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Full text of "Manual of conchology; structural and systematic. With illustrations of the species. Second series: Pulmonata"

/BERKELEY\ 

I LIBRARY 

UNIVERSITY OF J 
VCAUFORNIA/ 



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SECOND SERIES: PULMONATA. 



MANUAL 



OP 



CONCHOLOGY; 



STRUCTURAL AND SYSTEMATIC. 



WITH ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE SPECIES. 




GEORGE W, TRYON, JR. 

CONTINUATION BY 

HENRY A. PILSBRY, 

CONSERVATOR OF THE CONCHOLOGICAL SECTION OF THE ACADEMY OF 
NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 



Vol.* XI. 

AMERICAN BULIMULID^e : BULIMtJLUS, NEOPETR^US, 
OXYCHONA, AND SOUTH AMERICAN DRYM^US. 



PHILADELPHIA: 
Published by Conchological Section 

ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES, 
OF PHILADELPHIA. 

1897-8. 



^ 







SCIENCil 
LIBRARY 




CONTENTS. 

Family BULIMULID^K (continued). 

Genus Bulimuhis Leach (continued), ..... 1 
Subgenus Plectostylus Beck, . . . . . 2, 317 
Subgenus Scutalus Albers, . . 12,317 

Subgenus Bulimulus, s. str., 35, 319 

Subgenus Rhinus Albers, ...... 74 

Subgenus Hyperaulax Pilsbry, . . . . .82 

* * * 

Subgenus Protoglyptus Pilsbry, 84 

Subgenus Nsesiotus Albers, ...... 94 

Subgenus Orthotomium Crosse & Fischer, . . 125 

Section Plicolumna Cooper, . . . . .151 

Subgenus Sonorina Pilsbry, . . . ... .155 

Genus Neopetrceus von Martens, 163 

Genus Oxychona Morch, 181 

Genus Drymanu Albers, ....... 182 

Subgenus Zaplagius Pilsbry, 185,320 

Subgenus Drymseus s. str., including Mesembrinus . . 191 

Section Stenostylus Pilsbry, 313 

Explanation of plates, 323 

[NOTE. The North American and Autillean species of Dry- 
imeus, and the subgenus Liostracus, will be included in vol. XII.] 




BULIMULUS. 

Genus BULIMULUS Leach (Continued). 

DIVISION II. Bulimuli with the nepionic whorls sculptured with 
waved, zig-zag or irregular subvertical wrinkles, or with the wrinkles 
dislocated and broken more or less into granules or a netted pattern. 

This group, the second of three defined on p. 127, Volume X of 
this work, is characteristic of tropical and temperate South America, 
but numerously represented in Central America, with species ex- 
tending as far north as Yucatan and Vera Cruz, and also in the 
West Indian Islands, where it is mainly developed in the Carribean 
chain. 

Aside from the above-mentioned features of the antenatal shell, 
there are no definite shell characters special to the group holding 
throughout its several members. The peristome, while generally 
simple, is in some forms expanded or reflexed; and one-colored, 
banded and elaborately spotted species occur. In one rather numer- 
ous group of species the apical sculpture is extremely shallow and 
often hardly perceptible in adult specimens. 

Four subgenera are distinguishable, although only the first of 
them stands conspicuously apart. 

1. Subgenus PLECTOSTYLUS Beck. Shell imperforate, ovate or ob- 

long, somewhat Succinea-shaped ; aperture ovate, large, the 
peristome simple and unexpanded, columella with a long fold 
or concave. Generally conspicuously speckled or streaked. 
Distribution, Chili and Peru, along the Pacific. (Page 2.). 

2. Subgenus SCUTALUS Albers. Shell perforate or umbilicate, ovate- 

conic ; aperture ovate, the peristome either expanded, thick- 
ened, or simple. Columella not distinctly folded, its edge re- 
flexed ; mainly opaque and rather solid shells, with banded, 
streaked or spotted coloration. Distribution, Andean plateau, 
from Argentina to Ecuador. (Page 12.). 

3. Subgenus BULIMULUS Leach. Shell perforate or umbilicate, 

ovate-conic or oblong, the aperture ovate, peristome thin and 
simple, or (rarely) thickened within or slightly expanded. Col- 
umellar lip reflexed. Mainly rather thin shells of corneous tex- 
ture, a minimum amount of lime, and brown or few-banded 
coloring. Distribution, Central America, northern and east- 
ern South America, and the West Indies. (Page 35.). 

4. Subgenus RHINUS Albers. Shell umbilicate, ovate or oblong, 

thin or solid, the peristome narrowly expanded or reflexed, 
1 



BULIMULUS-PLECTOSTYLUS. 



surface bearing spiral series of short bristles. Brown or cor- 
neous shells with unicolored or few-banded coloration. Distri- 
bution, Brazil. (Page . . .). 



Subgenus PLECTOSTYLUS Beck, 1837. 

Plectostylus BECK, Index Molluscorum, p. 58. GRAY, P. Z. S., 
1847, p. 176, type B. peruvianus. Not Plectostylus Conrad, 1842, 
see Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1883, p. 184. 

Iraperforate, ovate or oblong, rather thin Bulimuli with the apex 
small and conic, nepionic whorls minutely wave-striolate or vermic- 
ulate-granose, the lip simple and unexpanded, columella with a long 
fold or concave ; generally much speckled or streaked. Type B. 
peruvianus. 

Almost exclusively a group of the Chilian sea-board, but at least 
one species extends into Peru. The distribution is thus contrasted 
with that of Scutalus, which is mainly confined to the Andean pla- 
teau. 

Plectostylus is allied to Scutalus, but differs in the simpler, more 
Succinea-like form, long aperture and unexpanded, thin outer lip. 
The species may be tabulated as follows. 

Key to species of Plectostylus. 

A. Upper termination of the outer lip produced across the whorl as 
far as the greatest ventral convexity (see pi. 6, f. 90) ; surface 
spirally striated. 

a. Ventricose, the altitude less than double the diameter ; 
boldly marked with "burnt " chestnut ; aperture very 
oblique, coturnix. 

aa. Ventricose, altitude less than double the diameter; whit- 
ish, densely spotted, tesselated, or irregularly variegated, 

broderipii, buschii. 

aaa. Slender, altitude about double the diameter; yellow, 
with oblong spots in girdles, or streaks, 

variegatus, moestai. 

B. Upper termination of outer lip not produced, a profile view show- 
ing the ventral convexity of body-whorl extending conspicu- 
ously beyond it. 



BULIMUtTJS-PLECTOSTYLUS. 3 

b. Coarsely plicate or wrinkled, without spiral striae ; colu- 
mella twisted, and with the parietal wall, purplish, 

peruvianus. 
bb. Longitudinal sculpture fine ; columella white, 

c. Conspicuously granulose throughout; yellowish, 
with narrow, distant brown streaks ; columella 
folded, chilensis. 

cc. Slender, with delicate or subobsolete granula- 
tion ; streaked, but with a defined unicolored 
baso-columellar tract ; alt. about 36 mill., 

reflexus. 

ccc. Smaller than reflexus, with much the same sculp- 
ture and color, ochsenii. 
cccc. Much speckled ; granulose below sutures, 

coquimbensis. 

ccccc. Striped alternate white and corneous, with brown 
longitudinal lines and interrupted basal spirals ; 
smooth, perelegans. 

B. COTURNIX (Sowerby). PL 6, figs. 89, 90, 91, 92. 

Shell imperforate or nearly so, ovate, rather solid. Whitish, with 
spiral series of chestnut-brown blotches, often wedge-shaped, triangu- 
lar, or otherwise peculiar in form, and on the last whorl of adults 
generally more or less coalescent longitudinally. Surface smoothish, 
showing under the lens rather low growth-wrinkles and excessively 
fine, unequal, close spiral striae, rendering it granulose above. Spire 
conic, the apex somewhat obtuse, vermiculate-granose ; sutures 
superficial, the last more rapidly descending and deflexed in front. 
Whorls 5, weakly convex. Aperture very oblique, rather large- 
ovate, white within and more or less distinctly showing the bands; peri- 
stome not expanded, obtuse, the outer lip somewhat thickened with, 
in, strongly arcuate above ; columella concave (straight in the young), 
not folded, dilated and appressed above, leaving a slight umbilical 
chink. Alt. 35, diam. 20 mill., sometimes smaller. 

Chili: Huasco (Cuming, Orb., Paz, Martinez), among rocks. 

Bulinus coturnix SOWB., P. Z. S., 1832, p. 30; Conch. Illustr., f. 
3 (not good). Helix coturnix ORB., Mag. de Zool., 1835, p. 7. 
Bulimus coturnix DESH. in Lam., An. s. Vert., viii, p. 264; and in 
Fer. Hist., p. 93, pi. 150, f. 3, 4. ORB., Voy., p. 266. KEEVE, 
Conch. Icon., pi. 19, f. 115. PFR., Conchyl. Cab., p. 215, pi. 60, f. 



4 BULIMULUS-PLECTOSTYLUS. 

24, 25 (young shell) ; Monogr., ii, p. 150 ; iii, 384 ; iv, 450 ; vi, 90 ; 
viii, 126. HUPE in Gay, Hist, de Chile, viii, p. 102, pi. 1, f. 4, 4a, 
4b. HIDALGO, Viaje al Pacif., p. 115. Buliminus coturnix BECK, 
Index, p. 69. 

A solid, ventricose species, with very oblique aperture and pecu- 
liar coloration. The markings are of a "burnt chestnut" as Reeve 
aptly says. The young shells, which are commoner in collections 
than the adults, are rather thin, but still readily separable from 
young broderipii by the shorter, more obese form and straight colu- 
mella. The periphery is subangular in quite young examples (fig. 
91, 92). Figs. 89 and 90 are drawn from the largest specimen I have 
seen. 

B. BRODERIPII (Sowerby). PL 6, figs. 79, 80, 81, 82, 83. 

Shell imperforate, ovate, thin and rather fragile. Very pale buff 
or white, with numerous spiral girdles of squarish or irregular black- 
brown spots and (typically) rounded dots, this pattern often much 
obscured by the running together of the spots to form vermiculate 
figures or streaks, and the more general dispersion of dots. Surface 
smoothish, superficially wrinkle-striate, cut by spirals into revolving 
series of granules with very delicate spiral striation between them ; 
apex with very delicate waved vertical riblets. Spire conic, the 
apex rather projecting, white ; whorls 5-5 , the earlier 2 convex, 
not variegated, the rest very weakly convex ; last whorl distinctly 
flattened above. 

Aperture quite oblique, ovate, with distinct color-pattern within ; 
outer lip unexpanded, straightened above, columella concave, form- 
ing a long spiral, its edge reflexed in a very thin appressed callus. 



Alt. 45, diam. 28 mill. 
Alt. 46, diam. 26 mill. 
Alt. 33, diam. 21 mill. 



alt. of aperture 30 mill, 
alt. of aperture 27? mill, 
alt. of aperture 20 mill. 



Alt. 24, diam. 13 mill. 

Chili : Copiapo and Cobija (Orb.) ; Huasco (Martinez) ; Paposo 
(Paz) ; Iquiqui, Peru (Cuming). 

Bulinus broderipii SOWB., P. Z. S., 1832, p. 50 ; Conch. Illustr., 
f. 1, 1*, 1**. Bulimus broderipii DESH. in Lam., An. s. Vert., viii, 
p. 263. ORB., Voy., p. 266. REEVE, Conch. Icon., pi. 16, f. 97. 
PFR., Monogr., ii, p. 146 ; Conchyl. Cab., p. 213, pi. 60, f. 20, 21. 
GAY, Hist. Chile Zool., viii, p. 101, Atlas, pi. 2, f. 2. HIDALGO, 
Viaje al Pacif., p. 117. Helix broderipii ORB., Mag. de Zool., 1835, 



BULIMULUS-PLECTOSTYLUS. 5 

p. 7. Succinea broderipii PFR., Symbolse, ii, p. 131. Plectostylus 
broderipii BECK, Index, p. 58. 

It is more ventricose than any allied species except B. coturnix, 
which is more solid, with straighter columella. 

The large, typical form is reported by Cuming from Copiapo ; the 
smaller tessellated form from Iquiqui. Paposo specimens are also 
small. Besides the large, richly variegated shells and the small 
tessellated form figured, there are many of intermediate size before 
me, with only small spots and rather faint, closely scattered dots. 
In some of these, and in small specimens generally, the sculpture is 
not typically developed. Some geographic races of B. broderipii 
will no doubt be recognized eventually. 

B. BUSCHII (Pfeiffer). PL 6, figs. 84, 85. 

Shell imperforate, ovate-acuminate, very minutely granulated, 
pellucid. Tawny-buff, longitudinally painted with irregular streaks 
and flames; spire papillar at the apex; whorls 5, rather flat, the 
last double the length of the spire. Aperture oval-oblong; peri- 
stome simple and acute, the columellar margin somewhat thickened 
and a little reflexed. Alt. 24, diam. 15 mill. (Pfr.~). 

Habitat unknown (coll. v. d. Busch). 

Succinea buschii PFR., Symbolse, ii, p. 56. Bulimus buschii PFR., 
Symb., iii, p. 53 ; Monogr., ii, p. 148 ; Conchyl. Cab., p. 216, pi. 60, 
f. 22, 23. 

This looks like a small streaked B. broderipii. I have not seen 
specimens. 

B. VARIEGATUS (Pfeiffer). PI. 6, figs. 86, 87, 88. 

Shell imperforate, oblong-ovate, rather solid though not thick. 
Straw-yellow, marked with numerous unequal girdles of long chestnut 
spots (or in other words, obliquely streaked with chestnut, the streaks 
cut by numerous unequally spaced girdles of the ground-color) ; 
.sometimes with irregular streaks and dots as in B. broderipii, see 
fig. 88. Surface smooth to the naked eye, but under the lens show- 
ing irregular growth-wrinkles and very close, fine, undulating and 
minutely granose spiral strict, over the whole surface. Spire rather 
long and straightly conic, the apex rather acute, apical whorls with 
most minute, close, waved and anastomosing oblique striae. Whorls 
5 or slightly more, regularly increasing, nearly flat, separated by a 
shallow weakly denticulate suture ; last whorl long. 



6 BULIMULUS-PLECTOSTYLUS. 

Aperture quite oblique, over half the alt. of shell, within white and 
marked like the outside; peristome simple, the upper termination 
of the outer lip extending far over the whorl. Columella concave 
below, nearly straight above, white, its thin edge reflexed and ap- 



Alt. 44, diam. 22 mill. 
Alt. 37, diam. 19 mill. 

Valleys north of Coquimbo, Chili (Bridges). 

Succinea variegata PFR., P. Z. S., 1842, p. 187 ; Symbolse, ii, p. 
56. Bulimus variegatus PFR., Zeitschr. f. Mai., 1844, p. 184; Mon- 
ogr., ii, p. 146; Conchyl. Cab., p. 213, pi. 60, f. 3, 4. HUPE in 
Gay, Hist. Chile, viii, p. 102, pi. 3, f. 1, la. Bulimus rupicolus 
REEVE, Conch. Icon., pi. 16, f. 93 (1848). 

Although rather slender in contour, like B. reflexus, coquimbensis 
and perelegans, the B. variegatus is more allied to B. broderipii and 
coturnix in having the upper termination of the outer lip produced 
as far forward across the whorl as the greatest convexity of the 
ventral surface of the shell. This is not the case with B. coquim- 
bensis and its allies, nor with B. chilensis, which, moreover, is more 
coarsely granulose. 

Aside from these considerations of contour, which are perfectly 
diagnostic, B. variegatus seems intermediate between reflexus and 
broderipii in color-pattern, but is yellower than either. The close 
relationship with B. broderipii is also attested by certain shells which 
depart from the normal pattern and assume much the same vermic- 
ulate blotches and scattered dots of certain forms of broderipii, while 
retaining the yellow ground- color and slenderer form of variegatus. 

B. MOESTAI (Dunker). Unfigured. 

Shell covered subrimate, ovate-conic, rather thin, having delicate 
costulse, granulose throughout; buff, under a corneous, little shining 
cuticle, marked with irregular chestnut streaks. Whorls 6, a little 
convex, separated by a distinct suture ; spire a little convexly 
conic, the apex obtuse ; columella white, nearly straight. Aperture 
oval; peristome simple. Alt. 30, diam. 15 mill.; aperture 14 milL 
long, 8 wide (/)&r.). 

Cerro Bravo, valley of Copiapo, Chili (F. Moesta). 

Bulimus moestai DKR., Malak. Bl., xi, 1864, p. 156. PFR., Mon- 
ogr., vi, p. 90. 



BULIMULUS-PLECTOSTYLUS. 7 

Very like B. ochsenii Dkr., differing in the umbilical chink, dis- 
tinct granules, non-papillose suture, smaller proportionate size of 
the aperture, more obtuse apex, stronger columella and narrower 
aperture. (Z)r.). 

B. PERUVIANUS (Bruguiere). PI. 7, figs. 96, 97, 98, 99. 

Shell imperforate, oblong, rather solid ; white, unicolored, irregu- 
larly stained or clouded, or with several wide purple brown bands 
or longitudinal streaks under a yellow cuticle usually more per- 
sistent in numerous spiral lines ; sculptured with coarse irregular 
longitudinal whitish wrinkles, and usually having many narrow 
spiral bands composed of fine vertical wrinkles or pits, the apical 
whorls with dense and very fine undulating striae. Spire short, 
convex-conic, rather acute; suture irregularly denticulate. Whorls 
5j, at first slowly and then rapidly descending, the latter 2 convex. 

Aperture long, acuminate- ovate, purple- rose and white within 
sometimes dark-maculated ; peristome slightly thickened inside, no' 
expanded ; columella with a conspicuous cord-like, spirally entering 
convex fold above, its margin reflexed and appressed ; parietal ivah 
with a thin rose-purple callus. 

Alt. 45, diam. 22 mill. ; aperture 26 mill. long. 

Alt. 42, diam. 20 mill. ; aperture 22 mill. long. 

Chili: Concepcion, Quillota (King) ; Valparaiso (Orb., Paz and 
Martinez). 

Bulimus peruvianus BRUG., Encycl. Meth., i, p. 320. GRAY, 
Spicil. Zool.,-pl. 5, f. 4. ORB., Voy., p. 267. HOMBRON & JACQ., 
Voy. au Pol Sud, v, p. 30, pi. 8, f. 2. PFR., Monogr., ii, p. 166. 
DESH. in Fer.,Hist., ii, (2), p. 75, pi. 114, f. 1-4. REEVE, Icon., 
pi. 17, f. 101. HIDALGO, Viaje al Pacif., p. 102. HUPE, in Gay, 
Hist. Chile, p. 100, pi. 1, f. 2. Helix (Cochlostyla) peruviana FER., 
Prodr. no. 334. Pleetostylus peruvianus BECK, Index, p. 58. 
FFLD., Verh. Zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, xix, 1869, p. 875. BINNEY, 
Ann. N. Y. Acad., iii, p. 124, pi. 12, f. J (dentition). Bulinus cor- 
rugatus KING, Zool. Journ., v, p. 341. Bulinus gravesii KING, Zool. 
Journ., v, p. 340. SOWB., Conch. Illustr., f. 12, 12*, 12**. 
? Pleetostylus pulicarius BECK, Index, p. 58 (incorrect reference to 
Gray's Sp. Zool.? Referred by Pfr. to Bui. piperitus, in Nomencl. 
Hel. Viv., p. 227). 

Variable to an unusual degree in coloring, contour and sculpture. 
Some specimens have three wide interrupted purplish bands; others 



8 BULIMULUS-PLECTOSTYLUS. 

are longitudinally streaked with the same color, or irregularly 
clouded ; while /many specimens are clear yellowish or light brown, 
usually showing narrow spirals of a darker tint. There is no other 
species very nearly allied to this. 

B. peruvianus is said to be viviparous. The name is unfortunate, 
as the species is not known to occur in Peru. 
B. CHILENSIS (Lesson). PI. 7, figs. 8, 9, 10. 

Shell imperforate, ovate-oblong, thin but rather strong, buff or 
pale chestnut, with narrow longitudinal streaks of brown. Surface 
with dense and fine irregular strice, cut into fine granules throughout. 
Spire short, conic, rather acute; sutures minutely denticulate. 
Whorls 5, slightly convex, the last oblong. 

Aperture about half the total length, acuminate-ovate, white or 
streaked inside ; peristome acute, unexpanded ; columella with a 
weakly convex entering fold above, the columellar margin reflexed 
and appressed ; parietal callus thin and transparent. 

Alt. 42, diam. 21 mill. ; aperture 22 mill. long. 

Alt. 38, diam. 18 mill. ; aperture 20 mill. long. 

Form aldunatea Hupe (pi. 7, figs. 6, 7). Shell with three dis- 
tinct spiral bands of brown. 

Chili, from Concepcion (Cuming, Orb., Gay) ; to Valparaiso 
(Cuming, Orb., Paz, Martinez). 

Bulimus chilensis LESSON, Voy. de la 'Coquille/ Zool., Atlas, 
Moll., pi. 7, f. 3 (1826). Not Bulinus chilensis Sowb., 1833, see 
Vol. X, p. 34. Achatina chiliensis LESSON, Voy. de la ' Coquille,' 
ii, pt. 1, p. 317 (1830). Bulimus chilensis DESH. in Lam., An. s. 
Vert., viii, p. 264. ORB., Voy., p. 267. REEVE, Conch. Icon., pi. 
17, f. 102. OLD., U. S. Expl. Exped. Moll., p. 79, pi. 6, f. 81. 
HUPE in GAY, Hist, de Chile, viii, p. 99, pi. 1, f. la-Id. PFR., 
Monogr., ii, p. 167 ; Hi, 406 ; iv, 466 ; vi, 105 ; viii, 142. HIDALGO, 
Viaje al Pacif., p. 103. Plectostylus chilensis FFLD., Verh. Zool.- 
bot. Ges. Wien, xix, 1869, p. 875. Bulimus (Plectostylus) chilensis 
SEMPER, Reisen im Archipel Phil., Landmoll., iii, p. 153, pi. 15, f. 
6; pi. 17, f. 12 (anatomy). Bulimus granulosus POT. & MICH., 
Galerie, i, p. 142, pi. 13, f 9, 10. Bulinus granulosus BROD., P. Z. 
S., 1832, p. 31. SOWB., Conch. Illustr., f. 7, l*.Bulimulus grani- 
ger BECK, Index, p. 67. Helix (Bulimus') aldunatea HUPE in Gay, 
Hist. Chile, viii, p. 100, pi. 1, f. 6 (as var. of chilensis). Partula 
flavescens KING, Zool. Journ., v. p. 342, (1831). Bulimus flavescens 
PFR., Monogr., ii, p. 75 (copy of orig. descr.). 



BULIMULUS-PLECTOSTYLUS. 9 

In contour B. chilensis is much like B. peruvianus, but it is far 
smoother, finely granulose, with less twisted columella and different 
color-scheme. It is oviparous. 

The locality, " Ilo, Peru," given for this species in d'Orbigny's 
Prodrome and repeated by Pfeiffer, was evidently an error, as he 
does not mention it in the " Voyage," and the place lies far to the 
north of the known range of the species. Partula flavescens King 
was apparently based upon the young of this species. 

B. REFLEXUS (Pfeiffer). PL 6, figs. 93, 94, 95. 

Shell imperforate, thin, fusiform-ovate ; yellowish corneous with 
obliquely longitudinal streaks of white and narrow, spaced chestnut 
streaks, sometimes interrupted into girdle of narrow vertical lines, or 
occasionally accompanied by dots on the white streaks, all dark 
marking abruptly discontinued below, the baso-columellar tract light, 
not streaked. Surface smooth and shining to the eye, but under the 
lens showing a delicate granulation produced by fine growth-wrinkles 
crossed by most minute, irregular and partly obsolete spiral striae; 
the apical whorls sculptured with minute, close, zigzag-waved lon- 
gitudinal strise. Spire long-conic ; whorls 5, very feebly convex, 
the latter half of the last suture descending obliquely to the others. 

Aperture long-ovate, somewhat oblique, marked within ; peristome 
thin and simple ; columella concave below, straightened above, its 
edge reflexed and appressed. 

Alt. 36*, diam. 16 mill.; alt. of aperture 19 mill. 

Alt. 37, diam. 14f mill. ; alt. of aperture 18 mill. 

Pichidanque, near Coquimbo, Chili, on leaves of Puya coarctata 
(Bridges). 

Succinea reflexa PFR., P. Z. S., 1842, p. 187 ; Symbol*, ii, p. 56. 
Bulimus reflexus PFR., Symbolse, iii, p. 56 ; Monogr., ii, 147 ; Con- 
chyl. Cab., p. 215, pi. 60, f. 9, 10. REEVE, Conch. Icon., pi. 85, f. 
628 (1850). GAY, Hist, de Chile, viii, p. 105, pi. 1, f. 3, 3a. 

A delicate form of the B. chilensis group, which Bridges found 
living on the leaves of a Bromeliaceous herb. It differs from chil- 
ensis in the thinner texture, more delicate granulation, slender con- 
tour and the pattern of coloration. In B. chilensis the dark streaks 
when present are not abruptly discontinued at the base, leaving a 
-circum-columellar clear area such as seems invariable in this species. 

B.perelegans is a smoother shell, with more white strigation and 
without the immaculate baso-columellar tract of reflexus. 




10 BULIMULUS-PLECTOSTYLUS. 

B. OCHSENII (Dunker). PI. 8, figs. 28, 29. 

Shell imperforate, ovate-conic, thin, striatulate and under the lens 
very lightly granulate-decussate. Buff, ornamented with narrow 
dark streaks and sometimes chestnut spots. Spire a little convexly 
conic, the apex subacute ; suture very delicately denticulate. Whorls 
5, slightly convex, the last somewhat attenuated below. 

Aperture oblique, acuminate-oval, a little longer than the spire ; 
peristome simple, unexpanded, chestnut edged ; columella white 
above, receding, thread-like. Alt. 25, diam. 12 mill. ; aperture 15 
mill, long, 7 wide. (P/K). 

Province of Valdivia, Chili (W. Ochsenius) ; Santiago de Chile 
(Paz). 

Bulimus ochsenii DUNKER, Malak. Bl., ii, 1855, p. 107. PFR., 
Monogr., iv, p. 449. HIDALGO, Journ. de Conch., 1870, p. 55; 
1875, p. 128, pi. 7, f. 2. Bulimus arbustorum PHIL, in litteris. 

A smaller shell than B. reflexus, but so far as the published de- 
scription and figures go, offering no other distinctive characters 
unless ochsenii proves to have no streakless columellar tract. 

B. COQUIMBENSIS (Broderip). PI. 8, figs. 14, 15, 16, 17. 

Shell iraperforate, ovate or oblong-ovate, rather thin. Whitish, 
closely speckled throughout with chocolate- brown dots and small 
blotches. Surface smoothish, under the lens showing irregular 
growth-wrinkles and very superficial, subobsolete spiral striae, which 
become stronger toward the upper part of the whorls, producing a 
distinct and irregular granulation below the sutures. Spire conic, 
the apical whorls showing a very superficial vermiculate or netted 
pattern. Whorls 5 to 5, weakly convex. 

Aperture somewhat oblique, slightly or much exceeding half the 
shell's length, variegated within ; peristome thin, simple ; columella, 
concave below, with a long, feebly spiral fold above. 

Alt. 40, diam. 19 mill. ; alt. of aperture 21 mill. 

Alt. 38, diam. 20 mill.; alt. of aperture 24 mill. 

Coquimbo, Chili (Cuming, Paz and Martinez). 

Bulinus coquimbensis BROD., P. Z. S., 1832, p. 30. Sows., Conch. 
Illustr., f. 8. Helix coquimbensis ORB., 1835. Plectostylus coquim- 
bensis BECK, Index, p. 58. Bulimus coquimbensis DESH. in Lam.,, 
viii, p. 264; and in Fer., Hist., pi. 139, f. 8-10. POT & MICH., 
Galerie, i, p. 136, pi. 12, f. 15, 16. ORB., Voy., p. 267. PFR., 
Monogr., ii, p. 147 ; Conchyl. Cab., p. 212, pi. 60, f. 1, 2. REEVE, 



BULIMULUS-PLECTOSTYLUS. 11 

C. Icon., pi. 16, f. 95. GAY, Hist, de Chile, viii, p. 103, pi. 2, f. 3. 
HIDALGO, Journ. de Conch., 1870, p. 59 ; Viaje al Pacifico, p. 
116. Succinea coquimbensis PFR., Symbolse,ii, p. 131. 

While some forms of this species resemble B. perelegans in color- 
ing, still coquimbensis is a species of coarser texture, and in the aver- 
age, more speckled coloration ; moreover, it is more granulated 
below the sutures, or shows spiral girdles of longitudinal puckers 
there, while the other species is smooth. The contour varies in wide 
limits, as may be seen by the measurements given above; so that 
while typical examples of coquimbensis and perelegans are readily 
distinguished, there are other specimens hardly separable except by 
attention to the slight sculptural features above noted. 

Var. PERELEGAXS Pilsbry, n. n. PL 8, figs. 18, 19, 20, 21, 22. 

Shell im perforate, oblong-ovate, thin. Corneous, closely striped 
longitudinally with opaque white, and having narrow interrupted 
streaks or longitudinal lines of brown ; showing more or less tendency 
to form narrow interrupted spiral girdles, at least toward the base. 
Surface glossy, with low, irregular and inconspicuous growth- 
wrinkles ; lacking spiral striation and not granulated. Whorls 5, 
but feebly convex, the last somewhat obliquely descending. Apical 
sculpture an excessively faint and superficial minute net-work on a 
glossy surface. 

Aperture decidedly over half the alt. of shell, long-ovate, sub- 
vertical, inside colored like the exterior except that buff replaces 
the white ; outer lip thin and simple ; columella very thin, concave 
below, with a slight fold above, its edge reversed and appressed. 

Alt. 34, diam. 17 mill. 

Alt. 29, diam. 16 mill. 

Near Huasco, Chili (Bridges, Gay). 

Succinea elegans PFR., P. Z. S., 1842, p. 187; Syrnb., ii, p. 56. 
Not Succinea elegans Risso, 1826. Bulimus elegans PFR., Sym- 
bolse, iii, p. 54; Monographia, ii, p. 148; vi, 89; Conchyl. Cab., 
p. 214, pi. 60, f. 7, 8. GAY, Hist, de Chile, viii, p. 104, pi. 3, f. 2. 
REEVE, Conch. Icon., pi. 19, f. 112. 

Not granulated below the sutures as B. coquimbensis is, and 
smaller, more fragile, with less oblique aperture and livelier, less 
dotted coloration ; but still an almost complete series of intermediate 
forms exists among the numerous examples of the two before me, so 
that I hesitate to give this form specific rank. Reeve's figure repre- 



12 BULIMULUS-SCUTALUS. 

sents an obese specimen, while those of Pfeiffer and Gay are more 
normal, but both stout and slender specimens are represented in one 
of the trays before me. 

Subgenus SCUTALUS Albers, 1850. 

Seutalus ALBERS, Die Hel., 1850, p. 160. ALB.-MART., Die Hel. 
1860, p. 217, type B.proteus. 

Ovate-conic, mostly perforate or umbilicate Bulimuli, with the 
nepionic whorls striolate or densely pitted, aperture ovate with the 
lip often expanded or thickened ; columella not distinctly folded, its 
edge dilated and reflexed. Type B.proteus. 

A group of rather solid species, mainly developed upon the Andean 
plateau of Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia, but extending to the south 
as far as north-western Argentina. It is essentially an Andean 
type, the allied section Plectostylus replacing it in Chili and the 
typical Bulimulus and Leptomerus occupying the regions to the east- 
ward and north-east. 

I do not know of any terrestrial snails living at greater altitudes 
than some of the members of this subgenus. B. culmineus, a species of 
the Bolivian and Peruvian Andes in the neighborhood of Lake Titi- 
caca, ascends to 5,000 meters (over 16,500 ft.) above sea level. B. 
anthisanensis, an Ecuador snail, lives at 4,200 meters (14,000 ft.) ; 
and B. caliginosus and a few other forms from the same region, have 
been found at an equal height. 

Seutalus as here understood differs widely in limits from the 
assemblage of species grouped under the same name in Die Heliceen 
and Nomenclator Heliceorum. The recognition of sculptural char- 
acters of the nepionic stage as diagnostic of subgeneric groups, 
necessitates the removal of species with smooth and those with costel- 
late apices, which were formerly included in Seutalus. By this 
elimination, the group becomes restricted geographically to a defi- 
nitely limited though extensive region wherein like physical condi- 
tions prevail. Seutalus in its former limits included species diverse 
in characters of the antenatal shell, distributed over all of western 
and northern South America, Mexico and the southern United 
States, in regions more or less like physically, but widely differ- 
ent in most of their faunal factors. 

Group of B. proteus. 

This is the west Peru type of Seutalus, characterized by the 
more or less strongly granose surface, frequently banded and much 



BULIMULUS-SCUTALUS. 13 

variegated coloration, expanded lip and generally rather large um- 
bilicus. The proteus group is geographically isolated from other 
groups of Scutalus, and differs appreciablyin conchological features. 

B. PROTEUS (Broderip). PI. 1, figs. 1, 2, 4, 5. 

Shell broadly umbilicate or rimate, ovate-conic, rather solid or 
thin ; in color either (a) uniform dirty white or buff; (6) whitish 
with about 6 spiral brown bands, sometimes the four median coales- 
cent into two wide girdles ; (c) yellowish-brown or purple-brown, 
spotted and obliquely streaked with buff or whitish. Surface densely 
granulose by the intersection of close oblique wrinkles by impressed 
spirals ; this sculpture sometimes very strong, sometimes weak ; 
embryonic whorls very minutely densely pitted and vertically grooved. 
Spire conic, the apex obtuse. Whorls 5 J to 6*, slightly convex, the 
last weakly convex above, but full and convexly rounded below and 
basally. 

Aperture hardly oblique, carried forward to the ventral level of 
the body-whorl, white or variegated inside ; peristome well expanded, 
flaring, the margins approaching, connected by a parietal callus ; 
the columellar margin having a deep-seated oblique fold. 

Alt. 52, diam. 32 mill. 

Alt. 33, diam. 19 mill. 

Peru, at Truxillo, St. Jacinta, near Samanco, and Pacosmayo (Cum- 
ing) ; Lima (Paz) ; Pachacamac (Isern) ; Tarma (Jelski) ; Chota 
(Stolzmann) ; Chili (Dr. Ruschenberger !) ; " Campana de Quillota" 
(Couthouy). Under and among stones. 

Bulinus proteus BROD., P. Z. S., 1832, p. 107. SOWB., Conchol. 
Illustr., f. 14, b, c. Bulimus proteus ORB., Voy., p. 307. DESK. 
in Fer., Hist., p. 68, pi. 139, f. 1-3. OLD., U. S. Expl. Exped. 
Moll., p. 78, f. 76. PFR., Monogr., ii, p. 61 ; vi, p. 42. HIDALGO, 
Mol. Viaje al Pacif., p. 109 ; Journ. de Conchyl., 1870, p. 55. 
LUBOMIRSKI, P. Z. S., 1879, p. 724. BALL, Nautilus, vii, p. 26. 
Bulimus sordidus DESH. in Lam., An. s. Vert, viii, p. 267. REEVE, 
Conch. Icon., pi. 17, f. lOOc. Not B. sordidus Less. Not B. proteus 
of writers on Lower Californian mollusks. Not B. proteus ' Guild- 
ing* Swainson, MalacoL, p. 335, a nude name. 

Very similar to the Lower Californian B. montezuma Ball, but 
the body-whorl is more convex and less produced below, the latter 
half-turn of the suture descends less, and the extremely fine pitting 
and wrinkling of the apical whorls is very unlike the straight riblets 
of the Lower Californian species. 



14 BULIMULUS-SCUTALUS. 

B. proteus varies wonderfully in size, degree of coarseness of the 
granulation, and coloring. Specimens intergrading with B. mutabilis 
will probably occur, but in examining extensive series of each, I 
have not found completely intermediate forms. 

B. MUTABILIS (Broderip). PI. 1, figs. 6, 8, 9, 10, 3. 

Shell ovate-turrited, with open umbilicus, moderately solid or 
rather thin ; densely granulated by spiral impressed striae cutting 
close strong and rather irregular growth-wrinkles. Whitish or 
yellowish, with (a) six spiral brown bands, or (&) irregular brown 
oblique streaks, or (c) spotted and streaked with umber brown in 
elegant pattern, and with a light girdle below the periphery. Whorls 
6 to 6, rather convex ; apex obtuse, the earlier whorls densely 
punctate in criss cross pattern, vertically striolate below. 

Aperture about half the length of shell, nearly vertical; outer lip 
thin, flaring ; columella reflexed ; parietal callus slight. 

Alt. 3H, diam. 17 mill. 

Alt. 32, diam. 15 mill. 

Alt. 27, diam. 15 mill. 

Peru, at Truxillo and Santos (Cuming) ; Lima (Paz). Under 
stones. 

Bulinus mutabilis BROD., P. Z. S., 1832, p. 108. Sows., Conch. 
111., f. 15*. Bulimus mutabilis PFR., Conchyl. Cab., p. 257, pi. 70, f. 
1-4; Monogr., ii, p. 62. HIDALGO, Journ. de Conchyl., 1870, p. 
47._ B. sordidus KEEVE (not Lesson), pi. 17, f. lOOb (and lOOa?). 

Very closely allied to B. proteus, but it is smaller, more slender, 
with longer and slimmer spire, and the aperture is smaller in pro- 
portion. Reeve unites the two ; and it is not unlikely that mutabilis 
should take subspecific rather than specific rank. 

B. PROTEIFORMIS Dohrn. 

Shell profoundly rimate, ovate-conic, solid, irregularly striated, 
white. Spire conic. Whorls 5 to 6, rather flat, the last more or 
less inflated, compressed around the umbilicus, ascending in front. 
Aperture vertical, acuminate-ovate, brown, unicolored or white- 
banded inside; peristome broadly expanded, acute, the margins 
joined by a callus, columellar margin wide, flat. (Dohrn). 

Alt. 54, diam. 23 ; alt. of aperture 30, width 20 mill. 

Alt. 50, diam. 25 ; alt. of aperture 30, width 21 mill. 

Alt. 48, diam. 22 ; alt. of aperture 27, width 15 mill. 



BULIMULUS-SCUTALUS. 15 

Alt. 42, diam. 21 ; alt. of aperture 23, width 15 mill. 

Peru 

Bulimidw proteiformis DOHRN, Malak. B1 M x, 1863, p. 154. 
PFR., Monogr., vi, p. 42. SEMPER, Reisen im Phil. Archip., Land- 
moll., p. 152, pi. 15, f. 7 ; pi. 17, f. 5. 

The measurements of other specimens vary between the dimen- 
sions given above, scarcely two being of the same size. There is great 
similarity with B. proteus, the differences consisting in the thick, 
chalky shell, the dark brown aperture, the inconspicuous sculpture, 
granulation being confined to the last whorl. The upper whorls are 
always eroded smooth so that sometimes the brown color of the inte- 
rior shows through. 

The above details are from Dohrn. I have not seen the species, 
and it has not been figured. 

B. CORAFORMIS Pilsbry, n. sp. PI. 30, figs. 10, 11, 12, 13. 

Shell deeply urabilicated with a long tangential lunate rimation, 
ovate-pyramidal, solid, dull whitish. Surface lusterless, with close, 
irregular growth-wrinkles cut into oblong granules by spiral incised 
striae. Spire turrited, the apex obtuse, nepionic If whorls densely 
pitted (fig. 10) ; whorls 7, moderately convex, the latter third of the 
last slowly but decidedly ascending, umbilical region broadly exca- 
vated behind the columellar lip. 

Aperture ovate, vertical, its plane level with the ventral convex- 
ity of last whorl, purplish- brown inside but white in the throat ; 
peri-stome broadly expanded, bell-shaped, purple-brown, fading to 
whitish at the edge: the extremities approaching and connected by 
a short, white parietal callus; columella purple-brown, arcuate, 
very broadly built forward and expanded, white-edged. 

Alt. 37*, diam. 25 mill.; alt. of aperture 20 mill; greatest width 
14 mill. 

Peru, on the Maranon (U. S. Nat. Mus.) 

The granulation is visible to the naked eye, although minute, and 
is developed on all of the post-nepionic whorls, but faint on the first 
one. 

The species has much in common with B. cora d'Orbigny, but 
the umbilical excavation is far wider, the central perforation much 
broader, the lip margins more approaching, and the earlier whorls 
of the spire not keeled. In B. cora and the other Neopetrceus spe- 
cies of similar form, the earlier post-nepionic whorls are acutely 



16 BULIMULUS-SCUTALUS. 

keeled, the keel filling the suture. The granulation is decidedly 
finer than in B. proteus, but the apical sculpture is the same as in 
that species. In B. proteiformis the aperture is larger in proportion 
to the shell, the form is much more slender and the sculpture dif- 
ferent. B. rhodolarynx Reeve has the aperture much more rounded 
and the umbilical excavation smaller. 

This shell is from the country of the similarly shaped Neopetrceus 
species, but it differs totally from them in the sculpture of the api- 
cal whorls, which is like that of B. proteus. 

The type is No. 104877, U. S. National Museum (Lea collection). 

B. VERSICOLOR (Broderip). PL 1, figs. 7, 11, 12, 13, 14. 

Shell ovate-turrited, umbilicate, rather thin. Whitish marked 
with brown in various patterns : (a) five-banded, the bands much 
interrupted and spotted, a narrow one below suture, a very broad 
band extending nearly to periphery, followed by a narrow girdle 
between two white bands, below which is a wider basal band and an 
umbilical crescent; (&) irregular longitudinal stripes, continuous or 
anastomosing, without light spiral bands, and often coarsely mottled 
with opaque white. Surface apparently smooth, but under the lens 
seen to be decussated and weakly granose. 

Aperture about half the length of shell, as vividly colored as the 
outside; peristome well expanded, the parietal callus thin. 

Alt. 25-27, diam. 14 mill. 

Peru, Mongon, near Casma, found on bushes (Cuming) ; Truxillo 
(Jelski) ; Lima, among rocks (Paz and Martinez) ; Santos (Beechey). 

Bulinus versicolor BROD., P. Z. S., 1832, p. 108. SOWB., Conch. 
Illustr., f. 16, 16*. Bulimus versicolor DESH. in An. s. Vert., viii, p. 
268 ; in Fer., Hist., p. 70, pi. 139, f. 13, 14, 17-19. REEVE, Conch. 
Icon., pi. 19, f. 113. PFR. in Conchyl. Cab., p. 258, pi. 70, f. 5, 6 ; 
Monogr., ii, p. 61. HIDALGO, Viaje al Pacif., Mol., p. 110. LUBO- 
MIRSKI, P. Z. S., 1879, p. 724. Helix versicolor ORB. not Born. 
Bulinus mutabilis SOWB., Conch. Illustr., f. 15; Zool. Beechey's 
Voy., p. 145, pi. 38, f. 20. Bulimus larians Sowb., KUSTER, Con- 
chyl. Cab., p. 41, pi. 13, f. 3, 4. 

Much like B. mutabilis in form, but smoother, and not having the 
same color patterns. 

Var. CALLAOENSIS Pilsbry, n. v. PI. 1, fig. 15. 

Solid and heavy, obliquely streaked and with transverse mottling 
of gray on a whitish ground. Alt. 32 to 33, diam. 16 to 17 mill. 

Callao, Peru. 




BULIMULUS-SCUTALUS: 1 



Somewhat intermediate between mutabilis and verticolor, but the 
granulation is weak, almost obsolete as in the latter, and the shell is 
more solid than either. 

B. AQUILUS (Reeve). PI. 5, figs. 72, 73. 

Shell umbilicated, ovate-conic, solid, regularly decussated with 
longitudinal and spiral lines. White, with irregularly scattered 
brown spots. Spire conic, rather acute, whorls 5, somewhat convex, 
the last a little longer than the spire, somewhat compressed around 
the narrow umbilicus ; columella white, stibplicate above. Aperture 
little oblique, oblong-oval ; peristome simple, the right margin nar- 
rowly expanded, columellar margin dilated and reflexed. Alt. 27, 
diam. 14 mill. ; aperture, 15 mill, long, 7 wide inside. (Pfr.}. 

Tacna, Peru (Cuming). 

Bulimus aquilus REEVE, Conch. Icon., pi. 22, f. 138 (1848). 
PFR., Monogr., iii, p. 338. 

"Approaching somewhat in character to B.versicolor" (Rve.). It 
may prove to be a Lissoacme of the group of B. erythrostoma. 

Group of B. tupacii. 

Species of the Andean plateau in Peru, and the adjacent, physi- 
cally similar portion of Bolivia. The shells are larger, more solid, 
and with rougher sculpture than in the group of B. culmineus. 

B. REVINCTUS (Hupe). PL 3, figs. 34 to 40. 

Shell narrowly umbilicate, ovate obese, moderately solid, luster- 
less; buff- white, with numerous brown spiral bands and usually a 
few oblique streaks (or sometimes lacking spiral bands). Surface 
rather closely, irregularly wrinkle-striate and obsoletely granulated 
by decussating spirals in places ; the apical whorls with fine, close, 
wavy, vertical strice, beautifully regular and clear cut. Spire short, 
the apex obtuse, suture impressed and irregularly crenulated. 
Whorls 5 to 5?, moderately convex, the last fat-oval. 

Aperture large, broad-ovate; outer lip blunt, unexpanded, colu- 
mella concave, the margin broadly dilated above. 

Alt. 29, diam. 19 mill. 

Alt. 27, diam. 17 mill. 

Bolivia: Cavari, Prov. Cochabamba, not far southeast from In- 
quisivi (Orb.); Peru: Tarma (Isern) ; Huancabelica ; from Tarma 
to Cuzco (Angrand) ; varieties at Huando and Sicaya (Angrand). 
2 



18 BULIMULUS-SCUTALUS. 

Bulimus thamnoicus var. C, ORBIGNY, Voy., p. 291, pi. 37, f. 8. 
Bulinus thamnoicus var. SOWB., C. Illustr., pi. 139, f. 72. Bulimus 
revinctus HOPE, in Castelnau Exped., p. 39, pi. 7, f. 2 (1857). PFR. 
Malak. Bl., 1859, p. 46. HIDALGO, Journ. de ConchyL, 1870, p. 58 ; 
Viaje al Pacif., p, 112, pi. 5, f. 6. MORELET, Ser Conch., iii, p. 174, 
pi. 8, f. 1. PFR., Monogr., vi, p. 123. 

The sculpture of the embryonic whorls is conspicuously different 
from that of thamnoicus. For the rest I cannot do better than to 
give Morelet's remarks on this species. He says : " The separation 
(of B. revinctus from B. thamnoicus) seems to us, after examining a 
great many shells, a legitimate one. The form of revinctus is more 
swollen, its spire shorter, the umbilicus generally more closed ; finally 
the shell is thinner, less rudely striated, less distinctly granulated, 
the peristome little thickened. Generally the coloration is a yellow- 
ish-white or greenish-yellow, with wide and sometimes confluent 
purple-brown zones, the aperture likewise banded in the interior. 

" We refer to the same species a variety collected at Huando, which 
differs perceptibly from the type at least in its secondary characters. 
This shell is a little less ventricose, of a very pale yellow with brown- 
ish or corneous longitudinal striae, sometimes crossed by transverse 
linear bands ; the aperture is white within or visibly roseate, the 
margins of the peristome are thin, and the umbilicus very narrow. 
We note also a small variety of a light fawn color with wide black- 
ish bands, from Sicaya. 

" B. revinctus inhabits the cold region of Peru, above the upper 
limit of the temperate region. It occurs throughout the extent of 
the Peruvian plateau, from Tarma to Cuzco, in rocky places, on 
garden walls, etc." 

B. GAYI (Pfeiffer). Unfigured. 

Shell partly covered umbilicate, conic-ovate, rather solid; brown 
variously ornamented with narrow white bands. Spire conic, obtuse. 
Whorls 5, moderately convex, the last a little longer than the spire, 
rounded at base. Columella lightly arcuate, aperture little oblique, 
truncate-oval, whitish inside ; peristome simple, the right margin 
unexpanded, columellar margin much dilated, nearly closing the 
narrow umbilicus. Alt. 27, diam. 16; aperture 15 mill long, 9 
wide. (P/r.). 

Bolivia (Mus. Cuming). 

Bulimus gayi PFR., P. Z. S., 1856, p. 389 ; Monographia, iv, p. 
467. Con/. MORELET, Ser. Conch., iii, p. 176. 



BULIMULUS-SCUTALUS. 19 

Probably a rather slender specimen of B. revinctus, as Morelet 
Las surmised. Pfeiffer's diagnosis gives no satisfactory differential 
characters, though he says it differs from both B. badius Sow. and 
the small variety of B. thamnoicus in the umbilicus, sculpture and 
obtuse apex. 

B. TUPACII (d'Orbigny). PL 3, figs. 27, 28, 29, 30, 31. 

Shell narrowly umbilicate, oblong- conic, rather solid ; yellow or 
yellowish-white with five bands and an umbilical patch of purple- 
brown, the three median bands wide ; (or uniform dark brown). 
Surface irregularly wrinkle-striated and rather obsoletely decussated ; 
the embryonic whorls densely punctate or punctate-wrinkled. Spire 
long. Whorls 7, moderately convex, separated by impressed, crenu- 
lated sutures, bordered below by a white line. 

Aperture rather small, less than half the shell's length, banded or 
white inside ; peristome slightly thickened within ; columella with a 
slightly convex, deeply entering fold, the columellar margin broadly 
expanded. 

Alt. 41, diam 20 mill, (specimen). 

Alt. 75, diam. 35 mill. (Orbigny). 

Bolivian Andes at Yanacache and CVwpe(nearChulumani) Prov. 
La Paz, and on the northeastern slope of the Cordillera in the south- 
eastern part of the same province, on dry garden walls, etc., activating 
in the ground (Orbigny). Tucuman, Prov. Tucuman, Argentine 
Republic (Borelli). 

Helix tupacii D'ORB., Mag. de Zool., 1835, p. 16. Bulimus tupacii 
D'ORB., Voy, dans 1'Amer. Merid., p. 292, pi. 38, f. 1-5. REEVE, 
Conch. Icon., pi. xv, f. 86b (not 86a, 86c). DOERING, Bol. Ac. 
Cordova, ii. pp. 338, 339 (varieties; anatomy). PAKAVICINI, Boll. 
Mus. Zool. ed Anat. Comp. Univ. Torino, ix, No. 181, p. 7, 1894. 
? Bulimis tupacii SOWB., Conch. Illustr., f. 77. 

The specimens before me correspond to fig. 31 of pi. 3. Those of 
d'Orbigny were larger. Dr. Borelli found small specimens at Tucu- 
man, a locality far to the south of those given in the Voy. Amer. 
Merid. Some specimens before me are labelled Lima and Cuzco. 

The spire is proportionally longer in this species than in B. tham- 
noicus. 

B. THAMNOICUS (d'Orbigny). PL 2, figs. 20, 21 ; pi. 30, fig. 9. 

Shell oblong-conic, moderately solid, umbilicate ; purplish-brown, 
with whitish and yellow irregular streaks and lines, the lighter color 



20 BULIMULUS-SCUTALUS. 

sometimes predominating; or chestuut-brown with a few lighter 
streaks and a basal yellow band. Surface with rather coarse and 
irregular wrinkles in the direction of growth-lines, decussated by 
unequally spaced spiral incised striae which cut the wrinkles into 
granules to a greater or less extent. Spire rather acutely conic, 
whorls 6 to 6, the earlier densely and minutely wrinkle-pitted, 
slightly convex, separated by impressed sutures with a crenulated 
whitish border below. 

Aperture half the shell's length or little more, vertical or slightly 
oblique, ovate, purple-white or purple inside, with a wide white bor- 
der within the outer lip ; peristome blunt, a little expanded below ; 
columellar margin broadly dilated above. 

Alt. 40, diam. 23 ; alt. of aperture 21 mill. 

Alt. 42, diam. 23 ; alt. of aperture 22 mill. 

Bolivian plateau: Palca and Capinata, prov. Cochabamba, and 
valley of Cochabamba, in gardens ; Viloma (Orbigny) ; and in Pern : 
from Obrajillo to Diezmo and Oeopa (Angrand). 

Helix thamnoica D'ORB., in Mag. de Zool., 1835, p. 16 ; Amer. 
Merid., pi. 37, f. 4, 5, 6, 7. Bulimus thamnoicus D'ORB., Voy. 
Amer. Merid., p. 290 (exclusive of varr. C, D.). PFR., Monogr., 
ii, p. 185. MORELET, Ser. Conch., iii, p. 174. B. tupacii (in part) 
REEVE, Conch. Icon., pi. 15, f. 86a, 86c. Bulinus thamnoicus SOWB., 
Conch. Illustr., pi. 139, f. 70. 

B. tupacii has the spire longer than this species, and the aperture 
is less than half the length of the shell, while in thamnoicus it is 
slightly or decidedly more than half the length. B.alauda is more 
elongated, less roughly striate, and has numerous interrupted spiral 
bands. B. revinctus is a smaller and much more obese shell, with 
different apical sculpture. 

D'Orbigny regarded the light colored form, such as that figured 
on pi. 30, fig. 9, as typical. The intergradation of these with dark 
forms (pi. 2, fig. 21) is complete. 

B. PLUTO (Crosse). PL 2, figs. 24, 25. 

Shell with partly covered umbilicus, oval-oblong, quite thick, 
solid, grooved by longitudinal riblets and covered with a thin yel- 
lowish-fawn cuticle. Color livid fleshy- white with numerous small 
darker bands of chestnut-brown, of unequal sizes, and some spaced 
whitish maculations, neither numerous nor conspicuous. Spire conic, 
the apex rather obtuse. Suture quite irregular, whitish and crenu- 



BULIMULUS-SCUTALUS. 21 

lated. Whorls, 7, quite convex, the two embryonic whorls smooth 
and polished, whitish ; last whorl a little shorter than the spire. 

Aperture oval, livid white inside; peristome thick, reflexed and 
white ; margins joined by a thin parietal callus ; the columellar 
margin nearly straight, strongly dilated and covering in part the 
umbilical perforation ; basal margin wide, outer margin narrowing 
toward its upper insertion. Alt. 51, diam. 25 mill. ; alt. of aperture 
24, width with peristome 17 mill. (Crosse). Peru. 

Bulimus pluto CROSSE, Journ. de Conchyl., xvii, 1869, p. 422 ; 
1871, p. 62, pi. 2, 4. 

Seems to be most nearly allied to B. tupaeii Orb. 
B. PETITI (Pfeiffer). PI. 4, fig. 54. 

Shell perforate, ovate-conic, rather solid, longitudinally rugose- 
striate, very obsoletely subdecussated with irregular concentric 
strise ; brown. Spire conic, the apex obtuse, pale, suture crenulated, 
white edged. Whorls 6, rather flat, the last a little longer than the 
spire. Columella lightly arcuate. Aperture acute-oval, somewhat 
shining and livid inside; peristome simple, unexpanded, the right 
margin acute, columellar margin dilated, white, reflexed and free. 
Alt. 36, diam. 16 mill; aperture 19 mill, long, 11 wide. (P/V.). 

Peru (Mus. Cuming). 

Bulimus petiti PFR., P. Z. S., 1846, p. 31 ; Monogr., ii, p. 185. 
EEEVE, Conch. Icon., pi. 37, f. 222. 

B. PURPURATUS (Reeve). PI. 4, fig. 57. 

Shell umbilicate, ovate-conic, solid, thick, corrugated; purple- 
brown, with whitish streaks and spots. Spire conic, rather acute. 
Whorls 6J, nearly flat, plicate-crenate at the impressed suture, the 
last whorl a little shorter than the spire, rotund at base. Aperture 
nearly vertical, oval, white inside; peristome unexpanded, some- 
what thickened within, the columellar margin much dilated, vaulted, 
reflexed. Alt. 36, diam. 16 mill.; aperture 18 mill, long, 9 wide. 



Andes of Catamarca, Peru (W. Lobb). 

Bulimus purpuratus REEVE, P. Z. S., 1849, p. 98 ; Conch. Icon., 
pi. 71, f. 517. PFR., Monogr., iii, p. 417. 

B. WEDDELLI (Hupe). PI. 3, figs. 32, 33 ; pi. 8, figs. 23, 24. 

Shell oblong acuminate, sub ventricose ; ashy irregularly banded 
with somewhat squarish brown spots, here and there blotched with 



22 BULIMULUS-SCUTALUS. 

white ; whorls 6, somewhat convex, rugulose-striate, crenulated at 
the sutures. Aperture ovate, the peristome simple and acute ; colu- 
mella twisted, inner lip dilated, covering the umbilicus. Alt. 40,. 
diam. 17 mill. (Hupe). 

Environs of Lake Titicaca (Weddell). 

Bulimus weddellii HUPE, in Castelnau Exped., p. 45, pi. 7, f. 5,, 
5a (1857). MORELET, Ser. Conch., iii, p. 179, pi. 10, f. 2. PFR., 
Monogr., vi, p. 114. 

Morelet, whose remarks we quote below, enumerates three forms 
of this species : 

a. Buff, variegated and interruptedly banded with purple-brown. 

b. Purple-brown, variegated and blotched with buff. 

c. Shell larger, more solid, ventricose, more distinctly granose- 
striate. 

The coloration of this Bulimus is very variable. It consists of 
irregular spots of a reddish-brown sometimes scattered at random,, 
sometimes distributed in spiral series, on a ground of pale yellow. 
The relation of ground-color to marking may be reversed, as is often 
the case in the coloration of shells; the marbling becoming yellow, 
the background reddish-brown. When this is the case the two 
colors almost always gain in intensity. In Mr. Angrand's collection 
there are specimens of a very deep reddish- brown variegated with 
quite bright yellow. 

The third variety is more solid and obese than the type, with the 
spire shorter and the granulose striation more pronounced. It ap- 
proaches B.purpuratus Rve., but differs in the narrower umbilicus, 
less dilated columellar margin, and the very perceptible granulation 
of the surface. As the specimen is unique I think it better to unite 
it to weddelli than to elevate it to specific rank. It is from Aban- 
cay, a region equally favorable in temperature to the cultivation of 
wheat, maize and cane. The other specimens were collected at a 
decidedly greater elevation, around Titicaca, by M. de Castelnau, 
and by M. Angrand, at Sorai, a cold place but sheltered, the Alpine 
vegetation beginning to be succeeded by ligneous plants (3,500 
meters). 

B. NEMORENSIS (' Philippi ' Pfr.). PL 4, figs. 52, 53. 

Shell perforate, ovate-conic, rather solid, longitudinally closely 
striate and irregularly decussated by impressed transverse lines ; 
dull buff, variegated with streaks and spots of brown. Spire conic, 



BULIMULUS-SCUTALUS. 23 

rather acute ; sutures moderate, crenulated. Whorls 6, the em- 
bryonic smooth and corneous, the rest slightly convex, the last 
whorl a little shorter than the spire, at base somewhat attenuated, 
rotund. Aperture little oblique, angulate-oval, with a rather pearly 
luster inside ; peristome simple, unexpanded, the columellar margin 
white, shining, dilated above, vaultingly reflexed. Alt. 29?, diam. 
13 mill. ; aperture 14 mill, long, 8 wide. (Pfr.'). 

Between Ayapata and Ollachea, Prov. Puno, southeast Peru. 

Bulimus nemorensis Phil., PFR., Malak. Bl., xiv, 1867, p. 78; 
Novit. Conch., p. 345, pi. 81, f. 15, 16; Monogr., vi, p. 142. 

Similar to B. cotopaxiensis Pfr. 
B. ANGRANDI (Morelet). PI. 2, fig. 26. 

Shell profoundly riraate, quite thick, oblong pyramidal, solid, 
rugose-striate ; whitish flesh colored, clouded with close spiral lines 
and purple-red spots. Spire turrited. Suture white-edged, denticu- 
late. Whorls 8, slightly convex, the last slightly ascending, nearly 
three-sevenths the shell's length. Columella white, deeply plicate. 
Aperture slightly oblique, oval, whitish inside; peristome simple, 
the right margin acute, unexpanded; columellar margin dilated. 
Alt. 51, diam. 19 mill. (Morel.). 

Huancabelica, Peru, 3,752 meters alt. (Angrand). 

Bulimus angrandi MOREL., Journ. de Conchyl., viii, 1860, p. 372 ; 
Ser. Conch., iii, p. 173, pi. 9, f. 3. PFR., Monogr., vi, 133. 

The entire surface of the shell is covered with irregular and super- 
ficial striae, which enlarge little by little with the growth of the 
shell. Besides these, the lens shows other excessively fine, wavy 
stride in the opposite direction, and effaced on the last whorl of the 
spire. The color of this Bulimus offers much analogy with B. tham- 
noicus var. marmorata [B. alauda\ ; on a ground of flesh tint, tinged 
visibly with fawn, there is a pattern of a multitude of transverse 
short lines of a reddish or purplish color, sometimes united into con- 
tinuous zones, sometimes producing by their irregular disposition an 
agreeable dappled effect. (Morel.'). 

B. ALAUDA (Hupe). PI. 2, figs. 16, 17, 18, 19. 

Shell narrowly umbilicate, ovate-oblong, rather solid ; ashy-white 
with many spiral bands composed of brown dots and spots. Surface 
smoothish, with growth-wrinkles which are rather inconspicuous 
except toward the sutures, and obsoletely decussated in places, espe- 



24 BULIMULUS-SCUTALUS. 

cially above; the apical whorls densely wrinkle-punctate. Spire 
acutely conic, the apex rather obtuse. Whorls 6 to 6, moderately 
convex, the sutures impressed and finely crenulated, white-edged 
below. 

Aperture about half the total length, hardly oblique, white and 
dotted within ; outer lip simple, unexpanded ; columella with a 
weakly convex entering fold, the columellar margin reflexed above. 

Alt. 4H, diam. 22; alt. of aperture 2H mill. 

Peruvian plateau (Castelnau) ; Environs of Chuquisaca, prov. 
Chuquisaca, Bolivia, in gardens (Orb.). 

Bulimus thamnoicus var. D. marmorata D'ORB., Voy. dans 1'Amer. 
Merid., p. 291, pi. 37, f. 9. Bulimus thamnoicus REEVE, Conch. 
Icon., f. 94. Bulinus thamnoicus var. SOWB., Conch. Illustr., f. 71. 
Bulimus alauda HUPE in Castelnau, Anim. nouv. ou rares Exped. 
1'Amer. du Sud, Moll., p. 39, pi. 7, f. 3 (1857). PFR., Monogr., vi, 
p. 122. 

The color-pattern seems to constantly separate this species from 
thamnoicus, and it is less obese than revinctus. B. punctulifer has 
different apical sculpture, and inhabits a region very different in 
physical features. 

B. NUCINUS (Reeve). PI. 9, figs. 35, 36. 

Shell slightly perforated, ovate-conic, solid, most minutely granu- 
lated ; whitish, irregularly painted with arcuate brown lines. Spire 
convex-conic, acute. Whorls 5?, a little convex, the last a little 
shorter than the spire, rotund at base. Columella somewhat straight- 
ened, slightly receding. Aperture subvertical, oval-oblong ; peris- 
tome thick, unexpanded, the right margin lightly arcuate, columel- 
lar margin dilated above, reflexed, convex, subappressed. Alt. 37, 
diam. 17J mill.; aperture 17 mill, long, 8 wide. (Pfr.*). 

Habitat unknown. 

Bulimus nucinus REEVE, Conch. Icon., pi. 85, f. 629. PFR., 
Monogr., iii, p. 408. 

Streaked like a Plectostylus, but solid, with thick lip. Habitat 
and affinities unknown. 

Group of B. culmineus. 

Andean species of Peru and Bolivia, with the shell smaller than 
in the preceding group, generally with spiral sculpture very weak or 



BULIMULUS-SCUTALUS. 25 

lacking, striation not conspicuous ; obliquely streaked or with inter- 
rupted spiral bands. 

E. CULMINEUS (d'Orbigny). PL 5, figs. 74-78 ; pi. 8, figs. 30-32. 

Shell narrowly perforate, ovate-conic, rather solid, whitish or 
light brown with numerous narrow oblique brown streaks. Surface 
irregularly wrinkle-striate, rather obsoletely decussated by spiral 
lines. Spire conic, apex obtuse. Whorls about 6, moderately con- 
vex ; sutures well impressed. 

Aperture somewhat less than half the shell's length, ovate ; outer 
lip simple, columellar lip dilated above, columella concave or faintly 
convex above. 

Alt. 32, diam. 15 mill. 

Alt. 25, diam. 13 mill. 

Bolivia ; Islands in Lake Titicaca, and on surrounding mountains; 
and to the south, the mountains of prov. Carangas, especially the Pu- 
cara Mts., 5 leagues from Totora ; always at an elevation of 3,800- 
,000 meters (d'Orbiguy) ; La Paz (Stiibel) ; Peru, at Huancabelica, 
2,000-2,200 meters alt. ; Andahuaylas (Angrand). Inhabits from 
the snow-line to the temperate zone. 

Helix culminea D'ORB., Rev. Zool., 1835, p. 13. Bulimus cul- 
mineus D'ORB., Voy. Amer. Merid., p. 288, pi. 33, f. 8, 9. PFR., 
Monogr., ii, p. 221 ; vi, 143 ; Conchyl. Cab., p. 235, pi.. 63, f. 1. 
REEVE, Conch. Icon., pi. 54, f. 360. MORELET, Ser. Conch., iii, p. 
178, pi. 8, f. 4. HUPE, in Castelnau Exped., p. 48, pi. 8, f. 4. 
Bulinu* culmineus Sows., Conch. Illustr., f. 86. MARTENS, Conch. 
Mittheil., pp. 162, 206, pi. 36, f. 10-12 (dentition and jaw). Buli- 
mus jussieui (" VAL. in Mus. Paris ") PFR., P. Z. S., 1846, p. 33 ; 
Monogr., ii, p. 186. REEVE, Conch. Icon., pi. 39, f. 242, not of 
Valenciennes. 

The following color-forms occur : 

a. Shell whitish. 

b. Buff, unicolored or streaked with corneous. 

c. Chestnut-brown, unicolored or streaked with buff. 

Both around Lake Titicaca and at La Paz, Bolivia, Stiibel found 
the slender, light colored form, and the stouter brownish yellow 
shells, living together. 

My observation on this species are confined to moderate sized 
specimens of typical coloring. Morelet's notes on those collected 
by M. Angrand indicate a wide variability in the species. He 



26 BULIMULUS-SCUTALUS. 

agrees with PfeifFer in considering B.jussieui a variety ofculmincut, 
and further comments substantially as follows : that this species is 
extremely variable is not astonishing, when we consider that it 
ranges over a considerable extent of country, from the temperate 
regions to an elevation of 5,000 meters, where reigns almost perpet- 
ual frost. Various modifications ensue, which, while not altering 
the essential characters of the species, yet would lead to erroneous 
conclusions if only the extreme forms of the series are compared. 
The size notably varies, as well as the length of the spire and the 
comparative diameter of the last whorl. It is the same with the 
coloration, which, from a gray-white passes gradually to pale yellow,, 
thence to a pure ochre yellow ; and, in turn, this color gives place 
to a dark brown, through intermediate shades of reddish-fawn. 
All these modifications are connected by insensible transition stages, 
no sharp limits being assignable. 

According to M. d'Orbigny, B. culmineus is one of the species 
which live at the greatest heights, peopling the Andean plateau 
proper, descending from Desagtiadero to Andahuaylas, into a tem- 
perate region where the vine flourishes. The grayish or uncolored 
examples are from the high country toward and in Bolivia ; the 
yellow form was collected at Huancabelica, at an elevation of 2,000 
to 2,200 meters 500 meters higher than the peak of Teneriffe. 

B. SUBJUSSIEUI Pilsbry, n. n. PI. 5, figs. 59, 60. 

Shell ovate-conic, irregularly decussate-granular by rude striae 
cut by fine spirals, subconic ; ornamented with spiral brown bands, 
sometimes streaked ; spire conic, subinflated ; whorls 6, rather con- 
vex, the last as long as the spire. Aperture ovate, the peristome 
simple, acute ; columella arcuate, dilated above and reflexed over 
the small, pervious, elongated umbilicus. Alt. 30, diam. 15 mill. 

Province of Cuzco, Peru. 

Bulimus jussieui (Valenciennes in Coll. Mus. Paris) HUPE, in 
Castelnau, Exped., p. 48, pi. 7, f. 4, 4a (1857). B.jussieui Hupe, 
PFR., Malak. Bl., vi, 1859, p. 47 ; Monogr., vi, 127. Not B.jussi- 
eui Pfr., 1S4Q=B. culmineus. Conf. also PFR., Malak. Bl., 1858, p. 
165. 

More ventricose than B. culmineus, with shorter spire, and 
banded like some specimens of B. revinctus, which, however, is a 
still shorter shell. Further investigation is needed to show the re- 
lation of this form to B. culmineus. It seems specifically distinct.. 



BULIMULU&-SCUTALUS. 27 

as claimed by Hupe, and admitted by Pfeiffer, who states that 
Hupe's shell is different from tbejugsieui of his previous description 
(which is figured by Reeve), and which came to Cuming's collection 
from the Paris Museum. It is not certain whether Hupe's jussieui 
is that of Valenciennes or not. Hupe"'s localities are frequently 
open to suspicion, doubtless owing to careless labelling on the part 
of the collectors who went to South America with Count Castelnau. 

B. PENTLAXDI (Reeve). PI. 9, fig. 34. 

Shell acuminately ovate, rather inflated at the base, scarcely um- 
bilicated ; whorls 6 in number, irregularly rudely striated, colu- 
niella reflected. Aperture orbicularly ovate, lip simple. Dull 
olive, covered with an epidermis. (Rve.). 

Alt. 22?, diam. 12 mill, (measurements of figure). 

Mountains in the vicinity of Lake Titicaca, Bolivia (Pentland). 

Bulimus pentlandi RYE., Conch. Icon., pi. 83, f. 614 (Dec., 1849). 
PFR., Monogr., iii, p. 436. 

B. EDWARDSI (Morelet). PI. 7, figs. 11, 12, 13. 

Shell perforate, oblong-conic, rather solid, whitish or buff, uni- 
colored, variegated by narrow longitudinal brown streaks, or with 
five chestnut or purple-brown spiral bauds. Surface coarsely irreg- 
ularly wrinkle-striate, more or less decussated in places by spiral 
lines cutting the wrinkles into grannies ; the apical whorls densely 
pitted. Spire long, convex-conic, the apex obtuse. Whorls 6 to 6, 
moderately convex, the sutures impressed lightly above, deeper be- 
low. 

Aperture decidedly less than half the shell's alt., ovate, white or 
banded inside ; outer lip not expanded, somewhat thickened within ; 
columellar lip flatly dilated above, the columella with a slightly 
convex fold. 

Alt. 32, diam. 14 ; alt. of aperture 13* mill. 

Alt. 33, diam. 15* ; alt. of aperture 14* mill. 

Alt. 29, diam. 12 ; alt. of aperture 13 mill. (Morel.). 

Alt. 26, diam. 12 ; alt. of aperture 12 mill. 

Peru, in the Paucara chain; Huancabelica ; valley of Huanta 
(Angrand) ; Puno, L. Titicaca (A. Agassiz). 

Bulimus edivardsi MOREL., Series Conch., iii, p. 182, pi. 9, f. 1. 
PFR., Monogr., vi, p. 135. Bulimulus edwardsi W. G. BIXNEY, 
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1876, p. 191, and Ann. N. Y. Acad. 
Sci., iii, p. 124, pi. 11, f. K (dentition and jaw). 



28 BULIMULUS-SCUTALUS. 

This species is more elongated than B. cequatoriuts Pfr., with 
smaller aperture. It is quite variable in degree of elongation and 
in coloration, besides the five-banded form specimens occur of a uni- 
form reddish tint, and others are buff with inconspicuous, narrow 
brown streaks. Morelet describes a variety from Huanta which is 
smaller, alt. 24, diam. 11 mill., buff, with five bands, the shell thin- 
ner. Some small, thin, bandless examples are also before me. .The 
dentition is normal for Bulimulus. 

B. BADIUS (Sowerby). PI. 4, fig. 49. 

Shell perforate, ovate-acute, rather solid, rugulose-striate ; tawny, 
variegated with rufous interrupted bands and series of dots. Spire 
conic, acute ; whorls 5, somewhat convex, the last about three- 
fifths the entire alt. Columella nearly straight. Aperture oval, 
whitish inside; peristome simple, acute, the columellar margin 
dilated, vaulted, reflexed, half covering the perforation. 

Alt. 26, diam. 13 mill. ; aperture 15 mill, long, 8 wide. (P/r.). 
Prov. Xagua, Peru (Matthews) ; Tarma (Jelski). 

Bulinus badius SOWB., P. Z. S., 1834, p. 141. Bulimus badius 
PFR., Monogr., ii, p. 189. KEEVE, C. Icon., pi. 39, f. 235. LUB- 
OMIRSKI, P. Z. S., 1879, p. 724.? Bulimus polymorphus var. A. 
ORB., Voy., p. 289, pi. 41, f. 1, 2. 

The ventricose variety of d'Orbigny's B. polymorphus may prove 
to be a badius, as Pfeiffer holds. It is figured on pi. 4, f. 48. 

B. POLYMORPHUS (d'Orbigny). PI. 5, figs. 46, 47. 

Shell oval or oblong, thick, substriate, subumbilicated. Gray- 
white, with four interrupted purple-brown zones; spire subconic, 
the apex obtuse; suture crenulated, nearly flat. Aperture oval; 
lip thickened, whitish. Alt. 25, diam. 10 mill. (Orb.}. 

On the coast?, Peru (Fontaine). 

Helix polymorpha D'ORB., Mag. de Zool., 1835, p. 20. Bulimus 
polymorphus D'ORB., Voy., p. 289, pi. 41, f. 3, 4, 5. 

The ventricose form mentioned and figured by d'Orbigny is 
probably referable to B. badius. See pi. 4, f. 48. 

B. PROMETHUS (Crosse). PL 4, figs. 55, 56. 

Shell perforate, oblong-acute, rather thin, rugose-striate, dull 
rose-white, encircled by interrupted chestnut bands. Spire conic, 
the apex somewhat obtuse ; suture irregularly impressed, dentate. 
Whorls 6, slightly convex, the embryonal 1? smooth, rose-whitish, 



BULIMULUS-SCUTALUS. 29 

the succeeding 1? roseate, unicolored, antepenultimate and penulti- 
mate whorls with two interrupted chestnut bands ; the last whorl 
about as long as spire (17 : 18), interruptedly four-banded. 

Aperture oblong-ovate, livid whitish inside ; peristome white, 
the coluraellar margin nearly straight, dilated, nearly covering the 
perforation, basal and outer margins somewhat thickened, not re- 
flexed. Alt. 35, diam. 17 mill. ; aperture 17 mill, long, 9 wide. 
(Crosse). 

Peru. 

Bulimus promethus CROSSE, Journ. de Conch., 1869, p. 423 ; 1871,. 
p. 63, pi. 2, f. 3. 

This species seems to be allied to B. polymorphic Orb. 

B. FERRUGINEUS (Reeve). PI. 9, fig. 37. 

Shell perforate, ovate-conic, a little solid, rather smooth, striatu- 
late ; white, ornamented with irregular rufous streaks and 3 or 4 
interrupted basal bands. Spire conic, acute ; whorls 62, a little 
convex, the last rounded, slightly shorter than the spire ; columella 
very slightly arcuate. Aperture little oblique, oval ; peristome 
simple, unexpanded, the right margin arcuate, columellar margin 
vaultingly reflexed above, spreading. Alt. 19, diam. 9 mill. ; aper- 
ture 9* mill, long, 6 wide. (P/V.). 

Peru (Cuming Coll.). 

Bulimus ferrugineus RYE., Conch. Icon., pi. 62, f. 424. PFR., 
Monogr., iii, p. 416. 

B. PERISTOMATUS (Doering). Unfigured. 

Shell perforated, ovate-oblong, subfusiform, rather thin, densely 
and irregularly rugose-striate, dull whitish. Spire oblong-conic, 
suture frequently subcrenulate-margined. Whorls 6, slightly con- 
vex, the first rugulose-striate, brownish, the last longer than the 
spire, effuse in front. Columella obsoletely folded. Aperture sub- 
vertical, ovate, yellow inside, shining ; peristome simple, expanded 
throughout, the basal margin arcuate, columellar margin dilated, 
terminations converging, joined by a thin callus. Alt. 27-29, diam. 
11-13* mill. ; aperture, alt. 15-16, width 9-10 mill. (Doer.*). 

Sierra de Pocho, Argentina. 

Scutalus peristomatus DOER., Bol. Acad. Nac. Cien. Rep. Argent., 
iii, p. 66 (1879). 

Smaller than B. stehneri, oblong, the peristome expanded 
throughout and with converging terminations. Jaw with 8-10 rib- 
lets. 



30 BULIMULUS-SCUTALUS. 

Group of B. cequatorius. 

A group of the Ecuador Andes, characterized by the narrow or 
imperforate umbilicus, etc. 

B. ^QUATORIUS (Pfeiffer). PI. 7, figs. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. 

Shell oblong-ovate, narrowly umbilicate, solid, whitish or light 
brownish-yellow, with indistinct white vertical streaks, encircled 
with three purple-brown bands, the middle one often narrower, all 
generally more or less interrupted and usually not sharply defined, 
sometimes obsolete. Surface lusterless or somewhat shining, irreg- 
ularly wrinkle-striate, sometimes obsoletely decussated above. Ap- 
ical whorls densely and minutely wave-striate, sometimes appearing 
striate-pitted. Spire convex conic, the apex rather obtuse. Whorls 
6, rather convex. Sutures impressed. Aperture half the length of 
shell, ovate, slightly oblique, banded, or white inside ; peristome 
simple, the outer lip not expanded, columellar lip quite broadly 
dilated above, columella with a convex entering fold. 

Alt. 34, diam. 17 mill. 

Alt. 32, diam. 16 mill. 

Alt. 26i diam. 13 mill. 

Ecuador: Mt. Chinchulagua and Chimborazo (Bourcier) ; Quito 
and environs (Paz, Ortou, Boetzkes and others) ; La Mocha (Paz) ; 
Mululo, near Lacatunga, at the foot of Cotopaxi, 3059 meters alt. 
(Stiibel) ; Casha Loma; Mt. Pinchincha, near Quito (Cousin). 

Bulimus cequatorius PFR., P. Z. S., 1852, p. 155 ; Mongraphia, 
iii, p. 420 ; viii, p. 170 ; Conchyl. Cab., p. 101, pi. 33, f. 1-4. HI- 
DALGO, Journ. de Conchyl., 1870, p. 59 ; Viaje al Pacif., p. 104. 
CROSSE, Journ. de Conchyl., 1871, p. 317. Scutalus cequatorius 
MILLER, Malak. BL, xxv, 1878, p. l^.Bulimulus (Scutalus) 
cequatorius MARTENS, Conch. Mittheil., p. 161. Thaumastus cequa- 
torius COUSIN, Bull. Soc. Zool. de France, xii, 1887, p. 222 (with 
vars. major, interrupta and immaculata, mentioned but not described). 

This species is quite variable. The bands are interrupted by 
white streaks into spots in some examples, in others being very ir- 
regularly interrupted at wide intervals, and rarely almost continu- 
ous. The body-whorl occasionally lacks bands, having a few 
oblique brown streaks or none ; the young are almost imperforate. 
The color-varieties seem to occur too indiscriminately to allow of 
varietal distinction in the five trays of this species before me. 



BULIMULUS-SCUTALUS. 31 

B. OCHRACEUS (Morelet). PI. 5, fig. 58. 

Shell perforate, oblong-oval, rather solid, rudely subgranulose- 
^triate, buffer brownish, unicolored, rarely obscurely banded. Spire 
conic, the apex obtuse. Suture pale-edged. Whorls 5, little con- 
vex, the last a little exceeding the spire, rotund at base. Columella 
obliquely receding, whitish. Aperture oval, white or reddish-brown 
inside ; peristome simple and unexpanded, the columellar margin 
dilated and vaultingly reflexed. Alt. 37 to 40, diam. 17 to 18 mill. 
{Morel.'). 

Sorai and Salcantai, Peru (Angrand). 

Bulimus ochraceus MORELET., Series Conch., iii, p. 176, pi. 7, f. 
6 (1863). PFR., Monogr., vi, p. 127. Not Bulimulus ochraceus 
BECK, Index Moll., p. 67 (a nude name). 

This species differs from its allies principally in the obtuse form 
of the apex, as well as in having the number of whorls reduced to 
5 or sometimes 4?. With the exception of the first whorl of the 
spire, on which may be seen, under the lens, a sort of rudimentary 
granulation, the entire shell is covered with quite prominent, un- 
equal, close longitudinal striae, granulous in some places ; and with 
a sufficient magnification feeble concentric impressions are visible 
here and there, but no real transverse strise. 

The B. cotopaxiensis Pfr. is the nearest species, but may be dis- 
tinguished by one or other of the following characters : B. ochraceus 
is generally larger, with one whorl less ; the last whorl exceeds the 
spire in length ; the columellar dilation is more pronounced, and 
finally the surface of the shell shows only rare, and as it were acci- 
dental granulations, instead of being the result of a regular decussa- 
tion of striae as in B. cotopaxiensis. (Morel.}. 

B. COTOPAXIENSIS (Pfeiffer). PL 4, figs. 50, 51. 

Shell perforate, oblong-ovate, rather solid; striate and granulate- 
decussate by spiral lines, disappearing below the middle of the body 
whorl. White under a tawny-yellow, often brown -streaked or in- 
terruptedly banded, cuticle. Spire convex-conic, the apex rather 
obtuse. Whorls 6, little convex, the last as long as the spire, ro- 
tund at base. Columella somewhat straightly receding. Aperture 
little oblique, oval, white inside, shining ; peristome simple, obtuse, 
unexpanded, the right margin lightly arcuate, columellar margin 
dilated, white, vaultingly reflexed. Alt. 34, diam. 16 mill. ; aper- 
ture 17 mill, long, 9? wide in the middle. (Pfr.~). 



32 BULIMULUS-SCUTALUS. 

Cotopaxi, Ecuador ; variety at Mt. Cayembe (Bourcier) ; Anti- 
sana and Pichincha (Martinez) ; La Mocha (Paz), among stones ; 
Twnbaco, Cayembe (Boetzkes) : descent of Achupallas on the river 
Sula (Cousin). 

Bulimas cotopaxiensis PFR., P. Z. S., 1852, p. 155. Couchyl. 
Cab., p. 103, pi. 33, f. 9, 10 ; Monogr., iii, 419. HIDALGO, Viaje al 
Pacifico, p. 105. MARTENS, Conch. Mittheil., ii, p. 161. COUSIN, 
Bull. Sue. Zool. France, 1887, p. 225. Scutalus cotopaxiensis MIL- 
LER, Mai. Bl., xxv, p. 193. 

Variety (fig. 50). Spire elongated, closely marbled with brown, 
the spiral lines continuing to the base of last whorl. Alt. 35, diam. 

15 mill. ; aperture 16 mill, long, 8 wide (Pfr.). 

Hidalgo observes that the lip-edge always has the same color as 
the epidermis. He questions its distinctness from B. subfasciatus 
Pfr., which differs only in being a little rougher, with narrow, ver- 
tical columella, and of slightly darker color. 

B. SUBFASCIATUS (Pfeiffer). PL 8, fig. 33. 

Shell subperforate, oblong-ovate, rather solid, longitudinally ru- 
gose-striate and irregularly decussate-granulate, tawny, encircled by 
two or three obsolete brown bands. Spire convex-conic, the apex 
obtuse. Whorls 6, rather convex, the last as long as the spire, ro- 
tund at base. Columella vertical ; aperture subvertical, oblong, 
white within, shining ; peristome unexpanded, somewhat thickened, 
right margin spreading above, columellar margin dilated above, 
white, reflexed, almost adnate. Alt. 32, diam. 14 mill. ; aperture 

16 mill, long, 9 wide. (Pfr.). 

Mt. Antisana, Ecuador (Bourcier). 

Bulimus subfasciatus PFR., Monogr., iii, p. 408 (1853) ; P. Z. S., 
1852, p. 60; Conchyl. Cab., p. 105, pi. 33, f. 19. Conf. HIDALGO, 
Viaje al Pacif., p. 106. 

Hidalgo comments on the evident pro'ximity of this species to B. 
cotopaxiensis Pfr., surmising the identity of the two. 

B. ANTHISANENSIS (Pfeiffer). PI. 4, figs. 41, 42. 

Shell imperforate, ovate-conic, rather solid, rugose-striate and 
granulate ; silky ; chestnut, marbled with tawny and buff. Spire 
conic, the apex rather acute. Whorl 6?, nearly flat, the last equal 
to the spire in length, somewhat tapering toward the base. Colu- 
mella callous, rather straightly receding. Aperture subvertical, 
semioval, livid inside ; peristome simple, unexpanded, the right 



BULIMULUS-SCUTALUS. 33 

margin lightly arcuate, columellar margin callous and dilated 
above, adnate, white. Alt. 40, diam. 17 mill. ; aperture 21 mill, 
long, 10* wide. (P/r.). 

Mt. Antisana, Ecuador, 14,000 ft. (Bourcier); Cerro del Altar, 
at Riobamba, near the snow line, 4,200 meters alt. (Stiibel). 

Bulimus anthisanensis PFR., P. Z. S., 1852, p. 155; Conchyl. 
Cab., p. 104, pi. 33, f. 20, 21 ; Monogr., iii, p. 406. Bulimulus 
(Scutalu^) antisanensis Pfr., ALB.-MART., Die Hel., p. 217. MAR- 
TENS, Conch. Mittheil., p. 161. 

Stiibel's specimens were dark green-brown, with small yellowish 
flecks, the dark color not so sharply confined to the lower half of 
the last whorl as in the figures. 

B. CALIGINOSUS (Reeve). PL 4, figs. 43, 44, 45. 

Shell subimperforate, oblong-ovate, rather solid, obliquely rudely 
striate, ashy or whitish, irregularly streaked with ferruginous brown. 
Spire conic, rather acute. Whorls 6, slightly convex, the last about 
as long as the spire, rotund at base. Aperture subvertical, oval ; 
peristome simple, unexpanded, the columellar margin broadly re- 
flexed and appressed above. Alt. 36, diam. 16 mill. ; aperture 19 
mill, long, 10 wide. (P/r.). 

Ecuador : Tunguragua and Chimborazo (Bourcier) ; Cerro del 
Altar, near Riobamba, near the snow line, 4,200 meters alt., and 
Pitana in the eastern Cordillera of Quito, 3,600 meters (Stiibel) ; 
Gasha Loma, near and above Chillogalo (Cousin). 

Bulimus caliginosus REEVE, Conch. Icon., pi .82, f. 609 (1849). 
PFR., Conchyl. Cab., p. 103, pi. 33, f. 13-16 ; Monogr., iii, p. 407 ; 
viii, p. 145. HIDALGO, Journ., de Conch., 1870, p. 59. Thaumas- 
tus caliginosus COUSIN, Bull. Soc. Zool. Fr., xii, 1887, p. 223. Bu- 
limulus (Scutalus*) caliginosus MARTENS, Conch. Mittheil., pp. 161, 
204 (dentition). 

Specimens collected by Stu'bel at Cerro del Altar are yellowish- 
brown, streaked, 38 mill, long, 19 broad, aperture 19 mill. high. 
Those from Pitana are somewhat wider, dark-purple, the suture 
and base yellowish, 31 mill, long, 17 wide, aperture 16 mill. high. 
(Martens'). 
B. COUSINI (Jousseaume). PI. 5, fig. 61. 

Shell imperforate, ovate-conic, rather solid, very delicately striated, 

brown, somewhat shining ; spire conic ; whorls 6, slightly convex, 

the last ventricose, one-half the length of the shell. Aperture sub- 

3 




UNIVERSITY 1 



34 BULIMULUS-3CUTALU8. 

oval, livid and shining within ; peristome whitish-rose, simple ; the 
margins joined by a callus, right margin slightly thickened, colu- 
mellar margin dilated. Alt. 41, diam. 23 mill. ; aperture 24 mill. 
long, 13 wide. (Jbiws.). 

Concha, Ecuador (Cousin). 

Rhabdotus cousini Jouss., Bull. Soc. Zool. France, xii, p. 167, pi. 
3, f. 18 (1887). 

B. IRREGULARIS (Pfeiffer). PI. 5, fig. 71. 

Shell umbilicated, ovate-oblong, rather solid, roughened by close 
longitudinal folds ; flesh colored, somewhat streaked with brownish ; 
spire conic, rather acute, the apex reddish. Whorls 6, slightly con- 
vex, the last slightly shorter than the spire, subangularly com- 
pressed around the narrow, impervious umbilicus. Columella 
lightly arcuate. Aperture elliptical, subangular at the base ; peri- 
stome simple, unexpanded, the columellar margin reflexed at base 
and dilated above. Alt. 19, diam. 9 mill. ; aperture 10 mill. long. 



Quito, Ecuador (de Lattre) ; Imbabura, Tumbaco, Mi. St. An- 
tonio, Calacali, hill of Guallabumbo near Turn, and Riobamba 
(Cousin) ; Salinas Ibarre, Prov. Imbabura, 1659 meters alt. (Stiibel). 

Bulimus irregularis PFR., P. Z. S., 1847, p. 231 ; Monogr., ii, p. 
183. REEVE, Conch. Icon., pi. 65, f. 454.Bulimulus (Scutalus') 
irregularis (including B. catlowce) MARTENS, Conch. Mittheil., p. 
162. Scutalus irregularis MILLER, Malak, Bl., xxv, 1878, p. 194. 
Thaumastus irregularis COUSIN, Bull. Soc. Zool. France, 1887, p. 
225. 

This form is somewhat more slender than B. catlowice, with smaller 
umbilicus, but does not seem to present any other differences. Von 
Martens unites them. 

The shells recorded by Hidalgo in Journ. de Conch., 1870, p. 63, 
as B. irregularis, from Ibarra and Otavalo, Ecuador, were after- 
ward decided by him to be B. quitensis Pfr. ; but irregularis and 
catlowice are apparently not specifically separable from the prior B. 
quitensis. 

VAR. CATLOWM: (Pfeiffer). PI. 5, figs. 67, 68, 69, 70. 

Shell narrowly umbilicate, oblong, ovate or conic, rather thin ; 
closely and irregularly wrinkle-striate, lacking spiral striae. Vary- 
ing from flesh-colored to dark purplish-brown, with lighter lines 
and streaks. Spire conic, the apex rather small, ruddy or pale, 



BULIMULUS, TYPICAL. 35 

earlier 2 whorls vertically, closely and minutely lineolate-punctate. 
Whorls 6 to 7, moderately convex. 

Aperture ochre-brown to deep purple-brown inside, about half 
the shell's -length or slightly less; peristome thin and unexpanded, 
the columellar margin dilated above. 

Alt. 25, diam. 12* mill. 

Alt. 2H, diam. 11 mill. 

Quito (Bourcier) ; Ambato (Paz) ; Pillaro (Martinez) ; Ecuador. 

Bulimm catlowice PFR., P. Z. S., 1852, p. 154 ; Conchyl. Cab., p. 
101, pi. 33, f. 5, 6 ; Monogr., iii, p. 427. HIDALGO, Viaje al Pacif- 
ico, p. 128, pi. 7, figs. 9, 10. B. catlowce of some authors. Bulimus 
catlovice and B. irregularis (Pillaro specimens) HIDALGO, Journ. de 
Conch., 1870, p. 63 ; compare J. de C., 1875, p. 128. Scutalus cat- 
lowice MILLER, Malak. Bl., xxv, p. 194. 

This form, with B. irregularis, are probably varieties of B. qui- 
tensis Pfr., which I have placed in Lissoacme, not knowing the api- 
ical characters (see vol. x, p. 158). 

Subgenus BULIMULUS Leach. 

Bulimulus LEACH, Zool. Misc. i, p. 41 (1815). Leptomerus AL- 
BERS, Die Hel. p. 166 (1850). ALB. MART., Die Hel. p. 222, type 
B. linnceoides Fer. 

Bulimuli of ovate or oblong contour, perforated, uniform brown 
or corneous, or rarely with a few spiral bands ; aperture ovate, the 
outer lip simple or but slightly expanded, thin or thickened within. 
Apical whorls delicately rugulose. Type B. exilis Gmel. 

Distribution, tropical America, extending South in eastern South 
America to Argentina. 

It is practically impossible to draw a line between typical Buli- 
mulus and Leptomerus. B. exilis, type of the former group, varies 
from quite solid and thick forms to others of thin substance, and 
from banded to one-colored specimens ; and as the sole differential 
character of Leptomerus is the delicacy of its monochromatic shell, 
it is readily seen, when any large series of the Antillean species is 
examined, that this supposed distinction is artificial and impracti- 
cable. 

In some of the thinner species, such as most of those of Central 
and South America, the apical sculpture is shallow and faint, re- 
quiring a strong lens and well preserved specimens. As the apices 
of many of the Argentine Bulimuli are unknown, it is not unlikely 



36 BULIMULUS-ANTILLEAN. 

that some species placed in Lissoacme may really belong to the re- 
stricted subgenus Bulimulus. (Conf. Man. Conch. X, pp. 187-194). 
The species of this subgenus are among the most difficult Buli- 
muli to distinguish, being founded in most cases on slight and in- 
conspicuous differences. It will readily be understood that too much 
reliance should not be placed upon the "keys" I have attempted to 
make. They merely offer suggestions. 

Antillean Species. 

With the exception of B. sepulcralis, which is most nearly allied 
to Central American forms, the Antillean species form a moderately 
homogenous group, having the apical sculpture more distinct than 
in continental forms. 

a. Shell rather solid or thick. 

b. Often banded ; smoothish ; alt. 20-25 mill. exilis. 

bb. Opaque reddish brown or olivaceous, with puckered 

strise ; lip thickened within ; alt. 27-30 mill, nichollsi. 

bbb. Fossil; with low growth wrinkles, riisei. 

bbbb. Opaque whitish ; coarsely plicate, lehmanni. 

aa. Shell thin, more or less translucent, often with cuticular spirals. 

b. Aperture and diameter one-half the length of shell or 

more. 

c. Edge of lip very narrowly expanded ; whorls 
about 5. 

d. Brown with light peripheral girdle ; per- 
iphery subangular in front; surface 
with spiral cuticular line, semicinctus. 
dd. Brown with whitish dots, Iherminieri. 
cc. Lip-edge not expanded. 

d. Alt. 14-15 mill. houelmontensis. 

dd. Alt. 20-21 mill. barbadensis. 

bb. Aperture less than half the alt. of shell. 

c. Peristome narrowly expanded ; whorls 7-8 ; no 
spiral sculpture (?). limnoides, chrysalis, 

martinicensis. 
cc. Peristome unexpanded, sharp. 

d. Aperture about i alt.; alt. 19, diam. 7 

mill. mazei. 

dd. Aperture nearly alt. ; cuticular spirals 

present, fraterculus diaphanus. 



BULIMULUS-ANTILLEAN. 37 

aaa. Shell thin, corneous, smooth, without spiral striae, the apical 
sculpture subobsolete; whorls well rounded ; aperture under 
half the alt. sepulcralis. 

B. EXILIS (Gmelin). PI. 9, figs. 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67. 

Shell very narrowly perforate, narrowly oblong, varying from 
thin to quite solid ; various in color, being (typical) soiled white or 
yellowish with three dark brown bands, the upper and lower wide, 
suture white margined, or (form acutus Leach) with a single narrow 
peripheral band, or (form albus Sowb.) unicolored yellowish or 
whitish, or (form obscurus') brown or purple-brown, unicolored 
except for a light sutural line. Surface lusterless, almost smooth, 
the growth-lines faintly indicated, and some specimens showing fine 
and faint spiral striation. Spire high-conic with slightly convex 
outlines, the apex obtuse, earlier If whorls densely and finely zigzag 
striolate; whorls about 65, a trifle convex, the last a little deflexed 
in front. Aperture varying from nearly half to less than a third 
the total alt. of shell, somewhat oblique, ovate ; white, purple-brown 
or banded within ; peristome more strongly arcuate above, slightly 
or very heavily calloused within ; columella nearly straight, its edge 
well reflexed ; parietal callus generally slight. 

Alt. 20, diam. 9 mill. ; alt. of aperture 9 mill. 

Alt. 27, diam. 11 mill. ; alt. of aperture 11'2 mill. 

Alt. 23'5, diam. 8'5 mill. ; alt. of aperture 8'6 mill. 

Caribbees, from Barbados and Martinique to the Virgin /., and 
west to Haiti. Barbados (Parkinson, Feilden, Kush) ; Martinique 
(Maze) ; Dominica (Guppy, A. D. Brown, Ramage, Angas, Sharp, 
Verrill) ; Guadelupe (Cochrane, de Badier, Maze, Sharp, Beau), 
with Grande Terre (Sharp), Saintes, Desirade and Marie Galante 
(Maze) ; Montserrat (Rawson) ; Antigua (Hamilton) ; St. Bartholo- 
mew (Cleve) ; St. Christopher or St. Kitts (Hamilton, Rush); Bar- 
buda (according to Pfr.) ; St. Martin (Bland, Maze) ; Tortola ; St. 
Thomas (Bland, Salle, Schramm, ' Challenger ' Rush) ; Vieque 
(Riise, Swift) ; Porto Rico (Swift, Krug), at Jabacoa (Sintensis) ; 
Haiti at Cape Haitien (Rolle), Aux Cayes (Swift, Salle). 

Colonized : Jamaica at Castleton not far from the botanic gardens, 
abundant (Roper). 

Doubtful localities : St. Vincent (Guilding, according to Pfr.) ; 
Cayenne (Eyries). 



38 BULIMULUS-ANTILLEAN. 

Helix exilis GMEL., Syst. Nat. (13), p. 3668. Bulimus exilis 
DESH. in Lam., An. s. Vert., viii, p. 232. KUSTER, Conchyl. Cab., 
p. 52, pi. 10, f. 14, 15. PFR., Monogr., ii, p. 223 ; iii, 433 ; iv, 498 ; 
vi, 145 ; Conchyl. Cab., p. 52, pi. 63, f. 15-18. REEVE, Conch. 
Icon., pi. 46, f. 292. BLAND, in Adams' Contrib. to Conch., no. 11, 
p. 219; Ann. Lye. N. Y., vii, pp. 351-360 ; and xi, p. 200. A. D. 
BROWN, Amer. Nat., xv, 1881, p. 56. ROPER, Nautilus, ix, p. 14. 
GUPPY, Ann. Mag. N. H. (4), i, p. 431. ANGAS, P. Z. S., 1883, 
p. 596. SHARP, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1890, p. 148; Ann. 
Mag. N. H. (6), vi, p. 124. Bulimulus exilis Gm., MAZE, Journ. 
de Conchyl., 1874, p. 164; 1883, p. 17, 43, 48; 1890, p. 24. 
CROSSE, Journ. de Conchyl., 1891, p. 129. MARTENS, Jahrb. d. 
M. Ges., iv, 1877, p. 351 ; Nachrbl. d. M. Ges., 1891, p. 132. E. 
A. SMITH, P. Z. S., 1884, p. 277 ; Ann. Mag. N. H. (6), ii, 1888, p. 
231 ; Proc. Malac. Soc. Lond., i, p. 305. PILSBRY, Trans. Conn. 
Acad., viii, 357. 

Bulimus guadalupensis BRUG., Encycl. Meth., i, p. 313 (1792). 
LAM., An. s. Vert., vi, (2d pt.), p. 123. DESH. in Lam. edit. 2, viii, 
p. 232. GUERIN, Iconogr. du Regne Anim., Moll., pi. 6, f. 11. 
Helix (Cochlogena) guadalupensis ~Brug., FER., Tabl. Syst., p. 54, no. 
394. H. guadeloupensis WOOD, Index Test., p. 174, pi. 35, f. 157a, 
158*. DILLWYN, Descr. Catal., ii, p. 957. Bulimus guadaloupensis 
REEVE, Conch. Icon., pi. 46, f. 294a, b. Bulimulus gouadaloupensis 
Brug., BECK, Index Moll., p. 66. Bulimulus guadalupensis FISCHER, 
Journ. de Conchyl., 1872, p. 293 (jaw and teeth), Etudes Moll. 
Terr, et Fluv. Mex., p. 470, pi. 19, f. 13 (jaw), 14, 15 (teeth), 16 
(genitalia). SEMPER, Reisen im Archip. Phil., Landmoll., iii, p. 
154, pi. 17, f. 14 (anatomy). Bulini guadaloupensis var. alba 
Sows, in Zool. Beechey's Voy., p. 144, pi. 38, f. 13 (1839). 

Helix dentrita (at least in part), MONTAGU, Test. Brit., p. 385. 

Bulimulus acutus LEACH, Zool. Miscellany, i, p. 41, pi. 18, lower 
figs. (1815). 

Bulimulus trifasciatus LEACH, t. c., p. 42, pi. 18, upper figs. 
SOWB., Conchol. Manual, p. 14, fig. 283. 

Bulimus rubrifasciatus REEVE, Conch. Icon., pi. 44, f. 277. 

Bulimulus simplex BECK, Index, p. 66. 

? Bulimulus antiguensis Guilding, SWAINSON, Malacology, p. 335. 

Gmelin's typical exilis was the ordinary form with three bands, 
later called trifasciatus by Leach and rubrifasciatus by Reeve. B. 
guadalupensis Brug. was founded on specimens with the lip much 



BULIMULUS-ANTILLEAN. 39 

thickened within, a common character in Guadelupe shells. B. 
acutus Leach and simplex Beck were based on shells with a peripheral 
dark line on a light ground. Gmelin correctly considered these 
various band forms as specifically identical; and they cannot be 
said to constitute even varieties in the true sense. Probably all of 
the color combinations will be found wherever exilis occurs, although 
one or other usually predominates in each restricted station of the 
species. Thus out of 44 specimens from Barbados, 36 are yellow or 
whitish, bandless (mostly dark on the spire), and 8 are 3-banded. Of 
27 Dominica shells, 10 are light and bandless, 6 are 3-banded; 7 
are 1-banded ; and the rest are uniform dark shells. In a tray con- 
taining 79 shells from Guadelupe (Grande Terre), 65 are 1-banded, 
10 bandless, 4 3-banded. Another tray from Guadelupe contains 7 
3-banded, 4 1-banded and two dark and bandless examples. Similar 
variations of the proportions occur in the shells before me from St. 
Thomas, St. Kitts, Antigua, Tortola, St. Lucia, St. Martins, St. 
Barts, Vieque, Pto. Rico, Haiti. 

In form, some of the Haitian shells are slenderest, while very 
stout examples occur (with normal forms) in Dominica, Porto Rico 
and Barbados. Many Guadelupe specimens are extremely thick, 
and heavier than those from other localities; but no general rule 
can be deduced governing the form or solidity, which vary inde- 
pendent of the color-variation, and largely without regard to geo- 
graphic position. These variations are doubtless dependent upon 
the peculiarities of station, individuals inhabiting calcareous districts 
being heavier than those from volcanic tracts or those poor in lime. 

B. exilis has been reported from Cayenne (Eyries, see Drouet, 
Moll. Terr. Guyaue Franyaise, p. 62), but no doubt erroneously. It 
is evident to anyone critically reviewing Drouet's French Guiana 
list, that lieutenant Eyries mixed shells from the French Antilles 
with his Guiana material, probably being unaware of the importance 
of geographic data. The continental localities for species known to 
be Antillean, incorporated into PfeifFer's works from this source, 
must all be received with great reserve. 

There is nothing intrinsically improbable in the locality St. Vin- 
cent, but its confirmation is needed ; on the other hand, the occur- 
rence of the species on the South American main seems very doubt- 
ful. 

Var. EYRIESII (Drouet). PI. 12, figs. 52, 53 (type); 54-60. 

Shell perforate, elongate-acuminate, quite thin, somewhat translu- 
cent, lusterless, of a uniform gray-reddish shade. Smoothish, but 



40 BULIMULUS-ANTILLEAN. 

very delicately striated spirally. Whorls 7 ; spire elevated and 
acute. Aperture slightly oblique, long-ovate, somewhat whitish 
within, less than half the length of shell ; peristome unexpanded, 
sharp and simple. Alt. 26, diam. 10-11, alt. of aperture 11, width 
6 mill. (Drouet). 

Ilet~la-Mere, French Guiana, on tree trunks (Eyries) ; Guadelupe 
(Maze). 

Bulimus eyriesii DROUET, Essai sur les moll. terr. et fluv. de la 
Guyaue Fran9aise, p. 63, pi. 1, f. 12, 13 (1859). PFR., Monogr., vi, 
p. 147. Bulimulus eyriesii Dr., MAZE, Journ. de Conchyl., 1883, p. 
17; J. de C., 1890, p. 24. B ulimul us f rater culus Fer., REEVE, 
Conch. Icon. pi. 63, f. 438. BLAND, Annals of the Lyceum, N. Y. 
vii, p. 351, etc. Bulimulus fraterculus Fer., SMITH, Ann. Mag. 
N. H. (6), viii, 1891, p. 252 ; Journ. of Conch, viii, 1896, p. 241. 
Not B. fraterculus (Ferussac) P. & M. 

Under the above varietal name I place a very large series of 
shells before me, which agree in essential characters with the thinner 
and unicolored forms of B. exilis, and in fact offer every possible 
gradation with that species. Typically, var. eyriesii is a little more 
conoidal and wider below ; it is never banded, being whitish-corneous, 
light brown, or dark purplish-brown ; it is thinner than typical 
exilis, but varies in this respect. Faint, close epidermal spirals are 
present on fresh or unrubbed shells, and in a state of nature the 
surface carries considerable adherent soil in many cases. The last 
whorl is less swollen than in B. barbadensis. Specimens referable 
to this form are before me from Barbados, St. Lucia, Guadelupe, 
Nevis (fig. 60), St. Kitts, (figs. 58, 59), St. Croix, St. John, St. 
Thomas, (fig. 57), Antigua, Vieque and Porto Rico, (figs. 54, 55). It 
apparently inhabits Trinidad also, although I have seen no speci- 
mens from thence; and if we may trust Drouet's information, Mre 
Island, off French Guiana. 

As M. Charles Eyries visited Martinique as well as Guiana, and 
mixed his shells, some little uncertainty may be felt in the localities 
given for his specimens. Maze reports B. eyriesii from "Basse- 
Terre, vanlieue, morne a Vaches " Guadelupe, and islet of Saint- 
Martin, Morne des Accords (Van Rijersma), alt. 310 meters, on tree 
trunks and under stones in the shade. 

B. NICHOLLSI (A. D. Brown). PI. 9, figs. 55, 56. 

Shell perforated, ovate-conic, solid and strong, reddish-brown or 
olivaceous, sometimes with a narrow light peripheral girdle, the 



BULIMULUS-ANTILLEAN. 41 

earlier whorls denuded of cuticle and purplish-brown ; scarcely shin- 
ing ; striation irregular and rather sharp, more or less cut into spiral 
puckered zones by spaced spirals which cut merely the strise ; spire 
somewhat convexly conic, apex obtuse, criss-cross granulate, gener- 
ally eroded. Whorls 62, slightly convex, the last convex. 

Aperture squarish-ovate, slightly oblique, flesh-colored inside, less 
than half the shell's length ; peristome considerably thickened with- 
in, bevelled, the outer lip more strongly curved and slightly sinuous 
toward the upper insertion ; columella subvertical, nearly straight 
or slightly convex ; the columellar margin reflexed and dilated, 
forming an angle with body of shell ; parietal callus thin and trans- 
lucent. 

Alt. 30, diam. 14 mill. ; alt. of aperture 13 mill. 

Alt. 27, diam. 15 mill.; alt. of aperture 12i mill. 

Dominica (Brown, Angas, Ramage, Sharp). 

Bulimus nicholsii A. D. BROWN, American Naturalist, xv, p. 57, 
Jan., 1881 (no description). Bulimus nichollsi A. D. Brown mss., 
ANGAS, P. Z. S., 1883, p. 596, p. 595, f. 2, 3. Bulimus (Thaum- 
astus) niclwllsi Brown, SMITH, Ann. Mag. N. H. (6), ii, p. 231. 

This species is allied to B. exilis, but conspicuously different in 
the greater size, stronger cuticle, puckered strise and color. The 
squarish form of the aperture and thickened lip are very similar to 
many Guadelupe specimens of exilis. Brown found it plentiful on 
the road from Roseau to Rosalie, 2000 ft. alt. It is said by Angas 
to be arboreal. 

B. RIISEI (Pfeiffer). PI. 14, figs. 1, 2 ; pi. 9, figs. 38, 39. 

Shell broadly and deeply umbilicated, rather solid, ovate-conic, 
(white in its fossil condition) ; surface with low, irregular growth- 
wrinkles. Spire elevated, slender, pointed-conic, the apex slightly 
obtuse, nepionic whorls pit-reticulate. Whorls 6 J to over 7, moder- 
ately convex. 

Aperture long-ovate, well rounded outwardly, flatter on the body 
side, varying from somewhat over to considerably less than half the 
total length of shell ; peristome thin, slightly expanded, the ends 
converging ; columellar lip produced forward nearly to the ventral 
level of body-whorl, broadly revolute, arching over the capacious 
umbilicus. 

Alt. 35, diam. 16 mill. ; alt. of aperture 16* mill. 

Alt. 27 J, diam. 15 mill. ; alt. of aperture 15 mill. 

Alt. 22?, diam. 13 mill. ; alt. of aperture 1H mill. 



42 BULIMULUS-ANTILLEAN. 

Plantation 'La Grange' near Frederiksted,St. Croix, a pleistocene- 
fossil. 

Bulimus riisei PFR., Malak. Bl. ii, 1856, p. 103, pi. 4, f. 7, 8. 

The large umbilicus, greatly developed columellar lip and rather 
slender spire render this a peculiarly distinct species. The series of 
32 examples before me show great variability in comparative length 
of spire and in the place of insertion of the inner lip, which is some- 
times carried up near to the posterior angle of the aperture. 

B. LEHMANNI (Pfeiffer). PI. 9, figs. 40, 41, 42, 43. 

Shell perforate, ovate-conic, solid, opaque white, more or less flesh- 
tinted. Surface slightly shining, irregularly and in general coarsely 
and conspicuously plicate longitudinally, showing under a strong lens 
faint, close spiral striae. Spire conic, the apex obtuse, the nepionic 
whorls densely, minutely wave-wrinkled, the pattern more or les& 
irregular and interrupted. Whorls 6, moderately convex. 

Aperture ovate, slightly oblique, white inside, less than half the 
length of shell ; outer lip unexpanded, acute ; columellar lip dilated 
and reflexed. 

Alt. 19, diam. 9'3 mill. ; alt. of aperture 9 mill. 

Alt. 15, diam. 8*3 mill. ; alt. of aperture 7'5 mill. 

Alt. 18, diam. 8 mill. ; alt. of aperture 7'8 mill. 

Island of Anguilla (Swift, Rijersma) ; St. Martin, at Simson Bay 
(Maze). 

Bulimus lehmanni PFR., Malak. Bl., xii, 1865, p. 123; Novit, 
Conch., p. 281, pi. 69, f. 7, 8 ; Monogr. vi, 1 1 Q.Bulimulus lehmanni 
Pfr., MAZE, Journ. de Conch., 1890, p. 25. 

Distinct in its solid, opaque texture and coarse, more or less pli- 
cate surface sculpture. It varies somewhat in length of the spire, 
considerably in the prominence of the folds, and also in the size of 
the umbilicus. In the series of 51 Anguilla specimens before me, the 
umbilicus is almost closed in some examples, while others have it 
quite wide. 

B. LIMNOIDES (Ferussac). PI. 9, figs. 59, 60. 

Shell ovate-oblong, conoid, thin, pellucid, corneous, brown, 
smooth ; spire acute ; whorls a little convex, the last shorter than 
the spire, perforate at base ; aperture ovate ; lips thin, acute. 

Shell medium sized, oval-oblong, swollen toward the base, the 
spire conic and pointed at the summit ; whorls 7, flattened, sepa- 



BULIMULUS-ANTILLEAN. 43 

rated by a simple and superficial suture, regularly and quite rap- 
idly widening ; last whorl large, oval, obtuse below, nearly as high 
as the spire. External surface covered with fine, irregular striae of 
growth, which by their number and arrangement give the shell the 
luster of satin, by reflected light. Coloration varies but little, 
the thin and transparent shell is of a quite dark uniform brown, 
slightly more intense at the apex ; a whitish line at the suture. 
Aperture oval-oblong, russet-white within, dilated in front, con- 
tracted behind, but varying in form with age and in different speci- 
mens. Peristome whitish, quite thick, outwardly reflexed, of the 
same width almost throughout its extent. Columella short, dilated 
at base, whitish ; parietal callus semitransparent, rather thin. Um- 
bilical perforation very small, partly covered by the columellar re- 
flexion. Large individuals measure : alt. 30, diam. 15 mill. 

Guadelupe and St. Vincent (Fer.) ; Guadelupe at Capesterre, 
around the town (Mattei) ; Baillif, riviere des Peres (E. Marie) ; 
St. Martin (Van Rijersma). 

Helix (Cochlogena) limnoides FEB., Prodr., p. 53, no. 393 (no 
description). Bulimus limnoides DESH., in Lam., An. s. Vert., viii, 
p. 260 ; in Fer., Hist., p. 71, pi. 142, f. 9, 10. PFR., Monogr., ii, 
p. 224 ; Conchyl. Cab., p. 235, pi. 63, f. 3, 4.B. lymnoides REEVE, 
Conch. Icon., pi. 70, f. 510. Bulimulus limnceoides ALB. Buli- 
mnlus limnoides MAZE, Journ. de Conch., 1883, p. 20 ; J. de C., 
1890, p. 26. E. A. SMITH, Proc. Malac. Soc. Lond., i, p. 305. 

Probably does not occur outside of Guadelupe and dependent 
islets. I have not seen this species. It seems to be well distin- 
guished from B. chrysalis Pfr., which is perhaps its nearest ally, by 
the wider expansion of the lip. The figures and description are 
from Ferussac-Deshayes. 
B. CHRYSALIS (Pfeiffer). PI. 9, figs. 50, 51. 

Shell perforate, ovate-elongate, thin, pellucid, minutely striatu- 
late, corneous-chestnut. Spire conic, acute ; whorls 7 to 8, rather 
flat, the last about three-sevenths the total alt. Columella subverti- 
cal, rather straight, a little twisted. 

Aperture colored like the outside, oval ; peristorae simple, acute, 
the right margin narrowly expanded, columellar margin dilated, 
spreading. Alt. 22, diam. 10 mill. ; aperture 10 mill, long, 6 wide. 



Guadelupe (Petit de la Saussaie) ; Martinique, at Fort-de-France, 
151 meters alt., and Massif des Pitons, 510-650 meters alt. (Maze"). 



44 BULIMULUS-ANTILLEAN. 

Bulimus chrysalis PFR., Zeitsch. f. Mai., 1847, p. 14 ; Monogr. 
ii, p. 108 ; Conchyl. Cab., p. 238, pi. 63, f. 7, 8. REEVE, C. Icon., 
f. 382. DESH., in Fer. Hist., p. 71. ? Helix limnoides var. FEB., 
Hist., pi. 142, f. 11, 12. Bulimulus chrysalis MAZE, Journ. de 
Conch., 1874, p. 164. BINNEY, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1874, 
p. 53 (dentition). 

Very different from B. limnoides in the expanded peristome, not 
thickened within, according to Pfeiffer. Maze did not find typical 
chrysalis in Guadelupe ; a variety which he refers to that species 
occurred at many localities, but in my opinion it is not identical 
with Pfeiflfer's species. 

B. SEMICINGTUS Pilsbry, n. sp. PI. 12, fig. 63. 

Shell narrowly umbilicated, oblong-conic, thin and fragile. 
Chestnut-brown with a pale peripheral line; having faint growth- 
wrinkles and microscopic epidermal spirals. Spire conic, the apex 
obtuse, nepionic whorls forming an obliquely truncated pyramid, 
pitted-reticulate or wrinkled above. Whorls 5, slightly convex, 
the last angulated in front, the angle soon disappearing. 

Aperture oblique, somewhat over half the shell's length, narrowly 
ovate ; peristome thin, the edge pale and a trifle everted, narrowly 
expanded, outer lip slightly sinuous, more strongly arcuate above; 
columella purplish, straight, its margin dilated, forming a convex 
arched roof over the perforation. 

Alt. 19, diam. 9'7 mill. ; alt. of aperture lO'l mill. 

Guadelupe (Marie, Schramm). 

Bulimulus chrysalis var. ft MAZE, Journ. de Conchyl., 1883, p. 19. 

The aperture is decidedly larger than in B. chrysalis Pfr., and 
the periphery is angular in front and marked with a pale line. 

B. LHERMINIERI (Fischer). PL 11, figs. 20, 21. 

Shell oblong, thin, fragile, shining, corneous, longitudinally 
striated, spotted with numerous white dots. Whorls 5, a little con- 
vex, the apex obtuse, sutures lightly impressed ; the last whorl 
longer than the rest of the shell, tapering below. 

Aperture elongate, ovoid ; columella short, thin, roseate, not cal- 
loused ; peristome arcuate, thin, simple, a little reflexed. Alt. 24, 
diam. 12 mill. ; alt. of aperture 12 mill. (Fisch.'). 

Guadelupe ; Mountains of Petit-Bourg, over 800 meters above 
sea-level (Dr. Lherminier) ; Central cave at the N. E. of the plateau, 
at about 1396 meters alt. (Comert). 



BULIMULUS-ANTILLEAN. 45 

Bulimus Iherminieri FISCHER, Journ. de Conch., v (2d ser., i), 
April, 1857, p. 355, pi. 12, f. 6, 7. PFR., Monogr., iv, p. 39y. 
Bulimulus Iherminieri MAZE, Journ. de Conch., 1883, p. 17. 

" A very rare species which to this time has been met with only 
on the leaves of the large Bromeliacete of the mountains (Bromelia 
pinguin L.), and on one occasion, at the margin of the great wood 
on the lower branches of one of the great forest trees. 

" The shell is, as Fischer has described it, thin, shining, corneous, 
traversed horizontally by salient growth-strise and marked with quite 
closely placed whitish dots, which become effaced with age, and 
finally almost wholly disappear. In life the shell is a beautiful red- 
dish-brown, which changes to clear fawn after the death of the ani- 
mal. 

" The largest specimen collected measures 27 mill, long, 11 \ wide ; 
aperture 13 mill, long, 8? wide." 

It is extremely rare, according to Maze, from whom the above 
notes are taken. 
B. HOUELMONTENSIS Crosse. PL 9, figs. 45, 46. 

Shell slightly rimate, oblong-elongate, scarcely shining, thin, 
translucent, of a pale chestnut color ; spire moderately raised, the 
apex rather obtuse ; suture impressed. Whorls 6, but slightly con- 
vex, the last about as long as the spire, attenuately rounded at base. 

Aperture angulate-subovate, rather shining inside, colored like 
the exterior ; peristome simple, the margins separated, columellar 
margin dilated, whitish-chestnut, nearly closing the umbilical 
chink ; basal and outer margins rather acute. Alt. 15, diam. 7 
mill.; alt. of aperture 7 mill. (Crosse). 

Guadelupe, at Vieux-Fort, on the flank of Houelmont, 586 meters 
alt., under leaf rubbish (Bavay, Marie) ; also in the Saintes at Mar- 
igot, high land, under stones (Marie). 

Bulimulus houelmontensis CROSSE, MS. in Maze's Catal. Moll. 
terr. et fluv. Guad., Journ de Conch., xxxi, 1883, p. 19, pi. 1, f. 6; 
t. c. p. 43. 

A slightly shorter specimen before me, collected by E. Marie, 
measures, alt. 14, diam. 7, alt. of aperture 7 mill. The surface 
shows very faint traces of fine, close epidermal spirals, as in diaph- 
anus and other species of this immediate group. It is distinguished 
from others by the general proportions, aperture and diameter half 
the length of shell. The apex, as in diaphanus, has a densely 
punctate-reticulate sculpture. 



46 BULIMULUS-ANTILLEAN. 

B. FRATERCULUS (' Fer.' Potiez and Michaud). PI. 11, figs. 24, 25. 

Shell oval, oblong, perforate, fragile, fawn or clear corneous, 
transparent ; longitudinally striated ; the epidermis being a little 
lamellose, especially in young individuals, and these very fine and 
very caducious lamellae cross the longitudinal striae, thus rendering 
the shell a little rough to the touch. Spire composed of 5-6 whorls, 
the last larger than the rest taken together. 

Aperture ovoid, angular above and slightly so below at the union 
of the outer and inner margins ; peristome simple and sharp, a lit- 
tle reflexed only at the umbilicus. (P. & J/.). 

Alt. 12'3, diam. 5? or 6 mill. ; alt. of aperture 5*3 mill, (from 
the figures). 

Guadelupe (Per.). 

Bulimus fraterculus Fer., POTIEZ & MICHAUD, Galerie des Moll, 
du Mus. de Douai, i, p. 141, and Atlas, p. 14, pi. 13, f. 7, 8 (1838). 
? Helix ( Cochlogena) fraterculus FER., Tabl. Syst., p. 54, no. 395. 
Conf. PFR., Symbols ad Hist. Hel., ii, p. 46, no. 202.? B. fra- 
terculus Pfr., Monogr. Hel. Viv., ii, 220 ; Conchyl. Cab., pi. 49, f. 
5, 6. Probably not B. fraterculus RVE., C. Icon., pi. 63, f. 438. 

This species may be compared, in miniature and as to contour 
only, with B. guadalupensis Lam. [exilis Gm.]. Its spire is shorter 
comparatively, and it cannot be taken for the young of that spe- 
cies. (P. & M.}. 

This species was not described by Ferussac. The first description 
is that of Potiez and Michaud, and indicates a fragile brownish 
shell with spiral cuticular strise, somewhat like B. diaphanus Pfr., 
but smaller and more pupiform. Pfeiffer, some years later, de- 
scribed a specimen from the Paris Museum, apparently Ferussac's 
type, as follows : 

" Shell perforate, oblong-ovate, pale corneous, lusterless ; most 
minutely decussated with growth and transverse striae ; whorls 6, 
convex, the last a little shorter than the spire ; aperture oblong- 
oval ; peristome simple, thin, the right margin slightly expanded, 
columellar margin reflexed. Length 13, diam. 7 mill." 

I have been unable to identify this species with any of the shells 
before me. The B. fraterculus of American collections, reported 
from Porto Rico, St. Kitts, St. Croix, Antigua, St. John, St. 
Thomas, Trinidad and Barbados, is not this species ; so the locali- 
ties cited by Pfr. in Monogr. viii, p. 189, and by Smith, Ann. Mag. 
(6), viii, on the authority of Bland, do not refer to the true frater- 
culus. 



BULIMULUS-ANTJLLEAN. 47 

B. DIAPHANUS (Pfeiffer). PL 9, fig. 44. 

Shell narrowly perforate, thin and fragile, narrowly oblong-conic, 
alt. more than double the diara. ; corneous-brown (usually coated 
with closely adhering red earth), lusterless, the surface faintly stri- 
atulate, and spirally encircled with numerous delicate unequal epi- 
dermal lirce. Spire elevated, the apex obtuse, nepionic whorls densely 
and minutely pit-reticulated ; whorls 6-65, slightly convex. 

Aperture ovate, about three-sevenths the total alt., corneous-brown 
inside; outer lip thin, uuexpanded and fragile; columella slightly 
concave, the columellar lip convexly dilated and reflexed above. 

Alt. 16, diam. 7'2 mill. 

Alt. 15, diam. 7 mill. 

St. Thomas (Bland) ; Arecibo, Porto Rico (Bid.) ; St. Eustatius 
(Dr. Cleve) ; Saba (Ober, 1880) ; Barbados (Miss Foderougher, in 
Swift Coll.). 

Bulimus diaphanus PFR., P. Z. S., 1854, p. 125 ; Monogr., iv., p. 
505. 

Quite fragile and slender, but less elongated than B. mazei Crosse. 
The apical sculpture is very fine. The Saba, St. Eustatius and Bar- 
bados specimens agree in every respect with those from St. Thomas. 
Specimens from Porto Rico, which I can only refer to this species, 
vary from typical to decidedly wider ; selected examples measuring 
as follows : 

Alt. 14-8, diam. 7'3 ; alt. of aperture 6'2 mill. 

Alt. 13'3, diam. 7'5; alt. of aperture 6'7 mill, (immature). 

B. MARTINICENSIS (Pfeiffer). PI. 9, figs. 47, 48, 49. 

Shell ri mate-perforate, oblong-turrited, obliquely striatulate, rather 
solid, yellowish-corneous. Spire turrited, a little obtuse ; whorls 7, 
convex, the last slightly over one-third the length of shell. Aper- 
ture ovate-oblong, peristome narrowly expanded, white-lipped within, 
the lip outwardly pellucid, margins somewhat converging, the right 
margin arcuate, columellar margin dilated. Alt. 20, diam. 8 mill. ; 
aperture 73 mill, long ; 5 wide (Pfr.'). 

Martinique, at Massif des Pitons, alt. about 560 meters, in very 
shady places under leaves (Maze). 

Bulimus martmiceims PFR., P. Z. S., 1846, p. 40 ; Monogr., ii, p. 
120 ; Conchyl. Cab., p. 238, pi. 63, f. 9, 10. REEVE, Conch, Icon., 
pi. 63, f. 434. Bulimulus martinicensis MAZE, Journ. de Conch., 
1874, p. 164. 



48 BULIMULUS-ANTILLEAN. 

Seems nearly allied to B. diaphanus, but no cuticular spirals are 
mentioned by Pfeiffer. 

B. MAZEI Crosse. PI. 9, figs. 57, 58. 

Shell partly covered subrirnate, elongated, turriculate, quite thin, 
under the lens seen to be delicately, somewhat obliquely striated ; 
deep brown. Spire elevated, the apex rounded and rather obtuse, 
slightly pitted in the middle ; suture impressed. Whorls 7, a little 
convex and slowly widening, the earlier 2 paler, the last very ob- 
tusely subangular at the periphery, the angle disappearing toward 
the lip- edge. 

Aperture subvertical, less than half the total length, angular- 
ovate, brown within ; peristome simple, the margins distant, colu- 
mellar margin dilated and reflexed, whitish-brown, almost wholly 
covering the umbilical chink ; basal and outer margins rounded and 
acute. Alt. 19, diam. 7 mill. ; aperture 63 mill, long, 4 wide (Crosse). 

Massif des Pitons, Martinique, 730 meters above the sea level 
(Maze), on damp moss at the bases of trees. 

Bulimulus mazei CROSSE, Journal de Conchyl., xxii, 1874, p. 118, 
202, pi. 4, f. 3. MAZE, t. c. p. 165. 

The soft parts are black. The form is decidedly more slender than 
in B. diaphanus or other allied species, and the aperture hardly over 
one-third of the total length of the shell. 

B. BARBADENSIS (Pfeiffer). PL 12, fig. 61. 

Shell barely perforate or narrowly umbilicated, ovate-conic, thin 
and fragile, uniform russet-brown. Surface hardly or somewhat 
shining, with slight and inconspicuous growth-wrinkles and excess- 
ively faint cuticular spirals, obsolete on the base and sometimes 
scarcely visible on any part of the shell. Spire straightly conic, the 
apex obtuse, nepionic whorls densely and minutely zigzag-wrinkled. 
Whorls 5$, slightly convex, the last regularly convex. 

Aperture somewhat oblique, almost exactly half the shell's length 
or slightly exceeding that, ovate ; peristome thin, the outer lip not 
appreciably sinuous or expanded ; columellar lip dilated, generally 
almost closing the perforation. 

Alt. 20'7, diam. 11 mill.; alt. of aperture 11'2 mill. 

Alt. 20-2, diam. 10 mill. ; alt. of aperture 10'5 mill. 

Barbados (Bland, Guilding, Pfr.); Grenada (Smith). 



BULIMULUS-ANTILLEAN. 49 

Bulimulus fuscus GUILDING, Zool. Journ. iv, p. 170 (insufficient 
description). Bulimus barbadensis PFR., P. Z. S., 1852, p. 61 ; 
Monogr., iii, p. 435. B. tenuissimus Fer., SMITH, Ann. Mag. N. H. 
(6), viii, p. 252 ; Proc. Malac. Soc. i, p. 316. 

Several trays of this species before me, part collected by Thomas 
Bland, agree well in characters, though some are slightly stouter 
than others. It is larger than B. houelmontensis, with more straightly 
conic spire. In B. semicinctus, also closely allied, the periphery is 
subangular in front and begirt with a pale band, the aperture is 
larger, outer lip somewhat sinuous with everted edge, etc. Evidence 
that this species occurs on the mainland is still lacking. 

Whether Ferussac's B. tenuissimus was the Barbados shell with a 
wrong locality label is doubtful ; I am disposed to consider it a conti- 
nental form ; but it must freely be granted that the identification of 
these thin brown and corneous Bulimuli is an excessively difficult 
task, and almost impossible when the localities of the species or 
specimens are unknown. The first description of tenuissimus per- 
tained to the Brazilian shell so called by d'Orbigny, and it is to this 
form that the name must belong. 

B. STENOGYROIDES Guppy. Unfigured. 

Shell rimate, turrited, elongate cylindrical, scarcely shining, 
whitish-horn colored under a brown epidermis, stria? of growth some- 
what sinuate; whorls (? about 5 or 6), little convex, the last nar- 
row and forming half or more of the length of the shell. Aperture 
long-oval, narrow, rather produced anteriorly ; peristome simple, 
a little effuse anteriorly, acute, the margins joined by a thin callus; 
columella reflexed over the narrow umbilical fissure. 

Alt. ? , diam. 5* mill.; alt. of aperture, 6 ; width, 2* mill. ; alt of 
last whorl, 10 mill. (Guppy). 

Island of Dominica (Guppy). 

Bulimulus stenogyroides GUPPY, Ann. Mag., N. H. (4), i, 1868, p. 
431. B. (Peronceus) stenogyroides SMITH, Ann. Mag. N. H. (6), ii, 
p. 231. Bulimus stenogyroides Pfr., Monogr., viii, p. 132. 

Pfeiffer and Smith add nothing to Guppy's description of a single 
broken specimen, by which alone the species is thus far known. It 
probably belongs to the Stenogyroid series. 

B. SEPULCRALIS Poey. PI. 12, fig. 62. 

Shell narrowly umbilicated, oblong-conic, thin ; smooth, with 
slight growth-wrinkles but no spiral stride. Brownish-corneous, 
4 



50 BULIMULUS-ANTILLEAN. 

sometimes with a pale peripheral line. Spire conic, the apex ob- 
tuse, nepionic whorls smooth in most adult shells, but the young 
show an excessively fine, shallow pit-reticulation. Whorls 5 -6, 
quite convex, the sutures deeply impressed. 

Aperture ovate, contained about 2 times in length of shell ; outer 
lip regularly arcuate, acute, thin and unexpanded ; columellar lip 
dilated above partly over the well-marked umbilicus. 

Alt. 14, diam. 6-7 mill. ; alt. of aperture 6 mill. 

Alt. 9'5, diam. 5 mill. ; alt. of aperture 4'2 mill. 

Alt. 10, diam. 5*7 mill.; alt. of aperture, 4*5 mill. 

Havana and its environs, Cuba (Poey, Arango, Baker, et a.) ; 
New Providence, Bahamas (Swift, Bland, Bendall). 

Bulimulus sepulcralis POEY, Memorias sobre la Hist. Nat. de 
Cuba, ii, p. 203, pi. 12, f. 27-29 (B. urinarius Poey mss. to some 
collectors) ; also note 25, on p. 453. PFE. in Conchyl. Cab., p. 162, 
pi. 49, f. 3, 4 ; Monogr. iii, p. 438. ARANGO, Contrib. Fauna Malac. 
Cubana, p. 80. Bulimulus sepulcralis PFR., Mai. Bl., 1854, p. 195. 
BENDALL, Proc. Malac. Soc. Lond., i, p. 293. 

This species is closely allied to the forms of Yucatan and Central 
America, not to the group inhabiting from Trinidad to Haiti. It is 
undoubtedly a comparatively recent importation from the middle 
American mainland, and its distribution suggests that its presence 
in the Antilles may date only from the early days of Spanish com- 
merce iii America. It presents differences from the closely allied 
B. unicolor which are probably specific, though not very conspicu- 
ous. B. sepulcralis seems to be singularly restricted in distribution, 
being found only in the immediate vicinity of Havana, especially in 
cemeteries and on fortification walls. Bendall says it is abundant 
on damp ground at New Providence. It occurs near Nassau. 

New Providence specimens are sometimes larger than any of the 
extensive series I have seen from Cuba 16 mill, long, and the 
spire is generally more straightly conic, turrited; whorls 6j. 

Central American Species. 

The forms of this region are closely allied to those of Colombia 
and to B. sepulcralis of Cuba. Apical sculpture generally very 
indistinct, occasionally with spiral striae as well as longitudinal 
-wrinkles ; but these are more pronounced in some of the South 
American forms ; surface nearly smooth, with faint spirals in some 
species. 



BULIMULUS-CENTRAL AMERICAN. 51 

a. Small species, alt. less than 20 mill. 

b. Very slender ; diam. less than half the alt. ; aperture about 
one -third alt. inermis. 

bb. Stouter; diam. and aperture not far from one-half the alt. 
c. With delicate epidermal spirals. 

d. A chestnut band above sutures on spire, 

coriaceus. 

dd. Uniform flesh-colored, sarcodes. 

cc. No perceptible spiral sculpture, umbraticus, vnicolor, 

corneus. 

aa. Larger species, alt. 23-27 mill. ; diam. and aperture slightly less 
than one-half the alt. ; spire straightly conic, dysoni. 

B. INERMIS (Morelet). PI. 10, fig. 87. 

Shell narrowly and profoundly umbilicated, elongate- conic, rather 
thin, minutely striated, a little shining; covered with a very thin, 
pale, brownish-corneous epidermis. Spire long, the apex rather ob- 
tuse; suture profoundly impressed. Whorls 7, little convex, the 
two embryonal smooth and corneous, the last much shorter than the 
spire, attenuated at base, rounded ; columella nearly straight, whitish. 
Aperture acuminate-oval, colored like the exterior ; peristome sim- 
ple, the terminations separated, columellar margin vaultingly re- 
flexed, partially covering the umbilicus, basal and outer margins 
acute. Alt. 9, diam. 4 ; alt. of aperture 3, width H mill. (<7. & F.}. 
Environs of the toivn, Palizada, Yucatan (A. Morelet). 

Bulimus inermis MOREL., Testacea Noviss., ii, p. 10 (1851). 
PFR., Monogr., iii, p. 441 ; iv, p. 506 ; vi, p. 153. Bulimulus (Lepto- 
merits) inermis CROSSE & FISCHER, Miss. Sci. Mex.et Amer. Centr., 
p. 550, pi. 20, f. 16, 17. MARTENS, Biol. Cent. Amer., p. 241. 

One of the smallest Central American species, further remarkable 
for its elongation, the aperture being only one-third the total alt. 
Crosse & Fischer's description and figures, given above, are from 
Morelet's types. I have not seen the species. 

A var. major, alt. 13, diam. 6, alt. of aperture 5 mill., from N. 
Guatemala is mentioned by v. Martens. 

B. CORIACEUS (Pfeiffer). PL 10, figs. 79, 80 (77, 78, berendti). 

Shell perforate, ovate, thin, light brown, the whorls of the spire 
with a chestnut band above the sutures, fading on its upper margin ; 
apex purple-brown or brown. Surface lusterless except just in 
front of aperture, showing under the lens faint growth wrinkles and 



52 J3ULIMULUS-CENTRAL AMERICAN. 

very close, fine epidermal spiral strice. Spire conic, the apex obtuse, 
nepionic whorls superficially and microscopically granose-wrinkled 
and spirally incised -striate. Whorls about 5*, slightly convex, the 
last large, rounded. 

Aperture ovate, about one-half the shell's length, outer lip acute 
and not expanded, columellar lip reflexed and dilated above. 

Alt. 14, diam. 8*2 mill. ; alt. of aperture 7 mill, (specimen). 

Alt. 18, diam. 9 mill. ; alt. of aperture 8 mill. (P/K). 

Cordova, State of Vera Cruz (Salle) ; Orizaba (Hegewisch, 
Berendt and others), Mexico. 

Bulimus coriaceus PFR., P. Z. S., 1856, p. 318; Monogr., iv, p. 
504. Bulimulus coriaceus CR. & FISCH., Moll. Terr, et Fluv. Mex., 
p. 552, pi. 21, f. 7, 7a. MARTENS, Biol. Cent. Amer. p. 248. Buli- 
mus behrendti PFR., Malak. BI., viii, 1861, p. 168. Bulimus berendti 
PFR., t. c., pi. 3, f. 4, 5 ; Monogr. vi, p. 149. Bulimulus coriaceus var. 
berendti MARTENS, Biol. Centr. Amer., p. 249. Not B. berendti CR. 
& F., Moll. Mex., p. 554, pi. 21, f. 8, 8a. 

The chestnut band (fading on its upper edge into the light ground- 
color) above the sutures of the whorls of the spire, and the stout 
contour are good specific marks of this species, which is quite dis- 
tinct and easily recognized for a Leptomerus. 

Von Martens is doubtless correct in uniting berendti to coriaceus. 
A good series of both, including part of the original lot of coriaceus 
collected by Salle, and numerous berendti from Orizaba, the type 
locality, does not permit me to separate the two even as varieties. 

Specimens labelled "Guatemala, Sarg" are also before me. 

B. UMBRATICUS (Reeve). PI. 10, fig. 88. 

Shell subperforate, ovate -conic, rather thin, striatulate, somewhat 
pellucid, whitish, somewhat streaked with brown above. Spire long- 
conic, rather acute. Whorls 6, a little convex, the last about four- 
ninths the total length, rotund at base. Columella arcuate, some- 
what twisted above ; aperture oblique, oval ; peristome simple, un- 
expanded, the right margin lightly arcuate, columellar margin 
dilated, reflexed and subappressed. Alt. 15J, diam. 8 mill. ; aper- 
ture 7 mill, long, 4 wide (Pfr.'). 

Central America (Cuming Coll.). 

Bulimus umbraticus RVE., Conch. Icon., pi. 77, f. 559 (August 
1849). PFR., Monogr., iii, p. 414. 



BULIMULUS-CENTRAL AMERICAN. 53 

" Transparent white streaked with pale brown near the apex. It 
is possible that this may be a light variety of a species of more color, 
from the indications of marking near the apex " (Eve.). 

B. UNICOLOR (Sowerby). PI. 10, fig. 73. 

Shell perforate, ovate-conic, more or less elongated, thin, corneous- 
brown. Su rface slightly shining, with slight growth-wrinkles. Spire 
of a little over 5 2 whorls, the apex obtuse; nepionic whorls 
minutely, shallowly wrinkle-granose and spirally striated. Whorls 
convex, the last well rounded; sutures impressed. Aperture ovate, 
brownish inside; outer lip unexpanded, acute; columellar lip di- 
lated and reflexed above. 

Alt. 15*, diam. 8 mill. ; alt. of aperture 7 mill. (Panama). 

Alt. 15, diam. 7 mill. ; alt. of aperture 6J mill. (Labna). 

Alt. 14, diam. 1\ mill. ; alt. of aperture 6f mill. (Labna). 

Perico Island, Bay of Panama, on dead leaves (Cuming) ; Grey- 
town, Nicaragua (R. Tate) ; Istapa, Pacific coast region of S. Guate- 
mala, in forest (Morelet, for var. istapensis) ; Northern Yucatan, at 
Progreso, Telcanto, Sitilpech, Tunkas, Calcehtok, Ticul, Tabi, Uxmal 
and Labna (Heilprin, Baker, Stone, Ives, see Proe. A. N.S., Phila., 
1891, p. 310). 

Bulinus unicolor SOWB., P. Z. S., 1833, p. 73 ; Conchol. Illustr., f. 
43. Bulimus unicolor DH. in Lam., An. s. Vert., viii, p. 280. PFR., 
Monogr., ii, p. 219 ; Conchyl. Cab., p. 234, pi. 62, f. 41, 42. REEVE, 
Conch. Icon., v, pi. 21, f. 133. Bulimulus (Leptomerus) unicolor 
v. MART, in Alb., Die Hel., p. 222 ; Biol. Centr. Amer., Moll., p. 247 
(including petenensis and istapensis as varr.). Not Bulimus cor- 
neus Lea. ? B. berendtii CROSSE & FISCHER, Moll. Mex., p. 554, 
pi. 21, f. 8, 8a. 

This species varies much in degree of elongation and in size, and 
has no prominent specific characters. It is more slender than B. 
coriaceu t and lacks chestnut color on the spire. 

Sowerby's original description is as follows : Shell oblong, corne- 
ous, thin, the apex obtuse ; whorls 6, ventricose, striated, with dis- 
tinct sutures; aperture ovate, the margin thin, acute; umbilicus 
small. Length 0*8, diam. 0'3 inch (=. 20, 7* mill.). 

This indicates a somewhat larger shell than the specimens I have 
seen. 

Var. ISTAPEXSIS Cr. & Fisch. PL 10, fig. 81. 

Shell nearly covered umbilicate, ovate-elongate, thin, minutely 
and subobliquely striated, shining, dull whitish-hyaline ; spire sub- 



54 BULIMULUS-CENTRAL AMERICAN. 

elongate-conic, the apex a little obtuse ; suture impressed. Whorls 
6, slightly convex, the last a little shorter than spire (6i : 8), some- 
what attenuated at base, rounded. Aperture acuminate-oval, colored 
like the outside; peristome simple, unexpanded, the columellar 
margin dilated, whitish, nearly closing the umbilical fissure; basal 
and outer margins acute. Alt. 14, diam. scarcely 7 mill. ; alt. of 
of aperture 6, width 4 mill. (. & F.). 

Variety: a little smaller, corneous-hyaline, encircled by incon- 
spicuous, interrupted, whitish-hydrophanous lines. Alt. scarcely 
12, diameter 6 mill. (C.&F.~). 

Bulimulus istapensis C. & F., Journ. de Conch., xxi, 1873, p. 286 ; 
Moll. Terr, et Fluv. Mex., p. 549, pi. 20, f. 18. B. unicolor var. ista- 
pensis MARTENS, Biol. Centr. Amer., Moll., p. 248. 

The large series of specimens from numerous localities in northern 
Yucatan, which I refer to this species, are a variety probably near 
to, if not identical with, istapensis. The shells when fresh are 
brown or corneous-brown, but soon weather to whitish or corneous 
hyaline. In almost every locality the slender and stouter forms 
occur together, and with intermediate specimens. 

Var. PETENENSIS (Morelet). PI. 10, fig. 82. 

Shell larger, whitish with oblique streaks of brown or purple ; 
spire darker, becoming purple toward the apex. Whorls 6. 

Alt. 18, diam. 9 mill, (specimen from Morelet). 

Alt. 19, diam. 8 mill. ; aperture 8| mill, long (type). 

Peten, north Guatemala, on blades of grass in open savannas 
(Morelet). 

Bulimus petenensis MOREL., Testae. Noviss.,ii,p. 10. Bulimulus 
petenensis C. & F. t. c. p. 553, pi. 20, f. 13. B. unicolor var. peten- 
ensis MARTENS t. c. p. 248. 

More opaque than the preceding, somewhat larger, with the 
earlier whorls deep purple. 

B. CORNEUS (Sowerby). PI. 10, fig. 68. 

Shell narrowly umbilicated, ovate-conic, thin, uniform dull brown 
or corneous-brown ; but little shining. Surface smoothish, with 
light growth-wrinkles. Spire conic, the apex obtuse, nepionic 
whorls obsoletely wrinkle-granose. Whorls 5 to 6, moderately 
convex, the last ventricose. 



BULIMULUS-CENTRAL AMERICAN. 55 

Aperture irregularly ovate, subvertical, about half the length of 
the shell ; peristome thin, simple, the columella arcuate, columellar 
margin dilated and reflexed above. 

Alt. 15, diam. 9, alt. of aperture 7i mill. (Polvon, Nicaragua). 

Alt. 15J, diam. 8, alt. of aperture, 7f mill. (Polvon, Nicaragua). 

Alt. 14, diam. 7, alt. of aperture 6 mill. (Pfr.). 

Alt. 0-6, diam. 0'3 inch (Sowb.*). 

Belize River, British Honduras (Berendt) ; Guatemala : Retal- 
huleu, on the lowlands of Pacific slope (Stoll) ; Escuintla, on Pacific 
slope (Morelet) ; Zacapa, E. Guatemala, on cacti (Stoll) ; Realejo, 
under decayed grass, N. W. Nicaragua (Cuming) ; San Juan, Castillo 
and Toro Rapids (Gabb), and San Juan River (Tate), S. E. Nicar- 
agua; Guanacasta, N. W. Costa Rica (Pittier) ; Puerto Viejo, on the 
Rio Sarapiqui, JV. E. Costa Rica (Biolley) ; central Costa Rica at 
Las Palmares,Prov. Alajuela (Orosco) ; San Jose (Biolley) ; Tilorio 
and Zhorquin Rivers, E. Costa Rica (Gabb). 

Bulinus corneus SOWB., P. Z. S., 1833, p. 37 (published May 17, 
1833 ; see P. Z. S., 1893, p. 436). 

Bulimus corneus PFR., Monogr., ii, p. 219; Conchyl.Cab., p.242, 
pi. 63, f. 29, 30. EEEVE, Conch. Icon., pi. 21, f. 134. ANGAS, P. Z. 
S., 1879, p. 479. Not Bulimus corneus Lea, 1838, nor of Desh., 
1833, Michaud,1858, or Menke, 1830. 

Bulimulus (Leptomerus) corneus Sowb., MARTENS in Die Hel., 
edit. 2, p, 222 ; Biol. Centr. Amer., p. 246, pi. 15, f. 9 (living animal). 
CROSSE & FISCHER, Moll. Mex., i, p. 548. Bulimulus corneus 
BINN. & BLD., Proc. A. N. S. Phila., 1873, p. 28.Leptomerus 
corneus BINN., Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci., iii, p. 124 (jaw and dentition). 
Bulimus berendti Pfr., TATE, Amer. Journ. Conch., 1870, p. 156. 
BINNEY, Amer. Journ. Conch., vii, 1872, p. 182 (jaw a'nd radula). 
Not B. berendti Pfr. 

A decidedly stouter species than B. unicolor, to which it is other- 
wise allied. 

Var.? NITBECULATUS (Pfr.). PI. 10, figs. 69, 70. 

Shell umbilicate, ovate-oblong, rather solid and smooth, shining; 
pale corneous clouded with darker ; spire conic, the apex rather 
obtuse ; suture deep ; whorls 5?, convex, the last three-sevenths the 
total alt., rotund at base; columella vertical, produced or projecting 
at the base of the aperture. Aperture little oblique, subelliptical, 
subangular at base, white inside ; peristome simple and unexpanded, 



56 BULIMULUS-CENTRAL AMERICAN. 

the right margin strongly arched, columellar margin dilated and 

reflexed, free. Alt. 16, diara. 8i mill. ; alt. of aperture 1\ mill. (Pfr.*). 

Central America (Morelet in Cuming Coll.). 

Bulimus nubeculatus PFR., P. Z. S., 1851, p. 257 ; Monogr., iii, p. 
438 ; Conchyl. Cab., p. 92, pi. 31, f. 15, 16. 

Considered a variety of corneus by von Martens (who apparently 
had not seen specimens), and on his authority so treated here. Its 
main differential characters are the clouded coloration and produced, 
subangular basal lip. 

Var. MINOR v. Mart. PL 10, figs. 71, 72. 

Shell one-colored, grayish-corneous, similar to B. corneus but 
smaller. Alt. 12, diam. 8 ; alt. of aperture 7 mill. 

San Andres Tuxtla, near Vera Cruz, E. Mexico (Salle). 

Bulimulus (Leptomerus) nubeculatus Pfr., CROSSE & FISCHER, 
Moll. Mex.,i, p. 556, pi. 24, f. 7, la. 

On account of its locality, the specific relationship of this form to 
corneus or nubeculatus is by no means certain ; it may be a form 
of coriaceus. 

B. BARCODES (Pfeiffer). PI. 10, figs. 74, 75, 76. 

Shell openly perforate, oblong conic, thin, striatulate, very obso- 
letely decussated with spiral lines under the lens, flesh colored. 
Spire conic, rather acute. Whorls 6, a little convex, the last about 
four-ninths the length of shell. Columella lightly arcuate. Aper- 
ture oval, shining inside, the peristome unexpanded and acute, right 
margin arcuate, columellar margin dilated, vaultingly spreading. 
Alt. 17, diam. 8 mill. ; aperture 8 mill, long, 4$ wide. (Pfr.}. 

Honduras (Dyson). 

Bulimus sarcodes PFR., P. Z. S., 1846, p. 30 ; Monogr., ii, p. 220 ; 
Conchyl. Cab., p. 233, pi. 62, f. 39, 40. REEVE, Conch. Icon., pi. 
61, f. 414. 

No later authors have added anything to Pfeiffer's original de- 
scription of this species, which has not occurred to other collectors. 
It differs from B. unicolor in having faint spiral lines, or " delicate 
impressed striae." " It is an extremely delicate, transparent shell " 
according to Reeve. 

B. DYSONI (Pfeiffer). PL 10, fig. 83. 

Shell perforate, oblong-conic, quite thin and somewhat transpar- 
ent ; corneous brown ; surface somewhat shining, with slight growth- 



UNIVERSITY 



BULIMULUS-CENTRAL AMERICAN. 57 

wrinkles and an appearance of very faint spiral stria3 below the 
sutures, which are but little impressed and under a lens seem to be 
very narrowly margined by transparence. Spire rather straightly 
conic, the apex obtuse, nepionic whorls with shallow, fine, short- 
waved interrupted and dislocated wrinkles, and slight, fine, im- 
pressed spiral striae. Whorls 6*, weakly convex, the last obsoletely 
angular at the periphery. 

Aperture rather narrowly ovate, brownish-corneous inside, deci- 
dedly less than half the length of the shell ; peristome thin and 
unexpanded ; columella slightly concave, the columellar margin 
dilated and reflexed above. 

Alt. 27, diam. 12J; alt. of aperture 12| mill. 

Alt. 23 J, diam. 10 ; alt. of aperture 9f mill. 

Alt. 20, diam. 9 ; alt. of aperture 9 mill. (type). 

Alt. 25, diam. 11 ; alt. of aperture 101 mill. 

Honduras (Dyson) ; Nicaragua (Swift. Coll.) ; around Duenas t 
Guatemala (Salvin) ; Yucatan (Martens). 

Bulimus dysoni PFR., P. Z. S., 1846, p. 39 ; Monogr., ii, p. 183. 
REEVE, Conch. Icon., pi. 62, f. 425. Buliinulus dysoni CROSSE & 
FISCHER, Moll. Terr, et Fluv. Mex., p. 551. MARTENS, Biol. Amer. 
Centr., p. 241. 

The columella may be faintly seen through the shell in clean 
examples, as Reeve has already remarked. The spire is rather 
straight, whorls but little convex, and the last one is obsoletely 
angled, the angle most visible ventrally, where it arises exactly at 
the upper insertion of the outer lip. The appearance of spiral 
striation is like that of B. cacticolus, and depends on some structural 
character of the shell-substance rather than on an actual sculpturing 
of the surface. There is a considerable range of variation in the 
length of spire, as usual in Bulimulus, some specimens, like that last 
measured above, having it quite long. The apical sculpture is like 
that of cacticolus. 

A tray of 8 specimens from Cuidad Bolivar, Venezuela, shows no 
material variation from the Central American shells. They are 
slightly more opaque and of a trifle redder tint. The locality datum 
can hardly be questioned, as the original label accompanies the 
shells. 

Var. IGNAVUS Reeve. PI. 10, fig. 86. 

Shell oblong-ovate, rather deeply umbilicated, whorls 7, rounded, 
longitudinally very finely striated ; columella broad, slightly re- 



58 BULIMULUS-SOUTH AMERICAN. 

fleeted, lip simple. Dirty horn color. A thin horny shell with 
the whorls somewhat rounded and rather deeply umbilicated (Reeve). 
Central America (Cuming coll.) ; Campeche (A. Salle) ; and 
Palizada (Morelet), Yucatan. 

Bulimus ignavus RVE., Conch. Icon., pi. 77, f. 562 (Aug., 1849). 
B. dysoni var. B. PFR., Monogr., iii, p. 438. 

B. ignavus is considered by Pfeiffer, Crosse and Fischer and von 
Martens a var. of dysoni characterized by the smaller, more fragile 
shell, with the basal angle less conspicuous. Alt. 9, diam. 4 j- mill. 
A specimen collected by Salle is figured by Crosse & Fischer (see 
pi. 10, figs. 84, 85). I am disposed to think that ignavus is as dis- 
tinct from dysoni as most of the middle American species of Lepto- 
merus are from one another. 

Species of northwestern South America. 

Not different in general features from the forms of Central 
America or eastern S. America. 

a. With minute spirals ; pale corneous-brownish or yellowish. 
b. Large, alt. 22-32 mill. ; whorls 6!-7, cacticolus, erectus. 

bb. Small ; whorls 5! ; fine epidermal spirals, buenavistensis. 
aa. Without spiral strise. 

b. Diameter less than half the alt. 

c. Alt. 20 mill.; aperture ! alt. ; whorls 6 ; pale reddish- 
corneous, juvenilis. 
cc. Alt. 21 mill. ; aperture nearly ! alt. ; whorls 7 ; rugulose- 
striate ; pellucid straw-whitish, glandiniformis. 
ccc. Long, rather solid, white; whorls 7 2-8; aperture con- 
tained 2 times in alt., krebsianus. 
cccc. Alt. 13! ; ovate, smooth, corneous ; whorls 6-7 ; aper- 
ture f of alt., fontainii. 
ccccc. Alt. 17!, aperture 8 mill, long; striatulate, pale cor- 
neous, perforation minute ; whorls 6, molecillus. 
bb. Diameter equal to or exceeding half the alt. 

c. Alt. 17, diam. 10, length aperture 10 mill.; globose- 
conic, pale grayish-tawny ; whorls 4!, marmatensis. 
cc. Alt. 12!, diam. 7!, aperture 6 mill. ; subhyaline; whorls 
5, hyaloideus. 

ccc. Alt. 13, diam. 6!, aperture 6 mill. ; corneous-whitish, 
smooth ; whorls 5!, ucayalensis. 



BULIMULUS-SOUTH AMERICAN. 59 

B. BUENAVISTENSIS Pilsbry, n. n. PL 10, fig. 95. 

Shell small, narrowly umbilicated, ovate-conic, thin, light corneous- 
brown. Surface luster less, to the sight and touch like velvet with 
excessively short pile ; the growth lines inconspicuous, but showing 
under the lens very fine raised cuticular spirals throughout, subregu- 
larly and very closely placed. Spire conic, the apex obtuse, the 
earlier If whorls, very densely, finely granose in zigzag-wrinkled 
pattern. Whorls 5i, moderately convex, the last yrith the appear- 
ance of being subangular in front of aperture, but there is almost 
no actual angle. 

Aperture slightly oblique, elliptical, narrowed above and below, 
colored like the outside, a trifle less than half the shell's length ; 
peristome thin, acute and unexpanded, outer lip quite regularly 
arcuate, in profile view its upper fourth seen to be produced for- 
ward ; columella straight, the columellar margin dilated above. 

Alt. 11'4, diam. 6'3 ; alt. of aperture 5 -4 mill. 

Buenavista, Colombia (T. R. Peale). 

Bulimus corneus LEA, Trans. Amer. Philos. Soc., vi, 1836, p. 66, 
pi. 23, f. Ill (June, 1838 ; see Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc., i, 1838, p. 19) ; 
Observations on the Genus Unio, etc., ii, p. 66, pi. 23, f. Ill (1838). 
Not Bulimus corneus Desh., 1836, nor of Sowerby, 1833. 

Lea's figure and measurements were from a larger specimen 
(" length 0'7 of an inch ") than that preserved in his cabinet, from 
which my description and figure are drawn. 

It is not, as PfeifFer stated with doubt (Monogr., ii, p. 219), a variety 
of B. unicolor, differing radically from that species in sculpture; and 
it is equally distinct from other small species of northwestern S. 
America and Central America, none of which have the characteristic 
cuticular spirals of Lea's B. corneus. Among the Antillean species 
B. diaphanus has more prominent growth- wrinkles ; and in B. houel- 
montensis the body-whorl is much more oblong and the sutures 
deeper. 

Type is No. 105078 U. S. Nat. Mus. 

B. JUVENILIS (Pfeiffer). Unfigured. 

Shell perforate, ovate-fusiform, thin, lightly striatulate, hardly 
shining, pale reddish-corneous. Spire long-conic, the apex rather 
acute. Whorls 6, but slightly convex, the last a little shorter than 
the spire, obsoletely subangulate in the middle, the base attenuated ; 
columella somewhat straightened, a little receding. Aperture oblique, 



60 BULIMULUS-SOUTH AMERICAN. 

oval-elliptical, subangulate at base; peristome simple, unexpanded, 
dilated above, vaultingly reflexed. Alt. 20, diam. 8? mill. ; aperture 
10 mill, long, 5 wide. (Pfr.). 

Santa Fe de Bogota (Ctiming coll.). 

Bulimus juvenilis PFR., P. Z. S., 1855, p. 97 ; Monographia, iv, 
p. 503. 

May be a form of B. dysoni, such as the Venezuela specimen 
mentioned above. 

B. CACTICOLUS (Reeve). PI. 10, figs. 89, 90. 

Shell umbilicated, ovate-pyramidal, thin ; uniform dull buff; 
lusterless ; the surface nearly smooth, but having slight growth- 
wrinkles and fainter spirals around the top of the whorls. Spire 
elevated conic, the apex obtuse, nepiouic whorls with fine and shallow, 
interrupted, short-waved corrugation and faint incised spiral lines. 
Whorls 6, convex ; last whorl inflated. 

Aperture ovate, rounded below, whitish-brown inside, less than 
half the length of shell ; outer lip thin, sharp and unexpanded ; 
columellar lip dilated. 

Alt. 32, diam. 18 mill. ; alt. of aperture 15 mill. 

Alt. 33, diam. 17 mill. ; alt. of aperture 15 mill. 

Alt. 25, diam. 12 mill. ; alt of aperture 13 mill. (type). 

Curiana, on cacti (Dyson) and on the Yaracuy River (John Hill- 
yer), Venezuela. 

Bulimus cacticolus RVE\, Conch. Icon., pi. 58, f. 393 (Jan., 1849). 
PFR., Monogr., iii, p. 439. Otostomus (Leptomerus) cacticolus 
Rve., MARTS., Binnenmoll. Venez., p. 31. 

B. cacticolus is the largest species of this section, and may readily 
be known by its size, dull buff color, thin but not fragile shell, rather 
open umbilicus, etc. The following species seems to me to be merely 
a slender form of cacticolus, differing somewhat in the more con- 
spicuous spiral striae. As I have not seen the type, it may stand 
here provisionally. 

B. ERECTUS (Reeve). PI. 10, fig. 99. 

Shell openly perforate, ovate-turrited, thin, subrugate, closely 
sculptured with spiral impressed lines, subpruinosa, pale corneous ; 
spire erect, rather acute ; whorls 7, a little convex, the last shorter 
than the spire, slightly compressed at base. Columella lightly arcu- 
ate. Aperture subvertical, oblong-oval ; peristome simple, unex- 



BULIMULUS-SOUTH AMERICAN. 61 

panded, the right margin regularly arcuate, columellar margin 
vaultingly reflexed. Alt. 22, diam. 11 mill.; alt. of aperture 11, 
width 6 mill. (P/r.). 

Curiana, Venezuela, on cacti (Dyson). 

Bulimus erectus REEVE, Conch. Icon., pi. 58, f. 392 (Jan. 1849). 
PFR., Monogr., iii, p. 439. 

" Of a uniform horn color, with peculiarly erect spire " (Rve). 
Seems to differ from B. cacticolus only in being somewhat more 
slender, with stronger longitudinal and spiral sculpture. The name 
erectus has precedence on Reeve's pages. 

B. MARMATENSIS (Pfeiffcr). Unfigured. 

Shell perforate, globose-conic, thin, striatulate, pellucid, pale 
grayish-tawny. Spire conic, rather obtuse. Whorls 4, moderately 
convex, the last slightly longer than the spire, rounded. Columella 
lightly arcuate. Aperture little* oblique, rotund-oval ; peristome 
simple, unexpanded, the right margin very arcuate, columellar 
margin dilated above, reflexed, vaulted over the narrow perfora- 
tion. Alt. 17, diam. 10 mill.; aperture 10 mill, long, 7 wide. 



Marmato, U. S. of Colombia (Cuming Coll.). 
Bulimus marmatensis PFR., P. Z. S., 1854, p. 125 ; Monogr., iv, 
p. 501. 

B. HYALOIDEUS (Pfeiffcr). Unfigured. 

Shell narrowly umbilicate, ovate-conic, thin, irregularly striatu- 
late, somewhat hyaline; spire regularly conic, the apex rather 
acute. Whorls 5, convex, the last a little shorter than the spire, 
with rounded base. Aperture little oblique, rounded-oval ; peri- 
stome simple, acute, the margins approaching, right margin unex- 
panded, very arcuate, columellar margin arcuate, somewhat spread- 
ing. Alt. 12*, diam. 1% mill. ; aperture 6 mill, long, 4 wide. (Pfr.'). 
Mendez, in the Andes of Colombia (Cuming Coll.). 

Bulimus hyaloideus PFR., P. Z. S., 1854, p. 292 ; Monogr., iv, p. 
505. 

May be allied to B. guttula Pfr. 

B. GLANDINIFORMIS Sowerby. PI. 10, figs. 93, 94. 

Shell narrowly perforate, oblong, very thin, shining, pellucid, 
straw-whitish ; longitudinally rugulose-striate. Spire turrited, the 



62 BULIMULUS-SOUTH AMERICAN. 

apex obtuse. Whorls 7, a little convex, separated by a narrowly 
channelled suture; the last whorl nearly -half the length of the 
shell, slightly tapering at base. Aperture suboval, nearly vertical ; 
columella rather straightened, reflexed, nearly covering the perfor- 
ation ; peristome simple and acute. Alt. 21, diarn. 7 mill. (Sowb.~). 
Bogota, U. S. of Colombia (Da Costa coll.). 

Bulimulus glandiniformis G. B. SOWERBY, P. Z. S., 1892, p. 297, 
pi. 23, f. 13, 14. 

A transparent, fragile shell, with very much the appearance of a 
Glandina (Sowb.*). It may prove to be a Drymceus. 

B. KREBSIANUS Pilsbry, n. sp. PI. 10, figs. 1, 2. 

Shell narrowly umbilicated, long, ovate-pyramidal, thin, but 
rather solid ; white, faintly flesh-tinted toward the apex ; somewhat 
shining. Smoothish, with slight growth- wrinkles, and on some 
specimens excessively faint, close spiral strise on the spire. Spire 
long-conic, the apex obtuse, nepionic whorls very shallowly, mi- 
nutely zigzag-wrinkled and pitted. Whorls 7i-8, slightly convex, 
the last rounded. 

Aperture ovate, slightly oblique, white inside, contained over 2 
times in length of shell ; outer lip acute, unexpanded, regularly ar- 
cuate ; basal lip narrowly arcuate ; columella concave below, 
straightened above, its edge well reflexed above. Alt. 26, diam. 11, 
alt. of aperture 9'8 mill. 

Carthagena, Colombia (Krebs). 

The white color is unusual in this subgenus, but the apical sculp- 
ture shows it to belong here. The spire is unusually lengthened. 

B. FONTAINII (d'Orbigny). PI. 10, figs. 96, 97. 

Shell narrowly umbilicated, oblong-conic, rather solid, pellucid, 
more or less shining, smooth ; corneous or greenish-corneous. Spire 
ovate-conic, rather acute ; suture simple. Whorls 6-7, convex, 
moderately increasing, the last not descending, somewhat com- 
pressed at the umbilicus. Columella little oblique, lightly arcuate. 
Aperture oval, colored like the outside, the base sometimes suban- 
gular, about two-fifths the shell's length ; peristome simple, unex- 
panded, acute, the margins converging, joined by a very delicate 
callus ; right margin arcuate, columellar margin dilated above, 
vaultingly reflexed. Alt. 13?, diam. 6 mill. (Hidalgo). 

Guayaquil, Ecuador, among plants (Fontaine, Paz and Martinez). 



BULIMULUS-SOUTH AMERICAN. 63 

Bulimus fontaimi ORB., Voy. Am. Merid., p. 273. PFR., Monogr., 
ii, p. 220. B. fontainei PFR., Monogr., iv, p. 505. HIDALGO, 
Journ. de Coiichyl., 1875, p. 130, pi. 7, f. 6 ; Mol. Viaje al Pacif., 
p. 126. 

On some specimens there is a whitish spiral line at the middle of 
the last whorl. It is allied to B. unicolor, but the aperture is rather 
smaller. 

B. UCAYALENSIS (Crosse). PL 10, fig. 98. 

Shell nearly covered perforate, pyramidal-elongate, thin, pellucid, 
nearly smooth, uniform corneous-whitish. Spire quite long, the 
apex somewhat obtuse ; sutures well marked. Whorls 5?, slightly 
convex, the last a little longer than the spire and rounded at base. 
Aperture nearly oval, whitish-corneous inside ; peristome simple and 
whitish, the margins somewhat separated, columellar margin vault- 
ingly reflexed, covering the greater part of the perforation ; basal 
and outer margins a little reflexed and nearly acute. Alt. 13, diam. 
6* mill. ; alt. of aperture 6, width 4} mill. (Crosse). 

Banks of the Ucayali River, Ecuador (Orton). 

Bulimus ucayalensis CROSSE, Journ. de Conch., xix, 1871, pp. 
229, 317, pi. 13, f. 4. 

B. MOLECILLUS (Reeve). PL 10, fig. 3. 

Shell nearly covered perforate, oblong, somewhat solid, striatu- 
late, little shining, slightly diaphanous, pale corneous. Spire ovate- 
conic, rather obtuse. Whorls 6, a little convex, the penultimate 
whorl prominent, last whorl shorter than the spire, somewhat atten- 
uated at base. Columella folded, receding. Aperture oblique, 
narrowly oval ; peristome simple, unexpanded, the right margin 
very slightly arcuate, columellar margin dilated, flesh-colored, sub- 
appressed and reflexed. Alt. 17s, diam. 7 ; alt. of aperture 8, 
width 4 mill. (P/r.). 

Tarma, Peru (Jelski). 

Bulimus molecillus REEVE, Conch. Icon., pi. 77, f. 565 (Aug., 
1849). PFR., Monogr., iii, p. 436. LUBOMIRSKI, P. Z. S., 1879, p. 
725. 

The locality of the Cumingian specimens was unknown, but Lub- 
omirski identifies it from Peru. The distinctly folded columella is 
hardly a character of the present subgenus, but I do not know 
where else to place it, having seen no specimens. 



64 BULIMULUS-SOUTH AMERICAN. 

Species of N. E. South America, Brazil, Bolivia, Argentina, etc. 
B. ORTHODOXUS (Drouet). PL 10, figs. 4, 5. 

Shell narrowly umbilicated, oval-conic, thin, a little solid, 
slightly striated, lusterless, warm ashey-grayish or whitish, subtrans- 
lucent. Whorls 5, regularly increasing, slightly convex, the last 
somewhat ventricose. Apex conic, rather acute. Aperture oval, 
half the total alt. of shell ; peristome a trifle thickened, the colu- 
mellar margin reflexed. Alt. 15, diam. 8 mill. ; alt. of aperture 8, 
width 5 mill. (Drouet). 

Ilet-la-Mere, FrenchGuiana, under stones on dead leaves (Eyries). 

Bulimus orthodoxies DROUET, Essai sur les Moll. Terr, et Fluv. 
de la Guyane Fran 9 aise, p. 62, pi. 1, f. 14, 15 (1859). 

It is allied to the white, one-colored form of B. exitis, but easily 
distinguished by the smaller size, more ventricose form and the 
less lengthened aperture. (Drouet). 

B. EGANUS (Pfeiffer). PI. 11, figs. 6, 7. 

Shell perforate, ovate-conic, thin, under the lens seen to be obso- 
letely decussated with longitudinal and spiral lines. Surface hardly 
shining, having a frosted appearance, brown-corneous. Spire conic, 
the apex obtuse ; suture moderate. Whorls 5, moderately convex, 
the last slightly longer than the spire, obsoletely angulated in the 
middle, the base a trifle compressed. Aperture oblique, subellipti- 
cal, somewhat angular at base ; peristome simple, thin, the right 
margin spreading, columellar margin dilated above, reflexed and 
subappressed. Alt. 13, diam. 62 mill. ; aperture 7 mill. long. 
(Pfr.). 

Ega, Brazil. 

Bulimus eganus PFR., Monogr., iii, p. 437 ; P. Z. S., 1851, p. 258 ; 
Conchyl. Cab., p. 85, pi. 30, f. 11, 12. 

A small species, with obsolete decussated sculpture, probably 
allied to B. buenavistensis. 

B. TENUISSIMUS (d'Orbigny). PI. 10, figs. 91, 92. 

Shell perforate, ovate-conic, very thin, pellucid, scarcely shining, 
obsoletely and closely decussated by growth striae and delicate spiral 
lines ; pale corneous, sometimes fulvous. Spire conoid, the apex 
rather acute, suture simple. Whorls 6, slightly convex, increasing 
with moderate rapidity, the last whorl convex, not descending in 
front, somewhat attenuated at base. Columella suboblique, some- 



BULIMULUS-SOUTH AMERICAN. 65 

times nearly vertical. Aperture oval, colored like the exterior, one- 
half the shell's length ; peristome simple, unexpanded, acute, the 
right margin regularly arcuate, columellar margin reflexed above, 
nearly covering the perforation. Alt. 17, diam. 9 mill. (Hidalgo). 
Rio Janeiro (type locality ; Orbigny, Paz and Martinez) ; Bahia 
(Paz and Martinez, Moricand, Challenger); Pernambuco (Petit). 

Helix tenuissima (Fer.) ORB., Mag. de Zool., 1835, p. 1 1 (name 
only). Bulimus tenuissimus (" Fer., danssa collection ") ORB., Voy. 
p. 272. . tenuissimus (" Fer. ex fide Orb.") POTIEZ & MICHAUD, 
Galerie des Moll, du Mus. de Douai, i, p. 158, pi. 15, f. 19, 20 
(1838). HIDALGO, Viaje al Pacif., p. 119. SMITH, P. Z. S., 1884, 
p. 280Bulimulus thoreyi BECK, Index Moll., 1837, p. 67 (name 
only). Bulimus thoreyi Bk., PFR., Monogr., iv, p. 500. Not B~ 
tenuissimus Fer., Histoire, pi. 142B, f. 8. 

More or less doubtful references : Bulimus corneus POT. & MICH., 
Galerie, i, p. 137, pi. 14, f. 11, 12, 1838 [from Cayenne ; name preoc.]. 
Bulimus tennis DKR., MS., olim, in Albers, Die Hel., 1850, p. 166 r 
and note 2 on p. 168 [from near Angostura (Gruner) ; not described]. 
Bulimus tenuissimus FER., Hist., pi. 142 B, f. 8. PFR., Monogr.,. 
ii, p. 218 ; iii, 439 ; iv, 504 ; vi, 152. TATE, Ann. Mag. N. H. (4), 
iv, 1869, p. 356. SMITH, Ann. Mag. N. H. (6), iii, p. 403. Conf. 
also, REEVE, f. 288, and Conchyl. Cab., p. 241, pi. 63, f. 25., 26. 
SMITH, Proc. Malac. Soc., i, p. 316. CROSS E, Journ. de Conchyl. r 
1890, p. 43 (Journ. of Conch., viii, p. 241). 

See pi. 14, figs. 9, 10. Smaller than B. barbadensis, with more 
convex whorls, finer apical sculpture and a gray rather than russet 
color ; the surface has the dull " bloom " of a plum, a little scratched 
in places showing the glossy surface below. The figures on pi. 10 
are from Pot. & Mich., and are not typical. Those on pi. 14 were 
drawn from " topotypes " collected at Rio Janeiro by Dr. von Iher- 
ing. Other localities given for the species are Huanuco, Peru 
(Fontaine, see Orb.) and Bolivia, given by Orbigny in his pre- 
liminary " Synopsis " but omitted by him in the " Voyage," probably 
because the shells proved distinct on further investigation. 

The descriptions of Potiez and Michaud and of d'Orbigny were 
the first to be published, although there was a Helix tenuissima in 
Ferussac's collection prior to d'Orbigny's publication. The date of 
Ferussac's plate 142 B, on which H. tenuissima Fer. first appeared 
is unknown ; but as that illustration is quoted neither by d'Orbigny 
nor by Potiez & Michaud, (who elsewhere cite freely earlier plates 
5 



66 BULIMULUS-SOUTH AMERICAN. 

of the Histoire), it is clear that no date earlier than 1838 can be 
claimed for the Ferussacian illustration, unless ample authority can 
be adduced proving its earlier publication. 

B. tenuissimus FEB., Hist., pi. 142 B, f. 8 (see pi. 9, figs. 53, 54) is 
according to Deshayes, " A thin, transparent, extremely fragile shell 
of a very pale corneous color, appearing smooth, but when seen under 
a strong lens the surface is found to be latticed by growth striae and 
obsolete, inconspicuous transverse striae." It has been united by 
Mr. E. A. Smith (Ann. Mag. N. H., 6th ser., viii, p. 252) with B. 
barbadensis Pfr. ; but I am satisfied that they are not identical. At 
all events, barbadensis seems to be distinct from the Brazilian shell 
first described as tenuissimus, and to which the name is here re- 
stricted. 

The locality " Cayenne," given by Pfeiffer, rests upon authority 
of doubtful value, depending upon the correctness of his reference of 
B. corneus P. & M. (not Sowb.) to tenuissimus as a variety. It is also 
quoted from Angostura on the authority of specimens called B. tennis 
by Dunker, which PfeifFer regards as tenuissimus. Trinidad, Bar- 
bados, Grenada, and St. Lucia have also been cited as localities for 
B. tenuissimus; but I regard the shells from these localities as spe- 
cifically different. 

B. PUELLARIS (Reeve). PI. 11, fig. 8. 

Shell subperforate, ovate-conic, thin, smoothish, showing very 
minute oblique striation under the lens, diaphanous, whitish. Spire 
conic, acute ; suture impressed. Whorls 6, but slightly convex, the 
last somewhat shorter than the spire, rounded at base. Aperture 
oblique, truncate-oval ; peristome simple, unexpanded, the right 
margin receding at base; columella shortly reflexed above, subap- 
pressed. Alt. 22, diam. 10 mill.; aperture 10 mill, long, 6 wide. 



Brazil (Cuming coll.). 

Balimus puellaris REEVE, Conch. Icon., pi. 86, f. 637 (Feb., 
1850). PFR., Monogr., iii, p. 411. 

An elegantly convoluted, semitransparent shell. (Rve.). 
B. GORRITTIENSIS Pilsbry. PL 11, figs. 9, 10. 

Shell perforate, ovate-turrited, thin and fragile, corneous-brown 
or dirty corneous-whitish. Surface slightly shining, sculptured with 
irregular and rather coarse wrinkles of growth. Spire elevated, 
rather slender, the lateral outlines straight ; apex quite obtuse, the 



BULIMULUS-SOUTH AMERICAN. 67 

nepionic whorls shallowly, rather irregularly zigzag wrinkled in the 
young, this sculpture lost with age. Whorls 6, convex, with well 
impressed sutures. 

Aperture ovate, rather wide, brownish inside, varying from slightly 
to decidedly under half the length of the shell ; outer lip regularly 
arcuate, acute, unexpanded and fragile, columella slightly concave, 
the columellar margin narrowly reflexed above. 

Alt. 20, diam. 10 mill.; alt. of aperture 9 mill. 

Alt. 17, diam. 8 mill. ; alt. of aperture 7 mill. 

Alt. 17, diam. 8t mill.; alt. of aperture 8 mill. 

Gorritti Island, Maldonado Bay, Uruguay (Dr. Wm. H. Rush, U. 
S. N.). 

B. gorritiensis PILS., Nautilus, x,p. 78 (name only) ; Proc. Acad. 
N. S. Phila., 1897, p. 18 (Feb. 23). 

A smaller, thinner, more turrited shell than B. sporadieus or its 
varieties, the whorls more convex, apex blunter, the first whorl 
being planorboid. The whorls are more convex and more wrinkled 
than in thorvyi or tenuissimus. 

B. SPORADICUS (Orbiguy). PI. 11, figs. 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18. 

Shell perforate, oblong-subfusiform, thin, striatulate ; whitish or 
pale corneous, typically variegated with narrow corneous or brown 
streaks. Spire elongated, conic, the apex acute. Whorls 7-8, 
slightly convex, the last about three-sevenths the total alt., attenu- 
ated at base. Columella somewhat straightened, a little receding. 
Aperture oval-oblong ; peristome simple, unexpanded, the columellar 
margin dilated above and reflexed half over the perforation. 

Alt. 32, diam. 12| ; aperture 15 mill, long, 7 wide. 

Prov. Corrientes, Entre-Rios, Buenos Ayres, and south to the Rio 
Negro, Argentina; Montevideo, Uruguay. 

Helix sporadica ORB., Mag. de Zool., 1835, p. 12. Bulimus sporad- 
ieus ORB., Voy. dans 1'Amer. Merid., p. 271, pi. 32, f. 12-15. PFR., 
Monogr., ii, p. 201 ; vi, p. 128. HEYNEMANN, Malak. Bl. 1868, p. 
108, pi. 4, f. 6 (jaw and teeth). HIDALGO, Viaje al Pacif, p. 120. 
Bulimulus (Thaumastus) sporadieus STROBEL, Mater. Malac. 
Argent., p. 24 (with var. bonariensis). DOERING, Bol. Acad. Nac. 
Cien. Rep. Argent., iii, p. 73 (with varr. montevidensis and subtro- 
picalis}. PARAVICINI, Bol. Mus. Zool. ed Anat. Comp. Univ. Tor- 
ino, ix, no. 181, p. 6 (1894). Balinus sporadieus SOWB., Conch. 
Illustr., f. 73-75. Bulimus montevidensis PFR., P. Z. S., 1846, p. 



68 BULIMULUS-SOUTH AMERICAN. 

33 ; Monogr., ii, p. 202. REEVE, C. Icon., f. 114. See also, HID- 
ALGO, Journ. de Conch., 1875, p. 128 : 1870, p. 60. 

Typical SPORADICUS Orb., as restricted by Pfeiffer, is brownish or 
whitish, with brown longitudinal streaks (figs. 12-14). The var. sub- 
tropicalis of Doering is a synonym. 

Chiquitos region, Bolivia. 

Var. BONARIENSIS Strobel. 

Shell more ventricose, thinner, paler, of a unicolored ashy-yellow. 
Alt. 25, diara. 14 mill. 

Buenos Ayres, Argentina. 

Var. MONTEVIDENSIS Pfeiffer (pi. 11, fig. 19), is opaque white 
with close, narrow longitudinal corneous streaks ; often showing an 
indication of peripheral angulation, produced by color rather than 
by form. 

Alt. 31, diam. 15 ; alt. of aperture 15 mill. 

Alt. 33, diam. 14 ; alt. of aperture 14? mill. 

Montevideo, Uruguay. 

Pfeiffer was the first to restrict Orbigny's species, so that the above 
arrangement of the varieties should replace that proposed by Doer- 
ing, as well as the transposition advocated by Hidalgo. The apex 
in this species is not smooth, as in Lissoacme, but minutely pitted, 
pits closely arranged in oblique series, the sculpture scarcely visible 
on many adult shells from the effects of wear, but constantly pres- 
ent on young and unworn adult specimens. The jaw has about 12 
vertical riblets ; teeth in nearly straight transverse rows. 

B. CORUMBAENSIS Pilsbry. PI. 14, figs. 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8. 

Shell umbilicate, ovate, with rather lengthened spire; rather thin 
but solid and strong when adult ; opaque-white, with numerous dark 
brown or corneous longitudinal streaks, the last whorl often becom- 
ing abruptly darker below the periphery; surface shining, with 
irregular growth-wrinkles, no spiral strise or with only the faintest 
traces of them. Spire conic, the lateral outlines nearly straight; 
apex small, obtuse, 1J earlier whorls reddish-corneous, densely and 
distinctly wrinkled in finely zig-zag pattern, sharply defined from 
the after-growth. Whorls fully 7, but slightly convex, slowly 
widening, separated by impressed sutures. 

Aperture ovate, slightly oblique, white or slightly streaked within, 
somewhat less than half the length of the shell ; edge of outer lip 



BULIMULUS-SOUTH AMERICAN. 69^ 

a trifle expanded, with more or less general expansion basally; 
columella oblique, nearly straight, the columellar lip very broadly 
revolute around the capacious umbilical cavity, and faintly flesh- 
tiuted. 

Ait. 24*, diam. 12; alt. of aperture Hi mill. 

Alt. 23f, diam. 10* ; alt. of aperture 11 mill. 

Corumba, Prov. Matto Grosso, Brazil (H. H. Smith). 

Bulimus amcenus Bonnet, Rev. et Mag. de Zool., 1864, p. 70, pi. 
6, f. 2. Not Bulimus amcenus Pfr. Bulimulus connnbaensis PILS- 
BRY, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1897, p. 19 (Feb. 23). 

The locality given by Bonnet for this species is incorrect, like 
most of those recorded for the species described in his paper. It 
occurs at Corumba, where Mr. Herbert H. Smith found it common 
on walls, etc. B. corumbaensis is closely allied to the typical form 
of B. sporadicus Orb., but it is a less elongated shell, solid, with 
distinctly expanded peristome and very widely dilated columellar 
lip, the umbilicus much larger than in sporadicus. The striped 
color-pattern is a conspicuous but variable character. Bonnet's 
figures are copied on pi. 14, figs. 7, 8. 

B. VESICALIS (Pfeiffer). PI. 12, figs. 42, 42. 

Shell subperforate, ventricose ovate, tapering toward each end, 
thin, pellucid, striatulate; pale corneous above. Spire somewhat 
concavely conic, the apex rather acute, whorls 62, a little convex, 
the last whitish, as long as the spire, more swollen, columella 
slightly receding. Aperture little oblique, oblong-oval, pearly 
within ; peristome simple, unexpanded, acute, the columellar margin 
vitreous, vaulted, reflexed. Alt. 25, diam. 13 mill. ; aperture 14 
mill, long, 7 wide. (Pfr.). 

Brazil (Coll. Gruner). 

Bulimia vesicalis PFR., Zeitschr. f. Mai., March, 1853, p. 58; 
Conchyl. Cab. p. 261, pi. 70, f. 23, 24; Monographia iii, p. 654; 
viii, p. 146. Not B. vesicalis Gld., Oct. 1853. 

Var. uruguayamts Pilsbry, n. var. PI. 12, figs. 38, 39. 

Shell perforate, ovate or oblong with rather short, conic spire ; 
thin but moderately solid, corneous-brown or dirty white, adults 
being usually denuded of the thin cuticle. Surface shining in the 
young, but nearly lusterless when adult, having irregular growth- 
wrinkles often quite prominent on the back of last whorl. Spire 



70 BULIMULUS-SOUTH AMERICAN. 

short-conic, its outlines a trifle concave above; apex obtuse, the 
nepionic whorls showing shallow, short ripples in the young, mainly 
lost by wear in the adult. Whorls 5f-6, moderately convex, the 
last two more convex, last whorl either quite obese or somewhat com- 
pressed ; sutures well impressed. 

Aperture subvertical, white within, ovate, acutely angular above, 
about one-half as long as shell ; outer lip regularly arcuate, acute 
and unexpanded; columella nearly straight, the margin reflexed 
above. 

Alt. 22 J, diam. 14 mill.; alt. of aperture 12 mill. 

Alt. 24, diam. 13 mill.; alt. of aperture 12 mill. 

Montevideo, Uruguay, in the plain back of the " Cerro," on this- 
tles (Dr. Wm. H. Rush, U. S. K). 

This species resembles B. apodemetes d'Orb. in contour, but the 
apex is decidedly larger, the outlines of the spire contracted above, 
columella straighter, and finally the nepionic whorls, which appear 
quite smooth even in young apodemetes, are seen to be distinctly 
though shallowly sculptured when the apex is unworn. It is more 
closely allied to B. sporadicus and montevidensis, but in the latter 
species the spire is much longer and more attenuated, the sutures 
shallower, and the surface without streaked coloration. I have not 
seen StrobePs var. bonariensis, but from his calling it thinner than 
sporadicus I conclude that it must differ from the present form, 
which is fully as solid as the thickest sporadicus or montevidensis 
which I have seen. 

B. RUSHII Pilsbry. PI. 12, fig. 47. 

Shell umbilicate, globose-ovate, rather thin but solid, light-yellow- 
ish. Surface with inconspicuous growth wrinkles and extremely fine, 
close incised spiral stria, visible only above the periphery. Spire 
very short, conic, the apex obtuse. Whorls slightly over 6, moder- 
ately convex, the suture shallow but well marked. Aperture slightly 
oblique, ovate, a trifle over half the total length of shell ; peristome 
simple, unexpanded. The columellar margin broadly dilated above. 
Alt. 19, diam. 14 mill. ; alt. of aperture 10 mill. 

Maldonado, Uruguay (Dr. W. H. Rush). 

Bulimulus Eushii PILS., Nautilus, x, Nov. 1, 1896, p. 78, (name 
only) ; Proc. Acad. N. S. Phila., 1897, p. 18 (Feb. 23). 



BULIMULUS-SOUTH AMERICAN. 71 

Apparently allied to B. spor adieus and B. vesicalis, especially to 
the stouter variety of the latter species ; but conspicuously different 
in the very short spire, globose form and widely open, deeply pene- 
trating umbilicus. By an inadvertent exchange of labels, a wrong 
locality was given in the catalogue of Dr. Rush's shell in the 
Nautilus. 

B. MENDOZANUS Strobel. PI. 11, figs. 22, 23. 

Shell covered-perforate, oblong, thin, the spire elongate, apex 
obtuse ; suture impressed. Whorls 4*-5, somewhat convex, rapidly 
increasing, the first very delicately longitudinally striated, shining, 
roseate-buff, the rest longitudinally subrugose, somewhat shining, 
buff with longitudinal corneous rays, the last not descending, slightly 
exceeding half the shell's length. 

Aperture oblique, oval, peristome simple, acute, the margins 
joined by a very thin parietal callus ; outer margin unexpanded, the 
columellar thin, a little expanded above, half closing the perfora- 
tion ; throat whitish-rose. Alt. 20-24, diam. 10-12 ; aperture, length 
11-13, width 7-8 mill. (). 

Villa Vicencio, Sierra de Mendoza, Argentina (Strobel). 

Bulimulus(Eudioptus)mendozanus STROB., Mater. Malac. Argent., 
p. 23, pi. 1, f. 4 (1874). DOERING, Bol. Acad. Nac. Cieu., iii, p. 70. 
B. (Mormus) mendozanus MARTENS, Jahrb. D. M. Ges., ii, 1875, 
p. 270. 

It differs from B. pseudosucdnea Moric. in the perforation of the 
shell, more convex and less numerous whorls, and more obtuse spire 
(Strobel). Doering believes it allied to B. monticola and B. tortor- 
anus ; while von Martens refers the species to s. g. Mormus. 

B. FOURMIERSI (d'Orbigny). PI. 11, figs. 26, 27, 28. 

Shell short, rather ventricose, subumbilicate ; thin, diaphanous 
and smooth ; uniform gray-brown. Spire conic, short, the apex 
obtuse; whorls 5, convex, swollen, separated by deep sutures. 
Aperture oval, the peristome thin and sharp ; columella very nar- 
row. Alt. 11, diam. 7 mill. (Orb.). 

Prov. Corrientes, Argentina, near Rio de Santa Lucia, at a place 
called Pasto reito, in a clump of trees in the plains (Orb.). 

Bulimus fourmiersi D'ORB., Voy., p. 273, pi. 30, f. 12-14. PFR., 
Monogr., ii, p. 196. Thaumastus fourmiersi DOERING, Bol. Acad. 
Nac. Cien. Rep. Arg., iii, p. 73. 

Shorter than B. tenuissimus, with deeper sutures. 



72 B.ULIMULUS-SOUTH AMERICAN. 

B. SIMPLEX (Htipe). PI. 11, figs. 31, 32. 

Shell thin, fragile, corneous, ovate-conic with acuminate spire, 
acute at apex ; whorls 6-7, narrow and convex, the last more swollen, 
about half the total length. Aperture oval ; peristome thin, sharp, 
dilated toward the base ; columellar margin dilated above, partly 
covering the small umbilical fissure. Alt. 15, diam. 8 mill. (Hupe). 

Peru, (Castelnau). 

Bulimus simplex HUPE (Castelnau's) Anim. nouv. ou rares * 
Amer. du Sud Moll., p. 53, pi. 9, f. 6 (1857). PFR., Malak. Bl., 
1858, p. 166. 

Allied to B. tenuissimus, but more swollen, and the spire is more 
acuminate (Hupe). Pfeiffer considers this a synonym ofB.four- 
miersi, but that seems a shorter shell. The locality given above is 
doubtful. The name is preoccupied by Jonas in Bulimus. 
B. HELOICUS (d'Orbigny). Vol. X, p. 193, pi. 51, figs. 12, 13. 

Probably belongs to this group rather than to Lissoacme. 
B. NIVALIS (d'Orbigny). PI. 11, figs. 35, 36. 

Shell subimperforate, conic-ovate, thin, smooth ; greenish-corneous, 
here and there streaked with chestnut; spire conic, obtuse. Whorls. 
5, a little convex, the last longer than the spire, rounded at base ; 
columella very lightly arcuate. Aperture somewhat oblique, acu- 
miriate-oval ; peristome simple, unexpanded, the columellar margin 
thin, reflexed and adnate. Alt. 16, diam. 8f ; aperture 9 mill, long, 
5 wide. (P/K). 

Mountains around Potosi, Bolivia, 5000 meters alt., under stones, 
etc. (Orb.). 

Helix nivalis ORB., Mag. de Zool., 1835, p. 12. Bulimus nivalis 
ORB., Voy., p. 287, pi. 32, f. 8, 9. PFR., Monogr., ii, p. 170 ; in, 
406 ; iv, 466 ; vi, 107. 

In form like B. oblongus on a very small scale, but thin and sharp- 
lipped. Orbigny gives alt. 14, diam. 9 mill., as the size. The sub- 
generic position is doubtful. 

B. PLICATULUS (Pfeiffer). Unfigured. 

Shell umbilicated, ovate-conic, rather thin, sculptured with low, 
somewhat varix-like folds ; hardly shining, pale gray, irregularly 
painted with very narrow white and brown streaks. Spire conic, 
acute. Whorls 7, slightly convex, the last a little shorter than the 
spire, base somewhat compressed around the moderate sized, rounded 



BULIMULUS-SOUTH AMERICAN. 73 

umbilicus. Columella rather straightened. Aperture slightly ob- 
lique, elliptical-oblong, the peristome simple, unexpanded, columellar 
margin dilated from the base, vaultingly reflexed. Alt. 23, diam. 
11 J mill. ; aperture 11 mill, long, 6 wide. (Pfr.}. 

Bolivia (Cuming coll.). 

Bulimus plicatulm PFR., P. Z. S., 1856, p. 390; Monogr., iv, p. 
488. 

B. CASTELNAUI (Pfeiffer). Unfigured. 

Shell subperforate, fusiform-turrited, rather thin, striatulate (some- 
what decussated under a lens) ; shining, gray-whitish, with sparsely 
scattered pellucid dots ; spire elongate-conic, the apex acute, corne- 
ous. Whorls 7J, a little convex, the last about two-fifths the length 
of shell, attenuated at base. Columella rather straightened. Aper- 
ture oblique, oblong, flesh-colored inside ; peristome simple, unex- 
panded, the columellar margin dilated above, vaultingly reflexed. 
Alt. 20, diam. 8* mill. ; alt. of aperture 8f, width 8 mill. (Pfr.). 
Rio Pampas, Bolivia (Castelnau, in Mus. Cuming). 

Bulimus eastelnaui PFR., P. Z. S., 1856, p. 332 ; Monogr., iv, p. 
473. 

A slender shell with scattered pellucid dots. Its generic position 
is not known. 

Locality unknown. 

B. TRANSPARENS (Reeve). PI. 1] , fig. 1 1. 

Shell subperforate, oblong-conic, thin, rugose-striate, pellucid, dull 
corneous. Spire conic, somewhat obtuse. Whorls 6, a little convex, 
the last a little shorter than the spire, somewhat attenuated at base. 
Columella arcuate. Aperture oblique, oval ; peristome simple, the 
right margin slightly arcuate, columellar margin shortly reflexed 
above, subappressed. Alt. 19, diam. 8 mill. ; alt. of aperture 9 , 
width 5 mill. (P/r.). 

Habitat unknown (Cuming coll.). 

Bulimus transparent RVE., Conch. Icon., pi. 77, f. 566 (August, 
1849). PFR., Monogr., iii, p. 436. 

Of as light and delicate a structure as any Lymnea. (Rve.). 

B. INUTILIS (Reeve). PI. 11, fig. 37. 

Shell perforate, oblong-conic, rather solid, irregularly plicatulate, 
little shining, corneous. Spire conic, somewhat obtuse. Whorls 6, 
a little convex, the last somewhat shorter than the spire, compressed 
at base. Columella lightly arcuate. Aperture little oblique, oblong, 



74 BULIMULUS-RHINUS. 

subangulate at base ; peristome simple, unexpanded, the columellar 
margin dilated above and vaultingly reflexed. Alt. 17, diam. 8 
mill. ; aperture 8 mill, long, 4 wide. (Pfr.). 

Habitat unknown (Cuming coll.). 

Bulimus inutilis REEVE, Conch. Icon., pi. 86, f. 639 (Feb., 1850). 
PFR., Monogr., iii, p. 438. 

Differs from B. nubeculatus by the less convex whorls, the last one 
longer, narrow umbilicus, etc. (P/K). The type should be com- 
pared with the numerous similar Leptomerus species. 

B. HAPLOCHROUS (Pfeiffer). Unfigured. 

Shell perforate, ovate-fusiform, thin, rather smooth, not shining, 
diaphanous, corneous whitish ; spire long, convex-turrited, rather 
acute. Whorls 7, but slightly convex, the last a little shorter than 
the spire, attenuated at the base. Columella lightly arcuate. Aper- 
ture oblique, subelliptical, subangulated at base ; peristome simple, 
unexpanded, the right margin regularly arcuate, columellar margin 
dilated above, vaultingly reflexed. Alt. 30, diam. 12 mill.; aper- 
ture 14 mill, long, 7 wide in the middle. (Pfr.'). 

Habitat unknown (Cuming coll.). 

Bulimus haplochrous PFR., P. Z. S., 1854, p. 125 ; Monogr., iv, p. 
502. 

May be allied to B. krebsianus. 

Section RHINUS Albers, I860. 

Rhinus ALB., Die Heliceen (edit, von Martens), p. 223. Type 
B. heterotrichus Moric. 

Bulimuli with the nepionic whorls finely and densely rugose from 
the interruption of waved striae, or zigzag-striate ; the cuticle else- 
where hairy or bristly in spiral lines. Form globose-ovate to 
oblong; perforate; lip expanded or narrowly reflexed. Type B. 
heterotrichus. 

Distribution, eastern and north-eastern South America, from 
southern Brazil to Venezuela. 

These forms are closely allied to typical Bulimulus t but differ in 
the bristly or velvet-like cuticle, which as usual functions as a holder 
of soil for the purpose of protection. It is a further development of 
the cuticular spirals seen in many Bulimuli of the typical group. 



BULIMULUS-RHINU8. 75- 

Key to species of Rhinus. 

I. Cuticular processes of two kinds : longer bristles in spaced spiral 
rows, and numerous spirals between them bearing smaller 



a. Nepionic whorls with the wrinkles much waved and in- 
terrupted (pi. 13, fig. 25). 

b. Ovate-conic, rather solid, heterotrichus, p. 75. 
b'. Ovate-globose, rather thin, longiseta, p. 77. 

velutinohispidus, p. 76. 

a'. Nepionic whorls very densely striolate longitudinally 
(pi. 13, fig. 21) ; spire elevated, conic. 

b. Many spirals between the rows of bristles, which 

are about a millimeter apart, scobinatus, p. 77. 

b'. Fewer spirals between the rows of bristles, which 

are much nearer together, riliatus, p. 78. 

II. Cuticle with a uniform close pile of subequal curved hairs; 

nepionic whorls densely zigzag striate. 

' a. Columella with a projecting fold above; alt. 13-16 mill., 

pubescens, p. 81. 
a'. Columella not folded ; alt. 22-25 mill., 

consirictm, p. 80 ; sarcochilus, p. 80. 
B. koseritzi (p. 79) is not included in the above table. 

B. HETEROTRICHUS (Moricand). PI. 13, fig. 1 ; pi. 15, fig. 18. 

Shell narrowly umbilicate, ovate-conic, solid and strong or rather 
thin ; chestnut-brown or light yellowish-brown, paler and yellowish 
above, and with a narrow light girdle at the periphery, sometimes 
having a spiral chestnut band within the umbilicus. Surface densely 
spiralled with rows of short, curved and rather stiff hairlets, and 
with widely spaced rows of separated stiff and much longer bristles, 
usually in great part lost in adult shells, but leaving more or less 
obvious scars (pi. 15, fig. 18). Spire straightly conic, the apex ob- 
tuse, nepionic whorls densely and very finely waved and rugose. 
Whorls about 6J, but slightly convex, the last large and globose, 
descending toward the aperture, a trifle contracted behind the peri- 
stome. 

Aperture oblique, ronnd-ovate, purplish within ; peristome ex- 
panded and narrowly reflexed, white ; columellar margin dilated 



76 BULIMULUS-RHINUS. 

above, partly covering the umbilicus ; columella concave ; parietal 
callus thick or thin. 

Alt. 41, diara. 28, alt. of aperture 20 mill. 

Alt. 36, diam. 26, alt. of aperture 18'5 mill. 

Alt. 36, diam. 23, alt. of aperture 16 mill. 

Alt. 33-5, diam. 21 mill. 

Brazil: Bahia (Blanchet, von Ihering); Corcobado,atRio Janeiro 
(Paz.). 

Helix (Coehlogena) heterotricha MORICAND, Mem. de Phys. et 
Soc. d'Hist. Nat. Geneve, vii, pt. 2, p. 430, pi. 2, f. 5, 6 (1836). 
Bulimus heterotrichus DESH. in Lam., Anim. s. Vert., viii, p. 241 ; 
and in Fer., Hist., ii, p. 16, pi. 157, f. 1, 2. BECK, Index, p. 51. 
REEVE, Conch. Icon., pi. 32, f. 199. PFR., Monogr., ii, p. 116; vi, 
p. 28. HIDALGO, Journ. deConchyl., 1870, p. 59. 

Doubtful synonyms: Helix tumida GMEL., Syst. Nat. (13), p. 
3668, based on Gualtieri, pi. 5, f. Q. Helix scobinata FER.? ac- 
cording to Pfeiffer. 

A larger and stronger species than B.velutinohispidus, with more 
whorls, a longer and more conic spire, and less inflated body- whorl. 
According to Moricand the animal is entirely black. His measure- 
ments, alt. 55, diam. 32 mill., are greater than in any of the shells 
before me. 

Var. subtenuis n. v. PI. 13, figs. 2, 25 ; pi. 15, f. 19. 

This is a smaller, thinner form, with shorter spire of scarcely 6 
whorls, lighter corneous-brownish color, and proportionally larger 
aperture. The peristome is less developed. 

Alt. 28, diam. 20, alt. of aperture 15 mill. 

Alt. 29, diam. 21, alt. of aperture 15'5 mill. 

B. VELUTINOHISPIDUS (Moricand). PI. 13, fig. 3 ; pi. 15, fig. 20. 

Shell perforate, globose, with short, conic spire, thin, light brown- 
ish corneous or olivaceous, generally more or less covered with dirt, 
except on the front of the body-whorl, the surface roughened by 
dense spiral lines of short hairs and more spaced series of stiff bris- 
tles, often lost in the adult shell (pi. 15, fig. 20). Spire short, conic, 
the apex obtuse, nepionic whorls very shallowly and finely waved 
in irregular, indistinct pattern. Whorls 5, quite convex, the 
sutures well impressed ; last whorl much inflated, descending grad- 
ually in front. 



BULIMULUS-RHINUS. 77 

Aperture rounded, decidedly oblique, of a fleshy tiiit inside ; 
peristome white, very narrowly subreflexed, the columellar margin 
broadly, triangularly dilated above, columella concave. 

Alt. 20, diam. 17, alt. of aperture 11 mill. 

Alt. 27, diam. 22 mill. 

Brazil, Bahia, on the ground under dead leaves, in damp places 
(Blanchet). 

Helix velutino-hispida MORIC., Mem. Soc. Phys. Hist. Nat. de 
Geneve, vii, p. 429, pi. 2, f. 4 (1836). Bulimus velutino-hispidus 
DESK, in Lam., Anim. s. Vert., viii, p. 262. POT. & MICH., 
Galerie, i, p. 158, pi. 15, f. 21, 22. PFR., Monogr., ii, p. 100; vi, 
p. 49. Bulimus hirtus BECK, Index, p. 51 (1837). 

There are more rows of bristles than in B. heterotrichus, and the 
shell is more globose with shorter spire and fewer whorls ; it is also 
less solid. In B. scobinatus the spire is much longer and the aper- 
ture proportionally smaller. The animal is dark with a tint of 
rose. The measurements last given above are from Moricand. 

B. LONGISETA (Moricand). PL 13, figs. 22, 23. 

Shell ventricose-conic, perforate, pellucid, thin, dull yellowish. 
Spire conic, obtuse ; whorls 4, rotund, with well marked sutures, 
the last whorl inflated, marked with an inconspicuous paler zone ; 
covered with sparse long bristles, readily detached, and nearly a 
millimeter in length, a little curved in different directions ; aperture 
subrotund, the lips thin. Umbilicus narrow but deep. Alt. and 
diam. 7 mill. 

Province of Bahia, Brazil (Blanchet). 

Helix (Bulimus) longiseta MORIC., Mem. Soc. Phys. et Hist. Nat. 
Geneve, xi, p. 156, pi. 5, f. 18-20 (1846). PFR., Monogr., ii, p. 196. 

Pfeiffer, who probably had not seen the shell, supposes this may 
be the young of B. velutinohispidus. It is known to me by Mori- 
cand's description and figures only. 

B. SCOBINATUS (Wood). PL 13, figs. 4, 7, 21 ; pi. 15, fig. 25. 

Shell narrowly umbilicate, ovate-conic, rather thin; olive yellow 
or light brown-olive, somewhat shining. Surface with close, fine 
spiral lines of short cuticular hairs or asperities, and spaced series 
of much larger stiff short bristles. Spire long, conic, the apex ob- 
tuse, 2 nepionic whorls sculptured with excessively close, minute, 



78 BULIMULUS-RHINUS. 

somewhat undulating vertical striae (fig. 21) with indistinct, fine 
spiral lines above the suture. Whorls 5f to 6, convex, the last 
globose, usually a trifle angulated peripherally at its origin, slightly 
deflexed in front. 

Aperture rounded, oblique, somewhat flesh-tinted within ; peri- 
stome paler, narrowly expanded ; columellar margin broadly 
dilated above. 

Alt. 23'7, diam. 15, alt. of aperture 10'5 mill. ; whorls 6i. 

Alt. 17, diam. 12, alt. of aperture 8'5 mill. ; whorls 5f. 

Brazil. 

Helix scobinata Mawe, WOOD, Index Testae. Suppl., pi. 8, f. 77. 
PFR., Monogr., ii, p. 100 ; iii, p. 338 ; vi, p. 49 ; Conchyl. Cab., 
p. 253, pi. 68, f. 12, 13. 

The high conic spire and especially the clear-cut but very minute 
striolation of the apex are leading features of this species. It varies 
a good deal in size and number of whorls. 

VAR. PI. 15, figs. 21, 22. 

Fragile, with the sculpture and slight anterior peripheral angula- 
tion of scobinatus; but decidedly more globose with shorter spire; 
whorls 5|. Alt. 19, diam. 15 mill. 

B. CILIATUS (Gould). PI. 13, figs. 17, 18 ; pi. 15, fig. 24. 

Shell thin and fragile, ovate-conic, acute at summit, covered with 
minute, crowded longitudinal and revolving striae. On the revolv- 
ing striae are seated series of dark, stiff, tapering, slightly recurved 
hairs of unequal length ; there are about eight series of the long 
ones on the penult whorl, and about twenty on the last whorl, 
between two of which are either two or three series of shorter and 
finer ones, the whole resembling coarse velvet. Whorls six, con- 
vex ; [nepionic whorls densely and minutely vertically striolate, the 
striae clear-cut, somewhat beaded by the crossing of equally fine 
incised spiral lines] ; the last one large, ventricose, and subcarinate. 
Suture profound ; aperture subovate, slightly angular at base, lip 
simple, acute; columella straight, white, reflected over a small, deep 
perforation. Length of axis five sixths of an inch, breadth six- 
tenths of an inch. (Old.). 

Alt. 19, diam. 15, alt. of aperture 10 mill, (specimen). 

Brazil, Province Rio de Janeiro, Organ Mountains, on bushes 
near the water (Dr. Pickering), and San Domingo, a suburb of Rio 
Janeiro, on the trunks of trees (A. D. Brown). 



BULIMULUS-RHINUS. 79 

Bulimus ciliatus GLD., Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., ii, p. 191 (Dec., 
1846) ; Expedition Shells, p. 32 ; U. S. Expl. Exped. Moll., p. 75, 
pi. 6, f. 80. PFR., Monogr., ii, p. 174. A. D. BROWN, Ann. Lye. 
^at. Hist. N. Y., ix, p. 158. 

Animal very dark slate-color, almost black, oculiferous tentacles 
long and slender, and, like the neck, finely granulate ; body ob- 
liquely wrinkled ; foot and mouth paler, respiratory orifice very 
large. 

This shell, with its thick green epidermis, looks like a Paludina, 
especially like fresh specimens of P. decisa Say, which have similar 
series of cilise. Another Brazilian species, B. velutinohispidus 
Moric., has a similar velvety vesture, but it is a more globular, 
heliciform species. (G7d.). 

The apical whorls are striolate as in B. scobinatus, but that is a 
decidedly more slender species. B. velutinohispidus is more globose, 
with different apical sculpture. As in B. scobinatus, the body-whorl 
is indistinctly keeled peripherally at its origin, and the lip is very 
narrowly expanded audsubreflexed. Gould's figures, which I have 
copied on pi. 13, show the hairs too long. 

B. KOSERITZI (Clessin). 

Shell rounded-ovate, rather strong, openly umbilicated. Spire 
short, conic ; whorls 7, slowing increasing, separated by sutures of 
little depth, the last whorl fully half the entire length of the shell. 
Surface of the whorls slightly striated, with (in the single decortica- 
ted specimen before me) little shallow, irregularly placed depres- 
sions, apparently indicating that fresh shells are hairy. Aperture 
narrow, ovate, strongly attenuated above ; the peristome somewhat 
thickened and expanded ; parietal callus thin. Columella nearly 
straight. Alt. 20, diam. 14 mill. (Clessin). 

Brazil (von Ihering). 

Bulimus (Rhi)ius) koseritzi CLESS., Malak. Blatter (n. F.), x, p. 
168 (1888?). 

Clessiu omits the locality, but it is probably either from Bahia or 
southern Brazil near Taguara. The " unregelmassig angeordnete 
Vertiefungen " are exceptional in Rhinus, the hairs or hair-scars 
being arranged in spiral lines as a rule. The position of the species 
is, therefore, uncertain. 



80 BULIMULUS-RHINUS. 

B. SARCOCHILUS (Pfeiffer). 

Shell deeply rimate, ovate-pyramidal, thin, under the lens seen to- 
be decussated and roughened by short bristles, tawny. Spire conic,, 
somewhat acute ; whorls 7 to 8, a trifle convex, the last two-fifths- 
the total length, obsoletely angulated below the middle. 

Aperture oblique, truncated oblong ; peristome brownish flesh- 
colored, narrowly expanded, the right margin arcuate above, then 
becoming rather straightened ; columellar margin dilated, spreading 
above. Columella a little receding. Alt. 21 to 25, diam. 10 to Hi 
mill. ; aperture 9| to 10 mill, long, 5f to 6i wide. (Pfr.). 

Northern Brazil (Miers, in Cuming coll.). 

Bulimus sarcochilus PFR. in Malak. BL, iv, 1857, p. 157 ; Mono- 
graphia, iv, p. 412. 

An unfigured species, probably allied to B. constrictus, but of 
darker color, the whorls less convex, the last one obsoletely angula- 
ted below the middle. 

B. CONSTRICTUS (Pfeiffer). PI. 13, figs. 10, 11, 12, 13, 14. 

Shell narrowly umbilicate, oblong, rather thin but moderately 
solid, pale buff. Sculpture of growth-stride and close, fine spiral 
lines of short hairs, as in B. pubescens. Spire convex-conic, the 
apex very obtuse, nepionic whorls densely and regularly wave- 
wrinkled as in pubescens. Whorls 6i to 7, convex, especially below 
the deep sutures. 

Aperture ovate, slightly oblique, flesh-colored inside; peristome 
narrowly expanded, subreflexed, whitish. 

Alt. 22, diam. 11 ; alt. of aperture 9i mill.' 

Alt. 19, diam. 10; alt. of aperture 8 mill. 

Venezuela, Angostura (Stentz, Gruner) ; La Guayra (Krebs,. 
Otto) ; Caraccas (Moritz, Gollmer & Ernst). 

Bulimus constrictus PFR., Symbols ad Hist. Hel., i, p. 43 (1841) ; 
Conchyl. Cab., p. 149, pi. 39, f. 8, 9 ; Monogr., ii, p. 110 ; viii, 70. 
REEVE, Conch. Icon., pi. 59, f. 402. Not B. constrictus RVE. 
Conch. Icon., pi. 47, f. 307, .B. redditus Rve., errata to C. Icon., 
= B. crepundia Orb. Bulimulus constrictus MARTENS, Binnenmoll. 
Venezuela's, in Festschrift zur Feier des 100-Jahrigen Bestehens 
der Ges. Naturforsch. Freunde zu Berlin, p. 178, pi. 2, f. 17a (jaw), 
175, c, d (radula). Bulimus constrictus var. tateanus GUPPY, P. Z. 
S., 1875, p. 322. Bulimus angosturensis GRUNER, Wiegm. Archiv 



BULIMULUS-RHINUS. 81 

fiir Naturg., 1841, i, p. 278. pi. 11, f. 3 (immature). B. constrictus-' 
PFR.-CLESS., Nomencl. Hel. Viv., p. 228. 

Distinguished from the closely allied B. pubescens by its larger- 
size, somewhat stouter form and lack of the strong columellar fold 
of that species. It is also geographically separated from pubescens. 
Guppy has described a slightly smaller form as var. tateanus. Alt. 
17, diam. 8, alt. of aperture 6 mill. The locality given is " Vene- 
zuelan Guiana." Typical constrictus, however, ranges at least as 
far west as La Guayra, and the alleged varietal characters of tate- 
anus quite disappear when a large series of well-preserved specimens 
is examined. The length varies from 17 to 23 mill. B. angosturen- 
sis Gruner (pi. 13, figs. 13, 14) was based upon immature shells. 

The jaw has 11 wide folds, and like the radula, is of the typicall 
Bulimulus type. 

The localities New Granada and Upper Marankon have bee- 
reported on the evidence of Cumingian labels. They remain doubt- 
ful. 

B. PUBESCENS (Moricand). PI. 13, figs. 15, 16, 19 ; pi. 15, fig. 23. 

Shell perforate, oblong, the length generally exceeding twice the 
diameter, rather thin but moderately solid, light buff or corneous- 
buff; surface with close, irregular growth-striae and close fine spiraL 
lines of minute hairs, giving a velvet-like surface to which earthi 
adheres. Spire long, convex-conic, the apex very obtuse, nepionie 
whorls densely sculptured with conspicuously sinuous, often inter- 
rupted striae (fig. 19). Whorls 6, quite convex, separated by deep 
sutures. 

Aperture small, slightly oblique, whitish inside ; peristome rather 
narrowly reflexed, white ; columella concave below, with a rather 
strong fold above. 

Alt. 16, diam. 7? ; alt. of aperture 6 mill. 

Alt. 131, diam. 6? ; alt. of aperture 5 mill. 

Bahia, Brazil (Blanchet). 

Helix (Bulimus') pubescens MORIC., Mem. Soc. Phys. et Hist. 
Nat. Geneve, xi, p. 157, pi. 5, f. 21-23 (1846). Bulimus pubescent 
PFR. in Conchyl. Cab., p. 150, pi. 39, f. 10, 11 ; Monographia, ii,. 
p. Ill ; vi, p. 57. KEEVE, Conch. Icon., pi. 63, f. 437. 

Smaller than B. constrictus Pfr., and with a stronger columellar 
fold. 



UNIVERSITY 



82 BULIMULUS-HYPERAULAX. 

Section HYPERAULAX Pilsbry, 1897. 

Hyperaulax PILS., Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1897, p. 10 
(Feb. 23). 

Bulimuli with wave-wrinkled apical sculpture, and an expanded 
or reflexed peristome, the aperture with a longitudinal groove or 
channel at the posterior angle and a callous nodule adjacent to it 
on the parietal wall. Type B. ridleyi. 

Distribution : Fernando Noronha Island ; Miocene of Florida 
(Silex-beds). 

This group, which is well distinguished by the channel at the 
posterior angle of the aperture, is apparently extinct, with the 
exception of a single surviving species. The Floridian Miocene 
species, B. floridanus Conrad, B. heilprinianus, americanus and 
stearnsii Dall, are practically identical with B. ridleyi in their main 
characters, differing only in unimportant details of proportion, size 
and strration. B. americanus is excessively like B. ridleyi. 

There can be no reasonable doubt that Bulimulus ridleyi is a 
living representative of the Miocene group, preserved practically 
unchanged on the remote island of Fernando Noronha, while the 
group has been wholly crowded out of existence in the continental 
faunas. 

B. RIDLEYI (E. A. Smith). PI. 14, figs. 11, 12, 13. 

Shell umbilicated, ovate, conic above, moderately solid, brown 
with a buff line at the periphery, very delicately sculptured with 
lines of growth, and sometimes low wrinkles and fine impressed 
spiral strise. Spire conic, the apex obtuse, nepionic whorls sculp- 
tured with superficial vermicula'te wrinkles. Whorls 5J, slightly 
convex, the last a little descending and then slightly ascending in 
front, distinctly constricted behind the peristome ; base perforated 
by a deep and conspicuous though not wide umbilicus. 

" Aperture ovate, fleshy-brown inside, and showing a pale median 
line, half the length of the shell ; " peristome flatly reflexed through' 
out, the outer lip subangularly arcuate above, terminations joined 
by a thin or thick parietal callus, which is thickened and somewhat 
tubercular above, separated by a vertical groove or channel from a 
similar callous lobe on the outer lip near its insertion. 

Alt. 12'5, diam. 7'2 ; alt. of aperture 6'2 mill. 

Alt. 10'5, diam. 6'2 ; alt. of aperture 5'2 mill. 



BULIMULUS-DIVISION III. 83 

Fernando Noronha Island, off Brazil, living under bark of Mango 
trees in the garden and on north side of island ; also at base of the 
Peak, north side, under stones, and on Rat Island (Ridley). 

Bulimics (BuUmulus) ridleyi E. A. SMITH, Journ. Linn. Soc. 
Zool., xx, p. 501, pi. 30, f. 9 (July 31, 1890). 

B. americanus Dall has a longer aperture and more broadly re- 
flexed lip ; it is also somewhat larger. The spiral strise of B. ridleyi 
are often scarcely discernable on specimens deprived of the cuticle 
but otherwise well preserved. 

Mr. Smith writes : " I do not know any species sufficiently near 
this form wherewith to offer a comparison. It resembles somewhat 
in form certain species of Partula; it faintly recalls, chiefly on 
account of color, B. jacobi of the Galapagos Islands, and the spiral 
striation, although finer, somewhat resembles that of some of the 
species of the genus Plecotrema" 

DIVISION III. Bulimuli with the nepionic whorls sculptured with 
regular, straight or nearly straight vertical riblets. 

The third division of Bulimulus is remarkable for the discontin- 
uity of its distribution ; one group inhabiting eastern and north- 
eastern South America, another the Galapagos Archipelago, and a 
third, central and northern Mexico, Lower California and the south- 
central and southwestern United States. This probably indicates a 
former wide extension, with subsequent extinction in the region 
geographically intermediate between the present habitats of the 
groups. This contrasts with the distribution of the other two main 
groups of the genus Bulimulus, both of which occupy continuous 
areas. 

In many or most of the species of this division, adequate magni- 
fication reveals delicate and close spiral strise between the vertical 
riblets of the nepionic shell. This is an incipient condition of what 
becomes conspicuous in Neopetrceus, a group which probably arose 
from this stock. 

The shells of this division are almost invariably dull brown or 
white, often more or less streaked obliquely, but very rarely banded. 
The lip may be either simple or reflected ; and the contour, as in 
Bostryx, varies within the widest limits. 

Three subgenera of this group are here recognized, separated 
geographically and by the general appearance ; but it must be freely 



84 BULIMULUS-PROTOGLYPTUS. 

admitted that rigid diagnoses are impossible, so great is the range 
variation within each of the three. The rank of subgenera is, there- 
fore, nominal. 

I. PROTOGLYPTUS (p. 84). Eastern and northern South Amer- 
ica, Trinidad, etc. 

II. N^SIOTUS (p. 94). Galapagos Islands. 

III. ORTHOTOMIUM (p. 125). Central and northern Mexico, Lower 
California, southern United States. 

Subgenus PROTOGLYPTUS Pilsbry, 1897. 

Bulimuli with the apical whorls vertically costulate, the shell 
ovate-conic, usually rather thin and brownish, the outer lip unex- 
panded, colurnella foldless, the columellar lip dilated and reflexed. 

Distribution : eastern South America, Trinidad and some of the 
Caribbean Islands. 

This group stands somewhat intermediate in conchological char- 
acters between the typical Bulimulus (with Leptomerus), Rhinus, 
Orthotomium and Ncesiotus, with certain features not unlike Neo- 
petrceus. It may be regarded as a surviving primitive type, not 
much modified from the parent stock of the groups named above. 
Typical Bulimulus and Scutalus have apparently been differentiated 
from Protoglyptus by the crinkling of the riblets of the nepionic 
shell ; Neopetrceus by the development of a system of spirals between 
the straight riblets, a process culminating in Drymceus. Ncesiotus 
and Orthotomium are identical with Protoglyptus in apical sculpture, 
and have both been directly dirived, apparently, from this stock. 

Key to species. 

I. Shell thin, brown or corneous. 

a. Unicolored ; whorls 7 or less ; form ovate or conic. 

b. Densely pilose ; whorls very convex ; aperture 
decidedly less than half the alt.; alt. 13-14 
mill. ; whorls 6, pilosus, p. 85. 

b'. With faint spiral striae but no hairs ; dark red- 
dish-chestnut ; aperture decidedly less than half 
of alt. Alt. 18-22 mill., chrysaloides, p. 87. 
b". Pilose when fresh ; whorls 7, convex, sutures 
deep ; a faint paler peripheral zone ; aperture 
two-fifths the alt. Alt. 21 mill., 

sanctcelutice, p. 86. 



BULIMULUS-PROTOGLYPTUS. 85 

V". Similar to (b"), but unicolored, sutures shallow, 

last whorl wider, v. lucice, p. 86. 

b"". Faint growth lines and cuticular spirals; very 

thin and fragile ; apex densely striolate vertically ; 

whorls 4f , alt. 10?, diam. 6'6 mill. ; aperture 

over half the length, eudioptus, p. 89. 

a'. Whorls 7?-9 ; form slender, long, the alt. more than 

twice the diam. ; often streaked. 

b. Hairy ; openly perforate, with 8 slightly convex 
whorls ; alt. 20, diam. 9; aperture 8? mill., 

trichodes, p. 92. 
b'. Not hairy. 

c. Umbilicus large ; 8 slightly convex whorls ; 
alt. 19, diam. 8 mill., rivasii, p. 91. 

c'. Umbilicus narrow ; whorls very convex, 

montivagus, p. 90 ; crepundia, p. 90. 
II. Shell solid, more calcareous. 

a. None of the riblets of early whorls beaded. 

b. Form compact, whorls 7, aperture about ? alt. ; 

alt. 19-24 mill. : durus, p. 87 ; ovulum, p. 88. 

b'. Outer lip unexpanded ; aperture over half the alt. ; 

alt. 32 mill., pachys, p. 88. 

a'. Second nepionic whorl with the riblets beaded ; solid and 

calcareous species, glyptocephalus, p. 93 ; sarcochroa, 93. 



B. PILOSUS (Guppy). PI. 13, figs. 8, 9, 20. 

Shell small, umbilicate, oblong-conic, thin ; corneous-brown. 
Surface but little shining, with oblique growth-lines and very 
numerous spiral lines of short, delicate, velvety hairs, or the slight 
scars remaining when they are rubbed off. Spire conic, the apex 
very obtuse, earlier 1? whorls delicately vertically costulate (fig. 20), 
whorls fully 6, very convex, and separated by deep sutures. 

Aperture oblique, decidedly over one-third the total length ; 
peristome thin, the basal margin somewhat expanded, columellar 
margin broadly dilated. 

Alt. 13?, diam. 7 ; alt. of aperture 5 mill. 

Trinidad (Guppy). 

Buliminus pilosus GUPPY, Amer. Journ. Conch., vi, p. 310, pi. 
17, f. 12 (1871). Bulimus pilosus GUPPY, P. Z. S., 1875, p. 323 ; 



86 BULIMULUS-PROTOGLYPTUS. 

Quart. Journ. of Conch., i, p. 109. Bulimulus pilosus Guppy, 
CROSSE, Journ. de Conchyl., 1890, p. 43, pi. 2, f. 3. GUPPY, Journ. 
of Conch., vii, p. 218 (1893). Bulimulus (Leptomerus') pilosus 
Guppy, SMITH, Journ. of Conch., viii, p. 241 (1896). 

The whorls are very convex and separated by deep sutures, sug- 
gesting B. constrictus Pfr., a species with different apical sculpture. 
This is the smallest of the known Protoglyptus species. 

B. SANCT^ELUCI^: (Smith). 

Shell elongated, narrowly rimate, thin, covered with a brown-cor- 
neous, little shining epidermis ; whorls 7, convex, the earlier two 
obliquely delicately costulate, the rest ornamented with oblique 
growth-lines and with spiral punctate and setigerous lines, separated 
by a simple but deep [profunda] suture ; the last whorl paler below 
and toward the lip, girt about the middle with an inconspicuous 
narrow, pale zone. Aperture small, whitish, about two-fifths the 
total length of shell ; peristome thin, hardly expanded, the colu- 
mellar margin broadly reflexed, nearly covering the umbilical 
chink. Alt. 21, diam. 9 ; aperture 8 mill, long, 5 wide. (Smith'). 

St. Lucia (G, A. Ram age). 

Bulimus (Leptomerus) sanctcelucice SMITH, Ann. Mag. N. H. (6), 
iii, p. 403 (May, 1889). 

This species is somewhat intermediate in form between B. chrysa- 
lis Pfr. and B. martinicensis Pfr. It is, however, well distinguished 
by the sculpture of the apical whorls and the pilose punctured striae 
of the rest. The reflexion of the columella also is different. (Smith). 

Var. LUCI^E Pilsbry, n. v. PI. 12, fig. 43. 

Shell long, ovate-conic, narrowly umbilicate, thin; yellowish- 
brown or reddish-brown. Surface slightly shining, with oblique 
growth lines and very numerous spiral Hues of closely placed, short, 
stiff hairlets, mostly or entirely rubbed off in adult shells. Spire 
long and straightly conic, the apex obtuse, If nepionic whorls with 
regular delicate vertical riblets. Whorls 7, somewhat convex, the 
suture well marked but not deep. 

Aperture slightly oblique, irregularly ovate, fleshy-whitish with- 
in ; peristome thin and simple, the outer margin almost impercepti- 
bly expanded, basal margin well expanded ; columella flesh-colored, 
concave, the margin flatly dilated and reflexed. Alt. 22, diam. 12, 
alt. of aperture 10 mill. 

St. Lucia, British West Indies (Robert Swift). 



BULIMTJLUS-PROTOGLYPTUS. 87 

This form differs, apparently, from Smith's unfigured B. sanctw- 
lucice in being wider with proportionally larger aperture ; is umbil- 
icate rather than rimate behind the flatly reflexed columellar lip, 
the sutures are not deep but rather superficial, and the color is of 
uniform tint throughout. Six specimens examined. As it inhabits 
the same island, and agrees in other characters, I can hardly doubt 
the specific identity of Swift's shells with those collected by Ramage, 
but they evidently constitute a marked variety. 

B. CHRYSALOIDES Pilsbry. PI. 9, fig. 52. 

Shells perforate, oblong-turrited, thin, deep reddish-chestnut, 
somewhat paler on the spire : surface lusterless, with irregular, in- 
distinct growth-wrinkles and microscopic crowded spiral striae, very 
superficial and probably cuticular. Spire long, the apex obtuse, 
If nepionic whorls regularly vertically costellate, the riblets straight, 
closer on the latter portion. Whorls 6, moderately convex, the 
last a trifle descending in front ; sutures impressed. 

Aperture small and short, slightly oblique, short-oval, contained 
slightly less than 2J times in length of shell, brownish-vinous with- 
in ; peristome thin, slightly expanded ; columellar margin expanded, 
not reflexed, forming a long triangular plate concave on the apertural 
side; the inner edge of columella rather acute, slightly concave. 

Alt. 22, diam. 10 mill.; alt. of aperture 8 mill. 

Alt. 18f, diam. 9f mill. ; alt. of aperture 8i mill. 

Martinique. 

Bulimulus chrysaloides PILSBRY, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., p. 
20 (Feb. 23, 1897). 

The nepionic whorls, when unworn, show a vertically ribbed 
sculpture very different from the reticulate apices of the B. exilis 
group, but like the apex of B. sanctcelucice Smith. The peculiar 
columella also somewhat resembles that species, which in propor- 
tions is also quite similar, but the post-nepionic sculpture and dark 
color of chrysaloides are unlike Smith's form. 

B. DURUS (Spix). PI. 13, figs, 5, 6, 24. 

Shell umbilicated, ovate-conic, rather solid, opaque-whitish, with 
a light brown band above and below the peripheral white girdle, the 
lower band narrow and fading into the whitish color of the base, the 
upper band more or less diluted above, spire light brown ; or some- 
times all brown markings are faint or wanting. Surface shining, 



S8 BULIMULUS-PROTOGLYPTUS. 

finely and irregularly striated, the striae cut by a few incised spirals ; 
base smoother. Spire conic, apex obtuse; If apical whorls with 
regular riblets, which are a trifle curved and finer on the latter 
part (fig. 24). Whorls 7, slightly convex, the last rounded-oval, 
not descending. 

Aperture subvertical, about half the length of shell, whitish with 
light brown bands inside ; peristome obtuse, with an extremely nar- 
row reflexion, white ; the columellar margin dilated above and re- 
flexed. Alt. 24, diam. 14 mill. 

Bahia, Brazil. 

Bulimus durus SPIX, Test. Bras., p. 5, pi. 6, f. 2. DESH. in Lam., 
viii, p. 242. REEVE, Conch. Icon., pi. 40, f. 253. PFR., Monogr., 
ii, p. 104. Rhinus durus W. G. BINNEY, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci., 
iii, p. 124 (dentition and jaw). 

The solid, compact form of this species, and its costellate apical 
whorls, are unlike other described forms except the following two. 

B. OVULUM (Reeve). PL 1 2, fig. 48. 

Shell narrowly umbilicated, ovate-conic, solid, smoothish, shining, 
white. Spire conic, rather obtuse ; whorls 6?, a little convex, the 
last slightly longer than the spire. Aperture vertical, oval ; peri- 
stome simple, white, the columellar margin vertical, dilated at base, 
vaulted-reflexed, right margin narrowly expanded. Alt. 20, diam. 
11 mill.; aperture 11 mill, long, with peristome 8 wide'. (Pfr.). 

Pernambuco (Pfr.). 

Bulimus ovulum REEVE, Conch. Icon., pi. 76, f. 556. PFR., 
Monogr., iii, p. 338 ; iv, p. 399 ; vi, p. 45. 

Described from the " Philippines (Mus. Cuming) " by Reeve, but 
Pfeiffer corrects the locality as above. Judging from description 
and figure, it must be very near small and colorless forms of B. 
durus; but the apical sculpture is unknown. 

B. PACHYS Pilsbry. PL 12, figs. 44, 45. 

Shell umbilicate, ovate-conic, solid and strong ; surface smooth- 
ish, with slight growth-wrinkles, rather regular and close on the 
spire, and disposed to be interrupted. Spire acutely and straightly 
conic with subhorizontal sutures, the apex small, obtuse, earlier If 
whorls regularly and rather finely costulate vertically. Whorls 7, 



BULIMULUS-PROTOGLYPTUS. 89 

-convex; sutures well-impressed, the last hardly descending; last 
whorl regularly convex and inflated. 

Aperture subvertical, ovate, somewhat over half the length of 
shell, white inside ; peristome unexpanded, rather blunt, the outer 
margin regularly arched, columella slightly concave, its margin 
broadly reflexed, with a salient angle at junction of reflexion with 
basal lip ; parietal callus moderate ; umbilicus deep and rounded. 

Alt. 32, diara. 20 ; alt. of aperture 18 mill. 

Province of Bahia, Brazil (v. d. Busch). 

Bulimulus pachys PILSBRY, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., p. 20, 
Peb. 23, 1897. 

The type is a faded, decolored specimen, showing traces of a 
median white girdle, brown above and slightly so below it, as in B. 
durus Spix. It is considerably like B. heterotrichus in size and 
form, but is unlike that species in the Jess oblique aperture with 
blunt, unexpanded outer lip, the differently formed columella and 
the costulate apical whorls. In general aspect it somewhat resem- 
bles Binney's B. patriarcha. The columellar lip is pressed in 
above, unlike that of B. durus, which is, besides, a smaller spe- 
cies. 

B. EUDIOPTUS Ihering, n. sp. PI. 14, figs. 16, 17. 

Shell small, ovate, narrowly perforate, very thin and fragile, light 
chestnut colored ; somewhat transparent, showing the columella 
through the shell, shining. Sculpture of slight, inconspicuous 
growth- wrinkles and very delicate cuticular spiral striaB. Spire 
short, the apex rather obtuse, nepionic whorls uith very fine, close 
longitudinal riblets, the intervals densely and lightly scratched 
spirally. Whorls 4f, rather convex, the last inflated. 

Aperture ovate, slightly more than half the length of the shell, 
colored within like the outside ; outer lip thin and fragile, unex- 
panded ; columellar lip narrowly reflexed above, nearly covering 
the narrow umbilical perforation; columella concave. 

Alt. 10'5, diam. 66 ; alt. of aperture 5'5 mill. 

Sao Paulo, Brazil (Dr. H. von Ihering). 

More delicate and fragile than any other known member of this 
or related subgenera, being comparable in this respect to the Eudi- 
optus species. 



90 BULIMULUS-PROTOGLYPTUS. 

B. MONTIVAGUS (d'Orbigny). PI. 11, figs. 29, 30 ; pi. 14, fig. 14, 15. 

Shell much elongated, very narrowly umbilicated, thin, smooth or 
perceptibly striated by growth-lines ; spire elongated, conic, obtuse 
at apex, composed of 9 convex whorls, separated by very deep, crenu- 
lated sutures. Aperture small, oblong, the peristome thin, generally 
a little reflexed ; columella straight, flat. The color is fawn, deeper 
toward the apex ; uniform or marked longitudinally with unequally 
spaced whitish lines. Alt. 20, diam. 7 mill. (Orb.). 

" Caballu cuatia" Province of Entre Rios, Argentina, on moss and 
dead leaves under trees; valleys of the extreme eastern Andes 
provinces of Valle Grande and Laguna, and in the Monte Grande y 
or great forest separating Santa Cruz de la Sierra from the Prov. 
Chiquitos, always in poorly wooded places (Orb.) ; Corumbd, Matto 
Grosso, Brazil, in crevices of cliffs and on walls (H. H. Smith). 

Helix montivaga ORB., Synops., Mag. de Zool., 1835, p. 14. B* 
montivagus ORB., Voy. dans 1'Amer. Me*rid., p. 275, pi. 34, f. 1-3. 
REEVE, Conch. Icon., f. 475. PFR., Monogr., ii, p. 112. 

At La Laguna, all of the specimens lacked the longitudinal whitish 
lines. In the Prov. Entre-rios the shells were largest, and con- 
stantly marked with unequally spaced longitudinal whitish lines. 

The form collected by Mr. H. H. Smith at Corumba (pi. 14, figs. 
14, 15) is russet or corneous-brown, without stripes or with one or a 
few on the last whorl. The surface is shining and shows very 
minute spiral cuticular striae under a strong lens, the striae, perhaps,, 
very shortly pilose ; whorls 8, decidedly convex, the earliest 1 
longitudinally delicately costulate (fig. 14). Alt. 20, diam. 7 ; alt. 
of aperture 7 mill. The smallest specimen I have seen measures, 
alt. 15'2, diam. 5'8 ; alt. of aperture 5 mill. It is pale corneous with 
widely and unequally separated oblique chestnut streaks, sometimes 
accompanied by white streaks. 

B. CREPUNDIA (d'Orbigny). PI. 11, figs. 33, 34. 

Shell elongated, turriculate, narrowly umbilicated, the umbilicus 
in part covered by columella. Thin, appearing smooth to the naked 
eye, but showing under a strong lens very fine, dense, transverse 
striation, besides some growth-lines. Spire elongated, conic, the 
apex very obtuse. Whorls 8, very convex, rounded, separated by a 
deep suture. Color uniform ashy light fawn. 



BULIMULUS-PROTOGLYPTUS. 91 

Aperture quite large, oval, the borders thin and acute, noticeably 
reflexed ; columella straight, inflated in the middle of its length. 
(Orb.). 

Alt. 25, diam. 10 mill. 

Near Mission of San Jose, southern part of Prov. Chiquitos, Bolivia* 
on the ground or under dead leaves (Orb.). 

Helix (Cochlogena) crepundia ORB., Mag. de Zool., 1835, p. 14. 
Bulimm crepundia ORB., Voy., p. 275, pi. 33, f. 18, 19. PFR., 
Monogr., ii, p. 173; iii, 412; iv, 471 ; vi, 114. Buliminus crepun- 
dius BECK, Index Moll., p. 71. Bulimus constrictus REEVE, C. 
Icon., pi. 47, f. 307. i?. redditus REEVE, ibid., in addenda..' Bulimus 
crepundia PARAVICINI, Boll. Mus. Zool. ed Anat. Comp. Univ. 
Torino, ix, no. 181, p. 7. 

Most nearly allied to B. montivagus, but the size is double, the 
form wider, mouth rounder, columella inflated, and especially dis- 
tinguished by the spiral strise. 

The subgeneric position is uncertain. Pfeiffer gives the following 
diagnosis : 

Shell profoundly rimate, subperforate, turrited, oblong, thin, 
nearly smooth (very minutely decussated when seen under the lens),, 
diaphanous ; brownish-ashen. Spire lengthened, the apex somewhat 
obtuse. Whorls 7 -8, convex, the last about equal to two-fifths the 
total alt., a trifle compressed at base. Columella somewhat receding. 
Aperture a little oblique, oval ; peristome simple, unexpanded ; colu- 
mellar margin dilated and wide. Alt. 22, diam. 9 mill. ; aperture 9 
mill, long, 41 wide inside. (Pfr.). 

B. RIVASII (d'Orbiguy). PI. 12, figs. 40, 41. 

Shell long-conic, turriculate, with a wide and deep umbilicus ; 
thin, smooth, translucid, grayish-brown, ornamented with longitudi- 
nal lines of brown. Spire rather short, conic, acute. Whorls 8, 
very little inflated, short ; suture not impressed. Aperture oblong, 
subangulate ; lip thin, acute ; columella straight, angular in front. 
Length 19, diam. 8 mill. (Orb.). 

Cuesta de Petaca, and the ravines along the Rio Grande, eastern 
foothills of the Bolivian Andes, under stones (Orb.). 

B. rivasii D'ORB., Voy. dans FAmer. Merid., p. 276, pi. 34, f. 8- 
10. PFR., Monogr., ii, 155 ; iv, 406. ? REEVE, Conch. Icon., pi. 
20, f. 122. 



92 BULIMULUS-PROTOGLYPTUS. 

In form allied to montivagus and crepundia, but distinguished by 
the angular aperture, shorter spire and entirely smooth texture. 



The form described by Reeve is certainly a marked variety. It 
is described as follows. 

VAR. PL 12, fig. 46. 

Shell acuminately oblong, thin ; whorls 8, convex, aperture rather 
small, lip simple. Opaque-white, with longitudinal transparent 
horny streaks and lines. Alt. 19? mill. (Reeve). . 

Near Chiton, Bolivia, under dead trunks of cacti (Bridges). 

Pfeiffer describes B. rivasii as follows : Shell narrowly umbil- 
icated, ovate turrited, rather solid and smooth ; pale corneous, with 
sparse streaks of chestnut. Spire pyramidal, rather acute, whorls 
7 J-8, a little convex, narrow, the last a little over one-third the 
length of shell, somewhat compressed at base. Columella a trifle 
receding. 

Aperture slightly oblique, oblong-oval ; peristome a mere trifle 
expanded, the outer lip arcuate above, then a little straightened ; 
columellar lip dilated and wide. (Pfr.). 

Alt. 18, diam. 8 mill. ; alt. of aperture 1\ mill. 

B. TRICHODES (d'Orbigny). PL 12, figs. 49, 50, 51, 52. 

Shell openly perforate, ovate-elongate, thin, striatu late-granulate, 
beset with very short hairs, corneous, ornamented with close whitish 
longitudinal lines ; spire lengthened, the apex acute. Whorls 8, a 
little convex, the last nearly equalling two-fifths the length of 
shell. Aperture oblong-oval, the peristome simple, acute, right 
margin expanded a little, columellar margin vaulted, reflexed, wide ; 
columella straight, a little receding. Length 20, diam. 9 mill. ; 
aperture 8$ mill, long, 4 wide in the middle. (Pfr.). 

Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Bolivia, in gardens (Orb.). 

Helix trichodes ORB., Mag. de ZooL, 1835, p. 12. Bulimus tri- 
chodes ORB., Voy., p. 277, pi. 33, f. 1-5. PFR., in Conchyl. Cab., 
p. 150, pi. 39, f. 12, 13 ; Monogr., ii, p. 112 ; iii, p. 347 ; iv, p. 413 ; 
vi, p. 58. REEVE, Conch. Icon., pi. 75, f. 547. Buliminus trichodes 
BECK. Bulimus crepundia REEVE (not Orb.), Conch. Icon., pi. 
47, f. 300. 

Apical sculpture unknown. Orbigny considers it closely allied 
to B. montivagus and B. crepundia, from which it differs in the less 



BULIMULUS-PROTOGLYPTUS. 93 

lengthened form, shallower sutures, rounder aperture and the cloth- 
ing of hairs. It is very abundant in gardens in the town of Santa 
Cruz de la Sierra, burying itself in the earth during the dry season. 

*** 

The following species differ considerably from those just described. 
They are solid, cretaceous Bulimuli with the apex very obtuse, with 
apical dimple ; first whorl sculptured with curved spaced riblets, 
second whorl with these riblets beaded. Aperture about half the 
length of shell, with obtuse, unexpanded lip. 

B. GLYPTOCEPHALUS Pilsbry. PI. 5, figs. 62, 63, 64. 

Shell narrowly perforated, long ovate, solid and thick, of chalky 
texture. White or bluish-white, the apical whorl buff, the next bluish 
below, pale above. Surface irregularly and coarsely wrinkle-striate 
and conspicuously malleated; apical whorl with conspicuous, arcuate 
riblets, becoming closer and beaded on the second whorl. Spire conic, 
the apex very obtme, sutures impressed. Whorls 5J, weakly con- 
vex, the last suture slightly more descending along the latter half, 
and consequently a trifle oblique to the others. 

Aperture a trifle exceeding half the total alt. of shell, subvertical, 
white inside, with a faint, narrow band at position of the periphery 
and another wide one above; outer lip blunt, obtuse, not expanded; 
columella concave below, straighter above, the columellar region 
broadly dilated above, reducing the umbilicus to a chink ; parietal 
callus white, rather thin. Alt. 31,diam. 17 mill. ; alt. of aperture 
15ir mill. 

Peru (A. Agassiz). 

Bulimulus glyptocephalus PILSBRY, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
p. 21, Feb. 23, 1897. 

A peculiar form, unlike any Peruvian species known to me except 
the next, in the characters of the earlier whorls. It differs from the 
following species in its elliptical-ovate shape and larger aperture. 

B. SARCOCHROUS Pilsbry. PL 5, figs. 65, 66. 

Shell narrowly umbilicated, ovate-conic, solid and strong. 
Fleshy-white, becoming flesh-pink and then brownish above, the 
earlier two whorls brown below, white above. Surface irregularly, 
weakly striate, more wrinkled below the sutures, faintly malleated 
on the body-whorl : apical sculpture as in the preceding species, ex- 
cept that the riblets are less prominent and are much finer and 



94 BULIMULUS-N^ESIOTUS. 

closer on the second whorl. Spire straightly conic, the apex very 
Muse. Whorls 5, nearly flat, the last one not more rapidly de- 
scending than the rest. 

Aperture ovate, one-half the alt. of the shell, vertical, light brown 
inside with a faint, narrow, light band at position of the periphery, 
and white within the lip-edge; outer lip obtuse and rather thick, not 
expanded ; coluinella with an oblique fold above, the columellar 
margin well dilated, rounded. Alt. 29, diam. 16 mill.; alt. of aper- 
ture 14 mill. 

Peru. 

Bulimulus sarcochrous PILSBRY, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., p. 
21, Feb. 23, 1897. 

Closely allied to the preceding species ; but the spire is more 
slender, the umbilicus larger, surface less malleated and the colum- 
ellar fold more conspicuous. The apical riblets are finer and closer, 
less coarsely granulated on the second whorl. 

Subgenus NAESIOTUS Albers, 1850. 

Ncesiotus ALBERS, Heliceen, p. 162, 1850. Type B. nux. BALL, 
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1896, p. 426Rhaphiellw PFR., Ver- 
such einer Anordnung der Heliceen nach natiirlichen Gruppen. 
Malak. Blatter, II, p. 160, 1855. Type B. achatinellinus.'M.An- 
TENS in Albers, Ed. ii, p. 238, 1860 (Sect. Bulimini). 0mphalo- 
styla H. & A. ADAMS, Gen. Rec. Moll., ii, p. 161, 1855 ; not of Schlue- 
ter, Syst. Verz., p. 7, 1838. Nesiotes MARTENS, in Albers, ed. ii, pp. 
220-21, I860. Nesiotus CLESSIN, in Pfeiffer, Norn. Hel. Viv., p. 254, 
1881. Ataxus sp. CLESSIN, op. dt., p. 253. Pelecostoma REIBISCH 
(ex parte) in Isis, Abh. 3, p. 25, 1892. 

Perforate or rimate Bulimuli with vertically ribbed or striate 
nepionic whorls, the contour varying from ovate to slender and 
turrited, surface wrinkled or nearly smooth, generally with spiral 
striae ; aperture ovate or irregular ; peristome varying from simple 
to expanded, sometimes with dentiform callosities ; the columella en- 
tire or truncate. Type B. nux. 

Distribution, Galapagos Islands. 

The land shells of the Galapagos Islands have recently been 
elaborately treated of by Dall (Insular Land Shell Faunas, etc., 
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1896). In the following pages his con- 
clusions have been adopted, so far as the scope of the Manual ad- 



BULIMULUS-NAESIOTUS. 95 

mitted. I have not hesitated to quote his observations both on the 
general aspect of the fauna and on nearly all the species, as they 
seem worthy of all confidence, and were based upon a mass of ma- 
terial greater than any former malacologist has studied. 

No definition can be made which would cover all forms of Ncesio- 
tus and exclude parallel species of similar contour from other regions. 
The group is, however, a natural one, the species having doubtless a 
common ancestry. The sculpture of the nepionic shell indicates 
that the Galapagos group arose from the division of Bulimulus now 
distributed over northern Mexico and Lower California, with a few 
forms in eastern South America. It is not allied to the groups now 
characteristic of Colombia, Equador, Peru and Chili. 

The anatomical details offer no characters by which the Gala- 
pagos species may be differentiated from many of the Bulimuli of 
the mainland. As Dall writes : " The utmost that can be said is 
that Ncesiotus is a convenient term for the geographical group in- 
habiting the Galapagos Islands, and, as such, we may retain it with- 
out giving way to the delusion that it stands for anything more im- 
portant." 

In NcBsiotus " the apex (pi. 24, fig. 35) is nearer to that of Ortho- 
tomium than to that of Bulimulus s. s. It is characterized invaria- 
bly by vertical riblets sometimes strong and with subequal furrowed 
interspaces; sometimes distant with wider, flat interspaces, and 
sometimes extremely delicate and fine ; but, except when worn, 
always unbroken and regular and with extremely fine spiral striae 
visible in a good light, between the riblets (pi. 24, fig. 36). The 
apex always has a dimple or funicle over the axis, but the upper 
margin of this is rounded, never keeled, as in some species of 
Orthotomium. It often happens, especially among those species 
which have the riblets low and fine, that they are broken by wear 
on the periphery of the nepionic whorls, thus suggesting the Buli- 
mulus type ; or even that they may be entirely removed, while the 
polished surface shows no trace of erosion. But in young, fresh 
specimens, they may always be found unbroken and regular, except 
in the case of rare abnormal individuals. Of the latter, I have come 
across only one or two in all my series of several hundreds of speci- 
mens " (DalV). 

" The nomenclature of this section has had serious vicissitudes, as 
indicated by the above synonymy. The group was named Ncesiotus 
by Albers who gave no derivation for it, though the sound of the 



96 BULIMULUS-NAESIOTUS. 

word naturally inclined the hearer to suppose that it was suggested 1 
by v7)fftd>Trj?, islanders, and on this assumption von Martens pro- 
ceeded to modify the spelling to Nesiotes, which would be a proper 
latinization of that Greek word. There is no rule of nomenclature 
which authorizes any one to supply a gratuitous derivation for a 
word published without any ; still less because the original does not 
agree with the later assumption is any one authorized to modify or 
destroy a name properly proposed in other respects. Consequently 
von Marten's substitute cannot be accepted. 

" In describing his Bulimus aehatellinus, Forbes says that it ' is 
unlike any known Bulimus, and its characters distinctly indicate 
affinity with the Achatinellince.' Elsewhere he speaks of it ' dis- 
tantly/ indicating ' affinity with the fauna of the Sandwich Islands.' 
This was not an unnatural conclusion when drawn from a few speci- 
mens, but, as is elsewhere shown in this paper, rests upon purely 
superficial characters. Actually the species is American in its rela- 
tions, and is very closely related in some varieties of B. nux, from 
which Protean species it may even be an oifshoot. Consequently the 
sectional name \_Rhaphiellus] proposed for it must fall into the syn- 
onymy of that given earlier to B.nux and its allies. It is probably 
due to the great rarity of this species that its situation in accepted 
systems has not been challenged before this ; certainly if it had been 
as common as B. nux, the facts could hardly have escaped attention 
so long. I have not found anywhere any reasons stated for putting 
the species into Buliminus rather than Bulimulus where it really 
belongs. 

The name Omphalostyla was applied by Schliiter to Bulimi with 
the pillar vertically twisted, and his sole example was the African 
shell, since better known under the name Aehatina ustulata (Lam.) 
Menke. It was probably to some accidental confusion of the spe- 
cies with the Bulimus ustulatus Sby. of the Galapagos, that is due 
the application by the brothers Adams of Schluter's name to the 



"The type of the section Pelecostoma Reibisch, is a Ncesiotus 
which shows a ridge at the base of the pillar which gives a peculiar 
channelled aspect to the adjacent part of the aperture. This feature 
will be found more or less distinctly present in some specimens of 
almost any Galapagos species of which a large number is examined, 
showing that it is dynamic or individual, and not of systematic 
value. The second species of this " section " is Leptinaria chat- 



BULIMULUS-XAESIOTTJS. 97 

hamensis, a species belonging to a totally distinct group. The name 
Pelecostoma, therefore, may be safely laid away on the synonymic 
shelf." 

" The Galapagos Islands, lying under the equator about 90 west 
of Greenwich, comprise two principal groups separated by nearly 
1,200 fathoms of water. One of these groups, northwest of the 
other, contains only Culpepper (550 ft.) and Wenman (830 ft. ele- 
vation) Islands and a few insignificant rocks. Culpepper, owing 
to its small elevation, is nearly barren, while Wenman shows on 
its upper surface a thin coating of grass and other vegetation. From 
neither of these has any collection been made or is any land shell 
known. 

"The main group of the Galapagos rests on an elevation of the 
sea bottom included within the 1,000 fathom line. It may be pro- 
visionally divided into three groups, a southeastern, a central and a 
northeastern, in all about a dozen islands and some smaller islets 
and rocks. 

" The southeastern group comprises Charles, Chatham, Hood ancl 
Barrington Islands. Hood is destitute of water in the dry season 
and green only in the wet season, owing to its small elevation which 
does not bring it into the region of condensing clouds. Much of 
the surface is covered with blocks of lava. Chatham and Charles 
are among the most fertile islands of the group. 

" The central islands include the largest of the whole : Albemarle, 
which appears to consist of several primitive islands united by low 
areas of volcanic material ; Narborough, which exhibited volcanic 
activity as late as 1836 ; James ; Indefatigable, and the much 
smaller Duncan Island, besides a number of islets. Of these, Nar- 
borough, said to be very fertile, has not been explored at all for 
land shells. 

" The northeastern group comprises three comparatively small 
islands, Abingdon, Bindloe and Tower. Three land shells, two of 
which are Auriculidce, are known from Bindloe; the faunse of 
Abingdon and Tower being still unknown. 

" The sea currents about the islands and between them and the 
mainland are very complicated. In a general way it may be said 
that two currents converge upon the islands, one from an east-north- 
easterly direction from the Gulf of Panama, and another from a 
southeasterly direction from the Peruvian coast. Both are strong 
currents ; both have doubtless contributed their aid in populating; 



98 BULIMULUS-NAESIOTUS. 

the Galapagos, but in this the Panama current seems to have pre- 
dominated, not only because it has a shorter traverse, but because 
around the Gulf of Panama, and on the banks of the rivers falling 
into it, a luxuriant fauna and flora are found close to the sea while 
along the Peruvian coast only in time of freshet could any large 
quantity of debris be expected to reach the waters of the current, 
owing to the aridity of the immediate shores. The two currents 
join forces at some distance eastward from the islands, and pour 
through the passages between them with considerable force. Pro- 
fessor Alexander Agassiz has shown how much terrigenous material 
the Panama current bears, and that there is no reason to doubt that 
trees still bearing leaves and with some of their branches above 
water might be carried from the Gulf and cast upon the islands, and 
that, at least during the rainy season and in favorable years, there 
would be opportunities for animals so carried, especially land shells 
glued by the epiphragm to the bark of branches, to gain vegetation 
on the shores where they could support life and propagate their 
kind. Though unproven, yet there can be little doubt that in this 
way the land mollusk fauna of the islands was introduced and pre- 
served " (Dall). 

That these and other means of transport have been only in rare 
instances successful in introducing new members to the fauna is 
evident when we consider that the whole of the Bulimulidce belong 
to one group and apparently owe their existence to one importation, 
and the other strictly terrestrial genera yet known are Helidna (1 
species), Leptinaria (2), Succinea (4), Pupa (2 or 3), Conulus (1), 
Vitrea (1) and one species resembling what is generally known as 
Microcystis. In all, seven or eight genera, most of them represented 
by but few species. Further investigation will doubtless increase 
the number of genera and species, but will hardly modify the con- 
clusion that the mollusk fauna of these islands was originally intro- 
duced by the chance means of transport alluded to above, and that 
there were very few successful immigrations. 

The large element common to several of the islands lends color to 
the belief of Dr. Baur that the archipelago has resulted from the 
disintegration of a single large island; but while this seems ex- 
tremely probable, the theory that this island was formerly connected 
with the continent derives but slight support from what is now 
known of the land mollusks. 



BULIMULUS-yAESIOTUS. 99 

B. ACHATELLIXUS (Forbes). PI. 16, figs. 26-31. 

Shell perforated, ovate-pyramidal with long, conic spire, rather 
thio ; variously colored, being banded with chestnut on an olivace- 
ous or whitish ground, or chestnut below, white above, always with 
a white line below the suture ; surface smooth and glossy, like an 
Achatinella with slight growth-wrinkles and an impressed band be- 
lou: the suture, pinched up into tubercles at irregular intervals. 
Whorls 7?, slightly convex. 

Aperture small, about one-third the length of the shell, banded 
within ; outer lip unexpanded, columellar lip triangularly, flatly 
dilated above ; columella subvertical. 

Alt. 17*, diam. 8* ; alt. of aperture 6 mill, (specimen). 

Alt. 22, diam. 11 ; alt. of aperture 8* mill. (Pfr.). 

Upper levels of Chatham Island on trees and bushes (Kellett, 
Wolf and Baur) ; Hood Island (Habel, fide Wimmer). 

Bulimus achatellinus FBS., P. Z. S., 1850.. p. 56, pi. 9, figs. 5 a-b. 
Bulimus achatinelUnus PFR., Mon. Hel. Viv, III, p. 429,1853; in 
Chemn. Conch. Cab., ed. ii, Bulimus, p. 93, pi. 31, figs. 19, 20; 
Monogr. IV, p. 492, 1859. Bulimus (Rhaphiellus} achatinelUnus 
PFR., in Malak. Blatt., II, p. 160, 1855. Bulimulus (Omphalostyla) 
achatinellus H. et A. Ads., Gen. Rec. Moll. II, p. 161,1855. WIM- 
MER, Sitz. Akad. Wiss. Wien., Ixxx, p. 43, 1879. Buliminus (Rha- 
phiellus) achatinelUnus MARTENS, in Albers, Heliceen, ed. ii, p. 238, 
I860. REIBISCH, Isis, 1892, p. 15, t.ii, fig. 8. Bulimina (Rhaphiel- 
lus) achatinellina PFR., Norn. Hel., Viv, p. 300, 1881. Bulimulus 
(Rhaphiellus) achatinelUnus STEARNS, Proc.U. S. Nat. Mus., XVI, 
p. 428, 1893. Bulimulus (Xcesiotus) achatellinus Forbes, DALL, 
Proc. Acad. Xat. Sci. Phila., 1896, p. 428, pi. 17, f. 13 (jaw). 

The gloss and coloring of this species are quite Achatinella-like. 
Dall remarks : 

"The jaw is like the jaw of B. nux, with about 18 irregular, flat, 
plate-like ribs, whose blunt ends denticulate the margin, especially 
the cutting edge. The outer margin of these plates is a little raised 
and thickened, the color is pale amber, darker where thickest. The 
radula was rather broad, the single teeth did not differ in outline 
from those of B. nux more than those of one specimen of nux differs 
from those of another. The number of laterals is 14, of marginals 
23, the formula 23'14-M4'23. 

" It will be observed from these facts that nothing in the dentition 
of B. achatellinus justifies the presumption that it deserves a section 



100 BULIMULUS-NAESIOTUS. 

to itself. In Dr. Baur's specimen, the nucleus is delicately trans- 
versely ribbed, the vertex almost umbilicate, the earlier whorls 
nearly white and opaque, pinched up into irregular little tubercles 
at the suture ; the later whorls have revolving dark brown color 
bands, separated by whitish interspaces covered with a yellowish 
epidermis. The base is mostly pale, with a dark band around the 
umbilicus. The outer lip is sharp-edged, and the umbilicus smalL 
The pillar is short and straight. 

"A specimen sent by Cuming to Dr. Lea is not so large, and is 
darker colored, the ground color being an olivaceous brown with a 
narrow chestnut band at the periphery: the base pale and the um- 
bilicus entirely closed. The nodulous band in front of the suture is 
present and of a whitish color. 

" The name applied by Forbes was achatellinas, which, by several 
authors, on the assumption that it was intended as a diminutive of 
Achatinella, has been emended to achatinellinus, a most awkward 
and clumsy word. But it is just as likely that he intended the word 
as a diminutive of the same root as Achatina; and, at any rate, no 
one has the right to make changes on an unsupported assumption, 
for which reason the original form is retained here." 

B. NUX (Broderip). PI. 16, figs. 31-38. 

Shell umbilicate, ovate-conic, solid ; chestnut variously modified 
by olivaceous, whitish or yellowish suffusion, paler on the spire, and 
with a pale or yellow line below the suture, the apex either white or 
purple. Surface somewhat shining, with rather strong growth- 
wrinkles, decussated or cut into long beads by few or many spiral 
incised lines. Spire conic. Whorls 7-7 J, slightly convex, separated 
by well impressed sutures. Aperture squarish ovate, light within, 
with a dark submargin ; outer lip somewhat straightened in the 
middle, the columellar lip built forward and dilated ; columella 
generally subtruncate below. 

Alt. 20, diam. 1H-12 ; alt. of aperture 9-9 mill. 

Galapagos Is.: Original typical nux of Broderip on bushes^ 
Charles Island, in the upper wooded region ; mut. nuciformis, Chatham 
Island (U. S. Fish Commission) ; mut. incrassatus, on the under side 
of leaves hibernating, 1,600 feet above the sea, on the S.-W. end of 
Chatham Island (Baur) ; mut. figured by Reeve in Conch. Icon., 
abundant on Charles Island (U. S. Fish Commission) ; variety ver- 
rucosus, Chatham Island; var. asperatus, Charles Island, abundant 
(Wolf and U. S. Fish Commission). 



BULIMULUS-NAESIOTUS. 101 

Bulinus nux BROD., P. Z. S., 1832, p. 125 (Charles Id.) ; SBY., 
Conch. Ill, p. 6, figs. 37, 37*, 1833. Bulimus nux DESH. in Lara. 
An. s. Vert., ed. ii, vol. viii, p. 276, 1838. PFR., Men. Hel. Viv., II, 
p. 183, 1848. REEVE, Conch. Icon., pi. xxiii, fig. 150 (not typical) ; 
SMITH, P. Z. S., 1877, p. 72. Buliminus nux BECK, Ind. Moll., p. 70, 
1838. Bulimus (Ncesiotus^ nux ALBERS, Heliceen, p. 162. Buli- 
mulus (Omphalofityla) nux H. & A. ADAMS, Gen. Rec. Moll., II, p. 
161, 1855. Bulimulus (Nesiotes) nux MARTENS, in Albers ed II, p. 
220, I860. Bulimulus (Ncesiotus') nux PER., Norn. Hel. Viv., p. 254, 
1881. Bulimus nuciformis PETIT, Journal de Conchyl.,IV, p. 365, 
pi. xi, fig. 7, 1853. PER., Mon. Hel. Viv., I V,p. 410,1859. Bulimus 
(Ncesiotus*) nuciformis PER., Mai. Blatt., ii, Vers., p. 161, 1854. 
Bulimulus (Nesiotes} nuciformis MARTENS in Albers, ed. ii, p. 220, 
1860. Bulimulus (Ncesiotus) nuciformis PER., Nom. Hel. Viv., p. 
254, 1881. Bulimus incrassatus PER., P. Z. S., 1852, p. 157; in 
Chemn, Conch. Cab., ed. ii, Bulimus, 79, pi. 30, figs. 13, 14; Mon. 
Hel. Viv., Ill, p. 415, 1 853. Bulimulus (Omphaloztyla) incrassatus 
H. & A. ADS., Gen. Rec. Moll., II, p. 161, 1855. Bulimulus unifas- 
ciatus REIBISCH (non Sby.) Isis, 1892, p. 32, pi. i, fig. 1, not p. 15. 
Bulimulus (Ncesiotus*) nux REIBISCH, Isis, 1892, p. 15. Bulimulus 
(Ncesiotus') incrassatus REIBISCH, Isis, 1892, p. 16, t. i. fig. 4a ; var. sul- 
catus REIB., Ibid. p. 16, t. i, figs. 4b c ; var. nuciformis REIB., Ibid., p. 
16, t. i, fig. 4d. Bulimulus (Ncesiotus*} nux STEARNS, Proc. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., xvi, pp. 376-381, 425, 426, 1893. DALL, Proc. Acad. N. S. P., 
1896, p. 429, pi. 16, f. 6 (genitalia), pi. 17, f. 10 (dentition). 

Type of the section Ncesiotus. B. nuciformis Petit is practically 
a typical nux ; while Reeves' nux (pi. 16, figs. 33), is a rather 
heavier form with quadrate aperture and thick lip. 

" The synonymy exhibits, almost as clearly as the specimens, the 
great variability of this species. The facts also seem to indicate 
quite positively that a great proportion of this variability in this 
instance is due quite as much to an intrinsic tendency to vary in the 
matter of color and form as to any direct influence of the environ- 
ment promoting by special circumstances any special variation. At 
least, while it is not questionable that some of the variations might 
easily be made permanent by natural selection, it is probable, as 
yet, that matters have not reached that stage, since the evidence of 
collectors seems to establish the fact that the different variations of 
color and form are found indiscriminately in the same region and 
under the same conditions. Further and more precise observation 



102 BULIMULUS-NAESIOTUS. 

is needed to establish this beyond controversy, but at present there 
seems no escape from this conclusion " (Da//). 

Form incrassatus (Pfr.). PL 16, figs. 42, 43, 44, 45. 

The form described as B. incrassatus is quite solid, sculptured 
with rather strong oblique folds, which are yellow on a deep chest- 
nut ground ; incised spirals few ; apex purple-black. 

Var. verrucosus (Pfr.). PL 16, fig. 39. 

Shell openly and compressed umbilicate, ovate-conic, solid, sculp- 
tured with somewhat interrupted folds and oblong warts ; brown 
variegated with paler. Spire conic, rather acute, sutures subcanali- 
culate. Whorls 7, rather flat, the last about three-sevenths the total 
alt., rounded at base. Aperture subvertical, truncate-oval, sub- 
angular at columella, livid inside ; peristome straight, brown-bor- 
dered inside, the columellar margin dilated, spreading. Columella 
lightly folded. Alt. 23, diam. Ill, alt. aperture 11 mill. (Pfr.). 

JBulimus verrucosus PFR., P. Z. S., 1885, p. 116 (Gal. Is.) ; Mon. 
Hel. Yiv, IV, p. 475, 1859. Bulimus (Ncesiotus) verrucosus PFR., 
Mai. Blatt., ii, Vers., p. 161, 1854. Bulimulus (Ncesiotus) verruco- 
sus PFR., Norn. Hel. Viv, p. 254, 1881 . REIBISCH, Isis, 1892, p. 15. 
Bulimulus asperatus RETBISCH (non Pfr.), Isis, 1892, pi. 1, fig. 3 
(syn. excl.). B. nux var. verrucosus Pfr., DALL, /. c. 

Var. asperatus (Albers). PL 16, figs. 40, 41. 

Shell deeply rimate-umbilicate, ovate-pyramidal, solid, irregu- 
larly warty from spiral sulci and longitudinal wrinkles ; buff whitish 
under a deciduous cuticle. Spire conic, the apex acute; suture 
crispate, subexcavated. Whorls 7, slightly convex, the embryonal 
smooth, the last about as long as the spire, compressed at base. 
Aperture vertical, oblong, angular at base, white inside ; peristome 
simple, acute, the margins parallel, joined by a thin callus ; colum- 
ellar margin much dilated, vaultingly spreading. Columella 
straightened, descending to the base of the aperture. 

Alt. 24, diam. 11 J ; alt. of aperture 12 mill. (Pfr.). 

Bulimus asperatus ALBERS, Malak. Blatt., IV, p. 98, 1857. 
PFR., Mon. Hel. Viv, IV, p. 475, 1859 ; VI, p. 121 ; Novit. Conch., 
IV, p. 145, pi. 133, figs. 8, 9. Bulimulus (Nesiotus) asperatus MAR- 
TENS in Albers Heliceen, ed. ii, p. 220, 1860. Bulimulus (Ncesio- 
tus~) asperatus PFR., Nom. Hel. Viv, p. 254, 1881 ; not of Reibisch, 
Isis, 1892, pi. 1, fig. 3, verrucosus var. Bulimulus invalidus REI- 
BISCH, Isis, 1892, p. 17, t. 1, fig. 6. 



BULIMULUS-NAESIOTUS. 103 

B. RUGULOSUS (Sowerby). PI. 16, figs. 46, 47. 

Shell rimate, oblong turrited, longitudinally wrinkled, granulated 
by elevated concentric lines. Brown, with two rufous girdles; 
whorls 8, convex, the last over a third the total length of shell, com- 
pressed laterally. 

Aperture oblong ; peristome simple, a trifle expanded, the mar- 
gins subparallel, joined by a callus, the right margin lightly arcuate 
above, columellar margin dilated, vaulted and spreading. Alt. 21, 
diam. 8, alt. of aperture 8 mill. (Pfr.). 

Galapagos Is. : Under stones near the shore, Blackbeach Road, 
Charles Island (Dr. Baur) ; Charles Island (Darwin and Wolf) ; 
Chatham Island (Darwin, Kellett and Cuming). 

Bulinus rugulosus SBY., Conch. 111. Part 142, fig. 87 (a, b), 1839. 
Bulimus rugulosus PFR., Mon. Hel. Viv., II, p. 113, 1848. Bui- 
imus eschariferus REEVE, Conch. Icon., pi. xx, no. 121, (text, figure 
excluded), 1848, not of Sowerby. Bulimulus (Omphalostyla') rugu- 
losus H. & A. ADAMS, Gen. Rec. Moll., II, p. 161, 1855. Bulimulus 
(Nwsiotus) rugulosus PFR., Nom. Hel. Viv, p. 254, 1881. ANCEY, 
Bull. Soc. Mai. France, IV, p. 294, 1887, (Chatham Island). 
STEARNS, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xvi, pp. 381, 426, 1893. D ALL, 
Proc. Acad. N. S. Phila., 1896, p. 431, pi. 17, f. 1 (jaw). . rug- 
ulosus var. infuscata ANCEY, op. cit., p. 294, 1887. Not B. rugulosus 
REIBISCH, Isis, 1892, p. 19, pi. 1, figs. 11 SL-b,=B.perspectivus Pfr. 

Decidedly narrower than B. nux. Dall writes: "Jaw thin, 
membranaceous, light horn-colored, low, wide, arcuate, of equal 
height throughout, ending bluntly ; anterior surface with about 20 
broad, flat ribs, their outer edges reinforced, the margins of the jaw 
squarely denticulated by the projecting ends of the ribs. 

" Some varieties of B. nux approach this species quite closely, espe- 
cially that to which Reibisch gave the name ofinvalidus" 

In var. infuscatus Ancey, the bands spread, forming the ground- 
color of the shell, leaving only a narrow lighter zone between them. 

Var. nudus Reibisch. PI. 22, fig. 1. 

Shell long-conic, fusiform, perforate, rather solid, irregularly pli- 
cate or ribbed, with one white band ; spire acute ; suture moderate, 
nodulous. Whorls 8i, convex, equally increasing, the nucleus 
smooth (?). Aperture a little oblique, semioval ; peristome simple, 
the margins joined by a thin callus, right margin angularly adnate 



1 04 BULIMULUS-NAESIOTUS. 

above, arcuately joined with the straightened columella. Alt. nearly 
18, greater diam. 8, lesser 7J mill. ; aperture 6 mill, long, 4 wide. 
(ReibiscTi). 

Charles Island (Wolf). 

Bulimulus (Nozsiotus) nudus REIB., Isis, 1892, p. 21, pi. 1, f. 15. 

Described from two dead shells. It is placed under B. rugulosus 
as a doubtful synonym by Dall. "In form this species stands between 
sculpturatus and rugiferus ; it is mainly differentiated from these by 
the greater size and less pronounced sculpture." (Reibiscfi), 

B. PLANOSPIRA Ancey. PL 16, fig. 48. 

Shell rimate, oblong with long spire ; brown, lighter above, with 
two purple-brown spiral bands ; rather thin. Spire distinctly attenu- 
ated above, the apex obtuse ; nepionic 2 i whorls vertically ribbed, 
the riblets becoming much closer on the latter half of the last ; fol- 
lowing whorls with unequally spaced obliquely longitudinal narrow 
but strong folds, crossed by crowded cord- and thread-like spiral striae. 
Whorls about 7, very convex, the last two tumid below the deeply 
constricting sutures ; last whorl somewhat flattened peripherally. 

Aperture oblong, slightly oblique, purple-banded inside ; peristome 
thin, simple ; columellar margin wide, white. 

Alt. 18, diam. 8 mill. ; aperture 7 mill, high, 5 wide. 

Northeast end of Charles Island, at about 200 feet (Dr. Baur). 

Bulimus eschariferus REEVE, Conch. Icon., pi. xx, fig. 121 (bad, 
text excl.), 1848. Bulimulus rugulosus var. planospira ANCEY, 
Bull. Soc. Mai. de France, IV, p. 294, 1887 .Bulimulus (Nwsiotui) 
planospira Anc., DALL, Proc. A. N. S. Phila., 1896, p. 432, pi. 16, 
f. 3. 

" This is one of the most elegant species of the group. It is very 
closely related to B. rugulosus from which it may be discriminated 
by its larger size and greater number of whorls, and by the deeper 
suture and more lax manner in which the last whorl is coiled. In 
B. planospira the spiral sculpture is usually more elevated and con- 
spicuous. It has been found only on a limited portion of Charles 
Island, while rugulosus is common on both Charles and Chatham." 
(Dall). 

B. USTULATUS (Sowerby). PL 23, figs. 16 ; pi. 16, figs. 49-52. 

Shell small, umbilicate, oblong with elevated spire, rather thin 
but solid. Rusty brown, with irregular oblique yellow streaks, or 



BULIMULUS-NAESIOTUS. 105 

yellow with two interrupted dark brown bands ; rather shining ; 
sculpture of very irregularly spaced, obliquely longitudinal yellow 
folds, showing decussating spirals above, but only obscurely on the 
last whorl. Spire long conic, the apex obtuse, nearly 2 earlier 
whorls forming the costellate nepionic shell. Whorls 6, convex, 
the last rounded. 

Aperture contained 21 times in length of the shell, whitish within 
with a brown margin toward the lip-edge ; peristome acute, outer lip 
strongly arcuate above, columellar lip dilated above, white ; col- 
umella short, vertical. 

Alt. 13f, diam. 7, alt. of aperture 5 mill. 

Charles Island (Cuming). 

Bulinus ustulatus SBY., P. Z. S., 1833, p. 72, (Charles Island); 
onch. 111., p. 6, fig. 42, 1833. Bulimus ustulatus DESH. in Lam. 
An. s. Vert., ed. II, vol. viii, p. 279, 1838. PFR., Mon. Hel. Viv., 
II, p. 217, 1848 ; in Chemn. Conch. Cab. ed. II, Bulimus, t. 62 ; figs. 
16-18. REEVE, Conch. Icon., pi. xxi, fig. 130, 1848. Buliminus 
ustulatus BECK, Ind. Moll., p. 70, 1838. Bulimulus (Omphalostyla') 
ustulatus H. & A. AD., Gen. Rec. Moll., II, p. 161, 1855. Bulimus 
(Ncesiotux') ustulatus ALBERS, Heliceen, p. 162, 1850. Bulimulus 
(Nesiotes) ustulatus MARTENS in Albers, ed. ii, p. 221, 1860. Bui- 
imulus (Ucesiotus) ustulatus PFR., Nom. Hel. Viv., p. 254, 1881. 
STEARNS, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xvi, p. 427, 1893. DALL, Proc. 
Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1896, p. 432. Bulimulus (Ncesiotus') venustus 
REIBISCH, Isis, 1892, p. 17, t. i, fig. 7. ? B. ustulatus Reibisch, Isis, 
1892, p. 16, t. i, fig. 5,=nux var. ? 

This species is notable for the yellowness of its paler parts and the 
bright sienna brown of its darker portions. It is closely related to 
B. calvus Sby., which is a smaller, narrower shell. The form figured 
by Reeve (pi. 16, fig. 52) and by Reibisch (pi. 16, fig. 51) under 
this name is somewhat larger than the true ustulatus, and is con- 
sidered by Dr. Stearns to be a banded variety of B. nux, but this is 
very doubtful. PI. 16, fig. 49 is a copy of Sowerby's original figure. 
PI. 23, fig. 16 is an enlarged view of a more streaked form. 

B. venustus Reibisch (pi. 16, fig. 50) does not seem to offer any 
differential characters, and is placed here by Dall. 

B. CALVUS (Sowerby). PI. 22, figs. 2, 3, 4, 5. 

Shell rimate umbilicate, oblong- turrited, solid ; chestnut with few 
darker, obliquely longitudinal bands. Surface somewhat shining, 



106 BULIMULUS-NAESIOTUS. 

somewhat wrinkled longitudinally, with decussating spiral striae on 
the spire, absent below. Spire slightly attenuated above, the apex 
obtuse, If earlier whorls costellate, the rest convex, last whorl 
rounded at the periphery. 

Aperture contained about 2? times in alt. of shell, oval ; peristome 
thickened. 

Alt. 12 , diam. 6, alt. of aperture 5 mill. 

Alt. 13, diam. 6, alt. of aperture 4f mill. 

Alt. 14, diam. 6, alt. of aperture 5J mill. (P/r.). 

James Island (Cuming) ; Charles Island (U. S. Fish Commission, 
Cuming and Wolf) ; Chatham Island (Kellett). 

Bulinus calvus SBY., P. Z. S., 1833, p. 72 (James Island) ; Conch. 
111., p. 6, fig. 41, 1833. Bulimus calvus DESH. in Lam. An. s. Vert, 
ed. ii, vol. viii, p. 179, 1838. PFR., Mon. Hel. Viv., II, p. 225, 
1848 ; Chemn. Conch. Cab., ed. ii, Bulimus, t. 62, figs. 37, 38. 
Buliminus calvus BECK, Ind. Moll., p. 70, 1838. Bulimulus (Om- 
phalostyla) clavus H. & A. AD., Gen. Eec. Moll. II, p. 161, 1855. 
Bulimus calvus REEVE, Conch. Icon., pl.xx, fig. 126, 1848. Bulim- 
ulus (Nesiotes) calvus MARTENS in Albers, ed. ii, p. 221, 1860. 
Bulimulus (Ncesiotus) calvus PFR., Nona. Hel. Viv., p. 254, 1881. 
REIBISCH, Isis, 1892, p. 18, t. i, fig. 8. STEARNS, Proc. U. S. Nat 
Mus., xvi, p. 427, 1893, ex parte. DALL, Proc. Acad. N. S. Phila., 
1896, p. 433. 

Smoother than B. ustulatus, with less variegated coloration. " It 
is closely related to B. ustulatus and is rather nearly approached by 
certain dwarfish, unusually smooth specimens of B. rugulosus. B. 
nucula Pfr. is also closely allied." 

B. NUCULA (Pfeiffer). PI. 22, fig. 6. 

Shell narrowly umbilicated, ovate-conic, rather solid, very subtly 
rugulose-striate ; brownish-corneous, generally with a single pale 
girdle. Spire convex-conic, acute. Whorls 6, a trifle convex, the 
last a little shorter than the spire, slightly compressed at base. 

Aperture little oblique, somewhat semi-oval, angular at base ; per- 
istome simple, unexpanded, the right margin very arcuate above, 
columellar margin reflexed, spreading. Columella straightened, 
obliquely subtruncate at the base. Alt. 11 J, diam. 6, alt. of aperture 
5* mill. (P/r.). 

Charles Island (Wolf) ; Chatham Island near the S.- W. end at a 
height of 1,600 feet (Baur). 



BULIMULUS-NAESIOTUS. 107 

Bulimus nucula PFR., P. Z. S., 1852, p. 60 (Gal. Is.) ; MOD. Hel. 
Viv., Ill, p. 415, 1853 ; IV, p. 475, 1859. Bulimus (Ncesiotus) 
nucula PFR., Mai. Blatt. II, p. 161, 1854. Bulimulus (Omphalo- 
styla) nucula H. & A. AD., Gen. Rec. Moll., II, p. 161, 1855. 
Bulimulus (Xesiotes} nucula MARTENS, in Albers Heliceen, ed. ii, 
p. 221, 1860. Bulimulus (Ncesiotus) nucula PFR., Nona. Hel. Viv., 
p. 254, 1881. REIBISCH, Isis, 1892, p. 15, t. i, fig. 2. DALL, Proc. 
Acad. N. S. Phila., 1896, p. 433. Bulimulus (Ncesiotus} nux var. 
STEARNS, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xvi, pp. 380, 426, 1893. 

" A specimen collected by Dr. Baur, submitted to Mr. Edgar A. 
Smith of the British Museum, was said to be somewhat darker 
colored and more coarsely striated than the type of nucula in that 
collection. These are, however, trivial differences under the circum- 
stances. It agrees closely with a specimen sent by Reibisch under 
the name of nucula. It is a smoother, smaller and more compact 
shell than rugulosus, and shows a somewhat attenuated and dark 
colored apex, resembling that of galapaganus Pfr. It is, perhaps, 
most closely related to B. ustulatus or B. calvus Sby., and a sufficient 
series might very likely connect them." (Dall). 

The figure is drawn from a specimen received from Dall, no. 107- 
469, U. S. Nat. Mus. 

B. GALAPAGANUS (Pfeiffer). PI. 22, fig. 7. 

Shell compressed-umbilicate, ovate turrited thin, striatulate, silky, 
pellucid, corneous-waxen. Spire convexly turrited, rather acute ; 
suture somewhat marginated. Whorls 8, the last about one-third 
the length of shell, compressed around the umbilicus. 

Aperture subvertical, oblong-oval ; peristome simple, the right 
margin arcuate above, a trifle expanded, forming an angle with the 
columella, which is somewhat twisted within. Alt. 15?, diam. 6, 
length of aperture 51 mill. (Pfr.}. 

Charles Island, at about 200 ft. elevation, near the northeast end 
of the island (Dr. Baur). 

Bulimus galapaganus PFR., P. Z. S., 1854, p. 58. Mon. Hel. 
Viv, IV, p. 503, 1859. Buliminus (Ncesiotus') galapaganus PFR., 
Mai. Blatt., II, Vers., p. 160, 1854. Bulimulus (Nesiotes) galapag- 
anus MARTENS, in Albers Heliceen, ed. ii, p. 221, 1860. Bulimulus 
(Ncesiotus') galapaganus PFR., Nom. Hel. Viv., p. 1881. REIBISCH, 
Isis, 1892, p. 20. STEARNS, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., XVI, p. 427, 
1893. BALL, Proc. A. N. S. Phila., 1896, p. 435. 



108 BULIMULUS-NAESIOTUS. 

The specimen illustrated, collected by Dr. Baur (U. S. Nat. Mus. 
no. 107291) differs from Pfeiffer's description in being rather solid 
and not pellucid. It is yellowish-brown with some dark oblique 
streaks and a faint light peripheral girdle, the earlier 5 whorls 
blackish -purple, gradually fading below. The columella is strongly 
truncate below. Alt. 14'8, diam. 5'8, length of aperture 4'8 mill. 
It is perhaps closest to B. calvus Sowb. Dall writes : " This is 
very closely related to B. ustulatus Sby., is slightly longer and more 
pupiform, and wants the bright yellowish bands. The whorls are 
more rounded in B. galapaganus than in B. perspectivus, and the 
latter is darker and more uniformly colored." 

B. ESCHARIFERUS (Sowerby). PI. 22, figs. 8, 9. 

Shell rimate-perforate, oblong-pyramidal, rather thin ; brown, a 
little darker on each side of a light peripheral girdle which ascends 
the spire just above the suture, and with a narrow light line below 
the suture. Surface shining, with indistinct wrinkle-striae, a little 
puckered under the sutures, with faint spirals in fresh shells. Spire 
slender, its lateral outlines a trifle convex, slightly attenuated near 
the obtuse apex. Nepionic whorls 2i , costellate. Whorls 72-8, the 
earlier convex, the rest less so, last whorl oblong. 

Aperture small, about a third the shell's length, purple-brown and 
showing the band inside ; outer lip a trifle expanded, whitish ; col- 
umellar lip dilated. Columella obliquely truncated below. 

Alt. 16, diam. 6, alt. of aperture 5'3 mill. 

Alt. 15*7, diam. 6'3, alt. of aperture 5*5 mill. 

Alt. 18, diam. 6'5, alt. of aperture 6 mill. (Pfr.). 

Chatham Island (Darwin, Kellett, U. S. Fish Commission and 
Dr. Baur), under stones near the shore at Wreck Bay and else- 
where ; Charles Island (H. M. S. Peterel). 

Bulinus eschariferus SBY., Conch. Ill, figs. 85 (a, b), 1833. 
Bulimus eschariferus PFR., Syrub., II, p. 45 ; Mon. Hel. Viv., II, p. 
115, 1848. SMITH, P. Z. S., 1877, p. 72.Bulimulus (Ncesiotus) 
eschariferus PFR., Nom. Hel. Viv., p. 254, 1881. KEIBISCH, Isis, 
1892, p. 14. STEARNS, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xvi, pp. 381, 426, 
1893. DALL, Proc. A. N. S., Phila., 1896, p. 434. Bulimus rug- 
ulosus REEVE (not Sby.), Conch. Icon., pi. xx, fig. 123, 1848 (cita- 
tion, diagnosis and figure refer to eschariferus}. Bulimulus (Om- 
phalostyla) eschariferus H. & A. AD., Gen. Rec. Moll., II, p. 161, 
1855. Bulimulus eschariferus ANCEY, Bull. Soc. Mai. France, IV, 



BULIMULUS-NAESIOTUS. 109 

p. 295, 1887. B. eschariferus var. bizonalis ANCEY, op. cit., p. 295, 
1887. B. eschariferus var. subconoidalis ANCEY, op. cit., p. 295, 
1887. 

This species is lighter colored than B. perspectivus Pfr., with nar- 
row umbilical perforation, although often rather broadly excavated 
behind the columellar lip, and the body-whorl does not hang sack- 
like below. Dall writes : " Though this species, as usually received, 
is apparently smooth and polished, it has minute more or less gran- 
ular spirals, which it is probable in the young state bear hairs." 

Var. pileatus Dall. 

"Among the living specimens obtained at Chatham Island by the 
U. S. Fish Commission were some rather smaller than the average 
and covered with a dense brown epidermis, which bears numerous 
spiral lines more or less minutely granulose, a small hair or process 
of the epidermis projecting from each granule, giving the shell a 
pilose appearance. These specimens measure about 12 mm. in length 
and o mm. in diameter, the color of the shell is browner than in the 
type, and, when denuded of the periostracum, the shell is seen to be 
marked by numerous fine sharp, almost microscopic spirals. It 
may, perhaps, form a variety pileatus, of the typical eschariferus" 
(Dall). 

Var. ventrosus Reibisch. PI. 22, figs. 14, 15. 

Shell widely rimate, oblong-oval, thin, shining, arcuately striate r 
marked with slender granulose spiral lines ; pale yellowish with an 
encircling paler band ; spire rather acute, suture plicose-margined 
whorls 6f-7i, convex, the embryonal ribbed, last two inflated ; Col- 
umbia nearly straight. Aperture oblique, protracted, oval, glossy 
inside ; peristome simple, the ends joined by a thin callus, right mar- 
gin rounded, expanded, columellar margin reflexed, spreading. 
(Reibisch}. 

Alt. 17*5, diam. 8'3, length of aperture 7'5 mill. 

Alt. 16'8, diam. 7'3, length of aperture 6'6 mill. 

Barrington Island, common (Wolf, fide Reibisch, also Dr. G. 
Baur, who found it unc^er stones near the shore). 

Bulimulus (Nczsiotus) ventrosus REIBISCH, Isis, 1892, p. 19, 1. 1, fig. 
12a-b. Bulimulus (Ncesiotus) eschariferus var. ventrosus Reibisch, 
DALL, Proc. A. N. S., Phila., 1896, p. 434, pi. 1 7, f. 3 (dentition). 



110 BULIMULUS-NAESIOTUS. 

" A specimen of this form was sent to Mr. Smith at the British 
Museum, and by him compared with the type of B. eschariferus with 
which he identified it. In color, form and range of variation the 
Barrington Island shells agree perfectly with those from Chatham 
and Charles Island (eschariferus), but the latter are always a little 
more slender if the specimens I have seen can be taken as a criterion. 
Twenty-four of them averaged 16 mm. long by 5 mm. in diameter 
above the aperture, while the diameter of the most slender of forty- 
two Barrington Island specimens was 6 mm. The latter have the 
spire less attenuated and slightly more compact. On the whole, it is 
doubtful if this form can rank higher than as a local race of eschari- 
ferus." (Dall). 

B. PERSPECTIVUS (Pfeiffer). PI. 22, figs. 10, 11, 12 ; pi. 24, figs. 35, 

36. 

Shell with a narrow but very deep and well-like umbilicus, oblong- 
turrited ; reddish-brown becoming paler on the spire, and sometimes 
with a narrow, pale peripheral girdle; glossy, with faint arcuate 
growth-wrinkles. Spire with slightly convex lateral outlines and 
obtuse apex; whorls 7, the earlier If costulate, all whorls convex, 
the last rather sack-like and full below, excavated behind the col- 
umellar lip. Aperture ovate, dark purple-brown inside, somewhat 
oblique, slightly exceeding one-third the shell's length ; peristome 
narrowly expanded throughout, and, with the broadly expanded 
columella, of a brown color. Columella either simply concave or 
conspicuously obliquely truncate below. 

Alt. 16-5, diam. 6'3 ; length of aperture 6'2 mill. 

Alt. 17, diam. 7 ; length of aperture 6'5 mill. 

Alt. 16, diam. 6'5 ; length of aperture 6'5 mill. (Pfr.). 

Chatham Island, Galapagos, 300-600 ft. alt., on rocks and under 
stones (Wolf). 

Bulimus perspective PFR., P. Z. S., 1846, p. 33 ; Mon. Hel. Viv, 
ii, p. 97, 1848. REEVE, Conch. Icon., Bulimus, pi. 63, fig. 435. 
Bulimulus (Ataxus) perspectivus PFR. CLESSIN, Nomencl. Hel. 
Viv, p. 253, 1881. Bulimulus (Ncesiotus') rugulosus REIBISCH, Isis, 
1892, p. 19, t. i, figs. 11 a-b. Bulimulus (Ncesiotus) perspectivus Pfr., 
BALL, Proc. A. N. S. Phila., 1896, p. 435. 

The species resembles B. eschariferus in form, but it is of a deep 
reddish, instead of an olivaceous brown, the last whorl is more 
swollen basally and the umbilicus is larger and penetrates well-like 



BULIMULUS-NAESIOTUS. Ill 

to the apex. Out of seven specimens before me, four show a narrow, 
pale band on the last whorl, another has it faintly traced, while on 
two it is absent. The lip is dark colored. Three of the specimens 
have the base of the pillar very prominent, almost channelled, the 
others are quite normal. The shell is midway between the typical 
eschariferus and the var. ventrosus in size. One specimen before me 
is but 11*6 mill, long, 5*5 wide, with hardly 6 whorls, although the 
lip proclaims it an adult. Such dwarfs occur in other species of 
this group. The first reference of it to B. rugulosus by Herr Rei- 
bisch was undoubtedly an error, which that gentleman detected 
upon examining the specimens in the British Museum. 

B. JACOBI (Sowerby). PI. 22, fig. 13. 

Shell small, ovate-conic, narrowly umbilicate, thin : brown, with 
a peripheral pale girdle, sometimes bordered with darker above and 
below. Surface dull, wrinkle-striate, with numerous, fine, unequal, 
granose spiral striae, every fifth or sixth being larger. Spire conic, 
the apex obtuse, nepionic If whorls costellate. Whorls about 6, 
convex, the last rounded. 

Aperture short-oval, slightly oblique, contained about 2? times 
in alt. of shell ; peristome thin, hardly expanded, everywhere arcu- 
ate ; columellar margin expanded ; columella concave. 

Alt. 10, diam. 51, length of aperture 4 mill. 

Alt. 10, diam. 61, length of aperture 5 mill. (Pfr.). 

James Island (Cuniing) ; Charles Island (Cuming) ; 1,600 ft. 
near Wreck Bay, Chatham Island, on the under side of leaves of 
plants (var. pallidus}, and on East Albemarle Island (Dr. Baur) ; 
Albemarle Island, 200-800 ft. on bushes and stones (Wolf, fide Rei- 
bisch) (var. pallidus) \ Chatham Island, 900-2,000 ft., in damp 
places and on the trunks of trees (var. acutus) (Wolf). 

Bulinus jacobi SBY.,P. Z. S., 1833, p. 74 (James Id.) Conch. 111., 
p. 7, figs. 45, 45 (2 vars.) 1833. Bulimus jacobi DESH. in Lam. An. 
s. Vert., ed. ii, vol. viii, p. 281, 1838. PFR., Mon. Hel. Viv. II, p. 98, 
1848 (not of Reeve, Conch. Icon., pi. xxi, fig. 135, \S4S=B. olla. 
Buliminus jacobi BECK, Ind. Moll., p. 70, 1838 Bulimulus (Om- 
phalostyla) jacobi H. & A. ADS., Gen. Rec. Moll., ii, p. 161, 1855. 
Bulimus (Ncesiotus) jacobi ALBERS, Helic., p. 162, 1850. Bulimulus 
(Nesiotes) jacobi MARTENS, in Albers, ed. ii, p. 221, 1860 Bulimulus 
(Ncesiotus) jacobi PFR., Norn. Hel. Viv, p. 254, 1881. REIBISCH, 
Isis, 1892, p. 18. DALL, Proc. A. N. S. Phila., 1896, p. 436. Not B. 



112 BULIMULUS-NAESIOTUS. 

jacobi STEARNS, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., XVI, p. 381, lS93Bulimu- 
lus (Nassiotus) pallidus REIBISCH, Isis, 1892, p. 18, t. i, fig. 9. Buli- 
mulus (Ncesiotus) acutus REIB., op. cit., p. 20, t. i, fig. 13, 1892. ? Bull- 
minus avellana BECK, Index, p. 70. 

"The typical B. jacobi, sent by Cuming to Dr. Lea in 1838, is a 
small, stout shell, with rather inflated whorls, covered with fine 
granulations, minute, obliquely transverse broken wrinkles, and fine 
granular spirals, hardly visible without magnification. The shell is 
pale reddish-brown, sometimes with a narrow, pale peripheral band. 
The pillar and body are without fold or tubercular callus. Those 
collected by Dr. Baur on Charles Island are the smallest I have 
seen which can be positively referred to this species. The larger, 
smooth form figured by Reeve under this name is distinct, and will 
be found referred to under the name of B. olla" (Dall). 

Var. pallidus Reibisch. PI. 23, fig. 20. 

Differs from the typical form in being slightly smaller and more 
slender without the wrinkles, and it is probable that a large series 
would show no dividing line between the variety and the type. 

Var. acutus Reibisch. PL 23, fig. 21. 

Differs from pallidus in the almost entire absence of the spiral 
granulated sculpture, leaving much of the surface polished and 
smooth, except for incremental lines. Reibisch's figure shows one 
whorl more in the same length than the specimen he was kind 
enough to send me for examination, but slight differences of this 
kind are common among these very variable forms. It also comes 
very close to some varieties of B. nucula and B. amastroides, the 
latter being slightly smaller and more spindle-shaped (Dalfy. 

Var. cinereus Reibisch. PI. 23, fig. 17. 

Shell with five and a half sharply granulated, wrinkled whorls ; 
suture deep, aperture small, simple, thin-edged ; umbilicus perforate, 
rather large but not funicular. Alt. 8, diam. 5'5, alt. of last whorl 
6-0 mill. (Dall). 

James Island at James Bay (Dr. Baur and Wolf). 

Bulimulus (Ncesiotus) cinereus REIBISCH, Isis, 1892, p. 19, t. i, fig. 
10. Bulimulus jacobi var. vermiculatus DALL, Nautilus, VII, p. 53,. 
Sept., 1893. Bulimulus jacobi var. cinereus Reib., DALL, Proc. A. 
N. S. Phila., 1896, p. 437, pi. 16, f. 14. 



BULIMULUS-NAESIOTUS. 113 

No living specimens of this species appear to have been collected. 
This variety is hardly separable from the smaller B. jacobi, though 
the dead and the fresh shells appear quite dissimilar. It is some- 
what smaller than the smallest undoubted jacobi, and the granular 
sculpture is more dense and uniform. I have not seen any speci- 
mens with a spire as long and pointed as in Reibisch's figure. A 
specimen sent by him agrees in every way with those collected by 
Dr. Baur. 

Resembles a dwarf B. jacobi with very sharp, beaded, alternate 
granulations in spiral rows; transverse wrinkles small but distinct; 
the spire pointed but the apex rather blunt. 

B. OLLA Dall. PI. 23, figs. 18, 19. 

Shell umbilicate, ovate-conic, thin, light brown with a faint, 
hardly noticeable paler peripheral zone ; somewhat shining ; nearly 
smooth, but showing under the lens faint growth-lines and traces 
of a few spirals composed of oblong granules. Spire conic, the 
apex obtuse. Whorls about 7, convex, the last rounded. 

Aperture ovate, slightly oblique; peristome thin, unexpanded, 
colurnellar margin dilated; columella slightly concave, a trifle 
truncate below. 

Alt. 14, diam. 8, alt. of aperture 6 mill. 

James Island (Cuming) ; Duncan Island, all dead, but fresh (Dr. 
Baur) ; Barrington Island, dead (Dr. Baur) ; Conway Bay, Indefa- 
tigable Island (Dr. Baur). 

Bulimus jacobi REEVE, Conch. Icon., Bulimus, pi. xxi, fig. 135, 
1848. Bulimulus olla DALL, Nautilus, VII, p. 53, September, 1893. 
Bulimuhis (Xcesiotus) olla DALL, Proc. A. N. S. Phila., 1896, p. 
437, pi. 1 6, f. 2. 

" This shell is closely related to B. jacobi, and was figured by 
Reeve under that name. B. olla is larger, and wants the granula- 
tions of B. jacobi, its surface is nearly smooth and almost polished, 
marked with faint incremental lines, has seven whorls (against six 
in the other species) and a very bulbous pillar. The present spe- 
cies inhabits the grassy upper zone, while B. jacobi is found in the 
wooded area " (Dall}. 

B. TANNERI Dall. PI. 23, fig. 25. 

Shell short, stout, pointed, with two nepionic and four subsequent 
whorls; nucleus rather coarsely transversely ribbed, the interspaces 
somewhat wider; the subsequent whorls marked by incremental 

8 



114 BULIMULUS-N A ESIOTUS. 

lines and obsolete traces of fine, partly granulose, inconstant spiral 
threads, only perceptible under a lens ; color pinkish or brownish- 
white with no traces of a peripheral paler band ; whorls somewhat 
inflated, suture conspicuous, umbilicus large and deeply pervious ; 
aperture large with a widely expanded lip, the outer lip much bent 
over at the body, closely approaching the pillar and united to it by 
a distinct callus. Length 11, max. diameter 7*0 mill. (Dall). 

Indefatigable Island, U. S. Fish Commission. 

Bulimulus (Ncesiotus) Fanneri DALL, Nautilus, VIII, p. 127, 
March, 1895, typ. err. for Tanneri, corrected in the index, p. iii, 
April, 1895. Bulimulus (Ncesiotus) Tanneri DALL, Proc. Acad. N. 
S. Phila., 1896, p. 438, pi. 16, fig. 5. 

" This is about the size of B. dnereus Reib., but is more conical, 
inflated and stouter, with a very differently shaped aperture, the 
lip being more expanded and reflected than in any other species 
yet described from these islands. It is named in honor of Capt. 
Z. L. Tanner, U. S. N., commanding the U. S. S. Albatross during 
the Galapagos explorations. None of the specimens were living " 
(Dall). 

B. DUNCANUS Dall. PL 23, fig. 24. 

The shell is short, stout, inflated, thin, with two nepionicand four- 
and-a-half subsequent whorls. The apex is rather pointed, the 
axial dimple small, the whorls rapidly enlarging, with the suture 
behind the last whorl deeper than the rest and more oblique to the 
axis ; the aperture is relatively small and rather oblique, the lip 
simple, sharp, not reflected, connected across the body with a thin 
callus, a single tubercle on the body, well within the aperture, and 
about equidistant from either lip ; umbilicus perforate, narrow. 
Height of the shell 18, of the last whorl 12*5 ; diameter of shell 11 
mill. (Dall). 

Duncan Island, dead specimens only (Dr. Baur). 

Bulimulus (Ncesiotus) duncanus DALL, Nautilus, VII, p. 52, Sep- 
tember, 1893 ; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., 1896, p. 438, pi. 16, f. 7. 

" The sculpture comprises only incremental lines and faint wrink- 
les in harmony with them, especially just in front of the suture and 
near the end of the last whorl. When perfectly fresh there were 
probably microscopic granules spirally arranged and sparsely dis- 
tributed, but these are now represented only by minute spots of 



BULIMULUS-NAESIOTUS. 115 

erosion. Except the largest specimens of B. nux, these shells are 
the largest Bulimuli described from the islands. They are, however, 
thinner than any specimen of B. nux, in this respect resembling B. 
unifasGiatus Sby." (Dall). 

B. DARWINI (Pfeiffer). PL 23, fig. 26. 

Shell deeply rimate, ovate-conic, rather solid, strongly sculptured 
with wavy and crispate wrinkles ; dull whitish. Spire conic, rather 
acute, corneous. Whorls 6, convex, the upper three smooth, the 
last about as long as the spire. 

Aperture wide, suboval, rather shining inside, white, with a cal- 
lous tubercle deep within on the parietal wall ; peristome simple, 
straight ; right margin arcuate above, columellar margin much 
dilated, spreading. Columella somewhat twisted, subvertical. (Pfr.) 

Alt. 17, diam. 9, length of aperture 8? mill. 

Galapagos Is. (Darwin) ; Bindloe I. (Habel). 

Bulimus Darmni PFR.,P.Z.S.,1846,p. 29. Mon.Hel.Viv, ii, p. 199, 
1848. REEVE, Conch. Icon., pi. xxi, fig. 136, 1848.Bulimulus 
(Omphalostylci) Danvini H. & A. AD., Gen. Rec. Moll., II, p. 161, 
1855. WIMMER, Sitzb. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Ixxx, p. 44, 1879 Bul- 
imulus (Nesiotes*) Dancini MARTENS, in Albers, Heliceen, ed. ii, p. 
220, ISQO.Bulwuilus (Ncesiotus) Darwini PFR., Mon. Hel. Viv, p! 
254, 1881. REIBISCH, Isis, 1892, p. 22. STEARNS, Proc. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., XVI, p. 427, 1893. DALL, Proc. A. K S. Phila., 1896, p. 439. 
Bulimus manini " Pfr." CARPENTER, Rep. Brit. Assoc., 1856, p. 
359. STEARNS, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., XVI, pp. 405, 427, 1 893 (Err. 
typ.). 

"The type specimen of this species has disappeared from the 
Cumingian Collection, and I have been unable to obtain a specimen 
for examination. The only reference to the particular island upon 
which it lives is derived from Habel " (Dalfy. 

B. WOLFI Reibisch. PI. 23, figs. 22, 23. 

Shell inflated-ovate, perforate or umbilicate, solid, somewhat shin- 
ing, buff, arcuately streaked, towards the aperture nodose-plicate, 
with a pale, narrow band. Spire wide, rather acute, suture rather 
deep. Whorls 7, sculptured with very delicate spiral lines, the last 
separated by a deeper suture, somewhat furrowed at the position of 
the peripheral band, and tuberculately plicate on each side of it. 
Nucleus delicately striated. 



116 BULIMULUS-NAESIOTUS. 

Aperture oblique, pentagonal, three-toothed ; the terminations of 
the thick lip connected by a strong white callus ; outer lip sinuous* 
forming an angle with the columellar lip ; columellar tooth at the 
end of the fold ; parietal tooth deeper within, the third tooth at the 
end of the peripheral furrow on the outer lip. Alt. 13, diam. 8, 
length of aperture 6 mill. (Reibisch). 

Indefatigable Island (Wolf, fide Reibisch). 

Bulimulus (Ncesiotus) Wolfi REIBISCH, Isis, 1892, p. 22, t. 2, figs. 1 
a-b. STEARNS, op. cit., pp. 414,427, 1893. DALL,Proc. A. N.S., 
Phila., 1896, p. 439. 

"A specimen of this species kindly forwarded for examination by 
Herr Reibisch is clearly distinct from anything I have seen. It re- 
sembles B. Simrothi Reib., but is more robust, the surface of the 
upper whorls smoother and more regular in sculpture, the pillar- 
tooth is more prominent and stronger, the parietal tooth, apparently 
normal, is not found in any Simrothi I have seen, the umbilicus is 
larger than in the latter species. It resembles Reeve's figure of B. 
Darwini somewhat, but the latter is 17 mill, long, while B. Wolfi 
only reaches a length of 13'5 mill. (Z)a/f). 

B. UNIFASCIATUS (Sowerby). PI. 23, fig. 27; pi. 18, figs. 45, 46, 

47. 

Shell ovate-subpyramidal, thin, pellucid ; brown with one whitish 
band. Whorls 5-6, veutricose, longitudinally striated, shining. 
Aperture elliptical, acuminate above ; lip thin. Umbilicus small. 
Alt. 0-8, diam. 0'45 inch (Sowl). 

James Island, under lava (Cumirig in Lea Collection) ; Chatham 
Island, near the southwest end, at a height of about 1,600 feet (Dr. 
Baur) ; Chatham Island (Kellett) ; Charles Island (Cuming and tL 
M. S. Peterel). 

Bulinus unifasciatus SBY., P. Z. S., 1833, p. 37 (Charles Id.) ; 
Conch. 111., fig. 55, 1833. Bulimus unifasciatus DESK, in Lam. An. 
s.Vert., Ed. ii, vol. viii, p. 277, 1838. REEVE, Conch. Icon., xxiii, 
fig. 149 (bad) 1848. PFR., Mon. Hel. Viv, II, p. 195, 1848. SMITH, 
P. Z. S., 1877, p. 72. Bulimulus unifasciatus BECK, Index, p. 67, 
1838. Bulimulus (Omphalostyla) unifasciatus H. & A. ADS., Gen. 
Rec. Moll., II, p. 161, 1855. Bulimulus (Nesiotes) unifasciatus 
MARTENS, in Albers, ed. ii, p. 220, 1860. Bulimulus (Ncesiotus) 
unifasciatus PFR., Nom. Hel. Viv, p. 254, 1881 ; STEARNS, Proc.U. 
S. Nat. Mus., XVI, p. 427, 1893 DALL, Proc. A. N. S. Phila., 



BULIMULUS-NAESIOTUS. 117 

1896, p. 439, pi. 17, f. 6, 11 (teeth and jaw). Bulimulus unifasciatus 
EEIBISCH, Isis, 1892, p. 15, syn. ; but not p. 32, pi. i, fig. \(=nux 
var.). 

" In its thin and ample shell, uniform reddish-brown color, and 
narrow, well-defined peripheral pale band, this form resembles the 
species of the mainland more than any other Galapagos species. The 
transverse riblets on the nepionic shell are very fine and almost 
always decorticated [as in fig. 47 ; but even when perfect they are 
confined to the crown of the whorl] ; the granular spirals are almost 
microscopic, and when fresh and perfect, bear small projections of 
the periostracum " (Z)aZ/). Fig. 46 is an enlarged view of the 
sculpture of the last whorl. 

B. SIMROTHI Reibisch. PI. 23, figs. 28, 29, 30. 

Shell umbilicate, ovate-conic, solid; brown above, becoming very 
pale on the body-whorl, where two faint, narrow, darker bands de- 
fine a light peripheral line. Surface lusterless, obliquely striate and 
with fine, indistinct spirals above, becoming very coarsely and deeply 
wrinkled and pitted on the body-whorl, which is feebly grooved at 
the position of the peripheral line. Whorls nearly 6, convex, the 
last flattened laterally. 

Aperture pentagonal-oval, brownish inside, peristome white, 
thickened within, the thickening often irregularly calloused, edged 
by a smooth band outside. Columella calloused in the middle. 

Alt. 11 -5, diam. 6'6, alt. of aperture 5 mill. 

La Tortuga, grassy zone, South Albemarle (Baur) ; 1,000-2,000 
feet, in the moist region, Albemarle Island (Wolf). 

Bulimulus (No&siotes) Simrothi REIBISCH, Isis, 1892, p. 23, t. 2, 
fig. 2. STEARNS, Proc. U. S. Xat. Mus., XVI, pp. 414, 428, 1893. 
DALL, Proc. Acad. K S. Phila., 1896, p. 441, pi. 16, f. 11, 12, 13 ; pi. 
17, f. 2 (jaw). Bulimulus (Xcesiotus) tortuganus DALL, Nautilus, 
VII, p. 54,1893. 

" Herr Reibisch has kindly furnished a photograph of one of his 
types of B. simrothi with which I have compared my specimens of 
tortuganus. Wolfs shell in the photograph appears smoother, with- 
out the deeply indented markings, and exhibits color streaks in 
harmony with the lines of growth which none of the specimens of 
tortuganus do. Nevertheless, the two forms should probably be 
united, especially as Reibisch's description agrees better than the 
photograph as respects surface and color. As the specimens col- 



118 BULIMULUS-N AESIOTUS. 

lected by Wolf were more or less immature, the original diagnosis 
needs some additional data. 

" I have figured several specimens to show the variations of form 
and sculpture. When mature the shell always has a pretty solidly 
thickened peristome. The young are more translucent and show 
projecting points of epidermis along the minute granular spiral lines, 
as in B. unifasciatns, and like that species show a distinct peripheral 
paler band " (Dall). 

B. BAURI Dall. PI. 23, fig. 31. 

Shell small, short, stout, with a dark, rapidly attenuated spire,, 
distinct suture, and opaque yellow-brown last whorl; whorls about 
seven, the earlier ones dark livid purple with straw colored streaks, 
paler at the suture, rude, wrinkled and malleated ; last whorl in- 
flated, more or less wrinkled transversely, somewhat shining; um- 
bilicus closed or a mere chink. 

Aperture subquadrate, angulated behind and at the base of the 
pillar; pillar short, oblique; lips simple, thick, especially across the 
body where the callus has a raised edge ; throat white. Length of 
shell 10, of aperture 4'5; diam. of shell 6*5 mill. 

Hibernating on the under side of leaves of plants at the southwest 
end of Chatham Island, 1,600 feet above the sea (Dr. Baur). 

Bulimulus (Ncesiotus) Bauri DALL, Nautilus, VII, p. 54, Septem- 
ber, 1893 ; Proc. A. N. S. P., 1896, p. 441, pi. 15, f. 12 ; pi. 17, f. 7, 
15 (jaw and teeth). 

" This is a very distinct little species, with a pale yellow-brown 
body whorl darkening toward the tip of the spire, with conspicuous, 
lighter transverse wrinkles on the upper whorls, and fine ribbing on 
the nepionic shell which is of a livid purple, almost black. In speci- 
mens which have survived hibernation, the aperture is usually pro- 
duced, contracted and conspicuously thickened. Many specimens 
have a narrow, pale line in front of the suture. There is no spiral 
sculpture " (Dall). 

The columella suddenly widens as it enters the throat, with a 
suggestion of the sort of fold seen in B. canaliferus. 

B. AMASTROIDES Ancey. PL 23, fig. 32. 

Shell small, oblong, subperforate, rather thin ; light olive colored, 
with a paler peripheral girdle bordered above and below by rather 
wide but very ill-defined brown bands. Surface glossy with growth 



BULIMULUS-NAESIOTUS. 119 

wrinkles, but no spiral strife. Spire convex-conic, the apex obtuse, 
two nepionic whorls very finely, densely costulate. Whorls about 
6j, slightly convex. 

Aperture irregularly ovate, acuminate above, contained about 2i 
times in length of the shell ; peristome simple, thin ; columellar 
margin triangularly dilated, white. 

Alt. 10, diam. 5, length of aperture 4.25 mill. 

Chatham Island (U. S. Fish Commission). 

Bulimulus (Nesiotus) amastroides ANCEY, Bull. Soc. Mai. de 
France, IV, p. 293, 1887. DALL, Proc. A. N. S. Phila., 1896, p. 441, 
pi. 15, f. 16. Bulimulusjacobi STEARNS, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus.,XVI, 
pp. 381, 426, 1893, not of Sby. Bulimulus ealvus var. ? STEARNS, op. 
cit., p. 427. 

" The shell has an olivaceous tint which distinguishes it at once 
from the mostly reddish or yellowish-brown species of which the 
fauna contains so many. This is the smooth form of which the pli- 
cate aspect is B. curtus of Reibisch and Anceyi of Dall" (Dall). 

B. CURTUS Reibisch. PL 23, fig. 33. 

Shell resembles B. amastroides Ancey, but with more plicate sur- 
face, ruder aspect, smaller mouth and more angular periphery. Alt. 
9, diam. 4-5 mill. (Dall}. 

Chatham Island, near Wreck Bay, at a height of 1,600 feet (Baur) ; 
usually on the under surface of the leaves of plants. Also reported 
from Chatham by Wolf (Reibisch) in grassy places and on the 
trunks of trees, at from 900 to 2,000 feet, and by the U. S. Fish Com- 
mission. 

Bulimulus (y&siotus) curtus REIBISCH, Isis, 1892, p. 21, t. i, fig. 14. 
-DALL, Proc. A. N. S. Phila., 1896, p. 442, pi. 15, f. 13 ; pi. 17, f. 8. 
Bulimulus (JVceaiofus) amastroides Ancey, var. Anceyi DALL, Nau- 
tilus, VII, p. 53, September, 1893. 

" This is very closely related to B. amastroides Ancey, of which 
it is probably an offshoot. It has, in general, a more plicate surface, 
ruder aspect, smaller mouth, and more angular periphery. Speci- 
mens submitted by Herr Reibisch as representing his curtus agree 
exactly with the types of my variety Anceyi" (Dalf). 

B. CANALIFERUS Reibisch. PL 23, figs. 34, 35. 

Shell long-conic, fusiform, perforate throughout to the nucleus, 
thin, very glossy, delicately arcuate-striate ; buff or corneous 



120 BULIMULUS-NAESIOTUS. 

brown, encircled by two wide brown bands ; spire acute, suture 
linear. Whorls 8| to 10, flat, regularly increasing, base compressed, 
nucleus smooth, brown. Aperture oblique, compressed laterally, 
narrow, hatchet shaped ; peristome simple, the margins joined by a 
shining callus, right margin angularly adnate above, basal margin 
forming an angle with the somewhat thickened columellar margin ; 
a channeled columellar fold winds around the axis (Reibisch}. 

Alt. 10, diarn. 4'25, alt. of aperture 3'5 mill. 

Alt. 8, diam. 3'75, alt. of aperture 3 mill. 

Chatham Island, in moss and on ferns, 900-2,000 feet (Wolf, fide 
Reibisch). 

Bulimulus (Pelecostoma') canaliferus REIBISCH, Isis, 1892, p. 25, t. 
ii, fig. 6 ; STEARNS, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., XVI, pp. 415, 428, 1893. 
Bulimulus (Ncesiotus) canaliferus Reibisch, DALL, Proc. A. N. S. 
Phila.,1896,p.442,pl.l5,f. 14. 

" This is a peculiar shell, characterized by its many-whorled spire, 
short aperture, and a large umbilicus with its walls deeply excava- 
vated, so that the groove shows as a prominent ridge on the pillar 
within the aperture. In the specimen sent by Herr Reibisch the 
edge of the aperture is hardly thickened and not at all reflected, 
there is a thin callus deposit over the body, but no trace of a parie- 
tal tooth. The species, with a totally different surface, has somewhat 
the form of B. rugiferus, but with a less slender and shorter spire. 
Reibisch 's figure gives the impression of a more slender shell than 
the specimen I have examined " (Dall). 

B. SCULPTURATUS (Pfeiffer). PL 24, fig. 41. 

Shell perforate, ovate-turrited, rather thin ; longitudinally rather 
remotely and strongly wave-wrinkled, the intervals of the wrinkles 
sharply striated spirally; brownish. Spire long-conic, the apex 
rather acute, corneous. Whorls 7, convex, the last about two-fifths 
the total length. 

Aperture elliptical, angular at base ; peristome simple, acute, the 
columellar margin vaulted, reflexed, free. Columella straightened, 
extending to the base of the aperture. Alt. 14, diam. 6 mill. ; 
length of aperture 6* mill. (Pfr.~). 

Galapagos Is. (Darwin). 

Bulimus sculpturatus PFR., P. Z. S., 1846, p. 29 (Gal. Is.) ; Mon. 
Hel. Viv., II, p. 183, 1848 ; IV, p. 476, 1859. Bulimus (Ncesiotus) 
sculpturatus PFR., Mai. Blat. ii Vers., p. 161, 1854. Bulimus sculp- 




BULIMULUS-NAESIOTUS. 121 

turatus REEVE, Conch. Icon., p\. xx, fig. 125, 1848. Bulimulus 
(Omphalostyla) sculptured us H. & A. ADS., Gen. Rec. Moll., ii, p. 
161, 1855. Bulimulus (Nesiotes) sculpturatus^>I.ARTE,ys, in Albers, 
Heliceen, Ed. ii, p. 220, 1860. Bulimulus (Ncesiotus} sculpturatus 
PFR., Norn. Hel. Viv., p. 254, 1881. REIBISCH, Isis, p. 22, 1892. 
STEARNS, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xvi, p. 427, 1893. BALL, Proc. 

A. N. S. Phila., 1896, p. 443. 

" The particular island to which this species, collected by Darwin, 
belongs, is not known. I have not been able to obtain a specimen 
for examination. Reeve's figure recalls a specimen of B. Simrothi 
in which the lip has not yet been developed fully, but if his meas- 
urement is correct, the shell should be a little larger as well as more 
slender than in B. Simrothi." (Dall). 

B. RUGIFERUS (Sowerby). PI. 24, fig. 37. 

Shell perforate, turrited, long and slender, dull brown ; surface 
lusterless. Whorls 7j-9, the apex obtuse, earlier If whorls densely 
and finely longitudinally costulate, following two whorls with low 
wrinkles and fine spiral stride, the remaining whorls very coarsely 
corrugated, most of the wrinkles interrupted, branching or anasto- 
mosing, the whole covered with sharp, thread-like spiral striae. 

Aperture irregularly oval, brown inside; peristome thin, simple, 
the columellar margin dilated ; columella weakly truncated obliquely 
at base. 

Alt. 10'5, diam. 3'7, length of aperture 3 mill. 

Alt. 11, diam. 4, length of aperture 3*2 mill. 

Alt. 12'5, diam. 3'7o, length of aperture 3'5 mill. 

James Island (Cuming). 

Bulimus rugiferus SBY., P. Z. S., 1833, p. 36 (James Id.) ; Conch. 
111., fig. 40, 1833. Cochlicellus rugifer BECK, Index, p. 63, no. 11, 
1838. Bulimus rugiferus DESH. in Lam. An. s. Vert., ed. ii, vol. 
viii, p. 276, 1838. PFR., Mon. Hel. Viv., ii,p.H5, 1848. REEVE, 
Conch. Icon., xx, fig, 118, 1848. Bulimulus (Omphalostyla) rugi- 
ferus H. &. A. AD., Gen. Rec. Moll., ii. p. 161, 1855. Bulimulus 
(Nesiotes) rugiferus MARTENS, in Albers, ed. ii, p. 220, 1860. 
Bulimulus (NcRsiotus} rugiferus PFR., Norn. Hel. Viv, p. 254, 1881. 
REIBISCH, Isis, 1892, p. 21. STEARNS, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xvi, 
p. 427, 1893. DALL, Proc. Acad. N. S. Phila., 1896, p. 443. 

This species is more slender than B. nesioticus, less so than B. 
reibischi, and with coarser sculpture. 



122 BULIMULUS-NAESIOTUS. 

B. NESIOTICUS Dall. PI. 24, fig. 38. 

Shell small, thin, pale brown, with two nepionic and five subse- 
quent whorls ; spire slender, suture distinct, umbilicus small or ob- 
solete, apex rather blunt with an axial dimple, nepionic whorls 
transversely ribbed with fine, even regular riblets with about equal 
interspaces ; the next whorl is sculptured with fine spirals, close set, 
under which are fine transverse wrinkles ; the subsequent whorls 
show a more or less variable transverse ribbing, in which the ribs 
have a tendency to break up and vary in direction ; these are crossed 
by fine, often granulose spirals, which are swollen where they cross 
the riblets ; aperture small, throat yellowish, the pillar white, widely 
reflected without any terminal plait or callus, outer lip thickened, 
somewhat expanded, continuous with the pillar and a slight callus 
on the body. Length 12, breadth 5 mill. (Dall}. 

James Island (U. S. Fish Commission). 

Bulimulus (Nwsiotus) nesioticus DALL, Proc. Acad. Nat. Scu 
Phila., 1896, p.443, pi. 16, f. 1. 

" This interesting species was obtained on James Island in small 
numbers, one specimen fresh but none living, the one figured has 
rather sparser ribbing than the best preserved specimen. Most of 
them are bleached white. The shell appears to be intermediate in 
character and size between B. sculpturatus as figured, and B. rugi- 
ferus Sby. It was first referred to the latter species, but further 
study showed B. nesioticus to have two whorls less in the same length 
and to be a perceptibly stouter shell." (Dall). 

B. REIBISCHI Dall. PI. 24, fig. 42. 

Shell elevated, slender, with nine whorls of a pale ferruginous 
color and rather solid consistency; sculpture like that of B. nesioti- 
cus but rather more closely ribbed ; the suture distinct, somewhat 
appressed, whorls little inflated but not flattened ; umbilicus a mere 
chink ; aperture oval, higher than wide, rounded in front, the pillar 
simple, the margins thickened but not reflected ; length 11, diame- 
ter 2-5 mill. (Dall). 

Indefatigable Island, two specimens (U. S. Fish Commission). 

Bulimulus (Ncesiotus) reibischi DALL, Nautilus, viii, p. 126, 
March, 1895 ; Proc. Acad. N. S. Phila., 1896, p. 444, pi. 16, f. 4. 

" This shell, though shorter, is intermediate between such forms as 
B. chemnitzioides and the more normal Ncesioti. It is named in 



BULIMULUS-NAESIOTUS. 123 

honor of Herr Paul Reibisch, of Dresden, who recently worked up 
the laud shells collected by Wolf in these islands, in a paper to 
which I have made frequent reference." (Da/Z). 

BULIMULUS new species. PL 24, fig. 49. 

Shell of about nine whorls, small, slender, with flattish sides, 
almost cylindrical, transversely finely wrinkled, suture distinct ; 
aperture small, the outer lip sharp, the pillar lip short, broadly re- 
flected, without plait or projecting callus ; length 11'5, breadth 2*5 
mill. 

One specimen found on James and two on Indefatigable Island 
(Reibisch in lift.'). 

Bulimulus new species DALL, Proc. A. N. S. Phila., 1896, p. 444, 
pi. 15, f. 15. 

The above description and figure are taken from a photograph 
kindly submitted to me by Herr Reibisch. I refrain from naming 
the species as the last mentioned gentleman had over two years ago 
announced his intention of describing it, but has so far, I believe, 
published nothing referring to it. As a distinct form from any pre- 
viously reported from these islands, I have thought best to briefly 
indicate it. (Dalfy. 

B. HABELI Stearns. PL 24, fig. 40. 

Shell slender, elongated, thin, smooth and shiny, slightly umbil- 
icated, with thirteen to fourteen gradually increasing whorls ; whorls 
slightly convex and longitudinally obtusely plicated ; suture distinct ; 
aperture ovate and slightly reflected at the base of the columella. 
Color ashen white, slightly rufous, with hints of a narrow reddish 
band beneath the surface glaze. Dimensions (of largest example) : 
Long 17 g 5 mill., diameter 3'5 mill. (Stearns^). 

Chatham Island (Habel, U. S. Fish Commission Steamer Alba- 
tross and Dr. G. Baur) under stones near the shore, at the southwest 
end of the island (typical form) ; Chatham Island, under stones and 
on mossy rocks in the moist region, 900-2,000 feet above the sea 
(Wolf fide Reibisch, B. terebra). 

Bulimulus (Pleuropyrgus) habeli (Stearns MS.) DALL, Nautilus, 
Jan., 1892, p. 99; STEARNS, Nautilus, Dec., 1892, p. 86; Proc. U. 
S. Nat. Mus., xvi, pp. 382, 428, pi. 51, f. 1, 1893. Bulimulus (Xce- 
siotus) habeli Stearns, DALL, Proc. A. N. S. Phila., 1896, p. 445. 



124 BULIMULUS-NAESIOTUS. 

Bulimulus (Pleuropyrgus*) terebra REIBISCH, Isis, (Oct.) 1892, p. 
24, t. ii, fig. 3. 

" This form is much more slender than P. chemnitzioides Fbs., 
which is well represented by the figures 6a, 6b, plate 9, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. London, 1850. Aside from the differences in color and sculp- 
ture, the surface of Forbes' species is dull in fresh, unrubbed, perfect 
specimens ; the ribs in the latter species are comparatively sharp, 
thread-like, regular, and somewhat distant, the interspaces being 
perceptibly wider than the ribs are thick." (Stearns). 

" The specimen of B. terebra (pi. 24, fig. 39) submitted by Herr 
Eeibisch is slightly larger, more dull colored and has a more evident 
umbilicus than the typical specimens of Habeli which were obtained 
in a more unfavorable station, but the differences do not appear to 
be sufficient to be worthy of a specific name, at least judging from 
material I have been able to study. No specimens of B. Habeli 
containing the soft parts have been received by me. The nepionic 
whorls are usually decorticated and smooth, but when perfect show 
extremely fine transverse ribbing. In the single specimen I have 
seen of the variety terebra Reibisch, the nepionic ribbing is coarser 
and more evident." (Dall). 

B. CHEMNITZIOIDES (Forbes). PI. 24, figs. 44-48. 

Shell subrimate, turrited, thin but rather solid, purple-brown with 
a yellow band under the suture and another at the periphery, or 
corneous-yellow with a chestnut band, the base also chestnut. 
Sculpture of rather strong vertical riblets separated by intervals of 
sometimes the same, sometimes greater width, with slight traces of 
spiral striation above. Whorls 12-15, convex, the last rounded at 
the periphery. 

Aperture irregularly ovate, its length contained about 4J times 
in that of the shell; peristome thin, the outer lip unexpanded, 
slightly bent forward in the middle, columellar lip short, triangularly 
and flatly dilated above ; columella straight, not truncated at base. 

Alt. 19, diam. 4, length of aperture 4 mill. (Pfr.). 

Alt. 13-5, diam. 3*7, length of aperture 3'8 mill. 

Chatham Island, at 300-600 feet elevation, with B. perspeetivus 
Pfr., on rocks and under stones (Wolf), on the leaves of plants at 
1600 feet elevation, near the southwest end of Chatham Island (Dr. 
Baur ; also Kellett, Habel and the U. S. Fish Commission). 



BULIMULUS-ORTHOTOMIUM . 125 

Bulimus chemnitzioides FBS., P. Z. S., 1850, p. 55, pi. ix, fig. 6. 
PFR., MOD. Hel. Viv., iii, p. 303, 1853; Chemn., Conch. Cab., ed. 
ii, Bulimus no. 113, pi. 31, figs. 21-23. Bulimus (Xcesiotus) chem- 
nitzioides PFR., Malak. Blatt., p. 160, 1855. Bulimulus (Omphalo- 
styla) chemnitzioides H. & A. ADS., Gen. Rec. Moll., ii, p. 161, 1855. 
Bulimulus (Pleuropyr (jus) chemnitzioides MARTENS in Albers 
Heliceeu, ed. ii, p. 221, I860. PFR., Norn. Hel. Viv., p. 254. 1881. 
REIBISCH, Isis, 1892, p. 24, t. ii, fig. 4. STEARNS, Proc. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., xvi, p. 381, 1893. Bulimulus (Pleuropyrgus) lima REI- 
BISCH, Isis, 1892, p. 25, t. ii, fig. 5. Bulimulus (Xcesiotus) chemnitzi- 
oides Fbs., BALL, Proc. A. N. S. Phila., 1896, p. 445, pi. 17, f. 4 
(dentition). 

" The younger specimens named lima by Reibisch (pi. 24, fig. 43) 
though apparently differing somewhat in form, appear to grade 
directly into the others. This species sometimes shows a small but 
distinct parietal tooth or callosity, but this is quite exceptional." 
(Dalt). 



Buliminus lyelliae Beck, Index Moll., p. 70, from the " I. Gallap- 
pagos," is a nude name. Beck places it between B. calvus and B. 
jacobi. 

Subgenus ORTHOTOMIUM Crosse & Fischer, 1874. 

Orthotomium C. & F., Moll. Terr, et Fluv. Mex., i, p. 473, 1874, 
type B. sufflatus. PILSBRY, Nautilus, ix, p. 114, 1896. DALL, 
Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xix, p. 357, 1897. 

+ Globulinus C. & F., I.e., p. 475, type B. sufflatus; Hormus 
BINNEY & TRYON, not Albers ; Peronceus, Scutalus, Thaumastus, 
Mesembrinus of authors, not Albers. 

Shell umbilicate or rimate, varying from ovate-globose to cylin- 
drical or pillar-shaped ; never with spiral color-markings; with the 
initial 1* to 2 whorls sculptured with vertical riblets, the interspaces 
often minutely striate spirally ; a decided apical dimple or pit. 

Distribution : Central and northern Mexico, southwestern U. S. 
and Lower California. 

Distinguished from Ncesiotus and Protoglyptus by geographic dis- 
tribution and the general aspect of the shell, rather than by any 
definable differences. In other words, while the group is a natural 
one, comprising specific forms of undoubtedly common ancestry, it 



126 BULIMULUS-ORTHOTOMIUM. 

has not diverged in any important particular from that common 
stock of which Ncesiotus, Protoglyptus and Orthotomium are the 
modern and now geographically individualized remnants. Among 
the minor distinctions between these groups may be mentioned the 
coloration ; Orthotomium never having spiral bands, such as occur 
occasionally in Ncesiotus and Protoglyptus, and commonly in typical 
Bulimulus. 

The species of Orthotomium (as here limited) have been widely 
scattered throughout the complex maze of Bulimuloid subgenera by 
all authors up to a very recent date. In 1893 Dall reduced the 
chaos of Lower Californian subgenera to partial order; early in 
1896 the writer, recognizing the cardinal value of apical sculpture, 
outlined the system herein adopted; and in a later work Dall 
demonstrates the essential unity underlying the widely diverse con- 
tours of the adult shells. 

Three " sections " then, may conveniently be recognized ; although 
the differences, it will readily be understood, have no great signifi- 
cance. 

I. Columella bearing a strong callous lamina within the last whorl, 

Section Sonorina, p. 155. 
II. No callous lamina upon the columella. 

1. Shell ovate or oblong; aperture much over a third the 
shell's length, generally one-half or more, 

Section Orthotomium s. s., p. 126. 

2. Shell subcylindrical ; aperture less than one-third the 
length of shell, Section Plicolumna, p. 151. 

Section Orthotomium (C. &. F.) Pils. 

This section comprises two groups of species, those of central and 
eastern Mexico, Texas, etc., and those of Lower California. In the 
latter group the shell is frequently striated spirally and granular ; 
it is never so in the eastern group. 

Key to groujis. 

I. Lip not expanded or hardly so, often thickened within ; no 
spiral striation. 

a. Ovate-conic or oblong forms of central and northeastern 
Mexico and southcentral and southwestern United States, 
Group of B. alternatus, p. 127. 
a'. Ovate-globose or oval species of Lower California, 

Group of B. sufflatus, p. 135. 



BULIMULUS-ORTHOTOMIUM. 127 

a". Oblong species of Lower California, 

Group of inscendens, p. 148. 
II. Lip expanded, surface generally granulate, 

Group of B. montezuma, p. 141. 

Group of B. alternatus. 

Thaumastus of authors, not of Albers (see Vol. x, p. 43). Ehab- 
dotus (in part) ALBERS, Die Hel., 1850, p. 164, not Rabdota Dej., 
1833. 

A group of few species, of which B. dealbatus and its varieties 
and B. alternatus are excessively variable, prolific in individuals 
and widely distributed. B. durangoanus is known by only one 
specimen, and B. nigromontanus by several in very poor condition. 
The latter, if less removed geographically, would from the material 
as yet collected, be judged a variety of dealbatus ; but it lies far to 
the west of the known range of dealbatus and alternatus, and may 
show more distinctive features when good specimens come to light. 

The group as a whole differs from most of the Lower Californian 
forms in lacking spiral sculpture. It closely resembles the Chilian 
section Lissoacme (Vol. x, p. 154), but differs in apical sculpture. 

B. DURANGOANUS Martens. PI. 18, figs. 32, 33. 

Shell perforate, rather lengthened, irregularly striatulate, some- 
what shining ; white, with scattered dots and little streaks of dia- 
phanous-gray. Whorls 6, the first and second subglobose, vertically 
costulate, pale brownish, the following a little convex with rather 
impressed suture, last moderately attenuated below. Aperture less 
than half the shell's length, a little oblique, ovate, acute above ; 
peristome simple, the outer margin straight, thin, arcuate, basal 
margin arcuate, columellar margin dilated above and a little 
reflexed. Alt. 15, diam. 6 ; aperture, length 6?, width 4 mill. 
(Martens). 

Villa Lerdo, State of Durango, northern Mexico (Hoge). 

Bulimulus (Perono3us) durangoanus MART., Biol. Centrali Amer- 
icana, Moll., p. 246, pi. 16, f. 11, lla. 

A small and slender member of the group of dealbatus, ragsdalei 
and mooreanus, with the translucent gray dots and streaks of many 
specimens of the latter, from which its reduced size, small mouth 
and slender figure will distinguish it. The resemblances to B. 



128 BULIMULUS-ORTHOTOMIUM. 

gruneri Pfr. (=Drymceus virgo Lea !) and B. artemisia Binn. noticed 
by von Martens, are merely adventitious. 

B. NIGROMONTANUS Dall. 

Shell short, wide, white, with 5 whorls, rather rudely striated in 
harmony with the lines of growth, nuclear whorls 2, neatly, evenly 
sculptured with fine, usually wavy, minute ribs, the summit with a 
small central funicular dimple; whorls moderately rounded, the 
last much the largest, the spire obtusely conical ; base full and 
rounded, with a rather large, deep and subcylindrical umbilicus ; 
outer lip sharp, hardly reflected ; pillar lip reflected rather widely 
near the body around (not over) the umbilicus ; body with a thin 
wash of callus, the outer lip strongly incurved at its junction, giving 
a somewhat tubular look to the suture ; substance of the shell thin, 
without markings. Length 18, of the last whorl 13, maximum 
diameter 11 mill. (Dall). 

Summit of Black Mountain, Sonora, Mexico (Dr. Mearns). 

Bulimulus (alternatus var. /) nigromontanus DALL, Proc. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., xix, p. 357. 

The shells above described are not in the best condition, and I 
have some hesitation in describing them, but after an exhaustive 
comparison with the Bulimuli of the region and of Lower Califor- 
nia I find none to which the present form can be confidently as- 
signed. It recalls somewhat B. xantusi Binney, and B. baileyi 
Dall, but is smaller and more globose than either. In form some of 
the varieties of B. alternatus Say, come nearest to it, but have a 
different surface and marking, which are absent from the present 
form, and none of them has so deep and cylindrical an umbilicus. 
I have thought it best, therefore, to put it on record until the recep- 
tion of more material shall enable a final decision to be made. 
(Dall). 

B. DEALBATUS (Say). PI. 17, fig. 1 ; pi. 18, figs. 27, 28, 29, 30, 48. 

Shell umbilicate, ovate-conic, thin; corneous brown streaks which 
are slightly translucent alternating with opaque cream-white or 
light brown ragged streaks, either tint sometimes predominating. 
Sculpture of slight growth-wrinkles generally becoming stronger 
and more regular on the spire, the uepionic If whorls typically 
with subobsolete fine longitudinal riblets, almost smooth. Whorls 
about 6J, convex. 



BULIMULUS-ORTHOTOMIUM. 129 

Aperture about half the shell's length, ovate, corneous and white 
inside, the peristome acute, unexpanded, generally slightly thick- 
ened, or with a rib within. Columellar margin dilated. Columella 
regularly concave. Alt. 20, diam. 11-12, alt. of aperture 10-11 
mill. 

Southivestern North Carolina; Henry and Lawrence Counties, 
Kentucky; west to Camden Co., central Missouri, and Shaivnee Co., 
Kansas ; southwest to Alabama and Corpus Christi, Eagle Pass and 
Pecos Co., Texas. 

Helix dealbata SAY, Journ. Acad. N. S. Phil., ii, p. 159 ; Binney's 
edition, p. 10. Bulimus dealbatus POT. et MICH., Galerie, i, p. 139, 
t. 13, f. 3, 4. PHIL., Abbild., i, p. 158, t. 2, f. 6. KUSTER, Conchyl. 
Cab.,t. 16,f. 11-13' PrR.,Monogr.,ii,p. 187; Conchyl. Cab., p. 55. 
EEEVE, Conch. Icon., f. 455. BINNEY, Terr. Moll., p. 276, pl.51,f. 
1 ; pi. 51a, except upper and lower figures. LEIDY, Terr. Moll, 
i, p. 229, pi. xv, f. 1 (anatomy). W. G. BINNEY, Terr. Moll., 
iv, p. 130, pi. 80, f. 6, 7 ; Land and Freshwater Sh. N. A., i, p. 
208, f. 3o9.Bulimulu8 dealbatus W. G. B., Terr. Moll., v, p. 393, f. 
269 (jaw) ; pi. x, f. E (teeth), and Man. Amer. L. Sh.,p.401, f. 441. 
CROSSE & FISCHER, Moll. Mex., i, p. 566. STEARNS, Proc. U. S. 
Xat. Mus., xiv, 1891, p. 97 ; xvi, 1893, p. 751. SAMPSON, Nautilus, 
viii, p. 18. SINGLEY, Texas Moll., in Fourth Ann. Rep. Geol. Surv. 
Texas, p. 309. SIMPSON, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xi, 1888, 452. Sou- 
talus dealbatus Say, TRYOX, Amer. Jour. Conch., iii, p. 173, pi. 14, f. 
9. Buliminus dealbatus BECK, Index, p. 72. Zebrina dealbata 
HELD in Isis, 1837, p. 917. Bulimus liquabilis REEVE, Conch. 
Icon., f. 387, pi. 57. Bulimus confinis REEVE, Conch. Icon., pi. 86, 
f. 643. 

Figures 28 and 30 represent the typical forms of this species, as 
developed in the region from Tennessee and Alabama to Kansas 
and northern Texas. In the latter state the shell becomes larger 
(figs. 1, 19, from Waco) and often of stouter figure with larger 
mouth (figs. 27, 29, 48, Lee Co.), while retaining the texture. The 
apical whorls of these are more strongly ribbed. 

Var. RAGSDALEI Pilsbry. PI. 18, fig. 31. 

Like typical dealbatus in contour or more slender. Entire sur- 
face sculptured with sharp, thread-like, obliquely longitudinal stria ; 
the striae white, spaces gray or pinkish-gray. 

Alt. 21, diam. 10'3, length of aperture 9'7 mill. 

Alt. 20, diam. 11, length of aperture 9'5 mill. 
9 



130 BULIMULUS-ORTHOTOMIUM. 

Texas: on the Red River in Cook and Montague Counties (G. H. 
Ragsdale) ; along the Rio Grande at Comstock (Win. Lloyd) and 
Langtry ( V. Bailey), Val Verde Co ; Fort Clark, Kinney Co. 
(Mearns). 

Bulimulus ragsdalei PILS., Nautilus, iii, p. 122 ; v, p. 37, pi. 2, f. 3 ; 
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1890, pp. 64, 296, pi. 5, f. 3. W. G. 
BINNEY, Fourth Supplement to Terr. Moll., v, in Bull. Mus. Comp. 
Zool., xxii, p. 191, pi. 2, f. 9 (not good). Bulimulus dealbatus var. 
=B. ragsdalei STEARNS, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xiv, 1891, p. 97. 
Bulimulus dealbatus ragsdalei Pils., DALL, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 
xix, p. 374. 

Var. MOOREANUS ('W. G. B. ' Pfeiffer). PI. 25, fig. 55; pi. 17, 
figs. 2, 3, 4, 5. 

Shell umbilicate, ovate-conic; white above, coffee-with-cream 
colored below the periphery, or with the basal tint absent ; some- 
times varied with waxen or dark gray streaks, and often showing 
scattered gray dots which are translucent by transmitted light. Sur- 
face smooth, under the lens shosving more or less strongly developed 
stricK on the spire; apex waxen or dark. Alt. 25, diam. 12 mill., 
but varying much in proportions. 

Texas, mainly from Fort Worth to De Witt and Uvalde Counties. 

Bulimus schiedeanus var. "W. G. BINNEY, Terr. Moll., iv, p. 129, 
pi. 80, f. 8. Bulimus mooreanus " W. G. Binney " PFR., Monogr., 
vi, p. 143. Bulimulus schiedeanus var. mooreanus W. G. B., L. &. 
F.-W. Sh. N. A., i, p. 205, f. 353-355 ; Terrestr. Moll., v, p. 392, f. 
277-279 ; Man. Amer. L. Sh., Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., No. 28, p. 400, f. 
438-440. 

This is the abundant form throughout central-southern Texas, 
particularly in the region about San Antonio. It lives in vast 
numbers in the mesquite chaparral, hibernating in the earth, sesti- 
vating upon the bushes, adhering to the bark. It is smaller, thin- 
ner and smoother than the typical schiedeanus, and more northern 
in distribution. The streaked specimens show all stages between 
mooreanus and dealbatus, and with a large geographic series it is 
easy to demonstrate the complete intergradation of the two. 

This is the form commonly known as " schiedeanus " among 
American collectors. 



BULIMULUS-ORTHOTOMIUM. 131 

Var. SCHIEDEANUS (Pfeiffer). PI. 17, figs. 6 to 15. 

Ovate-conic, often with the spire rather attenuated above, solid 
and strong, calcareous, white, rarely with ochreous streaks ; roughly, 
irregularly striate, not much shining ; spire as long as the aperture. 
Aperture varying from white to ochrey inside ; peristome without 
an internal callous rim. 

Alt. 31, diam. 17, alt. aperture 17 mill. (Pfr. type). 

Alt. 34, diam. 18, alt. aperture 15? mill. (Coahuila). 

Alt. 30, diam. 15, aperture 14 mill, (western Texas). 

Mexico (Dr. Schiede, original locality) ; Tehuacan, State of Pue- 
blo, (F. C. Baker, Uhde and others) ; Laguna de Chapala, Jalisco 
(Deppe) ; Villa Lerdo, Durango (Hoge), States of Tamaulipas 
(Binney) and Coahuila (W. H. Dougherty), western Texas along 
the Rio Grande (H. C. Wood). 

Bulimus schiedeanus PFR., Symb. Hist. Hel., i, p. 43 (1841) ; in 
Philippics Abbild. Neuer Conch. ,i, p. 56, Bulimus, pi. 1, f. 12 ; Mon- 
ogr. Hel. Viv., ii, p. 187 ; in Martini & Chemnitz, Syst. Conch. Cab. 
ed. 2, Bulimus, p. 160, pi. 46, f. 3, 4. REEVE, Conch. Icon. v,ul- 
imus, pi. 54, f. 361. BINNEY, Terr, air-breath. Moll, of K Am., iv, 
p. 129, pi. 80, f. 8 (var.), 15. Bulimus (Mesembrinus) schiedeanus 
ALBERS, Die Hel., ed. 1, p. 157. PFR. in Malak. Blatt., ii, p. 158 
(1855). Orthalicus (Mesembrinus) schiedeanus H. & A. ADAMS, 
Gen. Rec. Moll., ii, p. 157. Bulimulus ( Thaumastus) schiedeanus 
v. MART, in Albers Die Hel. ed. 2, p. 215. FISCH. & CROSSE, 
Miss. Scient. Mex., Mollusca, i, p. 563, pi. 24, f. 2. Bulimulus 
(Scutalus} schiedeanus v. MART, in Malak. Blatt., xii, p. 30 (1865). 
Thaumastus schiedeanus TRYON, Am. Journ. Conch., iii, p. 172, 
pi. 10 (14), f. 1, 4 (1868). Bulimulus schiedeanus BINNEY & BLAND, 
Land and Fresh-water Shells of N. Am., i, p. 204, f. 352 ; BINNEY, 
Terr, airbreath. Moll, of N. Am., V, (Bull. Mus. Cornp. Zool., iv,p. 
391), f. 276 (1878) ; Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., v, p. 338, pi. 1, f. E 
(1879); Manual of Am. Land Shells, p. 399, fig. 437. STREBEL, 
Beitr. Mex. Land-und Siissw. Conch., iv, pi. 6, f. 19 ; v, p. 57, pi. 11, 
f. 16, 17. VON MARTENS, Biol. Centr. Amer., Moll., p. 239, pi. 15, 
f. 12-23. Bulimus niveus HEGEWISCH, in litt. Bulimus candidis- 
simus NYST, in litt. ? Bulimus xanthostomus WIEGM. in Berlin 
Museum. 

The typical schiedeanus ranges over the greater part of central, 
north-central and northeastern Mexico, and in the region immediately 



132 BULIMULUS-ORTHOTOMIUM. 

north of the Kio Grande. It is abundant as far south as the State 
of Pueblo, where it was collected by the Mexican expedition from 
the Academy of Natural Sciences and -by Uhde and Hoge. 

Typical schiedeanus does not occur in central southern Texas, 
being replaced there by mooreanus, a more glossy, generally thinner 
shell, smoother below and with regular striation on the spire. 

A form of schiedeanus from along the Rio Grande below El Paso 
has oblique ochre-red stripes on the body-whorl (fig. 6). The spire 
is slender above, as in the large, pure white specimens from the 
State of Coahuila (figs. 14, 15). Figs. 7-13 represent Mexican 
specimens. 

Var. PATRIARCHA (W. G. Binney). PI. 17, fig. 16. 

On the average larger than schiedeanus, with shorter, acuminate 
spire and more globose body- whorl. Solid and roughened, white ; 
aperture ochre colored inside. Alt. 35, diam. 19, length of aperture 
19 mill. 

Northeastern Mexico at Buena Vista, State of Nuevo Leon (Ber- 
landiere) ; Also in Texas (W. G. Binney). 

Bulimus patriarcha BINNEY, Proc. Acad. Phil., 1858, p. 116; 
Terr, air-breath. Moll, of N. Am., iv, p. 130, pi. 80, f. 13. PFR., 
Monogr. Hel. Viv., vi, p. 143. ThaumastuspatriarchaT^YO'S^Am. 
Journ. Conch., iii, p. 171, pi. 9 (13), f. 15. Bulimulus patriarcha 
BINNEY and BLAND, Land and Fresh-water Shells of N. Am., i, p. 
200, f. 346; BINNEY, Terr, air-breath. Moll, of N. Am., v, p. 388, 
f. 270 ; Manual of Am. Land Shells, p. 396, f. 431. Bulimulus 
(Thaumastus) patriarcha FISCH. & CROSSE, Miss. Scient. Mex., Mol- 
lusca, i, p. 564. Bulimulus schiedeanus var. patriarcha MARTENS, 
Biol. Amer. Centr., Moll., p. 242. 

This form seems quite distinct when compared with the so-called 
B. schiedeanus (=mooreanus) of central Texas, but its differences 
from the true schiedeanus of Mexico are only slight. Von Martens, 
with his usual excellent judgment, unites them. 

B. ALTERNATUS (Say). PL 25, figs. 50-53 ; pi. 17, figs. 17, 18, 20, 

12, 22-26. 

Shell ovate oblong, umbilicate, solid and strong, nearly smooth ; 
the whorls of the spire not regularly striated. White, varying to 
blue or pink tinted, or suffused with coffee-brown, and usually with 
scattered gray dots, or alternately white and gray or brown striped. 
Aperture oblong, very dark chestnut within, or sometimes ochrace- 



BULIMULUS-ORTHOTOMIUM. 133 

ous ; outer lip strongly thickened within, with a light border ; col- 
umella more or less distinctly folded or even toothed above. Length 
about 30-35 mill. 

Northeastern Mexico and southern Texas. 

l?u/tmua&ernaftiSAY,New Harmony Disseminator, Dec., 1830, 
p. 25 (ed. Binney, p. 39). PFR., Monogr. Hel. Viv., ii, p. 221. 
BINNEY, Terr, air-breath. Moll, of K Am., IV, p. 126, pi. 80, f. 1, 
3 (copy of Say's drawing). Thaumastus alternatus TRYON, Am. 
Journ. Conch., iii, p. 171, pi. 9 (13), fig. 6 ; pi. 10 (U), fig. 10. 
Bulimulus alternatus BINNEY & BLAND, Land and Fresh-water 
Shells of X. Am., i, pp. 200-204, f. 347-350, 351 (radula) ; BINNEY, 
Terr, air-breath. Moll, of X. Am., v, pp. 388-391 (with the same 
figures repeated). COCKERELL, Journ. de Conch., xxxix, p. 23 
(1891). STEARNS, in Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xiv, p. 99, (1891). 
Bulimulus (Thaumastus} alternatus FISCH. & CROSSE, Miss. Scient. 
Mex., Mollusca, i, p. 561, pi. 24, f. 1 (copy of Say's original draw- 
ing). BLAND & BINNEY, Am. Jouru. Conch., vii, p. 181. Bulimia 
lactarius (Menke), PFR., Symb. Hist. Hel., iii, p. 85 (1846) ; Mon- 
ogr. Hel. Viv., ii, p. 187. REEVE, Conch. Icon., v, Bulimus, pi. 37, 
f. 2176. Bulimus (Seutalns) marice ALBERS, Die Helic. ed. 1, pp. 
160, 162. Bulimus marice PFR., Monogr. Hel. Viv., iii, p. 350; in 
Martini & Chemnitz, Syst. Conch. Cab., ed. 2, Bulimus, p. 157, pi. 
48, f. 7, 8 ; P. Z. S., 1858, p. 23, pi. 40, f. 2. Bulimus (Ena*) marice 
PFR. in Mai. Bliitt., xii, p. 154 (1855). Orthalicus (Scutalus) marice 
H. & A. ADAMS, Gen. Rec. Moll., ii, p. 158. Bulimulus (Thaumastus') 
marice v. MART., in Albers's Die Hel., ed. 2, p. 215. Thaumastus 
marice TRYON, Am. Journ. Conch., iii, p. 172, pi. 10 (14), f. 3. 
Bulimus dealbatus var., BINNEY, Terr. air-l>reath. Moll, of N. Am., 
ii, p. 276, pi. 51, 51 a (uppermost and lowest figures) ; pi. 51 b (the three 
middle figures). Bulimulus (Rhabdotus*) aftrnwrfu* MARTENS, Biol. 
Cent. Amer., Moll., p. 243, pi. 15, f. 24-26. Bulimus binneyanus 
(Pfr., ins. label) BINNEY, Terr. Moll., iv, p. 128 (1859). Not B. 
binneyanus Pfr., Malak. Bl., iv, p. 229 (1857). Bulimus galeottii 
NYST, in litt. Bulimulus alternatus STEARNS, Proc. U. S. Nat. 
Mus.. xiv, 1891, p. 99 (includes schiedeanus, patriarcha, marice, 
mooreanus as synonyms). 

B. dealbatus var. mooreanus has regular striation upon the post- 
nepionic whorls of the spire or some of them, lacking in alternatus. 
It is generally less oblong and thinner. B. dealbatus var. schiedeanus 
is rougher, with the aperture wider and shorter. 



134 BULIMULUS-ORTHOTOMIUM. 

This species approaches very near certain forms of B. dealbatus 
var. mooreanus in some Texan localities, and is only with great 
difficulty to be distinguished from them. Indeed some conchologists 
of great experience with Texan Bulimuli regard alternatus as merely 
a variety of dealbatus. My reasons for retaining B. alternatus dis- 
tinct, are that differences though inconspicuous actually exist; that 
throughout the range of alternatus it occurs with either mooreanus or 
schiedeanus without intergrading in the vast majority of localities, 
and that as ordinarily found, the species is conspicuously distinct. 
It should be added that this opinion is based upon the study of 
many hundreds of shells, and considerable field experience in 
Texas. 

Typical ALTERNATUS, PI. 25, figs. 50, 51, 52, 53. 

As described by Mr. Say and represented by one of his types now 
before me, differs considerably from the ordinary form of the 
species. It is conic-ovate, not very thick, with 6 convex whorls 
separated by impressed sutures. Alternately ragged-striped with 
opaque white and blue-gray in dead shells, corneous-brown when 
living ; aperture bluish-white inside (hence the " perlaceous tinge " 
of Say's description). Columella concave, with no noticeable fold. 

Alt. 30i, diam. 18 ; length of aperture 16? mill. 

Mexico (Maclure). 

The synonym B. lactarius apparently belongs to typical alternatus. 
Var. MARINE (Albers)." PI. 17, figs. 17, 18, 20, 12, 22-26. 

Ovate-oblong, thick and solid, smooth, with 6 to 7 moderately con- 
vex whorls ; white or with brown streaks or ragged stripes ; aper- 
ture dark brown within (rarely ochraceous) ; columella more or less 
distinctly folded or toothed above. Dimensions and proportions 
quite variable. 

Alt. 27, diam. 15 mill, (average specimen). 

Alt. 22, diam. 14 mill, (short specimen). 

Alt. 35?, diam. 17 mill, (long specimen). 

Texas: two or three tiers of counties north of the Rio Grande, from 
Corpus Christi N.- W. to Frio and Val Verde Counties and south- 
ward. Northeastern Mexico, at Matamoras and south to Tampico, 
State of Tamaulipas. 

B. binneyanus Pfr., olim. is the same ; also " var. albidus Taylor/* 
of Cockerell, which of course is utterly baseless. That the classifica- 
tion of varieties proposed by Mr. Cockerell (Journ. de Conchyl., 



BULIMULUS-ORTHOTOMIUM. 135 

1891, p. 23) is simply frivolous, will be apparent to anyone examin- 
ing a good series of these shells. 

Figures 17, 18 were drawn from specimens from Dei by, Frio Co., 
Texas; f. 20, Hidalgo, Hidalgo Co. ; f. 12, Corpus Christi, an ex- 
ceptional form ; f. 22-25, Laredo, Webb Co. 

The limit of its range westward is not yet ascertained, either in 
Texas or Mexico ; that assigned above being merely what is now 
known. The localities " Louisiana " and " Isthmus of Tehuan tepee," 
quoted in some works, are erroneous. ' B. atlernatus" Forbes, P. 
Z. S., 1850, p. 54 "from Panama," is an error for B. alternans, a 
species of Drymceu*. 

Group of B. sufflatus. 

The species of this group and those following are Lower Californ- 
ian, with the exception of a few found upon the neighboring main- 
land. Of the latter, B. excelsus occurs at La Paz on the Peninsula, 
and in a distinguishable variety at Sinaloa (W. M. Gabb) on the 
mainland. The Costa Rica specimens referred to B. pallidior, prove 
to be decolored examples of a DrymcKus apparently identical with 
D. zhorquinensis Angas. B. baileyi occurs at many localities in the 
State of Sonora, but its occurrence on the Peninsula is very doubt- 
ful. There is therefore but one species of Bulimulus, B. excelsus, 
which can be admitted on satisfactory evidence to inhabit both the 
Peninsula and the mainland ; although B. baileyi is very closely 
allied to some peninsular species. 

Most of the Lower Californian Bulimuli now known, inhabit the 
mountainous region lying-southeast of a line connecting La Paz on 
the east coast with Todos Santos on the west ; while in the elevated 
region above the twenty-sixth parallel of latitude the genera Epi- 
phragmophora, Berendtia and Ccelocentrum are developed, largely to 
the exclusion of Bulimuli, although Sonorina extends into this ti act. 

The literature of Lower Californian Bulimuli has quite recently 
assumed extensive proportions, comprising several reports by J. G. 
Cooper on species collected by naturalists from the Californian 
Academy of Sciences, published in the Proceedings of that Academy, 
1891 to 1895 ; a paper by Prof. Wm. H. Dall (Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 
1893, 639) based upon material from the same source and Binney's 
types collected by Xantus de Vesey ; a paper by Jules Mabille upon 
collections made by Diguet, introducing a large number of new and 
unfigured species, without comparisons with known forms ; two brief 



136 BULIMULUS-ORTHOTOMIUM. 

notes by the writer, defining the natural groups of Bulimuli and 
describing new forms, and finally a philosophic and well-considered 
essay by Dall (Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1896) discussing a portion of 
the fauna. 

B. SUFFLATUS (Gould). PI. 18, figs. 38-44. 

Shell broadly ri mate-perforate, thin but solid, oval; white under 
a pale yellowish cuticle, with occasional narrow oblique yellow-olive 
streaks. Surface shining, with growth-wrinkles. Spire very short ; 
whorls 5, CQnvex, the first very finely costulate, the last large, oval, 
inflated. 

Aperture ovate, acuminate above, broadly rounded below, white 
within ; peristome thin and acute, not expanded ; colurnellar mar- 
gin broadly dilated above, white; columella concave, without fold. 

Alt. 28, diam. 18, alt. of aperture 17* mill. 

Alt. 20, diam. 14, alt. of aperture 12 mill. 

Alt. 36, diam. 21 mill. 

Lower California, from San Jose del Cabo to La Paz (Gabb, Bry- 
ant) ; Sierra Laguna to 3000 ft. alt. (Eisen) ; El Taste Mts., 3200 
ft. alt. ; El Chinche Mts., 2000 ft. alt. (var. chinchensis). 

Bulimulus vesicalis GOULD, Journ. Bost. Soc. N. H., vi, p. 375, pi. 
14, f. 1 (October, 1853). PFR., Monogr., iv, p. 467. CPR., P. Z. S. 
1856, p. 203. GABB, Amer. Journ. Conch., iii, p. 236, pi. 16, f. 6. 
Not B. vesiealis Pfr. (March, 1853), see p. 69. Bulimulus sufflatus 
GOULD, in W. G. BINNEY, Terr. Moll, iv, p. 25 ; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Phila., xi, 1859, p. 188. GOULD, Otia Conch., p. 184. PFR., Mon- 
ogr., vi, p. 110. CROSSE, Journ. de Conchyl., 1871, p. 207. Bulim- 
ulus (Mormus) sufflatus BINN. & BLD., Land and Freshwater 
Sh. N. A., i, p. 206, f. 356. COOPER, Proc. Cal. Acad. (2), iii, p. 
102. Bulimulus sufflatus BINN. & BLD., Amer. Journ. Conch., vi, 
p. 209, pi. 9, f. 8, 13 (jaw and teeth). COOPER, 1. c., pp. 208, 212, 
340, pi. 14, f. 6 var. insularis; iv, p. 140, pi. 5, f. 9, 11, with var. 
chinchensis, f. 10. MARTENS, Biol. Cent. Amer. Moll., p. 244. 
Bulimulus (Orthotomium, Globulinus) sufflatus CROSSE & FISCHER, 
Moll. Terr, et Fluv. Mex, pp. 473, 475, 568, pi. 20, f. 23, 24, 25 ; 
pi. 19, /. 17, 18 (jaw and teeth). Mormus sufflatus TRYON, Amer. 
Journ. Conch., iii, p. 172, pi. 14, f. 6. Bulimus juarezi PFR., P. Z. 
S., 1865, p. 832 ; Novit. Conch., p. 280, pi. 69, f. 1, 2 ; Monogr., vi, 
p. 123. Bulimulus ( Orthotomium) sufflatus DALL, Proc. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., xvi, 1893, p. 648, pi. 72, f. 9. STEARNS, Proc. U. S. Nat. 



BULIMULUS-ORTHOTOMIUM. 137 

Mus., xvii, 1894, p. 164. Bulimulus (Globulm} sufflatus MABILLE, 
Bull. Soc. Philomath, de Paris, (8), vii, p. 69 (1895). 

Var. insularis Cooper. 

" Found only by Mr. Bryant on one point of Espiritu Santo Is- 
land, where he got six dead chalky specimens, apparently fossil 
though only seen on top of the ground. Compared to Gould's type 
they are not so swollen (while others we have are much more so), 
but they closely resemble some from toward La Paz in form, being 
more narrowly ovate, but smaller. A half-grown one is as thin as 
many of them closely resembling a large E. pilula from Point Arena, 
but the full-grown are thickened more than any of either form, the 
mouths of two having a heavy callous connecting the lips, and in 
one developing a blunt tooth on the inner wall. (This excessive 
thickening is also found in a var. of Helix areolata from the same 
island). The umbilicus is like that of B. sufflatus of same size, and 
also as in large B. pilula. It is 1'20 inch long, 0'70 wide, mouth 
0.65 long, 0*50 wide, in most thickened specimens ; no distinct ex- 
pansion of lip, but its margin is thickened." (Cooper}. 

Var. chinchensis Cooper. PI. 25, fig. 63. 

" Approach nearer to B. pilula, and are evidently mature, with 
thickened lips." (Cooper}. 

El Chinche Mts., 2000 ft. alt. 

B. RECOGNITUS J. Mabille. 

Shell ovate-globose, rather thin, solid, covered-perforate ; white 
under a thin, deciduous rufescent epidermis ; coarsely and irregu- 
larly costulate-striate ; apex subobtuse, regularly costulate, shining. 
Whorls 5, convex, regularly and rather rapidly increasing, separated 
by an impressed, obscurely crenulated suture ; last whorl large, f the 
alt. of the shell, globulose, inflated, at the base slightly attenuated, 
slowly descending in front. Aperture vertical, ovate, a little taper- 
ing and narrowed above ; peristome simple, unexpanded, the mar- 
gins joined by a thin, glossy callus ; outer lip with a long, decided 
arch, basal curved, columellar shorter, emitting a thin, shining 
lamina, impressed at its origin and nearly closing the perforation. 
Columella nearly straight, a little thickened, slightly truncate at 
base. Alt. 27, greatest diam. 17 mill.; aperture with peristome 16 
mill, long, 12 wide. (Mabille). 

Lower California (Diguet). 



138 BULIMULUS-ORTHOTOMIUM. 

Bulimulus (Globulus) recognitus MAB., Bull. Soc. Philom. (8), 
viii, p. 69. 

B. PILULA (W. G. Binney). PL 25, fig. 57. 

Shell globose, inflated, umbilicated ; thin ; with longitudinal 
wrinkles ; chalk-colored ; apex obtuse ; whorls 4, convex, the last 
very inflated, equalling ten-elevenths the length of the whole shell ; 
columella simple, arched ; aperture oblique, rounded ; peristome 
simple, acute, its columellar end expanded so as to partially cover 
the umbilicus. Length 22, breadth 7 mill. ; aperture 9 mill, long, 
6 wide. (Binney). 

Lower California : Todos Santos Mission and Margarita Island 
(Xantus), the type from the former locality. 

Bulimulus pilula W. G. B., Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1861, p. 
332, fig. PFR., Monogr., vi, p. 126. Bulimulus (Mormus) pilula 
BINN. & BLD., Land and Freshwater Shells of N. A., i, p. 206, f. 
357. Bulimulus ( Orthotomium /) pilula DALL, Proc. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., xvi, 1893, p. 646, pi. 72, f. 10. Not Mormus pilulaTryou, or 
Bulimulus pilula Crosse & Fischer and Cooper. 

While stating that the original types of B. pilula are distinct from 
the form so-called by Crosse and Fischer, Dall has unfortunately 
neglected to point out what the differences are. 

Xantus collected both the types and the form now called eooperi. 
One of the original lot collected by him, received through Binney, 
is shown in fig. 35 of pi. 18. Another specimen bleached perfectly 
white, also received from Binney, labelled Margarita Island, is shown 
in fig. 34 of the same plate. Binney made no distinction between 
the two forms, and as Tryon, Crosse and Fischer and Cooper all 
selected the " eooperi" form, which agrees well when bleached with 
Binney's description and first figure, it would have been better to 
restrict the species pilula to that form. Binney's measurements are 
of course wrong ; perhaps the "Long. 22" was meant for 12 ; but 
even then the assigned diameter seems too small. 

The figure is copied from Binney's engraving of 1869. 

Dall writes : The types of this species in the National Museum 
have a distinct and mature appearance. The specimens connecting 
them with sufflatus are usually young sufflatus. The two types have 
4 and 4 whorls, respectively, as many as specimens of sufflatus four 
times their size. The nuclear whorls are smaller than in sufflatus 
and more delicately sculptured, while the incremental wrinkling on 



BULIMULUS-ORTHOTOMIUM. 139 

the body whorl is more conspicuous and regular than in the larger 
species. I have seen no specimens of pilula which appear to be 
genuine except the types. All the others when critically studied 
resolve themselves into varieties of sufflatus. 

B. COOPERI Dall. PL 18, figs. 34, 35, 36, 37. 

Shell urabilicate, globose, inflated, thin ; longitudinally obsoletely 
wrinkle-striate ; whitish-calcareous with two chestnut bands ; spire 
short, apex obtuse ; suture impressed. Whorls 4, convex, the em- 
bryonic !$ [delicately costulate], the last inflated, longer than the 
spire (in the proportion of 7 to 4). Aperture somewhat oblique, 
ovate-rounded, white inside ; peristome simple, whitish, the termi- 
nations separated, columellar margin broadly dilated, reflexed, 
partly covering the umbilicus ; basal and outer margins acute. Alt. 
11, greatest diam. 8?, alt. of aperture 7 mill. (Crosse & Fischer). 
Lower California : San Jose del Cabo (Bryant). 

Mo nn us pilula TRYON, Amer. Journ. Conch., Hi, p. 173, pi. 14, f. 
7. Bulimulus pilula CROSSE & FISCHER, Moll. Terr. Mex., i, p. 
570, pi. 21, f. 6, 6a. COOPER, Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. 2d ser., iii, p. 
102, 210; iv, p. 143, pi. 5, fig. 12, 1894. Not Bulimm pilula 
Binney as restricted by Dall. Bulimulus cooperi DALL, Proc. U. 
S. Nat. Mus., 1895, p. 5. COOPER, Proc. Cal. Acad., v, p. 163. 
Bulimulus (Orthotomiuni) cooperi DALL, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
xix, p. 358. 

" This form, distinguished among other things by pale peripheral 
banding, is quite distinct from the true B. pilula of which the types 
are in the National Museum." (Dall). 

The longitudinal wrinkling is quite distinct, but there are no 
spiral lines or granulation. 

B. DECIPIENS Cooper. 

" I propose this name for a new form, of which three specimens 
were brought from San Lazaro Mt. They were living but appar- 
ently quite young, too immature to figure. The largest is nearly of 
the size and form of B. pilula as figured, but still more globular, 
being shorter and wider, with three whorls. It is more Heliciform, 
much resembling H. californiensis, young, and like that has a single 
vittiform band around the periphery, which becomes hidden in the 
suture of two upper whorls. The band is however, paler than the 
brownish epidermis (faded in alcohol). To prove their affinity to 



140 BULIMULUS-ORTHOTOMIUM. 

the Bulimuli of the region, they show the vertical riblets on li 
apical whorls, and a more sunken nucleus than in the Helix. No 
single-banded Helix is known for 200 miles north of the locality of 
this species." ( Cooper). 

Sierra San Lazaro,near Cape St. Lucas, Lower California (Eisen). 

Bulimulus decipiens COOPER, Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. (2), v, p. 164 
(June, 1895). Bulimulus (Orthotomium') decipiens BALL, Proc. U. 
S. Nat. Mus., xix, p. 358. 

" A third species was among those referred at first to B. pilula, 
with some doubt, by Dr. Cooper in the series submitted to me. Un- 
fortunately, the specimens, though living when obtained, are not 
adult. They appear, however, to represent a very distinct species. 
The shell is of pale, livid, pinkish-brown, with a peripheral, narrow, 
pale-yellow band. The largest specimen has a Leptobyrsus nucleus 
(not keeled) of 2 whorls, and about 2} rapidly enlarging later whorls. 

The suture is distinct, but not deep, the shell, when adult, is prob- 
ably about the shape of sufflatns, but thinner ; the umbilicus is deep, 
but very small, and almost hidden by the reflection of the pillar 
lip ; the base is rounded ; the surface marked by inconspicuous in- 
cremental lines and by spiral, microscopic but sharp, distant, 
slightly elevated lines, between which are still finer spiral striations. 
The general surface is not polished even when perfectly fresh, but 
the wear on the fine elevated lines seems to polish them, so that 
under a strong triplet they shine against the duller background of 
the rest of the surface. This sculpture is very characteristic and 
quite unlike that of any other Lower Californian species. The shell 
above described measures 11*5 mill, high, of which the last whorl 
stands for 10 mill., and 9*5 mill, in diameter. It was collected by 
Eisen in the Sierra San Lazaro, near Cape St. Lucas, in September, 
1894." (Datt). 

B. LEVIS Dall. PI. 19, fig. 64. 

Shell thin, ovate-conic, narrowly umbilicate, white under a thin 
olivaceous-yellow cuticle. Surface somewhat shining, with some- 
what irregular, low growth-wrinkles but no spiral striae or granula- 
tion. Whorls 5J, convex, the last more inflated than in B. xantusi. 
Aperture ovate, the peristome simple, unexpanded. Columella 
straightened above, not folded ; parietal callus thin. 

Alt. 17, diam. 11-3, alt. of aperture 9 mill. 

Alt. 18, diam. 10'5 mill. 

Alt. 17, diam. 8*5 mill. 



BULIMULUS-ORTHOTOMIUM. 141 

Lower California : Rancho Lagunas, Panto, Arena, near sea level 
(Bryant) ; Sierra Laguna, near La Chuperosa, alt. 2000 ft. (Eisen). 

Bulimuius xantusi var. levis DALL, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xvi, 
1893, p. 642. COOPER, Proc. Cal. Acad. (2) iv, p. 139, pi. 5, f. 14. 
Bulimuius levis DALL, Proc. U. S. Nat Mus., xviii, 1895, p. 5 ; 
xix, p. 359. Bulimulm xantusi COOP., Proc. Cal. Acad. (2), iii, p. 
213. 

" This species is covered with a smooth, polished, greenish-yellow 
epidermis, with vertical darker streaks, instead of dark brown as in 
B. xantusi, and it is absolutely without granulation." (Dall). 

Group of B. montezuma. 
B. EXCELSUS (Gould). PL 20, figs. 69, 70, 71. 

Shell large, oblong-conic, imperforate but with a conspicuous and 
deep reversed -sigmoid rimation ; fleshy-brown with oblique pale 
streaks and whitish below the suture; the lusterless surface rather 
finely obliquely striated, striae more or less distinctly cut into oblong 
granules. Spire long conic, the apex obtuse. Whorls 6J to 7, the 
tip of the first turned in, with a terminal deep comma-shaped dimple, 
2i nepionic whorls regularly rather delicately costulate; following 
whorls but weakly convex, the last straight or a trifle ascending in 
front, oblong. 

Aperture about half the total length, ovate; peristome broadly 
expanded, flaring, somewhat reflexed below ; columella dilated, with 
a rather conspicuous wide fold above (fig. 70). 

Alt. 44, diam. 19 mill. (Gould's type). 

Alt. 55, diam. 28, alt. of aperture 30 mill. (Sinaloa). 

Alt. 55, diam. 27 alt. of aperture 28 mill. (Sinaloa). 

La Paz, Lower California (Xantus, Belding, Fisher) ; Sinaloa 
State of Sinaloa (W. M. Gabb). 

Bulimus excelsus GOULD, Journ. Bost. Soc. N. H., vi, 1853, p. 376, 
pi. 14, f. 3 ; Otia Conch., p. 184. W. G. BINNEY, Terrestr. Moll., 
iv, p. 24, pi. 79, f. 12. PFEIFFER, Monogr. Hel. Viv., iv, p. 384. 
Thaumastus excelsus TRYON, Amer. Journ. Conch., iii, p. 171, pi. 13, 
f. 10. Bulimuius (Mesembrinus) excelsus BINNEY & BLAND, Land 
and Freshwater Sh. N. A., i, p. 196, f. 342. COOPER, Proc. Cal. 
Acad. Sci., (2), iii, pp. 101, 209. Bulimuius (Scutalus) excelsus 
CROSSE & FISCHER, Moll. Mex., i, p. 514. Bulimuius (Leptobyrsus) 
excelsus DALL, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xvi, 1893, p. 643, pi. 72, f. 7. 
Bulimus elatus GLD., op. cit., p. 408, in expl. of plate. 



142 BULIMULUS-ORTHOTOMIUM. 

Most nearly allied to B. pallidior, but larger with the whorls less 
convex, especially above. 

Dall writes: "This is the largest, finest, and most local of the 
forms of this group, when fresh is streaked with waxen-white and 
purplish-brown and is whitish in front of the suture. It has two 
nuclear whorls obtusely keeled and with a less conspicuous apical 
pit than the others. The spiral strhe on the nucleus are often ex- 
tremely faint, but can usually be made out with a magnifier on the 
later whorls, I have not seen any specimens where the striation was 
strong enough to granulate the wrinkles. While differing somewhat 
in form, the size is rather uniform compared with that of the other 
species as might be expected from its smaller range in area and 
altitude. The pillar bears an observable fold but no lamina." 

Figure 71 represents Gould's type. The shells collected by Gabb 
at Siualoa (figs. 69, 70) are decidedly larger, and show spiral series 
of fine long granules on the spire, subobsolete on the body whorl. 
This large form may be distinguished as var. sinaloce. 

B. PALLIDIOR (Sowerby). PL 19, figs. 49, 51, 53, 54, 55. 

Shell oblong-turrited, very deeply rimate, the umbilical region 
excavated ; white or cream-white ; surface shining, faintly wrinkled 
by growth-strise, and with subobsolete spiral series of oblong gran- 
ules, often hardly visible. Spire slender, high-conic, the apex obtuse. 
Whorls 6 to 7, convex, the nepionic costellate, the last whorl more 
convex at the shoulder ; sutures impressed, generally accompanied 
by an impressed line below producing a narrow margin. 

Aperture oblong, the peristome expanded, flaring below, broadly 
dilated and reflexed on the columellar margin. Columella concave 
below, straighter above, usually showing a deep-seated wide fold. 
Parietal callus light. 

Alt. 37, diam. 19 J, alt. of aperture 20 mill. 

Alt. 39, diam. 2H, alt. of aperture 20 mill. 

Lower California, chiefly southern ; San Jose del Cabo (Belding, 
Eisen) ; Cape St. Lucas (Xantus) ; Punta Arena (Bryant) ; Carmen 
Island (Stearns) ; Santa Margarita Island (U. S. Fish Commission). 

Bulinus pallidior SOWB., P. Z. S., 1833, p. 72 ; Conch. Illustr., f. 
39, 44. Bulimus pallidior DESK, in Lam., An. s. Vert., viii, p. 280. 
PFR., Monogr., ii, p. 61 ; vi, p. 40. REEVE, Conch. Icon., pi. 55, 
f. 365. W. G. BINN., Proc. Acad. N. S. Phila., 1861, p. 331. 
Bulimulus pallidior BECK, Index, p. 66. H. FISCHER, Journal de 



BULIMULUS-ORTHOTOMIUM. 143 

Conchyl., 1895, p. 137, pi. 7, f. 6, 6a, 6b (living animal). COOPER, 
Zoe, iii, p. 15 ; Proc. Cal. Acad. (2), iii, pp. 101, 208,210. Bulim- 
ulus (Mesembrinus) pallidior BINN. & BLD., L. and Fr. W. Sh. N. 
A., i, p. 195, f. 340, 341. Thaumastus pallidior TRYON, Amer. 
Journ. Conch., iii, p. 170, pi. 13, f. 9. Bulimulus (Scutalus) pallid- 
ior CROSSE & FISCHER, Moll. Mex., i, p. 512, pi. 20, f. 9. BALL, 
Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xvi, 1893, p. 640, pi. 72, f. 2, 3. STEARNS, 
Proc. U. S. N. Mus., xvii, p. 164. Bulimus vegetus GLD., Journ. 
Bost. Soc. N. H., vi, 1853, p. 375, pi. 14, f. 2 ; Otia Conch., p. 184. 
PFR., Monogr., iv, p. 397. Bulimulus (pallidior f} vegetus 
COOPER, Proc. Cal. Acad. (2), iv, p. 133, pi. 5, f. 2, 3, with var. 
vegexpiza, p. 134, pi. 5, f. 1 ; pi. 6, f. 27. Mesembrinus pallidior 
W. G. BINNEY, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci., iii, p. 122 (dentition). 

The specimens reported from Costa Rica are a species of Drymceus, 
showing a remarkable resemblance to this Bulimulus. 

Var. striatulus Dall. PI. 19, figs. 50, 52, 68. 

Surface finely but strongly granular from the persistence of spiral 
incised lines cutting close longitudinal wrinkles. Lip broadly re- 
flexed and recurved throughout ; columellar fold conspicuous within. 

Carmen and Margarita Islands; Gulf coast of the Peninsula, 
and on the Sierra el Taste and Sierra Laguna. 

Figure 52 represents Cooper's variety vegexpiza, which is identical. 

B. ACHOLUS J. Mabille. 

Shell nearly covered rimate-umbilicate, conic ovate, solid, rather 
thick, subopaque ; gray, covered with a caducious dull rufous cuticle 
and sparsely marked with pale brown streaks ; longitudinally stri- 
ate, and everywhere with compressed scattered granules. Whorls 
5, irregularly (the first moderately, the rest rapidly) increasing, con- 
vex, the last whorl much inflated, depressed toward the well im- 
pressed suture, attenuated at base, slightly descending at the apert- 
urej nearly equalling a half of the shells length. Aperture ovate, 
rather ample, vertical ; peristome acute, slightly thickened, patul- 
ous, whitish ; margins approximating, the outer a little arcuate, col- 
umellar dilated over the umbilicus. Columella slightly oblique, 
arcuate. Length 46, greatest diam. 21 mill. ; aperture with per- 
istorae 27 mill, long, 18 wide. (Mabille}. 

Mountains of Lower California, in company with B. montezuma. 
(Diguet). 



144 BULIMULUS-ORTHOTOMIUM. 

Bulimulus (Scutaln-s) acholus MAB., Bull. SoC. % Philomath, de 
Paris, (8), viii, p. 68 (1895). 

Compare B. montezuma, from which this seems to differ in having 
fewer whorls and narrower form ; if, indeed the diameter assigned 
be correct. 

B. COSMICUS J. Mabille. 

Shell covered rimate, ovate, apex attenuated; rather thick, a 
little opaque, white under a thin deciduous epidermis; rudely, irreg- 
ularly striate, under the lens seen to be quite conspicuously orna- 
mented with decurrent impressed lines and compressed granules ; 
spire conoidal, little lengthened, apex minute, obtuse, closely costu- 
late. Whorls 5, irregularly increasing, (the first moderately, the 
rest very rapidly) ; suture impressed, deeply separating the embry- 
onic whorls and obscurely denticulated ; the last whorl large, oblong- 
ovate, inflated, slightly attenuated at the base, obscurely descend- 
ing in front. 

Aperture vertical, long ovate, acute above ; peristome patulously 
reflexed, thickened, the terminations joined by quite a distinct callus ; 
columellar margin widely expanded, closing the rimation, joining 
the long arc of the outer lip in an obtuse, wide angle. Columella 
twisted, impressed in the middle, then arcuate. Alt. 48, greatest 
diam. 25 mill.; aperture with peristome 34 mill, long, 20 wide. 
(Mabille}. 

Sierras of the south of the Peninsula of Lower California (Diguet). 

Bulmulus (Scutalus} cosmicus MAB., 1. c., p. 68. 

Certainly distinct from anything known in America, if Mabille's 
measurements are to be trusted. 

B. MONTEZUMA Dall. PI. 19,'figs. 56, 57. 

Shell large, ovate-conic, deeply rimate, moderately solid ; whitish 
with rare livid streaks, or dull brown with occasional darker oblique 
streaks (no spiral color bands). Lusterless, densely and coarsely 
granose in spiral series. Whorls 6, the earlier If vertically costu- 
late ; moderately convex. 

Aperture ovate ; peristome broadly expanded outwardly and be- 
low; ends converging; columellar margin very broadly dilated 
above ; columella with a convex fold above. 

Alt. 46, diam. 24 ; alt. of aperture 26* mill. 

Alt. 48, diam. 26; alt. of aperture 28 mill. 

Alt. 52, diara. 28 mill. 

Alt. 63, diam. 30 mill. 



BULIMULUS-ORTHOTOMIUM. 145 

Lower Calif ornia, mostly in the mountainous region; Sierra La- 
guna, 2000-3500 ft. alt. (Eisen and others) ; El Taste Mts., down to 
1000ft. alt. (Eisen) ; Ranclio de San Bartoto (Diguet). 

Bullmus proteus W. G. BINNEY, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
1861, p. 331. Bulimulus (Scutalus) proteus BINN. & BLD., Land 
and Freshwater Sh. N. A., i, p. 207, f. 358. COOPER, Proc. Cal. 
Acad. Sci. (2) iii, pp. 211, 208 ; Zoe, iii, p. 15. Bulimulus (Scuta- 
lus^) montezuma DALL, Nautilus, vii, p. 27 ; Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 
xvi, 1893, p. 640, pi. 82, f. 1. COOPER, Proc. Acad. (2), iv, p. 136, 
pi. 6, f. 26. MABILLE, Bull. Soc. Philomath, de Paris, (8), vii, p. 68 
(1895). 

" As Dr. Cooper observed, this species is not as " Protean " as some 
others. It exhibits no such variations in form or color as B. proteus ; 
the latter assumes almost every mutation of form, but taken on the 
average is less acute and has the last whorl less patulously drawn 
out, axially, than the B. montezuma. The color of B. proteus is 
variably distributed, but tends in the most strongly colored exam- 
ples to be laid on in 4-6 broad, spiral bands of brown, with indis- 
tinct boundaries, separated by paler zones. In B. montezuma the 
color is seldom present, but, when it is, it is laid on in narrow, 
obscure zones, parallel with the incremental lines and never spirally 
disposed. The granulation in the Californian shell is less coarse 
and intense than in the Peruvian species when most developed, and 
the umbilicus averages much smaller in the former. All these char- 
acters are of degree rather than kind, but two features may be men- 
tioned which appear constant and specific. In the Mexican shell 
the angle which the outer lip makes with the body whorl, or axial 
perpendicular, at its junction is invariably more acute than in B. 
proteus, which latter has the lip bent suddenly down at this point. 
Secondly, the larval shell or nucleus of B. proteus is beautifully 
shagreened with minute punctations or short, almost vermicular, 
indentations, visible plainly under a glass, and only absent when 
worn off by abrasion. Tracesof this sculpture may always be found. 
In B. montezuma the nucleus is delicately ribbed in harmony with 
the incremental lines, and does not show the peculiar shagreening 
alluded to, a character which alone is sufficient to establish its dis- 
tinctness." (Dall). 

B. BAILEYI Dall. PI. 19, figs. 65, 66, 67. 

Shell when perfectly fresh with a delicate brownish epidermis, 
which is usually lost, beneath which the shell is brownish flesh color 
10 



146 BULIMULUS-ORTHOTOMIUM. 

with irregular pale streaks in harmony with the incremental lines ; 
the margin of the whorl in front of the suture is also often whitish ; 
dead shells are waxen or pure white, often with a ferruginous dis- 
coloration ; whorls five and a half, the nucleus with a central pit or 
dimple at the apex, the first two turns regularly ribbed with small, 
sharp, rather distant ribs, the wider interspaces of which are spirally 
striate; subsequent whorls with close, fine, sharp, somewhat irreg- 
ular wrinkles, in harmony with the incremental lines, sparse on the 
last whorl and crossed by fine sharp close striae of variable strength, 
sometimes hardly visible, but in other specimens distinct and gran- 
ulating the wrinkles ; all intermediate grades are observable in com- 
paring many specimens ; suture distinct ; form like that oi pallidior 
on a smaller scale, varying from moderately wide to slender ; whorls 
rounded or moderately flattened ; umbilicus small but deeper pro- 
portionately than in pallidior ; aperture rounded ovate, the lip 
rather widely reflected, thin, the outer and pillar lips approximat- 
ing, united by a thin wash of callus. (Dall). 

Alt. 28, diam. 17, alt. of aperture 15 mill. 

Alt. 28$, diam. 15, alt. of aperture 16 mill. 

Alt. 26, diam. 13$, alt. of aperture 13 mill. 

Alt. 25, diam. 16, alt. of aperture 14 mill. 

State of Sonora, N.- W. Mexico, at Ortiz (Bailey), Guaymas (Pal- 
mer, Gabb), Hermosillo (Eisen), Cerro Tordilla, between Guaymas 
and San Marcial (Gabb). ? Cape St. Lucas, L. California (W. J. 
Fisher). 

Bulimulus (Scutalus) Baileyi DALL, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xvi, 
1893, p. 640, pi. 71, f. 1. STEARNS, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xvii, p. 
163. COOPER, Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. (2), iv, p. 139. 

The surface looks smooth to the unaided eye ; the aperture has a 
very regularly ovate form, the foldless columella concave and pass- 
ing without angle into the parietal margin. The spiral sculpture 
mentioned in the description is sometimes wanting entirely. The 
locality " Cape St. Lucas " is probably incorrect. Ball writes as 
follows : 

" This species is larger than B. xantusi and the latter is without a 
reflected lip. B. baileyi has the color of excelsus rather than palli- 
dior. Its variations, within the limits of its smaller size, are similar 
to those of pallidior ; the granulation of the surface in the rougher 
specimens is much finer, but of the same character as that of B. mon- 



BULIMULUS-ORTHOTOMIUM. 147 

tezuma. The species was at first confounded with B. xantusi, the type 
of which had been mislaid, but when the latter was found and a 
series compared, it was obvious that they belonged to different sec- 
tions of the genus. It is named in honor of Mr. Vernon Bailey, of 
the U. S. Department of Agriculture, who collected it in western 
Mexico." 

This is the only known species of the mainland except excelsus, 
which is very closely allied to the Peninsular group, unless the 
Mexican record of siifflatus proves correct. 

B. GABBI Crosse & Fischer. PI. 19, figs. 58, 59 ; pi. 33, fig. 34, 35. 

Shell umbilicate, ovate-conic, thin ; white under a thin, light 
brown cuticle. Sculpture of irregular longitudinal wrinkles, and 
close, unequally spaced spiral series of short, rounded granules, situ- 
ated upon the wrinkles. Spire conic, the apex obtuse, two nepionic 
whorls well rounded, sculptured with delicate vertical riblets ; whorls 
5 to 6, convex, rapidly increasing, separated by deep sutures. 

Aperture large, ovate, varying from nearly half to over half the 
total length of shell ; peristome thin, outer lip scarcely expanded ; 
columellar lip broadly dilated above; columella concave below, 
straight or concave above, with no fold. 

Alt. 24, diam. 14 ; alt. of aperture 12 mill. 

Alt. 23, diam. 12 ; alt. of aperture lOi mill. 

Lower California (Gabb). 

Bulimulus (Scutalus) gabbi CROSSE & FISCHER, Journ. de Con- 
chyl., xx, 1872, p. 223 ; Moll. Mex., p. 517, pi. 20, f. 19. COOPER, 
Proc. Cal. Acad. (2), iii, p. 214, 340 (as probable var. of xantusi). 

A decidedly more conic species than B. xantusi with larger aper- 
ture, different sculpture and nucleus. In B. xantusi the first whorl 
is subangular above, with well excavated apical pit, approaching the 
form seen in B. inseendens, and the vertical riblets thereon are fine 
and close ; in B. gabbi the earliest whorl is well rounded, with 
moderate axial pit, as in B. baileyi, and the delicate costulse are 
much more separated. On the last whorl the granules are every- 
where small and rounded, much less coarse and irregular than in 
xantusi. 

B. gabbi is considerably like the more granular form of B. baileyi, 
but lacks the conspicuously expanded lip of that species. It has 
been united with B. xantusi by Dall and Cooper, but apparently 
without comparison of typical examples of gabbi. Having before 



148 BULIMULUS-ORTHOTOMIUM. 

me the original series collected by Gabb, I do not hesitate to separ- 
ate the form specifically from B. xantusi. Of the latter, among 
others, we have one of the original specimens collected by Xantus. 

Group of B. inscendens. 
B. XANTUSI (W. G. Binney). PI. 19, figs. 60, 61, 62 ; pi. 33, fig. 36. 

Shell very deeply rimate or umbilicate, oblong-conic, thin ; white 
under a thin light brown cuticle ; surface lusterless, densely wrinkled 
longitudinally, wrinkles cut into oblong granules by revolving in- 
cised lines (fig. 62), the granulation coarse for the size of the shell. 
Whorls 6, the apex very obtuse, nepionic shell vertically ribbed, 
obtusely carinated above, with rather straightly sloping lateral mar- 
gins ; the following whorls convex, the last deeply excavated in the 
umbilical region. 

Aperture less than half the shell's length, ovate ; edge of lip a 
trifle expanded ; columellar margin broadly dilated, columella 
slightly concave, not folded. 

Alt. 20, diam. lOi, alt. of aperture 10 mill. (type). 

Alt. 21-5, diam. 11, alt. of aperture 9'2 mill. 

Alt. 21, diam. 10'2, alt. of aperture 9 mill. 

Cape St. Lucas, Lower California (Xantus). 

Bulimus xantusi W. G. B., Proc. Acad. N. S. Phila., 1861, p. 331, 
fig. PFR., Mai. Bi., 1864, p. 45; Monogr., vi, p. lll.Bulimulus 
(Seutalus) xantusi BINN. & BLD., Land and Freshwater Sh. N. A., 
i, p. 210, f. 362. CROSSE & FISCHER, Moll. Mex., p. 518, pi. 21, f. 
10, 10a. B. xantusi COOPER, Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. (2), iii, p. 213 
(in part?) ; iv, p. 138, pi. 5, f. 13, pi. 6, f. 29.Bulimulus (Mesem- 
brinus) xantusi DALL, Proc. IT. 8. Nat. Mus., xvi, 1893, p. 641, pi. 
72, f. 4. Seutalus xantusi TRYON, Amer. Journ. Conch., iii, p. 173, 
pi. 14, f. 11. 

Finely but intensely granular, resembling B. montezuma on a 
reduced scale, but with the lip-edge barely expanded, not reflexed. 
It is closely allied to B. gabbi, but differs in being decidedly less 
conic, with smaller aperture, and with high, laterally flattened 
nuclear whorls, bluntly angular above, instead of well rounded as in 
gabbi. 

B. DIGUETI J. Mabille. 

Shell openly umbilicate, quite thin, solid, subopaque, hardly shin- 
ing ; corneous- rufescent, sometimes paler, and marked with opaque 



BULIMULUS-ORTHOTOMIUM. 149 

yellowish, more or less regular, sparse streaks; irregularly and 
coarsely striate ; oblong-ovate. Apex obtuse, generally eroded, 
closely and most minutely costulate. Whorls 6, convex, regularly 
increasing, separated by a deep and narrow suture ; the last whorl 
large, inflated, nearly half the length of the shell, a little ascending 
in front. Aperture vertical, elongate, the margins subparallel, ex- 
ternal margin slightly curved, basal arcuate, columellar broadly ex- 
panded, white, partly covering the umbilicus ; peristome straight, 
acute, white. 

Alt. 20-22, greatest diam. 10-12 ; aperture with peristome 10 
mill, long, 7 wide. (Mabille). 

" Sierra de la Victoria" Lower California (Diguet). 

Bulimulus (Thaumastus) Digueti MAB., 1. c., p. 69. 
B. BELDINGI Cooper. PI. 25, fig. 56. 

Shell deeply rimate, oblong-conic, chestnut-brown with a few in- 
conspicuous lighter streaks, becoming purplish-black toward the 
apex, lighter below the sutures ; rather solid. Surface slightly shin- 
ing, with light wrinkles of growth, no spiral striae. Whorls 6 or 6, 
the earliest subcarinate above, with deep apical dimple and sculpt- 
ure of delicate vertical riblets, the others slightly convex. 

Aperture long oval, purplish with the luster of satin within ; per- 
istome expanded, narrowly reflexed, fleshy-brown ; columella with 
a faint long fold. 

Alt. 29'5, diam. 13, alt. of aperture 14'5 mill. 

Alt. 32, diam. 14, alt. of aperture 15 mill; 

Mountains of Lower California, near Cape St. Lucas. 

Bulimulus inscendens var. beldingi COOPER, Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. 
(2), iii, p. 209, 1892 ; p. 340, pi. 13, f. 5, 1893 ; iv, p. 137, 1894. 
Bulimulus (Leptobyrsus) inscendens var. beldingi DALL, Proc. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., xvi, 1893, p. 643. Bulimulus beldingi DALL, Proc. U. 
S. Nat. Mus., xviii, 1895, p. 5. B. {Orthotomium) beldingi DALL, 
Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xix, p. 357. 

More compact, and stouter than B. inscendens, with the peristome 
more reflexed ; no spiral striatiou or granulation ; the typical beld- 
ingi is also smaller. 
Var. alta Dall. PL 20, fig. 76. 

Whorls rounder, shell shorter, last whorl 25-38, aperture 20-38 
of the whole length. Whorls 7i; alt. 38, diam. 14 mill.; alt. of 
aperture 20 mill. 



150 BULIMULUS-ORTHOTOMIUM. 

Bulimulus (Leptobyrsus) inscendens var. alta DALL, Proc. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., xvi, 1893, p. 643. COOPER, Proc. Cal. Acad. (2), iv, 
pp. 137, 143, pi. 5, f. 7. Bulimulus (Orthotomium) beldingi var. 
alta DALL, Proc. U. S. N. Mus., xix, p. 357. 

Var. monticola Ball. PI. 20, fig. 75. 

More slender, smooth, compact, last whorl 23-40, aperture 17-40 
of the whole length. Recalls B. bryanti but has not the divergent 
last whorl nor the laminiferous pillar. Whorls 7, alt. 40, diam. 14 
mill. ; alt. of aperture 17 mill. 

B. inscendens v. monticola DALL, op. cit. B. beldingi v. monticola 
DALL, op. cit. B. inscendens bryanti COOPER, Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. 
iv, pp. 137, 143, pi. 5, f. 8. 

B. CACOTYCUS J. Mabille. 

Shell covered ri mate-perforate, lengthened, somewhat thick, sub- 
opaque, shining ; rubescent, marked with opaque white streaks ; 
striated and cancellated with fine decurrent lines. Spire high conic, 
apex obtuse, striated. Whorls 7, convex-flattened, rapidly increas- 
ing, separated by a laciniate, impressed suture, margined by a white 
thread ; last whorl large, subcylindric elongate, a little compressed 
on the left side, slightly descending in front. Aperture long-ovate, 
acute above, vertical ; peristome patulous, a little thickened, the mar- 
gins joined by a very thin, shining, concolored callus; columellar 
margin white, broadly dilated, covering the rimation, joining the 
long arc of the outer lip in an obtuse wide angle. Columella 
twisted, arcuate at base, impressed in the middle. Alt. 58-60, 
greatest diam. 23 mill. ; aperture with peristome, 33 mill, long, 20 
wide. (Mabille*). 

Sierras of the south of the Peninsula (Diguet). 

Bulimulus (Scutalus) cacotycus MAB., 1. c., p. 69. 
B. INSCENDENS (W. G. Binuey). PI. 20, figs. 72, 73, 74. 

Shell thin, deeply rimate, lengthened-oblong ; chestnut brown, not 
shining. Surface granular, with growth-wrinkles and (typically) 
fine incised spiral striae, but the latter sometimes wanting or weak. 
Whorls 7, the apex obtuse, nepionic whorl costulate, subcarinate 
above with deep apical dimple, the following whorls but slightly 
convex, last whorl long. 

Aperture less than half the shell's length, ovate; peristome some- 
what expanded outwardly and below, dilated at the columellar mar- 



BULIMULUS-PLICOLUMNA. 151 

gin, continued in a rather strong callus across the parietal wall. 
Columella with a long fold above and extending inward (fig. 74). 

Alt. 38, diam. 15, alt. of aperture 17 mill. 

Lower California : Cape St. Lucas (Xantus) ; San Jose del Cabo, 
San Leonicio, etc., 100-3000 ft. alt. (Eisen) ; Sierra Laguna, 3000 
ft. (Eisen, smooth var.) ; San Lazaro (Eisen). 

Bulimus imcendens W. G. B., Proc. Acad. N. S. Phila., 1861, p. 
332, fig. PFR., Mai. Bl., 1864, p. 45 ; Monographia, vi, p. 149 ; viii, 
p. 182. Bulimulus (Mesembrinus} inscendens BINN. & BLD., Land 
and Freshwater Sh. N. A., p. 197, f. 343. CROSSE & FISCHER, 
Moll. Mex., p. 544. pi. 21, f. 11, 11 a. Bulimulus (Leptobyrsus) in- 
scendens DALL, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xvi, 1893, p. 643, pi. 72, f. 6. 
Bulimulus inscendens COOPER, Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. (2), iii, p. 
101 ; also pp. 208, 209 ; iv, p. 137, pi. 5, f. 4 (exclusive of subspecies 
and varieties) ; v, p. 1 64. Mesembrinus inscendens TRYON, Amer. 
Journ. Conch., iii, p. 170, pi. 14, f. 21. 

" The type specimens of this species show the very distinct gran- 
ulation due to spiral strise, and have a nucleus like that of B. artem- 
esia, obtusely keeled above. The pillar has a more or less distinct 
fold, which, however, never becomes "laminar and is often feeble. 
The spiral striation may be coarse, fine or absent. A smooth form, 
that is, one in which there is no spiral striation or granulation of the 
axially directed wrinkles, yet which has the form of the type, also 
occurs. Both this and the type have large shells with flattish whorls 
and a rather acutely conical spire." (Dalfy. 

Section Plicolumna J. G. Cooper. 

Plicolumna COOPER, Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. (2), v, p. 164 (June, 
1895). Pseudorhodea DALL, Nautilus, ix, p. 51 (Sept., 1895); 
Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xviii, p. 5. 

Shell slender, small, with a nearly straight or gyrate and pervious 
axis in the last whorl and a half, without internal lamina; aperture 
less than a third the shell's length ; jaw as in Thysanophora. Type 
Columna ramentosa, J. G. Cooper. 

Distribution, Lower California. 

The extreme attenuation of the shell is the main differential 
feature of this group. It is to Orthotomium what Geoceras is to Lis- 
soacme. 



152 BULIMULUS-PLICOLUMNA. 

The separation of B. ramentosus from B. artemisia on account of 
the somewhat cork-screw twisted axis of the former seems scarcely 
necessary. The axis of B. artemisia also is pervious. 

Dall has fully exposed the fallacy of the supposition that there is 
any affinity between these Lower Californian snails and the Colum- 
bian genus Ehodea. The latter belongs to the Stenogyroid division 
of Achatinidce. Columna, to which genus B. ramentosus has also 
been referred, is a West African group of true Aehatinidce, with 
neither affinity nor superficial resemblance to this group of Bulim- 
ulidce. 

B. ARTEMISIA (W. G. Binney). PI. 20, figs. 77, 78, 79 ; pi. 25, fig. 
54. 

Shell narrowly rimate, slender, cylindric-turrited, thin, dark brown. 
Surface but slightly shining, with oblique growth-wrinkles and many 
spiral series of granules (fig. 78). Whorls about 8, the first carin- 
ated above, with excavated apical pit, vertically delicately costulate 
(fig. 79), those following convex, the last peripherally flattened. 

Aperture ovate, less than one-third the length of shell; peristome 
expanded and narrowly reflexed ; columellar margin dilated, con- 
tinued across the parietal wall in a rather heavy callus ; columella 
oblique, not folded. 

Alt. 23, diam. 6'2, alt. of aperture 6*3 mill. 

Alt. 17'3 diam. 5'6, alt. of aperture 5 mill. 

Lower California: Cape St. Lucas (Xantus) ; Sierra Laguna at 
3000 ft. alt., and El Taste Mis., 3400-4200 ft. (Eisen) ; Sierra San 
Lazaro, 25 miles north of Cape St. Lucas (Eisen & Vaslit). 

Bulimulus artemisia W. G. B., Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci.Phila., 1861, 
p. 331, fig. PFR., Mai. BL, 1864, p. 45 ; Monogr., vi, p. 150. Buli- 
mulus (Peronceus) artemisia BINN. & BLD., Land and Freshwater 
Sh. N. A., i, p. 210, f. 363. CROSSE & FISCHER, Moll. Mex., p. 557, 
pi. 21, f. 12, 12a. Bulimulus artemisia COOPER, Proc. Cal. Acad. 
Sci., iii, p. 208; iv, p. 137, pi. 5, fig. 17, pi. 6, f. 30; v, p. 163. 
Peronceus artemesia TRYON, Amer. Journ. Conch., iii, p. 174, pi. 14, f. 
22. Bulimulus (Leptobyrsus) artemesia DALL, Proc. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., xvi, 1893, p. 642, pi. 72, f. 5. Bulimulus (Orthotomium) arte- 
mesia DALL, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xix, p. 360, pi. 31, f. 6 ; pi. 32, f. 6. 

With much the same sculpture as the larger species, and an apex 
a good deal as in the allied B. inscendens, this species is very much 
more slender than any except B. ramentosus. It has much the con- 



BULIMULUS-PLICOLUMNA. 153 

tour of the Chilian B.pupiformis (vol. X, p. 138), but with totally 
dissimilar apical sculpture. The South American and Lower Cali- 
fornian species inhabit similarly arid, mountainous regions. 

B. ABBREVIATES (Cooper). PI. 20, figs. 80, 81. 

Nuclear whorls H, vertically flattened, the others reduced to 8 or 
9?, the 7th largest, 6th and 8th about equal and much smaller, pe- 
nultimate not narrowed and larger than fourth. Outline swollen at 
middle, contracted at suture of body whorl, which is shorter verti- 
cally than in C. ramentosa. Mouth subcircular, subacutely pointed 
at its apex, near suture, the constrictions on body whorl deep, partly 
visible inside, otherwise as in ramentosa. A very thin brownish 
epidermis covered the living shell. Length 0*85, breadth 0*19 inch ; 
mouth 0-22 long, 0-18 wide (Cooper). 

Sierra Laguna and El Taste Mts., 4200 ft. alt., Lower California. 

Columna ramentosa var. abbreviata J. G. COOPER, Proc. Cal. 
Acad. Sci. (2), iii, p. 2 1 5. Columna (var. /) abbreviata COOP., t. c., 
p. 338, pi. 13, f. 2. Columna (ramentosa ?) abbreviata COOP., 1. c., 
p. 140, pi. 6, f. 18, 31. 

Dall writes of this form as follows : " Dr. Cooper tells us that his 
* Columna' ramentosa abbreviata has the apex, surface, and general 
form of B. artemesia, but with a gyrate pillar and pervious axis in 
the last whorl. In the only specimen I have seen of variety abbre- 
viata, the axis is not pervious and the shell is pathologically dis- 
torted. I do not doubt that some of Dr. Cooper's examples of this 
form (of which only nine specimens were collected in two years) 
have a pervious axis, but I am inclined to regard the shell as a 
variety of B. artemesia rather than C. ramentosa, and as a peculiar 
pathological product rather than a normal development. I fully 
agree to the proposition that B. abbreviata, if it is normal, presents 
characters (analogous to the gyrate axis of Leptobyrsus spirijer in 
its penultimate whorl) in many respects intermediate between B. 
artemesia and ' Columna ' ramentosa, and that all three are derived 
from the same stock." 

In the uncertainty as to the status of this form it may best stand 
provisionally as a distinct species. 

B. RAMENTOSUS (Cooper). PI. 20, figs. 82, 83, 84, 85. 

Shell narrowly rimate, slender, pillar-shaped, the apex squarely 
truncated, 6 or 7 earlier whorls gradually tapering, those below of 
about equal diameter. Dull brown. Surface lusterless, with sculp- 



OF THE 

UNIVERSITY 



154 BULIMULUS-PLICOLUMNA. 

ture of oblique growth-wrinkles and numerous spiral series of gran- 
ules; 1J earlier whorls vertically costulate (fig. 82). Whorls 11 
to 12 (13 to 16 according to Cooper); the first keeled at the 
shoulder, concave within the keel, the following increasing whorls 
convex, becoming less so upon the cylindrical portion of the shell ; 
last whorl flattened peripherally, and with a spiral sulcus or furrow 
there (often much less pronounced than in fig. 85). 

Aperture contained about 5? times in length of the shell, irregu- 
larly oval ; peristome thin, somewhat expanded ; columellar margin 
narrowly dilated ; columella with a low fold (fig. 83) or none. Ends 
of peristome connected across parietal wall by a more or less raised 
and thickened callus. 

Alt. 22*5, diam. of cylindrical portion 3'75, alt. of aperture 4 mill. 

"Alt. O'95-l'O, diam. of cylindrical portion 0*18, alt. of aperture 
0-19 inch." 

Foothills near San Jose de Cabo, Lower California, near edge of 
lagoons (Bryant & Eisen) ; also on the adjacent mountains (Eisen^ 
Vaslit). 

Rhodea californica subsp. ? ramentosa COOPER, Proc. Cal. Acad. 
Sci. (2), iii, p. 102 (1891). Columna ramentosa COOPER, t. c., p. 215 
(1892) ; p. 338, pi. 13, fig. 1 (1893) ; iv, p. 143, pi. 6, f. 19. Plico- 
lumna ramentosa COOPER, 1. c., v, p. 164 (June, 1895). Bulimulus 
(Pseudorhodea) ramentosus DALL, Nautilus ix, p. 51 (Sept., 1895) ; 
Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xviii, p. 5. Bulimulus (Orthotomium) ramen- 
tosus DALL, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xix, p. 363, pi. 31, f. 8 (jaw). 

Sculpture as in B. artemisia, but the shell is more slender, column 
shaped, like a Cylindrella or Rhodea. 

" The distinctions between this form and Rhodea have been 
pointed out in the sectional diagnosis, but it may be as well to call 
attention to some minor details. The base of the last whorl in B. 
ramentosus is rounded and the constriction of the peripheral part of 
the whorl is variable in different specimens. It would almost seem 
as if the constriction and the gyration of the pillar were in some 
way correlated, as the pillar above the last two whorls is not gyrate 
though somewhat tortuous, and consequently the perviousness of 
the axis does not extend, as supposed by Cooper, to the entire axis, 
but only to that part of it included in the last whorl and a half or 
two whorls. The columellar muscle is exceptionally long, and at- 
tached for several whorls, so that it is very difficult to withdraw the 
animal from its shell even after it has been long in alcohol. The 



BULIMULUS-SONORINA. 155 

axis appears to be destitute of any lamellae, plications or projections 
of any kind. In fact, the creature, so far as the shell is concerned, 
is a very attenuated Leptobyrsus with its gyrate axis continued into 
the adult state, whereas in the ordinary Leptobyrsus the gyration 
ceased in time for the pillar of the completed shell to appear nor- 
mally straight and the axis impervious. In a perfectly adult B.ramen- 
tosus the margins of the aperture are expanded and slightly thick- 
ened, but not reflected. The diameter of the hollow axis varies in 
different specimens" (Dall). 

Section Sonorina Pilsbry, 1896. 

Leptobyrsus CROSSE & FISCHER, Moll. Terr, et Fluv. Mex., i, p. 
475, 1874. DALL Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xvi, 1893, p. 642. Not 
Leptobyrsa Stal. Sonorina PILS., Nautilus, ix, p, 114, 1896. 

Bulimuli with the nepionic whorls vertically costulate, the colum- 
ella bearing within the last whorl a strong, more or less spirally 
twisted callous lamina. Type B. spirifer Gabb. Distribution, 
Lower California and islands in the Gulf of California. 

That all the Bulimuli of Lower California are more closely allied 
genetically than any of them are to the species of Orthotomium in- 
habiting eastern Mexico, must be acknowledged to be almost demon- 
strated. Keeping this fact in view, it is also clear that by the ex- 
aggeration or acceleration of certain features of growth in a portion 
of the species, the Peninsular stock has been differentiated into three 
groups, superficially very distinct. Sonorina, by developing an in- 
ternal , callous lamina upon the columella, and Plicolumna by its 
lengthened Cylindrella-like growth and emphatic apical keel, have 
diverged from the normal Orthotomium type. 

The genesis of the several subordinate groups of Orthotomium, if 
the views herein expressed be correct, is exhibited by the following 
diagram : 

Probable phylogeny. Taxonomy. 

Original C Eastern Branch Group of B. alternatus 1 ^ . , . 
stock of f Group of B. montezuma } Orthotomium ,. ,. 

Orthotomium ( Western Branch -| Group of B. ramentosus Plicolumna. 

[ Group of B. spirifer Sonorina. 

The name Leptobyrsus was changed to Sonorina on account of a 
supposed preoccupation of that term by Leptobyrsa in insects. 
This is in accordance with the usage of most working concholo- 
gists in England at the present time, and with that of the American 



156 BULTMULUS-SONORINA. 

ornithologists. The propriety or necessity of such changes is still 
doubtful. 

While the costellate apex and internal lamina of Sonorina readily 
distinguish the group from other American Bulimoid snails, certain 
species of Neopetrceus (see pi. 32, fig. 33) alone approaching it, some 
of the species of the subgenus Euryptyxis Fischer (Journ. de Con- 
chyl., xxxvi, 1888, p. 317), a Buliminoid group of Arabia, Socotra 
and Somaliland, are so similar in shell characters as to deceive the 
very elect. These shells have a similar columellar plate within, and 
nearly similar apical costulation. In Euryptyxis however this costu- 
lation is absent from the first whorl or half whorl, and in the forms 
most resembling Sonorina, such as E. labiosus Miill., revoili Bgt., 
maunoirianus Revoil, etc., there is a heavy callus connecting the 
ends of the peristome, with a slight vertical groove at its junction 
with the outer lip. This particular structure does not occur in 
Sonorina. In view then of the great resemblance of oriental and 
occidental forms, and the slight, elusive nature of their differences, 
can we believe the two groups to be fundamentally different in 
genesis? It is here that the testimony of the soft anatomy is given 
with no uncertain emphasis ; for Euryptyxis has the characteristic 
genital complications of Pupidoz (see Bourguignat, in Revoil, Faune 
et Flore des Pays Comalis, p. 96), while in Sonorina the anatomy is 
as unequivocally that of Bulimulus. 

Several species belonging elsewhere have been referred to the pres- 
ent group. Misled by a false locality label, the writer described as 
new, B. hypodon (Nautilus, x, p. 102, 1897 ; see pi. 21, figs. 5, 6, 7), 
which upon mature study proves to be Euryptyxis labiosus var. 
jehennei Petit, of Socotra ; while B. zeledoni Dall (Proc. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., x vi, 1893, p. 644) is the unicolored form or variety of Drymceus 
josephus (Angas). 

Key to species of Sonorina. 

(Not including lapidivagus, dentifer, subspirifer and dismenicus t 
the internal characters of which are unknown). 
I. Peristome but slightly expanded ; aperture contained 2 times 
in alt. of the shell, rimatus, p. 157. 

II. Peristome reflexed ; aperture larger. 

a. Thin ; internal lamina corkscrew twisted, 

spirifer, p. 158. 
a'. Thick ; internal lamina nearly straight, 

orthelasmus, p. 159. 



BULIMULUS-SONORINA. 157 

a". Thin ; internal lamina a tongue-like or triangular lobe ; 
lip very broad, recurved. 

0. Length of aperture and diam. of shell decidedly 
exceeding half the alt., stout ; alt. about 35 mill., 

veseyianus, p. 160. 

a!" Thin ; internal lamina sinuous, emarginate or squarish, 
very high, lamellifer, p. 160. 

B. RIMATUS (Pfeiffer). PI. 21, figs. 1, 2, 3, 4. 

"Shell deeply rimate, oblong-turrited, [with rather convex lateral 
outlines], rather thin, subarcuately striatulate [and under the lens 
faintly showing long granules produced by spiral decussating striae, 
usually visible only in places, and often almost obsolete, fig. 3], 
pale corneous [or light fleshy-brown, with an indistinct pale sub- 
sutural line, somewhat glossy] ; spire turrited, rather obtuse [with 
nearly two costulate nepionic whorls] ; whorls 7 [to 7], nearly flat, 
the last three-eighths the length of the shell, rotund at base. 

" Columella with one fold within, [passing into a moderately 
high, strong, callous lamina spirally encircling the pillar within the 
last whorl, seen upon breaking the shell, fig. 1]. Aperture oblong- 
oval ; peristome simple, the margins approximating, joined by a 
callus ; right margin slightly expanded, [arching far across the 
whorl above] ; columellar margin dilated, spreading." 

"Alt. 33, diam. [above aperture, as usual with Pfr.] 11 mill.; 
aperture 13 mill, long, including peristome 4 [error for 9, evidently 
from misreading the scale] wide." (Pfr.}. 

Alt. 33, diam. 13; alt. of aperture 12'7, width 8'8 mill, (speci- 
men). 

Near San Jose del Cabo, 12 miles east of the Cape (Bryant), to 
La Paz, Lower California. 

Bulimus rimatus PFR., P. Z. 8., 1846, p. 112; Monographia, ii, 
p. 104. REEVE, Conch. Icon., pi. 54, f. 359. Con/. ANCEY, Bull. 
Soc. Mai. France, iii, 1886, p. 20. Bulimina (Petrceus') rimata PFR. 
-CLESSIN, Nomencl. Hel. Viv., p. 286. 

Bulimulus (Mesembrinus) inscendens subsp. bryanti COOPER, 
Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. (2), iii, pp. 101,340, pi. 13, f. 4a-c, 1893; 
Zoe, iii, p. 15 ; Con/, also, Proc. Cal. Acad. (2), iv, pp. 135-138. 
Bulimulus (Leptobyrsus) bryanti (Cooper) DALL, Proc. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., xvi, 1893, p. 645, pi. 71, f. 3, 4. 

Pfeiffer's original description of this species is given, with the in- 
terpolation of such details as additional specimens suggest. The 



158 BULIMULUS-SONORINA. 

species is readily distinguished from B. inseendens by the internal 
lamina, which has about the form of that of B. spirifer, though 
more oblique. It differs conspicuously from B. spirifer in being of 
a more slender form with smaller aperture, the lip but little ex- 
panded, surface smooth though without the oily gloss seen in spiri- 
fer, and with hardly any spiral sculpture or granulation. The apex 
is like that of B. spirifer. 

Pfeiffer originally described B. rimaius without knowledge of its 
habitat, and it has later been surmised to be a Central Asian Bui- 
iminus. Ancey, who had not seen the species, offered the suggestion 
that it belonged to the South American group of B. derelictus (see 
Vol. X, p. 172). Reeve's figure of Pfeiffer's type is copied in our 
tig. 4. Von Martens (Biologia, p. 252) is mistaken in referring 
B. rimatus to B. spirifer. 

B. SPIRIFER (Gabb). PL 21, figs. 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 

Shell deeply rimate (the axis perforate above), elongated with 
oval body-whorl and long conic spire, rather thin ; corneous-brown, 
nearly uniform or with slightly darker oblique streaks, with a 
whitish sutural line; very glossy, the surface showing slight growth 
wrinkles, and under the lens, fine spiral series of long granules 
caused by decussating spiral striae, variable in development but al- 
ways rather faint ; two apical whorls finely, vertically costulate, the 
apex obtuse, with axial dimple passing into a deep suture. Whorls 
6 to 7, somewhat convex with shallow sutures, the last whorl 
oval. 

Aperture ovate, fleshy-brown within ; peristome broadly ex- 
panded, reflexed, sometimes revolute, flesh-tinted ; the terminations 
approaching, connected by a thick or thin callus. Columellar mar- 
gin dilated above, the columella passing above into a strong, whitish, 
spirally entering fold, which within the last whorl becomes a high, 
callous or laminar crest, revolving about the axis (fig. 89), but not 
penetrating deeper than the last whorl. 

Alt. 41, diarn. 18 ; alt. of aperture 19 mill. 

Alt. 32, diam, 15 ; alt. of aperture 16? mill. 

Alt. 33?, diam. 15 ; alt. of aperture 16 mill. 

Lower California, from San Antonio, below La Paz, to near San 
Borja, in the mountains among rocks (Gabb) ; San Jose, on the 
Gulf of California (Belding) ; near La Paz (Brandegee) ; around 
the volcano of Las Virgines (Diguet). 



BULIMULUS-SONORINA. 159 

Bulimus spirifer GABB(in part), Amer. Journ. Conch., iii, p. 236 
(pi. 16, f. 5 ?) 1867. BINNEY & BLAND, Land and Freshwater Sh. 
of N. A., i, p. 191, f. 332. Bulimulus (Leptobyrsus) spirifer CROSSE 
<fe FISCHER, Moll. Terr. Mex., p. 558, pi. 20, f. 26, 27 (exclusive of 
var. B.). DALL, Proc. U. S. Nat.Mus., xvi, 1893, p. 644, pi. 72, f. 
8. MABILLE, Bull. Soc. Philomathique de Paris (8), vii, p. 66 
(1895). FISCHER, Journ. de Conchyl. 1888, p. 318, pi. 13, f. 5. 
Bulimulus spirifer COOPER, Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. (2), iii, p. 211. 

Like the other species of this region, there is a wide range of 
variability in size. The " oily gloss of the surface " is noticeable, 
but its main distinction from the B. inscendens group is in the in- 
ternal lamina on the axis. In some specimens the terminal portion 
of this may be seen from the aperture, but usually only the columellar 
fold proper and nut the callous lamina, can be seen without break- 
ing the shell. The shape of this lamina varies within narrow lim- 
its, and is well shown in fig. 89. It is lacking in young shells (fig. 
91) and in all but the last whorl of adults. The narrow lip shown 
by fig. 87 shows that shell to be immature. 

There can be little doubt that Gabb included two species in his 
original description, B. spirifer and B. lamellifer; and the figure 
may have been drawn from the latter, although if so it was colored 
according to the real spirifer. This figure, like that on the same 
plate representing B. vesicalis, is very badly drawn. In the view 
represented, no prominent columellar fold is visible such as the 
artist has depicted. Turning to Gabb's typical collection of Lower 
Californian shells in the Academy collection, we find that he label- 
led as spirifer the glossy, brown species with regular cork-screw 
lamina (see fig. 89, drawn from one of Gabb's typical lot). This 
too, seems to be the form he generally distributed as B. spirifer. 
His specimens of B. lamellifer were labelled by him " B. xantusi, 
Binney." It seems, therefore, proper to restrict spirifer to the form 
generally known under that name, despite the apparent confusion in 
the original publication. 

Var. orthelasmus n. v. 

Similar to B. spirifer, but very solid and strong, with more con- 
vex whorls, the lip broadly reflexed and strongly revolute at edge; 
internal fold very high and strong, nearly straight and in large part 
nearly parallel to the axis of the shell, not sinuous or emarginate as 
in B. lamellifer, or strongly spiral as in B. spirifer ; no spiral sculp- 
ture visible. Alt. 33'2, diam. 15, alt. of aperture 16 mill. 



160 BULIMULUS-SONORINA. 

Based upon a specimen which has lost its cuticle and color. The 
exact locality is unknown, hut it differs remarkably from B. spirifer, 
its nearest ally, in the great solidity and the shape of the lamina. 

B. LAMELLIFER Pilsbry. PI. 21, figs. 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99. 

Shell deeply rimate, oblong-conic, rather thin, white, sometimes 
rather translucent. Surface less glossy than in B. spirifer, smooth- 
ish, under the lens seen to be finely striated, the striae cut into long 
granules by spiral lines (fig. 99). Whorls 62, convex, the last some- 
what swollen below ; sutures impressed. 

Aperture large, ovate ; peristome very broadly expanded and re- 
flexed, white, the terminations approaching, joined by a short, thin 
or heavy callous. Columella dilated above, folded ; and from the 
aperture may be seen a sharp, high, twisted lamina, which within 
the last whorl (figs. 94, 96) rises into a very high, thin, square or 
emarginate, erect plate, very noticeably obstructing the cavity. 

Alt. 34, diam. 17 ; alt. of aperture 19 mill. 

Alt. 33 J, diam. 15* ; alt. of aperture 15 J mill. 

Alt. 32, diam. 15; alt. of aperture 15 mill. 

Alt. 23?, diam. 10 ; alt. of aperture lOf mill. 

Lower California (W. M. Gabb), probably on the Gulf side be- 
tween San Antonio and San Borja. 

Bulimulus lamellifer PILSBRY, Nautilus, x, p. 103, January, 1897, 
? Bulimus spirifer GABB, in part. ? Bulimulus spirifer var. B. 
CROSSE & FISCHER, Moll. Terr. Mex., p. 558. 

The square, erect plate within the last whorl is a constant differ- 
ence between this species and B. spirifer. B. lamellifer is also white 
instead of corneous brown, less glossy and more distinctly granulose 
than the other species, on the average smaller, and generally more 
of the internal lamina may be seen without breaking the shell. 
Gabb seems to have confused the larger specimens with B. npirifer, 
the smaller with B. xantusi. Seventeen examples examined. 

B. VESEYIANUS Dall. PL 21, figs. 92, 93 (enlarged). 

Shell stout, inflated, brownish, polished, with seven whorls ; suture 
appressed, distinct, but shallow ; nucleus worn in all the speci- 
mens but apparently not differing from that of B. Bryanti, except 
as being more blunt ; whorls, except the last, rather rounded, the 
last whorl somewhat flattened at the periphery ; umbilicus large but 
narrow, overshadowed by a very wide expansion of the pillar-lip ; 



BULIMULUS-SONORINA. 161 

aperture large, the lips approximated behind, the reflection wide 
and greatly recurved, of a livid waxen passing into white at the 
margin ; body moderately callous, pillar straight with an obscure 
fold visible at the aperture, internally with a large, thick sublingui- 
form lamina ; surface of the shell like that of B. excelsus, but more 
polished. Length of shell, 36'5 ; of last whorl, 25; of aperture, in- 
cluding the lip, 20 ; maximum of diameter of shell, 20 ; of aperture, 
15 mill. (Datt). 

Espirito Santo Island, Gulf of California (Belding). 

Bulimulus (Leptobyrsus) veseyianus DALL, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
xvi, 1893. p. 645, pi. 72, f. 4, 5. 

This species is named in honor of Mr. J. Xantus de Vesey, to 
whom we owe much of our knowledge of the fauna of Lower Cali- 
fornia. It is recognizable by its short, stout shape, widely reflected 
recurved peristome, very narrow space between the commissures of 
the lips and body, and large subtriangular lamina. Five specimens, 
all very uniform, were collected by Mr. Belding some ten years ago 
(Dalt). 

B. LAPIDIVAGUS Mabille. 

Shell covered perforate, pupiform, rather thick, a little opaque, 
destitute of cuticle and color; striate, the striae delicate, undulating, 
rather regular. Whorls 7, a little convex, rapidly and regularly 
increasing, separated by impressed sutures, the last whorl large, in- 
flated, a little tapering below, about equal to three-sixths the length 
of shell. Aperture a trifle oblique, ovate-subrotund ; peristome 
widely expressed and reflexed, a little thickened, the margins ap- 
proximating and joined by a very thin callus; outer margin well- 
arched, columellar margin broadly dilated, covering the perforation ; 
columella obliquely straight, thickened, passing into a twisted median 
profoundly entering lamina. Alt. 40-43, greatest diam. 16-18 
mill. ; aperture with peristome 21 mill, long, 17 wide (Mabille). 

Sierra de Cacachila, south of La Paz (Diguet). 

Bulimulus (Leptobyrsus) lapidivagus MABILLE, Bull. Soc. Philo- 
math, de Paris (8), vii, p. 66, 1895. 

B. DENTIFER Mabille. 

Shell oblong, turriculate, ri mate-perforate, destitute of cuticle, 
subopaque, solid, striate ; ornamented with minute longitudinal rib. 
let-like striaB and spiral lines visible only under a lens ; apex rather 
11 



162 BULIMULUS-SONORINA. 

acute, shining, narrowly perforate; whorls 6, the first convex, pe- 
nultimate much more convex, separated by an impressed suture, the 
last whorl large, nearly two-fifths the entire alt., a little ascending in 
front. Aperture oblong-ovate, acute above, narrowed below ; peri- 
stome sub-continuous, broadly expanded, slightly thickened, the 
margins connected by a rather thick callous, outer margin regularly 
curved, rather broadly reflexed ; columellar margin dilated, patu- 
lous, nearly concealing the perforation, joining the basal margin in 
an obtuse angle; columella twisted, having a deeply entering, median 
laminiferous tooth. Alt. 24, diam. 9 mill.; aperture with peristome 
11 mill, long, 8 wide (Mabille). 

Volcanic Island of La Tortuga, in the middle of the Gulf of Cali- 
fornia (Diguet). 

Bulimulus (Leptobyrsus) dentifer MABILLE, Bull. Soc. Philomath. 
(8) vii, p. 67, 1895. 
B. DISMENICUS Mabille. 

Shell ovate-elongate, narrowly rimate, rather thick, solid, some- 
what opaque, covered with a corneous-rufescent epidermis, a little 
shining, striatulate ; apex rather obtuse, whitish ; spire conoidal ; 
whorls 6, little convex, the first slowly, the rest rapidly increasing, 
separated by a narrowly margined white suture ; the last whorl 
large, ovate oblong, a little inflated, over half the alt. of shell, de- 
scending, in front. Aperture vertical, ovate, narrowed above, di- 
lated below ; peristome slightly thickened, a little reflexed, shining, 
the outer margin bent in a long arch, basal margin somewhat patu- 
lous, columellar margin dilated, covering the perforation ; margins 
joined by a moderately conspicuous glossy callous. Alt. 32, greatest 
diam. 12 mill. ; aperture with peristome 15 mill, long, 10 wide 
(Mabille). 

Sierra de la Puna, Lower California, at 1,800 meters elevation 
(Diguet). 

Bulimulus (Leptobyrsus) dismenicus MABILLE, Bull. Soc. Philo- 
math. (8), vii, p. 67. 

B. SUBSPIRIFER Mabille. 

Shell narrowly subperforate, elongate, a little thickened, destitute 
of cuticle, longitudinally striated ; strise dense, filiform, irregular; 
apex subacute, subperforate ; whorls 8, a little convex, the earliest 
beautifully costulate, angulate at the suture, the last whorl large, 
inflated, not descending at the aperture. Aperture ovate-elongate, 



NEOPETRJEUS. 163 

nearly vertical, the peristome subcontinuous, margins joined by a 
thin, shining callus, outer margin well incurved and lengthy, effuse 
toward the base ; columellar margin dilated, nearly concealing the 
perforation ; columella obliquely twisted, sinuous. Alt. 47, greatest 
diam. 17 mill.; aperture with peristome 24 mill. long. 14 wide (Ma- 
bille). 

Lower California (Diguet). 

Bulimulus (Leptobyrsus*) subspirifer MABILLE, Bull. Soc. Philo- 
math. (8), vii, p. 67, 1895. 

Genus NEOPETILEUS von Martens, 1885. 

Neopetrceus v. MART., Conchologische Mittheilungen, i, p. 194 
(1885). 

Bulimulidse with ovate or oblong, rather solid shells, rimate or 
umbilicate, the lip generally expanded ; young shells carinated ; 
nepionic sculpture of delicate vertical riblets, predominating over 
the closer, finer and lower spiral striae of the intervals. Dentition 
peculiar. Type N. millegranus v. Mart. 

Distribution, valley of the Marafion River and adjacent parts of 
Peru. 

Illustrated on plates 29, 30, 31, 32, with some figures on pi. 25 
and 33. 

Neopetrceus was originally proposed as a subgeuus of Otostomus 
(Drymseus), for three species differing notably from that genus 
in dentition, the central teeth being unicuspid, laterals with ex- 
tremely long, oblique cusps, formed by coalescence of ento- with 
mesocones, as shown by a nick or emargination in the end. The outer- 
most marginal teeth retain the earlier tricuspid form in some species, 
but in others seem all to have been transformed, and resemble the 
laterals. 

No conchological features were mentioned by von Martens, distin- 
guishing the group from other subgenera ; probably because in 
general characters, some species have no definable differences from 
Scutalus, others from Drymceus. 

In the sculpture of the nepionic whorls, however, I find a concho- 
logical character which places the group upon a basis of practical 
utility, enabling us to ascertain its limits, in most cases, without re- 
ference to the soft parts, which are necessarily inaccessible in the vast 
majority of specimens. The nepionic sculpture (pi. 33, fig. 49 ; pi. 31, 
fig. 20) consists of delicate subvertical riblets, the intervals between 



164 NEOPETFLEUS. 

them bearing closer, lower and finer spirals threads. This is quite 
unlike the even grating of Drymoeus (pi. 25, figs. 59, 60, 62), but 
similar to many species of the third division of Bulimulus, compris- 
ing Prolog lyptus, A/cesiotus and Orthotomium. The finer nepionic 
sculpture, usually mamillar apex, strongly or acutely keeled young, 
and generally variegated coloring or dark aperture, are characters 
conchologically separating Neopetrceus from Protoglyptus, Orthotom~ 
ium and their allies, though the dentition, when accessible, is of 
course a far more important difference. 

The peculiar color pattern of short oblique stripes in spiral bands, 
seen in many species of this genus, does not occur in Bulimulus or 
Drymceus. 

N. BINNEYANUS (Pfeiffer). PL 32, figs. 42, 43. 

Shell openly umbilicate, biconic, acutely carinated peripherally;, 
solid, lusterless, buff or soiled white, the whole surface finely, obliquely 
striated. Whorls 5, the earlier If whorls bluntly biangular, form- 
ing a mamillar apex with deep terminal dimple, sculptured with 
slender separated vertical riblets with densely and minutely striated 
intervals (pi. 33, fig. 49) ; succeeding whorls with sigmoid and 
then flattened lateral outlines, produced in an exserted, acute keel 
which projects above each suture : the last whorl acutely keeled, not 
descending anteriorly, the bate conic, slightly convex, quite bluntly 
angular around the funnel shaped umbilicus. 

Aperture oblique, ovate, brownish-yellow inside ; peristome more 
or less deeply purple tinted, somewhat thickened within ; outer lip 
angulated in the middle, unexpanded above, slightly expanded below 
the angle ; columellar margin rather broadly dilated ; columella 
simply concave, purple. 

Alt. 24, diam. 18, alt. of aperture 14'5 mill. 

Alt. 26, diam. 19, alt. of aperture 16 mill. 

Andes of prov. Patas, Peru (Farris). 

Bulimus binneyanus PFR., Malak. Bl., iv, 1857, p. 229 ; P. Z. S., 
1858, p. 257, pi. 42, f. 4 ; Monogr., iv, p. 440. Bulimulus (Bostryx) 
binneyanus PFR.-CLESS., Nomencl. Hel. Viv., p. 254. Not B. 
binneyanus Pfr. in Binney, see p. 133. 

Similar to B. reentsi Phil (vol. x, p. 155) in contour, but with 
exserted keel, different sculpture, and the apical characters of JVeo- 
petrceus. It very closely resembles the young stage of N. filiola and 
vadum. 



NEOPETR^EUS. 165 

N. VADUM Pilsbry, n. sp. PL 29, figs. 32, 33, 34. 

Shell deeply rimate, obloDg turrited, solid and strong, blue-white, 
somewhat shining, the whorls of spire rather strongly and subregu- 
larly, obliquely wrinkle-striate, last whorl nearly smooth, seen under 
the lens to be finely and sparsely malleated. Whorls fully 6?, the 
earlier If subangular above and below, sculptured with fine delicate 
vertical riblets, higher than the finer, closer and lower spirals be- 
tween them ; 2? succeeding whorls flattened, acutely keeled basally, 
excavated above the keel, which projects above the suture (fig. 33) ; 
subsequent whorls not showing the keel, the last whorl oblong, con- 
vex, the suture ascending at its termination. 

Aperture ovate, about half the length of the shell, deep brown 
within, becoming somewhat purplish on the lip and columella. 
Peristome rather broadly expanded, the margins converging, brown, 
fading to purple and then to white at the outer edge ; columellar 
margin subvertical ; columella purplish, passing above into a very 
wide entering fold (fig. 34). 

Alt. 33, diam. 17 ; alt. of aperture 17 mill. 

Alt. 33, diam. 16; alt. of aperture 16 mill. 

Peru. 

The mamillar apex, keeled and wrinkled early whorls and 
rounded last whorl, as well as the solid, calcareous texture, dark 
aperture and absence of external color markings, are common to this 
species and B. filiola ; but that differs in the almost unexpanded lip, 
curious columella, straight instead of ascending termination of the 
suture, and much stouter form. 

N. FILIOLA (Pilsbry). PI. 30, figs. 5, 6, 7, 8. 

Shell narrowly umbilicate and rimate, ovate, solid and strong; 
opaque and calcareous ; whitish, flesh tinted below, blue- tinted on 
the spire, the nepionic whorls pink on the sides, white above ; some- 
what shining, very irregularly wrinkle-striate, with some short trans- 
verse impressions, the early post-nepionic whorls more regularly 
and obliquely wrinkled. Spire conic, If earlier whorls forming a 
mamillar, projecting apex, flattened above, and sculptured with fine 
vertical riblets which predominate a little over the finer and closer 
spiral lirulse ; following two whorls flat, showing a slightly project- 
ing keel above the suture (fig. 8), which is concealed on subsequent 
whorls ; body-whorl oval, not deflected in front. Whorls 6f in all. 

Aperture ovate, subvertical, one-half the length of the shell, deep 



166 NEOPETR^EUS. 

purple within, fading to buff far within the throat. Peristome 
white-edged, outer and basal lips obtuse, hardly expanded, col- 
umellar lip expanded, with straight, vertical edge; columella very 
conspicuously obliquely truncated below. Alt. 45, diam. 25, alt. of 
aperture 22 width 16*5 mill. 

Peru. 

Drymceus (Neopetrceus) filiola PILS., Proc. Acad. N. S. Phila., p. 
22, Feb. 23, 1897. 

The truncated columella gives the effect of a large, obtuse tooth, 
but the truncation is shown a little too abrupt in fig. 6. The repres- 
entation of apical sculpture in fig. 8 is too coarse. The species is 
most nearly related to N. vadum, but differs strikingly from that in 
proportions, characters of the lip and columella, etc. 

N. CORA (d'Orbigny). PI. 30, figs. 1, 2. 

Shell oblong-ventricose, swollen, rather thick, smooth, shining, 
marked with transverse striae visible only under the Jens, or some- 
times malleated; whitish-rose colored or yellowish, generally uni- 
colored but sometimes with four brown spiral bands frequently inter- 
rupted and forming square spots. Spire conic, short, the apex sub- 
acute, truncate. Whorls 6, inflated, separated by an even suture. 

Aperture large, oval, lateral ; lip thin, subreflexed, brown ; inte- 
rior brown ; umbilicus large. Alt. 43, diam. 30 mill. (Orb.'). 

Shell deeply arcuate-rimate, ovate-conic, rather solid, smoothish, 
shining ; flesh-colored, irregularly tawny streaked, and sometimes 
ornamented with four brown bands. Spire conic, rather acute ; 
whorls 7, a little convex, the last slightly shorter than the spire, 
ascending in front, somewhat sack-shaped at base. Aperture sub- 
vertical, truncate-oval, blackish in front ; peristome thin, whitish ; 
the right margin slightly expanded, columellar margin broadly 
spreading. Alt. 44, diam. above aperture 23 mill. ; alt. of aperture 
including peristome 23, breadth 17 mill. (Pfr.). 

Interior of Peru (Fontaine) ; Huanuco (Paz). 

Helix cora D'ORB., Synops., Mag. de Zool., 1835, p. 15 ; Voy. 
Amer. Merid., pi. 34, f. 14, 15. Bulimus cora D'ORB., t. c., p. 307. 
HIDALGO, Journ. de Conchyl., 1870, p. 48. PFR., Monogr., ii, 
p. 57 ; iv, 401 ; Novit. Conch., iii, p. 418 (description, not figures). 
Buliminus cora BECK, Index, p. 69. Not B. cora Shuttleworth, or 
of Pfr., Monogr., iii. See also, DOHRN, Jahrb. D. M. Ges., 1882, p. 
107. 



NEOPETR.EUS. 167 

Comparing with B. proteus, Orbigny remarks that the character 
most sharply separating the two species is that B. cora in youth is 
strongly carinated, as far as the third whorl, while in B. proteus the 
whorls are rounded. Hidalgo states that three examples taken at 
Huanuco by Paz have the color-lines interrupted, giving them some 
resemblance to B. tessellatus Shuttl. 

Shuttleworth and PfeifFer at one time described N. tessellatus 
under the name cora; and Dohrn goes so far as to unite cora,tessel- 
latus, atahualpa and papillatus; but at least the last of these is 
clearly distinct. 

The somewhat more slender form of cora, especially its basally 
produced aperture, seem to be the main distinctions between it and 
tessellatus. The expansion of the outer lip is only slight. Not hav- 
ing specimens, I give above both Orbigny's and Pfeiffer's descrip- 
tions of the typical form. 

Var. unkolor Pfr. PL 30, figs. 3, 4. 

Unicolored whitish, the aperture edged within with violaceous; 
peristome more broadly reflexed. 

Between Patas and the Maranhon, Peru (Raimondi). 

B. cora Orb., PFR., Novit. Conch., iii, pi. 95, f. 9, 10, but not the 
description on pp. 418, 419. B. cora var. PFR., Monogr., vi, p. 49. 
B. cora var. unicolor PFR., Nomencl. Hel. Viv., p. 245. 

N. TESSELLATUS (Shuttleworth). PL 31, figs. 21, 22, 23. 

Shell rimate-umbilicate, ovate-conic, solid, rather smooth, opaque ; 
dull corneous, ornamented with square chestnut spots arranged in 
several bands. Spire rather acute, the apex papillar. Whorls 7, 
the upper flat, lower a little convex, the last whorl large, nearly 
equal to the spire, somewhat inflated, produced anteriorly, ascend- 
ing at the aperture, the base compressed around the umbilicus. 

Aperture built forward, suboval, of a deep brown color inside ; 
peristome acute, somewhat thickened within, the upper margin arc- 
uate, scarcely expanded, basal margin a little reflexed, columellar 
margin straightened, very broad, spreading. Alt. 37, diam. 22. 
mill. ; aperture 20 mill, long, 13 wide. (Shuttl.). 

Peru (Tschudi) ; San Mateo de Huaras (Almagro) ; between Mac- 
anya and the Maranhon (Raimondi). 

" Bulimus cora Orb. (syn. B. tessellatus Shuttl. in litt.) " SHUTTLE- 
WORTH, Mittheil. naturforsch. Gesell. in Bern, 1852, p. 200. Bui- 



168 NEOPETR.EUS. 

imus cora Orb., PFR., Monogr., iii, p. 339 (1353). Bulimus tessel- 
latas Shuttl., PFR., Monogr., iv, p. 402 (1859); vi, p. 49; Novit- 
Conch., iii, p. 412. pi. 94, f. 14-16. HIDALGO, Journal de Conchyl. 
1870, p. 61 ; Viaje al Pacifico, p. 123 (including B. atahualpa). 

A shorter, more compact species than N. cora. Hidalgo believes 
B. atahualpa to be a form of tessellatus, and in view of the consider- 
able variation observed in other species of Neopetrceus this may 
readily be credited. 

Var. ATAHUALPA (Dohrn). PI. 31, figs. 14, 15, 16, 17, 20. 

Shell with compressed umbilicus passing into a long curved rima- 
tion, stoutly ovate-conic, solid ; whitish, slightly brown or flesh 
tinted, uuicolored or with five chestnut bands subcontinuous or more 
or less interrupted into oblong spots, sometimes obliquely streaked 
(fig. 17); rather shining, smoothish, becoming obliquely wrinkle- 
striate on the spire. Whorls nearly 7, the apical If or 2 purple- 
brown below, white above, with slender vertical riblets and densely 
cross striate intervals (fig. 20), the following 2 or more whorls 
rather flattened, showing a keel at the suture, last whorl inflated, 
large, short, well rounded below, strongly, arcuately ascending in 
front. 

Aperture about half the total alt., ovate-truncate, brown within 
and showing the bands; peristome acute, more or less thickened 
inside, usually white with purplish spots, the outer lip a little ex- 
panded throughout or scarcely so, columellar lip broadly dilated, 
forming an extremely wide columellar area ; columella concave or 
straightened, generally showing a weak fold far within. Parietal 
callus slight, not obscuring the bands. 

Alt. 38, diam. 27, alt. of aperture 22 mill. (figs. 18, 19). 

Alt. 33, diam. 23, alt. of aperture 18 mill, (specimen). 

Alt. 32-5, diam. 21, alt. of aperture 17'5 mill. (fig. 17). 

Alt. 43, diam. 21, alt. of aperture 20, width 15 mill. (Dohrn). 

Alt. 39, diam. 23, alt. of aperture 22, width 17 mill. (Dohrn). 

Alt. 37, diam. 22, alt. of aperture 20, width 16 mill. (Dohrn). 

Alt. 36, diam. 20, alt. of aperture 19, width 15 mill. (Dohrn). 

Peru (Dohrn) ; Patas (Acad. coll.). 

Bulimulus atahualpa DOHRN, Malak. Bl., x, 1863, p. 153. Bul- 
imus atahualpa PFR., Monogr., vi, p. 49 ; Novit. Conch., iii, p. 411 
pi. 94, f. 11-13. Conf. HIDALGO, Viaje al Pacif., p. 124, and 
DOHRN, Jahrb. D. M. Gesell., ix, 1882, p. 107. 



NEOPETR^EUS. 169 

An extremely variable form, in color " white, fleshy or yellow, 
one colored or variously maculated and banded with brown, the 
apex white or roseate " or as described above. The keel of the 
young shell may be either exserted or quite concealed in the adult ; 
the columellar margin, typically vertical or nearly so, is sometimes 
slanting (fig. 18). 

Hidalgo unites this to B. tessellatus, stating that there are inter- 
mediate specimens. It should therefore become a variety of that 
species. 

Var. PERINCRASSATUS n. v. PL 33, fig. 48 ; pi. 31, figs. 18, 19. 

General form and umbilicus as in atahualpa, than which it is 
larger, more solid, with decidedly expanded outer and basal lips, 
very strongly thickened within. Whorls 6?, with apex sculptured 
as in atahualpa, two or three earlier whorls ruddy, the rest of the 
shell white with oblique purplish maculae disposed in several obscure 
spiral bands, and a few narrow, oblique, chestnut streaks. Aper- 
ture more ample than in atahualpa, dull reddish purple within the 
lip and columella, rich orange-brown inside of the lip-thickening, 
fading to cream in the throat, the lip edge white. Another spec- 
imen (pi. 31, f. 18, 19) is white with cream colored aperture and 
lip. Alt. 42, diam. 27 mill. 

Peru. 
N. PAPILLATUS (Morelet). PI. 31, figs. 28, 29. 

Shell umbilicate, globose-conoid, irregularly and delicately rib- 
bed-sulculate, spiral impressions being visible under a lens ; shining, 
ashy-white becoming tawny toward the apex, and marked with 
sparse blackish dots. Spire papillate, short, the apex acutely mucro- 
nate. Whorls 6, the earlier exserted, convex, the following plano- 
convex, rapidly increasing, last whorl inflated, round, sometimes 
obscurely angular, five-eighths the shells length. Umbilicus wide 
and deep. 

Aperture ovate-rounded, tawny inside, the edge paler ; peristome 
simple, acute, thin, expanded throughout, the margins strongly con- 
verging above, coluraellar margin spreading. Alt. 25, diam. 14 

mill. (Morel.'). 

Pucra, Pent (Angrand). 

Bulimus papillatu* MOREL., Journ. de Conchyl., viii, 1860, p. 
372 ; Series Conch., iii, p. 186, pi. 8, f. 2. PFR., Monog., vi, p. 40. 

A very remarkable shell, with globular last whorl contrasting 
strangely with the acuminate form of the earlier three ; the ends of 



170 NEOPETR^EUS. 

the peristome converge strongly, and the umbilicus is deep and 
widely open. The surface is grooved with very wide superficial 
strise, more numerous and stronger on the early whorls ; and with 
sufficient magnification, short concentric impressions crossing the 
strise may be seen in some places. 

N. CATAMARCANUS (Pfeifferj. PL 29, fig. 21. 

Shell profoundly umbilicate, ovate-conic, rather solid, irregularly 
plicate and minutely granulate throughout, not shining, whitish ; 
spire conic, rather obtuse ; whorls 6, convex, the last longer than 
the spire, ascending in front, rounded at base ; columella deeply and 
obsoletely folded. 

Aperture vertical, oblong-oval; peristome simple, the margins 
approaching, the right margin passing outward horizontally from 
the upper insertion, broadly expanded ; columellar margin very 
much dilated and spreading. Alt. 42, diam. [excluding expansion 
of lip] 23 mill, ; aperture with peristome 27 mill, long, 13 wide. 



Andes of the province Caxamarca, Peru (Williams ; Cuming 
coll.). 

Bulimus catamarcanus PFR., P. Z. S., 1858, p. 256, pi. 42, f. 5 ; 
Malak. BL, 1859, p. 58; Monogr. Hel. Viv., vi, p. 4l.Bulimu* 
caxamarcanus MOREL, Ser. Conchyl., iii, p. 158. 

Closely allied, it would seem, to N. millegranus, but with the outer 
lip near its insertion straightened and the columellar lip straight and 
vertical, and without the color-pattern of that species. 

N. MILLEGRANUS (v. Martens). PL 31, figs. 24, 25, 26, 27. 

Shell umbilicate, ovate-pyramidal, thin, sculptured with rather 
close spiral series of granules ; whitish, painted with irregular, more 
or less streak-like brown spots arranged in 4 or 5 spiral series. 
Whorls 6j, the first and second constituting a papillar apex, shin- 
ing, white and sculptured with fine vertical ribs ; third and fourth 
rapidly increasing, flat, with very oblique, granulose riblets, the 
suture flat; penultimate whorl a little convex, last whorl rounded 
basally. 

Aperture subvertical, four-sevenths the shell's length, widely 
elliptical; peristome broadly expanded, white, rather thin, the con- 
verging margins separated. Alt. 43, greatest diam. exclusive of 



XEOPETR^US. 171 

peristome 26, least 20 mill. ; aperture including peristome 27 mill, 
long, 21 wide; excluding peristome 19 and 11. (Mts.'). 

Balzas, eastern Peru, at 963 meters alt. (Stiibel). 

Otostomus millegranus v. MART., Conchol. Mittbeil., p. 177, pi. 32, 
f. 1-4. 0. (NeopetrcpMs) millegranus MTS., t. c., p. 194. SCHAKO, 
t. c., p. 210 (jaw and teeth). 

This species, which was found in a very hot, sterile valley in the 
Maranon region of eastern Peru, resembles the well-known B. pro- 
tens in sculpture, but in the form of the shell, especially the per- 
istome, and in markings, it is more like B. altopemvianus t which, so far 
as coloration goes, approaches B. cora Orb. and tessellatus Shuttl.; 
so that all of these, in shell characters, seem to form a connected 
series. In the jaw and dentition, however, this new species is close 
to altopemvianus, and both differ decidedly from proteus. (Mts.). 

N. RHODOLARYNX Reeve. PL 29, figs. 22, 38. 

Shell openly umbilicated, oblong- conic, rather solid, rugulose- 
striate, marked with minute spiral lines ; opaque ; bluish-white, 
with sparsely scattered corneous dots. Spire conic, the apex ful- 
vous, rather acute. Whorls 8, convex, the last a little shorter than 
the spire, rotund, the base a trifle compressed. 

Aperture little oblique, rounded-oval, fulvous within ; peristome 
simple, the margins converging, right margin broadly expanded, 
columellar margin much dilated. Alt. 35, diam. 15 mill. (Pfr.). 

Peru : from Ayacucho to gorges of the Apurimac River (Angrand), 
adhering to rocks; Mission of Sarayacu (Deville). 

Bulimus rhodolarynx REEVE, P. Z. S., 1849, p. 98 ; Conch. Icon., 
pi. 72, f. 518 (July, 1849). PFR., Monogr., iii, p. 329 ; vi, p. 35. 
MORELET, Ser. Couch., iii, p. 187. HIDALGO, Journ. de Conchyl., 
1870, p. 47 ; Viaje al Pacifico, Mol., p. 73. HUPE in Castelnau's 
Exped., Moll., p. 44, pi. 6, f. 4. Bulimus derillei HUPE, Revue 
Zool., 1850, p. 641, pi. 15. f. 3. ? ? Scutalus proteus W. G. BIN- 
NEY, Ann. N. Y. Lye. N. H., ix, p. 36 ; Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci., iii, 
p. 123. 

The interior of the aperture varies from delicate purple-rose to 
quite dark brownish. Aperture rounder than in B. corceformis. 
The apical sculpture is unknown. It looks as though Binney had 
transposed the radulse of this species and B. proteus. 



172 NEOPETR^US. 

N. PLATYSTOMUS (Pfeiffer). PI. 29, fig. 23. 

Shell profoundly umbilicated, oblong-conic, solid, obliquely striate; 
tawny-whitish, with irregular chestnut and brown streaks. Spire 
conic, the apex subtruncate. Whorls 6, a little convex, the last 
about as long as the spire, slightly ascending in front, the base com- 
pressed-rotund. 

Aperture slightly oblique, oval inside, tawny ; peristome simple, 
of a deep violaceous brown color, margins approaching, the right 
margin broadly expanded, columellar margin much dilated, spread- 
ing. Columella brown-violaceous, subplicate deep within. Alt. 40, 
diam. 18 mill. ; aperture with peristome 2(H mill, long, 15 wide, in- 
side 16 long, 9 wide. (Pfr.). 

Province Patas, Peru (Dr. Farris). 

Bulimus platystomus PFR., P. Z. S., 1858, p. 256, pi. 42, f. 2; 
Malak. BL, 1859, p. 37 ; Monogr., vi, p. 39. 

N. BARONI (Fulton). PI. 25, figs. 64, 65, 66. 

Shell slightly umbilicate and broadly rimate, solid, either light 
brown with a narrow whitish spiral band at the suture, or dirty 
white with spiral bands of a light brown color ; the fine longitu- 
dinal striae or lines of growth are irregularly microscopically 
wrinkled ; apex blunt, apical whorls whitish, with close-set minute 
thimble-like punctures; whorls 6i-6f, convex, the last rather sud- 
denly deflected, giving the umbilical area a rimose character ; aper- 
ture ovate, dark-brown within, one-half to three-fifths the length of 
the shell ; lip broadly expanded, outer margins white ; parietal callus 
very thin. (Fulton). 

Long. 34 mill., maj. diam. 22 mill. 

Long. 36 mill., maj. diam. 21 mill. 

Long. 31 mill., maj. diam. 19 mill. 

Rio Yonan, Peru, 4000 feet elevation (C. T. Baron). 

Bulimulus (Drymceus) baroni FULTON, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (6), 
xx, no. 116, p. 213, pi. 6, f. 8, a-b. August, 1897. 

Resembles B. proteus Brod., in its variableness of form and colora- 
tion, but has not the characteristic granular sculpture of that species. 
It is closely allied to cora d'Orb., but is smaller, with more conical 
spire, and of a more solid growth. (Fulton). 

Placed provisionally in Neopetrceus on account of Fulton's com- 
parison with N. cora. Otherwise I would consider it a Scutalus from 



NEOPETR^EUS. ] 73 

its close resemblance to JS. (Scutalus) corceformis Pils. (pi. 25, fig. 
61), and from the description of the apical sculpture. 

N. ALTOPERUVIANUS (Reeve). PI. 32, figs. 30, 31. 

Shell umbilicate, ovate-conic, rather thin ; striated, somewhat de- 
cussated by minute concentric impressed lines, a little shining; pale 
flesh colored, becoming bluish above, painted with chestnut longitu- 
dinal lines and spiral series of short oblique streaks and spots ; spire 
convex-conic, rather acute. Whorls 7, a little flattened, the last 
longer than the spire, somewhat ascending in front, the base obso- 
letely angular around the compressed umbilicus. 

Aperture little oblique, oval, colored like the outside ; peristome 
simple, thin, the margins converging, the right margin expanded, 
columellar margin much dilated above, a little folded, spreading. 
Columella with a deep-seated fold. Alt. 47, diam. (above aperture) 
21 mill.; aperture 21 mill. long. (Pfr.). 

Peru : Chaehapoyas (W. Lobb) ; prov. Patas (Dr. Farris) ; Tarn- 
billo (Stoltzman) ; Valley of the Uteiibamba River, about 1800 meters 
above the sea, northeastern Peru (Stiibel) ; between Balsas and 
Cajamarca (Orton). 

Bulimus alto-peruvianus RVE., P. Z. S., 1849, p. 99 ; Conch. Icon, 
pi. 72, f. 521. PFR., Monogr., iii, p. 336; iv, 400; vi, 47; viii, p. 
60. LUBOMIRSKI, P. Z. S., 1879, p. 723. Drymceus altoperuv- 
ianus W. G. BINN., Ann. Lye. N. H. N. Y., xi, p. 34, pi. 1, f. ii, iv, 
(genitalia); Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci., iii, p. 120, pi. 14, f. F (denti- 
tion). Otostomus (Neopetrceus*) altoperuvianus MAKTENS, Conchol. 
Mittheil., i, pp. 161, 194. 

I have seen no typical specimens of this species. From the 
figures and descriptions it would seem to differ from N. patasensis 
chiefly in being less ventricose basally, with light colored lip and 
columella, the outer lip protracted and straightened above. 

Var. gradlior < Pfr.' Pils. PI. 33 ; figs. 37, 38. 

Slenderer, the last whorl less expanded, aperture less dilated 
obliquely ; flesh-colored with rows of oblique spots ; obliquely 
striated and feebly decussated below, the striation stronger on the 
spire, where two or three whorls following the nepionic ones are flat- 
tened, with a keel filling the suture. Columella becoming very 
broad above, hardly folded; no noticeable fold within the last 
whorl. Aperture ochre tinted, fading to white on lip and columella. 
Alt. 43, diam. 21, alt. of aperture 22, greatest width 15.3 mill. 



174 NEOPETR^SUS. 

I suppose this to be the variety /5, collected by Farris in prov. 
Patas, and characterized by the single word " gracilior " in Mono- 
graphia iv. The locality of the specimen figured is unknown. It 
resembles D. patasensis in color pattern of the exterior. 

B. heterogyrus Philippi. Shell covered perforate (finally imper- 
forate ?) oblong-fusiform, plicatulate, partly smooth, thin, whitish, 
ornamented with brown flammules ; whorls 7, the earlier two very 
smooth, mamillate, following 2-3 flat, with an elevated carina pro- 
jecting above the suture, last two whorls moderately convex, with- 
out trace of the carina ; last whorl the length of the spire, flesh- 
colored. Aperture oblong or nearly half-ovate ; columella oblique, 
straight, half the length of aperture ; peristome (imperfect) simple, 
straight, thin, the columellar margin reflexed above, nearly closing 
the umbilical chink. Alt. 36, diam. 17 mill. ; aperture 19 J mill, 
long, 9 wide. (Phil.). 

Department of Libertad, Peru, between Sartimbamba and Chusgon, 
in " la Sierra." 

Bulimus heterogyrus PHIL., Malak. Bl. xvi, 1869, p. 42. See 
PFR., t. c., p. 90. 

One imperfect specimen, very singular in having the early whorls 
keeled as in Helix elata, the later becoming wholly ecarinate. The 
keeled whorls have stronger, more distant folds ; on the last whorl 
these are to be seen at the suture but become obsolete below. There 
are also transverse, decussating lines. Pfeiffer writes that the figure 
of this species sent by Philippi is so similar to the upper portion of 
B. altoperuvianus that he scarcely doubts their identity. There is 
indeed little in the description to indicate a distinct species, unless 
the smaller size coupled with the number of whorls be such a 
feature. 

N. SOWERBYI (Pfeiffer). PL 29, fig. 31. 

Shell perforate, ovate-conic, thin, rather smooth ; whitish, orna- 
mented with oblique chestnut streaks forming white pyramidal and 
rhomboidal spots. Spire conic, acute. Whorls 6, a trifle convex, 
the last as long as the spire, pale in the middle, with one chestnut 
band on the tapering base. Columella a little receding. 

Aperture oblong-oval ; peristome simple, unexpanded ; columellar 
margin angularly, widely reflexed, flat. Alt. 22. diam. 10 ; alt. of 
aperture 11 j- mill. (Pfr.~). 

Andes of Columbia. 



NEOPETR^US. 175 

Bulimus sowerbyi PFR., P. Z. S., 1846, p. 114 ; MoDogr., ii, p. 195. 
REEVE, Conch. Icon., pi. 57, f. 383. 

Known to me by description and figure only. The peculiar char- 
acter of the color-markings suggests a position near B. altoperuvianus, 
tc. Perhaps it is an immature shell. The locality, if correct in the 
present limits of Columbia, casts some doubt on this generic refer- 
ence, but it probably applies to the former wide extension of 
Columbia southward. 

N. ARBORIFERUS Pilsbry, n. sp. PI. 32, figs. 32, 33. 

Shell deeply rimate, oblong, solid, typically flesh tinted, more 
pink above, or nearly white, with numerous narrow streaks of light 
chestnut, at intervals deep chestnut, in harmony with growth-lines 
these streaks branching tree-like along the right side, the branches 
sometimes anastomosing to form obliquely descending streaks, or 
cutting the light ground into lozenges ; the streaks on the basal 
volution sometimes combined with crescents, and almost always their 
intensity is broken by a narrow peripheral light zone ; a tract be- 
hind the lip generally deeper chestnut or black ; somewhat shining. 
Whorls 7-7j,the first white or blackish with white crown, nepionic 
H with the typical Neopetrceus sculpture (when unworn), the riblets 
very fine and close, several whorls following rather flattened, with a 
keel filling the suture, sharply obliquely striate ; last whorl oblong, 
nearly smooth, sometimes showing faint spiral lines in places; slightly 
ascending anteriorly. 

Aperture oval, half the length of shell or somewhat less, about 
equal to the greatest diameter of the shell ; whitish or buff with 
bluish markings within ; outer lip expanded throughout, very dark 
leaden-brown with a light edge ; columellar lip subvertical, broadly 
dilated; columella either white or lead-brown showing a rather 
strong fold deep inside, which within the last whorl either becomes 
obsolete or is thickened into a stout, heavy callous lamina (as in 
fig. 33). 

Alt. 41-5, diam. 19'5 ; alt. of aperture 2O3, width 15 mill. 

Alt. 44'5, diam. 21'5 ; alt. of aperture 22, width 17 mill. 

Andes of Peru. 

This form resembles JV. altoperuvianus in color-pattern, and N. 
patasensis in the shape and color of the aperture. It is a narrower, 
more oblong species than either. The degree of development of the 
internal callus upon the columella is variable, in some specimens 



176 NEOPETRJEUS. 

only a slightly spiral twisted pillar appearing when the shell is cut, 
and in others a strong callous fold such as we find in certain Lower 
Californian Bulimuli. 

Var. rectistrigatus n. v. PI. 32, figs. 36, 37. 

Similar to the type, but with straight chestnut streaks, at inter- 
vals darker, sometimes showing a slight tendency to branch on the 
earlier whorls, as shown in fig. 37. Aperture cream-colored within, 
the peristome broadly bordered with a dark leaden-brownish colon 

Much stouter than N. lobbii, which has the same color pattern. 

Var. latistrigatus n. v. PI. 32, figs. 34, 35. 

Similar to the preceding, but dark purple-brown streaks strongly 
predominate on the lower volutions ; spire obliquely streaked or 
uniform flesh-tinted or whitish ; mouth bluish or leaden within, 
sometimes streaked. Average size somewhat less. 

Alt. 41, diam. 21 ; alt. of aperture 21 mill. 

Alt. 37, diam. 19 ; alt. of aperture 18'6 mill. 

N. PATASENSIS (PfeifTer). PI. 32, fig. 38. 

Shell deeply rimate-umbilicate, ovate-conic, rather solid, somewhat 
sharply striate, little shining; fleshy whitish, usually streaked and 
clouded with light reddish. Spire a little convexly conic, the apex 
subacute. Whorls 7, the apex rather flat, penultimate more con- 
vex, the last whorl longer than the spire, slightly ascending in front, 
rotund at base, subcompressed at the umbilicus. 

Aperture slightly oblique, oval, broadly bordered with violaceous 
inside ; peristome simple, the right margin narrowly expanded, col- 
umellar margin much dilated, spreading. Columella brown-viola- 
ceous, subplicate deep within. Alt. 47, diam. 24 mill. ; aperture 
26-27 mill. long. (Pfr.). 

Var. Shell thinner, deep flesh colored, generally with oblique 
tawny streaks. 

Province Patas, Peru (Dr. Farris). 

Bulimus patasensis PFR., P. Z. S., 1858, p. 257, pi. 42, f. 6;. 
Malak. Bl., 1859, p. 38 ; Monogr., vi, p. 43. 

The peristome is dark within, and the last whorl is more expanded 
basally than in N. altoperuvianus ; the aperture is lees produced 
outwardly, and the lip is less straightened above. The form i& 
decidedly stouter than in N. arboriferus and its varieties. 



NEOPETILEUS. 177 

N. LOBBII (Reeve). PI. 29, figs. 24, 25, 26. 

Shell deeply rinmte, oblong-elevated, the length more than double 
the greatest diameter ; solid and strong ; white, rather closely but 
irregularly striped obliquely with ochraceous mingled with a smaller 
number of deep chestnut stripes; the obtuse apex white or orange. 
Glossy, almost, smooth, with rather faint oblique strise on the upper 
whorls. Whorls about 7*, the nepionic 2J with fine vertical riblets 
and finer closer spiral striation (when unworn), the following whorls 
slightly convex, last whorl oblong, a little ascending in front. 

Aperture ovate, less than half the shell's length, fleshy, yellowish 
or white within ; the broadly expanded and reflexed peristome with 
a broad border of deep brown or lead-brown, pale at the edge ; col- 
umellar margin subvertical, broadly dilated ; columella white or 
dark, with a strong, long fold above. 

Alt. 41-8, diam. 17'6 ; alt. of aperture 19 mill. 

Alt. 42, diam. 18 ; alt. of aperture 20 mill. 

Alt. 44, diam. 19 ; alt. of aperture 21 mill. 

Balsas, valley of the Maranon K, Peru ( W. Lobb, H. W. Webb, 
Stiibel) ; Cajamarquilla (Paz). 

Bulimus lobbii REEVE, P. Z. S., 1849, p. 98 ; Conch. Icon., p. 71, 
f. 516. PFR., Monogr., iii, p. 340; viii, p. 63. HIDALGO, Journ. 
de Conch., 1870, p. 48. Otostomus (Mesembrinus f) lobbi MARTENS, 
Conchol. Mittheil., p. 161. Drymceus lobbi W. G. BINNEY, Ann. 
N. Y. Lye. N. H., xi, p. 35, pi. 1, f. i, ii, vi, (genitalia) ; Ann. N. Y. 
Acad.Sci.,iii, p. 121, pi. 15, f. P (jaw); pi. 14, f. E (dentition). 

Herr Stiibel found it at Balzas clinging to Pata trees and cacti. 
The young up to about 20 mill, length are angular (fig. 26), the 
keel being quite sharp in those 10 mill. long. 

The coloration of well defined stripes resembles that of N. arbori- 
ferus var. rectistrigatus, but in lobbi there are more stripes and none 
of them show branches. The columellar fold is quite strong, and in 
some individuals develops a callous process within, somewhat as 
figured for N. arboriferus, pi. 32, fig. 33. As seen from the aperture, 
in front, it varies a good deal in prominence, from the condition seen 
in fig. 24 to more conspicuous than in fig. 27, which represents 
Pfeiffer's ptychostylus. 

The species must be closely allied to ptychostylus and myristicus, 
neither of which is known to me by specimens. 

12 



178 NEOPETR^US. 

Var.ptychostylus (Pfeiffer). PI. 29, fig. 27. 

Shell rimate-umbilicate, fusiform-oblong, solid, smoothish, under 
the lens seen to be irregularly impressed ; spire a little convexly 
turrited, the apex rather obtuse. Whorls 7, a little convex, the 
upper ones whitish with a few tawny stripes, the last whorl shorter 
than the spire, light reddish, streaked and maculated with white, 
tapering at the base. 

Aperture subvertical, auriform, with a blackish border within ; 
peristome simple, whitish, the margins approaching, right margin 
broadly expanded, columellar margin much dilated. Columella 
with a strong twisted fold. Alt. 47, diam. (above aperture) 15 mill. ; 
aperture with peristome 23 mill, long, 16 wide. (Pfr.). 

Province Patas, Peru (Dr. Farris). 

Bulimus ptychostylus PFR., P. Z. S., 1858, p. 256, pi. 42, f. 7; 
Malak. BL, 1859, p. 37 ; Monogr., vi, p. 34. 

Seems to be related to N. lobbi in the same way that N. arboriferus 
var. latistrigatus is to var. reetistrigatus. 

N. MYRISTICUS (Reeve). PL 29, fig. 28. 

Shell umbilicate, long-ovate, rather solid, wrinkle-striatulate, little 
shining; flesh colored, irregularly painted with undulating stripes 
of chestnut. Spire convexly turrited, rather acute; whorls 8, a 
trifle convex, the last about four-ninths the length of the shell, tumid 
around the very narrow umbilicus. 

Aperture vertical, oval; peristome simple, unexpanded, the col- 
mrnellar margin short, dilated, reflexed and vaulted. Alt. 40, diam. 
(above aperture) 15 ; aperture 18 mill, long, 9 wide. (Pfr.). 

Andes of Caxamarca, Peru (W. Lobb). 

Bulimus myristicus REEVE, P. Z. S., 1849, p. 99 ; Conch. Icon., 
pi. 72, f. 520. PFR., Monographia, iii, p. 426. 

Like the typical N. decussatus in form, but colored like JV. lobbi 
or N. arboriferus var. reetistrigatus, from both of which it differs in 
the non-expanded outer lip, shorter columellar lip, and smaller um- 
bilical excavation. 

N. DECUSSATUS (Reeve). PL 32, fig. 39. 

Shell umbilicate, ovate-oblong, rather solid, rugulose-striate and 
decussated by impressed spiral lines ; whitish-flesh colored, with 
spiral series of "short red-brown longitudinal and oblique streaks 



NEOPETR^US. 179 

crossing each other"; spire conic, rather acute, suture slightly im- 
pressed. Whorls 7*, rather flat, the last a little shorter than the 
spire, rotund around the compressed umbilicus. 

Aperture vertical, sinuate-oval ; peristome simple, uuexpanded, 
acute, the columellar margin short, much dilated, angularly reflexed. 
Columella somewhat folded above. Alt. 38, diam. (above aperture) 
15* mill.; aperture 18 mill, long, 9 wide. (Pfr.). 

Andes of Prov. Caxamarca, Peru (W. Lobb). 

Bulimus decussatus RVE., P. Z. S., 1849, p. 99 ; Conch. Icon., pi. 
72, f. 519. PFR., Monogr., iii, p. 431. 

" Singularly characterized by the bands of short brown streaks, 
ranging obliquely in the direction opposed to the lines of growth." 
(Eve.}. 

Yar. BROWNII Pilsbry, n. v. PI. 32, figs. 40, 41 ; pi. 33, fig. 39. 

Shell slender and elongated, narrowly umbilicate, with slight 
growth-wrinkles and no spiral stride. Whitish, with many narrow 
tawny longitudinal stripes mingled with fewer of a deep chestnut 
shade, the stripes bearing short oblique branches, and dots arranged 
in several spiral series. Whorls 8 to 8, the nepionic If smooth (in 
five specimens seen), whitish, the following whorls but very slightly 
convex, last whorl a trifle ascending in front or not so. 

Aperture decidedly less than half the total alt., long-ovate; per- 
istome hardly expanded, thin or somewhat thickened, the columellar 
margin dilated; columella bearing a strong fold deep within 

Alt. 41, diam. 15; alt. of aperture 17 mill. 

Alt. 36, diam. 14; alt. of aperture 14* mill. 

Alt. 39*, diarn. 15 ; alt. of aperture 16 mill. 

Peru, (A. D. Brown coll. in A. N. S. P.). 

More slender than oY. decussatiis, without spiral striation, and with 
the aperture much smaller, contained nearly 2 times in the length 
of the shell. The smoothness of the apex in the specimens seen may 
be due to wear, but from the condition of the specimens I am dis- 
posed to think that it is a case of degeneration of the sculpture. If 
so, it is one of a very few Bulimulid species in which this character 
is really ambiguous as a generic criterion. 

One of the specimens before me is a faint creamy flesh tint, with 
only faint, short markings below the suture and an inconspicuous 
line of dots at the periphery, without other markings (pi. 33, fig. 
39). 



180 

N. CCERULESCENS (Pfeiffer). 

Shell umbilicate, ovate oblong, rather solid, striate. blue-whitish ,- 
spire elongate, the apex acute ; whorls 7%, a little convex, the last 
shorter than the spire, deep blue anteriorly, base little attenuated, 
subcompressed ; columella above profoundly dentate-plicate. Aper- 
ture subvertical, oblong, black-brown inside; peristome black-brown, 
the right margin narrowly expanded, columellar margin free, not 
reflexed. Alt. 31, diam. 12J mill. ; aperture 14 mill, long, 6? wide. 



Andes of Prov. Patas, Peru (Dr. Farris). 

Bulimus ccerulescens PFR., P. Z. S., 1858, p. 257; Malak. Bl.,. 
1859, p. 39 ; Monogr., vi, p. 53. Bulimulus (Dry mceus') ccerulescens 
PFR.-CLESS., Nomencl. He). Viv., p. 238. 

Described from a specimen in Cuming's collection, and not yet 
figured. It is known to me by the original description only, and 
the systematic position is uncertain . Italics of the above description 
are my own. 

Var. COLUMNA Pilsbry, n. v. PI. 29, figs. 35, 36, 37. 

Shell deeply rimate, long and narrow, the height nearly three 
times the greatest diameter, rather thin. Fleshy white, with numer- 
ous longitudinal brown stripes of varying intensity, being darker at 
intervals, on the back of the body-whorl becoming diffused and in- 
distinct, the ground-tint changing to livid blue behind the peristome. 
Somewhat shining, sculptured with slight wrinkles of growth, which 
are rather obsoletely and irregularly cut into spiral series of long 
granules. Spire with decidedly convex lateral outlines and slightly 
papillar apex ; whorls nearly 8, weakly convex, the last cylindric- 
oblong, noticeably compressed laterally. 

Aperture oblong, narrow, decidedly less than half the length of 
shell, somewhat oblique, black-brown within the margins, becoming 
somewhat lighter and ochraceous deep within ; outer lip hardly ex- 
panded, its outer portion nearly straight, becoming strongly arcuate 
toward the upper insertion, basal lip a trifle expanded ; columellar 
lip vertical, parallel with the outer, dilated. Columella black brown, 
with a sharp spiral fold deep within (fig. 37). Alt. 33, diam. 11*5, 
alt. of aperture 14*3, greatest width nearly 7 mill. 

Peru. 

This species had been named " B. ccerulescens Pfr." by Mr. A. D. 
Brown. Compared with Pfeifier's description of that shell, the 



OXYCHONA. 181 

present one differs in being striped with brown on a fleshy or pink 
ground instead of "crerulescenti-albida" : the outer lip is not ex- 
panded, but the columellar lip is decidedly so, and it is distinctly 
narrower in proportion. Pfeiffer's measurement of the diameter of 
Bulimi was taken from the greatest convexity of the body-whorl on 
the left side directly across, and not including the expansion of the 
aperture below the level of a line so drawn ; but even thus, B. cceru- 
lescens has a diameter of 12? mill, with a height of 31, while the 
species here described measures only 11 mill, "overall" with a 
length of 33 mill. It is likely therefore that this is a distinct 
species. 

The color stripes on the spire run more nearly vertical than the 
growth striae. Figure 35 is somewhat faulty in showing the outer 
lip too arcuate; it is straighter in the middle and more suddenly 
curved near the two ends. 

Genus OXYCHONA Morch, 1852. 

= 0xychona (Brazilian species only) PILSBRY, Man. of Conch. 
(2), v, p. 128 ; ix, p. 189; Nautilus xi, p. 87 (1897). 

Shell trochiform with conspicuous peripheral keel and flattened 
whorls, smoothish, shining, and iraperforate ; aperture oblique, 
angular, with expanded or reflexed lip. Nepionic whorls regularly 
latticed or with stronger vertical riblets. Jaw thin, arcuate, with 
numerous unequal vertical riblets (see vol. ix, pi. 51, f. 11). Radula 
peculiar, resembling that of Zaplagius (see vol. ix, p. 189, pi. 51, f. 
9, 10, 0. bifasciata}. 

Distribution, Brazil ; type 0. bifasciata Burrow. 

The extraordinary resemblance of the dentition and nepionic 
sculpture seem to indicate unmistakably a position for this group 
in the genus Drymceus ; or at least immediately adjacent thereto, if 
the general form of the shell and the somewhat different jaw beheld 
sufficient for generic distinction. The Mexican and Central Amer- 
ican species formerly associated with Oxychona have smooth apices, 
and will be left in the Helicidce under the generic name Leptarionta 
Crosse & Fischer. Even H. zhorquinensis, which so closely resem- 
bles 0. bifasciata, has the smooth apex of Leptarionta. 

A key to the species will be found in Vol. V, pp. 129-131, with 
descriptions and figures of bifasciata Burrow, lonchostoma Mke., 
gyrina Val., &ud pileiformis Moric. (c/. Dohrn, Jahrb., x, p. 352). 

The apices of bifasciata (pi. 33, fig. 40, and fig. 41 x 100), and 
of pileiformis (pi. 33, fig. 42), are here illustrated. 



182 DRYM^US. 

Genus DRYM^EUS Albers, 1850. 

Drymceus ALB., Die Hel. 1850, p. 155. PILSBKY, Nautilus, ix,. 
p. 114. 

Otostomus MARTENS, Binnenmoll. Venezuela's, in Festschr. 100- 
jahrigen Feier Ges. Naturforsch. Freunde zu Berlin, p. 23 ^1873). 
Conchol. Mittheil., ii, p. 191 ; Biologia Centrali Americana, Moll., 
p. 191 (1893). SEMPER, Reisen ira Archip. Phil., Landmoll., p. 
154 (1874). 

Bulimulus subgenus Goniognathmus CROSSE and FISCHER, Moll. 
Terr. Mex., i, p. 473 (1875). 

Bulimulus, sections D, F, STREBEL, Beitr. Mex. Land und Suss- 
wasser-Conch., v, pp. 46-48. 

Includes most species referred to Mesembrinus, Eudioptus, Mormus, 
Navicula, Hamadryas fiemiclausaria and Liostracus by Albers and 
others. 

Shell ovate or oblong with conic spire, umbilicate or imperforate r 
rather thin, the aperture varying from subtriaugular to ovate, lip 
simple or expanded, columellar margin reflexed, the apical If 
whorls with an extremely minute even grating of longitudinal 
and spiral lirae. 

Jaw thin, composed of subvertical, overlapping laminae soldered 
together at their inner, free at their outer edges, generally obliquely 
converging in the middle, leaving a triangular area of shorter laminae 
above. 

Radula broad, with peculiarly modified teeth ; centrals tricuspid 
or with the cusps concrescent into one ; laterals oblique, with three 
large subequal cusps, united toward their bases ; marginals similar, 
but with the ectocone generally split into two or three denticles. 

Genital system with a flagellum on the penis, otherwise simple. 

Type, D. hygrohylceus (Orbigny). Distribution, tropical and sub- 
tropical North and South America. 

The references given above show that the generic term Drymceus r 
as accepted herein, is equivalent to " Otostomus " of von Martens, 
and to " Goniognathmus " of Crosse and Fischer. But these authors 
based their groups upon the jaw and dentition of the snail, \\ith no 
certain correlation of these characters with conchological criteria ; 
and for this reason, except when dealing with the few species ana- 
tomically known, their subgeneric or generic references were largely 
uncertain. A natural grouping of the great mass of American 



DRYM^EUS. 183 

BulimulidcB was impossible ; and in the absence of this, the facts of 
geographic distribution could not be developed, and speculation 
upon the past history of the group was at a stand still. 

The discovery that a finely, regularly latticed apex is correllated 
with the special form of teeth and jaw of the genus, liberates the 
systematist and the theorist. The main features of the internal 
anatomy of any Bulimuloid snail may now be predicted with a very 
great degree of certainty from an examination of the earliest whorls 
of the shell. 

Drymceus is very closely related to the genera Oxychonaand Neo- 
petrceus; but the former of these has conchological characteristics 
which most conchologists will probably agree render its retention 
as a separate genus advisable, and in Neopetrceus the peculiar denti- 
tion and somewhat diverse apical sculpture are characters deserving 
recognition in nomenclature, and likely to be lost sight of if the 
group be merged into Drymceus. It is an early branch, which 
diverged from Drymceus near the origin of the latter from the Ortho- 
tomous Bulimuli, and with a specialized radula, still retains in large 
measure, the early pattern of nepionic sculpture. 

My selection of the generic name Drymceus Alb., 1850, for this 
group instead of the name Otostomus Beck, 1837, used by von Mar- 
tens since 1873, was a necessary consequence of the facts developed 
by examination into the history of the latter name. These facts 
have been briefly set forth in the preceding volume of this work (pp. 
95, last paragraph, and 107); but as errors in nomenclature are 
hard to eradicate, they may bear repetition. 

Otostomus was proposed by Beck in 1837 for the species B. sig- 
natus, myotis, lateratis, lagotis andnavicula. Gray and Hermannsen, 
in or about 1847, selected B. signatus as the type of the group. H. 
& A. Adams, in 1855, used Otostomus in a generic sense, excluding 
signatus from the group, but including most of the forms of Zap lag- 
ins and Drymceus s. s., with numerous incongruous species. Von 
Martens, in 1860, mentions B. aurisleporis as the type. 

It is universally admitted that when the author of a genus selects 
no type, one may be selected by the next author concerning himself 
with the group. In this case, both Gray and Hermannsen named 
B. signatus as the type ; Gray in a paper written expressly for the 
purpose of indicating the types of molluscan genera, Herrmannsen in 
one of the most widely used works of his generation. The subse- 
quent selection of another species, B. aurisleporis, as type of Otoatomus 



184 DRYM^US. 

was therefore a direct, though doubtless unintentional, violation of an 
essential rule of nomenclature, everywhere adopted. 

Otostomus therefore must be restricted to the species signatus. 
Whether this will prove to have the anatomical peculiarities of 
Auris, or be similar to Drymceus, is hardly a proper subject for hypo- 
thesis. Should the latter prove to be the case, I would elevate 
Otostomus to generic rank, as it has conchological peculiarities quite 
sufficient to separate it from Zaplagius or Drymceus. 

The distribution of Drymceus, while very wide, is still noticeably 
less extended than that of the parent genus Bulimulus. To the 
southward, Chili and the Argentine Republic are almost destitute of 
species ; and in the north, Florida and the southern border of Texas 
are its extreme limits. The West Indies have a few species; but 
such outlying areas as Lower California, the Galapagos Islands and 
Fernando Norouha, have apparently not been reached. In general, 
the group is a continental one, nesiotes being few. 

The species of Drymceus are largely arboreal, and probably all 
the polychromatic forms live habitually off the ground; but there 
are also numerous species, especially in the Peruvian Andes, which 
live on the ground, under cacti, stones, etc. 

Numerous subgenera have been proposed, some of them superflu- 
ous. The following may be retained. 

* Apical sculpture typical, an even grating throughout. 

a. Outer Up expanded or reflexed. 
ZAPLAGIUS. Shell conic or obliquely conic, with a keel around 

the truncate or flattened base, which is subperforate and rimate; 
last whorl ascending in front. 

DRYMCEUS. Shell ovate or oblong, smoothish, generally very 
light colored, with or without chestnut or blackish variegation. 

b. Outer lip unexpanded, simple. 

MESEMBRINUS. Shell oblong-ovate or oblong-pyramidal, gener- 
ally perforate or rimate ; columella straightened. 

EUDIOPTUS. Shell ovate or oblong, very thin, translucent and 
fragile, imperforate or nearly so, the columella arcuate, thread-like; 
unicolored corneous. 

STENOSTYLUS. Shell ovate, very thin, imperforate or nearly so, 
the columella arcuate and very slender; streaked or dark colored. 
Forms resembling Plectostylus in appearance, but unspotted, with 
typical Drymceus apical sculpture. 




DRYM^US-ZAPLAGIUS. 185 

* * Apical sculpture obscure, the longitudinal elements predominating 
above, spiral below on each whorl. 

LIOSTRACUS. Shell pyramidal, glossy, conspicuously colored, the 
outer lip somewhat expanded. 

Of these groups, all seem to be natural assemblages ex cept Mesem- 
brinus, which integrades through numerous diverse species with 
Drymceus. It is here retained in its present limits for convenience. 

Subgenus ZAPLAGIUS Pilsbry, 1896. 

NaviculaSpix, Testae. Bras., p. 22 (in synonymy), pi. 15, type 
Navicula fasciata &p\JL=Helix namcula Wagner (1827). NotiVcm- 
cula DE BLAINV., Diet. Sci. Nat., xxxiv, p. 319 (1825); see also 
" Les Navicules" Blainv., Man. de Malac., p. 53 o, and Diet. Class. 
<THist. Nat, xi, p. 472 (1827), a subgenus of Area. Otostomus 
BECK (in part), Index Moll., p. 55, and of many subsequent authors. 
Not Otostomus as restricted by Gray, see vol. X, p. 107. Zaplagius 
PILS., Nautilus ix, p. 115, February, 1896. 

Conic or obliquely conic Bulimulidse with typical Drymceus apical 
sculpture (pi. 25, fig. 62), a keel around the truncate or flattened 
base, subperforate and ri mate, the last whorl ascending in front, the 
lip expanded or reflexed, aperture triangular or ear-shaped. Radula 
with enormously broad mesocones on central and lateral teeth ; jaw 
deeply arched, with narrow plaits strongly converging mesially. 
Type D. navicula. Distribution, Province of Bahia to Rio Janeiro, 
Brazil. 

From Otostomus (type signatus Spix), the present group is distin- 
guished by the absence of heavy apertural callosities; from typical 
Drymceus by the flattened base of the shell and broad mesocones 
accompanied by much reduced side cusps of the teeth. 

The Andean species resembling Zaplagius somewhat in form of 
the shell, such as D.fallax Pfr., are of wholly different genesis, being 
a slight modification of typical Drymceus. Recognizing this, PfeifFer 
has proposed for one of them the subgeneric name Semiclausaria, 
but when the whole series is seen, this term seems superfluous. 

Key to species. 

I. Diameter of the obliquely-conic shell exceeding the alt. 

a. Outer lip inserted on or above the penultimate whorl; 
basal lip subhorizontal. 



186 DRYM^US-ZAPLAGIUS. 

b. Base flattened; solid, with wide dark bands; outer 
lip inserted at top of penultimate whorl, having a 
conspicuous external " spout " ; surface finely mal- 
leated throughout, navieula, p. 186. 

b f . Base convex ; white ; concave and with oblong- 
squarish impressions above and below the project- 
ing keel, the outer lip inserted at apex, 

involuttu, p. 187. 

b". Base convex ; banded and maculate, coarsely mal- 

leate above keel and on base; outer lip inserted above 

middle of penultimate whorl, uranops, p. 188. 

a'. Outer lip inserted well below suture on the last whorl ; 

basal lip slanting. 

b. Banded and maculated, the base flat, alt. nearly as 
great as diameter, lateralis, p.188. 

II. Altitude of the oblong-conic shell greatly exceeding the diameter ; 
mouth higher than wide. 

a. Last whorl compressed laterally, base squarely truncated, 

the aperture rounded or truncate below, aurismuris, p. 191. 

a'. Last whorl obliquely truncate below, aperture produced 

basally, aurisleporis, p. 189. 

D. NAVICULA (Wagner). PI. 27, figs. 16, 17, 18, 19 ; pi. 25, fig. 62. 

Shell obliquely conic with flat base, and long, semicircularly 
curved rimation ; solid ; slightly brown- or yellow-tinted white, 
becoming pink on the spire, with two broad spiral zones of black- 
chestnut, the upper one ascending the spire, and on the base a sigmoid 
chestnut stripe running near and parallel to the umbilical rimation 
and basal lip, with some faint brown circular lines, sometimes hav- 
ing a broad dark basal band (fig. 19). Surface hardly shining,, 
slightly striated, with faint, fine and close spiral striae in places, the 
last whorl closely malleated throughout. Whorls 6, the earliest If 
sculptured as usual in the genus, apex white; last whorl convex 
above, angular at base, its last third strongly ascending. 

Aperture oblique, triangular, effuse at the produced outer angle; 
peristome broadly expanded, reflexed, white, the upper lip sinuate,, 
inserted at the top of the penultimate whorl; basal lip horizontal, 
straightened. 

Alt. 23, diam. 3H mill. 

Alt. 16, diam. 27* mill. 

Province of Bahia, Brazil.. 



DRYM^US-ZAPLAGIUS. 187 

Helix navicula WAGNER, in Spix, Testacea Bras., p. 22, pi. 15, f. 
2, 3. Bulimus navicula DESH., in Lam., An.s. Vert.,viii,p.256; in. 
Fer., Hist., ii, p. 108, pi. 152, f. 9-12. PFR., Monogr.,ii, p. 99 (in 
part) ; iii, p. 377. REEVE, Conch. Icon., pi. 41, f. 258b. Otostomu* 
navicula BECK, Index, p. 55. Navicula fasciata SPIX, Mss. Test. 
Bras, and on pi. 15. Bui. (Otostomiis) navicula CLESS., Mai. BL 
(n. F.) x, p. 167. 

A well known species. In one specimen before me the base is con* 
rex, basal angle rounded, obsolete, and the band wanting on the 
spire. A broad basal band, as shown in fig. 19, is developed in 
about 33 per cent, of the specimens examined. 

D. INVOLUTUS (von Martens). PI. 27, figs. 20, 21, 22, 23. 

Shell rimate-perforate, obliquely conic, carinate, white and shin- 
ing. Whorls 5, the upper slightly convex, lightly striatulate, opaque 
white; last whorl encircled at the periphery by a prominent thick 
keel, latticed-malleate above and below the keel, the base convex. 

Aperture subvertical, ascending to the apex of the shell, triangular ^ 
peristome thin, narrowly expanded throughout. Alt. 15, greater 
diam. 30, lesser 18* mill. (Martens}. 

Bahia (Kahne). 

Bul'nmdus involutus MARTENS in Malakozool. Blatt., xiv, 1867, 
p. 63. PFK., Monogr., vi, p. 81. Otostomus involutus MARTENS,. 
Conchol. Mittheil., ii, p. 15, pi. 41, f. 1-4. 

Von Martecs further writes : " Nearly allied to B. navicula, hut 
the last whorl ascends more, rising to the upper whorl, and the 
sculpture is conspicuously different. A broad band above and below 
the carina shows some peculiar long-rectangular impressions ar- 
ranged serially, like rows of windows on a building; below and 
above these the surface is smooth, only with weak striation in the 
direction of growth-lines, while in B. navicula the whole surface of 
the last whorl has irregular impressions as though hammered. 
Moreover, B. navicula shows only a blunt keel, and is somewhat 
convex above it, quite flat beneath, while in B. iniolutus the keel 
stands out like a girdle, the shell on each side of it being somewhat 
concave. There are no distinct bands, and the apex is not roseate." 

Described from one broken example in the Berlin Museum. 
Among old papers von Martens found a colored drawing of the 
species, apparently this same specimen before it was broken, the 
figures given being restored therefrom. According to this drawing 



188 DRYM^US-ZAPLAGIUS. 

the distal portion of the last whorl is pale Isabella yellow, all the 
rest of the shell including the apex, pure white. 

D. URANOPS Pilsbry, n. sp. PL 27, figs. 24, 25, 26, 27. 

Shell obliquely conic, carinated, perforate and with a semicircular 
umbilical groove, thin ; white, with a narrow brown band just above 
the periphery, a wider median blue-black girdle, and some faint 
scattered markings and dark maculae forming a broad subsutural 
band, the spire white with black apex, base white with an interrupted 
brown spiral band. Surface rather lusterless, with coarse, low, 
oblique waves in the direction of growth striae, conspicuously and 
coarsely malleated above the carina and over the base as /ar inward 
as the greatest convexity, showing under the lens rather fine waved 
spiral lines, subobsolete beneath. Whorls nearly 5, the first black 
above, the last ascending in front, with a projecting keel, concave 
below the keel, becoming somewhat swollen around the umbilical 
perforation. 

Aperture decidedly oblique, looking upward about as in D. navi- 
cula, triangular, banded within ; peristome expanded throughout, 
white, the upper margin inserted above the middle of the penultimate 
whorl, basal lip slightly arcuate, horizontal. 

Alt. 17, greatest diam. 30, least 18 mill. . 

Brazil (Anthony). 

With the texture and coloring of D. lateralis this species combines 
the general contour of D. involuius. From the latter it differs in 
being banded and with a black apex, in the quite irregular mallea- 
tion, more extensive beneath, and in the less ascending last whorl, 
the upper insertion of the outer lip being somewhat above the middle 
of the penultimate whorl (and therefore a little lower than in navi- 
eula) instead of being carried up to the initial whorl as in involutus. 

It differs from D. navicula in the convex base with coarse, wrinkle- 
like malleation, less reflexed peristome, and numerous other char- 
acters. The convex base, higher insertion of the outer lip and sub- 
horizontal basal lip separate D. uranops from D. lateralis. 

D. LATERALIS (Menke). PI. 27, figs. 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33. 

Shell obliquely conic, with flattened base and semicircular rima- 
tion, thin ; white with numerous interrupted spiral brown bands and 
irregular spots and blotches above, obsolete on the spire, the base 
with many brown lines, often interrupted or coalescent into bands, 
liusterless, rather coarsely wrinkle-striate, with subobsolete spiral 



DRYMJSUS-ZAPLAGIUS. 189 

striation. Spire conic, the apex black tipped ; whorls about 5, but 
slightly convex, the last angular at the base, slightly convex above 
(sometimes decidedly so), ascending in front. 

Aperture nearly vertical, subtrigonal, banded and maculated 
within ; peristome expanded throughout, white, the upper margin 
inserted on the body whorl, below the lowest suture; basal margin 
obliquely slanting. 

Alt, 24, diara. 27 mill. 

Alt. 22, diam.26raill. 

Alt. 30, diam. 32 mill. Brazil 

Bulimus lateralis MENKE, Syn. Meth. Moll. Mus.Menkeano, p. 7& 
(1828); edit. 2, p. 128. PFR., Monogr., iii, p. 376; iv, p. 446; 
Conchyl. Cab., p. x, pi. 49, f. 21-23 (variety). Bulimus navicula 
PFR., Monogr., ii, p. 99 (in part). B. navicula var. RVE., Conch. 
Icon., pi. 41, f. 258a. Bulimus lyonetianus KUSTER, Conchyl. Cab. 
p. 23, pi. 5, f. 5-7 (excluding all synonymy). Helix auris leporis 
a, FER., Prodr., p. 57, no. 438. Otostomus lateralis BECK, Index, 
p. 55. 

Very readily distinguished from navicula by the lower insertion 
of the outer lip, more erect spire, and different coloration. It i& 
allied to aurisleporis in these repects. 

In a form of this species figured by Pfeiffer, the whorls, especially 
the last, are decidedly swollen above and the aperture consequently 
modified in form (figs. 31, 32, 33). In typical lateralis they are but 
slightly convex. Specimens before me connect the extremes of con- 
tour, so that I hardly think the inflated form a true variety, though 
it may be such. 

D. AURISLEPORIS (Bruguiere). PI. 28, figs. 1, 2, 3, 4. 

Shell pyramidal, perforate and rimate, with an obtuse basal keel 
and obliquely flattened base; rather thin. Coloration variable, 
either (1) white or whitish, with a dark band above the basal keel, 
variously maculated or streaked above, banded or maculated below, 
or (2) whitish with peripheral band, elsewhere clouded indistinctly 
with brown, or (3) reddish-brown throughout; some specimens par- 
taking of two of these patterns. Surface lusterless, lightly rough- 
ened or malleated in a pattern of more or less distinct small lozenge 
shaped grains. Whorls about 5*, slightly convex, the last a little 
ascending in front, its latter half obtusely angular below, excavated 
behind the columellar lip. 



190 DRYM^US-ZAPLAGIUS. 

Aperture ear-shaped, subvertical ; peristorne broadly expanded, 
the edge reflexed, produced in a rounded lobe at the outer-basal por- 
tion ; columella showing a strong, short fold far within. 

Alt. 41, diam. 25, alt. of aperture 24 mill. 

Alt. 32, diam. 19, alt. of aperture 21 mill. 

Brazil^ provinces of Rio de Janeiro and Espirito Santo : Rio Jan- 
eiro, in the Botanical Gardens (Hensel) ; in the suburb San Dom- 
ingo, on trunks of trees (A. D. Brown) ; Sao Sabastiao (Spix) ; 
Macahe, among trees and at the roots of plants (Paz and Martinez) ; 
Caravellas, near the mouth of Mucury R., prov. Bahia (Moricand). 

Bulimus auris leporis BRUG., Encycl. Meth., p. 346. WOOD, 
Index Testae. Suppl., pi. 8, f. 75. POT & MICH., Galerie, i, p. 150, 
pi. 14, f. 25,26. ORB., Voy. Amer. Merid., p. 3 13. REEVE, Conch. 
Icon., pi. 41, f. 259. DESH. in Fer., Hist., p. 107, pi. 138, f. 9-12. 
GOULD, U. S. Expl. Exped., Moll., p. 78, pi. 6, f. 75. PFB., Mon- 
ogr., ii, p. 98 ; iii, p. 376 ; iv, p. 445 ; vi, p. 81 ; viii, p. 113 ; Conchy!. 
Cab., p. x, pi. 22, f. 7, 8. HEYNEMANN, Malak. Blatt., 1868, p. 109, 
pi. 5, f. 8 (dentition). HIDALGO, Viaje al Pacif., p. 70; Journ. de 
Conchyl., 1870, p. 46. CLESSIN, Mai. Bl. (n. F.), x, p. 167. Bul- 
imus lagotis MKE., Syn. Meth. Moll. Mus. Menkeauo, p. 26 (1828). 
KUSTER, Conchyl. Cab., p. 24, pi. 5, f. 12, 13. Otostomus lagotis 
BECK, Index, p. 55. Auricula leporis LAM., An. s. Vert., iv, p. 138 ; 
DESH. in Lam., edit. 2. viii, p. 325. DELESSERT, Rec. de Coq., pi. 
28, f. 7. Avricula auris leporis SWAINS., Malacol., p. 181, f. 27. 
Helix auris leporis FER., Prodr., p. 56; and in Voy. de Freycinet, 
p. 483. 

Pupa auris leporis GRAY, Ann. of Philos. (N. S.), ix, p. 483. Sten- 
ostoma auriturn SPIX, Test. Bras., p. 18, pi. 13, f. 1, 2. Otostomus 
auris leporis SEMPER, Reisen im Archip. Phil., Landmoll., iii, p. 155, 
pi. 15, f. 11 (genitalia), pi. 17, f. 11 (radula), 19 (jaw). DOHRN, 
Jahrb. D. M. Ges., x, 1883, p. 351. Bulimulus auris leporis MAR- 
TENS, Malak. Bl.,xv, 1868, p. 179. 

Extremely variable in color and color-pattern. Probably the 
small whitish form with intense black or black-brown markings and 
strong keel (fig. 4) may prove a distinguishable rsice,intensior ; but 
the other color-forms intergrade completely. The extensive series 
collected by A. D. Brown at San Domingo, near Rio, contains only 
reddish-brown and brown-clouded whitish shells, none boldly 
marked. The largest seen are from Tijuca, and measure 44 by 28 



DRYM^US-ZAPLAGIUS. 191 

Tuill. The black tip of the apex is usual but by no means invari- 
able. 

D. AURISMURIS (Moricand). PI. 28, figs. 5, 6, 7. 

Shell pyramidal with flat or concave base, rimate, moderately 
solid ; white, rarely uniform, but usually with four or five spiral 
bands of purple-brown, frequently connected by zigzag longitudinal 
streaks, and occasionally interrupted, the base with one band or 
none, spire white or banded. Surface smoothish, with some faint, 
fine malleation and subobsolete spiral striation ; shining. Whorls 
6j, the first white, with the usual sculpture, the rest nearly flat, last 
whorl convex above, laterally compressed, cylindrical, with a strong, 
obtuse angle around the flat or concave base, which generally showa 
some spiral furrows. 

Aperture ear-shaped, squarish, the peristome white, broadly re- 
flexed, generally angular at the outer lower part ; columellar lip 
dilated. 

Alt. 31, diam. 17, alt. of aperture 17 mill. 

Alt. 27, diam. 16i, alt. of aperture 14 mill. 

Province of Bahia, Brazil (Moricand). 

Helix auris muris MORICAND, Mem. Soc. Hist. Nat. Geneve, viii, 
p. 140, pi. 3, f. 1-3 (1837). Bulimus auris muris PFR., Symb., i, p. 
80 ; ii, p. Ill ; Monogr., ii, p. 99 ; vi, p. 81. REEVE, Conch. Icon., 
pi. 41, f. 261. DESK, in Fer., Histoire, p. 106, pi. 138, f. 7, 8. 
HUPE in Castelnau's Exped., Moll., p. 57, pi. 9, f. 4. Otostomus 
myotis BECK, Index Moll. ,1837, p. 55. Otostomus auris muris ADS!, 
Gen. Rec. Moll., ii, p. 149. Helix uniangulata FER., according to 
Pfeiffer. Probably not Bulimus auris muris CUNNINGHAM, Trans. 
Linn. Soc., xxvii, 1871, p. 483, and certainly not B. auris muris 
Shuttl., Mittheil.Naturforsch. Ges.in Bern, 1852, p. 200. 

Much more abruptly and less obliquely cut off below than D. 
aurisleporis, with short aperture, not produced downward. Cun- 
ningham reports the species from the botanical garden, Rio Janeiro, 
but what he found there was probably aurisleporis. 

Subgenus DRYRLEUS Albers. 

Drymceus ALB., Die Hel., 1850, p. 155, for B. xanthostoma and B. 
hygrohylceus Orb. Hamadryas ALB., t. c., p. 155, for B. zoographi- 
eus and B. linostoma Orb. Not Hamadryas Hiibner, 1806, Bois- 
<hival, 1832, or Gray, 1840. Semiclausaria PFR., Malak. BL, 1855, 



192 DRYM^US, SOUTH AMERICAN. 

p. 162, for B. subsemiclausus. Mormus ALB., DieHel., 1860, p. 216,. 
type B.papyraceus. 

The passage of Drymceus with expanded or reflexed peristome in- 
to Mesembrinus with it simple and acute, is a gradual one, and many 
species are arbitrarily assigned to one or the other section, although 
the more typical manifestations of each group are conspicuously dis- 
tinct. In some cases it is easy to see that species of both groups in- 
habiting one region are of common origin, and more nearly related 
to each other than to species of their respective sections in distant 
localities. Mesembrinus seems to be the polyphyletic group of the 
two. This being the case, a geographic grouping into 1, South 
American, 2, Antillean and 3, North American species has been 
adopted, although this, too, has its disadvantages. 

I. South American species. 

Group of D. incequalis. 

D. ABYSSORUM (d'Orbigny). PL 37, figs. 3, 4. 

Shell oblong, ventricose, quite thin, appearing smooth or even 
shining to the naked eye, but under the lens showing wrinkles and 
irregular transverse stride ; dirty white throughout, with wide longi- 
tudinal bands of purple-brown, unequal in width ; spire lengthened, 
a little in Hated, the apex acute, composed of 7 flattened whorls sep- 
arated by a little-impressed suture. Aperture oblong, not oblique ; 
peristome wide, somewhat reflexed, thin, whitish ; columella percep- 
tibly swollen, umbilicus not widely open. Alt. 50, diam. 25 mill. 
(Orb.). 

Along the Rio Grande between Valle Grande and Pescado in the 
most ragged places, in the easternmost foot-hills of the Bolivian Andes, 
mainly at a place called Pampa Ruis, under stones and cacti (Orb.) ; 
San Lorenzo, prov. Juj uy, Argentina (Borelli). 

Helix abyssorum ORB., Mag.de Zool., 1835, p. 17. Bulimus abys- 
sorum ORB., Voy. Amer. Merid., p. 308, pi. 39, f. 7, 8. PFR., Monogr. 
ii, p. 46; iii,p.331; iv, p. 393; vi,p.39.? REEVE, Conch. Icon., pi. 
36, f. 213. Bidimulus abyssorum BECK, Index Moll., p. 64. AN- 
CEY, Boll. Mus. Zool. ed Anat. Comp. R. Univ. Torino, xii, No. 309, 
p. 12 (1897). 

There is also a uniform white form of this species. Ancey con- 
siders B. abyssorum, hygrohylcvus and marmarinus as varying forms of 
one species. An adult specimen collected by Dr. Borelli measures : 



DRYM^US, SOUTH AMERICAN. 193 

alt. 47, diam. 21, alt. of aperture 25 mill., and has 7 slightly convex 
whorls. 

D. BOLIVARII (d'Orbigny). PL 37, figs. 1, 2. 

Shell oblong, ventricose, thick, covered with small longitudinal 
depressions which lattice the surface ; soiled white with some light 
brown marbling and ornamented with three interrupted bands of 
deep brown, formed of oblong spots, the apex deep yellow ; spire a 
little inflated, apex acute; composed of 7 slightly convex whorls 
separated by a shallow suture, the last whorl a little oblique, form- 
ing two-thirds the entire length. Aperture very large, oblong, ob- 
lique, white within and showing the bands by transparence; the 
peristome deep yellow, thick, flattened and strongly reflexed ; col- 
umella solid, very wide, a little twisted and strongly flattened. Alt. 
54, diam. 26 mill. (Orb.'). 

Northeastern slope of the eastern cordillera of Cochabamba, Boli- 
via, at a place called Seja del Monte, in the country of the Yuracari 
Indians. 

Helix bolivarii ORB., Mag. de Zool., 1835, p. 17. Bulimus boli- 
varii ORB., Voy. Amer. Merid., p. 309, pi. 39, f. 5, 6. PFR., Monogr., 
ii, p. 55 ; iii, 331 ; iv, 393 ; vi, 39. Bulimulus bolivarii BECK, Index, 
p. 64. 

D. BRACHYSTOMA (d'Orbigny). PI. 37, figs. 7, 8. 

Shell oblong, rather short, inflated, somewhat thick, smooth ; the 
single somewhat weathered individual of a dirty white, marbled or 
clouded throughout with reddish-brown, slightly darker markings 
indicating three transverse bands. Spire short, slightly inflated, 
acute at the apex, composed of 7 perceptibly swollen whorls, the last 
somewhat exceeding one-half of the shell's length. Aperture oval, 
wide, short in comparison to the other species of this series, its width 
two-thirds its length, slightly oblique; columella straight, much 
flattened over the slight umbilicus ; peristome thin, strongly reflexed 
and wide. Alt. 40, diam. 1 9 mill. ( Orb.). 

Forests of the eastern foothills of the Bolivian Andes, 20 leagues 
west of Santa Cruz de la Sierra. 

Helix brachystoma ORB., Mag. de Zool., 1835, p. 18. Bulimus 
brachystoma ORB., Voy. Amer. Merid., p. 309, pi. 39, f. 9, 10. PFR., 
Monogr., ii, p. 46. 

More inflated and shorter than D. bolivarii, and of smoother tex- 
ture. 

13 



194 DRYMJEUS, SOUTH AMERICAN. 

D. MARMARINUS (d'Orbigny). PI. 37, figs. 5, 6. 

Shell oblong, ventricose, thick, umbilicate; smoothish,of a reddish- 
brown color, clouded with browner spots and encircled with four 
interrupted bands and irregular longitudinal zig-zag flames, the 
markings disappearing toward the apex ; spire somewhat inflated, 
the apex subacute ; whorls 7, flattened, suture shallow. Aperture 
oblong, sub-auriculate; lip white, thin, widely reflexed; columelJa 
twisted, flat. Alt. 42, diam. 18 mill. (Orb.). 

Slopes of the Rio de Meguilla, prov. Yungas, Bolivia, under dead 
leaves and stones in the woods (Orb.). 

Helix marmarina ORB., Mag. de Zool., 1835, p. 18. Bulimus 
marmarinus ORB., Voy. Amer. Merid., p. 310, pi. 39, f. 11, 12. PFR., 
Monogr., ii, p. 59 : iii, p. 331 ; iv, p. 389 ; vi, p. 35. REEVE, Conch. 
Icon., pi. 41, f. 255. Bulimulus marmarinus BECK, Index, p. 63. 
B. marmorinus ALB. 

More lengthened than D. brachystoma, with smaller aperture. 
D. HYGROHYLJEUS (d'Orbigny). PI. 37, figs. 9, 10, 11. 

Shell openly rirnate, fusiform, with conic spire, rather thick and 
strong; dirty white or slightly yellowish, with numerous festooned 
longitudinal stripes of purplish-brown, the festoons sometimes par- 
tially coalescent into 5 imperfect spiral bands, and on the spire giv- 
ing place to oblong spots forming interrupted bands ; surface some- 
what shining, longitudinally finely wrinkled, the wrinkles by inter- 
ruption and coalescence forming a fine malleation or reticulate 
pattern on the latter two whorls ; general outlines of spire slightly 
convex. Whorls 6? (or 7) quite convex, the latter half of the last 
not descending, base well rounded. 

Aperture oblong, half the shell's length or somewhat more, 
slightly oblique, showing the external markings within ; peristome 
white, broadly reflexed throughout; columella appearing straight 
from in front, but entering with a rather strong spiral twist. 

Alt. 36, diam. 18 mill.; aperture 20 mill. long (specimen). 

Alt. 45, diam. 19 mill. (Orb.). 

Eastern part of the province Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Bolivia, 
throughout the forests northward from Chiquitos, on trees, burying 
itself in the earth in dry weather. 

Helix hygrohylcea ORB., Mag. de Zool., 1835, p. 18. Bulimus hy- 
grohylceus ORB., Voy. Amer. Merid., p. 311, pi. 40, f. 3-5. PFR., 
Monogr., ii, 59 ; iii, 332 ; iv, 394 ; vi, 40. REEVE, Conch. Icon., pi. 



DRYM^EUS, SOUTH AMERICAN. 195 

36, f. 215. Bulinus hygrohylceus SOWB., Conch, lllustr., f. 62 
Bulimulus hygrohylceus BECK, Index, p. 63. 

Varies considerably in size and color-pattern ; but the rather nar- 
row mouth with widely reflexed, recurved, white peristome, solid 
texture aud finely reticulate surface are more constant. The aper- 
ture is decidedly produced basally. The whorls of the spire are 
more convex than in D. marmarinus, which is besides a smoother 
species, 
D. COARCTATUS (Pfeiffer). PI. 28, figs. 17, 18 (typical) 19, 20 

(var.). 

Shell rimate-perforate, acutely ovate, solid ; whitish encircled by 
interrupted bands ; spire conic, acute ; whorls 6?, flattened, the last 
more convex, as long as the spire. 

Aperture oblong, coarctate, the columella thickened, tuberculate ; 
peristome broadly expanded, the right margin thickened within, 
acutely projecting, a little sinuous in the middle, joining the dilated 
and reflexed coluraellar margin at an angle. Alt. 34, diam. 17 mill. 



Brazil (Castelnau). 

Bulimus coarctatus PFR., P. Z. S., 1845, p. 73 ; Monogr., ii, p. 90 ; 
Xovit. Conch., i, p. 80, pi. 22, f. 22, 23 ; Malak. Bl. v, 1858, p. 166. 
HUPE in Castel nan's Exped., Moll., p. 56, pi. 10, f. 4. Not B. coarc- 
tatus Reeve. 

A form with nearly continuous bands is illustrated by Hupe (see 
pi. 28, figs. 19, 20), who describes it as whitish with blackish bands 
varying in width, sometimes interrupted, mainly on the earlier 
whorls, the last whorl ordinarily with three bands; a wider band 
bounds the umbilicus. Aperture and peristome white. 

D. SCHMIDTI (PfeifTer). PL 28, fig. 16. 

Shell umbilicate, ovate-conic, ventricose, wrinkle-striatulate, de- 
cussated with minute impressed spiral lines ; gray-brown marbled 
with paler. Spire conic, the apex rather obtuse, blackish. Whorls 
6i, a little convex, the last a little longer than the spire, inflated, 
somewhat ascending in front, marked here and there with buff 
streaks and white dots, more distinctly striated and black-banded 
around the umbilicus. 

Aperture vertical, sinuate-oval, pearly-white inside ; columella 
obliquely receding ; peristome white, thin, widely expanded, the 
margins joined by a thick whitish callus, right margin arcuate, 



196 DRYM^US, SOUTH AMERICAN. 

columellar margin much dilated, slightly vaulted, spreading. Alt. 
34, diam. 17, the aperture (inside) 16 mill, long, 8? wide (P/K). 

Habitat unknown. 

Bulimus schmidti PFR., Malak. Blatter, i, 1854, p. 65 ; v, 1858, p. 
166; Monogr., iv, p. 396. B. (Scutalus) schmidti PFR.-CLESS.,. 
Nomencl. Hel. Viv., v. 249. Bulimus coarctatus REEVE, Conch. 
Icon., pi. 41, f. 260. Not B. coarctatus Pfr. 

Very like coarctatus in form, but widely differing in sculpture, 
and especially in the aperture, which is not contracted, the peristome 
not thickened within nor sinuous (Pfr.). 

Reeve's figure, here copied, which is said by Pfeiffer to represent 
his schmidti and not coarctatus, shows a different color pattern from 
that described by Pfeiffer, being u white, encircled round the upper 
part with brown black interrupted lines, round the lower with bands, 
lip ivory white 1 " 

D. XANTHOSTOMA (d'Orbigny). PI. 36, figs, 52, 53. 

Shell lengthened, umbilicate, thick, smooth at the summit, per- 
ceptibly rugose on the later whorls ; general color roseate, violaceous 
or yellowish-white, ornamented with broad longitudinal brown flam- 
mules, which are irregular, festooned, being enlarged in three places, 
forming indications of three spiral bands ; sometimes only clouded 
with purple-brown. Spire long, conic, the apex obtuse, black or 
rose colored ; whorls 7, wide, strongly convex, separated by deep 
subcrenulated sutures. 

Aperture very large, oblong ; peristome wide, flat, much spreading 
but not recurved, bright yellow, generally with a violet tint within 
(Orb.-). 

Alt. 46, diam. 17 mill. (Orb.). 

Alt. 39, diam. 14 mill. (Pfr.). 

Northeastern slope of the eastern Cordillera of Bolivia, in the prov- 
ince of Yungas on the ridge between the villages Circuata and Car- 
cuata ; also near Tutulima, north of Cochabamba (Orb.) ; SantaCruz 
de la Sierra (Germain). 

Helix xanthostoma ORB., Mag. de Zool., 1835, p. 18. Bulimus 
xanthostoma ORB., Voy. Amer. Merid., p. 312, pi. 40, f. 1,2. PFR., 
Monogr., ii, p. 58; iii, 330; iv, 389; vi, 35. ? REEVE, Conch. 
Icon., pi. 43, f. 271. Bulimulus xanthostoma BECK, Index Moll., p. 
64. Bulimulus xanthostomus ANOEY, Journ. of Conch. (Leeds), vii,, 
p. 92. 



DRYM^EUS, SOUTH AMERICAN. 197 

Somewhat allied to D. hygrohylceus, but differing in the color- 
scheme, more lengthened form, smoother surface and shorter aper- 
ture. The peristome is merely spreading instead of being convex 
and recurved. Reeve's figures are quoted with doubt, for while f. 
27 la may possibly be a decolored example of xanthostoma, f. 271b 
looks much like D. trigonostoma. 

D. ZOOGRAPHICUS (d'Orbigny). PI. 38, figs. 6, 7, 8. 

Shell long, a little swollen, not umbilicate, thin, fragile, translu- 
cent, smooth and even glossy, showing some inconspicuous growth- 
lines. Slightly soiled white with longitudinal, irregular flammules 
of blackish brown, zig-zag or festooned, giving the appearance of 
two interrupted spiral bands. Spire a little swollen, oblique, obtuse 
at apex, composed of 6 moderately convex whorls, separated by a 
shallow, even suture. Aperture wide, oblong, oblique; peristome 
very wide, much expanded, thin, sharp and reflexed ; columella 
thick, twisted. Margins of aperture and base of the columella of a 
quite dark purple, but this tint does not extend upon the lip, which 
is white. Alt. 32, diam. 14 mill. ( Orb.'). 

Northeastern slope of the Bolivian Cordillera, not far from Tutu- 
lima, at the bottom of a ravine through which the Rio Altamachi 
flows (Orb.) ; Valley of Santa Anna, Peru (Angrand). 

Helix zoographica ORB., Mag. de Zool., 1835, p. 19. Bulimus 
zoographicus ORB., Voy. Amer. Merid., p. 313, pi. 40, f. 6, 7. PFR., 
Monogr., ii, p. 104 ; viii, p. 67. MORELET, Series Conchyliologi- 
ques, iii, p. 209. HUPE in Castelnau's Exped., p. 50, pi. 6, f. 5. 
REEVE, Conch. Icon., pi. 70, f. 509. Bulimulus zoographicus BECK, 
Index, p. 64. 

An imperforate species with zig-zag stripes and two or three inter- 
rupted bands. Morelet remarks that the specimens collected by 
Angrand in Peru seem to unite beyerleanus Hupe as a variety to 
zoographicus. He gives the following color varieties : 

a. Violaceous, painted with angularly bent streaks and spots of 
buff. 

b. Buff, with zig-zag brown or corneous stripes. 

c. Buff, flamed lengthwise with violaceous. 

d. Pale tawny. 

D. BEYERLEANUS (Hupe). PI. 38, figs. 4, 5. 

Shell elongate, subfusiform, thin, very glossy, smooth ; buff, ele- 
gantly banded with brownish-black spots or lines, which are longi- 



198 DRYM^EUS, SOUTH AMERICAN. 

tudinal, sinuous, interrupted and disposed in three transverse series- 
on the last whorl. Spire long, acuminate; whorls 8, somewhat con- 
vex. Aperture oblong, deep purple in the throat ; the peristome 
thin, expanded, acute; columella twisted, subtruncate below ; outer 
lip bordered with white, columella with an oblique yellowish-white 
band (Hupe). Alt. 42J, diam. 15 ; alt. of aperture 23 mill, (from 



Peru (Castelnau). 

Bulimus beyerleanus HUPE in Castelnau, Anim. Nouv. on rares 
1'Ainer. du Sud, Moll, p. 50, pi. 6, f. 6. PFR., Malak. Bl. 1859, p. 
40 ; Monogr., vi, p. 53. 

Probably a form of D, zoographicus, as claimed by Morelet. 
I). INTERPICTLTS (v. Martens). PI. 34, figs. 12, 13. 

Shell irnperforate, elongated, thin, smooth, shining; isabelline,. 
painted with wide black stripes which are dotted with isabelline. 
Spire conic, elongated; whorls 7, rather flat; columella slender, 
twisted. Aperture perpendicular, flexuous, less than half the total 
length, ovate-oblong, violaceous within ; peristome white, the outer 
and basal margins rather widely expanded, columellar margin nar- 
rowly so below, rather straight, reflexed above and adnate ; parietal 
wall violaceous; throat violescent. Alt. 40, greatest diam. 15, lesser 
11 mill.; aperture 19 mill, long, 6? wide (Martens*). 

On the Chanchamayo, a tributary of the Ucayali River, eastern 
Peru (Thamm) ; Junin (Jelski). 

Bulimulus (Drymaeus) interpictus Martens, Malak. Bl.,xiv, 1867, 
p. 144. Bulimus (Drymceus) interpictus LUBOMIRSKI. P. Z. S., 1879, 
p. 723. Bulimus interpictus PFR., Novit. Couch., p. 349, pi. 82, f. 8, 
9; Monogr., vi, p. 21. 

Nearly allied, says von Martens, to B. zoographicus Orb., yungas- 
ensis Orb. and beyerleanus Hupe, from the same region, but well 
differentiated from all of them by having the lower end of the aper- 
ture directed more outward, correlated with the nearly perpendicu- 
lar direction of the lower half of the columellar margin, and by the 
character of the markings. The three dark bands which connect 
the streaks in the species named above, fail completely in this, and 
the streaks are wider, sometimes forked toward the suture as in the 
Javan B.furcillatus Mouss., and on the last two whorls are always 
variegated with dots or fine vertical wavy lines of the ground color. 
B. incequalis is wider and without the light dots upon the stripes. 



DRYM.EUS, SOUTH AMERICAN. 199 

D. IN^QUALIS (Pfeiffer). PI. 38, figs. 11, 12,13, 14,15. 

Shell perforate, obliquely fusiform, rather thin, slightly striated, 
shining; white, painted with wide, branching purple-black stripes. 
Spire long-conic, sometimes fulvous above, the apex acute ; suture 
simple. Whorls 7, slightly convex, the second seen to be very 
minutely decussated under the lens, penultimate a little more con- 
vex, the last slightly ascending in front, somewhat tapering at base ; 
columella violaceous, straight, obliquely folded above. Aperture 
vertical, long ear-shaped, about half the length of shell ; colored 
within like the outside, margined with violaceous ; peristome white, 
broadly expanded, a trifle reflexed, the terminations joined by a 
very thin callus; right margin regularly arcuate, columellar margin 
a little dilated, reflexed, nearly covering the perforation. Alt. 43, 
diam. 13 mill. (Hidalgo). 

Napa, Ecuador (Martinez) ; Banks of the Mar anon River (Pfr.). 

Bulhnus incBqualis PFR., P. Z. S., 1856, p. 330 ; Monogr., iv, p. 390; 
Novit. Conch., ii, p. 158, pi. 42, f. 3-5. HIDALGO, Jour, de Conchyl., 
1870, p. 48 ; Mol. Viaje al Pacifico, p. 74, pi. 5, f. 4, 5.Drymceus 
incequalis MILLER, Mal.Bi., xxv, p. 190. 

Hidalgo mentions a variety with three indistinct interrupted bands 
crossing the streaks, and scarcely any violaceous coloring in the 
aperture (figs. 14, 15). 

D. PETASITES Miller. PI. 38, figs. 9, 10. 

Shell perforated, obliquely fusiform, rather thin, with slight 
growth-lines and excessively delicate, rather spaced, spiral incised 
striae, mainly above the periphery ; glossy, shining ; white, becoming 
faintly buff on the last whorl, with wide, purple-black longitudinal 
stripes which branch as they approach the suture above, on the last 
whorl, and are brown, waved and generally simple on the spire. 
Lateral outlines of spire slightly convex, apex decidedly obtuse ; 
whorls 6-i, slightly convex. 

Aperture oblong, slightly oblique, less than half the length of 
shell, white, faintly lilac tinted, and conspicuously banded inside ; 
peristome broadly expanded, flaring and a trifle effuse below ; col- 
umella white, spirally twisted above, the margin flatly reflexed above. 

Alt. 34, diam. 14 mill. ; aperture 161 mill. long. 

Nanegal and Sebondoi, in the Pilaton Valley, Ecuador, 1 ,000 meters 
alt. ; woods among leaves (Boetzkes). 

Drymceus petasites MILL., Malak. Bl., xxv, 1878, p. 189; and (n. F.) 
i, 1879, pi. 7, f. 2a, b. ? Bulimus fusoides var. t PFR., Monogr., iii, p. 
329. 



200 DRYM^SUS, SOUTH AMERICAN. 

The general form is more slender than in D. incequalis (Pfr.), the 
spire longer and the aperture shorter, a trifle less than half the 
length of shell. The divergence between the two species is not 
great, however, and they may, perhaps, be found to integrade when 
full series are brought together. The typical form of D. fusoides 
(Orb.) has less bold color markings and narrower lip. 

This species has been referred to Z>. orthostoma Smith, but it ap- 
pears to be distinct. In orthostoma the color streaks are sinuous or 
scalloped, forming three imperfect bands of lunate spots ; the aper- 
ture is almost vertical and quite narrow, while in petasites there is 
no tendency to form spiral rows of spots by flexure of the bands, the 
aperture is noticeably oblique and decidedly wider. 

D. ORTHOSTOMA (Smith). PI. 36, fig. 38. 

Shell elongated, ovate-fusiform, slightly rimate, thin, spirally very 
delicately striated, and sculptured with growth lines; whitish or 
brownish-white, painted with longitudinal, slightly oblique, waved 
purple-brown lines and transverse interrupted darker bands (2 on 
the upper, 3 on the last whorl). Spire lengthened, convexly conic, 
the apex a little obtuse. Whorls 62, slightly convex, the last long, 
ascending a very short distance behind the lip. 

Aperture nearly vertical, elongate, inversely ear-shaped, slightly 
less than one-half the total alt., lilac colored inside, the stripes show- 
ing by translucence ; columella twisted above, arcuate below ; peri- 
stome thin, moderately expanded, white, the outer margin of the 
columella rather straight. Alt. 37, diam. 11* mill. ; aperture 18 
mill, long, 6 wide inside (Smith). 

Ecuador f 

Bulimus (Drymceus) orthostoma E. A. SMITH, P. Z. S., 1877, p. 
364, pi. 39, f. 5. 

The description of this species is very similar to that of B. albo- 
labiatus, yet the two species when viewed side by side have a very 
different general aspect. The present species differs in having the 
aperture rather longer, and the whorls are not constricted just 
beneath the suture. The markings are not so bold or so deep in 
color; the upper interrupted band is situated nearer the middle of 
the whorls, and in the last whorl, which has not the reddish line which 
winds round the base and along the exterior of the lip of B. albo- 
labiatus, the markings cease at a short distance (about 4-5 mill.) 
from the labrum, which is pure white within, and creamy on the 



DRYM^EUS, SOUTH AMERICAN. 201 

outside, like the rest of the shell; in the other species it is pure 
white on both sides. (Smith). 

D. ALBOLABIATUS (Smith). PI. 36, fig. 37. 

Shell ovate fusiform, narrowly (almost covered) perforate, thin, 
transversely obsoletely striated, and sculptured with oblique growth 
lines ; brown-whitish, lightning streaked with wide oblique stripes 
of blackish or purple-black, and ornamented with interrupted 
bands of the same color (2 on the upper, 3 on the last whorl). Spire 
lengthened, conic, the side slopes slightly convex. Whorls 65, a 
little convex, slightly constricted below the sutures, the last orna- 
mented with a reddish line around the base outside the inner lip. 

Aperture reversed ear-shaped, subvertical, lilac colored inside 
with pellucid streaks, a little less than half the total alt. of the 
shell ; peristome thin, white inside and out, rather broadly ex- 
panded, the columellar margin reflexed, twisted within. (Smith). 

Alt. 35, diam. 15, alt. of aperture 17? mill, (from fig.). 

Malacatos, South Ecuador. 

Bulimus (Drymceus) albolabiatus E. A. SMITH, P. Z. S., 1877, p. 
363, pi. 39, f. 4. 

The nearest ally of this handsome species appears to be B. fiisoides 
of d'Orbigny, which, however, is a much more elongated species, 
without transverse interrupted bands, at all events in the typical 
form, and with a rosy lip to the aperture. The ground color of this 
species is a very pale fawn, and the stripes and interrupted bands 
are almost black, generally edged with brown or olive brown. 
(Smith). 

D. FUSOIDES (d'Orbigny). PI. 38, figs. 16, 17, 18, 19. 

Shell elongated, fusiform, very thin, transparent, smooth, with 
slight growth lines ; rose-white, with longitudinal wide lines and 
sometimes dots of bistre. Spire long, oblique, swollen, obtuse at 
apex, composed of 7 whorls, but little convex, the last more oblique, 
distinctly compressed, somewhat less than half the total length of 
shell ; suture smooth, bordered by an impression parallel to it. 
Aperture oblong, oblique, of a rose-violet color inside and out ; 
peristome broad, acute and strongly expanded ; columella but little 
swollen, arcuate. Alt. 40, diam. 13 mill. (Orb.). 

Bolivia : Northeast slope of the eastern Cordillera of Cochabamba, 
<tt a place called " Yanga de la Palma " (Orb.) ; Cocopata (Bridges) ; 
Santa Cruz de la Sierra (Aucey). 



202 DRYM2EUS, SOUTH AMERICAN. 

Helix fusoides ORB., Mag. de Zool., 1835, p. 19. Bulimu*- 
fusoides ORB., Voy. Amer. Merid., p. 315, pi. 40, f. 12, 13. REEVE, 
Conch. Icon., pi. 18, f. 106. PFR., Conchyl. Cab., p. 102, pi. 33, f. 
7, 8 ; Monogr., ii, 51 ; iii, 329 ; iv, 385 : vi, 34. Bulimultis fusoides 
Alb., (Drymceus*) PATEL, Cat., p. 105. ANCEY, Jotirn. of Conch. K 
vii, p. 92. 

This species, while allied to D. petasites, D. orthostoma and other 
Ecuador forms, is apparently distinct from any of them, and con- 
fined to Bolivia. Ancey writes : " the specimens from Santa Cruz 
de la Sierra are yellowish-ochraceous, and are provided with more 
or less distinct and numerous obscure stripes, which in some indi- 
viduals are absent or very faint. The color of the aperture is 
characteristic. Some specimens are more slender than others." 

D. LUSORIUS (Pfeiifer). Un figured. 

Shell slightly perforated, subfusiform-oblong, thin, smooth ; fleshy- 
whitish, ornamented with sparse undulating streaks of chestnut. 
Spire convex-conic, rather acute ; suture indistinctly margined. 
Whorls 5, a little convex, the last a little shorter than the spire, 
tapering at base. Aperture a little oblique, oval, with streaks of 
deeper color inside; peristome thin, right margin curved above,, 
then broadly expanded ; columella somewhat compressed, with a 
twisted fold, receding, columellar margin a little reflexed. Alt. 25, 
diam. 10 mill.; aperture 12 mill, long, 7 wide. (Pfr.). 

Banks of the Amazon River, Brazil (Cuming coll.). 

Bulimus lusorim PFR., P. Z. S., 1854, p. 291 ; Monogr., iv, p. 
386; vi, p. 34. Bulimus (Drymaeus) lusoriusPFR., Malak. Blatter, 
1855, p. 151. 

Allied to B. fusoides Orb. and B. pealianus Lea. (Pfr.). 
D. LOPHOICUS (d'Orbigny). PI. 36, figs. 39, 40. 

Shell elongated, very distinctly umbilicated, thin, rugose on the 
later whorls, the earlier nearly smooth ; gray-white or rose, varied 
with irregular longitudinal lines of brown or whitish, the apex 
sometimes deeply rose colored ; spire lengthened, nearly conic, with, 
obtuse apex, composed of 8 wide swollen whorls separated by a 
smooth and quite deep suture. Aperture yellowish, especially at 
the margins, oval or oblong, not oblique, the peristome quite thick,, 
little reflexed ; columella thick, swollen, a little twisted. Alt. 33^. 
diam. 12 mill. (Orb:). 



DRYM^US, SOUTH AMERICAN. 20& 

Eastern slope of the Bolivian Andes in the province of Yungas, 
principally on the moist wooded mountains near the villages of 
Yanacache and Chupe (Orb.}. 

Helix lophoica ORB., Mag. de Zool., 1835, p. 19. Bulimus lopho- 
icus ORB., Voy. Amer. Merid., p. 316, pi. 40, f. 14, 15. PFR.,MOD- 
ogr., ii, 60 ; iii, 322 ; iv, 402 ; vi, 49. Bulinus lophoicus Sow., 
Conch. Illustr., f. 65. Bidimulus lophoicus BECK, Index, p. 64. 

Closely allied, writes d'Orbigny, to B. yungasensis, but easy to 
distinguish by the longer, less swollen spire, straight instead of ob- 
lique, and narrower aperture, more twisted columella, and finally 
by the lineolation, roseate tint, and want of brown spots. 

D. FERIATUS (Reeve). PI. 34, fig. 10. 

Shell slightly perforate, oblong-fusiform, solid, rugulose-striate ; 
whitish, irregularly marked with brown streaks, which are generally 
dotted with white. Spire conic, rather acute; whorls 5*, a little 
convex, the last a little longer than the spire, attenuated at base, 
subcompressed ; columella subvertical, somewhat straightened. 
Aperture nearly vertical, acuminate-oblong ; peristome narrowly 
expanded, the right margin spreading, columellar margin dilated 
above, subappressed. Alt. 28, diam. 11 mill.; aperture 14 mill., 
long. (P/r.). 

Habitat unknown^ 

Bulimus feriatus REEVE, Conch. Icon., pi. 48, f. '314. PFR.,. 
Monogr., iii, p. 323. 

D. YUNGASENSIS (d'Orbigny). PI. 36, fig. 34, 35. 

Shell elongated, a little swollen, very distinctly umbilicated, thin^ 
fragile ; the surface irregularly malleated and rugose ; grayish-rose 
with clouds of brown and wide brown longitudinal markings, form- 
ing three interrupted brown bands. Spire long, swollen, very ob- 
tuse at the apex, composed of 6 convex whorls separated by a deep 
suture, the last whorl very large and oblique. Aperture oblong, a 
little oblique, brownish-purple within ; peristome yellowish, thin, 
expanded, but not w r ide nor strongly reflexed; columella wide, flat- 
tened, arcuate, but not twisted. Alt. 35, diam. 13 mill. (Orb.). 

Eastern slope of the Bolivian Andes, on the Rio de Meguilla near 
its confluence with the Rio de la Paz, under dead leaves and stones 
(Orb.). 



204 DRYM.EUS, SOUTH AMERICAN. 

Bulimus yungasensis ORB., Voy. Arner. Me rid., p. 316, pi. 40, f. 
8. PFR., Monogr., ii, p. 57 ; iii, 345 ; iv, 408 ; vi, 53. REEVE, 
Conch. Icon., pi. 65, f. 456. 

Some individuals, says Orbigny, entirely lack spots. It is evi- 
dently near D. zoographicus, but differs in being perforate and with- 
out the columellar twist of that species. Pfeiffer describes a 
Cumingian specimen apparently from Orbigny, and not in good 
condition, (fig. 35) as grayish- white with three series of brown spots ; 
aperture a little shorter than the spire, the last whorl tapering below ; 
columella subplicate. Alt. 29, diam. 11 mill.; aperture 14i mill, 
long, 6 wide. 

D. OCHROCHEILUS (Smith). PI. 36, fig. 36. 

Shell ovate-fusiform, narrowly rimate, rather thin, obliquely 
irregularly striated and malleated ; dull whitish, with series (2 on 
the upper, 3 on the last whorl) of irregular brown spots. Spire 
conic, the lateral outlines slightly convex ; whorls 7, slowly in- 
creasing, a little convex, separated by sutures which are but slightly 
oblique, the last whorl tapering at base. 

Aperture oblong, narrowly elliptical, half the length of shell, 
somewhat oblique ; peristome rather widely expanded, yellow, the 
columellar margin reflexed, lips joined by a thin yellowish callus. 
Alt. 37, diam. 13; aperture 20 mill, long, 5J wide. (Smitli). 

Malacatos, south Ecuador. 

Bulimus (Drymceus) ochrocheilus E. A. SMITH, P. Z. S., 1877, p. 
362, pi. 39, f. 1. 

This species is closely allied to B. yungasensis of d'Orbigny, and 
differs from it chiefly with regard to the aperture, which is much 
longer, narrower and differently colored. Owing to the narrowness 
of the aperture, the last whorl is also much attenuated, considerably 
more so than in d'Orbigny's species, which was obtained in Bolivia 
more than a thousand miles south of where the present form was 
collected. 

The transverse brown spotting appears rather like interrupted 
bands than series of spots. These are connected by opaque white 
lines, and the uppermost series is the narrowest. 

The lines of growth are rather coarse towards the labrum, which 
shows the yellow color of the interior on the outside. (Smith). 



DRYMJEUS, SOUTH AMERICAN. 205 

D. CANTATUS (Reeve). PL 40, fig. 9. 

Shell somewhat fusiformly oblong, somewhat obliquely produced 
at the base, umbilicated, whorls six to seven in number, smooth 
or rather obscurely rudely striated, columella curved inwards 
in the middle, aperture sinuated at the base, lip expanded, par- 
tially reflected ; light fawn-white, indistinctly marked with small 
squarish distant spots, lip and columella colored interiorly with rose- 
purple (Eve.}. 

Alt. 39*, diam. 19 mill. ; alt. of aperture 20 mill, (from fig.). 

Tanna.Peru ( Jelski) ; Habitat unknown (Dennison Coll.). 

Bulimus cantatus REEVE, Conch. Icon., v, pi. 56, f. 375. PFR., 
Monogr., iii, p. 375. LUBOMIRSKI, P. Z. S., 1879, p. 723. 

D. PEELII (Reeve). PI. 34, figs. 7, 8. 

Shell slightly perforate, long ovate, subfusiform, rather solid, 
closely plicatulate striate (the folds here and there almost obsolete) ; 
whitish, ornamented with rather wide reddish, white-dotted stripes, 
more or less interrupted. Spire somewhat irregular, conic, the apex 
small, acute ; suture linear above, then becoming deeper and deli- 
cately crenulated. Whorls 7, the earlier 5 rather flat, the penulti- 
mate convex, irregular, the last slightly shorter than the spire, sub- 
arcuately ascending in front, tapering at base and somewhat com- 
pressed ; columella callous, twisted, orange-colored. 

Aperture subvertical, rhombic semi-oval, white deep within, 
showing the bands ; peristome buff, thin, rather broadly expanded, 
the margins joined by a very thin callus, right margin with long, 
subregular curve, basal narrowly arcuate, somewhat effuse, colum- 
ellar margin thickened. Alt. 54, diam. 20 ; aperture 27 mill, long, 
14 wide (Pfr.). 

On the Amazon in Peru (Rve.) ; Canelos, Ecuador (Stiibel). 

Bulimus peelii RVE., P. Z. S., 1859, p. 123. PFR., Monogr. Hel. 
Yiv., vi, p. 28 ; Novit. Conch., iv, p. 144, pi. 133, f. 6, 7 ; Monogr., 
viii, p. 49. Otostomus (Drymceus) peelii MARTENS, Conch. Mittheil., 
p. 160. Drymceus peelii Jouss., Bull. Soc. Zool. France. 1887, p. 
217. Bulimulus pealei PAETEL, Catal., p. 100. 

A form with the apex violaceous was collected by Stiibel. 
D. FORDII n. sp. PI. 38, figs. 1, 2, 3. 

Shell fusiform, minutely rimate, moderately solid ; white, with 
irregular longitudinal streaks of chestnut, more or less vermiculate- 



206 DRYM^EUS, SOUTH AMERICAN. 

marked with whitish, and showing two series of arrow-shaped 
blotches forming interrupted bands, obsolete in some specimens; 
somewhat shining, with superficial wrinkle striae, becoming conspicu- 
ous on the latter part of the last whorl, especially below. Spire 
with slightly convex lateral outlines, apex purple or white. Whorls 
6, the upper ones but slightly, the penultimate strongly convex ; 
last whorl decidedly tapering below, where it is produced and per- 
ceptibly pinched ; suture slightly ascending near its termination. 

Aperture large, semi-oval, whitish within, somewhat oblique; 
peristome deep lilac or purple, with the blunt outer edge white, the 
outer lip but slightly expanded above, very broadly expanded and 
flaring below where it passes into the oblique basal lip ; columella 
strongly twisted, reversed sigmoid, purplish, its inner edge cord-like ; 
reflexed and closely appressed, leaving only a small chink at the 
lower end of the reflexed portion. Parietal callus a mere transpar- 
ent glaze. 

Alt. 38i, diarn. 16 ; alt. of aperture 20 mill. 

Alt. 42, diam. ]8 ; alt. of aperture 21 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 

Peculiar in the oblique passage of the outer into the basal lips, 
their broadly flaring expansion, and the very strongly sigmoid 
curvature of the columella, which has not been shown as strongly in 
the drawings as it is in the shells. The deep-lilac purple of the lip 
is as prominent as in D. glaucostoma. Described from two specimens 
of unknown origin, from the collection of Mr. John Ford. 

D. GERMAINI (Ancey). 

Shell oblong-attenuated, shining, very nairowly rimate, showing 
incised spiral striae under a strong lens ; somewhat bluish-white, with 
irregularly flexuous or lightning-zigzagged streaks of tawny-bluish. 
Spire moderately produced, rather obtuse. Whorls 67, convex, 
separated by rather deep sutures, the last whorl attenuated, oblong, 
making a short, sudden ascent at the aperture. Aperture a little 
oblique, oblong, slightly lunate, angular above, patulous ; interior 
with the parietal wall and columella lilac colored, becoming whitish 
in the throat, and showing the streaks by translucence ; peristome 
expanded throughout, the columella a little twisted, nearly straight, 
a little more dilated, covering the perforation ; terminations remote. 
Alt. 28, diam. 11 mill.; alt. of aperture 14 mill. (Ancey}. 

Matto-Grosso, Brazil (Germain). 



DRYM.l.l >. SOUTH AMERICAN. 207 

BuJimulu* germaini ANCEY, Journal of Conchology, vii, p. 91 
<July, 1892). 

A single specimen was found. It is somewhat like a small, thin 
B. felu'y but otherwise quite distinct from the New Granada shell 
(Ancey). 

D. VIOLACEUS (Mousson). PI. 35, figs. 30. 31 (typical), 26, 27, 28, 

29, 32. 

Shell broadly rimate-umbilicate, ovate-oblong, moderately solid ; 
yellowish or faintly brown tinted, typically with longitudinal slightly 
irregular gray or purplish-brown streaks, which are lineolate with 
fine yellow or whitish vermiculate lines (but in other specimens the 
streaks are acutely festooned or otherwise irregular) ; shining, with 
slight growth wrinkles, more or less fine malleation, and minute 
incised spiral striatiou. Spire high-conic, the apex white or buff 
and typically sculptured. Whorls 6?, slightly convex, the last 
ascending in front, more or less strongly compressed beloic the peri- 
phery, sloping flatly to a prominent, obtuse basal keel; excavated be- 
hind the columellar Up. Suture but little impressed. 

Aperture half the length of shell or more, subvertical, whitish 
and showing the external bands by transparence within, becoming 
deep lilac (or "intense reddish -violet ") toward the lip; peristome 
very broadly expanded, reflexed, lilac with a white edge ; columellar 
margin flaring, impressed and slightly grooved at its root, the outer 
edge nearly straight and obliquely sloping; columella with a con- 
vex fold far above, then concave in the middle or nearly straight, 
often convex again at base, or with an oblique tubercle there. 

Alt. 37s, diarn. 19; alt. of aperture 21 mill. 

Alt. 40, diam. 19* ; alt. of aperture 20 mill. 

Alt. 36*, diam. 17 j ; alt. of aperture 20 mill. 

Alt. 39, diam. 19 mill. (Mousson for violaceus}, 

Alt. 44, diam. 20 mill. (Mousson for eversus). 

Bogota (Wallis) ; Marmato (Bland), U. S. of Colombia. 

Bidimus violaceus Mouss., Malak. BL, xxi, 1873, p. 9. PFR., 
Novit. Conch., iv, p. 134, pi. 130, f, 5, 6. Bulimus eversus Mouss., 
1. c., p. 10. PFR., 1. c.,p. 136, pi. 130,f. 9, 10 ; Monogr., viii, p. 50. 

Especially notable for the strong, blunt basal keel, the whorl 
being flattened and tapering around it, and the umbilical region 
excavated and large. The broadly flaring lip is white at the edge, 
but becomes deep lilac within, but the parietal wall retains the color 
of the exterior, bearing a mere transparent film. 



208 DRYMJEUS, SOUTH AMERICAN. 

Mousson considered eversus (pi. 39, figs. 48, 49) distinct from 
violaceus in being more fusiform with less convex whorls, longer 
aperture, and more sharply defined coloration of waved and zigzag 
streaks. These differences fait in the series before me collected by 
Bland at Marmato (pi. 35, figs. 26-29, 32). From specimens with 
a few straight color-streaks there is a full series of transitions to 
those with numerous zig-zag markings ; and even interrupted spiral 
bands are sometimes developed (figs. 27, 32). 

D. CONFLUENS (Pfeiffer). 

Shell compressed umbilicate, oblong acuminate, rather thin, im- 
pressed punctate; whitish, painted with red [spadiceis] angular, 
white-dotted streaks, somewhat confluent to form bands ; spire long 
conic, rather acute. Whorls 6J, a trifle convex, the last subequal 
to the spire, strongly compressed at base; columella arcuately 
emerging, bearing a nodule at the base. Aperture slightly oblique, 
rhombic-oval, subangular at base, lilac- red inside ; peristome broadly 
expanded throughout)', spreading, the right margin somewhat sinuous. 
Alt. 40, diam. 14 mill.; aperture 18 mill, long inside, 10 wide 



Marmato, U. S. of Colombia. 
Bidimus conflaens PFR., P. Z. S., 1855, p. 115 ; Monographia, iv, 
p. 443. 

Seems somewhat like the preceding species. 

D. BARANGUILLANUS (Pfeiffer). PI. 35, figs. 21, 22. 

Shell compressed umbilicate, ovate pyramidal, rather thin, stri- 
atulate, slightly shining ; buff whitish, irregularly marked with 
nearly straight, narrow tawny stripes. Spire long conic, rather 
acute ; suture shallow, whorls 7, rather flat, the last longer than the 
spire, convex, somewhat ascending in front, subcompressed at base, 
having a bluish streak behind the outer lip, a reddish border within ; 
columella slightly arcuate, subplicate above. Aperture ample, 
vertical, elliptical oval ; peristome white, thin, dilated, the right 
margin expanded, columellar margin broadly reflexed. Alt. 32, 
diam. 13? mill.; length of aperture 18, width 12 mill. (Pf>'.). 

Baranguilla, Colombian Andes (Bid.). 

Bulimus baranguillanus PFR., P. Z. S., 1852, p. 136 ; Conchyl. 
Cab., p. 246, pi. 66, f. 5, 6 ; Monogr., iii, p. 334. 

The only Barranguilla known to me in Colombia is at the mouth 
of the Magdalena River. 



UNIVERSITY 



DRYM^US, SOUTH AMERICAN. 209 

D. FLEXUOSUS (Pfeiffer). PI. 35, figs. 23, 24, 25. 

Shell compressed urabilicate, oblong turrited, solid. White or 
nearly so, with conspicuously festooned black or blackish-brown longi- 
tudinal stripes, which are dotted or lineolate with white, and at the 
angles of the festoons coalescent more or less, forming three continu- 
ous or interrupted spiral bands ; and with a continuous dark band 
at the verge of the umbilicus. Surface shining, smooth. Spire long,, 
the apex white, typically sculptured. Whorls nearly 7, convex, the 
last not compressed at base. 

Aperture half the total length or less, somewhat oblique, ovate, 
rose-purple or whitish and faintly showing the external pattern 
within ; peristome broadly expanded throughout, white, becoming 
rose-purple within ; the columellar margin reflexed ; columella with 
a strong spiral fold above. 

Alt. 41, diam. 18-19 ; alt. of aperture 19-20 mill. 

Alt. 32, diam. 14i ; alt. of aperture, 17 mill. 

Mannato, U. S. of Colombia (Bland). 

Bulimus flexuosus PFR., P. Z. S., 1852, p. 136; Conchyl. Cab., p. 
244, pi. 65, f. 6, 7 ; Monogr., iii, p. 329. Bulimus linostoma BLAND 
in Adams' Contrib. to Conch., No. 11, p. 230. Not B. linostoma 
Orb. 

The elaborate dotting or lineolation of the festooned stripes, as in 
D. interpictus and glaucostoma, is a prominent feature. The elon- 
gation of the spire, broadly spreading lip, the purple mouth and 
umbilical crescent are also tolerably prominent and constant char- 
acters. Bland called small specimens collected by him at Mar- 
rnato " B. linostoma;" but they intergrade in size with the large 
typical form, also before me from the same locality. 

D. MEMBIELINUS (Crosse). PI. 50, figs. 90, 91 ; pi. 34, figs. 15, 16. 
Shell narrowly perforate, ovate elongate, rather thin, longitudi- 
nally impressed with obsolete, inconspicuous somewhat wrinkle-like 
striae; rather shining ; whitish, ornamented with a blackish-chest- 
nut, sub interrupted transverse band dotted with white, and rather 
wide, zig-zag and sometimes confluent tawny chestnut longitudinal 
streaks, similarly white-dotted. Spire long conic, the apex a little 
acute, suture simple. Whorls 6, convex, the embryonic 2 whitish, 
the penultimate convexly inflated, the last whorl slightly ascending, 
a little longer than the spire, slightly elongated, somewhat tapering 
at base. 

14 



210 DRYMvEUS, SOUTH AMERICAN. 

Aperture vertical, somewhat wide, subovate, livid white within, 
the streaks showing through ; peristome simple, orange-fulvous, 
expanded and a little reflexed throughout, the columellar margin 
with a slight twist or fold ; right margin buff- whitish near the outer 
edge. Alt. 36, diam. 15 mill.; aperture 18 mill, long, 12? wide 
(Crosse). 

Napo, Ecuador (Martinez). 

Bulimus membielinus CROSSE, Journ. de Conchyl., xv, 1867, p. 
445 ; 1868, p. 99, pi. 1, f. 2. PFR., Monogr., vi, p. 39. HIDALGO, 
Journ. de Conch., 1870, p. 47 ; Viaje al Pacifico, p. 72, pi. 4, f. 6, 7. 

Compared with D. glaucostoma Alb. by Crosse, on account of the 
white punctulation ; but it is probably more nearly allied to the 
white dotted species of the same region. 

D. HIDALGOI (daCosta). PL 50, fig. 84. 

Shell ovate-fusiform, compressedly umbilicate, rather thick ; 
whorls 7, convex, smooth or with spiral incised lines under the lens ; 
suture impressed. White, streaked longitudinally with blue-black. 
Columella a little twisted and reflexed ; outer lip expanded and re- 
flexed, margins joined by a purplish callus. Alt. 39, diam. 13, 
length of aperture with peristome 18, width 12 mill. (daCosta). 

Ecuador. 

Bulimulus (Drymceus) Hidalgoi DACosTA, Proc. Malac. Soc. Lon- 
don, iii, p. 81, pi. 6, f. 2 (July, 1898). 

This species bears a resemblance to both B. felix Pfr. and B. 
membielinus Crosse, but differs from each in form and sculpture. 
(daCosta). 

D. SIGNIFER (Pfeiffer). 

Shell perforate, subfusiform-oblong, thin, closely and lightly 
plicate-striate ; whitish, irregularly marked with reddish serrate 
streaks. Spire inflated conic, rather acute. Whorls 6, the upper a 
little flattened, the penultimate convex, last whorl about as long as 
the spire, attenuated at base. Columella twisted, receding. Aper- 
ture scarcely oblique, oblong ; peristome simple, the right margin 
rather widely expanded, columellar margin dilated, abruptly re- 
flexed, broad. Alt. 33, diam. 13 mill. ; aperture 18 mill, long, in- 
side 7 wide (Pfr.}. 

Venezuela? (Cuming Coll.). 



DRYBLU8, SOUTH AMERICAN. 211 

Bulimus signifer PFR., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1855, p. 8 ; Mon- 
ogr., iv, p. 393. 

Similar to B. yungasensis Orb. or papyraceus Mawe (Pfr.). It 
has not been figured. 

D. FELIX (Peiffer). PI. 35, fig. 20. 

Shell compressed umbilicate, ovate-oblong, thin, smooth ; whitish 
or flesh colored, ornamented with reddish streaks or wide bands, 
dotted with white ; spire convex conic, the acute apex blackish. 
Whorls 6, a little convex, the last about as long as the spire, some- 
what ascending in front, attenuated at base. Columella somewhat 
twisted, receding, brownish-purple. 

Aperture sub vertical, oval, violet edged inside ; peristome simple, 
white, the margins joined by a chestnut callus, right margin widely 
expanded. Coluraellar margin broadly reflexed. Alt. 33, diam. 13 
mill.; aperture with peristome 17i mill, long, 12 wide (Pfr.), 

United States of Colombia (Cuming Coll.), road from Llanos of 
St. Martin, and low land and in forest at Lebonday, 2,100 meters 
alt. (Stiibel). 

Bulimus felix PFR., P. Z. S., 1861, p. 387, pi. 37, f. 2 ; Monogr. vi, 
p. 36. Otostomus (Drymceus') felix MARTENS, Conch. Mittheil., p. 
160. 

Pfeiffer describes a variety, shell more slender, whitish, with sparse 
streaks of pale brown ; alt. 35, diam. 11J, aperture with peristome 
18 mill, long, 11 j- wide. Von Martens considers B. elegantissimua 
Mousson a synonym of B. felix. 

D. ELEGANTISSIMUS (Mousson). PL 40, figs. 12, 13. 

Shell narrowly umbilicate or perforate, long ovate, striatulate ; 
shining; whitish, very elegantly decorated with waved blackish- 
brown flammules interrupted by white lines and dots. Spire long, 
convex-conic, regular, the apex minute, white ; suture lightly im- 
pressed, sublinear. Whorls 7, equably increasing, a little convex, 
the last somewhat oblique, slightly ascending in front, slender, 
rounded at base, a trifle compressed at the brown perforation. 

Aperture subvertical (5 from the axis), shorter than the spire, 
regularly oval, angular above, violaceous-brown within on the palatal 
and parietal walls ; peristome expanded, slightly reflexed, subacute, 
white ; right and basal margins regularly curved ; columellar margin 
proceeding from the columella which is oblique and pliciform far 



212 DRYM^EUS, SOUTH AMERICAN. 

within, reflexed, adnate above, half closing the perforation, obliquely 
descending. Alt. 37, diam. 16 mill. (Mouss.). 

Bogota (G. Wallis). 

Bulimus elegantissimus Mouss. in Malak. Bl., xxi, 1873, p. 11. 
PFR., Novit. Conch., iv, p. 128. 1. 129, f. 3, 4 ; Monogr., viii, p. 47. 

Considered identical with D.felix by von Martens. 
D. ZICZAC (daCosta). PI. 50, fig. 92. 

Shell ovate, conic, rather thin, umbilicate, the base subangularly 
produced. Buff, conspicuously waved with blackish-brown. Whorls 
6, convex, minutely striated under the lens ; columella flatly re- 
flexed. Aperture ample, effuse, violaceous-purple inside ; outer lip 
reflexed. Alt. 28, diam. 15, length of aperture with peristome 15, 
width 11 mill, (da Costa). 

Valley of the Cauca River, Colombia. 

Bulimulus (Drymceus) ziczac DACosTA, Proc. Malac. Soc, Lon- 
don, iii, p. 81, pi. 6, f. 5 (July, 1898). 

The color markings remind one somewhat of those on B. undula- 
tus Guild., from the Island of St. Vincent, but its form is distinct. 
(da Costa). 

D. ANDAI Jousseaume. 

Shell perforate, long-fusiform, solid, smooth, shining; white, 
striped with longitudinal wide, black, flexuous, irregularly angular 
spots. Spire lengthened, acuminate. Aperture ear-shaped, white, 
black-spotted ; peristome white, expanded, depressed in front and 
behind ; columella white, straight anteriorly, twisted posteriorly. 
Alt. 45, diam. 7'5 mill. ; aperture 20 mill, long, 10 wide. (Jouss.). 

Tena, Ecuador (Eudora Anda). 

Drymceus Andai Jouss., Le Naturaliste, xx, Jan., 1898, p. 14. 

I have seen this species labelled B. membielinus Crosse in collec- 
tions, but for the detection of such an error, a glance at the figure of 
that species is sufficient. (Jouss.'). 

D. BOGOTENSIS (Pfeiffer). PI. 35, figs. 17, 18, 19. 

Shell narrowly perforate, oblong, moderately solid. White with 
brown or blackish vertical festooned streaks, with oblong spots at 
the angles of the streaks, forming three interrupted spiral bands on 
the body-whorl ; glossy, showing under the lens very minute, super- 
ficial spiral striation, and with some low wrinkles of growth ; apex 



DRYM^US, SOUTH AMERICAN. 213 

obtuse, sometimes black-tipped, typically sculptured. Whorls 6J to 
7, slightly convex, the last oblong, somewhat ascending at aperture. 

Aperture about half the alt., ovate, colored within like the exte- 
rior ; peristome broadly expanded throughout, reflexed, with a wide 
white border, within which it is deep purple ; columellar margin 
rather narrowly reflexed, white-edged. Columella brown or purple, 
with a long fold above ; parietal wall dark brown. 

Alt. 31 i, diam. 14, alt. of aperture 16 mill. (Specimen). 

Alt. 38, alt. of aperture 20 mill. (Pfr.). 

Alt. 29, diam. 14 mill. (Specimen). 

U. S. of Columbia : Bogota (Pfr.) ; between Salamina and Cabu- 
yal, icest of Erve (Bland). 

Bulimus spectatus RVE., Conch. Icon., f. 60 Ib. BLAND in Adams' 
Contrib. to Conch, no. 11, p. 230. Bulimus bogotensisPFR.,P. Z.S. 
1855, p. 93 ; Monogr., iv, p. 390. 

Evidently allied to spectatus Rve., from which it differs in colora- 
tion and the proportionately smaller aperture. 

D. SPECTATUS (Reeve). PL 40, fig. 14. 

Shell fusiformly ovate, scarcely umbilicated, rather thin. Whorls 
6 to 7 in number, longitudinally somewhat rudely, finely striated ; 
columella reflected, rather depressed. Aperture ovate, lip peculiarly 
effused. Whitish or ash-brown, variously streaked or banded ; col- 
umella and interior of the aperture rose-purple. (JRve.). 

Alt. 40, diam. 18* ; alt. of aperture 22 mill, (from fig.). 

Road between Popayan to the Hacienda Sotara, United States of 
Colombia, at about 2400 meters alt. (Stiibel). 

Bulimus spectatus RVE., Conch. Icon., pi. 81, f. 601a (only ; the 
other figures excluded). Otostomus (Drymozus) spectatus MARTENS, 
Conchol. Mittheil., p. 160. 

Reeve's figure 6016 is D. bogotensis Pfr. ; his fig. 601c is D. gracilis 
Lea=feai Pilsbry. 

D. LEAI Pilsbry, n. n. PI. 40, figs. 16, 17 (type), 15. 

Shell oblong-fusiform, narrowly rimate-umbilicate, thin ; white 
with three spiral bands of purple-brown blotches formed by the 
local intensification of longitudinal undulating streaks, which are 
only rather faintly seen and in places are obsolete. Spire rather 
straightly conic, the apex a little obtuse. Whorls 6, almost flat, 
the last gently convex, subascending in front. 



214 DRYM^US, SOUTH AMERICAN. 

Aperture oblong-ovate, a trifle oblique, inside spotted and verm- 
iculate-striated with brown ; outer lip regularly arcuate, narrowly 
expanded above, becoming broadly so below, white with an internal 
border of faint pinkish-purple; columellar lip vertical, subsinuous, 
broadly dilated ; columella pink-purple passing above into a long, 
convex fold ; parietal wall with a thin purplish film. Alt. 34.3, 
diam. 15 ; alt. of aperture 18 mill. 

Near Carthagena, U. S. of Colombia (J. H. Gibbon). 

Bulimus gracilis LEA, Trans. Amer. Philos. Soc., vi, p. 85, pi. 23, 
f. 102 (June 15, 1838 ; see Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc., i, 1838, p. 19) ; 
Obs. Gen. Unio ii, p. 85, pi. 23, f. 102. PFR., Monogr., ii, p. 104. 
Not Bulimus gracilis Lea, Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc., i, p. 173 (March 
20, 1840). Not Bulimus gracilis Hutton, Journ. Asiatic Soc. Ben- 
gal, iii, p. 93 (1834). 

Figures 16, 17, represent the type, 105, 154 U.S. Nat. Mus., from 
which the above description is taken. Reeve's fig. 601c, " B. spec- 
tatus" is, in my opinion, a rather highly colored example of gracilis 
see fig. 15. The vaulted space behind the columellar lip is about 1 J 
mill. wide. 

D. DACOST^E (Sowerby). PI. 43, figs. 77, 78. 

Shell narrowly but profoundly umbilicated, elongated, shining, 
irregularly striated ; pale tawny flesh-colored, with wavy longitu- 
dinal streaks and two girdles of small black-brown spots. Spire 
convex-conic, the apex acute ; suture lightly impressed. Whorls 6, 
little convex, the last about as long as the spire, attenuated at base ; 
columella oblique, reflexed. Aperture subvertical, roseate within, 
showing the spots through ; peristome simple, slightly reflexed. Alt. 
26, diam. 11 mill. (Sowb.). 

Bogota, U. S. of Colombia (Da Costa coll.). 

Bulimulus da-Costce G. B. SOWERBY, P. Z. S., 1892, p. 297, pi. 23, 
f. 15, 16. 

I have as yet seen only a single specimen of this species, which 
may be found to vary as much as the last (koppeli). It seems how- 
ever to be distinct from any hitherto known. (G. B. S.). 

D. MURRINUS (Reeve). PI. 40, figs. 10, 11. 

Shell fusiformly ovate, scarcely umbilicate, whorls 6, convex, 
smooth, polished, last whorl somewhat produced and attenuated at 
the base. Aperture rather oblong, slightly sinuated at the lower 



DRYM^US, SOUTH AMERICAN. 215 

part; lip expanded, scarcely reflected. Whitish, longitudinally 
streaked and transversely banded with livid olive or blue-black ; 
interior of the aperture rich purple, lip white. (Reeve). 

Alt. 37, diam. 14, alt. of aperture 19 mill, (from fig.). 

Alt. 36, diam. 14. alt. of aperture 18 mill, (from fig.). 

Santa Fe de Bogota, Colombia (coll. J. Dennison). 

Bulimus murrinus KEEVE, Conch. Icon., pi. 43, f. 273a, b (Oct- 
ober, 1848). PFR., Monogr., iii, p. 374; iv, p. 443; vi, p. 78. 
? Bulimulus (Drymceus) f murrinus MARTENS, Mai. Bl., xiv, 1867, 
p. 142. 

It is said by Reeve to be " nearest allied to the B. linostoma d'Orb- 
igny." Von Martens has identified as B. murrinus, but with some 
doubt, a series of shells collected by Thamm in Peru on the Chan- 
chamayo, a tributary of theUcayali river, one of the head waters of 
the Amazon (see Malakozoologische Blatter, 1867, p. 142). He 
compares eonvexm Pfr., cantatus Rve., and spectatus Rve. (f. 601 a). 

VaT.phryne (PfeifFer). 

Shell perforate, oblong-fusiform, rather thin, plicate-striate ; buff) 
with red streaks mottled with whitish ; spire long conic, the apex 
minute. Whorls 6J, a little convex, the last slightly shorter than 
the spire, the base compressed at the perforation. Columella sub- 
angularly arcuate. Aperture little oblique, subrhombic, rose-colored 
inside, showing the streaks through ; peristome simple, unexpanded, 
the right margin reflexed, overhanging. Alt. 31, diam. 12 mill. ; 
aperture 15 mill, long, 7 wide. (Pfr.'). 

Andes of Peru (Cuming coll.). 

Bulimus phryne PFR., P. Z. S., 1862, p. 274 ; Monogr., vi, p. 120. 

Mr. DaCosta states that this is not separable from B. murrinus 
Reeve. 

Var. convexus (Pfeitfer). 

Shell narrowly umbilicated, oblong-fusiform, rather solid, striate, 
shining ; whitish, ornamented with streaks of brown lineolate with 
white; spire lengthened, rather acute. Whorls 7, convex, the last 
a little shorter than the spire, compressed around the umbilicus. 
Columella arcuate, with a nodule above its base. 

Aperture oblique, receding at base, elliptical, the base channelled, 
lilac-rose colored within ; peristome rather broadly expanded, the 



216 DRYM^EUS, SOUTH AMERICAN. 

columellar margin narrowly reflexed. Alt. 38, diam. 14 mill. ; aper- 
ture inside 17 mill, long, 1\ wide (P/r.). 

U. S. of Colombia (Cuming Coll.). 

Bulimus convexus PFR., P. Z. S., 1855, p. 116 ; B. (Goniostomus') 
convexus PFR., Mai. Bl., 1855, p. 150 ; Monogr.,iv, p. 444. 

A variety is smaller, tawny banded with brown. The species has 
not been figured, and Mr. daCosta considers it a synonym of 
mwrrinus. 

D. ANTIOQUIENSIS (Pfeiffer). 

Shell shortly and deeply rimate, ovate-pyramidal, rather solid, 
minutely malleated, a little shining ; white ornamented with irre- 
gular, straight or angular pale violaceous streaks ; spire long-conic, 
the apex buff, rather acute; whorls 6, a little convex, the last 
slightly longer than the spire, rounded ; columella subplicate above, 
red (rubella). Aperture slightly oblique, obliquely truncate-oblong ; 
peristome thin, pale yellow (vitellinurti), broadly and subequally ex- 
panded throughout. Alt. 30, diam. 13 mill. ; aperture, with per- 
istome, 17 mill, long, 12 wide. (Pfr.). 

Province of Antioquia, Colombia (Schlim). 

Bulimus antioquiensis PFR., P. Z. S., 1854, p. 291 ; Monogr., iv, 
p. 395. 

An unfigured species, described from Cuming's collection. 
D. MULIEBRIS (Reeve). PI. 34, fig. 11. 

Shell acuminately oblong, umbilicated, rather thin ; whorls 7 in 
number, somewhat rudely very finely striated ; columella reflected ; 
aperture ovate, lip simple. Whitish, longitudinally painted through- 
out with narrow brown streaks, which are here and there darker. 
(Reeve). 

Shell compressed-umbilicate, acuminate-oblong, rather thin, irre- 
gularly striated, a little shining ; whitish, ornamented with narrow 
tawny and chestnut streaks; spire elongated, the apex acute; 
whorls 6, somewhat flattened, the last a little shorter than the spire, 
somewhat compressed at base. Aperture slightly oblique, oblong, 
colored within like the outside ; peristome simple, thin, the margins 
subparallel, right margin straight, columellar margin buff, dilated, 
rather flattened. Alt. 30, diam. 11 mill. ; aperture 14 } mill, long, 
6 wide. (P/r.). 

Andes of Colombia. 



DRYM^US, SOUTH AMERICAN. 217 

Bulimus muliebris REEVE, Conch. Icon., pi. 81, f. 598 (Dec., 
1849). PFR., Monogr., iii, p. 426; Conchyl. Cab., p. 92, pi. 31, f. 
13, 14. 

D. SUBEFFUSUS (Philippi). PI. 48, figs. 43, 44. 

Shell perforate, fusiform-turrited, rather thin, striatulate ; whitish, 
ornamented with brown longitudinal lines. Spire conic, lengthened, 
rather acute. Whorls 7, a little convex, the last about three-fourths 
as long as the spire. Columella somewhat folded, then bent to the 
right; aperture ovate-oblong, angulate at base; peristome rather 
thin, the right margin narrowly expanded, columellar margin dila- 
ted, hardly covering the perforation. Alt. 4(H, diam. 17 mill. ; 
aperture 19 mill, long, 9 wide. (Phil.'). 

Coyllorbamba, Huancayo, Peru (Raimondi). 

Bulimus subeffusus PHIL., Malak. Bl., xvi, 1869, p. 36. PFR., 
Novit. Conch., p. 468, pi. 102, f. 1, 2 ; Monogr., viii, p. 112. 

Based by Philippi upon a single somewhat faded specimen, which 
in form of the shell and expansion of the lip resembled B.zoograph- 
icus Orb. ; but the aperture is subangular at base, the lower part of 
the columella bent to the right, as in B. Tiamadryas Phil., and the 
color pattern is like that of B. linostoma Orb. 

D. PEALIAXUS (Lea). PI. 41, fig. 26. 

Shell ovately conical, imperforate, smooth, shining, ash-colored, 
rather thick, furnished with longitudinal purple spots ; whorls 6. 
Aperture widened out, purple ; outer lip acute, reflected. Length 
I'l, diam. 0'4 inch. (Lea). 

Near the Rapids of Angostura, Colombia (T. R. Peale). 

Bulimus pealianus LEA, Trans. Amer. Philos. Soc., vi, p. 65, pi. 
33, f. 105 (1838); Observations on the genus Unio, etc., ii, p. 65, 
pi. 23, f. 105. 

During Mr. Peale's travels in Colombia he found a single speci- 
men of this beautiful species, and I am indebted to his kindness 
for the privilege of describing it. In this individual the longitudi- 
nal spots are more numerous on the whorl next to the body whorl, 
there being none on that part near to the outer lip. (Lea). 

The type of this species was placed by Peale in his Philadelphia 
Museum. It was lost either in the fire which destroyed a large por- 
tion of that collection, or at the final dispersal of the remainder. 

The species is unknown in American collections. Pfeiffer has 




218 DRYM^US, SOUTH AMERICAN. 

identified with it a shell in the Cuming collection, which he thu& 
describes: 

" Shell subimperforate, ovate-conic, rather thin and smooth, 
shining, whitish, painted with spaced purple-brown flames. Spire 
conic, rather acute ; suture margined. Whorls 6, a little convex, 
the last longer than the spire, dilated basally ; columella com- 
pressedly folded, strongly receding, white. Aperture subvertical, 
oval, wide at base, purple-bordered within ; peristome thin, widely 
expanded. Alt. 21, diam, 11 mill.; aperture 16? mill, long, 11 
wide.". (PL 41, figs. 27, 28). 

The identity of this with Lea's species is questionable. 

D. LINOSTOMA (d'Orbigny). PL 36, figs. 41, 42. 

Shell oblong, ventricose, very thin, diaphanous, smooth, glossy, 
and appearing entirely smooth to the naked eye, but under a strong 
lens showing very fine, ill-defined transverse lines ; dirty white or 
slightly roseate, Avith wide and well spaced longitudinal flames of 
brownish-violet. Spire conic, quite short, obtuse at apex, composed 
of 5 wide, inflated whorls separated by a deep, smooth suture ; the 
last whorl very large, more than half the total length. 

Aperture violet within, passing into rose, large, oval, a little ob- 
lique, the peristome rose colored, much expanded and wide but not 
recurved ; columella twisted, with a thick, prominent flange, leaving 
quite a distinct umbilicus behind it. Alt. 29, diam. 14 mill. (Orb.~). 

North of the Mission of Bibosi, prov. Santa Cruz de la Sierra, and 
other localities in Bolivia. 

Helix linostoma ORB., Mag. de ZooL, 1835, p. 19. Bulimus lino- 
stoma ORB., Voy. Amer. Merid., p. 314, pi. 40, f. 9-11. REEVE, 
Conch. Icon., pi. 55, f. 613. PFR., Monogr., ii, p. 35; iii, 334 ; iv, 
392 ; Conchyl. Cab., p. 112, pi. 34, f. 11, 12.Bulimulus linostoma 
BECK, Index, p. 63. Not B. linostoma Bland in Ad., Contrib. to 
Conch., No. 11. p. 230. 

The Colombian shells identified with linostoma by Bland are D. 
flexuosus ; D. linostoma is not known to occur in that country. 

D. SERRATUS (Pfeiffer). PL 36, figs. 46, 47. 

Shell perforate or rarely closed, ovate-conic, rather thin ; white 
above the periphery with longitudinal purple-brown stripes, the 
continuity of which is interrupted in two places by sharp arrow- 
shaped zig-zags : the whorls of the spire with several spiral series of 



DRYM^EUS, SOUTH AMERICAN. 219 

brown spots ; base lilac tinted, almost or entirely without markings. 
Surface glossy, smooth, under the lens showing fine but distinct 
spiral striation and slight growth lines. Spire short, conic, the apex 
rather obtuse, earlier If whorls corneous or blackish-tipped, with 
the usual Drymceus sculpture. Whorls 5| or 6, slightly convex, 
the last large, rather inflated, suddenly ascending in front. 

Aperture large, decidedly oblique, purple tinted and showing the 
external markings within ; peristome very broadly expanded, flar- 
ing, lilac-purple with paler outer edge; columella vertical, straight 
or slightly concave, the margin broadly reflexed above. 

Alt. 24*, diam. 13 mill. ; alt. of aperture 14 mill. 

Alt. 22, diam. 11 mill. ; alt. of aperture 12? mill. 

Moyobamba, eastern Peru (Yates). 

Bulimus sermtus PFR., P. Z. S., 1855, p. 94, pi. 31, f. 6; Novit. 
Conch., i, p. 66, pi. 18, f. 15, 16 ; Monogr., iv, p. 391. Bulimus 
meobambicus MORICAND MSS., according to Pfr. 

The large, oblique aperture, greatly expanded outer lip and pecu- 
liar coloration of stripes abruptly terminating at the periphery, are 
the more prominent features of this species. 

D. DACOSTIANUS Pilsbry, n. n. PI. 50, fig. 87. 

Shell ovate, thin, imperforate. Whorls 5, smooth, glossy, seen 
under the lens to have transverse impressed sculpture, the apical 
two whorls very delicately granulate. Pure white, longitudinally 
streaked with blackish-chestnut. Columella narrowly reflexed. 
Aperture ample, the outer lip simple, little expanded. Alt. 19, 
diam. 11 mill. (daCosta). 

Ecuador (Buckley). 

Bulimuliu (Drymceus) lucidus DACosTA, Proc. Mai. Soc. Lond., 
iii, p. 82, pi. 6, f. 4 (July, 1898). Not Bulimus lucidus Reeve, 
which is also a Drymceus. 

D. BAEZEXSIS (Hidalgo). PL 36, figs. 48, 49, 50, 51. 

Shell narrowly umbilicated, fusiform-ovate, thin, shining, striatu- 
late ; white, with five yellow transverse bands maculated with 
brown ; spire lengthened, rather acute ; suture simple. Whorls 6, 
a little convex, rather rapidly increasing, the earliest two very 
minutely decussated (as seen under a lens), the last more convex, 
obliquely descending ; columella little arcuate, scarcely folded. 
Aperture ovate, colored within like the outside, half the length of 



220 DRYM^EUS, SOUTH AMERICAN. 

the shell; peristome broadly expanded, scarcely reflexed, white, 
the terminations joined by a very thin callus, right margin regu- 
larly arcuate, columellar margin dilated, reflexed above, somewhat 
sinuous, half covering the umbilicus. Alt. 31, diam. 12 mill. 
(Hidalgo'). 

Baeza, Ecuador (Martinez). 

Bulimus baezensis HIDALGO, Journ. de Conchyl., 1869, p. 189 ; 
1870, p. 48, pi. 1, f. 3 ; Viaje al Pacifico, p. 75, pi. 7, f. 11, 12. 

Very variable in color pattern. Hidalgo mentions the following 
variations: (1) Shell with bands and spots confluent (yellow, orna- 
mented with subundulating brown streaks) ; (2) Pale yellow, 
banded with white at suture and umbilicus ; (3) Uniform whitish. 

D. ^QUATORIANUS (Smith). PI. 36, fig. 45. 

Shell umbilicate, ovate acuminate, thin, very minutely spirally 
striated, and sculptured with growth-lines ; buff-white longitudinally 
streaked with rather wide and somewhat lightning streaked zig- 
zagged black-brown stripes. Spire conic, the apex rather acute ; 
whorls 6, little convex, the last large, somewhat inflated, ascend- 
ing a short distance in front. 

Aperture oval, pale buff inside, with pellucid streaks, a little ex- 
ceeding half the total alt. of the shell ; peristome thin, broadly 
expanded, rose colored outside and within ; columellar margin 
broadly reflexed. Alt. 26 J, diam. 11 ; aperture 14 mill, long, 9 
wide. (Smith'). 

Ecuador. 

Bulimus (Drymozus) cequatorianus E. A. SMITH, P. Z. S., 1877, p. 
363, pi. 39, f. 7. 

The species here described has been confounded with B. fucatus 
of Keeve, and was so labelled in the Cumingian collection. The 
type of that species, with the majority of all the others described in 
the late Mr. Lombe Taylor's collection having been most liberally 
presented to the British Museum by Mrs. L. Taylor, has enabled me 
to compare the two forms ; and certain differences are observable 
which appear sufficiently constant to distinguish them. 

In the first place, Reeve's species is from New Grenada, and the 
present one from Ecuador. It is also larger than the former, has 
the body whorl more inflated, the aperture is longer than half the 
entire length of the shell, whereas it is less in fucatus; the peristome 
is more inflated, and the coloration is different. (Smith). 



DRYM.EUS, SOUTH AMERICAN. 221 

A specimen before me probably referable to D. cequatorianus as a 
variety is a smaller, less conic than Mr. Smith's figure, the longitu- 
ninal stripes are nearly regular instead of zig-zag. Whorls 5$ ; lip 
pink outside and within. Alt. 22, diam. 11, alt. of aperture 12$ 
mill. (See pi. 36, figs. 43, 44). 

D. RECEDENS (Pfeiffer). 

Shell compressed- umbilicate, ovate-subfusiform, thin, smooth ; 
pale yellow painted with undulating, sub-interrupted brown streaks ; 
spire exactly conical, apex acute ; whorls 6, nearly flat, the last 
longer than the spire, receding and slightly attenuated at base ; 
columella inflated, twisted. Aperture slightly oblique, oblong- 
oval, angular above ; peristome thin, whitish, the right margin 
rather widely expanded, columellar margin reflexed, dilated above. 

Alt, 27, diam. 12 mill. ; aperture 16 mill, long (Pfr.). 

Moyobamba, Eastern Peru. 

Bulimus recedens PFR., P. Z. S., 1863, p. 525 ; Monogr., vi, p. 37. 
An unfigured species, said by Pfeiffer to be similar in form to B. 
serratus. 

D. ISCLINATUS (Pfeiffer). PI. 35, fig. 33. 

Shell scarcely perforate, fusiform-oblong, rather solid, striate and 
rugose, and sculptured with very fine spiral striae, a little shining, 
whitish. Spire conic, rather acute; whorls 5*, a little convex, the 
last two-thirds of the t)tal length, attenuated at base. Columella 
callous, rather straightly receding. 

Aperture oblique, oval ; peristome simple, the right margin much 
dilated below, expanded, columellar margin sub-adnate. Alt. 33- 
34, diam. 12 mill.; aperture 21 mill, long, 13 wide, including peri- 
stome (P/V.). 

U. S. of Colombia (Cuming Coll.). 

Bulimus inclinatus PFR., P. Z. S., 1861, p. 387, pi. 37, f. 3 ; Mon- 
ogr. vi, p. 41. 

D. EURYSTOMUS (Philippi). PI. 41, figs. 24, 25. 

Shell narrowly perforate, oblong-subfusiform, striatulate, seen 
under the lens to be grooved with very delicate, distant, transverse 
lines ; very thin, hyaline. Spire turrited-conic, rather obtuse ; 
whorls 6, rather flat, the last longer than the spire, subangular in 
the middle ventrally, compressed around the perforation. Aperture 
ovate ; columella compressed, lightly arcuate ; peristome thin, re- 



222 DRYM^US, SOUTH AMERICAN. 

flexed, tawny-bordered outside and within; columellar margin little 
dilated. Alt. 27, diarn. 15 mill.; aperture 16 mill, long, 9 wide 
(Phil.}. 

Chanchamayo, Peru (Raimondi). 

Bulimus eurystomus PHIL., Malak. Bl., xiv, 1867, p. 68. PFR., 
Novit. Conch., p. 343, pi. 81 , f. 7, 8 ; Monogr., vi, p. 48. 

D. SUBSIMILARIS Pilsbry, n. sp. PI. 44, figs. 15, 16. 

Shell imperforate, oblong-acuminate, slender, rather thin but mod- 
erately solid. Fleshy-white, with two spiral series of small brown 
spots on the spire, the spaces between spots white; dark stripes 
running downward from some of the spots on the last whorl. Sur- 
face glossy, with faint growth-wrinkles and almost effaced, minute, 
close, spiral striation. Spire long, a little convexly conic; apex 
corneous, rather obtuse. Whorls over 5i, moderately convex, the 
last tapering below. 

Aperture long ovate, less than half the total length of shell, ob- 
lique, whitish and showing the spots within, becoming lilac-purple 
toward the lip; peristome expanded, white; columella cord-like, 
with a long fold above ; parietal wall slightly purple-tinted. Alt. 
23, diam.9, alt of aperture 11 mill. 

Habitat uncertain, probably western Brazil or eastern Peru, 

Much more slender than D. similaris, which it resembles in color- 
pattern and texture. In subsimilaris there are no longitudinal stripes 
on the spire, the aperture is far less ample, lilac within, and the col- 
umellar lip is completely appressed and adnate throughout. De- 
scribed from one specimen which was in a tray with D. serratus Pfr., 
a species of widely different form. 

Group of D. expansus. 

D. EXPANSUS (Pleiffer). PI. 34, figs. 1-5. 

Shell large, deeply and broadly compressed-rimate, ovate-conic, 
thin ; whitish, brownish, or rose-tinted white, variously streaked and 
maculate with brown or purple- brown ; somewhat glossy, sculptured 
with raised, thread-like rib-strice on the last whorl and a half, show- 
ing under the lens more or less distinct traces of fine, incised spiral 
striation. Spire conic with straight lateral outlines, the apex rather 
obtuse, earlier 1$ whorls with typical Drymceus sculpture; whorls 
6, moderately convex, the last rotund, the broad base somewhat 
flattened, suture suddenly ascending behind the lip. 



DRYM^US, SOUTH AMERICAN. 223 

Aperture large, a little exceeding half the length of the shell, 
vertical, more or less deeply lilac colored and showing the external 
markings within; peristome very broadly expanded throughout; col- 
umella strongly twisted, obliquely truncate below, its margin very 
broadly, flatly dilated above, making an angle with body whorl at 
the insertion. 

Alt. 42, diam. 22 ; alt. of aperture 23 mill. 

Alt. 44, diam. 20 ; alt. of aperture 24 mill. 

Upper Amazon drainage in eastern Peru : Huallaga (Sowb.) ; 
Moyobamba (Yates) ; Pebas (Castelnau) ; Huancavelica (Castelnau) ; 
between Lamas and Tarapoto (Phil., for B. auris-ratti). Also, Cane- 
los, Ecuador (Almagro). 

Bulinus pulchellus SOWB., Conch. Illustr., f. 91. Not Bulimus 
pulchellus Brod., P. Z. S., 1832, p. 106. Bulimus expansus PFR., 
Monogr., ii, p. 60 ; iii, p. 331 ; iv, p. 394 ; vi, p. 40. HIDALGO, Journ. 
de Conch., 1870, p. 47; Viaje al Pacifico, p. 71. HUPE in Castel- 
nau, Anirn. Nouv.ou rares Amer. du Sud, p. 42, pi. 6, f. 3. CROSSE, 
Journ. de Conch., 1871, p. 316. Bulimus iodostomus DEVILLE & 
HUPE, Revue Zool., 1850, p. 641, pi. 15, f. 2. Otostomus pulchellus 
DOHRN, Jahrb. D. M. Ges., ix, 1882, p. 106. Bulimu* auris-ratti 
PHIL., Malak. Bl., xiv, 1867, p. 69. PFR., Novit. Conch., p. 336, pi. 
4% f. 10, 11. 

The strong rib striation, short, full body-whorl, twisted columella 
and conspicuously expanded peristome are characteristic. The lilac 
or purple color of the aperture varies to a faint tint in some speci- 
mens ; and the external markings are quite variable. 

Dohrn mentions a short variety, alt. 33, diam. 25 mill. ; and a 
specimen in Pfeiffer's collection is long and slender, alt. 30, diam. 
17 mill. The broader examples have a sort of perforation at the 
nd of the umbilical chink, but this is closed in the more slender 
shells. 

Philippi's B. auris-ratti (pi. 34, figs. 3, 4) is referred to expansus 
as a synonym, by Dohrn. The figures show a more straightly conic 
spire with less convex whorls, but this may be a fault of the draw- 
ing. It comes from the region inhabited by D. expansus. 

Var. VANATTAI n. v. PI. 34, tig. 6. 

Smaller than typical D. expansus; cream or brownish, becoming 
flesh-pink above, with longitudinal purple-brown maculae and two 
more or less interrupted spiral girdles ; sculpture of white, thread- 



224 DRYM^US, SOUTH AMERICAN. 

like rib-striae with fine, faint spirals between them ; apex light, or 
black tipped. Aperture vividly showing the external markings in- 
side, the peristome lilac-pink, fading to white at the outer edge. 
Whorls 6; alt. 30, diam. 15, length of aperture 17 mill. 

Possibly identical with Sowerby's B. pulchellus var., Conch. 
Illustr., f. 92, but the specimens before me have a different color 
pattern. 

D. SCITUS (H. Adams). PI. 32, fig. 45. 

Shell rimate-perforate, ovate-pyramidal, rather thin, irregularly 
somewhat wrinkled striate, and obsoletely decussated with minute 
spiral lines; buff-white, sparsely ornamented with interrupted brown 
bands and spots. Spire conic, the apex acute. Whorls 6, rather 
flat, the last a little longer than the spire; rotund, compressed at base, 
obtusely carinated around the perforation. Columella twisted. 
Aperture vertical, wide, rounded or ear-shaped, violet colored in- 
side; peristome simple, broadly expanded throughout. Alt. 28, 
diam. 17 mill. (H. Ad.). 

Eastern Peru (Bartlett). 

Otostomus scitus H. AD., P. Z. S., 1866, p. 442, pi. 38, f. 5. Bull- 
mus scitus PFR., Monogr.. viii, p. 55. 

Dohrn considers this a synonym of D. expansus. 

D. BARTLETTI (H. Adams). PI. 32, fig. 44. 

Shell umbilicate, globose-conic, rather thin, irregularly striated 
and closely decussated with very minute spiral lines; whitish, 
painted with an interrupted, white dotted, chestnut band and brown 
flames. Spire conic, a little obtuse. Whorls 5, rather flattened, 
the last ventricose, ascending, a little longer than the spire, obtusely 
keeled at base. Aperture subvertical, oblique, suboval ; peristome 
thin, broadly expanded throughout. Alt. 25, greatest diam. 26, 
least 18 mill. (H.Ad.\ 

Eastern Peru (E. Bartlett). 

Otostomus bartletti H. AD., P. Z. S., 1866, p. 442, pi. 38, f. 4. 
D. PROTRACTUS (Pfeiffer). PI. 42, figs. 61, 62. 

Shell deeply and widely rimate-perforate, oblong pyramidal, 
rather thin, pale buff or almost white, uniform or with longitudinal 
light brown streaks, narrow and subobsolete on the body whorl, the 
apex black ; surface somewhat shining, closely and rather coarsely 
striated. Spire long conic, the apex rather obtuse ; whorls 6J, the 



DRYM^EUS, SOUTH AMERICAN. 225 

last perceptibly compressed above, very convex at the periphery, 
slightly ascending behind the lip. 

Aperture ovate, vertical, half the length of shell, white or streaked 
with reddish within ; peristome thin, white, the outer lip slightly 
expanded above, becoming broadly so below ; columella nearly 
straight, its margin very broadly dilated above, making an angle or 
even slightly channeled at its junction with the body-whorl. Alt. 
26, diam. 12 J; alt. of aperture 12i-13 mill. 

Moyobamba, eastern Peru (Yates). 

Bulimus protractus PFR., P. Z. S., 1855, p. 94, pi. 31, f. 1 ; Novit. 
Conch., i, p. 66, pi. 18, f. 13, 14 ; Monogr., iv, p. 389 ; vi,p. 35. B. 
prostratus SCHAUFUS in Patel Catal., p. 81 . 

The black apex, rather coarse striation and peculiar columellar 
lip are its more prominent features, the latter being formed as in 
other members of this group of species, most of which are stouter 
shells than protractus. 

Pfeiffer mentions a variety which is smaller, the last whorl sub- 
angular, right margin of the peristome slightly curved. 

D. NIGROGULARIS (Dohrn). PI. 42, figs. 56, 57, 58, 59. 

Shell narrowly rimate or perforate, oblong-acuminate, spirally 
striatulate, a little wrinkled obliquely, shining, thin, semipellucid, 
pale yellowish or buff, uniform or streaked with chestnut; spire 
lengthened, the apex decussated, rather acute; suture simple. 
Whorls 7, a little convex, the last whorl about as long as the spire, 
somewhat compressed at base. Aperture little oblique, truncate- 
oblong, subeffuse, colored within like the outside, the parietal wall 
black ; peristome citron tinted, thin, expanded, the margins ap- 
proaching, joined by a thin callus, right margin moderately arcuate, 
basal margin somewhat receding, columellar margin vertical, tri- 
angularly dilated above. Alt. 29-34, diam. 13-15 mill, aperture 
16-17 mill, long, 10-12 wide (Dohrn'). 

Juraty, prov. Para, on the right bank of the Amazon River. 

Otostomus nigrogularis DOHRN, Jahrb. D. Mai. Gesellsch., ix, 
1882, p. 107, pi. 3, f. 10-13. 

Belongs to the numerous group of very similar species like B. 

geometricus Pfr., B. xanthostomus Reeve (not Orb.), etc., but known 

from all of them by the black-calloused parietal wall. The variations 

in contour consist in the greater or less slenderness of the spire, and 

15 



226 DRYM^EUS, SOUTH AMERICAN. 

the corresponding more or less lateral deviation of the aperture. 

(Dohrn). 

D. PUNCTICULATUS (Pfeiffer). 

Shell profoundly and compressedly umbilicate, ovate-conic, rather 
thin, smoothish, shining ; whitish, with sparsely scattered pellucid 
dots. Spire long conic, rather acute. Whorls 7, rather flat, the 
upper buff; last whorl shorter than the spire, ascending anteriorly, 
slightly compressed basally. Columella somewhat receding, lightly 
arcuate; aperture subvertical, oblong-oval ; peristome simple, the 
right margin narrowly expanded, columellar margin very much 
dilated, somewhat flexuous. Alt. 29, diara. 12i mill. ; aperture with 
peristome 14 mill, long, 81 wide. (Pfr.). 

Bolivia (Cuming coll.). 

Bulimus puncticulatus PFR., P. Z. S., 1856, p, 390 ; Monogr., iv, 
p. 404. 

D. HAMADRYAS (Philippi). PI. 41, figs. 32, 33. 

Shell perforate, ovate-fusiform, very thin and very glossy ; whitish, 
painted with angular red, white-clouded streaks. Whorls 6, rather 
flat, the last compressed and subangular basally, slightly longer than 
the spire. Aperture subtriangular, spreading, lilac-margined in- 
side ; columella slender, very short ; peristome dilated, subreflexed ; 
columellar lip very oblique, forming an angle with the outer lip, 
moderately dilated above, half covering the umbilical chink. Alt. 
31J, oblique diam. 14 mill. ; aperture nearly 17 mill, long, 9 wide 
(Philippi). 

Chanchamayo, Peru (Raimondi). 

Bulimus hamadryas PHIL,, Malak. Bl., xiv, 1867, p. 68. PFR., 
Novit. Conch., p. 341, pi. 81, f. 1, 2 : Monogr., vi, p. 79. 

The angular base recalls D. fidaensis, the coloring D. expansus. 
Philippi remarks upon the resemblance to B. aurisratti. "A dis- 
tinct though rounded angulation encircles the umbilicus, terminat- 
ing at the lower angle of the aperture. Embryonal whorls under a 
strong lens very finely decussated. Colors, especially of the aper- 
ture, almost as in B. xanthostoma Orb." 

D. CRICHTONI (Broderip). PL 34, fig. 14. 

Shell imperforate, ovate-turrited, the apex obtuse ; longitudinally 
strongly rib-plicate ; yellow, variegated with dull green. Whorls 
, a little convex, the last about as long as the spire ; columella 



DRYM^US, SOUTH AMERICAN. 227 

somewhat twisted, vertical. Aperture oblong, sinuously effuse at 
base, reddish within ; peristome thickened, broadly expanded, 
roseate, the terminations joined by a wide, deep rose colored callus ; 
columellar margin receding, as though truncate, at base. Alt. 70, 
diam. 29 mill. (Pfr.). 

Ambo, near Huanuco, Peru. 

Bulinus crichtoni BROD., P. Z. S., 1836, p. 44. SOWERBY, Conch. 
Illustr., f.GQ.Bulimus crichtoni REEVE, Conch. Syst., ii, pi. 173, f. 
4 ; Conch. Icon., pi. 39, f. 240. PFR., Monogr., ii, p. 28. Otostomus 
crichtoni H. ADAMS, P. Z. S., 1866, p. 442. 

" The apex of the shell under description, the only specimen I 
ever saw, is broken. It will be observed that the specimen is 
notched at the base, but I suspect that this arises from accidental 
distortion " (Broderip). 

A second specimen, collected by Bartlett in eastern Peru, is re- 
ported by H. Adams. May be a Porphyrobaphe. 

D. NARCISSUS (Albers). PL 29, figs. 29, 30. 

v Shell profoundly and compressed umbilicate, turrited-oblong, 
rather solid and somewhat smooth, very minutely spirally striated 
under the lens, a little shining, chalky. Spire convex-turrited, the 
apex acute. Whorls 6*, the upper flat, latter two convex, the last 
shorter than the spire, somewhat roughened, ascending in front, 
somewhat compressed at base. Columella folded above. 

Aperture subvertical, oblong, purple-violaceous inside ; peristome 
purple, inwardly blackish, the right margin broadly expanded, 
columellar margin much dilated, separated from the preceding 
whorl by a groove at its insertion, sinuously spreading, a little re- 
flexed. Alt. 36, diam. 14 mill.; aperture with peristome 18 mill, 
long, 12 wide (P/r.). 

U. S. of Colombia. 

Bulimus narcissus ALBERS, Malak. Bl., 1854, p. 217. PFR., 
Monogr., iv, p. 384 ; Novit, Conch., i, p. 33, pi. 9, f. 10, 11. 

Somewhat like Neopetr&us vadum Pils. in appearance, but that 
species has keeled upper whorls, no groove at root of the columella, 
no minute spiral striation, and a differently colored mouth and lip. 
Pfeiffer considers narcissus near to D. lilacinus Reeve. 

D. EXCORIATUS (Pfeiffer). 

Shell openly umbilicated, ovate-acuminate, rather thin, striatu- 
late, under the lens punctulate, not shining, flesh colored. Spire 



228 DRYM^EUS, SOUTH AMERICAN. 

conic, acute ; whorls 6, a little convex, the last longer than the 
spire, somewhat inflated. Aperture slightly oblique, acuminate- 
oval; peristome thin, expanded, the margins nearly contiguous, 
joined by a thin callus, right margin dilated in the middle, colum- 
ellar margin very much dilated. Alt. 39, diam. 19 mill. ; aperture 
with peristome 23 mill, long, 16 wide (P/V.). 

Andes of Peru (Keppell, in Cuming coll.). 

Bulimus excoriatus PFR., P. Z. S., 1854, p. 123 ; Monogr., iv, p. 
395. 

Group of D. strigatus. 

D. STRIGATUS (Sowerby). PL 42, figs. 39-52. - 

Shell broadly and openly rimate, ovate-conic, moderately solid ; 
white or light brown, unicolored or with continuous or interrupted 
bands, or oblique stripes or streaks. Shining, with slight growth* 
lines and very minute spiral impressed striae, the latter generally 
subobsolete. Spire conic, varying a good deal in alt., apex obtuse, 
often black-tipped. Whorls 5 to 6J, the earlier 1 with minute 
typical Drymceus sculpture, the rest convex, last whorl well rounded, 
slightly ascending in front, very convex below, excavated around the* 
umbilical chink. 

Aperture short, oval, varying from distinctly to but slightly 
oblique, showing the external coloring within, but becoming purple- 
tinged toward the lip, inside of which there is a purple streak ; per- 
istome white, rather flatly reflexed throughout, the terminations ap- 
proaching ; outer lip decidedly arcuate near its upper insertion, col- 
umellar lip dilated. 

Alt. 2U, diam. 12 ; alt. of aperture 10 mill. 

Alt. 19, diam. 11 ; alt. of aperture 9? mill. 

Alt. 23, diam. 11 ; alt. of aperture 11 mill. 

Peru : Huallaga [river ?] (Sowerby) ; Maynas (Acad. coll.) ; 
Moyobamba (Yates) ; banks of Ucayali jR. (Ortou). 

Bulinus strigatus SOWERBY, Conch. Illustr., f. 95, 96. Bulimus 
strigatus PFR., Monogr., ii, p. 601. REEVE, Conch. Icon., pi. 83, f. 
613 (not pi. 44, f. 280). Bulimus saccatus PFR., P. Z. S., 1855, p. 
94, pi. 31, f. 2 ; Novit. Conch., p. 65, pi. 18, f. 9-12 ; Monogr., iv, 
p. 385. CROSSE, Journ. de Conch., 1871, p. 317. DOHRN, Jahrb. 
d. D. M. Ges., 1882, p. 107 (unites musivus and saccatus'). Bulimus 
musivus PFR., P. Z. S., 1855, p. 95, pi. 31, f. 3 ; Novit. Conch., p. 65, 



DRYM^US, SOUTH AMERICAN. 229 

pi. 18, f. 7, 8 ; Monogr., iv, p. 392. Bulimulus (Drymceus) musicus 
PAETEL, Catalog, p. 101. 

Excessively variable in coloration. 

Typical strigatus (figs. 39, 40) is boldly striped with blackish- 
brown, the stripes either comparatively straight or markedly zigzag. 
They never extend over the base of the shell. I do not see any 
differential characters between strigatus and musivus (figs. 42-45). 
A form with narrow brown stripes in place of the wide ones occurs. 

Color-var. purus (fig. 41). Uniform white or with a single dark 
basal baud ; lip and columella purple within. 

Color var. saccatus Pfr. (figs. 46-49). White or whitish with 
three interrupted spiral blackish bands, and often more or less 
oblique streaking. 

It is altogether likely that B. delphince and mar ice of Moricand 
are forms of this species ; the series before me includes specimens 
closely resembling Moricand's figure of the former. Only full 
collections can decide whether delphince, cecilece and marice are 
really varieties in the true sense. 

Var. DELPHIN^ (Moricand). PI. 42, fig. 50. 

Shell umbilicate, ovate-pyramidal, thin, lightly striatulate ; rose- 
ate, unicolored or interruptedly banded or maculate with black ; 
spire conic, obtuse ; whorls 5-6i, nearly flat, the suture impressed, 
last whorl about as long as the spire; columella straight. Aperture 
shaped as in the genus Partula, vertical, ovate-oblong, lilac-colored 
inside ; peristome expanded, white, the right lip strongly curved 
above, expanded, white. Alt. 20-22, diam. 8-9 mill. (MoricJ. 

Tarapoto, Peru (Moric.) ; on the way from Rio Mayo, a tributary 
of the Huallaga R., to Lamas, in a red sandstone region, n.-e. Peru 
(Stiibel). 

Bulimus delphince MORIC., Rev. et Mag. de Zool. (2), x, 1858, p. 
452, pi. 14, f. 3. PFR., Monogr., vi, p. 37. Otostomus (Drymceus) 
delphince Moric., MARTENS, Conchol. Mittheil., p. 160. 

Moricand writes : This shell varies a little in form, which is 
more or less elongated, and in color-pattern. It is always rosy, 
shining, with the interior of the aperture of a more or less deep lilac. 
Sometimes instead of being entirely roseate, these are several brown- 
ish bands on the last whorl, not reaching to the suture, and other 



230 DRYM^EUS, SOUTH AMERICAN. 

shells have a black band formed of lance-head shaped or square 
spots, showing on the last whorl only, or sometimes on the last and 
next whorls ; the band being as distinct inside as on the exterior. 

Var. CECILE^E (Moricaud). PL 42, fig. 52. 

Shell umbilicated, ovate-pyramidal, thin, translucid, shining ; 
pale buff, with elegant longitudinal narrow tawny streaks. Whorls 
6, a little convex, the last about as long as the spire, suture im- 
pressed ; spire conic, acute. Aperture little oblique, oblong, with a 
very pale lilac border within ; columella slightly arcuate ; peristome 
thin, expanded, buff or white, not continuous. Alt. 22-17, diam. 
10-7 mill. (Jforic.). 

Tarapoto, Peru (Moric.) ; Juan Ouerra, on the Huallaga river, 
n.-e. Peru (Stu'bel). 

Bulimus cecileoR MORIC., Rev. et Mag. de Zool., 1858, p. 452, pi. 
14, f. 4. PFR., Monogr., vi, p. 37. Otostomus (Drymceus) cecilece 
MARTENS, Conchol. Mitth., p. 160. 

Var. MARIEANUS Pilsbry, n. n. PL 42, fig. 51. 

Shell broadly umbilicated, ovate-pyramidal, thin, lightly striated, 
shining; tawny-black, the last whorl begirt with a white band. 
Whorls 6, nearly flat, encircling by a black band or longitudinally 
irregularly streaked with blackish. Columella lightly arcuate. 
Aperture slightly oblique, oval-oblong, blackish inside; peristome 
thin, expanded, dilated, white or buff. Alt. 24, diam. 9-10 mill. 
(Jfon'c.). 

Tarapoto, Peru (Moric.). 

Bulimus marice MORICAND, Rev. et Mag. de Zool., 1858, p. 453, 
pi. 14, f. 5. PFR., Monogr., vi, p. 38. Not B. maria Albers, 1850. 

Probably another variety of D. strigatus, but it seems to have a 
color pattern not represented in the series of that species before me. 

D. ARCUATOSTRIATUS (Pfeiffer). PL 41, fig. 31. 

Shell deeply rimate, ovate-pyramidal, thin, closely arcuate-striate, 
shining, irregularly painted with wide gray-brown bands streakedly 
interrupted, and angular streaks. Spire a little convexly conic, the 
apex black, slightly obtuse. Whorls 6, moderately convex, the last 
about as long as the spire, somewhat ascending in front, base 
slightly attenuated. Columella slightly plicate, subvertical. Aper- 
ture a little oblique, obliquely truncate-oval ; peristome thin, broadly 



DRYM^US, SOUTH AMERICAN. 231 

expanded, the right margin lightly arcuate, coluraellar margin 
vaulted, reflexed. Alt. 30, diam. 13 mill. ; aperture with peristome 
15* mill, long, 1(H wide. (P/r.). 

Huallaga, Peru (Reeve). 

Bulimus strigatus REEVE, Conch. Icon., pi. 44, f. 280. Not of 
Sowerby. Bulimus arcuato-striatus PFR., P. Z. S., 1855, p. 95; 
Monogr., iv, p. 394. 

Considered by Reeve to be specifically the same as Sowerby's 
strigatus, but Pfeiflfer describes the Cumingian specimen as a distinct 
species. 

D. TIGRINUS (daCosta). PL 50, fig. 88. 

Shell pyramidal-oblong, thin, openly umbilicated ; whorls 6, sub- 
inflated, transversely minutely incised-striate. Columella reflexed ; 
lip simple, expanded, pellucid. AVhite, painted longitudinally with 
brown lines and streaks. Aperture ovate. Length 21, diam. 10 
mill. (daCosta). 

Ecuador (Buckley's coll.). 

Bulimulus (Drymceus) tigrinus DACosTA, Proc. Malac. Soc. Lond., 
iii, p. 82, pi. 6, f. 6 (July, 1898). 

Seems allied to D. strigatus, but in that species the incised spirals 
are more minute and irregular in occurrence than the above descrip- 
tion would lead one to think was the case in tigrinus; and no men- 
tion is made by DaCosta of the purple interior of the lip, which is 
more or less conspicuous in strigatus and its varieties. 

D. MELANOSCOLOPS (Dohrn). PI. 42, figs. 53, 54, 55. 

Shell shortly rimate, ovate-pyramidal, very thin, nearly smooth, 
with very fine growth strise, somewhat pellucid; hyaline-whitish 
variously painted with brown ; spire long-conic, the apex acute, 
black ; suture linear. Whorls 6, the embryonic 2 very minutely 
decussated, the rest smooth, slightly convex, last whorl shorter than 
the spire, rounded, subcompressed at base, ascending a short distance 
in front. Aperture slightly oblique, truncate-oval, colored within 
like the outside ; peristome whitish or pale orange, thin, expanded 
throughout, the margins approximating, columellar margin dilated. 
Alt. 20-21, diam. 9 mill. : aperture 91 mill, long, 7 wide. (Dohrri)- 
Province of Para, Brazil, on the Tapajos river* 

Otostomus melanoscolops DOHRN, Jahrb. D. M. Ges., ix, 1882, p. 
108, pi. 3, f. 6-8. 



232 DRYMJEUS, SOUTH AMERICAN. 

The color-forms are : 1, dots and evanescent streaks of brown ; 2, 
a broad basal brown band whence arise ascending streaks ; 3, 5 spiral 
brown bands. 

The black apex, or embryonic whorls are only present in a few 
closely allied species, especially B. protractus Pfr. and B. marice 
Moric. (= B. strigatus Pfr., Mon. iv, var. d), which are distinguish- 
able by other features. 

D. RECTILINEARIS (Pfeiffer.). PI. 44, figs. 9, 10 and young shell, 11. 
Shell profoundly rimate or subperforate, oblong-pyramidal, thin, 
very lightly striatulate, diaphanous; whitish with one to three red- 
dish bands and two wide blackish basal bands, articulated with 
white. Spire long-conic, subrectilinear, with the apex orange and 
rather acute. Whorls 7 to 7 J, rather flattened, the last nearly two- 
fifths the total length, rotund at base. Columella slightly receding. 
Aperture oblique, oval-elliptical ; peristome thin, the right margin 
narrowly expanded; columella very much dilated above, somewhat 
vaulted. Alt. 22-24, diam. 9-l(H mill. ; aperture 10 mill, long, 
5J wide. (Pfr.). 

Peru : Moyobamba (Yates), Tarapoto (Spruce). 

Bulimus rectilinearis PFR., P. Z. S., 1855, p. 96, pi. 31, f. 7 (not 
adult) ; Novit. Conch., iii, p. 414, pi. 94, f. 19, 20; Mouogr., iv, p. 
405 ; vi, 51 ; viii, p. 65. Otostomus rectilinearis H. AD., P. Z. S., 
1870, p. 375. 

D. FID^NSIS (Moricand). PI. 41, fig. 21. 

Shell lengthened-oblong, subfusiform, umbilicate, with acute spire, 
very delicately and irregularly striate ; pale buff, irregularly macu- 
late and figured with chestnut. Whorls 7s, flat, regularly increas- 
ing. Aperture oblong-oval, oblique, subangular at base; lip some- 
what expanded, slightly reflexed, white; pale violaceous inside. 
Alt. 30, diam. 11 mill. (Moric.). 

Bahia, Brazil (Moricand). 

Bulimus fidcensis MORIC., Rev. et Mag. de Zool., 1858, p. 451, pi. 
14, f. 1. Bulimus fidaensis PFR., Monogr., vi, p. 79. 

This Bulimus, which I think is very rare, is long, solid, of a dirty 
yellowish-white, smooth and polished, with some striae of growth and 
other finer, irregular striae visible only under a lens; it is speckled 
with brownish, irregularly scattered spots and dots. The violet 
color of the inside reappears outwardly, surrounding the umbilicus. 



DRYM^US, SOUTH AMERICAN. 233 

The oblique aperture is oval and ends below in a sort of obtuse 
beak ; the right margin is a little expanded, the left is more so, and 
partly covers the umbilicus. (Moricand). 

I have not seen this species, which may be an Odontostomus of 
the subgenus Moricandia. 

D. GUEINZII (Pfeiffer). 

Shell profoundly rimate, oblong-conic, thin, rather smooth, shin- 
ing ; whitish, ornamented with narrow brown streaks which are un- 
dulating toward the base. Spire conic, rather acute. Whorls 6, 
slightly convex, the last slightly shorter than the spire, somewhat 
attenuated basally, violaceous at the umbilical chink. Columella 
compressed, somewhat twisted, violaceous. Aperture slightly oblique, 
truncate oblong, lilac colored inside ; peristome thin, the right mar- 
gin strongly curved, broadly expanded, columellar margin broad. 
Alt. 23, diam. 10 mill.; aperture with peristome 11? mill, long, in- 
side 5? wide. (Pfr.). 

Moyobamba, Peru (Gueinzius in Cuming coll.). 

Bulimus gueinzii PFR., P. Z. S., 1856, p. 330 ; Monogr., iv, p. 387. 
Otostomus (Leiostracus) gueinzii H. AD., P. Z. S., 1870, p. 375. 

D. SIMILARIS (Moricand). PL 42, fig. 60. 

Shell deeply rimate-umbilicate, ovate-conic, rather thin ; white 
with longitudinal serrated brown streaks which do not extend over the 
base, leaving an immaculate umbilical tract, and terminate far short 
of the suture above, in a series of spots forming an narrow interrupted 
(or brown and white articulated) spiral band. Glossy and smooth, 
showing an almost obsolete spiral striation under the lens. Spire 
conic the apex subobtuse, If earlier whorls with typical Drymceus 
sculpture. Whorls 5 to nearly 6, slightly convex, the last a little 
ascending in front, convex below. 

Aperture a little oblique, colored within like the outside, slightly 
exceeding half the length of the shell ; peristome white, well ex- 
panded below, columella concave below, with a slight fold above, 
the edge reflexed, leaving an open but short umbilical chink. 

Alt. 25, diam. 13? ; length of aperture 13 mill. 

Alt. 201, diam. 10 ; length of aperture 101 mill. 

Moyobamba, eastern Peru (Moric.). 

Bulimus similaris MORICAND, Journ. de Conchyl., 1856, p. 177, 
pi. 6, f. 8. PFR., Monogr., iv, p. 391. Otostomus similaris H. 
ADAMS, P. Z. S., 1870, p. 375. 



234 DRYMJEUS, SOUTH AMERICAN. 

The color-pattern is very characteristic and seems unusually con- 
stant in this species. 

D. FUCATUS Keeve. PI. 42, figs. 63-65. 

Shell perforate, ovate-acuminate, thin, smooth; buff or brownish, 
ornamented with distant, somewhat lightning-zigzag blackish- chest- 
nut streaks. Spire conic, the apex rather acute: whorls 6, a little 
convex, the last about as long as the spire, somewhat compressed at 
base, and roseate. Aperture oval, subeffuse ; peristome thin, broadly 
expanded, rose-colored [or white] outside and within, the columellar 
margin somewhat straightened, broadly reflexed above. Alt. 24, 
diam. 10 mill. Aperture (measured inside) 11 mill, long, 6 wide. 



Ecuador : Sebundoi (Reeve) ; Mi. Nanegan (Bourcier) ; Lumaco 
(Martinez) ; Nanegal, 1000-2000 meters alt. ; near San Florendo, 
and on the way to Manabe, 1500 meters (Stu'bel). 

Bulimus fucatus REEVE, Conch. Icon., pi. 83, f. 615. PFR., Con- 
chyl. Cab., p. 100, pi. 32, f. 9, 10 ; Monogr., iii, p. 330. HIDALGO, 
Journ. de Conchyl., 1875, p. 131. Dry mceus fucatus DOHRN, Jahrb. 
D. M. Ges., vii, 1880, p. 88. Otostomus (Drymceus} fucatus MAR- 
TENS, Conchol. Mittheil., p. 160 ; Biol. Centrali Amer., Moll., p. 251. 

Somewhat allied to D. similaris. It has been erroneously attrib- 
uted to Mexico and Colombia. 

D. ^STIVUS (Pfeiffer). 

Shell umbilicated, oblong-turrited, rather solid, irregularly stri- 
ated, whitish ; spire long, a little convexly conic, rather acute. 
Whorls 6, moderately convex, the last about three-sevenths the total 
alt., slightly attenuated at base. Columella somewhat receding. 
Aperture a little oblique, acuminate-oval ; peristome thin, the right 
margin narrowly expanded, columellar margin dilated, vaulted, re- 
flexed. Alt. 17, diam. 7i mill. ; aperture 71 mill, long, 4 wide. 

(flfr-).- 

Moyobamba, Peru (Gueinzius, in Cuming coll.). 
Bulimus cestivus PFR., P. Z. S., 1856, p. 331 ; Monogr., iv, p. 409. 

D. GEOMETRICUS (Pfeiffer). PI. 43, figs. 82, 83, 84, 85, 86. 

Shell rimate-umbilicate, ovate-turrited, solid. Color either (1) 
uniform white, or (2) white with festooned purplish streaks, more or 
less united by two or three spiral bands, or (3^ with the streaks 



DRYM^EUS, SOUTH AMERICAN. 235 

obsolete on body-whorl, bands conspicuous, or (4) fawn colored with 
very indistinct, slightly darker bands and streaks, and several bands 
of square whitish spots. Surface very glossy, with slight growth- 
lines and very minute spiral impressed lines, often subobsolete in 
places. Spire straightly conic, the apex slightly obtuse, nepionic 2 
whorls typically sculptured. Whorls 6?, slightly convex, the last a 
little ascending, somewhat obliquely or laterally produced, broadly 
rounded beneath. 

Aperture decidedly less than half the total alt., subvertical, ovate, 
whitish within, becoming deep purple or pale yellow toward the lip ; 
peristome broadly expanded throughout, white, its inner edge purple 
or yellow ; columellar margin dilated, impressed at the root, then 
rather erect; columella purple, with a short spiral fold above. 

Alt. 33*, diam. 18 ; alt. of aperture 16i mill. 

Magdalena valley (Pfr.) ; Forests in the mountains below Erve, on 
the road to Santa Ana (Bland), among dead leaves. 

Bulimus geometricus PFR., Symbolse, iii, p. 84 ; Monogr., ii, p. 59 ; 
vi, p. 34. REEVE, Conch. Icon., pi. 44, f. 278. BLAND in Adams* 
Contrib. to Conchology, no. 11, p. 230. 

Extremely variable in coloration, but constant in form. The base 
is broadly rounded and the aperture unusually lateral and rather 
short. 

D. CLARUS (Pfeiffer). 

Shell rimate-umbilicate, ovate-oblong, thin, smooth, shining, dia- 
phanous; whitish under a fugaceous, slightly tawny cuticle. Spire 
elongated, convexly conic, rather obtuse. Whorls 5?, moderately 
convex, the last about three-sevenths the total length, rotund basally ; 
columella lightly arcuate. Aperture oblique, truncate-oval ; per- 
istome thin, the margins converging, right margin narrowly ex- 
panded, columellar margin dilated, spreading. Alt. 16, diam. 7 
mill.; aperture 7i mill, long, 4J wide. (Pfr.'). 

Moyobamba, Peru (Gueinzius, in Cuming coll.). 

Bulimus clarus PFR., P. Z. S., 1856, p. 330; Monogr., iv, p. 406. 

D. BUCIA (' Behn ' Pfr.). 

Shell narrowly umbilicate, ovate-conic, rather thin and smooth. 
Grayish-corneous, marked with wide opaque whitish and short chest- 
nut streaks. Spire inflated-conic, acuminate. Whorls 7, the upper 
minute, last 3 very convex, the last whorl shorter than the spire, 



236 DRYLLEUS, SOUTH AMERICAN. 

rotund basally. Aperture oblique, angulate-oval ; peristome thin, 
the right margin narrowly expanded, columellar margin dilated 
above. Alt. 21 , diam. 101 mill. ; aperture 101 mill, long, 5f wide. 



Brazil (Curm'ng coll.). 
Bulimus bucia (BEHN on label), PFR., Malak. BL, vi, 1859, p. 39 ; 
Monogr., vi, p. 52. 

Group of D. orobcenus. 
D. OROBCENUS (Orbigny). PI. 44, figs. 87, 88. 

Shell oblong, subumbilicate, rather thin with irregular and rather 
wrinkle-like growth lines ; uniform yellowish tawny, the apex paler. 
Spire long, with convex outlines, acuminate, the apex a little obtuse. 
Whorls 8, rounded, separated by a deep smooth suture. Aperture 
two-fifths the total length, oval, whitish rufous inside ; the peristome 
very distinctly thickened, whitish; columella oblique, solid, flat. 
Alt. 40, diam. 16 mill. ( Orb.'). 

Mt. Biscachal, near the village of Carcuata, at the eastern edge of 
the province of Yungas, Bolivia, on the northeastern slope of the 
eastern Cordillera, in a very moist wood, over 3000 meters eleva- 
tion. ( Orb.). 

Helix orobcena ORB., Mag. de Zool., 1835, p. 17. Bulimus oro- 
bonus ORB., Voy., p. 293, pi. 39, f. 3, 4. PFR., Monogr., ii, p. 143 ; 
iii, p. 380. 

Reeve's B. cuzcoensis is evidently closely allied. 
D. CUZCOENSIS (Reeve). PI. 44, fig. 89. 

Shell deeply rimate, oblong-turrited, rather thin, irregularly stri- 
ated, little shining; tawny-reddish. Spire convexly turrited, the 
apex acute ; whorls 7, a trifle convex, the last shorter than the spire, 
subrotund at base. Columella obsoletely folded, somewhat reced- 
ing. Aperture little oblique, irregularly oval ; peristome simple, 
the right margin narrowly expanded, columellar margin much dil- 
ated, rugose, reflexed, rather flattened. Alt. 36, diam. 13 ; aperture, 
alt. 17 width 9 mill. (Pfr.). 

" Cuzco, Bolivia" (W. Lobb). 

Bulimus cuzcoensis REEVE, P. Z. S., 1849, p. 98 ; Conch. Icon., 
pi. 71, f. 514. PFR.. Monogr., iii, p. 344. 

Evidently allied to D. orobcenus, of which Pfeiffer thinks it may 
be a variety. 



DRYJtEUS, SOUTH AMERICAN. 237 

D. CYGKEUS (Philippi). PI. 44, figs. 92, 93. 

Shell broadly perforate, obloog-t united, densely plicate- stri ate, 
decussated upon the upper part of the whorls by distant lines; 
white. Whorls 6 to 7, a little convex, the last scarcely as long as 
the spire. Aperture piriform-ovate ; colnmella slightly twisted, 
compressed; peristome expanded, the columellar margin dilated, 
not closing the umbilicus. Largest specimen measures : Alt. 37, 
diam. 19 mill.; aperture, measured outside, alt. 19, width 12 mill. 



" Lomas de Supe," Peru (Raimondi). 

BuKmus cygneu* PHIL., Malak. Bl., xiv, 1867, p. 68. PFB., 
Novit. Conch., p. 342, pi. 81, t 3, 4 ; Monogr., vi, p. 57. 

Pfeifler cites the wrong figures in the Novitates Conchologicae, 
both in text and on the plate ; also in the Monographia. 

Seems to be near B. membranaceu* Phil., but the shell is more 
soljd, the whorls more convex, columellar margin much longer, 
embryonal whorls very large, etc. 

D. MEKBBANACEUS (Philippi). PI. 44, figs. 90, 91. 

Shell perforate, elongate, subconic, very thin, whitish-hyaline, 
smooth, under the lens transversely striate, shining. Whorls 1\ 
but little convex. Aperture semioval, patulous, shorter than the 
spire; peristome simply expanded, the right margin arcuate, left 
margin very broad, re flexed, with the umbilical fissure concealed. 
Alt 15, diam. 8 lines. (PhiL). 

Habitat unknown. 

Bulimus membranaeeug PHIL., Abbild. a. Beschreib. neuer oder 
wenig gekannter Conchylien, ii, p. 126 [22], Bui, pL 5, f. 2 (Oct- 
ober, 1846). PFB., Monogr., ii, p. 102 ; viii, p. 69 (excl. syn.). 
Not B. membranaeeug REEVE, Conch. Icon., pi. 75, f. 544. Not 
Otottomug membranaeeug MABTENS, Bin nen moll. Venezuela's, p. 30. 
? ? Bulimulus membranaeeus BLD. & BFSN., Amer. Journ. Conch. 
vii, 1872, p. 182. Conf. Crosse and Fischer, Moll. Terr. Mex., p. 
559, and E. von Martens, BioL Centr.-Amer., MolL, pp. 223, 224. 

" The contour is lengthened conic, and reminds one of B. pcccihu 
Orb. and the like. The whorls are very little convex, smooth and 
glossy, under the lens with finely scratched transverse [spiral] lines, 
and at the suture fine little folds of the growth-striae. The aperture 
comprises about three-sevenths the entire length ; the peristome is 



238 DRYMEUS, SOUTH AMERICAN. 

simple, outwardly expanded, finally reflexed, so that the left [col- 
umellar] portion forms a very broad plate over the umbilical chink. 
The entire shell is uncommonly thin, transparent, glassy and whit- 
ish." (Phil.). . 

The locality was unknown to Philippi. Pfeiffer, in Monogr., vi, 
p. 57, gives Pacific provinces of Mexico, upon whose authority does 
not appear. Von Martens in 1873 recorded a specimen in Albers' 
collection from Caracas, Venezuela ; but later he decided that cer- 
tain specimens from Mirador in eastern Mexico, fulfilled the require- 
ments of Philippics diagnosis (see under D. emeus). I am disposed 
to believe that Philippi's shell is distinct from emeus, and possibly a 
Peruvian Drymceus allied to cygneus and its allies. 

D. PR^TEXTUS (Reeve). PI. 44, fig. 94. 

Shell umbilicate, conic-oblong, rather solid, rugulose-striate, little 
shining ; flesh-whitish, marbled with violaceous-brown streaks. Spire 
convex-turrited, the apex rather acute, tawny ; suture lightly im- 
pressed. Whorls 8, slightly convex, the last a little shorter than 
the spire, tapering around the somewhat compressed umbilicus. 

Aperture subvertical, oblong, narrow ; peristome simple, the right 
margin lightly arcuate, narrowly expanded; columellar margin 
much dilated, reflexed, vaulted. Alt. 39, diam. 14, alt. of aperture 
18 mill. (P/r.). 

Andes of Caxamarca, Peru (W% Lobb). 

Bulimus prcetextus RVE., P. Z. S., 1849, p. 98 ; Conch. Icon., pi. 71, 
f. 515. PFR., Monogr., iii, p. 344. 

A delicate blue-clouded shell, sprinkled with a few white lines, 
which are irregularly waved, and sometimes ramified like veins. 
(Eve.). 

Group of D.fallax. 

=Semiclausaria PFEIFFER, Malak. Blatt., 1855, p.162, type B. 
subsemiclausus. 

D. SUBSEMICLAUSUS (Petit). PI. 28, fig. 15. 

Shell imperforate, ovate-acute, thin, striatulate ; white, with 
scattered diaphanous dots and a tawny apex. Spire conic, rather 
acute ; whorls 5, somewhat convex, the last as long as the spire, 
ventricose, sack-like below. 

Aperture oblong, partly closed, the peristome simple, the right 
and basal margins angularly bent inward, parietal wall with a 



DRYM^US, SOUTH AMERICAN. 239 

brown callus ; columella short and straight. Alt. 22, diam. 12, aper- 
ture 11 mill. long. OPfr.). 

Province of Bogota, Colombia, (Goudot, Wallis). 

Bulimus subsemiclausus PETIT, Revue Zool., 1843, p. 239 ; Guer- 
in's Mag. de Zool., 1843, pi. 66. PFR., Monogr.,ii,p.l70. REEVE, 
Conch. Icon., pi. 41, f. 254. MOUSSON, Mai. Bl., xxi, p. 12. B. 
(Semiclausaria) subsemiclausus PFR., Mai. Bl., 1855, p. 162. 

Mousson correctly locates this species next to D. fallax Pfr. 
Petit's original figure shows a white shell with orange apex and 
orange-brown parietal wall. Reeve figures a specimen with several 
spiral bands. 

D. RABUTI (Jousseaume). PL 33, fig. 47. 

Shell scarcely rimate, obliquely ovate-triangular, rather solid, 
ornamented with slight striae, strong at the aperture; ivory or 
buff white, densely variegated with red spots ; spire conic, the apex 
somewhat acute ; whorls 5, a little convex, the last ample, swollen, 
somewhat inflated. Aperture ovate-subtriangular ; peristome ex- 
panded, black-lipped within. Alt. 25, greatest diam. 18, least 13 
mill., length of aperture 12, width 9 mill. (Jouss.}. 

Tena, Ecuador (Cousin). 

Hamadryas rabuti Jouss., Le Naturaliste, xx, Jan., 1898, p. 14, 
figs, in text. 

D. FALLAX (Pfeiffer). PI. 33, figs. 43, 44 ; pi. 28, figs. 8, 9, 10. 

Shell subperforate, ovate-conic thin, bluish-white with some 
opaque white clouds, becoming generally diffused behind the per- 
istome, and with an opaque white subsutural margin (or yellow with 
a white sutural line, or whitish with spots and longitudinal lines of 
fawn). Smoothish, under a lens finely wrinkled and pitted; shin- 
ing. Spire short. Whorls 5 J-6, slightly convex, the last large, in- 
flated, obliquely produced, becoming conspicuously keeled at the base 
a short distance behind the lip, the keel projecting, bounded by a 
furrow above ; base at first inflated, then becoming flattened and radi- 
ally plicate behind the basal lip. 

Aperture subvertical, subtriangular ; peristome narrowly but dis- 
tinctly expanded, thickened within, white or rose-bordered, produced 
and angular at junction of outer and basal margins; baso-columellar 



240 DRYM^EUS, SOUTH AMERICAN. 

lip reflexed; columella short, thin, vertical; parietal wall covered by 
a rose colored callus. 

Alt. 26, diam. 16 ; alt. of aperture 14 mill. (Specimen). 

Alt. 25, diam. 12* mill. (Old., B. lautus). 

Alt. 24, diam. 12 ; alt. of aperture 12 mill. (Pfr., B. fallax}. 

Equador, at Tunguragua (Bourcier), Quito (Couthouy, Paz and 
Martinez), Nanegal (Stu'bel), Tumbaco (Bostzkes), Esmeraldas 
(Moritz Wagner), Hacienda of Schiquilpe, on a ridge ramifying 
from the volcano of Pichincha, and along the road between Aloag 
and Chones, Canton of Megia (Cousin). 

Bulimus fallax PFR., P. Z. S., 1852, p. 156 ; Conchyl. Cab., p. 98, 
pi. 32, f. 5, 6; Monogr., iii, p. 375 ; viii, p. 113. HIDALGO, Journ. 
de Conchyl., 1870, p. 50; Mol. Viaje al Pacif., p. ll. Otostomus 
(Drymceusty fallax MARTENS, Conch. Mittheil., p. 161. Goniosto- 
mus fallax MILLER, Malak. Blatt., xxv, p. 191. Hamadryas fallax 
COUSIN, Bull. Soc. Zool. France, 1887, p. 218. Bulimus lautus 
GOULD, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H. vi, p. 11 (Oct. 1856) ; Otia Conch. 
p. 219. PFR., Monogr. vi, p. 77. 

The shell is sometimes perforate, sometimes closed. The peristome 
varies greatly, being more or less strongly thickened within and ex- 
panded, sometimes rose-red, sometimes entirely white, and either 
with no denticle near the basal angle, or with one or two distinct 
ones. Miller distinguishes two varieties : var. minor, right margin 
of lip toothless, the entire peristome rose colored ; 6 whorls. Alt. 
21-22, diam. 10, aperture 10x6 mill. Var. major, peristome white, 
broadly expanded below in the angle, impressed externally on both 
sides, the right margin with two teeth within, left margin strongly 
plicate opposite the teeth; 5? whorls. Alt. 27, diam. 12, aperture 
13 J x 7 mill. Plain of Tumbaco, 3 hours journey eastward from 
Quito, 2600 meters above sea level, (500 below Quito). 

Figures 8, 9, 10 on pi. 28 represent a specimen like Gould's lautus 
except that it has only a very faint rose border within the outer lip, 
while lautus is described as " peritremate albo, rosaceo vivide sub- 
marginato." Figs. 43, 44, pi. 33, are Pfeiffer's type of fallax, which 
is small, red-lipped, generally with a lip-tubercle and but slight 
basal plication. 

D. ABSCISSUS (Pfeiffer). PI. 50, fig. 89. 

Shell subimperforate, pyramidal, rather solid, rugulose-striate, 
opaque, whitish ; spire long-conic, rather acute. Whorls 6, a little 




DRYM^US, SOUTH AMERICAN. 241 

convex, the last slightly shorter than the spire, rectangularly carin- 
ated at base, as if cut off. Columella arcuate. 

Aperture little oblique, rhomboid-oval, rose colored within : per- 
Lstorae slightly expanded, purple, margins joined by a purple callus 
the columellar margin reflexed, subadnate. Alt. 28, diam. 13 ; alt. 
of aperture 13 } mill., width 7 J. (Pfr.). 

Quite (Cuming coll.). 

Bulimus abscissus PFR., P. Z. S., 1855, p. 116 ; Monogr., iv, p. 
376. Goniostomus abscissus Miller, Malak. Bl. xxv, 1873, p. 192 ; 
and (n. F.) i, pi. 6, f. 5. Hamadryas abscissus COUSIN, Bull. Soc. 
Zool. Fr. 1887, xii, p. 219. 

This species would seem to be allied to D.fallax or D. nystianus. 
The figure is from Miller. 

D. BOURCIERI (Pfeiffer). PL 33, figs. 45, 46. 

Shell imperforate, ovate, moderately solid ; opaque white with 
wide longitudinal flesh-brown clouds and darker spiral lines (or 
" fleshy-gray variegated with darker ") ; somewhat shining. Sculpt- 
ure : numerous unequal, irregularly spaced spiral grooves intersecting 
closer wrinkles of growth, the spirals becoming obsolete on the 
earlier whorls. Spire conic, apex slightly obtuse. Whorls 5, but 
slightly convex, separated by crenulated sutures, the latter half of 
the last whorl bluntly but conspicuously angular below, the base flat- 
tened. 

Aperture decidedly over half the total length, ovate, subvertical, 
whitish with zigzag brown streaks within, peristome narrowly ex- 
panded, outer margin regularly arcuate, white or rose colored; col- 
umella concave, slightly folded above, its edge reflexed and ap- 
pressed at the umbilical position, passing into a thin rose-colored 
parietal callus. 

Alt. 24, diam. 13 ; alt. of aperture 12'8 mill. 

Pichincha, Ecuador (Bourcier). 

Bulimus bourcieri PFR., P. Z. S., 1852, p. 153 ; Moiiogr., iii, p. 
314; Conchyl. Cab., p. 98, pi. 32, f. 3, 4 Bulimus (Thaumastus) 
bourcieri ALB., Die Hel., p. 215. Otostomus (Hamadryas*) bourcieri 
ADS., Gen. Rec. Moll., ii, p. 150. Goniostomus bourcieri MILLER, 
Mai. BL, xxv, p. 192, 1878. Hamadryas bourcieri COUSIN, Bull. 
Soc. Zool. France, 1887, p. 219. 

Similar to D. fallax in the basal angulation, though it is far less 
accentuated in this species. The spirally grooved surface is char- 
^cteristic. 
16 



242 DRYM^US, SOUTH AMERICAN. 

Group of D. koppeli. 

D. KOPPELI (Sowerby). Vol. XII, PI. 6, figs. 1, 2, 3, 4. 

Shell imperforate, ovate-conic, thin, shining ; fleshy-whitish or 
buff straw-colored, generally with small black-brown spots promis- 
cuously scattered over the surface ; the apex flesh colored. Spire 
acutely conic ; whorls 6, a little convex, very lightly, irregularly 
striated ; suture lightly impressed ; the last whorl rather swollen, 
nearly half the length of shell, rounded at base. Aperture suboval, 
slightly oblique, rather wide, whitish inside, showing the external 
spots through ; peristome thin, rose-edged ; the lip terminations 
joined by a very thin callus. Alt. 25, diam: 15 mill. (Sowb.). 

Bogota. 

Bulimulus koppeli SOWB., P. Z. S., 1892, p. 297, pi. 23, f. 9-12. 
PACE, Proc. Malac. Soc. Lond., i, p. 230, f. viii, ix (genitalia), x 
(teeth). 

Seems to be allied to D. gabbi Angas and D. tripictus Albers, of 
Costa Rica. The anatomy is typical for the genus. Mr. Sowerby 
writes : A pretty little shell, varying considerably in form and color, 
but the lip appears to be always thin and prettily edged with red. 
Of the two specimens lent me for description by Mr. DaCosta, one 
is nearly white, profusely sprinkled with small brown spots, while 
the other is of a yellowish straw color (more decided yellow towards 
the apex), with only a few pale spots. I have as yet only seen very 
few specimens, but these exhibit considerable variation in their 
proportions. One apparently abnormally inflated specimen meas- 
ures nearly 15 millimetres in width and only about 20 in length ; 
while the narrowest specimen measures scarcely more than 11 milli- 
metres in width to 21 in height. (Sowerby). 

Group of D. bivittatus. 

D. BIVITTATUS (Sowerby). PI. 28, figs. 11, 12. 

Shell pyramidally ovate, oblique towards the base, umbilicated ; 
whorls 8 in number, smooth, peculiarly crenulated at the sutures. 
Aperture obliquely ovate; lip and columella broadly reflected and 
effused. White, last whorl faintly two-banded with chestnut (Rve.). 
Alt. 29, diam. 16, alt. of aperture 15 mill, (from fig.). 

Brazil. 



DRYM^US, SOUTH AMERICAN. 243 

nulinus bivittatus SOWB., Conch. Illustr., f. 46. Bulimulus bivit- 
tatus BECK, Index, p. 65 (1837). : Bulimus bivittatus RVE., Conch. 
Icon. pi. 81, f. 597. PFR., Monogr., ii, p. 62 ; vi, p. 81. Otosto- 
mus bivittatus ADS., Genera, iii, p. 149. 

"Effused in an oblique direction, after the manner of the B. 
aurisleporis." (Eve.). 

Var.flexilabris Pfr. PL 28, figs. 13, 14. 

In the single specimen before me the spire of slightly over 7 con- 
vex whorls is touched with ruddy at the apex ; the first two whorls 
show the sculpture of the genus, and the last whorl has three spiral 
brown zones, which are overlaid with a whitish coat, as if frosted, 
with scattered dots of the dark color. The bands are only faintly 
visible within the mouth. Surface smooth and glossy, with the 
faintest traces of incised spirals in places. The sutural crenulation 
is developed, though less strongly than in typical bivittatus. It was 
overlooked by my artist. Aperture oblique, slightly less than half 
the alt. of shell; the white lip produced in a broad lobe at the basal 
outer margin. Alt. 25, diam. 13, alt. of aperture 12*3 mill. It is 
said to be from the Amazon Kiver. 

This I identify with Pfeiffer's unfigured B. flexilabris, the origi- 
nal diagnosis of which here follows : "Shell shortly rimate-subper- 
fonite, obliquely ovate-turrited, rather solid, nearly smooth, shining, 
white, with 3 reddish, white dotted bands. Spire high-conic, the 
apex rather obtuse and black. Whorls 7, a little convex, the last 
shorter than the spire, obliquely produced, the base subangulate in 
front. Coluraella short and twisted, receding. Aperture a little 
oblique, irregularly subquadrangular; peristome simple, expanded 
throughout, the right margin straight in the middle, curved above, 
at base subim pressed and angularly dilated outwards, left margin 
sloping, forming an angle with the columella, much dilated above. 
Alt. 28, diam. 12? mill.; aperture inside 11? mill, long, 7 wide" 
(Pfr., P. Z. S., 1853, p. 50 ; Monogr., iii, p. 652). Brazil, Cuming 
collection. 

D. QUADRIFASCIATUS (Angas). PL 41, figs. 22, 23. 

Shell elongately ovate, rimate, moderately solid, shining, finely 
longitudinally striated ; white, transversely banded with light 
brown, the last whorl with four bands, the central one being the 
widest, Spire conical, apex obtuse; whorls 6, somewhat convex. 



244 DRYM^US, SOUTH AMERICAN. 

Aperture oval, equal to the spire; outer lip flattened and expanded 
at the base. Alt. 1 inch 3 lines, diam. 62 lines. (Angas). 

Ecuador. 

Bulimus (Otostomus) quadrifasciatus ANGAS, P. Z. S., 1878, p. 
312, pi. 18, f. 2, 3. 

D. NAPO (Angas). PI. 41, figs. 19, 20. 

Shell rimate, ovately fusiform, moderately solid, shining, very 
finely and irregularly striated ; pale fawn color with a narrow white 
band next below the suture and a similar white band surrounding 
the perforation. Spire sharply conical, somewhat obtuse at the 
apex. Whorls 6, slightly convex ; aperture ovate, same length as 
the spire ; outer lip expanded and flattened at the base, white be- 
hind, bordered by a narrow suffused orange band. Alt. 1 inch 3 
lines, diam. 5 lines. (Angas). 

Ecuador. 

Bulimus (Otostomus) napo ANGAS, P. Z. S., 1878, p. 312, pi. 18, 
f. 4, 5. 

Group of D. bolivianus. 

D. BOLIVIANUS (Pfeiffer). PI. 43, fig. 66. 

Shell perforate, oblong- turrited, decussated by most minute im- 
pressed lines, visible under a lens, shining ; whitish-red, ornamented 
with somewhat interrupted wide brown bands ; spire turrited, the 
apex acute, red. Whorls 7, flat, the last a little convex, about four- 
ninths the total length of shell. Columella with a twisted fold, 
rose colored. Aperture oval-oblong, colored within like the out- 
side ; peristome simple, the right margin narrowly expanded, col- 
umellar margin much dilated, reflexed, excavated, nearly closing 
the chink-like perforation. Alt. 33, diam. 13 mill. ; aperture 16 
mill, long, 7 wide. (P/r.). 

" Merida, Bolivian Andes." 

Bulimus bolivianus PFR., P. Z. S., 1846, p. 34; Monogr., ii, p. 
105. REEVE, Conch. Icon., pi. 81, f. 599. 

D. SUBINTERRUPTUS (Pfeiffer). PI. 41, figs. 34, 35. 

Shell perforate, subfusiform-oblong, rather thin, smooth, seen to 
be spirally striated under the lens, a little shining ; whitish, with 
five wide, somewhat interrupted light reddish bands. Spire long- 
conic, acute; suture but little impressed, Whorls 6, rather flat, the 



DRYM^US, SOUTH AMERICAN. 245 

last a little longer than the spire, attenuated basally. Columella 
somewhat straightened, receding. Aperture oblique, narrow, acum- 
inate-semioval ; peristome simple, thin, buff, the right margin 
broadly expanded ; columellar margin triangularly dilated from the 
base, broadly reflexed above. Alt. 37, diara. 13 mill. ; aperture 
20 mill long. (P/r.). 

Bolivian Andes (Pfr.) ; Moyobamba region, eastern Peru (Stiibel). 

BuUmus subinterruptus PFR., P. Z. S., 1851, p. 256 ; Conchyl. 
Cab., p. 80, pi. 21, f. 20, 21, and var.,f. 22, 23 ; Monogr.,iii, p. 333. 
Otostomus (Drymceus) subinterruptus MARTENS, Couchol. Mit- 
theil., p. 160. 

Pfeiffer refers to this species, as a variety, a form (pi. 41, figs. 29 
30) which is smaller, with wider aperture, the columellar margin 
less receding, more narrowly reflexed. It is probably an imperfectly 
developed shell. 

D, L^TUS (Reeve). PI. 43, fig. 72. 

Shell perforate, conic-oblong, rather thin, smoothish, shining; red- 
dish, with longitudinal pale lines and three butf-white bands ; spire 
conic, a little obtuse. Whorls 5, slightly convex, the last a little 
shorter than the spire, rotund at base ; columella plicate above, ar- 
cuate, roseate. Aperture slightly oblique, oval ; peristome thin, 
roseate, the right margin slightly arcuate, columellar margin re- 
flexed, dilated above. Alt. 25, diam. 11 mill. , aperture (measured 
inside) 12 mill, long, 6f wide in the middle. (Pfr.). 

Sebundoi, northern Ecuador (Cuming coll.) ; Pasto, southern Co- 
lombia (Lehmann). 

BuUmus lodus REEVE, Conch. Icon., pi. 83, f. 616 (Dec., 1849). 
PFR., Monogr., iii, p. 343. DUNKER, Jahrb. D. Mai. Ges., 1882, 
ix, p. 380. Drymceus Icetus DOHRN, Jahrb. D. Mai. Ges., vii, p. 88. 

D. TRIVITTATUS (Mousson). PI. 43, figs. 67, 68. 

Shell subperforate, ovate-fusiform, rather solid, striatulate, irreg- 
ularly malleated, shining; white, with three wide brown-black 
bands, the upper one interrupted or ragged. Spire long, conic, reg- 
ular ; apex small, white; suture little impressed, sublinear. Whorls 
6-j, a little convex, showing two bands; the last whorl gently as- 
cending a little in front, lengthened, expanded toward the margin, 
tapering below, rounded at the region of the perforation. 



246 DRYM^EUS, SOUTH AMERICAN. 

Aperture vertical (5 from the axis), as long as the spire, long- 
oval, angular above, receding below and widely effuse, white, with 
the bands showing through ; peristome expanded, subacute, white ; 
outer margin arcuately dilated ; basal broadly retracted, columellar 
narrowly reflexed above and appressed, then a little produced for- 
ward ; columella obliquely twisted. Alt. 33, diam. 16 mill. (Mouss.). 

Bogota (Wallis). 

Bulimus trivittatus Mouss., Malak. Bl., xxi, 1873, p. 11. PFR., 
Novit. Conch., iv, p. 133, pi. 130, f. 3, 4 ; Monogr.', viii, p. 53. 

This species approaches B. convexus Pfr., but the form is more 
compact and stronger, the surface has only weak striation, instead 
of irregular malleation and no trace of spiral lines. The last whorl 
adjacent to the covered perforation is not compressed ; the axis 
forms a prolonged fold, passing toward the columellar margin, etc. 
The coloration consists of three broad black bands, the upper one 
interrupted and ragged, instead of brown streaks. 

D. TRIBALTEATUS (Reeve). PI. 43, fig. 71. 

Shell somewhat fusiformly ovate, slightly umbilicated ; whorls 6, 
convex, smooth or minutely longitudinally striated. Aperture 
rather small, lip slightly reflected ; pale straw color, conspicuously 
belted with three chestnut zones ; lip bright pink (Rve.~). Alt. 24, 
diam. 11 mill.; alt. of aperture 12 mill, (from fig.). 

Santa Fe de Bogota (Dennison coll.). 

Bulimus tribalteatus RVE., Conch. Icon., pi. 43, f. 269 (October, 
1848). PFR., Monogr., iii, p. 342. DKR., Jahrb. D. M. Ges., 1882, 
p. 380. 

Lehmann collected a form, referred by Dunker to this species, in 
woods at Santiago, southern Colombia. It is white with roseate lip 
and corneous apex, but without the chestnut bands. 

D. STUDERI (Pfeiffer). PI. 43, fig. 69. 

Shell perforate, oblong-conic, rather thin, striatulate, decussated 
by close spiral lines, visible only under a lens, shining ; white, or- 
namented with 3 or 4 narrow rose colored girdles. Spire conic, 
acute ; whorls 6, a trifle convex, the last about four-ninths the length 
of the shell; columella arcuate. Aperture oval-elliptical, colored 
within like the outside; peristome simple, the margins somewhat 
converging, right margin narrowly expanded, columellar margin 



DRYMJEU8, 3OUTH AMERICAN. 247 

vaultingly reflexed, roseate. Alt. 25, diam. 10 mill. ; aperture 11 J 
mill. long. (Pfr.). 

Merida, Colombia [Venezuela] (Cuming coll.). 

Bulimus studeri PFR., P. Z. S., 1846, p. 112 ; Monogr., ii, p. 107 ; 
iii, p. 347 ; iv, p. 412 ; vi, p. 57. REEVE, Conch. Icon., pi. 57, f. 
384. Bulimus primula REEVE, t. c., f. 385 (Dec., 1848). 

"The two pink bands which encircle this shell upon a shining 
white ground are very characteristic" (five.). 

Pfeiffer refers Reeve's B. primula to studeri as a variety It is 
thus described : 

B. primula (pi. 43, fig. 70) " shell oblong, somewhat cylindrical, 
umbilicated, whorls 6, smooth or obliquely finely striated, columella 
broadly reflected, lip simple. Whitish, here and there brightly col- 
ored with yellow, encircled with broad pink zones, apex purple- 
brown. Merida, New Granada. A prettily painted species from 
the same locality as the preceding [studeri], differing slightly but 
importantly in form. The whorls are somewhat more ventricose 
and the reflected portion of the columella more appressed " (Rve.\ 

D. SMITHII (daCosta). PL 50, fig. 1. 

Shell cylindric-turrited, umbilicate : whorls 6, suture impressed, 
smooth ; under a lens showing impressed transverse striae, the striae 
in the 2 earlier whorls finely granulate ; last whorl obliquely pro- 
duced. Livid brownish, irregularly banded and waved, ornamented 
with three purple-brown zones, the upper interrupted with purple, 
arrow-shaped spots; columella purplish. Aperture half the length 
of shell, obliquely ovate, outer lip pale buff, broadly reflexed. Alt. 
29?, diam. 15 mill. (daCosta). 

Bogota. 

Bulimulus (Drymceus) Smithii DACOSTA, Proc. Malac. Soc. Lond., 
iii, p. 81, pi. 6, f. 8 (July, 1898). 

Evidently near D. blandi. 

D. CAUCAENSIS (daCosta). PL 50, fig. 85. 

Shell fusiform-turrited, narrowly umbilicate, whitish, with three 
blackish interrupted, white dotted zones. Whorls 6, convex, with 
impressed sutures, longitudinally plicate striate. Columella little 
twisted and reflexed. Aperture ample, purplish, and two-banded 
with white inside ; outer lip little reflexed, white ; margins joined by a 



248 DRYMJEUS, SOUTH AMERICAN. 

purplish callus. Alt. 35, diam. 16, aperture with peristome 17 mill, 
long, 11 wide, (da Costa). 

Valley of the Cauca River, Colombia 

Bulimulus (Drymceus) caucaensis DACosTA, Proc. Malac. Soc. 
Lond., iii, p. 81, pi. 6, f. 3 (July, 1898). 

Very near forms I have referred to D. blandi, from Fresno and 
Antioquia, but with narrower lip, and plicate-striate instead of mal- 
leated surface. A comparison of D. smithii, caucaensis and blandi, 
with abundant material, might possibly cause their consolidation 
under the former name. 

D. BLANDI Pilsbry, n. sp. PI. 43, figs. 73, 74, 75 (types), 76, 79, 

80 (var.)- 

Shell narrowly perforate or subperforate, obliquely oblong- acu- 
minate, solid and opaque ; white or nearly so, unicolored (fig. 75) or 
with irregularly spaced narrow, longitudinal brown or purple-brown 
streaks and two narrow spiral bands of the same color, becoming 
interrupted into arrow-shaped spots on the spire (fig. 74), or two or 
three bands without longitudinal streaks (fig. 73), or with other pat- 
terns (see below). Surface rather shining, with slight growth- 
wrinkles, a rather minute malleation which varies from conspicuous 
to subobsolete, and rather widely spaced, superficially engraved 
spiral lines, in some specimens scarcely to be detected. Spire rather 
straightly conic, apex somewhat obtuse with typical Drymceus sculp- 
ture. Whorls 6, slightly convex. 

Aperture oblique, long-ovate, slightly over half the alt. of shell, 
broadly bordered within with dull brownish-purple which fades to 
white toward the outer edge of lip and in the throat ; peristome 
broadly expanded, columellar margin narrowly expanded, reflexed 
and a little wider above ; columella slightly concave, purple-brown ; 
parietal callus dark purple-brown. 

Alt. 301, diam. 14 ; alt. of aperture 15? mill. 

Alt. 26^, diam. 13 ; alt. of aperture 13 mill. 

Near Fresno, Colombia (Bland). 

A species excessively variable in color-pattern, but with the broad 
internal lip border, columellar edge and parietal wall constantly 
dull purple, much as in D. geometricus. It is evidently allied to D. 
tribalteatus, studeri, smithii, caucaensis, etc. 

Figures 73-75 are from the types collected near Fresno. The 
aperture is more obliquely prolonged and narrow than in D. smithii 
and D. caucaensis. 



DRYM^EUS, SOUTH AMERICAN. 249 

Another specimen, also from Fresno, is probably referable to 
blandi as a variety, though it differs in the larger size (alt. 33, diam. 
16, length of aperture 18 mill.), the more open umbilical chink and 
the color-pattern, which consists of longitudinal brown streaks speck- 
led with white, and cut into spots by two or three spiral white zones. 
The lip is very broadly expanded. It has considerable resemblance 
to the figure of D. caucaensis da Costa, though the lip is broader and 
it is heavily plicate-striate. It is evidently the same as a specimen 
from Antioquia (pi. 43, fig. 76), in which the longitudinal streaks 
are stronger, not cut by white spiral zones, though the lower part of 
the base is white, and there are several ill-defined, dark spiral bands. 
This shell has much the color pattern of D. murrinus Reeve, but not 
the subangularly prolonged base of that species. 

Fig. 79 is a variety with somewhat open umbilical chink, and 
light brown longitudinal streaks closely vermiculate-liueolate with 
white. It is said to be from Bogota. Another Bogota specimen 
(fig" 80) collected by Bland, has the umbilical chink wholly closed, 
and there are three faint girdles crossing the equally faint brownish 
longitudinal streaks. This shell measures: alt. 36, diam. 18, length 
of aperture 18 mill. 

D. MALLEATUS (da Costa). PI. 50, fig. 86 

Shell ovate-conic, rather solid, slightly umbilicated. Whorls 5, 
the last crenate at the sutures, peculiarly corrugated, transversely 
obscurely striated. Columella calloui. Aperture whitish within, 
oval, " basi partim bisecta," the margins joined by a buff callus, 
white, variedly streaked with ashy-brownish, the lip roseate. Alt. 
34, diam. 15, length of the aperture, measured inside, 14, width 6 

mill, (da Costa). 

La Pazy Bolivia, altitude 3,600 meters. 

Bulimulus (Drymceus) malleatus DA COSTA, Proc. Malac. Soc. 
Lond., iii, p. 82, pi. 6, fig. 7 (July, 1898). 

A beautiful and interesting shell described from a single specimen. 
The curious malleation of the surface is very peculiar and unique, 
I believe, in shells belonging to this section (daCosta). I do not 
understand just what structure the author intends to be understood 
by the phrase "Apertura . . basi partim bisecta" 

Group of D. papyraceus. 

Mormus ALBERS, Die Heliceen, 2d edit., p. 216 (1860), type B. 
papyraceus (Ma we). 



250 DRYM^US, SOUTH AMERICAN. 

A moderately well-defined group of Drymceus with thin, slightly 
expanded lip, variegated coloration of spots, blotches or imperfect 
bands, and usually coarse striae or malleation. The species all occur 
in southern and eastern Brazil. 

D. PAPYRACEUS (Mawe). PI. 51, figs. 1, 2, 3. 

Shell minutely perforate or iraperforate, oblong-acute, thin, some- 
what fragile. Opaque whitish, copiously streaked longitudinally 
with black or blackish- brown, the streaks variegated with white longi- 
tudinal lines, and spreading at intervals into blotches which form 
three interrupted girdles; a sharply -defined umbilical patch always 
white. Surface shining, coarsely and irregularly rib-striate, with 
slight traces of close spiral striation in places. Spire long-conic, 
with straight lateral outlines, the apex rather obtuse. Whorls 62, 
moderately convex. 

Aperture ovate, vividly showing the external markings ; peristome 
thin, gently expanded along the outer and basal margins, outer lip 
very equably arcuate, columella vertical and almost straight, slightly 
folded above, pressed in at its junction with body- whorl, the edge 
narrowly reflexed, leaving a slight umbilical chink or none. Alt. 
29-32, diarn. 14 ; length of aperture 15 mill. 

Brazil: Bahia (Paz) Rio Janeiro (Hensel, Paz, A. D. Brown 
et a/.), Taguara (von Ihering). Argentina: Prov.Corrientes (Orb.) ; 
San Pedro (Borelli). 

Helix papyracea MAWE, The Linnsean System of Conchology, p. 
168, frontispiece, f. 7 (1823). Bulimus papyraceus GRAY in Ann. 
of Philos. (n. ser.), ix, p. 414. WOOD, Index Test., suppl., pi. 8, f. 
76. PFR., Mouogr., ii, p. 102 ; iii, p. 337 ; iv, 399 ; vi, 46 ; viii, 57. 
REEVE, C. Icon., pi. 39, f. 236. CUNNINGHAM, Trans. Linn. Soc. 
Lond., xxvii, p. 483 (1870). PARAVICINI, Boll. Mus. Zool. ed 
Anat. Comp. Torino, ix, no. 181, p. 6. HIDALGO, Journ. de 
Conchyl., 1870, p. 57 ; Viaje al Pacifico, p. 108. Not B. papyraceus 
DROUET, Moll. Terr, et Fluv. Guyane Francaise, p. 60. Bulimulus 
papyraceus BECK, Index Moll., p. 65. CLESSIN, Malak. Bl. (n. F.), 
x, p. 166 (1888). HEYNEMANN, Mai. BL, xv, p. 110, pi. 5, f. 9 
(jaw and teeth). MARTENS, Mai. Bl., xv, p. 179 (1868). ANCEY, 
Boll. Mus. Zool. ed Anat. Comp. Univ. Torino, xii, no. 309, p. 5. 
Otostomus (Mormus) papyraceus SEMPER, Reisen in Archip. Phil., 
Landmoll., iii, p. 156, pi. 17, f. 7 (genitalia). Mormus papyraceus 
DOERING, Bol. Acad. Nac. de Cien. Rep. Argent., iii, p. 77 (1879). 



DRYM^US, SOUTH AMERICAN. 251 

Helix (Coclilogena) lita FER., Prodr., p. 54, no. 403 (name only); 
Voy. autour du Monde, execute sur les Corvettes de S. M. 1'Uranie 
et la Physicienne, par M. Louis de Freycinet, Zool., p. 473, pi. 67, 
f. 10, 11 (1824). ORB., Mag. de Zool., 1835, p. \\.-Bulimu8 lita 
DESK, in Lara. An. s. Vert., viii, p. 247 ; in Fer., Histoire, p. 89, pi. 
139, f. 6, 7. POT. & MICH., Galerie, i, p. 159, pi. 15, f. 23, 24. 
ORB., Voy. Amer. Merid., p. 268. REEVE, Conch. Icon., pi. 39, f. 
236. Not B. lita TROSCHEL, Archiv fur Naturg., 1849, i, p. 230, 
pi. 4, f. 3 (jaw and teeth), and in Schomburgk, Reisen in Britisch 
Guiana, iii, p. 547. 

Buliunis lituratus SPIX, Testacea Fluv. Bras., p. 7, pi. 7, f. 3. 

Bulimulus papyraceas var. latior Martens, STREBEL, Beitr. Mex. 
Land- und Siissw.-Conch., v, p. 81, pi. 13, f. 7 ; pi. 14, f. 7 a-e ; pi. 
16, f. 9, 10 (anatomy). 

Au abundant and variable species. The type locality of papyra- 
ceus is Rio Janeiro. Figs. 1 , 3, are drawn from specimens collected 
there (in the suburb San Domingo) by A. D. Brown. 

The locality of Ferussac's original Helix lita is not known. The 
first description is of specimens collected at or near Rio Janeiro by 
the naturalists of the Uraiiie and Physicienne ; and these are typical 
papyraceus. 

B. lituratus Spix (pi. 51, fig. 2) from the Northern Provinces of 
Brazil, is somewhat more boldly marked than the typical form, but 
has the same slender contour, with narrow, straight columella. 

The locality Guiana, given by Drouet and Troschel, is based 
upon specimens collected by Schomburgk. In my opinion, these 
shells were either wrongly identified or else they did not really come 
from Guiana. I have elsewhere commented upon the obvious over- 
loading of the Guiana snail fauna for which Drouet is responsible. 

Von Martens briefly describes a variety, c, as larger, lengthened, 
reminding one of B.prcetextus and effeminatus Rve., but more acu- 
minate. Length 40, diam. 19, length of aperture 20 mill. It is 
from Costa da Serra. 

According to Hidalgo, Paz obtained specimens at Rio Janeiro 
corresponding with Reeve's figure o?"B. litus" (pi. 51, fig. 6). At 
Bahia, Paz and Martinez collected specimens agreeing with Reeve's 
figure of papyraceus (similar to pi. 51, fig. 3). 

Orbigny writes . This species divides into two quite distinct varie- 
ties. The first [typical papyraceus], which is constantly elongated 



252 DRYM^US, SOUTH AMERICAN. 

and narrow, inhabits the littoral of Brazil, from the province of Rio 
Grande do Sul as far as Bahia and Pernambuco. The other [prob- 
ably = var.papyrifactus], which is always shorter and is larger, with 
more open aperture, lives in the province of Corrientes and the Mis- 
sions. We have found the first variety in 1826 in the environs of 
Rio Janeiro, and the second in the woods bordering the Parana, 
Rio-Batel, Rio Santa-Lucia, and on the Lake of Hera. 

Var. PAPYRIFACTUS Pilsbry, n. v. PL 51, figs. 4, 5. 

Conspicuously shorter and more inflated, the spire short, conic; 
whorls 5 to 5s, the last inflated, convex below. Aperture exceeding 
half the shell's length, the columellar reflection wider, not pressed 
in at its junction with the body-whorl, leaving a moderate umbilical 
fissure. Alt. 28, diarn. 16J, length of aperture 17 mill. 

Curitiba, prov. Parana, Brazil (H. von Ihering). 

This form is probably identical with von Martens' var. b, which 
is described as more ventricose (length 30J, diam. 17, length of 
aperture 17 mill.), from Porto Alegre, prov. Rio Grande do Sul. It 
may be what Strebel calls " var. latior Martens ; " but no informa- 
tion to substantiate this supposition has been published. 

Just what relation B. litus Reeve, not Fer. (pi. 51, fig. 6), bears 
to var. papyrifactus I have not been able to ascertain, having no 
specimens like it. It has a longer spire. 

D. POLYGRAMMUS (Moricand). PI. 26, fig. 70. 

Shell umbilicate, small, oblong-conic, thin ; whitish marked with 
numerous brown longitudinal streaks, which stop short of both suture 
and base, and are split into lines by the white longitudinal strice, a 
basal white band, and a dark brown band revolving within the um- 
bilicus. Surface hardly shining, very coarsely striated with low, 
white striae as wide as their intervals, no spiral striation. Spire 
long, rather thick, with slightly convex lateral outlines, the apex 
obtuse, with typical Drymceus sculpture. Whorls 62, slightly con- 
vex, the last rounded at periphery, subcompressed below, somewhat 
angularly rounded at the verge of the rapidly contracting umbilical 
perforation. 

Aperture small, ovate, but slightly oblique ; brownish with a basal 
white band within ; peristome thin, almost imperceptibly expanded, 
white, the columellar margin broadly dilated above, columella 
concave below, straight above. 

Alt. 13J, diam. 6, length of aperture 5J mill. 

Forests of Caxoeira, prov. Bahia, Brazil (Blanchet). 



DRYM^US, SOUTH AMERICAN. 253 

Helix polygramma MORIC., Mem. Soc. Phys. Hist. Nat. Geneve, 
vii, p. 436, pi. 2, f. 12-14 (1836). Bulimus polygrammus DH. iu 
Lam., An. s. Vert., viii, p. 243. PFR., Monogr., ii, 106 ; iii, 424 ; 
iv, 485 ; vi, 132. Bulimulus polygrammus BECK, Index, p. 64. 

A much reduced member of the D. papyraceus group, easily dis- 
tinguished by its diminutive size, coarse whitish striae, with light 
basal band and dark umbilicus, and the rather stout spire. The 
apical sculpture is typical for Drymceus, but so minute that only a 
high magnification reveals it. One specimen before me wants the 
brown streaks and white basal zone, the opaque whitish striae stand- 
ing on a corneous ground. The only figures published, those of 
Moricand, are decidedly poor. 

D. CUTICULA (Pfeiffer). 

Shell perforate, ovate-fusiform, membranaceous, striatulate, 
scarcely shining, diaphanous ; very pale corneous, dot-streaked with 
brownish, and dotted with snow-white. Spire conic, rather obtuse; 
suture minutely crenulated. Whorls 4J, a trifle convex, the last 
forming three-fifths the total length, encircled below the middle by a 
pale band, edged above with brown ; the base tapering. Columella 
subplicate, receding ; aperture little oblique, acuminate-oblong ; 
peristome simple, unexpanded, the columellar margin shining, re- 
flexed. Alt. 28, diam. 13 mill.; aperture 19 mill, long, 8 wide 



Rio, Brazil (Cuming coll.). 

Bulimus cuticula PFR., P. Z. S., 1855, p. 95 ; Monogr., iv, p. 450 ; 
Nomenclator Heliceorum Viventium, p. 232 (1878). 

Known to me by the above description only. Pfeiffer places it in 
Plectostylus. 

D. MAGUS (Wagner). PI. 51, figs. 7, 8. 

Shell ovate conic, subventricose, thin but solid, shining, longitudi- 
nally striated. Whorls 6, a little convex ; spire elevated, acute, 
as long as the last whorl. Aperture ovate; lip simple, the left mar- 
gin subreflexed, forming an extremely narrow umbilical chink; 
color buflf, with wide, irregular, longitudinal brown streaks, the apex 
pale flesh colored. Aperture white, painted with brown streaks. 
Length 20, diam. 10 mill. (Spix- Wagner). 

Provinces Piauhy and Maragnan [Maranhao?] Brazil, in woods. 

Bulimus inflatus SPIX, MS., not of Lamarck. Bulimus magus 
WAC^ER, Testacea Fluv. Bras., p. 6, pi. 7, f. 1 (1827), 



254 DRYMA:US, SOUTH AMERICAN. 

/ 

Commonly, but incorrectly, referred to B. papyraceus as a syno- 
nym. That D. magus belongs to \\iepapyraceus group of species is 
evident from the similarly formed columella ; but the smoother sur- 
face, compact form and heavy coloring are sufficiently distinctive 
differences. I have identified with Wagner's long-lost species a 
Drymceus sent me by Dr. H. von Ihering from Sao Paulo, which is 
described below. The wide separation of the localities is the only 
objection to be raised to tnis identification ; but even this does not 
cause me to seriously doubt their specific identity. 

PI. 51, fig. 8. Shell narrowly perforate, ovate, of rather short, 
stout figure ; thin ; cream-colored, heavily painted with longitudinal 
black stripes which abruptly terminate a short distance from the col- 
umella, leaving a nearly uniform pink circum-umbilical patch ; aline 
of the creamy ground tint below the sutures; the stripes becoming 
obsolete above, several earlier whorls rose-colored. Surface slightly 
shining, smooth to the naked eye, showing slight growth-wrinkles 
and faint, superficial spiral striae under a strong lens ; the apical If 
whorls with typical Drymceus sculpture. Spire short and stout, 
apex slightly obtuse ; whorls 5J, slightly convex, the last with a 
somewhat roseate streak behind the lip. 

Aperture ovate, slightly exceeding half the total alt., conspicuously 
white and dark-brown striped within ; peristome thin, a mere trifle 
expanded, pale-edged, with an inconspicuous roseate submargin ; col- 
umella nearly straight, deeply entering, the edge reflexed, almost 
closing the narrow umbilical fissure. Alt. 23, diam. 13, alt. of 
aperture 12? mill. 

D. HENSELII (v. Martens). PI. 41, figs. 37, 38. 

Shell perforate, ovate-turrited, irregularly striate and sculptured 
with very delicate, very close spiral Mnes ; whitish, painted with 
brown streaks, which are confluent in the middle of each whorl. 
Apex obtuse, brownish. Whorls 6, rather flattened ; suture irreg- 
ularly undulating; last whorl little convex below. 

Aperture subvertical, ovate-oblong, nearly half the length of the 
shell ; peristome a little thickened, lightly spreading, white, the col- 
umellar margin dilated, not closing the perforation, expanded above 
in a parietal lamina. 'Columella itself twisted. Alt. 40, diam. 28 
mill; aperture 20 mill, long, 11 wide. (Mart.). 

Costa da Serra, prov, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil (Hensel). 



DRYM.EUS, SOUTH AMERICAN. 255 

Bidimulus Jtenselii MARTENS, Malak. Bl., xv, 1868, p. 180. 
Bulimu* henselii PFR., Novit, Conch., p. 464, pi. 101, f. 14, 15; 
Monogr., viii, p. 44. 

Reminds one somewhat of the' large variety of B. pcpyraceus, but 
is widely diverse from that in the broad columellar margin. (J/fe.). 

D. ACERVATUS (Pfeiffer). PI. 51, figs. 11, 12, 13. 

Shell acutely oblong ovate, umbilicate, thin. Color either (1) 
light buff with irregularly spaced brownish oblique streaks and 
copiously marked with numerous spiral series of dark spots and 
dots, or (2) dingy reddish-brown with streaks and fewer rows of 
dots, or (3) buff with bold spiral bands of black or black-brown, 
subcontinuous below, somewhat interrupted into vertical series of 
blotches above (var. balteatus). Surface slightly shining, irreg- 
ularly wrinkle-striate, malleated in places, densely striated spirally, 
the striae shallow, somewhat effaced in places on some specimens. 
Spire conic, the apex slightly obtuse, If earlier whorls with typical 
Drymwus sculpture. Whorls 6 to 61, slightly convex. 

Aperture somewhat exceeding half the total altitude of shell, 
slightly oblique, irregularly ovate, acute above; outer lip thin, the 
edge slightly expanded ; columella white, broadly dilated above, 
vaulted over the rather large and deep umbilicus. 

Alt. 42, diam. 2U, length of aperture 22* mill. 

Alt. 36*, diam. 20, length of aperture 20 mill. 

Southern Brazil : prov. of Sao Paulo at Sorocaba and Botmatu; 
prov. Parana at Pun.ta Grossa (Dr. v. Ihering). 

Bulimus acermtus PFR., Malak. Bl., iv, 1857, p. 157 ; Monogr., 
iv, p. 400. 

This fine species has not before been figured. It was described 
from a unique specimen in the Cuming collection, with the locality 
" Brazil." The type measures : Alt. 41, diam. 21 mill. ; aperture 
23 mill, long, 12 wide inside, according to Pfeiffer. 

Somewhat allied to D. poedlus in form, sculpture and in the 
coloration of the banded form, but the dotted form more closely 
resembles Bidimulus punctidifer. Besides the typical form (figs. 11, 
12), and the banded form (v. balteatus, fig. 13), there is a dingy 
chestnut form with darker streaks, an ill-defined peripheral buff 
band interrupted by these streaks, a series of long light flammules 
below the suture, and sparcely. scattered light dots with dark 
" shadows." This may be called var. paucipunctus (pi. 51, figs. 14, 



256 DRYM^EUS, SOUTH AMERICAN. 

15 ; pi. 50, fig. 77). The exact locality of this form is not known, 
but it is probably from the province of Sao Paulo. Alt. 36, diam. 
20, length of aperture 20 mill. Another specimen (the one figured 
on pi. 51) is smaller. Alt. 33, diatn. 18, length of aperture 18& 
mill. The latter is in IT. S. Nat. Mus. 

Group of D. glaucostomus. 

D. GLAUCOSTOMUS (Albers). PL 39, figs. 46, 47. 

Shell openly rimate-umbilicate, ovate-conic, solid ; white, with three 
blackish bands conspicuously dotted with white, and usually connected 
at intervals by vertical streaks, the upper band often interrupted 
into spots. Shining, with slight growth lines and very close, fine 
but distinct spiral incised lines. Apex white with typical sculpture. 
Whorls 6, slightly convex, the last wide, convex, ascending in front, 
broadly rounded beneath. 

Aperture large, white with three black bands inside ; peristome 
expanded, extremely broad, deep purple with a white edge ; columellar 
margin impressed and grooved at its root, then bending forward ; 
columella with a short, convex spiral fold above. Alt. 33, diam. 
19 ; alt. of aperture 19 mill. 

Venezuela: Mountains between Pto. Cabello and Valencia, 2000 
ft. above the sea, on palm trees (C. F. Starke) ; Oumbre del Valen- 
cia (Simon). 

Bulimus glaucostomus ALBERS, Zeitschr. f. Malak., 1852, p. 32. 
PFR. in Conchyl. Cab., p. 153, pi. 48, f. 11, 12 ; Monogr., iii, p. 332. 
Oto&tomus glaucostomus MARTENS, Binnenmoll. Venez., in Fest- 
schrift zur Feier des 100 Jahrigen Bestehens der Ges. Naturf. 
Freunde zu Berlin, p. 181 (1873). Drymceus glaucostomus JOUSSE- 
AUME, Mem. Soc. Zool. de France, ii, 1889, p. 241. 

A beautiful and very distinct species, quite constant in form and 
coloration. 

Group of D. trigonostomus. 

D. TRIGONOSTOMUS (Jonas). PL 39, figs. 34, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45. 

Shell openly rimate-umbilicate, fusiform, moderately solid; whit- 
ish, (1) uniform or (2) with 4 or 5 spiral reddish-brown or purplish 
bands, or (3) with three bands of square spots above, two continuous 
bands below, or (4) fleshy-brown with darker oblique streaks. Sur- 
face shining, smooth, with light growth-lines, and fine spiral incised 



DRYMCEUS, SOUTH AMERICAN. 257 

stride which are usually weak, subobsolete or wanting. Whorls 6 
to 7, but slightly convex, the last strongly ^compressed beneath, 
pinched into an obtuse, prominent basal keel; umbilical area excav- 
ated. 

Aperture half the length of shell or less, angular above and at 
base, banded or uniform within ; peristome broadly expanded, gener- 
ally yellow or pink with a white edge, and often bordered within 
by a dark stripe ; columellar lip obliquely sloping, straightened, col- 
umellar fold weak or inconspicuous. 

Alt. 36, diam. 15 ; alt. of aperture 18 mill. 

Alt. 28, diam. 13 ; alt. of aperture 14 mill. 

Venezuela : vicinity of Guacharo cave, near the town of Caripe, 
prov. Cumana (Jonas) ; Caracas (F. Cocking, E. Simon) ; Curiana, 
on the leaves of palms (Dyson) ; La Guayra (Swift). 

Bulimus trigonostomus JONAS, Zeitschr. f. Malak., 1844, p. 36 ; 
Mollusk. Beitrage, p. 28, pi. 10, f. 14. PFR., Monogr., ii, p. 94. 
Otostomus trigonostomus MARTENS, Binnenmoll. Venezuelas, p. 181, 
in part ; SCHAKO, Ibid., p. 181, pi. 2, f. 18 (jaw and dentition). 

Bulimus curianianus Rve., Conch. Icon., pi. 58, f. 390 (Jan., 1849). 
PFR., Monogr., iii, p. 374. Drymceus curianianus Jouss., Me"m. 
Soc. Zool. France, ii, p. 242, 1889. 

Bulimus knorriPFK.., in Philippi, Abbild. u. Beschreib., ii, p. 115, 
pi. 4, f. 3 (1846) ; Monogr., ii, p. 95 ; iii, 374; iv, 444 ; vi, 79. 
EEEVE, Conch. Icon., pi. 42, f. 270. Sen A u FUSS, Nachrbl. D. M. 
Ges.,1881, p. 178. Bulimulus knorri W. G. BINNEY, Proc. Acad. 
N. S. Phila., 1874, p. 53, and, as Drymceus, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci., 
iii, p. 120 (jaw and teeth). Drymceus knorri JOUSSEAUME, Mem. 
Soc. Zool. France, ii, 242, 1889. Bulimulus knorri STREBEL & 
PFEFFER, Beitr. Mex. Land-und Siissw.-conch., p. 95, pi. 15, f. 7a-d, 
8, f. 9a-d. 

The base is more compressed and angular than in D. correctus, and 
the aperture generally shorter in proportion to the length of the 
shell. The original trigonostomus had three girdles of square brown 
spots above and two bands below, like specimens before me from 
Caracas, where that pattern occurs with the others mentioned in the 
description above. Reeve's curianianus (pi. 39, f. 41, 42, 43) is a 
somewhat better developed form with wider lip. 

There can be no doubt that Pfeiffer's B. knorri as originally 
defined and figured in Philippi's Abbildungen is identical with 
17 



258 DRYM^US, SOUTH AMERICAN. 

trigonostomus. His figures represent the streaked form (pi. 39, fig. 
34) and the spotted typical pattern of trigonostomus. 

Var. correctus (Pfeiffer). PI. 39, figs. 31, 32, 33, 35 to 40. 

Shell very openly rimate-wnbilicate, oblong, somewhat fusiform, 
moderately solid ; varying from white or flesh-colored to elaborately 
banded, streaked or maculated, generally with the lip bright yellow 
within, often with scattered translucent gray dots. Smooth, shining, 
showing under the lens slight growth-wrinkles and fine incised spiral 
stria?, often effaced in places. Spire straightly or convexly conic, 
apex blue-black or pale, H earlier whorls sculptured in the typical 
manner. Whorls 6 to 7i, slightly convex, the last ascending in 
front, somewhat compressed beneath. 

Aperture usually exceeding half the total alt., oblique or sub- 
vertical, usually with vivid bands within ; peristome very broadly 
expanded throughout ; white, yellow or orange ; columellar margin 
obliquely sloping, straightened, usually impressed at its root ; col- 
umella with a convex fold far above, sometimes obsolete. 

Alt. 36-37, diam. 171-18 ; alt. of aperture 19 mill. 

Alt. 39, diam. 18; alt. of aperture 23 mill. 

Alt. 30, diam. 16 mill. 

Alt. 36J, diam. 15 mill. 

Venezuela: Puerto Cabello (Swift and others); La Guayra 
(Swift) ; San Esteban (Simon). 

Bulimus correctus PFR., Zeitschr. f. Malak., 1852, p. 93 ; Conchyl. 
Cab., p. 148, pi. 39, f. 3, 4 ; Monogr., iii, p. 330. Otostomus trigonos- 
tomus (in part) MARTENS, Binnenmoll. Venez., p. 181, pi. 1, f. 9-13. 

Considered by von Martens a synonym of trigonostomus, from 
which it differs in being more inflated, less compressed basally, and 
with larger aperture. The coloring varies within wide limits, most 
of the principal patterns being represented on plate 39. The main 
color- varieties are as follows : 

Figs. 31, 32. Spire long, straightly conic; apex purple-black or 
red. About five purple-brown spiral bands, and some oblique 
streaks (typical correctus}. 

Fig. 39. Form similar, but spiral bands wanting or few and faint, 
longitudinal streaks conspicuous. 

Fig. 37. Form similar. Uniform fleshy-brown, pale yellow or 
white ; with or without a blackish submarginal stripe within the 

HP. 



DRYM^EUS, SOUTH AMERICAN. 259 

Fig. 35. Spire shorter, convex-conic, aperture large. Whitish 
or pale flesh tinted, with five (4 to 6) continuous narrow bands, 
spreading as they reach the lip expansion, bands 2, 3 and 4, 5 more 
or less approximate or confluent (var. sexfaseiatus Schauf. ; includes 
var. quadrifasciatus, tricolor and quinquefasciatus Schauf.). 

Fig. 40. Similar, but three bands above broken into square 
brown spots (var. guttidatiis Schaufuss). 

Figs. 33, 36, 38. Similar in form, but uniform white or fleshy 
brown, the lip white, orange, or orange with a dark submarginal 
stripe (var. percomis Schauf., fig. 36, and var. modesta Schauf., with- 
out the dark stripe within). 

The names given by Dr. Schaufuss to part of the color-varieties 
are quoted above ; but he has surcharged part of the patterns and 
omitted to name some others. 

D. AJJRIS (Pfeiffer). Unfigured. 

Shell deeply compressed-umbilicate, ovate-turrited, rather solid, 
smooth, white, sparcely marked with waved chestnut streaks ; spire 
turrited, rather acute ; whorls 6, convex, the last nearly as long as 
the spire, rounded, ascending in front. Aperture subvertical, 
reversed ear-shaped, bordered with violet within ; columella deeply 
and strongly transversely folded, violaceous ; peristome broadly ex- 
panded, the margins approaching, joined by a callus ; columellar 
margin sinuously elevated. Alt. 39, diam. 14 mill. ; aperture with 
peristome 20 mill, long, 13 wide in the middle. (Pfr.}. 

Venezuela (Cuming coll.). 

Bul'nnus aims PFR., P. Z. S., 1865, p. 831 ; Monogr., vi, p. 36. 

Group of D. ehanehamaye?isis. 
D. CHAXCHAMAYEXSIS (Hidalgo). PI. 40, figs. 6, 7. 

Shell closely related to B. canaliculatus Pfr., but larger, solid, 
tawny-gray with two somewhat interrupted blackish bands; the 
upper one spreading above in large spots, the other one a little below 
the periphery. Columella straighter; peristome broadly expanded 
throughout, Alt. 43, diam. 23 mill. (Pfr.'). 

Chauchamayo, Peru (Thamm, Isern) ; Tarma, Peru (Jelski). 

B iilimuscan a lieu lat us ft PFR., Monogr. Helic., vi, p. 78; Novit. 
Conch., iii, p. 348, t. 82, f. 6, 7. Bulimus chanchamayensis HI- 
DALGO in Journ. Couch., xviii, 1870, p. 49. PFR., Monogr., viii,p. 
111. Bnlimulus canaliculatus MARTENS in Malak. Bl., xiv, 1867, 



260 DRYMJEUS, SOUTH AMERICAN. 

p. 142. Bulimus (Goniostoma') chanehamayensis Hidalgo, LUBO- 
MIRSKI, P. Z. 8., 1879, p. 723. 

Hidalgo is doubtless right in separating this form from D. canali- 
culatus Pfr. 

D. FABREFACTUS (Reeve). PL 40, fig. 5. 

Shell umbilicate, obliquely fusiform, solid, striatulate, rnalleated ; 
tawny-white, painted with flexuous reddish streaks. Spire long 
conic, acute ; whorls 7, rather flat, the last a little shorter than the 
spire, the base narrowly compressed around the umbilicus; col- 
umella very concave. Aperture nearly vertical, subrhombic, some- 
what channelled at base ; peristome somewhat thickened, the mar- 
gins joined by a flesh-colored callus, right margin lightly arcuate, 
narrowly expanded, columellar margin dilated, spreading. Alt. 38, 
diam. 14 mill. ; apert. 18 mill. long. (Pfr.). 

Province of Merida, U. S. of Colombia (Linden) ; Santa Fe de 
Bogota (Pfr.). 

Bulimus fabrefactus RVE., Conch. Icon., pi. 49. f. 319 (November, 
1848). PFR., Monogr., iii, p. 373 ; iv, p. 443 ; vi, p. 78. 

" Of the same peculiarly angled structure at the base as the B. 
canaliculatus, from which it is amply distinguished by its more 
elongated form, solid growth and different style of coloring." 

D. PLICATOLIRATUS (da Costa). PI. 50, fig, 83. 

Shell ovate-fusiform, the base compressed, carinated, umbilicate. 
Whorls 7, convex, with compressed sutures, longitudinally rudely 
white-plicate or lirate; tawny, encircled by two narrow white zones, 
the apex black. Columella reflexed. Aperture oblong-oval, 
broadly channelled below, purple-brown and two-zoned inside ; outer 
lip white, somewhat expanded and reflexed. Alt. 37, diam. 15*5 ; 
aperture with peristome 17 mill, long, 11 wide (DaCosta). 

Bogota, Colombia. 

Bulimulus (Drymceus) plicatoliratus DA COSTA, Proc. Malac. Soc. 
Lond., iii, p, 80, pi. 6, f. 1 (July, 1898). 

D. PULCHERRIMUS (H. Adams). PI. 34, fig. 9. 

Shell subperforate, fusiform, rather thin, obsoletely irregularly 
striate, smooth ; whitish, ornamented with white-dotted blackish- 
chestnut streaks, which are sinuate above and broken into two series 
of spots below. Spire turrited. Whorls moderately convex, the 



DRYM^US, SOUTH AMERICAS. 261 

last compressed and strongly, obtusely keeled at base. Coluraella 
arcuate. Aperture slightly oblique, rhombic-oval ; peristome rose- 
colored, the ends joined by a thin callus, right margin expanded, 
columellar margin reflexed, adnate above. Alt. about 45, diam. 

17 mill. (H. Ad.). 

Eastern Peru (Bartlett). 

Otostomus pulcherrimus H. AD., P. Z. S., 1866, p. 442, pi. 38, f. 3. 
Bulimus pulcherrimus PFR., Monogr., viii, p. 110. 

"One example only^ of this beautiful species has been obtained, 
and of that, unfortunately, the upper whorls are deficient." 

D. CHIMBORASENSIS (Reeve), PI. 40, fig. 1. 

Shell fusiform, somewhat attenuated at the base, scarcely umbili- 
cated ; whorls 6 in number, convex, longitudinally very closely ele- 
vately striated. Columella depressly reflected ; lip slightly ex- 
papded, not reflected. Rose-brown, banded with white, lip and col- 
umella deep purple-rose (Eve). ' 

Chimborazo (Dennison coll.). 

Bulimus chimb or asensis RVE., Conch. Icon., pi. 44, f. 275 (Octo- 
ber, 1848). 

Compare D. decoratus Lea, from which this differs in the more 
slender form and the color-pattern. 

D. DECORATUS (Lea). PI. 40, figs. 2, 3. 

Shell oblong-turrited, with a very narrow umbilical chink; solid, 
with three broad ochraceous bands on a white ground on the last 
whorl, the upper two continuing upward upon the penultimate and 
part of the next earlier whorl, the ground-color gradually changing 
above to deep pink, which is uniform upon the earlier 3 whorls. 
Somewhat shining, with coarse, low, irregular wrinkles of growth, 
and no other sculpture. Whorls of, very convex, the last distinctly 
tapering and compressed toward the base. 

Aperture fusiform-oval, showing three broad, bright pink bands 
inside ; passing below into a short, effuse basal channel or " spout; " 
peristome slightly expanded, the outer lip white-edged outside and 
within, columellar lip narrowly reflexed, adnate above a narrow 
umbilical chink, passing in a gradual curve into the moderately 
strong, long pink parietal callus. Columella deeply concave above, 
projecting in an angle basally. Alt. 29, diam. 14 ; alt. of aperture 
15, greatest width (including peristome) 10 mill. 

Near Carthagena, U. S. of Colombia (J. H. Gibbon, M. D,, type 
locality) ; environs of Quito, Ecuador (Paz). 



262 DRYM^US, SOUTH AMERICAN. 

Bulimus decoratus LEA, Trans. Arner. Philos. Soc., vi, 1836, p. 86, 
pi. 23, f. 108 (June, 1838) ; Obs. Genus Unio, ii, p. 86, pi. 23, f. 108. 
HIDALGO. Journ. deConchyl., 1870, p. 50. PFR., Monogr., ii, p. 
182; iii, p. 375; iv, p. 444; vi, p. 80; viii, p. 11.8. Not Helix 
decorata Fer., Prodr. no. 327, nor Bulimus decoratus Gray, Ann. 
of Philos. (n. s.), ix, p. 413 (1825), and of some subsequent authors, 
a form of Helicostyla (Manual, viii, p. 11). Drymwus decoratus 
COUSIN, Bull. Soc. Zool. de France, xii, 1887, p. 214. Goniostomus 
decoratus MILLER, Mai. Blatt, 1878, xxv, p. 192. 

Lea's form differs from that described by Reeve as B. chimboras- 
ensis, in being decidedly broader, with a different band-pattern. The 
specific identity of the two forms remains an open question. 

Figures and description are from one of the two types, U. S. Na- 
tional Museum, No. 105,154. The locality given by Paz probably 
pertains to D. chimborasensis. 

Var. goniobasis Pilsbry, n. v. PI. 40, fig. 4. 

Larger, with more elongate spire of 6 very convex whorls ; 
three-banded on a pure white ground, the upper band very narrow, 
all of a deep chestnut-brown color; the upper two bands ascending 
the spire, earliest two whorls white. Aperture white with three 
dark bands inside, terminations of the bands and the parietal wall 
very faintly rose-tinted. Alt. 34*7, diam. 15'3 ; alt. of aperture 15*7, 
greatest width 11 mill. 

Near Santa Ana, U. S. of Colombia (Bland). 

Group of D. nystianus. 

D. NYSTIANUS (Pfeiffer). PI. 46, figs. 63, 64, 65. 

Shell rimate or nearly imperforate, ovate-pointed, thin. Creamy 
or yellowish-white, with irregular longitudinal streaks of brown or 
blackish-brown, fainter near the suture, and frequently several 
rather wide, light brownish spiral zones interrupted by light streaks. 
Surface shining, with irregular wrinkles of growth and some appear- 
ance of fine malleation. Spire conic, variable in length ; apex 
slightly obtuse, the nepionic If whorls with very minute but typical 
Drymceus sculpture. Whorls nearly 6, but slightly convex, the su- 
tures superficial, irregularly crenulated ; last whorl large, oval, 
rather ventricose, more or less distinctly angulated at base, the angle 
bounding a flattened umbilical tract. Aperture oval, slightly ob- 
lique, white or streaked inside, angular at the base ; outer lip thin, 



DRYM^US, SOUTH AMERICAN. 263 

sharp, not expanded, regularly arcuate; columella weakly folded, 
the edge reflexed and appressed. 

Alt. 29*, diara. 15? ; alt. of aperture, 17 mill. 

Alt. 31 -3-, diara. 15* ; alt. of aperture, 15 mill. 

Ecuador : Pomasqui Valley (Bourcier) ; Quito (Martinez and 
others) ; Machache (Paz) ; Tumbaeenti (Boetzkes) ; Tumbaco, Chil- 
logallo (Cousin). 

Bulimus nystianus PFR., P. Z. S., 1852, p. 154; Conchylien Cab- 
inet, p. 99, pi. 32, f. 15, 16 ; Monogr. iii, p. 374; iv, 444; vi, 80; 
viii, 112. HIDALGO, Journ. de Conchyl., 1870, p. 50 ; Mol. Viaje 
al Pacifico, p. 78. Goniostomus nystianus MILLER, Mai. Bl., xxv, 
1878, p. 192. Thawnastus (?) nystianus COUSIN, Bull. Soc. Zool. 
France, 1887, p. 220. 

The wide range of color variation is alluded to below. In the 
prominence of the basal angle there is great mutation, it being quite 
strong in some, nearly obsolete in other specimens. 

Hidalgo mentions these color-forms: (1) shell unicolored, pale 
citron, the columella roseate ; (2) with distant, distinct streaks, the 
basal angle whitish, and (3) with transverse bands of the same color 
as, and crossing, the streaks, the basal angle white. 

Cousin writes that all around Quito, at about 2,840 meters alt., it 
is of large size ; at Tumbaco, at 2,390 meters, intermediate, and at 
Chillogallo, 2,893 meters above sea level, a small variety ; at all of 
these localities the variety lutea occurs. "TA. nystianus varies ac- 
cording to locality, in size and coloration. All the intermediate 
colors between yellow and greenish-black occur" (Cousin}. 

" Var. nigricans. I collected along the railroad between Pomasqui 
and Chilguiltina, canton of Quito, several individuals of this 
species, all of great size and a greenish-black color" (Cousin). 

D. CANALICULATUS (Pfeiffer). PI. 40. fig. 8. 

Shell umbilicated, obliquely fusiform, wrinkle-striate, shining; 
whitish, marbled with flesh-color and reddish. Spire turrited-conic, 
acute. Whorls 7, slightly convex, the last a trifle longer than the 
spire, strongly pinched into a keel at base. Columella arcuate, pro- 
longed forward. Aperture oval, channelled at base ; peristome sim- 
ple, thin, the right margin a trifle expanded, columellar margin 
dilated, reflexed. Alt. 37, diam. 14; aperture 19 mill long (Pfr.). 

Bolivia. 



264 DRYM^EUS, SOUTH AMERICAN. 

Bulimus canaliculatus PFR., P. Z. S., 1845, p. 68; Monogr., ii, p. 
93. REEVE, Conch. Icon., pi. 41, f. 256. Otostomus canaliculatus 
Pfr., H. ADAMS, P. Z. S., 1866, p. 442 (from eastern Peru, Bartlett 
coll.). 

Cousin considers this closely allied to D. nystianus, perhaps an 
extreme variety of that species. 

D. AMBUSTUS (Reeve). PI. 46, figs. 66, 67. 

Shell nearly imperforate, ovate, thin ; white, more or less yellow 
beneath, often rose-tinted on the spire, marked with irregularly 
spaced narrow chestnut and yellow streaks, fainter toward the suture 
above, and often partially interrupted by a subperipheral light line. 
Surface shining, smooth, with faint, irregular growth striation. 
Spire short-conic, apex with very fine but typical Drymceus sculp- 
ture. Whorls 5J, rather convex, separated by superficial sutures ; 
last whorl convex, somewhat tapering below. 

Aperture ovate, white or streaked within, oblique ; peristome thin, 
sharp, unexpanded ; columella with a spiral fold above (very strong 
in immature shells), the edge reflexed and closely appressed. 

Alt. 26, diam. 13i ; alt. of aperture 13 mill. 

Ecuador: between Jacunga [Tacunga~\ and Ambato [Ambuta] 
(Bourcier) ; La Mocha (Paz) ; Alchipichi (Martinez) ; Tumbaco 
(Boetzkes, Cousin) ; Cotocollas, Guapulo (Cousin). 

Bulimus ambustus REEVE, Conch. Icon., pi. 74, f. 535 (August, 
1849). PFR., Conchyl. Cab., p. 106, pi. 33, f. 22, 23 ; Monogr., iii, 
p. 409; viii, p. 145. HIDALGO, Journ. de Conchy]., 1870, p. 57 ; 
Viaje al Pacifico, p. 106. Thaumastus ambustus MILLER, Malak. 
BL, xxv, 1878, p. 193. COUSIN, Bull. Soc. Zool. France, 1887, xii, 
p. 221. 

Allied to D. nystianus, but the base is not in the least angular, 
the surface is smoother and the color-pattern different. The series 
before me supports Cousin's opinion that B. chamceleon Pfr. is merely 
a variety of ambustus. 

Var. chamceleon (Pfeiffer). PI. 46, figs. 68, 69. 

Form similar to D. ambustus, but often more slender, the lateral 
outlines of the spire more convex. Yellowish-white with broad, 
longitudinal stripes of purple-brown or dark chestnut, occasionally 
not extending to the columella, leaving a small light basal area. 

Alt. 26, diam. 12-13 ; alt. of aperture 12 mill. 

Ecuador : Quito (Bourcier) ; La Mocha (Paz) ; Cumbaya, Baeza 
and Nanegal (Martinez). 



DRYMJCUS, SOUTH AMERICAN. 265 

Bulimus loxen*i* var., PFR., Monogr., iii, p. 422 ; Conchylien Cab., 
pi. 33, f. 17, 18. Bulimus chamceleon PFR., P. Z. S., 1855, p. 116; 
Monogr., iv, p. 483. HIDALGO, Journ. de Conchyl., 1870, p. 57 ; 
Viaje al Pacifico, p. 107. Thaumastus chamceleon MILLER, Malak. 
BL, xxv, p. 193. COUSIN, Bull. Soc. Zool. France, xii, 1887, p. 
224. 

Some individuals, writes Hidalgo, are nearly blackish on the last 
whorl by the coalescence of the longitudinal stripes. 

D. LOXENSIS (Pfeiffer). PI. 51, fig. 20. 

Shell umbilicate, ovate-oblong, striatulate ; white, irregularly 
flamed with interrupted reddish streaks. Spire pyramidal, acute ; 
whorls 7J, rather flattened, the last about three-sevenths the total 
length. Columella somewhat twisted, entering. Aperture oblong- 
oval, colored within like the exterior; peristome simple, acute ; col- 
umellar margin broadly reflexed, spread. Alt. 35, diam. 14 mill. ; 
aperture 16 mill, long, inside 7 wide (Pf/'.). 

El Catamaya, near Loxa, Ecuador (Hartwig). 

Bullmus loxensis PFR., Symbol se ad Histor. Helic., iii, p. 85 
(1846) ; Monogr., ii, p. 203 ; iii, p. 442 (exclusive of variety) ; vi, 
p. 129. REEVE, Conch. Icon., pi. 40, f. 251. Thaumastus loxensi 
MILLER, Malak. Bl., 1878, xxv, p. 193. COUSIN, Bull. Soc. Zool. 
Fr., xii, 1887, p. 228. 

Differs from D. ambustus in being umbilicated, with longer spire, 
and over seven, instead of less than six, whorls. 

D. CACTIVQRUS (Broderip). PI. 48, figs. 31 , 32 ; pi. 50, figs. 81, 82. 

Shell ovate-pyramidal, almost imperforate, thin ; white, somewhat 
cream-tinted below, the apex blue-black, with (form nitidus) or with- 
out (typical cactivoms) numerous obliquely longitudinal black-brown 
or reddish-brown streaks, which are lineolate with white. Surface 
glossy, frequently showing iridescent patches under a lens, coarsely 
and ruther Irregularly costulate-striate. Spire straightly conic, apex 
obtuse, the nepionic If whorls with typical Drymceus sculpture. 
Whorls 6, slightly convex, the last frequently somewhat angular at 
the periphery. 

Aperture oblique, ovate, less than half the length of the shell, 
colored within like the exterior ; outer lip sharp, thin and unex- 




266 DRYM^EUS, SOUTH AMERICAN. 

paneled, columella concave, with the margin reflexed and adnate 
above. 

Alt. 23, diam. 11, alt. of aperture 10 mill.; sometimes larger, alt. 
28 mill. 

Monte Christi, Colombia (Ginning, for typical cactivorus) ; Guay- 
aquil and prov. Loja [Loxa], Ecuador (Wolf) ; Tumbez, Peru 
(Cuming). 

Bulinus caclivorus BROD., P. Z. S., 1832, p. 31. SOWB., Conch. 
Illustr., f. 2*. Bulimus cactivorus DESK, in Lam., An. s. Vert., viii, 
p. 270. PFR., Monogr., ii, p. 175. MOUSSON, Malak., Bl., xvi, p. 
176. B. nitidus REEVE, f. 103a. Mormus cactivorus COUSIN, Bull. 
Soc. Zool. Fr., xii, p. 229. 

Bulinus nitidus BROD., P. Z. S., 1832, p. 31. SOWB., Conch. Il- 
lustr., f. 2. Bulimus nitidus PFR., Monogr., ii, p. 176 ; viii, p. 153. 
REEVE, Conch. Icon., pi. 18, f. 103b. DOHRN, Jahrb., vii, p. 89. 
Bulimulus nitidulus BECK, Index Moll., p. 67. Mormus occiden- 
talis MILLER, Malak. Bl. (n. F.), i, p. 121, pi. 13, f. 2. COUSIN, 
Bull. Soc. Zool. France, xii, 1887, p. 230. 

Common along the coast from Tumbez, Peru, to Monte Christi, 
Colombia. The passage from the whitish to the streaked forms 
seems to be a gradual one, but it is to the latter that the names 
nitidus, nitidulus and occidentaUs have been applied. The irregular 
striation, very coarse for so thin a shell, almost wholly closed um- 
bilical chink and dark apex are moderately constant characters 
throughout the species. PI. 50, figs. 81, 82, are occidentalis of 
Miller. 

D. DECOLORATUS (Sowerby). PI. 45, fig. 30. 

Shell oblong, subacuminate, whitish, very thin ; whorls 5 or 6, 
longitudinally striated, a little inflated, with some interrupted 
brownish girdles ; aperture oval, the margin acute, umbilicus small. 
Length 0'5, diam. 0'25 inch (Sowb). 

Shell openly perforate, ovate-acute, striatulate, whitish, streaked 
with corneous and bifasciate at base ; whorls 6, a little convex, the 
last a little shorter than the spire ; columella subvertical. Aperture 
oval; peristome simple, acute, the columellar margin dilated, over- 
hanging, reflexed at the perforation. Alt. 13, diam. 6 ; alt. of aper- 
ture 6 mill. (P/r.). 

Hills around Lima, Peru, buried in the earth under bushes (Cum- 
ing). 



DRYMJEU8, SOUTH AMERICAN. 267 

Bulinus decoloratus SOWB., P. Z. S., 1833, p. 73. Bulimus decol- 
oratus PFR., Monogr., ii, p. 211 ; iii, p. 424; vi, p. 132. REEVE, 
Conch. Icon., pi. 21, f. 128. 

" The first two whorls of this shell are characterized by a very 
minute shagreen appearance, discernable only with the lens " (Rve.}. 

Reeve's figure does not agree with Sowerby's description in color- 
pattern. I have not seen the species. 

D. VISENDUS (Hidalgo). PL 51, figs. 9, 10. 

Shell nearly covered perforate, ovate-acuminate, hyaline, thin, 
very glossy, striatulate ; green, encircled by many darker transverse 
lines. Spire rather elongate-conic, the apex obtuse, rather pale. 
Whorls 6? to 7, a little convex, the last one convex, a little descend- 
ing in front, about three sevenths the length of the shell, rotund at 
base. Aperture oval, colored like the outside ; peristome simple, 
unexpanded, the margins joined by a very thin callus; right margin 
subarcuate, subacute ; columellar margin narrowly reflexed, cover- 
ing the perforation. Alt. 30, diam. 14 ; alt. of aperture inside 15, 
width 8 mill. (Hidalgo). 

Baeza (Martinez) and San Jose (Espada), Ecuador. 

Bulimus visendus HID., Journ. de Conchyl., xvii, 1869, p. 50, pi. 
5, f. 8 ; Journ. de Conchyl., 1870, p. 58; Catal. Coq. Terr., p. 33 ; 
Mol. Viaje al Pacifico, p. 100, pi. 8, f. 1, 2. PFR., Monogr., viii, p. 
150. Mesembrinus visendus MILLER, Mai. Bl., xxv, 1878, p. 191. 

The spiral lines are generally very fine, but sometimes some of 
them are wider than others, particularly one about in the middle of 
the last whorl. The suture is quite deep. It is distinguished from 
other Ecuadorian forms by the thinness and shining appearance, 
and especially by the quite deep green color of the shell. At San 
Jose, M. Espada collected a very pretty variety, which is small and 
ornamented with a white band around the base of the last whorl. 
(Hidalgo). 

Group of D. farrisi. 

A group of Peru and Ecuador, comprising elongated, usually 
much variegated shells with the lip simple and unexpanded. 

Probably some of the species included in the D. poecilm group, 
such as canarius Ph., belong nearer these forms. 

D. CHRYSOMELAS (Martens). PL 47, figs. 1, 2, 3, 4. 

Shell fusiform-elongate, perforate, rather coarsely striated, shin- 
ing ; brown-black, with yellow streaks. Whorls 7, rather flat, the 



268 DRYM^US, SOUTH AMERICAN. 

earlier three unicolored red brown, suture very delicately crenula- 
ted, narrowly white. Aperture subvertical, two-fifths the total 
length of the shell, ovate-elliptical, rounded at base; peristorae ro- 
seate, the outer margin unexparided, basal slightly expanded, colu- 
mellar margin dilated, reflexed ; columella twisted. 

Var. raristriga, generally a little more obese ; length 43, greater 
diam. 18, lesser 13 ; aperture 19 mill, long, 9 wide inside. 

Var. crebristriga painted with very close, very fine streaks and 
three subarticulated bands. Alt. 47 J, greater diam. 15, lesser 13 ; 
aperture 19 mill, long, 8 wide inside. (Martens). 

On the Chanchamayo, an affluent of the Ucayali R., one of the 
headwaters of the Amazon (Thamm) ; Tunin, Peru (Jelski) ; Napo, 
Ecuador (Martinez). 

Bulimulus (Thaumastus) chrysomelas MARTENS, Malak. BL, xiv, 
1867, p. 145. Bulimus chrysomelas PFR., Monogr., vi, p. 133 ; 
Novit. Conch., p. 348, pi. 82, f. 1-5. HIDALGO, Journ. de Conch., 
1870, p. 48. LUBOMIRSKI, P. Z. S., 1879, p. 724. 

Von Martens compares this with B. farrisi Pfr., but that is more 
acute, with the last whorl larger proportionally, and it generally has 
spiral striae. 

D. FARRISI (Pfeiffer). PI. 47, figs. 5, 6, 7. 

Shell openly rimate, fusiform-turrited, rather solid. Varying 
from uniform opaque, rose-white, to densely speckled and streaked 
with livid pink. Surface glossy, having rather coarse wrinkles 
along the growth lines, and in some specimens spaced spiral strise, 
visible under the lens. Spire drawn out, attenuated, frequently be- 
coming ruddy or blackish near the apex, which when not lost (self 
amputated?) is rather obtuse, the nepionic shell with If whorls with 
typical Drymceus sculpture. Whorls 6J-7J, nearly flat, the sutures 
very oblique ; last whorl usually somewhat obliquely produced, but 
slightly convex above, tapering below. 

Aperture decidedly oblique, varying from bright orange or reddish 
inside to yellow or purplish- brown, long-ovate, half the length of 
shell or less ; peristome with a narrow white edge, not expanded ; 
columella straight or with a slight fold above, concave below, white, 
the margin broadly dilated above. 

Alt. 52, diam. 20* ; alt of aperture 23 mill. 

Alt. 42, diam. 15 ; alt. of aperture 19 mill. 

Andes of Peru, province of Patas. 



DRYM.EC8, SOUTH AMERICAN. 269 

fiiilimus farrisi PFR., P. Z. S., 1858, p. 258, pi. 42, f. 8 ; Malak. 
Bl., 1859, p. 46 ; Monogr., vi, p. 126. 

The figured type of D. farrisi is a much variegated shell (pi. 47, 
fig. 6) with moderate umbilical crevice and ll fusco-crocea " aperture. 
Shells of this kind generally show minute incised spirals, rather sep- 
arated, the intervals densely crenulated by vertical stri*. From 
this mean there are variations (1) toward uniform pink-white shells 
with bright reddish-orange interior, rather wider umbilical crevice, 
obsolete or subobsolete spiral striation, and generally mutilated apex 
(fig. 7), and (2) toward an even more speckled coloration, ruddy 
apical whorls, brownish interior, almost appressed columellar lip 
nearly closing the umbilical chink (fig. 5). These examples form 
a passage to 

D. VESPERTIXUS (Pfeiffer). PI. 47, figs. 8, 9, 10, 11. 

Shorter than farrm, with decidedly shorter spire, more oval body 
whorl, which tapers more below, almost imperforate umbilical crevice 
the columella plicate above with reflexed, appressed outer edge. Sur- 
face smoothish, hardly wrinkled, with subobsolete spiral striation ; 
coloring of red or dark reddish-brown streaks profusely dotted with 
white, alternating with irregular white or pink streaks, the earlier 
whorls reddish or blackish. Aperture half the alt. or somewhat 
more, dark purplish-brown or reddish within, showing the external 
pattern, decidedly narrower below than in D. farrisi ; lip simple, 
thin; basal lip decidedly receding ; whorls 6j-72. Alt. 35, diam. 
15 ; alt. of aperture 18-19 mill. 

Province of Patas, Peru (Farris) ; Pataz (Paz.). 

Bulimus vespertinus PFR., P. Z. S., 1858, pi. 257, pi. 42, f. 3 ; 
Malak. BL, 1859, p. 44 ; Monogr., vi, p. 109 ; Novit. Conch., iii, p. 
465, pi. 101, f. 16-19. HIDALGO, Journ. de Conchyl., 1870, p. 63. 

There is a good deal of variation in size, more in coloring. In 
some specimens a wide ill-defined pink zone revolves below the 
suture and another around the columella, replacing the dark reddish- 
brown streaks of the median part of the whorl. This form resembles 
D. rubrovarieyatus. It is very likely that more complete series will 
show D. farrisi and D. rubrovariegatus to be merely varieties of D. 
v&pertinus. That they are all variable forms is demonstrated by 
the series before me, in which the extreme forms are nearly con- 
nected by intermediate examples. 



270 DRY1OEUS, SOUTH AMERICAN. 

D. RUBROVARIEGATUS (Higgins). PL 47, figs. 12, 13, 14, 15. 

Shell riraate, oblong, fusiform, rather thin, but moderately solid, 
lightly striate, smooth ; white, variegated with blackish stripes 
which are more or less interrupted and white-dotted, and often 
edged on one side -with red; a subsutural band reddish or white, 
and with a red area around the columella. Whorls 7 to 8, some- 
what convex, the last tapering below. Aperture narrow and long, 
variegated inside, the outer lip sharp and simple, regularly arcuate, 
parietal margin and columella forming an unusually straight inner 
lip, slightly concave in the middle; basal lip abruptly receding. 
Columella reflexed and appressed, truncate at base. 

Alt. 37, diam. 13; length of aperture 17, breadth 62 mill. 

Alt. 30, diam. 11 J ; length of aperture 14, breadth 53 mill. 

Huamachuco, Peru. 

Bulimus rubrovariegatus HIGGINS, P. Z, 8., 1868, p. 178, pi. 14, 
f. 2, 2a. PFR., Monogr., viii, p. 149. 

More slender than D. vespertinus, with the aperture proportion- 
ately smaller. In D. scitulus the red variegation is absent, the aper- 
ture still shorter, and the spire more developed. 

D. LOXANUS (Higgins). PI. 48, figs. 39, 40. 

Shell subperforate, ovate-fusiform, rather thin, longitudinally 
plicate-striate, obscurely striolate spirally. Grayish-brown, encir- 
cled by chestnut bands and buff lines, and with irregularly scat- 
tered buff dots. Spire somewhat convexly conic, with rather acute 
apex ; sutures distinct. Whorls 7, a little convex, the last a little 
shorter than the spire, tapering and red at base. Aperture a little 
oblique, acuminate-oval, chestnut-colored inside, with the bands and 
dots showing through, the margin red ; columella rather straight, 
minutely granulose, red ; peristome simple, unexpanded, the basal 
margin somewhat expanded, columellar margin dilated above, 
somewhat appressed, vaulted, reflexed. Alt. 29, diam. 11 mill.; 
aperture 14 mill, long, 6 wide. (Higgins). 

Loxa, Ecuador (Buckley); between Popayan and the Hacienda 
Sotard, Colombia, at about 2400 meters alt. (Stiibel). 

Otostomus loxanus HIGGINS, P. Z. S., 1872, p. 685, pi. 56, f. 2, 
2a. MAKTENS, Conch. Mittheil., p. 160. Bulimus loxanus 
Monogr., viii, p. 150, 



DRYM^EUS, SOUTH AMERICAN. 271 

D. SCITULUS (Reeve). PL 47, figs. 16, 17, 18. 

Shell almost iiu perforate, oblong-turrited, rather solid, though 
thin. Opaque-white, with numerous longitudinal, arcuate, purple- 
black stripes not extending above to the suture, which is bordered 
below by a white band, nor below to the base, there being a yellow 
basal area ; early whorls red. Surface glossy, the growth wrinkles 
very slight. Spire high, turrited, the sutures impressed ; apex with 
shallow but typical Drymceus sculpture. Whorls 7, somewhat con- 
vex, the last convex, tapering below. 

Aperture small, brown-streaked within, much less than half the 
alt. of shell ; peristome thin, unexpanded ; columella vertical or ob- 
liquely obsoletely folded, the outer edge reflexed and appressed, 
leaving but a slight umbilical chink. 

Alt. 28, diam. 10* ; alt. of aperture 11 mill. 

! >ac7iapoyas, Pent (W. Lobb) ; between Maeanya and the Mara- 
11011 River (Raimondi). 

Bulimus scitulus REEVE, P. Z. S., 1849, p. 97; Conch. Icon., pi. 
97, f. 513. PFR., Monographia, iii, p. 411 ; viii, p. 151. 

In Z>. scitulus the spire is more turrited and the aperture shorter 
than in D. rubrovariegatus. D. lamas and trujillensis have the last 
whorl more elongated, especially as seen in a dorsal view. 

The specimens before me, two of which are shown in figs. 17 18, 
differ from Reeve's figure in having a wide light subsutural band 
and basal area, as described above. I believe them to be specifi- 
cally identical however. Pfeiffer's diagnosis of the typical form is 
as follows : " Subperforate, subfusiform-oblong, rather solid, rather 
smooth, glossy ; dull whitish, ornamented with close narrow streaks 
of orange and scarlet ; spire long-conic, rather acute. Whorls 7, 
slightly convex, the last three-sevenths of the length, tapering at 
base. Aperture sub vertical, narrow, subrhombic-oblong ; peristome 
simple, unexpanded, the right margin lightly arcuate, columellar 
margin a little reflexed and vaulted above. Alt. 29, diam. 11 ; alt. 
of aperture 13, width 5* mill." 

Reeve remarks " neatly marked with fine waved white lines upon 
a purple-blue ground, tinged toward the base with a bright rust- 
red." 

Var. citrinellus (' Philippi ' Pfeiffer). Whorls a little more con- 
vex, no scarlet streaks. Collected with the type form by Raimoodi. 



272 DRYM.EUS, SOUTH AMERICAN. 

D. EDMULLERI (Albers). PL 47, figs. 22, 23. 

Shell narrowly perforate, fusiform-oblong, rather thin, longitudi- 
nally striated ; buff- white, ornamented with black-brown wavy 
streaks interrupted in bands. Spire turrited, rather acute. Whorls 
6J, rather flat, the last a little shorter than the spire, tapering at 
base, distinctly striated. Columella receding, slightly folded. 
Aperture little oblique, oblong ; peristome thin, the margins sub- 
parallel, right margin a little expanded, somewhat sinuate above; 
columellar margin buff, dilated and subappressed. Alt. 29 5, diam. 
10 ; alt. of aperture 1 4 J,. width 6 mill. (P/r.). 

On the Maranon River, Colombia (Warszewicz). 

Bulimus edmulleri ALB., Malak. Bl., i, p. 218 (1854). PFR., 
Novit. Conch., i, p. 42, pi. 11, f- 3, 4 ; Monogr., iv, p. 408. 

Seems allied to D. scitulus, but the streaks are festooned. 

D. TRUJILLENSIS (Philippi). PI. 48, figs. 24, 25. 

Shell perforate-umbilicate, oblong-turrited, subfusiform, thin, 
slightly striate, shining. White, ornamented with close scarlet or 
reddish streaks. Spire turrited, somewhat obtuse, the apex white ; 
whorls 7, a little convex, the last three-sevenths the total alt. Aper- 
ture oblong, colored within like the outside ; colurnella strongly 
twisted ; peristome simple, acute, right margin subsinuate above, 
columellar margin reflexed, not closing the perforation. Alt. 34, 
diam. 13 ; aperture 15 mill, long, 6 wide. (Phil.'). 

Trujillo (Raimondi, Stoltzman), and Huamaehuco (Paz), Peru. 

Bulimus trujillensis PH., Malak. BL, xiv, p. 73 (1867). PFR., 
Novit. Conch., p. 333, pi. 80, f. 1,2 ; Monogr., vi, p. 129. HIDALGO, 
Journ. de Conch., 1870, p. 48. LUBOMIRSKI, P. Z. S., 1879, p. 
724. 

Hidalgo remarks that in the fully adult example collected by 
Paz the shell is more solid and the umbilical perforation less appar- 
ent than in the original specimens. Probably the following species 
is merely a form of trujillensis. 

D. LAMAS (Higgins). PL 48, figs. 26, 27. 

Shell subperforate, oblong-turrited, thin, nearly smooth, irregu- 
larly lightly striated. Whitish, ornamented with chestnut streaks. 
Spire lengthened, the apex acute. Whorls 7, rather flat, the last 
rounded at base ; colamella rather straightened. Aperture little 
oblique, oval, chestnut colored inside ; peristome simple, unex- 



DRYM.EUS, SOUTH AMERICAN. 273 

panded, the coluraellar margin reflexed above, subadnate. Length 
33, diam. 10 mill. ; aperture 14 mill, long, 5 wide. (Higgins). 

Joudabamba, Peru. 

Bulimus (Otostomus) lamas HIGG., P. Z. S., 1868, p. 179, pi. 14, 
f. 3, 3a. PFR., Monogr., viii, p. 166. 

As Pfeiffer remarks, this species seems from the figures to be very 
much like trujillensis. 

D. SACHSEI (Albers). PL 47, figs. 19, 20, 21. 

Shell perforate, ovate-turrited, rather thin, nearly smooth, (irreg- 
ularly striolate), shiningt; white, ornamented with blackish-chestnut 
streaks, dotted or guttate with white. . Spire convex-conic, the apex 
rather obtuse, corneous [or black-tipped]. Whorls 7, a little con- 
vex, the last about three-sevenths the total length, tapering and 
white at base. Aperture slightly oblique, oval-oblong, with a lilac 
gleam inside [or dull purplish] ; peristome unexpanded, acute, rose- 
colored ; the right margin lightly arcuate ; columellar margin 
twisted, abruptly reflexed, dilated above, with a more or less distinct 
oblique furrow where it joins the body-whorl. Alt. 29, diam. 13 ; 
alt. of aperture 13, width nearly 7 mill. (Pfr). Alt. 27, diam. 
12*, alt. of aperture 12 mill. 

Upper course of the Maranon River in Ecuador and Peru, from near 
Jaen to the mouth of the Napo River. Tambillo (Stoltzmann), neigh- 
borhood of Moyobamba, at about 870 meters alt. (Stu'bel), Peru; 
Catamayo, prov. Loja, (Loxa\ Ecuador (Wolf.). 

Bulimus sachsei ALBERS, Malak. Bl. 1854, p. 30. PFR., 1. c., 
1855, p. 159 (Mesembrinus) ; Monogr., iv, p. 484. LUBOMIRSKI, P. 
Z. S., 1879, p. 725. Otostomus (Drymaus) sachsei MARTENS, Con- 
chol. MittheiL, pp. 161,175, pi. 35, fig. 11, 12. ScnAKO,t.c., p. 209 
(jaw and dentition). Mormus catamayensis MILLER, Malak. Bl. (n. 
F.), i, p. 120, pi. 12, f. 4. Conf. DOHRN, Jahrb. D. M. Ges., vii, p. 
88. Thaumastus sachsei MILLER, Malak. Bl., xxv, p. 193. COUSIN, 
Bull. Soc. Zool. France, xii, 1887, p. 227. Conf. DOHRN, Jahrb. D. 
M. Ges., vi, 1879, p. 189. ? Bulimus sporadicus REEVE, Conch. 
Icon., pi. 49, f. 325 (not of Orbigny). 

Besides the ordinary form with black streaks profusely speckled 
with white, there are paler, brown streaked specimens, and partial 
albinos (fig. 19) in which the original pattern is scarcely recogniz- 
able. The slight groove at the root of the columella is characteristic. 

18 



274 DRYM.EUS, SOUTH AMERICAN. 

Dohrn and von Martens have fully discussed the geographic range 
and synonymy of this species; but the latter author erroneously 
includes Bulimus culmineus Reeve (not Orb.). 

D. LEUCOMELAS (Albers). 

Shell compressed-umbilicate, oblong-turrited, rather thin, striated, 
white, or rarely pale buff, ornamented with blackish streaks, here 
and there spotted with white. Spire lengthened-conic, rather acute. 
Whorls 8, a little convex, the last forming nearly two-fifths of the 
total length, somewhat compressed basally. Aperture slightly 
oblique, narrow, acuminate-oval ; peristome simple, unexpanded ; 
the columellar margin receding, dilated above, overhanging, con- 
spicuous. Alt. 29, diam. scarcely 10 mill. ; aperture 12 mill, long, 

5 wide. (P/r.). 

On the Maranon River (Warscewicz). 

Bulimus leueomelas ALBERS, Malak. Bl., i, p. 219 (1854). PFR., 
Monogr., iv, p. 488. 

D. VEXILLUM (Wood). PL 48, fig. 33. 

Shell openly perforate, oblong- acuminate, thin, striate, shining; 
whitish, with three equal blackish-brown encircling bands and a 
fourth one around the perforation. Spire turrited, rather acute. 
Whorls 8, slightly convex, the last two-fifths to three-sevenths the 
total length. Aperture oblong-oval; peristome thin, unexpanded, 
acute ; columellar margin subvertical, dilated. Alt. 32, diam. 12 ; 
length of aperture 14 mill. (Pfr.~). 

Truxillo, Peru (Cum ing). 

Helix vexillum WOOD, Index Testae., SuppL, pi. 8, f. 78a (1828). 
Bulimulus vexillum BECK, Index Moll., p. 67. Bulimus vexillum 
PFR., Monogr., ii, p. 205 ; iii, p. 427 ; iv, p. 490 ; vi, p. 1 36 ; viii, p. 
171 (including pulchellus, varians and rubellus). Bidinuspidchellus 
BROD., P. Z. S., 1832, p. 106. SOWB., Conchol. Illustr., f. 17. Bul- 
imus varians REEVE, C. Icon., pi. 18, f. ] 04 c. 

Var. VARIANS (Broderip). PL 48, fig. 34. 

Shell openly perforate, oblong-acuminate ; cream-white, closely 
marked with ragged, irregular longitudinal streaks of blackish- 
chestnut, the base with a light spiral band surrounding the col- 
umella. Surface rather coarsely but sparsely and irregularly stri- 



DRYM^US, SOUTH AMERICAN. 275 

ate, showing traces of minute spiral impressed stria; in places. Alt 
30*, diam. 12* ; alt. of aperture 14 mill. 

Peru : Truxillo, with B. pulchellus (Cuming) ; Chocquequirao 
(Augrand). 

Bulinus varians BROD., P. Z. 8., 1832, p. 107. SOWB., Conch. 
Illustr., f. 20, 20.* Bulimus varians ORB., Voy. Amer. Merid., p. 
284. DESH. in Lam., An. s. Vert., viii, p. 266. REEVE, Conch. 
Icon., pi. 18, f. 1046. MOREL., Ser. Conch., iii, p. 208. 

Differs strikingly from D. vexillumiu coloration, but is considered 
by Pfeiffer to be a variety of that species. 

Var. RUBELLUS (Broderip). PI. 48, fig. 35. 

Shell thin, diaphanous, somewhat pyramidal, pale red, obscurely 
maculose with whitish ; whorls 7, longitudinally striated ; umbilicus 
inoderate. Alt. 11, diam. T 5 z inch. (Brod.}. 

Tnixillo, Peru (Cuming). 

Bulinus rubellus BROD., P. Z. S., 1832, p. 124. SOWB.> Conch. 
Illustr., f. 32. Bulimus rubellus DH. in Lam., viii, p. 268. Bul- 
imus varians REEVE, C. Icon., pi. 18, f. 104a. 

There is often a chestnut band around the perforation, as in the 
other forms of the species. A specimen before me is longitudinally 
streaked with faint scarlet and white, and measures, alt. 29, diam. 11, 
alt. of aperture 13 mill., being more slender than the types. 

D. TIGRIS (Broderip). PI. 48, fig. 30. 

Shell subperforate, ovate-fusiform, thin, shining, longitudinally 
plicatulate; tawny-white, narrowly and closely streaked with chest- 
nut. Spire turrited, the apex acute, pale ; whorls 7, flattened, the 
last about three-sevenths the length, tapering at base; columella 
nearly straight. Aperture oval-oblong ; peristome acute, the right 
margin unexpanded, columellar margin dilated above, triangular, 
subappressed. Alt. 37, diam. 13 mill. ; aperture 19 mill. long. 

Cflfr.). 

Truxillo, Peru (Cuming). 

Bulimus tigru BROD., P. Z. S., 1832, p. 107.-- SOWB., Conch. Illustr. 
f. 21. Bulimus trigris PFR., Monogr., ii, p. 204 ; iii, p. 427 ; iv, p. 489; 
vi, p. 136. REEVE, Conch. Icon., pi. 18, f. 107. 

" Though approximating very closely, to the B. varians, there is a 
sufficient variation in the form of this species to render it distinct. 



276 DRYM^US, SOUTH AMERICAN. 

The body- whorl is of greater length and the aperture effused." 
(Eve.}. 

D. BUCKLEYI (Sowerby). PI. 50, figs. 2, 3. 

Shell subperforate, elongate, rather thin, shining ; buff-whitish, 
irregularly, sparsely streaked with brown. Spire long, rather 
obtuse. Whorls 6, a little convex, the last whorl a little exceeding 
the spire in length, slightly tapering at base. Columella subplicate, 
obliquely receding. Aperture oblong ; peristome simple, expanded, 
the margins joined by a thin red-brown callus ; columellar margin 
shortly reflexed, nearly closing the perforation. Alt. 27, diam. 9 
mill. (Soivb.). 

Ecuador (Buckley). 

Bulimulus (Drymceus) buckleyi SOWB., Proc. Malac. Soc. Lond., 
i, p. 214, pi. 13, f. 3, 4, (March, 1895). 

Var. a. Straw colored, with interrupted brown bands (fig. 2). 

Types are in the collection of Mr. S. I. daCosta. The shells were 
collected by Mr. C. Buckley in 1872, but not mentioned in Mr. 
Higgin's paper (Proc. Zool. Soc., 1872, p. 685). The form of the 
shell is about intermediate between B. fusoides and B. castus. The 
coloration seems to consist generally of a few more or less faint lon- 
gitudinal streaks, but one of Mr. daCosta's specimens has inter- 
rupted transverse bands. (Sowb.*). 

Group of D. poecilus. 

Rather thin, with thin lip, wholly unexpanded or very slightly 
so. Mainly from Bolivia and Argentina to Ecuador. 

D. CONIFORMIS (Pfeiffer). PI. 51, fig. 21. 

Shell subperforate, ovate-conic, thin, irregularly striate ; brown- 
tinted whitish, marked with oblique brown streaks. Spire conic, 
rather acute. Whorls 5, rather flattened, the last a little longer 
than the spire, angulated in the middle, subcompressed basally ; col- 
umella lightly arcuate. Aperture oval, narrowed at each end ; per- 
istome simple, unexpanded, the columellar margin dilated above, 
narrowly reflexed, nearly closing the perforation. Alt. 12, diam. 
6J mill.; alt. of aperture 6, width 3? mill. (Pfr.). 

Meriddy Andes of Colombia (Philippi coll.). 

Bulimus coniformis PFR., P. Z. S., 1846, p. 114; Monogr., ii, p. 
178 ; vi, 113 KEEVE, Conch. Icon., pi. 65, f. 451. 



DRYM^US, SOUTH AMERICAN. 277 

Has the general appearance of a young B. lobbii, but is from a 
different region. 

D. OREADES (Orbigny). PL 44, figs. 95, 96. 

Shell perforate, oblong-conic, thin and fragile. Flesh colored or 
light yellow, with irregularly spaced purplish-brown longitudinal 
streaks, which abruptly cease a little way below the periphery, leav- 
ing the base immaculate; the streaks often a little spreading at the 
suture, frequently converging gable-like there. Surface rather 
glossy, smooth, showing under the lens fine, close spiral striae. Spire 
conic, the lateral outlines a trifle convex ; apex obtuse; whorls 6}- 
8, but slightly convex, the sutures shallow, bordered by a white 
line. 

Aperture less than half the shell's length, ovate, slightly oblique, 
the upper half chestnut, streaked within ; peristome thin, sharp and 
unexpanded, columella straight, subvertical, its edge broadly dilated 
and reflexed above. 

Alt. 24}, diam. 11 ; alt. aperture 10} mill. (Piracicaba). 

Alt. 32, diam. 12} ; alt. aperture 15 mill. (P/r.). 

Alt. 32, diam. 14 mill. (Orb.). 

Near San Roque, prov. Corrientes, Argentina, in a damp forest on 
the south bank of the river Santa Lucia (Orb.) ; Piracicaba, prov. 
S. Paulo, Brazil (v. Ihering). 

Helix oreades ORB., Mag. de Zool., 1835, p. 11 ; Voy., pi. 31, f. 11, 
12. 'Bulimus oreades ORB., t. c. f p. 270. PFR., Monogr., ii, p. 202 ; 
iii, 422 ; iv, 483; vi, 129. REEVE, Conch. Icon., pi. 48, f. 313. 
Bulimulus oreades BECK, Index, p. 65. Bulinus sporadicus var. 
Sow., Conch. 111., f. 78. Thaumastus oreades DOERING, Bol. Acad. 
Cordoba, iii, p. 73. 

The color pattern is characteristic, soft stripes of a purplish color, 
occasionally diverging or gable-shaped, upon a fleshy or yellowish 
ground. 

D. PAZIANUS (Orbigny). PI. 44, figs. 7, 8. 

Shell oblong, pyramidal, a little fusiform, without umbilicus, very 
thin, diaphanous, fragile, appearing quite smooth to the Baked eye, 
but wrinkled and irregularly marked with growth lines. White or 
noticeably roseate, especially on the last whorl and at the apex, 
ornamented longitudinally with narrow and not well defined brown 
lines. Spire very conic, quite long, acute at apex, composed of 7 
closely united whorls, not convex, with inconspicuous suture. 



278 BRYM.EUS, SOUTH AMERICAN. 

Aperture wide, oblong, the peristome thin and acute ; columella 
narrow, subtruncate below. Alt. 25, diam. 1] mill. (Orb.). 

Bolivia : Near Cavari, province of Sicasica (typical form) and on 
the Rio de Meguilla, between the villages of Lauza and Carcuatu, 
province of Yungas (variety), under dead leaves in stony places. 
(Orb.). 

Helix paziana ORB., Mag. de Zool., 1835, p. 12 ; Voy. Amer. 
Me"rid., pi. 32, f. 10, 11. Bulimus pazianus ORB., t. c., p. 286. 
PFR., Monogr., ii, p. Ill ; iv, 471 ; vi, 115. REEVE, Conch. Icon., 
pi. 56, f. 377. 

Allied to D. montagnei and D. torallyi but more fusiform, with 
more acuminate spire, more conic though relatively not so long, etc. 

The typical form is iraperforate, with the characters described 
above. A local variety from the coteaux of the Rio de Meguilla is 
distinctly umbilicate, with the aperture less fusiform and a little 
angular. 

Pfeiffer also places here the Bulimus montagnei of Reeve (not 
Orb.). It seems to form a distinguishable variety at least. 

Var. pseudonyma n. n. PI. 44, fig. 6. 

Shell acuminately oblong, rather thin, scarcely umbilicated ; 
whorls 7, smooth, somewhat rounded ; lip simple. Whitish, painted 
longitudinally with bluish-black dots and streaks; interior of the 
aperture yellowish. (Rve.). Alt. 19 mill, (from fig.). 

Chilon, Bolivia, under dead trunks of cacti (Bridges). 

'Bulimus montagnei REEVE, Conch. Icon., pi. 23, f. 146. Not of 
Orb. 

D. TORALLYI (Orbigny). PI. 44, figs. 97, 98, 99, 1, 2, 3. 

Shell elongate, pyramidal, quite thick, smooth, glossy, noticeably 
transparent. Color various: (1) entirely whitish, (2) whitish with 
the umbilicus and apex blackish, having wide red brown longitu- 
dinal flames, unequally spaced, sometimes represented by series of 
small spots ; these flames, in others form very distinct bands ; the 
interior of the aperture generally brownish. Spire lengthened, with 
noticeably convex lateral outlines, the apex acute ; whorls 8, wide, 
but little convex, separated by shallow sutures. Aperture small, 
oblong, subangular; the columellar margin straight and flat ; per- 
istome acute. Columella not appressed, but leaving the beginning 
of a narrow umbilicus. Alt. 31, diam. 11 mill. (Orb.). 



DRYM^US, SOUTH AMERICAN. 279 

Provinces of La Laguna and Valle Grande, Bolivia, especially at 
the place called Pampa Ruiz along the dry and precipitous coteaux 
of the Rio Grande; common under stones, cacti and mimosas. 
(Orb.) ; Santa Rosa, province of Salta, Argentina (Borelli) ; Chiton, 
Bolivia (Bridges, B. draparnaudi) ; Eastern Peru (Bartlett). 

Helix torallyi ORB., Mag. de Zool., 1835, p. 11 ; Voy. Ame"r. 
Merid., pi. 32, f. 1-4. Bulimus torallyi ORB., t. c. t p. 285. PFR., 
Monogr., ii, p. 201 ; iii, 412; iv, 471 ; vi, 114; viii, 152 (excluding 
B. xisalensis). PARAVICINI, Boll. Mus. Zool. ed. Anat. Oomp. Univ. 
Torino, ix, no. 181, p. 5. Bulimvlus torallyi BECK, Index, p. 67. 
ANCEY, Boll. Mus. Zool. ed Anat. Comp. Univ. Torino, xii,no. 309, 
p. 5 (1897, as " B. toralyis "). Mesembrinus ventricosus PARAVICINI, 
/. c., p. 6. B. pazianit* PARAVICIXI, L c., p. 6 (not of Orb.). Bul- 
imus draparnaudi PFR., P. Z. S., 1846, p. 113 ; Monogr., ii, p. 174. 
REEVE, Conch. Icon., pi. 19, f. 116a, b. Otoslomus torallyi H. 
AD., P. Z. S., 1866, p. 435. 

D. BORELLII (Ancey). PI. 26, figs. 77, 78. 

Shell elongated, pyramidal, rather solid, opaque, perforate ; some- 
what shining ; pale buff-whitish, irregularly painted with many con- 
tinuous brown streaks, more or less narrow and nearly straight, with 
paler ones interposed between them. Spire produced, turrited, 
tapering-conoid, the apex minute, rather acute. Whorls 9 to 9i, 
somewhat convex, separated by a linear suture, of little depth, the 
first whorls pale corneous, one-colored, rather flattened, the following 
obsoletely striatulate ; last whorl oblong, tapering at base. 

Aperture oblong, angulate above, hardly expanding, little oblique, 
the lines showing through ; peristome simple, acute, rather broadly 
revolute for some distance at the perforation, covering the umbilicus 
above. No parietal callus. (Ancey). 

Alt. 34, diam. 11, alt. of aperture 11 mill. 

Alt. 31, diam. 11, alt. of aperture 10 mill. 

Alt. 31, diam. 9, alt. of aperture 9 mill. 

Alt. 32, diam. 10, alt. of aperture 1H mill. 

Mission of San Francisco, on the upper Pilcomayo River (type 
locality), and Caiza, in the Gran Chaco, Bolivia; San Lorenzo, 
prov. Jujuy, Argentine Republic (Dr. Borelli). 

Bulimulus borell'd ANCEY, Boll. Mus. Zool. ed Anat. Comp. Univ. 
Torino, xii, no. 309, p. 13, figs. 8, 9 of piate (Nov. 30, 1897). 



280 DRYM^EUS, SOUTH AMERICAN. 

Mr. Ancey writes substantially as follows: Among species of the 
same region known to me, none but B. torallyi Orb. has strong affin- 
ities with B. borellii. In the latter the spire is usually much 
lengthened ; but among the varieties of B. torallyi found by d'Or- 
bigny there is one shell with the spire almost as long as in normal 
B. borellii, but differing in other characters. 

B. borellii is yellowish-white or ochre-tinted, irregularly orna- 
mented with brown rays of greater or less width, and following the 
growth-lines, narrower and lighter colored rays between them. 
The shell is duller, less glossy than the specimens I have seen of B. 
torallyi, and the ground color yellower ; the perforation, almost open 
in borellii, is reduced to a mere chink, almost completely covered, 
in B. torallyi. The embryonic whorls are densely and very finely 
punctate. 

D. MONTAGNEI (Orbigny). PL 44, figs. 12, 13, 14. 

Shell elongated, distinctly umbilicate, thin, transparent, smooth. 
White or distinctly reddish-tinted, ornamented with wide longitudi- 
nal brown flames which are spaced and generally lacerated, occupy- 
ing the posterior two-thirds of the last whorl ; the rest of the surface 
anteriorly is marked with fine, transverse brown lines, which usually 
appear also between the flames ; these intervals in other specimens 
being speckled or marbled with small, irregular brown spots. Spire 
lengthened, conic, rather acute at the apex, composed of 6 slightly 
convex whorls separated by smooth, little impressed sutures. Aper- 
ture quite large, oval, rounded, the peristome thin and acute, some- 
times showing a tendency to expand ; columella arcuate, leaving a 
wide and deep umbilicus. Alt. 21, diam. 9 mill. (Orb.~). 

Near Petaca, on the slope of the easternmost mountains of the Bo- 
livian Andes, descending to the plain of Santa Cruz de la Sierra, 
Bolivia, under dead leaves and stones in moist places. 

Helix (Bulimus) montagnei ORB., Voy. Amer. Merid., pi. 32, f. 5, 
6, 7. Bulimus montagnei ORB., t. c. p. 286. PFR., Monogr., ii, p. 
Ill ; iii, 344 ; iv, 486 ; vi, 132 ; viii, 168. Bulimus castrensis PFR., 
P. Z. S., 1846, p. 115 ; Monogr., ii, p. 213 ; iii, 425. REEVE, Conch. 
Icon., pi. 59, f. 396. Otostomus montagnei H. AD., P. Z. S., 1866, 
p. 442.~ 

According to H. Adams, Bartlett collected this species in eastern 
Peru. It differs from D. torallyi in being more conic, shorter, 
openly umbilicate, thin and fragile, and in the more varied colora- 
tion. 



DRYM^EUS, SOUTH AMERICAN. 281 

D. STIGMATICUS (Philippi). PI. 49, figs. 68, 69. 

Shell su him perforate, ovate-conic, very thin, translucent, painted 
with close, minute reddish-chestnut dots in transverse series. Whorls 
6, little convex, the last equal in length to the exactly conical spire ; 
suture crenulated. Aperture ovate-oblong; col uniella straightened, 
peristome unexpanded, very thin, the right margin arcuate, left 
margin dilated above, almost entirely closing the small perforation. 
Alt. 16, diam. 9* mill. ; aperture 9 mill, long, 4i wide (Phil.). 

"Hacienda de Unigambal" near Cajamarca, Peru (Raimondi). 

Bulimtis stigmaticus PHIJ,., Malak. BL, xiv, 3867, p. 74. PFR., 
Novit. Conch., p. 337, pi. 80, f. 12, 13 ; Monogr., vi, p. 113. 

As in many other species, the umbilical perforation is bounded by 
a reddish band. Seems to approach B. nivalis Orb., according to 
Philippi, but differs in coloration, the exactly conic spire, more 
acute apex and almost completely flat whorls. The very delicate 
strise pass into folds at the suture, which is crenulated by them. 

D. MILIARIS (Philippi). PI. 48, figs. 41, 42. 

Shell subperforate, oblong-conic, very thin, very smooth, translu- 
cent; rufous-corneous, with close, narrow streaks and blotches of 
milk white. Whorls 6, a little convex, the last forming three- 
sevenths the shell's length. Aperture ovate: columella straight- 
ened ; peristome simple, uuexpanded, very thin ; right margin 
strongly arcuate, columellar margin moderately dilated, half cover- 
ing the umbilical chink. Alt. 15, diam. nearly 8 mill.; aperture 7 
mill, long, 4 wide (Phil.). 

"Hacienda de Unigambal" near Cajamarca, Peru (Raimoudi). 

Btilimus miliaris PHIL., Malak., BL, xiv, 1867, p. 74. PFR., 
Novit. Conch., p. 347, pi. 81, f. 19-21 ; Monogr., vi, p. 115. 

Like B. nivali* Orb. and stigmaticus Phil, in size and tenuity, but 
more lengthened with longer spire. The milky streaks are some- 
what elevated. 

D. CLATHRATUS (Pfeiffer). 

Shell compressed, umbilicated, fusiform -oblong, rather thin, pli- 
catulate, slightly shining ; whitish, somewhat latticed (subclathrate) 
with narrow, interrupted, brown streaks and bands. Spire length- 
ened, the apex rather acute. Whorls 8, little convex, the last 
slightly exceeding two-fifths the length of shell, compressed at base. 
Aperture scarcely oblique, subrhonibie-oval ; columella lightly 



282 DRYM^EUS, SOUTH AMERICAN. 

twisted in the middle ; peristome simple, unexpanded, the columellar 
margin dilated basally, broadly spreading above. Alt. 30, diam. 
11 mill. ; aperture 12? mill, long, 6 wide (P/V\). 

Province of Patas, Peru (Dr. Farris, in. Cuming coll.). 
Bulimus clathratus PFR., P. Z. S., 1858, p. 258 ; Malak. Bl., 1859, 
p. 47 ; Monogr., vi, p. 134. 

D. CONFUSUS (Keeve). PI. 45, fig. 32. 

Shell perforate, turrited-oblong, solid, longitudinally closely 
wriukle-striate ; brown-tinted whitish. Spire long-conic, the apex a 
little acute, marbled with corneous. Suture impressed, sub-crenu- 
late. Whorls 5J, rapidly increasing, the upper ones rather flat, 
last, whorl shorter than the spire, attenuated at base. Columella 
receding, subplicate above. Aperture oval-oblong, dull fleshy 
within ; peristome simple, thin, acute, the margins subparallel, col- 
umellar margin dilated above, reflexed, overhanging. Alt. 28, 
diam. 11 mill. ; aperture 13 mill, long (Pfr.}. 

Peru. 

Bulimus confusus REEVE, Conch. Icon., pi. 48, f. 316 (Nov. 
1848). PFR., Mouogr., iii, p. 426 ; Conchyl. Cab., p. 220, pi. 61, f. 
5, 6. (? Bulimus culmineus REEVE, Conch. Icon., pi. 54, f. 360, 
according to Pfr.) 

Compared by Reeve with B. torallyi Orb. 
D. MONACHUS (Pfeiffer). PL 51, figs. 22, 23. 

Shell narrowly perforate, oblong turrited, thin, striatulate, dia- 
phanous, dull corneous. Spire convex-turrited, the apex rather 
acute. Whorls 7%, scarcely convex, the last about three-sevenths 
the total alt., the base little attenuated, rotund. Columella receding. 
Aperture oblique, oblong-oval ; peristome simple, unexpanded, col- 
umellar margin dilated and reflexed above. Alt. 31, diam. 11 2, 
alt. of aperture 14J mill. (Pfr.). 

Moyobamba, Peru (Gueinzius). 

Bulimus monachus PFR., P. Z. S., 1856, p. 333 ; Monogr., iv, p. 
504 ; Novit. Conch., p. 493, pi. 106, f. 9, 10. 

D. CANARIUS (' Philippi ' Pfeiffer). PI. 48, figs. 36, 37, 38. 

Shell subcompressed-umbilicate, subfusiform-elongate, rather solid, 
very lightly striated, a little shining, whitish and streakedly varie- 
gated with fleshy ; spire turrited, the apex acute ; suture shallow, 
whitish. Whorls 8, a trifle convex, the last about two-fifths the 



DRYMJEI7S, SOUTH AMERICAN. 283 

total length, attenuated at base and subcompressed. Aperture sub- 
vertical, acuminate oblong ; peristome simple, thin, the right mar- 
gin unexpanded, columellar margin lightly arcuate, dilated above, 
reflexed, overarching the umbilicus. (P/K). 

Alt. 31, diam. 11 mill. ; aperture 12^ mill, long, inside 5f wide. 

Alt. 37, diam. 12 mill. ; aperture 16 mill, long, inside 6 wide. 

Trujillo, Peru (Raimondi). 

Bulimus canarius Phil, (label), PFR., Malak. BL, xiv, 1867, p. 
76 ; Novit. Conch., p. 334, pi. 80, f. 5-7 ; Monogr., vi, p. 129. 

D. MORBIDUS (Philippi). PI. 48, figs. 45, 46. 

Shell umbilicate-perforate, oblong-turrited, rather smooth, thin ; 
whitish, the apex yellow. Whorls 7, rather flat, the embryonal 
very smooth, last whorl three-sevenths the shell's length, appressed 
above. Aperture somewhat oblong ; columella perpendicular, rather 
v straightened, compressed ; peristome thin, subreflexed, especially at 
the upper part ; columellar lip triangularly dilated above. Alt. 32, 
diam. 14 mill. ; aperture 14 mill, long, 6 wide. (Phil.). 

" Hacienda de Sunchobamba" near Cajamarca, Peru (Raimondi). 

Bulimus morbidus PHIL., Malak. BL, xiv, 1867, p. 70. PFR., 
Novit. Conch., p. 341, pi. 81, f. 5, 6 (not f. 3, 4) ; Monographia, vi, 
50. 

D. CHENUI (Philippi). PI. 48, figs. 47, 48. 

Shell subperforate, oblong-conic, solid, striatulate, whitish [or 
very pale tawny, covered with a pale olivaceous cuticle]. Whorls 
6, a little convex, the last hardly as long as the spire. Aperture 
ovate ; peristome simple, rather thick, columellar margin reflexed, 
nearly covering the umbilical chink. Alt. 29, diam. 16, alt. of 
aperture 13, width inside 7 mill. (Phil.). 

Pachicamac, near Lima, Peru (Phil., Iseru.). 

Bulimus chenui PHIL., Malak. BL, xiv, 1867, p. 72.-PFR., Novit 
Couch., p. 344, pi. 81, f. 11, 12; Monogr., vi, 146. HIDALGO, 
Journ. de Conch., 1870, p. 58 ; Viaje al Pacifico, p. 113. 

Philippi described dead specimens, Hidalgo supplementing his 
description of the color from specimens collected by Isern. He 
further notes that some granulation appears on the longitudinal 
striie under strong magnification, and gives the dimensions, alt. 27, 
diarn. 13 mill. 



284 DRYMJEUS, SOUTH AMERICAN. 

D. SUBROSEUS (Philippi). PL 49, figs, 61, 62, 63, 64. 

Shell openly umbilicate, ovate-conic, rather solid and rather 
smooth or delicately striatulate ; rose whitish, unicolored or marked 
with very faint, obsolete, violet bands. Spire conic, the apex acute, 
buff; suture slight. Whorls 7, slightly convex, the last a little 
shorter than the spire, subangularly compressed near the umbilicus ; 
columella somewhat receding. Aperture slightly oblique, oblong, 
subeffuse at the base of the columella, but not angulate, fleshy- 
brown inside; peristome whitish, the right margin scarcely ex- 
panded above, moderately so outwardly, the columella dilated and 
spreading above. Alt. 29, diam. 12 mill.; aperture (including 
peristome) 14 mill, long, 8 wide. (Pfr.'). 

Between S. Fernando and Patipampa, Peru. 

Bulimus subroseus Phil., PFR., Malak. BL, xvi, p. 90 (1869) ; 
Novit. Conch., p. 472, pi. 102, f. 12, 13 ; and var., f. 14, 15 (B.pce- 
cilus Orb, var.?, on plate) ; Monogr. Hel. Viv., viii, p. 64. 

Var. (pi. 49, figs. 63, 64). Shell a little more obese, marked with 
interrupted brown lines above, more distinct bands on the last 
whorl. Alt. 29, diam. 13 mill. (P/r.). 

Pfeiffer notes that this is somewhat similar to the figures of B. 
serotinus Morel., but the shell is rather solid, opaque, not corneous ; 
aperture wider, not angulate at base, peristome more widely ex- 
panded. The variety is not very unlike B. pcecilus Orb., with which 
Philippi compares it, but the aperture and peristome differ widely 
from that species. 

D. NIGROAPICATUS (Pfeiffer). 

Shell perforate, ovate-conic, rather thin, striate, shining; whitish, 
ornamented with close blackish bands, the upper ones moniliform. 
Spire conic, the apex rather acute, black. Whorls 5J, little con- 
vex, the last a little longer than the spire, ventricose. Columella 
very slightly arcuate. Aperture oblique, elliptical : oval ; peristome 
simple, not expanded, the columellar margin widely dilated and 
subappressed above. Alt. 22, diam. 11* ; alt. of aperture 13, width 
nearly 7 mill. (PfrJ. 

" Rio Pampas," Peru (Castelnau in Cuming coll.). 

Bulimus nigroapicatus PFR., P. Z. S., 1856, p. 333 ; Monogr., iv, 
p. 478. 

Like B. tumidulus (Vol. X, p. 168) in form and bands ; differing 
in the distinct striation, nou-mucronate apex, etc. (P/K). 



DRYMJEUS, SOUTH AMERICAN. 285 

D. ALSOPHILUS (Philippi). PI. 49, figs. 71, 72. 

Shell perforate-umbilicate, obloDg-turrited, thin, smooth ; ashy- 
whitish, with subtessellated reddish-chestnut bands, two on the up- 
per, 5 on the last whorl. Whorls 8, a little convex, the last nearly 
two-fifths the length of shell ; apex acute. Aperture ovate-oblong, 
the peristome unexpanded, thin, right margin subsinuous above, 
columellar margin expanded above ; columella somewhat arcuate. 
Alt. 30*, diam. 14 ; aperture 13 mill, long, 7 wide. (Phil.). 

Between Lamas and Tarapoto, Peru (Raimondi). 

Bu limits alsophilus PHIL., Mai. BL, xiv, 1867, p. 69. PFR., 
Novit. Conch., p. 334, pi. 80, f. 3, 4 ; Monogr., vi, p. 130. 

This species closely resembles B. sachsei Alb., but is easily dis- 
tinguished by the form of the aperture, the coloration, and the 
much shorter and broadly reflexed columella of sachsei. (Pfr.). 

D. SERENUS (Philippi). PI. 49, figs. 73, 74. 

Shell imperforate, oblong-turrited, slightly striatulate, thin, very 
glossy ; white, with three reddish-chestnut zones on the last, two on 
the earlier whorls ; apex obtuse. Whorls 7, flat, the last narrowed 
at base, forming two-fifths of the shell's length. Aperture oblong ; 
columella perpendicular; peristome unexpanded, the right margin 
very oblique, columellar margin triangular, dilated above, adnate ; 
no inner lip. Alt. 28, diam. nearly 12; aperture 12} mill, long, 
5J wide. (Phil.). 

Hacienda de Sunehobamba, Peru, (Raimondi). 

Bulimus serenus PHIL., Mai. BL, xiv, 1867, p. 72. PFR., Novit. 
Conch., p. 339. pi. 80, f. 19, 20 ; Mouogr., vi, p. 106. 

An isolated species among the other Peruvian Bulimi. The em- 
bryonal whorls are flesh colored above, purple-black below. 

D. POECILUS (Orbigny). PL 49, tigs. 49-57. 

Shell ovate-pyramidal, thin, but moderately strong, rather openly 
perforate. Opaque-white (rarely yellowish), variously banded 
with black-brown : (a) with 7 continuous narrow bands, that below 
the suture widest, fig. 51 ; (6) the bands above the periphery broken 
into square or oblong chestnut and black spots, the three basal 
bands continuous, or the middle one or all of them interrupted, figs. 
49, 50 ; (f) bands above periphery transformed into obliquely longi- 
tudinal stripes and blotches, some chestnut, some blackish ; and 



286 DRYIOSUS, SOUTH AMERICAN. 

finally the introduction of red in some specimens produces further 
patterns, appearing usually as a columellar patch, sometimes also as 
a band below the periphery between two dark bands, and sometimes 
generally spread in bands and oblique streaks upon the body whorl, 
the blackish bands subobsolete. Surface glossy, showing slight 
growth-lines and faint, fine spiral striation. Spire straightly conic, 
apex slightly obtuse, If earlier whorls with typical Drymceus sculp- 
ture. Whorls 6 2-7, somewhat convex. 

Aperture quite oblique, ovate, less than half the shell's length, 
colored within like the outside ; peristome thin and acute, unex- 
panded ; columella concave, straightened above, the margin broadly 
dilated above and reflexed. 

Alt. 30, diam. 14 ; alt. of aperture 14 mill. 

Alt. 33, diam. 16 ; alt. of aperture 15 mill. 

Province of Motto Grosso, Brazil, west to the eastern foothills of the 
Bolivian Andes, south to the Sierra de Catamarca, Argentina. 

Helix (Coehlogena) pcecila ORB., Mag. de Zool., 1835, p. 11 ; 
Voy. Araer. Merid., pi. 31, f. 1-10. Bulimus pcecilus ORB., Voy., 
p. 268. PFEIFFER, Monogr., ii, p. 200 ; iii, p. 420 ; iv, p. 481 ; vi, 
p. 128. REEVE, Conch. Icon., pi. 16, f. 91. PARAVICINI, Boll. 
Mus. Zool. ed Anat. Comp. Univ. Torino, ix, no. 181, p. 6. ? Lu- 
BOMIRSKI, P. Z. S., 1879, p. 725 (see below). Bulinus pcecilus 
SOWB., Conch. Illustr., f. 68, 69. Bullums prcscilus ANTON, Ver- 
zeichniss, p. 41. Bulimulus pcecilus BECK, Index Moll., p. 65. 
ANCEY, Journ. of Conch., Leeds, vii, p. 92 ; Boll. Mus. Zool. ed 
Anat. Comp. Torino, xii, no. 309, p. 5, 12 (1897) MARTENS, 
Conchol. Mittheil., ii, p. 13, pi. 40, f. 1-5. Otostomus (Mesembri- 
nits) pcecilus Orb., DOERING, Bol. Acad. Nacional. Cien. Rep. Ar- 
gent,, iii, p. 76 (1879). 

Bulimus pictus BONNET, Rev. et Mag. de Zoologie, (2), xvi, p. 
69, pi. 5, f. 4-6, pi. 6, f. 1 (March, 1864).? Bulimus pictus PFR., 
P. Z. S., 1854, p. 58 ; Monographia, iv, p. 483. 

D'Orbigny distinguishes two varieties: major, alt. 35, diam. 18 
mill., inhabiting the valleys of the easternmost foot hills of the 
Bolivian Andes before descending to the plains of Santa Cruz de la 
Sierra, especially at the bridge of Tasajos and the town Pampa 
Grande, on the plains bordering the river Pampa Grande. Var. 
in! nor, alt. 28, diam. 16 mill, has also special localities for its several 
subvarietal forms. That with 7 distinct bands belongs in the great 



DRYM^US, SOUTH AMERICAN. 287 

forests along the Rio Grande between Santa Cruz de la Sierra and 
Chiquitos ; other subvarieties occur to the east in the forests along 
the Rio Tucabaca between San Juan and Santo Corazon de Chi- 
quitos. 

The red-variegated (together with all of the others except " var. 
major"'} occur abundantly in the province of Matto Grosso, Brazil, 
around Corumba (pi. 49, figs. 49-52). I do not doubt that Bonnet's 
B. pictus came from this locality, although he gives " Peru " as the 
habitat. 

Special localities on record are : Brazil, Corumba, prov. Matto 
Grosso, abundant in dry woods on trees, especially palms (Herbert H. 
Smith) ; Bolivia, Mission of San Francisco, on the upper Pilcomayo ; 
(Borelli) ; Argentina, Caiza, in the Chaco region ; Tala, prov. Salta ; 
San Lorenzo, prov. Jujuy ; San Pedro, Santa Rosa, Rio Apa (Bor- 
elli) ; Sierra de Catamarca (Brackebusch & Hieronymus). 

Ancey separates as var. icterica specimens with rather solid, 
oblong-attenuated shell, dull yellow with the suture of the last whorl 
and the umbilical area lilac. Alt. 29, diam. 13, length of aperture 
14 mill. The variety was based upon two individuals. It is repres- 
ented in the series before me, but so far as I see can hardly be 
accorded varietal rank without similarly recognizing a good many 
of the other variations also. 

As to the specific identity of B. pictus Pfr. with pwcilus I am not 
certain. If the locality " Peru " be correct, it is doubtful ; but on 
the other hand, Pfeiffer himself identifies his pictus with Bonnet's 
species of the same name, which is unquestionably pcKcilus. The 
same doubt attaches to Prince Lubomirski's doubtful determination 
of numerous specimens collected at Chota, Peru, by Stolzmann, ex- 
hibiting great variation in color. Compare mexicanus var. prim- 
nlaris. 

D. INTERPUNCTUS (Martens). Vol. XII, pi. 5, figs. 4, 5. 

Shell perforate, conic-oblong, thin, very delicately spirally stri- 
ated ; pale yellow, with widely separated vertical series of brown 
spots, and on the base two bands, the suture narrowly white, apex 
pale brownish. Whorls 7, nearly flat, the last rounded at base. 
Aperture rather broadly ovate, columella arcuate, white, columellar 
margin narrowly reflexed ; outer lip thin, only a trifle expanded. 
Alt. 24, diam. 11 ; aperture 11 mill, long, 8 wide. (Martens). 

Piracicaba (Nehring), In nape and Piquette (von Ihering), prov. 
Sao Paulo, Brazil. 



288 DRYM.EUS, SOUTH AMERICAN. 

Bulimulus interpunctus MTS., Sitzungsberichte Ges. naturf. 
Freunde, Berlin, 1886, p. 161; CoDchol. Mittheil., ii, p. 14, pi. 40, 
f. 6, 7. 

Of the numerous South American species of Bulimulus, B. macu- 
latus Lea comes nearest to the present species in marking ; but that 
is less slender and pointed, as well as diverse in sculpture and color. 
(Martens). 

The spots are sometimes more or less confluent vertically, and the 
upper of the two basal bands ma} 7 be broken into oblong spots. Dr. 
von Ihering has found it at various localities and it seems to be not 
uncommon in the province of Sao Paulo. Although resembling 
semimaeulatus, semifasciatus and virgo in color-pattern, D. inter- 
punctus is probably on offshoot from the D.poecilus stock. 

D. SUBPELLUCIDUS (Smith). Vol. XII, PI. 5, fig. 1. 

Shell fragile, subpellucid, narrowly perforate, long conic, shining, 
corneous; transversely obsoletely striated, and sculptured with ob- 
lique growth-lines. Whorls 7, a little convex, separated by a minutely 
crenulated suture. Aperture little oblique, ovate, three sevenths 
the length of the shell; columella a little straightened above, 
slightly arcuate; peristome thin, moderately expanded throughout, 
yellowish externally and within, the margin white ; columellar mar- 
gin dilated. Alt. 23, diam. 9 ; aperture 10 mill, long, 4 wide 
inside. (Smith"). 

Ecuador. 

Bulimus (Liostracus) subpellucidus E. A. SMITH, P. Z. S., 1877, 
p. 364, pi. 39, f. 2. 

" This simple species is chiefly characterized by its thin texture, 
horny color, and the yellowish tint of the peristome, the extreme 
edge of which is whitish.' 1 

D. FLAVIDULUS (Smith). Vol. XII, PI. 5, fig. 2. 

Shell deeply rimate or perforate, ovate-pyramidal, thin, semi- 
pellucid, shining, most minutely spirally, closely striated ; yellow- 
ish, ornamented with series (3 on the upper, 5 on the last whorl) of 
squarish brown spots. Spire long, conic, with slightly convex lateral 
outlines, apex yellowish. Whorls 7, a little convex, slowly increas- 
ing, separated by a narrow pale suture. Aperture slightly oblique, 
oval, a little exceeding three-sevenths the length of shell ; peristome 
thin, the right margin very narrowly (scarcely) expanded, columellar 



DRYMJ5US, SOUTH AMERICAN. 289 

margin narrowly dilated and reflexed. Alt. 21, diam. 9 ; alt. of 
aperture 8?, width 5 mill. (Smith). 

Zaruma, South Ecuador. 

Bidimus (Liostracms) flavidulus E. A. SMITH, P. Z. S., 1877, p. 
364, pi. 39, f. 3. 

This pretty delicate species is easily recognized by its style of 
coloration. The transverse series of squarish spots, which are some- 
what distant from each other, are very constant. They are not 
equally remote from one another, but sometimes three or four spots 
are quite close together and thus form a short almost continuous 
transverse band ; this is particularly the case with the two basal 
bands on the body-whorl. As the shell is so thin and semitranspar- 
ent, all the markings are visible within the aperture. The two 
apical whorls under a strong lens are seen to be minutely granulated, 
as is the case in many other species. B. ziegleri of Pfeiffer, var. /3?, 
Mori. Hel., ii, p. 175 ; and B. maculatus Lea (?=B.maculatut Rve.), 
have similar styles of marking. (Smith). 

D. FUSCOBASIS (Smith). Vol. XII, PI. 5, fig. 3. 

Shell narrowly perforate, long-conic, thin, semipellucid, shining ; 
white, ornamented with transverse more or less interrupted brown 
bands, 2 on the upper, 3 on the last whorl. Minutely striated spirally 
throughout. Whorls 7 to 8, perceptibly increasing, a little convex, 
the last with a scarcely interrupted basal band. Spire long, the apex 
little acute, blackish. Aperture slightly oblique, white inside, the 
bands showing through, about two-fifths the length of the shell ; per- 
istome thin, scarcely expanded, the columellar margin reflexed. 
Alt, 29, diam. 12 ; aperture 11 mill, long, 6* wide. (Smith). 

Tarapoto, Andes of Peru (Spruce, in Cuming coll.). 

Bulimus (Liostracus) fusco basis SMITH, P. Z. S., 1877, p. 365, pi. 
39, f. 6. 

This species was labelled in Cuming's collection as B. lividus 
Reeve. On comparing the two specimens of it with the types of 
that species, I find certain characters which cannot be reconciled 
with Reeve's shell. The form and proportion of the whorls are 
different, also the length of the spire is greater in the present species, 
and its black apex and banding are good specific distinctions. The 
transverse bands in B. fuscobasis consist of elongate stripes, whilst 
in B. lividus the bands take more the form of quadrate spots widely 
separated. 
19 



290 DRYM.EUS, SOUTH AMERICAN. 

B. rectilinearis Pfeiffer, is also allied to the present species; but 
it is more sharply conical, shows but the faintest traces of spiral 
striation, has not a black apex, is differently banded, and the col- 
umellar and umbilical characters are not similar. 

D. MILTOCHROUS (Albers). PI. 48, figs. 28, 29. 

Shell compressed -umbilicate, ovate-turrited, rather thin, smooth, 
shining. Brownish brick colored with two black, white streaked 
bands, one at the suture, the other at the base, and one white girdle 
below the periphery. Spire turrited, rather acute. Whorls 7, a 
little convex, the last three-sevenths the total length of the shell, 
slightly tapering at base. Aperture slightly oblique, truncate-oblong ; 
peristome simple, the right margin a trifle expanded, spreading 
above, the columellar margin membrane-like, very much dilated 
above. Alt. 31, diam. 13 mill. ; aperture 14 mill, long, 7? wide 



Upper course of the Mar anon River, in Peru (or Ecuador) ( Wars- 
zewicz). 

Vidimus miltochrous ALB., Malak. BL, i, 1854, p. 217 PFR., 
Novit. Conch., i, p. 36, pi. 10, f. 3, 4 ; Monogr., iv, p. 403. 

D. VESTALIS (Albers). 

Shell perforate, ovate-oblong, solid, lightly striatulate, opaque, 
chalky ; spire conic, the apex acute, roseate. Whorls 8, the upper 
flattened, those following more convex, the last whorl forming three- 
sevenths the total alt. of shell, tapering at base and areolate with 
lilac. Aperture little oblique, truncate-oval ; peristome acute, rose- 
lipped within, the right margin unexpanded, columellar margin 
lilac-colored, thin, shining, refiexed and overhanging. Alt. 19, diam. 
9 ; alt. of aperture 8, width 4f mill. (P/r.). 

On the Maranon River, " Colombia " (AVarscewicz). 

Bulimus vestalis ALB., Malak., Bl., i, p. 218 (1854). PFR., 
Monogr., iv, p. 498. 

D. ANCEPS (Albers). PI. 49, figs. 66, 67. 

Shell narrowly perforate, stibfusiform-oblong, rather solid, longi- 
tudinally plicatulate ; pale buff, ornamented with brown spots ar- 
ranged in bands and streaks, obsolete on the last whorl. Spire a 
little convexly turrited, sub-acute. Whorls 7, moderately convex, 
the last forming three-sevenths the total length, somewhat tapering 
at base, Columella rather straight, receding. Aperture slightly 



DRYM^US, SOUTH AMERICAN. 291 

oblique, ovate-elliptical ; peristome simple, the right margin unex- 
panded, lightly arcuate, columellar margin white, widely reflexed 
above. Alt. 26-28J, diam. 10 mill.; aperture 11 J mill, long, 5s 
wide (P/X). 

Maranon River, lt Colombia" (Warscewicz). 

Bulimus anceps ALB., Malak. Bl., i, p. 21 7 (1854). PFR., Novit. 
Conch., i, p. 43, pi. 11, f. 13, 14 ; Monogr., iv, p. 489. 

D. HEPATICUS (Albers). PL 49, figs. 75, 76. 

Shell umbilicate, ovate turrited, rather solid, irregularly rugose- 
striate ; bluish-chestnut with one or several white bands. Spire 
turrited, acute. Whorls 8, a little convex, the last rotund, two- 
fifths the length of the shell. Aperture slightly oblique, oval ; peri- 
stome simple, the margins somewhat approaching, right margin un- 
expauded, chestnut-edged, white-calloused inside ; columellar margin 
dilated above, spreading. Alt. 25, diam. 10? ; aperture 10 mill, 
long, 5 wide (Pfr). 

Maranon River " Colombia " (Warscewicz). 

Bulimus hepaticus ALBERS, Malak. BL, i, p. 218 (1854). PFR., 
Novit. Conch., i, p. 57, pi. 16, f. 13,- 14; Monogr., iv, p. 491. 
?MoussoN, Malak. BL, xvi, p. 177. 

D. LIBERTADENSIS Pilsbry, n. n. PL 51, figs. 16, 17. 

Shell perforate, ovate-fusiform, striatulate, rather thin ; whitish, 
ornamented with 5 to 6 reddish-chestnut bands, the upper ones 
ragged. Spire conic, acute ; whorls 7, moderately convex, the last 
as long as the spire. Columella straight, not receding. Aperture 
oblong ; peristome simple, a trifle expanded, the columellar margin 
dilated, reflexed, elongate. Alt. 32z, diam. \1\ mill.; aperture 17 
mill, long, 9 wide (Phil.). 

"Hacienda de Mariebal" dept. Libertad, Peru (Raimondi). 

Bulimus tceniatus PHIL., Malak. BL, xvi, 1869, p. 35. PFR., 
Novit. Conch., iii, p. 468, pi. 102, f. 3, 4 ; Monographia, viii, p. 58. 
Not B. tceniatus Morch, 1850. 

A single specimen seen ; striae quite conspicuous ; apex pale 
violaceous; on the upper whorls there are three lacerated bands, the 
other three, which appear on the base of the last whorl, are continu- 
ous and darker, the lowest encircling the umbilicus (Phil.). 

D. MEXICANUS (Lamarck). PL 49, fig. 58. 

Shell narrowly umbilicate, ovate-turrited, rather thin, nearly 
smooth ; white, ornamented with blackish or chestnut bauds crossed 



292 DRYTO3US, SOUTH AMERICAN. 

by white lines, generally few in number, on the base. Spire long- 
conic, rather acute ; whorls 7, a little convex, the last about three- 
sevenths the total alt., rounded at base ; columella rather straight- 
ened. Aperture a little oblique, truncate-oval ; peristome simple, 
unexpanded, the right margin regularly arcuate, columellar margin 
dilated above, reflexed. Alt. 31, diam. 15 ; alt. of aperture 15 mill. 



On the Mar anon River, northern Peru. 

Bulimus mexicanus LAM., An, s. Vert., vi, p. 123 (1822). VAL- 
ENCIENNES, Rec. Obs. ZooL, etc., ii, p. 247, pi. 56, f. 1 (1833). DEL- 
ESSERT, Rec. de Coquilles, pi. 27, f. 9 (1841). Not Bulimus mexi- 
canus Reeve, 1848 ; cf. Crosse & Fischer, Moll. Terr. Mex., i, p. 541, 
and v. Martens, Biol. Centr. Amer. Moll., p. 251. Helix (Cochlo- 
gena) vittata Humboldt, FER.,Tabl. Syst., p. 54, no. 397 (110 descrip- 
tion). 

Bulimus humboldtii REEVE, Conch. Icon., pi. 58, f. 391 (Jan., 
1849). PFR., Monogr.,iii, p. 415; iv, 482; vi, 128 ; viii, 165. 

?" Bulimus (Mesembrinus) poecilus d'Orb. ?" LUBOMIRSKI, P. Z. 
S., 1879, p. 725 (numerous color varieties described, from Chota, 
Peru). 

It has long been recognized that the original B. mexicanus of 
Lamarck (figured in Delessert's folio), is not a Mexican shell, but 
identical with B. humboldtii of Reeve, the B. mexicanus of the lat- 
ter author being a totally different thing. 

The typical form of mexicanus has three dark basal girdles inter- 
rupted by fine white lines. Whether B. primularis deserves varie- 
tal recognition or not I do not know, having seen no specimens. 

Var. primularis Reeve. (PI. 49, figs. 59, 60). 

Shell perforate, ovate-turrited, rather thin, nearly smooth ; yel- 
lowish-white, ornamented with two wide black bands below the 
middle and one interrupted median and another basal band of 
chestnut. Spire long-conic, rather acute. Whorls 7, a little con- 
vex, the last about three-sevenths the length, rotund at base ; col- 
umella rather straightened. Aperture little oblique, truncate-oval ; 
peristome simple, unexpanded, the right margin regularly arcuate, 
columellar margin dilated above, vaultingly reflexed. Alt. 29, diam. 
14 ; alt. of aperture 13 mill. (P/K). 

Chachapoyas, Peru (Lobb) ; Utcu bam ba River, north-eastern Peru 
(Stiibel). 



DRYMJEUS, SOUTH AMERICAN. 293 

Bulimus primularis REEVE, P. Z. S., 1849, p. 100; Conch. Icon., 
pi. 73, f. 527. PFR., Monogr., iii, p. 421. Bulimulus primularis 
BIXNEY, Ann. Lye. N. H., N. Y.,ix, p. 37, pi. 1, f. vii (dentition). 
MeS( mbrinus primularis BINNEY, Ann. N-. Y. Acad. Sci., iii, p. 122, 
pi. 12, f. G (dentition). Otostomus (Mesembrinus ?} humboldti var. 
primularis MARTENS, Conchol. Mittheil., p. 161. 

D. SEROTIXUS Morelet, PI. 49, fig. 70. 

Shell umbilicate, ovate-acuminate, thin, rather smooth, subpellucid, 
corneous-gray or corneous tawny, flamed icith serrate white streaks, 
and encircled below the middle of the last whorl by several bands. 
Spire conic, acute ; whorls 7, little convex, the last attenuated at 
base, compressed around the perforate umbilicus; columella nearly 
straight, or a little receding. 

Aperture semi-oval, angular below, showing the external coloring 
within ; peristome thin, the right margin arcuately expanded, lightly 
white-calloused ; the columellar margin dilated, broad (MoreQ. 

Alt. 26, diam. 10i mill. 

Alt. 32, diam. 12 mill, (more solid, larger form). 

Valleys of Andahuayles, Abancay and Chupan, Peru, in green 
oasis at the valley bottoms (Angrand). 

Bulimus serotinus MOREL., Journ. Conch., 1860, p. 374; Ser. 
Conch., iii, p. 207, pi. ll,f. 5. PFR., Monogr., vi,p.79. 

It is a thin and fragile, smooth and shining shell, remarkable for 
the style of coloring, which consists of a corneous ground of a fawn 
or grayish tint, upon which are white flammules, generally denticu- 
late, intermingled with irregular little spots of the same color. 
Sometimes, especially when the ground-tint is quite light, these 
flammules produce a sort of cloudiness, comparable to the shades of 
agate. On the lower portion of the last whorl these markings are 
transformed into numerous narrow bands, which predominate to the 
base and surround the umbilicus. In certain individuals the flam- 
mules reappear at the extremity of the last whorl. 

D. LONGINQUUS (Morelet). PI. 50, figs. 93, 94. 

Shell narrowly umbilicated, oblong-turrited, thin, irregularly 
striate ; whitish, ornamented with brown streaks and somewhat in- 
terrupted basal bands ; spire lengthened, acute. Whorl 7 to 8, a 
little convex, the last rounded at base, five-sixths the length of the 
spire. Aperture slightly oblique, oblong-oval, showing the streaks 



294 DRYM^EUS, SOUTH AMERICAN. 

and bands through ; peristome thin, the margins approaching, right 
margin somewhat expanded, columellar margin dilated, conspicuous. 
Alt. 31, diam. 12 mill. (Morel.'). 

Western slope of the Vilcanote chain, Peru : frequent in the Uru- 
bamba Valley; at Limatambo, Ollantaitambo and Yucay ; the white 
variety at Pire, a colder locality in the same mountain chain 
(Angrand). 

Bulimus longinquus MORELET, Series Conchyliologiques, iii, p. 
195, pi. 11, f. 2 (April, 1863). 

Morelet mentions a unicolored, white form (fig. 93), and another 
latticed with bands and streaks of purple-brown. 

It is not without some resemblance to B. pcecilus, at least in form, 
the coloration differing. It is very constant in proportions, com- 
posed of 7, rarely 8, whorls. The long spire tapers gradually toward 
the apex, which is acute and nearly always colorless. The most 
variable part of the shell is the umbilicus, which is usually quite 
open, but sometimes reduced to a mere fissure. The straight and 
simple peristome shows a perceptible tendency to expand toward 
the base. The shell is thin, though not without some degree of 
solidity. It is superficially and quite unequally engraved with striae, 
ornamented on a whitish ground with oblique, reddish-brown lines, 
sometimes regularly spaced, sometimes partially effaced ; and there 
are also commonly five or six narrow, frequently interrupted bands 
on the basal moiety of the last whorl. 

B. longinquus differs from pcecilus in having the spire a little more 
slender, the aperture narrower, fawn colored inside, the peristome 
with a tendency to expand, and with convergent insertions; finally 
in the color pattern. 

It inhabits a climate suitable for the culture of maize, while B. 
virgultorum (Vol. X, p. 168) lives on the eastern slope of the same 
mountain chain, some 400 or 500 meters lower down, in the coffee 
tree region. It occurs on cacti and spiny plants. 

D. VIRGULTORUM (Morelet). Vol. x, p. 168. 

This species, included in Lissoacme, is probably a Drymceus. 
Morelet gives the localities Corihuairachina, Urubamba, Calca, 
Sicuani, Talavera and the adjacent valleys of La Paz and Chuqui- 
saca. The mineral constitution of the region is similar to that 
described under D. longinquus, but the soil is deeper, supporting a 
richer vegetation. The shell is thinner than D. longinquus, more 



DRYM^US, SOUTH AMERICAN. . 295 

polished and glossy, the coloring brighter and more diversified, 
responding to the tropical aspect of the flora. 

Probably B. DENDRITIS Morelet (Vol. X, p. 186) is a Dry-mania 
allied to the foregoing species. 

D. BICOLOR (Sowerby). PL 49, fig. 65. 

Shell oblong, subacuminate above; pallid, with interrupted brown 
bands. Whorls 5, subventricose, the last larger; umbilicus small. 
Aperture subovate, acuminate behind; peristome thin, subacute. 
Alt. 0-9, diam. 0'4 inch (Sowb.). 

Province Xayua, Peru (D. Matthews) ; Banks of Ucayali River, 
Ecuador (Orton). 

Bulinus bicolor SOWERBY, P. Z. S., 1834, p. 141. Bulimus bi- 
color PHIL., Abbild. u. Beschreib., ii, p. 113, Bui., pi. 4, f. 8. 
REEVE, Conch. Icon., pi. 44, f. 276. PFR., Monogr., ii, p. 198 ; 
viii, p. 163. CROSSE, Journ. de Conchyl., 1871, p. 317. 

Pfeiffer, in Monographia,, iii, p. 419 ; iv, p. 479 ; vi, p. 126, and viii, 
p. 163, considers B. polymorphus Orb. the same. I have seen 
neither species, and have described polymorphus as a Scutalus (p. 
28). Being ignorant of the apical sculpture, I can express no 
opinion upon the systematic position of either species. " The lower 
edge of the bands is peculiarly broken or serrated," according to 
Reeve. 

D. FAETELI (Albers). 

Shell perforate, ovate-conic, thin, rather smooth ; yellowish-white, 
ornamented with four purple-brown bands. Spire conic, acute. 
Whorls 62, rather flat, the last scarcely longer than the spire, some- 
what tapering at base. Aperture oblique, oblong-oval, buff, banded 
with chestnut inside ; peristome thin, a little expanded, the right 
margin lightly arcuate, columellar margin me nibranaceous, widely 
reflexed above, conspicuous, somewhat excavated. Alt. 25, diam. 
10-j, length of aperture 14, width inside 7 mill. (Pfr.). 

On the Maranon River (Albers coll.). 

Bulimus paeteli ALB., Malak. BL, 1854, p. 31. PFR., Monogr., 
iv, p. 398. 

An unfigured species from "adfluvium Maranhon in confinibus 
Columbia? ; " but this refers probably to the former wide extension 
of Colombia southward. 



296 DRYM^EUS, SOUTH AMERICAN. 

D. KEPPELLI (Pfeiffer). 

Shell narrowly umbilicate, ovate-oblong, rather thin, smoothish 
(irregularly striolate) and rather shining. Spire long-conic, the 
apex rather acute, white. Whorls 7, a little convex, the upper 
white with two red bands, the last forming two-fifths of the. total 
length, somewhat plicate at the suture, the base subattenuated, 
smoky brown, encircled by S or 4 red bands with pale edges, irregu- 
larly bestrewn with pale dots. Columella rather straightened. Aper- 
ture little oblique, narrow, oblong ; peristome simple, the right 
margin lightly arcuate, unexpanded, columellar margin dilated in a 
wide triangular lamina. Alt. 34i, diam. 14, alt. of aperture 15, 
width 7 mill. (P/r.). 

Andes of Peru (Keppell, in Cuming coll.). 

Bulimus keppelli PFR., P. Z. S., 1853, p. 50 ; Monogr., iii, p. 654. 

D. CERUSSATUS (Reeve). PI. 50, fig. 79. 

Shell acuminately oblong, rather largely, compressly umbilicated. 
Whorls 7 in number, convex, smooth ; columella very broad, 
scarcely reflected. Aperture rather obliquely produced ; lip simple. 
Chalk-white, painted interiorly with a few brown, waved streaks, 
which show somewhat obscurely through the substance of the shell 
(Reeve). 

Habitat unknown. 

Bulimus cerussatus REEVE, Conch. Icon., pi. 74, f. 536, species 
537 (August, 1849). 

Pfeiffer unites this to B. annulatus as a variety. If specifically the 
same, cerussatus has priority. 

D. ANNULATUS (Reeve). PI. 50, fig. 78. 

Shell umbilicate, turrited-oblong, rather solid, striatulate, under 
the lens showing close, decussating spiral lines; whitish, ornamented 
with 4 or 5 wide, somewhat interrupted, red bands. Spire turrited, 
the apex acute ; whorls 7, rather flat, the last about three- sevenths 
the total length, a trifle compressed around the funnel shaped um- 
bilicus. Columella subplicate ; aperture vertical, oblong ; peristome 
simple, the right margin narrowly expanded, columellar margin 
very broad, flattened. Alt. 32, diam. 12 mill.; alt. of aperture 13, 
width inside 7 mill. (/Jr.). 

Andes of Bolivia (Reeve). 



DRYM^US, SOUTH AMERICAN. 297 

Bulimus bolivianos REEVE, Conch. Icon., pi. 44, f. 281 (not of 
Pfr.). B. ann ulatus RVE., t. c. under sp. 599 (Dec., 1849). PFR., 
Monogr., iii, p. 346. 

First described by Reeve as Pfeiffer's bolivianus. Pfeiffer consid- 
ers B. cerussatuA Reeve a variety of annulatus, but, if so, it will take 
priority over the latter. 

Group of D. depictus. 

Rather a heterogeneous assemblage of Colombian and Venezuelan 
species having the lip thin, unexpanded or but slightly so, and usu- 
ally maculated or streaked. 

D. SEMIMAOULATUS Pilsbrv, n. n. Vol. XII, PL 5, figs. 8, 9. 

Shell narrowly umbilicate, ovate-pyramidal, slender, thin ; white, 
slightly translucent, above the periphery having three faint or 
hardly visible brownish spiral bands marked at irregular intervals 
with squarish brown spots, which are arranged in vertical rows, and 
below the periphery with a subcontinuous brown band on the base, 
and another, often obsolete, around the umbilicus. Shining, smooth 
to the eye, but under a lens slight growth-wrinkles are seen, and a 
fine sculpture of clear-cut, incised spirals, rather close but irregu- 
larly spaced. Whorls 6, nepionic If minutely grated, the rest but 
slightly convex. 

Aperture ovate, somewhat oblique, less than half the shell's length ; 
peristome thin, with almost imperceptibly everted edge in completely 
adult examples ; columellar margin broadly and flatly dilated and 
reflexed above ; columella nearly straight. 

Alt. 22-2, diam. 10'5 ; alt. of aperture 9'6 mill. (type). 

Alt. 19-5, diam. 9'8 ; alt. of aperture 8'3 mill. 

Carthagena, Colombia (Gibbon) ; Tributaries of the upper Ama- 
zons (Bartlett) ; Chiriqui, southern Panama ; Costa Rica (Gabb) ; 
San Nicolas, central Nicaragua (Tate) ; coast near Champerico, 
western Guatemala (Stoll) ; Dolores and San Luis, district of Peten, 
northern Guatemala (Morelet). 

Bulimus maculatus LEA, Trans. Amer. Philos. Soc., vi, 1839, 
p. 86, pi. 23, f. 112; Obs. Genus Unio, etc., ii, p. 86, pi. 23, f. 
112. PFR., Monogr. Helic. Vivent, ii, p. 205. REEVE, Conch. 
Icon., v, Bulimus, pi. 48, fig. 309. TATE, Am. Journ. Conch., 1870, 
p. 156. ANGAS, P. Z. S., 1879, p. 479 [not B. maculatus, Bruguiere 
(1792), which Glandina dominicensis Grnel.]. Bulimus (Lepto- 



298 DRYM^EUS, SOUTH AMERICAN. 

merus) maculatus PFR., in Malak. Blatt., ii, p. 160 (1855). 
Orthalicus (Leptomerus') maculatus H. & A. ADAMS, Gen. Rec. 
Moll., ii, p. 156. Bulimulus (Liostracus) maculatus VON MART., in 
Albers Die Helic.,ed.2, p.213. FISCH. & CROSSE, Miss. Scient. Mex., 
Mollusca, i, p. 505. Otostomus (Liostracus') maculatus H. ADAMS, 
P. Z. S., 1866, p. 443. 0. maculatus MARTENS, Biologia Centr. 
Arner., p. 220, pi. 14, f. 3. 

Considerably resembling D.doimani Binn.,this species is decidedly 
narrower, with shorter aperture in proportion to the total length of 
the shell. D. dominicus has not the well developed, free columellar 
lip of semimaculatus, and the inner edge of the columella is much 
more delicate, thin and concave. 

Fig. 9 is drawn from the type specimen, now in the U.S. National 
Museum (no. 105,153) from which the description also is taken. 
The Nicaragua specimens agree exactly with the Carthagena types. 
The name is changed on account of the earlier Bulimus maculatus 
of Bruguiere, Encycl. Meth., p. 365. 

D. SEMIFASCIATUS (Mousson). Vol. XII, PI. 5, figs. 6, 7. 

Shell subperforate, oblong-conic, striatulate, not decussated, 
polished; white, brown spotted in series. Spire regular, acute; 
apex minute, flesh colored ; suture slightly impressed, simple. 
Whorls 7, slowly increasing, a little convex, the last two-fifths the 
total altitude, not descending, oblong, rotund at base, with two 
series of spots above, and three brown, yellow-edged bands below. 
Aperture vertical, oval, showing the bands distinctly through ; 
peristome unexpanded, acute, the terminations joined by a scarcely 
visible lamina ; right margin gently incurved, columellar margin 
vertical, nearly straight, shortly reflexed, vaulted and appressed 
above. Alt. 27, diam. 12 mill. (Mouss.). 

Colombia (Wallis). 

Bulimus semifasciatus Mouss., Mai. Blatt., xvi, p. 175 (1869). 
PFR., Novit. Conch., p. 129, pi. 129, f. 5, 6; Monogr., viii, 151. 

Nearest, Moussou writes, to B. maculatus, but with more numer- 
ous, closer whorls, the spire a broader and wider cone, the surface 
smoother, only finely striated, without trace of spiral lines, and a 
color pattern of three entire, brown bands, yellow-edged on the 
base, the lowest one wider. 



DRYM.EUS, SOUTH AMERICAN. 299 

D. DEPICTUS (Reeve). PI. 45, figs. 17-22. 

Shell perforate, oblong, with long tapering spire, solid and strong. 
Whitish or pale yellow, with numerous longitudinal reddish or pur- 
pKsh-brown streaks, interrupted by three (or four) sharply defined 
white girdles, the upper one narrowest, nearer to the suture than to 
the subperipheral girdle, sometimes with another girdle interposed 
between these two; the basal girdle entering the aperture, daik 
band below it nearly continuous, defining a small white area around 
the perforation. Surface nearly lusterless, with slight irregular 
growth wrinkles. Whorls 62, but slightly convex. 

Aperture somewhat less than half the total altitude, irregularly 
ovate, showing the external coloring within ; peristome unexpanded ; 
columella straight, vertical, abruptly reflexed at the insertion. 

Alt. 30$, diarn. 13; alt. of aperture 14 mill. 

Alt. 28, diam. 13 ; alt. of aperture 13 mill. 

New Granada (Reeve) ; Caracas (Ernst) ; andJali,prov. Merida, 
Venezuela (Engel). 

Bulimus depicius REEVE, Conch. Icon., pi. 74, f. 529 (Aug., 
1849). PFR., Mouogr., iii, p. 337; iv, 397; vi, 44; viii, 56. 
Otostomus depictus MARTENS, Binnenmoll. Venez., p. 183, pi. 1, f. 
15-19 ; var. ictericus, pi. 1, f. 16, 17. ? Bulimus pervariabilis PFR., 
P. Z. S., 1852, p. 59 ; Monogr., iii, p. 337. 

The above description applies to the typical form of this species. 
The specimens collected by Ernst have the aperture larger, at least 
half the shell's length, often more, and the pattern is various, 
sometimes broken by more light girdles, so that in some the coloring 
would be described as rows of spots, only the lowest interruption 
appearing as a sharply defined yellow band. In specimens from 
Caracas the streaks are sometimes so wide that they begin to coal- 
esce ; and in some specimens they are not interrupted. 

Var. ICTERICUS Martens. PI. 45, figs. 23, 24. 

Sixty specimens were sent by Mr. Ernst from Caracas, which 
Von Martens states, leave him in doubt whether or not they are a 
variation of the preceding. The form is substantially identical, 
length of aperture varying between three-sevenths and one-half the 
total length ; sculpture as in depictus. White, with more or less 
yellow suffusion below, the apex sulphur-yellow ; interior of the 
aperture including parietal wall, almost always decided sulphur- 
yellow. 



300 BRYM.EUS, SOUTH AMERICAN. 

Var. ? PERVARIABILIS Pfr. 

Shell umbilicate, ovate-conic, rather thin, very delicately decus- 
sated ; buff-whitish, generally with 5 subinterrupted bands. Spire 
conic, acute; whorls 62, scarcely convex, the last a little longer 
than the spire, subinflated at base; columella lightly arcuate. 
Aperture slightly oblique, oval-oblong ; peristome simple, white or 
yellowish, expanded, the coluraellar margin overhanging, dilated. 
Alt. 33, diam. 14*, alt. of aperture 17 mill. (Pfr.'). 

Colombia. 

A var. y9, " more slender, reddish, somewhat streaked with brown, 
similar to B. roseatus Reeve, but widely umbilicate " is noted by 
Pfeiffer. 

This is considered a synonym of D. depictus by von Martens. 
The single specimen before me differs from the depictus seen in being 
thinner, the spire shorter, the fine spiral striation distinct through- 
out. 

D. GRANADENSIS (Pfeiffer). PI. 45, figs. 36, 37. 

Shell narrowly perforate, fusiform-ovate, thin, irregularly stria- 
ted ; whitish, with yolk-colored streaks and longitudinal blackish 
spots arranged in bands. Spire conic, rather acute. Whorls 6, a 
trifle convex, the last as long as the spire. Columella straight ; 
aperture oval-oblong, colored within like the outside ; peristome 
acute, simple, a trifle expanded, the columellar margin angularly 
reflexed in a thin triangular lamina, nearly closing the perforation. 
Alt. 26, diam.ll, alt. of aperture 14 mill. (Pfr.). 

Province of Merida, Neiv Granada (Funck) 

Bulimus granadensis PFR., P. Z. S., 1847, p. 231 ; Monogr., ii, 
p. 197 ; vi, p. 124. PHILIPPI, Abbild. u. Beschreib., iii,p. 38, BuL, 
pi. 8, f. 8. REEVE, Conch. Icon., pi. 39, f. 234. 

Von Martens has suggested the identity of this with D. depictus. 
It is likely that the latter is merely a form of granadensis with 
longer spire. 

D. INCARNATUS (Pfeiffer). 

Shell compressed-umbilicate, oblong-conic, thin, rather smooth ; 
roseate flesh color, irregularly variegated with red streaks. Spire 
long-conic, rather acute ; suture slight, pale ; whorls 7, rather flat, 
the last a little shorter than the spire, somewhat compressed basally ; 
columella compressed, rather straightly receding. Aperture scarcely 



DRYMJEUS, SOUTH AMERICA X. 301 

oblique, oblong-oval ; peristome thin, the right margin narrowly 
expanded, columellar margin broadly reflexed. Alt. 31, diam. 12, 
alt. of aperture 15, width inside 8 mill. (Pfr.'). 

Venezuela (Cuming coll.). 

Bulimus incarnatus PFR., P. Z. S., 1855, p. 95 ; Monogr., iv, p. 
402. Otostomus incarnatus MARTENS, Binnenmoll. Venezuela's, p. 
31 (1873). 

Said to be similar to B. roseatus Reeve, and not unlike B. per- 
variabili* var. /5 Pfr. It has not been figured. 

D. LIVIDUS (Reeve). PL 45, fig. 31. 

Shell subperforate, acuminate-oblong, thin, minutely decussately 
striated ; tawny-gray, painted with squarish livid- violaceous spots 
arranged somewhat biserially. Spire long conic, rather acute. 
Whorls 6 to 7, a little convex, the last shorter than the spire, veu- 
tricose. Columella somewhat straightened ; aperture little oblique, 
oblong-oval ; peristome simple, unexpanded, the columellar margin 
thin, dilated and reflexed above. Alt. 25, diam. 11 mill.; alt. of 
aperture 12, width 6 mill. (Pfr.). 

Venezuela (Cuming coll.). 

Bulimus liuidus REEVE, Conch. Icon., pi. 85, f. 626 (1850). 
PFR., Monogr., iii, p. 412. 

D. PERTRISTIS Pilsbry, n. n. 

Shell compressed-umbilicate, oblong-conic, thin, smooth, a little 
shining ; whitish, ornamented with bands and streaks or series of 
square spots of violaceous-brown ; spire convexly conic, the apex 
acute. Whorls 65, a trifle convex, the last a little shorter than the 
spire, narrowed and rotund at base ; columella lightly arcuate. 
Aperture slightly oblique, oval ; peristome thin, the right margin 
narrowly expanded, columellar margin buff or white, dilated above, 
reflexed and overhanging. Alt. 28, diam. 11 ; alt. of aperture 14, 
width 7 mill. (Pfr.). 

Ifew Granada (Pfr. coll.). 

Bulimn? t risk's PFR., P. Z. S., 1854, p. 124; Monogr., iv, p. 403. 
Not Bulimus tristis Jay, Catal., edit. 3, p. 121 (1839). 

Allied, according to Pfeiffer, to D. depictus Reeve. 

D. ROSEATUS (Reeve). PI. 45, figs. 34, 35. 

Shell subperforate, subfusiform-oblong, rather thin, rugose striat- 
ulate, marked with minute spiral lines, little shining ; rose- whitish, 



302 DRYM^US, SOUTH AMERICAN. 

ornamented with irregular brownish streaks not extending below 
the middle of the last whorl ; spire convex-conic, acute. Whorls 
6, scarcely convex, the last slightly longer than the spire, attenuated 
at base; columella thread-like, receding. Aperture little oblique, 
oblong-oval ; peristome simple, the right margin lightly arcuate, a 
little expanded, columellar margin dilated above, subappressed. 
Alt. 33, diam. 12 mill.; aperture 17 mill. long. (P/r.). 

Venezuela (Rve.) ; New Granada (Miiller) ; Amazonas (Mouss.). 

Bulimus roseatus REEVE, Conch. Icon., pi. 54, f. 353 (Dec., 
1848). PFR., Conchyl. Cab., p. 246, pi. 66, f. 3, 4 ; Monogr., iii, 
p. 336; viii, p. 61. MOUSSON, Malak. BL, xvi, 1869, p. 76. Otos- 
tomus roseatus MARTENS, Die Binnenmoll. Venez., p. 186- ? Lio- 
stracus roseatus JOUSSEAUME, Mem. Soc. Zool. France, ii, 1889, p. 
242 (Tovar, Venezuela). 

Similar in coloring to D. oreades Orb. 
D. LACTEUS (Lea). PI. 45, figs. 38, 89. 

Shell oblong-turrited, minutely rimate, thin ; milky white, with a 
single brown band encircling the umbilical chink, and usually some 
irregular bluish or reddish blotch-like longitudinal streaks, (overlaid 
with white}, subvertical, or somewhat oblique in a direction opposed 
to that of the growth striae, and not extending below the periphery on 
the last whorl; the base more translucent. Surface glossy, with faint 
growth-lines and close, fine, superficial incised spiral lines through- 
out. Spire long, conic, the apex rather obtuse ; whorls 7, slightly 
convex, the earlier 11 with typical Drymceus sculpture, last whorl 
rounded or faintly angular at the periphery. 

Aperture oblique, ovate, white inside, and showing the external 
markings, its length contained more than 1\ times in that of the 
shell ; peristome thin, its edge the merest trifle expanded ; columella 
vertical, with a convex fold above, the margin triangularly dilated 
and reflexed above. 

Alt. 27, diam. 11-7 ; length of aperture 10'3 mill. 

Alt. 27, diam 12; length of aperture 11 mill. 

Colombia, about 100 miles up the Magdalena River (T. R. Peale). 

Bulimus lacteus LEA, Trans. Amer. Philos. Soc., vi, p. 65, pi. 23, 
f. 100; Obs. Gen. Unio, ii, p. 65, pi. 23, f. 100- PFR., Monogr., ii, 
p. 169. 

Lea's type was immature. The peculiar streaks described above 
are sometimes so faint that in the absence of more boldly marked 



DRYM^EUS, SOUTH AMERICAN. 303 

individuals they would be overlooked. D. oreades Orb. has a 
somewhat similar but more developed color-pattern. In D.feriatus 
Reeve, there is a similar basal band, but the aperture is much 
larger. D. roseatus also has a longer last whorl and aperture. 
The type of B. lacteus has been lost from the Lea collection. 

D. MERIDANUS (Pfeiffer). PL 45, fig. 26. 

Shell perforate, oblong-subfusiform, striatulate, smooth ; buff- 
whitish, ornamented with narrow blue-brown or wide chestnut 
bands interrupted by streaks ; spire turrited-conic, rather acute. 
Whorls 6, a little flattened, the last as long as the spire. Columella 
lightly arcuate ; aperture oblong-oval, colored within like the out- 
side ; peristome simple, the right margin narrowly expanded, colu- 
mellar margin dilated, overhanging, reflexed, white ; nearly closing 
the perforation. Alt. 29, diam. 11 ; alt. of aperture 15 mill. (Pfr.~). 

Merida, Venezuela (Mus. Curaing). 

^Bulimus meridanus PFR., P. Z. S., 1846, p. 33 ; Monogr., ii, p. 
103. REEVE, Conch. Icon., pi. 57, f. 386. 

Pfeiffer assigned this species to " Merida, Bolivian Andes ; " 
Reeve to Merida, New Granada, now in Venezuela. Von Martens 
unites B. primula Rve. as a synonym, but not from having seen 
specimens, apparently. Pfeiffer observes in the Monographia 
" compare B. amcenus Pfr." 

D. DESHAYESI (Pfeiffer). PL 45, fig. 27. 

Shell umbilicate, turrited, solid, striatulate ; violaceous- white, ir- 
regularly marked with streaks and spots of purple brown. Suture 
somewhat crenulate ; whorls 9, a trifle convex, the last nearly one- 
third the total alt. Columella nearly straight, aperture oval, vio- 
laceous within ; peristome simple, uuexpanded, the columellar mar- 
gin dilated, reflexed, overhanging, not closing the umbilical crevice. 
Alt. 45, diam. 15, alt. of aperture 16 mill. 

Venezuela (Dyson). 

Bulimus deshayesi PFR., P. Z. S., 1845, p. 73 ; Monogr., ii, p. 
200; vi, 128. REEVE, Conch. Icon., pi. 40, f. 250. 

D. DUBIUS (Pfeiffer). 

Shell subperforate, oblong- fusiform, thin, striated, a little shining ; 
whitish-buff, ornamented with spadiceous, somewhat undulating 
streaks ; spire slender, long-conic, the apex rather obtuse, suture 
submarginate, Whorls 6, slightly convex, the last a little shorter 



304 DRYM^US, SOUTH AMERICAN. 

than the spire, tapering at base, subcompressed. Columellasubver- 
tical, elongated nearly to the base of the aperture. Aperture 
slightly oblique, oblong, narrowed at each end, colored within like 
the outside ; peristome simple, unexpanded, the right margin very 
lightly arcuate, columellar margin narrowly reflexed, overhanging, 
subappressed. Alt. 28, diam. 10; alt. of aperture 13, width in the 
middle 5 mill. (P/r.). 

Andes of New Granada (Cuming coll.). 

Bulimus dubius PFR., P. Z. S., 1851, p. 257 ; Monographia, iii, 
p. 413. 

D. EFFEMINATUS (Reeve). PL 45, fig. 25. 

Shell perforate, oblong-conic, rather solid, striated, somewhat 
shining; fleshy or bluish white, irregularly painted with brown 
streaks. Spire conic, rather acute, sometimes purplish above. 
Whorls 8, rather flat, the last shorter than the spire, rotund at 
base ; colurnella scarcely arcuate. Aperture oblique, oblong oval ; 
peristome simple, unexpanded, the right margin lightly arcuate, 
columellar margin .dilated above, overhanging, reflexed. Alt. 31, 
diam. 13 mill. ; aperture 15 mill. long. (Pfr.). 

Colombia (Pfr.). 

Bulimus effeminatus RVE., Conch. Icon., pi. 51, f. 338 (Nov., 
1848). PFR., Monogr., iii, p. 426 ; vi, p. 133 ; viii, p. 170. 

D. MANUPICTUS (Reeve). PI. 45, fig. 29. 

Shell openly perforate, oblong-subfusiform, rather solid, striate ; 
whitish, irregularly painted with brown and red streaks. Spire 
lengthened-conic, rather acute. Whorls 7, a trifle convex, the last 
about as long as the spire, somewhat tapering at base. Columella 
rather straightened, vertical. Aperture nearly vertical, oblong ; 
peristome simple, unexpanded, the right margin lightly arcuate, 
columellar margin reflexed and overhanging above. Alt. 33, diam. 
12i, alt. of aperture 17 mill. (P/r.). 

Andes of Colombia (Cuming coll.). 

Bulimus manupictus REEVE, Conch. Icon., pi. 55, f. 369 (Dec., 
1848). PFR., Monogr., iii, p. 417. 

D. FRESNOENSIS Pilsbry, n. sp. PI. 40, fig. 18. 

Shell oblong-turrited, perforate, moderately solid ; pale yellowish- 
brown fading to whitish at suture and base, with numerous irregular, 




DRYMJEUS, SOUTH AMERICAN. 305 

rather broad purple-brown streaks with ill-defined edges. Surface 
glossy with slight growth-wrinkles but no spiral stria?. Spire long, 
conic, the apex obtuse. Whorls 6, very convex, the last tapering 
below. 

Aperture slightly oblique, purple within, oblong, its length con- 
tained 2i times in that of the shell ; peristome whitish, not ex- 
panded ; outer lip strongly arcuate above, less so below; columella 
vertical, nearly straight, with a slight gutter at its base, the col- 
umellar edge reflexed, face of the reflexed portion with an obliquely 
longitudinal convexity. Alt. 33, diam. 14* ; alt. of aperture 14 
mill. 

Near Fresno, Colombia, (T. Bland). 

Resembles D. manupictus somewhat in general form, vertical col- 
umella and coloring, but the whorls are much more convex, the 
aperture smaller, and the form of the columellar expansion appar- 
ently different. 

D. VIRGO (Lea). PL 45, figs. 40, 41. 

Shell oblong-turrited, thin but moderately solid, perforate. 
White, either uniform or with small inconspicuous brown spots 
arranged in oblique series at irregular intervals, and sometimes a 
small purple-brown umbilical patch or band. Surface rather 
glossy, with slight wrinkles of growth. Spire very long, a little 
cylindric, with slightly convex lateral outlines. Whorls 7j, but 
slightly convex, the suture superficial ; apex whitish-corneous or 
purple-black, If earlier whorls sculptured as usual in Drymceus ; 
last whorl quite convex below. 

Aperture slightly oblique, small, its length contained nearly three 
times in that o) the shell, white within ; outer lip thin, acute, and not 
expanded ; columella subvertical, nearly straight or markedly sin- 
uous, the columellar margin abruptly dilated above, reflexed, adnate 
except for a small umbilical chink. 

Alt. 26, diam. 9 ; alt. of aperture 9 mill. 

Alt. 23t, diam. 8f ; alt. of aperture 81 mill. 

Near Carthagena (J. H. Gibbon), and Mendez (Bland), Colombia. 

Bulimus virgo LEA, Trans. Amer. Philos. Soc., vi, p. 84, pi. 23, 
fig. 97 (June, 1838) ; Obs. Genus Unio, etc., ii, p. 81, pi. 23, f. 97. 
Bulimus gruneri PFR., P. Z. S., 1846, p. 30; Monogr., ii, p. 213; 
vi, p. 132 ; Conchyl. Cab., p. 227, pi. 62, f. 11, 12. REEVE, Conch. 
Icon., pi. 51, f. 332 (bad). Bulimulus gruneri CROSSE & FISCHER, 
20 



306 DRYM^US, SOUTH AMERICAN. 

Miss. Scient. Mex., Moll., i, p. 547. STREBEL, Beitr. Mex. Land- 
und Susswasser-Conch., v, p. 92, pi. 6, f. 1 (and probably la, b), 
not " Form B," pi. 6, f. 2. MARTENS, Biol. Centr. Amer., Moll., p. 
245. 

D. wrgo Lea (gruneri Pfr.) is peculiar in the very long and 
rather stout, slightly cylindric spire, the superficial sutures, and the 
small aperture. The columella is decidedly pressed in at its inser- 
tion, almost guttered; and the coloring varies from pure white to a 
much interrupted, subobsolete pattern of brown dots arranged in 
three spiral series. 

Lea's type specimen of S. virgo (pi. 45, fig. 41 from no. 105,076, 
U. S. Nat. Mus.) agrees in all respects with immaculate specimens 
of B. gruneri. The columella is straight and vertical, only weakly 
twisted above. 

The Mexican habitat assigned B. gruneri by Pfeiffer is doubtless 
an error. Whether the shells from Soganovo, Ecuador, figured 
under this name by Strebel are the true gruneri or not I would not 
attempt to decide without seeing them, but they certainly look like 
it. The specimens before me were collected by Bland himself at 
" Mendez, N. G." where both spotted and immaculate shells 
occurred. 

D. DEMERARENSIS (Pfeiffer). 

Shell perforate, ovate-t united, rather solid, striatulate, and under 
the lens indistinctly somewhat decussated; opaque; whitish, irreg- 
ularly marked with brown streaks. Spire lengthened conic, rather 
acute. Whorls 6, little convex, the last more than one-third the 
length of the shell, subangulate, the angle disappearing on the latter 
part. Aperture oblique, truncate-oval ; peristome narrowly ex- 
panded, the colurnellar margin arcuate, reflexed and overhanging 
above. Alt. 20, diam. 10; alt. of aperture 9i, width 51 mill. 
. 

Demerara (Cuming coll.). 

Bulimus demerarensis PFR., P. Z. S., 1861, p. 24; Malak. Bl. 
1861, p. 14 ; Monogr., vi, p. 51. 

D. DEMOTUS (Reeve). PL 43, fig. 81. 

Shell perforate, ovate-conic, rather thin, smooth, showing concen- 
tric striae under the lens, shining ; white, ornamented above with 
rows of light red spots ; spire conic, slightly acute. Whorls 6, a 



DRYM^US, SOUTH AMERICAN. 307 

little flattened, the last a little shorter than the spire, rounded at 
base, where it is belted with light red. Columella nearly straight, 
somewhat receding ; aperture little oblique, oval; peristome simple, 
the right margin narrowly expanded, columellar margin dilated 
above, reflexed, flat, subappressed. Alt. 32, diam. 13 mill. ; aper- 
ture 16 mill, long, 9 wide in the middle. (Pfr.). 

Venezuela. 

Bulimiis feriatus REEVE, Conch. Icon., pi. 54, f. 354 (preoc.). 
Bulimns demotus REEVE, in errata, p. xi (1850. PFR., Monogr., iii, 
p. 340. Otostomus demotus MARTENS, Binnenmoll. Venez., p. 31. 

Spotted somewhat as in maculatus, but more solid, with a conspic- 
uous dark band around the perforation. 

D. NIGROFASCIATUS (Pfeiffer). PI. 50, figs. 98, 99 (typical), and 

f. 96, 97, 100 (var.). 

Shell perforate, ovate, thin, rather smooth ; whitish-yellow, orna- 
mented with Jive wide black bands. Spire conic, the apex acute. 
Whorls 6, slightly convex, the last more swollen, as long as the 
spire. Columella straight, vertical. Aperture semioval, colored 
within like the outside ; peristome simple, unexpanded, the right 
margin arcuate, columellar margin dilated down to the base, nar- 
rowly reflexed. (Pfr.). Alt. 24, diam. 14 mill. ; aperture 12 mill, 
long, 7? wide in the middle. 

Magdalena Valley, Colombia (Cuming and Gruner collections). 

Bulimns nigrofasciatus PFR. in Philippi, Abbild. u. Beschreib. 
neuer oder wenig gekaunter Conch., ii, p. 125, Bulimus, pi. 5, f. 7 
(October, 1846); Monogr., ii, p. 194; iii, 416. REEVE, Conch. 
Icon., pi. 55, f. 379 (1848). DESH. in Fer., Hist., p. 81, pi. 145, f. 
22-24. Bulimulus nigrofasdatus STREBEL, Beitr. Mex. Land- und 
Siissw.-conch., v, p. 90, pi. 12, f. lla, b (shell) ; pi. 13, f. 17a, b ; pi. 
15, f. 5a, b (anatomy). 

In addition to Pfeiffer's diagnosis, given above, it may be added 
that the apical sculpture is typical, and slight traces of spiral striaB 
appear in places on some specimens. The band at the suture is nar- 
row, the fourth band and umbilical patch wide. 

Var. elongatulus n. v. PI. 50, fig. 100. 

More lengthened and slender, the aperture less than half the total 
length of shell; white, with five black-brown bands, as in the type. 

Bands ii and iii occasionally have somewhat crenate or ragged 



308 DRYM^EUS, SOUTH AMERICAN. 

Strebel has figured (pi. 50, figs. 96, 97) slender specimens from 
Tequendano, Ecuador (Dr. Reiss), and he also reports the species 
from Tacatativa, on the Bogota plateau (v. Nolcke). The specimens 
from Tequendano, show variation in the bands, in some examples 
bands 1 and 3, or only 1, or 1, 2, 3, 4 being obsolete. They appar- 
ently belong to the slender variety elongatulus. 

D. AMOENUS (PfeifFer). 

Shell subperforate, fusiform-oblong, longitudinally striated, opaque; 
yellowish, clouded with roseate, with 4 red bands and a fifth basal 
roseate band. Spire turrited-conic, the apex rather acute ; whorls 
6, a little flattened, the last equal to the spire. Columella com- 
pressed above, then lightly arcuate. Aperture oval-oblong, colored 
within like the outside ; peristome simple, straight, right margin 
somewhat spreading, columellar margin narrowly reflexed, sub- 
adnate. Alt. 29, diam. 10 mill.; aperture 15 mill, long, 7 wide in 
the middle. (P/?-.). 

Habitat unknown (Philippi coll.). 

Bulimus amcenus PFR., Zeitschr. f. Malak., 1847, p. 82 ; Monogr. 
ii, p. 172. 

D. FIDUSTUS (Reeve). PI. 50, fig. 95. 

Shell subperforate, oblong-conic, thin, striatulate, shining; corne- 
ous-buff, ornamented with three wide chestnut bands, the upper one 
interrupted. Spire long, rather obtuse. Whorls 6i, a little con- 
vex, the last more convex, a little shorter than the spire, rotund at 
base. Columella somewhat straightened. Aperture oblique, trun- 
cate-oval ; peristome simple, unexpanded, the right margin lightly 
arcuate, columella margin dilated above, narrowly rolled backward, 
subappressed. Alt. 23, diam. 11, length of aperture 11, width 6 
mill. (P/r.). 

Sebundoi, Colombia (Funck in Cuming coll). 

Bulimus fidustus REEVE, Conch. Icon., pi. 76, f. 557 (Aug., 1849). 
PFR., Monogr., iii, p. 413 ; vi, p. 115. 

The species reported by von Martens as Bulimulus fidustus in 
Jahrb. d. D. Mai. Ges., iii, 1876, p. 258, was probably different. 

D. RUFOLINEA.TUS (Drouet). Vol. XII, pi. 12, figs. 12, 13. 

Shell subperforate, oblong-acuminate, thin, fragile, more or less 
translucent, rather smooth, shining; white with 3 rufous interrupted 
bands and sometimes a fourth around the perforation. Whorls 6, 



DRYM^EUS, SOUTH AMERICAN. 309 

slightly convex ; peristome simple, acute; columellar margin reflexed. 
Alt. 18-20, diam. 10, length of aperture 9 mill. (Dr.). 

Ilet-la-Mere, French Guiana, oil tree trunks (Eyries). 

Bulimus rufolineatus DROUET, Essai sur les Moll, terrestr. et fluv. 
de la Guyane Fran9aise, p. 61, pi. 1, f. 10, 11 (1859). PFR., Mon- 
ogr., vi, p. 116. 

Differs from D. imperfectus of Trinidad in having three or four 
instead of five bands. It is allied to Antillean rather than to con- 
tinental species. 

Group of D. virginalis. 

Rather thin, yellow or white one-colored shells with acute per- 
istome. The following Colombian and Venezuelan species are 
closely^ allied to D. litiaceus and its allies of the Antilles, and D.sul- 
phureus and related forms of the middle American mainland, all 
being doubtless of common origin. They are also closely allied to 
the preceding group. 

D. VIRGIXALIS (Pfeiffer). PI. 26, figs. 83, 84, 87. 

Shell perforate, oblong-turrited, thin, nearly smooth (very finely 
decussated, under the lens), subpellucid, whitish ; spire long-conic, 
the apex buff, acute ; whorls 7, but a trifle convex, the last about 
three-sevenths the total length, subcompressed at base. Columella 
lightly arcuate. Aperture slightly oblique, oblong; peristome 
simple, thin, the right margin slightly arcuate, narrowly expanded, 
columellar margin dilated and reflexed. (Pfr.). 

Alt. 26, diam. 12, length of aperture 12i mill. 

Alt. 29, diam. 13, length of aperture 13 mill. 

Alt. 27, diam. 12, length of aperture 12 mill. 

Caracas, Venezuela (Klocke, Lansberg, and others), and near the 
mouth of the river Yaraqui (Hellyer, in Swift coll.). 

Bulimus virginalis PFR., Malak. BL, iii, p. 46 (1856) ; Monogr., 
iv, p. 405 ; Novit. Conch., iii, p. 422, pi. 96, f. 1, 2. Otostomus (Mor- 
mus) virginalis MARTENS, Binnenmoll. Venez., in Festschr. zur Feier 
100-jahrigen Bestehens der Ges. naturforsch. Freunde zu Berlin, p. 
184, pi. 1, f. 5 ; also pi. 2, f. 21 a-f, teeth and jaw, by Schako. Bulim- 
ulus virginalis STREBEL, Beitr. Mex. Land- und Siisswasser-Conch., 
v, p. 88, pi. 12, f. 14 (shell), pi. 15 ; f. 4a-d (anatomy). 

Considerably like D. liliaceus in general appearance. It is thin, 
white or of a very pale yellow tint, often with bluish streaks; the 



310 DRYM.EUS, SOUTH AMERICAN. 

spire is straigbtly conic, aperture always decidedly less than half the 
length of the shell, and the lip either very slightly expanded or not 
perceptibly so. D. sulphureus Pfr. from Mexico has a larger aper- 
ture, but is closely allied to virginalis. The Mexican localities 
given by some authors for virginalis are probably based upon the 
closely allied D. sulphureus, as von Martens believes. 

D. virginalis has also been reported from Dominica by A. D. 
Brown. See under Antillean species. 

D. ELECTRUM (Reeve). PI. 41, fig. 36. 

Shell perforate, ovate-oblong, thin, striatulate, seen under the 
lens to be sculptured with close spiral lines ; diaphanous, pale buff. 
Spire convex-conic, the apex subacute. Whorls 5 2, rather flat, the 
last a little longer than the spire, rotund at base. Columella thin, 
lightly arcuate. Aperture oblique, oblong-oval ; peristome simple, 
the right margin narrowly expanded, columellar margin dilated 
above, reflexed, flat, subappressed. Alt. 30, diam. 12 mill.; apert. 
16 mill, long, 9 wide. (Pfr.'). 

Venezuela (Cuming coll.). 

Bulimus electrum REEVE, Conch. Icon., pi. 56, f. 373 (Dec., 1848). 
PFR., Monogr., iii, p. 337. 

" A delicate, transparent shell of somewhat glassy texture, dis- 
tinguished by its bright amber color." 

D. TENUILABRIS (Pfeiffer). 

Shell profoundly umbilicate, ovate-turrited, thin, smoothish (under 
the lens minutely spirally striated), shining ; alabastrine ; spire tur- 
rited, the apex acute ; whorls 7, rather flattened, the last shorter 
than the spire, slightly ascending in front, compressed-rotund at 
base. Aperture slightly oblique, truncate-oblong ; peristome simple, 
the right margin narrowly expanded, columellar margin much 
dilated as far as the base. Alt. 30, diam. 12 mill. ; aperture with 
peristome 14z mill, long, 10 wide. (Pfr.). 

Venezuela (Cuming coll.) ; Lower Magdalena (Mouss.). 

Bulimus tenuilabris PFR., P. Z. S., 1865, p. 831 ; Monogr., vi, p. 
50. Mouss., Malak. BL, xvi, 1869, p. 177. 

D. FLAVIDUS (Menke). PI. 26, figs. 71, 72, 73. 

Shell ovate-acute, subperforate, thin, yellow, the suture white 
margined. Length 10 lines. Var. a, yellow throughout. Var. b, 

reddish below (Mke.). 

Caracas, Venezuela (Lansberg, Gollmer). 



DRYM^EUS, SOUTH AMERICAN. 311 

Bulimus flavidus MENKE, Verzeichn. d. Conchylien-Samml. des 
Freiherrn v. d. Malsburg, p. 6 (1829). PFR., Monogr., viii,p. 166. 
Otostomus flavidus MARTENS, Binnenmoll. Venez., p. 185 (29), pi. 
1, f. 9. Helix liliacea var. flavescens FER., Prodr., no. 401 ; His- 
toire, p. 42 B, f. 14. Bulimus liliaceus REEVE, Conch. Icon., pi. 45, 
f. 287. Bulimulw flavidus STREBEL, Beitrage Mex. Land- und 
Sussw.-Conch., v, p. 89, pi. 12, f. 15 (shell) ; pi. 15, f. 6 a-d, 10 (an- 
atomy). 

This species was formerly placed in the synonymy of B. strami- 
neus by Pfeiffer, its validity being first demonstrated by Dr. von 
Martens .in 1873. He writes: Very similar to the preceding [vir- 
ghtali*], but fuller and fatter in form, the color intense yellow, 
spiral striation the same; 23 mill, long, half that breadth ; aperture 
somewhat less than half the total length, the peristome very weakly 
expanded. In the Berlin Museum there are specimens (No. 10,338) 
with the above name, from the Malsburg collection, which agree 
well with Ferussac's fig. 14, some of them, especially, showing the 
characteristic rose-red color near the aperture. 

D. DEBILIS (" Beck " Martens). PI. 26, figs. 74, 75. 

Very similar to the preceding [D . flavidus], but of fuller form, 
the color more yellowish, the peristome, it seems, quite unexpanded, 
the spiral striation the same. Length 23 mill., diarn. and length of 
the aperture nearly or fully half the length of shell. The contour 
is much the same as in B. detritus ; the color becomes a pronounced 
yellow on the lower half of the last whorl. One of the three exam- 
ples show traces of spots on the upper whorls (Martens'). 

Caracas, Venezuela (Lansberg, in Berlin Mus.) ; Antilles (Beck). 

Bulimulus debilis BECK, Index Moll., p. 65 (1837), based upon 
Ferussac, Histoire, pi. 142 B, f. 10. Otostomus (Morm us) debilis 
MARTENS, Binnenmoll. Venez., p. 186 (1873). Not Bulimus fra- 
gilis Lam., DESHAYES in Fer. Hist., ii, p. 73. 

This species was based by Beck on two figures of Ferussac (re- 
produced on my plate), without a description. These figures have 
been considered to represent D. strammeus Guild., an interpretation 
favored by the locality given by Beck. Dr. von Martens, however, 
has identified as Beck's species certain shells from Caracas, Vene- 
zuela, his description of which is given above. While no certainty 
is, at present, attainable, I have accepted von Martens' identifica- 
tion as temporarily the best course. 



312 DRYM^US, SOUTH AMERICAN. 

D. COLUMBIANUS (Lea). PL 45, fig. 33. 

Shell elongately turrited, perforate, shining, white ; thin ; trans- 
versely and minutely striate ; apex golden color ; whorls 7 ; aper- 
ture rather small ; outer lip acute. Length 1*2, diam. 0'5 inch. 
(Lea). 

About 100 miles up the Magdalena River, Colombia (T. R. Peale)- 

Bulimus columbianus LEA, Trans. Amer. Philos. Soc., vi, p. 66, 
pi. 23, f. 110 (1838) ; Obs. Genus Unio, etc., ii, p. 66, pi. 23, f. 110. 

The spire is long, and the aperture about one-third the length of 
the shell. It is nearly milk-white, and so thin as to be somewhat 
translucent (Lea). 

The type was in Peale's " Philadelphia Museum," and all trace 
of it was lost upon the breaking up of the Museum in 1844. 

D. VENEZUELENSIS (Martens). PL 50, fig. 80. 

Shell somewhat fusiformly oblong, thin, hyaline ; compressly um- 
bilicated. Whorls 7 in number, flatly convex, smooth, minutely 
striated beneath the lens ; columella broadly reflected, depressed ; 
aperture rather oblique ; lip simple, a little effused. Transparent 
white (Eve.). 

Caracas, Venezuela (Moritz). 

Bulimus membranaceus Phil., REEVE, Conch. Icon., pi. 75, f. 
544 (1849), not of Philippi. Otostomus (Mormus) membranaceus 
MARTENS, Binnenmoll. Venez., p. 186, in Festschr. zur Feier des 
100 Jahrigen Bestehens der Ges. Naturforsch. Freunde zu Berlin 
(1873). Otostomus venzuelensis MARTENS, Biol. Centrali-Ameri- 
cana, Moll. Terr., p. 224 (Sept., 1893), concealed in text relating to 
Otostomus emeus. 

" Has the delicate, unicolored shell and fine, regular spiral stria- 
tion in common with iirginalis audflavidus, but is larger and fatter 
than either. Length 31, diam. four-ninths the length ; length of 
aperture a very little more, but less than half. Larger and yellow 
colored, but quite similar in form is Reeve's B. electrum, also from 
Venezuela." (Martens, 1873). 

" The shell figured by Reeve as B. membranaceus is not Philippics 
type ; it is probably similar to the Venezuelan specimens referred 
by me to 0. membranaceus in the paper quoted above [Binnenmoll. 
Venezuela's], and which may now be separated as a distinct species 
under the name of Otostomus venezuelensis." (Martens, 1893). 



DRYM^EUS, SOUTH AMERICAN. 313 

D. GRATUS (Pfeiffer). 

Shell shortly rimate, subperforate, obloDg-turrited, solid, nearly 
smooth, little shining, yellow-whitish ; spire lengthened, somewhat 
convexly turrited, the apex corneus. rather acute. Whorls 7, 
slightly convex, the last forming three- sevenths the total length, 
somewhat compressed basally. Columella straightened, receding. 
Aperture a little oblique, oblong-oval ; peristome unexpanded, 
acute, the right margin lightly arcuate, columellar margin abruptly 
reflexed, flat. Alt. 28, diam. 11?, alt. of aperture 13, width 6 1 
mill. (Pfr.). 

Colombia (Cuming coll). 

Bulimus columbiensis PFR., P. Z. S., 1854, p. 124 (not of Lea). 
Bulimus (Mesembrinus') gratus PFR., Malak. Bl., 1855, p. 159. 

D. AMANDUS (Pfeiffer). PI. 26, fig. 76. 

Shell narrowly perforate, oblong-conic, thin, nearly smooth (under 
the lens seem to be very finely spirally striated), diaphanous, very 
pale rose-colored. Spire long-conic, rather acute. Whorls 6, a little 
convex, the last a little shorter than the spire, obsoletely angled 
below the middle, slightly attenuated at base. Columella arcuate, 
compressed. Aperture oblique, angular-oval, the peristome simple, 
unexpanded, acute ; columellar margin narrowly and abruptly re- 
flexed. Alt. 30, diam. 11* ; aperture, alt. 14, width 8 mill. (Pfr.). 

Venezuela (Cuming coll.). 

Bulimus amandus PFR., P. Z. S., 1855, p. 96, pi. 31, f. 4 ; Monogr., 
iv, p. 481. 

Section Stenostylux Pilsbry, 1898. 

Stenostylus PILS., this volume, p. 184 (May, 1898). 

Shell similar in the thread-like columella to Eudioptus, but with 
wrinkled surface, opaque, variegated coloring, and the apical sculp- 
ture of Drymceus. Type D. nigrolimbatus Pfr. 

Distribution, Andean region, Peru to Colombia. 

The slender columella and system of coloring have caused syste- 
matists to group these species in Plectostylus, but they differ from 
that Chilian subgenus in having the apical sculpture of Drymceus. 
Eudioptus proves to belong in or near Simpulopsis, and is, therefore, 
not allied to these species. 

Simpulopsis fulgurata of Miller has some resemblance to these 
forms, but may be a very young Eurytus. 



31 4 DRYM^US-STENOSTYLUS. 

D. KOCHI (Pfeiffer). PI. 46, figs. 42, 43. 

Shell imperforate, ovate, very thin, somewhat wrinkled ; blackish- 
olivaceous, covered with a very thin, deciduous epidermis. Spire 
short, obtuse. Whorls 4, convex, the last one over two-thirds the 
length of the shell. Columella simple, thread-like, whitish, rather 
straight. Aperture oblong-oval, colored within like the outside; 
peristome simple, the right margin arching forward. Alt. 20, 
diam. 12 ; alt. of aperture 15 mill. (Pfr.). 

Amable Maria, Peru (Jelski). 

Bulimus kochi PFR., Zeitschr. f. Malak., 1846, p. 114; Monogr., 
ii, p. 148 ; iii, p. 383 ; viii, p. 126. PHILIPPI, Abbild. u. Beschreib., 
iii, p. 20, Bui, pi. 8, f. 10. Bulimus (Plectostylut) kochi LUBOMIR- 
S Ki,P.Z.S.,1879,p.724. 

D. GUTTULA (Pfeiffer). PL 46, figs. 61, 62. 

Shell perforate, ovate-conic, very thin, striated, pellucid, corneous ; 
spire conic, the apex obtuse. Whorls 5, a little convex, the last 
somewhat longer than the spire, rotund. Columella lightly arcuate. 
Aperture oblique, truncate-oval ; peristome simple, thin, narrowly 
expanded, the columellar margin vaulted, a little reflexed, Alt. 
16, diam. 9 ; length of aperture 8 mill. (Pfr.~). 

Gualea, Ecuador (Bourcier). 

Bulimus guttula PFR., P. Z. S., 1852, p. 154 ; Conchyl. Cab., p. 100, 
pi. 32, f. 7, 8 ; Monogr., iii, p. 339 ; vi, 45. Leptomerus guttula MIL- 
LER, Mai. Bl., 1878, xxv, p. 194. 

D. GOUDOTI (Petit). PI. 46, figs. 44, 49. 

Shell imperforate, ovate, thin, pellucid, brown-olive ; whorls 5, 
slightly convex, longitudinally irregularly, delicately striated ; the 
last whorl a little longer than the spire; columella angulose callous 
n the middle. Aperture oblong-oval, dull bluish inside; peri- 
stome simple, the columellar margin a little reflexed. Alt. 39, diam. 
19 ; aperture, alt. 23, width 14 mill. (P/n). 

Mi. Tolima, Prov. Sta. Fe de Bogota, Colombia (Go u dot). 

Bulimus goudoti PETIT, Revue Zool., 1843, p. 239 ; Guerin's Mag. 
de Zool., 1843, pi. 67. PFR., Monogr., ii, p. 167. REEVE, Conch. 
Icon., pi. 37, f. 218. 

D. TROSCHELI (Philippi). PI. 46, figs. 45, 46. 

Shell covered perforate, ovate, thin, somewhat wrinkled, buff- 
olivaceous. Spire pyramidal, the apex obtuse; whorls 5, rather 



DRYM^EUS-STENOSTYLUS. 315 

flat, the last nearly double the length of the spire ; suture submar- 
giuate, crenulated. Aperture oblong-oval ; columella simple, thread- 
like ; peristome simple, unexpended, the columellar margin ap- 
pressed, dilated. Alt. 33, diam. 16* mill. (Phil.). 

" Hacienda de Unigambal," Peru (Raimondi), 3,200 meters eleva- 
vation. 

Bulimus troscheli PHIL., Malak. Bl., xiv, 1867, p. 71. PFR., 
Novit. Conch., p. 345, pi. 81, f. 13, 14 ; Monogr., vi, p. 89. 

Seems to be nearly allied to B. kochi Pfr. Embryonic whorls 
very densely impressed-punctate ; columellar margin dilated ; last 
whorl obliquely descending near the suture (Phil.'). 

D. NIGROLIMBATUS (Pfeiffer). PI. 46, figs. 47, 48. 

Shell imperforate, ovate, thin, rugose, somewhat granulated by 
close spiral striae, slightly shining ; tawny olivaceous, variegated by 
narrow chestnut streaks. Spire conic, the apex obtuse. Whorls 5, 
a little convex, the last somewhat longer than the spire, more con- 
vex, the base rotund. Columella thin, somewhat calloused, rather 
receding. Aperture oblique, angular-oval, plicated and with a 
pearly luster inside ; peristome simple, unexpanded, obtuse, mar- 
gined with black. Alt. 28, diam. 14 ; alt. of aperture 15* mill. 



Andes of New Granada (Cuming coll.). 

Bulimus nigrolimbatus PFR., P. Z. S., 1851, p. 157 ; Monographia, 
iii, p. 382 ; Conchyl. Cab., p. 81, pi. 21, f. 26-30. 

Pfeiffer describes and figures two varieties : beta, form nearly as 
in the type, color olivaceous with darker streaks, the spiral lines ob- 
solete ; alt. 29, diam. 14, alt. of aperture 16 mill. (fig. 56). Var. 
gamma, shell more ovate, colored like the type; alt. 25*, diam. 13*, 
length of aperture 15 mill. (figs. 50, 51). 

D. MELEAGRIS (Pfeiffer). PL 46, figs. 52, 53. 

Shell imperforate, acuminate-ovate, rather thin, granulated by 
close growth-stride and spiral lines, little shining; tawny, streaked 
and irregularly blotched with brown. Spire conic, acute; suture 
somewhat crenulated. Whorls 5*, rather flattened, the last a little 
longer than the spire, more convex, descending in front, rotund at 
base. Columella thread-like, lightly arcuate. Aperture oblique, 



316 DRYM.EUS-STENOSTYLUS. 

oblong-oval, with a pearly luster within ; peristome simple, unex- 
panded. Alt. 31, diam. 14; alt. of aperture 17 mill. (Pfr.). 

Andes of Colombia (Cuming coll.). 

Bulimus meleagris PFR., P. Z. S., 1851, p. 157 ; Conchyl. Cab., p. 
81, pi. 21, f. 24, 25 ; Monogr., iii, p. 382. 

D. FILARIS (PfeifFer). 

Shell imperforate, ovate-conic, thin, irregularly plicate-striate, 
diaphanous, dull white, ornamented with wide, angular, blackish 
streaks, on the last whorl forming obsolete bands. Spire conic, a 
little acute ; suture crenulate ; whorls 5i, a trifle convex, the last 
equal in length to the spire, dilated above and below. Columella 
strongly receding, thread-like. Aperture oblique, oval, with a some- 
what pearly luster within ; peristome simple, unexpanded, subeffuse 
at base. Alt. 26, diam. 12 ; aperture 14 mill, long, 8 wide below 
the middle (Pfr.)- 

Habitat unknown (Cuming coll.). 

Bulimus filaris PFR., P. Z. S., 1853, p. 50 ; Monogr., iii, p. 653. 
Orthalicus (Plectostylus) hilarus H. & A. AD., Gen. Rec. Moll.ii, p. 
155. 

An unfigured species of which the affinities are not known. Prob- 
ably a Plectostylus, though it might belong to the section Stenostylus. 

D. COLMEIROI (Hidalgo). PI. 46, figs. 54, 55. 

Shell imperforate, Succinea-like, ovate-conic, very thin, somewhat 
shining; hyaline, closely and obliquely ornamented with irregular, 
obsolete, opaque-whitish wrinkles. Spire conoid, the apex a little 
obtuse, pale corneous ; suture simple. Whorls 5, a little convex, 
increasing at a moderate rate, the first seen under the lens to be most 
minutely decussated, the last whorl somewhat descending in front, 
rotund at base. Columella hair-like, somewhat obliquely arcuate, 
its spiral trend visible (from below) as far as the apex. 

Aperture oval, colored within like the outside, five ninths the 
length of the shell ; peristome simple, unexpanded, acute, the mar- 
gins somewhat approximating, right margin regularly arcuate, col- 
umellar margin indistinct. Alt. 19, diam. 10 mill. (Hid.). 

Baeza, Ecuador (Martinez). 

Bulimus colmeiroi HIDALGO, Mol. Viaje al Pacifico, p. 122 (1869) ; 
Journ. de Conchyl., 1875, p. 129, pi. 7, f. 3. PFR., Monogr., viii, p. 
125. 



DRYM^US-BULIMULUS. 317 

With the form of D. nigrolimbatus, this species is smaller, without 
the subgranulose spiral lines, and of a different color. 

D. TAPADOIDES (Philippi). PI. 46, figs. 59, 60. 

Shell subimperforate, oblong, very thin, somewhat plicate ; olive- 
green, the folds whitish. Whorls 4?, the last a little longer than 
the spire. Aperture semi-ovate; columella thread-like, receding; 
peristome unexpanded. very thin ; columellar margin a little dilated 
above, very thin, almost completely closing the perforation. Alt. 
18, diam. 10 mill. ; alt. of aperture 10, width 5i mill. (Phil.). 

Tarma, Peru (Isern). 

Bulimus tapadoides PHIL., Malak. BL, xiv, 1867, p. 71. PFR., 
Novit. Conch., p. 338, pi. 80, f. 14, 15 ; Monogr., vi, p. 89. 

Apparently allied to D. colmeiroi Hid. 
D. IGNOBILIS (Philippi). PL 46, figs. 57, 58. 

Shell imperforate, ovate-turrited, slightly striatulate ; white, with 
some rufous-corneous blotches and streaks. Apex obtuse; whorls 
6, rather flat, gradate, separated by a deep suture, the last whorl 
rounded, ventricose, about equalling four-ninths the total length. 
Aperture ovate-oblong, columella thread-like, twisted, receding ; 
peristome unexpanded, acute, a thin callus joining the margins and 
covering the umbilical region. Alt. 25?, diam. 18 mill.; alt. of 
aperture 12J, width 6J mill. (Phil.'). 

Chanchamayo, Pent (Raimondi). 

Bulimus ignobilis PHIL., Malak., BL xiv, 1867, p. 72; Novit. 
Conch., p- 340, pi. 80, f. 21, 22; Monographia, vi, p. 106. 

The embryonal whorls are pale corneous, and under the lens are 
seen to be strongly, though finely, punctulate. The rest of the shell 
shows malleation in places. 



APPENDIX TO VOL. XI. 
B. COR^FORMIS Pils. (p. 15). 

A better figure of the apical sculpture is given on pi. 26, fig. 85. 

Subgenus PLECTOSTYLUS (p. 2). 
B. PUNCTULIFER (Sowerby). PL 26, figs. 67-69 ; pi. 8, fig. 27. 

Shell ovate-oblong, subacuminate, whitish, most minutely rugu- 
lose, covered with a very thin yellowish cuticle, sparsely ornamented 



318 APPENDIX, BULIMULUS. 

with blackish dots arranged in series. Whorls 5, a little ventricose ; 
suture somewhat impressed. Aperture elliptical, acuminate above ; 
peristome thin. Length 1-5, diam. 0'75 inch. (G. B. Sowerby}. 

Chili: Questa Prado, under stones (Cuming) ; Questa de Arenas, 
Huasco (Bridges). 

Bulinus punctulifer SOWB., P. Z. S., 1833, p. 36 ; Conchol. Illustr., 
f. 36. Bulimus punctulifer REEVE, Conch. Icon., pi. 16, f. 92. 
GAY, Hist, de Chile, viii, p. 103. PFR., Monogr., ii, p. 150; vi, 
p. 90. Helix punctulifer GAY, Atlas of Hist, de Chile, pi. 2, f. 1. 

I have not seen this species. Sowerby's figure is copied, pi. 8, fig. 
27. Those of Reeve, pi. 26, figs. 67-69, are said by Mr. E. R. Sykes, 
who has examined the B. M. specimens (probably types) for me, to 
be better for contour. The apex, according to Mr. Sykes, is invol- 
ute and wrinkled. This indicates that the species is a Plectostylus, 
though if so, the subperforate axis mentioned by PfeifFeris an un- 
usual feature. When preparing my account of this group I had 
decided to treat punctulifer as a Drymceus, confusing it with D. 
acervatus, a somewhat similarly marked but openly uinbilicated 
species from southern Brazil. 

Gay's figures of a specimen from the department of Huasco, look 
rather different from those of Sowerby and Reeve. 

B. PROLATUS (Gould). PI. 2, figs. 22, 23. 

Shell an elongated, prolate spheroid, nearly as much attenuated 
at base as at spire, surface nearly smooth and regular, of a grayish 
or ash-color, with about four revolving bands of partially connected 
blotches on the large whorl, and three on the smaller ones. Whorls 
five slightly convex, and a very little rounded at the sutures. Aper- 
ture about half the length of the shell, of an elliptic form, a little 
angular posteriorly ; lip simple, the columella rather broadly 
reflexed, short, white, and protecting a small umbilical perforation. 
(Old.). Alt. 1-75, diam. 1 inch. 

Near Santiago, Chili (Couthouy). 

Bulimus prolatus GLD., Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., ii, p. 191 (Dec., 
1846) ; U. S. Exploring Expedition, Moll, and Shells, p. 74, pi. 6, 
figs. 79, 79a. PFR., Monogr., ii, p. 171. 

Evidently near B. punctulifer. "A shell remarkable for its 
regular, elongated ovoid form and its four bands of rusty-brown 
blotches," 



APPENDIX, BULIMULUS. 319 

Subgenus BULIMULUS s. sir. 
B. MENDOZANUS Strobe! (p. 71). 

The generic position of this species is not known, the apex still 
being unexamined. 

Yar. BOXAERENSIS Doering. 

Differs from var. azulensis (from the Sierra Baya) in having the 
spire lengthened, less ventricose, the suture deeper, aperture smaller, 
and the color olivaceous-green. (Doering). 

Alt. 20, diam. 10; alt. of aperture 12, width 7 mill. 

Alt. 22, diam. 11 ; alt, of aperture 12*, width 7 mill. 

Alt. 25, diam. 12; alt. of aperture 13, width 8 mill. 

Alt. 26, diam. 13 ; alt. of aperture 14, width 8 mill. 

Alt. 30, diam. 15 ; alt. of aperture 15, width 10 mill. 

Escalones de las Aguilas, Sierra del Tandil (Holmberg). 

Eudioptus mcndozanus Strob., var. bonaerensis DOER., Actes de 
la Academia Nacional de Ciencias en Cordoba, v, pt. 2, p. Ill, pi. 
2, f. 1 (1884). 

Var. AZULEXSIS Doering. PI. 26, figs. 79, 80. 

The color is dark amber-olivaceous, with longitudinal irregular 
streaks of a somewhat darker shade. The shell is very delicate and 
somewhat flexible, with many plicae or strong wrinkles, and with a 
rather glossy surface. Inside it is smooth and somewhat nacreous. 
(Doer.}. 

Alt. 24, diam. 12 ; alt. of aperture 15, width 8 mill. 

Alt. 25, diam. 14* ; alt. of aperture 16, width 9 mill. 

Alt. 27, diam. 14* ; alt. of aperture 17, width 9 mill. 

Alt. 28, diam. 15; alt. of aperture 16-V, width 10 J mill. 

Alt. 29, diam. 16 ; alt. of aperture 17, width 10 mill. 

Sierra de Sotoya to the Sierra de Olavarria, Rio Negro region, 
Argentina. 

Eudioptus mendozanus Strob. var., DOER., in Roca's Informe 
Oficial de la Com is. Cient. Exped. al Rio Negro, i, Zoologia, p. 62, 
pi. 1, f. 1, la (1881). Probably E. mendozanus var. azulensis DOER., 
1884, see below. 

Jaw with 12 thick ribs, the terminal ones dilated, intermediates 
unequal and comparatively narrow, the central ribs a little narrower 
and conical. The species is allied, according to Doering to D. 
tortomnus (Vol. X, p. 192), B. cordillerce Strob, (p. 191) and B. mon- 



320 APPENDIX, BULIMULUS. 

ticola Doer. (p. 191) ; and its analogue in the Cordillera is B.nivalis 
Orb. (this Vol., p. 72). 

Doering gives no varietal name to this form in the " Informe 
Oficial," but it is apparently what he refers to as var. azulensis in 
the later publication quoted above. Whether the species is a Lis- 
soacme or a typical Bulimulus I do not know. 

B. AGUIRREI (Doering). 

Shell rimate, ovate-conic, oblong, rather thin, shining ; whitish- 
corneous, covered with a pellucid brown-corneous cuticle; striae 
close, irregular, rugose, sometimes variegated with brownish ; spire 
ovate-conic, the apex rather acute ; whorls 5 2, a little convex, the 
last whorl scarcely half the length ; suture generally subcrenulate ; 
aperture oblong-ovate ; peristorne simple, thin, acute ; the right mar- 
gin regularly arcuate, columellar margin narrowly reflexed. Alt. 
24, diam. 12; alt. of aperture 13, width 7-8 mill. (Doering). 

Sierra de la Ptedra Movediza; Sierra Tolosa, Argentina (Holm- 
berg). 

Eudioptus aguirrei DOER., Actes Acad.Nac. Ciencias en Cordoba, 
v, p. 112, pi. 2, f. 2 (1884). 

Allied to an elongated variety of B. apodemetes, and to B. men- 
dozanus according to Doering. The plate is lacking in our copy of 
the volume in which it is described. May be a Lissoacme. 

B. MONTEVIDENSIS Pfr. (p. 68). 

Add to synonymy: Bulimus gelidus REEVE, Conch. Icon., pi. 
76, f. 553 (August, 1849), described as from " Central America?" 
Mr. E. A. Smith, from an examination of the type, considers it 
probably identical with the Montevideo variety (Biol. Centr. Amer.' 
Moll., p". 251). 

B. POLYMORPHUS (p. 28). Reference should be made to pi. 4, 
not pi. 5. 

B. EXILIS EYRIESII Drouet (p. 39). First reference to plate 
should read : PL 12, figs. 53, 53 ; not 52, 53. 

B. TENUISSIMUS Orb. (p. 64). Omit " pi. 10, figs. 91, 92," and 
supply : pi. 14, figs. 9, 10. 

Genus DRYMJEUS Albers. 

D. NAVICUL.A (p. 186) var. LATERITIUS n. v. 

Light red-chestnut, becoming pink on the spire and white toward 
the apex, without bands, except that the base has a blackish stripe 



APPENDIX, BULIMULU8. 321 

curving from the rirnation to the outer basal angle. Prov. Bahia, 
Brazil. 

Species of uncertain sub generic position. 
B. HETEROGRAMMUS (Moricaod). PI. 26, figs. 81, 82. 

Shell small, perforate, ovate-oblong, fragile; tawny, irregularly 
marked with small dark and whitish lines. Aperture ovate, the 
lip acute, reflexed. Alt. 13, diam. 5 mill. (Moric.}. 

Forest of Caxoeira, Prov. Bahia, Brazil (Blanchet). 

Helix heterogramma MORIC., Mem. Soc. Phys. Hist. Nat. Geneve, 
vii, p. 437, pi. 2, f. 15-17 (1836). Bulimus heterogrammus DESK., 
in Lam. An. s. Vert., viii, p. 244. PFR., Monogr., ii, p. 106 ; vi,52. 
Bulimulus heterogrammus BECK, Index Moll., p. 64. 

This small species has six whorls, of which the last is as long as 
all the others together. In texture it is thin and fragile. The sur- 
face shows under the lens transverse (spiral) striae, formed of series 
of little, extremely short hairs, which make it dull instead of shin- 
ing. The color is fawn, interrupted by whitish lines alternating 
with others of a darker fawn. These lines are broken, not regularly 
distributed, wanting usually on part of a whorl, reappearing again 
leaving spaces of a uniform fawn without rays. The aperture is 
oval, lips pale and little reflexed. 

Moricand's description and the substance of his remarks are 
given above. No other author has added to them, or in fact seen 
the shell so far as I can learn. Its- systematic position is doubtful, 
the sculpture being as in Rliinus, but the system of coloring unlike 
any known species of that group, and the apical sculpture un- 
known. Possibly a Protoglyptus. 

B. ROCAYANUS.(Orbigny). PI. 44, figs. 4, 5. 

Shell lengthened, imperforate, pyramidal, thin, diaphanous, 
smooth or at most slightly wrinkled longitudinally ; whitish-gray, 
ornamented with irregular longitudinal lines of white with others 
of a reddish-brown color. Spire long, with slightly convex lateral 
outlines, the apex quite acute. Whorls 9, slightly convex, wide. 
Aperture oblong, irregular, somewhat auriculate, effuse in front, the 
margins acute and but little expanded ; columella sharp, spirally 
twisted. Alt. 24, diam. 8 mill. (Orb.); aperture 9 mill. long. 

Wood* along the Rio Grande, south of Santa Qruz de la Sierra, 
Bolivia. 
21 



322 APPENDIX, BULIMULUS. 

Helix rocayana ORB., Mag. .de Zool., 1835, p. 13. Bulimus 
roeayanus ORB., Voy. Amer. Merid., p. 277, pi. 33, f. 6, 7. PFR., 
Monogr., ii, p. 35 ; iii, p. 313. 

With the form of B. trichodes, rivasii, etc., this species differs in 
completely lacking an umbilicus, and in the sharp spiral columella. 
It especially resembles B. montivagus. It buries itself in the earth 
in the dry season, and when the rains come climbs large trees. It 
is rare, and on account of its extreme fragility, difficult to preserve. 
It is one-of the most beautiful species of the region, but is very re- 
stricted in distribution. 

B. VOITHIANUS (Pfeiffer). PI. 51, figs. 18, 19. 

Shell perforate, rather fusiform, oblong, somewhat solid ; roughly 
granulated by longitudinal wrinkles and concentric impressed lines ; 
dull white. Spire conic, the apex rather acute. Whorls 6 to 7, a 
trifle convex, the last a little shorter than the spire. Columella 
subvertical, blackish-chestnut. Aperture narrow, oblong, chestnut 
colored inside ; peristome simple, unexpanded, the terminations 
joined by a brown callus ; columellar margin dilated, reflexed, 
overhanging, not covering the deep perforation. Alt. 19, diam. 
7* ; alt. of aperture 9 mill. (Pfr.). 

Chili (Gay, Bridges). 

Bulimus voithianus PFR., P. Z. S., 1846, p. 114 (Jan. 26, 1847) ; 
Monogr., ii, 210; iii, 431; iv, 496; vi, 143; viii, 176. Of/m- 
licus (Mesembrinus} boithyamts H. & A. ADS., Gen. Rec. Moll., ii, 
p. 157. Bulimus meridionalis REEVE, Conch. Icon., pi. 21, f. 131 
(June, 1848). Bulimus feisthameli HUPE in Gay, Hist. Chile, viii, 
p. 114, Atlas, pi. 3, f. 7 (1854). 

"Of a cylindrically oblong form, its dead white surface curiously 
engraved with obtuse or obsolete scales, and the interior stained 
with a deep purple-red color. The columella has an angular prom- 
inence." The exact locality is unknown. As the apex has not 
been examined, the subgeueric reference of the species is doubt- 
ful. It may be a Bulimulus of the section Peronceus or Lissoacme. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATES. 323 



EXPLANATION OF PLATES. 

VOL. XL 
PLATE 1 (Scutalus). 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

1. 4, 5. Bulimulus proteus Brod. Specimens, . . .13 

2. Bulimulus proteus Brod. Conch. Icon., . . . .13 

3. Bulimulus mutabilis Brod. Conch. Icon., . . .14 
6-10. Bulimulus mutabilis Brod. Specimens, . . .14 

11. Bulimulus versicolor Brod. Fer., Hist., . . . .16 

12-14. Bulimulus versicolor Brod. Specimens, . . .16 

15. Bulimulus versicolor callaoensis. Specimen, . . .16 

PLATE 2 (Scutalus). 

16, 17. Bulimulus alauda Hupe. Casteln. Exped., . . 23 
18, 19. Bulimulus alauda Hupe. Specimens, . . .23 
20, 21. Bulimulus tharanoicus Orb. Specimens, . . .19 
22, 23. Bulimulus prolatus Old. U. S. Expl. Exped., . . 318 
24, 25. Bulimulus pluto Crosse. Journ. de Conch., . . 20 

26. Bulimulus angrandi Morel. Ser. Conch., . . .23 

PLATE 3 (Scutalus). 

27. 29, 30. Bulimulus tupacii Orb. Voy. Am. Me>., . . 19 

28. Bulimulus tupacii Orb. Conch. Icon., . . . .19 

31. Bulimulus tupacii Orb. Specimen, . . . .19 

32, 33. Bulimulus weddelli Hupe. Casteln. Exped., . . 21 

34. Bulimulus revinctus Hupe. Casteln. Exped., . . 17 

35. Bulimulus revinctus Hupe". Viaje al Pacif., . . .17 
36-40. Bulimulus revinctus Hupe. Se>. Conch., . . .17 

PLATE 4 (Sciitalus). 

41, 42. Bulimulus anthisanensis Pfr. C. Cab., ... 32 

43. Bulimulus caliginosus Rve. C. Icon., . . . .33 

44, 45. Bulimulus caliginosus Rve. C. Cab., . . . .33 
46, 47. Bulimulus polymorphus Orb. Voy. Am. Mer., . . 28 

48. Bulimulus polymorphus (=badius?). Voy. Am. Mer., . 28 

49. Bulimulus badiusSowb. C. Icon., 28 

50. 51. Bulimulus cotopaxiensis Pfr. C. Cab., . . .31 
52, 53. Bulimulus nemorensis Ph. Novit. Conch., . . 22 



324 EXPLANATION OF PLATES. . 

54. Bulimulus petiti Pfr. C. Icon., 21 

55, 56. Bulimulus promethus Crosse. J. de Conch., . . 28 

57. Bulimulus purpuratus Reeve. C. Icon., . . . .21 

PLATE 5 (Scutalus, Prolog lyptus}. 

58. Bulimulus oehraceus Morel. Ser. Conch., . . .31 
59,60. Bulimulus jussieui Hupe. (=subjussieui Pils.). Casteln. 

Exped., 26 

61. Bulimulus cousini Jouss. Bull. Soc. Z. Fr., . . .33 

62-64. Bulimulus glyptocephalus Pilsbry. Specimen, . 

65, 66. Bulimulus sarcochrous Pilsbry. Specimen, . . 93 

67, 68. Buliraulus catlowse Pfr. Specimens, . . . .34 

69, 70. Bulimulus catlowse Rve. Viaje al Pacif., . . 34 

71. Bulimulus irregularis Pfr. C. Icon., . . . .34 

72,73. Bulimulus aquilus Reeve. C. Icon., . . . .17 

74, 75. Bulimulus culmineus Orb. Voy. Am. Me*rid., . . 25 

76. Buliraulus culmineus Orb. Specimen, . . . .25 

77, 78. Bulimulus culmiueus Orb. Ser. Conch., . . .25 

PLATE 6 (Plectostylus). 

79, 83. Bulimulus broderipi Sowb. Specimen, ... 4 

80. Bulimulus broderipi Sowb. C. Icon., .... 4 

81. Bulimulus broderipi Sowb. Gay, Hist., .... 4 

82, 82. Bulimulus broderipi Sowb. Specimens, ... 4 
84, 85. Bulimulus buschii Pfr. Conch. Cab., ... 5 
86-88. Bulimulus variegatus Pfr. Specimens, ... 5 
89-92. Bulimulus coturnix Sowb. Specimens, ... 3 
93-95. Bulimulus reflexus Pfr. Specimens, . . . . 9 

PLATE 7 (Plectostylus, Scutalus). 

96-98. Bulimulus peruvianus Brug. Conch. Icon., . . 7 

99. Bulimulus peruvianus Brug. Specimen, ., 7 

1, 5. Bulimulus sequatorius Pfr. Specimens, . . .30 

2-4. Bulimulus sequatorius Pfr. Conch. Cab., . . .30 

5, 7. Bulimulus chilensis v. aldunatea Hupe. Hist. Chile, . 8 

8, 10. Bulimulus chilensis Less. Specimen, ... 8 

9. Bulimulus chilensis Less. Hist. Chile, .... 8 
11-13. Bulimulus edwardsi Morel. Se>. Conch., . . 27 

PLATE 8 (Plectostylus, Scutalus). 

14. Bulimulus coquimbensis Brod. C. Icon., . . .10 

15-17. Bulimulus coquimbensis Brod. Specimens, . .10 

18-22. Bulimulus coquimbensis v. perelegans Pils. Specimens, 11 
23, 24. Bulimulus weddelli Hupe. Ser. Conch., . .21 

25,26. Bulimulus punctulifer Sowb. C. Icon., . . .317 



EXPLANATION OF PLATES. 325 

27. Bulirnulus punctulifer Sowb. C. Illustr., . . . 317 

28, 29. Bulimulus ochseDii Phil. J. de Conch., . . .10 
30-32. Bulimulus culmineus Orb. Ser. Conch., . . .25 

33. Bulimulus subfasciatus Pfr. Conch. Cab., . 33 

PLATE 9 (Scutalus, Bulimulus s. s.). 

34. Bulimulus pentlandi Rve. Conch. Icon., . . .27 

35. 36. Bulimulus nucinus Rve. Conch. Icon., . . .24 

37. Bulimulus ferrugineus Rve. Conch. Icon., . . .29 

38, 39. Bulimulus riisei Pfr. Specimens, . . ; .41 
40, 41. Bulimulus lehmanni Pfr. Novit. Conch., . . .42 
42, 43. Bulimulus lehmanni Pfr. Specimens, . . .42 

44. Bulimulus diaphanus Pfr. Specimens, . . . .47 

45, 46. Bulimulus houelmontensis Crosse. Journ. de Conch., 45 
47, 48. Bulimulus martinicensis Pfr. Conch. Cab., . . 47 

49. Bulimulus martinicensis Pfr. Conch. Icon., . . .47 

50, 51. Bulimulus chrysalis Pfr. Couch. Cab., . . 43 

52. Bulimulus chrysaloides Pils. Specimen, . . .87 

53, 54. Bulimulus tenuissimus Fer. Histoire, . . .66 
55, 56. Bulimulus nicholsii Brown. Specimens, . . .40 
57, 58. Bulimulus mazei Crosse. Journ. de Conch., . . 48 
59, 60. Bulimulus limnoides Fer. Histoire, . . . .42 

61. Bulimulus exilis Gmel. Antigua specimen, . . .37 

62. Bulimulus exilis Gmel. Haiti specimen, . . . .37 

63. Bulimulus exilis Gmel. Barbados specimen, . . .37 

64. 67. Bulimulus exilis Gmel. Guadelupe specimens, . . 37 

65. Bulimulus exilis Gmel. Conch. Icon., . . . .37 

66. Bulirnulus exilis Gmel. Yieque specimen, . . .37 

PLATE 10 (Bulimulus s. s.). 

68. Bulimulus corneus Sowb. Conch. Icon., . . . .54 

69, 70. Bulimulus nubeculatus Pfr. Conch. Cab., . . .55 
71,72. Bulimulus nubeculatus minor. Moll. Mex., . . 56 

73. Bulimulus unicolor Sowb. Conch. Icon., . . .53 

74, 75. Bulimulus sarcodes Pfr. Conch. Cab., . . .56 

76. Bulimulus sarcodes Pfr. Conch. Icon., . . . .56 

77, 78. Bulimulus berendti Pfr. ( coriaceus). Mai. Bl., . 51 
79, 80. Bulimulus coriaceus Pfr. Moll. Mex., . . .51 

81. Bulimulus istapensis C. & F. Moll. Mex., . . .53 

82. Bulimulus petenensis Morel. Moll. Mex., . . .54 

83. Bulimulus dysoni Pfr. Conch. Icon 56 

84. 85. Bulimulus dysoni var. Moll. Mex., . . . .58 

86. Bulimulus iguavus Rve. Conch. Icon., . . . .57 

87. Bulimulus inermis Morel. Moll. Mex., . . . .51 

88. Bulimulus umbraticus Rve. Conch, fcon., . . .52 

89. Bulimulus cacticolus Rve. Specimen, . . . .60 

90. Bulimulus cacticolus Rve. Conch. Icon., . . . .60 



326 EXPLANATION OF PLATES. 

91, 92. Bulimulus " tenuissimus " P. & M. (not Orb.) Galerie. 

What species these figures represent is unknown. See p. 65 

93, 94. Bulimulus glandiniformis Sowb. P. Z. S., . . 61 

95. Bulimulus buenavistensis Pils. Type specimen, . . 59 

96, 97. Bulimulus fontainii Orb. J. de Conch., . .62 

98. Bulimulus ucayalensis Crosse. J. de Conch., . . .63 

99. Bulimulus erectus Rve. Conch. Icon., . . . .60 
1, 2. Bulimulus krebsianus Pils. Type, . . . .62 

3. Bulimulus molecillus Rve. Conch. Icon., . . * .63 

4, 5. Bulimulus orthodoxus Drouet. Moll. Guy. Fr., . . 64 

PLATE 11. 

6,7. Bulimulus egan us Pfr. Conch. Icon., . . . .64 

8. Bulimulus puellaris Rve. Conch. Icon., . . . .66 

9, 10. Bulimulus gorritlieiisis Pils. Specimens . . .66 
11. Bulimulus transpareiis Rve. Conch. Icon., . . .73 
12-15. Bulimulus sporadicus Orb. Voy. Am. Merid., . 67, 68 
16-18. Bulimulus sporadicus Orb. Conch. Illustr., . . 67 

19. Bulimulus montevidensis Rve. Conch. Icon., . . .68 

20, 21. Bulimulus Ihermineri Fisch. Journ. de Conch., . 44 
22, 23. Bulimulus mendozanus Strob. Malac. Argent., . . 71 
24, 25. Bulimulus fraterculus Fer. P. & M. Galerie, . .46 
26-28. Bulimulus fourmiersi Orb. Voy. Am. Mer., . . 71 
29, 30. Bulimulus montivagus Orb. Voy. Am. Me"r., . . 90 
31, 32. Bulimulus simplex Hupe. Casteln. Voy., . . 72 
33, 34. Bulimulus crepundia Orb. Voy. Am. Mer., . . 90 
35, 36. Bulimulus nivalis Orb. Voy. Am. Mer., . . .72 

37. Bulimulus inutilis Rve. Conch. Icon., . . . .73 

PLATE 12 (Bulimulus s. s., Protoglytus). 

38, 39. Bulimulus vesicalis v. urtiguayanus. Specimens, . 69 
40, 41. Bulimulus rivasii Orb. Voy. Amer. Mer., . . .91 

42, 42. Bulimulus vesicalis Pfr. Conch. Cab., ... 69 

43, Bulimulus sanctselucise v. lucise Pils. Specimen, . . 86 

44, 45. Bulimulus pachys Pils. Specimen, . . . .88 

46. Bulimulus rivasii var. Conch. Icon., . . . .92 

47. Bulimulus rushii Pils. Specimen, . . . . .70 

48. Bulimulus ovulum Reeve. Conch. Icon., . . . .88 

49. Bulimulus crepuudia Rve. (trichodes). Conch. Icon., . 92 
50-52. Bulimulus trichodes Orb. Voy. Am. Mer., . . 92 

53, 53. Bulimulus eyriesi Drouet. Moll. Guy. Fr., . . 39 

54, 55. Bulimulus eyriesi Drouet. Pto. Rico specimens, . 39 

56. Bulimulus eyriesi Drouet. Guadeloupe specimen, . . 39 

57. Buliraulus eyriesi Drouet. St. Thomas specimen, . . 39 

58. 59. Bulimulus eyriesi Drouet. St. Kitts specimens, . 39 

60. Bulimulus eyriesi Drouet. Nevis specimen, . . .39 

61. Bulimulus barbadensis Pfr. Specimen, . . . .48 



EXPLANATION OF PLATES. 327 

62. Bulimulus sepulchralis Poey. Specimen, . .49 

63. Bulimulus semicinctus Pils. Specimen, . . . .44 

PLATE 13 (Rhinus, Protoglyptus). 

1. Bulimulus heterotrichus Moric. Concb. Icon., . . .75 

2. Bulimulus heterotrichus v. subtenuis. Specimen, . . 76 

3. Bulimulus velutinohispidus Moric. Specimen, . . 76 

4. 7. Bulimulus scobinatus Wood. Specimens, . . .77 

5. Bulimulus durus Spix. Conch. Icon., . . . .87 

6. Bulimulus durus Spix. Specimen, 87 

8. Bulimulus pilosus Guppy. Specimen, . . . .85 

9. Bulimulus pilosus Guppy. Journ. d. Conch., . . 85 
10,12. Bulimulus constrictus Pfr. Specimens, . . .80 
11. Bulimulus constrictus Pfr. Conch. Icon., . . .80 
13,14. Bulimulus angosturensis(=constrictus). Arch.Naturg., 81 

15. Bulimulus pubescens Moric. Conch. Icon., . . .81 

16. Bulimulus pubescens Moric. Conch. Cab., . . .81 

17. 18. Bulimulus ciliatus Gld. Expl. Exped., ... 78 

19. Bulimulus pubescens Moric. Pilsbry, del., . . .81 

20. Bulimulus pilosus Guppy. Pilsbry, del., . . . .85 

21. Bulimulus scobinatus Wood. Pilsbry, del., . . .77 

22. 23. Bulimulus longiseta Moric. Mem. Genev., . . 77 

24. Bulimulus durus Spix. Pilsbry, del., . .87 

25. Bulimulus heterotrichus v. subtenuis. Pilsbry, del., . . 76 

PLATE 14 (Bulimulus s. s., Protoglyptus). 

1, 2. Bulimulus riisei Pfr. Malak. BL, . . . .41 
3-6. Bulimulus corumbaensis Pils. Type specimens, . . 68 

7. 8. Bulimulus amcenus Bonn, (^corumbaensis Pils.) Rev. 

et Mag., 69 

9, 10. Bulimulus tenuissimus Orb. Rio Janeiro specimen, . 64 

11, 12. Bulimulus (Hyperaulax) ridleyi Sm. Pilsbry, del., . 82 

13. Bulimulus (Hyperaulax) ridleyi Sra. J. Linn. Soc., . 82 

14, 15. Bulimulus (Protoglyptus) montivagus Orb. Pilsbry, 

del., . . " . . ^ . . . . . 90 
16, 17. Bulimulus (Protoglyptus) eudioptus Iher. Specimen, 89 

PLATE 15 (RJiinus). 

18. Bulimulus heterotrichus Moric. Surface, enlarged. . 75 

19. Bulimulus heterotrichus var. subtenuis. Surface, enlarged 76 

20. Bulimulus velutinohispidus Moric. Surface, enlarged, 76 

21. 22. Bulimulus scobinatus var. Surface, enlarged, . 78 

23. Bulimulus pubescens Moric. Surface, enlarged, . 81 

24. Bulimulus ciliatus Gld. Surface, enlarged, . . 78 

25. Bulimulus scobinatus Wood. Surface, enlarged, , 77 



328 EXPLANATION OF PLATES. 

PLATE 16 (Ncesiotus'). 

26, 27. Bulimulus achatellinus Forbes. P. Z. S., . . . 99 
28, 29. Bulimulus achatellinus Forbes. Conch. Cab:, . . 99 

30, 31. Bulimulus achatelliuus Forbes. Specimen, . . 99 

31, 32. Bulimulus nux Brod. Specimens, .... 100 

33. Bulimulus nux Brod. Conch. Icon., . . . .100 
34-38. Buliraulus nux Brod. Isis., 100 

39. Bulimulus nux v. verrucosus Pfr. Isis., .... 102 

40, 41. Bulimulus nux v. asperatus Alb. Novit. Conch., . . 102 
42, 43. Bulimulus nux v. incrassatus Pfr., Conch. Cab., . . 102 
44, 45. Bulimulus nux v. incrassatus. Specimen, . . . 102 
46,47. Bulimulus rugulosus Sowb. Conch. Illustr., . . 103 

48. Bulimulus planospira Ancey. P. A. N. S., . . . 104 

49. Bulimulus ustulatus Sovvb. Conch. Illustr., . ' . , . 104 

50. Bulimulus venustus Reib. (=uslulatus). Isis., . . 104 

51. Bulimulus ustulatus Sowb. Isis 104 

52. Bulimulus ustulatus Sowb. Conch. Icon., . . . 104 

PLATE 17 (Orthotomium). 

1. Bulimulus dealbatus Say. Waco, Texas, specimen, . .128 

2. Bulimulus dealbatus mooreanus. Sabinal, Tex., specimen, 130 
3-5. Bulimulus dealbatus mooreanus. Derby, Frio Co., spe- 
cimens, ......... 130 

6. Bulimulus dealbatus schiedeanus Pfr. W. Texas, specimen, 131 
7-13. Bulimulus dealbatus schiedeanus Pfr. Mexico. Biol- 

ogia, 131 

14,15. Bulimulus dealbatus schiedeanus Pfr. Coahuila speci- 
mens, ......... 131 

16. Bulimulus dealbatus patriarch a Binn. Terr. Moll., iv, . 132 

17, 18. Bulimulus alternatus marise. Derby, Frio Co., Texas, 

specimens, . . ... . . . .134 

19. Bulimulus alternatus Say. Waco, Texas, specimen, . 128 

20. Bulimulus alternatus maria3 Alb. Hidalgo, Tex., specimen, 134 
12. Bulimulus alternatus mariaj Alb. Corpus Christi, Tex., 

specimen, . . . . . . . .134 

22-25. Bulimulus alternatus marine Alb. Laredo, Tex., spe- 
cimens, . . . . . . . . .134 

26. Bulimulus alternatus marine Alb. Terr. Moll., Hi, . . 134 

PLATE 18 (Orthotomium). 

27. 29. Bulimulus dealbatus Say. Lee Co., Texas, specimens, 128 

28. Bulimulus dealbatus Say. Alabama specimen, . . 128 

30. Bulimulus dealbatus Say. Texas specimen, . . . 128 

31. Bulimulus dealbatus ragsdalei Pils. Specimen, . . 129 

32. 33. Bulimulus durangoanus Mart. Biologia, . . . 127 

34. Bulimulus pilula v. cooperi Pall. Specimen, . . .139 



EXPLANATION OF PLATES. 329 

36, 37. Bulimulus pilula v. cooperi Dall. Moll. Mex., . .139 

38. Bulimulus sufflatus Gld. Jour. Bost. Soc., . . .136 

39. Bulimulus sufflatus Old. Moll. Mex., . . . .136 

40. 41. Bulimulus juarezi (^sufflatus Gld.). Moll. Mex., . 136 
42, 44. Bulimulus sufflatus Gld. Specimens, .... 136 
45, 47. Bulimulus (Nsesiotus) unifasciatus Sowb. Specimens, . 116 

48. Bulimulus dealbatus Say, apex. Pilsbry, del., . . . 128 

PLATE 19 (Orthotomium). 

49. Bulimulus pallidior Sowb. Moll. Mex., .... 142 

50. Bulimulus pallidior v. striatulus. Specimen, . . . 143 

51. Bulimulus pallidior Sowb. Specimen, .... 142 

52. Bulimulus vegexpira Coop. (=v. striatulus). Cal. Acad., 143 

53. Bulimulus vegexpira Sowb 142 

54. Bulimulus vegetus (pallidior). Boston Jour., . .142 

55. Bulimulus pallidior Sowb. Specimen, .... 142 

56. 57. Bulimulus montezuma Dall. Specimens, . . . 144 
58, 59. Bulimulus gabbi C. & F. Moll. Mex., . . .147 
60-62. Bulimulus xantusi W. G. B. Specimens, . . .149 

63. Bulimus digitale Reeve. C. Icon. 

64. Bulimulus levis Dall. P. Cal. Acad., . . . .140 

65. 66. Bulimulus baileyi Dall. Specimens, .... 145 

67. Bulimulus baileyi Dall. P. U. S. N. M., . . . .145 

68. Bulimulus pallidior v. striatulus. Pilsbry, del., . . 143 

PLATE 20 (Orthotomiiim, Plicolumnd). 

69. 70. Bulimulus excelsus v. sinalose Pils. Specimens, . 141, 142 

71. Bulimulus excelsus Gld. Bost. Journ., .... 141 

72, 73. Bulimulus inscendens W. G. B. Moll. Mex., . . 150 

74. Bulimulus inscendens W. G. B. Specimen, . . . 150 

75. Bulimulus beldingi v. monticola. P. Cal. Acad., . . 150 

76. Bulimulus beldingi v. alta Dall. P. Cal. Acad., . . 149 

77. Bulimulus artemisia W. G. B. Specimen, . . . 152 

78. Bulimulus artemisia W. G. B. P. Cal. Acad., . . 152 

79. Bulimulus artemisia W. G. B. Pilsbry, del., . . . 152 

80. 81. Bulimulus abbreviate Coop. P. Cal. Acad., . . 153 
82-85. Bulimulus ramentosus Coop. Specimen, . . . 153 

PLATE 21 (Sonorma). 

87, 88. Bulimulus spirifer Gabb. Moll. Mex., . . .158 
89-91. Bulimulus spirifer Gabb. Specimens, . . . 158 

92, 93. Bulimulus veseyianus Dall. Proc. U. S. N. Mus., . 160 
94-99. Bulimulus lamellifer Pils. Specimens, . . .160 

1. Bulimulus bryanti Coop. ( rimatus Pfr.). P. U. S. N. 

Mus., . 157 

2, 3. Bulimulus bryanti Coop, (rimatus Pfr.). Specimen, 157 



330 EXPLANATION OF PLATES. 

4. Bulimulus riraatus Pfr. Conch. Icon., .... 157 
5-7. Bulimulus hypodon Pils. (=Euryptyxis labiosus). Spe- 
cimen, . . . . . . . . .156 

PLATE 22 (Nauriotus). 

1. Bulimulus rugulosus var. nudus Reib. Isis., . . .103 

2. Bulimulus calvus Sowb. Conch. Iliustr., .... 105 

3. Bulimulus calvus Sowb. Specimen, .... 105 

4. Bulimulus calvus Sowb. Isis., ...... 105 

5. Bulimulus calvus Sowb. Conch. Icon., . . . .105 

6. Bulimulus nucula Sowb. Specimen, .... 106 

7. Bulimulus galapaganus Pfr. Specimen, .... 107 

8. Bulimulus eschariferus Sowb. Specimen, . . . .108 

9. Bulimulus eschariferus Sowb. Conch. Icon., . . .108 
10-12. Bulimulus perspectivus Pfr. Specimens, . . .110 

13. Bulimulus jacobi Sowb. Specimen, . . . .111 

14, J5. Bulimulus ventrosus Reib. Isis., .... 109 

PLATE 23 (Ncesiotus). 

16. Bulimulus ustulatus Sowb. Specimen, . . . .104 

17. Bulimulus jacobi v. cinereus. P. A. N. S., . . .112 

18. Bulimulus olla Ball. P. A. N. S., 113 

19. Bulimulus jacobi Rve. (olla Dall). Conch. Icon., . 113 

20. Bulimulus jacobi v. pallidus Reib. Isis., .... 112 

21. Bulimulus jacobi v. acutus Reib. Isis., .... 112 

22. 23. Bulimulus wolfi Reib. Isis., 115 

24. Bulimulus duncanus Dall. P. A. N. S., . . . .114 

25. Bulimulus tanneri Dall. P. A. N. S., . . . .113 

26. Bulimulus darwini Pfr. Conch. Icon., . . . .115 

27. Bulimulus unifasciatus Sowb. Conch. Iliustr., . . .116 
28-30. Bulimulus simrothi Reib. P. A. N. S., . . .117 

31. Bulimulus bauri Dall. P. A. N.. S., . . . .118 

32. Bulimulus amastroides Anc. P. A. N. S., . . .118 

33. Bulimulus curtus Reibisch. P. A. N. S., . 

34. Bulimulus canaliferus Reib. Isis., 119 

35. Bulimulus canaliferus Reib. P. A. N. S., . 119 

PLATE 24 (Ncesiolus*). 

35, 36. Bulimulus perspectivus, apex with more enlarged view 

of its sculpture. Pilsbry, del., . . . .110 

37. Bulimulus rugiferus Sowb. Specimen, . . . .121 

38. Bulimulus nesioticus Dall. P. A. N. S, . . . .122 

39. Bulimulus terebra Reib. ( habeli). Isis., . . .124 

40. Bulimulus habeli Stearns. Proc. U. S. N. Mus., . .123 

41. Bulimulus sculpturatus Pfr. Conch. Icon., . . . 120 

42. Bulimulus reibischi Dall. P. A; N. S., . . . .122 



EXPLANATION OF PLATES. 331 

43. Bulimulus lima Reib. (^chemnitzioides). Isis., . . 125 

44. Bulimulus ehemnitzioides Forbes. Pilsbry, del., . . 124 
45,46. Bulimulus chemuitzioides Forbes. Conch. Cab.,. . 124 
47, 48. Bulimulus chemnitzioides Forbes. P. Z. S., . . 124 

49. Bulimulus undescribed species. P. A. N. S., . . . 123 

PLATE 25. 

50. Bulimulus alternatus Say. Moll. Mex., .... 134 

51. 52. Bulimulus alternatus Say. Terr. Moll., Ill, . .134 
53. Bulimulus alternatus Say. Terr. Moll., IV, ... 134 

Bulimulus artemisia W. G. B. P. U- S. N. Mus., . . 152 
Bulimulus dealbatus mooreanus W. G. B. Terr. Moll., IV, 130 

56. Bulimulus beldingi Cooper. Specimen, .... 149 

57. Bulimulus pilula W. G. B. L. & F.-w. Sh. N. A., . . 138 

58. Drymseus parvus Lea. Type specimen, . . See Vol. XII 

59. 60. Drymseus trigonostomus Jonas. Apex and greatly en- 

larged detail of sculpture, 256 

61. Bulimulus corseformis Pils. Type, Pilsbry, del., . . 15 

62. Drymseus navicula AVagn. Apex, Pilsbry, del., . 186 

63. Bulimulus suffiatus v. ehinchensis Coop. Proc. Cal. A cad., 137 
6-1-66. Bulimulus baroni Fulton. Ann. Mag. N. H., . . 172 

PLATE 26 (Bulimulus, Drym(xus*). 

67-69. Bulimulus punctulifer Sowb. C. Icon., . . .317 

70. Drymseus polygrammus Moricand. Pilsbry, del., . . 252 

71, 72. Drymseus flavidus Mke. Binnenmoll. Venez., . .310 

73. Drymaeus flayidus Mke. Fer., Hist., . . . 310 

74, 75. Drymseus debilis Beck. Fer., Hist., . . . .311 

76. Drymseus amandus Pfr. P. Z. S., . . . . 313 

77, 78. Drymaeus borellii Anc. Boll. M. Z. Torino, . 279 
79, 80. Bulimulus mendozanus var. azulensis Doer. Exped. 

Rio Negro, ... . . 319 

81,82. Bulimulus heterogrammus Moric. Mem.Genev., . 321 
83, 84. Drymaeus virginalis Pfr. Binnenmoll. Venez., . .309 

85. Bulimulus corseformis Pils., Apex, ..... 317 

86. Drymseus heynemanni, see vol. XII. 

87. Drymseus virginalis Pfr. Specimen, .... 309 

PLATE 27 (Zaplagius). 

16-19. Drymseus navicula Wagn. Specimens, . . . 186 
20-23. Drymaaus involutus Mart. C. Mittheil., . .187 
24-27. Drymseus uranops Pils. Specimen, .... 188 
28, 29. Drymseus lateralis Mke. Specimens, .... 188 
30. Drymseus lateralis Mke. Conch. Icon., . . . 188 

31-33. Drymseus lateralis var. Conch. Cab., . . . 189 



332 EXPLANATION OF PLATES. 

PLATE 28 (Zaplagius Drynmus). 

1, 2. Drymseus aurisleporis Brug. Specimens, . . . 189 

3, 4. Drymseus aurisleporis Brug. Conch. Icon., . . . 189 

5. Drymseus aurismuris Moric. Conch. Icon., . . .191 

6. Drymseus aurismuris Moric. Casteln. Exp., . . . 191 

7. Drymseus aurismuris Moric. Specimen, . . .191 
8-10. Dryimeus fallax Pfr. Specimen, 

11. Drymseus bivittatus Sowb. Conch. Icon., . . . 242 

12. Drymseus bivittatus Sowb. Conch. Illustr., . . . 242 

13. 14. Drymseus bivittatus v. flexilabris Pfr. Specimen, . 243 

15. Drymseus subsemiclausus Pet. Couch. Icon., . . . 238 

16. Drymseus schmidti Pfr. Conch. Icon., . . . 195 

17. 18. Drymseus coarctatus Pfr. Novit. Conch., . . 195 
19, 20. Drymseus coarctatus Pfr. Casteln. Exped., . 195 

PLATE 29. 

21. Neopetrseus catamarcanus Pfr. P. Z. S., . . . .170 

22. Neopetrseus rhodolarynx Rve. Conch. Icon., . . .171 

23. Neopetrseus platystomus Pfr. P. Z. S., . . . . 172 

24. 25. Neopetrseus lobbii Rve. Conch. Icon., 

26. Neopetrseus lobbii Rve. Young specimen, . . . 177 

27. Neopetrseus ptychostylus Pfr. P. Z. S., . . . .178 

28. Neopetrseus myristicus Rve. Conch. Icon., . . . 178 

29. 30. Drymseus narcissus Alb. Novit. Conch., . . . 227 
31. Neopetrseus sowerbyi Rve. Conch. Icon., . . . 174 
32-34. Neopetrseus vadum Pils. Specimen, . . . 165 
35-37. Neopetrseus columna Pils. Specimen, . . . 180 
38. Neopetrseus rhodolarynx Rve. Casteln. Exp., . . 171 

PLATE 30. 

1,2. Neopetrseus cora Orb. Voy. Am. Mer., . . .166 
3, 4. Neopetrseus cora var. unicolor Pfr. Novit. Conch., .167 
5-8. Neopetrseus filiola Pils. Specimen, .... 165 

9. Bulimulus thamnoicus Orb. Specimen, . . . .19 

10-13. Bulimulus corseformis Pils. Specimen, . . .15 

PLATE 31. 

14-16. Neopetrseus atahualpa Dohrn. Novit. Conch., . .168 

17, 20. Neopetrseus atahualpa Dohrn. Specimen, . . . 168 

18, 19. Neopetrseus perincrassatus Pils. Specimen, . . 169 
21-23. Neopetrseus tessellatus Shutt. Novit. Conch., . . 167 
24-27. Neopetrseus millegranus Mart. Conch. Mittheil., . 170 
28, 29. Neopetrseus papillatus Morel. Ser. Conch., . . 169 



EXPLANATION OF PLATES. 333 

PLATE 32. 

30, 31. Neopetrseus altoperuvianus Rve. Conch. Icon., . 173 

32, 33. Neopetrseus arboriferus Pils. Specimens, . . .175 
34, 35. Neopetrseus arboriferus v. latistrigatus Pils. Spec- 
imens, ......... 176 

36, 37. Neopetrseus arboriferus v. rectistrigatus Pils. Spec- 
imens, ......... 176 

38. Neopetrseus patasensis Pfr. P. Z. S., . . .176 

39. Neopetrseus decussatus Rve. Conch. Icon., . . .178 

40. 41. Neopetrseus decussatus v. brownii Pils. Specimens, . 179 

42. Neopetrseus binneyanus Pfr. Specimens, . . . .164 

43. Neopetrseus binneyanus Pils. P. Z. S., . . .164 

44. Drymaaus bartletti H. Ad. P. Z. S., .... 224 

45. Dryma?us scitus H. Ad. P. Z. S., . . 224 

PLATE 33. 

34, 35. Bulimulus gabbi C. & F. Pilsbry, del., . . .147 

36. Bulimulus xantusi W. G. B. Pilsbry, del., . . .148 

37, 38. Neopetrseus altoperuvianus v. gracilior. Specimen, . 173 

39. Neopetrseus decussatus v. browni Pils. Specimen, . . 179 

40, 41. Oxychona bifasciata Burr. Pilsbry, del., . . . 181 

42. Oxychona pileiformis Moric. Pilsbry, del., . .. . 181 

43, 44. Drymaeus fallax Pfr. Conch. Cab., . . . .239 

45. Drymseus bourcieri Pfr. Specimen. .... 241 

46. Drymseus bourcieri Pfr. Conch. Cab., : . . . 241 

47. Drymseus rabuti Jouss. Le Nat., 239 

48. Neopetrseus tessellatus v. perincrassatus Pils. Type spec- 

imen, 169 

49. Neopetrseus binneyanus Pfr. Apex. Pilsbry, del., . . 164 



PLATE 34. 

1,2. Drymseus expansus Pfr. Conch. Illustr., . , . 222 
3, 4. Drymseus aurisratti (expansus Pfr.). Novit. Conch., 

[222, 223 

5. Drymseus iodostylus (expansus Pfr.). Rev. & Mag., . 222 

6. Drymseus expansus var. vanattai Pils. Specimen, . . 223 

7. 8. Drymseus peelii Rve. Novit. Conch., . . 205 
9. Drymseus pulcherrimus H. Ad. P. Z. S., . . . . 260 

10. Drymseus feriatus Reeve. Conch. Icon., .... 203 

11. Drymseus muliebris Reeve. Conch Icon., . . . 216 

12. 13. Drymseus interpictus Mart. Novit. Conch., . .198 

14. Porphyrobaphe ? crichtoni Brod. Conch. Icon., . . 226 

15, 16. Drymseus membielinus Hid. Viaje al Pacif., . . 209 



334 EXPLANATION OF PLATES. 

PLATE 35. 

17. Drymseus bogotensis Pfr. Conch. Icon., .... 212 

18. 19. Drymseus bogotensis Pfr. Specimen 212 

20. Drymseus felix Pfr. P. Z. S., . .211 

21, 22. Drymseus baranguillanus Pfr. Conch. Cab., . . 208 
23-25. Drymseus flexuous Pfr. Specimens, .... 209 
26-29, 32. Drymseus violaceus Mouss. Specimens, . . 207 
30, 31. Drymseus violaceus Mouss. Novit. Conch., . . 207 

33. Drymseus inclinatus Pfr. P. Z. S., . . 221 

PLATE 36. 

34. Drymseus yungasensis Orb. Voy. Amer. Me"rid., . . 203 

35. Drymseus yungasensis Orb. Conch. Icon., . . . 203 

36. Drymseus ochrocheilus Smith. P. Z. S., . . . . 204 

37. Drymseus albolabiatus Smith. P. Z. S., . . . . 201 

38. Drymasus orthostoma Smith. P. Z. S., . . . 200 

39. 40. Drymseus lophoicus Orb. Voy. Am. Mer., . 202 
41,42. Drymseus linostoma Orb. Voy. Am. Mer., . .218 
43, 44. Drymseus sequatorius Smith, var. Specimen, . . 221 

40. Drymseus sequatorius Smith, var. P. Z. S., . . 220 
46,47. Drymseus serratus Pfr. Novit. Conch., . . . 218 
48, 49. Drymseus baezensis Hid. Viaje al Pacif., . . .219 
50, 51. Drymseus baezensis Hid. Journ. de Conch., . . 219 
52, 53. Drymseus xanthostoma Orb. Voy. Am. Mer., . .196 

PLATE 37. 

1, 2. Drymseus bolivarii Orb. Voy. Am. Mer., . .193 

3, 4. Drymseus abyssorum Orb. Voy. Am. Mer., . . . 192 

5, 6. Drymseus marmarinus Orb. Voy. Am. Mer., . . 194 

7, 8. Drymseus brachystoma Orb. Voy. Am. Mer., . . 193 
9, 10. Drymseus hygrohylseus Orb. Voy. Am. Mer., . .194 

11. Drymseus hygrohylseus Orb. Conch. Icon., . . .194 

PLATE 38. 

1, 2, 3. Drymseus peelii var. fordii Pilsbry. Specimens, . 205 

4,5. Drymseus beyerleanus Hupe. Castelnan's Voy., . . 197 

6, 7. Drymseus zoographicus Orb. Voy. Am. Mer., . . 197 

8. Drymseus zoographicus Orb. Conch. Icon., . . . 197 
9,10. Drymseus petasites Mill. Specimen, .... 199 

11, 12, 13. Drymseus insequalis Pfr. Novit. Conch., 

14, 15. Dryrnseus insequalis Pfr. Viaje al Pacif, . .199 

16. Drymseus fusoides Orb. Voy. Am. Mer., . . . 201 

17, 18. Drymreus fusoides Orb. Conch. Cab., 

19. Drymseus fusoides Orb. Conch. Icon., . . . .201 



EXPLANATION OF PLATES. 335 

PLATE 39. 

31, 32. Drymseus trigonostoma v. correctus Pfr. Binnenmoll. 

Venez., 258 

33, 35-40. Drymseus trigonostomus v. correctus Pfr. Spec- 

imens, ........ 258 

34. Drymseus trigonostomus Jonas. Phil. Abbild., . . 256 
41-43. Drymseus curianianus Rve. trigonostomus. Conch. 

Icon., 256, 257 

44, 45. Drymseus trigouostomus Jonas. Specimens, , . 256 
46, 47. Drymseus glaucostoma Alb. Specimens, . . . 256 
48,49. Drymseus eversus Mss.=violaceus. Novit. Conch., 207, 208 

PLATE 40. 

1. Drymseus chimborasensis Rve. Conch. Icon., . . . 261 

2, 3. Drymseus decoratus Lea. Type specimen, . . .261 

4. Drymseus decoratus v. goniobasis Pils. Specimen, . . 262 

5. Drymseus fabrefactus Rve. Conch. Icon., . . . . 260 

6. 7. Drymseus chanchamayensis Hid. Novit. Conch., . . 259 

8. Drymseus canaliculatus Pfr. Conch. Icon., . . . 263 

9. Drymseus cantatus Rve. Conch. Icon., .... 205 
10,11. Drymseus murrinus Rve. Conch. Icon., . . . 214 
12,13. Drymseus elegantissimus Mouss. Novit. Conch., . 211 

14. Drymseus spectatus Rve. Conch. Icon.. .... 213 

15. Drymseus spectatus ( leai). Conch. Icon., . . . 213 

16. 17. Dryruseus gracilis Lea=leai Pils. Type specimen, .213 

18. Drymseus fresnoensis Pils. Type specimen, . . . 304 

PLATE 41. 

19, 20. Drymseus napo Angas. P. Z. S., . . . . 244 

21. Drymaeus (?) fid&ensis Mor. Rev. et Mag. Zool., . . 232 

22, 23. Drymseus quadrifasciatus Angas. P. Z. S., . . . 243 
24, 25. Drymseus eurystomus Phil. Novit. Conch., . . 221 

26. Drymseus pealianus Lea. Obs. Gen. Unio, . . .217 

27, 28. Drymaeus pealianus Pfr. Conch. Cab., . . .218 
29, 30. Drymseus subinterruptus Pfr., var. Conch. Cab., . 245 

31. Drymseus arcuatostriatus Pfr. Conch. Icon., . . . 230 

32, 33. Dryrmeus hamadryas Phil. Novit. Conch., . . 226 
34, 35. Drymseus interrupt us Pfr. Conch. Cab., . . . 244 

36. Drymseus electrum Rve. Conch. Icon., . . . .310 

37, 38. Drymseus henseli Mart. Novit. Conch., . . . 254 

PLATE 42. 

39, 40. Drymjeus strigatus Sowb. Conch. Illustr., . . .228 

41. Drymseus strigatus v. purus Pils. Conch. Illustr., . . 229 

42, 43. Drymseus rausivus Pfr. (strigatus). Specimens, . 229 



336 EXPLANATION OF PLATES. 

44, 45. Drymseus musivus Pfr. (strigatus). Novit. Conch., . 229 
46-49. Drymseus strigatus v. saccatus Pfr. Novit. Conch., . 229 

50. Dryrmeus strigatus v. delphinse Mor. Rev. & Mag. Zool., 229 

51. Drymseus mariei Mor. ( marieanus Pils.). Rev. & Mag. 

Zool., ... 230 

52. Dryma3us cecilise Mor. Rev. & Mag. Zool., . . . 230 
53-55. Drymseus raelanoscolops Dohrn. Jahrb. d. m. Ges., . 231 
56-59. Drymseus nigrogularis Dohrn. Jahrb. d. m. Ges., . 225 

60. Drymseus similaris Mor. Journ. de Conch., . . . 233 

61. Drymseus protractus Pfr. Specimen, .... 224 

62. Drymaeus protractus Pfr. P. Z. S., 224 

63. Drymseus fucatus Reeve. Conch. Icon., .... 234 

64. 65. Drymseus fucatus Reeve. Conch. Cab., . . . 234 

PLATE 43. 

66. Drymseus bolivianus Pfr. Conch, [con., . . . 244 

67. 68. Drymseus trivittatus Mouss. Novit. Conch., . . 245 

69. Drymseus studeri Pfr. Conch. Icon., .... 246 

70. Drymseus primula Rve. Conch. Icon., .... 247 

71. Drymseus tribalteatus Rve. Conch. Icon., . . . 246 

72. Drymseus laetus Rve. Conch. Icon., .... 245 
73,74,75. Drymseus blandi Pils. Type specimens, . . 248 

76. Drymseus blandi var. Antioquia specimens, . . 248, 249 

77, 78. Drymseus dacostee Sowb. P. Z. S., . . . .214 
79. 80. Drymseus blandi var. Bogota specimens, . . 248, 249 

81. Drymseus demotus Rve. Conch. Icon., .... 306 

82, 83, 84. Drymseus geometricus Pfr. Specimens, . . . 234 
85, 86. Drymseus geometricus Pfr. Conch. Icon., . . . 234 

PLATE 44. 

87, 88. Drymseus orobieuus Orb. Voy. Am. Mer., . . . 236 

89. Drymseus cuzcoensis Rve. Conch. Icon., . . . 236 

90, 91. Drymseus merabranaceus Phil. Abbild., . . . 237 
92, 93. Drymseus cygneus Phil. Novit. Conch., . . .237 

94. Drymseus prsetextus Rve. Conch. Icon., .... 238 

95, 96. Drymseus oreades Orb. Voy. Am. Mer., . . . 277 
97-99, 1. Drymseus torallyi Orb. Voy. Am. Mer., . . 278 

2, 3. Drymseus draparnaudi (torallyi). Conch. Icon., . 278 

4, 5. " Bulimus " rocayanus Orb. Voy. Am. Mer., . . 321 

6. Drymseus montagnei (=pazianua var.). nch. Icon., . 278 

7, 8. Dryma3tis pazianus Orb. Voy. Am. i, . . . 277 
9, 10. Drymseus rectilinearis Pfr. Novit. Conch., . . 232 

11. Drymseus rectilinearis Pfr., young. P. Z. S., . . . 232 

12, 13. Drymseus castrensis Rve. (montagnei Orb.). Conch. 

Icon., ..... ... 280 

14. Drymseus raontaguei Orb. Voy. Amer. Mer., . . . 280 

15, 16. Dryraseus subsimilaris Pils. Specimen, . . . 222 



EXPLANATION OF PLATES. 337 

PLATE 45. 

17. Drymseus depictus Rve. Conch. Icon., .... 299 

18, 19. Drymseus depictus Rve. Specimens, .... 299 
20, 21, 22. Drymseus depictus Rve. Binnenmoll. Venez., . 299 
23, 24. Drymseus depictus v. icterinus Mts. Binnenmoll. 

Venez., .... .... 299 

25. Drymseus effeminatus Rve. Conch. Icon., . . . 304 

26. Drymseus meridanus Pfr. Conch. Icon., .... 303 

27. Drymseus deshayesii Pfr. Conch. Icon., .... 303 

28. Drymseus monilifer Rve. (=indistinctus Pfr.). Conch. 

Icon., Vol. XII. 

29. Drymseus manupictus Rve. Conch, [con., . . 304 

30. Drymseus decoloratus Sowb. Conch. Icon., . . 266 

31. Drymseus lividus Rve. Conch. Icon., . . . 301 

32. Drymseus confusus Reeve. Conch. Icon., . . 282 

33. Drymseus columbianus Lea. Obs. Gen. TJnio., . . 312 

34. 35. Drymseus roseatus Rve. Conch. Icon., . . 301 
36, 37. Drymseus granadensis Pfr. Abbild., . . 300 
38, 39. Drymseus lacteus Lea. Specimens, . . . 302 

40. Drymseus virgo Lea. Specimens, ... . 305 

41. Drymseus virgo Lea. Type specimen, . . .305 

PLATE 46. 

42. 43. Drymaaus kochi Pfr. Abbildungen, .' . . 314 

44. Drymseus goudoti Petit. Conch. Icon., . . . 314 

45, 46. Drymseus troscheli Phil. Novit. Conch., . . 314 
47, 48, 50, 51, 56. Drymseus nigrolineatus Pfr. Conch. Icon. 315 
49. Drymseus goudoti Petit. Mag. de Zool., . . . 314 
52, 53. Drymseus meleagris Pfr. Conch. Cab., . . 315 
54, 55. Drymseus colraeiroi Hid. Journ. de Conch., . 316 
57, 58. Drymseus ignobilis Phil. Novit. Conch., . . 317 
59, 60. Drymseus tapadoides Phil. Novit. Conch., . . 317 
61, 62. Drymseus guttula Pfr. Conch. Cab., . 314 

63, 65. Drymseus nystianus Pfr, Specimens, . . . 262 

64. Drymseus nystianus Pfr. Conch. Cab., . . . 262 

66. Drymseus ambustus Rve. Conch. Cab., . . . 264 

67. Drymseus ambustus Rve. Conch. Icon., . . . 264 

68. 69. Drymseus chameleon Pfr. Conch. Cab., . . 264 

PLATE 47. 

1-4. Drymseus * jelas Mart. Novit. Conch., . . 267 

5, 7. Drymseus farridi Pfr. varr. Specimens, . . . 268 

6. Drym;eus farrisii Pfr. P. Z. S., 268 

8-10. Drymseus vespertinus Pfr. Novit. Conch., . . . 269 

11. Drymseus vespertinus Pfr. P. Z. S., . 269 

.12, 13. Drymseus rubrovariegatus Higg. Specimen, , .270 
23 



338 EXPLANATION OF PLATES. 

14, 15. Drymseus rubrovariegatus Higg. P. Z. S., . . . 270 

16. Drymseus scitulus Reeve. Conch. Icon., , . f 271 

17, 18.*Drymseus scitulus Reeve. Specimens, . . . 271 

19. Drymseus sachsei Alb. Specimens, . . . . 273 

20, 21. Drymseus sachsei Alb. Conch. Mittheil., . . . 273 
22, 23. Dryrmeus edmulleri Alb. Novit. Conch., . . .272 

PLATE 48. 

24, 25. Drymseus trujillensis Phil. Novit. Conch., . . . 272 

26, 27. Drymseus lamas Higgins. P. Z. S., . . . . 272 

28, 29. Drymseus miltochrous Alb. Novit. Conch., . . 290 

30. Drymseus tigris Brod. Conch. Icon., 275 

31. Drymseus cactivorus Brod. Conch. Icon., . . . 265 

32. Drymseus nitidus Brod. (=cactivorus Brod.). Conch. 

Icon., . . . . .265 

33. Drymseus vexillum Wood. Conch. Icon., . . . 274 

34. Drymseus vexillum var. varians Brod. Conch Icon., . . 274 

35. Drymse vexillum var. rubellus Brod. Conch. Icon., . 275 
36-38. Drymseus canarius Phil. Novit. Conch., . . .282 
39, 40. Drymaeus loxanus Higgins. P. Z. S., ... 270 
41, 42. Drymaaus miliaris Phil. Novit. Conch., . . . 281 
43, 44. Drymseus subeffusus Phil. Novit. Conch., . . 217 
45, 46. Drymreus morbidus Phil. Novit. Conch., . . . 283 
47, 48. Drymfeus chenui Phil. Novit. Conch., . . . 283 

PLATE 49. 

49-52. Drymseus poecilus Orb. Matto Grosso specimens, . 285 

53, 57. Drymseus poecilus Orb. Conch. Mittheil., . . 285 

54-56. Drymseus poecilus Orb. Voy. Am. Mer., . . . 285 

58. Drymseus humboldti Rve. mexianus Lam. Conch. Icon., 291 

59, 60. Drymseus mexicanus v. primularisRve. Conch. Icon., 292 
61-64. Drymseus subroseus Phil. Novit. Conch., . . . 284 

65. Drymseus bicolor Sowb. Conch. Icon., .... 295 

66, 67. Drymseus anceps Alb. Novit. Conch., . . 290 
68, 69. Drymseus stigmaticus Phil. Novit. Conch., . .281 

70. Drymseus serotinus Morel. Ser. Conch., . . . 293 

71, 72. Drymseus alsophilus Phil. Novit. Conch., . . . 285 
73, 74. Drymseus serenus Pnil. Novit. Conch., . . . 285 
75, 76. Drymseus hepaticus Alb. Novit. Couch., . , 291 

PLATE 50. 

77. Drymseus acervatus v. paucipunctus Pils. Specimen, . 255 

78. Drymseus annulatus Rve. Conch. Icon., . . . 296 

79. Drymseus cerussatus Rve. Conch. Icon., . . . 296 

80. Drymseus membranaceus Rve. (=venezuelensis Mts.). 

Conch. Icon., . , ., . , , 312 



EXPLANATION OF PLATES. 339 

81, 82. Drymseus occidentalis Mill. (=cactivorus Brod.). Mai. 

"Blatter, . ... 266 

83. Drymieus plicatoliratus Da Costa. Proc. Malac. Soc., . 260 

84. Drymieus hidalgoi Da Costa. Proc. Malac. Soc., . .210 

85. Drymieus caucaensis Da Costa. Proc. Malac. Soc., . . 247 

86. Drymseus raalleatus Da Costa. Proc. Malac. Soc., . . 249 

87. Drymseus lucidus Da Costa (=dacostianus). Proc. Malac. 

Soc., 219 

88. Drymieus tisrrinus Da Costa. Proc. Malac. Soc., . . 231 

89. Dryraieus abscissas Pfr. Malak. Blatter, . . .240 

90. 91. Drymieus merabielinus Crosse. Journ, de Conchyl., 209 
92. Drymaeus ziczac Da Costa. Proc. Malac. Soc., . . 212 
93,94. Drymieus longinquus Morel. Ser. Conchy]., . . 293 

95. Drym^eus fidustus Rve. Conch. Icon., .... 308 

96, 97. Dryraseus nigrofasciatus Pfr., var. Beitr. Mex. Conch., 307 

98. Drymieus nigrofasciatus Pfr. Abhildungen, . . . 307 

99. Drymieus nigrofasciatus Pfr. Conch. Icon., . . . 307 

100. Drymieus nigrofasciatus var. elongatulus. Specimen, . 307 

1. Drymieus smithii Da Costa. Proc. Malac. Soc., . . 247 

2, 3. Drymseus buckleyi Sowb. Proc. Malac. Soc., . . 276 

PLATE 51. 

1, 3. Drymieus papyraceus MB we. Specimens, . . . 250 

2. Drymaeus lituratus Spix (=papyraceus). Test. Bras., . 251 
4, 5. Drymieus v. papyrifactus Pils. Specimens, . . . 252 

6. Drymieus litus Rve. (=papyraceus). Conch. Icon., . . 251 

7. Drymieus magus Wagner. Test. Bras., .... 253 

8. Drymseus magus Wagner. Specimen, . . . 253, 254 

9. 10. Drymieus visendus Hid. Viaje al Pacif., . . . 267 
11,12. Drymieus acervatus Pfr. Specimen, .... 255 
13. Drymieus acervatus var. balteatus Pils. Specimen, . . 255 
14,15. Drymseus acervatus var. paucipunctus Pils. Specimen, 255 
16,17. Drymseus tseniatus Phil. (=libertadensis Fils.). Novit. 

Conch., . 291 

18. Bulirnulus voithianus Pfr. Gay, Hist. Chile., . . 322 

19. Bulimulus meridionale Rve. (=voithianus Pfr.). Conch. 

Icon., 322 

20. Drymieus loxensis Pfr. Conch. Icon., .... 265 

21. Drymieus coniformis Pfr. Conch. Icon., .... 276 

22. 23. Drymseus rnonachus Pfr. Novit. Conch., . . 282 

DATES OF ISSUE OF VOL. XI. 

Part 41, pp. 1-64, pi. 1-13, May 11, 1897. 

Part 42, pp. 65-144, pi. 14-25, October 15, 1897. 

Part 43, pp. 145-208, pi. 27-41, May 3, 1898. 

Part 44, pp. 209-339, pi. 26, 42-51, December 7, 1898. 




BULIMULID^E. 



PLATE 1. 




BULIMULID^E. 



PLATE 2. 




,<#& LIL 
^ or THE ' r 

UNIVERSITY 



BULIMULID>. 



PLATE 3 




BULIMULID^E. 



PLATE 4. 







43 



45 



41 42 




m 





46 47 



48 49 







52 53 





55 





56 



57 



BULIMULID^E. 



PLATE 5. 




77 



78 




91 



92 



93 



95 



PLATE 7. 




12 



13 



OF THB 

UNIVERSITY 





31 



33 



27 



PLATE 9. 





38 5 







37 



36 



35 







42 



4 44" 4 4 

45^* fr ^: : L is^ 

44 

A 46 









50 




52 



49 53 54 






56 







59 60 




if 




61 62 63 64 65 66 67 



BULIMULIDyE . 



PLATE 1O 




^fe 71 72 



69 



70 



08 









75 76 



73 




I44|4 

77 78 79 80 81 82 

M44 




83 84 85 86 87 



88 







91 92 





93 



89 



90 






95 96 97 98 





99 1 2 



BULIMULIDvE 

4 i 

6 7 



PLATE It. 




444 



9 10 



11 





12 13 14* 





4 * 



20 21 




16 19 





17 18 



25 





22 23 



u 



26 



27 28 29 30 



41 





31 32 33 34 35 36 37 



OF THE ^K 

UNIVEKSITY 
OF 



PLATE 12. 




A 





38 



39 







40 41 42 42 




58 59 



BULIMULID^E. 



PLATE 13. 




BULIMULID^E. 



PLATE 14, 









12 



15 



BULIMULID^E. 



PLATE 18. 



J 



/ f 
18 



20 



% %. 



22 






/ 



a ^ 



19 



21 



23 




^ ' 4 



25 



PLATE 16. 




52 



iPn,^ 

XWIVEBSITY 



BULIMULID^E. 



PLATE 17. 




22 



23 



26 



JpPTuiStJ^i 

V^ OF THE 

UNIVERSITY 
OF 



BULIMULID^E. 



PLATE 18. 






48 



47 



PLATE 19. 




/65 

66 



MlllHlllMI' ' 

UllilUMHUUi 

tfMtffittfitt" 



mwm 



68 



61 



62 



BULIMULID^E. 



PLATE 2O. 




BULIMULID^E. 



PLATE 21. 




BULIMULID^E. 



PLATE 22. 




* 






10 



8 





15 



11 



12 



**- -TB*^*y 
UNIVERSITY 




PLATE 28. 




I I 






16 



17 



19 



18 



20 



21 






23 




25 



26 







27 



28 



29 



30 







31 



32 



33 35 



BULIMULIDyE. 



PLATE 24, 




PLATE 25. 




BULIMULID^E. 



PLATE 26 




85 



87 



PLATE 27. 




33 



BULIMULID.'E. 



PLATE 28. 





16 



17 18 



19 



20 



BULIMULID>E. 



PLATE 29. 




33 



BULIMULID^E. 



PLATE SO. 




BULIMULID/E. 



PLATE 31. 




BULIMULID^E. 



PLATE 32. 




42 43 



44- 45 



*~ OF THE "^y 

UNIVERSITY 
Of ' 




BULIMULIDvE. 



PLATE 







BULIMULID^E. 



PLATE 34. 




16 



BULIMULID^E. 



PLATE 38. 




BULIMULID^G. 

A 



PLATE 36. 




50 



51 



BULIMULID^E. 



PLATE 37. 




7 x*^ 






8 



BULIMULID^E. 



PLATE 38. 




19 



15 



BULIMULID^E. 



PLATE 39. 





BULIMULID^E. 



PLATE 4O. 




BULIMULIDyE. 



PLATE 41, 



ie 







A 




-36 




BULIMULID^E. 



PLATE 42. 




39 







40 41 




42 





swrl 

45 46 47 48 4<9 






51 








43 








19 60 







61 62 



G-i- 65 



*~ OP THE ' 1/1 > 

UNIVERSITY 
OF 




BULIMULID>E. 



PLATE 43. 




84 



85 



86 



BULIMULIDyE 



PLATE 44. 




9 10 11 12 13 



16 



BULIMULJD/e. 



PLATE 45. 




4-0 41 



BULIMULID^E. 



PLATE 46. 



*^SP co 




65 66 67 68 



PLATE 47 




17 18 20 21 



BULIMULID^E. 



PLATE 




48 



BULIMULID^E. 



PLATE -59. 




74- 



75 76 



BULIMULID^E. 



PLATE 50 




OF THB 

UNIVERSITY 




BULIMULIDyE. 



PLATE 51. 








' 1 7 3 





U.C.BERKELEY LIBRARIES