, quarto, quinto et septimo granis albis nigris 
alternantibus ornata ; margine umbilici dentato ; columella biplicata, 
margine acuta, basi dente triplicate terminata ; labro intus lirato, 
prope marginem superiorem tuberculo magno. 

Id. of Ticao, sandy mud, (^ fms. (Cuming.) 

L. c. p. 161, no. 35. 

Clanculus turbinoides A. Adams. C. testa turbinato-conoidea, 
fusca, cingulis subdistantibus granorum ornata ; interstitiis lineis 
transversis prominulis ; anfractibus rotundatis, sutura canaliculata, 
basi cingulis concentricis granorum instructa ; umbilico dentato ; 
columella sulcata, margine reflexa, tuberculis quatuor ; labro intus 

lirato. 

Habitat unknotvn. 



86 MONODONTA. 

L. c. p. 160, no. 33. 

Clanculus zebrides a. Adams. C. testa conoidea, fuscesceni, 
nigro-fusco radiatim picta, oingulis granorura sculpta ; intersititiis 
lineolis transversis elevatis ; anfr. rotuudatis ; umbilici niargine 
crenulata ; columella supra tuberculo, margine callosa, basi tuberculo 
magno termiuata ; labro intus dentibus linearibus instructo. 

Habitat unknown. 

L. c. p. 161, no. 39. 

Said by Tenison- Woods to be the same as C. variegatus A. Ad. 

Genus MONODONTA Lamarck, 1801. 

Monodonta Lam. Syst. des. An. s. Vert. p. 87 (1801). — Gray, 
Syst. Dist. Moll. Brit.Mus., p. 155.— A. Ad. P. Z. S. 1851, p. 173.— 
H. and A. Ad., Gen. Rec. Moll, i, p. 417. — Woodward, Manual of 
Moll. p. 144. — Fischer, Man. de Conchyl., p. 820. — Labio Oken, 
Lehrbuch, p. 263, and some other authors. — Monodontes Montf. 
Conch. Syst. ii, p. 195. — Trochidon Swains. Treatise on Malacol. p. 
351. — Odontis Sowerby, Cat. Taukerv. coll. p. 53. — Trochuhs 
Humph. — Monodon Schweigger. 

The genus Monodonta was first separated from the Linniean genus 
Trochus by Lamarck in 1801, T. labio L. being given as the type. 
Later, Lamarck included many species of such dissimilar groups as 
Tectarius, etc ; but modern authors have restricted the genus to the 
toothed Trochids allied to the type. 

Monodonta consists of globose-conoidal shells with more rounded 
body-whorl and aperture than Trochus. With the exception of 
several forms from the West Coast of S. America, the species are all 
Old World in distribution, mostly tropical. All are littoral. Geo- 
logically, the genus dates from the Trias. The prominent character 
of the dentition (pi. 50, figs. 5, 12) is the development of the lateral 
basal angles of the central and lateral teeth into broadly projecting 
lobes imbricating over the adjacent tooth ; the cusp of the central is 
wide, shortly reflexed, its edge denticulate at the sides, smooth in 
the middle. 



Subgenus Monodonta Lam. 

Section Monodonta (restricted). 

M. labio Linne. PL 19, figs. 95, 96. 

Shell imperforate globose-turbinate, very solid, grayish-pink or 
greenish, mottled or longitudinally striped with purplish-red or 



MONODONTA. 6 1 

blackish ; spire conic, acute ; whorls 6-7, slightly convex, spirally 
sculptured with coarse, irregular, coarsely granose lirpe, about 6 in 
number on the penultimate whorl ; sutures not much impressed, the 
whorl flattened just below it ; last whorl globose, rounded ; base 
rounded ; aperture ol)lique lined with a white porcellaneous layer, 
rounded, the outer and basal lips margined with green, beveled to 
an edge, plicate within ; columella short, projecting and terminating 
as a square tooth-like prominence into the aperture below, forming a 
square notch between it and the oblique plications of the base ; 
parietal wall not calloused above. Alt. 35-40, diam. 28-34 mill. 

Indian Ocean; E. African Coasts; E. Indies; Japanese and Chi- 
nese Seas. 

* An al)undant and mutable species, very variable in the compar- 
ative length of the spire, and in coloration. 

Trochus lahio Linn, Syst. Nat. x, p. 759 (1758). — Monodontn 
lahio L\MAECK, Encyc. Meth., p. 447, f 1, 2 and of other authors. 
— Trochus lahio Philippi, Conchyl. Cab., p. 166, t. 27, f 1-4, t. 44, 
f. 8.— Fischer, Coq. Viv., p. 223,^ t. 73, f. 1, t. 74, f. A.—Monodonta 
confusa, Tap-Can., Zool. Viaggio della Magenta, Malac, p. 61, t. 1, 
f. 8 (1874). 

Troschel's figure of the dentition of this species is given on PL 50, 
fig. 5. 

Var. CONFUSA Tapparone-Canefri. PI. 22, fig. 37. 

This form, of which typical examples are before me, isshajied like 
M. labio ; the color is pink, longitudinally clouded with dusky ; the 
penultimate whorl bears 5 or 6, the last 13 or 14 spiral I'idges ; the 
second one from the suture is very narrow ; the others are subequal, 
but become smaller beneath ; there are no lirulte intercalated 
between the ridges on the last whorl, as is usually the case in M. 
labio ; and the ridges are very conspicuously and regularly cut into 
oblong subquadrangular or lozenge-shaped grains by vertical impres- 
sions as deep as the inter-liral grooves ; the basal tooth of the col- 
umella is smaller and more acute than in typical M. labio. 

Alt. 16, diam. 15 ; alt. 20, diam. 18 mill. 

Singapore. 

Var. minor, or immanis of Fischer (1880) seems to be identical 
with confusa. 

Tapparone-Canefri's figure, copied on my jjlate, does not distinctly 
enough show the coarsely granose character of the \\rve. 

The figure 88 of plate 62 represents, according to Philippi an 
aberrant form of M. labio. 



5(5 MONODONTA. 

M, AUSTRALis Lamarck. PI. 62, figs. 84, 85. 

Shell similar to M. labio, but with rounder whorls, more marked 
sutures, the lirse lower, 7iot granulose, tessellated with black and 
grayish or greenish ; penultimate whorl subangulate by the prom- 
inence of its central rib ; columella much less strongly dentate than 
M. labio, and the notch or canal below it shallow ; basal plicre less 
develoj)ed than in M. labio. Alt. 25, diam. 22 mill. 

Seychelles ; Madagascar ; Cajic of Good Hope. 

M. australis Lam., An. sans Vert, vii, p. 35, no. 11 (1822). — M. 
viridis Lam., loc. cit. no. 13. — Trochus australis Philippi, Conchyl. 
Cab., p. 169, t. 27, f. 4, 5.— Fischer, Cog. Viv., p. 227, t. 74, f. 1, 2 
(not of Quoy et Gaimard). — T. melanochlorus Phil., Conchyl. Cab., 
p. 220, t. 33. f. 2. 

Var. VIRIDIS Lamarck. 

Shell dark green, unicolored or nearly so. This is the T. mel- 
anochlorus of Philippi. 

M. CANALiFERUS Lamarck. PI. 62, figs. 86, 87. 

Shell similar to the preceding, but with more convex, rounded 
whorls, upon the last of which the spiral lirre become more or less 
ol)solete ; the lirse are more distinct upon the upper whorls, and ai-e 
smooth, with narrow interstices ; the color is reddish, purplish or 
green, the lirje usually articulated with white, but sometimes 
unicolored ; the outer lip is more curved and more finely crenulate 
w^ithin than that of M. labio ; the columella is short, squarely den- 
tate at base, its edge more or less rugose, and separated from the col- 
umellar area by a deep narrow straight sulcus, extending from the 
place of the umbilicus to the notch at base of columella ; basal notch 
deep, divided by a small denticle in the middle. 

Alt. 21-24, diam. 18-20 mill. 

New Caledonia; Manilla; Neio Ireland. 

Monodonta canalifera Lam., An. sans Vert, vii, p. 55, no. 12 
(1822). — Trochus canaliferus Philippi, Conchyl Cab., p. 170, t. 27, 
f. 9, 10.— Quoy et Gaim. Voy. de I'Astrol. t. 64, f. 26-29.-Fischer, 
Coq. Viv., p. 225, t. 73, f 2, et var. atramentaria Fischer, t. 73, f 3. 
— T. parvus Troschel (in Mus. Berol.) Philippi, Conchyl. Cab., p. 
175, t. 27, f 15. 

M. labio has a somewhat similar sulcus parallel to the columella, 
but is very distinct in sculpture ; M. australis lacks the median tooth 
of the basal notch or canal and the sulcus upon the face of the col- 



MOlJODONTA, 89 

uniella is much more superficial than in ]M. caualifera. T. parvus 
Trosch. (pi, 34, fig. 27) seems to be identical. 

Var. ATRAMENTARiA Fisclicr. PI. 62, fig. 86. 

Blackish or blackish-green ; more distinctly spirally grooved than 
the type ; lip and columella green-bordered. 

M. DAMA Philippi. PI. 21, fig. 24 ; pi. 22, fig. 38. 

Shorter, more globose than ^I. labio ; nearly smooth ; whorls 
about 5 ; spire short, more or less elevated, the apex eroded ; follow- 
ing whorls convex ; sutures linear, impressed ; color cinereous, en- 
circled by spiral series of narrow purplish or brownish oblong mark- 
ings ; surface covered with minute narrow sj)iral ridges, scarcely 
elevated above the surface; body-whorl large, globose, a little flat- 
tend below the suture, then convex ; aperture large, oblique ; outer 
lip finely plicate within ; columella short, ending in a smooth, but 
slightly salient basal tooth ; middle of the columellar area ivith a deep 
curved groove from the jylace of the umbilicxis doivmvard, the groove 
extending upon the basal lip as a submarginal sulcus ; basal notch 
or canal not deep, nor dentate in the middle ; basal lip subplicate 
within. Alt. 20, diam. 20 mill. ; alt. 29, diam. 27 mill. 

Red Sea; Suez; Gulf of Akaho. 

Trochus damaVnii.., Zeitschr.f. 3IaL IS-iS, p. 105. Conchyl. Cab., 
p. 233, t. 35, f 6.— Fischer, Coq. Vlv., p. 360, t. Ill, f. 2. 

Distinguished by the fine, sometimes obsolescent surface sculpture, 
the narrow articulated color-pattern, and especially by the semilunar 
sulcus upon the center of the columellar tract, which does not 
terminate at the basal notch but is continued upon the lip as a more 
or less obvious groove. This sulcus is in an entirely different place 
from that of M. canalifera, which is short, parallel to the edge of the 
columella, and straight. 

M. VERMicuLATA Fischcr. PL 21, figs. 25, 26 ; pi. 62, fig. 64. 

Shell imperforate, so^id, thick, subglobose ; spire conoid, short ; 
whorls 4 to 5, the penultimate and last quite convex, the last 
descending, more or less concave just below the linear suture ; young 
shells obsoletely spirally lirate, the sculpture disappearing with age; 
coloration consistinff of numerous narrow red or orange zones alternat- 
ing with bands of light green articulated with black ; aperture 
oblique, round-ovate ; outer lip finely plicate within ; basal lip 
thickened, plicate ; columella short, terminating in an acute tooth ; 



90 



MONODONTA. 



middle of the columellar area tvitli a longitudinal semilunar groove, 
frequently irregularly curved ; basal notch or canal oblique, squar- 
ish, wider than deep, not denticulate in the middle. 

Alt. 23, diam. 2(3 mill. ; alt. 17, diam. 17 mill. 

Natal ; Ins. Socotra ; Mascat. 

T. vermiculatus Fischer, Journ. de Conch., 1874, p. 373, et Coq. 
Viv., p. 228, t. 74, f. 3. — T. australis (in part) Philippi, Conchy I. 
Cab., t. 27, f. 6, 7. 

This specie.s of which numerous specimens collected by Dr. 
KuscHENBERGER at Mascat, Aralna, are before me, is allied to M. 
australis and M. dama. From the former it is distinguished by the 
more depressed form, less numerous whorls, smooth surface almost 
without spiral ridges, the coloration, the more numerous finer grooves 
within the lip, and the smaller tooth of the columella. The color- 
ation is different from that of INI. dama, which is, however, a very 
closely allied species. 

There is great variation in color in this species. In some spec- 
imens red predominates ; in others green ; and often the general 
effect is an olive shade. There is usually a subsutural series of light 
and dark dashes. The numerous narroAV red spiral lines are char- 
acteristic, but are also found sometimes on M. canalifera, — a species 
separated constantly from this by its deep basal notch, denticulate 
in the middle. 

It is rather difficult to distinguish the species of this grou}) ; but 
attention to the differential characters pointed out under each, will 
enable one to see that although closely allied they are distinct. 

Section Austrochlea Fischer. 

Austrochlea Fischer, Manuel de Conchyl., 1885, p. 820. 
M. coNSTRiCTA Lamarck. PL 20, figs. 6, 7. 

Shell imperforate, thick, solid, lusterless ashen or whitish, obscurely 
marked with black zigzag lines and stripes, or with spiral articulated 
zones or with spiral stripes of black ; sometimes nearly unicolored ; 
spire conical, apex acute; whorls about 5, convex, the first eroded, 
the penultimate very strongly spirally tricostate, the last with about 
seven strong carime ; aperture oblique ; outer and basal lips either 
thick and multi-lirate within, or rather thin and slightly furrowed 
at the j)laces of the principal carinie ; columella short, oblique, sub- 
dentate at base, at the insertion spreading in a strong callous upon 
the parietal wall. Alt. 28-83, diam. 22-28 mill. 



MONODONTA. 91 

Australian Coasts, Port Jackson ; York Peninsula ; Tasmania ; 
£ass sts. 

M. constrida Lam. An. s. Vert, vii, p. 36. — T. constrictus Phil- 
ippi, Conchyl. Cab., p. 159, t. 26, f. 2b, 3. — QuoY et Gaim., Voy. 
de VAstrol. iii, p. 251, t. 63, f. 23, 24.— Fischer, Coq. Viv., p. 178, 
t. 59, f. 2, t. 60, f. 4. — Trochus cochlea Wood, Lid. Test, suppl., t. 5, 
f. 24. 

The present form may be distinguished from the following by the 
prominence of the spiral ridges, and their number — three on the 
penultimate, seven on the last whorl. The ridges ai-e sometimes 
less prominent upon old specimens. 

M. ZEBRA Menke. PI. 20, figs. 20. 

Shell imperforate, thick, solid, lusterless, whitish or covered with 
a thin greenish-yellow cuticle, conspicuously longitudinally striped 
ivith black or dull red, the stripes sometimes zigzag ; spire conic, 
acute ; whorls 6 to 7, convex, obliquely striated and spirally ridged, 
the ridges 4 or 5 in number on the jDenultimate, 8 to 12 on the last 
whorl, not so prominent as in M. constricta, and closer, especially 
upon the base ; aperture as in M. constricta ; outer lip lirate or 
smooth within ; columella bearing an inconspicuous blunt tubercle 
near the base. Alt. 34, diam. 25 ; alt. 25, diam. 22 mill. 

S. Australian Coasts; Tasmania. 

Monodonta zebra Menke, Verz. Malsb. Conch. Samml., p. 17 
{18 ). — Trochus zebra Philippi, Conchyl. Cab., p. 160, t. 26, f 4. 
—Fischer, Coq. Viv., p. 182, t. 60, f. 2 (not T. zebra Wood).— T. 
tceniatus Quoy et Gaim., Voy. de I' Astrolabe iii, p. 249, t. 69, f 15 
-17 (not T. tceniatus Wood). — Trochocochlea niulticarinata Chenu, 
Man. de Conchyl., ii, p. 360, f 2676. — Fischer, Coq. Viv., p. 184, t. 
60, f. 3. — T. constrictus Philippi (in part) Conchyl. Cab., t. 26, f 
2a.— Q. ET G. (in part) Voy. de UAstrol. t. 63, f. 26, 27.— T. 
obtusus "Chemn." Philippi, Canchyl. Cab., p. 19, t. 4, f 3, 4. 

This species may be separated from the preceding by the more 
numerous, less salient spiral ridges, and by the color pattern of dull 
red or black stripes alternating with white. The cuticle is usually 
rubbed off in adults, causing the underlying white to replace the 
yellow, and intense black the red, of fresh shells. The T. multicarin- 
utus of Chenu (pi. 20, fig. 12) differs in the much closer, narrower 
stripes ; but that it is the merest color-variety is proven by numerous 
intermediate specimens before me. 



92 



MONODONTA. 



Var. PORCATA A. Adams. PI. 20, figs. 10, 11. 

More elongated than the tyj^e, aperture less dilated, columellar 
tubercle obsolete. Alt. 15 mill. 

Labio porcatus A. Ad. P. Z. S. 1851, p. 179 (not Trochus j)orcatus 
Phil.).— r. extenuatus Fischer, Coq. Viv., p. 330, t. 103, f. 1. 

Specimens received from Dr. Cox seem to be scarcely distinct 
from the M. zebra. 

Section Osilinus Philippi. 

OsiUnus Phil. Zeitschr. £ Mai. 1847, p. 20; Handbuch der 
Conchyl. u. Malac. p. 210. — -Trochocochlea " Klein " H. and A. Ad. 
Gen. Rec. Moll, i, p. 425 (1858) ; and of Fischer, Tryon, Chenu, 
and most authors. — -Caragohis Monterosato Nom. gen. e spec, p. 
43 (1884). —Trochins Leach, in Gray, 1850.— ''Osilin" Adanson. 

After rejecting Klein's pre-Linntean name Trochocochlea (not 
properly defined until 1858), we find Osilinus Phil., the next in 
order. 

The section is restricted to the seas of Europe in distribution. 

M. turbinata Born. PL 21, figs. 21-23. 

Shell imperforate, conical, very solid and thick, whitish, tinged 
Avith gray, yellowish or greenish, tessellated with numerous spiral 
series of reddish, purple or chocolate subquadrangular blotches; 
spire more or less elevated, conoid, the apex eroded ; whorls about 6, 
slightly convex, with imjDressed spiral lines between the series of 
blotches, the last generally descending anteriorly ; base eroded in 
front of the aperture ; aperture very oblique ; outer lip beveled to 
an edge, thick, smooth, pearly and iridescent within; columella 
flattened on the face, bluntly lobed within, pearly, backed by an 
opaque white layer. 

Alt. 25-30, diam. 24-30 mill. ; alt. 36, diam. 30 mill. 

Mediterranean Sea, from the jEgean to Algiers and Spain; Portu- 
gal; Canaries. 

Trochus turbinatus Born., Test. Mus. Cces. Vindobon., p. 335, et 
T. tessulatus Born., I. c. p. 332, t. 12, f. 5, 6 (young shell) 1780.— 
T. tessellatus Gmel., Syst. Nat. xiii, p. 3583 (in part ; not T. tessel- 
latus Gmel., p. 3574). — Monodonta fragaroides'LiAUXUCK, An. sans^ 
Vert, vii, p. 36. — Hidalgo, Moluscos Marinos de Esjxma, etc., t. 61,. 
f. 2, t. 62, f 9-11.— r. Olivieri Payr., 3Ioll. de Corse p. 133, t. 6, f. 
15, 16. — T. turbinatus Philippi, Conchyl. Cab., p. 162, t. 26, f 7-11. 



MONODONTA. 93 

PisCHER, Coq. Viv., p. 201, t. 67, f. 6. — Deshayes, Ann. de Malacol. 
{France) i, p. 9, t. 1, f. 1. — BucQ., Dautzenb., et Dollfus, Moll. 
Mar. du Rousslllon, p. 402, t. 48, f. 6-11. — Caragolus turbinaius 
MoNTERosATO, Nom. Geu. e Spec, p. 43. 

The name T. tessulatus Born, was the first applied to this species ; 
but as Philippi, Fischer, and most modern authors have adopted the 
name turbinatus of Born, we had better not inquire too curiously 
into the question of absolute priority ; especially since tessellatus is a 
name that figures in the synonymy of the following species. 

A number of varieties are recognized by Messrs Bucquoy, Daut- 
zenberg and Dollfus ; the jn'incipal ones are var. globosa Requien, 
less elevated, more globose than the type ; var. elongata Requien, 
a slender form (pi. 21, fig. 21); var. zebra Wood, ornamented 
with longitudinal zigzag lines. 

Plate 21, fig. 28 is M. fragoroidus of Lamarck. 

M. ARTicuLATA Lamarck. PI. 21, figs. 33-36. 

Shell imperforate in the adult, generally perforate when immature, 
elongate-conical, heavy and thick ; color cinereous greenish or whit- 
ish, spirally traversed by bands comj^osed of alternating white 
and black purplish or red squarish spots, the intervals between the 
bands longitudinally closely lineolate with blackish ; spire elevated ; 
whorls about 6, the upper ones slightly convex, the last generally 
constricted and concave below the suture, then convex ; spiral im- 
pressed grooves or lines like those of M. turbiuata in the young, 
but generally obsolete in adult specimens ; aperture ps in M. 
turbinata, but smaller and less oblique. 
Alt. 25-30, diam. 21-24 mill. 

Mediterranean and Adriatic seas ; Portugal. 

M. articulata Lam. An. s. Vert., vii, p. 36 (1822). — T. articulatus 
Philippi Conchyl. Cab., p. 163, t. 26, f. 13-15.— Hidalgo, 3Iol. 
Mar. de Espana, etc., t. 61, f. 3, t. 62, f. 6-8. — Deshayes, Ann. de 
Malacol, i, 1870, p. 8, t. 1, f 2.— Fischer, Coq. Viv., p. 204, t. 68, 
f, 1, — BucQ., Dautz. et Dollfus, Moll. Mar. du Rousslllon, p. 404, 
t. 49, f. 1-7, 10. — T. tessellatus von Salis Marschlins, Reisen in 
Koen. Neapel, p. 374, t. 7, f. 7 (not tessellatus Gmel.). — Deshayes, 
Exped. sci. au Moree, p. 140. — M. draparnaudii Payr., Moll, de 
Corse, p. 131, t. 6, f. 17, 18. 

The form of this species is more elongated than the preceding, 
and the last whorl usually more concave above ; the coloration will 
.also separate the turbinata from this species ; for the former has no 



94 MONODONTA. 

markings upon the spaces between the blotches, while articulata is 
all over closely lineolate in zigzag pattern, and the spiral series of 
blotches are comparatively few and widely separated. Some speci- 
mens are conspicuously spirally grooved, some are quite smooth. 

M. MUTABiLis Philippi. PI. 30, figs. 20-22 ; pi. 20, figs. 13, 14. 

Shell globose-conoid, umbilicate or subimperforate, solid resem- 
bling a young ]M. articulata ; color usually grayish-yellow, yellow or 
flesh-tinted, more or less obviously marked with obliquely radiating 
lines or maculations of dull crimson, sometimes broken into tes- 
sellations, sometimes faintly, minutely articulated with reddish, 
appearing nearly unicolored ; spire short, conoid ; suture impressed ; 
whorls o to 6, slightly convex, spirally finely grooved, the last some- 
what flattened around the upper part ; aperture very oblique, large, 
the lip forming half of a circle, not so much thickened nor beveled 
within as in M. articulatus ; columella more flattened than that of 
M. articulatus, scarcely edged with 2)earl, the tooth or lobe less 
heavy, more acute than that species ; umbilical region always more 
excavated than M. articulatus, the umbilicus open, or nearl}' closed 
by the callous at the insertion of the columella. 

Alt. 16-18, diam. 17-19 mill. 

Mediterranean and Adriatic Seas. 

Trochus mutabilis Philippi, Conchyl. Cab., p. 166, t. 26, f 18-22 
(1846).— Fischer, Cog. Viv., p. 314, t. 99, f 2.— BucQ., Dautz. et 
DoLLFUS, 3Ion. Mar. du Rouss., p. 407, t. 49, f 11-14. — T. articu- 
latus var. Weinkauff, Conchyl. des Mittelmeeres, ii, p. 355. 

A species which exhibits a curious combination of the characters 
of M. articulatus and Gibbula richardi Payr. From the former it 
differs in the finer sculpture, lighter columella and more excavated 
umbilical tract; in the last character mutabilis approaches Gibbula 
richardi. The dentition of the latter species should be examined ; 
that of mutabilis, if correctly figured by Troschel (^Des Gebiss der 
Schnecken, ii, t. 22, f 14), is similar to the other species of Osilinus. 

M. CRASSA Montagu. PL 21, figs. 27-30. 

Shell imperforate, subperforate in the young, globose-conic, very 
thick and solid, dull grayish, densely marked all over wdth very 
numerous fine flexuous or zigzag anastomosing purplish-black lines ; 
spire conic ; whorls 6 to 7, convex, the apex usually eroded and 
orange-colored ; last whorl flattened around the superior portion ;: 
base eroded in front of the aperture; aperture oblique; columella 



MONODONTA. 95 

short, obtusely subdentate near the base, spreading at the insertion 
into a heavy callous, which covers the umbilicus. 
Alt. 25, diani. 23 ; alt 30, diam. 27 mill. 

Western Europe ; Portugal; Mogador ; British Is. 

Troehus crassus Pult., Cat. Dorset., p. 44. — Montagu, Test. Brit, 
i, p. 281 (1803).— Philippi, Conchyl Cab., p. 164, t. 26, f. 15, 16.— 
Forbes and Hanley, Hist. Brit. Moll, t. 65, f. 4, 5. — Fischek, Coq. 
Viv., p. 202, t. 67, f. 2.—Lineatus Da Costa, Brit. Conch., p. 100, 
t. 6, f. 7. — T. lineatus Jeffreys, Brit. Conch., iii, p. 317 ; v, t. 62, f. 
6.— Hidalgo, 3hl. Mar. de Esp., t. 61, f. 1, t. 62, f. 1-5.— B., D. et 
D., Moll, du Roussillon, t. 49, f. 8, 9. — Monodonta lugubris Lamarck^ 
An. s. Vert., vii, p. 37. 

I have not seen the Catalogue of Pulteney, which is quoted by 
Montagu for this species. The name lineatus of Da Costa, used by 
many authors, should be considered inadmissible on account of the 
failure of that author to use generic in combination with his sj)ecific 
names. 

This species is similar to M. turbinata in form, but usually has the 
outlines of the spire more convex. The culumella projection or 
tooth is nearer the base than in the turbinata, and the diverse color- 
patterns will serve to further distinguish the two species. 

M. TAMsi Dunker. PL 20, figs. 3, 4 ; pi. figs. 

Shell imperforate, conic, solid, spire conical, apical whorls eroded, 
the following dull cinereous or purplish-black, marked with several 
spiral rows of white spots, or with longitudinal zigzag white stripes, 
the base generally tessellated or striped with white ; whorls 5 to 6, 
the upper ones marked with spiral impressed lines in young speci- 
mens, and two carinre, the latter giving the last whorl a squarish 
form ; aperture oblique, the lip not much thickened within ; col- 
umella short, obsoletely subdentate at base, above at the insertion 
with a heavy white callous spread upon the base, invading the um- 
bilicus, and wholly closing it, or leaving only a narrow pit. 

Alt. 17-19, diam. 16 mill. ; alt. 23, diam. 19 mill. 

Cape Verde and Canary Is.; Coast of Guinea; Cape of Good 
Hope. 

Troehus tavisii Dunker, in Phlippi, Ahhild., i. p. 189, Troehus, 
t. 5, f. 3 (1845).— Philippi, Conchyl. Cab., p. 160, t. 26, f. 5.— 
Dunker, Ind. Moll. Gain., p. 16, t. 2, f. 40-42.— Fischer, Coq. 



"96 MONODONTA. 

Viv., p. 177, t. 59, f. l.— T. atratus Wood, Ind. Test, suppl., f. 25 
'(1828). (Not T. atratus Gniel.) 

The name of atratus Wood has priority iu Monodonta, ])ut lias 
Tiot been adopted by authors. 

Tliis species is quite variable in coloration, the white appearing 
either in oblique zigzags or in spots. The bicarinate whorls will 
separate it from the preceding species. The young are perforate. 

jVI. puxctulata Lamarck. PI. 20, figs. 8, 9. 

Shell imperforate, conical, solid, deep purplish-brown or blackish, 
■dotted with white, the dots sometimes forming spiral series, and al- 
ways elongated in the direction of the spiral ; surface nearly smooth, 
•sometimes showing traces of spiral grooves, which are always visible 
on the young ; spire conoid, apex generally eroded and orange- 
colored; whorls 6, convex, the last somewhat flattened or subconcave 
around the upper part, the base convex, eroded and white in front of 
the aperture ; aperture half-circular, the outer lip not much thick- 
ened, edged Avith black, beautifully iridescent within, with ame- 
thystine tints ; columella short, obtusely subdentate at the base, ex- 
panding above into a callous, which covers axis and umbilicus, or 
leaves a slight excavation or groove. Alt. 17, diam. 18 mill. 

Coasts of Senegal, W. Africa. 
• Monodonta jninctulata LiAM., An. s. Fer^., vii, p. 37. — T. jnmct- 
ulatus Philippi, Conchyl. Cab., p. 165, t. 26, f. 17. — Fischer, Coq. Viv., 
p. 176, t. 58, f 2. — Osilin AoAMSon, Voy. au Senegal, p. 178. — 
Monodonta o§ilin Deshayes in Lam. An. s. Vert. ed. 2, p. 182 (excl. 
syn.) 

A species resembling some forms of the preceding in the somber 
•coloration, but differing in the more iridescent interior (in which 
red is more conspicuous than green), the smaller dots of Avhite, and 
the rounded, not bicarinate body-whorl. 

Subgenus Diloma Philippi. 

Section Diloma Phil, (restricted). 

Diloma Phil., Abbild. etc., i, p. 168 (1845) ; Handbuch der 
Conchyl., u. Mai., p. 209.— H. and A. Ad., Gen. Rec. Moll., i, p. 419. 
— Fischer, Manuel, p. 820. — Tryon, Struct, and Syst. Conch., ii, 
p. 315. 

Diloma has been restricted by Fischer to the South American 
species. The only diagnostic character separating these from the 



MONODONTA. 97 

Australasian forms is the band of nacre extending across the ]iarietal 

wall, connecting the terminations of the peristome. The species are 

dark colored, like nearly all Trochida? of the Avest coast of the 

Americas. This melanism is i)rol)ably a protective adaptation, for 

the prevailing hne of the rocks of these shores is very dai'k. 

M. NIGERRIMA (Gmel.) Philippi. PL 23, figs. 77, 78 ; pi. 20, tig. 

18. 

Shell imperforate, depressed globose, solid, slate-colored or black, 
sometimes (especially if rubbed) reddish or brownish ; sj)ire short, 
conic, apex acute, usually reddish ; sutures linear ; whorls 5, slightly 
convex, rapidly increasing, spirally obsoletely striate, the last whorl 
usually depressed or subconcave below tlie suture; base rounded, 
eroded and iridescent in front of the aperture ; aperture huge, 
oblique iridescent ; the outer lip rather thin, not black-margined 
within ; but bordered by a brilliantly iridescent band ; columella 
concave, obsoletely subdentate below, very broad and flattened or 
excavated on the face, composed principally of an opaque white 
layer which also lines the base but does not extend to the edge of the 
lip. Alt. 15-26, diam. 17-24 mill 

Coast of Chili. 

Turbo nigerrimua Gmel., Syd. Nat., xiii, p. 3597 (not Trochus 
nigerrimus Gmel., a species of Chlorostoma). — Trochus )iigerrinms 
Philippi, Conchyl. Cab., p. 149, t. 24, f 14. — Trochus araucanus 
D'Orbigny, Voy. dans VAmcr. merid., p. 410, t. 55, £ 5-8 (1846). — 
Gould, U. S. E.vpL Exped., 1. 13, f 215. — Fischer, Coq. Viv. (Turbo), 
p. 110, t. 29, f 2. — Turbo Quoyi Kiener, Spec, et Icon. (Turbo), t. 
29, f 2. (Not Trochus Quoyi Phil.) 

The above description is drawn from specimens brought by Dr. 
Ruschenberger from Valparaiso, the original locality. The sur- 
face is either black and shining, or presents a corroded appearance. 
The spiral sculpture is obsolete on the last whorl, in large specimens, 
but traces of it may usually be seen upon the base. I do not think 
this species has been found except upon the S. American coast, 
although Professor Hutton and others quote it from New Zealand. 
The dentition of the New Zealand form is quite different from that 
of the real S. American M. nigerrima. While there may be some 
slight doubt about the identity of this species with the T. nigerrimus 
of Gmelin, it is undoubtedly the shell described under that name by 
Philippi. Turbo Quoyi Kn. and T. araucanus d'Orb., are certainly 
the same ; and it is equally certain that the Diloma nigerrima of 



98 MONODONTA. 

Hutton and others is a distinct species. A notable character of this 
species is the band of iridescent nacre which connects the termina- 
tions of the peristome, extending across the parietal wall. 

M. CRUSOEANA Pilsbry. PI. 35, figs. 19-21. 

Shell similar in form to M. nigerrima or somewhat more depressed ; 
the color, columella and parietal wall as in M. nigerrima ; Outside 
closely conspicKously spirally Urate, the sutures bordered below by a 
depression or groove ; outer lip acute, thin, very narrowly black- 
edged, bordered within by a broad band of very thin white sub- 
stance, which overlies the nacre ; parietal wall with a band of nacre 
connecting the ends of the peristome, but obscured by the same thin 
opaque layer; fauces brilliantly iridescent ; lip lirate within ; upper 
angle of the aperture narrowly channeled ; ribs of the outer surface 
about 8 in number on the penultimate, 20 (more or less) on the 
last whorl. Alt. 15, diam. 17 mill. 

Ins. Jtum Fernandez ; Coqniiiibo, Chili. 
Two travs of this well-marked form are before me. It is need- 
less to compare with the Australo-Zealandic species, for the band of 
nacre across the parieto-cohunellar region, connecting the termina- 
tions of the peristome, at once separates our species from these, and 
allies it to M. nigerrima, the only other form exhibiting this char- 
acter. From M. nigerrima it is separated by the much stronger 
liration of the entire surface, and the canaliculation of the sutures. 

Section Neodiloma Fischer,- 1885. 

Neodiloma Fischer, ]Manuel de Conchyliologie, p. 820. 

Differs from typical Diloma principally in its Australasian dis- 
tribution. The dentition also differs somewhat from Diloma. (PI. 
50, fig. 12, Neodiloma cethiops Gmel.) 

M. .ETHiOPS Gmelin. PL 19, figs. 99, 100 ; pi. 20, fig. 19. 

« 

Shell imperforate, globose-conoid, solid, thick, blackish, encircled 
by series of narrow white marks, formed by the interruption of nu- 
merous longitudinal white lines by narrow spiral black stripes ; spire 
conic, whorls 5, convex, the first eroded, spirally sulcate, the last 
marked by narrow, separated spiral grooves, the cuticle lamellose- 
striate ; base convex, eroded and subconcave in front of the aperture ; 
aperture large, oblique, expanded ; outer lip black-edged, then thick- 
ened with opacpie white ; columella short, obtusely bidentate, the 



MONODONTA. 99 

iimbilieal tract very broad, subconcave, bounded on the outer lower 
margin by a chocolate streak. Alt. 25-33, diara. 25-30 mill 

X'tv Zealand. 
T. cethiops Gmel., Syst. Nat., xiii, p. 3596. — Philippi, Conchyl. 
Cab., p. 147, t. 24, f. 10, 11.— Fischer, Coq. Viv., p. 185, t. 61, f, 1. 
— T. zelandieus Quoy et Gaim., Voy. <h l' Astro!., iii, p. 257, t. 64, 
f. 12-15.— r. reficularis Grj^y, DiefTenb. N. Z. ii, p. 238.— /nr?. Test. 
suppL, t. 5, f. 21. 

Easily recognized l)y the distant narrow spiral black grooves, the 
intervening tracts flat, black, articulated with white. 

M. STRioLATA Quoy et Gaimard. PI. 19, figs. 97, 98. 

Shell imperforate, globose-conic, generally rather depressed, very 
thick and solid, yellow and black, tessellated or longitudinally 
striped, sometimes the black, sometimes the yellow predominating ; 
spire very short conic, apex usually perfect and acute, often ruddy ; 
Avhorls 5, slightly convex, very rapidly increasing, spirally strongly 
costate, the ridges 13 or 14 in number on the last whorl ; body- 
whorl slightly descending at the aperture, not eroded on the base ; 
aperture large, oblique ; outer lip margined within with yellow 
and black, follovved by a nacreous and then by an opaque white 
thickening which more or less contracts the aperture and which is 
more or less notched at about the place of the periphery ; columella 
Avhite, nuich narrower than in M. ?ethiops, bidenticulate below. 

Alt. 20-22, diam. 23-25 mill. 

S. Anstra/ian and Tasmanian Coasts. 

T. strlolatus Q ET G., Voy. de C Astrolabe, iii, p. 253, t. 63, f. 18- 
22. — Philippi, Conchyl. Cab., p. 158, t. 26, f. 1. — Fischer, Coq. 
Viv., p. 187, t. 61, f. 3. — T. concameratus Wood, Ind. Tes^. suppl., t. 
6, f. 35 (no desc). — T. viridis Wood, Tnd. Test, suppl., t. 6, f. 36 
(not T. viridis Gmel.). — Labio fuligineus A. Ad., P. Z. S., 1851, p. 
180.— T.fidigineus Watson, Challenger Moll, p. 67, t. 4, f 11.—? T. 
zebrinus Phil, Conchyl. Cab., p. 161, t. 26, f. 6. 

The more prominent characters of this species are the strong spiral 
ribs and the thick outer layer of yellow and purplish-black, or of 
black veined with yellow, which usually assumes a tessellated 
■pattern. Sometimes, however, the black predominates to the almost 
entire exclusion of yellow, and specimens also occur in wdiich the 
black is scarcely visible on the surface. Both of the names given in 



100 MONODONTA. 

the Index Testaceologicus are anterior to that of Quoy and Gaini., 
but being unaccompanied by descriptions have not been adopted, 
Watson's figures of the undoubtedly synonymous T, faliguieus are 
given on my pi. 19, figs. 1, 2. 

M. LUGUBRis Gmelin. PI. 19, fig. 93 ; pi. 35, figs. 24, 25. 

Shell imperforate, depressed conic, solid, thick, blackish, dotted 
vipon the ribs with yellow or white ; spire conic, more or less depressed, 
apex acute ; whorls 5, spirally strongly ridged, the ridges nodulous, 

3 on the penultimate whorl, interstices spirally striate ; last Avhorl 
depressed, angulate at the periphery, concentrically lirate below, the 
lirfe coarsely granulose, about 5 in number; aperture very oblique, 
the outer lip edged with blackish, then nacreous, and lined with 
opaque white, the thickening slightly notched at the place of the 
periphery ; columella oblique, nearly straight, flat, opaque white, 
backed by nacreous. Alt. 9, diam. 13; alt. 13, diam. 15 mill. 

Netu Zealand. 
Trochus Ixgubris Gmel., Syst. Nat, xiii, p. 3583. — Fischer, Coq. 
Viv., p. 189, t. G2, f. 1. — T. fingulatus Quoy et Gaim. Votj. de 
VAstroL, t. 64, f 16-20 (not T. dngulatus ^rocc\\\\\ov Menke). — T. 
gaimardi Philippi, Conchyl. Cab., p. 211, t. 31, f. 7-9. — Diloma 
gaimardi Hutton, Manual N. Z. Moll, p. 96. — T. bernardi Recluz, 
Journ. de Conch., 1852, p. 166, t. 7, f 5. — T. sulcahis Wood, Ind. 
Ted. snppl., t. 6, f. 40 (not T. sulcatus Martyn nor Lam.). — 21 
bieanaliculatus Dunker, Philippi, Conchyl Cab., p. 202, t. 30, f. 6. 

A small species, sufficiently distinct from all others in its cari- 
nated, ridged, granulose whorls. It is more nearly allied to M. strio- 
lata than to any other species. The sculpture is quite variable. T. 
bicanaUcnlatus Dunker (pi. 35, fig. 12, 13) seems to be synonymous. 
It is placed here by Fischer. 

M. LEPROSus Philippi. Pi, 34, figs. 23, 

Shell depressed conoidal, umbilicate, solid, blackish-brown, sculjjt- 
ured with 4 to 6 granose cinguli ; whorls rapidly increasing, the last 
rounded; base ornamented with 5 elevated rather smooth cinguli; 
aperture subcircular inside ; columella with denticles on its lower 
outer part, above impinging over the umbilical tract. {Phil.) 

The shell is very thick, depressed-conoidal. The 4]-5 whorls 
widen very rapidly ; the last is rounded. The sculpture consists of 

4 to 6 elevated warty or granose spiral cinguli upon the upper sur- 
face, and 5 pretty smooth lirre beneath; the interstices are smooth. 



MONODONTA. 101 

sometimes traversed by an elevated line. The umbilicus is pretty 
narrow, almost circular, bounded by an obtuse angulation. The 
aperture is circular inside and appears narrow because the shell is 
very thick ; the throat is completely smooth ; the columella is arcuate 
at base, separated by a notch from the outer lip, and with two or 
three denticles there, above continued in a lobe which partly sur- 
rounds the umbilicus. The color is blackish-brown, the decorticated 
apex reddish-brown. 

Oblique alt. 9, diam. 12 mill. (PhlUpjn.) 

Habitat unknoivn. 

From T. scabriculus v. d. Busch, this species is separated by the 
thick shell, rapidly widening whorls, the rounded, not angular periph- 
ery, etc. (Phil.) 

T. leprosus Phil., Zeitschr. f. Mai, 1851 ; Conchyl. Cab., p. 828, t. 
46, f. 13. 

Ma}' be a young shell. Known to me only by Philippi's descrip- 
tion translated above. 

M. RADULA (Parreyss) Philippi. PI. 22, figs. 51, 52. 

Shell globose-conic, imperforate, small, thick and solid, lilackish, 
unicolored ; spire elevated or rather depressed, conical ; apex acute, 
flesh colored ; whorls 5, slightly convex ; spirally encircled by 
regularly granose subequal lirse, about 6 in number on the penul- 
timate, 11 to 13 on the last whorl ; body-whorl globose, convex be- 
low, periphery rounded ; aperture rounded ; outer lijj slightly 
crenated by the spiral ribs, dark-margined, beveled to an edge, 
thickened by a heavy white rim inside, which is slightly notched at 
the periphery, but elsewhere is smooth ; columella oblique, straight- 
ened, not obviously dentate. 

Alt. 7, diam. 6 ; alt. 5^, diam. 62 mill. 

Sancluich {?) and Fiji Is. 

Trochu--^ radula Parr, in Philippi, Zeitschr. f. Mai., 1848, p. 124. 
— Conchyl. Cab., p. 204, t. 30, f 9.— Fischer, Coq. Viv., p. 278. t. 
91, f 3. ' 

Allied to M. lugubris, but perfectly distinct in the small globose, 
evenly gi'anulose character of the shell. Numerous specimens are 
before me from the Fiji Is., from J. W. Mighels. 

M. suBROSTRATA Gray. PI. 19, figs. 89, 90. 

Shell conical, suborbicular, solid, black, with close wavy longitu- 
dinal yellow lines ; spire short ; w^iorls 5, last large, rounded, hinder 



102 ' MONODONTA. 

part with three to six spiral keels; axis imperforated; throat 
smooth and silvery. {J. E. Gray.) 

E. Coast New Zealand. 

M. subrostrata Gray, in Yate's Account of New Zealand, etc., 
(1835).— Smith, Voy. Erebus and Terror, Moil., p. 4, t. 1, f. 14.— 
HuTTON, Manual N. Z. Moll., p. 96; Trans. N. Z. Inst., xv, t. 15, f. 
G.; Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, 1884, p. 367. 

The figures are from Smith. I have not seen this species. Hut- 
ton's description of it is as follows : Shell with subnodulose spiral 
ribs which are distant on the upper surface and closer on the base ; 
yellowish, with undulating longitudinal purple lines ; mouth yellow, 
more or less marked with purple. 

M. MORio Troschel. PI. 35, figs. 26, 27. 

Shell semiglobose, imperforate, thin, obsol'etely transversely sulcate, 
black, with irregularly scattered white dots ; aperture subtetragonal ; 
columella very oblique, nodulous, continued in a porcellanous band 
parallel to the lip ; lip acute, within blackish-green. Nearly allied 
to T. pethiops, but more depressed, with more numerous, less dis- 
tinct transverse stripe, often wanting above ; the white dots ir- 
regularly scattered upon the greenish-black ground. 
Oblique alt. 10, diam. 14 mill. (Phillppi.) 

Habit(d unknown. 
T. morio Troschel in Philippi, Conchyl. Cab., p. 142, t. 24, f. 
3. 

Known to me only by Philippi's description and figures. It is 
probably the same as Watson's T. porcifer, and if so has i)riority. 

M. PORCiFERA Watson. PL 22, figs. 53, 54. 

Shell depressed globose, imperforate, spirally superficially lirate, 
black, very sparcely dotted with white ; spire short and much de- 
pressed, or slightly elevated ; apex acute ; suture linear, margined 
below ; whorls about 5, very rapidly widening, the last very large, 
depressed, the base with a small eroded patch in front of the aper- 
ture ; aperture very large, very oblique, the outer lip not thickened 
within, margined Avith black, nacreous and iridescent, smooth, but 
showing very distinct entering folds in the texture of the nacre, 
corresponding to the lir?e of the outer surface ; columella oblique, 
sub-straightened, but not really dentate, quite broad and flat or 
subconcave, composed of white, opacpie substance, expanded above 
upon the parietal wall but not extending to the superior lip, nor 



MONODONTA. 103 

bordered anteriorly by a nacreous strip uniting with that of the 
upper lip, as in the case in JNI. nigerrima ; place of the umbilicus 
marked by a slight pit ; opaque substance of the columella extend- 
ing upon the base of the aperture, forming a strong ledge within. 
Alt. 12, diara. 15; alt. 10, diam. 13^ mill. 

Xeiv Zealand. 

? Labio porcijera A. Ad. P. Z. S., 1851, p. 179. — Trochm porcij'er 

Watson, Challenger Moll., p. 67, t. 4, f. 12.— Diloma nigerrima 

HuTTON, Manual N. Z. Moll., p. 96; and Trans. N. Z. Institute, xv, 

p. 125, t. 15, f. B. (Dentition.) (Not T. nigerrima (Gni.) Phil.) 

The present species has been confounded by most authors with the 
Chilian M. nigerrima. From that form it may be readily distin- 
guished by the following characters : The spiral lirae are much 
coarser and generally more conspicuous, although occasionally 
obsolete on the last whorl ; they number 15 to 18 on tiie body-whorl ; 
the form is more depressed ; the spiral undulations of the nacre 
within the outer lip much more obvious and coarser ; the columella 
less concave ; the parietal wall without the nacreous band which 
connects the terminations of the lip in jNI. nigerrima, and upon care- 
ful inspection a few white or yellowish dots may be detected upon the 
black surface, especially on the base, thus showing the affinities of the 
species to be with M. striolata and M. ^ethiops rather than w'ith M. 
nigerrima. The surface is rather smooth and polished, with light 
growth-lines. 

The animal is black ; head with a transverse band of yellow near 
the front margin ; rostrum margined with white ; tentacles long and 
tapering, longitudinally striped with black and yellowish ; filaments 
blue-black, three on a side, sonietimes a fourth on the left side ; foot 
white, closely and finely marbled with blue-black, and broadly 
margined with yellow veined with black. Its movements are said 
by Hutton, from whom I have taken the above descri[)tion of the 
animal, to be very rai)id, quite different from the other species of 
Neodiloma. 

M. coRACiNA (Troschel) Philippi. PI. 19, fig. 94; pi. 31, fig. 28. 
Shell small, imperforate, orbicular-conoid, depressed, solid, luster- 
less purplish-black, unicolored, or sparcely dotted (especially 
beneath) with yellowish ; spire conic, short, eroded, whitish ; suture 
scarcely impressed ; whorls 4-5, slightly convex, the last large, 
spirally lirate, the line more or less obsolete, about 5 to 8 on the 



104 MONODONTA. 

penultimate, 10-15 on the la^t whorl ; body-whorl depressed, obtusely 
angulate around the peri2:)hery, eroded in front of the aperture ; 
aperture very oblique ; outer lip acute, not thickened inside, black 
edged, within pearly, iridescent, the nacre smooth Init showing fine 
folds like lira within ; columella very oblique, arcuate, extending 
upon the basal lip ; columellar area rather wide, concave. 
Alt. 6-9, diam. 8J-10 mill. 

New Zealand ; Cook's Sts. 

T. coracimis Troschel in Philippi, Conchyl. Cab., p. 148, t. 24, 
f. 13.— Fischer, Coq. Viv., p. 357, t. 110, f. 6. 

Allied to M. porcifer ; but differing in the smaller size, more 
depressed body-whorl, angulate periphery and more conic shape. 
I have copied the locality given above from Fischer, as the spec- 
imens before me are without data. Hutton does not mention the 
species in his Catalogue of X. Z. Mollusca. 

M. MELANOLOMA Meuke. PL 22, figs. 56, 57. 

Shell imperforate, globose-conical, solid, surface dull, roughened, 
corroded, dark purplish, overlaid b}^ a more or less eroded yellowish 
white layer, coarsely obsoletely sublirate ; spire conic, apex eroded ; 
whorls about 5, the last globose, not eroded in front of the aperture; 
aperture oblique, nacreous and ap2:)arently smooth within ; outer lip 
bordered by a narrow yellow or Avliite followed by a black strip ; 
columella short, oblique, sub-straightened, white, dilated upon the 
parietal wall but not extending to the upper lip, slightly pitted at 
the place of the umbilicus, subconcave. 

Alt. 15, diam. 16 mill. 

Ne■^v Zealand. 

Monodonfa melauoloma yiE^KE, Moll. Nov. Hall., p. 14 (1843). — 
Philippi, Conchyl. Cab., p. 146, t. 24, f 9. — Labio corrosa A. Adams, 
P. Z. S. 1851, p. 180. — Diloma corrosa, liuTToy , Manual N. Z. Moll., 
p. 96. — D. hectori Hutton, Cat. Mar. Moll. N. Z., p. 37. — Irocho- 
cochlea chloro})odaTATE, Zool. and Pal. Misc., p. 10 (Teste Hutton). 
— Monodonta melaloma Hutton, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, 
1884, p. 366. 

I follow Hutton in referring this form to INIenke's M. nielanoloma, 
although I am not absolutely sure that such reference is correct. 

This species may be known by the corroded, dull appearance and 
by the margin of yellow within the lip ; the columella is like that of 
M. porcifer, but not so broad. ]\Iy description and figures ai-e from 



MONODO>"TA. 105 

specimens received from Professor Hutton, who considers it doubt- 
fully distinct from M. undulosa Ad. The animal is like that species. 

Var. PLUMBEA Hutton. PL 20, figs. 15-17. 

Shell globose-conic, imperforate, solid, dull purplish, the spire 
eroded, white, the base usually somewhat eroded, bluish ; spire conic, 
acute ; whorls 4-5, the last obsoletely coarsely lirate ; aperture as in 
M. melanoloma, but outer lip margined within only by black ; colu- 
mella as in M. melauoloma, but bordered outside by black. 

Ak. 14J, diam. 16 mill 

Neto Zealand. 

Dilomaplumbea HuTTO-^, Trans. N. Z. Institute, xv, p. 126 (1883). 

Animal, according to Hutton, like M. athiops, the foot being 
margined with a band of black and white transverse stripes. Denti- 
tion ; central teeth as in M. corrosa ; cutting points of laterals dentic- 
ulated on both sides ; cutting points of inner marginals denticulated 
on outer edges only ; those of outer marginals on both edges. Shell 
like M. corrosa, but lacking the marginal yellow stripe within the 
lip. The specimens described and figured were received from Profes- 
sor Hutton. 

Var. UNDULOSA A. Adams. PI. 22, figs. 45-47. 

Yellowish, with longitudinal undulating lines of dark purple, or 
altogether purple ; mouth yellow, articulated with purplish-black. 
■{Hutto7i.) 

Banks Peninsula to Dunedin, N. Z. 

Chlorostoma undidosum A. Ad., P. Z. S. 1851, p. 182.— E. A. 
Smith, ZooL Erebus and Terror, MoUusca, p. 4, t. 1, f 15 (1874). — 
Diloma undulosa Hutton, Manual N. Z. Moll, p. 96 (1880).— T. 
attritus Hombr. et Jacq., Voy. au Pole Snd., p. 57, t. 14, f. 19-20 
(1853).— Fischer, Coq. Viv., p. 186, t. 61, f 2. 

Var. guttata Hutton. 

Dark purple, usually spotted with white; mouth black; columellar 
lip greenish at base; interior highly iridescent, markedly grooved. 

This variety looks like a hybrid between ]M. nigerrima []M. })orci- 

fer I] and M. melanoloma. (Hutton.) 

Xelson, y. Z. 

M. CARBONARiA Philippi. PL 34, fig. 30. 

Shell elevated-conoidal, imperforate, solid, smooth, black ; whorls 
slightly convex, the last rounded ; aperture rhombic-rounded, 



106 MONODONTA. 

triangulate ; columella oblique, suhtruncate and binodulose at base ; 
lip acute, wide, with a porcellanous greenish margin, edged with 
black, inside of which it is silvery, pearly, throat porcellanous, 
subsulcate. (Phil.) 

The shell is rather thick ; the whorls are slightly convex, the 
upi^erones eroded, grayish-white, the last impressed at the suture, 
rounded beneath. The columella is round, oblique, and makes a 
distinct angle with the preceding whorl ; below it is truncated, and 
has two little tubercles ; the upper angle of the aperture is rounded,, 
not channeled, even if distinctly angular. The place of the inner 
lip is absorbed, smoothed (forming a negative inner lip). In the 
umbilical region there is a porcellanous, slightly callous deposit. 
Alt. 34, dlam. 31 mill. (PhilippL) 

King George's Sound, S. Australicu 

Can this T. carbonarius be only an adult specimen of T. diloma 
Menke? The latter is distinguished by (1) its smaller size, (2) the 
entirely black margin of the outer Yip, (3) a distinct furrow at the 
upper angle of the aperture, (4) the much less conspicuous angle the 
columella makes with the upper whorl, (5) in lacking truncation and 
denticles at the base of the columella. (Pltilippi.) 

T. carbonarius Phil. Zeitschr.f. Mai, 1848, p. 105 ; Conchyl. Cab.y 
p. 276, t. 40, f. 9. 

Known to me only by the above description and figure. (Compare 
Chlorostoma fiinebrale.) 

M. NERiTOiDES Philippi. PI. 34, figs. 20-22. 

Shell semiglobose, very oblique, im})erforate, smooth, black, painted 
with numerous white zigzag lines; whorls rapidly widening; spire 
retuse ; aperture semiovate; lip thin, duplicated and coarsely crenate; 
columella tlat, grooved by a parallel sulcus, terminating in an acute 
tooth below. (Phil.) 

The shell is ver}'^ similar to a Nerita on account of its semiglobose 
form, very obtuse spire, flat base and rapidly widening w^horls. I 
count 5 volutions ; the uppermost are flat, and spirally striate ; the 
penultimate convex, the last completely smooth, obliquely descending, 
flatly depressed above, almost concave. The aperture is almost 
exactly like that of T. canaliferus. The outer lip is on its outer part, 
inside the edge lined with mother-of-])earl, visibly farrow^ed ; on this 
part borders a white porcellanous coat, underneath standing out like 
a rib, on the base cut by two furrows ; the throat is nacreous all 
around. The columella is compressed, flat, arcuate, produced into a 



3IONODONTA. 



107 



sharp tootli below, and outwardly with a furrow parallel with its free 
margin. The color is black, with narrow white dense zig-zag curved 
streaks. The spire is pure black. Oblique alt. 13, diam. 15 mill. 

There are forms with more elevated whorls, departing a little from 
the usual form. (Philijrpi.) 

Habitat unknown. 

T. neritoides Phil., Zeitschr. f. Mai., 1849, p. 170.— Conchy!. Cab., 
p. 303, t. 44, f. 4. 

This form may be the some as that I have described below as M. 
perplexa. It is said to be very blunt in the spire, and differently 
colored. 

M. PERPLEXA Pilsbry. PL 35, figs. 6-8. 

Shell depressed-conoid, imperforate, oblique, light green, radiately 
Hamulate above with wide zigzag dark green stripes, more narrowly 
striped beh)w, encircled about the middle with a well-defined lighter 
zone ; the entire surface polished, and viarked ivith numerous 
slightly impressed light-colored spiral lines ; spire vei'v short, conic, 
acute ; sutures more impressed than usual in this group ; whorls 5, 
qidte convex, the upper ones ruddy or purplish, the last very large,, 
slightly compressed just below the suture, gently descending an- 
teriorly ; aperture very large, very oblique ; outer lip thm, acute, 
pearly, iridescent, VLwd, apparently Urate within; columella extremely 
oblique, its inner edge concave, distinctly toothed or hooked below, 
bearing a shallow groove parallel with the edge, from the place of 
the umbilicus downward ; columellar area very wide, white. 

Alt. 81, diam. 10 mill. 

Japan. 

This form is very oblique, like M. constellata. From that species 
it differs in the characters italicized in the al)ove description. There 
is a distinct ledge within the base, as in M. nigei-rima, ]M. ])orcifera 
etc. The notch at the base of the columella is more decided than 
in any other species of Neodiloma, and raises a doubt concerning the 
true position of the species. The specimens before me were received 
from the Smithsonian Institution. Compare preceding species. 

M. GUTTATA Koch. PL 34, figs. 16, 17. 

Shell small, narrowly umbilicate, depressed conical, very smooth, 
upper surface with distant impressed lines, black, subtesseUated 
with scattered white spots ; aperture rhomboidal, patulous ; um- 



108 MONODONTA. 

l)ilicus narrow ; columella arcuate, terminating at base in an obtuse 
denticle. {Phih'ppi.) 

i he shell is much depressed, with 5i rapidly widening whorls, 
which are above flat, the rest convex ; the last is slightly angled, 
and has above eight ecjually widely spaced impressed spiral lines, 
which do not modify the smoothness of the surfoce. The base also 
has a pair of impressed lines ; the umbilicus is narrow, the columella 
arcuate, with a blunt denticle below. The color is black above, 
brown beneath, both sides guttate with yellowish-white spots ar- 
ranged in rows. Alt. 3, diam. 5 mill. (P/iUlppi.) 

Habitat luihiown. 
T. gattatns Koch, Zeitschr. f. Mai, 1846, p. 104.— Philippi, 
Conchy I. Cab., p. 178, t. 28, f. 4. 

Philippi's description, remarks and figures are copied. 
M. STURNus Miihlfeld. PI. 34, figs. 18, 19. 

Shell imperforate, convexo-orbicular, black, ornamented with 
white-spotted slightly elevated transverse lines ; columella very 
oblique, continued upon the base in a lobe parallel with the lip. 
(Phil.) 

I have seen two examples of this species, in the x4nton collection. 
The shell is pretty depressed, and seems to consist of only 4 whorls; 
these are so flat, and sei)arated by such slightly impressed sutures 
that one has difficulty in distinguishing them. It is hard to count 
the elevated transverse lines, they are so inconsjncuous. The aper- 
ture is large, rounded-quadrangular ; the inner lip is, as Miihlfeld 
correctly says, concave, or rather, surrounded by a little trench, and 
the basal lip is continued ])arallel beyond it. The columella is very 
oblique, conipres>-:ed, its edge rounded, not acute, and it is continued 
upon the base in a callous lobe parallel with the outer lip, which has 
8 to 10 furrows inside, corresponding to the lirpe of the outer surface. 
The color is black, usually with yellow dots on the spiral line. 
Alt. 4j, diam. nearly 8 mill. (PhUippL) 

' T. sturims Muhlf. Mag. Berl. Gesell. nat. Freuiide. viii, p. 8, t. 
2, f. 12.— Philippi, Conchyl. Cab., p. 2(59, t. 39, f. 14. 

Probably a young shell of one of the New Zealand or Australian 
species. It cannot be from the Antilles, as Miihlfeld supposed. 

M. coNSTELLATA Souverbic. PI. 35, figs. 9, 10 ; pi. 62, figs. 69-71. 

Shell imperforate, orbrculate-conic, slightly elevated, oblique, the 

base very wide, longitudinally very obliquely subtly striate, and 



MONODONTA. 109 

marked with a few spiral subimpressed lines w'hich are sometimes 
obsolete, leaving the surface smooth ; color plumbeous aslien, often 
with a pink tinge, speckled closely with white dots, and encircled 
W'ith two dark bands which are articulated with larger spots of white ; 
sutures impressed ; whorls 5, subconvex, the last forming the greater 
portion of the shell, compressed, obtusely angulated, dej^ressed below 
the suture, the surface of the base almost entirely occupied liy tlie 
parieto-columellar area ; aperture very oblique, pearly, iridescent 
inside ; outer lip acute, thin, continued on the base in an angle which 
bounds the columellar area ; columella subhorizontal, thin, very wide,, 
subconcave, white, bounded by a narrow brown streak outside. 

Alt. 9, diam. 10 mill. 

Neio Caledonian Archipelago, 

T. constellatus Souverbie, Jouni. cle Conch., 1863, p. 279, t. 12, f. 
3.— Fisher, Coq. Viv., p. 271, t. 90, f 1. 

A very depressed, almost Trochita-shaped species. There is con- 
siderable variation in the color-pattern. Unlike most of the preced- 
ing species, the base is not lined with a white thickened continuation 
of the columella. 

M. EXCAVATA Adams et Angas. PL 35, figs. 1, 2, 3, 

Shell small, imperforate, depressed-conic, oblique, light green, 
closely maculated and mottled in minute pattern with dark olive, the 
markings sometimes assuming the form of obliquely descending dark 
bars; spire conoidal, the apex eroded, whitish; the penultimate 
whoi-1 quite convex, ruddy or purplish ; suture well impressed ; 
whorls 4, the last conic above, flattened beneath, carinate at the 
periphery; almost the entire surface of the base occupied by the 
large, very oblique aperture ; outer lip acute, arcuate, not thickened 
witliin, inside brilliantly iridescent, smooth or nearly so; columella 
subhorizontal, its edge arcuate, thin, acute, extending below ujwn 
the base, forming a ledge within the basal lip ; parieto-columellar 
area very large, eroded, concave, white. Alt. 5, diam. 6 mill. 

Xew Zealand. 
Trochocochlea excavata Ad. and Ang., P. Z. S., 1864, p. 37. — 
HuTTON, Manual N. Z. Moll., p. 97. 

A species allied to M. qonstellata, but smaller, lacking dark spiral 
bands, more angular at the periphery, more concave beneath, and 
with the columella prolonged in a distinct ledge within the basal lip. 
To M. perplexa it is also related ; but is smaller, more angulated. 



110 MONODONTA. 

more concave beneath, and doe^ not possess the peculiar notch at the 
base of the columeHa characteristic of that form. 

M. ATRoviRENs Philippi. PL 22, figs. 48-50. 

Shell imperforate, orbiculate-conoidal, depressed ; whorls 6, sep- 
arated by impressed sutures, slightly convex, greenish-black, shining, 
spirally sulcate, the sulci about 5 on the penultimate whorl ; last 
whorl much dilated, slightly depressed above, rounded in the middle, 
very obliquely striate, obsoletely transversely sulcate, slightly convex 
beneath ; aperture subrhomboidal, lirate within ; lip acute, green ; 
basal margin thickened within ; columella compressed, white, arcuate ; 
columellar callous broadly expanded, subdepressed at the place of 
the umbilicus. Alt. 9, diam. 14 mill. (Fischer.) 

Bay of Tasmania ; Ne^v Zealand. 

Trochus atrovirens Phil. Conclujl. Cab., p. 148, t. 24, f 12. — 
Fischer Cog. Viv., p. 373, t. 114, f. 1. 

Tsot noted by Hutton. Reported from New Zealand on the 
authority of Quoy and Gaimard. 

M. piPERiNA Philippi. PI. 22, figs. 39, 40 ; pi. 35, figs. 4, 5. 

Shell small, globose-conic, imperforate, thick, solid, blackish, 
speckled and maculated all ovei' with yellowish, the body-whorl 
spirally encircled by two narrow bands of black articulated with 
orange ; spire short, generally eroded more or less, apex acute or 
eroded ; whorls 4 to 5, slightly convex, spirally finely striate, the 
strii3e often almost obsolete ; aperture rounded, outer lip arcuate, 
acute, thickened within, the nacre inside appearing finely lirate ; col- 
umella short, oblique, not as wide as usual in this group, quite 
obviously bluntly toothed in the middle. Alt. 8, diam. 7? mill. 

Fiji and Viti Is. 

T. piperinus Philippi, Zeitschr. f. Mai, 1848, p. 111. — Conchyl. 

Cau., p. 205, t. 30, f. 10.— Fischer, Coq. Viv., p. 260, t. 87, f 3.— 

T. amcenits Gould, Proc. Bast. Soc. K H., iii, p. 107, 1849. — U. S. 

E.tpl. Exped. Moll, p. 187, t. 13, f. 218, 1852. 

A globose-conic, solid little species, not likely to be confounded 
with any other, as the coloration, form and sculpture are very char- 
acteristic. Figs. 4, 5, of plate 35, are T. amamus Gld. 

Section Chlorodiloma Pilsbry. 

Latona Hutton, Linn. Soc. N. S. "Wales, ix, p. 368. (Not Latona 
Schumacher, Essai, p. 156 (1817.) 



MONODOXTA. Ill 

M. CRiNiTA Philippi. PI. 22, figs. 41-44. 

Shell globose-conic, narrowly perforate, solid, light cinereous, 
longitudinally marked with numerous narrow regularly spaced olive 
lines, the first whorls bright orange colored ; spire conic, eroded ; 
sutures linear, impressed ; whorls 5, convex, spirally grooved, the 
grooves shallow, about 5 on the penultimate whorl ; aperture oblique, 
the lip smooth and thickened within ; columella not very thick, 
arcuate, white edged, obtusely dentate below ; umbilico-columellar 
area bright green. Alt 17, diam. 16-18 mill. 

Australian Coasts. 

T. crinitus Phil., Zeltschr.f. Mai, 1848, p. 10^.— Conrhyl. Cab., 
p. 235, t. 35, f. 9.— Fischer," Coq. Fn-., p. 209, t. 69, f. k.— Tro- 
■chocochlea mimetlca Hvtto'n, Jovr. de Co7ich., 1878, p. 32. (Teste 
John Brazier, Proc. Boy. Soc. Tasm., 1886, p. 200.) 

The orange apex, green columella and narrow longitudinal lines 
characterize this sjiecies. It is sometimes imperforate. 

M. ADELAiD.E PhiHppi. PL 35, figs. 22, 23. 

Differs from ]\L crinita only in lacking the tooth at the base of 
the columella ; coloration, sculpture and form identical. 

S. Australian and N. Tasmanian Coasts. 

Troehns adelaidce Phil., Conchyl. Cab., p. 140, t. 24, f. 1. — Diloma 
aiistralis TEynso^AYooDS, Proc. Roy. Soc. Tasmania, 1876, p. 145. 
— Trochus {Diloma) adelaidce Brazier, Proc. Boy. Soc. Tasm., 18-^6, 
p. 199. 

]\i. ODONTis Wood. PI. 62, figs. 66, 67. 

Shell globose-conic, more or less depressed, imperforate or very 
narrowly perforate ; spirally finely striate, the stride becomins: 
obsolete on the last whorl, incremental strise microscopic, sharp ; 
apical whorls white, eroded ; the remainder covered with a regular, 
elegant, minute reticulation formed by the intersection at right angles 
of two sets of obliquely descending black or bluish lines ; bodv- 
whorl subaugulate at the periphery ; outer lip thin, acute, inside 
green, beautifully iridescent; columella arcuate, not dentate, pearlv- 
edged ; umbilico-columellar area vivid pea-green. 

Alt. 15-20, diam. 18-20 mill. 

Trochus odontis Wood, lud. Test., suppl., t. 6, f. 37 (1828).— 
Philippi, Conchyl. Cab., p. 144, t. 24, f. 7. — Fischer, Coq. Viv., 
p. 313, t. 99, f. 1.— Brazier, Proc. Boy. Soc. Tasm., 1886, p. 198. 



112 MONODONTA. 

The reticulated color-pattern will distinguish this species from 
the preceding. 

M. ZEUS Fischer. PI. 22, figs. 58-60. 

Shell imperforate, thick, obtuse ; apex short, papillose, yellowish ; 
suture impressed ; wliorls 4 to 5, moderately convex, obliquely 
striate, spirally sulcate ; last whorl ample, rounded, obsoletely 
angulated above, marginated at the suture, white, with radiating 
flexuous red lines ; base convex ; aperture circular, columella sub- 
dentate at base ; columellar callous thick, whitish-green ; outer lip 
thick. Alt. 16, diam. 19 mill. (Fischer.) 

Habitat uvkmnvn. 

TrocJiUs zeus Fischer, Jonrn. de Conch., 1874, p. 372, et Coq.Viv., 
p. 384, t. 104, f. 1. 

I have not seen this species, which was described from several 
specimens of unknown origin, all of the same form and color-pattern.. 
Dr. Fischer considers the green cohimella an indication that it is 
from Australia, where numbers of the Trochid?e exhibit this char- 
acter. The species seems to be more nearly allied to M. crinita 
Phil, and other species of Chlorodiloma than to typical Monodonta. 

Section Oxystele Philippi. 

Oxijsteh Phil,, Zeitschr. f Mai., 1847, p. 19 ; Handbuch der 
ConchyL, p. 210.— H. and A. Ad., Gen. Rec. Moll., p. 426.— Fischer, 
Manuel, p. 820. — Tryon, Struct, and Syst. Conch., ii, p. 314. 

M. merula Lamarck. PI. 23, fig. 79. 

Shell rather depressed conoidal, imperforate, lusterless purplish-^ 
black ; spire conical, apex eroded, yellowish, the following whorl 
spirally striate, the last two whorls smooth ; whorls about 6, convex ; 
sutures distinct ; last whorl not carinated at the periphery, rather 
flattened on the base, and usually slightly eroded in front of the 
aperture ; aperture large, oblique, the outer lip black-margined, 
within silvery, the nacre smooth, but a])parently lirate ; columella 
arcuate, thin, simple, white ; umbilico-columellar region surrounded 
by a beautiful rose-colored tract. Alt. 27-40 ; diam. 35-41 mill. 

Cape Region, S. Africa. 

Trochus merula Lam., An. s. Vert., vii, p. 16 (1822).— Philippi, 
ConchyL Cab., p. 26, t. 6, f. 3, 4.— Krauss, Die ^Sudaf. Moll., p. 95. 
— Fischer, Coq. Vlv. (Turbo), p. 182, t. 29, f 1. — Trochus sinensis^ 
Gmel., Syst. Nat., xiii, p. 3583. 



MOXODONTA. 113 

M. TiGRiNA Chemnitz. Tl. 23, figs. Gl-64. 

Shell conoidal, more or less elevated, imperforate, lusterle.ss black- 
ish or purplish, unicolored or with a few scattered white dots, or 
yeUowish flexiious lines ; spire conic, ai)ical whorls eroded, yellow or 
wdiitish ; whorls about 6, spirally coarsely but obsoletely Urate; 
aperture large, oblique, black-bordered, silvery within ; columella 
simple, white or yellowish, bordered by a dull purplish streak ; parie- 
tal wall usually covered by a thin silvery callous. 

Alt. 27, diam. 32 mill. 

Cape Region, S. Afi-ica. 

Trochus tigrlnus Chemnitz, ConclujI. Cab., v, p. 53, f. 15H6. — ■ 
PHiLrppi, Conchyl. Cab.,' p. 27, t. 6, f 5. — Fischer, Coq. Viv., p. 
174, t. 5S, f. 1. 

In form like M. merula ; but without the rosy base, more coarsely 
and obviously spirally lirate, and usually dotted with white. 

Var. VAScoi Fischer. PI. 23, figs. 62. 

Shell with acute spire ; deeply spirally sulcated, the penultimate 
wdiorl five-lirate; aperture less dilated. Alt. 33, diani. 31 mill. 

M. SAUciATA Koch. PI. 24, figs. 95, 96 ; pi. 21, figs. 31, 32 ; pi. 62, 
figs. 81, 82. 

Shell low-conical, imperforate, rather thin ; ground-color greenish, 
especially on the last whorl, usually purplish on the spire, and either 
(1) spirally encircled by bands of dark green, black, or red oblong 
spots articulated with a lighter color, or (2) obscurely mottled with 
reddish, the ground-color covered with fine oblique or zigzag lines ; 
the pattern sometimes so obscurely mottled, spirally and obliquely 
streaked, that it appears nearly uniform olivaceous, especially on the 
last whorl ; spire more or less elevated, conic, the apex minute, 
acute, reddish, when not eroded ; sutures well impressed ; whorls 6, 
spirally more or less obviour^ly, finely, irregularly striate or lirate ; 
body-whorl rounded or subcarinated at the peri})hery ; base some- 
what convex, more or less impressed around the axis, sometimes 
eroded in front of the aperture ; aperture large, very oblique ; outer 
lip with a black-spotted green edge, which is generally followed by 
a broad thin opaque-white band, within which it is nacreous and 
iridescent ; columella oblique, thin-edged, the edge convex in the 
middle ; columellar area white, more or less eroded ; umbilical tract 
covered by a thick pad of enamel. Alt. 20, diam. 24 mill. 

Madeira; Mogador ; N.Spain; Cape Verde Is. ; Canary Is. 



114 MONODONTA. 

Trochus saudatus Koch in Philippi, Ahhild., i, Trochus, t. 5, f. 
7 (1845).— Philippi, Conchyl Cab., p. 201, t. 30, f. 5.— T. inde- 
corus Philippi, Conchyl. Cab., p. 143, t. 24, f. 5. — T. listeri Wood, 
Ind. Test, suppl., t. 5, f. 8 (no description). — T. colubrinus Gould, 
Proc. Bost. Soc. iV, H., iii, p. 107 (1849) and Expl. Exped. Shells, 
p. 183, f. 223.— Watson, Challenger Moll., p. 65.— T. saglttiferns 
HiDAOo, 3Iol. de Espana, t. 80, f. 2-7 (not of Lamarck). — T. 
citrinus Philippi, Conchyl, Cab., p. 290, t. 42, f. 14. — Fischer, Coq. 
Viv., p. 262, t 88, f. 1. (? T. citrinus Gmelin.) 

PI. 24, figs. 92, 93 represent the T. indecoriis. 

An extremely embarrassing species is the one under consideration, 
as Dr. Fischer truly remarks. Both Fischer and Wats(>n have dis- 
cussed at length its synonymy, each arriving at a diflerent conclu- 
sion. I have been over this barren ground again — a task full of toil 
and difficulty, — and have been forced to adopt still another name for 
the shell. I am convinced that the T. sauciatus of K.oq\i is identical 
with this species instead of with T. saglttiferns Lamarck. I will 
briefly rehearse the history of the above names: T. citrinus Gniel., 
1788, is unidentifiable; T. listeri Wood, 1828, is probably this 
species, but the figure is poor and no description is given ; T. saud- 
atus Koch (pi. 24, figs. 95, 96) corresponds perfectly with depressed 
specimens of this species ; T. colubrinus Gould, is doubtless the same, 
but later in date. I cannot follow Fischer in uniting T. indecorus 
and T. saudatus with T. sagittiferus Lam. The differences between 
these forms are indicated under the next species. 

M. sauciata is like the INIediterranean M. articulata, M. tui-binata, 
etc., in the convex columellar lobe ; but agrees with the section 
Oxystele in having a thin acute edge to the columella, and a thin 
shell. The coloration is excessively mutable, as well as the general 
form. 

M. sAGiTTiFERA Lamarck. PL 23, figs. 65-67 ; 76. 

Shell conical, imperforate, rather thin ; ground-color (usually) 
whitish, pinkish or bluish, painted with red, brown or blackish in 
innumerable })atterns, but usually in one of the following modes : 
(1 ) longitudinal zigzag dark stripes on a light clear ground ; (2) very 
obliquely descending narrow stripes or lines, generally zigzag or 
interrupted about the middle of the whorl ; (3) narrow spiral 
articulated bands around the middle of the whorl, the base mottled 
or barred, and the suture bordered by a row of dark blotches ; (4) 
ground-color pink or purplish, the entire surfi:ice variegated by rather 



MONODONTA. 115 

narrow spiral bands, finely articulated with red or purple and white ; 
spire conical, elevated ; sutures distinctly impressed ; apex minute 
and acute when not eroded ; whorls 6, convex, quite smooth outside, 
but when eroded the nacre is seen to be finely spirally lirate ; base 
not eroded ; aperture very oblique ; outer lip narrowly margined, 
acute, iridescent within, the nacre smooth, but apparently lirate ; 
columella arcuate, concave, white, thin, covering the place of the 
umbilicus with a pad of callous, the outer edge of which is usually 
not appressed closely to the base ; parietal wall with a thin translu- 
cent callous or none ; umbilico-colnmelktr callous bounded outside by 
a more or less obvious streak of blue, green, brown, or sometimes 
light yellowish. Alt. 21, diam. 24 ; alt. 21, diara. 21 mill. 

Cape Region of S. Africa. 
Trochus sagittiferus Lam., An. s. Vert., vii, p. 29. — Philippi, 
Conchyl. Cab., p. 150, t. 24, f. 16.— Fischer, Coq. Viv., p. 180, t. 59, 
f. 3, t. 103, f. 4 (excl. synonymy !). — T. variegatus Anton, Verzeich., 
p. 57. — Philippi, Conchyl. Cab., p. 144, t. 24, f. 6, 15. — T. impervius 
Philippi, Conchyl. Cab., p. 145, t. 24, f. 8. — T. perdix Koch, in 
Philippi, Conchyl. Cab., p. 150, t. 24, f. 17. 

Plate 24, fig. 94 is T. variegatus Anton ; fig. 91 is T. perdix Koch ; 
pi. 35, figs. 28-32 represent T. impervius Phil. 

This form may be distinguished from the preceding by its smooth, 
not striate nor lirate surface ; its columella is arcuate, con- 
cave or sometimes substraightened in the middle, but is never dis- 
tinctly convex and lobed there as in jNI. sauciata ; the outline of the 
shell is more compact and elevated, the aperture smaller, and the 
coloration, while sometimes approaching that of M. sauciata, is 
generally quite distinct. 

M. FULGURATA Philippi. PI. 35, fig. 16 ; pi. 23, figs. 68-70. 

Shell imperforate, conoidal, rather thin, apex subacute ; whorls 51, 
moderately convex, nearly smooth, the upper ones eroded, S2:)irally 
striate, yellow ; the remainder margined and compressed at the 
sutures, greenish, ornamented with narrow brownish, obliquely 
radiating, zigzag lines ; last whorl rounded, slightly descending ; 
aperture subovate, sulcate within ; columella arcuate, compressed ; 
umbilical tract white, callous. Alt. 19, diam. 18 mill. (Fischer.) 

Coast of Guinea. 

T.fu/guratus Phil., Zeitschr.f. Mai., 1848, p. 106 and Conchyl. 

Cab., p. 268, t. 39, f. 10, 11.— Fischer, Coq. Viv., p. 181, t. 60, f. 1. 



116 MONODONTA. 

I have not seen this form. It is evidently closely allied to M. 
sagittifera, but according to Dr. Fischer, may be separated by its 
more elongated form, more acute spire, and close lines of color. 

M. TENER Troschel. PI. 35, figs. 17, 18. 

This species nearly allied to T. impervius and T. perdix, but is 
apparently different ; I count 5 whorls, the upper eroded ; these are 
moderately convex, the last compressed or even concave below the 
suture, distinctly angular beneath, entirely smooth. The clear violet 
ground is so densely marked with oblique, narrow, blackish, longitu- 
dinal lines, that at a little distance the shell appears unicolored black. 
The aperture is very oblique ; the greater part of the base is occupied 
by a very large porcellanous callous, which is concave in the middle 
and surrounded by a deep black zone. At the origin of the col- 
umella is a little pit. The columella is very oblique, flat, and is 
continued in a band parallel to the edge of the outer lip ; the nacre 
is very beautiful, changing to violet. 
Alt. 7, diam. 11 mill. {PhUippi.) 

Habitat unknown. 

T. tener Troschel in Philit>pi, Conchyl. Cab., p. I4l, t. 24, f. 2. 

M. TABULARis Krauss. Pi. 35, figs. 14, 15. 

Shell small, conical, imperforate, rather solid ; the coloration 
consists of rather broad longitudinal stripes of dark olive-green or 
red, alternating with stripes of bright pink, bordered with lines of 
delicate green, and frequently veined with the same tint ; the stripes 
are continuous from suture to base, or are displaced or interrupted 
at the periphery; spire low-conic, apex eroded, orange-colored, the 
following whorl, if eroded, showing iridescent blue-green nacre, 
which is spirally grooved ; whorls about 5, smooth when not eroded, 
the last obtusely subangulate at the periphery ; base rather flattened, 
radiately striped with red and white, not eroded ; aperture oblique, 
outer lip acute, edged with alternate green and white, smooth with- 
in ; columella arcuate, thin, Avhite, wide, covering the place of the 
umbilicus with an ivory-white pad, which is closely appressecl to the 
body-whorl. Alt. 10, diam. 11 mill. 

Cape of Good Hope. 

Trochiis tabnlaris Krauss, Die Sildaf. Moll, p. 97, t. 5, f 30. — 
Philippi, Conchyl, Cab., p. 142, t. 24, f 4. 

The coloration of this species is peculiarly effective and delicate. 



MONODONTA. 117 

M. suAvis Philippi. PI. 23, figs. 74, 75. 

Shell small, conical, imperforate, rather solid but thin, pale olive 
or yellowish, with a broad spiral band of alternating crimson and 
white or greenish square blotches beloAv the suture and another just 
above the periphery, the space between them occupied by several 
spiral bands of white or greenish, broken into squares by short 
vertical red lines, the base radiately marked with red lines ; spire 
conical, apex acute, olive-colored w-hen eroded through the white 
layer; sutures impressed; whorls 5, the last flattened beneath, 
smooth except on the base, where fine concentric lines are visible 
under a lens ; aperture oblique, the lip thin, acute, brilliantly irides- 
cent within, green predominating ; columella arcuate, thin, obviously 
tootheclnear its junction with the axis above, and covering the place 
of the umbilicus with a white pad of callous ; base concave around 
the axis. Alt. 12, diam. 14 mill. 

New Caledonia; Japan. 

Trochus suavis Phil., Zeitschr. f. Mai., 1849, p. 191, and Conchy/. 
Cab., p. 290, t. 43, f. 1.— P^ischer, Jouni. de Conch., 1875, p. 49, and 
Coq. Viv., p. 312, t. 98, f A.— Ojcxjstele koeneni Dunker, Lid. Moll. 
Mar. Jap., p. 142, t. 12, f 4, 5, 6 (1882). 

Somewhat similar to M. tabularis Krauss in size and form, but 
distinct in the columella, toothed above, caused by a semicircular 
groove which bounds the umbilical callous, the striate base, and the 
color-pattern. 

Fischer gives the locality New Caledonia on the authority of 
Balansa. Specimens before me from Japan were received from 
Prof R. E. C. Stearns. Dunker's 0. koeneni seems to be identical. 
It is from Japan. See pi. 23, figs. 71, 72, 73. 



Insiifficiently described species of Monodonta. 

" We would reject names accompanied by those short unmeaning 
Latin diagnoses, Avithout giving distinctive characters or size of 
specimen, which authors are in the habit of publishing in the 
Proceedings of various Societies, if the same species is subsequently 
figured or f ally described by other naturalists. The abuse which has 
arisen from the claims of priority based on these unrecognizable 
descriptions is certainly beyond endurance; and no author ought to 
be permitted to impose upon the scientific world a species character- 
ized by half a dozen lines of conventional, mongrel Latin, that 



118 MONODONTA. 

would apply to several related species equally as well as to the one 
described. A positively recognizable description, or details of differ- 
ences, or a figure of the species, should be rigidly required." — Tryon^ 
in Amer. Journ. Conch., i, p. 83. 

M. ciRCUMCiNCTA A. Adams. Testa ovato-conoidea, imperforata, 
Ifevi, nitida, crassa, ciugulis rubris, albo viridi maculatis alternanti- 
bus picta ; anfr. convexis ; columella basi tuberculata, dente magno 
aciito terminata ; labro duplicato, intus lirato. {A. Ad.) 

Id. of Ticao, Philippines, on stones at low ivater. (Cuming.) 

A. Ad., p. Z. S., 1851, p. 175. 

M. TUBERCULATA A. Adams. Testa ovate-conoidea, imperforata, 
crassa, viridescenti, cingulis tuberculorum oblongorum violaceorum 
ornata ; anfr. convexis; columella basi trituberculata, canali paral- 
lelo instructa, dente prominente acuto terminata ; labro duplicato, 
intus lirato. {A. Ad.) 

Habitut unknotvn. 

A. Ad., P. Z. S. 1851, p. 175. 

M. RUGULOSA A. Adams. Testa ovato-conoidea, depressa, atro- 
fusca, fasciis latis luteo-albis irregulai'iter picta, cingulis rotundatis 
interruptis ornata; columella basi bituberculata, canali parallelo 
instructa, dente magno acuto terminata ; labro duplicata, intus 
lirato. (.4. Ad.) 

Habitat unknotvn. 

A. Ad., p. Z. S., 1851, p. 175. 

M. EXIGUA A. Adams. Testa parva, conoidea, undiilicata, 
albida fusco variegata, cingulis transversis granulosis interstitiis 
longitudinaliter liratis ornata ; anfr. parum convexis, ultimo sub- 
angulato ; umbilico recto, dente valido acuto terminata; labro intus 
sulcato. (A. Ad.) 

Japan. (Siebold.) 
A. Ad., p. Z. S., 1851, p. 176. 
May be a Euchelus, instead of a Monodonta. 

M. spiLOTA A. Adams. Testa parva, ovato-depressa, conoidea, 
imperforata, lievi, nitida, viridi, maculis pallidus triangularibus ; 
columella plana, alba, canali parallelo instructa, dente obtuso 
terminata ; labro duplicato, intus lirato. (^1. Ad.) 

Habitat unknoivn. 



MONODONTA. 119 

A. Ai), P. ZS., 1851, p. 177. 

Labio rudis a. Adams. Testa orbiculato-conica, imperforata, 
spira obtusa, lutescente, lineis transversis nigris ornata, longitudi- 
naliter oblique striata, transversim subexarata ; labio complanato ; 
columella antice subtuberculata ; labro nigro luteoque intus mar- 
ginato. (A. Ad.) 

Australia. 

A. Ad., p. Z, S., 1851, p. 179. 

Labio concolor A. Adams. Testa turbinato-couica, irajjerforata ; 
spira acuta, brunnea, longitudinaliter oblique striata, transversim 
sublirata ; labio complanato, regione umbilicali impressa ; col- 
umella arcuata, antice tuberculo terminata ; labro nigro-fusco 
marginata. (A. Ad.) 

y^eiv Zealand. (Hart.) 

A. Ad., p. Z. S., 1851, p. 180. 

M. glabratum Gould. Testa globoso-conic, crassa, polita, fusco- 
viridis, interdumad verticem nigrescens et ad peripheriam pallidior, 
ubique sulcis 4-5 cincta, interspatiis tessellatim sulcata ; aufr. 7, 
convexis ; apertura ampla, rotundato-ovata, alba ; labro intus sulcato ; 
denti columellai'i acuto sulcato. Axis 15, diam. 13 mill. (Gottld.) 

China Seas. 

Has a general resemblance to, and may be a variety of, M. tiiber- 
culata ; but its rubbed look, tessellated rather than papillated surface, 
and shorter axis distinguish it. (Gould.) 

Gould, Froc. Bost. Sot. X. H., viii, 1861, p. 20. 

M. granulata Gray. 

Shell rather depressed, conical, purple variegated with -white, 
generally concentrically wrinkled, and ornamented with granulated 
spiral ribs, the ribs of the upi)er part of the last and of all the other 
whorls rather distant, and forming four series ; those of the under 
part rather closer and smaller ; the axis umbilicated, smooth, the 
aperture roundish, the outer lips furrowed, the columellar lip smooth 
with a groove at its base. 

Axis 4-12ths, diam. 5-12ths of an iuch. {Gray.) 

M. granulata Gray, in Capt. King's Survey of Intertropical and 
Western Coasts of Australia, ii, p. 479 (1827). 
M. DENTicx'LATA Gray. 

Shell depressed, conical, pale reddish, ornamented with rows of 
white and brown spots, spirally grooved ; ribs slightly granulated ; 



120 CAKTHARIDTIS. 

sutures distinct, impressed, the lower part of the last whorl nearly- 
smooth, and the umbilicus white, smooth inside, the edge furnished 
with a series of granules ; the mouth subquadrangular, outer lip 
crenulated at the edge, columellar lip smooth, with a large tooth at 
the inside and a little roughness on the outer side. 
Axis 3-lOths, diam. 5-12ths of an inch. (Gray.) 
M. denticulata Gray, in Capt. King's Survey of Intertrojjical and 
Wedern coasts of Australia, ii, p. 479 (1827). 

M. RUDis Gray. 

Shell ovate, conical, imperforated, rough, pearly, concentrically 
striated, whitish-brown; when worn or when eroded, purple; the 
whorls convex, suture distinct, sometimes occupying an impressed 
line on the lower whorl ; the base rather convex, the aperture 
roundish, the axis (imperforate) covered with a white callous, which 
leaves a slight concavity over its end ; the outer lip of three colors, 
the outer part purple or green and white, the middle pearly, and the 
inner opaque, white, and furrowed ; the surface of the lower part of 
the last whorl is frequently worn away just opposite the mouth, so as 
to leave a purple spot. ( Gray.) 

M. rudis Gray, in Capt. King's Survey of Intertrojjical and 
Western Coasts of Australia, ii, p. 480 (1827). 

Genus CANTHARIDUS Montfort, 1810. 

Cantharidiis Montf., Conch. Syst., ii, p. 251 (1810).— H. & A. 
Adams, Genera, i, p. 423. — Cantharis Fer. — Elenchus Swainsok, 
Treatise on Malacol., p. 351. — Fischer, Manuel de Conchyl., p. 
819. 

A genus restricted to Australasian seas, and hitherto found only in 
shallow water. The radula shows several peculiarities in the forms 
(Cantharidiis s. s. and Phasianotrochus) which have been observed ; 
showing, probably, more affinity to G ibbida ih^w to any other genus. 
In Cantharidiis (restricted) the centi-al tooth has a body with 
broadly expanded supporting-wings, a narrowed peduncle or neck, 
which bears a simple cusp. This peduncle has on each side delicate 
wings, like those I have described for Phasianella virgo, and iden- 
tical with those described and figured by Troschel for various species 
of Giblnda. The lateral teeth number five on each side ; and they 
increase in size from the inner to the outer one ; this peculiarity, 
together with that of the central tooth just described, will enable one 



CANTHARIDUS. 121 

to recognize a radula of this genus at a glance. The inner hUeral 
is slender, narrowed toward the cusp, like the centrals, and (some- 
times at any rate) bearing a lamella behind the peduncle. The 
outer laterals are very broad, with one or several denticles on the 
cusp. Phasianotrochvs (Elenchus of authors) has essentially the 
same arrangement, except that the centrals lack the peculiar wings 
to the peduncle (pi. 50, fig. 15, C. badius Wood). The raduhe of 
Thalotia, Odontotrochus and Banklvia are unknown. Watson says 
that Leiopyrga has the same dentition as Margarita, but this must 
be a mistake. 

The genus should be grouped with Gibbula in a natural arrange- 
ment of the family. The only character separating Cantharidus from 
that genus is the simple cusp of the central tooth, whilst in Gibbula 
it is denticulate at the sides. 1 am wholly inclined to disregard the 
subfamily limits adopted in the first part of this work, (p. 6), and 
even more those used by Fischer (Manuel, p. 817). But I do not 
believe much improvement can be made until w^e have more knowl- 
edge of the soft parts of Trochidte. 

In conclusion, there is no character of importance at present 
known to me which will separate the small shining Australasian 
Gibbtda (such as picturata Ad. & Aug., nitida Ad. & Ang.,J'iil- 
minata Hutton, etc.) from the smaller species of Cantharidus ; and 
the resemblance between Cantharidus and Calliostoma, shown in the 
.shells of certain species, is no evidence whatever of relationship 
— unless Thalotia and Odontotrochus prove to have a very different 
dentition from Cantharidus, in which event the genus will have to 
be dismembered. 

The dentition of the following species has been figured by Prof. 
Hutton (Trans. N. Z. Institute, xv, xiv ; 1881-'82). Cantharidus 
pjurpuratus Mart., tenebrosus Ad., pupil lus GId. These figures do 
not show as many teeth as is desirable. The only other radula 
figured is that of C. badius Wood, by Troschel (Das Gebiss, ii, t. 
xxiv, f. 4). 

As to the nomenclature adopted, Elenchus of Swainson is a 
synonym of Cantharidus Montf Elenchus of H. and A. Adams is 
the same as Phasianotrochus Fischer, but not Elenchus (Humph.) 
Swainson. I do not have access to the "Museum Calonnianum," a 
very rare work in which Elenchus was pro])Osed by Humphrey ; and 
do not know whether the genus was properly characterized or not. 
The name was unknown in eonchological literature until Swainson 



122 CANTHARIDUS. 

revived it in 1840 for Trochus iris. lu this uncertainty I prefer to- 
adopt Cantharid'us of Montfort. 

Subgenus Cantharidus, Montfort. 

Section Cantharidus Montf. (restricted). 

C. IRIS Gmelin. PI. 34, fig. 15. 

Shell imperforate, elevated-conical, obtusely angular at the pe- 
riphery, solid, but not very thick, whitish, tinged with blue on the 
body-whorl and yellowish or pinkish on the spire, all over closely 
longitudinally marked with undulating purplish-red streaks, often 
zigzag, or interrupted into spiral series of articulations ; spire with 
slightly concave outlines, slender, more or less eroded and showing 
the iridescent green nacre at tip ; sutures linear ; whorls 8-9, 
generally showing traces of spiral impressed lines, base with about 
5 spiral separated narrow ridges, often inconspicuous ; aperture 
ovate-rhomboidal, oblique, lined with iridescent green nacre with 
red reflections; outer lip thin, slightly sulcate within; columella 
subvertical, generally straight in the middle or slightly projecting, 
pearly above; parietal wall eroded, brilliant green; umbilico-colu- 
mellar patch whitish. Alt. 40, diam. 30, mill. 

Mew Zealand. 

Oj)aIm Martyn, Univ. Conch., t. 24. — T. irisGMEL. Syst. Nat., 
xiii, p. 3580. — Lam., An. s. Vert, vii, p. 27. — Philippi, Conchyl. 
Cab., p. 9, t. 2, f 7, 8 ; t. 46, f 9.— Woodward, Manual of the Moll., 
t. 10, f 8. — Fischer, Coq. Viv., p. 157, t. 51, f 4. — Cantharidus iris 
HuTTON, Man. N. Z. Moll, p. 99 (1880). 

The largest species of the genus. Specimens with the outer coat 
ground off show a beautifully iridescent green nacre. 

C. PRuiNiNus Gould. PI. 46, figs. 60, 61. 

Shell ovate-conical, imperforate, rather solid, deep purple (some- 
times with a few white dots), apex pink ; surface nearly smooth, 
very densely finely spirally striate all over ; spire conical, apex sub- 
acute ; whorls about 6, slightly convex, the last rounded or very 
obtusely angular ; aperture less than one-half the length of shelly 
ovate, oblique, iridescent within and showing fine dense folds in the 
nacre; columella subhorizontal, straightened in the middle, ex- 
panded in a callous pad over the umbilicus. 

Alt. 22, diam. 16 mill. ; alt. 30, diam. 19 null.; alt. 19, diam. 16 
mill. 

AucJdand and Campbell Is. 



CANTHARIDUS. 



123 



T. capillaceus Phil., Zeitschr. f. Mai, 1848, p. 102 ; Conchyl. Cab., 
p. 275, t. 40, f. 7.— Fischer, Coq. Viv., p. 161, t. 52, f.S.— T. epis- 
copus HoMBR. ET J ACQ. Vov. au Pole-Sud, t. 14, f. 9-11. — Kiener, 
Species gen. Trochus, t. 52, f. 3. — T. pruininus Gould, Otia, p. 55 
(1846) ; U. S. Expl. Exped.,t. 12, f. 2i)^.— Gantharidus Zealandicus 
A. Ad., p. Z. S., 1851, p. 169.— Hutton, Manual N. Z. Moll., p. 99 
(1880). — C. pruininus Hutton, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, ix, 
p. 361 (1884). 

The species exhibits considerable variation in the comparative 
length of the spire, but may be known from other species by the 
very fine close spiral striation of the outer surface and the dark 
purplish color. 

Var. PEROBTUSA Pilsbry. PL 34, fig. 1. 

Spire short, vey-y obtuse at apex ; whorls 5, the last large, descend- 
ing antei'iorly; aperture as long as spire; other characters as in C. 
pruininus. Alt. 20, diam. 19 mill. 

C. TENEBROSUS A. Adams. PI. 34, fig. 3. 

Shell conical, elevated, imperforate, rather thick, solid, dark bluish- 
black, or -with a purple shade; spire conoidal, sutures slightly 
impressed, apex somewhat obtuse, a trifle eroded and whitish at tip ; 
whorls about 6, very slightly convex, those of the spire encircled by 
about seven lirse of about the same width as their interstices, body- 
whorl very bluntly subangular at periphery, with about 20 spiral 
lirse, and fine delicate growth-lines ; aperture rounded-quadrate, 
oblique, less than i the total length of shell ; outer lip very narrowly 
black-edged, bordered by a series of short fine sulcations, beyond 
which there is a porcellanous thickening; throat nacreous, irides- 
cent, the reflections mainly green ; columella subvertical, a trifle 
arcuate, rounded and pillar-like, covering the umbilicus above; 
parietal wall with a thin whitish callous; upper angle of aperture 

angular, slightly channeled. Alt. 11 2, diam. 9h mill. 

Neiv Zealand. 

C. tenebrosus X. Ad., P. Z. S., 1851, p. 170, no. 11. — Hutton, 
Manual N. Z. Moll, 1880, p. 101 ; Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, ix 
(1884) p. 361. 

Narrower and more coarsely sulcated than C. huttoni. 

Var. HUTTONii Smith. PI. 34, fig. 2. 

Shell short-conical, covei'ed perforate, bluish-black or purplish- 
black, the apex worn white ; whorls 5 to 6, slightly convex, sculpt- 



124 



CANTHARIDUS. 



iired by 7 to 8 spiral stride and incremental lines ; last whorl obtusely 
angular at the peri2:)hery, rather convex beneath, slightly impressed 
in the region of the umbilicus; aperture subcircular-quadrate irides- 
cent within, lightly grooved; lip within a trifle thickened whitish, 
narrowly edged Avith black ; columella slightly arcuate, thickened, 
■covering the perforation. 

Alt. 14*, diam. 10^ mill. ; alt. 9, diam. 7 mill. (Smith.) 

Neiv Zealand. 

T. (Cantharidus) Huttonli K. A. Smith, Journ. Linn. Soc. London, 
xii (Zoology), p. 558, t. 30, f. 20 (1876).— Hutton, Manual N. Z. 
Moll., 1880, p. 100. — Gibbula plumbea Hutton, Journ. de ConchyL, 
1878, p. 33 (teste Hutton, Manual N. Z. Moll, p. 100).— Cantharidus 
tenebrosus Ad. var., Hutton, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, ix (1884), 
p. 862 ; Trans. N. Z. Inst., xiv, t. 7, f. l. (Dentition.) 

Care must be taken not to confound this species w'ith one or two 
otliers which are found from the same locality. C. tenebrosus, 
described by A. Adams is a narrower and more coarsely sulcated 
species than the present ; and a second species (at present undescribed) 
is closely allied ; it is umbilicated more broadly, spirally sulcated, 
and not so dark in color, being of a pnle purplish tint with the 
spiral lirie between the sulcations of a darker tint. (Smith.) 
C. PURPURATUS Martyn. PL 45, fig. 44. 

Shell imperforate, acutely conical ; whorls 8, somewhat convex, 
separated by slightly inipressed sutures, the first reddish-green, the ' 
remainder whitish, ornamented with rosy oblique streaks, spirally 
cingulate, cinguli flat, 5 on the penultimate whorl, the interstices nar- 
row, obliquely lamellose-striate ; last whorl subangular, convex 
beneath, concentrically lirate, articulated with white and purplish ; 
apenture subtrapezoidal, sulcate within ; lip thin ; columella nearly 
vertical, columellar callous thin, narrow. 

Alt. 22, diam. 16 mill. (Fischer.) 

Anckland to Bank's Peninsula, N. Z. 

Lima.v, purpuratus Martyn, Univ. Conch., t. 68 (1784).— Troc/w^s 
purpuratus Desh. in Lam., An. s. Vert. ed. 2, ix, p. 108. — Phil- 
ippi, Conchyl. Cab., p. 10, t. 2, f. 9, 10. — Fischer, Coq. Viv., p. 
366, t. 112, f. 3. — Cantharidus purpuratus Hutton, Proc. Linn. 
Soc. N. S. Wales, ix, p. 361 ; Trans. N. Z. Inst., xv, t. 14, f. o (den- 
tition). — T. rostratus Gmelin. Syst. Nat., xiii, p. 3580. — T. elegans 
CrMEL. I. c, p. 3581.— (PAa.*. rubella Menke, Synops. Moll, teste Hut- 
ton.)— T. te.vturatus Gould, Proc. Post. Soc. N. H., iii, p. 90 (1849); 



CANTHARIDUS. 125' 

U. S. Expl. Exped. Moll., p. 181, t. 12, f. 206.— Fischer, Coq. Viv., 
p. 133, t. 46, f. 1. — T. pallidas Homer, et Jacq. Voy. au Pole-Siid,. 
p. 55, t. 14, f. 12, 13. (Not T. pallidus Forbes).— T. rostratus 
KiENER, Species et Icon., t. 46, f. 1. — T. torosus Quoy, mss. in 
KiENER, Species et Icon., genre Trochus, t. 46, f. 3. — Fischer, Coq. 
Viv., p. 136, t. 46, f. 3. 

I am disposed to refer to one species all of the coarsely ribbed 
Cautharidus of New Zealand included in the above synonymy. 
The description given above applies to the typical -purpuratus. The 
following may be separated as varieties. 

Var. TEXTURATus Gould. PI. 45, figs. 41-43. 

Form as in typical C. purpuratus. The sculpture consists of five 
broad rounded spiral ribs on the penultimate, nine or ten on the last 
whorl. The ribs have a secondary sculpture oi fine spiral strice, the 
whole surface covered by sharp incremental strise which are 1am- 
ellose in the narrow interstices between ribs. Aperture brilliantly 
nacreous within. Color whitish, longitudinally striped with red or 
purplish ; a])ical whorls roseate. 

Var. TOROSUS Quoy. PI. 45, fig. 45. 

Imperforate, elongate-conical, spire acute; whorls 7 to 8, livid- 
reddish or ashy, slightly convex, radiately irregularly striate, with 4 
low, transversely striated spiral cinguli ; body-whorl subcarinate ; 
base convex, 4-lirate; aperture ovate; columella white, arcuate, 
margins greenish. Alt. 26, diam. 15 mill. (Fischer.) 

Nothing more than an elongated form of the preceding, scar-cely 
distinct enough for varietal rank. Specimens before me are inter- 
mediate between texturatus and torosus in form and coloration. 

C. PULCHERRiMus Wood. PI. 46, figs. 78, 79. 

Shell imperforate, acutely conical, elongated, thick and solid ; 
spire straightly conical, apex subacute, sutures linear ; whorls about 
6, nearly flat, the penultimate with four or five broad flat spiral ribs, 
often unequal in width, separated by narrow impressed grooves, the 
body-whorl subangular, with four or five broad fiat low ribs above 
the periphery and more numerous narrower ones on the base. The 
ribs u'e usually purplish-crimson articulated with narrow white 
marks. Aperture small, less than one-half the length of shell, 
oblique, oval, brilliantly iridescent and somewhat sulcated inside, 
peristome edged with a line of intense crimson, bordered with green- 



126 CANTHARIDUS. 

ish inside ; columella vertical, slightly arcuate, straight in the 
middle ; parietal wall covered by a light callous. 

Alt. 14-17, diam. 9-11 mill. 

Southern Australia; Northern Tasmania. 
T. jndcherrim.us Wood, Ind. Test, suppl., t. 6, f. 45. — Philippi, 
Abbild. u. Beschr., ii, Trochus t. 7, f. 1 ; Conchyl. Cab., p. 132, t. 23, 
f. 4, t. 43, f. 11.— Fischer, Coq. Viv., p. 137, t. 46, f. 4.— T. preissii 
Mke., Moll. Nov. Holl. Sp., p. 17.— T. jniella Phil., Zeitschr. f. 
Mai., 1851; Conchyl. Cab., p. 327, t. 46, f. 12.— Thalotia marice 
Tenison-AVoods, Proc. Roy. iSoc. Victoria, xiv, p. 58 (1877). 

Separated from C. purpuratus by the smaller size, thicker shell, 
coarser, more unequal ribs and crimson j^eristome ; from C. lesueuri 
by the much coarser sculpture. 

C. lesueuri Fischer. PI. 45, figs. 52-54 ; pi. 34, figs. 9, 10. 

Shell imperforate, elongated conical, somewhat solid, wliitish or a 
little tinged with olive, painted with numerous rather narrow lon- 
gitudinal (jlive-browu or reddish-brown stripes generally broken into 
tessellations on the base ; spire long, apex subacute, whitish ; sutures 
moderately impressed ; whorls about 7, flat or concave below the 
sutures, convex and swollen at the periphery and above each sut- 
ure, encircled by numerous fine lirse ; last whorl a trifle deflexed at 
aperture, often subangular at the periphery ; aperture rhomboidal, 
less than half the total length of shell ; peristome rather thin, acute, 
edged by a row of red dots, thickened a little distance within, the 
thickening finely crenulated ; columella vertical, marked with 
crimson at the outer base. Alt. 13-19, diam. 10-11 mill. 

S. Australian Coasts ; Tasmania. 

T. lesueuri Fischer., Coq. Viv., p. 129, t. 45, f. 2. — Brazier, 
Proc. Roy. Soc. Tasm., 1886, p. 194. — Phasianella elegans Lam., 
An. s. Vert., iii, p. 53 (1822). — Trochus elegans, Kiener, Spec, et 
Icon. Coq. Viv., t. 45, f. 2 (not T. elegans Gmel.). — T. lehmanni 
Mke., Moll. Nov. Holl., p. 18 (1843).— Philippi, Abbild. u. Besch- 
reib., ii, Trochus t. 7, f 2 (not T. lehmanni Kiener). — T. pictiis 
Philippi, Conchyl. Cab., p. 139, t. 23, £ 18, W.— Thalotia picta 
Angas, p. Z. S., p. 179 (1865). (Not T p ictus Wood.) 

This species is characterized by its fine spiral striation, whorls 
swollen at the periphery, and more or less red-edged peristome. In 
some specimens the longitudinal color streaks are quite broad ; the 
base is alm)st always finely te-!sellated, and the lower part of the 



CANTHARIDUS. 127 

'Columella is crimson. There is an umbilical tract of tessellated piuk 
and white. 

The following form does not. seem to me to differ specifically, 
although its color-pattern of whitish flames on a coral-red ground 
_give typical examples quite a distinct aspect. 

Var RAMBURi Crosse. PI. 45, fig. 40. 

Shell imperforate, pointed conical, solid, crimson with narrow 
radiating whitish flames on the upper surface, usually extending to 
the periphery, and an umbilical tract of red and white tessellated ; 
spire lengthened, apex subacute, sutures subimpressed ; whorls about 
7, concave below the sutures, convex and swollen at the periphery 
and on the lower edge of each whorl of the spire; whole surface 
finely spirally lirate, the lirre about as wide as the interstices, which 
are delicately obliquely striate ; aperture oval-quadrate, iridescent 
within, less than half the length of shell ; peristome edged by a row 
•of crimson dots, with a porcellanous internal thickening which is 
iinely crenulate ; columella vertical, slightly arcuate, pearly. 

Alt. 13, diam. 8; alt. IH, diam. 12 mill. 

S. Australian Coasts. 

T. ramburi Crosse, Jouru. de Conchyl., 1864, p. 342, t. 13, f 3. — 
Fischer, Coq. Viv., p. 409, t. 120, f. 3. — T. pulcherrlmas Wood, 
var. Philippi, Conchyl. Cab., p. 295, t. 43, f 11. 

Typically of a coral-red or crimson color, flammulate above with 
whitish. Fully adult examples often show the light flames only 
upon the upper whorls. 

C. EROGATus Fischer. PL 40, fig. 69. 

Shell conic-elongate, spire acute ; whorls 7-8, the first eroded, 
iridescent, the rest planulate, submarginate below, smooth, encircled 
by 3-4 slightly impressed lines, ornamented with minute dots ar- 
ranged into radiating flames ; last whorl carinated, concentrically 
striate beneath ; aperture rhomboidal, columella subtruncate below. 

Alt. 19, diam. 14 mill. (Fischer.) 

Australia f 

T. erogatus Fischer, Coq. Viv., p. 128, t. 45, £ 1. — T. indistindus 
KiENER, Species, etc., t. 45, f 1. (Not T. indistinctus Wood, Ind. 
Test., suppl., t. 6, f 41.)— Philippi, Conchyl. Cab., p. 293, t. 43, f. 
7. — Ziziphinus indistindxLs Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 35. ? 



128 CANTHARIDUS. , 

Dr. Fischer, from whom my information concerning this species 
is derived, says : I have not seen this species. It is not in the 
collection of the Museum. 

M. Kiener has indentified this shell with Trochus indlstinctus 
Wood. It differs from the type of Wood by the more conical form, 
fewer and shallower concentric grooves. There is at the Museum a 
series of Trochids collected by Peron and Lesueur on the Australian 
coast, which represent exactly the figure of Wood. Their s])iral 
line are salient and subgranose ; the whorls of the spire ])roject at 
the lower part. The figure of Philippi cited approaches that of 
Kiener ; its whorls are smooth, the grooves shallow. The coloration 
of the umbilical region is a little different. Reeve's figure seems to 
belong to another species; it is narrower, less carinated, and the 
inter-liral spaces are striated. In conclusion, the T. indistinctus of 
Kiener and of Philippi seems to us to be a species different from that 
of Wood, and we propose to name it T. erognhis. (Fischer.) 
C. INDISTINCTUS Wood. PL 34. fig. 4. 

This form is known to me only by the remarks of Fischer (supra, 
under T. erogatus) and the figure in the Index Testaceologicus, pL 
6, fig. 41. The latter is copied on my plate. It is said to be from 
Australia. 
C. GiLiBERTi Montrouzier. PI. 45, figs. 87, 38. 

Shell imperforate, conic-elongate, acute; whorls 10-11, plan uhite,. 
greenish, with a few whitish radiating flexuous irregular streaks, or 
punctulate with white, obliquely very finely striate, spirally lirate,. 
the lirse delicate, 15 to 16 on the j)en ultimate whorl, the two lower 
ones wide, prominent ; last whorl carinated, somewhat depressed 
above, convex beneath and lO-lirate, sometimes with intercalated 
lirulse. Aperture subquadrate. lip simple, greenish, basal margin 
arcuate ; columella straight, short, with a parallel groove outside, 
base truncate. Alt. 13, diam. 7^^ mill. (Fischer.) 

Island of Art, N. Caledonian Archipelago.. 
T. gilberti Montr., in Fischer, Journ. de Conchyl., 1878, p. 207. 
— T. giliberti Fischer, Coq. Viv., p. 401, t. 119, f. 2. 

A species allied to T. fournieri Crosse, differing in the larger size, . 
more numerous whorls, more salient spiral linie and more carinated 
body-whorl. The two lower lime of each whorl form a strong carina. 
The truncation of the base of the columella is very distinct, while it 
is slight or wholly wanting in T. fournieri. M. Souverbie informs 
me that it was by an error that this species was named gilberti; it 
should he cviWQii giliberti. (Fischer.) 



CANTHARIDUS. 129 

C ARTENSis Fischer. 

Shell imperforate, thick, conico-elougated, apex reddish, eroded, 
remaining whorls 6, spirally lirate, penultimate whorl with 6 granose 
lirfe, the first and last largest, 6th or basal ridge very prominent 
subcarinate, interstices obliquely striate, decussated oji the last 
whorl ; upper whorls whitish-rosy, penultimate radiately streaked 
with white and red, last whorl olivaceous, obscurely clouded, 
carinated ; base convex, ornamented with 7 concentric lir?e, punctate 
with rosy, and with intermediate lirula3 ; aperture subquadrate, basal 
margin arcuate ; columella straight, bounded outside by a parallel 
groove, truncate at base. Alt. 11, diam. 8 mill. (Fischer.) 

Is. Art, New Caledonian Archipelago. 

T. artensis Fischer, Journ. de Conchyl., 1878, p. 208. 

This species, represented by one slightly worn example, belongs 
to the same group as the preceding [_T. gillberti]. It is heavier ; its 
base is wider ; the surface of the whorls has granulose lirse, and the 
oblique stripe, very prominent on the last whorl. The coloration is 
peculiar. It is probable that this diagnosis will require modifica- 
tion when better preserved specimens are found. (Fischer.) 

The single specimen known is in the Bordeaux Museum. 

C FOURNiERi Crosse. PI. 45, fig. 51. 

Shell imperforate, acutely elongate-conical, small, brown or 
olivaceous, unicolored or punctate or maculate with white ; spire 
straightly conical, apex acute, sutures linear ; whorls about 8, flat, 
very finely, evenly, densely spirally striate, the stride sometimes sub- 
decussated by delicate oblique growth-lines ; last whorl carinate at 
periphery, the base coarsely lirate, lirse about 9 in number ; aperture 
small, quadrangular, smooth within ; lip acute, bordered inside by 
a wide porcellanous band, the throat nacreous, brilliant green ; col- 
umella straight, scarcely truncate at base. 

Alt. 9, diam. 6 ; alt. 7, diam. 4i mill. 

Id. of Non, N. Caledonian Archi])elago. 

T.fournieri Crosse, Journ. de Conchyl., 1863, p. 180. — Fischer, 
loc. cit, 1875, p. 49 ; Coq. Viv., p. 400, t. 119, f 1. 

Seems to be verv closelv allied to C. giliberti. The figure of.thia. 
species IS not very satistactory. /t"^ V-* *•"■-?{ /- 

9 y^^\>^*"^^^f\ 

L I 8 R A R . , 



130 CANTHARIDUS. 

C. suAREZENSis Fischer, PI. 45, fig. 55. 

Shell narrowly perforate, conic-acute ; whorls 9 to 10, planulate, 
the embryonic smooth, buff, the remaining whitish-bufF, ornamented 
with longitudinal wavy streaks of brown or rosy, and sometimes 
spiral zones ; spirally lirate, lirje 7 on the penultimate whorl, upper 
and lower ones most prominent, the intermediate 5 slightly granose, 
the interstices sharply obliquely striate ; last whorl angular, convex 
beneath, with about 8 concentric lirse. Aperture subquadrate, lip 
acute, columella subtruncate ; parietal wall bearing a callous in 
adults. ' Alt. 18, diam. 13 mill. 

Id. Nossi-Be ; and Diego-Suarez, Madagascar. 

T. suarezensis Fischer, Journ. de Conchyl., 1878, p. 63 ; Ooq. 
Viv., p. 378. t. 115, f. 2. 

A well-marked form, distinct in possessing a narrow umbilicus, 
and distinctly granose lirje. 

C. HiLARis Lischke. PI. 45, fig. 39. 

Shell subrimate, cyclindrical-conic, smooth, shining ; w'horls 8 the 
first eroded, greenish ; the remainder scarcely convex, red and 
white clouded, maculate with brown above, encircled by equidistant 
olive-brown lines; last whorl angular, convex beneath and orna- 
mented with 6 concentric lines ; aperture subquadrate, smooth 
within ; basal margin scarcely arcuate ; columella narrow, sub- 
truncate beneath, whitish-green. Alt. 14, diam. 7 mill. (Fischer.) 

Nagasaki, Japan, 

T. hilaris Lischke, Malak. Bl., 1871, p. 41 ; Jap. Meeres- 
Conchyl., 2d part, p. 85, t. 5, f. 14, 15. — Fischer, Coq. Viv., p. 353, 
t. 110, f. 2. 

It is possible that Ziziphinus japonicus A. Ad. is identical. 

Fischer says : This species is quite remarkable in its very elongated 
form, like a Bankivia. Lischke's type was not adult ; it is more 
conical and smaller than the specimen figured by me, attaining only 
8^ mill. 

C. PUPILLUS Hutton. 

Shell depressed or sometimes elevated, imperforate or narrowly 
perforated^ whorls spirally ribbed. Dark brown or greenish-brown, 
with brown and reddish markings ; margin of the aperture greenish- 



CANTHARIDUS. 131 

brown. A very variable shell, smaller than C. tenebrosus. (Hut- 
ton.) 

Bank^s Peninsula to Dunedin, N^. Zealand. 

Cantharidus pupillus Hutton, Proc. Linn. Soc, N. S. Wales, ix, 
p. 562, 1884, etc, (not Trochus pupillus Gould, U. S. Expl. Exped. 
xii, p. 186, atlas, fig. 208). 

My knowledge of this shell is derived wholly from Professor 
Hutton's description and remarks. It is not the T. pupillus of 
Gould, which is undoubtedly a species from the West coast of North 
America. 

C. SANGUINEUS Gray. PI. 47, figs. 92, 93. 

Shell top-shaped, white, with rows of numerous blood-red spots ; 
whorls flattened, the last obscurely keeled ; the front ratlier convex, 
with sharp-edged, low spiral ridges. ( Gray.) 

Auckland to Wellington, N. Z. ; Chatham Is. 

Trof-h. ( Gihhium) sanguineus Gray, Dieflfenbach's Travels in New 
Zealand, ii, p. 238 (1843).— r. sanguineus E. A. Smith, Zool. Voy. 
H. M. S. Erebus & Terror, ii, Mollusca, p. 4, t. 1, t 12 (1875).-^ 
Cantharidus sanguineus Hutton, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, ix, 
p. 362 (1884) ; and var. ccelatus Hutton, I. c, p. 363. 

Hutton says of this species, which I have not seen. Shell im- 
perforate, spirally grooved. Pinkish white, with red spots on the 
ribs, or with red flexuous longitudinal markings ; interior and mouth 
white. 

Var. c.ELATus Hutton. 

Smaller but more deeply ribbed and the grooves wider. (Hutton.) 

Foveaux Straits. 

Section Phasianotrochus Fischer, 1885. 

Phasianotrochus Fischer, Manuel de Conchyl. p. 819. — Elenchus 
H. & A. Ad., Gen. Rec. Moll, i, p. 424 (not Elenchus Swainson). 

C. RADIUS Wood. PI. 45, figs. 57, 58. 

Shell imperforate, elongated-conical, solid, rather thick, polished, 
shining ; color brown, fawn-color or rosy, with widely-spaced light 
or dark narrow spiral lines, usually four in number on the penulti- 
mate whorl ; surface microscopically spirally densely striate ; spire 
slender, straight-sided ; apex acute ; whorls 7, a little convex, the last 
rounded at the periphery ; aperture slightly exceeding one-third 



132 CANTHARIDUS. 

the total length, ovate, brilliantly iridescent within, and sulcate ; 
peristome thickened, greenish ; columella vertical, toothed below the 
middle. Alt. 28, diam. 13 mill. 

S. Australian Coasts. 

T. badlus AVood, Index Test., suppl., t. 6, f. 46. — Philippi, 
Conchyl. Cab., p. 137, t. 23, f. 14.— Fischer, Coq. Viv., p. 151, t. 
50, f. 2, 3. — T. lividus Kiener, Species et Icon., t. 50, f. 2 (not T. 
lividus Phil.). — Monodonta rosea Lam. An. s. Vert., vii, p. . — 
Delessert, Rec. de Coq., t. 37, f. 3. — T. rosens Phil. Conchyl. Cab., 
p. 134, t. 23, f. 7. — Kiener, Species et Icon. t. 50, f. 3. — Chenu, 
Manuel, ii, p. 360, f. 2672. (not T. roseus Gmel.) — T. australis Quoy 
et Gaimard, Voy. de I'Astrolabe, iii, p. 328, t. 63, f. 13, 14. (not 
T. australis Broderip, 1830, nor Monodonta australis Lam.) — T. 
quoyi Philippi, Conchyl. Cab., p. 139, t. 23, f. 17. — T. picifer 
Fischer, Coq. Viv., genre Turbo, p. 111. 

This species is separated from the following by the plain coloration, 
without longitudinal markings. It frequently attains much greater 
size than the measurements given above indicate ; Kiener's " T. 
lividus " measuring 38 mill, in length. 

C. peroni Philippi. PI. 34, figs. 12-14. 

Shell imperforate elongate-conic, pointed, exactly like C. badius 
in contour ; polished, purplish-pink, darker toward the apex, with 
longitudinal zigzag or fiexuous white lines or stripes. Aperture as in 
C. badius. Alt. 30, diam. 14 mill. 

S. Australian Coasts. 

T.peronii Philippi, Conchyl. Cab., p. 135, t. 23, f. 9. — Fischer, 
Coq. Viv., p. 153, t. 50, £1,4; t. 51, f 3. — Monodonta lineata Lam. 
An. s. Vert., vii, p. 38 (not T. lineatus Da Costa nor Lam.) — T. 
"vermiculosus Kiener, Species et Icon., t. 50, f 4, t. 51, f o.— T.ful- 
oniaens Kiener, loc. cit., t. 50, f. 1. 

Exactly like C. badius in form and texture, but differing in the 
longitudinal white lines. T. fulmineus Kiener, is founded on a speci- 
men with very numerous oblique lines (fig. 12). The name lineatus 
of Lamarck has priority for this species, and is not preoccupied in 
Cantharidus. I follow Fischer in retaining Philippi's name, how- 
ever, as there is a lineatus in both Monodonta and Trochus s. s., both 
bearing date anterior to the present species. 



CANTHARIDUS. 133 

C. BELLULUS (Dkr.) Philippi. PL 34, fig. 5. 

Shell imperforate, elongate-conic, acute, solid, polished, grayish 
or pinkish, with a few spiral orange lines, two on the penultimate 
whorl ; the spaces between these lines marked with short white curved 
lines in pairs, often forming a figure 8 shaped pattern. Whorls 
about 8, nearly flat, the last rounded at the periphery ; spire 
attenuated toward the acute purplish apex ; aperture small, con- 
tracted, sulcate and iridescent within ; columella vertical, strongly 
toothed below, Alt. 15, diam. 7 mill. 

S. Australian Coasts. 

T. bellulus DuNKER in Philippi, Abbild. u. Beschr., ii, Trochus 
t. 7, f. 6.— Philippi, Conchyl. Cab., p. 134, t. 23, f 8.— Fischer, 
Coq. Viv., p. 154, t. 51, f. 1. 

A very attractive little species. The color-pattern is quite con- 
stant and characteristic. The interior of the mouth is more coarsely 
sulcate than in other species, showing only about 6 folds ; the outer 
and basal lips have a slight subraarginal porcellanous subdentate 
thickening, which stops a little space short of the upper termination 
of the outer lip, 

C. iRisoDONTES Quoy et Gaim. PI. 46, figs, 64-86. 

Shell imperforate, elongate-conic, pointed, solid, polished, yellow- 
ish, pink, or olive-green, with reddish or olive longitudinal lines in 
pairs, sometimes separate on the last whorl, and usually with 
numerous narroAV, rather obscure spiral pink or yellowish lines ; 
sometimes with a few series of white dots on the upper part ; spire 
conic, shorter, less attenuated than in C. bellulus ; whorls about 7, 
scarcely convex, the last not carinate, finely striate beneath, smooth 
above ; aperture rather large, often expanded smooth inside, lined 
with intensely green nacre ; columella strongly toothed below. 

Alt. 15, diam. 8 mill. 

S. Australian Coasts. 

T. irisodontes Quoy et Gaimard, Voy. de I'Astrol., iii, p. 246, t. 
63, f 7-12. — T. iriodon Philippi, Abbild. u. Beschreib, ii, Trochus 
t. 7, f 4, 5, 8; Conchyl. Cab., p. 136, t. 23, f 10, 11, 13, t. 43, f 
8.— Fischer, Coq. Viv., p. 160, t. 52, f. 3.—T. Mus Phil., Conchyl. 
Cab., p. 133, t. 25, f. Q.—Monodonta virgata Mke. Moll. Nov. Holl. 
spec, p. 15. — T. virgulatus Phil., Conchyl. Cab., p. 136, t. 23, f, 12. 
— T. minor Troschel (in Mus. Berol.) Philippi, Conchyl. Cab., p. 
137, t. 23, f 15. 



134 CANTHARIDUS, 

The coloration is quite variable, but usually is as described above. 
XJnicolored green specimens are before me. The aperture is some- 
times so dilated that the spire seems to lean to that side. I have not 
followed Philippi and Fischer in emending Quoy's irregularly 
formed name. By error, fig. 66 of this species was grouped on the 
plate with C. woodsianus. 

C. APiciNUS Menke. PI. 34, fig. 6, 7. 

Shell imperforate, elongated, solid, smooth, shining, grayish, or 
brownish-yellow, with numerous narrow obliquely longitudinal red 
lines; whole surface microscopically spirally striate, the strije coarser 
on the base ; whorls 8 to 9, nearly flat, upper Avhorls pink ; spire 
turrited, straight sided, acute ; sutures linear, sometimes white- 
margined ; body-whorl rounded at the periphery ; aperture slightly 
exceeding one-third the total length of shell, oval, beautifully 
iridescent within, smooth, not sulcate ; columella with a subacute 
tooth below the middle. Alt. 18, diam. 9 mill. 

W. Coast Axistralia (Preiss). 

Monodonta apicina Menke, Spec. Moll. Nov. Holl., p. 15 (1843) 
— T. apicinus Phil., Conchyl. Cab., p. 133, t. 23, f. 5. 

This species is more slender than any other Phasianotrochus known 
to me. It is allied to C. iriodon, but the coloration is different from 
any form of that species, consisting of very numerous narrow 
obliquely-descending red lines. 

Figure 6 is copied from Philippi. I have added that of a 
specimen which seems to belong to this species. 

Philippi's remarks are as follows : Of all the shells I know, this 
Trochid has the most brilliant luster. I count 11 to 12 whorls, 
which are completely flat on the specimens before me, although on 
those described by Menke they were somewhat convex below, con- 
tracted above ; under a lens there is seen a very finely, densely striate 
epidermis; these spiral stripe are more distinct on the base. The 
color is brownish-yellow, with numerous fine, crowded, oblique rust- 
brown longitudinal lines, often hard to perceive on account of the 
golden and violet iridescence, the centrum whitish. 

Alt. 22, diam. 9 mill. 

C. LEUCOSTiGMA Menke. PI. 46, figs. 82, 83. 

Shell imperforate, slender, elongated-conical, solid, polished, fawn- 
colored, darker at apex, marked with radiating pure Avhite or pink 
blotches or sparcely scattered spots ; all over microscopically spirally 



CANTHARIDUS. 135 

striate and with distant superficial linear sulci, 4 to 6 in number on 
the penultimate whorl ; whorls about 7, a trifle convex, the last 
rcHinded or subangulated at periphery ; aperture ovate, angular 
above, broadly rounded beneath, iridescent and sulcate within, col- 
umella arcuate, dentate below. 

Alt. 23, diam. 11 mill. ; alt. 14, diam. 7 mill. 

S. Australia. 

T. leucostigma Mke. in Philippi, Abbild. u. Beschreib, ii, Trochus 
t. 7, f. 7.— Phil., Conchyl. Cab., p. 138, t. 23, f. 16.— Fischer, Coq. 
Viv., p. 158, t. 52, f. 1. — T. leucostigmus Kiener, Spec, et Icon, 
genre Troque, t. 52, f. 1. — T. gracilis Anton in Philippi, Conchyl. 
Cab., p. 140, t. 23, f. 20.— Fischer, Coq. Viv., p. 156, t. 51, f. 2.— 
T. nitidus Kiener, Species et Icon., t. 51, f. 2 (not described). 

Var. gracilis Anton. PL 45, fig. 50. 

Small, slender, like C. leucostigma, but lacking white markings on 
the spire. Alt. 17, diam. 7 mill, or smaller. 

As Fischer remarks, this variety is like a miniature C. badius in 
coloration. 

C. NiTENS Kiener. PI. 46, fig. 77. 

Shell imperforate, conic-pyramidal, elongated, acute, whorls 7 to 
8, shining, buff" or ashen, elegantly variegated with minute spots of 
violet and white ; embryonic whorls smooth, the following planulate, 
sometimes prominent and dilated above the sutures, encircled by 
about 6 Vivx, the interstices striated ; last whorl carinated, encircled 
by a larger rib at the margin, slighily convex beneath, and orna- 
mented with 8 beautifully red-spotted concentric \irse ; columellar 
area margined with reddish-violet. Aperture rhomboidal ; columella 
white, arcuate, dentate at base. Alt. 15, diam. 11 mill. (Fischer.) 

A^istralian Coast; Kangaroo Id. 

T. nitens, Kiener, Species et Icon., t. 45, f. 4. — Fischer, Coq. Viv., 
p. 132, t. 45, f. 4. — T. lepidus Koch in Philippi, Conchyl, Cab., p. 

84, t. 15, f. 4. (?) 

This species is remarkable in its polished shell, elegantly variegated 
with red, violet and white, and the deep red color of the base and 
columella. It was discovered by Peron and Lesueur, naturalists of 
Captain Baudin's expedition to Southern lands. The individual 
figured by Kiener is a little adnormal ; its whorls project too much 



136 CANTHARIDUS. 

above the sutures. Generally the whorls of the spire are flat. 

(Fischer.) 

C. RUTiLUS A. Adams. PI. 34, fig. 8. 

Shell imperforate, conical, solid, shining, fawn-colored or light 
yellowish-olive, with numerous narrow oblique flexuous reddish 
longitudinal lines ; the upper whorls of the spire more or less 
marked Avith white and pink or olive spots arranged spirally ; spire 
conic, straight sided ; apex acute, white or buff; sutures linear, be- 
coming a trifle impressed around the last whorl ; whorls about 7, 
planulate, densely spirally striate, the stride stronger on the base ; 
penultimate whorl a trifle projecting above the suture ; body-whorl 
obtusely subangular at periphery ; aperture triangular-ovate, outer 
lip arcuate above, green-marginate just within the edge, this rim 
followed by a band of opaque white which is deposited thin, is not 
more than I2 mill, broad, and does not extend to the upper angle 
of aperture ; within this the mouth is very brilliantly iridescent, 
green. The columella is vertical, pearly, ending in an acute, com- 
pressed denticle. The parietal wall has a thin deposit of brilliantly 
iridescent Prussian blue nacre. Alt. 17, diam. lOl mill. 

Australia. 

Eleuchus rutilus A. Ad. P. Z. S., 1851, p. 171. 

This form is allied to C. apicinus Mke. ; resembling that species 
in the numerous reddish oblique lines. The upper whorls have a 
different color-pattern however, and the species is much less elevated, 
more conical. The ajjerture has a more triangular contour than any 
other species, although some forms of C. iriodon approach it some- 
what. 

C. PORCATUS Philippi. PI. 34, fig. 31. 

Shell elate-conic, subperforate, yellowish-green, golden-shining 
whorls plane, sculptured with five rounded ridges, equalling the 
interstices, the last angulated ; base elevated ; aperture higher than 
wide; columella vertical, entire. (Philippi) 

The shell is elevated-conical, nearly steeple-shaped, thin, imper- 
forate, consisting of 7 to 8 whorls. These are perfectly flat, the 
last passing into the much elevated base in an obtuse angle, and 
two-fifths the total height. The sculpture consists upon the upper 
surface of five rounded, slightly elevated girdles as wide as the 
interstices; upon the base of six. The aperture is rather quad- 
rangular, higher than broad ; the outer lip simple, [thin, the colu- 



CANTHARIDUS. 137 

mella rounded, without a projection, vertical, and bounded outside 
by an impressed line, having the appearance of an umbilical fissure. 
The color is yellowish-green, gold-shining, unmarked, the eroded 
apex appears white ; the lirre of the base are variegated with red. 

Alt. 11, diani. 8 mill. {Philippi.) 

Habitat unknown. 

T. porcatiis Phil., Zeitschr. f. Mai. 1849, p. 187 ; Conchyl. Cab., 
p. 294, t. 43, f. 9. — " Eleuchus sulcatus, Mus. Brit." teste Philippi. 

Probably a young Cantharidus. It is not an " Elenchus." 

C. NiTiDULus Philipi^i. PI. 34, fig. 32. 

Shell turrited-conical, smooth, shining, flesh-colwed, painted 
with spiral pale lines articulated with purple ; whorls little convex, 
separated by deep sutures, the last two-fifths the whole length, 
obtusely angular ; aperture patulous, higher than wide, violaceous 
inside, iridescent and smooth ; columella short, arcuate, terminat- 
ing in a strong tooth. (Philippi.) 

The shell is steeple-shaped, smooth and shining, thin, much like 
Tr. virgulatus in contour but very different in coloration. It con- 
sists of 7 to 8 whorls, slightly convex, separated by a deep suture; the 
last is over two-fifths the total length, and at the beginning is in- 
distinctly angular ; the base is strongly elevated ; the aperture is 
somewhat widened, higher than broad, rounded, the columella very 
short, curved, ending in a strong tooth. Upon a flesh-colored ground 
there are (on the upper surface) 5 whitish and purple-red articulated 
spiral lines, half as wide as their inter-spaces ; on the base there are 
nine or ten similar lines. The very smooth shining throat gives 
blue-violet reflections. Alt. 13, diam. 9 mill. 

Habitat nnknown. 

T. 7iitidulns Phil., Zeitschr. f Mai., 1849, p. 171 ; Conchyl. Cab., 
p. 295, t. 43, f. 10. 

Evidently allied to C iriodon, but probably a distinct species. 

B. scHRAYERi (Troschcl) Philippi. PI. 34, figs. 28, 29. 

Shell imperforate, elevated-conical, smooth, brown or grayish- 
corneous, painted with four wide white zones articulated with purple ; 
whorls flattened, the last obtusely angular, base convex, concentri- 
cally striate, painted with narrow white, brown-articulated lines ; 
aperture subtetragonal, higher than wide, over I the total length. 
Columella with a fine tooth at base. {Philippi.) 



138 CANTHARIDU3. 

This species is similar to T. inodon, T. virgulatus, T. Isetus and T. 
minor, but moi'e broadly conical, more distinctly angled at the 
periphery, the spire more depressed in proportion to the aperture, 
and finally the coloration is very diverse. Upon a yellowish or 
dirty flesh-colored ground there are first, upon the upper half of the 
whorl, two broad whitish bands, separated by a narrow space, and 
interrupted by narrow brownish-red streaks ; then two narrow white- 
and-purple spotted bands, of which the lower one is visible only 
upon the last whorl ; finally, there are on the ]>ase several narrow 
white-and-brown spotted concentric lines. 

Alt. lOi, diani. 8 mill. {Philijypi.) 

Tasmania (Schrayer). 

T. Sehrayeri Troschel (in Mus. R. Berolinensi). — T. Shayeri 
Philippi, Conchyl. Cab., p. 131, t. 23, f. 3. 
Evidently allied to the mutable C. iriodon. 

C. CHLORiTEs Philippi. PI. 51, fig. 12. 

Shell obliquely pyramidal, imperforate, yellowish-green ; base 
.slightly convex ; whorls transversely sulcate-striate, marginate ; 
suture profound ; aperture subquadi-angular, lip smooth within. 
(Phil.) 

The shell is exactly conical, the whorls entirely flat, the angle of 
the last rounded. Besides the feeble transverse lirse mentioned in 
the text, each whorl has 5 elevated transverse lines ; the l)ase has 
numerous ones, mostly punctate, the color is generally green, un- 
spotted. The aperture exhibits nothing notable ; the columella is 
pretty vertical. 

Alt. 7, diam. 6 mill. (Philippi.) 

West Coast Australia. 

T. chlorites Phil., Conchyl. Cab., p. 60, t. 13, f 2.— T. viridulus 
Mkp:., Moll. Nov. Holl. spec, p. 1 7. (Not T. viridulus Gmel.) 

Subgenus Bankivia (Beck) Krauss, 18-48. 
Section Bankivia (restricted). 

Bankivia Beck in Krauss, Die Sudafrikanischeu Moll., p. 105 
(1848). — Philippi, Handbuch der Conchyl. u. Malacozool., p. 212 
(1853).— H. & A. Ad., Genera Rec. Moll, i, p. 425.— Fischer, 
Manuel de Conchyl., p. 819. — Tryon, Struct, and Syst. Conch., ii, 
p. 313. 



CANTHARIDUS. 



139 



The animal of Bankivia is unknown. The species have been 
grouped with Pliasiauella by some authors, but undoubtedly belong 
in the immediate vicinity of Cantharidus and Phasianotrochus. 
The nacreous layer is thin, but may be seen by chipping offHhe over- 
lying porcellanous coat. 

C. FAsciATUs Menke. PI. 40, figs. 28-33. 

Shell imperforate, elongated, turrited, thin, polished and shining, 
white, creamy or pink, with spiral bands of pink, purplish-red or 
purplish-brown, or narrow oblique zigzag stripes of pinkish-brown, 
usually with a narrow subsutural fascia of dark or pinkish. Spire 
elevated, slender; apex a little blunt, dark; whorls about 9, very 
slightly convex, a trifle impressed below the sutures ; surface (under 
a lens) very densely, finely spirally striate ; last whorl rounded ; 
base with a few concentric, separated, impressed lines; aperture ovate, 
outer lip thin, acute, columella sinuous, arcuate above and narrowly 
reflexed, obliquely truncate below. Alt 19, diam. 8 mill. 

Southern Australian Shores. 

PhasianeUa fasciata Menke, Synops. Meth. Moll., p. 141. — P. 
falmhiata Menke and P. tmdateUa Menke, loc. cit., p. 141. (1830). 
— Bankivia varians (Beck) Krauss, Die Siidaf. Moll. p. 105, t. 6, f. 
1. — Philippi, Conchyl. Cab. (Monogr. PhasianeUa and Bankivia), 
p. 33, t. 5, f. 1-5.— Angas, p. Z. S. 1867, p. 216.— Von Martens 
Jahrb. d. deutsch. Mai. Gesell. 1874, p. ISO.— Trochus (Baukivia) 
fasciatus Watson. Rept. on "Challenger" Gasteropoda, p. 64. — B. 
purpurascens A. Ad. P. Z. S. 1851, p. 171. — B. major A. Ad. P. Z. 
S. 1851, p. 171.— P. nitida A. Ad. P. Z. S. 1851, p! 172. 

A variable species in size and coloration. I have seen, besides 
the color-patterns noticed in the description above, unicolored deep 
purple examples. 

Section Leiopyrga, H. and A. Adams. 

Leiopyrga H. and A. Ad., Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. 3d ser., xi, 
p. 19 (186B). —Liopyrga Fischer, Manuel, p. 810. 

Of the animal of Leiopyrga pieturata Watson says : It has a 
thin membranaceous Trochus-like operculum, but of fewer whorls 
than usual in the genus. The nacre of the shell is very marked. 
The mantle of the animal is very large and capacious, but thin. 
The tentacles are large and very long, strongly ciliated with a long 
deep posterior channel running down their whole length. The 
eyes are very minute, on the end of rather long and fine tubercles. 



140 CANTHARIDUS. 

There are four pedal appendages on the right and three on the left 
side, and there are also the two head lappets common to Trochus. 
The teeth are like those of Margarita. {Challenger Gasterojioda, 
p. 65.) 

C. PiCTURATA H. and A. Adams. PI. 45, figs. 46-48. 

Shell narrowly perforate, turrited, slender, thin, shining, white^ 
Avith longitudinal undulating or zigzag pinkish or purplish lines, 
often uniting to form spots at the periphery, or prominently angled 
there ; sometimes with spiral bands at periphery and around umbili- 
cus ; whorls about 7, convex, more or less carinated at the periphery, 
the carina exserted above the sutures on the spire ; surface of base 
marked by distant impressed concentric grooves ; suture margined ; 
aperture oval, outer lip thin, columella thin, arcuate not truncate, 
and slightly expanded above, but not covering the umbilicus. 

Alt. 8-12, diam 5-7 mill. 

St. Vincent's Gulf and Port Jackson, Australia ; Stuart Id., 

Ne\o Zealand. 

L.picturata H. & A. Ad. Ann. and Mag. N. H., 1863, p. 19.— 
Angas, p. Z. S. 1865, p. 181 ; P. Z. S. 1867, p. '21Q.—Banhivia 
(Leiopyrga) picturata E. A. Smith, Zool. Coll. H. M. S, ' Alert ' p. 
75. — Trochus (Leiopyrga) picturata Watson, Rept. Challenger 
Gasteropoda, p. 65. 

The specimens of this species before me are like those described by 
the brothers Adams. There seems to be the same variations in color 
shown by Bankivia fasciatus. Mr. Smith says : A variety has the 
middle of the whorls encircled by a plain narrow zone, without the 
series of spots at the periphery of the last. Messrs. Adams de- 
scribed these spots as being ' round ' in the specimen they examined ; 
in those before me they are rather angular, being the zigzag turn of 
the longitudinal lines. A third variety has a pale band around the 
middle of the last volution which falls at the lower part of the 
upper ones, the lower portion being pinkish or closely lineolated 
with pink. The lower half of the body-whorl has a broad pinkish 
band beneath the central white one, which is succeeded by a nar- 
rower plain zone, which in turn is followed by another fine pink 
one. A fourth form, with the exception of the upper part of the 
spire and the umbilical region, is of a uniform grayish violet. 
* * * * The spiral sulcation and ridging is much more developed 
in some specimens than others. (Zool. Coll. ' Alert,' p. 75.) 



CANTHARIDU8. 141 

C CINGULATA A. Adams. Unfigured. . 

Shell pyramidal-turbinate, narrowly perforate, thin, shining, 
purplish, the base whitish, with a series of rufous spots ; w^horls 4, 
plane, marked with distant elevated cinguli (3 on the last whorl) ; 
base concentrically deeply Urate; umbilical region surrounded by 
an elevated ridge. {Ad.') 

Port Essington. (tyuming.) 

Lelopyrga cingtdata A. Ad., P. Z. S., 1863, p. 507. 

This is a second and very distinct species of a genus proposed by 
my brother and myself under the name o{ Lelopyrga. The present 
species has the whorls encircled with three transverse ridges, and 
there is a conspicuous ridge around the region of the umbilicus. 
(^Adams.) 

Subgenus Thalotia Gray, 1847. 
Section Thalotia (restricted). 

Thalotia Gray (" Synops. Brit. Mus. 1840"?) P. Z. S. 1847, p. 
145; Guide syst. dist. Moll. Brit. ]\[us., p. 150. (1857).— H. and 
A. Ad., Genera, i, p. 420. — Fischer, Manuel, p. 819. 
C. coNicus Gray. PI. 46, fig. 73. 

Shell imperforate, elevated conical, solid, pinkish or grayish 
white with crimson apex and numerous close longitudinal dark red- 
dish-brown stripes, often cut into tessellations by the spiral grooves 
of the surface ; spire straightly conical ; apex acute ; sutures linear ; 
whorls about 7, nearly planulute, the last obtusely subangular at 
the periphery; whorls of spire encircled by 5 or 6 more or less 
grauose lirse, last whorl with about 13 or 14; wrinkles of increment 
more or less prominent; aperture rhomboidal ; peristome thick, 
plicate within ; columella straight, denticulate, with a strong basal 
truncation. Alt. 18, diara. 13 mill. ; alt. 21, diam. 15 mill. 

Western Australia, Southern Australia and Northern Tasmania. 

Monodonta conica Gray, in Capt. King's Survey of Australia, ii, 
p. 479 (1827).— T. conicus Philippi, Conchyl. Cab. p. 130, t. 23, 
f. 1. — Fischer, Coq. Viv. p. 135, t. 46, f. 2. — Brazier, Proc. Roy. 
Soc. Tasmania, 1886, p. 197 (1889). 

Thalotia conica Angas P. Z. S. 1865, p. 179.—.^ ? T. pictus 
Wood, Index Test, suppl. t. 5, f 28. — Thalotia jncta A. Ad. P. Z. S. 
1851, p. 172.— Angas, P. Z. S. 1865, p. 179.— Tenison-Woods, 



142 CANTHARIDUS. 

Proc. Roy. Soc. Tasm. (1877), p. 41. — Monodonta turrita Mke., 
Moll. Nov. Holl., p. 15. — T. lelimanni Kiener, Species, genre 
Trochus, t. 46, f. 2 (not of Menke). — Homer, et Jacq., Voy. an 
Pole-Sud., Zool. V, p. 54, t. 14, f. 7-8. — Chenu, Manuel, i, p. 359, f. 
2659.— Thalotia woodsiana Angas, P. Z. S. 1872, p. 611, t. 42, f. 4, 
5.— T. Troschelii Philippi, Conchyl. Cab., p. 131, t. 23, f. 2. 

The above synonymy is partly taken from that compiled by 
Brazier, who has published an excellent paper on Tasmanian 
TrochidcB in Proc. Roy. Soc. Tasmania, for 1886. 

Rather variable in sculpture ; the spaces between the spiral ribs 
often occupied b}' lirulpe. 

I am wholly unable to see any differential characters in INIr. 
Angas' T. woodsiana, except that it is narrower than the majority 
of specimens of C. conicus. The description corresponds absolutely 
with C. conicus. The original figures are copied on pi. 46, figs. 
67, 68. 

C BLANDiANUS Crosse. PI. 40, fig. 22. 

Shell imperforate, elevated-conical, solid, rather thick, ornamented 
with numerous oblique longitudinally impressed stripe and spiral 
lirP8, articulated with while and violaceous, on a violet-rose ground- 
color; suture little impressed; whorls 7, plane, the embryonic IJ 
smooth, purplish, white edged ; the remainder striate, with 6 spiral 
line; the last augulated, slightly descending, nearly flat beneath, 
decussated by spiral cinguli and oblique strire above ; aperture a 
little oblique, subquadrate, pearly and lirate within, the lira near 
the lip-margin more elevated, as opaque rugse. Umbilical tract 
sliglitly concave in the vicinity of the columella; columellar mar- 
gin subarcuate, rugose, strongly uniplicate ; basal margin corrugated, 
outer margin thickened, granulate within. 

Alt. 18 J, diara. 14 mill. ( Crosse.) 

St. Vincent's Gulf, South Australia, 

T. Blandianus Crosse, Journ. de Conchyl. 1864, p. 339, t. 13, 
f 1. 

C. ABNORMis Crosse. PI. 40, fig. 42. 

Shell imperforate, subelevated conical, thick, rather solid, bufiish- 
tawny, ornamented with spiral series of little beads (white and 
brown articulated) alternating with obsolete strife; suture little im- 
pressed ; whorls 6, convexo-plane, the apical 2 whitish, smooth, the 
following articulate-cingulate, the last slightly descending, subcom- 



CANTHARIDUS. 143 

pressed, obsoletely angular ; base slightly convex and like the 
upper surface in color ; aperture a little oblique, subquadrate, 
lirate within ; columellar margin subarcuate, uniplicate, basal and 
outer margins thickened, rugose within, 
Alt. 15, diam. 10 mill. (Crosse.) 

St. Viitceiifs Gulf, South Australia. 

T. abnormis Crosse, Journ. de Conchyl. 1864, p. 341, t. 13, f. 2. 

C. ELONGATus Wood. PL 45, fig. 56. 

Shell imperforate or very narrowly perforate, conic-elongated, 
thick, whitish, ornamented with radiating livid-brown flammules, 
brown punctulate ; whorls 9, convex, spirally lirate (the Yivce un- 
equal) and longitudinally nodose-costate, the nodules more promi- 
nent below ; sutures impressed ; last whorl angulated, depressed 
beneath the sutures, nodulous at the periphery ; very convex and 
with about 8 concentric lir?e beneath, the interstices with inter- 
calated lirulre ; aperture subquadrate, canaliculate within ; basal 
margin arcuate, plicate ; columella subaugular, concave, stronglv 
truncate at base, with a short callous over the umbilicus. 

Alt. 33, diam. 22 mill. (Fischer.) 

Neiv Caledonian Archijyelago. 

T. elougatus Wood, Ind. Test., suppl, t. 5, f. 19. — Philippi, 
Conchyl. Cab., p. 200, t. 30, f 4 ; Abbild. u. Beschr. ii, Trochus t. 

6, f. 6.— r. attenuatus Jonas, Zeitschr. £ Mai. 1844, p. 170. 
Distinct from other species in its elongated form and strong longi- 
tudinal plication. 

C. SERPENTiNus Quoy. PI. 46, fig. 63. 

Shell narrowly perforated, thick, conical, apex acute, grayish- 
green, painted with radiating chestnut and white flammules; Avhorls 

7, planulate, the first eroded, buft* the following scarcely shining, 
encircled by 6 to 7 unequal Vine, above and beneath the suture 
margined and obsoletely nodulose ; last whorl carinated, convex 
beneath and ornamented with 7 articulated concentric lirte ; aper- 
ture rhomboidal; columella lightly arcuate, subtruncate below. 

Alt. 22, diam. 18 mill. (Fischer.) 

Guam, Marianne Archipelago. 

T. serpentinus Quoy in Kiener, species, Genre Trochus, t. 45, 
f. 3. — Chenu, Manuel, ii, f 2661. — Fischer, Coq. Viv., 
t. 45, f. 3. 

L { e R A ;- 



144 CANTHARIDUS. 

This shell is quite distinct from its congeners, and remarkable for 
its rays of brown, more or less shaded with a greenish hue. It 
belongs to the group of T. elongatus and Kotschyi. (Fischer.) 

C. KOTSCHYI Philippi. PI. 46, figs. 70-72. 

Shell narrowly perforated, conoidal, whitish-ashen, ornamented 
with undulating, oblique, radiating chestnut or blackish stripes ; 
spire acute ; whorls 7, the first eroded, the remainder angulated and 
nodulose above ; above the carina obliquely nodulose, below the 
carina spirally lirate; lirse 4; last whorl biangular, convex beneath, 
and with 7 concentric brown-spotted lirie. Aperture subquadrate ; 
columella arcuate, w^hite, sinuous, below strongly truncate-dentate. 

Alt. 30, diam. 24 mill. (Fischer.) 

Karrak, Persia. 

T. kotschyi Phil., Zeitschr. f Mai., 1848, p. 127 ; Conchyl. Cab., 
p. 234, t. 35, f 8.— Fischer, Coq. Viv., p. 207, t. 69, f. 1. 

C. PYRGOs Philippi. PL 46, figs. 74-76. 

Shell imperforate, acutely conical, rather thin ; whorls 9, planu- 
late, ashen or brownish, maculate or obliquely striped with brown ; 
obliquely arcuately peculiarly crispate-striate, spirally cingulate, 6 
unequal granose cinguli on the penultimate whorl as wide or nar- 
rower than the interstices, which frequently bear minute lirulse, the 
upper and lower cinguli more prominent, the others equal. Last 
whorl carinated ; base convex and lirate (with about 8 lirse and in- 
terstitial lirulie) ; aperture rhomboidal, sulcate within ; lip thin ; 
basal margin subcrenulated ; columella subhorizontal, slightly 
arcuate, subtruncate at base, expanding in a short callous over or 
nearly over the umbilicus above. 

Alt. 20, diam. 15 mill; alt. 23, diam. 17 mill. 

Wallis Is. Port Jackson, Australia. 

T. pyrgos Phil. Zeitschr. f. Mai. 1849, p. 189 ; Conchyl. Cab., 
p. 297, t. 43, f 14.— Fischer, Coq. Viv., p. 368, t. 112, f. 4.— 
? Thalotia zebrides A. Ad., P. Z. S. 1851, p. 173. 

Distinguished by its straightly conical form, peculiarly crispate 
striation, and spiral granose like. 

Two trays of this species are before me ; one marked " Java," I 
know not on whose authority ; the other was received from Dr. J. 
C. Cox, from Port Jackson. 



CANTHARIDUS. 145 

C. TORRESi E. A. Smith. PI 46, fig. 62. 

Shell sharply conical, subperforated or with the perforation con- 
cealed, greenish (sometimes pinkish red), with ol)liqne white nar- 
row stripes and darker green or rosy black spotting at the base of 
the whorls and upon the angle of the last. Volutions about 8, flat, 
margined at the lower part with two rows of closely-jxxcked 
granules, rather more prominent than five others above. Between 
these, in well-preserved specimens, very fine lirse (one in each inter- 
stice) and oblique lines of growth are discernable. Last whorl 
rather acutely angled at the periphery, beneath with about 9 con- 
centric rows of granules alternating with others very much finer 
having smaller subobsolete tubercles. The aperture is obliquely 
subquadrate ; columella a little arcuate at the upper part, white, re- 
flexed over the white umbilical region and subtruncate anteriorly. 

Alt. 12, diam. 9^ ; alt. 13, diam. 12 mill. (Smith.) 

Prince of Wales Channel, Torres Straits. 

There are two varieties of this pretty species, which may be 
termed the green and pink. In the green variety the l)ase in three 
out of the four examples is somewhat pinkish, radiately streaked 
with white, whilst in the fourth specimen it is green with irregular 
streaks and has a more tessellated aspect. The perforation is small, 
and may either be concealed by a thin callosity or remain open. 
This is a smaller species than T. fragum Phil., has more numerous 
granules (of which there are five instead of four rows besides the 
basal girdle), and intervening fine lirse are generally to be met with 
on the spire which are wanting in Philippi's shell. I should also 
observe that the columella of T. fragun, judging from the figure, is 
less incurved than in this form. (Smith.) 

T. (Thalotia) torresi E. A. Smith, Zool. Coll. H. M. S. ' Alert,' 
p. 72, t. vi, f. A. (1884.) 

Evidently closely allied to C. pyrgos Phil. 

C. FLiNDERSi Fischer. PL 46, fig. 81. 

Shell very narrowly perforate, conical, rather thick; whorls 7 to 
8, planulate, the first eroded, the succeeding whitish-ashen, radiated 
with narrow, close and flexuose blackish and violaceous lines ; 
spirally cingulate ; lirie 6 on penultimate whorl ; last whorl sub- 
angular, a little depressed above, dilated in the middle ; base con- 
10 



146 CA>rTHARIDUS. 

vex, ornamented with about 8 liroe ; aperture rhomboidal ; lip sim- 
ple ; colli niella arcuate, truncate below. 
Alt. 16, diam. 13 mill. (Fischer.) 

South Australia. 

T. flindersi Fischer, Jour, de Concliyl. xxvi, 1878, p. 65 ; Coq. 
Yiv., p. 354, t. 110, f. 3. 

Distinguished from C. freycineti by the less conical form, wider 
base, stronger spiral ridges, more truncated columellar tooth and 
different coloration. 

C. FREYCINETI Fischer. PL 45, fig. 59. 

Shell narrowly perforate, conical, rather thick ; whorls 7, planu- 
late, the first eroded, buff, the remainder whitish, ornamented with 
rosy dots and narrow flexuous chestnut flammules ; spirally cingu- 
late, about 8 lirte on penultimate whorl ; last whorl carinated ; base 
convex with about 8 concentric lirie ; ajjerture subrhomboidal ; lip 
simple ; columella white, obsoletely nodose-truncate below. 

Alt. 16, diam. 12 mill. (Fischer.) 

Is. of St. Peter and St. Francis, S. Australia. 

T. freycineti Fischer, Journ. de Conchyl. 1878, p. 64 ; Coq. Viv., 
p. 355, t. 110, f. 4. 

The form of this shell is more regularly conical than in T. flin- 
dersi or T. freycineti. 

C. BAUDiNi Fischer. PL 46, fig. 80. 

Shell imperforate, conic-elongate, rather thick ; whorls 6 to 7, 
planulate, the first buff, eroded, the following whitish, ornamented 
with sparce rosy points and angular chestnut streaks ; spirally 
lirate, line about 8 on penultimate whorl ; last whorl subangular, 
depressed above ; base convex, with about 8 concentric lirse ; aper- 
ture rhomboidal ; lip simple ; columella short, subnodose-truncate 
below. Alt. 11, diam. 9 mill. (Fischer.) 

King Island, S. Australia. 

T. haudini Fischer, Journ. de Conchyl. 1878, p. 65 ; Coq. Viv,, 
p. 356, t. 110, f. 5. 

Differs from the two preceding species in lacking an umbilical 
perforation, smaller size, by the depression of the upper part of the 
whorl and the coloration. 



CANTHARIDUS. 147 

C. YOKOHAMENSis Bock. PI. 40, fig. 40. 

Shell imperforate, acutely j^yrainidal, dull white, marked at 
intervals with irregular dark brown blotches, and the base orna- 
mented with brown lines radiating from the center (where they are 
paler, almost orange) to the periphery. Whorls 7, quite flat, 
spirally ridged ; ridges crenulate or subgranular through being 
crossed by oblique raised stride ; on the upper whorls there are 
about 6 ridges, and on the last, which is acutely angled at the mid- 
dle, they are about 14 in number ; that at the carina consisting of 
two or three small approximated ones, and hence broader than the 
rest. Aperture slightly oblique, subquadrate, upper half above the 
carina shallowly sulcate, lower poxlion smooth; columella white, 
callous, terminating in an oblique truncation. 

Alt. 18, diam. 15 mill. {Bock.) 

Yokohiivta, J(tpan. 

T. (Thalotia) yokohamensis Carl Bock, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 
1878, p. 727, t. 46, f 3. 

C. GiLvus Philippi. PI. 51, fig. 15. 

Shell small, conical, imperforate, transversely granulate-sulcate, 
white, longitudinally painted with dirty yellowish stripes ; whorls 
flattened, marginated and prominent at base, the last one angular, 
encircled by six elevated granose cinguli ; base flat, closely sulcate, 
scarcely granulate ; aperture depressed, rhomboidal ; columella 
slightly oblique, cylindrical, scarcely truncate at base. 

Alt. 11, diam. di mill. (Philippi) 

Habitat unknown. 

T. gilvus, Phil., Zeitschr. f. Mai. 1849, p. 157 ; Conchyl. Cab., p. 
298, t. 43, f 16. 

C. MUNDULA Adams and Angas. Unfigured. 

Shell elevated-conical, subperforate, whitish, obsoletely painted 
with longitudinal purplish flammules ; whorls plane, concave in the 
middle, at the sutures with a prominent rounded ridge, transversely 
lirate, lir?e equal, subgranulose, base concentrically lirate, with 
radiating stri?e in the interstices ; aperture subquadrate ; lip arcuate, 
ending anteriorly in an obtuse tooth ; lip obsoletely sulcate within. 

Alt. 12, diam. 9 mill. (Ad. and Ang.) 

Shark's Bay, Western Australia. 

Thalotia muadula Ad. and Ang. P. Z. S. 1864, p. 37. 



148 CANTHARIDUS. 

Characterized by the rounded elevated ridge at the sutures, the 
transverse granular lirse, and the obscure flame-like longitudinal 
markings. {Ad. and Ang.) 

Section Odontotrochus Fisher, 1880. 

Odontotrochus Fischer, Coquiiles Vivantes, Monograph of 
Trochus, p. 419 (1880) ; Manuel de Conchyl, p. 819. 

C. CHLOROSTOMus Menke, PI. 40, fig. 25, 26. 

Shell imperforate, conical, elevated-trochiform, solid, first whorls 
red, the following reddish-brown, more or less tinged with l)ufF, and 
in places with olive-green, and sparsely maculate with whitish, the 
spiral ribs more or less articulated minutely with whitish ; whorls 
8 to 9, flat or a trifle concave, acutely carinated, the carina a trifle 
projecting above the sutures; upper surfiice of each whorl encircled 
by 10 to 12 spiral lirae, only slightly elevated, and showing strong, 
regular oblique strte of increment in the interliral interstices; base 
flat, wath about 10 concentric narrow lira, strongly, regularly 
radiately striate ; aperture rhomboidal, very oblique, iridescent and 
sulcate within ; outer and basal lips edged with green, plicate-dentic- 
ulate within ; columella curved, ending in a strong tooth at base, 
green. Alt. 24, diam. 20 mill.; alt. 25, diam. 18 mill. 

Australian shores. 

T. ehlorostomus Menke, Moll. nov. HoU. spec, p. 17. — Philippi, 
Abbild. u. Beschr. i, Trochus t. 2, f. 8 ; Conchyl. Cab., p. 106, t. 17, 
f. 6 ; p. 43, f. 5.— Fischer, Coq. Viv., p. 282, t. 92, f. 2.—Ziziphinus 
chlorostoma Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 26. 

Peculiar in the elevated straightly conical form, carinated 
periphery and coloration. 

Unjigured, unidentified species of Cantharidus, Elenchus, Thalotia, 
etc. 

Elenchus dilatatus Sowerby. Testa brevi, subcinerea, spir- 
aliter subdistanter lirata ; spira brevi ; anfr. quatuor, ultimo lato ; 
apertura dilatata, viridi-coeruleo iridescente. (Sowb.) 

New Zealand (Mr. Brazier). 

Remarkable for the expansion of the last whorl. (Soivb.) 

Elenchus dilatatus G. B. Sowerby in Proc. Zool. Soc. 1870, p. 
251. — Cantharidus dilatatus Hutton, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W. 
1884, p. 363. 

Elenchus splendidulus Swainson (Treatise on MalacoL, p. 
352). An undescribed Cantharidus. 



CANTHARIDUS. 149 

Elenchus ocellatus Gould. Testa parva, elevata, ovato-conica, 
polita, postice ex rufo vivescens, antice rubescens, lineis volventibus 
pallidis rufoiuarginatis circ. 4 et lineis flexuosus obliqiiis ornata ; 
anfr. 7, vix convexis, puiictis albis circ. 6 cinctis, ultimo ad 
peripheram obtuse angulato, basi convexo ; apertura ovata, iutus 
virescens ; columella pallide, dente obsoleto albido instructa. 

Axis 12 ; diam. 7 mill. Allied to E. minor. (Gould.) 

Sydney, N. S. Wales. 

Gould, Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist, viii, 1861, p. 18. 

Elenchus exiguus Gould. Testa minuta, Isevis, ovato-conica, 
acute, flavide-rosacea vel fulvida, plus minusve lineis flexuosis 
saturalioribus vel vittis articulatis ornata ; anfr. u, ventricosis ; 
apertura rotundato-ovata ; columella planata, decolorata, dente 
acuto deflecto munita. Axis 2, diam. 1* mill. (Gould.) 

Port Jackson. 

Gould, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H. viii, 1861, p. 18. 

Cantharidus lineolaris Gould. Testa elevato-conica, jDerforata, 
aureo-vividis, lineis angulatis luteis prope suturam dilatatis ibi 
nigro maculatis, striis incremeuti et striis volventibus subtilissimis 
reticulata; anfr. 7, planulatis, ultimo angulato; apertura parva> 
subtriangularis. Axis 7, diam. 4 mill. (Gould.) 

Sydney, N. S. Wales. 

Gould, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H. viii, 1861, p. 18. 

Canthiridus cinguliger a. Ad. Testa elevato-conica, cinerea, 
punctis fuscis in lineis flammulatis depositis, transversim sulcata ; 
anfr. planis, cingula prominenti supra suturam, anfractu ultimo 
angulato, cingulo piano cincto; umbilico subobtecto ; columella 

recta ; labro intus albo, lasvi. (A. Ad.) 

Habitat unknown. 

A. Ad. P. Z. S. 1851, p. 169. 

Canthiridus punctulosus A. Ad. Testa elevato-conica, im- 
perforata, l?evi, nitida, cinerea, transversim sulcata ; cingulis trans- 
versis, luteo-alboque punctatis nigro-maculatis, ornata ; anfr. planis, 
ultimo acute angulato ; regione umbilicali rosea ; apertura sub- 
quadrata ; columella alba, recta, antice subtruncata ; labro intus 
lievi, limbo punctulato. (A. Ad^ 

S^van River, 4 fins. (Jukes). 

A. Ad. p. Z. S. 1851, p. 169. 



150 CANTHARIDUS. 

Canthiridus moniliger a. Ad. Testa elevato-conica ini- 
perforata, cinerea, cingulis niouiliformilius transversis ornata ; iuter- 
stitiis longitudinaliter elevate slriatis ; anfr. planis, apice purpureo, 
sutura canaliculata ; anfractu ultimo angulato ; apertura subquad- 
rata ; columella aiitice subtruneata ; labro intus sulcato. (A. Ad.) 

Swan River, 8 fms. (Jukes.) 

A. Ad. p. Z. S. 1851, p. 169. 

Canthiridus articularis a. Ad. Testa elevato-conica, lajvi, 
nitida, ciuerea ; cingulis confertis, nigro alboque articulatis ornata ; 
interstitiis longitudinaliter striatis ; anfr. planis, ultimo angulato, 
basi planiuscula, cingulis articulatis sculpta ; apertura subquadrata ; 
columella autice subtruneata ; labro intus Irevi, limbo articulato. 
(A. Ad.) 

Habitat unknoivu. 

A Adams, P. Z. S. 1851, p. 170. 

Canthiridus artizona A. Ad. Testa elevate conoidea, pallida ; 
cingulis carneolis angustis elevatis transversis ornata ; interstitiis 
transversim striatis; anfractu ultimo angulato ; apertura intus vir- 
idescenti ; labro intus lirato, limbo rufo articulato. (A. Ad.) 

Habitat iinknoivn. 

A. Adams, P. Z. S. 1851, p. 170. 

Canthiridus rufozona A. Ad. Testa conoidea, cingulis rufis 
transversis, interstitiis planis traversa ; anfractu ultimo rotundato ; 
labro intus all)o, la3vi, lini))o rufo-articulato ; columella alba. (Ad.) 

Habitat unknown. 

A. Adams, P. Z. S. 1851, p. 1870. 

Canthiridus nigricans A. Ad. Testa depresso-conica atro- 
purpurea, cingulis elevatis transversis ornata ; interstitiis longitudi- 
naliter oblique striatis ; anfractu ultimo subangulato ; labro intus 
albo, sublsevi, limbo nigro. (A. Ad.) 

Habitat unknown. 

A. Adams, P. Z. S. 1851, p. 170. 

Canthiridus pallidulus A. Ad. Testa elevato-conica, imperfo- 
rata, pallida ; cingulis transversis elevatis luteo-articulatus ornata ', 
interstitiis concinne longitudinaliter striatis ; columella subrecta, in 
medio tumida; lal)ro intus lirato. (Ad.) 

Australia. 

A. Adams, P. Z.S. 1851, p. 170. 



CANTHARIDUS. 151 

Eleuchus vulgaris a. Ad. Testa ovato-conoidea, subturrita, im- 
perforata, laevigata, virenti, trausversim tenuissime striata ; lineis 
undulatis viridis picta; basi convexa ; apertura ovata ; columella 
basi dente acuto termiuata; labro postice subangulato. (A. Ad.) 

Sivan River. 

A. Adams, in P. Z. S. 1851, p. 171. 
Thalotia tesselata Tenison-Woods. 

Shell small, subumbilicate, conical, pale olive, spotted or tessel- 
lated with white; whorls 7, sub-convex, everywhere finely obliquely> 
spirally transversely striate ; furnished with five keels which are 
broad, flattened, and the upper and lower ones broader and more 
prominent ; base convex, keeled ; aperture sub-quadrate, outer 
lip acute, thin, margined within , inner lip white, conspicuous ; 
throat silvery nacreous, lirate. The interstices between the keels 
sometimes striate. Alt. 6, diam. 42 mill. {Ten.-Woods.) 

Tasmania. 

Tenison-Woods, in Trans, and Proc. Roy. Soc. A^ict. xiv, p. 58. 
(1877). 

Thalotia dlbia Tenison-Woods. 

Shell turbinately conical, solid, whorls intensely rose-purjile and 
rose flamed ; whorls 7, convex (the four spiral flattened) keels 4, 
small, distant, conspicuously granular; granules small, neat, and 
rose-purple in color ; interstices clothed with a yellow silky perio- 
straca ; suture deep, broadly canaliculate ; base flattened, spirally 
lirate and radiately striate ; aperture sub-quadrate, thickened, con- 
spicuously raultidentate ; columella tuberculate, margined and 
closely toothed. Alt. 18, diam. 15 mill. 

In general form resembling T. eonica, but smaller, and more 
closely ornamented. The mouth is also an approach to a Chtnculus. 
( Tenison- Woods.) 

Clark's Islands. 

Tenison-Woods, in Trans, and Proc. Roy. Soc. Vict, xiv, p. 59 
(1877). 
Thalotia maeginata Tenison-Woods. 

Shell narrowly conical, oblique, solid, tessellated with small olive 
or purjile spots; whorls 82, concave above, below broadly carinate 
or marginate, girdled with four lines of granules, of wliich the up- 
permost is often the largest, closely decussate with oblique squamose 
striie ; keel elevated, somewhat flattened, and i^rojecting over the 



152 CANTHARIDUS. 

suture in a conspicuous manner ; granules rounded, subol^solete ; 
apex acute, aperture obliquely quadrate, smooth, nacreous, of a 
rosy silver hue, with one conspicuous angular groove in the 
middle ; columella rounded, truncate below, not tuberculate ; base 
convexly rounded, subumbilicate, elegantly Urate, the lir?e being 
granular and alternating lai-ge and small, tessellate and radiately 
striate. Alt. 18, diam. 14 mill. 

The young are distinctly umbilicate. Many specimens have be- 
tween the larger lir^ smaller ones on the whorls of the spire. The 
species differs especially from all previously described in the roundly 
convex base, and non-tuberculose columella. It conies very near to 
T. zebrides Ad. which is common at Moreton Bay, and with which it 
has been previously confounded {Tenison- Woods). 

Moreton Bay. 

J. E. Tenison-Woods, in Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W. iv, p. 109 
(1880). 

Thalotia zebuensis a. Adams. Testa elevato-conoidea, per- 
forata, atro-fusca, fasciis longitudinalibus ornata, transversim sul- 
cata ; anfr. planulatis, ultimo rotundato, basi convexa ; labio sub- 
recto, antice reflexo, dilatato ; apertura subcirculari, intus alba ; 
labro intus lievi, atro-marginato. (J. Ad.) 

San Nicholas, Id. of Zebu, in sandy mud, 6 fms. {Cuming.) 

A. Ad. in P. Z. S. 1851, p. 172. 

Thalotia strigata A. Adams. Testa turrita-conica, perforate, 
albida, fasciis latis rufo-fuscis radiata ; anfr. in medio angulatis, 
porcis transversis subgranulosus, interstitiis longitudinaliter striatis 
ornata, basi convexa, concentrice porcata ; umbilico aperto ; aper- 
tura subrotundata; columella subflexuosa, basi truncata ; labro 
intus lirato, margine crenulato. {A. Ad.) 

Swan Point, N. Australia {Drlng). 

A. Adams, P. Z. S. 1851, p. 173. 

Thalotia zebrides A. Adams. Testa turrito-conica, subjDer- 
forata, virescenti, lineis atropurpureis longitudinalibus ornata, 
porcis transversis confertis sculpta ; longitudinaliter striata, basi 
convexa ; umbilico subobtecto ; columella sinuata, callo terminata ; 
labro intus lirato, margine atro-purpureo articulato. {A. Ad.) 

Habitat unknoivn. 

A. Adams in P. Z. S. 1851, p. 173. 

Thalotia suturalis A. Adams. Testa conica, subperforata, 
virescenti, lineis purpureis longitudinalibus undulatis ornata ; trans- 



CANTIIARIDUS. 153 

versini lirata, longitudinaliter striata ; anfractibus planis, supra 
suturam elevatis ; sutura caualiculata, basi planiusciila ; columella 
brevi, basi tuberculo terminata; labro iiitus l?evi, viridi. (A. Ad.) 

Cape Upstart, Torres Sis., Australia; under stones at low water. 
(Bring.) 

A. Adams, P. Z. S. 1851, p. 173. 

Thalotia tricingulata a. Adams. Testa conica, imperforate, 
nigra, lineis albis lougitudinalibus ornata ; anfr. angulatis, ultimo 
cingulis tribus trausversis prominentibus instructo ; basi convexa, 
ciugulis concentricis uigro alboque articulatis ornata ; labio ad 
basim tuberculato ; apertura subrotundata, intus alba ; labro intus 
liris elevatis, atro-marginato. (A. Ad.) 

Habitat unhioivn. 

A. Adams, P. Z. S. 1851, p. 173. 

Thalotia crenellifera A. Adams. Testa elevato conica, im- 
perforata ; rufescente, rubro maculosa ; spira acuminata, apice 
rubro ; anfractibus planiilatis, liris confertis, crenellatis, trausversis, 
interstitiis oblique longitudinaliter striatis ; anfractu ultimo sub- 
angulato, basi convexiuscula ; apertura subquadrata, intus alba ; 
columella alba, incurvata, antice truncata. (A. Ad.) 

Australia (Mus. Cuming). 

A. Adams, P. Z. S. 1851, p. 173. 

Canthiridus decoratus Adams and Angas. Testa turbiuato- 
conoidea, imperforata, cupreo-aurantiaca, ilammulis longitudinalibus- 
albo articulatis, in anfractu ultimo fascia lata albo articulata et serie 
transversa macularum quadratarum albarum ornata, apice carueola 
tincto; anfractibus planis, trausversim sulcatis, sulcis distantibus, 
postice obsoletis ; anfractu ultimo ad peripheriam rotundato ; aper- 
tura subquadrata, labio vix recto, in medio callosa, labro intus 
sulcato. 

Long. 6, diam. 4 mill. (Ad. and Aug.) 

York Peninsula, South Australia. 

Ad. and An(ias, P. Z. S. 1864, p. 37. 

A small but beautifully ornamented species, of a rich golden- 
orange color, marked with white spots and Hammules. (Ad. Ang.) 

Baxkivia lugubris Gould. Testa parva, ovato turrita, glabra^ 
rubida, lineis inequalibus satoratioribus cincta ; apice pallido ; 
anfr. 8, ventricosis, apertura subcircularis, trientem longitudinis 



154 GAZA. 

testae adequans; columella tenui, alba, ai'ctissime perforata; labro 
acuto, pallido, intus rufo submarginato. 

Axis 12, diam. 6 mill. (Gould.) 

Gould, in Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H. viii, 1861, p. 18. 

Sydney, N. S. W. 

Genus GAZA, Watson, 1878. 

Gaza Watson, Journ. Linn. Soc. Lond., xiv, p. 601 ; Report on 
Challenger Gasteropoda, p. 93. — Dall, Rep. on ' Blake ' Gastero- 
poda, p. 354. 

The animal of G. superba has been described by Dr. Dall as 
follows : 

An examination of the soft parts showed the operculum to be 
very thin, light brown, and with about seven whorls. The animal 
was of a whitish color without any spots or markings, and with 
very large black eyes set on a good-sized peduncle closely adjacent 
to and behind tlie tentacles. There is a single narrow gill in the 
usual position. The tentacles are long, large, and rather slender ; 
the foot short, broad, and bluntly rounded in front, behind almost 
truncate, in fact the contracted specimen looked almost as if there 
Avas a broad posterior indentation in the middle line. The muzzle 
is long, narrow, subcylindrical above and transversely expanded at 
its distal end, which is semi-lunar with a densely papillose surface 
and fringed edges. This expansion is nearly three times as wide 
as the stem of the muzzle. Epipodium with a large lobe behind the 
€ye peduncle but not connected with it ; behind the lobe is one long 
process and then a shorter one. The frill behind is merely puckered, 
but from under the borders of the operculum on each side protrude 
three good-sized processes. Behind the opercular lobe the epipo- 
dium terminates in a prominent point, concave and papillose on its 
upi)er surface. There are no frontal lobes between the tentacula. 
The epipodial point extends some distance behind the posterior end 
of the foot. The jaw is like that of Calliostoma in shape, composed 
of brown four-sided translucent prismatic rodlets which give under 
the microscope a reticular marking of diamond-shaped spots to the 
surface of the jaw; the two sides are not united in the middle line. 
The dentition closely resembles that of Lunella versicolor Gmelin 
as figured by Troschel (Geb. der Schnecken, ii, pi. 20, fig. 7), ex- 
cept that the bases of the rhachidian and lateral teeth are subcir- 
cular, and on a few of the scythe shaped cusps of the numerous 



GAZA. 155 

luicini are a few denticles. There are five lateral teeth, and 
between twenty and thirty uncini. (DalL) 

The nucleus of G. superba is often caducous, and in such speci- 
mens the apex is pierced with a circular perforation 1'. mill, in 
diain., which is continuous with the umbilicus. There does not 
appear to be any particular diflTerence between the nucleus and the 
■early whorls, its loss would therefore seem to be due merely to its 
fragility. In none of those in which it remains is there any indica- 
tion of its being reinforced by a shelly deposit. (DalL) 

I regard Gaza and its subgenera as a grou]:) of Trochidce re- 
lated to Lunella of the Turbinidce on the one hand, and Umboniwn 
on the other. (DalL) 

Our knowledge of this beautiful group is derived wholly from 
the publications of Watson and of Dai.l. The species are all deep 
sea dwellers, living mostly at depths of 100 fms. or greater. 

O. d^dala Watson. PI. 36, fig. 12. 

Shell depressedly globose, with a convexly conical spire, thin, 
translucent, horny, nacreous in its whole texture, and iridescent on 
the surface, with a slightly reverted and narrowly thickened lip, a 
thin edged twisted pillar, the point of which runs out into a 
bluntly mucronated angle. Sculpture : Longitudinals — the whole 
surface is covered with strong, puckered, oblique lines of growth, 
which are sharp-edged but flattened, rather regular, with many 
minuter ones in the intervals. The longitudinals are cross- 
hatched with spirals, which are stronger and more regular, but not 
perfectly uniform, consisting of square threads and furrows of equal 
breadth, and both scored by the longitudinals ; on the earlier whorls 
these spirals disappear before the longitudinals do ; and on the base 
they become on the outside feebler, closer, and finer, in the middle 
broader and flatter, and stronger again toward the centre of the 
shell. Color, delicate yellowish, with a horny translucency and ex- 
quisite iridescence, Avhich under the lens appears brilliant. Spire 
high and slightly scalar. Apex very small, flatly rounded, the 
embryonic li whorl very slightly projecting. Whorls 7 of gradual 
increase, well rounded, the last slightly angulated below, and on 
the base flattened, but rather less so towards the mouth, where there 
is a slight contraction and downward turning of the whole whorl, 
without, however, any descending of the lip at its junction with the 
body. Suture very distinct, but not impressed, mouth rather large, 
very oblique, semioval. Outer lip reflected and thickened internally 



156 (iAZA, 

by a strong but narrow, equal, rounded, white pearly callus, which 
almost disappears just at the upper corner, and which has a very 
slight furrow round its margin ; it does not descend at all. 
Inner lip — from the corner of the outer lip a very thin layer of 
nacre spreads out a little way across the body, but then ceases 
entirely. The pillar is spread out at its base as a confined, flattened, 
unevenly inclined, semicircular, iridescent umbilical pad, from the 
left corner of which the pillar proper projects, with a narrow but 
rounded edge, twisted, straight, bending to the left, and advances 
into a sharply angulated, and, as seen from behind, even nuicrouated 
junction with the basal mouth-edge, to which the umbilical pad 
curving round the back of the pillar also attains. The inside is 
scored with the external sculpture, and is brilliantly ii-idescent. 
The umbilical pad is defined by a narrow furrow, and in front by a 
slightly tumid ridge, which is the least nacreous part of the whole 
shell. Operculum is membranaceous, horny, yellowish, with about 
six to seven turns, each strongly defined b}' a narrow line of thick- 
ening, and sharply scored with minute oblique radiating lines. 

Alt. 0-65 in. ; diam. OvST in. Mouth, height 0-43, breadth 0*41 
in. ( Watson.) 

Kandavu, Fiji, 610 fms. 

Gaza dcedala Watson, Journ. Linn. Soc. London, xiv, p. 602 ; 
Challenger Gasteropoda, p. 93, t. 7, f. 12. 

G. suPERBA Ball. PI. 48, figs. 16, 17. 

Shell in general features recalling Gaza dsedala Watson, much 
of whose description would apply with little change to this species. 
Whorls eight, in the adult roundly shouldered below the suture, 
rounded at the periphery, somewhat flattened on the base, deeply 
and widely umbilicated, the umbilicus a little more than half 
covered by a nacreous callus ; first two and a half wliorls trans- 
parent, not nacreous, very obtuse, the nucleus not prominent ; the 
next three and a half whorls smooth, except for faintest lines of 
growth, glassy with the nacre sinning through ; the remainder of 
the shell covered with delicate and distinct lines of growth, some- 
times a little more pronounced near the suture and by revolving 
lines almost too shallow to be called grooves, most pronjinent 
on the periphery, evanescent on the flattened part of the base 
and above near the suture ; on the last whorl these are about 0'5 
mm. apart ; the region near the suture is almost smooth. Suture 



GAZA. 157 

very distinct, but not channelled ; umbilicus bordered by an edge 
from which the flattened base falls away, and the straight walls 
forming an almost perfect cone ; the last whorl contracted just 
before the reflected lip, which, above, rounds out in advance of its 
junction with the suture, the last quarter of an inch of which 
descends on the whorl, giving the aperture a downward look ; aper- 
ture oblique above, arching more nearly to a perpendicular below, 
smoothly, evenly reflected and thickened from the pillar to the 
suture, with an internal channel behind the thickening ; pillar 
callous above, thinly and unevenly reflected half-way across the 
umbilicus, gently and very obliquely descending and smoothly 
passing into the basal part of the lip. The interior of the aperture, 
the lip, the umbilical callus, and a slight wash near the sutural 
junction, brilliantly nacreous ; base and body whorl within the 
mouth not so ; upper surface of shell distinctly tinted with fawn 
color, base waxen white, the nacre perceptible through the thinner 
portions. Alt. 24'0 ; maj. diam. o5'5 mill; of umbilicus, 8*0; of 
aperture, 13-0 mill. Defl. about 100°. {DalL) 

Off Montserrat, Santa Cruz, Barbados, and in the Gulf betiveen 
Mississippi delta and Cedar Keys, Fla., 209 to 324 fms. 

Callogaza superba Dall, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. ix, p. 49, 1881 ; 
Gaza superba Dall, I.e. xviii, p. 354, t. 22, f 4, 4a. 

Dr. Dall writes of this species : I included this species with the 
subgenus Callogaza in my preliminary paper, but the receipt of 
more specimens from the U. S. Fish Commission di'edgings leads 
me to doubt whether the umbilicus always remains uncovered, and 
though I have seen no specimens in which it is wholly closed, yet I 
suspect it becomes so at times. An adult specimen measures 40 
mill, wide by 32 high, and this appears to be about the average of 
the species. 

G. rathbuni Dall. 

Another species of about the same size (38 x 24 mill.), G. rath- 
buni Dall, which differs from G. superba in being more depressed, 
with stronger spiral grooving, a slightly smaller umbilicus, and 
more flattened over the sutures, has since turned up among the 
' Albatross ' collections, dredged in the Pacific, in 392 fms., sand, 
near the Galapagos Islands. {Dall, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. xviii, 
p. 354, foot note.) 



158 GAZA. 

G. FiscHERi Dall. PI. 49, fig. 37. 

This shell is of six and a half whorls, and closely resembles Gaza 
dsedala Watson, except in the following j^articulars : It is much 
more depressed proportionally ; the upper margin of the aperture 
is distinctly depressed below its general plane ; and the radiating 
lines, almost microscopic in G. dsedala, are in this form impressed 
in the early whorls near the suture, so as to produce a succession of 
short ripples, following the recurved lines of growth, which give a 
fringe-like ornamentation to the suture, at the rate of about five 
ripples to a millimeter. Nothing like this is visible in any of the 
specimens of G. superba. The margin of the suture in this form is 
distinctly appressed, forming a narrow border. The operculum has 
about seven whorls. The umbilicus is completely floored over. 
The soft parts are like those of G. superba, but the tentacles are 
shorter and stouter, the lateral lobes of the epipodium [iropor- 
tionally larger, there is one more lateral process, and the muzzle is 
not so much exjianded laterally at its termination. 

Max. diam. of base, 25-0 ; min. diam., 20-0 ; alt., 16-0 mill. {Dall.) 
Off Santa Lucia, in 423 fms., gray ooze. 

AVe know so little about the lin)its of variation in this beautiful 
group that it is with some doubt that I apply a name to these si:)eci- 
mens. The difiTerence in form aud sculpture, and the distance 
between Fiji where G. dnedala was collected and the Antilles has 
seemed to me suflHcient warrant in this instance. (Dall.) 

G.fischeri Dall, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. xviii, p. 355. (1889.) 
Subgenus Callogaza Dall. 

Callogaza Dall, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. ix, p. 49 (1881) ; I. c. 
xviii, p. 356. 
G. WATSONi Dall. PI. 49, figs. 25, 26, 27, 28. PI. 48, figs. 11, 12. 

Shell much smaller than the last and but slightly nacreous ; 
whorls six and a quarter, having the same general form as in the 
last species, but with a more prominent nucleus ; nucleus small, 
bulbous, dark brown ; first two and a half whorls glassy, brown 
spotted, smooth ; subsequently the exterior two-thirds of the upper 
surface of the whorls sculptured with four or five strong revolving 
threads ; the space between them and the suture above, with strong, 
even, flexuously radiating, shining, rounded plications (about eight 
to a millimeter) which pass obliquely over the revolving threads 
and appear again on the base as strong regular plications in the 



GAZA. 159 

umbilical region, extending from the umbilical carina one-third of 
the way toward the periphery. The base is covered with numerous 
revolving threads flattened until their interspaces apj^ear like 
grooves ; the umbilicus similarly formed to the last species, but 
somewhat more turrited internally. Last whorl less contracted 
behind the lip, Avhich is not produced forward above, as in superba ; 
the umbilical callus not nacreous, with a granular surface, white 
and covering less than half the umbilicus ; lip and aperture other- 
wise much the same as in suj)erba, but only slightly nacreous. Base 
waxy white, top the same, with cloudy radiating brown blotches 
near tiie suture and on the periphery ; some of the revolving 
threads are also continuously brown. 

Alt. 7'75 maj. diam. 12'5; of umbilicus, 2*5; of aperture, 5"5 
mill. Defl. about 120°. {Dall.) 

Off Havana, Cuba, in 177-200 fms. ; off Balda Honda, Cuba in 640 

fms. ; off Barbados, in 84-154 fms. 

Callogoza Watsoni Dall, Bull. ]Mus. Comp. Zool. ix, p. 50 
(1881) ; I.e. xviii, p. 356, t. 22, f 7, 7a; t. 23, f 1, la; t. 24, f. 2, 
2a. — Margarita filogijra Dall, Bull. M. C. Z. 1881, p. 42 (young 
shpllj. 

This shell named by me Margarita filogyra is without doubt in 
part based on young specimens of Callogaza Watsoni. But with 
regard to some of the others I am puzzled as to whether to so refer 
them or not. In any case, the weight of probability is in favor of 
their being eventually united. There are certain difierences in the 
umbilicus to which I do not, in the absence of soft parts, feel able 
to give a definite value ; while the fact that these specimens have a 
slightly but distinctly thickened lip adds to the obscurity. At all 
events, whether wholly identical with C. Watsoni or not (Figures 
11, 12, Plate 48, certainly are), the M. fllogyra is in an uncertain 
state, and for that reason I prefer to omit the name in my list 
of established species until I obtain more definite material for 
study. I retain the figures which had been prepared of the sup- 
posed young shells. 

An adult specimen affords the following notes: The body is yel- 
lowish, the sides streaked with ashy-gray, a few flecks of which 
also appear between the tentacles. The body is longer than in 
Gaza proper and distinctly pointed behind. The tentacles are 
short and stout, with a small inner angle or expansion opposite the 
distinct eye peduncle, which bears a large very black eye. The 



160 GAZA. 

muzzle is proportionately shorter than in Gaza, subcylindrical, 
granulose at the end, but not laterally expanded. The gill as 
in Gaza superba, but broader in proportion to its length. The 
very large anterior lobe of the epipodium is followed by seven 
gradually decreasing lateral processes, of which five are under the 
operculum, and are separated by small rounded lobes of the epipo- 
dial margin. The posterior angle of the epipodium is pointed as 
in Gaza, extending considei-ably beyond the operculum, l>ut not as 
far as the foot. The dentition differs considerably from that of 
Gaza. It most nearly resembles that of Forskiilia declivis Fors- 
kiil, as figured by Troschel (Gebiss d. Schneck., II. pi. xxiv, fig. 
14.) The rhachidian tooth has a single three pointed cusp, without 
the accessory denticles of Forskiilia, the laterals have two or three 
accessory denticles, the uncini, unlike Forskiilia, are denticulated all 
along the inner edges of their blade-like cusps, except toward the 
margin of the radula, where they gradually become simple. It 
will be observed that in the soft parts there are features which 
sufficiently distinguisii this group from Gaza, according to ordinary 
standards. 

Subgenus Microgaza Dall. 

Microgaza Dall, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. ix, p. 50 (1881) ; I.e. 
xviii, p. 357. 

G. ROTELLA Dall. PL 48, figs. 5, 6. 

Shell depressed, with five whorls, somewhat flattened above and 
below ; nucleus small, translucent white, and with the two first whorls 
polished, smooth or marked only by faint growth lines ; remainder 
of the wdiorls with a narrow puckered band revolving immediately 
below the suture, on which the shell matter is as it were pinched up 
into slight elevations at regular intervals, about half a millimeter 
apart. In some specimens, outside of this band an impressed line 
revolves with the shell ; remainder smooth, shining or with evanes- 
cent traces of revolving lines impressed from within and strongest 
about the rounded periphery; base rounded toward the umbilical 
carina over which it seems to be drawn into flexuously radiating 
well-marked plications (about thirty-two on the last turn) which 
disappear a third of the way toward the periphery ; wall of the um- 
bilicus concave, overhung by the carina, turns of the shell so coiled 
that the part of each whorl uncovered by its successor forms a nar- 
row spiral plane ascending to the apex like a spiral staircase or 



GAZA. 161 

screw thread. Pillar straight, thin, with no callus; aperture 
rounded except at the angle of the umbilical carina; margin thin, 
sharp, not reflected or thickened ; no callus on the body whorl in 
the aperture ; shell whitish or greenish ; nacre less brilliant in dead 
or deep-water specimens; with zigzag brown lines variously trans- 
versely disposed and disappearing on the base. 

Alt. 4*0 niaj. diam. 6*75 ; of umbilicus, 1"75 ; of aperture, 2*5 
mill. (Dall.) ' 

Of Barbados, in 100 fras. ; of Bah la Honda, Cuba, 220 fms. ; 36 
mile.'i S. i W. from Cape Hatteras, N. Carolina, in 124 fms. 

The operculum is like that of Gaza, and has six or seven whorls. 
None of the specimens show any tendency to a reflected lip, yet it 
is, of course, possible that no completely adult specimen was ob- 
tained. The animal has a short stout foot, bluntly rounded at either 
end. It is of a pinkish tint. The tentacula are very long and the 
eyes large. The muzzle is rounded and not very long, its ex- 
tremity ])lain. There are no frontal lobes. The e{)ipodiuni has a 
very small anterior lobe with a cirrus behind it, then a space with- 
out cirri, a long process just in front of the opercular disk, and one, 
shorter, under it on each side making three in all. There is no 
posterior point to the epipodium, and only the above three cirri on 
each side. The jaw is somewhat like that of Umbonium, but shorter 
and broader. The radula, however, beai's no resemblance to that 
of Umbonium (Rotella Lam.). The teeth are very elegant. The 
rhachidian tooth in general form (except the cusp) not unlike that 
of Calliostoma granulata Born (Troschel, II, pi. xxiv, fig. 18), but 
the central spur of the cusp is long and slender like a stiletto, ex- 
tending considerably behind the posterior edge of the base of the 
tooth. On each side of it are four stout sharp rather short denticles, 
radiating as from the median point of the front edge of the cusp. 
The laterals recall those of Gibl)ula divaricata (Troschel, loc. cit., 
fig. 6), but have more, larger, and stronger denticles, all on the 
posterior edge of the cusp, or the edge away from the rhachis, the 
uncini are rather few in number, the cusps sword shaped, sigmoid, 
the inner ones denticulated on both edges. The number of laterals 
is five. The radula as a whole is very short and small. 

The depressed form and marginated suture, as well as the kind 

of coloration, in this shell recall Umbonium. The texture of the 

shell and the character of its umbilicus are precisely as in Callo- 

gaza. The soft parts indicate its place to be in that vicinity. 

11 



162 GAZA-BEMBIX. 

Until a larger number of the myriad of species shall have been ex- 
amined, it is evident that the characters of the dentition in their 
classification cannot be formulated except in a provisional manner. 

iDall.) 

Genus BEMBIX Watson, 1878. 

Bembix AVatson, Journ. Linn. Soc. London, xiv, p. 603 ; Chal- 
lenger Gasteropoda, p. 95. 

A remarkalile feature of this genus is its being covered with a 
thin extremely persistent smooth fibrous epidermis, like that of 
some of the Helices. This epidermis swells up and becomes pustu- 
lated in water. In form the shell recalls some of the Cantharidus 
group, but is thinner and on the base more tumid ; the axis is per- 
forated, and the pillar is thin, reverted and merely angulated in 
front. The operculum is membranaceous and multispiral. ( Watson.) 

B. ^OLA Watson. PL 40, fiys. 10, 11. 

Shell high, concavely conical, carinated, sculptured on the upper 
whorls, smooth or wrinkled below, tliin, with a tumid lirated liase, 
narrowly umbilicated, with a smooth epidermis, thin, but especially 
so on the base, more or less nacreous all over under a thin porcel- 
lanous upper layer. Sculpture: The first three whorls (after the 
embryonic apex) are I'eticulated by three sharp remote spirals, and 
rather stronger, slightly oblique longitudinals, which rise at their in- 
tersections into small sharp pyramidal tubercles ; the interstices are 
a little broader than high. This system gradually dies out and 
leaves the surface smooth, only the row of infra-sutural tubercles 
survives in an enlarged but depressed form, and springing from 
these some sinuous, oblique, and slightly irregular longitudinal 
puckerings appear on the last whorl, which is nearly bisected by 
the sharpish, slightly expressed, finely tubercled carina. This bisec- 
tion of the last whorl arises from the great prolongatiou and 
tumidity of the base, on which, below the carina, are five narrow, 
equally parted, spiral threads, and two intra-umbilical ones, which 
are more continuous. Besides this larger system of sculpture, the 
whole surfece is covered with minute, oblique, irregular, and inter- 
rupted puckerings of the epidermis. Color a brownish yellow, but 
below the epidermis there is a thin pure white porcellanous layer, 
through which and the epidermis the sheen of the nacreous layer 
gleams. The base is whiter, the epidermis there being very thin. 
Inside the mouth is an exquisite roseate nacre, spire high, with a 



BEMBIX-CHLOROSTOMA. 163 

slightly concave contour, the lines of which are hardly swollen out 
by the slight tumidity of the last whorl. Apex eroded, l)ut evi- 
dently small. Whorls 7 or 8, of regular increase, quite flat on the 
side slopes, except the last, which is very slightly constricted below 
the suture, a very little tumid on the upper slope, sharply carinated 
but not much angulated at the suture, and very tumid on the base. 
Suture linear, strongly defined on the upper whorls by the square 
furrow lying between the lines of tubercles which marginate the 
suture above and below. On the last whorl it becomes slightly 
pouting from the jjrojection of the carina and the slight infra- 
sutural constriction. Mouth nearly square, very little oblique in 
the line of its advance, but standing out a little obliquely to the 
axis of the shell. Outer lip thin, not descending. Pillar lip thin, 
spread out broadly at its base over the umbilicus, which it largely 
conceals, with a deep narrow furrow behind it. Curving over to 
the right, it advances, thin and pointed, to its angular junction with 
the l)asal lip. Umbilicus defined by a spiral thread and with two 
other spirals within it. It is not small but concealed bv the pillar- 
lip. 

Alt. 0-82 in. ; diam. Q-Go in. ; mouth, heigth 0-4 ; breadth 0-38 in. 
( Watson.) 

It is evidently not remote from Trochn.s argenfeoiiHens, Lisehke 
(Japan. Meeres-Conch., vol. iii, p. 67), a species I know only from 
the figure and description. The whole sculpture, however, seems 
distinct though similar. {Watson.) 

Off Japan in 565 fms. 

B. (eola Watson, Journ. Linn. Soc. London, xiv, p. 603 (1878) ; 
Challenger Gasteropoda, p. 95, t. 7, f. 13. 

Genus CHLOROSTOMA Swainson, 1840. 

Chlorostoma Swains. Malacol., p. 350. — Philippi, Handb. der. 
Conchyl. u. Mai., p. 209.— A. Ad. (in part), P. Z. S. 1851, p. 180. 
— Gray, Guide Syst. dist. jNIoII. Brit. Mus., p. 154. — H. and A. Ad. 
Gen. Rec. Moll, i, p. 428. — Tryon, Struct, and Syst. Conch, ii, p. 
Sll.— Omphalius Philippi, Zeitschr. f. Mai. 1847, p. 21 ; Handbuch, 
p. 210. — Gray, Guide S^st. dist., p. 154. — Tryon, S. and S. Conch., 
p. 310.— H. and A. Ad., Genera, p. 429.— Troschel, Das Gebiss 
der Schnecken, ii, p. 232. — Neomphalius Fischer, Manuel de Con- 
chyl., p. 821 (1885).— P/wrc«(s A. Ad. Monog. Trochidie, P. Z. S. 
1851, p. 156 (not Phorcus Risso). — Tegida Lesson, Illust. de 



164 CHLOROSTOMA. 

Zoologie, t, 51 (1832) (no description). — H. and A. Ad., Genera, i, 
p. 426. 

The genus Chlorostoma replaces on American shores the old 
world genus Gibbula. The more prominent shell characters are the 
callous which is continued from the columella partly around (or 
even covering) the umbilicus, and the bi- or tri-dentate base of the 
columella. The dentition is peculiar, and at once separates these 
shells from all other Trochidai. The rhachidian tooth is broader 
than long, the reflected i^ortion extending nearly its whole breadth, 
narrowly reflected and Avith irregularly denticulated edge. The 
laterals number 5 on each side. The uncini have either denticulate 
or simple cusps (pi. 50, fig. 10, C. funebrale ; fig. 13, Omphalins 
excavatus). 

The distribution of the species of Chlorostoma into sections is 
difficult on account of the coalescence of characters throughout 
the group ; and many species go equally well in Chlorostoma or 
Omphalms ; in general, Omphalius includes umbilicate species with 
spirally lirate or grauose whorls, but some undoubted Omphalius 
are smooth, and some granose species are imperforate. Correspond- 
ing variations occur in the large conical typical Chlorostoma ; so 
that no sharp line can be drawn. C pellisserjye7itis, the only species 
of Tegula (Less.) Gray, is i)erhai3s distinct enough to have a sec- 
tional name. 

Oriental Species. 

The following key, slightly modified from Lischke, will usually 
guide one to the species of Chlorostoma inhabiting Japanese waters : 

A. Umbilicus covered. 

1. Longitudinally plicate : 

a. Large, folds strong, base spirally lirate, C. argyrostoma. 

b. Smaller ; folds fine, close ; base smooth, C. distingnenda. 

2. Without longitudinal folds : 

a. Coal-black, with orange apex, C nigricolor. 

b. Olive-colored, with lead-colored apex, C. lischkei. 

B. Openly umbilicate. 

1 . Periphery bluntly angled ; base plano-convex or flat : 

a. Elevated ; with broad low folds or smooth, C. rustica. 

b. Depressed ; folds very narrow and close, C. nigerrima. 

2. Periphery acutely angled ; base plano-concave. 



CHLOROSTOMA. 165 

((. Strongly plicate; base spirally lirate, C. carpenteri. 
b. Base smooth. 

a. Obsoletely plicate, C. pfeifferi. 

b. Entirely smooth, C. achates. 

C. ARGYROSTOMA. Gmelin. PL 25, figs. 11, 12. 

Shell imperfoi'ate, conical, solid, heavy, black, except the eroded 
first whorls which are yellow, the base lighter, olive or pinkish ; de- 
pressed ; whorls about 7, finely longitudinally corrugated, and 
much less obviously spirally sculptured, the longitudinal sculpture 
obsolete on the base ; aperture very oblique, smooth and nacreous 
within ; outer lip edged Avith black ; columella oblique, decidedly 
dentate midway, and frequently less markedly so at the base ; um- 
bilical tract covered by a heavy green callus. 

Alt. 40, diam. 45 mill. 

Philippines; Chinese and Japanese Seas. 

Troehus orgT/rostomus Gmel., Syst. Nat., xiii, p. 3583. — Lischke, 
Jap. Meeres- Conchy!., p. 96, t. 7,'f. 3-5. — Fischer, Coq. Viv., p. 105, 
t. 29, f. 4 (Turbo). — T. distinguendus Dunker, Molluska Japonica, 
p. 22, t. 3, f. 1. (1861.) 

An abundant and variable species. It may be separated from 
the following forms by the imperforate base, green or olive umbili- 
cal callus, and finely, regularly plicate upper surface. 

Var. DiSTiNGUENDA Duuker. PI. 26, fig. 20. 

Longitudinal folds less strong, close ; base smooth ; umbilical 
callus white. Alt. 18, diam. 20 mill. 

Japan. 

C. jiigerrima Gmelin. PI. 25, figs. 9, 10. 

Shell umbilicated, rather depressed conical, solid, black or pur- 
plish-black, lighter beneath ; spire conic, sutures impressed ; whorls 
about 6, very obliquely striate, longitudinally finely corrugated, the 
folds small, dichotomose a short distance beneath the periphery, very 
regular and close ; base nearly flat, smooth ; periphery bluntly 
angular ; aperture very oblique ; columella toothed in the middle 
and more obsoletely at the base, expanding above in a callus half 
surrounding the umbilicus and partly covering it. 

Alt. 20, diam. 25 mill. 

Japan. 



166 CHLOROSTOMA. 

Trochus nigerrimvs Gmel., Syst. Nat., xiii, p. 8572. — Philippi, 
Conchyl. Cab., t. 10, f. 13. — Lischke, Jap. Meeres- Conchy I., p. 97, t. 
7,f. 6, 7 (not Turbo mgerrimus GMEL.,=^3Io)wdonta nigerrima (Gm.) 
(P*hil.) — Trochus niger, umbilicatus, etc., Chemnitz, Conchyl. Cab.,v, 
p. 98, f. 1647. — T. niger Philippi, Conchyl. Cab., p. 369. — Fischer, 
Coq. Viv., p. 372, t. 113, f. 4. — Chlorostoma corrugatum A. Adams, 
P. Z. S., 1851, p. 182. — Chlorostoma undatella Gould, Proc. Bost. 
Soc. N. H., 1861, p. 20. 

This species is most nearly allied to C. argyrostoma, and in the 
sculpture differs from that form only in the rather smaller folds 
above, and the lack of distinct spiral strise or lirse. It is smaller than 
argyrostoma, more depressed, and always umbilicated. 

C. RusTicA Gmelin. PI. 25, figs. 1, 2, 3, 4. 

Shell umbilicate, conic, heavy, solid, chocolate-colored or brownish- 
olivaceous; spire conical, more or less elevated; suture distinctly 
impressed; whorls 6-7, moderately convex or nearly flat, sometimes 
tumid just below the sutures, and either smooth or longitudinally 
plicate, the folds usually obsolescent, and visible only for a short 
distance beloAV the sutures ; spirally obsoletely striate ; body-whorl 
obtusely angular at the periphery ; base nearly flat; aperture very 
oblique ; columella with one or two teeth below, expanded above in 
a white callus, which half surrounds the narrow, deep circular 
umbilicus. Alt. 33, diam. 32 mill. 

Jaj)an. 

Trochus rusticus Gmel., Syst. Nat., xiii, p. 3572. — Philippi, 
Co7ichyl. Cab., p. 48, t. 10, f. 11, 12.— Fischer, Coq. Viv., p. 163, t. 
55, f. 1, t. 112, f. 2. — Llschke, Jap. Meeres- Conchyl., p. 97. 

Periphery less sharply carinate than in C. nordmanni and 0. 
pfeifFeri ; less strongly sculptured than C. carpenter!, and not lirate 
beneath ; more elevated than C. nigerrima and not nearly so finely 
corrugated above. 

C. NiGRicoLOR Dunker. PL 26, figs. 21, 22. 

Shell conoid, imperforate, obsoletely striate, black ; whoi'ls plano- 
convex, the last subangulate, ba.se convex, dull reddish or yellow- 
ish ; umbilical callus green, pitted ; columella very oblique, uniden- 
tate ; fauces smooth, pearly. Alt. 17, diam. 28 mill. (Dunker.) 

Japan. 

Trofhus nigricolor Dkr., Malak. Blut., 1860, p. 237, and Moll. 
Jap., p. 22, t. 3, f. 2. — Lischke, Jap. Meeres- Conchyl., p. 100, t. 7, f. 



CIILOROSTOMA. 167 

1,2. — Chlorostoma xanthostigma A. Adams, P. Z. S., 1851, p. 183 
(Teste E. A. Smith, Ajdi. and Mag. N. H., xvi, 1875, p. 112, and 
Watson, Challenger Moll., p. 70). 

My scientific conscience will not alloAV me to substitute for Dr. 
Dunker's name for this species, that proposed by Adams. The 
latter would never have been identified had it not been for the speci- 
mens in the British Museum ; for Adams' description gives neither 
measurement nor locality, and is not sufticient for identification. I 
do not consider specimens placed in the British or any other 
Museum as " published " in any sense, unless they are so described 
or figured that they may be identified without referring to the types. 
And further, I do not see how anything but evil can result from 
the practice of quoting names from specimens in the British 
Museum in synonymy. 

Of this species Lischke says: It stands extremely close to T. 
brunneus. The sculpture is identical, save that my examples lack 
the upper of the two spiral lira; mentioned. The umbilical pit is in 
my adult examples of T. brunneus, much narrower than in the 
present species, in one example entirely concealed. T. nigricolor 
seems also to I)e larger and proportionately broader than T. brun- 
neus. My largest example of brunneus is 34 mill, alt., 29 in diam.; 
of nigricolor 41 mill, alt., 36 diam. But the main difference is 
in the color; the upper surface and the larger part of the base is 
pitchy-black in T. nigricolor, the eroded apex orange, the umbilical 
callus white or a beautiful green, (Lischke.) 

The " T. brunneus " which is referred to above is not the true 
Chlorostoma brunneum Phil., a species of the Californian coast, but 
a distinct form as yet undescribed, of which a single small sj^ecimen 
is before me. This shell is figured on pi. 26, fig. 16. It ma} be 
called Chlorostoma Lisclikei. On account of the insufficiency of my 
material at present, I defer a formal description. Vide Lischke, 
Jap. Meeres-Conchylien, i, p. 99, " T. brunneus." 

C. PFEiFFERi Philippi. PI. 26, figs. 13, 14, 15. 

Shell urabilicate, conical, solid, dark purplish or brownish-purple, 
obliquely striate, the base radiately striate with white ; spire strictly 
conical, elevated, apex eroded, whorls about 7, planulate above, the 
last acutely angular at the periphery, the l)ase plano-concave ; 
whorls smooth or with fine spiral striie, and ill-defined longitudinal 
folds; aperture subhorizontal. occu^jying al)out half the area of the 



168 CHLOROSTOMA. 

base ; columella dentate in the middle, expanded above in a white 
callus ; umbilicus profound, circular, surrounded by a white zone. 
Alt. 30, diam. 33 mill. 

Japan. 

Trochus pfeifferi Philippi, Zeitschr. f. Mai, 1846, p. 104, and 
Conchyl. Cao., p. 152, t. 25, f. 2. — Lischke, Jap. Meeres- Conchy I. , p. 
98,_FiscHER, Coq. Viv., p. 336, t. 105, f. \.— T. norchnanni 
ScHRENCK, Bull, de VAcad. de St. Petersb., v, p. 511 (1862) ; Nord- 
jap. Moll., p. 349, t. 15, f. 1,2; Eeisen u. Forschungen Aviur-Lande, 
p. 349, t. 15, f. 1, 2. — Chlorostoma achates Gld., Proc. Bod. Sac. N. 
jy., viii, p. 20. (1861.) 

The typical C. pfeifteri is strictly conical, with nearly straight 
lateral outlines ; the whorls are obsoletely longitudinally plicated ; 
the base is slightly concave, and radiately striate or streaked with 
white. Var. achates Gould, differs in having a smooth surface, 
the folds entirely obsolete. 

C. CARPENTERi Dunker. PI. 25, figs. 5, 6, 7, 8. 

Shell umbilicate, conical, solid, grayish-black, but seen on close 
inspection to be minutely, densely striped Avith black on a whitish 
ground ; spire strictly conical, apex yellowish ; whorls 6 to 7, Hat, 
densely, very obliquely sublamellose-striate, and with coarse, wavy, 
irregular longitudinal folds over the entire upper surface ; last 
whorl acutely carinated at the periphery ; base plano-concave, with 
about four strong spiral lirse ; aperture extremely oblique, columella 
strongly dentate in the middle, expanded above and reflexed partly 
over the umbilicus ; umbilicus white within, spirally ribbed. 

Alt. 26, diam. 25 ; alt. 54, diam. 43 mill. 

Nagasaki and Decima, Japan. 

Trochus carpenteri Dunker, Malak. BL, vi, p. 237 (1860) ; and 
Moll. Japonica, \^. 21, t. 3, f. 12. — Lischke, ./f^^^^. Meeres- Conchyl, 
p. 98. t. 7, f. 8, 9, 10.— Fischer, Coq. Va\, p. 170, t. 57, f 1. 

More coarsely sculptured than any other Japanese species. 

Species from the West Coast of the Americas. 

C. PELLISSERPENTIS Wood. PI. 20, figS. 1, 2. 

Shell imperforate, conical, elevated, very thick, solid and heavy ; 
color yellowish or pinkish, marked with narrow angular patches or 
interrupted longitudinal oblique stripes of black ; spire strictly 
conical, apex acute, sutures linear ; whorls 8, encircled by weakly 



CHLOnOSTOMA, 169 

granose lira, separated by narrow impressed lines; periphery nearly 
smooth ; base smooth or lirate, eroded in front of the aperture ; 
aperture oblique, outer lip thick within, smooth, bevelled to an edge ; 
columella oblique, bearing in the middle a heavy tubercle, at the 
base less prominently toothed. Alt. 43, diam. 38 mill. 

W. Coast of Central America; Gulf of California. 

Trochus pellis-serpentis Wood, Ind. Test. SuppL, t. 5, f. 4. — Phil- 
ippi, Conclujl. Cab., p. 105, t. 17, f. 4. — Fischer, Coq. Viv., p. 165, 
t. do. f. 3. — T. strigilatus Anton, Verzelchniss, p. 56. — Philippi, 
Ahhild. u. Beschreib., i, Trochus t. 2, f. 9. — Tegula elegans Lesson, 
Illustrations de Zoologie, t. 51 (1832). 

This s|)ecies is the type of the subgenus Tegula. It differs from 
the species of Chlorostoma with which I have associated it in the 
heavier, larger columellar tubercle, more numerous whorls and differ- 
ent color-pattern. 

C. C4ALLINA Forbes. PI. 20, fig. 5 ; pi. 28, figs. b2, 53. 

Shell imperforate, heavy, solid, thick, conoidal, dark purplish or 
blackish, longitudinally striped or speckled with whitish, the stripes 
occupying the interstices between close, narrow superficial folds of 
the surface, which may be well-marked, or obsolete, continuous or 
cut into granules by equally close spiral furrows, the latter some- 
times predominating ; spire conoidal, the apex usually blunt, eroded 
and yellow; body-whorl rounded at the periphery; base convex, more 
or less eroded in front of the aperture ; wdiorls 5 to 6 ; aperture 
oblique ; outer lip black-edged, smooth and pearly within ; columella 
short, arcuate, strongly bidentate near the base ; place of the 
umbilicus marked by a pit, Alt. 28-40, <liam. 26-34 mill. 

Calfornia; L. California. 

Trochus (Monodo)ita) galllna Forbes, P. Z. S., 1850, p. 271, t. 11, 
f. 8. — T. galllna Fischer, Coq. Viv., p. 358, t. Ill, f 1. — T. pyri- 
forinis Gould, Proc. Post. Soc. N. H., 1853, \). 382. 

The above description applies to the typical form ; the sculjiture 
of the surface is superficial and very variable, as is the distribution of 
the color markings, which is dependent upon the sculpture. It is 
sometimes difficult to separate this from C. funebrale. See remarks 
under that species. 

Var. TiNCTA Hemphill. 

In this form the longitudinal markings and sculpture are obsolete 
and the spiral grooves generally scarcely visible altove; the color is 



170 CHLOROSTOMA. 

yellow-greenish or blackish, the apex eroded, yellow ; and there is a 
streak of yellow on the base just helotv the coluvxeUar teeth. 

V C. FUNEBRALE A. Adams. PI. 28, figs. 42, 43, 44. 

This species is similar to C. gallina in form and characters of the 
aperture. It is lusterless, purple or black, the apex usually eroded, 
orange-colored ; the teeth of the columella are white ; and there is 
never a yellowish streak at the base, as in the var. tincta of the last 
species. The whorls are spirally lirate, sometimes smooth except on 
the base, sometimes strongly lirate above. The suture is margined 
below by an impressed line, and by elevated, foliaceous incremental 
lamelhw This last feature may almost always be detected, although 
sometimes but ver}' slightly developed. 

Alt. 85, diam. 32 ; alt. 25, diam. 26 mill. 

L. California and Northward. 

C.funehrale A. Ad., P. Z. S., 1854, p. 316. — Carpenter, Bept. on 
Moll'. W. Coast N. A., 1863, p. 652.— Keep, West Coast Shells, p. 84, 
f. 71. — Trochus funebralis Fischer, Coq. Viv., p. 173, t. 57, f. 3. — 
T. marginatus Nuttall, mss. — T. moestus var., Gould, Exped. 
Shells., p. 183, f. 214. 

One of the most abundant mollusks of the Californian Coast. The 
shell never shows the longitudinal folds and stripes characteristic of 
typical C. gallina, nor has it the basal yellowish streak of the smooth 
var. tincta. The foliated subsutural margin is characteristic, also, 
though not always developed. 

s/ C. BRUNNEUM Philippi. PI. 27, figs 36-38. 

Shell imperforate, conical, solid, russet-yellow, brown, orange- 
colored or deep crimson ; spire conic ; sutures deeply impressed ; 
whorls about 7, convex, smooth, obliquely lightly striate, the last 
sometimes obsoletely undulated or plicate below the suture ; base de- 
l^ressed, deeply concave in the center ; aperture very oblique ; 
columella one or two toothed near the base ; umbilical callus white ; 
place of the umbilicus deeply excavated. 

Alt. 32, diam. 36 ; alt. 38, diam. 35 mill. 

Californian Coast. 

Trochus hrunneus Fhuavfj. Zeitschr.f. M//'., 1848, p. 189, and 
Conehijl. Cab., p. 300, t. 43, f. 19. — Lischke, Jap. Meeres- Conchy I., 
p. 99.— Fischer, Coq. Viv., p. 365, t. 112, f. 1. 

The smocth surface and the color of this species will distinguish it 
from any of its allies. It is according to Lischke found upon the 



CHLOROSTOMA. 171 

coast of Japan (Nagasaki, Decima) ; l)ut I share the doubt ex- 
pressed by Fischer as to its actual occurrence there. The relative 
altitude and the size are extremely vai'iable. 

C. PULLiGO Martyn. PI. 26, figs. 23, 24, 25. 

Shell deeply and widely unibilicate, conical, solid, dull purplish 
or brown, when worn often orange, obliquely streaked with white 
or unicolored ; spire elevated ; whorls 7, flattened, the upper ones 
finely spirally striate and sometimes very obsoletely plicate ; the re- 
mainder smooth, obliquely finely striate ; base flattened, slightly 
convex, obliquely streaked, concave and white around the umbilicus ; 
body-whorl bluntly angled at the periphery ; aperture very oblique, 
smaller than usual in Chlorostoma ; columella thin, obtusely den- 
tate, ending above in a white callus which partly covers the umbili- 
cus. Alt. 35, diam. 32 ; alt. 22, diam. 22-27 mill. 

Sitka to California. 

Trochus pulligo Martyn, Universal Conch., t. 76. — Philippi, 
Conchyl. Cab., p. 84, t. 15, f 3.— Fischer, Coq. Viv., p. 232, t. 80, 
f. 1. — T. marcidus Gould, Bost. Jonrn. N. H., xvi, 1852, p. . 

A handsome and rare species, more widely umbilicated than any 
other from the West Coast. There is no spiral ridge within the 
umbilicus. 

C. MONTEREYi Kiener. PL 27, figs. 27, 28, 29. 

Shell unibilicate, strictly conical, rather thin, light olivaceous or 
pale corneous; spire conical, with nearly straight outlines; apex 
acute ; sutures linear ; whorls 7, flattened, encircled by numerous fine 
lira?, wliich become obsolete on the lower whorl, which shows usually 
very ill-defined obliquely descending small folds, at right angles to 
the incremental strife; body-whorl acutely angular at the periphery; 
base flat, spirally, snbobsoletely Urate; aperture subhorizontal ; outer 
lip thin, margined with brown or corneous; columella subhorizontal, 
curved, toothed below the middle, receding above, not spreading 
around the umbilicus as in the other species; umbilicus funnel-shaped, 
rapidly becoming very narrow, white within, its edge defined by an 
angle. Alt. 28-39, diam. 34-42 mill. 

Calijornian Coast. 

Trochus montereyi Kiener, Species, gen. Trochus, t. 33, f. 1, la. 
—Fischer, Coq. Viv., p. 104, t. 33, f. 1. 



172 CHLOROSTOMA. 

This form, of which a number of specimens are before me, is very 
distinct from the other species. Its general aspect is that of an 
EutrocJiHs. The whorls and base are flat ; and the color a light 
fawn. It is the "Chlorostoma pfeifferi" of American writers on 
Californian shells. 

C. STRiATULATUM Kiener. PI. 27, figs. 34, 35. 

Shell imperforate, conoid, apex subobtuse, covered with a brown 
or cinereous unicolored cuticle ; whorls 6, separated by linear suture, 
obliquely striate, transversely finely lirate, the lirae obsolete on the 
last whorl ; last whorl slightly convex, carinate, beneath planulate 
or slightly convex, marked with obsolete concentric lirse ; aperture 
ample, rhomboid, the right margin oblique ; columella arcuate, 
denticulate in the middle, emarginate below the denticle ; umbilical 
area depressed. Alt. 18, diam. 21 mill. (Fischer.) 

Coast of California (.?) 

T. striatulatus Kiener, Species, gen. Trochus, t. 33, f. 3. — Fischer, 
Coq. Viv., p. 106, t. 33, f 3. 

I have not seen this form, nor has it been mentioned by writers on 
Californian mollusks. It differs, according to Fischer, from C. 
montereyi, in the shorter more obtuse spire, more convex whorls and 
in lacking an umbilicus. 

C. aureotinctum Forbes. PI. 27, figs. 31, 32, 33. 

Shell umbilicate, conoidal, thick, solid, black or cinereous ; spire 
conical, apex generally eroded ; sutures impressed ; whorls about 5, 
convex, spirally coarsely ridged below, radiately plicate above ; the 
revolving ridges 5 in number, the folds of the upper surface dis- 
appearing with age ; base rounded, concave around the umbilicus ; 
periphery rounded ; aperture oblique ; columella with a blunt tuber- 
cle in the middle and a smaller one below it, slightly reflexed above, 
joined to the upper margin by a heavy white callus extending across 
the parietal wall ; umbilicus wide, deep bright orange-colored within. 

Alt. 38, diam. 35 ; alt. 22, diam. 26 mill. 

California and L. California. 

T. aureotindus Forbes, P. Z. S. 1S50, p. 271, t. 11, f 7.— Car- 
penter, Eept. on Moll. W. Coast JSf. A., p. 652. — Fischer, Coq^ 
Viv. (gen. Turbo), p. 94, t. 31, f 1. — Turbo cateniferus Kibser, 
Species, genre Turbo, t. 31, f 1 (not T. catenijerus Pot. et Mich.). 

The more prominent features of this species are found in the 
heavy, solid shell, coarsely ridged below and the orange-colored 



CHLOROSTOMA. 173 

umbilicus. The aperture is less oblique than in any of the preceding 
species of Chlorostonia. 

C. RUGosuM A. Adams. PI. 26, fig. 26. 

Shell narrowly umbilicate, conoidal, solid, heavy, dull cinereous, 
more or less variegated by brown, blackish or red streaks ; spire 
conoidal, generally eroded and white or yellow at the apex ; whorls, 
about 5, obliquely striate, radiately coarsely and irregularly plicate 
and rugose above, sometimes nearly smooth ; periphery rounded ; 
base convex, concentrically lirate ; apertui'e oblique ; columella 
strongly dentate in the middle or below it, with a second small 
tooth at the base ; edge of the columella rather deeply curved above 
the tooth, but spreading at its junction with the whorl, ])ounding and 
somewhat narrowing the umbilicus by a white callus, which does not 
extend to the upper margin of the aperture ; umbilicus deep, white 
within. Alt. 26, diam. 27 mill. 

L. CaUform'a ; Gulf of California. 

Chlorostomariigomm A. Ad., P. Z. S., 1851, p. 182. — T. rngosus 
Fischer, Coq. Viv., p. 231, t. 75, f. 3. 

A rude, rugose species, like C. aureotinctum ; but much less 
•coarsely sculptured, with narrower umbilicus, different columella, 
and parietal wall lacking the callus of that form. Var. rufotinc- 
TUM Carpenter (pi. 27, fig. 30) is smaller, alt. 20, diam. 21 mill., 
and radiately striped -with lusterless red. The spiral lirukc are some- 
times visible also upon the upper surface. 

Species of Peru and Chili. 

C. ATRUM Lesson. PI. 28, figs. 40, 41. 

Shell imperforate, conical, more or less depressed, heavy, solid, 
lusterless black ; whorls about 6, moderately convex, separated by 
impressed sutures, smooth, except for slight incremental striae ; body 
whorl more or less depressed, rounded or subangular at the 
periphery ; base flattened, concave in the center, eroded and light 
purplish in front of the aperture ; aperture very oblique, the outer 
lip black-margined, smooth and pearly within ; columella oblique, 
obtusely dentate in the middle ; umbilico-columellar tract covered 
by a white callus, excavated at the position of the umbilicus, and 
bearing a spiral rib. Alt. 35, diam 40 ; alt. 26, diam. 40 mill. 

Coasts of Chili and Bolivia. 



174 CHLOROSTOMA. 

TrocJiH.i (iter Lesson, Voy. de la Goqidlle, p. 344, t. 1(3, f, 2 (1826). 
— D'Orbigny Voy. dans VAmcr. merid., p. 409. — Gould, U. S. 
Explor. Exped., t. 211. — Gay, Hist, fisica y polit. de Chile, viii, p. 
142, t. 4, f. 2.— Philippi, Conchyl. Cab., p. 198, t. 30, f. 1.— 
Fischer, Coq. Viv. (gen. Turbo), p. 109, t. 30, f. 2. 

The largest American Chlorostoma. Some specimens are mucli 
depressed. The dimensions are frequently smaller than above 
given. Fisher gives alt. 50, diam. 54 mill, as the measurements of 
a specimen in the Paris collection. 

Var. MCESTUM Jonas. PI. 28, figs. 50, 51. 

This form diflfers from the preceding in being smaller, narrower 
and more elevated. Alt. 28, diam. 26-28 mill. 

Coast of Chili. 

All the specimens I have seen are very much eroded. 

T. mcestus Jonas, Zeitschr. f. Malak., 1844, -.p. 113. — Philippi, 
Conchyl. Cab., p. 199, t. 30, £ 2.— Gay, Hisf.fis. y polit. Chile, t. 4, 
f. 3.— Fisc!HER, Coq. Viv., p. 276, t. 91, f 1. 

C. EURYOIMPHALUS Jonas. PI. 27, figs. 39. 

Shell umbilicate, conical, solid, black or purplish ; spire elevated, 
conical ; whorls about 6, somewhat convex, nearly smooth, the last 
more or less angulate at the periphery, sometimes obtusely bicar- 
inate ; aperture rather small, oblique, columella arcuate, spreading 
above in a white callus ; und)ilicus white within, somewhat funnel- 
shaped, bearing a spiral rib which terminates in a denticle in the 
middle of the columella. Alt. 28-33, diam. 28-33 mill. 

Coast of Chili. 

T. euryomphalus Jonas, Zeitschr. f. Malak., 1844, p. 115. — 
Philippi, Conchyl. Cab., p. 155, t. 25, f. 7. — Fischer, Coq. Viv., p. 
107, t. 31, f 4. — Turbo Inctaosus var., Kieni:r, Species, t. 31, f 4. 
— Trochus kieneri Hupe, in Gay, Hist. fis. y polit. Chile, viii, p. 
144, t. 4, f 1. 

Allied to the following species, but narrower, more elevated, and 
much less distinctly carinated. It bears about the same relation to 
C. luctuosum that C. moestum does to C. atrum, and should jier- 
haps rank as a variety of that species. 

C. luctuosum d'Orbiguy. PI. 28, figs. 45, 46. 

Shell broadly umbilicate, depressed conical, solid, heavy, black 
or purplish ; spire more or less depressed, sutures linear ; whorls 5 



CHLOROSTOMA, 175 

to 6, the upper ones with a strong carina midway between the 
sutures, the last carinated at the i^eriphery and above, generally 
showing a less prominent carina on the base near the periphery ; 
aperture oblique, columella oblique, arcuate ; umbilicus broad and 
deep, with a spiral rib within. 

Alt. 26, diam. 40 ; alt. 35, diam. 44 mill. 

W. coast of S. America, from Callao io Valparaiso. 

Trochas lactuosus D'Orb., Voy. dana V Amer. Merid., p. 409, t. 
76, f. 16-19.— Philippi, Conchyl. Gab., p. 153, t. 25, f. 4, 5.— 
Fischer, Coq. Viv., p. 106, t. 31, f. 3. — T. bicarinatus Pot. et 
Mich., Galerie, i, t. 30. f. 1-3 (not T. bicarlnatas Lam., a fossil 
species). — T. carimdiis Koch, in Philippi, Abbihl., Trochus, t. 2, f. 
3 (not T. carinatns Borson, a fossil species). — CJdorostoma tropido- 
phorum A. Ad., P. Z. S., 1851, p. 183. 

The wide umbilicus and strongly keeled whorls separate this 
form from the other species. 

C. TRiDENTATUM Potiez et Micliaud. PI. 28, figs. 47, 48. 

Shell minutely peyforaie, conoidal, elevated, heavy and solid, 
black or jiurplish ; wdiorls 5 to 6, slightly convex, smooth, the last 
with rounded periphery ; base somewhat flattened, deeply eroded in 
front of the aperture; aperture small, obIi(|ue, the outer lip thick 
and Urate wdthin, the columella short, oblique, distinctly tridentate 
at the base ; umbilicus circular, minute. 

Alt. 19-22. diam. 15-18 mill. 

Coasts of Peru and Chili. 

Monodonta tridentata P. ET ISI., Galerie. du Mus. de Douai, i, p. 
321, t. 29, f 16, 17. — Trochus tridentatus Phil., Conchyl. Cab., p. 
153, t. 25, f. 3.— Fischer, Coq. Viv., p. 172, t. 57, f 2.—T. tridens 
Mkk. in Philippi. Abbild., Trochus, t. 4, £ 10. — T. stenomphalus 
Jonas, Zeitschr. f. Mai., , p. 114. — T. microstomus D'Orbigny, 
Voy. dans CAmcr. Merid., p. 410, t. 76, f. 20, 21. 

* * * 
( Omphalius.) 
C. viRiDULUM Gmelin. PI. 29, figs. 54-56. 

Shell umbilicate, conoidal, solid, whitish-grayish or greenish, 
radiately striped above with crimson or rich brown, beneath spotted 
or radiately striped with the same color; spire rather obtuse, short; 
whorls 6, convex, encircled by spiral lirre which are n.ore or less 



176 CHLOROSTOMA. 

beaded upon the upper surface, the interstices between them mi- 
nutely spirally striated ; on the penultimate whorl they number 
about 6 ; below the periphery the lirse are finer, closer, and nearly 
smooth ; last whorl obtusely angulate or rounded at the periphery ; 
base rather flattened, somewhat concave around the umbilicus, and 
generally eroded in front of the aperture ; aperture oblique ; outer 
lip beveled to an acute edge, which is usually margined with green 
and is sulcated or crenulated, the furrows corresponding to the lirre 
of the outer surface ; the j^early throat is also more or less sulcate ; 
columella arcuate, expanded above in a bright green callus which 
partly surrounds the umbilicus, at its base green, bearing a tuber- 
cular tooth, followed by several sznaller ones ; basal margin smooth 
or denticulate within ; umbilicus wide and deep, white or greenish 
within. Alt. 22, diam. 25 mill. 

Rio Janeiro, Kortlnvard to West Indies. 

Trochus viridulus Gmel., Syst. Kat., xiii, p. .S574. — Philippi, 
Conchyl. Cab., p. 75, t. 14, f. 5. — Fischer, Coq. Viv., p. 210, t. 70, f. 

1 (not T. viridulus Mke.) — T. Cruciatus "Chemnitz," Philippi, 
Conchy!. Cab., p. 76, t. 14, f 8 (not of Linn.) — T. artievlatus d'Orb., 
Voy. dans. rAmcr. Mcrid., p. 409. 
Under the above specific name I am comjielled to unite a numl)er 

of species hertofore considered distinct. The descriptiim and figures 

given above apply to the typical form found on the E. Coast of S. 

America. This form is nearly always green beneath the superficial 

coat. 

Var. RETicuLATUM Wood. PI. 29, figs. 63, 64, 68, 69. 

This form is more depressed than C. viridulum and smaller; the 
base is flatter ; the periphery carinate ; the lirce of the upper surface 
more regular, more distinctly beaded, the interliral interstices with 
fewer spiral stride, often with minute beaded lirula^. Coloration as 
in C. viridulum, consisting of radiating stripes. Aperture and 
columella tinged with green or white. Alt. 15, diam. 18-19 mill. 

Panama to Mazatlan. 

T. retieulatns Wood., Ind. Test. Suppl, t. 6, f 38. — Fischer, Coq. 
Viv., p. 212, t. 70. f; 2.— T. brazilianns Menke, Syn. meth. Moll., p. 
142 (1830).— Philippi, Conchyl. Cab., p. 76, t. 14, f 10. 

A form precisely like this in every character except that it has a 
somewhat more rounded perijjhery is before me from the Gulf 
coast of Costa Rica. 



CHLOROSTOMA. 177 

Var. LiGULATUM Menke. PI. 29, figs. 58, 59, 60. 

This is an extremely variable form. The shell may be either very 
much depressed or as high as broad. It may be spirally sculptured 
with numerous narrow, unequal lira?, or as strongly cingiilate as the 
preceding form. The best development of this variety is shown by 
the specimens before me from San Diego. They are elevated, 
turbinated, strongly gran ose-1 irate ; the base is deeply eroded in front 
of the aperture; the color is brownish-yellow, with numerous close 
narrow longitudinal purplish-brown stripes, but the whole surface is 
so dingy that it appears unicolored ; the spiral lir?e are subequal, the 
grains low and elongated in the direction of the lira?. The whorls 
are rounder than in C. viridulum, and the aperture decidedly smaller, 
and lacking green tinge on the columella. 

Alt. 22, diam. 22; alt. 14, diam. 18 mill. 

Panama to California. 

Trochxis llgulatus Menke, Zeitschr.f. MaL, 1850, p. 173. — Om- 
phalitis Ugidatus Carpenter, Cat. Mazatlan Sh., p. 285. — O.fusces- 
cens, Carpenter, Suppl., Eepf. on Moll. W. Coast N. A., p. 652 
(and of subsequent American collectors and authors, not of 
Philippi !).— T. lignlatus Fischer, Coq. Viv., p. 382, t. 115, f 5. 

Figs. 59, 60 are drawn from San Diego specimens. C. ligulatum 
differs from C. reticulatum and C. viridulum in lacking broad 
radiating stripes. It is usually encrusted with Bryozoa or Serpula. 

C. CORONULATUM C. B. Adanis. PI. 24, figs. 80-83. 

Shell umbilicate, more depressed and less conical than C. reticu- 
latum ; color dingy white, with broad radiating flames of brown or 
red above irregularly maculated below, sometimes nearly unicolored, 
pinkish, with the lirse of the base articulated with red and white 
dots. The spire is either conic or depressed ; the sutures either 
simple, linear, or somewhat canaliculate. The whorls number 
about 5 ; they are spirally transversed by excessively minute spiral 
strife ; the last whorl has an acute carina at the periphery, and an 
angulation or keel at the middle of the upper surface of the whorl 
and continued upon the spire, and which is usually nodose on the 
last whorl ; there is usually, too, a third ridge or carina, generally 
nodose, betweeen the two already describe 1. The base is more or 
less convex, generally shows microscoi)ic coucentric f-ti'iie under a 
lens, and has about 5 low, narrow, separated lirul^e. The aperture 
12 



178 CHLOROSTOMA. 

is not notably different from that of C. reticulatum ; the columella 
and inside of the umbilicus are either green or white. 

Alt. 8-9, diam. 12 mill. 
Tiihoga, C. A. (C. B. Ad.) ; Cape St. Lucas and La Paz, L. Cal. 

Trochus coronulatus C. B. Ad., Cat. Shells Panama, p. 191, 317 
(1852). — Omphaliiis turbinatus Pease, Am. Journ. Conch., x, p. 84, 
t. 8, f. 15. 

This little species may be recognized by the close microscopically 
striated surface and the several keels of the last whorl, the upper 
one nodose. It is one of those species wdiere the sculpture is very 
mutable because almost any one of the strire is likely to become 
magnified into a strong rib or carina. Clanculus plebejus is precisely 
comparable to this form in this respect. Chlorostoma semigranosa 
Ad. is allied to this form but is much more coarsely Urate. Adams 
gives for alt. '55, diam. '72 inch. 

Omphalius turbinatus is the adult of this species, as I have satis- 
fied myself by an examination of the type specimens. The follow- 
ing is Pease's description : 

Var. TUKBiNATUM Peasc. PL 24, fig. 90. 

Shell openly and deeply umbilicate, somewhat depressly turbinate, 
thick, solid ; whorls angulate above, the last obsoletely augulate 
at the periphery, encircled by small slightly nodulous ridges, inter- 
stices elevately striate ; base convex ; smooth or obsoletely ridged, at 
the umbilical region smooth ; columella at base nodosely dentate, 
and terminating in a very slightly elevated tooth (not grooved). 
Yellowish or whitish, radiately obliquely marked with reddish-brown 
interrupted stripes, the base marbled with reddish-brown. Umbilicus 
and columella sea green, ojjerculum bright yellow. 

Alt. 13, diam. 18 mill. 

La Paz, Gulf of Calfor)da. 

C. SEMiGRANOSUM A. Adanis. PI. 29, figs. 65-67. 

Shell umbilicate, conical, about the size and shape of C. reticu- 
latum Wood ; whorls of the spire but slightly convex, the sutures 
linear, not impressed ; coloration consisting of radiating irregular 
divaricating flames, fine lines and dots of umber almost covering a 
whitish ground, sometimes entirely covering it except for small dots 
of white on the line ; whorls 5 to 6, encircled by very numerous 
close irregularly crenulated spiral lirte, about 10 to 12 on the last 
Avhorl above the periphery, the interstices narrow, spirally striate 



CHLOROSTOMA. 179 

or smooth ; the periphery is obtusely angular ; and there is a slight 
prominent carina or angulation on the middle of the upper sui-face 
of the whorls ; on some specimens there is a subsutural row of 
rounded grains; base slightly convex, bearing about 8 concentric 
crenulated lirre similar to those of the upper surface, but more 
separated, dotted with white, the interstices microscopically spirally 
striate; aperture oblique, outer lip slightly crenulated, or smooth 
within ; columella short, arcuate, with a heavy white callus above, 
connecting with a pearly callus which coats the parietal wall ; um- 
bilicus rather large, deep, its edge formed by a spiral rib which 
terminates in a tooth at the base of the columella ; immediately below 
this is a smaller one, and a thii'd denticle is situated at the junc- 
tion of columella with the base; basal margin thickenpd within, 
smooth. Alt. 12, diam. 16 mill. 

West Indies {A. Ad.), 

Phorcus semigranosus A. Ad., P. Z. S., 1851, p. 157. 

This species may be known by the close, crenulated Yivse, the 
color — which is a little too dark for umber but is more of a bistre 
shade, the obtuse cai'ina on the middle of the upper surface of each 
whorl, etc. 

C. QUADRicosTATUM Wood. PI. 28, fig. 49. 

Shell umbilicate, conical, solid, thick, blackish ; spire conoidal, 
apex rather blunt, sutures canaliculate ; whorls 6, encircled by 4 
coarsely tuberculose ribs on the upper surface ; the uppeT two con- 
tiguous, sometimes coalescent ; base with 3 or 4 separated smaller 
beaded ribs, the broad interstices both above and below densely, 
finely spirally striate; periphery obtusely angular; base nearly flat; 
aperture oblique, smooth within, columella sinuous, oblique, biden- 
tate ; umbilicus surrounded by a white callus, bearing inside a strong 
spiral rib which terminates in a denticle about the middle of the 
columella. Alt. 23, diam. 25 mill. 

Coast of Chili. 

T. qiiadricostatus Wood, Ind. Test. Suppl., t. 5, f 1(3.^ — Phtlippi, 
Conchyl. Cab., p. 154, t. 25, f. 6. — Fischer, Coq. Viv , p. 104, t. 31, 
i\ 2. — T. torulosus Phil., Abbild., i, Trochus, t. 2, f 12. — Monododa 
catenifera FoT. et Mich., Galerie des Moll., i, t. 29, f. 12, 13 (not 7\ 
catenifera Kiener, also a Chlorostoma). 



180 CHLOROSTOMA. 

This species is allied to C. coroniilatuni. Tlie large size, somber 
color and strong beaded spiral ribs at once characterize it. 

C. RUBROFLAMMULATUM Koch. PI. 29, figs. 57, 61, 62. 

This form is similar in general appearance and form to C. qnadri- 
costatum. The spire is either elevated or rather depressed ; the 
sutures deeply canaliculate; the last whorl encircled by three prom- 
inent, equidistant carinje, one subsutural, composed of rounded or 
radiating knobs followed by two or three beaded lirulre, two at the 
periphery, prominently beaded, with a beaded riblet between them ; 
base encircled by 5 more or less beaded, equal lira3 ; the entire 
surface microscopically obliquely striate, and in some places decus- 
sated by microscopic spiral stride. Aperture oblique, rounded-quad- 
rate ; outer lip thick, Urate within ; columella less deeply sinuous 
than in C. quadricostatum, arcuate, tridentate below; umbilicus 
narrower than that of C. quadricostatum. Color whitish, radiately 
striped above with pink, the ribs of the base dotted or articulated 
with pink. Alt. 15, diam. 18 ; alt. 22, diam. 21 mill. 

Panama ; Gulf of California. 

Trochns ruhrofiammulatus Koch, in Philippi, Ahhild., i, Trochus 
t. 2, f. 4.— ConchyL Cab., p. 186, t. 28, f. 17.— Fischer, Coq. Viv., 
p. 250, t. 85, f. 1. 

The light coloration, complete coalescence of the two subsutural 
ribs into one series of tubercles, the equal lirse of the base and the 
lirate interior of the aperture at once separate this form from C. 
quadricostatum. 

C. MELALEUCAS Jonas. PL 63, figs. 1, 2. 

Shell rather solid, conical, apex obtuse, profoundly umbilicated, 
white ornamented with oblique black flaramules ; whorls 6, with a 
coronal series of tubercles, carinated, the carina nodulose; chan- 
nelled below the carina, and spirally bistriate ; last whorl bicari- 
nate ; base concentrically sulcate ; aperture subrhomboid, fauces 
smooth; columella arcuate; terminating in two teeth. (Phil.) 

This species, closely allied to T. quadricostatus Wood and T. 
Tubrofliminulatus Koch, is readily recognized by its very peculiar 
characters. It consists of 6 whorls, which are divided by a nodose 
keel into a larger convex upper portion and a smaller channelled 
lower part ; a second series of blunt tubercles adorns the upper edge 
of the whorls along the suture ; below there are slightly elevated 
striie; the last whorl has the base sharply separated by a second 



CHLOROSTOMA. 181 

keel ; the base is concentrically, rather deeply furrowed, the 6 
furrows narrower than the intervening ridgres. In the umbilicus, 
which perforates almost to the apex, all of the whorls are visible, 
encircled by an acute carina ; the aperture is subquadrate, nacreous, 
smooth within, and has a groove indicating the place of the exter- 
nal keel; the coluralla is S-shaped, and ends in a blunt tooth, 
before which there is a small acute denticle ; above, the columellar 
plate is callous, and covers a small portion of the umbilicus. The 
pretty markings of the shell consist of oblique, regular wide black 
streaks, sejaarated by spaces as broad as themselves, on a white 
ground. 

Alt. 24, diam. 25 mill. There are also narrower forms. {Philippi.) 

Coast of Peru. 

T. melaleucos Jonas, Zeitschr. f Mai. 1844, p. 1()9. — Philippi 
Abbild. u. Beschreib., ii, Trochus, t. 6, f 7 ; and Conchyl. Cab., p. 
185, t. 28, £16. 

Evidently closely allied to Chlorostoma rubrojiavimulahivi. 
C. FuscESCENS Philippi. PL 61, figs. 42, 43. 

Shell depressed-conical, narrowly umbilicate, acute, brown ; 
whorls densely spirally striated ; nearly flat, subangulate at the 
sutures ; last whorl subangular at the periphery ; columella sub- 
excised, base bidentate, above i>roduced in a short lobe partly im- 
pinging upon the umbilicus. (Phil.) 

The shell consists of 5 to 6 whorls, and has a great likeness to the 
Mediterranean T. (Glbbula) varius in size, form of the whorls, stria- 
tion and coloration ; the whorls are almost entirely flat, only con- 
vex above near the suture ; the last whorl is pretty angular, almost 
raarginated ; the aperture is rounded-quadrangular, the columella 
strongly excavated, with two denticles below, separated by a nacreous 
depression, above produced into a callous which lies partly around 
the umbilicus, but is not so conspicuous as in other species. The 
umbilicus is narrow, white, distinctly bounded by a blackish l)and, 
which goes to the lower tooth of the columella, on others the color 
is brown, marbled with a few lighter flecks. There seems to be a 
variety in which there are separated elevated, carina-like lints. 

Alt. 11, diam. 14 mill. {PhiUpxn.) 

Chili. 

T. fascescens Phil., Abbild., etc., i, Trochus, t. 3, f 8, (1884.) 
(Not Oinphalius fascescens Carpenter et sxu.ct.,= Chlorostoma ligula- 
tum Mke.) 



1 82 CHLOROSTOMA. 

This seems to be a form perfectly distinct from the Californian 
shells called fuscescens by Cpr. and other .American authors and 
collectors. See C. Ugnlatmn. 

C. SMiTHii Tapparone-Canefri. PI. 24, figs. 100, 101. 

Shell globose-conoidal, thick, rather smooth, obscurely transversely 
striate-lirate, the lirse more evident on the base; whorls 62 , terete; 
the penultimate inflated, convex, the last rotund, subcarinated ; base 
somewhat convex; aperture suborbicular, lip much thickened within ; 
subdenticulate within ; columella sinuate, white, continued above in 
a lobe partly surrounding the umbilicus, and at the base bearing 
three obvious tubercles ; throat smooth, silvery; shell green, flam- 
raulate with white ; base around the umbilicus pale, purple flam- 
mulate. Alt. 27, diani. 26 mill. (Tap.-Caii.) 

Peru. 

Omphalias smithii Tap.-Can. Viaggio della R. Fregata ' Magenta ' 
(Malacologia) p. 62, t. 1, f. 18. 

This species is allied to O. viridulus Gmel., but is distinguished 
by (1) its larger dimensions ; (2) its almost smooth surface, the 
cinguli almost obliterated ; (3) the three very pronounced tubercles 
at base of columella ; (4) the smooth and thick lip ; (5) the convex 
base, the angle scarcely noticeable ; (6) the umbilicus is less covered 
by a more extended callous. (Tap.-Can.) 

C. PANAMENSis Philippi. PL 61, flgs. 11, 12. 

Shell globose-conoidal, umbilicate, solid, transversely sidcate, pur- 
plish, marbled with white spots ; whorls convex, the last rounded ; 
transverse sulci about 10 on penultimate, 24 on the last whorl ; um- 
bilicus narrow ; aperture circular ; columella produced above in a 
lobe partly surrounding the umbilicus, below terminating in three 
denticles ; lip very smooth within, with a basal sulcus parallel to the 
margin. (Phil.) 

The shell is thick, globose, conoidal. The 5 to 6 whorls are 
separated by a deep suture, the upper ones slightly, the penult, and 
last strongly convex. The circumference is indistinctly angled ; 
the base rather convex ; the whole upper surface is densely furrowed 
by blunt tranverse sulci, of which I count 10 on the penult., al)out 
24 on the last whorl, including the base. The umbilicus is rather 
narrow, nearly cylindrical, encircled by a carina, above which a 
more prominent spiral rib revolves, which ends at the columella in 
three denticles. Tiie aperture is very oblique, circular ; the outer 



CHLOROSTOMA. 183 

lip is thickened within, and this thickening where it unites with the 
cohnnella, leaves a deep furrow resulting from the continuity of the 
margin of the outer lip with the border of the umbilicus. Above 
the columella is continued in a lobe partly surrounding the umbili- 
cus. The color is brownish-red, almost wine-colored, with white 
flecks. Alt. 15, diam. 19 mill. (Philippi.) 

Panama. 

T. panamensis Phil. Zeitschr. f Mai. 1848, p. 127 ; Conchyl. 
Cab., p. 311, t. 44, f 15. 

C. cooKSONi Smith. PL 60, figs. 12, 13. 

Shell deeply umbilicated. suborbicular, slightly conoidal, brown, 
variegated with rosy, painted with white lines articulated with 
black ; whorls 4j, nearly smooth, slightly convex, sculptured with 
few delicate spiral strife ; last whorl convex above, slightly depressed 
beneath the suture, at the periphery flattened and biangulate : base 
nearly flat, delicately spirally striate, around the umbilicus encircled 
with a shallow groove ; umbilicus white, deep, surrounded by white 
callus forming a tooth at the base of the columella ; aperture sub- 
orbicular ; columella arcuate, joined to the whorl by a callus. 

Alt. 4, diam. 8 mill. (Smith.) 

Charles Id. ; Galapaffos. 

This shell is deeply umbilicated, elevately orbicular, convex 
above, only slightly conical, and flat beneath ; the last whorl is 
flattened at its middle, and this produces a double angulation, 
which, however, is not very cons])icuous. Thei'e is also a faint de- 
pression a little below the suture. The coloration of this species is 
not very definite ; the upper surface is blotched irregularly with 
pink and brown, and some spiral articulated lines; the base is a 
trifle paler ; the only sculpture consists of fine spiral striations, 
which are most conspicuous on the base ; the callus which surrounds 
the umbilicus is whitish, and terminates in a faint tooth on the 
columella, and is bordered by a shallow sulcus on the whorl. The 
columella terminates above in a callosity which extends upward 
some distance on the whorl, and also spreads out within the aperture. 
T. occidtus of Philippi bears a faint resemblance to this form, but is 
more conoid, and more strongly sculptured. (Smith.) 

Charles Id., Galapagos. 

Tr. (Omphalitis) cooksoni Smith (in Giinther, Zool. coll. H. M. S.. 
'Peterel'), P. Z. S. 1877, p. 71, t. 11, f. 7. 



184 CHLOROSTOMA. 

C. MAcuLOSTRiATUM C. B. Adams. PL 24, figs. 88, 89. 

Shell umbilicate, conical, solid, deep green, brown, pinkish or 
olivaceous, more or less dotted Avith white and a self-color, sometimes 
radiately flammulate with white ; a tract around the umbilicus 
white, tessellated with brown. The spire is elevated, sometimes 
scalariform ; the apex acute ; upper whorls slightly convex, the last 
convex, depressed below the suture, rounded at the periphery ; the 
whole surface bearing numerous low, smooth spiral strire, which are 
often subobsolete on the last whorl, and it is then nearly smooth ; 
base concave in the middle ; aperture rounded-quadrate, smooth 
within or finely lirate ; columella slightly sinuous, bidentate at base, 
expanding in a callus above, which slightly impinges upon the um- 
bilicus. Alt. 9, diam. 10 mill. 

West Lidies generally. 

Trochas hotessieriunus d'Orb., Moll, de Cuba, ii, p. 59, t. 18, f- 
15-17 (1853).— Philippi, Conchyl. Cab., p. 270, t. 39, f. lo.— T. 
ocmdtus Philippi, Abbild. u. Beschreib., ii, Trochus t. 6, f. 8 
(1845), and Conchyl. Cab., p. 15(3, t. 25, f 8. — Monodonta macalo- 
striata C. B. Adams, Proc. Bod. Soc. N. H., 1845, p. 6. — T. maculo- 
striatus Phil., Co\ichyl. Cab., p. 120, t. 28, f 7. — Fischer, Coq. Viv., 
p. 254, t. 86, f. 1. 

This species when fully developed is elevated, finely, regularly 
spiral! V striate, with much smoother surface and more regular smooth 
sculpture than C. scalaris, as well as narrower umbilicus. The fully 
developed form is T. hotessierianus of d'Orb. Younger shells are 
less elevated, and more conspicuously sculptured ; and I at first drew 
up a description of them under the name of T. occultiis Phil. ; the 
same form is the 31. maculo-driata of Adams. These two names 
were both proposed in 1845, and as far as I know there is no means 
by which the priority of either may be proven, j he description of 
T. occtiltusFhil.^macido-striatus C. B. Ad., is as follows: (PI. 24, 
figs. 84, 85). 

Shell small, umbilicate, depressed conical, dark olive-brown 
(bistre) or umber colored, dotted more or less with white, especially 
beneath ; ivhorls slightly convex ; suture impressed ; apex acute, 
leaden or whitish ; w^horls 5, moderately convex, spirally finely lirate, 
the lirie 8 to 12 in number on the penultimate whorl, smooth, 
narrower than the interstices, which under a strong lens appear 
obliquely striate, often with a central spiral riblet ; there are often 
one or two more prominent Vivve about the middle of the whorl 



CHLOROSTOMA. 185 

above, and these are articulated with white ; the periphery is obtusely 
subangular, and bears two more conspicuous lirje articulated with 
white, between which there are several lirulse ; the base is rather 
flattened, concave in the middle around the umbilicus, and white, 
with about 6 rather strong concentric Yirse articulated with dark 
spots ; the outer part of the base is encircled by a zone of very 
minute spiral ribs ; aperture oblique, rounded-quadrate ; columella 
sinuous, arcuate ; umbilicus white within, bordered by a strong 
spiral rib which terminates in a tooth at the base of the columella, 
beneath which is another smaller similar denticle. 
Alt. 7, diam. 8 mill. 

C. IMPRESSUM Jonas. PI. 63, figs. 8, 9. 

Shell narrowly and profoundly perforate, rather thick, conoid, 
dull cinereous, ornamented with castaneous radiating flammules ; 
whorls 6, rather convex, spirally finely lirate, the lirfe 7 to 8 on the 
penultimate whorl, 5 on the preceding ; last whorl rounded, com- 
pressed below the suture above, somewhat convex beneath, and 
provided with about 10 concentric lir?e; aperture slightly dilated, 
ovate, the lip plicatulate within ; columella thin in the middle, 
arcuate, concave, bearing 2 or 3 tubercles below ; columellar callus 
thick, green, slightly impinging upon the umbilicus- 
Alt. 13, diam. 13 mill. (Fischer.) 

W. coast S. America (J) ; Mazatlan (?). 
Trochus impressus Jonas, in Philippi, Conchyl Cab., p. 318, t. 
45, f. 6.— Fischer, Coq. Viv., p. 252, t. 85, f 2.— T. corviis Phil., 
Zeitschr.f. MaL, 1849, p. 152. (Error). 

C. SCALARE Anton. PI. 29, figs. 70-73. 

Shell broadly, deeply umbilicated, conical, white, nearly uni- 
colored, (1) articulated on the ribs with reddish or olive-brown 
dots, (2) tinged with pinkish or olive all over and dotted with a 
darker self-color on the ribs, (3) with broad radiating pinkish, 
olivaceous or yellowish maculations above, maculated or speckled 
on the base. Spire generally elevated, sometimes scalariform, 
pointed, conical, the apex acute ; sutures deeply marked ; whorls 6 
to 8, quite convex, obliquely striate, spirally lirate, the lir?e generally 
rather low, but sometimss elevated, cord-like, and numbering from 
7 to 12 on the penultimate whorl. The lirai are rather irregularly, 
slightly crenulated ; they are unequal in size, one or two about the 
middle of the upper surface generally being larger, causing a flight 



186 CHLOROSTOMA. 

carina there. The periphery is sometimes rounded but usually 
carinated ; the base is convex, broadly concave around the umbilicus. 
Aperture oblique ; columella sinuous ; more deeply receding above 
than in any other species, and angulated at its junction with the 
white callus upon the whorl, strongly unidentate below; umbilicus 
broad, deep, with two spiral ribs within; one terminating in the 
callus of the columella at its junction with the body-whorl, the other 
ending in the basal tooth of the columella. 
Alt. 14-17, diam. 18-22 mill. 

West Indies generally ; Florida Keys (Simpson). 

T. .scalar is Anton, in Philippi, Ahbild., i, Trochus, t. 4, f. 11 
(1844).— Philippi, Conchyl. Cab., p. 182, t. 28, f. 11.— Fischer, 
Coq. Viv., p. 253, t. 85, f. 3. — T. canaliculatus d'Orb,, 31oll. de Cuba, 
t. 18, f. 18, 19.— Philippi, Conchyl. Cab., p. 227, t. 34, f. U.—3fo7w- 
donta livido-ma.culata C. B. Adams, Proe. Bost. Soc. N. H., ii, 1845, p. 7 
(teste Fischer). — T. gundlachi Philippi, Zeitschr. f. Mai., 1848, p. 
108, and Conchyl. Cab., p. 226, t. 34, f. 13. 

I do not quote Globulus indusii Chemnitz, Conchylien Cabinet, 
V, p. 116, f. 1682, because the figure is unidentifiable and because 
Chemnitz says of his shell, Er wird wiederum von dichte aneinander 
sitzenden Perlenreihen umgeben ; and the granulation of the lira3 of 
this species is never obvious enough to justify such a term as 
" Perlenreihen." 

In general, this form may be recognized by the broad umbilicus, 
strongly 2-ribbed within, the low, irregular, cord-like lirte, the 
acutely pointed spire, and especially by the very deep angular 
sinuosity of the columella. There are sometimes two spiral ribs 
instead of one at the margin of the umbilicus. PI. 24, figs. 86, 87 
are T. gundlachi Phil., a form which seems to be synonymous, cor- 
responding with immature specimens of the C. scalare. 

C. FAsciATUs Boi-n. PI. 29, figs. 74-77. 

Shell umbilicate, depressed, thick and solid ; smooth; ground-color 
yellowish, elegantly painted with red, black or brown in innumer- 
able patterns, usually some combination of spiral rows of dots or 
blotches, and radiating irregular flames ; whorls about 6, the apex 
acute, upper whorls nearly flat, the last flattened beneath the suture, 
convex, rounded, descending ; base rounded, concave around the 
umbijicus ; aperture oblique, outer lip finely crenulated within ; 



CHLOEOSTOMA. 187 

columella short, arcuate, with a white callus above and two transverse 
tubercles at base. Alt. 14, diam. 16 mill. 

West Indies; Florida Keys ; Bermuda. 

T. earneolus Lam., An. s. Vert., vii, p. 29. — Fischer, Coq. Viv., 
p. 195, t, 63, f. 2.— T. fasdatm Born, Mus. Cces. Vindob., p. 331, t. 
12, f. 3, 4.—T. deiitatus Gmel., Si/st. Nat., xiii, p. 3601. 

An abundant West Indian species, differing from other Omphalius 
by the smooth surface. The name imposed by Born had better be 
retained, as there is no doubt about the identity of his rigures and 
description with the present species. 

C, suBSTRiATUM Pilsbry. PI. 29, figs. 78. 

Much more depressed than C. carneola, discoidal, widely umbil- 
icate ; surface sculptured by numerous spiral slightly elevated 
lirulte, which are red, more or less articulated with white dots ; 
periphery frequently with two or several more prominent lirse. 

Alt. 6, diam. 10 mill. 

Bahamas; St. Croix. 

C. EXCAVATUM Lamarck. PI. 63, figs. 3, 4, 5. 

Shell umbilicate, conical, dull grayish, olivaceous or pinkish, 
longitudinally lineolate with a darker shade, frequently appearing 
unicolored ; spire conic, apex eroded or acute ; whorls 6 to 7, flat- 
tened, scarcely convex, ver}' obsoletely spirally grooved ; body-whorl 
acutely carinated at the periphery, flat or plano-concave beneath, 
concentrically lirate ; aperture large, subhorizontal, iridescent within ; 
columella sinuous, unidentate in the middle, green, half surrounding 
the umbilicus with a sickle-shaped callus ; umbilicus infundibuliform, 
green or white within, broadly expanding at its opening. 

Alt. 12-14, diam. 15 mill. 

West Indies. 

T. ezcavatus Lam., A^i. s. Vert., vii, p. 29. — Philippi, Conchyl. 
Cab., p. 151, t. 25, f 1 ; t. 28, I 12.— Fischer, Coq. Viv., p. 283, t. 
92, f 3. 

Distinct from all other West Indian species in the conical form, 
flat base and more oblique aperture. 

C. GRUENTUS Philippi. PI. 63, figs. 6, 7. 

The present species is very distinct in its sculpture. There are 7 
whorls, ending in an acute apex, and very convex. The upper ones 
have 6 concentric lirit, which appear quadi-ate in section, often above 



188 CHLOROSTOMA. 

divided by a sulcus, and broader than the interstices. The last 
whorl has 15-16 such lir?e, and is almost cylindrical. The umbilicus 
is pretty narrow, almost cylindrical, bounded by a prominent sharp 
carina, which resembles a tooth-like projection of the columella. 
Columella rather deeply excavated, but showing no trace of a con- 
tinuation around the umbilicus. The aperture is somewhat rhom- 
boidal, the outer lip thickened within, sulcate from the margin 
inward, corresponding to the line of the exterior. One of my 
examples is dark red, the other dark ashen-gray, both sprinkled with 
white dots. Alt. 11-13, diara. 14-16 mill. {Philippi.) 

Habitat unhiown. 

T. cruentus Phil.. Abbild. u. Beschreib., i, Trochus, t. 4, f. 4 ; 
Conchyl. Cab., p. 157, t. 25, f. 10. 

A species of uncertain generic position. May be a Gibbula. 

C. soRDiDUM Philippi. PI. 61, figs. 7, 8. 

Shell depressed-conoidal, narrowly umbilicate, transversely striate, 
obliquely plicate, brown ; whorls depressed, carinated just above the 
sutures, the last bicarinated ; aperture rhombic-orbicular ; columella 
oblique, toothed in the middle, continued above in a lobe partially 
surrounding the umbilicus. (Phil.) 

The shell is pretty thin, depressed-conoidal above, consisting of 6 
whorls. The uppermost are level, with an elevated keel just above 
the suture, below the keel perpendicular. The last wdiorl has a 
second keel around the periphery. The base is plano-convex. The 
part of the whorl above the keel shows about 6 elevated transverse 
lines, and closely crowded growth stripe, under a lens appearing 
lamellar; and on the last whorl are oblique Avave-like folds meeting 
the incremental lines at right angles. The part between the keels 
has 4 furrows; the base has smooth, close, concentric stride. The 
aperture is broader than high, rhombic-circular; the outer lip thin ; 
the throat smooth ; the columella is oblique, with a tooth in about 
the middle, and above is prolonged in a lobe partly around the um- 
. bilicus. The umbilicus is narrow, cylindrical, not definitely bounded. 
The color is dirty brown, somewhat tinged with green. 
Alt. 9, diam. 12 mill. (Philippi.) 

Habitat nnhjioivn. 

T. sordidus Philippi, Zeitschr. f. Mai., 1849, p. 191 ; Conchyl. 
Cab., p. .301, t. 44, f. 1. 



CHLOROSTOMA. 189 

C. SUBFUSCESCENS Schrenck, PI. 41, figs. 18, 19, 20, 21. 

Shell small, depressed-conoidal, narrowly umbilicated, brownish- 
black, unicolored or marbled with dull white, encircled by slightly 
•elevated lines, densely decussated by oblique striie ; whorls 4, plau- 
ulate, the upper subangular at the suture, the last bicarinate at the 
periphery, transversely costulate-plicate above ; base nearly flat, 
very minutely closely striate; aperture rhomboidal, columella arcu- 
ate, with two small teeth separated by a little pit below, al)ove 
produced into a lobe partly covering the umbilicus ; lip acute, brown- 
margined ; fauces pearly, white. 

Alt. 7, diam. 10 mill ; alt. 5, diam. 7 mill. (Schrenck.) 

Bay of Hakodadi, Jaj)an. 

T. subfuscescens Schrenck, Bull, de I'Acad. Imp. des Sci. de St.- 
Petersb., v, p. 512 ; Moll, des Anuir-landes, etc., p. 350, 1. 15, f. 3-10. 
This species is evidently closely allied to Trochus sordidus Phil. 

€. pfeifferi Dohrn. PI. 61, figs. 28, 29. 

Shell umbilicate, conical with concave base, solid, lusterless, dark 
blackish or purplish slate-colored, with spiral series of white dots ; 
spire conoidal, apex blunt, sutures subcanaliculate ; whorls about 
5, convex, the last subangulate at periphery, and with a decided 
angle in the center of the base; the sculpture consists of narrow in- 
conspicuous spiral riblets (about 6 on j^enult. whorl) articulated 
with white dots. The whole surface has oblique growth lines; and 
a lens shows fine, subobsolete spiral strise all over the upper surface. 
Inside of the angle on the base the color is greenish, with radiating 
dull reddish stripes, and the surface smooth, save for five growth- 
lines. Aperture large, occupying one-half the area of base, sub- 
horizontal, pearly within, with red and^green reflections, the nacre 
either almost smooth or bearing fine white opaque plicae ; outer lip 
thin, bordered within by an opaque white band about li or 2 mill, 
wide ; columella very oblique, straight, white, opaque, continued 
in a callous lobe about J around the umbilicus. 

Alt. 10, diam. 12 mill. 

New Hebrides. 

Omphalius pfeifferi Dohrn, Malak. Bl. 1864, p. 56. 



190 CHLOROSTOMA. 

This shell seems to be a true Chlorostoma, or rather, Omphalias. 
Its distribution is very different from that of any other species, and 
its characters also are distinct. The dark coloration, white-dotted 
narrow lir^e, concave base, etc., are diagnostic. 

C. cANus Koch. PI. 61, figs. 14, 15. 

Shell small, umbilicated, globose-conoidal, solid, smooth, gray ; 
whorls nearly flat, depressed above, the last rounded ; aperture nar- 
row within ; columella arcuate, with an acute basal denticle and a 
deep sulcus below ; umbilicus narrow. (Phil.) 

The shell is globose-conical, somewhat depressed, and consists of 
5 to 6 whorls ; the superior ones are flat, especially at the suture; 
the last is well rounded at the pei'iphery ; all are smooth ; the shell 
is very thick, so that the aperture appears small within ; it is cir- 
cular; the concave columella ends in a sharp tooth, bounded by a 
deep furrow which is parallel with the outer lip. The inner lip is 
thickened, especially toward the umbilicus, which is very narrow 
but perforating. The color is gray, without markings. The neigh- 
borhood of the umbilicus is white. Alt. 7, diam. 9 mill. {PhUippi.) 

West Indies. 

T. canus Koch, Zeitschr. f. Mai. 1848, p. 102; Philippi, 
Conchyl. Cab., p. 181, t. 28, I 9. 

C. OMPHALiUM Philippi. Pi. 61, figs. 5, 6. 

Shell umbilicated, conoidal, granose, painted with deep purple 
ilanies ; whorls slightly convex, the last angulated at the circum- 
ference, with 5 to 6 granuliferous cinguli, slightly narrower than 
the interstices ; base rather flattened, with 5 slightly elevated 
cinguli articulated with purple ; aperture rounded-rhombic ; colu- 
mella cut out, produced into a green lobe partly surrounding the um- 
bilicus, below denticulate; lip where it passes into the columella, 
simple. (Phil.) 

The shell is depressed conoidal, consisting of 6 whorls, of which 
the upper ones are scarcely c(mvex, the last angular at the periphery 
and flat beneath ; last whorl showing 5 to 6 rows of flat, rather dis- 
tant granules, which are narrower than the interstices; the base 
shows 5 or 6 very slightly elevated, smooth, concentric lirie, with- 
out granules. The umbilicus is cylindrical in each whorl, with a 
white spiral keel within. The aperture is somewhat depressed, 
rhombic-circular ; the columella excavated, prolonged in a green 
lobe above, partially surrounding the umbilicus. The basal mar- 



CHLOROSTOMA. 191 

gin is simple, and at its junction with the cohmieHa tliere is a den- 
ticle, terminating the ridge which bounds the umbilicus. The 
throat has the appearance of being corrugated, but is smooth. 
The color is a dirty pale green, with broad purple-red stripes 
above, the base brownish, with the lirse articulated with white and 
purple-broAvn. The columella is greenish, and the aperture has 
greenish nacre. Alt. 10, diam. 14 mill. (Phdippl.) 

Habitat unkitown. 

Distinguished from T. viridulus by the much smaller size, more 
depressed form, simple basal lip, and the green umbilicus-bour.ding 
lobe of the columella, a feature approaching T. excavatus Lam. 
(Phil) 

T. omphalium Phil., Zeitschr. f. Mai., 1848, p. 110; Conchyl. 
Cab., p. 270, t. 39, f. 16. 

C. GRUNERi Philippi. PL 61, figs. 1, 2. 

Shell small, umbilicate, depressed, transversely striate above, 
smooth beneath ; Avhite and scarlet spotted, shining ; last whorl 
roundsd, encircled at the periphery with two more elevated lines; 
umbilicus similarly encircled ; aperture suborbicular, throat silvery, 
lip lightly sulcate within. (Phil.) 

This small species, notable for its beautiful red color, is very much 
depressed, and consists of 5 whorls which rapidly widen. The upper 
ones are but slightly convex, the last nearly cylindrical. The upper 
surface is transversely [i. e. spirally] striate but shining, the base 
smooth. Around the circumference of the last whorl there are two 
elevated stronger lines or lirulfe, reminding one of a similar form- 
ation in T. maculostriatus. The umbilicus is pretty broad, and 
would pass imperceptibly into the base were it not bounded by two 
rounded lirje close to one another. These do not terminate in denti- 
cles. The aperture is circular inside ; the outer lip has little Yirvo 
within ; the columella is not excavated, but is produced in a little 
continuation, partly surrounding the umbilicus. On a white ground 
there are bright red spots, or the shell is white and red marbled ; the 
transverse lines are often white and red articulated. 

Alt. 6, diam 9 J mill. (Philippi.) 

Antilles. 

T. (/rimer i Phil., Zeitschr. f. Mai., 1848, p. 107 ; Conchyl. Cab., 
p. 183, t. 28, f 13. 



192 CHLOROSTOMA. 

C SCABRICULUM v. d. Busch. PI. 61, figs. 16, 17, 18. 

Shell depressed-conic, umbilicate, pale reddish, marbled with white 
and brown spots, sculptured with frequent rugose transverse cinguli, 
the middle of the upper surface angulated ; last whorl subangulate, 
submarginate ; apertui'e suborbicular within ; columella denticulate 
at the outer basal portion, produced in a callous partly surrounding 
the umbilicus above. Uml)ilicus moderate, terete. (Phil.) 

The shell is depressed-couoidal, pretty thick, and consists of 5^ 
whorls. These ;ire very regularly convex, sometimes somewhat 
angular in the middle, the last one at the periphery often much 
more distinctly carinate than in the figure, and slightly margined. 
On the upper surfjice of the penultimate whorl one .sees 6 to 8 liraj, 
separated by narrow interstices, and irregularly uneven and 
wrinkled, not regularly granulose. This is esi^ecially true of the 
upper ones, and the middle one, which sometimes makes the whorl 
angular. The last whorl has above numerous spiral lirse ; the flat 
base hUs 10, which are smooth, regular, and separated by deep nar- 
row interstices. The umbilicus is moderate, and in each whorl is 
cylindrical. The aperture is circular within ; the columella has at 
the outer base a little pit, as if something had been broken off, and 
three little denticles ; above it is continued in a callous which sur- 
rounds one-third of the umbilicus. The basal lip has within a 
broad, rather deep furrow, parallel with its edge. The furrow is 
clear reddish-brown, marbled with dark brown and white dots ; the 
base lighter, regularly marked, the uml)ilical tract white. 

Alt. 9, diam. 14 mill., generally smaller. 

West Indies. 

T. scabriculus (v. d. Busch in liti.) Phil., Zeitschr. f, Mai. 1848, 
p. 125 ; Conchyl. Cab., p. 178, t. 28, f 5. 

C. PATAGONicus d'Orbigny. PI. 18, figs. 88, 89. 

Shell orbiculate-conic, thick. uml)ilieate, transversely narrowly 
granulose-sulcate, uniform brownish or purplish ; spire conic, apex 
obtuse ; whorls 5, subcarinate ; sutures excavated ; aperture rounded ; 
columella bidentate. Alt. 11, diam. 14 mill. (Orb.) 

Bay of San Bias, Patagonia. 

T. patagonicus Orb., Voy. dans I'Amer. Merid., p. 408, t. 55, f 
1-4.— Philippi, Conchyl. Cab., p. 225, t. 34, f. 12. 

C. coRRUGATUM (Koch) Philippi. PI. 41, figs. 34, 35. 

Shell orbicular-conoid, uml)ilicated, dull flesh-colored ; whorls 
rather convex, transversely sulcate, roughly reticulated by impressed 



CHLOROSTOMA. 193 

oblique irregular squamose lines ; aj)erture rounded-rhombic colu- 
mella marked with a granule outside. (Phil.) 

This species is very distinct in sculpture. The 6 wliorls are 
slightly convex, and have about 9 impressed spiral lines, which are 
so intersected by irregular impressed longitudinal lines, that the 
result is an irregular network, very difficult to render in the illustra- 
tion. The aj)erture has nothing distinctive; the inner lip is smooth 
inside. The columellar margin has a nacreous depression below, and 
over it a white, blunt outward-projecting tooth. The umbilicus is 
narrow, almost cylindrical, and is bounded by a rather acute angle ; 
within this angle is a slight ridge, which ends in the denticle of the 
columella. The color is a dirty flesh-tint; aperture and umbilical 
region not colored ; the former has an inferior kind of nacre. 

Alt. 12, diam. 15i mill. (Philippi.) 

Brazil. 

T. corrugatus Koch in Philippi, Abbild., i, Trochn.-^, t. 2, f. 7 ; and 
Phil. Conchyl. Cab., p. 157, t. 25, f. 9. 



Uufigured Chlorostoma and Omphalius. 

C. CASTANEUM A. Adams. C. testa oblique conica, umbilicata, 
castanea; anfractibus planis, longitudinaliter obsolete nodoso-pli- 
catis et oblique striatis, penultimo infra marginato, ultimo acut- 
angulo, basi concavo, pallide fusca, lineis viridi-fuscis radiatim picta ; 
umbilico infundibuliformi. perspectivo, intus albo, linea elevata 
cincto ; apertura subrhomboidea ; columella supra sinuata, basi 
dente terminata. (A. Ad.) 

Habitat unknown. 

P. Z. S., 1851, p. 182. 

C. TURBINATUM A. Adams. C testa turbinata, profuude umbili- 
cata, nigi'a, spira obtusa, longitudinaliter subplicata, transversim 
sulcosa ; anfractu ultimo rotundato, regione umbilicali partim callo 
lutescente obtecta ; columella antice bituberculata ; labro nigro 

marginato. {A. Ad.) 

Habitat tm known. 

L. c, p. 182. — Smith, Ann. and Mng, N. H., 1875, p. 112. 

Mr. E. A. Smith has indentified this species with specimens re- 
ceived by him from Toba, S. Niphon, Ja[)an. With it he unites 
the Chlorostoma rugatmn of Gould, observing that the hittei- diflers 
only in being more finely lirated on the base. . 
13 



194 CHLOR<3STOMA. 

C. MACULosuM A. Adam?. C. testa conica, profunde iimbilicata, 
viridi-fusca, maculis nigro-fuscis ornata; anf. planulatis, longitud- 
inaliter substriatis, transversim striatis ; anfractu ultimo angulato, 
basi coacavo ; columella antice tuberculo acuto termiuata. (A. Ad.) 

Habitat unknown. 

L. c, p. 183. 

C. SEMrNODOSUM A. Adams. C. testa depresso-conica, profunde 
umbilicata, fusca ; auf. planulatis, superne subnodosis, longitudinal- 
iter oblique striatis ; anfractu ultimo angulato, supra angulum cin- 
gula transversa elevata ornato, basi planiuscula ; columella tuber- 
culis duobus, supremo acuto, prominente. {A. Ad.) 

Habitat unhnown. 

L. c, p. 183. 

C. ARxrcuLATUM A. Adams. C. testa orbiculato-conica, umbili- 
cata, nigro-fusca, ciugulis transversis elevatis albo-articulatis ornata ; 
anfractu ultimo subangulato, basi ciugulis albo-articulatis instructo, 
regione umbilicali viridi ; columella tuberculo parvo termiuata. 

(.4. Ad.) 

Habitat unhnown. 

L. c, p. 183. 

C. TURBiNATUM A. Adams. C. testa ovato-conoidea, imperforata, 
castanea, lievi ; longitudinaliter oblique striata, striis transversis 
indistinctis insculpta ; anfractibus rotundatis, sutura anguste canal- 
iculata, regione umbilicali impressa ; labio curvato, basi dente et 
tuberculo termiuata; labro intus sulcato. (J.. Ad.) 

Habitat unhtown. 

L. c, p. 183. 

Mr. Adams preoccupied this name in Chlorostoma on the preced- 
ing page of the Proceedings Zool. Soc. 

C. RUGATUM Gould. Testa solida, depressa, ovato-conica, fusco- 
uigra, striis incrementi lamellosis; anfr. 6, admodum convexis, 
posticis transversim striatis, anticis plicis ad suturam tuberculosis 
in undulas obliquas divaricantes desinentibus ornatis; basi convexo, 
spiraliter striate, regione umbilicali impresso, imperforato, albido ; 
dente columellari acuto ; apertura magna, rotundata ; fauce argen- 
tata. Diameters about one inch. Closely allied to C. nigerrima. 
(Gould.) 

Hakodadl Bay and Simoda, Japan. 

Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist, viii. p. 20, 1861. 



CHLOROSTOMA-GIBBULA. 195 

Phorcus >iodicinctus a. Adams. Testa conoidea, umbilicata, 
fusco luteo variegata, Isevi ; anfr. subplanulatis, cingulis tribus 
noduldsis, liris elevatis trausversis ornatis, anf. ult. subangulato, 
basi convexiuscula, lineis elevatis concentricis sculpta, regione uni- 
bilicali albida ; columella brevi, arcuata, basi dentibus duobus 
terminata ; labro fusco marginato. (Ad.) 

Habitat unknown. 

P. Z. S., 1851, p. 157. 

Phorcus granifer A. Adams. Testa orbiculato-conica, fusca, 
cingulis transversis granorum distantium ornata, eingulis remotius- 
culus, interstitiis transversim liratis; anfr. rotundatis, sutura canali- 
culata ; umbilico aperto, perspective ; columella siiiuata, basi denti- 
bus duobus terminata ; labro intus crenulato. (Ad.) 

Habitat tinkaown. 

P. Z. S., 1851, p. 157. 

Phorcus liratus A. Adams. Testa conoidea, umbilicata, fusca, 
lineis pallidis undulatis ornata, cingulis distantioribus transversis 
insculpta ; columella sin uata, basi dentibus tribus terminata; um- 
bilico aperto, perspective, peromphalo viridulo ; labro intus Irevi. 
(Ad.) 

Habitat unknown. 

P. Z. S., 1851, p. 157. 

Phorcus californicus A. Adams. Testa orbiculato-conica, 
profunde umbilicata, viridi, atro-j)urpureo radiatim maculata, liris 
transversis subnodulosis insequalibus ornata; anfr. ult. subangulato; 
basi convexiuscula; umbilico perspectivo; labio in medio valde ex- 
cavato ; columella antice dentate, intus laevi. (Ad.) 

California (Mas. Cuming.) 
P. Z. S., 1851, p. 157. 

Genus GIBBULA Risso, 1826. 

Gibbula Risso, Hist. Nat. Eur. Merid., iv, p. 134. — Gray, Guide 
Syst. dist. Moll. Brit. Mus., p. 151 (1853).— H. and A. Ad., Genera, 
i, p. 431. — Fischer, Manuel de Couchyl., p. 823 — Troschel, Das 
Gebiss, ii, p. 238. — Phorcus Risso, Hist. Nat. Eur. Merid., iv, p. 
133. — Philippi, Handbuch der Conchyl., p. 210. — Forskalia H. and 
A. Ad., Genera, p. 432 (1858) — Magulus, Gloviulus, Puteolua. Plior- 
culus, Tumulus, Gibbulastra, Colliculus, Monterosato, Bull. Soc. 
Mai. Ital, 1888, p. 169-177. — Steromphala (Leach, mss.) Gray, P. 
Z. S., 1847, p. 146. — Koreiiia Friele (Type T. cinerarius Linn.) 



196 GIBBULA. 

Tungebevaebningen lios de Norske rliipidoglossa. — Eurytrochus 
Fischer, Icon. Coquilles Vivantes, Trochus, p. 417 (1880). — 
Calliotrochus Fischer, /. c, p. 418. 

Gibhula (Leach mss.) Kisso, is preceded by Phorcus Risso. The 
latter name has been used by A. Adams and writers on the shells of 
West America for the umbilicated Chlorostoma ; but such use is of 
course inadmissible. The name Gibhula has been so uniformly 
selected hy authors in preference to Phorcus that it would be in- 
advisable to insist on the priority of one page which the latter name 
has. The subdivisions of the restricted subgenus Gibhula are given 
on the following page. It will be noted that one author had added 
no less than seven synonyms to the homogeneous group inhabiting 
the seas of Europe. Such heaping up of names for groups without 
characters is highly undesirable. The time is at hand when such 
performances will bring their authors the discredit they merit. 

The species of Gibbula are very numerous, and are nearly all 
littoral or laminarian in station. The group is distributed through 
all seas except upon the coasts of the Americas, which have not a 
single species. 

The dentition of G. declivis is figured on PI. 50, fig. 6 ; G. tuviida, 
pi. 50, fig. 16. Both rhachidian and lateral teeth have well devel- 
oped denticulate cusps ; the body of the tooth has expanded lateral 
supporting-wings, and is narrowed toward the cusp. The outer 
laterals are wider. Radulae of species of Gibbula have been figured 
by Troschel, Friele, Sars and Hutton. 

Subgenus Gibbula, restricted. 

This division comprises most of the species. Owing to the fact 
that there are many forms which I have not seen, and on account 
of the intergradation of the various types of form, I have not at- 
tempted to distribute the species into their natural groups or sec- 
tions, but have simply grouped the forms around certain types of 
shell-structure, which may be briefly indicated here, — this analysis 
to replace the partial division given on page 12 of this volume. 

Section I. Gibbula s. str. (including Forskalia Ads., Magulus 
Monts., Colliculus Monts., Glomulus Monts., Puteolm Monts., Phor- 
cuius Monts., Tumulus Monts., Phorcus Risso, Gibbulastra Monts., 
Steroniphalus (Leach) Gray, Korenia Friele and a number of other 
names). Shell nodulus or more or less tumid beneath the sidures; 
generally not nuich higher than l)road, conical, umbilicate (rarely 



GIBBULA. 197 

subimperforate), spirally striate or lirate, generally conspicuously 
painted with longitudinal stripes of red or brown. Species mostly 
of the European seas. (See remarks under G. magus.) 

Section II. Eurytrochus Fischer. See definition on p. 12. 
This section includes G. danieli, reevei, affinis, concinna, strangei, 
mystica, and perhaps some other species. Its distribution is Australo- 
Pacific. 

Section III. Calliotrochus Fischer. Small globose species, 
with rounded, smooth or spirally striate whorls ; thin ; aperture 
rounded, outer lip and columella simple, thin, arcuate ; umbilicus 
narrow. Includes G. phasianellus, G. tasmanica, and perhaps some 
other forms not seen by me. 

Section IV. Cantharidella Pilsbry. Small forms with much 
the aspect of tiny Cautharidus ; usually polished, narrowly or not 
perforate ; conical, elongated. G. picturata, fulminata, nitida, 
stolitzkana, dupontiana, blanfordiana, tiberiana, yessoensis, calli- 
chrous, and some othes species belong here. 

Section V. Conotrochus Pilsbry. This tyj^e is quite distinct 
in the elevated narrow, turrited form, narrowly umbilicate base, 
tubular whorls, either striate or keeled. The shell is thin, minute, 
lusterless, with circular aperture, not modified in form by the 
parietal wall. The species are mariei, holdsworthiana, subplicata, 
singaporensis, pantanellii. All are from the northern shores of the 
Indian Ocean, Red Sea to Singapore. 

A. Species Inhabiting European Seas. 

G. MAGUS Linne. PI. 30, figs. 8, 9, 10. 

Shell widely, deeply umbilicate, low-conical, solid, whitish or yel- 
lowish, painted with zigzag radiating stripes, maculations or lines of 
pink or rich brown, sometimes so broken into minute flecks as to ap- 
j^ear minutely mottled all over, or sometimes lacking markings ; base 
radiately zigzag-striped ; spire conical, apex acute ; whorls 7 to 8, 
swollen, gibbous and radiately plicate beneath the sutures, and with 
a rim or flange at the periphery; entire surface spirally finely 
striate; base convex; aperture very oblique, rounded-rhomboid, 
smooth within ; columella oblique, its edge straight or slightly con- 
vex in the middle, at its insertion reflexed slightly over the umbil- 
icus ; umbilicus bounded by a strong spiral rib. 

Alt. 22, diam. 30 mill. 
Mediterranean and temperate Atlantic Coasts of Europe ; Azores. 



198 GIBBULA. 

T. magus Linne., Syst. Nat, xii, p. 1228 (1766). — Philippi, 
Conchijl. Cab., p. 18, t. 4, f. 1, 2.— Forbes & Hanley, Brit. 
Moll., t. 65, f. 6, 7. — Jeffreys, British Conch., iii, p. 305, t. 52, f. 1- 
— Hidalgo, Mol. Mar. de Esp., t. 58, f. 3-6. — Fischer, Coq. Viv., 
p. 110, t. 6b, f. 1. — BuQ. Dautz. et Dollfus, MoV. Mar. Rouss., p. 
373, t. 44, f. 1-11. — T. tuberculatus Da Costa, Brit. Conch., p. 44, t. 
3, f. 1, 2.— T. viajus SdwB., Ill Ind. Brit. Sh., t. ll,f. 19.— T. hicar- 
inatus Gray, in Griffith's Cuvier's Anim. Kingd., t. 1, f. l.= T. gray- 
anus Phil., Conchyl. Cab., p. 281, t. 41, f. 6. 

An abundant species. There is great variation in color. A 
small white or cream colored variety is found on the Mediterranean 
coast of France. 

The natural position of G. magus is between the group known as 
Forsktilia (G. declivis, fanula, guttadauri, fanuloides) and the G. 
albida L. It is equally rehited to both the former and the last-named 
species, but being the type of the genus I have given it first place. 
The Mediterranean Gibbula, although they have been divided into 
numerous " subgenera," form a quite homogeneous grou]i, in which 
species succeeds species so closely that only careful analysis enables 
us to discriminate them. Only in one place can I see a hiatus of super- 
specific value in the series ; and that break, indicated by asterisks 
on p. 204, separates the species having acuminate, acute spires from 
those in which the outlines of the spire are more convex, not atten- 
uated toward the apex. For the latter group the name Phorcus of 
Risso may be retained by those who can see any use in such trivial 
distinctions. 

G. DECLIVIS Forskiil. PI. 31, figs. 47, 48. 

Shell umbilicate, conical, solid, whitish, maculated with purplish 
or yellowish ; whorls about 6, bicarinate at the periphery, all over 
spirally Urate, the upper surhice strongly radiately costate, the folds 
terminating at the periphery in short spines ; periphery encircled by 
a channel bearing a median riblet ; base convex, bearing 4 or 5 
strong concentric lirpe ; aperture rounded, smooth within ; columella 
sinuous, arcuate, dentate at the base ; umbilicus moderate, deep. 

Alt. 20-24, diam. 22-27 mill. 

Red Sea; Gulf of Akaba. 

Turbo declivis Forskal, Descrip. animal., p. 126. — Savigny, 
3foll. de I' Egypt, t. 3, f. 1, 'l.^Trochus declivis Philippi, Conchyl. 



(ilBBULA. 199 

Cab., p. 229, t. 34, f. 17.— Fischer, Coq. Viv., p. 126, t. 43, f. 3.— 
Trochus aegyjytius Kiener, Species, gen. Trochus, t. 43, f. 3. — 
Monodonta aegyptiaca Lamarck, An. s. Vert, vii, p. 33. 

Type of the subgenus Forskalla H. and A. Adams. Tliis species 
and the following are separated from all others by the scalariform 
spires, strongly plicate upper surface, and the deep channel en- 
circling the periphery. These characters are only an exaggeration 
of those of Gibbula magus. It is inadvisable to give a subgeneric 
name to so slight a divergence. 

G FANULUM Gmelin. PI. 63, figs. 10, 11. 

Shell umbilicate or perforate, conical, solid, whitish, radiately 
maculated above, dotted beneath with red or rich brown ; spire 
conical, acuminate, somewhat scalariform ; whorls about 7, very 
convex, spirally lirate, radiately costate above, bicarinated at the 
periphery, and encircled by a deep canal ; base convex, bearing 
about 5 spiral lirre ; aperture oblique, rounded, columella sinuous in 
the middle (not concave, nor dentate at the base as in G. declivis), 
arcuate above ; umbilicus broad and funnel-shaped, or narrow and 
almost closed, Alt. 15-19, diam. 14-17 ; alt. 14, diam, 15 mill. 

Mediterranean and Adriatic Seas. 

T.fanulum Gmel., Syst. Nat., xiii, p. 3573. — Philippi, Conchyl. 
Cab.', p. 228, t. 34, f 16.— Fischer, Coq. Yiv., p. 125, t. 43, f. 1.— 
BuQiTOY, Dautz. et Dollfus, Moll. Mar. du Bou-ss., p. 370, t. 44, 
f 12-16. — And of authors generally. — Monodonta cegyptiaca Fayb,., 
Moll, de Corse, t. 6, f. 26, 27 (not of Lam.). — T. tubercidat^is B.isso, 
Hist. Nat. Eur. Merid., iv, p. 128, t. 9, f 133. 

Easily recognized by the turrited, acuminate spire and the deep 
peripheral groove, which is narrower than in G. declivis, and lacks 
the central riblet. Several varieties (lutea, nigra, rubra, albo-sordida 
and varia, all of Scacchi) have been founded upon color muta- 
tions, — the shell being subject to the same vai-iations in hue as G. 
magus. 

The altitude is equal to, or greater or less than the diameter. 

G. GUTTADAURi Philippi. PI. 31, figs. 44-46. 

Shell small, umbilicate, conical, whitish, irregularly maculated 
with reddish brown or purplish above, dotted beneath ; whorls 6, 
turrited, very convex, the apex acute, encircled by three strong 
ribs, one on the periphery, the others above it, the interstices 



200 GIBBULA. 

lamellose-striate ; plicate or lamellose-striate below the sutures ; 
base with 6 or 7 concentric lirte ; columella nearly straight, arcuate 
above, terminating in a tubercle below ; umbilicus narrow. 
Alt. 9, diam. 10 ; alt. 10, diam. 9 mill. 

Sicilian mid Dalmatian Coasts. 

T. guttadauri Philippi, Eiiumer. Moll. Sicil., i, p. 177, t. 11, f. 1, 
and ii, p. 154. — Phil., Co)ichijl. Cab., p. 179, t. 28, f. 6. — Fischer, 
Coq. Viv., p. 147, t. 49, f. 2. 

Smaller than the preceding, and tricingulate on the body-whorl. 

G. FANULOIDE8 Fischcr. PI. 81, fig. 41-43. 

Shell umbilicate, conoid, rather thick ; whorls 5 to 6, convex, 
canaliculate, spirally granose-lirate, above nodose ; cinereous macu- 
lated with red and vermillion ; last whorl rounded, sulcate in the 
middle, finely granose-lirate in the sulcus ; base convex, ornamented 
with 9 to 10 concentric lirre, the interstices narrow ; apertui-e ovate ; 
columella arcuate, base tuberculose ; umbilicus smooth, profound. 

Alt. 11, diam. 13 mill. (Fischer.) 

Habitat unknown. 

Trochus fanuloides Fischer, Journ. de Conch., 1874, p. 373. — 
Coq. Viv., p. 333, t. 103, f. 3. 
Combines the size of G. fanulum with the form of G. declivis. 

G. PULCHERRiMA A. Adams. PI. 61, figs. 26, 27. 

Shell umbilicate, conoidal, solid, lusterless, white with a series of 
red spots below the sutures, another beneath the periphery, and 
more or less closely red-dotted over the whole shell. The spire is 
conical, acute, somewhat sca^iariforni ; the sutures very deeply 
impressed ; whorls about 6. very convex, nodulose below the sutures, 
the entire surface covered with spiral lirre which are distinctly beaded 
oa the base, less obviously so above, and which number about 12 on 
the penultimate, 20 on the last whorl. The aperture is suhcircular, 
oblique ; outer lip bevelled to iin edge, the bevel iridescent, pearly ; 
the interior is very regularly Urate, the folds numbering about 14; 
columella not thickened, arcuate, cut or excavated out, at its 
junction with the body produced forward in a white lobe, ending 
below in a denticle; umbilicus deep, with a slight spiral rib near 
its opening, ending in the columellar tooth. Alt. 14, diam. 16 mill. 

China; Andaman Is. 



GIBBULA. 201 

G. pulcherrima A. Ad. P. Z. S. 1854, p. 39. — Forskalia pulcher- 
rima H. & A. Ad., Genera, i, p. 482. — Trochus {Forskahl'm) pul- 
cherrimus E. A. Smith, P. Z. S. 1878, p. 818, t. 50, f. 22, 22a. 

I am not at all sure that this beautiful shell is a Forskalia. It is 
quite variable in color. A specimen before me has no subsutural 
red blotches, but has a girdle of square spots below the periphery. 
Smith (foe. cit.) says : " The oblique arcuate pink or scarlet stripes 
on the upper part of the body-whorl, which in some specimens are 
black, generally terminate a little above the middle. At this part 
the whorl is encircled by two close-set granulous lir?e, with a furrow 
on each side, Avhereuf the lower is the most conspicuous. Immedi- 
ately below this the color of the interrupted scarlet stripes changes to 
black and they assume the form of somewhat quadrate spots, but 
toward the aperture become more flame-like and merge into scarlet." 

G. ALBiDUM Gmelin. PL 63, figs. 12, 13, 14. 

Shell conical, umbilicate or imperforate, solid, whitish, painted 
with longitudinal stripes of red, brown or purple, the base striped, 
maculated or mottled ; spire acute ; whorls 7, tumid below the 
sutures and sometimes obsoletely plicate there, spirally Urate, the 
last tumid at the peripheiy, convex beneath ; columella slightly 
sinuous and prominent in the middle ; umbilicus white, funnel- 
shaped when open, frequently closed. Alt. 21, diam. 23 mill. 

Sicily; Dalmatia ; Italy; Greece. 

Trnchus cinerariast Born, Test. Mus. Cces., p. 330, t. 11, f. 19, 20 
(not T. cinerarius Linn.). — T. albidus Gmel., Syst. Nat., xiii, p- 
3576.— r. biasoletfi Philippi, Einnn. Moll. Sicil., i, p. 178, t. 10, f- 
18.— Conchyl. Cab., p. 187, t. 29, f. 1.— Fischer, Coq. Viv., p. 204, 
t. 68, f. 2.— T. magulus Desh., E.vped. Moree., p. 144, t. 18. f. 26, 
27.— T. bornl Cantraine, Mai. Mklit., t. 6, f. 17.—.^ T. saulcyi 
d'0rbic4NY, Hist. Nat. Canaries, p. 83, t. 6, f. 24-26. (1844.) 

This species is a miniature G. magus, without the subsutural 
tubercles of that species, and with narrower or closed umbilicus. 

I quote with some hesitation the T. saulcyi of d'Orb., in the 
synonymy of this species, following Dr. Fischer. The figures of T. 
saulcyi cited above are copied on my plate 24, figs. 97-99. I 
am strongly inclined to consider T. saulcyi a form of iMonodonta 
sauciata Koch. Bom's figures, referred to by Gmelin, undoubtedly 
represent this species. 



202 GIBBULA. 

G. ARDENs Vou Salis. PL 30, figs. 17-19. 

Shell umbilicate, depressed conic, solid, usually reddish or olive- 
brown, with a subsutural series of short white flammules, a row of 
white spots on the periphery, the remainder of the surface sparcely 
punctate with white; spire acute, sutures markedly canaliculate; 
whorls about 7, convex, spirally lirate, the interstices obliquely 
regularly crispate-striate ; lira3 5 or 6 on the penultimate whorl, 
frequently grooved, and usually with lirula3 between them ; base with 
about S principal concentric lira3 ; aperture oblique, smooth within, 
but apparently sulcate; columella siibdentate in the middle ; umbil- 
icus funnel-sha})ed, bordered by a white rib. 

Alt. 12, diam. 15 mill. 

Mediterranean and Adriatic Seas ; Atlantic Coast of Portugal. 

T. ardens VoN Salis Marschlins, Reise ins Koen. Nea.p., p. 376, 
t. 8, f. 9 (1793). — BuQUOY, Dautz. et Dollfus, Moll. d^iRonss., p. 
379, t. 45, f. 9-11. — Gibbida ardens Monts., Norn. Gen. e Spec, p. 
40.— T.fermonii Payrandeau, 3Ioll. de Corse, p. 128, t. 6, £ 11, 12 
(1826). — Weinkauff, Conch, des Mitfelvieeres, ii, p. 377. — Fischer, 
Coq. Viv., p. 145, t. 48, f. 3.; — T. adansoni Blainville, Faune franc, 
t. 10a, f 7. — T. tessellatusVaiiA'P'pi, Conchyl. Cab., p. 190, t. 29, f. 
9-12. — T. canaliculatus Deshayes, Exped. Moree, iii, p. 137 (1832) 
(not of Lara., nor d'Orb.). — Gibbnla barbara Monterosato, N'om. 
Gen. e Spec, Y). 40 (18S4:). — T. succinctus Monterosato, Enuvi. e 
Synon., p. 20 (1878). 

This species is allied to G. albida Gm. It is less elevated, has 
more deeply canaliculate sutures, is less carinate at the periphery, 
and is always umbilicate. The coloration is quite variable, as well 
as the sculpture. 

Omitting the references given by some authors to Chemnitz and 
Gmelin, as entirely unidentifiable, the first description of this form 
is that of von Salis. The figure and description given by this 
author are perfectly applicable to the present form, although the 
figure (like all of von Salis's) is reversed ! The next name in order 
is that proposed by Payrandeau. 

Var. succiNCTA Monts. PI. 33, figs. 82, 83. 

Lime prominent, separated by profound narrow grooves. 

Gulf of Gabes, Turns. 



GIBBULA. 203 

Var. BARBARA Moiits. PL 33, figs. 84. 

Spire elevated, conical, acuminate ; suture but feebly canaliculate ; 
.shell thinner and umbilicus narrower than in typical G. ardens. 

Gulj of Gales. 

G. UMBiLicARis Linne. PI. 32, figs. 63, 64, Qo. 

Shell umbilicate, conical, cinereous, reddish, or purplish-brown, 
obscurely clouded, dotted or flamed with white; spire conical, 
acuminate; whorls about 7, slightly convex, spirally striate or 
Urate, microscopically obliquely striate ; the lirse generally subobso- 
lete on the last whorl ; periphery obtusely angulate ; aperture 
rather small, oblique, rounded-quadrate, angled at the base, smooth 
within ; columella arcuate above, straightened below. 

Alt. 12-16, diam. 14-20 mill. 

Mediterranean Sea. 

T. lurbiVwaris Linn., Sxjst. Nat, xii, p. 1229 (1766).— Lam., An. 
s. Vert., vii, p. 28.— Fischer, Coq. Viv., p. 143, t. 45, f. 2.— Buq., 
Dautz. et Dollfus, 3foU. du Rouss., p 376, t. 45, f. 1-8. — T.fns- 
catus Gmel., Syst. Nat., xiii, p. 3576. — Deshayes, Exped. Morce, p. 
142. — Gibbula mediterraitea Risso, Hist. Nat. I'Enr. Mcrid., iv, p. 
136. — G. desserea Risso, loc. clt., p. 136. — T. roissyi Blainville, 
Faune franc, p. 282, t. lOa, f. 9. — T. zonatus Jeffreys, Piedm. 
Coast, p. 28.-7'. umbilicaris var. latior et patula (Monterosato) 
Bug., Dautz. et Dollfus, Moll. Mar. du Rouss., p. 378, t. 45, 
f. 6, 7, 8. 

A species very closely related to G. ardens v. Salis. It differs in 
the smoother, more angulated body-whorl ; the less canaliculate 
sutures ; rounder mouth ; deeper umbilicus, which, although as broad 
(or nearly so) as in G. ardens, is much less funnel-shaped, but nearly 
of the same width to a considerable depth ; the Avhorl is also more 
angulated around the umbilicus than in the other species, and the 
columella is not dentate. 

The coloration is extremely varialjle, as in nearly all the Mediter- 
ranean Trochids. In fact nearly every species of the smaller 
Trochidae of this province exhibits the same patterns and modifica- 
tions in coloration, commencing with (1) a series of white flames 
beneath the sutures, which (2) are continued as longitudinal, oblique, 
or undulating stripes to the base, or (3) are broken into maculations 
or articulations over the Avhole surface, or (4) the entire surface is 
either creamy white or uniform dark. 



204 GIBBULA. 

Var. LATiOR Monts. PI. 33, fig. 89. 

Large, thin, much depressed, the sutures profound; body-whorl 
depressed, carinated, finely lirate ; aperture large, oblique, expanded; 
umbilicus broad, funnel-shaped. Alt. 9, diam. 15 mill. 

Gulf of Gabes, Tunis. 

I have also a conical form from Greece, nearly smooth, 

Alt. 10, diam. 11 mill. 

G. NEBULOSA Philippi. PI. 63, figs. 15, 16. 

Shell conoidal, umbilicate, solid, reddish, spotted Avith white ; 
whorls slightly convex, grooved by 6 superficial sulci, the last 
rounded-angular ; base grooved with 4 strife ; umbilicus patulous, 
smooth, white ; aperture suborbicular. (Phil.) 

This species approaches near to T. umbilicaris L. in the structure 
of the umbilicus and the sculpture, but it differs in the smaller size, 
much more elevated whorls, the last less angular. The sculpture of 
the upper surface consists of 6 to 7 impressed spiral lines (not of 
elevated lirte), which become evanescent below the periphery, the 
base showing about 4. The color is reddish, with white spots, 
especially above and beneath the suture ; the conic apex is blackish. 

Alt. 10, diam. lOf mill. 

Mediterranean at Alexandria ; Red Sea. 

T. nebulosus Phil. Zeitschr. f. Mai. 1848, p. 109 ; Conchyl. Cab. p. 
232, t. 35, f. 5. 

Probably a synonym of G. umbilicaris. 

* jj, * 

(Ph07'CUS.) 

G. VARIA Linne. PI. 33, figs. 77, 80, 81. 

Shell umbilicate, conical, solid, dull, lusterless yellowish white or 
pinkisli, with flexuous radiating cinereous or violaceous stripes 
below the suture, the entire surface finely mottled and dotted with 
yellowish or violaceous and white ; spire conical, short, not 
acuminate as in G. ardens and umbilicaris; whorls about 6, flat- 
tened, separated by slightly impressed sutures, encircled by numer- 
ous fine stride; body-whorl obtusely angular at the periphery; 
aperture large, very oblique, smooth within ; columella oblique, 
straightened ; umbilicus funnel-shaped, whitish within. 

Alt. 12, diam. 15 mill. 

Mediterranean Sea. 



GIBBULA. 205 

T. varius Linn., Syst. Nat. xii, p. 8568. — Fischer, Coq. Viv., p. 
259, t. 87, f. 2.— Philippi, Conchi/L Cab., p. 191, t. 29, f. 8, 13.— 
Hanley, Ipsa Linn. Conch., p. 318. — BuQ., Dautz. et Dollfus, 
3foll. du Rouss., p. 385, t. 46, f. 6-14. — T. roissyi, Payr., Moll, de 
Corse, t. 6, f. 18, 14. — T. pallidus Forbes, Rep. J^g. Inv., p. 138. — 
T. elata Brusina, Conch. Dahn. Ined., p. '-'6. — T. gibbosula Brus. 
Contr. Fauna Dalmatia, p. 80. 

This form connects the preceding with the following group of 
species. It is less acuminate in the spire than G. umbilicaris, more 
finely spirally striate, and with much more oblique aperture and ex- 
panded umbilicus ; from G. richardi the flatter whorls and spiral 
strife separate it. The periphery is sometimes rounded. 

G. PHiLBERTi Recluz. PI. 31, figs. 25, 26, 27. 

Shell small, umbilicate, conical, thin ; coloration very variable, 
sometimes uniform dark brown or red, sometimes cinereous, longi- 
tudinally clouded with brown, or with spiral series of blackish dots ; 
spire low-conic, gradate ; sutures impressed ; whorls 6, a little gib- 
bous just below the sutures, causing the spire to be somewhat 
turrited ; whorls encii*cled by numerous fine unequal lirulse or strijfi ; 
periphery obtusely angular; base convex, generally a little more 
coarsely Urate than the upper surface; aperture subquadrangular, 
oblique, not angled ao the junction of basal lip and columella ; col- 
umella perceptibly arcuate ; umi)ilicus large, funnel-shaped, w'hite, 
margined by one or several spiral riblets. 

Alt. 6-11, diam, 8-12, mill. 

Mediterranean Sea. 

T. philberti Recluz. Rev. Zoologique, 1343, p. 11. — Monterosato, 
Conch, litt. Medit., p. 8. — BuQ., Dautz. et Dollfus, Moll. Mar. du 
Rouss., p. 383, t. 46, f. 1-5. — T. villicus Philippi, Enum. Moll. 
Sicil., ii, p. 152, t. 25, f. 14 and Conchijl. Cab., p. 194, t. 29, f. 17.— 
Fischer, Coq. Viv., p. 258, t. 87, f. 1. 

A smaller species than the preceding, quite stable as to form, but 
exhibiting great variation in the development of the spiral riblets. 
Sometimes all are small, nearly equal, and sometimes several larger 
ones are developed upon the upper surface. 

G. LEucoPHiEA Philippi. PI. 31, figs. 29, 30. 

Shell elevated-conical, slightly obtuse, umbilicata, spirally striate, 
ashen, spotted and marbled with white, brown and black dots ; 
whorls contiguous, flat, smooth, the last angulated ; aperture sub- 



206 GIBBULA. 

quadrangular; columella oblique, straight, scarcely nodulose; uni- 
bilcus narrow, funnel-shaped, {PklL) 

The shell consists of 62 whorls, which are fiat, scarcely separated 
from each other ; they fjrra an elevated cone with blunt apex, and 
the last passes into the base in a sharp angle. The sculpture con- 
sists of 6 to 9 uneven, elevated, smooth spiral lines on the upper 
surface, and about 8 similar concentric lirs^e on the base. The um- 
bilicus is pretty narrow, widening and funnel-shaped at the opening. 
The color is just as in T. villicus. From this, its nearest ally, leuco- 
pJuaus is se[)arated by (1) its size; (2) its completely flat whorls; 
(3) the numerous spiral lines ; (4) the narrower umbilicus. 

Alt. 8, diam. 4^ mill. (Phillppi) 

Sicily. 

T. leucopJueus Phil. Moll. Sicil., i, p. 182, t. 10, f. 17; ii, p. 153. 
— Conchyl. Cab., p. 195, t. 29, f. 19.— Fischer, Coq. Viv., p. 340, 
t. 106, f. 1.^ — Weinkauff, Die Conchyl. des Mittelmeeres, ii, p. 370. 
— T. ciiienisceiis Anton, Verzeich., p. 57. 

This is a small species, often not attaining the dimensions given 
above. 

G. 8PFwVTTi Forbes. PI. 32, figs. 70, 71. 

Shell narrowly perforate, conoid, somewhat thick, whitish, 
radiately tlammulate with deep brown subquadrate maculations, 
very finely obliquely striate, concentrically lirate, each whorl en- 
circled by two more prominent, remote sulci ; whorls 6, convex, 
separated by deep sutures, inflated above; last whorl subangulate, 
convex beneath, with numerous unequal concentric lirse ; aperture 
rhomboidal ; columella sinuous in the middle, slightly convex. 

Alt. 8, diam. 6 mill. (Fischer.) 

JEgean Sea. 

T. spratti Forbes, Rep. Brit. Asso. Adv. ScL, 1843, p. 190 (1844). 
— MoNTEROSATO Nuovci revistct della Conch. Medit., p. 23. — Wein- 
kauff, Cvnch. des Mittelmeeres, ii, p. 384. — Fischer, Coq. Viv., p. 
148, t. 49, f. 3.— r. alveolatus Phil. Conchyl. Cab., p. 207, L. 30, f 
14._f T. pictus Phil., Zeitschr.f. Mai, 1846, p. 104. 

Philippi's T. alveolatus is figured on pi. 33, fig. 93. 

G. candei d'Orbigny. PI. 48, figs. 21, 22. 

Shell conoidal, elevated, longitudinally, gracefully, unequally 
striate, olive-yellowish, ornamented above with purplish spots ; spire 



GIBBULA. 207 

gradate; whorls subbicarinate, smooth above and flat; aperture 
subquadrangular ; umbilicus open, smooth. 
Alt. 12, diam. 15 mill. {Orh.') 

Canary Is. 

T. candei d'Orb., Hist. Nat. lies Canaries, Mollusques, p. 82, t. 6, 
f. 21-23.— Philippi, Conchyl. Cab., t. 34, f. 15. 

Known to me only by the description and figures of Orbigny. 
G. RiCHARDi Payraudeau. PL 32, figs. 54-56. 

Shell umbilicate, conoidal, olivaceous or yellowish, ornamented 
with obliquely longitudinal tawny stripes; entire surface smooth; 
spire short, conical; sutures deeply impressed; whorls 5, quite 
convex, the last flattened and sloping around the upper part, 
very obtusely subangular around the jDeriphery ; aperture large, 
very oblique ; outer lip thin, acute, very narrowly margined 
with yellow, succeeded by a line of black, within which lies a band 
(about 2 mill, wide) of opaque white ; columella arcuate above, 
partly surrc)unding the umbilicus with a white callus, straiglitened 
in the middle ; umbilical tract large, white, funnel-shaped, bounded 
by a carina. Alt. 15, diam. 17 mill. 

Mediterranean and Adriatic Seas. 

Monodoata richardi Payr., MoU. de Corse, p. 138, t. 7, f. 1, 2. — 
Trochus Richardi Philippi, Conchyl. Cab., p. 189, t. 29, f. 4, 5, 7. 
—Fischer, Coq. Viv., p. 142, t. 48, f. 1.— B., D. et D., MolL du 
Eoass., p. 399, t. 47, f. 6-13. — Phorcus margaritacens Risso, Hist. 
Nat. Ear. Merid. iv, p. 133, t. 4, f. 47. — T. radiatm Anton, Ver- 
zeich., p. 57 (Teste Philippi). 

Type of Risso's genus Phorcus. A species peculiarly attractive 
in appearance ; it is smoother than its allies, and striped upon an 
olive-yellowish ground with a very pleasing and unusual tawny or 
cadmium orange hue. Rarely unicolored olivaceous specimens occur, 
or shells with a ground color of crimson. 

G. DiVARiCATA Limie. PL 33, figs. 74, 75, 76, 78, 79. 

Shell imperforate or narrowly perforate, conoidal, very thick 
and solid, cinereous, yellowish or green, longitudinally marked with 
rose-red lines, often oblique or broken into square dots ; spire more 
or less elevated, its outlines rather convex ; whorls about 6, encircled 
by numerous liruhe, the upper ones flattened, sutures slightly im- 
pressed, but scalariform specimens with deep sutures are frequent ; 
last whorl rounded at the periphery and on the base ; aperture 



208 GIBBULA. 

rounded-quadrate ; outer lip bevelled to an edge, very thick and 
smooth within ; columella straightened in the middle, pearly ; um- 
bilicus narrow or concealed. Alt. 15-23, diam. 16-19. mill. 

Mediterranean and Adriatic Seas. 

Trochus divaricatus Linn., Syst. Nat., xii, p. 1229. — Hanley, 
Ipsa Linn. Conch., p. 319.— Hidalgo, 3IoI. Mar. Esp., t. 61, f. 4-8. 
— Deshayes, Ann. de Malac. i, t. 2, f. 4 (animal). — Fischer, Coq. 
Viv., p. 139, t. 47, f. 1, 2.— Philippi, Conchyl. Gab., p. 193, t. 29, f. 
16, 21. — BuQ, Dautz. et Dollfus, Moll, du Bouss., p. 391, t. 46, f. 
15-22. — Mondonta Lessoni Payr., Moll, de Corse, p. 139, t. 7, f. 3, 4. 
— T. rarilineatus MiCHAUD, Actes Soc. Linn. Bord., iii, p. 266, f. 12 
(1829).— BuQ. Dautz. et Dollf., Moll. Rouss., p. 393, t. 46, f. 23- 
27. — Gibbula purpurata Brusina, Conch. Dalm. ined., p. 26. 

jNIay be known by the very thick, heavy shell and peculiar 
painting. 

Var. rarilineata Michaud. PL 33, figs. 90, 91. 

Smaller, more conical, with angulate periphery and flattened 
base. Alt. 12, diam. 13 mill. 

G. cineraria Linne. PI. 30, figs. 23, 24. PI. 33, figs. 86, 87, 88. 
Shell narrowly umbilicate, rarely imperforate, conical, thick, cin- 
ereous, densely marked with numerous narrow longitudinal brown 
or reddish lines, or broader stripes ; whorls 6, flattened, with 7 or 8 
thread-like spiral ridges on the upper surface of the body-whorl, 
with often one or two finer stride between each ridge, and about a 
dozen fine ridge-like striiB on the under side; the last whorl angu- 
late at the periphery, somewhat convex beneath ; aperture sub- 
rhomboidal, smooth within ; columella straightened in the middle ; 
umbilicus narrow. Alt. 13-16, diam. 14-16 mill. 

Eurojjean Seas, from Scandinavia to Gihralter; Black Seaf 

T. cinerarins Linn., Syst. Nat., xii, p. 1229. — Forbes and Han- 
ley, Hist. Brit. Moll., t. Qb, f. 1-3.— Jeffreys, Brit. Conch., t. 62, 
f. 3.— Philippi, Conchyl. Cab., p. 222, t. 34, f. 2-4.— Fischer, 
Coq. Viv., p. 192, t. 62, f. 4.— T. lineolatus Michaud, Galerie, i, p. 
334, t. 30, f. 8-9. — T. cl'ierarins var. electissimus (Bean) Thorpe, 
Brit. Mar. Conch., p. 264. — T. fumosus Philippi, Zeitschr. f. Mai. 
1849, p. 156 ; Conchyl. Cab., p. 304, t. 44, f. 5. 

Var. ELECTissiMA (Bean) Thorpe. 
Smaller and more regularly conical. 



GIBBULA. 209 

Var. FUMOSA Philippi. 

Yellowish, marked above with large reddish maculations, the 
base radiately striped with brownish-gray ; form more elevated and 
slenderer than in T. cinerarias. Alt. 10, diam. 10 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 

G. OBLiQiTATA, Gmelin. PI. 30, figs. 11-16. 

Shell more depressed than G. cineraria, and (although the base is 
flatter) never inclined to a pyi-amidal form ; the spiral ridges are 
sharper and fewer, especially in the young ; the coloring is different; 
both have a siiuihir kind of marking, but in the present species the 
longitudinal rays or streaks are red, besides being broader and not 
half so many as in the other species ; and they are sometimes zig- 
zag, instead of being broken into spots or interrupted by the sculpt- 
ure; this species is striped, the other Uneated; just within the outer 
lip are two borders, one of yellow, the other of green variegated by 
red spots , this edging is minutely tubercled like shagreen. 

Alt. 17, diam. 20 mill. {Jeffreys.) 

T. obliquatus Gmel., Syst. Nat., xiii, p. 3575. — Philippi, Conchyl. 
Cub., p. 223, t. 34, f. 5-9.— Fischer, Coq. Viu., p. 191, t. G2, f. 2, 3. 
— T. nmbilicatiis Montagu, Test. Brit., p. 28(5. — JeffPvEys, Brit. 
Condi., iii, p. 312 (and of other English authors). — T. umbilicalis 
Forbes and Hanley, Hist. Brit. Moll., ii, p. 519, t. 66, f 1-4. — 
T. pennanti Philippi, Conchyl. Cab., p. 224, t. 34, f 10.— T. 
ugathensis Recluz, Rev. ZooL, 1843, p. 11. 

The present species is usually more widely umbilicate and broader 
than G. cineraria. 

Var. Agathensis Recluz. 

Smaller, with the spire more raised ; less angular at periphery, 
and somewhat glossy beneath ; stripes purplish ; umbilicus closed 
or nearly so. 

G. TURDUs Philippi. PI. 33, figs. 98, 99. 

Shell solid, globose-conical, white, ornamented at the suture with 
pale brown spots, the rest of the shell painted with articulated 
lines of redilish-brown ; whorls nearly plane, a trifle tumid at the 
suture above, quadrisulcate, the last whorl angular at the circumfer- 
ence, margined, the base grooved by 4 to 6 sulci ; umbilicus moder- 
ate, cylindrical; aperture squarish-rounded. {Phil.) 
14 



210 GIBBULA. 

The solid shell is rather conical, for the whorls are quite level, 
only projecting a little below the suture. They are grooved by 4 
narrow slightly impressed furrows, besides which the last whorl has 
a few inconspicuous furrows. The last whorl is angular at the 
periphery and the ridge between this angle and the lower of these 
furrows is somewhat more elevated than the i-est of the upper sur- 
face. The base is rather elevated, with 4 to 6 slight narrow con- 
centric furrows. The umbilicus is moderate, round, white, with a 
sharp angle inside the outer edge. The aperture is quadrangular, 
with well-rounded angles. The columella is rather arcuate. The 
color is pale brown, at the suture white with large brown spots, 
sometimes with reddish-brown oblique strokes between every two 
furrows ; the base is checkered with white. 

Alt. 8, diam. 8 mill. (Philippi.) 

Hubitdt unloiown. 

T. turdus Phil. Couchyl. Cab., p. 308, t. 44, f 11. 

G. ADANSONi Payraudeau. PI. 30, figs. 1-4. 

Shell narrowly umbilicate, conical ; color maroon or deep brown, 
with longitudinal undulating flames of white, continuous or inter- 
rupted into spots on the base ; spire conoidal, elevated ; whorls 6 to 
7, convex, traversed by numerous spiral strise ; last whorl large, 
dilated, subangulate at the periphery, the base convex, concen- 
trically finely lirate, each ridge divided by a central impressed line ; 
sutures deeply impressed; aperture suhquadrangular, columella 
straight or a little projecting in the middle; umbilicus deep, very 
narrow, bounded by a carina. Alt. 12, diam. 10} mill. 

Mediterranean, Adriatic and Black Seas. 

T. adansonii Payr., Moll, de Corse, p. 127, t. 6, f. 7, 8 (1826). — 
Philippi, Couchyl. Cab., p. 192, t. 29, f. 14, 15. — Fischer, Coq. 
Viv., p. 343, t. 107, f. 1-4.— BuQ, Dautz. et Dollfus. 3Ioll. du 
Houss., p. 394, t, 47, f. 1-5. — T. varians Desh., Exped. Moree, p. 
142, t. 18, f. 31-33. — T. adriaticus Phil., Entim. Moll. Sicil., ii, p. 
153, t. 25, f. 10.— r. turbinoides Desh., Expcd. Moree, p. 143, t. 18, 
f. 28-30. — BuQ. Dautz. et Dollfus, Moll, du Rous'i., p. 396, t. 
47, f. 26-30.— r. helicoides Philippi, Conchyl. Cab., p. 197, t. 29, f. 
23. — Gibbula ivanicsi Brusina, Conch. Dalm. inecL, p. 27. — T. 
ivanicsiana Brus., Contr. pella Fauna. Dalm., p. 80. — T. olivaceus 
Anton, Verzeich., p. 57. — T. angulatus (Eichwald) Brus. (teste 
Monterosato, II Nat. Sicil., iii, p. 105). — T. euxinicus Audv., Kryn. 



GIBBULA. 211 

Bull. Sci. Nat. Moscoii, 1837, p. 60. — T. voriegatus Rrsso, teste 
Monterosato. — T. oUvaceus Axton, Verzeich., p. 57. — T. jnimillo 
Phil. Enimi. Moll. 8icil., ii, p. 226. t. 28, f. 7 ; Coiicliyl. Cab., p. 94, 
t. 15, f. 19. 

A variable species, distinguished from the preceding by its more 
elevated form and thinner sliell. From G. tumida Montagu the 
more acute spire will separate the present species; and also the 
shape of the whorls, which are less tumid and angulated below the 
sutures. The form and coloration are very mutable and also the 
sculpture varies, sometimes being quite coai-se. T. pumilio Phil, 
may belong in Calliostoma. It is figured on pi. 40, fig. 35. 

Var. ADRiATiCA Philippi. PI. 30, fig. 1. 

Shell more solid, generally paler, the base whitish ; spiral sculpt- 
ure stronger, the penultimate whorl with about 5 well-marked, 
separated spiral lirse; body-whorl angulate at the periphery. 

Var. TURBiNOiDKS Deshayes. PI. 33, figs. 94, 95. 

Shell smaller than G. adansoni, globose, rose-red, yellowish, or 
brown, with short white flammules below the sutures, the remainder 
of the shell minutely punctate with white. Alt. 8, diani. 8 mill. 

G. DREPANENSis Brugnone. PI. 33, figs. 100, 101. 

Shell small, narrowly umbilicate, depressed, stomatella-shaiied, 
whitish, zigzagly striped with red, the stripes often broken into 
spots, white around the umbilicus; spire very short; sutures im- 
pressed; whorls 3j to 4, convex, rapidly widening, encircled by 
spiral strire which are nearly obliterated on the last whorl ; body- 
whorl ver}' large, depressed ; aperture large, oblique, subcircular ; 
columella arcuate. Alt. 3-4, diam. 4-5 mill. 

Provence; Sicily; Sardinia; Algiers. 

Trochiis drepanensis Brugnone, Miscellanea malacologica, pt. 1, 
p. 13 (1873). — Monterosato, Jotirn. de Conch., xxv, p. 31, t. 2, f. 
6 (1877). — BuQ. Dautz. et Dollfus, Moll, du Rouss., p. 398, t. 
50, f. 25, 26. 

This smallest of the Mediterranean species of Gibbula, is very 
distinct in its minute size, obsoletely striate whorls and stomatella- 
like form. 

Monterosato has described a G. vimonti^ (II Nat. Sicil., iii, p. 
106) which I take to be a form of drepanensis. His description 



212 GIBBULA. 

(translated) is as follows: More depressed; whorls subangulate ; 
smooth instead of striate ; of a greenish color, with metallic reflec- 
tions. 

Provence; Algiers; Italy. 

G. TUMiDA Montagu. PL 32, figs. 49-52. 

Shell small, narrowly umbilicate, conical, elevated ; color whitish, 
variously strigate or maculated with brown, beneath white, uni- 
colored or punctate with brown ; spire elevated, somewhat turrited, 
apex acute ; sutures impressed ; whorls 6, convex, encircled by 
numerous, close fine strife ; periphery obtusely angular ; base slightly 
convex, concentrically finely lirate, the sculpture coarser than upon 
the upper surface; aperture large, rounded-quadrate; columella 
oblique, straightened and a little convex in the middle ; umbilicus 
deep, narrow, expanding and funnel-sha])ed at its opening. 

Alt. 8-12, diam. 7-12 mill. 

Eii/jlish and Northern European Coasts ; rare in the Mediterranean. 

T. tmntdus ]\Iont., Test. Brit., p. 280, t. 10, f. 4. (1803.)— Piiil- 
ippi, Conchyl. Cab., p. 195, t. 29, i. 20-25. — Forbes and Hani,ky, 
Hist. Brit. ]\Ioll., ii, p. 153, t. 65, f. 8, 9.— Jeffreys, Brit. Conch., 
iii, p. 307, t. 62, f 2.— Fischer, Coq. Viv., p. 345, t. 108, f 1, 2, 3. 
— BuQ.. Dautz. et Dollfus, Moll, da Rouss., p. 387, t. 47, f 14-18. 
— 2'. Eacketti Paye., 3Ioll. de Cor.se, p. 128, t. 6, f. 9, 10.— Buq., 
Dautz. et Dollfus, 3Ioll. da Buvss., p. 388, t. 47, f 19-25.— T. 
twnid'us var., Fischer, Coq. Viv., p. 315. — ? Gibbala pygmaea Kisso, 
Eiir. vitrid., iv, p, 137. — Monterosato, Conch, litt. niedit., p. 9, 
Gibbala gihbosvla (Dan. et Sandri) Brusina, Conch. Balm, ined., 
p. 27. — T. peiholat'us Dillwyn, Catal., p. 776 (Te-vfe Philipi)i). 

This turbinate little species is readily recognized by the form, the 
whorls being a little tumid just below the sutures, and the base 
of the aperture is usually a little emarginate. 

Var. racketti Payrandeau. PI. 33, figs. 96, 97. 

This form differs from typical G. tumida in the constant smaller 
size, fewer whorls (4 to 5), and generally more solid and deeply 
colored shell. Alt. ^\, diam. 6 mill. 

Mediterranean and Adriatic Seas. 

This little Mediterranean variety is variable in proportions, 
fre(piently as broud or broader than long. 



GIBBULA. 213 

G. HEMPRicfiii Issel. PL 47, fig. 100. 

Shell minute, orbiculate-conoid, umbilicate, under u lens longi- 
tudinally striate, shining, -whitish, painted with oblique chestnut 
streaks, spotted with brown ; apex rather obtuse ; whorls 5, regularly 
increasing, rather convex, flattened at the distinctly impressed 
sutures, the last whorl scarcely equalling half the total altitude ; base 
rounded or obscurely subangular; aperture quadi'ate-rounded ; 
peristome simple, acute; columella subtruncate at base ; umbilicus 
rather narrow, funnel-shaped. Alt. 2], diam. 2} mill. (Issel.) 

Gulf of Suez. 

T. hemprichii Lssel, Malac. del Mar Ros.so (1869). — Savigny 
Descript del'Egypte, Coq., t. 3, f 6. 

G. SLSMOND.E Issel. PL 47, figs. 94, 95. 

Shell small, conoidal, imperforate, minutely transversely striate, 
greenish, obtuse at apex; whorls 4'., slowly increasing, slightly 
convex, separated by impressed sutures; last whorl more than half 
the total length, angular at base; base flattened, ornamented with 
4 concentric costulaj ; aperture very oblique, subcircular. 

Alt. 4, diam. 4 mill. (Issel.) 

Suez. 

T. sisimoudte Issel, Malac. ]Mar Rosso, p. 225, t. ii, f. 18. 

In general form this species approaches 2\ tumidus jNIont., but it 
is distinguished by having no umbilicus, and by its greenish color. 
(Issel.) 

G. SPURCA Gould. 'PL 51, figs. 22, 23. 

Shell small, solid, globose-conic, everywhere sculptured with fine, 
shallow, revolving alternate grooves and elevations; shining, of a 
dingy yellowish color, delicately variegated with oblique zigzag 
dusky lines, the two colors in about equal proportions, a series of 
somewhat conspicuous quadrate dusky and yellow spots just below 
the suture ; whorls 4 or 5, ventricose ; suture deeply impressed ; the 
last subangular at periphery ; base moderately conical, imperforate 
or minutely umbilicated ; aperture very oblique, circular"; columella 
rounded, arcuate ; lip sharp, smooth within and subnacreous. 

Alt. 3-lOths, diam. 3-8ths inch. (Gould.) 

Madeira Is. 

Has most of the characters of T. fermoni but is much smaller, 
wants the peculiar channelled shoulder of the whorls, and the widely 
open umbilicus. (Gould.) 



214 (JIBBULA. 

T. spnrcus Gld., Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H, iii, p. 106 (1849) ; U. S. 
Expl. Exped. Shells, p. 188, f. 219 ; Otia, p. 58. 

G. GORGONARUM Fischei'. 

Shell imperforate, conical, slightly elevated, i*ather thick, pale 
buffer ashen above, ornamented with subflexuous, irregular radiat- 
ing brown lines, white beneath ; whorls 7 to 8, flattened, separated 
by canaliculate sutures, ornamented with a few narrow lirre, evanes- 
cent in the middle of the whorl ; infra-sutural liration largpr, 
crenulated ; last whorl acutely carinated ; base densely, concen- 
trically lirate ; aperture rhoraboidal, lip acute ; basal callous wide, 
subcircular, covering the umbilicus. 

Alt. 10, diam. maj. 14, diam. min. 12 mill. (Fischer.) 

Cape Verde Is., in 410-596 meters. 

G. gorgoimrnm Fischer, Journ. de Conchyl. 1883, p. 398. 

G. GLYPTus Watson. PL 36, f. 19, 20. 

Shell like T. vuujns L., but carinated, higher, less scalar, and 
much more delicately and I'ichly sculptured. Sculjiture, spirals — 
a flal^ shoulder below the suture is followed by an angidation, on 
and below which is a double row of smallish, round but pointed 
tubercles, which are remote from one another but run in pairs on 
the two rows; the tubercles in each row are connected by a slight 
rounded thread ; on the second, third and fourth whorls these rows 
coalesce into one ; on the last whorl they are about 5-100 inch 
apart. At the periphery is a strong angulation bearing a sharp 
carina. About 5-100 inch above this is a spiral thread, which, as 
well as the carina, is ornamented with delicate, sharp, laterally- 
compressed beads separated from one another by about twice their 
own size. Those on the upper spiral are rather the lai'ger ; the 
middle of the whorl for about 0.1 inch is bare. On the base there 
are five closely-beaded threads, of which the inmost and strongest 
defines the undiilicus. Between the outermost and the carina is a 
broad slightly sunken furrow. The carina meets the outer lip and 
appears ab5ve the suture. Longitudinals — the upper whorls 
are ribbed, but the ribbing gradually breaks into the double row of 
paired tubercles, and the link uniting the pairs in the two rows be- 
comes very feeble. There are besides many distant, irregular, loose, 
skin-like puckerings which follow the lines of growth ; they disap- 
pear on the spiral threads. The whole surface is further roughened 
by microscopic flexuous wrinklings. Color yellowish white on the 



OIBBULA. 215 

thin calcareous layer overlying the nacre. Spire high, a little 
scalar. Apex small and sharp. Whorls 8, of regular increase, a 
little rounded, angulated at the carina, rather tumid on the base, 
with a wide umbilicus. Suture angulated and well defined, but a 
little filled up by the carina of the overlying whorl. Mouth (ap- 
parently) perpendicular, semioval. Outer lip well rounded. Pillar- 
lip a little bent over on the umbilicus, and then advancing rather 
straight toward the left, angulated and slightly toothed at the point 
of the base when the umbilical beaded thread joins it. Umbilicus 
a wide deep funnel, with a deep spiral staircase at the junction of 
the whorls. Alt. 0.68 inch ; diam. 0.72, least 0.61 inch. 

This beautiful species is unfortunately present in only one dead 
and chipped specimen. The name given to it is expressive of the 
singular beauty of its sculpture. It is more like Trochus magus, L., 
than any other species I know, but is obviously very difterent in all 
details of form and scul|)ture. It has some resemblance to Trochus 
ottoi Phil., but is higher and narrower; that species has a broadly 
open but immediately contracted umbilicus, which rather resembles 
a scoop than a funnel; its whoi'ls are much less tumid above, and 
are less sculptured; they slope downwards conically, from the 
suture with only one feeble and feebly tubercled thread between the 
suture, to which it lies near, and the jieripheral thread. (Watson.) 

Off Sydney, 410 fms. 

T. glyptus Wathon, Journ. Linn. Soc. London, xiv, p. 694; 
Challenger Gasterop., p. 75, t. 6, f 6. 

£. S^yecies of Indo-Pacific and Australasian Seas. 

G. PICTURATA Adams et Angas. PI. 37, figs. 28-30 ; pi. 30, fig. 7. 
Shell small, narrowly umbilicate, conical, excessively variable in 
coloration, the following i:)atterns most usual ; (1) whitish with 
longitudinal broad or narrow red or crimson flames reaching to the 
periphery, the ground-color and base dotted with red ; the flames 
are frequently interrupted in the middle by a dotted zone ; (2) 
ground-color clear yellowish or whitish, the lira? dotted with red ; 
this pattern frequently shows short flames of red under the sutures; 
(3) entire surface purplish black, the umbilicus green-tinged. Except 
the last variety, all are whitish around the umbilicus ; in all, the in- 
side of the umbilicus and the columella are tinged with green. 
Spire elevated, conical, rather obtuse ; sutures impressed ; whorls 5 
to 6, convex, encircled by line, usually 5 or 6 in uuml)er on the 



216 GIBBULA. 

penultimate whorl, but very variable ; body-whorl with a prominent 
rib at the periphery, convex beneath; aperture quadrangular, 
delicately ribbed within and iridescent, green predominating; 
columella arcuate above, then straight and oblique, terminating near 
the base in a slight denticle. Alt. 6-7, diam. 6-7 mill. 

Codgee Bay, N. S. Wales. 

G. picturata Ad. et Ang., P. Z. S., 1864, p. 36. — T. piduratus 
Fischer, Coq. Viv., p. 272, t. 90, f. 2. 

A beautiful little species, usually either flamed with dark red or 
dotted all over with pink. The ground-color sometimes has a green 
cast, or is pink. 

G. FULMiNATA Huttou. PI. 43, Hgs. 14-16. 

Shell small, narrowly perforate, globose-conoidal. shining, solid, 
smooth, except for a few stride around the umbilicus; color pink, 
orange, purplish or olive-brown, generally with a series of w'hite 
blotches alternating with self-colored darker ones below^ the sutures, 
a girdle of white blotches around the periphery and often around 
the umbilicus ; the intervening spaces irregularly strigate with 
darker zigzag streaks or unicolored. Spire short, apex rosy ; whorls 
about 5, convex; aperture rounded-quadrate, iridescent within, the 
lip white-margined ; columella arcuate, a trifle straightened in the 
middle; umbilicus white. Alt. 72, diam. 72-8 mill. 

Auckland to Wellington, N. Z. ; Chatham Is. 

Chrysostomafulminata Hutton, Cat. Mar. Moll. N. Z., p. 36 (1 873). 
-^Margarita Jubninata Hutton, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, ix, 
1884, p. 864. 

Differs from G. nitida in the white umbilicus, more globose form 
and different color-pattern ; from G. picturata in the heavier texture 
and lack of spiral line. 

G. ROSEA Hutton. 

Whorls faintly spirally striated; very narrowly umbilicated; 
pinkish white, with three or four narrow pink spiral bands and some 
purplish spots on the body-whorl near the suture. 

Alt. '15, diam. '23 inch. (Hatfoii.) 

Steivarts Id. ; (kiynpbell Id. 

Chrysostoma rosea Hutton, Cat. Mar. Moll. N. Z., p. 36 (1873). — 
Margarita rosea Hutton, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, ix, 1884, p. 
364. 



GIBBULA. 



217 



G. A-NTIPODA Hombron et Jacquinot. PI. 83, figs. 102-104. 

Shell small, composed of three whorls, the two first very small, 
the third very large ; color iridescent above and below, with green 
transverse bands on the superior portion ; aperture large, round, 
acute on the left, and with a flat border on the right margin ; 
umbilicus only indicated and nearly covered by the right lip. 

Alt. 8, diam. 8 mill. (Hombr. et Jacq.) 

Auckland Is. 

Margarita antipoda Home. et. Jacq., Voy. au Pole Sad, ZooL, v, 
p. 58, t. 14, f. 26-28 (1854).— Hutton, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, 
ix, 1884, p. 363. 

Nothing is known of this species except th'e original description 
translated above, and the original figures. 

G. NiTiDA Adams et Angas. PI. 37, figs. 25, 26, 27. 

Shell narrowly umbilicate, conical, rather thin, shining, olive- 
yellow, marked with numerous continuous capillary white spirallines, 
and longitudinal olive-colored flames, generally broken into oblong 
quadrangular tessellations on the spaces betw^een the white lines, 
frequently red instead of olive below the sutures and on the base ; 
spire elevated, with convex outlines ; apex acute ; last whorl obtusely 
angular around the periphery ; base lighter than upper surface, with 
7 or 8 delicate concentric lirje; aperture rounded-quadrate, outer 
lip very finely crenulated, within brilliantly iridescent; columella 
arcuate; umbilicus funnel-shaped, yellowish or olive-tinted within. 

Alt. 6V, diam. 5 J mill. 

Hokianga, Auckland to Wellington, X. Zealand. 

Gibhula nitida Ad. et Ang., P. Z. S. 1864, p. 36. — Hutton, Proc. 
Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, 1884, p. 364. — Chrysostoma inconspicua 
Hutton, Cat. Mar. Moll. N. Z., 1873, p. 36. 

Coloration peculiar in the w'hite spiral striie of the upper surface, 
combined with longitudinal flames. The base has delicate separated 
concentric stride; the interior is brilliantly iridescent, like an 
Elenchus. 

G. STOLiczKANA G. et H. Nevill. PI. 62, figs. 76, 77. 

Shell small, umbilicate, conical, elevated, rather solid, reddish- 
brown or olive-brown, flammulate above with white, the base tes- 
sellated brown and white ; spire elevated ; whorls about 5, slightly 
convex, lusterless, spirally lirate, the lirie about 9 on the penultimate 



218 GIBBULA. 

whorl ; last whorl high, the lip a little deflected toward the aperture, 
periphery angular, base angular around the umbilical region, with 
about 8 concentric lir^e, the outer ones often obsolete; aperture 
oblique, about half the length of the shell, somewhat triangular, 
brilliantly iridescent within ; columella white, arcuate, truncate atthe 
base; umbilicus narrow, white. Alt. 51-6, diam. 4-5 mill. 

Ceylon. 
G. stolkzkana G. & H. Nevill, Journ. Asiatic Soc. Bengal, 
xxxviii, 1869, p. 158, t. 17, f 2, 8. — Trochus sfoliczkanus Fischer, 
Coq. Viv., p. 841, t. 106, f 2. 

This form, whilst it groups with the preceding and following 
species, is quite distinct. The surface is lustedess , the lir?e are 
rather coarse, broad and flat ; the lower right hand margin of the 
apertui-e decidedly jM'oduced, and the base usually somewhat notched 
or emarginate as in the European G. tumida Mont. The white 
flames are occasionally absent. 

G. DUPONTiANA G. et H. Nevill. PL 80, flg. 5. 

Shell ))erforate, conical, elevated, solid, lusterless white, painted 
with radiating brown stripes extending from suture to periphery, 
where an equal number of spots is intercalated ; base d(jtted ; spire 
conic, with nearly straight outlines; whorls 6, jdanulate, encircled 
by coarse lirte, which number 6 or 7 on the penultimate wdiorl, the 
same number on the base ; body-whorl carinated ; base slightly con- 
vex, not angulated around the umbilicus, but impressed ; aperture 
very oblique; columella somewhat arcuate, nearly straight in 
immature specimens. Alt. 6 '-7, diam. 5-6 mill. 

Ceylon. 

G. dupontiuna Nevill, Journ. Asiatic Soc. Bengal, xxxviii, p. 
158, t. 17, f. 8, 1869. — T. dupontianus Fischer, Coq. Viv., p. 342, t. 
107, f 8. 

Coarsely lirate like the preceding form, but more conical, more 
carinate, with flatter base, and columella not truncate below. The 
color too is much lighter. 

G. BLANFORDiANA G. et H. Ncvill. PL 37, fig. 82 ; PL 62, fig. 65. 
Shell small, narrowly, deeply umbilicate, thick, conoid ; whorls 5, 
the first whitish, the following painted with brown undulating, 
radiating maculations, spirally strongly Jirate, the lirte b~(i on the 
penultimate whorl, smaller above, the interstices deep last whorl, 



GIBBULA. 



219 



angiilate in the middle, a little convex beneath, provided with about 

8 flat concentric lirae; aperture subrhomboidal, lip plicate within, 

basal margin crenate ; columella oblique, sub-truncate below. 

Alt. 5, diam. 6 mill. (Fiacher.) 

Ceylon. 

G. blavfordiana Nevill, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Beng., xxxviii, 1869, 
p. 158, t. 17, f. 9.— Fischer, Coq. Viv., p. 265, t. 88, f. 3. 

The size mark was omitted on pi. 62, f. 65. Nevill's original 
figure is copied on pi. 37, fig. 32. 

G. ciCER Menke. PL 62, fig. 75 ; pi. 26, figs. 18, 19. 

Shell perforate or subperforate, globose-(;onical, solid, whitish, 
longitudinally striped with reddish or dark brown, the stripes often 
broken into tessellations on the base ; whorls about 5, convex, the 
first two yellow or rosy, smooth, the remainder coarsely spirally 
lirate, the lirte about 6 or 7 on the penultimate whorl, separated by 
deep interstices which sometimes interrupt the stripes of color; 
spire short ; body-whorl rounded ; base convex, finely marked with 
about 8 narrow lii'te; aperture subcircular, smooth and white with- 
in ; columella ai'cuate, straightened in the middle and oblique, very 
obsoletely subdentate below ; umbilical area small, white or yellow- 
ish ; base fVequently suftused with pink. Alt. 7, diam. 6 mill. 

Cape Region of S. Africa. 

T. cicer Mke., in Philippi, Abbild. u. Beschreib., i, Troehus, t. 3, 
f. 5. (18U).— Conchy L Cab., ]i. 197, t. 29, f. 24.— Fischer, Coq. Viv., 
p. 264, t. 88, f. 2. — Gibbula nmsiva Gould, Otia Conch., p. 159. — 
Leptothyra cicer Piesbry, Manual of Conch., x, p. 254, t. 54, f. 62. 

— Turbo sanguineus Reeve, Conch. Icon., t. 12, f. 55 ? (not of Linn.). 

— Turbo roseus Philippi, Concliyl. Cab., p. 85, t. 19, f. 10 (?). 

G. cicer is reported from Japan by Schrenck. {Amurl. Moll. p. 352.) 
G. bexzi Krauss. PI. 51, figs. 13, 14. 

Shell orbicular-conoid, perforate, purplish, maculate with whitish, 
orange or rose, irregularly transversely costate-striate ; whorls 5, 
convex, sejiarated by a distinct suture, the last ventricose, subangu- 
lar in the middle ; base convex, striate ; aperture rotund-quadrate, 
white within ; columella oblique, concave, dilated above ; umbilicus 
profound, narrow. Alt. 8, diam. 9 mill. {Krauss.^ 

Cape of Good Hope. 

The transverse stria; are crowded, blunt, and very unequal above, 
on the base rather regular and elevated. Young examples are 



220 



GIBBULA. 



cariiiated, but old ones have the last whorl rounded, wide and very 
convex. The columella has a somewhat reflexed margin, which is 
a trifle widened above, slightly covering the umbilicus ; it passes 
imperceptii-)ly into the outer lip, and is united above with the latter 
by a very thin white callus. The umbilicus is deep, narrow, longi- 
tudinally very finely striated. The color is various ; eitlier rose-red 
or orange-yellow, with traces of clear spots at the suture, or else 
purple-red with white flecks. (Kranss). 

T. benzi Krauss, Die Siidaf. Moll. p. 99, t. 5, f. 32.— Philippt, 
Conchyl. Cab. p. 320, t. 46, f. 1. 

Known to me only by the description (translated above) of 
Krauss, and his figures (pi. 51, figs. 13, 14), and by Philippi's des- 
cription and figures of a shell identified by him with this species. 
Of this form Philippi says : 

The shell is pretty thin, conoidal, and consists of 5 whorls which 
are regularly moderately convex ; the last shows an indication of 
an angle. The sculpture consists of slightly elevated rather narrow 
transverse lirse, of which I count 4 on the penultimate, about 6 
above the periphery of the last whorl, with here and there an inter- 
mediate smaller one, and upon the base 10 less elevated ones. The 
interstices look pitted on account of the elevated incremental strise 
that cross them. The umbilicus is very narrow, but perforates to 
the apex, is widened, funnel-shaped at the opening, and is bounded 
by an obtuse but distinct keel. The color is rose-red with dark red 
dots. The above-described examples from the Menke collection differ 
from Krauss' description in color, for his species is said to be purple 
or orange-red with white flecks ; furthermore, the umbilicus, Krauss 
says, is striate, which is not the case in the specimens before me, 
which are also more narrowly umbilicated than his figures. 

G. scAMNATA Fischer. PI. 30, fig. 6. 

Shell small, subperforate, conoidal, unicolored cinereo-olivaceous, 
with spiral blackish bands ; whorls 6, somewhat convex, with 5 to 6 
spiral elevated lira3 on the penultimate whorl ; last whorl sub- 
angulate, base convex with 7 to 8 concentric lirje, the interstices 
narrow ; aperture subrhomboidal, sulcate within ; columella arcuate^ 
a little reflexed and almost covering the umbilicus. 

Alt. 7, diam. 7] mill. (Fischer.) 

Ocecmica. 



GIBBULA. 221 

T. (Gibbula) scamnatus Fischer, Journ. de Conch., 1878, p. 66. — 
Coq. Viv., p. 894, t. 117, f. 4. 

G. SMALTATA Fischer. PI. 32, figs. 72, 73. 

Shell small, narrowly perforate, conoid, obtuse ; whorls 5, convex, 
separated by linear sutures; the first whitish; the remainder very 
finely obliquely striate, shining, very variable in color, sometimes all 
chestnut or blue, sometimes maculated with green or brown and 
spirally zoned, the bands linear, narrow, pale, sometimes articulated 
with brown ; penultimate whorl rather tumid, body-whorl angulate, 
subplanulate below and obsoletely concentrically lirate ; aperture 
subrotund,sulcate within ; basal margin arcuate ; columella regularly 
concave-arcuate, nearly closing the umbilical perforation above ; 
umbilical area somewhat funnel-shaped, white, striate, carinate at its 
margin. Alt. 6, diam. 6 mill. (Fischtr.) 

S. Australia. 

T. smaltatus Fischer, Journ. de Conch., 1879, ]). 22. — Coq. Viv., 
p. 381, 1. 115, f. 4. 

According to Dr. Fischer, the T. balteatus Phil, diflers from T. 
smaltatus in its more conical form, flatter wdiorls, and the columella, 
which is vertical, not arcuate, and subuodulose, forming an angle 
with the basal lip. 

G. BALTEATA Pliilippi. PI. 33, fig. 92. 

The shell is solid for its small size, perforate, nearly exactly 
conical in form, and consists of 6 whorls, of which the upper are 
almost })lanulate, while the last, which is as high as all the otliers 
together, is bluntly angulated ; the upper whoi'ls are encircled 
around their lower borders by a white girdle articulated with vertical 
black lines, and which is continued upcm the periphery of the last 
whorl ; above this girdle are 5 elevated transverse line.^, and upon 
the base about 12 inconspicuous ones; tiie columella is almost 
vertical, rounded, with a slight tubercle in the middle, and forming 
an angle with the basal lip: the color is pale brown, and besides 
the above described girdle has large deep brown maculations below 
the suture ; the spiral lirse are punctate with black ; the base shows 
oblique streaks, formed by the coalescence of black dots. 

Alt. 7, diam. 6 mill. (Philippi.) 

Habitat wiknown. 

T. balteatus Philippi, Zeitschr. f. Mai., 1849, p. 148. — Conchyl. 
Cab., p. 307, t. 44, f. 10. 



222 (JIBBULA. 

Compared by Philippi with G. racketti Payr., which is similarly 
colored, nari'ovver, more ovoid, less conical. 

G. SEMiNULA Philippi. PI. o3, fig. 85. . 

The shell is rather thin, globose-conical ; the 5 whorls are 
moderately convex, the last quite circular, somewhat angular in the 
middle, but the angle appears much more prominent on account of 
a thread-like ridge which encircles it. Above this are 4-5 elevated 
lirie, as wide as their interstices ; and upon the base are 9 or 10 lirse, 
which become narrower and weaker toward the periphery. The 
umbilicus is very narrow, a mere crevice. The aperture is rhom- 
boidal, with rounded angles; the columella slightly arcuate, simple. 
The color is red, verging on yellow, with -1 to 5 broad white rays; 
the apex is white. Alt. 3*, diam. slightly less. {Philippi ) 

Habitat unknown. 

T. seminnlum Phil., Conclnjl. Cab., p. 308, t. 44, f. 12. 

The most similar species is our T. helicoides [G. adansonsii Payr.], 
but that species differs in the larger size, wider umbilicus and 
rounder aperture ; at least no transition forms have come under my 
notice. (Philippi.) 
G. TiBERiANA Crossc. PI. 32, fig. 53. 

Shell im])erforate, conical, rather thin, olivaceous with nacreous 
reflections, ornamented with flexuous longitudinal grayish streaks; 
spire moderately elevated; suture impressed; whorls 5 2 to 6, sub- 
planate, the last obtusely angulated ; base obsoletely striated and 
covered with spots of grayish-white ; aperture oblique, quadrate, in- 
side Avhite, nacreous ; columella somewhat expanded ; outer margin 
simple, acute. {Crosse). Alt. 4i5, diam. 42 mill. 

Coodgee Bay, S. Australia. 

T. tiberiamis Crosse, Joimi. de Conch., 1863, p. 381, t. 13, f 2, — 
Fischer, Coq. Viv., p. 408, t. 120, f 2. — Cantharidus tiberianus 
Angas, p. Z. S. 1867, p. 215. 

G. YESSOEKsis Schrenck. PI. 37, figs. 23, 24 ; pi. 40, fig. 43. 

Shell small, imperforate, conical, rather thin, smooth, shining, light 
olivaceous, longitudinally marked above with radiating red stripes, 
with short alternating white maculations at the suture and periphery ; 
upper surface of whorls w'ith three spiral girdles of alternating white 
and blackish spots, continuous over the longitudinal flames ; spire 
conical, whorls 6, slightly convex, obsoletely lirate, especially at 



GIBBULA. 223 

sutures and periphery ; sutures impressed ; last whorl angulate at the 
periphery, the angle dividing the shell into two equal parts as regards 
altitude ; base convex, very finely lirate, the lirse about 12 in number, 
unicolored ones alternating with articulated white and deep brown or 
reddish ones; aperture large, equalling half the total altitude of 
shell, subcii'cular, about as w^de as long; outer lip acute, smooth 
wnthin ; columella arcuate, a little straightened in the middle ; place 
of the umbilicus impressed and grooved, hut imperforate. 
Alt. 7, diam. 6 mill. 

Hdkoditd't, Japan. 

T. yes.^oensis ScmRENCK, Bull, de I'Acad. Im[>. des >Sci. de St. 
Petersb. v, p. 512 ; Moll, des Anuir-landes u. des Nordjapan. Meeres, 
p. 353, t. 15, f. 11-18. 

An obsoletely lirate, shining species, differing from most others in 
being imperforate. From G. tiberiana Crosse the larger size and 
coloration separate it. 

This species seems to be closely allied to, or identical with T. cal- 
lichrous Philippi. The figure of Philippi is copied on pi. Gl, fig. 25 ; 
the description is as follows : 

Shell imperforate, acutely conoidal, very smooth ; whorls slightly 
convex, the last angulate-carinate ; whorls above and below roseous, 
articulated with red, in the middle olivaceous with spiral lines 
articulated with green dots ; base olivaceous, encircled by two 
similar lines, the center rosy; aperture subrhomboidal ; columella 
terete, scarcely oblique, subangular in the middle. {Phil.) 

A small but extremely beautiful species. , The shell is elevated 
conical, acute, and consists of 7 whorls. These are slightly convex, 
especially above, and the last (which is 3-7ths the total alt.) has 
a keel-like angulation. The upper and lower portions of the upper 
surface of the wdiorl are finely obliquely striate, rose-red with large 
brown spots ; the median part of the upper surface is green, approach- 
ing olive-color, and is marked by three lines formed of dark green 
dots. 'I'he base is the same color. The center is rose-red, then fol- 
lows a green girdle with two lines of dark green dots, and the cir- 
cumference is again rose-red with large brown spots; the aperture 
is nearly rhomboidal, white within ; the columella is nearly per- 
pendicular, cylindrical, blunt-toothed in the middle, outside sur- 
rounded by an impressed line, which reminds one of an umbilical 
rimation. Alt. 73, diam. 6J mill. 

Habitat xinknoivn. 



224 GIBBULA. 

T. calUchrous Phil. Zeitschr f. Mai. 1849, p. 149 ; Conchyl. Cab., 
p. 298, t. 43, f. 15. — f Ziziphinus calUchrous Reeve, Conch. Icon., 
Monog. Zlziph., f. 60. 

Reeve's species is in all probability a distinct thing. 

G. JAPONicA E. A. Smith. 

Shell wide short conic, deeply perforated, whitish, variegated with 
dots and spots of brown, base white ; whorls 6, nearly flat, encircled 
by granose spiral lirse, and cut by oblique strise ; last whorl slightly 
convex above, acutely angulated and carinated in the middle, plane 
below the carina, and with about 13 concentric granular lirte, the 
one around the umbilicus larger than the rest. Umbilicus deep, 
reaching to the apex, smooth ; aperture oblique, subquadrate, pearly 
within ; columella slightly thickened, parietal wall with a thin 
callus. Alt. 5, diam. maj. 8, min. 7 min. {Smith.) 

Gulf of Yado, Japan, lat. 35° 35' K, long. 139° 48' E., 6-25 /ms. 

The keel which encircles the body- whorl runs up the spire in the 
deep suture. Within the umbilicus, and adjacent to the large 
granular liration which surrounds it, there is another, but much 
finer one. (Smith.) 

T. (Gibbula) j(tpo7iicus'E. A. S., Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 1875, xvi, 
p. 110. 

G. YAMADANA E. A. Smith. 

Shell ovate-conical, dull whitish, painted on the lira? with lilac- 
brown tessellations, somewhat formed into flammules; slightly per- 
forate ; whorls 5, convex, separated by jH'ofound sutures, ridged by 
delicate spiral lira; articulated with lilac-brown (5 to 6 on penul- 
timate, about 20 on the last whorl) ; with oblique incremental lines ; 
aperture circular, pearly, equalling •] the total length ; columella a 
trifle thickened ; terminations of peristome joined by a thin callus. 

Alt. 6, diam. 4'> mill. (Smith.) 

Yamada Harbor, Japan. 

The elongate brownish-lilac spots on the lirations are situated 
somewhat irregularly underneath each other, so as to form flammula- 
tions. (Smith.) 

T. (Gibbida) yamadanus E. A. S., Ann. Mag. N. H. 1875, xvi, p. 
111. 



GIBBULA. 225 

G. coRALLiNA E. A. Smith. 

Shell coral-red, ssnicall, orbicular, rather dejjressed, deeply but 
narrowly umbilicated ; whorls 4, convex, encircled by close sub- 
granulose lirje, 4 to 5 on the upper whorls, about 20 on the last 
whorl, and with distant, oblique, longitudinal striae ; umbilicus 
deep, surrounded by a large ridge sulcated by longitudinal striation.s ; 
aperture circular, slightly pearly within. 

Alt. 2i, diam. 3 mill. ' (Smith.) 

Japan. 

This is a very pretty little shell with convex whorls, which are 
spirally striated, the interstitial lirations being somewhat gran ulo us. 
This appearance is produced by their being cut across by rather 
distant striations. (Smith.) 

T. (Gibbida) corallinus E. A. S., Ann. Mag. N. H. 1875, p. 111. 

G. FULGENS Gould. PL 40, fig. 38. 

Shell imperforate or a trifle rimate, globose-conical, rather thick 
and solid, vividly iridescent under a thin brownish cuticle, the 
reflections chiefly gi'een and golden ; spire more or less elevated ; 
apex minute, acute ; sutures impressed ; whorls about 5, quite con- 
vex, the last globose, rounded, encircled by about 16 delicate lirse, 
above separated by wide interstices, which are lightly obliquely 
striate, and often spirally striate ; on the base the lir^e are closer 
and more regularly spaced, nearly as wide as the interstices. The 
lirse are either uniform brown or articulated brown and yellowish ; 
there are sometimes short brown flammules below the sutures. The 
lir?e or keels are very widely separated about the middle of the 
whorl. Aperture subcircular, almost smooth (a trifle sulcate) with- 
in, and vividly iridescent ; columella arcuate, a trifle dilated at base, 
and either concealing the perforation above or leaving a narrow 
chink. Alt. 7, diam. 6 1 ; alt. 6*, diam. 6 mill. 

Jaj)an. 
G. fidfjens Gld., Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H. viii, p. 21 (1861) ;— 
Otia Conch., p. 160. — E. A. Smith, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 1875, p. 
110. — Tr. iridescens Schrenck Reisen im Amurlande, Moll., p. 
356, t. 15, f. 19-24 ; Bull, de I'Acad. Imp. des Sci. de St. Petersb. v, 
p. 512 (1863) ; iv, p. 255. 

A brilliantly iridescent little shell, quite heavy and solid, hav- 
ing a little the aspect of a Solariella, but imperforate. I have seen 
no other Gibbula whicli shows the iridescence through the cuticle as 
15 



226 GIBBULA. 

this species does. The figure of iridescens, copied on my plate, is 
more elevated than most fulgens I have seen. 

G. LACAZEi A^elain. PI. 66, figs. 7, 8. 

Shell slightly elevated, sul)circular, narrowly iimbilicated ; rather 
thick, with a very thin epidermis ; aperture oblique, nacreous inside ; 
operculum corneous, many whorled ; spire composed of 5 whorls, 
rapidly increasing, presenting (1) a flattened, slightly convex part 
beneath ; (2) longitudinal [i.e. spiral] ridges, quite strong, unequal, 
with 2 or 3 interstitial, secondary, feeble ridges ; (3) transverse 
fincremental] stride, very fine, regular, close, crossing the other 
ridges. Aperture oblique, subcircular, nacreous inside ; umbilicus 
small, and often hidden by the extension of the columellar lip. 
Color a whitish-gray, with rosy and green reflections. Some of the 
principal ridges are visibly tinged with pale rose. 

Alt. 54, diam. 7 mill. {Vclain.) 

Island of St. Paul, Indian Ocean. 

Margarita lacazei Velain, Comptes rendus, 1876 ; Archives 
Zool. Exper. et Generale, xvi, 1877, ]). 118, t. 4, f. 4-6. — M. nigri- 
cans Velain, lib. cit., t. 4, f 6. 

Var. nigricans Velain. PI. 66, fig. 93. 

Differs in its smaller size, stronger spiral ridges, and black colora- 
tion. Alt. 02, diam. 6] mill. 

This is of course no Margarita. I am not certain of its generic 
position. It was collected in great numbers by the naturalists at- 
tached to the French expedition to the islands of St. Paul and 
Amsterdam, for observing the transit of Venus in 1874. 

G. GLOBULARius Schrenck. PI. 69, fig. 10. 

Shell depressed-conical, imperforate or obsoletely rimate, oliva- 
ceous-brown, spirally lirate with reddish, with here and there whit- 
ish undulating rays; whorls 5, planulate, separated by deep sutures, 
last Avhorl somewhat convex, subangular ; base plano-convex, brown, 
spirally striate with red ; umbilical tract callous, rosy ; aperture 
rounded-quadrangular, the columellar margin veiy minutely biden- 
ticulate. with a little ])it between the teeth ; outer lip margined 
with black inside ; throat white, pearly. Alt. 7, diam. 9 mill. 
(^Schrenck.') 

Bay of Hakodadi, Jajmn. 



OIBBULA. 227 

T. globularim Schrenck. Bull, de I'Acad. Imp. Sci. St. Petersb. 
V, p. 512 ; Amurlandes Moll. p. 357, t. 16, f. 1-4. 
A species of doubtful generic position. 

G. REDiMiTA Gould. 

Shell depressed, orbicular, narrowly perforated, greenish-pearly-, 
iridescent, lir?e ornamented with black, the apex white ; whorls 4^, 
rather convex, encircled by 3 or 4 lirte or carinte (on the last whorl 
about 12, slenderer below) ; umbilicus white, small ; aperture large, 
circular, pearly ; columella Avhite, somewhat reflexed above, joining 
the outer lip with a thin callus. Alt. 3|, diam. 4 mill. (Smith.) 

Japan (43 fms.) 

This very pretty species is at once recognized by its green pearly 
surface and the black-dotted spiral keels. (Smith.) 

G. redimita Gld., Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H. viii, p. 20 ; Otia Conch., 
p. 159. — T. (Gibbula) rediniitus E.A.Smith, Ann. Mag. N. H. 
1875, p. 111. 

Gould's description is as follows : 

Shell small, ovate-conic, ventricose, thin^ silvery under a calcareous 
coat, encircled by remote flat lirse (5 on the spire), pale crimson, 
the lirte articulated red and white ; whorls 7, ventricose, tabulate ; 
base rounded, scarcely rimate ; aperture rounded-ovate ; columella 
thin, erect, dilated above, flattened below. Alt. 7, diam. 6 mill. 

Hakodadi Bay, Japan. 

G. STiCTicA A. Adams. 

Shell depressed-conical, broadly and deeply umbilicated, reddish, 
maculated with brown ; whorls flat, encircled by white and black 
articulated cinguli ; last whorl angular at the periphery ; base con- 
vex, concentrically sulcate ; aperture orbicular ; umbilicus open, 
perspective. (A. Ad.) 

New Caledonia. 

Omphalius sticiicus A. Ad. P. Z. S. 1854, p. 39. 

G. DORixE Caramagna. PI. 51, fig. 27. 

Shell conoidal, solid, j^erforate ; whorls 65, angulate, excavated 
above, ornamented with granose cinguli with square red spots, and 
minutely longitudinally striate; cinguli 5 on penultimate, 6 on the 
last whorl, which is angulate at base ; base with 7 concentric cinguli, 
tessellated red and white. Shell rosy, sometimes olivaceous, 
ornamented with darker maculations on the last whorl, the cinguli 



228 GIBBULA. 

tessellated ; suture nearly filled by the first grauose ridge ; umbilicus 
profound, wide, finely striate, lightly cingulate ; lip smooth, crenated 
by the sulci of the outside; columella simple, arcuate, lamellar, 
twisted at the umbilicus, forming a little canal at the base ; aperture 
subrotund, whitish, rosy. Alt. 62, diam. 6 mill. (Caramagna.) 

Assab, on the Red Sea. 

G. dorice Caramagna, Bull. Soc. Mai. Ital. xiii, p. 127, t. 8, f 3 
(1888). 

G. TAPPARONEi Caramagna. PI. 51, fig. 1. 

Shell small, turbiniform, very thick ; spire short, obtuse, apex 
mammillated ; whorls about 4, the first two smooth, very rapidly 
increasing, the remainder convex, ornamented with spiral ridges or 
cords, the ridges costiform, rounded, regular, as wide as the interstices, 
ornamented with blood-red spots ; spots here and there interrupted, 
sometimes disposed in nearly regular series parallel with the axis, 
more obscure on the posterior part of the last whorl ; interstices 
between the ridges profound, sulciform, white ; last whorl more 
produced than the spire, quite inflated, rounded at the periphery, 
depressed on the base, umbilicated ; umbilicus very narrow, white, 
encircled by a white zone ; aperture oblique, rounded, simple ; peris- 
tome with a light thickening; witliin white, or painted like the out- 
side ; suture somewhat impressed, simple. 

Alt. 3, diam. 3 mill. (Caramagna.) 

Assab. 

G. tapparonei Caramag. Bull. Soc. Mai. Ital. 1888, p. 129, t. 8, 
f. 5. 

G. ISSELII Caramagna. PI. 51, figs. 5, 6. 

Shell conoidal, solid, umbilicated ; whorls 5, angular, separated by 
somewhat deep sutures, canaliculate, granulate, maculate with 
olivaceous, minutely obliquely striate ; obscure subquadraugular 
spots alternating with white ones on the last whorl; 3d and 4th 
whorls angular above and below, with 4 cinguli ; low'er part of last 
whorl with 17 cinguli ; outer lip acute, slightly sulcate at margin, 
maculate ; columella denticulate in the middle ; aperture suboval, 
canaliculate within, whitish pearly ; umbilicus narrow, deep, ob- 
liquely channelled. Alt. 7, diam. 7 mill. (Caramagna.) 

Assab. 

G. isselii Caramag., Bull. Soc. Mai. Ital., 1888, p. 129, t. 8, f. 6. 



GIBBULA. 229 

G. DANiELi Crosse. PI. 32, figs. 57, 58, 58a. 

Shell narrowly umbilicate, depressed conoidal, solid, lusterless, 
"whitish, upper surface spirally banded with dark brown, apex 
roseate, base light, clouded with brown ; spiral low-conoidal, apex 
acute, sutures well impressed ; whorls 5, somewhat convex, s]>irally 
coarsely ridged, the ridges not beaded, about 4 to 6 in number 
above the periphery, more numerous on the base; the whole sur- 
face closely, minutely, densely, spirally and radiately striate ; last 
whorl slightly descending at aperture, rounded or subcarinate at 
l^ei'iphery; aperture quite oblique, rounded-subquadrate ; outer lip 
slightly crenulated, margined inside by a thin opaque white band, 
silvery and showing folds in the nacre within ; columella oblique, 
sinuous, a little thickened in the middle ; umbilicus deep, narrow, 
bounded by a smooth rib. Alt. 5, diam. 6-62 mill. 

Neio Caledonia, Viti and Samoa Is. 

Clanculus danieli Crosse, Journ. de Conchyl. 1862, p. 407, t. 13, 
f. 5. — Trochus danieli Fischer, Journ. de Conchyl. 1875, p. 49 ; 
Coq. Yiv., p. 326, t. 102, f. 1. — Gibbula filosa Garrett, Proc. Cal. 
Acad. Sci. iv, p. 201 (1872). 

Distinguished from other forms by the red apex, sculpture of fine 
spiral stria over coarse lirse, which are not granose. Umbilicus 
with growth-lines inside, bounded by a smooth rib. 

G. REEVEi Montrouzier. PI. 32, figs. 59, 60. 

Shell small, perforate, conoidal, rather solid, blackish-green or 
olive-brown, marked at the sutures with pale spots, base obsoletely 
articulated with wliite and brown ; whorls 5, convex, separated by 
canaliculate sutures, obliquely finely striated, spirally cingulate, the 
cinguli prominent, 6 to 7 on the penultimate whorl, the upper 
ridge wider and subgranulose ; last whorl subangulate, slightly 
convex beneath, and encircled by 7 concentric cinguli wider than 
their finely decussated interstices ; aperture rhomboidal, sulcate 
Avithin ; lip thickened, basal margin crenulated; columella oblique, 
thick, granulose ; umbilicus profound. {Fischer.') 

Alt. 6, diam. 7 mill. 

Neto Caledonian Archijjelago. 

Trochus reevei Montr., Journ. de Conchyl. 1866, p. 141, t. 6, f. 8. 
— Fischer, Journ. de Conchyl. 1875, p. 49; Coq. Viv., p. 327, t. 
102, f. 2. 



230 



GIBBULA. 



G. AFFiNis Garrett. PI. 40, figs. 6, 7. 

Shell small, narrowly umbilicate, conoidal, rather solid, lusterless, 
cinereous, encircled by spiral series of small brown, or slate colored 
subquadrate spots ; spire conical, apex whitish, acute, sutures slightly 
impressed, not canaliculate ; whorls 5, slightly convex, the last sub- 
carinate at periphery ; surface all over very minutely densely 
spirally striate, and more or less decussated by growth-lines ; with 
about 5 larger somewhat granose ridges on the penultimate, 12 
or more on the last whorl ; body-whorl slightly descending anteriorl}^ ; 
aperture rounded-quadrangular, iridescent and sulcate within ; basal 
margin finely crenulate ; columella straight in the middle; umbili- 
cus bounded by a coarsely plicate rib, whitish and strongly spirally 
grooved within. 

Alt. 5-52, diam, 6 mill. Diam. of umbilicus, 1 mill. 

Viti and Samoa Is. 

G. affinis Garrett, Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. iv, p. 201 (1872). 

My description and figure are drawn from specimens received 
from Garrett. 

G. CONCINNA Dunker. PI. 40, figs. 8, 9. 

• Shell small, globose-depressed-conical, narrowly umbilicate, solid, 
lusterless, soiled whitish or yellowish, with either a series of dark 
flammules below the sutures, tlie base faintly articulated with dark, 
or else the entire surface mottled, nearly covered with blackish. 
The body-whorl is obtusely subangular, and descends a trifle 
anteriorly ; the sutures are narrowly but decidedly impressed ; the 
penultimate whorl has 7 or 8 equal strong spiral lirse, as wide as 
the interstices, which are densely obliquely striate and have usually 
a few indistinct spiral strife. The base has about 10 concentric 
lirulse. Aperture rounded, very oblique, thickened with opaque 
white within, its edge crenulated ; umbilicus narrow, bounded by 
an indistinctly crenulated rib, strongly grooved within. 
Alt. 4, diam. 5 to 6 mill. ; diam. of umbilicus, h mill. 

Samoa Is. ; Upolu. 

The upper one or two lira are more or less beaded, and sometimes 
all of them are. The interstices are sometimes wider than the lirse, 
and have numerous quite distinct spiral stride. The species difl^ers 
from G. affinis Garrett in having subequal lirpe, and a narrower um- 
bilicus, scarcely exceeding J mill, in width. I have been unable to 
find any description of this shell ; it is mentioned in Museum, God- 



GIBBULA. 231 

effroy Catalog V, p. 147; Cat. der Conchyl.-Samml. von Fr. Paetel, 
8te lieferung, p. 5d9; Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. iv, p. 201, and several 
other places, but nowhere can I find a reference to the description. 
It was probably never described. The form is very close to G. 
affinis and G. reevei. 

G. STRANGEi A. Adams. PL 32, figs. 61, 62. 

Shell small, narrowly umbilicate, globose-conical, rather thin, 
lusterless, olive colored, with scattered white dots, and obliquely 
radiating brown flames below the sutures, the spiral ribs with mi- 
nute brown dots ; spire conical, acute ; sutures subcanaliculate ; 
wliorls 5, convex, encircled l)y strong spiral ridges, 3 on the upper, 
4 on the last whorl, the fourth forming the periphery ; interstices 
spirally striate, below the suture radiately lamellose striate ; base 
with numerous concentric line ; a jiatch around the umbilicus white, 
articulated with brown ; aperture subquadrangular, iridescent and 
sulcate within ; columella straight, usually green tinged. 

Alt. 6, diam. 6 mill ; alt. 10, diam. 8 mill. 

Port Jackson, Australia. 

G. strangel A. Ad., P. Z. 8. 1867, p. 217. — Troclms strangei 
Fischer, Coq. Viv., p. 329, t. 102, f 3. 

The strong keels of the upper surface separate this form from 
allied species. 

G. coxi Angas. PI. 31, figs. 34, 35 ; pi. 32, fig. 69. 

Shell orbicularly conical, moderately umbilicated, rather solid, 
whitish, marbled with olive and pink, and with a few broad pure 
white flames descending from the sutures and interrupted on the 
keels with brownish red ; base reticulated with gray and minutely 
spotted with red ; spire conical ; whurls 5, angular, with two prom- 
inent rounded keels, one next the suture; concave between the 
suture and upper keel, and a little concave between the keels, finely 
spirally ridged and decussated with exceedingly fine and close 
oblique longitudinal lines; base convex, finely concentrically I'idged 
and decussated like the whorls, the ridges increasing in size toward 
the umbilicus. (Angas.) Alt. 8, diam. 10 mill. 

Port Jackson, Australia. 

Gihbula coxi Angas, P. Z. S. 1867, p. 115, t. 13. f 26.— T. coxl 
" A. Ad. " Fischer, Coq. Viv., p. 339, t. 105, f 3. 



232 GIBBULA. 

A globose-conoid species, with two strong rounded keels, the 
whole surfoce covered with fine spiral striee. One of the specimens 
before me from Brazier has no color markings. 

G. OPPRESSA Hutton. PI. 40, figs. 4, 5. 

Shell small, imperforate (or with a shallow " false umbilicus "), 
conical, somewhat solid, lusterless, dark olive-brown or greenish, 
minutely tessellated all over with a slightly darker shade of the 
same hue (scarcely visible unless the shell ba wetted); whorls about 
5, convex, those of the spire keeled in the middle, body-whorl 
biangular, base rather flattened ; entire surface closely finely spirally 
striate, the stripe of base becoming coai'ser toward the axis ; aperture 
oblique, quadrangular, smooth within and brilliantly iridescent, the 
nacre dark green with red reflections ; lip slightly thickened by a 
narrow opaque margin within, not crenulated ; columella oblique, 
straight, long, inserted in the center of the base; umbilicus filled 
with callus, leaving only a slight pit. Alt. 5?, diam. 6 mill. 

Auckland, N. Z. 

G. oppressa Hutton, Journ. de Conchyl. 1878, p. 34 ; Proc. Linn- 
Soc. N. S. W. 1884, p. 364; Trans. N. Z. Inst, xv, t. 14, f. m. 
(dentition). 

My description and figure are drawn from a specimen received 
from Professor Hutton. The imperforate axis separates this form 
from the preceding biangulate Australian Gibbula. 

G. PRASiNA Garrett. PI. 40, figs. 14, 15. 

Shell minute, perforated, globose-dej)ressed, rather thin, scarcely 
shining, light olive-green, mottled closely with dark greenish, the 
whole surface, save a circum-umbilical tract, often uniform blackish- 
green ; spire very short, formed of 4 very rapidly widening whorls 
separated by well-marked sutures; the whorls spirally lirate except 
on the base, the liree slightly crenulated by indistinct oblique 
growth marks; aperture very large, very oblique, rounded, the 
extremities of peristome nearly joining, connected by a short parietal 
callous ; columella and basal margins equally curved, simple and 
smooth within ; umbilicus quite narrow\ 

Alt. 2i, diam. 3 2 mill. ; alt 3, diam. 4 mill. 

Viti Is. 

Gihbula prasina Garrett, Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. iv, p. 202. 



GIBBULA. 233 

A curious little form, quite distinct from any other known to me. 
The figure and description are from specimens received from 
Garrett. 

O. SATORius Deshayes. PI. 40, fig. 23. 

Shell turbinate, subglobose, conoidal, blackish-brown, transversely 
very finely lirate, lirse unequal, mostly punctate very regularly with 
white ; spire short, acute ; whorls 6, slightly convex, separated by 
linear sutures, slowly widening, the last large, globular, angular at 
the periphery, obtuse below ; base profoundly perforate ; aperture 
subeircular, very oblique, white ; columella cylindrical, slightly 
tortuous. Alt. 6, diam. 6 mill. (Desh.) 

Id. Reunion. 

T. satorins Desh. Moll, de I'lle de la Reunion, p. 72, t. 9, f 7, 8. 

G. STRIATA Garrett. 

Shell small, rather thin, globosely conical, grayish -brown, rarely 
crimson, delicately mottled with whitish ; whorls 5, convex, last one 
gibbose, subangulated at the periphery, closely lineated with large, 
unequal sized, elevated spiral strise ; umbilicus whitish, small, with 
deep spiral grooves within ; aperture roundly subquadrate, pearly 
white, outer lip rather thin. Alt. 4, diam. 5 mill. (Garrett.) 

Viti and Samoa Is. 

G. striata Garrett, Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. iv, p. 201 (1872). 

According to Garrett this is a very rare species. I have seen no 
specimens. 

G. LEHMANNi Mcnke. PL 40, figs. 12, 13. 

Shell umbilicate, rather thin, orbicular-conoid ; whorls 6, separated 
by impressed sutures, the first eroded, the following angular, flattened 
above, gradate, strikingly painted, spirally lirate, livse delicate, about 
12 on the penultimate whorl ; last whorl dilated, biangular, or- 
namented with transverse wdaite and reddish-violet interrupted lines, 
like flexuous rays ; at the suture and periphery there are zones 
formed of violet-brown spots alternating with white or yellowish 
ones; base convex, with 15 to 16 cencentric lirie; coloration white 
and reddish tessellated ; aperture subovate, margins thin ; columella 
arcuate, subnodose inside below ; umbilical tract white, funnel- 
shaped. Alt. 72, diam. 9 mill. (Fischer.) 

Western Australian coasts. 



234 GIBBULA. 

Turbo lehmanni Menke, Moll. Nov. Holl., p. 18. — Trochus 
lehmanni Philippi, Conchyl. Cab., p. 185, t. 28, f. 15. — Fischer, 
Coq. Viv., p. 362, t. Ill, f. 3 (not Trochus lehmanni Menke, Moll. 
Nov. Holl,, J). 18, nor T. lehmanni Kiener, Spec, genre Trochus, t. 
46, f. 2).— Gibbula jndchra A. Ad., P. Z. S. 1851, p. 187. 

G. TESSERULA Tenison-Woofls. PL 32, figs. 66-68. 

Shell small, shining, obliquely depressed, deeply umbilicated, 
thin, l)]ackish, with a kind of a purple iridescence, conspicuously 
marked with a line of large square black and white spots at the 
periphery; whorls 3 J to 4, convex, regularly and distantly spirally 
striate, decussate transversely with close fine lines. Outer lip thin, 
crenulate, inner lip reflexed and curved, scarcely separated from the 
labrum ; aperture subquadrate, tessellate inside with a fine iridescent 
film ; base smooth, polished and convex. 

Alt. 4 mill. {T. Woods.) 

Tlie depressed form of this shell and its conspicuous tessellations 
distinguish the species from the many forms of Gibbula we have in 
the Australian Seas. G. depressa described by me is a dark tessellated 
form, but it is widely sulcate. {T -Woods.) 

G. tesserula T.-Woods, Trans, and Proc. Roy. Soc. Victoria, 
xvii, 1881, p. 81, t. 1, f. 3-5. 

The figures of this shell are much enlarged. Tenison-Woods 
does not give the locality, but it is presumably Tasmania or Eastern 
Australia. 

G. DEPRESSA Tenison-Woods. PI. 40, figs. 36, 37. 

Shell narrowly umbilicate, depressed, thin, lusterless, whitish, 
mottled and somewhat radiately streaked with blackish-brown and 
crimson, periphery whitish, with or without a series of dark blotches ; 
base olive or brown, sometimes tessellated with a darker shade ; 
spire very low, short ; apex minute, subacute ; sutures narrowly im- 
pressed ; whorls about 4, the last very rapidly tvidening, with several 
(6 or fewer) coarse but superficial spiral lirse above, and about 6 
narrower, still less conspicuous ones beneath ; periphery more or 
less distinctly biangular ; aperture large, subquadrangular, quite 
oblique ; iridescent and sulcate within, the lip thin, fragile, bordered 
inside by a thin opaque band ; columella thin, a little straightened, 
umbilicus narrow, not bounded by a distinct rib or carina, smooth 
within. Alt. 4, diam. 6j mill. 

Tasmania. 



GIBBULA. 235 

G. depressa Tenison-Woods, Proc. Roy. Soc. Tasm. 1875, p. 154. 

G. DOLOROSA Tenison-Woods. 

Shell small, turbinate-conoid, solid. Urate, slightly shining, black- 
ish-purple, apex pearly, rosy ; whorls 4-5, slightly convex, encircled 
by wide rounded equal lira?, and decussated by oblique, obsolete in- 
cremental striae ; base convex, lirate, purple ; umbilicus narrow, 
longitudinally striate ; aperture rounded, brilliantly iridescent, 
lirate within ; columella margined. 

Alt. 7, diam. 7 mill. (Tenlson- Woods.) 

Babs' Straits. 

A somewhat tumidly conical small solid shell, umbilicate and 
lirate, specially distinguished by its blackish-purple hue, while the 
apex is pearly and rose color. The mouth is splendidly iridescent, 
and the columella is marginate. (T- Woods.) 

G. dolorosa Tenison-Woods, Proc. Roy. Soc. Tasm. 1876, p. 143. 
(1877). 

G. PHASiANELLA Dcshaycs. PI. 31, figs. 31, 32, 33. 

Shell small, globose-turbinate, narrowly perforate, thin, smooth, 
shining, marbled and mottled with various shades of olive, brown 
and pinkish, usually showing dots of white, or spiral lines of white 
and pink or brown articulated ; spire short, conical, apex minute, 
acute, sutures impressed ; whorls about 5, rounded, the last large, 
convex below, indented around the narrow white umbilicus ; aper- 
ture rounded-oval, with a very thin layer of bluish iridescent nacre 
within, oblique ; outer, basal and columella margins well curved, 
thin, simple, converging and united across the parietal wall by a 
thin layer of callus. Alt. 6, diam. 6 mill. ; alt. 4, diam. 4 mill. 

Id. of Reunion ; Art, Netv Caledonian Archipelago ; Lifu, Loxjalty 
Archipelago. 

Turho phasianellus Desh., Conchyl. de I'lle de la Reunion, p. 74, 
t. 9, f. 13, 14. — Trochus phasianellus Fischer, Journ. de Conchyl. 
1874, p. 156, and 1875, p. 49 ; Coq. Viv., p. 363, t. Ill, f 4. 

This beautifully variegated little shell is closely allied to G. tas- 
manica Petterd differing in the smoother, polished surface and color- 
ation. The rich, mottled color-pattern is like some specimens of 
Turbo petholatus L. It is the type of Fischer's subgenus Calliotro- 
chus, a section which includes also G. tasmanica and probably some 
other small species. 



236 GIBBULA. 

G. AMiRANTiuM Smith. PI. 67, figs. 65, 66. 

Shell small, subglobose, perforate, spirally finely lirate and sili- 
cate, white, the lirse being interruptedly pink; whorls 4-5, convex, 
rapidly increasing ; last whorl rounded at the periphery, lirate 
throughout, the lin^e rather narrower than the intervening grooves 
and crossed by the lines of growth. Aperture circular, occupying 
more than half the total height of the shell. Columella arcuate, 
white, covered with a callous, which is considerably reflexed, 
especially at the lower part. Alt. 4, diam. 4i mill. (SmitJi.) 

Etoile Island, Aviirantes, 13 fms. 

TrocJms ( Gibhila f) amirantium E. A. Smith, Zool. ' Alert ' p. 
504, t. 44, f. V. 

The distinguishing feature of this little species is the reflexed 
character of the columella. {Smith.) 

G. WELDii Tension- Woods. 

Shell small, depressed-turbinate, carinated, rather widely umbil- 
icate, solid, shining, whitish, elegantly ornamented with slender 
oblique lines and brown spots ; whorls 5, quadrate, carinated above 
and below, the carinpe rounded, elevated, conspicuously spotted with 
fulvous ; all over (except the carinje and the space between them on 
the last whorl) lirate ; apex obtuse ; base flat, striate, with radiating 
rose colored lines ; aperture rounded, peristome continuous, thick- 
ened ; columella arcuate, conspicuous; umbilicus margined, margin 
white, within marked with spiral equal lirse. 

Long. 7, lat. 6A, alt.. 6 mill. (Tension- Woods.) 

Bass^ Straits. 

A small depressedly turbinate shell, white, shining and porce- 
lanous, keeled and lirate throughout except on the keels and on the 
last whorl between them. It is prettily marked with brown spots 
on the keels and fine diagonal lines of the same color on the whorls ; 
on the base which is lirate it is radiately marked with fine rose lines. 
The umbilicus is white margined and spirally lirate. Rare. This 
shell may turn out to be G. porcellana A. Ad., but I had no speci- 
men of the latter for comparison. (Tension- Woods.) 

G. weldii T.-WooDS, Proc. Roy. Soc. Tasm. 1876, p. 143 (1877.) 

G. TASMANicA Petterd. PI. 40, fig. 20. 

Shell small, perforate, globose-turbinate, rather thin, lusterless, 
whitish, tinged with yellow or greenish, unicolored or marked with a 



GIBBULA. 237 

few angular radiating maculations of blackish-brown ; spire very 
short ; sutures impressed ; whorls about 4?, convex, rounded, all over 
finely regularly spirally lirulate ; last whorl rounded at the periphery, 
or very bluntly subangular, convex beneath, impressed around the 
umbilicus ; aperture quite oblique, rounded-ovate, angular above, 
broadly rounded below, with a thin iridescent layer of nacre within ; 
outer, basal and columellar margins rather thin, curved, the latter 
joined to the upper margin by a thin white parietal callous ; 
umbilicus not bounded by an angle, narrow. 
Alt. 62, diam. 51 ; alt. 6, diam. 5? mill. 

Brown River, Tasmania. 

G. tasmanica Petterd, Q,uart. Journ. Conch. (Leeds) ii. p. 103 
(1877). 

This dull whitish little shell may be known by its finely striate 
surface, narrow umbilicus, short spire and globose-turbinate form. 

G. AUREA Tension- Woods. 

Shell small, turbinately conical, scarcely umbilicate, yellowish- 
white, painted very prettily with reddish gold spots ; whorls 4, 
margined at the base, and flattened, rounded above and constricted 
at the sutures ; girded by irregular obliquely striate very fine stri^ ; 
margin elegantly tessellated with white and reddish gold ; base 
sculptured with impressed tessellated lines ; aperture rounded. Very 
nacreous underneath. Alt. 5, diam. 4 mill. (Tension- Woods.) 

Kings Island, Tasmania. 
G. aurea T.- Woods, Proc. Roy. Soc. Tasm. 1875, p. 153 (187G.) 
The Academy received shells under this name from Mr. Beddome, 
(PL 40, fig. 17) but I am not at all sure that they really represent 
Mr. Tension-Woods' species. 

G. OCHOTENSIS (Middendorf) Philippi. PI. 60, figs. 3, 4. 

Shell globose-couoidal, narrowly umbilicate, closely transversely 
sulcate, blackish ; whorls convex, the last subangulate ; base convex, 
rounded toward the umbilicus; spiral lines about 11 on the penult- 
imate, 30 on the last whorl ; aperture rhombic-orbicular ; columella 
oblique, sub-excavated above, rounded; beautifully nacreous, green- 
ish. (Phil.) 

The shell is orbicular-conical, consisting of 5 regularly convex 
whorls, the last indistinctly angular at the periphery, convex beneath, 
and notably convex near the umbilicus. Umbilicus very narrow, 
and while it perforates to the apex, one can hardly get the finest 



238 GIBBULA. 

needle through it. The sculpture consists of numerous elevated 
transverse lines. On one specimen there are 11 on the penultimate 
whorl, rather strongly elevated, scarcely half as wide as their inter- 
stices ; on a second there are about 30 much weaker ones ; on both 
the base is more densely striate than the upper surface. The apertnre 
is rounded, slightly quadrangular ; the outer lip is simple ; the 
columella oblique, arcuate, passing into the outer lip, and is strongly 
incurved above, as in the related species. The color is blackish- 
gray unicolored in the thickly striate specimen ; the other (here 
illustrated) has obliquely longitudinal coalesing dashes on a clear 
ground. This coloration affects only a very thin layer, beneath 
which lies a beautiful nacre, with play of golden and green tints. 
Alt. 16, diani. 18 mill. (PhUippi.) 

Okhotsk Sea. 

T. ochotensis (Middendorf «i litt.) Philippi, Conchyl. Cab., p. 222, 
t. 34, f. 1. 

I do not know the generic position of this species. 

G. zoNATA Wood. PL 36, fig. 21 ; pi. 64, fig. 38. 

Shell imperforate but excavated at the place of the umbilicus, 
depressed-conical, rather solid, whitish, with numerous spiral bauds 
and lines of purplish-brown ; surface very lightly obliquely striate, 
closely, densely finely spirally striate, generally with three strong 
carinje, one at periphery, the others above ; whorls about 5, convex, 
those of the upper surface bicarinate ; last whorl convex, carinate 
or subcarinate ; aperture rounded-quadrangular, oblique, nacreous 
inside with slight sulci at the positions of the external carina ; col- 
umella a little straightened. Alt. 7, diam. 8 mill. 

Cape of Good Hope. 

Tr. zonatus Wood, Index Test, suppl. t. 5, f. 34.- — Krauss, Die 
Siidaf. Moll., p. 97.— Philippi, Conchyl. Cab. p. 287, t. 42, f. 8.— 
Von Martens, Jahrb. d. Mai. Gesellsch. 1874, p. 129, 142.— 
Watson, Challenger Gasterop. p. 76. — T. cingulatus Muhlf., Mag. 
d. Gesellsch. Naturf. Freunde, Berlin, viii, 1818, pi. 2, f. 11, (not 
cingulatus Brocchi). — T. menkeunus Phil. Abbild. u. Beschr. i, p. 
91, t. 21, f. 6 ; ii, p. 39. — T. cingulatus (again) Menke, Syn. Meth., 
p. 00, 143. — T. leaeiisis Watson, Journ. Linn. Soc. Lond., xv, p. 90. 
— " Cymatia cingulata " Muhlf. in coll. (Specimens sent to I. Lea, 
1835, now in A. N. S. P. coll.) 



GIBBULA. 239 

A small form, distinct from other Cape Gibbula in its fasciate 
color-pattern. There is great variation in the prominence of the 
spiral caringe. Lischke classes it as a Photimda, and it certainly 
bears a considerable resemblance to that group. 

G. CAPENSis Gmelin. PI 31, figs. 36, 37. 

Shell narrowly umbilicated, conoid-depressed, whorls 5, the first 
roseate, eroded, the following convex above, depressed beneath, 
whitish or rosy, flamniulate with brownish-violet radiating macula- 
tions, obliquely striate and spirally lirate, the lirae flat, narrow, not 
granose ; last whorl dilated, subangulate above, depresso-carinated 
at the periphery, convex beneath and ornamented with 9 concentric 
reddish lirse ; aperture oblique, subquadrate ; lip simple ; columella 
arcuate, denticulate at base, slightly calloused above, almost cover- 
ing the umbilicus. Alt. 12, diam. 17 mill. (Fischer.) 

Cape of Good Hope. 

T. capensis Gmel. Syst. Nat. xiii, p. 3573. — Krauss, Die Sudaf. 
Moll., p. 100.— Philippi, Conchyl. Cab. p. 196, t. 29, f 22.— 
Fischer, Coq. Viv. p. 311, t. 98, f. 3. 

A conical flat-based species, often more decidedly radiately striped 
than the figures represent. 

G. TRYONi Pilsbry. PI. 69, figs. 20, 21. 

Shell conical, umbilicate, rather thin, crimson or purplish red, ob- 
scurely, rather finely mottled with arrow-shaped whitish dots, usually 
with several narrow articulated lines on the base, and in the middle of 
the upper surface of the last whorl ; apical whorls eroded, yellow ; 
spire conic ; whorls 5, a little tumid below each suture, and with a 
narrow ledge or margin, marked off by an impressed line, above 
each suture. This peripheral ledge gives the last whorl a rather 
prominent keel ; the surface is polished, but shows quite prominent, 
spaced, impressed growth-lines, and under a lens is all over very 
densely minutely spirally striate; the base is flattened, rather 
prominent around the umbilicus ; aperture oblique, quadrangular, 
smooth and with a very brilliantly iridescent green nacre inside ; 
columella arcuate above and expanded partly over the umbilicus ; 
parietal wall free from callus ; umbilicus deep, with a narrow 
rapidly tapering 2:)erforation, but broad and funnel-shaped at the 
opening. Alt. 12, diam. 14 mill.; alt. 13, diam. 132 mill. 

Cape of Good Hope. 



240 GIBBULA, 

Has the aspect of G. richardi on the base, but is more narrowly 
umbilicated and has smaller, less oblique aperture. The ledge on 
the periphery is like that of G. magus, G. albidus, and other species 
of the typical group. The color is sometimes pale purplish red; 
mottled with light green, and with broad subsutural darker flames, 
sometimes it seems nearly unicolored crimson above. The mottlings 
will however be seen under a lens. The base is always lighter 
colored. The principal peculiarity of sculpture is the fold-like 
oblique striation, and the very dense microscopic striation of the 
whole surface, 

G. MULTICOLOR Krauss. PI. 62, fig. 83. 

Shell small, narrowly perforated, conoidal , whorls 5, the first 
whitish-rosy, the following white, with reddish flammules and spots of 
green and bluish, especially at the ridges ; The surface of the whorls 
is marked with very fine spiral and vertical striae, and 2 elevated 
carinse ; last whorl tricarinate, base I'ed with a spiral series of green 
streaks, concentrically striate ; aperture suboval, smooth within ; 
columella white. Alt. 6j, diam. 7 mill. {Fischer.) 

Cape of Good Hoper 

T. viulUcolor Keauss, Die Sudaf Moll., p. 97, t. 5, f. 31. — Phil- 
ippi, Conchyl. Cab., p. 321, t. 46, 1 3.— Fischer, Coq. Viv. p. 316, 
t. 99, f. 3. 

G. poNSONBYi Sowerby. PI. 65, fig. 76. 

Shell subglobose, narrowly umbilicate, rather thin, pale, maculated 
with brown at the base, whorls 5, convex, rapidly increasing, first 
two smooth ; the rest angulated, coronated on the angle with a series 
of tubercles, above the angle spirally tri-sulcate, below obscurely 
lirate. Last whorl inflated, coronated with a series of (about 12) 
tubercles ; below the corona uni-lirate, at base convex, ventricose, 
rounded, furnished with about 8 rather acute lirae. Aperture semi- 
lunar ; columella lightly callous, contracted above, turgid below the 
middle. 

Alt. 132, diam. 14 mill. ; aperture, alt. 9, breadth 7 mill. (Sowb.) 
In the absence of operculum it is impossible to say with certainty 
to what genus or section this species belongs, though I have little 
doubt it will prove a Gibbula. The base is unusually convex and 
ventricose, the spire rather shortly conical, and the upper angle 
coronated with rounded tubercles. The mouth is rather wide, and 
the umbilicus narrow. The spiral ridges on the base are rather 



GIBBULA. 241 

close, and the upper ones distant. (Soivb.) Described from a single 
dead specimen. 

Poi't Elizabeth, S. Africa. 

Tr. (Glbbula) pomonbyl SowB., P. Z. B. 1888, p. 209, t. 11, f. 5. 
G. VULNERATA Philippi. PL 51, figs. 10, 11. 

Shell conoidal, imperforate, transversely sulcate-cingulate, yellow- 
ish, painted with oblique blood-red streaks; whorls convex, the last 
scarcely angular ; aperture rhombic-rounded ; columella very 
oblique, cylindrical, simple. (Phil.) 

The shell is rather thick, imperforate, conoidal ; the 6 whorls are 
convex, the last scarcely angular, with 7 to 8 transverse sulci, which 
are as broad as the ridges lying between them ; the base is similarly 
traversed by the same number of sulci. There is scarcely a trace 
of umbilicus to be seen. The ajierture is rhombic-circular, and 
appears somewhat contracted on account of the very thick lip; the 
columella is very oblique, cylindrical, straight ; the color is yellow- 
ish, regularly marked with oblique blood-red streaks. 

Alt. lU,diam.lU mill (Philippi.) 

Habitat uiiknoivn. 

T. vuhieratus Phil. Zeitschr. f Mai. 1850, p. 16 ; Conchyl. Cab. p. 
305, t. 44, f. 7. 

G. PLsuM Philippi. PI. 31, figs. 38, 39, 40. 

Shell perforate, turbinate-conic, rather solid, lusterless, reddish, 
with white radiating flammules above, more or less dotted with 
white beneath, and with (usually) a white umbilical tract ; spire 
conical, apex acute, sutures narrowly canaliculate ; whorls about 4J, 
the last biangular, its upper surface spirally lirulate, the subsutural 
spiral prominent, followed by about 4 smaller ones ; periphery 
biangular from two encircling strong lirse, with an equal or slightly 
smaller one between them, on each side of which is a minute spiral ; 
base with 5 to 7 concentric lirse ; interstices all over obliquely 
crispate-striate ; aperture subcircular, smooth within ; columella 
arcuate, white. Alt. 5], diam. 6 mill. 

West Indies. 

T.jnsum Philippi, Zeitschr. f Mai. 1848, p. Ill ; Conchyl. Cab. 
p. 205, t. 30, f 11. — T. gvadatus Gould, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H. iii, 
p. 91 (1849) ; U. S. Expl. Expedition Moll., p. 175, t 210. 

A well-marked species, of which numbers of specimens are before 
me. Dr. Gould gives " Pacific Is." as the locality of T. gvadatus 
16 



242 GIBBULA. 

(pi. 31, figs. 38, 39, 40) which I take to be the same species. I have 
specimens found among small West Indian shells. The young are 
very similar to certain species of Liotia. They are strongly bicari- 
nate, the carinte with radiating short spines ; there is a subsutural 
granose ridge, and a similar one bounds the umbilicus. I am not 
certain that the species is a Gibbula. A specimen of this species is 
drawn in figs. 2, 3, pi. 45 of vol. x of the Manual. 

G. ROSEus Krauss. PI. 40, fig. 38. 

Shell small, globose-conoid, imperforate, thin, roseate, unicolored 
or marked with white flammules ; whorls terete, transversely cingu- 
late, cinguli 3 on the penultimate whorl, the interstices much wider, 
striated; base closely lirate ; aperture rhombic-orbicular, columella 
oblique. {Phil.) 

The shell is wholly imperforate in my examples, with only a 
slight impression at the place of the umbilicus, rather thin, globose- 
conoidal, acute, formed of 5 convex, strongly separated wdiorls. 
These on the upper part are encircled by 3 narrow ridges, their 
broad interstices traversed by 2 to 4 elevated lines ; the rounded 
base has about 7 to 9 close sj^iral lime with narrow interstices. The 
aperture is almost circular, scarcely quadrate ; the columella oblique, 
scarcely straight. The color is rose-red, with darker girdles or 
with white flecks, or with radiating flames above. 

Alt. 6, diam. 6 mill. (Philippi.) 

Cape of Good Hope. 

T. roseiis Krauss, Die Sudaf Moll. p. 97. — Philippi, Conchyl. 
Cab. p. 198, t. 29, f 26. (? Globulus roseus Chemnitz, ? T. rosevs 
Gmel.) — T. gaudiosa Gould, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H. viii, p. 21. 

I identify this shell with specimens before me marked G. gaudiosa 
Gld., which agree well with Philippi's description. 

Unfigured, Undetermined Species. 

G. LOCULOSA Gould. T. parva, globoso-conica, depressa, sub- 
tenuis, rosaceo fusco etc. et strigis radiantibus flavidis variegata ; 
anfr. 5, ventricosis, liris 5 et filiis minoribus 1-3 ad interspatia 
esiliter clathrata cinctis ; liris Itevibus, coloribus articulatis ; sutura 
profunda ; basi rotundato concentrice arato ; regione umbilicali 
pallide, arete perforata ; apertura rotundato ovata ; fauce margarit- 
acea, sulcata. 



GIBBULA. 243 

Alt. 6, diam. 7 mill. {Gould, Proc. Bost. 8oc, N. H. vii, p. 21.) 

False Bay, Cape of Good Hope. 

G. MUSiVA Gould. T. parva, ovato-globosa, tenuis, liris transver?-ir> 

ubique cincta, luteo nigro oi'dinatim tessellata ; anfr. 5, convexis ; 

basi imperforato (junioribus exceptis) ; apertura rotundato-ovato ; 

columella incrassata, antice subdentata ; fauce nacrea, sulcata ; 

Diam. 6 mill. {Gould, Proc. Bost. Soc. IS". H. viii, p. 21.) 

Simon's Bay, 

G. FUCATA Gould. T. parva, orbicularis, depressa, supra Irevis, 
infra concentrice striata, livido-cinerea, strigis rubris vel fuscis 
saturation marginatis ad peripheriam angulatis et subtus interdum 
tessellatis variegata, subcrusta calcarea iridescens ; anfr. 5, declivi- 
bus ; sutura conspicua ; basi arctissime perforate ; apertura ampla, 
ovata; columella arcuata, subreflexa. 

Alt. 5, diam. 7 mill. {Gould, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H. viii, p. 20.) 

Habitat unknown. 

G. suLCOSA A. Adams. T. couoidea, umbilicata, maculis roseis 
flammulis albo-punctatis variegata ; anfr. paulum convexis, longitu- 
dinaliter substriate, transversim sulcate, sulcis subdistantibus, an- 
fractu ultimo subangulato, basi convexiuscula, lineis im])ressis con- 
centricis sculpta ; apertura suborbiculari ; columella superne sinuata, 
basi subtruncata. {A. Ad. P. Z. S. 1851, p. 186.) 

Sir C. Hardy's Id., N. Australia, S Jms. 

G. MiNDORENSis A. Adams. Testa elevato conoidea, perforata, 
viridi-fusca, fasciis pallidis longitudinalibus ornata ; anfractibus 
rotundatis, liris transversis subgranulosis cinctis, ultimo subangulato, 
basi convexa ; columella subrecta, basi tuberculo terminata ; labro 
intus sulcato. (A. Ad., P. Z. S. 1851, p. 186.) 

Puerto Galero, Id. of Mindoro, 9 fms. 

G. UNDOSA A. Adams. T. orbiculato conoidea, umbilicata, vire- 
scenti, lineis fusco-viridibus undatis longitudinaliter picta ; anfr, 
rotundis, transversim tenue liratis. ultimo subangulato, basi convexa ; 
apertura expansa, intus iridescenti ; columella superne sinuata, basi 
rotundata. (A. Ad. P. Z. S. 1851, p. 186.) 

Habitat unhiormi. 

G. KALiNOTA A. Adams. T. orbiculato-conoidea, perforata, vire- 
scenti, carneo-cinereo variegata ; anfr. rotundatis, lineis elevatis 
albo-articulatis, superne gibbosis; sutura profunda, anfractu ultimo 
rotundato, basi convexa, cingulis articulatis concentricis ornata. 



244 GIBBULA. 

margine umbilici angulato, linea elevata ciucto, columella superne 

sinuata, basi subtruncata; labro intus levi. {A. Ad. P. Z. S. 1851, 

p. 187.) 

Habitat unknown. 

G. VENUSTA A. Adams. T. orbiculata-conoidea, umbilicata, 

viridi-fusca, maculis albis prope suturas, cingulis subdistautibus fusco 

rubroque articulatis, interstitiis liratis, longitudiualiter oblique 

.striata ; anfractibus superne gibbosis, rubro pictis ; sutura canalicu- 

lata ; anfractu ultimo rotundato, basi convexiu.scula, cingulis fusco- 

alboque articulatis, regione umbilicali rosea picta ; columella sinuata, 

basi truncata. ( A. Ad. P. Z. S. 1851, p. 187.) 

Australia. 

G. PUNCTOCOSTATA A. Adams. Testa turrito-conica, lutescenti, 
umbilicata ; anfractibus superne cingulis tribus nodulosis, rubro- 
articulatis, infra cingula puncto-nodosa, basi plana, cingulis cou- 
centricis subnodosis rubi-o-articulatis ornata, margine umbilici linea 
elevata cincta ; columella subrecta, basi truncata ; labro intus lirato. 

(A. .4 c?. P. Z.S.I 851, p. 187.) 

Id. of Capul, on the reefs at low water. 

G. LEUCOSTiCTA A. Adams. T. conoidea, perforata, nigra, punctis 
lacteis picta ; anfr. convexiusculis, transversim lirata, longitudiualiter 
striata, liris subdistantibus, albo-punctatis, interstitiis lineis elevatis 
transversis ornata ; anfr. ult. angulato, basi convexiuscula, cingulis 
nigro alboque articulata ; apertura subrotundata ; columella superne 
sinuata, basi rotundata. {A. Ad., P. Z. S. 1851, p. 187.) 

Boliol, Philijqyines. 

G. NivosA A. Adams. T. orbiculato-conoidea, umbilicata, cinerea, 
maculis nivosis subrotundatis picta, transversim sulcata, longitudiua- 
liter substriata; apertura subrotundata; columella flexuosa, basi 
rotundata. {A. Ad., P. Z. S. 1851, p. 187.) 

Hahitu t wihn otvn. 

T. LYCiACiis Forbes. T. testa conoidea, lata, albida, purpureo- 
maculata (ad umbilicum flammulata) ; anfr. 5-6, spiraliter sulcatis, 
sulcis transverse striatis, ad suturam planatis, in medio excavatis ; 
basi piano, marginato ; umbilico parvo ; apertura quadrangulari, 
columella incrassata. 

Al. 7-24tbs, diam. 9-2 4th inch. (Forbes). 

Lycia, Percea. 

E. Forbes, Rep. Brit. Asso. Advancem. Sci., 1843, p. 189 (published 
1844.) 



(4IBBULA-ENIDA. 245 

Subgenus Enid a A. Adams, 1860. 

Enida A. Ad., Annals and Magazine of Natural History, 18G0, 
p. 408. — Fischer, Manuel de Conchyliologie, p. 824. 

" I have dedicated this genus to the gentle Lady Enkl of the Poet- 
Laureate's ' Idylls of the King,' — a creation of the brain more 
beautiful, more tender, and more pure than any of the so-called 
goddesses of the Greek mythology who have lent their names to 
science. Enlcla, founded on shells of great beauty and of exquisite 
sculpture, resembles a depressed and widely umbilicated Ziziphinns 
with the inner lip reflexed ; in form it also approaches many species 
of Gibbx/a, Ijut this group is littoral and coarser in its physiognomy. 
Deep-water shells are usually more delicate and of finer sculpture 
than those which have to buffet with the tides." (A. Adams.) 

G. JAPONicA A. Adams. PI. 67, figs. 44, 45. 

Shell depressed-conical, profoundly umbilicated ; whorls 5 J, slightly 
convex, ornamented with transverse grauulose lirse, the interstices 
obliquely longitudinally striated ; last whorl encircled by a promi- 
nent crenulated carina at the periphery ; aperture subquadrate, in- 
ner lip reflexed in the middle, outer lip smooth within ; base with 
close grauulose line ; umbilicus moderate ; color j^ale brown, orna- 
mented with radiating brown patches. {A. Ad.) 

Off Mino-Sima, Japan. 63 fms. 

Enida japonica A. Ad. Ann. and Mag. N. H. 1860, p. 408. — 
DuNKER,' Ind. Moll. Mar. Jap., p. 144, t. 12, f 17, 18. 

This appears to be the most abundant species, but all the speci- 
mens I obtained in the dredge were dead shells. In this species 
and E. speciosa the inner lip is smooth within, but in E. gemmnlosa- 
it is internally thickened and Urate and crenate at the margin ; in 
E. japonica the aperture is also less circular in its outline. (^4. Ad.) 

G. SPECIOSA A. Adams. Unfigured. 

Shell depressed-conical, broadly umbilicate ; whorls 4j, nearly 
flat, angulated at the sutures, with rather close transverse granulose 
lirse, the interstices elevately, obliquely striate; last whorl orna- 
mented on the periphery with a deeply crenulated rib ; aperture 
oblique, quadrate ; inner lip straight, broadly reflexed in the middle 
outer lip angular at the suture, smooth within ; sutures canaliculate 
base ornamented with granulose lirre alternately large and small 



246 GIBBULA-MONILEA. 

umbilicus wide, perspective, the margin crenulated ; color whitish, 
radiately painted with patches of reddish-brown. (A. Ad.) ' 

Off Mino-Sima, Straits of Korea. 63 fms. 

E. speciosa A. Ad. Ann. and Mag. N. H. 1860, p. 409. 

This species is more depressed and more widely umbilicated than 
Enidajaponica, and the whorls are rather concave at the upper part ; 
the granular lirse are wider apart, and the'oblique stride of the inter- 
stices coarser. (A. Ad.) 

G. GEMMULOSA A. Adams. Unfigured. 

Shell depressed-conical, broadly umbilicated, sutures profoundly 
canaliculate; whorls rounded, ornamented with close transverse 
series of squamiform granules, 5 on the last whorl; whorls above 
at the sutures delicately plicate ; aperture rounded-quadrangular ; 
inner lip excavated and deeply reflexed in the middle ; outer lip 
thickened and sulcate within, its margin crenate ; base somewhat 
convex, bearing 4 series of squamiform granules ; umbilicus pro- 
found, margin crenate. (A . Ad.) 

Off' Mino-Sima, Japan. 63 fms. 

Enida. gemviulosa A. Ad. Ann. and Mag. N. H. 1860, p. 409. 

This granular species differs very much from the two last de- 
scribed, but partakes of all the characters of the genus, the scale- 
like granules arranged in transverse rows are very peculiar. 'Ihe 
a])erture is nearly circular, and beautifully nacreous and pearly 
WMthin ; otherwise this shell might by some be mistaken for a 
species of Echinella. (A. Ad.) 

Genu? MONILEA Swainson, 1840. 

Monilea Swainson, Shells and shell-fish, p. 352. — H. & A. Adams, 
Genera, i, p. 430. — Fischer, Manuel de Conchyl., p. 824.^ — Talopia 
Gray, 1842. 

Shells of the genus or subgenus Monilea have a more or less 
developed callous ridge or funicle revolving on the inner side of the 
whorl within the umbilicus, and terminating at the columella, the 
edge of which is reflexed over it. The outer surface is spirally 
striate or Urate, and closely obliquely striated. The Indian Ocean 
is the habitat of most of the forms, but some are found in the Pacific. 
The outer lip is usually Urate within, and the columella more or less 
obviously crenulate on its edge. The shell is heavy and strong ; but 



MONILEA. 247 

some species are as thin and light as in the closely allied group 
Minolia. 

The following sections may be admitted : 

^1. Umbilicus with a spiral cord or f'unicle ; Section Monilea. 

B. Umbilicus narrow without spiral funicle. 

a. Shell globose-conic ; columella toothed below ; Section So- 

landeria. 

b. Shell elevated-conic ; columella creuulate, not toothed ; Sec- 

tion Priotrochus. 

Section Monilea s. s. 

M. CALLiFERA Lamarck. PL 41, figs. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. 

Shell narrowly umbilicate, conoidal, more or less depressed, strong, 
solid, lusterless, whitish or yellowish, with radiating maculations or 
stripes above, the base unicolored or obliquely striped, stripes often 
interrupted ; spire conoidal, apex acute, corneous, sutures impressed, 
whorls about 6, convex, the last rounded at periphery but often 
with a tendency to be biangulate there ; densely finely lirate all 
over, the Yivve very closely and finely beaded by the oblique incre- 
mental striaj which are prominent in the interliral spaces ; apeilure 
oblique, rounded-quadrate, conspicuously lirate within, the lir?e ex- 
tending nearly to the edge of the outer lip, and 10 in number ; col- 
umella short, ending below in a denticle, concave above and reflected 
partly over the umbilicus, and over the termination of a strong spiral 
funicle which almost fills the white umbilicus. 

Alt. 12-14, diam. 18-19 mill. 

Australia; PhUippines ; New Caledonia; Andaman Is. ; Ceylon. 

T. calliferns Lam., An. s. Vert., vii, p. 27. — Delessert, Rec. de 
Conch., t.'se, I 5.— Philippi, Conchyl. Cab., p. 206, t. 30, f. 13.— 
Chenu, Man. de Conchyl., p. 362, f 2685. — Fischer, Coq. Viv., p 
257, t. 86, f. 3. — T. callosus Wood, Index Test., suppl., t. 5, £ 33 
(not T. callosus Gmel.). — T. masoni G. & H. Neviel, Journ. Asiat. 
Soc. Bengal 1874, p. 28, t. 1 , f. 1. 

T. masoni jSTevill is figured on j^l. 41, figs. 14, 15, 16, 17. 

Has a stronger spiral funicle within the umbilicus than any 
other species. There is a considerable degree of variation in the 
development of this spiral pillar of callous in different individuals. 
The T. calyculus of Wood (Ind. Testaceo., suppl., pi. 6, fig. 44) may 



248 MONILEA. 

be synonymous, but it has the columella shai^ed very differently at 
the iower part. (PI. 61, fig. 13.) 

M. LENTiGiNOSA A. Adams. PI. 41, figs. 8, 9, 10 ; pi. 60, figs. 23, 

24. 

Shell umbilicate, conical, very solid, whitish, unicolored or 
obscurely striped or maculate with brown or buff'; lusterless ; spire 
conical ; apex acute ; sutures imjjressed ; whorls 6 to 7, convex, the 
last with a tendency to be flattened around the middle ; the entire 
surface covered with sharp close uneven spiral riblets Avith deeply 
incised interstices, and very fine, close, longitudinal growth-laraellse, 
forming compressed beads on the litse, and generally lamella in 
the interstices. Aperture oblique, rounded-quadrangular, with 10 
or 11 plicte within, which attain the edge of the lip. Columella 
short, toothed below, concave and somewhat expanded above. Um- 
bilicus with a smooth funicle, not very prominent, within. 

Alt. 17, diam. 22 mill. ; alt. 21, diam. 20 mill. 

Philippines; Singapore; Australia at Sivan River, Sharks Bay, 
Outer Manhj Beach and Cabbage-tree Bay. 

M. lentiginosa A. Ad. P. Z. S. 1851, p. 188. — M. corrugata A. Ad., 
P. Z. S. 1854, p. 41 (not T. corrugatus Koch). — Tr. lentiginosus 
Fischer, Coq. Viv., p. 317, t. 100, f. 1. 

Umbilical funicle not nearly so strongly developed as in 31. 
calliferns. This species has a great similarity to the shell described 
as Trochns corrugatns by Philippi ; but as Dr. Fischer has pointed 
out, that is a different species on account of the smooth inside of the 
aperture. 

M. PATRicius Philippi. PI. 41, figs. 30, 31. 

Shell deeply umbilicated, thick, orbicular-conoid, shining, whitish- 
ashen, punctate with brown or blackish-violet ; spire acute ; Avhorls 
7, scarcely convex, separated by a canaliculate suture; spirally cin- 
o-ulate, the cinguli narrow, remote, granose, 4 to 5 on the penulti- 
mate whorl ; last whorl subbiangulate in the middle, encircled by 
unequal line ; base slightly convex, radiately striate and with about 
8 white and violet articulated concentric lirce ; aperture subrhom- 
boidal, sulcate within ; columella arcuate, its base truncate-dentate, 
and above partly covering the umbilicus. Umbilical area white. 

Alt. 15, diam. 18 mill. (Fischer.) 

Central American Coasts (?) 



MONILEA. 249 

T. patricius Phil. Zeitschr. f. Mai. 1851, aod Concliyl. Cab., p. 
326, t. 46, f. 11.— Fischer, Coq. Viv., p. 277, t. 91, f. I.—Monilea 
kalisoma A. Ad. P. Z. S. 1851, p. 188. 

The locality given above is very doubtful. 

M. STRIATULA Garrett. PI. 61, figs. 19, 20. 

Shell narrowly umbilicate, rather thin, shining, ajjparently smooth, 
but under a lens seen to be covered with a fine decussated pattern 
of close oblique striae cut by coarser engraved spiral lines ; color 
whitish-rosy, white or buflf, mottled with brown, rose or fawn-color, 
and spirally encircled by several very narrow lines of articulated 
white and brown; spiral conical, apex acute, sutures well im- 
pressed ; whorls 5 to 6, convex, the last obtusely subangular at the 
periphery, convex beneath ; aperture subcircular, oblique, within 
very delicately sulcate or nearly smooth, lined with a thin, silky, 
iridescent milky-bluish nacre; outer lip acute, thin ; columeHa regu- 
larly arcuate, not toothed below, produced in a thin olive-colored 
lobe partly over the umbilicus; umbilicus narrow, deeply spirally 
grooved within. 

Alt. 6, diam. 8 mill ; alt. 11, diam. 14 mill. 

Vit'i Is.; Hawaii. 

Trochus striatula Garrett, Proc. Cal. Acad, i, p. 102. (1857.) 
A small shining, smooth species, with rounded whorls and beauti- 
ful microscopic surface decussation. The specimens from which the 
above description was drawn are from the Viti Is., collected by 
Garrett. 

M. viTiLiGiNEUS Menke. PI. 41, fig. 28. 

Shell umbilicate, conoidal, rather thin ; whorls 6, convex, the 
first smooth, whitish, the remainder corneous-fulvous, maculate 
above with white or brown, ornamented with narrow remote articu- 
lated zones, flattened-sloping above, angulate, very delicately obliquely 
striate, spirally very finely lirulate ; last whorl angular, convex 
beneath ; base ornamented with several concentric brown and white 
articulated lines, radiately and spirally striated ; aperture subquad- 
rate, margins thin ; columella oblique, reflexed outward into a 
linguiform lobe ; umbilicus with a spiral funicle terminating in the 
columellar lobe. Alt. 8, diam. 11 mill. (Fischer.) 

Port Jackson and St. Vincents Gulf , Australia ; N. Australia; 
Philippines ; Japan. 



250 MONILEA. 

T. vitlUgineus Mke. Moll. Nov. HolL, p. 18. — Philippi, Conchyl. 
Cab., p. 176, t. 28, f. 2.— Fischer, Coq. Viv., p. 397, t. 118, f. 3.— 
Minolia vitiliglnea Angas, P. Z. S. 1865, p. 182 ; I. c. 1867, p. 217.— 
T. vitlUgineus Lischke, Jap. Meeres Conchyl. ii, p. 86. — Marga- 
rita nitiligineus A. Ad., P. Z. S. 1851, p. 190. — Trochus (Solariella) 
vitiligineus Watson, Challenger Gaster-opoda, p. 72. 

I have seen no specimens which I can refer with certainty to this 
species. I think it possible that Fischer has wrongly identified it. 
This species and the last should be critically compared and investi- 
gated by some naturalist who has abundant material. The entire 
genus Monilea is very much in need of a more thorough revision 
than the limited material before me allows me to attempt. 

T. vitiligineus may belong in Minolia. 

M. WARNEFORDi G. & H. Nevill. PI. 41, figs. 12, 13. 

Shell flatly conoidal ; whorls 6, angular, spirally ribbed with 
rather distant, slightly undulating costulations, keeled at the periph- 
ery ; on the angle of the last whorl a row of slightly raised transverse 
undulations, giving the shell a coronated appearance ; brown irregu- 
larly and minutely reticulated with white ; base smooth, glabrous, 
closely ribbed, ribs somewhat superficial, flat, with a smooth thick- 
ened callosity round the umbilicus, forming a tooth on the margin 
of the columella ; interior of the aperture barely striated. The 
only species at all resembling this fine shell are Monilea rigata Phil., 
M. callifera Lam. (also found iu our Indian seas), and our M. 
masoni ; it can, however, be easily distinguished from all of them 
by the above characters. Alt. 9'., diam. 13* mill. (Nevill.) 

Andaman Is. 

Trochus {Monilea) ivarnefordi 'Nexill, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal 
1874, p. 27, t. 1, f 2. ' 

C. BELCHERi Philippi. PI. 61, figs. 3, 4. 

Shell depressed-conoidal, umbilicate, thin, sharply transversely 
Urate, white, painted with scattered red dots and a few larger red 
spots ; whorls convex, separated by a subcaualiculate suture, the last 
rounded ; umbilicus surrounded by a peculiarly reddish colored 
callous ; aperture subrhomboidal ; columella nearly perpendicular, 
incised at base. (Phil.) 

A very handsome species. The shell is rather thin, somewhat 
depressed ; the whorls are strongly convex, especially at the sutures, 
which are therefore almost channelled ; the last is well rounded. 



MONILEA. 



251 



The upper surface is ornamented witli narrow, elevated, sharp lirse, 
of which three are stronger, alternating with two or three smaller 
ones ; about 12 similar ones are on the base ; all of them are crossed 
and made subgranose by closely crowded growth-lines. The umbili- 
cus is moderate, surrounded by a peculiar callus, which shows only 
growth-lines. The aperture is almost rhombic ; the columella oblique 
below in the middle of the callous excavated. On a white ground 
there are strewn red dots and larger spots. The apex is white or 
rose-red. The umbilical callous is reddish-brown. Alt. 9i, diam. 
12f mill. Allied to T. crenulatus Mke., but differing in the colora- 
tion, deep sutures and umbilical callous. {Philippi.) 

Inside the reef at Tongatabu, off Nukalofa, IS fms. (Watson.) 

T. belcheri Phil., Zeitschr. f. Mai. 1849, p. 148; Conchyl. Cab., 
p. 302, t. 44, f. 3.— Watson, Challenger Kept., p. 71. 

M. RIGATA Philippi. PI. 41, figs. 32, 33. 

Shell conoidal, umbilicate, transversely closely sulcate, longitu- 
dinally closely striate ; Avhitish ; clouded with brown ; whorls 
rather convex, the last rounded ; base plano-convex, closely sul- 
cate; umbillais funnel-shaped, dilated, modified by two spiral 
callouses ; columella arcuate, base truncate. (Phil.) 

The shell is somewhat flatly-conoidal, with 7 moderately convex 
whorls. The penult, has about 8 elevated lines, often in pairs ; 
the last whorl has 12. They are decussated by dense oblique 
elevated growth-lines, as are also the slightly wider interstices. 
The base is level, and has about 8 narrow slightly elevated con- 
centric line. The umbilicus is pretty narrow, but at the last 
whorl is widely funnel-shaped, showing two rounded spiral ribs, 
the lower terminating in the denticle at base of the columella. 
The aperture is rounded rhombic ; the throat sulcate within ; the 
columella produced outward with a somewhat reflexed margin. 
The color above is whitish or pale rust-yellow, with brown spots ; 
beneath it is lighter with wavy interrupted brown lines, and darker 
umbilical border. Alt. 10, diam. 15 mill. This species stands 
midway between T. solandri and T. calliferus. It is sej^arated from 
the first by the broader umbilicus, the slightly elevated spiral lirse, 
which on the base are narrow and crowded; from the last the 
much less developed umbilical callus separates it. (Philippi.) 

Adelaide, Australia. 

T. rigatus Phil. Zeitschr. f IMal. 1848, p. 124; Conchyl. Cab., p. 
184, t. 28, f. 14. 



252 MONILEA. 

M. soLANDRi Philippi. PI. 61, figs. 9, 10. 

Shell depressed-conoidal, whitish, sprinkled with brown spots and 
streaks ; whorls convex, encircled with close obsoletely crenulated, 
subgrauose lirse ; base with 8 cinguli, the interstices elegantly 
punctate-foveolate ; umbilicus open, spiral ; columella arcuate, base 
produced into a denticle ; lip sulcate within. (Phil.) 

The shell is pretty flatly conoidal, pretty thin, and consists of 7 
Avhorls ; they are j^retty convex, and are encircled by about 10 
double, strongly elevated sharp lirse, each consisting of a larger and 
a smaller ; on the last whorl there are still more. These lirse on my 
specimens are scarcely granulate to speak of, but the interstices are 
crowded with growth-lines. The base, which distinguishes this 
species from T. rigatus and T. calliferus, is pretty flat, with 8 smooth 
concentric lir?e, of which the broad interstices are very prettily 
punctate, or rather divided into little pits. The umbilicus is mod- 
erately wide, and opens out like a funnel, and is sharply bounded by 
the innermost rib of the base. The aperture is lower than broad, 
rather quadrangular; the outer lip and throat are sulcate; the col- 
umella is produced, and ends in an acute tooth. The color is white, 
with brown dots, which often, especially on the base, coalesce into 
streaks. Alt. 11, diam. 15 mill. (Philippi.) 

West Coast of Australia. 

Monodonta crenulata Mke., Moll. Nov. HolL, p. 14 (1843) (not T. 
crennkdus Lam. nor Bi'occhi.) — T. solandri Philippi Conchyl. Cab., 
p. 180, t. 28, f. 8.—3fonilea plumbea A. Ad. P. Z. S. 1851, p. 188. 

M. LiFUANA Fischer. PL 41, figs. 6, 7 ; pi. 59, figs. 64, 65. 

Shell perforate, conoid-depressed, rather thin ; color very variable, 
whitish-bufl'or rosy, brown reddish, ornamented with rosy macula- 
tions and narrow spiral lines articulated with white ; transversely 
delicately sulcate, the sulci exquisitely decussated by incremental 
striae ; whorls 6, slightly convex, the first buft', the remainder sub- 
angulate ; last whorl dilated, slightly subangular in the middle, con- 
vex beneath and very finely decussated ; apeiture subovate, del- 
icately sulcate within ; columella arcuate ; columellar callous thick, 
semicircular, yellowish or livid-green, almost covering the umbilicus. 

Alt. 11, diam. 14 mill. (Fischer.) 

Id. of Lifou, Loyalty Archipelago. 

T. lifaanus Fischer, Journ. de Conchyl. 1878, p. 63, 206 ; Coq. 
Viv., p. 388, t. 116, f. 4.— Smith, Zool. 'Alert.' 



MONILEA. 253 

Easily to be distinguished from T. calliferus by the thin shell, 
fine sculpture, and colored columellar callous. The example figured 
is about double the size of the othei- specimens seen, according to 
Dr. Fischer. 

M. EGENA Gould. Vol. IX, PI. 6, figs, 22, 23 ; vol. XI, 'pi. 37, f. 
13. 

Shell minute, low ovate-conic, thin, amply umbilicated, ashy white, 
pearly beneath ; whorls 6, convex, the last obtusely angular, each 
one encircled by 4 sharply-compressed well-elevated ribs the two 
uppermost of which are beaded ; interspaces concave, smooth, with 
a single groove near the margin of the umbilicus ; the latter occupies 
i of the base, is tunnel-shaped, penetrating to the apex, its sides ex- 
cavated on each whorl, the verge of which is crenulated ; aperture 
nearly circular, slightly encroached upon by the inflection of the 
columella ; lip simple ; interior pearly. 

Alt. I, diam. 3-10 inch. (Gould.) 

New Zeakuid. 

Solarium egenum GoulL', Proc. Bost. Soc. X. H. iii, p. 84 (1868) ; 
U. S. Expl. Exped. Shells, p. 196, atlas, fig. 226. — Monilea zeland- 
ica HuTTON, Cat. Mar. Moll. N. Z. (187 S).—3Iargarita zelandica 
Hutton, SowB. in Conch. Icon., Monog. Margarita, f. 17. — Monilea 
egena Hutton, Proc. Linn. Soc. X. S, Wales, 1884, p. 365. — Torinia 
egena Marshall in Tryon, Manual of Conchology^ ix, ]:». 22, t. 6, 
£ 22, 23. 

I have not seen this shell. I follow Prof. Hutton in referrino- it 
to Monilea. PI. 37, fig. 13 is the Margarita zelandica of Sowerby. 

Unfigured species of Monilea. 

M. TURBiNATA Tenison-Woods. 

Shell turbinately conical, perspectively umbilicate to the apex, 
fleshy whitish, clouded with pale brown spots and streaks ; whorls 
6, rounded, obtusely angulate and subcanaliculate above, spirally 
sulcate, and girdled with numerous (about 12) lir?e alternating great 
and small ; suture impressed ; apex obtuse and pearly ; last whorl 
angulate at the periphery ; base convex, lirate and transversely 
slenderly spirally striate ; aperture transversely ovate ; lip thickened 
and nacreous, lirate within ; columella short, sloping, concave ; 
umbilical margin 3-costate, terminating with 4 tubercles. Closely 



254 MONILEA. 

allied to M. corrugata of N. S. Wales, but more conical, the whorls 
not granular, umbilicus wider, and terminating in four tubercles. 
Long. 18, lat. 20 mill. (Ten.- Woods.) 

North Coast of Tdsmania. 

31. turbliuda T.-Woods, Proc. Roy. Soc. Tasni. 1876, p. 145. 

M. APiciNA Gould. Testa parva, ovata conica, t5nuis, filis 
numerosis subequalibus cincta ; ajjice et flammulis sparsis radi- 
antibus rosaceis ; anfr. 5, convexiusculis, ad peripheriam obtusis ; 
sutura profunda ; basi convexo, lineis inerementi nonnihil granu- 
latis ; umbilico minuto, costa callosa marginali et altera interiori 
cincto ; apertura fere circularis. 

Axis 5, diam. 6 mill. (Gould, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H. viii, p. 16, 
1861.) 

Port Jackson. 

M. VERNicosA Gould. T. parva, tenius, depressa, orbicularis, 
nitida, minutissime reticulata, virescens strigis saturioribus ad 
suturam et ad peripheriam quadratim dilatatis et superne cingulis 
4 albo articulatis picta; anfr. 5, convexis ad peripheriam sub- 
acutis ; sutura profunda ; basi convexo ; umbilico profundo, pallido, 
extus excavato et plicato ; apertura ampla ; columella expansa, 
antice angulata, extus dentata. 

Axis 4, diam. 6 mill. {Gould, 1. c. p. 16). 

Ousima. 

M. NANA Gould. T. minuta, solida, ovato-globosa, albida ; anfr. 
4, ad suturam plicatis, ultimis liris granulosis 2-3 cinctis ; apice 
obtuso, Iffivigato : basi convexo, concinne striato ; umbilico satis 
mao"no, plicato-crenulato ; apertura circularis; labro crasso ; col- 
umella tenui, antice dilatata. 

Diam. 2-|- niill. (Gould, 1. c. p. 16.) 

China Coral Seas. 

M. INEPTA Gould. T. minuta, solida, ovato-conica, filis (quorum 
cingulo eminentiore) articulatis rosaceis vel argillaceis cincta, 
intervallis pallidioribus, regione suturali tessellato ; anfr. 4-|-, con- 
vexis ; apice obtuso ; basi convexo ; umbilico plicato, albido 
cincto ; apertura circularis, labi^o simplici, crasso ; columella 
sequabili. Diam. 3 mill. (Gould, 1. c. p. 16.) 

Kagosima Bay. 



MONILEA. 255 

M. GLAREOSA Gould. T. parva, solida, ovato-globosa, cinerea, 
flammulis radiantibus fuscesentibus variegata ; anfr. 5, veutricosis, 
apicalibus plicatn-granulosns, ceteris liris frequentibus, quorum 
3-4 majoribus iuterdum subdivisis cinctis ; basi rotundato ; umbilico 
modico, ad marginem plicato-crenato ; apertura circularis ; labro 
incrassato, simplici. Diam. 5 mill. {Gould, \. c. p. 17.) 

Loo Choo, Ousima and Kikaia. 

M. SPURIA Gould. T. parva, rudis, crassa, depressa, orbicularis, 
albida; anfr. 4, supernis simplicibus, alteris liris 4 elevatis et linei.s 
incrementi decussatis, ultimo ad peripberiam obtuso ; basi con- 
vexo; umbilica amplo, profundo, scalariformi ; apertura circularis ; 
columella tenui ; labro antice dilatato. 

Diam. 5, axis 4 mill. (Gould, 1. c. p. 17.) 

Sivwn's Bay. 

M. LiRATA A. Adams. Testa orbiculato-conica, umbilicatu, 
pallida ; anfr, paulum convexis, liris transversis elevatis distantibus, 
interstitiis decussate striatis ornatis ; anfr. iilt. angulato, basi convexa, 
margine umbilici sulco cincto. (^4. Ad., P. Z. S. 1851, p. 188.) 

Habitat unknoivn. 

M. PusiLLA A. Adams. T. orbiculato-conica, umbilicata, rube- 
sceuti, fusco variegata ; anfr. planiusculis, cingulis granorum trans- 
versum distantibus (circa qiiatuor) ornata, interstitiis transversim 
striatis; columella in medio sinuata, (A. Ad. 1. c, p. 188.) 

Habitat wiknouui. 

M. swAiNSONii A. Adams. T. conoidea, umbilicata, albida, nigro 
variegata ; anfr. planis, cingulis subgranosis, albo nigroque articulatis 
ornatis; ultimo subangulato, basi planiuscula, cingulis rufo-articulatis 
ornata ; columella basi tuberculata ; labro intus lirato. 

(A. Ad. 1. c. p. 189.) 

Habitat unhioum 

M. MENKEi A. Adams. T. orbiculato-conoidea, umbilicata, 
sordide alba; anfr, convexiusculis, supremis transversim liratis, 
interstitiis longitudinaliter rugoso-reticulatis ; infimis cingulis gran- 
ulosis, confertis, granulis nonnulis majoribus ornatis; umbilici 
margine callo carneo, spirali, striato cincto ; columella in medio 
sinuata callo reflexo instructa, antice bituberculata ; labro intus 
L^vi. (.1. Ad. P. Z. S. 1854, p. 38.) 

Masbate, Fhilippines. (Cuming.) 



256 MONILEA-SOLANDERIA. 

M. PHiLiPPii A. Adams. T. orbiculato-conoidea, unibilicata, 
sordide cornea, fusca radiatim picta; anfr. convexiusculis, cingulis 
transversis, ^equalibu?, crenulatis, iiiterstitiis longitudinaliter striatis 
ornatis ; raargiue umbilici callo spirali, fusco, radiatim striata cincto ; 
columella in medio sinuata, ecallosa, antice obsolete bituberculata. 

(A. Ad. 1. c. p. 39.) 

China Seas. 

The species most nearly resembling this is the T. belcheri of 
Philippi, which I imagine is the T. calyculus of Wood. (Ad.) 

M. PHiLiPPiANA Dunker. 

Shell small, rather solid, conoidal, umbilicate; whorls 5?, plano- 
convex, the last and the penultimate subangulate, encircled by 
spiral crenelliferous costulw, finely striated in the interstices only 
visible under a glass ; last whorl rather biangulate, with three 
larger median ribs ; base convex, ornamented with about 10 small 
crenated equal ribs; umbilicus pervious, with a crenated margin, 
provided with a spiral rib inside ; aperture subrotund ; color pale 
gray, umbilical margin white, the riblets, especially the larger 
punctate and articulated with black. 

Alt. 4, diam. G mill. (Dkr.) 

Samoan Archipelago. 

Monilea Philippia^ia Dkr., Malakozool. Bl. xviii, p. 170, 1871. 
An unfigured species, allied in sculpture and coloration to Tr. 
jjreissianus. 

M. TENUiLiRATUs Dunker. 

Shell orbiculate-convex, depressed conoidal, perforate, very thin, 
pellucid, shining, whitish, variegated and spotted with pale ashen 
and reddish ; whorls 7, convex, moderately increasing, the last 
subangulate ; base convex, perforated by a narrow umbilicus, with 
a white spiral rib terminating in a small concave lamina ; aperture 
subrotund, lip acute ; columella a little thickened. 

Alt. 6, diam. 10 mill. (Dkr.) 

Samoa Islands. 

Troclius tenu'diratus Dkr., Mai. Bl. xviii, p. 168, 1871. Allied 
to T. vitiUgineus Mke. 

Section Solanderia Fischer, 1880. 

Solanderia Fischer, Coq. Viv., Monogr. Trochus, p. 417 (1880) ; 
Man. de Conchy 1., p. 824. 



MONILEA-PRIOTROCHUS. 257 

M. xiTCLEA Philippi. PL 61, figs. 31, 32. 

Shell narrowly umbilicate, globose-conoidal, solid, whitish, mac- 
ulated with chestnut, sometimes banded, often punctate and artic- 
ulated with white dots ; spire conic, acute, short; sutures impressed ; 
whorls 5 to 6, convex, decussated by spiral lirse and close, strong 
longitudinal stria? ; the lira? usually with intermediate lirulre ; whorls 
often a little flattened below the suture, with a slight angle at the 
shoulder ; last whorl globose and convex ; aperture slightly oblique ; 
outer and basal lips closely lirate within ; columella short, concave, 
its edge plicate-denticulate, terminating below in a tooth ; umbilicus 
funnel-shaped, white, margined by a slight eonvexity terminating 
below the columellar tooth. 

Ah. 7^ diam. 82 mill.; alt. 9, diam. 9 mill. 

Neiv Caledoman Archipelago ; Jajxm; F/^i /s. (Garrett.) 

T. nucleus Phil. Zeitschr. f. Mai. 1849, p. 171 ; Conchyl. Cab., p. 
306, t. 44, f. 9.— Fischer, Coq. Viv., p. 256, t. 86, f. 2. 

A peculiar little species, of globose form, with truncated columella, 
lirate interior, and finely decussated surface. The color pattern is 
very variable. The Viti Id. specimens before me have rather large, 
angular radiating maculations above, of a blackish umber shade, 
a lighter girdle around the periphery, the base maculated and tes- 
sellated umber and buff. 

Subgenus Priotrochus Fischer, 1880. 

Aphanotrochus v. Mart., in Mobius' Reise nach Mauritius, 
Mollusken, p. 296 (1880) type, Tr. obscurus Wood. — Priotrochus 
Fischer, Coq. Viv., p. 420 (1880) ; Manuel de Conchyl., p. 824. 

Von Martens declares Fischer's name, Priotrochus to have one 
month priority. 

The relations of the group are Avith Monilea and Solanderia. 
The operculum and animal are unknown. 

M. OBSCURUS Wood. PL 61, figs. 33. 

Shell narrowly perforated, conical, elevated, very solid, thick, 
ashen-white, wdth longitudinal chestnut streaks or maculations, 
spire elevated, apex acute, sutures slightly impressed, the whorl 
below them closely appressed ; whorls 6 to 7, the upper ones sub- 
angular and nodulose in the middle, the last with a coronal series 
of knobs, on large specimens becoming obsolete toward the aper- 
ture ; entire surface traversed bv spiral liruke, much narrower than 
17 



258 MONILEA-PRIOTROCHUS. 

the densely obliquely striate interstices ; aperture oblique, about 
half the length of shell, ovate ; outer lip bevelled to an edge ; 
throat spirally lirate ; edge of columella denticulate, its upper 
insertion callous, partly or nearly covering the umbilicus. 
Alt. 28, diam. 18 mill. 

Red Sea to Natal. 

T. obscurus Wood, Index Testaceologicus, suppl. t. 5, f. 26. — 
Philippi, Abbild. ii, Trochus t. 6, f. 3 ; Couchyl. Cab., p. 200, 
t. 30, f. 3.— Fischer, Coq. Viv., p. 208, t. 69, f 2.— Krauss, Die 
Siidafric. Moll., p. 98. — Martens, Mobius' Reise n. Mauritius, p. 
296.— T. signattis J o^ AS, Zeitschr. f. Mai. 1848, p. 171.— T. liueo- 
lata BiANCONi, Mem. della Accad. Sci. della Instituto di Bologna, 
ser. 2, iv, p. 524, t. 1 (1864). 

Young specimens are subbiangulate with nodulose periphery. 

M. chrysoi-.s:ma von Martens. PI. 39, fig. 27. 

Shell conoid-ovate, perforate, sculptured with about 8 spiral lirje 
above the suture, 11 below; grayish-white; whorls 5, convex, 
separated by rather deep sutures; last whorl rounded, base con- 
vex ; aperture ovate-circular, moderately oblique, small ; outer 
margin slightly thickened within, simple ; columellar margin cal- 
lously thickened, obtusely denticulate; throat golden, spirally striate. 

Alt. 7j, diam. 6? mill.; aperture alt. 4, width 3 ? mill. {Von- 
3fartens.) 

Black River, Mauritius. 

Tr. {A'phanotroclius) chrysolcemus Mart., Reise nach Mauritius, 
p. 296. 

M. GOUDOTi Fischer. PI. 61, fig. 36. 

Shell small, imperforate, thick, conoid-elongated ; whorls 6 to 7, 
convex, whitish-ashen, punctate with rose-color, maculate with 
spadiceous ; spirally cingulate, the penultimate whorls with 8 
cinguli ; last whorl elongated, rounded in the middle, appressed 
below the suture, convex beneath ; aperture ovate-subquadrate ; lij) 
crenulated ; columella arcuate, delicately crenulated. 

Alt. 9, diam. 6 mill. (Fischer.) 

Id. of St. Marie, near Madagascar. 

T. goudoti Fischer, Journ. de Conchyl. 1878, p. 62; Coq. Viv., 
p. 371, t. 113, f 3. 



MONILEA-MINOLIA, 259 

Subgenus Minolia A. Adams, 1860. 

Minolia A. Ad. Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist, iv, 1860, p. 386.— 
Fischer Manuel de Conchyl., p. 824. — Solariella H. & A. Adams, 
Genera Rec. Moll., i, p. 431. — Watson, Challenger Gasteropoda, p. 
72 (not xSo/arie^/a Searles Wood). — Minosia Kd. Dunker, Ind. Moll. 
Mar. Jap., p. 142. 

Minolia includes a number of broadly umbilicated thin-shelled de- 
pressed trochids, with cylindrical or angulated whorls, and fine 
decussated sculpture. They are like Monilea in many respects, differ- 
ing in the simple umbilicus, which has no spiral callous funicle 
within it. The species belong to the Indian Ocean, western and 
southwestern Pacific. As is the case in many groups of Trochidse, 
I have been obliged to select the species belonging here out of a 
number of very dissimilar genera or subgenera ; and I doubt not that 
still more forms, referred heretofore to Gibbula, Margarita, or simply 
Trochns, will be found to group in Minolia. The dentition and 
animal are unknown. The use by some authors of the name Solariella 
for this group is obviously indefensible. At the same time, it nuist 
be admitted that no character in the shells really separates 3Iiuolia 
and Solariella. It remains to be seen whether the dentition will con- 
firm their separation. In the arrangement of the genera of Trochidte 
it must be admitted that we are all at sea. The systems proposed 
by various authors break down at so many points that their artificial 
nature becomes obvious. Nevertheless, there undoubtedly is a 
natural classification to be ascertained ; this awaits a fuller knowl- 
edge of the anatomy of the group. The type of the group is 
M. jnmctata Ad. 

M. PUNCTATA A. Adams. PI. 44, fig. 33. 

Shell helicoid, widely umbilicated, fulvous, punctate with red ; 
whorls 62, convex, traversed by spiral granulose cinguli ornamented 
with red dots, and alternately larger and smaller, the interstices 
beautifully clathrate with delicate oblique lamellae ; suture canalic- 
ulate ; umbilicus perspective, with concentric granulose cinguli, the 
interstices closely clathrate. {A. Ad.) 

Id. of Mino-Sima, near Niphon, Japan. 

Minolia punctata Ad. Ann. Mag. N. H. 1860, p. 337, Magarita 
punctata Ad., Sows. Conch. Icon., f. 14. 

This is another modification of the hollow spiral cone of the Tro- 
choid family ; the whorls ai'e somewhat loosely rolled on themselves. 



260 MONILEA-MINOLIA. 

which causes the sutures to be very deep, and the last whorl at the 
peristome to be almost disunited from the penultimate whoi'l. The 
red-brown spots on the beaded ribs and the exquisite clathrate 
sculpture of the surface render this one of the prettiest shells in the 
great family of Trochoid scutibranchs. In texture it resembles 
Enida jaj)onica and Tercica mouilifera, and judging from the shell, 
it appears to be more closely associated with the Ziziphinus group 
than with the Gibbula or Margarita. {A. Ad,.) 

M. CARiNATA A. Adams. PL 44, fig. 28. 

Shell elevated conical, perforate, brown, ornamented with trans- 
verse lirre, the upper two decussated by longitudinal riblets, the 
lower ones plane, the interstices delicately longitudinally striated; 
base somewhat flattened, sculptured with concentric riblets with 
radiating stride in their interstices ; margin of the umbilicus 
crenulated. {Ad.) 

Cathalonga, PJiilippines, 8 fms. 

Margarita carinata Ad., P. Z. S. 1851, p. 190. — SowB., in Conch. 
Icon., f. 22. 

M. PULCHERRiMA Angas. PI. 41, fig. 37. 

Shell depressedly conical, rather solid, transversely finely ridged, 
with two or three broader ridges forming keels, the interstices crossed 
everywhere with very fine close-set oblique strire ; pinkish or yellow- 
ish white stained on the body-whorl with bright rose, and spotted 
on the keels with deep purple lake ; whorls 6, angularly convex ; 
sutures broadly and flatly channelled ; last whorl tricarinate, beneath 
white and rounded ; umbilicus wide, perspective, crenate within ; 
aperture circular, pearly inside ; peristome continuous, margins thin, 
simple. Alt. 5, diam. 8 mill. {Angas.) 

Brisbane Water, New Soidh Wales. 

Minolia jmkherrima Angas, P. Z. S. 1869, p. 48, t. 2, f 10. 

The umbilicus is two mill. Avide ; the aperture is perfectly cir- 
cular, 3 mill, across ; apex buff". My specimen is less strongly 3- 
keeled than the original description and figure indicate. 

M. BELLULA Angas. PI. 41, figs. 27. 

Shell umbilicated, conoidal, rather thin, shining ; whorls 6, con- 
vex, depressed-canaliculate above, and terraced ; the first whitish, 
the remainder whitish, beautifully ornamented with regular, equi- 
distant, radiating, somewhat flexuous radiating rosy streaks ; 



MONILEA-MINOLIA. 261 

spirally delicately striate ; last whorl carinated ; base Avhite, 
radiately striate, somewhat convex ; aperture subquadrate, smooth 
inside ; lip thin, columella scarcely arcuate, narrow, forming an 
angle with the basal margin ; umbilical area funnel-shaped, white, 
carinated, the carina subnodulose. 

Alt. 6, diara. 8? mill. (Fischer.) 

Brisbane Waters, iV. S. Wales. 

Minolia belMa Angas, P. Z. S. 1869, p. 48, t. 2, f. 11.— T. 
dianthm Fischer, Coq. Viv., p. 396, t. 118, f. 2. 

Those naturalists who retain intact the Linnsean genus Trochus 
must adopt Fischer's name dianthus for this form, as hellidus is pre- 
occupied by Philippi in Cantharidiis. 

M. puDiBUNDA Fischer. PI. 41, fig. 26. 

Shell small, umbilicated, conoid, rosy-red, ornamented with 
minute white dots ; whorls 6, slightly convex ; the first smooth, 
white, the remainder spirally delicately cingulate, cinguli 6 to 8 on 
the penultimate whorl ; last whorl angulate ; base convex, radiate 
with rose-color, buff around the umbilicus, concentrically lirate, the 
lirse about 17-18; aperture ovate-subtetragonal ; lip simple; col- 
umella arcuate, a little reflexed ; umbilicus longitudinally striate, 
with a spiral marginal funicle. Alt. 6, diam. 7 mill. (Fischer.) 

New Caledonian Archipelago. 

T. pudibundus Fischer, Journ. de Conchyl. 1878, p. 66, 206; 
Coq. Viv., p. 376, t. 114, f. 3. 

M. pREissiANA Philippi. PL 41, fig. 29. 

Shell deeply umbilicated, orbicular-depressed, rather thick ; 
whorls 5 to 5i, separated by profound sutures, whitish, conspic- 
uously ornamented with flexuous rosy-brownish lines and remote 
spots at the suture and periphery ; first whorls smooth ; the follow- 
ing spirally, delicately sulcate, with an elevated ridge in the 
middle ; last whorl bicingulate, the cinguli elevated, distant ; base 
convex, concentrically lirate, the lirje larger around the umbilicus; 
umbilical area sulcate and funiculate within ; aperture subrotund ; 
columella arcuate, not dentate. 

Alt. 6, diam. 7 mill. (Fischer.) 

Gulf of St. Vincent, King Georges Sound, etc., Australia. 

T. preissianus Phil., Zeitschr. f. Mai, 1848, p. 123 ; Conchyl. 
Cab., p. 177, t. 28, f. 3.— Fischer, Coq. Viv., p. 245, t. 83, f. 3.— 
Gibbula porcella7ia A. Ad., P. Z. S. 1851, p. 186. 

Compare Gibbula iveldii Tenison-Woods. 



262 MONILEA-MINOLIA. 

M. UNiCARiNATA Fischer. Unfigured. 

Shell small, umbilicate, orbiciilar-eouoid ; apex acute, whorls 6, 
planulate, separated by linear sutures ; the first whitish, remainder 
wliite and ashen clouded, spirally granose lirate, liras narrow, 5 on the 
penult, whorl, the interstices wider, and often with an intermediate 
lirula; last whorl acutely carinated, maculate at the periphery 
with white and chestnut, convex beneath, white and ashen tes- 
sellated, concentrically lirate, lirse about 12, the central ones closer 
and wider ; aperture subquadrate, margins thickened, plicate ; 
columella oblique ; umbilical area white concave, spirally plicate- 
funiculate, subcrenate outside. Alt. 4, diam. 7 mill. (Fischer.) 

Australia (Quoy & Gaimard). 

T. unicarinatus Fischer, Journ. de Conchyl. 1879, p. 23. 

Described from a single specimen in the Paris Museum. " Allied 
to T. preissiamis, but diifers in being smaller, with narrower aper- 
ture, acutely carinated periphery, flat whorls, etc." 

M. RiiODOMPHALA Souvcrbie. PI. 41, figs. 22, 23, 24. 

Shell umbilicated, depressed-orbicular ; spire subelate, apex 
obtuse, carinate, radiately very delicately striate, spirally, regularly 
impressed-striate ; white, spotted in various ways with rosy and 
yellowish, a broad rosy-tinted umbilical tract ; whorls 6, convex, 
separated by impressed sutures, above radiately subplicatulate- 
striate ; last whorl more or less obtusely carinated, the umbilical 
region broadly funnel-shaped, subplicate-striate ; aperture pearly 
within, oblique, subrhombic-rounded, the margins joined by a thin 
callous, right margin acute, coluraellar nuirgin much thickened, at 
the umbilicus narrowly reflexed ; umbilicus moderate, very pro- 
found. Alt. 8, diam. 5 mill. (Fischer.) 

Lifou, Loyalty Archipelago. 

T. (Monilea) rhodomphalus Souverbie, Jov.rn. de Conchyl. 1875, 
p. 36, t. 4, f 3.— Fischer, I. c. 1878, p. 210 ; and Coq. Viv., p. 392, 
t. 117, £ 3. — f T. rotellceformis Philippi Conchyl. Cab., p. 302, f. 44, 
f2. ' " 

A small, depressed, shining, porcellaneous shell, remarkable for 
its bright rose-colored umbilical tract. (Fischer.) 

There is not much doubt that this is the same as Philippi's 2. 
rotellceformis (pi. 61, figs. 21, 22, 23). The latter name of course has 
priority. 



MONILEA-MINOLIA. 263 

M. PRODICTA Fischer. PI. 41, fig. 25. 

Shell small, broadly umbilicated, thin, orbicularly depressed ; 
whorls 6, the first whitish, shining, the following ornamented with 
dots of pale chestnut and tawny, separated by linear sutures, terraced 
above, planulate, carinate, spirally delicately striate ; last whorl 
dilated, acutely bicarinated, convex beneath, shining, cingulate with 
articulated lines, with fine radiating and concentric stride ; aperture 
quadrate, margins acute ; columella almost vertical, a trifle reflexed 
above ; umbilical area buff, more prominently striate. 

Alt. 4, diam. 7 mill. (Fischer.) 

Port Jackson; N. S. Wales, Audralia. 

Margarita angulata A. Adams, P. Z. S. 1851, p. 190. — Minolia 
angulata Angas, P. Z. S. 1867, p. 217. — T. proc?id».s Fischer, Coq. 
Viv., p. 395, t. 118, f. 1. — Watson, Challenger Gasteropoda, p. 72. 

Angulata is several times preoccupied as a specific name in Trochus 
but not in Minolia nor Monilea ; the orginal description by Adams 
being wholly insufficient for identification, I prefer to adopt Dr. 
Fischer's name. 

M. tasmanica Tenison- Woods. PI. 61, figs. 38, 39, 40. 

Shell broadly umbilicate, depressed, with low-conoidal spire, thin, 
scarcely shining, opaque whitish, upper surface with radiating 
macalations of purplish or olive-brown, base marbled with the same 
colors ; apex acute minute ; sutures well impressed ; whorls about 5?, 
convex, those of the spire subangular in the middle, flattened below 
the suture, giving the spire a terraced appearance, last whorl sub- 
cylindrical, obtusely subangular at the periphery, convex beneath ; 
surface all over encircled by delicate spiral elevated striae, and 
around the umbilicus decussated by growth lines ; aperture sub- 
circular, a trifle modified by the contact of the penultimate whorl ; 
margins all thin, simple ; umbilicus about } the diameter of base, 
opaque white within, and longitudinally striated. 

Alt. 42, diam. 6 mill. 

Bass' Straits and Long Bay, Tasmania. 

Margarita (3fiiiolia) tasmanica Ten.- Woods, Proc. Roy. Soe. 
Tasm. 1876, p. 143 (1877). 

Tenison- Woods gives alt. 5, diam. 9 mill, for the dimensions of this 
species. The tubular whorls, rounded save for a flattened area be- 
low the suture, and keel-less except for the carina banding that area, 
will discriminate this shell from many species ; other marks are the 



264 MONILEA-MINOLIA. 

delicate spiral striation, wide umbilicus, and broad radiating niac- 
ulations of the upper surface. 

M. ROSEA Tenison- Woods. Unfigured. 

Shell minute, turbinate, widely umbilicate, rose-color, variegated 
with white spots, whorls 4, rounded, encircled with white alternating 
large and small strife ; aperture entire, rounded ; outer lip produced ; 
inner lip simple ; umbilical margin furnished with a somewhat in- 
conspicuous white corrugated callous. Diam. 3 mill. This shell is 
of intense carmine color in some specimens. The outer lip is pro- 
duced very much from the suture, so as to give the aperture a sunken 
appearance. The callosity at the umbilicus is only perceptible 
under the lens in very good specimens. ( Tenison- Woods.) 

Tasmania. 

Monilea rosea Ten.-Woods, Proc. Roy. Soc. Tasm. 1875, p. 154 
(1876). 

M. CHiNENsis Sowerby. PI. 34, figs, 26. 

Shell conical, moderately umbilicated, gray, all over ornamented 
with narrow undulating white streaks, more conspicuous beneath, 
shining ; spire rather acute, moderately elevated, gradate ; whorls 7, 
separated by an impressed suture, sculptured by oblique very deli- 
cate strise, bicarinate above ; last whorl obtusely angulated beneath, 
carinated at the angle; base convex, more or less spirally sulcate ; 
umbilicus round, deep, lirate ; aperture oblique, subquadrate. 
Ojierculum corneous, thin, multispiral, concave outside. 

Alt. 10, diam. 11 mill. (Soiverby.) 

Hong Kong, China. 

Minolia cJiinensis Sowerby, P. Z. S. 1888, p. 569, t. 28, £ 13. 

In form like Minolia hiangulata Angas, but much larger, ob- 
liquely striated, and without the beaded ridge bordering the um- 
bilicus. The interior of the umbilicus is spirally grooved. (Sowb.) 

M. DEGREGORii Caraniagna. PL 51, figs. 18, 19, 20. 

Shell subdiscoidal, delphinuliform, very fragile, umbilicate ; spire 
conoidal, depressed, obtuse ; whorls 5, spirally finely striate, in the 
middle slightly angled or subcarinate, fliattened between the carina 
and the suture ; carina slightly crenulated on the last whorl pos- 
teriorly ; last whorl rounded at the periphery ; base convex, deeply 
and broadly umbilicated, very finely corrugated ; aperture elliptical, 
simple, heliciform ; surface of the spire ornamented with 5 reddish 



MONILEA-MINOLIA. 265 

zones alternating with white punctate with rosy ; surface of the base 
of the hist whorl ornamented with regularly radiating costiform 
white niaculations. Alt. 2, diani. 3 mill. (Caramagna.) 

Assab, Red Sea. 

Gihhula de Gregorii Caramagna, Bull. Soc. Mai. Ital. 1888, p. 
130, t. 8, f 7. 

M. BicARiNATA Adams & Reeve. PL 59, figs. 51, 52. 

Shell depressed-orbicular, very widely umbilicated ; apex acute ; 
■whorls spirally bicarinated, the carinse distant, interspaces concave, 
spirally closely lineated, concentrically striated ; brownish or yellow- 
ish, variegated w-ith reddish flammules ; carinre obliquely artic- 
ulated with red ; throat iridescent. (Ads. & Rve.) 

Eastern Seas. 

Margarita biearinata Ads. & Rve. Zool. Voy. H. M. S. Samarang, 
Mollusca, p. 49, t. 11, f 11a, b. 
INI. TiGRiNA H. & A. Adams. Unfigured. 

Shell globose-conical, perspectively umbilicated ; whorls 52, smooth, 
the superior ones bicingulate, the last whorl multi-cingulate, cinguli 
stronger above, closer and smaller beneath ; umbilicus with con- 
centric crenulated lirre within ; aperture subquadrate-orbicular, 
inner lip nearly straight, posterior margin of outer lip subangulate; 
white, closely painted longitudinally with wide brown stripes. 

i^H.&A.Ad.) 

Habitat iinknoivn. 

Minoha tigrina Ads., P. Z. S. 1863, p. 433. 

M. BiANGULOSA A. Adams. PI. 37, fig. 7. 

Shell orbicular-conical, broadly umbilicate, smooth, brown, 
closely painted with longitudinal undulating lines; whorls planu- 
late, angulate above, the last biangulate ; sutures margined ; base 
convex, concentrically cingulate ; umbilicus perspective, its margin 
crenulated, its interior elegantly decussated by transverse and 
radiating lines. (A. Ad.) 

Siam. 

Margarita hiangulom A. Ad., P. Z. S. 1854, p. 40. — Margarita 
triangxdosa Sowerby, in Reeve Conch. Icon., f. 26. 

M. soLARiiFORMis Sowerby. PI. 67, fig. 73 ; pi. 39, figs. 44, 45. 

Shell orbicular, sublenticular, very thin ; whorls 5, smooth, sub- 
planulate, spirally very finely striate, jiallid, painted with a very 



266 MONILEA-MINOLIA. 

minute white and brown articulation; aperture subquadrate; um- 
bilicus large, deep. (Soiverby.) 

San Nicolas, Zubu, Philip2)ines. (Cuming.) 

Margarita solariiformis SowB., Malacological and Conchological 
Magazine, pt. i, 1838, p. 26 ; Conchological lUustr., Margarita, f. 8. 
G. B. SoAVERBY, Jr., in Reeve's Conch. Icon., Monogr. Margarita, 
f. 27. — T. solariiformis Philippi, Conchyl. Cab., p. 244, t. 37, f. 1. 

Adult specimens of what I take to be the true solariiformis are 
before me, and one is figured on pi. 67, fig. 73. The shell is 
elevated ; bluntly conic, whorls 6, the earlier two rounded, the rest 
with a strong angle on the upper surface, the last with another at 
the periphery. There are slight growth-lines but no spiral strise 
above the periphery ; the base has a beaded carina bounding the 
very deep umbilicus, and outside the carina about 7 smooth con- 
centric liros becoming smaller toward the periphery. The umbilicus 
is clathrate inside, funnel-shaped and has about 6 spiral lirje crossed 
by numerous radiating riblets. The aperture is rounded-rectangular, 
pearly and pinkish inside. Alt. 9, diam. 9 mill. The color is pur- 
plish-brown, with numerous narrow, irregular or zigzag radiating 
light streaks. The upper surfice of the earlier whorls is seen 
to be slightly fluted under a lens, on the flat portion above the superior 
carina. The iridescence of the pearl often shows through the outer 
coat on the spire. There are often a few spiral raised threads in the 
concave portion between the two carinse on the body-whorl. 

This is one of those forms which might be equally well placed in 
true Solariella. 

M. EUDELi Deshayes. PL 66, figs. 2, 3. 

Shell small, discoidal-conical, subturbinate, apex rather obtuse, 
spire short ; whorls 5, slowly increasing, transversely very minutely 
striate-granulose ; last whorl large, depressed beneath, the base um- 
bilicate. Aperture semilunar, little oblique; shell whitish-rufous, 
elegantly marbled with chestnut spots. Alt. 3, diam. 5 mill. (Desk.) 

Island of Reunion 

Trochus (Margarita) eudeli Desh., Moll, de L'ile de la Reunion, 
p. 75, t. 8, f 9, 10, 1863. 

M. CASTA G. & H. Nevill. PI. 60, figs. 21, 22. 

Shell conoidal, glabrous ; white, ornamented with brown, some- 
times in distant broad flames, sometimes in minute close reticula- 
tions ; base white, on the outer half only streaked or marbled with 



MONILEA-MINOLIA. 267 

brown ; whorls 5 to 6, angular, spirally keeled, keels prominent, 4 
or 5 ; outer half of the base with five distant impressed spiral lines ; 
round, and entering into the open deep umbilicus some six spiral 
rows of close oblique granules, the outer row of which is the largest. 
Alt. 7i, diam. 9 mill. (Nevill') 

Ceylon. 

Trochus (Solariella) casUis Nevill, Jouru. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, 
1874, p.27, t. l,f. 4. 

May perhaps belong elsewhere. 
M. CANALicuLATA E. A. Smith. PI. 60, figs, to the right of 21, 22. 

Shell small, broadly umbilicated, pearly, beautifully prismatic ; 
spire depressed-conical ; whorls 5, the first 2 smooth, the remainder 
spirally lirate, and ornamented beneath the channelled sutures with 
a series of w" hite tubercles, here and there marked with brown ; last 
whorl encircled by chestnut- dotted carinse, base with a purple-brown 
zone ; umbilicus perspective, margined by a tubercular cord ; aper- 
ture subcircular. Alt. 2, diam. 3 mill. (Smith.) 

Whydah, W. Africa. 

Solariella cavaliculata E. A. Smith, P. Z. S. 1871, p. 736, t. 75, f. 
28. 

A very pretty pearly species, with a channelled suture and with 
a row of tubercles below it ; about every seventh one is chestnut, the 
rest whitish. The umbilicus is girt with a somewhat tubercular 
chord, and a zone of purplish brown. (Smith.) 

M. BELLARDII IssEL. PL 47, figs. 96, 97. 

Shell minute, thin, orbicular-depressed, oblique, narrowly um- 
bilicate, transversely minutely costulate, pale rose-color, tessellated 
with purple; spire obtuse; whorls 42, rajDidly widening, slightly 
convex, planulate at the sutures, sej)arated by impressed sutures ; 
last whorl large, rounded on the base ; aperture dilated, ovate-tri- 
gonal ; peristome simple, acute. Alt. 2, diam. 2* mill, (Issel.) 

Suez. 

T. hellardii Issel, Malacologia del Mar Rosso, p. 224. t. 2, f. 12. 
(1869.) 

M. TURRITELLINA Anccy. Unfigured. 

Shell trochiform, turritted, thick, pale brownish-gray, flammulate 
with white, pervious-umbilicate ; whorls 6, elevated, apex mucronate ; 
whorls separated by a profound suture, at the periphery unicarinate. 



268 MONILEA-MINOLIA. 

the carina acute, crenulated ; last whorl angulated, tricarinate, the 
lower carina less acute, surrounding the funnel-shaped, deeply longi- 
tudinally and spirally striated umbilicus, strongly crenated, bounded 
by an impressed line ; two upper carina acute, separated by cou- 
cavo-flaL interspaces. Aperture suboblique, rounded ; peristome 
acute, not expanded nor reflexed. Alt. 4*, diam. 4 mill. (A^icey.) 

Sumatra. 

This curious form was discovered by Capt. Martin, in 1842, on 
the coast of Sumatra. It is allied to the Solariella solariiformis 
Hani, of Cochin (Malabar), but is more elevated, more acuminate, 
more angular than the latter, etc. (Ancey). The types are in the 
collections of Schaufuss, Jousseaume and Ancey. 

Solariella turritellina C. F. Ancey, Le Naturaliste, iii, p. 390, 
April, 1881. (Paris.) 

M. L.EVissiMA Von Martens. TJnfigured. 

Shell broadly umbilicated, depressed conoidal, sculptured with 
very fine, hardly visible spiral stride, otherwise smooth, very shin- 
ing, ashen-whitish, painted with yellowish confluent flammules above 
and at umbilicus; whorls 5 A, slightly convex, separated by simple 
sutures, the last subplanate at base ; umbilicus cylindrical ; aperture 
diagonal, rounded-trapezoidal, peristome simple, incomplete, the col- 
umellar margip straightened, forming an obtuse angle wdiere it joins 
the basal lip. 

Alt. 8, diam. raaj. 13, min. 11 mill. ; aperture, alt. 7, diam. BA mill. 
{Mart.) 

Sotith Africa, 33° 59' s. lat. ; 50 ft. depth. 

Troehus kevissimus Mart., Sitzungsb. Gesellsch. naturf. Freunde, 
1881, p. 65. 

Recalls the wide-umbilicated forms of Northern Margarita, but 
is easily separated from them by the beautiful marking. This and 
the almost perpendicularly entering umbilicus shows likeness to the 
subgenus Minolia., but the umbilicus of our snail is not encircled by 
a callous. Operculum thin, horny, with 6-7 whorls. {Martens.) 

[The following six species form a little group to which I gave the 
name Conotrochus. I believe the species to belong to 3Iinolia.^ 

M. MARiEi Fischer. PI. 35, fig. 11. 

Shell minute, narrowly but profoundly umbilicated, conical- 
turrited ; whorls 7, convex, separated by deep sutures ; the first 



MONILEA-MINOLIA. 269 

obtuse, subdepressed, decussated ; the following are ornamented 
with sublamellose radiating striae, bicarinate below, pale yellowish, 
ornfiniented with greenish or chestnut flammules, and white dots ; 
last jvhorl augulated, bicarinate in the middle, the carinre subgranose; 
base concentrically lirate ; aperture circular, descending ; lip thin, 
acute. Alt. 10, diam. 5 mill. (Fischer.) 

Island of Mayotte, Comoro Archipelago. 

T. (Gibbula) maiiei Fischer, Journ. deConchyl. 1886, p. 72, t. 1, 
f. 5. 

M. HOLDswoRTHANA G. & H. Nevill. PL 40, fig. 24. 

Shell small, narrowly but deeply perforate, conical-turritted, thin, 
lusterless, whitish, mottled Avith greenish-brown above, base densely 
marked with dark brownish or greenish ; spire elevated, apex acute, 
3'ellowish, sutures profound ; whorls 5, the median portion encircled 
by three prominent keels, the U2:)per two visible on the sjiire ; base 
with a few coarse but not deep spiral sulci, carinated around the 
funnel-shaped umbilicus ; aperture subcircular, iridescent within ; lip 
fragile, columella thin, concave ; umbilicus wath several obscure 
spiral sulci inside. Alt. 4-42, diam. o^i-?>^ mill. 

Ceylon ; Siugajwre. 

Gibbula holdsivorthana G. & H. Nevill, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Beno-al, 
1871, pt. 2, p. 3, t. 1, f. 18. — Minolia variabilis Ad. P. Z. S. 1873, 
p. 207, t. 23, f 10. 

Numerous specimens collected by Archer, at Singapore, are be- 
fore me. This is a broader species than ]\[. mariei, more widely 
umbilicate, and differently sculptured. The oblique strire of incre- 
ment are scarcely visible. 

M. suBPLicATA G. &. H. Nevill. PI. 40, fig. 34. 

Shell turbinate, thin, semipellucid, white; whorls 5, tubular, flat- 
tend at the suture, spirally ridged ; ridges 3 on the penultimate whorl, 
very prominent, \videly separated by deep interstices, on upper 
whorls transversely cancellated, on the last delicately spirally 
sfriated ; whorls transversely plicate at sutures ; base subconvex, 
narrowly umbilicate, ornamented by 4 spiral ridges, the two inter- 
stices next the umbilicus transversely costulate; ajjerture nearly 
circular, surrounded by a simple margin ; inner lip moderately 
arcuate ; inside slightly pearly. Alt. 5, diam. 4 mill. {Xevill.) 

S. Province Ceylon. 



270 MONILEA-MINOLIA. 

S. sub-plimta G. & H. Nevill, Joiirn. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, 1869, 
p. 159, t. 17, f. 1. 

M. siNGAPORENSis Pilsbry. PI. 40, fig. 27. 

Shell narrowly, deeply umbilicate, conical-turritted, thin, luster- 
less, whitish, with a series of obscure brownish blotches below the 
suture, and a chain of large brow'n blotches around the outer part 
of the base; spire conical, apex minute, acute; sutures deej^ly im- 
pressed ; whorls about 5, very convex, those of spire bicarinate, the 
last whorl with two principal carinie and several smaller ones on 
the base of the whorl, the entire surface very regularly strongly 
obliquely crispate-striate ; aperture almost perfectly circular, in 
contact "with the body-whorl for only a short distance, margins thin, 
outer and inner equally curved ; umbilicus deep, funnel-shaped. 

Alt. 3, diam. 21 mill. 

Singapo7'e. 

Numerous specimens of this form, collected by Dr. Archer are 
before me. It belongs to the group including M. holdsworthiana, 
M. subplicata, M. mariei — a groujD of minute elevated turritted shells, 
narrower and more elevated than G. pisum Phil, and its allies. 

M. PAXTANELLii Caramagua. PI. 51, fig. 7. 

Shell turbinate, rather solid, red, umbilicate ; whorls 5, sloping, 
ano'ular ; the first two smooth and scarcely visible, the rest orna- 
mented with oblique lamellar minute stiise and tuberculate cinguli ; 
beneath ornamented with three granulose whitish concentric cinguli, 
the upper two near each other, the third more distant, surrounding 
the umbilicus; suture nearly covered ; umbilicus profound, funnel- 
shaped, crenate ; peristome simple, continuous ; aperture subrotund, 
whitish. Alt. 3, diam. 2 J mill. (Caramagna.) 

Assab, Abyssinia. 

G. pantanellii Caramag., Bull. Soc. Mai. Ital. xiii, p. 128 (1888). 
Evidently allied to the preceding species, but distinguished by the 
coloration, granulose carinte, crenated umbilicus, etc. 

M. sEMiusTA Fischer. PI. 41, fig. 36. 

Shell very small, profoundly umbilicated, conoidal ; whorls 5 to 6, 
separated by impressed sutures, rather convex, planulate at the 
sutures, subgradate, the first white the remainder brownish-red, 
streaked with white, ornamented with a zone of chestnut interrupted 
with white above, spirally lirate, and elegantly clathrate with lamel- 



MONILEA-MINOLIA. • 271 

lose radiating strife; spiral cinguli 4 on the penult, whorl ; last 
whorl elongated, convex, with a zone of white and chestnut spots at 
the periphery, convex beneath, whitish or maculate with chestnut, 
clathrate, with about 4 concentric lirse, aperture subrhomboidal, lip 
sub-duplicate within ; columella a little arcuate ; umbilical area 
funnel-shaped, spirally plicate, carinated at its edge. 
Alt. 2.}, diam. 2 mill. (Fischer.) 

" Ouagap et Kua-Kue " Neto Caledonia. 

Trochus {Minoli(i) semiustus Fischer, Journ. de Conchyl. 1879, 
p. 23; I. c. 1886, t. 1, f. 6. 

Seems to belong to the group of species which I have called Cono- 
trochus rather than to MinoUa j^ro^jer. 

M. PHiLiPPENSis Watson. PI. 36, figs. 15, 16. 

Shell rather like Trochus tumid us, Mont., but with a broader base, 
more conical and less scalar, with a large ojDen umbilicus and brilliant 
color. Sculpture : the shell is gathered into small regular flat puckers 
below the suture ; these are weaker on the last whorl. The whole 
surface is covered with very fine oblique longitudinal stride. Spirals : 
there are very numerous fine, sharp, undulating scratches, which on 
the middle of the base are shallower and wider apart, but toward the 
umbilicus again become sharper and more crowded. Within the 
umbilicus are four or five somewhat beaded spirals, the first and 
strongest of which forms an umbilical carina. Color faintly irides- 
cent all over, creamy white, flecked with zigzag lines of crimson, 
which on the upper whorls are narrow and regular, on the penul- 
timate whorl are remote, and on the last are irregular, broken and 
crowded. On the base there are eleven to twelve elongated radiat- 
ing crimson spots. The first three whorls are a pale orange-yellow. 
Spire rather high, scalai', apex small, bluntly pointed. Whorls 62, 
with a flat shelf below the suture, augulated at about one-fifth of 
their breadth, and rounded fi'om the angulation to the suture. The 
last whorl is bluntly angulated at the edge of the rounded base. 
Suture strong, being slightly impressed aud very distinctly marked 
by the angle at which the adjoining whorls meet. Mouth little 
oblique, round. Outer lip thin and sharp, not at all expanded. 
Inner lip thin and sharp, a very little patulous on the pillar, where 
it also retreats a little, so as to form a slight open sinus ; brilliantly 
iridescent within. Umbilicus wide and pervious, and deeply 
impressed at the suture, which runs spirally up to the apex within. 



272 MONILEA-MINOLIA. 

Alt. 0-275 in. diam. 0-33, least 0-3 in. Mouth, height O'lS, breadth 
0-14 in. ( Watson.) 

There is a Margarita tasmanica of Tenison-Woods, from Bass 
Straits, which from his description, seems to present some features of 
resemblance to this species ; but he says of it that the upper part of 
the whorl is not angulated. Then Trochus (tSolariella) prodictus, 
Fisch. (=^ angulatus, A. Ad.). This Port Philip species is much 
larger and higher. It approaches most nearly to T. bellula, Ang. ; 
but that is larger, with the same number of whorls, has a transpar- 
ently white apex, has the shoulder below the apex not flat nor 
drooping outwards, but gouged out as a concave depression ; the last 
whorl is more spread out, and the base is without color, the umbili- 
cus is wider and less deep, and the spiral which defines it is stronger, 
while there are no other spirals within it ; the whole surface of the 
shell, too, is smooth, with a few strong clean-cut impressed spirals, 
instead of being closely and minutely fretted with spirals all over. 

( Watson?) 

Off entrance to Port Philip, Australia. 33 fms. sand. 

Trochus (^Solariella) philippensis^V ATSON, Journ. Linn. Soc. Lond. 
XV, p. 92 ; Challenger Gasteropoda, p. 73, t. 6, f. 10. 

M. LAMPRA Watson. PI. 36, figs. 17, 18. 

Shell depressedly conoidal, angulated at the periphery, rounded 
on the base, umbilicated, polished, finely sculptured, solid. Sculpt- 
ure: the glossy surface is closely fretted with fine, curved, oblique, 
longitudinal scratches, crossed by very similar but slightly stronger 
and more equal spirals ; these both are stronger near the suture and 
feebler on the base, when indeed, the spirals almost disappear. 
Color pellucid pale yellowish-white, with many narrow, opaque, 
pure white sjiirals, which are flecked with fine zigzag brown longi- 
tudinal lines, aggregated in spots, and most abundant near the 
suture. The strongest opaque spiral is at the periphery, and on it 
are minute linear interruptions of the fundamental color and very 
regularly recurring little brown spots, which are about half the 
width of their interspaces. On the base the brown spots are very 
few and minute. There is very little iridescence anywhere. Spire 
low. Apex minute and projecting. Whorls 6, depressed, equally 
curved, slightly angulated at the peripherj^, more flattened on the 
base than above, of regular, but rather rapid increase. Suture slightly 
impressed. Mouth small, rounded. Outer lip thin and perfectly 
simple. Inner lip porcelanous, thick and flat, projecting in a 



MONILEA-MINOLIA. 273 

minute ear across the umbilicus, and having toward the point of the 
pillar a broad backward bevel, cut out of the thickness of the shell 
round the umbilicus. Umbilicus a shallow open depression, with a 
deep narrow hole in the center. Alt. 0"15 in., diam. 0"24, least 0"2. 
Mouth, height O'lS, breadth O'l in. ( Watson.) 

The specimen from which this species is described is not quite 
full grown. The whorls are not angulated, nor the umbilicus open, 
nor is the color ruddy, nor the texture thin as in Trochus {Solarielkt) 
prodictus, Fisch. From Trochus (Solariella) vitiligineus, Mke., 
from which it differs in these respects, but in a less degree, it may 
further be distinguished by its greater depression, its smaller mouth, 
its weaker sculpture, its greater glossiness, its feebler iridescence 
and its minute umbilicus. ( Watson.) 

Levuka, Fiji 12 fnis. 

T. (Sola7-iella) lamprus Watson, Jouru. Linn.Soc. Lond. xv, p. 93 ; 
Challenger Gasterojjoda, p. 74, t. 6, f. 9. 

M. ALBUGO Watson. PL 36, figs. 13, 14. 

Shell small, conoidal, with a tumid conical base, bluntly bicarinate, 
umbilicate with a resinous luster, brown, flecked with crimson and 
and white. Sculpture : very many irregular oblique faint lines of 
growth, with a few remote rounded spirals, which are very weak 
above, stronger on the base, and of which two at the periphery form 
a feeble double carina. Color : a pale transparent resinous brown, 
flecked below the sutures and, at the periphery with alternate spots 
of white and crimson ; the latter color runs in minute zigzag streaks 
down the shell ; there are also, both above and on the base, a few 
delicate spirals of alternate crimson and white specks. Spire rather 
low, with curved profile lines and a blunt round apex. Whorls 5, 
rounded and sloping above, flat at the jieriphery, and tumid on the 
base. Suture linear and very slightly depressed. Mouth rather 
large, round. Outer lij) thin. Inner lip thin, hollowed out back- 
wards, and bending somewdiat across the umbilicus. Umbilicus a 
broad shallow funnel, contracting to a small deep hole. Alt. 0'125 
in. ; diam. 0'2, least 0*15. Mouth (in consequence of obliquity), 
height 0-125, breadth 0*1 in. (Watson.) 

This species differs from Trochus (Solariella) lamprus W., in being 
higher, with a larger mouth, and most of all in color and in sculpt- 
ure. It is perhaps most like Trochus (Solarielkt) vernicosus Gould, 
18 



274 MINOLIA-CIRCULUS. 

but that is flatter and has a much wider umbilicus. The name is 
derived from the white spots which fleck the shell. 

T. (Solariella) albugo Watson, Journ. Linn. Soc. Lend, xv, p. 
94 ; Challenger Gasteropoda, p. 75, t. 6, f. 8. 

Unfigured Species of Minolia. 

Solariella undata Sowerby. Testa subdepressa, umbilico ro- 
tuudo usque ad apicem perforata, margaritacea, pallide rubescente, 
spiraliter tenuiter lirata, supra prope suturam angulata ; medio 
anfractuum carina rotundato-angulata, angulis distanter rubro 
maculatis ; iuterstitiis rubro undato-lineatis. (SowB., P. Z. S. 1870, 
p. 251). 

Agulhas Bank, S. Africa. (J/us. Taylor.') 

Genus CIRCULUS Jeff"reys, 1865. 
Circulus Jeffreys, Brit. Conch., iii, p. 315; Proc. Zool. Soc. 
1883, p. 94. — Fischer (as subgenus of Gibbula), Man. de Conchyl., 
p. 824. 

Jeff'reys's diagnosis of this group is as follows : Shell coin-shaped 
or forming a circular compressed disk, slightly nacreous or pearly ; 
mouth quadrangular, with a discontinuous peristome ; umbilicus very 
wide ; operculum multispiral as in other genera of Trochida^. The 
animal is unknown. 

C. STRIATUS Philippi. PL QQ, figs. 11, 12, 13. 

Shell minute, discoidal, depressed above, broadly umbilicated 
beneath, subtransparent, quite solid, white ; surface shining ; spire 
depressed, composed of 4 to 5 convex whorls, traversed spirally by 
sharp narrow line, 7-9 in number on the upper part of the last whorl, 
half as many on the penultimate whorl, two or three on the next, the 
two upper whorls smooth ; the inter-liral spaces delicately obliquely 
marked by growth strise. The lowest ridge is placed just under the 
periphery, and is sometimes more prominent than the rest ; suture 
impressed ; whorls cylindrical, gradually enlarging, the last broadly 
concave beneath, and smooth save for slight radiating lines of 
growth ; aperture oblique, rounded-quadrangular ; peristome not 
continuous ; columella arcuate, subreflexed at the umbilicus ; outer 
lip slightly sinuous above ; umbilicus broad, deep, showing all the 
whorls. Alt. '8, diam. 2*5 mill. 

Mediterranean and Adriatic Seas; Atlantic Ocean, England to 
Morocco. 



CIRCULUS-NORRISIA. 275 

Valvata striata Phil., Enum. Moll. Sicil., i, p. 147, t. 9, f. 3 (1836). 
— Adeorbis striatus Searles Wood, Crag Mollusca, p. 137, t. xv, f. 
7. — Chenu, Manuel, i, p. 352, figs. 2589, 2590. — Adeorbis striatus 
Phil. Tasle, Catal. Morbihan, p. 36. — Cyclostrema striata Phil. Petit, 
Catal. Test. Mar., p. Ill (1S69).— Cyclostrema striatum Phil. Fischer, 
Actes Soc. Linn. Bord. 1869, p. 129. — Granger, Moll, de France, 
p. 142 (1885). — Skenea striata Phil. Arad. et Ben. Conch, viv. 
mar. della Sic, p. 158 (1S70).— Cir cuius striattis Phil. Monterosato, 
Not. int. alle Conch. Medit., p. 31 (1872); Nuova Revista, p. 23; 
Enuiu. e Sinon., p. 20. — ^Fischer, Brach. et Moll, du litt. oc. de 
France, p, 13 (1878). — Jeffreys, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1883, p. 
95. — BucQUOY, Dautzenberg and Dollfus, Moll. Mar, du 
Roussillon, p. 420, t. 51, f. 1, 2, 3 (1886). — Delphinula duminyi 
Requien, Coq. de Corse, p. 64 (1848). — Trochus (Circulus) diiminyi 
Req. Jeffreys, Brit. Conch, iii, p. 315 ; v, p. 203, t. 62, f. 5 (1865). 
— Trochus duminyi Req. Weinkauff, Conchyl. des Mittelmeeres, 
ii, p. 374. — Skeneia striatida Weinkauff, Journ. de Conchyl. 1862, 
p. 343. — Delphinula costata Danilo et Sandri. Elenco nomin., p. 
123 (1856). 

This tiny shell has much the appearance of a Cyclostrema ; from 
which genus, however, the 10 or 12 whorled corneous operculum and 
slightly nacreous interior separate it. The authors of " Les Mollus- 
ques du Roussillon " give as measurements, alt. 2, diam. 4 mill. ! which 
is enormously larger than any I have seen, the largest of which is 
only 2h mill, in diam. The species is found living from the littoral 
zone to considerable depths. It is found fossil in the pliocene (Crag) 
of England, and in Italy. The fossil forms described by Searles 
Wood as Adeorbis supranitidus and tricarinatus (Crag Moll., p. 137, 
138, t. XV, f. 5, 6) are evidently closely allied. Solarium philijjjiii 
Cantraine is also said to be synonymous. 

The discoidal form, strong spiral ridges of the upper surface and 
concave smooth base, discontinuous peristome, etc., render the species 
easily separable from other known recent forms. 

Genus NORRISIA Bayle, 1880. 

Norrisia Bayle, Journ. de Conchyl. 1880, p. 241. — Fischer, 
Manuel de Conchyl., p. 825. — Trochiscus Sowerby, Ann. and Mag. 
N. H. 1838, p. 96; and of most authors, not Trochiscus V. Heyden, 
Isis, 1826, a genus of Arachnida, nor Trochiscus Held, 1837, a sec- 
tion of Helices. 



276 NORRISIA. 

The position of this genus is a little uncertain. Troschel places 
it in the vicinity of Gibbula, and this is probably its natural posi- 
tion. Fischer includes it as a subgenus under Gibbula. The 
peculiar operculum and dentition suffice to give the group generic 
rank however, in my opinion. The dentition is figured by Dall 
(Am. Journ. Conch. 1871, pi. 13, f. 6). Young shells are strongly 
bicarinate, and have an umbilical rib like Monilea. The dentition 
is figured on pi. 50, fig. 9. 

N. NORRisi Sowerby. PL 61, fig. 30. 

Shell wide, depressed-turbinate ; solid, nearly lusterless, smooth, 
save for light growth-lines and ill-defined spiral lines ; reddish fawn- 
colored, black around the umbilicus ; umbilicus large, contracted at 
its opening ; greenish inside ; spire low-conoidal ; apex minute, sub- 
acute, spirally striate ; when perfect, the apical whorls are variegated ; 
sutures j)Iain ; whorls about 6, rapidly widening, nearly plane and 
sloping above ; the last very large ; aperture rounded-quadrangular, 
angular above, brilliantly nacreous inside; peristome thin, simple, 
columellar margin thickened at the base, and with a very obtuse 
tubercle there. Alt. 40, diam. 52 mill., or less. 

Operculum circular, multispiral, nucleus central ; edges of the 
whorls projecting outside, pa23ery and rolled up like a sj^iral cord. 

Cerros Id., L. Cal. north to . 

Trochiscus norrisi SowB., Ann. & Mag. N. H. 1838, p. 96. — 
Gray, Zool. Beechey's Voy., t. 34, f. 14. — Chenu, Man. de Conchyl., 
i, p. 362, f 2692.— Carpenter, Rep. Brit. Asso. Adv. Sci. 1863, p. 
665. — Dall, Amer. Journ. Conch., vii, t. 13, f. 6 (Dentition). — 
Troschel, Das Gebiss der Schn., ii, p. 243, t. 24, f. 15.^ — Keep, 
West Coast Shells, p. 86, f. 82. — Turbo norrisi Desh. in Lam. An. s. 
vert, ed. 2, ix, p. 221. — Philippi, Conchyl. Cab., p. 50, 1. 12, f. 5. — 
Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 54. — Trochus norrisi Flscher, Coq. Viv. 
(Turbo), p. 45, t. 10, f. 1. — Turbo rotelkeformis Jay, Cat, 3d ed., 
1859, p. 3, 1. 1, f. 2, 3. — Trochiscus convexus Carpenter, Ann. and 
Mag. N. H. XV, 1865, p. 180. 

A form very distinct from all others. It is an abundant species 
about San Diego, Cal. I do not know how far northward it ranges. 
The dimensions given above are for the largest specimen I have seen. 
Fischer quotes it from Oregon. 



LIVONA. 277 

Genus LIVONA Gray, 1842. 

Livona Gray, Guide Syst. dist. Moll. Brit. Mus., p. 156. — H. and 
A. Ad., Genera, i, p. 412. — Fischer, Mannel de Conchyl., p. 825. — 
Troschel, Das Gebiss, ii, p. 223. — Meleagris Montfort, Coucli. 
Syst., ii, p. 207 (not Meleagris Linn.). — Cittarium Philippi, Zeitschr. 
f. Mai. 1847, p. 21 ; Handb. Conchyl. u. Mai., p. 210, 445 (1853). 

Livona is peculiar in the great number of lateral teeth to the 
radula, 9 on each side of the rhachis (see Troschel, Gebiss, p. 223, 
pi. 21, fig. 10). Jaws composed of rhombic elements, as in other 
Trochids. The operculum is thin, smooth and concave outside, 
shining and rich chestnut color inside, the half attached to the foot 
olive-green, duller ; the nucleus is central ; whorls about 12. The 
epipodial line bears very numerous cirrhi, — also a peculiar char- 
acter. 

L. PICA Linne. PL 61, fig. 24. 

Deeply umbilicate, turbinate, solid, lusterless, black with mac- 
ulations or zizgag flammules of white. Spire conoidal, apex eroded ; 
whorls about 6, convex, the last depressed-globose, large ; aperture 
semicircular, oblique, nacreous inside ; outer lip simple, columella 
arcuate, produced above in a heavy porcellanous callous deposit, 
half-surrounding the umbilicus and deeply notched in the middle. 
Umbilicus deep, spirally bicostate inside. 

Ait. 110, diam. 120 mill., usually smaller. 

West Indies ; North to Bermuda and Charlotte Harbor, Fla., South 
to Panama and Trinidad. 

Turbo pica Linne, Syst. Nat., xii, p. 1235. — Lamarck, An. s. 
vert., vii, p. 44. ; ed. Desh., ix, p. 193. — Reeve, Conch. Icon., f 24. — 
Trochus pica Philippi, Conchyl. Cab., p. 331. — Chenu, Manuel de 
Conchyl., p. 356, f 2638. — Fischer, Coq. Viv., p. 64, t. 1. — Livona 
jnca Gray, Guide Syst. Dist. Moll. Brit. Mus., p. 156, and of Authors 
generally. — T. (Livona) picotdesGo\]L,T>,Otm, p. 185.— Carpenter, 
Moll. Western N. A., p. 21, 23, 138. 

A well-known Antillean species. The upper surface is often 
entirely black. Young shells, or well-preserved adults, have the 
spire Avhorls sculptured by oblique folds cut by a few spiral sulci ; 
the pei'ijjhery and base in the half-grown shells are spirally lirate. 
The lip is edged inside by black, or black and white. There is no 
well authenticated Pacific coast record. 



278 PHOTINULA. 

Genus PHOTINULA H. & A. Adams, 1854. 

Photinula H. & A. Ad., Genera Rec. Moll., i, p. 427 ; and of 
recent authors.— Photina H. & A. Ac, P. Z. S. 1851, p. 191 (not of 
Burmeister). — Margarita (in part) of authors (not of Leach). 

The genus Photinula was instituted for Margarita-like shells 
with imperforate axis, confined to Antarctic America in distribution. 
The species are few and very variable. 

P. T^NiATA Wood. PI. 44, figs. 18, 19. PI. 64, fig. 37. 

Shell imperforate, depressed, conoid, thin, shining, white, uuicolored 
or Avith numerous spiral pink stripes and lines ; surface smooth ; 
spire conical, apex acute, the first three whorls encircled by three 
coarse lirse ; whorls 6, the last rapidly increasing ; aperture oblique, 
rounded-rhombic, with a thin, finely folded, brilliantly iridescent 
layer of nacre inside; peristome simple, thin; columella broad, 
reflexed, appressed, arising from a small pad of callous on the base 
of the shell. Alt. 21, diam. 26 mill. ; alt. 17, diam. 23 mill. 

Sts. of Magellan ; Falkland Is. 

Trochus tceniatus Wood, Index Test, suppl., t. 5, £ 12.— Philippi, 
Conchyl. Cab., p. 251, t. 37, f 12.— Fischer, Coq. Viv., p. 319, t. 
100, f. 2. — Margarita tceniata Sowb. Conch. Ill, f 2 ; in Reeve, 
Conch. Icon., xx, f. 4. — Reeve, Conch. Syst., t. 227, f 2. — T. bicolor 
Lesson, Voy. de la Coquille, p. 345, t. 16, f 3. — Photinula ta^niata 
Chenu, Manuel, i, p. 361, f 2681. — Margarita ccerulescens King, 
Zool. Journ., v, p. 346, no. 54. — Sowerby in Reeve, Conch. Icon., 
XX, f 12. — Trochus ccerulescens Philippi, Conchyl. Cab., p. 250, t. 
37^ f_ 11, — Watson, Rept. Challenger Gasterop., p. 68.; — Tr. lineatus 
Phil., Arch, f Naturg. 1845, p. 56 (not of Da Costa). — Margarita 
maxima Hombron et Jacquinot, Voy. au Pole Sud, p. 59, pi. 14, 
f, 32, 33 (not T. maximus Koch). — Photina coerulea A. Ad., P. Z. S. 
1851, p. 1^1.— Photinula ccerulescens Ads., Genera, i, p. 427. — 
T. homhroni Fischer, Coq. Viv., p. 320, t. 100, f. 3. — T.purpuratus 
Forbes, P. Z. S. 1850, p. 372, t. 11, f 11. 

A large handsome species, easily recognized by its spiral red stripes 
on a white ground. 

Var. ccerulescens King. PI. 44, rigs. 18, 19. 

More depressed ; aperture more oblique ; color ashen or fleshy, 
with spiral lines and bands of blackish-blue. 



PHOTINULA. 279 

P. EXPANSA Sowerby. PI. 39, figs. 51, 52. 

Shell imperforate, depressed-conoidal, thin, shining, of a light 
olivaceous tint or somewhat tinged with pink ; surface smooth ; 
spire conoidal, acute ; sutures slightly impressed ; whorls about 42, 
rapidly widening, the last large, rounded at periphery, a little im- 
pressed or margined below the suture; aperture large, rounded, 
angular above, green and iridescent inside ; columellar margin a little 
straightened ; umbilico-columellar tract slightly excavated. 

Alt. 9, diam. 12 mill. 

Falkland Is., Kerguelen Id. ; Sts. of Magellen ; South Georgia. 

Margarita expansa SowB. Mai. and Conch. JNIag., p. 24, and 
Conch. Illustr., figs. 16, 17. — Trochus e.rpa ?is«s Phil. Conchyl. Cab., 
p. 254, t. 37, f 18. — T. (P/wtiuula) expansa E. A. Smith, Moll. 
Kerguelen, Philos. Trans. 1877. — Watson Challenger Gasterop., p. 
69. — Photina expansa A. Ad., P. Z. S. 1851, p. 191. — Tapparone 
CANEFPvi, Zool. Viaggio 'Magenta,' p. 67. — Photinula expansa 
H. & A. Ad., Genera, i, p. 428. — T. (Margarita) hillii Forbes, 
P. Z. S. 1850, p. 272, t. 11, £ 10.~2Iargarita (Photinula) expansa 
VON Martens & G. Pfeffer, in Natur. hist. Mus. zu Hamburg, 
Pagenstecher's Bericht fiir 1885, p. 100, t. 2, f. 10a, b, c, d. (1886.) 

P. viOLACEA King. PI. 39, figs. 42, 43. 

Shell imperforate, orbicular-conic, thin, smooth, purplish-pink ; 
whorls 4, tumid ; suture scarcely impressed ; aperture rounded-quad- 
rangular, angular above, subangular at base of columella ; columella 
subthickened, subarcuate ; umbilico-columellar tract excavated, 

Alt. 10, diam. 10 mill. 

Straits of Magellen ; Orange Harbor, Tierra del Fxiego. 

Margarita violacea King, in Zool. Journ., v, p. 346 (1832-34). — 
Sowerby, Mai. and Conch. Mag., i, p. 24 (1838) ; and Conch. 111., 
figs. 11, 12. — Sowb. in Reeve, Conch. Icon., vol. xx, f. 5. — Tr. 
violaceus Phil., Conchyl. Cab., p. 254, t. 37, f 19. — .? Margai-ita 
magellanica Gould, U. S. Expl. Exped. Moll., p. 192, atlas, f. 228. 
— Margarita persica Gould, I. c. p. 193, atlas, figs. 230. — Margarita 
magellanica (de novo) Hombron et Jacquinot, Voy. au Pole Sud, 
Zoologie, vol. V, p. 59, atlas t. 14, f 29-31 (1854). 

This form seems to be of a deeper pink shade than P. expansa. 
It is somewhat more conical, with smaller aperture. I am not 
certain of the identity of M. magellanica Gld. The original figures 



280 PHOTINULA. 

are copied on pi. 44, figs. 14-17. Gould's figures of M. persica are 
also given, pi. 44, figs. 23, 24. 

The color is sometimes pale yellowish-brown. 

P. siGARETiNA Sowerby. PI. 39, figs. 34, 35. 

Shell orbicular-depressed, thin, smooth, reddish, whorls 3, tumid, 
a little depressed above, the last large ; suture inconspicuous ; 
aperture large, suborbicular, suboblique; columella a little widened, 
flat, arcuate, with an indistinct longitudinal furrow. (Soivb.) 

Port Famine, Sts. of Magellan. 

Margarita sigaretina SowB., Mai. and Conch. Mag., i, p. 24 (1838) ; 
Conch. 111., f. 14. — SowB., Jr., in Rve., Conch. Icon., f. 10. 

P. EiNGEi Pfeffer. Unfigured.^ 

Shell rather solid, seraipellucid, shining, bluish-white gray, 
encircled above the periphery (rarely below) with very narrow lines 
and bands of bluish-black ; subheliciniform, subdepressed-turbinate, 
the apex acute ; whorls little convex, with moderate suture ; the last 
whorl a little descending, a little flattened above, rounded beneath ; 
aperture rounded-subquadrangular, upper, outer und lower margins 
continuously curved, thin, acute, columellar oblique, passing with an 
angle into the base. No umbilicus. Young specimens have a spiral 
excavation at the place of the umbilicus, which becomes in the adult 
evanescent, the umbilical tract being entirely occupied by a large 
white callous, as in Rotella, and there is only a slight concavity in 
the place of the umbilicus. The umbilical callous always remains 
concave. A thin irregularly S-shaped callous connects the termina- 
tions of the aperture. 

Alt. 12-3, diam. maj. 19, min. 14*5 mill. ; apert. lat. 9-6, long. 11-7 
mill. {PJeff^r.) 

Straits of Le Maire, between Staten Id. and Tierra del Fuego, in 
70 fms. 

Photinula Ringei GeoPvG Pfeffer, Verhandl. des Vereins f. 
naturwissensch. Unterhaltung zu Hamburg, vol. vi, p. 113 (1887). 

This new species stands intermediate between the genera Rotella 
and Photinida. It is nearest to P. coeruleseens King, but that snail 
is in general, as well as in each separate whorl, much more convex, 
and resembles in the columella, which is not so oblique, the young, 
rather than the adult of the new species ; and finally, the sjiiral 
stripes extend over the entire surface of the last whorl in P. 
coeruleseens. 



PHOTINULA. 



281 



TJnfigured and undetermined Photmula. 

Photina nigra a. Adams. Shell depressed-conical, imperforate, 
solid, black, smooth; whorl subrotund, transversely sulcate; longitu- 
dinally obliquely substriate ; last whorl subangulate ; umbilical 
region impressed, covered by a wdiite callous. 

(^d. inP. Z. S. 1851,p. 192.) 

Habitat unknown. 

Photina fusca A. Adams. Shell oblique, subcorneal, shining, 
variegated with brown ; whorls a little convex, transversely sulcate, 
the last subangulate ; aperture subrotund, inside green iridescent. 

{Ad. in P. Z. S. 1851, p. 192.) 

Habitat unknown. 

Photina sandwichiana A. Adams. Shell orbicular-conic, im- 
perforate, smooth, whitish, maculated with green and brown ; whorls 
rounded, the last subangular ; apex rosy ; aperture open, orbicular, 
green and j^early inside; labium white; umbilicus covered by a 
white callous. (Ad. in P. Z. S. 1851, p. 192.) 

Mataineka, Sandtvich Is. 

This is not the Margarita sand^oichiana Ad. of Sowerby, Jr. 
.(Reeve's Conch. Icon., f. 8), for that species is umbilicated. 

Photinula QUiESiTA A. Adams. Shell orbiculate-conic, spire a 
little elevated, umbilical region deeply impressed, umbilicus covered 
by a white callous ; fleshy- red dish, at the sutures radiately clouded 
with chestnut, the periphery ornamented with oblique white and 
chestnut spots; whorls 5j, convex, transversely lirate, the upper 
lirte beaded, lower ones simple ; last whorl rounded-angular at the 
periphery ; aperture subcircular, sulcate and vividly iridescent in- 
side. Alt. 14. diam. 18 mill. 

Aniwa Bay, Tatiyama, Kino-0-Sima, Jajian 17 fms. 

Ann. & Mag. K H. 1864, vol. xiii, p. 140. 
A doubtful member of this group. 

Photinula viaginalis Rochebrune et Mabille. 

Shell imperforate, depressed orbiculate, rather thick, solid, sub- 
opaque, destitute of cuticle or color, decussated by slightly con- 
spicuous strii3e and slightly prominent liree ; spire minute, a little 
convex, scarcely prominent ; apex minute, obtuse, submamillated ; 
whorls bh, plane at the sutures, then a little convex, irregularly 
(the first rapidly, following very rapidly) increasing, separated by 



282 PHOTINULA. 

distinct sutures; last whorl large, subcomplanate above, at the 
periphery angularly rounded, not descending at the aperture, flat- 
tened beneath, very elegantly and minutely lirate and closely 
radiately striate. 

Alt. 18, diam. maj. 19, min. 15 mill. (R. & M. in Bull. Soc. Phil- 
omathique de Paris, 7th Ser., vol. 9, 1885, p. 104). 

Sta. Cruz, Patagonia. 

Photinia hyadesi Rochebrune et Mabille. 

Shell covered-imperforate, orbicularly trochiform, subdiaphanous, 
rather solid, shining, grayish flesh color, clathrulate with little 
evident distant liriB and extremely narrow strife; spire elevated, 
conic-pyramidal, distinctly lirate (the lirse acute, resembling carinse) ; 
apex minute, somewhat obtuse; whorls 62, convex, irregularly (the 
first slowly, subregularly, the remainder very rapidly) increasing ; 
separated by a narrowly margined impressed suture ; last whorl 
large, rounded-sloping above, at the periphery obtusely angulated, 
planulate beneath, and ornamented with radiating strife and 3-4 
lirse, not descending at the aperture ; aperture oblique, lunate, 
rounded; peristome acute; columella deeply twisted, columellar 
margin thickened in a white, shining, very narrow, umbilicus-con- 
cealing callous; outer margin slightly, basal well rounded. 

Alt. 10, diam. maj. 21, min. 14 mill. {R. & 31, 1. c, p. 105.) 

Terra del Fuego. 

Photinula detecta Rochebrune et Mabille. 

Shell imperforate, orbiculate-convex, a little thick, destitute of 
cuticle, sub-rudely striate ; spire moderate, conical, little prominent ; 
apex minute, subpapillar; whorls 6-7, rounded-convex, irregularly 
(embryonic sensibly, following very rapidly, last more rapidly) 
inci'easing, separated by subcanaliculate sutures ; last whorl largest, 
rounded-sloping, obscurely angulate at the periphery, not descending 
at the aperture ; base scarcely convex, at the umbilicus entirely 
covered, impressed, and with 5-6 lines ; aperture oblique, transversely 
oblong ; peristome straight, acute ; margins distant, joined by a 
slightly thickened calcareous lamina; columella twisted, thick, 
emitting a narrow callous ; outer margin well and elongately arched. 

Alt. 11, diam. maj. 24, min. 20 mill. {R. & M., 1. c, p. 105.) 

Around Sta. Cruz, Patagonia. 



PHOTINULA. 283 

Photinula resurreota Rochebrune et Mabille. 

Shell orbiculate-depressed, imperforate, conical, subopaque, solid ; 
under a tawny, thin, rather caducous cuticle, it is white, scarcely shin- 
ing, decussated by very fine strife and very minute spiral lines ; 
spire conical, little prominent; apex minute, subacute ; whorls 6?, 
regularly and obviously increasing, separated by an impressed 
suture (first 3 whorls a little convex) ; last whorl large, subdepressed- 
sloping, obtusely angular at the periphery, scarcely descending at 
the aperture ; subconvex-plane beneath and distinctly lirate ; aper- 
ture oblique, oblong, depressed ; columella callous, oblique, obscurely 
dentate at the base ; collumellar margin thick, oblique, emitting a 
small thickened callous, entirely closing the umbilicus. 

Alt. 12, diam. maj. about 25, min. 20 mill. (E. & 3[., I. c, p. 106.) 

Santa Cruz, Patagonia. 

Protinula pruinosa Rochebrune et Mabille. 

Shell imperforate, subglobose-conical, a little thick, solid, viola- 
ceous, ornamented with irregular oblique strise and decussated with 
evanescent lines, only visible under a lens ; spire turbinate, prom- 
inent, apex minute, shining, subacute ; whorls 5-6, convex, regularly 
rapidly increasing, separated by impressed narrowly margined sut- 
ures ; last whorl large, above sloping, then rounded, at the periphery 
subcarinated, at the aperture scarcely descending ; aperture oblique, 
lunate, transversely oblong, obscurely lirate inside, shining ; per- 
istome simple, acute, margins subparallel, outer subsinuous, basal 
arcuate, columellar incurved ; columella twisted, incurved, a little 
thick, callous, forming an obtuse angle at the base, and emitting a 
thick, white, shining, slightly dilated callous closing the umbilicus, 
and bipartite by a longitudinal sulcus. 

Alt. 7-9, diam. maj. 11-14, min. 10-14 mill. (R. & 3L, I. c, p. 
106.) 

Santa Cruz and Punta Arenas, Patagonia. 

Photinula gamma Rochebrune et Mabille. 

Shell imperforate, orbicular-pyramidal, rather thin, solid, opaque, 
shining, whitish or buff' ornamented with red lines, the upper 
beaded, the lower simple, continuous ; spire conic-pyramidal, prom- 
inent, apex subacute, red ; Avhorls 52-6, depressed-planulate, rapidly 
and regularly increasing, separated by a linear, scarcely perceptible 
suture ; last whorl large, sloping above, compressed-rounded at the 
periphery, subplanulate beneath ; aperture little oblique, lunate. 



284 PHOTINULA. 

ovate-subtriangular, pearly inside, and mor6 or less zoned with green 
lines ; margins joined by a very thin fulvescent lamina ; outer mar- 
gin at first nearly straight, then curved, columellar subthickened, 
very narrowly calloused at the insertion, joining the basal margin 
in an obtuse angle ; columella elongated, intorto-curved. 
Alt. 7, diam. maj. 13, min. 11 mill. {R. & 3L, I. c, p. 107.) 

Punta Arenas, Patagonia. 

Photinula paradoxa Rochebrune et Mabille. 

Shell orbicular-conic, covered imperforate, thin, solid, subdiaph- 
anous, grayish-ruddy or white, zoned with red lines or unicolored, 
smooth, finely striate under a lens ; whorls 6, a little convex, piano- 
depressed at the suture, rapidly increasing, separated by a linear sub- 
margined suture, the last largest, depressed rotund, at the periphery 
scarcely obtusely angled, impressed around the closed umbilicus, 
at the aperture scarcely descending ; aperture oblique, lunate, trans- 
versely ovate, above scarcely angled, at the base rounded ; columella 
decidedly arcuate, emitting a white callous which closes the umbili- 
cus and is bipartite by a sulcus. 

Alt. 6-7, diam. maj. 11-13, min. 9-11 mill. {R. & 31., I. c, p. 107.) 

South of Cape Horn. 

Photinula halmyris Rochebrune et Mabille. 

Shell imperforate, globose-conic, rather thin but solid, shining, 
whitish or reddish, vivid green at summit, smooth ; spire conical, 
apex very minute, subpapillar, acute ; whorls 6, convex, sensibly 
increasing, separated by an impressed suture ; last whorl large, con- 
vex-sloping, obtusely carinate at base, subplanulate beneath, deeply 
descending at the aperture ; aperture slightly oblique, lunate, trans- 
versely ovate, above narrowly acute, below produced-rounded ; colu- 
mella well arched, a little thick, emitting a very narrow white 
callous which covers the umbilicus ; outer margim at first nearly 
straight, then well arched, acute, scarcely thickened. 

Alt. 7-8, diam. maj. 10-11, min. 9-10 mill. (R. & M., /.c.,p. 108.) 

Beagle Channel. 

P. viaginalis, hyadesi, detecta, resurrecta and pruinosa have 
decussated surface and may perhaps prove to be varieties of one 
species. All published information upon these forms is given in the 
above translations of the original diagnoses. 



MARGARITA. 285 

Genus MARGARITA Leach, 1819. 

Margarita Leach, Thomson's Annals of Philosophy, xiv, j). 202 
(1819) ; Appendix to Capt. Ross's Voyage, H. M. S. Isabella and 
Alexander, p. 59. — Broderip and So^s^erby, Zool. Journ., iv, p. 
363. — Sowerby, Mai. and Conch., Mag. i, p. 24 ; and of authors 
generally (not Margarita Leach, Zool. Misc., i, p. 107, 1815,= 
Avicula). — Margarites Leach MS. 1819, Gray, Ann. and ]Mag. N. 
H. XX, p. 268 (1847). — Eumargarita Fischer, Manuel de Conehvl., 
p. 825 (1885).— Valvatella Gray, Guide Syst. dist. Moll. Brit. Mus., 
p. 157, 1857 (type M. grmnlandica^undulata Sby.). 

" In 1814, Leach used the name Margarita for a section o^ Avicula 
Avhich had already received several names. The name Margarita, 
was therefore a synonym. In 1819, he used the same name, this 
time for a valid genus ; but apparently recognizing that this might 
cause confusion, he changed the termination in a work which he 
had in press in 1820, and which was interrupted by his death. 
This work was published some thirty years later by Dr. J. E. Gray. 

"The second use of a generic name once fallen into synonymy, 
although not forbidden by the accepted rules for nomenclature, is 
greatly to be deprecated ; yet when it has occurred and when the 
second application of the name is universally unchallenged for 
more than half a century, and the original application never was 
in use and has been absolutely ignored, I can see no benefit likely 
to accrue to science from a change of names." 

The history of the name Margarita, briefly given in the above 
extract from Dr. Dall's Report on ' Blake Gastropoda,' justifies us, 
in my opinion, in retaining that name for the present group. 

The species of Margarita, like all boreal shells, are excessively 
plastic and variable. Many of them are circumpolar in distribu- 
tion. They were first monographed by the elder So we rby in 1828, 
and figured in the ' Conchological Illustrations.' Philippi included 
the species in his monograph of Trochus in Kuster's Chemnitz, but 
he recognizes many forms which have no real specific characters. 
Mr. G. B. Sowerby, Jr., monographed the group in Reeves' Iconica, 
vol. 20. He confuses true Margarita with Photinnla, Solariella and 
Minolia; and the work, on account of the numerous and egregious 
blunders it contains, is worthless. 

M. HELicixA Fabricius. PI. 64, figs. 45, 46, 47 ; pi. 39, fig. 63. 

Shell umbilicate, thin, depressed-conoidal, flesh-colored, with 
paler at periphery and below the suture, fading into corneous around 



286 MARGARITA. 

the umbilicus ; surface very bright, shining, polished, and smooth 
except for fine subobsolete concentric lines around the umbilicus ; 
spire conoidal ; apex minute but obtuse ; suture impressed ; whorls 
about 5, convex, the last very rapidly widening, somewhat descend- 
ing toward the aperture ; aperture rounded, oblique, angular 
above, nacreous inside, the pearly iridescence often visible through 
the shell ; umbilicus narrow, profound, its opening regularly 
curved, not separated from the base by a carina. 
Alt. 6, diani. 7 mill. ; alt. 4, diam. 5 mill. 

England, Scandinavia, New England, northward to Spitzbergen, 
Greenland and Behring Straits. ( West America south to Washing- 
ton Territory f) 

Turbo helicinus O. Fabr. Fauna Groenland., p. 393. — Margarita 
helicina, Moller, Ind. Moll. Grcenl., p. 8.— Loven, Ind. Moll. 
Scandin., p. 20.— Gould (Binney's ed.), p. 281, f. 542.— Sars, 
Moll. Eeg. Arct. Norveg., p. 132, t. 21, f . 3 ; t. iii, f. 7, 8 (denti- 
tion). — SowERBY in Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 15. — Trochus helicimis 
Forbes & Hanley, Hist. Brit. Moll, ii, p. 531, t. 68, f 4, 5 ; t. 74, 
f. 10 ; t. 200, f. 4 (animal).— Jeffreys, Brit. Conch., iii, p. 295 ; v. t. 
61, f. 4.— Philippi, Conchyl. Cab., p. 250, t. 37, f. 10.— TV. 
neritoideus Gm. teste Forbes & Hanley. — Turbo margarita 
Montagu, Test. Brit. suppL, p. 143. — Turton, Conch. Diction., p. 
229. — Lowe, Zool. Journ. ii, p. 107, t. 5. f. 10, 11. — Helix margarita 
Laskey, Mem, Werner Soc. i, p. 408, t. 8, f. 5. — Fleming, Encyc. 
Edin., t. 203, f. 9 {teste F. & H.). — Trochus margarita Philippi, 
Conchyl. Cab., p. 248, t. 37, f. 7.— Brown, Illust. Conch. Gt. Brit., 
p. 17, t. 10, f 28, 29. — Margarita vulgaris Leach, mss. in Sowerby, 
Mai. and Conch. Magazine, p. 24. — Sowerby, Conch. 111. Mar- 
garita, f. 13. — f Margarita arctica Leach in Ross's Voyage of 
Discovery of H. M. S. Isabella and Alexander, to Baffin's Bay, 
etc.. Appendix no. ii, p. 61 (first species of Margarita.'), 1819. — 
Gould, Invert, of Mass., p. 255, f 163.— Sowb., Mai. and Conch. 
Mag. i, p. 25 ; Conch. 111., f. 6.— Philippi, Conchyl. Cab., p. 248, t. 
37, f. 8.— DeKay, Mollusca of New York, p. 108, t. 6, f. 1(>7.— 
Sowb. in Rve. Conch. Icon., f. 19. — Turbo inflatus Totten, Silli- 
nian's Journ. Sci., xxvi, p. 368, f 5. — Ma,rg. helicoides Beck MS. 
teste Sowb. — Margarita companulata INIoRSE, Mem. Bost. Soc. IS". H. 
i, p. 284, t. 7, f. 15.— Binney's Gould, Inv. Mass., p. 282, f 543.— 
Tr. borealis Philippi, Conchyl. Cab., p. 283, t. 42, f. 1. — 31. arctica 



MARGARITA. 287 

MiDDENDORFF, Mai. Rossica, ii, p. 69. — M. hellcina Fabr., Krause, 
Archiv f. Naturg. 1885, p. 262. 

This species is very abundant. It may be known by the smooth 
surface, lightly spirally striate around the umbilicus, the rather 
narrow umbilicus, etc. 

T. horecdls Phil, w^as proposed for American specimens ; Phil- 
ippi's figures are copied on PL 39, figs. 49, 50. His figure of 
T. margnrita Mont, on PL 39, fig. 63. M. vulgaris Leach (PL 39, 
fig. 46,) is the same as the form called campanulata by Morse. 

31. grocnlandica ' Beck ' of Sowerby, in Reeve, f. 6, and of Philippi, 
Conchyl. Cab. t. 37, f. 5, are prol:)ably additional synonyms of this 
protean species. The figures of Sowerby and of Philippi are copied 
on PL 44, fig. 22, and 21. 

M. ACUMINATA Sowerby. PL 39, fig. 55 ; pi. %Q, fig. 6. 

Shell orbicular, thin, whitish ; spire acuminate, whorls 5, rounded, 
smooth ; suture distinct ; a|)erture orbicular ; umbilicus small. 

Alt. "55, diam. '5 in. (Soivb.) 

Arctic Ocean. 

31. acuminata SowB., Mai. and Conch. Mag. i, p. 26 (1838). — 
Conch. 111., f. 7. — SowB. Jr. in Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 13. — Trochus 
bembe.v Phil., Conchyl. Cab., p. 286, t. 42, f. 5. — 31. acuminata 
MiGH. & Ad., Bost. Journ. N. H. iv, p. 46, t. 4, f 15. 

The 3L acuminata Mighels and Adams (pi. 66, fig. 6), taken in 
the Gulf of St. Lawrence, is described as follows : 

Shell small, orbicular, subconical, thin, of a grayish-white or 
russet color , spire acuminate ; whorls 4, well-rounded, smooth, 
covered with a thin semitransparent ejiidermis, strise of growth very 
fine and compact ; suture well impressed ; aperture orbicular, 
considerably oblique, beautifully iridescent within ; operculum 
horny, spiral. Alt 6], diam. 6] mill. (31. & A.) 

The single specimen of this American form before me is much 
more depressed than the figure given by Sowerby. It seems to be 
specifically distinct. 

M. vAHLii MoUer. PL 39, figs. 58, 59. 

Shell small, conoidal, very smooth, shining, hyaline, pearly ; 
whorls 4-4i, convex, the last subangular ; umbilicus narrow. (Phil.) 

This is the smallest of the 3Iargarita species known to me. The 
shell approaches a j^retty flat cone in form, for the upper whorls are 



288 MARGARITA. 

only a little convex, and even the last are x-ather declivous. The 
umbilicus is narrow, not sharply bounded ; the aperture circular, 
almost higher than broad, with simj^le, acute peristome. The entire 
shell is completely smooth, very shining, transparent, pearly-colored. 
The inside glitters with rainbow tints. Diam. 1-H lines. (Phil.) 
Greenland; Spltzhergen ; Plover Bay, Behring Sea. 
Marg. vahlii Moll., Ind. Moll. Gronl., p. 8. — Tr. vahlii Moll. 
Phil., Conchyl. Cab., p. 286, t. 42, f. 6.— 31. vahlii Moll., Krause, 
Archiv. f. Naturg. 1885, p. 261. 

M. UMBILICALI8 Broderip & Sowerby. PI. 39, figs. 61, 62, 64 ; pi. 

64, figs. 39, 40, 41. 

Widely, openly vimbilicate, depressed-conical, thin, brownish- 
yellow ; surface polished, shining, the inner whorls closely lirulate, 
the sculpture becoming obsolete on the last two whorls, whicli 
hoAvever usually show a few obsolete strise just above the periphery ; 
the umbilicus has a few obscure strite within, or none; the spire is 
elevated, apex minute, subacute ; sutures deeply impressed ; whorls 
about 6, convex, the last rapidly increasing, very wide ; aperture 
oblique, subcircular, nacreous inside ; peristome simple, terminations 
converging, connected by a short parietal callous ; umbilicus pro- 
found, funnel-shaped. 

Alt. 11, diam. 15 mill.; alt. 13, diam. 22 mill.; alt. 15, diam. 21 
mill. 

Melville Id. ; Cumberland Sound ; Greenland. 

Margarita umhilicalis Brod. and Sby. Mai. and Conch. Mag. i, 
p. 26, 1838 ; Conch. 111., f. 5. — Sowb. in Reeve, Conch. Icon, xx, 
Mouog. Margarita, f. 1. — Philippi, Conchyl. Cab., p. 245, t. 37, f. 
2. — Georg Pfeffer, in Naturhist. Mus. zu Hamburg, Dr. Pagen- 
stecher's Bericht fiir 1885, p. 43, £ la, b, c (1886). 

This well-marked form is characterized by its lirate upper 2 or 3 
whorls, large size, and broadly conoid contour. The specimens 
before me have no more exact locality than " Greenland." 

M. vorticifera Dall. PI. 59, figs. 48, 49, 50. 

Shell de})ressed, with 3 flattened, rapidly expanding whorls, which 
have a tendency in old individuals to overhang the suture anterior 
to them ; the upper surface is traversed by numerous slender slightly 
elevated revolving threads, which are crossed by faint lines of 
growth. Outer edge of whorls subcarinate. The basal surface is 



MARGARITA. 289 

less flattened, but similarly sculptured, except that the very wide and 
funnel-shaped umbilicus is destitute of revolving striae, and the lines 
of growth are here a little stronger. Aperture excessively oblique, 
with the anterior angle much produced ; lips hardly thickened, and 
but slightly interrupted at the junction with the body-whorl. Nacre 
.salmon-color ; externt.l surface pinkish-white, brilliantly pearly 
where eroded. Alt. "o, diam. '85 in. (Ball.) 

Iliulivk Harbor, Captain's Bay, Unalashka ; larger specimens in 
the Akutan Pass, 10-60 //»*■; Behring Sea. 

M. vorticifera Dall, Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. v, 1878, p. 59, t. 2, f. 
4. — Krausse, Arch, f Naturg. 1885, p. 260. 

This form is closely allied to M. umbilicalis Brod. and 8owb. 

M. AR(4ENTArA Gould. PI. 64, figs. 48, 49. 

Shell small, narrowly umbilicate, globose-depressed, conoidal, 
thin, subtransparent, corneous or bluish white in color ; surface 
lusterless, dull, closely marked all over by fine, close-set spiral striae, 
scarcely visible except under a lens ; spire conoidal, apex minute, 
blunt ; whorls 4, tumid ; suture deeply impressed ; aperture circular, 
oblique, outer lip simple, acute, inner lip arcuate, a trifle reflexed ; 
umbilicus narrow, deep. 

Alt. 21, diam. 3 mill. (American specimens) ; alt. 02, diam. o'2 
mill. (European specimens.) 

Massachusetts, Englavd, Scandinavia and Northward ; Behring Sea.. 

M. argoitata Gould, Invert. Mass., p. 256, f. 174 (1841).^ — edit. 
BiNNEY, p. 282, f 544. — M. glaaca Moller Ind. Moll. Graml., p. 
8 (1842). — Trochus glaucus Moll. Jeffre:ys, Brit. Conch, v (suppl.), 
p. 202. — Trochus argentatus Gld., Philippi, Conchyl. Cab., p. 285, 
t. 42, f. 4. — Margarita olivacea Brown, Krause, Arch. f. uaturg. 
1885, p. 261.— Sars, Moll. Reg. Arct. Norvegite, p. 134, t. 9, f 6.— 
Trochus olivaceus Brown, 1827, Jeffreys, in Ann. & Mag. N. H. 
1877, p. 2, 40. — Margarita Aarriso?i?'gHANCOCK, Ann. & Mag. N. H. 
1846, p. 325. — M. argentata Gld. var. gigantea Leche, Kongl. Sv. 
Vet., Akad. Handl. Stockholm, p. 43, t. ], f 11. 

I do not know where this shell was described by Brown ; Sars 
gives no reference nor does Jeffreys. It is easily recognized by the 
lusterless closely spirally striate surface and small size. Philippi's 
figures, copied on my pi. 39, figs. 47,48, are incorrect in showing no 
spiral strise. The var. gigantea of Leche, described from Nova 
Zembla differs in its large size. Alt. 10-lOA, diam. 10-11 mill. 
19 



290 MARGARITA. 

M. FRiELEi Krause. PI. 66, figs. 91, 92. 

Shell thin, white, pearly within, depressed -conical ; spire obtuse; 
whorls 4, regularly rounded, the last much dilated ; suture deeply 
impressed; aperture rounded, outer and inner lips equally arcuate; 
umbilicus broad, not definitely bounded, but rounding into the base ; 
surface covered with very fine undulating spiral strise. 

Alt. 6, diam. 10 mill. 

Radula elongated, rhachidian teeth with greatly recurved apices, 
finely denticulated, laterals narrow-falciform, uncini large, sigmoid. 

Formula 17-(l)-9-(l)-17. (Krause.) 

St. Lmvrence Bay, Behring Sea. 

M. Frielei Krause, Archiv f Naturgeschichte, 1885, p. 263, t. 
16, f. 2 (shell and radula). 

The shell is very similar to that of M. argentata Gld., but the 
characters of the radula are much more like that of Solariella. The 
animal is colorless ; it has 5 epipodial cirrhi on each side, and small 
frontal lappets. 

M. UNDULATA Sowcrby. PL 39, figs. 36-39 ; pi. 64, figs. 42, 43, 44. 

Shell umbilicate, conical, thin but rather solid, lusterless, varying 
from a dark flesh tint to yellowish in color; surface covered with 
fine sharply-cut spiral riblets, irregular in size, generally alternat- 
ing larger and smaller, about 10-12 in number on the penultimate 
whorl in large specimens, much less prominent on the base except 
around the umbilicus. Below the suture there is a series of little 
folds or puckerings, more or less obvious on different individuals. 
The spire is conical, elevated, the apex minute, acute ; sutures well 
impressed ; whorls 6, convex, the last very obtusely subangular at 
the periphery, rather flattened beneath ; aperture very oblique, 
nearly round ; margins simple, converging, joined by a short parietal 
callous; umbilicus deep, rather funnel-shaped, its margin not dis- 
tinctly angular. Alt. 8-9, diam. 10 mill. 

New England, England, Scandinavia, north to Greenland. 

Margarita nnditlata SowB. Mai. and Conch. Mag. i, p. 26, 1838 ; 
Conch. Illust., f 4.— Gould, Invert. Mass., p. 254, f 172.— Reeve, 
Conch. Syst., t. 221, f 4. — Sowb. in Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 2 ; Gould, 
edit. Binney, Inv. Mass., p. 280, f. 541. — Trochus undulatm Phil- 
ipri Conchyl. Cab., p. 251, t. 37, f 13, 14.— Forbes & Hanley 
Hist. Brit. Moll., ii, p. 528, t. 68, f 1, 2 ; t. 73, f 5, Q.— Turbo in- 
carnatus Couthouy, Bost. Journ. N. H. ii, p. 98, t. 3, f 13. — Mar- 



MARGARITA. 291 

garita s^r«(^a Leach iu Appendix to Eoss's Voyage to North Pole 
(inadequately defined, but from types, teste Forbes & Hanley). — 
Gray, Zoo). Journ. ii, p. 567. — Turbo carneus Lowe, Zool. Journ. 
ii, p. 107, t. 5, f. 12, 13 ; Brit. Mar. Conch., p. 170. — Margarita 
carnea Sowb. Mai. and Conch. Mag., p. 25 ; Conch., Illust. f. 9. — 
Brown, Conch. G. Brit., p. 17, t. 10, f. 36, 37. — Trochus groiilandi- 
cus umbilieatus, etc., Chemnitz, Conchylien Cab., v, p. 108, 1. 171, f. 
1671 (1781), (not binomial). — T. grcenlandicus Chem. Jeffreys, 
Brit. Conch, iii, p. 298, t. 61, f. 5. — (not T. gronlandicns Chem. 
Philippi, Conchy]. Cab., p. 247, t. 37, f. 5, a form probably equaling 
M. helicina or M. umbilicalis). — Margarita grdnlandica Sars, Moll. 
Reg. Arct. Norvegise, p. 133, t. iii, f. 9 (Dentition). — M. sulcata Sowb. 
Mai. and Conch. Mag. i, p. 26 ; Conch. Illust., f. 1. — Sowb. in Reeve, 
Conch. Icon., f. 3. — Trochus rossii, Phil., Conchyl. Cab., p. 288, t. 
42, f. 9. — M. grmnlandica Chemn. Leche, Kongl. Sw. Vetensk. 
Akademiens Handlingar, xvi, p. 40. 1878, and var.s. rudis, kevigata 
Morch, intermedia nov. (Nova Zembla). — M. undidata Sowb. MiD- 
dendorp'F, Mai. Roj^sica, ii, p. 72. — T. cinerareus O. Fab. Fauna 
Groenl., p. n92.— T.fabricii Phil., Conchyl. Cab., p. 284, t. 42, f. 2. 
The spiral riblets are much finer and more numerous than in M.. 
cinerea. Jeffreys describes var. albida, shell whitish ; var. dilatata, 
more depressed and expanded at the sides, encircled on the upper 
part by only a few spiral strise or impressed lines ; var. Icevior 
smaller, more conical, solid and glossy, quite smooth with the excep' 
tion of one or two slight spiral ribs on the uppermost Avhorls, flesh 
color. The M. undulata is a common species in collections; I have 
seen numerous specimens of the form nearly smooth beneath. The 
subsutural folds are often obsolete or nearly so. Sowerby's M. sul- 
cata is figured on pi. 39, fig. 60. Philippi's poor figures of T. rossii 
(=8ulcata Sowb. teste Phil. !) are given on pi. 39, figs. 40, 41. 

The T. cinerareus Fah. , fabricii Phil., is figured on PI. 39, figs. 
53, 54. It is probably a variety. 

M. cinerea Couthouy. PI. 44, figs. 20 ; pi. 60, fig. 29 ; pi. 44, fig. 
25 ; pi. 37, fig. 5. 

Shell umbilicate, conical, thin, cinereous or brownish colored; 
surfiice lusterless, finely, sharply densely obliquely striate, spirally 
Urate ; the lirse are coarse and unequal, 2 to 4 being more prominent 
on the upper surface, those on the base are decidedly smaller, closer. 



292 MARGARITA. 

more regular and equal, 8 to 12 in number; base radiately densely 
striate ; upper part of the whorls often with small ill-defined folds. 
Spire elevated ; apex minute, rather obtuse ; upper three whorls 
strongly carinate ; antepenultimate generally bicarinate ; last whorl 
subangular at the circumference, flattened, only slightly convex on 
the base ; aperture subcircular, slightly subangular above and at 
base of the columella, oblique, lined with silvery iridescent nacre; 
outer lip simple, columellar lip a little straightened in the middle, 
forming an obtuse angle at its junction with the basal lip ; umbilicus 
marked only by growth-lines within, bounded by an angle. 
Alt. l],diam. 10 mill. 

Massachusetts, Hebrides, Norway vorthward ; BeJirivg Sea. 

Margarita striata Brod. & Sowb. in Zool. Journ. iv, 1829, p. 371. 
— SowERBY, Mai. and Conch. Mag. i, p. 25 ; Conch. III., £ 3, 18.— 
MiDDENDORFF, Mai. Rossica ii, p. 74.— Sowb. in Reeve, Conch. 
Icon., f. 7 (Not M. striata Leach). — 31. maxima Sowb., /. c, f. 24. — 
Turbo cinereus Couthouy, Journ. Bost. Soc. N H. ii, p. 99, t. 3, f. 
9 (1838'39).— Jf. cinerea Gould, Invert, of Mass., p. 252 ; Binney's 
ed., p. 279, fig. 539.— DeKay, N. Y. Moll, p. 108, t. 6, f. 113.— 
Sars, Moll. Reg. Arct. Norv., p. 134, t. 9, f 1 ; t. 21, f. 4, 5 ; t. iii, f. 
11 (Dentition). — Tr. cinereus Couth. Jeff., Brit. Conch, v (suppl ), 
p. 202. — Leche, Kongl. Sven. Vet. Akademieus Handl., xvi, p. 42 
(Nova Zembla!). — (not Tr. cineretis Da Costa, Brit. Conch., p. 42, 
t. 3, f. 9, 10, and of some other English authors, a species synony- 
mous with the West Indian Tr. (Omphalius) excavatvs Jjam.). — 31. 
sordidaHAyscocK, Ann. & Mag. N. H. 1846, xviii, p. 324. — Trochus 
polaris Phil., Conchyl. Cab., p. 249, t. 37, f 9. — Turbo corneus 
KiENER, Species et Icon, genre Turbo, t. 19, f. 2. — Trochvs corneus 
Fischer, Coq. Vivantes, p. 70, 1. 19, f. 2 (genre Turbo).— 31a rgarita 
cornea Sowerby in Reeve, Conch. Icon., f 21. — T. {Margarita) 
beecheyanus von Martkns, Mai. Blatter, xix, p. 89, t. 3, f 1, 2. — 
M. striata Brod. & Sby. Friele, Norwegian North Atlantic Expedi- 
tion, Moll., ii, p. 31, and var. margaritifera Friele, I. c, p. 32, t. 
12, f. 2, 3. 

A variable species. The dense fine striation, coarse spiral liration 
of the upper surface and more finely, regularly lirate base are the 
more obvious characters. In some specimens the basal lirse are 
almost obsolete except around the umbilicus ; figs. 27, 28, pi. 60, 



MARGARITA. 293 

represent very young shells ; fig. 29, pi. 60 is the var. grandis of 
Morch ; fig. 25. pi. 44, is the M. maxima of Sowerby ; tig. 20, pi. 44 
is copied from the original figure of T. eorneus Kiener. The 
typical form is figured on pi. 64, figs. 53, 54. The T. beech eyanus 
Martens is figured on pi. 44, figs. 26, 27. I am unable to find char- 
acters separating it from einerea. 

Var. MARGARiTiFERA Friele. PI. 66, fig. 100, 1. 

The shell broad coniform, rather thin, with a strong mother-of-pearl 
luster ; 5 whorls, cimnected by a shallow suture. The sculpture 
consists of 4 to 5 angular spiral ribs on the ultimate whorl, and 
2 to 3 on the spire whorls ; apex smooth ; on the lower surface of the 
shell, which is rather flattened, close spiral striae occur ; the shell 
otherwise is smooth, except that toward the aperture there are some 
faint lines of growth ; umbilicus narrow. Alt. 5j, diam. 54 mill. 

This is the most beautiful shell found in the Arctic Ocean. It has 
a luster equal to the most brilliant pearl. The umbilicus is strik- 
ingly narrower than in the typical form. (^Friele). 

Arctic Ocean, East of Greenland, S50 fms. 

M. scHANTARiCA Middeudorff. PI. 47, figs. 84-88. 

Shell perforate, conoid-convex, apex obtuse, thin, dark slate-gray, 
buff around the umbilicus, with spots of dull black below the 
periphery ; whorls convex, encircled by stride ; last whorl large, 
scarcely an gulated, base a little convex, suture distinct; aperture 
large, suborbicular, peristome subcontinuous ; columella subproduced 
at base ; umbilicus partly closed by the columellar lip. 

Alt. 21, diam. 22 mill. ; all. 21, diam. 19 mill. (Jlidd.). 

Schantar Is., Sea of Ockhotsk. 

Trochus schantaricus Midd., Mem. de I'Acad. de St. Petersb. vi, 
ser., viii, p. 413 ; Reise in Siberiens, ii, Zoologie, p. 204, t. 18, f 1-7 
(1851) ; Beitr. zu Mai. Rossica, ii, p. 85 (1847).— T. modestus Midd., 
Beitr. zu einer Mai. Rossica, ii, p. 85, t. 10, f. 16-18 {\d>Al).— Mar- 
garita modesta Midd. Sowb., Conch. Icon., f. 23. 

The line-like, elevated longitudinal strise of the sculpture are only 
weak, but are pretty sharply defined. They encircle the whorls at 
regular distances from each other, and are about one-fourth the 



294 MARGARITA. 

width of their interstices. Sometimes there are still more delicate 
secondary threads between them. Of the first I count 10-12 on the 
penultimate whorl. Upon the base of the last whorl the ridges 
become broader and broader. In the vicinity of the umbilicus they 
exceed double the breadth of the intervening furrows. The layer 
which this sculpture principally composes, is for the rest only about 
the thickness of a coat of varnish ; and beneath it, showing very 
slight traces of longitudinal striae, appears silvery mother-of-pearl, 
which shines on the whorls of many specimens while still living. The 
most usual color is a dark slate-gray, through which the pearly 
layer, as through a heavy gauze, faintly shines. But if one still 
closer follows the color-changes, we find upon the pearly layer 
a thick yellow one, visible also from outside on the base, for it 
extends over the whole umbilical tract as far as the inner lip. 
Usually this yellow tract merges into the ground color around its 
circumference ; more seldom it is sharply defined. In some speci- 
mens this yellow color predominates over the whole shell. But 
usually it is covered by the slate-color, which on the base through 
separated flames passes into the above-described yellow umbilical 
spot. (Midd.) 

The T. modedus of Midd., seems to me to be very closely allied, 
perhaps only a variety. The name is preoccupied by Philippi. The 
description, translated in fidl, is as follows: 

T. modestus Midd. (pi. 47, figs. 89-91). Shell couoidal, apex 
acute, reddish-brown, encircled by elevated lurid lines ; when decor- 
ticated the stratum beneath is pearly, azure. AVhorls little convex, 
encircled by sharply cut longitudinal [spiral] striie ; last whorl sub- 
angulate, base couvexo-plane, concentrically striate ; aperture sub- 
orbicular, pearly, white ; umbilicus closed. 

Alt. 15, diam. 14 mill. (Midd.). 

The elevated sculpture strife which encircle the whorls, are very 
clearly cut on the entire spire, double as narrow as the intervening 
furrows ; 6-7 are upon the penultimate, 5 on the antepenultimate, 
and 4 on the next earlier whorl ; 10 strite encircle the last whorl 
above, and as many upon the base ; the innermost of the latter 
extend to the columella, and a few of them are also visible within 
the aperture. The interstices between the stride are brown-red, and 
sometimes have a trace of a secondary thread. The elevated stripe 



MARGARITA. 295 

themselves are brownish-yellow, when the very thin layer of colored 
calcareous matter is eroded, a beautiful azure-blue nacre is revealed. 

Sitka. 
This species I have not seen. It may belong near Gihhnla fidgens 
Gld., perhaps. 

I do not know whether Sowerby had the true modestus of Midd., 
or not. His figure is copied on pi., 37, fig. 8. His monograph of 
Margarita in Reeve's Iconica contains more blunders than any work 
I have ever seen, unless some other papers by the same author prove 
to be excej^tions. 

M. pupiLLA Gould. PL 44, figs. 29-32. 

Shell narrowly umbilicated, conical, solid, lusterless, ashen or 
whitish ; surface spirally traversed by unequal cord-like lirse, sepa- 
rated by sharply crispate-striate interspaces, as wide or wider than 
the ridges. The latter are nearly smooth or show traces of the 
oblique striation ; upon the last H whorls there is usually a spiral 
thread in the inter-liral spaces ; above this there are 4 or 5 lirae 
on each whorl. Upon the base the concentric riblets decrease regu- 
larly in size from the center outward, and number about 12. The 
spire is elevated ; apex subacute ; sutures impressed ; whorls 6, con- 
vex, the last obtusely angled, flattened beneath ; aperture very 
oblique, rounded, iridescent inside; peristome simple, columella 
arcuate, subreflexed at the umbilicus, often nearly closing it, united 
with the upper termination of the lip by a parietal callous ; umbilicus 
bounded by a carina, funnel-shaped, its perforation very small. 

Alt. 13, diam. 12 mill. 

Alaska to Monterey, Cal. 

Trochus pnpilliis Goulb, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H. iii, p. 91 (1850). 
— U. S. Expl. Exped., Moll, and Shells, p. 186, atlas, f. 208 (not 
Cantharidvs pupillus ' Gld.' Hutton, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W. ix, 
p. 362, and other places). — Margarita pupiMa of Carpenter and 
American authors generally. — Dale, Am. Journ. Conch, vii, p. 127. 
— M. calostoma A. Ad., P. Z. S. 1851, p. 190. — 31. inflata Carpen- 
ter, Proc. Acad. N. S. Phila. 1865, p. 62. — M. mimonea Carpenter, 
Proc. Cal. Acad. N. Sci. iii, p. 158 (1864). 

A very variable shell. Southward the color becomes deeper, of 
a salmon hue, and the sculpture finer. Compare Tr. modestus Midd., 
and Tr. beechyanus von Martens. 



296 MARGARITA. 

M. (?) NUDiuscuLA Martens. Unfigiired. 

Shell perforated, conical, bicarinate, pearly ; whorls 4j, gradate, 
the first 2 3'ellowish, smooth, the following ones denuded-pearly, 
beneath the suture sculptured with a series of nodules and smooth 
spiral lirse, few in number or evanescent ; last whorl with elevated 
concentric lines on the base, stronger on the periphery, and radiat- 
ing impressed lines. Aperture rhomboid-rounded ; coluniellar 
margin concave, thickened, below a little expanded, edentulous. 

Alt. 4, diam. 4J mill.; apert., alt. 2, diam. 22 mill. (Martens.) 

East Coast of Patagonia, 43° S. lat. ; 60 fms. depth. 

Trochus {Margarita?) nudiuscuhis, Martens, in Sitzungsberichte 
Ges. Naturforsch. Freunde, Berlin, 1881, p. 77. 

Reminds one most of TV. nudus Phil., but is different in the 
sculpture and the open, though very narrow, umbilicus. (Martens?) 

M. CANFIELDI Dall. 

Shell of seven whorls, the last whcrl comprising more than half the 
shell. Above, sutures small but deeply channelled ; whorls smooth, 
with three revolving ribs close to the suture, also three or four on the 
lower part of the whorl. Color pearly, with bronze-yellow pencil- 
lings obliquely to the suture. Surface of the whorls rather flattened, 
semicarinated, convex. Shell umbilicated with nine basal revolving 
ribs. Umbilicus strongly carinate internally, smooth, narrow and 
small. Aperture rhomboidal, pearly, with grooves answering to the 
exterior ribs. Columella straight, with a slight callosity, but not 
reflected. {Dall.) Alt. "4; min. diam. "o, maj. diam. '4 in. 

Monterey, California. 

Gibbula canfieldi Dall, Am. Journ. Conch, vii, p. 129, 1871. 
(f CalUostoma Canfieldi Dall, MSS., 1866.) 
I have not seen this form. 

M. LiRULATA Carpenter. PI. 65, figs. 81, 82, 87. 

Shell umbilicate, globose-conical, solid, lusterless or slightly shin- 
ing, ])urplish, unicolored, or with large radiating white patches 
above, or around the periphery, or spiral darker lines, or spiral 
articulated lines. Surface either with (1st) a few C2-4) strong line 
above, their interspaces smooth, the base with about 8 concentric 
liruUie, or (2d) moi'e numerous narrow irregular lirulie above, those of 



MARGARITA. 



297 



the base still smaller, or (3d) the spiral sculpture obsolete, surface 
smooth or nearly so above and beneath. The spire is more or less 
elevated ; apex obtuse ; suture impressed, sometimes subcanaliculate ; 
body-whorl convex beneath ; aperture oblique, oval-rhomboidal, very 
brilliantly iridescent within, but the acute peristome has a rather 
broad marginal band of opaque white; columella simple; umbilicus 
tubular, with incremental stria? within. Alt. 4-5, diam. 4-5 mill. 

Sitka to San Diego, Cal. 

M. lirulata Carp, (and vars. subelevata, obsoleta and coiiica) Proc. 
A. N. S. Phil. 1865, p. 61 ; Suppl. Rep. Brit. Asso. 1864, p. 653.— 
31. var. tenuisculpta Carp. Proc. A. N. S. Phil. 1865, p. 61. — M. 
acuticostata Carp. Proc. Cal. Acad. 1864, iii, p. 157. — Gibbula 
optabilis Cpr. Proc. Cal. Acad, iii, p. 214.— Gibbula parcipida Cpr., 
Ann, and Mag. N. H. 1864, p. 426. — G. sucdnda, G. funieulata 
and G. lacunata Carp., I. c, p. 426, 427. — M. lirulata (Carp.) Dall, 
Amer. Journ. Conch, vii, p. 128. 

" After a careful study of the types of the above species, and a 
comparison of hundreds of specimens collected by Mr. Stearns and 
myself at Monterey and elsewhere, I am compelled to the belief that 
they are simply forms of one protean species. They are not even 
varieties capable of diagnosis ; for not only are the intermediate 
specimens as abundant as the nominal species, but the characters, 
singly, are interchanged without limitation." {Dall.) 

The above synonymy is adopted from Dr. Dall. The species, 
while in the highest degree variable, is easily known fi-om other West 
American Trochidoe. 

M. FULGiDA Jeffreys. PL 47, fig. 99. 

Shell globose-conical, rather thin, transparent, and of a bright 
luster ; sculpture, only some very fine and scratch-like spiral strise 
round the base; color clear white; spire raised; whorls 4, convex, 
somewhat flattened below the suture ; the last occupies four-fifths of 
the shell ; apex depressed and regularly spiral ; suture rather deep ; 
mouth circular, incurved above ; the peristome is not continuous or 
complete, but similar to that of other species in the present genus ; 
umbilicus narrow and deep ; operculum filmy, multispiral, with ob- 
scure lines to distinguish the whorls. 

Alt. -1, diam. .085 in. (Jeffreys.) 

X. Atlantic, lat. 48° 6', long. W. 9° 8'. 539 fms. 

T.fulgidus Jeffr. P. Z. S. 1883, p. 95, t. 20, f 1. 



298 



MARGARITA. 



M. MiNUTULA Jeffreys. PI. 47, figs. 4, 5. 

Shell pyraniidiil, rather solid for its minute size, opaque and 
polished ; sculpture none ; color white with a yellowish tinge ; spire 
raised ; whorls 6, moderately convex but compressed, regularly en- 
larging ; the last is slightly keeled un the periphery and occupies 
about two-fifths of the shell ; apex blunt ; suture distinct and rather 
deep ; mouth representing an arc of two-thirds of a circle, incurved 
just below the perij)hery, and somewhat expanded below ; umbilicus 
sunken, with a small and deep perforation in the middle. 

Alt. .0625, diam. .05 in. (Jeffreys.) 

N. Atlantic. 

T. mimdulus Jeffr. P. Z. S. 1883, p. 95, t. 20, f 2.—M. minima 
Seguenza (MS.) teste Jeffr. 1. c. 

Has been found fossel in the pliocene at Messina. 

M. LAMiXARuM Jeffreys. PI. 47, figs. 6, 7. 

Shell conical, rather thin, semitransparent and lusterless; sculpt- 
ure, numerous thin and delicate but jagged and irregular curved 
laminae in the line of growth, which do not extend to the umbilicus; 
there are about 40 on the last whorl, some of them double ; the inter- 
stices are quite smooth ; color light yellowish-brown ; sjjire raised; 
whorls 6, convex and rounded ; the last is equal to about two-fifths 
of the s{)ire ; apex twisted ; suture distinct ; mouth nearly circular ; 
outer lip thin, but thicker and expanding at the base and partly 
folded over the umbilical perforation ; umbilicus somewhat concave, 
with a small perforation. Alt. -15, diam. -1 in. (Jeffrey^.) 

Off Cape Mondego, 795-994 fms. 

T. laminarum Jeff., P. Z. S. 1883, p. 95, t. 20, f 3. 

M. CANCELLATA Jefl^reys. PI. 47, fig. 8. 

Shell forming a depressed cone, rather thin, opaque and lusterless ; 
sculpture, oblique laminar ribs in the line of growth which are 
crossed by as many but slighter spiral striie ; there are about 20 ribs 
and strife on the last whorl ; this sculpture covers the base, but the 
striie are wanting on the apex ; color pale yellowish-brown ; spire 
rather depressed ; whorls 5-6, convex ; the last occupies three-fifths 
of the shell ; apex regular and compressed ; mouth more round than 
oval, angulated above and below on the inner side ; outer lip some- 
what expanded and thickened ; inner lip nearly straight, attached to 



MAE(iARITA. 



299- 



the pillar below the periphery ; umbilicus rather narrow, with a 
■deep perforation which exposes the inner whorls. 
Alt. •], diaui. -15 in. {Jeff.) 

Josephine Bank, 340-430 fnis. 

T. cancellatus Jeff., P. Z. S. 1883, p. 96, t. 20, f. 4. 
Dall has expressed the opinion that this species is a Cydostrema or 
Adeorbis. 

M. BRYCHius Watson. PI. 64, fig. 50. 

Shell globosely depressed, with a small high spire, very thin, 
rather opaque, rough, dull, and slightly iridescent. Sculpture : The 
whole surface looks as if a rough epidermis were gathered into close, 
minute, obliquely longitudinal puckerings, with stronger folds about 
0*003 in. broad and 0-005 in. apart. These folds tend on the last 
whorl to disappear, except near the suture and toward the umbilicus. 
They are crossed by fourteen to sixteen fine round spiral threads, 
which at the crossing of each fold rise into knots. On the upper 
surface of the bodv-whorl they become very faint ; there are four on 
the penultimate whorl, the first being remote from the upper suture, 
the last close to the lower suture. Besides these, the surface is 
microscopically wrinkled spirally. Color a dead slightly grayish- 
white, which, toward the mouth, especially when wet, is faintly shot 
with a green and pink iridescence. Spire rather high, the earlier 
whorls being small and very much twisted out, so as to rise above 
one another by almost their entire height. The apex is round and 
blunt, and terminates abruptly, but all the earlier whorls have lost 
their outer layer. Whorls 5, very round, of very regular but rather 
rapid increase. Suture deeply and sharply impressed. Mouth 
rather oblique round, not descending brilliantly iridescent within. 
Outer lip thin, turning down to meet the ])illar-lip and carried across 
the short junction with the body by a thin nacreous callus, which is 
continued within, and is, in fiict, the completion of the whorl into a 
a tube. Inner lip slightly thickened, curved, just barely reflected. 
Umbilicus wide and pervious, expo.sing all the whorls, and strongly 
cross-hatched within by the S})iral and longitudinal threads. Oper- 
culum very thin, clear, and bright, with about eight faintly-defined 
turns, and marked with microscopic concentric lines. 

Alt. "64 in. diam. '87, lesser, "62 in. Penultimate whorl, 0'8.1 
JMouth, height 0*43, breadth 0-4 in. ( Watson.) 



300 MARGARITA. 

This shell slightly recalls Helix ericetoruni, Miill. but much niore- 
closely resembles some of the West Indian land-opercvilates, such 
as Aulopoma. With its semi-continuous peristome it very much re- 
calls a Cyclostrema, all the more so that it is less pearly within, less 
nacreous and more chalky, and less globosely conoidal than Margaritas 
usually are ; but I have no doubt that it is a Margarita. Trochus 
(Margarita) umbilicalis, Brod. and Sow , is vaguely like, but is very 
obviously different ; the apex is not so exserted as here, the whorls 
are of much more rapid increase, and form a much larger though 
lower spire; the last whorl is proportionally much more tumid and 
above is more flattened, the suture is much more oblique, the um- 
bilicus is very much smaller and more covered by the inner lip, and 
the hard, polished, buff-colored porcelanous outer layer of the shell 
(which is very like that in Trochus (Margarita) expansus. Sow.) is 
very unlike. ( Watson.) 

About 900 miles S. E. of Kergaelen, 1260 fms. 

T. (Margaritci) brychius Watson, Journ. Linn. Soc. Lond. xiv, 
p. 699 ; Challenger Gasterop., p. 77, t. 5, f. 7. 

M. charopus Watson. PI. 64, figs. 55, 56. 

Shell globosely conical, like a Cyclophorus, thin, translucent, 
umbilicated, iridescent, banded. Sculpture: Of spiral threads there 
are from twenty-five to thirty-five, sharply projecting, rounded, and 
fine on the last whorl ; of these, from three to seven are feebler 
than the rest; those on the base are continued within the mouth. 
The interstices are much broader than the threads. The whole sur- 
face is also fretted by microscopic spirals and stronger longitudinals, 
which follow the oblique lines of growth. Of the threads, six to 
thirteen appear on the penultimate whorl ; they begin with the 
second whorl, and there the longitudinals are rather dispropor- 
tionately strong and regular. The embryonic apex is faintly but 
coarsely tubercled. Color yellowish white, shot on the upper side 
with a dark iridescence ; the spirals are black, clouded, and broken 
with oblique longitudinal streaks of white. The spire is high and 
scalar. The apex, porcelanous and scarcely iridescent, is small, 
high, and mammillate, and consists of the one embryonic whorl, 
which is a little turned up on its side. Whorls 6, of gradual and 
regular increase, rounded, near the apex a little angulated by one 



MARGARITA. 301 

of the spirals. Suture well marked, angulated, but not sharply so. 
Mouth rather oblique, rounded, hardly angulated at the upper 
corner, not in the least descending, brilliantly iridescent within and 
showing the colored spirals of the outside. Outer lip thin, slightly 
puckered at the spirals, a little thickened on the base. Inner lip 
thickened and reflected, especially at its junction with the body 
where it almost covers the umbilicus. The pillar is much curved, 
and thins gradually out to its junction with the base. The um- 
bilicus is large and funnel-shaped on the base, deep, but small 
further in, contracted by a spiral white pillar-pad, and more than 
half covered over by the pillar-lip. Operculum rather thin, horny, 
yellow, with ten or twelve very gradual turns, which are strongly 
defined by a thickened line ; it is feebly marked with concentric 
and with radiating lines. 

Alt. 0-77 in., diam. 0-78, least 0-66. Penultimate whorl, 0-2. 
Mouth, height 04, breadth 0-4. ( Watson:) 

There is a Margarita striata. Leach (nee Linn, nee Brod.) which 
this resembles, but the Kerguelen species is very much more 
flattened and broader, and much more contracted in the spire. 

The variety coerulms (fig. 55) differs from the type in having 
only four spiral thi-eads above the periphery, while on tlie base 
below the peripheral thread the threads are also fewer, and are 
flattened out till they are barely parted by narrow lines of irides- 
cent white. With the exception of these and the white umbilicus, 
the base is of an intense blue-black gray. The comparative absence 
of the spirals on the upper part of the w4iorls gives a flatness to the 
aspect of the shell below the suture, while the strength of the second 
and fourth spirals gives an angulation to the whorls that is apt to 
mislead the eye, the more so that the only specimen of this variety 
has the whole spire completely covered with Polyzoa. In spite 
however, of its deceptive appearance, I am pursuaded that this is 
only a variety of Trochus charopus, the more so that the markino- 
on the embryonic Avhorl are identical. 

In form this variety especially recalls Margarita polaris, Beck 
(Geneva Mus. Coll. Delessert), as also in its distant rather sharp 
spirals and half covered umbilicus, but it is more depressed on the 
.base and flattened below the suture ; the whorls are of much more 



302 MARGARITA. 

rapid increase, the spirals on the base are very much more numerous^ 
and the shell is brilliant in polish and in color. ( Watson.) 

Kerguelen Id.; off Cumberland Bay, 105 fms. 

T. (Margarita) charopw Watson, Jour. Linn. Soc. Lond. xiv, p.. 
700 ; Challenger Gasterop., p. 78, t. 5, f. 6. Var; cccruleus, I. c. 

M. poMPHOLUGOTUs Watson. PI. 64, figs. 59. 

Shell depressedly globose, with a low turreted spire, thin, opaque, 
chalky, rough, umbilicate. Sculpture: There are of spirals on the 
last whorl about forty, low, rounded, very unecpial, some being very 
minute, one or two above the periphery stronger than the rest ; the 
lowest of all is mucli the strongest, and defines the umbilicus within 
which the whole sculpture increases in distinctness; on the penulti- 
mate whorl there are al)out twelve spirals fully stronger than on the 
last. The furrows are broader than the threacis, but as they widen 
are occupied by a minute intermediate thread. Longitudinally 
these spirals and furrows are crossed by much finer and sharper 
obli(]ue threads, which in general are much narrower than their 
interstices; but towards the mouth, where all the sculpture becomes 
feebler, these threads become extremely numerous and crowded. 
Color yellowish-chalky-white over brilliant nacre. Spire not much 
elevated, but a little scalar, apex eroded. Whorls 5, rounded, of 
rapid increase, inflated on the base. Suture impressed near the 
apex, while towards the mouth it becomes filled up, and is finely 
marginated, by the last whorl lapping up rather coarsely on the 
previous one. Mouth oblicjue, a little higher than it is broad, slightly 
flattened above, and a very little angulated at the insertion of the 
outer lip. Lip thin, a very little reflected on the umbilicus, porcela- 
neous on the edge, with a very slight pearly marginal callus, which 
is continuous across the body and nacreous within. Umbilicus large, 
funnel-shaped, quickly contracting, but leaving the whole inner spire 
visible. 

Alt. 0-38 in. diam. 0-4, least 0-33. Penuhimate whorl, O'l. Mouth, 
height 0-23, breadth 0-2. ( Watson.) 

Both in form and texture this species is extraordinarily like a 
depressed Cyclostoma. I have given it its name, in the absence of 
marked features, from its slight resemblance to a bubble. It has 
some resemblance to Trochus rhina Wats., when, as sometimes 
in that species, the sculpture is exceptionally obsolete ; but the sculpt- 



MARGARITA. 303 

lire is still very obviously different, and the form is globose, not, as 
in that species, high and conical. ( Watson.) 

North of Culebra Id., W. Indies, 390 fms. 

Tr. (Margarita') pompholugotus Watson, Journ. Linn. Soc. xiv, 
p. 702 ; Challenger Gasterop., p. 79, t. 5, f 9. 

M. iLLOTus Watson. PL 64, figs. 63, 64. 

Shell conical, with a tumid base, a scalar spire, and an impressed 
suture, uncarinated, umbilicated, sharply spiralled, thin, brilliantly 
nacreous, but with a squalid and dirty surface. Sculpture : Longitu- 
dinals — there are dense lines of growth and remote puckerings of the 
surface which might be called bars if they were continuous, but 
except within the umbilicus they are not uniformly so; they follow 
the lines of growth, and are thus very oblique ; they are stronger 
above than below the periphery. Spirals — much more marked than 
the longitudinals are the equal and regularly parted sharp spiral 
threads which score the whole surface. Of these there are two or three 
on the earlier whorls and four on all the later ; where they are 
crossed by the longitudinal puckerings, they rise into small delicate 
round white tubercles, which are sparse on the subsutural, and denser 
on the peripheral threads; the four spiral threads on the base are 
feebly dotted, but the two which lie near the umbilicus are somewhat 
more strongly tubercled than any of the rest; there are none within 
the umbilicus. Color white ; a thin calcareous layer covers the 
brillant nacre of the shell but is obscured by a dirty deposit which 
simulates an epidermis. Spire high and scalar. Apex broken. 
Whorls 6} remaining, of rapid but regular increase, rounded, with 
a short sloping shoulder above, and constricted below ; very tumid 
on the base, suture distinct and impressed by the constriction of the 
whorl above it. Mouth very perpendicular, roundly and gibbously 
oval, bluntly angulated at the insertion of the outer lip, and at the 
point of the pillar in front, dully nacreous within. Outer lip thin, 
not descending, well arched. Pillar-lip with a direct edge, concave, 
bending a good deal over the umbilicus ; it joins the basal lip at an 
angle just where the spiral thread on the edge of the umbilicus occurs. 
Umbilicus funnel-shaped and pervious, but a good deal contracted 
by the convexity of the pillar ; internally it is scored by longitu- 
dinal threadlets, and the strongly impressed suture coils around it 
within. Alt. 0'62 in. diam. 0"57. Penultimate whorl height 0'14. 
Mouth, height 0-31, breadth 0-26. ( Watson.) 



304 MARGARITA. 

I am haunted witli tlie impression of having somewhere seen this 
species, but can come on no more definite remembrance of it. It is 
connected with the Trochus ottoi, PhiL, group, and is not remote 
from Trochus (Mai'garita) infundibulum W., but is quite certainly 
distinct. 

It may be observed that I have put a mark of interrogation to the 
station whence this species comes. The solitary specimen had been 
sent to Mr. Henderson that he might deal with the Pagurus it con- 
tained. Mr. Henderson in handing it to me, expressed some doubt 
of the accuracy of the station marking, as the Pugurus living in the 
shell was a North Atlantic species. The Trochus itself also suggests 
to me that locality rather than the shallow water of a South Pacific 

locality like station 304. ( Watson.) 

North-iced Patagonia, 45 fms. 

T. {Margarita) illotus Watson, Challenger Re])t., Gasterop., p. 
86, t. 17, f." 8. 

M. STREPTOPHORUS Watson. PI. 64, figs. 65, 66. 

Shell ivory white, thin, conical, rounded at the peiiphery, um- 
bilicated, sculptured, and rough on the upper whorl. Sculpture : 
The upper whorls are dull, rough, reticulated, being crossed by 
oblique close-set riblets, scored by 7 or 8 fine round threads ; the 
riblets gradually degenerate into ])uckerings, which die out in the 
course of the penultimate whorl ; a necklace of little tubercles near 
the top of the puckerings becomes on this whorl double or treble, 
the tubercles being at the same time horizontally elongated ; in 
this whorl too a very obtuse feeble tubercled carination appears in 
the middle of the whorls; both this keel and the subsutural neck- 
lace die out toward the mouth ; the edge of the umbilicus is 
angularly keeled ; outside of the keel is a strongish, but depressed 
thread ; besides this stronger sculpture the whole surface is scored 
with very fine lines of growth and still more microscopic spiral 
scratches. Color white, dead above, and with the gloss and beauty 
of ivory below, where a faint pearly nacre gleams through. Spire 
somewhat raised, scalar. Apex small mammillated, but prominent. 
Whorls 6], high and convex, more or less angulated above the 
periphery, of regular but rapid increase ; the last large, with a 
round but slightly flattened base, and with a large marginated 
funnel-shaped umbilicus, within which the lines of growth are very 
strong. Suture strong marginated. Mouth largish, round. Outer 
lip thin beveled off from the inside to a sharp edge, nacreous 



MARGARITA. 305 

within. Inner lij) strong, concave, patulouhJ, tliickened and angu- 
lated at point of the ])illar where tlie umbilical keel joins it. Uni- 
bilicus funnel-shaped, pervious ; a deeply marked suture coils up 
within it. 

Alt. 0-46 in., diam. 0-46. Penultimate whorl, height 0-14. Mouth, 
height 0-25, breadth 0-23 in. ( Watson.) 

This is a singularly beautiful shell. It is connected in a general 
way with the group to which Trochus (6xystele) euspira, Dall. 
(Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1883, p. 98, pi. xx, fig. 6) belongs. In that 
species the umbilicus is large when the shell is young, and fills up 
entirely when the shell is full grown. ( Watson.) 

S. E. of Philippines, 500 fms. 

T. (Margarita) streptophorus Watson, Challenger Gasteroj)., p. 
91, t. 17, f. 4. 

M. sciNTiLLANS AVatsou. PI. 64, fig. 62. 

Shell small, thin, white, very depressedly conoidal, angulated, 
tumid on the base, umbilicated ; mouth semioval. Sculpture : It 
is perfectly smooth but for some curved puckerings which radiate 
from the umbilicus, but very soon die out; above the middle the 
body-whorl is roundly angulated. Color pure white, with a trans- 
parent calcareous layer over brilliant fiery pearly nacre. Spire very 
depressedly conical. Apex bluntly rounded, with a minute hyaline, 
depressed embryonic tip. Whorls 4' barely convex. Suture slightly 
impressed. Mouth semi-oval. Outer lip thin, barely angulated at 
the periphery. Pillar-lip straight, patulous, right-angled at its 
junction with the l)ase. Umbilicus small. 

Alt. 0-14 in., diam. 0-2, least 016. Penultimate whorl 0-025. 
Mouth, height 0*09, breadth 0-11. ( Watson.) 

The specimen from which I have described this is neither full 
grown nor perfect, but the species is a ver}^ well-marked one. It is 
much more depressed and has the whorls less rounded than Trochus 
(Margarita) euspira, Dall. Than Trochus helicinus, Fabr., it is 
much more depressed, much more brilliantly nacreous, and the 
surface is much more polished, and the radiating puckers are nuich 
.stronger. ( TFatsox.) 

Off Culebra Id., W. hid., 390 fms. 

T. (Margarita f) scintiUans Watson, Journ. Linn. Soc. Lond. 
xiv, p. 712 ; Challenger Kept., p. 91, t. 5, f. 2. 
20 



306 MARGARITA. 

M. ERYTHROCOMA Dall. PI. 48, fig. 15. 

Shell small depressed conic, yellowish, variegated and articidated 
with rose-pink and opaque white ; whorls rounded, 4 or 5 in nuniber, 
with a minute smooth nucleus ; generally a little cariiiated on the 
upper surface, especially the earlier whorls, by one or two prominent 
spiral riblets ; below full and rounded, with a small but well-marked 
umbilicus. Radiating sculpture of the lines of growth occasionally 
irregular so as to form faint waves, but usually inconspicuous ; 
soiral sculpture of fine close little-raised threads, with on the upper 
surface one and on the periphery another stronger thread or carina- 
tion, seldom nodulous, and stronger on tlie earlier whorls ; the spirals 
are usually articulated with rose-red and opaque white or greenish- 
yellow. The base is rounded, finely spirally threaded, umbilicus not 
carinated nor marked by special sculpture. Aperture rounded, 
oblique, the margins a little angulated above, thin, simple, joined by 
a thin layer of callus on the body. 

Alt. of largest specimen 5, max. diam. 5'25, diam. of base 4 mill. 
{DalL) 

Off Sand Key, In 54 fms. ; Sainana Buy, St. Domingo, and Nassau, 
Baliamas. 

M. erythrocoma Dall, Rep. on ' Blake ' Gasterop., Bull. M. C. Z. 
xviii, p. 375, t. 28, f. 1 (1889). 

Var. ? SAMAN.E Dall. Shell more depressed, last whorl propor- 
tionately larger and aperture much more oblique ; umbilicus twisted 
nearly closed, white, with radiating flexuous strife ; shell colored like 
the typical form, and with similar early whorls. 

Alt. 4'75, max. diam. of base 5'75, min. diam. 4-25 mill. 

Samana Bay. 16 fms. 

This very pretty little species occurs with Liotia miniata in 
moderate depths of water. The specimen from 54 fms. was probably 
drifted. It may be distinguished from the Liotia, which is about the 
same size, by the different characters of aperture and umbilicus. 
There is no northern species which resembles it. (DalL) 

Section Bathymophila Dall, 1881. 

Bathymophila Dall, Bull. M. C. Z. ix, p. 102 ; I. c. xviii, p. 378. 
M. EUSPiRA Dall. PL 51, fig. 24 ; pi. 47, figs. 1, 2, 3. 

Shell conical, shining, pearly white, elevated, with a rather obtuse 
apex ; five-whorled, the nucleus translucent, white, and with a 



MAROARITA-SOLARIELLA. 307 

sculpture of strong revolving threads, of vvliich that nearest to the 
suture is most pronounced, and continues, at first sharp, then with 
slight waves, then with oblique waves like the " lay " of a stranded 
rope, and on the last whorl as a succession of well-elevated pinched- 
up points forming a band next the suture; the others disappear on 
the third whorl, and for tlie re-^t the shell is only marked hv faint 
lines of growth here and there, a little more pronounced in the vicinity 
of the umbilical calli's; jjc .iphery with a tendency to carination, 
base rounded ; aperture oblique, rounded, margin sharp, simple, 
pillar stout, thick, inseparable from a thick white callus which forms 
a lump over the umbilical pit; end of pillar (broken in specimens 
seen so tar) ajjparenti}' forming a sort of lump or thickened an'>-le. 
Suture distinct throughout. 

Alt. O'To, major diam. 6, diam. of aperture, 8 mill.; dett. some- 
what less than 90°. {Ddll.) 

Gulf of Mexico off Calebra LI., etc. 890-805 fms. ; uho North 
Atlantic. 

MJ empira Dall. Bull. M. C. Z. ix, p. 44, 18«1.— J/. (Buthymo- 
phlla) euHpira and var. nitens Jeff, (nis.) Dall, I. c, p. 102 ; Bull. M. 
C. Z. xviii, p. 878, t. 32, f. 8, \^m.— Trochas (O.qistele) euspira Dall 
Jeffreys, P. Z. S. 1888, p. 98, t. 20, f. 6. 

The diam. of my largest specimen is about 9 mill. This pretty 
shell is extremely variable as regards the height of the spire and the 
sculpture. Some specimens are quite smooth ; others are spirally 
striated throughout. Or on the body whorl only, or on the upper 
wh(jrls, or ruund the umbilicus; some (var. coroiuita) have a row of 
beads below the suture. In all ui}- specimens there is a minute 
tubercle on the broad and fretted pillar juei/r its base, but not at its 
base. ^ ;!< ^ The young are always umbilicate. {Jeffr.) 

Subg3nas SOLARIELLA Searles Wood. 

Solarlella Searles Wood, Cat. shells from the Crag, in Ann. and 
Mag. Nat. Hist., ix, p. 531 (1842). Type, S. viaculata S. Wood. — 
Carpenter, Proc. Cal. Acad, iii, p. 157. — Fischer, Manuel de 
Conch., p. 826 (not Solarlella Adams, Gen. Rec. Moll. p. 431, = 
Mlnolla Ad.). — Solarlella ' A. Ad.' Dall, Bull. M. C. Z. xviii, 
p. 378. — Machceroplax Friele, Tungebevsebningen hos de Norske 
Rhipidoglossa, in Archiv f. Mathematik og Naturvidenskab, Chris- 
tiana, ii, p. 311, 1877. — Sars, Moll. Reg. Arct. Norv., p. 136, 1878. 
Type, M. affxal-i Jeffr. 



308 



SOLA RI ELLA. 



This genus was founded by Wood for an English Crag fossil 
Trochid, conical in form, with tubular whorls and deep umbilicus, 
its margin crenulated. The type species, S. macnlata, is closely 
allied to the recent S. amahilis of Jeffreys. The name has been 
erroneously used by the brothers Adams for a group of tropical, 
broadly umbilicated, tubular-whorled Trochids, which later received 
the name Minolia. In 1877, Herman Friele instituted the genus 
3Iach(Broplax (type M. affinis Jeffr. ,^aviabilis Jeffr. var.), giving as 
diagnostic charactei's the short broad radula, with few (about 10) 
uncini, and these much larger and differently formed than in 
Margarita. The characters of radula may be compared thus: 



Margarita. 

Radula long. 

Median teeth 9-13, subequal, 
with I'ecurved serrate cusps, 
and an outer obsolescent cusp- 
less ])late lying between the 
perfect median teetii and the 
uncini. 

Uncini very numerous, the a])ices 
recurved, denticulate. 



Machceopla.v (^=Solariella). 

Radula short, broad. 

Median teeth 5-7, subequal, with 
serrate cusps, the obsolescent 
outer lateral of Margarita re- 
placed by a well-developed 
tooth with denticulate cusp. 

Uncini few (about 10), large, 
falciform, with entire or feebly 
denticulate ed^es. 



The little group separated by the writer under the name Conotro- 
chns may, as Dr. Dall has suggested to me, belong to Solariella; but 
as its relations seem to be equally close to Minolia, I include it for the 
present in that genus as a section. (See page 197, 2H8.) 

The dentition and operculum of 8. varicosa ai-e figured on pi. 50, 
figs. 7, 17. 

S. OBSCUEA Couthony. PI. 57, figs. 44, 45. 

Shell umbilicate, conical, thin, ashen, whitish or reddish in color ; 
surface lusterless, the dull outer layer very thin, overlying a brill- 
iantly iridescent nacre. Sculpture consisting of a rather prominent 
spiral ridge or carina at the shoulder of each whorl, beneath which, 
on the peripheral portion of the whorl, there are several (generally 
3 to 6) smaller lirje, often subobsolete ; the entire base sometimes 
shows fine low concentric lira", but usually they nearly disappear 
there, becoming visible again around the umbilicus; there are often 
traces of a few obscure spiral riblets above the supra-peripheral 
carina. Longitudinally the entire surface is marked by regular. 



SOLARIELLA. 309 

rather close waves or folds, so low and obtuse as to be frequently 
almost indistinguishable. The spire is conical ; apex rather blunt ; 
apical whorl rather prominent, reddish, corneous or purplish, smo3th, 
rounded; suture impressed; whorls 5-2, convex, tubular, the last 
slightly convex beneath and carinated around the umbilicus. The 
aperture is oblique, circular, its margins thin and arcuate ; there is 
a slight angle at the base of the columellar lip. 

Alt. 8, diam. 9 mill. ; frequently smaller. 

New England Northward; Nova Zembla ; Scandinavia; Behr- 
ing Sea. 

Turbo obscurus Couthouv, Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist, ii, p. 100, t. 
3, f. 2. — Margarita obscura Couth. Gould, Invert, of Mass., p. 253, 
fig. 171 ; Binxey'8 edit., p. 283, f 545. — Leche, Kongl. Sw. Vet- 
Akad. Handl. xvi, p. 44, and var. intermedia, t. 2, f. 25, and cinerece 
formis, p. 45. — Machceroplax obscura Couth. Sars, Moll. Reg. Arct. 

Norv., p. 137, t. 9, f. 5. Troehus obscurus Couth. Phil., Conchyl. 

Cab., t. 41, f. 3. — Machceropla.v obscura var. planula Verrill, 
Trans. Conn. Acad. Sci. v, p. 531 (1882), and var. carinata 
Verrill, 1. c, p. 532. 

Var. planula Verrill. 

Another form of 3f. obscura frequently occurs south of Cape Cod, 
in 15 to 30 fms. In this the base is nearly smooth, with the radiat- 
ing ribs obsolete, or indicated merely by bands of brownish color, 
while the spiral lines are entirely wanting, or occur only near the 
periphery, and often in the umbilicus, which may or may not be de- 
fined by an angular border. The body-whorl usually has three or 
four more or less distinct, but Ioav, angular spiral cinguli, of which 
the first, just below the suture, usually forms only a slight ridge on 
the flattened subsutural band, and is often entirely absent : the second, 
midway between the suture and periphery, is the largest, most 
prominent, and most constantly present ; below this there may be 2 
or 3 evident carinie, or these may be absent, or replaced by several 
fine spiral cinguli. Transverse low ribs or undulations may be more 
or less distinct on all the whorls, but more frequently are present on 
the upper whorls, and obsolete, or nearly so, on the lower ones. 
( Verrill.) Scarcely distinct enough from obscura for a vai'ietal name 

Var. CARINATA Verrill. 

This has the form and the large umbilicus of M. obscura, but its 
strong, spiral carinje and the distinct spiral carina around the um- 



310 SOLARIELLA. 

bilious cause it to resemble Margarita einerea. The body-whorl has 
a distinct subsutural carina and three well-separated, strong, raised 
carinaj below it, the fourth forming a peripheral keel ; sometimes 
smaller intermediate ones occur between the third and fourth, and 
two or more smaller ones below the periphery ; in some examples 
distinct incised spiral lines cover the whole of the base and inner 
surface of the umbilicus, while a strongly-marked carina, with a 
deeper groove each side of it, defines the umbilicus. Transverse un- 
dulations are usually well marked on the upper w-horls, and some- 
times on the base. There are no lamellose lines of growth, so 
characteristic of M. einerea; and the umbilicus is much larger than 
in the latter. {Vtrrlll.') 

Off Marthcis Vineyard, in 146 to 335 fms. 

Var. L.EVis Friele. PI. 66, figs. 94, 95, 96. 

Shell thin, light flesh-colored, having a faint tinge of mother-of- 
pearl luster, broad coniform ; 5 tumid whorls, of which the ultimate 
one is frequently somewhat flattened on the lower surface ; forming 
thus, a faint angular margin below the periphery ; the spire short 
but pointed ; suture deep ; the aperture oblique, oval ; the outer lip 
sharp ; umbilicus somewhat wide, and deep. The sculpture some- 
times shows only faint lines of growth, and is otherwise perfectly 
smooth ; sometimes there are indistinct indications of spiral grooves. 

Alt. 6, diam, 6> mill. (Friele.) 

Arctic Ocean, East of Greenland, 300-350 fms. 

S. Icevis Friele, Norwegian North-Atlantic Expedition, Moll., ii, 
p. 30, t. 12, f 4, 5, 6, 1886. 

The species included in this genus appear to be, in a very great 
degree, polymorphous; and although this beautiful smooth form is 
so very unlike all the others of the genus known, yet 1 am not 
certain but that transitions to Sol. obscara Couth, will be traceable- 
The traces of spiral sculpture appearing on a couple of specimens 
of S. hevis would appear to indicate this. (Friele.) 

Var. BELLA (Verkriizen) Sars. PI. 64, figs. 57, 58. 

Shell rather solid, white, pearly, globose-conoid, the spire moder- 
ately produced ; whorls 5, subangular, regularly increasing, the last 
less depressed than in J/, obscura, separated by a distinct, scarcely- 
impressed suture ; aperture dilated beneath, and distinctly angulate ; 
outer lip thin, irregularly indented, inner lip incurved; umbilicus 
large, dee]), circular, its margin lightly defined; surface with rather 



SOLARIELLA. 311 

prominent spiral ribs, 4 on the last, 2 or 3 on the penultimate whorl, 
clathrate with elevated, distant longitudinal lines ; bat-e sculptured 
with about 10 im])ressed spiral lines, decussated by arcuate lines. 

Alt. 6\, diam. 7 mill. 

Norwegian coast; Off Cajie Cod, Mass.; Off Cape Sal/e, Nova 
Scotia in 90 fms., etc. 

Margarita bella Verkruzen, Jahrb. d. ]Mal. Gesellsch. 187-"), p. 
236 (no description).— il/ac/iccro79Z«:c hella Verkr. Sars, Moll. Reg. 
Arct. Norv., p. 137, t. 9, f. 4. — Machceroplax obscura var. bella Verkr. 
Verrill, Trans. Conn. Acad. Sci. v, p. 531 (1882).— i)/. bella Verkr. 
Verrill, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 1880, p. 378. 

I have no doubt of the intergradation of the forms bella, obsev.ra 
and Imvis. These three form a series varying from highly-sculptured 
to smooth. Verrill's observations on M. bella as dredged by him off 
the New England coast are as follows : It differs from the typical 
obscura chiefly in having the base covered with distinct incised 
spiral lines. In some specimens the curved radiating ribs or un- 
dulations on the base are well marked, as in the typical form, in 
others they are more or less obsolete. The presence of a slight spiral 
carina, or angle, bordering the umbilicus, is variable in both forms, 
being in some specimens, pretty well developed, in others entirely 
absent. The sculpture on the upper whorls is also variable in both 
varieties. The transverse ribs are usually more evident in var. 
bella, but they ai'e often equally evident in typical obscura. 

S. VARicosA Mighels and Adams. PI. 66, figs. 16, 17. 

Shell small, thin, low, conical, of a dingy white or drab color; 
whorls 4, convex, covered with numerous longitudinal oblique ribs ; 
intersected by a great number of revolving strife, which are most 
conspicuous on the lower part and base of the lower whorl. The 
striae on the upper part of the whorls can only be seen with a 
magnifier. Suture distinct, subcanaliculate ; umbilicus rather large 
and deep, bounded by two rather rugged varices, intersected by the 
ribs which are continued to the verge of the umbilicus. Aperture 
circular; labrum simple, sharp; within pearlaceous. 

Alt. 6i, diam. 6] mill. (Migh. and Ad.) 

Newfoundland Northward ; Norway; Nova Zembla. 

Margarita varicosa M. and A., Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist, iv, p. 46, t. 
4, f. 14 (1842). — Gould, Binney's edit., p. 285, f. 547. — 3fachceroplax 
varicosa jMigh. Sars, ■:Mo11. Reg. Arct. Norv., p. 139, t. 9, f. 2.— if. 



312 



SOLARIELLA. 



plicata M. Sars, teste G. O. Sars. — 31. elegantissima (Bean MS.) 
Wood, Crag. Moll, i, p. 134, t. 15, f. 1.— Leche, Hafs-Moll. 
Kongl. sw. Akad. Handl. xvi, p. 43. — 3L j)olaris Danielssen, in 
Copenhagen Mus. {teste Leche). 

S. ALBULA Gould. PI. 66, figs. 14, 15. 

Shell rather solid, whitish, pearly, more or less distinctly tinted 
with violaceous or rose color, depressed-conoidal ; spire short ; 
whorls 6, ajDpressed, the last large; base planulate; suture very 
slightly impressed ; aperture subangulate ; outer lip obliquely arcuate, 
inner nearly vertical ; umbilicus large and deep, funnel-shaped, 
defined by a distinct basal ridge ; surface sculptured with slightly 
elevated unequal spiral lines, decussated by less conspicuous 
longitudinal striae; base nearly smooth, but with subobsolete spiral 
lines around the umbilicus. Alt. 9, diam. 10 mill. (Sars.) 

Greenland; Norway; Unalaschka. 

Marg. albula Gld., Otia, p. 154. — Machceroplax albida Gld. Sars, 
Moll. Reg. Arct. Norv., p. 138, t. 9, f. 3. 

S. PERAMABiLis Carpenter. PI. 67, figs. 59, 60, 61. 

Shell very thin, very elegantly sculptured, livid, spotted with 
pale rufous-brown ; nuclear whorls 2, very tumid, smooth, apex 
mammillated ; following whorls 4, tabulated, sutures nearly rect- 
angular ; upon the spire there are two or three carinse, and inter- 
calated carinula^; the entire surface is most elegantly and densely 
radiately costate, costte very acute, subgraniilose upon the carinae, 
nterstices on the first whorl fenestrated, posteriorly decussated ; basei 
deeply rounded ; sculptured with about 5 liruhTe, anteriorly grauulose ; 
umbilicus large, closely ornamented with about 3 spiral distant lines, 
and radiating costulations continued from the base. Aperture 
rounded, indentated by the carinas, scarcely in contact parietally, 
iridescent inside, nacreous; operculum very thin, multispiral, with 
about 10 elegantly radiately rugulose whorls. (Carpenter.) 

Alt. 8, diam. 8 mill. 

San Diego ; Catalina Id., CaZ., 30-120 fms. 

SolarieUa peramabilis Carp., Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. iii, p. 156 
(1864). 

Dr. Cooper's very lovely species of a very lovely group may 
possibly prove to be a variety of the Japanese Minolia aspecta 
A. Ad. mss. in Mus. Cuming; but, until more specimens from each 
district have been compared, it is more prudent to keep them 



SOLARIELLA. 313 

S3parate. It seems to have exhausted the power of sculpture on its 
graceful habitation. Under the microscope, the sharp transverse 
lirulfe, mounting over the keels, dividing the interspaces, and even 
ascending the wide umbilicus, are eminently beautiful. Even the 
operculum is sculptured with delicate waved radiating lines. It 
has the aspect of an extremely thin Torinia, with a funnel-shaped 
umbilicus. This is not only bounded by a granular keel, but has 
three other distant sjnral lines crossing the lirultfi. The radiating 
sculpture is more distant on the upper whorls, where first two, then 
three keels appear, fenestrated by th-e liruUe, which afterward 
become nuich closer and are sometimes worn away behind the 
labrum. (Carpenter.) 

S. VANCOUVEEENSis E. A. Smith. Unfigured. 

Shell conical, moderately umbilicated, grayish-Avhite ; whorls 5, 
slightly convex, with oblique tlexuous ribs extending from suture to 
suture, also obscurely spirally striated ; last whorl obtusely angulated 
at the middle, rather flattened beneath with four or five concentric 
sulci at the angle, of which the three u|)permost are broader than 
those below, and the interstices or lir^e between them are also stouter. 
The rest of the flattened base is arcuately plicated, or, in other 
words, exhibits the continuation of the cost^e upon the upper half of 
the volution, which are interrupted by the sulci at the peripiiery ; 
umbilicus smallish, surrounded by a subtuberculated double ridge ; 
aperture subrotund, flattened at the base, iridescent within. Colu- 
mella a trifle arcuate, somewhat expanded above, and at the lower 
extremity forming an angle with the base. 

Alt. 6?, diam. 6} mill ; aperture, alt. and breadth nearly 3 mill. 
{Smith.) 

Vancouver Island. 

Troclnis (Margarita) vancouvereitsis Smith, Ann. and Mag. N. H. 
1880, vi, p. 288. 

In some places, probably where the superficial calcareous layer is 
thin, the pearly iridescence beneath it is observable. The oblique 
flexuous costie are about 19 in number on the penultimate, and a 
trifle more numerous upon the last whorl. (Smith.) 

S. AMABiLis Jeffi-eys. PI. 57, fig. 52. 

Shell pyramidal, moderately solid, semitransparent, of a pearly 
and partially iridescent luster; sculpture: two spiral ridges or keels 
on the upper part of each of the last three or four whorls, and one 



314 



SOLARIELLA. 



on the upper part of the next or smaller whorl, besides several finer 
but irregular ridges on the base of the last or largest whorl, and 
numerous minute spiral striae between all the ridges ; the principal 
ridges are placed near the suture of each whorl, both above and 
below, leaving a broad flattened space in the middle and a narrow 
excavated space below the suture, thus imparting a tower-like 
appearance to the shell; the upper whorls are also marked with 
numerous short and fine longitudinal ribs, which cross the ridges 
and make them crenelated ; color pure pearl-white; spire elevated ; 
apex semiglobose, prominent and slightly twisted ; whorls 7, 
gradually increasing in size; suture very distinct; mouth nearly 
circular, but angulated or somewhat notched below by the um- 
bilical ridge ; outer lip thin and slightly expanded ; inner lip folded 
a little back on the umbilicus, and adhering to the pillar ; inside 
more or less iridescent ; umbilicus large but not wide, funnel-shaped, 
and completely exposing the whole of the inner spire ; it is encircled 
outside by a strong spiral ridge, which is often beaded, and winds 
like a staircase into the interior ; operculum forming a spiral of 
about a dozen whorls, the edges of which are imbricated and over- 
lap one another in succession. {Jeff.) 

Alt. 8 diam, 7 mill. ; alt. 7J, diam. 61 mill. (Jeffreys.) 
North Sea off' Shetland Is., 85-95 fms. ; Gulf of Me.vico, Cape 
Florida to Oiribbees, 193-888 fijis. 

Trochiis amabills Jeffreys, British Conch, iii, p. 800; v. t. 61, 
f. 6. — Solariella amabilis Jeff'r. Dali>, Blake Gasteropoda, BulL 
M. C. Z. xviii, p. 880 (1889).— T'roc/iHs clnctus Phil. Jeffreys, 
P. Z. S. 1888, p. 97. — T. affinis Jeffrey's olim. — T. cindus var. 
affinis Jeffrey's, P. Z. S. 1888, p. 98, t. 20, £ 5. — Machoeroplax 
affinis Jeffr. Friele, Archiv. f Math, og Naturvidenskab, ii, p. 313, 
t. 5, f. 2 (Dentition). — Machoeroplax kidalgoi Fischer, Journ. de 
Conchyl. 1882, p. 51. 

A beautiful form, distinguished by the elevated turreted spire 
bicarinate whorls, etc. The only specimens I have seen' are from 
the Gulf of Mexico. They are more elevated than Jeffrey's types. 

"A remarkable variety which I have named affinis (pi. 47, fig^ 
98), and at one time believed to be a distinct species, is finely and 
closely reticulated ; the wliorls ai'e rounded and show no trace of 
angularity ; and the umbilicus is not encircled by a keel." (Jeffreys.) 

According to Jeffreys, the M. kidalgoi Fischer is synonymous. 
The original description is as follows : 



•SOLARIELLA. 315 

Shell broadly unibilieated, wliitish-pearly, thin, coiioidal ; whorls 
Os, convex, separated by gradate suture, ornamented with oblique, 
dense regular radiating costella?, and two spiral lira? on the lower 
part ; last whorl ventricose, radiately costellate above, with three 
acute elevated median spiral cinguli, beneath with obsolete con- 
centric strife; umbilicus wide, carinated at the perij)hery, plicate, 
denticulate; aperture subcircular. 

Alt. 5, diam 5 mill. (Fischer.) 

Gulf of Gascogue, 896-1226 meters. 

S. LAMELLOSA Vcrrill & Smith. PI. 57, fig 14. 

Shell small, fragile, conical, canaliculate, with a wide umbilicus. 
Whorls five, angulated and carinated below the middle, swollen just 
below the suture, which lies in a deep channel ; they are crossed, 
above the peripheral carina, by numerous elevated, thin, oblique 
ribs, which rise into lamellae near the suture, where they join the 
carina forming small nodules; between the ribs are fine parallel 
lines of growth and sometimes a few fine revolving lines. Below^ 
the periphery, in line with the posterior edge of the lij), there is a 
smaller, plain, angular rib, and around the umbilicus there is a 
strong nodulose rib. Between these ribs, the base is covered with 
fine revolving lines. Within the umbilicus are radiating raised 
lines which cross two or three small revolving ribs. Aperture 
rounded, with angles corresponding to the ril)s. 

Alt. 8, diam. 3 mill. (Verrill.) 

Off Martha's Vineyard, in 115 fms. ; Gulf of Mexico 287-2805 fms. 

Margarita lamellosa Verrill and Smith, Am. Journ. Sci., 3d- 
series, vol. 20, p. 397 ; Trans. Conn. Acad., p. 530, t. 57, f. 38. — 
Solariella lavxellosa V. & S., Dall, 'Blake' Gastrop., p. '379. 

Constantly smaller and differentlv wrinkled from S. amabilis. 
(Dall.) 

S. .EGLEES Watson. PI. 66, figs. 18, 19. 

Shell broadly conical, high, with a very large uujbilicus, orna- 
mented with rows of tubercles, carinated. Sculpture : spirals — 
there is a rov; of small round pointed tubercles a little below the 
suture, the carina is doul)le, formed by two rather remote tubercled 
threads, the lower of which runs to the outer lip. Below this one is 
a broadish furrow and slightly ^beaded thread, which toward the 
mouth projects so as to become a third carina. The center of the 
base has another slightlv beaded thread ; and another formed of 



316 SOLARIELLA. 

I'emote rounded tubercles, defining the umbilicus, within which is a 
very slight furrow and an ill-defined ridge. Longitudinals — the 
apical whorls are ribbed, but the ribs gradually break into the 
scarcely connected tubercles of the last whorl. The lines of growth 
are hardly perceptible, except on the base. Color pure white when 
Aveathered, but apparently slightly brownish when fresh, with a pearly 
nacre below the thin calcareous surface-layer. Spire high, very 
slightly scalar. Apex sharp, minute, flattened on the one side, with 
the ver\^ small embryonic 1 \ whorl rising sharply on the other. 
Whorls 7, of regular increase ; the last is small, from the large part 
of it cut out by the umbilicus ; they are flatly conical and slightly 
scalar. Suture linear, but strongly defined by the right-angled 
junction of the whorl. Mouth oblique, much inclined to the axial 
line, rectangularly rounded, the pillar and outer lip being parallel. 
Outer lip thin and broken, not descending. Pillar-lip shortly but 
flatly bent over the umbilicus, and here it is patulous and sinuated, 
it then advances in a straight line toward the base. It is toothed in 
the middle by a strongish spiral protuberance at which point it 
projects; but from this to the junction with the base it is thin and 
retreats. Umbilicus very large, funnel-shaped and pervious. 

Alt. 0-27 in.; diam. OS, least 0-25. Mouth, height O'l, breadth. 
0-15 in. (Watson.) 

This very beautiful species is well defined by its exactly conical 
form and very large umbilicus, which cuts the whole body out of the 
inside of the last whorl, narrowing the base to an extraordinary 
extent. The young shells are excessively like those of Trochus 
(Ziziphinus) tiara, Wats., but are flatter, broader, and more umbili- 
cated. ( Watson.) 

Gulf of Mexico, 287-888 fms. 

T. (Margarita) aeglees Watson, Journ. Linn. Soc, Lond. xiv, p. 
704, 1879 ; Challenger Gasterop., p. 81, t. 5, f. 10. — Margarita (zgleis 
Watson, Dall, Bull. M. C. Z. ix, p. 40, 18S1. —Solariella a;gleis 
Watson, Dall, Bull. M. C. Z. xviii, p. 879, 1889. 

Dr. Dall unites with this species as varieties, the r/w??,a and clavata 
of Watson. I have no doubt of the correctness of his views. 

Var. RHiNA Watson. PI. 64, figs. 51, 52. 

Shell conical, with a broad and tumid base and a wide narrowed 
umbilicus ; surface cross-hatched like a file ; when fresh, translucent 
with a pearly sheen. Sculpture: spirals — there are three to five 
slightly raised remotely ])eaded threads, of which one lies a little be- 



SOLARIELLA. 317 

low the suture, one at the periphery forming a carina, of which the 
beads are much smaller and closer set, sometimes evanescent; one, 
with beads like the first, defines the umbilicus, within which there 
is a strong spiral ridge ; and the whole surface is covered with fine 
rather sharp threads, whose partings are twice as broad as themselves. 
Of these finer spirals, the one which meets the outer lip often rises 
into prominence and defines the base, while another above the carina 
sometimes stands out more strongly and more beaded than the rest. 
Longitudinals — the whole surface is close-set with these, which are 
crossed by the spirals, than which they are broader but less sharp, 
closer-set, and moi-e irregular and interrupted, especially near the 
upper line of tubercles and near the umbilicus. Color a bluish 
white when alive, with a translucent calcareous layer through which 
the nacre shines. Spire high, a little scalar. Apex small, a little 
flattened, with the embryonic 1\ whorl barely projecting in the 
middle. Whorls 6-7, the last is of rapid increase, full rounded and 
a little tumid ; the preceding ones are a little roundedly shouldered 
below the suture, flat on the contour angulated at the carina, and 
.slightly contracted into the sutur ; ; the apical whorls are simply 
rounded and hmgitudinally ribl)ed, suture is linear, but strongly, 
not acutely defined by the perpendicular rise of the whorl above it 
and the slight sloping shoulder below. Mouth round, scarcely 
oblique, with a translucent porcelaneous edge, and pearly within. 
Outer lip not descending, sharp; its inner edge is beveled outwards 
at the expense of the pearly layer. Pillar-lip bends over the um- 
bilicus, is a little reverted, and expands into a tooth at the intra- 
umbilical ridge. Umbilicus funnel-shaped, wide, pervious, but 
narrowed within by the spiral ridge. Operculum of very many 
narrow whorls, which on their outer edge over lap as a narrow 
gleaming flange. 

Alt. 0-32 in., diam. 0-32 in., least 0-28 in. Mouth, height Oi8, 
breadth 0'18 in. (Watson.) 

This is a much larger species than Trochus (Margarita) cinereus, 
Couth. ; from the North Atlantic, much higher, much more conical, 
much more exquisitely sculptured, suture more impressed, base more 
tumid and not angulated at the edge, umbilicus larger. Than 
Trochus (Margarita) amabilis Jeffr., it is, of course, still larger, less 
conical, less angulated, the sutural impression is not like a rounded 
gouged-out line as it is there, the base is not flattened, and the whole 



318 SOLARIELLA. 

style of sculptuve is totally ditlerent. The measurements given above 
are taken from an almost exceptionally fine specimen. ( Watson.) 

Of Azores Is., 450-1000 fras. 
T. {Margnritn) lima Watson, Jouni. Linn. Soc. Lond. xiv, p. 
703 (not Uiiia Phil.). — T. (Margarita) rhina Watson, Challenger 
Gasterop., p. 80, t. 5, f. 1 . 

Var. CLAY ATA Watson. PL m, figs. 98, 99. 

Shell small, conical, with a high spire and a tumid base, a round 
mouth, and a deep umbilicus, and covered with sharp prickles. 
Sculpture : spirals — there are several small threads, two of which, of 
equal strength and prominence, angulate the whorls — one at the basal 
contraction, the other about halfway up the whorl ; on the base they 
are somewhat closer set. The outer lip does not meet the carinal 
thread, but the one below. Longitudinals — the wh(de surface is 
crossed bv close-set, slightly oblique narrow laminte, which, in cross- 
ing the spirals, rise into sharp vaulted prickles w hose faces are turned 
towards the month. Color white, with a pearly luster. Spire very 
high. Apex minute, with the small embryonic \\ whorl rising from 
a minute flat. Whorls 6], angnlated and narrow in the spire, but 
the last inflated and expanded. Suture deej^ly impressed, somewhat 
depressed, and very strimgly defined. Mouth j)erpendicular, rouiid, 
slightlv pointed on the base, and angnlated at the u])per carina. 
Outer li}) sharp, advancing far across the body towards the pillar-lip. 
Pillar-lip depressed upon the umbilicus, then rounded and sinuated, 
slightly toothed at the point of the pillar. Umbilicus wide and 
deep, but internally narrowed. 

Alt. -17 in. diam. -13. Mouih, height 0-07, breadth 0-07 in. 
( Watson.) 

The peculiarly high narrow spire and the vaulted prickles are 
very characteristic features of this species, none of the specimens of 
which are adult. When full grown there would j)robably be an 
additional whorl, which w'ould add a broad base to the high narrow 
spire. There seems to be some variation in the number of the 
spirals. I have put a query to the specimens from Pernambuco, 
because, though identical in other respects, the embryonic whorls are 
slightly larger and more tumid. The curves of the mouth-edge have 
some suspicion of an infra-sutural sinus, and the form of the ])illar 
is also suggestive of Basilissa, but the form of the mouth is wholly 
unlike that genus. ( Watson.) 

Off Calebra Id., W. Ind., 850 fms. ; off Pernambuco. G75 fms. 



SOLARIELLA. 319 

T. (Margarita) clavatus Watson, Journ. Linn. Soc. Lond. xiv, p. 
"705 ; Challenger Rep. Gasterop., p. 82, t. 5, f. 8. — Solariella wgleis 
var. clavata Watson, Dai-l, Bull. M. C. Z. xviii, p. 380. 

8. iNFUNDiBUiAiM Watson. PI. 66, fig. 97. 

Shell conical, with a tumid base, carinated, umbilicated, thin, 
translucent, pearly. Sculpture : spirals on the upper whorls 2, on 
the body whorls 7-8, pretty strong, but fine beaded threads. The 
first lies remote below the suture, and is sparsely ornamented by 
longitudinally produced, high and pointed, tubercles ; it forms a 
shoulder on the whorl. The second projects strongly and shai'ply 
at the ])eriphery and forms the carina; it and those below are 
delicately fretted with close-set small beads. The third, which 
meets the outer lip, lies within the contraction of the base. The last 
two are closer than the rest, which, however, are sometimes brought 
closer by the additional thread which appears among them. The 
one which defines the umbilicus is more sharply beaded than the 
rest. Longitudinals — below the suture and near the umbilicus tlie 
surface is sharply but delicately puckered, and these puckerings, 
strong in the early whorls, are in the later faintly continued across 
the whorls as lines of growth. Color yellowish white, with a brill- 
iant nacreous sheen shining through the thin superficial calcareous 
layer, which becomes more opaque in drying. Spire high, scalar. 
Apex minute, flattened, with the minute bulbous embryonic li whorl 
projecting on one side. Whorls 8, of rapid increase, rounded, but 
angulated by the projection of the spirals, very tumid on the base. 
Suture linear, but strongly defined by the contraction of the 
suprajacent whorl and the flat shoulder of the one below. Mouth 
very slightly oblique, round, but on the pillar flattened, and at the 
point of it angulated slightly, nacreous within ; across the body 
there is no pad, but the shell is eroded, and this erosion has the 
appearance of a thin callus. Outer lip thin, not descending. 
Pillar-lip slightly patulous, l)ending flatly over the umbilicus, and 
then advancing in a straight line to the point of the pillar, where it 
is slightly angulated just where the beaded umbilical s])iral ends. 
Umbilicus funnel-shaped, rather open, but a good deal contracted 
within. Sharply scored with the lines of growth. Operculum 
yellow, horny, very thin, of 7 to 8 whorls. 

Alt. -81 in., diam. -65, least 0'59. Mouth, height 0-37, breadth 

0-35 in. ( Watson.) 



320 SOLARIELLA. 

The beautiful species, of very singular aspect, recalls in a very 
general way the form of Turcica monilifera, A. Ad., but differs from 
that in its rounded contours, strongly contracted suture, umbilicus, 
and straight untoothed pillar. It resembles in form Margarita 
aspecta, A. Ad., but that is less tumid, is carinated, its umbilicus is 
much smaller, the spirals are many more, and they are nottubercled. 
It is very like Trochus ottoi Phil., a fossil from Messina, lately 
taken alive in abundance by Professor Verrill off the New England 
coast in 115 to 500 fathoms, and published by him as Margarita 
regalis. Trochus infundibulum may, after all, be only a variety, 
but compared to that this is larger, higher in proportion to breadth, 
has the base much more tumid, and the longitudinals f\ir weaker. 
In Trochus ottoi Phil., these longitudinals are very strong, and 
make sharper, higher, crisper nodules on the spirals ; that species, 
too, has not the subsutural flat witli its radiating bars and its boi'der 
of tubercles, and has not the spiral uniting that first row of tubercles. 
As to the infra-umbilical spirals they vary astonisliingly. ( Watson.) 

Off Bermuda, 1075 fms. ; Mai- ion Id., Indian 0., 1375 fms. ; Off 
Guadalupe, 769 fms. 

Tr. {Margarita) infandibidumV^ ATiiO^i, Journ. Linn. Soc. Lond., 
xiv, p. 707, 1879 ; Challenger Rep., p. 84, t. 5, f. 5. — Solariella in- 
fundibulum Watson, Dall, Blake Gasterop., Bull. M. C. Z. xviii, p. 
380,1889; The Nautilus, 1889, p. 1. (Anatomy.) 

The external anatomv and genitalia have been described by Dall. 

S. OTTOI Philippi. PI. 57, fig. 17. 

Shell rather large for the genus, thin and delicate, whitish, 
brilliantly iridescent or pearly, externally and internally, broad 
conical, turreted, wider than high, with a convex base, and deep 
umbilicus. Whorls seven, nuich fiattened, with the suture scarcely 
impressed ; the upper whorls are coronated by two, and the body- 
whorl by three, revolving, strongly nodulous ribs, along which the 
conical, often acute nodules are very regularly arranged. The first 
of these rows of nodules is just below the suture ; the second is 
separated from the first by a wide, flat, or slightly concave interspace ; 
the third is not far from the second, and surrounds the periphery, 
usually corresponding with the line of the suture; the second and 
third are usually the most elevated ; on the base there are five or six 
strong, rounded, revolving ribs, part of them usually somewhat 
nodulous, separated by deep, concave interspaces, rather wider than 



SOLARIELLA. 321 

the ribs ; one or two additional ones often appear in the umbilical 
opening, which is funnel-shaped and moderately large, but often 
partially obstructed by the refiexed edge of the inner lip. The inter- 
spaces between all the ribs are covered with close, slightly raised lines 
of growth, and usually with traces of a thin epidermis. Aperture 
somewhat quadrangular, large, lip thin. Animal with long tentacles 
and large black eyes ; four large lateral cirri on each side, with a 
group of four or five small intermediate ones ; snout with a broad, 
bilobed, crescent-shaped expansion in front. Odontoi^hore without 
a large lateral tooth between the inner and outer series, otherwise 
much like typical Margarita. Alt. 14, diam. 15 mill. {Ve^n-ill.) 

Off Marthas Vineyard, 65 to 192 fms. ; of Newport, R. I., 85-325 
fms. ; off Grenada, 416 fms.; Bay of Biscay ; between Hebrides and 
Faroe Is. ; Mediterranean ; St. Thomas, W. I.; Fossil and Pliocene of 
Italy and Sicily. 

Trochus ottoi Philippi, Enum. Moll. Siciliie, ii, p. 227, t. 28, f. 
9, 1844.— Jeffreys, P. Z. S. 1883, p. 98.—Solariella ottoi Phil., 
Dall, Blake Gasterop., Bull. M. C. Z. xviii, p. 381. — Margarita 
regalis Verrill and Smith, Amer. Journ. Sci. 1880, p. 397 ; Trans. 
Conn. Acad, v, p. 530, t. 57, f 37 ; vi, p. 254, t. 29, f. 14. 

The description and figures pertain to this species as dredged 
living, and described by Verrill and Smith as M. regalis. 

S. VAiLLANTi Fischer. Unfigured. 

Shell umbilicate, conic ; whorls 7, planulate, the first costellate, 
the rest ornamented with acute tubercles arranged in two spiral 
cinguli ; last whorl bicingulate at the periphery, above provided with 
a beaded sutural cingulas, beneath sculptured with 5 concentric line. 

Alt. 7, diam. 8 mill. (Fischer.) 

Portugal, 1224 meters. 

Trochus vaillanfi FiscuJ-iB,, Journ. de Conchyl. 1882, p. 50. 
Said by Jeffreys to be a synonym of S. ottoi Phil. 

S. LUSiTANiCA Fischer. Unfigured. 

Shell umbilicate, orbicular-conic ; whorls 7, regularly increasing, 
spirally delicately cingulate, decussated by very minute arcuate 
costellse, with an acute prominent median carina ; last whorl 
bicarinate, a little convex beneath, sculptured with concentric lines, 
vanishing in the middle ; umbilicus funnel-shaped, acutely angulate 

21 



322 SOLARIELLA. 

at margin ; aperture rhomboidal ; columella margin subdentate at 
base. Alt. 5, diam. 7 mill. (Fischer.) 

Portugal, 3307 meters. 

Trochus {Solariella) lusitanicus Fischer, Journ. de Concbyl. 1882, 
p. 51. 
S. LissocoNA Ball. PI. 48, figs. 23, 24. 

This species belongs to the same group as the last three mentioned 
species, but is nearest to the last. The shell is more simply conical, 
consisting of six and a half whorls, which glisten with that peculiar 
spun-glass or flossy luster noticeable in so many abyssal species ; the 
nuclear whorls as in the last ; then the sculpture consists of two 
lines closely appressed to the sutures, less prominent and less con- 
spicuously provided with the angular projections than in the last 
species. Between the upper and lower lines the surface of the whorl 
is smooth, except for lines of growth, shining as above described, and 
seems even a little concave. The nodules on the upper carina of one 
whorl fit into the spaces between the nodules on the lower carina of 
the preceding whorl, and thus alternate along the line of the suture 
and give it a wavy character. The carina on the last whorl is seen 
to be formed by two threads, which constitute the periphery, with 
fainter angularities than the others. The base is somewhat inflated, 
with two sharp, smooth threads between the periphery and the 
nodulate boundary of the small funnel-shaped umbilicus. The lines 
of growth are much as in the last species, the umbilicus is not in- 
fringed upon by any reflection of the pillar-lip, and the aperture is 
about as wide as high, and less distinctly rectangular. 

Alt. 5'5, diam. of base, 4*5. Lat. of aperture, 2 mill. (Dull.) 

Northern Central Gi^lf of 3Iexico, 331 fms. 

Margarita lissocona Ball, Bull. M. C. Z. ix, p. 41, 1881 ; Solari- 
ella lissocona Dall, Bull. M. C. Z. xviii, p. 381. t. 21, f 8 1889. 

S. LACL^^ELLA Ball. PI. 51, figs. 32, 33. 

Shell in general form and sculpture much resembling the last, 
but, without the nacreous coloring, stouter and coarser in every 
respect, whorls five, the revolving threads on the upper side of the 
whorls only seven in number (on the last whorl), of which the inner 
two are crenulated by the radiating plications which otherwise are 
visible only as radiating threads in the interspaces, the base rounded 
with nine flattened revolving ribs separated only by incised lines 
and crossed by delicate lines of growth. The umbilicus much 



SOLARIELLA. 323 

smaller than in the last, bordered by two nodulous rilis with a 
remarkably deep groove between them ; aperture as in the last, but 
not so distinctly angulated ; shell variously painted with brown on 
a yellowish-white ground ; one specimen has five distinct brown 
patches on the upper side of the last whorl, another has more 
numerous radiating brown streaks ; the base is whitish, and in 
adults there is a thickening of the inside of the aperture all around, 
but least on the pillar. 

Alt. 4'5, maj. diam. 5'0. Diam. of aperture, 2'25 ; of umbilicus, 
1-0 mill. {Ball.) 

Off Santa Cruz, 115 fms. ; Off North Carolina Coast, 25-124 fms. 

Margarita onaculata Dall, Bull. M. C. Z. ix, p. 43, 1881, not of 
SearlesWood, 1842. — M. lacunella Dall op. cit., p. 102. — Solariella 
lacunella Dall, Blake Gasterop., Bull. M. C. Z. xviii, p. 381, t, 21, 
f. 1, 1889. 

This species is nearest to Tr. cindiis Phil., but differs in so many 
details of sculpture that I do not see my way clear to unite them at 
present. The coloration is variable ; some are clouded with olive 
and others with pinkish brown. A variety depressa has the spire 
low and somewhat tabulated by a smooth space between the suture 
and the spiral ribs. (Dall.) 

S. IRIS Dall. PI. 51, figs. 30, 31. 

Shell thin, brilliantly nacreous, inflated, depressed-conical, five 
whorled ; spire obtuse ; nucleus polished, smooth, very minute ; re- 
mainder of shell sculptured with fine revolving lines, subequal, 
about as wide as the interspaces, about eighteen at the beginning of 
the last whorl ; these are crossed by slight plications, beginning near 
the suture, becoming nodulous on a single prominent thread a little 
way from the suture (which is thus made to appear somewhat 
channelled), becoming faint about the middle of the upper side of 
the whorl, and entirely disappearing before reaching the periphery ; 
the revolving lines are fainter on the rounded base; the umbilicus 
is Avide and funnel-shaped, bordered by a strong keel with about 
twenty-five rounded nodules, the inner walls of the umbilicus with 
strong revolving lines delicately reticulated by the lines of growth. 
The whorls are rounded, with no carina at the periphery ; the pillar 
thin, arched not reflected ; the aperture nearly round, but angulated 
above by the sutural thread, and below by the umbilical keel ; edges 



324 SOLARIELLA. 

simple not thickened ; operculum thin, corneous, multispiral ; shell 
nacreous, with delicate suffused splashes of brown. 

Alt. 5, maj. diam. 5'5. Diam. of aperture, 2; of umbilicus, 2"75 
mill. {DalL) 

Sand Key, 119 fms. 

Margarita iris Dall, Bull. M. C. Z. ix, p. 43, 1881. — Solariella 
iris Dall, Bull. M. C. Z. xviii, p. 382, t. 21, f. 7, 1889. 

Only one specimen of this form has been found. The upper sur- 
face much resembles that of S. lacunella, but the base, especially the 
umbilicus, is altogether different, the shell is thinner and much 
more pearly, and the spiral lines are much. finer. {Dall.) 

S. lubrica Dall. PL 51, figs. 25, 26. 

Shell small, conical, white, shining, with a slight nacreous hue ; 
wdiorls five full and rounded ; suture distinct ; from about the begin- 
ning of the third wdiorl a row of round nodules extends along the 
upper line of the whorls just below the suture, about twenty-five on 
the last whorl and more faintly defined near the aperture ; base per- 
forated by a small umbilicus bounded by a thickened raised line, 
within which are about twelve plications extending up into the 
umbilicus ; outside of this line a few radiating impressed lines extend 
toward the outer part of the whorl ; faint lines of growth are here 
and there visible on the polished surface ; aperture nearly circular, 
thin edged, simple ; the pillar slightly extended on the umbilical 
side, not thickened. 

Alt. 4, maj. diam. 3'25. Diam. of aperture 1'5; of umbilicus "5 

mill. 

Off Santa Lucia, 115 fms. 

Margarita lubrica Dall, Bull. M. C. Z. ix, p. 44, 1881. — Solariella 
lubrica Dall, Bull. M. C. Z. xviii, p. 382, t. 21, f. 9. 1889. 

Var. iridea Dall. Shell without the coronation at the suture or 
only slight traces of it, umbilical carina less strong, umbilicus 
smaller, whorls inflated, very round, brilliantly pearly, base wider 
than in the type. (Dall.) 

This extremely lovely little shell, when fresh, has a most brilliant 
greenish nacre shining like a diamond beetle. The variety was 
dredged by the U. S. Fish Commission off Cape Florida in 193 fms. 
(Dall.) 
S. RHYSUS Watson. PI. Q6, figs. 9, 10. 

Shell small, conical, scalai-, wdth rounded base and large um- 
bilicus, sculptured. Sculpture : spirals — there is a double, tubercled 



SOLARIELLA, 325 

carina, of which the basal one meets the outer lip ; the upper and 
stronger angulates the whorl about two-fifths from the base ; less 
than one-fifth from the suture is a shoulder formed by a row of 
stronger remoter tubercles scarcely connected by a thread. On the 
base are two feebly beaded threads, another strongly beaded defines 
the umbilicus, close within which lies another delicately and re- 
motely beaded. Longitudinals — the top Avhorls are strongly ribbed, 
but further down these ribs break into tubercles and become dis- 
connected ; but traces of these longitudinals remain here and there. 
The lines of growth are very faint. Color white, with a pearly 
luster. Spire high, scalar. Apex not fine, rounded, with the 
inflated H embryonic whorl standing out prominently. Whorls 6, 
flat below the suture, angulated at the first spiral, below which the 
profile line is flatly conical ; it is angulated at the second spiral, 
and then contracts into the suture below. Suture acutely angulately 
impressed. jNIouth round, angulated at the front of the pillar. 
Pillar-lip slowly and slightly bent over the umbilicus. Umbilicus 
open, funnel-shaped, internally scored with minute longitudinal ribs. 
Alt. '25, diam. -21, least diam., '18 in. {Watson.) 
The specimen from which I have described this is in bad condi- 
tion ; but the species is certainly distinct from any other known 
to me. ( Watson.) 

OffSetubal, 470 fms. ; Off Sombrero Id., W. I., 450 fms. 

Tr. {Margarita) rlnjsus Watson, Jour. Linn. Soc. Lond., xiv, p. 
706 ; Challenger Rep., Gasterop., p. 83, t. 5, f. 4. 

S. PACHYCHiLES Watson. PI. 64, figs. 60, 61. 

Shell small, conical, with the last whorl tumid, especially toward 
the mouth, which is extremely oblique, and has a thickened lip ; 
carinate, widely umbilicate. Sculpture: spirals — in the center of 
the body-whorl is a strong carinal thread, which almost runs into the 
outer lip at its junction Avith the body, but just lies above it, and so 
stands out round the base of the whole earlier whorls ; this thread is 
set with strong, sharp, remote tubercles, which become feebler and 
more crowded toward the mouth ; half way between the carina and 
the suture is another thread set with feebler tubercles ; these two 
threads only appear on the second regular whorl, but on the body- 
whorl, especially towards the mouth, many others make their appear- 
ance ; a little below the carina, and issuing from the junction of the 
outer lip is a feebler tubercled thread, defining the base. On the base 



326 



SOLARIELLA. 



are three strong closely-beaded threads, the inmost of which defines 
the umbilicus, within which is a finer beaded thread, and, deep 
inside a ridge. Longitudinals— all the upper whorls are crossed by 
strong straight ribs, forming tubercles where they cross the spirals, and 
leaving deep square hollows between. Only on the penultimate 
whorl do these become oblique and feebler, till toward the mouth 
they are narrow, weak, crowded, and broken. Besides these, the 
whole surface is roughened with small, coarse, irregular lines of 
growth. Color dead white. Spire high and conical, but the tumidity 
of the last whorl, especially towards the mouth, greatly detracts from 
this ; it is slightly scalar. Apex small, whorls 6, of slow increase 
till the last, angular, projecting out squarely from the suture, 
flattened on the contour, and contracted below the carina; but the 
last whorl is rounded, tumid, and toward the mouth, expanded. The 
base is rounded, but not inflated. Suture very deep and strong, 
from the overhanging of the carina above it. Mouth extremely 
oblique, perfectly round but for a slight flatness across the body and 
an angulation at the insertion of the outer lip and also at the junc- 
tion of the pillar-lip to the body ; pearly within. Outer lip very 
slightly descending at its insertion, then in its sweep rising a little ; 
it is scarcely angulated at the lower carina and at the point of the 
pillar, but it is a little sinuated at that part; it is thin on the edge, 
but is thickened within by a pretty strong pearly callus and outside 
by a slight rounded marginal varix. Pillar-lip is hollowed back into 
the pillar in a sinus, and is sharply reverted, so as to leave a minute 
but deep furrow behind it ; this reversion ceases just before it reaches 
the umbilical thread, and forms a minute tooth at that point. 
Umbilicus wide and pervious, and narrowed within ; its slope is 
scored with minute sharp curved laminae, the remains of the old 
edges of the pillar-lip sinus. 

Alt. -18, diam. -27, least -17. Mouth, height, '1, breadth -1 in. 
( Watson.) 

In general aspect this is very like Trochus (Margfjrita) gemmulosa, 
A. Ad., but that species has the spire lower, the suture distinctly 
depressed, the sutural furrow is beset with close radiating stria?, the 
spiral threads are more numerous and crowded, the pointed tubercles 
on these are more frequent, aud there is no varix on the outer lip. 
This last is a feature which gives a great peculiarity to this species ; 
but the thickening and the patulousness of the lip are not sufficient 



SOLARIELLA. 327 

to connect it with Gaza. The distinct umbilicus and the absence of 

a tooth narrowing the mouth separate it obviously from Craspedotus. 

( Watson.) 

Philijypines, 82 fms. 

Tr. (^Margarita) pachijchiles Watson, Journ. Linn. Soc. xiv, p. 
708 ; Challenger Rep. Gasterop., p. 87, t. 5, £ 11. 

S. DNOPHEEUS Watson. PI. 66, figs. 20, 21. 

Shell depressedly conical, rather strong, semitransparent, of a 
dark pearly iridescence. Sculpture : there are spiral ridges, strong, 
five above the base ; the first is close to the suture, and is exquisitely 
beaded from the middle of the second whorl. The second ridge is 
remote from the first, and forms a shoulder to the Avhorls. The third, 
fourth, and fifth occupy the periphery, which is carinated by the 
fourth till close up to the mouth, where the fifth forms the carina. 
Four fine threads, of which the first is partially beaded, lie in the 
flat between the first and second ridges ; two between the second and 
third ; one between the third and fourth. Below the fifth ridge is a 
flat furrow narrower than the rest ; below the furrow is a sixth 
ridge, slighter than the others ; and then the base is closely covered 
wdth eleven spiral threads, which tend to become stronger and wider 
apart near the umbilicus. The first three ridges alone appear on 
the upper whorls. Longitudinally the whole surface is sharply 
scored by the lines of growth. Color a ruddy brownish-white, shot 
with a purple and green iridescence. Spire depressedly scalar. 
Apex bluntly mammillated by the somewhat shapeless, round, largish, 
glassy, ruddy, embryonic whorl. Whorls 4?, of rather rapid increase, 
suture somewhat faint. Mouth oblique, roundish, being slightly 
jjeaked above and a little angulated on the pillar. Outer lip sharp 
but not thin, brilliantly iridescent within. Inner lip very much 
thickened by a pearly pad, which is very thick below wdiere it 
envelops what might otherwise have been a tooth on the point of the 
pillar. The pad is thinner in the middle of the pillar, and thickens 
again at the junction with the body-whorl, on wdiich it thins out 
quickly. Xlie lip here is very slightly reflected on the umbilicus. 
Umbilicus very small and contracted, not so much by the reflection 
of the inner lip as by the pillar being bent round across it. Oper- 
culum very thin, yellow, horny, with about eleven very faintly de- 
fined turns. 

Alt. -28 in. ; diam. 0-37, least 0-26. Penultimate whorl, O'OS. 
Mouth, height 0-2, breadth 0-2, inch. (Watson.) 



328 SOLARIELLA. 

This species has a close general resemblance to Margarita obscura, 
Couth., but that is smaller, of slower increase, has an open umbilicus, 
is very dull in color, and has much fewer spirals, besides which the 
whole minute system of spirals is different ; the tubercled spiral, in 
particular, is the second, not the first, as here, and is not close to the 
suture. Than Margarita loculosa Gould, which it resembles in its 
style of spirals, this is more discoidal, and is especially more 
tabulated below the suture ; the angulation here is on the upper, 
not on the lower part of the whorl and in that the infra-sutural 
thread is not beaded. ( Watson.) 

Tr. {Margarita) dnopherus Watson, Journ. Linn. Soc. Lond. xiv, 
p. 711 ; Challenger Rep., Gasterop., p. 90, t. 5, f. 3. 

S. AZORENSis Watson. PI. Q6, figs. 4, 5. 

Animal dark in color. Operculum rather strong, dark horn- 
color, of very many narrow whorls, which on the outside are 
flanged with a thin, narrow, overlying border. 

Shell small, strong, but not thick, conoidal, high, with rounded 
contours, slightly angulated, scalar, sculptured, whitish, with a 
slightly flattened base and a small umbilicus. Sculpture : spirals — 
there are very many close, unequal, irregular small furrows, Avhich 
are feebler on the base and strongest near the suture, which is 
margined below by a narrow smooth line around the top of the 
whorl. In the center of the base is an umbilical depression with 
spiral threads in the bottom, and within this is a strong white 
porcelaneous spiral coi'd, which almost closes the umbilicus. Longi- 
tudinals — the top of the whorls is gathered into broad rounded 
oblique puckers, which die out before reaching the suture or the 
base. Besides these, the whole surface, spiral furrows and all, is 
sharply scratched with very close and numerous lines of growth. 
Color yellowish translucent white, with a dull all pervading nacre- 
ous gleam. The strong cord which fills the umbilicus is white, as 
is also the apex. Spire high, scalar, the separate whorls being a 
good deal sunk into one another, as well as flattened below the 
suture. Apex small, rounded, the minute embryonic 1} whorls 
barely projecting. Whorls 6, of regular increase. Slightly flattened 
below the suture rounded on the contour, barely contracted round 
their base ; the last is faintly angulated at the perij^hery, and not 
much rounded on the base. Suture strongly marked by the con- 
traction of the whorl above and the margination below. Mouth 



SOLARIELLA. 



329 



oblique, round. Outer lip sharp but strong, porcelaneous on the 
edge, brilliantly nacreous within ; it descends very slightly. Pillar- 
lip thick, white, bent nearly to the point of the pillar over the um- 
bilicus. It would be reverted but for the great thickness of the 
spiral pad, which comes twining uj) behind it out of the umbilicus, 
and out of which, at the point of the pillar, it forms a flat, 
triangular, tooth-like expansion. Umbilicus a minute spiral hole, 
which twists in between the overlying pillar-lip and the umbilical 
pad ; the edge is corrugated with the old lines of the lip. 

Alt. 0-33 in., diam. 0-4, least 0-3. Penultimate whorl, Ol. Mouth, 
height 02, breadth O'lT. (Watson.) 

This species somewhat resembles in form Trochus tumidus, Mont. ; 
but, apart from differences of texture, color, and sculpture, it is, 
than that, less conical, more scalar, the suture is much more im- 
pressed, and the whorls are more immersed. From Trochus (Mar- 
garita) rhina, Wats., it differs in the whorls being much more 
tumid and the general form less conical. From Trochus (Mar- 
garita) pompholugotus, Wats., it differs in the last whorl being far 
less tumid and out of proportion to those which precede. In con- 
trast with Trochus (Margarita) dnopherus, Wats., the pad on the 
pillar-lip is here rather on the outside, with the lip flattened out 
•upon it, while in that species the thickening is on the inside, filling 
up the lip. There is a general resemblance to Trochus marginu- 
latus, Phil,, but the whole sculpture is quite diflTerent ; especially on 
the base that species has a sharp umbilical carina, and a wide 
funnel-shaped though shallow umbilicus. Taken in general, it most 
of all resembles Trochus (Margarita) varicosus, Migh. (^Trochus 
polaris Daniels.). Compared to that this species is stronger in the 
shell, and much more distinctly sculptured. That other is higher 
in the spire, narrower, with a higher and more tumid body w'horl - 
the whole sculpture, though quite of the same type, is feebler, the 
base is more flatly conical, more radiatingly striate with a large 
funnel-shaped umbilicus which has a double cord round its edge ; 
the embryonic apex is much larger and coarser, and is altogether 
more prominent, and consists of nearly one wdiorl and three-quarters, 
and the whole shell is in every way larger, with 5 1 whorls against 
6 here. ( Watson.) 

Fayal, Azores, 450 fms. 

T. {Margarita) azorensis Watsox, Journ. Linn. Soc. Lond. xiv, 
p. 710 ; Challenger Rep., Gasterop., p. 88, t. 5, f. 12. 



S30 SOLARIELLA-TURCICULA. 

S. scABRiuscuLA Dall. PL 51, figs. 28, 29. 

Shell white, conical, comjDact, very thin, with a silky luster ; 
Avhorls, five to six, suture not channelled ; nucleus bulbous, polished, 
smooth ; next whorl and a half having a sculpture of slightly raised 
ribs like a minute Scalaria ; on the following whorls the upper 
surface decorated with two carinse, sculptured with closely set, 
angular, buttressed projections, like those figured by Watson on the 
carinai of Trochus clavatus (PL 5, fig. 8), but the buttresses are not 
continuous over the whorl, so as to form transverse ribs, and the 
second carina is within the periphery of the last whorl, which is 
bordered by a sharp angular carina, without nodules or projections ; 
two similar, but slightly nodulated, intervene on the somewhat 
rounded base between the last and the nodulated boundary of the 
umbilical chink, which is nearly filled by the reflected pillar ; the 
lines of growth radiate in a wavy manner from the umbilicus 
over the whorl, and constitute the remaining sculpture ; there are no 
longitudinal strire of any kind, nor any ribs except those described ; 
the aperture is nearly rectangular, a little wider than high, the sides 
of the spire are rather a little inflated than simply conical. 

Alt. 4'75, diam. of base 4; lat. of aperture 1-62 alt. 1-12 mill. 
{Dall.) 

Gulf of Mexico, Souihern part, 539 fms. 

Margarita scabriuscula Dall, Bull. M. C. Z. ix, p. 41. — Solariella 
scabriuscula Dall, ' Blake ' Rep. Gasterop., Bull. M. C. Z. xviii, p. 
379, t. 21, f. 10. 

Subgenus Turcicula Dall, 1881. 

Turcicula Dall, Bull. M. C. Z. ix, p. 42, 1881. 

T. iMPERiALis Dall. PL 49, figs. 29, 30. 

Shell with five (?) whorls, globosely conical, white, extremely 
thin; umbilicus reduced to a mere chink under the thin callus of 
the upper part of the pillar lip. Mouth rounded rectangular, pillar 
somewhat concave, juargins all thin ; base flattened convex, with 
seven revolving ribs, the outermost of which is just within the periph- 
ery, crossed by radiating lines of growth, regular and very fine, but 
raised into low, very sharp lamellse which pass over the periphery 
onto the upper surface of the whorl ; the last is provided with two 
.strong revolving ribs, one of which forms the periphery, while the 
oll.er lies a little less than half wav from the first toward the suture ; 



TL'RCICULA. 



331 



two indistinct threads run in the vicinity of the suture ; on the 
revolving ribs above mentioned there are regularly disposed sharp 
rough tubercles (seventeen on the last whorl), most prominent on 
the middle carina ; the above-mentioned lamellae are arranged with 
a regular irregularity (which gives a shagreened appearance to the 
surface) between the carinre, and are still coarser and more elevated 
over the threads near the suture, forming there a double row of 
scales partly obscuring the suture, which is nevertheless rather deep. 

Alt. of last whorl 10, diam. 13 ; alt. of aperture, 5"5, lat. of same 
6-25 mill. {Dall.) 

The single sjDecimen taken, though destitute of the apical whorls, 
seemed too remarkable to leave undescribed. It has a general 
resemblance to some of A. Adams's species of Turcica, from Eastern 
seas, but has a peculiar and remarkable sculpture and wants the teeth 
on the pillar. {Dull.) 

Off Cuba, 200 fms. 

Margarita ( Tureicula) imperialis Dall, Bull. M. C. Z. ix, p. 42 ; 
xviii, p. 376. 

T. BAIRDII Dall. 

A species of this group from the Pacific, oS Lower California in 
400 fms., was dredged by the Albatross. It is 50 mill, high, 42 
wide ; is covered with a delicate green epidermis which erodes 
like that of a fresh-water shell, and exhibits a nearly circular aper- 
ture, with a somewhat reflected lip and brilliantly pearly throat. 
There is no callous across the body, nor any umbilicus. The shell 
bears a singular resemblance to a very large thin greenish Yiv'qmra or 
Tulotoma. {Dall, in ' Blake ' Rep., Gasterop., p. 377.) 

T. (?) ciDARis (A. Adams) Cpr. 

This species may belong to or near Tureicula. I have no infor- 
mation save the original description ; no figures have been published. 

Testa magna, conica, Turcicoidea, tenui ; albido-cinerea, nacreo- 
argentata ; anfr. nucleosis — ? (decollatis), norm, vii, subplanatis, 
suturis alte insculptis ; superficie spirje tota valide tuberculosa, 
seriebus tribus, alteris postea intercalantibus ; peripheria et basi 
rotundatis, carinatis; carinis circ. 8, hand acutis, irregularibus, 
scabris, hand tuberculosis ; lacuna umbilicali vix conspicua ; aper- 
tura subrotundata ; labro tenuissimo ; labio obsoleto ; columella 
arcuata. Long. M, long. spir. -Qo, lat. '75, div. 60°. (Carpenter.) 
Neeah Bay, Washington Territory. (Sican.) 

Margarita cidaris (Ad.) Carpenter, Ann. and Mag. N. H. xiv 
(3d ser.), p. 426, 1864. 



332 CALLIOSTOMA. 

Genus CALLIOSTOMA Swaiusou, 1840. 

Galliostoma Swainson, Shells and Shellfish, p. 351, Type, Tr. 
conulus L. — Ziziphinus Gray, Syn. Brit. Mus. 1840 (no description), 
type, T. zizyphinus. — Zizip/mius or Zlzyphinus Leach, of authors. — 
Conulus Nardo, 1840, type T. zizyphinus (not Conulus Fitz., 1833). 
— Lischkeia Fischer, Sp. et Icon. Goq. Viv., Trochus, p. 419, 1880, 
type, T. monilifera Lam. — Eucasta Dall, ' Blake ' Gasterop., 369, 
1889, type C. indiana Dall. — Jujubinus Monterosato, Nom. Gen. 
6 Spec, p. 46, 1884, type Tr. matonii Payr. ,^=exasperahis L. — 
Jacinthinus Monts., type T. conulus, Bull. Soc. Mai. Ital. xiv, p. 79, 
1889. — Manotrochus Fischer, Manuel, p. 827, 1885, type C. uni- 
dentatuin Phil. 

Galliostoma is one of the largest genera of Trochidre. The species 
inhabit all seas, ranging from to 500 fms. depth. The shell is 
generally conical, with angular periphery ; columella simple above, 
not folded, and either simply concave below or slightly truncate 
and toothed (Galliostoma s.s. and Eutrochus), or cylindx'ical, strongly 
plicate {Turcica). The axis is solid except in Eutrochus. The 
operculum is thin, circular, corneous, many-whorled. The radula 
has the rhachidian and 4 to 5 lateral teeth with irregularly oval 
body, and rather long, pointed cusi^s, their outer edges serrate ; un- 
cini numerous, narrow, with narrow serrate cusps. Uncini numerous, 
narrow, with narrow serrate cusps. The inner uncinal tooth is large 
and of a peculiar form in the typical species. C. millegranns as 
figured by Sars, has a radula much like Gibbula, quite different 
from the ordinary Galliostoma. Friele, Sars, Hutton and Troschel 
have figured radul?e of this genus. 

The name ZizijyJiinus Leach has been used for this genus by most 
European authors. It was not defined by Gray (who rescued the 
name from Leach's ms.), and besides is objectionable on account of 
being a duplication of the name of the typical species. As Dall 
remarks, there seems to be no reason except the natural j^erversity 
of human nature, why Ziziphinus should be preferred to Galliostoma. 
The notes on sculpture development under Euchelus should be con- 
sulted, as they apply largely to the present genus also. 

C. spectabilis a. Adams. PL 16, fig. 12. 

Shell large, conical, solid, imperforate, flesh-colored or yellowish, 
dotted with pink on the spiral ribs ; surface spirally ribbed, the ribs 
coarsely granose, numbering about 7 on the penultimate whorl, some 



CALLIOSTOMA. 333 

of tliem small ; on the base there are about 8 concentric rido-es, 
scarcely beaded except the two or three inner ones ; spire conical, 
much broader than usual in Calliostoma ; sutures slightly impressed ; 
whorls about 6, nearly flat, the last obtusely angled at the j^eriphery ; 
base rather flattened. Aperture rounded quadrangular, very similar 
in shape to that of G. punctulatum, nacreous, iridescent and sulcate 
within ; columella pearly, arcuate. Alt. 35, diam. 37 mill. 

Auckland; Chatham Is^ 

Ziziphimis spedahills A. Ad., P. Z. S. 1864, p. 37, t. 27, f. 7. 

Eeeve, Conch. Icon., f. 5. — Hutton, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S, W. ix, 
p. 360, 1884. 

This species has a more robust heavy spire than any other allied 
foi'm. The sculpture is coarse. 

C. TIGRIS Marty n. Vol. X, PI. 41, fig. 30. 

Shell large, conical, imperforate, solid but rather thin, lioht 
yellowish, longitudinally painted with numerous rather narrow ir- 
regular chestnut-reddish stripes. Surface of embryonic whorls 
smooth, the others encircled by numerous delicate, finely beaded 
liruljB, which on the penultimate whorl number about 16-20 ; on the 
upper surface of the body-whorl there are 18-25. The spire is 
elevated, its lateral outlines concave above ; sutures a little impressed. 
Whorls 10-12, those of the spire flattened, the last convex, rounded 
at the periphery. The aperture is rhomboidal, iridescent within ; 
columella arcuate, pearly, bluntly tuberculate at base. 

Alt. 59, diam. 58 mill. ; alt. 45, diam. 45 mill. 

Auckland to Cook's Sts., N. Zealand ; Chatham Is. 

Trochus tlgris Martyn, Univ. Conch, ii, t. 75 (1784). — Gmel. 
Syst. Nat. xiii, p. 3585.— Philippi, Conchyl. Cab., p. 50, t. 10, f. 
16, 17. — Ziziphimib tlgris Mart. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 4. — Grana- 
tum. Chemnitz, Conchyl. Cab., v, p. 100, f. 1654, 1655. — Trochus 
granatum Lam., An. s. Vert, ix, p. 145. — Chenu, Manuel, f 2551. — 
Fischer, Coq. Viv., p. 69, t. 15, f. 1. — Zizip)hinus granatum Chemn., 
Hutton, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. ^\. ix, p. 360, 1884. 

This tawny striped trochus, well named Tiger Trochus, differs 
from the other species in its coloration. The perij^hery is less angular 
than that of selectum, but not so rounded as in C. punctulatum. 
The granulation is fine and even, not obsolete on the outer part of 
the base. The name proposed by Chemnitz is not binomial, and 
cannot be adopted in preference to Martyn's. 



334 CALLIOSTOMA. 

C, PUNCTULATUM Martyii. PL 65, fig. 75. 

Shell conoidal, imperforate, solid, yellowish or light fawn-colored, 
unicolored or dotted on the spirals with dark brown ; the granules 
often white by rubbing of the cuticle. Surface covered with narrow 
spiral closely and conspicuously beaded ridges, numbering 8-12 on 
the penultimate whorl, sometimes equal in size, sometimes alternately 
larger and smaller ; on the next earlier (antepenultimate) whorl 
there are about 7, and still earlier whorls have 3 beaded carinse ; 
the interstices are obliquely striate. The spire is a little concave in 
outline toward the apex ; apex acute, minute ; sutures impressed. 
Whorls about 8 or 9, convex, the last rounded at the periphery. 
Aperture oblique, rhomboidal, pearly within, and showing folds in 
the macre corresponding with the lirre outside ; columella arcuate, 
pearly, not tubercled below\ Alt. 36, diam. 36 mill. 

Cook's Straits to Dunedin, Neio Zealand. 

Trochus punctulatiis Martyn, Univ. Conch., t. 36 (1784). — 
Reeve, Conch. Icon, xiii, f. 95. — T. diaj)hamts Gmel., Syst. Nat., 
xiii, p. 3580. — Quoy et Gaimard, Voy. de la Astrol., iii, p. 254, t. 
64, f. 1-5.— Wood, Index Test. t. 29, f 99.— Philippi, Conchyl. 
Cab., p. 8. — Fischer, Coq. Viv., genre Turbo, p. 43, t. 10, f. 2. — 
Turbo diaphanus Lam., An. s. Vert., vii, p. 45. — Trochus asper 
ex rubicundo et albido granulatus, etc., Chemnitz, Conchyl. Cab., v, 
p. 26, t. 161, f. 1520, 1521. — Turbo grandineus Valenciennes, 
Voy. de la Venus, atlas, t. 4, f. 4. — Kiener, Icon. Coq. Viv., Turbo, 
t. 10, f. 2. 

The present species is very similar at first sight to Turbo (Modelia) 
granosus Martyn ; that species however is shorter in the spire, has 
a broader columella, and generally more separated rows of granules. 
The latter, in this form, vary considerably in degree of coarseness. 
The spire is shorter than in the following species, which is, however, 
very closely allied. 

C. PELLUCiDUM Valenciennes. Vol. X, PI. 41, fig. 36. 

Shell conical, imperforate, solid, yellowish with a few brown 
obliquely longitudinal streaks, and closely minutely dotted with 
brown and white on the numerous closely beaded lira? which en- 
circle the whorls. These lira? number about 8-10 on the penulti- 
mate whorl, and the same number on the last above the jieriphery, 
but owning to the frequent intercalation of liruke between them, the 
number is subject to variation. Just at or just below the periphery 



CALLIOSTOMA. 335 

there is a group of lirulje, closer, smaller than those of the upper 
surface ; the rest of the base is regularly granose-lirate. The spire 
is longer and more elevated than in C. pundulatum, and more con- 
cave in outline ; the apex is acute ; sutures very slightly impressed ^ 
whorls about 9, flattened, the last subangular at the joeriphery ; 
aperture rhomboidal, iridescent inside, columellar margin arcuate, 
Avith a slight tubercle at base. Alt. 30, diam. 30 mill. 

New Zealand. 

T. ])ellucidus Val., Voy. de la Venus, Moll, t. 4, f. 2, 1846.— 
Fischer, Coq. Viv., p. 70, t. 15, f. 2. — Zisiphmus granatus Chemn. 
Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 2 (not Tr. granatum Chemn. ,= C'. tigris 
Mart.) 

More convex on the base than G. speciosmn, less rounded on 
periphery, with longer spire than C. punctulatum ; very similar 
to C. tigris, but differently colored, more carinated, with fewer series 
of granules. 

C. SELECTUM Chemnitz. PI. 65, figs. 73, 74, 78. 

Shell large, conical, imperforate, solid, but rather thin, very pale 
fawn-color, almost white, with elongated brown dots on the spiral 
riblets. Upper surface with numerous delicate spiral closely granu- 
lose riblets, numbering about 10 or 11 on the penultimate whorl, 
more numerous on the upper surface of the last whorl because inter- 
stitial lirulre are intercalated ; on the antepenultimate there are 5, and 
on earlier whorls 3 granose lirae ; on the base there are distinctly 
granose concentric lir?e in the middle, but toward the periphery the 
lirse become smaller, narrower, less distinctly grained. The spire is 
conical, its lateral outlines concave on the upper part ; apex acute ; 
sutures scarcely discernable until the last whorl is reached. Whorls 
8-9, flat, the last slightly convex above, obtusely angular at the 
periphery, somewhat convex beneath. Aperture subrhomboidal, 
oblique, pearly and iridescent within, the nacre showing by folds the 
positions of the principal lirpe of the outside ; columella arcuate, 
oblique, pearly, basal and outer lips crenulated at the edge. 

Alt. 50, diam. 57 mill. ; alt. 37, diam. 47 mill. 

Neio Zealand. 

TrocJms selectus Chemnitz, Conchyl. Cab. xi, p. 168, t. 196, f. 
1896, 1897 (1795).— Kiener, Sp. et Icon. Coq. Viv., Tvochus, t. 39, 
f. 1.— Philippi, Conchyl. Cab., p. 261, t. 28, f. 12.— f Ziziphinus 
selectus Chem. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 1. — Z. selectus Chem. Hutton, 



336 CALLIOSTOMA, 

Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W. ix, p. 359, 1884. — Tr. Cunninghami Gray 
in Griffith's Cuvier's Animal Kingdom, xii, 1. 1, f. 7 (1834). — Phil., 
Conchyl. Cab., p. 281, t. 41, f. 7.— Fischer, Coq. Viv., p. 119, t. 39, 
f. 1. — Ziziphinus cunninghami Gray, Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 6. — Z. 
articulatus Reeve, Conch, Icon., f. 3. — Z. decarinatus " Perry," 
HuTTON, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W. ix, p. 359 (not T. decarinatus 
Perry !). — Troc/ms torquatus Anton, Phil., Conch. Cab., p. 261, t. 
38, f. 13. 

The typical selectus is a shell smaller than the dimensions given 
above, dotted above and below, and somewhat obscurely maculated 
below the suture and at the periphery. Z. articulatus of Reeve is this 
form. The T. cunninghami is a much larger shell when fully 
developed, and has no color markings beneath. When not fully 
developed it is very broad and fiat beneath. These forms seem to 
belong to a single sj^ecies ; I cannot separate the shells before me or 
the published figures into two series ; there are too many intermediate 
forms. Tr. decarinatus of Perry is an unknown species, perhaps the 
same as C. canaliculatum Mart., l)ut certainly not allied to T. cunning- 
hami or selection. 

C. meyer[ Philippi. Vol. X, pi. 41, fig. 35. 

Shell strictly conical, carinated, imperforate, thin but rather solid, 
very pale yellowish or pinkish, with irregular, rather pale vertical 
bands of light yellowish-brown, often broken into maculations, and 
radiating on the base. The surface is shining, with numerous spiral 
granose lirre, 7 in number on the penultimate, the antepenultimate, 
and the upper surface of the last whoi'l ; and sometimes these three 
whorls (or the last one) show interstitial threads between the granose 
lirse; the flat base has 12 or 13 concentric lirse, the several inner 
ones stronger, decidedly beaded, the 3 or 4 outer more separated, less 
beaded ; the angular periphery is formed of a double beaded ridge, 
and on some specimens this projects a little at the sutures of the 
spire. The spire is conic, elevated, with straight lateral outlines ; 
Avhorls 9 ; apex subacute, smooth ; the two earlier whorls following 
the apical are tri-lirate ; the last whorl is angular at j^eriphery, flat 
beneath, indented in the center around the insertion of the columella. 
Aperture rhomboidal, oblique, angled on the outer part, above the 
angle thickened inside by a heavy callous or pearly suhmarginal deposit; 
columella oblique, arcuate, a trifle toothed at base. 

Alt. 36, diam. 34 mill. 

Axistralia ; Tasmania. 



CALLIOSTOMA. 337 

T. meijeri Phil., Zeitschr. f, Mai. 1848, p. 101 ; Conchyl. Cab., p. 
279, t. 41, f. 4.— Fischer, Coq. Viv., p. 76, 1. 17, f. 2.— 2V. armillaUis 
Wood, KiENER, Spec, et Icon., t. 17, f. 2 (not armillatus Wood). — 
Ziziphinus armillatus Wood, Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 19. — Tr. levis 
HoMBR. et Jacq., Voy. au Pole Sud, t. 14, f. 17, 18 (not T. Icevis 
Wood, or Chemn.). 

The straightly conical form, flat base, indented around the axis, 
and the details of sculpture, easily separate this from allied forms. 

C. stepiianephorum Watson. PI. 16, figs. 1, la. 

Shell high, conical, tubercularly cariuate and lirate, ruddy, with 
a coronated apex, glossy smoothish flatly conical whitish base, and 
large quadrangular mouth. Sculpture: longitudinals — the whole 
surface is obliquely scored with broadish well-parted little-raised 
rounded stride on the lines of growth, on the base these are feebler 
and less regular. Spirals : on each whorl there are about 7 strongish 
equal threads, which are somewhat sparsely dotted with low flat 
tubercles, whose greatest breadth is in the height of the shell ; each 
whorl round its base is keeled by a stronger prominent triangularly 
acute substellately tubercled thread ; above this lies another thread 
a little stronger and more prominent than the normal spiral threads 
above ; between these two stronger threads is a small shallow 
furrow, which is perpendicularly (not obliquely) striate ; round the 
base and within the carinated periphery is another obtuse angled 
tubercled keel; on the base are some 18 or 20 flattened threads; 
toward the rim these are very feeble and are not very distinguish- 
able from the 2 or 3 weaker threads which occupy the wide intervals 
between ; towards the middle space of the base the stronger threads 
become more marked and also faintly tubercled, the interstitial ones 
tend to disappear ; close into the pillar, however, some very faint 
threads again appear in the interstices. Color pale ruddy, with 
some suffiised deeper spots, and flecked on the tubercles with rich 
bright chestnut. Spire conical, with straight pi'ofile lines. Apex 
rather large, blunt, and coronated by the prominence of the carinal 
tubercles ; it is rather strongly radiatingly striated ; the extreme 
tip is very minute and is immersed ; it is rough, not polished or 
glossy. Whorls in all 9, of very regidar but somewhat rapid in- 
crease ; they are flatly conical, being neither convex nor concave ; 
the last is largish, and is very sharply angulated at the periphery. 
Suture linear, and only recognizable from the projecting keel above it. 
Mouth largish, quadrangular. Outer lip thin, flat on the side and 
22 



338 CALLIOSTOMA. 

on the base, acutely angled at the periphery. Pillar is broken in 
front, but seems short ; it is encompassed with a pad of nacre and 
has a twist on it ; there is no approach to an umbilicus. 
Alt. 1, diam. 0*95 inch. (Watson.) 

Philippines, in 102 fms. 

Trochus {Zizlphmits) stephanephorus Watson, Challenger Rep. 
Gasterop., p. 58, t. 17, f. 1. 

In general character this is like Trochus meyeri Phil, but that 
shell is in color brown, and the stains are arranged in narrow 
divergent lines, not, as here, in ruddy stains affecting especially 
the tips of the tubercles. In that species, the whole whorl swells 
out below the suture, not, as here, the mere thread, nor in that 
species are the tubercles there any larger than elsewhere. The 
threads on the sides are fewer, and their tubercles are larger ; on 
the base the threads are much coarser and more strongly tubercled ; 
the entire apex is dark colored, and is smaller and smoother. 
( Watson.) 

C. TRANQUEBARicuM Pfciffcr. PI. 17, figs. 17, 18. 

Shell conical, imperforate, solid, very pale colored, almost white, 
minutely tessellated on the ribs with light brown, the periphery 
with larger spots of the same. Surface finely spirally striate, the 
stride about 8 on the last whorl, with a couple of stronger ribs at the 
periphery, which are visible above the suture on the spire whorls. 
Spire short, conic, acute, its lateral outlines rectilinear ; whorls 7-8, 
flat, the last acutely carinated, flat beneath ; aperture oblique, 
rhomboidal, smooth and nacreous within ; columella short, arcuate, 
obliquely truncate at base. 

Alt. 14, diam. 18 ; alt. 13, diam. 19 mill 

Northern shores of the Indian Ocean; Tranquehar ; Ponchlderry ; 
Vizagapatam. 

Tr. tranquebaricus L. Pfeiffee, Krit. Regist. zu Mar. Conch. 
Cab., p. viii, no. 5. — Philippi, Conchyl. Cab., p. 65, t. 13, f 10. — 
Fischer Coq. Viv., p. 308, t. 98, f. 1. — Ziziphimis tranquebaricus 
Chemn., Rve., Conch. Icon., f 15. 

Easily known by the low-conical form, finely sculptured flat 
whorls, edged at periphery and sutures by a pair of strong lirse. 

C. ciLiARis Menke. PI 67, figs. 40, 41. 

Shell pyramidal, imperforate, fulvous, with red sjiots along the sut- 
ure, transversely striate, decussated by very delicate strise ; base plane; 



CALLIOSTOMA. 339 

whorls flat, margined below, ciliate-fimbriate above ; aperture ovate- 
lanceolate, lip callous-margined inside. (Menke.) 

West coast of Australia^ 

T. clUaris Mke., Moll. Nov. Holl. spec, p. 17. — Philippi Abbild., 
ii, Trochus t. 7, f. 11 ; Conchyl. Cab., p. 102, t. 17, f. 1. 

Reeve's figure alleged to be eiliaris seems to be different. The 
specimen described and figured by Philippi was sent to him by 
Meuke. The whorls, according to Philippi, are flat, finely plicate 
on their upper margins, margined on the lower, grooved with about 
7 impressed transverse lines, the interspaces, cut by the stripe of 
growth, here and there appear as if flatly grained. The upper whorls 
have separated knobs on the margins ; the margin of the last whorl is 
acutely angular, the base flat, a little excavated in the center, with 
concentric impressed lines, becoming closer toward the periphery. 

Alt. 25, diam. 31 mill. 

C. CASTKA Reeve. PI. 16, fig. 4. 

Shell broadly conoid, depressed, sharp-angled, rather thin, whorls 
flatly sloping, spirally linearly engraved, obliquely plicately cren- 
ulated below the sutures, corded at the basal margin ; pale flesh- 
color, obscurely tessellated and reticulated. (Reeve.) 

Chiefly remarkable for its light, broadly depressed form and 
almost total absence of sculpture. {Reeve.) 

Swan River, Australia. 

Zizyphinus castra, Reeve, Conch. Icon., xiv, f. 14 (1863). 

C. HALiAECHus Melvill. 

Shell erectly conical, pyramidal, the last whorl acutely angled at 
base ; whorls plane, sloping, nearly smooth, encircled by delicate 
lirte, with little granules, two in the vicinity of the suture larger, 
decorated with larger grains ; yellow, ornamented with jDurplish- 
brown flames at the periphery, obscurely punctulate ; lirse of base 
nearly smooth, dotted, base plane, subconvex; columella callous, 
fauces smoothly striate. Alt. 40, diam. 36 mill. {MelvlU.) 

Australia f 

Ziziphiuus haliarchus Melvill, Journ. of Conch., Leeds, vi, j). 32 

(1889). 

May prove close to G. cunninghami Gray. 



340 CALLIOSTOMA. 

C. sowERBYi Pilsbry. PL 18, fig. 17. 

Shell acutely sub-elevated conic, thin, brownish-flesh-color, spirally 
encircled by minute, interrupted close brown lines, banded with 
ashen toward the apex ; whorls 10, scarcely convex, the earlier 
granose-lirate, succeeding smooth, the last at the suture subcon- 
spicuously granose-lirate, the lira becoming then almost obsolete ; 
suture impressed, margin obtusely carinated, ornamented with sub- 
distant reddish spots ; base plano-convex ; aperture obliquely 
quadrate, throat pearly ; columella callous, oblique, scarcely in- 
curved. Alt. 30, diam. 33 mill. (Sowb.) 

Japan. 

Z. jucundus SowB., P. Z. S. 1878, p. 798, t. 48, f. 6 (not T.jucundus 
Gould, also a Calliostoma). 

I can add no information to the above. 

C. ORNATUM Lamarck. PI. 16, fig. 3. 

Shell conical, imperforate, rather solid but not thick, pale yellowish, 
with radiating brown flames above, the base dotted with brown and 
whitish. Surface of whorls encircled by spiral lira% uneven in size, 
and cut into very close compressed granules ; there are about 10 such 
lirse on the penultimate whorl, but the number is variable owing to 
the greater or less development of interstitial riblets ; the base has 
10-13 concentric riblets, which have a tendency to split or become 
double ; they are wider than the interstitial furrows. The spire is 
elevated, conical ; the apex acute ; sutures slightly impressed. Whorls 
about 7, slightly convex. There are generally two or three stronger 
lir£e near the middle or periphery, and this gives at times a slightly 
bicarinate outline to the body-whorl ; base flattened, a little convex ; 
aperture subrhomboidal, smooth inside ; columella arcuate, often 
bounded by a purple streak. 

Alt. 20, diam. 22 mill. ; alt. 18, diam. 20 mill. 

Cape of Good Hope ; Torres Sts., N. Australia. 

Tr. ornatm Lam., An. s. Vert, vii, p. 27. — Delessert, Recuil, t. 
35, f. 3.— Philippi, Conchyl. Cab., p. 208, t. 31, f. 1, 2.— Krauss. 
Sudaf. Moll., p. 98. — Fischer, Coq. Viv., p. 75, 1. 17, f. 1. — Ziziphinus 
ornatus Lam. Rve., Conch. Icon., f. 7. — Chenu, Manuel, f. 2664. — 
Tr.fulvus Philippi, Conchyl. Cab., p. 209, t. 31, f. 3. 

Resembles somewhat the subbiangulate, lirate Chinese species of 
Calliostoma. The sculpture though variable is characteristic. 



CALLIOSTOMA. 341 

C. BiciNGULATUM Lamarck. Vol. X, PI. 41, fig. 29. 

Shell imperforate, acute-conical, pale yellowish or brownish, 
maculated with white ; whorls 7 to 8, the embryonic smooth, fol- 
lowing radiately heavily striate; separated by impressed sutures; 
whorls depressed above, spirally cingulate ; cinguli 4, the upper 2 
minute, lower 2 more prominent, with profound interstices ; last 
whorl bicingulate in the middle, a little convex beneath, and 
encircled by about 12 concentric lirse, white and reddish articulated. 
Aperture rhomboidal ; columella oblique. 

Alt. 15, diam. 17 mill. (Fischer.) 

Cape of Good Hope. 

Tr. bicingulatus Lam., An. s. Vert, vii, p. 27. — Delessert, Rec. 
de Coquilles, t. 35, f 1. — Philippi, Conch yl. Cab., p. 87, t. 15, 
f. 8.— Fischer, Coq. Viv., p. 198, t. 64, f. 2.— IV. vinctus Phil., 
Abbild., i, Trochus t. 1, f. 8. — (?) Zizyphinus bicingulatus Lam., 
Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 20. 

C. UNICUM Dunker. PI. 16, figs. 10, 5. 

Shell conical, solid, imperforate, brownish-yellow, with cljestnut 
maculations above, and a brown-articulated peripheral girdle, the 
base generally not marked. Surface of the whorls encircled by 
numerous unequal lirse, slightly crenulated by regular incremental 
lines, lirse about 9 in number on the penultimate whorl, 12-14 on 
the base ; spire rather short, low ; apex acute, red or purplish ; 
whorls 7, slightly convex, with a more or less obvious angle or 
carina in the middle of the upi)er surface ; the last whorl sub- 
angular or rounded at the peripher}^ convex beneath. Aperture 
oblique, rhomboidal, the lip very much thickened within ; columella 
oblique, concave above, cylindrical, with a groove marking the 
place of the umbilicus. 

Alt. 20, diam. 21 mill. ; alt. 17, diam. 18 mill. 

Nagasaki, Decima, and Simod,a, Japan. 

Trochus imicHS Dunker, Mai. Blatt., 1860, p. 238 ; Moll. Jap., 
p. 23, t. 3, f. 3. — LiscHKE, Jap. Meeres ConchyL, iii, p. 64. — 
Fischer, Coq. Viv., p. 338, t. 105, f. 2. — CaUiostoma affinis Dale, 
Amer. Journ. Conch., vii, p. 125, t. 15, f. 14. — Zizyphinus unicus 
Dkr., Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 8. 

May be i-ecognized by the numerous low riblets, very obsoletely 
bicarinated form, very thick lip, etc. The C. affinis of Dall (fig. 5) 
is the same as Dunker's typical forui of imicum, figured in Mollusca 



342 CALLIOSTOMA. 

Japonica. Lischke (loc. cit), has been over this ground exhaust- 
ively. 

C. CECiLLEi Philippi. PL 67, fig. 64. 

Shell conical, imperforate, thin, transversely striate-granulate ; 
whitish, marbled and flamed with brown. Whorls angulated in the 
middle, sculptured with two gi-anose stria3 above and below the 
angle, alternating with smooth ones ; periphery angular ; base convex; 
closely concentrically striate ; aperture rhombic-rounded ; columella 
arcuate, cylindrical, simple. {PJilL) 

The shell is thin, conical, imperforate, and consists of 8 whorls. 
These are carinate in the middle, above and below the carina 
sloping ; the last is separated from the convex base by a keel. The 
carina of the whorls is granose ; above and below it are 2 to 3 
granulose lines, alternating with elevated smooth ones. The base 
shows 15 to 20 compressed, elevated concentric lines, smooth except 
for quite visible incremental lines. Aperture quadrangular, with 
rounded corners ; outer lip thin, sulcate on the edge ; the columella 
oblique, cylindrical, arched, passing gradually into the basal lip. 
The coloi is yellowish or brownish-white, with dark reddish-brown 
spots, showing a blackish point at the carina. 

Alt. 20, diam. 21 mill. (Phil.) 

Formosa. 

Trochus cecUlei Phil., Zeitschr. f INIal, 1849, p. 151 ; Conchyl. 
Cab., p. 291, t. 43, f. 2. 

Evidently closely allied to the preceding species, and to C. 
viiiltiliratum Sowb. 

C. JiULTiLiRATUM Sowcrby. PI. 15, figs. 45, 46. 

Shell conical, imperforate, thin but solid, pale yellowish-gray, 
radiately flamed with reddish, base minutely dotted with reddish on 
the Yn-x. Surface of whorls encircled by unequal s'zed granose 
lirre, the granules not compressed, bead-like ; there are about 7 such 
lirre on the penultimate whorl, and several minute ones intercalated 
toward the periphery ; on the base there are about 15 lira3 of nearly 
equal size, the inner ones granulose, the outer several nearly or quite 
smooth. The spire is conical, apex acute, apical whorl smooth, 
earlier whorls each wath 3 strong smo()th carinre ; sutures impressed ; 
whorls 7, convex, the last rounded and obscurely biangulate at the 
periphery. Aperture rounded, broader than high, iridescent inside; 
columella arcuate, a little excavated in the umbilical region. 



CALLIOSTOMA. 343 

Alt. 16, diam. 17'. mill. ; alt. 17, diam. 18 mill. Aperture, meas. 
inside, 9 mill, wide, 9 high. 

Cape of Good Hope (Sowerby) ; China. 

Z. mnltUlratus Sowb., P Z. S. 1875, p. 127, t. 24, f. 10. 

Sometimes the lir?e of the upper surftice are not perceptibly 
granose except those near the suture. The species differs in details 
of granulation from C. ornatum Lam., and belongs nearer to several 
Chinese species. The locality given by Sowerbj' should be confirmed. 

C. HUNGERPORDi Sowerby. PI. 34, fig. 11. 

Shell conical, imperforate, gray, with a blue tinge, sparcely spotted 
with brown, the apex blackish-brown, base with three series of brown 
dots. Spire rather acute ; whorls 7, separated by an impressed sut- 
ure, convex, obtusely angulated, striated, spirally irregularly lirate, 
upper lir^e minutely granulated; last whorl obscurely biangulate, 
convex on the base, densely spirally lirate, decussated by strife. 
Aperture obliquely subquadrate; columella slightly oblique, pearly. 
Operculum thin, corneous, multispiral, concave outside. 

Alt. 24, diam. 25 mill. (Soivb.) 

Var. /5. Shell tawny, obscurely streaked with white and brown. 

Alt. 29, diam. 28 mill. (Soivb.) 

Japan. 

Allied to TrocliUnif [sic] unictis Dkr. and Trochiln.s consors Lke., 
but difi'ering from both in form and sculpture. The species, like T. 
unicns seeuis to vary considerably in color. Only one specimen of 
each of the two varieties is at present known. (Soivb.) 

CalUostoma Jmnr/erforcli SowB., P. Z. S. 1888, p. 568, t. 28, f 14. 
C. iNCONSPicuuM Philippi. PI. 18, fig. 18. 

Shell small, solid, imperforate, conical, granose, whitish ; whorls 
plane, separated by a profound suture, the last rounded-angular ; 
base plane; grauose cinguli 5 on the upper part of the whorl, 8-9 
on the base; aperture depressed, broader than high; columella 
oblique, cylindrical, confluent with the basal lip. {Phil.) 

The shell is very thick, considering its small size, exactly conical, 
and consists as usual of 7 to 8 whorls. These are completely flat, 
the last somewhat impressed below the suture, at the periphery 
rounded-angular. The base is flat. The suture appears much 
deeper than it really is, on account of the proximity of the granose 
ridges. These number 5 above, the 6th being covered at the suture. 
The base has 8-9 weaker granose lira^. The interstices upon the 



344 CALLIOSTOMA. 

last whorl here and there show granlose riblets. The aperture is 
almost twice as broad as high, and elliptical. The cylindrical colu- 
mella passes gradually into the blunt thick outer lip. The color is 
brownish-white, perhaps bleached. Alt. 9 2 mill., diam. the same. 
{Phil.) 

Habitat unknown. 

Tr. inconspicuus Phil., Zeitschr. f. Mai. 1849, p. 158 ; Conchyl. 
Cab., p. 296, t. 43, f. 12. 

C. NUBiLis Philippi. PI. 18, fig. 22. 

Shell conical, imperforate, granulate, painted with broad purplish 
maculations and narrower white streaks ; base purplish, concentrically 
sculptured with about 10 elevated, granulate lines ; whorls subangu- 
late below the middle, the last rounded at the circumference ; 
penultimate whorl with 7, last with about 9 granulose cinguli ; 
aperture subrhomboidal, coarctate ; columella very oblique, entire. 
(PJiU.) 

The shell consists of 7 to 8 whorls, of which the upper are quite 
flat, the rest angled below the middle, the penultimate divided from 
the last by a notable constriction ; the last whorl is rather rounded 
at the circumference, flat on the base. On the third whorl I count 
6 granose lirte , on the following 7, separated by an elevated inter- 
stitial line ; and on the last whorl 9. The base has 10-12 granose 
concentric ridges. The aperture is pretty rhomboidal, seeming to be 
narrowed by the thick peristome, and has a very oblique entire 
columella. Large purple spots, darker, almost black at their front 
edges, are separated by narrower white streaks ; the apex is blackish, 
the base dark flesh-color, with a few girdles of brown dots. 

Alt. 8, diam. 8 mill. (Phil.) 

Habitat unknown. 

Tr. nubilis Phil., Zeitschr. f. Mai., p. 110, 1848; Conchyl. Cab., 
p. 255, t. 38, f. 2. 

Very close to, or synonymous with, C. jucundum Gould, described 
in 1849. 

C. ARRUENSis Watson. PI. 17, figs. 27, 27a. 

Shell conical, carinated, flat on the base, strong, opaque, covered 
with tubercles, and colored with gray and pink. Sculpture: there 
are eight spiral rows of small round tubercles on each whorl. The 
tubercles on the first two rows, are larger than the others ; these, as 
well as the next three rows, are parted by distinct depressions ; the 



C.^ LLIOSTOMA. 845 

lowest three rows are much closer together, but project a little, 
especially the center and largest row of the three. On the base there 
are about nine less strongly tuberculated spiral threads with feebler 
threads between, these intermediate threads becoming feebler towards 
the center. The tubercles are smooth and polished, but the whole inter- 
vening surface is sharply fretted with fine oblique puckerings. Color 
white, beautifully flecked above with grayish-purple patches, and 
closely spotted with purplish-pink on the base. Spire high and sharp 
pointed, its concavely conical slope being slightly broken at the 
sutures by the projection of the two superior rows of tubercles. 
Whorls about 10, flat and of very regular increase. Suture slight, 
but distinct, being defined by the slight cai'inal spiral above, and the 
double row of large tubercles below. Mouth rather small, square, and 
very oblique. Outer lip sharp but strong. Inner lip strengthened 
internally by a buttress of porcelaneous nacre, which ends abruptly 
towards the point of the pillar, forming a tooth. The pillar, beveled 
off to a sharp edge, is pressed back on the umbilicus, which it com- 
pletely closes, leaving only a central depression and a post-columellar 
furrow. Operculum thin, yellow, normal. 

Alt. "64, diam. '58 inch. ( Watson.) 

This species very much resembles Trochus decoratus, Phil., but 
that species is more highly narrowly conical, is fliatter on the base, 
and the whole system of spirals is different. In Trochus decoratus 
also the earlier whorls are simply spiralled ; here the spirals are 
cross-hatched. Trochus nobilis, Phil., is much larger, is flatter on the 
base, and is not so closely spiralled. Trochus euglypfus, Ad., has the 
whorls much rounder. (Watson.) 

Arrou Is., S. W. of Papua. 

Trochus (Ziziphinus) ar?n(e«si.s Watson, Journ, Linn. Soc. London, 
vol. 15, p. 91 ; Challenger Report, Gasteropoda, p. 57, t. 6, f. 5. 

C. TRANSENNA Watson. PL 17, fig. 28. 

Shell small, conical, high, carinated, inflated on the base, thin, 
sculptured, yellowish with small ruddy spots. Sculpture : spirals — 
close to the suture is a I'ow of disconnected beads, between this and 
the carina are three rows of appressed beads, of which the highest 
is the weakest ; these four rows are parted from one another by 
furrows, each of which is a little broader than the thread above it ; 
the carina also consists of a row of appressed beads ; it is stronger 
than the other beads both in breadth and height, and the furrow 
above it is a little broader and deeper than the rest. On the base 



346 CALLIOSTOMA. 

are seven rows of appressed beads of nearly equal width and dis- 
tance from one another; the first joins the outer lip, the central 
row twanes up the pillar. These rows of beads make their appearance 
on the second whorl, and on all the upper whorls more than on the 
body-whorl ; the carina is sharply expressed by a constriction above 
and below it. Longitudinals — the whole surface is crossed obliquely 
by not quite contiguous threads, which are almost as strong as the 
spirals. Between the threads are narrow, deep, long pits ; each 
alternate thread is crowned by a bead at the suture. Color : the 
surface is dull and rough, yellowish, sparsely spotted on the spirals 
with a ruddy brown, which is almost crimson on the infra-sutural 
beads. Spire high and conical, the whorls being barely rounded. 
Apex small but flattened, the embryonic It whorls scarcely pro- 
jecting. Whorls 7, of regular increase, almost flat, the body-whorl 
alone being slightly convex, rounded, and cariuated at the periph- 
ery and tumid on the base, in the center of which is a most minute 
umbilical chink. Suture deeply and squai-ely impressed below the 
carina. Mouth slightly oblique, squarish, nacreous. Outer lip 
very thin, very slightly descending, and drawn in a little horizon- 
tally at its junction with the body, and then well rounded in its 
whole sweep to the point of the pillar-lip, near which it is externally 
crenulated by the ends of the basal threads. Pillar is short, 
straight, slightly tubercled on its inner side, hardly toothed in front, 
and still less angulated at its junction Avith the outer lip. The 
pillar-lip is very thin, slightly excavated longitudinally, and re- 
verted on the minute umbilicus, which it almost wholly conceals. 
Behind it is a very narrow furrow. 
Alt. -27 ; diam. -22 inch. (Watson.) 

Philippines, in 82 fms. 

Trochus {Ziziphinus) transenna, ^Y atsoi<j, Journ. Linn. Soc. Lon- 
don, vol. 14, p. 698 ; Challenger Rep. Gasterop., p. 62, t. 6, f 3. 

In form and details of sculpture this species is extremely like 
Trochus (Thalotia) elisa, Gould, from island of Capul, in the 
Philippines (British Museum), but is very obviously different. 
( Watson.) 

C. AEGENTEONiTEKS Lischkc. PI. 63, figs. 32. 

Shell imperforate, conoidal, apex acute, thin, yellowish, beautifully 
iridescent, the underlying nacre shining through ; whorls 8, a little 
convex, obsoletely sculptured with incremental stria?; suture with a 



CALLIOSTOMA. 347 

series of fine short folds ou each side ; three last whorls with a 
median series of tubercles ; aj^erture almost half the entire altitude; 
last whorl encircled by an acute compressed carina at the base ; base 
very convex, with 8 narrow crenulated spiral lirse, the first 3 
separated, the rest closer ; aperture rounded-subquadrate ; columella 
sinuous, brilliantly pearly. Alt. 43, diam. 30 mill. (Lischke.) 

Jedo, Japan. 
Trochus argenteo-nitens Lischke, Jap. Meeres-Conchyl. iii, p. 66, 
t. 4, f. 1, 1874. 

A handsome and distinct species. 

C. CONSORS Lischke. PL 63, figs, 22, 23. 

Shell broadly conical, apex acute, imperforate, rather thin, en- 
circled by very many narrow, unequal, subtly granulose or cren- 
ulated riblets, as wide or narrower than the interspaces ; pale tawny, 
flamed with deeper color, and articulated on the liblets with dark 
dots ; whorls 8, separated by a suture not profound, mai'gined, acutely 
angled in the middle ; last whorl wide, furnished with another angle 
on the base ; base convex, multi-lirate ; aperture rhomboid-orbicular ; 
columella arcuate, pearly, bordered outside by a semilunar pit ; 
throat obsoletely sulcated, nearly smooth. 

Alt. 25, diam. 24 mill. (Lischke.) 

Jedo, Japan. 

Trochus consors Lischke, Jaj). iNIeeres-Conchyl., p. 65, t. 4, f. 2, 
3, 1874. 

C. MONiLiFERUM Lamarclv. PI. 63, fig. 17. 

The typical form of this shell is known to me only by the figures 
cited below. Fischer I'epeats Lamarck's diagnosis. The T. ahcince 
of Lischke (pi. 63, figs. 15, 16) differs somewhat in the contour of the 
columella. The following description is translated from Lischke's : 

Shell broad conic, oblique, apex acute, rather thin, whitish, with 
a silvery sheen from the underlying pearly layer ; whorls 8, nearly 
flat, encircled by very numerous very finely granose riblets, and in 
the middle by a series of equidistant tubercles ; the suture has a 
series of numerous little tubercles close above it, and beneath it a row 
of short oblique folds ; last whorl equaling about two-fifths the total 
altitude, sub-bicarinated by two series of tubercles ; base scarcely 
convex, sculptured by numerous granose spiral riblets, cut by incre- 
mental stride ; umbilicus narrow, nearly covered by a plate-like 
dilation of the columella, and bounded outside by a porcelain-white 



348 CALLIOSTOMA, 

fascicle, the latter separated from the rest of the base by a furrow, 
and a second furrow runs spirally into the umbilicus. The concave 
columella passes gradually into the basal lip. The aperture is very 
oblique, is oval-rounded, rather widened ; the throat shows lines 
corresponding to the outer sculpture, and is beautifully pearly. 
Alt. 37, diam. 36 mill. (Lischke.) 

Ins. Kiushiu, Japan. 

Tr. moniliferus Lam., Encyc. Meth., p. 445, fig. 2 ; An. s. Vert, 
vii, p. 26. — Fischer, Coq. Viv., p. 73, t. 16, f. 2 (not T. monilifer 
Lam., nor T. moniliferus Phil.). — Tr. ahvince Lischke Mai. Bliitt. 
xviii, p. 149, 1871 ; Jap. Meeres-Conchyl. ii, p. 84, t. 6, f 17-19; 
Dkr., Ind. Moll. Mar. Jap., p. 259. 

This shell is the type of Fischer's section Lischkeia. 

C. AusTEALis Broderip, PL 1 8, fig. 23. 

Shell, conical, granulate cingulate, with a larger supra-sutural 
cingulus, buffer nearly white, painted with spots of reddish or viola- 
ceous ; whorls plane ; base flat, imjDcrforate, throat silvery. (Brod.) 

Australia. 

Tr. australis Brob., Zool. Journ. v, p. 331, tab. suppl. 49, f. 3. 
1830 (not T. (Mo)iodonta) australis Lara.) — Tr. hroderipi Philippi. 
Conchyl. Cab., p. 257, t. 38, f. 5. 

Compared by Philippi (who had not seen the shell) with T. gem- 
mosus Rve. and nobilis Phil. In outline the figure resembles T. 
( Odontotrochus) chlorostomus Mke., but that shell has a strong tooth 
at the base of columella. 

C. FRAGUM Philippi. PI. 18, figs. 13, 14. 

Shell conical, subperforate, pale purplish-brown, painted with 
whitish stripes, with 4 distant series of granules ; whorls 8, basal 
margins of the whorls prominent, granulate ; interstices very 
delicately obiquely striate ; base little convex, sculptured with 
8 flat subgranose concentric lirse, each one divided by a furrow into 
two parts, alternating with narrow elevated lines ; aperture rhom- 
boidal, smooth, columella but little oblique, subtruncate at base. 

Alt. 14, diam. 12 mill. (Phil.) 

Habitat unknown. 

Tr.fragum Phil., Zeitschr. f Mai. 1848, p. 106; Conchyl. Cab., 
p. 257, t. 38, f 4. — Zizyphinus fragum Phil., Rve, Conch. Icon., f. 
47. 



CALLIOSTOMA. 349 

May be a Thalotia, allied to T. pyrgos, one of Philippi's own 
species. 

C. DFCORATA Philippi. PI. QG, fig. 31. 

Shell turreted-conical, imperforate, brownish-ashen ; whorls 9, 
nearly plane, with an elevated cingulus above and below, cut into 
granules by impressed longitudinal and transverse lines, encircled 
by three series of granules on a reddish-brown ground, the granules 
alternately white and black ; the interstices have one or two elcwated 
lines. Angle of the last whorl rounded, base pretty convex, with 
about 8 elevated weakly granulated concentric lir?e, the granules 
alternately whitish and dark brown. Columella somewhat oblique, 
subtruncate at base, obviously separated from the basal lip by a 
sinus. Alt. 20, diara. 15 mill. (Phil.) 

Port Jackson and Brisbane, Australia. 

Tr. decoratus Phil., Zeitschr. f. Mai. 1846, p. 102 ; Ccnchyl. Cab., 
p. 59, t. 13, f. 1. — Ziziphinus decoratus Phil. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 
28.— Angas, p. Z. S. 1877, p. 188.— Tr. (Zizyphinns) decoratus Phil., 
Watson, Challenger Gasterop., p. 54. — Tr. (Calliostoma) decor- 
atus E. A. Smith, Zool. Coll. H. M. S. ' Alert, ' p. 73. 

Smith says : The interior of the aperture of this species, close to 
the outer and basal margin, is thickened with a whitish and more or 
less cloudy pearly deposit, which conceals to some extent the beautiful 
ix'idescence observable further within. 

C. NOBiLis Philippi. PL 15, figs. 47, 48, 49. 

Shell imperforate, acutely conical, rather thin ; whorls 10, plane, 
the first eroded, smooth, following whitish buff, I'adiately flamed with 
brown and reddish, spirally cingulate, cinguli 6, granose, the upper 
5 small, separated by equal interstices, lower cingulus wider, more 
prominent, subcrenate ; last whorl acutely carinated ; base con- 
centrically encircled by about 7-8 granose cinguli, alternately buff 
and rose colored ; aperture subquadrate ; lip plicate ; columella sub- 
arcuate, base subnodose, with a parallel groove. 

Alt. 22, diam. 22 mill. (Fischer.) 

Australian coasts; Swan River ; St. Vincent's Gulf, Darnley Id., 
Torres Sts., 25 fms. 

T. nohilis Philippi Conchyl. Cab., p. 86, t. 15, f. 6, t. 38, f. 1.— 
Fischer Coq. Viv., p. 309, t. 98, f. 2. — Ziziphinus nohilis Phil. 
Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 10. — Brazier, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. AVales, 
ii, p. 44, 1878. — Tr. ruhiginosus Valenciennes, Voy. de la Venus, 



350 CALLIOSTOMA. 

t. 4, f. 1. — Z. splendidus Phil. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 11. — Tr, 
splendidus PuiLirpi, oiim, see Couchyl. Cab., p. 255. 

Reeve's figure of the form called splendidus by Philippi, but 
afterward said by him to be a var. of nobilis, is given on pi. 15, fig. 
49. 

C. POUPiNELi Montrouzier. PI. 17, fig. 41. 

Shell imperforate, elevated-conical, apex acute, ornamented all 
over with close obliquely grained spiral riblets, 2 supra marginal 
riblets stronger ; shining, subcrystalline, fleshy-white, marked by re- 
mote reddish dots on the supra sutural rib. Whorls 8, separated by 
impressed sutures, subconcave above, a little tumid and very obtusely 
subcarinated below, the base plano-convex. Aperture oblique, sub- 
rhomboidal, throat pearly and sulcate inside, brilliantly nacreous, 
the pearl not attaining to the edge of the lip, which is sharp and 
finely crenulated ; columellar margin thick, subvertical, with a small 
tubercle. Alt. 12, diam. 8 mill. (Fischer.) 

Ne^v Caledonia. 

T. (Zlziphinus) poupineli JMontrouzier Journ. de Conchyl. 1875, 
p. 40, t. 4, f 6.— Fischer, 1. c, p. 49, and 1878, p. 210 ; Coq. Viv., 
p. 387, 1. 116, f. 3.— Z. comptus Ao. P. Z. S. 1854, p. 38.— Reeve, 
Conch. Icon., f. 48 (not T. eomtus Phil., also a GalUostoma). 

I follow Fischer in rejecting the name comptus on account of its 
essential identity w^ith eomtus of Philij)pi. 

C. LEGRANDi Tenison-Woods. PI. 66, fig. 23. 

Shell straightly conical, imperforate, solid, rather thick, yellowish- 
flesh-color ; sculptured spirally with numerous smooth riblets, alter- 
nately larger and smaller, 8 or 9 on the penultimate whorl, about 
14 on the base, some of the interstitial ones near the axis quite small, 
the outer ones subequal in size. Spire conic, its outlines straight ; 
sutures scarcely visible except for a slightly wider cingulus above 
them. AVhorls about 6, flat, the last angular, nearly flat beneath, 
shortly deflexed at aperture in the only specimen before me. Aper- 
ture rhomboidal, oblique, with a couple of prominent riblets inside 
the upper lip, basal lip thickened, columella straight or a trifle 
projecting in the middle. 

Alt. 13, diam. 13 mill.; aperture (meas. inside) alt. 6, diam. 6 
mill. 

Chappell Id., Bass's St., Tasmania. 



CALLIOSTOMA. 351 

Ziziphinus legrandi Ten.-Woods, Proc. & Rep., Roy. Soc. Tas- 
mania, 1875, p. 154. 

A small smooth-ribbed form, allied, according to Tenison-Woods 
to Z. incertus Rve. 

C. iNCERTUM Reeve. PI. 17, fig. 37. 

This reversed species is known to me only by Reeve's illustration 
(pi. V, fig. 28). The accompanying page of text is lacking in the 
copy of the Iconiea in the Academy library. 

C. ALLPORTi Tenison- Woods. PI. 66, fig. 22. 

Shell small, conical imperforate, solid, white, the 6 or 7 whorls en- 
circled by series of granules, 6 in number on the penultimate and 
up2)er surface of last whorl, the beads distinct, rounded ; base with 
about 10 scarcely granulous concentric Wvve. Spire conic, its outlines 
straight ; apex acute, suture linear ; body-whorl angular at periph- 
ery, a little convex beneath ; aperture quadrangular, with a couple 
of rather strong riblets inside the upper outer lip; basal lip thick- 
ened ; columella very oblique, a trifle straightened in the middle, 
rounded. Alt. 7, diam. 6^ mill. 

Islands in Bass's Strait, Tasmania. 
Ziziphinus allporti Ten.-Woods, Proc. Roy. Soc. Tasra., 1875, -p. 
155. 

]My specimen described above is probably not fully adult. The 
whorl is a trifle deflexed at the aperture, as in C. legrandi; and 
like that shell, there are a pair of rather strong spiral lirse within 
the aperture, which are rather strong near the upper outer lij). Teni- 
son-Woods describes his shells as having the whorls rather convex, 
periphery rounded, inter-liral spaces obliquely striate, aperture bi- 
. dentate below, alt. 11, diam. 9 mill., — characters lacking in my 
specimen, owing, probably to its immaturity and slightly worn 
condition. 

C. jucuNDUM Gould. PL 66, figs. 26, 27, 28. 

Shell small, solid, low conical, composed of about six conical 
whorls, with a slight vertical portion at base ; the whorls girdled with 
fine, uniform, beaded lines, the alternate ones being generally smaller, 
sometimes even not beaded, and the two basal ones surrounding the 
vei'tical portion being larger ; base a little convex, similarly 
sculptured with about twelve concentric lines, gradually diminishing 
from the center to the circumference ; the umbilical region color- 



352 CALLIOSTOMA. 

less, not perforated, and with a groove-like impression beside the 
columella ; aperture rhomboidal-orbiculate ; columella arcuate, 
smooth ; lip simple ; colors ai'ranged in radiating flammules, alter- 
nately white, strawberry-red, and pale flesh-color, gradually shaded 
into each other ; on the base the dark or light-red are distributed 
along the granules in a somewhat articulated manner ; nacreous be- 
neath. Alt. 9->, diam. 10 mill. {Gould.) 

Tr.jucundus Gould, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H. iii, p. 91, 1849; U. 
S. Expl. Exped., Moll., p. 177, f. 209. 

The excellent description of Gould, given above, corresponds 
perfectly with a specimen before me. Hutton says that the locality 
New Zealand, given by Gould, is incorrect. The only shell I have 
seen is said to come from Rio Janeiro. 

C. spECiosuM A. Adams. PI. 16, fig. 2 ; pi. 67, fig. 42. 

Shell pyramidal-conical, imperforate, flesh-colored, variegated and 
punctate with rufous ; whorls plano-concave, sculptured with trans- 
verse subgranulate alternately smaller and larger \irse, the granules 
reddish-brown ; last whorl obtusely angular ; base concentrically 
grooved ; umbilical region impressed, bounded by a rufous callous ; 
aperture subquadrate ; columella solid, subarcuate, scarcely truncate 
anteriorly ; lip lirate within, the margin subangulate in the middle. 
(Ad.) 

Moreton Bay ; Pout Curtis, Queensland, Australia, 7-11 fms. 

Z. speciosus Ad., P. Z. S. 1854, p. 38. — Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 
9a, b. — T. (Calliostoma) speciosus E. A. Smith, Zool. Coll. H. M. S. 
* Alert,' p. 71. 

Closely allied to C. meyeri Phil, but less angular at periphery, 
and with an orange columellar streak. Smith (loc. cit.) says : In 
form this species approaches T. comtus Phil., which however, in 
addition to difference in color, does not possess the peculiar smooth 
orange-yellow callosity at the umbilical region, so characteristic of 
T. speciosus. 

C. RioENSis Dall. PI. 67, fig. 76. 

Shell elevated-conical, imperforate, thin, flesh colored, with 
irregular yellowish longitudinal stripes on the upper whorls and small 
whitish spots on the periphery, the lirae of periphery and base 
articulated with rufous dots. Spire conic, high, its lateral outlines a 
trifle concave above ; whorls 8, a little convex ; sutures a little 



CALLIOSTOMA. 353 

impressed. Surface covered with narrow, closely beaded spiral lira^ 
alternately larger and smaller, the interstices showing rather strong 
lines of increment. There are 6 principal spirals on the last, the 
penultimate and next earlier whorls. The penult, and last whorls 
each have an intermediate smaller spiral in each interstice. There is 
a slightly larger spiral just above the periphery ; and the peripheral 
carina is formed of a pair of contiguous riblets ; the base is nearly 
flat, with 12 subequal concentric spirals, slightly beaded by the light 
lines of increment. Aperture rhombic, bluish, nacreous and lightly 
sulcate within ; lip sharp; columella cylindrical, a little curved, its 
face pearly, ending below in a slight point. 
Alt. 15, diam. 13* mill. 

Off East Coast S. America, 0-20 fms. 

a rioensis Ball, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 1889, t. xii, f 5 (1890). 
Closely allied to the shell herein described as C.jiieundum Gould. 

C. TiNCTUM Watson. PI. 16, figs. 11, 11a. 

Shell small, conical, high spired, flatly rounded on the base, 
sculptured, creamy white, with faint chestnut specks. Sculpture : 
longitudinals — there are wrinkled lines of growth above, and on the 
base fine hair-like striae. Spirals — there are strong threads parted 
by slight furrows, 10 above the periphery on the last whorl, 6 on the 
penultimate whorl, between the second and third threads above the 
periphery a slightly broader and more distinct furrow occurs ; all 
the threads are closely packed, with rather coarse round tubercles; 
the edge of the base is pretty shariily angulated; the angulation be- 
comes blunt and rounded toward the mouth ; on the base there are 
10 flattish, somewhat, unequal untubercled threads parted by very 
shallow and narrow furrows, which become, somewhat stronger to- 
ward the pillar. Color creamy, sparsely speckled with small pale 
chestnut-colored dots. Spire rather high, conical. Apex a little 
coarse, but small, consists of 1=} embryonic whorls, of which the tip 
is red and elevated, somewhat coarsely but regularly honeycombed. 
Whorls 6], conical, with flattened slopes of slow regular increase; 
the last, which is not large, is angulated at the periphery, descends 
at the moutn, and has a flatly conical, slightly convex base. Suture 
small, but coarse, and a little impressed. Mouth very oblique, but 
with a perpendicular pillar; it is nearly square in form; there is 
very little nacre within. Outer lip thin ; at its insertion it is a good 
deal drawn in on the base of the shell ; it is patulous on the side, 
23 



354 CALLIOSTOMA. 

but vei7 little so on the base. Pillar Tip is broad, strong, reverted, 
cliannelled, twisted, and bluntly angulated, patulous, but not tooth- 
ed at its junction with the base. 

Alt. -25, diam. -23 inch. (Watson.) 

Off East Moncceur Island, Bass' Straits, in 38 fms. 

Trochus (Ziziphinus) tinetus Watson, Challenger Rep., Gasterop., 
p. 63, t. 17, f. 2. 

An inconspicuous but pretty little species, which, though small, 
seems quite full-grown. ( Watson.) 

C. COMTUM Philippi. PL 18, fig, 24. 

Shell conical, imperforate, solid, granulate, flesh-colored, painted 
with radiating white streaks, the apex blackish-violet. Whorls little 
convex, the last rounded-angulate, above a little concave, superior 
Avhorls with 6 or 8 granulate einguli, close, separated by a narrow 
granulate line ; base granose-cingulate, principal einguli about 8, 
alternating with smaller ones. Aperture rhond^oidal, dej^ressed ; 
columella oblique, subtortuous, cylindrical. (Phil.) 

The shell is very solid, quite exactly conical. The 3 last whorls 
are more strongly convex below, the last somewhat concave above ; 
the uppermost are entirely flat; the basal angle is rounded ; the base 
plane in a radial direction. The granules of the surface are hemi- 
spherical, closely crowded ; on the third whorl I count 6 series of 
them, between them are much narrower granose lines, which become 
stronger and stronger until they attain the same prominence as the 
principal series. The sculpture of the base is the same. The aperture' 
is depressed, rhomboidal, the outer lip superficially sulcate within, 
corresponding to the principal lirpe of the outer surface. The 
columella is oblique, somewhat twisted, cylindrical, without tooth at 
base. It is flesh-colored, witii white rays. 

Alt. 17, diam. 18 mill. (Philippi.) 

Habitat unhnown. 

Tr. comtus Fun,., Conchyl. Cab., t. 324, t. 46, f. 6. 

C. TiCAONicuM A. Adams. PI. 1, fig. 4. 

Shell elevated conical, perforate, buff^or flesh-color, ornamented at 
the suture with lirse articulated with rufous; whorls little rounded, 
longitudinally striate, apex blackish-purple ; last whorl subangular ; 
base a little convex, sculptured with rufous-articulated einguli ; 



CALLIOSTOMA. 355 

aperture subquadrate ; columella straight, subtruncated anteriorly ; 
ajDerture white inside. (Ad.) 

Isktnd of Ticao, Philippines, 6 fms. 
Z. ticaonicus Ad., P. Z. S. 1851, p. 167. — Reeve, Conch. Icon., 
f. 43. 

C. DECussATUM A. Adams. PI. 17, fig. 33. 

Shell elevated-conic, subperforate, whitish, ornamented with green 
longitudinal maculations ; whorls plane, margined and a little prom- 
inent at the base ; sculptured with granulate cinguli, decussated by 
elevated longitudinal lines ; last whorl angulate, base a little convex, 
ornamented with granulate cinguli ; aperture subquadrate ; columella 
straight, truncate at base. (Ad.) 

Calipan, Mindoro, 12 fms. 

Z. deciissatus Ad., P. Z. S. 1851, p. 167. — Reeve, Conch. Icon., 
f. 65. 

C. jAPONicuM A. Adams. PI. 17, fig. 25. 

Shell turreted-conic, smooth, shining, imperforate; whorls plane, 
with two impressed lines at ba.se, the last angulate, red with white and 
yellow flanimules, base convex, sculptured with articulated cinguli ; 
aperture subquadrate, iridescent green inside. (Ad.) 

Japan. 

Z. japonicus Xd., P. Z. S. 1851, p. 167. — Reeve, Conch. Icon., 
f. 49. 

Compare Cantharidus hilar is Lischke, antea, p. 130. 
C. UNiciNCTUM A. Adams. PI. 17, fig. 34. 

Shell turreted conical, imperforate, buff; w'horls plane, subim- 
bricating, ornamented at base with slightly prominent cingulus 
articulated with red, and close transverse lines ; last whorl angulate, 
base produced, sculptured with concentric lines and an elevated 
articulated cingulus; aperture subtrigonal, columella straight, sub- 
canaliculate at base. (Ad.) 

Lord Hoods Island, on pearl oysters, 8-10 fms. 

Z. unicindus Ad., P. Z. S, 1851, p. 167. — Reeve, Conch. Icon., f, 
58. 

C. PKTURATUM A. Adams. PI. 17, fig. 38. 

Shell turreted-conical, imperforate, green or violaceous, ornamented 
with undulating bands and zizgag lines ; whorLs plane, basal margin 
crenulated, sculptured with transverse impressed lines ; last whorl 



356 CALLIOSTOMA. 

angulated, the base a little convex ; aperture subquadrate, white in- 
side ; columella incurved, base truncate. (Ad.) 

Delaqnete, Id. of Negros, 7 fnis. 
Z. picturatus A. Ad., P. Z. S. 1851, p. 168. — Reeve, Conch. Icon., 
f. 53. 

C. POLYCHROMA A. Adams. PI. 17, fig. 31. 

Shell turreted-conic, perforate, green, painted with undulating 
white bands, varied with bnfF angular lines ; whorls plane, subim- 
bricating ; ornamented with a slightly prominent articulated margin, 
subdistant impressed transverse lines, and longitudinally substriate ; 
last whorl angulate, base a little convex, sculptured with cinguli 
articulated with buff; aperture subquadrate, green inside ; columella 
straight subtruncate at base. (Ad.) 

Island of Masbate, 7 fms. 

Z. 'poJychroma Ad. P. Z. S. 1851, p. 168. — Reeve, Conch. Icon., 
f 40.— B'razier Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales ii, 1878, p. 45. 

Brazier gives Cape York, K. Australia, 1 1 fms., as an additional 
locality. 

C. DUPLirATUM A. Adams. PI. 17, fig. 26. 

Shell turreted-conic, imperforate ; whorls convex, ornamented with 
granose cinguli, with two larger more prominent cinguli at base ; 
interstices longitudinally striate ; large whorl subrounded, base a 
little convex, sculptured with granose cinguli; aperture subrotund; 
lip lirate within ; columella terminating in a tubercle at base. 
i^Ad.) 

Habitat unknown. 

Zizypliinm dupllcatu^ Ad., P. Z. S. 1851, p. 168.— Reeve, Conch. 
Icon., f. 55. 

C. ELEGANTULUM A. Adams. PI. 66, fig. 29. 

Shell conical, imperforate, buff"; Avhorls i:)lane, encircled by distant 
elevated violet beaded lines, alternately smaller, the interstices 
lono-itudinally striate ; base nearly plane, ornamented with 4 violet 
cino-uli ; aperture subquadrate, white inside ; columella subtruncate 
at base. {Ad.) 

Malacca, 10 fms. 

Z. elegantulus Ad., P. Z. S. 1851, p. 167. — Reeve, Conch. Icon., 
f. 38. 



CALLIOSTOMA, 857 

C. ZEBUENsis (A. Adams) Reeve. PI. l.S, fig. 44. 

Shell stoutly conical, whitish, variegated with pale blue-green, 
whorls rounded, closely finely ridged throughout, minutely crenulated 
below the sutures, ridges smooth, rather sharp. The ridges of this 
little species are unusually fine and sharp, with no indications of 
granules. (Rve.) 

Zebu, Ph iUppines. 

Z. zebuensis (" Adams MSS.") Reeve, Conch. Icon., f 63 (1863). 

C. GEMMOsuM Reeve. PI. 15, fig. 40. 

Shell rather tumidly conical, solid, whorls slopingly convex, densely 
strongly grained, here and there linearly engraved, lines obliquely 
minutely crenulated, basal margin obtusely rounded ; golden straw- 
color, engraved lines chocolate-purple. Strongly grained upon a 
bright golden straw-color, enlaced with engraved lines of a deep 
chocolate-purple. (Rve.) 

Puerto- Galero, hland of Mindanao, Philippines, 6 fras. 

Tr. gemmosus Reeve, P. Z. S. 1842, p. 184; Conch. Syst. ii, p. 
165, t. 218, f. 9 ; Z. gemmosus Conch. Icon., f. 23. 

C, yexillum Reeve. PI. 15, fig. 43. 

Shell conical, white, broadly striped with green, whorls rudely 
convex, smooth, spirally linearly engraved. A shell of simple form, 
with no sculpture excepting faintly engraved spiral lines. (Rve.) 

Australia. 

Z. ve.xillum Rve., Conch. Icon., f. 59 (1863). 

C. sniiLARLs Reeve. PI. 15, figs. 38, 39. 

The text describing this species is missing in the copy of the 
Iconica accessible to me. 

Palm Id., N. E. Australia, 8 fms. ; Lizard Id., Torres Sts. 

Z. simila^is Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 32a, b. — Brazier, Proc. Linn. 
Soc. N. S. Wales ii, p. 44 (1878).— Troehus (Ziz.) similaris Rve., 
Watson, Challenger Gasterop., p. 55. 

C. FLAMMiGER Duuker. PI. 66, fig. 34. 

Shell conical, solid, glabrous, yellowish-white, painted Avith un- 
dulating lines and flames of buflT; whorls 10, plano-convex, separated 
by distinct sutures, the last obtusely angular at the circumference ; 
base a little convex, unicolored buflT, in the middle white, marked 
with a few umbilical sulci; aperture rounded-tetragonal. (Dkr.) 

Habitat unknoxvn. 



358 CALLIOSTOMA. 

T. flammiger Dkr. P. Z. S., 1856, p. 355.^ — Zizyphhms flammiger 
Dkr., Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 52. 

C. OCELLATUM Reeve. PI. 17, fig. 23. 

Shell rather bi-oadly conical, reddish fulvous, ocellated with brown- 
shaded white s})ots ; whorls concavely impressed round the upper 
parts, then rounded, spirally grain-ridged throughout. Rather con- 
stricted below the sutures, then rounded and ocellated with shaded 
opaque-white spots. (live.') 

Habitat unknoivn. 

Z. ocellatus RvE., Conch. Icon., f. 61 (1863). 

Compare C.jucundwn Gould. 
C. iNTERRUPTUM Wood. PI. 17, figs. 21, 22. 

Shell erectly conical, grayish-white, encircled by fine blue-black 
interrupted lines, minutely articulated at the sutures; whorls flatly 
sloping, spirall}' finely ridged, interstices minutely crenulately striate. 
A very distinct erectly-conical shell, painted in an elaborately 
tessellated numner. (Reeve.) 

Habitat unknown. 

Z. interrnptus (Wood) Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 64. — Trochus 
interruptm Wood, Index test., Suppl., t. 6, f. 42. 

The original figure of Wood is given on pi. 17, fig. 22. Fig. 21 
is from Reeve, the only author who has identified the species. 

C. scoBiNATTjs (Adams) Reeve. PI. 17, fig. 24. 

The text to plate 5 of Reeve's monograph of ZizipJiinus is lacking 

in the copy of the Iconica before me. I copy his figure (Icon., t. 5, 

f. 29) of this species. I do not know where Adams described it, if 

anywhere. 

Darnley. Id., Torres Sts., 12 fms. (Brazier). 

Z. scobinatm (A. Ad.) Reeve, Couch. Icon., f 29. — Brazier, 
Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales ii, p. 44, 1878. 

C. MONiLE Reeve. PI. 17, fig. 32. 

Shell erectly conical, rather swollen at the base, transparent white, 
encircled by a necklace of violet spots ; whorls concavely sloping, 
spirally ridged, ridges smooth, the two basal ridges more prominent. 
The necklace of violet spots has an exceedingly pretty appearance 
on the delicate transparent ground of the shell. (Eve.) 

Port Curtis ; East Australia. 

Z. monile Reeve, Conch. Icon., f 39 (1863). 



CALLIOSTOMA. 359 

C. RUBROPUNCTATUM A. Adaiiis. PI. 66, fig. 30. 

Shell small, orbiculate-coiiic, buffish; ornamented with transverse 
spiniilose cinguli (4 on the last whorl), interstices clathrate, beauti- 
fully dotted with red. (Ad.) 

Albany Id., N. Australia, 3-4 fnis. ; Port Darwin, N. W. Australia, 
8-12 fms. 

Z. rubropundatus Ac, P. Z. S. 1851, p. 167. — Rkeve, Conch. 
Icon., f. 56. — Tr. (Calliostoma) rubropundatus Ad., Smith, Zool. 
Coll. H. M. S. ' Alert,' p. 72. 

Smith (loc. cit.) writes as follows : This is a charming little 
species, and readily recognized by its peculiar painting and remark- 
able sculpture. Adams describes the color as "lutescens." I should 
rather consider it pale fleshy pink, with dark red dots in the inter- 
stices between the oblique ccstse and the transverse or spiral ridges. 
The latter are said to be four in number on the last whorl ; but on 
careful examination I find six, of which four are, however, more 
prominent than the rest. The upper volutions are encircled by three 
principal lira?, and a fourth secondary one at the suture. The points 
of intersection of these spiral ridges and the oblique costse are 
produced into quite acute nodules or prickles. The base of the shell 
is almost flat, ornamented with about six concentric lirse, which are 
more or less granulous, with the interstices exhibiting strong lines of 
growth and translucent nacre. The color closely approaches the 
rest of the surface, varied with brown dots both upon and between 
the granules. 

C. VENUSTUM Dunker. PI. 67, fig. 72. 

Shell of an elevated-conical form, narrow and slender, the lateral 
outlines of spire straight, the base convex, imperforate. It is strong, 
solid ; ground color either olive-green or dark red, with narrow 
longitudinal stripes of white, the periphery of the last whorl some- 
times articulated with white, and the base either unicolored dark, or 
finely dotted with white. Whorls 10, the apical one or two convex, 
smooth, the followdng flat, finely spirally striate (about 14 stride on 
the penult, whorl of a large specimen), the last whorl convex at the 
periphery, angulated there in specimens not completely adult, convex 
beneath, with 10-12 concentric lirulse thei'e. The entire surface has 
fine lines of growth ; there is sometimes a slight tendency toward 
plication on the periphery of the last whorl. Aperture qutidrangular, 
oblique, smooth inside ; basal lip thickened by a straight callous 



360 CALLIOSTOMA. 

iuside ; colunieDa short, vertical, arcuate above, terminating in a 
truncation or fold-like tooth. Alt. 13, diani. 7 mill. 

Viti Islands. 

Ziziphinns venustus Dkr., Mai. BL, xviii, p. 169, 1871. 

This species has the greasiest similarity to the Mediterranean 
C. striatum Linn. The columella is very strongly folded at the base ; 
the color is either green or red ; on one shell before me the spire is 
red, body-whorl greenish. In pattern of color the shells before me 
differ little. It is possible that some forms included by me in the 
group of C. exasperatum as synonmyms may prove to be valid species 
of the south-west Pacific. Reeve and others report sucli forms 
( Vide Tr. soda Fischer ; goniostomus Mke.). Without specimens 
from authentic localities this cannot now be decided. The specimens 
of C. venustum before me were collected by Garreit. 

C. MARMOREUM Pease. PI. 39, fig. 33. 

Shell elongate-conical, imperfoiate, but with a groove and pit or 
even a slight perforation at the place of the umbilicus ; rather solid ; 
whitish, longitudinally clouded with brown or j^ink, often showing 
white opaque scattered dots; surface polished ; sculpture consisting 
of numerous broad flat smooth spirals, separated by impressed lines ; 
there are seven of these flat spiral ribs on the upper surface of the 
last whorl, the peripheral one larger; the base has numerous concen- 
tric stride, and about 4 spaced, more impressed grooves ; spire high, 
lateral outlines nearly straight ; whorls about 8, each one a trifle 
convex, the last angular at the periphery ; base a little convex ; 
apertui*e quadrate ; columella vertical, obliquely truncate at base. 

Alt. 6, diam. 4 mill. ; alt. 8, diam. 5 mill. 

Patimottts. 

Tr. marmoreus PsE., Amer. Journ. Conch, iii, p. 287, t. 24, f 9. 

This is a second Polynesian species of Calliostoma which approaches 
very closely to Mediterranean types. It is smaller than C. venustum, 
and less abruptly truncated at base of columella. The base of the 
aperture is not rounded, as the figure shows, but nearly straight. 

American Species. 

The West American species fall into three groups, as follows: 

I. Shell with numerous smooth cord-like spiral riblets, group of 
C. canaliculatum Mart. 

II. Shell thin, with numerous granulose spiral riblets, interstitial 
liruhie few or none, group of C. annulatum Mart. 



CALLIOSTOMA. 361 

III Shell generally swollen or biangular at peripher}', spiral striae 
and liruloe fine, more numerous, closely sharply beaded, group of C. 
lima Phil. 

Species of the last group are also found in the Gulf of IMexico and 
on the east coast of South America, having the same distribution 
that Chlorostoma {j^his Omphalius) has. 

{Gi'oup of C. canaViculatam 3Iartyn.) 
V C. cANALicuLATUM Martyn. PI. 67, fig. 49 ; Vol. X, pi. 41, fig. 34, 

Conical with flat base, thin, light fawn colored with yellowish- 
white YiYve ; imj^erforate ; surface of the whorls encircled by numerous 
sharply sculptured smooth narrow, cord-like lirse, subequal or alter- 
nately smaller; base with 11 to 13 similar ones. On the upper 
whorls the lirpe are fewer, and in well preserved individuals the 
second whorl is minutely beaded above. Spii'e conic, with nearly 
straight outlines ; sutures impressed. Whorls 7-8, the last obtusely 
angular, flat beneath and impressed around the axis. Aperture 
oblique, rhombic, iridescent and sulcated inside ; peristome thin, 
acute; columella straightened, not truncate below, dilated in a pearly 
iridescent pad above, bounded by an opaque white deposit. 

Alt. 33, diam. 33 mill. 

Sitka to San Diego, Cal. 

TrocJms canaliculatus Martyn, Universal Conchologist, t. 32. — 
Tr. doliarixis Chemnitz, Conchyl. Cab. x, p. 228, t. 165, f. 1579, 
1580. — Philippi, Conchyl. Cab., p. 11, t. 3, f. 1, 2. — Fischer, Coq. 
Viv., p. 71, 1. 16, f. 1. — Ziziphinus canaliculatus Mart., Reeve, Couch. 
Icon., f. 18. — Calliostoma canaliculatum Mart, of American authors. 
— (f) Trochus decarinatus Perry, Conchology, pi. 47, f. 2. 

In the case of this species, as in other similar cases, I have 
preferred Martyn's name to that of Chemnitz. Of course, as 
Fischer says (Coquilles vivantes, Trochus, p. 72), Martyn's work is 
simply an iconography, without descriptions ; but the great beauty 
and accuracy of the figures renders identification easy and certain, 
and these qualities should surely receive the same recognition at our 
hands that we give to a three-line diagnosis, such as most early 
authors have given us. The principal objection to the work is the 
rarity of the original edition — an objection which applies equally to 
many early authors whose species are universally accepted. 

Specimens from Vancouver are much smaller than southern shells, 
and have fewer spiral lirsB, the alternate smaller ones being lost ; the 



362 CALLIOSTOMA. 

interstices are chocolate colored. Figure 49 of pi. 67 represents one 
of these. From C. costatum this species may be known by its flatter 
whorls, more angular periphery, lighter color, etc. 

C. COSTATUM Martyn. PL 16, figs. 6, 9 ; pi, 18, fig. 16. 

Shell conical, rounded at periphery, base flattened ; imperforate ; 
solid ; dark chestnut colored, the spiral riblets lighter, apex dark, 
usually purple. Surface encircled by numerous spiral smooth 
riblets, their interstices closely finely obliquely striate ; riblets usually 
7 to 9 on the penultimate whorl, about 9 on the base. Spire conic ; 
apex acute ; sutures impressed. Whorls about 7, convex, the last 
rounded (or a trifle angled) around the lower part, slightly convex 
beneath ; aperture rounded, oblique, outer lip fluted w'thin, with a 
beveled opaque white submargin ; throat pearly, iridescent; colu- 
mella simple, arcuate. Alt. 20, diam. 18 mill. 

Sitka to Monterey and Sta. Barbara Id. 

Trochus eostatiis jNIart., Univ. Conch., t. 34 (1784). — Philippi 
Conehyl. Cab., p. 275, t. 40, f 8 (not Trochus costatus Gmel. 1788, a 
form of Lamprostoma). — Tr. filosns Wood, Index test, suppl., t. 5, f. 
23 (no description).— Fischer, Coq. Viv., p. 199, t. 64, f S.—Zizy- 
phiims filosus Wood, Reeve, Conch. Icon., f 27. — Tr. ligatus Gould, 
U. S. Expl. Exped., 1. 12, £ 201. — Tr. castaneus (Nuttall ms) Forbes, 
P. Z. S. 1850, p. 271, t. 11, f. 9. — Calliostoma costatam of American 
authors. — C. splendens Carp., Proc. Cal. Acad, iii, p. 156 {teste 
Dall, Am. Jour. Conch, vii, p. 126). 

A species very abundant along the northern Pacific coast; of its 
mutations Dr. Dall says : This species passes through a number of 
variations, which, however, do not obscure the specific characters. 
The ribs are usually yellowish, smooth with reddish-brown inter- 
spaces. The apex is blue when eroded. The whole sometimes has 
a more or less olivaceous cast. The yellow of the apical ribs is 
usually interrupted by patches of brown. This is sometimes con- 
tinued on the lower whorls, when tlie three ribs nearest the suture 
and often one or two on the carina of the whorls are prettily painted 
with alternate patches of dark brown and greenish-wliite. The ribs 
are more or less prominent, some specimens having them quite sharp 
while in others they are hardly raised. In one other exquisite 
variety the three sutural ribs and their interspaces are of a very rich 
purple-blue, which is not due to erosion. The umbilical rib is some- 
times salmon-colored. The nacre is of great brilliancy. Found from 



CALLIOSTOMA. 363 

Sitka to Santa Barbara and San Diego. INIr. Stearns and myself, 
after an examination of the type, were disposed to consider C. 
splendeus Cpr., as a very young specimen of tlie blue painted variety 
above alluded to. 

( Group of C. annulatum Mart.) 

C. ANNULATUM Marty n. PL 67, fig. 43. 

Shell elevated-conic, imperforate, rather thin ; light yellow, dotted 
with brown on the spiral rows of grains, the periphery or lower 
edge of each whorl encircled by a zone of violet or magenta, the 
axis surrounded by a tract of the same. Surface with numerous 
granose lir?e, about 7 on the penultimate whorl, 9 or 10 on the base. 
Spire conical, apex acute, minute, reddish ; sutures slightly impressed. 
Whoils about 9, slightly convex, the last angular at periphery, flat- 
.tened beneath ; aperture rhomboidal, oblique, fluted within. 

Alt. 30, diam. 25 mill. 

Sts. of F Ilea to San Diego. 

Trochus annu/dtus Mart., Univ. Conch., t. 33 (1784). — Philippi, 
Conchyl. Cab., p. 11, t. 3, f 3-4.— Fischer, Coq. Viv., p. 74, t. 16, 
f. 3. — Zizyphliius annulatus Mart., Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. — ■ 
Chenu, Manuel, f. 2666. — Tr. virgineus Chemnitz, Conchyl. Cab. 
X, p. 165, f 1581, 1582. — Tr. moniliferns "Lam. " Phil., CJonchyl. 
Cab., p. 220, t. 33, f. 3 (not of Lamarck). — CalUostoma annulatum 
of American authors. 

A lovely shell, the most beautiful of the West Coast Calliostomas. 
This, like the last two species, was one of these treasures which the 
famous Captain Cook first brought to Europe. 

C. platinum Dall. PI. 67, fig. 84. 

Shell conical, imperforate, very thin, nearly smooth, soiled white 
with a delicate tint of sea-green on the last whorl; surface slightly 
shining. The spire is conical, its outlines a trifle concave; wdiorls 8 ; 
apex subimmersed, dextral, the first two whorls quite convex, the 
following whorls slightly convex ; sutures linear, last whorl with a 
delicate carina at the otherwise blunt periphery ; above this, par- 
allel with it, there is a narrow raised cord which does not extend 
above the lower whorl, and will probably be found to be quite 
inconstant; the whole upper surface of the whorls is traversed by 
numerous scarcely perceptible spirals ; the base is slightly convex, 
and has close, unequal spiral striae, coarser near axis and circum- 
ference. Aperture rather large, subquadrate, beautifully iridescent 



364 CALLIOSTOMA. 

within ; outer lip thin, fragile ; columella vertical, cylindrical,,, 
pearly, not toothed at base. Alt. 30, diam. 27 mill. 

OffSta. Barbara Id., Cal, 414 fms. 
Callistoma platinum Dall, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1889, t. vii, 
f. 2. 

A lovely shell, very thin, white, with a faint tinge of "robin's 
egg " blue or green. It seems to group nearer C annulatum than 
any other known species. 

I am indebted to the extreme liberality of Dr. W. H. Dall for the 

privilege of including this species as well as G. Riomsis, in my 
monograph, his own descriptions being still in print. 

C. VARiEGATUM Carpenter. 

Shell small, conical, variegated ; nucleus rosaceous ; whorls 6, 
planate ; sutures hardly impressed ; spire with 3 regular, nodulous 
riblets, the nodules whitish, subdistant ; interstices very elegantly 
rosy ; liruke of the base 8, scarcely nodulous, spotted with rosy. 

Alt. -24, diam. -21 inch. {Cj)r.) 

Puget Sound. 

Calliostoma (J var.) variegatum Carpenter, Proc. Acad. Nat. 
Sci. Phil., 1865, p. 61. 

'This may prove to be an extreme variety of Cal. annulatum 
Martyn.' (Qjr.) 

I have not seen this form. Dr. Dall has expressed to me the 
opinion that it is a distinct species. The type is, I believe, still 
unique. Dr. Carpenter would have benefited science more by 
suppressing than by publishing those miserable descriptions of 
doubtful forms, some of which in spite of the long-continued labors 
of Dall, Stearns, Cooper and others, still defy identification except 
by a journey to where the types are deposited. 

{Group of G. lima Phil.) 

C. LIMA Philippi. PI. 67, figs. 55, 56, 57, 58. 

Conical, imperforate, quite solid and strong, whitish (tinged more 
or less with yellow or blue), with irregular, i-adiating, brownish or 
bluish-black maculations on the upper surface, the principal spiral 
lirse sparcely articulated with dark dots ; frequently all color-marks 
are absent ; the shell is then of a uniform cream color, with bluish or 
brown apex. There are about 8 whorls, the later ones concave above^ 



CALLIOSTOMA. 365 

swollen at the circumference. The surface is covered Avith shar])ly 
granulose spiral threads; of these, three on the upper surface are 
slightly larger ; midway between these lie two a trifle smaller ; and 
the interspaces between these are occupied by still smaller beaded 
lines ; on the base there are about 8 principal lirse, the interstices 
and outer portion being occupied by smaller lirulse. The aperture 
is quite oblique, iridescent and slightly sulcate within ; columella 
oblique, grayish, a little truncated or obtusely dentate at base. 
Alt. 25, diam. 25 mill.; alt. 21, diam. 21 mill. 

Panama; Acapulco. 

Tr. lima Phil., Zeitschr. f. Mai. 1849, p. 159; Conchyl. Call., p. 
310, t. 44, f. 15.— Fischer Coq. Viv., p. 331, 1. 103, f. 2.—Zlzyphw.us 
antonii Koch, Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 31. — Calliostoma (J lima, var.) 
(v.qalseulpta Cpr., P. Z. S. 1865, j). 279 (young shell). 

This is a beautifully sculptured form. The 1st, 3d, 5th, 7th, 9th, 
and 11th lirre are very small ; the 2d, 6th and 10th large ; the 4th 
and 8th are intermediate in size. These figures are subject to some 
variation on account of the occasional interpolation of spii'al threads, 
but they show at least what the system of the sculpture is. Several 
trays from Panama are before me. Fischer has with doubt identi- 
fied the T. antonii Koch with this form. It seems to me to be 
distinct in showing fewer lir?e, w'ith plain, unsculptured inter-liral 
interstices, while this is never the case in lima, every space being 
occupied by spiral beaded threads, which increase in number, as the 
shell grows, by interpolation. 

C. ANTONII (Koch) Philippi. PI. 67, figs. 46, 47, 48. 

Shell conical, solid, imperforate, dull flesh colored, granulate ; 
whorls flat, encircled by 8 unequal series of granules, the second 
largest ; base roughened by numerous granose cinguli. (Phil.) 

Tiie shell is thick, quite conical, and consists of 7-8 whorls, 
difficult to distinguish in the neighborhood of the apex. These 
are flat and apparently margined, for one is likely to take the second 
series of granules of the following whorl for a mai'gin. The whorls 
show about 8 rows of very pretty granules of three sizes ; the upper, 
3d, 5th and 7th rows have the smallest granules, the 2d the largest ; 
the 4th and 6th have middle sized granules. The periphery consists 
of several closely crowded rows of the smallest size, and is rounded 
on the lower whorls. The base is slightly convex, with a multitude 
of granulose series, the granules becoming larger near the center, 



366 CALLIOSTOMA. 

which is a semicircle, its chord being the columeUa, formed of 
inferior, gray nacre. The aperture is rhomboidal ; the outer lip has 
a little distance within a brown streak. The color is dirty flesh 
color, with a few very pale brown clouds and fewer dark brown 
points. Alt. 18, diam. 23 mill. (P/u7.) 

Habitat unknown. 

T. antonii Koch, Piiilifpi, Abbild. u. Beschreib. i, Trochus, t. 1, 
f 4 (1843) ; Conchyl. Cab., p. 105, t. 17, f. 5. 

This is certainly very close to C. lima. The name has several 
years priority. See remarks under that species. 

C. MACANDRE/E Carpenter. PI. 17, figs. 35, 36. 

Shell subelevated, conical, whorls a little convex, suture dis- 
tinct ; red, maculated with paler ; encircled by spiral nodose lines, 
6 on the penultimate whorl, the lower two a little larger; inter- 
stices impressed, sometimes with intercalated lirulce ; tubercles close, 
rounded ; periphery, slightly angulated ; 1)ase ornamented with 
about 11 scarcely granulose lir?e, interstices broad ; columella 
scarcely excavated, a little twisted, umbilical region impressed. 
(Cpr.) Alt. 8-3, diam. 8-4 mill. 
Var. Shell rufous-brown, with paler undulating waves ; base red. 

Alt. 13, diam. 10* mill. 

Mazatlan (type) ; Panavia (var.) 

Shell somew'hat resembling a variety of T. antonii Koch in Phil., 
which however has a few granular rows much larger than the rest. 
which are extremely fine and fiir apart. The whole upper surfiice 
in T. macandrece is covered with large tubercles. The base in T. 
antonii is sculptured like the rest of the shell, and the columella has 
a smooth scooped-out surface, which is wanting in this species. 
The Mazatlan specimen, perhaps immature, has 7 wdiorls. The 
variety from Panama has 9 whorls. (Cpr.) 

Trochus MacAndrem Carp., Cat. Mazatlan Shells in Brit. Mus. 
(Reigen Coll.), p. 232, 1857. 

C. EXiMiuM Reeve. PI. 65, figs. 84-86. Vol. X, pi. 41, fig. 28. 

Shell conical, imperforate, rather solid and strong, light yellowish 
or grayish, with irregular bluish-black longitudinal maculations and 
streaks, the base dotted or with small maculations ; sometimes without 
dark flames, their place taken by obscure brownish clouding, the 
laro-er spiral cords both above and below articulated with deep red. 



CALLIOSTOMA. 367 

There are about 8 whorls, each one more or less markedly biangular 
at the circumference, the lower augle obtuse, concealed bv the 
suture on the spire, the upper one acute, continuing nearly to the 
apex ; whorls concave above, slightly excavated around the pe- 
riphery, a little convex beneath ; encircled by numerous unequal 
spiral threads, the larger ones beaded, the smaller irregularly 
crenated by rather decided incremental striae. Base radiatelv 
striate, with about 8 to 12 smooth spirals, their interstices without 
secondary riblets. Aperture oblique, rhomboi(iJfl ; columella heavy, 
smooth, its face concave, obtusely subdentate at base. 
Alt. 24, diam. 23 mill. 

Mazatlan ; Cape St. Lucas; fossil in post tertiary at San Ignacio 
Lagoon. 

Tr. versicolor, Mexkic, Zeitschr f. Mai., 18-30, p. 172. — Carpenter, 
Mazatlan Cat., p. 231.— T. exi;mius Reeve, P. Z. S. 1842, p. 185; 
Conch. Byst. ii, p. 165, t. 208, £ 12. — Zizyphinus e.vimius Reeve, 
Conch. Icon., f. 25 (1863). — T. eximius Rve., Philippi, ConchyL 
Cab., p. 218, t. 32, f. 9.— Fischer, Coq. Viv., p. 196, t. 64, f. 1 ; 
And of most American authors. — (?) Zizyphinus Californicus A. Ad. 
P. Z. S. 1851, p. 168.— T. ceratus Fischer, ms. Coq. Viv., p. 333. 

Reeve gives Panama for locality. None of the shells before me 
come from south of Mazatlan. The species is more obviously 
bicarinate than C. lima, far less granulose, and with different base- 
sculpture. C. ■palmeri Dall is allied, but more granulose, with 
differently colored, more excavated columella. 

C. ADSPERSUM (Beck) Philippi. PI. 18, figs. 1, 2. 

Shell conical, imperforate, whitish-gray, flammulate with rufous, 
encircled by delicate granulate threads ; whorls plane, angulated a 
little above the sutures, the last biangulate ; base a little convex, 
with 9 to 10 concentric, little elevated smooth lir?e ; aperture rhom- 
boidal, angles rounded ; columella oblique, cylindrical, subdentate 
at base. (Phil.) 

The shell is pretty solid, exactly conical. The whorls are even, 
with a sharp carina close above the lower suture ; the last whorl 
showing beneath this one a second rounded carina, bounding the 
base. The sculpture of the upper surface consists of fine thread-like 
or hair-like granulate spirals. I count five of them, the last forming 
the sharp carina over the suture ; in the interstices there are finer 
granulose lines. The base shows smooth, little-raised concentric 



368 CALLIOSTOMA. 

lirjB, nearly as broad as tlieir interstices. The columella is bounded, 
by a pit at its insertion. The color is pale, with indistinct rust- 
brown flames, clouds and dots. Alt. 16, diam. 17 mill. 

Brazil. 

Zizyphinium adspersuvi Beck (in Roy. Mus. of Berlin). — Trochus 
eximius Philippi, Abbild. i, Trochus, t, 4. f. 7 (not of Reeve). 
— Tr. ad^persus Beck, Phil., Conchyl. Cab., p. 217, t. 32, f 8. 

May be a synonym of C. eximium, but is more depressed than any 
specimen of that species I have ever seen. 

C. PALMERI Dall. 

Shell shaped like C. eximium Reeve, but rather more depressed, 
of seven whorls, glistening and polished, though sculptured with 
finely granulated, revolving lines. Upper whorls carinate and 
shouldered, last whorl bicarinate. Sculpture consisting above of 
about fifteen revolving, elevated, finely granulated lines, alternately 
spotted with light yellow, brown and white; basal surface with about 
eleven similarly colored ribs, which are not granulated, but have the 
interspaces slightly decussated by the lines of growth. Upper sur- 
face also painted with narrow waved white and broad livid patches, 
which are absent below. Umbilical region cobalt blue, or blue- 
purple, rather excavated, and bordered by a carina ; mouth sub- 
quadrate, brightly pearly ; columella arcuate, white ; tooth-like 
])rocess blue. Nucleus of two and a half whorls, flesh color, with 
revolving lines. {Dall.) Alt. 15, diam. 15 mill. 

Guaymas, Mexico. 

It is nearest to eximium, from which it is readily distinguished by 
the blue umbilical region and the difterent coloration of the revolving 
ribs, which in eximium, are much less prominent and are mostly 
colored with alternate purple, black and white instead of brown and 
white. The color and sculpture diflers from that of C. lima, which 
is granulate on the base and wants the upper carina. {D(tU.) 

Calliostoma palmeri Dall, Am. Jour. Conch, vii, p. 125. 

This pretty shell is evidently intermediate between C. eximium 
and C. tricolor, but as far as my material goes, seems to be distinct 
from both. I have copied Dr. Dall's description and comments. 

C. GLORiosuM Dall. PI. 67, fig. 70. 

Shell six-whorled, acute, whorls gently rounded, with fine, revolv- 
ing, thread-like ribs ; four or five ribs near the suture granulated. 
Last whorl roundly carinated, base flattened, with about twenty-five 



CALLIOSTOMA. 369 

revolving strise. Columella thick, not reflected, but base somewhat 
grooved or depressed behind it. Aperture about one-third of the 
length of the whole shell, rhomboidal, pearly, smooth. Shell of a 
beautiful light salmon color, ornamented near the suture and carina 
■with alternate patches of light yellow and chestnut-brown. (Dall.) 
Alt. 17, diam. 15 mill, (specimen) ; Alt Tl, diam. -9 in. (DaH.) 

Monterey Bay, California. 

This elegant species was first referred by me to the Calliostoma 
supragranosum, of Carpenter, on account of the granulated sutural 
ribs. That species was described from very young shells, and no 
typical authentic specimens wei-e at that time in California. Upon 
comparing the young of gloriosum with the type specimen of supra- 
granosum, in the Smithsonian collection, it was at once evident 
that they were quite distinct. Several of the Californian species 
have the sutural ribs more or less granulated, especially in young 
specimens. The nucleus of gloriosum is, however, very much larger 
than that of supragranosum. The adult of the latter has five 
whorls. The whorls have a peculiar inflated appearance and are 
not carinated. The last whorl loses the painting of brown and 
Avhite and is of a dull brown, slightly concave above near the 
suture, with a deep chink, not a fissure, behind the umbilical fissure. 
The brown and yellow painting is very conspicuous on young 
specimens of gloriosum. 

Calliostoma gloriosum Dall, Amer. Jour. Conch., vii, p. 127. 

The figure is drawn from a small but typical sj^ecimen loaned 
me by Dr. Dall. 

C. SUPRAGRANOSUM Carpenter. PI. 67, fig. 71. 

Shell small, conical, rather thin, imperforate, light chestnut- 
brown with a few short subsutural white flames and a peripheral 
circle of alternating chestnut and white spots, the ribs of the base 
minutely articulated with chestnut and white. The spire is conical, 
short, composed of 5 convex whorls, the apical one very minute, 
smooth, whitish ; the next 2 whorls are encircled by 2 strong, 
articulated ribs ; on the next whorl these become beaded, and 
smaller beaded riblets appear above them ; the last whorl has 4 
(or 5) strong, elevated ribs around the middle, above them two or 
three beaded ribs ; the base has 9 fine, distinct smooth concentric 
lirre. The last whorl is somewhat biangular at periphery, slightly 
convex beneath. Aperture nearlv round, oblique ; peristome thin, 
24 



370 CALLIOSTOMA. 

a trifle crenulated inside ; tlie columella has a slight excavation, 
and is very bluntly nodulous near the base; its inner face is dark, 
pearly. Alt. 5, diani. 5* mill.; alt. Ts, diam. 7i mill. 

San Pedro ; San Diego ; Catalina Id. ; California. 

C. formomm Cpr., Pi*oc. Cal. Acad, iii, p. 156 (not T. formosus 
Forbes). — C. supragranosum Cpr., 1. c, p. 214. 

The above description is drawn from a typical specimen received 
from Dr. Dall. Two others, larger and more uniform in color are 
before me ; one of them is rigured on my plate. The shell never 
attains anything like the size of C. gloriosum. 

C. LEANUM C. B. Adams. PI. 57, fig. 50. 

Shell conic, well elevated ; pale yellowish or reddish-brown, with 
broad dark brown oblique flammules ; anteriorly somewhat articu- 
lated with red and yellowish-white in fine concentric lines ; with 
many elevated granulous spiral lines, of which three larger are next 
above the suture ; spire with the outlines nearly rectilinear; apex 
acute ; whorls nine, planulate or concave next below the suture, 
which is moderately impressed ; last whorl subplauulate anteriorly ; 
aperture subquadrate ; labrum thin ; columella obliquely produced, 
nearly straight ; umbilicus wanting. 

Alt. '48 in. Maj. diam. "44, min. diam. '4 in. ( C. B. Adams.) 

Panama. 

Seven specimens were collected on the reef We have named this 
pretty species in honor of Isaac Lea, Esq., of Philadelphia. (C. B. 
Adams.) 

Trochus leanus C. B. Adams, Cat. Panama Shells, p. 191, 1852. 

C. TRICOLOR Gabb. PI. 67, fig. 52. 

Shell conical, about the form of C. lima; rather solid ; yellowish 
or olive-ashen, with three or four principal spirals above purple, 
articulated with white, 8 to 6 on the base similarly marked ; often 
obscurely clouded above with dark brown or olive, often with white 
spots between the dark patches. Whorls about 7, obtusely biangu- 
late at periphery, the superior angle prominent on tlie spire whorls ; 
apex very minute, acute ; surftice cut into a finely densely granulated 
pattern by the decussation of numerous s})iral strife with close, 
regular, impressed lines of increment. Base slightly convex, encir- 
cled by numerous unequal lirte. Aperture oblique, subrhomboidal ; 
columella arcuate, not at all truncate at base, its edge pearly, white. 



CALLIOSTOMA. 371 

backed by a curved purple streak, which is encircled by a band of 
bright light yellow. Alt. 16, diam. 16 mill. 

Santa Cruz to San Diego. 

Calliostoma tricolor Gabb, Proc. Cal. Acad. Nat. Sci. iii, p. 186^ 
1865. 

May be known by the finely granulated surface with a variable 
number of narrow spiral purple (or brownish) lines, articulated Avith 
white. 

C. GEMMULATUM Carpenter. PI. 67, fig. 54. 

Shell conic-elevated, solid but rather thin, imperforate, greenish- 
olive, with narrow irregular longitudinal blackish-olive stripes. 
Whorls about 7, of a rounded form, separated by deep sutures, encir- 
cled by three principal granulose carinse, the base and interstices 
with smaller lirul?e and regular incremental strise ; whorls of the 
spire with two strong carinse. Base rather flattened, with about 10 
concentric lirffi, dotted with brown. Aperture rounded-quadrangular, 
iridescent ; columella pearly, iridescent, not truncate below, bounded 
outside by a whitish-yellow streak. Alt. 17, diam. 14 mill. 

San Ignacio Lagoon, L. Cal., to San Diego, Sa7i Pedro, etc., Cal. 

C. gemmulatum Cpk., Brit. Asso. Rep. 1863, pp. 612, 653 ; Proc. 
Cal. Acad, iii, p. 215. — C. formosmn Cpr., Proc. Cal. Acad. 1864, p. 
155, (not of Forbes.) 

A very distinct species. Tiie spire is high, composed of strongly 
convex whorls, which are encircled by granose carinse. The last 
whorl is more rounded at the periphery than is usual in Calliostoma. 

C. FONKi Philippi. PI. 57, tig. 48. 

Shell conical, imperforate, thin, pale rose colored, uj^per whorls 
plane, tricingulate, the upper cingulus beaded, second and third 
smooth ; last whorl obtusely angled, encircled by 5 cinguli ; base a 
little convex, with 6 cinguli ; a})erture quadrangular ; columella a 
little oblique, cylindrical, scarcely truncate, but sensibly j^assing- 
into the base. 

Alt. from apex to end of columella, 11, diam. of base di mill. 
(Phil.) 

Between Chiloe and the mainland of Peru. 

Trochus foiiki Phil., Reise durch die Wiiste Atacama, p. 185, t. 
7, f. 22. 

Similar in sculpture to C. consimilis Smith, but with more convex, 
Urate base. 



372 CALLIOSTOMA. 

C. coNsiMiLis Smitli. PI. 16, fig. 8. 

Shell pyramidal, of a veiy pretty i)urplish lilac color, encircled 
with pale transverse ridges. Whorls 7 ; the nuclear one rounded, 
white : the rest flat, with three to four strong spiral lira3, whereof the 
uppermost or the two uppermost, are more or less granulous. The 
interstices are smooth, with the exception of oblique lines of growth. 
Suture marked by a thread-like keel. Last whorl acutely angled be- 
low the middle, with a flattish base, which has two or three sulci near 
the angle, and two white or pale lilac lirse encircling the umbilical 
region. Aperture somewhat obliquely quadrangular ; columella 
pearly, margined with a white callosity. 

Alt. 11, diam. maj. 9, min. 8 mill. (Sjiiith.) 

Portland Bay, St. Andrews Sound, 10 fms, ; Cockle Cove between, 
tide-marks. 

A very pretty species, easily recognized by its color and sculpture, 
and recalling to some extent the northern ('. albastrum. Beck. 
{Smith.) 

Trochus (Ziziphinus) consimilis E. A. Smith, P. Z. S. 1881, p. 34, 
t. 4,f 11. 

C. coppiN(iERi Smith. PI. G7, fig. 75. 

Shell thin, shortly conical, rather shining, and somewhat iridescent, 
owing to the thinness of the calcareous layer above the pearl ; very 
pale olive on the body-whorl, becoming darker on the upper volutions 
and reddish at the apex, ornamented with a series of minute red dots 
at the upper part of the whorls, just beneath the suture, and a 
second series on an angle at the middle of them, with a third series 
around the periphery of the last volution, and some rather larger 
spots aroixnd the umbilical region. Whorls seven ; the first three 
or four somewhat convex, Avith three coarse spiral lirse. Antepenulti- 
mate whorl flat, sloping above, with an acute angle a little above the 
base, spirally lirated ; lirre little raised, with the exception of that at 
the angle and one immediately beneath the suture, which is very 
prettily beaded. Penultimate like the preceding, but with the 
sculpture less pronounced and the angle nearer the middle. Last 
whorl still more feebly sculptured, the beading having become 
obsolete. It is biangulated at the middle, and the space between the 
two angles is flat, giving the shell a very angular aspect. Base 
a little convex, concentrically striated, white at the middle, with a 



CALLIOSTOMA. 373 

couspicuous depression at the umbilical region, which is surrounded 
by three or four strong lii-ee. Lines of growth fine. Aperture 
oblique, irregularly pentagonal, smooth, and beautifully i)early. 
Columella arcuate above, obliquely straightish inferiorly. 
Alt. 13, diam. maj. 14, min. 12 mill. (Smith.) 

Off the mouth of the Rio de la Plata, 28 fms. 

This beautiful shell is very distinct in form and character from 
any other in the genus. {Smith.) 

Trochus (Ziziphinus) coppiugeri E. A. Smith, Ann. Mag. Nat. 
Hist., 5th ser. vi, p. 320 (1880). — Calliostoma coppiugeri Smith, 
Dall, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mas. 1889, t. xii, f 4. 

I am indebted to Dr. Dall for the privilege of figuring a specimen 
of this species, taken by the ' Albatross ' of the IT. S. Fish Commis- 
sion at the original locality, in 10 fms. 

C. ROSKOLUM Dall. PI. 49, figs. 35, 36. 

Shell acute conical, eight-whorled ; the first five whorls flattened, 
the last three somewhat rounded ; periphery of last whorl gently 
rounded to meet the rather flattened base ; umbilicus none ; pillar 
short, straight, ending in a slight knob inside the margin of the 
aperture, which is then crenulated by the sculpture, nacreous, 
obliquely set and subrectangular in form ; sutures appressed, hardly 
visible exce^it in the last three whorls ; color delicate rosy, nucleus 
smooth and white ; the base with about twelve equal revolving ribs 
consisting of successive rounded nodules, of even size, somewhat 
like strings of beads ; the first, third, and fifth ribs, counting from 
the pillar, show every third bead crimson, the others white ; the 
other basal ribs have the rosy color of the shell, but in the seventh, 
ninth, and eleventh, each alternate or each third bead has a deeper 
crimson tint, though this is hardly visible without a glass. On the 
upper surface of the whorls are (eight in the last whorl) similar 
beaded ribs, several of which have rosy threads alternating with 
crimson ones ; the general rosy hue is clouded darker and lighter 
alternately, but in an indefinite way. The sculpture of the whole 
shell is very uniform. Alt. dl, diam. 7 mill. (Dall.) 

This is one of the early finds of Pourtales, lost at Chicago, after- 
wards refound, and has been known to me for a good many years. 
It recalls C. macandreoe, from Panama in general form, and is one 
of a group of small species apparently hitherto undescribed which 



374 CALLIOSTOMA. 

have a considei-able general resemblance to one another, and to 
some West American forms. (Dall.) 

Near Havana, 37 fms. ; Sts. of Florida, 200 fms. ; North Carolina 
to Yucatan, 15-50 fms. 

C. roseoluvi Dall, Bull. M. C. Z. ix, p. 45 ; ' Blake ' Gasterop. p. 
366, t. 24, f. 6. 

This very pretty species marches with Trochus pulcher C. B. Ad. 
(not of A. Ad.), in distribution and general coloration. It differs 
from it in having rounded, not carinated whorls, in the full, not 
flattened base, in the absence of the two strong articulated spirals 
on the periphery, and in having the whorls excavated above instead 
of nearly flat. C. roseolum has no peripheral articulations of dark 
red and white or yellow, which are the most prominent features in 
good specimens of C. jnilcher, the latter in this respect recalling C. 
tampaensis Conrad. C. roseolum differs from C. apicinum in the 
absence of the line in the throat and the tooth-like process on the 
columella when adult. When young it has not the narrow chink 
behind the columella which is present in C. apicinum. The latter 
as far as observed is always pallid in color except at the apex. 
The nucleus is reversed. {Dall.) 

C. EUGLYPTUM A. Adams. PI. 15, fig. 37 ; pi. 57, fig. 9. 

Shell conical, solid, imperforate ; pinkish with darker flames above 
alternating with short white stripes or spots radiating from the sut- 
ures ; spire rather straight conic ; apex dark red ; whorls 6, nearly 
flat, encircled by numerous narrow finely beaded lirse, the interstices 
on the lower whorl with minute beaded threads ; there are about 7 
principal lirse on the penultimate whorl, about the same number on 
the next earlier ; the last whorl is bluntly angled ; the base uni- 
colored pinkish, nearly flat, with about a dozen narrow beaded 
lirpe. There is a small white tract around the axis. Aperture 
quadrate, silvery inside ; outer lip slightly crenulate inside ; col- 
umella oblique, cylindrical, a little swollen at base. 

Alt. 16i, diam. 17 mill. 

Off Eastern coast of America, in 15-50 fms., /rom North Carolina 
to Florida, Texas, and Vera Cruz, Mexico. Fossil in Florida Plio- 
cene. 

Z. euglyptns A. Ad., P. Z. S. 1854, p. 38. — Reeve, Conch. Icon., 
f. 17. — Calliostoma euglyptum A. Ad., Dall, ' Blake' Gasteropoda, 
p. 363. 



CALLIOSTOMA. 375 

I am indebted to Mr. C. W. Johnson of the Wagner Free Insti- 
tute of Science, Philadelphia, for specimens. Dr. Dall says : 

This fine species varies in color from dark rose to yellowish-white, 
sometimes unicolor, sometimes variegated with whitish clouds radiat- 
ing from the invariably purplish apex. It is referred by Reeve to 
Tasmania, in error. It is the commoner imperforate species of 
Florida, often collected by tourists, and is found in the Caloosahat- 
chie marls. I have seen no specimens from the Antilles, nor have 
I seen it quoted by any author from the West Indies. It may 
probably exist in Cuba. 

C. PULCHER C. B. Adams. 

Shell conical, much elevated ; pale claret color, with a dark brown 
apex, and large ill-defined spots of white ; with spiral series of 
minute dark red oblong spots, which are proportioned to the size of 
the spiral ridges on which they are placed ; the ridges of least size 
are not spotted ; solid, with ten or twelve minute spiral ridges, of 
which one near the base of the whorls is larger, and three are of an 
intermediate size, viz., one on each side of the suture and one on the 
middle of the Avhorls ; on the lower side of the last whorl are 
sixteen or eighteen other minute revolving ridges, of which every 
second or third is spotted ; apex acute ; spire with the outlines nearly 
rectilinear ; whorls seven and one-half, a little concave, acutely 
prominent in the lower part ; last whorl subangular, moderately 
convex beneath ; aperture subquadrate, iridescent within ; columella 
subtruncate ; umbilicus wanting. The whorls in this shell have the 
same form as in T. jujubinus, and the general form of the shell 
is like that of T. pyramidatus. 

Alt. 'SS in. ; diam. "27 inch. (Adams.) 

Jamaica. 
Trochus pulcher C. B. Adams, Contributions to Conch., No. 5, p. 
69, 1850. 

(Deep-tvater Gulf species.) 
C. BAiRDii Verrill & Smith. PI. 57, figs. 49. 

Shell large, strong, regularly conical, with a flattened base, no 
umbilicus, yellowish white or light yellow, with more or less numerous 
narrow, spiral bands of pale brown or dark brown, and with large 
squarish spots of bright rosey red on the spire. Whorls nine or ten, 
flattened, or concave, below the suture, which is not impressed. The 
last whorl has eight to ten conspicuous, raised, nodulous revolving 



376 CALLIOSTOMA. 

ribs, of wiiich three or four are niucli smaller and alternate with the 
larger ones ; the strongest rib is just below the suture ; interstices 
concave, brownish, glossy, obliquely striated by the lines of growth, 
and sometimes with subordinate, revolving, raised lines. The four 
principal ribs are continued on the upper whorls, but the intermediate 
ones gradually disappear on the middle whorls. The nodules on the 
ribs are prominent, rounded and smooth, whitish, and extend to near 
the apex. Nuclear whorl smooth ; next with three carinje. Base 
with about twelve sj)iral, nodulous ribs with some intermediate, 
smaller ones ; umbilical region slightly excavated spirally. Col- 
umella strongly concave, terminating in an indistinct tooth. Animal 
yellowish with long tentacles, and with four long cirri on each side ; 
eyes w'ell developed. Dentition somewhat different from the typical 
species of the genus; there is no large lateral tooth, between the 
inner and outer series ; outermost ones broad, flat, curved. Oper- 
culum, thin, circular, with many narrow whorls. (VerriU and 
SmitJi.) Alt. 22, diam. 30; diam. of aperture 15 mill. 

Off Southeast coast of New England, 65 to 252 fms. ; Florida, 100- 
200 fms. 

Calliostoma bairdii Vereill and Smith, Am. Jour. Sci., xx (3d 
ser.), p. 396, 1880.— Dall, Bull. M. C. Z. ix, p. 45 ; Blake Gasterop., 
p. 364. — C. psyche Dall, Bull. M. C. Z. v, p. 61 (not described). — 
C. bairdii, Verrill, Trans. Conn. Acad, v, p. 530, t. 57, f. 26 ; 
Rep. Albatross explorations in 1883 (Annual Rep. Commiss. Fish & 
Fisheries, 1883), pi. 27, f 96, 97. 

The name psyche Dall, may be used for the southern variety, 
which is paler and more delicately colored, less elevated, lateral out- 
lines slightly concave. 

C. ciRcuMciNCTUM Dall. PI. 49, figs. 33, 34. 

Shell solid, stnmg, white, elevated, conical, seven-whorled, 
nucleus polished, small delicately reticulate ; other whorls with two 
sharp, much produced, thin keels a little recurved at their edges, 
and crossed only by most delicate lines of growth ; base flattened, 
ornamented with nine angular ribs, the outermost produced some- 
what ; umbilicus none, aperture subrectangular, notched by the 
keels ; pillar simple, somewhat projecting, at its anterior end not 
callous ; suture appressed, distinct, not channelled. 

Alt. 8, diam. 6 mill. (Dall.) 

Yucatan Strait, 640 fms. 



CALLIOSTOMA. 



377 



Thi.s somewhat resembles a Calliostoma aiinulatum in miniature, 
with the characters exaggerated and minus the coloration. It 
appears to have a dextral nucleus. (Dall.) 

C. circumcinctum Dall, Bull. M. C. Z. ix, p. 44, 1881 ; ' Blake ' 
Gasterop., p. 364, t. 22, f. 3, 3a. 

C. ECHixATUM Dall. PI. 49, figs. 40, 41. 

Shell small, white, acute-conical, in general resembling C. sapidum, 
but less stout and solid and with wholly different sculpture ; whorls 
six, somewhat appressed toward the apex; nucleus smooth, semi- 
transparent, inflated, shining, sinistral, subimmersed ; remainder of 
shell opaque white with the following sculpture ; on the upper whorls, 
four revolving ribs with smaller inconspicuous ones between them, 
crossed by faint plications (more evident on the smaller whorls), 
producing nodosities which on the four principal ribs, and especially 
on the third one, counting from the suture toward the base, rise to 
acutely pointed projections separated by an incurved scallop of about 
twice the width of the projections ; toward the aperture the ribs and 
nodosities become more equal in size ; base flattened, impervious, 
sculptured with some fifteen close-set flattened revolving ribs crossed 
by impressed radiating lines of growth ; aperture nearly rectangular; 
pillar straight, stout, not projecting, without a callous ; margin thin 
a little crenulated by the sculpture. Alt. 5t, diani. 4| mill. 

Off Havana, 8(> fms. 

a echinatum Dall, Bull. M. C. Z. ix, p. 47, 1881; 'Blake' 
Gasterop., p. 364, t. 21, f 2a, 5. 

C. STiROPHORUM Watson. PI. 17, fig. 19. 

Shell small, conical, scalar, inflated on the base ; whorls angu- 
lated, with three strong carinse near the periphery, white over 
nacre. Sculpture: spirals — at the periphery is a sharp flange-like 
carina ; above this, about one-third of the distance to the suture, is 
a second, almost equally strong and prominent, which forms a 
shoulder to the whorls. The space between this and the sutui'e is 
divided pretty equally by two threads, the lower of which is feeble. 
On the up])er whorls all of these are closely beaded, on the last 
whorl only the two highest are so. Below the carina is another 
remote strong thread, which meets the outer lip ; within it is 
another, not quite so strong nor so distant, and occupying the S2iace 
from this to the middle are five flat close-set threads, followed by 
three rather more separated and roughly beaded threads, tiie inner- 



378 CALLI08T0MA. 

most of which, like a twisted cable, forms a sort of pillar with a 
chink between it and the sharp edge of the pillar-lip, and advances 
into a small tooth at the angle where it joins the outer lip on the 
base. Longitudinals — the whole surface is roughened by rather 
coarse oblique lines of growth, which on the upper whorls appear 
as oblique, reticulating ribs. Color white, with a translucent cal- 
careous layer over nacre. Spire rather high, scalar. Apex a little 
flattened down and rounded, the minute rounded embryonic 11 
whorls scarcely rising above the level. Whorls 6, of rather rapid 
increase, with a narrow flat shelf below the suture, thence sloping 
flatly to the shoulder-carina, from which point the contour-line 
descends perpendicularly; the base is inflated at the- edge and 
flattened in the middle. Suture deeply impressed between the 
narrow flat shelf below and the over hanging carina above. Mouth 
slightly oblique, but with a perpendicular pillar, round, nacreous 
within. Outer lijo thin, transparently porcelaneous on the edge, but 
thickened by nacre within. Pillar-lip perpendicular, rounded within 
the mouth, advancing to a sharp point in front, slightly reverted 
but not appressed, having a small open furrow and a minute um- 
bilical chink behind it. (Watson.) Alt. "3 in., diam. '26 inch. 

Off Culebra Island, West Indies, in 390 fms. 

Trochus (Ziziphinus) stirophorus Watson, ' Challenger ' Gasterop. 
Rep., p. 59, t. 6, f. 2 ; Journ. Linn. Soc. London xiv, p. 695. 

'1 his species extremely resembles Trochus occidentalis Migh., but 
is smaller, is broader in proportion, with a less high spire ; the 
apex is not sharp and projecting, but flattened down and rounded ; 
the whorls are much more scalar, and of more rapid increase ; the 
base is more tumid on its outer edge and more rounded. The apex 
is ornamented with a microscopic and quite irregular inlaid work of 
angular depressions, parted by very narrow interrupted raised lines ; 
whereas in that species the ornamentation is like honeycomb, with 
relatively large, nearly regular hexagonal pits and raised flat 
borders. The threads on the base are approximate, not parted in 
the middle by a smooth zone, and the pillar-lip is not appressed as 
in that species ; the outer lip, too, is thickened wdthin by the layer 
of nacre. ( Watson.) 

C. SAPIDUM Dall. PI. 49, figs. 38, 39. 

This species bears a strong superficial resemblance to the last 
\_apicimivi] and is best described by a diflferential diagnosis; it is 



CALLIOSTOMA. 379 

entirely white, not colored, it has seven Avhorls in a shell of the same 
size as an apiciniim with six ; the sutures are slightly channelled, and 
therefore distinctly visible ; there are four instead of nine beaded 
ribs on the upper side of the last whorl, and the beads are coarser, 
the interspaces wide enough to show the lines of growth crossing 
them ; the nodules on the peripheral rib in this whorl are undula- 
tions rather than beads, and sufficiently large to give a crenulated 
appearance to the border of the shell when viewed from below ; there 
are eight revolving ribs on the base crossed by fine ridges following 
the lines of growth ; there is no umbilicus or callus ; the pillar is 
not grooved or thickened ; the aperture is more oblique and propor- 
tionately less wide. Alt. 5, diam. 4'12 mill. (Dal/.) 

Blake Station 2, 805 fms. 
C. sapidum Dall, Bull. M. C. Z. ix, p. 46 ; ' Blake ' Gasterop., p. 
364, t. 21, f. 2, 4. 

C. APiciNUM Dall. PI. 60, figs. 1, 2. 

Shell conical, of six whorls, elevated, thin, rather solid; whorls 
and base flattened, the sutures hardly visible, the last whorl suban- 
gulated, but not carinated, on the periphery Nucleus prominent, 
bubble-shaped, shining opaque white ; second whorl deep rose-pink, 
with three longitudinal beaded ribs ; rest of shell yellowish-white, 
with indistinct clouds of brown transversely disposed on the upper 
whorls; the lower rib on the second, third and part of the fourth 
whorls with somewhat larger beads than the rest, crowning the 
suture ; the upper side of the last whorl with about nine revolving 
beaded ribs with a slight tendency to run in pairs, beginning at the 
periphery ; base with eleven somewhat flattened ribs only the two 
next the pillar beaded, the others crossed by evident lines of growth, 
radiating in a wavy manner, umbilicus a hardly visible puncture ; 
pillar grooved, hardly thickened, aperture not very oblique, crenu- 
lated (especially below) by the ends of the ribs, subrectangular. 

Alt. 7i diam. 7 mill. {Dall.) 

Barbados, 100 fms.; Off Havana, lib fnis. 

C apicinum Dall, Bull. M. C. Z. ix, p. 46 ; ' Blake ' Gasterop., p. 
366, t. 24, f. 3. 

The examination of another specimen shows that this species 
covers the chink behind the pillar when adult, that there is a blunt 
knob suggesting Thalotia on the pillar, and that it has 8 or 9 strong 
lirse running into the throat and not connected with the outside 



380 CALLIOSTOMA. 

sculpture, the one nearest the pillar thickened and raised at its ter- 
mination The nucleus is sinistral. (Dall.) 

C. TIARA Watson. PL 17, figs. 29. 

Shell small, conical, high-spired, flatly rounded on the base, 
sculptured, white, dull on the surface, with a bright nacreous gleam 
shining through. Sculpture: spirals — on the upper part of the last 
whorl there are two rows of tubercles, the first and weaker is close 
up to the suture ; the second is a little lower than the middle, and 
its tubercles are strong. Of these there are on each row twenty to 
twenty-five ; they ^re scarcely connected by a spiral thread. The 
periphery is sharply angulated and defined by an expressed and 
tubercled carina, the tubercles of which are hardly so strong as those 
of the second row above, which from its larger points projects quite as 
much as the carina. On the base there is an infra-carinal furrow 
and three or four sharpish, equally jDarted, faintly tubercled, spiral 
threads, the innermost of which is most distinctly tubercled, and de- 
fines the umbilical depression. Longitudinals — the apical whorls, 
except the embryonic one, are crossed by high, sharp, slightly oblique 
ribs ; but these on the latter whorls break up into tubercles, between 
which on the different rows there is a slight irregular connection by 
flattened ridges, which are oblique, interrupted, and on the base 
sinuous. Besides these, the surface is roughened by minute wavy 
irregular lines of growth. Color white, with a translucent layer 
of porcelaneous glaze over brilliant pearly nacre. Spire high, apex 
small, flattened, with the minute inflated 1 1 embryonic whorl rising 
a little exserted on one side. Whorls 7, projecting out squarely be- 
low the suture, flattened in the middle, protuberant at the second 
row of tubercles, and slightly contracted above the carina ; at the 
carina sliarplv angulated. The base, which is flatly rounded, has a 
narrow flatfish margin, and in the middle a slight umbilical depres- 
sion, in the center of which is a minute umbilical hole almost covered 
by the pillar-lip. Suture linear. Mouth scarcely oblique, and very 
slightly inclined out from the axial line, squarish, but rounded on 
the base and at the angles a little broader than high, nacreous with- 
in. Outer lip not thin, with a slight callus just within it; it is 
slightly sinuated on the base at the outer corner. Pillar-lip, on 
leaving the body, bends over very flatly so as to cover the umbilicus, 
after which it curves round to the left; it has a very blunt tubercle 
in the middle, is a little reverted, and has a very slight furrow be- 



CALLIOSTOMA. 381 

hind it. Umbilicus a small open depression leading into a minute 
central pore. The slopes of the depression are obliquely scored by 
the tubercles of the central basal thread. 
Alt. 0-22 in. ; diam. 0-16 inch. ( Watson.) 

Off Culebra Island, West Indies, in 390 fms. 

Trochus (Ziziphimis) tiara Watson Journ. Linn. 8oc. London 
xiv, p. 696; Challenger Gasterop., p. 60, t. 6, f. 4. — Calliostoma 
tiara AVatson, Dall, Bull. Mus. Corap Zool., vi, p. 45 ; ' Blake ' 
Gasterop., p. 365. 

This beautiful little shell offers some rather perplexing features ; 
for the curves of growth on the base indicate a slight sinus toward 
its outer edge, which, indeed, is shown in the actual mouth-edge, — 
a peculiarity suggestive of the genus Basilissa ; but there is not 
seldom in the Trochidpe a tendency to a backward curve of the lip- 
edge at that point; and in this species there does not exist the 
characteristic infra-sutural sinus which would connect it with 
Basilissa or with Seguenzia, to which its tuberculated pillar and 
closed umbilicus rather point. Margarita carinata A. Ad., from 
the Philippines, has some points of resemblance with this, but is 
obviously very ditferently marked in the form of the umbilicus. 
(Watson.) 

C. coRBis Dall. PL 48, fig. 7. 

Shell small, white, with a glassy minute apparently dextral nucleus 
and about six whorls. The first one or two have concave arched 
transverse ribs, and resemble a bit of a small Scala ; the others are 
very strongly reticulately sculptured. The spiral sculpture consists 
of one ver}' strong rib on the periphery, a slightly weaker one near 
the suture, and another (which is rarely absent) midway between 
them ; on the base there are four strong spirals a little undercut at 
their outer edges. Transverse sculpture of strong thin oblique radii 
(27-30 on the last whorl) following the lines of growth, reticulating 
the spirals (on crossing which they become slightly nodose) and 
forming deep squarish pits, which are elongated in the adult by the 
crowding of the radii toward the mouth. The suture appears 
channelled, as the whorl falls short of the perij^heral rib which over- 
hangs it, but is not really so. The base is flexuously radiately 
ridged but not reticulate; the aperture rounded, thickened within, 
lirate ; the pillar thick with an obtuse knol) (almost a tooth) about the 



382 CALLIOSTOMA. 

middle of it. Umbilicus none ; whorls flattened above between 
periphery and suture ; base rather rounded. 
Alt. 5-0, diam. 3-75 mill. {Dull.) 

Off Havana, in 450 fms. 

Calliostoma corbis Dall, " Blake " Gasteropoda, p. 365, t. 33, f. 1. 

This species was at first confused with C. tiara Watson, which has 
not the continuous strong network, and in which the nodules which 
represent the intersections are of an imbricated character. The 
strong carina in C. corbis forms the periphery, in C. tiara the 
homologous spiral is comparatively faint and a little above the 
periphery. In C. tiara also the c nter of the base is indented, 
almost unibilicated, which is not the case in C. corbis. The latter is 
a more solid shell, and the curious callosity on the pilhir does not. 
occur in any of the specimens of C. tiara I have seen. (Dull.) 

C. AURORA Dall. PI. 48, fig. 10. 

Shell delicate, nine whorled, acutely pointed ; above with a color 
varying from light pink to straw color ; below light cream color, 
the sharp peripheral carina lighter than the rest of the upper sur- 
face ; general outline from nucleus to basal periphery somewhat con- 
cave ; base concavely excavated within the margin, slightly convex 
toward the center ; nucleus whitish, smooth ; whorls gently rounded, 
closely appressed to the almost invisible suture and excavated in 
front of it ; the last whorl flatter above, more rapidly enlarged at the 
periphery. Sculpture of small regular waves on the carina, about 
six in a space of 5"0 mill., giving a minutely scalloped outline ; be- 
hind this a strong nodulous thread, revolving like a string of small 
uniform beads ; then a more slender thread more finely beaded ; in 
all eleven regularly alternating revolving threads at the beginning 
of the last whorl ; this sculpture is very uniform all over the sur- 
face ; base polished, smooth, except for two or three faint beaded 
lines and grooves about the pillar, and faint longitudinal and trans- 
verse growth markings ; aperture nearly twice as wide as high ; 
lower lip with a beautiful concavely arched outline, falling much be- 
hind the upper one ; margin simple, except for sculpture marks ; 
pillar short, arcuated, pearly, simple, ending in a slight point. 

Alt. 21-0 ; diam. 26-5 mill. (Dull.) 

Barbados, in 140-576 fms. 

Calliostoma aurora Dall, " Blake " Gasteropoda, p. 366, t. 37, 
f. 2. 



CALLIOSTOMA. 383 

A single specimen and a fragment of this extremely lovely shell 
were obtained as above. It is well distinguished from its congeners, 
none of which closely resemble it. The color is evenly distributed 
in the type, but, as in C. bairdii, it is likely that the color may be 
more dark and pronounced in more northern localities. The marked 
featui-es are the concavity of the slope of the spire and of the outer 
portion of the base, the polished base contrasting with the regularly 
beaded upper surface, and the delicately notched carina at the 
periphery. It is one of the most attractive species of the genus. 
{Ball.) ' 

C. ORION Dall. PI. 48, fig. 18. 

Shell small, Avhite, acutely conical, with a glassy sinistral globular 
nucleus and five (or more) whorls ; radiating sculpture consisting of 
faint inciemental lines ; spiral sculpture on the upper surface of the 
last whorl of seven nodulous revolving lines, beginning at the suture ; 
the first, third and fifth have larger nodules elongated in the direc- 
tion of the lines, the second and fourth are more finely and simply 
evenly beaded. A single fine raised not nodulous thread separates 
each pair of the preceding ; the sixth and seventh spirals are smaller 
than the fifth and close together ; they stretch over a series of more 
distant swellings, and are concavely impressed between them ; as 
these lines form the periphery, this gives a wavy or scalloped outline 
to the base, which has about eighteen such waves arranged to a 
certain extent in pairs, the distance and concavity between them 
alternating greater or less. The longer waves are articulated with 
pale brown, and the first and third spirals show traces of a similar 
articulation. The base is pretty sharply carinated, flattened, and 
finely spirally threaded, some of the threads showing faint traces of 
articulation ; columella nearly straight, aperture nearly rectangular. 
There is no umbilicus or pit. Alt. 4'5, diam. 4"0 mill. (Dall.) 

Off Havana, in 80 fras. 

CalUodovia orion Dall, " Blake " Gasteropoda, p. 367, t. 28, f 2. 

This little shell is not quite adult, and is evidently somewhat 

faded. Nevertheless, there is not any other sjjecies of the region 

possessing such a sculpture, and I have no doubt as to its novelty. 

{DalL) 

C. INDIANA Dall. PI. 49, figs. 42, 43. 

Shell thin, conical, yellowish, with faint brown articulations on 
the spirals, with a minute sinistral nucleus, and six and a half 



384 CALLIOSTOMA. 

-svliorls. Riidiating sculpture of flexuous iucremental Hues, aud 
fine wrinkles, which are more prominent toward the periphery on 
the last whorl and on the early whorls reticulate the spiral 
sculpture. On the last whorl these lines extend backward with 
moderate obliquity to the periphery, just above which is the 
fasciole caused by a well-marked but shallow rounded sulcus ; on 
the base they make a deep rounded concave sweep backward, and 
then ascend toward the base of the pillar. The spiral sculpture on 
the early whorls comprise two sharp narrow little elevated threads 
at the periphery, three, less contiguous, above the fasciole, and one 
near the suture, neatly reticulated by the wrinkles and minutely 
nodulous at the intersections. The spirals over most of the shell 
are strap-like, flattened, narrow, and distinctly marked off from the 
impressed broader interspaces ; on the last whorl there is a single 
smooth flat thread below the nodulated one next the suture, and 
two run in the middle of the fasciole. The peripheral thread has 
become single and much stronger than the others. On the base 
there are seven spirals, faintly nodulous, articulated with pale 
brown, and separated by much wider impressed interspaces, over 
which are a few fine spiral lines. The base is flattened, or even a 
little concave ; the pillar moderately arcuate, the mouth four sided. 
There is no umbilical pit. Alt. 8"3 ; diam. 7'6 mill. (Da/l.) 

Off Grenada, 170 fms. 

Callistoma (Eucasta) iiidiana Dall, '"Blake" Gasteropoda, p. 
368, t. 32, f. 3, 5. 

This pretty little shell has the aspect of a Calliostoma. I have 
had an opportunity of comparing it with Forskdiia declivis, and 
should judge that this bears the same relation to Calliostoma that 
the other does to Gibhula. It certainly cannot be united with 
Forskdiia or BasiUssa. {Dall.) 

C. indiana is the type of Dall's section Eucasta, characterized 
by a moderate sulcus near the periphery on the shell, producing a 
fasciole as in Pleurotomaria. 

Species inhahiting European Seas. 

(Group of C. granulatnm Born.) 

C. granulatum Born. PI. 16, fig. 7. 

Shell acutely conical, imperforate, thin, light, corneous or flesh- 
colored, more rarely rich orange, unicolored or sparsely articulated 



CALLIOSTOMA. 385 

on tlie basal ril)lets with rich brown, and frequently with rather 
obscure clouded niaculations of pale brown above. The surface is 
shining, closely sculptured by numerous narroxv threads or riblets, 
tohich on the spire are contiguous, finely, regularly beaded, becoming 
more separated on the last whorl, the interstices o'liliquely striate, 
the spiral riblets either granulate or nearly smooth ; base with 
numerous concentric lirulse, granose or nearly smooth, the interstices 
radiately striate. The spire is elevated, slender, its outlines concave ; 
apex minute, apical whorl smooth, rounded ; suture linear, its position 
marked by a slightly prominent double granose cingulus above it. 
Whorls about 8, flat, the last strongly angular at the periphery, con- 
vex beneath. Aperture subquadrate, finely sulcate inside ; columella 
subvertical, arcuate, cylindrical. Alt. 31, diam. 33 mill. 

Mediterranean and Adriatic Seas ; Atlantic coast, from Scotland to 
Madeira and Canaries. 

Tr granubdiis BoRN, Ind. rer. Natur Mus. Cfes. Vind., p. 343 
(1778) ; Test. Mus. Cies., t. 12, f. 9, 10.— Lamarck, An. s. Vert, 
vii, p. 26. — Blainv., Fauna Franc, p. 260, t. 10, f. 5. — Philippi, 
Enum. Moll. Sicil. i, p. 74, t. 10, f. 22; ii, p. 149.— Forbes & 
Hanley, Brit. Moll, ii, p. 499, t. 67, f, 7. — Jeffreys, Brit. Conch. 
iii, p. 327, V, p. 204, t. 63, f. 5.— Hidalgo, Mol. Mar. Esp., t. 59, f. 
9-11. — Fischer, Coq. Yiv., p. 79, t. 18, f 1. — Buq., Dautzenb. bt 
DoLLF., Moll. Mar. du Rouss., p. 359, t. 48, f 1-5. — Ziziphinus 
grannlatus Brusina, Contr. pella Fauna Dalm., p. 79.— Tr. papillosus 
Da Costa, Brit. Conch., p. 38, t. 3, f. 5, 6. — Donovan, Brit. Sh., 
iv, p. 127. — TuRTON, Conch. Diet., p. 190, t. 16, f. 62. — Philippi, 
Conchyl. Cab., p. 85, t. 15, f. 5. — Tr.fragilis Pulteney (not Gmel.) 
Catal. Dorset., p. 48, t. 16, f 6.— ?'. tenuis Montagu, Test. Brit, i, 
p. 275, t. 10, f 3.— Risso, Hist. Nat. Eur. Merid. iv, p. 129. 

Larger than any other granulate European species, and further 
distinguished by the thin shell, inflated base, etc. 

The following varieties are admitted by Messrs. Buquoy, Dautzen- 
berg and Dollfus. The diflerential charactei's are very slight. 

Var. nobilis Monts. Very large, of a uniform ferruginous brown 
color. Malta. 

Var. conoidea JeflTr. More solid, more regularly conical than the 
type, the last whorl less dilated. 

Var. l(evis Brugnone. Spiral lirse not granulate. 

Pleistocene of Monte Pellegrino. 
25 



386 CALLIOSTOMA. 

Var. lactea Jeffr. White, without color markings. Albescens 
Monts. is a synonym. 

Var. maculata Monts. Ornamented with decided flammules. 

C. 8UTURALE Philippl. PI. 66, figs. 24, 25. 

Shell oblique, depressed-conical, whorls planate, smooth in the 
middle, above and below coronated with series of small tubercles ; 
last whorl angulated, marginated, inferior face convex, concentrically 
cingulate, umbilicate. (Phil.) 

Sciacca. (Fossil.) 

A most distinct species, almost 4 lines high, 4^ broad. Whorls 7, 
plane, very smooth in the middle ; superior nodules large, acute ; 
margin of last whorl very densely transversely striate and with 
oblique sulci, elegantly granulate-nodose. Basal cinguli about 16, 
unequal. Aperture injured, anguUited. (Phil.) 

Tr. mturalis Phil., Enuni. Moll. Sicil. i, p. 185, t. x, f 23. — 
Jeffreys P. Z. S. 1883, p. 99. 

This Pliocene fossil of Calabria and Sicily has been dredged living 
in the Bay of Biscay and Gulf of Marseilles by the * Travailleur ' 
and at numerous points in the Atlantic and Mediterranean by the 
'Porcupine'. It lives in 174-1025 fms. Jeffreys says : The small 
fossil originally described and figured by Philippi did scant justice 
to this beautiful shell, which has now been discovered to be still 
living. My finest specimens are about seven-tenths of an inch in 
length and breadth ; the color is cream, with the tint of a blush rose ; 
and the sculpture is variable as regards the beaded rows of strije. 
Young specimens have a deep umbilicus which is inclosed within a 
sharp ridge. The callous which covers the umbilicus in the adult 
is proportionally thinner than in Bathymophila euspira Dall. 

C. FOLixi Fischer. Unfigured. 

Shell covered umbilicate, corneous, little elevated, whitish flesh 
colored; suture piano-canaliculate; whorls scarcely convex, the 
penultimate minutely ornamented with 11 spiral, elegantly beaded 
lirte ; beneath marked with 12 simple or divided, scarcely gran ulose 
lir£e ; umbilical area bounded by a spiral sulcus, covered by a central 
callous ; aperture oblique, subquadrate. 

Alt. 13, diam. 17 mill. {Fischer.) 

Algeria, 900 meters, 

Ziziphinus jPo/mi Fischer, Journ, de Conchyl., 1882, p. 50. 

Said by Jeffreys to be a variety of T. suturalis, Phil, 



CALLIOSTOMA. 387 

{Group of 0. millaris Brocc.) 
C. MiLiARis Brocchi. PL 18, figs. 10, 11 ; pi. 15, figs. 41, 42. 

Shell strictly conical, imperforate, rather thin, but pretty solid, 
whitish or yellowish, with more or less obvious longitudinal flames, 
often reduced to a few spots on the ribs and a row of spots at the 
periphery of each whorl. Surface densely finely sculptured by spiral 
lirce crossed by very regular oblique lamellce, producing a clathrate 
patt rn, spirnl lira? about 6 in number on each whorl, but often 
double as many, by the intercalation of ribletsin the interstices. The 
periphery has a prominent keel, cord-like, with secondary spiral stride, 
or bifid, cut into compressed granules, somewhat prominent above 
the sutures. The base has about 8 concentric ribs, interstices 
radiately striate, sometimes with a central riblet. Spire conical ; 
periphery acutely angled, base flat. Whorls about 7, aperture quad- 
rangular, columella short, nearly straight. Alt. 13, diam. 13 mill. 

Mediterranean and Adriatic Seas; Atlantic Ocean,, Norway to 
Gibraltar ; Cape Verde Is. ; Miocene of Vienna, Italy, etc. 

Tr. millaris Brocc. Conch, foss. Subap., p. 353, t. G, f. 1 (1814). 
— Rrsso, Eur. Merid. iv., p. 130. — Philippi, Conchyl. Cab., p. 71, 
t. 13, f 19. — BuQ. Dautz. and Dollf., Moll, du Rouss., p. 357, 
t. 42, f. 20-25. — Trochus martini Brown, 111. Couch. Gt. Brit., p. 
129, t. 57, f. 11 (1827).— Thorpe, Brit. Mar. Conch., p. 164, t. 3, f 
36. — Tr. millegranus Philippi, Enum. Moll. Sicil. i, p. 183, t. 10, f. 
25 (1836) ; Conchyl. Cab., p. 88, t. 15, f 9. — Jeffreys, Brit. Conch, 
iii, p. 325 ; v, p. 204, t. 63, f. 4.— Fischer, Coq. Viv., p. 146, t. 49, 
f. 1. — Conulus millegranus Phil., Sars, Moll. Reg. Arct. Norv., p. 
143, t. iv, f. 3 (Dentition). — Ziziphinus millegranus Phil. Brusina, 
Contr. pella Fauna Dalm., p. 79. — T. clelandi Wood, Ind. test, 
suppl., t. 5, f. 15. — T. clehmdianis Leach, Synops. Moll. Gt. Brit., 
p. 172. — T. elegans Jefp^r., teste Jeffreys. 

The clathrate sculpture is very characteristic. 

( Group of C. zizyphinum Linn.) 

The Mediterranean species of Calliostoma immediately allied to 
C. zizyphinum form a group very closely allied in characters, and 
at the same time each species is excessively variable. The char- 
acters common to the group are the straightly conoidal outline, gran- 
ulate upper whorls, the lower ones polished and either smooth or 
spirally sulcate. The following species are included: zizyphinmn, 
conulam, gaalterianum, laugieri, etc., each with numerous synonyms.. 



OOO CALLIOSTOMA. 

C. zrzYPHiNUM Linne. PL 65, figs. 90, 91, 92. 

Shell conical, imperforate, solid ; ground color fawn, whitish, lilac 
or yellowish brown, with (generally) a series of brown spots on the 
periphery, and radiately clouded with brown on the upper surface ; 
the base unicolored or obscurely radiately streaked. Spire conic, 
outlines straight, apex minute, composed of a single smooth rounded 
whorl, several whorls following each with 4 granose spiral ridges ; 
these become smooth and either obsolete or narrow on the later 
whorls. The peripher}^ is angular, encircled by a smooth rounded 
rib which becomes a supra-sutural band or fasciole on the spire; 
whorls about 9, plane, base nearly flat, aperture quadrate, columella 
nearly straight, cylindrical. 

Alt. 27, diam. 28 mill. ; alt. 35, diam. 35 mill. 

Mediterranean and Adriatic Seas. 

T. zizyphinus Linn., Syst. Nat. xii, p. 1231 (176(5).— And of 
Lamarck, Risso, Payraudeau, Weinkaupf, Buquoy, Dautz., 
and DoLi-F., Fischer, and other writerson Mediterranean shells. — T. 
polymorphus Cantraine (in part), Diagn. Esp. nouv., p. 10 (1835). 
— T. conulus var. /?. PHiL.,Enum. Moll. Sicil. i, p. 175. — Zizipkinus 
Limnei Monterosato, Norn. gen. e. Spec, p. 44 (1884). — T. discre- 
pans Brown, Mem. Wern. Soc. ii, p. 519, t. 24, f. 4. — Zizyphinus 
connloides Lam. Reeve (part), Conch. Icon., f. 16b, 16c. — Z. linncei 
MoNTS., W'ith vars. dilatata, rotundata, scalaris, simulans, violaeea, 
pallida (= cornea and albina) Monts., Bull. Soc. Mai. Ital. 1889, 
p. 77. — Z. demissus Monts., Nom. Gen. e. Spec, p. 44; Bull. S. M. 
Ital. '89, p. 78. — Z. typus Nardo, Sinon. moderua 1847, p. 70 (+ Z. 
dalmaticus Monts. MS., Z. novegradensis Brus. MS., Z. convloides 
Auct., not Lam.,) teste Monts., Bull. Soc. Mai. Ital. 89, p. 78.— Z. 
virescens (Ren.) Auct. Monts., I. c, p. 79. — Z. vulgaris Gray, Ad., P. 
Z. S. 1851, p. 163. — Z. albidus Wood, Ind. testaceol. suppl., t. 5. f, 
14. — Tr. cingulatus Brocchi, Conch, foss. subap., p. 351, t. 5, f 15. 
—Phil. Conchyl. Cab., p. 67, t. 13, f. 12. 

Var. convloides Lam. 

T. connloides Lam., An. s. Yert. vii, p. 24 (1822). — Pot. and 
Mich., Galerie de Douai, i, p. 330. — Petit, Journ. de Conch. 1852, 
p, 177. — Fischer, Coq. Viv., p. 81, t. 18, f. 3. — Buq., Dautz. and 
DoLLF., Moll, du Rouss., p. 347. — T. polymorphus Cantraine, in 
part. — T. zizyphinus Phil., Conchyl. Cab., p. 62, t. 13, f 6. — 
Jeffreys, Brit. Conch, iii, p. 330; v, p. 204, t. 63, f. 6. — Sars, 



CALLIOSTOMA. 389 

Moll. Reg. Ai'cf. Norv., p. 141, t. iv, f. 4 (Dentition). — Hidal(;o, 
Mol. mar. Esp., t. 59, f. 4, 5. — T. Iwviguta J. Sowb., Min. Conch., t. 
181, f. 1. — T. Cranchianus, and T. irregularis Jjewh, Synops. Moll. 
Gt. Brit. (ed. Gray), p. 173, 171.— T. chemnitzii Fhil., Conchyl. 
Cab., p. 63, t. 13, f. 7.— INFonterosato, Bull. Soc. Mai. Ital., 1889, 
p. 79 (-f- mnltisidcosa Hidalgo MS., -|- granuUfera Jeffr.) — T. 
agrestis Phil., Abbild. i, Trochus, t. 1, f. 6 ; Conchyl. Cab., p. 66, t. 
13, f. 13.— T.flavus Anton, Zeitschr. f. Mai. 1848, p. 105.— Phil., 
Conchyl. Cab.,. p. 256, t. 38, f. 3.— Reeve, f. 33. 

The synonymy of the two varieties is given separately above. The 
typical T. zhypliiniis of Linnreus is the large handsome form found 
in the Mediterranean. It is smooth, or has only slightly developed 
spiral riblets on the lower whorls. The upper (3 to 6) ones are densely 
granulate, showing the affinity of the form to C graiinlatiim Born, 
etc. Thfe following mutations have received names: 

Var. cingulata Broochi (pi. 18, fig. 12). Shell with pretty strong 
spiral sculpture, approaching conuloides. Var. dllatata Monts., no 
sutural cordon ; last whorl dilated, rounded at periphery. Var. stran- 
gulata B., D. D., whorls compressed, a little concave around the 
middle (Var. scalaris Monts. is a syn.). Var. alba Monts., and Var. 
violacea Monts. There are numerous other forms named, but the 
practical use of this minute subdivision is very slight. The passion 
for names displayed by certain writers on Mediterranean shells 
reminds one of the vagaries of our own Rafinesque. The eccentric 
American naturalist however, betrayed great insight in taxonomic 
matters. 

Var. CONULOIDE8 Lamarck. PI. Qo, figs. 67, 68. 

Shell similar in form or more depressed than the type, with strong 
spiral ridges on the upper surface of the whorls. 

Atlantic coast of Spain, France, England, etc. 

This form is the T. zizyphinus of English authors. It varies 
from nearly smooth to strongly spirally sulcate. There are forms 
nearly or entirely intermediate between conuloides and zizyphinus. 

Subvarietal names have been given as follows : Var. Lyonsi 
Leach, pure white. Var. Uevigata J. Sowb., smooth and polished, 
Avith strong sutural ridges, considerably expanded towards the base ; 
spire depressed. Var. granuUfera JefFr. white, the ridges granulated. 
Var. humilior Jefir. shell depressed, the diameter decidedly exceed- 
ing the alt. The T. agrestis of Philippi is figured on pi. 18, fig. 15. 



390 CALLIOSTOMA. 

I have retained conuloides as a variety of zizyphinus, rather than 
a sjjecies. It will be noted that zizyphinus from the Mediterranean 
has a spirally sulcate form (var. cingiilata), and conuloides from 
northern Europe has a smooth one (var. Icevigata). The latest treat- 
ment of the species is in Bull. Soc. Mai. Ital. xiv, p. 77, 1889, article 
by Monterosato. He splits the zizyphinus into five species ! 

C. CONULUM Linne. PL 65, figs. 70, 71, 72. 

Shell elevated-conical, higher and narrower than C. zizyphinum ; 
carinated at periphery ; yellow or delicate flesh color, with obscure 
clouds or macula; alternately whitish and brown below the suture, 
and painted on the peripheral rib in the same alternate manner ; the 
surface is highly polished ; apical whorl smooth, the next four or five 
whorls densely granuhite (granules in 4 or 5 series), the next whorl 
generally spirally ribbed, following whorls smooth, or with very 
obscure traces of spiral lines; base flat, smooth, save for 3 to 6 con- 
centric articulated riblets around the axis ; outlines of spire straight ; 
whorls about 10, Hat, separated by linear suture with a distinct narrow 
supra-sutural fasciole. Aperture rhomboidal, smooth within ; col- 
umella shorter and more knobbed at base than C. zizyphinum, pearly. 

Alt. 26, diam. 22 mill; alt. 23, diam. 18 mill. 

Mediterranean and Adriatic Seas; Atlantic Ocean at Canaries, 
Madeira and Azores Is. 

T. co)iiili(s Linn., Syst. Nat. xii, p. 1230. — And of Lamarck, 
Payraudeau, Risso, Philippi, WioiXKAUFF, Hidalgo, Fischer, 
BuQUOY, Dautzenberg & DoLLFTS and other authors. — Z. lucidus 
Risso, Eur. Merid., p. 126. — Zizyphinus (JancintRinus) cormlus L. 
vars. acuta, dilatata, striata sanguinea, pallida, aurantia, violacea 
Monts., Bull. Soc. Mai. Ital., 1889, p. 79, 80. 

Var. dubius Phil. 

T. dubius Phil., Enum. Moll. Sieil. ii, p. 149, t. 25, f. 7, 1844; 
Conchyl. Cab., p. 66, t. 13, f. 11.— BuQ., Dautz., et Dollf., Moll. 
Rouss., p. 352, t. 42, f. 5-7. — T. conulus var. dubius Phil. Fischer, 
Coq. Viv., p. 121, t. 49, f. 4. — Z. dubius Phil, and vars. dilatata, 
incavata, media, lirata, elevata, cinnamomea, olivacea, violacea Monte- 
rosato, Bull. Soc. Mai. Ital., 1889, p. 80. — T. dubius var. spongiarum 
B., D. & D., Moll, de Rouss., p. 353, t. 42, f 8, 9.— T. flavidus 
DuNKER, P. Z. S. 1856, p. 354.— .i^ T. pallidulus Dkr., P. Z. S. 1856, 
p. 355. 



CALLIOSTOMA. 891 

Separated from C. zizyphinum by the narrower, more elevated 
form, narrower supra-sutural fasciole, more polished smoother 
surface. 

The mutations in color are numerous; the varieties enumerated 
by jNfonterosato are scarcely important enough to describe here, 
and besides, are described by their names. 

Var. DUBius Philippi. PL 18, figs. 19, 20. 

Smaller than typical conulum, with stronger spiral sculpture on 
the lower whorls; base flat. Alt. 15, diam. 13 mill. It is larger 
than C. laugieri, with more granulation on the upper whorls. 

Mediterranean and Adriatic Seas. 

The form called var. spongiarum B., D. & D. (pi. 65, fig. 69) is 
thin shelled, the earlier whorls smooth, not granulate, the re- 
mainder with supra-sutural ftisciole and 3 well-marked spiral 
furrows. Base of the last whorl traversed by numerous concentric 
cords; color light gray, longitudinally flamed, the spiral, furrows 
breaking the flames in places into a tessellated pattern. There is 
also a uniform violet-colored form {violacea Monts. not Risso), and 
a white one {albida Dautz.). This well-marked variety lives on 
sponges in the Gulf of Gabes. Z. basalis Monts., ms. is a synonym. 

C. NOCTURNUM Philippi. PI. 18, figs. 3, 4. 

Shell exactly conical, imperforate, smooth, violaceous green ; whorls 
plane, margined by a slightly elevated cingulus at the base, marked 
by regular distant impressed incremental striae ; last whorl obtusely 
angular ; base nearly plane, smooth ; aperture rhombic ; columella 
very oblique, cylindrical, entire. {Philippi.) 

Habitat unknown. 

T. nocturnus Phil., Conchyl. Cab., p. 112, t. 18, f 9. 

I have before me a single specimen of unknown history, referable 
to this species. It evidently belongs in the immediate vicinity of 
C. conulnm, and is probably synonymous, diflTering in the darker 
color (livid-bi'own in my example), and distant, impressed strice of 
increment. The upper whorls are granose ; the suture has a narrow 
flat margination above ; there are no concentric lines on the base, 
except, perhaps, slight indications of them at the center. 

C. GUALTERiANUM Philippi. PI. 17, fig. 30. 

Shell conical-elevated, imperforate, polished, solid, yellowish-brown 
or olive, clouded with brown, the earlier 4 whorls dark bluish or 



392 CALLIOSTOMA. 

greenish, spirally sulcata, the 2d whorl somewhat granulate; the 
rest of the whorls smooth, flat, with a narrow supra-sutural fasciole, 
which on the last whorl is not developed ; periphery rounded- 
angular ; base smooth except for about 4 fine riblets around the axis ; 
whorls about 9. Aperture smooth within, columella a trifle swollen 
at base, nacreons, and either purple or whitish inside. 

Alt. Hi, diam. Si mill; alt. 18, diam. 10 mill. ; alt. 12, diara. 8 
mill. 

Mediterranean; Coasts of France, Corsica, Sicily, Algiers, etc. 

T. Icevigatiis Phil., Enum. Moll. Sicil. i, p. 175 (not kevigatus 
Sowb. or GmeL). — T. gualterianus Phil., in Conchyl. Cab., p. 69, t. 
13,' f. 15. — T. gualtierianus Phil. Fischer, Coq. Viv., p. 404, 1. 119, 
f. 5. — T. gualtierli Phil. Weinkauff, Conchyl. des Mittelm. ii, p. 
361.— B.,"d. & D., Moll, du Rouss., p. 35H, t. 42, f. 15-19. 

This form is separated from C. coniiliinb by ab.sence or great 
reduction of the granulation on the earlier whorls, the less distinct 
supra-sutnral fasciole, entirely etfliced on the last whorl. It is 
narrower than C. laugieri, and smoother ; but in my opinion will 
prove to be connected by intermediate examples with that species. 
A purple form of this species is among the color varieties before me. 

C. LAUGIERI Payraudeau. PI. 65, figs, between fig. 80 and fig. 90. 

Shell similar to T. dublus and T. comdus, but smaller, generally 
darker in color, the apical whorls not (or but slightly) granulate. 

The form is straightly conical ; apical whorl minute, smooth ; 
following whorls, to the number of three or less, granulate ; then 
there are several spirally grooved whorls, the lower ones either 
smooth or grooved. The supra-sutural fasciole is distinct, tirticulated ; 
base spirally grooved, sometimes smooth except around the axis. 
Whorlsabout 8, color, (1) dark olive-green or olive-brown, unicolored 
or longitudinally clouded with brown and lineolate with bluish, (2) 
yellowish, clouded with brown or yellow, (3) uniform purple. 
Aperture sulcate or smooth inside. 

Alt. 10, diam 8 mill. ; alt. 10, diam. 10 mill. ; alt. 12, diam. 10 
mill. 

Mfdiferraneaji and Adriatic Seas. 

T. laugieri Payr. Moll, de Corse, p. 1 25, t. 6, f. 3, 4, 1826.— Blain- 
viLLE, Fauna Franc, p. 262. — Philippi, Enum Moll. Sicil. ii, p. 
150 ; Conchyl. Cab., p. 68, t. 13, f. 14.— Fischer, Coq. Viv., p. 150, 
t. 49, f. 4a.— B., D. and D., Moll, du Rouss., p. 353, t. 42, f. 10-14. 



CALLIOSTOMA. 393 

— Zlzijphlnus laugieri Payr. Jeffr., Piedm. Coast, p. 27. — Monts., 
Condi, litt. Med., p. 11. — T. macuhdus Risso, Eur. Merid. iv, p. 
128.— r. violaceus Risso, /. c, j). 127, t. 8, f. Ill (1826).— Brusina, 
Contr. pella Fauna Dalm., p. 71*. — ]Monts. (with var. monochroa 
Monts.), Bull. Soc. Mai. Ital. 1889, p. 80. — T. nigerrimus (Renier) 
Blainv., Fauna Franc, p. 262. — T. .^eriopundatus (Ren.) Blainv., 
I. c, p. 263 (1830).— Monts., Bull. S. M. I. 1889, p. 81 (with var. 
cmgulella Monts.). — T. hyacinthinus Ren. Blainv., I. c, p. 259, t. 
10, f. 2.— Monts., Bull. S. M. I. 1889, p. 80, var. Candida Monts.— 
T. polyinovplms Contraine (in part), Bull. Acad. Bruxelles, 1855, 
p. 386. — T. miuUdus Brusina, Conch. Dalm. Ined., p. 25 (1865). — 
T. solldus Phil., Conchyl. Cab., p. 90, t. 15, f. 12. 

This form is very mutable in color, and numerous varieties have 
been proposed. The following are the more prominent. 

Var. vlolacea Risso (j)l. 65, fig. 88), a beautiful purple form. 
Var. ca)tdida Briis., pure white. Var. olivaceocoiwi)lor Req., uniform 
olivaceous without flames or blotches, from the Gulf of Gabes.. Var. 
seriopiuictata Ren., dark olive, uniform or mottled with lighter, the 
periphery and supra-sutural fasciole conspicuously articulated with 
olive-brown and white. 

Var. SOLIDUM Phil. 

Shell conical, imperforate solid, pale olivaceous, articulated with 
yellowish ; whorls ])lane, base nnii'gined by a prominent cingulus ; 
whorls sculptured with 3 slightly elevated cinguli, the last rounded- 
angular; base obsoletely 7 to 9 ciugulate ; aperture rhondioidal, 
columella very oblique, entire. Alt. 14, diam. 12 mill. (Phil.) 

This form I place here with some doubt on account of its more 
oblique columella, which forms no angle where it joins the basal lip. 
It may be a synonym of C. coimlam, ov possibly distinct. 

C. occiDENTALis Mighels & Adams. PI. 37, figs. 2, 3. 

Shell rather small, thin, imperforate, opalescent; surface shining, 
strongly sculptured above with smooth, yellowish sj^iral ribs, narrower 
than their interstices, numbering 3 or 4 on each whorl ; periphery 
very bluntly subangular, base nearly flat, with a few ribs around 
the axis and at periphery, otherwise smooth. The spire is elevated, 
acute ; whorls 7 to 8 ; apical whorl minute, smooth, rounded ; follow- 
ing three whorls beaded on the spiral ribs ; sutures impressed ; aper- 
ture rather rounded, pearly; columella, arcuate, narrow, not dentate 
or truncate at base. Alt. 12, diam. 10-11 mill. 



394 CALLIOSTOMA. 

Maine Northward ; Scandinavia ; N. Scotland ; fossil in the English 
Crag. (40-90 fms.) 

Trochus occidentalis Migh. & Ad., Bost. Journ. Nat. Hi.>^t. iv, p. 
47, t. 4, f. 16 (1841).— Jeffreys, Brit. Conch, iii, p. 333 ; v, t. 63, 
f. 7. — Gould, Invert, of Mass., ed. Binney, p. 286, fig. 548. — Margar- 
ita alabastrum. Beck, in Loven, Ind. Moll. lit. Scandin., p. 20 (1846). 
— T. alabastrum Beck, Philippi, Concliyl. Cab., p. 91, t. 15, f. 14. 
—Forbes & Hanley, Hist. Brit. Moll, ii, p. 497, t. 66, f. 7, 8.— 
Tr. formosus Forbes, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist, xix, p. 96, t. 9, f. 1 
(1847).— Searles Wood, Crag Moll., p. 125, t. 13, f. 2.— 2V. 
quadricinctus S. Wood, olim. — Zizyphinns alabastrum Beck, Reeve 
Conch. Icon., f. 46. — T. occidentalis Migh., Sars, Moll. Reg. Arct. 
Norv., p. 142, t. 9, f. 7, t. iv, f. 5 (dentition). 

An exquisite little gem, like an opal in its iridescence, with smooth, 
narrow, more opaque riblets. It has the same distribution as several 
species of Margarita. 

( Groiip of C. exasj)eratum Pennant.^ 
C. exasperatum Pennant. PI. 17, figs. 20, 42 ; pi. 18, figs. 5-8. 

Shell small, turreted, solid, thick ; color purplish-brown, blackish- 
purple or red, with white longitudinal lines or stripes, the base 
rad lately striped or dotted with white. Surface lusterless, the whorls 
encircled at the peripheral carina by a rounded granulate ridge, 
above this with 4 spiral granose lir?e, the interstices densely, 
regularly marked by elevated lamellar stri?e ; base encircled by 6 
concentric line, narrower than the densely radiately striate inter- 
stices ; apical whorls red. Spire very high; whorls 9-10, the last 
angular, aperture quadrangular, throat brilliantly iridescent, basal 
margin thickened, columella subvertical, obliquely truncate below. 

Alt. 12, diam. Ql mill. ; alt. 10, diam. 6^ mill. 

Mediterranean, Adriatic and Black Seas ; Atlantic Ocean, England 
and Belgium to Canaries; Madeira and Azores Is. 

T. exasperatus Pennant, Brit. Zool. iv, p. 126 (1777).— Jeffreys, 
Brit. Conch, iii, p. 324 ; v, p. 203, t. 63, f 4.— Fischer, Cocj. Viv., 
p. 266, t. 89, f 1.— B., D. & D., Moll, du Rouss., p. 362, t. 43, f. 1- 
7. — And of other authors.- — T. conulus Dacosta, Brit. Conch., p. 40, 
t. 2, f. 4. — T. viimdus, striatus, etc., Chemnitz, Conchyl. Cab., v, p. 
30, t. 1529. — T. minutus Chem. Deshayes, in Lam., An. s. Vert, ix, 
p. 151. — T. erythroleucos Gmel., Syst. Nat. xiii, p. 3581. — Lam., 
An. s. Vert, vii, p. 30. — T. exiguus PuLT.,Cat. Dorset., p. 48, t. 12, 



CALLIOSTOMA. 395 

f. 4. — And of MoNTA(iu, Turton, Forbes & Hanlky, and of other 
authors. — T. crennlatus l^ROCcni, Conch, fo.s. Subap., p. 354, t. 6, f. 
2. — ScACCHi, Cat, Conch. Reg. Neap., p. 13.— Philippi, Enum. 
Moll. Sicil. i, p. 176 ; Conchyl. Cab., p. 69, 1. 13, f 17-22.— T. pyram- 
idatvs Lam., An. i?. Vert., vii, p. 30. — T. matonii, Payr., Moll, de 
Corse, p. 126, t. 6, f 5, 6. — Granger, Moll, de Cette, p. 16. — Z. 
(Jvjubiuus) matonii Payr. Monts., Conch. Litt. Medit., p. 12 ; Nom. 
Gen. e Spec, p. 46. — T. tricolor Risso, Hist. Nat. Eur. Merid. iv, p. 
127, t. 9, f. 135. — T. elegans Blainville, Fauna Franc, p. 266, 1. 10, 
f. 8. — Jujubinus corallinus Monterosato, Nora. Gen. e Si)ec, p. 46 
(1884). — T. strigillatus and punctatiis'RE-siEni, teste Blainville. — T. 
jacobii Ahadah and T. vulgaris Risso, teste Monts.— T. soeia Fischer, 
Coq. Viv., p. 403, t. 119, f 3. — Zizyphinus pyramis Reeve, Conch. 
Icon., f. 41 (not T. pyramis Gniel. nor Born). — T. exasperatus var. 
excavata Monts., Boll. Soc Mai. Ital. 1880, p. 219. — T. monterosatoi 
B., D. & D., Moll. Rouss., p. 367, t. 43, f. 18, 19. 

Differs from C. striatum in having fewer, coarser spiral lirse, and 
more prominent periphei'al and supra-sutural fasciole. The follow- 
ing is a variety. 

Var. MONTEROSATOI B., D. & D. PI. 63, fig. 27. 

Whorls very concave, separated by a very prominent supra-sutural 
fasciole or rib ; sculpture consisting of spiral lir?e, more granulate 
on the earlier than on the later whorls. Color opaque white with 
longitudinal black flammules which ordinarily become confiuent in 
jDairs upon the supra-sutui-al ftisciole. 

Gulf of Gates; Gulf of Turentum. 

€. STRIATUM Linne. PI. 17, figs. 39, 40. 

Shell small, elongate-conical, imperforate, solid, brown or yellow- 
ish olive, rarely unicolored, striped or lined longitudinally with white, 
sometimes the striping broken into a tessellated pattern. Surface 
dull or shining, the whorls with a much less prominent ridge at 
periphery than in C. exasperatum ; the supi'a-sutural fasciole when 
discernable, not projecting nor prominent ; the whorls are encircled 
by numerous subequal lirulse, the interstices slightly or strongly 
obliquely striate ; base with numerous striae or riblets, about double 
the number possessed by C. exasperatum. 

Alt. 10, diam. 7 mill. ; alt. 9, diam. 7 mill.; alt. 10, diam. 8 mill. 

Mediterranean and Adriatic Seas; Atlantic Ocean, England to 
Gibraltar; Canaries; Madeira; Azores. 



396 CALLIOSTOMA. 

T. striatus Linn. Syst. Nat. xii, p. 1230. — And of most authors. — 
T. parvus Da Costa, Brit. Conch., p. 41.^ — T. conicus Donovan, 
Brit. Sh., t. 155, f. 1. — T. depidus Desh., Exped. Sci. de Moree, 
p. 140, t. 18, f. 23-25.— r. gravesi Forbes, Rep. JEg. Invert., p. 137. 
— T. sartorii Aradas, tede Philippi. — T. parvulus Phi!. Brus., 
Conch. Dalni. ined., ]). 25 (and parviilvs Phil., Enuin. Moll. Sicil. 
i, p. 155, t. 25, f. 11 ? a fo.ssil species). — Trochus littoralis Brusina 
in sched., /. c, p. 25. — Jujuhinm cequlstriaius Monts., Norn. Gen. e 
Spec, p. 47 (1884).— T. cequistriatus Monts. B., D. & D., Moll, du 
Rouss., p. 368, t. 43, f. 21, 22. — T. smaragdimis Monts. Dautz, Journ, 
de Conchyl. 1883, p. 307. — Jiijublnus smaragdinus Monts., Nom. 
Gen. e Spec, p. 46. — T. striatus var. eleuchoides Issel, Crociera del 
Volante, p. 436, figs. 6, 7, 1878. — J. elenchoides Monts., Nom. Gen. 
e Spec, p. 47 (1884).— T. elenchoides Monts., D., D. & D., Moll, du 
Rouss., p. 368, t. 43 f. 20, 25. — Tr. (ZizijpJuims) striatus Linne, Wat- 
son, Challenger Gasterop., p. 56. 

Distinguished from C. exasperatum, a species of nearly the same 
size and outline, by its finer more numerous spiral stride, less strongly 
truncate columella, etc. 

The principal varieties are the following: 

Var. DEPICTUM Deshayes. 

Shell elevated, with spiral strife, a large peripheral ridge, and fine 
strire of increment, the latter crossing the spiral sculpture, render the 
surface visiblv granulose. Color greenish iridescent, with longitu- 
dinal hroW'U fiames. 

Var. ^quistriatum Monterosato. 

Shell solid, broad at base, without a noticeable peripheral rib at 
carina or above sutures; surface traversed by numerous spiral 
liriB, the interstices finely obliquely crispate-striate ; base with 
about 7 concentric ribs, and outside of these a number (about 5) of 
minute close ones; color light gray, with longitudinal narrow black 
lines, sometimes interrupted. 

Var. smaraodinum Monterosato. 

Quite conical, elevated, the whorls plane, the last decidedly 
angular at periphery; surface with numerous spiral smooth riblets, 
and a peripheral supra-sutural rib divided into two by a central 
groove; color of earlier whorls white, with large blotches and dots 
of reddish purple ; the rest of the whorls and the base are a beautiful 



CALLIOSTOMA. 397 

light green, with wliite and dark dots articulating the rihs. There 
is often a peculiar iridescence shining through the color, A white 
form (" var. albina Monts.") and a golden yellow one (" var. aurea 
Monts.), are found. 

This form has the peculiarly slender spire, sharply angular periph- 
ery and flat base that seem to be characteristic of Calllostoma from 
the Gulf of Gabes. These modifications are shown by the var. 
spongianmi of C. Uiugieri, Yar.fratei'culuni of C. unidentatum, etc. In 
fact, a number of these small species of Calliostoma seem to undergo 
variations which produce parallel series in the several specific types. 

Var. ELENCHOiDES Issel. PI. 68, figs. 24, 25. 

Last whorl rounded at periphery ; surface apparently smooth, with 
metallic reflections, but under a lens seen to be flnely sculptured by 
numerous sj)iral and oblique strite. Color very variable ; brown, 
with zigzag white flam mules, ashen gray, varied with bright rose and 
irregular white spots, or fawn colored, with short white longitudinal 
flames around the periphery, etc., etc. Resembles Eieitchvs in the 
form and iridescent surface. 

C. GEAVIN.E Monterosato. PL 6.3, flgs. 28, 29. 

Spire moderately elevated, conical, composed of 7 flat whorls, 
traversed by non-granulose lirse, about 6 on the penultimate whorl ; 
the ridge immediately above the suture larger, more salient than the 
others ; there are numerous spiral striie between thelirse, and several 
on the supra-sutural ridge. Last whorl subangular at the periphery, 
convex on the base, which is imperforate, and provided with a very 
small umbilical rimation ; the base has 5 concentric ribs. Suture 
shallow. Aperture subquadrangular ; columella very slightly 
arcuate, not truncate at base ; lip sharp, rounded, smooth inside. 
Color white, with longitudinal flamniules of reddish-brown; supra- 
sutural ridge articulated with spots of the same, the other lirse dotted 
with carmine ; columella white, interior nacreous. (B., D. & D.) 
Mediterranean ; Atlantic Ocean, at Orotava, Canaries. 

T. (Zizyphinus) gravince Monts., Enum. e Sinon., p. 22, 1878. — 
B., D. & D., Moll, du Rouss., p. 869, t. 43, f. '26-30. —Jujub inns 
gravince Monts., Nomencl. Gen. e Spec, p. 47. 

Less elevated than T. exasperatus, the last whorl less angular at 
periphery, more convex beneath. The red-dotted lirse are also cha- 
racteristic, and while appearing granulate they are really not so. 



398 CALLIOSTOMA. 

C. GONiosTOMUM Meiike. PI. 18, fig. 25. 

Shell elevated, convex-conic, imperforate, olivaceous, flammulate 
with white tessellated with dots ; whorls plane, base not margined ; 
last whorl subangulate, with 7 to 8 shallow transverse sulci ; base 
with about 8 sulci; aperture rhombic; columella with an acute 
tooth ; lip broadly thickened inside. Alt. 9, diam. 6 mill. (Phil.) 

Habitat unknown. 

T. goniostomus Mke, Zeitschr. f. Mai. 1848, p. 107.— Phil. 
Conchyi. Cab., p. 211, t. 81, f. (5. 

Probably a synonym of C. striattnn, or at most a mere variety. 

C. TUERicuj.uM Philip])i. PI. 18, fig. 9. 

Shell turreted, imperforate, transversely cingulate, dark rosy, 
flammulate with scarlet ; whorls plane, divided by profound sutures, 
the hist angulate ; transverse cinguli 5, equaling the obliquely 
striate interstices ; aperture rhombic ; columella straight, cylindrical 
entire. {Phil.) 

This species is very distinct in its size and steepledike form. The 
shell is pretty solid, consists of 7-8 flat whorls, separated by a deep 
suture ; they have 5 little-elevated transverse cinguli, which, upon 
the last whorl are split into two by an impressed line. The inter- 
stices, wide as the cinguli, are prettily sculptured by the strite of in- 
crement. On the base I count 6 concentric line. The aperture is 
rhombic, columella straight, cylindrical, with no tooth below. Color 
dark rose-red, with bright red flames. 

Alt. 7, diam. 4 mill. {Phil.) 

Habitat unknown. 

T. turricula PiiiL., Conchyi. Cab., p. 313, t. 44, f. 19. 

Is it a synonym of C. exasperatum. Pennant ? 

C. UNiDENTATUM Pliilippi. PL 17, figs. 13, 14 (enlarged). 

Shell small, elongate-conical, imperforate, rather solid; ground- 
color white, with a more or less ])ink tinge on the up])er ])art of each 
whorl, especially on the upper part of the spire, or sometimes yellow 
or gray in place of pink ; entire surface longitudinally marked with 
distinct narrow black lines. Surface lusterless, densely spirally 
lirate and striate, the principal ridges subgranose, interstices densely 
obliquely crispate-striate ; periphery generally scalloped or sub- 
nodose, angular; base flat, finely or obsoletely lirulate ; whorls 
about 10, the apical ones rosy, the rest concave below the sutures; 



CALLIOSTOMA. 399 

spire very sleuder. Aperture subtriangular, iridescent and green 
inside, columella short, vertical, abruptly dentate or trmwate at base. 

Alt. 9, diam. 6 mill. 

Mediterranean Sea, on the coasts of Corsica, Sicily, Tunis, Syi'ia ; 
Adriatic Sea. 

T. uitidentatns PniL., Enum. jMoU. Sieil. ii, p. 150, t. 25, f. 8; 
Conchyl. Cab., p. 91, t. 15, f. 13. — Weinkauff, Conchyl. des Mittel- 
raeeres ii, p. 363.— Fischer, Coq. Viv., p. 279, t. ^\,tA.— T. frater- 
culus MoNTS., Bull. Soc. Mai. Ital., 1879, p. 220. 

Distinguished from the jireceding by the slender spire, and very 
abruptly truncated columella. 

Yar. fraterculum !Monts. is angular, sharply sculptured, the supra- 
sutural ridge very strong; base broadei'; whitish, with gray 
hieroglyphs. Tiniis. 

It is placed by AVatson in the synonymy of C. striatum Linne, on 
the authority of Jeffreys. 

C. MONTA(;ui Wood. PI. 17, figs. 15, 16. 

Shell imperforate or very minutely perforate, conical ; whorls 7, 
.a little convex, the earlier buff, following pale buffish-ashen, or- 
namented with obscure maculations or zones of chestnut, obliquely 
striate, spirally lirate, lirse on penultimate whorl 6. subequal ; last 
whorl a little convex above, carin ited in the midde, convex beneath 
and provided with 7-8 concentric, white-and-brown articulated 
lirce ; aperture rhomboid, columella subtruncate below. 

Alt. 72, diam. 6 mill. (Fischer.) 

Atlantic and Mediterranean, England to Algiers. 

T. viontagui Wood, Index Test., Supj)l., t. 6, f. 43. — Ppiilippi, 
Conchyl. Cab., p. 89, t. 15, f. 11. — Forbes & Hanley, Hist. Brit. 
Moll, ii, p. 511, t. 65, f. 10, 11.— Fischer, Coq. Viv., p. 270, t. 89, 
f. S.— Tr. montacuti Jeffr., Brit. Conch, iii, p. 320 ; v, t. 63, f. 1.— 
Weinkauff, Conchyl. Mittelm. ii, p. 366. 

C. RUSCURIANUM Weinkauff. Unfigured. 

Whorls flat ; spiral ribs thicker than in C. viontagui, separated by 
much narrower interstices ; umbilicus subperforate. 

Algiers ; Tunis. 

An unfigured species, closely related to C. montagui, perhaps a 
variety of it. Included by Watson, on the authority of Jeffreys, as 
a synonym of T. striatus Linn. 



400 CALLIOSTOMA. 

. T. ruscuriavus Weinkauff, Conchyl. des Mittelnieeres ii, p. 367, 
1868. — T. montagid Wood, Wejnk., Journ. Conchyl. 1862, p. 350. 
— T. montaeuti var. Mc Andrew, teste Weinkauff". 

C. DELPFvETEANUM tSulHotti. 

Shell thin, conical, corneous-reddish or blackish-blue; apex 
corneous, smooth, acute ; base a little convex, whorls little convex, 
sulculate, the two last rapidly increasing, the last lightly carinated, 
oblique, descending, the sulcuUe of the base more distinct ; aperture 
subrotund ; columella contorted ; lip simple, acute. Whorls 6, apex 
excepted. Alt. lOj, diara. of base, 8 mill. {Sid.) 

Sts. of Messina, at Pantano Piccolo. 

Trochus pnmilo Arad. and Ben., Conch. Viv. Mar. della Sic, p. 
]63, not of Philippi. — Jujubinus delpreteanus SuL., Bull. Soc. Mai. 
Ital. 1889, p. 28. 

This species has been heretofore confounded with the smaller, 
differently jn'oportioned T. pumilio according to Sulliotti. That 
species (pumilio) is figured on pi. 40, fig. 35. I have included it 
in Gibbula, doubtless in error, as it seems to be a Calliostoma. I have 
not seen specimens. 

Calliostoma of uncertain position, or luifigured. 

ZizYPHiNUS INDISTINCTUS (Wood) Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 85. 
See Cantharidus indistinctus, page 128. This shell I have not seen. 
It has also been figured by Philippi, Conchyl. Cab., pi. 43, fig. 7. 

ZiziPHiNUS NEBULOSus A. Adams. Shell conoidal, imperforate, 
rufous-brown, variegated with white ; whorls nearly plane, orna- 
mented with unequal granose cinguli, the last subangulate, base a 
little convex, ornamented with subgranulose cinguli, articulated 
with brown and white ; aperture subtetragonal ; columella white, 
incurved, subtruncate at base; lip lirate within. (Ad. in P. Z. S. 

1851, p. 168.) 

Raines Island. 

ZiziPHiNus ASPERULATUS A. Adams. Shell conical, imperforate, 
whitish, ornamented with radiating purple spots ; whorls nearly 
flat, carinated in the middle, ornamented with unequal cinguli, the 
superior granulate, inferior nearly plane ; last whorl subangulate, 
base plane, sculptured mth. flat ribs ; umbilical tract depressed, 
covered by a callous; aperture subrotund; columella straight, 
truncate at base; lip lii'ate within. (Ad. in P. Z. S. 1851, p. 168.) 

Habitat unknown. 



CALLIOSTOMA. 401 

The following species of Gould are known to me only by the 
original descriptions reprinted below. 

ZiziPHiNus RUBiDUs Gould. Testa acute conica, solida, nitida, 
aurantiaca, tlamnuilis saturatioribus flexuosis radiantibus variegata ; 
anfr. 7, imbricantibus, sulcis tribus reclivantibus ornatis ; peripheria 
obtusa ; basi planulato, iniperforato, striis concentricis insculpto ; 
apertura subquadrata; columella brevi, porcellana, antice attenuata ; 
fauce argillacea, Isevi. 

Axis 15, diam. 12 mill, {Gld., in Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat Hist, viii, 
p. 18, lcS61). 

Habitat unhioivn. 

Z. INFUSCATUS Gould. Testa parva, conica, albida, maculisfuscis 
subquadratis picta ; anfr. 8, seriebus 7 granulorum ( minoribus ssepe 
additis) quarum suturali et peripherica subquadratis et plerumque 
tessellatis; basi convexo, fills 8 concentricis, radiatum clathratis 
insculpto ; regione umbilicali excavato, imperforate ; apertura sub- 
quadrata, ad columellam angulata; columella postice rotundata, 
antice obsolete dentata ; fauce margaritacea. 

Axis 10, diam. 9 mill. {Gld., loc. cit, p. 19). 

Kagosima Bay. 

May possibly be the young of Z. pyramis; also like Z. millegranus. 
(Gld.) 

Z. ACUTUS Gould. Testa minuta, acute conica, prasina rosaceo et 
albo variegata, striis tenuibus volventibus impressa, interspatiis 
concinne clathratis ; anfr. 8, subconcavis, antice dilatatione interdum 
duplici etiam noduloso munitis ; basi convexiusculo ; regione umbili- 
cali rosaceo, vix perforate ; apertura subquadrata. 

Axis 4, diam. 3 mill. (Gld., loc. cit., p. 19). 

Inhabits Eastern Coral Seas. 

Z. URBANUS Gould. Testa parva, ovato-conica, cinerea, ad suturam 
et ad peripheriam maculis quadratis pailidis et fuscis seriatum articu- 
latis ornata ; liris ordinatis simplicibus ad 6 (interdum nonnullis 
tenuioribus) cincta ; interspatiis exiliter clathratis ; anfr. 7, convexis, 
peripheria obtusa ; basi concavo ; umbilico modico, costa marginato ; 
apertura subcircularis ; columella arcuata, margine erecto. 
Axis 6, diam. 5 mill. (Gld., loc. cit., p. 19). 

Kagosima Bay. 
26 



402 CALLIOSTOMA-EUTROCHUS. 

Subgenus Eutrochus Arthur Adams. 
Eutrochus Ad., Proc. Zool. Soc. Loud. 1863, p. 50G. Type, E. 
perspectivus Ad. 

( Old ivorld species.) 
C. Adamsi Pilsbry. JJnfigured. 

Shell depressed-conical, broadly and profoundly umbilicated, pale 
flesh-color, painted with tawny flammules and sparcely s|)Otted ; 
whorls 7, p'ane, transversely deeply lirate, the lirse unequal, sub- 
distant, angulate at the suture, last whorl granulose around the 
umbilicus ; aperture sulcate inside. 
Alt. 1 inch. diam. IJ inch. {A. Ad.) 

Tasmanin. 

E. perspectivus Ad., P. Z. S. 1863, p. 506 (not, J", per.yjectivus 
Koch, also an Eutrochus). 

The shell is broader than high, rather thin, and of a pale 
yellowish flesh-color, with fulvous blotches and flammules. The 
whorls are transversely ridged and angulate at the sutures, and the 
interior of the umbilicus is white. Mr. Cuming possesses but a 
single specimen from Tasmania. {Ad.) 

I hesitate to change the name of this, the typical species of 
Eutrochus, but it is preoccupied by an undoubtedly congeneric 
species, described years before. See under American speci s of 
Eutrochus. 

C. LESSON.ffiANUM Tapparone-CanefH. PI. 39, flg. 24. 

Shell depressed-conic, umbilicate, yellowish-white painted with 
brown-orange flammules, the apex obtuse, brown. Whorls 7, plano- 
concave, sloping, the lower margin elevated ; ornamented with 
granulated spiral cinguli, with smaller intervening ones ; last whorl 
acutely angulated ; base plane, concentrically granose-lirate ; um- 
bilicus large, funnel-shaped, white, crenulated at the margin. 

Alt. 12 h diam. 18 mill. (Canefri.) 

New Zealand. (Mus. of Turin.) 

Eutrochus lessonaeanus Can., Viaggio intorno al Globo della R. 
fregata ' Magenta, ' p. 59, t. 1, f. 9 (from Mem. della Reale Accad. 
delle Scienze di Torino, ser. II, vol. xxviii), 1874. 

C. sciTULUM A. Adams. Vol. X, pi. 41, flg. 27. 

Shell small, thin, umbilicate, with slender elevated sj)ire and broad 
body-whorl ; color yellowish, obscurely maculate with brown. Whorls 



CALLIOSTOMA-EUTROCHUS. 403 

about 7, convex, the apical one smooth, following 3 or 4 granulate, 
the rest densely spirally striate, with light incremental lines which 
decussate the lirulse, especially beneath. Spire slender, its lateral 
outlines concive, last whorl rounded at periphery or obtusely angled, 
convex beneath. Aperture rounded, outer and basal lips thin, 
forming a half-circle, columella white, deeply arcuate, ending in an 
inconspicuous tubercle at base. Umbilicus deep, funnel-shaped, 
bounded by an angle. Alt. 12, diam. 11 mill. 

S. A udrallan Goads. 

Zizlphliius scitulus A. Ad., P. Z. S. 1854, p. 38. — Reeve, Conch. 
Icon., f 44.— T. .mtu/us Ad. Fischer, Coq. Viv., p. 274, t. 90, f. 3. 

A very distinct little shell, with slender spire, granulose upper 
whorls, and wide, rather depressed body-whorL 

C. EXQUisiTUM Sowerby. PI. 65, fig. 89. 

Shell conical, rather convex, profoundly umbilicated, pale golden- 
brown, multilineate with brown. Whorls G], sloping, slightly 
convex, ornamented all over with numerous brown little-elevated 
cinguli ; suture distinct; last whorl obtusely angulate below ; base 
a little convex, aperture subquadrate ; columella nearly straight, 
slightly oblique. Alt. 4j, diam. 4 mill. (Sowb.) 

Habitat unknotvn. 

Tr. (Ziziphinns) exquisitiis Sowb., P. Z. S. 1888, jx 210, t. 11, f. 
6, 7. 

C. MULTiGRANUM Duukcr. XJiifigured. 

Shell turreted-conic, narrowly umbilicate, light yellow ; whorls 8, 
nearly plane, encircled by numerous unequal granuliferous riblets ; 
sutural cingula elevated, subunduhite, spirally striate, pallidly 
tessellate, base a little convex, covered with about 16 subgranose 
alternately larger and more delicate riblets; umbilicus narrow 
sarronnded by a white plate; columella oblique, terminating in a 
pearly denticle ; aperture subtetragonal. 

Alt. 12, diam. 10 mill. {Dkr.) 

St. Vincent, Australia. 

Zizi'phinas midtigranus Dkr., Mai, Bliitt., xviii, p. 169,- 1871. 

Allied to S. gilvns Phil. 
C. SUBGRANULATUM Dunker. Unfigured. 

Shell wide-conical, apex very acute, profoundly umbilicated, 
whitish, variegated with yellowish; whorls 10, plane, a little prom- 



404 CALLIOSTOMA-EUTROCHUS. 

inent below the sutures, and slightly scalate ; encircled by 9-1 (> 
sul)graniferous unequal ribs ; base little convex, spirally costate, 
the costie subplane ; umbilicus profound, funnel-shaped, encircled 
by two prominent crenulated ribs ; aperture subquadrate. 
Alt. 20, (Ham. 21 mill. (Dkr.) 

Has the habitus of Z. conulus L., and the sculpture of Z. 
armil/atus Wood. 

Bass's Strait, Australia. 

(American species.) 

C. JUJUBINUM Gmelin. PL 40, fig. 16. 

Shell pyramidal-conic, solid, heavy, with a narrowly perforate 
funnel-shaped undjilicus. Color chestnut-brown, purple-brown on 
the upper whorls, marked with narrow, curved, rather widely separated 
longitudinal white streaks, the base minutely dotted with white. 
The sculpture consists of numerous little-elevated sjiiral beaded 
lirulfe, with many spiral strire between them ; the base is flat and 
has coarser concentric subgranulose lirje, becoming finer toward the 
outer margin. Spire elevated, the whorls about 10 in number, con- 
cave above, swollen and projecting at the periphery, the last obtusely 
angled. Aperture quadrate, oblique ; outer lip beveled, strongly 
5 or 6 lirate within ; basal lip straight, very thick, obtuse, crenulate, 
lirate inside ; columella arcuate, ending below in a point or tooth. 
Umbilicus white within. Alt. 33, diam. 26 mill. 

Coast of N. Carolina to Fla., Texas, Yucatan; Entire West Indies. 

Trochus jujubinus Gmel. Syst. Nat. xiii, p. 3570. — Philippi, 
Conchyl. Cab., p. 37, t. 7, f 8, 9, t. 13, f. 5. — Fischer, Coq. Viv., p. 
80, t. 18, f. 2. — Zizyphinus jujubinus Gm., Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 
12. — CalUostoma (Eutrochus) jujubinum Dall, 'Blake' Gasterop., 
Bull. M. C. Z. xviii, p. 369. 

The figure of this species is not very characteristic, being smaller 
than average shells, and the whorls are not prominent enough above 
the sutures. The older authors, including Reeve, supposed the species 
to come from the Indian Ocean and Australian Seas, but Philippi 
and Fischer know it to be a West Indian shell. Many American 
collectors have long known the species to be Antillean. The young 
have a minute smooth, rounded, rather elevated dextral nucleus, and 
bicingulate periphery. 



CALLIOSTOMA-EUTEOCHUS. 405 

Var. PERSPECTIVUM (Koch) Philippi. PI. 66, figs. 35, 36. 

Form straightly conical, broader than J iijnbiuum; whorls flat above, 
not prominent at sutures or concave, the spiral riblets or stria fewer, 
and all beaded. Color light brown, clouded with darker, often 
marked with white on the peri[jhery ; umbilicus with a larger per- 
foration, and bounded by a distinctly beaded rib. 

Alt. 20, diam 17] mill. 

Florida; Georgia; E. Coast Hoiiduras (Simpson). 

Trochus tampaensis Conrad, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philada. iii, p. 
26, t. 2, fig. 35, Feb., 1846. — Trochus perspectivus Koch, Philippi, 
Abbild. u. Beschreib. i (pt. 2), Trochus, 1. 1, f. 5, Feb., 1843.— Phil., 
Conchyl. Cab., p. 108, t. 17, fig. 9. — Calliostoma jujubinum var. 
tampaensis Conr., Dall., Bull. M. C. Z. xviii, p. 369,^ — Eutrochus 
alternaius SowB., P. Z. S. 1873, p. 719, t. 59, f. 5. 

I regret that the name of this variety must be changed from that 
commonly known in American collections, but I have no choice, as 
the Koch-Philippi name clearly has priority, and the identity of 
the species with our tampaensis cannot be doubted. Eutrochus 
alternaius Sowb. {\A. 40, fig. 21), seems to be identical. Sowerby's 
remarks on the distribution of Eutrochus are amusing. 

Tyi)ically distinct in the straightly conical form, but said by Dall 
to blend with jujubinum. In the un)bilicus perspectivum resembles 
C. juvanicum. 

Var. Rawsoni Dall. Shell smaller, whorls excavated above, 
umbilicus smaller, pillar thin, and tooth weak or alxsent; color dark 
red or very dark brown and red, with lunate white cloudings ; cone 
of shell more acute, nucleus white, minute, globular. (Dall.) 

This seems to be merely the normal young stage of typical 
jujubintim. 

C. PULCHELLUM Philippi. PL 66, figs. 32. 33. 

Shell conic, perforate, rosy- whitish, painted with blackish-purple 
flames ; whorls plane, prominent at base, margined, sculptured by 
elevated transverse lines ; columella straight, base truncate. (Phil.) 

The form is completely conical ; the 6-7 whorls are nearly even, a 
little concave above, slightly margined below, with about 5 elevated 
transverse lines, between which there are occasional weaker ones. 
The last whorl is pretty sharply angular ; base slightly convex, with 
about 8 concentric elevated lines. Umbilicus narrow, perforating 
only the last w'horl. Aperture nearly rhombic, columella vertical, 



406 CALLIOSTOMA-EUTROCHUS. 

truncate below, color reddish-white, decorated with dark brown-red 
flames and little red dots. Separated from T. jujubiniis by the 
smaller size, lack of granulation, etc. 
Alt. 14, diam. 15 mill. (Philippi.) 

Habitat unknown. 

Tr. pulchellas Phil., Zeitschr. f Mai. 1846, p. 101.— Conchyl. 
Cab., t. 13, f. 3. — Zlzyphinus pnlchellus Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 42. 

I know nothing of the form. It may be a synonym of C. 
jvjub inum. 
C. zoNAMESTUM A. Adams. PL 62, fig. 68. 

Shell conical with straight outlines, the base flat, with a deep, 
funnel-shaped umbilicus; rather solid; light yellowish, with numerous 
narrow, sharply-defined da;k-brown or blat-kish spiral lines. Out- 
lines of spire straight, sutures not at all impressed ; apex minute, 
smooth ; whorls about 9, flat, encircled by numerous equal, finely- 
beaded lir?e, about 9 on penult, whorl, the interstices densely 
costulated by fine incremental strite ; last whorl acutely angled at 
pei-iphery, flat below, and nearly smooth toward the outer edge, finely 
granose-striate on the inner half Aperture rhomboidal, lip thin ; 
columella arcuate above, strongly toothed below ; umbilicus wide, 
bounded by a beaded cord. 

Alt. 24, (Ham. 25 mill, ; alt. 26, diam. 33 mill. 

West Indies ; Tortola (Sivlft) ; St. Kitts {Dull) ; Honduras {Dyson). 

? Trochus javanicus Lam., An. s. Vert, vii, no. 50. — Delessert, 
Rec. de Coq., t. 35, f 2 ?— Philippj, Conchyl. Cab., p. 110, t. 18, I 
5. — Fischer, Coq. Viv., p. 77, t. 17, f 3. — Zlzyphuius javanicus 
Lam., Chenu, INIanuel, f. 2662. — Zizyphinuszonamestus Ad., P. Z. S. 
1851, p. 166. — Reeve, Conch. Icon., f 21. — CaUiostoma zonamestmn 
Rve. Dall, Blake Gasterop. 

Following the suggestion of Dr. Dall, I adopt Adams' name for 
the West Indian shell described as T. javanlcns by Philippi and 
Fischer. There is no doubt of the locality, specimens with un- 
questionably correct data being in the Philadelphia and Washington 
collections. It is quite possible that T. javanicus of I^amarck is a 
distinct species. The figures in Delessert show a more elevated form, 
slightly swollen at the suture-', and more distinctly cingulate there, 
than the shells before me. This opinion has been advanced by 
Tapparone-Canefri (Zool. della Fregata 'Magenta,' p. 60, 1874), 
who says that the figures of Delessert's Recueil, pi. 35, f 2, and of 



CALLIOSTOMA-EUTROCHUS. 407 

Philippi, Conchylien Cabinet, pi. 18, fig. 15 (sic should be fig. 5) 
represent the irne. javanieus, from which zonaviestus is distinguished 
by the dark lines in the inter-liral spaces, crenulated line and decid- 
edly crenulated umbilical rib. Fischer gives the locality 'Java,' 
but his figures exactly represent the West Indian shells. 

The fact seems to have escaped the attention of authors that Arthur 
Adams himself considered his zonamestus a synonym of Javanicus. 
Vide P. Z. 8. 1854, p. 40. The above synonymy is merely tentative. 

C. YUCATECANUM Dall. PI. 48, figs. 1 9, 20. 

Shell belonging to the group of C. palmeri Dall, C. eximium 
Rve., and C. lima of the western coast of America. Shell depressed- 
conic with a rather acute apex and six whorls ; nucleus white, 
delicately sculptured ; remainder of shell whitish with faint streaks 
of brown transverse to the whorls, arranged so as to present the 
appearance of seven brownish streaks radiating from the apex ; other 
dots and streaks of brown irregularly distributed ; upper side of 
whorls with one smooth revolving keel nearly midway between the 
sutures, but a little nearer the peri])hery ; this gives the whorls a 
somewhat tabulated aspect ; above this on the last whorl are four 
smaller more or less beaded or crenulated keels, below it are two 
without nodosities, reaching the gently rounded periphery ; between 
these are intercalary threads or grooves ; base supplied with nine 
rounded revolving ribs, those nearer the umbilicus with a tendency 
to beading; interspaces about as wide as the ribs, which are crossed 
by slight elevations due to lines of growth ; umbilicus perforate, 
bordered by a strong white rib, inner wall smooth or transversely 
striate ; pillar emarginate, twisted, not thickened, ending in a round 
lump al)ove the basal margin of the aperture ; the latter oblique, sub- 
rectangular, nacreous, sharp-edged, crenulated by the ribs. Oper- 
culum as usual in the genus. Alt. 7, diam. 7 mill. {Dall.) 

Yucatan. Strait, 640 fms. ; Off North Carolina, 15-^32 fms. 
C. yvcatecanum Dall, Bull. M. C. Z. ix, p. 47 ; ' Blake ' Gasterop., 
p. 370, t. 24, f 4. 

Most of the northern specimens are less elevated and proportion- 
ately wider than the Blake specimen which has been figured, but 
which seems to have been a little unusual in its elevation. (Dall.) 

C. hayanum Dall. PL 60, figs. 7, 8. 

Shell large, polished, solid, eight-whorled, having a good deal the 
form of the C. tigris of New Zealand ; umbilicated ; straw-yellow 



408 CALLIOSTOMA-EUTROCHUS. 

lineated with red-brown, and having a broad rose-colored peripheral 
band. Walls of umbilicus marked with incremental lines, slightly 
excavated near the carina, above convex, the convexity revolving 
with the whorl ; convexity straw-color, a deep brown band revolving 
just within the carina. Spiral sculpture outside the carina, which is 
not very sharp, consisting of two strong beaded spirals alternating 
with two fine sim|)le brown elevated lines, then nine subequal, finer, 
less coarsely beaded, the upper angle of the aperture being at the ninth; 
ail these straw-color with brown interspaces ; then three fine yellow- 
brown undulated lines, then a larger nodulated peripheral spiral 
wdth a smaller similar one on each side of it, these and their inter- 
spaces of a deep rose-pink ; above the pink band is the largest nod- 
ulated spiral, followed by (on the last whorl) seven or eight somewdiat 
smaller, alternating larger and smaller, the last separated by a 
smooth space from the suture. These are all straws-color with brown 
interspaces anfl an occasional intercalary fine line. Radiating 
sculpture only of faint incremental line.^. Nucleus lost; the earlier 
whorls have three nodulated spirals. Base and whorls a little 
convex, periphery evenly rounded, sutures distinct. Aperture ovate, 
margin simple, columella concavely arched, a slight angle, not to be 
called a tooth, formed by the end of the umbilical carina at the base. 
Interior extremely nacreous. Operculum amber-colored, fibrous 
toward the edges, with twelve or more whorls, a small central eleva- 
tion on the inner side. Alt. 87, diam. 40 mill. (Dall.) 

Off (Jape Hatteras, in 107-120 fms. 

Calliostoma (Eatrochus) smjanum Dall, " Blake " Gasteropoda, p. 
370, t. 38, f. 10-11. 

Animal with stout rounded muzzle, short stout tentacles, large 
black eyes, a very large anterior epipodial lobe, two lateral cirri, 
and two or three small ones from under the operculum. The foot is 
bluntly rounded before and behind. The color of the external soft 
part is uniform straw-color. 

This is altogether the finest American species, and cannot be con- 
founded with any other now known. (Dall.) 

C. BENEDiCTi Dall. PL 49, fig. 44. 

Shell depressed, with an acute apex and slightly concave outline, 
umbilicated, polished ; strawcoloi-ed, lineated with red-brown and 
pale pink; base convex, slightly flattened, periphery rounded; 
nucleus minute, apparently dextral ; whorls seven or more; um- 



CAl,LIOSTOMA-EUTROCHUS. 409 

bilicus deep and narrow, with flexuous walls excavated near the 
carina, which is marginated with an opaque white band ; spiral 
sculpture beginning at the umbilicus ; outside the carina, which is 
simple, two strong broad subnodulous spirals separated by a deep 
line, then fourteen or more equal smooth Hattish spirals with narrower 
interspaces and obsolete spiral striulte here and there; then a smooth 
or slightly striate peripheral space ; all the preceding straw-color. 
Above the periphery two pink and one straw-colored large smooth 
and rounded spirals, one smaller smooth one, then three large and 
two intercalary smaller nodulous spirals separated from the suture 
by a narrow smooth space. The interspaces are brown, the elevations 
straw-coloi'. The early whorls have two or three smooth and one 
or two nodulous spirals, the former remain constant with growth, 
the latter increase in number. Radiating sculpture of flexuous in- 
cremental lines, hardly visible. Aperture rounded, squarish, col- 
umella white, thin, concave, a small notch at its biise. Operculum 
yellow, multispiral, translucent, polished. Ty2)e specimen not full 
grown. Alt. 14, diam. 18 mill. {Dull.) 

Off Cape Lookout, North Carolina, in 200 fnis. 

Calllostoma {Eatrochus) benedidi Dall, " Blake " Gasteropoda, p. 
371, t. 32,f 7. 

This is a very handsome species, recalling the var. [)syc!ie of 
Calliostoma bairdii, from which it is easily distinguished by its um- 
bilicus and sculpture. (Dall.) 

C. ciNrTELLUM Dall. PI. 49, figs. 31, 32. 

Shell small, thin, pearly white with faint touches of pale brown, 
seven-whorled, with a globular inverted minute nucleus and rather 
convex base; spiral sculpture of two prominent sjnrals, one pe- 
ripheral, simple, sharp, vhh occasional touches of brown ; against 
this the suture is laid in the earlier whorls, while in the last whorl 
it descends below it; the other spiral is above the periphery, and is 
stronger and ornamented with (on the last whorl) about forty sharp 
projecting thorn-like tubercles, each inclined a little forward, and 
alternating brown and white. Between tins and the periphery the 
space is excavated. Above these there are about four (on the 
earlier whorls one or two) small raised spiral lines separated by 
much wider interspaces, nodulated with small but prominent nodules 
at the intersections with the radiating sculptui'e; all the sculpture 
growing fainter, and intercalary fine lines appearing, toward the 



410 



CALLIOSTOMA-EUTROCHUS. 



aperture on the last whorl. Base with two strong nodulous spirals 
separated by a deep interspace, the inner one forming the umbilical 
margin ; outside of these U)-20 fine flattened spiral threads, wiih 
about equal interspaces, reaching to the periphery and hardly 
ruffled by the incremental lines. Radiating sculpture much like 
that of C. tiara, of numerous, on the earlier whorls strong, slightly 
elevated oblique threads, extending clear across the whorls and 
reticulating the spirals; these radii gruw fainter and finally on the 
last whorl nearly disappear; on the base there are only faint 
flexuous incremental lines. Umbilicus narrow, its walls flexuous, 
yellow. Aperture squarish, the pillar little concave, not toothed, 
margin thin and simple. Upper surface of whorls excei)t the 
sculpture flattened; suture distinct, not channelled. Operculum 
horny, multispiral. Alt, 9-5 ; diam. 8 mill. (Dall.) 

Off Havana, in 174 fms. 

Calliostoma (Eutrochns) cincteMuni Dall, " Blake " Gasteropoda, 
p. 372, t. 32, f 1,4. 

Soft ])arts whitish, foot short, pointed behind, muzzle rounded, 
gill simple, anus prolonged into a long free papilla, eyes large; 
tentacles long and stout, without frontal lobes ; epipodium with a 
large anterior lobe, and four cirri all anterior to the operculum and 
about of equal size. Jaws separate, squarish, composed of small 
horny obliquely set rods, whose lozenge-shaped end-sections reticu- 
late the surface under the microscope. 

The dentition is peculiar. The rachidian and (on each side) five 
laterals have broad simple bases with a j)ear-shaped outline ; the 
cusps, which might be compared to the stem of the pear bent over, 
are extremely narrow and long and symmetrically serrate on each 
side with 4-6 serrations. The major uncinus is stout and has a 
large four-toothed ovate cusp ; there are about twenty more slender 
uncini with scythe-like cusps serrate on the outer edge ; outside of 
these are two or three of a flat form, like a section of a palm-leaf 
fan from handle to margin with four riblets, and the distal edge 
with three or more indentations. Under pressure these uncini have 
a tendency to split up lengthwise, beginning at the indentations. 
They are flat and smooth, thinner towards the distal end, and have 
no distinct shaft. 

This interesting species looks at the first glance as if the ex- 
cavated space between the peripheral cinguli was fasciolar, like 
that of Eucasta, but a more careful inspection shows that there is 



CALLIOSTOMA-EUTROCHUS. 411 

no sign of a notch or sulcus in the lines of growth. The dentition 
forms a combination so far not recorded among the Trochidie, but 
which will perhaps seem less singular when more species have been 
examined. The radula is quite minute and difficult to examine ; 
when only the cusps of the central and lateral teeth were in the 
field of the microscope, they were so slender and elongated as to 
suggest little tails, and the symmetrical notching gave them almost 
a jointed appearance. The shell is very pretty, and recalls Basilissa 
in its general appearance. {Dall.) 

(Section Bentistyla Dall, 1889.) 

C. ASPERRIMUM Dall. 

Shell conical, yellowish white, turreted, higher than wide; whorls 
five to seven, the last forming half the height of the shell ; base 
rounded, umbilicus small, partly covered by the reflexed lip, trans- 
versely striate, Avith one longitudinal thread close to the bounding 
nodulated strong carinal rib ; upper whorls with two strong longitu- 
dinal ribs, the lower of which forms the carina of the last whorl ; 
near the beginning of the latter a single less conspicuous thread is 
intercalated between these two ; the carina is above the middle of the 
last whorl, and between it and the bounding rib of the umbilicus are 
four strong simple revolving threads, not nodulated, between which 
near the mouth, intercalary, Aveaker threads begin to appear. Sut- 
ure distinct, compact not channelled, except by projection of the 
ribs above and below it which give the shell a turreted appearance. 
Lip thin or slightly thickened, denticulated on the edge by the rib 
ends ; pillar little thickened, its base apparently toothed by the ends 
of the umbilical threads (these denticulations are probably missing 
in the perfect adult) ; mouth slightly oblique, not produced below ; 
transverse sculpture consisting of threads following the lines of 
growth, rising into lamellre between the ribs, and in passing over 
them (except the basal ones) forming squarish projections, cutting 
the ribs obliquely. Nucleus smooth, polished, the remainder dull 
white, with no visible nacre. {Dall.) Alt. 7^, diam. 6 n)ill. 

Off Martinique and Barbados, 100-220 fms. 

Var. dextiff:kum Dall. PI. 60, figs. 10, 11, 

Sculpture more strongly and exclusively nodulous ; a strong blunt 
tooth on the columella just within the aperture and above the base. 
Outer lip lirate within. Alt. Ts, diani. 6 mill. {Dall.) 

Off Barbados. 



41 2 CALLIOSTOMA-EUTROCHUS. 

Margarita asperrima Dall, Bull. M. C. Z. ix, p. 40, 1881. — 
CaUlostoma (Dentistyla) asperrimum Dall, ' Blake ' Gasterop., p. 
373, and var. dentlferum, t. 23, f. 7, 8. 

C. SERiciFiLUM Dall. PI. 60, figs. 19, 20. 

Shell delicately but sharply reticulate all over ; two peripheral 
spirals minutely spinose at the intersections ; coluraellar tooth present 
but not strong. Shell thinner and more nacreous than the typical 
form, and with the radiating and sj^iral sculpture not differing so 
much in strength. Alt. 4'5 ; diam. 4*1 mill. (Dall.) 

Off Grenada, in 92 fms. 

CaUlostoma (Dentistyla) sericifilam Dall, ' Blake ' Gasteropoda, p. 
373, t. 24, f. 1, la. 

These species are somewhat puzzling. With the external sculpture 
and umbilicus of a rather conical Solariella, we find in adult speci- 
mens a well-marked blunt tooth on the columella, and the aperture 
opposite furnished with raised lirte. In other specimens these are 
not visible, but then it is impossible to say that they are completely 
adult. The sculpture runs the usual gamut of evenly reticulate ; 
nodose reticulate, the intersections marked by little imbrications 
while most of the net- work is obsolete ; and, finally, of uneven 
reticulation where the cords one way are much stronger than those 
by which they are intersected. None of the specimens contained the 
soft parts, so their relations must for the present remain problematical. 
The group is hardly Thalotia, being umbilicate ; it is certainly not 
a Euchelus or Craspedotus. Perhaps the most reasonable conclusion, 
in the absence of more information, is that this section bears to 
Thalotia about such a relation as Eutrochus bears to Calliostoma. 
The tooth is on the pillar, not at its anterior end. (Dall.) 

C. STRiGOSTTS (Gm.) Philippi. PI. 57, figs. 46, 47. 

Philippi has figured under this name, a conical little species like 
CaUlostoma exasperatum in form and color, but narrowly umbilicated. 
Whorls 6-7. Alt. 9, diam. 8 mill. 

Coasts of Morocco and Portugal. 

T. sfrlgosHs Gmel., Syst. Nat. xiii, p. 3573, teste Philippi, 
Conchyl. Cab., p. 61, t. 13, f 4. 

C. ^RUGiNosuM Philippi. PI. 67, figs. 81, 82. 

The exactly conical, pretty thin shell consists of 7 completely fiat 
whorls, which are beset on the acute basal carina with spines ; 



CALLIOSTOMA-PUTZEYSIA. 413 

the last is acutely angular, the base level, curving into the um- 
bilicus. The sculpture both above and below consists of 7 scarcely 
•elevated spirals, a little narrower than their interstices ; the latter 
are prettily crispate with lines of growth. The aperture is nearly 
-circular, angled on the lower outer part, peristome continuous. The 
base is usually unicolored green ; the umbilicus white, perforating. 
Alt. 8, diam. 8 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 

T. (eruglnosus Phil., Zeitschr. f Mai., 1849, p. 146; (.Jonchyl. 
€ab., p. 314, t. 45, f 1. 

Subgenus Putzeysia Sulliotti. 

Patzeysia Sul., Bull. Soc. Mai. Ital. 1889, p. 30. Type, Tr. 
•clathratus Arad. 

I do not know the systematic position of this group. Sulliotti says 
that Tr. gemmulatus does not belong to the same subgenus as Tr. 
clathratus, but. I am inclined to believe that it does. 

P. CLATHRATA Aradas. 

Shell orbiculate-conoid, imperforate, solid, whorls convex, j)lanu- 
late at the sutures and subcanaliculate, clathrate with longitudinal 
and transverse elevated equidi.-^tant lines, forming slight tubercles at 
their intersections; aperture suborbicular, lip sul)thickened. 

Alt. oh, diam. 3 mill. 

Straits of Messina. 

T. clathratus Arads., Atti. Ace. Gioenia 1847, p. 78. — Montero- 
SATO, Bull. Soc. Mai. Ital. 1880, p. 252. — T. gemmulatus Monts., 
olim. — Putzeysia clathrata Arads., Sulliotti, Bull. Soc. Mai. Ital. 
1889, p. 30. 

A fossil species, lately dredged at the above locality. I have 
translated Sulliotti's diagnosis. 

P. wisERi Calacara. PL 57, fig. 43. 

Shell small, subconic, the 6-7 whorls more or less convex, latticed 
by transverse cinguli (6 on penultimate whorl), and longitudinal 
elevated, oblique lines ; aperture suborbicular ; lip sulcate within. 

Alt. 5, diam. 4 mill. 

Off the Gulf of Bona, Algiers, 1456 fms. ; Bay of Biscay. 

Tr. wiseri Calc, Giornale Maurolico, Anno 2 ; Cenno Moll. viv. e 
foss. Sic, Palermo, 1841, p. 31, t. iv, f. 14. — Monterosato, Bull. 
Soc. Mai. Ital. vi, p. 251, 1880.— Jeffreys, Ann. Mag. N. II. x, 



414 PUTZEYSIA-TURCICA. 

1882, p. 31. — Tr. getnimdatus Philippi, Enum. Moll. Sicil. ii, p. 
226, t. 28, f. 5, 1844. 

Marquis de Monterosato, to wliom we are indebted for much care- 
ful work on Mediterranean shells, has given the synonymy of this 
species, which was originally described as a fossil. The above de- 
cription is a translation of Philippi's diagnosis of T. gemmulatus, and 
the figure is copied from his illustration of the same. 

I am not sure of the generic position of the species. 

Sul)geiuis TuRcrcA A. Adams, 1854. 

Turcica A. Ad., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1854, p. 37. Type, T. 
vionilifera Ad. — Piychostylis Gabb., Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. iii, p. 
187, 18(i5, type, P. c.nffea. — Perrima H. & A. Ad., Genera, p. 419,, 
1858, type, P. anguhfera Ad. 

It will be seen that here as in many groups I have departed 
from the arrangement of genera given in the first part of this 
monograph. Turcica I now regard as a subgenus under Calliostoma 
(as Fischer has already classed it), and until the dentition is known 
I see no reason for placing it elsewhere. Perrinia may be retained 
in a sectional sense for those species which are not distinctly toothed 
on the columella, and have the mouth Urate inside. The genus 
ranges on both shores of the Pacific, from California and Australia 
northward. No deep sea forms have yet been discovered. 

T. MONiLiFERA A. Adanis. PI. 57, fig. 27. 

Shell conoidal, snbdiaphanous, thin, imperforate, tawn}^ golden- 
shining ; whorls a little convex, sculptured with spiral beaded 
cinguli, their interstices obliquely striate ; sutures canaliculate : 
base convex, with granose cinguli, some granules marked with brown; 
aperture suborbicular ; columella spiral above, produced into a tooth 
below ; margin of the lip acute. Urate inside. (Ad.) 

Moreton Bay, Australia. 

Turcica monilifera Ad., P. Z. S. 1854, j). 37, t. 27, £ 1. 
The name is preoccupied in Calliostoma. 

T. IMPERIALS A. Adams. PL 63, figs. 30, 31. 

Shell conoidal, spire acuminate, base obliquely produced ; solid ; 
tawny-red variegated, ornamented by transverse cinguli articulated 
with chestnut ; whorls somewhat convex, with a strong nodulose 
cingulus at periphery, and beaded lirulte alternating with elevated 
lines, interstices obliquely striate; sutures canaliculate; furnished 



TURCICA. 415 

with a series of granules above; base convex, furnished with con- 
centric granuk)se cinguli. Aperture oblique, subcircuhvr ; columella 
tortuous, terminating in an anterior tooth ; lip subexpanded, with 
entire margin ; inside smooth. (Ad.) 

Tfsusaki, West Coast of Japan, 37 fms. ; Bay of Jesso ; Hakodadi. 

T. imperialis Ad., P. Z. S. 1863, p. 507. — Trochas imperialis Ad., 
LiscHKE, Jap. Meeres Conchyl. iii, p. 67, t. 4, figs. 4-6. — Turcica 
imperialis Ad., Dunker, Ind. Moll. Mar. Jap., p. 141. — Trochus 
adamdaims Schrenck, Moll, des Amurlandes, p. 35(S, t. 16, f. 5 
(1867). 

Moi^e elevated than T. monilifera; base more oblique; aperture 
more produced ; and the golden-nacreous appearance wanting. 

T. CONCINNA A. Adams. Uiifigm-ed. 

Shell small, ovate-conic, imperforate, whitish, solid ; whorls a 
little convex, subimbricating, separated by ])rofoundly canal-formed 
sutures; finely crenulated below the sutures; covered with encir- 
cling lirae, the interstices elegantly clathrate ; base convex ; aper- 
ture oblique, semicircular; columella tortuous, terminating in a 
tooth ; lip sub-thickened, obsoletely sulcate inside. {Ad.) 

Uraga, Japan.. 

T. concinna Ad., P. Z. S. 1863, p. 508. 

T. coREENSis Pease. PI. 63, fig. 26. 

Shell conoidal, rather thin, subdiaphanous, of a light gravish 
fawn-color, cinereous at the base, and sparingly marked with 
oblique stripes and small spots of deep brown. Whorls flattened ; 
body-whorl large, rounded at its periphery, all ornamented with 
transverse rows of close irregular sized granules, which become 
almost obsolete near the base. Apex acute; suture canaliculated ; 
base convex, imperforate ; outer lip sharp. Aperture large, breadth 
and height equal, and pearly within. Columella oblique, with two 
obtuse tubercles on its edge. (Pse.) 

Sea of Corea. 

Turcica coreensis Pse., P. Z. S. 1860, p. 189, t. 51, f. 2. 

This species is closely related to T. monilifera Ad. It differs in 
the aperture being smooth inside, and the whorls flat. The figure 
of T. moniliferas also represents the sutural canal as being con- 
tinued round the body-whorl. In the present species it terminates 
with the suture. The columella is also quite different, descending 
obliquely to the right. (Pse.) 



416 TURCICA. 

T. CAFFEA Gabb. 

Shell conical, thin ; spire elevated ; one nuclear whorl smooth ; 5 
perfect whorls, subangulate at the margin, obliquely flat above ; 
body-whorl very slightly convex at the base ; suture strongly im- 
pressed ; surface marked by revolving tubercular ribs, about 18 on 
the body-whorl, one broad one on the margin, and about 8 or 9 on 
the under side; these ribs are less numerous on the preceding volu- 
tions, only 4 can be counted on the upper side of the penultimate 
whorl ; the tubercles are arranged so as to present an irregular quin- 
cunx ; epidermis a rich coffee-brown, darker between the tubercles 
than on their summits ; aperture obliquely quadrangular, outer lip 
and base acute, internally pearly white, columella bearing two strong 
folds, the lower one of which borders the truncated end and terminates 
in a faint tubercular enlargement ; behind the columella is a slight 
groove running from the base to the end of the upper columellar 
fold. Alt. 13, diom. 14mill. (Gabb.) 

Monterey, 20 fms. ; Post pliocene of San Pedro & Sta. Barbara. 

Pfychosti/lis caffea Gabb, Proc. Cal. Acad. Nat. Sci. iii, p. 187, 
1865. 

Fossil specimens an inch in alt. have been found. 

Section Perrinia H. and A. Adams. 
T. ANGULiFERA A. Adams. 

Shell elevated-conoidal, imperforate; whoi'ls nearly plane, imbri- 
cated, angulated below, longitudinally nodose-costate, ornamented 
with transverse girdles of subdistant tubercles, interstices channelled ; 
last whorl subangulate ; columella straight, short, terminating in a 
small tooth ; lip subdu plicate, sulcate inside. (Ad.) 

Puerto Galero, Id. of Mindoro, 6 fms. 

Monodonta anguUfera Ad., P. Z. S. 1851, p. 176. 

T. LiROSTOMA A. Adams. 

Shell elevated-conical, imperforate, whitish ; whorls plane, with 
three strong granulate cinguli, interstices deeply clathrate ; suture 
canaliculate ; last whorl angulated ; columella tuberculate ; lip 
strongly Urate within. {Ad.) 

Lord Hood's Island, 8-10 fms. 

Monodonta lirostoma Ad., P. Z. S. 1851, p. 177. 



TURCICA. ^ 417 

T. ELisA Gould. PI. 67, figs. 67, 68, 69, 74. 

Shell thick, solid, acutely conical, the spire elevated with straight 
lateral outlines, the base convex, imperforate ; color whitish-ashen. 
Surface dull ; apex minute, its tip subimmei-sed, apical whorl smooth, 
the rest of the Avhorls (7 to 8 in all) traversed spirally by three 
strong cords, the central one narrowest, all closely beaded by the 
decussation of close, regular, elevated lamellae of increment, which 
sharply sculpture the interstices. Two lamellae arise from each bead 
of the superior spiral cord. The sutures are very deeply, narrowly 
channelled. The last whorl is angled at the periphery, and bears 7 
concentric lir?e on the base, the inner ones smaller ; the whole closely 
sharply sculptured by radiating lamellae. Aperture very oblique, 
subquadrate with about 9 sharp entering lirpe ; outer lip beveled, 
columella short, subvertical, cylindrical, with three or four small, 
transverse, rather acute folds on the lower half. 

Alt. 19, diam. 13 mill. 

Singapore ; China. 

Trochas elisus Gould, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H. iii, p. 92, 1849 ; U. 
S. Expl. Exped. Moll, p. 178, atlas, fig. 216. 

The specimen described and figured by Gould was evidently a 
young shell. The species is known by the three spirals of the spire 
whorls and the several small folds of the columella. 

T. MAcuLATA Brazier. PL 67, fig. 78. 

This species is similar to T. elisa Gld., but has four revolving 
cinguli on each whorl of the spire instead o? three, and different col- 
umellar edge. 

Shell conical, with elevated spire, its outlines straight. There 
are about 8 whorls, each one encircled by 4 spirals, the upper and 
lower ones more prominent ; these are closely, regularly set with 
compressed granules, caused by the decussation of elevated regular 
lamellse of increment, which cut the inter-liral spaces into little pits. 
The sutures are deeply, narrowly channelled ; the base is convex, 
with 7 or 8 concentric line, interstices clathrate. The aperture has 
about 11 elevated lines within ; outer lip beveled, its acute margin 
crenulated, columella short, subvertical, with traces of two obtuse, 
nearly obsolete, blunt tubercles in the middle. The color is whitish, 
sparsely spotted with brown, especially on periphery and base. 

Alt. 14, diam. 11 mill. 

C'rtjije York, N. Australia, 11 fms. ; Off Katow, N. Guinea, 8 fras. \. 
Warrior Reef and Darnley Id., Torres Straits, 8-30 fms. 
27 



418 TURCICA. 

Thalotia maculata Brazier, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales ii, p. 
44, 1877. 

Described and figured from specimens received from Mr. Brazier. 

T. STELLATA A. Adams. PI. 67, fig. 77. 

Shell elongated-conic, slender, strong, white, imperforate. Whorls 
of the spire strongly, acutely carinated above each suture, and 
bearing numerous short triangular spinous tubercles there. Above 
this carina each whorl has 3 spirals ; the upper is low, wide, bluntly 
tubercled, the two median are narrow equal lirse; the interstices are 
lamellose-striate. The base has 4 coarse concentric ribs, the outer 
one largest, interstices clathrate. Whorls 6, the last carinated at 
periphery. Aperture rounded-rectangular, angular at the position 
of the peripheral carina, with sulci inside corresponding with the 
ribs of outer surface. Columella short, vertical, straight, and in the 
young specimen before me, not dentate, but according to Adams 
terminating in a tooth. Alt. 9, diam. 7 mill. 

China Seas. 

Turcica stellata Ad., P. Z. S. 1863, p. 508. 

I have described and figured a shell which I believe to be the 
young of stellata. It is allied to the following species. Both may 
be found to belong in the typical section of Turcica rather than in 
Perrinia. 

T. CHiNENSis Sowerby, Jr. PI. 34, figs. 24, 25. 

Shell trochiform, white ; spire elevated, acute ; whorls 9, separated 
Toy canaliculate sutures, the first 2-3 smooth, the rest coucavely 
sloping, obscurely obliquely striate, above concavely depressed with 
a corona of numerous plicae, beneath margined by a rounded 
corrugated spiral carina, beneath the carina profoundly canaliculate 
and pitted ; base convex, sculptured with 6 rather close, roughly 
transversely plicated ribs, the interstices pitted; aperture subrotund, 
throat pearly, lirate ; columella nearly straight, pearly, obscurely 
unituberculate. Alt. 20, diam. 19 mill. (Sowb.) 

Hong Kong. 

Turcica eJiinensis Sowb., P. Z. S. 1888, p. 569, t. 28, f. 8, 9. 

Compared with Turcica elisce A. Ad., the body-whorl is larger in 
proportion to the spire, the keel more prominent and the suture more 
deeply excavated. The whorls have two rounded nodulous keels, 
the space between which is smooth excepting for the fine oblique 



TURCICA-BA8ILISSA. 419 

strife. The base is strongly corded and deeply pitted. Of the only 
two specimens known one is in the National Collection at South 
Kensington, and the other is in that of Mr. MacAndrew. {So%vb.) 

Genus BASILISSA Watson, 1879. 

Basilissa Watson, Jour. Linn. Soc. Lond., xiv, p. 593, April, 
1879. Challenger Kept., Gasterop., p. 96. — Dall, ' Blake ' Gas- 
teropoda, p. 383. 

Dr. Ball's diagnosis is as follows : Shell trochiform, umbilicate, 
nacreous, sculptured. Pillar concave, its distal end projecting as a 
strong tooth. Margin of the aperture concavely sinuate near the 
suture and on the base. Peripheral margin produced, claw-like, 
between the two shallow sinuations. A grooved or denticulate 
callous in the adult on the body-whorl and within the margin of 
the aperture. Aperture subrhomboidal. Operculum multispiral, 
horny, with a circular callous on the inner central face, and a sub- 
circular outline. 

The above amended diagnosis is rendered necessary by the dis- 
covery of adult specimens among the Blake shells. It is probable 
that most of the species in an adult condition conform to it. It 
is conchologically related to Seguenzia, a transition form which is 
indicated by such species as S. carinata, S. elegans, and S. trispinosa. 
But the soft parts are as yet unknown. Should it be found how- 
ever that some species do not exhibit the denticulation, etc., de- 
scribed in B. costuktta, and conform to the edentulous type indicated 
in Watson's original description (and B. alta may prove to be of 
this character), these would of course retain the original name of 
Basilissa, while for the dentate forms the name of Ancistrobasis 
might be used. (Dall.) 

Section Basilissa s. s. 
B. ALTA Watson. PI. 36, fig. 5. 

Shell an equilateral cone, flat-based, sharply angulated, small, 
thin, delicately sculptured, nacreous under a thin, white calcareous 
surface. Sculpture : there are longitudinals about 45, hair-like, 
strongly sinuated, flexuous, for they advance markedly at the 
periphery, where they are each ornamented by an elongated curved 
tubercle, and on the base they again retreat so as to form a sinus. 
On the earlier whorls these longitudinals are much more distinct 
than on the later, and each starts from a little bead, which lies 



420 BASILISSA. 

close to the suture, but these beads are very feeble on the last 
whorl. In the intervals of the longitudinals and parallel to ihem 
are very faint lines of growth. Of spirals there are above the 
carina two stronger than the rest, with a sharp intermediate 
furrow ; above these are several hair-like lines, which become 
feebler toward the middle of the whorl and strong again above, the 
vipper whorls presenting one in particular, which connects the row 
of infra-sutural beads. On the base below the carina are four 
narrow and sharp spirals, followed by about eight, which are 
broader and flattened, and within these is one stronger than the 
rest, with about sixteen rounded beads, which crenulate the edge of 
the umbilicus. The furrows between these basal spirals are cut 
into little oblong pits by the longitudinals. Color a dead creamy 
wnite, with the underlying nacre gleaming through. Spire high 
and conical. Apex flattened, with the minute, smooth, Ir em- 
bryouic whorl somewhat tumidly projecting. Whorls 8^., of slow 
and regular increase. In the earlier whorls there is a slight- 
tumidity below the suture, a slight contraction in the middle, and a 
slio"ht swelling around the base of each whorl. This last feature is 
feebly persistent in the later whorls, but otherwise these are flat in 
profile. There is a sharp carinated angle, and the base is almost 
flat, with an angled tubercled umbilical edge. Suture linear, almost 
invisible. Mouth perpendicular, somewhat rectangular, and broader 
than high. Outer lip sharp and thin, not patulous, not descending, 
with a rather deep but broad and open sinus at the suture, forming 
a slightly acute angle at the periphery, where it advances very 
markedly, retreating immediately to form a sinus on the base, 
where it is barely arched. Pillar-lip which is somewhat thickened, 
advances very little at its junction with the body, then retreats 
slio-htlv so as to form a small sinus, bending at the same time a 
very little over the umbilicus. It has a sort of double point with 
a slight nick between them. It is very slightly reverted, and the 
umbilical groove behind it is very small. Umbilicus funnel-shai)ed, 
oblique-edged, crenate on the margin, and strongly scored Avithin, 
and with an oblique spiral formed by the old points of the false 
pillar-end. Alt. -25, diam. -24 inch. ( Watson.) 

Of Culebra, W. Lid., 390 fms. ; near Guadelouj^e, 769 fms. ; 
near Grenada, 416 fms. 

B. alta Watson, Journ, Linn. Soc. Lond. xiv, p. 597 ; Challenger 
Gasterop., p. 100, t. 7, f. 8, var. oxytoma, I. c, f. 8a. — Dall, Blake 



BASILISSA. 421 

Gasterop., p. 384. — Seguenzia delicatula Dall, Bull. M. C. Z. ix, p. 
48, 1881. — B. alta var. delicatuln Dall, 'Blake' Gasterop., p. 384, 
t. 22, f. 2. 

Var. OXYTOMA Watson. PL 36, fig. 4. More distinctly sculpt- 
ured. 

Var. DELICATULA Dall. PI. 48, figs. 3, 4. More delicate and 
thin than the type, but otherwise much like it, except that the 
delicate spiral threads cover the whole surface of the shell. {Dall.) 

B. LAMPRA Watson. PI. 36, figs. 10, 11. 

Shell thin, white opalescent, smooth, faintly reticulated, with a 
high concave spire, sharp apex, acute carina, angulated umbilicus, 
and rhomboidal mouth. Sculpture : smooth, glossy, iridescent, with 
ten to twenty faint spiral threads on the upper side of the body- 
whorl ; the last of these which joins the lip is much stronger than 
the others ; a little remote and below is a thread forming the keel, 
below which, and nearer, are two other strong threads ; round the 
umbilicus are also two strong threads ; the intermediate space on the 
base is marked with eight to ten impressed spiral striae. The inter- 
stices of the spirals are crossed by longitudinals, which are regular, 
fine, hair-like but distinct and well parted ; their curve on the 
surface below the suture shows the old sinus. On the base they are 
radiating and are crowded and irregular, except around the 
umbilicus where in the first two or three striae they are very sharp 
and distinct. On the upper whorls both the spirals and longitudinals 
are finer, but sharper than they are on the last. Color grayish, 
horny, translucent, opalescent white. Spire raised, with a concave 
outline. Apex, which consists of the single minute embryonic 
wdiorl, is slightly exserted and sharp ; it is quite smooth, but the 
spirals and longitudinals begin sharply immediately below it. 
Whorls 65 ; the earlier ones are of slow and regular increase, 
depressed, quite flat on their side lines ; the last widens rapidly, is 
slightly rounded above, and still more slightly concave on the base, 
with an acute, but still rounded keel. Suture impressed on the 
body-whorl, but on the upper whorls sharply, though slightly, mar- 
ginated below. Mouth a little oblique, rhomboida', the basal and 
palatal lines being nearly parallel, while the outer and inner lips 
diverge downwards. Outer lip thin, not patulous, not descending, 
advancing at its insertion, and then retreating so as to form a shallow, 
broad, open sinus a little below the suture, acutely but roundedly 



422 



BA8ILI88A. 



angulate at the periphery, nearly flat on the base, with a very slight 
nick at the point of the pillar, where it joins the inner lip at a 
slightly obtuse angle. The pillar-lip is straight. It is very little 
thickened, and is slightly porcelaneous. It advances a little on 
the edge of the umbilicus ; below this it is hollowed out by a reced- 
ing curve, but advances again into a slight rounded projection just 
above its junction with the oater lip. In its whole direction it 
inclines slightly to the left. Umbilicus oblique-edged, funnel-shaped, 
being wide in the mouth and deep, with straight converging sides. 
It is slightly marked with lines of growth and a few faint spirals ; 
while all the rest of the shell without and within is brightly opales- 
cent, it is scarcely so at all. 

Alt. -3, diam. -48 inch. (Watso)i.) 

The specimen from which this species is described is full grown, 
and the animal is still within the shell, but the operculum is absent. 

The species has a slight general resemblance to Trochus (Solarlella) 
aureonitens A. Ad., but is utterly different, not only in its angula- 
tion, but in its sculpture. In form it slightly recalls Zonites cellarius, 
Miill. ( Watson.) 

Mid-Pacific, East of Japan, 2050 fms. 

B. lampra Wats., Journ. Linn. Soc. Lond. xiv, p. 593 ; Challenger 

Gasterop., p. 97, t. 7, f. 5. 

B. SIMPLEX Watson. PI. 36, fig. 1. 

Shell a rather narrow flat-based cone, sharply angulated, small, 
thin, delicate, smooth, glassy, nacreous under a thin white calcareous 
surface. Sculpture : there are longitudinals, which are faint, hair- 
like and sinuated, showing the old lines of growth. Of spirals, faint, 
rounded, and irregular, the whole surface has traces. At the bottom of 
each whorl is a flat puckered band about O'Ol inch broad, whose 
upper edge projects sharply, especially on the upper whorls, and 
whose lower edge is a slight narrow flange, which forms a sharp 
carina at the periphery. This band forms the upper border of the 
suture, which is further marginated below by two not continuous 
rounded threads occupying the top e<1ge of each whorl. The base 
is covered by about fourteen rounded ridges and furrows, which are 
rather stronger toward the center, the last one, forming the edge of 
the umbilicus, being specially so. Color: the surface is a dead 
slightly creamy white, formed by a thin calcareous layer through 
which the underlying nacre shines. Spire high and conical. Apex 



BA8ILISSA. 423 

broken. Whorls 8 (reckoning the first two as broken), of slow and 
regular increase till the last, which enlarges rapidly ; perfectly flat, 
with an upper and lower border, sharply angulated and carinated at 
the periphery, slightly convex but still very flat on the base, with a 
blunted angulated and carinated umbilical edge. Suture linear, 
almost invisible, niarginated above and below. Mouth perpendic- 
ular, rhomboidal, with the body-pillar and basal edges nearly 
equal, and the pillar and outer lip nearly parallel. Outer lip sharp 
and thin, not patulous, not descending, advancing at its junction 
with the body-whorl, then retreating so as to form the broad open 
sinus, acute angled at the periphery, slightly arched across the base? 
nicked close to the point of the pillar. Pillar-lip arched, strengthened 
by a thin pad ; reverted on the umbilicus so as to leave a slight 
groove behind it, it has a slight tooth in front. From the body- 
whoi-l it bends very much over to the left, so as largely to cover the 
umbilicus, and then it curves over to the right to join the outer lip 
on the base at an obtuse angle. Umbilicus small, oblique edged, 
funnel-shaped, nearly covered by the pillar-lip, contracted within, 
scored with hair-like lines of growth. 

Alt. •255, diam. "25, least breadth '2, penultimate whorl, •075. 
Mouth, height "12, breadth, -11 inch. ( Watson.) 

This is a narrower shell than BasUissa alia Wats., less orna- 
mented and with a smaller umbilicus. Than Basillssa munda 
Wats., this is a narrower shell, the flexuous longitudinals are 
stronger, the supra-sutural bands are stronger, and in that species 
the infra-sutural band is wanting. ( Watson.) 

Off Mouth of La Plata, 1900 fms. 

B. simplex Wats., J. L. S. L. xiv, p. 595 ; Challenger Rep., p. 
98, t. 7, f. 6. 

B. MUNDA Watson. PI. 36, fig. 2. 

Shell broadly conical, flat on the base, sharply angulated, small, 
thin, delicate, smooth, glossy, nacreous under a thin white calcareous 
surface. Sculpture : there are longitudinals which are very faint 
but still sharp, sinuated, showing the old lines of growth. Of spirals 
there are over the whole surface very faint traces. At the bottom 
of each whorl, about O'Ol inches above the suture, is a sharp narrow 
thread, wdiich on the last whorl is bordered below by a second, 
rather higher and sharper, which forms the carina, and which on the 
spire is buried by the over-lap of the succeeding whorl. On the base 



424 BASILISSA. 

there are about eleven fine spirals, within which is a strong furrow, 
and a projecting, crenulated, or rope-like thread forming tlie edge 
of the umbilicus. Color opalescent, from the under-lying nacre 
shining through the polished, thin, translucent calcareous layer of the 
surface. Spire high and conical. Apex flattened, with a minute 
smooth embryonic 1 5 whorl slightly projecting. Whorls 6, of regular 
and slow increase (but the specimen is not full grown) ; in profile 
perfectly flat, the slope being scarcely broken by the supra-sutural 
thread. Suture linear, almost invisible. Mouth perpendicular, 
irregularly rectangular, broader than high. Outer lip sharp and 
thin, with a slight open sinus, sharply angled at the periphery, 
slightly arched across the base, ap])arently nicked at the point of the 
pillar. Pillar-lip arched, strengthened by a thin pad, reverted on 
the umbilicus so as to leave a groove behind, with a slight tooth in 
front. From the body it bends very much over to the left, so as 
laro-ely to cover the umbilicus, it then advances straight and is toothed 
in front. Umbilicus small oblique-edged, with a crenulated margin. 

Heii^dit '13 in., breadth '14, least "12 ; Penultimate whorl, "03. 
INIouth, height '06, breadth -05 inch. ( Watson.) 

Than Basilissa simplex Wats., this is a broader, smoother, less 
banded shell. Than Basilissa alta Wats., it is lower, less ornamented, 
with a much smaller umbilicus. ( Wats.) 

Off Falma, Canaries, 1125 fms. 

B. munda Wats. J. L. Soc. Lond. xiv, p. 596 ; Challenger Rept., 
p. 99, t. 7, f. 7. 

B. suPERBA Watson. PI. 36, figs. 6, 7. 

Shell high, concavely conical, flat-based, sharply angulated, thin, 
finely reticulated, cream-colored. Nacre very faint. Sculpture : 
gpii-als — there are about twenty delicate threads, very nearly but 
not quite regular in thickness or distance, on the upper part of the 
last whorl ; they slowly decrease in number on the previous whorls. 
The two (or three) which form the carina are thrown out a little on 
a pr()je(;ting whitish fillet, which encircles the base of the whorls. 
This whitish fillet extends to the base, when it forms a narrow 
obliquely-corrugated edging. On the base there are about thirty 
spirals, more crowded, flattened, and irregular than above, and the 
edo-e of the umbilicus is defined by another whitish fillet, orna- 
mented with about thirty oblong beads. One or two smaller and 
more faintly beaded threads lie within the edge of the umbilicus. 



BASILISSA. 425 

Lougitudinals — there are of these on the last whorl about 120; 
flexuous, marking the lines of growth, rather stronger, more regular 
and more distant than the spirals, which run over the top of them 
and form little white nodes at the crossinsrs. The intersections of 
these two systems cut the whole surface into rhombic reticulations, 
whose breadth is about 0-011 and their height 0-006. The longi- 
tudinal threads themselves are about 0-005 and the spirals about 
O'OOo broad. On the base the longitudinals are flattened and 
spread out into undulations. Color creamy, on a dull polished 
surface, with a faint nacreous gleam which is pearly within the 
mouth ; the apex is ruddy. Spire high and conical with slightly 
concave slopes ; apex broken. On the upper whorls the longi- 
tudinals are strong, while the spirals are obsolete, except the carinal 
fillet, which projects bluntly above the suture. Whorls about 14, 
of very regular increase, very slightly convex, sharply acute-angled 
at the carina; on the base, flat at the outer edge and barely convex 
in the middle, with a slight dip in toward the edge of the umbilicus 
which is strongly defined. Suture linear, defined by the white 
carinal fillet, and also on the lower whorls by being very slightly im- 
pressed. Mouth perpendicular, rhomboidal, the basal and palatal 
lines being parallel, the other two are somewhat diverging and curved, 
broader than high. Outer lip sharp and thin, not patulous, not 
descending, with a shallow open sinus below the suture, then, about' 
the middle of the whorl, it advances with a rounded sweep, retreat- 
ing sharply across the carina to form the open rounded basal sinus 
toward the outer edge of the base. Pillar-lip sharp and thin ; it 
rises from the body a good way within the edge of the umbilicus. It 
retreats so as to form a sinus, and then it bends over a little on the 
umbilicus, and it forms a sharp angle projecting into a tooth at the 
extreme point of the pillar. Umbilicus strong, deep, abrupt, there 
being on the base only a very slight dip in toward it and it is defined 
by the white-beaded fillet. Within, besides the two spiral lines, there 
are slight longitudinal striations, and the inner edge of the whorls 
twines like a stair case round it, but concealed by the overcurve of 
the pillar-lip. Alt. -75 in. diam. '65, least -6 inch. (Watson.) 

The form of this shell connects it with B. alta, B. simplex, and 
B. munda, and it distinctly has the sinuses of the genus : the layer 
of nacre is very faint ; there is, however, a gleam of it through the 
surface-layer, and within the mouth, in a favorable light and pro- 
tected from light coming through the shell, there is a distinct 



426 BASILISSA. 

pearly luster. It has some resemblance to Eutrochus gemynatuSf. 
Reeve, in form and in its gemmed umbilicus; and though much 
higher and more conical, recalls the Solaria of the group Torinia 
(Gray), especially Solarium trochoides Desh. ( Wats.) 

E. of Cape York, Australia, 1400 fras.. 
B. superba Watson, Jour. Linn. Soc. Lond., xiv, p. 598 ; Chal- 
lenger Report, Gasterop., p. 101, t. 7, f. 10. 

B. oxYTROPis AVatson. PI. 36, figs. 8, 9. 

Shell small, high, conical, scalar, with a sharp, expressed carina at 
the periphery and a second carina above, angulating the whorls. 
Sculpture : there a-re a few close-set slight spirals on the edge of the 
flat base ; there are many not close-set, flexuous, longitudinal ribs 
above the periphery, but on the base merely lines of growth. These 
ribs in crossing the upper carina form small sharp-pointed tubercles,, 
of which there is also a trace on the lower carina. The superior sinus 
lies just above the upper carina, the basal sinus toward the middle of 
the base ; both are well marked. The apex is small and flat, the 
smooth embryonic 1\ whorl hardly rising at all. The whorls are of 
slow increase. The pillar is perpendicular, with a strong rounded 
sinus, which corresponds to a swelling within the umbilicus. The 
umbilicus is not large, but deep, funnel-shaped, with a puckered 
•sharp edge. In both specimens there are 5? whorls to a height of 
'05 and a breadth of "OS-S inch. 

This species, which is not full grown, slightly resembles B. alta and 
var. oxytoma Wats., but is more depressed ; the carina is sharper and 
is double, and the longitudinal ribs are very much stronger. Than 
B. costalata Wats., this species is smaller, highei, mure conical, and 
it is scalar ; the whorls are more carinated above, and the peripheral 
carina is much more projecting ; the apex is minuter and sharper, 
though the embryonic whorl is less raised, the base is smooth but for 
the marginal spirals; the umbilicus is smaller. Compared to B. 
reticulata (Solarium), Phil., it has a less expressed carina, and the 
whorls are not angulated in the middle. ( Watson.) 

B. oxytropis Wats,, Journ. Linn. Soc. Lond. xiv, p. 693 ; Chal- 
lenger Report, Gasterop., p. 104, t. 7, f. 9. 

Section Ancistobasis Dall, 1889. 

B. costulata Watson. PI. 36, fig. 3. 

Shell small, depressedly conoidal, sharply angulated, flattish on 
the base, sharply and deeply umbilicated, a little porcelaneous, 



BASILISSA. 



427 



flexuously ribbed. Sculpture : the whole surface is covered with 
longitudinal flexuous ribs, which are narrow, sharp, and uniform ; 
each of these is about 0*002 in. broad, and they are parted by intervals 
which at the suture are twice and at the periphery thrice as broad 
as the ribs. There are about forty of these on the last whorl. They 
are crossed by spirals, half the breadth of the ribs, running across the 
intercostal spaces and forming knobs on the ribs. Of these spirals 
there are about seventeen on the last whorl, much closer set and 
less uniform than the ribs ; in particular the carinal spiral, which is 
very sharp, and the fourth and seventh above it, are stronger than 
the others ; the last mentioned of these is especially so on the earliest 
whorls. On the base the longitudinals though continued even into 
the umbilicus, become much less prominent and are no longer 
nodose ; and the spirals, of which there are about fifteen, are closer 
set, broader and flatter, except the first three below the carina, which 
are sharp and narrow. The whole base is pit-marked from the spiral 
interstitial furrows being cut up by the longitudinals. Color dead 
white (on the base a little glossy) on the thin porcelaneous surface, 
through which ihe nacreous layer behind gleams. Spire raised, with 
a very slightly concave outline. Apex, which consists of the minute 
smooth embryonic whorl and a half, is itself a little flattened, but 
rises sharply above the sculptured surface of the succeeding whorls. 
Whorls 5?, of slow and regular increase till the last, which begins 
to enlarge rapidly ; they are slightly rounded above, very sharply 
angulated at the keel, and flattened on the base, with a bluntly 
angulated umbilical edge. Suture distinct, slightly impressed. 
Mouth perpendicular, square. Outer lip sharp, thickened by a slight 
internal remote callus, not patulous, not descending, advancing at its 
junction with the body-whorl and then slightly retreating so as to 
form the very shallow open sinus ; right-angled at the periphery, 
flat on the base, w'here it retreats so as to form two rounded sinuses, 
making with the pillar an angle that is scarcely obtuse. Pillar-lip 
is straight, a little thickened and reverted, so as to leave a slight 
groove behind it. It advances on the body-whorl, then retreats so 
as to form a feeble sinus, bending at the same time shortly but 
sharply to the right into the umbilicus and then advancing straight 
forward, but a little toward the left, to its junction with the outer 
lip at the base. Umbilicus funnel-shaped, open-mouthed, oblique- 
edged, straight-sided, deep and contracted internally. Its edge is 
sharply defined by a spiral thread, and is obliquely scored by the 



428 



BASILISSA. 



lougitudinal ribs ; farther in its walls are marked by hair-like lines 
of growth and faint spirals. 

Alt. -12 in., dlam. •14, least -11 ; penultimate whorl, -23. Mouth, 
height -063, breadth "061 inches. (Watson.) 

This species slightly resembles in sculpture the young of Alar- 
gar ita striata, Brod. (=Trochus cinereus. Couth., nee Da Costa), 
but in all details of form and ornamentation is very different. 
From Troehus amabilis Jeffr., besides the generic features, it differs 
in the depressed spire, in the absence of the deep-cut suture, in the 
flatness of the base, and in all the features of minute sculpture. 
From BasiUssa reticulata {So'arium), Phil., it differs in being much 
rounder on the base, blunter at the edge of umbilicus and at the 
carina, and in being much less delicately sculptured. {Watson.) 

Galf of Mexico, 15-640 fms. 

B. codulata Watson, Jour. Linn. Soc. Lond. xiv, p. 600 ; Chal- 
lenger Gasterop., p. 103, t. 7, f. 11.— Dall, Bull. M. C. Z. ix, p. 48, 
1881. — B. (Ancistroba-is) costiUata Wats., var. depi'essa Dall, 
' Blake ' Gasterop., p. 384, t. 23, f 4, 4a. 

Var. DEPRESSA Dall. PL 60, figs. 14, 15. 

The shell figured differs from B. costulata, as described and 
figured by Watson, in the less flexuous radiating cost?e, which are 
nearly equal to the interspaces in width, and in the smaller number 
of spiral ridges, which are about ten on the base and seven to nine 
on the upper surface of the whorls. The armature of the mouth is 
a character which does not appear until full maturity, so that I do 
not regard its non-existence in the Challenger specimens as im- 
portant. The other characters seem to agree closely with Watson's 
figure and description, and, taking into consideration the known 
variability of the abyssal shells and among the Blake specimens of 
this species, I do not feel justified in separating the Blake shells 
specifically from B. costulata. If I am correct in the identification, 
this material enables me to add a good deal to the knowledge of 
the species and genus. The dried remains of the animal in one 
specimen bear a pellucid multispiral operculum a little more cir- 
cular in outline than that of Seguenzia, but otherwise precisely 
like it. 

The aj)erture in the adult is Strongly thickened a little distance 
within its margin, which remains sharp. The projecting peripheral 
part is a little bent in, recalling the aperture of Seguenzia. The 



BASILISSA-EUCHELUS. 429 

callus on the body is thin and smooth, that within the outei' lip is 
broad, thick, iridescent, and deeply grooved i)arallel with the 
external sj)irals, producing four or five ridges between the grooves 
above the carina and a large number of rather smaller ones 
below it. The columella is thickened concave and strongly re- 
flected, its basal extreme terminating in a stout tooth-like twist of 
the margin, beyond which is a deep sulcus in the callus extending 
nearly across the base, in the middle of which rises a solitary stout 
tooth-like ridge. The walls of the umbilicus are nearly smooth, 
and as regards the individual turns are somewhat concave. The 
nucleus in this form gives the impression, after a very close scrutiny 
of several fresh specimens, that it is really laid at right angles to 
the original axis and half immersed in the first post-nuclear turn. 
This is masked by the fact that the nucleus proper occupies less 
than a single turn, and appears thus more normal than it really is, 
if my suspicions are correct. 

Genus EUCHELUS Philippi, 1847. 

Euchelus Phil., Zeitschr. f Mai. 1847, p. 20, type Monodonta tri- 
carinata Lam. — Aradasia Gray, Figures of Molluscous Animals, iv, 
p. 90, 1850, type, E. canaliculatus (^.,=atratus Gm. — Huttonia 
Kirk, Trans. N. Z. Inst, xiv, p. 282, 1882, type, E. bella Hutton.— 
Mo)iodonta and TrocJnis in part, of authors. 

I include as subgenera, Tallorbis Nevill and Danilia Brusina, 
both with considerable hesitation. Of the first I have seen no speci- 
men ; the latter is well-known as far as the shell is concerned ; it has 
a corneous mu^^isjotra^ operculum ; the columella twisted above as in 
typical Turcica or Glancxdus. Its sculpture is like Euchelus or 
Perrinia. The varixed lip is unique in Trochidre. " Fischer includes 
it as a subgenus under Clanculus — a position as likely to be correct 
as that here taken. 

The affinities of Euchelus are not very clear. There is a certain 
resemblance in aperture and columella to Clanculus, and the deflec- 
tion of the whorl at the aperture, rather an unusual character in 
TrochidjB, also favors that genus. There is much likeness to Perrinia, 
too, in sculpture and aperture, but that group certainly belongs to 
Turcica as a section, and seems to be close to Calliostoma. 

The following well-defined natural sections may be recognized : 
Euchelus s. s. Shell turbinate-conic, solid, with thick lip ; spire 
elevated ; operculum with few whorls, like that of Littorina ; colu- 



430 EUCHELUS. 

mella with a tooth near the base, sometimes a notch below it, 
Huttonia Kirk, is synonymous. 

Herpetopoma Pilsbry. Shell turbinate-conic, etc., as in Euchelus ; 
spire elevated ; operculum multispiral as in typical Trochus. Type, 
E. seabriusculus Ad. 

Hybochelus Pilsbry. Shell depressed, with very short spire and 
large body-whorl ; outer lip not thick ; columella simply concave, 
not in the least toothed or notched, somewhat refiexed above ; oper- 
culum unknown. Type, E. eancellatus Krauss. 

The sculpture in Euchelus consists of spiral ribs crossed by ele- 
vated stride, which bead them and cut the interliral furrows into 
pits, or frequently are nearly obsolete in the furrows. The spirals 
increase in number by the interpolation of tiny interstitial riblets, 
which increase in size until they become equal to the primary 
spirals. It follows that a species having equal ribs on the last part of 
the body-whorl, has alternately larger and smaller ones on the 
penultimate whorl, and usually equal ones again on the next 
earlier. Species like Euchelus principalis, with numerous equal 
riblets in the adult, have fewer unequal ones when young. The 
imperforate forms are always (so far as I know) decidedly um- 
bilicate wdien young. The above remarks on the development of 
spirals apply to most forms of Trochids in which each interstitial 
furrow gives rise to a single secondary riblet ; those forms which 
develop numerous spiral stride in each inter-liral space (Clanculus 
plebeius, Chlorostoma maculostr latum, etc.), will always be found to 
be excessively variable in the number of more prominent spirals. 
There are other forms, as Calliostoma lima, in which there are three 
or four orders of spirals; for example, the 1st, 5th, and 9th lirse 
may be largest and equal ; the 3d and 7th smaller, 2d, 4th, 6th, 8th 
still smaller. These species, following a certain mathematical 
method, are somewhat constant. It only remains to note those like 
Perrinia elisa, P. maculata, etc., which have the same number of 
spirals on all the whorls, no interstitial riblets being developed. 
In these the number of spirals is very characteristic. 

Section Euchelus s. s. 
E. QUADRiCARiNATUs Chemnitz. PI. 38, figs. 9-11. 

Shell globose-conic, imperforate, strong, solid, pinkish fawn-colored 
with numerous obliquely descending black stripes, often broken into 
dots. Spire short, conic ; sutures impressed ; whorls 5, rounded, encir- 



EUCIIELUS. 431 

cled by numerous unequal beaded spirals, of which two are more prom- 
inent on the upper, 3 or 4 on the body-whorl. Typically, these more 
prominent ones are elevated into spiral lamellae, but they are often 
not greatly larger than the others. There are generally about 12 
spirals on the penultimate whorl. Body-whorl globose, convex ; 
;aperture rounded, outer and basal lips thick, finely crenulate. finely 
plicate inside ; columella concave, its edge smooth, and bearing a 
small denticle near the base, excavated at the position of the closed 
umbilicus, and rugose. Alt. 28, diam. 23 mill. 

Indian Ocean. 

Trochus quadricarinatus Chemnitz, Conchyl. Cab. xi, p. 167, t. 
196, f. 1892, 1893 (1795). — Monodonta triearinata Lam., An. s. 
Vert, vii, p. 36. — Delessert, Rec. deCoq., t. 36, f. 8. — Trochus tri- 
carinatas Lam., Phil., Conchyl. Cab., p. 171, t. 27, f. 8. — Fischer, 
Coq. Viv., p. 287, t. 93, f. 1. — Trochus oxytropis Phil., Zeitschr. f. 
Mai 1848, t. 39, f. 1. 

The typical form is that represented in fig. 9. Figures 10 and 11 
represent less strongly characterized shells. The latter approach E. 
asper, and may be found to be connected by intermediate forms. 

TV. oxytropis Phil. (pi. 37, figs. 14, 15), seems to be merely a young 
specimen of the typical form. Fully adult quadricarinatus seems to 
be always imperforate, but specimens with a small umbilicus may 
occur. (Vide Fischer, loc. cit.). Young shells have a large, deep 
umbilicus. 

E. ASPER Gmelin. PL 38, figs. 13, 14. 

Shell imperforate in adult specimens, conoidal, thick, dull ashen, 
dotted with brown, rosy, and black ; whorls 5i-6, convex, separated 
by profound sutures, the first eroded, the rest rough, ornamented 
with close, granulose, unequal cinguli, two on the upper, 3 or 4 on 
the last whorl more prominent ; penultimate whorl with 12-15 line ; 
last whorl globose rounded, descending, convex beneath ; aperture 
ovate-rounded, the margins nearly continuous, plicated finely all 
around, columella arcuate, base dentate. Alt. 26, diam. 24 mill. 

Indian Ocean. 

Trochus asper Gmel., Syst. Nat. xiii, p. 3583. — Phil., Conchyl. 
Cab., p. 172, t. 27, f. 11.— Fischer, Coq. Viv., p. 291, t. 94, f. 1.— 
E. proximus A. Ad., P. Z. S. 1854, p. 316. 

Probably the last is a form of this species. Typically, asper is 
more elevated with smaller, more numerous spirals. I have given 



432 EUCHELUS. 

Fischer's diagnosis of the typical asper. A specimen befoi-e me 
marked E. proxivia A. Ad. is evidently synonymous. 

E. ciRCULATUs Anton. PL 87, fig. 16. 

Shell ovate-conoidal, umbilicate, reddish, granulate-cingulate, 
sculptured with 4 large elevated distant cinguli on the penultimate, 
'9 on the last whorl ; aperture semi-orbicular, silvery ; throat with 
elevated lines not attaining the edge of lip ; columella denticulate 
at base. Separated from T. atratus by the color and number of 
cinguli ; from pullaius by the same characters and the elevated lines 
in the throat. Each whorl is very convex, cylindrical ; the upper- 
most spiral is distant from the simple suture ; all of them are strongly 
elevated, beautifully grained by elevated, oblique, fold-like in- 
cremental strise. In most of the interstices there are one or rarely 
two elevated, grained, lines. The color is pale reddish-brown, the 
lirse articulated whitish and red-brown. The outer lip has fur- 
ruws inside, corresponding to the external lirce, and numerous ele- 
vated riblets. Perhaps these rihlets are the concomitant of old 
age, and all speciniens lacking them are still immature. My material 
does not permit me to decide this question. 

Alt. 15, diam. 16 mill. {Phil.) 

Habitat unknown. 

Tr. circuldtus Anton, Zeitschr. f Mai. 1848, p. 103. — Philippi, 
Conchyl. Cab., p. 264, t. 39, £ 4. 

E. iNCisus (Mke.) Philippi.