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Full text of "Manual of conchology; structural and systematic. With illustrations of the species. Second series: Pulmonata"

LIBRARY 

UNIVERSITY OF 
SyCAUFORNIA J 

EARTH 

SCIENCES 

LIBRARY 







SECOND SERIES: PULMONATA. 



MANUAL 



OF 



CONCHOLOGY 



STRUCTURAL AND SYSTEMATIC 



WITH ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE SPECIES 



FOUNDED BY 

GEORGE W. TRYON, JR. 

CONTINUED BY 

HENRY A. PILSBRY, Sc.D., 

SPECIAL CURATOR DEPARTMENT OF MOLLUSCA, ACADEMY OF .NATURAL 
SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 



Part 



PHILADELPHIA : 

PUBLISHED BY THE CONCHOLOGICAL DEPARTMENT 

ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES 

OF PHILADELPHIA. 




SECOND SERIES: PULMONATA. 



MANUAL 



OF 



CONCHOLOGY 



STRUCTURE AND SYSTEMATIC. 



WITH ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE SPECIES. 



FOUNDED BY 

GEORGE W. TRYON, JR. 

CONTINUED BY 

HENRY A. PILSBRY, Sc.D., 

SPECIAL CURATOR OF THE DEPARTMENT OF MOLLUSCA OF THE ACADEMY OP 
NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 



VOL. XX. 

0/ECILIOIDES, GLESSULA AND PARTULID^. 

INDEX TO VOLS. XVI-XX. 



PHILADELPHIA: 
Published by the Conehologieal Department, 

ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES OP PHILADELPHIA. 

1909-1910. 



X* . 




EARTH 
SCIENCE! 




The description of Orthurethrous snails is continued in this- 
volume, the remaining groups of Ferussacidce and the Partu- 
lidcs being described. In treating of the latter family, the 
author has had the advantage of studying the types and other 
specimens of the late Dr. W. D. Hartman, now forming part 
of the collection of the Carnegie Museum at Pittsburgh. The 
conclusions reached in the monograph now published have 
thus been based upon the material of two large collections. 
The liberality and courtesy of the Trustees of the Museum 
and of the Director, Dr. William J. Holland, are here grate- 
fully acknowledged. 

H. A. P. 
(iii) 



196906 



DATES OP ISSUE OP THE PARTS OF VOL. XX. 

Part 77, pp. 1-64, plates 1-10, November 19, 1908. 
Part 78, pp. 65-154, plates 11-21, May 18, 1909. 
Part 79, pp. 155-314, plates 22-36, September 29, 1909. 
Part 80, pp. 315-336, plates 37-43, February, 1910. 
Title-page, Contents and Introduction, February, 1910. 

(iv) 



CONTENTS. 

PAGB 

Introduction : The Orthurethra . - vii 

Family FERUSSACID^E Bourguignat (continued) 1 

Genus CJECILIOIDES Herrmannsen lj 

GLESSULA von Martens 50, 320 

Appendices to Oleacinida, Achatinida, Ferussacida, 
Bulimulidce : 

Genus SPIBAXIS Ad Ill, 

VARICELLA Ill 

STREPTOSTYLA Ill 

EUGLANDINA Crosse & Fischer Ill 

POIRETIA 112 

ACHATINA Lamarck 113 

ARCHACHATINA Albers 113 

LEPTINARIA 114 

BOCAGEIA 114 

RUMINA Risso , 114 

FERUSSACIA Risso 114 

HOHENWARTIANA Bourg. . . 114 

HEMIBULIMUS von Martens 114 

Index to Achatinida, Oleacinidce and Ferussacida 119 

Family PARTULID^B Pilsbry 155 

Genus PARTULA Ferussac 155 

Index to Partulida 322 

Explanation of plates 

(v) 



INTRODUCTION. 



About ten years ago the writer pointed out the existence 
of three great groups in the monotremate land snails, based 
upon the structure of the pallial organs: SIGMURETHRA, 
HETERURETHRA and ORTHURETHRA. The first group includes 
a very large majority of the land snails now existing, which 
have been described in volumes I to XVIII of this work. 
The Heterurethra are chiefly represented by the genus Sue- 
cinea. Finally the group Orthurethra is made up of a series 
of families which retain primitive pallial structures like the 
Basommatophora. They are the scattered descendants of 
snails of long ago of the first land-snail fauna. With the 
rise of the Sigmurethra, these primitive snails declined. On 
the continents they take a minor role, and seem to exist by 
grace of their insignificance (Pupillidcz, Valloniida, Ferus- 
sacida), though one family, the Enidce, contains snails of 
moderate size. On the Pacific islands, where the Sigmurethra 
are represented by only a few low forms, Orthurethra are 
still dominant. In this island world the Partulidce, Amastrida, 
Ackatmellida and Tornatellinidce comprise the most con- 
spicuous elements of the snail-fauna. 

The following families are now comprised in the group 
Orthurethra : 

Valloniidae (See Vol. VIII, p. 247, and IX, p. 282). 
Holarctic. 

Enidae (Buliminidce of authors). Pala&arctic, Oriental, 
African. 

Pupillidse (Pupida of authors). World- wide. 

Partulidae (this volume, p. 155). Polynesia, Melanesia, 
Micronesia. 

(vii) 



Vlll INTRODUCTION. 

Ferussacidae (Vol. XVIII, p. 211; this volume, p. 1). Hoi- 
arctic, Oriental, African, Neotropical. 

Amastridoa (Vol. XXI). Hawaiian Is.; Juan Fernandez. 
Achatinellidse (Vol. XXI). Hawaiian Islands. 
Tornatellinidse (Vol. XXII) . Pacific Islands. 



MANUAL OF CONCHOLOGY. 



Family FERUSSACID^E Bgt. (Continued). 



Genus OECILIOIDES Herrmannsen. 

Acicula Risso, Hist. Nat. Eur. M6rid. iv, p. 81, for A. eburnea 
Risso. Not Acicula Hartmann, 1821. Ce'cilioide, BLAINVILLE, 
Diet. Sci. Nat. vii, 1817, p. 332, and "ceclionides de M. de 
Ferussac," /. c. v, Suppl., p. 129, under Bulimus acicula. 1817 
(no Latin name given). Caecilioide^ F6r. HERRMANNSEN, Indicis 
Generem Malac., i, p. 150, 1846, as equivalent to Acicula Risso. 
E. A. SMITH, Journ. of Conch, vi, April, 1891, p. 342. 
Cecilioides F6r. pater., BECK, Verzeichniss einer Sammlung 
von Landconchylien aus den Danischen Staaten in Europa, in 
Amtlicher Bericht ueber die 24ste. Versammlung Deutscher 
Naturforscher und Aerzte in Kiel, 1847, p. 122, for C. acicula 
Mull. Csecilianella BOURGUIGNAT, Revue et Mag. de Zoologie, 
viii, 1856, p. 378, type C. acicula Mull. P. FAGOT, Historique 
du genre Csecilianella, in Bull, de la Soc. Malac. de France, iv, 
1887, p, 49. BERTHIER, a quel auteur attribuer la paternite du 
genre Csecilianella? t. c. p. 59. Aciculina WESTERLUND, Fauna 
der in der Palaiirktischen Region Lebenden Binnenconchylien, 
iii, 1887, p. 175, first species C. acicula. ? Belonis HARTMANN, 
Erd- und Siisswasser Gastropoden der Schweitz. 1841, p. 48 
(for ' ' Belonis acicula^ " mentioned without synonymy, descrip- 
tior, or other means of identification.) 

The shell is imperforate, very small and slender, very 
narrowly lanceolate, with obtuse, rounded, smooth apex; 
smooth, fragile, transparent (weathering to opaque white); 
aperture usually less than half the total length, piriform; outer 
lip arching forward in the middle, acute; columella concave, 
more or less distinctly truncate at base, usually somewhat 



2 C/ECILIOIDES. 

calloused. Animal blind, or at least without pigmented eyes. 
Jaw composed of many narrow plaits. Radula with 11, 1, 11 
teeth in C. acicula, 18, 1, 18 in 0. gundlachi, the central tooth 
much smaller than the laterals, with a tricuspid reflection. 
Laterals symmetrical, tricuspid. Marginal teeth low, wide, 
with two low, denticulate cusps. The genitalia, as figured by 
Lehmann for C. acicula (pi. 15, fig. 1) have the duct of the 
spermatheca very short. An appendix, enlarged at the end, is 
terminal on the penis. There is also a short accessory organ 
anteriorly on the penis. 

Type C. acicula Mull. Distribution, Europe and most tropi- 
cal and subtropical countries. 

An excellent account of Cascilioides acicula has been given by 
Mr. L. E. Adams, as follows: " Methods of Progression. Usually 
the shell is dragged along the ground after the animal, though 
more rarely it is lifted to a horizontal position (pi. 1, fig. 6). 
On two occasions I observed the animal protrude its head under 
the shell towards the spire and progress in that direction, forc- 
ing the shell along the ground in front of it, apex first, and then 
lift the shell over its head at an angle of about 45 degrees, and 
continue its march in that position (fig. 5). The progression 
is always by slow jerks, and not a continuous glide. I have 
not observed the shell carried in the position of Jeffrey's figure 
(British Conchology, Vol. I, pi. 7, fig. 18), though Nilsson 
says * the animal sometimes carries its shell erect, but generally 
drags it along depressed.' 

" Texture and Form of the Animal. I was much struck with 
the extremely flexible and elastic nature of the animal. I have 
observed one emerge from the shell as it lay flat, on a hori- 
zontal surface, and make a complete circle with its head and 
tail, without moving the shell. It is also remarkable how far 
the animal will protrude from the shell, and how slender an 
attachment connects the head and foot with the part within the 
shell. The end of the tail is often curled up. Along the neck 
;ind down the front of the head are two mucus sulcations on 
either side of the dorsal line (pi. 1, fig. 8). The tail is pointed 
and sharply carinated; from the dorsal ridge mucus sulcations 
descend to the lower edge (fig. 7). 



" Eyes and Tentacles. Jeffreys' enlarged figure (Brit. Conch., 
Vol. I, pi. 7, fig. 19) is not quite accurate. He seems to have 
taken his description from Nilsson, and it may be doubted 
whether Jeffreys himself examined the animal with sufficient 
care. Nilsson had evidently studied the animal, but he was 
not correct in describing the upper tentacles as ' not thickened. ' 
In all the specimens that I have observed the upper tentacles 
are certainly slightly bulbous when fully or nearly fully ex- 
tended, though this does not appear when they are only slightly 
protruded. Nilsson, however, correctly remarks that the apices 
of the upper tentacles are not ( marked with a black spot.' 
Now Lamarck (to whom Nilsson refers) seems to have been the 
only one to observe the colorless eyeball, and he did not recog- 
nize them as such. Nilsson says (quoting Lamarck) "In this 
species no eyes indeed are exposed, unless they are white, like 
the tentacles themselves. These, indeed, are terminated by a 
convex surface, very smooth, very shiny, surrounded by a 
slightly impressed ring; which surface doubtless answers to the 
eye of other terrestrial mollusks. But this animal, probably 
because it lives underground, where it cannot use eyes, appears 
to us plainly to lack eyes.' Now I have noticed that these 
peculiar convex endings with a constricting ring are in fact eye- 
balls, and also that they are retractile, but whether they have 
retained the power of sight in spite of their loss of pigment, I 
am not prepared to say (see fig. 8). As far as my observation 
goes, the animal is insensible to light, though it will crawl 
straight away to a heap of moss; the direction, however, may 
be determined by scent alone. If it is deficient in sight it cer- 
tainly uses its tentacles to all appearance in the same manner as 
its more favored brethren. I may mention in this connection 
that an albino specimen of Limax maximus, whose eyeballs were 
also destitute of pigment, seems to act in a perfectly normal 
manner. Though my observations on this point (Journal of 
Conch., Vol. 9, p. 24) tend to show that this species is lacking 
in sight, I am not aware to what degree of perfection the vision 
of terrestrial mollusks attains, but I have noticed that Oydostoma 
elegans and Helix pomatia seem sensitive to the approach of a 
large' object." (Lionel E. Adams in The Journal of Conchol- 
ogy, Vol. 9, p. 297. ) 



4 (LECILIOIDES. 

Cdecilwidea is well known to inhabit graves. Gaudry found 
them in lacrymatories unearthed from Grecian tumuli. Rev. 
H. Housman records that near Chichester in "an early British 
burying-ground many skeletons were found. The bones, which 
lay about three feet below the surface were infested with A. 
adada" (Journ. of Conch, iii, 1882, p. 317). In North- 
amptonshire Messrs. Wright and Adams found Ctedlioides 
abundant to a depth of 4-J ft. , in a place where skeletons of men 
and horses have occasionally been discovered (J. of C. viii, 
1897, p. 395). J. W. Horsley reports them similarly from a 
Saxon cemetery near Witney (J. of C. ix, 164); and in Germany 
Professor von Martens has recorded the presence of a great num- 
ber of large fresh specimens in a human skull dug up at Bern- 
burg (Nachrbl. d. Mai. Ges. 1883, p. 60). 

Definite information upon the food of Csecilioides is wanting, 
but they probably feed upon vegetable matter, such as subter- 
ranean fungi or possibly fine rootlets. 

The European species of Csecilioides have no doubt been multi- 
plied beyond reason, yet without a critical study of the types 
it is impossible to say how many recognizable races exist. M. 
Bourguignat and his friends had an agreeable custom of describ- 
ing "species" from single selected specimens, ignoring connect- 
ing forms. Published figures of shells they had never seen 
occasionally served as a basis for supposed new species; so that 
in the identification of real shells there is some excuse for pass- 
ing over much work of these authors with a light heart and 
careless eye. I have neither the time nor type-material to at- 
tempt a critical revision of these forms. It is a work which 
properly belongs to some European student who will make a 
study of the local races, of the significance of variations, whether 
individual or racial, and finally he must study Bourguignat's 
types. This work demands great application and large series 
of the shells, unprejudiced by selection or determination. I 
have been able to do little more than give an account as full as 
the original sources admit. The American forms are treated 
more fully, my material being ample, and the literature less 
overloaded. 

The generic name has been variously spelled, but the earliest 



C^ECTLIOIDES. 5 

valid form is undoubtedly Csecilioides, in reference to the blind- 
ness of these tiny subterranean snails. Aciculina of Wester- 
lund is an absolute synonym of Cxcilioides, having for type the 
same species, 0. acicula. 

Gsecilioides occurs in typical species in the Miocene and Plio- 
cene, the following species being known. All were described 
under the name Cxcilianella. 

Cdecilianella grateloupi Bgt. Rev. et Mag. de Zool. 1856, p. 
431, based upon Bulimus acicula Grateloup, Actes Soc. Linn. 
Bord. x, 1838, p. 31, pi. 4, f. 23, 24. St. Paul near Dax. 

Cdecilianella aciculella Sandberger, Land und Susswasser Conch, 
der Vorwelt, p. 595, pi. 29, f. 15. Upper Miocene, Morsingen. 

Csecilianella polonica Lomnicki, Verb. k. k. Geol. Reichsanst. 
Wien, 1885, p. 422. Wycolki. 

C. acicula and C. a. irregularis Sacco have been found in the 
Pliocene, Villafranchian stage, at Fossano (see Sacco, I Mol- 
luschi dei terreni Terziarii del Piemonte e della Liguria, pt. 22, 
1897, p. 76). 

C. a. irregularis Sacco 1885 (t. c., pi. 6, f. 26) is a form with 
very rapidly descending last whorl, requiring comparison with 
recent forms. 

Sections of Csecilioides. 

a. Columella distinctly truncate at the base; spire slender. 
Chiefly Pala3arctic species. 

b. Columella and parietal wall without conspicuous cal- 
lus, a low parietal nodule sometimes developed. 

Section Cascilioides, species 1 to 5, 9 to 36. 
b l . Columella with one or two nodules below the middle. 

Section Terebrella, species 7, 8. 

a 1 . Columella varying from truncate to indistinctly subtruncate 
at base; spire thick, short; shell very small. Tropical 
America. Section Caecilianopsis, species 37 to 39. 

a*. Columella not truncate or very indistinctly so. 

b. Columella simple, not conspicuously calloused. Trop- 
ical in both hemispheres. 

Section Geostilbia, species 40 to 47. 
6 l . Columella strongly sigmoid, not truncate at base; a 



6 (VKCILIOIDKS, ATLANTIC ISLANDS. 

dentiform callus in the middle of the parietal margin. 

Portugal, Madeira? Section Rhaphidietta, species 2, 6. 
For convenience the species are grouped geographically, 
under the following heads: 

Atlantic Islands, species 1 to 3. 

Central Europe, species 4 to 5. 

Spain and Portugal, species 4, 6 to 8. 

Northern Africa, species 9 to 12. 

Italy, Sicily and Malta, species 13 to 21. 

Greece, Western Asia, species 22 to 31. 

Africa and Arabia, species 32 to 36, 46. 

Tropical Asia, East and West Indies, etc., species 37 to 49. 

Section Catcilioide-s s. str. 
Species of the Atlantic Islands. 
1. C. SPICULUM (Benson). 

Shell imperf orate, subulate-cylindric, very slender, hyaline, 
polished; spire lengthened, the apex obtuse; suture impressed, 
margined. Whorls less than 6, slightly convex, the last one- 
third the length of the shell. Aperture vertical, tapering-piri- 
form, rounded basally; lip slightly obtuse and a little arcuate. 
Columella deeply, obliquely truncate at base, and calloused at 
the parietal margin. Length 4, diam. 1, aperture 1.33 mm 
(Bens.). 

Cape Verde Is.: S. Antao (Dohrn), and S. Vicente, near the 
Duke's Head Mountains (E. L. Layard). 

Achatina spiculum BENS., Ann. Nat. Hist, xviii, 1856, p. 
435. PFR. , Monogr. viii, p. 289. WOLLASTON, Testacea 
Atlantica, p. 517. Caecilianella amoenitatum DOHRN, Malak. Bl. 
xvi, 1869, p. 10. MORELET, Journ. de Conchyl. 1873, p. 242. 

According to Wollaston, this species differs from C. acicula 
by being smaller, narrower, thinner, paler, more highly polished 
and more transparent; its spire, which has a volution less, is 
shorter and a little more obtuse at the apex, its suture is less 
oblique, its columella is relatively somewhat longer and 
etraighter, and more flexuous, and its entire outline is both 
narrower and more fusiform. 



CvECILIOIDES, ATLANTIC ISLANDS. 7 

2. C. EULIMA (Lowe). 

Shell linear, very narrowly cylindric, very slender, generally 
very indistinctly curved; spire long subconic-cylindric, the apex 
obtuse; suture very oblique, distinctly margined. Whorls 6, 
flat, the middle ones long. Aperture short-obovate, acuminate 
above, entire and arcuately rounded below, much shorter than 
the spire; parietal wall uniplicate in the middle, the fold trans- 
verse, entering; peristome simple, acute, the margins joined by 
a somewhat thick callus, the right margin rounded, continued 
in a regular curve into the basal and columellar margins. Col- 
umella curved and slightly twisted, not abruptly truncate, but 
gradually and easily passing into the basal margin. Length 
2.5 to 3, diam. 0.75 lines (WolL). 

Madeira: probably in the Funchal district, recent; Porto 
Santo, very rare, fossil (Wollaston). 

Achatina eulima LOWE, P. Z. S. 1854, p. 201. WOLLASTON, 
Testacea Atlantica 1878, p. 244. 

"The most important feature which separates the A. eulima 
from the acicula consists in the presence of a conspicuous medial 
plait on its ventral paries ; but it has other characteristics also 
which combine to separate it from that species. Thus it is not 
only longer, more cylindric, and proportionately still slenderer, 
with a tendency to be obsoletely bent (as in the marine genus 
Eulima^ but its whorls (particularly the intermediate ones) 
are altogether more lengthened-out and flattened, and its aper- 
ture is relatively a little shorter, as well as broader (and more 
rounded) posteriorly, the basal margin being more obtusely 
arcuate, and merging almost without an intervening angle into 
the columella, which is narrower gradually (and is not abruptly 
truncate) behind. The suture is exceedingly oblique, and its 
surface is of a hyaline white." (Wottaston). 

This species apparently belongs to the section Rhaphidiella of 
Maltzan. See species No. 6. 

3. C. NYCTELIA Bourguignat. PI. 2, figs. 32, 33. 

This shell has the usual acicular shape, clear corneous texture 
and smooth surface. Whorls 5J, very slightly convex, the 
penultimate and preceding whorls widening more rapidly than 



8 (LECILIOIDES, ATLANTIC ISLANDS. 

those above on account of the more rapid descent of the last two 
turns of the suture. The suture is distinctly marginate. The 
outer lip is strongly convex in profile view, the greatest con- 
vexity being below the middle. Columella strongly concave, 
not heavily calloused, narrowly, subvertically truncate at base. 
Parietal callus hardly perceptible. Length 4.1, diam. 1.3 mm. 

Madeira: Under stones in dry places (Albers); Punta Sao 
Lourenco. (M. Grabham). 

Glandina acicula Mull. , ALBERS, Malac. Maderensis, 1854, p. 
59, pi. 15, f. 17, 18; renamed Caecilianella nyctelia BOURGUIGNAT, 
Rev. et Mag. de Zool. 1856, p. 430, pi. 12, f. 21, 22 (copy from 
Albers). Achatinan., PFR., Monogr. iv, 626. 

This species is distinguished from G. acicula by the irregular 
increase of its whorls, the antepenultimate or penultimate sud- 
denly widening more rapidly than those before, and by the 
narrow, subvertical truncation of the columella, that of acicula 
being wider and more approaching horizontal. The species of 
Bourguignat was based solely upon Albers' account; and the 
latter, in my opinion, applies to this form rather than to the 
real C. acicula. Bourguignat had not actually seen the 
Madeiran shell. 

The Sicilian C. actoniana, rizzeana and petitiana are apparently 
identical specifically with nyctelia, or at all events, there seems 
to be no difference in the shells. How many other of the 
11 species" are really the same I do not know. Fig. 32 repre- 
sents an adult shell from Punta Sao Lourengo; fig. 33 a young 
shell from another locality, length 3.6, diam. 1.1 mm. 

Var. maderensis n. v. PI. 2, figs. 34, 35. The shell is com- 
posed of 5 nearly flat whorls, the last turn of the suture de- 
scending more rapidly. Aperture more than half the total length, 
lanceolate; columella slightly concave, rather lightly calloused, 
and somewhat widely truncate at the base. Length 4, diam. 
1.25 mm. 

Madeira: Suburbs of Funchal, 400 ft. elevation (M. Grab- 
ham). Type in coll. A. N. S. P. 



C^ECILIOIDES OF CENTRAL EUROPE. 9 

Central European Species. 
4. C. ACICULA (Miiller). PI. 1, figs. 1, 2, 5-8. 

"Shell turreted and slender, transparent, very thin, highly 
polished and iridescent, ivory-white, with a yellowish tinge on 
the upper part in fresh specimens (owing to the color of the 
liver), perfectly smooth and polished when examined with a 
lens of ordinary power, except a few faint and irregular wrinkles 
in the lines of growth, but under a microscope exhibiting deli- 
cate and close-set spiral striae. Periphery rounded. Epidermis 
exceedingly thin and forming a mere film. Whorls 5J, not 
convex, but compressed and drawn out, rapidly increasing in 
size; the last occupying about one-half of the shell. Spire very 
obtuse and rounded at the point. Suture moderately deep and 
oblique, apparently margined on the under side by reason of 
the upper part of the succeeding whorl being seen through the 
pellucid shell; mouth oblong, contracted by the penultimate 
whorl, narrowing above into an acute angle, slightly widened 
and rounded below, but interrupted by a deep notch at the base 
of the pillar lip." Outer lip thin and flexuous. Pillar lip 
thick and curved. Inner lip consisting of a slight deposit of 
shelly matter, which is spread on the pillar. Length 0.175, 
breadth 0.04 inch (Jeffreys'). 

Europe, chiefly in Germany, France and England; Ireland, 
Spain, Italy. America: introduced in Florida (W. G. Bin- 
ney); Bermuda, near Frascati Hotel (A. Gulick); Barbados 
(Brown). S. Africa: Cradock, "introduced, apparently not 
indigenous" (Melvill & Ponsonby.) 

Buccinum acicula MILLER, Hist. Verm, ii, 1774, p. 150. 
Cionella acicula JEFFREYS, Trans. Linn. Soc. xvi, 1830, p. 347. 
Westerlund, Fauna iii, p. 176. Achatina acicula Ross- 
MAESSLER Iconogr. pt. x, p. 35, f. 658. PFR., Monogr. ii, 274; 
iii, 506; iv, 623; vi, 240; viii, 294. JEFFREYS, British Conchol- 
ogy i, p. 297, pi. 7, fig. 18-21. WOLLASTON, Testae. Atlantica 
1878, p. 243,Styloides acicula FITZ., 1833.Cecilioides acicula 
BECK, Amtl. Ber. Deutscher Nat. etc., 1847, p. 122. Oxdlianella 
acicula BOURG., Revue et mag. de zool. 1856, p. 382, pi. 18, f. 
1-3 (Amen. Mai. i, p. 215). LEHMANN, Lebenden Schnecken, 



10 CyECILIOIDES OF CENTRAL EUROPE. 

etc., p. 128, pi. 13, f. 43 (teeth and genitalia). MELVILL and 
PONSONBY, Proc. Malac. Soc. Land, iii, 184 (in S. Africa). 
BINNEY, Manual of American Land Shells, p. 429. SORDELLI, 
Atti Soc. Ital. de. Sci. nat. xiii, Milan, 1870, p. 48, pi. 1, f. 
22-26 (otocysts, jaw, radula). Buccinum terrestre MONTAGU, 
Test. Brit. p. 248, pi. 8. f. 3. Helix octona GMELIN, Syst. Nat. 
13, p. 3653. Achatina alba BROWN, Illustr. Land and Fresh- 
water Conchology of G. B. and I., 1845, p. 32 (erroneously 
quoted as of Turton). Achatina pusilla SCACCHI, Catal. Conch. 
Reg. Neapolitan!, 1836, p. 16. Columna miliaris de CHRISTOFORI 
et JAN, "Shell fusiform -ovate, imperforate, smooth, glossy, 
slender, whitish, the last whorl ventricose (1J- lines long, \ 
wide), aperture oval, 1 line long, J wide)." Catalogus etc., 
Mantissa, p. 2, 1832. Acicula hyalina Bielz, PAULUCCI, Bull. 
Soc. Malac. Ital. xii, 1886, p. 45 (Italy). Stenogyra octona var. 
danica SCHLESCH Ann. Soc. Roy. Zool. et Malac. Belgique xli, 
1906, p. 184. 

Gwyn Jeffreys' description of this common species is given. 
It seems to be a rather variable form, but the limits of variation 
in this group are little understood. A large proportion of the 
specimens in collections are from drift debris of rivers, hence 
forms from various colonies and diverse stations are mingled in 
unwonted company. Such lots are misleading in the study of 
variation. 

Var. elongata Locard. Of a slimmer, more lengthened form. 

Var. ventricosa Locard. Of the same size (not over 4.5 mm. 
long), but the shape is a little more ventricose, more swollen at 
the base (Locard, Conchyliologie Portugaise, in Archives du 
Mus. d'Hist. Nat. de Lyon, vii, 1899, p. 141). 

Var. festuca Porro. Whorls only 4; size smaller, alt. 2, diam. 
0.5 mm. Como and Varese, Italy. (Achatina acicula var. fes- 
tuca Porro, Malacologia terr. e fluv. della Prov. Comasca, Milan, 
1838, p. 52.) 

Var. eburnea (Risso). PI. 1, fig. 9. Shell very long fusi- 
form, very fragile, glossy, pellucid, ivory-white; spire long, the 
apex obtuse; whorls 7, regularly increasing, flattened or slightly 
convex, separated by a deeply impressed suture, the last one- 
third the total length. Aperture piriform, dilated below; colu- 



(LECILIOIDES OF CENTRAL EUROPE. 11 

mella twisted, strongly truncate, not reaching the base; right 
margin arching forward; margins joined by a callus. Length 
6, diam. 1.25 mm. (</.). 

Southern France: Nice, type loc. (Risso); Italy: Arno river; 
Pisa (Issel); Po river at Turin (Pollonera). 

Acicula eburnea Risso, Hist. Nat. Eur. Mend., 1826, iv, p. 
81. Ceecilianella e., BGT., Etude synon. sur les Mollusques des 
Alpes Maritimes publics par A. Risso, p. 43, pi. 1, f. 20-22 
(1861), description and figures of the type specimen. LOCARD, 
Catal. Gen. des Moll. viv. de France, 1882, p. 136. 

Var. enhalia Bgt. PL 1, fig. 10. Very minute, composed of 
5 flattened, irregularly increasing whorls, the last over one- 
third the total length. Right margin of the lip not arching 
forward; margins of aperture joined by a thin callus which has 
a more or less obsolete tubercular prominence at the insertion of 
the outer lip. Length 3.5, diam. 1 mm. Brittany: Around 
Cancale (Cotes-du-nord), along the cliffs almost at the high tide 
line. (Bgt., Malac. terr. et fluv. de la Bretagne, I860, p. 158, 
pi. 2, f. 14-16.) 

Var. anglica Bgt. According to Bourguignat, this is dis- 
tinguished from acicula by the larger size, length 8, diam. 1.5 
mm. the whorls of the spire more convex, the suture deeper, 
not margined, the aperture rounded, and the columella strongly 
truncate. England. (C. anglica BGT., Rev. et Mag. de Zool. 
1856, p. 384, pi. 12, f. 4, 5.) 

This "species" is a good example of Bourguignat at his 
worst. There really was no type specimen of anglica; nothing 
but Reeve's figure in the Conchologia Iconicav, pi. 20, f. Ill, 
which Bourguignat described in formal phrase, while his artist 
redrew it enlarged for his plate. The citation of Reeve is curi- 
ously falsified in name of the work, number of the figure and 
date, almost concealing the real source of all of the information 
extant upon " C. anglica" Whether the English form has any 
racial characters or not must be left for English students to 
decide. I have never seen English examples so large as anglica 
is claimed to be; but the size was probably not carefully meas- 
ured from the shell, but merely estimated by the eye. Reeve's 
Iconica is very unreliable in all relating to minute shells, though 
the figures of large species are admirable. 



12 C^ECILIOIDES OF CENTRAL EUROPE. 

Var. nodosaria Boettger. PI. 1, fig. 16. May be near var. 
anglica, but differs by its far smaller size. With 5 volutions 
the Caucasus form has relatively wider and distinctly more 
convex whorls, so that the aperture appears more widely ob- 
long. Length 3.5, diam. 1.12 mm. (Bttg., Jahrb. D. M. Ges. 
vi, 1879, p. 398, pi. 10, f. 10). 

Caucasus: flotsam of the Kura at Borshom. 

Var. merimeana Bourguignat. Shell lengthened oblong with 
obtuse apex. Whorls 6, somewhat convex, irregularly increas- 
ing, the upper slowly; the rest very rapidly; last two whorls 
very large, the last almost half the total length, descending at 
the aperture, rounded at base; suture impressed; outer margin 
arching forward. Columella short, curved, strongly retracted 
below, nearly reaching the base. Length 5, diam. 1.5 mm. 
(Westerl). 

France: Cannes. 

Csecilianella m., BGT., Descript. Moll. Alpes Maritimes, 
1870, p. 54. WESTERLUND, Fauna, p. 179. LOCARD, Ann. 
Soc. d'Agricult., Lyon, 1895, p. 145. 

Var. mauriana Bourguignat. Shell long pyramidal-lanceolate, 
slender, with long, produced, acuminate spire with obtuse apex 
Whorls 8, scarcely convex, slightly irregularly increasing, the 
upper slowly, the rest more rapidly; last whorl somewhat more 
than one-fourth the total length, rounded at the base. Aperture 
oblique, piriform, acutely angular above, broadly rounded 
below; outer lip strongly arching forward; columella short, a 
little truncate, nearly reaching the base. Length 7, diam. 1.75 
mm. (Westerl. ) 

France: Cannes, type loc. ; Istres, Bouches-du-Rhone (Locard). 

Ccecilianella m., BGT., Descript. Moll. Alpes Maritimes, in 
Mem. Soc. Sci. Nat. de Cannes, i, 1870, p. 54. WESTERL., 
Fauna iii, p. 180. LOCARD, Ann. Soc. d'Agricult. Lyon, 1895, 
p. 145. 

Var. lactea Moitessier. Shell length ened-oblong, glossy, very 
fragile, glassy, milk-white, smooth; spire long; apex stout, ob- 
tuse, as though mamillate. Whorls 6 to 7, slightly convex, 
very rapidly increasing, the first whorls regularly, the last 
irregularly; separated by a linear, duplicated suture. Last 



v 



CJECILIOIDE8 OF CENTRAL EUROPE. 13 

whorl large, dilated, not equal to half the length; aperture 
coarctate, long-piriform, very acute above, rounded below; 
peristome unexpanded, acute, simple; outer lip arched forward; 
columella short, strongly curved, abruptly truncate, not reach- 
ing the base of the aperture. Length 4 to 5, diam. 1.5 mm. 
(Moit.). 

France: drift debris of the Lez and Mosson near Montpellier 
(MoiL). 

Caecilianella lactea MOIT., Revue et Mag. de Zool., xix, 1867, 
p. 371. Achatina L, PFR., Monogr., viii, p. 295. C. lactaea 
LOCARD, Ann. d'Agric. Lyon, (7), iii, 1895, p. 145. 

5. C. LIESVILLEI (Bgt.). PI. 1, figs. 11, 12, 15. 

Shell minute, turrite-oblong, slender, polished, diaphanous, 
whitish, the apex obtuse; whorls 6, a little flattened, separated 
by a superficial, duplicated suture, the last whorl over one-third 
the total length. Aperture piriform-oblong; peristome acute, 
simple, unexpanded, the right margin slightty arching forward; 
columella straight, slightly truncate, margins joined by a thin 
callus which bears an obsolete tubercular projection on the con- 
vexity of the penult, whorl. Length 4 to 5, diam. 1.5 mm. 
(Bgt.). 

France: Commonly distributed, especially northward (Bgt.). 
Sarus river debris at Adana, S.-E. Asia Minor. 

Caecilianella liesvillei BGT., Rev. et Mag. Zool., 1856, p. 385, 
pi. 12, f. 6-8; Amen. Malac., i, p. 217, pi. 18, f. 6-8. PFR., 
Monogr., iv, 624. NEVILL, P. Z. S., 1880, p. 135. C. a. 
liesvillei HESSE, Jahrb. D. M. Ges., ix, 1882, p. 332. BTTG., 
Nachrbl. D. M. Ges., vol. 37, 1905, p. 110. 

This form is probably distinct from C. acicula. It is more 
slender with smaller aperture, and a rather heavy callus, which 
forms an entering ridge or nodule below the middle of the par- 
ietal margin. While this structure is conspicuous in typical 
liesvillei^ yet it varies in development, and is traceable in occa- 
sional specimens of C. acicula. Dr. Boettger has identified 
liesvillei from debris of the Kura at Borshom, Caucasus. The 
specimens (pi. 1, fig. 15) differ from typical acicula by the ob- 
solete parietal fold in the middle of the base of the last whorl, 



14 CJECILIOIDES OF CENTRAL EUROPE. 

and the less curved columella, which is only very obliquely and 
weakly truncate at the base. Length 5.25, diam. 1.62 mm. 
(Jahrb. D. M. Ges., vi, 1879, p. 398, pi. 10, f. 9.) 

Var. gemmellariana (Benoit). PL 2, fig. 28, 31. Shell 
elongate-cylindric, slender, polished, glossy, hyaline, whitish; 
spire turrited, slightly tapering, the apex mamillate; suture im- 
pressed, widely margined, whorls 6, subplanulate, not rapidly 
increasing, the last cylindric, as long as the spire. Columella 
subarcuate, at base narrowly and obsoletely truncate. Aperture 
narrow, oblong-acuminate ; peristome simple, unexpanded, 
acute, the margins joined by a very thin callus, right margin 
arching forward. Length 4.4, diam. 1.5, aperture 1.66 x 0.75 
mm. (Ben.) 

Sicily: Palermo. 

Achatina g., BENOIT, Illustr. Test, estramar. Sicilia, 1862, p. 
248, pi. 8, f. 9. PFR., Monogr. vi, 242. OnY. g., BGT., Rev. 
et mag. zool. xvi, 212. 

Benoit' s original figure is copied, fig. 31. I have also illus- 
trated one of several specimens before me, received from Benoit. 
This shows a form probably not distinguishable from liesvillei 
Bgt., having a slightly contracted- attenuate spire, the whorls 
distinctly convex, the convexity chiefly close below the suture. 
There is a conspicuous, spirally entering callous ridge on the 
parietal wall close to its junction with the columella, but other- 
wise the parietal and columellar margins form nearly a straight 
line. As usual, the first whorl increases very fast, the next 
whorl scarcely widens, and the last 2 whorls increase regularly. 
Length 4.4, diam. 1.3 mm.; whorls 5. 

Younger shells agree better with Benoit' s description, yet 
even these show the trace of a callous lamella. I am disposed 
to place the form in the synonymy of liesvillei. 

Var. tiberiana (Benoit). Vol. xix, pi. 51, fig. 5. Close to 
C. gemmellariana but distinct by the greater size, the upper 
whorls more slender and delicate, the last whorl much more 
swollen, and by the greater number of whorls, 6, and the piri- 
form aperture. (Ben.) 

Sicily: Palermo. 

Csecilianella tibenana BEN., Nuovo Catalogo delle Conch, terr. 



C^CILIOIDES OF CENTRAL EUROPE. 15 

e fiuv. della Sicilia, 1881, p. 89; figured in Illustr., etc., pi. 8, 
f. 7. 

Var. cristallina (Benoit). Shell turrite, whitish, smooth, 
translucent, the apex obtuse, spire composed of 5 slightly convex 
whorls separated by a well-marked suture. Last two whorls 
forming two-thirds the total length. Lip simple, acute, the 
margins joined by a callus. Aperture piriform; truncation of 
the columella strongly marked. Length 5, diam. 2 mm. 
Sicily : Spadafora, near Messina. (C&cil. cristallina BEN., 
Catalogo, 1881, p. 90). Related to C. gemmellariana. 

Var. hyalina (E. A. Bielz) PI. 1, figs. 3, 4. The shell is 
very long and narrow, composed of fully 6 very slightly convex 
whorls, the last 4 rapidly increasing, the suture very oblique, 
but descending much less rapidly near the aperture. Aperture 
small, piriform. Columellar callus rather thin, but in certain 
positions its upper edge is barely visible as a slight prominence 
on the parietal wall. Length 5, diam. 1.25, aperture 1.7 mm. 

Transsylvania: Hermannstadt, in a garden; Mediasch; 
Schlossberge von Vajda Hunyad (Bielz). 

Acicula hyalina BIELZ, Fauna der Land und Siisswasser-Mol- 
lusken Siebenbiirgens, 1863, p. 84; Second edit., 1867, p. 89 
(exclusive of synonymy). 

Bielz intended his name to replace that of acicula, but he 
gave a description of the Transsylvanian form, which proves to 
be distinct from acicula by its greater elongation. It stands 
close to liesvillei, but is possibly separable by the more delicate 
columellar callus and the absence of a distinct callus on the 
parietal wall. The specimen figured was received from Bielz. 

Var. uniplicata Bourguignat. PI. 1, figs. 13, 14. Shell 
minute, turrite-oblong, slender, very fragile, diaphanous- 
whitish, crystalline, smooth; apex obtuse, mamillate, composed 
of 6 nearly flat or slightly convex whorls, which increase 
rapidly and unevenly, and are parted by an impressed, not 
duplicated, suture; the last whorl half the total length or more. 
Aperture piriform-oblong; columella uniplicate above, a little 
twisted, truncate at the base; peristome acute, unexpanded, 
simple, the right margin arching forward, columellar margin 
somewhat calloused. Spreading, the margins joined by a thin 
whitish callus. Length 4, diam. 1.25 mm. (Bgt.~}. 



16 C^ECILIOIDES OF SPAIN AND PORTUGAL. 

France: on rocks below the village of Bordeau, near Aix-les- 
Bains. 

Cacilianellauniplicata'BGT., Malacologie d'Aix-les-Bains 1864, 
p. 55, pi. 2. f. 3-5. 

The columella "a little concave, ornamented in the upper 
part with a lamelliform fold, and having a distinct truncation 
at the base ' ' seems to be the chief characteristic of this form. 

Var. aglena Bgt. PL 1, fig. 18. Shell approaching espe- 
cially the C. liesvillei, but is distinguished by the mamillate 
summit, non-margined suture, 7 whorls, and especially by the 
aperture, in which the penultimate whorl has scarcely any con- 
vexity, but forms nearly a straight line with the columella. 
Length 5, diam. 2 mm. Ville-au-Bois-les-Vendeuvre, Aube, 
France (Bgt., C. aglena, Rev. et Mag. ZooL, 1857, p. 15, pi. 1, 
f. 3, 4; Amen. Malac., ii, p. 31, pi. 1, f. 3, 4). 

Var. boettgeri Hesse. PL 1, fig. 17. Differs from the type 
by the smaller size, more slender shape, angulate columella, 
whorls more rapidly increasing, the penultimate as high as the 
upper ones. Length 3, diam. scarcely 1 mm. Tinos, Grecian 
Archipelago, in flotsam of a small brook. Differs from liesvillei 
by its slimness and the shape of the columella, which has an 
angle in the place where there is an obsolete fold in liesvillei. 
(Hesse, Jahrb. D. Malak. Gee., ix, 1882, p. 332, pi. 12, fig. 8.) 

Forms of Spain and Portugal. 

The Iberian forms have not been figured. In a group where 
with the closest comparisons of specimens, species are difficult 
to distinguish, mere descriptions are barely worth the paper 
they are written on. The student will find all published in- 
formation below. C. acicula and C. nanodea are also recorded 
from the Iberian peninsula. 

C. vandalitice Servain. The whorls increase regularly and 
rapidly; the suture does not descend much. The last whorl 
has a regular, median convexity, not inferior, as in belonidaea. 
The spire tapers gradually. The outer lip, instead of descend- 
ing a little below the columellar extremity, forming an angular 
part at the base of the aperture as in belonidaea, is on the con- 
trary convex and rounded to the columellar border, which is 



CJECILIOIDES OF SPAIN AND PORTUGAL. 17 

shorter and more strongly truncate. As the increase of the 
whorls is regular and the convexity about equal in all there is 
not the contraction at the left side between the penultimate and 
last whorls, noticed in C. belonidaa. The simple peristome is 
not thickened within, and is not patulous at the base of the 
aperture. Length 6, diam. 1.75, aperture 2x1 mm. ; whorls 7. 

Spain: drift debris of the Guadalquivir at Seville. 

Cacilianella v. , SERVAIN, Etude ser les Moll. Esp. et Port. , 
1880, p. 130. Locard, Ann. Soc. Agricult. Lyon, 1895, p. 
146 (drift of the Besanyon at Saint- Armour, Jura). 

C. castroiana Locard. Shell of relatively great size, of a fusi- 
form, long-conic shape; spire very narrow, acuminate, com- 
posed of 6 slightly convex whorls, the first three increasing 
slowly and regularly, the following two much larger, the last 
whorl greatly developed, rounded at the base, three- sevenths 
the total length. Suture impressed, with a bordering line 
below. Summit small, obtuse, rounded. Aperture small, 
piriform, slightly over two-sevenths the total length, contracted 
above, well rounded at the base. Peristome simple, unex- 
panded and acute; right margin arching a little forward, the 
profile broadly arcuate; columellar border slightly sinuous, 
truncate, not reaching the base of the shell; the margins joined 
by a visible callus. Shell thin, quite solid, diaphanous^ 
smooth, whitish. Length 7, diam. 2 mm. (Loc.~). 

Portugal: Faro, Algarve. 

Caecilianella c., LOCARD, Conchyliologie Portugaise, in Archives 
du Museum d'Histoire Naturelle de Lyon, vii, 1899, p. 141. 

Said to be larger, more slender, longer and more conic than 
C. acicula, with less regularly coiled and less convex whorls, 
duplicated suture, smaller and narrower aperture, etc. 

C. ribeiroi Servain. This species is remarkable for the oblong- 
acuminate shape of the spire as far as the two upper whorls, 
which are cylindric; for the progressively accelerated increase 
of the whorls, the suture also more and more steeply descending. 
The last whorl is regularly long-convex. The aperture is quite 
excised by the convexity of the penult whorl; columellar mar- 
gin short, strongly projecting, strongly truncate at the base, 
obliquely arcuate from left to right, giving the aperture in the 




UNIVERSITY 

OF 



ICO ""' 



18 (LSSCILIOIDES OF SPAIN AND PORTUGAL. 

upper part a very distinctly concave contour. Length 5, 
diam. 1.5, aperture 1.5 x 0.75 mm.; whorls 6. 

Spain: drift debris of the Ebre at Saragosse. 

Csedlianella ?., SERV., Etude sur les Moll. Esp. et Port. 1880, 
p. 131. 

C. poupillieri 'Bgt.' Servain. Shell long, quite oblong- 
acuminate, of irregular spiral increase: two first whorls minute 
with nearly horizontal suture, the rest of the whorls well de- 
veloped, increasing rapidly, and separated by a progressively 
more and more rapidly descending suture. Whorls 6, slightly 
convex, lightly flattened, notable the fourth. Outer lip convex. 
Columellar margin very short, quite projecting, strongly trun- 
cate. Peristome simple, acute. Length 6, diam. 2 mm. 
(Servain). 

Spain: Grenada and Cordova. Algeria: Algiers, Orleansville; 
everywhere in drift debris. 

O&ciliandla p., Bourg, in sched. , SERVAIN, Etude sur les 
Moll. Espagne et Portugal, 1880, p. 132. LOCARD, Ann. Soc. 
d'Agricult Lyon, 1895, p. 146 (Istres, Bouches-du-Rhone). 

C. bdonidaa Servain. The upper whorls in this species are 
regularly elongate-convex, with a suture which does not descend 
much until the beginning of the last whorl, where the descent 
rapidly increases, the suture descending very obliquely. The 
last whorl is not regularly convex, but is flattened in the upper 
part and inflated below. The long-piriform aperture is narrow 
above, dilated at the base; the outer margin is straight, arcuate 
in front. The apertural convexity of the penult whorl descends 
in nearly a straight line to the columella, which is short, 
straight, indistinctly truncate below. Length 5.5, diam. 1.25, 
aperture 1.75 x 1 mm.; whorls 5. 

Spain: banks of the Ri villas at Badajos. 

Caecilianella belonidsea SERV., Etude sur les Mollusques rec. 
t>n Espagne et en Portugal, 1880, p. 129. 

Section KhaphidieUa Maltzan. 

Differs from the genus CatcilianeMa Bgt. [Ca-cU-iwdes] by the 
club-shaped shell, whorls slowly increasing, columella strongly 
sigmoid, excised, twisted, the upper margin of the excision with 



C^ECILIOIDES OF SPAIN AND PORTUGAL. 19 

a dentiform process in the middle of the parietal margin; colu- 
mella not truncate at the base, passing gradually into the right 
m argin . ( Maltzan ) . 

The Madeiran C. eulima Lowe probably belongs to this group, 
which seems to be closely related to C. Uewttlei and its allies. 
6. C. BARBOZ.E Maltzan. 

Shell very minute, long-club-shaped, the spire cylindric- 
turrite, apex rather acute. Whorls 6, slowly increasing, 
separated by a subimpressed, submarginate suture, the last 
scarcely one-third the total length. Aperture long-piriform, 
almost biangular at the base; columella concave, with one 
tooth above, at the base passing into the right margin almost in 
a right angle. Length 3, diam. 0.75 mm.; aperture 1 x 0.5 
mm. (Maltzan}. 

Portugal: Portimao, Algarve. 

Ca?e. barboza MALTZAN, Nachrichtsblatt d. D. Malak. Ges. 
xviii, Feb., 1886, p. 26. 

Section Terebrella Maltzan. 

Differs from the genus C&cilianella Bgt. by having the colu- 
mella nodulose-calloused or one- or two-nodulose below the 
middle, the upper nodule dentiform, the lower obliquely elon- 
gate, distinctly separated from the truncation of the columella 
by a sinus, disappearing within. Type C. clessim. (Maltzan). 
7 '. C. CLESSINI Maltzan. 

Shell elongate-turrite. the spire turrite, apex rather acute, 
whorls 8, slowly increasing, separated by a margined suture, 
the last one-third the total length of the shell. Aperture com- 
pressed, lanceolate. Columella with one cultriform callus 
below the middle; at base obliquely and acutely truncate. 
Length 7, diam. 2.125, aperture 2.5 x 1 mm. (Maltzan). 

Portugal: Portimao and Tavira, Algarve. 

C&c. clessini MALTZ., Nachrichtsblatt d. Deutschen Malak. 
Gee. xviii, Feb. 1886, p. 27. 
8. C. BINODOSA Maltzan. 

Shell oblong-fusiform, widest in the middle, almost biconic; 
spire long-conic, the apex obtuse, whorls 5, slowly increasing, 
separated by a margined suture, the last lonirw than the spire. 



20 CJSCILIOIDES OF NORTH AFRICA. 

Aperture long-lanceolate, the margins nearly parallel. Colu- 
rnella binodose, the upper nodule dentiform, nearly horizontal, 
the lower nodule large, obtuse. Truncation of the columella 
distinct, horizontal. Length 2.62 to 2.75, diam. 1 mm.; 
aperture 1.62 x 0.5 mm. (Maltzan). 

Portugal: Portimao, Algarve. 

CCEC. binodosa MALTZAN, Nachrbl. Feb. 1886, p. 27. 

A single larger specimen was taken, of the same shape and 
formation of the columella, but having only one callus, the 
lower one. Length 3.5 mm. (Maltzan). 

Section Cceciliodes s. str. 
North African Species, Tunis to Morocco. 

9. C. BRONDELI (Bourguignat). PI. 3, figs. 37, 38. 

Shell fusiform-cylindric, acicular, hyaline, very fragile, whit- 
ish-corneous, very smooth, apex tapering, obtuse. Whorls 6, 
flattened, separated by an impressed suture, the last two-fifths 
the total length. Aperture narrow, lanceolate, rounded at the 
base; columella arcuate, calloused, narrowly and abruptly trun- 
cate at the base, and in the upper part one-lamellate; peristome 
simple, margins joined by a callus. Length 4, diam. scarcely 
1 mm. (Bgt. ). 

Algeria: Mostaganem, under stones. 

Glandina brondeli BGT., Rev. et Mag. Zool., viii, 1856, p. 17, 
pi. 1, f. 12-14; Amen. Malac., i, p. 144, pi. 10, f. 12-14.- 
Achatina brondeli PFR., Monogr. , iv, 625. Ccecilianella 6. , BGT., 
Rev. et Mag. Zool., 1856, p. 426. 

The columella is very thick, arcuate, and has a quite consid- 
erable swelling at the upper part, referred to in the description, 
somewhat inexactly, as " unilamellate." It is smaller than 
C. acicula, and distinguished from it by the stronger columellar 
callus, and the small tooth at its upper part, referred to above. 

10. C. RAPHIDIA Bourguignat. PI. 3, figs. 39, 40. 

Shell pyramidal-oblong, slender, diaphanous, polished, whit- 
ish, the apex a little obtuse; whorls 6, slightly convex, separated 
by a duplicated suture, the last less than one- third the total 
length. Aperture oblong-rounded, peristome acute, simple, 
unexpended; right margin arching forward; columella a little 



C^ECILIOIDES OF NORTH AFRICA. 21 

arcuate, truncate, scarcely reaching to the base, the margins 
joined by a thin callus, bearing a small projecting tubercle on 
the convexity of the penult, whorl. Length 4.5, diam. 1.5 
mm. (Bgt.). 

Algeria: Mostaganem, type loc. ; also Bone, Philippeville, 
Algiers, Orleansville, etc. , etc. ; Tunis in the debris of the Oued 
Sidi-Aich and of the Medjerda near Ghardimaou. 

Caecilianella raphidia BGT., Rev. et Mag. Zool., viii, 1856, p. 
386, pi. 12, f. 9-11; Amen. Mai., i, p. 218, pi. 18, f. 9-11; 
Malac. del'Algerie, ii, p. 115, pi. 8, f. 7-9; Prodr. Mai. Tunisie, 
p. 127. PFR., Monogr., iv, 624. 

11. C. NANODEA Bourguignat. PL 3, fig. 36. 

Shell dwarfed, obese-fusiform, very slender, polished, whitish; 
apex obtuse; whorls 5, subplanulate, separated by a distinct 
suture, the last whorl half the total length. Aperture narrow, 
oblong-elongate; peristome unexpanded, acute, simple; right 
margin slightly arched forward; columella rather straight, trun- 
cate, not reaching to the base of the aperture; margins joined 
by a thin callus. Length 2.5, diam. 0.33 mm. 

Algeria: Around Bone, type loc. ; Tunis in debris of the Med- 
jerda at the bridge of Fondouck. 

Ctzcilianellan. , BGT., Rev. et Mag. Zool., viii, 1856, p. 427, 
pi. 12, f. 12-14; Amen. Malac., i, p. 221, pi. 18, f. 12-14; 
Malac. Algerie, ii, p. Ill, pi. 8, f. 4-6; Prodr. Malac. Tunisie, 
p. 128. SERVAIN, Conch. Portugaise, 1899, p. 142. 

Distinguished from C. subsaxana by the less truncate colu- 
mella without a callosity, the non-marginate suture, and less 
forwardly arched outer lip. It has been reported from Faro 
Algarve, Portugal, by Servain. 

12. C. LETOURNEUXI Bourguignat. PI. 3, figs. 43, 44. 

Shell minute, elongate-subfusiform, very slender, smooth, 
hyaline-whitish; spire long lanceolate, obtuse above, the apex 
very obtuse. Whorls 7, subplanulate, regularly and rapidly 
increasing, separated by an impressed suture, the last whorl 
one-third the total length. Aperture minute, oblong, acutely 
angular above; peristome unexpanded, acute. Columella short, 



22 CvECILIOIDES OF ITALY, SICILY, MALTA. 

arcuate, strongly truncate, reaching nearly to the base; outer 
margin slightly arching forward; margins joined by a thin 
callus. Length 4.5, diam. 1.25mm. (Bgt). 

Algeria: Vicinity of Algiers in the debris of the Frais-Vallon 
at the Bab-el-Oued gate, and along the Harrach. Tunis, debris 
of the Medjerda near Ghardimaou. 

Catilianella L, BGT., Malacologie de 1'Algerie ii, 1864, p. 112, 
pi. 8, f. 10-12; Prodr. Malac. Tunisie, p. 128. 

Species of Italy, Sicily and Malta. 
13. C. JANI (deBetta). 

Shell conic-ovate with the upper half acutely conic; apex 
very minute, with rounded summit, whorls 6, scarcely convex, 
regularly increasing, the last long, convex, very rapidly con- 
tracting below, more than double the length of the penultimate, 
half the total length of the shell. Suture strongly margined. 
Aperture narrow, long piriform, very narrow above, narrowed 
at the base, with strongly shortly arcuate basal margin. Outer 
lip strongly arching forward in the middle. Coluniella curved, 
somewhat oblique, strongly excised above, not reaching the 
base. Length 6 to 6.5, diam. 2 to 2 mm., aperture 2.5 mm. 
long. ( Westerlund ) . 

Northern Italy; southern Tirol; Dalmatia; Greece at Hy- 
mettos; Malta; Corfu; Sarus river at Adana, in southeastern 
Asia Minor. 

Achatina jani de BETTA et MARTINATI, Catal. Moll. Prov. 
Venete, 1855, p. 59 DE BETTA, Esame Critico a tre molluschi 
del genere Glandina, p. 23, pi. 1, f. 4-6. (Venezia, 1864).- 
Ferussacia jani PFEIFFER, Monogr. iv, 622; vi, 252; viii, 307. 
Oionella ( Gacil. ) jani WESTERLUND, Fauna iii, p. 178. Glandina 
veneta Charpentier in coll.; Achatina veneta Charp., KUESTER, 
Neunter Bericht. naturforsch. Ges. Bam berg, 1870, p. 93. 
Oionella jani HESSE, Jahrb. D. M. Ges. ix, 1882, p. 331 (Hy- 
mettos, Greece). Cacilianella ( Aciculina ) jani BOETTGER, 
Nachrbl. D. Mai. Ges. vol. 37, 1905, p. Ill (distribution). 

The identity of this species, and its synonymy, have been the 
subjects of considerable variance. Unfortunately I have not 
access to de Betta's " Esame Critico" in which he figures the 



CJECILIOIDES OF ITALY. 23 

species. Westerlund's account, which I have used above, 
seems to have been taken mainly from Kuester s article of 1870, 
which was the first critical discussion of the species. 

Var. gredleri Kuester. Shell ovate-fusiform, slender, thin, 
polished, whitish, the spire rather acute, whorls a little convex, 
joined by a margined suture, the last more than half the total 
length. Aperture narrow, lanceolate ; peristome unexpanded 
acute, arching forward. Columella short, slightly arcuate, 
obliquely truncate, margins joined by a callus. Length 5.5, 
diam. scarcely 2 mm. (Acicula gredleri Kuester, Neunter Ber. 
Nat. Ges. Bamberg, 1870, p. 94). 

"One might say that this species represents a shortened, 
widened aciculoides, just as veneta seems to be a derivative of 
acicula. The slender shell is fusiform, but the greatest width is 
below the middle." The types were found at Trient with A. 
veneta by Professor Gredler. One example was found by Dr. 
Kuester at Triest. 

14. C. ACICULOIDES ('Jan' de Betta). PI. 2, fig. 25. 

Shell minute, fusiforrn-cylindric, acicular, the apex attenuate, 
obtuse, hyaline, glossy, white or gray. Whorls nearly flat; 
suture very narrowly margined; columella arcuate, the base 
narrowly truncate. Aperture ovate-oblong, lanceolate, very 
narrow; peristome simple, unexpanded, acute. Length 8.5 to 
4, diam. 1 to 1.25 mm.; whorls 6 (de Betta, 1852). 

Northern Italy: valley of the Non; near Fondo and in the 
valley of S. Romedio, in crevices of the earth and limestone 
(de Betta); Triest (Kuester). 

Columna aciculoides CRISTOFORI et JAN, Catalogus, Mantissa 
p. 2 (1832). Achatina aciculoides Jan, DE BETTA, Malacologia 
terr. e fluv. della Valle di Non, nel Tirolo Italiano (Verona, 
1852), p. 75, fig. Ill a, b; Catalogo del Moll. terr. e fluv. 
viventi nelle prov. Venete (Verona 1855), p. 57. KUESTER, 
Neunter Bericht der naturforschenden Ges. zu Bamberg, 1869- 
70, p. 91. Cionella (Cadi) a., WESTERLUND, Fauna, p. 177. 

From the notably higher, almost awl-shaped acicula this 
species differs by the entirely different, rather fusiform, cylin- 
dric shape, the much higher last whorl, half the total alt,, and 



24 C^ECILIOIDES OF ITALY. 

the longer aperture, not so much receding below and less 
widened. The moderately increasing whorls are somewhat 
convex, the upper margin noticeably thickened, narrowly bor- 
dered. The base of the last whorl is very lightly arcuately 
tapering. The bend of the columella is indistinct, the trunca- 
tion at its base oblique. The ends of the peristome are joined 
by a distinct deposit. Length 5, diam. 1.33 to 1.5 mm. 
(Kuester, 1870). 

This species was quite unrecognizably described by Jan, but 
it was redescribed in 1852 by Edoardo de Betta, from specimens 
received from Jan. I have translated de Betta' s description 
and reproduced his very poor figure. Kuester ably discussed 
the form in 1870, having specimens received from de Betta, and 
others collected by himself at Triest. 

15. C. PEDEMONTANA Pollonera. 

Differs from aciculoides by the less swollen shell, slightly 
smaller size, spire a little more acute and higher, aperture 
narrower and the columellar margin less arcuate. Length 6, 
diam. 1.75mm. (Poll). 

Italy: drift debris of the Po at Turin; of the Scrivia at 
Carbonara. 

Cfpcilianella p. POLL., Atti R. Accad. Sci. di Torino, xx, 1885, 
p. 693. 

16. C. LAUTA (Paulucci). PL 3, fig. 41, 42. 

Shell slender, elongate-lanceolate, glassy- hyaline, whitish, 
polished, glossy. Spire produced, the apex obtuse. Whorls 6, 
irregularly and rapidly increasing, the first 4 only a trifle convex, 
the rest a little convex, separated by a duplicated, impressed 
suture; last whorl larger, slightly more than one-third the total 
length, not descending. Aperture oblong, angular above; 
columella curved, truncate, not reaching the base of the aper- 
ture. Peristome unexpanded, the outer margin arching for- 
ward, margins joined by a thin callus. Length 4.5, diam. 1.5 
mm. (Paul). 

Italy: peak of Ronconali. 

Acicula lauta PAULUCCI, Bull. Soc. Malac. Italiana, xii, 1886, 
p. 46, pi. 2, f. 4. 



CvEOILIOIDES OF SICILY. 25 

17. C. ACTONIANA (Benoit). PI. 2, figs. 20, 21, 22. 

Shell oblong- fusiform, slightly swollen, very thin, very 
glossy, hyaline, corneous-yellowish. Spire turrite-conic, the 
apex obtuse, suture deep, indistinctly margined. Whorls 5, 
convex, very rapidly increasing, the last nearly longer than the 
spire. Columella a little arcuate, very narrowly truncate at the 
base. Aperture ovate-oblong; peristome simple, unexpanded, 
acute; margins joined by a thin callus. Length 4, diam. 1.5, 
aperture 1.5 x 1 mm. (Ben.}. 

Sicily: Around Palermo (Benoit). 

Achatina actoniana BEN., Illustr. Test, estramar. Sicilia, 
1862, p. 244 ("pi. 10, f. 8," unpublished). PFR., Monogr., 
vi, p. 242. Cacilianella a., BENOIT, Catalogo, p. 87. Cionella 
a., WESTERLUND, Fauna, iii, p. 172. 

Figured from specimens received from Benoit, fig. 20 repre- 
senting the adult, 4.3 x 1.3 mm., figs. 21, 22 the immature 
form, 3.7 x 1.2 mm. It is very similar to C. petitiana, from 
which it differs in little but the smaller size, in specimens of 
apparently equal age. It is practically identical with C. rizzeana, 
though the mouth may be a thought narrower, in the specimens 
compared. The Madeiran C. nyctelia is conchologically not 
distinguishable. 

Var. rizzeana (Benoit). PI. 2, figs. 26, 27. Shell long-fusi- 
form, thin, polished, glossy, hyaline, whitish-buff. Spire 
tapering-turrite, the apex mamillate; suture impressed, very 
narrowly margined. Whorls 6, a trifle convex, the first 4 
regularly increasing, the last 2 very rapidly descending, the last 
two shorter than the spire, two-fifths the total length. Colum- 
ella subarcuate, abruptly and broadly truncate, not reaching to 
the base. Aperture oblong- acuminate, rather narrow; peristome 
simple, unexpanded, acute, the margins joined by a rather thick 
white callus. Length 4.5, diam. 1.75, aperture 2x0.75 mm. 
(Ben.). 

Sicily : vicinity of Palermo, type loc. ; banks of the Simeto, 
Plain of Catania (Benoit); Province of Syracuse, in debris of 
of the Anapo (Cafici). 

Achatina rizzeana BEN., Illustr. Test, estramar. Sicilia, 1862, 
p. 245, pi. 8, f. 10. Ferussacia r., BGT., Rev. et Mag. de Zool. 



26 CyECILIOIDES OF SICILY. 

xvi, 1864, p. 211, no. 48. PFR., Monogr. vi, p. 258. Ci 

ella r. BENOIT, Catalogo, p. 87. Cochlicopa ;*., CAFICT, II. Nat. 

Sicil. i, p. 204. 

From specimens before me from Benoit. this does not seem 
to differ materially from C. petitiana except in being smaller. 
I have figured a Benoit shell measuring 4.4 x 1.3 mm. There 
is no noticeable parietal callus nodule or ridge; the outer lip is 
very strongly, evenly arched forward; and the last whorl 
descends very obliquely in the middle of its length. 

Far. petitiana (Benoit). PI. 2, figs. 23, 24. Shell elongate- 
fusiform, thin, polished, glossy, hyaline, whitish. Spire conic- 
turrite, the apex a little obtuse; suture impressed, narrowly 
margined. Whorls 6, slightly convex, rapidly increasing, the 
last nearly flat, longer than the spire. Columella subarcuate, 
abruptly truncate at the base. Aperture lanceolate, narrow. 
Peristome simple, unexpanded, acute, the margins joined by a 
very thin callus. Length 5, diam. 1.66, aperture 2x0.75 mm. 
(Ben.). 

Sicily: Mt. Bellocampo and Billiemi near Palermo. 

Achatina petitiana BEN., Illustr. Test. Estramar. Sicilia 1802, 
p. 247, pi. 8, f. 8. PFR., Monogr. vi, 242. CacilianeUap., 
BGT., Rev. et Mag. Zool. xvi, 1864, p. 212. Benoit, Catalogo, 
p. 88. 

Several lots, all from Benoit, are before me. The extremely 
thin hyaline shell has a conspicuously margined suture. The 
upper part of the spire is slightly contracted. The first whorl 
increases in width very rapidly, the next \\ increase but little; 
then the width increases rapidly again, the suture descending 
more obliquely. Its descent is most oblique in the middle of 
the last whorl, somewhat less so towards its end. The outer 
lip arches very strongly forward, the greatest convexity being 
below the middle. The parietal wall has only a thin callous 
film. The colurnella is concave, has a callous edge, and is 
obliquely but quite distinctly truncate at the base. Length 
4.3, diam. 1.3 mm.; whorls 5. 

17. C. STEPHANIANA (Benoit). PI. 2, figs. 29, 30. 

Shell elongate-fusiform, rather solid, polished, milk-white. 



C/ECILIOIDES OF ITALY, SICILY, MALTA. 27 

Spire conic-turrite, the apex rather obtuse. Suture somewhat 
impressed, margined. Whorls 6, convex, the last subovate, 
tapering at the base, longer than the spire. Columella sub- 
vertical, calloused, obliquely truncate, not reaching to the base. 
Aperture ovate-lanceolate; peristome simple, unexpanded, the 
margins joined by a rather thick callus, right margin arching 
forward. Length 6, diam. 2, aperture 2.6x1 mm. (Ben.} 

Sicily: Palermo, type loc. Malta, in Mr. H. Vassallo's gar- 
den at C. Attard (Caruana-Gatto). Also in Italy, Monte Ar- 
gentaro (Paulucci). 

Achatina ., BENOIT, Illustr. Test, estramar. Sicilia, 1862, p. 
246, pi. 8, f. 11. PFR., Monogr. vi, 241.Cacttiandla s., BEN., 
Catalogo, p. 88. GATTO, The Mediterranean Naturalist, ii, p. 
227, 1892 (Malta). Acicula stephaniana PAULUCCI, Bull. Soc. 
Malac. Italiana xii, 1886, p. 45. 

I have not seen this form, which may differ from petitiana by 
its "calloused" columella. 

18. C. INNOVATA Gregorio. 

Shell very small, thin, translucent, fusiform-submitriform, 
narrow. Spire short, composed of 3 whorls; last whorl rela- 
tively very large, the aperture equal to the spire in length, in 
this respect differing from C. tiberiana Ben. (Gregorio). 

Sicily: Scorcia Denaro, at the Pagliarelli, near Palermo. 

OaciManetta innovata de GREGORIO, II Naturalista Siciliano, 
xiv, July-Sept., 1895, p. 206. 

Numerous Sicilian forms have also been "described," as 
follows. 

C. spadaforensis (Benoit). Shell somewhat solid, fusiform, 
lucid, smooth, whitish; spire of 6 slightly convex whorls, sep- 
arated by a superficial suture, which with strong magnification 
is seen to be encircled with a band; apex very obtuse. Last 
two whorls more than two-thirds the total length. Columella 
twisted, but hardly truncate. Aperture narrow, long, acutely 
angular above; peristome simple, acute, the margins joined by 
a weak callus. Length 7.5, diam. 3 mm. Spadafora, near 
Messina, Sicily (Cadi, ., BENOIT, Catalogo, 1881, p. 91). 

C. maretima (Benoit). Shell somewhat cylindric, lucid, 



28 C^ECILIOIDES OF ITALY, SICILY, MALTA. 

whitish. Spire of 5 nearly flat whorls separated by a moderate 
suture, the apex obtuse; last whorl nearly half the total length; 
columella strongly twisted but scarcely truncate; aperture nar- 
row, acuminate above: peristome simple, acute, the margins 
joined by a scarcely visible callus. Length 6, diam. 3 mm. 
Island of Maretimo, near Sicily. (Ben}. 

Cacilianella maretima BEN., Catalogo etc., 1881, p. 91. 

C. splendens (Benoit). A fragile little snail, vitreous, smooth 
and transparent. Spire composed of 5 slightly swollen whorls 
separated by a superficial suture, the last a little less than half 
the total length; apex very obtuse; truncation clear-cut and 
precise, a little above the base. Aperture piriform, lip acute, 
the margins joined by a callus. Length 5, diam. 2 mm. Sicily: 
Mt. S. Martino. (Catil. s., BENOIT, Catalogo etc., 1881, p. 91). 

O. montana (Benoit). Shell elongate-cylindric, very fragile, 
glassy, transparent, clear, rather obtuse at the apex. Spire of 
5 rather flat whorls, the last forming about half the length of 
the shell. Suture superficial, encircled by a narrow whitish 
band. Columella truncate at about the level of the base. 
Aperture narrow, long, most acutely angular above; peristome 
simple, acute; margins joined by an inconspicuous callus. 
Length 5, diam. 1.5 mm. (Ben.}. 

Sicily : Mt. Petroso, not far from Palermo. 

Ciecil. montana BEN., Catalogo, 1881, p. 92. 

C. elegans (Benoit). Shell minute, slenderly fusiform, bright, 
transparent, whitish. 5 whorls at the spire regularly increasing, 
little convex, and separated by a moderately impressed suture, 
the last half the total length. Right margin very straight, the 
left very arcuate and truncate above the base. Peristome acute, 
the margins joined by a scarcely visible callus. Length 5, 
diam. 2.5 mm. (Ben.). 

Sicily: country around Palermo. 

C. elegans BEN., Catalogo etc., 1881, p. 92. 

19. C. GATTOI (Westerlund). 

Shell cylindric-turrite, glossy, diaphanous, white, rather dis- 
tantly costulate-striate. Spire slowly tapering from the middle 
of the shell, turrite-conic, rather obtuse. Whorls 6, a little 



C^ECILIOIDES OF MALTA. 29 

convex, the upper three rather narrow, last three rather wide, 
the penultimate slightly larger than the preceding, half as long 
as the last at aperture; last whorl long, tapering below. Suture 
slightly impressed, broadly margined, slightly oblique, sub- 
horizontal at the aperture. Aperture long, narrow, slowly 
tapering upward, rounded at base, parietal wall and columella 
short, at the base truncate, lying nearly in a straight line, outer 
margin vertical, produced in the middle. Length, 6.5, diam. 
2, aperture 3 mm. (Westerl. ). 

Malta: Cape Attard, under stones in Uied Encita. 

Cacilianella gattoi WESTERL. in GATTO, The Mediterranean 
Naturalist, ii, p. 227, Aug. 1, 1892. Cionella ((7.) gattoi 
WESTERL., Nachrichtsblatt d. Deutchen Malak. Ges. , Dec., 
1892, p. 195. 

20. C. MELITENSIS Gatto. 

Shell sub-subulate, slowly tapering almost to the base, rather 
obtuse, hyaline, striatulate. Whorls 6, scarcely convex, rather 
slowly increasing, the penultimate slightly longer than the pre- 
ceding whorl, and about equal to the last. Suture oblique, 
margined. Aperture about a third the total length, narrowly 
ovate, rounded at base, shortly acuminate upward; parietal 
wall almost straightly descending; columella rather more strongly 
arcuate, truncate below, not reaching to the base. Outer lip 
strongly arched forward. Length 3.66 to 4, diam. 1.25 mm. 
(Westerl.}. 

Malta: in flower-pots, gardens, house yards, etc. 

Cacilianetta melitensis GATTO, The Mediterranean Naturalist, 
ii, p. 227, Aug., 1892. Cionella (Ccecilianella) melitensis Gatto, 
insc., WESTERL., Nachrbl., Dec., 1892, p. 196. 

21. C. POLLONER^E Gatto. 

Shell subulate, slowly oblong- tapering to the base, slightly 
obtuse, hyaline, densely striate. Whorls 7, a trifle convex, 
the upper two minute, the rest elongate, the penultimate and 
last equal, a little larger than the antepenultimate whorl. 
Suture very oblique, margined. Aperture one-fourth the total 
length, outwardly subvertical, strongly sinuate between the 
slightly convex parietal wall and the thin, short columella 



30 (LECILIOIDES OF GREECE AND WESTERN ASIA. 

which is slightly truncate at base; the whole outer lip strongly 
arched forward. Length 4.25, diam. 1 mm. (Westerl.) 

Malta: in flower-pots on Dr. Ed. Calleja's terrace; also a 
house yard in Valletta. 

Cacilianella pollonerte GATTO, The Medit. Naturalist, ii, p. 
227, Aug. 1892. Cionella (Cacilianella) pollonera Gatto in Sc., 
WESTERL., Nachrbl. Dec. 1892, p. 196. 

"These three Caecilianellas of the group Aciculina, sent for 
determination by the Count Caruana-Gatto, stand nearest to C. 
petitiana" ( Westerlund). 

Species of Greece and Western Asia. 

Besides the following, C. /. boettgeri and G. jam have been 
recorded. 

22. C. TUMULORUM Bourguignat. PI. 3, fig. 45. 

Shell minute, conic-fusiform, slender, diaphanous, polished, 
whitish, the apex tapering, obtuse; whorls 6, flattened, parted 
by a duplicated superficial suture, the last over one-third the 
total length. Aperture piriform-dilated-oblong; peristome 
acute, simple, unexpanded, the right margin arching forward; 
columella a little twisted and arcuate, abruptly truncate and not 
reaching the base of the aperture; margins joined by a strong 
callus which bears an almost obsolete tooth-like callosity on the 
convexity of the penult, whorl. Length 6 to 6.5, diam. 2 mm. 
(Bgt.). 

Greece: Megara, in lacrymatories from ancient tombs (type 
loc. ); Piraeus, Athens, Syra, etc. (Hesse)] Crete, Nauplia, 
Corfu (Boettger). Asia Minor: Samsun; Adalia, in Lycia; 
Adana, in debris of the Sarus river (Boettger). 

Cadlianella ., BGT., Rev. et Mag. de Zool., viii, 1856, p. 424, 
pi. 12, f. 15-17; Amen. Malac., i, p. 219, pi. 18, f. 15-17. 
PFR., Monogr., iv, 625. HESSE, Jahrb. D. M. Ges., ix, 1882, 
331. NAEGELE, Nachrbl. D. Mai. Ges., 1902, p. 8; 1903, p. 
176 (Adana, CiliciaB, in debris of the Sarus river). BOETTGER, 
Nachrbl., vol. 37, 1905, p. 111. 

" Distinguished easily from liesvillei by its more pyramidal 
shell, larger size, more truncate suture and flatter whorls" 
(Rgt.). 



C^ECILIOIDES OF GREECE AND WESTERN ASIA. 31 

23. C. SUBSAXANA (Bourguignat). PL 3, fig. 50. 

Shell very minute, obese- fusiform, very slender, hyaline, 
polished, whitish; apex very obtuse, whorls 4-J to 5, subplanu- 
late, parted by a double suture, the last more than half the 
total length. Aperture narrow, long; peristome acute, simple, 
unexpanded; right margin somewhat dilated in the middle; 
columella arcuate, with a callous deposit, and strongly abruptly 
truncate, not reaching to the base; margins joined by a callus. 
Length 2.5, diam. 1 mm. (Bgt.). 

Greece: Megara, in lacrymatories from ancient tombs (A. 
Gaudry). 

C. mbsaxona BGT., Rev. et Mag. Zool. viii, 1856, p. 426, pi. 
12, f. 18-20; Amen. Malac. i, 220, pi. 18, f. 18-20. Achatina 
s. , Pfr. , Monogr. iv, 625. 

24. C. OBTUSATA (Westerlund). 

Shell with the lower half fusiform, the upper cylindric. 
Whorls 5, the first small, depressed, the second large, strongly 
convex, globose, wider and slightly shorter than the weakly convex 
third whorl, which is scarcely shorter than the fourth; the last 
whorl lengthened, narrowed below, half the total length; suture 
slightly oblique, simple; aperture narrow; outer margin scarcely 
produced forward; columella somewhat curved, truncate. 
Length 3.66, diam. 1 mm. (Westerl.*). 

Caucasus: Poti. 

Cionella (Csecilianella*) obtusata WESTERL., Fauna iii, p. 181 
(1887). 

Two specimens were found with C. liesvillei,. Even if they 
are not full-grown, the form is distinguishable from all others 
by its apex. 

25. C. RADDEI (Boettger). PI. 3, figs. 46, 47. 

Shell suboblong-fusiform, whitish glassy; spire turrited, the 
apex obtuse. Whorls 5-J, here and there substriate, very little 
convex, the penultimate nearly equal to the height of those 
above; last whorl not distinctly more swollen than the rest, 
more convex towards the base, three-sevenths the total length. 
Aperture drop-shaped; columella arcuate, very obliquely, 



32 C^ECILIOIDES OF GREECE AND WESTERN ASIA. 

abruptly truncate at the base; peristome a little arching forward 
below the middle. Length 4| to 5, diam. 1.5, aperture 2.12 to 
2.25 mm. long. (Bttg.) 

Caucasus: Mamutli, type loc. ; Borshom, in flotsam of the 
Kura. Asia Minor: Sarus river drift at Adana; Samsun (Bttg.) 

Cochlicopa (Hohenwartiana) radd&i BTTG., Jahrbiicher. d. D. 
Malak. Ges. vi, 1879, p. 25, pi. 1, f. 8; p. 397. Cacilianella 
acicula Mull.? MOUSSON, Coq. Schlaefli, Vierteljahrsschr. Nat. 
Ges. Zurich viii, 1863, p. 404. Cacilianella (Aciculina) raddd 
BTTG., Nachrbl. D. M. Ges. vol. 37, 1905, p. 112. 

This species is comparable to C. jani de B., having the 
sharply truncate columella of that, but it does not reach nearly 
the size 5.5 to 6.75 mm. long, 2.25 to 2.5 wide. C. jani has 
also a much more ventricose last whorl and distinctly more 
acute apex. (Bttg.) 

26. C. TORTA (Mousson). 

Aperture at the base a little compressed; columella incurved, 
terminating in a twisted thread. This species resembles that of 
Lombardy in general appearance, so that for the time being it 
may be regarded as a variety of it, characterized by having the 
aperture slightly contracted towards the base, and the columella 
abruptly truncate. The single example, taken at Sayda, is not 
sufficient to establish well these differences. (Mousson). 

Syria: Sayda (Prof. Bellardi). 

Glandina (?) aciculoides Jan., var. torta Mouss. Mittheilungen 
der Naturforsch. Ges. in Zurich, iii, No. 103, 1854, p. 395, No. 
15. Ccecilianella syriaca BOURGUIGNAT, Rev. et Mag, de Zool., 
1856, p. 429, based solely upon Mousson' s description. 

A form of doubtful status. It was quite unnecessarily re- 
named by Bourguignat. 

27. C. MICHONIANA Bourguignat. PL 3, figs. 48, 49. 

Shell minute, oblong, fragile, glossy, transparent, glassy, 
smooth. Spire short, tapering-acuminate, the apex a little 
obtuse. Whorls 6, a little convex, irregularly increasing, the 
first minute, last large, separated by a somewhat impressed, 
duplicated suture; last whorl slightly convex, more than half 



CLECILIOIDES OF GREECE AND WESTERN ASIA. 33 

the total length. Aperture oblong, acutely angular above, 
somewhat dilated below; columella straight, truncate at the base, 
the outer lip strongly arched forward, margins joined by a 
callus. Length 5.5, diam. 2 mm. (BgL). 

Around Jerusalem, under stones, type loc. ; Adana Cilicia, 
in S.-E. Asia Minor. 

Ferussada michoniana BGT., Rev. et Mag. Zool. xvi, 1864, 
p. 197, pi. 18, f. 17-20; Moll, nouv., litig., etc., p. 115, pi. 19, 
f. 17-20. Pfr., Monogr. vi. 197. Cacilianella (Adculina) 
michoniana Bgt., BTTG. Nachrbl. d. D. Malak. Ges. vol. 37, 
1905, p. 113. 

Boettger remarks that this species is an Aciculina (= Cadli- 
oides), not a Hohenworthia, and is distinguished by its especially 
regular fusiform shape. Two specimens from Adana measure, 
alt. 6, diam. 2 mm. and alt. 4. diam. 1.37 mm. 

28. C. JUDAICA Mousson. 

A little larger [than tumulorum] ; whorls slightly convex; the 
the parietal wall not calloused, but the columella slightly 
thread-margined at the end. Length 7 mm. (Mousson, 1861). 

Glandina tumulorum Bourg. var. judaica Mouss. , Coq. terr. et 
fluv. rec. par Mr. le Prof. J. R. Roth dans son dernier voyage 
en Palestine, 1861, p. 53. Ferussacia judaica BGT., Malac. de 
1'Algerie ii, p. 33; Rev. et Mag. Zool., 1864, p. 211.Acicula 
( Cadlianella) judaica Bgt. , MOUSSON, Journ. de Conchyl. xxii, 
1874, p. 15. 

Differs from tumulorum Roth by the feebly convex whorls 
separated by a margined suture, the last whorl comprising two- 
fifths of the total length; by the parietal wall being without any 
callus, the outer margin not divergent, finally by the columella 
which is obliquely truncate a little way above the base, and 
bordered with a thread. The largest individuals are 7 mm. 
long (Mousson, 1874). 

29. C. MINUTA (Mousson). PL 3, figs. 54, 55, 56. 

Shell small, cylindric-subfusiform, fragile, smooth, glossy, 
subhy aline. Spire accelerate, a little convexly conic, the apex 
stout, obtuse; suture slightly impressed, simple; whorls 4, more 



34 OA5CILIO1DES OF GREECE AND WESTERN ASIA. 

and more descending, convexly flattened, the last half the total 
length, elongate, cylindric in the middle, shortly tapering below. 
Aperture vertical, very narrow; outer margin straightly descend- 
ing, slightly arching forward, curving into the columella below. 
Columella long, slightly excavated, abruptly, obliquely trun- 
cate below, slightly margined with a delicate thread. Length 
4, diam. 1.2 mm. 

Mesopotamia: drift debris of the Euphrates (type loc. ), and 
of the Sarus river near Adana, S. -E. Asia Minor. 

Acimla (Cacilianella) minuta Mouss., Journ. de Conchyl. 
1874, p. 39. Cadlianella (Aciculina) minuta BOETTGER, Nach- 
richtsblatt D. Malak. Ges. 1905, p. 112, pi. 2 A, f. 4 a-d. 

According to Mousson, there are fewer whorls than in C. 
adcula; the apex is larger and more obtuse, the last whorl is 
more cylindric, and the remarkably narrow aperture has the 
free margin descending in a straight line curving towards the 
end of the columella and without surpassing it. The columella 
is but slightly concave and is obliquely truncate at the base. 

The figures are copied from Boettger, and represent specimens 
from the drift of the Sarus river, where this species is common. 
He remarks that the examples vary quite noticeably in size but 
normally it is 4 to 4.5 mm. long, 1.12 to 1.25 mm. wide. A 
relative is C. subsaxana Bgt. , which perhaps may be a young 
form of the same species. 

30. C. PR^ECLARA Westerlund. 

Shell long-cylindric, very slender, very glossy, very smooth, 
hyaline, glassy, the spire much produced, a little obtuse. 
Whorls 6 to 7, a little convex, the antepenultimate scarcely 
twice the length of the preceding, the penultimate one-third the 
total length, flattened dorsally, slowly tapering downwards; 
suture a little impressed, conspicuously and narrowly margined, 
deeply descending in the middle and below. Aperture long 
piriform, acutely angular above, retuse below, parietal margin 
long, straightish; columella short, a little arcuate, abruptly 
truncate at the base. Peristome unexpanded, acute, simple, 
the outer margin strongly arching forward in the middle, 
receding at base. Length 5 to 5.5, diam. 1 mm. (Westerl. ) 



C^CILIOIDES OF AFRICA AND ARABIA. 35 

Turkestan: Totkaul (Kasnakow, in Zool. Mus. St. Peters-, 
burg). 

Cacilianella (Aciculina) praclara WESTERL., Annuaire Mue. 
Zool. Acad. Imp. Sci. St. Petersburg, iii, 1898, p. 176. 

31. C. RETTERI Rosen. 

Shell fusiform, slender, whitish-glassy, pellucid, the apex 
obtuse; whorls 5, very slightly convex, the penultimate nearly 
as long as those above it; aperture drop-shaped; columella 
arcuate; peristome a little protracted below the middle. Length 
4.5 to 4.75, diam. 1.25, alt. aperture 1.75 mm. (Rosen). 

Central Asia: Aman-Kutan. 

Cacilianella retteri ROSEN, Nachrbl. d. D. Malak. Ges. vol. 35, 
Dec. 1903, p. 181. ROSEN Moskva Izv. Obsc. Hub. jest. Dnevn. 
Zool. iii, 3, 1901. 

Species of South and N. -E. Africa and Arabia. 

32. C. AD VENA Ancey. 

Shell slender, imperf orate, tapering-subfusiform, diaphanous, 
polished, whitish-hyaline. Spire long-subconic, the apex ob- 
tuse. Whorls a little more than 5, subconvex, separated by a 
well impressed and delicately margined suture, flattened in the 
middle, the first two regularly, lower whorls more rapidly in- 
creasing, the suture there being more oblique; last whorl more 
than one-third the total length of the shell; the sides convex 
beyond the middle, tapering at the base. Aperture long, piri- 
form, subvertical, in the middle of the parietal wall distinctly 
angularly thickened within. Columella below the angle broadly 
arcuate, obliquely truncate at base. Peristome simple, unex- 
panded, acute, the outer margin arcuately produced forward, 
basal margin receding; margins remote, joined by a distinct 
callus. Length 4! 33, diam. 1.25, aperture 1.5 x 0.66 mm. 
(Anc.) 

S.-W. Africa: Disappointment Key, Ovampoland ("Luder- 
itzland," or Damara). 

Ccecilianella advena ANCEY, Le Naturaliste x, 1888, p. 215. 
"This Cecilianelle resembles some of those known as inhabitants 
of temperate Europe and North Africa, without being assign- 
able to any of them." 



36 CLECILIOIDES OK AFRICA AND ARABIA. 

33. C. OVAMPOENSIS (Melvill & Ponsonby). PI. 3, fig. 52. 
Shell small, acicular, white, very thin, the apex obtuse. 

Whorls 4, the last produced; columella truncate at the base. 
Aperture oblong, the lip simple. Length 3, width 1 mm. 
(M. &R). 

South Africa: Ovampoland (E. L. Layard). 

Ciondla ovampoensis M. & P., Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. 6th 
Ser., ix, p. 91, pi. 6, f. 1 (January, 1892). A very elegant, 
pure white, four-whorled shell, with very obtuse apex, a little 
recalling the Cacilianella acicula (Mull.) of Europe and the 
British Isles. (Mel. & Pons.). 

34. C. MUNZINGERI (Jickeli). PI. 3, fig. 53. 

Shell imperforate, subulate, thin, glossy, hyaline, whitish, 
longitudinally striated under the lens. Whorls 8, subinflated, 
separated by a rather deep oblique suture, the last whorl 
descending, one-fourth the total length. Aperture oblique, 
vertically piriform; columella arcuate, very obliquely truncate; 
lip acute, thin. Length 9.5, diam. 1.75, aperture 2 x 1.33 mm. 

(Jfafc). 

Abyssinia: Beniamer, banks of the Falkat and in Habab, 
descending from Nakfa; in the earth at roots of plants. (Jickeli). 
Mt. Abouna Yousef, at 4000 meters elevation (Raff ray). 

StenogyramunzingeriJiCK., Malak. Blatter xx, 1872, p. 103. 
Acicula munzingeri JICK., Fauna der Land und Siisswasser- 
Mollusken N.-O.-Afrika's, in Nova Acta Acad. Caes. Leop.- 
Carol. Germ. Nat. Cur. xxxvii, Dresden 1875, p. 133, pi. 2, 
f. 3 (teeth and jaw), pi. 5, f. 21 a, 6, (shell). Subulina m., 
BGT. Malacologie de PAbyssinie p. 82, pi. 9, f. 65-67. 

Bourguignat has referred this species to Subulina, whether 
correctly or not I do not know. His figures of the form taken 
by Raffray show the sutures much less oblique than in Jickeli' s 
figures. 

35. C. SOLEILLETI Bourguignat. PI. 3, fig. 51. 

Shell lanceolate-elongate, needle-like, diaphanous, very 
fragile, whitish, polished; spire very long, a little obtuse at the 
summit, whorls 6, regularly and rather rapidly increasing, the 



CjECILIOIDES OF AFRICA AND ARABIA. 37 

first two are scarcely convex, not increasing in diameter, but 
cylindric like a pillar; the rest are convex; separated by an im- 
pressed suture, last whorl ovate-convex, less than one-third the 
total length. Aperture very oblique, ovate, angular above, peris- 
tome unexpanded, acute; columella short, truncate. Length, 
7, diam. 2, aperture 2x1 mm. (Bgt. ) 

East Africa: wooded valley of Bidaro, Choa, southern 
Ethiopia (Soleillet). 

Ccedlianella ., BGT., Mollusques terrestres et fluviatiles 
recueillis par M. Paul Soleillet dans son Voyage au Choa 
(Ethiopie mfridionale), Sept. 1885, p. 22, pi. (1), f. 10. 

Remarkable for its cylindric two upper whorls. 

36. C. ISSELT (Paladilhe). PL 3, fig. 57. 

Shell imperf orate, subconic-cylindric, glossy, nearly smooth, 
subpellucid, ivory white (in dead shells); spire tapering up^ 
ward, the apex rather obtuse; whorls 6, slightly convex as 
though twisted, rapidly increasing, parted by a narrow, im- 
pressed suture, the penultimate whorl large in front, the last 
whorl a little larger, scarcely one-third the total length, some- 
what ascending at the aperture, the free margin a little arcuate. 
Aperture subpiriform, a little oblique, angular above at the 
insertion of the lip; peristome unexpanded, fragile, acute; 
columella short, slightly arcuate, broadly and distinctly trun- 
cate at the base; outer margin broad, nearly straight, basal 
slightly arcuate; margins subparallel, joined by a thin callus. 
Length 5, diam. 1.5 mm. (Palad.). 

Aden. 

Cacilianella isseli PALAD., Annali Mus. Civ. Genova iii, 1872, 
p. 22 (probably not the figures). 

11 By its slim shape, approaching the cylindric, its more 
twisted whorls, deeper suture and the appearance of the aper- 
ture, C. isseli is distinguished from all of its congeners of the 
Alpic center." 

Paladilhe probably had two species mixed in his lot of C. 
isseli. The description is that of a Ctztilioides, possibly identical 
with Nevill's second species (Handlist Ind. Mus. p. 162), 
and with A. balanus of Hanley and Theobald (Conchologin, 



38 CJKCILIOIDE8 OF TROPICAL AMERICA. 

Indica, p. 41, pi. 102, f. 10, copied in my fig. 61 of plate 4); 
while the figure given by Paladilhe, which I have copied, seems 
to belong to C. (Geostilbia) balanus. Further investigation of 
the C&cilioides of Aden and India is much needed. Whether 
the observed differences in the columella indicate several species, 
or are extreme aspects of variation in a single stock, are ques- 
tions I can throw no light upon. 

Species of tropical Asia, West Indies, etc. 

Tropical countries have a few species of (J&cilioides of two 
groups: (1) the group of C. iota, comprising very minute species 
1.6 to 2.5 mm. long, markedly cylindric, with the whorls nearly 
flat. All are American. (2) the group of C. gundlachi, with 
the shell larger, usually 3 to 5 mm., composed of convex, very 
obliquely coiled whorls. The columella is only quite obsoletely 
truncate. These groups are known as Caecilianopsis and 
Oeostilbm. 

Section C^CILIANOPSIS Pilsbry. 

Cacilianopsis PILS., Nautilus xxi, July, 1907, p. 28, for 
(7. jod = C. consobrina veracruzensis. 

Minute (1.6 to 2.5 mm. long), cylindric-oblong, the spire 
short, wider than in Cacilioides. Columella varying from 
abruptly truncate to very obsoletely so. Tropical American. 
Type C. consobrina veracruzensis. 

37. C. IOTA (C. B. Adams). PI. 4, figs. 67, 71, 72. 

Shell minute, slender, corneous; whorls 4, very wide, smooth; 
aperture long, very acute above; columella arcuate. Divergence 
12 degrees; length of spire .08, total length .135, width .045 
inch. (Ad.). 

Jamaica (C. B. Adams): Bellevue, (Gloyne, in Swift Coll.); 
Yallahs (Gloyne). 

Achatina iota C. B. AD., Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H. 1845, p. 13. 
PFR., Monogr. ii, 295; iii, 506; iv, 626; vi, 241; viii, 297; 
Conchyl. Cab. p. 355, pi. 29, f. 18, 19 (bad). GLOYNE, Journ. 
de Conchyl. xx, 1872, p. 32. 

The type lot at Amherst consists of three specimens. It is a 



CvECILIOIDES OF TROPICAL AMERICA. 39 

gubcylindric shell, obtuse at both ends, of scarcely four whorls 
in most examples, 4J in the longest. The shell is clear corneous 
when fresh, showing the internal walls through, but it weathers 
to milky white. The whorls are only slightly convex, and are 
separated by a moderately impressed suture, margined below. 
The suture is at first nearly horizontal, but at the last 1 or 
2 whorls it descends rapidly, the width of the whorl progres- 
sively increasing. The aperture is acuminate above. Outer lip 
arches very strongly forward. The columella is more or less 
concave below, and is rather abruptly truncate above the base. 
Columellar callus usually moderate, but variable in thickness. 
Under a high power, an extremely minute spiral striation may 
be seen near the base. Measurements are as follows: 

Cotype, Adams coll.: length 1.75, diam. .5 mm. 

Bellevue; fig. 72: length 2, length aperture 0.8 mm. 

Fig. 71: length 2, diam. 0.6, aperture 0.75 mm. 

Fig. 67: length 1.65, diam. 0.5, aperture 0.75 mm. 

C. iota has been found only in Jamaica. It is readily dis- 
tinguished from other tropical- American species by its much 
narrower contour. Exact measurements which I have made of 
a large number of specimens from several localities show the 
difference in shape to be constant. 

Pfeiffer's figure of this species in the Oonchylien Cabinet is very 
poor. It shows no columellar truncation, and hence 0. iota 
was classed by Crosse and others in Geostilbia. Adams's type 
specimens, as well as numerous examples before me, have a 
distinctly truncate columella. 

38. C. CONSOBRINA (Orbigny). PI. 5, figs. 81, 82. 

Shell oblong-fusiform, subcylindric, pellucid, glossy, white; 
spire of nearly equal diameter to the end, very obtuse. Whorls 
5, very slightly convex, the last oblong. Aperture ovate-oblong; 
columella twisted, truncate. Length 2, diam. f mm. (Orbigny). 

Cuba: in the interior (Sagra); coffee plantation Fundador 
near Matanzas among dead leaves (Gundlach, type loc. of A. 
pygmaa) . 

Achatina consobrina ORBIGNY, Historia fisica, politica y natural 
de la isla de Cuba, v, Moluscos, p. 89, pi. xi bis, f. 10, 11, 12, 



40 C^CILIOIDES OF TROPICAL AMERICA. 

erroneously lettered A michaudiana on plate (1845); French 
edit, i, p. 170. Achatina pygmaa PFR. , Zeitschr. f. Malak. 1847, 
p. 148; Monogr. ii, 275; iii, 506; iv, 627; vi, 241; Conchyl. 
Cab. p. 356, pi. 29, f. 22, 23. Cacilianella pygmaa Pfr. ARANQO, 
Fauna Malac. Cubana, p. 99. 

This species is closely related to C. iota, from which it differs 
by the stouter, more robust figure, specimens of the same length 
being invariably wider than iota. The general shape is slightly 
tapering cylindric, very obtuse at the ends. The whorls in- 
crease a little more regularly than in iota, the last turn of the 
suture being less oblique, though descending faster than the 
preceding one. This acceleration of the rate of descent changes 
the appearance of the shell and the proportionate size of aperture 
to total length with age, so that the addition of a whorl or even 
less alters the contour remarkably. The surface is lightly 
marked with growth-wrinkles and minute engraved spiral lines, 
visible only under a compound microscope. The columellar 
truncation is distinct, but rather weak in some examples. Two 
specimens from a lot taken by Gundlach are figured. 

PI. 5, fig. 82: length 2.4, diam. 0.8 mm. 

PI. 5, fig. 81: length 1.9, diam. 0.7 mm. 

The former of these examples corresponds to the type of 
A. pygmaa Pfr. ; the latter, a younger shell, agrees with Orbigny's 
type of A. consobrina. In my opinion these two names apply 
to one and the same species, in slightly different stages of 
growth. Pfeiffer's description of A. pygmaa follows. 

" A. pygmaaPh. Shell cylindric, smooth, pellucid hyaline, 
the apex rather obtuse. Whorls 5, rather flattened, separated 
by an oblique, lightly impressed suture, the last f the total 
length. Columella nearly straight, forming an angle with the 
belly of the preceding whorl, subtruncate at the base of the 
oval-elliptical aperture; peristome acute, the right margin 
dilated forward. Length 2.25, diam. f mm.; aperture f mm. 
long." (Pfr.) 

Var. veracruzenm (Crosse & Fisher). PI. 5, figs. 76, 77, 78, 
79. In this form the microscopic spiral striation is more dis- 
tinctly developed than in consobrina, visible from the suture to 
the base, the striae appearing crimped or waved (fig. 79). 
There is no other difference. Specimens measure: 



C^ECILIOIDES OF TROPICAL AMERICA. 41 

PI. 5, fig. 76: length 2.1, diam. 0.75, aperture 0.95 mm. 
( Vera Cruz. ) 

PL 5, fig. 77: length 1.9, diam. 0.75, aperture 0.9 mm. 
(Vera Cruz.) 

PI. 5, fig. 78: length 2.35 mm. (Tampico). 

Eastern Mexico: on the strand, among debris drifted out of 
the Antigua river after heavy rains (Strebel) ; drift debris along 
the Panuco river, Tampico (A. A. Hinkley). 

Achatina iota Adams, STREBEL, Beitrag Mex. Land u. Siiss- 
wasser Conch, ii, 1875, p. 53, pi. 13, f. 50. Not of C. B. 
Adams. Cacilianella veracruzensis C. et F., Journ de Conchyl. 
xxv, 1877, p. 273; Moll. terr. et fluv. Mex., p. 591, pi. 26, f. 
4. MARTENS, Biologia, Moll., p. 324. Cecilioides (Ctzdlia- 
nopsis) jod PILS. Nautilus xxi, p. 28, July, 1907 (Tampico). 

The figures represent an older (fig. 76) and a younger (fig. 
77) shell, from Vera Cruz, the type locality. Also an old shell 
,(figs. 78, 79) from Tampico, representing the absolutely synony- 
mous form I called C. jod. 

In recognizing the Mexican specimens as a race distinguish- 
able from the Cuban form, I am probably placing too much 
dependence upon a slight variation in microscopic sculpture. 
I merely give the facts observed for what they may be worth. 

Var. minutissima (Guppy). PI. 4, fig. 68; pi. 5, figs. 80, 84. 
"A very minute, glassy, hyaline, smooth, shining, fusiformly 
cylindric, shell with 5 whorls, of which the last forms more 
than half the length of the shell, spire short, with obtuse apex. 
Aperture elongate-oval, narrow above, wide below; outer lip 
simple; columella scarcely truncate, passing into a white callus 
which connects the ends of the peristome. Length 2, diam .75 
mm.'' (Guppy). 

Trinidad: Amongst dead leaves at Maraccas (Guppy, type 
loc.). St. Vincent, in dry forest, leeward side, at 1000 ft. (H. 
H. Smith). Barbados (L. B. Brown). 

Glandina minutissima GUPPY, Proc. Scient. Asso. Trinidad, 
1869, p. 239. CROSSE, Journ. de Conchyl. 1890, p. 36, pi. 2, 
f. 1. Oleacina (?) minutissima PFR., Monogr. viii, p. 326 
(1877). Geostilbia minutissima GUPPY, Journ. of Conch, vii, 
1893, p. 211. Cecilioides minutissima E. A. SMITH, Proc. 



42 C^KCILIOIDES OF TROPICAL AMERICA. 

Malac. Soc. Lond. i, p. 308 (St. Vincent). Ca>cilianella rn,, 
BROWN, J. of Conch, x, 1903, p. 269 (Barbados). 

Crosse has very inadequately figured minutissima, and I have 
copied his figure, pi. 5, fig. 80. Figure 84, pi. 5, and fig. 68 of 
pi. 4, represent what I take to be Guppy's species from 
Barbados. The general form is as described for pygmaa-, but 
the surface is smoother than in Cuban or Mexican shells, spiral 
lines being scarcely visible under the compound microscope 
except at the base. The columellar truncation is rather weak. 
Two specimens measure: Length 2.05, diam. .7 mm., whorls 5. 
Length 2.15, diam. .8, aperture 9 mm.; whorls 5. 

With these specimens were others resembling them except 
that the columella is very strongly truncate at the base (pi. 5, 
figs. 83, 85) at all stages of growth. These may represent 
another species, yet I am unable to satisfactorily separate the 
series. The two examples figured measure: length 2, diam. .7 
mm. (fig. 83); length 2.3, diam. .75 mm., whorls 5J (fig. 85) , 

Geostilbia mazei seems to me to be identical with minutmima. 
The original description follows. 

Geostilbia mazei 'Crosse' Maze. PI. 5, fig. 75. " Shell im- 
perforate subcylindric, very thin, smooth, cr}*stalline, hyaline 
unicolored; spire rather long, the apex somewhat obtuse; suture 
impressed. Whorls 4, slowly increasing, the last a little 
shorter than the spire, rounded at the base. Aperture piriform ; 
peristome simple, the margins thin. Length 2.5, diam. . mm. 
Animal of a yellow color" (Maze). 

Guadeloupe: Vieux-Fort, southeastern slope of the Morne 
Houelmont at about 270 meters (E. Marie). 

Geostilbia mazei Crosse Mas., MAZE, Journ. de Conchyl. xxxi, 
1883, p. 7, pi. 1, f. 2. 

39. C. BLANDIANA Crosse. PI. 4, fig. 64. 

Shell imperforate, long-fusiform, very thin, polished, very 
transparent, hyaline. Spire rather long, the apex obtuse, 
rounded; suture impressed. Whorls 4J, a little convex, the 
last shorter than the spire, rounded at base. Aperture sub- 
pirifonn; peristome simple, the margins joined by an incon- 
spicuous, very thin callus; columellar margin slightly thickened, 



C^ECILIOIDES, SECT. GEOSTILBIA. 43 

having an appearance of truncation, which does not really exist; 
hardly reaching to the base; basal margin rounded; outer lip 
arching forward, subacute. Length 2, diam. 0.66mm. (Crosse). 

Brazil: Soure, on the island of Joannes or Juanes, in the 
mouth of the Amazon, Province of Para. 

Geostilbia blandiana CROSSE, Journ. de Conchy 1. 1880, p. 149 
1886, p. 137, pi. 1, f. 4. 

The figure of this species, which I have copied, represents 
the spire as far more tapering than in C. iota or C. consobrina. 
Whether this figure is approximately correct or not I am unable 
to say. 

Section Geostilbia Crosse. 

Geostilbia CROSSE, Journal de Conchy 1. 1867, p. 184, type 
G. caledonica Crosse. 

The shell is similar to Catdlioides except in having the colum- 
ella continuous with the basal lip, being separated therefrom 
only by a slight sinuation, not an abrupt truncation. Type 
G. caledonica. 

The number of valid species of this group is uncertain, but 
several of them surely stand close to C. gundlachi. C. baldivinij 
C. balanus and C. mauritiana are doubtfully distinct. 

40. C. GUNDLACHI (Pfeiffer). PL 4, figs. 73, 74. 
J^Shell subulate, acicular, glossy, clear-greenish; spire slender, 
the apex a little acute; suture deep, margined. Whorls 5, 
rather convex, the last slightly over one-third the total length. 
Golumella slightly arcuate, shortly truncate above the base of 
the narrow, angularly oval aperture; peristome simple, the mar- 
gins joined by a thin callus, the right margin arching forward. 
Length 5, diam. 1.33, aperture 1.75x.66 mm. (P/r.). 

Cuba: Havana, Guanajai and Guantanamo (Gundlach); near 
Cienfuegos. Jamaica. Haiti: Port-au-Prince and Les Caves. 
St. Thomas (Bland). St. Martin. Guadeloupe. Barbados. 
Demarara (Swift coll.). Princeton, New Jersey (A. D. Brown). 
St. Helena (Benson). 

Achatina gundlachi PFR., Zeitschr. f. Malak., 1850, p. 80; 
Conchyl. Cab., Bulimus, p. 358, pi. 29, f. 10, 11; Monogr., iii, 
605; iv, 623; vi, 239; viii, 294. Geostilbia gundlachi CROSSE, 



44 OECILJOIDES, SECT. GEOSTILBIA. 

Journ. de Conchyl., xxi, 1873, p. 355 (Haiti); 1874, p. 88; 
1890, p. 23, 250; 1891, p. 151. BINNEY and BLAND, Ann. 
Lye. N. H. of N. Y., xi, 1875, 152, 185, pi. 13, f. D, G, H, I. 
-MAZE, Journ. de Conch., 1883, p. 7, pi. 1, f. 1 (Guadeloupe). 
CROSSE et FISCHER, Miss. Sci. Mex., Mollusques, i, p. 587, 
pi. 28, f. 14, 15 (copied from Binney). Cadlianella gundlachi 
BINNEY, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci., iii, p. 101, pi. 16, f. F, G 
(jaw), pi. 7, f. F (teeth). ARANGO, Fauna Mai. Cubana, p. 99. 
BROWN, Journ. of Conch., x, 270 (Barbados). Macrospira 
aperta Guild., Swainson, Lardner's Cabinet Cyclopedia, Mala- 
cology, 1840, p. 335, figs. 97 e, /(p. 333). Geostilbia aperta 
E. A. SMITH, Proc. Malac. Soc, Lond., i, 1895, p. 307 (St. 
Vincent); P. Z. S., 1892, p. 269 (St. Helena). A chatina veru 
BENSON, Ann. Mag. N. H., xviii, 1856, p. 435. WOLLASTON, 
Testacea Atlantica, p. 545. 

Pfeiffer's description of this shell is not very good. It tapers 
regularly to the very obtuse, rounded apex. There are 5 whorls, 
very obliquely coiled, quite convex, and parted by impressed 
sutures. The last whorl is evenly convex. The aperture is 
ovate, effuse at the base; the outer lip arches forward strongly 
in the middle. The columella is a little concave, and near the 
base is obsoletely truncate. It has a rather heavy callus in 
most fully adult shells, which passes up over part of the parietal 
wall. The color is pale corneous-brown, or sometimes almost 
clear corneous. There is no spiral striation. Two Cuban exam- 
ples figured measure: Length 4.2, diam. 1.25 mm. Length 
3.85, diam. 1.1, apert 1.3 mm. The figures do not well show 
the heavy callus upon the colunella and lower part of the parietal 
wall. 

This is a somewhat common and widely distributed species, 
probably to be found throughout the Antilles. It was taken 
many years ago in Princeton, N. J., no doubt imported with 
West Indian plants. These specimens were reported as C. 
aricula in Binney' s "Manual." It occurred also in St. Helena, 
though whether it still survives there is unknown. 

The New Caledonian Geostilbia caledonica is in all probability 
the same species, a colony having been derived from Guadaloupe 
or some other Antillean source. At all events I am quite 



C^ECILIOIDES, SECT. GEOSTILBIA. 45 

unable to see any difference in the shell. The original descrip- 
tion follows. 

G. caledonica: PI. 4, figs. 58, 59, 62.. " Shell imperf orate, 
fusiform-cylindric, thin, polished, diaphanous, clear-corneous. 
Apex abruptly rounded, very obtuse; suture hair-marginate; 
whorls 4, slightly convex, the last slowly descending, slightly 
more than half the total length. Aperture long-pirif orm ; peris- 
tome simple, unexpanded, thin, not acute, slightly thickened, 
the margins joined by a very thin callus; columellar margin 
having a longitudinal, small, diaphanous, glossy internal lamina 
giving the appearance of a basal truncation, not reaching the 
base. Basal margin broadly rounded; right margin arching 
forward. Length 3.5, diam. 1 mm." (Crosse). 

New Caledonia: Noumea, common in gardens, living in damp 
places under dead leaves, old wood and on the ground (E. Marie). 

Geostilbia caledonica CROSSE, Journ. de Conchyl. xv, 1867, p. 
186, pi. 7, f. 4; 1894, p. 301 (p. 144 of separate copies, Faune 
Malac. N. Cal6d.) GASSIES, Faune Conch. Nouvelle-Cale*donie 
ii, 1871, p. 96, pi. 4, f. 4. PFR. Monogr. vi, p. 244. 

Two specimens from Noumea are drawn in figures 58, 59, 62, 
pi. 4. They measure 3. 7 x 1.2 mm., and 3.1 x 1 mm. 

Macrospira aperta Guilding has never been described. Too 
poor and dissimilar outline figures were given with this name 
by Swainson, without locality, dimensions, or any other par- 
ticulars. In 1892 Mr. E. A. Smith stated that A. gundlachi 
and veru were equivalent to aperta] and in 1895 he identified 
Geostilbia caledonica Crosse as a synonym of Megaspira (sic) 
aperta, from the comparison of specimens in the British Museum. 
In my opinion, M, aperta was not sufficiently defined by 
Swainson to be recognized. Its identity with C. gundlachi rests 
upon Mr. Smith's identification of specimens from Guilding, 
the locality of which is surmised to be the West Indies, but ie 
not positively known. No description of even these specimens 
has appeared, and Swainson' s figures are extremely crude. 

41. C. BALDWINI Ancey. 

Shell imperforate, very thin, whitish-hyaline or slightly cor- 
neous, diaphanous, glossy, polished; apex large, obtuse; spire 



46 C/ECILIOIDES, SECT. GEOSTILBIA. 

Blender, subcylindric but tapering. Whorls 4, regularly in- 
creasing, separated by a very oblique, impressed suture mar- 
gined with a pellucid line; last whorl oblong, larger. Aperture 
piriform, the right margin arching forward; peristome simple, 
acute, scarcely thickened, the margins joined by a rather opaque 
callus. Columella somewhat callous, very slightly truncate 
above the base. Basal margin rounded. Length 3.75, diam. 1, 
aperture alt. 1 mm. (Ancey). 

Hawaiian Is.: Manoa, Oahu (Baldwin). 

Ccedlianella baldwini ANC., Memoires Socie'te' Zoologique de 
France, v, 1892, p. 718. 

Specimens of presumably this species are in the Bishop 
Museum at Honolulu from the following places: Rocky Hill, 
Honolulu; Kanaohe, Oahu; Mana, Hawaii. I have no exam- 
ples at hand, but so far as the description goes there seems to 
be no difference between this species and C. gundlachi. 

42. C. BALANUS ('Benson' Reeve). PI. 4, figs. 60, (61?) 

Shell cylindrically oblong, somewhat fusiform; whorls 4, 
smooth, shining; apex obtuse; columella arched, truncated; 
aperture small. Dull white. (Reeve). 

Shell almost cylindric-aciculate, smooth, glassy-clear. Spire 
almost cylindric, slightly tapering above, with an obtuse apex; 
suture very little impressed. Whorls 4, rapidly increasing, the 
last forming two-fifths the total length, dilated basally. Colu- 
mella rather straightly receding, scarcely noticeably truncate at 
the base of the broadly angular-ovate aperture. Peristome 
simple, unexpanded, acute. Length 3, diam. hardly 1 mm. 
(Ffr.j from spec, from Benson's collection). 

India: Banks of the Jumna near Hameerpore, Bundelkund 
(type loc.); border of the desert south of Hawee; Agra, on the 
right bank of the Jumna (Benson); Kattiwar (Hanley). Dec- 
can and Sind (Ind. Mus. ). Aden (Paladilhe, C. isseli}. 

Achatina balanus Benson MSS., REEVE, Conch. Icon., v, pi. 
20, f. 109 (March, 1850). PFR., Monogr., iii, 506; iv, 627; vi, 
241; Conchyl. Cab., p. 315, pi. 25, f. 18, 19. HANLEY and 
THEOBALD, Conchologia Indica, p. 41, pi. 102. f. 10(7). 
BLANFORD, Journ. Asiatic Soc. Bengal, vol. 44, 1875, pp. 43, 



C^ECILIOIDES, SECT. GEOSTILBIA. 47 

46. Cacilianella (Geostilbia) balanus Bens., NEVILL, Handlist 
Ind. Mus., p. 162. (?) Cacilianella isseli PALAD., Annali Mus. 
Civico Geneva, iii, 1872, pi. 1, f. 9, 10. Acicula t., JICKELI, 
Moll. N.-O. Afr., p. 135. PFR., Monogr., viii, p. 297. 

I have not seen this species, which seems to be rather common 
in the higher, dry parts of India, and to be known chiefly by 
river-drift specimens. Pfeiffer's description and the figures of 
Reeve and Pfeiffer indicate a shell with only weakly-truncate 
columella, so that one understands why Colonel Beddome should 
compare Geostilbia caledonica, (which he states is identical with 
Indian specimens from North Canara, see Blanford, I. c.). 
Nevill also refers the species to Geostilbia. In his description of 
C. isseli, Paladilhe mentions emphatically its truncate columella; 
yet his figure seems to represent a Geostilbia very close to balanus. 
Blanford has stated that isseli is identical with balanus', but so 
far as I can judge from the literature, there are two species 
involved. Fig. 60 is copied from Reeve's type figure. I have 
also copied the figure given in Oonchologia Indica, pi. 4, fig. 61. 
By its strongly truncate columella, this figure seems to cor- 
respond with the description of C. isseli. 

43. C. MAURITIANA (H. Adams). PI. 4, fig. 69. 

Shell imperforate, subulate-cylindric, thin, hyaline, glossy, 
spire subcylindric, the apex very obtuse, suture impressed. 
Whorls 5, rather flattened, the last dilated at the base; columella 
arcuate, slightly truncate. Aperture acuminate-oval; peristome 
simple, unexpanded, acute. Length 4, diam 1, aperture 1.33 
mm. (H. Ad.). 

Mauritius: Ponce Mt. Mah and Silhouette, Seychelles (G. 
Nevill). 

Acicula mauritiana H. AD., P. Z. S. 1868, p. 290, pi. 28, 
f. 7. PFR., Monogr. viii, 295. Cacilianella ?/i., MARTENS in 
Mobius, Reise nach Mauritius p. 199. NEVILL, Handlist moll. 
Ind. Mus. p. 163. 

This does not seem to differ materially from gundlachi. 

44. C. COMORENSIS (Morelet). PI. 4, fig. 63. 

Shell imperforate, turrite, thin, hyaline, smooth; spire long, 
the apex rounded, obtuse. Whorls 6, plano-convex, subscalar, 



48 C^CILIOIDES, SECT. GEOSTILBIA. 

with a well -impressed suture, the last whorl one-third the total 
length. Aperture piriform, the outer margin simple, unex- 
panded; columellar margin dilated, reflexed, appressed, making 
an angle with the basal margin. Length 4, diam. 1.25 mm. 
(Crosse). 

Comoro Is.: Combani, Mayotte (Marie). 

Geostilbia comorensis MORELET, Journ. de Conch. 1883, xxxi, 
p. 196, pi. 8, f. 7. 

Differs from G. mariei by its more slender shape, with longer 
spire of two more whorls, and a shorter aperture. 

45. C. MARIEI (Crosse). PI. 4, figs. 65, 66. 

Shell irnperforate, subcylindric, thin, polished, diaphanous, 
hyaline, whitish. Spire rather long, the apex abruptly rounded, 
very obtuse; suture impressed. Whorls scarcely 4, nearly flat, 
slightly convex, the last very little descending, shorter than the 
spire. Aperture regularly elongate-piriform, colored within 
like the outside. Peristome simple, whitish, the margins joined 
by a thin callus. Columellar margin somewhat thickened, 
having an appearance of truncation, hardly reaching to the 
base; basal margin rounded; outer arched forward, subacute. 
Length 3, diam. 1 mm. (Crosse). 

Nossi-be Island: Calempo (E. Marie, type loc.); Mayotte, 
Comoros (Marie). 

Geostilbia mariei CROSSE, Journ. de Conchyl. 1880, p. 149; 
1881, p. ;200, pi. 8, f. 5; 1883, p. 195; in Grandidier's Hist. 
Madag., Mollusques, pi. 19, f. 8. 

This form has a shorter spire and longer aperture than 0. 
gundlachi. 

46. C. STUHLMANNI (Martens). PI. 4, fig. 70. 
Imperforate, elongate, finely and regularly striate, translu- 
cent, yellowish -vitreous; 5 whorls, the first globular, smooth, 
the following rapidly increasing, rather flat, with deep, some- 
what step-like suture, which is more oblique between the penult, 
and last whorls. Aperture rather oblique; outer margin ap- 
proaching rectilinear, thin, simple; lower margin broadly 
rounded. Columellar margin thick, white, obliquely truncate 



C^ECILIOIDES, SECT. GEOST1LBIA. 49 

at the base, continued above in a callous layer on the parietal 
wall. Length 9, diam. 3.66; aperture 4x2 mm. (Martens'). 

East Africa: Runssoro, in the bamboo forest at 2600 meters 
(Stuhlmann) . 

Geostilbia stuhlmanni MARTENS, Beschalte Weichthiere Deutsch 
Ost-Afrika, p. 131, pi. 5, f. 33 (1898). 

" Only with some doubt I place this species in the genus 
Geostilbia, for it is not so slender and acicular as the typical 
species, G. caledonica" (Martens). 

47. C. PHILIPPINENSIS (Semper). 

Shell subulate, glossy, imperf orate; whorls 6, nearly flat, 
slowly increasing, the last rounded at base; columellar margin 
straight, subinflexed, thickened. Aperture ovate-oblong, sub- 
vertical. Length 6, diam. 1.75, aperture 1.5x1 mm. (Semper). 

Philippines: Guza, Zamboanga, under low plants (Semper). 

Cionella philippinensis SEMP., Reisen in Archipel Phil., Land- 
moll., p. 139, 1874. Geostilbia p., MLLDFP. , Syst. Verzeichniss, 
p. 153. Glessula philippinensis COOKE, P. Z. S., 1892, p. 469. 

This snail has been erroneously referred by Mr. Cooke to 
Glessula, a genus not known to occur in the Philippine archi- 
pelago. 

48. C. PHILIPPINICA (Moellendorff.) PI. 15, figs. 6, 7. 

Shell small, not rimate, cylindric-turrite, rather solid, yel- 
lowish, polished ; spire long-turrited, the apex obtuse. Whorls 
4, a little convex; suture impressed, broadly margined, sub- 
horizontal at first, then gradually becoming strongly oblique. 
Penultimate whorl very high, the last a little higher, % the 
length of the shell. Aperture vertical, receding at base, 
narrowly oval ; peristome simple, slightly obtuse, the margins 
joined by a light callus, right margin curving forward 
in the middle, lower margin rather straightened or 
hi angularly curved, columellar margin reflexed 'above the 
rimation; columella vertical, at the base slightly obliquely 
truncate. Length 3%, diam. 1% mm. ; aperture 1% long, 
scarcely % wide (Mlldff.) 

Philippines: Monte Licos, Zebu (Mlldff.). 



50 C^ECILIOIDES, GLESSULA. 

Geostilbia philippinica Mlldff., Bericht Senck. Nat. (Jes. 
1890, p. 248, pi. 8, f. 8. 

Described from one example. The figures, drawn by Dr. 
Boettger, show a distinctly truncate columella. This char- 
acter and the broad sutural margin seem to differ from the 
following species. 

49. C. MOELLENDORFFI n. sp. PI. 15, figs. 4, 5. 

The shell is clear corneous, glossy, marked with faint 
growth-lines and under a high power some faint traces of 
spiral striation are visible in places. The spire tapers regu- 
larly to the obtuse summit. Slightly over 4 whorls, convex 
and rapidly enlarging. Suture narrowly margined. The 
aperture is ovate; columella straightened below, not in the 
least truncate and not calloused. The outer lip is strongly 
arched forward. Length 4, diam. 1.4, length aperture 
1.55 mm. 

Philippines: Mananga, Zebu (Quadras coll.) 
The spire tapers much more than in C. gundlachi, the last 
whorl being wider, and the aperture is larger. The sutural 
margin is narrower than in C. gundlachi. In the type lot 
the columella is not calloused. C. philippinensis is a larger 
shell with proportionally smaller aperture. I have not been 
able to compare specimens of C. mariei and C. balanm. 

Genus GLESSULA von Martens. 

Glessula MARTS, in Albers, Die Hdiceen, edit. 2, 1860, p. 
254, type Achatina gemma Bens. BEDDOME, Proceedings of the 
Malacological Society of London, vii, Sept, 1906, pp. 160-172.- 
Electra ALBERS, Die Hel., 1850, p. 194, for Achatina ceylanica 
Pfr. Not Electra Lamouroux, 1816, not Electra Steph., 1829. 

The shell is imperforate ovate-conic or turrite, brown or 
corneous-brown, glossy and usually without strong sculpture; 
apex obtuse. Aperture irregularly oval; outer lip unexpanded, 
acute or blunt; columella short, more or less deeply concave, 
abruptly truncate at the base. 

Sole without distinct median area; no pedal margin; an outer 
mantle lobe on the left side. Kidney very long, band-like. 



GLESSULA. 51 

Genitalia peculiar (pi. 15, figs. 2); there is a feather-like 
gland (fig. 3) where the vas deferens enters the penis. The 
latter contains a short conic, perforated papilla and two of 
longitudinal folds. The prostate gland of the hermaphrodite 
duct consists of entirely separated narrow follicles, as in 
Achatina. The spermatheca has a short duct. Uterus contain- 
ing several large shells with fully 2 whorls. 

The jaw is very finely striate, almost smooth. Radula has 
ahout 110 teeth in a transverse row. The central tooth is very 
small, tricuspid; laterals with three cusps; outer marginal teeth 
very finely 3- or 4-cusped ( G. orophila from Madras, according 
to Semper). 

Type G. gemma Bens. Distribution, Oriental and Ethiopian 
regions. 

Glessula was associated with " Oionetta" (that is, the Ferus- 
sacida as herein understood) by Professor von Martens in 1860. 
Various other authors, both before and since, have thought the 
group Achatinoid, belonging to ' * Stenogyra " in the former 
wide limits of that term. We know too little of its anatomy to 
give a definite opinion, but the presence of a glandular append- 
age (appendix or flagellum) at the end of the penis is a feature 
unlike any Achatinida. The homology of this appendage is not 
certain, however. The position of the ureter is unknown. I 
have been unable to obtain alcoholic material necessary for an 
investigation of the relations of Glessula to Subulina, Homorus, 
Bacillum and Pseudoglessula. 

In most (but perhaps not all) species, the lip becomes 
slightly blunt and smooth in fully adult shells, thereby differing 
from Subulina, which has an acute lip at all stages or growth. 

In G. orophila, Semper found in the uterus 4 large embryos 
with shells having fully two whorls, and a small one with a 
half whorl and very large caudal vesicle. Various other species 
have been found to be viviparous, while others bring forth 
globular eggs like those of Subulina. Like that genus, also, the 
Glessulse reproduce before attaining full size. 

Glessula has been studied mainly by specialists on the Indian 
fauna. Benson, W. T. Blanford, Beddome and Godwin- 
Austen have chietiv contributed to thf literature. Blanford's 



52 GLESSULA. 

"Contributions to Indian Malacology," continued through 
many years of the Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, 
contain a great mass of information on this genus, as on many 
others of the Indian fauna. Hanley and Theobald illustrated 
most of the types of Benson, among others, in their Conchologia 
Indim. Finally, Colonel R. H. Beddome has recently reviewed 
the genus in his "Notes on Indian and Ceylonese Species of 
Glessula." 

From the purely conchological standpoint we may be said to 
have an extensive knowledge of Glessula, yet various characters 
of the first importance have been neglected. The embryonic 
whorls of the types must all be re-examined and their sculpture de- 
scribed. Our ignorance of the embryonic sculpture of many 
forms prevents any natural classification of the species. The 
surface of the later whorls in all the species should be examined 
under high power, since some species have a minute sculpture 
not visible with an ordinary hand lens. 

No fossil species of Glessula are known to me. A few species 
of other genera have been referred to Glessula. 

Glessula obtusa and G. erosa Blanford are species of Bacillum 
(Vol. xvii, pp. 1, 4). 

Glessula orthoceras G.-A. is a Bacillum (I. c., p. 2). 

Glessula philippinensis Semper, of Cooke, is a Cezcilioides (this 
vol., p. 49). 

No natural classification of the species of Glessula can be 
attempted until the sculpture of the apices of the shells and the 
anatomy of a number of representative species are studied. I 
have separated a group of West African forms (species 89 to 
92) as a new section, Neoglessula. The species are here grouped 
geographically, as follows: 

I. Ceylon, species 1 to 13, 34, 49, 52. 
II. Peninsular India, species 14 to 58. 

III. Extra-Peninsular India, Indo-China, Yunnan, etc., 

species 59 to 77. 

IV. Habitat unknown, species 78 to 80. 

V. Sumatra, Java and Borneo, species 81, 82. 
VI. Eastern Africa, species 83 to 86. 
VII. West Africa, species 87 to 92. 



GLESSULA, CEYLON. 53 

I. SPECIES OF CEYLON. 

The Ceylonese Glessulse are closely related to those of southern 
India, and in a few cases seem to be of identical species. Such 
cases should receive very careful comparison. The following 
forms, described from Peninsular India, have been identified by 
reliable authorities from Ceylon. 

G. beddomeiElznl, No. 34. 

6?. sattaraensis ' H. Ad.' Hanley & Theobald, No. 49. 

G. pusilla Beddome, No. 52. 

1. G. INORNATA (Pfeiffer). PI. 6, figs. 10, 11, 14-17. 

Shell turrite-oblong, solid, closely striate; pale tawny, varie- 
gated with darker streaks; nearly lusterless, having a woody 
appearance. Spire turrite, the apex rather obtuse, suture lightly 
impressed, very closely crenulated. Whorls 7 J, rather flattened, 
the last nearly equal to two-fifths the total length, the base 
slightly compressed and smoother. Columella very deeply 
arcuate, white-calloused, obliquely, abruptly truncate. Aper- 
ture sinuous-semioval, white within. Peristome simple, obtuse, 
the right margin spreading. Length 28, diam. 11, aperture 
11.5x5 mm. (P/r.). 

Ceylon (Pfr.): Kandy (Nevill, Simon); Matelle East and 
Ma Ellia (Layard). South Canara forests (Beddome). 

Achatina inornata PFR., P. Z. S. 1851, p. 259; Conchyl. Cab. 
p. 322, pi. 26, f. 8, 9; and var., pi. 37, f. 1, 2; Monogr. iii, 
490. Hanley & Theob., Conch. Indica, p. 9, pi. 17, f. 2, and 
var., f. 3. S.\(G. ) inornata NEVILL., Handlist, p. 171. Glessula 
inornata JOUSSEAUME, Mem. Soc. Zool. France vii, 1894, p. 292. 
BEDDOME, P. Mai. Soc. vii, 164, with var. minor. 

The first 2-J whorls seem to be nearly smooth, but with a 
finely crenulate suture; then fine, distinct striae begin, strongest 
near the suture, weaker below. On the spire these striae are 
separated into groups by occasional deeper grooves or larger 
stria?; and more or less trace of such irregularity may often be 
traced on the last whorl. Under the compound microscope, 
the surface is seen to be very densely covered with minute granules 
arranged in spiral lines (pi. 6, fig. 16). These give it a charac- 
teristic silky sheen, unlike the smooth species. Specimens 
before me measure as follows, all being adults with the lip blunt. 



54 GLESSULA, CEYLON. 

Length 29, diam. 13, aperture 12 mm. ; whorls 8. 

Length 28, diam. 11.5, aperture 11.7 inm. ; whorls 8. 

Length 24, diam. 11.7, aperture 10.5 mm.; whorls 7J. 

The color is yellow or olivaceous, with some reddish streaks. 
The interior is pale lilac or flesh-colored. 

This is one of the most distinct species of the genus. Col. 
Beddome has mentioned a " var. minor, length 18 to 20 mm." 

Pfeiffer has described and figured a variety which is u more 
distinctly striate, silky, brownish-tawny " (pi. 6, fig. 17). 
This form is thought by Col. Beddome to be G. beddomei Blanf. 

2, G. LANKANA Pilsbry, n. sp. PI. 7, figs. 1, 2, 3. 

Shell oblong-turrite, thin but rather solid, yellow or tawuy, 
with some narrow darker or chestnut streaks on the spire. 
Surface very glossy, finely and deeply striate, the strise unequal, 
in places being as narrow as the intervals, but occasionally much 
wider. Under the compound microscope a very faint spiral 
striation is visible, the spirals being very weakly beaded in 
places. The first 2 whorls are smooth. Spire conic with 
straight sides and' obtuse apex. Suture irregularly crenulate. 
Aperture vertical, flesh-tinted inside. Outer lip obtuse, form- 
ing a regular arch. Columella moderately concave, obliquely 
truncate at base. 

Length 27.2, diam. 11, length apart. 10 mm.; whorls 8J. 

Length 27, diam. 11.2, length apart. 10.5 mm.; whorls 8J. 

Ceylon: Matella District (Layard). 

Closely related to G. inornata, but more glossy and having 
much less distinct microscopic granulation, as may be seen by 
comparing fig. 3 with pi. 6, fig. 16. The outlines of the spire 
are straighter; there are more whorls in the same length, and 
the aperture is smaller. G. beddomei has a more prominent 
and more deeply truncate columella. 

3. G. PARABILIS (Benson). PI. 7, fig. 4. 

Shell oblong-ovate, rather solid, glossy, rugose-striate, decus- 
sated with most minute, obsolete spiral striae, whitish under a 
buff-corneous cuticle. Spire long-conic, the apex obtuse, suture 
lightly impressed, subcrenulate. Whorls 6, subplanulate, the 
last a little convex, scarcely three-sevenths the shell's length. 



GLESSULA, CEYLON. OO 

Aperture triangularly semiovate, whitish inside. Peristom.fi 
slightly inflexed, the margins joined by a thin callus; right 
margin sinuous, slightly obtuse, columellar margin very deeply 
arcuate, strongly truncate obliquely. Length 20, diam. 10, 
aperture 9x5 mm. (Bens.). 

Ceylon (Layard): Kandy (Nevill); Maturata (Simon). 

Achatina parabilis BENS., Ann. Mag. N. H. (2), xviii, August, 
1856, p. 96. PFR., Monographia iv, 606. H. & T., Conch. 
Indica pi. 35, f. 7. S. ((?.) p., NEVILL, Handlist, p. 171. 
O. parabilis JOUSSEAUME, Mem. Zool. Soc. France vii, 1894, 
p. 294. 

This species seems to differ from inornata by its glossy surface. 

4. G. CAPILLACEA (Pfeiffer). PI. 7, fig. 5. 

Shell turrite, thin, hair-striate under the lens, glossy, pel- 
lucid, greenish-corneous. Spire elongate, the apex rather ob- 
tuse. Whorls 7, convex, the last scarcely one-third the total 
length, obsoletely angular at the periphery. Aperture slightly 
oblique, sinuate-oval. Columella arcuate, obliquely truncate. 
Peristome simple. Length 9, diam. 4 mm., aperture 3x2 mm. 



Ceylon (Thwaites, in Cuming coll. ) ; Haycock Mt. (Beddome). 
Achatina capillacea PFR., P. Z. S. 1854, p. 294; Monogr. iv, 
614. H & T., Conch. Ind. 63, pi. 156, f. 3 (fig. of type). 

5. G. NITENS (Gray). PL 6, fig. 1, 2. 

"Shell ovate-conic, turrite, hyaline, corneous, smooth, 
polished, the apex rather obtuse ; whorls 8, convex ; aperture 
ovate, peristome thin. Length 0.7, diam. 0.3 inch." (Gray, 
1825.) 

"Shell turrited, shining, pellucid, horn-color; spire coni- 
cal; apex blunt; whorls 7 to 8, gradually enlarging, convex. 
Aperture one-fourth the length of the shell, ovate. Colu- 
mbia sharply curved. Axis !M$, diam. 54 f an inch " (Gray, 
1828). 

Achatina nitens GRAY, Annals of Philos., n. ser. ix, 1825, 
p. 415; Spicilegia Zoologica p. 5, pi. 6, f. 18 (1828). 
FERUSSAC, Bull. Sci. Nat. 1829, xvi, p. 468. PFR., 



56 GLESSULA, CEYLON. 

ii, 260; Conchyl. Cab. p. 365, pi. 43, f. 10-12. DESK, in 
Fer., Hist., p. 165, pi. 134, f. 25-27. H. & T., Conch. Ind. 
pi. 17, f. 1. Stenogyra (G.) nit ens NEVILL, Handlist p. 171 
(Kandy). A. panatha BENS., Ann. Mag. N. H. (3) v, May, 
1860, p. 384 (Ellegamme Nalande and Matelle, Ceylon). 
H. & T., Conch. Ind. pi. 36, f. 2. PPR., Monogr. vi, 226. 

A typical specimen is drawn in fig. 1, 2 of plate 6. The 
shell is corneous-yellow, very bright and glossy, nearly 
smooth. The sides of the spire are very slightly convex; 
but the whorls are strongly convex, parted by a very dis- 
tinctly crenulated suture. The aperture is small; columella 
very deeply excavated above. Length 17, diam. 7.8, aper- 
ture 6.8 mm. ; whorls 7%. Nalande, Ceylon. 



Var. PUNCTOGALLANA (Pfeiffer). PI. 6, figs. 3, 4, 5. 

Shell oblong-ovate, slightly striatulate, glabrous, glossy, 
pellucid, corneous-tawny. Spire pyramidal, the apex obtuse. 
Whorls 7%, convex, the last about two-fifths the total length, 
base rounded. Columella very deeply arcuate, reaching far 
forward, abruptly truncate. Aperture vertical, subtriangu- 
lar-semioval ; peristome simple, the right margin regularly 
arcuate. Length 16, diam. 8, aperture 7x4 mm. (Pfr.). 

Ceylon: Point de G-alle (Benson) ; Matelle district (A. N. S. 
Coll.); Balapiti (Nevill). 

Achatina ceylanica REEVE, Conch. Icon, v, pi. 15, f. 59 (not 
of Pfeiffer). A. punctogallana PFR., Zeitschr. f. Mai. 1852, 
p. 150; Conchyl. Cab. p. 323, pi. 26, f. 14, 15; Monogr. Hi, 
p. 493. Glessula p., BEDDOME, P. Mai. Soc. vii, 165. 

"Differs from A. ceylanica by the smoother, more glossy 
shell, with longer spire, shorter last whorl, and the columella 
arched forward more " (Pfr.). The whorls are much more 
convex in punctogallana than Pfeiffer 's description and fig- 
ures indicate in ceylanica. The largest shell before me (fig. 
5) measures, length 17.5, diam. 8.4, aperture 7 mm., whorla 
nearly 8. Others from the Matelle district, received from 
Layard, are typical in size. Both lots were received as 
ceylanica. 

This form differs from G. nitens by its stouter, more com- 
pact shape. 



GLESSULA, CEYLON. 57 

6. G. CEYLANICA (Pfeiffer). PL 6, figs. 7, 8. 

Shell ovate-oblong, striatulate, silky, thin, tawny-corneous; 
spire pyramidal, the apex obtuse. Whorls 7, a little convex, 
the last three-sevenths the total length, inflated. Columella 
short, arcuate, abruptly truncate. Aperture rather wide, 
semioval; peristome thin, acute. Length 16, diam. 8, aper- 
ture 7.5x4 mm. (P/r.). 

Ceylon (Templeton) ; Maturate, (Simon) ; Balapiti and 
Colombo (Nevill). 

Achatina ceylanica PFR., Zeitsch. f. Mai. 1845, p. 157; 
Monog. ii, 258; iii, 493; iv, 607; vi, 223; viii, 279; and in 
Philippi, Abbild., ii, p. 215, pi. 1, f. 3; Conch. Cab. p. 313, 
pi. 25, f. 14, 15. Glessula c., JOUSSEAUME, Mem. Soc. Zool. 
France vii, 1894, p. 292. Stenogyra (G.) c., NEVILL, Hand- 
list p. 172. 

Closely related G. nitens, but the description and figure 
indicate that the whorls are much less convex in ceylanica. 
Colonel Beddome records specimens of ceylanica 30 x 14 mm. ; 
but their specific identity may possibly be doubtful. 

7. G. DESHAYESI (Pfeiffer). PL 6, figs. 6, 12, 13. 

Shell turrite-ovate, rather thin, nearly smooth, glossy, 
corneous-brown; spire long, convex, the apex rather obtuse, 
suture simple, rather deep. Whorls 7, convex, the last two- 
fifths the length, rounded at base. Columella somewhat 
twisted, broadly and obliquely truncate. Aperture slightly 
oblique, rhombic-semioval ; peristome simple, obtuse, the right 
margin somewhat spreading. Length 11, diam. 5, aperture 
4y 2 x2i/ 2 mm. (P/r.). 

Ceylon. 

Achatina deshayesi PFR., P. Z. S. 1852, p. 86; Conchyl. 
Cab. p. 366, pi. 43, f . 13-16 ; Monogr. iii, 495 ; iv, 608 ; vi, 266 ; 
viii, 281. H. & T., Conch. Ind. pi. 102, f. 2. 

Smaller than G. nitens, and of a richer brown color, but 
otherwise it is closely related. The whorls are strongly con- 
vex and the surface very brilliant. Some of the upper post- 
embryonic whorls are rather distinctly striate. The suture 
is much less distinctly crenulated than in G. nitens, nearly 



58 GLESSULA, CEYLON. 

simple. The sides of the spire are slightly convex. Fig. 6 
represents a typical example, length 11, diam. 5.2, aperture 
4.5 mm., whorls 6%. The lip is "finished." 

Two specimens, the longest and shortest from another lot 
of 15, are drawn, pi. 6, figs. 12, 13. Neither has the lip 
"finished," though no doubt both are nearly mature. They 
measure as follows. 

Length 12.8, diam. 6 mm., whorls T 1 ^. 

Length 10, diam. 5 mm., whorls 6%. 

8. G. PACHYCHEILA (Benson). 

Shell ovate-oblong, striatulate, under a lens decussated 
with obsolete, close, spiral very fine striae; glossy, brownish- 
corneous, translucent; spire lengthened, subconic, apex ob- 
tuse, suture lightly impressed. Whorls 6, a trifle convex, 
the last scarcely two-fifths the total length. Aperture ver- 
tical, oblong-ovate; peristome whitish-bordered within; colu- 
mella exceedingly deeply arcuate, basal margin thickened. 
Length 11, diam. 5 mm. (Bens.). 

Ceylon: Heneratgodde (Layard). 

Achatina p., BENSON, Ann. and Mag. N. H. (2) xii, Au- 
gust, 1853, p. 94. PFR., Monogr. iv, 608. Glessula p., BED- 
DOME, P. Mai. Soc. vii, 166. 

"This little species of a group which has so many rep- 
resentatives in Ceylon, the Nilgherries, and the damp woody 
mountains of the North-eastern India, with a more slender 
form than A. oreas nobis, is well distinguished from the 
allied forms by its peculiar sculpture under the lens, and by 
the internal incrassation of the peristome, a feature which 
is also observable in the species A. crassilabris nobis. from 
north-eastern India." (Benson.) 

This species has not been figured. With the same dimen- 
sions as G. deshayesi, it seems to differ by having the whorls 
only very little convex, whilst in deshayesi they are strongly 
convex. 

8fl. Var. taprobanica Pils., subsp. n. PI. 7, fig. 16. 

Shell smaller, very pale yellow. Sculpture of fine vertical 



GLESSULA, CEYLON. 59 

grooves, close on the spire but rather widely, unevenly spaced 
on the last two whorls ; no perceptible spiral lines ; two 
whorls at the summit smooth. Aperture small, the outer lip 
rather thick ; columella moderately concave, sub vertically and 
not very deeply truncate at the base. 

Length 8.5 to 8.8, diam. 3.2, aperture 3 mm. ; whorls 6!/2- 

Ceylon: Kandookerre (E. L. Layard). 

This form was distributed by Layard as pachycheilus Bens. 
That species has not been figured, but according to the de- 
scription it differs from this in several respects. G. colletta 
is a more slender, darker species, with a. less thickened lip. 

9. G. SERENA (Benson). PI. 6, fig. 9. 

Shell ovate-pyramidal, rather solid, very highly polished, 
slightly, obsoletely striate, tawny corneous, pellucid. Spire 
elongate, subturrite, the apex abruptly obtuse ; suture im- 
pressed, submarginate, crenulate. Whorls 6% to 7, subcon- 
vex, convex above near the suture, the last whorl slightly 
compressed at the base. Aperture vertical, three-sevenths the 
total length, subtriangular-ovate; peristome unexpanded, 
rather obtuse; columellar margin very deeply arcuate, whit- 
ish-calloused, at the base abruptly and obliquely truncate. 
Length 20 to 21, diam. 9 to 9.5, aperture 9 x 5.5 mm. (Bens.) 

Ceylon : Akurambodie, in southern Matelle. 

Achatina serena BENS., Ann. and Mag. N. H. (3), v, May, 
1860, p. 384. PFR,, Monogr. vi, 223. H. & T., Conch. Ind. 
pi. 78, 1 8. 

This species is very close to G. nitens, but the whorls are 
less convex. It is doubtfully distinct from G. ceylanica, but 
from the figures, that seems to be more straightly conic and 
smaller. 

10. G. LAYARDI Pilsbry, n. sp. PI. 7, figs. 6, 7. 

The shell is oblong-turrite, yellow-corneous with profusely 
scattered whitish dots and spots (produced by disintegration 
of the surface), paler towards the summit. Surface very 
glossy, without noticeable microscopic sculpture, but marked 
with unevenly spaced grooves, which are rather weaker on 



60 GLESSULA, CEYLON. 

the last whorl, and obsolete on the base. The summit is ob- 
tuse, rounded, first whorls smooth. Whorls 6%, moderately 
convex. Suture elegantly but somewhat irregularly denti- 
culate. Aperture vertical; outer lip obtuse; columella very 
short, moderately or deeply concave, subhorizontally and 
very deeply truncate. Length 14, diam. 6, length of aper- 
ture 5.9 mm. Length 13.5, diam. 6.1, length of aperture 
5.9 mm. 

Ceylon (Layard). 

This species differs from G. ceylanica by its very much less 
deeply concave columella. It is a smaller and more slender 
shell than G. serena, which seems to be its nearest ally. The 
denticulation of the suture is a prominent feature. Though 
"live" shells, the surface is eroded in places. The whitish 
flecks probably will not be found on shells from stations 
where they are less liable to erosion. 

11. G. VERUINA (Benson). 

Shell cylindric-turrite, very much lengthened, dirty whit- 
ish, unevenly striate; the spire gradually tapering above; 
suture impressed, crenulate ; apex obtuse. Whorls 12^ to 13, 
narrow, cylindric, the last scarcely two-elevenths the total 
length. Aperture vertical, truncate-oval; peristome unex- 
panded, acute; columella slightly arcuate. Length 25, diam. 
5 mm. (Bens.) 

Ceylon: Narlande and Matelle (Layard). 

Achatina veruina BENS., Ann. and Mag. N. H. (2) xii, 
August, 1853, p. 94. PPR., Monogr. vi, 235.$. (G.) veruina 
NEVILL, Handlist, p. 171. 

This rare species has not been figured. 

12. G. COLLETT.E Sykes. PL 7, fig. 13. 

Shell elongate, thin, smooth, obscurely longitudinally 
striated, brown or brown -corneous, the apex rather obtuse; 
suture impressed. Whorls 6 to 6%, a little convex, the last 
half the length of the shell. Aperture nearly vertical, lunate- 
oval, columellar margin callous, paler, obliquely truncate. 
Length 8, diam. 2.8 mm. (Sykes). 



GLESSULA, PENINSULAR INDIA. 61 

Ceylon: Ambagamuwa (Mrs. Collett). 

Glessula colletta SYKES, Proc. Malac. Soc. Lond. iii, July, 
1898, p. 73, pi. 5, f. 1. 

Topotypes before me are rather dark yellowish chestnut 
colored, with sculpture of impressed vertical grooves. These 
are rather widely separated on the later whorls, but close 
above. Nearly two whorls at the summit are smooth. Length 
8, diam. 2. 9, aperture 2.9 mm. long, whorls 6%. 

Compared with G. p. taprobanica, this is a more slender 
shell, hence the whorls appear longer, and they are more 
evenly convex, the suture being less narrowly impressed. 

13. G. SIMONI Jousseaume. PI. 7, fig. 8. 

Shell small, ovate, thin, costulate, glossy, pellucid, fulvous- 
corneous. Spire conoid, the apex rather obtuse, suture im- 
pressed. Whorls 5 to 6, convex, the last half the total 
length, slightly tapering at the base, rounded. Aperture ver- 
tical, semioval; peristome unexpanded, thin, acute; the right 
margin less arcuate; columella callous, nearly straight, very 
deeply arcuate, obliquely truncate, at the umbilical region 
appressed and depressed. Diam. 3 mm., alt. 1.5 mm. (Jouss.) 

Ceylon: flank of Pedrotalagala at Nuwaraeliya (Simon). 

Glessula simoni Jouss., Memoir es de la Societe Zoologique 
de France pour Tannee 1894, vii, p. 293, pi. 4, f. 10. 

This minute form has about the size of a Tornatellina, but 
seems to be more strongly sculptured than is usual in that 
genus. The embryonic whorls are smooth, a little darker 
than the rest -of the shell. Four specimens were taken, two 
of them smaller than the type, which is thought by Jousseaume 
to be immature. 

II. SPECIES OF PENINSULAR INDIA. 

14. G. SHIPLAYI (Pfeiffer). PI. 9, fig. 8. 

Shell turrite, smoothish, pellucid, glossy, corneous; spire 
regularly tapering, the apex obtuse ; suture substriate ; whorls 
13, convex, the last slightly more than one-third the total 
length, rounded, more distinctly striate; columella somewhat 
straightly running forward, at the base rather widely trun- 



62 GLESSULA, PENINSULAR INDIA. 

cate. Aperture a little oblique, rounded-oval; peristome un- 
expanded, very thin. Length 25.5, diam. 6.3 mm., aperture 
5.5x3.25 mm. (Pfr.). 

Length 36 mm., whorls 14 (Beddome). 

S. India: Nilgiri Mts (Conway Shiplay, type loc.) ; 
Ariamallays; Shevaroys. 

Achatina shiplayi PPB., Malak. Bl. 1855, p. 169; Novit. 
Conch, i, p. 82, pi. 22, f. 13, 14; Monogr. iv, 612. HANL. and 
THEOB., Conch. Ind. pi. 36, f. 9 (juv.). Glessula s., BED- 
DOME, P. Mai. Soc. vii, 161. Stenogyra (G.) shiplayi NEVTLI,, 
Handlist p. 168, no. 60. 

''Full grown specimens were very rarely found by me, 
though young half- and three-quarter grown ones are most 
abundant on the Nilgiris. This and some other species cer- 
tainly breed before the shell attains full size or a hardened 
peristome, as I have taken eggs from such shells. The peris- 
tome differs much in mature specimens, sometimes being very 
thick and solid, sometimes quite thin, but, even then, firm, and 
not breaking or becoming jagged at the touch, which is the 
sign that the shell has not finished its growth. Full-grown 
examples of shiplayi are very like tenuispira, but smaller. It 
also runs nilgirica very closely, but the latter has a stronger 
sculpture, and is broader at the base." (Bedd.) 

15. G. HEBES ('Blanford' Pfr.). PI. 9, fig. 6. 

Shell subcylindrkj-turrite, thin, pale corneous, translucent, 
polished, striatulate; spire raised, subcylindric in the lower 
part, the sides convex towards the obtuse apex; suture im- 
pressed. Whorls 9 to 101/2, convex, regularly increasing, the 
last short, about one-fourth to one-fifth the total length. 
Aperture ovate-oblong, a little oblique; peristome thin; colu- 
mella very arcuate, obliquely truncate in front. Length 17 
to 22, diam. 5 mm. ; aperture 4 to 4.5 mm. long, 2.3 to 3 mm. 
wide. (Blanf.). 

S. India: Deo Grhat, on the south side of Poona (Evizard, 
type loc.) ; Shevaroys; Pulney Hills, and halfway up the 
Koonoor Pass, Nilgiris (Nevill). 

Achatina hebes Blanford, PFR., Monogr. Hel. Viv. vi. 1868, 



GL.ESSULA. PENINSULAR INDIA. 63 

p. 230. Glessula hebes BLANFOBD, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. vol. 
39, 1870, p. 21, pi. 3, f. 21. BEDDOME, P. Mai. Soc. Lond. 
vii, 161. NEVILL, Handlist, p. 167. 

' ' The nearest ally to this species appears to be O. tamulica 
(W. & H. Blanf.) from near Trichinopoly, which is distin- 
guished by greater diameter in proportion to the length, and 
a more regularly tapering spire. Intermediate forms may 
hereafter be found however. 

"A specimen from the Shevroy hills near Salem in south- 
ern India, sent to me by Major Beddome, only differs from 
O. hebes in being longer and slightly more attenuate towards 
the apex. It has 13 whorls." (Blanf.) 

"Ten specimens received from Blanf ord and E vizard, col- 
lected near Poona, are all young, with quite unformed lip; 
and all the types of hebes in Blanf ord 's collection, and the 
specimens in the Natural History Museum and others that I 
have seen, are the same. If full-grown, or nearly so, it 
must be a much smaller species than shiplayi. It runs the 
young of that species rather closely, but the apex is gener- 
ally blunter. Specimens collected by me on the Shevaroys 
are referred here by Blanford ; they are, however, immature 
and appear rather to belong to fairbanki, if that species is 
distinct, which I doubt. When collected I took them to be 
young of shiplayi. Until hebes and fairbanki are found with 
mature lips, they must, I think, remain doubtful species. 

"Hanley's figure of hebes has the tapering apex of young 
shiplayi and is unlike my type of hebes." (Beddome.) 

16. G. FAIRBANKI (Benson). PL 9, fig. 7. 

Shell subcylindric-turrite, striatulate, obsoletely and very 
minutely spirally decussate, polished, translucent, buff- 
corneous, the spire having subconvex sides towards the apex, 
summit obtuse; suture distinctly impressed; whorls 8, sub- 
convex, short, the last four slowly increasing in diameter; 
last whorl rounded below, one-fourth the total length; aper- 
ture suboblique, ovate, angular above and below, the margins 
joined by a callus; columella lightly arcuate, obliquely trun- 
cate; basal and outer margins thin. Length 12, diam. 4, 
aperture 3 x 2.5 mm. (Bens.). 



64 GLESSULA, PENINSULAR INDIA. 

S. India: Mahableshwar Mts. (Rev. S. B. Fairbank). 

Achatina fairbanki BENS., Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (3), 
xv, Jan. 1865, p. 14. PFR., Monogr. vi, 232. HANLEY & 
THEOB., Conch. Ind. pi. 18, f. 3. 

"The nearest Nilgiri form is A. corrosula Pfr. The more 
cylindrical form below, the sculpture, shorter whorls etc., 
safely distinguished it " (Bens.). 

Col. Beddome considers fairbanki doubtfully distinct from 
G. hebes. Both were based upon shells not fully mature. 

17. G. VADALICA (Benson). PL 9, fig. 11. 

Shell turrite-elongate, striatulate, rather solid, polished, 
translucent, buff-corneous; spire a little convexly turrite to- 
wards the apex; apex rather obtuse; suture impressed. 
Whorls 11, convex, short, the upper ones rib-striate, last 
whorl rounded below, scarcely one-fourth the total length. 
Aperture slightly oblique, elliptical-ovate, margins joined 
by a callus, columellar margin slightly arcuate, whitish, ob- 
liquely truncate, basal and right margins thin. Length 34, 
diam. 9, aperture 8x5 mm. (Bens.). 

India: Wadale, near Ahmednugger (Fairbank). 

Achatina vadalica BENS., Ann. Mag. N. H. (3), xv, Jan. 
1865, p. 15. PFR., Monogr. vi, 229. HANL. and THEOB., 
Conch. Ind. pi. 35, f. 5. 

' ' The convex sides of the upper part of the spire, the 
shorter whorls, with the sculpture and polish of the shell, dis- 
tinguish it as well from the Nilgiri A. perrotteti as from the 
neighbouring A. notigena, which has an attenuate spire and 
costulate sculpture in all the whorls. The Liberian A. clavus 
Pfr., is a broader shell, with longer and wider whorls." 
(Benson.) 

18. G. TAMULICA (Blanford). PI. 9, fig. 12. 

"Shell turrite, thin, glossy, corneous, striatulate; spire 
regularly tapering, the apex obtuse ; whorls 10, convex, the 
last slightly more than one-fourth the total length, rounded; 
columella strongly arcuate, obliquely truncate. Aperture a 
little oblique, suboval, peristome simple, thin, the margins 
joined by a very thin callus. Length 20, diam. 6, aperture 
5.8x3 mm." (Blanf.). 



GLESSULA, PENINSULAR INDIA. 65 

S. India: Cullagoody, Trichinopoly. 

Achatina tamulica BLANP., Journ, Asiat. Soc. Beng. vol. 
30, 1861, p. 362. PFB., Monogr. vi, 232. HANL. and THEOB., 
Conch. Ind. pi. 17, f. 9.Glessula t., BEDDOME, P. Mai. Soc. 
vii, 162. 

''Near A. shiplayi, but distinguished by the smaller number 
of whorls, more obtuse apex, etc." (Blanf.). Known from 
immature specimens with quite fragile lip. Col. Beddome 
considers that "it is very near vadalica, and has all the ap- 
pearance of being the young of that species. ' ' 

19. G. PERROTTETI (Pfeiffcr). PL 9, figs. 9, 10. 

Shell elongate-conic, the apex rather obtuse, glossy, cor- 
neous, diaphanous ; whorls 8, a little convex, the last half the 
total length, eolumella deeply incurved, abruptly truncate. 
Aperture oval, the peristome simple, acute. Length 22, diam. 
9, aperture 8x4 mm. (Pfr.). 

S. India: Nilgiris (type loc.) at Neddoowutton (Blanford), 
and Pulney Hills, about the foot of the mountains (Bed- 
dome). 

Achatina perrotteti PFR., Revue Zoologique 1842, p. 305; 
Symbolae ii, 59; Monogr. ii, 260; iii, 494; iv, 607; vi, 224; 
Conchyl. Cab. p. 324, pi. 26, f. 16, 17. Conch. Indica pi. 35, 
fig. 6 ( ?) REEVE, Conch. Icon, v, pi. 24, f. lQ2.Glandina ? 
p., PHILIPPI, Abbild. i, p. 135, pi. 1, f. l2.Stenogyra (G.) 
p., NEVILL, Handlist, p. 168. 

Pfeiffer's type seems to be a relatively wide, short form, 
with the mouth more than one-third the total length. The 
longer shell figured in Conchologia Indica is probably a dif- 
ferent species. 

20. G. LEPTOSPIRA (Benson). PL 12, fig. 2. 

Shell oblong-turrite, striatulate, glossy, pale corneous- 
brown ; spire rather narrowly turrite, the apex obtuse, suture 
rather deep, crenulate. Whorls 9, a little convex, the upper 
short, more convex, the last less than one-third the total length. 
Aperture suboblique, elliptical, margins joined by a callus, 
columellar margin arcuate, obliquely truncate, the right 
margin thin. Length 16, diam. 6 mm. (Bens.) 



66 GLESSULA, PENINSULAR INDIA. 

Someysur Hills (Theobald). 

Achatina 1., BENS., Ann. and Mag. N. H. (3), xv, Jan. 
1865, p. 14. H. & T., Conch. Ind. pi. 35, f. 2. PFB., Monogr. 
vi, 233. 8. (G.) leptospira NEVILL, Handlist, p. 171 (Goo- 
meysur Hill) . 

This species was probably based on immature shells. It 
may prove to be a form of G. notigena. 

21. G. NOTIGENA (Benson). PI. 12, figs. 3, 4, 9. 

Shell long^conic, attenuate above, thin, subcostulate striate, 
tawny corneous, glossy, pellucid. Spire turrited, attenuate 
above, the apex obtuse; suture impressed, irregularly crenu- 
late. Whorls 9 to 10, a little convex, the last less than one- 
third the total length of the shell. Aperture subvertical; 
narrowly semioval; columella slightly arcuate, subvertical, 
rather obliquely truncate at the base ; peristome unexpanded, 
thin, the margins joined by a thin callus. Length 20, diam. 
7, aperture 6 mm. long, scarcely 4 wide. (Bens.) 

Mahableshwar Ghats (type loc., J. Chesson) ; Bombay Ghats 
(W. Theobald). [Cherra Poonjee, Sylhet, teste Beddome]. 

Achatina notigena BENS., Ann. Mag. N. H. (3), v, June, 
1860, p. 462. H. & T., Conch. Ind. pi. 35, f. 8, 9. PFR., 
Monogr. vi, 229. BEDDOME, P. Mai. Soc. Lond. vii, 166. 
Stenogyra (G.) notigera Blanf., NEVILL, Handlist Ind. Mus. 
p. 167, no. 40 (Poona and Khandala). 

Benson records a variety which is more inflated, ovate- 
turrite, 22 x 8 mm. No locality for it is mentioned. He 
writes : ' ' This shell has relations to A. chessoni in the attenu- 
ation of the spire towards the summit, a feature observable 
also in the northeastern A. tenuispira. It differs in form, 
size, proportions, etc. In one specimen from Bombay the 
attenuation of the spire is less conspicuous." Col. Beddome 
states that the specimens he has seen are in no way separable 
from tenuispira. 

The initial half whorl is smooth; then very fine, close, 
regular vertical striae appear, continuing to the end of the 
embryonic shell, which consists of two whorls (fig. 9). After 
this, the strise are irregular, coarse ones appearing in groups, 



GLESSULA, PENINSULAR INDIA. 67 

or at somewhat irregular intervals. On the last two or three 
whorls the striation is still coarser, and chiefly on the upper 
part of each whorl, the lower part being much smoother. 
Specimens from Poona before me are more slender than those 
from Bombay, measuring 21 x 7 mm., with 10^2 whorls. 

The sculptured embryonic whorls show that this species is 
not related to G. tenuispira. I am much inclined to doubt 
that the specimens recorded from the Sylhet region are really 
notigena. They are probably tenuispira. 

22. G. CORROSULA (Pfeiffer). PL 12, figs. 5, 6. 

Shell turrite, rather solid, smoothish, corroded in dots, pale 
corneous. Spire a little convexly turrite, rather acute; su- 
ture shallow subcrenulate. Whorls 9, very slightly convex, 
the last scarcely two-sevenths the total length, rounded at the 
base. Columella very deeply arcuate, obliquely distinctly 
truncate. Aperture slightly oblique, sinuate-semioval ; peris- 
tome simple, thin. Length 15, diam. 4%, aperture 4x2 mm. 



Nilgiris (Ch. Shiplay, in Cuming coll.) ; Kurnool (Stol.) 
Achatina c., PPR., P. Z. S. 1856, p. 35; Novit. Conch, p. 
104, pi. 29, f . 9, 10 ; Monogr. iv, 612. 

23. G. BENSONIANA (Pfeiffer). PI. 12, fig. 13, 14. 

Shell oblong-turrite, thin, slightly striatulate, glossy, sub- 
pellucid, tawny-corneous. Spire somewhat turrite, the apex 
rather obtuse; suture subimpressed, closely denticulate. 
Whorls 8~y 2 , rather flat, the last slightly more than one-third 
the total length, tapering at the base; columella slightly 
arcuate, shortly truncate a little above the base of the semi- 
oval aperture; peristome simple, acute, the right margin 
slightly arcuate. Length 18, diam. 6%, aperture 6% x 3, 
mm. (Pfr.) 

Nilgiris (Perrottet, type loc.) ; Kotagherry and Ootaca- 
nmnd (Stoliczka). 

Achatina bensoniana PFR., Zeitschr. f. Malak. 1851, p. 27;: 
Conchyl. Cab. p. 325, pi. 26, f. 12, 13; Monogr. iii, 494. 
HANLEY & THEOBALD, Conch. Indica, pi. 102, f . 3. Stenogyra 



68 GLESSULA, PENINSULAR INDIA. 

(Glessula) &., G. NEVILL, J. A. S. B., vol. 50, 1881, p. 137, pi. 
5, f. 16, 16a. 

24. G. PR^LUSTRIS (Benson). PI. 9, figs. 15, 16. 

Shell ovate-oblong, very thin, fragile, irregularly plicate- 
striate, glossy, pale buff-corneous ; spire pyramidal, the apex 
obtuse, suture rather deep, subcrenulate ; whorls 8%, a little 
convex, slightly swollen above near the sutures, the last whorl 
more than one-third the total length, subinflated; aperture 
vertical, semioval, rather wide; columella somewhat straight, 
slightly curved, base obliquely truncate; peristome unex- 
panded, acute. Length 33, diam. 17, aperture 15 x 9 mm. 
(Bens.). 

S. India: Midnapore, Balasore and Cuttack, Orissa pro- 
vince, in mango topes (W. Theobald) ; common in the Orissa 
and Gaii jam districts, east side of the Madras Presidency 
(Beddome). 

Achatina pralustris BENS., Ann. Mag. N. H., June, 1860, 
v, p. 462. PFR. Monogr. vi, 221. HANLEY & THEOB., Conch. 
Ind. pi. 17, f. 6, and var., f. 7. Glessula p., BEDDOME, P. 
Mai. Soc. vii, p. 162. Stenogyra (Glessula) praclustris 
NEVILL, Handlist, p. 170. 

Col. Beddome gives 40 mm. as length of his largest speci- 
men. There is a smaller race (pi. 9, fig. 15) measuring, 
length 24, diam. 11, aperture 10.5 mm. long; whorls 7%- 
The lip has a smooth, thickened edge. 

25. G. CHESSONI (Benson). PL 11, fig. 5. 

Shell ovate-turrite, attenuate above, roughly plicate-striate, 
the striae very minutely, closely, obsoletely spirally decussate ; 
tawny-corneous or purplish-brown, translucent, a little glossy ; 
spire turrite, attenuate towards the slightly obtuse apex; 
suture impressed, crenulate. Whorls ll 1 /^ a little convex, 
the last over one-third the length of the shell, a little in- 
flated. Aperture subvertical, semioval, rather wide; colu- 
mella rather straight, whitish-calloused, at base slightly ob- 
liquely truncate; peristome unexpanded, thin. Length 37, 
.diam. 15, aperture 14x8 mm. (Bens.). 



GLESSULA, PENINSULAR INDIA. 69 

S. India: Mahableshwar Mts. (J. Chesson, type loc.); 
North Canara forests; near Sircee (Beddome) ; Igapuri 
(Stoliczka) ; Torna and Purandhar (Blanf.). 

Achatina chessoni BENS., Ann. Mag. N. H. (3), v, June, 
1860, p. 462. PFB., Monogr. vi, 222. HAND. & THEOB., 
Conch. Ind. pi. 17, f. 8. Glessula c., BEDDOME, P. Mai. Soc. 
vii, 163. 8. (G.) chessoni NEVILL, Handlist, p. 167. 

There is also a more slender variety 33 x 12 mm. noted 
by Benson. 

26. G. TOENENSIS Blanford. PI. 11, figs. 3, 4. 

Shell ovate-oblong, rather thin, smooth, glossy, polished,, 
subobsoletely striatulate, tawny-corneous; spire long-conoid, 
the sides convex; apex very obtuse; suture impressed, some- 
what corrugated above. Whorls 7 to 7%, convex, the last 
over two-fifths the total length, rounded beneath. Aperture' 
subvertical, oblong-semioval ; peristome unexpanded, thin, 
the margins joined by a thin callus ; columella deeply arcuate r 
whitish, almost vertically truncate in front. Length 25, 
diam. 14, oblique alt. of aperture 12, width 7 mm. (Blanf.). 

S. and W. India : Torna Hills, near the town of Poona on 
the west, (type loc.) ; Anamullays; Tinnevelly; Travancore 
Ghats (Beddome). 

Glessula tornensis BLANF., Journ. A. S. B. vol. 39, 1870, p. 
22, pi. 3, f. 22. BEDDOME, P. Mai. Soc. vii, 163. Achatina t., 
Conch. Indica, pi. 78, f. 3. 

" In form it is remarkably similar to G. textilis W. Blanf., 
from the Anamallay Hills, but it entirely wants the colored 
markings of that species " (Blanf.). Col. Beddome remarks, 
" My Travancore specimens were labelled subtornensis by 
Nevill, but I cannot see how they differ. I took a very beau- 
tiful, dark chocolate-colored variety on the Calcad Hills in 
Tinnevelly." Fig. 4 is the typical form from Torna Hills. A 
specimen measures, length 26.5, diam. 13.5, aperture 12 mm., 
with 714 whorls. Hanley figures a much more obese form 
from the same place (fig. 3). 

27. G. TEXTILIS Blanford. PI. 11, figs. 6, 7. 

" Shell ovate-oblong, rather solid, translucent, striated near 



70 GLESSULA, PENINSULAR INDIA. 

the suture, smooth, polished, dark chestnut with close vertical 
and horizontal lines of a greyish-yellow color, varying in 
breadth and resembling the threads of an irregularly woven 
cloth. Spire elongated, conoidal with convex sides, apex ob- 
tuse, sutures impressed. Whorls 7, -convex, the last about 
two-fifths of the entire length, rounded beneath. Aperture 
vertical, truncately semi-oval, milky within; peristome 
slightly thickened, white, right margin slightly sinuate 
towards the base, columella deeply curved, obliquely truncated 
beneath, margins united by a thin callus. Length 26, diam. 
13 mm. Aperture 10% mm. long, 7 broad " (Blanf.). 

S. India: Anamullay Hills, 6000 ft, type loc. (Blanf.); 
Pulney Hills (Fairbank) ; Tinnevelly and Travancore Ghats 
(Beddome). 

Achatina textilis BLANF., J. A. S. B. xxxv, 1866, p. 41. 
Conch. Ind., pi. 17, f . 10. PFR., Monogr. vi, 220. Glessula t. f 
BEDDOME, I. c., p. 163. 8. (G.) textilis NEVILL, Handlist p. 
168. 

" This is the only indigenous Indian Achatina with which 
I am acquainted possessing colored markings. In form it 
approaches some of the Ceylon Achatina, and also an unde- 
scribed Deccan species'* (Blanf.). 

11 Varies in diameter from 10 to 14 mm. I have specimens 
from the Tinnevelly Ghats in which the textile coloring is 
reduced to a single narrow band on each of the three lower 
whorls, or is entirely obsolete " (Beddome}. 

Besides the numerous reddish lines and bands on a pale- 
yellow ground, it is sometimes sprinkled with buff dots. A 
small specimen from the Pulney Hills figured measures, 
length 21, diam. 9.9, length of aperture 9.8 mm. (fig. 7). 

28. G. SENATOR (Hanley). PL 11, fig. 8. 

Shell subovate-conoid, sometimes narrower, thin, glossy, 
smooth; chocolate, conspicuously ornamented with a yellow- 
ish or pale stripe. Whorls convex, much wider than high 
(6% in an imperfect example), rapidly increasing, marked 
below the deeply-impressed suture with a very narrow band 
and above it with a wide one, which continues on the last 



GLESSULA, PENINSULAR INDIA. 71 

whorl a little above the middle. Spire about half the total 
length, apex paler, obtuse. Columella short, paler, arcuate, 
broadly truncate. Length 1 inch (Hani.). 

Southern India, Cottyam Hills, collections of Beddome 
and Me Andrew (Hanley) ; Peermede Hills, Travancore (Bed- 
dome). 

Achatina (Glessula) senator HANL., P. Z. S., 1875, p. 606; 
Conch. Indica, pi. 155, f . 4. G. s., BEDDOME, 1. c., p. 163. 

Only four specimens are known to me, all from the Cottyam 
Hills ; two are young and rather narrow in proportion to the 
fine but broken-lipped example I have described, which once 
belonged to the celebrated Indian eonchologist W. Benson " 
(Hanley) . 

' ' Only differs from the last two species in its beautiful col- 
oration ' ' (Beddome ) . 

29. G. isis (Hanley). PL 11, fig. 9. 

Shell subcylindric, smooth, thin, very glossy, whitish or 
pale, sometimes with a narrow tawny band, and encircled by 
close, very narrow 'tawny lines; the band generally placed 
towards the base of the upper whorls and above the middle of 
the last one. Whorls about 10, convex, gradually increasing, 
obsoletely subcrenulated below the deep suture, and all but 
the last whorl are much wider than high; apex obtuse. 
Aperture narrow, slightly more than one-fourth the total 
length. Columella short, arcuate, obliquely twisted-truncate. 
Length 1%, width two-seventh inch [ca. 33 x 7.14 mm.] (Han- 
ley). 

S. India: Foot of the Pulney Hills (Fairbank, Beddome). 

Achatina (Glessula) isis HANL. P. Z. S., 1875, p. 606; 
Conch. Indica, p. 62, pi. 155, f. 5. PFR., Monogr., viii, 616. 
Glessula i, BEDDOME, 1. c., p. 163. 

" Much the coloring of textilis, but the shell is very dif- 
ferent in form, being elongated and narrow " (Beddome). 

30. G. SUBPERROTTETI Beddome. PI. 8, figs. 1, 2. 

Shell ovate-turrite, tapering above, very glossy, lightly 
plicate-striate, fulvous-corneous; spire turrite, attenuate 



72 QLESSULA, PENINSULAR INDIA. 

towards the rather obtuse apex ; suture impressed, crenulate. 
Whorls 9, slightly convex, the last about two-fifths the length 
of the shell. Aperture semi-oval; columella rather straight, 
whitish-calloused; peristome unexpanded, thin, the margins 
joined by a whitish callus. Length 28, diam. 9, aperture 
10x5 mm. (Beddome). 

S. India: Travancore Hills above Calcad. 

G. subperrotteti BEDD, Proc. Malac. Soc, vii, p. 163, pi. 
15, f. 1, la (Sept., 1906). 

lt Intermediate between chessoni Bens, and perrotteti Pfr. 
The sculpture is much less prominent than in the former. ' ' 

31. G. CANABICA Beddome. PI. 8, figs. 7, 8. 

Shell turrite-oblong, rather thin; spire oblong, apex ob- 
tuse ; very glossy, purple-brown, distinctly and closely sub- 
costulate-striate, under the lens closely decussate; suture im- 
pressed; whorls 9, nearly flat, the last two-fifths the total 
length. Aperture vertical, oblong semi-oval. Peristome 
thin. Columella deeply arcuate, almost vertically truncate in 
front. Length 25, diam. 9, aperture 8x4 mm. (Beddome) . 

S. India: South Canara Ghats (Kudra Mukh), rare. 

Glessula c., BEDDOME, P. Mai. Soc. Lond., vii, 164, pi. 15, f. 
4 (Sept, 1906). 

" In its blunt oblong spire it resembles the large form of 
amentum as figured by Hanley. It is a beautifully sculp- 
tured shell." 

32. G. ANAMULLICA (Blanford). 

" Shell turrite-ovate, thin, finely striated, horny with high 
vitreous lustre. Spire turrited, sides convex, apex obtuse, 
suture impressed. Whorls 8, scarcely convex, the last 
rounded beneath. Aperture oblique, peristome thin, colu- 
mella moderately arcuate, obliquely truncated below. " 

Length 27, diam. 12, aperture 10x6.5 mm. (Blanf.). 

S. India: Anamullay Hills ( Blanf.) ; Travancore Hills 
(Beddome). 

Achatina anamullica BLANF, J. A. S. B, vol. 35, 1866, p. 



GLESSULA, PENINSULAR INDIA. 73 

37. PFR., Monogr., vi, 223. Glessula a., BEDDOME, I. c.,_p. 
164. 

1 Though a good many of this fine, dark chocolate-colored 
species were taken, none of them had a firm lip, and though 
eggs were taken from some of them they are probably not full 
grown. It is not very like any one species, the nearest to it 
being perrotteti " (Beddome). 

33. G. SUBINORNATA Beddome. PI. 8, figs. 5, 6. 

Shell oblong-turrite, solid, closely striate, decussated with 
very minute obsolete, spiral striae; tawny, glossy, the apex a 
little obtuse ; suture lightly impressed, very closely crenulate. 
Whorls 8, rather flattened, the last two-fifths the total length, 
a little convex ; spire long-turrite. Columella arcuate, white- 
calloused, obliquely abruptly truncate. Aperture triangular- 
semi-ovate, whitish inside; peristome simple, obtuse, 

Length 28, diam. 8, aperture 10x5 mm. (Bedd.). 

S. India : Sispara Ghat, on the Nilgiris. 

G. subinornatd BEDDOME, P. Mai. Soc. Lond., vii, Sept., 
1906, p. 164, pi. 15, f. 3, with var. minor. 

" Allied to the Ceylonese inornata and parabilis; smaller 
and narrower than the former; larger and with a more 
elongated spire than the latter. " 

' * Var. minor. Length 21, diam. 7 mm. ; aperture 8 mm. 
long, 4 wide. Brunagherry Hills, Wynad. 

" Of a pale-steel color, otherwise only differing in size from 
the type. Very near parabilis, but with rather longer spire 
and smaller aperture " (Beddome). 

34. G. BEDDOMEI (Blanford). PL 11, figs. 10, 11. 

" Shell turrite-ovate, solid, finely and closely sub-costu- 
lately striated, dark-purplish brown, epidermis in parts hav- 
ing a tendency to assume a dirty cream color, especially in 
dead specimens. Spire convex below, slightly acuminate 
above, apex obtuse, rather inclined to the right, suture im- 
pressed. Whorls 71^-8, convex, the last two-fifths of the 
entire length, rounded at the base. Aperture nearly vertical, 
sub-pyrif orm, milky within ; peristome thickened, white, outer 



74 GLESSULA, PENINSULAR INDIA. 






margin rather straight, not arcuate, columella deeply curved, 
lined with callus, subobliquely and rather broadly truncated 
at the base." 

Length 30, diam. 11.5, aperture 10x6 mm. (Blanf.). 

S. India: Anamullay Hills, 5000-7000 ft. (type loc., Bed- 
dome). Ceylon. 

Achatina beddomei BLANF., J. A. S. B., vol. 35, 1866, p. 
41. H. & T., Conch. Ind., pi. 102, f. 8; 156, f. .Glessula &., 
BEDDOME, P. Mai. Soc., vii, 165, with var. pollens. 

I * This is a more solid form than any of the Nilgiri species, 
and it differs from all of them, and also from the solid Cey- 
lonese forms, in its sub-acuminate- apex. It is a well-marked 
species " (Blanf.). 

II The Ceylon specimens are slightly narrower, but do not 
otherwise differ " (Beddome). 

Var. pallens Beddome. Only differing from the type in 
being of a pale-straw color. There are numerous specimens 
of this in the Nevill collection, purchased by Messrs. Sowerby 
and Pulton, and a single specimen in the late Dr. Blanford's 
collection, labeled G. skinneri. This is, I believe, inornata var. 
I Pfr., Monogr. HeL, iii, p. 490 (Beddome) . 

The figures are copied from Conchologia Indica. Fig. 10 
is from a native painting, fig. 11 from the type specimen. 
Hanley remarks that it " differs little from G. inornata ex- 
cept in its peaked apex." Whether it has the microscopic 
sculpture of that species is not known. 

35. G. BOTTAMPOTANA ('Beddome ' Hanley). PI. 11, fig. 12, 

11 Length 25.5, diam. 10 mm., whorls 7, of unusually solid 
substance " (Nevill, 1881, specimen from Col. Beddome). 

" The decussation in the sculpture is much more prominent 
than in any other species. Hanley 's figure is good, but does 
not show the sculpture " (Beddome). 

S.-W. India: Bollampatty Hills, 5-6000 ft., above Palghat. 

Achatina bottampotana Beddome MSS., HANLEY and THEO- 
BALD, Conch. Indica, p. 63, pi. 156, f. 1 (1874) ; no descrip- 
tion. Stenogyra (Glessula) bottampotana NEVILL, Handlist 
Ind. Mus., p. 169 (Anamullays). S. (G.) bollampattiana 



GLESSULA, PENINSULAR INDIA. 75 

Beddome, G. NEVILL, J. A. S. B., vol. 50, 1881, p. 139. Gles- 
sula bolumpattiana BEDDOME, Proc. Malac. Soc. Lond., vii, 
Sept., 1906, p. 165. 

Since Indian authors do not agree in the orthography of 
the name, I have followed the original spelling. 

36. G. SUBSERENA Beddome. PI. 8, figs. 13, 14. 

Shell ovate-turrite, rather solid, very highly polished, ob- 
soletely striatulate, fulvous-corneous, pellucid. Spire sub- 
turrite, the apex obtuse; suture impressed, margined, crenu- 
lat-e. Whorls 7, rather flattened, the last scarcely half the 
total length. Aperture semi-oval; columella deeply arcuate, 
whitish-calloused, margins joined by a callus, at the base ab- 
ruptly and obliquely truncate. Length 22, diam. 11, aperture 
10x5 mm. (Beddome). 

S. India: Peermede, Travancore; Anamullays. 

Glessula s., BEDDOME, P. Mai. Soc. Lond., vii, Sept., 1906, 
p. 166, pi. 15, f. 7. 

" The last whorl is longer and the spire less elevated than 
in the Ceylonese serena, and the whorls, especially the upper 
ones, are less convex. ' ' 

37. G. JEYPORENSIS Beddome. PI. 8, figs. 11, 12. 

Shell oblong-turrite, thin, striatulate, glossy, buff-corneous. 
Spire sub-turrite, obtuse at the apex. Suture impressed, 
crenulate. Whorls 8, rather flat, the last nearly two-fifths 
the total length. Columella very deeply arcuate, truncate at 
the base. Aperture semi-oval ; peristome simple. Length 18, 
diam. 6, aperture 5x3 mm. (Beddome). 

Jeypore Hills, East coast of the Madras Presidency. 

G. jeyporensis BEDDOME, P. Mai. Soc. Lond., vii, Sept., 
1906, p. 167, pi. 15, f. 6, 6a. 

" Allied to bensoniana, but with a shorter, blunter spire. " 

38. G. JERDONI (' Benson ' Reeve). PI. 12, figs. 16, 17, 18. 

Shell oblong-subulate, thin, smoothish, glossy, tawny-cor- 
neous ; spire turrited, the apex rather obtuse, suture margined ; 
whorls 8, a little convex, the last slightly exceeding one-third 



76 GLESSULA, PENINSULAR INDIA. 

the total length, somewhat tapering towards the base. Colu- 
mella slightly arcuate, shortly truncate near the base of the 
subrhombic-semioval aperture; peristome unexpanded, acute, 
the right margin slightly arcuate. Length 14, diam. 5, 
aperture 4% x 2% mm. (Pfr.). 

Nilgiris (Jerdon, type loc.) ; Anamullays; Pulney Hills 
(Fairbank) ; Cherra Poonjee (Beddome). 

Achatina jerdoni Benson MS., REEVE, Conch. Icon., v, 
March, 1850, pi. 21, fig. 80. PFR., Monogr., iii, 494; Oonchyl. 
Cab., p. 312, pi. 25, f. 10, 11. H. & T., Conch. Ind., pi. 78, 
f. 10. 

Pfeiffer's figures and description of a specimen from Ben- 
son are reproduced. The specimens recorded from Cherra 
Poonjee should be very closely compared with those from 
Southern India ; they may prove separable. 

39. G. SINGHURENSIS W. Blanford. PL 10, fig. 5. 

Shell pyramidal, turrited, thin, corneous, polished, glossy, 
smooth, slightly striatulate. Spire long-conic, the apex sub- 
acute; suture impressed, minutely corrugated. Whorls 8, 
convex, the last scarcely one-third the total length, rounded 
beneath. Aperture nearly vertical, ovate-oblong; peristome 
obtuse, whitish ; columella very deeply arcuate, obliquely trun- 
cate in front. Length 12.5, diam. 4.4, aperture 4x2.5 mm. 
(Blanf.). 

Singhur, near Poona. 

G. singhurensis BLANF., J. A. S. B., vol. 39, 1870, p. 19, pL 
3, f . 17. Achatina s., H. & T., Conch. Ind., pi. 78, f . 7. 

" This is allied to the Nilgiri G. jerdoni Bens., but the sides 
of the spire are less convex, the shell being more regularly 
pyramidal, with a less obtuse apex. In some of the specimens 
of this species collected alive, but in which the animal had 
subsequently dried up, I found young shells. It would thus 
appear to be viviparous. I have observed the same circum- 
stance (the occurrence of young shells inside the old one) in 
G. cassiaca Bs. In other species of this genus I have found 
small round eggs with a calcareous shell, but these may be 
hatched, before they are deposited by the parent " (Blanf.). 



GLESSULA, PENINSULAR INDIA. 77 

40. G. AMENTUM ('Benson' Reeve). PI. 10, figs. 1, 2, 3, 4. 

Shell turrite-oblong, rather thin, distinctly and closely 
striate, silky, pellucid, chestnut- corneous. Spire turrite, the 
&pex rathor obtuse, suture impressed, whitish, subcrenulate. 
'Whorls 9, a little convex, the last one not one-third the length, 
rounded at base. Columella a little arcuate, white-calloused, 
somewhat twisted, obliquely truncate at the base of the sub- 
rhombic-semioval aperture; peristome simple, unexpanded, 
ihe right margin regularly arcuate. Length 22, diam. 7 mm. ; 
oblique length of aperture 7.5, width 4 mm. (Pfr., from spec, 
in Benson coll.). 

Near Calcutta, under a fallen palm, on the Howrah bank 
of the river, between Bishop's College and the Botanic Gar- 
dens (Benson, 1835, type loc.) ; Valley of the upper Nerbudda 
(W. Theobald) ; Orissa and Ganjam (Beddome). 

Achatina amentum Benson MS., REEVE, Conch. Icon, v., 
June, 1849, pi. 17, fig. 82. PFR., Monogr., iii, 499 ; Conchyl. 
Cab., p. 311, pi. 25, f. 4, 5. H. & T., Conch. Indica, pi. 35, f. 
3. BENSON, Ann. Mag., v, 1860, p. 464. Glessula a,., BED- 
DOME, P. Mai. Soc., vii, 168. 

The initial half whorl is smooth, the next two whorls closely, 
very regularly striate vertically. Then the coarser, post- 
embryonic sculpture begins (pi. 10, fig. 4). The striation is 
rather sharp but uneven, and the striae are strongest at and 
near the suture, decreasing downwards. It resembles G. noti- 
gena somewhat, but the early whorls are not attenuated, and 
there are 2y 2 embryonic whorls. 

Col. Beddome remarks : ' ' I found the smaller variety very 
abundant on the top of the Myhendra Hill ( Ganjam) . The 
larger variety, found near Calcutta and in central India, and 
well figured by Hanley, is a rare shell. It has a shorter and 
blunter apex and fewer whorls than G. vandalica, but speci- 
mens of that species sometimes do duty for it in collections. ' ' 

41. G. FACULA (Benson). PI. 10, figs. 8, 9. 

Shell turrite-ovate, thin, smooth, irregularly striatulate, 
translucent, glossy, pale tawny-corneous. Spire turrite-conic, 
the apex obtuse, suture rather deep, irregularly, slightly 



78 GLESSULA, PENINSULAR INDIA. 



crenulate. Whorls 7%, somewhat convex, the last scarcely 
two-fifths the total length, lightly and remotely plicate-striate 
anteriorly. Aperture subvertical, semi-oval; >colume]la 
shortly and deeply arcuate, callous, obliquely truncate at base. 
Peristome unexpanded, thin, margins joined by a thin callus. 
Length 18, diam. 8, aperture 7x4.5 mm. (Bens.). 

Nilgiris (T. Jerdon, type loc.) ; Pulney Hills; Nullay- 
mallays; Kurnool; Jeypore Hills, east side of Madras (Bed- 
dome). 

Achatina facula Bs., Ann. and Mag. N. H.(3), v, June, 1860, 
p. 466. PFR., Monogr., vi, 224. H. & T., Conch. Ind., pi. 35. 
f. 1 (not good). Glessula /., BEDDOME, P. Mai. Soc. Lond., 
vii, 168. Achatina perotteti REEVE, Conch. Icon., v, pi. 21, 
f. 102. Stenogyra (Glessula) facula NEVILL, J. A. S. B., vol. 
50, 1881, p. 137, pi. 18, ISa (copy from Eeeve). 

Cf. G. illustris, no. 69. 

1 * Intermediate in form between A. oreas and A. hiigeli Pf r., 
this shell was, in the Conchologia Iconica, confounded with 
A. perrotteti Pfr., which proved to be a more elongated form, 
of which A. nilagirica B., fig. 87 of the same plate, is a length- 
ened variety. Pfeiffer cites fig. 102, with a mark of doubt, 
under A. perrotteti, in the third volume of his Manual " 
(Benson). 

42. G. BOTELLUS (Benson). PI. 10, fig. 6. 

Shell oblong, rather solid, smooth, lightly striatulate, under 
a lens distinctly, closely, spirally, very minutely scratched, 
polished, tawny-chestnut. Spire ovate-oblong, the apex very 
obtuse, suture impressed, slightly crenulate. Whorls 7, a 
little convex, the last slightly wider. Aperture suboblique, 
semi-oval, whitish within; columella deeply arcuate, whitish- 
calloused, subvertically truncate at the base. Peristome un- 
expanded, the margins joined by a thin callus, right margin 
slightly widened, flat, not thickened. Length 18, diam. 7.5, 
aperture 7 x 3.66 mm. (Bens.). 

Nilgiris (T. Jerdon, type loc.) ; Pykara (Blanford). 

Achatina botellus BENS., Ann. and Mag. N. H. (3), v, June, 
1860, p. 465. PFR., Monogr., vi, 226. H. & T., Conch. Ind., 



GLESSULA, PENINSULAR INDIA. 79 

pi. 35, f. 4. Glessula botellus BEDDOME, P. Mai. Soc. Lond., 
vii, 168. 

Col. Beddome writes: " Nevill labelled my specimens 
from the foot of the Nilgiris botellus var. convexior, but I do 
not see how they differ from the type." 

43. G. OROPHILA (' Benson ' Reeve). PI. 10, fig. 10. 

Shell conically ovate ; spire acuminated ; sutures impressed ; 
whorls 7, rounded, peculiarly obscurely indented; columella 
short, deeply arched and truncated; aperture rather small, 
olive-horn colored. Distinguished by the deeply-arched cur- 
vature of the columella, and by the whorls being rather more 
numerous than is usual in species of this form (Reeve). 

Nilgiri Hills (type loc., Jerdon) ; Anamullay Hills ; S. Can- 
ara; Golcondah Hills, east side of Madras Presidency (Bed- 
dome). 

Achatina orophila Benson MS., REEVE, Conch. Icon., v, 
June, 1849, pi. 19, f. 105. Stenogyra (Glessula) orophila 
NEVILL, J. A. S. B., 1881, p. 137 .Glessula o., BEDDOME, P. 
Mai. Soc. Lond., vii, 168. Achatina arthurii BENSON, Ann. 
Mag. N. H. (3), xiii, March, 1864, p. 209. H. & T., Conch. 
Ind., pi. 36, f. 3. Cionella (Glessula) orophila SEMPER, 
Reisen im Archipel Phil., Landmoll., p. 133, pi. 12, f. 14-16 
(genitalia), pi. 16, f. 18 (central tooth). 

Reeve's second locality, Colombo, Ceylon, was probably due 
to an erroneous identification. Col. Beddome omits the Nil- 
giris from his list of localities. He writes: " My Golcondah 
specimens were labelled by H. Nevill G. subbrevis, but I can- 
not see how they differ. Nevill, I think, saw only young ex- 
amples. ' ' 

Achatina arthurii Benson, from Neher, Mahableshwar Hills, 
is considered a synonym of orophila by Col. Beddome. The 
original figure is copied, pi. 10, fig. 7. " Shell ovate-conic, 
irregularly plicate-striate, buff- tawny, polished, translucent. 
Spire ovate-conic, apex obtuse, suture impressed. Whorls 
7%, a little convex, subcrenulate at the suture. Aperture 
subvertical, elliptic-ovate, peristome rather thick, parietal cal- 



80 GLESSULA, PENINSULAR INDIA. 

lus whitish; columellar margin obliquely truncate. Length 
19, diam. 10, aperture 8 mm." (Benson). 

44. G. OBEAS (' Benson ' Reeve). PI. 10, fig. 11. 

Shell oblong-conical; whorls 7, convex, finely margined at 
the sutures, longitudinally obscurely impressed striate, col- 
umella arched, aperture small, brown-horny (Reeve). 

Length 14.5, diam. 7.25 mm., whorls 7 (Nevill). 

Nilgiris (Jerdon, type loc.), foot of the Koonoor Pass 
(Nevill); Tinnevelly and Travancore Hills; South Canara 
Ghats; Nallaymallays, Kurnool (Beddome). 

Achatina oreas Benson MS., REEVE, Conch. Icon., v, pi. 21, 
fig. 113, March 1850. Stenogyra (Glessula) oreas NEVILL, J. 
A. S. B., vol. 50, 1881, p. 135. Glessula o., BEDDOME, P. Mai. 
Soc. Lond., vii, 169. (Not A. oreas Pfr.) 

45.* G. PSEUDOREAS (Nevill), pi. 10, figs. 12, 13. 

Shell subturrite-ovate, thin, smooth, slightly shining, 
brown-corneous; spire turrite-conic, the apex obtuse; suture 
submarginate, impressed. Whorls 7, a trifle convex, the last 
about two-fifths the total length, rounded at the base; colu- 
mella very deeply arcuate, white-calloused, obliquely truncate 
above the base of the elliptic-semioval aperture; peristome 
unexpanded, acute, the right margin lightly arcuate. Length 
12.5, diam. 5, aperture 5x2.5 mm. (Pfr.). 

Length 11, diam. scarcely 5 mm., whorls 6 (Nevill). 

Nilgiris (type loc., Jerdon, Blanford) ; S. Canara Ghats; 
Anamullays; Pulney Hills; Tinnevelly Hills (Beddome). 

Achatina oreas Benson, PFR., Monographia Heliceorum Vi- 
ventium, iii, 1853, p. 495 (exclusive of reference to Reeve) ; 
Conchyl. Cab., p. 312, pi. 25, f. 8, 9. Not A. oreas Reeve, 
1850. Stenogyra (Glessula) pseudoreas NEVILL, J. A. S. B., 
vol. 50, 1881. p. 136. G. pseudoreas BEDDOME, Proc. Malac. 
Soc. Lond., vii, p. 169. 

Var. subdeshayesiana Nevill. Whorls 6, length 11, diam. 
4.25 mm. Type var. from the Anamullays, coll. Col. Bed- 
dome; also from the Pulney Hills, coll. Rev. Fairbank (G. 
Nevill) . 



GLESSULA, PENINSULAR INDIA. 81 

46. G. SCRUTILLUS (Benson). PL 10, fig. 17. 

Shell oblong, -rather solid, smooth, rather remotely striatu- 
late, glossy, tawny-corneous; spire ovate-oblong, apex obtuse, 
suture impressed; whorls 5%, a little convex, the last over 
one-third the length of the shell. Aperture vertical, ovate- 
elliptical. Columella deeply arcuate, abruptly and deeply 
truncate at the base ; peristome unexpanded, obtuse, the mar- 
gins joined by a rather thick callus. Length 6, diam. 2.66, 
aperture 2.5 mm. (Bens.) . 

Cuttack, Orissa, type loc. ; upper valley of the Nerbudda 
(W. Theobald). 

Achatina scrutillus BENS., Ann. Mag. N. H. (3), v, June, 
1860, p. 463. 

This little species may be known at once on comparison 
with the Bengal A. gemma, which is ordinarily of the same 
size, by its less rapidly-decreasing spire, solidity and color; 
and from the paler A. frumentum Reeve, which is probably 
only a local variety of A. gemma, by the two first-mentioned 
characters " (Bens.). 

47. G. PULLA Blanford. PI. 13, figs. 5, 6. 

Shell small, turrite, thin, brownish-corneous, a little shin- 
ing, smooth, striatulate. Spire lengthened subconic, the sides 
somewhat convex; apex obtuse; suture impressed. Whorls 7 
to 8, convex, short, the last about two-sevenths the total 
length, rounded below. Aperture oblique, subovate; per- 
istome thin; columella arcuate, obliquely truncate below. 
Length 7, diam. 2.75, aperture 2x1.5 mm. (Blanf.). 

Torna, Bombay Presidency (Evezard). 

Glessula pulla BLANF., J. A. S. B., 1870, xxxix, p. 21, pi. 3, 
f. 20. Achatina pulla HANL. and THEOB., Conch. Ind., pi. 78, 
f. 1. PFR., Monogr., viii, 288. 

" This is allied to G. fairbanki Bs., but distinguished by 
its more conical spire, smaller size and darker color " 
(Blanf.). 

48. G. PAUPERCULA (Blanford). PL 13, fig. 9. 

Shell turrite-oblong, rather solid, a little shining, tawny- 




82 GLESSULA, PENINSULAR INDIA. 

corneous, impressed-striate. Spire turrite, the sides slightlv 
convex ; apex obtuse ; suture submarginate. Whorls 7, a little 
convex, the last about one- third the total length. Columella 
deeply arcuate, truncate at the base. Aperture oval-piri- 
form ; peristome unexpanded, slightly labiate within, the mar- 
gins joined by a callus. 

Length 9, diam. 3.5, aperture 3x2 mm. (Blanf.). 

Kolamullies, Patehamullies and Shevroys (W. King and B. 
B. Foote, original lot) ; Hills in the Salem district; Anamul- 
lays; Tinnevelly; Travancore Hills; Kurnool Hills (Bed- 
dome) . 

Achatina paupercula BLANF., J. A. S. B., vol. 30, 1861, p. 
362, pi. 1, f. 16. H. & T., Conch. Ind., pi. 102, f. 1. Glessula 
p., BEDDOME, P. Mai. Soc., vii, 170, with var. nana. [G.] in- 
conspicua Nevill MS., BEDDOME, I. c. 

1 The nearest ally to this small species appears to be the 
Darjiling A. crassula B. Prom this it is mainly distinguished 
'by the shape of the spire which is more convex at the side, 
by its smaller breadth compared with its length, and by its 
more marked and slightly marginate sutures. 

" A. paupercula is probably common upon the Shevroys. 
All the specimens, however, found by Mr. King at that local- 
ity are bleached, two specimens from the Kolamullies alone 
retaining their original texture " (W. T. & H. F. Blanf ord). 

Var. nana Beddome. A shorter, more obtuse form, occur- 
ring occasionally with the type form, and very like sattara- 
ensis, but shorter (Beddome). 

49. G. SATTARAENSIS (' H. Ad.' H. & T.). PI. 13, 'figs. 7, 8. 

Shell oblong-turrite, rather solid, smooth, obscurely striate, 
glossy, brown-corneous. Spire turrite, the apex slightly ob- 
tuse; suture impressed, crenulate. Whorls 7, a little convex, 
the last slightly over three-eighths the total length. Aperture 
slightly oblique, oval. Columella callous, deeply arcuate, ob- 
liquely truncate; peristome unexpanded, obtuse, margined 
with whitish; margins joined by a thin callus. Length 8.5, 
diam. 4 mm. (H. Ad.). 

Western India: Satara, Bombay Presidency (E. L. Layard, 



GLESSULA, PENINSULAR INDIA. 83 

type loc.) ; Ceylon central provinces; Rambaddy Ghats (Bed- 
dome) ; Nuwara-Eliya (Simon). 

Glessula fusca H. AD., P. Z. S., 1868, p. 15, pi. 4, f . 10, 10a 
(not Achatina fusca Pfr.) . Achatina sattaraensis H. Adams 
MS., HANLEY & THEOBALD, Conch. Indica, p. 33, pi. 78, f . 4. 
PFR., Monogr., viii, p. 281. 

I do not know whether Ceylonese examples have been care- 
fully compared with the types from Satara. A specimen 
from Saharumpore has been figured by Hanley. 

50. G. SUBJERDONI Beddome. PI. 8, figs. 3, 4. 

Shell oblong-turrite, thin, lightly striatulate, glossy, sub- 
pellucid, tawny-corneous. Spire sub-turrite, a little obtuse at 
the apex; suture impressed; whorls 7 to 8, a little flattened, 
the last scarcely four-sevenths the total length, tapering at the 
base. Columella lightly arcuate, truncate a little way above 
the base of the aperture. Aperture vertical, semi-oval; 
peristome simple, a little obtuse. Length 11, diam. 3.5, 
aperture 2.5 x 2 mm. (Beddome) . 

Jeypore and Golconda Hills, east side of Madras Presi- 
dency. 

G. subjerdoni BEDD., Proc. Malac. Soc. London, vii, Sept., 
1906, p. 170, pi. 15, f. 2, 2a. 

" A smaller and more slender shell than jerdoni, and much 
larger than paupercula, of which it may be a large form." 

A specimen evidently near subjerdoni, but purchased as G. 
jerdoni, and said to be from the Nilgiris, is figured, pi. 12, 
fig. 16. Below the suture there are vertical grooves, strong 
and regular on the shoulder, but rapidly weakening down- 
ward. The lip is rather thick and whitish-edged. It is a 
wider shell than G. p. taprobanica, which seems to be closely 
related. Length 9.2, diam. 3.9, aperture 3.25 mm. ; whorls 7. 

51. G. GRACILIS Beddome. PI. 8, figs. 17, 18. 

Shell small, cylindric-turrite, rather solid, slightly shining,. 
evidently striatulate. Spire long, obtuse at the apex; suture 
impressed, crenulate. Whorls 8, a little flattened, the last 
scarcely one-third the total length, the base slightly tapering. 



84 GLESSULA, PENINSULAR INDIA. 

Columella a little oblique, truncate a little way above the base 
of the aperture. Aperture vertical, semi-oval; peristome 
whitish within, obtuse. Length 11, diam. 2, aperture 2.5 x 1.5 
mm. (Beddome). 

Nilgiri Hills, type loc. ; Jeypore Hills, east coast of Madras. 

G. gracilis BEDD., Proc. Malac. See. Lond., vii, Sept., 1906, 
p. 170, pi. 15, f . 9, 90. 

" The Jeypore specimens are slightly larger, the whorls 
rather more convex and slightly angular close to the sutures." 

52. G. PUSILLA Beddome. PI. 8, figs. 9, 10. 

Shell turrite-oblong, thin, a little glossy, buff-corneous, 
lightly striatulate. Spire turrite, obtuse at the apex; suture 
crenulate. Whorls 6 to 6%, a little convex, the last two- 
fifths the total length. Columella deeply arcuate, at the base 
almost vertically truncate. Aperture semi^oval; peristome 
unexpanded, whitish. Length 5 to 5.5, diam. 1.75 to 2 mm. ; 
aperture 1.5x1 mm. (Bedd.). 

Ceylon, Rambaddy Ghat. South India, Anamullay Hills; 
Shevaroys; Nilgiris. 

G. pusilla BEDD., P. Malac. Soc. Lond., vii, Sept., 1906, p. 
171, p. 15, f. 5, 5a. 

" Much smaller than colletta, its nearest ally, with weaker 
sculpture and paler color/' 

53. G. MULLORUM (Blanford). PI. 13, fig. 10. 

Shell turrite-oblong, rather solid, pale corneous, diaph- 
anous, rather remotely, lightly striate. Spire turrite, the 
apex obtuse, suture impressed. Whorls 6, convex, the last 
about one-third the total length, rounded basally. Columella 
short, arcuate, slightly callous, obliquely truncate. Aperture 
nearly semi-circular, vertical; peristome unexpanded, obtuse; 
margins joined by a thin callus. Length 7.5, diam. scarcely 
4, aperture 2.5x1.75 mm. (Blanf.). 

City of Madras (Blanford, Nevill). 

Achatina mullorum BLANF., J. A. S. B., vol. 30, 1861, p. 
362, pi. 1, f. 17. H. & T., Conch. Ind., pi. 102, f. 5. PFR., 
Monogr., vi, 228. 



GLESSULA, PENINSULAR INDIA. 85 

* This is one of the group of small Indian Achatinas com- 
prising A. gemma Bens., and A. scrutillus B. From these two 
shells the present species is distinguished by its conical spire 
with straight and not convex sides, its paler color and sculp- 
ture. Both varieties are found abundantly crawling on 
banks, in a garden at Nungumbankum, a suburb of Madras * ' 
(W. T. &H. F.Blanford). 

54. G. BREVIS (Pfeiffer). PL 13, fig. 13. 

Shell conic-ovate, thin, pellucid, tawny-corneous. Spire 
conic, the apex somewhat obtuse. Whorls 6, moderately con- 
vex; distinctly sculptured with striae descending from the 
suture and vanishing downward; last whorl a little shorter 
than the spire, rounded. Columella twisted forward, almost 
horizontally truncate. Aperture nearly vertical, sinuate-oval ; 
peristome thin. Length 8 to 9, diam. 5 to 5.3, aperture 4.66 x 
2.33mm. (P/r.). 

Ahmednuggur (type loc.) and Poona; Jeypore Hills, east 
side of Madras Presidency (Beddome). 

Achatina Irevis PFR., P. Z. S., 1861, p. 387; Monogr., vi, 
227. H. & T., Conch. Indica, pi. 18, f. 10. Glessula Irevis 
BEDDOME, P. Mai. Soc., vii, p. 171 (microsculpta Nevill MS. 
mentioned) . 

According to Col. Beddome, "Hanley's figure is too broad 
towards the base, and does not show sculpture, which is pecu- 
liar. " His Jeypore specimens were named microsculpta by 
Nevill, but they seem not to differ from brevis. 

55. G. FILOSA Blanford. PL 13, fig. 14. 

Shell subrimate, turrite, thin, corneous, vertically plieate- 
striate, little shining. Spire elevated; apex obtuse, very 
shortly conic, somewhat mucronate; suture impressed. 
Whorls 8, convex, the last about one-third the total length, 
rounded basally. Aperture vertical, lunate-suboval. Peri- 
stome unexpanded, thin. Columella arcuate, whitish, lamelli- 
f orm, thin, obliquely truncate. Length 21, diam. 9 ; aperture 
5 mm. long. 

Travancore (type loc.) and Tinnevelly Ghats (Beddome). 



86 GLESSULA, PENINSULAR INDIA. 

Glessula filosa BLANF., J. A. S. B., vol. 39, 1870, p. 19, pi. 
3, f. 16. BEDDOME, 1. c., p. 171. Achatina filosa PFR., 
Monogr., viii, p. 279. H. & T., Conch. Ind., pi. 36, f. 10. 

" A peculiar form, easily distinguished by its strong sculp- 
ture, abrupt, subconical apex, and by the columella standing 
out from the last whorl, so as to have a groove running along 
its side " (Blanf.). 

56. G. SUBFILOSA Beddome, PL 8, figs. 15, 16. 

Shell elongate-turrite, thin, tawny-corneous, distinctly 
plicate-striate. Spire long, subobtuse at the apex, long-conic. 
Suture impressed. Whorls 10, rather flat, the last sub- 
carinate, scarcely one-third the total length. Aperture lun- 
ate-suboval; peristome thin; columella deeply arcuate, ab- 
ruptly obliquely truncate. Length 16, diam. 5, aperture 
5x3 mm. (Beddome). 

South India: Sirumallay Hills, Dindigul. 

Glessula subfilosa BEDD., Proc. Malax;. Soc. Lond. vii, Sept. 
1906, p. 171, pi. 15, f . 8, Sa. 

' ' The prominent sculpture is like that of filosa, but it is a 
very much smaller shell, with a much more elongated apex." 

57. G. LYBATA Blanf ord. PL 13, fig. 15. 

Shell ovate-turrite, rather solid, corneous, a little shining, 
vertically costulate-plicate, under the lens decussated with 
very minute, close spiral lines, often obsolete. Spire pyra- 
midal, the sides slightly convex; apex rather obtuse; suture 
deep. Whorls 7%, convex, obsoletely subangular below the 
suture, the last a little ascending in front. Aperture vertical, 
truncate, semioval; peristome obtuse; columella moderately 
arcuate, obliquely truncate in front. Length 12, diam. 5.5, 
aperture 4x2% mm. (Blanf.) 

Mahableshwar (type loc.) ; Khandala, western Ghats 
(Blanford). 

Glessula lyrata BLANF., J. A. S. B. vol. 39, 1870, p. 20, with 
var matheranica, p. 21, pi. 3, f. 19. Achatina lyrata H. & T., 
Conch. Indica pi. 18, f. 9.$. (G.) lyrata NEVILL, Handlist, 
p. 167. 



GLESSULA, PENINSULAR INDIA. 87 

"This shell resembles in form A. oreas Bens., but is dis- 
tinguished from that and all other allied species by its- 
stronger sculpture. Possibly the two varieties should be 
ranked apart, .as there is considerable difference between 
them. A third form, shorter and more tumid, occurs near 
Poona. As other intermediate varieties probably exist, I 
prefer for the present classing all in one species, but it may 
hereafter be desirable to distinguish them." (Blanf.) 

The figure in Conchologia Indica, which I have copied, 
does not agree very well with the description, but it is said 
to represent the type specimen. 

Var. matheranica Blanford. PI. 13, fig. 16. 

Smaller, more polished, wanting spiral lines, the sculp- 
ture obsolescent on the last whorl. Length 10, diam. 4.5 
mm. (Blanf.) 

M'atheran, near Bombay. 

58. G. RUGATA Blanford. PL 7, figs. 11, 12. 

Shell turrite, corneous, thin, little shining, vertically <closely 
plicate-striate, the stria? minutely and regularly granulate 
(under a lens), interstices decussated with close, minute 
spiral lines, stronger in the upper whorls. Spire long conic ; 
apex obtuse ; suture deep. Whorls 7%, convex, the last about 
one-fourth the total length. Aperture oblique, nearly ovate; 
peristome thin, unexpanded. Columella deeply -arcuate, 
obliquely truncate in front. Length 6, diam. 2, aperture 
1.5x1 mm. (Blanf.) 

Singhur Hills near Poona (type loc.), and Poorundhur 
(var. 7 mm. long), Bombay Presidency. 

Glessula rugata BLANF., J. A. S. B. vol. 39, 1870, p. 20, 
pi. 3, f. 18Achatina r., PFR., Monogr. viii, p. 293. H. & 
T., Conch. Indica pi. 102, f . 7. 

The first half whorl seems to be smooth ; then granose striaB 
and spiral lines set in. The lower whorls have beautifully 
granose plicae, unlike any other known Glessula. 



88 GLESSULA, NON-PENINSULAR INDIA TO INDO-CHINA. 

III. SPECIES OF NON-PENINSULAR INDIA, lNDO-CfflNA AND 

YUNNAN. 
59. G. TENUISPIRA (Benson). PL 9, fig. 1, 4. 

Shell elongate-turrite, corneous, longitudinally striate, at- 
tenuate towards the apex, columnar. Last whorl sometimes or- 
namented with whitish transverse bands; suture impressed, 
apex obtuse. Length about 1 inch, width 0.55 inch. Re- 
markable for the attenuated, 'Columnar form of the terminal 
whorls of the spire (Bens.). 

Darjiling; Khasia and Dafla Hills; Pegu; N. Canara (God- 
win-Austin, Beddome). 

Achatina tenuispira BENS., Journ. Asiat. So. Beng. v, 1836, 
p. 353. REEVE, Conch. Icon, v, pi. 16, f. 76. PFR., Monogr. 
ii, 262 ; Conchyl. Cab. p. 310, pi. 25, f . 6, 7. HANL. & THEOB., 
Conch. Indica, pi. 36, f. 8. Glessula t., BEDDOME, Proc. Mai. 
Soc. Lond. vii, 1906, p. 160. Achatina pertenuis W. BLAN- 
PORD, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Beng. xxxiv, 1865, p. 79. H. & T., 
Conch. Indica, pi. 18, f . 5. Glessula p., BEDDOME, 1. c. Steno- 
gyra (G.) pertenuis NEVILL, Handlist p. 169, no. 68 (Ton- 
goop, Arakan; Akoutong and Thyetmyo, etc.). Glessula 
baculina BLANFORD, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Beng. xl, 1871, p. 43, 
pi. 2, f. 6. Achatina &., H. & T., Conch. Ind. pi. 78, f. 6. 
PFR., Monogr. viii, 291. 

"Full grown shells collected in the Teesta Valley near 
Darjiling, and in N. Canara, measure 44 mm. in length, and 
have 14 whorls" (Beddome). G. baculina and G. pertenuis 
are considered to be specifically inseparable from G. tenui- 
spira by Col. Beddome, a conclusion supported by the speci- 
mens before me. The presence of this trans-Gangetic snail 
in the North Canara Hills is remarkable, if indeed, the Canara 
shells are really of the same species. 

59a. Var. baculina Blanford. PL 9, fig. 2. 

Shell elongate-turrite, slender, rather thin, obliquely striate, 
brown or corneous-fulvous, covered with a glossy cuticle. 
Spire turrite, the apex rather obtuse. Whorls 13%, slightly 
convex, the lower ones subequal; suture impressed, minutely 



GLESSULA, NON-PENINSULAR INDIA TO INDO-CHINA. 89 

denticulate. Aperture oblique, ovate-triangular; peristome 
simple, acute. Columella abruptly arcuate, obliquely pro- 
duced, vertically truncate at the base. Length 38, diam. 6.5 
to 7.5 mm.; aperture 7x4 mm. (Blanf.). 

Khersiong, Himalayas of Sikkim. 

''This species appears to have escaped the notice of all 
previous collectors in Sikkim ; it was found in association with 
its near ally G. tenuispira Bens., by Dr. Stoliczka during a 
recent visit. It is easily distinguished from the latter species 
by its slenderness, (the diameter being % of the length) 
and the comparative narrowness of the whorls; moreover by 
the form of the columella, the lower part of which is bent 
abruptly almost at right angles with the slope of the inner 
lip; while in G. tenuispira, G. erosa, and other allied forms, 
the curvature is at the utmost obtuse, Specimens, the shell 
of which has been slightly weathered, show fine spiral mark- 
ings, but these are not visible unless the shell has become 
somewhat opaque. The animal is dark leaden grey, some- 
what paler at the sides of the foot." (Blanf.) 

1 ' This is, I believe, only a more slender form of tenuispira, 
as I have specimens intermediate in breadth ; as to any differ- 
ence in the columella, some of my specimens of tenuispira 
have the lower part more bent than in any of the supposed 
baculina " (Beddome). 

596. Var. pertenuis (Blanford). PL 9, fig. 3. 

"Shell very slender, turrited, thin, light horny, polished, 
closely, minutely, and rather irregularly striated. Spire 
subulate, somewhat acuminate towards the blunt apex ; suture 
impressed, subcrenulate. Whorls 11-12, convex, the last 
about % the length of the spire. Aperture oblique, ovately 
pyriform, peristome thin, margins united by a thin callus, 
columella moderately curved, obliquely truncate. Length 20, 
diam 4!/2- Length of aperture 4 mm. (Blanf.) 

Tongoop, Arakan. (Blanf.) 

"Var major. Length 26 1 /2 mm.; diam 6; length of aper- 
ture 6. Of another specimen length 23 mm.; diam. 5%; 
length of aperture 5%. Pyema Khyoung, Bassein district, 
Pegu." (Blanf.) 



90 GLESSULA, NON-PENINSULAR INDIA TO INDO-CHINA. 

A much more slender species than A. tenuispira Bens., 
(a variety of which also abounds in parts of Pegu), though 
there are signs of a passage. The present appears to replace 
A. tenuispira in Arakan and Bassein. Mr. Benson, to whom 
I sent a specimen, observes that it is intermediate between 
A. tenuispira and A. hastula Bens. (Blanf.) 

Col. Beddome gives the localities, Assam; Arakan; Garo 
and Naga Hills; Burma, He remarks that " Blanf ord's 
types and all the specimens I have seen of this, are young 
shells, with fragile, unformed lips. They fit well with young 
of tenuispira. Blanford himself mentions that there are 
signs of a passage, and it would 'certainly not be advisable to 
consider it a good species without seeing specimens with adult 
lip." 

60. G. NAJA 'Blanford' n.sp. PI. 12, fig. 10. 

Shell slender, turrite, thin, yellow-corneous, glossy, 
weekly striatulate, and having vertical grooves at unequal 
intervals; this sculpture is most evenly developed just below 
the suture. Under the compound microscope glimpses of ex- 
cessively weak close spiral granule-lines may be seen in places. 
Outlines of the spire nearly straight, a trifle contracted near 
the apex. Whorls 9 1 / 4, moderately convex, separated by a 
deeply impressed simple suture. Aperture a little oblique; 
outer lip thin; columella rather long, regularly concave, 
truncate at the base. Length 19, diam. 6.6, length of aper- 
ture 6.5 mm. 

Assam. 

Glessula naja Blanf., in coll. A. N. S. P. ? Stenogyra 
(Glessula) n. sp., NEVILL, Handlist Ind. Mus. p. 170, no. 80. 

The later whorls are decidedly longer than in G. tenuispira 
and its immediate allies. The specimens were received from 
Nevill under the name used above; they may possibly be 
Glessula no. 80 of his Handlist, since they seem related to 
G. subfusiformis. 

61. G. NILAGABICA ('Benson' Reeve). PI. 9, fig. 5. 

Shell pyramidally turrited; whorls 10, convex, very finely 



GLESSULA, NON-PENINSULAR INDIA TO INDO-CHINA. 91 

crenulated at the sutures, then striated; columella rather 
deeply arched; aperture small; brown-horny (Reeve). 

S. India: Nilgiris (Jerdon). 

Achatina nilagarica Benson MSS., REEVE, Conch. Icon, v, 
pi. 21, f. 87 (March, 1850). A. perrotteti var., PFR., Conchyl. 
Cab. pi. 25, f. 2, 3. 

Mr. G. Nevill has expressed the opinion that the form fig- 
ured by Reeve, which he had not seen, is distinct from 
G. perotteti (cf. J. A. S. B. 1881, xl. p. 136). 

Var. kurnoolensis G. Nevill. 

Length 30, diam. 9.5 mm., whorls 11. Distinguished from 
both St. nilagirica and St. perotteti, not only by its greater 
size and more numerous whorls, but especially by the 
(throughout) regular and prominent striation, not crenulate 
at the suture; from St. vadalica Blanford, which it perhaps 
even more closely resembles, in general aspect at any rate, 
by the more abruptly tapering apical whorls, more arched 
columella, &c. Nullaymullay Mountains, Kurnool District, 
at 2500 ft" (Nevill, J. A. S. B. 1881, p. 136). 

62. G. HUGELI (Pfeiffer). PI. 9, figs. 13, 14. 

Shell ovate-turrite, fragile, longitudinally striate, glossy, 
pale corneous ; spire lengthened, the apex rather obtuse, suture 
deep. Whorls 10 to 11, rather flat, the last about two-sevenths 
the total length. Aperture triangularly semioval; columella 
deeply arcuate, abruptly truncate at the base of the aperture ; 
peristome unexpanded, acute. Length 35, diam. 11.5, aper- 
ture 12x6 mm. (Pfr.). 

Kashmir (von Hiigel; Hanley). 

Achatina hiigeli PFR., Symbolae etc., ii, p. 58(1842) ; Monogr. 
ii, 259 ; viii, 283 ; Conchyl. Cab. p. 334, pi. 29, f . 2, 3. REEVE, 
Conch. Icon. pi. 15, f. 68. Glandina f h., PHILIPPI, Abbild 
11. Beschreib. i, p. 135, Glandina pi. 1, f. 8. HANL. & THEOB. 
Conch. Ind. pi. 78, f. 2. 

The habitat was not given by Pfeiffer, but he states that 
the shell was taken during Hugel's journey. Hiigel traveled 
in Kashmir, and published an account of that country in four 
volumes, 1840. 



92 GLESSULA, NON-PENINSULAR INDIA TO INDO-CHINA. 

63. G. BUBRAILENSIS Godwin Austen. PI. 7, figs. 9, 10. 
"Shell turreted, elongate, solid, in fresh state brown and 

lustrous, finely longitudinally striated ; whorls 10, rather flat, 
suture shallow, apex blunt; aperture subvertical, fusiform, 
angular above, peristome very thick, paler brown on margin,, 
columella strong. Alt. 1.37, major diam. 0.4 in. (G.-A.) 

Eastern Burrail Range: Under the Peak of Khunho, the 
finest specimens; they were also 'abundant under Japoo at 
about 7000 ft" (G.-A.) 

G. burrailensis G.-A., Journ. As. Soc. Beng. vol. 44, 1875, 
p. 3, pi. 1, f. 6. Achatina &., PPR., Monogr. viii, 277. 

' This species is an extremely elongate, solid form of the 
crassilabris section of Glessula, and one of the most distinct." 

64. G. BUTLERI Godwin- Austen. PI. 11, figs. 1, 2. 

"Shell elongately turreted, very thin and brittle, tumid, 
pale corneous, glassy, very minutely striated, apex very blunt, 
whorls 8, rather rounded, suture deep, body whorl swollen 
and capacious ; aperture vertical, pear-shaped, lip rather thin. 
Alt. 1.13, major diam. 0.45 inch. (G.-A.) 

Eastern Burrail Range at 6000 feet ; not a common form. 

G. butleri G. A., J. A. S. B., 1875, vol. 44, p. 4, pi. 1, f. 7. 

"I name this shell after Captain J. Butler, Political Agent 
in the Naga Hills, with whom I had the pleasure of being 
associated when mapping that very interesting and beautiful 
district." (G-Aust.) 

65. G. PYRAMIS (Benson). PI. 12, fig. 1. 

Shell oblong-turrite, rather solid, smooth, striatulate, glossy, 
buff-corneous. Spire turrited with slightly convex sides, the 
apex rather obtuse, suture impressed. Whorls 8, a little 
convex, the last one-third the total length, obsoletely plicate 
in front. Aperture subvertical, elliptie-semioval ; columella 
arcuate, calloused, obliquely truncate at the base; peristome 
unexpanded, obtuse, white-lipped within. Length 15, diam. 
6 mm. ; aperture 5 x 2.5 mm. (Bens.) 

Teria Ghat, Khasia Hills (W. Theobald, type loc.) Ponsee, 
Yunnan (G. Nevill). 



GLESSULA, NON-PENINSULAR INDIA TO INDO-CHINA. 93 

Achatina pyramis BENS., Ann. and Mag. N. H. (3), v, 
June, 1860, p. 463. PFR., Monogr. vi, 226. HANL. and 
THEOB., Conch. Ind. pi. 18, f. 6. Glessula pyramis Bens., 
G. NEVILL, J. A. S. B. vol. 46, 1877, p. 26. 

11 Allied to the smaller Ach. crassula B., from Darjiling, but 
distinguished from it by its color, smoother sculpture, more 
convex and numerous. Whorls, by the characters of the 
peristome, and by the convex and not plan-ate sides of the spire. 
A large variety of Ach. crassula, collected by Mr. W. T. 
Blanford near Darjiling, is 12 mill, in length by 5% in 
breadth, and like the type, possesses only seven whorls.'' 
(Benson.) 

Lieut. Col. Godwin- Austen ( J. A. S. Bengal vol. 40, p. 3) 
regards illustris, pyramis and butleri as varieties of 
G. crassilabris. 

The form from Ponsee, Yunnan, has been called var. major 
Nevill (Handlist Indian Mus., p. 169, no description). 

66. G. SARISSA (Benson). PL 12, fig. 11. 

Shell long-conic, thin, smooth, striatulate, the last whorl 
(under -a lens) closely, obsoletely decussate; very glossy; 
olive-corneous. Spire long-pyramidal, the apex obtuse, suture 
impressed. Whorls 9y 2 , a little convex, the last over two- 
sevenths the length of the shell. Aperture subvertical, ovate- 
elliptical ; columella oblique, slightly arcuate, white-calloused, 
obliquely truncate at base; peristome unexpanded, thin. 
Length 16, diam. 5.5, aperture 5x3.5 mm. (Bens.) 

Comercolly, Lower Bengal, on the banks of the Ganges 
(Dr. Th. Cantor, type loc.) ; Oolooberiah; Moisraka; Jessore 
District (G. Nevill). 

Achatina sarissa BENS., Ann. Mag. N. H. (3), v, June, 
1860, p. 463. H. & T., Conch. Ind. pi. 35, f. 10. PFR., 
Monogr. vi, 234. 8. (G.) sarissa NEVILL, Handlist, p. 170, 
f. 74. 

67. G. HASTULA (Benson). PL 12, fig. 12. 

Shell turrite-subulate, thin, obliquely hair-striate, brown- 
ish-corneous, somewhat glossy. Spire subulate, the apex ob- 



94 GLESSULA, NON-PENINSULAR INDIA TO INDO-CHINA. 

tuse, suture rather deep ; whorls 9, the first convex, the later 
ones a little convex, the last whorl scarcely two-sevenths the 
total length. Aperture slightly oblique, ovate-elliptical ; mar- 
gins of the peristome joined by a thin callus, the right margin 
unexpanded, acute, columellar margin arcuate, calloused, 
whitish, obliquely truncate at the base. Length 12.5, diam. 
3.5, aperture 3.5 mm. (Bens.) 

Pankabari, Darjiling (W. T. Blanford, type loc) ; Kumah 
Hill and near Mai-i, Sandoway district of Arakan (Theob. 
& Stol.) 

Achatina hastula BENS., Ann. and Mag. N. H. (3), v, June, 
1860, p. 461. PFR., Monogr. vi, 235. H. & T., Conch. Ind. 
pi. 18, f. 4. Glessula h., THEOB. & STOLICZKA. 

"Of a more slender form than the large A. tenuispira B., 
the whorls increasing very gradually, and not attenuate to- 
wards the upper part of the spire, as in that species*' 
(Bens.). 

68. G. SUBPUSIPORMIS (Blanford). PL 12, fig. 15. 

Shell turrite, subfusiform, rather thin, pale olive-corneous, 
glossy, striatulate, subplicate at the sutures. Spire long- 
pyramidal, the apex very shortly conic, mucronate; suture 
impressed, submarginate. Whorls 8, convex, the last some- 
what elongate; tapering downwards. Aperture subovate; 
columella a little arcuate, obliquely truncate in front; peris- 
tome obtuse, slightly waved. Length 17%, diam. 5%, aper- 
ture 6x3 mm. (Blanf.) 

Ponsee, Yunnan, 3,300 ft. elevation. Type in Indian Mus. 

Achatina (Glessula) subfusiformis BLANF., P. Z. S. 1869, 
p. 449. PFR., Monogr. viii, p. 285. Stenogyra (Glessula) 
subfusiformis G. NEVILL, J. A. S. B. 1881, vol. 50, p. 138, 
pi. 5, f. 13. 

"This form may be recognized by its long lower whorl, 
subattenuate below." (Blanf.). It is the most northerly 
species of Glessula known. Nevill has figured the unique 
type specimen. 



GLESSULA, NON-PENINSULAR INDIA TO INDO-CHINA. 95 

69. G. ILLUSTEIS Godwin- Austen. PL 11, figs. 13-16. 

" Shell elongately oval, greenish horny, finely striated lon- 
gitudinally; whorls 7, very slightly rounded, suture moder- 
ately impressed, the lip thickened, -columellar margin slightly 
curved and strong, apex blunt. Length 0.75 major diam. 0.3 ; 
length of aperture 0.3 mm." (G.-A.) 

North Cachar Hills: Hengdan Peak, at 7000 feet, in for- 
est ; also near Nenglo at 6000 feet and in the Lukah Valley, 
Jaintia Hills, at 1000 feet. 

Achatina illustris Godwin-Austen, HANLEY & THEOBALD, 
Conch. Ind. pi. 102, f. 9Glessula illustris G.-A., J. A. S. B. 
1875, vol. 44, p. 3, pi. 1, f. 5. A. illustris PPR. Monogr. 
viii, 279. 

"This species is an elongate and larger form of Glessula 
crassilabris Bs., of which G. pyramis is a closer variety; but 
its much more elongate form and stronger striation make it 
a good connecting species with G. butleri described further on. 
The form from the Lukah Valley is a tumid departure from 
the type figured. Alt. 0.75, major diam. 0.38 inch. Alt. 
0.65, major diam. 0.35 inch.*' 

"I look on all these species as properly varieties, and 
G. crassilabris, very abundant in all the grass country of the 
Khasi Hills, may be taken as the type ; a difference in eleva- 
tion and condition of habitat, from damp dark forest to hot 
grassy slopes, having produced modifications of form." 
( Godwin- Austen. ) 

Figs. 15, 16, are copied from Godwin- Austen 's originals. 
A typical specimen, length 18.75, diam. 7.8, aperture 7.5 mm., 
whorls slightly over 7, is shown in figs. 13, 14. The em- 
bryonic whorls are closely and finely striate vertically, as in 
G. notigena; hence the species has no affinity to G. crassilabris. 
It is a much less robust shell than G. crassilabris, and less 
polished ; and on the last whorl there are traces of fine spiral 
striation, as shown in fig. 13. The sculpture of the later 
whorls is irregular; there seem to be unequally separated 
grooves, with finer striae and grooves in the intervals, but 
quite unequally developed. The suture is crenulate. On the 
last whorl or two s,ome traces of spiral strise appear, in places. 



96 GLESSULA, NON-PENINSULAR INDIA TO INDO-CHINA. 

The outer lip is a little sinuous, being retracted above; it is 
moderately thickened or obtuse. 

Col. Beddome considers this species identical with G. facula. 

70. G. CRASSILABRIS (Benson). PL 10, figs. 14, 15. 

"Shell turrite-conic, smooth, corneous, longitudinally 
striated. Whorls convex, suture excavated; lip thickened 
within ; columella very deeply arcuate ; apex obtuse. Length 
0.7, diam. 0.3 inch." (Benson). 

Length 18, diam. 8, aperture 7.5x4 mm,, whorls 8 (Pfr.). 

The shell is ovate-oblong, yellow. The embryonic whorls 
are smooth, a little over two. Subsequent sculpture consists 
of rather close grooves, most prominent at the suture, which is 
rather deeply impressed, though the whorls are only moder- 
ately convex. The suture descends a little near the lip. The 
aperture is rather small, outer lip decidedly obtuse, thick- 
ened, its rounded edge bicolored, white and yellow. The 
outer lip is slightly retracted in the upper part. Length 20.5, 
diam. 9.5 mm., whorls 6% (fig. 15). 

Khasia Hills (type loc.) ; Darjiling, Dafla and Naga Hills; 
Teria Ghat (Nevill). 

Achatina c., BENS., J. A. S. B. v, 1836, p. 353. PFR., 
Monogr. ii, 261; iii, 493; iv, 607; vi, 224; Conch. Cab. p. 313, 
pi. 25, f. 12, 13. REEVE, Conch. Icon. pi. 21, f. 81. HANL. 
& THEOB., Conch. Ind. pi. 36, f. 1. 8. (G.) crassilabris 
NEVILL, Handlist, p. 170. 

Godwin- Austen (1875) considered pymmis, butleri and il- 
lustris as subspecies of G. crassilabris. The latter is de- 
cidedly more robust than illustris, which belong to a differ- 
ent group ; pyramis and butleri are both more elongate shells. 

71. G. OROBIA (Benson). PI. 10, fig. 16. 

Shell ovate-oblong, rather solid, smooth, lightly striate, 
sculptured with a few rather widely spaced, deeply impressed 
striae; glossy, olive-corneous. Spire convexly pyramidal, the 
apex obtuse, suture impressed; whorls 6% to ?%> a little 
convex, angulated at the shoulder, crenulate, the last over 
one-third the total length. Aperture vertical, semioval; 



GLESSULA, NON-PENINSULAR INDIA TO INDO-CHINA. 97 

columella deeply arcuate, calloused, the base obliquely trun- 
cate; peristome unexpanded, rather thick, obtuse. Length 
11, diam. 5, aperture 4x3 mm. (Bens.). 

Sinchul and Darjiling (type loc.) at 8500 and 7000 ft. 
(W. S. Blanford) ; Naga Hills (Beddome). 

Achatina orobia BENS., Ann. and Mag. N. H. (3) v, June, 
1860, p. 461. PPR., Monogr. vi, 224. H. & T., Conch. Ind. 
pi. 18, f. 7. 

"Distinguished from the larger Khasia species, A. crassi- 
labris, by its peculiar sculpture, and by the formation of the 
whorls below the suture " (Bens.). 

72. G. GEMMA (' Benson ' Reeve). PL 13, figs. 1, 3. 

Shell oblong-conical, rather solid, whorls 6, rounded, 
smooth, columella arched, abbreviated, aperture nearly round ; 
purple-black, shining (Reeve). 

Shell ovate-oblong, rather solid, smooth, glossy, pellucid, 
purplish-corneous. Spire high-conic, the apex rather acute; 
suture rather deep. Whorls 6, a little convex, the last two- 
fifths the total length, rounded at the base. Columella arcu- 
ate, somewhat calloused, abruptly truncate nearly at the base 
of the subrhombic-oval aperture; peristome simple, unex- 
panded, the right and basal margins slightly arcuate. Length 
8 to 8.5, diam. 4, aperture 3x2 mm. (Pfr.). 

Lower Bengal, Barrakpore (Benson, type loc.) ; Rajma- 
hal; Chittagong; plains of Malabar and Beypur (Beddome). 
Jessore District, Chardbally and Moisraka (Nevill) ; Chander- 
nagore (Main waring) ; Arakan; Garo Hills (Austen). 

Achatina gemma Bens. MS., REEVE, Conch. Icon, v, pi. 
22, f. 123 (March, 1850). PFR., Monogr. iii, p. 496; Conchyl. 
Cab. p. 314, pi. 25, f. 24, 25. H. & T., Conch. Ind. pi. 36, 
f. 7. BENSON, Ann. Mag. v, 1860, p. 464 (large var., 8x3.5 
mm.) Glessula g., BEDDOME, P. Mai. Soc. vii, 169. 8. (G.) 
gemma NEVILL, Handlist, p. 170. 

Reeve's description and figure (fig. 1) are given above; 
also Pfeiffer's description of a larger form of the species. 

It is dark reddish-brown, and when containing the remains 
of the soft parts might be termed purplish-brown ; very glossy, 



98 GLESSULA, NON-PENINSULAR INDIA TO ESTDO-CHINA. 

very irregularly grooved. The spire tapers regularly (or a 
little convexly) to the obtuse summit. The outer lip is 
slightly obtuse, in adults, but scarcely thickened. The fig- 
ured specimen measures, length 6.5, diam. 3.7, aperture 2.8 
mm., with 5% whorls, (fig. 3). 

Var. frumentum (Reeve). PI. 13, fig. 2. 

This approaches very closely to the preceding species 
[gemma]. The whorls are less rounded, less polished, and 
of a uniform lighter color (Reeve). 

Chandpore, Bengal (Bacon). 

Achatina /., REEVE, C. Icon, v, pi. 22, f. 124 (March, 1850). 
DESH. in Ferussac, Histoire, ii, p. 169, pi. 134, f. 22-24. ' 

Considered to be a variety of G. gemma by Benson and 
Pfeiffer. 

73. G. CRASSULA ('Benson' Reeve). PI. 13, fig. 4. 

Shell pyramidally conical, whorls 7, flatly convex, longi- 
tudinally impressly striated; sutures excavated, columella 
arched, 'conspicuously truncated; aperture small. Whitish, 
covered with an olive horny epidermis (Reeve). 

Darjiling; Jantia and Naga Hills (Beddome), Khasi and 
Dafla Hills (G.- Austin). 

Achatina crassula Bens. MS., REEVE, Conch. Icon, v, pi. 
22, f. 120. PFR., Monogr. iii, 496; Conchyl. Cab. p. 314, 
pi. 25, f. 16, 17. H. & T., Conch. Ind. pi. 36, f. 4. #. (G.) 
crassula NEVILL Handlist, p. 169. 

74. G. BLANFORDIANA (Nevill). PI. 13, fig. 11. 

11 Shell ovately turreted, solid, of a dark brown color, two 
apical whorls smooth, the others sculptured with raised, 
coarse, longitudinal, nearly perpendicular striae, much 
crowded together and slightly flexuous on the last whorl; 
spire turreted, with very obtuse apex and excavated suture; 
whorls six, scarcely convex, the last one rounded at base; 
aperture vertical, subquadrilateral, with a much thickened 
white peristome ; columella broadly reflected, thickened, white, 
curved, forming an acute tooth, with a well developed incised 
notch at its base. Long 7, diam. 3 mm. (Nevill). 



GLESSULA, NON-PENINSULAR INDIA TO INDO-CHINA. 99 

Ponsee, Yunnan, type loc., and near Bhamo. 

Stenogyra (Glessula) blanfordiana G. NEVILL, J. A. S. B. 
1877, p. 26; 1881, vol. 50, p. 138, pi. 5, f. 12. 

This species closely resembles Glessula peguensis Blanford, 
but is less convex, that is, more slender, and a thicker texture; 
it can also be easily distinguished by the characteristic, 
crowded, well-developed, nearly perpendicular, longitudinal 
striation, varying slightly in direction on each whorl, much 
as in many species of Pomatias. The columella also is 
peculiar. Type in Indian Museum, Calcutta." (Nevill.) 

75. G. PEGUENSIS (Blanford). PL 13, figs. 12. 

"Shell oblong-ovate, rather solid, dark reddish brown, 
horny, marked with distinct and regular impressed lines. 
Spire convexly conical; apex obtuse; suture impressed, sub- 
crenulate. Whorls 6%, slightly convex; the last ascending 
a little towards the mouth, and exceeding y 3 of the shell in 
length. Aperture vertical, truncately semicircular; peris- 
tome obtuse, slightly thickened; margins joined by a callus; 
columella very much curved, projecting forward at the 
base, subvertically truncated within the peristome. Length 
7, diam. 3.5, length of aperture 2.75 mm." (W. T. Blanf.) 

Irawady Valley, Pegu (Blanford) ; Kumah Hill and near 
Mai-i, in the Sandoway district of Arakan (Theobald, type 
loc.); Thyetmyo (Blanford); near Chittagong (H. Raban). 

Ackatina peguensis BLANF., J. A. S. B. vol. 34, 1865, p. 78. 
H. & T., Conch. Indica, pi. 102, f. 6. Glessula peguensis 
THEOBALD & STOLICZKA, J. A. S. B. vol. 41, 1872, p. 334.-- 
S. (G.) peguensis NEVILL, Handlist, p. 171. 

The specimen figured exceeds Blanf ord's measurements 
slightly ; length 8.9, diam. 3.9, longest axis of aperture 3 mm., 
whorls 6%. The apex is smooth; the rest of the shell is 
closely and rather deeply but irregularly striate, and very- 
glossy. 

"A pretty little species, darker in color than any of its 
allies, except perhaps A. gemma Bens., and easily distin- 
guished from all, by the columella being more arcuate, also by 
its more acuminate spire and blunter apex, and its much 
stronger sculpture." (Blanf.) 



100 GLESSULA, NON-PENINSULAR INDIA AND INDO-CHINA. 

76. G. LATESTRIATA Moellendorff. 

Shell rather ventricosely oblong, rather thin, subpellucid, 
peculiarly sculptured with rather distant impressed striae, 
corneous-yellow. Spire moderately long, the sides a little 
convex, apex somewhat acute. Whorls 7, moderately convex, 
separated by a well-impressed, subcrenulate suture. Aper- 
ture nearly vertical, roundly-rhomboidal ; peristome unex- 
panded, obtuse; >columella rather twisted, abruptly truncate. 
Length 10, diam. 4.5, aperture 3.5 x 2.25 mm. (Mlldff.) 

Kalow, southern Shan States (Strubell). 

Glessula latestriata MLLDPP., Nachrichtsblatt d. Deutschen 
Malak. Gtes. vol. 31, p. 166, December, 1899. 

77. G. PAVIEI L. Morlet. PL 12, figs. 7, 8. 

Shell imperforate, elongate, subturrite, thin, glossy, trans- 
lucent, pale corneous, ornamented with radiating striae. Spire 
subconic ; whorls 8, a little convex, the first obtuse, following 
separated by a simple suture, a little inflated at the suture, 
the last -whorl moderately inflated, over one-third the total 
length. Aperture suboval, columella short, very deeply arcu- 
ate, twisted and truncate; columellar callus thin; lip regu- 
larly arcuate. Length 14, diam. 6, aperture 5 mm. long. 
(Morlet). 

Indo-China: Muong-Lai, Laos (Pavie) ; Lai-Chau, banks 
of the Black river, Tonkin (Dugast). 

Glessula paviei L. MORLET, Journ. de Conch. 1892, p. 321, 
pi. 7, f. 4; Mission Pavie, Indo-Chine iii, p. 359, pi. 19, 
f. 13 (1904). 

Two embryonic whorls are smooth, the last becoming 
crenulate below the suture. The following whorls are 
grooved at unequal intervals, the grooves strongest near the 
upper suture, weakening near the lower. The last whorl has 
rather close grooves and wrinkles. This sculpture is visible 
only under a lens. The columella is only moderately con- 
cave in specimens I have seen, and is very obliquely trun- 
cate. The outer lip is whitish, a little thickened and obtuse, 
as usual in adult Glessulas. A specimen from Muong-Lai 



GLESSULA, HABITAT UNKNOWN. 101 

measures, length 12.7, diam. 6, length of aperture 5 mm.; 
whorls 6% (fig. 7). 

Col. Beddome believes G. paviei to be a synonym of G. areas. 
I have been unable to compare specimens of the latter, but I 
think they will prove distinct. 

IV. Species of unknown habitat. 

78. G. FUSCA (Pfeiffer). PI. 7, figs. 14, 15. 

Shell oblong- turrite, thin, very closely hair-striate (and 
with a few stronger, somewhat varix-like striae), silky, brown. 
Spire with slightly curved outlines, the apex obtuse, suture 
marginate, very delicately denticulate. Whorls 7, convex, 
the last three-sevenths the total length, rounded at base. 
Columella white-calloused, lightly arcuate, abruptly shortly 
truncate; aperture vertical, sinuate-semioval ; peristome sim- 
ple, unexpanded. Length 22, diam. 9, aperture 10x4.6 mm. 
(Pfr.). 

Habitat unknown (Cuming coll.). 

Achatina fusca PFR., P. Z. S. 1852, p. 67 ; Conchyl. Cab. 
p. 337, pi. 43, f . 8, 9 ; Monogr. iii, p. 491. 

This species should be recognizable by its somewhat un- 
usual sculpture. Known by the original account only. 
Hanley thinks it near parabilis Bens., or perhaps identical. 

79. G. FULGENS (Pfeiffer.) 

Shell oblong-ovate, rather solid, smooth, pellucid, glossy, 
corneous-tawny. Spire ovate-conic, the apex somewhat ob- 
tuse. Whorls 6, slightly convex, striatulate at the narrowly 
marginate suture, the last whorl about three-sevenths the total 
length, rounded at base. Columella very much arched, white- 
calloused, obliquely and rather widely truncate. Aperture 
vertical, sinuate-elliptical; peristome unexpanded, obtuse. 
Length 12.5, diam. 5.66, aperture 5.5x3 mm. (Pfr.) 

Habitat unknown (Cuming coll.) 

Achatina fulgens PFR., Malak. Bl. 1858, v, p. 238 ; P. Z. S. 
1859, p. 27; Monogr. vi, p. 225. Glessula fulgens PFR. No- 
mencl. Hel. Viv., 1878, p. 330. 

An unfigured form, not noticed by other authors. 



102 GLESSULA, SUMATRA AND JAVA. 

80. G. VIRENS (Pfeiffer). 

Shell cylindric-turrite, very thin, lightly striatulate, the 
striae more distinct at the suture; very glossy, pellucid, 
greenish-corneous. Spire long, gradually tapering above, the 
apex rather obtuse; suture subcrenulate. Whorls 8, a little 
convex, the last scarcely one-third the total length, more 
convex. Columella very much arched, abruptly truncate. 
Aperture vertical, irregularly oval; peristome simple, unex- 
panded, the right margin lightly arcuate. Length 18, diam. 
8, aperture 6 x 3.5 mm. (Pfr.) 

Habitat unknown (Cuming coll.). 

Achatina virens PFR., P. Z. S. 1854, p. 125 ; Monogr. iv, 609. 

No other information has been published. 

V. Species of Sumatra, Java and Borneo. 

An undetermined species has been reported from Enganao 
Island by Henderson, Nautilus xii, 1898, p. 16. 

81. G. SUMATRANA (Martens). PI. 14, figs. 4, 5. 

Shell subconic-turrite ; minutely, subirregularly striatulate, 
glossy, bright chestnut, the apex paler. Whorls 7 to 8, con- 
vex, separated by a rather impressed simple suture, the last 
whorl gradually tapering at base. Aperture subvertical, 
emarginate-piriform, three-eighths the total length; columel- 
lar margin moderately excavated, spirally twisted, obliquely 
and distinctly truncate below. Length 13.5, diam. 5, aper- 
ture 4.66x2.5 mm. (Marts.) 

Sumatra: in the mountainous interior at Kepahiang 
(Marts.); Padang Pandjang (Rolle). 

Cionella sumatrana MARTS., Preussische Expedition nach 
Ost-Asien Landschnecken, p. 372, pi. 22, f. 5 (1867).- 
Achatina s., PFR., Monogr. vi, 225. Glessula s., ROLLE, 
Nachrbl., 1908, p. 68. 

11 The height of the visible part of the penultimate whorl 
somewhat exceeds its breadth (diameter), and has the pro- 
portion to the last whorl of 1 :!%. 

"This species is quite like some described by Benson from 



GLESSULA, SUMATRA AND JAVA. 103 

the mountainous region of India, and especially stands about 
midway between oreas and jerdoni, both from the Nilgiris. 
A similar species from Java is Hasselt r s Acicula cornea, fig- 
ured on his unpublished plate 14, fig. 5, from the mountain 
Salak." (Marts.) 

Prof. Boettger states that by the study of Mr. Rolle 's speci- 
mens of G. sumatrana, he sees that G. javanica is identical, 
and the latter name should be withdrawn. Apparently 
"javanica" is 'an error for cornea. The original account 
follows. 

G. cornea Boettger. (PI. 14, fig. 3.) Shell not rirnate, 
sub fusiform- turrit e, rather solid, very glossy, bright chestnut- 
brown, the apex not paler. Spire has very slightly convex 
sides, apex exactly turrited, rather obtuse. Whorls 8, con- 
vex, separated by a simple, impressed suture; minutely but 
very distinctly, somewhat irregularly striate, the striae gath- 
ered into groups at the suture and almost rib-like; last 
whorl slightly tapering basally. Aperture subvertical, emar- 
ginate-piriform subeffuse at the base, somewhat lipped with 
violaceous inside, less than one- third the total length; mar- 
gins joined by a curved callus, the right margin compressed, 
nearly straight, columellar margin excavated, oblique, spir- 
ally twisted, at the base oblique and distinctly truncate. 
Length 13, diam. 5, aperture 5.5 x 3 mm. (Bttg.) 

Java: Gunung Salak, moderately abundant (type loc.) ; 
Gunung Gedeh. 

Glessula cornea BTTG., Bericht Senckenbergische natur- 
forschende Gesellschaft in Frankfurt-am-Main, 1890, p. 148, 
pi. 5, f. 9, 90; 1891, p. 244. Acicula cornea Hasselt MS., 
MARTENS Preuss. Exped. Ostas., Landschn, p. 372, no de- 
scription, Glessula javanica BOETTGER, Nachrbl. d. D. 
Malak. Ges. 1908, p. 68, (name only, but said to be identical 
with G. sumatrana). 

"This species has already been recorded under the manu- 
script name Acicula cornea Hasselt, from the same locality. 
It is the sole representative of the genus in Java, 'and stands 
nearest to G. sumatrana v. Marts., as von Martens has al- 



104 GLESSULA, BORNEO, EAST AFRICA. 

ready noted. G. sumatrana is however more tapering at the 
apex and base, and it has not the strong striation at the 
suture. Moreover the alt. of the visible part of the penult, 
whorl in the Javan species is nearly a half less than its 
breadth (diameter)/' (Bttg.) 

82. G. WALLACEI (Pfeiffer). PI. 14, figs. 1, 2. 

Shell ovate-turrite, solid, closely and subregularly striate, 
silky, blackish-brown. Spire long, nearly straight-sided, the 
apex obtuse; suture minutely crenulate. Whorls 8, a little 
convex, the last slightly more than one-third the total length, 
pale in front, rounded at base. Columella arcuate, callus, 
obliquely deeply truncate. Aperture vertical, sinuate-oval; 
peristome unexpanded, obtuse. Length 21 to 22, diam. 9, 
aperture 8x4 mm. (Pfr.) 

Borneo: Sarawak (Wallace). 

Achatina wallacei PFR., Malak. Bl. 1855, p. 168; Novit. 
Conch, p. 82, pi. 22, f . 9, 10 ; Monogr. iv, 606. 

VI. East African Glessula. 

83. G. MONTANA (Martens). PI. 14, figs. 7, 8. 

Shell ovate-oblong, striatulate, glossy; green-buff, marked 
with isolated brown streaks. Spire turrite, the apex obtuse. 
Whorls 6%, a little convex, separated by a deep crenulated 
suture. Aperture two-thirds the total length, a little oblique, 
oblong-piriform, bluish inside. Peristome simple, thin, the 
columellar margin flexuous, thickened, white, abruptly trun- 
cate. Length 14, diam. 6.33, aperture 6x4 mm. (Marts.) 

Eastern Abyssinia: Guno in Begemder, 1200 ft. elevation 
(Heuglin & Steudner). 

Achatina montana MARTS., Malak. Bl. xiii, 1866, p. 95. 
PFR., Monogr. vi, 228. Glessula montana JICKELI, Nova Acta 
Vol. 37, 1875, p. 132, pi. 5, f. 19Homorus montanus Marts., 
KOBELT, Conchyl. Cab., p. 93. 

84. G. RUNSSORINA Martens. PL 14, figs. 6, 10. 

The shell is lengthened ovate, weakly striate, glossy, yellow- 



GLESSULA, EAST AFRICA. 105 

brown ; 5% to 6 whorls, the first nearly globular, smooth, the 
second distinctly striate, the rest regularly widening, some- 
what convex, with rather impressed and weakly crenate su- 
ture; the penult, whorl relatively high, the last whorl lower, 
elliptical, strongly descending to the aperture, with a few 
darker growth-arrest streaks, rounded below. Aperture 
moderately oblique, lanceolate, the outer lip weakly bordered 
outside, moderately arcuate above and below, in the middle 
straighter ; basal margin rounded ; columellar margin strongly 
arcuate, appressed, white, obliquely truncate below, passing 
with a distinct callus deposit upon the parietal wall. 
(Martens) . 

Length 23.5, diam. 9, aperture 10x5 mm. 

Length 14, diam. 6, aperture 7x3 mm. 

East Africa: Runssoro at 3100 meters (Stuhlmann, camp 
III, June 12, '91). 

Glessula runssorina MARTS., Nachrbl. D. M. Ges. vol. 27, 
December, 1895, p. 184, Deutsch-Ost-Afrika, Beschalte 
Weichthiere, p. 114, pi. 5, f. 11, 12, 1898. 

"External soft parts black; foot long and narrow behind, 
flattened above, paler, with two longitudinal furrows, oblique 
furrows passing outward and backward from them. Sole 
whitish in the middle, blackish at the edge, but without 
sharply defined limits. " (Martens). 

85. G. FERUSSACIOIDES Pollonera. 

Shell subcylindric-oblong-ovate, clear, pale corneous yellow- 
ish, delicately striate. Spire attenuate, the apex obtuse; 
whorls 7 a little convex, separated by a slightly impressed 
and narrowly margined suture. Aperture oblong-lunate, 
acute above; lip simple, thin; columellar margin rather 
straight, obliquely truncate. Length 18.5, diam. 6.5, aperture 
7x3.5 mm. (Poll). 

East Africa: Eastern slope of Ruwenzori, Valle Mobutu 
at 2000 meters elevation (Duke of Abruzzi). 

Glessula /., POLLONERA, Bolletino Mus. Zool. etc., Torino, 

ii, no. 361, p. 3, July, 1907. 



106 WEST AFRICAN GLESSULA. 

86. G. DEALBEBTISI Pollonera. 

Shell oblong-subsubulate, very clear and translucent, am- 
ber-greenish, very finely striatulate longitudinally. Spire 
turrite, the apex obtuse ; whorls 7, a little convex, parted by 
an impressed suture. Aperture oblong-piriform, acutely 
angular above, not differently colored within; peristome sim- 
ple, thin; columellar margin arcuate, obliquely truncate. 
Length 18, diam. 5.5, aperture 6.5 mm. long. (Poll.). 

East Africa : Bihunga, Ruwenzori ; Valle Mobuku, at about 
2500 meters elevation, one example (Luigi, Duke of Abruzzi). 

Glessula De-Albertisi POLL., Bolletino dei Mus. di Zool. 
ed Anat. eomp. della R. Univ. di Torino, No. 338, vol. xxi, 
p. 2, October, 1906. 

VII. West African species. 

Two quite distinct groups of Glessula are represented in 
West Africa. The group of G. lavigata, has substantially 
the shell-structure of Indian Glessulae. The shell is smooth 
throughout (species 87, 88) . In the group of G. paritura the 
post-embryonic whorls are finely rib-striate (species 89 to 92). 

Group of G. lavigata. 

The central teeth of G. lavigata are narrow, not half as 
wide as the adjacent laterals. There is a well developed 
but not overhanging cusp. The laterals are quadrate, tricus- 
pid, with overhanging cutting-points on all the cusps. Middle 
cusp longer than the basal plates. There are about 8 laterals, 
then one or two transitional teeth, followed by the marginals, 
also of the tricuspid type (pi. 15, fig. 9). The jaw (pi. 15, 
fig. 10) is very minutely plaited, serrate on the cutting edge, 
at least in places. 

87. G. LJEVIGATA (Pfeiffer). PL 14, figs. 9, 11, 12. 

Shell turrite-oblong, rather solid, smooth, buff- waxen ; spire 
elongated, the apex obtuse. Whorls 6, but slightly convex, 
the last about one-third the total length, rounded beneath, 
striolate anteriorly. Columella callous, somewhat twisted, 



WEST AFRICAN GLESSULA. 107 

obliquely truncate. Aperture oblique, acuminate-oval, pearly 
within; peristome simple, acute. Length 17, diam. 6 mm. 
(Pfr.). 

Habitat unknown (Cuming coll.). High on the serra de 
Pedras de Guinga, under stones, at an elevation of 3000 ft., 
district of Pungo-Andongo, Angola (Welwitsch). "For- 
careach, Senegambia" (A. N. S. Coll.). 

Achatina lavigata PFR., P. Z. S., 1854, p. 294; Monogr. 
iv, 607 ; Novit. Conch, i, p. 32, no. 54, pi. 8, f . 6, 7. MORELET, 
Voy. Welwitsch, p. 77. Glessula lavigata, PFR., Nomencl. p. 
330. Homorus I, KOBELT, C. Cab. p. 110. 

Morelet, who was the first to record a locality for this 
species, thinks that it must originally have been found nearer 
the coast, as it is unlikely that any earlier traveler had 
visited the remote solitudes where Dr. Welwitsch found it. 

The whorls are smooth except for weak growth-striae, and 
are parted by a linear suture which is transparent-margined 
below. The fifth whorl appears disproportionately wide. 
The spire tapers rapidly near the obtuse apex, but much more 
slowly throughout the greater part of its length. The ex- 
cision at the base of the columella is not very deep. Ex- 
amples measure: 

Length 17.5, diam. 6, aperture 6.2 mm.; whorls 

Length 17, diam. 6.3, aperture 6 mm.; whorls 

Length 16.5, diam. 5.7, aperture 6 mm.; whorls 



88. G. HYALINA (Rang). PL 14, fig. 16. 

Shell long-oval, smooth, glossy, very thin, transparent and 
of a pale yellow tint, like horn. The spire is quite elevated 
and obtuse, composed of 6 slightly rounded whorls, the last 
one larger than all the others. Aperture oval, rather long, 
its plane parallel to the axis. The columella has a projecting 
lobe ; its edge is a little reflexed. Right margin unexpanded 
and thin, simple and 'Continuous with the columella. Length 
7 to 9, diam. 3 to 4 mm. (Rang) . 

Liberia: Mesurade, in crevices of rocks at the foot of the 
cape not far from the sea (Rang). 

Helix hyalina RANG, Ann. Sci. Nat., Zool., xxiv, 1831, p. 



108 WEST AFRICAN GLESSULA. 

40, pi. 3, f. 5. Achatina h., DESH., in Lam., An. s. Vert. p. 
308. PPR., Monogr. ii, p. 258. 

Known to me by the above account only. 

Group of G. paritura (Section Neoglessula, nov.) 

Embryonic whorls very minutely and not closely engraved 
spirally, successively lengthening vertical grooves appearing 
on the later ones; whorls of the neanic and adult stages 
closely, regularly rib-striate, base smoother. Viviparous. 
Type G. paritura. 

Several species from the northern shores of the Gulf of 
Guinea form a group having adult sculpture somewhat as 
in Pseudoglessula, but embryonic sculpture of their own. 
Only one of these is known to me by specimens; the others 
are still known by the original lots only. 

89. G. PARITURA (Gould). PL 14, figs. 17, 18, 19. 

Shell elongate, thin, glossy, pale corneous, longitudinally 
closely lirate; spire turrite, obtuse at the apex. Whorls 7, 
convex, the last about half the total length of the shell. 
Suture deep. Aperture narrow, somewhat ear-shaped. 
Columella deeply arcuate, involute, forming a basal channel. 
Length 1, width .35 inch. (Old.). 

West Africa r near the sea, Fish-town, Liberia, buried un- 
der leaves or in the earth during the dry season; also Cape 
Palmas. 

Achatina paritura GLD., Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist, iii, 1850, 
p. 196; Otia Conch, p. 208. PFR., Monogr. iii, 491. PETIT, 
Journ. de Conchyl. ii, 1851, p. 269, pi. 8, f. l.Homorus p., 
KOBELT, Conchyl. Cab. p. 92. 

This species is viviparous. The summit is semi globular ; 
first 1% whorls smooth in adults, but in young shells they 
show sparse engraved spiral lines; then vertical grooves ap- 
pear below the suture, short and widely spaced at first, but 
gradually lengthening and becoming closer, so that at the 
end of 2y 2 whorls they reach nearly to the suture below, and 
become so close that the sculpture may be described as rib- 



WEST AFRICAN GLESSULA. 109 

etriate, the riblets smooth, rounded, and about equal to the 
intervals. On the face of the last whorl there are five or six 
riblets in one millimeter. The riblets weaken or disappear 
almost abruptly at the periphery of the last whorl, leaving the 
base and a very narrow band above the suture almost smooth. 
The columella is formed just as in the Indian Glessulae, being 
deeply concave, thickened with a white callus, and abruptly, 
deeply truncate at the base. The shell is translucent whitish 
under a very thin pale yellow cuticle. A specimen of the 
ordinary size measures, length 20.3, diam. 8.8, aperture 8.3 
mm.; whorls 6 l / 2 . 

An embryonic shell, shaken out of an adult, is oval, 4.7 
mm. long, with 3 whorls. There is a distinct umbilical slit 
behind the columellar callus (pi. 14, fig. 19). 

90. G. BRETIGNEREI Chaper. PL 14, fig. 20. 

Shell thin, transparent, of a light gray-olive tint; shining, 
though sculptured with very regular, crowded striae of 
growth, well-marked from the end of the second whorl. Spire 
of 6 or 7 whorls, very regularly conic after the second whorl. 
Aperture oblique; columella strongly inflexed towards the 
interior of the aperture. No umbilicus. Length 30, diam. 
11 to 12 mm. (Chaper). 

West Africa: Coffee plantation of Elima, Assinie (type in 
coll. de 1'ficole des Mines). 

Glessula ~bretignerei CHAPER, Bulletin de la Societe Zoolo- 
gique de France, x, 1885, p. 46, pi. 1, f. 6. Homorus assi- 
niensis Chaper, KOBELT, Conchyl. Cab. i, lOte Abth., p. 91, 
pi. 21, f. 6 (copy from Chaper). 

This species differs from G. paritura only by its larger 
size, so far as the published account goes. Kobelt confused 
the name with that of Corbula assiniensis, which occurs on 
the next page of Chaper 's paper. 

91. G. MALAGUETTANA (Rang). PI. 14, fig. 15. 

Shell elongate, conic, thin, subdiaphanous, very minutely 
longitudinally striate, brown-buff. Apex obtuse. Aperture 
oval, the columella arcuate, truncate; lip simple, acute. 



110 WEST AFRICAN GLESSULA. 

Length 15 to 20, diam. 8 to 9 mm. Animal dirty buff, 25 
mm. long. (Rang). 

West Africa: Malaguetta (Liberian) coast, under bushes 
and in crevices of the rocks (Rang). 

Helix malaguettana BANG, Annales des Sciences Naturelles 
xxiv, 1831, p. 39, pi. 3, >f. 4. Achatina m., DESK, in Lam., 
An. s. Vert, viii, p. 307. PFR., Monogr. ii, 257. Subulina 
malaguetana BECK, Index, p. 77. 

This shell, according to Rang, is long, conic, thin, almost 
diaphanous, very finely and regularly striate; the very thin 
cuticle covering it is of a dirty yellowish brown, resembling 
that of Subulina striatella. The summit is obtuse, and its 
whorls, 6 in number, are quite rounded. The aperture is 
oval, little oblique. The columella is very concave and trun- 
cate in front; the right margin is straight and thin, fragile 
and acute. Deshayes gives the dimensions 22 x 8 mm. The 
systematic position is unknown, and it may prove to be a 
Pseudoglessula. The spire is more slender above than in 
G. paritura. 

92. G. SERICINA (Jonas). PI. 14, figs. 13, 14. 

Shell ovate-turrite, rather thin, longitudinally closely pli- 
cate, pellucid, glossy, straw-colored. Spire turrited, the apex 
very obtuse. Whorls 6 to 6%, convex, the last about three- 
sevenths the total length, obsoletely angulated in the middle, 
smooth below the angle. Columella very arcuate, highly and 
widely truncate, the aperture suboval. Length 17, diam. 7 
mm., aperture 7y 2 mm. long, 4 wide in the middle. (Pfr.) 

West Africa: Guinea (Jonas). 

Glandina sericina JONAS, in Phil., Abbild. I, p. 134, pi. 1, 
f. 11 (July, 1844). Achatina s., PFR., Monogr. ii, 292; iii, 
494; iv, 606; Conchyl. Cab. p. 308, pi. 24, f. 12, 13. Homorus 
(Pseudoglessula) s., KOBELT, C. Cab. p. 104. 

This snail has a beautiful appearance from its very regular, 
pretty and strong striation, and its silky luster. (Jonas) . 



APPENDIX. 



A few corrections of nomenclature and descriptions of ob- 
scure forms are inserted here to complete the account of 
snails described as "Achatvna." 

OLEACINIDJE. 

SPIRAXIS BLANDIANUS Pils. New name for Spiraxis blandi 
Crosse & Fischer, ( Journ. de Conch. 1877, p. 271 ; Miss. Sci. 
Mex., Moll, i, p. 616 ; Manual I, p. 52, XIX, p. 27), not Spiraxis 
blandi ( Crosse) , described as Ravenia c., Manual XIX, 19, 20. 

VARICELLA DISSIMILIS Pilsbry. Vol. XIX, p. 105, pi. 17, f . 10, 11. 

New name for Achatina similis C. B. Ad. 1850, not A. similis 
Boissy, 1848. 

The specimen figured and described (XIX, 105) by me 
becomes the type of this species. 

VARICELLA DISSIMILIS LONGIOR Pils., new name. V. similis 
longa Pils. (Man. Conch. XIX, p. 106), being a homonym of 
V. costulata longa (t. c. p. 68), may be changed to Varicella 
dissimilis longior. 

VARICELLA SIMILARIS SLOANEANA Pils. 

New name for V. s. mandevillensis Pils., (XIX, p. 107), 
preoccupied on p. 70 of same volume. 

STREPTOSTYLA LIMNEIFORMIS CHIAPENSIS Pils. Vol. XIX, p. 159. 

New name for Spiraxis parvula Pfr. 1856, not of Chitty, 
1853. 

EUGLANDINA PUSiPORMis Pfr. Achatina /., Pfr. P. Z. S. 1845, 
p. 75 ; Monogr. ii, 292 ; Man. Conch. XIX, 188, is a homonym 
of Achatina lubrica var. fusiformis Picard, 1840. See Vol. 
XIX, p. 320. The Mexican species should probably stand as 
E. binneyana. 

(Ill) 



112 APPENDIX. 

ACHATINA NYSTIANA Pfr. Shell fusiform-oblong thin, 
smoothish, very delicately striatulate, pellucid, glossy, flesh- 
colored. Spire long, slender, the apex obtuse, suture thread- 
margined, whorls 6^, a little convex, the last about three- 
sevenths the total length, tapering at base. Columella very 
lightly arcuate, the base shortly and horizontally truncate. 
Aperture scarcely oblique, oval-elliptical, peristome simple, 
thin. Length 47, diam. 12, aperture 16% x 6 mm. Habitat 
unknown, Mus. Cuming (Pfr., P. Z. S. 1855, p. 100; and as 
Oleacina n., Monogr. iv, 632). Evidently an Euglandina. 

GLANDINA CRENULATA Sow. Ant., Pfeiffer. Shell fusiform 
ovate, rather solid, reddish-corneous, glossy; spire with the 
apex obtuse. Whorls 6%, a little convex, the last descending, 
shorter than the spire; suture margined and most minutely 
crenulate. Aperture dilated below, columella subarcuate, 
strongly truncate; peristome simple. Length 24, diam. 11, 
aperture 11 mm. long. Central America. (Pfr., Symbol 
ad Hist. Hel. ii, p. 59, no. 273, 1842, from spec, in coll. An- 
ton, recorded without description in Anton's Verzeichniss as 
Achatina crenulata Sow.? p. 44, no. 1595. "Achatina crenu- 
lata (Sowerby?) Anton, " PFR., Monogr. ii, p. 285). Seems 
to be unknown to monographers of the Mexican fauna. It 
is not recognizably defined. 

POIRETIA. 

A list of species referable to this genus was given in Vol. 
XIX, pp. xxii-xxv. The preparation of an index of Achatina 
etc. has shown that several names are homonyms and require 
change, as follows. 
POIRETIA KLEINIANA Pilsbry, n. n. 

New name for Achatina elegans Klein, Jahreshefte dea 
Vereins fur vaterlandische Naturkunde in Wurttemberg, ix, 
1853, p. 214, pi. 5, f. 11, not A. elegans C. B. Ad. 1849. 
Cf. Vol. XIX, p. xxiv. 

POIRETIA INPLATA Reuss, (XIX, p. xxiv). Add the 
synonym: Glandina (Achatina) antiqua KLEIN, Jahresh. 
Wurttemb. VIII, p. 162, pi. 3, f. 9, 1852. 



APPENDIX. 113 

POIRETIA ROUISIANA Pilsbry. 

New name for Oleacina teres Rouis, Sandberger, Land und 
Siisswasser Conchyl. der Vorwelt, p. 232, pi. 13, f. 26 (1872), 
not Oleacina teres Pfr., Malak. Bl. 1866, p. 140. Eocene, 
Buxweiler. 
POIRETIA WOODI Pilsbry. 

New name for Bulimus convexus 'Edwards* S. V. Wood, 
1877 (Vol. XIX, p. xxiii), not of Pfeiffer, 1855 (cf. vol. XI, 
p. 216). The generic position of this Oligoeene form of the 
Isle of Wight is uncertain. Photographic figures are re- 
produced by Taylor, Mon. Brit. Land and Freshwater Moll. 
ii, p. 29, f. 46, 47. 
POIRETIA MILLERI Pils. 

New name for Glandina ovata Miller (Vol. XIX, p. xxiii), 
not Glandina truncata var ovata Ball. 

ACHATINDXE. 

ACHATINA NYIKAENSIS Pils. 

New name for A. fragilis Smith, 1899, Vol. XVII, p. 63. 
Not Achatina fragilis Deshayes, An. s. Vert. II. 
ARCHACHATINA MARGINATA EDUARDI Pils. 

New name for Achatina marginata var. gracilior Martens 
(Manual XVII, p. Ill), not Achatina gracilior C. B. Ad. 
1850. 
ARCHACHATINA PURPUREA (Gmel.) Vol. XVII, p. 144. 

Add the following synonyms: Achatina purpurascens G 
FISCHER, Museum Demidoff iii, p. 224 (1807). Achatina 
erythrostoma SWAINSON, Bligh Catal., Appendix p. 14 (1822), 
based on Martini and Chemnitz, IX, f. 1017, 1018. 

HELIX (COCHLITOMA) CANTHERIATA Fer., Prodr. p. 49, no. 
340 is a nude name. Ferussac refers to the figure of a 
Phasianella as perhaps illustrating it. Habitat unknown. 

ACHATINA HYALINA Anton. ' ' Oval-conoidal, 5 convex 
whorls with deep suture, last whorl two-fifths the total length; 
transparent, glossy, yellowish-gray, finely striate, imperfor- 
ate. Aperture long-oval, peristome acute ; columella strongly 



114 HEMIBULIMUS. 



truncate. Alt. 2^2> diam. 1% lines. Habitat South America" 
(Anton, Verzeiehniss der Conchy lien welche sich in dear 
Sammlung von Hermann Eduard Anton befinden, p. 44, no. 
1589. Halle, 1839). 

Pfeiffer renamed the species Achatina antoniana, Mono- 
graphia Hel. Viv. ii, p. 285 (1848), the original name being 
preoccupied. It is probably a Leptinaria, but it has been 
recognized by no author since Anton. 
BOCAGEIA (PETRIOLA) ANJUANENSIS Pils., n. n. 

New name for Achatina cornea Morelet 1877, not of Bru- 
mati, 1838. Type is the shell described in Man. Conch. 
XVIII, 189, 190, and illustrated in fig. 23 of plate 57. 
Rumina decollata paiva Lowe. Vol. XVII, p. 213, 214. 

It should be observed that the names lanceolata, cornea, 
maxima, flammulata and decussata were already in use in 
Bulimus, hence must be dropped as homonyms in Rumina, 
even if the races denoted are valid, which seems doubtful. 

FERUSSACUXE. 

FERUSSACIA TERVERIANA Pils., new name for Achatina 
terveri Bgt. 1859 (Vol. XIX, p. 259, no. 48) ; not A. terveri 
Boissy, 1848, a species of Poiretia. 
FERUSSACIA HYPSELIA Pilsbry. 

New name for F. producta Lowe 1852, not of Reuss, 1849. 
See Man. Conch. XIX, p. 275. The type of F. hypselia is 
the specimen figured, Vol. XIX, plate 39, figs. 24, 25. 

ACHATINA BUCCINULA Grateloup, Actes Soc. Linn. Bor- 
deaux X, 1838, p. 122, pi. 4, f. 25, 26, from Dax, seems to be 
a Miocene species of Hohenwartiana. 

BULIMULID^. 
Grenus HEMIBULIMUS Marts., Vol. XII, p. 184. 

Mr. E. A. Smith (Proc. Malac. Soc. London VII, p. 313) 
has called attention to my failure through oversight to in- 
clude Achatina dennisoni Reeve in the Manual. He has also 
discussed the characters and synonyms of that and other 



HEMIBULIMU8. 115 

I 'H 

species of the group Hemibulimus, correcting various errors 
which, by reason of the scarcity of material, had been per- 
petuated from author to author. 

The relation of Hemibulimus to Liguus is not very close 
and I now doubt the propriety of including them in one 
genus. Except in the structure of the columella, Hemi- 
bulimus is very similar to Porphyrobaphe. 

1. HEMIBULIMUS EXCISUS (v. Marts.) Vol. XII, p. 185, pi. 

36a, figs. 31-34. 

Popayan, Colombia, at 2400 meters. Type species of Hemi- 
bulimus. While evidently related to dennisoni, it is prob- 
ably distinct, at least varietally, as Mr. Smith believes. In 
Vol. XII I followed Professor von Martens in uniting excisus 
and magnificus. 

2. HEMIBULIMUS DENNISONI (Reeve). PI. 40, fig. 1. 

"Shell fusiformly ovate, spire rather acuminated, whorls 
6, somewhat rudely faintly plicately striated, decussated with 
fine impressed striae. Apex somewhat papillary. Columella 
arched and twisted, attenuately truncated. Pale brown, varie- 
gated towards the apex with darker brown, last whorl un- 
spotted, encircled with a pale obscure band, columella pink- 
ish." (Reeve). 

Bogota (J. Dennison, Esq.). 

Achatina dennisoni REEVE, Conch. Icon, v, pi. 9, f. 32 
(March, 1849). PFR., Monogr. iii, 486. Liguus (Hemibuli- 
mus) dennisoni (Reeve) E. A. SMITH, Proc. Malac. Soc. 
London vii, 1907, p. 314, 313. Achatina magnifica REEVE, 
op. cit. pi. 9, f. 33, not of Pfeiffer. L. magnificus (Pfr.) 
PILSBRY, Man. Con. xii, pi. 36 a, fig. 30 (not the description). 

Reeve described and figured a shell from the Dennison col- 
lection. The present location of the type is unknown. The 
figure (copied on pi. 40, fig. 1) shows a pale red-brown shell 
with decidedly attenuate early whorls, a brown-spotted sub- 
sutural band, and two other pale bands on the last whorl. 
The parietal wall is purplish but not black. The aperture 
is markedly acuminate above. Judging from the description 



116 HEMffiULIMUS. 

and figure, the sculpture is not so strong as in the following 
form; yet it must he remembered that the sculpture is usu- 
ally minimized in Reeve's figures of Achatina. 

H. D. CARUS Pils., n. var. PL 40, figs. 2, 3, 4, 6. 

The shell is elliptic-ovate with a rather slender spire and 
obtuse apex; solid and strong. Nearly 2% smooth, convex 
whorls form the semiglobose embryonic shell. The next whorl 
is lightly striate, near its termination the surface becomes 
minutely plicate and spiral grooves appear ; on the next whorl 
it is closely and finely plicate, the plicaB cut by several (usually 
5 to 7) spiral furrows, which appear as if scratched in a 
plastic surface. On the last whorl the fine plica become 
weaker, irregular, often more or less obsolete towards the end 
of the whorl; there is more or less indistinct malleation, and 
some irregularity due to former growth-arrest periods, marked 
by dusky streaks, of which there may be one to four or more 
on the last whorl. The aperture is elliptic-pointed, outer lip 
obtuse, more or less thickened, expanded or effuse towards the 
base. Columella arched, usually very deeply, but sometimes 
only moderately, its lower portion colored like the outer lip; 
base truncate, parietal callus glossy Hack, overlaid with blu- 
ish inwardly. Color as follows : 

(1) Ground-tint yellow, fading towards the apex: (a) 
brown spots below the suture appearing on the first post- 
embryonic whorl, becoming broad, more or less fulgurate 
stripes on the penult, and next earlier whorls; last whorl 
showing three narrow equidistant bands and an irregular 
mottling of the yellow ground, elsewhere olive and brown of 
varying shades; outer lip and lower half of columella edged 
with vermilion. (6) intermediate whorls of the spire marked 
with narrow, close, wavy brown streaks; antepenult, whorl 
with some subsutural spots, last whorl without bands, irregu- 
larly streaked with dull green on a greenish yellow or light 
yellow green ground; outer lip and basal half of columella 
bright ochre. 

(2) Ground-tint reddish, (c) nearly uniform ochraceous 
reddish, the red predominating on the earlier whorls; outer 



HEMIBULIMUS. 117 

lip dull red, fading to pink in the throat, (d) first post- 
embryonic whorl with subsutural spots, next whorl or two 
closely streaked with dull red-brown; last whorl of a muddy 
olivaceous shade, with some darker brown streaks; lip with 
a narrow red edge and dark submargin. 

Length 68, diam. 32 mm. ; aperture 37.5 mm. ; whorls 6%. 

Length 65, diam. 34.5 mm.; aperture 38 mm.; whorls 6. 

Length 65.5, diam. 31 mm.; aperture 37 mm.; whorls 6. 

Length 62, diam. 29.5 mm. ; aperture 33 mm. ; whorls 6%. 

Colombia: Quilichao, Cauca Valley, 5,500 ft. elevation. 

Achatina magnified REEVE, Conch. Icon. V, pi. 9, f. 33. 
L. magnificus Pfr., PILSBRY, Man. Conch. XII, pi. 36a, f. 30. 
Not A. magnified Pfr. 

This form differs from Reeve's figure of A. dennisoni by 
its intensely black parietal callus, and the shape of the aper- 
ture, which is wider, less acuminate above, the outer lip be- 
ing arcuate and not straightened near the insertion. 

Reeve's figure 33, (copied in Manual XII, pi. 36a, fig. 30) 
represents a form differing from this race only in size, as 
Mr. E. A. Smith has pointed out. In the Manual I fol- 
lowed Reeve's error in referring to it as an illustration of 
Achatina magnifica, Pfr. 

3. HEMIBULIMUS MAGNIFICUS (Pfr.). PI. 40, fig. 5. 

See Vol. XII, p. 185, where a translation of Pfeiffer's 
description is given. From the reference-paragraph there 
given the reference to Reeve's figure should be excluded, and 
the following added: Liguus (Hemibulimus) magnificus 
(Pfr.), E. A. SMITH, Proc. Malac. Soc. London VII, 1907; 
p. 314, fig. of type. This species seems to be known only by 
the original specimen, said to be from Quito. Mr. Smith's 
figure of this is copied on my plate. The specimens obtained 
by Lehmann in southern Colombia may have been H. 
dennisoni. 

ACHATINA MONILE Swainson. "Shell very finely reticu- 
lated, whitish with waved stripes, and transverse bands of 
chestnut spots; basal volution subventricose ; spire produced, 



118 HEMIBULIMUS. 

the last two volutions close, and the tip papillary ; base nearly 
entire. Distinct from, though approximating to, Bulinus 
zebra and undatus." 

(Swainson, Catalogue of the rare and valuable shells which 
formed the celebrated collection of the late Mrs. Bligh, Ap- 
pendix, p. 14, 1822 ; Exotic Conchology, edit. 2, p. 38, 1841) . 

This seems to be some such shell as Oxystyla ferussaci, or 
some of the forms represented on plate 17 of vol. XII ; yet the 
"apex papillary " recalls Pseudotrochus (Perideris). 

ACHATINA VENTRICOSA Gr. Fischer, Mus. Demidoff iii, p. 
224 (18Q7)=Bulimus v., Brug. See Vol. VIII, 10. 

ACHATINA ANTIQUA Desh., An. s. Vert. Bassin Paris ii, p. 
839=Lacuna. 

ACHATINA DONELLII King. T. subalbida, trans versim sub- 
striata; anfractus basalis ventricosus. Long. V 16 , lat. %". 
(King in Zool. Journ. V. p. 342; Pfr., Monogr. ii, 295.) 

Habitat prope Lima. 



-,M 

J&> 




PARTULID^E. 155 

Family PARTULID JS Pilsbry. 

Partulidce PILS., Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1900, p. 564. 

Orthurethra in which the kidney is triangular, equal to the 
pericardium in length. Genitalia of the haplogonous type, 
the penis without an appendix. Shell Bulimoid, with the 
outer lip expanded or reflexed in known forms ; the eolumellar 
lip reflexed, 'curving into the basal margin, simple or nodu- 
lous ; parietal wall often dentate, but the aperture never has 
entering lamellae 

Jaw very thin, formed of many narrow flat plaits, converg- 
ing downward towards the middle. Radula broad; the cen- 
tral tooth is not much smaller than the laterals, and has a 
long middle and small side cusps; lateral teeth with the 
mesocone long, ectocone well developed, but no entocone; 
marginal teeth oblique with three cusps directed outward, the 
inner one largest. 

Distribution entirely insular, confined to high islands of 
the southern and western Pacific. Nearly all the species are 
arboreal, living on trees and bushes, but some species of 
Raiatea, Tahaa, Tahiti and perhaps the Caroline Islands, are 
terrestrial. 

This family is 'Co-extensive with the following genus. 

Genus PARTULA Ferussac. 

Partula FER., Tableau Systematique de la Famille des 
LimagoBS p. 65, for P. pudica, australis, gibba, fragilis, ota- 
heitana and auricula. HERRMANNSEN, Indicis Gen. Malac. 
ii, p. 204, P. faba (P. australis Fer.) selected as type. 
HARTMAN, Catalogue of the genus Partula Fer., 1881; Ob- 
servations on the genus Partula, etc. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 
ix, p. 171; Catalogue of the genus, Proc. A. N. S. Phila., 
1885, p. 206-223. H. H. SMITH, Annotated Catalogue of 
shells of the genus Partula in the Hartman collection, be- 
longing 'to the Carnegie Museum, Annals of the Carnegie 
Museum i, p. 422-485, March, 1903. Bibliography of Hart- 
man's writings on Partula on p. 424. 

Characters those of the family. Type P. faba Martyn. 



156 PARTULA. 

Soft anatomy of Partula. 

The first anatomical observations on Partula were by 
Ferussac, who discovered that these snails are viviparous. He 
erroneously states that they have no tentacles, only the eye- 
pedicels. The next work was by Heynemann, who figured 
the teeth of P. Urata. 

The following species of Partula were dissected by Dr. C. 
Semper (Reisen im Archipel Philippinen, Landmollusken, 
pp. 158, 159) : P. canalis semilineata, recluzwna, Urata (pi. 
17, f. 18, jaw), hyalina (pi. 16, f. 21, genitalia), lineata, 
otaheitana (pi. xii, fig. 21, genitalia), vanikorensis (pi. 17, 
f . 17, teeth) . P. lineata was probably not correctly identified. 

In 1875 (Proc. Acad. N. S. Phila., p. 244) Mr. W. G. 
Binney examined the anatomy of numerous Raiatean species : 
P. fusca (pi. 19, f. 9, genitalia), citrina, planilabrum ab- 
Ireviata, umbilicata (pi. 19, f. 7, genitalia), bilineata (pi. 19, 
f. 10, genitalia), amanda (pi. 19, f. 4, teeth), virginea (pi. 
19, f. 8, genitalia, f. 11, jaw), and gracilis, besides several 
unidentified species. Some of the same information is re- 
peated in Annals of the N. Y. Acad. Sci. iii, p. 127. 

I have examined more or less fully P. rosea, P. varia, P. 
arguta and some unidentified Raiatean species received with- 
out the shell. 

We have therefore some knowledge of the soft parts in 
species of the sections Partula, Leptopartula, Samoana, and 
Thakombaua, inhabiting the Society, Samoa and Fiji groups. 

Animal externally like that of Bulimulidce or Helicida; 
blunt before, the tail long, gradually tapering. There are 
no pedal furrows, -and the sole is undivided. Dorsal grooves 
weak, but the genital furrow is well developed. Genital pore 
behind the right tentacle, as usual. The lafoial processes are 
rather large. The mantle has very small right and left 
lobes. The tentacles are as well developed as usual in land 
snails (pi. 32, fig. 10, P. canalis). 

Garrett writes: "The examination of the animals of the 
various species has convinced me that they possess no re- 
liable external features that will aid in their determination. 



PARTULA. 157 

The coloration in all the species varies from pale cinereous, 
through all the intermediate shades, to black or dusky slate. 
The .arboreal species are generally lighter colored than the 
ground species, and have a more expanded creeping-disk. 
The animals of P. arguta } annectens, turgida and attenuates, 
have the ocular tentacles longer and more slender than the 
other species, and the exudation of mucus is much more 
copious and more viscid or tenacious than usual, resembling 
in that respect the same difference as exists between the typi- 
cal Helices and the arboreal Naninae." 

The pallial organs are characterized by the short, more 
or less triangular kidney, -with a direct ureter which does not 
extend to the 'Collar, and opens by a lateral pore. The peri- 
cardium is as long as the kidney. The surface of the lung 
shows no visible venation. It is densely peppered with 
light dote (probably calcareous) arranged in irregular lon- 
gitudinal lines. In P. arguta these light dots are present in 
spots and stripes (pi. 42, fig. 4), but in other species examined 
they are equally and densely spread over the whole surface. 

In P. rosea (pi. 42, fig. 5, x 3) the kidney is very short 
and strictly triangular. According to Semper, that of P. 
canalis seems to be of the same form. In P. arguta (pi. 42, 
fig. 4) the kidney is relatively larger, and the pericardium 
lies parallel to its longer axis. The ureter also is longer. 
In an undetermined Raiatean species (doubtless of the re- 
stricted section Partula) the kidney approaches the band- 
like type (pi. 42, fig. 6), yet it is somewhat triangular, and 
equal to the pericardium in length. This is probably the 
prevalent shape of kidney, since Semper mentions that all 
the species examined by him except canalis had the kidney, 
"bandformig. " In most of the subgenera the kidney is 
unknown. 

The alimentary canal is of the usual four-folded type. 
There is a fusiform crop (pi. 42, fig. 5). 

The jaw is very thin and transparent, varying from slightly 
arcuate to horseshoe-shaped, similar to that of Drymaus 
and Zaplagius, formed by the union of many narrow delicate 



158 PARTULA. 

plates, which converge towards the middle, so that there are 
short plates where the two series meet (pi. 42, fig. 1 jaw of 
P. lirata, after Semper; fig. 2, central portion of jaw of 
P. gracilis Pse., after Binney). 

The number of plates on the two sides is unequal, there 
being in lineata 27.36, in recluziana 34.38, in otaheitana 40.50 
according to Semper. 

The radula is broad. The teeth form thrice bent transverse 
rows, as shown in pi. 15, fig. 11, a half row of teeth of 
P. lirata. The central teeth have the usual quadrate basal 
plates. In P. amanda, P. rosea, P. varia etc. the length of 
the basal plate is about twice its width in the middle; the 
middle cusp is long, reaching to or over the posterior border 
of the basal plate. Side cusps represented by cutting-points 
only. The lateral teeth are larger, with the mesooone longer, 
outer cusp well developed with a strong cutting-point (pi. 
43, fig. 1, P. varia huaheinensis Garrett; fig. 2, P. rosea 
Brod.). There are 11 lateral teeth on each side in P. rosea 
and planilabrum ; 10 in abbreviate, amanda, otaheitana ; 8 or 
9 in varia, umbilicata, virginea, bilineata, hyalina, lineata, 
recluziana, canalis-, 5 in gracilis. The marginal teeth are 
peculiar in form, having a long, curved basal plate and 3 
cusps, the inner largest, the other two directed outward (pi. 
15, fig. 8, 13th to 15th teeth of P. rosea) . They are numer- 
ous, over 120 in P. virginea. 

The Fijian P. lirata differs from the Society Island species 
examined by Binney and myself by having the central and 
lateral teeth shorter and wider, the central scarcely longer 
than wide. There are 7 lateral and over 50 marginal teeth, 
the latter of typical shape (pi. 15, figs. 11, 12, P. lirata after 
Heynemann) . 

The radula has been examined in numerous species from 
the Society, Fiji and Samoan Islands, by Heynemann, Binney, 
and Semper. I have examined it in P. rosea and varia. 

Genitalia (pi. 43, fig. 5, P. rosea). The penis is well de- 
veloped. It is more or less distinctly contracted near the 
distal end, which is swollen. Internally the lower portion is 



PARTULA. 



159 



coarsely wrinkled, the upper portion densely granulose and 
coarsely plicate. The retractor muscle is terminal. The vas 
deferens opens below a papilla situated at about the lower 
third of the granulose portion ; it is therefore not terminal on 
the penis. It is superficially bound to the penis, to the 
vagina and the basal part of the spermatheca, then free as 
far as the upper end of the oviduct, where it is again adnate 
for a short distance. The ovisperm duct is strongly knotted, 
as usual. The basal part of the spermatheca-duct is much 
swollen in P. rosea and P. fused, the distal end tapering; 
but in P. bilineata (pi. 43, fig. 3, after Binney) umbilicata, 
virginea, otaheitana and hyalina the spermetheca is oblong, 
obtuse distally, and seated upon a slender duct. In all the 
species which have been examined the duct is short. 

Reproduction seems to be ovo- viviparous. The upper part 
of the oviduct contains oblong egg-capsules having a cal- 
careous shell, which lower down in the oviduct becomes dis- 
solved or is consumed by the embryo. From one to five eggs 
or young are found in one individual. 

Free muscles: In P. rosea (pi. 43, fig. 4). The pharyngeal 
retractor is free to its proximal insertion. At about the 
middle of its length the left ocular and tentacular retractor 
band joins it, and a little farther out the anterior pedal re- 
tractors branch off. The broad posterior pedal retractor 
(tail retractor or columellar muscle) remains united far 
forward with the right ocular and tentacular retractor, which 
gives off a group of small anterior pedal retractor muscles. 
The right ocular band passes between the male and female 
branches of the genitalia. 

This muscle system differs from that of Achatinella dolei 
chiefly by the union of the right ocular with the tail retractor. 
In Achatinella both ocular bands are free. 

Relationships of Partulidce. 

This family is one of the most sharply defined in the 
Orthurethra. By its short kidney, about equal to the 
pericardium, it differs conspicuously from the Enidce, 



160 PARTULA. 

Ferussacida, Amastridce and Achatinellidx?, all of which 
have the kidney very long, far exceeding the pericar- 
dium. For comparison I figure the pallial region of Ena 
reiniana (Bulimimis reinianus Kob.), pi. 42, fig. 3, x 2. In 
the genitalia, the Partulida are remarkable for the absence 
of an appendix, the penis being simple. This organ is pres- 
ent and highly developed in all the other families. The vas 
deferens is practically free from the oviduct, its. adhesions 
being merely superficial. This is a somewhat unusual con- 
dition, 'and where found it seems to be associated with vivip- 
arous reproduction. The shell is rather characteristic; in 
form some Enidce are similar, yet the spirally striate em- 
bryonic whorls are unlike that family, and are an invariable 
feature of Partulid<z, though occasionally this sculpture is 
lost by wear in adult or old shells. This is not in itself a 
feature of much importance, yet so far as I know, there is 
no other Bulimoid snail with an expanded or reflexed lip 
which has spirally striate embryonic whorls. 

From these comparisons it will be seen that the Partulida 
stand somewhat isolated. There is no family of Bulimoid 
or Achatinoid Orthurethra which can be said to be nearer 
than any other to the Partulida, so far as present informa- 
tion goes. 

Hybridism. 

In dealing with Society Island species both Mr. Grarrett 
and Dr. Hartman have called attention to certain specimens 
of intermediate character which they looked upon as hybrids 
between species commonly considered to be distinct. Gurrett 
writes as follows: " Hybrids between P. elongata and P. 
toeniata, and between P. garretti and P. thalia, are so com- 
mon where those species come in contact, that I am inclined 
to believe they possess a certain degree of fertility. I have 
also detected several hybrids between P. faba, var. subangu- 
lata, and P. virginea ; one between the arboreal P. imperforata 
and the terrestrial P. lugubris; two between P. lineata var. 
strigosa, and P. toeniata; about a dozen between the arboreal 



PARTULA. 161 

P. faba and the terrestrial P. radiata-, a number 'between 
P. faba and P. fusca, and many between the latter and P. 
navigatoria, as well as many between the latter and P. faba. 
I failed to detect hybrids between the Tahitian species, and 
found none at Huaheine. ' ' 

As a general proposition, apparent evidence of hybridism 
among land snails is so unusual in a state of nature that 
one is inclined to believe that well-established species very 
rarely hybridize. In the few species tested experimentally 
(such as Lang's crosses between Helix nemoralis and 
hortensis) the progeny are not abundant and crosses between 
them are almost sterile. It must be remembered, however, 
that the Moorean and Baiatean species mentioned as hybrid- 
izing by Garrett v are very closely related forms, which have 
for the most part scarcely reached the "specific" stage of 
differentiation; hence it is not inherently improbable that 
hybrids occur. 

In the case of species between which supposed hybrids are 
"common," I would rather explain the intermediate forms 
occurring on the overlapping confines of the two "pure" 
races as an undifferentiated remnant of the parent stock 
which has elsewhere become "specifically" differentiated. 
Pending experimental evidence to the contrary, this view 
seems in accordance with what seems to occur in a multi- 
tude of other cases, whereas hybridism on an extensive scale 
is certainly a very rare condition. 

Variation in Partula. 

Extended study of variation does not come within the plan 
of the present work, the purpose of this Manual being the 
definition of species and their systematic classification. 
Moreover, the materials for a study of variation large, un- 
selected series of shells are not accessible to me; my per- 
sonal knowledge of them is restricted to museum specimens, 
which as usually preserved and labelled give little idea of the 
association of forms or the conditions of their existence. 
Some general considerations bearing upon variation may how- 
ever be in order. 



162 PARTULA. 

Most species of Partula are neither more nor less variable 
than the generality of snails living in exposed situations 
elsewhere. It is only in the Society Islands that species oc- 
cur having a variety of well-developed color-patterns. In this 
respect they resemble many other genera of arboreal snails, 
such as Amphidromus, Liguus, Hemitrochus, Polymita, 
Drymceus etc., etc. All arboreal snails were derived from 
terrestrial forms ; and almost invariably, with arboreal habits 
they assume variegated color-patterns. In many cases the 
colors or patterns seem to be protective (cryptic or warning), 
but as often they are not so, to our eyes. The color-patterns 
in arboreal snails seem to be very readily modified, new 
sports or mutations arising, which are perpetuated, prob- 
ably in Mendelian ratio, in the parent colonies. This has 
not yet been tested experimentally in Partula ; yet from the 
complex nature of many colonies,, in which snails of several 
distinct color-patterns co-exist and interbreed (being found 
together in the uterus of a single mother) , I have little doubt 
that pedigree cultures would reveal a Mendelian mixture. 

Another 'Common 'condition among tree-snails is the sim- 
plification or absence of pattern, by variation in the "color- 
factor/ 7 whereby patterns characteristic of species or phyla 
become in part or entirely latent in individuals or races. 
Cf. the Pentatceniate snails, Drymczus, Amphidromus etc. 
Some species of Partula, such as P. hyalina, are apparently 
albinistic; but in at least a part of these (P. arguta) the 
mantle is variegated, showing through the transparent shell, 
which in life should vicariously show a pattern. 

Probably most "species" of snails and other sedentary 
animals are in reality more or less complex groups, though 
in plain-colored forms their composite constitution is not 
obvious. In some of the plain, ground-living American snails, 
such as Omphalina, the diversity in number of teeth of the 
radula among different colonies points to this conclusion. 

In the Society Islands, where alone the distribution of 
Partula has been studied, most species and races are strictly 
limited to small areas, a single valley, or several 'contiguous 



PARTULA. 163 

^valleys. The topographic harriers (ridges unsuitable for 
Partulae) are evidently older than the races so isolated, which 
are the modified descendants of stocks once widely diffused. 
Diverse mutations soon result in racial differentiation in 
-such isolated colonies, whether the process can be aided by di- 
versity of environment or not. On a small scale this is illus- 
trated by the 'Colonies of Helix nemoralis in Burlington, New 
Jersey, all descended from a single colony planted about 50 
years ago, yet now showing incipient racial traits in the 
several colonies scattered over the town. 

Gulick, in his ''Evolution, Racial and Habitudinal" p. 220 
has directed attention to the fact that arboreal snails do not 
have the facility in migrating enjoyed by terrestrial species, 
and hence are more subject to local differentiation brought 
about by isolation. 

Dr. A. G. Mayer writes : "It is probable that geographical 
isolation plays a most important part in the formation of 
new species. If two valleys be adjacent, their snails are 
closely related each to each, whereas the wider the separation 
between any two valleys, the more distant the relationship 
between their snails. The ridges between the valleys, being 
either barren or covered with vegetation unsuitable to the 
snails, affords barriers over which the animals must find it 
more or less difficult -to pass. Thus the Partulae in the 
Tahitian valleys are isolated very much as are the Achati- 
nellidse of Oahu in the Hawaiian Islands. 

"In Tahiti the snails are most abundant in the valley- 
bottoms, where they usually occur on the under sides of the 
leaves of Caladium and Plantain, although in some valleys 
they are frequently found on DracaBna and Turmeric. Al- 
though more abundant in the bottom, they extend for some 
distance up the sides of the valley and appear to be present 
in most places where the plants which they affect are found. 
As far as the very limited observation of the writer goes, 
there appears to be no difference in the character of the 
snails in different parts of the same valley. The difference 
between any two adjacent valleys is, however, very marked." 



164 PARTULA. 

(Mayer, Some Species of Partula from Tahiti; a study in 
variation, in Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool. xxvi, 1902) . 

Fossil Partulida. 

No fossil Partulae are known. The ancestors of this family 
lie buried under the South Pacific. Several Eocene and 
Oligocene species have been described as Partulse, as follows : 

Partula americana Heilprin, Trans. Wagner Free Institute 
of Science i, p. 115, pi. 16, f. 60 (1887) ^Hyperaulax 
americanus (Heilprin), Man. Conch. XIV, p. 103. Oligocene, 
Tampa Silex bed, Florida. 

Partula vicentina Oppenheim, Denkschriften der Kaiser- 
lichen Akademie der Wissenschaften vol. 57, 1890, p. 125, 
pi. 2, f. 10-10&. Zeitschrift Deutschen Geol. Gesellschaft, 
vol. 47, 1895, p. 104. Eocene. Red tuffs of Capitello, Sta. 
Catterina above Altissimo, etc. 

Partula dautzenbergi Cossmann, Annales de la Societe 
Royale Zoologique et Malacologique de Belgique, xli, 1906, 
p. 280, pi. 8, f. 267&is-l. Sparnacien stage of the Eocene,, 
at Grauves, Paris Basin. 

The reference of these forms to Partula is purely fanciful. 
The American species is referable to a genus of Bulimulidse, 
Hyperaulax. Well-preserved specimens have not the 'char- 
acteristic apical sculpture of all known Partulidae. The- 
European Eocene forms offer no character whatever separ- 
ating them from "Buliminus" (Enidae). Their reference 
to Partula rose from the fallacious method of trying to exactly 
match the fossil shell with some recent species, ignoring the 
obvious fact that details of contour are constantly changing 
in the evolution of any group, and offer no features diagnostic 
of genera in Bulimini, Bulimuli or Partulse. The Eocene 
forms in question have not been shown to have the embryonic 
sculpture of Partula. 

Classification of Partulida. 

This family contains the single genus Partula. It is quite 
possible that when the forms of Micronesia, Melanesia etc. 



PABTULA. 165 

are investigated anatomically, a further generic division 
may fee made. There are two rather dissimilar forms of 
kidney among the Polynesian species, though at present we 
do not know enough species anatomically to utilize this fact 
in taxonomy. By conchological characters nine divisions are 
indicated, herein called "sections." In all cases these sec- 
tions are geographically limited to single island-groups, or 
to several adjacent groups. Five of the nine sections of 
Partulce have already 'been named 'by Dr. Hartman, who 
unfortunately used preoccupied names, and in most cases 
understood the groups in limits different from mine. He 
also split the typical group of Partulae into numerous sub- 
genera which seem to me superfluous. The sub genera here- 
in established are as follows. 

MARQUESANA Pilsbry. Embryonic whorls coarsely pitted 
along the spirals; post-embryonic whorls with very well de- 
veloped spiral lines ; lip thin but often widely reflexed ; colors 
not bright, a subperipheral band frequently present, but 
no others; cuticle thin, often deciduous. Type P. gany- 
medes. This group includes all known Marquesan species, 
no. 1 to 6. 

LEPTOPARTULA Pils. Shells ovate with short spire, com- 
posed of few (4 to 4%) whorls; very thin and fragile, sub- 
transparent, pale colored; aperture large, ovate, toothless, 
lip expanded, not thickened. Type P. arguta. Huaheine and 
Raiatea, Society Is. Species no. 7 -and 8. 

PARTULA s. sir. Shell ovate, usually solid and with opaque 
coloring, often in bands or streaks ; lip thickened within, the 
callus not extending to the upper insertion; parietal wall 
often toothed. Society, Austral and Hervey Is., species 9- 
52, and probably Samoan and Tonga Is., species 60-62. 

SAMOANA Pils. The shell is very openly umbilicate, dex- 
tral or sinistral, with flatly reflexed lip and no teeth. Type 
P. canalis. Samoan Is., species 53 to 58. 

THAKOMBAUA Pils, Shell rimate, long-ovate, the later 
whorls sculptured with coarse spiral cords. A low callous 
tubercle on the parietal wall far within. Type P. lirata, no. 



166 PARTULA. 

63. Fiji Is. This is the only group having raised spiral 
sculpture. 

MELANESICA Pils. Shell rimate or umbilicate, ovate or 
pyramidal, thin, corneous, greenish-yellow or pale brown, 
uniform or obliquely streaked, not banded; aperture simple, 
the peristome expanded or reflexed. Type P. turneri. Me- 
lanesia, one species in Samoa. Species no. 59, 64 to 101. 

A large group of species simple in form and coloring. 

PALAOPARTULA Pils. Long forms with the spire 
straightly conic, embryonic whorls high, the later ones 
deeply engraved spirally, saccate below. Umbilical area 
very ample, deeply perforate ; aperture unusually long, tooth- 
less, the lip thin and very broadly reflexed. Type P. thetis. 
Pelew Islands. Species 102 to 104. 

CAROLINELLA Pils. Perforate, rather solid, opaque and 
ventricose species of dull or brown coloration, aperture large 
and toothless. They have the appearance of ground snails. 
Type P. guamensis. Caroline Islands. Species 105 to 107. 

MARIANELLA Pils. Shell ovate or inflated, with a small 
umbilicus, the lip somewhat thickened within, parietal wall 
plain or bearing a low nodule deep within; colors rather 
bright. Type P. gibba. Marianne Is. Species 109 to 111. 

Geographic distribution of the Partulidce. 

Snails of this family are confined to the high islands of the 
south and western Pacific. Not one species has ever been 
found on an atoll or low island. In most island groups all 
of the Partulae belong to a single stock, but in a few, notably 
the Society and Samoan groups, several phyla are repre- 
sented. Each of the subgenera or sections is confined to a 
single archipelago, or to several adjacent island- groups; and 
with the single exception of P. hyalina, no species is known 
to inhabit more than one island-group, while a great majority 
of the forms live on but one island. The distribution of 
Partulse is remarkably consistent, and lends no support to the 
idea that their dispersal has been due to drifting by ocean 
currents, or any other "accidental" means of over-sea carri- 



PARTULA. 167 

age. Their distribution is what would foe expected were the 
present archipelagos remnants of a former continent, now iso- 
lated by subsidence. This continent, from the absence of all of 
the higher families of land snails on the islands remaining, I 
have conjectured to have been isolated since Palaeozoic times, 
though the final dismemberment of its various components 
was doubtless much later. (See Pilsbry, The Genesis of 
Mid-Pacific Faunas, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1900, p. 568) . 
Such groups as the Society Islands or Fijis may well have 
existed as rather large land masses as late as middle Tertiary 
times. Indeed, this hypothesis would seem to be an essen- 
tial part of any attempt to explain the distribution of land 
snails in most of the groups of high islands. 

The most convenient grouping of species for the purposes 
of this monograph is by geographic range. The following 
divisions are used. 

I. Marquesas Islands, species 1 to 6. 
II. Society Islands, species 1, to 50. 

III. Austral and Hervey Islands, species 9, 52. 

IV. Samoan Islands, species 53 to 60. 

V. Fiji Is., Rotuma and Tonga Is., species 61 to 63. 
VI. New Hebrides and Santa Cruz groups, species 64 to 80. 
VII. Solomon Islands, species 81 to 91. 
VIII. New Ireland, New Britain, etc., and Admiralty Is., 

species 92 to 96. 
IX. Louisiade Archipelago, including Trobriand and 

Woodlark Is.; New Guinea. Species 97 to 100. 
X. Talauer Is., species 101. 
XI. Pelew Islands, species 102 to 104. 
XII. Caroline Islands, species 105 to 108. 

XIII. Marianne Islands (Guam), species 109 to 111. 

XIV. Snails of other genera described as Partulae. 

XV. Species of uncertain or unknown habitat, species 12, 
21, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 60, 72, 86, 94. 



168 PARTULA, MARQUESAS ISLANDS. 

Species of the MARQUESAS ISLANDS. 
Section MARQUESANA n. sect. 

JEga HARTMAN, Catalogue of the Genus Partula, 1881, p. 
11, type P. decussatula (not JEga Leach, 1815). Latia 
Hartm., op. cit. p. 12, type P. ganymedes Pfr. (not Latia 
Gray, 1849). 

Partulae having the embryonic shell coarsely pitted along, 
the spirals; post-embryonic whorls with very well developed 
spiral striation ; lip thin but often wide. Colors not bright ; 
the cuticle thin, often deciduous; a subperipheral band fre- 
quently present, but no others. Type P. ganymedes. 

Species of Partula are known from five of the nine high 
islands of the Marquesan group, the others being unknown 
eonchologically. They are distributed as follows: 

Nukuhiva: P. strigata varieties. 

Huapu: P. strigata (?), P. bellula. 

Hivaoa: P. inflata, P. ganymedes, P. bellula, P. decussatula. 

Tahuata: P. inflata. 

Fatuhiva: P. magdalinae. 

The predominance of species on Hivaoa may be due to its 
being more fully explored. It is the largest island next to 
Nukuhiva. The proportion of species recorded as common to 
two islands is remarkable, if indeed it proves to be the fact. 
It seems likely that further research would greatly augment 
the brief list of Marquesan Partulas. 

P. spadicea Reeve, reported from the Marquesas, is a 
Society Island form. 

Key to Marquesan Partulcz. 

Whorls over 5; peristome broad, white, strongly calloused 
within ; shell opaque. 

a. Very obese, the diam. more than % the length ; last whorl 
humped. P. inflata, no. 1. 

aa. Oblong-conic, the last whorl rounded. 

b. Surface partly nude, but having a band of cuticle; 
length 20-23 mm. P. ganymedes, no. 2. 



PARTULA, MARQUESAS ISLANDS. 169 

bb. Surface covered with a pale greenish cuticle, length 
about 21.5 mm. P. recta, no. 3b. 

Whorls less than 5 ; peristome narrower or tinted, not very 
strongly calloused. 
a. Aperture less than two-thirds the length of the shell. 

b. Olive-brown, brown or white, opaque; lip narrow; 
length 17 to 21 mm. P. strigata, no. 3. 

bb. Pale olive or greenish-yellow, thin, somewhat trans- 
lucent; length 14 to 17 mm., whorls 4%. 

P. bellula, no. 4 ; P. decussatula, no. 5. 

aa. Aperture two-thirds the length of the shell; shell thin, 
fragile, with a pale yellowish cuticle ; length 14 to 15 mm. 

P. magdalincz, no. 6. 

1. P. INFLATA Reeve. PI. 30, figs. 1, 2, 3. 

Shell openly umbilicate, globose-conic, rather thin, luster- 
less or nearly so, varied in color: (1) white, usually with 
some trace of an olive subperipheral band. (2) white, suf- 
fused and obliquely streaked with brown in a broad median 
belt, abruptly darker below the periphery; spire corneous. 
(3) reddish or dull chestnut brown, more or less streaked, 
and sometimes white below the sutures; reverse of the lip 
and columella white. Of the 2% embryonic whorls the first 
half whorl or more is smooth, the rest pitted along the spirals. 
The rest of the shell is sculptured with very distinct, >close 
waved spiral striae. Spire is straightly conic, suture moder- 
ately impressed. Whorls 5%, convex, the last whorl swollen 
in the peripheral region except for the space of a third or 
fourth of a whorl behind the lip, where it is compressed ; this 
gives a humped appearance to the back of the shell. Aper- 
ture ovate; lip broad, white, flatly reflexed, thickened with- 
in; columella broad, with a deep-seated fold above, visible 
in oblique view. 

Length 23, diam. 17 mm. 

Length 21, diam. 16.7 mm. 

Marquesas Is.: Taiwata, (Tahuata), on trees at about 1500 
ft. elevation; also Dominique or Hivaoa (Garrett). 



170 PABTULA, MARQUESAS ISLANDS. 

Partula inflata RVE., P. Z. S. 1842, p. 197; Conch. Syst. 
ii, pi. 175, f. 11, 12; Conch. Icon. pi. 1, f. 3. PFR., Monogr. 
iii, p. 452; Conchyl. Cab. p. 267, pi. 64, f. 5, 6. HARTMAN, 
Catal. p. 12. GARRETT, Bull. Soc. Malac. France iv, 1887, p. 
25. Bulimus thersites PFR., Symbolae ad Hist. Hel. ii, p. 52 
(1842) ; Monogr. ii, p. 75. 

Remarkable for its gibbous last whorl and 'broad white lip. 
The very thin cuticle is more or less wholly lost in most 
adult shells. The examples described are from the island of 
Taiwata (= Tahuata) ; whether those reported from Dom- 
inique, the next island of the group, are identical with them 
in all respects I do not know. 

2. P. GANYMEDES (Pfeiffer). PL 30, figs. 4, 5, 6, 7. 

Shell umbilieate, oblong-conic, thin, minutely, strongly, de- 
cussated with close growth-lines and extremely close, im- 
pressed, wavy, spiral lines; dead white under a very fuga- 
cious greenish-yellow epidermis. Spire conic, rather acute. 
Whorls 5%, a little convex, the last about as long as the spire, 
very obsoletely angular in the middle, ornamented with one 
rather wide chestnut band. Columella straightened. Aper- 
ture oblong, obliquely truncated above ; peristome simple, thin, 
broadly expanded throughout. Length 23, diam. 10%, aper- 
ture inside 10% x 5 mm. (Pfr.). 

Marquesas Is. : Dominique or Hivaoa, on trees ( Garrett) . 

Bulimus ganymedes PFR., P. Z. S. 1846, p. 39; Monogr. ii, 
p. 72. Partula ganymedes PFR., Monogr. iii, 447; iv, 511; 
vi, 160. REEVE, Conch. Icon, vi, pi. 3, f. 16. HARTMAN 
Cat. Gen. Partula p. 11, with figure. GARRETT Bull. Soc. 
Malac. France, iv, 1887, p. 26. Partula fasciata PEASE, 
Amer. Journ. of Conch, ii, p. 202, 293. 

This species is variable in size, the degree to which the 
cuticle is lost, and the color of what remains. Specimens of 
one lot measure: 

Length 22, diam. 13, length aperture 12.8 mm. ; whorls 5%. 

Length 20, diam. 11.3, length aperture 11.1 mm. ; whorls 5%. 

In the typical form, the very thin pale green cuticle is. 



PARTULA, MARQUESAS ISLANDS. 171 

either entirely lost, or only a 'belt remains at and below tire 
periphery, in adult shells. The upper edge of the subperi- 
pheral brown band often shows as a thin line above the sutures 
of the spire; but frequently a mere brown line replaces the 
band, and is concealed on the spire (fig. 5). 

In another form of the species, the cuticle is removed in a 
zone below the suture. This zone may be wide or narrow; 
the remaining portion of the last whorl usually half to three- 
fourths is covered with greenish or dull brown cuticle. 
These variations seem to be characteristic of different colonies. 

The beautifully developed spiral striation is 'Characteristic 
of all forms. The lip is flatly reflected, thickened at the inner 
rim, and rather abruptly narrowed near the upper angle. 
The umbilical crevice is widely open. 

3. P. STRIGATA Pease. PI. 30, figs. 8, 12. 

The shell is openly umbilicate, acutely ovate, rather thin, 
dingy olive-brown, the latter part of the last whorl light 
cream-brownish with a few darker oblique streaks, and an 
orange streak in the angle behind the lip. Sculpture of fine, 
waved spiral lines. Embryonic shell of 2% whorls, coarsely 
pitted in spiral lines except the smoothish initial half whorl. 
Whorls 4%, convex, the last evenly rounded. The aperture is 
ovate, oblique, peristome flesh-tinted, flatly reflexed, rather 
narrow, thickened within except near the upper angle. 
Length 19, diam. 10.8, aperture 10.8 mm. 

Marquesas (Pease). Huapu (Garrett). 

Partula strigata PEASE, Amer. Journ. of Conch, iv, 1868 ? 
p. 155, pi. 12, f . 7 ; P. Z. S. 1871, p. 473. PFR., Monogr. viii, 
p. 202. GARRETT, Journ. A. N. S. Phila. ix, 1884, p. 80. 

The types, one of which was figured in A. J. C. iv, are before 
me. The above description and figs. 8 and 12 were drawn 
from them. Pease gave simply Marquesas as the habitat, but 
Garrett >stated that ' * Pease 's shells were collected by a native 
missionary residing on Woapo." This island lies south of 
Nukahiva. In his Marquesan -catalogue of 1887 Garrett 
places strigata as a synonym of recta, without remark. 



172 PARTULA, MARQUESAS ISLANDS. 

Whether the specimens were actually taken on Huapu 
("Woapo") or not remains uncertain. 

Compared with the type lot of Pease 's P. recta, P. strigata 
is thinner, darker colored, dull brownish instead of pale green, 
with a narrower flesh-tinted peristome. The two lots seem 
to be specifically distinct, until studied in connection with a 
large series from Nukahiva, subsequently obtained, which 
seem to be partially intermediate. 

3a. P. STRIGATA OBESIOR Pils. PI. 30, figs. 11, 14, 15, 16. 

A lot of 27 examples from Nukahiva consists of shells which 
are generally more globose than either recta or strigata, thin, 
variable in color as follows : 

a. White, denuded of cuticle (fig. 14). 

6. White, 'Covered with a very thin straw, cream or brown 
tinted cuticle, the spire often corneous (fig. 15). 

c. Busty brown, having a whitish belt below the suture (fig. 
16). 

d. Dark brown (fig. 11). 

In nearly all of this lot the lip is thin and narrow, as in 
strigata. Specimens measure: 

Length 21,. diam. 12.8, aperture 11.8 mm., whorls 5. 

Length 20.8 diam. 12, aperture 11 mm., whorls 5. 

Length 19, diam. 11.8, aperture 11 mm., whorls 5. 

Length 18.5, diam. 10.5, aperture 10 mm., whorls 4%. 

Length 17, diam. 10.5, aperture 10 mm., whorls 4%. 

A few examples among these shells are typical recta. 
Probably a collector who would keep his shells from different 
colonies separate would find that there are several races on 
Nukahiva. 

3&. P. STRIGATA RECTA Pease. PI. 30, figs. 9, 10. 

The shell is openly umbilicate, acutely long-ovate, solid, the 
typical form white under a very thin, very pale green cuticle, 
which is often deciduous on the last half whorl. The spire is 
straightly conic, whorls S 1 /^ convex, the last one equably 
curved from suture to base. The initial half whorl is smooth, 



PAETULA, MARQUESAS ISLANDS. 173 

next two whorls of the embryonic shell are rather 'Coarsely 
pitted in spiral lines, following whorls marked with fine 
growth-lines and very fine spiral striae, most distinct at the 
base. The aperture is oblique, ovate ; peristome ~broad, white 
flatly reflexed, thickened within except near the upper angle. 
Length 21.5, diam. 12.5, aperture 12 mm. 

Marquesas: Nukahiva, abundant on trees. 

P. recta PSE., Amer. Journ. of Conch, iv, 1868, p. 155, pi. 
12, f. 8; P. Z. S. 1871, p. 473. Hartman, Catal. Gen. Par- 
tula p. 12 ; Proc. A. N. S. Phila. 1885, p. 220. GARRETT, Bull. 
Soc. Malac. France, iv, 1887, p. 25. 

4. P. BELLULA Hartman. PL 30, figs. 17, 18, 19. 

The shell is rather narrowly umbilieate, ovate-conic, thin, 
covered with a very pale olive or greenish-yellow cuticle with 
inconspicuous darker streaks, the embryonic whorls pale 
flesh-tinted. Surface somewhat shining, with sculpture of 
fine spiral striae which are crowded and wavy on the base, 
but separated by spaces much wider than the impressed lines 
on the upper part of the last whorl. 2% embryonic whorls 
(fig. 19) have the coarse pitting of other Marquesan species. 
Spire short, straightly conic ; whorls 4%, moderately convex, 
the last inflated, almost equably convex, but the base is es- 
pecially so. Aperture oblique, ovate; peristome reflected, 
gray, in fully adult shells having a narrow white callous rim 
at the inner edge, not extending to the upper termination of 
the outer lip. Columellar lip dilated. 

Length 14.2, diam. 9.7, aperture 8.5 mm., (type) . 

Length 16, diam. 9.9, aperture 9 mm. 

Length 14.5, diam. 9.7, aperture 9 mm. 

Marquesas Is. : Huapu I., type loc. ; Dominique or Hivaoa 
Island (Garrett). 

Partula bellula HARTMAN, Proc. A. N. S. Phila. 1885, p. 
203, fig. in text (Sept. 1, 1885 ) .GARRETT, Bull. Soc. Malac. 
France iv, 1887, p. 27. 

This species is more slender than P. decussatula, with a 
smaller aperture, and the spiral striation is much less crowded 



174 PARTULA, MARQUESAS ISLANDS. 

on the upper half of the last whorl. The type specimen (no 
4264 Carnegie Mus.) is not completely mature, wanting the 
narrow callous inner rim of the peristome, 'but there are 
several fully adult shells with younger ones in the collection 
of the Academy, taken 'by C. D. Voy. An egg shaken from 
one of them is very shortly oval, 3 x 2.5 mm., matt white, and 
smooth under an ordinary lens. 

5. P. DECUSSATULA (Pfeiffer). PI. 31, figs. 1, 4. 

Shell perforate, ovate-conic, thin, very minutely decus- 
sated with growth-lines and spiral striae, slightly shining, 
fulvous-whitish, diaphanous. Spire short, conic, rather ob- 
tuse. Suture moderate. Whorls 4%, convex, the last five- 
ninths the total length, rounded. Golumella subplicate, reced- 
ing. Aperture angularly oval. Peristome simple, thin, the 
margins converging, right margin with a bell-like expansion, 
columellar margin reflexed over the perforation. Length 15, 
diam. 8%, aperture 9 x 6% mm. (Pfr.) 

Marquesas Is.: Dominique (Hivaoa), abundant on leaves 
(Barrett). 

Bulimus decussatulus PFR., P. Z. S. 1849, p. 131. Partula 
decussatula PFR., Monogr. in, 453 ; Conchyl. Cab. p. 274, pi. 
65, f. 8, 9. REEVE, Conch. Icon. pi. 4, f. 23. HARTMAN, 
Catal. Gen. Partula p. 11, fig. ; Proc. A. N. S. Phila. 1885, 
p. 217. GARRETT, Bull. Soc. Malac. France iv, 1887, p. 24. 

A thin, inflated species, yellowish-corneous slightly brown 
tinted towards the summit, with a pale border below the 
suture denuded of cuticle, and a narrow very faint brown 
band just below the periphery. This band is sometimes very 
inconspicuous. Old shells lose much of the cuticle, becom- 
ing whitish and opaque. The aperture is ample. The peris- 
tome is corneous, thin, well expanded but not thickened with- 
in except in quite old shells. Several examples measure: 

Length 16.5, diam 10.3, aperture 10 mm., whorls 4%. 

Length 15.3, diam. 10, aperture 9.9 mm., whorls 4%. 

Length 15, diam. 9.9, aperture 9.9 mm., whorls 4%. 

The sculpture of rippled spiral striae is particularly well 
developed in this species. 



PARTULA, SOCIETY ISLANDS. 175 

6. P. MAGDALIN^E Hartman. PL 31, figs. 2, 3. 

The shell is rather narrowly umbilicate, globose, with a 
short, conic spire, thin, fragile; white with some 'corneous 
streaks under a very thin pale yellowish cuticle, which seems 
to be usually deciduous above the periphery on the last whorl. 
Sculpture of minute, close spiral striae much as in P. decus- 
satula, but weaker above the periphery. Embryonic whorls 
as in decussatula. Spire very short; whorls somewhat con- 
vex, the last very much inflated, prominent in the peripheral 
region, convex beneath Aperture oblique, ovate; peristome 
reflexed, gray, thin, just noticeably thickened within. 

Length 14.8, diam. 11, aperture 10 mm. 

Length 15, diam. 11, aperture 10 mm., whorls -4%. 

Length 14, diam. 10.3, aperture 9.3 mm., whorls 414. 

Marquesas Is. : Santa Magdalina or Fatuhiva Island 
(Garrett). 

P. magdalina HARTMAN, Proc. A. N. S. Phila. 1885, p. 203, 
fig. in text. GARRETT, Bull. Soc. Malac. France iv, 1887, p. 27. 

This very delicate snail is related to P. decussatula Pf r., but 
it is very much more inflated, shorter, with a narrower um- 
bilicus. Of the four examples' originally composing the type 
lot, one has been broken; the example figured by Hartman 
is also damaged by a hole in front (not shown in my figure 
of this specimen). Perhaps none of the specimens is quite 
fully mature, but it is evidently a very thin shell at any stage 
of growth. Figured from cotypes, no. 4263 Carnegie Museum. 

II. SPECIES OP THE SOCIETY ISLANDS. 

The Society Islands are wonderfully rich in Partulas. 
Both species and individuals are developed in profusion, and 
differentiation of form and color has been carried further 
than in any other island group, though there has been no 
great structural divergence. Probably all of the Society 
species are referable to two stocks, herein regarded as "sec- 
tions. ' ' These sections may be defined thus : 
I. Shell ovate, with short spire, composed of 4 to 4% whorls, 
very thin, fragile and subtranslucent ; color pale and 



176 PARTULA, SOCIETY ISLANDS. 

simple; aperture ample, peristome expanded, not thick- 
ened. Section Leptopartula, species 7 and 8. 
II. Shell composed of more than 4% whorls, usually solid, 
with opaque coloring, but sometimes white ; lip thickened 
within. Section Partula, species 9 to 50. 
Up to this time we owe our knowledge of the distribution 
and variation of Society Island Partulse to Andrew Garrett, 
whose residence at Tahiti gave him unusual facilities for their 
study. In the following account I have quoted largely from 
his writings and except in a few cases, have accepted his esti- 
mate 01 the rank of the several species and races. In a case 
like this, where races in all degrees of differentiation abound, 
the rank to .be assigned to any given race is, in the last re- 
sort, a matter of opinion. The criterion of intergradation is 
often difficult of application, as where the racial divergence 
is expressed chiefly in slightly different tendencies of varia- 
tion. In Raiatea and Tahaa especially, there seems to be a 
good deal of intergradation between the races and so-called 
species. 

Section LEPTOPARTULA n. sect. 

Echo HARTMAN, Cat. Gen. Partula, 1881, p. 11; not of 
Selys : 1853. 

The shell is ovate with short spire, and composed of few 
(4 to 4%) whorls; very thin, fragile and somewhat trans- 
parent, pale; aperture large, ovate; lip expanded, not thick- 
ened. Type P. arguta. 

Two species, the most fragile of the genus, compose this sec- 
tion, which is confined to Huaheine and Raiatea. 

7. P. ARGUTA (Pease). PL 24, figs. 14, 15. 

The shell is narrowly but deeply perforate, short, ovate, 
extremely thin, fragile, corneous usually with a faint buff tint, 
and imperfectly transparent. Surface rather glossy, marked 
with weak growth-lines and microscopic incised spiral striae 
which are weak on the last whorl but distinct and close on 
the spire. The spire is very short, conic; whorls 4, convex, 
the last evenly convex, globose. The aperture is somewhat 



PARTULA, SOCIETY ISLANDS. 177 

oblique, more than half the total length, broadly ovate. The 
peristome is thin and expanded throughout, whitish- corneous. 
Outer lip equably arched, basal margin more strongly arcuate. 
Columellar margin reflexed and dilated above. Columella 
concave, bending towards the right above. Parietal film 
hardly perceptible. 

Length 13, diam. 8.1, length of aperture 7.7 mm. 

Length 12, diam. 8, length of aperture 7.5 mm. 

Huaheine: "The metropolis of this very fragile species is 
in the upper portion of a mountain ravine, on the west coast 
of Huaheine, where it is rather common on the leaves of low 
shrubs and ferns. It occurs much more rarely in a neighbor- 
ing valley south of its specific center. Mr. Pease's habitat 
1 Tahiti, ' as given in his list of Polynesian land shells, is 
decidedly wrong." (Garrett). 

Bulimus argutus PEASE, Proc. Zool. Soc., 1864, p. 670 ; 1871, 
p. 473. PFEIFFER, Mon. Hel., vi, p. 46. Partula arguta 
SCHMELTZ, Cat. Mus. Godef?., v, p. 92. MARTENS and LANGK., 
Don. Bismarkianum, 1871, p. 55, pi. 3, fig. 7. HARTMAN, 
Cat. Part, p. 11 (with woodcut) ; Obs, Gen. Part., Bull. Mus. 
Com. Zool., ix, p. 179. GARRETT, Journ. A. N. S. Phila. ix, 
1884, p. 62, pi. 3, f. 57. 

Though referred by Pease to the genus Bulimus, it is, never- 
theless, a true Partula. "The animal, which is viviparous, 
has very long, slender, ocular tentacles, long lance-pointed 
foot, and that portion of the animal occupying the whorls 
of the translucent shells is beautifully maculated with black 
and white spots on grayish yellow ground. The shell, which 
is very uniform in all its specific characters, may be readily 
distinguished by its very thin pellucid texture, ovate form, 
abbreviated spire, turgid body-whorl, uniform pale yellow- 
ish horn-color, thin, slightly expanded lip and large simple 
aperture." (Garrett). 

Pease gave the following description. Specimens received 
from him are before me. "B. testa ovata, tenuissima pel- 
lu<jida, membranacea, nitida, anguste umbilicata; anfr. iv, 
convexis, ultimo ventricoso, suturis impressis; apertura 



178 PARTULA, SOCIETY ISLANDS. 

ampla, ovata ; labro simplici, reflexo ; pallide straminea. Long. 
13, diam 8% mill." 

8. P. TURGIDA Pease. PI. 24, fig. 16. 

The shell is shortly, openly rimate, not perforate, short, 
obliquely ovate, extremely thin, fragile, corneous, faintly 
tinted with pale -brown, slightly transparent. The surface 
is glossy, marked with growth-lines and minute, close, spiral 
striae. Spire very short, conic; suture marked with a fine 
white line. Whorls 4%, convex, the last very large, evenly 
swollen. Aperture oblique, broadly ovate, two-thirds the 
length of the shell. Peristome thin, narrowly expanded, the 
columellar margin dilated and flattened above. Length 17, 
diam. 11.6, length of aperture 11.5 mm. 

Raiatea: though widely diffused it is excessively rare. 
(Garrett). 

Bulimus turgidns PEASE, Proc. Zool. Soc., 1864, p. 670; 
1871, 473. PFEIFFER, Mon. Hel., vi, p. 12. Partula turgida 
HARTMAN, Cat. Part., p. 12 ; Obs. Gen. Part., Bull. Mus. Com. 
Zool., ix, p. 188. GARRETT, Journ. A. N. S. P. ix, 1884, p. 
56, pi. 3, f. 74. 

This delicate shell is larger and more opaque than P. arguta, 
and differs in the non-perforating umbilical fissure. Garrett 
remarks that "Like P. clara and P. annectens, it appears to 
be gradually becoming extinct." 

Section PARTULA s. str. 

Partula FEB., Tabl. Syst. p. 65 (1821). HERRMANNSEN, 
Indicis Gen. Malac. ii, p. 204, type P. faba. Nenia HART- 
MAN, Cat. Genus Partula, 1881, p. 7, type P. auriculata 
Brod. ; not Nenia, H. & A. Adams. Astraa HARTMAN, t. c. p. 
7, type P. dentifera Pf r. ; not Astrcea Gmelin. Clytia HART- 
MAN, t. c. p. 8, type P. umbilicata Pse. ; not Clytia Lam. 
Ilia HARTM., t. c. p. 8, type P. lutea Less.; not Ilia Leach, 
ISll.CEnone HARTMAN, t. c. p. 9, type P. hele Pf r. ; not 
Oenone Savigny. Helena HARTM., t. c. p. 9, type P. otahei- 
tana. Pasithea HARTM., t. c. p. 10, type P. spadicea Rve. ; 



PARTULA, TAHITI. 179 

not of Lamarck. Matata HARTMAN, t. c. p. 14, type P. rosea 
Brod. ; not Matuta Fabricius. 

The typical group of Partula is restricted to the Society 
and Hervey Islands. Each island has its minor type of 
shell, except Moorea and Tahaa, which have Tahitian and 
Raiatean types respectively ; 'but the entire series is so closely 
interrelated that the named subgeneric divisions proposed by 
Dr. Hartman cannot be sustained. 

A small group of white, translucent species includes 

No. 9, P. hywlina Brod. Tahiti, Hervey and Austral 
Islands. 

No. 16, P. clara Pse. Tahiti. 

No. 17, P. attenuates Pse. Tahiti and Raiatea. 

No. 44, P. annectens Pse. Huaheine. 

These forms may have some exceptional means of distribu- 
tion, or they may be conservative stocks, which have altered 
little since the original radiation over the mountain ranges 
which are now islands. They approach the simply colored 
southwestern forms of Partula, such as those of the Solomon 
Islands, in appearance, and seem to be little- changed mem- 
bers of an old stock. 

The species are here treated in geographic order, as follows : 

1. Tahiti, species 9 to 17. 

2. Moorea, species 18 to 21. 

3. Raiatea and Tahaa, species 22 to 41, 8. 

4. Huaheine, species 42 to 44, 7. 

5. Borabora, species 45. 

6. Species of uncertain habitat, species 46 to 50. 

1. Partula of Tahiti. 

"On Tahiti; the largest island in the group, we find eight 
species only, six of which are endemic. One (P. clara), 
which has a limited range, 'appears to be gradually becoming 
extinct. Four species (P. filosa, nodosa, product a and stolida) 
are each restricted to a single valley. All the above species 
are well-defined, and exhibit but little variation. On the 
contrary, P. otalieitana, which has its centre of distribution 



180 PARTULA, TAHITI. 

in Fautaua valley, has spread all round the island, and is sub- 
ject to so much variation that no less than fourteen species 
have 'been proposed for the different forms, Two species 
(P. kyalina and attenuata) are common to other islands;, 
the former is found in the Austral and on one of the Cook's 
group ; the latter occurs on Raiatea, but does not inhabit the 
two intermediate islands. It is a noteworthy fact that, not- 
withstanding both species have spread nearly all round 
Tahiti, yet they have not developed a single varietal feature, 
but, on the contrary, are remarkably uniform in all their 
specific characters. 

' ' Here we have three species ranging round the island, and 
all subject to the same conditions of life, yet two have not 
shown the slightest tendency to depart from the typical forms, 
and the other, which is very variable in its metropolis, has 
developed many local varieties. The above facts, which are 
common to other species, seem to suggest that physical con- 
ditions are not the primary cause of variations, but that it is 
the operation of some unknown law." (G-arrett). 

Numerous forms of Tahiti and Moorea are sinistral. The 
species of all the other islands are invariably dextral. Sin- 
istral Partulse also occur in the Samoan group. 

9. P. HYALINA Broderip. PL 24, figs. 10, 11, 12, 13. 

The shell is perforate, acutely long-ovate, thin but rather 
strong, corneous-white or bluish-white throughout. The 
spire is straightly conic, apex acute. Whorls 5, weakly con- 
vex, the last convex, becoming somewhat compressed laterally 
in the last half, base convex. Sculpture of fine growth-lines 
decussated by minute, close spiral incised lines. The aper- 
ture is very oblique, ovate. Peristome rather broadly re- 
flexed, strongly thickened within, the columellar margin 
weakly nodose. 

Length 15, diam. 9, aperture 9 mm. 

Length 16, diam. 9%, aperture 9 mm. 

Society Islands: Tahiti, throughout the island in small 
numbers (Garrett). Austral Is.: Tubuai (G-arrett), and 



PARTULA, TAHITI. 181 

Rurutu or Oheteroa (type loc.; Cuming). Cooks or Hervey 
Is.: Mangaia (Garrett) ; Rarotonga (C. D. Voy). 

Partula hyalina BROD., P. Z. S. 1832, p. 32. REEVE, Conch. 
Syst. ii, pi. 175, f. 1, 2; Conch. Icon. pi. 3, f. 14. PPR. 
Monogr. iii, 451; Conehyl. Cab. p. 271, pi. 64, f. 19, 20. 
GARRETT, Proc. A. N. S. Phila. 1879, p. 18 (Austral Is.) ; 
Journ. A. N. S. Phila. ix, 1884, p. 65. MAYER, Mem. Mus. 
Comp. Zool. xxvi, no. 2, p. 122, figs. 1, 2, la-lc (1902). 
Bulinus hyalinus SOWB. Conch. Illustr. f . 9. Bulimus 
hyalinus PFR. Monogr. ii, p. 67. 

Quite distinct 'by its milk-white color, and the very oblique 
aperture, contracted in adult shells by a strong inner rib of 
the lip. It might form a separate subgenus. 

The distribution of this snail on several widely separated 
groups is remarkable. Such distribution is unparalleled by 
any land snail of its size in Polynesia. I have not seen 
specimens from Mangaia or Rurutu, but those collected by 
Voy -at Rarotonga seem indistinguishable from Tahitian ex- 
amples. It seems possible that it has been distributed by hu- 
man agency, since it is not likely that a snail of this size could 
be carried far over sea by hurricanes, 'as the minute forms 
(Tornatellina, Pupidce etc.) no doubt have been. Still an- 
other hypothesis : P. hyalina may be an ancient and 'conserva- 
tive stock, which has survived from the time when these 
mountain islands formed the sierras of a larger land mass. 

10. P. COMPRESSA 'Pfr.' Reeve. PI. 41, figs. 19, 20, 21. 

"Shell acuminately oblong, rather thick, obliquely pro- 
duced towards the base, rather largely, compressed umbili- 
cate. Whorls convex, obliquely striated, very slightly 
spirally lineated ; last whorl rotundately angulated at the base. 
Aperture oblong, lip reflected in a slanting direction, a little 
contracted in the upper part. Dark chestnut brown, lip 
and interior of the aperture livid purple." (Reeve). 

"Shell deeply rimate, ovate-conic, rather solid, under the 
lens very minutely decussate; chestnut colored. Spire conic, 
rather obtuse; suture marked with a white line. Whorls 5, 



182 PARTULA, TAHITI. 

nearly flat, the last as long as the spire, narrowed and com- 
pressed at the base. Columella subnodose. Aperture oblong, 
narrowed by the calloused lip ; peristome brownish violaceous, 
broadly expanded, a little reflexed. Length 22, diam. 10, 
aperture with peristome 12x8 mm." (Pfr.) 

Society Islands (Cuming coll.). 

Partula compressa Pfr., REEVE, Conch. Icon. pi. 4, f. 20 
(May, 1850). PFR., Monogr. iii, 447. Cf. GARRETT, Journ. 
A. N. S. Phila. ix, 112. Bulimus compressus PFR., Zeitschr. f. 
Malak. 1850, p. 75 (July, 1850). P. stolida GARRETT, Journ. 
A. N. S. Phila. ix, 1884, p. 70, pi. 3, f. 58. 

The descriptions of Reeve and of Pfeiffer are given above. 
The type specimen is represented by fig. 21, 'copied from 
Reeve who described the species in advance of Pfeiffer. The 
figure measures about 24 mm. long. The last whorl is dark 
chestnut colored. 

Three specimens received as P. compressa from Mr. Cuming 
in 1862 are before me, two being figured, pi. 41, figs. 19, 20. 
The shell is glossy, with very fine and rather weak spiral 
striation. The color in one shell is white under a yellow 
cuticle, closely streaked with olive-yellow, the streaks form- 
ing an ill-defined median belt. The other specimens are very 
finely, 'closely but irregularly streaked with brown, on a 
yellow ground on the last whorl, giving a rather bright red- 
dish or yellowish brown appearance, while the spire is dull 
or liver brown, the apex dull purplish-brown. The last 
whorl is very conspicuously compressed laterally, flat there 
in the last half-whorl. The aperture is diagonal, the base 
thrown out from the middle, in the type figure and in the 
yellow shell before me (fig. 19), but in a smaller shell it is 
normal in shape. The lip is reflexed, heavily thickened 
within. The interior is white. 

Length 21, diam. 11%, aperture 12 mm., whorls 5%. 

Length 19%, diam. 10%, aperture 10.2 mm., whorls 5%. 

These specimens agree perfectly with one received from 
Andrew Garrett as P. stolida, and which he figured in Journ. 
A. N. S. Phila. ix, p. 70, pi. 3, fig. 58. I have drawn this 



PABTULA, TAHITI. 183 

shell somewhat enlarged on pi. 25, fig. 7. It has some re- 
semblance to P. affinis, but the last whorl is far more com- 
pressed laterally than in affinis. The spire is reddish-brown, 
becoming darker towards the apex, which is blackish-purple. 
The last whorl is olivaceous-chestnut, closely streaked with 
yellow. The last half of the last whorl is strongly com- 
pressed at the side, with a very convex, "saccate" base. The 
umbilical crease is rather ample. The rather narrowly re- 
flexed lip is fleshy-tinted, thin-edged, having a strong in- 
ternal thickening. No parietal tooth. Sculpture consists, 
of very fine and close spiral striae crossing the growth- 
wrinkles, and continuing to the lip. This shell measures, 
length 19, diam. 11, length of aperture 10 mm. Garrett 
writes: "I took a few examples of this ground species about 
two miles up Papenoo valley, on the northeast coast of Tahiti. 
They were all found lurking among the roots of ferns." 

The identity of the original P. stolida of Pease is doubt- 
ful. There is little in the description to exclude it from 
P. compressa, yet the statement that it is "dentate" prob- 
ably indicates that what Pease originally had was a form 
closer to P. affinis (no. 11&.) 

11. P. OTAHEITANA (Bruguiere). PI. 26, figs. 13-15; pi. 28, 
fig. 13. 

"This species is fluviatile and was discovered during the 
same voyage as the preceding [Captain Cook's], in the brooks 
of the island Otahiti. The shell is sinistral, oblong, oval, 
very thick, not more than 10 or 11 lines in length by about 
6 in diameter. It is composed of 5 whorls, united exteriorly, 
and as much swollen -as those of the austral Bulimus, but 
coiled in a direction contrary to that of most shells; that is 
to say, the right side of its animal is towards the left. The 
spire is conic and terminates in a pointed summit. The 
sutures resemble those of the preceding species [P. faba]. 
The 'aperture is semi-oval, oblique, rounded at the base, only 
a third longer than wide, and shorter by a line than half 
the shell. Outer lip arcuate, much reflexed iand recurved to 



184 PARTULA, TAHITI. 

the exterior, flat and projecting outside. The inner 
[parietal] lip is very thin and furnished with a tooth in the 
middle, only found in old shells, the young having an in- 
conspicuous callus in its place. The columella is simple, out- 
wardly covering an umbilicus resembling that of Bulimus 
australis. The whole shell is brown outside, or the color of 
roasted coffee; the lips are whitish and the cavity sooty. 
It is not eommon. ' ' (Brug.). 

Society Is.: Tahiti (Cook, Garrett et al.). 

Bulimus otaheitanus BRUGUIERE, Encyc. Meth., i, p. 347 
(1792). PFEIFFER, Mon. Hel., ii, p. 71, in part; Oonchyl. 
Cab. pi. 14, f. 5, 6. Helix perversa, etc., CHEMNITZ, ix, p. 
108, pi. 112, figs. 950, 951. Helix otaheitana DILLWYN, Desc. 
Cat. Shells, ii, p. 935. WOOD, Ind. Test, pi. 34, fig. 110. 
Partula otaheitana FERUSSAC, Prod., p. 66. REEVE, Conch. 
Syst., ii, pi. 175, fig. 16; Conch. Icon., pi. 3, fig. 136. 
PFEIFFER, Mon. Hel. Viv. iii, p. 448. HARTMAN, Cat. Part, 
pp. 9, 10, with woodcut; Obs. Gen. Part., Bull. Mus. Comp. 
Zool., ix, p. 184. GARRETT, Journ. A. N. S. Phila. ix, 1884, 
p. 46. Partulus otaheitanus BECK, Ind. Moll., p. 58. 
Bulimus (Partula) isabellinus PFEIFFER, Proc. Zool. Soc., 
1846, p. 39; Mon. Hel., ii, p. 70. Partula isabellina REEVE, 
Conch. Icon., sp. 10, pi. 2, fig. 8&. PFEIFFER, Mon. Hel., iii, 
p. 448. Bulimus amabilis PFEIFFER, Proc. Zool. Soc., 1846, 
p. 38; Mon. Hel., ii, p. 71. Partula amabilis REEVE, Conch. 
Icon., sp. 8, pi. 2, figs. 8a, 10. PFEIFFER, Mon. Hel., iii, p. 
448. Pease, Proc. Zool. Soc., 1871, p. 473. Partula rubes- 
cens REEVE, Conch. Icon., pi. 3, fig. 12. PFEIFFER, Mon. 
Hel., iii, p. 446. PEASE, Proc. Zool. Soc., 1871, p. 473. 
Partula reeveana PFEIFFER, Proc. Zool. Soc., 1852, p. 137; 
Mon. Hel., iii, p. 447 ; Conch. Cab., Bulimus, pi. 65, figs. 10, 
11. Partula taheitana GOULD, Expl. Exped. Shells, pi. 84, 
fig. 91. PEASE, Proc. Zool. Soc., 1871, p. 473. SCHMELTZ, 
Cat. Mus. Godeffroy, v, p. 92. Partula lignaria PEASE, Proc. 
Zool. Soc., 1864, p. 671 ; 1871, p. 473. PFEIFFER, Mon. Hel., 
vi, p. 160. SCHMELTZ, Cat Mus. Godeff., v, p. 92. Partula 
rufa CARPENTER (not of Lesson), Proc. Zool. Soc., 1864, p. 



PARTULA, TAHITI. 185 

675. HARTMAN, Cat. Part,, p. 10. Partula affinis PEASE, 
Amer. Jour. Conch., iii, 1867, p. 224; Proc. Zool. Soc., 1871, 
p. 473. SCHMELTZ, Cat. Mus. Godeff., v, p. 92. PFEIFFER, 
Mon. Hel., viii, p. 204. P. affinis var. duUa Pse. MS., 
GARRETT, t. c. p. 49. Partula sinistrorsa PEASE, MS. in Coll. 
Pease, 1863. SCHMELTZ, Cat. Mus. Godeff., v, p. 92 
PFEIFFER, Mon. Hel., viii, p. 209. GLOYNE, Quart. Jour. 
Conch., i, p. 337. Partula sinistralis PEASE, MS. in coll. 
Pease, 1863. PFEIFFER, Mon. Hel., viii, p. 209. GARRETT, 
t. c., p. 49. Partula crassa PEASE, MS., GARRETT, J. A. N. 
S. P., ix, 1884, p. 49. Partula Irevicula PEASE, MS., 
GARRETT, t. c., p. 49. Partula perversa PEASE, MS., H. H. 
SMITH, Ann. Carnegie Mus., i, p. 442, no. 4188. 

Bruguiere's account is given above, since it seems to indi- 
cate a darker, more elongate shell than that generally ac- 
cepted as typical otaheitana. 

"The metropolis of the typical otaheitana is about two 
miles up Fautaua valley, on the northwest part of Tahiti, 
where it is very abundant on the trunks and foliage of trees 
and bushes. The above-mentioned valley being close to the 
principal harbor which was frequented by the early naviga- 
tors, it was undoubtedly where Bruguiere's type was ob- 
tained. 

' ' The Fautaua shells, which are very variable in size, shape, 
and color, are never ornamented by spiral bands, and about 
one-third of the specimens are sinistral. The parietal tooth 
is nearly always present in the adults, and the peristome, 
though usually white, is frequently pinky flesh-color. The 
prevailing colors are straw-yellow, reddish fulvous, light 
chestnut, frequently with the spire more or less tinted with 
reddish and often with longitudinal strigations. The spire 
is more or less produced, and the aperture varies some in size 
and shape. 

"The shape of the shell varies from abbreviate-ovate to 
elongate-ovate, as the following measurements will show: 
Length 21, diam. 10 mm. Dextral specimen. 
Length 16, diam. 10 mm. Dextral specimen. 



186 PABTULA, TAHITI. 

Length 20, diam. 10 mm. Sinistral specimen. 

Length 16, diam. 9mm. Sinistral specimen." (Garrett). 

The following form has been referred to otaheitana as a 
synonym by Garrett and Hartman. "Bulimus isabellinus 
Pfr. Shell subperforate, oblong-conic, solid, striatulate, isa- 
belline. Spire conic, rather acute. Whorls 5, a little con- 
vex, the upper sculptured with impressed, very delicate spiral 
lines, the last, a little shorter than the spire, base rounded 
in front. Columella white, plicate-gibbous. Aperture ob- 
long-oval, narrowed by a dentiform callus deep within on 
the belly of the penultimate whorl. Peristome callous, white, 
broadly expanded, a little reflexed, the columellar margin 
dilated, sinuous-reflexed. Length 22, diam. 10, aperture in- 
side 9 mm. long, 4% wide. Habitat unknown, Mus. Cuming. ' ' 
(Pfr.) Reeve's figure is -copied, pi. 26, fig. 16. 

P. l&vigata Pfr. is doubtless a Society Island shell, prob- 
ably a form of P. otaheitana. The description follows : 

P. Icevigata Pf eiff er. ' * Shell deeply rim-ate, ovate-conic,, 
solid, smooth, (slightly striatulate under the lens), glossy, 
buff. Spire conic, rather obtuse; suture moderate. Whorls 
5, a little convex, the last about equal to the spire, more 
swollen next the suture, rounded at base. Columella in- 
wardly nodose-plicate above the middle. Aperture slightly 
oblique, oblong, obstructed by a deeply placed tubercle on 
the penultimate whorl; peristome thick, white, spreading 
throughout, the columellar margin dilated and adnate above. 
Length 20, diam. 10 mm.; aperture with peristome 11 mm. 
long, 4 wide inside. Habitat unknown (Cuming coll.)." 
(Pfr.). 

Partula lavigata PFR., P. Z. S. 1856, p. 334; Monogr. 
iv, p. 511. 

110. P. o. LIGNARIA Pse (pi. 25, figs. 1, 2, 3, 4.) "In a 
valley about two miles west of Fautaua, there exists in abund- 
ance the variety ( ?) lignaria, Pease, which, though described 
as dextral, is nevertheless very frequently sinistral. Though 
not attaining quite so large a size as the Fautaua shells, it 
differs none in shape, but is usually darker colored and 



PARTULA, TAHITI. 187 

more strigated, as well as exhibiting one to three transverse 
reddish chestnut bands. The lip is always white, and the, 
parietal tooth is very seldom 'absent. The inosculation with 
otakeitana is so complete that it cannot be even separated as 
a well-marked variety." It was thus described: Partula 
lignaria Pease in Proc. Zool. Soc. 1864, p. 671. " P. t. ovata, 
solidiuscula, dextrorsa, anguste umbilicata, sub lente minu- 
tissime transversim striata, irregulariter longitudinaliter 
striata; anfr. 5, plano-convexis, sutura impressa; apertura 
rotunda to-ovata, edentata, labro rotundatim incrassato; cas- 
taneo-fusco irregulariter longitudinaliter strigata, interdum 
omnino ruf o-f usca. Long. 18, diam. 10 mill. ' ' 

"Var. &. Fascia unica nigro-fusca cingulata, seu omnino 
flavide fusca." 

Grarrett's note on this imperfectly differentiated race is 
given above. The figures are from shells collected by him, 
showing several color-patterns. In certain examples a more 
or less conspicuous nodule appears on the face of the colu- 
mella near its insertion, fig. 4, much as in P. auriculata and 
nodosa. 

Dr. Mayer found lignaria streaked without spiral bands, 
and also with one dark peripheral band in Tipaerui valley. 
All were dextral. In a few there is an additional subsutural 
band. 

In Hamuta and Pirge Valleys, a form with sutural, peri- 
pheral and umbilical bands was found, constituting 3 to 4 
per cent of the Partula taken. It occurred with streaked 
iignaria. In Pirae, all are sinistral; in Hamuta (between 
Pirge and Tipaerui) both dextral and sinistral individuals were 
found. 

11&. P. o. AFFINIS Pease. PI. 25, figs. 5, 6, 9. 

"Shell elongately ovate, rather solid, compressly umbili- 
<jate, dextral, finely, roughly and irregularly striated lon- 
gitudinally, transversely very minutely striate, suture im- 
pressed, sometimes faintly marginated; lip narrowly thick- 
ened, occasionally connected with the eolumella by a thin 



188 PARTULA, TAHITI. 

callosity; columella dentate. Color light or dark chestnut 
brown, sometimes striped with darker or wholly of a straw 
color. 

"Var. encircled with three dark reddish brown bands, on 
middle of last whorl, at the umbilicus, and just beneath the 
suture. 

"Observations: The above species is allied to P. otaheitana. 
It is, however, smaller and less elongate." (Pease). 

Garrett writes: " Pease's affinis, which cannot be separated 
from some of the small abbreviated forms of otaheitana, oc- 
curs in greater or less abundance in all the valleys from 
Haona as far as the southeast end of Taiarapu peninsula, 
and round the opposite coast as far as Papieri on the 'south- 
west of Tahiti proper. In Papinoo I discovered a large 
colony of affinis, many of which had the pinky flesh-colored lip 
and sinistral form of otaheitana. Far up in the same valley, 
though common, none but dextral forms were found, and out 
of thousands taken in the other valleys, not one sinistral ex- 
ample occurred to my notice. 

Three examples of affinis, received from Pease, and rep- 
resenting the three color-forms mentioned by him, are fig- 
ured, pi. 25, figs. 5, 6, 9. All the examples of this lot have 
the parietal wall dentate. The sculpture of spiral lines is 
very fine and close, but on the last whorl it is more or less 
obsolete, especially so in the middle of each whorl. 

In a lot of five examples received from Garrett, one has 
a small parietal tooth, the others none. All are obscurely 
streaked with chestnut on a yellow ground, the spire brown. 
The sculpture of the latter part of the last whorl below the 
suture, of one of this lot, is drawn in pi. 25, fig. 8. In some 
other individuals, the spiral lines are subobsolete, as in 
typical affinis. 

lie. P. o. DUBIA 'Pse.' Garrett. PL 25, figs. 10, 11. 

"In a valley several miles from Papinoo I found a small 
colony of affinis which were marked by three transverse red- 
dish chestnut bands like lignaria. And most singular, no 



PARTULA, TAHITI. 189 

other banded specimens of affinis occurred to my notice in any 
other part of the island. This is the variety dubia Pse., by 
Carpenter erroneously referred to varia." [PL 25, fig. 10, 
11]. The var. dubia was not defined by Pease, but only 
mentioned as a form of varia, in P. Z. S. 1864, p. 675. Its 
first published definition was in Garrett's note, quoted above. 
Examples of dubia from Pease are figured (pi. 25, figs. 10, 
11) . The smallest dubia seen are only 15 mm. long. 

lie. P. o. AMABILIS Pfeiffer. PL 26, figs. 1, 2. 

"Shell sinistral, subperf orate, ovate- turrite, rather solid, 
striatulate, glossy, citrine, the acute apex reddish, suture 
white-edged. Whorls 5, the upper flat, the rest convex, the 
last shorter than the spire. Columella nearly simple, slightly 
plicate. Aperture oblong-semioval. Peristome somewhat 
thickened, white, expanded and reflexed, the columellar mar- 
gin wide, flat, spreading. Length 23, diam. lli/, aperture 
inside 9% mm. long, 5 wide. A variety is somewhat smaller, 
ornamented with wide blackish-chestnut bands, the peristome 
livid-brown." (P/r.). 

"To the eastward between Fautana and Papinoo valley, a 
distance of about eight miles, there are three valleys, all in- 
habited by Pfeiffer's amabilis, a sinistral form which has 
not a single feature to distinguish it from some of the large 
turreted Fautaua shells. In the first valley, Pfeiffer 's species, 
though not abundant, were very fine specimens. The next 
valley, known as Pirai, (the metropolis of the small dextral 
P. filosa, which occupies the lower part of the valley), is, in 
the upper part, which trends towards 'the headquarters of 
otaheitana, inhabited by the sinistral amabilis. A few im- 
mature examples were found which were 'banded like lignaria. 
The only dextral Partula taken in the two valleys were 
filosa, attenuata and hyalina. 

"In the next valley, called Haona, I found the dextral 
P. affinis abundant, and took a few of amabilis. 

"Both Dr. Pfeiffer and Reeve described the latter species 
from specimens in the Cumingian collection, and both quote 



190 PARTULA, TAHITI. 

Anaa, a low coral island, as its habitat. Having resided 
about five months on that island, and searched all parts for 
shells, I did not find a single Partula there, or on any other 
low coral island. Though neither Pfeiffer nor Reeve allude 
to a parietal tooth, it is very frequently present. " ( Garrett) 

lid. P. o. RUBESCENS Reeve. PI. 26, figs. 3, 4, 5, 6. 

''Shell acuminately oblong, rather thick, sinistral, com- 
pressly umbilicated ; whorls 6, smooth, somewhat rounded, lip 
and columella broadly reflected. Pink, red-browli towards 
the apex." (Reeve). 

P. rubescens REEVE, Conch. Icon. pi. 3, f. 12 (April, 1850). 
-PFR., Conchyl. Cab. p. 271, pi. 64, f. 21, 22; Monogr. iii, 
446. Partula turricula PEASE, olim, H. H. SMITH, Ann. 
Carnegie Mus. i, 442, not of Pease 1872. 

Fig. 4 is a copy of Reeve's. The examples before me are 
the form sent out as turricula by Pease. They are all sinis- 
tral, elongate, glossy, varying from chestnut-tinted yellow to 
pale yellow with light green streaks on the last two whorls, 
those preceding rose-tinted, the shade deepening to the apex. 
The lip is white in the paler shells, rose-tinted in the darker. 
Measurements vary from length 22, diam. 12.1, aperture 10.9 
mm., to 19, 11, 9.8 mm. just three-fourths of the adult shells- 
seen have a parietal tooth. Garrett writes: " Reeve's rubes- 
cens is abundant in Papinoo, and occurs sparingly in all the 
valleys as far as the southeast end of the island. Like ama- 
bilis it cannot 'be separated from the sinistral turreted ota- 
heitana, inhabiting Fautaua. It is always sinistral, never 
banded, and, though usually of a reddish tint, is frequently 
straw-yellow or fulvous, with or without a reddish or pinky 
apex. The lip is white or pinky flesh-color. Though de- 
scribed as edentate, some have a small parietal tooth. Reeve 
gave no locality, and Pfeiffer erroneously cites the Marquesas 
as its habitat." 

lie. P. o. SINISTRORSA 'Pse.' Garrett. PI. 26, figs. 7, 8, 9, 10. 

" Pease's siwistrorsa is confined to the south coast of Tahiti 

proper, where it exists in the greatest profusion in all the 



PARTULA, TAHITI. 191 

valleys and lowland forests for a distance of ten or twelve 
miles. In the valley which is the limit of the range of the 
dextral a/finis I took several specimens of the sinistral sinis- 
trorsa. The latter is invariably reversed, dentate or eden- 
tate, fulvous with three more or less diffused reddish chest- 
nut bands. Reeve figures the same shell on Plate 3, fig. 13a, 
as otaheitana. Bandless varieties are frequent, and vary 
from straw-yellow to fulvous or light chestnut, frequently 
.strigated and the lip white. The latter varieties differ none 
from the true otaheitana of Fautaua. 

" It is worthy of remark that in that part of the district of 
Papieri, occupied by sinistrorsa, is also the headquarters of 
the terrestrial P. producta, a dextral species, which is always 
edentate, and exhibits the fasciation of the former. 

' * After passing to the westward of the range of the typical 
sinistrorsa, which presents the same features for a distance 
of ten or twelve miles, it suddenly exhibits a tendency 'to a 
change in its becoming more stunted, more solid, always den- 
tated, and the bands, one to three, are sharply defined on a 
pale ground. It is the sinistralis of Pease, MS., and occupies 
two valleys. 

''In the next large valley, called Faahuaite, on the south- 
west coast, we find Pease's crassa (MS.), which is also a sin- 
istral shell, always dentated, solid, more tightly coiled than 
sinistrorsa, and the body-whorl is more flattened. It is rarely 
marked by a single narrow submedian chestnut band. In the 
same valley, but more inland, occurs a smaller form, which is, 
I suppose, the P. brevicula, Pse., MS. [see pi. 26, f. 12, speci- 
men from Dr. Hartman]. 

"The following valley, named Punaavia, is the metropolis 
of the beautiful P."* nodosa, which also exhibits three bands. 
Far above the restricted range of 'the latter, where the valley 
turns towards the head of Fautaua, the home of the typical 
otaheitana, I took a few examples of a Partula, similar to, but 
larger than crassa. The next valley is the habitat of 
lignaria. ' ' ( Garrett ) . 

Specimens of sinistrorsa received from Pease and Garrett 



192 PARTULA, TAHITI. 

are figured. There is also a 'bandies form, dark chestnut 
colored with darker and lighter oblique streaks, which may be 
called variety confiuens (pi. 26, fig. 11). 

12. P. STENOSTOMA Pfeiffer. PL 27, figs. 12, 13. 

Shell umbilicate, dextral, oblong-conic rather solid, closely 
striolate, glossy; fulvous clouded with brown and brightly 
three-banded with chestnut. Spire long-conic, rather acute; 
suture lightly impressed, whitish. Whorls 5%, but .a trifle 
convex, the last shorter than the spire, somewhat compressedly 
rounded at the base. Columella running forward obliquely, 
slightly plicate above. Aperture a little oblique, narrow, 
truncate-oblong, narrowed by a deeply placed, tooth-like 
callus on the penultimate whorl. Peristome callous, white, 
expanded and slightly reflexed throughout, the right margin 
sinuated above. Length 22, diam. 10%, aperture with peris- 
tome 11 mm. long, 5 wide inside (Pfr.). 

Habitat unknown (Cuming coll.) 

Partula stenostoma PFR., P. Z. S. 1855, p. 97 ; Novit. Conch, 
p. 61, pi. 17, f . 16, 17 ; Monogr. iv, 507. Cf. GARRETT, Journ, 
A. N. S. Phila. ix, p. 52. 

In my copy of Pfeiffer 's figure (pi. 27, fig. 13) the small 
parietal tooth was omitted by oversight. It is very indis- 
tinctly drawn in the original figure, and should resemble that 
of fig. 9 of the same plate. 

P. stenostoma was not identified by Mr. Garrett. The 
positions of the bands cause me to think it related to affinis 
Pse., and dubia Garr., but it differs from these and other 
forms of P. otaheitana by the narrow shape of the aperture. 
Dr. Hartman has referred stenostoma to P. vexillum Pse.; 
and it has a certain resemblance to the Raiatean P. planila- 
brum and P. vittata. 

13. P. PRODUCTA Pease. PL 27, figs. 1, 2, 3. 

The shell is dextral, long-ovate, deeply rimate, rather solid, 
moderately glossy ; yellow or brownish-yellow with three dark 
chestnut bands, a pale sutural band above the upper one, 
the middle band widest, the lower one defining a light umbili- 



PARTULA, TAHITI. 193 

cal patch.; whorls of the spire showing two dark bands on-a 
light or flesh-colored ground, apex dark. The surface shows 
no spiral lines, or only faint traces of them. Whorls 5%, 
moderately convex, the last well rounded peripherally and 
beneath. The aperture is nearly vertical, dark within ; peris- 
tome narrowly expanded and reflexed, moderately thickened 
within, white or flesh-tinted. The parietal wall is typically 
toothless, but sometimes it bears a tubercular white tooth. 

Length 20, diam. 10.7, aperture 10 mm. 

Length 19, diam. 10.2, aperture 10 mm. 

Length 21, diam. 11.2, aperture 10.8 THIM. 

Length 18.8, diam. 10, aperture 9.8 mm. 

Tahiti: "This species only occurred to my notice in one 
valley, on the southwest coast of Tahiti, where it is abundant, 
lurking beneath decaying leaves and under heaps of loose 
stones," (Garrett). 

Partula producta PEASE, Proc. Zool. Soc., 1864, p. 671; 
1871, p. 473. PFEIFFER, Mon. Hel. Viv., vi, p. 156. 
SCHMELTZ, Cat. Mus. Godeff., v, p. 92. HARTMAN, Cat. Par- 
tula, p. 10; Obs. Gen. Partula, Bull. Mus. Comp. ZooL, ix, p. 
185. GARRETT, Journ. A. N. S. Phila. ix, 1884, p. 66, pi. 
3, f. 51. 

This terrestrial form was found by Garrett to be invariably 
dextral. It is not so glossy as P. otaheitana sinistrorsa Pse., 
but otherwise there is not much difference. P. producta how- 
ever has somewhat diverse variations; the dark bands be- 
come confluent in some individuals by darkening of the 
ground color, leaving the last whorl chestnut with (usually) 
a pale sutural band and umbilical patch. Garrett also re- 
cords a mutation uniform pale fulvous or tawny with a darker 
apex. Description and figs. 1, 2, 3 from examples received 
from Pease. 

14. P. NODOSA Pfeiffer. PI. 25, figs. 12, 13, 16, 17. 

Shell perforate, conic-ovate, rather solid, obsoletely decus- 
sate; chestnut-colored, ornamented with a wide white band 
at the suture, and often some other pale bands. Spire conic, 



194 PABTULA, TAHITI. 



acute. Whorls 5%, a little flattened, the last about as long 
as the spire. Columella plicate above, deep within, then 
nodulose. Aperture subvertical, oblong, narrow; peristome 
outwardly scarcely expanded; inwardly provided with an 
acutely projecting white callus, contracting the aperture; 
margins subparallel, the right margin a little straightened. 
Length 16, diam. 8, aperture 6 mm. long inside, 4 wide. 
(Pfr.). 

Tahiti: "This beautiful arboreal species is restricted to a 
limited area about two miles up Punaavia valley on the west 
coast of Tahiti. I first discovered the location in 1861, and 
gathered about three hundred examples. On a subsequent 
visit, nine years later, I secured over eight hundred speci- 
mens. It is entirely confined to the south side of the stream 
which flows through the valley, and circumscribed in a nar- 
row area about three-fourths of a mile in length. ' ' ( Garrett) . 

Partula nodosa PFEIFPER, Proc. Zool. Soc., 1851, p. 262; 
Mon. Hel., iii, p. 449; iv, 512; vi, 160; Conchyl. Cab. p. 266, 
pi. 64, f. 1, 2. Pease, Proe. Zool. Soc., 1871, p. 473. 
SCHMELTZ, Cat. Mus. Grodeff., v, p. 92. HABTMAN, Cat. Part,, 
p. 10; Obs. Gten. Part., Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., ix, pp. 184, 
188, 195. GABBETT, J. A. N. S. ix, 1884, p. 65. Partula trili- 
neata PEASE, Amer. Jour. Conch., 1866, p. 195; 1867, p. 81, 
pi. 1, fig. 1. PFR., Monogr. viii, p. 195. Partula nodosa var. 
trilineata PEASE, Proc. Zool. Soc., 1871, p. 473. Partula no- 
dosa var. sinistralis MAYEB, Some species of Partula from 
Tahiti in Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool. xxvi, no. 2, Jan. 1902, p. 
127, figs. 14, 15, 14a, 150. 

P. nodosa stands near P. suturalis of Moorea, which doubt- 
less arose from the same ancestral stock. In Tahiti it has no 
little resemblance to certain forms of P. lignaria, especially 
those with many streaks and a single dark belt, many of 
which show a more or less developed nodule on the columella, 
such as is characteristic of P. nodosa. 

The typical P. nodosa, pi. 25, figs. 12, 13, was the dark 
reddish-brown or chestnut-brown shell, with a wide cream- 
white band below the suture on the last one or two whorls. 



PARTULA, TAHITI. 195 

There is usually more or less pale streaking of the dark 
ground on the last whorl; the reverse of the lip and the 
border of the umbilicus are also pale. Several examples seen, 
one of them received from Dr. Pfeiffer. All are dextral. 
Judging 'by the lots before me, this form occurs in the same 
colonies with the following color phases. 

Color-form TRILINEATA Pease. PL 25, figs. 14, 15. "Cream 
color or yellowish horn-color, the spire usually reddish-brown, 
last whorl striped irregularly with brown, and encircled by 
three dark reddish-brown lines or bands ; suture margined 
with white "(Pse). In the typical lot of trilineata received 
from Pease the spire is fleshy brown in two examples (typical 
coloration) ; clear corneous in two; -and the other two have 
some whitish and faint brown markings on a fleshy-corneous 
ground. Four of the shells are 3-banded, like fig. 14, 15, one 
has only a wide chestnut belt, and is conspicuously streaked 
with brown, and the sixth is a typical nodosa in color. 

A lot from Barrett consists of (1) ordinary dark P. nodosa; 
(2) one sinistral shell (fig. 16) with normal trilineata color- 
pattern. Garrett states "about one in two hundred is sinis- 
tral ") ; and (3) pale shells with the spire corneous, last iy 2 
whorls cream-colored with a profusion of corneous and cor- 
neous-brown streaks which do not reach to the suture; aper- 
ture typical (pi. 25, fig. 17, color-form pallidior). 

14&. P. N. LJEVA, n. n. PL 25, figs. 18, 19. 

* * The shell is blunt in shape and the spire is short ; the lip 
is quite thick, and is usually provided with a well-developed 
tooth upon the columellar side, and there is also a tooth upon 
the wall of the aperture. The surface of the shell is smooth 
and slightly polished, and there are no deep longitudinal fur- 
rows. About 57 per cent of these snails are well represented 
by fig. 18. The ground color is a light horny-yellow streaked 
longitudinally with darker brown, in addition to which there 
are two dark-brown whorl-stripes and a white whorl-stripe 
adjacent to the suture of the spire. In about 43 per cent 
the dark-brown whorl stripes are either absent or very faint, 



196 PARTULA, TAHITI. 

and the ground color of the shell varies from light horny- 
yellow to rich brown. A snail of this type is fairly well rep- 
resented in fig. 19, a dark-brown individual being drawn. 
Ninety-seven per cent of the adult snails of type 18 and 91 
per cent of type 19 are sinistral ; while of the young, 100 per 
cent from type 18 and 90 per cent from type 19 are sinistral. 
In the ease of the snails of type 19, twenty-six sinistral adults 
gave forty-six sinistral and one dextral young ; while two dex- 
tral adults gave four dextral and no sinistral young. Among 
the snails of type 18, only one of the dextral adults con- 
tained young and this one gave a single sinistral offspring. 
Twenty- six whorl-striped adults of the type of fig. 18 gave 
forty-two young, of which 76 per cent display whorl-stripes,, 
while 24 per cent are plain colored. On the other hand, 
twenty-eight adults of type 19, which are either unstriped 
or with very faint whorl-stripes, gave forty-one young of 
which 61.5 per cent are marked with whorl-stripes and 38.5 
per cent are plain colored. It is very evident that the 
striped and unstriped forms intergrade. 

"Of the one hundred adults found in the valley, 94 per 
cent are sinistral, while of the eighty-eight young taken from 
them, 94.5 per cent are sinistral. This condition appears, 
therefore, to be stable from one generation to another." 
(Mayer) . 

Maruapoo valley, on the western side of Tahiti about 
7 miles south of Tipaemi valley. 

This form is said to constitute 99 per cent of the snail 
fauna of the valley, P. hyalina forming the remainder. Fig- 
ures and description from Dr. Mayer. The name sinistralis 
being preoccupied, I have substituted lava. 

15. P. FILOSA Pfeiffer. PL 27, figs. 4, 5. 

Shell perforate, conic-ovate, solid, sculptured with close 
impressed spiral lines, hardly shining ; chestnut-colored, orna- 
mented with ashen hair-lines. Spire conic, rather obtuse. 
Whorls 5, flattened, the last as long as the spire, more con- 
vex, columella slightly plicate above. Aperture a little ob- 



PARTULA, TAHITI. 197 

lique, sbbtriangular-semioval; peristome a little expanded, 
provided with, a thick prominent callus -within. Length 16, 
diam. 8%, aperture with peristome Sy 2 mm. long, 6% wide 
(Pfr.). 

Tahiti: "Restricted to the lower portion of Pirae valley, 
on the northwest coast of Tahiti, where it is abundant on 
foliage." (Garrett). 

Partula filosa PFEIFFEB, Proc. Zool. Soc., 1851, p. 262 ; Mon. 
HeL, iii, p. 450; Conchyl. Cab. ed. 2d, BuL, p. 267, pi. 64, 
figs. 3, 4. HAETMAN, Cat. Part., p. 10; Obs. Gen. Partula, 
Bull. Mus. C. Zool., ix, pp. 182, 183, 196. GARRETT, Journ. 
A. N. S. Phila. ix, 1884, p. 64, pi. 3, f. 81. MAYER, Mem. 
Mus. Comp. Zool. xxvi, no. 2, p. 126, figs. 9, 10. Partula 
lineolata PEASE, Amer. Jour. Conch., 1867, p. 224 ; Proc. Zool. 
Soc., 1871, p. 473. SCHMELTZ, Cat. Mus. Godeff., v, p. 92. 
PFEIFFER, Mon. HeL, viii, p. 206. 

P. filosa is quite distinct from other Tahitian snails, but is 
very closely related to the Moorean P. nucleola Pse. It is 
a small, ovate, solid and compactly coiled shell, dull or with 
but little gloss, and either reddish-brown with darker pur- 
plish summit, or dull yellow with the summit roseate; in 
either case being irregularly marked with many backwardly 
sloping longitudinal whitish lines. Under the lens these lines 
appear ragged, and are seen to be due to the loss of cuticle 
along some of the lines of growth. All the post-embryonic 
whorls have this peculiarity. The spiral striation is well 
developed throughout. All of the thirty examples seen have 
a parietal tooth, but in some it is quite small. The peristome 
is white, moderately expanded but strongly thickened within. 
There is often the low indication of a tubercle on the colu- 
mella. No banded or sinistral examples have been found. 

16. P. CLARA Pease. PI. 24, figs. 7, 8, 9. 

The shell is openly perforate, oblong-ovate, thin, sometimes 
imperfectly translucent, pale yellowish corneous or very pale 
chestnut, often variegated with darker obliquely axial streaks ; 
suture with an opaque-white margin. Surface somewhat shin- 



198 PARTULA, TAHITI. 

ing, with sculpture of fine growth-lines and minute, crowded, 
waved spiral striae. Whorls 4%, moderately convex ; the last 
half of the last whorl is noticeably compressed below the 
periphery, the base being strongly convex. Aperture ovate, 
.slightly oblique, usually pale brownish or fleshy inside. 
Peristome white, reflexed, thickened within except near the 
upper and columellar insertions. Columellar margin dilated 
above. Parietal callus very thin. 

Length 15.5, diam. 9.1, length aperture 8.1 mm. 

Length 15.2, diam. 8.7, length aperture 8.7 mm. 

Length 17, diam. 9.7, length aperture 9.7 mm. 

Society Islands : Upper portions of the valleys of the south- 
western part of Tahiti, a rare species, found on foliage. 
(Garrett). 

Partula clara PEASE, Proc. Zool. Soc., 1864, p. 671 ; 1871, 
p. 473. PFEIFFER, Mon. Hel., vi, p. 159. HARTMAN, Cat. 
Partula, p. 11 ; Obs. Gen. Partula, Bull. Mus. Comp. ZooL, p. 
181, vol. ix. GARRETT, Journ. A. N. S. Phila. ix, 1884, p. 56, 
pi. 3, f. 75. 

This leaf -dweller is said by Garrett to be rare and in his 
opinion approaching extinction. It has the figure of P. 
annectens of Huaheine, but is much less delicate. P. attenuate 
of Raiatea and Tahiti, is an allied species of much more 
slender contour. 

Specimens from Pease and Garrett before one are either 
nearly uniform in tint, or streaked obliquely with chestnut. 
Pease in his original account has described a ' ' var., encircled 
with a single line, or two or three." Garrett describes it as 
'" corneous, sometimes with darker stripes, and more rarely 
with one or two transverse chestnut bands. ' ' In being varie- 
gated, P. clara is clearly less modified from the ancestral stock 
than P. attenuata and annectens. 

17. P. ATTENUATA Pease. PI. 24, figs. 1, 2, 3, 4. 

The shell is openly perforate, slender, long-ovate, thin, 
slightly pellucid pale yellowish-corneous, sometimes with a 
faint reddish tint towards the apex; the suture transparent- 



PARTULA, TAHITI. 199 

margined, or margined with a white line. Surface lustrous, 
faintly marked with growth lines and minute, crowded, finely 
rippled spiral striae throughout. Whorls 5, but slightly con- 
vex, the last one compressed below the periphery, and strongly 
convex, somewhat swollen, at the base. (This is well shown 
in fig. 2). The aperture is nearly vertical, more than half 
the total length. Peristome broadly reflexed, the basal and 
outer margins thickened within except near the upper end 
of the lip, which is thin and merely a little expanded. Colu- 
mellar margin dilated and bifurcate above. Parietal callus, 
a transparent film. 

Length 16, diam. 8, length aperture 9 mm. 

Length 17, diam. 8.6, length aperture 9.5 mm. 

Length 17.8, diam. 8.5, length aperture 9.9 mm. 

Society Islands: "Upper portions of all the central val- 
leys on both the east and west sides of Raiatea. It is more 
abundant in Toloa and Hapai valleys than elsewhere. Owing 
to its peculiar habit of living on the foliage near the tops of 
trees, it easily escapes observation. It occurs more rarely at 
Tahiti, where it has, also, a wide range, and is confined to 
the upper portions of the valleys." (Garrett) . 

Partula attenuata PEASE, Proc. Zool. Soc., 1864, p. 672;. 
1871, p. 473. PFEIFFER, Mon. Hel., vi, p. 156. SCHMELTZ, 
Cat. Mus. Godeff., v, p. 92. HARTMAN, Cat. Part., p. 11; 
Obs. Gen. Part, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., ix, p. 179. GARRETT, 
Journ. A. N. S. Phila. ix, 1884, p. 70. Partula gracilis 
PEASE, Amer. Jour. Conch., ii, 1866, p. 197; 1867, p. 81, pi. 
1, fig. 3. BINNEY, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil., 1875, pp. 244, 
247, pi. 19, fig. 6 (part of jaw). PEASE, Proc. Zool. Soc., 
1871, p. 473. PFR., Monogr. viii, 198. Partula carteretensis 
REEVE (not of Quoy and Gaimard), Conch. Icon., sp. 13, pi. 4, 
fig. 13. SCHMELTZ, Cat. Mus. Godeff., iv, p. 72. 

This snail is closely related to P. annectens of Huaheine, 
having in common with that the color, texture and sculpture, 
and especially the peculiar shape of the last whorl, which is 
compressed below the middle, then swollen around the umbili- 
cal region in both species. It differs from annectens by its,, 



200 PARTULA, MOOREA. 

more slender shape, heavier substance, and wider lip, which 
is calloused within. P. clara also is an allied species of 
broader contour, but with an aperture much like that of 
attenuata. 

In a lot 01 three specimens sent many years ago by Pease, 
the suture has a grayish margin ; but in all other shells seen, 
the margin is white, by loss of the cuticle, or by its becoming 
permeated with air. Normally the lip-edge and parietal 
callus are thin, but in one very old shell before me, 'both are 
considerably thickened. 

Pease described this species twice, evidently from the same 
examples. He seems to have forgotten the description of 
1864. It is an error other prolific authors have committed. 

"When we take into consideration its peculiar habit of 
concealment in the tops of trees, and its range restricted to 
the more elevated portions of the valleys, so contrary to the 
habits of other species, it is really remarkable to find it in- 
habiting two remote islands, especially as all the other species 
have a very limited range. It does not occur at Tahaa, which 
is only four miles from Raiatea, and enclosed in the same en- 
circling reef. It is no less singular to note its absence from 
Huaheine and Moorea, though at the former island we find 
the closely allied P. annectens." (Garrett). 

2. Moorean Partulcz. 

Four species and numerous subspecies are peculiar to 
Moorea, which is separated from Tahiti by a channel only 
eight miles wide. All show clear traces of a common ancestry 
with Tahitian forms, though since the separation of the islands 
there has been specific divergence. The affinities of the snails 
are as follows : 

Tahiti. Moorea. 

P. otaheitana P. mooreana 

P. nodosa P. suturalis 

P. filosa P. taeniata group. 

18. P. MOOREANA Hartman. PL 29, figs. 17-20. 

The shell is sindstral, deeply but shortly rimate, rather thin ; 



PARTULA, MOOREA. 201 

dilute yellow, fleshy-corneous or soiled white, the first whorl 
almost always -brown; rarely the last whorl is streaked with 
buff (fig. 19), or has three pale brown spiral bands (fig. 17). 
Surface shining, rather densely marked with spiral striae 
throughout. Spire straightly conic; whorls 5, only very 
slightly convex, the last compressed laterally, convex below. 
The aperture is quite oblique, peristome is well reflexed, 
strongly thickened within, much narrower in its upper third. 
Columellar margin dilated at the insertion. There is usually 
a rather thick but transparent parietal callus and a well- 
developed parietal tooth. Length 18.5, diam. 11, length of 
aperture 10 mm. 

Moorea: Vaianai valley, on the southeast coast. 

Partula mooreana HARTMAN, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
1880, p. 229; Cat. Part., p. 10; Obs. Gen. Part., Bull. Mus. 
Comp. Zool., ix, p. 184. GARRETT, Terrestrial Mollusca in- 
habiting the Society Islands, Journ. A. N. S. P. ix, 1884, p. 
59, pi. 3, f. 55. 

P. mooreana "may be characterized by its elongate-ovate 
form, rather thin texture, constant parietal tooth, planulate- 
conical spire, which equals half the length of the shell, pale 
luteous color, with darker apex. It is always sinistral, and 
the white expanded lip is rather thin and moderately incras- 
sated. A variety with three narrow pale brown revolving 
bands is not infrequent. 

"It is closely related to some of the sinistral forms of 
varieties of P. otaheitana, particularly with Pease's P. crassa, 
which, though of the same shape, is more solid, rougher, and 
the fine crowded spiral incised lines which extend over the 
whole surface of the former are nearly obsolete on the latter. ' ' 
(Garrett). 

19. P. SUTURALIS Pfeiffer. PI. 27, figs. 10, 11; pi. 28, figs. 
1 to 6, 8. 

Shell narrowly perforate, oblong-conic, thin, distinctly 
striate spirally; fulvous-buff irregularly painted with chest- 
nut streaks. Spire convexly conic, acute; suture margined 



202 PARTULA, MOOREA. 



with a white thread. Whorls 5%, slightly convex, the last 
slightly shorter than the spire, somewhat swollen above, taper- 
ing towards the base. Columella nearly simple, almost verti- 
cal. Aperture slightly oblique, truncate-oblong; peristome 
white, thin, the right margin narrowly expanded, sinuated 
above, columellar margin dilated, reflexed. Length 19, diam. 

9, aperture with peristome 10 mm. long, 4% wide inside 

(Pfr.), 

Moorea. 

Partula suturalis PPR., P. Z. S. 1855, p. 98 ; Novit. Conch. 

1, p. 62, pi. 17, f. 18, 19; Monographia iv, 508. HARTMAN, 
Catalogue of Partula p. 10. SMITH, Ann. Carnegie Mus. i, 
p. 446. Partula lineata Lesson, REEVE, Conch. Icon, vi, pi. 

2, f. 7. GARRETT, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. ix, 1884, p. 
50, pi. 3, f. 83, and of some other authors; not P. lineata 
Lesson. Partula alternata (Pease, MS.) H. H. SMITH, Ann. 
Carnegie Mus. i, p. 447 (March, 1903). Partula vexillum 
PEASE, Amer. Jour. Conch., 1866, p. 198 ; 1867, p. 81, pi. 1, fig. 
8; Proc. Zool. Soc., 1871, p. 473. PFEIFFER, Mon. Hel., viii, 
p. 196. Partula nodosa CARPENTER (not of Pfeiffer), Proc. 
Zool. Soc., 1864, p. 675 (= alternata) . 

The original figures of this species are copied, pi. 27, figs. 

10, 11. It was described from the Cuming collection, the 
habitat being unknown. Dr. Hartman seems to have first re- 
cognized it in the common Moorean shell under considera- 
tion. Garrett subsequently (1884) discussed the species at 
great length. 

Figures 5, 6, 8 of plate 28 represent the typical form of 
the species. The shell is rather solid when adult, compact in 
shape. The lip is snow-white, thickened within, columella 
vertical, swollen or inflated just below the insertion. There 
is generally no parietal tooth, but when developed it is a low 
callous node or pad, not often a distinct tooth, as in vexillum. 
The first 2% whorls are isabella-colored ; the darker o'b- 
liquely longitudinal stripes appear at first rather faint and 
widely spaced on the isabelline ground, but on the last whorl 
the ground becomes opaque, more or less cafe-au-lait tinted or 



PARTULA, MOOREA. 203 

sometimes nearly white, and the stripes are 'brown-corneous or 
even, unequal and unevenly spaced. The sculpture consists 
of spiral incised striae which are rather widely spaced, and 
typically are distinct on the last whorl. 

This type of shell is further modified by the development 
of spiral bands; sometimes only one, at the periphery, the 
base of the shell often chestnut-colored, and again two bands, 
one above, the other below the periphery (pi. 28, fig. 8; pi. 27, 
fig. 6). Specimens with oblique streaks only, with one and 
with two bands, occur together in Grarrett's sendings, and 
apparently are mingled in the same colonies. The spiral 
striation is usually subobsolete on the upper part of the last 
whorl in these shells, which are what Pease named in MS. and 
Smith described as P. alternata. The preceding forms are 
what Garret t alludes to as found in Oahumi valley. Com- 
paring this race with vexillum, he writes: ''The Oahumi 
shells are usually a trifle smaller, not so frequently dentated, 
and are much more conspicuously strigated than the Vaianai 
shells. The spiral bands, of which there are one or two, sel- 
dom three, on the body- whorl, are very frequently interrupted, 
which, with the conspicuous strigations, gives the shell a some- 
what tessellated appearance. All the color- varieties alluded 
tOjin my remarks on the Vaianai shells are also found in 
Oahumi, but the uniform dark-colored ones are more fre- 
quent, besides one of a uniform white color, not decorticated, 
of which I took three examples. 

1 'So far as I can ascertain, there has been no figure pub- 
lished of Pfeiffer's strigosa. He gives the Admiralty Islands 
as its habitat. There are no species of the type he describes 
found in the western Pacific. It is undoubtedly a Society 
Islands species, and I fully agree with Dr. Hartman in re- 
ferring it to the shells under consideration. ' ' 

Further Oahumi color-forms are represented in pi. 28, figs. 
1, 2, 3, 4, the lot from Garrett. They are chestnut with light 
streaks and a white suture, the spire flesh-colored (fig. 3), the 
same with a pale girdle (fig. 2), or line (fig. 1), at the peri- 
phery, or there may be two white zones, one below the suture, 
the other in the middle of the basal slope (fig. 4). 



204 PARTULA, MOOREA. 

P. strigosa Pfr. is probably, as Garrett and Hartman have 
held, a form of suturalis. It w*as described as follows : ' ' Shell 
perforate, oblong-conic, rather solid, very obsoletely decus- 
sate, subopaque; whitish, ornamented with irregular fulvous 
and rufous streaks. Spire conic, the apex acute. "Whorls 5, 
nearly flat, the last slightly shorter than the spire, somewhat 
tapering at the base, rounded. Columella somewhat twisted 
above, subnodose at base. Aperture slightly oblique, trun- 
cate-oval, generally contracted by a nodiform parietal callus. 
Peristome white, callous, subequally spreading throughout. 
Length 17 to 18, diam. 9 mm., aperture with peristome 8% x 
6% mm., inside 3% mm. wide. Admiralty Is." (P. strigosa 
PFR., P. Z. S. 1856, p. 384). 

19&. P. SUTURALIS VEXILLUM Pease. PL 27, fig. 9 ; pi. 28, figs. 
9-12. 

The shell is typically dextral, more lengthened than the 
preceding, less compact, and somewhat thinner. On a corn- 
eous-buff ground it is obliquely streaked with opaque buff 
on the last whorl, and begirt with two chestnut bands, the 
upper one ascending on the penult, whorl. Parietal tooth 
well-developed. Spiral striation wanting or extremely weak 
on the last whorl. Sutural white line inconspicuous or even 
wanting. Length 21, diam. 11%, length of aperture 11 mm. 
Description and fig. 9 are from one of Pease's original lot. 
Other shells are somewhat smaller, length 18 mm., and the 
oblique streaks may be less distinct. 

Many examples were collected by Andrew Garrett, who 
found it variable. Some shells are dark chestnut with a 
white sutural line (fig. 10) ; others are like Pease's original 
lot, or have a third band, around the umbilicus (fig. 11) ; 
while some shells are finely streaked brown and buff, without 
any bands (fig. 12) . Garrett writes as follows : ' ' This beau- 
tiful arboreal species is found in great profusion in Vaianai 
valley, on the southeast coast of Moorea, where it occurs in 
company with P. mooreana and P. elongata. It also exists 
in considerable numbers in a small valley about two miles to 
the westward, associated with P. tceniata and elongata. 



PARTULA, MOOREA. 205 

* ' I first discovered this species in 1861, and obtained several 
hundred specimens, all collected on the eastern side of the 
stream that flows through the valley of Vaianai. They were 
all dextral, and were so described by Pease, under the name 
of vexillum. On a second visit, in 1875, I took over 2000 ex- 
amples, all gathered on the western side of the stream, and 
was surprised to find many sinistral forms among them 
[pi. 28, fig. 9]. At the same time I found -about .a dozen 
specimens, all sinistral, in a large semicircular valley on the 
opposite side of the island. They were probably stragglers 
from Vaianai. 

"It is noteworthy that no reversed Partulce were found in 
any other part of the island except on the western side of the 
stream in Vaianai, and the above-mentioned stragglers taken 
on the opposite coast. The same side of the stream is also 
the home of the sinistral P. movreana." 

20. P. T^NIATA (Morch). PL 28, figs. 15, 16; pi. 29; figs. 
8, 12, 13. 

Shell rimate, conic, pellucid, transversely irregularly pli- 
cate, longitudinally very closely waved-striate, under a lurid 
cuticle, the last whorl encircled with two distant, white, brown- 
bordered bands; suture appressed, whorls 5, a little convex, 
the last about as long as the spire, obsoletely angular above 
and below ; fold of the columella 'Compressed, twisted. Peris- 
tome white, broadly expanded, reflexed. Length 18, diam. 
8, aperture inside 8 x 4% mm. (Mch.) . 

Society Is. : Moorea. 

Bulimus (Partulus) tceniatus MOERCH, Gatalogus Conchy 1- 
liorum quae reliquit C. P. Kierulf, etc., 1850, p. 29, pi. 1, fig. 
5. Partula tceniata PFEIFFER, Mon. Hel., iii, p. 451. CAR- 
PENTER, Proc. Zool. Soc., 1864, p. 675. HARTMAN, Obs. Gen. 
Part. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., ix, p. 188 (part). GARRETT, 
Journ. A. N. S. Phila. ix, 1884, p. 72. Partula striolata 
PEASE, Amer. Jour. Conch., 1866, p. 197 ; 1867, p. 81, pi. 1, 
fig. 4; Proc. Zool. Soc., 1871, p. 473. PFEIFFER, Mon. Hel. 
viii, p. 203. Partula simulans PEASE, Amer. Jour. Conch., 



206 PARTULA, MOOREA. 

1866, p. 202; 1867, p. 81, pi. 1, fig. 11. SCHMELTZ, Cat. 
Mus. Godeff., v, p. 92. PFEIFFER, Mon. Hel., viii, p. 206. 
Partula decussatuLa CARPENTER (not of Pfeiffer), Proc. ZooL 
Soc., 1864, p. 675. P. peraffinis Pse. MS., according to Hart- 
man. 

The typical form is tawny brown with two widely separ- 
ated white bands as shown in figures 15, 16 of pi. 28. There- 
are also often some pale oblique streaks. The shape, as 
(iarrett writes, ' * varies from iabbreviate-ovate to elongate- 
ovate, more or less solid, scarcely shining, smooth or wrin- 
kled with incremental striae, and the spiral incised lines are 
very fine, and crowded on all the whorls. The spire is more 
or less produced half the length of the shell, sometimes 
shorter or a trifle longer. The last wjiorl is frequently com- 
pressed in the back and right side, which gives it a faintly 
biangular appearance. The peristome is more or less ex- 
panded, sometimes considerably so, moderately thick, slant- 
ing and labiated within. Columellar lip more or less tor- 
tuous, abruptly receding above, which gives it a nodulous ap- 
pearance. About one in a hundred exhibits the parietal 
tooth. The color is also variable : white, straw-yellow, lemon- 
yellow, light orange, corneous, fulvous, various shades of 
brown, sometimes with darker strigations, and frequently 
spirally banded. The most common style of fasciation con- 
sists of from one to four narrow, more or less broken, fulvous. 
or fulvous-brown bands on the body-whorl. Fulvous-brown 
examples, with two or three pale bands, are not so common. 
The last appears to be Moreh's type, which he incorrectly as- 
signs to the Viti Islands. ' ' 

11 The metropolis of this truly protean species is in a very 
large semicircular valley on the north coast of Moorea, where 
it occurs in prodigious numbers on the foliage of bushes. In 
the western part ol the same valley, where it exhibits less 
variation, it gradually intergrades with the form which has 
been distributed under the name of nucleola Pease, which 
has its headquarters in a small, but isolated, valley about 
two miles west of Opunohu. 



PARTULA, MOOREA. 207 

' ' On the southwest part of the island we find tczniata toler- 
ably abundant in three valleys, and, like the shells in the 
western part of Opunohu, it is subject to much less variation 
than obtains in the eastern part of the same valley. The 
shells from the southwest coast were described by Pease un- 
der the name of P. simulans [pi. 29, figs. 8, 12, 13]. 

"In the third or more eastern valley, where they come in 
contact with P. elongata and lineata, hybrids between the 
former and taniata are so numerous that any one collecting 
in that valley only would, without hesitation, pronounce them 
one and the same species. 

' ' From this point to a distance of several miles, the valleys 
are inhabited by lineata, mooreana, elongata and lineata var. 
strigosa, only. But -after passing Oahumi, the home of the 
latter variety, we again find tczniata, but nearly as variable as 
the eastern Opunohu shells, and mixed with the form known 
as striolata, Pse., with which it intergrades. Here I found 
several unmistakable hybrids between strigosa and t&niata. 
All the valleys between this latter location and the one near- 
est to Opunohu are inhabited by the typical form striolata, 
which scarcely differs from nucleola, except in being smoother, 
and more variegated with stripes. In a large valley adja- 
cent to Opunohu, we find these shells by thousands; they 
differ in being beautifully striped like strigosa. Here, again, 
it insensibly graduates into the typical t&niata. Whether the 
inosculation takes place through hybrids or not is a difficult 
question to decide. In looking over a large collection from 
the eastern part of Opunohu, I find some of the small forms 
are not dissimilar to the typical striolata, which has suggested 
the propriety of following Dr. Hartman in consolidating the 
three forms." (Garrett). 

P. tceniata spadicea Reeve. PL 41, fig. 18. 

"Shell perforate, conic-oblong, thin, very minutely decus- 
sate, diaphanous, brown-corneous streaked with paler. Spire 
long-conic, rather obtuse; suture margined. Whorls 5 to 
5 l /2, a little convex, the last equal to the spire or a little 



208 PARTULA, MOOREA. 

shorter. Columella obliquely subplicate above. Aperture 
slightly oblique, oblong-oval; peristome thin, white, broadly 
expanded throughout, the right margin spreading. Length 
18, diam. 8, aperture with peristome 10 x G 1 /^ mm. Mar- 
quesas Is. (Cuming coll.)." (Pfr.). 

Partula spadicea REEVE, Conch. Icon, vi, pi. 4, f. 24 (May r 
1850). PFR., Monogr. iii, 451; Conehyl. Cab. p. 273, pi. 64, 
f. 31, 32. Cf. GARRETT, Journ. A. N. S. Phila. ix, 1884, foot 
of p. 73. 

An example of P. spadicea received from Mr. Cuming in 
1862 is smaller than Reeve's figure, but resembles it in other- 
wise. Though labeled "Marquesas" it is apparently a form 
of P. elongata Pease, or very closely related to that species. 
Dr. Hartman has referred spadicea to P. tceniata; and the 
figure certainly has a close resemblance to P. simulans Pse., a 
form of t&niata. 

P. simulans Pease, based on shells which are "plain red- 
dish-brown yellowish or horn-color " or with "three inter- 
rupted transverse bands " belongs apparently to tceniata. 
PL 28, fig. 14 represents the cotype originally supplied by 
Pease for pi. 1, fig. 11 of the Am. Journ. Conch. It is not 
fully mature, and is corneous with indistinct brown streaks. 
It is this 'form which seems to be identical with P. spadicea 
Rve. PL 29, figs. 8, 12 are uniform white and brown-banded 
examples also supplied by Pease at the time of original pub- 
lication. The banded examples have two submedian and one 
umbilical band, on a corneous-whitish ground. Some of 
these shells scarcely differ from P. t. nucleola. 

P. striolata Pease, seems to be identical with t&niata ex- 
cept in coloration ; it is dull tawny-brown with a few whitish 
oblique streaks. The columellar tubercle is very weak, not 
prominent as in nucleola. Fig. 8, pi. 27, is draw!n from a 
cotype received from Pease. 

Whitish-corneous, solid shells, striped closely with brown 
or chestnut, chiefly on the last whorl (pi. 28, fig. 7) have been 
distributed by Garrett as striolata. They are probably closer 
to the following form and to nucleola. 



PARTULA, MOOREA. 209 

Another race, tangent from nucleola, is figured, pi. 27, fig. 
7. The dark brown shell is profusely striped on the last l 1 /^ 
whorls with cream-white. The columellar denticle is small 
and prominent. 

P. TVENIATA NUCLEOLA 'Pease' Garrett. PL 29, figs. 14, 15, 16. 

A small, compact, ovate-conic race. The surface is densely 
and distinctly striate spirally, but little shining, corneous- 
whitish, corneous-brown with wide indistinct darker and 
paler streaks, yellowish-brown or chestnut brown. The short 
spire is straightly conic; whorls about 4%, the last full be- 
low, rounded or somewhat flattened on the back. The colu- 
mella bears a small but rather acute tubercle in the middle, 
at the lower end of the axial expansion. There is no parietal 
tooth, but sometimes the very slight indication of one may 
be seen. 

Length 15, diam. 9, aperture 8.4 mm. 

Length 16, diam. 8.2, aperture 8 mm. 

Length 14, diam. 9, aperture 8 mm. 

This form is probably more primitive than the typical 
t&niata. It stands very close to P. filosa of Tahiti. The two 
are apparently of common origin. According to Garrett, 
nucleola intergrades with tceniata, yet it appears to be as 
distinct as elongata is. The largest examples measure 18 x 
10, apert. 9% mm- It lives in a small valley about two miles 
west of Opunohu. 

Partula nucleola Pease MS., GARRETT, Journ. A. N. S. 
Phila. ix, 1884, p. 72 (a form of t&niata) . Partula corneola 
HARTMAN, Proc. A. N. S. Phila. 1886, p. 32, pi. 2, f. 6 (April 
6, 1886). 

Form corneola Hartman, pi. 41, figs. 15, 17. A form of 
nucleola has been described as a distinct species under the 
name P. corneola. It is similar to P. t. nucleola in most re- 
spects. The surface is dilute brown with some faint whitish- 
corneous streaks; surface very beautifully engraved spirally, 
the lines 'Close and somewhat waved. There are rather coarse 
longitudinal wrinkles on the back of the last whorl, readily 



210 PARTULA, MOOREA. 

appreciable in a 'basal view, as they cause the periphery to 
be irregular. The lip is like that of nucleola. There is a 
small nodule above the middle of the columella, and a small 
but well-developed callous nodule or tooth on the parietal 
wyll, deep within and near the columella. 

Length 18, diam. 10, aperture 9 mm., whorls 5^ (type) . 

Length 17, diam. 9.9, aperture 9 mm. ; whorls 5*4 (A. N. S.) . 

Moorea (Mr. Greale). 

The larger of the two shells in Dr. Hartman's collection 
(no. 4242 Carnegie Museum) may be considered the type of 
this form or race, if it be found racially separable from 
nucleola. The chief difference is the possession of a parietal 
tooth by corneola, which is wanting or only weakly developed 
in nucleola. The back of the last whorl is also somewhat 
more roughened in corneola. The smaller of the two speci- 
mens mentioned in the original account of "corneola" is 
identical with nucleola. 

Pig. 15 represents the type; fig. 17 is a back view of an 
example in coll. Acad. Nat. Sciences, showing the wrinkles 
and the longitudinal streaking of the last whorl. 

I suspect that P. concinna Pse. was based on a specimen 
of nucleola. 

P. T. ELONGATA Pease. PI. 29, figs. 1 to 7, 9 to 11. 

"Shell elongate, slender, turreted, thin, transparent, shin- 
ing, transversely very finely striated, somewhat roughened 
longitudinally, narrowly umbilicate; whorls 5%, flatly eon- 
vex, suture somewhat impressed, very rarely marginated; 
aperture oblong oval, somewhat oblique, edentate, one-half 
the length of the shell ; lip evenly and somewhat roundly re- 
flected. Horn color or pale rose, striped longitudinally, or 
wholly straw color. Yar. encircled by three chestnut bands, 
more or less interrupted. " (Pease). 

"The headquarters of this arboreal species is in Vaianai 
valley on the southeast coast of Moorea, where it is abundant, 
associated with P. lineata (=suturalis) and P. mooreana. 
It occurs, also, but in less numbers, in a valley to the west- 



PARTULA, MOOREA. 211 

ward, where it is found in company with lineata and t&niata; 
The same valley, which is about two miles from Vaianai, is 
the limit of the range of the latter species on that part of the 
island, and hybrids between it and elongata are rather com- 
mon, the same as between garrettii and thalia at Raiatea. To 
the eastward of Vaianai it ranges throughout the small val- 
leys for a distance of several miles, as far as Oahumi, the 
specific centre of strigosa." (Garrett). 

Partula elongata PEASE, Amer. Jour. Conch., 1866, p. 196 ; 
1867, p. 81, PL 1, fig. 2; Proc. Zool. Soc., 1871, p. 473. 
SCHMELTZ, Cat. Mus. Godeff., iv, p. 72. PFEIFFER, Mon. Hel., 
viii, p. 196. GARRETT, J. A. N. S. Phila. ix, 1884, p. 68. 
Partula lineata CARPENTER (not of Lesson), Proc. Zool. Soc., 
1864, p. 676. Partula taniata HARTMAN (not of Morch), 
Obs. Gen. Part., Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., ix, p. 188 (part). 
P. gracilior Pease label in A. N. S., HARTMAN, Bull. Mus. 
Comp. Zool. ix, p. 183 (as syn. of gracilis) . 

This form seems to intergrade perfectly with P. taeniata, 
of which I would think it a subspecies, so far as I 
can judge without detailed study of the 'Colonies in the 
field. However, Garrett writes "I cannot agree with Dr. 
Hartman in uniting this species with taniata. It is only 
through hybrids between the two species that the inoscula- 
tion takes places. Examples taken in any of the valleys 
not inhabited by t&niata prove at once its distinction." 

The type lot received from Pease contains three shells 
measuring 

Length 18.5, diam. 9, aperture 9.3 mm., 5 whorls. 

Length 17.2, diam. 8.8, aperture 9.2 mm., 4% whorls. 

Length 16, diam. 8.1, aperture 8.9 mm., 4% whorls. 

One shell is corneous-brown with inconspicuous narrow 
darker streaks, another is corneous-white with white streaks 
on the last whorl, while the third (fig. 6, and A. J. Conch, iii, 
pi. 1, f. 2) is dilute brown with indistinct, wide whitish 
corneous streaks. All have the dense, minute spiral sculpture 
of tceniata, and its allies. The whorls are not very convex, 
last one more or less flattened below the periphery, very con- 



212 PARTULA, MOOREA. 

vex at base. The lip is narrowly reflexed, a little thickened 
within. There is no noticeable callous nodule on the colu- 
mella, and no parietal tooth. 

Other lots show a wide range of variation in form and color, 
apparently showing considerable local differentiation. In one 
lot from Garrett (pi. 29, figs. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5) there are several 
color- forms: tawny shells with narrow browner streaks (fig. 
5) ; greenish white (fig. 1) ; pale brown or whitish with 4 in- 
terrupted bands (figs. 2-4). Another lot consists of yellow 
or yellowish-corneous shells, very indistinctly streaked (fig. 
11). Still other forms (figs. 9, 10) approach closely to typi- 
cal P. t&niata in color, having two widely separated whitish 
bands on a tawny-brown ground. 

21. P. ERHELII Morelet. PL 27, figs. 15, 16. 

Shell slightly umbilicate, acutely ovate, thin, diaphanous, 
decussate under the lens, covered with a grayish-tawny, in 
the last whorl yellow epidermis. Spire conic acute. Whorls 
5, a little convex, the last longer than the spire, angular in 
front. Aperture ample, very oblique, oval. Columella 
lightly arcuate; peristome narrowly expanded, white-lipped, 
margin acute, roseate, outwardly scarlet-tinted. Length 16, 
diam. 8, length of aperture 9, width 5% mm. (Morelet). 

Society Is.: Moorea (Morelet). 

Partula erhelii MORELET, Journ. de Conchyl. iv, 1853, p. 
371, pi. 12, f . 7, 8. PFR., Monogr. iv, 509 ; vi, 157. 

A thin little shell, writes M. Morelet, diaphanous, finely 
striate in both directions, recognizable by the obliquity of the 
aperture, the plane of which is inclined backward, as well as 
by the angular shape of the last whorl. The peristome is di- 
lated, reddish at the edge, thickened by a white callus which 
is sharply limited towards the inside. The slightly eurved 
columellar margin is applied over the umbilical region so as 
to almost wholly mask the opening. 

Dr. Hartman referred this form to P. taniata, but the 
features noticed in Morelet 's remarks, translated above, 
hardly warrant such a disposition of it. The lip-color and 



PARTULA, RAIATEA AND TAHAA. 213 

the angle on the front differentiate P. erhelii from otherwise 
similar known Moorean forms. M. Morelet states that it 
was brought from Tahiti by M. Erhel, a young surgeon of 
the marine service who died in Senegal. 

3. Species of Raiatea and Tahaa. 

The Partulse of these two islands are so intimately related 
that they must be treated together. The separation of the 
islands by a shallow lagoon about two miles wide, has evi- 
dently been a quite recent event. Both islands are enclosed 
in the same encircling reef. 

The extrinsic relations of the Partulae are with Tahitian 
forms. With the exceptions of P. turgida (no. 8) and P. 
attenuata (no. 17) already described, all Raiatean species 
may credibly be assumed to have descended from a single 
ancestral stock which was also the common parent of the 
otaheitana group. Subsequent events were as follows. (1) 
Three chief branches of this stock arose : the faba group, the 
dentifera group and the hebe group. (2) Each of these 
stocks spread over the available area, and (3) by local differ- 
entiation gave rise to numerous races, which are still doubt- 
less spreading and becoming further modified. This tertiary 
geographic radiation and racial differentiation was also ac- 
companied by an adaptive radiation whereby several arboreal 
forms gave rise to terrestrial species. As the result of these 
events we find most available stations occupied by two to four 
species, each representing one of the three stocks derived 
from differentiation (1), and from the adaptation to terres- 
trial conditions. 

The comparative simplicity of the distributional conditions 
indicates that the evolution cycle outlined above has not 
been of great duration. By analogy with known cases, dif- 
ferentiation (1) probably took place in Pliocene time. 

Most Partulag known to be terrestrial are from Raiatea and 
Tahaa. The terrestrial habit is no doubt a readaptation of 
arboreal ancestors. The coloration approximates to the dull 
tints of ground snails. 




214 PARTULA, RAIATEA AND TAHAA. 

Group of Partula dentifera. 

These arboreal snails of Raiatea and Tahaa are character- 
ized by the usually light yellow color of the shell, the sum- 
mit white, yellow, pink, or purple-tipped; lip white, thick- 
ened within, more or less strongly toothed within the outer 
lip and excised above the tooth. Columella and parietal 
wall often toothed. The species are closely related to some 
of the faba group. 

a. Shell denuded of cuticle, openly umbilicate; aperture 
rounded-oval, with two or three strong teeth. 

P. callifera, no. 22. 
aa. Cuticle present ; aperture ovate. 

6. Lip heavy, keeled on the face, with a heavy tooth 
above ; no columellar or parietal teeth. 

P. dentifera,, no. 24. 
66. Lip thinner, its face not keeled, 'tooth smaller. 

c. No parietal tooth, but having a columellar 

tooth; umbilicate, greenish-yellow, length 

23 mm. P. citrina, no. 25. 

cc. Parietal tooth usually developed; nearly or 

quite imperf orate; length 17 to 21 mm. 

P. imperf orata, no. 26. 

Properly speaking, this group consists of only three species : 
P. callifera of Haamoa valley, Raiatea ; P. solidula of unknown 
locality, and P. dentifera, of which formosa, citrina, imper- 
forata and virginea are scarcely more than subspecies, spread 
over Raiatea and part of Tahaa. P. imperf orata raiatensis 
and virginea are apparently the least modified survivors of 
the original stock. 

22. P. CALLIFERA Pfeiffer. PL 20, figs. 1, 2, 3. 

Shell umbilicate, ovate-conic, solid, nearly smooth (under 
the lens punctate-striate) , whitish. Spire a little convexly 
conic, rather obtuse. Suture light. Whorls 5, a little con- 
vex, the last a little longer than the spire, inflated. Columella 
subvertical, bearing a tubercle above, folded within. Aper- 
ture slightly oblique, sinuous-oblong, contracted by a deeply 



PARTULA, RAIATEA AND TAHAA. 215 

placed parietal tooth. Peristome thickened, dilated, the* 
margins joined by a callus, the right margin bearing 
an oblong callus within, above the middle. Length 19, 
diam. 11, aperture with peristome 11% mm. long, 4 wide in- 
side. (Pfr.). 

Raiatea: restricted to the higher portion of Haamoa val- 
ley, on the east of Raiatea, where it is not uncommon on 
foliage. (Garrett). 

Partula callifera PFEIFPER, Proc. Zool. Soc., 1856, p. 333;. 
Mon. HeL, iv, p. 511. CARPENTER, Proc. Zool. Soc., 1864, p. 
675. PEASE, Proc. Zool. Soc., 1871, p. 473. HARTMAN, Cat. 
Part., p. 8 ; Obs. Gen. Part., Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., ix, p. 180. 
GARRETT, Journ. A. N. S. Phila. ix, 1884, p. 60, pi. 3, f. 82, 
Partula megastoma PEASE, MS., SCHMELTZ, Cat. Mus. 
Grodeff., v, p. 92. Partula callistoma SCHMELTZ, 1. c., p. 207 ; 
vi, p. 81. 

A beautiful and very distinct species, totally lacking cuticle 
in adult shells, and hence having a dull surface and cream- 
white color; the early whorls generally yellow, sometimes 
white. The last whorl is quite inflated, the aperture rounded- 
oval, usually three-toothed: there is a strong parietal tooth, 
a wider one above the middle of the outer lip, and a smaller 
denticle, or sometimes only an indistinct callous nodule, on 
the columella. The lip is generally thickened on the face, 
which is usually carinated. The size varies from length 17, 
diam. 11 mm., to length 21, diam. 12% mm. Fig. 3 repre- 
sents one of the specimens sent by Mr. Pease as megastoma. 

23. P. SOLIDULA Reeve. PI. 20, fig. 12. 

"Shell acuminately ovate, rather gibbous, compressly um- 
bilicated, solid, whorls flatly convex, obliquely irregularly 
striated, minutely sculptured with spiral impressed lines, 
aperture auriculate, the lip and columella being broadly cal- 
lously reflected ; straw-color, sometimes reddish at the apex. 

"A solid sub transparent shell, having the character and 
substance of P. otaheitana with the form and coloring of 
P. gibba; excepting that the whorls are not crowned with 



216 PARTULA, RAIATEA AND TAHAA. 

the white sutural band which is constant in that species." 
(Eve.}. 

Society Islands (Mus. Cuming). 

Partula solidula RVE., Conch. Icon, vi, pi. 4, f. 22, May, 
1850. ?? PFB., Conchyl. Cab. p. 269, pi. 64, f. 15, 16; pi. 65, 
f . 12, 13 ; Monogr. iii, 452. 

This may 'be identical with one of the described forms of 
P. dentifera or imperforata, such as virginea, or more likely 
raiatensis ; but perhaps representing another race of the same 
stock, not rediscovered by Mr. Garrett. Pfeiffer's figures 
evidently do not apply to exactly the same form. Hartman 
expressed the idea that solidula is a large form of P. lutea. 
Garrett compares solidula to compact a Pse., from which it 
differs by the parietal tooth. Description and figure from 
Reeve. 

24. P. DENTIFERA Pfeiflfer. PL 20, figs. 4, 9. 

The shell is narrowly umbilicate, ovate-conic, solid, nearly 
smooth, somewhat shining, pale straw colored. Spire conic, 
the apex rather acute, suture margined. Whorls 5%, the 
upper ones flat, the penultimate more convex, the last slightly 
shorter than the spire, convex, impressed in the middle an- 
teriorly. Columella subvertical, slightly folded. Aperture 
slightly oblique, narrow, obversely ear-shaped. Peristome 
white, strongly thickened, built forward; its margins sub- 
parallel, the right margin deeply curved above, and bearing 
a strong, acute, tooth-like tubercle in the middle. Length 
211/2, diam. 10, aperture 11 mm. (Pfr.). 

Raiatea: The specific centre of the type of this species is 
in the large valley of Vairahi, on the east coast of Raiatea, 
where it occurs in vast numbers on foliage in company with 
the typical P. hebe. It has not spread at all to the south- 
ward, but a variety occurs in an adjacent valley on the other 
side. ( Garrett) . 

Partula dentifera PFEIFFER, Proc. Zool. Soe., 1852, p. 85; 
Mon. Hel., iii, p. 447; Conchyl. Cab. p. 264, pi. 44, f. 14, 15. 
PEASE, Proc. Zool. Soc., 1871, p. 473. SCHMELTZ, Cat. Mus. 



PARTULA, RAIATEA AND TAHAA. 217 

Godeff., v, p. 207. HARTMAN, Cat. Part., p. 8, with woodcntr 
Obs. Gen. Part., Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., ix, pp. 181, 183, 194 
(excl. raiatensis) . GARRETT, Journ. A. N. S. P. ix, 1884, p. 68, 
pi. 3, f . 84:.Partula decorticata PEASE, MS. Coll. Pease, 1863. 
Partula, labiata PEASE, MS. Coll. Pease, 1863. SCHMELTZ, 
Cat. Mus. Godeff., v, pp. 92, 207. PFEIFPER, Mon. Hel., 
viii, p. 209. 

It may be distinguished by its elongate-conical form, straw- 
yellow color, rather shining surface, chink-like perforation, 
and small oblong obauriform white aperture. The peristome 
is ivory-white, heavily calloused, the face angularly ridged, 
strongly labiated within, and armed slightly above the middle 
with a very prominent tooth, above which the lip is strongly 
contracted, forming a conspicuous sinus. A very rare variety 
occurs of a ruddy 'brown color, purple-black apex, and flesh- 
colored peristome. Examples with a white sutural line are 
not infrequent and most shells are a little paler below the 
suture; otherwise it is never ornamented with bands; even 
the most perfect specimens always have the cuticle more or 
less decorticated behind the peristome, which suggested the 
provisional name decorticata. The above notes, slightly modi- 
fied from Garrett, apply to the typical P. dentifera from 
Vairahi valley, of which P. labiata Pease (fig. 9) is an exact 
synonym. In this form a parietal tooth is never developed. 
The color varies commonly from straw to light greenish yellow. 
The figured shell (fig. 9) measures, length 21, diam. 11, aper- 
ture 12 mm. but it is sometimes as small as 19 mm. long. 

Garrett states that north of Vairahi valley, P. dentifera 
"has migrated into a small adjacent valley, where it is much 
less abundant, and differs from the type in about half of the 
specimens having a prominent parietal tooth (which is al- 
ways absent in examples inhabiting Vairahi) ; otherwise the 
shells are not dissimilar. ' ' Examples of this dentate race are 
figured pi. 20, figs. 7, 8. It 'Certainly approaches close to 
P. imperforata raiatensis. 

P. dentifera is never banded, and the apex, though often 
yellow, is never rose-colored, as it often is in P. imperforata,. 



218 PARTULA, RAIATEA AND TAHAA. 

24a. P. D. FORMOSA 'Pease' G-arrett. PI. 20, figs. 5, 6. 

"Shell large, imperf orated, solid, elongate-ovate, striated, 
shining, pale yellowish white, straw-yellow or fulvous; spire 
conical, with nearly flat outlines, spirally striated with fine, 
crowded, incised lines, half the length of the shell, and fre- 
quently tinged with rose-red ; suture slightly impressed, mar- 
gined with a rugose, white line; whorls five and a half, flat- 
tened, the last one large, convex ; aperture oblong, subvertical, 
obaurif orm ; peristome white, rather widely expanded, decliv- 
ous, external margin angularly ridged, inner margin strongly 
labiated, acutely dentate, and contracted above the denticle ; 
parietal region thinly glazed, edentate ; columellar lip closely 
appressed over the umbilical region. Length 25, diam. 13 
mm. (Garrett). 

The metropolis of this very distinct species is in Patimu, 
or on the southwest part of Raiatea. It occurs 1 . in vast num- 
bers on 'bushes on the lowlands near the seashore, becoming 
more scarce inland, where it is found associated with P. 
hebe, var. bella. It ranges north as far as Vaiau valley, be- 
coming less and less abundant as the distance increases from 
its specific centre. (Garrett). 

Partida formosa PEASE in coll. HARTMAN, Cat. Part., p. 8 ; 
Obs. Gen. Part., Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., ix, pp. 182, 191 (no 
description). GARRETT, Journ. A. N. S. Phila. ix, 1884, p. 
60, pi. 3, f. 49. 

"Its large size, edentate parietal region, sharp labial tooth 
and closed umbilicus will readily distinguish it. It is never 
ornamented with bands/' The columella is slightly sinuous, 
but has no distinct tooth or nodule such as is present in 
P. imperforata. It differs from P. dentifera by its larger 
size and, imperforate axis and in its distribution. Fig. 5 
represents Garrett 's type specimen, no. 59453 A. N. S. P. 
Others received from him are smaller, length 22, diam. 11.5 
mm., and length 21.5, diam. 12.5 mm. 

25. P. CITRINA Pease. PI. 20, figs. 10, 11. 

The shell is narrowly perforate, ovate-conic, rather solid,. 



PARTULA, RAIATEA AND TAHAA. 219 

straw-colored with faintly darker or greenish streaks, the~ 
spire paler or whitish, apex yellow or reddish tinted. Whorls 
51/2, but slightly convex, separated by a minutely roughened, 
white-edged suture ; last whorl paler or white behind the outer 
lip. Aperture somewhat oblique, auriform, the lip well ex- 
panded, white, flattened or sloping inward, having a rather 
strong callous ledge within, which terminates upward in a 
wide tubercle, above which it is narrow and excavated. Colu- 
mella vertical, very little dilated at the insertion, where it 
is somewhat guttered,- an oblong callous nodule below the 
gutter. Parietal callus thin and transparent, not toothed. 
Length 23, diam. 12.5 mm. 

Raiatea : ' ' restricted to a single valley called Uparu, on the 
west coast of Raiatea; arboreal. I found it abundant in a 
limited area in the upper portion of the valley. A few 
stragglers occurred lower down in company with faba and 
garrettii. ' ' ( Garrett ) . 

Partula citrina PEASE, Amer. Jour. Conch., 1866, p. 195; 
Proc. Zool. Soc., 1871, p. 473. SCHMELTZ, Cat. Mus. Godeff., 
vi, p. 81. PFEIFFER, Mon. Hel., viii, p. 200. GARRETT, Journ. 
A. N. S. Phila., ix, 1884, p. 64, pi. 3, f. 52. Partula faba 
var. CARPENTER, Proc. Zool. Soc., 1864, p. 675. HARTMAN, 
Cat. Part., p. 6 ; Obs. Gen. Part., Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., ix, 
pp. 180, 195. 

This species stands very close to P. dentifera and P. im- 
perforata. It differs from dentifera by the flattened or in- 
wardly sloping lip, which is not keeled on the face, by the 
less prominent tubercle within the outer lip, and by the more 
emphatic nodule on the columella. Compared with P. im- 
perforata, it differs by the absence of a parietal tooth, the 
usually lighter color, larger size and slightly open umbilicus, 
all being inconstant characters. Garrett writes as follows: 
"Though considered by some authors to be a variety of P. 
faba, I am, nevertheless, fully 'Convinced of its specific value. 
When I first discovered it in 1861, I took but few examples, 
in consequence of not penetrating far enough into the valley 
to find its headquarters. A more extended research in 1873 



220 PARTULA, RAIATEA AND TAHAA. 

revealed its specific centre, and I took about eight 'hundred 
specimens in various stages of growth, and many of the adults 
were in a gravid condition. 

"It has been suggested that it may be a hybrid be- 
tween faba and some other species. I only noticed 
faba and garrettii in the lower part of the valley, and not in 
the upper portion, which is the principal haunt of citrina. 
Its uniform straw-yellow color, more slender form, smaller 
perforation, more reflected columella, and more decided labial 
tooth, and profounder emargination, will distinguish it from 
the very variable faba. 

1 ' My largest examples are 25 mill, in length and 12 in dia- 
meter. It is always of a straw-yellow color, rarely with faint 
longitudinal darker strigations, and is either lemon-yellow 
or light red at the apex. It is never spirally banded, and 
the parietal wall is invariably edentate. The oblong white 
aperture is, including the peristome, half the length of the 
shell. The ivory-white lip is broadly expanded, planulate, 
declivous, strongly labiated, slightly dentate and distinctly 
emarginate above. The slightly gibbous columella is re- 
flected over the small compressed perforation." 

26. P. IMPERFORATA 'Pease' Garrett. PI. 20, figs. 13, 14, 15. 

Shell imperforated or very narrowly compressly umbili- 
cated, solid, oblong- conic, somewhat shining, with rather 
smooth, irregular, incremental striae and closely set delicate 
spiral incised lines, which are more or less evanescent on the 
body-whorl. Color, pale straw-yellow, luteous, or fulvous, 
often with a brownish apex. Spire conical, with subplanulate 
outlines, about half the length of the shell ; suture sometimes 
margined by a rugose white line; whorls 5-5^2? flatly convex, 
the last one convex, or convexly rounded. Aperture sub- 
vertical, oblong, obauriform, white, sides nearly parallel; 
parietal wall with a more or less developed tubercular tooth; 
peristome white, thick, moderately expanded, its face con- 
cave, heavily labiated within, strongly contracted above, form- 
ing a rather profound sinus, and generally subdentate next 
to the emargination; columellar lip subnodose. 



PARTULA, RAIATEA AND TAHAA. 221 

Length 21, diam. 12 mm. 

Var. a. Uniform chestnut-brown; rare. 

Var. &. Base and sutunal band chestnut-brown; somewhat 
rare. 

Var. c. With a broad, median, chestnut-brown band ; rather 
rare. 

This species is restricted to Toloa and Hapai valleys on 
the west coast of Raiatea, where it is abundant on foliage 
(Garrett). 

Partula imperforata Pease MS., GARRETT, Journ. Acad. Nat. 
Sci. Phila, ix, 1884, p. 54, pi. 3, f. 53. Partula raiatensis 
GARRETT (as var. of imperforata), t. c. pp. 54, 55. Partula 
recta Pease MSS., 1863, not P. recta Pease, 1868. 

"Like all the species, they differ some in size, shape, and 
some have the spire more abbreviated than others. The type, 
which inhabits Hapai valley, is nearly always imperforated 
and may be distinguished from the imperforate formosa by 
its smaller size, gibbous columella and parietal tooth. Car- 
penter confused it with dentifera, an allied species confined 
to the opposite side of the island" (Garrett). 

Garrett 's description, slightly modified, is given above. 
His figured cotype and two others of the same lot are illus- 
trated, pi. 20, figs. 13-15. The length varies commonly from 
19 to 21 mm., diam. usually 11 mm. It differs from P. 
dentifera by the smaller tooth in the outer lip, by having a 
more or less distinct oblong callus lump oja the eolumella 
near its insertion, and a small parietal tooth (sometimes ab- 
sent) ; the face of the lip is less thickened than in dentifera. 
It is a less evolved race than dentifera. 

Typical imperforata is confined to Hapai valley. The 
valley Toloa is inhabited by a weakly individualized local race 
which has been called raiatensis Garrett (pi. 20, figs. 16, 17) 
and recta Pse. (in coll. 1863) not P. recta Pse. 1868. Gar- 
rett writes: "After a careful study of about 2000 specimens 
of the two species, I have annexed the Toloa with the Hapai 
shell. The only difference between the two is that raiatensis 
is usually lighter-colored, seldom imperforate, and the apex is 



222 PARTULA, RAIATEA AND TAHAA. 

much more frequently rose-red. It is, I think, more nearly 
related to the dentated virginea, inhabiting the neighboring 
island, than to dentifera." This conclusion is fully sup- 
ported by the series before me, received from Pease, Garrett 
and others. 

26a. P. i. VIRGINEA 'Pse.' Garrett. PI. 20, figs. 18, 19. 

"Shell compressly umbilicated, solid, oblong-conic, some- 
what shining, yellowish corneous or light fulvous brown; 
spire convexly conical, half the length of the shell; suture 
margined by a whitish line; whorls 5-51/2, slightly convex; 
aperture subvertical, oblong, pbauriform, rounded below and 
much contracted by the strongly labiated peristome ; parietal 
wall with a white tubercular tooth which is rarely absent; 
peristome white, sometimes tinged with carnelian, widely ex- 
panded, subplanulate, slightly contracted above, and the mar- 
gins frequently nearly united by a ridge of callus; colu- 
mellar lip vertical, more or less distinctly nodose. Length 
18, diam. 9 mm." (Garrett). 

"Form a. Uniform chestnut-brown. Not uncommon. 

"Form 6. Yellowish corneous, with a basal and sutural 
chestnut-brown band. Very rare." (Garrett). 

Raiatea: The specific centre is in Vaipiti valley, on the 
west coast of Tahaa, where it occurs in the greatest pro- 
fusion on the foliage of shrubs. It has extended its range 
to the northward as far as Murifanna on the north coast, 
which latter is the limit of the western range of P. umbili- 
cata. ( Garrett) . 

Partula virginea PEASE, MS. BINNEY, Proc. Acad. Nat. 
Sei. Phil., 1875, pp. 245, 247, pi. 19, fig. 8 (anatomy). 
SCHMELTZ, Cat. Mus. Godeff., vi, p. 81. HARTMAN, Cat. 
Part., p. 8; Obs. Gen. Part., Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., ix, p. 
189. GARRETT, Journ. A. N. S. Phila. ix, 1884, p. 61, pi. 3, 
f. 54. Partula solidula var., CARPENTER, Proc. Zool. Soc., 
1864, p. 675. PEASE, Proc. Zool. Soc., 1871, p. 473 ; not of 
Reeve. 

This form is practically identical with the raiatensis form 



PARTULA, RAIATEA AND TAHAA. 223 

of imperforata. Although I give Garrett's description above. 
I am convinced that no study of descriptions or of the type 
specimens, which I have before me, would enable one to 
separate a series of the two forms if mixed. The distinc- 
tion is based chiefly on geographic distribution but also 
to some extent on the diverse variations of the two forms. 
Pale specimens of virginea usually have the apex purple- 
tipped (not pink, as in raiatensis) ; but the darker shells have 
the embryonic whorls white. The only closely related or 
similar shell on Tahaa is P. planilabrum, which belongs to 
the fab a series. 

The figures are from Garrett's type lot, no. 59474 A. N. 
S. P. 

Group of P. liebe. 

In this group of rather small forms the spiral striae are 
usually somewhat better developed than in most other Rai- 
atean species. The relations of the main forms may be ex- 
pressed diagrammatically, thus: 
thalia garretti 

I 



umbilicata 



hebe 



rustica crassilabris 

27. P. HEBE Pfeiffer. PI. 21, figs. 1, 2, 3. 

Shell perforate, globose-conic, thin, under the lens most 
minutely decussate, hyaline. Spire short, conic, acute. 
Whorls 4%, flat, the last longer than the spire, globose. 
Columella short, subplicate; aperture wide, almost semicircu- 
lar, having a deep-seated tooth-like callus on the belly of the 
penult whorl. Peristome white-calloused within, narrowly 
expanded throughout. Length 16, diam. 9, aperture 7 x 5% 
mm. inside. (Pfr.). 

Raiatea: "The specific centre of the type of this small 
white species is in the large valley of Faaloa, on the eastern 
coast of Raiatea, where it is found in great profusion on the 
foliage of bushes. From this central point it has migrated 



224 PARTULA, RAIATEA AND TAHAA. 

to the northward, where it is found, though less abundant, in 
an adjacent valley, associated with the typical P. dentifera. 
About two miles to the southward, on the same side of the 
island, in a large valley called Opoa, is found in large num- 
bers the pretty variety bella Pse., which has passed over a 
range of wooded hills into a large valley on the south coast, 
where it occurs in limited numbers in company with P. for- 
mosa. In another valley, some distance to the northward, 
on the west coast, we find another variety, ventricosa, Garr. ' ' 

Bulimus hebe PFEIFFER, Proc. Zool. Soc., 1846, p. 39 ; Mon. 
Hel., ii, p. 68 ; Conchyl. Cab., p. 268, pi. 64, figs. 7, 8. Partula 
hebe REEVE, Conch. Icon., sp. 25, pi. 4, fig. 25. PFEIFFER, 
Mon. Hel., iii, p. 453. PEASE, Proc. Zool. Soc., 1871, p. 473 
PAETEL, Cat. Conch., p. 104. SCHMELTZ, Cat. Mus. Godeff., 
v, p. 92. HARTMAN, Cat. Part., p. 9 (with woodcut) ; Obs. 
Gen. Part., Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., ix, pp. 183, 193. GARRETT, 
Journ. A. N. S. Phila. ix, 1884, p. 53. Partula globosa 
PEASE, MS. (Mus. Pease, 1863). GLOYNE, Quar. Jour. 
Conch., i, p. 338. SCHMELTZ, Cat. Mus. Godeff., v, p. 207. 
Partula, ventricosa GARRETT, J. A. N. S. P., ix, 54. Partula 
hebe var. bella PEASE, Proc. Zool. Soc., 1871, p. 473, name 
only. HARTMAN, Bull. M. C. Z., ix, p. 193. 

Typical P. hebe (pi. 21, fig. 1) has the shell covered with 
a very thin white more or less shining cuticle, upon which 
delicate spiral lines may be seen under the lens. Most ex- 
amples have lost their cuticle and have a matte white sur- 
face (figs. 2, 3). The size and proportions vary but little, 
the usual size being, length 15, diam. 10.2 to 11, length 
aperture 8.2 to 8.8 mm. 

The outer lip is rather narrow in the typical form ; in the 
heavy, denuded examples it is wide and heavily thickened 
within, generally showing a trace of the tooth or tubercle 
above the middle which is so prominent in the related faba 
group. It is often thickened on the face and convex or 
carinate there. The columella in oblique view in the aper- 
ture, is very wide. 

This charming snail has several close relatives among the 
dull ground-living species, such as P. crassilabris etc. 



PARTULA, RAIATEA AND TAHAA. 225 

P. HEBE BELLA 'Pse.' Hartman (pi. 21, figs. 4, 8) has the . 
spire orange rose colored, usually darker towards the apex. 
The surface is glossy, covered with a very thin yellow cuticle 
which is usually deciduous in part, or is entirely lost, 
when the whole surface is lusterless. The shell is often 
more solid than typical P. Jiebe. This form was named 
P. globosa, and P. h. bella by Pease many years ago, but it 
was in no manner described until Dr. Hartman reported on 
Pease's duplicates. 

I am unable to find much cause for recognizing var. 
ventricosa Garrett, 1884 (pi. 21, figs. 6, 7). It "is usually 
a little smaller than the type, not decorticated, and is more 
variable in color, but never banded. The ground color varies 
from whitish to fulvous, rarely with a reddish spire, but 
more frequently with the apex of a purple-brown. " (Gar- 
rett). The cuticle is decidedly thicker than in other forms 
of hebe; it peels off in an area behind the lip, but is else- 
where persistent. The parietal tooth is smaller than in other 
forms of hebe. Figured from examples received from Gar- 
rett. This form is probably what Dr. Hartman refers to as 
"P. ventrosa Pse." (t. c., p. 193). It approaches P. cras- 
silabris, a ground species, but differs by its much larger 
parietal tooth, etc. 

28. P. CRASSILABRIS Pease. PL 21, figs. 5, 9, 10. 

The shell is umbilicate, short, ovate-conic, moderately thick. 
Surface rather dull, lightly marked with growth-lines and 
usually showing engraved spiral lines distinctly on all the 
whorls; brown or corneous-brown, the base darker, spire or 
apex usually purplish-brown; periphery frequently (and 
typically) encircled with a yellow belt or line. The conic 
spire has straight sides ; whorls 4%, only slightly convex, the 
last rotund. The aperture is small, rounded-ovate, dark 
flesh-colored inside. Peristome expanded, thick in adult 
shells, thickened within, its face convex, white, or brownish 
towards the outer edge. Outer lip is a little narrower above, 
but not dentate; at the insertion it gives off a short parietal 



226 PARTULA, RAIATEA AND TAHAA. 

callus. The columellar margin has no 'callous tubercle or 
node, 'but in oblique view is seen to be very broad. It is 
angularly bent at the insertion. Parietal wall covered with 
a thin, transparent callus, bearing a small white tooth far 
within. 

Length 14.5, diam. 10 mm. 

Length 15.3, diam. 9.3 mm. 

Length 15 to 16, diam. 10 mm. 

Raiatea : The metropolis of this species is in Hapai valley, 
on the west coast of Raiatea, the home of P. imperforata 
and lugubris. It is very abundant, lurking beneath decay- 
ing vegetation and 'found associated with the typical form 
of P. lugubris. It has not spread any to the northward, but 
to the southward it has migrated into two small ravines. 
(Garrett). 

Partula crassilabris PEASE, Amer. Jour. Conch., 1866, p. 
199; 1871, p. 81, pi. 1, fig. 6; Proc. Zool. Soc., 1871, p. 473. 
SCHMELTZ, Cat. Mus. Godeff., v, p. 207. PPEIPFER, Mon: 
Hel., viii, p. 208. HARTMAN, Cat. Part., p. 9 ; Obs. Gen. Part., 
Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., ix, pp. 181, 192 (excl. rustica). 
GARRETT, Journ. A. N. S. P., ix, 1884, p. 66. Partula ota~ 
heitana REEVE, Conch. Icon., pi. 2, fig. lie, not of Bruguiere. 
Partula hebe var., CARPENTER, Proc. Zool. Soc., 1864, p. 675. 

This small ground-snail is very closely related to P. hebe. 
It differs from that by the dull brown color, smaller parietal 
tooth (which indeed is sometimes wanting), the less ex- 
panded lip, and persistent cuticle. The description and 
fig. 10 are from Pease's type lot, no. 59477 A. N. S. P. The 
color is variable. 

a. Yellowish chestnut, the base darker, summit purplish, a 
pale brown peripheral line (fig. 5). 

b. Chestnut, the spire darker, purplish ; often a white hair- 
line at suture (fig. 9). 

c. Light brown or brownish-corneous, summit darker, peri- 
phery indistinctly marked with a light or a dark band. 

d. Greenish-corneous, lip pure white. An albino. 



PARTULA, RAIATEA AND TAHAA. 227 

29. P. RUSTICA Pease. PL 19, figs. 12, 15 to 18. 

The shell is rather openly umbilicate, obesely ovate-conic, 
somewhat thin. Surface rather dull, lightly marked with 
growth-lines and spiral engraved lines, which are generally 
subobsolete on the last whorl except near suture and base; 
chestnut-brown, sometimes having a pale belt, or pale brown- 
ish-corneous, the summit or spire purplish-brown. Spire 
conic with straight outlines; whorLs 4%, slightly convex, the 
last rotund. The umbilicus has a more or less distinct spiral 
groove or excavation within. Aperture subvertical, ovate, 
dark flesh-colored within; peristome narrowly expanded, 
thickened within, noticeably narrower near the upper inser- 
tion. Columellar margin sinuated or weakly nodose with- 
in; in oblique view less 1 wide than P. crassilabris. Parietal 
wall covered with a transparent callus which is rather thick 
at the edge, and often bears a very small tooth far within. 

Length 16.7 to 17.7, diam. 11 mm. 

Length 16, diam. 10 mm. 

Raiatea: The metropolis of this species is in a large 
valley called Toloa, on the west coast of Raiatea, where it 
occurs in great abundance beneath decaying vegetation. It 
has migrated to the southward into two small adjacent val- 
leys, but does not extend its range so far as Hapai, the next 
large valley, and the home of the allied P. crassilabris. 
(Garrett). 

Partida rustica PEASE, Amer. Jour. Conch., 1866, p. 199 ; 
1867, p. 81, pi. 1, fig. 5; Proc. Zool. Soc., 1871, p. 473. 
SCHMELTZ, Cat. Mus. Godeff., v, p. 207. PFEIFFER, Mon. 
Bel., viii, p. 205. GARRETT, Journ. A. N. S. Phila., ix, 1884, 
p. 77. Partula crassilabris GLOYNE (not of Pease), Quar. 
Jour. Conch., i, p. 338. HARTMAN, Cat. Part, p. 9; Obs. 
Gen. Part., Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., ix, p. 187 (part). 
Partula pinguis GARRETT, 1. c. p. 77. 

Described from Pease's type lot, no. 59480 A. N. S. P. 
Garrett writes as follows: ''It is larger, less globose, the 
aperture more oblong, than P. crassilabris with which it has 
been confounded. Its chief character consists in the colu- 



228 PARTULA, RAIATEA AND TAHAA. 






mellar region 'being, as it were, pressed in towards the aper- 
ture, nodulous on the inner margin, and subangulated at the 
base. The parietal tooth is less developed and absent more 
frequently than in crassilabris. The coloration is the same 
in the two species. Like the majority of the ground species, 
it varies in -a greater or less degree in shape and size. Some 
forms almost exactly simulate P. garrettii, not only in the out- 
line of the shell, but in the peculiar shape of the aperture as. 
modified by the columella being pressed inwardly. Occa- 
sionally examples occur which are so much abbreviated that 
they resemble P. crassilabris, but may readily be separated by 
the dissimilarity in the columellar region. 

"My P. pinguis, of which I have seen only a dozen ex- 
amples, was found under decaying leaves in the mountain 
ravines, at the head of Vaioara valley. It certainly equals 
rustica." (Garrett). 

30. P. GARRETTI Pease. PI. 21, figs. 15 to 19. 

The shell is minutely rimate or imperforate, oblong-ovate, 
solid and strong, slightly shining, lightly marked with 
growth-striae and minute engraved spiral lines, which are 
usually more or less obsolete on the last whorl; yellowish, 
the spire either paler, apex white, or spire pink-tinted with 
the apex purplish, flesh colored. Suture very lightly impressed, 
edged with a white line. Whorls 5, very slightly convex. 
Aperture is oblique, white within. Peristome very narrowly 
expanded, thick, the face convex or keeled, pure white; in- 
ternal rib strong. Columella vertical, sinuous, bearing a 
strong tubercle or node above the middle, its junction with 
the basal margin angulated. Parietal wall covered with a 
smooth, transparent callus, not toothed within. 

Length 16, diam. 9 mm. 

Length 14, diam. 9 mm. 

Length 15, diam. 8.5 mm. 

Baiatea : ' ' The specific centre is Vaioara, on the west coast 
of Raiatea, where it exists in prodigious numbers on bushes. 
It has spread north and south of its metropolis, and in the 



PARTULA, RAIATEA AND TAHAA. 229 

former direction has slightly overlapped the southern range of 
P. thalia, and hybrids between the two species are quite com- 
mon. To the southward it ranges about one mile, where it 
extends a short distance up a valley which is the home of 
P. citrina." (Garrett) . 

Partula garrettii PEASE, Proc. Zool. Soe., 1864, p. 672; 
1871, p. 473. PFEIFFER, Mon. HeL, vi, p. 158. SCHMELTZ, 
Cat. Mus. Godeff., v, p. 207. HARTMAN, Cat. Part, p. 10; 
Obs. Gen. Part., Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., ix, p. 182. GARRETT, 
Journ. A. N. S. P., ix, 1884, p. 56, pi. 3, f. 48. Partula 
gonocheila SCHMELTZ (not of Pfeiffer), Cat. Mus. Godeff., 
v, p. 92. 

Differs from the related P. thalia and P. rustica by its 
less inflated form, extremely narrow or closed umbilicus, less 
expanded lip and strongly developed columellar sinuosity. 
Garrett remarks that "Its principal characters are its small 
size, contracted aperture, rounded or angulated peristome 
and nodulous columella, which latter is, as it were, pushed in 
towards the aperture. The parietal region is very rarely 
toothed. It is whitish or pale yellowish horn-color, rarely 
fulvous or light brown, and sometimes the apex is purple- 
brown. A variety with a brown base and sutural band is not 
infrequent. ' ' 

Fig. 15 represents one of Pease's original lot. Fig. 19 
is somewhat intermediate between garretti and rustica. It 
has the columella and almost closed umbilicus of garretti, but 
a somewhat fuller shape and a minute parietal tooth. 

31. P. UMBILICATA Pease. PI. 21, figs. 11, 12, 13, 14. 

The shell is globosely ovate, solid, rather dull openly nm- 
bilicate, roundly angulate at the umbilicus, very delicately 
striated spirally. Whorls 4%, convex, the last swollen. 
Aperture rounded-oval, toothed. Lip internally thickened, 
obliquely flat. The columella has a somewhat tooth-like cal- 
lus, and is angular at the base. Color, yellowish or brown- 
ish horn-color, faintly streaked with darker, the apex gener- 
ally reddish-brown or dark purple ; seldom wholly dark chest- 



230 PARTULA, RAIATEA AND TAHAA. 

nut-brown; occasionally with a broad yellowish, horn-color 
band ; very rarely yellowish horn-color with a chestnut band. 

Length 18, diam. 12.5 mm. (Pease). 

Tahaa: The metropolis of this well-defined species is in a 
large valley called Haamene, on the east coast of Tahaa, where 
they are found in prodigious numbers on the foliage of low 
bushes. It has not spread any to the southward, but, on the 
other hand, ranges in considerable numbers through all the 
valleys, except Faa-apa, the home of bilineata, as far as 
Murifanna on the northwest coast, where it is found asso- 
ciated with P. virginea. (Garrett). 

Partula umbilicata, PEASE, Amer. Jour. Conch., ii, 1866, p. 
200; 1867, p. 81, pi. 1, fig. 7; Proc. Zool. Soc., 1871, p. 474. 
BINNEY, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil., 1875, pp. 245, 247, pi. 19, 
fig. 7 (anatomy). SCHMELTZ, Cat. Mus. Godeff., iv, p. 71. 
PFEIFFER, Mon. Hel., viii, p. 207. HARTMAN, Cat. Part, p. 
8 (with woodcut) ; Obs. Gen. Part., Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 
ix, p. 188. GARRETT, Journ. A. N. S. Phila., ix, 1884, p. 61. 

P. umbilicata unites characters of the auriculata and the 
rustica groups in some degree, though nearer rustica, of which 
it might be called a very large and obese edition. The outer 
lip is a little narrower in its upper fourth than in P. thalia, 
and there is a distinct callus, often dentiform, superposed 
upon the columella. The parietal tooth varies from small to 
well developed, and seems to be invariably present. There 
is often an indistinct appearance of several angles in the out- 
line of the outer lip, which is moderately expanded, and 
cream-white behind, white on the face. The whole surface 
generally shows spiral striae. Umbilicus much wider than 
in P. thalia. The last whorl is typically well inflated, but 
I have seen specimens with a strong peripheral angle, from 
retention of a juvenile character in the adult stage. 

Color various; the commonest pattern before me is chest- 
nut, fading to yellowish-white below the last suture, gradu- 
ally shading to purplish-black at the apex ; but sometimes the 
whole shell is straw-'eolor. In fig. 11 it shows one of the 
common color-patterns of the faba group. Figs. 13, 14 rep- 



PARTULA, RAIATEA AND TAHAA. 231 

resent two of the type lot, received from Pease, no. 59452 
A. N. S. P. 

32. P. THALIA Garrett. PI. 19, figs. 10-11, 13. 

"Shell compressly perforated, solid, ovate-conic, somewhat 
shining, lines of growth rather smooth, and revolving incised 
lines very fine and crowded ; whitish or yellowish horn-color, 
with or without a purple-black apex ; spire rather short, coni- 
cal, with plano-convex outlines, half the length of the shell; 
suture slightly impressed; whorls five, flatly convex, the last 
one large, subglobose. Aperture subvertieal, shortly subauri- 
form; parietal region more or less glazed, and armed with 
a white tubercular tooth; peristome white, moderately ex- 
panded, thick, angularly ridged, strongly incrassated within, 
sinuous above, and the margins frequently joined by a ridge 
of callus. The columella is frequently slightly gibbous or 
nodulous in the inner margin. Length 17, diam. 11 mm. 

"Var. a. Fulvous brown, with or without purple-black 
apex. Rather rare. 

"Var. b. With brown base and sutural band. Not com- 
mon." (Garrett). 

Raiatea: "The specific centre of this very abundant arbo- 
real species is in Huaru valley, on the west coast of Raiatea. 
It has spread along the well-wooded lowlands about two miles 
north and one mile south of its metropolis, slightly over- 
lapping the northern range of P. garrettii." (Garrett). 

Partula abbreviates PEASE, MS. (not of Mousson) coll. 
Pease, 1863. Partula auriculata var., CARPENTER, Proc. Zool. 
Soc., 1864, p. 675. Partula peaseana GARRETT, MS. (not 
peasei, Cox). Partula thalia Garrett, HARTMAN, Cat. Part., 
p. 7; Obs. Gen. Part., Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., ix, pp. 188, 
191, 192 (name only). GARRETT, Journ. A. N. S. Phila,, ix, 
1884, p. 69, pi. 3, f. 46. 

"It is smaller, smoother, more shining, much less variable 
in color, and the aperture is less auriform than P. auricu- 
lata." The smaller P. garretti is probably its nearest ally, 
but that is a narrower species with more oblique aperture,. 



232 PARTULA, RAIATEA AND TAHAA. 

more strongly tuberculate columella, and usually no parietal 
tooth. P. thalia seems to 'be a quite distinct species. I have 
seen a large number besides Garrett 's type lot (figs. 10, 11), 
mostly labeled "P. abbreviata Pse.," a preoccupied name. 

Group of P. fab a. 
33. P. RADIATA 'Pease' Garrett. PL 18, figs. 5, 6, 7. 

"Shell rimately perforated, moderately thick, not shining, 
surface roughened by unusually coarse, rude incremental 
striae, and the spire marked by more or less distinct crowded 
spiral incised lines; color whitish or pale luteous horn-color, 
with longitudinal, irregular, narrow darker stripes ; spire coni- 
cal, with planulate outlines, half the length of the shell ; apex 
subacute, concolored, white, or light brown; suture linearly 
impressed, sometimes whitish ; whorls 5-5%, flatly convex, last 
one large, convex, sometimes obsoletely angulated in front 
and generally a little compressed behind the outer lip. Aper- 
ture subvertical, oblong, obauriform, sides parallel; parietal 
region more or less glazed, and, with few exceptions, fur- 
nished with a white tubercular tooth; peristome whitish, fre- 
quently margined with pale purplish brown, rather thin, con- 
siderably expanded, concave, very obliquely slanting, strongly 
and acutely labiated on the inner margin, which is more or 
less distinctly toothed and sinuous above ; columellar lip sub- 
nodose. Length 21, major diam. 10 mm." (Garrett). 

"Var. a. Uniform chestnut-brown. Frequent. 

"Var. b. With a chestnut-brown base and sutural band. 
Not uncommon. 

"Var. c. With a median brown or chestnut-brown band. 
Somewhat rare. ' ' ( Garrett ) . 

Raiatea: "The metropolis of this species is in Hamoa val- 
ley, on the east coast of Raiatea, the home of callifera and 
compacta. It is quite common beneath decaying vegetation 
and among piles of loose stones. It has not spread any to the 
northward, but occurs in limited numbers in all the valleys 
south as far as Vairahi, the headquarters of P. dentifera." 
(Garrett). 



PARTULA, RAIATEA AND TAHAA. 233 

Partula radiata PEASE, MS. 1863. HARTMAN, Cat. Part., 
p. 7 ; Obs. Gen. Part., Bull. Mus. Com. ZooL, ix, pp. 185, 196 
in part, (1881). GARRETT, Journ. A. N. S. Phila., ix, 1884, 
p. 74, pi. 3, f. 45. ANCEY, II Nat. Siciliano iii, p. 344 (Sept. 
1884) ; Nautilus iii, 1889, pi. 1, f. 17. Partula compressa 
CARPENTER, Proc. Zool. Soc., 1864, p. 675. PEASE, Proc. Zool. 
Soc., 1871, p. 473. SCHMELTZ, Cat. Mus. Godeff., v, p. 207 
not P. compressa Pfr., 1850. Partula microstoma PEASE, 
MS. HARTMAN, Bull. M. C. Z., ix, p. 184, as syn. of vittata. 
GARRETT, t. c. p. 74, as a form of radiata. SMITH, Ann. 
Carnegie Mus., i, pp. 429, 472 (1902). 

A dull, streaked species, with "key-hole" aperture, the 
outer lip having a prominent tooth projecting inward, above 
which it is very narrow. The parietal tubercle is variable, 
but usually present. Apex may be either white or blackish- 
brown. Length 20 to 22, diam. 11. Length 21, diam 11.5 
mm. It was first described by Garrett, in 1884, although 
Hart-man had given a brief descriptive note in 1882 (Bull. 
M. C. Z., ix, 185, 196). It was widely distributed by Pease, 
and in consequence of an ill-judged identification by Cuming 
and Carpenter, has generally been known in collections as 
"P. compressa Pfr." Garrett 's type, no. 59409 A. N. S. P. 
is figured, fig. 5. Others from Pease (fig. 6), Hartman and 
others are before me. P. radiata stands very close to P. 
fusca approximata of the southern part of Raiatea, but it is 
duller, with a larger lip-tooth and generally it has a parietal 
tooth. In the several forms of P. fusca, the parietal tooth, 
when present, is not so large as in radiata. 

A form which Pease called P. microstoma (in his collection, 
1863), and which inhabits Vairahi valley, "though very fre- 
quently found adhering to the lower portion of the trunks of 
trees and shrubs, can scarcely be separated from radiata, 
which is strictly terrestrial in habit. Dr. Hartman unites it 
with P. vittata. It appears to me more nearly related to 
radiata than the latter, which is smoother, and the 'Columellar 
lip is flat and simple." (Garrett). 

Fig. 14, of pi. 27 represents a specimen of microstoma 



234 PARTULA, RAIATEA AND TAHAA. 

received from Hartman. It measures, length 23.7, diam. 13^ 
aperture 12.2 mm., has the shape of radiata, but the tooth 
within the outer lip is less developed. There is no parietal 
tooth. The 'base of the last whorl and a band below the 
suture, ascending the spire are chestnut, leaving a rather wide 
pale buff zone. The surface is not quite so dull as in 
radiata. Whether this form is identical with Garrett 's 
Vairahi microstoma remains uncertain. The discussion be- 
tween Hartman and Garrett about the identity of Pease's 
microstoma is academic, since Pease never described the form. 
It was first described (by accident, and quite unrecognizably) 
from Hartman 's collection, by H. H. Smith, as cited .above. 

According to Garrett, specimens which he regards as hybrids 
between P. radiata and P. fab a are of common occurrence. 

34. P. LUGUBRIS Pease. PL 19, figs. 1 to 7. 

The shell is moderately or narrowly umbilicate, ovate, thin, 
rather dull, finely marked with growth-lines which are more 
or less distinctly decussated by the spiral lines. Spire 
straightly conic. Whorls slightly more than 5, moderately 
convex. Aperture ovate, the lip only slightly or narrowly 
expanded, a little thickened within, usually flesh-colored, 
thinner near the upper insertion. Columella dilated above, 
not calloused or nodulous. Parietal wall covered with a very 
thin transparent glaze, toothless. Coloration various: 

a. Pale honey yellow or corneous, darkening to brown at 
the apex, lip white. 

b. Similar, but with a narrow brown periferal band. 

c. Reddish-chestnut throughout, of dark or light shade. 

d. Chestnut, with a narrow or wide median light band . 
Length 19.5, diam 11 mm. (Specimen from Pease). 
Length 18, diam. 10.2 mm. (Specimen from Pease). 
Length 17.2, diam. 9.8 mm. 

Hapai valley, on the west coast of Raiatea; also the adjacent 
Vaiau valley, where the form ovalis is found. ' Terrestrial. 

Partula lugubris PEASE, Proc. Zool. Soc., 1864, p. 672; 
1871, p. 473. PFEIFFER, Mon. Hel., vi, p. 158. SCHMELTZ,. 



PARTULA, RAIATEA AND TAHAA. 235 

Cat. Mus. Godeff., v, p. 207 GARRETT, Jour. A. N. S. P., ix, 
1884, p. 77, pi. 3, f. 47. Partula ovalis PEASE, Amer. Jour. 
Conch., 1866, p. 194; Proc. .Zool. 1871, p. 473. PFEIFFER, 
Mon. HeL, viii, p. 205. 

This is a very thin member of the faba group, deficient in 
lip callus and teeth, smaller and more lightly built than 
P. fusca, which is also a ground snail. 

The race described by Pease as P. ovalis (pi. 19, fig. 7) 
differs from lugubris only by being a little larger, more solid, 
with a stronger lip-callus. It replaces lugubris in Vaiau 
valley, the typical lugubris being confined to Hapai valley. 
It approaches very near to P. vittata, which is a larger form 
with longer spire and a small parietal tooth. The ovalis form 
is usually dark chestnut with a yellowish belt, but sometimes 
is of a uniform chestnut hue. 

Mr. Garrett writes: "My largest Vaiau specimens are 20% 
mm. long, -and 11 mm. in diameter. The smallest adult from 
Hapai is 16 by 8 mm. I have found hybrids between lugubris 
and imperforata, the latter a strictly arboreal species. 

"Dr. Hartman, overlooking the fact that lugubris, ovalis, 
protea and fusca inhabit widely separated valleys, has sug- 
gested that the three former may be the juvenile and adoles- 
cent forms of the adult fusca. The habitats of the two former 
species are about two miles apart, and five miles south of the 
location of fusca. P. protea, which = fusca, is confined to 
the opposite side of the island, and is separated from the lat- 
ter by an almost inaccessible mountain. ' ' 

35. P. FABA (Martyn). PL 16, figs. 1 to 8. 

The shell is dextral, openly perforate, obliquely ovate- 
conic, rather solid, weakly striate obliquely, with close spiral 
striation on the early whorls, almost obsolete on the last. 
Spire straightly conic, of nearly 6 moderately convex whorls. 
Aperture a little more than half as long as the shell, white or 
flesh-colored inside. Peristome very broad, reflexed and thick- 
ened within, white or flesh-tinted, flattened, the upper third of 
the outer lip narrow. Columella vertical, its internal thicken- 



236 PARTULA, RAIATEA AND TAHAA. 

ing terminating in a stout callous nodule near the insertion. 
Parietal callus thin and transparent, not toothed. 

Typical color yellow, fading to whitish on the spire, the 
entire base and a 'band below the suture chestnut or chocolate 
brown. 

Lengtn 25.5, diam. 14, length aperture 14 mm. 

Length 25, diam. 15, length aperture 14.5 mm. 

Raiatea, throughout the island, on the trunks and foliage of 
trees and bushes, very abundant, the metropolis of the typical 
form at Utuloa. 

Limax faba MARTYN, Universal Conchologist ii, pi. 67, two 
middle figures (1784). Chenu's Bibl. Conch, ii, p. 24, pi. 24, 
f. 2a. Helix faba GMEL. Syst. Nat. 1791, p. 3625. Bulimia 
faba LAM. and of PFR., Monogr. ii, 73. Partula faba Sows, 
in Zool. Beechey's Voy., p. 144, pi. 38, f. 4. REEVE, Conch. 
Syst. ii, pi. 175, f. 13, 14; Conch. Icon. pi. 1, f. 5. PFR. 
Monogr. iii, 446 ; iv, 511 ; vi, 159 ; viii, 199 ; Conehyl. Cab. p. 
263, pi. 22, f. 10. DESK., in Fer., Histoire, p. 125, pi. 158, 
f. 7-10, 15, 16. PEASE, Journ. de Conehyl. xviii, 1870, p. 400 
with var. subangulata, p. 401; P. Z. S. 1871, p. 458 (var. 
subangulata) . HARTMAN, Catal. Partula p. 6, woodcut ; Obs. 
Part., Bull. M. C. Z. ix, p. 182. GARRETT, Journ. A. N. S. P. 
ix, 1887, p. 57, with varr. subangulata, p. 58, pi. 3, f . 79 ; 
amanda, p. 58, pi. 3, f. 78; and dubia, p. 58, pi. 3, f. 80. 
SMITH, Annals of the Carnegie Mus, I, p. 426, no. 4093-4108. 
Partula biangulata Pse. MS. and P. propinqua Pse. MS. 
according 'to Hartman. Voluta fasciata DILLWYN, Descr. 
Catal. i, p. 502. Bulimus australis BRUG., Encycl. Meth. i, 
p. 347. Partula australis GRATELOUP Soc. Bord. xi, 424, pi. 
2, f. 5. Partulus australis BECK, Index p. 57. Bulimus in- 
constans Miihlf., ANTON, Verzeichniss p. 40, no. 1474 ("chest- 
nut brown, the peristome light brown, stronger [than faba] , 
aperture narrower. Nuahame "). Bulimus tricolor Miihlf., 
ANTON, 1. c., no. 1474 (" yellowish- green banded with 
brown "). Partula brunnea PEASE MS., HARTMAN, Bull. M. 
C. Z., ix, 180 "a dark elongated variety of P. faba." Par- 
tula pallida Pease MS., HARTMAN, Bull. M. C. Z., ix, 195 "= 



PARTULA, RAIATEA AND TAHAA. 237 

elongated specimens of P. fab a." Partula biangula Pease 
MS., HARTMAN, Bull. M. C. Z. ix, 180, as synonym of faba. 
No description. 

P. faba was first obtained when Captain Cook visited 
Raiatea in 1769. Andrew Gurrett writes as follows : 

' * The type varies from straw-yellow to brownish yellow or 
fulvous, with a broad basal and narrow sutural chestnut- 
brown band. The most common bandless variety is of the 
normal color varied with longitudinal darker strigations. A 
variety of a uniform, whitish horn-color, as well as one of a 
uniform chestnut-brown, sometimes approaching black, is not 
infrequent. The lip is white, and the apex frequently tinted 
with purple-black. 

They vary considerably in shape, as the following measure- 
ments will prove : 

Length 25, diam. 14 mill. 

Length 25, diam. 12 mill. 

The average dimension is 25 by 13 mill. Out of about 
6000 examples I found but one possessing the parietal tooth. 
Hybrids between this species and radiata, fusca and naviga- 
toria are not uncommon." 

Fig. 1 is a copy ol Martyn's type figure. Fig. 2 is a more 
streaked example of the typical form. Deep brown (fig. 3), 
and greenish-yellow (fig. 4), examples are also drawn. Figs. 
5 to 8 are from a series collected by C. D. Voy, presumably in 
one colony, the several color-forms being connected by inter- 
mediate stages. 

P. subangulata, amanda, navigatoria and fusca might be 
ranked as subspecies of faba without going far wrong. 

36. P. SUBANGULATA Pease. PI. 16, figs. 14, 15, 16. 

Shell smoother, more glossy and thinner than P. fal>a\ 
chestnut-colored with darker streaks and a yellow band below 
the suture ; early whorls purplish-black or brown- tinted ; the 
peristome dark flesh colored, often with white spots. Varies 
commonly to chestnut with streaks but no light band, and to 
light yellow or olive-yellow with chestnut streaks and white 



238 PARTULA, RAIATEA AND TAHAA. 

spire. A variety with a narrow subsutural and subbasal band 
of a dark chestnut color on a pale greenish yellow ground is 
not uncommon. 

Tahaa, at the southern end in several valleys ( Garrett) . 

Partula faba var. subangulata PEASE, Jour, de Conch., 1870, 
p. 401 ; Proc. Zool. Soc., 1871, pp. 458, 473. GARRETT, Journ. 
A. N. S. Phila. ix, 1884, p. 58, pi. 3, f. 79. Partula ventricosa 
PEASE MS., HARTMAN, Bull. M. C. Z. ix, p. 189, Tahaa. No 
description. Partula amanda GARRETT, Journ. A. N. S. Phila. 
ix, 1884, p. 58, pi. 3, f. 78. Partula dubia GARRETT MS., 
HARTMAN, Bull. M. C. Zool. ix, 181, 191. GARRETT, t. e., p. 58. 
P. marginata GARRETT MS., HARTMAN, Bull. M. C. Zool. 
ix, p. 184; undes'cribed ; li ==P. faba var., Tahaa." Partula 
propinqua PEASE MS., HARTMAN, t. >c. p. 185, "Tahaa" no 
description. 

The pale subsutural band gives the shoulder an appearance 
of angulation, which does not really exist. While the Tahaan 
forms of the faba type differ but little from Raiatean faba, 
yet their variation- forms are somewhat diverse, and the minor 
differences noted above seem fairly 'constant. I have therefore 
thought it best, in view of the minute specific subdivision of 
Raiatean Partulae, to give subangulata specific rank. 

36a. P. s. AMANDA Garrett. PI. 17, figs. 1, 2, 3. 

The shell is like subangulata in shape, but it occasionally 
has a small tooth on the parietal wall. The usual color is 
pale yellow or greenish yellow, almost white towards the 
summit, or more or less suffused with fulvous, with a white 
or flesh-tinted lip. "A beautiful variety occurs which has a 
wide median reddish chestnut band (fig. 1). A more common 
variety is found with two narrow reddish chestnut bands" 
(fig. 2) ; the summit in these is purple-black. "'Chestnut- 
brown varieties are not uncommon. The rarest variety is 
fasciated the same as the typical faba." (Garrett}. 

Tahaa, occurring in greatest profusion in the northeastern 
part, but spread all over the island except in the area of 
subangulata (Garrett). 



PARTULA, RAIATEA AND TAHAA. 239 

A subvariety of amanda has been called var. dubia Garrett- 
(pi. 17, figs. 4, 8) but that name was already in use for a 
Tahitian form of the otaheitana group. It is yellow with a 
white spire, white lip, and invariably has a parietal tooth. 
Some specimens have a chestnut umbilical area, or are some- 
what suffused and streaked with fulvous, and the apex is 
pinkish brown. This form is found in some valleys on the 
north coast. 

37. P. NAVIGATORIA (Pfeiffer). PI. 16, figs. 9 to 13. 

Shell perforate, dextral, oblong-ovate, solid, obsoletely 
granulose-striate, rather shining; fulvous, marked with close 
darker lines. Spire conic, rather acute, suture light, white- 
edged. Whorls 5, nearly flat, the last longer than the spire. 
Aperture oblong, narrow, whitish within, provided with a 
small callous [parietal] tooth deep on the ventral side of the 
penult whorl. Peristome somewhat thickened, strongly 
white-lipped within, the margins parallel, right margin nar- 
rowly expanded, somewhat toothed in the middle, columellar 
margin dilated, flat, reflexed. Length 23, diam. 11, aperture 
13 x 8 mm. Type in Mus. Cuming. (Pfr.) . 

Lower portion of Vaioara valley, on the west coast of 
Raiatea and spread along the lowland forests south as far as 
Uparu valley; very abundant, associated with P. fusca; usu- 
ally lurking beneath decaying vegetation, but sometimes taken 
on the trunks of trees. (Garrett). 

Bulimus navigatorius PFR., P. Z. S., 1849, p. 131. Par- 
tula navigatoria PFR., Monogr. iii, 449. REEVE, Conch. Icon. 
vi, 1850, pi. 4, f . 21. GARRETT, Journ. A. N. S. P. ix, p. 76. 
Partula variabilis PEASE, Amer. Journ. of Conch, ii, 1866, 
p. 203; iii, 1867, p. 8, pi. 1, f. 12-14; P. Z. S. 1871, p. 473. 
PFR., Monogr. viii, 201. 

This form differs from P. faba chiefly by having the last 
two whorls less convex than usual in that species, and the 
aperture is narrower, more contracted. Moreover it lives. for 
the most part on the ground, and has its own patterns of 
coloring, which however do not differ much from the patterns 



240 PARTULA, RAIATEA AND TAHAA. 

of faba and fusca. G-arrett writes that "hybrids between this 
species and fusca and faba are very frequent." 

The typical coloration of navigatoria (fig. 9, copied from 
Reeve) and the synonymous variabilis is yellow, profusely 
streaked with chestnut, the spire often pinkish. This is the 
normal or usual form. Other patterns are: 

Uniform yellow. Not common. 

Uniform dark chestnut, or with pale apex. Not 'common. 

The last form, greenish yellow, the base and a subsutural 
band chestnut, is not uncommon; it resembles typical P. 
faba in pattern. 

' * The parietal tooth mentioned by Pf eiffer, but not alluded 
to by Reeve or Pease, is not constant, but exists in about two- 
fifths of the adults. The former author's 'medio subden- 
tato,' likewise not mentioned by the latter two writers, is 
simply the lower angle of the small labial sinus. 

"In shape it varies from ovate to oblong-ovate, as the fol- 
lowing two measurements will show: Length 25, diam. 
13 mm.; length 20, diam. 13 mm." (Garrett). 

38. P. FUSCA Pease. PI. 17, figs. 5, 6, 7. 

' * Shell umbilicated, solid, varying from an abbreviate-ovate 
to oblong-ovate, roughly striated by irregular lines of growth, 
and the usual fine spiral incised lines become evanescent on 
the body-whorl; spire convexly conical, less than half the 
length of the shell ; suture linearly impressed, frequently mar- 
gined by a thread-like white line; whorls 5-6, more or less 
flatly convex, last one large, convex, rounded or turgid, some- 
times slightly angled just above the aperture; base more 
openly umbilicated than usual in the ground species; aper- 
ture subvertical, oblong, sides nearly parallel ; parietal region 
more or less glazed with callus, and sometimes dentate ; peris- 
tome rather broadly expanded, moderately thick, slanting, 
flat or concave, strongly incrassated within and sinuous 
above ; columellar lip depressed, receding or transversely 
grooved above. Color very variable : whitish corneous, straw- 
yellow, fulvous, light or dark chestnut, sometimes brown- 



PARTULA, RAIATEA AND TAHAA. 241 

black, and frequently strigated. Yellowish horn-colored ex- 
amples with the base and the sutural band chestnut, are not 
uncommon. The lip, though usually white, is frequently mar- 
gined with purple-brown. Length 20, diam. 11 mm. 

"The above is about the average dimensions. My largest 
example is 24 by I3y 2 and the smallest adult 17 by 10 mm. 
Sometimes, though rarely, the spire equals half the length of 
the shell. Very old examples have a more or less nodulous 
columella and a more or less distinct denticle on the outer 
lip." (Garrett). 

Partula fusca PEASE, Amer. Jour. Conch., 1866, p. 193; 
Proc. Zool. Soc., 1871, p. 473. BINNEY, Proc. Aead. Nat. Sci. 
Phil., 1875, pp. 245, 247, pi. 19, fig. 9 ( anatomy ) . PFEIFFER, 
Mon. Hel., viii, p. 205. SCHMELTZ, Cat. Mus. Godeff., vi, 
p. 81. HARTMAN, Cat. Part., p. 6 ; Obs. Gen. Part., Bull. Mus. 
Comp. Zool., ix, p. 182 (excl. ovalis and lugubris). GARRETT, 
Journ. A. N. S. Phila. ix, p. 71, pi. 3, f. 50. Partula protea 
PEASE, MS. coll. Pease, 1863. SCHMELTZ, Cat. Mus. Godeff., 
v, p. 92. PFEIFFER, Mon. Hel., viii, p. 209. 

Raiatea: The metropolis of this very variable ground 
species is in Vaioara valley, on the west coast of Raiatea, the 
headquarters of P. garrettii and navigatoria. It has not 
migrated any to the southward, but to the northward it oc- 
curs sparingly far up in Huaru valley. On the opposite side 
of the island it is found in Tepua valley, and I took a few 
in a small ravine more to the southward. The Tepua shell, 
which is the protea Pse., differs none from his fusca. 
(Garrett). 

' ' Hybrids between protea and the arboreal P. faba are not 
uncommon, and are usually found adhering to the lower 
parts of the trunks of trees. 

"In Vaioara, hybrids between fusca and navigatoria, and 
between the two former and faba, are so frequent as to be 
very embarrassing in the separation of the three species col- 
lected in that valley. Like the Tepua hybrids, all those be- 
tween the two ground species and the arboreal faba live on 
the lower parts of the trunks of trees." (Garrett). 




242 PAETUL.A, RAIATEA AND TAHAA. 

Illustrated from specimens received from Garrett. Others 
from Pease are before me. This snail lives under cover on the 
ground, and the shell is less glossy than navigatoria or faba 
which differ from fusca and vittata chiefly by their arboreal 
habits and brighter shells. The lip is usually expanded more 
than in vittata, which replaces fusca on the southwest. P. 
fusca occasionally has a small parietal tooth, but in vittata 
the tooth is almost invariable in fully adult shells. 

38a. P. F. VITTATA Pease. PI. 17, fig. 16. 

The shape of the typical vittata is oblong-conic, more or 
less compressedly umbilicated, and the spire, which equals 
half the length of the shell, has straight outlines. The last 
whorl is not angular in front of the aperture. The ample, 
oblong aperture is 'considerably contracted by the intrusion 
of white callus on the inner margin of the peristome, and the 
sides are nearly parallel. The peristome is rather thin, 
widely expanded and usually stained with brownish purple. 
The white callus does not extend to the upper end of the 
lip, leaving a shallow sinus. The columella is flattened, not 
calloused or nodose, and reflected over the umbilicus. The 
color is whitish, yellowish corneous, fulvous or horn-color, fre- 
quently with the basal third of the body and a sutural band 
chestnut-color. Sometimes the apex is black or purple-black. 
The parietal tooth, though small, is constant, but so far 
within that it is hardly visible in a front view. 

Length 23, diam. 13 mm. (fig. 16). 

Length 24, diam. 12 mm. (Pease). 

Length 25, diam. 11 mm. (Garrett, maximum size). 

Society Islands : Restricted to the higher portions of Toloa 
valley, on the west coast of Raiatea, not uncommon under 
decaying vegetation. (Garrett). 

Partula vittata PEASE, Amer. Jour. Conch., 1866, p. 194; 
Proc. Zool. Soc., 1871, p. 473. PFEIFFER, Mon. Hel., viii, p. 
200. HARTMAN, Cat. Part., p. 7 ; Obs. Gen. Part., Bull. Mus. 
Comp. Zool., ix, p. 169 (excl. microstoma). GARRETT, Journ. 
A. N. S. Phila., ix, 1884, p. 75, pi. 3, f. 56. Partula approxi- 



PARTULA, RAIATEA AND TAHAA. 243 

mata PEASE, MS., SCHMELTZ, Cat. Mus. Godeff., v, p. 207. 
GLOYNE, Quar. Jour. Conch., i, p. 338. HARTMAN, Cat. Part., 
p. 7; Obs. Gen. Part., Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., ix, pp. 179, 
195 (no description). GARRETT, Journ. A. N. S. Phila., ix, 
1884, p. 75. 

Doubtfully distinguishable from P. fusca. The figure is 
drawn from the shell already figured by Garrett, who col- 
lected the type lot. He states that " no examples were dis- 
covered in Hapai or Vaiau, the headquarters of lugubris and 
ovalis, which two valleys are between Toloa and the small 
ones inhabited by approximate." 

38&. P. F.APPROXIMATA' Pease 'Garrett. PI. 17, figs. 13, 14, 15. 

This is a race subsidiary to vittata characterized by its 
inferior size, smaller umbilicus, which is frequently imper- 
vious, smaller aperture, and less expanded lip. The parietal 
tooth is very seldom developed. The banding is similar in 
the two forms, but occurs rarely in approximata, which dif- 
fers also in being generally a lighter or darker chestnut-color, 
though both have similar horn-colored varieties, with brown 
streaks. The last whorl is usually angular in front, as in 
var. terrestris. 

Occurs in greater or less profusion in several small valleys 
on the southwest part of Raiatea. 

Cotypes from Garrett are figured. 

38c. P. F. TERRESTRIS 'Pse.' Garrett. PI. 17, figs. 9, 10, 11. 

The shell is moderately umbilicate, thin, with only a trace 
of spiral striae on 'the last whorl. It is (1) corneous with 
.yellowish streaks, (2) chestnut 'Colored, or (3) chestnut with 
an equatorial yellow zone. The apex is usually pale, but 
sometimes purple. The last whorl is rather acutely angular 
immediately in front of the upper termination of the outer 
lip ; or if not, an angle may be traced above the suture, near 
the aperture; the immature stage being strongly angular. 
The aperture is rather narrow, with a distinct prominence at 
the upper end of the lip-callus. Lip moderately expanded, 



244 PARTULA, RAIATEA AND TAHAA. 

white or pale. Columella concave, with no callus or nodule, 
A very small parietal tooth is usually present. 

Partula terrestris Pease MS., GARRETT, Journ. A. N. S. P., 
ix, 1884, p. 75. P. castanea Pse. MS., GARRETT, t. c. p. 76. 

Differs from P. vittata chiefly by the distinct angulation of 
the body in front of the aperture. Gotypes in coll. A. N. S. 
P., no. 59450. Garrett writes: 

"In the valleys on the southern part of the island 
(Raiatea), we find a gradual change from the typical P. ap- 
proximata into the form known as P. terrestris Pease, which 
latter connects the former with vittata. The range of ter- 
restris terminates at Opoa valley, on the southeast coast. 

"At Faaloa, on the east coast, there exists a form, P. cas- 
tanea Pease, which is intermediate between terrestris and 
vittata. It is usually chestnut-colored, constantly toothed on 
the parietal wall, and the fasciation is the same as in the other 
varieties. It has not spread any to the northward of Faaloa, 
but occurs more sparingly in a small valley between Faaloa 
and Opoa." (Garrett). A specimen of castanea received 
from Pease is figured (pi. 17, fig. 12) . It is absolutely iden- 
tical with terrestris. 

39. P. PLANILABRUM Pease. PI. 18, figs. 1, 2, 3, 4. 

Shell long-ovate, solid, umbilicate; whorls 5, plano-convex- 
aperture oblong-oval, somewhat ear-shaped, toothed. Lip 
oblique and broadly flattened, thickened within, projecting 
outwardly, having a toothed callus. Columella straight, 
angular at the base. Chestnut-colored, pale at the suture, 
sometimes encircled with a broad yellowish-brown band. 
Length 22, diam. 12 mm. (Pse.). 

East coast of Tahaa. 

Partula planilabrum PEASE, Proc. Zool. Soc., 1864, p. 672 ; 
1871, p. 473. PFEIFPER, Mon. Hel., vi, p. 156. BINNEY,. 
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil., 1865, pp. 245, 247. SCHMELTZ, 
Cat. Mus. Godeff., vi, p. 81. HARTMAN, Cat. Part., p. 7; 
Obs. Gen. Part. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., ix, pp. 185, 188, 190. 
GARRETT, Journ. A. N. S. Phila., ix, 1884, p. 63, pi. 3, f. 77. 



PARTULA, RAIATEA AND TAHAA. 245 

Partula suturalis PEASE, P. Z. S. 1864, p. 675, nude name, 
(not of Pfeiffer). 

The callous rim and * * tooth ' ' within the outer lip are more 
strongly developed than in P. faba, fusca and their immedi- 
ate allies. There is an Oblong callous lump on the face of 
the columella, more or less visible in different examples. The 
white border below the suture is an important feature of the 
species, very rarely wanting. P. planilabrum is larger and 
more elongated than P. bilineata, and the surface is not so 
smooth and shining. The structure of the peristome is similar 
in the two shells, but the aperture is more elongate in 
planilabrum. The parietal tooth is constant in adults but 
varies in size. The following color-forms are found. 

PI. 18, figs. 2, 3. The type is deep chestnut-brown, gradu- 
ally fading into yellowish corneous towards the sutural line; 
the whitish lip is frequently tinged with violet. 

PL 18, fig. 4. Fulvous yellow, with the basal half of the 
body- whorl and a revolving band below the whitish subsutural 
border, deep chestnut-brown. Not infrequent. 

PL 18, fig. 1. Pale corneous or light fulvous with indis- 
tinct oblique streaks. Rare. 

Numerous specimens from Pease and Grarrett show it to 
be rather constant in form, but some shells show an angle on 
the last whorl, in front of the aperture. Grarrett writes: 
44 The metropolis of this species is Haamene valley, on the 
east coast of Tahaa, where it is common, and, though usually 
lurking beneath decaying vegetation, is sometimes found ad- 
hering to the trunks of the wild banana. It is found, though 
less abundant, in a valley north of its specific centre, but does 
not occur in the intermediate valley Faa-apa, the home of 
bilineata. ' J 

40. P. BILINEATA Pease. PL 19, figs. 8, 14. 

The shell is rather openly umbilicate, ovate-conic, solid, 
smooth and glossy, marked lightly with growth-lines. Spire 
almost straightly conic, the apex frequently dark. The suture 
is margined with a white line. Ground-color whitish-corneous, 



246 PARTULA, RAIATEA AND TAHAA. 

pale yellow or brownish yellow, typically with a narrow 
brown band revolving a short distance below the suture, and 
a wider one just below the perifery; but sometimes the 
whole base is dark chestnut, or the whole shell may be dark 
except for a light equatorial girdle or zone. The aperture is 
nearly white inside, lip broad, white, well expanded and 
strongly thickened within. The columellar lip bears on its 
inner face a low nodule, sometimes hardly noticeable. The 
parietal tooth is deeply placed and well developed. 

Length 20%, diam. 13 mm. (fig. 8). 

Length 18, diam. 12 mm. (Pease). 

Tahaa, confined to Faa-apa valley on the east coast, where 
it O'ccurs in abundance on the trunks of a species of wild 
banana and at the roots of ferns. (Garrett). 

Partula bilineata PEASE, Amer. Jour. Conch., ii, 1866, p. 
201 ; 1867, p. 81, pi. 1, fig. 10 ; Proc. Zool. Soc., 1871, p. 473. 
BINNEY, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1875, pp. 245, 247, 
pi. 19, fig. 10 (anatomy). PFEIFFER, Mon. Hel., viii, p. 195. 
SCHMELTZ, Cat. Mus. Godeff., vi, p. 81. HARTMAN, Cat. 
Part., p. 8; Obs. Gen. Part., Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., ix, pp. 
180, 196. GARRETT, Journ. A. N. S. Phila. ix, 1884, p. 62. 

P. plamlabrum is more lengthened and less glossy than 
bilineata, and the two have not the same cycles of color-forms. 
P. umbilicata is a still more shortened and globose form. 
These three species of Tahaa are slight modifications of the 
ancestral Raiatean P. auriculata stock. Fig. 14 represents 
Pease's type specimen. Garrett writes of P. bilineata: "It 
is readily distinguished by its smooth, glossy surface, ovate- 
conic form, yellowish horn-color, and two revolving chestnut- 
brown bands, the upper one narrow and subsutural. The 
subacute apex is sometimes purple-brown and the suture is 
margined by a narrow, rugose, whitish line. The constant 
parietal tooth is prominent and the broad white peristome 
is slightly emarginate above, strongly labiate within, and 
widely expanded. 

Var. a. With a single broad median chestnut-brown band. 
Not common. 



PARTULA, RAIATEA AND TAHAA. 247 

Var. 6. Chestnut-brown with a yellowish horn-colored 
sutural 'band. Very rare. 

Var. c. Uniform yellowish horn-color. Very rare. 
They are all remarkably uniform in shape and size. ' ' 

41. P. AURICULATA Broderip. PI. 18, figs. 8 to 12. 

"Shell perforate, ovate-pyramidal, chestnut colored; 
whorls 6, somewhat swollen, longitudinally striated. Aper- 
ture white, ear-shaped, the lip flat and thick; a white tooth 
on the internal lace of the last whorl. Length %, diam. % 
inch. A variety is yellowish with the outer margin of the 
aperture somewhat roseate. 

"The thick, flattened lips forming the aperture of this 
species are so disposed as to give the mouth, in many in- 
dividuals, the appearance of a key-hole, while in others it is 
ear-shaped. ' ' (Brod. ) 

Raiatea, in the lower half of Hamoa valley, on the east 
coast near the north end of the island; it has spread north- 
ward in two small valleys (Garrett, for P. oompacta) ; 
Utuloa, north end of Raiatea, in great profusion, with 
P. faba (Garrett, for P. auriculata) ; arboreal. 

Partula auriculata BRODERIP, Proc. Zool. Soc., 1832, p. 125. 
REEVE, Conch. Syst., ii, pi. 175, figs. 7, 8. PEASE, Amer. 
Jour. Conch., 1866, p. 201. SCHMELTZ, Cat. Mus. Godeff., 
iv, p. 71. HARTMAN, Cat. Part., p. 7, with woodcut; Obs. 
Gen. Part,, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. ix, pp. 180, 186, 192. 
GARRETT, Journ. A. N. S. P. ix, 1884, p. 58. f Partula 
tahulana ANTON, Verz. Conch., p. 40 (1839), nude name; 
(quoted tabulana by Garrett). Partulus auriculatus BECK, 
Ind. Moll., p. 58. Bulimus auriculatus PFEIFFER, Symb., i, 
p. 80; ii, p. 111. Bulimus otaheitanus PFEIFFER, Mon. Hel., 
ii. p. 71 (part). Partula otaheitana REEVE (not of Bru- 
guiere), Conch. Icon., pi. 2, fig. \\a, b. Partula robusta 
PEASE (MS. coll. Pease, 1863), SMITH, Annals Carnegie Mus. 
i, p. 436, no. 4140, 4141. Partula tahitana SCHMELTZ (not 
of Gould), Cat. Mus. Godeff., v, p. 92. PEASE, Proc. Zool. 
Soc., 1871, p. 473. f f Partula maura Muhl. ANTON, Ver- 



248 PARTULA, RAIATEA AND TAHAA. 






zeichniss p. 40 (nude name). Partula compacta PEASE, 
Amer. Jour. Conch., 1866, p. 200; 1867, p. 81, pi. 1, fig. 9; 
Proc. Zool. Soc., 1871, p. 473. SCHMELTZ, Cat. Mus. Godeff., 
v, p. 92. PFEIFFER, Mon. Hel., viii, p. 207. HARTMAN, Cat. 
Part., p. 7; Obs. Gen. Part., Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., ix, pp. 
181, 192. GARRETT, Journ. A. N. S. P. ix, 1884, p. 55. 
Partula solidula Pse. MS., H. H. SMITH, Annals Carnegie 
Mus. i, p. 436, no. 4142. 

This arboreal species is obese, solid, not very glossy, with 
a moderate or quite narrow umbilicus. The lip is not very 
broadly expanded, but is strongly thickened within, white, 
flat, often more or less dentate, and is conspicuously excised 
above. The columella is oblique, broad, and bears a moder- 
ate or heavy callus which is notched at the insertion above. 
The parietal tooth is well developed. 

Length 20, diam. 13.5 mm. 

Length 21, diam. 13.3 mm. 

P. auriculata has been united by many authors with the 
totally different P. otakeitana of Tahiti. The erroneous 
locality "Huaheine" was given by Cuming, who collected 
the types. As Pease and Garrett have already remarked, 
P. auriculata was evidently based upon several forms of this 
group, but the emphasis laid by Broderip upon the flat lip 
indicates that the form described as P. compacta by Pease is 
practically typical auriculata. Reeve's Conchologia Iconica, 
Partula plate 2, figure 11& may be considered the type of 
P. auriculata. I have figured similar shells, pi. 18, figs. 10, 
11. The color is usually light brownish yellow, but it varies 
to light chestnut in the lots before me. Fig. 9, copied from 
Reeve's figure of one of the original lot, is unlike the com- 
pacta I have seen in being banded. Pease's type of com- 
pacta, now before me, is a typical auriculata in develop- 
ment of the apertural callosities. In many individuals the 
"teeth" are less developed, as in fig. 8. 

410. P. A. ROBUSTA Pease. PI. 18, figs. 13 to 16. 

The shell is somewhat smaller than the largest P. auriculata, 



PARTULA, HUAHEINE. 249 

more compactly ovate, very solid, the lip very little ex- 
panded and very much thickened on the convex face, though 
less broad than in auriculata, and with less prominent in- 
ternal callosities, hence the aperture is more open. The 
parietal tooth is smaller than in auriculata, and often almost 
disappears. The lip is generally brown-edged, and often a 
raised callus connects the ends. The columellar lip is seen, 
in profile view, to be very thick, and the umbilical crevice 
is narrow. Color-patterns as follows: 

a. Last li/2 or 2 whorls corneous, copiously streaked ob- 
liquely with chestnut; the next earlier whorl rich chest- 
nut, deepening to purple-black towards and at the sum- 
mit. This is the typical coloration. 

6. Yellowish, with some faint brownish streaks, apex pale. 
Approaches auriculata in form. 

c. Dark chestnut throughout, with more or less distinct 
paler oblique streaks on the last whorl. 

d. Chestnut colored with a broad corneous or yellowish 
zone above the middle of the last whorl. This pattern 
also occurs in auriculata. 

Length 19.5, diam. 11.5, aperture 11 mm. (fig. 14). 

Length 17.5, diam. 11, aperture 10 mm. 

P. robusta has not before been figured, but descriptive 
notes were published by Smith in his catalogue of the Hart- 
man collection. Types no. 59444 A. N. S. P. 

4. Species of Huaheine. 

Huaheine possesses four species all endemic. Two (P. 
arguta and annectens) are restricted to two valleys, and the 
latter, like P. clara, appears to be gradually becoming extinct. 
Both species are remarkably uniform in all their specific 
characters, and are related to forms of Tahiti and Baiatea. 
On the contrary, the other two species (P. rosea and varia) 
have spread nearly all over the island, and are subject to 
considerable variation. Neither is closely related to other 
Society Island species, but a form scarcely distinguishable 
from varia occurs at Rarotonga. It is worthy of remark that 



250 PARTULA, HUAHEINE. 

dentated species, which are so common in all the islands ex- 
cept Bora/bora, do not occur on Huaheine. 

The structure of the kidney raises a doubt as to the sys- 
tematic position of P. rosea and varia. They may belong in 
or near the section Samoana rather than to Partula s. str. 

42. P. VARIA Broderip. PL 23, figs. 1 to 12. 

Shell openly perforate, ovate-pyramidal, thin, glossy, com- 
posed of nearly 5 convex whorls, the last rounded perif erally, 
or slightly subangular in front ; very convex or saccate at the 
base. Surface with sculpture of fine growth-striae and min- 
ute spiral lines, which are more or less obsolete on the last 
whorl. Aperture vertical, white or purplish-brown within, 
the lip reflexed, evenly thickened within, white or purple- 
brown. Length 17, diam. 11 mm. 

Huaheine: "The metropolis of the typical P. varia is in 
two valleys on the west coast of Huaheine, where they are 
very abundant on foliage, but it is generally distributed 
throughout all parts of the island." (Garrett) . 

Partula varia BRODERIP, Proc. Zool. Soc., 1832, p. 125. 
REEVE, Conch. Syst., ii, pi. 75, figs. 5, 6; Conch. Icon., pi. 
3, figs. 17 a. b. c. PFEIFFER, Mon. Hel., iii, p. 448. PEASE, 
Proc. Zool. Soc., 1871, p. 473, with var. glutinota, pulchra, 
simplex. SCHMELTZ, Cat. Mus. Godeff, v, p. 92. HARTMAN, 
Cat. Part., p. 14; Obs. Gen. Part., Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., ix, 
pp. 189, 191 (excl. strigata). Bulimus varius PFEIFFER, 
Symb., i, p. 86; ii, p. 124. Bulimus roseus var. b. minor 
PFEIFFER, Mon. Hel., ii, p. 70. Partula glutinosa PFEIFFER, 
Proc. Zool. Soc., 1852, p. 85 ; Mon. Hel., iii, p. 448 ; Conchyl. 
Cab. p. 265, pi. 44, f. 16, 17 (in insulis Salomonis). Partula 
mucida PFEIFFER, Proc. Zool. Soc., 1855, p. 98; Mon. Hel., 
iv, p. 513 (in insulis Pacificis). Partula pulchra PEASE, MS. 
SCHMELTZ, Cat. Mus. Godeff., v, p. 92. Partula huaheinensis 
GARRETT, as syn. of varia, t. c. 1884, p. 78, 79. Partula bi- 
color GARRETT, Journ. A. N. S. P. ix, 1884, p. 79 (not of 
Pease). Partula adusta GARRETT, MS., undescribed. Par- 
tula perplexa Pease, MS., H. H. SMITH, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 
i, p. 463, no. 4277. 



PARTULA, HUAHEINE. 251 

This common Huaheine species is smaller and more glossy 
than P. rosea, and differs in its range of color- variation. Ac- 
cording to Andrew Garrett, the type form "is very variable 
in coloration, and considerably so in size and shape. The 
smallest form, which = P. pulchra, Pse., gradually merges 
into the type, and is restricted to the larger of the two valleys 
called Hamene. The type which equals my huaheinensis and 
adusta, is usually corneous, luteous, more frequently fulvous, 
rarely white, and the most abundant variety is dark chestnut, 
sometimes nearly black with a pale apex and dark or pale lip 
(fig. 1). Deep chestnut- colored examples, with a wide or 
narrow central pale band, are not uncommon (fig. 2). The 
form with an obscure central fulvous band on a pale ground, 
is rather common (figs. 6, 7). 

"In the higher portion of Hamene may be found a large 
form (Mcolor Garr., not of Pease) which is either uniform 
straw-yellow, or greenish yellow, with or without a dark chest- 
nut spire. It differs from the typical varia in being larger, 
more robust, the whorls more inflated and the aperture wider. 
Specimens from Garrett are figured, pi. 23, figs. 4 and 8. 

"In a valley named Faahiti, on the northern part of the 
island, we find in the greatest profusion, associated with 
P. rosea cognata Pse., a form shaped like 'bicolor,' but 
smaller and more variable in color than the typical varia. 
The most common variety is light yellowish, sometimes stri- 
gated, the lip, and sometimes the base, stained with burnt- 
brown or violet-brown. Nearly half of the specimens are 1 
uniform fulvous brown, or chestnut-brown approaching black. 
The variety with central pale band is also very frequent, as 
well as the one of a uniform whitish or luteous with white lip. 
The pale variety with chestnut spire is somewhat rare, besides 
one with a dark spire and two narrow bands on the body- 
whorl. A lot of these shells sent to the 'Museum Godeffroy/ 
were by Prof. Mousson referred to Morelet's P. simplaria, 
and have been freely distributed under that name. Morelet 
cites 'Tahiti' as the habitat of his species. His 'apice obtuso 
rosaceo' and 'sutura albo marginata' do not occur in these 



252 PARTULA, HUAHEINE. 

shells, nor any of the varieties of varia" hence the name 
simplaria should not be applied to them. Specimens of 
various color-patterns are figured, pi. 23, figs. 9, 10. 

The form called P. glutinosa Pf r. is straw colored or pale 
fulvous, the lip white with a purplish-brown border. It was 
originally described as from the Solomon Islands. Fig. 11 
is a copy of the original figure. A specimen received from 
Cuming is drawn in fig. 15. "P. perplexa Pse. MS." of H. 
H. Smith is the same. 

P. mucida Pfr. was based on the uniform chestnut colored 
form of varia. A figure of the type specimen in the British 
Museum is given, pi. 41, fig. 13. 

43. P. ROSEA Broderip. Plate 22. 

The shell is openly perforate, rather thin, ovate-pyramidal, 
moderately glossy ; Tinder a lens it is seen to be marked with 
fine growth-lines and close, waved, distinctly engraved spiral 
lines. Whorls 5, very slightly convex, the last generally 
angular at the periphery, in front of the aperture. The aper- 
ture is ovate, slightly oblique ; outer lip well expanded, thin- 
edged, strengthened with a narrow callous rim within, gradu- 
ally tapering to the upper end. Columella thin, dilated above. 
Parietal film transparent, toothless. 

Length 22, diam. 13 mm. 

Length 23, diam. 13 to 15 mm. 

The typical color (pi. 22, figs. 1, 2) is uniform rose, in- 
cluding the interior and lip ; but in many examples the em- 
bryonic whorls are paler or yellowish with a pink sutural line. 

Huaheine: "The headquarters of this beautiful and well- 
known arboreal species is in a large forest at the head of 
Hawai bay on the west side of Huaheine. From this region, 
where they are very numerous, they have spread over many 
parts of the island. They differ but little in shape in the 
different localities, except in Faahiti on the north coast, where 
they (the P. cognata Pease) are smaller, less angulated on 
the last whorl, and in the total absence of the uniform dark 
purple-brown and rose-colored varieties which are so com- 



PARTULA, HUAHEINE. 253 

mon elsewhere. The most numerous variety of the cognata 
form is straw-yellow with the sutural line tinted with rose or 
purple rose. A rose or purple-'brown variety with a centra] 
yellow band is found in no other part of the island/' 
(Garrett). 

Partula rosea BRODERIP, Proc. Zool. Soc., 1832, p. 125. 
REEVE, Conch. Syst., ii, pi. 175, figs. 9, 10; Conch. Icon., pi. 
1, figs, 1&, 5, c. PFEIFFER, Mon. HeL, iii, p. 448; iv, 509; vi, 
157; Conchyl. Cab., p. 272, pi. 64, f. 23-28. PEASE, Proc. 
Zool. Soc., 1871, p. 473. SCHMELTZ, Cat. Mus. Godeff., v, p. 
92. HARTMAN, Cat. Part., p. 14 (with woodcut) ; Obs. Gen. 
Part., Bull. Mus. Com. Zool., ix, pp. 186, 191 (excl. simplaria) . 
GARRETT, Journ. A. N. S. Phila. ix, 1884, p. 67. H. H. 
SMITH, Ann. Carnegie Mus. i, p. 461, with cognata and estal- 
liana, p. 462. Partulus roseus BECK, Ind. Moll., p. 57. 
Bulimus roseus PFEIFFER, Mon. HeL, ii, p. 70, exclusive of 
var. &. Partula purpurascens PFEIFFER, Proc. Zool. Soc., 
1856, p. 333; Mon. HeL, iv, p. 511. Partula cognata PEASE, 
MS., SCHMELTZ, Cat. Mus. Godeff., v, p. 92. GLOYNE, Quar. 
Jour. Conch., i, p. 338. GARRETT t. c. p. 68. 

Besides the common typical rose-colored form (figs. 1, 2), 
the following color-patterns occur. From Garrett 's remarks 
it appears that several of the patterns occur together, so that 
they seem ordinarily to have no racial status. The some- 
what smaller form cognata seems to have incipient racial 
features. 

2, form purpurascens Pfr. Dull purple, the aperture and 
lip violet, <common (fig. 3). 

3, form bipartita. Upper surface rose (fig. 4) or purple 
(fig. 5) base pale yellow, the lip white. " Frequent in the 
metropolis of the species but very rare elsewhere ' ' ( Garrett) . 

4, form bicolorata. Spire rose or purple, fading at the 
end of penultimate whorl to straw yellow or corneous on the 
last whorl; apex whitish; mouth and lip white (figs. 6, 7). 
Common. 

5, form straminea. Straw-yellow or yellowish-'corneous, 
the apex or whole spire corneous- white ; aperture and lip 



254 PARTULA, HUAHEINE. 

white (figs. 8, 9). According to Garrett this form is very 
abundant. 

6, form zonata. Yellow, with the base and a narrow or 
rather wide sutural 'band brown, purple-brown or rose-color, 
mouth bicolored. Common (fig. 10, 11). Varies in size 
from 24 x 13.5 to 21.5 x 12.5 mm. 

7, form cognata 'Pse.' Garrett. Often smaller, length 
9.5 to 23 mm., yellow with the suture tinted with rose or 
purplish; aperture white (pi. 22, figs. 12, 17; pi. 33, fig. 3), 
"Very common in Faahiti valley, but rare elsewhere" (Gar- 
rett). This small form varies to light yellow with pallid 
spire, and to yellow with purple or roseate spire, like form 
bicolorata ; or it may have the color of form no. 6. 

8, form estaUiaiia, 'Garrett' Smith. Shell small, thin, 
whitish-corneous or yellowish, with the base and a band be- 
low the suture rose or dull purple, leaving the lighter tint in 
a broad zone or band. Occurs in Faahiti valley only (figs. 
13, 14). 

This form varies to yellow or corneous-yellow shells, with 
the spire corneous or more or less purple-tinted, lip whitish 
or with a purplish tint (figs. 15, 16). 

Broderip's original description of P. rosed follows: 
"Shell ovate-pyramidal, roseate; whorls 6, longitudinally 
substriate, subdecussate with very close lines, the last larg- 
est; epidermis thin.. Length %, diam. % inch. 

"Var. a, purple-brown. Var. &, whitish, sutures and base 
of the last whorl roseate, epidermis yellow." (Brod.). 

44. P. ANNECTENS (Pease). PL 24, figs. 5, 6. 

The shell is perforate, oblong-ovate, very thin, pellucid, 
slightly yellowish corneous, sometimes with a pale ruddy tint 
at the apex, the suture bordered with an opaque white line. 
Surface lustrous, showing fine growth-lines, and very close, 
minutely crimped, spiral striae throughout. Whorls 4^, con- 
vex, the last one compressed or somewhat flattened below 
the periphery, therefore unusually convex close to the perfora- 
tion. The aperture is quite oblique, ovate ; peristome thin, re- 



PARTULA, BORABORA. 255 

flexed throughout, white, the columellar margin dilated and 
bifurcate above. Parietal wall covered with a scarcely 
noticeable film. 

Length 13, diam. 7.25 mm. ; aperture 7.8 mm. 

Length 14, diam. 7 mm. ; aperture 7.8 mm. 

Huaheine: "This delicate arboreal species is excessively 
rare, and has only occurred to my notice in two valleys on 
the west coast of Huaheine. ' ' ( Garrett) . 

Bulimus annectens PEASE, Proc. Zool. Soc., 1864, p. 671. 
PFEIFFER, Mon. HeL, vi, p. 48. Partula annectens PEASE, 
Proc. Zool. Soc., 1871, p. 473. HARTMAN, Cat. Part, p. 12; 
Obs. Gen. Part., Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., ix, p. 179. GARRETT, 
Journ. A. N. S. P. ix, 1884, p. 66, pi. 3, f. 70. 

"It is more fragile and less slender than P. attenuata, the 
nearest allied form. The spire is less than half the length 
of the shell, and the suture is margined by a white line. The 
dull whitish peristome is widely expanded. The aperture is 
never dentate, and the yellow- corneous shell is faintly tinged 
with greenish. 

"The animal varies from pale luteous-yellow to light 
brownish yellow. The soft parts, as seen through the trans- 
parent shell, are mottled with slate-colored spots. The foot 
is about the same length as the shell, and the ocular peduncles 
are very long and slender." (Garrett). 

5. Species of Borabora. 
45. P. LUTEA Lesson. PI. 23, figs. 16, 17, 18, 19. 

This species resembles the preceding [P. lineata], but it 
is distinguished by having the peristome less thick, by the 
umbilicus, of which the crevice is obliterated. Its altitude 
is 8 lines by 5 in diameter. Its spire is more swollen than 
in the preceding. The shell is thinner, and entirely corneous 
yellow. The Yellow Partula lives on the island of Borabora 
(Lesson). 

Society Is.: Borabora (Lesson, Garrett, Voy) ; widely dif- 
fused throughout the island, on the trunks and foliage of 
trees and bushes. (Garrett). 



256 PARTULA, BORABORA. 

Partula lutea LESSON, Voy. autour du Monde La Coquille, 
Zoologie, ii, pt. 1 (1831), p. 325. PFEIFFER, Mon. HeL, iii, 
p. 453. PEASE, Proc. Zool. Soc., 1871, p. 473. HARTMAN, 
Cat. Part., p. 8 (with woodcut) ; Obs. Gen. Part., Bull. Mus. 
Comp. Zool., ix, p. 184, part. GARRETT, J. A. N. S. Phila. 
ix, 1884, p. 53. Bulimus luteus DESHAYES, in Fer., Moll., ii, 
p. 123, pi. 158, figs. 17, 18. PFEIFFER, Mon. HeL, ii, p. 229. 
Partula solidula Rve., PFR., Monogr. iii, p. 452; Conchyl. Cab., 
Bulimus, pi. 64, f . 15, 16 ; pi. 65, f . 12, 13. SCHMELTZ, Cat. 
Mus. Godeff., v, p. 92 (not of Reeve). Partula lilacina 
PFEIFFER, Proc. Zool. Soc., 1856, p. 334. 

This is a rather solid, obesely ovate-conic shell, with 
straightly conic, acute spire and rather glossy surface. The 
spiral striation is generally weak in the median part of the 
last whorl, more distinct above and below. The first two 
whorls are flattened and slope steeply, giving the apex a more 
acutely conic shape than usual. Whorls 5, the post-embryonic 
ones rather convex, last whorl inflated. The aperture is 
somewhat oblique; outer lip reflexed and thickened within, 
white. Columellar margin only very little dilated at its in- 
sertion, near which it is thickened by a callous deposit on 
the inner margin of its face. The parietal wall is covered 
with a transparent callus, which near the lip-ends is thick- 
ened and white. There is no parietal tooth. The umbilicus 
is reduced to a very narrow, short chink. The color is 
variable : 

1. Uniform pale yellow. 

2. Pale yellow with brownish apex. 

3. Isabelline, the first 2% whorls purple-brown or blackish 
violet. 

4. Purple-brown, covered on the last whorl with a yellow 
cuticle, which is thin and transparent on the spire, the 
suture white (lilacina Pfr.). 

The size and snape vary. Lesson 's type was evidently near 
the small extreme in size. Shells from a lot collected by 
C. D. Voy, color-forms 2, 3, 4, measured: 

Length 19, diam. 11, aperture 10.1 mm. 



PARTULA, SOCIETY IS. 257 

Length 18.8, diam. 11, aperture 10.5 mm. 

Length 18, diam. 11.5, aperture, 10.8 mm. 

Others are more ventricose : 

Length 19.8, diam. 12.2, aperture 11.5 mm. 

Length 17.2, diam. 11, aperture 10 mm. 

Length 17.4, diam. 11, aperture 9% mm. 

According to Garrett, "notwithstanding its wide range 
over the island, it has not developed a single local variety. 
In fact it exhibits less variation than some of the species at 
the other islands which are restricted to single valleys. " 

Dr. Hartman and Andrew Garrett are agreed that Partula 
lilacina Pfr. is a color-phase of P. lutea. A figure of the 
type specimen in the British Museum is given, pi. 41, fig. 14. 

6. Species of unknown habitats, probably from the Society Is. 

The following will probably prove to be forms of some of 
the species already known from the Society Islands; but 
their status can only be determined by examination of the 
type specimens. 

46. P. STOLIDA Pease. 

"Shell elongate, ovate, dextral, rather dull, umbilicate, 
very finely roughened longitudinally and indistinctly under 
the lens striated transversely; whorls 5, convex; suture im- 
pressed; aperture elongately oval, rather small, not one- 
half the length of the shell, dentate, rarely edentate; lip 
somewhat roundly thickened, chestnut or olivaceous, ob- 
scurely and very finely striped longitudinally. Length 20, 
diam. 10% mm. Tahitian archipelago. Terrestrial. " 
(Pease) . 

Partula stolida PEASE, Amer. Jour. Conch., 1866, p. 198; 
Proc. Zool. Soc., 1871, p. 473. PFEIFFER, Mon. Hel. Viv. 
viii, p. 195. 

Garrett, in his work of 1884, identified specimens of P. 
compressa as stolida ; but they cannot be made to agree with 
Pease's description. Pease himself, in 1871, gives the locality 
Raiatea; yet his testimony is of doubtful value. Perhaps 



258 PARTULA, SOCIETY IS. 

P. stolida will prove, if the type specimen can toe found, to 
be a form of the otaheitana series from Tahiti. 

47. P. NITENS Pfeiffer. 

Shell subperf orate, conic-ovate, swollen, rather thin; longi- 
tudinally very delicately striate; glossy, diaphanous; tawny- 
brown, above obsoletely, at the base broadly banded with 
buff. Spire conic, rather acute. Suture lightly impressed, 
whitish. Whorls 5, a trifle convex, the last about equal to the 
spire, rounded at the base. Aperture slightly oblique, acu- 
minate-oval; peristome white, the right margin somewhat 
spreading above, moderately expanded; 'Columellar margin 
dilated, spreading somewhat over the perforation. Length 
17, diam. 10 mm. ; aperture with peristome 10 mm. long, 4% 
wide inside. (Pfr.). 

Habitat unknown (Cuming coll.). 

Partula nitens PFR., P. Z. S. 1854, p. 293 ; Monogr. iv, 513. 

48. P. PACIFICA Pfeiffer. 

Shell compressed-umbilieate, oblong-conic, rather thin, un- 
der a lens very minutely striated spirally, slightly shining, 
straw colored radiated with white and tawny lines. Spire 
conic, the apex acute; suture deep, submarginate.' Whorls 
5%, convex, the last a little shorter than the spire, somewhat 
tapering basally. Columella receding above, vaulted over 
the umbilicus. Aperture slightly oblique, truncate-oblong; 
peristome white, spreading and reflexed. Length 22, diam. 
10 mm.; aperture 9 x 41/2 mm. inside (Pfr.). 

Islands of the Pacific Ocean (Cuming coll.). 

Partula pacifica PFR., Proc. Zool. Soc. 1854, p. 154 ; Monogr. 
iv, 509. 

1 1 Very closely related to P. radiolata, but differing in size, 
the acute spire, convex whorls etc." (Pfr.). Dr. Hartman 
has considered pacifica a variety of P. otaheitana. 

49. P. SIMPLARIA Morelet. PL 23, figs. 13, 14. 

Shell perforate, ovate-conic, rather ventricose, yellowish- 
fulvous, thin, striolate, and delicately decussate towards the 



PARTULA, SOCIETY IS. 259 



apex; spire conic, the apex obtuse, roseate. Whorls 
little convex, the last slightly more than half the total length ; 
suture white-margined. Aperture subvertical, ovate, the 
throat whitish; peristome thin, narrowly expanded, pale 
Hesh colored, the columellar margin dilated, overhanging. 
Length 19, dram. 10, aperture 10x8 mm. (Morelet). 

Tahiti (Morelet). 

Partula simplaria MOREL., Journ. de Conchy!. 1853, p. 370, 
pi. 11, f. 13, 14. PFR., Monogr. iv, 512. 

This Partula is distinguished from P. varia by its swollen 
shape, obtuse summit, wider, less oblique and more rounded 
aperture, and finally the less thickened, less dilated peris- 
tome (Morelet). 

This form has not been rediscovered, and its locality is 
uncertain. It stands near P. assimilis', and by some authors 
has been considered a form of P. rosea or P. varia. 

50. P. DIMINUTA C. B. Adams. 

"Shell rather thick, ovate-conic; translucent, horn-colored, 
sometimes reddish, with a thin shining brownish horn-'colored 
epidermis, which is much interrupted by transverse stripes; 
with the tip white, with unequal, irregular, rather coarse 
transverse striae, and numerous excessively minute impressed 
spiral lines; apex subacute; spire rather short, with the out- 
lines slightly curvilinear; whorls five, a little convex, with a 
moderately impressed suture ; last whorl moderately oblique : 
aperture rather small, subovate, with a tubercle on the middle 
of the intruding part of the last whorl : lip much thickened, 
but narrow, with a regularly rounded surface : umbilicus 
small." (Ad.). 

Length .63, greatest breadth .36, length aperture .23 inch, 
mean divergence 58. 

Length .525, greatest breadth .28, length of aperture .21 
inch, mean divergence 60. 

Habitat unknown (Mus. Amherst College). 

Partula diminuta C. B. ADAMS, Annals of the Lyceum of 
Natural History of N. Y., v, p. 41 (1851) ; Contrib. to Conch. 
no. 8, p. 125. 



260 PARTULA, AUSTRAL AND HERVEY IS. 






"This species resembles a variety (P. auriculata Brod.) of 
P. otaheitana Brug., but is more slender as well as smaller. 5> 
(Ad.). Possibly a form of P. otaheitana. 

51. P. OBESA Pease. PL 41, fig. 22. 

"Shell umbilicate, abbreviate, conic-ally ovate, rather thin,, 
light, transversely very finely, closely and undulately striated ; 
whorls 4%, the last very large, comprising nearly three- 
fourths the length of the shell, somewhat inflated and pro- 
duced obliquely, rounded at base, spire short, conical, rather 
acute; aperture oblique, ovate; lip widely flatly expanded, 
white on both its outer and inner sides; columella slightly 
expanded above ; greenish yellow, encircled with a broad white 
band beneath the suture. 

Length 20, diam. 14 mm. 

Habitat unknown. 

Partula obesa PSE., American Journal of Conchology iii,. 
p. 222, pi. 15, f. 12 (Jan. 2, 1868). 

The figure does not agree well with Pease's measurements. 

"We have no locality for the above species. It appears to 
approach the Marquesan type, and may be allied to lilacina 
Pfr. It is covered with a thin epidermis, which, when worn 
off, would probably leave the shell without color, as is the 
case with ganymedes, Pfr. We have but a single specimen. ' * 
(Pease.) 

III. PARTULA OP THE AUSTRAL AND HERVEY GROUPS. 

The few species of these groups are very closely related to 
those of the Society Islands, and no doubt are of common 
derivation. 

In the Austral Group, Partula hyalina (see p. 180) is 
found on Tubuai and Rurutu (Oheteroa). No other Partula 
is known from the group. One island, Rurutu, has been 
somewhat carefully explored for land shells (see Garrett, 
Proc. A. N. S. Phila. 1879, pp. 17-30). 

In the Hervey or Cook's Group, P. hyalina has been found 
on Mangaia and Rarotonga. P. assimilis Pse., a form very 
close to P. varia of Huaheine, occurs on Rarotonga. Pease- 



PARTULA, HERVEY IS. 261 

has stated that the Raiatean P. ~kebe is found on Mangaia 
(Journ. de Conchyl. 1870, p. 401) 'but his records occasion- 
ally prove erroneous, and this one seems doubtful. 

52. P. ASSIMILIS Pease. PI. 41, figs. 5, 9. 

The shell is narrowly umbilicate, ovate-conic, rather thin; 
corneous or faintly yellowish-corneous, nearly uniform, but 
under a lens it appears to be very indistinctly marked with 
pale brown streaks; the early whorls are sometimes pale 
brown. 2y s embryonic whorls with the usual subpunctate 
spiral lines, succeeding whorls finely weakly striate spirally, 
convex. The last whorl is quite convex, very indistinctly 
marked with more or less effaced spiral lines, or they may 
be almost wholly absent. Aperture slightly oblique, white 
or flesh-tinted within. Peristome white or flesh-colored, re- 
flexed and somewhat thickened within. Columellar lip di- 
lated above. 

Length 18.3, diam. 10.5, aperture 10 mm. ; whorls 5. 

Length 17.2, diam. 10, aperture 9.3 mm. ; whorls 4%. 

"Length 17, diam. 9 mm." (Pse.). 

Hervey Is. : Rarotonga (Pease). 

Partula assimilis Pse., Amer. Journ. of Conch, iii, p. 230, 
pi. 15, f. 28, 29. Journ. de Gonchyl. 1870, p. 401, with var. 
virgulata Pse. PFR., Monogr. viii, p. 197. Cf. GARRETT, 
Journ. A. N. S. Phila. ix, 1884, p. 80. Partula, cookiana 
'Mouss.,' Schmeltz, Museum Godeffroy Catalog v, 1874, p. 92 
(name only). 

This species closely resembles the pale, yellowish form of 
P. varia of Huaheine, but differs by the thinner, less conic 
shell, with the spire more swollen, apex more obtuse and 
the lip is less thickened within. 

Pease has described a "var. virgulata, shell generally 
shorter than the typical form, longitudinally streaked with 
light red; alt. 15, diam 9 mm. Rarotonga." 

Two specimens out of the Pease duplicates, from a series 
received from Dr. Hartman, have the summit purplish, like 
the form of P. varia figured on pi. 23, fig. 4, yet I do not 
feel certain that they are really from Rarotonga. 




262 PARTULA, SAMOAN ISLANDS. 

IV. PARTITIVE OF THE SAMOAN ISLANDS. 

The Samoan Partulae are still very imperfectly known, 
species having been collected only on Upolu and Tutuila. 
Nothing is known of the species of the largest island, Savii, 
if any exist there, or of several smaller islands of the group. 

The known forms belong to four groups, quite diverse in 
texture and coloration, but two of them are alike in having 
the umbilicus unusually open. 

Key to Samoan species. 
a. Umbilicus or rimation very broadly open. 

b. Shell covered with a greenish-yellow or chestnut 
cuticle; whorls 5 to 5%. 

c. Last whorl spirally striate throughout. 
d. Dextral. 

e. Length 21, diam. 14 mm. 

P. abbreviata, no. 56. 
ee. Length 22 x 13 to 25 x 14 mm. 

P. stevensoniana, no. 55. 
dd. Sinistral; greenish-yellow with pale 
spire. P. conica, no. 54. 

cc. Later whorls without spiral striae except at 
the base of the last whorl ; spire dark-colored. 
d. Last whorl swollen at base; umbilicus 
ample. P. canalis, no. 53. 

dd. Last whorl tapering downward ; umbili- 
cus narrower. P. c. biconica, no. 53a. 
bb. Shell mottled or streaked with, opaque white or buff 
on a corneous gray or brown ground, or maculate 
with gray or brown on a pale ground; whorls 4 
to 4y 2 . 

c. Last whorl very wide, not striate spirally; 

umbilicus deep. P. expansa, no. 58. 

cc. Last whorl spirally striate ; shell oblong-conic, 
rimate. 

d. Aperture smaller. P. zebrina, no. 57. 
dd. Aperture larger. 

P. z. recluziana, no. 57&. 



PARTULA, SAMOAN ISLANDS. 263 

aa. Umbilical cavity small or moderate. 

b. Aperture about half the length; shell oblong- acu- 
minate, the last whorl very indistinctly streaked 
with greenish-yellow; 24x13 mm., aperture 12.9 
mm. P. brazieri, no. 59. 

bb. Aperture more than half the length; shell ovate-- 
conic, the last whorl greenish-yellow, spire brownish ; 
17 x 9 to 18 x 10.3 mm., aperture 10 mm. 

P. gonochila, no. 60. 

Section SAMOANA n. sect. 

Evadne HARTMAN, Gatal. Genus Partula, 1881, p. 12, type 
"E. bulimoides " = P. canalis Mouss. (preoc.) 

The shell is very openly rimate or umbilicate, dextral or 
sinistral, with flatly reflexed lip and no parietal tooth. 
Arboreal. Type P. canalis. 

The type species has -a short, triangular kidney, according 
to Semper. The group may be related to the Partulae of 
Huaheine, which have a similar kidney. 

Group of P. canalis. 
53. P. CANALIS Mousson. PL 32, figs. 6, 7, 8, 10. 

Shell sinistral, umbilicate, elongate-conic, rather thin, striat- 
ulate, not decussate, slightly shining, brownish. Spire conic, 
regular; apex subacute, violaceous, suture bordered with a 
white line, simple. Whorls 5%, nearly flat, the last large, 
equal to five-fourths the spire, long, more convex at the 
umbilicus, a little ascending in front. Aperture subvertical, 
ovate-oblong, subeffuse below. Peristome white, flatly re- 
flexed, moderately expanded, margins subparallel, columellar 
margin long, somewhat folded and impressed in a canal above. 
Alt. 29, diam. 14 mm. (Mouss.). 

Samoan Is.: Upolu (Graeffe, Garrett) ; Apia (C. N. E. 
Eliot) . 

Partula canalis Mouss., Journ. de Conchyl. 1865, p. 172; 
1869, p. 337 (with var semilineata, p. 338). PFR. Monogr. 
vi, p. 155. GARRETT, Proc. A. N. S. Phila. 1887, p. 134 
Partula conica brown variety, GOULD, U. S. Expl. Exped.,. 



264 PARTULA, SAMOAN ISLANDS. 

Moll., p. 82, pi. 6, f. 88. Evadne bulimoides Less., HARTMAN, 
Cat. Gen. Partula, 1881, p. 12, 13, fig. ; not of Lesson. 

This species differs from P. conica by its longer, more slen- 
der spire, absence of spiral striae except on the embryonic 
whorls and base, the darker tint, etc. It is said to be in- 
variably sinistral, and restricted to the island Upolu. 

The color is greenish-yellow with more or less chestnut suf- 
fusion, sometimes darker in narrow streaks. The spire is 
darker, reddish brown; suture margined with a white line, 
narrower than in P. conica. The peristome is flesh-tinted, 
not so broad as that of P. conica, and the columella is gut- 
tered at its junction with the body. The umbilicus is ample, 
as in P. conica. Figs. 6 and 7 were drawn from one of the 
original lot collected by Schmeltz. Specimens measure as 
follows. 

Length 28, diam. 17, aperture 16 mm. ; 5% whorls. 

Length 27, diam. 16.5, aperture 16.3 mm. ; 5y 2 whorls. 

Length 28.3, diam. 16.8, aperture 15 mm. ; 5% whorls. 

Length 25.8, diam. 15.8, aperture 14.7 mm. ; 5% whorls. 

A single specimen before me (pi. 32, fig. 8) has a much 
shorter spire than canalis, not attenuated as that is. The 
color is dark chestnut, the spire dull dark purple. It is 
spirally striate below the periphery. Length 23, diam. 15, 
aperture 13.3 mm. ; whorls slightly over 5. Upolu. This may 
represent a distinct subspecies. 

53a. Var. BICONICA Pils., n. v. PL 31, figs. 6, 7. 

Some specimens collected by the United States Exploring 
Expedition differ from canalis by having the last whorl more 
swollen above the periphery, tapering to the base, and there- 
fore distinctly conic; the umbilicus is much narrower, and 
the plane of the peristome is more oblique. 

Length 28.8, diam. 18, aperture 17.5 mm. ; 5% whorls. 

Length 28, diam. 18, aperture 16.9 mm. ; 5% whorls. 

536. Var. SEMILINEATA Mousson. A little smaller, the last 
whorl wavy-lineolate at the base. Color varying from pale 
to dark corneous. Tutuila (Mousson) . 



PARTULA, SAMOAN ISLANDS. 265 

54. P. CONICA Gould. PL 32, figs. 1, 2, 3, 5 ; pi. 31, fig. 8. 

The shell is sinistral, openly umbilicate, conic, with rather 
slender spire ; white under the thin yellow cuticle, the earlier 
whorls and a subsutural margin being white. The surface 
is glossy. Whorls 5%, the first half -whorl smooth, follow- 
ing 2% whorls spirally engraved (fig. 8) ; on the following 
whorls the spire striae are almost wanting, but they reappear 
on the last whorl, which is very closely sculptured through- 
out with fine wavy spirals, stronger towards the base. The 
whorls are moderately convex, the last whorl rather swollen 
peripherally and very convex at the base. The aperture is 
ovate, rather oblique; peristome white, flatly, rather widely 
reflexed, dilated at the columellar insertion and somewhat 
excavated or grooved at its junction: with the base. Parietal 
callus very thin, transparent. 

Length 25.5, diam. 16.5, aperture 15 mm. (figs. 1-3). 

Length 24.5, diam. 16.5, aperture 15 mm. (fig. 5). 

Sarnoan Is, : Tutuila; (Upolu?). 

Partula conica GOULD, Proc. Boston Soc. N. H. ii, 1848, p. 
196; Expedition Shells, in Otia Conchologica, p. 33; U. S. 
Expl. Exped. Mollusca, p. 81, Mm pi. 6, f. 88a. PPR., 
Monogr. iii, 445; iv, 507; vi, 155; Novit. Conch, i, p. 120, pi. 
34, f. 8, 9. MOUSSON, Journ. de Conchyl. 1865, p. 171, no. 11. 

In his descriptions of this species, Gould considered the 
large, more or less chestnut colored and smoother form later 
described as P. canalis to be -a form of conica, and he also, 
by implication, included the dextral form, his words "in- 
terdum sinistrorsa" indicating that he 'had seen dextral ex- 
amples. It is obvious that Gould considered the sinistral 
form to be typical from his selection of sinistral examples 
for figuring, and from his comparison "resembling Bulimus 
l&vus in form"; yet his description is composite, the num- 
ber of whorls referring especially to the larger brown form 
(canalis) and the description of sculpture to the striate form 
here considered to be the true conica. Garrett's restriction 
of P. conica to the dextral form was not allowable under the 
existing conditions. 



266 PARTULA, SAMOAN ISLANDS. 

One of Gould's figures is copied, fig. 1. Other figures 
drawn from the same type specimen are given (figs. 2, 3, no. 
2687 A. N. S. P.). The whitish spiral lines on this shell are 
apparently pathologic. 

This species is distinguished from P. canalis by the white 
spire of fewer whorls (5% to 5%), the more developed stria- 
tion of the last whorl and the comparatively larger aperture. 
In some examples, such as that shown in fig. 5, the spiral 
striation of the last whorl is hardly visible above the middle. 

Gould's second locality for this species, "Raraka," is a 
low island (atoll) of the Paumotu group, where it is prac- 
tically certain that no Partula lives. 

li Partula cornea Gld. (upolensis Mss.) " SCHMELTZ Catalog 
II der zum Verkauf stehenden Doubletten aus den naturhis- 
torischen Expeditionen .der Herren Joh. Ces. Godeffroy & 
Sohn in Hamburg, p. 25, no. 1379 (March, 1865), is an un- 
described form, about which very little is known. Garrett 
placed upolensis in the synonymy of P. conica, but he seems 
to have had P. stevensoniana. A specimen purchased from 
the Godeffroys as P. upolensis (no. 59845 A. N. S. P.) as from 
Samoa, is nothing else than P. rosea cognata! This shell is 
figured, pi. 33, fig. 3. 

55. P. STEVENSONIANA n. sp. PI. 32, figs. 4, 9, 11 ; pi. 31, fig. 12. 

The shell is openly umbilicate, ovate-conic, rather thin, 
whitish under a greenish-yellow cuticle, pale corneous or 
brown on the spire, suture edged with a white line. The 
embryonic whorls, except the first half-whorl, are deeply and 
very closely sculptured with engraved punctate spirals (pi. 
31, fig. 12) ; following whorls and upper half of last whorl 
have rather widely spaced spiral lines, and the basal half of 
the last whorl is densely marked with wavy spirals. Spire 
short, conic, regular. Whorls 5*4, convex, the last equally 
convex except near the aperture where it is a little produced 
outwardly towards the base. Aperture ample, flesh colored 
within, but slightly oblique. Peristome reflexed, ivory white r 
dilated and a little impressed at the columellar insertion. 



PARTULA, SAMOAN ISLANDS. 267 

Length 25, diam. 14, aperture 14.1 mm. 

Length 23, diam. 13.5, aperture 14 mm. 

Length 22, diam. 13, aperture 13 mm. 

Samoan Is.: Apia, Upolu (Sir Charles Eliot), cotypes no. 
77306 A. N. S. P. 

Partula conica GARRETT, Proc. A. N. S. Phila. 1887, p. 134. 

^Partula upolensis Mousson, Schmeltz, 'according to GAR- 

RETT, Proc. A. N. S. Phila. 1887, p. 134, in synonymy of 

P. conica Gld. ? P. cepolensis Mouss., SCHAUFUSS, Paetel 

Catal. p. 83, nude name. 

This is a more lengthened shell than P. abbreviata. 

56. P. ABBREVIATA Mousson. PL 32, figs. 15, 16. 

Shell rimate-umbilicate, ovate, thin, striate, closely sculp- 
tured throughout with minute wavy lines, pale corneous. 
Spire eonvexly-conic, obtuse and worn bare 'at the summit; 
suture little impressed, white, generally with a denuded line. 
Whorls 5 to 5!/2> rapidly increasing, 'a little convex, the last 
whorl inflated, rounded, a little ascending, rather swollen 
basally. Aperture su'b vertical, (15 degrees with the axis), 
large, two-thirds the total length. Peristome acute, widely 
and flatly reflexed, white, the margins remote, joined by a 
scarcely visible callus; right margin forming a long arch, 
columellar margin widely reflexed, slightly impressed at the 
insertion; columella somewhat folded deep within. Length 
21, diam. 14 mm. (Mouss.). 

S'amoan Is. : Tutuila. 

Partula abbreviata Mouss., Journ. de Conchyl. 1869, p. 
339, pi. 14, f. 7. 

This form seems to be known by the original lot only. It 
stands close to P. canalis and P. conica, having spiral sculp- 
ture like the latter, and coloration more like canalis. The 
cuticle is readily deciduous on the summit and in a band 
along the suture. The compact, subglobose shape distin- 
guishes it from allied species. It is shorter and wider than 
P. stevensoniana, 'and the aperture is larger. 



268 PARTULA, SAMOAN ISLANDS. 






Group of P. zebrina. 
57. P. ZEBRINA Gould. PI. 31, figs. 10, 11, 14, 15. 

The shell is openly rimate and perforate, rather thin, ob- 
long-conic, scarcely shining, closely and finely striate spirally 
throughout-, marked with spots, flecks or stripes of opaque 
buff on a corneous or brown ground, or with corneous or 
brown on a bun 3 ground. Spire convexly conic, the summit 
obtuse, whorls 4%, convex, the second disproportionately large, 
last whorl convex, swollen 'basally. Aperture suibvertical. 
Peristome flatly reflexed, white, thickened within with a 
strong callous rib which 'ascends on the columellar margin, 
often forming a vertical ridge near the dilated upper end. 

Length 20, diam. 12.3, aperture 12 mm. ; 4% whorls. 

Length 19, diam. 12.5, aperture 12 mm. ; 4% whorls. 

Length 18.5, diam. 10.7, 'aperture 11 mm. ; 4% whorls. 

Length 21, diam. 12, aperture 12.25 mm., 4% whorls 
( tryoni) . 

Samoan Is.: Tutuila (U. S. Expl. Exped.; Schmeltz). 

Partula zebrina GOULD, Proc. Boston Soc. N. H. ii, 1848, 
p. 196; Expedition Shells, p. 33; U. S. Expl. Exped., Moll., 
p. 82, pi. 6, f. 89. PFR., Monogr. iii, 450. Partulus actor 
ALBERS, Die Heliceen, 1850, p. 187. Partula actor Alb., PFR., 
Monogr. iii, 450; Gonchyl. Cab. p. 266, pi. 48, f. 13, 14. 
GARRETT, Proc. A. N. S. Phila. 1887, p. 133. Partula tryoni 
HARTMAN, Proc. A. N. S. Phila. 1885, p. 204, fig. in text. 

This species is related to P. expansa, but differs 'by its 
narrower, less deeply penetrating umbilicus, longer spire, and 
especially by the spiral striation of the last whorl, which 
was described by Gould (see fig. 11, drawn from below the 
suture just back of the outer lip). 

The opaque buff markings appear mostly as oblique streaks 
along the lines of growth, but they often tend to become trans- 
formed into spirally descending stripes, especially on the 
last half whorl, approaching the condition of the further 
evolved P. expansa. Often the cream tint predominates over 
the corneous or brown markings, which remain as streaks 
or spots. 



PARTULA, SAMOAN ISLANDS. 269 

Partula tryoni Hartman (pi. 31, fig. 5) is a zebrina in 
which the cream-white markings are reduced to mere flecks. 
While this color-pattern may possibly be characteristic of a 
local race, it is surely nothing but a form of P. zebrina. I 
have figured the type specimen (no. 4261 Carnegie Mus.). 
It was erroneously supposed to be from the Solomon Islands. 

Partula actor Albers differs in no respect from zebrina. 
The type figure is copied, pi. 31, fig. 10. 

57a. Var. recluziana Petit. PI. 31, figs. 9, 13, 16. 

"Shell rimate-perf orate, ovate-conic, buff-brown orna- 
mented with irregular whitish, sometimes zigzag spots. Spire 
short, obtuse; whorls 4, a little convex, the last longer than 
the spire. Aperture oblong-oval; lip expanded, white. 
Length 20mm." 

Samoan Is.: Tutuila (Schmeltz). 

Partula recluziana PETIT de la SAUSSAYE, Journ. de 
onchyl. i, 1850, p. 170, pi. 7, f. 5. cf. MOUSSON, J. de C. 
1869, p. 339. 

This form differs from P. zebrina by its larger last whorl 
and shorter spire. Whether it is a true race or merely a 
phase of individual variation I have not the means of deciding. 
Fig. 9 is copied from that of Petit. Figs. 13, 16 represent 
specimens before me, measuring 

Length 19.9, diam. 12.2, aperture 13, whorls 414. 

Length 18, diam. 12.5, 'aperture 11.8, whorls 4. 

In fig. 16 the white spots and stripes follow the direction of 
growth-lines, and stand on a corneous-brown ground. In fig. 
13 the flecks and spots are mainly lengthened in a spiral di- 
rection, but arranged in oblique series ; the ground being very 
dark brown. The whole shell is marked with spiral lines, as 
in P. zebrina. 

58. P. EXPANSA Pease. PL 32, figs. 12, 13, 14. 

The shell is broadly and deeply umbilicate, obliquely ovate, 
rather thin, lusterless ; gray, marked with opaque white bands 
or spots, which descend spirally and obliquely forward. Spire 



270 PARTULA, SAMOAN ISLANDS. 

very short, conic ; whorls 4 or slightly more, convex, the first 
2~y 2 composing the embryonic shell are uniform gray, the first 
half whorl smooth, the rest very closely marked with en- 
graved spiral lines, which rapidly disappear on the next 
whorl. About the middle of the penultimate whorl some 
white spots appear in the gray surface, the first ones being 
arranged along growth-lines; they rapidly change to spirally 
lengthened spots and belts which may be either continuous or 
interrupted on the last whorl. The last whorl is lightly 
marked with growth-lines but has no spiral strice. It is in- 
flated and very convex at the base. Aperture lateral, dia- 
gonal. Peristome broadly and flatly reflexed, white, thick- 
ened within. 

Length 18, diam. 14, aperture 13 mm. 

Length 19, diam. 15, aperture 13.5 mm. 

Samoan Is.: Upolu, on foliage (Garrett). ? Tutuila 
(Brazier). 

Partula expansa PSE., Amer. Journ. of Conch, vii, 1872, 
p. 26, pi. 9, f. 3. PFR., Monogr. viii, p. 203. GARRETT, Proc. 
A. N. S. Phila. 1887, p. 133. P. extensa PEASE, P. Z. S. 1871, 
p. 473 (name only; error for expansa). P. zebrina Gld., 
MOUSSON, Journ. de Conchyl. 1865, p. 173 ; 1869, p. 339. 

Readily distinguished by its broad and deeply penetrating 
umbilicus, very short spire, the absence of spiral striation on 
the last whorl, etc. The locality Tutuila, originally given by 
Pease on Brazier's authority, is apparently erroneous. It 
has been taken by Garrett and Schmeltz on Upolu. Pease's 
type specimen (drawn in my figure 14) is not fully mature, 
the expansion and thickening of the lip being incomplete. 
The pattern of opaque white stripes is interrupted, leaving 
snowy dots and streaks over part of the surface. 

Group of P. brazieri. 

The following species seems to be very intimately related 
to the group of P. caledonica, and belongs to the section 
Melanesica forms inhabiting the New Hebrides and neigh- 
boring groups. It has the same pyramidal shape, indistinct 



PARTULA, SAMOAN ISLANDS. 271 

strigation and subperipheral band, etc. We have no sufficient 
ground for doubting the evidence of an experienced collector 
that P. brazieri inhabits the Samoan Islands; yet up to this 
time no other naturalist has encountered it there. 

59. P. BRAZIERI Pease. PL 33, figs. 1, 2. 

The shell is dextral oblong-acuminate, openly and deeply 
rimate, rather thin, glossy, whitish, having a very thin cuticle 
which on the last whorl is indistinctly streaked with very pale 
greenish-yellow, this color strongest in an indistinct belt 
below the periphery, and on the base. After the first half 
whorl the embryonic shell (fig. 2) is sculptured with close, 
punctate spiral striae ; post-embryonic whorls sculptured with 
engraved spiral lines, which are rather widely spaced, and 
on the last half of the last whorl are obsolete above periphery. 
Spire conic, rather slender above. Embryonic shell of 2% 
flat whorls; following whorls convex, the last whorl convex 
above, very full basally. Aperture slightly oblique, white 
within. Peristome narrowly reflexed, thickened within, 
white, tapering towards the upper termination, where it is 
continued in a small triangular callus filling the angle of 
the aperture. Columellar lip dilated inwards, a trifle grooved 
along its junction with the body ; its outer edge continued a 
short distance upward on the parietal wall. Parietal callus 
transparent. Length 24, diam. 13.1, length of aperture 12.9 
mm. ; whorls 5%. 

Samoan Islands: Tutuila (Brazier). 

Partula ~brazieri PSE., Amer. Journ. of Conch, vii, 1872, 
p. 27, pi. 9, f. 5. Cf. GARRETT, Proc. A. N. S. Phila. 1887, 
p. 135, and HARTMAN, Nautilus xi, 44. 

Described and figured from the unique type, no. 59846 A. 
N. S. P. Garrett and Hartman have expressed doubts as to 
the locality assigned by Pease on the authority of Brazier. 
The shell is so similar to species of the New Hebrides that it 
seems possible that it was obtained in that group. Trading 
schooners from Sydney usually touched at numerous islands, 
exchanging their cargoes of rum, cloth, guns and trinkets for 



272 PARTULA, SAMOAN ISLANDS. 

copra, and the shells "brought from various places might 
easily become mixed. 

Group of P. gonochila. 

The relations of P. gonochila and P. subgonochila to- 
other Partulae are uncertain. 

60. P. GONOCHILA (Pfeiffer). PL 41, figs. 6, 7, 8, 10. 

Shell subperforate, ovate-conic, thin, delicately and closely 
decussate, diaphanous, green. Spire conic, rather acute; 
\\horls 5, slightly convex, the last convex, longer than the 
spire. Columella obsoletely plicate above. Aperture oblong, 
obliquely truncate above; peristome broadly, angularly ex- 
panded, a little reflexed, thin, white inside, the margins re- 
mote. Length 17, diam. 9, aperture with peristome 10 x 7 
mm. (Pfr.). 

Habitat unknown (coll. Dunker). Navigator (Samoa) Is. 
(Pfr. ; coll. A'cad. Phila.). 

Bulimus gonochilus PFR., Zeitschr. f. Malak. 1847, p. 82; 
Monogr. ii, 69. Partula gonochila PFR., Monogr. iii, 448; 
iv, 512; vi, 160; Conchyl. Cab. p. 274, pi. 64, f. 33, 34. 
? Partula gonocheila REEVE, Conch. Icon. 6, pi. 4, f. 19 
(May, 1850). 

Pfeiffer 's description and figures (pi. 41, figs. 7, 8) are 
copied. The specimen drawn in figs. 6, 10, is slightly less 
swollen than Pfeiffer 's, measuring, length 18, diam. 10.3, 
aperture 10 x 7 mm., whorls 5. The last whorl is whitish 
under a very thin pale greenish yellow cuticle. The 
spire is red-brown, darkest at the apex; on the penul- 
timate whorl it becomes paler in the middle, a darker shade 
continuing as a border above and below the suture as far as 
the lip. The growth-striae are fine and distinct. Engraved 
spiral lines are fine and close, strongest on the last whorL 
The whorls including the last are evenly convex; base con- 
vex, shortly rimate and deeply perforate. The lip is re- 
flexed, opaque white behind the reflection. It is strengthened 
by a very strong, narrow white callous rib within. This rib 
diminishes gradually above, and extends upward on the coin- 



PARTULA, TONGA ISLANDS. 273 

mellar margin two-thirds of the distance to the insertion, 
terminating rather abruptly near the lower end of the oblique, 
straight columellar fold. 

The habitat of this species is not known, even the group 
assigned (Sainoan) being uncertain. 

V. SPECIES OF THE FIJI Is., ROTUMA, AND THE TONGA Is. 

Tonga Is. species. 
61. P. SUBGONOCHILA Mousson. PL 41, figs. 11, 12. 

Shell perforate, ovate-conic, finely, widely decussate, stria- 
tulate, greenish. Spire convexly-conic, regular, the summit 
rather obtuse ; suture not impressed, submarginate. Whorls 
4%, slightly convex, the last moderately convex, not as long 
as the spire, not ascending in front. Aperture rather small, 
sub vertical (making an angle of 5 degrees with the axis), 
oblong, obliquely truncate above. Peristome expanded, 'angu- 
larly reflexed, whitish, somewhat labiate within, the margins 
not approaching ; right margin curved in a long arch above ; 
columellar margin vertical, wide, spreading, not folded with- 
in. Length 16, diam. 9.6 mm. (Mouss.) . 

Tonga Is. : Futuna or Fotuna, in the Home group, and 
Vavau (Dr. Ed. Graeffe). 

Partula subgonochila Mouss., Journ. de Conchyl. xix, 1871, 
p. 14, pi. 3, f. 4. 

This species resembles P. varia to some extent, but the spire 
is less produced. Two lots from the Bartman collection are 
before me: No. 4284 Carnegie Mus. is from "Fortuna, 
Friendly Is.," coll. by Brazier (apparently Futuna, the type 
locality). The shell is thin, pale greenish yellow on the last 
whorl or two, fading to whitish above near the suture, the 
spire whitish. The spiral strias are rather close and very dis- 
tinct, and on the last whorl the peripheral 'angle is so in- 
distinctly indicated, that the contour remains rounded. The 
summit is quite obtuse. The lip is white. The largest of 
four measures, length 17, diam. 10, aperture 9 mm., whorls 
4%. The smallest is 16 mm. long. 



274 PARTULA, ROTUMA, FIJI. 

No. 4285 Carnegie Mus., four specimens labelled "Tu- 
tuila." Smaller than the preceding, the spiral striation not 
so strong on the last whorl, lip flesh-tinted. Length 14%, 
diam. 9, aperture S 1 /^ mm., whorls 4% 

P. gonochila Pfr. is no doubt closely related to subgono- 
ckila. In both the spiral striation of the embryonic whorls 
is very fine 'and distinct, and the pitting is conspicuous. 
P. gonochila is a more solid shell, darker colored, with the 
lip more thickened within, and the upper part of the spire 
more narrowly conic. 

Rotuma species. 
62. P. LEEFEI (E. A. Smith). 

' 'Shell dextral, small, ovate, umbilicate, yellow-olivaeous, 
pale below the suture and towards the apex; spire moder- 
ately produced, rounded at the apex. Whorls 5, a little con- 
vex, closely sculptured with delicate growth lines and very 
fine spiral striae, more or less obsolete on the last whorl ; last 
whorl hardly descending in front. Aperture ovate, brown- 
ish inside, about half the total length; peristome white, ex- 
panded and reflexed, slightly thickened. Length 14, diam. 
9 mm. ; aperture 6 x 3~y 2 mm. inside" (Smith) . 

Rotuma Island (R. B. Leefe). 

Partula leefei SMITH, Annals and Magazine of Natural 
History (6) xx, 520 (Dec., 1897). 

"A small species, distinguished by its style of coloration 
and general form." 

Rotuma lies between the Fiji and Ellice Is., about 300 miles 
N. N.-W. of the former. Its size is about 8x2 miles, with 
a height of 800 ft. 

Fiji species: Section THAKOMBAUA, n. sect. 

The single Fijian Partula, P. lirata, is very distinct by the 
coarse spiral sculpture of the post-embryonic whorls and the 
tubercular callus or tooth on the parietal wall near the 
columella. 

P. lirata has no near relatives among known forms, and for 



PARTULA, FIJI ISLANDS. 275 

it the section Thakombaua is here instituted. It is somewhat 
remarkable that in Fiji no Partulas are known from the 
islands inhabited by Placostylus. The same is true of the 
New Caledonian group; but in the New Hebrides and 
Solomon Islands both genera exist. 

63. P. LIBATA Mousson. PL 34, figs. 15, 16, 17, 18. 

The shell is long ovate-conic, rather thin, rimate; white, 
pale yellowish, pale brown or rather dark liver brown with 
narrow paler streaks. Surface lusterless. The embryonic 
shell consists of nearly 3 whorls, the initial half whorl smooth, 
following half whorl very subtly punctate-striate spirally, 
spirals on the next whorl fewer, rather separated, and mainly 
on the upper part ; third whorl with very weak spirals, which 
at the beginning of the post-embryonic shell become distinct 
but low cords. These increase in prominence to the last 
whorl, where there are 8-12 strong spiral cords above the 
periphery, with small, unequal cords in most of the intervals, 
and on the base are many smaller unequal cords and threads. 
These spiral cords extend to the lip-edge, which is crenulated 
in all but old specimens. The last whorl is somewhat com- 
pressed laterally -and convex at the base. Aperture ovate, 
oblique, colored within like the outside. Peristome narrowly 
expanded, thickened within ; columella dilated above. Parietal 
wall covered with a distinct but transparent callus, which 
bears a white callous tubercle far within near the root of the 
columella. 

Length 18.2, diam. 9.8, aperture 9.5 mm. ; whorls 5%. 

" Length 21, diam. 10 mm.; whorls 5% " (Mouss.) . 

Fiji (Viti) Islands, only in the Eastern group: Lomma- 
lomma, Vanua Balavo I.; Kanathia I.; Oneata I. (Dr. E. 
Graeffe). Lanthala I., Vanua Balavo and Taviuni, on foli- 
age near the sea-shore (Garrett), Maugo or Mago (Layard). 

Partula lirata MOUSSON, Journ. de Conchyl. xiii, 1865, p. 
196 ; xviii, 1870, p. 126. CBOSSE, J. de C. xiii, 1865, p. 432, 
pi. 14, f. 4. HEYNEMANN, Malak. Blatter xiv, 1867, p. 148, 
pi. 1, f. 1 (teeth). GABRETT, P. Z. S. 1887, p. 187. H. H. 
SMITH, Ann. Carnegie Mus. i, p. 451, no. 4236. 



276 PARTULA, NEW HEBRIDES. 

The single Fijian Partula has 'been found only on the small 
islands of the "eastern group," the genus being unknown on 
the large islands, where Placostylus 'abounds. The rarity of 
Partula in this archipelago is at present inexplicable. The 
single species is one of the most distinct of the genus. 

Mr. Layard stated in a letter to Dr. Hartman that he did 
not find the species on Taviuni or Lomma-lomma, in six 
weeks collecting on the former and a day or two at the latter 
place. 

Section MELANESICA n. sect. 

Sterope HARTMAN, Catal. genus Partula, 1881, p. 14, type 
P. carteriensis Q. et G. ; not of Groodsir 1845, or Hagen, 1850. 

Partulae of simple form and coloring, corneous, yellow or 
brown, uniform or obliquely streaked, not banded; aperture 
not obstructed by teeth; the peristome either thin or thick- 
ened within. Suture often bordered above by a thread, which 
continues indistinctly on the last whorl as a low welt or 
group of closer striae. Type P. turneri. 

This group includes all of the species of the New Hebrides, 
Solomon Is., New Ireland, New Britain, New Guinea, and 
other adjacent islands, as well as one Samoan form, 
P. brazieri. 

VI. NEW HEBRIDES AND SANTA CRUZ ISLANDS. 

The Santa Cruz group, Banks and Torres Islands and New 
Hebrides form a group trending from N. W. to S. E. through 
about 10 degrees of latitude. The southern islands, Ero- 
manga, Aneiteum, are not remote from the Loyalty Islands 
which lie on a parallel fold, and have no Partulae. The 
northern or Santa Cruz end of the group approaches the 
Solomon Islands. The fauna is only imperfectly known, but 
seems to be somewhat related to that of the Solomon Islands, 
though much poorer and more primitive by lacking Papuina, 
Chloritis, etc. M'any of the islands are high and wooded. 

Group of P. turneri. 
Ovate-conic or pyramidal, openly 'and deeply rimate-umbili- 



PARTULA, NEW HEBRIDES. 277 

cate shells, with, narrow-streaked cuticle and markedly 
swollen, saccate base. 

64. P. TURNERI Pfeiffer. PI. 33, figs. 5, 6. , 

Shell deeply rimate-umbilicate, ovate-conic, rather solid, 
under the lens spirally wavy-striate, glossy, pale buff rayed 
with darker streaks. Spire conic, rather acute. Whorls 5, 
convex, the last slightly shorter than the spire, subcompressed 
at the base. Columella simple, slightly arcuate. Aperture a 
little oblique, oblong, peristome white, glossy, rather widely 
expanded throughout, the margins converging, columellar 
margin spreading. Length 22 to 23, diam. 11 to 12 aperture 
with perist. 12 x 8.5 mm. (Pfr.). 

New Hebrides: Eromanga (Turner). 

Partula turneri PFR., P. Z. S. 1860, p. 40 ; Malak. Bl. 1861, 
p. 16 ; Monogr. vi, 159. 

In the Monographia Pfeiffer mentions a var. &, "a little 
more ventricose, rayed with isabelline 'and whitish." 

Figs. 5, 6, represents a specimen received from Cuming. 
This typical form of P. turneri has very pale narrow yellow- 
ish-green streaks on a white, faintly lemon tinted ground. 
There is a very inconspicuous band below the periphery. The 
base is markedly full, sack-like. The spiral lines are rather 
widely spaced and become very faint on the last half of the 
last whorl, except at the base. The figured example meas- 
ures, length 23.5, diam. 13.3, length of aperture 12.5, width 
8.9 mm. ; whorls 5%. Another of the same lot is smaller, 
length 23, aperture 12 x 8.5 mm. 

Var. perstrigata nov. PL 33, fig. 4. 

The shell is pale buff or whitish, copiously marked with 
narrow chestnut or pale chestnut streaks; form, size and 
sculpture as in turneri. 

One of the lots of this form, received from Dr. Hartman 
and said to have been collected by Geale, is marked "Tanna, 
New Hebrides." The type lot, no. 59848 A. N. S. P., was re- 
ceived from Cuming as "P. turneri var., New Caledonia", 
an evident error. The variety closely resembles P. caledonica 
in color, but it is much more robust. Cf. P. macgillivrayi. 



278 PARTULA, NEW HEBRIDES. 

65. P. MACGILLIVRAYI Pfeiffer. PL 33, fig. 15, 16. 

Shell broadly and compressed umbilieate, conic, rather 
thin, striatulate and under a lens closely sculptured with 
spiral striae; whitish with yellowish streaks and marked with 
obsolete bands. Spire long-conic, rather acute. Whorls 5, 
slightly convex, the last about equal to the spire, somewhat 
ascending in front, sack-like at the base. Columella slightly 
arcuate, lightly folded deep within. Aperture slightly 
oblique, truncate-oblong; peristome white, thin, equally, sub- 
rectangularly expanded. Length 23, diam. 11, aperture with 
peristome 12.5x9.3 mm. (Pfr.). 

New Hebrides (Macgillivray). 

Partula macgillivrayi PFR., P. Z. S. 1855, p. 97; Monogr. 
iv, 508 ; Novit. Conch, i, p. 61, pi. 17, f . 14, 15. 

This species is known to me only by Pfeiffer 's description 
and figures, which indicate a shell very similar to the brown- 
streaked variety of P. turnen. 

66. P. CALEDONICA Pfeiffer. PL 33, figs. 12, 13, 14. 

Shell deeply and compressed-umbilicate, rather solid, ob- 
long-conic, irregularly striate, pale flesh colored irregularly 
radiated with close brownish streaks. Spire conic, acute. 
Whorls 5!/2, a little 'Convex, the middle ones distinctly striate 
spirally, last whorl shorter than the spire, ascending in front, 
impressed in the middle and sack-like at the base. Columella 
subplicate deep within. Aperture a little, oblique, oblong. 
Peristome white, rather widely expanded throughout, the mar- 
gins converging, right margin somewhat sinuous. Length 22 
to 221/2, diam. 10 mm.; aperture with peristome 11 mm. 
long, 7 wide ; inside 4% wide above the middle (Pfr.) . 

New Hebrides: Havannah Harbor, Sandwich (Vate or 
Efate) Island, type loc. ; also reported from Vanua Lavu, 
Banks Islands (John Brazier). 

Partula caledonica PFR., P. Z. S. 1861, p. 389 ; Monogr. vi, 
157. BRAZIER, P. Z. S. 1871, p. 585. Partula pfeifferi 
CROSSE, Journ. de Conchyl. 1871, p. 184; 1894, p. 172 (based 
on Pfeiffer's description). Partula artensis Montrouzier, 
Cox, on label in coll. A. N. S. P. 



PARTULA, NEW HEBRIDES. 279 

A slender shell resembling P. turneri in coloration. The 
spiral lines are distinct and rather widely spaced on the 
penultimate whorl and obsolete on the last whorl except in 
the base. There is a faint band below the periphery, as in 
the allied species. The apical whorls are shaped like those 
of P. Irazieri, figured on plate 33, fig. 2. Specimens 
measure : 

Length 21.8, diam. 12, aperture 11 mm. ; whorls 5%. 

Length 20, diam. 10.5, aperture 10.9 mm. 

67. P. NEMATORAPHE Pilsbry, n. sp. PI. 35, figs. 1, 2, 3. 

The shell is ovate-conic, rather thin, white under a thin, 
pale, yellowish green cuticle, which is darkest at the base, fad- 
ing upward to corneous- whitish on the upper whorls, the last 
whorl having narrow streaks of a darker shade at irregular 
intervals. Surface glossy. Embryonic shell -of fully 2y 2 
whorls is very minutely punctate-striate spirally; following 
whorls are more convex, with rather distinct oblique growth- 
strise but only very faint and fine traces of spiral lines, ex- 
cept on the last whorl, which is distinctly striate spirally on 
the base and somewhat malleate behind the outer lip. The 
last whorl is full, rather swollen above the periphery, then 
tapers to the narrow, very convex 'base. The umbilical chink 
is deep and ample. Whorls nearly 5%> separated by a well- 
impressed suture, which in the last two whorls is bordered 
above by a low cord defined by a groove. This margin is cov- 
ered by the ascent of the last whorl near the aperture, but 
may be traced faintly on the last whorl, though it is there 
very indistinct. The aperture is vertical, white within. 
Outer lip narrowly reflexed, white, thickened within. Colu- 
mellar margin broadly dilated above. The lip-callus extends 
somewhat more than half way up to the insertion, where it 
terminates in a small but distinct nodule. Parietal callus 
thin, transparent. 

Length 21.7, diam. 12.5, aperture 12 x 9 mm. 

Length 21, diam. 12, aperture 11 x 8.3 mm. 

Habitat unknown. The types were obtained from Geale 



280 PARTULA, NEW HEBRIDES. 

as "P. alabastrina Pfr., Fiji Is./' 'but the shell has wholly 
the appearance of the New Hebrides Partulae. Two cotypes 
no. 4293 Carnegie Museum. 

Partula alabastrina Pfr., H. H. SMITH, Annals of the Car- 
negie Museum, i, p. 468, no. 4293. 

This species was thought by Dr. Hartman to be P. alabas- 
trina, but Pfeiffer's description of that shell does not apply 
well to these specimens in several respects. Fig. 3 represents 
the suture just behind the aperture, showing the end of the 
suprasutural >cord. 

68. P. EXIMIA Hartman. PL 33, fig. 11. 

The shell is very deeply rimate-perforate, pyramidal. The 
unique type is a "dead" shell, denuded of cuticle, grayish 
white, but the color is preserved on the parietal wall, indicat- 
ing a very pale buff ground marked with narrow brownish- 
yellow streaks; the coloration perhaps intermediate between 
that of typical P. turneri and P. caledonica. The apical 
whorls resemble those of P. brazieri, though the second may be 
slightly more convex. Subsequent whorls are quite convex, 
and traces of fine, rather spaced spiral striation, just as in 
P. caledonica, may be seen on the penultimate and next earlier 
whorls, the last whorl being 'without spirals except around 
the umbilicus. Oblique growth-wrinkles are rather distinct. 
The last whorl is compressed laterally and very convex at 
the base. Aperture only half the total length, slightly 
oblique; perisitome white, expanded, well thickened within; 
having the usual deeply placed fold at the root of the colu- 
mella. Length 23, diam. 11.7, length of aperture 11.5 mm., 
width 7.8 mm. ; whorls 5%- 

New Hebrides: Aneiteum (Layard). 

Partula eximia HARTMAN, Proc. A. N. S. Phila. 1886, p. 
35, pi. 2, f. 14. (April 6, 1886). 

This species stands very close to P. caledonica, from which 
it differs by the slightly more lengthened spire, and perhaps 
the paler, less brown color. Hartman, in 1896, wrote me 
that he considered eximia a synonym of macgillvrayi, having 



PARTULA, NEW HEBRIDES. 281 

compared it with a Cumingian specimen of macgillivrayi 
in the Newcomb collection (see Nautilus XI, 1897, p. 44). 
According to the measurements given by Pfeiffer, macgil- 
livrayi has a larger aperture. The unique type of P. eximia 
is figured and described. 

69. P. EBURNEA Hartman. PL 33, fig. 8. 

"Shell dextral, ovate, very elongate, solid. Spire half the 
length ; whorls 5%, oblique striae coarse, spiral striae obsolete, 
aperture a wide oval, more or less oblique; umbilicus com- 
pressed. Columella wide above, lip reflected, white and flat, 
margins of the peritreme connected by callus. Color ivory- 
white. In fresh examples sometimes the whole shell is tinged 
with pale rose. Length 26, diameter 13, length of aperture 
11, diameter 6 mm." (Hartman). 

Habitat unknown. 

Partula eburnea HARTM., Proc. A. N. S. Phila. 1886, p. 
33, pi. 2, f. 10. H. H. SMITH, Ann. Carnegie Mus. i, pp. 
467, 475. 

"Captain Brazier sent me two examples of this shell, given 
him by a friend; it is larger and more solid than pfeifferi 
Crosse." (Hartm.) 

Dr. Hartman 's description is given above and a photograph 
of his type is copied. The type and another example were 
returned to Mr. John Brazier of Sydney, N. S. Wales. On 
the photograph of eburnea presented to the Academy Dr. 
Hartman marked ' ' = macgillivrayi Pf r. ' ' 

70. P. PYRAMIS Hartman. PI. 33, fig. 7. 

The shell is deeply rimate-umbilicate, rather thin, ovate- 
pyramidal, -white under a very thin whitish cuticle which is 
indistinctly marked with narrow yellowish- green streaks on 
the last whorl. Spire slender, long. Embryonic whorls conic 
and but slightly convex, much as in P. brazieri. Subsequent 
whorls convex, the penultimate and last whorls very strongly 
convex. The later part of the last whorl is flattened laterally ; 
base very full, sack-like. Spiral lines well spaced on the 
penultimate whorl, wanting on the last except at the base. 



282 PARTULA, NEW HEBRIDES. 

Aperture subvertical, white inside; peristome white, rather 
narrowly reflexed, thickened within, the columella dilated 
above as usual. Parietal callus thin and transparent except 
at the ends, where it bears short, callous pads joining the 
lip-ends. 

Length 23.3, diam. 13, aperture 12 mm. ; whorls 5 l / 3 . 

Length 24.5, diam. 13, aperture 12.2 mm. ; whorls 5y 2 . 

New Hebrides: Efate (Vate) Island (type loc.) ; Renee 
River and Terebu, Espiritu Santo (J. J. Walker). 

Partula pyramis HARTMAN Proc. A. N. S. Phila. 1886, p. 
34, pi. 2, f. 12. SYKES, Proc. Malac. Soc. Lond. v, p. 198. 

In coloring, this species is like P. turneri except that it has. 
no band below the periphery ; but it is a much more slender 
shell with a deeper suture. It stands very close to P. eximia, 
but differs by the more swollen last whorl and consequently 
wider aperture, and by the greener color. Described and 
figured from two cotypes in Hartman collection, no. 4305 
Carnegie Museum. 

71. P. ALBESCENS Hartman. PL 33, figs. 9, 10. 

' ' Shell dextral, ovate elongate, spire acute, regularly taper- 
ing, equal to one-half the length, whorls 5, rounded. Suture 
impressed, body whorl somewhat inflated, spiral striae nu- 
merous, regular and very fine, umbilicus open, aperture ovate, 
oblique, peritreme connected by a thin callus, columella wide 
at base, lip white, expanded, and concave, color a clear white 
and translucent. Length 25, diam. 13, length of aperture 8, 
diam. apt. 5 mm." (Hartm.) 

New Hebrides: Aura Island, Malo Pass, Espiritu Santo* 
group, and Sitova Island, (E. L. Layard). 

Partula albescens HARTM., Proc. A. N. S. Phila. 1888, p. 
251, pi. 13, f. 4. SMITH, Ann. Carnegie Mus. i, p. 467, no. 
4290. 

Dr. Hartman 's description and a copy of his figure (fig. 9) 
are given. The specimens before me from Sitova Island (fig. 
10) are smaller, with a narrower lip than the Aura Island 
type. The apex is like that of P. brazieri-, later whorls are 



PARTULA, NEW HEBRIDES. 283 

engraved with distinct spiral lines which are somewhat separ- 
ated on the penultimate whorl and front of the last one, but 
on the latter half of the last whorl the spiral striae are close, 
with deeper lines at short intervals. The later whorls are 
strongly convex, but the last becomes compressed laterally, 
towards the aperture, and is sack-like below. The umbilical 
chink is deep and wide. The color is a slightly bluish milky 
white, without markings. Length 21.8, diam. 12.2, length of 
aperture 11.2 mm.; whorls 5%. 

While it is closely related to P. caledonica, macgillivrayi, 
eximia etc., this species is distinct by the absence of color 
streaks and the persistence of spiral striae over the whole 
last whorl. 

I have been unable to find an Aura Island in the New 
Hebrides. Probably Arag is intended. Sitova is also un- 
known to me. 

72. P. TURRICULA Pease. 

Shell elongate, 'turriculate, solid, sinistral, rimate-p erf orate, 
glossy, smooth, delicately marked with growth-lines; buff, 
indistinctly rayed with darker streaks. Spire turriculate, 
rather acute. Whorls 5%, plano-convex, the last shorter than 
the spire, obliquely produced. Columella vertical, heavily 
calloused, broadly dilated above, especially over the umbilicus, 
transversely subsuloate. Aperture oblique, oblong, obliquely 
truncate behind. Peristome white, calloused, expanded and 
reflexed, slightly sinuated posteriorly. Length 20, diam. 10 
mm. (Pease). 

New Hebrides ( ?). 

Partula turricula PSE., Amer. Journ. of Conch, vii, 1871, 
p. 196. 

"The habitat of -the above species is doubtful. From its 
approaching P. macgillivrayi, Pfr., and caledonica, Pfr., in- 
habiting the New Hebrides, and having lately received speci- 
mens from Dr. Jas. C. Cox, with other species from that group 
of islands, there is little doubt but that locality is -the correct 
one. It differs from the species mentioned above in being 



284 PARTULA, NEW HEBRIDES. 

smaller, more 'slender, * sinistral, ' smooth, without any trace of 
transverse striae, and last whorl produced." (Pease). 

Group of P. auraniana. 
73. P. AURANIANA Hartman. PL 34, figs. 7, 8, 9, 10. 

The shell is deeply rimate, rather thin but solid, ovate- 
conic. The last two whorls are whitish (probably denuded 
of cuticle) below the suture, elsewhere covered with a thin 
greenish yellow cuticle with some inconspicuous darker streaks. 
The spire lacks cuticle and is very pale brownish, almost 
white. Apex obtuse; embryonic whorls slightly convex, 
punctate-striate, not so high as in P. fraterna. Subsequent 
whorls more convex, sculptured with distinct, regular en- 
graved spirals, which are somewhat weaker and more widely 
spaced on the upper part of the last whorl, closer and deeper 
on the base. Last whorl is strongly convex, its last half 
however being perceptibly compressed laterally; base very 
convex. The aperture is but slightly oblique, symmetrically 
ovate, faintly flesh-tinted within. Peristome white, moder- 
ately reflexed, thickened within. Columellar margin dilated 
above 

Length 18.8, diam. 11, aperture 10 mm. ; whorls 5. 

Length 18.25, diam. 11, aperture 10 mm. ; whorls 4%. 

Length 18, diam. 10.9, aperture 10 mm. ; whorls 4%. 

Length 17.5, diam. 11, aperture 10 mm. ; whorls 4%. 

New Hebrides : Aura ( ? Arag) Island, in the Malo Pass, 
Santo Espirito group (Layard, type loc.) ; Lo and Hiu islets 
of the Torres group (Walker). 

Partula auraniana HARTM., Proc. A. N. S. Phila. 1888, p. 
250, pi. 13, f. 1. SYKES, Proc. Malac. Soc. Lond. v, 198. 

This is said to be a common species. It differs from P. 
fraterna chiefly by the better developed spiral striation, lower 
embryonic whorls and shorter spire ; yet it is not improbable 
that intermediate forms occur. 

An embryo of 2y 2 whorls, 4.9 mm. long, is figured, pi. 34, 
fig. 8. The first half whorl is pale brown and smooth, fol- 
lowing whorls are densely punctate-striate above. The peri- 



PARTULA, NEW HEBRIDES. 285 

phery of the last whorl is angular, base with no spiral striae. 
The columella is long, vertical, rather heavily calloused, taper- 
ing and somewhat excised 'below, not unlike the columella 
in some forms of Obeliscus. The axis is perforated. 

Mr. Sykes states that 'the specimens from Do Island col- 
lected 'by Mr. J. J. Walker are a local race. 

74. P. PRATERNA Hartman. PL 34, fig. 4. 

The shell is rather widely and deeply rimate, solid, ovate- 
conic. Last whorl whitish below the suture, elsewhere cov- 
ered with a faintly green tinted yellow cuticle which is in- 
distinctly streaked with brighter yellow ; the spire brown, be- 
coming darker towards the apex;* suture well impressed, 
marked with a whitish line. Apex obtuse, the top more 
rounded and the sides less straightened than in P. caledomca, 
brazieri etc. ; embryonic whorls punctate-striate, convex ; sub- 
sequent whorls convex, engraved with rather delicate spirals, 
almost obsolete on the upper part of the last whorl, but dis- 
tinct though delicate on the base. The last whorl is a little 
flattened laterally behind the aperture, convex and somewhat 
sack-like basally. Aperture fleshy within, ovate, hardly 
oblique. Peristome rather narrowly expanded and -re-flexed, 
thickened within, tapering at the upper end. Columellar 
margin broadly reflexed, dilated and biramose above. Parietal 
callus thin, transparent, thickened at its junctions with the 
lip ends. 

Length 20.2, diam. 11.8, aperture 10.9 mm. ; whorls 5~y 3 . 

New Hebrides: Aura ( ? Arag) Island (Layard, type loc.) ; 
Ravenga, Vamia Lavu; Lakona, Gaua (J. J. Walker). 

Partula fraterna HARTM., Proc. A. N. S. Phila. 1888, p. 
250, pi. 13, f. 2 (Oct. 23, 1888). SYKES, Proc. Malac. Soc. 
Lond. v, 198. 

This rather stout, opaque species has some resemblance to 
P. carnicolor, but differs by its shorter form, wider umbilical 
fissure and the much more convex base. The embryonic 
whorls are more convex than in the group of P. turneri, and 
the apex is more obtuse. It is closely related to P. auraniana 



286 PARTULA, NEW HEBRIDES. 

but differs by the longer spire of decidedly over five whorls, 
while auraniana has barely five or fewer. The spiral striation 
is not nearly so well developed in fraterna, and the second 
whorl is higher. 

A second example in the type lot is 19 mm. long, but not 
quite fully mature. Description and figure are from the type, 
no. 4294 Carnegie Museum. 

75. P. CARNICOLOR Hartman. PL 34, figs. 1, 2, 3. 

The shell is oblong-conic, moderately solid, rather narrowly 
umbilicate ; fleshy-brown under a very thin yellowish-corneous 
cuticle <with narrow darker greenish-yellow streaks (the 
cuticle mostly wanting in the two adult cotypes, which were 
"dead" shells). Spire straightly conic. Embryonic shell 
rather large, conic, densely punctate-striate spirally, bicolored, 
the lower part of each whorl brown, darker than the upper. 
Subsequent whorls convex, marked with growth-lines but 
without spirals except at the base, which is very closely 
marked with wavy spiral striae. Last whorl is evenly convex 
throughout, tapering basally. Aperture ovate, oblique, flesh- 
tinted inside. Peristome narrowly expanded and reflexed, 
white on both face and reverse, well thickened within; colu- 
mellar margin dilated above, distinctly grooved at its 
junction with the whorl. 

Length 23.9, diam. 11.3, aperture 11.9 mm. ; whorls 5%. 

Length 21, diam. 11.2, aperture 11 mm. ; whorls 5%. 

New Hebrides : Aura ( ? Arag) Island. 

Partula carnioolor HARTM., Proc. A. N. S. Phila. 1888, p. 
250, pi. 13, f . 3. 

The symmetrically ovate aperture, tapering base of the 
last whorl and sober coloring distinguish this species. The 
type lot, no. 4289 Carnegie Mus., consists of two adult shells, 
both of which I have figured, and two immature ones. 

76. P. PROXIMA Hartman. PI. 34, figs. 12, 13. 

"Shell dextral, thin, ovate; very elongate, spire half the 
length; whorls 5!/2, surface smooth, oblique lines of growth 
fine; spiral striae obsolete, aperture ovate, oblique, umbilicus 



PARTULA, NEW HEBRIDES. 287 

compressed; columella wide above, and slightly nodose, lip 
white and slightly concave, margins of the peritreme connected 
by a thin callus, color white. Length 23, width 10 ; length of 
aperture 12, width 6 mm." (Hartman). 

New Hebrides: Vanua Lavu, Banks group (Brazier). 

Partula proximo, HARTMAN, Proc. A. N. S. Phila. 1886, p. 
34, pi. 2, f. 11. 

"Capt Brazier sent me two examples ( weatherbeaten) col- 
lected at the above island by himself in 1865 ; it has the out- 
line of eburnea nobis, but is a smaller, thinner and more 
slender shell." (Hartm.) 

The specimens of this species were returned to Mr. Brazier 
or Dr. Cox (see H. H. Smith, Annals of the Carnegie Museum 
I, p. 467). My figures are drawn from photographs of the 
two examples mentioned above, fig. 13 representing Dr. 
Hartman 's figured type. 

77. P. MINOR Hartman. PL 34, figs. 5, 6, 14. 

The shell is oblong-conic, with a rather narrow and com- 
pressed but deep umbilicus; white under a very thin pale 
yellow cuticle, the spire light brown or white; suture indis- 
tinctly white-bordered. Spire conic, the apex obtuse; 2% 
embryonic whorls are convex, very delicately punctate-striate 
spirally. Following whorls convex, with sculpture of growth- 
lines and extremely delicate engraved spirals, which are in- 
distinct and rather widely spaced except on the 'base where 
they are closer and more distinct. The last whorl is some- 
what compressed laterally and very convex at the base which 
is rather narrow and sack-like. The aperture is symmetri- 
cally ovate, rather oblique. Peristome narrowly reflexed, 
thickened within, white. Parietal callus rather short and 
heavy. 

Length 16.5, diam. 9, aperture 9 mm. ; whorls 5*4 (type) . 

Length 14.25, diam. 8.25, aperture 8 mm. ; whorls 5. 

New Hebrides: Eromanga (Turner, through Dr. Cox). 

Partula minor HARTM., Proc. A. N. S. Phila, 1886, p. 31, 
pi. 2, f. 5. 



288 PARTULA, NEW HEBRIDES. 

The two cotypes from Dr. Hartman's collection, no. 4243 
Carnegie Museum, are figured. The cuticle of the smaller ex- 
ample is corneous with hardly any yellow tint. It is deciduous 
in spiral 'bands, not much remaining on the last whorl and 
none on the spire. The other example has a yellower, more 
persistent cuticle. 

78. P. CONCINNA Pease. PI. 36, figs. 9, 12. 

Shell compressed-umbilicate, conic-ovate, rather thin, closely 
and distinctly striate spirally, pale fulvous or whitish rayed 
with darker streaks, the apex generally rufous. Spire rather 
acute, short, conic. Whorls 5, a little convex, the last as long 
as the spire ; suture generally submiarginate. Columella nearly 
vertical, nodose, dilated above ; aperture expanded, slightly re- 
flexed. Length 15, diam. 9.5 mm. (Pse.). 

New Hebrides: Tanna Island (Cox). 

Partula concinna PEASE, Amer. Journ. of Conch, vii, 1871, 
p. 196. HARTMAN, Proc. A. N. S. Phila, 1886, p. 35, pi. 
2, f. 16. 

1 ' The above is of the type of P. repanda Pf r. inhabiting the 
same group of islands. It is smaller than that species, more 
abbreviate in shape, thinner, distinctly striate, columella no- 
dose, and of a different color." (Pse.). 

The figures are from >a specimen in the Hartman collection 
(no. 4244 Carnegie Mus.). It measures 13 mm. long, 8 wide, 
aperture 7.3 mm. long, and has 4^ whorls. It is bluish white, 
the spire pale brown. The columellar nodule, mentioned by- 
Pease, may be seen in fig. 9, under a lens. While smaller than 
Pease's type, I think the specimen is probably identified cor- 
rectly. 

I suspect 'that P. concinna was based on a stray example of 
P. tceniata nucleola. The description certainly favors that 
theory, and the Hartman example figured seems hardly separ- 
able from that Moorean shell. 

79. P. REPANDA Pfeiffer. PL 34, fig. 11. 

Shell compressed-umbilicate, ovate-conic, rather solid, un- 
der the lens most minutely striate spirally, slightly shining, 



PARTULA, NEW HEBRIDES. 289 

pale 'buff, sometimes roseate towards the apex. Spire conic, 
rather acute; whorls 5, moderately convex, the last a little 
longer than the spire, somewhat impressed in the middle in 
front, the base sack-like. Golumella subvertical, somewhat 
folded above. Aperture a little oblique, oblong; peristome 
whitish, expanded, calloused within ; the right margin spread- 
ing, subdentate within above the middle. Length 17, diam. 
9, aperture with peristome 9.5x7 mm. (Pfr.). 

New Hebrides (Cuming coll.). 

Partula repanda, PFR., P. Z. S. 1855, p. 98 ; Monogr. iv, 512. 

The figure is from 'a drawing by Mr. E. A. Smith of one 
of the type lot in the British Museum. It represents a pale 
fleshy example, an accompanying note stating that others are 
pale yellow. 

80. P. VANICORENSIS (Quoy & Gaimard). PL 35, figs. 15, 16, 17. 

"Shell ovate- conic, perforate, solid, longitudinally and 
transversely striate, fulvous. Aperture oval ; peristome wide, 
reflexed and white ; whorls 5 or 6. 

"All the individuals of the division of Partulas are re- 
markable for the generally short aperture, the wide and 
strongly reflexed peristome and especially for the very deli- 
cate intersecting longitudinal and transverse striae. 

' ' This new species is solid, long, regularly ovoid. The aper- 
ture is ovate, a little contracted, with the peristome much 
expanded but only a little thickened within, tending to be- 
come entire. The columellar margin is dilated, callous at the 
base, partly covering the umbilicus which is oval and not deep. 
The spire is pointed, whorls wide, oblique, rounded, the last 
whorl, a little swollen, is larger than the others taken together. 
The suture is linear. The color of the shell is fawn, becom- 
ing more or less brown. The individuals of a pale tint are 
marked, principally on the last whorl, with longitudinal bands 
of a darker shade of fawn. The peristome is white or viola- 
ceous. Length 10, diam. 4% lines. 

' ' The young shell is globose, swollen, more strongly striate 
transversely, and has a strongly marked double keel. 



290 PARTULA, SOLOMON ISLANDS. 

''The animal has no peculiarities of form and is colored 
like the shell, a uniform yellowish fawn." (Q. & G.) 

Santa Cruz group : Vanikoro, not very common ; found un- 
der the leaves of trees at the abandoned village of Ocili 
(Astrolabe). 

Helix vanicorensis Q. et G., Voyage de 1 'Astrolabe, Zoologie 
ii, p. 116, Atlas pi. 9, f. 12-17 (1832). Bulimus v., 
DESHAYES, Anim. s. Vert, viii, p. 282. P'FR., Monogr. ii, p. 
71. Partulus v., BECK, Index Moll. p. 57. Partula vani- 
korensis PFR., Monogr. iii, 446. 

This species is probably related to P. auraniana and its 
allies. It has been erroneously placed in the synonymy of 
P. otaheitana by G-arrett (Journ. Acad. N. S. Phila. ix, 
p. 47). 

VII. SPECIES OF THE SOLOMON ISLANDS. 

The Solomon Island Partulae are corneous or pale yellowish 
or greenish corneous forms, plain and simple in shape and 
coloring. 

81. P. FLEXUOSA Hartman. PI. 35, figs. 4, 5, 13. 

The shell is long ovate, moderately strong, white under a 
thin cuticle which is gray on the spire and base, yellowish- 
brown in the middle part of the last whorl, where there are 
very faint traces of spiral lighter and darker bands. The spire 
is rather long, whorls convex; suture well impressed. Just 
above the suture may be seen an inconspicuous ridge or angle 
the periphery of the penultimate whorl. The embryonic 
sculpture is worn; subsequent whorls have very even and 
regular spiral striation, which may be slightly weaker on the 
upper part of the last whorl. Last whorl is convex at first, 
on the last half becoming flattened laterally; very convex, 
sack-like, at the base. The umbilical fissure is short but deep. 
Aperture slightly oblique, ovate, small, white inside. Peris- 
tome well expanded, thickened within, white, columellar mar- 
gin dilated above, and slightly grooved where it joins the 
preceding whorl. Parietal callus transparent. 

Length 19.7, diam. 10.2, aperture 10 x 7 mm. ; whorls 51/4. 



PARTULA, SOLOMON ISLANDS. * 291 

Length 19, diam. 10, aperture 9.7 x 6.8 mm. 

Solomon Islands: St. George's and Eddystone Islands. 

Partula flexuosa HARTMAN/ Proc. A. N. S. Phila. 1885, p. 
204, fig. in text. 

Two of the three cotypes in coll. Hartman (Carnegie Mus- 
eum no. 4238) are figured. I fail to get Hartman 's meaning 
in calling the shell "flexuose." It is very closely related to 
the following species. Fig. 13 shows a portion of the last 
whorl a short distance behind the aperture. 

82. P. HASTULA Hartman. PL 35, figs. 6, 7, 8. 

Shell similar to P. flexuosa, ovate-fusiform, thin, covered 
with a thin cuticle, pale yellow on the last whorl, grayish- 
corneous on the spire; rather openly but deeply umbilicate; 
sculptured 'throughout with impressed spiral lines. Whorls 
moderately convex, parted by impressed sutures which are 
usually margined above more or less distinctly. Last whorl 
is laterally flattened and saccate at the base. Aperture longer 
than in P. flexuosa outer lip thin, reflexed, thickened with- 
in except near the posterior termination. 

Length 19.7, diam. 9.8, aperture 10.7 x 6.7 mm. ; whorls 5. 

Length 20, diam. 9.25, aperture 10 x 6.7 mm. ; whorls 5%. 

Length 18.7, diam. 9.5, aperture 10 x 6.5 mm. ; whorls 5y. 

Solomon Is.: Simbo or Eddystone Island (Brazier). 

Partula hastula HARTMAN, Proc. A. N. S. Phila. 1886, p. 
33, pi. 2, f. 9. SMITH, Ann. Carnegie Mus. i, p. 453, no. 4239. 

This form stands extremely close to P. flexuosa, but it has 
a longer aperture and somewhat thinner shell. The umbilicus 
is also a little more open in hastula. I hardly think the two 
specifically distinct. Figures and description from the co- 
types, no. 4239 Carnegie Mus. 

Dr. Hartman at first gave the locality as "Erromango 
Island, Solomon Is.," 'an error for Eromanga, New Hebrides; 
but on the back of the label he has written ''Simbo, Eddy- 
stone Isl." 

83. P. INCURVA Hartman. PI. 35, figs. 9, 10. 

The shell is long ovate-conic, openly and deeply umbili- 



292 PARTULA, SOLOMON ISLANDS. 

cate, thin, pale gray-buff, slightly shining. Embryonic 
whorls are very minutely sculptured with spiral puncture- 
lines, the junction with the after- growth not distinct; whorls 
somewhat convex, separated by a well-impressed suture, which 
is narrowly bordered above, the border denned by an im- 
pressed line; last whorl is strongly compressed laterally, sac- 
cate at base, and a little concave just below the suture. Post- 
embryonic sculpture of strongly developed spiral striae and 
irregular growth-lines (very similar to that of P. regularis, 
fig. 11) ; behind the outer lip the surface is opaque and often 
of a brighter yellow tint. Aperture ovate, hardly oblique, 
bluish white within. Peristome reflexed, thickened within 
except near the upper angle where it is thin. Oolumellar mar- 
gin oblique, dilated above. Parietal callus thin. 

Length 18, diam. 9.5, aperture 9 mm. ; whorls 5%. 

Length 17, diam. 8.6, aperture 8 mm. ; whorls 5%. 
Solomon Islands: Rubiana (Brazier). 

Partula incurvum HARTMAN, Proc. A. N. S. Phila. 1886, 
p. 31, pi. 2, f. 3. 

By its strong spiral sculpture this species is close 'to P. 
regulans, but it is more lengthened than that, with less con- 
vex whorls, the last one more flattened laterally and more 
sack-like below. P. hastula resembles incurva, but it is far 
less strongly sculptured. Description and figures from the 
type, no. 4240 Carnegie Museum. 

84. P. REGULARIS Hartman. PL 35, figs. 11, 14. 

The shell is ovate-conic, rather thin, nearly lusterless, of 
a pale gray-buff tint. Sculpture of close, strongly developed 
spiral striae as wide as their intervals, (pi. 35, fig. 11, last 
whorl behind aperture x 25) . Spire conic, the whorl rather 
convex; last half of the last whorl is a little compressed 
laterally, and the base is very convex ; umbilicus deep, rather 
open. Aperture oval, bluish- white within ; perist/ome thin, re- 
flexed, thickened within except near the upper end. 

Length 17, diam. 9.8, aperture 9 mm. ; whorls 5%. 

Length 16.9, diam. 9.5, aperture 9 mm. ; whorls 5. 



PARTULA, SOLOMON ISLANDS. 293 

Solomon Islands: "Savu, Galena Is. (Capt. Brazier)" [? 
Savo, near Guadalcanar I.]. 

Partula regularis HARTM., Proc. A. N. S. Phila. 1886, p. 
31, pi. 2, 1 4. 

This species resembles P. flexuosa in shape and convexity 
of the whorls, 'but differs in being more strongly sculptured 
spirally. In sculpture it recalls P. incurva, but that is more 
lengthened, 'the last whorl more compressed and more 
saccate. 

85. P. PERLUCENS Hartman. PI. 35, fig. 12. 

"Shell dextral, oblong, ovate, very thin and pellucid; 
whorls 5, well rounded, body-whorl somewhat inflated, spire 
more than half the length. Suture well impressed, spiral 
striae numerous and fine, umbilicus compressed, aperture 
oblique, round oval, lip white, concave and moderately re- 
flected. Color a very pale green. Length 18 mm., diam. 9 
mm.; length of aperture 9 mm., diameter 4 mm." (Hartm.) 

Solomon Islands: Ugi or Golfe I., arboreal. (Brazier). 

Partula perlucens HARTM., Proc. A. N. S. Phila. 1886, p. 
31, pi. 2, f. 2. SMITH, Ann. Carnegie Mus. i, p. 457. 

"Compared with P. similaris it is a larger, thinner and 
more inflated shell. Capt. Brazier sent me two examples; 
the smaller measured: length 14, diam. 8 mm." (Hartman). 
The types were probably returned to Brazier. I copy the 
original figure 'and description. 

86. P. HOLLANDIANA n. sp. PI. 37, figs. 8, 9, 10. 

The shell is ovate-conic; moderately thin; deeply and 
rather narrowly rimate; isabelline with many unequal chest- 
nut lines and streaks in the direction of growth-striae, and 
a narrow, weakly-marked band of the same at the periphery. 
Surface rather dull, with sculpture of weak growth- wrinkles 
and close, slightly rippled, deeply engraved spiral lines; at 
the peripheral band there is a group of finer spiral lines. 
Whorls 4%, convex, parted by a simple suture, which on 
the last half of the last whorl has a rather wide margin be- 
low, defined by an impressed line. The last whorl is rather 



294 PARTULA, SOLOMON ISLANDS. 

convex, but tapers slightly toward the base. The aperture is 
slightly oblique, bluish- white inside. Peristome white; outer 
lip narrowly reflexed, thickened within, except at the strongly 
curved posterior part, Where it is thin. Columellar margin 
dilated, biramose above, having a low weak nodule just be- 
low the middle, at the termination of the internal callus. 

Length 17, diam. 9.5, aperture 9.3 x 6 mm. 

Habitat unknown (no. 4237 coll. Carnegie Mus.). 

"Partula laevigata Pfr.," H. IL SMITH, Ann. Oarnegie 
Mus. i, p. 452, no. 4237. 

In shape and sculpture this species resembles Partula re- 
gularis, but it differs by the very distinctly marginated suture, 
the less approaching terminations of the lip, the better de- 
veloped callus within the lip, and the coloration, which seems 
to be quite characteristic. It will probably be found to be 
.a species of the Solomon Island or the New Hebrides. 

This species was in the Hartman collection under the name 
"P. laevigata Pfr.," but on the label Dr. Hartman expressed 
the opinion that it was not that species. It has*little in com- 
mon with l&vigata, which evidently belongs to a wholly dif- 
ferent group. Named in honor of Dr. J. W. Holland, Director 
of the Oarnegie Museum. 

87. P. ALABASTRINA Pfeiffer. 

Shell compressed-umbilicate, oblong-conic, thin, very 
lightly striatulate, slightly shining, buff-alabastrine. Spire 
conic the apex rather obtuse. Whorls 5%, convex, the last 
slightly longer than the spire, tapering towards the base, sub- 
compressed. Aperture a little oblique, obliquely truncate- 
oblong. Columella somewhat straightly receding. Peristome 
white, the margins joined by a very thin callus, right margin 
broadlv expanded, columellar margin extremely broad, spread- 
ing, ftength 23, diam. 11 mm.; aperture with peristome 
133/2 x 9 mm., inside 9 x 4% mm. (Pfr.) 

Solomon Is. (Mus. Cuming). 

Partula alabastrina PFR., P. Z. S. 1856, p. 390; Monogr. 
iv, 509. 



PARTULA, SOLOMON ISLANDS. 

This species has not 'been figured. Hartman's statement 
that it occurs on the Fiji Islands was 'based upon an erroneous 
identification. 

Group of P. micans. 

Small, ovate, thin forms, with corneous, pellucid cuticle 
and usually very distinct spiral striae ; whorls 5 or less. 

88. P. MICANS Pfeiffer. PL 36, figs. 10, 11, 13, 14. 

Shell deeply rimate, subperforate, ovate-conic, thin, dis- 
tinctly decussated with close growth-striae and spiral lines, 
diaphanous, slightly glossy, pale corneous ; spire 'conic, rather 
acute, the suture deep. Whorls nearly 5, convex, the last as 
long as the spire, rounded iat base. Columella lightly arcuate. 
Aperture slightly oblique, oblong-oval ; peri&tome whitish, ex- 
panded, acute, the margins converging, columellar margin di- 
lated, spreading. Length 15, diam. 8, aperture with peris- 
tome 81/2 x 6 mm. (Pfr.). 

Solomon Islands (Cuming coll.) : Shortland Island 
(Sowerby and Fulton). 

Partula micans PFR., P. Z. S. 1852, p. 138; Monographia 
iii, 451 ; Conchyl. Cab., p. 276, pi. 66, f . 12, 13. 

The shell is larger than P. pellucida, with a half whorl more. 

Pfeiffer 's figures of the type are copied, pi. 36, figs. 10, 11. 

Specimens from Shortland I. are figured, pi. 36, figs. 13, 
14, for comparison with P. similaris and other related forms. 
The spire is shorter than that of P. similaris, with not quite 
5 whorls, the last one convex, shaped about as in similaris, 
being much less compressed laterally than P. coxi. The lip 
is only very slightly thickened within, much less than in 
coxi, similaris etc. The spiral striation is weaker on the 
last whorl than in the allied species. Color very pale honey 
yellow, slightly transparent. The suture is marked with a 
whitish line. Sometimes a margining thread may be seen 
above it on the last whorl, but in other shells this is con- 
cealed. The last half whorl is impressed just below 
suture, forming a sort of margination there. 

Length 15^, diam. 8%, aperture 8 x 5% mm. 



296 PARTULA, SOLOMON ISLANDS. 

89. P. CINEREA Albers. 

Shell rimate-perforate, small, conic-pyramidal, striolate and 
very delicately decussated with spiral lines, ash-colored. 
Whorls 5, rather flat, the last somewhat swollen, compressed 
basally. Spire short, conic. Columella lightly arcuate. 
Aperture a little oblique, oblong-ovate. Peristome white, 
narrowly expanded, the margins joined by a thin callus, 
right margin arcuate, columellar margin dilated above, re- 
flexed, spreading. Length 15, diam. 8, aperture 7x4 mm. 
(Pfr.). 

Solomon Islands ('Coll. Albers). 

Partula cinerea ALBERS, Malak. Blatter iv, 1857, p. 98. 
PFR., Monogr. iv, 510. 

This unfigured species is probably a form of, or very 
closely related to P. micans, which has a slightly larger 
aperture, but no other difference so far as the description 
shows. 

90. P. coxi 'Angas' Hartman. PI. 36, figs. 1, 2, 3, 4. 

The shell is oblong-conic, openly rimate and perforate, thin, 
pale yellowish-corneous throughout, imperfectly trans-parent, 
not glossy. Spire conic, the apex slightly obtuse ; whorls 4% 
to 4%, all convex; 2^/2 embryonic whorls sculptured with 
punctured engraved spirals, following whorls marked with 
growth-lines and fine engraved spirals, which continue strongly 
and evenly developed on the last whorl, which is especially 
convex above the periphery and at the base, and somewhat 
tapering between. The aperture varies from moderately to 
very slightly oblique, ovate ; outer and basal lip narrowly re- 
flexed, slightly thickened within except at the posterior curve 
of the outer lip where it is thin; on the columellar side the 
thickening extends about half way up to the insertion. The 
columellar lip is dilated and two-branched above. 

Length 14, diam. 8, aperture 7.8 x 5.2 mm. 

Length 13, diam. 7, aperture 7 mm. 

Solomon Islands: Ysabel (Brazier). 

Partula coxi Angas, Cox, Dr. James C. Cox's Exchange List 



UNIVERSITY 

V / 

ORN^O,. 
NDS. 297 



PARTULA, SOLOMON ISLANDS 

of Land and Marine Shells from Australia and the adjacent 
islands, 1868, p. 46, no. 152, name only. HARTMAN Proc. 
A. N. S. Phila. 1885, p. 217; 1886, p. 32, pi. 2, f. 7. P. 
gracilior Pease in coll. according to Dr. Cox's label. 

This shell stands near P. pellucida Hartm. but differs by 
its longer, less obtuse spire. 

Utp to the beginning of the last whorl the shell is biconie, 
acutely angular or carinate at the periphery, the angle bear- 
ing a projecting cord wider than the other intervals of the 
spiral sculpture. The axis is perforate at all stages of 
growth. 

P. micans has the last whorl less compressed laterally, and 
the lip is much less thickened within. 

91. P. PELLUCIDA Pease. PL 36, figs. 5, 6. 

Shell oblong-ovate, narrowly perforate, thin, pellucid, 
granulose by the intersection of longitudinal and transverse 
striae. Spire conic. Suture impressed, margined. Whorls 
4%, plano-convex, the last hardly one-half tthe length of 
the s'hell. Aperture vertical, ovate. Peristome somewhat 
thickened, white, slightly expanded. Columella slightly di- 
lated above, nearly straight. Whitish-corneous. Length 12, 
diam. 6% nim. ; aperture 5 x 3% mm. (Pease) . 

Solomon Is.: Guadalcanar (John Brazier). 

Partula pellucida FSE., P. Z. S. 1871, p. 457. PFR. Monogr. 
viii, 199. HARTMAN, Proc. A. N. S. P. 1886, p. 35, pi. 2, f. 17. 

"It is. the nearest allied to P. minuta Pfr. It differs in 
being more slender, thinner, the spire elongate, the aperture 
smaller, the surface more distinctly granulose and the suture 
marginate" (Pease). 

One adult and two young examples in the Hartman collec- 
tion, no. 4246 Carnegie Museum, are stated on the label to 
'have been compared with "Brazier's type example." They 
are labelled "Ysabel, Solomon Is. (coll. Cox)." The adult 
shell is figured (fig. 6). It is white under a very^thm, clear 
corneous cuticle which is partly worn off in ragged streaks. 
The surface is rather coarsely sculptured with close wavy 



298 PARTULA, NEW IRELAND, ETC. 

spirals, the intervals as -wide as the striae; embryonic sculp- 
ture indistinct, -being worn. Whorls 4%, convex, the latter 
part of the last whorl somewhat flattened laterally and ; 
slightly concave just below the suture, which is whitish. 
Aperture slightly oblique, oval; peristome continuous, the 
outer lip slightly expanded, thickened within except near 
the posterior 'angle ; parietal callus heavy for so small a shell, 
its edge distinctly raised. Umbilical chink short but deep. 
Length 11, diam. 6.9, aperture including peristome 6x4 mm. 

Another specimen (pi. 36, fig. 5) from Dr. Cox, (no. 59873 
A. N. S. P.), measures, length 11, diam. 6.7, aperture 6.5 mm. 
long. It is similar but has the corneous cuticle entire and 
the parietal callus weak in 'the middle. There is a narrow 
slightly prominent though hardly raised girdle at the peri- 
phery, where the cuticle is more persistent, 'and this is visible 
above the suture for a short distance behind the aperture. 
This structure is so weak that it might readily be overlooked, 
but it is visible in both of the examples seen. The aperture 
is decidedly oblique in this shell. 

This species has a shorter spire than the preceding forms 
and is a little smaller, otherwise they seem to be closely 
related. 

VIII. BISMARK ARCHIPELAGO (New Ireland, New Britain 
etc.), and ADMIRALTY Is. 

The species of these islands are closely related to those of 
the Solomon group, and belong to the same section. 

92. P. CARTERIENSIS (Quoy & Gaimard). PI. 36, figs. 15, 16, 

17, 18. 

1 1 Shell elongate, apex acute, perforate, transversely and 
longitudinally striate, fulvous. Aperture oval, inflected, 
peristome wide, reflexed. Whorls 5, the last ventricose, larger 
than the rest. 

"This species is more lengthened and especially more acute 
than the preceding [P. vanicorensis] ; the whorls of the spire 
are well spaced and separated by a quite deep suture; the 
last whorl, a little larger than the others together, is still but 



PARTULA, NEW IRELAND, ETC. 299 

little inflated. The aperture is produced obliquely towards 
the right, and is ovate; peristome wide, but little thickened 
and white. The eolumellar margin is dilated at its base and 
the umbilicus forms an oblique chink. The shell, very finely 
striated in both directions, is of a uniform yellowish color. 
Length 9, diam. 3% lines " (Q. et G.) . 

New Ireland: Port Carteret (Astrolabe). New Hanover, 
Nordhafen, under stones (Gazelle exped.). 

Helix carteriensis Q. et G., Voyage de 1 'Astrolabe, Zoologie 
ii, p. 117, pi. 9, f. 10, 11 (1832). Bulimus c., DESK., Anim. 
s. Vert, viii, p. 283. Partula c., PFR., Monogr. iii, 460.- 
v. MARTENS, Monatsberichte der K. Preuss. Akad. Wissensch. 
Berlin, 1877, p. 279. Not Partula carter etensis REEVE, Conch. 
Icon, vi, pi. 4, f. 13 (1850) = P. attenuata. 1 Sterope car- 
ter ensis HARTMAN, Oatal. genus Partula Fer., 1881, p. 14, 
figure. 

A slender, acute pale species, of which I give the original 
description and figures (pi. 36, figs. 17, 18). These, if ac- 
curately drawn, indicate a shell with longer spire than any I 
have seen. Port Carteret examples before me received from 
Cuming (pi. 36, figs. 15, 16) are nearly white with the spire 
pale flesh-colored. The surface is glossy, with sculpture of 
growth- wrinkles and extremely fine and close engraved spirals. 
Above the periphery of the last whorl these spiral lines be- 
come faint, more or less obsolete. The apex is rather pointed. 
The last half of the last whorl is compressed laterally, the 
base saccate. The aperture is vertical, ovate ; the lip narrowly 
reflexed and thickened within, thin near the posterior angle, 
the outer margin slightly sinuous. The umbilical chink is 
rather small. 

Length 17%, diam. 8%, aperture 9x6 mm. ; whorls 5. 

Length 16, diam. 8%, aperture 8% x 6 mm. ; whorls 4y 2 . 

It differs from P. coxi, kubaryi etc. by the more delicate, 
more minute and crowded spiral lines of the penultimate 
whorl and base. 

t> 

93. P. KUBARYI Hartman. PI. 36, figs. 7, 8. 

The shell is ovate-conic, rather thin, openly rimate and 



300 PARTULA, NEW IRELAND, ETC. 

narrowly, deeply, umbilicate ; pale grayish yellow, but slightly 
shining. Whorls 5, all moderately convex; 2% embryonic 
whorls are sculptured with delicate punctate spiral lines as 
usual ; following whorls have fine incised spiral lines through- 
out, strongest on the last whorl. The suture is impressed, 
and at its last turn is bordered 'above ; this border is narrow, 
and continued as a slightly differentiated belt on the last 
whorl, in front of the aperture. The last whorl is somewhat 
compressed laterally and full at the base. The aperture is 
slightly oblique, ovate, flesh-tinted inside ; lip white, narrowly 
reflexed, thickened within except at the upper curve where it 
is thin. Golumella dilated above. Length 14.8, diam. 8, 
aperture 7.2 x 5 mm. 

Bismarck Archipelago: Karakaut, New Britain (Kubary). 

Partula kubaryi HARTM., Proc. A. N. S. Phila. 1890, p. 284, 
pi. 3, f. 3 (Oct. 21, 1890). 

This species stands close to P. coxi, 'but it is larger, slightly 
more solid, and more conic in shape, the last whorl being 
broader. 

94. P. OBLITERATA PM)ry, n. sp. PI. 37, figs. 11, 12. 

The shell is ovate with conic spire ; shortly rimate and per- 
forate; moderately 'strong; pale yellowish with indistinct 
darker, slightly greenish yellow streaks, the apical whorls 
faintly brown; somewhat glossy. Whorls 5, the embryonic 
2y 2 puncture-striate, the rest marked with distinct, irregular 
growth-wrinkles and faint spiral lines, weak and rather in- 
distinct on the last whorl. Last whorl rather convex. Aper- 
ture ovate, whitish within ; outer lip narrowly reflexed, white, 
rather strongly thickened within except at the posterior curve 
of the lip, at its other termination, on the columella, the end of 
the callus is not noticeable. Length 16, diam. 9, aperture 
8y 2 mm. 

New Ireland? 

This species stands near P. kubaryi, having almost the 
same contour, but" it differs by the very weak spiral striation. 
P. micans has a thinner lip and much more distinct sculpture. 
This species is known to me by a set of three examples re- 



PARTULA, NEW IRELAND, ETC. 301 

ceived from S. Hanley as P. grisea,, and one from Dr. Hart- 
man labeled "P. carterensis, Carteret I., New Ireland, F. 
Geale." 

95. P. MINUTA Pfeiffer. PI. 41, fig. 16. 

Shell perforate, globose-conic, thin, striatulate and spirally 
striate, subgranulose, pale fulvous, diaphanous. Spire short, 
conic, rather obtuse. Whorls 4, convex, the last globose, form- 
ing three-fifths the total length. Oolumella nearly simple, 
slightly receding. Aperture a little oblique, oval; peristome 
thin, white, 'the margins approaching, right margin very 
strongly arched above, expanded; columellar margin wider, 
spreading. Length 10%, diam. 7 mm. ; aperture with peris- 
tome 7x51/3 mm. (P/r.). 

Admiralty Islands (Cuming coll.). 

Partula minuta PFR., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1856, p. 384; 
Malak. Bl. 1856, p. 244; Monogr. iv, 514. 

Figured from the type specimen in the British Museum. It 
is a very small and globose species. 

96. P. HARTMANNI E. A. Smith. PI. 37, figs. 5, 6, 7. 

* ' Shell elongate, conical, thin, semipellucid, white, narrowly 
umbilicated. Whorls 5%, slightly convex, sculptured with 
minute microscopic spiral striae and fine oblique lines of 
growth, which give the upper edge of the whorls a slightly 
puckered appearance; last whorl long, a little contracted be- 
hind the aperture, and marginate beneath the suture near the 
lip. Aperture almost perpendicular, somewhat ear-shaped, 
dirty whitish within, together with the peristome equalling 
rather less than half the total length of the shell. Lip 
somewhat flattened and expanded. Columellar margin re- 
flexed, not twisted or tubercular; outer margin above well 
bent over towards the columella, with which it is united by 
a thin callus. Length 16% mm., diam. 7; aperture 8 long, 
5i/ 2 broad. (E. A. Smith). 

Admiralty Is. : Wild Island and Pigeon Island (Challenger 
Exped.). 

Partula hartmanni E. A. SMITH, P. Z. S. 1884 p 265 
pi. 22, f. 7. 



302 PARTULA, LOUISIADE ISLANDS. 

"P. elongata Pease, and P. gracilis of the same author, from 
the Tahiti group, closely resemble this species. The former 
is rather larger and broader, not so strongly spirally striated, 
and more or less striped with pale brown. The latter has a 
longer aperture, rather more convex apical whorls, and a pecu- 
liar bulging at the lower part of the body- whorl. P. minuta, 
Pfr., also from the Admiralty Islands, is similarly sculptured, 
but of a totally distinct form." (E. A. Smith). 

Mr. Smith's description and figure (fig. 7) are copied. 
One of the specimens from Wild Island before me is smaller, 
length 14%, diam. 7, aperture 7.2 mm., with 5 whorls. The 
aperture of this example is quite oblique (pi. 37, fig. 6). In 
a larger specimen the aperture is almost vertical. The peri- 
pheral cord common to other species of the group is visible 
aJbove the suture, which is also very distinctly marginate be- 
low, on the last half whorl. Spiral striation is very dis- 
tinctly developed throughout. 

IX. LOUISIADE ARCHIPELAGO, including Trobriand and Wood- 
lark Is. ; NEW GUINEA and adjacent islets. 

97. P. SIMILARIS Hartman. PL 37, figs. 13, 14, 15. 

"Shell dextral, oblong-ovate, thin and translucent; whorls 
5, convex, spire half the length, oblique lines fine and de- 
cussated by coarse spiral striae, umbilicus compressed; aper- 
ture rounded ovate ; lip white. Color yellowish white, with the 
apex very pale rose. Length 17 mm., diameter 9 mm. ; length 
of aperture 6 mm., diameter 4 mm." (Hartman). 

Louisiade group : Woodlark Island ( Brazier ; Kowald and 
Belford). 

Partula similaris HARTM., Proc. A. N. S. Phila. 1886, p. 30, 
pi. 2, f. 1. HEDLEY, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales vi, p. 97 
(1892). P. woodlarkiana, HARTM., t. c., p. 33, pi. 2, f. 8. 
HEDLEY, t. <?., p. 98. 

"For size and contour this shell is near P. carteriensis, 
Pfr. ; it is thinner and less solid, with a more rounded aper- 
ture, and concave lip." (Hartm.) 

Equally with Mr. Hedley (1. c.) I am unable to grasp any 



PARTULA, LOUISIADE ISLANDS. 303 

specific distinction between P. similaris and P. woodlarkiana. 
The type specimens of both were returned to Australia by 
Dr. Hartman. I have copied a photograph of the type of 
P. similaris in fig. 13. Specimens from the Trobriand Is. are 
also figured, pi. 37, figs. 14, 15. The shell is somewhat 
transparent grayish yellow, flesh-tinted near the apex. The 
surface is very distinctly and beautifully decussate, the deeply 
engraved spiral lines being made wavy by the fine, rather 
distinct growth-striae. The last whorl is convex, narrowly 
umbilicate, and sometimes margined below the suture on its 
last half. A narrow margining thread may be seen in places 
above the suture. The suture itself is edged throughout with 
a fine white line. The callous thickening within the lip thins 
out rather gradually above, not abruptly as in many related 
species, but it stops abruptly about half way up the 'eolu- 
mellar margin. At the 'columellar insertion there is a slight 
groove. 

Length 18, diam. 10, aperture 9.4 x 6.7 mm. ; whorls 5. 

Length 16.8, diam. 9.2, aperture 9 mm. ; whorls 5. 

P. woodlarkiana Hartman appears to have a somewhat 
larger aperture than similaris, but it is otherwise very like. 
A photograph of the type is copied in my figure 16, of plate 
37. The original description follows : 

"Shell dextral, ovate, thin and translucent; body- whorl 
inflated ; whorls 5, rounded, suture impressed, lines of growth 
decussated by numerous waved spiral striae, spire short, colu- 
mella slightly arcuate, wide and smooth, compressly umbili- 
cate, aperture round ovate, lip concave, white and moderately 
reflected; color yellowish, apex very pale rose. Length 19, 
diameter 11, length of aperture 9, diameter 6 mm. Woodlark 
Island (Hartm.). 

98. P. OCCIDENTALS Hedley. PI. 37, fig. 4. 

"Shell dextral, ovate elongate, thin and translucent; color 
( ?) ; whorls 5, rounded, last a little flattened below the suture ; 
sculpture: everywhere encircled by close sharply impressed 
spiral lines, which are decussated by oblique irregular lines 



304 PARTULA, NEW GUINEA. 

of growth, at 'the intersection the former are sometimes dis- 
torted by the latter ; spire slender, elongate, a quarter of total 
length ; apex dome-shaped ; half of the first whorl embryonic ; 
suture impressed ; umbilicus small, deep, compressed ; aperture 
roundly ovate, scarcely oblique, lip moderately reflected and 
expanded, margins of the peristome connected by a thick 
callus. Length 19, breadth 10, length of aperture 9, 'breadth 

6 mm. ; length 17, 'breadth 10, length of aperture 9, breadth 

7 mm. 

"On the ground under bushes upon Samarai Island I col- 
lected two dead shells of this species. Type in Queensland 
Museum." (Hedley.) 

Partula Occident alis HEDLEY, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, 
VI, 1891, p. 98, pi. 12, f. 31 (1892). 

' * The two Partulae described 'by Lesson have, -as Tapparone 
remarks, a doubtful claim to Papuan soil, and, omitting these, 
the above species is the first described from New Guinea 
proper. ' ' ( Hedley. ) 

S'amarai is a small island lying off the eastern extremity 
of New Guinea. 

99. P. GRISEA Lesson. PI. 37, figs. 1, 2, 3. 

This species is more lengthened and thinner than any other 
known to me. The penultimate whorl is longer than in the 
species already mentioned [P. otaheitana, rufa, lineata, luted] . 
The last whorl, finally, is but little dilated, little swollen. 
The aperture is directed to the right. It is higher than wide, 
with the peristome thick, a little dilated in front of the um- 
bilical chink. The surface of the shell is very finely striate 
longitudinally and transversely, hence covered with a fine 
and granulose network. The 'aperture is white. All the 
rest is uniform light gray. Length 8, diam. 3% lines 
(Lesson). 

New Guinea (Lesson). 

Partula grisea LESSON, Voyage autour du Monde, La 
Coquille, ii, pi. 1, p. 325, pi. 13, f. 11. PFR., Monogr. iii, 
450. ALBERS, Malak. Bl. iv, 1857, p. 99, new diagnosis. 



PARTULA, NEW GUINEA, TALAUER IS. 305 

Bulimus griseus PFR., Symbolse ad Hist. Hel. i, p. 82; ii, p. 
115 ; Monogr. ii, p. 68. 

It is not certain that Albers had the same form which 
Lesson described. P. occidentalis Hedley is evidently a near 
relative of grisea, but so far as I know, the "Coquille" 
reached New Guinea only in the west. 

100. P. BULIMOIDES Lesson. 

This Partula is the largest species known to us. It is 10 
lines long and 7 in diameter. The shell is thick, solid, with 
the mouth on the right side, large and oval, provided with a 
thick flange, the umbilicus very open back of the columellar 
plate adnate to the peristome. The spire is short, conic, ob- 
tuse at the apex, the whorls parted by a quite deep suture. 
Last whorl large, ventricose, very finely striate lengthwise. 
The shell is whitish, but covered with a bright fawn epidermis. 
The peristome is simple in the young. (Lesson). 

New Guinea (Voy. Coquille). 

Partula bulimoides LESS., Voy. autour du Monde de La 
Coquille, ZooL, p. 326. 

An unfigured species, not recognized since its description. 
So far as I know the Coquille landed only at Port Dorey 
(near Mt. Arfak and the N.-W. cape of Geelvink Bay), and 
probably this shell came from there. The visit was in July- 
August, 1824. Hartman, at one time, identified P. canalis 
as P. bulimoides. From Lesson's description, the shell must 
be very different from other species of the southwestern 
Pacific. 

X. TALAUER ISLANDS. 

The single species from this group is the westermost species 
of the genus. 

101. P. NEWCOMBIANA Hartman. PL 43, fig. 6. 

"Shell dextral, ovate, rather thin; spire acute, half the 
length; whorls 5, rounded; suture deeply impressed; body- 
whorl somewhat inflated; oblique lines of growth fine and 
crossed by numerous waved spiral strige, compressly umbili- 



306 PARTULA, PELEW ISLANDS. 

cate; aperture very oblique, rounded, ovate; lip white, mod- 
erately reflected and concave ; the outer margin partaking of 
the color of 'the epidermis ; columella wide above ; margins of 
the peristome connected by a thin vitreous deposit ; a broad, 
flat, pillar tooth far within the aperture. Color light fawn, 
with dark brown oblique striae, apex dark brown. Length 17, 
dram. 11.5 mm. ; aperture, length 7, width 4 mm." (Hartman) . 

Salibabu, one of the Talauer Is., between Gilolo and Min- 
danao. 

Partula newcombianum HARTM., Proc. A. N. S. Phila, 1886, 
p. 34, pi. 2, f..!3. Partula neweenitiarum HARTMAN, Nautilus 
xi, p. 44 (typographical error). 

Dr. Hartman has recorded the loss of the type of this 
species by shipwreck on its return voyage to Mr. Garrett at 
Tahiti. The figure is a copy of his. 

"I received this shell from Mr. Layard, through Mr. A. 
Garrett. In outline and general appearance it resembles some 
varieties of P. varia. I have named it in honor of Dr. 
Wesley Newcomb, one of our oldest . American conchologists, 
well known for his writings on the allied genus Ackatinella 
of the Sandwich Islands." (Hartm.) 

XI. PELEW ISLAND SPECIES. Section PALAOPARTULA n. sect. 

Straightly conic forms with high embryonic whorls and 
very deeply engraved later whorls, the last compressed later- 
ally and sack-like below, with a very ample umbilical area 
and deep perforation. The aperture is unusually long, and 
the peristome is thin and very broadly reflexed. Type 
P. thetis. 

The three closely related forms from Pelelu (Pililu) stand 
apart from all other Partulas. They have some appearance 
of being a branch from the Melanesian group. The coloring, 
the slight differention of a peripheral belt (marked with finer 
spiral striae), and the high apical whorls, recall species of 
the New Hebrides and Solomon Islands. 

102. P. LEUCOTHOE O. Semper. PI. 38, fig* 1. 

Shell openly and compressedly umbilicate, conic-pyramidal, 



PARTULA, PELEW ISLANDS. 307 

very thin, white, subhyaline, irregularly subsulculate and 
sculptured with very dense, somewhat rippled spiral lines. 
Spire pyramidal, rather acute, suture marked with a white 
line and substriolate. Whorls 5%, nearly flat, the last a little 
larger, somewhat ascending in front. Columella deep, slightly 
arcuate. Aperture oblique, oblong, subcompressed, the mar- 
gins subparallel; peristome white, thin, equally and broadly 
expanded. Length 22, diam. 12, aperture 12 mm. long, 4 wide 
inside. (Semp.). 

Pelew Is.: Pelelu (Dr. C. Semper). 

P. leucotkoe O. SEMP., Journ. de Conchyl. 1865, p. 417, 
pi. 12, 1 5. 

Differs from P. calypso by the strong obliquity of the 
aperture, finer sculpture and shape of the shell. 

103. P. CALYPSO O. Semper. PL 38, fig. 2. 

Shell broadly and compressed umbilicate, high-turrited, 
thin, whitish, roseate towards the apex, longitudinally some- 
what wrinkled, encircled with wavy spiral lines ; suture some- 
what thread-like, striolate; spire raised, acute; whorls 6, 
nearly flat, the last a little longer than the spire, somewhat 
ascending in front. Columella nearly straight. Aperture 
slightly oblique, oblong; peristome white, broadly expanded, 
especially over the umbilicus, the right lip subnodose within. 
Length 31, diam. 14, aperture with peristome 17 mm. long, 
5 mm. wide inside (0. Semper). 

Pelew Is.: Pelelu (Dr. C. Semper). 

P. calypso 0. SEMP., Journ. de Conchyl. 1865, p. 418, pi. 
12, f . 7. 

104. P. THETIS 0. Semper. PI. 38, figs. 3, 4, 5, 6. 

Shell openly and compressed umbilicate, conic-pyramidal, 
brown, blackish towards the apex, remotely and lightly wrin- 
kled and encircled with somewhat roughened and beautifully 
waved spiral lines. Spire conic, the apex pointed but mamil- 
late. Whorls 5%, a little convex, the suture .somewhat thread- 
like, striolate; last whorl convex, regularly rounded, some- 
what ascending in front. Columella somewhat arcuate. 



308 PARTULA, CAROLINE ISLANDS. 

Aperture oblong-rounded, nearly vertical; peristome buff, 
brownish, broadly expanded throughout, right lip nodose with- 
in. Length 30, diam. 16, aperture with peristome 17 mm. 
long, 5 mm. wide inside. 

The following varieties occur: b. more elevated, the last 
whorl less convex, g. suture more striolate, d. color paler,, 
yellowish-fawn (fig. 4). (0. Semper). 

Pelew Islands: Pelelu. (C. Semper). 

P. thetis SEMP., t. >c., p. 419, pi. 12, f. 6. 

This third species, according to Semper, is not quite so thin 
as the other two. The aperture is a little rounder, and the 
summit is mamillate, a feature totally wanting in the two 
other species. 

A specimen before me, figs. 5, 6, no. 4272 Carnegie Mus., 
is distinctly streaked with greenish-corneous and whitish on 
the last whorl, growing ruddy on the spire. The apical 
whorls are very high, much -as in P. brazieri (pi. 33, fig. 2) . 
The rest of the whorls are very distinctly and beautifully 
sculptured with close, deeply engraved spiral lines. The lip 
is thin throughout, not perceptibly thickened within, and 
tapers rapidly from the upper third to the insertion. The 
columella is straight and vertical. Length 30, diam. 15, 
aperture 16.2x10 mm., including peristome; 6 whorls. 

XII. CAROLINE ISLAND SPECIES. 
Section CAROLINELLA n. sect. 

Rather solid, opaque, ventricose shells, with the aperture 
large and simple, umbilical area small; general shape Buli- 
moid. Type P. guamensis Pf r. 

This Caroline Island group consists of rather large Partulas 
with a quite distinct aspect. They look like ground snails. 
P. gonochila and P. lutea have much the same form, but are 
smaller shells. P. lineata is a small, banded species of quite 
different type. 

105. P. GUAMENSIS (Pfeiffer). PI. 38, figs. 7 to 14. 

Shell rimate-perforate, ovate-conic, rather solid, very deli- 



PARTULA, CAROLINE ISLANDS. 309 

cately decussate, chestnut-colo'red. Spire rather short, ob- 
tuse. Whorls 5, convex, the last swollen, longer than the 
spire. Columella nearly straight. Aperture 'ample, semi- 
oval, bluish inside; peristome white within, the margins re- 
mote, right margin expanded, columellar margin broadly re- 
flexed, spreading. Length 26, diam. 15 mm. ; aperture 14 x 8 
mm. inside. (Pfr.). 

Caroline Islands: Ponape, in the ruins of Nanmatal 
(Finsch) ; in the hills (Etscheid, Kubary). 

Bulimus guamensis PFR., in Philippi, Abbild. -a. Besehreib. 
neuer Conch, ii, p. 113, Bulimus, pi. 4, f. 9 (August, 1846) ; 
Monogr. ii, 73. Partula guamensis PFR., Monogr. iii, 446. 
REEVE, Conch. Icon, vi, pi. 1, f. 4 (1849). DESK., in Fer., 
Histoire p. 124, pi. 158, f . 3-6. Partula rufa Less., v. MARTENS, 
Conchologische Mittheilungen 1881, i, p. 95, pi. 17, f. 12-16. 
[Partula] ponapensis HARTMAN, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Phila., 1885, p. 221, substitute for guamensis Pfr. Partula 
rufa subsp. montana v. MOELLENDORFF, The Journal of 
Malacology vii, p. 112 (March 24, 1900), substitute for 
guamensis Pfr. Partula brumalis REEVE, Conch. Icon, vi, pi. 
1, f. 2 (May, 1849). 

A large, bulimoid species having much the appearance of a 
small Borus. Pfeiffer's type, figured in Philippi 's Abbil- 
dungen (copied in my fig. 9), is the rather obese form further 
illustrated -by figs. 7 and 8. The embryonic shell is very 
densely striate spirally but is usually worn in adult shells. 
The rest of the whorls have distinct spiral striae, which in the 
typical form are deeply engraved throughout, but on some 
examples they become rather weak on the last whorl. The 
ample aperture is dull purplish inside in some examples, white 
in others. The white lip is reflexed, and a little thickened 
within. The 'chestnut color of the shell is sometimes varied 
by a faintly darker line at the periphery. Examples measure : 

Length 27, diam. 18.3, aperture 16, x 11.8 mm.; whorls 5%. 

Length 27, diam. 17, aperture 15.5 x 11 mm. ; whorls S 1 /^. 

Length 28, diam. 17, aperture 15 x 12 mm. ; whorls 5%. 

The form called brumalis by Reeve (pi. 38, fig. 10, copied 



310 PARTULA, CAROLINE ISLANDS. 

from Reeve) is somewhat more elongated, yet it intergrades 
fully with guamensis, judging from examples 'before me (see 
measurements above). The forms figured by von Martens 
from the ruins of Nanmatal belong to this more lengthened 
type. They further illustrate the variation in shape of aper- 
ture caused by the different degrees of inclination of the 
columella, and hence have been copied in my figs. 11, 12, 13, 
14 of pi. 38. 

Dr. von Martens gives the size as length 26, diam. 16, 
aperture 15 x 11 mm. 

Both Hartman and von Moellendorff have renamed this 
species, objecting to the name guamensis "inasmuch as this 
mollusk certainly does not live on the island of Guam, where 
my friend Quadras collected for more than two months with- 
out finding it" (Mlldff.) ; but if the name be rejected on that 
ground, the species should be called brumalis Rve. 

P. GUAMENSIS GRANDIS Moellendorff is "much larger, diam. 
19, alt. 30.5 mm., less solid, spiral sculpture somewhat less 
marked, peristome more expanded, less labiate ; 5% to nearly 
6 whorls. Ponape, coast region (Etscheid, Kubary). 

"There are three color- variations, viz., dark purple-brown 
with violet lip (typical) ; castanea, pale -chestnut colored with 
white lip ; and flavescens, pale greenish yellow. The last 
named albino is rather rare " (Mlldff.} . 

106. P. MARTENSIANA Pllsbry, n. sp. PI. 38, figs. 15, 16. 

The shell is ovate-conic, solid and strong, opaque, with a 
small, compressed umbilicus; beneath a yellow cuticle (which 
is partially lost from the type specimen, a "dead" shell), 
the substance of the shell is dull flesh color, becoming darker 
on the spire, the first three whorls being dull brownish purple. 
The spire is eonic, summit slightly obtuse; the early whorls 
are worn and show no sculpture ; last whorl has no spiral in- 
cised lines, but some traces of fine spiral wrinkling may be 
seen in places, though it is very fine and weak. Whorls 5, 
convex, the last convex throughout. Aperture is very slightly 
oblique, flesh-pink within; peristome white, very slightly ex- 



PARTULA, CAROLINE ISLANDS. 311 

panded, strongly thickened within. Columellar margin di- 
lated above, deep within, as in P. guamensis. Length 22.3, 
diam. 14.1, aperture 12.1 x 9 mm. 

Caroline Is.: Ualan (John Brazier), type no 4298 Carnegie 
Museum. 

Partula rufa Lesson, HARTMAN, Proc. A. N. S. Phila. 1886, 
p. 35, pi. 2, f. 15. H. H. SMITH, Ann. Carnegie Mus. i, 469, 
no. 4298. 

Related to P. guamensis, from which it differs by the ab- 
sence of distinct spiral lines on the last whorl, the less ex- 
panded but more thickened lip and more contracted aperture. 
It was identified by Dr. Hartman with P. rufa Lesson, but 
that is a smaller, especially narrower shell. 

The type specimen was collected by John Brazier "on the 
banks of the Leila river, Chabroul Harbor, Ouhalan or 
Strong's Island," according to a letter from Brazier to Dr. 
Hartman, written at Sydney, June 18, 1885. 

A second specimen in the Hartman collection measures, 
length 21.5, dram. 14, aperture 11.7 mm. It is an old shell, 
faded and broken. 

107. P. RUFA Lesson. 

This species resembles especially the preceding [P. ota- 
heitana] , but the aperture is turned to the right. The spire is 
less lengthened, more swollen, more conic. The last whorl is 
proportionally larger.' The aperture is more oval and less 
contracted, and its peristome is not so thick. The color is 
dirty red. Length 8, diam. 4 lines (Lesson). 

Caroline Is.: wooded hills of Ualan (Voy. Coquille). 

Partula rufa LESS., Voy. de la Coquille, Zoologie ii, p. 324 
(1831) . Not P. rufa Martens or Hartman. 

Lesson's brief description indicates >a shell resembling 
P. guamensis in general features, but much smaller than any 
other known species of the group, about 16 or 17 mm. long, 
8 or 9 wide. It is hardly possible that the identifications of 
P. rufa made by either Hartman or* von Martens are correct. 
This was also the opinion of Dr. O. von Moellendorff. P. rufa 
still awaits rediscovery. 



312 PARTULA, CAROLINE ISLANDS. 

Group of P. lineata. 
108. P. LINEATA Lesson. PL 39, figs. 19, 20. 

The shell of this species is oval, long, with conic spire, a 
half whorl swollen. The aperture opens on the right side. 
It is contracted by a thick rim recurved backward, and di- 
lated at its junction with the columellar axis, a little in ad- 
vance of the umbilical crevice. It is nearly of the same size 
and shape as the 0-Taite Partula [P. otaheitana] , but it is 
constantly -a little shorter and more inflated. The color is 
pale yellow with two ribbon-like stripes of fawn, one short, 
surrounding the opening of the umbilicus, the other running 
around the middle of the large (last) whorl, and covered 
by the suture on the spire. Length 8, diam. 5 lines (about 
16x10 mm.). (Lesson). 

Caroline Islands: Ualan (Voy. Coquille). 

Partula lineata LESSON, Voy. autour du Monde de La 
Coquille, Zoologie, p. 324, pi. 7, f. 8, 9. tPartulus torosus 
BECK, Index Molluscorum p. 57 no. 6 (undefined, but identi- 
fied with a ? with P. lineata Less.). 

This species was 'considered the same as P. suturalis Pfr., of 
Moorea, Society Islands, by Mr. Garrett in his paper of 1884, 
but later he doubted the identification, in a letter written to 
Dr. Hartman. Mr. Brazier, who visited Ualan, did not find 
Lesson's species (H. H. Smith, Ann. Carnegie Museum i, p. 
446). 

The general appearance of the shell is that of a Society Island 
species; but the Coquille did not visit the island of Moorea 
where the forms (P. suturalis, P. taniata) best agreeing with 
Lesson's description occur, but only Tahiti and Borabora, ob- 
taining P. otaheitana at the former, P. lutea at the latter 
place. They were at Ualan in the Carolines on June 15th, 
1824, anchoring in Coquille Harbor on the N.-W. side of the 
island. 

In view of the general reliability of the locality records 
in the Zoology of the Coquille, and the imperfection of our 
knowledge of the shells of Ualan, I think it not improbable 
that P. lineata may eventually be found there. 



PARTULA, MARIANNE ISLANDS. 313 

The nodule on the parietal wall, shown in Lesson's figure 
but not mentioned in the description, is a feature appearing 
also in species of the Society, Fiji and Marianne groups. 
The relationships of the species are obscure. I would not 
venture to assign it to any of the subgenera. 

XIII. MARIANNE (Ladrone) ISLAND GROUP. 
(Section MARIANNA n. sect.). 

Harmonia HARTMAN, Catal. Genus Partula, 1881, p. 13, 
type P. gMa, Fer. (proec.). 

The shell is ovate or inflated with a small umbilicus and a 
lip more or less thickened within; parietal wall plain or 
bearing a very deeply placed callous nodule. Type P. gibba. 

Guam, the chief island of the group, is the only one which 
has been collected on. 

109. P. GIBBA Ferussac. PI. 39, figs. 1 to 11. 

Shell conic-ovate, perforate, rather solid, striatulate, pellu- 
cid, engraved longitudinally with equal lines, white or flesh- 
colored, the spire acute, rose-red, the suture milk-white ; epi- 
dermis thin, rufescent. Whorls 44/2 , 'the last swollen, gibbous, 
larger than the rest. Aperture long-ovate, subquadrangular ; 
peristome reflexed, broadly dilated, white. (Per.). 

Marianne Is.: Guam (Gaudicho, Quadras, Rush et al.) 

Partula gibba FER., Tableaux Systematiques des Animaux; 
Mollusques etc., suive d'un Prodrome general pour tout les 
Moll., etc. p. 66, (1821), and in Freycinet, Voyage autour du 
Monde de FUranie et la Physicienne, Zoologie, p. 485, pi. 68, 
f. 15, 16, 17. REEVE, Conch. Icon. pi. 3, f. 15. PFR., Monogr. 
iii, 453 ; iv, 514 ; vi, 160 ; viii, 208 ; Conchyl. Cab. -p. 269, pi. 
64, f. 9-14. Bulimus gibbus PFR., Monogr. ii, 69. DESK, in 
Fer., Hist. p. 122, pi. 158, f. 19, 20. Helix gibba QUOY et 
GAIM., Zool. Astrolabe ii, p. 113, pi. 9, f. 18-20. Partula 
mastersi PFR., P. Z. S. 1857, p. 110; Monogr. iv, 513 (Guam). 

Ferussac's type of P. gibba was a small, short example. 
His figure is copied (pi. 39, fig. 1). The last whorl is pale 
yellowish-corneous, spire of a rather peculiar dull scarlet 



314 PARTULA, MARIANNE ISLANDS. 

color. The last three whorls have an opaque white 'border be- 
low the suture. The last whorl varies in the degree of swell- 
ing, and in small individuals is usually angular in front, at 
the periphery; base very full and convex. Umbilicus small 
and deep, more rounded than usual in Partula. The engraved 
spiral lines are distinct and not very close above the periphery, 
more crowded on the base. The aperture is oblique, white in- 
side in the pale, variously colored in the dark varieties. The 
peristome is white, or in some forms flesh-tinted. The outer 
lip is expanded, rather heavily thickened within, the callus 
somewhat abruptly terminating at the beginning of the curve 
to the upper insertion; columellar lip dilated. Pigs. 2, 3, 
5 and 6 represent individuals of the typical P. gibba. Be- 
sides the typical coloration (a) described above, there are 
shells with (&) reddish spire and brown last whorl (fig. 2), 
and others (c) of the typical pale tint and a white spire (fig. 
9). These forms occur together in some lots before me. 
Other forms are: 

(d) Corneous-white, somewhat transparent, very thin (pi. 
39, fig. 11). 

(e) Drab with the spire dull dark purple, lip fleshy (fig. 7). 
(/) Lilac, the spire darker, aperture brown within (fig. 8). 
(g) Light reddish-brown (fig. 5). 

(h) First 2y 2 whorls bicolored, brown and whitish, the rest 
corneous-yellow, becoming dull purple near the lip. Interior 
lilac, with a brown streak within the lip, which is flesh-colored 
(fig. 10). 

There is considerable variation in the solidity of the shell, 
and the thickness of the lip-callus. The latter is sometimes 
perceptibly nodulous, as in fig. 6. 

To what extent the variations in color and texture are local 
or racial is unknown. All have a white sutural border. Ex- 
amples measure as follows : 

(a) Length 17, diam. 11.3, aperture 9.8 mm. long. 

(d) Length 17, diam. 12, aperture 10 mm. long. 

(e) Length 15%, diam. 11, aperture 9 mm. long. 

(/) Length 18~y 2 , diam. 12%, aperture, 10 mm. long. 



PARTULA, MARIANNE ISLANDS. 315> 

(h) Length 18%, diam. 13, aperture 11 mm. long. 

Specimens of a lot consisting of rather solid shells of forms 
~b and g show a thin callus or low tubercle on the parietal 
wall, approaching P. bicolor in this respect (figs. 5, 6). 

P. mastersi Pfr. seems to be identical with gibba, judging" 
from the description and specimens before me. It is de- 
scribed as rather solid, buff, fleshy or violaceous, sometimes 
banded with brown on the upper whorls. It is 17 mm. long, 
with the aperture 10% mm. 

109a. P. GIBBA BICOLOR Pease. PI. 39, figs. 12 to 18. 

Shell solid, perforate, acutely ovate, glossy, transversely 
marked with close obsolete striae ; straw-colored, the whorls of 
the spire encircled with a brownish band next to the suture. 
Peristome brownish outside and within. Whorls 4, convex,, 
the last half the length of the shell. Peristome thickened, 
narrowly and equally expanded. Aperture slightly oblique, 
oval, with a small callus deep within on the belly of the penul- 
timate whorl. Length 15, diam. 9 mm. ; aperture 5 mm. long,. 
4 mm. wide (Pease). 

Marianne Is.: Guam (Pease, Quadras). 

Partula bicolor PSE., Amer. Journ. of Conch, vii, p. 26, pL 
9, f. 4 (August 1,1871). 

The above may be distinguished from P. gibbet,, which occurs 
at the same locality, in being of smaller size, last w^orl not 
inflated, and in its color (Pse.). 

This form inter grades with P. gibba, and should evidently 
be regarded as a subspecies of that, chiefly distinguished by 
having the last whorl less swollen than in typical gibba, and 
by having a callous nodule deep within, on the parietal wall 
near the columella. This nodule is seen very weakly de- 
veloped in some examples of gibba. Other supposed differ- 
ences are even less constant. 

Pease's original description reproduced above is not good; 
his figure is copied, pi. 39, fig. 17. The shell is rather solid, 
with sculpture of spiral lines as in P. gibba. On the last 
whorl these lines are very fine and close on the base, but a 



316 PARTULA, MARIANNE ISLANDS. 

little more separated above the periphery. The surface is 
-glossy. The lip may be narrow and nearly uniform in width, 
.but usually it is rather strongly thickened inside, the callus 
.abruptly discontinued near the posterior curve. The color 
of the lip is quite variable. There is a callous nodule deep 
within, near the columella, but it is very variable in size. 
The suture may be marked with a whitish line, but often this 
is absent. No specimen I have seen has a well developed 
white band along the suture, such as is usual in P. gibba 
'The color-patterns known are as follows: 

(a) Straw colored or isabelline, with a reddish-brown band 
above the suture almost to its end, and covering the first 
13/2 whorls; outer half of the lip brown, inner rim 
white. This is the typical coloration (figs. 12). 

(b) First 2 whorls purplish-brown, the third pale below the 
.suture with the dark color fading (or the subsutural 
pale area may extend nearly to the apex) ; last 2 whorls 
straw yellow or pale isabelline with faint or distinct 
brownish streaks; back of lip reddish or yellow; lip 
narrow, very pale brown; surface rather dull (fig. 18). 

(c) Same as the last but without brown on the spire; sur- 
face lusterless (fig. 15, 16). 

{d) Pale uniform sulphur-yellow throughout, the lip 

brown- tinted or brown-edged (fig. 14). 
^(e) Pale sulphur-yellow, the lip heavily thickened and 

pure white (fig. 13). 
The size varies as follows : 

(a) Length 17, diam. 11.5, aperture 10 mm.; whorls 4%. 

(b) Length 17, diam. 11, aperture 9.5 mm.; whorls 

(d) Length 16, diam. 11, aperture 9.4 mm.; whorls 

(c) Length 15.7, diam. 10, aperture 9.1 mm. ; whorls 



110. P. RADIOLATA (Pfeiffer). PI. 41, figs. 1, 2, 3, 4. 

Shell subperf orate, oblong-tapering, the apex obtuse, thin; 
sculptured with distant impressed spiral lines; pale straw- 
colored, rayed with darker streaks and brown lines. Whorls 
5, slightly convex, the last about equal to the spire, base 



PAETULA, MARIANNE ISLANDS. 317 

tumid in front. Columella short, shortly receding. Aper- 
ture obliquely oval, glossy inside, yellow; peristome simple, 
thin, white, expanded, the right margin somewhat straight- 
ened, columellar margin dilated above, spreading above the 
umbilicus. Length 19, diam. 10, aperture 9x5 mm. inside 
(Pfr.). 

Marianne Is.: Guam, on bushes (Cuming, Quadras, Rush). 

Bulimus radiolatus PFR., P. Z. S. 1846, p. 39; Monogr. ii, 
69. Partula radiolata PFR., Monogr. iii, p. 450; viii. 198; 
Conchyl. Cab. p. 270, pi. 64, f. 17, 18. REEVE, Conch. Icon. 
vi, pi. 2, f. 6. 

This form was at first supposed to be from New Ireland, 
but was soon shown to come from Guam. It is a narrowly 
umbilicate, thin shell, copiously striped with corneous and 
opaque white, with more or less suffusion of pale lemon yel- 
low. In the more fully colored examples there are also many 
olive-yellow lines among the stripes, scarcely visible except 
under a lens. These lines dilate at the periphery, which 
therefore, appears to have a faint band. This pattern is 
shown in fig. 4. Other examples lack the dark lines and 
peripheral band. The embryonic shell is very densely and 
distinctly engraved spirally, the lines disappearing towards 
the apex ; the first whorl is weakly plicate radially. The last 
whorl is marked with rather widely spaced spiral lines, closer 
on the base. In the typical form these lines are rather weak. 
The last whorl is very full at the base. The lip is white, 
narrowly reflexed, very little thickened within. Specimens 
measure : 

Length 19, diam. 11.2, aperture 11 x 7.1 mm. ; whorls 4y 2 . 

Length 17.5, diam. 11, aperture 10 x 7 mm. ; whorls 4%. 

Length 17, diam. 10, aperture 9.5 x 7 mm. ; whorls 4%. 

Length 16, diam. 9.9, aperture 10 x 7 mm. ; whorls 4%. 

A form (pi. 41, fig. 2) collected by Quadras is smaller, with 
a brown band above the suture on the first 2y 2 or 3 whorls 
of some specimens, the spire in others being pale lemon tinted. 
The last whorl has the typical coloration. The aperture is 
more or less brown inside in those with a dark summit. The 
first whorl does not seem to be plicate. 



318 PARTULA, MARIANNE ISLANDS. 

Length 16.5, diam. 10, aperture 9 mm. ; whorls 
Length 14, diam. 8.3, aperture 8 mm. ; whorls 4%. 
P. radiolata rushi, n. var., pi. 41, fig. 1. Dr. W. H. Rush 
collected examples much darker in color at Port San Luis 
d'Apra, Guam (no. 84841 A. N. S.). The last iy 2 whorls are 
striped with cream and dark brown, with a narrow but con- 
tinuous brown peripheral band. The spire is uniform dark 
brown, aperture brown within. Sculpture typical. Length 
15, diam. 9, aperture 8.8 mm. (pi. 41, fig. 1) . 

111. P. QUADRASI Moellendorff. 

Shell dextral, narrowly and half-covered perforate, rather 
ventricose ovate-conic, very thin, pellucid, delicately striatu- 
late transversely, decussated by closely crowded spiral lines; 
a little shining, pale buff variegated with narrow darker and 
whitish streaks, sometimes ornamented with two indistinct 
bands. Spire subregularly conic, the apex somewhat obtuse. 
Whorls 4, a little convex, separated by an appressed, mar- 
gined suture, the last whorl quite convex, nearly tumid. Aper- 
ture rather oblique, oval, a little excised; peristome simple, 
thin, well expanded, the columella dilated above, recurved, 
forming a distinct angle, almost channeled, with the parietal 
wall. Length 15, diam. 10.5, aperture 9x7 mm. (Mlldff.) 

Marianne Is. (Quadras). 

Partula quadrasi MLLDFF., Nachrichtsblatt d. Deutschen 
Malak. Ges. xxvi, Feb., 1894, p. 15. 

An unfigured species which seems to differ from the small 
form of P. radiolata in sculpture and by having fewer whorls. 
It is possibly identical with Ferussac's P. fragilis, a lost 
species which has not been figured. The description follows : 

P. fragilis Ferussac. Shell ovate-elongate, perforate, 
fragile, striatulate, pellucid, reddish; spire obtuse, sutures 
strongly marked. Whorls 4, the last ventricose, subcarinate, 
larger than the rest. Aperture ovate, peristome subreflexed. 
Marianne Is. (Gaudicho). 

P. fragilis FER., Tableaux Syst. des Anim. Moll. p. 66 
(1821). 



SPURIUS PARTUL^S. 319 

Bulimus rubens Miihl. is mentioned as a synonym of fragilis 
by Anton, Verzeichniss, p. 40. It is a nude name. No sub- 
sequent author has recognized P. fragilis. 

XIV. SNAILS OP OTHER GENERA DESCRIBED AS PARTULAE. 

Partula acuticosta, consimilis and lamellicosta, Journ. A. 
N. S. Phila. ix, 113, are errors for Patula a., c. and I. 

Partula auricula Fer., 1821 = Auriculella. 

Partula australis Bowdich lS22==Strophocheilus. 

Partula batavia Grateloup, 1840, = Amphidromus adamsi 
var. rubiginosus Fulton (Proc. Malac. Soc. London viii, 44). 

Partula delatouri Hartm. = Diplomorpha, Vol. xiii, 118. 

Partula dumartroyi Souleyet = Auriculella. 

Partula flavescens King, 1831 = Bulimulus chilensis Less. 
Man. Conch. XI, p. 8. 

Partula glaber Hartman, Proc. A. N. S. Phila. 1885, p. 205, 
is Drymceus strigatus Sowb., color-form purus. See MANUAL 
XI, p. 228. The type specimen of glaber, no. 4291 Carnegie 
Museum, agrees exactly with the Peruvian shell, but the 
internal lilac lip-border, though still noticeable, has faded. 

Partula layardi Bra/., Hartm. is a Diplomorpha,, Vol. xiii, 
p. 116. 

Bulimus macleayi Brazier from Yule Island, other islands 
in Torres Strait, and Queensland, was described as a Papuina 
in this Manual, Vol. XIII, p. 121. It has been referred by 
Hedley to Partula (Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales ix, 1894, p. 
387, pi. 26, f. 22, 23) ; the radula figured by him has 
marginal teeth resembling those of Partula, yet differing by 
the larger size of the second cusp, whereas in Partula the inner 
cusp is the larger. The central tooth has no side-cusps. 
There are 160 rows of 40,6,1,6,40 teeth. If the pallial organs 
etc., confirm the relationship claimed by Hedley (but which I 
doubt) this species will form a new genus of Partulidce, char- 
acterized by the unexpanded, thin and simple lip of the shell, 
and the absence of the typical apical sculpture of Partula. 

Partula maximiliana Pot. et Mich, is Auris bilabiata B. et 
S., Man. Conch. X, 100. 



320 SPURIOUS PARTUL^E, ETC. 

Partula peasei Cox = Diplomorpha, Vol. xiii, 117. 

Partula pudica Per. = Strophocheilus. 

Partula pusilla Gould Tornatellina. 

Partula rohri Pfr., Journ. de Conchyl. 1892, p. 129, is 
an error for Achatinella rohri Pfr. 

Partula salomonis Pfr. 1852 = Placostylus salomonis. See 
Vol. XIII, p. 70. 

Partulus torosus Beck, Index Moll. 1837, p. 57. Nude 
name. 

Partula unidentata Sowerby = Strophocheilus. Vol X, 
p. 9. 

Partula virgulata Mighels 1845 = Achatinella. 

ERRATA. 

P. 45. The last word of line 16 from 'bottom should be two. 
P. 53. Add the following species : 
GLESSULA SINHILA Preston. PI. 43, fig. 7. 

Shell moderately thin, polished, dark yellowish-horn color, 
obtusely lanceolate. Whorls 7^, marked with very faint 
lines of growth only ; sutures impressed. Columella descend- 
ing in a very oblique curve; peristome simple, bent slightly 
inwards above. Aperture inversely, elongately auriform. 
Alt. 21.75, diam. 9 ? alt. of aperture 7.75, diam. 4 mm. 
(Preston). 

Ceylon. 

Glessula sinhila Preston, Records of the Indian Museum iii, 
pt. 2, no. 6, p. 135, pi. 22, f. 14 (June, 1909). 

"Allied to G. inornata Pfr., but easily distinguished from 
that species by its much more slender form. ' ' 

P. 173. Add fig. 13 to those cited after P. BELLULA. 

P. 287. The name Partula minor Hartman might by some 
be considered unavailable on account of the earlier B. roseus 
var. &. minor, of Pfeiffer; yet it appears that Pfeiffer here 
intended the word minor as a description, not as a name. 

P. 313. Under XIII etc., read Section MARIANELLA, in 
place of "MARIANNA." The former term was used on p. 166. 



INDEX TO PARTULIOE. 



abbreviata Mouss ...... 

actor Alb ......... 268, 

' 



^^ / 
aausta 

aj. -rr QTrfrY1 
jjOCb Hartm ........... 

-p Q -, QK 

amnis Jrse ......... loo, 

alabastrina Pf r ........ 

albeseens Hartm ....... 

alternata Pse .......... 

amabilis Pf r ....... 184, 

amanda Garrett ....... 

americana Heilp ....... 

anneetens Pse. . ....... 

approximate Pse ....... 

arguta Pse 

artensis Montr. . ....... 

assimilis Pse ........... 

Astrcea Hartm ......... 

attenuate Pse .......... 

auraniana Hartm ...... 

auriculata Brod ........ 

auricula Fer ........... 

auriculatus Bk ......... 

AURICULELLA, ......... 

australis Bowd ......... 

australis Brug ......... 

batavicz Grat ........... 

bella Pse .............. 

bellula Hartm ......... 

biangula Pse ........... 

liangulata Pse ......... 

bicolorata Pils ......... 

licolor Garrett, ____ 250, 

bicolor Pse ............ 

biconica Pils ........... 



bilineata Pse ........... 245 

267 bipartite Pib .......... 253 

269 Crazier: Pse ......... 271 

brevicula Pse ...... 185,191 

7 7 ^ onr\ 

brumalis Rve .......... 309 

, . . 00 ~ 

Irumica Pse ........... 236 

__. 
-i 07 buhmoides Hartm ...... 264 

lo/ , ,. . , T oriC : 

294 ^ubmoides Less. ..... 305 

282 Bithmus argutus Pse. .. . 177 

202 ^hmm austrahs Brug. 236 
189 Buhmus guamensn Pf r. 309 
238 BMW?^ntMPfr. 239 
164 Buhmus radwlatus Pfr.. 317 
254 Buhmus rubens Muhlf . . 319- 
243 Buhmus tccmatus Meh.. . 20D. 
176 Buhmus turgidus Pse. . . 178 

278 C 

261 

178 



198 



319 



319 
236 



ca lf a 



284 *&***** Schm ........ 215 

247 calso 



Mouss ......... 263 



247 c a rnicolor Hartm. . . 286 

319 CAROLINELLA Plls. . . 166, 308 



<>"*"*** Hartm ...... 

carteretensisUve ..... 19 



carteriensis Q. & G ..... 298 

castanea Mlldff ........ 31Q 

castanea Pse ......... .. . 244 

319 cinerea Alb ............ 296 

225 citrina Pse ............ 218- 

173 clara Pse .............. 197 

237 Clytia Hartm .......... 178 

236 cognata Pse. ...... 253, 254 

253 compacta Pse .......... 248 

251 compressa Cpr ......... 233 

315 compressa 'Pfr.' Rve. . . 181 
264 concinna Pse ...... 210, 28& 

(321) 



322 



INDEX TO PARTULID^E. 



cookiana Mss 261 

confluens Pils 192 

conica Gld 265 

consimilis Grt 319 

corneola Hartm 209 

coxi Angas, 296 

crassa Pse 185, 191 

crassilabris Pse 225 

D 

dautzenbergi Cossm. ... 164 

decorticata Pse 217 

decussatula Pf r 174 

delatouri Hartm 319 

dentif era Pf r 216 

diminuta Ad 259 

dubia Garrett, 238, 239 

dubia'Pse.' Grt.... 185, 188 
dumartroyi Soul 319 

B 

eburnea Hartm 281 

Echo Hartm 176 

^longata Pse 210 

ENID^ 150, 164 

erhelii Morel 212 

estalliana Garr 254 

Evadne Hartm 263 

eximia Hartm 280 

expansa Pse 269 

extensa Pse 270 

F 

faba Martyn 235 

fasciata Dillw 236 

fasciata Pse 170 

filosaPfr 196 

flavescens King . 319 

flavescens Mlldff 310 

flexuosa Hartm 290 

formosa Pse. 218 

f ragilis Fer 318 

f raterna Hartm 285 

fusca Pse. . . 240 



G 

ganymedes Pf r 170 

garretti Pse. 228 

glaber Hartm 319 

globosa Pse 224 

glutinosa Pf r 250, 252 

gibba Fer 313 

gonochila Pf r 272 

gracilior Pse 211, 297 

gracilis Pse 199 

grandis Mlldff 310 

grisea Less 304 

guamensis Pf r 308 

H 

Harmonia Hartm 313 

hartmanni Smith 301 

hastula Hartm 291 

hebe Pf r 223 

Helena Hartm 178 

hollandiana Pils 293 

huaheinensis Garr 250 

hyalina Brod 180 

hyalina Brad 260 

HYPERAULAX Pils. , 164 



Ilia Hartm 178 

imperforata Pse 219 

inconstans Muhlf 236 

incurva Hartm 291 

inflata Rve 169 

isabellinus Pfr. .... 184, 186 

K 

kubaryi Hartm 299 



labiata Pse 217 

laeva Pils 195 

lavigata Pfr 186 

lamellicosta Grt 319 

Latia Hartm. . , 168 



INDEX TO PARTULIDJE. 



323 



layardi Bmg 319 

leefei Smith 274 

LEPTOPARTULA Pils. . 165, 176 

leucothoe Semp 306 

lignaria Pse 184, 186 

lilacina Pfr 256, 257 

Limax faba Mart 236 

lineata auct 202 

lineata Less 312 

lineolata Pse 197 

lirata Mouss 275 

lugubris Pse 234 

lutea Less 255 

M 

macgillivrayi Pfr 278 

macleayi Braz 319 

magdalinae Hartm 175 

marginata Garr 238 

Marianna Pils 313 

MARIANELLA Pils. 166,313,320 
MARQUESANA Pils.. . 165, 168 

martensiana Pils 310 

mastersi Pfr 313 

Matata Hartm 179 

maura Muhlf 247 

maximiliana P. & M 319 

megastoma Pse 215 

MELANESICA Pils. . . 166, 276 

mieans Pfr 295 

microstoma Pse 233 

minor Hartm 287, 320 

minor Pfr 250 

minuta Pfr 301 

montana Mlldff 309 

mooreana Hartm 200 

mucida Pfr 250, 252 

N 

navigatoria Pfr 239 

nematoraphe Pils 279 

Nenia Hartm 178 

newcombiana Hartm. . . . 305 
neiveenitiarum Hartm. . . 306 
nitens Pfr. . . 258 



nodosa Pfr 193 

nucleola Pse. , . 209 



obesa Pse 260 

obesior Pils 172 

obliterate Pils 300 

occidentalis Hedl 303 

CEnone Hartm 178 

otaheitana Brug 183 

ovalis Pse 235 



pacifica Pfr 258 

PALAOPARTULA Pils. 166, 306 

pallida Pse 236 

PARTULA Fer 155, 178 

PARTULID^: Pils 155 

Pasithea Hartm 178 

peasei Cox 320 

peasiana Garrett 231 

pellucida Pse 297 

peraffinis Pse 206 

perlucens Hartm 293 

perplexa Pse 250, 252 

perstrigata Pils 277 

perversa (Helix) Ch. ... 184 

perversa Pse 185 

pfeifferi Crosse 278 

pinguis Garr 227, 228 

planilabrum Pse 244 

ponapensis Hartm 309 

producta Pse 192 

propinqua Pse 236, 238 

protea Pse 241 

proxima Hartm 286 

pudica Fer 320 

pulchra Pse 250, 251 

purpurascens Pfr 253 

pusilla Gld 320 

pyramis Hartm 281 

Q 

quadrasi Mlldff 318 



324 



INDEX TO PARTULID^E. 



R 

radiata Pse 232 

radiolata Pfr 316 

raiatensis Grt 221 

recluziana Petit 269 

recta Pse 172 

recta Pse 221 

reeveana Pfr 184 

regularis Hartm 292 

repanda Pfr 288 

robusta Pse 248 

rohri Pfr 320 

rosea Brod 252 

rubescens Rve 184, 190 

rufa Carp 184 

ruf a Less 311 

rustica Pse 227 

S 

salomonis Pfr 320 

SAMOANA Pils 165, 263 

semilineata Mouss 264 

similaris Hartm 302 

simulans Pse. . . 205, 207, 208 

simplaria Morel 258 

sinistralis Mayer, . . . 194, 196 

sinistralis Pse 185 

sinistrorsa Pse 185, 190 

solidula Pse 248 

solidula Rve 215 

spadicea Rve 207 

stenostoma Pfr 192 

Sterope Hartm. ........ 276 

stevensoniana Pils 266 

stolida Garr 182 

stolida Pse 257 

straminea Pils. 253 

strigata Pse 171 

strigosa Pfr 204 

striolata Pse. . . 205, 207, 208 

subangulata Pse. 237 

subgonochila Mss 273 

suturalis Pse 245 

suturalis Pfr. . 201 



tabulana Ant. Grt 247 

taeniata Morch 205 

taheitana Gld 184 

tahulana Anton 247 

terrestris Pse 243 

THAKOMBAUA. Pils. 165, 274 

thalia Garrett 231 

thersites Pfr 170 

thetis Semp 307 

torosus Bk 312 

tricolor Muhlff 236 

trilineata Pse 195 

tryoni Hartm 269 

turgida Pse 178 

turneri Pfr 277 

turricula Pse 283 

turricula Pse 190 

U 

umbilicata Pse 229 

unidentata Sowb 320 

upolensis Mss 266, 267 



vanicorensis Q. & G. ... 289 

varia Brod 250 

variabilis Pse 239, 240 

ventricosa Grt 224, 225 

ventricosa Pse 238 

ventrosa Pse 225 

vexillum Pse 204 

vicentina Opp 164 

virginea Pse 222 

virgulata Migh 320 

virgulata Pse 261 

vittata Pse 242 

Voluta fasciata Dillw.. . . 236 

W 

woodlarkiana Hartm. . . 303 



zebrina Gld 268 

zonata Pils. . 254 



REFERENCE TO PLATES, VOL. XX. 



PLATE 1. 

FIGURE PAGE 

1, 2. Caecilioides acicula Mull. Specimens 9 

3, 4. Caecilioides a. hyalina Bielz. Specimens 15 

5-8. Caecilioides acicula, living. After Adams 2, 9 

9. Caecilioides a. eburnea Risso. After Bourguignat. . 10 

10. Caecilioides a. enhalia Bgt. After Bourguignat 11 

11, 12. Caecilioides liesvillei Bgt. After Bourguignat. . . 13 
13, 14. Caecilioides a. uniplicata Bgt. After Bourguignat 15 

15. Caecilioides liesvillei Bgt. After Boettger 13 

16. Caecilioides a. nodosaria Bgt. After Boettger 12 

17. Caecilioides a. boettgeri Hesse. After Hesse 16 

18. Caecilioides a. aglena Bgt. After Bourguignat 16 

PLATE 2. 

20-22. Caecilioides actoniana Ben. Specimen. 25 

23, 24. Caecilioides petitiana Ben. Specimen 26 

25. Caecilioides aciculoides Jan. Malac. Val di Non 23 

26, 27. Caecilioides rizzeana Ben. Specimen 25 

28. Caecilioides gemmellariana Ben. Specimen 14 

29, 30. Caecilioides stephaniana Ben. After B.enoit 26 

31. Caecilioides gemmellariana Ben. After Benoit 14 

32, 33. Caecilioides nyctelia Bgt. Specimens. .. 7 

34, 35. Caecilioides maderensis Pils. Specimens 8 

PLATE 3. 

36. Caecilioides nanodea Bgt. After Bourguignat 21 

37-38. Caecilioides brondeli Bgt. After Bourguignat... 20 

39, 40. Caecilioides raphidea Bgt. After Bourguignat. . 20 

41, 42. Caecilioides lauta Paul. After Paulucci 24 

43, 44. Caecilioides letourneuxi Bgt. After Bourguignat 21 

45. Caecilioides tumulorum Bgt. After Bourguignat. . . 30 

46, 47. Caacilioides raddei Bttg. After Boettger 31 

48, 49. Caecilioides michoniana Bgt. After Bourguignat 32 

50. Caecilioides subsaxana Bgt. After Bourguignat. ... 31 

51. Caecilioides soleilleti Bgt. After Bourguignat 36 

52. Ca&cilioides ovampoensis M. & P. Ann. Mag. N. H. 36 

(325) 



326 REFERENCE TO PLATES, VOL. XX. 

FIGURE PAGE 

53. Caecilioides (?) munzingeri Jic. Ann. Jickeli 36 

54-56. Caecilioides minuta Mouss. After Boettger 33 

57. Csecilioides isseli Palad. ( 1). After Paladilhe 37 

PLATE 4. 

58, 59, 62. Caecilioides caledonica Crosse. (= gundlaehi). 

Specimens 45 

60. Caecilioides balanus Bens. Conch. Icon 46 

61. Caecilioides balanus Bens. (?). Conch. Indica 46 

63. Caecilioides comorensis Morel. Journ de Conchyl. . . 47 

64. Caecilioides blandiana Crosse. Journ de Conchyl. ... 42 

65. 66. Caecilioides mariei Crosse. Journ. de Conchyl. . . 48 

67. 71, 72. Caecilioides iota C. B. Ad. Jamaican specimens 38 

68. Caecilioides c. minutissima Guppy. Barbados speci- 

mens 41 

69. Caecilioides mauritiana H. Ad. P. Z. S 47 

70. Caecilioides stuhlmanni Marts. After Martens 48 

73, 74. Caecilioides gundlaehi Pfr. Specimens 43 

PLATE 5. 

75. Csecilioides mazei Crosse (= minutissima). Journ. 

de Conchyl 42 

76-79. Caecilioides c. veracruzensis C. & F. Specimens. . 40 

80. Caecilioides c. minutissima Guppy. J. de Conchyl. 40 

81, 82. Caecilioides consobrina Orb. Cuban specimens. 39 

83, 85. Caecilioides c. minutissima var. ( ?) . Barbados 

specimens 42 

84. Cae-cilioides c. minutissima Guppy. Barbados speci- 

mens 41, 42 

PLATE 6. 

1, 2. Glessula nitens Gray. Specimens 55 

3, 4. Glessula n. punctogallana Pfr. Conchyl. Cab. . . , 56 

5. Glessula n. punctogallana Pfr. Specimen 56 

6. Glessula deshayesi Pfr. Specimen 57 

7. 8. Glessula ceylanica Pfr. Conchyl. Cab 57 

9. Glessula serena Bens. Specimen 59 

10, 11. Glessula inornata Pfr. Conchyl. Cab 53 

12, 13. Glessula deshayesi Pfr. Specimens 57 

14-16. Glessula inornata Pfr. Specimens 53 

17. Glessula inornata var. Conchyl. Cab 53 



REFERENCE TO PLATES, VOL. XX. 327 
FIGURE PAGE 

PLATE 7. 

1-3. Glessula lankana Pils. Specimens 54 

4. Glessula parabilis Bens. Conch. Indica 54 

5. Glessula capillacea Pfr. Conch Indica 55 

6, 7. Glessula layardi Pils. Specimens 59 

8. Glessula simoni Jouss. After Jousseaume 61 

9, 10. Glessula burrailensis G.-A. After G.-Austen 92 

11, 12. Glessula rugata Blanf . Specimens 87 

13, Glessula collettge Sykes. Specimens 60 

14, 15. Glessula f usca Pfr. Conch. Cab 101 

16. Glessula taprobanica Pils. Specimen 58 

PLATE 8. 

1, 2. Glessula subperotteti Bedd. Proc. Malac. Soc 71 

3, 4. Glessula subjerdoni Bedd. Proc. Malac. Soc 83 

5, 6. Glessula subinornata Bedd. Proc. Malac. Soc.... 73 

7, 8. Glessula canarica Bedd. Proc. Malac. Soc 72 

9, 10. Glessula pusilla Bedd. Proc. Malac. Soc 84 

11, 12. Glessula jeyporensis Bedd. Proc. Malac. Soc.. .. 75 

13, 14. Glessula subserena Bedd. Proc. Malac. Soc 75 

15, 16. Glessula subfilosa Bedd. Proc. Malac. Soc 86 

17, 18. GLssula gracilis Bedd. Proc. Malac. Soc 83 

PLATE 9. 

1. Glessula tenuispira Bens. Conch. Indica 88 

2. Glessula t. baculina Blanf. J. A. S. Bengal 88 

3. Glessula t. pertenuis Blanf. Conch. Indica 89 

4. Glessula tenuispira Bens. Specimen 88 

5. Glessula nilagarica 'Bs.' Rve. Conch. Icon 90 

6. Glessula hebes Blanf. J. A. S. Bengal 62 

7. Glessula fairbanki Bens. Conch. Indica 63 

8. Glessula shiplayi Pfr. Novit. Conch 61 

9. 10. Glessula perrotteti Pfr. Conch. Cab 65 

11. Glessula vadalica Bens. Conch. Indica 64 

12. Glessula tamulica Blanf. Conch. Indica 64 

13. 14. Glessula hugeli Pfr. Concn. Cabinet 91 

15. Glessula praelustris Bens. Specimen 68 

16. Glessula praelustris Bens. Conch. Indica 68 

PLATE 10. 

1, 2. Glessula amentum 'Bens.' Rve. Conch. Cab 77 

3. Glessula amentum 'Bens.' Rve. Conch. Indica 77 

4. Glessula amentum 'Bens/ Rve. Specimen 77 



328 REFERENCE TO PLATES, VOL. XX. 

FIGURE % PAGE 

5. Glessula singhurensis Blanf. Specimen 76 

6. Glessula botellus Bens. Conch. Indica 78 

7. Glessula arthurii ( orophila). Conch. Indica.... 79 

8. 9. Glessula faculaBs.(perotteti Rve.). Conch. Iconica 77 

10. Glessula orophila ' Bs. ' Rve. Conch. Icon 79 

11. Glessula oreas. Conch. Indica 80 

12. 13. Glessula pseudoreas Nevill. Conch. Cab 80 

14. Glessula 'Crassilabris Bens. Conch. Indica 96 

15. Glessula crassilabris Bens. Specimen 96 

16. Glessula orobia. Conch. Indica 96 

17. Glessula scrutillus Bens. Conch. Indica 81 

PLATE 11. 

1, 2. Glessula butleri G.-A. After Godwin- Austen 92 

3. Glessula tornensis Blanf. Conch. Indica 69 

4. Glessula tornensis Blanf. J. A. S. Bengal 69 

5. Glessula chessoni Bens. Conch. Indica 68 

6. Glessula textilis Blanf. Conch. Indica 69 

7. Glessula textilis Blanf. Specimen 69 

8. Glessula senator Hani. Conch. Indica 70 

9. Glessula isis Hani. Conch. Indica 71 

10, 11. Glessula beddomei Blanf. Conch. Indica 73 

12. Glessula bottampotana Bedd. Conch. Indica 74 

13, 14. Glessula illustris G.-A. Specimen 95 

15, 16. Glessula illustris G.-A. J. A. S. Bengal 95 

PLATE 12. 

1. Glessula pyramis Bens. Conch. Indica 92 

2. Glessula leptospira Bens. Conch. Indica 65 

3. 4. Glessula notigena Bens. Conch. Indica 66 

5, 6. Glessula corrosula Pf r. Novit. Conch 67 

7. Glessula paviei Mori. Specimen 100 

8. Glessula paviei Mori. Journ. de Conchyl 100 

9. Glessula notigena Bens. Specimen 66 

10. Glessula naja Blanf. Specimen 90 

11. Glessula sarissa Bens. Conch. Indica 93 

12. Glessula hastula Bens. Conch. Indica 93 

13. 14. Glessula bensoniana Pfr. Conch. Cabinet 67 

15. Glessula subf usif ormis Blanf. J. A. S. Bengal 94 

16. Glessula jerdoni 'Bs.' Rve. Specimen 75 

17. 18. Glessula jerdoni <Bs.' Rve. Conch. Cabinet 75 



REFERENCE TO PLATES, VOL. XX. 329 
FIGURE PAGE 

PLATE 13. 

1. Glessula gemina 'Bs.' Rve. Conch. Iconica 97 

2. Glessula g. f rumentum Rve. Conch. Iconica 98 

3. Glessula gemina ; Bs.' Rve. Specimen 97 

4. Glessula crassula ; Bs.' Rve. Conch. Indica 98 

5. Glessula pulla Blanf . J. A. S. Bengal 81 

6. Glessula pulla Blanf. Conch. Indica 81 

7. 8. Glessula sattaraensis H. & T. P. Z. S. 1868 82 

9. Glessula paupercula Blanf. Conch. Indica 81 

10. Glessula mullorum Blanf. Conch. Indica 84 

11. Glessula blanfordiana Nevill. J. A. S. Bengal 98 

12. Glessula peguensis Blanf. Specimen 99 

13. Glessula brevis Pfr. Conch. Indica 85 

14. Glessula filosa Blanf. Conch. Indica 85 

15. Glessula lyrata Blanf. Conch. Indica 86 

16. Glessula 1. matheranica Blanf. J. A. S. Bengal 87 

PLATE 14. 

1, 2. Glessula wallacei Pfr. Novit. Conch 104 

3. Glessula cornea (= sumatrana). After Boettger. . . 103 

4, 5. Glessula sumatrana Marts. After v. Martens .... 102 

6, 10. Glessula runssorina Marts. After v. Martens. . . 104 

7, 8. Glessula montana Martens. After Jickeli 104 

9. Glessula laevigata Pfr. Specimen 105 

11, 12. Glessula lasvigata Pfr. Novit. Conch 105 

13, 14. Glessula sericina Jouss. Abbild 110 

15. Glessula malaguettana Rang. After Rang 109 

16. Glessula hyalina Rang. After Rang 107 

17. 18, 19. Glessula paritura Gld. Specimens 108 

20. Glessula bretignerei Chaper. After Chaper 109 

PLATE 15. 

1. Caecilioides acicula. Genitalia, after Lehmann 2 

2, 3. Glessula orophila. Genitalia, after Semper 51 

4, 5. Caecilioides moellendorffi Pils. Specimens 50 

6, 7. Caecilioides philippinica Mlldff. After Mlldff. . . 49 

8, Partula rosea Brod. Marginal teeth. Pilsbry, del. . 158 

9, 10. Glessula laevigata Pfr. Teeth and jaw. Pilsbry, 

del 106 

11, 12. Partula lirata Mss. Teeth and jaw. After 

Heynemann . 158 



330 REFERENCE TO PLATES, VOL. XX. 

FIGURE PAGE 

PLATE 16. 

1. Partula faba Martyn. Univ. Conch 235 

2-8. Partula faba Martyn. Specimens 235 

9. Partula navigatoria Pfr. Conch. Icon 239 

10-13. Partula navigatoria Pfr. Specimens 239 

14-16. Partula subangulata Pse. Specimens 237 

PLATE 17. 

1-3. Partula. amanda Garr. Specimens 238 

4, 8. Partula a. dubia Garr. Specimens 239 

5-7. Partula fusca Pse. Specimens 240 

9-11. Partula fusca terrestris 'Pse.' Garr. Specimens 243 

12. Partula fusca castanea 'Ps.' Garr. Specimen 244 

13-15. Partula fusca approximata 'Pse.' Garr. Specimens 243 

16. Partula fusca vittata Pse. Specimen 242 

PLATE 18. 

1-4. Partula planilabrum Pse. Specimens 244 

5-7. Partula radiata 'Pse.' Garr. Specimens 232 

8. Partula auriculata Brod. Specimen 247 

9. Partula auriculata Brod. Conch. Icon 247 

10-12. Partula auriculata Brod. Specimens 247 

13-16. Partula a. robusta Brod. Specimens 248 

PLATE 19. 

1-6. Partula lugubris Pse. Specimens 234 

7. Partula lugubris ovalis Pse. Specimen 235 

8. 14. Partula bilineata Pse. Specimens 245 

9-11, 13. Partula thalia Garr. Specimens 231 

12, 15-18. Partula rustica Pse. Specimens 227 

PLATE 20. 

1-3. Partula callifera Pfr. Specimens 214 

4. Partula dentifera Pfr. Specimen 216 

5, 6. Partula d. formosa 'Pse.' Garrett. Specimens... 218 
10, 11. Partula citrina 'Pse.' Garr. Specimens 218 

7, 8. Partula dentifera var. Specimens 217 

9. Partula labiata (= dentifera). Specimen 216 

12. Partula solidula Reeve. Conch. Icon 215 

13-15. Partula imperforata 'Pse." Garr. Specimens... 220 
16, 17. Partula imperforata raiatensis Grt. Specimens. 221 
18, 19. Partula imperforata virginea 'Pse.' Garr. Speci- 
mens. . 222 



REFERENCE TO PLATES, VOL. XX. 331 

FIGURE PAGE 

PLATE 21. 

1-3. Partula hebe Pfr. Specimens 223 

4, 8. Partula hebe bella 'Pse.' Hartm. Specimens 225 

5, 9, 10. Partula crassilabris Pse. Specimens 225 

6, 7. Partula hebe ventricosa Garr. Specimens 225 

11-14. Partula umbilieata Pse. Specimens 229 

15-19. Partula garretti Pse. Specimens 228 

PLATE 22. 

1, 2. Partula rosea Brod. Specimens . . .- 252 

3, Partula rosea purpurascens Pfr. Specimen 253 

4, 5. Partula rosea bipartita Pils. Specimens 253 

6. 7. Partula rosea bicolorata Pils. Specimens 253 

8, 9. Partula rosea straminea Pils. Specimens 253 

10, 11. Partula rosea zonata Pils. Specimens 254 

12, 17. Partula rosea cognata 'Pse.' Garr. Specimens. . 254 

13-16. Partula rosea estalliana Garr. Specimens 254 

PLATE 23. 

1-10. Partula varia Brod. Specimens 250 

11, Partula varia glutinosa Pfr. Conchyl. Cab 252 

12, Partula varia Brod. Specimen 250 

13, 14. Partula simplaria Morel. J. de Conchyl 258 

15. Partula varia glutinosa Pfr. Specimen 252 

16-19. Partula lutea Less. Specimens 255 

PLATE 24. 

1-4. Partula attenuata Pse. Specimens 198 

5, 6. Partula annectens Pse. Specimens 254 

7-9. Partula clara Pse. Specimens 197 

10-13. Partula hyalina Brod. Specimens 180 

14, 15. Partula arguta Pease. Specimens 176 

16. Partula turgida Pease. Specimen 178 

PLATE 25. 

1-4. Partula o. lignaria Pse. Specimens 186 

5, 6, 9. Partula o. affinis Pse. Specimens 187 

7. Partula compressa 'Pfr.' Rve. (stolida Garr.). Speci- 

men 182, 183 

10, 11. Partula o. dubia Garrett. Specimens 188 

8. Partula o. affinis var. Specimens 188 

12, 13, 17. Partula nodosa Pfr. Specimens 193 

14, 15. Partula nodosa trilineata Pse. Specimens 195 



332 REFERENCE TO PLATES, VOL. XX. 

FIGURE PAGE 

16. Partula nodosa laeva Pils. Specimens 196 

18, 19. Partula nodosa lasva Pils. After Mayer 196 

PLATE 26. 

1, 2. Partula o. amabilis Pfr. Conch. Icon. . 189 

3. Partula o. rubescens Rve. Specimen 190 

4. Partula o. rubescens Rve. Conch. Icon 190 

5. 6. Partula o. rubescens Rve. Specimens 190 

7-10. Partula o. sinistrorsa 'Pse.' Garr. Specimens... 190 

11. Partula o. confluens Pils. Specimen 192 

12. Partula o. brevicula ' Pss. ' Garr. Specimen 191 

13-15. Partula otaheitana Brug. Specimens 183 

16. Partula o. isabellina Pfr. Conch. Icon 186 

PLATE 27. 

1-3. Partula producta Pse. Specimens 192 

4, 5. Partula filosa Pfr. Specimens 196 

6. Partula suturalis Pfr. Specimen 203 

7. Partula t. nucleola Pse. Specimen 209 

8. Partula t. striolata Pse. Specimen 208 

9. Partula s. vexillum Pse. Specimen 204 

10, 11. Partula suturalis Pfr. Novit. Conch 201 

12, 13. Partula stenostoma Pfr. Novit. Conch 192 

14. Partula radiata microstoma Smith. Specimen 233 

15, 16. Partula erheli Mouss. J. de Conchyl 212 

PLATE 28. 

1-6, 8. Partula suturalis Pfr. Specimens 201 

7. Partula tseniata striolata Garr. Specimen 208 

9-12. Partula s. vexillum Pse. Specimens 204 

13. Partula otaheitana Brug. Specimen 183 

14. Partula t. simulens Pse. Specimen 208 

15, 16. Partula taeniata Morch. Specimens 205 

PLATE 29. 

1-7. Partula taeniata elongata Pse. Specimens 210 

8. Partula tseniata Morch. Specimen 205 

9-11. Partula t. elongata Pse. Specimens 210 

12, 13. Partule taeniata Morch. Specimens 20^ 

14-16. Partula tseniata nucleola Pse. Specimens 209 

17-20. Partula mooreana Hartm. Specimens 200 



REFERENCE TO PLATES, VOL. XX. 333 

FIGURE PAGE 

PLATE 30. 

1-3. Partula inflata Rve. Specimens 169 

4-7. Partula ganymedes Pf r. Specimens 170 

8, 12. Partula strigata Pse. Specimens 171 

9, 10. Partula recta Pse. Specimens 172 

11. Partula strigata obesior Pils. Specimen 172 

12. Partula strigata Pse. Specimen 171 

13. Partula bellula Hartm. Type specimen 173 

14-16. Partula strigata obesior Pils. Specimens -. . . 172 

17-19. Partula bellula Hartm. Specimens 173 

PLATE 31. 

1. Partula decussata Pfr. Specimen 174 

2. 3. Partula magdalenae Hartm. Specimen 175 

4. Partula decussata Pfr. Specimen 174 

5. Partula tryoni (= zebrina). Type specimen 269 

6. 7. Partula canalis biconiea Pils. Type specimen... 264 

8. Partula conica Gld. Type specimen 265 

9. Partula zebrina recluziana, J. de Conch 269 

10. Partula actor (= zebrina). Conchyl. Cab 268, 269 

11. Partula zebrina Gld. Specimen 268 

12. Partula stevensoniana Pils. Specimen 266 

13. Partula zebrina recluziana. Specimen 269 

14. 15. Partula zebrina Gld. Specimen 268 

16. Partula zebrina recluziana. Specimen 269 

PLATE 32. 

1-3. Partula conica Gld. Type specimen 265 

4. Partula stevensoniana Pils. Cotype 266 

5. Partula conica Gld. Specimen 265 

6. 7, 8. Partula 'canalis Mouss. Specimen 263 

9, 11. Partula stevensoniana Pils. Cotype 266 

10. Partula canalis Mouss. U. S. Expl. Exped 263 

12-14. Partula expansa Pse. Specimens 269 

15. 16. Partula abbreviata Mouss. Journ. de Conchyl. . . 267 

PLATE 33. 

1, 2. Partula brazieri Pease. Type specimen 271 

3. Partula rosea cognata 'Pse.' Garr. Specimen 254 

4. Partula turneri perstrigata Pils. Specimen 277 

5. 6. Partula turneri Pfr. Specimen 277 

7. Partula pyramis Hartm. Cotype 281 

8. Partula eburnea Hartm. Photo, of type 281 



334 REFERENCE TO PLATES, VOL. XX. 

FIGURE PAGE 

9. Partula albescens Hartm. Proc. A. N. S. Phila. ... 283 

10. Partula albescens Hartm. Specimen 283 

11. Partula eximia Hartm. Type specimen 280 

12-14. Partula caledonica Pfr. Type specimen 278 

15, 16. Partula macgillivrayi Pfr. Novit. Conch 278 

PLATE 34. 

1-3. Partula carnicolor Hartm. Cotypes 286 

4. Partula fraterna Hartm. Type specimen 235 

5, 6. Partula minor Hartm. Cotypes 287 

7-10. Partula auraniana Hartm. Cotypes 284 

11. Partula repanda Pfr. E. A. Smith, del 288 

12, 13. Partula proxima Hartm. Photo, of types 286 

14. Partula minor. Type specimens 287 

15-18. Partula lirata Mouss. Specimens 275 

PLATE 35. 

1-3. Partula nematoraphe Pils. Type specimen 279 

4, 5. Partula flexuosa Hartm. Cotypes 290 

6-8. Partula hastula Hartm. Cotypes 291 

9, 10. Partula incurva Hartm. Cotypes 291 

11. Partula regularis Hartm. Type specimen 292 

12. Partula perlucens Hartm. Proc. A. N. S. Phila 293 

13. Partula flexuosa Hartm. Type specimen 290 

14. Partula regularis Hartm. Type specimen 292 

15-17. Partula vanicorensis Q. & G. Zool. Astrolabe. . . 289 

PLATE 36. 

1-4. Partula coxi 'Ang.' Hartm. Specimens 296 

5, 6. Partula pellucida Pse. Specimens 297 

7, 8. Partula kubaryi Hartm. Type specimen 299 

9, 12. Partula concinna Pse. Specimen 288 

10, 11. Partula micans Pfr. Conchyl. Cab 295 

13, 14. Partula micans Pfr. Specimens 295 

15. 16. Partula carteriensis Q. & G. Specimens 298 

17, 18. Partula carteriensis Q. & G. Zool. Astrolabe ... 298 

PLATE 37. 

1-3. Partula grisea Less. Zool. Coquille 304 

4. Partula occidentalis Hedl. After Hedley 303 

5, 6. Partula hartmanni E. A. Smith. Specimen 301 

7. Partula hartmanni E. A. Smith. P. Z. S 301 

8-10. Partula hollandiana Pils. Type specimen 293 



REFERENCE TO PLATES, VOL. XX. 335 
FIGURE PAGE 

11, 12. Partula obliterata Pils. Type specimen 300 

13, Partula similaris Hartm. Photo, of type 302 

14, 15. Partula similaris Hartm. Specimens 302 

16. Partula woodlarkiana Hartm. Photo, of type 303 

PLATE 38. 

1. Partula leucothoe 0. Semp. Journ. de Conchy! 306 

2. Partula calypso 0. Semp. Journ. de Conchyl 307 

3. 4. Partula thetis 0. Semp. Journ. de C&nchyl 307 

5, 6. Partula thetis 0. Semp. Journ. de Conchyl 307 

7, 8. Partula guamensis Pfr. Specimens 308 

9. Partula guamensis Pfr. After Philippi 308 

10. Partula brumalis (= guamensis) Pfr. Conch. Icon. 309 
11-14. Partula guamensis brumalis Rve. Conchol. Mit- 

theil 309 

15, 16. Partula martensiana Pils. Type specimen 310 

PLATE 39. 

1. Partula gibba Fer. Voy. Uranie 313 

2-11. Partula gibba Fer. Specimens 313 

12-18. Partula gibba bicolor Pse. Specimens 315 

19, 20. Partula lineata Lession. Voy. Coquille . . . . 312 

PLATE 40. 

1. Hemibulimus dennisoni Rve. Conch. Icon. 115 

2-4, 6. Hemibulimus d. carus Pils. Cotypes 116 

5. Hemibulimus magnificus Pfr. After Smith 117 

PLATE 41. 

1. Partula radiolata rushi Pils. Type specimen 318 

2-4. Partula radiolata Pfr. Specimens 316 

5, 9. Partula assimilis Pse. Specimens 261 

6, 10. Partula gonochila Pfr. Specimens 272 

7, 8. Partula gonochila Pfr. Conchyl. Cab 272 

9. Partula assimilis Pse. Specimen 261 

10. Partula gonochila Pfr. Specimen 272 

11, 12. Partula subgonochila Mouss. Journ. de Conchyl. 273 

13. Partula mucida (== varia) . E. A. Smith, del 252 

14. Partula lilacina (= lutea). E. A. Smith, del 257 

15. Partula corneola Hartm. Type specimen 209 

16. Partula minuta Pfr. E. A. Smith, del 301 

17. Partula corneola Pfr. Specimen 209 

18. Partula taeniata spadicea Rve. Conch. Icon 207 



336 REFERENCE TO PLATES, VOL. XX. 

FIGURE PAGE 

19, 20. Partula compressa 'Pfr.' Rve. Specimens 181 

21. Partula compressa 'Pfr.' Bve. Conch. Icon 181 

22. Partula obesa Pse. Amer. Jour, of Conch 260 

PLATE 42. 

1. Partula lirata Mouss. Jaw, after Semper 158 

2. Partula gracilis Pse. Central part of jaw, after 

Binney 158 

3. Ena reiniana. Pallial complex. Pilsbry, del 160 

4. Partula arguta Pse. Pallial complex x6. Pilsbry, 

del 157 

5. Partula rosea Brod. Pallial complex. Vanatta, del. 157 

6. Partula sp. undet. Pallial complex x3. Pilsbry, del. 157 

PLATE 43. 

1. Partula varia huaheinensis Garr. Teeth. Pilsbry, 

del 158 

2. Partula rosea Brod. Teeth. Pilsbry, del 158 

3. Partula bilineata Pse. Genitalia, after Binney .... 159 

4. Partula rosea Brod. Muscles, Pilsbry del 159 

5. Partula rosea Brod. Genitalia, Pilsbry del 158 

6. Partula newcombiana Hartm. After Hartman 305 

7. Glessula sinhila Prest. After Preston . . 320 



of THE 

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INDEX TO VOLUMES XVI, XVII. XVIII, XIX. XX. 



ACHATINHXE, 



FERUSSACID.E. 



The following index comprises the families containing 
snails formerly described as Achatina. All snails described 
under that generic name, whatever their present systematic 
place, are included herein, so far as known to me. 



abbreviata (Achatina) Lowe. .XIX, 221 
abbreviata (Clavator) Kob. .XVII, 196 
abbreviata (Columna) Coop.. . .XI, 153 
ebbreviata (Glandina) Edw.XIX., xxiii 
abbreviata (Glandina)Mts. XIX, 192, 197 
abbreviata (Leptinaria)Mts. XVIII, 307 
abdita (Leptinaria) Poey. . .XVIII, 298 

abdita ( Subulina) Poey XVIII, 298 

aberrans (Bulimus) Pfr XIX, 36 

abetiflana (Limicolaria) Kob. XVI, 267 
abetifiana (Pseudoglessula) Rolle 

XVII, 162 

abia (Ferussacia) Bgt XIX, 257 

abnormis (Ferussacia) Nev. . .XIX, 227 
abromia (Ferussacia) Bgt. . . .XIX, 231 
accincta ( Achatina) Migh. . Achatinellidse 

achates (Bulimus) Mich XVIII, 27 

achates (Prosopeas) Mich. . .XVIII, 27 

achatina (Achatina) L XVII, 9 

achatina (Bulla) Born XVII, 86 

achatina (Bulla) L XVII, 9 

Achatina Lam XVII, 1, xvii, xi 

achatinacea(Stenogyra)auct. XVIII, 22 
achatinaceum (Prosopeas) Pfr. 

XVIII, 21, 139 

achatinaceus (Bulimus) Pfr. XVIII, 22 
Achatinella Schluter XIX, 309 

ACHATINIDAB XVII, Vii 

achatinoides (Bulimus) Ziegl. XVI, 252 

Achatinus Montfort XVII, 1 

Achatium Link XVII, 1 

acicula (Achatina) auct XX, 9 

acicula (Buccinum) Mull XX, 9 

acicula (Bulimus) Grat XX, 5 

acicula (CsecilioideB) Mull. . . . XX, 9, 2 
Acicula RIsso XX, 1 



aciculaeforme (Opeas) Mill. .XVIII, 201 
acicularis(Leptinaria) Shuttl. XVIII,299 
acicularis( Stenogyra) Shuttl. XVIII, 299 
aciculella (Caecillanella) Sandb. .XX, 5 
Aciculina West .............. XX, 1, 5 

aciculoides (Achatina) de Betta XX, 23 
aclculoides (Caecilioides) Jan. ..XX, 23 
aciculoides (Columna) Jan ..... XX, 23 

acmella (Opeas) Morel ..... XVIII, 144 

acmella ( Stenogyra) Morel. . XVIII, 144 
actoniana (Achatina) Ben ..... XX, 25 

actoniana (Caecilioides) Ben. .. .XX, 25 

aculeus (Opeas) Tapp.-Can. .XVIII, 176 
aculeus (Stenogyra) T.-C. . .XVIII, 177 
acuminata (Achatina) Baudon, J. C., 

1835 = Litiopa? 

acuminata (Limicolaria) Marts. XVI, 294 
acus (Bulimus) Pfr ......... XIX, 344 

acus (Coilostele) Pfr ........ XIX, 344 

acus (Euonyma) Morel ...... XVIII, 40 

acus (Spiraxis) Shuttl ........ XIX, 23 

acus (Stenogyra) Morel ...... XVIII, 41 

acuta (Achatina) Lam ....... XVII, 40 

acuta (Helix) Fer ........... XVII, 40 

acuticostatus (Bulimus) Orb. ..XIX, 53 
acuticostata (Varicella) Orb. ..XIX, 52 
acutissima (Stenogyra) Mss. XVIII, 22 
acutissimum(Prosopeas)Mss. XVIII, 22 
acutissimus (Bulimus) Mss. .XVIII, 22 
acutius (Opeas) Mill ....... XVIII, 199 

adamsiana (Achatina) Chitty .XIX, 63 
adamsiana (Varicella) Chitty .XIX, 63 
adamsii (Achatina) Pfr ....... XIX, 66 

adamsi (Opeas) Pils ....... XVIII, 216 

adansoni (Bulimus) Pfr ...... XVI, 252 

adansoni (Limicolaria) Pfr. . .XVI, 252 
adelina (Archachatina) Pils. XVII, 118 



(119) 



120 



INDEX, VOLS. XVI-XX. 



adenensts (Bulimus) Pfr. .. .XVIII, 111 
adonensis (Riebeckia) G.-A. .XVII, 207 
adonensis (Stenogyra) G.-A. XVII, 207 
adusta (Achatina) Gld. = Carelia 

advena (Caecilioides) Anc XX, 35 

aedigyra (Achatina) M. & P.. .XVII, 94 

sedilis (Helix) Fer XVI. 252 

aedilis (Limicolaria) Fer XVI, 252 

aegyptiaca (Coelestele) Bgt. . .XIX, 342 
aegyptiaca (Opeas) Bgt. . . .XVIII, 126 
quatoria (Achatina) Rve. .. .XVI, 227 
sequatorius (Pseudotrochus) Rve. 

XVI, 227 

aequatoria (Leptinaria) Mill. XVIII, 303 
quatoria(Rhodea)Da Costa XVIII,239 
aequatoria (Spiraxis) Mill. .XVIII, 303 
aequatorica (Rhodea) Sykes XVIII, 239 

sethiops (Bulimus) Morel XVI, 269 

sethiops (Limicolaria) Morel. .XVI, 269 
affuvelensis (Limneus) Math. XIX, xxii 
affuvelensis (Poiretia) Math. XIX, xxii 

africana (Coelestele) Bgt XIX, 342 

africana (Limicolaria) Rve. . .XVI, 254 

afrlcanus (Bulimus) Rve XVI, 254 

agassizi (Obeliscus) Pils. .. .XVIII, 249 
agathina (Limicolaria) Gabb. XVI, 250 

Ageca Gray XIX, 291 

agilis (Cionella) West XIX, 232 

agilis (Ferussacla) West XIX, 232 

aglena (Caecilioides) Bgt XX, 16 

AGNATHA XIX, vili 

AGNATHOMORPHA XIX, ix 

agraecia (Ferussacia) Bgt. . . .XIX, 253 

Agraulina Bgt XIX, 269, 272 

agrensis (Bulimus) Kurr. . .XVIII, 111 
agrensis (Zootecus) Kurr. . .XVIII.lll 

alabaster (Helix) Rang XVI, 221 

alabaster (Perlderls) Rang .. .XVI, 221 
alabaster (Pseudotrochus) Rang XVI, 221 
alabastrina (Curvella) DaC. XVIII, 336 
alabastrlna (Glandina) Alb. . .XIX, 195 
alabastrina (Stenogyra) Shuttl. 

XVIII, 205 
alabastrinum( Opeas) Shuttl. XVIII, 204 

alba (Achatina) Brown XX, 10 

alba (Clavator) Dautz XVII, 196 

albersi (Achatina) Pfr XIX, 201 

albersi (Euglandina) Pfr XIX, 201 

albersi (Glandina) Binney . . .XIX, 198 

albleans (Achatina) Pfr XVII, 23 

albida (Perideriopsis) D. & P. XVI, 243 
albinos (Cochlicopa) Moq. . . . XIX, 317 
albobalteatus( Bulimus) Dkr. XVIII, 234 
Ibobalteatus (Synapterpes) Dkr. 

XVIII, 233 
albollneata (Achatina) Lam. . .XIX, 94 



albopicta (Achatina) Sm XVII, 88 

alglra (Glandina) auct XIX, 166 

algira (Poiretia) Brug XIX, 165 

algirus (Bulimus) Brug XIX, 166 

alleryi (Cochlicopa) Caflci . . .XIX, 336 
alleryi(Hohenwartiana)Cafici XIX, 336 

allisa (Achatina) Rve XVII, 33 

allixi (Zua) Cossm XIX, 311 

alopecotis (Pachyotus) Beck. XVII, 175 

Alsobia Bgt XIX, 272 

alticola (Glandina) Pils XIX, 194! 

alzenensis (Azeca) S.-Sim. . . .XIX, 294 
amabilis (Synapterpes) Pils. XVIII, 233 
amauronia (Ferussacla) Bgt. .XIX, 221 
amazonlcum (Opeas) Pils. ..XVIII, 208 

ambigua (Achatina) Pfr XIX, 201 

ambigua (Euglandina) Pfr. . .XIX, 201 
ambigua (Leptinaria) Marts. XVIII, 318 

amblya (Ferussacia) Bgt XIX, 224 

amdoanum (Opeas) Mlldff. .XVIII, 163 

amentum (Achatina) Rve XX, 7T 

amentum (Glessula) Rve XX, 77 

amoena (Glandina) Marts. . . .XIX, 195 
amoanitatum (Csecilianella) Dohrn. 

XX, 6 

amphora (Helix) Fer XVII, 110 

AMPHORELLA Lowe XIX, 269 

Ampulla Bolt XVII, 1 

anais (Achatina) Less XII, 168 

anamulllca (Achatina) Blanf. . .XX, 72 
anamullica (Glessula) Blanf. ..XX, 72 

anceyi (Cionella) West XIX, 337 

anceyi(Hohenwartiana)West. XIX, 337 

anceyi (Prosopeas) Pils XVIII, 33 

angiostoma (Achatina) Ad. ... XIX, 96 
angiostoma (Varicella) Ad. . . .XIX, 96 

anglica (Caecilianella) Bgt XX, 11 

angustatus (Obeliscus) Gundl. 

XVIII, 278 

angustatus (Polyphemus) Villa. XIX, 169 
angustatus (Stenogyra) Gundl. 

XVIII, 279 

angustatus (Stenogyra) Tick. XVII, 135 
angustior( Stenogyra) Dohrn. XVIII, 79 
angustior (Subulina) Dohrn. XVIII, 78 
anjuanensis (Bocagela) Pils. ..XX, 114 
annaensis (Obeliscus) Beck. 

XVIII, 184, 240 

annae (Spiraxis) Pils XIX, 39 

anomala (Achatina) Pfr. .. .XVIII, 303 

anomala (Glandina) Ang. I, 33 

anomala (Leptinaria) Pfr. .XVIII, 303 

anomalus (Bulimus) Ad XIX, 18 

anomalus (Spiraxis) Ad XIX, 18 

I antillarum (Leptinaria) Shutt. 



XVIII, 288, 289 



INDEX, VOLS. XVI-XX. 



121 



antinorii (Achatina) Morel. .XVII, 133 
antinorii (Homorus) Morel. .XVII, 133 
antinorii (Stenogyra) Jlck. XVII, 1/33 
antiqua (Achatina) Desh. Lacuna. 

antiqua (Azeca) Fag XIX, 294 

antiqua (Glandina) Iss XIX, xxv 

antiqua (Glandina) Klein XX, 112 

antoniana (Achatina) Pfr XX, 114 

antourtourensis( Achatina) Cr. XVII, 46 

aperta (Geostilbia) Smith XX, 44 

aperta (Macrospira) Gldg. 

XVIII, 220; XX, 44 

aperta (Megaspira) Smith XX, 45 

APERIDAE XIX, xi 

apex (Bulimus) Mouss XVIII, 127 

aphelina (Ferussacia) Bgt. .. .XIX, 219 
apiculum (Opeas) Morel. .. .XVIII, 151 
apiculum( Stenogyra) Morel. XVIII, 152 
appalachicola(Cochlicopa)Pils. XIX.317 
aquensis (Bulimus) Math. . . .XIX, xxv 

arabica (Coelestele) Bgt XIX, 340 

aradasiana (Achatina) Ben. ..XIX, 335 
aradasiana (Hohenwartiana) Ben. 

XIX, 335 

aratispira (Bocageia) Pils. . .XVII, 185 
aratus (Synapterpes) Pils. .XVIII, 232 
arayatense (Opeas) Semp. ..XVIII, 180 
arayatensis (Stenogyra) Semp. 

XVIII, 180 

ARCHACHATINA Albers. XVII, xiv, 1, 104 
arctespirata (Achatina) Bgt. .XVII, 67 
arctica (Ferussacia) West. .. .XIX, 240 
arctispira (Opeas) Marts. . .XVIII, 175 
arctispira (Stenogyra) Gredl. XVIII, 171 
arctispira (Stenogyra) Marts. XVIII, 175 
arctispirale (Opeas) Gredl. .XVIII, 170 
arctispiralis (Opeas) Gredl. XVIII, 171 
arcuata (Achatina) Pfr., Rve. XIX, 107 

arcuata (Glandina) Pfr XIX, 103 

arcuata (Varicella) Pfr XIX, 103 

arguta (Stenogyra) Marts. . .XVII, 209 
argenteum(Prosopeas)Hend. XVIII, 24 
arguta (Riebeckia) Marts. .. .XVII, 209 

argutum (Opeas) Pils XVIII, 211 

arnoldi (Burtoa) Stur XVI, 307 

arnoldi (Livinhacia) Stur. . . .XVI, 307 
armandi (Limicolaria) Bgt. . .XVI, 247 
artensis (Bulimus) Gass. .. .XVIII, 130 

arthurii (Achatina) Bs XX, 79 

ascendens(Stenogyra)Poey .XVIII, 201 

assimilis (Achatina) Rve XIX, 184 

assimilis (Euglandina) Rve. ..XIX, 184 
assiniensis (Homorus) Kob. .. .XX, 109 

associata (Curvella) Sm XVIII, 57 

associatus (Bulimus) Sm. . . .XVIII, 57 
aasurgena (Bulimus) Pfr. . .XVIII, 202 



atava (Ferussacia) Crosse . . .XIX, 240 

atlantica (Rumina) Pall XVII, 213 

atlasica (Ferussacia) Bgt. . . .XIX, 266 
ATOPOCOCHLIS C. & F. 

XVI, 218, XVII, x 

atramentaria (Achatina) Pfr. .XII, 210 
Atropocochlis, error for Atopocochlis 

XVI, 218 
attenuata (Achatina) Pfr. . . .XIX, 208 

attenuata (Cionella) Mss XIX, 237 

attenuata (Ferussacia) Mouss. XIX, 237 
attenuata (Euglandina) Pfr. .XIX, 208 
aubryana (Stenogyra) Hde. XVIII, 168 
aubryanum (Opeas) Hde. . .XVIII, 168 
audebardi (Glandina) auct. . .XIX, 195 
aurantiaca (Glandina) Ang. . .XIX, 204 

aurata (Glandina) Morel XIX, 188 

auratus (Bulimus) Pfr XVIII, 232 

auratus (Synapterpes) Pfr. XVIII, 232 
aurelianensis (Achatina) Dh. An eocene 

Cochlicopa. 
auriculacea (Spiraxis) Pfr. . .XIX, 159 

aurora (Achatina) Pfr XVII, 102 

aurora (Bulimus) Jay XVI, 249 

aurora (Limicolaria) Jay XVI, 248 

auripigmentum (Bulimus) Rve. XVI, 231 
auripigmentum (Pseudotrochus) Rve. 

XVI, 231 

aurlsmuris (Bulimus) Shuttl. XVII, 176 
aurismyoxi (Bulimus) Shuttl. XVII, 176 
aurisvulpina (Voluta) Dillw. XVII, 175 

austeni (Bacillum) Pils XVIII, 3 

australis (Achatina) Mich., Villa, 

undesc. 

avenacea( Stenogyra) Morel. XVIII, 153 
avenaceum (Opeas) Morel. .XVIII, 153 

AZECA Lch XIX, 289, 290 

Azecastrum Bgt XIX, 290 

azorica (Achatina) Alb XIX, 320 

azorica (Glandina) Alb XIX, 315 

B 

babel (Limicolarius) Beck. .. .XVI, 282 
bacillaris( Stenogyra) Mouss. XVIII.184 
bacilliformls (Achatina) Jonas XVII, 153 
bacilliformis(Homorus) Jonas XVII,152 

Bacillum Theob XVIII, 1 

bacillus (Bulimus) Pfr XVIII, 262 

bacillus (Obeliscus) Pfr. . . .XVIII, 262 
bacterlonides (Helix) Orb. ..XVIII, 250 
bacterionides( Obeliscus) Orb. XVIII, 250 

baculina (Glessula) Blanf XX, 88 

badia (Stenogyra) Marts. . . .XVII, 149 

balanus (Achatina) Bens XX, 46 

balanus (Caecilioides) Bens. . . .XX, 46 
baldwlnl (Caecilioides) Anc. . . .XX, 45 



122 



INDEX, VOLS. XVI-XX. 



Balfourla Crosse XVII, 204 

balstoni (Bulimus) Ang XVII, 203 

balstoni (Clavator) Ang. . . .XVII, 203 

balteata (Achatina) Gld XVI, 235 

balteata (Achatina) Rve XVII, 30 

bamboucha (Helix) F6r XVIII, 109 

bandelrana (Achatina) Morel. XVII, 19 
barattei (Ferussacia) L. & B. XIX, 254 
barbigera (Achatina) Morel, XVII, 183 
barbozse (Caecilioides) Maltz. . .XX, 19 
barclayi (Ferussacia) Pfr. . . .XIX, 233 

barclayi (Spiraxis) Pfr XIX, 233 

barriana (Achatina) Sowb. ..XVII, 127 
barrianum(Ganomidos)Ailly. XVII, 128 
bassamensis (Limicolaria) Sh. XVI, 265 

Bathyaxis Anc XVIII, 336 

baudoni (Azeca) Mich XIX, 292 

bawriense (Opeas) Pils. . . .XVIII, 146 

bayanus (Bulimus) Pfr XIX, 45 

bayaona (Achatina) Morel. . .XVII, 20 

bayoli (Achatina) Morel XVII, 118 

bayoniana (Achatina) Morel. .XVII, 21 

Beccaria Bgt XVIII, 114 

beccarii (Limicolaria) Morel. .XVI, 278 
beckianum (Opeas) Pfr. . . .XVIII, 189 
beckianus (Bulimus) Pfr. . .XVIII, 189 
beddomei (Achatina) Blanf. . . .XX, 74 

beddomei (Glessula) Blanf XX, 73 

bellamyi (Limicolaria) Jouss. XVI, 253 

belloiri (Ferussacia) Let XIX, 266 

bellula (Glandina) C. & F I, 23 

belonidaea (Caecilioides) Serv. ..XX, 18 

Belonis Hartmann XX, 1 

bensoniana (Achatina) Pfr XX, 67 

bensoniana (Glessula) Pfr XX, 67 

bentise (Obeliscella) M. & P. XVIII, 102 
bentife (Stenogyra) M. & P. XVIII, 102 

berendti (Achatina) Pfr I, 50 

berendti (Physella) Pfr I, 22 

berendti (Pseudosubulina) Pfr. .. .1, 50 
berendti (Spiraxis) Pfr. XIX, 21 ; I, 51 

berendti (Strebelia) Pfr I, 22 

berthleri (Ferussacia) Bgt. .. .XIX, 260 
berytensis (Ferussacia) Bgt. ..XIX, 327 

BIANQULAXIS Pils XIX, 46 

bicarinata (Achatina) Brug. XVII, 107 
blcarinatus (Bulimus) Brug. XVII, 108 
bickhardtl (Spiraxis) Bttg. . . .XIX, 13 
bicolor (Achatina) Jay = Carelia. 
bicolor (Streptostyla) Marts. .XIX, 162 
bicolumellarls (Subulina) Marts. 

XVIII, 9 

biconica (Spiraxis) Pfr XIX, 157 

biconica (Streptostyla) Pfr. ..XIX, 15 

bif rona (Perideris) Sh XVI, 22 

bifrons (Pseudotrochus) Sh. ..XVI, 225 



)inneyana (Glandina) Pfr. 

XIX, 188 ; XX, 111 
>lnneyana (Streptostyla) C. & F. 

XIX, 156 

inneyi (Obeliscus) Pils. . . .XVIII, 279 
jinodosa (Caecilioides) Maltz. .XX, 19 
>iolleyi (Leptinaria) Marts. XVIII, 316 
ilondiana (Achatina) Ben. . .XIX, 335 
iondiana (Hohenwartiana) Ben. 

XIX, 334 

biondina (Ferussacia) Pfr. . .XIX, 335 
biplicata (Glandina) W. & M. XIX, 118 

biplicata (Helix) Lowe XIX, 273 

biplicata (Varicella) W. & M. XIX, 119 
iplicatula (Varicella) Pils. ..XIX, 105 

bisculpta (Achatina) Sm XVII, 94 

bistorta (Spiraxis) Pfr XVIII, 233 

blstortus(Synapterpes)Pfr. XVIII, 233 

blalniana (Achatina) Poey XII, 75 

lanchardianum (Opeas) Gass.XVIII,178 
blanchardianus (Bulimus) Gass. 

XVIII, 178 

blandiana (Achatina) Ad XIX, 75 

blandiana (Caecilioides) Crosse .XX, 42 
blandiana (Geostilbia) Crosse ..XX, 43 
blandiana (Streptostyla) C. & F. 

XIX, 148 
blandiana (Tornatellina) Pfr. XVIII, 289 

blandiana (Varicella) Ad XIX, 74 

blandianus (Obeliscus) Pils. XVIII, 278 
blandianus (Spiraxis) Pils. . . .XX, 111 

blandi (Bulimus) Pfr XVIII, 258 

blandi (Obeliscus) Pfr XVIII, 257 

blandi (Ravenia) Crosse I, 52 

blandi (Spiraxis) Crosse 

XIX, 20 ; XX, 111 

blanfordiana (Glessula) Nev. . .XX, 98 
blanfordiana (Stenogyra) Nev. .XX, 99 

bloyeti (Achatina) Bgt XVII, 36 

BOCAGEIA Girard XVII, 191 

bocagei (Opeas) Nobre XVIII, 145 

bocourtiana (Stenogyra) C. & F. 

XVIII, 213 
bocourtianum (Opeas) C. & F. 

XVIII, 213 
bocourti(Streptostyla)C. & F. XIX, 150 

boettgeri (Azeca) And XIX, 292 

boettgeri (Caecilioides) Hesse ..XX, 16 
boettgeri (Curvella) Gredl. . .XVIII, 67 
boettgeri (Hapalus) Gredl. . .XVIII, 68 
bogotensls(Euglandina)Da C. XIX, 179 
bogotensis (Glandina) Da C. .XIX, 180 

boissil (Azeca) Dup XIX, 307 

bolssyi (Cionella) Westerl. .. .XIX, 307 
bolvini (Glandina) Morel. See Enid. 
bollampattiana( Stenogyra) Nev. XX, 74 



INDEX, VOLS. XVI-XX. 



123 



Boltenla Pfr XIX, 131 

bolumpattiana (Glessula) Bedd. XX, 75 

bombarda (Ampulla) Bolt XVII, 9 

bonensls (Glandina) Alb XIX, 166 

bonnet! (Glandina) Cossm. . .XIX, xxil 

borbonica (Helix) F6r XVII, 56 

borealis (Pseudosubullna) Plls. .XIX, 7 

borealis (Spiraxis) Pils XIX, 8 

boreti (Achatina) Gray XIX, 166 

borniana (Achatina) Beck XVII, 86 

botellus (Achatina) Bs XX, 78 

botellus (Glessula) Bs XX, 78 

bottampotana( Achatina )H. & T. XX, 74 
bottampotana( Glessula) H. & T. XX, 74 
botteriana (Streptostyla) C. & P. 

I, 44 ; XIX, 161 
bourguignatiana (Achatina) Ben. 

XIX, 331 
bourguignatiana (Hohenwartiana) Ben. 

XIX, 330 

bourguignati (Azeca) Fag. . . .XIX, 296 
bourguignatl(Ccelestele)Jouss. XIX.341 
bourguignati (Digonlaxis) Jouss. 

XIX, 288 
bourguignati (Limicolaria) Grand. 

XVI, 304 
bourguignati (Limicolaria) Pal. 

XVIII, 126 

boucardi( Streptostyla )Angas XIX, 158 
boucardi (Streptostyla) Pfr. .XIX, 158 
bourlieri (Ferussacia) Anc. . .XIX, 266 
boyeriana (Streptostyla) C. & F. .1,48 

boyssii (Zua) Loc XIX, 307 

braueri (Opeas) Marts XVIII, 156 

braueri (Hapalus) Marts. . .XVIII, 156 
brephos (Obeliscus) Beck. . .XVIII, 240 
bretignerei (Glessula) Chap. . .XX, 109 

brevicula (Melaniella) Ad XIX, 50 

brevior (Subulina) Smith . .XVIII, 177 

brevis (Achatina) Pfr XX, 85 

brevis (Cochlicopa) Mich. . . .XIX, 311 
brevis (Curvella) Q. & M. ...XVIII, 69 

brevis (Glandina) Edw XIX, xxiii 

brevis (Glessula) Pfr XX, 85 

brevis (Hapalus) Q. & M. . . .XVIII, 69 

brevis (Spiraxis) Ad XIX, 40 

brevis (Zua) Mich XIX, 311 

brevispira (Opeas) Pils XVIII, 173 

brevius (Opeas) Smith XVIII, 177 

bridouxiana (Burtoa) Bgt. . . .XVI, 304 
brldouxi (Limicolaria) Grand. XVI, 293 

brittanica (Pupa) Ken XIX, 295 

brondeli (Caecilloides) Bgt XX, 20 

buccinula (Achatina) Grat. . . .XX, 114 
buchholzi (Pseudachatina) Kob. 

XVI, 217 



buchneri (Achatina) Marts. . .XVII, 10 
buchner i ( Pseudachatina ) Kob. XVI, 20ft 

buddii (Zua) Dup XIX, 313 

bugesl (Ferussacia) Bgt XIX, 329 

bugesi (Hohenwartiana) Bgt. .XIX, 329 
bulimoides (Achatina) Pfr., Tornatel- 
linidae. 

Bulimulidse XX, 114 

bulimea (Columna) Spix. . . .XVII, 125 

bullacea (Spiraxis) Pfr XIX, 14 

bullacea (Streptostyla) Pfr. . .XIX, 146 

| bullata (Glandina) Gld XIX, 192 

bulloides (Achatina) Dh. Pfr. Monogr. 

Ill, 520 

burnupi (Achatina) Sm XVII, 97 

burrailensis (Glessula) G.-Aust. XX, 92 

| BURTOA Bourguignat XVI, 298 

j burtoniana (Limicolaria) Grand. 

XVI, 293 

j Burtopsis Bgt XVI, 298 

butleri (Glessula) G.-Aust XX, 92 



cacahuamilpensis ( Spiraxis ) Her. XIX.28 
cacuminata (Euonyma) M. & P. 

XVIII, 42 
cacuminata (Stenogyra) M. & P. 

XVIII, 42 

Ccecilianella Bourg XX, 1 

Cfficillanellidse Bgt XIX, 211 

CABCILIANOPSIS Pils XX, 5, 38 

CAECILIOIDES Herm XX, 1 

caillaudi (Bulimus) Pfr XVI, 282 

cailleanus (Bulimus) Morel. ..XVI, 228 
cailleanus (Pseudotrochus) Morel. 

XVI, 227 
calabarlca (Achatina) Pfr. XVII,157,158 

CALAXIS Bgt XIX, 284 

calcareus (Bulimus) Brug. . .XVII, 196 
calcaria (Helix) Born. 

XVII, 196 ;XVIII, 283 
ealoarius(Neobeliscus)Born. XVIII.283 
caledonica (Geostilbia) Crosse ..XX, 45 
callfornica (Achatina) Pfr. XVIII, 235 
californica (Columna) Pfr. .XVIII, 235 
californica (Rhodea) Pfr. . .XVIII, 235 
caloglypta (Curvella) M. & P. 

XVIII, 59 

calus (Spiraxis) Pils XIX, 42 

callista (Euglandina) P. & C. XIX, 181 
calllsta (Glandina) P. & C. . .XIX, 181 

callistopepla Anc XVII, 125 

CALLISTOPLBPA Anc XVII, xv, 125 

camba (Bulimus) Orb XVIII, 210 

camba (Opeas) Orb XVIII, 209 



124 



INDEX, VOLS. XVI-XX. 



camerunensfs (Achatina) Ailly. 

XVII, 119 

canarlca (Glessula) Bedd XX, 72 

cancellata (Glandina) Sandb. XIX, xxiv 
Candida (Glandina) Shuttl. . .XIX, 197 
candidlssima (Limicolaria) Parr. 

XVI, 273 

candidissimus(Bulimus)Parr. XVI, 274 
canefriana (Perrieria) Sykes XVIII, 36 
canonica(Stenogyra) Morel. XVIII, 100 
canonica (Subulina) Morel. XVIII, 100 
canteroiana (Cryptelasmus) Gundl. 

XVIII, 331 

canteroiana (Balea) Gundl. XVIII, 332 
cantheriata (Cochlitoma) Fe"r. XX, 113 

cantheriata (Helix) Fer XX, 113 

canthraini (Mastus) Beck. .. .XIX, 299 

capellol (Achatina) Furt XVII, 28 

capensis (Achatina) Alb XVII, 86 

capillacea (Achatina) Pfr XX, 55 

capillacea (Glessula) Pfr XX, 55 

caraccasensis(Bulimus)Rve. XVIII, 189 
carinata (Achatina) Pfr XVI, 223 



cazioti (Ferussacia) Loc XIX, 332 

cazioti (Hohenwartiana) Loc. XIX, 332 

Cecilioides Beck XX, 1 

celosia (Ferussacia) Bgt XIX, 261 

centralis (Limicolaria) Germain 

XVII, 217 

cerea (Achatina) Pfr XVIII, 78 

cerea (Subulina) Pfr XVIII, 78 

CERAS Dupuis XVII, 155 

cereola (Achatina) Morel. . . .XVIII, 99 
cereola (Subulina) Morel. . . .XVIII, 99 
cereus (Bulimus) Rve. .XVIII, 127, 128 

ceylanica (Achatina) Pfr XX, 57 

ceylanica (Glessula) Pfr XX, 57 

champion! (Streptostyla) Marts. XIX, 159 

chaperi (Achatina) Anc XVII, 10 

chapman! ( Stenogyra) M. & P. XVIII, 93 
chapman! (Subulina) M. & P. XVIII, 93 
charbonnieri ( Limicolaria ) Bgt. XVI.293 
charmettensis( Varicella) Pils. XIX, 116 
charopia (Ferussacia) Bgt. . .XIX, 255 
chathamensis (Leptinaria) Dall. 

XVIII, 285 



carinata (Perideris) Pfr. . . .XVI, 223 | chefneuxi (Limico iaria) Bgt. .XVI, 271 



carinata (Pseudotrochus) Pfr. XVI, 223 
carinata (Stenogyra)Watteb. XVIII, 159 
carinatum (Opeas) Watteb. XVIII, 159 
carinulata (Subullna) Beck. XVIII, 221 
carinulata(Synopeas) Jouss. XVIII, 192 

carmenensis (Glandina) auct I, 40 

carminensis (Euglandina) Morel. .1,40 



chemnitziana (Achatina) Pfr. XVII, 86 

Chersina Beck XVI, 219 

Chersina Humph XVII, 1 

CHERSOMITBA Marts XIX, 145 

chessoni (Achatina) Bs XX, 69 

chessoni (Glessula) Bs XX, 68 

chiapensis (Achatina) Pfr I, 50 



carminensis (Glandina) Morel. . . .1, 40 j chlapensls (p se udosubulina) Pfr. .1, 50 
carnea (Achatina) P :r. j cniap ensis (Streptostyla) Pils. XX, 111 

XVII, 109 ; XIX, 1 ) j chiarlnii (Subulina) Poll. . . .XVIII, 85 
carnea (Ferussacia) Risso . . .XIX, 248 ' 



carnea (Pegea) Risso XIX, 248 

carneola (Achatina) Grat. . . .XVI, 249 
Carolina (Stenogyra) Marts. .XVIII, 19 
carolinum(Prosopeas)Marts. XVIII, 19 
carphodes (Bulimus) Pfr. ..XVIII, 247 
oarphodes (Obellscus) Pfr. .XVIII, 246 

carus (Hemibulimus) Pils XX, 116 

casiaca (Electra) Bs XVIII, 4 

cassiaca (Achatina) Bs XVIII, 3 

cassiacum (Bacillum) Bs XVIII, 3 

castanea (Achatina) Lam XVII, 54 

castanea (Subulina) Marts. .XVII, 139 
<rastrolana (Caecilioides) Loc. . .XX, 17 
oastroiana (Coelestele) Bgt. . .XIX, 344 
castroiana (Ferussacia) Loc. .XIX, 223 
catarractse(Curvella)M. & P. XVIII, 59 
catarractse(Hapalus)M. & P. XVIII, 59 

Cataulus calcadensls XVIII, 63 

catenata (Splraxls) Pfr XIX, 161 

catenata (Streptostyla) Pfr. 

I, 251 ; XIX, 161 
caxapregana (Helix) Morlc. XVIII, 283 



chiliensis (Achatina) Less XI, 8 

Chilogymnus Jouss XVIII, 104 

CHILONOPSIS F. de W XVII, 171 

chinense (Opeas) Pfr XVIII, 162 

chinensis (Achatina) Pfr XVIII, 7 

chinensis (Tortaxis) Pfr. XVIII, 6, 162 

chion (Bulimus) Pfr XVIII, 112 

chiradzulensis (Subullna) Smith 

XVIII, 93 

chiriquiana(Glandina) Marts. XIX, 202 
chirlqulana (Streptostyla) Marts. 

XIX, 151 
chlriquiensis (Glandina) DaC. XIX, 202 

chittyana (Varicella) Pils XIX, 64 

chittyl (Varicella) Plls XIX, 81 

choana (Limicolaria) Bgt XVI, 27T 

chromatella (Limicolaria) Morel. 

XVI, 263 

chromatellus (Bulimus) Morel. XVI, 264 
chromatlca (Limicolaria) Pils. XVI, 287 
chrysallls (Achatina) Pfr. see Acha- 
tinellldse. 



INDEX, VOLS. XVI-XX. 



125 



CHBYSERPES Plls XVIII, 228, 231 

chrysoderma (Achatina) Pils. XVII, 46 
chrysoleuca (Achatina) Pils. .XVII, 59 
churchtlliana (Achatina) M. & P. 

XVII, 101 

cienfuegensls (Varicella) Pils. XIX, 59 
cienfuegosensis (Cryptelasmus) Pils. 

XVIII, 332 

clncta (Ferussacia) Cout. . . .XIX, 229 
cingalensis (Digoniaxis) Bs. .XIX, 289 
cingalensis (Spiraxis) Bs. . . .XIX, 289 
clngulata ( Strep tosty la) C. & F. 

1,45; XIX, 148 

cingulatum (Ceras) D. & P. .XVII, 156 
cinnamomea( Achatina) M. & P. XVII.94 
clnnamomeofusca (Euglandina) Try. 

XIX, 182 

Cionella Jeffr XIX, 309 

Cionellida Pfr. & Cless XIX, 211 

ClRCINARIIDAE PilS XIX, X 

circumstriata (Subulina) Marts. 

XVII, 140 
cirtana (Ferussacia) Bgt. . . .XIX, 262 

clappi (Varicella) Pils XIX, 109 

clava (Bulimus) Rve XIX, 34 

clavata (Acatina) Gray XVII, 157 

clavata (Pseudoglessula) Gray XVII, 157 
clavata (Subulina) Marts. . .XVII, 139 
clavator (Bulimus) Petit. . . .XVII, 200 
clava tor (Clavator) Petit. .. .XVII, 200 

CLAVATOB Martens XVII, 192 

clavatula (Streptostyla) Anc. XIX, 160 
clavif ormls ( Stenogyra ) Kob. XVII, 214 

clavula (Columna) Villa XVII, 125 

clavulinum (Opeas) P. & M. XVIII, 135 
clavulinus (Bulimus) P. & M. XVIII, 135 
clavulus (Bulimus) Turt. . .XVIII, 201 

clavulus (Helix) F6r XVIII, 201 

clavulus (Helix) Q. & G. . . .XVIII, 127 

clavus (Achatina) Pfr XVII, 185 

clavus (Bocageia) Pfr XVII, 184 

clavus (Obeliscus) Pils XVIII, 266 

CLBOSTYLA Dall. XVII. 179 

clcriei (Glandina) Weinl XIX, 135 

clerlei (Oleacina) Weinl XIX, 134 

clessini (Caecilioides) Maltz. .. .XX, 19 
cobanensls (Spiraxis) Marts. . .XIX, 21 
cobanensis (Spiraxis) Tristr. .XIX, 154 
cobanensis (Streptostyla) Tristr. 

XIX, 155 

cochlea (Achatina) Rve. Carelia. 
cochleades (Bulimus) Rve. . .XVIII, 16 

COCHLICOPA Fer. XIX, 308 

Cochlicopidae auct XIX, 211 

cochlidium (Varicella) Pils. . .XIX, 110 
cochliodes (Bulimus) Pfr. . . .XVIII, 16 



cochliodes (Prosopeas) Pfr. ..XVIII, 1 

COCHLITOMA Fer XVII, xiii, 73 

Coelestele Bgt XIX, 338 

COELIAXINAB Pils XVIII, 330 

COBLIAXIS Ad. & Ang. XVIIi, 331, 33<J 

Coelostele auct. XIX, 338 

cognata (Glandina) Streb I, 39 

COILOSTELE Bens XIX, 338 

colimense (Opeas) C. & F. ..XVIII, 215 
colimensis (Bulimus) C. & F. XVIII, 215 

collettae (Glessula) Sykes XX, 60 

collina (Achatina) Dr XIX, 322 

coloba (Achatina) Pils XVII, 58 

colorata (Limicolaria) Marts. XVI, 286 
colubrina (Achatina) Morel. . .XVII, 27 
columella (Achatina) Desh. Scalaxis. 
columella (Bulimus) Phil. ..XVIII, 248 
columella (Cochlicopa) Cless. XIX, 314 
columella (Obeliscus) Phil. .XVIII, 248 
columna (Buccinum) Mull. . .XVII, 122 
columna (Cochlicopa) Cless. ..XIX, 319 
columna (Columna) Mull. .. .XVII, 121 

COLUMNA Perry XVII, 120 

columnaris (Lymnea) Lam. ..XVII, 122 
communis (Achatina) Mke. . .XIX, 314 
comorensis (Achatina) Pfr. .XVII, 188 
comorensis (Bocageia) Pfr. ..XVII, 188 
comorensis (Caecilioides) Morel. XX, 47 
comorensis (Geostilbia) Morel. .XX, 48 

COMOROPBAS Pils XVIII, 123 

compressa (Glandina) Mss. . .XIX, 169 
compressa (Poiretia) Mss. . . .XIX, 169 
compressilabris (Bulimus) Bens. 

XVIII, 201 

concentrioa( Achatina) Rve. XVIII, 290 
concentrica (Curvella) Rve. .XVIII, 61 
eoncentrica (Leptinaria) Rve. 

XVIII, 290 

concentricus (Bulimus) Rve. XVIII, 51 
conferta (Euglandina) Pfr. . .XIX, 210 

conferta (Oleacina) Pfr XIX, 210 

confertecostatus (Spiraxis) Streb. 

1,51; XIX, 23 

confertecostatus (Volutaxis) Streb. I, 51 
confertestriatus (Spiraxis) Streb. 

1,52; XIX, 23 
confertestriatus (Volutaxis) Streb. I, 52 

confertus (Bulimus) Pfr XIX, 30 

confusa (Achatina) Pfr. . . . A VIII. 225 

confusa (Subulina) Pfr XVIII, 225 

congolanica (Limicolaria) Putz. 

XVI, 271 
conifera (Achatina) Rve., Tornatel- 

linidse. 
coniformis (Streptostyla) Shutt. 

1,47; XIX, 148 



126 



INDEX, VOLS. XVI-XX. 



connectens (Limicolaria) Marts. 

XVI, 293 
connectens (Pseudochatina) Ailly. 

XVI, 211 

conoidea (Curvella) Marts. . .XVIII, 56 
conoideus (Hapalus) Marts. .XVIII, 56 
conradti (Pseudoglessula) Marts. 

XVII, 170 

conradti (Subulina) Marts. ..XVIII, 92 
consimilia (Achatina) Rve., Tornatel- 
linidte. 

consobrina (Achatina) Orb XX, 39 

consobrina (Caecilioides) Orb. ..XX, 39 
contiguus (Bulimus) Rve. . .XVIII, 105 
contiguus (Zootecus) Rve. ..XVIII, 105 

contorta (Spiraxis) Chitty XIX, 18 

contractus (Bulimus) Poey 

XVIII, 194, 195 
contraria (Columna) M. & H. XVII, 125 

conularis (Achatina) Pfr XIX, 197 

conularis (Euglandina) Pfr. ..XIX, 197 
Conulus(Streptostyla) Marts. XIX, 148 

convexior (Glessula) Nevill XX, 79 

convexus (Bulimus) Wood 

XIX, xxiii ; XX, 113 
convoluta (Ferussacia) Pal. .XIX, 217 
convoluta (Leptinaria) Marts. 

XVIII, 320 

cordierl (Achatina) Dh XIX, xxii 

cordofana (Limicolaria) Sh. ..XVI, 273 
cordovana (Achatina) Pfr. .. .XIX, 209 
cordovana (Euglandina) Pfr. XIX, 209 

coronata (Achatina) Pfr XIX, 185 

coronata (Stenogyra) Guppy . .XIX, 72 
coronata (Varicella) Guppy . . .XIX, 72 
coronatus (Bulimus) Pfr. . .XVIII, 229 
coronatus (Synapterpes) Pfr. XVIII, 229 

cornea (Achatina) Brum XIX, 169 

cornea (Achatina) Morel. . . .XVII, 189 

cornea (Acicula) Hasselt XX, 103 

cornea (Bocageia) Morel XVII, 189 

cornea (Bulimus) Bgt. 

XVII, 214 ; XX, 114 

cornea (Glessula) Bttg XX, 103 

cornea (Poiretia) Brum XIX, 168 

cornea (Streptostyla) C. & F. XIX, 154 
corneola (Glandina) Binn. . . .XIX, 188 

corrosula (Achatina) Pfr XX, 67 

corrosula (Glessula) Pfr XX, 67 

corusca (Achatina) Rve XIX, 123 

corusca (Varicella) Rve XIX, 123 

cossoni (Ferussacia) L. & B. .XIX, 266 
costaricana (Leptinaria) Marts. 

XVIII, 316 
costarlcensls (Streptostyla) DaC. 

XIX, 155 



costatostriatus (Bulimus) Pfr. XIX, 25 
costatostriatus (Spiraxis) Pfr. XIX, 25 
costellata (Poiretia) Sowb. ..XIX, xxiil 
costellatus (Bulimus) Sowb. XIX, xxlil 
costellosa (Tornatellina) Guppy 

XVIII, 301 

costulata (Achatina) Ad XIX, 68 

costulata (Achatina) Greet .XVII, 187 
costulata (Petriola) Greet ..XVII, 187 

costulata (Varicella) Ad XIX, 6d 

costulosa (Achatina) Ad XIX, 78 

costulosa (Varicella) Ad XIX, 78 

costulosus (Spiraxis) Ad XIX, 17 

coulboisl (Limicolaria) Bgt. . .XVI, 285 
coulteri (Euglandina) Gray . .XIX, 186 

coulter! (Glandina) Gray XIX, 187 

couroupa (Achatina) Less. . . .XVII, 56 

cousini (Rhodea) Jouss XVIII, 238 

crassa (Burtoa) Marts XVI, 302 

crassa (Limicolaria) Marts. . .XVI, 302 
crassa (Streptostyla) Streb. ..XIX, 152 
crassicostata (Glandina) Sandb. 

XIX, xxill 

crassilabris (Achatina) Bs XX, 96 

crassilabrls (Glessula) Bs XX, 96 

crassula (Achatina) Bs XX, 98 

crassula (Cochlicopa) Ag XIX, 318 

crassula (Ferussacia) Fag. .. .XIX, 318 

crassula (Glessula) Bs XX, 98 

craven! (Achatina) Sm XVII, 66 

crawfordi (Achatina) Morel. ..XVII, 93 
crawfordi (Opeas) M. & P. .XVIII, 149 
crawfordi (Stenogyra) M. & P. 

XVIII, 149 
crenata (Achatina) Swains. .. .XII, 168 

crenata (Helix) Valenc XVI, 208 

crenata (Oncaea) Gistel XVII, 71 

crenulata (Achatina) Sow. Ant. Pfr. 

XX, 112 

crenulata (Glandina) Sow. Anton Pfr. 

XX, 112 

crenulata (Leptinaria) Marts. XVI 11,311 
crenulata (Struthiolaria) Lam. 

XVII, 175 

crenulatum (Opeas) Smith .XVIII, 146 
crlstalllna (Caecilioides) Ben. ..XX, 15 

cristallina (Pupa) Dup XIX, 290 

croslyl (Curvella) Burn XVIII, 59 

crosseana( Rhodea )DaCosta XVIII, 237 

crossei (Clavator) Kob XVII, 204 

crossei (Opeas) Girard XVIII, 115 

crossei (Pseudopeas) Girard XVIII, 115 
crotalaria (Subulina) Moerch XVIII, 73 
crotalarl (Subulina) Beck ..XVIII, 73 
crotallarla (Achatina) Schum. XVII, 71 
CBTPTAZBCA Folln XIX, 282 



INDEX, VOLS. XVI-XX. 



127 



CBTPTBLASMUS Plls. . .XVIII, 330, 331 
crystallinus( Bulimus) Greet XVII, 216 
crystalline (Euonyma) M. & P. 

XVIII, 45 
crygtallina (Subullna) M. & P. 

XVIII, 45 

cubanlana (Achatina) Orb. .. .XIX, 143 
cubaniana (Spiraxis) Orb. . . .XIX, 143 
cubaniana (Streptostyla) Orb. XIX, 143 

cubensis (Achatina) Orb XIX, 143 

cubensls (Rectoleaclna) Orb. .XIX, 142 
cuencanum (Opeas) Pfr. . . .XVIII, 197 
cuencanus (Bullmus) Pfr. ..XVIII, 197 
cumingiana (Ochroderma) Pfr. 

XVIII, 327 

cuminglana (Splraxis) Pfr. Carelia. 
cumingiana (Tornatellina) Pfr. 

XVIII, 328 

cumlngii (Achatina) Shuttl. XVII, 112 
cumingii (Glandlna) Beck. .. .XIX, 195 
cumingi (Euglandina) Beck. .XIX, 195 

cuneus (Bulimus) Pfr XVIII, 252 

cuneus (Glandlna) Marts XIX, 187 

cuneus (Obeliscus) Pfr XVIII, 252 

curta (Cochlicopa) Cless XIX, 319 

CDRVELLA Chaper XVIII, 46 

curvilabris (Glandina) Pfr. . . .XIX, 89 
curvilabris (Varicella) Pfr. . . .XIX, 89 
cuspidata (Achatina) Boissy. Scalaxis. 
cyanostoma (Achatina) Pfr. XVII, 131 
Cyanostoma (Homorus) Pfr. XVII, 131 
cyanozoarla(Oleaclna)Gundl. XIX, 140 

cyclothyra (Azeca) Bttg XIX, 300 

cyclothyra (Cochlicopa) Bttg. XIX, 301 
cylichna (Achatina) Lowe . . .XIX, 282 
cylichna (Csecilianella) Bgt. .XIX, 282 
cylichna (Ferussacia) Lowe . .XIX, 282 

CYLICHNIDIA Lowe XIX, 280 

cylindracea (Azeca) Calc XIX, 302 

cylindracea (Glandina) Phill. XIX, 198 
cylindracea (Streptostyla) Pfr. .. .1, 48 
cylindracea (Subulina) Bgt. XVII, 144 
cylindraceus (Bulimus) Calc. XIX, 302 
cylindrata (Coelostele) Bttg. .XIX, 343 
cylindrella (Achatina) Morel. 

XVIII, 226 
cylindrella (Subulina) Morel. XVIII, 226 

cylindrica (Azeca) Mass XIX, 308 

cylindrica( Ferussacia) Morel. XIX, 315 
cylindrica (Ferussacia) Mass. XIX, 308 
cylindrica (Pupa) "Hutt." .XVIII, 107 
cylindricus (Helicites) Schl. .XlX.xxli 

Cylindrina Schlueter XVII, 211 

cyllndrus( Euglandina) Marts. XIX, 184 
cyllndrus (Glandina) Marts. .XIX, 184 
cypria ( Calaxis) Kob XIX, 287 



D 

dactylophila (Ferussacia) Iss. XIX, 254 

dactylus (Aohatina) Brod I, 32 

dalli (Euglandina) Pils XIX, 207 

dalli (Glandina) Pils XIX, 207 

daillyana (Curvella) Pils. .. .XVIII, 48 
daillyana (Pseudochatina) Pils. XVI,214 
damarensis (Achatina) Marts. XVII, 22 
dammarensis (Achatina) Pfr. XVII, 21 
danica (Stenogyra) Schlesch .. .XX, 10 
darnaudi (Achatina) Pfr. .. .XVII, 134 
darvinianus (Bulimus) Fbs. .XVII, 176 
darvinianus(Chilonopsis)Fbs. XVII,177 
daudebarti (Achatina) Dh. . .XIX, 195 
daudebarti (Euglandina) Dh. XIX, 195 
dautzenbergi (Ceras) D. & P. XVII, 155 
davidensis (Varicella) Plls. . . .XIX, 64 

davidis (Cochlicopa) Anc XIX, 325 

davidis (Zua) Anc XIX, 325 

dealbertisi (Glessula) Poll. .. .XX, 106 
debilis (Ferussacia) Morel. .. .XIX, 264 

debilis (Glandina) Morel XIX, 264 

decapitatus (Bulimus) Spix .XVII, 213 

decepta (Curvella) Rve XVIII, 49 

deceptus (Bulimus) Rve XVIII, 49 

decidua (Euglandina) Pfr. .. .XIX, 204 

decidua (Oleacina) Pfr XIX, 204 

declpiens (Riebeckia) Sm. .. .XVII, 206 
declpiens (Stenogyra) Smith XVII, 206 
decollata (Achatina) Morel. .XVII, 153 

decollata (Helix) L XVII, 212 

decollata (Rumina) L. ..XVII, 212, 215 
decollata (Stenogyra) auct. ..XVII, 212 
decollatus (Bulimus) auct. .XVII, 213 
decollatus (Homorus) Morel. XVII, 153 
decora (Achatina) Dh. see Achatinel- 

lidse. 

decorticatum (Prosopeas) Rve. XVII 1,34 
decorticatus (Bulimus) Rve. 

XVIII, 35, 127 

decurtata (Curvella) Mlldff. .XVIII, 68 
decurtatus (Hapalus) Mlldff. XVIII, 68 

decussata (Achatina) Dh XIX, 188 

decussata (Bulimus) Lowe 

XVII, 214 ; XX, 114 
decussata (Euglandina) Dh. ..XIX, 188 
decussata (Glandina) Binn. 

XIX, 188, 190 

deflorescens (Glandina) Vend. .XIX, 96 
deflorescens (Varicella) Vend. .XIX, 96 
delattrei (Streptostyla) auct. XIX, 145 
delesserti (Glandina) Bgt. .. .XIX, 167 

delessertl (Poiretia) Bgt XIX, 167 

delibuta (Glandina) Morel. .. .XIX, 152 
delibuta (Streptostyla) Morel. XIX, 152 



128 



INDEX, VOLS. XVI-XX. 



delicata (Curvella) Gibb. . . .XVIII, 58 

delicata (Glandina) Plls XIX, 194 

delicata (Opeas) Gibb XVIII, 58 

delicatula ( Achatina) Shuttl. XIX, 209 
dellcatula ( Euglandina ) Shuttl. XIX,209 

delicatus (Spiraxis) Plls XIX, 27 

delorioli (Achatina) Bonn. . . .XVII, 82 
denariensis( Ferussacia) Greg. XIX, 221 
densespiratus (Bulimus) Mouss. 

XVIII, 174 
densespiratum (Opeas) Mouss. 

XVIII, 174 

densestrlata ( Stenogyra ) Mss. XVIII,175 
dennlsonl (Achatina) Rve. C. Icon. f. 

32. Hemibullmus XX, 115 

dennlsonl (Pseudachatlna)Pfr. XVI, 211 
denticulata (Glandina) Welnl. XIX, 116 
denticulata (Varicella) Welnl. XIX, 116 
dentiens (Achatina) Rossm. ..XIX, 299 
dentiens (Columna) Villa . . .XVII, 125 
depressa (Glandina) Mouss. ..XIX, 169 
deschiensl (Glandina) Bay. . .XIX, xxli 

deshayesi (Achatina) Pfr XX, 57 

deshayesl (Glessula) Pfr XX, 57 

dhericourtlana (Limicolaria) Bgt. 

XVI, 274 
dlaphana (Achatina) King, Tornatel- 

llnidffi. 
dlaphana (Pseudoglessula) D. & P. 

XVII, 164 

diaphanus (Bulimus) Gass. .XVIII, 130 
didyma (Opeas) Westerl. .. .XVIII, 161 
dldyma(Stenogyra)Westerl. XVIII, 161 

XVIII, 161 

difflcilis (Euglandina) C. & F. XIX, 201 
difficilis (Glandina) C. & F. .XIX, 201 

DIGONIAXIS Jouss XIX, 288 

dilatata (Achatina) Zgl XIX, 166 

dilatata (Polretia) Zgl XIX, 166 

dimidiata (Achatina) Marts. .XVII, 32 

dimidiata (Achatina) Sm XVII, 95 

dimidiata (Limlcolaria) Marts. XVI, 288 
diodonta (Ferussacia) Bgt. ...XIX, 257 
discernlbilis (Stenogyra) Marts. 

XVIII, 20 

discrepans (Calaxis) Mouss. ..XIX, 286 
disparata (Cionella) West. .. .XIX, 338 
dlsparata (Hohenwartiana) West. 

XIX, 337 

dlsparilis (Bulimus) Sm XVIII, 55 

disparills (Curvella) Sm XVIII, 54 

dlsparllis (Obeliscus) Pils. .XVIII, 270 
dissimills (Varicella) Pils. . . .XX, 111 
dlstincta (Llmlcolaria) Putz. XVI, 270 
distinguenda (Euglandina) Try. 

XIX, 170 



distinguenda (Glandina) Try. XIX, 179 
DISTOECHIA Crosse .. .XVIII, 330, 335 
Distaectria Cossm., H. & B. XVIII, 335 
distorta (Streptostyla) Pils. .XIX, 154 
diversa (Achatina) Dsh. Scalaxls. 

dohrni (Azeca) Paul XIX, 305 

dohertyi (Subulina) Smith ..XVIII, 94 
dohertyi (Limicolaria) Sm. ...XVI, 281 
do'hrnlana (Achatina) Pfr. .. .XVII, 18 

dohrni (Opeas) Girard XVIII, 142 

DOLICHOLBSTES Pils XIX, 346 

domtnicensis (Balea) Pfr. . .XVIII, 272 
dominlcensls( Obeliscus) Pfr. XVIII.272 
dominicensis (Varicella) Gm. 

1,26; XIX, 95 

dominicensis (Voluta) Gmel I, 26 

donaldsoni (Limicolaria) Plls. XVI, 279 

donellii (Achatina) King XX, 118 

dormitzeri (Achatina) Reuss .XIX, 311 

dormitzeri(Cochllcopa)Reuss. XIX, 311 

j doumetl (Ferussacia) Bgt. . . .XIX, 251 

downesi (Bulimus) Gray XVI, 208 

do wnesi ( Pseudaohatina ) Gray XVI, 207 
drakensbergensis (Achatina) M. St P. 

XVII, 103 

dresseli (Opeas) Mill XVIII, 194 

dromauxi (Llmlcolaria) Bgt. .XVI, 285 
droulti (Limicolaria) Morel. .XVI, 261 

dubia (Spiraxis) Pfr XIX, 162 

dubia (Stenogyra) A. Ad. .. .XVIII, 172 

dubia (Streptostyla) Pfr XIX, 161 

ducoureti (Bulimus) Bgt. . .XVIII, 107 

dunkeri (Achatina) Pfr XIX, 347 

dunkerl (Obeliscus) Pfr XIX, 347 

dunkeri (Spiraxis) Pfr XIX, 348 

dupuisi (Burtoa) Putz XVI, 30 

dupuisi (Livinhacia) Putz. ..XVI, 307 

dupuyana (Azeca) Bgt XIX, 307 

durbanense (Opeas) Stur. . .XVIII, 149 
duseni (Pseudoglessula) Allly. 

XVII, 159 

dysoni (Achatina) Pfr I, 48 

dysoni (Streptostyla) Pfr I, 48 



eburnea (Achatina) Klein .. .XIX, xxlr 

eburnea (Acicula) Rlsso XX, 11 

eburnea (Caecllloldes) Risso. .. .XX, 10 
eburnoides (Achatina) Sganzin. 

XVII, 43 
ecuadorlana (Glandina) Mill. XIX, 180 

edentula ( Helix) Lowe XIX, 274 

edentula (Pupa) Ruppel . . .XVIII, 111 
eduardi (Archachatina) Plls. .XX, 113 
edwardsiana (Streptostyla) C. & F. 

I, 45 ; XIX, 145 



INDEX, VOLS. XVI-XX. 



129 



ecuadoriana(Euglandina)Mill. XIX.180 

egens (Opeas) Ailly XVIII, 117 

egens (Pseudopeas) Ailly. . .XVIII, 117 
elseniana (Melaniella) Coop. . . .XIX, 8 
eisenlana (Pseudosubulina) Coop. 

XIX, 8 
ejuncida (Stenogyra) Shuttl. . .XIX, 57 

Elasmophora West XIX, 284 

elata (Subulina) Gundl XIX, 112 

elata (Varicella) Gundl XIX, 111 

electa (Achatina) Dh XIX, xxiv 

Electra Alb XX, 50 

elegans (Achatina) Ad XIX, 84 

elegans (Achatina) Klein 

XIX, xxiv ; XX, 112 
elegans (Achatium) Link. .. .XVII,T^) 

elegans (Caecilianella) Ben XX, 28 

elegans (Salasiella) Marts. . .XIX, 174 
elegans (Subulina) Marts. .. .XVIII, 87 

elegans (Varicella) Ad XIX, 84 

elevata (Curvella) Burn XVIII, 60 

elisse (Leptinaria) Tristr. ..XVIII, 319 
ellerbecki (Homorus) Kobelt, 1905. 

ellioti (Achatina) Sm XVII, 71 

ELMA pachygastra Gredl XVIII, 6 

elongata (Agathina) Deb XIX, 228 

elongata (Azeca) Tayl XIX, 297 

elongata (Caecilioides) Loc XX, 10 

elongata (Glandina) Mill. . . .XIX, xxil 
elongata (Limicolaria) Marts. XVI, 291 
elongata (Livinhacia) Godet .XVI, 309 
elongata (Metachatina) Godet XVI, 309 
elongata (Pseudachatina)Pfr. XVI, 213 
elongatula (Subulina) Poll. ..XVIII, 86 
elongatulum (Prosopeas) Pfr. XVIII, 17 
elongatulus (Bulimus) Pfr. ..XVIII, 18 
emarginata( Achatina) Swains. XII, 164 

emiliana (Azeca) Ben XIX, 303 

emini (Burtoa) Marts XVI, 301 

emini (Limicolaria) Marts. . .XVI, 302 
emini (Stenogyra) Smith . . .XVIII, 89 

emini (Subulina) Smith XVIII, 88 

emmelinse (Leptinaria) Tristr. 

XVIII, 321 
emphysematica (Oleacina) Bab. 

XIX, xxiv 

enhalia (Caecilioides) Bgt XX, 11 

ennychia (Ferussacia) Bgt. . .XIX, 263 

enodis (Riebeckia) G.-A XVII, 208 

enodis (Stenogyra) G.-A. . . .XVII, 208 

eocaena (Coelostele) Opp XIX, 339 

episcopalis (Glandina) Morel. XIX, 144 
episcopalis (Rectoleacina) Morel. 

XIX, 143 

eqnatoria (Euglandina) DaC. XIX, 180 
equatoria (Glandina) DaC. .. .XIX, 181 



equator ensis (Rhodea) Jouss. 

XVIII, 239 

erecta (Achatina) Bs XVIII, 8 

erectus (Spiraxis) Bs XVIII, 8 

erectus (Tortaxis) Bs XVIII, 7 

eremiophila (Ferussacia) Bgt. XIX, 246 

EREMOPEAS Pilsbry XVIII, 115, 120 

eristalius (Vediantius) Risso XIX, 226 
erlangeri (Achatina) M. & K. XVII, 59 
erlangeri (Homorus) Kobelt, 1905. 

erosa (Glessula) Blanf XVIII, 5 

erosum (Bacillum) Blanf XVIII, 4 

errans (Spiraxis) Pils XIX, 41 

erythrostoma (Achatina) Swains. 

XX, 113 
estef anise (Glandina) Streb. ..XIX, 186 

estellus (Bulimus) Bs XVIII, 112 

etrusca (Azeca) Paul XIX, 305 

eucharista (Ferussacia) Bgt. .XIX, 333 
eucharista (Hohenwartiana) Bgt. 

XIX, 333 

EUGLANDINA C. & F XIX, 175 

EUGLANDINA Fisch XIX, xxvi 

Eulima (Achatina) Lowe XX, 7 

eulima (Caecilioides) Lowe XX, 7 

eulissa (Ferussacia) Let XIX, 244 

EUONYMA Melv. & Pons XVIII, 38 

euptychus (Spiraxis) Pfr.^sulciferus. 

EUSPIRAXIS Pfr XIX, 16 

Eutaxis Anc XVI, 218 

exarata (Atopocochlis) Mttll. XVII, 216 
exarata (Atopocochlis) Milll. .XVI, 218 
exaratum (Buccinum) Mull. ..XVI, 219 

exaratus (Bulimus) Mtill XVI, 219 

excavata (Glandina) Marts. ..XIX, 198 
excisus (Hemibulimus) Mts. ..XX, 115 
exigua(Tornatellina) Marts. XVIII, 309 

exiguus (Bulimus) Mke XIX, 322 

exilis (Achatina) Pfr XIX, 10 

exilis (Pseudosubulina) Pfr XIX, 9 

eximia (Achatina) Shuttl. . .XVII, 202 
eximla (Limicolaria) Marts. ..XVI, 291 
eximia (Spiraxis) Shuttl. . . .XVII, 202 
eximius (Clavator) C. & F. . .XVII, 204 
eximius (Clavator) Shuttl. ..XVII, 202 
extensa (Proso.peas) Mlldff. .XVIII, 16 
extrema (Ferussacia) West. ..XIX, 230 

extrema (Cionella) West XIX, 230> 

exulata (Achatina) Bens. . . .XVII, 181 
exulatus (Chilonopsis) Bens. XVII, 180 



facula (Achatina) Bs XX, 78 

facula (Glessula) Bs XX, 77' 

fagoti (Opeas) Mabllle XVIII, 160 

fairbanki (Achatina) Beng XX, 64 



130 



INDEX, VOLS. XVI-XX. 



fairbanki (Glessula) Bens XX, 63 

fairmaireanus (Bulimus) Petit. 

XVIII, 252 

fallsensis (Perideriopsls) XVI, 244 

fargesiana( Stenogyra) Hde. XVIII, 169 
fargesianum (Opeas) Hde. ..XVIII, 169 

fasciata (Achatina) auct XII, 167 

fasciatum (Buccinum) Mull. . .XII, 166 
fasciatus (Liguus) XII, 166 ; XVII, 71 

iasciatus (Liguus) Mull XVII, 216 

fatalis (Aohatina) Marts XVII, 37 

fauvellana(Stenogyra)Hde. XVIII, 169 
fauvelianum (Opeas) Hde. .XVIII, 169 

felina (Limicolarla) Sh XVI, 266 

ferriezi (Stenogyra) Marie . .XVIII, 96 
ferriezi (Subulina) Marie . . .XVIII, 96 

FERUSSACIA Risso XIX, 215 

FEKUSSACIDAE Bgt XIX, 211 

lerussacioides (Glessula) Poll. XX, 105 
ferussaci(Tornatellina)Pfr. XVIII, 288 

Ferussina Grat XIX, 215 

festiva (Limicolarla) Marts. ..XVI, 257 
festuca (Caecilioides) Porro . . .XX, 10 

filare (Opeas) Heude XVIII, 166 

filarls (Stenogyra) Heude ..XVIII, 166 
filicostata (Lamellaxis) Streb. 

XVIII, 313 
Alicostata (Leptinaria) Streb. 

XVIII, 313 
filiforme (Opeas) Mlldff. . . .XVIII, 161 

filipensis (Varicella) Pils XIX, 54 

filosa (Achatina) Pfr XIX, 200 

filosa (Glessula) Blanf XX, 85 

filosa (Euglandina) Pfr XIX, 200 

fimbriata (Varicella) Fbs XIX, 72 

flmbriatus (Bulimus) Fbs XIX, 72 

fimbriatula (Varicella) Pils. .. .XIX, 67 
fischeri (Glandina) Marts. . . .XIX, 200 

flammata (Helix) Caill XVI, 282 

flammata (Limicolaria) Caill. XVI, 282 

flammea (Ampulla) Bolt XVII, 9 

flammea (Helix) Mttll XVI, 255 

flammea (Limicolaria) Mttll. ..XVI, 255 

flammea (Pythla) Oken XVI, 251 

flammeus (Limax) Martyn . .XVII, 122 

flammigera (Helix) Fe> XVI, 232 

flammigerus (Pseudotrochus) Fer. 

XVI, 231 
flammulata (Bulimus) Bgt. 

XVII, 214 ; XX, 114 
flammulatus (Bulimus) Pfr. . .XVI, 260 
flammulata (Limicolaria) Pfr. XVI, 259 
flavescens ( Streptostylus) DaC. XIX,151 

flavescens (Streptostyla) Sh I, 48 

FLAVOLBACINA Pils XIX, xix 

flavus (Obeliscus) Pils XVIII, 266 



flavus (Pseudotrochus) Pils. .XVI, 240 

flexuosa (Achatina) Pfr XIX, 131 

flexuosa (Oleacina) Pfr XIX, 130 

floccata (Euglandina) DaC. . .XIX, 176 

floccata (Glandina) DaC XIX, 176 

floccosa (Achatina) Spix X, 93 

flogera (Achatina) P. & M. . . .XII, 144 
florentiae(Hypolysia)M. & P. XVIII, 37 
floridana (Melaniella) Pils. . . .XIX, 57 

floridana (Varicella) Pils XIX, 57 

flucki (Streptostyla) Bartsch XIX, 145 

follicularis (Glandina) Morel I, 25 

follicularis (Oleacina) Morel I, 25 

Folliculiana Bgt XIX, 218 

Folliculina Westerl XIX, 218 

folllculum (Bulla or Helix) Gron. 

XIX, 220 

Folliculus Ag XIX, 309 

I folliculus(Ferussacia)Gron. . .XIX, 219 

! Folliculus Westerl XIX, 218 

j forbesi (Ferussacia) Bgt XIX, 229 

| fordiana (Leptinaria) Anc. .XVIII, 314 

fordiana (Nothus) Anc XVIII, 314 

formicina (Cionella) Rouis .. .XIX, 311 
! formosa(Perideriopsis)D. & P. XVI.243 
| fortls (Pseudosubulina) Marts. .XIX, 5 

fortune! (Bulimus) Pfr XVIII, 35 

fortune! (Bulimus) Pfr XVIII, 128 

fossilis (Oleacina) And XIX, xxiv 

I foxcrofti (Achatina) Pfr. . . .XVII, 146 
1 foxcrofti (Homorus) Pfr. . . .XVII, 146 
fragilis (Achatina) Dh. 

XIX, xxii ; XX, 113 
fragilis (Achatina) Sm. 

XVII, 63 ; XX, 113 

Francesia Palad XIX, 338 

fraseri (Achatina) Pfr XVII, 150 

fraseri (Tornatellina) Bs XIX, 249 

fraterculus (Ganomidos) D. & P. 

XVII, 129 

frechi (Azeca) And XIX, 292 

fritschi (Cionella) Mss XIX, 235 

fritschi (Ferussacia) Mss. . . .XIX, 235 
frumentum (Achatina) Rve. . . .XX, 98 

frumentum (Glessula) Rve XX, 98 

fuchsiana (Stenogyra) Hde. . .XVIII, 9 

fulgens (Achatina) Pfr XX, 101 

fulgens (Glessula) Pfr XX, 101 

fulgurata (Achatina) Pfr XVII, 85 

fulica (Achatina) Fe> XVII, 55 

; fulica (Helix) Fe> XVII, 56 

fuliginea (Achatina) Pfr. Carelia. 
fulminatrix (Achatina) Marts. XVII, 67 
fulminea (Achatina) Lam. . . . .XIX, 87 

fulminea (Varicella) Lam XIX, 87 

fulva (Achatina) Brug XVII, 47 



INDEX, VOLS. XVI-XX. 



131 



fulvescens (Achatina) Gray. ..XVII, 47 

fulvida (Streptostyla) C. & F I, 46 

fulvus (Bulimus) Brug XVII, 47 

fumificatus( Stenogyra) G.-A. XVII, 205 
funcki (Achatina) Pfr. XVIII, 288, 290 
funiculare (Opeas) Hde. . . .XVIII, 166 
funicaloris(Stenogyra)Hde. XVIII, 166 

fusca (Achatina) Pfr XX, 101 

fusca (Cochlicopa) Moq XIX, 317 

fusca (Glessula) H. Ad XX, 83 

fusca (Glessula) Pfr XX, 101 

fusca (Rumina) Pall XVII, 214 

fuscata (Agatina) Raflnesque 
fuscescens (Limicolaria) Marts. 

XVI, 286 

fuscidula (Achatina) Morel. XVII, 160 
fuscidula (Pseudoglessula) Morel. 

XVII, 160 
fuscolabris (Achatina) Marts. XVI, 309 

fuscolineata (Achatina) Lam I, 26 

fusiformis (Achatina) Pfr. 

XIX, 188 ; XX, 111 
fusiformis (Achatina) Pic. 

XIX, 307, 320 ; XX, 111 
fusiformis (Euglandina) Pfr. 

XIX, 188 ; XX, 111 

fusiformis(Aclcula)Hasselt XVIII, 175 
FUSILLDS Lowe XIX, 272 

G 

gabbiana (Stenogyra) Ang. .XVIII, 189 
gabbianum (Opeas) Angas ..XVIII, 192 

gabbi (Streptostyla) Pils XIX, 158 

gabonensis (Pseudachatina) Shuttl. 

XVI, 214 

Ganomidos Ailly XVII, 125 

garamulatae (Homorus) Kobelt, 1905. 

gattoi (Caecilioides) West XX, 28 

gayana (Achatina) Ad XIX, 97 

gayana (Varicella) Ad XIX, 98 

gemma (Achatina) Rve XX, 97 

gemma (Glessula) Rve XX, 97 

gemmellariana (Achatina) Ben. XX, 14 
gemmellariana (Caecilioides) Ben. XX,14 

GEOSTILBIA Crosse XX, 5, 43 

gereti (Rhodea) Jouss XVIII, 236 

ghiesbreghti (Achatina) Pfr. .XIX, 188 
ghiesbreghti( Euglandina) Pfr. XIX.188 

gibbosa (Ferussacia) Bgt XIX, 249 

gigantea (Rhodea) Mouss. ..XVIII, 237 
gigas (Ochroderma) Marts. .XVIII, 326 
gigas (Stenogyra) Poey XVIII, 260, 261 
glgas (Tornatellina) Mart. .XVIII, 327 
gilbertae (Limicolaria) Bgt . .XVI, 247 
ginirensis (Homorus) Kobelt, 1905. 
giraudi (Bulimus) Bgt XVI, 303 



giraudi (Burtoa) Bgt XVI, 302 

giraudi (Limicolaria) Bgt. . . .XVI, 290 
glabella (Stenogygra) Morel. XVIITr97 
glabella (Subulina) Morel. .. .XVIII, 97 

glaber (Turbo) DaC XIX, 315 

glabra (Achatina) Pfr. 

1,23; XIX, 127 

glabra (Varicella) Pfr XIX, 127 

gladiolus (Opeas) C. & F. . .XVIII, 214 
glandiformis (Streptostyla) C. & F. 

1,46 

Glandina of authors XIX, 175 

Glandina Schum XIX, 127 

GLANDINELLA Pfr XIX, 44 

glandinopsis (Limicolaria) Bgt. 

XVI, 272 

| glans (Bulimus) Brug XIX, 130 

j glans (Polyheomus) Montf. . . .XIX, 131 

I glans (Polyphemus) Say XIX, 191 

j glaucina (Achatina) Anc XVII, 64 

j glaucocyanea (Euonyma) M. & P. 

XVIII, 43 
glaucocyanea (Subulina) M. & P. 

XVIII, 43 

j GLESSULA Martens XX, 50 

I globosa (Curvella) M. & P. . .XVIII, 61 
I globosus (Hapalus) M. & P. .XVIII, 61 
, glomeratum (Opeas) Rve. . .XVIII, 210 
i glomeratus (Bulimus) Rve. XVIII, 211 

I gloynii (Cionella) Gibb XVIII, 323 

\ gloynii (Leptinaria) Gibb. ..XVIII, 322 

; glutinosa (Achatina) Pfr XVII, 61 

; gnomon (Obeliscus) Beck . .XVIII, 246 
| gollonsirensis (Riebeckia) G.-A. 

XVII, 206 
! gollonsirensis (Stenogyra) G.-A. 

XVII, 206 

' gompharium (Opeas) Shuttl. XVIII, 205 
gompharium (Stenogyra) Shuttl. 

XVIII, 205 

GOMPHEOA Westerl XIX, 290, 306 

gonostoma (Obeliscus) Gundl. 

XVIII, 276 
gonostoma (Stenogyra) Gundl. 

XVIII, 276 

goodaill (Pupa) Dup XIX, 296 

goodalli (Achatina) Rossm. . .XIX, 293 

goodalli (Azeca) Fe"r XIX, 295 

goodalli (Helix) F6r XIX, 295 

goodalli (Helix) Mill. 

XVIII, 141, 151, 157, 201 
goodalli (Opeas) Mill. 

XVIII, 141, 157, 183, 200 
gorontalense(Prosopeas)Sar. XVIII, 20 
gorontalensis ( Stenogyra) Sar. XVIII,20 
gossei (Achatina) Pfr XIX, 6ft 



132 



INDEX, VOLS. XVI-XX. 



gossei (Varicella) Pfr XIX, 65 

gouldii (Achatina) Rve XVI, 235 

gouldii (Pseudotrochus) Rve. .XVI, 235 
grabhami (Ferussacia) Pils. .XIX, 272 
gracilenta(Ferussacia) Morel. XIX, 256 
gracilenta (Glandina) Morel. .XIX, 256 
gracilenta (Stenogyra) Morel. XVIII, 82 
gracilenta (Subulina) Morel. XVIII, 82 
gracile (Opeas) Hutt. i 

XVIII, 125, 172, 174, 183, 198 j 
gracillima (Achatina) Pfr. . . .XIX, 56 j 

gracillima (Varicella) Pfr XIX, 55 ; 

gracillimus (Obeliscus) Beck XVIII, 240 j 
gracilior (Achatina) Ad. 

XIX, 69 ; XX, 113 j 
gracilior (Achatina) Marts. 

XVII, 111 ; XX, 113 
gracilior (Curvella) Marts. . .XVIII, 58 
gracilior (Pseudoglessula) Sm. 

XVII, 167 
gracilior (Stenogyra) Gredl. XVIII, 165 ; 

gracilior (Varicella) Ad XIX, 68 | 

gracilis (Bulimus) Hutt. . . .XVIII, 125 i 

gracilis (Bulimus) Pfr XVII, 215 j 

gracilis (Ferussacia) Lwe. . . .XIX, 278 i 

gracilis (Glessula) Bedd XX, 83 | 

gracilis (Helix) Lowe XIX, 278 

gracilis (Leptinaria) Pils. ..XVIII, 299 
gracilis (Limicolaria) Marts. .XVI, 283 

gracilis (Rumina) Pfr XVII, 215 

gracilis (Streptostyla) Pils. . .XIX, 148 
gracilius (Opeas) Gredl. . . .XVIII, 164 
grandidieriana( Achatina) Bgt. XVII, 75 
grandidieriana ( Stenogyra ) Bgt. XVII.76 
grandidieri( Bulimus )C. & F. XVII, 195 
grandidieri(Clavator)C. & F. XVII, 194 
grandidieri (Burtoa) Pils. . . .XVI, 303 
grandinata (Pseudachatina) Pfr. 

XVI, 209 

grandis (Achatina) Mke XIX, 324 

granulata (Achatina) Krauss XVII, 79 
grateloupi (Bulimus) Pfr. .. .XVIII, 68 
grateloupi (Curvella) Pfr. .. .XVIII, 68 
grateloupi (Csecilianella) Bgt. .. .XX, 5 
gravenreuthi (Pseudachatina) Bttg. 

XVI, 212 

gravida( Ferussacia) Florence, XIX, 224 
grayi( Pseudoglessula) Ailly. XVII, 158 

gredleri (Acicula) Kuest XX, 23 

gredleri (Caecilloides) Kuester .XX, 23 

greeffl (Opeas) Girard, XVIII, 143 

grevillei (Achatina) Pfr XVII, 112 

griffithsii (Achatina) Ad XIX, 81 

grifflthii (Varicella) Ad XIX, 80 

griaea (Cochlicopa) Loc XIX, 318 

grisea (Columna) Perry XVII, 122 



gronoviana( Ferussacia )Risso. XIX, 225 

grossa (Ferussacia) Anc XIX, 260 

guadeloupensis (Achatina) Pfr. XIX.126 
guadeloupensis( Varicella) Pfr. XIX,125 
guatemalense( Opeas) Streb. XVIII, 213 
guatemalensis (Leptinaria) C. & F. 

XVIII, 312 
guatemalensis (Spiraxis) C. & F. 

XVIII, 312 
guatemalensis (Streptostyla) C. & F. 

XIX, 150 
guayaquilensis (Subulina) Mill. 

XVIII, 224 

guinaica (Limicolaria) Morel. XVI, 258 
guinaicus (Bulimus) Bgt. . . .XVIII, 52 
guineensis (Bulimus) Jonas .XVIII, 52 
guineensis (Curvella) Jonas, XVIII, 52 

gundlachi (Achatina) Pfr XX, 43 

gundlachi (Caecilioides) Pfr. .. .XX, 43 
gundlachi (Obeliscus) Ar. . .XVIII, 277 
gundlachi (Stenogyra) Ar. ..XVIII, 277 

gundlachi (Oleacina) Pfr XIX, 115 

gundlachi (Varicella) Pfr. . . .XIX, 115 
gutierrezi (Stenogyra) Arango 

XVIII, 268 

guttidentata (Varicella) Pils. XIX, 117 
gyrata (Stenogyra) Mouss. .XVIII, 184 

H 

habrawalensis (Limicolaria) Jouss. 

XVI, 280 

hachijoensis (Cochlicopa) Pils. XIX, 324 
hagenmulleri (Ferussacia) Bgt. XIX, 246 
hagenmulleri (Hohenwartiana) Bgt. 

XIX, 334 

hainesi (Columna) Pfr XVII, 124 

haitensis (Leptinaria) Pils. XVIII, 301 
hamillei (Achatina) Petit. . . .XVII, 53 
hamonvillei {Opeas) Dautz. XVIII, 143 
hamonvillei (Stenogyra) Dautz. 

XVIII, 143 

hanleyi (Bulimus) Pfr XVIII, 229 

hanleyi (Synapterpes) Pfr. .XVIII, 228 
hannense (Opeas) Rang. . . .XVIII, 141 
hannensis (Helix) Rang. . . .XVIII, 141 
hapaloldes (Leptinaria) Marts. 

XVIII, 31T 

Hapalus Albers XVIII, 46 

haplostylus (Bulimus) Pfr. XVIII, 256 
haplostylus (Obeliscus) Pfr. XVIII, 255 
hartertl (Leptinaria) Sm. . .XVIII, 323 
har^erti (Neosubulina) Sm. XVIII, 32& 
hartmanni (Limicolaria) Marts. 

XVI, 284 

hasta (Bulimus) Pfr XVIII, 273 

hasta (Obeliscus) Pfr XVIII, 272 



INDEX, VOLS. XVI-XX. 



133 



hasta (Stenogyra) Pfr XVIII, 273 

hastatum (Prosopeas) Bttg. .XVIII, 23 

hastula (Achatina) Bens XX, 94 

hastula (Glessula) Bens XX, 93 

haughtoni (Prosopeas) Bs. . .XVIII, 28 

baughtoni (Spiraxis) Bs XVIII, 28 

hawaiiense (Opeas) Sykes . .XVIII, 136 
headonensis(Cochlicopa)Edw. XIX, 311 

hebes (Achatina) Blanf XX, 62 

hebes (Glessula) Blanf XX, 62 

hebes (Prosopeas) Blanf XVIII, 32 

hebes (Spiraxis) Blanf XVIII, 33 

hedeium (Opeas) Mab XVIII, 160 

hedeius (Opeas) Mab XVIII, 160 

heimburgi (Clavator) Kob. . .XVII, 201 
helense (Leptinaria) Pils. ..XVIII, 324 

Hemibulimus Mts XX, 114 

hendersoni (Obeliscus) Pils. XVIII, 267 

henrici (Prosopeas) Anc XVIII, 33 

henrici (Stenogyra) Anc XVIII, 33 

henshawi (Opeas) Sykes. .. .XVIII, 139 
heptagyrum (Opeas) Bttg. ..XVIII, 186 
herculeus (Bulimus) Anc. . . .XVII, 203 
herculeus (Clavator) Anc. .. .XVII, 202 
hericourtlana (Limicolaria) Kob. 

XVI, 274 
heteracra (Pseudoglessula) Bttg. 

XVII, 165 

heudei (Opeas) Pils XVIII, 171 

heuglini (Achatina) Marts. . .XVI, 276 
heuglini (Limicolaria) Marts. XVI, 276 
hexagyrum (Opeas) Bttg. . .XVIII, 180 
hidalgoi (Limicolaria) Crosse. XVI, 297 
hierosolymarum (Calaxis) Roth. 

XIX, 285 
hierosolymarum (Tornatellina) Roth. 

XIX, 285 

hirsutus (Stenogyra) G.-A. . .XVII, 210 
hispanica (Ccelestele) Bgt. . . .XIX, 344 

histrio (Achatina) Pfr XIX, 119 

histrio (Varicella) Pfr XIX, 118 

hochstetteri (Bulimus) Zel. ..XVIII, 23 
hochstetteri (Prosopeas) Zel. XVIII, 23 

Hohenwarthia Bgt XIX, 327 

hohenwarthii (Achatina) Schm. 

XIX, 328 

HOHBNWARTIANA Bgt XIX, 327 

hohenwarti( Achatina) Rossm. XIX, 328 
ho'henwarti (Hohenwartlana) Rossm. 

XIX, 328 

hollandi (Ravenia) Hend XIX, 18 

holosericum ( Prosopeas) Bttg. XVIII, 24 
homalogyra (Obeliscus) Shuttl. 

XVIII, 263 
homalogyrus (Bulimus) Shuttl. 

XVIII, 263 



Homorus Albers XVII, 130 

hopii (Achatina) Serres. Dactylius. 

horrida (Varicella) Pils XIX, 54 

hortensise (Achatina) Morel. .XVII, 22 
hortensis (Bulimus) Ad. . . .XVIII, 200 

hugeli (Achatina) Pfr XX, 91 

hugeli (Glessula) Pfr XX, 91 

huingensis (Glandina) Pils. . .XIX, 185 
humbloti (Bulimus) Anc. . . .XVII, 199 
humbloti (Clavator) Anc. . . .XVII, 199 
humicola (Pseudoglessula) D. & P. 

XVII, 163 

hunanense (Opeas) Gredl. . .XVIII, 170 
hunanensis (Stenogyra) Gredl. 

XVIII, 170 
hyadesi (Limicolaria) Jouss. .XVI, 265 

hyalina (Achatina) Anton XX, 113 

hyalina (Acicula) Bielz XX, 15 

hyalina (Caecilioides) Bielz XX, 15 

hyalina (Cochlicopa) Jeffr. .. .XIX, 317 
hyalina (Cryptazeca) Folin . .XIX, 284 

hyalina (Glessula) Rang XX, 107 

.hyalina (Helix) Rang XX, 107 

hyalina (Leptinaria) Tate ..XVIII, 309 
hyalina (Tornatellina) Tate XVIII, 309 

Hydastes Parr XIX, 309 

hyemale (Opeas) Heude XVIII, 165 

hyemalis( Stenogyra )Heude XVIII, 165 

HYPNOPHILA Bgt XIX, 290, 298 

HYFOLYSIA Melv. & Pons. . . .XVIII, 37 

HYPSELIA Lowe XIX, 274 

hypselia (Ferussacia) Pils. . . .XX, 114 



iheringi (Glandina) Pils XIX, 210 

iickelii (Limicolaria) Poll. . . .XVI, 277 
illustris (Achatina) G.-Aust. . . .XX, 95 
illustris (Glessula) G.-Aust. . . .XX, 95 
immaculata (Achatina) Lam. .XVII, 50 
immemorata (Euglandina) Pils. 

XIX, 192 
imperforata (Leptinaria) Streb. 

XVIII, 317 
imperforatus (Lamellaxls) Streb. 

XVIII, 317 
' imperialis (Chersina) Beck. XVII, 216 

! Impressa (Achatina) Pfr XIX, 119 

: impressa (Varicella) Pfr XIX, 119 

impressus (Bulimus) Rve XIX, 33 

inaequalls (Achatina) Pfr. . . .XVII, 33 

Incerta (Achatina) Rve I, 24 

incerta (Azeca) Ben XIX, 304 

! incerta (Oleacina) Rve I, 24 

incertus (Spiraxis) Mouss. .XVIII, 231 
, incertus (Synapterpes) Mouss. 

XVIII, 231 



134 



INDEX, VOLS. XVI-XX. 



inclsa (Oleacina) Pfr I, 25 

incoloratus (Perideris) Shuttl. XVI, 230 
incoloratus (Pseudotrochus) Shuttl. 

XVI, 229 
incomparabilis (Orbitina) Risso. 

XVII, 213 

inconspicua (Glessula) Nev XX, 82 

indicus (Bulimus) Pfr XVIII, 127 

indotata (Achatina) Rve XVII, 83 

indusiaca (Oleacina) Try XIX, 185 

induslata (Euglandina) Pfr. ..XIX, 185 

induslata (Oleacina) Pfr XIX, 185 

Inflata (Achatina) Reuss. . . .XIX, xxiv 

Inflata (Glandina) Marts XIX, 201 

inflata (Llmlcolaria) Bgt XVI, 247 

Inflata (Leptlnarla) Marts. ..XVII, 308 
Inflatula (Stenogyra) Hde. .XVIII, 168 
inflatulum (Opeas) Hde. . . .XVIII, 167 
Inflecta (Achatina) Gld. Ms., XVII, 185 
Infrafusca (Achatina) Marts. XVII, 32 
infrafusca(Limicolaria) Marts. XVI, 287 

ingallsiana (Achatina) Ad XIX, 96 

ingallsiana (Varicella) Ad XIX, 97 

innovata (Caecilioides) Greg. .. .XX, 27 

inopinata (Varicella) Plls XIX, 61 

inornata (Achatina) Pfr XX, 53 

Inornata (Curvella) Chap. .. .XVIII, 51 

inornata (Glessula) Pfr XX, 53 

insculpta (Riebeckia) Sm. .. .XVII, 208 
insculpta (Stenogyra) Sm. . .XVII, 209 

Insignis (Achatina) Pfr I, 39 

Insignls (Euglandina) Pfr. .. .XIX, 195 
insignis (Ferussacia) Babor .XIX, 217 
Insignis (Luntia) Smith . . .XVIII, 218 

Insignis (Perideris) Pfr XVI, 240 

insignis (Pseudotrochus) Pfr. XVI, 240 

insularis (Pupa) Ehr XVIII, 107 

insularis (Zootecus) Ehr. .. .XVIII, 106 

Integra (Azeca) Mouss XIX, 301 

interiors (Pseudopeas) Tate XVIII, 120 
interioris (Stenogyra) Tate XVIII, 120 
Intermedia (Achatina) Zgl. .. .XIX, 313 
intermedia (Leptinaria) Pils. XVIII, 304 
intermedia (Subulina) Taylor XVIII, 91 
intermedius (Spiraxis) Streb. 

I, 51 ; XIX, 23 

intermedius (Volutaxis) Streb. . . .1, 51 
interrupta (Glandina) Shuttl. XIX, 126 
interrupta (Varicella) Shuttl. XIX, 126 
interstinctus (Bulimus) Pfr. XVIII, 50 
interstinctus (Bulimus) Gld. .XVI, 239 
interstinctus (Pseudotrochus) Gld. 

XVI, 239 

interstriata(Leptinaria)Tate XVIII.310 
interstriata (Tornatellina) Tate 

XVIII, 311 



Intro versa (Pseudoglessula) Sm. 

XVII, 169 
introversus (Bulimus) Smith 

XVII, 170 

inusitata (Achatina) Ad XIX, 15 

inusitatus (Spiraxis) Ad XIX.15 

invalida (Stenogyra) Morel. .XVII, 153 
involuta (Achatina) Gld. . . .XVII, 150 
involutus (Homorus) Gld. .. .XVII, 150 

iolarynx (Perideris) Sh XVI, 230 

iolarynx (Pseudotrochus) Sh. XVI, 230 

iostoma (Achatina) Pfr XVII, 32 

iota (Achatina) Ad XX, 38 

iota (Caecilioides) Ad XX, 38 

iriana (Hohenwartiana) Poll. XIX, 329 
iridescens (Ferussacia) Woll. XIX, 275 

iridescens (Lovea) Woll XIX, 276 

irregularis (Caecilianella) Sacco. XX, 5 
irregularis(Pseudosubulina)Pils. XIX,7 

irrigua (Streptostyla) Sh I, 46 

Isabella (Euglandina) Pils. .. .XIX, 183 
isabellina (Achatina) Pfr. . . .XIX, 203 
isabellina (Euglandina) Pfr. .XIX, 203 
isabellina (Glandina) Streb. ..XIX, 184 

ischna (Varicella) Pils XIX, 82 

ISCHNOCION Pils XVIII, 287, 324 

isis (Achatina) Hani XX, 71 

isis (Glessula) Hani XX, 71 

isseli (Caecilioides) Palad XX, 37 

isseli (Coelestele) Bgt XIX, 341 

isseli (Ferussacia) Bgt XIX, 254 

isseli (Pseudopeas) Jick. . . .XVIII, 118 

isseli (Subulina) Jick XVIII, 119 

ivensl (Achatina) Furt XVII, 25 



jalapana (Glandina) Marts, 
jamaicensis (Achatina) Pfr. 
jamaicensis (Varicella) Pfr. 
jamaicensis (Bulimus) Rve. 
jani (Achatina) deBetta .. . 
jani (Caecilioides) deBetta 
jaspideus (Bulimus) Morel. 

javanica (Achatina) 

javanica (Glessula) Bttg. .. 
javanicum (Opeas) Rve. 

XVIII, 138 
jerdoni (Achatina) Rve. ... 

jerdoni (Glessula) Rve 

Jessica (Stenogyra) G.-A. . . 
jeyporensis (Glessula) Bedd. 

jickelii (Subulina) Bgt 

joaquinse (Salasiella) Streb. 

jobae (Glandina) Bgt 

jod (Cecilioides) Pils 

johanninum (Opeas) Morel. 



..XIX, 195 
...XIX, 85 
...XIX, 85 
...XIX, 33 

XX, 22 

XX, 22 

..XVI, 262 
XVIII, 138 
...XX, 103 

; XIX, 350 

XX, 75 

XX, 75 

.XVII, 209 
...XX, 75 
.XVII, 135 
..XIX, 172 
..XIX, xxv 
....XX, 41 
XVIII, 153 



INDEX, VOLS. XVI-XX. 



135 



Johanninus (Bulimus) Morel. XVIII, 154 

Johnson! (Clavator) Sm XVII, 200 

Joihnsoni (Stenogyra) Sm. .. .XVII, 201 

Johnston! (Achatina) Sm XVII, 65 

Jouberti (Burtoa) Bgt XVI, 305 

Jouberti (Burtopsis) Bgt XVI, 305 

Jouberti (Subulina) Bgt XVII, 144 

joubini (Limicolarla) R. & G. XVII, 216 
jousseaumei (Curvella) Morg. XVIII, 67 
jousseaumei (Hapalus) Morg. XVIII, 67 
Jousseaumei (Obeliscus) Cousin 

XVIII, 256 
Judaica (Caecilioides) Mouss. . .XX, 33 

Judaica (Glandina) Mouss XX, 33 

Junceus (Bulimus) Old XVIII, 131 

Junceus (Opeas) Gld XVIII, 184 

K 

kambeul (Bulimus) Brug XVI, 251 

kambeul (Limicolaria) Brug. .XVI, 251 

kambul (Bulimulus) Gray XVI, 251 

kassaiana (Subulina) Mab. & Germ. 

XVIII, 83 

kemense (Opeas) Sarasin .. .XVIII, 175 
kemensis ( Stenogyra) Sarasin XVIII, 176 
keniana (Limicolaria) Sm. . . .XVI, 280 
kercadonis (Achatina) Grat. .XVI, 226 
kercadonis (Pseudotrochus) Grat. 

XVI, 226 

khasiacus (Bulimus) Aust. . .XVIII, 66 
khasiana (Curvella) Aust. .. .XVIII, 65 
khasianus (Bulimus) Aust. . .XVIII, 66 

kirkii (Achatina) Sm XVII, 66 

kirkii (Achatina) Crav XVII, 166 

kirkii (Pseudoglessula) Crav. XVII, 166 

kleiniana (Poiretia) Pils XX, 112 

knorrii (Achatina) Jonas . . .XVII, 118 
kobeltiana (Pseudachatina) Pils. 

XVI, 210 
kobelti (Limicolaria) Ailly . . .XVI, 262 

kobelti (Perideris) Pils XVI, 238 

kobelti (Pseudotrochus) Pils. XVI, 237 
kordofana (Limicolaria) Parr. XVI, 273 

kransii (Achatina) Rve XVII, 88 

kraussi (Achatina) Rve XVII, 87 

kraussi (Bulimus) Pfr XVI, 309 

kraussi (Metachatina) Pfr. ...XVI, 308 
kretschmeri (Curvella) Marts. XVIII, 55 
kretschmeri( Hapalus) Marts. XVIII, 56 
kuangsiense (Opeas) Gredl. XVIII, 170 
kuangsiensis (Stenogyra) Gredl. 

XVIII, 170 
kurnoolensis (Glessula) Nev. .. .XX, 91 

kusaiense (Opeas) Pils XVIII, 182 

kyotoense (Opeas) Pils XVIII, 136 



labida (Glandina) Morel XIX, 150 

labida ( Strep tosty la) Morel. ..XIX, 150 
lacryma (Leptinaria) Beck .XVIII, 285 

lactaea (Ampulla) Bolt XVII, 9 

lactea (Achatina) Rve XVII, 35* 

lactea (Caecilioides) Moit XX, 12 

lactifluus (Bulimus) Pfr XIX, 13 

laeocochlis (Euonyma) M. & P. 

XVIII, 3J> 
laeocochlis ( Subulina )M. & P. XVIII, 37 

LAEVARICELLA Pils XIX, 123 

laevigata (Achatina) Pfr XX, 107 

laevigata (Bulimus) Lowe . . .XVII, 212 

laevigata (Coelestele) Bgt XIX, 344 

laevigata (Glessula) Pfr XX, 106 

LABVIGLANDINA Pils XIX, 201 

laevissima (Cochlicopa) Mich. XIX, 311 

laevissima (Zua) Mich XIX, 311 

LAEVOLEACINA Pils XIX, 131 

Iseviusculus (Bulimus) Ad XIX, 35 

laeviusculus (Spiraxis) Ad XIX, 35. 

lagariensis (Subulina) Smith XVII, 141 
lallemanti (Ferussacia) Bgt. .XIX, 255- 
lamarckiana (Achatina) Pfr. .XVII, 42 
lamellata( Achatina) P. & M. XVIII.288: 
lamellata (Ferussacia) Bgt. ..XIX, 242' 
lamellata (Leptinaria) P. & M. 

XVIII, 288 

LAMELLAXIS Strebel XVIII, 287 

lamellifera (Ferussacia) Morel. XIX, 252 
lamellifera (Glandina) Morel. XIX, 253 
lamellosa( Achatina) Moric. XVIII, 291 
lamellosa (Limicolaria) Bgt. .XVI, 296 



| lamyi (Euglandina) F. & C. . .XIX, 196 

lamyi (Glandina) F. & C XIX, 196 

lanceolata (Euonyma) Pfr. ..XVIII, 4O 
lanceolata (Ferussacia) Bgt. .XIX, 228- 
lanceolata (Glandina) Marts. XIX, 203 
lanceolatus (Bulimus) Bgt. 

XVII, 214 ; XX, 114 
lanceolatus (Bulimus) Pfr. . .XVIII, 40 

lankana (Glessula) Pils XX, 54 

lanzarotensis (Cionella) Mouss. 

XIX, 236 
lanzarotensis (Ferussacia) Mouss. 

XIX, 235 

lapillina (Stenogyra) Hde. .XVIII, 167 
lapillinum (Opeas) Hde. . . .XVIII, 167 
largillierti (Achatina) Pfr. .. .XIX, 199 

lasti (Stenogygra) Smith XVIII, 88 

last! (Subulina) Smith XVIII, 87 

lata (Pseudobalea) Gundl. ..XVIII, 273 
latebricola (Bulimus) Bens. XVIII, 162 
latebricola (Opeas) Bens. . .XVIII, 162 
latestriata (Glessula) Mlldff. ..XX, 100 



136 



INDEX, VOLS. XVI-XX. 



lattrel (Streptostyla) Pfr. . . .XIX, 145 
latus (Obeliscus) Gundl. . . .XVIII, 273 
laurentiana(Ferussacla)Pils. XIX, 277 

lauta (Acicula) Paul XX, 24 

lauta (Caecilioides) Paul XX, 24 

lavlgeriana (Burtoa) Bgt XVI, 304 

laxispirum(Prosopeas) Marts. XVIII.26 
laxispira (Stenogyra) Marts. XVIII, 26 

layardi (Achatina) Pfr XVII, 51 

layardi (Coeliaxis) A. & A. .XVIII, 337 

layardi (Glessula) Pils XX, 59 

layardi (Opeas) Bens XVIII, 158 

layardi (Spiraxis) Bens. . . .XVIII, 158 
layardi (Subulina) A. & A. .XVIII, 338 
leacociana (Achatina) Lwe. . .XIX, 280 
Leacociana (Ferussacia) Lwe. XIX, 279 
leacockiana (Lovea) Woll. . . .XIX, 280 

leaiana (Achatina) Grat XVI, 208 

leai (Columna) Tryon XVII, 123 

lechaptoisi (Achatina) Anc. . .XVII, 43 
lechatelieri (Perideris) Dautz. 

XVI, 234 
lechatelieri (Pseudotrochus) Dautz. 

XVI, 233 

leia (Suhullna) Putz XVIII, 84 

lenta (Subulina) Sm XVII, 143 

lentum (Opeas) Smith XVIII, 147 

leontinse (Limicolaria) Bgt. ..XVI, 247 

LEPTINARIA Beck XVIII, 284 

Leptocala Anc XVII, 72 

LEPTOCALLISTA Pils XVII, 75 

leptospira (Achatina) Bs XX, 66 

leptospira (Glessula) Bens XX, 65 

leroyi (Stenogyra) Bgt XVII, 168 

letourneuxi (Achatina) Bgt. ..XVII, 49 
letourneuxi (Caecilioides) Bgt. .XX, 21 
letourneuxi (Ferussacia) Bgt. XIX, 259 
letourneuxiana(Coelestele)Bgt. XIX,345 
leucostyla( Achatina) Pils. XVII,45,216 
leucozonlas (Voluta) Gmel. . . .XIX, 94 
leucozonias (Varicella) Gmel. .XIX, 94 

levis (Achatina) Ad XIX, 108 

levis (Varicella) Ad XIX, 108 

Ihotellerii (Achatina) Bgt. . . .XVII, 53 
Ihotellerii (Subulina) Bgt. . .XVII, 135 

llberiana (Curvella) Pils XVIII, 50 

liebmanni (Achatina) Pfr. . . .XIX, 195 
liebmanni (Euglandina) Pfr. .XIX, 195 

Hesvillei (Caecilioides) Bgt XX, 13 

ligulata (Streptostyla) Morel. 

I, 50 ; XIX, 161 

llgata (Achatina) Ad XIX, 82 

llgata (Varicella) Ad. XIX, 82 

llgnaria (Achatina) Rve XIX, 188 

ligulata (Glandina) Morel. .. .XIX, 161 
Llguus fasclatus Mull XVII, 216 



liljevali (Pseudachatina) Ailly. 

XVI, 216 
LIMICOLABIA Schum. XVI, 246 ; XVlI.xi 

Limicularia Schum XVI, 246 

limpidum (Opeas) Marts. . .XVIII, 148 
limnseformis (Streptostyla) Marts. 

XIX, 159 
limneiformis (Streptostyla) Shutt. 

XIX, 159 

lindeni (Oleacina) Pfr I, 23 

lindoni (Achatina) Pfr I, 23 

lindoni (Oleacina) Pfr. I, 23 

linearis (Bulimus) Kr XVIII, 45 

linearis (Euonyma) Kr XVIII, 44 

linearis (Spiraxis) Pfr. .1, 52 ; XIX, 27 
lineata (Achatina) Valenc. . . .XII, 168 

lineata (Glandina) Streb XIX, 176 

lineatus (Bulimus) Perry XVII, 57 

lineolata (Limicolaria) Putz. XVI, 271 
linterae (Achatina) Sowb. . . .XVII, 102 

lioderma (Varicella) Pils XIX, 71 

lirifera (Achatina) Morel XIX, 2 

lirifera (Pseudosubulina) Morel. XIX, 2 

lister! (Helix) Bolt XVII, 122 

litauica (Cochlicopa) West. . .XIX, 319 
littoralis (Ferussacia) Bgt. . .XIX, 243 
livingstonei (Achatina) M. & P. 

XVII, 104 

Livinhacia Crosse XVI, 298, 307 

locardi (Cochlicopa) Poll XIX, 318 

locardi (Ferussacia) Bgt XIX, 330 

locardi (Hohenwartiana) Bgt. XIX, 329 

locardi (Zua) Poll XIX, 318 

lombockensis( Stenogyra) Sm. XVIII, 21 

longa (Limicolaria) Pils XVI, 284 

longa (Varicella) Pils XIX, 68 

longa (Varicella) Pils. 

XIX, 106 ; XX, 111 

longior (Varicella) Pils XX, 111 

longipontiensls (Glandina) Cossm. 

XIX, xxil 

longipontina (Glandina) Bay. XIX, xxil 
longispira (Achatina) Ad. . . .XIX, 107 

longispira (Varicella) Ad XIX, 107 

longula (Glandina) F. & C I, 39 

longula (Stenogyra) Morel. .XVIII, 152 
longulum (Opeas) Morel. .. .XVIII, 152 
lorioll (Achatina) Bonnet. . . .XVII, 82 

loryi (Azeca) Mich XIX, 292 

lotophaga (Bocageia) Morel. XVII, 191 
lotophagus (Bulimus) Morel. XVII, 192 

Lovea Wats XIX, 269 

lowaensis (Perlderiopsls) D. & P. 

XVI, 243 

lowei (Achatina) Palva XIX, 276 

j loxostoma (Achatina) Kl XIX, 292 



INDEX, VOLS. XVI-XX. 



137 



loxostoma (Azeca) Kl XIX, 292 

lubrica (Cochlicopa) Mull. . . .XIX, 312 

lubrica (Helix) Mtill XIX, 313 

lubricella (Achatina) Brn. . . .XIX, 311 
lubricella (Cochlicopa) Brn. ..XIX, 311 
lubricella (Cochlicopa) Zgl. . .XIX, 321 

lubricella (Columna) Zgl XIX, 321 

lubricoides (Achatina) Jan. . .XIX, 329 
lubricoides (Achatina) P. & M. 

XIX, 328 
lubricoides (Bulimus) Stimps. XIX, 313 

lubricus (Bulimus) auct XIX, 313 

lubricus (Tortaxis) Dautz. . .XVIII, 11 
lucalana (Limicolaria) Pils. ..XVI, 262 
lucida (Achatina) Poey XVIII.195, 196 

lucida (Glandina) Streb XIX, 184 

lucida (Stenogyra) Gibb. .. .XVIII, 146 
lucidissima(Obeliscella)Pal. XVIII, 101 
lucidissimus (Bulimus) Pal. XVIII, 101 
lucidula (Stenogyra) Hde. .XVIII, 167 

lucidulum (Opeas) Hde XVIII, 167 

luctuosa (Limicolaria) Pfr. . .XVI, 268 

luctuosus (Bulimus) Pfr XVI, 269 

lugubris (Achatina) Gray, see Acha- 

tinellidse. 

lugubris (Stenogyra) Morel. .XVII, 154 
lunensis (Achatina) Ancon. . .XIX, xxv 

LUNTIA E. A. Smith XVIII, 218 

lurida (Streptostyla) Shutt. . .XIX, 150 

lutea (Achatina) Anton XII, 168 

luzonicum(Prosopeas)Mlldff. XVIII, 19 
lymneseformis (Euonyma) M. & P. 

XVIII, 39 
lymneseformis (Obeliscus) M. & P. 

XVIII, 39 

LYOBASIS Pils XVIII, 243, 274 

lyrata (Glessula) Blf xx, 86 

M 

mabilleana (Azeca) Fag XIX, 294 

mabilliana (Subulina) Bgt. ..XVIII, 85 
mabilleana (Ferussacia) Pal. .XIX, 263 

macei (Ferussacia) Bgt XIX, 332 

macei (Hohenwartiana) Bgt. .XIX, 332 

macer (Glandina) Dall XIX, 192 

machachensis (Achatina) Sm. XVII, 84 
macilentum (Prosopeas) Rve. 

XVIII, 19, 33 
macilentus (Bulimus) Rve. . .XVIII, 19 

macra (Opeas) Gredl XVIII, 164 

Macrospira Swains XVIII, 220 

macrospira (Bulimus) Ad XIX, 31 

macrospira (Spiraxis) Ad XIX, 31 

macrostoma (Achatina) Beck. XVII, 56 

maculata (Achatina) Dh XVII, 48 

maculata (Achatina) Swains. Exotic 
Conch. = Halia priamus. 



maderensis (Bulimus) Lwe. . .XIX, 320 
maderensis (Caecilioides) Pils. . .XX, 8 
maderensis (Cochlicopa) Lwe. XIX, 820 - 
magilensis (Euonyma) Crav. XVIII, 45 
magilensis (Bulimus) Crav. ..XVIII, 46 
magniflca (Achatina) Pfr. 

XII, 185; XX, 117 

magniflca (Achatina) Rve XX, 115 

magnificus(Hemibulimus)Pfr. XX, 117 

magniflcus (Liguus) Rve XX, 115 

major (Cochlicopa) Beck and Bgt. 

XIX, 324 

major (Glandina) Marts XIX, 209 

major (Glessula) Blanf XX, 89 

major (Glessula) Nevill XX, 93 

major (Obeliscus) Mill XVIII, 254 

major (Pseudoglessula) Smith XVII, 169 
major (Streptostyla) C. & F. .XIX, 150 

major (Spiraxis) Marts XIX, 24 

major (Spiraxis) Newb XIX, 13 

majuscula (Leptinaria) Marts. 

XVIII, 312 

majus (Opeas) Marts XVIII, 214 

malaguettana (Glessula) Rang. XX, 109 
malaguettana (Helix) Rang. ..XX, 110 

malzani (Cionella) Cless XIX, 337 

malzani (Hohenwartiana) Cless. 

XIX, 337 
mamboiensis (Stenogyra) Smith 

XVII, 140 
mamlllata (Achatina) Crav. XVIII, 73 

mandarina (Spiraxis) Pfr XVIII, 7 

mandarinus (Tortaxis) Pfr. . .XVIII, 7 
mandevillensis (Varicella) Pils. 

XIX, 70 
mandevillensis (Varicella) Pils. 

XIX, 107 ; XX, 111 
manyemaense (Ceras) D. & P. 

XVII, 155 
manzanillensis (Bulimus) Gundl. 

XIX, 58 
manzanillensis (Varicella) Gundl. 

XIX, 58 
maresiana (Hohenwarthia) Bgt. 

XIX, 328 

maresi (Ferussacia) Bgt XIX, 252 

maretima (Caecilianella) Ben. . .XX, 27 
margaritacea (Achatina) Pfr. XIX, 171 
margaritacea (Salasiella) Pfr. XIX, 171 
margaritacea (Stenogyra) Shuttl. 

XVIII, 196 
margaritaceum (Opeas) Shuttl. 

XVIII, 196 
marginata (Achatina) Swains. 

XVII, 109 
marginata (Bulla) Don XVII, 111 



138 



INDEX, VOLS. XVI-XX. 



marginata (Ferussacia) West. XIX, 242 
marginata (Glandina) West. .XIX, 167 
marginata (Poiretia) West. . .XIX, 167 
marginata (Oncaea) Gistel. . .XVII, 71 

mariei (Achatina) Anc XVII, 37 

mariei (Caecilioides) Crosse . . .XX, 48 

mariei (Geostilbia) Crosse XX, 48 

mariae (Opeas) Jouss XVIII, 159 

marioni (Achatina) Anc XVII, 39 

maritima (Columna) Spix. .XVIII, 283 

marminii (Achatina) Dh XIX, 195 

marmorea (Achatina) Rve. ..XVII, 183 
marmorea (Bocageia) Rve. . .XVII, 182 
marmorea (Columna) Perry, ..XVII, 122 
maroccana (Azeca) Mouss. .. .XIX, 306 
maroccana (Cionella) Mss. .. .XIX, 306 
marteli (Achatina) Dautz. . .XVII, 129 
martensiana (Achatina) Sm. .XVI, 290 
martensiana(Limicolaria)Sm. XVI, 289 
martens! (Bulimus) Pfr. . . .XVIII, 308 
martensi (Leptinaria) Pfr. .XVIII, 308 
martensi(Obeliscella) Jouss. XVIII, 102 
martensi (Ochroderma)Dall. XVIII.329 
martensi (Leptinaria) Dall. XVIII, 329 
martensi (Opeas) Strob. . . .XVIII, 205 
martensi (Pseudachatina) Ailly, 

XVI, 215 

martensi (Stenogyra) Strob. XVIII, 205 
martensi (Subulina) D. & P. XVII, 148 
massoniana (Homorus) Crosse 

XVII, 184 
matheranica (Glessula) Blf. . . .XX, 87 

matoni (Azeca) Lch XIX, 295 

mauiensis (Achatina) Pfr. see Acha- 

tinellidae. 
maunoiriana (Limicolaria) Bgt. 

XVI, 247 

maura (Rumina) Crosse XVII, 214 

mauriana (Caecilioides) Bgt. . . .XX, 12 
mauritanica (Hohenwarthia) Bgt. 

XIX, 328 

mauritiana (Achatina) Lam. .XVII, 56 
mauritiana (Acicula) H. Ad. . . .XX, 47 
mauritiana (Caecilioides) H. Ad. 

XX, 47 

mauritianum (Opeas) Pfr. XIX, 13, 133 
mauritianus (Bulimus) Pfr. XVIII, 133 
maxima (Achatina) Paiva . . .XIX, 270 
maxima (Bulimus) Bgt. 

XVII, 214 ; XX, 114 
maxima (Cochlicopa) Cless. . .XIX, 324 
maxima (Limnaea) Sowb. . . .XIX, xxiii 
maxima (Stenogyra) Poey ..XVIII, 260 
maximus (Obeliscus) Poey ..XVIII, 260 
mayottense (Opeas) Pils. .. .XVIII, 155 
mazatlanlca (Glandina) Marts. XIV, 196 



mazei (Geostilbia) Crosse XX, 42 

mcbeani (Opeas) M. & P. .. .XVIII, 151 
mediomaculata (Limicolaria) Marts. 

XVI, 289 

megalaea (Limicolaria) Bgt. . .XVI, 284 
megalogyra( Subulina )Gundl. XIX, 115 
megaspira (Subulina) Mab. . .XVIII, 83 
megeanus (Tortaxis) Anc. .. .XVIII, 10 
melampoides(Ferussacia)Lwe. XIX, 270 
melampoides (Helix) Lowe. . .XIX, 270 

Melaniella Pfr XIX, 50 

melanielloides (Spiraxis) Gundl. 

XIX, 28 

melanioides (Bulimus) Woll. XVII, 178 
melanioides (Chilonopsis) Woll. 

XVII, 177 

melanopsoides(Oleacina)Ads. XIX, 270 
melanostoma (Achatina) Gray XII, 178 
melastoma (Achatina) Swains. XII, 178 

Melia Alb XIX, 46 

melii (Glandina) Sacco XIX, xxv 

melitensis (Caecilioides) Gatto .XX, 29 

menkeana (Azeca) Pfr XIX, 292 

menkeanum (Carychium) Pfr. XIX, 293 
meridana (Glandina) Morel. .XIX, 154 
meridana(Streptostyla) Morel. XIX,154 
merimeana (Caecilioides) Bgt. .XX, 12 

METACHATINA Pils XVI, 307 

mexicana (Leptinaria) Pfr. XVIII, 306 
mexicana (Spiraxis) Pfr. .. .XVIII, 307 

micans (Achatina) Ad XIX, 42 

micans (Bulimus) Pfr XVIII, 40 

micans (Spiraxis) Ad XIX, 42 

michaudiana (Achatina) Orb. .XIX, 10 
michoacanensis (Glandina) Pils. 

XIX, 185 

michoniana (Caecilioides) Bgt. .XX, 32 
michoniana (Ferussacia) Bgt. . .XX, 33 

micra (Helix) Orb XVIII, 193 

micra (Opeas) Orb XVIII, 193 

microlestes (Oleacina) Pils. . .XIX, 135 
microsculpta (Glessula) Nev. .. .XX, 85 
microstoma (Achatina) Beck. XVII, 86 
microstoma (Glandina) Kob. .XIX, 167 
microstoma (Obeliscus) Gundl. 

XVIII, 276 
microstoma (Stenogyra) Gundl. 

XVIII, 277 

microxia (Ferussacia) Bgt. .. .XIX, 261 
miliaris (Columna) C. & J. 

XVII, 125 ; XX, 10 

miliolum (Azeca) Pal XIX, 292 

milleri (Poiretia) Pils XX, 113 

milneedwardsiana (Achatina) Rev. 

XVII, 38 



INDEX, VOLS. XVI-XX. 



139 



milneedwardsiana (Limlcolaria) Bgt. 

XVI, 247 

miltochila (Glandina) Marts. XIX, 188 
mimosarum (Helix) Orb. .. .XVIII, 210 
mimosarum (Opeas) Orb. . .XVIII, 210 
mingrelica (Glandina) Bttg. .XIX, 168 
mingrelica (Poiretia) Bttg. . .XIX, 168 

minima (Achatina) Siem XIX, 321 

minima (Salasiella) Pils XIX, 172 

minimus (Bulimus) Brug XIX, 11 

minimus (Bulimus) C. B. Ad. .XIX, 11 



minor (Bulimus) Bgt XVII, 215 

minor (Glandina) Binn XIX, 192 

minor (Glessula) Bedd XX, 73 

minor (Obeliscus) Mill XVIII, 253 

minor (Spiraxis) Marts XIX, 24 

minuscula(Leptinaria)Pils. XVIII, 323 
minuta (Achatina) Ant., Tornatel- 

linidae. 

minuta (Acicula) Mouss XX, 34 

minuta (Caecilioides) Mouss. .. .XX, 33 

minuta (Curvella) DaC XVIII, 340 

minuta (Stenogyra) Semp. .XVIII, 180 
minutissima (Achatina) Barcl., Torna- 

tellinidse. 
minutissima (Caecilioides) Guppy 

XX, 41 

minutissima (Glandina) Guppy XX, 41 
minutum (Opeas) Semp. . . .XVIII, 180 

mirabilis (Bulimus) Ad XIX, 16 ! 

mirabilis (Plicaxis) Sykes . . .XVIII, 13 ; 
mirabilis (Rhodina) Sykes .. .XVIII, 13 i 

mirabilis (Spiraxis) Ad XIX, 16 | 

miradorensis (Glandina) Streb. XIX, 195 j 
miradorensis (Spiraxis) Streb. XIX, 23 j 
miradorensis (Volutaxis) Streb. XIX, 23 

mira (Stenogyra) Gredl XVIII, 9 | 

minis (Tortaxis) Gredl XVIII, 8 j 

mitescens (Pseudosubulina) Marts. 

XIX, 5 | 

mitrseformis (Streptostyla) Sh. . .1, 45 i 
mitriformis (Achatina) Lowe XIX, 272 
mitriformis (Ferussacia) Lwe. XIX, 272 

mitriformis (Glandina) Ang I, 35 

modesta (Oleacina) Pfr XIX, 172 

modesta (Salasiella) Pfr XIX, 172 

modestior (Achatina) Bttg.r=Metacha- 

tina adelinae XVII, 118 

modestus(Lamellaxis) Streb. XVIII, 308 
moellendorffl (Caecilioides) Pils. XX, 50 

mohriana (Spiraxis) Pfr XIX, 160 

mohriana (Streptostyla) Pfr. .XIX, 160 
moitessieri (Perussacia) Bgt. XIX, 330 
moitessieri (Hohenwartiana) Bgt. 

XIX, 330 
mollicella (Achatina) Morel. 

XVII, 73, 29 



monacha (Achatina) Morel. .XVII, 188 
monacha (Bocageia) Morel. ..XVII, 188 
monetaria (Achatina) Morel. .XVIIirl9- 
monile (Achatina) Swains. . . .XX, 117 
monilifera (Glandina) Pfr. . .XIX, 210 
monoceros (Subulina) Beck. 

XVIII, 221, 224 
monochromatica (Achatina) Pils. 

XVII, 10 
monocraspedon (Azeca) Slav. XIX, 292 

monodon (Bulimus) Ad XVIII, 292 

monodon (Leptinaria) Ad. ..XVIII, 291 



monodonta(Cryptazeca)Folin 



XIX, 283 
...XX, 104 
...XX, 28 
..XIX, 247 
...XX, 104 
XVIII, 180 
XVIII, 179 
XVII, 187 
XVII, 186 
..XVI, 228 



montana (Achatina) Marts, 
montana (Csecilianella) Ben. 
montana (Perussacia) Bgt. 
montana (Glessula) Marts, 
montana (Stenogyra) Semp. 
montanum (Opeas) Semp. . 
monticola (Achatina) Morel, 
monticola (Bocageia) Morel, 
moreletiana (Achatina) Dh. 
moreletianus (Pseudotrochus) Dh. 

XVI, 228 
moreletianus (Spiraxis) Pfr. 

1,49; XIX, 46 

moreleti (Bulimus) Dh XVII, 198 

moreleti (Clavator) Dh XVII, 198 

moreleti (Ferussacia) Pall. . .XIX, 231 
moreleti (Subulina) Girard. 
morseana (Cionella) Doh. .. . 
morseana (Cochlicopa) Doh. 
mossambica (Achatina) Branc. 
moulinsii (Achatina) Grat. .. 
moussoniana (Calaxis) Bgt. . 
moussoniana( Ferussacia) Bgt. 

mucidus (Bulimus) Gld 

mucidus (Pseudotrochus) Gld. XVI, 234 
mucronata (Achatina) Ravenel. see 

Achatinellidae. 

mulleri (Oleacina) Malta. XIX, 132, xix 
mullorum (Achatina) Blanf. . . .XX, 84 

mullorum (Glessula) Blanf XX, 84 

multicosta (Bulimus) Gundl. ..XIX, 61 
multlcosta (Varicella) Gundl. 
multiflda (Limicolaria) Marts, 
multilatus (Bulimus) Say. . .XVII, 213 
multilineata (Varicella) Pils. XIX, 114 
multiplicata (Spiraxis) Anc. XVIII, 10 
multispira (Euglandina) Pfr. 

1,30; XIX, 207 

multispira (Oleacina). Pfr. . . .XIX, 207 
multistriata (Varicella) Pils. 
munipurensis ( Bulimus) Aust. 



.XVIII, 74 
.XIX, 316 
.XIX, 316 

XVII, 42 
.XVI, 226 
.XIX, 286 

XIX, 286 
.XVI, 234 



.XIX, 61 
XVI, 291 



.XIX, 68 
XVIII,65 



mumipurensis (Curvella) Aust. 

XVIII, 65 
munita (Helix) Fr XIX, 249 



140 



INDEX, VOLS. XVI-XX. 



munzingeri (Caecilioides) Jick. = Subu- 

lina XX, 36 

tnunzingeri (Stenogyra) Jick. XVIII, 86 
munzingeri (Subulina) Jick. .XVIII, 86 

murrea (Achatina) Rve XII, 168 

musaecola (Achatina) Morel, see Strep- 

taxidse. 

muscorum (Achatina) Morel. XVII, 161 
muscorum (Pseudoglessula) Morel. 

XVII, 161 

mutilatus (Bulimus) Binney, XVII, 213 
mvulaensis (Perideriopsis) D. & P. 

XVI, 245 

myosotis (Buliminus) XIX, 234 

myoxus (Bulimus) Shuttl. .. .XVII, 176 

N 

nachtigali (Pseudachatina) Koh. 

XVI, 207 

naja (Glessula) Blanf XX, 90 

nana (Glandina) Shuttl I, 35 

nana (Glessula) Bedd XX, 82 

nankingense (Opeas) Hde. ..XVIII, 166 
nankingensis (Stenogyra) Hde. 

XVIII, 166 

nanodea (Caecilioides) Bgt XX, 21 

nasimoyensis (Achatina) Bgt. XVII, 44 
natalensis (Achatina) Pfr. . .XVII, 102 
natalensis (Euonyma) Burn. 

XVIII, 41, 339 
natalensis (Obeliscus) Burn. XVIII, 41 

naudoti (Limnea) Mich XIX, xxii 

nautica (Cionella) West XIX, 337 

nautica (Hohenwartiana) West. 

XIX, 336 

nebrodensis (Achatina) Ben. .XIX, 232 
nebrodensis(Ferussacia)Ben. XIX, 232 
nebulosa (Stenogyra) Morel. XVII, 148 
nebulosa (Streptostyla) Dall. XIX, 150 
neglecta (Oleacina) Klika .. .XIX, xxiv 
nemorensis (Achatina) Ad. .. .XIX, 100 
nemorensis (Varicella) Ad. 

XIX, 100 ; anatomy XIX, xvi 

NEOBELISCUS Pils XVIII, 280 

neocaledonicum (Opeas) Pils. XVIII, 130 

NEOOLESSULA Pils XX, 108 

NEOSUBULINA Smith . .XVIII, 287, 322 
neumanni (Achatina) Marts. .XVII, 45 
neumanni(Limicolaria) Marts. XVI, 296 
nevilll (Stenogyra) G.-Ad. ..XVIII, 157 
newcombi (Achatina) Pfr. Carelia. 
newtoni (Subulina) Girard ..XVIII, 75 
newtoni (Thomea) Girard . .XVIII, 333 
nicobarica (Opeas) Morch . .XVIII, 128 



nicoleti (Streptostyla) Sh I, 43 

nigella (Achatina) Morel. . . .XVII, 147 
nigellus (Homorus) Morel. . .XVII, 147 

nigricans (Streptostyla) Pfr I, 45 

nilagarica (Achatina) Rve XX, 91 

nilagarica (Glessula) Rve XX, 90 

nilagirica (Glessula) Auct XX, 91 

nilotica (Burtoa) Pfr XVI, 300 

niloticus (Bulimus) Pfr XVI, 300 

nilssoni (CochMcopa) Malm. ..XIX, 322 

nitens (Achatina) Gray XX, 55 

nitens (Achatina) Kok XIX, 323 

nitens (Cochlicopa) Kok XIX, 323 

nitens (Glessula) Gray XX, 55 

nitida (Achatina) Ad XIX, 102 

nitida (Achatina) Marts XVII, 76 

nitida (Subulina) Marts XVII, 140 

nitida (Varicella) Ad XIX, 102 

nitidissima (Achatina) Pbs. ..XIX, 230 
nitidissimus (Bulimus) Kryn. XIX, 228 
nitidiusculus(Bulimus) Ad. XIX, 33, 34 
nitidula (Subulina) Klika . . .XIX, xxiv 
nitidum (Opeas) Q. & M. . . .XVIII, 181 
nitidus (Spiraxis) Streb. I, 52 ; XIX, 24 

nitidus (Volutaxis) Streb I, 52 

nodosaria (Caecilioides) Bttg. . .XX, 12 
nonpareil (Chilonopsis) Perry XVII, 174 
nonpareil (Melania) Perry . .XVII, 175 
normalis(Pseudotrochus)Pils. XVI, 236 
normalis (Stenogyra) Morel. XVIII, 82 
normalis (Subulina) Morel. .XVIII, 82 

NOTHAPALUS Martens XVIII, 221 

Nothus Albers XVIII, 284 

notigena (Achatina) Bs XX, 66 

notigena (Glessula) Bs XX, 66 

noueli (Glandina) Den XIX, xxiii 

nouletiana (Azeca) Dup XIX, 295 

novemgyrata (Stenogyra) Mouss. 

XVIII, 183 

novenaria (Achatina) Schum. XVIII, 224 
novoleonis(Streptostyla)Pils. XIX, 147 
nsendweensis (Perideriopsis) D. & P. 

XVI, 242 

numidica (Perussacia) Bgt. . .XIX, 266 
numidica (Limicolaria) Rve. ..XVI, 260 
numidicus (Bulimus) Rve. . . .XVI, 260 

nutans (Opeas) Gredl XVIII, 164 

nutans (Stenogyra) Gredl. ..XVIII, 164 

nyasana (Curvella) Sm XVIII, 56 

nyctelia (Ccecilioides) Bgt XX, 7* 

nyikaensis (Achatina) Pils. . .XX, 113 
nympha (Glandina) C. & P. 
nympharum (Perussacia) L. 



nystiana (Achatina) Pfr. 



1,38 

& B. 

XIX, 244 
..XX, 112 



INDEX, VOLS. XVI-XX. 



141 



o 



oahuensls (Achatina) Green, see Acha- ; 

tinellidae. 

OBELISCELLA Jouss. XVIII.IOO ; XIX, x j 
OBELISCUS Beck. XVIII, 240 ; XIX, 346 ! 
Obeliscus Humphrey .. .XVIII, 240, 241 
obeliscus (Achatina) Rve. Carelia. 
obeliscus (Bulimus) P. & M. XVIII, 283 
obeliscus (Obeliscus) Moric. XVIII, 245 

obesa (Achatina) Pfr XVIII, 87 ! 

obesa (Ferussacia) L. & B. .. .XIX, 241 i 
obesa (Streptostyla) Marts. . .XIX, 149 

obesispira (Opeas) Pils XVIII, 134 

obesus (Homorus) Kobelt, 1905. 

obliqua (Burtoa) Marts XVI, 303 

obliqua (Limicolaria) Marts. .XVI, 303 
obliquata ( Leptinaria ) Marts. XVIII, 309 
obliteratus (Bulimus) Woll. .XVII, 177 
oblitterata (Achatina) Dautz. XVII, 13 

oblonga (Burtoa) Marts XVI, 302 

oblonga (Euglandina) Pfr. . . .XIX, 205 
oblonga (Limicolaria) Marts. .XVI, 302 

oblonga (Oleacina) Pfr XIX, 205 

oblonga (Streptostyla) Pfr. . .XIX, 159 

oblonga (Spiraxis) Pfr XIX, 159 

obovata (Ferussacia) Pal. . . .XIX, 217 
obsoleta (Limicolaria) Morel. XVI, 251 
obsoleta (Spiraxis) Pfr. see Achatinel- 

lidae. 
obsoletus (Bulimus) Morel. ...XVI, 251 

obtusa (Achatina) Blanf XVIII, 2 

obtusa (Euglandina) Pfr XIX, 204 

obtusa (Glandina) Pfr. ..... .XIX, 204 

obtusa (Glandina) Dep XIX, xxv 

obtusa (Glessula) Blanf XX, 52 

obtusata (Caecilioides) West. ...XX, 31 

obtusata (Cionella) West XX, 31 

obtusata (Helix) Gmel XVII, 196 

obtusatus (Clavator) Gmel. ..XVII, 196 
obtusum (Bacillum) Blanf. . . .XVIII, 1 
occidentalis (Achatina) Pils. .XVII, 23 
occidentalis (Pseudosubulina) Pils. 

XIX, 3 
OCHRODERMA Anc XVIII, 325 

OCHRODERMELLA PilS XVIII, 327 

octogyrum (Opeas) Pfr XVIII, 206 

octogyrus (Bulimus) Pfr. ...XVIII, 206 
octona (Achatina) Morel. . . .XVIII, 73 

octona (Helix) Gmel XX, 10 

octona (Subulina) Brug. XVIII, 72, 222 
octonoldes (Bulimus) Ad. . .XVIII, 193 
octonoides(Stenogyra)auct. XVIII, 193 
octonula (Stenogyra) Welnl. XVIII, 195 
octonus (Bulimus) Brug. .. .XVIII, 223 

odiosum (Opeas) Pils XIX, 25 

odiosus ( Spiraxla) P!l XIX, 25 



Odontalus Parryss XIX, 290 

oleacea (Achatina) Desh XIX, 137 

oleacea (Oleacina) Desh XIX7136 

OLEACINA Bolt XIX, xvii, 127 

OLEACINIDAE Gray 1, 19 ; XIX, xtl 

oleata (Stenogyra) Marts. .. .XVII, 146 
oligostropha( Achatina) Reuss. XIX.xxv 

olivacea (Bocageia) Pils XVII, 189 

olivacea (Glandina) Schum. 

XIX, 128, 130 

oliva (Glandina) Morel XIX, 145 

olivea (Cochlicopa) Loc XIX, 318 

Omphalostyla Schluet XVI, 246 

onager (Perideris) Sh XVI, 231 

onager (Pseudotrochus) Sh. . .XVI, 230 

Oncaea Gistel XVII, 1 

onychina (Glandina) Morel I, 23 

opaca (Cochlicopa) Loc XIX, 318 

opalescens (Leptinaria) Shuttl. 

XVIII, 293 

oparanum (Opeas) Pfr XVIII, 183 

oparanus (Bulimus) Pfr. . . .XVIII, 183 
oparica (Opeas) Pfr., Sykes XVIII, 183 

opeas (Homorus) Pils XVII, 151 

OPEAS Albers XVIII, 122 

opella (Opeas) P. & V XVIII, 186 

oranensis (Ferussacia) Bgt. . .XIX, 247 

Orbitina Risso XVII, 211 

orci (Opeas) Eocene. 

oreas (Achatina) Bens., Rve. ..XX, 80 

oreas (Glessula) Bs., Rve XX, 80 

orizabse (Achatina) Pfr XIX, 199 

orizabse (Euglandina) Pfr. . . .XIX, 199 
orizabensis (Pseudosubulina) Pils. 

XIX, 7 

Orizosoma Pils XIX, 163 

ornata (Achatina) Pfr I, 32 

ornata (Euglandina) Pfr XIX, 181 

ornata (Stenogyra) Morel. .. .XVIII, 99 

ornata (Subulina) Morel XVIII, 99 

orobia (Achatina) Bens. ...... .XX, 97 

orobia (Glessula) Bens XX, 96 

orophila (Achatina) Rve XX, 79 

orophila (Glessula) Rve XX, 79 

orthoceras (Bacillum) G.-A. . .XVIII, 2 

orthoceras (Glessula) XVIII, 2 

orum (Achatina) Pfr XVII, 112 

oryza (Achatina) Lowe XIX, 274 

oryza (Bulimus) Brug. .XVIII, 189, 191 

oryza (Ferussacia) Lwe XIX, 274 

ORYZOSOMA Pilsbry XIX, 163 

osculans (Achatina) Ad XIX, 70 

osculans (Varicella) Ad XIX, 70 

ottonis (Achatina) Pfr I, 25 

ottonis (Oleacina) Pfr I, 25 

ovampoensis (Caecilioides) M. & P. 

XX, 30 



142 



INDEX, VOLS. XVI-XX. 



ovampoensls (Cionella) M. & P. XX, 36 
ovata (Achatina) Pfr., Tornatellinidse. 

ovata (Cochlicopa) Jeffr XIX, 318 

ovata (Curvella) Putz XVIII, 51 

ovata (Glandina) Dall XIX, 192 

ovata (Glandina) Mill. 

XIX, xxiii; XX, 113 

ovatus (Hapalus) Putz XVIII, 51 

oviformis (Limicolaria) Anc. .XVI, 279 
ovuliformis (Ferussacia) Lwe. XIX, 280 

ovuliformis (Helix) Lwe XIX, 281 

ovulina (Oleacina) Mill XIX, xxii 

ovum (Achatina) Pfr XVII, 111 

Oxycheilus Alters XVIII, 227 

oxynter (Prosopeas) Bs XVIII, 28 

Oxystrombus auct XVI, 219 

Oxystyla XX, 118 



pacensls (Glandina) Marts. . . .XIX, 45 
pachycheila (Achatina) Bens. . .XX, 58 
pachycheila (Glessula) Bens. .. .XX, 58 
pachygastra( Cochlicopa) Stab. XIX,317 
pachygyra (Stenogyra) Gredl. XVIII, 5 

Pachyotus auct XVII, 171 

pachyspira(Leptinaria)Pils. XVIII, 305 
pagoda (Prosopeas) Semp. . .XVIII, 18 
pagoda (Stenogyra) Semp. .. .XVIII, 18 
pairensis (Obeliscus) Higg. .XVIII, 255 
pairensis (Rumina) Higg. . .XVIII, 255 
paivse (Bulimus) Lowe 

XVII, 213 ; XX, 114 
palvana (Achatina) Morel. . . .XVII, 17 

paivana (Oleacina) Pfr XIX, 136 

paioense (Prosopeas) Bock. ..XVIII, 25 
paioensis (Bulimus) Bock. .. .XVIII, 25 
paladilhiana (Coilostele) Nev. XIX, 340 
paladilhi (Ferussacia) Bgt. ...XIX, 333 
paladilhi (Glandina) Mich. ...XIX, xxv 
paladilhi (Hohenwartiana) Bgt. 

XIX, 332 

pallens (Achatina) Pfr XVII, 190 

pallens (Glessula) Bedd XX, 74 

pallescens (Achatina) Dautz. XVII, 129 

pallida (Achatina) Swains XII, 168 

pallida (Cochlicopa) Loc. . . .XIX, 318 
pallida (Leptinaria) Ad. . . .XVIII, 294 
pallida (Perideriopsis) D. &P. XVI, 244 
pallidior ( Pseudotrochus ) Pils. XVI, 229 
pallidior(Streptostyla)C. & F. XIX, 159 
pallidistriga (Limicolaria) Marts. 

XVI, 290 

pallldula (Varicella) Pils XIX, 67 

pallldus (Bulimus) Ad XVIII, 294 

pallidus (Streptostylus) DaC. XIX, 151 
palmeri (Streptostyla) Dall. ..XIX, 146 



paludino.ides( Achatina) Orb. XVIII, 296 
paludinoides (Leptinaria) Orb. 

XVIII, 295 
paludinoides (Bulimus) Anton 

XVIII, 296 
paludosa (Limicolaria) Putz. .XVI, 270 

palus (Stenogyra) Hde XVIII, 6 

palustris (Achatina) Parr. . . .XIX, 227 

pansetha (Achatina) Bens XX, 56 

panamensis (Achatina) Miihlf. 

XVIII, 224 

panayense (Opeas) Pfr XVIII, 131 

panayensis (Bulimus) Pfr. ..XVIII, 132 

panthera (Achatina) Fe"r XVII, 41 

pantherina (Achatina) Nevill. XVII, 42 
papyracea (Achatina) Pfr. . .XVII, 117 

parabilis (Achatina) Bens XX, 55 

parabilis (Glessula) Bens XX, 54 

PARACHATINA Bgt XVII, 1, 5, 17 

paradoxa (Cylindrella) Ar. .XVIII, 275 
paradoxa (Spiraxis) Pfr. Carelia. 
paradoxus (Obeliscus) Ar. . .XVIII, 275 
parallela (Glandina) Binn. . . .XIX, 192 

parallelus (Spiraxis) Pils XIX, 41 

parana (Subulina) Pils XVIII, 225 

parisiensis(Cylindrella)Dh. XVIII, 335 
parisdensis (Distoechia) Dh. XVIII, 335 

paritura (Achatina) Gld XX, 108 

paritura (Glessula) Gld XX, 108 

paroliniana ( Achatina) W. & B. XIX, 273 
parolinianus (Bulimus) Orb. ..XIX, 274 

PAROPEAS Pils XVIII, 14 

parthenia(Achatina)M. & P. XVII, 100 

parvula (Achatina) Chitty XIX, 19 

parvulus (Spiraxis) Chitty. . . .XIX, 19 
parvula (Spiraxis) Pfr. 

XIX, 159 ; XX, 111 
parvula (Streptostyla) Pfr. 

XIX, 159 ; XX, 111 

passargel (Achatina) Marts. ..XVII, 70 
pattalus (Homorus) Pils. . . .XVII, 147 
pattalus (Obeliscus) Pils. ..XVIII, 249 

patzcuarense (Opeas) Pils XIX, 26 

patzcuarensis (Spiraxis) Pils. .XIX, 26 
paucispira (Subulina) Marts. XVIII, 95 
paulucciana (Ferussacia) Poll. XIX, 251 
paupercula (Achatina) Blanf. . .XX, 82 
paupercula (Glessula) Blanf. .. .XX, 81 

pauperculus (Bulimus) Ad XIX, 37 

pauperculus (Spiraxis) Ad XIX, 37 

pauper (Opeas) Dohrn XVIII, 142 

pauper (Stenogyra) Dohrn. .XVIII, 142 

paviei (Glessula) Morel XX, 100 

pavonina (Achatina) Spix. . . .XII, 189 

paxillus (Achatina) Rve XVII, 186 

paxillus (Bocageia) Rve XVII, 186 



INDEX, VOLS. XVI-XX. 



143 



pazensis (Achatlna) Perez XIX, 45 

pealei (Opeas) Tryon XVIII, 29 

pealei (Prosopeas) Tryon XVIII, 29 

pechaudi (Ferussacia) Bgt. . .XIX, 256 
pechaudi (Hohenwartiana) L. & B. 

XIX, 334 
pedemon tana (Caecilioides) Poll. XX, 24 

PEGEA Risso XIX, 239 

peguensis (Achatina) Blf XX, 99 

peguensis (Glessula) Blf XX, 99 

PELATRINIA Pils XVIII, 287, 324 

pellita (Stenogyra) Gredl. . .XVIII, 171 

pellitum (Opeas) Gredl XVIII, 171 

pellucens (Achatina) Ad XIX, 109 

pellucens (Varicella) Ad XIX, 108 

pellucida (Ganomidos) Ailly. XVII, 128 
pellucidus (Bulimus) Pfr. . .XVIII, 206 
pellucidum (Opeas) Pfr. . . .XVIII, 206 

peneckei (Azeca) And XIX, 292 

penestes (Achatina) M. & P. XVII, 100 

pentherl (Achatina) Stur XVII, 81 

perakensis (Rhodina) Morg. .XVIII, 13 

perdix (Achatina) Lan XVII, 9 

peregrinus (Bulimus) Pfr. . .XVIII, 258 
peregrinus (Obeliscus) Pfr. .XVIII, 258 
perelongata (Pseudachatina) Rolle 

XVI, 213 

perfecta (Achatina) Morel. . . .XVII, 15 
perforata (Curvella) Mlldff. .XVIII, 70 
perforata (Leptinaria) Pfr. XVIII, 302 
perforata (Tornatellina) Pfr. XVIII, 302 



pertica (Bulimus) Bs XVIII, U3 

peruviana (Achatina) Lam. . . .XIX, 86~ 
peruviana ( Strep tostyla) Pfr. 

1,43; XIX, 86 

peruviana (Varicella) Lam. . . .XIX, 85 
perversa (Achatina) Swains. ..XII, 179 

PETENIELLA Pils XIX, xxvi, 161 

petersi (Achatina) Marts XVII, 62 

pethericki (Burtoa) Bgt XVI, 301 

pethionis (Glandina) Weinl. ..XIX, 134 
pethionis (Oleacina) Weinl. . .XIX, 134 

Petitia Jouss XVII, 72 

petitia (Achatina) Jouss XVII, 73 

petitia (Petitia) Jouss XVII, 73 

petitiana (Achatina) Ben XX, 26 

petiti (Achatina) Dh XIX, 195 

petit! (Clavator) C. & P XVII, 200 

petrensis (Achatina) Morel. ..XVIII, 78 

PETRIOLA Dall XVII, 216 

Pf affla Behn XIX, 175 

pfeifferi (Achatina) Dkr XVII, 24 

pfeifferi (Cionella) Weinl. . . .XIX, 323 

pfeifferi (Homorus) Kob XVII, 24 

pfeifferi (Rhodea) Crosse ...XVIII, 236 

pfeifferi (Salasiella) Pils XIX, 173 

pfeifferi (Spiraxis) Mke XVIII, 12 

pfeifferi( Strep tosty la )C. & P. XIX, 148 

pfeifferi (Tortaxis) Mke XVIII, 12 

phaea (Pseudoglessula) Putz. XVII, 163 

philippiana (Achatina) Ad XIX, 84 

philippiana (Varicella) Ad XIX, 84 



perforatus (Hapalus) Mlldff. XVIII, 70 j philippinensis (Caecilioides) Semp. 
pergracilis (Subulina) Marts. XVIII, 91 | XX, 49 

PERIDERIOPSIS Putz XVI, 241 j philippinensis (Cionella) Semp. XX, 49, 



Perideris Shuttl XVI, 219 

perlucens (Glandina) Guppy ..XIX, 125 
perlucens (Varicella) Guppy .XIX, 125 

permira (Spiraxis) Anc XVIII, 10 

permirus (Tortaxis) Anc XVIII, 10 

perotteti (Achatina) Rve XX, 78 

perplexa (Achatina) Ad XIX, 39 

perplexa (Oleacina) Tryon, 

I, 31 ; XIX, 39 

perplexus (Spiraxis) Ad XIX, 39 

perpusilla (Oleacina) Pfr XIX, 173 

perpusilla (Salasiella) Pfr. .. .XIX, 173 
perrieriana (Limlcolaria) Bgt. XVI, 247 
perrierianus (Subulina) Bgt. XVII, 137 

PERRIERIA Tapp. Can XVIII, 36 

perrotteti (Achatina) Pfr XX, 65 

perrotteti (Glessula) Pfr XX, 65 

persianli (Cionella) Tib XIX, 328 

perstriatus (Spiraxis) Pils XIX, 40 

perstriata (Subulina) Marts. XVIII, 89 

pertenuis (Achatina) Blanf XX, 89 

pertenuis (Glessula) Blanf. 



philippinensis (Glessula) Cooke XX, 52 
philippinica (Caecilioides) Moell. XX, 49 
philippinica (Curvella) Pils. .XVIII, 70 
philippinica (Geostilbia) Moell. XX, 50 

phillipsil (Achatina) Ad XIX, 99 

philllpsii (Varicella) Ad XIX, 99 

Phylacus West XIX, 239, 240 

Physella Pfr 1, 19 

physodes (Streptostyla) Shuttl. 

XIX, 159 

plchardi (Bulimus) Arango .. . .XIX, 55 
pichardi (Varicella) Arango .. .XIX, 55 

PlCHARDIELLA FiSCh XIX, 50 

picta (Achatina) Rve XII, 168 

pileata (Stenogyra) Marts. .XVIII, 339 
pileatus (Homorus) Marts. .XVIII, 338 
pilosa (Stenogyra) Semp. . .XVIII, 179 

pilosum (Opeas) Semp XVIII, 179 

pilsbryi (Spiraxis) Anc XVIII, 11 

pilsbryi (Tortaxis) Anc XVIII, 10 

plnguis (Subulina) Marts. .. .XVIII, 88 
. .XX, 89 ! pinicola (Glandina) F. & C I, 37 



144 



INDEX, VOLS. XVI-XX. 



PINTOA Bgt XVII, 24 

plntoi (Achatina) Bgt XVII, 63 

PITTIERIA Martens XIX, 162 

pittierl (Glandina) Marts. . . .XIX, 199 
pittieri (Leptinaria) Marts. XVIII, 308 
pittieri (Ochroderma) Marts. 

XVIII, 328 
pittieri (Opeas) Martens . . .XVIII, 213 

pittieri (Spiraxis) Marts XIX, 24 

plttieri(Tornatellina)Marts. XVIII.328 
placostyloides(Clavator)Kob. XVII, 195 
planogyra(Prosopeas)Mlldff. XVIII, 16 
planospirus (Bulimus) Pfr. XVIII, 247 
planospirus (Obeliscus) Pfr. XVIII, 247 

planti (Achatina) Pfr XVI, 310 

plant! (Metachatina) Pfr XVI, 309 

plebeia (Stenogyra) Morel. .XVIII, 116 
plebeium(Pseudopeas) Morel. XVIII,116 
plicatella (Stenogyra) Guppy 

XVIII, 207 

plicatula (Achatina) Pfr XIX, 182 

plicatula (Euglandina) Pfr. . .XIX, 182 

plicatula ( Strep tostyla) Streb I, 47 

plicatum (Opeas) Gldg XVIII, 204 

plicatus (Bulimus) Guild. . .XVIII, 204 
plicatus (Bulimulus) Pfr. ..XVIII, 204 

PLICAXIS Sykes XVIII, 12 

plicifera (Curvella) Blf XVIII, 63 

plicifer (Bulimus) Blf XVIII, 63 

podolica (Cionella) Lorn XIX, 311 

poeyana (Achatina) Pfr XII, 166 

poeyana (Oleacina) Pfr I, 25 

poeyanus (Bulimus) Pfr XIX, 45 

poeyanus (Spiraxis) Pfr XIX, 45 

poireti (Achatina) Rossm. . . .XIX, 169 

POIBETIA Fischer XIX, xx, 164 

poireti (Helix) Fr XIX, 166 

politum (Carychium) Jeffr. . .XIX, 295 

polltus (Bulimus) Parr XIX, 300 

pollonerae (Caecilioldes) Gatto .XX, 29 
pollonerse (Ferussacia) Sacco XIX, 217 
polonica (Csecilianella) Lomn. .. .XX, 5 
polychroa (Achatina) Morel. ..XVII, 26 
polygyratus (Bulimus) Rve. XVIII, 113 
polygyratus (Zootecus) Rve. XVIII, 113 
polyodon (Ferussacia) L. & B. XIX, 250 

Polyphemus Montf XIX, 127 

Porphyrobaphe XX, 115 

porphyrostoma (Achatina) Shuttl. 

XVII, 115 

porrecta (Achatina) Gob. . . .XIX, xxiv 
porrecta (Subulina) Marts. .XVIII, 226 
portoricensis (Arhatina) Pfr. XIX, 122 
portoricensis (Varicella) Pfr. XIX, 122 
potosiana (Euglandina) Pils. .XIX, 206 
potosiana (Streptostyla) Dall. XIX, 146 



poupillieri (Caecilioides) Serv. XX, 18 
praclustris (Stenogyra) Nev. . . .XX, 68 
prseclara (Caecilioides) West. . .XX, 34 

praelustris (Achatina) Bs XX, 68 

prselustris (Glessula) Bs XX, 68 

praetexta(Limicolaria) Marts. XVI, 261 

prestonl (Opeas) Sykes XVIII, 134 

prestoni(Pseudoglessula)Sm. XVII, 167 
preussi (Pseudachatina) Kob. XVI, 213 
princeps (Obeliscus) Pils. . .XVIII, 261 
problematica (Pseudosubulina) Pils. 

XIX, 10 

procera (Achatina) Ad XIX, 80 

procera (Varicella) Ad XIX, 80 

procerula (Ferussacia) Mor. ..XIX, 243 
procerula (Glandina) Mor. . . .XIX, 243 

Proceruliana Bgt XIX, 239 

procerus (Bulimus) C. B. Ad. .XIX, 33 
procerus (Spiraxis) C. B. Ad. .XIX, 33 
producta (Achatina) Lowe . . .XIX, 221 
producta (Achatina) Lwe 

XIX, 275 ; XX, 114 
producta (Achatina) Reuss. 

XIX, xxiv ; XX, 114 
producta (Ferussacia) Lwe. . .XIX, 275 
proechia (Ferussacia) Bgt. .. .XIX, 228 
PROMODSSONIDS Pils. ..XVIII, 228, 230 
pronyense (Opeas) Gass. . . .XVIII, 177 
pronyensis (Bulimus) Gass. XVIII, 178 

propinqua (Achatina) Ad XIX, 74 

propinqua (Subulina) Beck. XVIII, 221 

propinqua (Varicella) Ad XIX, 74 

PROSOPEAS Morch XVIII, 14 

Protobeliscus Pils XVIII, 243, 251 

proxima (Achatina) Ad XIX, 76 

proxlma (Varicella) Ad XIX, 70 

pruinosum (Opeas) Mlldff. .XVIII, 181 

prunum (Achatina) Rve XVII, 119 

psathyrolena (Azeca) Bgt. . . .XIX, 305 

PSEUDACHATINA Albers XVI, 205 

Pseudazeca Pfr XIX, 239 

pseudoalgira (Glandina) Sacco XIX, xxv 
pseudoalgira (Poiretia) Sacco 

XIX, xxv, 166 
PSEUDOBALEA Shuttlw. XVIII, 243, 271 

PSEDDOGLESSDLA Bttg XVII, 156 

pseudopsis (Lovea) Woll XIX, 281 

PSEDDOPEAS Putzeys .. .XVIII, 114, 216 
Pseudostreptostyla, Nevlll ..XIX, 218 
PSEUDOSUBULINA Streb XIX, 1 

PSEUDOTROCHUS Ads. 

XVI, 219; XVII, x 
pseudoturris (Glandina) Streb. . . .1, 35 

psilia (Ferussacia) Bgt XIX, 329 

psilia (Hohenwartiana) Bgt. .XIX, 329 
pseudoreas (Stenogyra) Nev. . . .XX, 80 



INDEX, VOLS. XVI-XX. 



145 



pseudoreas (Glessula) Nev XX, 80 

ptychoraphe (Glandina) W. & M. 

XIX, 117 
ptychoraphe (Varicella) W. & M. 

XIX, 117 

puella (Achatina) Ad XIX, 77 

puella (Varicella) Ad XIX, 77 

pulchella (Achatina) Marts. XVI, 73, 74 

pulchella (Achatina) Pfr XIX, 173 

pulchella (Achatina) Spix XII, 136 

pulchella (Bulimus) Moq XIX, 221 

pulchella (Cionella) Hartm. ..XIX, 322 
pulchella (Ferussacia) Moq. ..XIX, 221 

pulchella (Oleacina) Pfr XIX, 173 

pulchella (Salasiella) Pfr. . . .XIX, 173 
pulchellum (Pseudopeas) Putz. 

XVIII, 118 
pulcherrima( Glandina) Streb. XIX, 208 

pulla (Glessula) Blanf XX, 81 

pullus (Bulimus) Gray XVIII, 110 

pullus (Zootecus) Gray XVIII, 110 

pumila (Azeca) Slavic XIX, 292 

pumilus (Bulimus) Pfr XVIII, 202 

punctogallana (Achatina) Pfr. ..XX, 56 
punctogallana (Glessula) Pfr. ..XX, 56 

punica (Ferussacia) Bgt XIX, 250 

pupaeformis (Azeca) Cantr. . .XIX, 298 
pupaeformis (Bulimus) Cantr. XIX, 299 
pupaeformis (Subulina) Beck. XVIII, 221 
pupoides (Bulimus) Anton ..XVIII, 285 
purcelli (Euonyma) M. & P. .XVIII, 42 
purcelli (Subulina) M. & P. ..XVIII, 43 
purpurascens( Achatina) Fisch. XX,113 
purpurascens (Bulimus) Brug. XVII, 114 
purpurea (Archachatina) Gmel. 

XVII, 114; XX, 113 
purpurea ( Achatina) Rve. XVII, 113, 116 

purpurea (Bulla) Gmel XVII, 114 

purpurea (Helix) Fr XVII, 114 

pusilla (Achatina) Pfr. Auriculldse? 

pusllla (Achatina) Scac XX, 10 

pusilla (Curvella) Blf XVIII, 64 

pusilla (Glessula) Bedd XX, 84 

pusilla (Helix) Scacchi XIX, 328 

pusilla (Rumina) H. Ad. . . .XVIII, 257 

pusllla (Splraxis) Blf XVIII, 64 

pusilla (Stenogyra) Morel. ..XVIII, 119 
puslllum (Pseudopeas) Morel. XVIII, 119 
pusillus (Obeliscus) H. Ad. .XVIII, 257 

puta (Curvella) Bs XVIII, 63 

putus (Bulimus) Bs XVIII, 64 

pygmsea (Achatina) Pfr XX, 40 

pyramldalis(Limicolaria)Bgt. XVI, 278 
pyramldalis (Stenogyra) Morel. 

XVIII, 98 
pyramidalis( Subulina) Morel. XVIII, 98 



pyramidata (Glandina) Paul. XIX, 167 . 
pyramidata (Pseudachatina) Kob. 

XVI, 210 
pyramldella (Achatina) Marts. 

XVII, 154 
pyramidella (Homorus) Marts. 

XVII, 153 
pyramis (Achatina) Bs ........ XX, 93 

pyramis (Glessula) Bs ......... XX, 92 

PYRGELLA Lowe ............ XIX, 279 

PYRGINA Greef ........ XVIII, 330, 334 

pyrglscus (Bulimus) Pfr. 

XVIII, 184, 185 
pyrgula (Opeas) Schm. & Bttg. 

XVIII, 173 
pyrrha (Limlcolaria) Alb ..... XVI, 298 

pyrrhus (Bulimus) Alb ....... XVI, 298 

pyrum (Helix) Gmel ........ XVII, 122 

Pythla Oken ............... XVI, 246 



Q 



.XVIII, 69 
.XVIII, 69 
.XVIII, 18 
.XVIII, 18 
XVII, 86 



XIX, 146 



quadras! (Curvella) Mlldff. . 
quadras! (Hapalus) Mlldff. . 
quadras! (Prosopeas) Hid. . 
quadras! (Stenogyra) Hid. .. 
quagga (Ampulla) Bolt 
qulrozi (Streptostyla) Streb. 
I, 44 

R 

rabaudl (Limicolarla) Bgt. . .XVI, 247 
raddei (Caecilioides) Bttg ...... XX, 31 

raddei (Cochlicopa) Bttg ....... XX, 32 

raff ray! (Achatina) Jouss ..... XVII, 75 

ragazzii (Homorus) Poll ..... XVII, 132 

ramentosa(Columna)Coop. XI, 153, 154 
ramentosa (Rhodea) Coop ...... XI, 154 

randabeli (Achatina) Bgt ..... XVII, 69 

randalli (Spiraxis) Newb ...... XIX, 13 

rangiana (Achatina) Pfr. .. .XVIII, 271 

rangiauus (Obeliscus) Pfr. ..XVIII, 271 
raphidea (Caecilioides) Bgt ..... XX, 20 

raphidia (Crelestele) Bgt ..... XIX, 345 

rarum (Opeas) Miller ...... XVIII, 208 

RAVBNIA Crosse ............. XIX, 19 

recisa (Stenogyra) Morel. . .XVIII, 144 
recisum (Opeas) Morel ..... XVIII, 144 

rectistrigata(Llmicolar!a)Sm. XVI, 293 
RECTOLEACINA Pils .......... XIX, 142 

rectus (Bulimus) Pfr ......... XIX, 29 

rectus (Spiraxis) Pfr ......... XIX, 29 

redfleldi (Curvella) Pils ..... XVIII, 49 

rediviva (Achatina) Mab ..... XVII. 57 

reeveana (Achatina) Pfr ..... XVI, 226 

reeveanus(Pteudotrochui)Pfr. XVI.226 



146 



INDEX, VOLS. XVI-XX. 



regina (Achatina) Pfr XII, 181 

regulare (Opeas) Pfr XVIII, 192 

regularis (Bulimus) Pfr. . . .XVIII, 189 
regularis (Ferussacia) Bgt. .. .XIX, 222 

reissi (Cionella) Mss XIX, 229 

reissi (Ferussacia) Mss XIX, 229 

retifera (Stenogyra) Marts. ..XVII, 164 

reticulata (Achatina) Pfr XVII, 34 

retteri (Caecilioides) Rosen XX, 35 

retteri (Obeliscella) Rosen ..XVIII, 103 
retteri (Stenogyra) Rosen . .XVIII, 104 

revoili (Limicolaria) Bgt XVI, 247 

reymondi (Bulimus) Bgt XVI, 301 

reymondi (Burtoa) Bgt XVI, 301 

rhabdota (Achatina) M. & P. .XVII, 91 

rhabdus (Spiraxis) Pils XIX, 27 

RHAPHIDIELLA Maltz XX, 6, 18 

rhoadsse (Opeas) Pils XIX, 26 

rhoadsse (Spiraxis) Pils XIX, 26 

rhoadsi (Glandina) Pils XIX, 192 

RHODEA Adams, XVIII, 234 

Rhodina de Morgan XVIII, 12 

rhodinaeforme (Prosopeas) Mlldff. 

XVIII, 17 
rhodostoma (Achatina) Phil. XVII, 115 

RHYTIDIDAE Pils XIX, xi 

rlbeiroi (Caecilioides) Serv XX, 17 

richardi (Achatina) Pfr XIX, 86 

richardi (Varicella) Pfr. I, 43 ; XIX, 86 
rlchii (Bulimus) Lam XVI, 232 



rothi (Ferussacia) Bgt XIX, 28 

rubella (Glandina) Morel XIX, 210 

rublcunda (Limicolaria) Sh. . .XVI, 267 
rubicundulus (Bulimus) Old. .XVI, 239 
rubicundulus (Pseudotrochus) Old. 

XVI, 239 

rugata (Glessula) Blanf XX, 86 

rugosa (Achatina) Putz XVII, 30 

rugulosa (Glandina) Sandb. .XIX, xxiv 

RUMINA Risso XVII, 211 

runssorina (Glessula) Marts. . .XX, 104 
ruppelliana (Limicolaria) Pfr. XVI, 275 
ruppellianus (Bulimus) Pfr. ..XVI, 275 

ruricola (Achatina) Lowe XIX, 222 

ruricola (Ferussacia) Lowe . .XIX, 222 



sabatieri (Bulimus) Pfr. 



, XVI, 277 
.XVI, 277 
XIX, 180 



sabatieri (Limicolaria) Pfr. 
saccata (Euglandina) Pfr. . 

saccata (Oleacina) Pfr XIX, 180 

saharica (Rumina) Deb XVII, 213 

sallaji ( Strep tosty la) Marts. ..XIX, 145 

SALASIELLA Strebel XIX, 170, xxv 

salleana (Achatina) Pfr. . . .XVIII, 300 
salleana (Leptinaria) Pfr. ..XVIII, 300 
salleanus (Bulimus) Rve. .. .XVIII, 270 
salleanus (Obeliscus) Rve. ..XVIII, 269 
sallei (Streptostyla) C. & F. 

I, 44 ; XIX, 145 



RIEBECKIA Martens XVII, 204 I salvini (Pseudosubulina) Marts. XIX, 6 

riisei (Achatina) Pfr XIX, 122 j sanctithomensis( Varicella) Pils. XIX,57 

rillyensis (Achatina) Boissy, type of j sandbergeri( Achatina) Thorn. XIX, xxiv 
Scalaxis. sandwlcensis (Achatina) Pfr. Se 

riparius (Bulimus) Pfr XVIII, 253 | Achatinellid. 

riparius (Obeliscus) Pfr. . . .XVIII, 253 i sandwlchensis (Spiraxis) Pfr. .XIX, 13 

risso (Achatina) Dh XIX, 220 j santanense (Opeas) Pfr. . . .XVIII, 204 

ritchiei (Leptinaria) Pils. . .XVIII, 304 ! santanensis (Bulimus) Pfr. .XVIII, 204 

rizzeana (Achatina) Ben XX, 25 : sargi (Pseudosubulina) C. & F. . . .1, 50 

robertsi (Leptinaria) Pils. ..XVIII, 298 j sa rgi (Streptostyla) C. & F I, 49 

robusta( Pseudosubulina) Marts. XIX, 4 J sargi (Subulina) C. & F I, 50 

rochebruni (Limicolaria) Bgt. XVI, 247 I gar issa (Achatina) Bens XX, 93 

rodatzi (Achatina) Dkr XVII, 60 sar issa (Euonyma) Pils XVIII, 44 

roepstorfl (Bulimus) Mch. .. .XVIII, 27 ! sarissa (Glessula) Bens XX, 93 

roepstorfl (Prosopeas) Mch. ..XVIII, 27 i satsumense (Opeas) Pils. .. .XVIII, 172 
rohlfsi (Limicolaria) Marts. ..XVI, 288 sattaraensis (Achatina) H. & T. XX, 83 
romblonicum (Prosopeas) Mlldff. sattaraensis (Glessula) II. & T. XX, 82 

XVIII, 18 | saturata (Glandina) Gundl I, 24 

roperi (Varicella) Pils XIX, 78 i saturata (Limicolaria) Sm. .. .XVI, 286 

rosea (Euglandina) F6r. . .XIX, 191, xii j saturata (Oleacina) Gundl. ...... .1, 24 

rosea (Glandina) auct XIX, 195 | saulcydi (Achatina) Joan XVI, 236 

rosea (Helix) F6r XIX, 191 ' saulcydi (Pseudotrochus) Joan. XVI, 235 



Hutt. See Pyraml- : saulcyl (Ferussacia) Bgt XIX, 287 

saulcyi (Calaxis) Bgt XIX, 287 

saxatile(Pseudopeas) Morel. XVIII, 115 



roseus (Obeliscus) 

dellidae. 
rouislana (Poiretia) Pils XX, 113 



rothi (Calaxis) Bgt XIX, 286 ' saxatllls (Stenogyra) Morel. XVIII, 11 



INDEX, VOLS. XVI-XX. 



147 



sayea (Ferussacia) Risso XIX, 218 

sayulana (Glandina) Marts. . .XIX, 200 
scawola (Achatina) M. & P. . .XVII, 98 
scalarioides (Achatina) Nev. ..XVII, 57 

scalare (Opeas) Desh XIX, 349 

scalarina (Varicella) Gundl. .. .XIX, 59 
scalarinus (Bulimus) Gundl. . .XIX, 59 

scalaris (Bulimus) Desh XIX, 350 

scalaris (Coilostele) Bs XIX, 339 

scalaris (Curvella) Q. & M. ..XVIII, 69 
scalaris (Hapalus) Q. & M. . .XVIII, 70 
scalariopsis (Bulimus) Morel. .XIX, 21 
scalariopsis (Spiraxis) Morel. .XIX, 21 
scalariforme (Pseudopeas) Putz. 

XVIII, 118 

scalella (Spiraxis) Marts XIX, 22 

scaptobia (Ferussacia) Bg>t. . .XIX, 267 
scaturigium (Physa) Drap. .. .XIX, 220 
sceptrum (Obeliscus) Beck. 

XVII, 193 ; XVIII, 240 
schencki (Achatina) Marts. .. .XVII, 96 
schensiense (Opeas) Stur. . .XVIII, 163 
schinziana (Achatina) Mss. .. .XVII, 16 
schneideri ( Streptosty la ) Streh. XIX.150 
schweinfurthi (Achatina) Marts. 

XVII, 61 

schweinfurthi(Burtoa) Marts. XVI, 300 
schweinfurthi (Limicolaria) Marts. 

XVI, 301 

sciaphila (Ferussacia) Bgt. . .XIX, 262 
scrobiculata (Curvella) Blf. ..XVIII, 64 
scrobiculatus (Bulimus) Blanf. 

XVIII, 65 

scrutillus (Achatina) Bs XX, 81 

scrutillus (Glessula) Bs XX, 81 

sculpturata( Limicolaria) Anc. XVI, 297 

seabrai (Subulina) Nobre XVIII, 84 

sebasmia (Burtoa) Bgt XVI, 305 

Selaniella Anc XIX, 170 

Selasiella Streb., Tryon XIX, 170 

sellovii (Achatina) King . . .XVIII, 244 
semidecussata( Achatina) Mke. XVII, 80 
semigranosa (Achatina) Pfr. ..XVII, 80 
semlsculpta (Achatina) Pfr. . .XVII, 15 

semistriata ( Glandina) Morel I, 25 

semistriatum( Opeas) Morel. XVIII, 212 
semistriatus (Bulimus) Morel. 

XVIII, 212 

semisulcata (Achatina) Desh. XIX, 210 
semisulcata (Euglandina) Pfr. 

1,33; XIX, 210 

semitarum (Helix) Rang XIX, 124 

semitarum (Varicella) Rang. .XIX, 124 
semper! (Opeas) Hidalgo . . .XVIII, 178 
semper! (Stenogyra) Hid. . .XVIII, 179 
senaarensis (Limicolaria) Marts. 

XVI, 282 



senaarica (Limicolaria) Bgt. .XVI,-282- 

senator (Achatina) Hani XX, 71 

senator (Glessula) Hani XX, 70 

senensis (Glandina) Stef XIX, xxv 

sennaariensis( Achatina) Pfr. XVIII, 85 
sennaariensis (Bulimus) Parr. XVI, 282 
sennaariensis (Subulina) Pfr. XVIII, 85 
septenarius (Bulimus) Brug. XVIII, 244 
sepulchralis(Limicolaria)Bgt. XVI, 294 

serena (Achatina) Bens XX, 59 

serena (Glessula) Bens XX, 59 

sericata ( ? Subulina) Beck. .XVIII, 221 
sericina (Glandina) Jonas. . . .XX, 110 

sericina (Glessula) Jonas XX, 110 

SERF ABA Bgt XVII, 1, 21 

serpentina (Achatina) Beck. 

XVII, 71, 216 

servainl (Crelestele) Bgt XIX, 344 

: servaini (Subulina) Mab XVIII, 12 

servaini (Tortaxis) Mab XVIII, 12 

| setchuanense (Opeas) Hde. .XVIII, 169 

; shiplayi (Achatina) Pfr XX, 62 

; shiplayi (Glessula) Pfr XX, 61 

I shrencki (Achatina) Gude. . . .XVII, 97 
| shuttleworthi ( Achatina) Pfr. XVII, 127 
! shuttleworthi (Limicolaria) Ailly. 

XVI, 268 
j shuttleworthi (Streptostyla) Pfr. .1, 44 

j sicilis (Glandina) Morel I, 26 

sicula (Glandina) Bgt XIX, 166 

siderata (Achatina) Rve XVII, 117 

i SlGMATAXIS PIlS XIX, 31 

I sikkimensis (Bulimus) Rve. ..XVIII, 67 
sikkimensis (Curvella) Rve. .XVIII, 66 

i sillimani (Bulimus) Pfr XVI, 224 

! silvicola (Cionella) West XIX, 304 

| silvicola (Subulina) Marts. . .XVII, 141 

silvicula (Azeca) Ben XIX, 304 

'. similaris (Varicella) Pils. 

XIX, 106 ; XX, 111 
similaris (Spiraxis) Streb. 1,51; XIX,23 

similaris (Volutaxis) Streb I, 51 

similis (Achatina) Ad. 

XIX, 105; XX, 111 
; similis (Achatina) Boissy. Scalaxis 

XX, 111 
similis (Streptostyla) Streb. 

I, 45 ; XIX, 146 

; similis (Varicella) Ad XIX, 104 

i simoni (Glessula) Jouss XX, 61 

simon! (Synopeas) Jouss. .. .XVIII, 191 

simplex (Achatina) Sm XVII, 98 

simplex (Glandina) Streb XIX, 197 

simplex (Leptinaria) Guppy XVIII, 301 

simplex (Spiraxis) Guppy . .XVIII, 301 

simplex (Stenogyra) Morel. ..XVIII, 97 

l simplex (Subulina) Morel. .. .XVIII, 97 



148 



INDEX. VOLS. XVI-XX. 



slmpsoni (Leptinaria) Anc. .XVIII, 314 

simpsoni (Nothus) Anc XVIII, 314 

simpsoni (Oleacina) Pils XIX, 133 

simpsoni (Obeliscus) Pils. . .XVIII, 267 
simpularia( Achatina) Morel. XVII, 190 
impularla (Bocageia) Morel. XVII, 190 
sinensis (Cochlicopa) Hde. .. .XIX, 326 

Binensis (Zua) Hde XIX, 326 

singhurensis (Glessula) Blf. . XX, 76 
eingleyana (Glandina) Binn. .XIX, 189 
ingularis(Tornaxis) Marts. XVIII, 219 
*Jnitra (Leptinaria) Marts. XVIII, 3il 
sinistrorsa (Achatina) Grat. .XVII, 57 
einistrorsa (Achatina) Pfr. ..XVII, 108 
Binistrorsa( Cochlicopa )Goldf. XIX, 319 
sinulabris (Curvella) Marts. .XVIII, 53 
sinulabr is (Stenogyra) Marts. XVIII, 53 
sinuosa (Curvella) M. &. P. .XVIII, 61 
Sira Schmidt ..XVII, 211; XVIII, 223 
Bjostedti (Pseudoglessula) Allly. 

XVII, 165 

sloanenana (Varicella) Pils. ..XX, 111 
smithiana (Oleacina) Pfr. . . .XIX, 133 

smith!! (Achatina) Crav XVII, 91 

smithi (Achatina) Sowb XVII, 73 

smith! (Limicolaria) Pils XVI, 283 

socotorana (Stenogyra) Marts. 

XVII, 207 

sodeni (Pseudachatlna) Kob. .XVI, 209 
sokotorana( Achatina) Marts. XVII, 205 
sokotorana(Rlebeckia) Marts. XVII, 205 
soleilleti (Bullmus) Bgt. . . .XVIII, 108 

solellleti (Caecilioldes) Bgt XX, 36 

soleilleti (Limicolaria) Bgt. . .XVI, 272 

solida (Achatina) Say XII, 168 

sollda (Leptinaria) Marts. ..XVIII, 318 
solida (Limicolaria) Marts. . .XVI, 296 
solldiuscula (Subullna) Sm. .XVII, 142 

solidula (Achatina) Pfr XIX, 141 

solidula (Oleacina) Pfr XIX, 140 

solimanus (Bullmus) Morel. . .XVI, 223 
Bolimanus (Pseudotrochus) Morel. 

XVI, 223 

solitarla (Achatina) Ad XIX, 104 

solitaria (Varicella) Ad XIX, 104 

sololensls (Streptostyla) C. & P. ..1,46 
solumna (Cochlicopa) Babor. .XIX, 314 
soluta (Leptinaria) Beck. . .XVIII, 285 
sordida (Achatina) King. .. .XVIII, 244 
Borgum (Leptinaria) Beck. .XVIII, 285 

soror (Opeas) Smith XVIII, 177 

Boror (Subullna) Smith XVIII, 177 

souverblanus (Bullmus) Gass. 

XVIII, 129 

Bouverblei(Stenogyra)Ga88. XVIII, 129 
sowerbyana (Achatina) Pfr. .XIX, 186 



sowerbyana (Euglandina) Pfr. XIX, 186 
sowerbyana (Stenogyra) Morel. 

XVII, 145 

sowerbyi (Achatina) Smith .. .XVII, 78 
spadaforensis (Caecillanella) Ben. 

XX, 27 

Spartina H. & B XVIII, 335 

speciosa (Achatina) Pfr XIX, 210 

speciosa (Euglandina) Pfr. ...XIX, 210 

speciosus (Bulimus) Parr XVI, 254 

spectralis (Bulimus) Rve XVI, 249 

spectralis (Limicolaria) Rve. .XVI, 249 
specularis (Achatina) Morel. .XVII, 74 
spekeana (Limicolaria) Mts. .XVI, 283 

spekei (Achatina) Dohrn XVII, 68 

spekiana( Limicolaria) Grand. XVI, 283 

Sphalerostoma Girard XVIII, 336 

spinula (Opeas) Morel XVIII, 155 

spinula (Stenogyra) Morel. XVIII, 156 

spiculum (Achatina) Bens XX, 6 

spiculum (Caecilioides) Bens XX, 

spina (Varicella) Pils XIX, 111 

Spiraxis auct XVIII, 5 

SPIRAXIS C. B. Ad XIX, 11, 14 

Spiraxis Newberry XIX, 11 

Spirobulla Anc 1, 10 

splendens (Achatina) Brn. . . .XIX, 311 
splendens (Caecllianella) Ben. . .XX, 28 
splendens (Cochlicopa) Brn. ..XIX, 311 
splendens (Ferussacia) Bgt. . .XIX, 240 
splendida (Achatina) Ant., Tornatel- 

llnld. 
splendida(Archachatlna)Pils. XVII,llfl 

splendldula (Pupa) Costa XIX, 220 

spoliata (Stenogyra) Hde. . .XVIII, 167 

spoliatum (Opeas) Hde XVIII, 167 

STENOGYRA Shuttl. XVIII, 240, 243, 258 
STKNOGYRINAE Pils. 

XVIII, vil; XVII, xvl 
stenophya (Cionella) Westerl. XIX, 230 
stenophya (Ferussacia) Westerl. 

XIX, 230 

stenostoma (Coelestele) Jouss. XIX, 341 
stenostoma (Ferussacia) Bgt. XIX, 249 
stenostoma (Stenogyra) Smith 

XVIII, 148 

stenostomum (Opeas) Smith XVIII, 147 
stephanlana (Achatina) Ben. .. .XX, 27 
stephaniana (Caecilioides) Ben. XX, 26 
stewartl (Achatina) Green. See Acha- 

tinellidce. 

stlgmatlca (Achatina) Shuttl. XIX, 210 
stlgmatlca (Euglandina) Shuttl. 

XIX, 210 

Stobllus Ads XIX, 239 

stoll! (Leptinaria) MartB. . .XVIII, 320 



INDEX, VOLS. XVI-XX. 



149 



etolli (Subulina) Marts XVIII, 226 

straminea (Achatina) Dh XIX, 139 

straminea (Curvella) Burn. .XVIII, 62 
straminea (Englandina) Try. XIX, 188 

gtraminea (Oleacina) Dh XIX, 138 

straminea (Oleacina) Try. 

I, 36 ; XIX, 188 

STREBELIA C. & F. . . .1, 22 ; XIX, xxvii 
strebeliana(Leptinaria)Pils. XVIII, 313 

strebeli (Glandina) Ang XIX, 199 

strebeli Marts XVIII, 223, 224 

strebeli (Spiraxis) Pils XIX, 27 

STREPTAXIDAB Gray XIX, x 

strep tosteloides (Opeas) Marts. 

XVIII, 148 

STREPTOSTYLA Shuttl. . .XIX, xxvi, 144 
etreptostyla(Streptostyla)Pfr. XIX,148 

STREPTOSTYLELLA Pils XIX, 161 

striatapex (Varicella) Pils. . . .XIX, 67 

striata (Achatina) Lea XVIII, 77 

striata (Euglandina) Mull. .. .XIX, 176 

striata (Glandina) Mull I, 32 

etriata (Leptospira) Swains. XVII, 197 

etriata (Subulina) Lea XVIII, 77 

etriatella (Bulimus) Ad XIX, 30 

striatella (Helix) Rang XVIII, 76 

striatella (Subulina) Rang. . .XVIII, 75 

etriatella (Varicella) Pils XIX, 95 

striatissa(Stenogyra)Gredl. XVIII, 138 
striatissima (Stenogyra) Gredl. 

XVIII, 36, 138 
etriatissimum (Prosopeas) Gredl. 

XVIII, 35 

striatocostatus (Bulimus) Orb. XIX, 56 
striatula (Limicolaria) Mull. .XVI, 248 
etriatulum (Buccinum) Mull. .XVI, 248 
striatum (Buccinum) Mail. .. .XIX, 176 
striatus (Polyphemus) " Montf " 

XIX, 166 

strictus (Bulimus) Poey XVIII, 262 

strictus (Obeliscus) Poey .. .XVIII, 262 
strigata (Achatina) King ...XVIII, 244 
strigata (Limicolaria) Mull. ..XVI, 258 
strigatella (Achatina) Rve. ..XVII, 161 
strigatum (Buccinum) Mull. ..XVI, 259 
strigilis (Opeas) M. & P. . . .XVIII, 150 
strigilis (Subulina) M. & P. XVIII, 150 
fltrigosa (Achatina) Morel. . .XVII, 161 
strigosa (Glandina) Marts. .. .XIX, 176 
strigosa (Pseudoglessula) Morel. 

XVII, 161 

etriolata (Opeas) Pse XVIII, 140 

striolata (Stenogyra) Pse. ..XVIII, 184 

atrlosa (Achatina) Ad XVIII, 297 

etriosa (Leptinaria) Ad XVIII, 296 

struthiolaris (Bulimus) Mke. 

X, 103 ; XVII, 175 



stubeli (Glandina) Marts XIX, 179 

studleyi (Achatina) M. & P. . .XVII,"l4 
stuhlmanni (Achatina) Marts. XVII, 68 
stuhlmanni(Caecilioides) Marts. XX, 48 
stuhlmanni (Geostilbia) Marts. XX, 49 
stuhlmanni (Limicolaria) Marts. 

XVI, 282 

Stylifer XVI, 71 

stylodon (Leptinaria) Shuttl. 

XVIII, 292 

Styloides Pitz XIX, 309 ; XX, 9 

stylus (Obeliscus) Beck. . . .XVIII, 240 
suaveolans (Stenogyra) Jick. XVII, 136 
subamblya (Ferussacia) Nev. XIX, 226 



subangulata (Subulina) Putz. XVIII, 84 

subbrevis (Glessula) Nev XX, 79 

subcallosa (Spiraxis) Pfr XIX, 161 

subcallosa (Streptostyla) Pfr. XIX, 160 
subcarinif era ( Stenogyra )Sm. XVII, 169 
subcarnea (Ferussacia) Poll. .XIX, 252 
subconica (Limicolaria) Marts. XVI, 264 
subcrenata (Achatina) Greet XVII, 187 
subcrenatus(Homorus)Bttg. XVII, 152 
subcrenata (Pseudoglessula) Bttg. 

XVII, 152 

subcrenata (Subulina) Marts. XVIII, 90 
subcrenulata (Achatina) Crosse 

XVII, 187 
subcrenulatum (Opeas) Mlldff. 

XVIII, 181 

subcylindrica (Cionella) auct. XIX, 313 
subcylindrica (Cryptazeca) Folin 

XIX, 284 
subcylindrica (Ferussacia) auct. 

XIX, 313 

subcylindrica (Salasiella) Pils. XIX, 174 
subcylindricoides (Cochlicopa) Pal. 

XIX, 311 
subcylindricoides (Ferussacia) Pal. 

XIX, 311 

subdeshayesiana (Glessula) Nev. XX, 80 
subdiaphana (Pupa) King. ..XVIII, 109 
subdiaphanus (Zootecus) King. 

XVIII, 109 
subemarginata (Achatina) Dh. 

XVIII, 229 

subfllosa (Glessula) Bedd XX, 8 

subfolliculus( Ferussacia) Nev. XIX, 226 
subforbesl (Ferussacia) Nev. .XIX, 226 
subfusiformis (Achatina) Blf. ..XX, 94 
subfusiformis (Glessula) Blf. ...XX, 94 
subgracilenta (Ferussacia) Bgt. 

XIX, 257 
subinornata (Glessula) Bedd. .. .XX, 73 

subjerdoni (Glessula) Bedd XX, 83 

submajor (Lovea) Well XIX, 239 



150 



INDEX, VOLS. XVI-XX. 



subobtusatus (Bulimus) C. & F. 

XVII, 197 
subobtusatus (Clavator) C. & F. 

XVII, 197 

subovale (Opeas) Marts XVIII, 197 

subperotteti (Glessula) Bedd. .. .XX, 71 
subplicata(Cochlicopa)Sowb. XVII, 179 
subplicatus (Chilonopsis) Sowb. 

XVII, 178 

subrimata (Achatina) Reuss. .XIX, 311 
subrimata(Cochlicopa)Reuss. XIX, 311 
subsaccata (Ferussacia) Anc. XIX, 245 
subsaxana (Caecllioides) Bgt. . .XX, 31 

subserena (Glessula) Bedd XX, 75 

substrigata(Limicolaria)Kob. XVI, 252 
subspiralis (Bulimus) Woll. .XVII, 176 
subsulcosa (Achatina) Thorn. XIX, xxv 
subsuturalis (Archachatina) Pils. 

XVII, 111 

subtilis (Achatina) Shuttl. . .XIX, 120 
subtruncatus(BulimuIus)Sm. XVII, 180 
subtruncatus (Chilonopsis) Sm. 

XVII, 180 

subula (Achatina) Pfr XVIII, 199 

subula (Achatina) Lowe XIX, 277 

subula (Bulimus) C. B. Ad. . . .XIX, 33 

subula (Ferussacia) Lowe XIX, 277 

subula (Opeas) Pfr XVIII, 127 

subulata (Achatina) Pfr I, 24 

subulata (Glandina) Weinl. . .XIX, 135 
subulata (Oleacina) Pfr. 

I, 24 ; XIX, 141 

subulata (Opeas) " Pfr." . . .XVIII, 127 
subulatoides (Achatina) Orb. XIX, 113 
subulatoides (Varicella) Orb. .XIX, 112 
subulatus (Stenogyra) Jick. .XVII, 136 
subullformis (Helix) Moric. XVIII, 251 
subuliformis (Obeliscus) Moric. 

XVIII, 251 

SOBDLINA Beck XVIII, 71, 220 

SUBDLONA Marts XVII, 138 

subvaricifera (Pseudoglessula) Marts. 

XVII, 169 

subvaricosa (Glandina) Alb. ..XIX, 177 
subvaricosa (Obeliscella) Marts. 

XVIII, 103 

subvaricosum( Opeas) Marts. XVIII, 103 
subviridescens(Bulimus)Sm. XVIII, 53 
subviridescens (Curvella) Sm. XVIII, 53 
subviridula (Cochlicopa) Bgt. XIX, 317 
succinea (Curvella) Burn. .. .XVIII, 62 
succlnea (Subulina) Gundl. .. .XIX, 115 
succinea (Varicella) Gundl. . .XIX, 115 
succinealis (Leptinaria) Beck. 

XVIII, 285 
suffusus (Bulimus) Rve XVI, 249 



sulcata (Achatina) Gray XVIII, 81 

sulcata (Chilonopsis) F. de W., 

XVII, 175, 177 

sulcata (Curvella) Chap XVIII, 48 

sulcifera (Glandina) Marts. . .XIX, 201 
sulciferus (Bulimus) Morel. 

I, 51 ; XIX, 21 
sulciferus (Spiraxis) Morel. 

I, 51 ; XIX, 21 

sulculosa (Glandina) Shuttl. .XIX, 122 
sulculosa (Varicella) Shuttl. .XIX, 121 
sultana (Achatina) Swains. . .XII, 189 
sumatrana (Cionella) Marts. . .XX, 102 
sumatrana (Glessula) Marts. ..XX, 102 
sumichrasti (Streptostyla) Anc. 

XIX, 151, 211 
sumichrasti (Streptostyla) C. & F. 

XIX, 211 

snperba ( Stenogyra) Mlldff. . . XVIII, 6 
superbus (Tortaxis) Mlldff. .. .XVIII, 6 
suturale (Prosopeas) Mlldff. .XVIII, 15 
suturalis (Achatina) Phil. .. .XVII, 111 

suturalis (Bulimus) Pfr XVI, 224 

suturalis (Curvella) Marts. . .XVIII, 54 
suturalis (Hapalus) Marts. . .XVIII, 54 
suturalis (Polyphemus) Pfr. .XIX, 143 
suturalis (Rectoleacina) Pfr. .XIX, 143 
suturalis (Varicella) Pils. . . .XIX, 211 
swettenhami (Stenogyra) Morg. 

XVIII, 32 

swifti (Euglandina) Pils XIX, 178 

swiftiana (Varicella) Pils. . . .XIX, 114 
swiftianum (Opeas) Pfr. . . .XVIII, 157 
swiftianus (Bulimus) Pfr. ..XVIII, 268 
swiftianus (Obeliscus) Pfr. XVIII, 268 

sykesi (Opeas) Pils XVIII, 157 

sylvatica (Columna) Spix. & Wagn. 

XVIII, 248 

SYNAPTERPES Pils XVIII, 226 

Synopeas Jousseaume XVIII, 188 

syriaca (Ca&cilianella) Bgt XX, 32 

sylvatica (Achatina) Putz. . . .XVII, 28 

sylvatica (Achatina) Pfr XIX, 124 

sylvaticus (Obeliscus) Spix. & Wagn. 

XVIII, 247 



tabiense (Oryzosoma) Pils. .. .XIX, 163 
tablensis (Streptostyla) Pils. .XIX, 163 
taeniolata (Limicolaria) Bttg. 1905. 
tamaulipensis (Glandina) Pils. XIX, 207 
tamaulipensis (Leptinaria) Pils. 

XVIII, 306 

tampicoensis(Collostele)Pils. XIX, 346 
tampicoensis (Spiraxis) Pils. 

XIX, 24, 3^3 



INDEX, VOLS. XVI-XX. 



151 



tamulica (Achatina) Blanf XX, 65 

tamulica (Glessula) Blanf XX, 64 

tandoniana (Achatina) Shuttl. XIX, 274 

taprobanlca (Glessula) Pils XX, 58 

tassaroliana( Ferussacia )Sacco XIX,217 

tastensis (Melaniella) Coop XIX, 9 

tastensis (Pseudosubulina) Coop. 

XIX, 9 

taurinensls (Glandina) Sacco XIX, xxv 
tavaresiana (Achatina) Morel. XVII, 21 

taylori (Glandina) Vend XIX, 102 

taylori (Varicella) Vend XIX, 101 

tchehelense (Prosopeas) Morg. 

XVIII, 31 
tchehelensis (Stenogyra) Morg. 

XVIII, 32 

tenebrica (Limicolaria) Rve. ..XVI, 264 
tenebricus (Bulimus) Rve. . . .XVI, 264 

tenella (Ferussacia) Anc XIX, 265 

tenella (Glandina) Streb XIX, 188 

tenera (Achatina) Ad XIX, 77 

tenera (Varicella) Ad XIX, 77 

tenuecostatus (Spiraxis) Streb. 

1,51; XIX, 23 
tenuecostatus (Volutaxis) Streb. .1,51 

tenuis (Lignus) Gray XVI, 224 

tenuis (PseudO'trochus) Gray XVI, 224 

tenuis (Spiraxis) Pfr XIX, 21 

tenuispira (Achatina) Bens XX, 87 

tenuispira (Glessula) Bens XX, 88 

terebella (Achatina) Lowe . . .XIX, 276 

terebella (Bulimus) Ad XIX, 30 

terebella (Ferussacia) Lowe . .XIX, 276 

terebella (Spiraxis) Ad XIX, 29 

terebella (Stenogyra) Morel. .XVIII, 98 
terebella (Subulina) Morel. . .XVIII, 98 
terebellum(Cochlicopa)Sowb. XVII, 179 
terebrseformis (Glandina) Shuttl. 

XIX, 120 
terebrseformis (Varicella) Shuttl. 

XIX, 119 

terebrale (Prosopeas) Theob. XVIII, 31 
terebralis( Stenogyra )Theob. XVIII, 31 
terebraster (Bulimus) Lam. XVIII, 264 
terebraster ( Obeliscus) Lam. XVIII, 264 

TERBBBBLLA Maltz XX, 5, 19 

teres (Bulimus) Pfr. .. .XVIII, 105, 106 

teres (Columna) M. & H XVII, 125 

teres (Oleacina) Pfr. I, 25 ; .. .XX, 113 
teres (Oleacina) Rouis 

XIX, xxii ; XX, 113 

teres (Prosopeas) H. Ad XVIII, 34 

teres (Rumina) H. Ad XVIII, 34 

ternatanum (Opeas) Bttg. ..XVIII, 176 

terrestre (Buccinum) Mont XX, 10 

terrulenta (Curvella) Mor. . .XVIII, 52 



terrulentus (Bulimus) Mor. ..XVIII, 52 
terveri (Achatina) Bgt. 

XIX, 259; XX, 114 
terveri (Achatina) Boissy 

XIX, xxii ; XX, 114 

terveri (Ferussacia) Bgt XIX, 259 

terveriana (Ferussacia) Pils. .XX, 114 

TBSTACELLIDAE Gray XIX, viii 

texasiana (Achatina) Pfr XIX, 190 

texasiana (Euglandina) Pfr. ..XIX, 190 
texoloensis (Pseudosubulina) Pils. 

XIX, 4 

texta (Glandina) Weinl XIX, 87 

texta (Varicella) Weinl XIX, 87 

textilis (Achatina) Blf XX, 70 

textilis (Glessula) Blf XX, 69 

thalassina(Cochlicopa) Jouss. XIX, 326 

thalassina (Zua) Jouss XIX, 327 

thamnophila( Ferussacia) Bgt. XIX, 331 
thamnophila (Hohenwartiana) Bgt. 

XIX, 331 

theobaldiana( Achatina) Hani. XVIII, 4 
theobaldi (Achatina) Hani. ...XVIII, 4 
theobaldi (Bacillum) Hani. . . .XVIII, 4 

THOMEA Girard XVIII, 330, 333 

thomsoni (Achatina) Sm XVII, 69 

thomsoni (Streptostyla) Anc. .XIX, 156 
tiberiana (Caecilioides) Ben. . . .XX, 14 
tigrina (Achatina) Cum. .... .XVII, 86 

tincta (Achatina) Rve XVII, 12 

tisius (Turbo) Chier XIX, 220 

togcensis (Limicolaria) Kob. .XVI, 257 

TOMOPEAS Pils XVIII, 123 

tornatellina (Ferussacia) Lwe. XIX, 270 
tornatellina (Helix) Lowe. . . .XIX, 271 

Torriatellinoides Pfr XIX, 285 

Tornatelloides Pfr XIX, 284 

TORNAXIS Martens XVIII, 219 

tornensis (Achatina) Blf XX, 69 

tornensis (Glessula) Blf XX, 69 

torridus (Bulimus) Gld XVI, 238 

torridus (Bulimus) Rve XVI, 238 

torridus (Pseudotrochus) Gld. XVI, 238 

torta (Caecilioides) Mouss XX, 32 

torta (Glandina) Mouss XX, 32 

TORTAXIS Pils XVIII, 5 

tortillana (Achatina) Pfr XIX, 201 

tortillana (Euglandina) Pfr. .XIX, 201 
totistriata (Subulina) Pils. ..XVIII, 81 
tournoueri (Glandina) Den. .XIX, xxiil 
toussaintianus (Obeliscus) Pils. XIX,349 
translucida (Glandina) Gundl. . . .1, 24 

translucida (Oleacina) Gundl I, 24 

transvaalensis (Achatina) Sm. XVII,99 
travankoricus (Hapalus) Theob. 

XVIII, 63 



152 



INDEX, VOLS. XVI-XX. 



Trichodlna Anc XVII, 216 

trldens (Azeca) auct XIX, 293, 295 

tridens (Odontalus) Parr XIX, 293 

tridens (Turbo) Pult XIX, 295 

TRIGONOCHLAMYDIDAE XIX, viii 

trigonostoma (Azeca) Fag. .. .XIX, 296 
trinitarla (Achatina) Gundl. .XIX, 113 
trinitarla (Varicella) Gundl. .XIX, 113 

trinitatis (Varicella) Pils XIX, 59 

Trlpachatina Anc., type vignoniana 

XVI, 254 

Tripachatina Bgt XVII, p. 5 

TRISTANIA Bttg XVIII, 217 

tristensls (Balea) Gray XVIII, 217 

tristensis (Tristanla) Gray XVIII, 217 
triticea (Ferussacia) Lwe. . . .XIX, 273 

triticea (Helix) Lowe XIX, 273 

trochlea( Achatina) Pfr. XVIII, 223, 224 
trochlea (Pseudosubulina) Pfr. 

1,51; XIX, 3 

truncata (Bulla) Gmel XIX, 177 

truncata (Euglandina) Gmel. XIX, 177 

truncata (Glandina) auct XIX, 191 

truncatella (Orbitina) Rlsso XVII, 213 
truncatus (Bulimus) Ziegl. 

XVII, 213, 215 

tryoniana (Euglandina) Pils. .XIX, 203 
tryoniana (Limicolaria) Pils. XVI, 250 
tryonianum (Opeas) Tate. . .XVIII, 196 
tryonianus (Bulimus) Tate. XVIII, 196 

trypanodes (Achatina) Pfr XIX, 3 

trypanodes (Pseudosubulina) Pfr. 

XIX, 3 

triptyx (Leptinaria) Pils. . .XVIII, 324 
tuberculata (Achatina) Lwe. .XIX, 274 
tuberculata(Melaniella) Gundl. XIX, 60 
tuberculata (Varicella) Gundl. XIX, 60 

tuckerl (Bulimus) Pfr XVIII, 121 

tucker! (Pseudopeas) Pfr. . .XVIII, 120 
tucker! (Stenogyra) Garr. . .XVIII, 183 
tugelensis (Opeas) M. & P. .XVIII, 150 
tugelensis (Subulina) M. & P. 

XVIII, 150 

tulipa (Limicolaria) Jouss. ...XVI, 292 
tumidula (Coelestele) Bgt. . . .XIX, 345 

tumidula (Lovea) Woll XIX, 236 

tumidus (Polyphemus) Pfr., Villa. 

XIX, 166 

tumulorum (Caecllioides) Bgt. ..XX, 30 
tunetana (Hohenwartiana) L. & B. 

XIX, 333 

turbinata (Achatina) Lea XVI, 253 

turbinata (Limicolaria) Lea ..XVI, 253 
turblnatus (Bulimus) Rve. . . .XVI, 267 

turglda (Euglandina) Pfr XIX, 199 

turglda (Oleaclna) Pfr XIX, 199 



turgida (Stenogyra) Gredl. .XVIII, 164 
turgidum (Opeas) Gredl. . . .XVIII, 163 

turgidula (Streptostyla) Pfr I, 46 

turgidula (Stenogyra) Hde. XVIII, 168 
turgidulum (Opeas) Hde. .. .XVIII, 168 
turricula (Achatina) Migh. See Carelia. 
turricula (Prosopeas) Marts. XVIII, 30 
turricula (Stenogyra) Marts. XVIII, 30 
turriformis (Bulimus) Kr. .. .XVIII, 43 
turriformis (Euonyma) Kr. ..XVIII, 43 
turriformis (Limicolaria) Marts. 

XVI, 295 

turris (Achatina) Pfr I, 33 

turris( Euglandina) Pfr. 1,33; XIX, 196 

turris (Limicolaria) Pfr XVI, 252 

turrlta (Leptinaria) Marts. XVIII, 307 
turritellata (Achatina) Dh. . .XIX, 348 
turritellatus (Obeliscus) Dh. .XIX, 348 

turtoni (Bulimulus) Sm XVII, 181 

turtoni (Chilonopsis) Sm. . . .XVII, 181 

U 

uhdeana (Glandina) Marts. . .XIX, 187 
umbilicata (Achatina) Pfr. .. .XVII, 57 
umbilicata (Curvella) Mlldff. XVIII, 71 
umbilicata (Perideriopsis) Putz. 

XVI, 242 

umbilicata (Pyrgina) Greef. XVIII, 334 
umbillcatus(Hapalus) Mlldff. XVIII, 71 

uncta (Subulina) Smith XVIII, 93 

underwood! ( Euglandina )Fult. XIX, 201 
underwoodi (Oleacina) Fult. .XIX, 202 
undulata (Achatina) Gldg. . . .XII, 106 

unicolor (Achatina) Ad XIX, 97 

unicolor (Limicolaria) Kob. . .XVI, 256 

unicolor (Spiraxls) Ad XIX, 36 

unicolor (Varicella) Ad XIX, 98 

unidentata (Calaxis) Jick. . . .XIX, 287 
unidentata (Ferussacia) Jick. XIX, 288 
unilamellata (Helix) Fe"r. . .XVIII, 288 
unilamellatus (Bulimus) Orb. 

XVIII, 288, 290 

unlplicata (Caecilioides) Bgt. . .XX, 15 
unlzonata (Achatina) C. & J. 

XVII, 216 

unus (Spiraxis) Pils XIX, 44 

upolensis (Bulimus) Mouss. XVIII, 131 
upolensis( Stenogyra )Mouss. XVIII, 183 

Urceus Klein, Jous XVII, 1 

urichi (Leptinaria) Sm XVIII, bJl 

urichi (Subulina) Sm XVIII, 302 

uruapamensis (Spiraxis) Pils. .XIX, 22 
usagarica (Stenogyra) Sm. . .XVII, 142 
usambarensis( Achatina) Rolle. XVII, 52 
usambarlca (Achatina) Marts. XVII, 52 
ustulata (Achatina) Rve XVII, 89 



INDEX, VOLS. XVI-XX. 



153 



titllensis (Leptinaria) Pils. .XVIII, bu7 

utriculus (Opeas) Hde XVIII, 168 

utrlculus (Stenogyra) Hde. .XVIII, 169 

V 

radalica (Achatina) Bens XX, 64 

vadalica (Glessula) Bens XX, 64 

valenzuela (Leptinaria) Jouss. 

XVIII, 291 

valida (Cionella) Mss XIX, 234 

valida (Ferussacia) Mss XIX, 234 

vanattai (Limicolaria) Pils. . .XVI, 275 
vandalitise (Caecilioides) Serv. .XX, 16 
vanuxemensis (Achatina) Lea XIX, 185 
vanuxemensis (Euglandina) Lea 

XIX, 185 

vanuxemii (Glandina) auct. . .XIX, 185 
variabilis (Stenogyra) Jick. .XVII, 134 

VARICELLA Pf r XIX, xvi, 46 

VARICELLAEIA Pils XIX, 79 

VAKICELLIDEA Pils XIX, 86 

VARICELLINA Pils XIX, 88 

VAHICELLOPSIS Pils XIX, 85 

VABICELLULA Pils XIX, 73 

VABICOGLANDINA Pils XIX, 204 

varicosa (Achatina) Pfr. XVII, 92 

VARICOTDRRIS Pils XIX, 161 

variegata (Achatina) Lam XVII, 9 

variegata (Agatina) Raf XII, 168 

vasconica (Azeca) Kob XIX, 308 

vasconica (Ferussacia) Kob. ..XIX, 308 
vayssierei (Clavator) Anc. . .XVII, 195 

Vediantius Risso XIX, 218 

venezuelensis (Leptinaria) Pfr. 

XVIII, 305 

venezuelensis (Spiraxis) Pfr. XVIII, 305 
ventricosa (Achatina) Paiva .XIX, 277 
ventricosa (Achatina) Fisch. 

VIII, 10 ; XX, 118 
yentricosa (Achatina) Old. . .XVII, 113 

ventricosa (Balea) Gray XVIII, 218 

ventricosa (Bulimus) Bgt. .. .XVII, 214 
ventricosa (Caecilioides) Loc. . .XX, 10 
ventricosa (Ferussacia) Paiva XIX, 277 
ventricosa (Limicolaria) Sm. .XVI, 295 
ventricosa (Streptostyla) Marts. 

XIX, 146 

ventricosa (Tristania) Gray XVIII, 217 
ventricosula( Glandina) Morel. XIX, 153 
vcntricosula (Streptostyla) Morel. 

XIX, 153 
venusta (Achatina) Pfr. ..... .XIX, 96 

venusta (Varicella) Pfr XIX, 96 

venustum (Opeas) Smith. . .XVIII, 146 
veracruzensls (Caecilioides) C. & F. 

XX, 40 



verberatus (Spiraxis) Pils XIX, 43 

vercoi (Ferussacia) Pal XIX, 227 

verdieri (Perideris) Chap XVI, 24-1 

verdieri (Pseudotrochus) Chap. 

XVI, 240 

vermicula(Columna)M. & H. XVII, 125 
vernicosa (Stenogyra) Jick. ..XVII, 132 
vernicosus (Homorus) Jick. ..XVII, 132 

veruina (Achatina) Bens XX, 60 

veruina (Glessula) Bens XX, 60 

vescoi (Ferussacia) Bgt XIX, 227 

vescoi (Glandina) Bgt XIX, 227 

vesiculata (Glandina) Semp. .XIX, 233 
vesperus (Mesembrinus) Jouss. 

XVIII, 234 
vesperus (Synapterpes) Jouss. 

XVIII, 234 

vestita (Achatina) Pfr XVII, 81 

vestitum (Opeas) Heude XVIII, 165 

vestitus (Stenogyra) Hde. . .XVIII, 165 

vexans (Streptostyla) Streb. I, 49 

vexillum (Achatina) auct. XII, 164, 167 

vexillum (Achatina) Dek XII, 164 

vialai (Achatina) Serr XIX, xxiii 

vicina (Achatina) Ad XIX, 89 

vicina (Varicella) Ad XIX, 89 

victoriana (Glandina) Pils. .. .XIX, 193 

vieirai (Opeas) Nobre XVIII, 145 

vignoni (Achatina) Morel XVI, 233 

vignoniana (Achatina) Morel. XVI, 255 
vignoniana (Limicolaria) Morel. 

XVI, 254 

villse (Caecilianella) Ben XIX, 336 

villa (Hohenwartiana) Ben. ..XIX, 336 

violacea (Achatina) Pfr XVI, 228 

virens (Achatina) Pfr XX, 102 

virens (Glessula) Pfr XX, 102 

virescens (Obeliscus) DaCosta 

XVIII, 257 
virescens (Stenogyra) DaCosta 

XVIII, 257 

virgata (Columna) Gray XVII, 122 

virginea (Achatina) auct XII, 163 

virginea (Achatina) Lam XII, 163 

virginea ( Ferussacia )Westerl. XIX, 225 
Virginias (Achatina) Blainv. . .XII, 163 
virginicum (Achatium) Link ...XVII, 2 
viridescens (Achatina) Anc. .XVII, 115 
viridula (Cochlicopa) Jeffr. . .XIX, 317 
viridula (Streptostyla) Ang. .XIX, 156 

vitrea (Achatina) Lwe XIX, 278 

vitrea (Achatina) W. & B. . . .XIX, 238 

vitrea (Azeca) Klika XIX, 292 

vitrea (Ferussacia) W. & B. . .XIX, 238 
vitrea (Pseudachatina) Greef. = A. 
exarata XVI, 219 



154 



INDEX, VOLS. XVI-XX. 



vltrea(Pseudachatina) Greet XVII, 216 
vitrea (Stenogyra) Mouss. . .XVIII, 95 

vitrea (Subulina) Mouss XVIII, 94 

vitreus (Bullmus) Anton . . .XVIII, 189 
vittata (Achatina) Swains. . .XII, 166 
vivipara (Achatina) Sowb. ...XVIII, 80 
vivipara (Subulina) Sowb. ...XVIII, 80 

viviparum (Opeas) Mill XVIII, 216 

viviparum(Pseudopeas)Mill. XVIII,216 
volkensi (Limicolaria) Marts. XVI, 288 

voluta (Bulla) Gm XIX, 130 

voluta (Oleacina) Gm XIX, 129 

volutata (Oleacina) Bolt XIX, 130 

Volutaxis Strebel XIX, 20 

vulgare (Opeas) Morel XVIII, 155 

vulgaris (Stenogyra) Morel. XVIII, 155 

W 

wagnerl (Glandina) Mill XIX, xxiii 

walked (Prosopeas) Bs XVIII, 29 

walkeri (Spiraxis) Bs XVIII, 30 

wallacei (Glessula) Pfr XX, 104 

wallisiana (Rhodea) Dohrn. XVIII, 236 
wallisi (Stenogyra) Mouss. .XVIII, 230 
wallisi(Synapterpes) Mouss. XVIII, 230 

watersi (Bulimus) Ang XVII, 198 

waters! (Clavator) Ang XVII, 197 

wathenensis (Limicolaria) Putz. 

XVI, 269 

webbii (Cionella) Mouss XIX, 234 

welwitschi (Achatina) Morel. .XVII, 17 
welwitschi (Opeas) Nobre . .XVIII, 145 
westerlundiana (Ferussacia) Anc. 

XIX, 265 

weynsi (Achatina) Dautz XVII, 11 

whytei (Curvella) Sm .XVIII, 57 

wollastoni (Lovea) Wats XIX, 220 

woodi (Poiretia) Pils XX, 113 



wrighti (Bulinus) Sowb XVI, 206 

wrighti (Pseudachatina) Sowb. XVI, 206 
wrighti (Oleacina) Pfr I, 25 



xantholinus (Bulimus) Ziegl. .XVI, 252 



yatesi (Achatina) Pfr XVIII, 225 

yatesi (Subulina) Pfr XVIII, 225 

yeffrlana (Perussacia) Pall. ..XIX, 257 
yucatanense (Opeas) Pils. ..XVIII, 212 
yucatanensis (Achatina) Pfr. XIX, 199 
yucatanensis (Leptinaria) Pils. 

XVIII, 315 
yucatanensis (Streptostyla) Pils. 

XIX, 153 



zacinthia (Azeca) Bgt XIX, 299 

zacynthia (Azeca) Both XIX, 299 

zakynthia (Cionella) Hesse. . .XIX, 299 
zanzibarica (Achatina) Bgt. . .XVII, 51 

zaza (Obeliscus) Pils XVIII, 264 

zebra (Achatina) Brug XVII, 85 

zebra (Ampulla) Bolt XVII, 86 

zebra (Bulimus) Brug. . . . XVII, 44, 86 

zebra (Limicolaria) Pils XVI, 266 

zebrina (Helix) Fer XVII, 56 

zebriolata (Achatina) Morel. ..XVII, 26 

zebroides (Achatina) Sm XVII, 83 

zebrula (Achatina) Marts XVII, 90 

zegzeg (Bulimus) Morel XVI, 228 

ZONIFBRELLA Pils XVIII, 228,233 

ZOOTECDS Westerlund. .XVIII, 104, 336 

Zootocus Marts XVIII, 336 

Zua Leach XIX, 309 





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