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SECOND SERIES: PULMONATA. 



MANUAL 



OF 



CONCHOLOGY 



STRUCTURAL AND SYSTEMATIC 



WITH ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE SPECIES 



FOUNDED BY 

GEORGE W. TRYON, JR. 

CONTINUED BY 

HENRY A. PILSBRY, Sc.D.. 

SPEC.AI. CURATOR DEPARTMENT OF MOLUCCA, ACADEMY OF NAT* 
SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 




PHILADELPHIA : 

PUBLISHED BY THE CONCHOLOGICAL DEPARTME 
ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENC1 
OF PHILADELPHIA. 



SECOND SEKIES: PULMONATA. 



MANUAL 



OF 



CONCHOLOGY 



STRUCTURAL AND SYSTEMATIC 



WITH ILLUSTKATIONS OF THE SPECIES 



VOIv. XXI 
ACHATINELLID^E 

(AMASTRIN^E) 

BY 

ALPHEUS HYATT 

AND 

HENRY A. PELSBRY 

LEPTACHATINA BY C. MONTAGUE COOKE 



PHILADELPHIA : 
Published by the Conehologieal Department 

ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA 
1911 







EARTH 
SCWCII 

UBBAK/ 



It is the nature of a God to conceal a 
thing ; it is the glory of a man to find 
it out. FRANCIS BACON. 



TO THE MEMOKY OF 
GEORGE ALBERT ARMS 

OF GREENFIELD, MASS. 

A LOVER OF TRUTH AND PROGRESS 

THROUGH SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH 



232658 



DATES OF ISSUE, VOL. XXI. 

Part 81, pages 1-64, plates 1-9, issued July 30, 1910. 
Part 82, pages 65-128, plates 10-23, issued March 14, 1911. 
Part 83, pages 129-240, plates 24-36, issued August 23, 1911. 
Part 84, pages 241-387, plates 37-56, issued December, 1911. 
Title-page, Introduction, etc., pages i-xxii, December, 1911. 



CONTENTS 



PACK 

Preface vii 

Introduction : Evolution and Zoogeography of the Amas- 
trinse xi 

Systematic part 

Achatinellidae defined xx 

AmastrinaB xx 

Key to genera of Amastrinae xx 

Distribution of genera of Amastrinae xxii 

Genus LEPTACHATESTA Gould 1 

Subgenera of Leptachatina 2-4 

Genus FEENANDEZIA Pilsbry 93 

Genus CARELIA H. & A. Adams 100 

Genus PTERODISCUS Pilsbry 118 

Genus PLANAMASTEA Pilsbry 129 

Genus ABMSIA Pilsbry 132 

Gtenus AMASTEA H. & A. Adams 133 

Subgenera of Amastra 136 

Classified catalogue of species 137 

Amastrae of Kauai 141 

Oahu 156 

Lanai 232 

Molokai 248 

Maui 279 

Hawaii 309 

Genus LAMINELLA Pf eiffer 323 

Distribution and classification of Laminellae 324 

(v) 



VI CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

Species of Laminella : Oahu 326 

Lanai 333 

Maul 337 

Molokai 345 

Appendix A : Additions and corrections 355 

Appendix B: Hyatt's classification and zoogeography 

of Amastrinse 358 

Explanation of plates 369 

Dates of issue of the parts of Yol. XXI iv 



PREFACE. 



As the title-page indicates, this monograph contains the re- 
sults of work by two authors. The Achatinellida? had been 
studied by Professor Alpheus Hyatt for many years prior to his 
death in 1902. "It is unfortunate that he never fully wrote 
out the results of his studies upon these shells, the manuscript 
which was found after his death being very incomplete, espe- 
cially upon specific points; and although many of his descrip- 
tions of the species themselves were completed, yet his con- 
clusions respecting their relationships and migrations are only 
vaguely referred to." 

Professor Hyatt's notes, relating to about 130 of the 280 species 
treated in this volume, were submitted to the junior author in 
the spring of 1906, with the condition that they be incorporated 
in the present monograph so far as practicable. The manu- 
script received contains all of his notes descriptive of genera 
and species, their localities, classification and relationships, also 
sketches of his views upon the migrations of the Amastrse of 
Oahu and of the LaminellaB, which are printed in full in Ap- 
pendix B (p. 358). Aside from this, the manuscripts include 
none of Hyatt's deductions and theoretic conclusions bearing on 
the origin, evolution or zoogeography of Achatinellidse; this 
material having been reserved for separate publication. The 
junior author is therefore alone responsible for zoogeographic 
views expressed herein, except in so far as these views coincide 
with those of Hyatt's essay forming Appendix R.^ It should 
be said that Hyatt's theoretic views on the migrations of Acha- 
tinellidce, as expressed in Appendix B (pp. 358 to 368) are 
directly opposed to those of the junior author. Those inter- 

1 Alfred Goldsborough Mayer in Popular Science Monthly, February, 1911. 

(vii) 



VU1 PREFACE. 

ested will find the evidence upon which both views are based in 
the descriptive part of this volume. 

In matters of taxonomy the two authors are in almost com- 
plete agreement. Diverse methods and different material for 
investigation have caused some difference of view regarding 
the rank and relationships of the subdivisions and species of 
Amastra, and the relationships of the Laminella?. Here both 
views are given, pp. 358-368 (Hyatt) and 137, 324 (Pilsbry). 
The chief advance over former classifications of Pease, Gulick 
and others is in the recognition of Heliciform genera derived 
from Amastra, containing forms which were formerly placed in 
the Helicoid families Endodontidse or Helicida?. The true re- 
lationship of Pterodiscus was published by Pilsbry in 1905, 
without knowing that Hyatt had reached the same result sev- 
eral years earlier, but had published nothing on the subject. 
The Heliciform genera Planamastra and Armsia were unknown 
to Hyatt. 

Only a few incomplete notes relating to the genus Leptachatina 
were left by Hyatt. The account of this intricate group has 
been prepared by Doctor C. Montague Cooke, of Honolulu, who 
has studied all of the principal collections of these snails in 
Europe, America and the Islands. 

The original descriptions of species, or translations of them, 
have been quoted in nearly all cases, though sometimes dis- 
pensed with when the original types were before us. This use 
of an author's own words permits the limitation of additional 
descriptive matter to the exposition of points originally un- 
noticed, or inadequately set forth; yet often of the first import- 
ance in phylogenetics. Such additional matter is given either 
from the notes of Hyatt, confirmed by the junior author, or 
from observations by the latter. Views specially Hyatt's are 
quoted or otherwise distinguished. 

Acknowledgment is due to MRS. J. M. ARMS SHELDON whose 
liberality has enabled us to illustrate this volume and the one 
to follow more fully than would otherwise have been possible. 

Our generous friend Doctor C. Montague Cooke has left his 
large Hawaiian collection in our possession for ten years, and 
has freely given specimens and information of the first import- 



PREFACE. IX 

ance to our inquiries. Mr. D. D. Baldwin, the Nestor of 
Hawaiian conchologists, has lent or given many types and co- 
types from his collection. Dr. William H. Dall permitted both 
authors freely to make use of the collections of the National 
Museum under his charge. Mr. C. W. Johnson extended to 
the junior author a like courtesy with the collections of the 
Boston Society of Natural History, which had been the basis of 
Professor Hyatt's studies. Mr. D. Thaanum of Hilo, Hawaii, 
has contributed large series of Hawaiian shells of his own col- 
lecting during many years. Prof. George Wagner submitted a 
large series of the shells of Molokai from the zoological museum 
of the University of Wisconsin. This collection was made by 
Dr. W. J. Goodhue, an American physician at the leper colony, 
and received through Father Dutton. Other shells for study 
have been received from Mr. E. P. Van Duzee of Buffalo, N. Y. 
(taken by his father. 1837-40), and from Mr. Arthur H. Nor- 
ton, Curator of the Portland Society of Natural History. For 
specimens and information pertaining to particular species we 
are indebted to others, as acknowledged in the text. Finally, 
I would express my appreciation of the careful work of Miss 
Helen Winchester, who drew on stone the 884 figures illus- 
trating this volume. H. A. P. 

October, 1911. 



INTRODUCTION. 



Evolution and Zoogeography of the Amastrince. 

I. Aehatinellidae the new incarnation of an ancient phy- 
lum. 

II. Geologic and topographic data bearing on the evo- 
lution of Achatinellidae. 

III. Means of dispersal. 

IV. Centers of radiation. 

V. Systematic and geographic relationships of genera and 

subgenera. 

VI. Probable sequence of events determining evolution of 
the Hawaiian fauna. 

I. 

The Achatinettida are a branch of the primitive and an- 
cient group Orthurethra, a group comprising most of the 
land Pulmonata of the Pacific islands, including also the 
families Partulida, Tornatellinida and Pupillidce. Such evi- 
dence as we have leads us to infer the existence of Orthure- 
throus snails in the Pacific for a very long time, probably 
since the Palaeozoic. The total absence of modern types of 
land Pulmonata in these archipelagos, as I have elsewhere 
argued, is against the view that their snail faunas are solely 
due to waifs from the continents, adventitiously stranded 
from time to time. 

By analogy with generic and family groups of known age 
in Europe and America, it seems likely that the AchatineUida 
were already differentiated as a family before the beginning 
of the Tertiary. Yet the rather close relationship of the genera 
of Amastrince, and the even greater proximity of the genera 
of Achatinellince, seem to tell of a rather sudden expansion 

(xi) 



Xll INTRODUCTION. 

or rejuvenescence of the old stock in comparatively modern 
(Tertiary) time. The aspect of youthful exuberance in the 
Achatinellid fauna is remarkable. Phylogerontic or aged 
groups, such as are usually common in old island faunas, are 
conspicuously wanting. Everywhere intense local differen- 
tiation is in progress. 

II. 

The Hawaiian Islands are, as is well known, volcanic masses 
standing upon the southeastern end of a submarine ridge, 
over 1,700 miles in length, stretching from Ocean and Mid- 
way Islands to Hawaii, and rising from a depth of about 
3,000 fathoms. The present islands being wholly volcanic, so 
far as known, many geologists have assumed that the entire 
ridge has been built up of volcanic materials. This inference 
is unsupported by evidence. The Andean ridge is not wholly 
volcanic because it is crowned by great volcanoes. It is quite 
possible that the Midway-Hawaiian ridge is a product of dia- 
strophism which preceded the volcanic period. However this 
may be, the richness and peculiarity of the fauna and flora, 
and the belief that the volcanic islands as they now stand are 
probably of no great age, has led to the hypothesis that for- 
merly a much greater land area existed, now lost by subsi- 
dence. So conservative a zoogeographer as Wallace considers 
this probable ; and except for an advocate of special creation, 
the theory of a land area antecedent to the present volcanic 
islands seems necessary to account for the faunal 'character- 
istics. That there has been a progressive deepening or sink- 
ing of the floor in the great 'oceanic basins is a view now 
generally held, which, if well founded, accounts for the sub- 
sidence of the Hawaiian ridge. 

The absence of drowned valleys and fjords, as well as the 
great sea-cliffs where the waves have gnawed deep into the 
peripheral volcanic deposits, speak against recent subsidence. 
There is evidence of slight elevation in some places ; but the 
islands seem to have remained practically stationary since the 
cessation of volcanic activity in the older masses. Geologists 
are chary of expressing an opinion on the age of the volcanic 



INTRODUCTION. xiii 

masses, in the total absence of palasontologic evidence. Those 
best acquainted with aqueous erosion as displayed in the 
Grand Canyon, etc., hold the opinion that the furrowing of 
the older Hawaiian volcanoes may readily have been accom- 
plished in Neocene time, and possibly since the beginning of 
the Pliocene. 

In this stationary period of the islands, during which the 
present complex topography has been developed from simple, 
unfurrowed slopes, the specific and varietal evolution of the 
Achatinellidce seems largely to have taken place. The topo- 
graphic features more or less closely coincide with or define 
the ranges of species and varieties. The development of 
topography and the evolution of species and varieties evi- 
dently proceeded pari passu. In former times, before the 
slopes became so rugged and the contrasts of ridge and valley 
conditions so emphatic, species doubtless spread much more 
freely than they do under present conditions. Thus in 
Hawaii Amastra flavescens has spread from the Hamakua 
district down to the southeastern slope of Mauna Loa. With 
subsequent isolation the more plastic of these widely-spread 
forms have evolved into chains of allied species or races. 
Precisely similar phenomena have been recorded by the author 
from the mountain chains of southern Arizona, where the 
bed of a canyon may separate distinct but related species. 

Dana was the first to show that the Hawaiian volcanoes are 
progressively newer toward the southeast. Dutton qualifies 
this generalization : in the northwest they became inactive 
longer ago, and have therefore been sculptured by erosive 
activities for a longer time. In fact, Kauai, western Oahu, 
West Maui and northwestern Hawaii are long-extinct vol- 
canic masses; eastern Oahu and East Maui newer, and the 
rest of Hawaii still in building. So far as is known, the 
Kohala region in Hawaii may be as old as Kauai. 

Dana's generalization, which is thus subject to consider- 
able qualification, was doubtless the basis of Professor Hyatt's 
hypothesis that the snails migrated from island to island, 
from Kauai southeastward. A considerable acquaintance with 
land shells causes me to doubt whether snails of moderate 



XIV INTRODUCTION. 

or large size have often been spread by the accidental means 
invoked to explain inter-island distribution, though we have 
the strongest evidence that small or minute land snails have 
spread, probably by hurricanes, over considerable distances. 
The actual facts of distribution of Hawaiian Island snails do 
not indicate, to my mind, a migration from Kauai. 

III. 

The logical geographic boundaries of most species of Achati- 
nellidcF give excellent ground for the belief that the present 
distribution of all the larger species has been attained by 
their own means of locomotion, and that unusual or so-called 
accidental carriage, as by birds, drifting trees, etc., has been 
so rare as to be negligible. No evidence whatever of such 
carriage is known to me. It is likely that Unionid glochidia, 
Ancyli, or some other fresh- water mollusks may sometimes be 
transported by water-fowl, but I know of no North American 
land snail of moderate or large size, whose distribution re- 
quires such a hypothesis, excepting Liguus and Hemitrochus 
in Florida, which seem to have reached our shores without 
land communication. These snails inhabit trees on the keys 
of Florida wooded islets but a few feet above the seas, some- 
times actually swept by the waves, so that their transporta- 
tion on drifting trees, as advo'cated by Mr. C. T. Simpson 
and others, seems possible, yet even in these cases the eggs 
may have been carried by hurricanes. In the Hawaiian 
Islands the AchatinellicUz inhabit mountain forests ; there are 
no rivers to transport trees carrying snails to the sea. Even 
if so transported, the 'chance is almost infinitely remote that 
if cast up on another island the conditions on the shore would 
be favorable for such snails. If the transportation of arbo- 
real Achatinellidse by such means is improbable, that of large 
terrestrial forms is even more difficult. It is hardly worth 
while alluding to the possibility of these snails being trans- 
ported by birds, since everybody having practical knowledge 
of land snails understands the absurdity of such a proposition. 

As mentioned above, hurricanes have doubtless been in- 
strumental in spreading minute species of land snails. If 



INTRODUCTION. XV 

snails, why not their eggs? This I believe explains the wide 
distribution of closely related Leptachatinas. This genus ; 
alone, in the AcJuitinellidce, is oviparous ;^and in it alone the j 
minor groups are distributed widely, while in the other \ 
(viviparous) genera, the minor groups are special to the j 
several islands. The young snails at birth are many times 
heavier than the eggs of snails of like size, and probably are 
not carried far by the wind, else they would become more 
widely spread locally. 

If we have no logical ground for the belief that the vivipar- 
ous Acliatinellidce have been spread over sea from island to 
island by such means as we have just 'Considered, how has 
their spread been effected? Only by the traveling of the 
snails themselves over land and through forests now sub- 
merged. No other hypothesis is adequate to explain the facts 
of distribution, and the mutual affinities of the several island 
faunas. 

IV. 

CENTERS OF DISPERSAL. While none but palaeontological 
evidence can be considered entirely conclusive in determin- 
ing the area of origin and original dispersal of a group, yet 
in dealing with groups of sedentary, closely related, and 
strictly localized species, in a limited area, there cannot be 
much chance of error in holding that the region of greatest 
variety and abundance of such forms has been their center 
of evolution. Thus, in Oahu the eastern half of the main or 
Koolau range has fifteen species and many varieties of the 
'group Metamastra, while the Waianae range has but three 
species, of which two are specifically identical with main 
range forms, the other closely related to them. The evidence 
is therefore very strong that the center of radiation of this 
group of species was in the eastern half of the main range, 
where also fossil species have been found, the few Waianae 
species being recent emigrants. By similar reasoning I con- 
clude that the radiation-center of the group Paramastra was 
in the Waianae (Kaala or Western) range. By the same 
criteria, the typical group of Amastra, Heteramastra and 






Xvi INTRODUCTION. 

Laminella arose in and radiated from the Molokai-Maui cen- 
ter, etcetera. 

V. 

Structural and Geographic Relationships of Amastrince. 
Of the several subgenera of Amastra, we consider Amastrella 
nearest to the primitive progenitor of the group, because of 
the simplicity or lack of specialization in any part of the 
shell. All of the other groups have some special modifica- 
tion of shape, columellar lamella, embryonic whorls, or cuticle, 
which render it unlikely that any of them is so near to the 
original stock. The wide distribution of Amastrella, from 
Kauai to Hawaii a range greater than that of any other 
Achatinellid group except Leptachatina is also favorable to 
the theory that it is an old, unchanged group. Cyclamastra 
differs from Amastrella only by its open umbilicus, is also 
widely spread, from Kauai to M-aui, and is apparently an 
early branch of Amastrella, the two being collateral phyla. 

The Kauaian groups Kauaia, Armiella and Carelia stand 
much closer to Amastrella than to any other group, and have, 
in our opinion, been derived from Amastrellan ancestors. If 
so, all Kauian Achatinellida have been evolved from a primi- 
tive fauna composed of Leptachatina, Amastrella and Cycla- 
mastra. 

In the island of Hawaii, Acliatinellida are almost entirely 
confined to the old northern portion of the island, where the 
family is represented by two groups of Amastrella, and a 
fossil species of Heteramastra. The few arboreal Achatinellas 
are related to Mauian forms. 

The intermediate islands fall into two groups (a) Oahu, 
and (6) Molokai, Lanai and Maui. The fauna of these three 
islands is so homogeneous that there cannot be much doubt 
that they were formerly united into one large island. The 
'chance that so many groups could attain a foothold on the 
three islands by adventitious means is so remote as to be 
negligible. It is on these two groups of intermediate islands 
that the Achatinellida reach their greatest development in 
numbers and diversity. Leptachatina, Cyclamastra, Amas- 



INTRODUCTION. xv ii 

trella, Laminella and Pterodiscus are common to both the 
Oahu and the Molokai-Lanai-Maui centers. 

(a) Oahu has two special groups, Metamastra and Para- 
mastra, both believed to have evolved from Amastrella, and 
the genera Armsia and Planamastra, derived from Cycla- 
mastran stock. The scarcity of Laminella species may be due 
to the competition of Achatinella, which is the dominant ar- 
boreal group. 

(b) Besides the groups possessed in common with Oahu, 
the Molokai-Lanai-Maui area has all of the typical section of 
Amastra, all the Heteramastras except one Hawaiian species, 
and nearly all of the genus Laminella. Probably all of these 
groups were evolved from Amastrellan ancestors in this area. 
Several groups of Achatinellince are special to this tract. 

VI. 

From the affinities and the geographic relations of the 
several groups, as sketched above and discussed in detail in 
this work, we infer the following sequence of events, prob- 
ably beginning in Mesozoic, possibly in Eocene, time: 

I. The Hawaiian area, from northern Hawaii to and prob- 
ably far beyond Kauai, formed one large island which was 
inhabited by the primitive AmastrinaB, ancestral forms of 
Leptachatina, Amastrella and Cyclamastra. This pan-Hawa- 
iian land, whatever its structure, preceded the era of vul- 
canism which gave their present topography to the islands, 
and probably dates from the Palaeozoic (Fig. 1). 

II. Volcanic activity built up the older masses, subsidence 
following, Kauai being the first island dismembered from the 
Pan-Hawaiian area. The groups Carelia, Armiella and Ka- 
uaia were subsequently evolved thereon from the Amastrellan 
stock. Meantime the differentiation of Amastrine groups 
from the primitive Amastrellae and Cyclamastrae began on 
the larger land-area remaining (Fig. 2). 

III. Northern Hawaii was next isolated by formation of 
the Alenuihana Channel, leaving a large intermediate island, 
which included the present islands of Oahu, Molokai, Lanai 
and Maui. 




Four Stages in the Development of the 
Hawaiian Archipelago. 



INTRODUCTION. X ix 

IV. In the eastern end of this Oahu-Maui island Laminella 
arose from Amastroid, and in the west, Pterodiscus was 
evolved from Cyclamastra stock. 

V. (Fig. 3.) The Oahuan and the Molokai-Lanai-Mauian 
areas were sundered by subsidence of the Kaiwi Channel. 

(a) In Oahu there were two centers, probably two islands, 
a western or Waianae, and an eastern or Koolau area. In 
the Waianae center, Paramastra, Planamastra and Armsia 
were differentiated, while Metamastra arose from Amastrella 
in the Koolau area, where arboreal Achatinellidce chiefly flour- 
ished. In late Pliocene or Pleistocene time a forested con- 
nection was established between the two Oahuan evolution- 
centers. This transitory connection allowed some inter- 
mingling of the two faunas; but while the land connection 
endured to the present time, the forests became extinct, again 
isolating the two centers so far as arboreal or forest snails 
are concerned. 

(6) That the eastern or Molokai-Lanai-Maui region formed 
a single large island up to late Pliocene or even to Pleistocene 
time is evident from the very close relationship of the faunas 
of those islands. In view of the intense local differentiation 
everywhere observed in the Hawaiian group, we could hardly 
expect closer relations between the species of these three 
islands if they were still united. Various Achatinellinae of 
Partulina type, the typical group of Amastra (found nowhere 
else), the subgenus Heteramastra and the genus Laminella. 
are the chief groups of this area. Probably all had been 
differentiated before the separation from Oahu, though part 
of them never spread, apparently, so far as that island. The 
formation of channels between Molokai, Lanai and Maui must 
be considered a very recent event. These islands stand on a 
common platform within the 100-fathom line (see fig. 4, rep- 
resenting the present islands, the 100-fathom contour in 
broken line). 



XX ACHATINELLID.E. 

Family ACHATINELLID.E Tryon. 

Achatinellida TRYON, Structural and Systematic Conchology, 
iii, 1884, p. 64, exclusive of Auriculella and Tornatellina. 

Orthurethrous land snails having an oblong, ovate or rarely 
Helicoid shell, umbilicate or imperforate, generally with a 
spiral columellar lamella in the last whorl, the outer lip simple 
or thickened, not reflexed; no parietal lamella or tooth. 

Kidney not much longer than the pericardium, passing into 
a long ureter reaching nearly to the collar. Venation of the 
lung extremely minute, the pulmonary vein having no large 
branches. Penis bears a long appendix; vas deferens free 
throughout. Spermatheca imbedded in the albumen gland, 
its duct long. Tentacular retractor muscles free from the 
columellar muscle throughout. 

This family is confined to the Hawaiian Islands, with the 
exception of the genus Fernandezia from Juan Fernandez, 
now placed here provisionally. No other forms, living or 
fossil, are known from other regions. It is rather remotely 
related to the Partulidcz, more closely to the Ferussacidce; 
and the minute Tornatellinidce are probably not distant. Two 
very strongly differentiated subfamilies exist. 

ACHATINELLIN^E, arboreal forms, usually with light or 
bright-colored shell, the sculpture of embryonic shell spiral 
when present, jaw extremely thin, teeth of peculiar shape and 
in v-shaped transverse rows (see vol. XXII). 

AMASTRIN^. Mainly terrestrial snails with less conspic- 
uous coloration, the apical sculpture generally axial when 
present, jaw stronger, teeth (see p. 129) resembling those of 
Achatinidce, in nearly straight, transverse rows, 

Key to Genera of Amastrina. 

a. Oviparous ; shell ovate-conic or oblong-conic, glossy, rather 
small (5 to 15 mm.), the apex obtuse, rounded. 
&. Forms from Juan Fernandez. 

Genus FERNANDEZIA, p. 93. 

6 1 . Hawaiian forms. Genus LEPTACHATINA, p. 1. 

a 1 . Viviparous. 

Z>. Shell Heliciform, much wider than high, umbilicate. 
c. Embryonic whorls projecting, convex, last 



ACHATINELLnxaS. xxi 

whorl descending in front; peristome ex- 
panded; no columellar lamella. 

Genus ARMSIA, p. 132. 
c 1 . Embryonic whorls flattened. 

d. Planorboid; no columellar lamella; um- 
bilicus very wide. 

Genus PLANAMASTBA, p. 129. 

d 1 . Biconvex, fragile, umbilicus moderate 

or small, contained 4 to 10 times in the 

diameter; columellar lamella more or 

less strongly developed. 

Genus PTERODISCUS, p. 118. 
Shell globose-conic, ovate or columnar. 

c. Shell imperforate, columnar or oblong, rather 
large (length 25 to 75 mm.), solid, with con- 
vexly conic summit of flat whorls ; columellar 
lamella small; usually dark-colored. 

Genus CABETJA, p. 100. 

c 1 . Shell umbilicate, perforate or closed, usually 
ovate-conic, but varying from globose-conic to 
turrited; usually dull-colored and dextral; 
living on the ground. Genus AMASTEA, p. 133. 
c 2 . Shell usually perforate, ovate or turrite, yel- 
low, pink or whitish, sometimes uniform, but 
usually with zigzag black stripes or dote; 
columellar lamella strong. Living on plants, 
never on the ground. 

Genus LAMINELLA, p. 323. 

Planamastra 
Armiella | 

Kauaia Pterodiscus 



Paramastra A m a s t r e 1 1 a C yclamastr a Armsia 

Metamastra 

Leptach a tina 

Approximate Phylogeny of Genera and Subgenera of Amastrinae. 




XX11 



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Genus LEPTACHATINA Gould, 1847. 

BY C. MONTAGUE COOKE, BISHOP MUSEUM, HONOLULU, H. I. 1 

Leptachatina GLD., Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist, ii, 1847, p. 
201; U. S. Exp. Exp. Moll., 1852, p. 88. PFEIFFEB, Malak. 
Blatter, 1854, p. 143; Men. Hel. Viv., iv, p. 563. HARTMAN, 
Proc. A. N. S. Phila., 1888, p. 51. H. and A. ADAMS, Gen. 
of Rec. Moll., ii, p. 139. PEASE, P. Z. S. London, 1869, p. 
650. GULICK, P. Z. S., 1873, p. 91. BALDWIN, Cat. Hawaiian 
Shells, 1893, p. 10. SYKES, Fauna Hawaiiensis, ii, Mollusea, 
1900, p. 356. 

Amastrinae with a rather small ovate or turrite shell, usu- 
ally imperf orate, sometimes perforate, rarely umbilicate; 
usually glossy, sometimes of a silky luster ; smooth, striate or 
costate ; the embryonic whorls are usually smooth (subgenera 
Leptachatina s. s., Labiella and Pauahia), sometimes striate 
with minute spiral striae (subgenus Thaanumia) and some- 
times costate with longitudinal (axial) costae (subgenus 
Ilikala) ; the apex is always blunt and rounded ; the aperture 
is slightly oblique ; the columellar fold is usually rather weak, 
lamellate, the lamella sometimes reduced to a faint raised 
line, usually oblique, rarely subtransverse. The animals are 
oviparous. 

Type L. acuminata Gld. Distribution, Hawaiian Islands, 
living on the ground (with the exception of L. arborea). 

The shells of Leptachatina are easily separated from those 
of Amastra. In the latter genus the apex is more acute, never 
rounded, and usually minutely striate. Amastra is vivi- 
parous. 

Leptachatina was proposed by Gould in a note under the 
description of acuminata, in the following words: "The clear 

1 The present paper is based on a study of the collections of the British 
Museum, the Smithsonian Institution, the Academy of Natural Sciences of 
Philadelphia, the Boston Society of Natural History, the Museum of Com- 
parative Zoology, the New York State Museum and the Museum of Cornell 
University. I wish to express my thanks to the gentlemen in charge of the 
different collections, especially to Dr. H. A. Pilsbry, under whom this paper 
was prepared. C. M. C. 



2 LEPTACHATINA. 

delicate species like this, with, the mere semblance of a colu- 
mellar fold, may properly constitute a distinct group, to 
which the name Leptachatina (leptos and Achatina) might 
be given." In 1852 Gould included three additional species 
(cerealis, guttula and accincta). 

Pfeiffer in his numerous writings employed Leptachatina 
only as a section of Achatinella. Hartman (1888) also con- 
sidered Leptachatina as a section of Achatinella. H. & A. 
Adams accorded Leptachatina subgeneric rank. 

Pease was the first author to use Leptachatina as a genus. 
Since then several authors have considered Leptachatina to 
be -a separate genus. Baldwin, Ancey and Sykes have taken 
this view, which is supported by the differential features of 
the shell no less than by the oviparous reproduction. 

Classification of species. 

Leptachatina may be divided into several groups accord- 
ing to the form of the shell, the closeness of the whorls, and 
other characters noticed below. 
I. Embryonic whorls smooth. 

1. Aperture simple. Subgenus LEPTACHATINA s. str. 
a. Surface smooth, nearly smooth, or slightly striate. 

A. The shells are elongate or acuminate; the 
aperture more or less angulate at both ends. 

Group of L. acuminata, species 1-4. 

B. The shells are small, slender, somewhat tur- 
rited, glossy, transparent; aperture more or 
less rounded below. 

Group of L. sandwicensis, species, 5-12. 
0. The shells are small, slightly striate, usually 
dark chestnut, somewhat turrited and slightly 
thicker than those of B. 

Group of L. cerealis, species 13-17. 

D. The shells are larger than those of B and C, 
turrited ; the upper whorls closely coiled. 

Group of L. gracilis, species 18-20. 

E. The shells are small, slender, subcylindrical, 



LEPTACHATINA. 3 

smooth, glossy, thin; the last two whorls in- 
creasing rather rapidly. 

Group of L. obsoleta, species 21-28. 

F. The shells are small, ovate or ovately conic, 
smooth, pellucid or subpellucid. 

Group of L. accincta, species 29-51. 

G. The shells are slightly larger and thicker than 
those of F. Group of L. nitida, species, 52-58. 

H. The shells are broadly ovately conic or conic, 
larger than those of G. 

Group of L. glutinosa, species 59-63. 
7. The shells are perforate, distinctly striate, 
narrowly ovate. 

Group of L. semipicta, species 64. 
J. The shells are striate, broadly ovate-subcylin- 
drical, nearly solid. 

Group of L. pachystoma, species 65. 
K. The shells are rather large (for the genus), 
elongately ovate, nearly solid. 

Group of L. ventulus, species 66-72. 
L. The shells are rather large (for the genus), 
snbelliptical, nearly solid. 

Group of L. succincta, species 73-77. 
M. The shells are umbilicate, with a strong raised 
callus on the parietal wall. 

Group of L. fossilis, species 78. 
aa. Surface distinctly costulate or costate. 

N. The shells are small, slender, costulate or 

costate. Group of L. sculpta, species 79-90. 

0. The shells are larger than those of N, glossy, 

costate. Group of L. striatula, species 91-99. 

2. Aperture usually furnished with a denticle or indi- 
cation of a denticle within the outer lip ; spire slightly 
concave in outline. 

Subgenus LABIELLA, species 100-103. 

3. Aperture usually furnished (in young shells) with a 
palatal lamina; shells cylindrical. 

Subgenus PAUAHIA, species 104-106. 



4 LEPTACHATINA. 

II. Embryonic whorls spirally striate. 

Submenus THAANUMIA, species 107-114. 
III. Embryonic whorls transversely costate or striate. 

Subgemis ILIKALA, species 115-117. 

Distribution of species. 
KAUAI. 

Group A : acuminata, cuneata, antiqua, laevis. 

B : knudseni. 

E: cylindrata. 

F: brevicula. 

J: pachystoma. 

M: fossilis. 

N: lucida, striata. 

: attenuata, gayi, tenebrosa, leucochila, costulosa, 

pupoidea, extensa, striatula, balteata. 
Thaanumia : perf orata. 
Ilikala: fraterna. 

OAHU. 

Group B : sandwicensis, stiria, illimis, scutilis. 

C: cerealis, obtusa? teres, turrita, persubtilis. 

D: gracilis, subula, terebralis. 

E : convexiuscula, exilis, saxatilis, leiahiensis, exop- 
tabilis. 

F: accincta, crystallina, gummea, oryza, vana, capi- 
tosa, pulchra, ovipara. 

G: fumida. 

H : glutinosa, dimidiata, pyramis. 

K: cingula, ventulus, approximans, pilsbryi. . 

L : corneola, marginata, resinula, succincta, saccula ? 

N: costulata, octogyrata, sculpta, semicostata. 
Labiella: labiata, callosa, lagena. 
Pauahia: artata, tantilla, chrysallis. 
Thaanumia: omphalodes, optabilis, fuscula. 
Ilikala: fusca, petila. 



LEPTACHATINA, GROUP A. 5 

MOLOKAI. 

Group B : laevigata. 

E : molokaiensis. 

F : emerita, concolor, conicoides, varia. 

G: eoruscans. 

N: lanceolata. 
Thaannmia: thaanumi, morbida. 

MAUL 

Group B : fulgida, baldwini. 

E : obsoleta. 

F : guttula, ovata, vitreola, grana. 

G: nitida, compacta, isthmica, praestabilis. 

H: kuhnsi. 

K: conspicienda. 
Labiella: lenta. 
Thaanumia: dulcis. 

LANAI. 

Group F : subovata. 
H : smithi. 
I : semipicta. 
K: perkinsi, longiuscula. 
N: impressa, supraoostata, lanaiensis. 

HAWAH. 

Group F : arborea, simplex, anceyana, def uncta, lepida. 

G: konaensis. 

N: imitatrix, tenuicostata. 
Thaanumia: henshawi. 

Subgenus LEPTACHATINA s.s. 
A. Group of L. acuminata. 

1. L. ACUMINATA (Gould). PL 7, fig. 41. 

"Shell small, slender, turreted, elongated, with an obtuse 
apex, translucent, thin, very smooth and shining, of a greei 
ish amber-color. Spire elevated, obtuse, pointed, of six 



6 LEPTACHATINA, GROUP A. 

very oblique, slightly convex whorls, the last of which is 
nearly two-thirds the length of the shell. Suture distinct, 
and faintly margined and crenulated. Aperture very nar- 
row, one-third the length of the shell, rounded at base, and 
acute behind. Lip simple, whitish, thickened within, and 
arching forward. Columella without a conspicuous fold 
bordering the truncation. Length %, diam. % inch (12.5 
x3.1 mm.)." (Old.) 

Kauri (U. S. Expl. Exped.). 

Achatinella acuminata GOULD, P. Best. Soc., ii, 1848, p, 
200; U. S. Expl. Exped., Moll., 1852, p. 87, pi. vii, figs. 100 r 
lOOa. Achatinella (Leptachatina) acuminata PFEIFFEB, Mon. 
Hel. Viv., iv, 6, 566. Leptachatina acuminata PEASE, P. Z. S., 
1869, p. 650. SYKES, Fauna Haw., ii, Moll., p. 357, pi. xii r 
figs. 13, 13a (radula). 

This species, the type of the genus, unfortunately is repre- 
sented by a single broken shell in the collection of the Smith- 
sonian Institution. A careful search through Gould's col- 
lection, in Albany, did not produce another specimen. 

The species seems to be entirely distinct from any other 
species, and does not seem to have been rediscovered since 
the original material was collected. Specimens belonging to 
L. attenuata have been distributed by later collectors as this 
species, but the two are separable. L. acuminata (according 
to Gould's figure) is smoother, narrower in proportion to its. 
length, the spire is more shortly conic, the sutures more 
oblique and the aperture is narrower and longer. L. cuneata 
may be a possible relative. 

L. acuminata is probably a very local species and may 
ultimately be found somewhere in the northeastern district of 
Kauai, where very little collecting, if any, has been done. 
Gould's figure is copied in fig. 41. 

2. L. CUNEATA n. sp. PI. 10, figs. 1, 2. 

The shell is imperforate, conic, corneous, thin, subdiaphan- 
ous, glossy, indistinctly striate. Spire conic, apex somewhat 
obtuse. Suture hardly impressed, very minutely crenulate. 
Whorls 6%, the upper flat, gradually becoming slightly con- 



LEPTACHATINA, GROUP A. 7 

vex, increasing regularly, the last tapering slowly to the base. 
Aperture rather large, subovate, whitish within, hardly 
oblique, perpendicular, ascending slightly in front. Colu- 
mella very slightly twisted, with an oblique rather weak fold 
and a slight thickening along its face. Outer lip very 
slightly thickened within, regularly arcuate ; columellar mar- 
gin slightly thickened, appressed, adnate. Length 10.5, diam. 
4.8, length of aperture 4.2 mm. 

Kauai: Kapaa (Baldwin). 

A very distinct species, with no closely related species 
from the island of Kauai. L. acuminata, Gould, may pos- 
sibly prove to be a distant relative. It is, however, much 
narrower in proportion to its length, with a narrower and 
more elongate aperture. 

3. L. ANTIQUA Pease. PI. 8, figs. 60-62. 

1 ' The shell is sub fossil, oblong subcylindrical, solid, scarcely 
rimate, longitudinally faintly striate; whorls 7, flatly con- 
vex, narrowly margined at the suture; spire somewhat ob- 
tuse; aperture oblong oval; columella obliquely truncate; 
columellar fold obsolete. Length 9.0, diam. 3.5 mm." (Pse.) 

Kauai (Pease) : Koloa beach (Judd). 

Leptachatina antiqiw, PEASE, P. Z. S. L. 1869, p. 651 (nom. 
sol.); Journ. de Conchyl., XVIII, 1870, p. 94. CROSSE, 
Journ. de Conchyl., 1876, pi. 3, fig. 6. Achatinella (Lep- 
tachatina) antiqua PFR., Mon. Hel. Viv., viii, p. 247. 

The shells collected by Mr. Judd (PL 8, figs. 60, 61) agree 
fairly well with Pease's description. One of his shells meas- 
ures, length 9.0, diam. 3.8, length of aperture 3.7 mm. A 
larger form of this species was found in the same locality. 
It agrees in all its characters except size, a specimen meas- 
uring: length 12.0, diam. 5.3, length of aperture 5.4 mm: 
This species may be distantly related to L. l&vis Pse. 
Pease's original figure is copied, fig. 62. 

4. L. LAEVIS (Pease). PL 8, figs. 56, 57. 

"The shell is ovately oblong, imperf orate, dextral, some- 
what thin, smooth, glossy, brown; whorls 7, somewhat flat, 



8 LEPTACHATINA, GROUP B. 

scarcely marginate at the suture; aperture almost vertical, 
elongately ovate; columella arcuate; columellar fold com- 
pressed, twisted, almost transverse; lip scarcely thickened, 
brown. Length 9.0, diam. 4.0 mm." (Pse.) 

Kauai (Pease) : Haleieie, at 1500 and 1700 ft. (Cooke). 

Leptachatina Icevis PEASE, P. Z. S., 1869, p. 651 (nom. 
sol.) ; Journ. de Conchyl. xviii, 1870, p. 91. CBOSSE, Journ. 
de Conchyl. xxiii, 1876, pi. iv, fig. 6. Achatinella (Lep- 
tachatina) l&vis PFB., Mon. Hel. Viv., viii, p. 245. 

Typical examples, from the higher elevation, are very 
slightly larger than Pease's type. A fine example measures: 
length 9.6, diam. 4.2, length of aperture 4.3 mm. Those 
from the lower elevation are smaller, thinner, lighter-colored 
and more cylindrical in outline. They measure length 7.6, 
diam. 3.5, length of aperture 3.5 mm. This species is very 
distinct from any other Kauaian species. The dark color, 
smooth and very glossy surface being most characteristic. 
This species is not closely related to L. fusca Newc., as Pease 
supposed. The original figure is copied in fig. 56. 

B. Group of L. sandwicensis. 
5. L. KNUDSENI n. sp. PI. 9, figs. 11, 12. 

The shell is imperforate, elongate, turrited, corneous, thin, 
diaphanous, glossy, smooth, under a lens minutely and irre- 
gularly striate with, lines of growth. Spire turrited, apex 
blunt. Suture lightly impressed, very finely margined. 
Whorls 8, very slightly convex, compact, the last subrecti- 
linear in outline, somewhat tapering at the base. Aperture 
ovate-pyriform, nearly perpendicular, very slightly oblique. 
Columella slightly arcuate above, not truncate, with a very 
minute fold deep within. Outer margin of lip erect, slightly 
thickened within, slightly arcuate; columellar margin white, 
slightly thickened, appressed. Length 6.3, diam. 2.2, length 
of aperture 2.0 mm. 

Kauai: Waipo, near Halemanu, at an altitude of 3500 ft., 
Ekaula, alt. 1900 ft. (Cooke). 

This species' nearest relative is L. lucida Pse., from the 



LEPTACHATINA, GROUP B. 9 

same island. It differs in being more slender and without 
costae. L. lutida is straw color, while L. knudseni is corneous 
with a slight yellowish tinge. The species is not abundant, 
It was found under ferns among the moist rotting leaves. 

6. L. SANDWICENSIS (Pfeiffer). PL 9, figs. 7, 8. 

"Shell ovately conic, obliquely striate, subopaque, dirty 
corneous; spire conic, somewhat obtuse; suture marginated 
with an impressed line; whorls G 1 /^ somewhat flat, the last 
scarcely more than % of % the length; columella arcuate, pli- 
cately twisted, aperture broad, semioval lip simple, dextral 
margin obtuse, columellar margin subreflexed, appressed. 
Long. 7, diam. 3.5 mm." (P/r.). "Long, 7.75, diam. 3 mm." 
(Pfr., for obclwvata) . 

Oahu: Waianae Mts. (Perkins) ; back of Leilehua (Cooke). 
?Molokai (Borch.). 

Acliatina sanduric&nsis PFR., P. Z. S., 1846, p. 32. 
Achatina accincta RVE., Conch. Icon., Achatina sp. 101. 
Pfr. Mon. Hel. Viv., ii, p. 271. Achatinella obclavata PFR., 
P. Z. S., 1855, p. 98. Achatinella (Leptachatina) octavula 
Paetel, CLESSIN, Nomen. Helic. Viv., 1881, p. 3l6.Leptar- 
chatina sandwichensis and obclavata Pse., P. Z. S., 1869, p. 
650. SYKES, Fauna Haw., ii, p. 368 ; Borcherding, Zoologica, 
part 48, p. 130, pi. ix, fig. 13. 

From an examination of the types I agree with Mr. Sykes' 
synonomy of this species, as sandwicensis and obclavata are 
no doubt forms of the same species. Specimens in the Bishop 
Museum Collection which I have referred to this species are 
slightly larger than typical forms of L. sandwicensis and ap- 
proach the form of L. "olclavata. The average length, of 
specimens from baek of Leilehua, is 7.8, diam. 3.25, altitude 
of aperture 3.2 mm., they are corneous with a brownish tinge. 

7. L. STIRIA (Gulick). PL 9, fig. 9. 

"Shell dextral, perforate, elongate, thin, shining, pellucid, 
vitreous, very finely striated; apex obtuse; spire turreted; 
suture simple, slightly impressed; whorls 6%, somewhat con- 
vex; columella very lightly plaited deep within the aperture; 



10 LEPTACHATINA, GROUP B. 

aperture pyrif orm ; peristome simple, thin ; with dextral mar- 
gin unreflected, lightly arcuate; columellar margin reflected, 
not appressed; parietal margin very thin, vitreous. Length 

7. diam. 2.8 mm. Body whorl 4 mm. long." (Gul.) 
Oahu: Helemanu, Peula, Kawailoa (Gulick) ; Waianae 

Mts. back of Leilehua (Cooke). 

Achatinella stiria GULICK, Ann. Lye. N. Y., vi, 1856, p. 
194, pi. 6, fig. 22. Achatinella (Leptachatina) stiria PFE., 
Mon. Hel. Viv., vi, p. 187. Leptachatina stiria HARTMAN, 
Proc. A. N. S. Phila., 1888, p. 55. 

This species is related to the shell which I have referred to 
as L. sandwicensis. The shell is narrower in proportion to 
its length, spire slenderer, and the surface is slightly more 
striate. Figured from a cotype. 

8. L. ILLIMIS n. sp. PI. 10, fig. 3. 

The shell is minutely perforate, elongate, light corneous, 
thin, glossy, subdiaphanous, nearly smooth, under a lens 
minutely and regularly striate. Spire elongate, attenuate, 
apex blunt. Suture simple, hardly impressed. Whorls 7, 
the embryonic rounded, very smooth and polished, the neanic 
flat, closely coiled, increasing slowly, the last two whorls 
slightly convex, the last nearly cylindrical, tapering towards 
the base. Aperture narrowly ovate, acute above, slightly 
oblique, perpendicular. Columella very slightly arcuate, with 
a slightly thickened callus along its face, and a rather small 
oblique fold. Outer lip nearly straight, erect, very minutely 
thickened within, columellar margin refiexed, adnate for 
about y 2 of its length. Umbilicus very minute. Length 7.6, 
diam. 2.9, length of ap. 2.8 mm. 

Oahu: Palehua in the Waianae Mts. (Cooke). 

This species is closely related to L. stiria Gulick. It dif- 
fers, however, in being less distinctly striate, slightly larger, 
and the columellar fold is stronger and less oblique. 

9. L. SCUTILUS (Mighels). PL 9, figs. 3, 4. 

"Shell dextral, cylindrical, turret ed, white, polished, im- 
perf orate ; whorls 6, convex ; aperture elongate oval ; lip sim- 



LEPTACHATIN'A, GROUP B. H 

pie, acute. Length 7/30, diam. 3/35 inch." (5.8x2.1 mm ) 
(Migh.) 

Oahu (Migh.) : Waianae Mts. at Palehua and back of 
Leilehua (Cooke). 

Bulimus scutilus MIGH., Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., ii, 1845, 
p. 20. PFR., Mon. Hel. Viv. ii, p. I65.Leptachatina scutilus 
PEASE, P. Z. S., 1869, p. 650. 

It is with some hesitation that I refer shells to this species. 
Mighel's description is incomplete, and the types were prob- 
ably lost in the fire which destroyed part of his collection as 
no trace can be found of this species. The shells which I have 
referred to this species are imperforate, elongately turrited, 
corneous or slightly brownish corneous, thin, diaphanous, 
smooth, glossy. Spire turrited, subcylindrical, apex obtuse. 
Suture simple, slightly impressed. Whorls 7, nearly flat, the 
last subcylindrical, slightly tapering at the base; aperture 
elongately oval, slightly oblique, nearly perpendicular; colu- 
mella nearly straight, slightly twisted, with a very minute 
oblique fold; outer lip erect, thin, nearly straight above, be- 
low arcuate ; columellar margin thin, reflexed, adnate. 

This species recalls L. convexiuscula Sykes. The shell is 
slightly smaller, with less convex outlines, the whorls are 
more evenly coiled and the last two increase more slowly, the 
aperture is smaller and more perpendicular. My specimens 
are slightly larger than Mighel's measurements and have an 
additional whorl. The measurements of an average speci- 
men are : Length 7.0, diam. 2.3, alt. of ap. 2.3 mm. 

10. L. L^VIGATA n. sp. PI. 6, figs. 4, 5. 

The shell is imperforate, elongately conic, slightly attenu- 
ate, reddish brown above the periphery and yellowish cor- 
neous below, subdiaphanous, glossy, smooth, under a lens in- 
distinctly striate with lines of growth. Spire acutely conic, 
apex obtuse. Suture lightly impressed, narrowly margined, 
marked with a narrow dark brown band. Whorls 6^, 
slightly convex, the last subcylindrical, tapering towards the 
base. Aperture subovate, slightly oblique, perpendicular. 
Columella nearly straight, with a very minute, deeply situ- 



12 LEPTACHATINA, GROUP B. 

ated, almost perpendicular lamella. Outer lip slightly arcu- 
ate, eolumellar margin reflexed, adnate. Length 7.6, diam. 
3.5, length of ap. 3.1 mm. 

Molokai : Mapulehu Ridge ( Thaanum) . 

There is a unicolorous brownish corneous variety, which 
has the eolumellar fold more strongly developed. 

This species is somewhat related to L. lanceolata. It is, 
however stronger and stouter, and differs in its color pattern. 

11. L. FULGIDA n. sp. PI. 2, figs. 39, 40. 

The shell is imperforate, elongately ovately conic, green- 
ish yellow, except the whitish embryonic whorls, rather thin, 
hardly diaphanous, glossy, very smooth, under a strong lens 
hardly striate. Spire elongate, subconic, apex subobtuse. 
Suture slightly impressed, narrowly margined, accompanied 
with a very narrow reddish line. Whorls 6%, the embryonic 
convex, the third and fourth nearly flat, the last two slightly 
convex, the first 4% closely coiled, the last two increasing 
more rapidly, the last subcylindrical, tapering to the base. 
Aperture subovate, slightly oblique, nearly perpendicular. 
Columella nearly straight, purplish, with a rather small ob- 
lique lamella. Outer lip dark brown, arcuate, slightly thick- 
ened within; eolumellar margin adnate. Length 6.9, diam. 
2.9, length of ap. 2.8 mm. 

West Maui: Mt. Lihau, Mt. Kukui, Akau-ka-imu, Ahoa 
(Thaanum). 

A beautiful glossy shell related to L. grana Newc., but 
smoother, more glossy, with a more elongate spire, of which 
the upper whorls are flatter and more closely coiled. 

Prom L. baldivini it differs in size, its smoother and more 
glossy surface; the shell is thicker, and the last two whorls 
increase more rapidly. 

12. L. BALDWINI n. sp. PI. 2, figs. 33, 41. 

The shell is minutely perforate, elongately turrited. cor- 
neous, thin, subdiaphanous, minutely striate, especially below 
the suture. Spire elongately conic, apex obtuse. Suture 
scarcely impressed, crenulate, not margined. Whorls 6%, 



LEPTACHATINA, GROUP C. 13 

hardly convex, increasing slowly and regularly, the upper 
closely coiled, the last subcylindrical, tapering to the base. 
Aperture subovate, slightly oblique and very slightly diagonal. 
Columella nearly straight, with a very small oblique deeply 
situated lamella. Outer lip quite strongly arcuate, slightly 
thickened within, indistinctly edged with dark brown; colu- 
mellar margin adnate above, reflexed. Umbilicus minute. 
Length 6.3, diam. 2.6, length of ap. 2.6 mm. 

West Maui Maunahoomaha (Thaanum, Cooke) ; Mt. Lihau, 
Honokowai Gulch and Akau-ka-imu (Thaanum) ; Lahaina 
(Baldwin). East Maui: Kailiili (Baldwin). 

Of the specdes from Maui, L. grana Newc. seems to be its 
closest relative. L. baldwini is, however, minutely perfor- 
ate, shorter with nearly an additional whorl; the whorls are 
more closely coiled and flatter; the spire is less convex in 
outline; the aperture is smaller, etc. 

C. Group of L. cerealis. 
13. L. CEREALIS (Gould). PI. 11, fig. 7. 

"Shell small, elongate, cylindrically conical, unpolished, 
ashy chestnut, spire obtuse, whorls 7-8, nearly flat, the last 
hardly more than one-third of the length; aperture small, 
lunate, equal to a fourth of the length; lip simple, thick- 
ened within; columellar fold obsolete, the penultimate whorl 
covered with callus. Length %, diam. % inch." (9.6x3.2 
mm.) (Gould). 

Oahu Waianae (Gould, Perkins). 

Acliatinella cerealis GOULD, Proc. Bost. Soc., ii, 1847, p. 
201 : U. S. Exp., Moll., pi. vii, fig. 99, 99a. PFEIPFEB, Mon. 
Hel. Viv., iii, p. 466. Achatinella (Amastra) cerealis 
PFEIFFER, Mon. Hel. Viv., iv, p. 545 ; vi, p. 178 ; viii, p. 235. 
HARTMAX, Proc. A. N. S., Phila,, 1888, pi. i, fig. 13. Lepta- 
chatina cerealis PSE., P. Z. S., 1869, p. 651. SYKES, Fauna, 
Haw., ii, 1900, p. 358. 

Among several more or less slender species from Waianae 
I have been unable to find a single specimen which agrees 
closely with Gould's type. 



14 LEPTACHATINA, GROUP C. 

14. L. OBTUSA ('NewcomV Pfeiffer). 

' ' Shell imperf orate, oblong, nearly smooth, glossy, pellucid, 
chestnut- corneous ; spire cylindrically turrited, apex obtuse; 
suture submarginate ; whorls 6%, nearly flat, the last nearly 
equal to % of the length; aperture vertical, ac-uminately 
oval, subangulate at the base ; columellar fold small, oblique ; 
lip simple, erect, with a pale edge, the margins united by a 
thin callus. Length 10.0, diam. 4.0, length of apert. 4.0, 
diam. 2.0." (Pfeiffer.) 

Oahu (Newcomb coll.). 

AcJiatinella obtusa (Newcomb) PFEIFFER, P. Z. S., London, 
1855, p. 209. Achatinella (Leptachatina) obtusa PFEIFFER, 
Mon. Hel. Viv., iv, p. 567. Leptachatina obtusa PEASE, P. Z. 
S., London, 1869, p. 651. SYKES, Fauna Haw., ii, Moll., p. 
366. 

A dark brown, subcylindrical shell, with a thick, well-de- 
veloped lip. This species does not seem to be closely related 
to any of the other species of the genus. The only specimens 
which I have seen so far are in the collection of the British 
Museum and that of Newcomb. 

15. L. TERES (Pfeiffer). 

" 'Shell imperf orate, dextral, cylindrically oblong, somewhat 
thin, lightly striate, very glossy, corneous; spire gradually 
attenuate, apex somewhat obtuse; suture crenulate, dark 
chestnut, on the last whorl impressly marginate; whorls 7, 
somewhat flat, the last a little more than % of the length, 
slightly ascending in front; aperture suboblique, sinuately 
semioval; columellar fold subcallous, twisted, oblique; lip 
simple, erect. Length 10, diam. 4 mm." (Pfr.). 

Hawaiian Islands (Pfeiffer) ; probably Oahu. 

Achatinella (Leptachatina) teres PFR., P. Z. S., 1855 
(1856), p. 206; Mon. Hel. Viv., iv, p. 566. Leptachatina 
teres PSE., P. Z. S., 1869, p. 651. SYKES, Fauna Haw., ii, 
p. 371. 

This species is very closely related to L. obtusa and the two 
may ultimately prove to belong to the same species. The type 



LEPTACHATINA, GROUP C. 15 

specimen of L. teres is an obtuse, subeylindrical shell, quite 
thick (for the genus), with a vertical aperture which does 
not extend beyond the penultimate whorl. 

16. L. TURRITA (Guiick). PI. 9, fig. 16. 

"Shell dextral, irnperf orate, ovately turrited, rather thin, 
shining, translucent, dark corneous, finely striated; apex ob- 
tuse, pallid ; spire turrited ; suture simple, lightly impressed ; 
whorls nearly 9, flatly convex; columellar fold moderately 
developed, whitish; aperture roundly lunate; peristome sim- 
ple; with dextral margin unreflected, arcuate; columellar 
margin dilated, thin, adnate; parietal margin wanting. 
Length 9, diam. 4 mm. Body whorl 5 mill, long." (Gul.). 

Oahu: Mountain ravines of Lihue (Guiick). 

Achatinella turrita GUL., Ann. Lye. N. Y., vi, 1856, p. 192, 
pi. 6, fig. 20. Achatinella obclavata ( L. sandwicensis 
Pfr.), NEWC., Ann. Lye. N. Y., 1858, p. 322. Leptachatina 
turrita BALD., Cat. Haw. Shells, 1893, p. 12. SYKES, Proc. 
Mai. Soc. Lond., iii. pi. 14, fig. 6 ; Fauna Haw., ii, p. 372. 

I have only seen the type specimens, and agree with Mr. 
Sykes that this species is not obclavata (= sandwicensis Pfr.) 
to which species it was referred by Newcomb. Mr. Sykes' 
figure of the type is copied. 

17. L. PERSUBTILIS n. sp. PI. 10, fig. 4. 

The shell is imperforate turrited, nearly corneous, diaph- 
anous, thin, glossy, very finely and closely striated. Spire 
turrited, apex rather blunt, rounded. Suture distinctly mar- 
gined, scarcely impressed. Whorls nearly 8, almost flat, 
closely coiled, increasing slowly and regularly, the last cylin- 
drical, tapering towards the base. Aperture subovate, 
slightly oblique, perpendicular. Columella nearly straight, 
its face slightly concave, columellar fold rather strong, thin, 
nearly median. Outer margin of lip regularly curved, erect, 
slightly thickened within; columellar margin thin, appressed, 
adnate; parietal wall covered with a thin, closely striated 
callus. Length 8.7, diam. 3.6 ;, length of ap. 3.5 mm. 

Oahu: Waianae Mts. back of Waialua (Lyman). 



16 LEPTACHATINA, GROUP D. 

L. persubtilis is chiefly characterized by its turrited form, 
almost flat whorls and the minute striation on the callus of 
the parietal wall. Some of the specimens have a light brown- 
ish tinge which is somewhat lighter near the suture. I know 
of no species to which it may be closely related. 

D. Group of L. gracilis. 
18. L. GRACILIS (Pfeiffer). PI. 3, figs. 47, 48. 

"Shell, imperf orate, slender, turrited, somewhat solid, 
nearly smooth, white, encircled with two brown bands ; spire 
elongate, regularly attenuate, apex somewhat obtuse; suture 
simple; whorls 8, somewhat flat, the last equal to % of the 
length, rotundate at the base ; aperture subvertical, sinuately 
oval; columellar fold median, subeompressed ; lip simple, 
dextral margin erect, lightly arcuate, columellar margin di- 
lated, adnate. Length 14.0, diam. 5.5 mm." (Pfr.). 

Oahu: Waianae Mts. ; Kaala (Baldwin); below Kaala 
(Perkins) ; back of Waialua (Lyman) ; back of Leilehua 
(Cooke). 

Achatinella gracilis PFEIFFER, P. Z. S., 1855, p. 6, pi. 30, 
fig. 22. Achatinella elevata Newcomb, PFEIFFER, P. Z. S., 
1855 (1856), p. 209. Achatinella (Achatinellastrum) gracilis 
PFEIFFER, Mon. Hel. Viv., iv, p. 536 ; vi, p. 173 ; viii, p. 224. 
Leptachatina gracilis NEWCOMB, Ann. Lye. N. Y., vi, 1858, p. 
321. SYKES, Fauna Haw., ii, 1900, p. 363. 

A very distinct elongate species. None of my specimens 
approach Pfeiffer 's in size. The shells from the western ex- 
tremity of the Waianae range have a longer and narrower 
aperture than those from near the middle of the range. 
Measurements of specimens from these two localities are : 

Length 11.8, diam. 4.7, length of apert. 4.5 mm. (Back of 
Waialua). 

Length 12.0, diam. 5.3, length of apert, 4.3 mm. (Back of 
Leilehua) . 

Pfeiffer 's original figure is copied, pi. 3, fig. 48. 



LEPTACHATINA, GROUP D. IT 

19. L. SUBULA (Gulick). PI. 9, fig. 14. 

"Shell dextral, imperf orate, elongate, thin, shining, trans- 
lucent, dark corneous, very finely striated ; apex obtuse, whit- 
ish; spire turrited; suture simple, impressed; whorls 9, con- 
vex; columellar fold central, white; aperture sinuately lun- 
ate ; peristome simple ; with dextral margin unreflected, arcu- 
ate; columellar margin dilated, white, adnate; parietal mar- 
gin wanting. Length 11.5, diam. 4.3, length of body whorl 
6 mm." (Gul.) 

Oahu: Palolo (Gul.); Waialae (Spalding). 

Achatinella subula GULICK, Ann. Lye. N. Y., vi, 1856, p. 
191, pi. 6, fig. 19. Achatinella gracilis NEWCOMB, Ann. Lye. 
X. Y., 1858, p. 321. Achatinella (Leptachatina) elevata, 
PFEIFFER, Mon. Hel. Viv., vi, p. 184. Leptac}iatina subula 
SYKES, Proc. Malac. Soc. London, iii, pi. 14, fig. 16. Lepta- 
chatina gracilis SYKES, Fauna Haw., ii, Moll., p. 363. 

The type specimen of L. subula was carefully compared 
with specimens of L. gracilis, with the following differences: 
the spire of the former is more attenuate, almost slightly con- 
cave, the whorls are more convex ; the shell is thinner, darker 
colored and unicolorous; the striae are more pronounced; 
the apex is more acute and less rounded. Mr. Sykes' figure 
of the type is copied in fig. 14. 

20. L. TEREBRALIS (Gulick). PI. 9, fig. 15. 

"Shell dextral, imperforate, turreted, shining, dark brown, 
corneous, very finely striated; apex obtuse, white; spire tur- 
reted; suture simple, slightly impressed, whorls 7%, flatly 
convex; columella white, moderately plaited; aperture lun- 
ate; peristome whitish; with dextral margin unreflected, 
somewhat thickened; columellar margin dilated; adnate; 
parietal margin thin. Long. 11, diam .4.5 mm. Body 
whorl 6 mm. long." (Gul.) 

"Var. &. With spire shortened, concavely conical; body 
whorl rounded." (Gul.) 

Oahu: Kawailoa (Gulick); Waianae Mts., below Kaala 
(Perkins). 



18 LEPTACHATINA, GROUP E. 

Achatinella terebralis GUL., Ann. Lye. N. Y., vi, 1856, p. 
193, pi. 6, fig. 21. Achatinella (Leptachatina} terebralis 
PFR., Mon. Hel. Viv., vi, p. 185. Leptachatina terebralis 
PEASE, P. Z. S., 1869, p. 651. SYKES, Proe. Mai. Soc. Lond., 
iii, pi. 14, fig. 3; Fauna Haw., ii, p. 371. 

"Resembles A. turrita and subula Nob., but is thicker and 
heavier than either, and has fewer whorls. The shorter 
variety seems to revert to the form of A. lagena Nob., which 
in geographical relation is within five or six miles, and in 
affinity is probably more nearly allied to this than are 
A. turrita and subula, found in more distant parts of the 
island. The number of its whorls and its thicker structure 
favor this opinion. ' ' ( G-ulick. ) 

L. terebralis seems to be also related to L. gracilis Pfr. It 
is slightly narrower in proportion to its length and the spire 
is more turrited. Mr. Sykes' figure of the type is copied in 
fig. 15. 

E. Group of L. obsoleta. 
21. L. CYLINDBATA Pease. PL 8, figs. 63, 64. 

"The shell is thin, dextral, glossy, imperforate, elongate, 
sub cylindrical, longitudinally faintly striate, scarcely crenu- 
late at the suture, yellowish corneous; whorls 6, nearly flat, 
the last equal to % of the length; apex obtuse; suture im- 
pressed; columella simple, arcuate; aperture vertical, oblong 
ovate; lip simple. Length 8, diam. 2.5 mm." (Pse.) 

Kauai: Kilohana, near Lihue, Waiakoali (Cooke). 

Leptachatina cylindrata PEASE, Journ. de ConchyL, 1869, 
p. 168. Achatinella (Leptachatina) cylindrata PFR., Mon. 
Hel. Viv., viii, p. 246. Leptachatina exilis G-uL, SYKES, 
Fauna Haw., ii, 1900, p. 361. 

A shell from the former locality agrees exactly with Pease's 
measurements and has the aperture 2.8 mm. in length. 

Mr. Sykes reduced this species to a synonym of L. exilis 
Gul. I have compared specimens of each species, sent by 
their respective authors to the Academy N. S. Phila., and 
find the following differences : L. exilis is smaller with the 



LEPTACHATINA, GROUP E. 19 

same number of whorls, the outlines are slightly more con- 
vex, the apex is more acute and the columellar fold is slightly 
stronger and more oblique. All of the shells of Gulick 's 
species that I have been able to examine are minutely per- 
forate, while those of Pease were imperforate. One of the 
specimens received from Pease is figured. 

22. L. CONVEXTUSCULA Sykes. PL 9, figs. 1, 2, 5. 

"Shell turrited, elongate, slender, somewhat thin, dextral, 
brownish corneous, smooth, polished, glossy, apex somewhat 
obtuse ; whorls 6%, convex, somewhat swollen, the last equal 
to 9/16 of the length of the shell; suture well impressed; 
aperture pyriform, sinuate at the margin of the columella, 
furnished with a very small fold, with the margins united by 
& very thin callus. Length 8.0, diam. 2.8 mm." (Sykes}. 

Oahu: Waiolani (Perkins); Nuuanu, Palolo (Cooke). 

Leptachatina convexiuscula SYKES, Fauna Hawaiiensis, ii, 
1900, p. 360, pi. xi, fig. 11. 

"A shell of the group of L. exilis Gulick, but with more in- 
flated whorls, slightly more tapering towards the apex, and 
the mouth more drawn out to the right." (Sykes). Fig. 5 
is a copy of the original figure. Figs. 1, 2 are from Nuuanu 
specimens. 

L. convexiuscula is about midway between L. cylindrata 
Pse., from Kauai, and L. exilis Gulick. There are two color 
varieties among the specimens from Nuuanu. The more 
abundant form is brownish corneous, the other vitreous and 
diaphanous. The specimens from Palolo are slightly more 
slender than those from Nuuanu, the upper whorls of the 
spire are more attenuate, more closely coiled and slightly 
more convex ; the aperture is also narrower. 

Two shells from the additional localities have the follow- 
ing measurements: Length 8.9, diam. 2.9, alt. of apert. 3.2 
mm., 6% whorls (Nuuanu). Length 9.0, diam. 2.7, alt. of 
apert. 3.2 mm., 7 whorls (Palolo). 

23. L. EXILIS (G-ulick). PL 9, figs. 6, 10. 

"Shell dextral, subperf orate, cylindrically turreted, slen- 



20 LEPTACHATINA, GROUP E. 

der, very thin, shining, transparent, vitreous, scarcely striated 
beneath the lens ; apex somewhat obtuse ; spire turretly elon- 
gate; suture simple, scarcely impressed; whorls 6, some- 
what flattened; columellar fold slightly developed, termin- 
ating deep within the aperture; aperture vertical, truncately 
elliptical; peristome simple, thin, with dextral margin un- 
reflected, arcuate; columellar margin dilated, thin, vitreous, 
not appressed; parietal margin wanting. Length 6.3, diam. 
2.5, length of body whorl 4.0 mm. 

Oahu: Keawaawa, under stones in places not shaded by 
trees (Gulick). 

Achatinella exilis GULICK, Ann. Lye. N. Y., 1856, p. 188, 
pi. 6, fig. 16. Achatinella (Leptachatina) exilis PFEIFFER, 
Mon. Hel. Viv., iv, p. 568; vi, p. 186; viii, p. 247. Lepta- 
chatina exilis PEASE, P. Z. S. London, 1869, p. 651. SYKES, 
Proc. Malac. Soc. London, iii, pi. 14, fig. 18; Fauna Haw., 
ii, 1900, p. 361. 

A small, slender species which does not seem to be very 
closely related to any other species from Oahu. Its nearest 
relatives being L. convexiuscula Sykes, and L. cylindrata 
Pease, though the two are more closely allied to each other 
than is exilis to either of them. Specimens from Gulick 's col- 
lection are of a brownish corneous color. Mr. Sykes believed 
that cylindrata and exilis belonged to the same species. From 
a minute and careful comparison of specimens from both au- 
thors I am inclined to differ from him. For a discussion of 
these differences see L. cylindrata. 

A specimen from Mr. Gulick has the following measure- 
ments: Length 6.1, diam. 2.3, length of apert. 2.35 mm. 

(pi. 9, fig. e), 

24. L. SAXATILIS (Gulick). PL 4, fig. 76. 

"Shell dextral, perforate, cylindrically oblong, thin, shin- 
ing, transparent, vitreous, microscopically very finely striated ; 
apex rather obtuse ; spire elongate ; suture simple, lightly im- 
pressed; whorls 6, slightly convex; the last rounded towards 
the aperture ; columella slightly arcuate, pallid, with fold ob- 
solete; aperture broadly oval; peristome simple, bordered 



LEPTACHATINA, GROUP E. 21 

with white; with margins joining in an unbroken curve; 
dextral margin unreflected, arcuate; columellar margin di- 
lated, not appressed ; parietal margin slightly callous. Length 
6.3, diam. 2.8, length of body whorl 3.5 mm." (GuL). 

Oahu: Mokuleia, under stones in open fields. (Gul.) 

Achatinella saxatilis GULICK, Ann. Lye. N. Y., vi, 1856, p. 
187, pi. 6, fig. 15. Achatinella (Leptachatina) saxatilis PFR., 
Mon. Hel. Viv., vi, p. 186. Leptachatina- saxatilis PEASE, 
P. Z. S., 1869, p. 650. HARTMAN, Proc. A. N. S. Phila., 
1888, p. 55. SYKES, Proc. Malac. Soc. London, iii, pi. 14, 
%. 17. 

"A small cylindrical species, of clear glassy appearance. 
It represents more nearly than any other the Oahu species, the 
A. grand Newc. (found on East Maui), from which it differs 
chiefly in its larger size, more elongate form, and glassy trans- 
parency. From A. crystallina it differs in slender form and 
smooth columella with umbilical cleft." (Gulick). 

From an examination of Gulick 's type of this species we 
find the last two whorls rapidly increasing, the columellar 
fold is minute and deeply seated and the lip is remarkably 
heavy for a shell of this type. 

25. L. EXOPTABILIS n. sp. PI. 10, figs. 5, 6. 

The shell is very minutely perforate, elongate, slender, in a 
fossil state white, somewhat solid, under a strong lens min- 
utely striate with lines of growth. Spire elongate, gradually 
tapering towards the somewhat obtuse base. Suture simple, 
hardly impressed, slightly oblique. Whorls 7%, nearly flat, 
slowly and regularly increasing, the last cylindrical, tapering 
towards the base. Aperture ovately pyriform, oblique, 
slightly diagonal. Columella arcuate, with a distinct callus 
along its face and a very minute, oblique, nearly basal fold. 
Outer lip almost regularly curved, erect, thickened within, 
columellar margin appressed and adnate for about % of its 
length. Umbilicus very minute. Length 7.8, diam. 2.6, 
length of ap. 2.6 mm. 

Oahu: Diamond Head (fossil); Waianae Mts. back of 
Leilehua (Cooke). 



22 LEPTACHATINA, GROUP E. 

The description is based on two specimens one of which, is 
not adult and is slightly broken. It is' most closely related 
to L. exilis Gul. from the same island. L. exoptabilis is, how- 
ever, larger, with less convex outlines and is narrower in pro- 
portion to its length. I have referred to this species, with 
some hesitation, a single shell from the Waianae Mts. The 
shell is larger (length 9.3, diam. 2.8, alt. of ap. 2.9 mm.) y 
without a perforation and the columellar fold is very minute. 
It is very glossy and of a very light corneous color. 

26. L. LEIAHIENSIS n. sp. PL 10, figs. 9, 10. 

The shell is imperf orate, elongate, turrited, white (in fossil 
state), smooth. Spire elongate-turrited, apex rather blunt. 
Suture simple, hardly impressed. Whorls 6%, increasing re- 
gularly and very slowly, the embryonic rather large, slightly 
convex, the rest nearly flat, the last cylindrical with the base 
slightly flattened. Aperture small, subovate, rather broad 
in proportion to its length, oblique, slightly diagonal. Colu- 
mella nearly straight, with a very minute, oblique fold. 
Outer margin of the lip regularly convex, thickened within, 
columellar margin thickened, appressed, adnate. Length 6.0 r 
diam. 2.2 ; length of ap. 2.1 mm. 

Oahu: Diamond Head, fossil (Cooke). 

This species is distinct from all the other species. The 
turrited blunt spire is very characteristic of this species as 
is also the oblique aperture. I know of no species with which 
it may be closely related. It is extremely rare. Less than a 
dozen specimens were obtained in four trips, two of which 
were made especially for this species. Of all the specimens 
collected, only two are now unbroken, and only four were 
intact when collected, as the shells are very delicate and 
easily broken in cleaning. 

27. L. MOLOKAIENSIS n. sp. PI. 10, figs. 11, 12. 

The shell is imperforate, elongate, turrited, light brownish 
corneous, glossy, thin, diaphanous, under a strong lens min- 
utely striate with lines of growth. Spire elongate, tapering 
gradually to the rather blunt rounded apex. Suture simple., 



LEPTACHATINA, GROUP E. 23 

oblique, slightly impressed. Whorls 6, slightly convex, the 
embryonic rounded, the last cylindrical, tapering slowly to- 
wards the base. Aperture elongate, pyriform, oblique, per- 
pendicular. Columella brownish, twisted, with a very ob- 
lique, minute basal fold. Outer margin of lip regularly arcu- 
ate, very slightly thickened within and faintly edged with 
dark brown; columellar margin thin, appressed, adnate. 
Length 7.3, diam. 2.8, length of ap. 2.8 mm. 

Molokai: Mapulehu Ridge, Kaluaaha and Wailau Pali 
(Thaanum). 

This species is represented by a single example from each 
of the above localities. L. lanceolata, is the closest related 
species from Molokai. L. molokaiensis differs, however, in 
having a less number of whorls with its greater length, its 
smoother surface, less conic spire, etc. It is more closely 
related to L. convexiuscula Sykes from Oahu, from which it 
is easily recognized by its slightly less cylindrical outlines, less 
rapidly increasing whorls, smaller size, etc. 

28. L. OBSOLETA (Pfeiffer). PL 2, figs. 31, 32. 

"Shell subperf orate, oblong- turrited, thin, very faintly 
striate, pellucid, glossy, pale corneous ; spire slightly convexly 
turrited, obtuse; suture marginate; whorls 6y 2 , slightly con- 
vex, the last forming % of the length; columella arcuate, 
lightly twisted at the middle ; aperture scarcely oblique, ellip- 
tically oval; lip simple, columellar margin very shortly re- 
flexed, subadnate. Length 8.0, 'diam. 3 mm. Aperture 3.25 
mm. long, 2.0 broad." (Pfr.) 

East Maui: Haleakala at 5000 feet (Perkins); floor of 
Haleakala crater at about 8000 feet (Cooke). 

Spi-raoris obsoleta PFEIFFER, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1856, 
p. 335; Mon. Hel. Viv., iv, p. 576. Leptackatina obsoleta 
PEASE, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1869, p. 650. SYKES, Fauna 
Haw., ii, 1900, p. 366. 

An interesting species, found at a higher altitude than any 
other species of this genus so far reported. They were rather 
abundant under stones near " Crystal Cave " on the almost 
barren floor of the crater. Only seventeen adult specimens 



24 LEPTACHATINA, GROUP F. 

were gathered, three of which have a remarkable development. 
Near the base of the columella is a low blunt spiral callus on 
the parietal wall and extending into the aperture. This may 
be a senile character, though two of the specimens do not show 
any other signs of senility. This thickening has not been 
observed in any other species. 

In fresh adult examples the outer lip and columella are 
edged with dark brown. A few have the parietal callus min- 
utely parallel-striate. Adult specimens from a single colony 
vary between the following measurements : Length 7.9, diam. 
3.1, length of ap. 2.9 mm. Length 8.7, diam. 3.3, length of 
ap. 3.3 mm. Length 8.8, diam. 3.4, length of ap. 3.2 mm. 

This species is related to L. exilis Gul. and L. convexius- 
cula Sykes, both of which come from the island of Oahu. 

F. Group of L. accincta. 
29. L. BREVICULA Pease. PI. 8, fig. 54. 

"Shell dextral, somewhat thin, imperf orate, pyramidal or 
shortly ovate, very minutely, longitudinally striate, corneous ; 
whorls 5-6, somewhat flat, marginate at the suture; aperture 
obauriform; columellar fold white, compressed, subbasal, 
strong, almost transverse; lip scarcely thickened. Length 
8.0, diam. 4.0 mm." (Pse.) 

Kauai (Pease) : Kaholuamano, and at 4000 ft. (Perkins). 

L. brevicula PSE., Journ. de Conchyl., xvii, 1869, p. 169. 
SYKES, Fauna Haw., ii, p. 358. Achatinella (Leptachatina) 
brevicula PFR., Mon. Hel. Viv., viii, p. 246. 

An example, sent by Pease to the Acad. N. S. Phila., has 
the following measurements: Length 7.3, diam. 3.9, length 
of aperture 3.5 mm., with 6% whorls. The species is closely 
related to L. gummea Gul. from Oahu. 

29a. L. b. micro, n. var. PI. 8, fig. 55. 

The shell is much smaller and proportionally, and more 
obese than typical specimens of L. brevicula. Length 6.1, 
diam. 3.1, length of aperture 2.8 mm. 

Kauai: Haleieie at 1700 ft. and Milolii at 1500 ft. (Cooke). 




LEPTACHATINA, GROUP P. 25 

30. L. ACCINCTA (Mighels). PI. 3, figs. 53, 56. 

"Shell dextral, conical, horn color, smooth, polished, im- 
perforate; whorls six, convex, with an impressed revolving 
line just below the suture; aperture semiovate; lip simple 
acute. Length 4/15, diam. 2/15 inch." (6.6x3.3 mm.) 
(Mighels.) 

Oahu (Mighels) : Keawaawa (Gulick) ; Waianae Mts., back 
of Waialua (Lyman) ; Waianae Mts., Leilehua (Cooke). 

Achatina accincta MIGHELS, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., ii, 1845, 
p. 20. REEVE, Conch. Icon., Achatina, sp. 101. PFR., Mon. 
Hel. Viv., ii, p. 271; iii, p. 504. Achatinella (Amastra) ac- 
cincta PFR., Mon. Hel. Viv., iv, p. 545 ; vi, p. 177 ; viii, p. 235. 
Achatinella (Leptachatina) margarita PPR., P. Z. S. Lon- 
don, 1855, p. 206; Mon. Hel. Viv., iv, p. 568; vi, p. 187; viii, 
p. 247. Achatinella granifera GUL., Ann. Lye. N. Y., vi, 
1856, p. 185, pi. 6, fig. 13. Leptachatina granifera mar- 
garita GUL., P. Z. S. London, 1873, p. 91. Leptachatina 
granifera SYKES, Proc. Malac. Soc. London, iii, pi. 14, fig. 5. 
Leptachatina accincta PSE., P. Z. S. London, 1869, p. 650. 
SYKES, Fauna Haw., ii, 1900, p. 356. Not Achatinella ac- 
cincta GLD., U. S. Expl. Exped. Moll., pi. 7, fig. 97 = L. ven- 
tulus Fer. 

The shells referred to this species are sometimes minutely 
perforate, very glossy, and under a lens faintly striate. The 
spire is ovately conical, apex subobtuse. The suture is 
slightly impressed, narrowly margined. The whorls are very 
slightly convex. The aperture is slightly oblique and very 
slightly diagonal. Columellar fold rather strong. Lip thick- 
ened, whitish. 

Length 7.2, diam. 3.5, length of ap. 3.2 mm. (Leilehua). 

Length 5.5, diam. 2.8, length of ap. 2.6 mm. (Leilehua). 

Length 6.0, diam. 3.2, length of ap. 2.7 mm. (Waianae Mts., 
back of Waialua) . 

The last shell has a much smaller columellar fold than 
the other two. 

Pf eiffer 's measurements for margarita are : Length 6.3, 
diam. 3.0 mm. Aperture 3.0x1% mm. 



26 LEPTACHATINA, GROUP F. 

Gulick 's, for granifera are: Length 7.0, diam. 3.3 mm.; 
length of body whorl 4.5 mm. 

I have followed Mr. Sykes in referring Pfeiffer's and. 
Gulick 's species to accincta. Unfortunately Mighels's type is 
probably lost as no trace of it could be found. The figure in 
the U. S. Exp. Exped., Moll., pi. 7, fig. 97, belongs to an en- 
tirely different species, L. ventulus Fer. 

31. L. CRYSTALLINA (Gulick). PL 3, fig. 50. 

" Shell dextral, imperf orate, oblong, thin, shining, trans- 
parent, vitreous, microscopically very finely striated; apex 
somewhat obtuse ; spire convexly conical ; suture simple, mod- 
erately impressed; whorls 6, somewhat convex; columellar 
fold central, corneous, but slightly developed; aperture ro- 
tundately lunate; peristome simple, bordered with white; 
with dextral margin unreflected, arcuate; columellar margin 
dilated. Length 6.0, diam. 3.0, length of body whorl 4.0 
mm." (Gulick.) 

Oahu : Mokuleia, under stones in open country. (Gulick.) 
' Yar. b. With a brown spiral line accompanying the su- 
ture." (Gulick.) 

"Var. c. Larger, not so transparent." (Gulick.) 

Oahu: Kamoo, Waialua. (Gulick.) 

Achatinella crystallina GULICK, Ann. Lye. N. Y., vi, 1856, 
p. 186, pi. 6, fig. 14. Achatinella nitida NEWCOMB, Ann. Lye. 
N. Y., vi, 1858, p. 327. PFR., Mon. Hel. Viv., vi, 184. Lepta- 
chatina crystallina SYKES, Fauna Haw., ii, 1900, p. 361. 

A small ovate species related to the shells referred to 
L. accincta Mighels, but more slender, with a less conical 
spire, and with a more perpendicular and narrower aperture. 
A specimen in the collection of the Academy of Natural 
Science of Philadelphia, no. 91807, has the following meas- 
urements: length 6.6, diam. 2.9, length of apert. 2.8 mm. 

32. L. GUMMEA (Gulick) . PL 3, fig. 54. 

. ' ' Shell dextral, imperf orate, broad, oblong conic, thin, shin- 
ing, pellucid, amber colored, very finely striated ; apex rather 
obtuse; spire convexly conical; suture simple, lightly im- 



LEPTACHATINA. GROUP F. 27 

pressed ; whorls 6, rather convex ; columellar fold central, pale 
corneous, scarcely lamelliform ; aperture sub-pyrif onn ; peris- 
tome margined with white and thickened within ; with dextral 
margin arcuate, very slightly reflected anteriorly; columellar 
margin dilated, adnate; parietal margin thin. Length 7.6, 
diam. 4.3, length of body whorl 5.3 mm." (Gulick.) 

Oahu: Mokuleia, Lihue, (Gulick); Olomana (Gulick on 
label, Mus. Bost. Soc.) ; Punaluu, Hauula, Helemanu, Kailua, 
Waimanalo (Gulick, for A. fragilis) ; Palolo, Bound Top, 
Mt. Tantalus, Pauoa, Nuuanu (Cooke). 

Achatinella gummea GULICK, Ann. Lye. N. Y., vi, 1856, p. 
182, pi. 6, fig. 10. Achatinella fragilis GULICK, Ann. Lye. 
N. Y., vi, 1856, p. 182, pi. 6, fig. 11. Achatinella guttula 
NEWCOMB, Ann. Lye. N. Y., vi, 1858, p. 315. Achatinella. 
(Leptachatina) gummea PFEIFFER, Mon. Hel. Viv., iv, p. 566; 
vi, p. 184; viii, p. 247. Leptachatina gummea SYKES, P. 
Malac. Soc. London, iii, pi. xiv, fig. 1. Leptachatina fragilis 
SYKES, P. Malac. Soc. London, iii, pi. xiv, fig. 2. Lepta- 
chatina guttula SYKES, Fauna Haw., ii, 1900, p. 363. 

This is the commonest and most widespread species of 
Lepta-chatina on the Island of Oahu. It is nearly always 
present in the more or less open woods near forests, though 
it sometimes occurs in the damper and darker regions but not 
so abundantly. 

I think that Newcomb, in his identification of L. guttula 
Gld., must have been mistaken, for typical shells of this 
species are entirely different from gummea. Gould's species 
is heavier, thicker, with a more ovate spire, the last whorl is 
more tumid and tapers more at the base, the lip is much more 
thickened and the columellar fold is smaller and more deeply 
seated than in L. gummea. 

The species differs considerably in size as can be seen by 
the following measurements : 

Length 7.8, diam. 4.0, length of apert. 3.6 mm. Nuuanu. 

Length 9.8, diam. 4.9, length of apert. 4.8 mm. Nuuanu. 

Length 6.8, diam. 3.8, length of apert, 3.6 mm. Round Top. 

Length 8.5, diam. 4.5, length of apert, 4.2 mm. Palolo. 

Length 7.6, diam. 4.0, length of body whorl 5.3 mm. (Gulick 
for A. fragilis.) 



28 LEPTACHATINA, GROUP F. 

33. L. ORYZA (Pfeiffer). PL 3, fig. 59. 

"Shell subrimate, fusiform, somewhat striate, corneous 
(?) ; spire convexly conical, apex somewhat obtuse; suture 
light, simple; whorls 7, scarcely convex, the last nearly 
equal to % of the length, attenuate at the base; aperture 
scarcely oblique, acuminately oval; columellar fold subcom- 
pressed, acute; lip simple, erect, columellar margin subre- 
nexed, adnate. Length 8.0, diam. 3.75, length of apert. 3.6, 
diam. 2 mm." (Pfeiffer.} 

Oahu, subfossil (Frick, Newcomb) : Keawaawa (Gulick). 

Achatinella 1 (Leptachatina) oryza PFEIFFER, P. Z. S. London, 
1855, Feb., 1856, p. 206. Achatinella tritacea GULICK, Ann. 
Lye. N. Y., vi, Dec., 1856, p. 184, pi. 6, fig. 12. Achatinella 
oryza NEWCOMB, Ann. Lye. N. Y., vi, 1858, p. 322. Acha- 
tinella (Leptachatina) oryza PFEIFFER, Mon. Hel. Viv., iv, p. 
567 ; vi, p. 185 ; viii, p. 247. Leptachatina oryza PEASE, P. Z. 
S. London, 1869, p. 651. Leptachatina tritacea SYKES, P. 
Malac. Soc. London, iii, 1899, pi. 14, fig. 8. Leptachatina 
oryza SYKES, Fauna Haw., ii, 1900, p. 367. 

I follow Newcomb and Sykes in placing Gulick 's species 
tritacea with the one above. The main difference between 
Gulick 's and Pfeiffer 's specimens is that the former is al- 
ways imperforate while that of Pfeiffer is distinctly rimate. 
A specimen of tritacea from Gulick 's collection is figured, pi. 
3, fig. 52. 

33a. L. o. subcylindracea n. var. PI. 3, figs. 60, 61. 

The shell is smaller than typical specimens of oryza, more 
cylindrical; the suture is broadly margined; whorls 6%; 
aperture nearly vertical, slightly contracted. Length 6.6, 
diam. 2.7, length of apert. 2.6 mm. 

Oahu, fossil (Newcomb). Type no. 57820 A. N. S. P. 

34. L. VANA Sykes. PI. 3, fig. 57. 

"Shell pyramidately conic, dextral, imperforate, somewhat 
thin, brownish corneous, glossy, under a lens obsoletely longi- 
tudinally striate, suture marginate ; whorls 8, slowly increas- 
ing, the last whorl equal to % the length of the shell ; aper- 



LEPTACHATINA, GROUP F. 29 

ture pyriform, dextral margin acute, columellar margin sub- 
reflexed, sinuate ? furnished with a small fold, with the mar- 
gins united by a very thin callus. Length 7.8, diam. 3.9 
mm." (Sykes.) 

Oahu: Mt, Kaala (Perkins). 

Leptachatina vana SYKES, Fauna Hawaiiensis, ii, Moll., 
1900, p. 372, pi. xi, fig. 27. 

"A brownish horny, pyramidal shell which has no strik- 
ing characters." (Sykes.) Mr. Sykes' figure is copied. 

35. L. CAPTIOSA n. sp. PL 11, fig. 12. 

The shell is minutely perforate, ovate, corneous, nearly 
solid, hardly diaphanous, scarcely glossy, under a lens faintly 
and closely striated with lines of growth. Spire nearly 
conic, with slightly convex outlines; apex rounded. Suture 
simple, scarcely impressed. Whorls G 1 ^, the first 3 closely 
coiled, nearly flat, the rest increasing more rapidly, very 
slightly convex, the last large, nearly cylindrical, tapering 
very gradually towards the base. Aperture rather large, sub- 
ovate, very slightly oblique, nearly perpendicular. Columella 
nearly straight, arcuate below, with an acute callus along 
its face ; columellar fold rather strong, nearly basal, oblique, 
extending to the outer margin. Outer lip slightly arcuate, 
distinctly thickened; columellar margin thin, adnate above; 
both margins united by a thin, transparent callus with its 
outer edge slightly thickened. Umbilicus very minute. 
Length 10.0, diam. 5.0. Length of ap. 4.8 mm. 

Oahu: Waianae Mts., back of Leilehua (Cooke). 

Somewhat related to L. pulchra but with fewer whorls. 
L. captiosa is broader in proportion to its length. This 
species is also related to L. fuscula Gul. The spire is how- 
ever, more convex, and the surface is smoother. 

36. L. PULCHRA n. sp. PI. 10, figs. 7, 8. 

The shell is imperf orate, (sometimes minutely perforate), 
elongate-ovate, spire and upper part of last whorl light 
brown, base darker brown, with a dark brown band accom- 
panying the sutures, somewhat glossy, under a lens striate 



30 LEPTACHATINA, GROUP F. 

with lines of growth. Spire nearly conic with slightly con- 
vex outlines, apex slightly acute. Suture hardly impressed, 
faintly margined, slightly crenulate. Whorls 6%, almost 
flat, increasing regularly, the last nearly cylindrical, tapering 
towards the 'base, ascending slightly near the lip. Aperture 
very slightly oblique, slightly diagonal, subovate, somewhat 
angled at its juncture with the columella. Columella nearly 
straight, with an acute callus along its face; columellar fold 
rather strong, oblique, subbasal. Outer lip regularly curved, 
distinctly thickened within, columellar margin thickened, usu- 
ally appressed and adnate. Umbilicus, when present, min- 
ute. Length 8.3, diam. 3.9 ; length of ap. 3.6 mm. 

Oahu: Waianae Mts. back of Leilehua (Oooke). 

A beautiful distinct species found in open country at the 
base of small ferns. Related to L. vana Sykes, but narrower 
in proportion to its length and with a less conic spire. There 
is a larger and lighter-colored variety of this shell of which 
I have only three specimens. Of this variety a well de- 
veloped specimen measures, length 9.8, diam. 4.1 mm. 

37. L. OPIPARA n. sp. PI. 12, fig. 1. 

The shell is imperforate, narrowly ovate, corneous, thin, 
glossy, subdiaphanous, the embryonic whorls smooth, the rest, 
under a lens, closely and distinctly striate, with numerous 
very close, and very fine spiral striae. Spire narrowly ovate, 
apex rounded. Suture faintly margined, crenulate, scarcely 
impressed, Whorls 6 1 /^ slightly convex, the neanic increasing 
slowly and regularly, the last increasing more rapidly, nearly 
cylindrical, tapering towards the base. Aperture large, sub- 
pyriform, slightly oblique and very slightly diagonal. Colu- 
mella nearly straight, its face slightly concave, with a rather 
strong flattened lamella. Outer -margin of lip erect, thick- 
ened within, nearly flat above, regularly curved below, colu- 
mellar margin slightly thickened, appressed, adnate. Length 
9.4, diam. 4.3 ; length of ap. 4.2 mm. 

O-ahu: Apex of mountain range back of Palolo Valley 
(Cooke). 

L. opipara is most closely related to L. gummed Gulick. It 



LEPTACHATINA, GROUP F. 31 

is much, narrower in proportion to its length with more convex 
outlines and slightly more distinctly striate. As far as I 
know, this species has only been collected once and that in the 
locality mentioned above when 5 closely agreeing specimens 
were taken. 

38. L. EMERITA Sykes. PI. 6, figs. 1, 2, 3. 

1 1 The shell is elongate, subcylindrical, imperf orate, dextral, 
corneous, or hyaline or yellow, somewhat thin, under a lens 
longitudinally striate, apex somewhat obtuse; whorls 6%, 
flatly convex, the last almost equal to % the length of the 
shell; suture impressed, marginate; aperture ovate, with, the 
dextral margin slightly thickened, columellar margin subre- 
flexed, furnished with a small inconspicuous ascending lamella. 
Length 8.0, diam. 3.5 mm." (Sykes.) 

Molokai: Kalamaula, and at 4000 ft. (Perkins); Kauna- 
kakai, under stones (McGregor) ; Kamoku Hill, Ulapue, 
Halawa (Thaanum) ; near Waikolu (Cooke). 

Leptachatina, emerita SYKES, Fauna Hawaiiensis, ii, 1900, 
p. 361, pi. xi, fig. 10. 

"Variable in color, shading from brown to a hyaline tint; 
adult specimens lose their gloss and become of a straw-yellow. 
The columellar plait is small and inconspicuous." (Sykes.) 

The penultimate whorl is often tumid. Large specimens 
of this species, with 7 whorls, have the following measure- 
ments : length 8.5, diam. 3.6, length of ap. 3.6 mm. There is 
a smaller variety of this species, having the same color varia- 
tions. A specimen with 6^2 whorls measured length 6.9, diam, 
3.1, length of ap. 3.0 mm. Fig. 3 is a copy of Mr. Sykes' ori- 
ginal figure. 

39. L. CONCOLOR n. sp. PI. 6, figs. 9, 10. 

The shell is imperforate, elongately ovate, yellowish corn- 
eous or straw-color, dull, rather thin, hardly diaphanous, 
under a lens the first two whorls are smooth, the third and 
fourth very closely striate, the last three a little more coarsely 
striate, especially at the sutures. Spire acutely conieally 
ovate, apex obtuse. Suture simple, hardly impressed, crenu- 



32 LEPTACHATINA, GROUP F. 

late. "Whorls 7, slightly convex, the last elongate, tapering at 
the base. Aperture slightly oblique, perpendicular, narrowly 
ovate. Columella twisted, nearly straight, with a rather 
small oblique lamella. Outer lip very slightly arcuate, 
slightly thickened within, columellar margin thin, reflexed, 
adnate. Length 8.6, diam. 3.5, length of ap. 3.4 mm. 

Molokai: Kamalo (Thaanum). 

In texture and color this species approaches L. ementa 
Sykes. The form of the shell is different and the aperture 
is narrower, with a stronger columellar fold. In form it is 
somewhat related to L. l&vigata Cooke but differs in propor- 
tion of length to breadth, texture of its surface, etc. 

40. L. CONICOIDES Sykes. PL 6, figs. 11, 14, 15. 

"The shell is conically ovate, imperf orate, dextral, some- 
what thin, corneous, crenulate at the sutures; whorls 6, the 
last equal to 4/7 the length of the shell ; suture subimpressed ; 
aperture subvertical, sinuately oblong, with the dextral mar- 
gin slightly thickened, columellar margin reflexed, adnate, 
furnished with a small, compressed, oblique fold, the mar- 
gins united by a thin callus. Length 7.5, diam. 3.5 mm." 
(Sykes.) 

Molokai (Perkins): near Waikolu (Cooke). 

Leptachatina conicoides SYKES, Fauna Haw., ii, 1900, p. 
359, pi. xi, fig. 26. 

"A somewhat conic shell, in which, when adult, the colu- 
mellar plait becomes inconspicuous." (Syk&s.) Fig. 11 is 
a copy of the original figure. 

Lept. emerita, is somewhat related to this species, it is usu- 
ally larger, the suture is not crenulate and the spire is con- 
vex in outlines. A single specimen of this species from near 
Waikolu measures as follows: length 7.5, diam. 3.5, length 
of aperture 3.4 mm. 

41. L. VARIA n. sp. PI. 11, fig. 1. 

The shell is imperforate, ovately conic, dark brown, with a 
narrow indistinct whitish band accompanying the suture, some- 
what solid, glossy, nearly smooth, under a lens minutely striate 



LEPTACHATINA, GROUP F. 33 

with lines of growth. Spire conic, apex somewhat acute. 
Suture simple, hardly impressed. Whorls 6, nearly flat, the 
last two increasing rather rapidly, the last subcylindrical, 
tapering towards the base. Aperture subovate, brownish 
within, slightly oblique, hardly diagonal. Columella straight 
heavily calloused, with a thick white callus along its 
face; columellar fold small, oblique, deeply situated. 
Outer lip regularly curved, strongly calloused within and 
with a broad yellowish white margin without; columellar 
margin thickened, white, appressed, adnate; both margins 
united by a rather thick, transparent or whitish callus. 
Length 8.5, diam. 4.1, length of ap. 3.9 mm. 

Molokai : Pali-ko-i in Halawa and fossil at the mouth of 
Halawa Valley (Thaanum). 

I know of no species closely related to L. varia. L. corns- 
cans Hartman is probably its closest relative on Molokai, but 
the shell is larger, broader in proportion to its length and 
thinner. The most distinctive character is the strongly thick- 
ened margin of the outer lip. This character is also very 
prominent in L. guttula Gould of Maui. 

There is a lighter colored, yellowish corneous variety. The 
fossil shells, from the mouth of Halawa, are slightly larger 
than typical specimens of this species, measuring 9.4x4.2 
mrn. A few specimens have a duplicate outer lip. 

42. L. OVATA n. sp. PI. 2, fig. 30. 

The shell is imperforate, ovate, the embryonic whorls 
greenish corneous, the rest brownish corneous, with a narrow 
reddish band accompanying the suture, very glossy, very 
thin, diaphanous, under a lens very minutely striate with 
lines of growth. Spire ovate, apex obtuse. Suture slightly 
impressed, faintly margined, minutely crenulate. Whorls 
nearly 6, slightly convex, the last two slightly swollen, the 
last large, tapering to the base. Aperture large, about one- 
half the length of the shell, ovate, slightly oblique, perpendi- 
cular. Columella slightly oblique, twisted, with a rather 
strong oblique fold. Outer lip slightly thickened, a little 
darker than the rest of the shell; columellar margin thin, 
adnate, length 7.0, diam. 3.6, length of ap. 3.3 mm. 



34 LEPTACHATINA, GROUP F. 

West Maui: Maunahoomaha (Thaanum, Cooke), Hono- 
kahau Gulch, Honokowai Gulch, lao Valley (Thaanum), 
Kauaula, Honolua (Baldwin). 

, A rather abundant species on West Maui. Two lots of 
shells in Mr. Baldwin's collection from Makawao and Ula- 
palakua, East Maui, are provisionally located in this species. 

L. ovata is most closely related to L. vitreola Gul. It dif- 
fers in its smaller size, shorter and more ovate spire, larger 
aperture, and being proportionally broader. In some speci- 
mens the sutural band is lacking. 

43. L. GRANA (Newcomb). PL 2, figs. 26, 27. 

''Shell dextral, ovate-conic, solid, corneous; whorls 6, 
faintly margined; aperture ovate; columella with a strong 
plaited, tooth; outer lip slightly thickened, white; columellar 
lip expanded and applied to the body whorl. Length 0.3, 
breadth 0.1 inch " (7.5x2.5 mm). (Newc.) 

East Maui: Makawao (Newcomb) ; Haleakala, at 5000 feet 
(Perkins). 

Achatinella grana NEWCOMB, Ann. Lye. New York, vi, 
1853, p. 29: Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1853 (1854), p. 146 
(not pi. 23, fig. 46, = L. ovata}. Achatinella (Leptachatina} 
grana PFR., Men. Hel. Viv., iv, p. 567. Leptachatina grana 
PEASE, P. Z. S., 1869, p. 651. SYKES, Fauna Haw., ii, 1900, 
p. 363. 

Newcomb 's description in the P. Z. S. differs slightly from 
the original one given above. He gives the form as " elon- 
gately conic " and the length as 0.25 inch (6.2 mm.). The 
figure accompanying the description does not agree with the 
measurements given in either of his two descriptions. In the 
figure the breadth is a little more than one-half of the length, 
while in the original description it is just one- third. 

In the collection of the Academy of Natural Sciences of 
Phila. (no. 57810) is a tray of shells labeled grana,, presented 
by the author. This tray contained two distinct species. 
Some of the specimens (pi. 2, figs. 26, 27) agree closely with 
Newcomb 's original description, having the following meas- 
urements: length 6.1, diam. 2.7, length of ap. 2.7 mm.; the 



LEPTACHATINA, GROUP F. 35 

columellar fold is not very strong and is very oblique. The 
other shells in the same tray agree with typical specimens of 
L. ovata from West Maui; and these last agree with New- 
comb's figure. 

44. L. VITBEOLA (Gulick). PI. 2, figs. 28, 29. 

' ' Shell dextral, imperforate, elongately ovate, thin, shining, 
pellucid, vitreous, microscopically finely striated ; apex rather 
obtuse; spire convexly conic; suture simple, moderately im- 
pressed ; whorls nearly 7, somewhat convex ; columella lightly 
plaited deep within the aperture; aperture pyriform; peris- 
tome simple; with dextral margin unreflected, arcuate; colu- 
mellar margin narrow, adnate; parietal margin wanting. 
Length 8.0, diam. 3.5 mm. ; body whorl 4.5 mm. long " (Gul.). 

West Maui (Baldwin) : Maunahoomaha (Thaanum, Cooke) ; 
Honokohau Gulch, Honokowai Gulch, Akau-ka-imu (Thaa- 
num) . 

Achatinella vitreola GUL., Ann. Lye. N. Y., vi, 1856, p. 
194, pi. 6, fig. 23. Achatinella parvula GUL., Ann. Lye. N. Y., 
vi. 1856, p. 195, pi. 6, fig. 24. Achatinella grana NEWC., 
Ann. Lye. N. Y., vi, 1858, p. 330; Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 
1853, p. 146, pi. 33, fig. IG.Leptachatina parvula SYKES, 
Proc. Mai. Soc. London, iii, pi. 14, fig. 13. Leptachatina 
vitreola SYKES, Fauna Haw., ii, 1900, p. 372. 

A single shell collected in West Maui agrees closely with 
the type in the collection of the Boston Society, except that 
it is slightly broader, measuring, length 8.0, diam. 3.8, length 
of ap. 3.4 mm. 

I cannot follow Newcomb in considering this species equal 
to L. grana Newc. The two species are entirely distinct. 

Figs. 28, 29 represent a cotype in coll. A. N. S. P. ; the fig- 
ure below fig. 28 is a copy of Mr. Sykes's figure of the type 
of L. parvula, see below. 

I follow Mr. Sykes in including L. parvula with this 
species. It differs somewhat from the typical forms of 
L. vitreola, being considerably smaller and broader in pro- 
portion to its length. It might properly to considered a 
variety. 



36 LEPTACHATINA, GROUP F. 

'44&. L. vitreola purvula Gulick. PI. 2, fig. below 28. 

' ' Shell dextral, imperf orate, conic-oblong, thin, shining, pel- 
lucid, glossy, of amber hue, microscopically very finely 
striated; apex obtuse; spire convexly conical; suture simple, 
moderately impressed; whorls 6, rather convex; columella 
with a light internal plait; aperture pyriform; peristome 
simple, unreflected; with columellar margin narrow, adnate; 
parietal margin wanting. Length 6%, diam. 4 mm. ; average 
weight 0.1 grain. Nearly of the size and color of A. grani- 
fera, but of a more cylindrically oblong shape, with a nar- 
rower base ' ' ( Gulick ) . 

The type locality was unknown. Mr. Sykes has figured 
the type, his figure being copied on my plate, between figs. 
27 and 35. 

45. L. GUTTULA (Gould). PI. 2, figs. 34, 35, 36. 

"'Shell small, thin, translucid, shining, short ovate, yellow- 
ish-green, slightly striated lengthwise, with sometimes a faint 
appearance of revolving bands. Whorls 6, short, slightly con- 
vex, the last tumid, more than half the length of the shell. 
Aperture small, lunate; lip white, thickened, strongly trun- 
cate at the base ; columella short, furnished with a small fold, 
the penultimate whorl covered with a callus. Length %, 
diam. 3/16 inch. ' ' ( Gould. ) 

Maui (Gld.): East Maui (Baldwin). 

Achatinella guttula GOULD, Proc. Bost. Soc., ii, 1845, p. 
201; U. S. Exp. Exp., Moll., p. 89, pi. 7, figs. 98, 990. 
NEWC., Ann. Lye. N. Y., vi, 1858, p. 315. PPR., Mon. Hel. 
Viv., iii, p. 467. Achatinella (Leptachatina) guttula PFR., 
Mon. Hel. Viv., iv, p. 567; vi, p. 185; viii, p. 247. Lepta- 
chatina guttula PEASE, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1869, p. 651. 
SYKES, Fauna Haw., ii, 1900, p. 363. 

1 ' One of the smallest, and proportionally the shortest of the 
group, its length being but little greater than its breadth. 
It is much more ventricose and less solid than A. accincta 
Migh." (Gld.) 

The measurements in both of Gould's descriptions are 
probably wrong. In both of these he says, in his notes, that 



LEPTACHATINA, GROUP F. 37 

the length is but "little greater than its breadth." The type 
specimen in the National Museum, Washington, and his fig- 
ures, show that "y&" is probably a misprint for %. His 
figure, natural size, is 8.0 mm. long and 4.3 broad. 

I cannot follow Newcomb in considering L. gummed Gul., 
identical with this species. A specimen of guttula carefully 
compared with the type (and agreeing closely) has more or 
less the characters of a Kauaian shell. There is an acute 
thick callus along the face of the columella. The lip is 
strongly thickened and there is quite a thick callus on the 
parietal wall. This specimen measures: Length 7.5, diam. 4.1, 
length of ap. 3.7 mm. This is quite close to the corrected 
Gould's measurements 8.3x4.7 mm. 

Gould's figure of the type of L. guttida is copied, pi. 2, 
fig. 34. 

46. L. SUBOVATA n. sp. PI. 11, fig. 2. 

The shell is imperforate, elongately ovate, brownish, thin 
diaphanous, glossy, under a lens minutely striate with lines of 
growth. Spire narrowly conic, with slightly convex outlines, 
apex somewhat obtuse. Suture scarcely impressed, margined 
with a rather indistinct narrow line. Whorls 6, increasing 
rather rapidly, very slightly convex, the last elongate, cylin- 
drical, tapering gradually to the base. Aperture subovate, 
very slightly oblique and slightly diagonal. Columella 
slightly twisted, brownish corneous, with a very thin acute 
callus along its face; columellar fold basal, rather strong, 
oblique. Outer lip regularly curved, thickened within, white ; 
columellar margin appressed, adnate. Length 7.3, diam. 3.4, 
length of ap. 3.3 mm. 

Lanai (Thaanum). 

A rather abundant species approaching L. ovata from West 
Maui. The latter is, however, slightly lighter colored and 
thinner, more pellucid, glossier and broader in proportion to 
its length. In L. subovata the penultimate whorl is slightly 
more convex. A few specimens have a narrow dark brown 
band at the suture. 



38 LEPTACHATINA, GROUP F. 

47. L. ABBOREA Sykes. PI. 1, figs. 5, 6, 7. 

"Shell ovately oblong; turrited, thin or somewhat thin, 
dextral, corneous, very lightly longitudinally striate; whorls 
6-7, flatly convex, the last equal to % of the length of the 
shell ; suture well impressed ; aperture quadrately ovate, with 
the dextral margin slightly thickened, with the columellar 
margin vertical, thickened, reflexed, furnished with a small 
scarcely conspicuous fold. Length 8.0, diam. 3.6 mm.'* 
(Sykes.) 

Hawaii: Kona at 4000 feet (Perkins); Olaa (Baldwin, 
Thaanu) ; Hamakua, subfossil (Ancey) ; Kaiwiki (Thaa- 
num). 

Leptachatina arborea SYKES, Fauna Haw., ii, 1900, p. 357, 
pi. xi, fig. 21. ANCEY, Journ. of Malac. xi, 1904, p. 69. 

The plica is very inconspicous ; the color becomes lighter in 
adult specimens, and then the polished, transparent gloss 
disappears and the shell becomes of a straw color. Over thirty 
specimens were collected by Mr. Perkins; they vary slightly 
in shape, a few being broader in proportion to the length, 
and having more inflated whorls. Mr. Baldwin sends me 
the following note : "It is found on the candle-nut tree 
(Aleurites moluccana) , among the leaves of the bird-nest fern 
(Asplenium nidus), sometimes at the height of 30 or 40 feet. 
All other known species of Leptachatina are terrestrial, living 
under rocks or on dead leaves and decaying wood. ' ' 

48. L. SIMPLEX Pease. PI. 1, figs. 8, 9. 

"Shell dextral, somewhat thin, shining, imperf orate, abbre- 
viately or elongately ovate, longitudinally lightly striate, 
sometimes narrowly margined at the suture, corneous ; whorls 
6, flatly convex ; aperture vertical, ovate ; columellar fold 
white, basal, oblique, twisted; lip thickened. Length 8.0, 
diam. 3-4 mm." (Pease.) 

Hawaii: Kona at 3000-4000 feet (Perkins); Waimea 
( Thaanum, Lyons, Baldwin, Henshaw and Lyman) . 

Leptachatina simplex PEASE, Journ. de Conchyl. 1869, p. 
170. Achatinella (Leptachatina) simplex PFR., Mon. Hel. 
Viv., viii, p. 247. Leptachatina simplex HARTMAN, Proc. A. 



LEPTACHATINA, GROUP F. 39 

N. S. Phil., 1888, p. 55. SYKES, Fauna Haw., ii, 1900, p. 369. 
ANCEY, Journ. of Malac. xi, 1904, p. 69. 

Two specimens, presented by Pease to the Philadelphia 
Academy, have the following measurements : 7.5 x 3.4 and 6.7 
x 3.0 mm. 

The species belongs to the same type of shell as L. vitreola 
Gul., L. conicoides Sykes, etc. It is characterized by its 
elongate spire, which has slightly convex outlines, and rather 
small perpendicular aperture. The species does not seem to 
be found in the fossil material from Mana. A specimen re- 
ceived from Pease is figured. 

49. L. ANCEYANA n. sp. PL 1, figs. 18, 19. 

The shell is minutely perforate, narrowly ovately conic, 
whitish (in fossil state), thin, under a lens minutely striate 
with lines of growth, the embryonic whorls smooth, glossy. 
Spire ovately conic, apex subobtuse. Suture simple, hardly 
impressed. Whorls S 1 /^, slightly convex, the last elongate, 
sub cylindrical, tapering to the base. Aperture oblique, nearly 
perpendicular, subovate, acute at both ends. Columella 
nearly straight, with a minute, oblique fold. Outer lip 
slightly arcuate, thickened within, columellar margin reflexed, 
subadnate, thin, with an acute longitudinal callus along its 
face. Umbilicus minute, subcircular. Length 5.4, diam. 2.5, 
length of aperture 2.5 mm. 

Hawaii: Mana, fossil (Henshaw). 

A small species unlike anything from Hawaii. Somewhat 
like L. ovata from Maui, but smaller and narrower in pro- 
portion to its length. The surface is minutely and very 
closely striate with lines of growth. This species is rather 
abundant in the fossil deposits explored by Dr. Henshaw in 
Mana. 

50. L. DEFUNCTA n. sp. PI. 1, fig. 16. 

The shell is imperf orate (sometimes minutely perforate), 
acuminately conic, whitish (in fossil state), embryonic whorls 
smooth, glossy, the rest dull, under a lens minutely striate 
with lines of growth. Spire elongately conic, apex obtuse. 



40 LEPTACHATINA, GROUP G. 

Suture slightly impressed, faintly and narrowly margined. 
Whorls 7, 'the third and fourth nearly flat, the rest slightly 
convex, the last elongate, tapering to the base. Aperture 
subovate, slightly oblique, nearly perpendicular. Columella 
nearly straight, with a rather strong oblique fold. Outer lip 
regularly arcuate, thickened within, columellar margin thick- 
ened, reflexed adnate. Length 9.0, diam. 3.8, length of ap. 
3.5 mm. 

Hawaii: Mana, fossil (Henshaw). 

A rather variable species in size ; one measures, length 10.4, 
diam. 4.8, length of ap. 4.3 mm. The aperture is small and 
very broad in proportion to its length. 

51. L. LEPIDA n. sp. PL 1, figs. 12, 13. 

The shell is imperf orate (rarely perforate), ovately coni- 
cal, brownish corneous, thin, subdiaphanous, glossy, under 
a lens minutely striate with lines of growth. Spire conic, 
apex blunt. Suture simple, scarcely impressed. Whorls 6, 
nearly flat, the last slightly rotundate, tapering to the base. 
Aperture subovate, rather broad, oblique, very slightly dia- 
gonal. Columella subtruncate, with a rather strong, oblique 
fold. Outer lip moderately arcuate, thickened within, white; 
columellar margin thickened, reflexed, adnate. Length 6.5, 
diam. 3.3, length of ap. 2.9 mm. 

Hawaii: Mana (Thaanum). 

From L. simplex this species differs in being smaller, with 
the same number of whorls, thicker, the whorls are flatter and 
the spire is shorter and more conic in outline. 

G. Group of L. nitida. 

52. L. FUMIDA (Gulick). PI. 3, fig. 58. 

' ' Shell dextral, imperforate, ovate conic, thin, shining, pel- 
lucid, corneous, with a dark line accompanying the suture, 
microscopically very finely striated; apex somewhat obtuse, 
pallid; spire convexly conical; suture simple, scarcely im- 
pressed; whorls 7, rather flat; columellar fold central, white, 
lamelliform; aperture pyrifonn; peristome simple; with dex- 



LEPTACHATINA, GROUP G. 41 

tral margin unreftected, semicircular; columellar margin di- 
lated, white, adnate; parietal margin very thin, white. 
Length 8.0, diani. 4.3, length of body whorl 5.3 mm." 
(Gulick.) 

Oahu: AYaialei, Pupukea, Waimea, Kawailoa, Helemanu 
(Gulick) ; Waialua (Lyman) ; Waianae Mts., back of Leile- 
hua (Cooke). 

Achatinella fumida GULICK, Ann. Lye. N. Y., vi, 1856, p. 
181, pi. 6, fig. 9. Achatinella vitrea NEWCOMB, Ann. Lye. 
N. Y., vi, 1858, p. 328. AchatineUa (Leptachatina) vitrea 
PFR., ]\Ion. Hel. Viv., vi, p. 183. Achatinella (Leptachatina) 
nitid-a f PFR., Mon. Hel. Viv., vi, p. 184. Leptachatina 
fumida SYKES, P. Malac. Soc. London, iii, pi. 14, fig. 15; 
Fauna Haw., ii, 1900, p. 362. 

L. fumida is somewhat closely related to L. gummea Gulick. 
It differs in its slightly more convex spire and its aperture is 
more perpendicular. It has no relationship with L. cingula 
Migh. (L. vitrea Xewc.). 

The measurements of two specimens are : 

Length 8.0, diam. 4.2, length of apert. 3.7 mm. P. A. N. S. 
91876. 

Length 7.3, diam. 3.8, length of apert. 3.3 mm. Wailua. 

53. L. CORUSCANS Hartman. PL 6, figs. 6, 7. 

''Shell dextral, ovate, very thin and polished, spire one- 
third the length; apex obtuse, whorls 4 1 /4, rounded, the last 
one and a half inflated; suture impressed, aperture semi- 
ovate, with a very thin white lamellar tooth near the base; 
labiuni slightly thickened within and white, color amber. 
Length 9.0, diam. 4.5, length of ap. 3.5, diam. 2,5 mm." 
(Hartman.) 

Molokai: Kanialo (Baldwin) : Kapanui, Kolamaula, and at 
4000 ft. (Perkins) ; Mapulehu Ridge (Thaanum). 

Leptachatina coruscans HARTMAX, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Phila,, 1888, p. 52, pi. 1, fig. 16. SYKES, Fauna Haw., ii, 
Moll., p. 360. 

Dr. Hartman must have miscounted the number of whorls 
in his type specimen, as a photograph of the type, in the col- 



42 LEPTACHATINA, GROUP G. 

lection of the Philadelphia Academy has from 5 to 6 whorls. 
I know of no species of Leptachatina, when adult, with as few 
as 4% whorls. Adult specimens usually have from 5% to 
6% whorls. 

This species is very variable in thickness and color. Some 
of the specimens are dark brown with intergrades to light 
greenish corneous. It also varies from ovate to ovate tur- 
rited in form. 

53<z. L. c. dissimilis n. var. PI. 6, fig. 8. 

The shell is imperforate, broadly ovate, corneous, diaph- 
anous, minutely and closely striate or costulate. Suture sub- 
impressed, narrowly margined. Whorls 6^2? nearly flat, the 
last very large. Aperture elongately ovate, narrow, slightly 
oblique, perpendicular. Columella truncate, with a rather 
strong fold. Lip slightly thickened. Length 7.6, diam. 4.1, 
length of ap. 4.0 mm. 

Molokai: near Waikolu (Cooke). 

This variety is smaller, more distinctly striate and thinner 
than the typical form of the species. 

54. L. NITIDA (Newcomb). PI. 2, figs. 20, 21. 

" Shell dextral, ovately conical, thin, pellucid, shining, light 
corneous, with a faint linear band of red beneath the suture ; 
whorls 6, ventricose; suture margined; aperture ovate; colu- 
mella terminating in a twisted oblique white plait, lip thin. 
Length 0.4, diam. 0.11 inch." (10.0x2.7 mm.) (Newc.) 

East Maui (Newc.) : Kula and Ulapalakua (Baldwin). 
?0ahu: Ml Kaala (Perkins). 1 Molokai (Borcherding). 

Achatinella nitida NEWCOMB, Ann. Lye. New York, vi, 1853, 
p. 29; Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1853 (1854), p. 140, pi. 23, 
fig. 30. Achatinella (Leptachatina) nitida PFR., Mon. Hel. 
Yiv., iv, p. 566. Leptachatina nitida PEASE, P. Z. S., 1869, 
p. 651. SYKES, Fauna Haw., ii, 1900, p. 366. ? BORCHERD- 
ING, Zoologiea, 48 n , p. 127, pi. 9, fig. 9-9a. 

In the original description the diameter is given as 0.11 
inch (2.7 mm.) this is only about half the actual diameter. 
In the description (Proc. Zool. Soc. 1853, p. 140) this was 



LEPTACHATINA, GROUP G. 43 

corrected to 4/20 inch. (5.0 mm.). Specimens presented by* 
Dr. Newcomb to the Philadelphia Academy have the fol- 
lowing measurements : 

Length 10.1, diam. 4.9, length of aperture 4.7 mm. 

Length 9.9, diam. 4.7, length of aperture 4.5 Tnm T 

Length 8.8, diam. 4.3, length of aperture 4.1 mm. 

Under a lens the shells are minutely striate and in some of 
the specimens there is a faint spiral band at the periphery; 
the aperture is very slightly diagonal; one of the specimens 
is of a uniform reddish brown color. The shells collected 
by Mr. Perkins on Oahu are not typical and possibly belong 
to another species. They come pretty close to L. capitosa. 

Borcherding's specimens from Molokai probably equal 
Lept. coruscans Hartm. 

54a. L. n. Occident alis n. var. PL 2, fig. 22. 

The shell is slightly broader in proportion to its length 
than L. nitida, thicker, darker colored, except the embryonic 
whorls, less shining. Whorls 6, the first 4 closely coiled and 
flat, the two last increasing rapidly, tumid. Aperture per- 
pendicular. Columella nearly straight, with a rather strong 
almost transverse fold. Outer lip thickened, white; parietal 
margin with a rather thick polished callus. Length 10.0, 
diam. 5.1, length of ap. 5.0 mm. 

West Maui. Maunanahoomaha (Thaanum, Cooke) ; Lahaina 
(Baldwin). 
55. L. PR^STABILIS n. sp. PI. 2, figs. 37, 38. 

The shell is imperforate, elongately oval, corneous, with 
a narrow reddish line accompanying the suture, glossy, solid, 
distinctly striate, especially just below the suture. Spire 
elongate, with slightly convex outlines, apex obtuse. Suture 
slightly impressed, margined. Whorls nearly 7, slightly 
convex, regularly increasing, the last subcylindrical, taper- 
ing to the base. Aperture broadly ovate, oblique, slightly 
diagonal. Columella nearly straight, white, with a rather 
strong oblique fold extending to the margin. Outer lip 
strongly arcuate, slightly thickened within, whitish; colu- 



44 LEPTACHATINA, GROUP G. 

mellar margin reflexed, adnate. Length 9.9, diam. 5.2, length 
of ap. 4.0 mm. 

West Maui: Lahaina (Baldwin). 

This species is related to L. nitida Newc. It differs, how- 
ever, in its longer, more slender and less ovate spire ; the upper 
whorls are more attenuate; the apex more acute; and the 
aperture is more diagonal, shorter and broader in proportion 
to its length. 

56. L. COMPACTA (Pease). PL 2, fig. 25. 

"Shell dextral, somewhat solid, imperf orate, subconic or 
acutely ovate, scarcely striate, brownish corneous ; spire short, 
subobtuse ; whorls 5, slightly convex, the last equal to one-half 
of the length; aperture elliptical, angulate at both ends; 
columellar fold small, callous, oblique, white ; lip thickened, 
with margins united with a callus, columella adnate. Length 
8.0, diam. 4.0 mm." (Pse.) 

Maui (Pease) : East Maui, Makawao (Baldwin) ; Halea- 
kala, at 5000 feet (Perkins). 

Labiella compacts PEASE, Journ. de Conchyl., xvii, 1869, p. 
172. Labiella compacta PFR., Men. Hel. Viv., viii, p. 219. 
Leptachatina compacta PSE., Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1869, 
651. SYKES, Fauna Haw., ii, 1900, p. 359. 

A shell before me, which I have referred to this species 
(pi. 2, fig. 25) has the following measurements; length 8.2, 
diam. 4.3, length of ap. 4.0 mm. It is slightly larger than 
the measurements given by Pease and has 1% more whorls. 
The species, if my determination is correct, is about midway 
between L. nitida Newc., and L. lenta. 

Unfortunately the type of the species is unfigured and I 
have been unable to find a single authentic specimen. 

57. L. ISTHMICA Ancey. PI. 2, fig. below fig. 30 ; pi. 12, figs. 
9, 10. 

"Shell subfossil (if not altogether extinct), quite thick for 
the genus, subopaque, shining, white, the last whorl generally 
pale red below the suture, lip white : oblong conoidal, smooth, 
under a strong lens furnished with minute lines of growth 



LEPTACHATINA, GROUP G. 45 

especially at the upper part of each whorl, imperforate or 
covered subrimate. Spire convexly attenuate, conoidal, apex 
minute, somewhat obtuse. Whorls 7, almost flat, regularly 
increasing, suture line-like, pellucidly marginate; the last 
oblong, regularly attenuate at the base. Aperture suboblique, 
oblong, angled above, contracted below, furnished with quite 
a strong columellar fold. Lip thickened, obtuse, at the colu- 
mella above the place of the perforation slightly dilated with 
callus, with the margins united with a callus. Length 9.0, 
diam. 4.0, length of ap. 4.0 mm." (Ancey.) 

Maui: sand hills between East and West Maui (Baldwin). 

Leptachatina isthmica ANCEY, Proc. Malac. Soc. London, 
iii, 1899, p. 270. SYKES, Proc. Malac. Soc. London, iii, 1899, 
pi. 13, fig. 20. 

L. isthmica is more closely related to L. compacta Pse., than 
to any other Species. Specimens referred to the latter species 
differ mainly in having a shorter spire and two whorls less. 
Mr. Sykes' figure of a type is copied on plate 2. A topotype 
is drawn on plate 12. 

58. L. KONAENSIS Sykes. PI. 1, figs. 1, 2, 3. 

"Shell elongately ovate, imperforate, dextral, somewhat 
thin, corneous or pale corneous, finely longitudinally striate, 
apex slightly obtuse; whorls 6, flat, the last equal to % the 
length of the shell; suture impressed, marginate; aperture 
sinuately ovate, columella arcuate, dextral margin thickened 
within, columellar margin subreflexed, furnished with a small 
ascending fold. Length 8.0, diam. 4.0 mm." (Sykes). 

Hawaii: Kona at 4000 feet (Perkins) ; Waimea (Baldwin, 
Lyons, Thaanum) ; Hamakua (Baldwin). 

Leptachatina konaensis SYKES, Fauna Haw., ii, 1900, p. 
364, pi. xi, fig. 13. 

The shells from Waimea agree closely with the type in the 
British Museum. Fig. 3 is a copy of the original illustration. 

58a. L. k, olaaensis n. var. PI. 1, fig. 4. 

The shell is larger, heavier, thicker, more coarsely striate 
than typical specimens, and of a dull dirty yellow color. 



46 LEPTACHATINA, GROUP H. 



Whorls 6%. Aperture large, about % the length of the shell, 
nearly perpendicular. Length 9.0, diam. 4.7, length of aper- 
ture 4.5 mm. 

Hawaii: Olaa (Henshaw). 

H. Group of L. glutinosa. 
59. L. GLUTINOSA (Pfeiffer). PL 5, fig. 92. 

" Shell imperf orate, dextral, ovately conic, somewhat solid, 
sightly arcuately striate, under the glossy epidermis, yel- 
lowish white; spire almost regularly conic, apex somewhat 
obtuse; suture fine, crenulate; whorls 7, nearly flat, the last 
hardly shorter than the spire, rotundate at the base ; aperture 
subvertical, sinuately semioval, white within; columellar fold 
compressed, twisted, almost transverse; lip erect, with the 
margins united by a callus, the right margin slightly thick- 
ened, the columellar margin callous, reflexed, adnate. Length 
11.3, diam. 6.0mm." (Pfr.) 

Oahu : Lihue, Kalaikoa, Waihiawa, Helemanu, Peula 
(Gulick) ; Waianae Mts., below Kaala (Perkins. Cooke) ; 
Waianae Mts., at Palehua and back of Leilehua (Cooke) . 

Achatinella (Laminella) glutinosa PFEIFFER, P. Z. S. Lon- 
don, 1855, p. 204; Mon. Hel. Viv., iv, p. 557; vi, p. 181; viii, 
p. 243. Achatinella lacrima GULICK, Ann. Lye. N. Y., vi, 
1856, p. 176, pi. 6, fig. 4. Leptachatina glutinosa PEASE, P. 
Z. S. London, 1869, p. 651. SYKES, Fauna Haw., ii, 1900, 
p. 363. 

An examination of both Pfeiffer 's and Gulick 's types leads 
me to follow Newcomb and Sykes in considering Gulick 's 
species as identical with L. glutinosa. 

This is one of the largest species of Leptachatina from 
Oahu. Specimens from the Waianae Mts., back of Leilehua 
are smaller, more glossy and slightly darker colored than 
those from the other localities. 

The measurements of a few specimens from some of the 
different localities are : 

Length 10.5, diam. 6.0, length of apert. 5.5 mm. Halemano. 

Length 10.8, diam. 5.6, length of apert. 5.2 mm. Leilehua. 



LEPTACHATINA, GROUP H. 47 

Length 11.7, diam. 6.3, length of apert. 6.1 mm. Palehua. 
Length 12.5, diam. 6.3, length of apert. 6.0 mm. Lihue 
(Baldwin's coll.) 

60. L. DIMIDIATA (Pfeiffer). PL 5, figs. 93, 94, 95, 96. 

"Shell imperf orate, ovately conic, somewhat solid, slightly 
striate, glossy, blackish chestnut above; spire convexly conic, 
apex somewhat obtuse ; suture light, subcrenulate ; whorls 6 %, 
somewhat flat, the last a little shorter than the spire, from 
the middle to the base pale corneous; aperture scarcely 
oblique, sinuately oval, unicolorous within; columellar fold 
callous, suboblique; lip white, not expanded, thickened with- 
in; columellar margin narrow, adnate. Length 11.0, diam. 
5.5 mm." (Pfr.) 

"Var. &. With the last whorl unicolorous chestnut, spire 
paler." (Pfr.) 

Oahu: Halemano, Kawailoa Gulch (Perkins); Waialei, 
Kawailoa, Kalaikoa (Gulick). 

Achatinella (Leptachatina) dimidiata PFR., P. Z. S. Lon- 
don, 1855, p. 205. Mon. Hel. Viv., iv, p. 564; vi, p. 184; 
viii, p. 246. Leptachatina dimidiata PEASE, P. Z. S. London, 
1869, p. 651. Leptachatina cingula HARTMAN, Proc. A. N. S. 
Phila., 1888, p. 52, pi. 1, fig. 14. SYKES, Fauna Haw., ii, 
1900, p. 359. 

I am quite sure that Pfeiffer 's species cannot be referred 
to L. cingula Migh. L. dimidiata is shorter with a somewhat 
narrower aperture, and the color patterns are entirely 
different. 

The most abundant color-variety is not mentioned by 
Pfeiffer. The shell is whitish-corneous, with a rather broad 
chestnut band just above the periphery and continued on 
the spire above the suture. 

Two specimens have the following measurements : 

Length 9.9, diam. 5.5, length of apert. 5.2 mm. 

Length 11.2, diam. 5.8, length of apert. 5.5 mm. 

61. L. PYRAMIS (Pfeiffer). PI. 3, figs. 43, 44. 

"Shell ovately pyramidal, very lightly striate, diaphanous, 



48 LEPTACHATINA, GROUP H. 

greenish corneous; spire pyramidal, apex acute; suture linear, 
narrowly margined; whorls 8, flat, the last nearly equal to 
% of the length; columella furnished with a very shortly 
arcuate, flattened, dentiform, acute fold; aperture oval. 
Length 12.0, diam 5.5 mm." (Pfeiffer.) 

Oahu: Waialae, Nuuanu and Halawa (Cooke) ; ? Kauai 
(Pease). 

Achatinella pyramis PFEIFFER, P. Z. S. London, 1845, p. 90. 
Mon. Hel. Viv., ii, p. 241 ; iii, p. 466. REEVE, Conch. Icon. 
Achatinella, sp. 41. Achatinella (Leptachatina) pyramis 
PFEIFFER, Mon. Hel. Viv., iv, p. 565 ; vi, p. 184 ; viii, p. 246. 
Leptachatina pyramis PEASE, Journ. de Conchyl., 1869, p. 
168. SYKES, Fauna Haw., ii, 1900, p. 367. 

Pease was probably wrong in his interpretation of Pfeif- 
fer 's diagnosis, as shells which I have carefully compared 
with the original lot in the British Museum are all from 
Oahu, and from the characters of the types I have no doubt 
that they also were from this island. 

The shells from Waialae agree very closely with the types, 
except that they have one-half of a whorl less. 

L. pyramis is somewhat related to glutinosa Pfeiffer. The 
spire is, however, much longer. Some of the shells from 
Nuuanu have a faint darK brown band encircling the peri- 
phery. 

62. L. KUHNSI n. sp. PI. 11, fig. 3. 

The shell is minutely perforate (sometimes imperf orate) , 
broadly ovate, brownish corneous, glossy, subdiaphanous, near 
the suture slightly irregularly striate, the rest nearly smooth, 
under a lens minutely striate with lines of growth. Spire 
broadly conic with slightly convex outlines, apex obtuse, pale 
corneous. Suture scarcely impressed, faintly margined with 
a darker band, slightly crenulate. Whorls 5%, slightly con- 
vex, the first 3 closely coiled and increasing slowly, the rest 
increasing more rapidly, the last large, tumid, tapering to 
the base. Aperture large, slightly more than one-half the 
length of the shell, obliquely truncate-ovate, very slightly 
oblique, perpendicular, slightly contracted above and ascend- 



LEPTACHATIXA, GROUP 1. 49 

ing very slightly in front. Outer margin of lip regularly 
curved, pale brown within, strongly thickened, bordered with 
yellowish white; columellar margin thin, reflexed, adnate 
above; both margins united by a thin whitish callus. Um- 
bilicus (when present) a long narrow slit along the columella. 
Length 9.4, diarn. 5.3, length of aperture 4.9 mm. 

West Maui: Abau-ka-imu (Thaanum), Maunahoomaha 
(Thaanum, Cooke). 

A very obese species, probably related to L. nitida Newc. 
and L. compacta Pse. In outlines it recalls L, glutinosa Pfr. 
from Oahu. This species seems to be restricted to the rather 
higher altitudes of West Maui. There is a light corneous 
variety of this species. 

63. L. SMITHI Sykes. PL 6, fig. 24. 

"Shell dextral, ovately fusiform, somewhat thin, under a 
lens slightly striate, pale corneous, shining, pellucid, apex 
somewhat obtuse, whitish corneous ; suture simple, lightly im- 
pressed ; whorls 6-6%, flatly convex, the last more than equal 
to % the length of the shell ; aperture pyriform ; lip with the 
dextral margin slightly thickened, whitish corneous within, 
columellar margin narrow, parietal margin lacking. Length 
9.25, diam. max. 4.9 mm. 

Lanai: mountains behind Koele (Perkins), in the gulches 
(Thaanum). 

Lepiachatina smithi SYKES, Proc. Malac. Soc. London, ii, 
1896, p. 128 ; Fauna Haw., ii, p. 369, pi. xi, fig. 29. 

This species is most easily separated from L. perkinsi by its 
more acute and closely coiled embryonic whorls. The original 
figure is copied. 

I. Group of L. semipicta. 

64. L. SEMIPICTA Sykes. PL 6, figs. 20, 21, 22. 

"Shell imperf orate, dextral, acuminately ovate, thin, shin- 
ing, pellucid, brownish corneous, lightly striate, apex slightly 
obtuse, suture paler, moderately impressed; whorls 6-6%, 
flatly convex, the first slightly striate, the last equal to % 
the length of the shell, almost smooth, aperture ovately pyri- 



50 LEPTACHATINA, GROUP I. 

form ; lip with dextral margin erect, slightly thickened, colu- 
mellar margin narrow, adnate, parietal margin lacking. 
Length 8.0, diam. max. 4.0 mm." (Sykes). 

Lanai : mountains behind Koele ( Perkins) . 

Leptachatina semipicta SYKES, Proc. Malac. Soc. London, 
ii, 1896, p. 128 ; Fauna Haw., ii, p. 369, pi. xi, fig. 12. 

"Most of the specimens have the lower half of the last 
whorl of a lighter color; some, however, are unicolorous. " 
(Sykes.) 

Some specimens have a narrow light colored band at the 
periphery. There are, in Mr. Thaanum's collection, a few 
elongated specimens. In these, the spire is subcylindrical ; 
there are 8 slightly convex whorls. One of the shells has the 
following measurements: length 11.0, diam. 4.2, 1. of ap. 3.7 
mm. These shells seem to be related to L. longiuscula, especi- 
ally as the upper whorls are slightly costate. L. longiuscula 
is, however, more closely related to L. perkinsi. L. semipicta 
appears at first glance to belong to Thaanumia, but the em- 
bryonic whorls are not flattened and compressed as in the 
other species of this subgenus, and I have been unable to find 
the least trace of minute spiral strias. The original figure is 
copied in fig. 22. 

J. Group of L. pachystoma. 
65. L. PACHYSTOMA (Pease). PI. 8, figs. 47, 48. 

' ' Shell dextral, solid, conically ovate, imperf orate, obliquely 
striate, straw color ; spire elpngately conical, apex subobtuse ; 
suture scarcely crenulate; whorls 6, somewhat flat, the last 
more convex, equal to 3/10 of the length; aperture scarcely 
oblique, elliptical, angulate at both ends ; columellar fold sub- 
basal, small, thick, callous, oblique, white ; lip continous, with 
the margins united by a white, 'thick rib-like callus, dextral 
margin rotundate, callous columellar margin adnate. Length 
13.0, diam. 7.0 mm." (Pse.) 

Kauai : Haleiele, Makaweli, Halemanu ( Cooke) . 

Labiella pachystoma PEASE, Journ. de Conchyl., xvii, 1869, 
p. 171. Achatinella (Labiella) pachystoma PFR., Mon. Hel. 



LEPTACHATINA, GROUP I. 51 

Viv., viii, p. 218. Lept. (Labiella) pachystoma SYKES, Fauna 
Haw. ii, 1900. p. 367. 

This species is separated from L. labiata Newc., by the 
form of its aperture, which is more oblique, by its smaller 
columellar fold, and by the callus which unites the two mar- 
gins, and which forms a distinct rib instead of being uni- 
formly spread over the whole surface." (Pse.) 

This species does not belong to the section Labiella, as the 
very characteristic tooth within the outer lip has not been ob- 
served in a single specimen. The rib-like callus is present 
only in old specimens and is not peculiar to this species, as 
this character may be found in gerontic specimens of nearly 
all the heavier species of this genus, especially those from 
Kauai. 

From a comparison of specimens (probably the types) of 
L. pachystoma and L. turgidula. belonging to Pease's own col- 
lection, which is now in the Museum of Comparative Zoology 
in Cambridge, Mass., there is no doubt that the two cannot 
be held as distinct species. It is thought best to reduce the 
latter to varietal rank. 

65a. L. p. turgidula (Pease). PI. 8, figs. 50, 51, 52. 

The shell is usually a little longer, more solid, more cylin- 
drical in outline than in typical L. pachystowia ; sometimes the 
spire and upper portion of the last whorl are a reddish yellow 
with a lighter yellowish base. Length 14.0, diam. 7.0, length 
of aperture 6.4 mm. 

Labiella turgidula PEASE, P. Z. S. L., 1869, p. 651 (nom. 
sol.) . Achatinella (Labiella) turgidula PFR., Mon. Hel. Viv., 
viii, p. 219. Leptachatina turgidula PEASE, Journ. de 
Conchyl., xviii. 1870, p. 89. CROSSE, Journ. de ConchyL, 
xxiii, 1876. pi. 4, fig. 5. 

A large specimen from Milolii measures 16.2 x 7.5 mm. 

This variety is much more abundant than the typical form. 
It is found in all the wooded region between Makaweli and 
Milolii. 
65&. L. p. cijlindrella n. var. PL 8, fig. 49. 

The shell is smaller, narrower, more cylindrical and much 



52 LEPTACHATINA, GROUP K. 

thinner than that of L. pachystoma; the costae are less pro- 
nounced, the surface being smoother. Length 12.3, diam. 5.7 r 
length of aperture 5.6 mm. 

This variety was especially abundant at Haleieie. 

65c. L. p. brevis n. var. PL 8, fig. 53. 

A small, obese, nearly smooth variety, with a short spire 
and a rather large aperture, which is nearly % "the length of 
the shell. Length 9.0, diam. 4.8, length of aperture 4.4 mm. 

Haleieie, Kauai. 

K. Group of L. ventulus. 

66. L. APPROXIMANS Ancey. PI. 3, fig. 46. 

" Shell oblong turrited, imperf orate, thin, with an oily 
luster, smooth, but under a lens closely and obsoletely striate, 
tawny corneous, encircled below the suture by a reddish brown, 
line. Spire turrited, regularly conoidal, scarcely subcon- 
vex or rectilinear, subclavate, obtuse. Whorls 8, slowly in- 
creasing, somewhat convex, suture lightly impressed. The 
last oblong, rotundate. Columellar fold strong, twisted, dirty 
white. Lip slightly thickened. Length 12.5, 13.25, diam. 
6.0, 6.5, length of ap. 5, 5.5 mm." (Ancey.) 

Oahu: Waianae (Durand) ; Waialua (Lyman). 

Leptachatiiia approximans ANCEY, Le Naturaliste, 1897, 
p. 222. 

This species is somewhat closely related to L. cingula^M.igh. 
It differs in its shorter and more conic spire, blunter apex and 
less attenuate base. The aperture is smaller, and broader 
in proportion to its length. 

67. L. CINGULA (Mighels). PI. 5, figs. 85, 86, 87, 88. 

' ' Shell dextral, ovate conic, horn-color, smooth and polished, 
with a narrow brown band accompanying the suture ; whorls 
7, convex; aperture small, subovate; lip simple. Length 
11/20, diam. 14 inch." (13.9x6.3 mm.) (Migh.). 

Oahu (Mighels) : Manoa (Newcomb, for fumosa and 
vitrea) ; Palolo (Gulick, Cooke) ; Mt. Tantalus (Thaanum, 
Cooke) ; Konahuanui (Cooke). The specimens collected by 



LEPTACHATINA, GROUP K. 53 

Perkins in Kawailoa Gulch and referred to this species by 
Sykes belong to L. dimidiata Pfr. 

Achatinella cingula MIGHELS, P. Bost. Soc., ii, 1845, p. 21. 
PFEIFFER, Mon. Hel. Viv., ii, p. 242. NEWCOMB, Ann. Lye. 
N. Y., vi, 1858, p. 313. Not Achatinella cingula PFR., Conch. 
Cab., Achatinella, p. 288, pi. 57, figs. 5-7; Mon. Hel. Viv., iii, 
p. 467. Achatinella (Leptachatina) cingula PFEIFFER, Mon. 
Hel. Viv., iv, p. 567. Leptachatina cingula PEASE, P. Z. S., 
London, 1869, p. 651. Achatinella fumosa NEWCOMB, P. Z. S. 
London, 1853, p. 140, pi. 23, fig. 28. Achatinella (Lepta- 
chatina} fumosa PFEIFFER, Mon. Hel. Viv., iv, p. 563. Labiella 
fumosa PEASE, P. Z. S. London, 1869, p. 651. Leptachatina 
fumosa BALDWIN, Cat. Haw. Shells, 1893, p. 11. SYKES, 
Fauna Haw., ii, Moll., p. 362. Achatinella vitrea NEWCOMB, 
P. Z. S. London, 1853, p. 142, pi. 23, fig. 34. PFEIFFER, Mon. 
Hel. Viv., iv, p. 564. Labiella vitrea PEASE, P. Z. S. Lon- 
don, 1869, p. 651. Leptachatina vitrea BALDWIN, Cat. Haw. 
Shells, 1893, p. 12. SYKES, Fauna Haw., ii, Moll,, p. 372. 

I have included Newcomb 's two species with cingula, as 
Newcomb himself considered that vitrea might possibly be 
the same as cingula (vide Ann. Lye. N. Y., vi, 1858, p. 313), 
and there is no doubt, in iny mind, that both vitrea and 
fumosa belong to the same species, as a series of these shells 
collected near the head of Palolo Valley intergrades perfectly. 
I do not think that L. dimidiata can possibly be a form of 
cingula. Figs. 86, 87, 88 are from Palolo. Fig. 85 from 
Manoa. 

Measurements of some specimens are as follows: 

Length 15.2, diam. 6.3 mm. (Newcomb for fumosa}. 

Length 12.7, diam. 6.3 mm. (Newcomb for vitrea}. 

Length 13.8, diam. 6.7, length of apert. 6.3 mm. A. N. S. P. 
no. 91790. 

Length 13.0, diam. 5.9, length of apert. 5.6 mm. A. N. S. P. 
no. 91790. 

Length 12.8, diam. 6.4, length of apert. 6.0 mm. A. N. S. P. 
no. 57803 from Newcomb as L. fumosa. 



54 LEPTACHATINA, GROUP K. 

68. L. VENTULUS (Ferussac). PI. 5, figs. 81, 82; pi. 11, fig. 4, 

1 'Shell dextral, minute, ovately elongate, furnished with, 
marked striae; epidermis brown; whorls 5% slightly convex, 
sutures distinct; aperture small, semilunate; lip thickened 
within; umbilical cleft not distinct. Length 5.5, diam. 2.5 
lignes." (12.4x6.2 mm.) (Per.) 

Helix (Helicteres) ventulus FERUSSAC, Voy. Freycinet, 
Zool. p. 481. Bulimus ventulus PFR., Symb., 1841, p. 86. 
Achatinella ventulus NEWCOMB, Ann. Lye. N. Y., vi, 1858, 
p. 306 ('animal) . Amastra ventulus PEASE, P. Z. S. London, 
1869, p. 649. SYKES, Fauna Haw., ii, p. 347. Achatinella, 
melampoides PFEIFFER, P. Z. S. London, 1851, p. 262 ; Martini 
und Chemnitz, Conch. Cab., Achatinella, pi. 67, figs. 8, 9. 
Achatinella accincta GOULD, U. S. Exp. Exp., Moll., pi. vii, 
fig. 97. Not Achatinella ventulus REEVE, Conch. Icon., Acha- 
tinella, no. 31 (= A. textilis Fer.). PFEIFFER, Conch. Cab.,, 
Achatinella, pi. 67, figs. 12, 13 (== A. textilis Fer.). 

Oahu: Nuuanu to Palolo (Baldwin) ; Pauoa Valley and 
ridges of Nuuanu (Perkins) ; Palolo, Tantalus, Konahuanui, 
Nuuanu, Kalihi (Cooke) ; Kaliuwaa (Kuhns, Spalding) ; 
Punaluu (Spalding) ; Waialae (Spalding). 

In young specimens the embryonic whorls are encircled by 
a white band. This band continues on the lower whorls but 
is usually absent or very faintly represented in the adult 
shells. There are, usually, numerous hydrophanous grayish- 
buff, longitudinal and transverse lines. In some localities 
all the adult shells are this uniform grayish-buff. The nor- 
mal color is a rich, reddish brown with a yellowish umbilical 
zone. The aperture is reddish brown, except in shells having 
the hydrophanous covering, when it has a purplish tinge. 
The lip is white, bordered on the outside with yellowish 
white or light reddish brown. The columellar fold is rather 
strong, white. The shells are usually irregularly finely 
striate; in a few specimens from the eastern side of Nuuanu, 
the lower whorl is malleate. The species is never abundant, 
though widely distributed over the whole of the main moun- 
tain range. A single specimen from Waialae has an ivory 
white spire and a dark reddish brown base. A rather abun- 



LEPTACHATINA, GROUP K. 55 

dant color variety from Punaluu (pi. 11, fig. 4) and Kaliuwaa 
has a tawny spire with a dark reddish brown base. Figs. 
81, 82 are from Nuuanu examples. 

The measurements of a few shells are as follows: 

Length 14.7, diam. 6.6, length of apt. 6.6 mm. wh. 6.5 
N uuanu. 

Length 12.4, diam. 6.4, length of ap. 6.0 mm. wh. 6. 
Nuuanu. 

Length 13.5, diam. 7.3, length of ap. 7.1 mm. wh. 5.7. 
Nuuanu. 

Length 12.0, diam. 5.7, length of ap. 5.7 mm. wh. 5.7. 
Palolo. 

69. L. PILSBRYI n. sp. PI. 11, figs. 5, 6. 

The shell is imperforate, elongately ovate, dark reddish 
brown, except for the embryonic whorls which are corneous, 
somewhat solid, glossy, distinctly costulate, except for the 
smooth embryonic whorls. Spire ovately conic, apex sub- 
obtuse. Suture scarcely impressed, crenulate. Whorls 6^, 
hardly convex, the last subcylindrical, slightly ascending 
near the lip, tapering rather abruptly towards the base. 
Aperture large, elongate, subpyriform, scarcely oblique, per- 
pendicular. Columella concave above, nearly straight, with 
a blunt callus along its face, purplish white, subtruncate with 
a rather weak oblique fold. Outer margin of lip nearly 
straight, arcuate below, thickened within, columellar margin 
thin, appressed, adnate; the margins united by a thin callus 
on the parietal wall. Length 11.6, diam. 5.4, length of ap. 
5.3 mm. 

Oahu: Kukaeiole in Kaaawa (Kukris). 

Other specimens of this species are lighter colored, of a 
purplish brown with a narrow dark sutural band, and slightly 
larger, with the margin of the lip edged with light purple. 
One measures length 12.2, d. 5.7. length of ap. 5.6 mm. 

This species is most closely related to L. ventulus Fer. Its 
surface is. however, distinctly costulate, the apex is not 
banded as in most specimens of the latter species, the suture 
is slightly more impressed, the columellar fold is not as 



56 LEPTACHATINA, GROUP K. 

strongly developed and the umbilical region is not lighter 
colored. 

70. L. CONSPICIENDA n. sp. PI. 11, fig. 10. 

The shell is imperforate, elongately conic, straw color, 
rather thin for a shell of its size, very glossy, nearly smooth, 
under a lens minutely and irregularly striate with lines of 
growth. Spire narrowly conic, apex somewhat acute. 
Suture simple, slightly impressed. Whorls 6%, slightly con- 
vex, at first increasing slowly and regularly, the penultimate 
increasing more rapidly, the last long, subcylindrical, tapering 
slowly to the base, ascending slightly in front. Aperture 
subpyriform, hardly oblique, perpendicular, white within. 
Columella nearly straight, with a thickened oblique median 
fold, and with scarcely any thickening along its face. Outer 
lip very slightly arcuate, faintly thickened within ; columellar 
margin thin, appressed, adnate ; parietal margin covered with 
a thin colorless callus. Length 12.3, diam. 5.6, length of 
ap. 5.5 mm. 

East Maui : Mt. Kukui (Baldwin) . Type no. 15160 B. P. B. 
Museum coll. 

L. kuhnsi, from the same locality and from which it is easily 
distinct, is probably its nearest relative from the island of 
Maui. L. compicienda is more nearly related to L. perkinsi, 
Sykes, from the island of Lanai. It has, however, a more 
acute apex, the spire is less regularly conic, the whorls are 
more convex, the aperture is narrower and more elongate and 
the columella is longer and straighter. 

71. L. PERKINSI Sykes. PI. 6, fig. 23. 

" Shell dextral, ovately fusiform, somewhat thin, under a 
lens slightly striate, brownish, smooth, semipellucid, apex 
somewhat obtuse, whitish corneous ; suture simple, lightly im- 
pressed; whorls 6-61/2, flatly convex, the last equal to two- 
thirds the length of the shell; aperture pyriform; lip with 
dextral margin slightly thickened, whitish corneous within, 
columellar margin narrow, parietal margin lacking. Length 
10.5, diam. max. 5 mm." (Sykes.) 



LEPTACHATINA, GROUP K. 57 

Lanai: mountains behind Koele (Perkins), at high alti- 
tudes (Thaanum). 

Leptachatina perkinsi SYKES, Proc. Malac. Soc. London, 
ii, 1896, p. 128 ; Fauna Haw., ii, p. 367, pi. xi, fig. 30. 

"This and L. smithi are very closely allied, and may be 
separated by the fact that L. smithi is of a lighter color, 
smaller size, and is a trifle wider in proportion to its length. 
In L. smithi the last whorl is slightly longer in proportion 
to the total length of the shell." (Sykes.) The original 
figure is copied. 

A fine series of this species was collected by Mr. Thaanum. 
They are very glossy, and vary from a light corneous to a 
dark resinous color. He writes that: " the large colored 
shells are mostly from the higher altitudes, the smaller from 
the gulches." The latter are L. smithi Sykes. A series of 
L. perkinsi averaged 11.5 x 5.5 mm. A peculiar abnormal 
specimen, almost cylindrical in form, with 7% whorls meas- 
ured 16.0 x 5.9 mm. 

A peculiar color variety is also in Mr. Thaanum 's collec- 
tion. The shells are a greenish corneous with a narrow 
brown band at the suture and sometimes a broad brown band 
at the periphery. They are smaller than the other specimens 
of perkinsi but have the blunt apex of this species. 

72. L. LONGIUSCULA n. sp. PL 11, fig. 11. 

The shell is imperforate, elongate, narrowly conical, yellow- 
ish corneous, the neanic whorls distinctly costate, especially 
near the sutures, the last whorl nearly smooth, under a lens 
minutely striate with lines of growth. Spire narrowly coni- 
cal, apex subacute. Suture impressed, simple. Whorls 7, 
slightly convex, increasing very slowly and regularly, the 
last subcylindrical. tapering towards the base. Aperture 
pyriform. narrow, very slightly oblique, almost perpendicular. 
Golumella broad above, truncate below, with a fairly strong 
oblique fold almost extending to the margin, and an acute 
callus along its face. Outer lip thickened within, regularly 
arched, forming a subacute angle with the columella; colu- 
mellar margin thickened, appressed, adnate; both margins 



58 IJEPTACHATINA, GROUP L. 

united by a rather thick, white parietal callus. Length 10.5, 
diam. 4.7, length of apert. 4.5 mm. 

Lanai (Thaanum). 

There are but four specimens of this species so far re- 
ported. All agree very closely, (though in one specimen the 
last two whorls are slightly pathologic) the most distinctive 
character being the costate neanic whorls. This species is 
somewhat related to L. perkinsi Sykes. It is, however, nar- 
rower in proportion to its length and has an additional whorl, 
and besides I have been unable to find a single specimen of 
L. perkinsi with costate neanic whorls. 

L. Group of L. succinct a. 

73. L. CORNEOLA (Pfeiffer). 

* ' Shell ovately oblong, very lightly striate, pellucid, glossy, 
corneous, spire turrited-conical, apex somewhat obtuse ; suture 
subsimple; whorls 8, somewhat flat, the last nearly equal to 
% of the length; columella strongly arcuate, furnished with 
an acute, prominent, white, flattened tooth; aperture irregu- 
larly oval; lip slightly thickened within with a thin, glossy, 
white callus. Length 15.0, diam. 7.0, length of apert. 6, diam. 
3i/ 2 mm." (Pfeiffer). 

Oahu? (Baldwin) : one young specimen (Hutchison). 

Achatinella corneola PFEIFFER, P. Z. S. London, 1845, 
(1846), p. 90. REEVE, Conch. Icon., Achatinella, sp. 4. 
PFEIFFER, Mon. Hel. Viv., ii, p. 241; iii, p. 466. Achatinella 
(Leptachatina) corneola PFEIFFER, Mon. Hel. Viv.', iv, p. 564; 
vi, p. 183; viii, p. 245. Labiella corneola PEASE, P. Z. S. 
London, 1869, p. 651. Leptachatina corneola SYKES, Fauna 
Haw., 1900, p. 360. 

L. corneola appears to be related to the larger Leptacha- 
tinc? from the western portion of Oahu. The single specimen 
in the British Museum is very glossy and larger than the other 
species (L. resinula Gul., and L. succincta Newc.) to which 
it is somewhat related. 

74. L. MARGINATA (Gulick). PI. 11, fig. 8. 

"Shell dextral, imperforate, ovate, shining, semipellucid, 






LEPTACHATIXA, GROUP L. 59 



corneous, with a diffused brown band, very finely striated; 
apex obtuse; spire convexly conical; whorls 6, somewhat 
convex; the last strongly margined above; columellar fold 
central, not strongly developed, brown; aperture lunately 
rounded ; peristome simple ; with dextral margin unreflected, 
whitish, obtuse, arcuate; columellar margin dilated, brown, 
adnate; parietal margin very thin, vitreous. Length 9.3, 
diam. 5.0, length of body whorl 6.3 mm." (Gulick.) 

Oahu : Kalaikoa (Gulick). 

Achatinella marginata GU-LICK, Ann. Lye. N. Y., vi, 1856, 
p. 179, pi. 6, fig. 7. Achatinella succincta NEWCOMB, Ann. 
Lye. N. Y., vi, 1858, p. 334. Achatinella (Leptachatina) 
succincta PFR., Mon. Hel. Viv., vi, p. 183. Leptachatina 
marginata SYKES, Fauna Haw., ii, 1900, p. 366. 

"The most striking character of this species is the broad 
sutural margin, in which respect it is unlike other species 
of this group." (Gulick.) 

The only specimen of this species which I have been able 
to find is in the collection of the Boston Society. There is 
no doubt but that it is more or less closely related to L. suc- 
cincta but, as Sykes has remarked, it "is smaller and more 
slender. ' ' 

75. L. RESINULA (Gulick). PI. 3, fig. 42. 

"Shell dextral, imperf orate, cylindrically ellipsoidal, rather 
thin, shining, pellucid, corneous, very lightly striate; apex 
obtuse; suture simple, distinct, slightly impressed; whorls 
6y 2 j somewhat convex; columellar plait sub-basal, white, 
lamelliform; aperture nearly vertical, elliptical; peristome 
simple; with dextral margin regularly curved, unreflected; 
columellar margin dilated, thin, adnate ; parietal margin very- 
thin. Length 12.6, diam. 6.0, length of body whorl 8.3 mm." 
(Gulick.) 

"Var. &. Shorter, less cylindrical." (Gulick.) 
"Var. c. With dark sutural line." (Gulick.) 
Oahu: Kawailoa, Waimea, Pupukea, Waialei and Punaluu 
(Gulick); Waialua (Lyman, Cooke). 
Achatinella resinula GULICK, Ann. Lye. N. Y., vi, 1856, p. 



60 LEPTACHATINA, GROUP L. 

174, pi. 6, fig. 2. Achatinella (Leptachatina) succincta PFR., 
Mon. Hel. Viv., vi, p. 183. Leptachatina resinula PEASE, 
P. Z. S. London, 1869, p. 651. SYKES, Proc. Malac. Soc. 
London, iii, 1899, pi. 14, fig. 11. 

This species' nearest relative appears to be L. succincta 
Newc. It is usually smaller, more cylindrical in outline and 
the spire is decidedly less conical. 

Measurements of some of Gulick 's specimens are : 

Length 12.7, diam. 6.0, length of apert. 6.1 mm. Pupukea. 

Length 11.2, diam. 5.7, length of apert. 5.6 mm. Pupukea. 

Length 11.7, diam. 5.8, length of apert. 5.5 mm. Kawailoa. 

76. L. SUCCINTA (Newcomb). PI. 5, figs. 90, 91. 

"Shell obesely conoid, thin, shining, corneous, longitudin- 
ally striate; whorls 7, flatly convex, slightly rugose above, 
not margined ; suture but slightly impressed ; aperture broadly 
ovate; columella deeply excavated, short, terminating in a 
broad plicate tooth; lip simple, slightly thickened within, 
with or without a broad obsolete white or brown central band 
on the last whorl, or a fine revolving sutural line of the 
same 'Color. Length 12.5, diam. 7 mm." (Newc.) 

Oahu: Ewa (Newcomb); Wahiawa (Gulick); Halemano 
(Perkins). 

Achatinella succincta NEWC., Proc. Best. Soc., v, 1855, p. 
220; Am. Journ. of Conch, ii, 1866, p. 213, pi. 13, fig. 7. 
Achatinella (Leptachatina) succincta PFR., Mon. Hel. Viv., 
iv, p. 564. Labiella succincta PEASE, P. Z. S. L., 1869, p. 651. 
Leptachatina succincta HARTMAN, Proc. A. N. S. Phila., 
1888, p. 55. SYKES, Fauna Haw., ii, p. 370. 

A large obese species of the type of L. resinula Gul., 
L. pyramis Pfr. and L. glutinosa Pfr. It is most nearly 
related to the latter, from which it differs in size, slightly 
blunter spire and slightly more striate surface. Newcomb 's 
figure is not good. The specimens in Coll. Academy of 
Natural Sciences, presented by the author, are labeled as a 
variety. One of the shells has the following measurements: 
length 12.6, diam. 7, alt. of ap. 6.3 mm. 



LEPTACHATINA, GROUP M. 61 

77. L. SACCULA Hartman. PL 4, fig. 79. 

"Shell dextral, ovate conic, thin and semi-pellucid, spire 
more than half the length. Whorls 6, slightly convex, the 
last inflated, suture well impressed, surface coarsely striate. 
Aperture roundly ovate, subumbilicate, columella white, with 
an oblong plica within; interior of labium white and 
slightly thickened ; color pale green. Length 10, diam. 6 mm., 
length of aperture 4, diam. 2.5 mm." (Hartm.) 

Hawaiian Islands (Hartman). 

Leptachatina saccula HARTMAN, Proc. Acad. N. S. Phila., 
1888, p. 55, pi. 1, fig. 15. 

I have been unable to refer any shell to this species and 
have seen no authentic specimen. From the description the 
shell may possibly belong to the group of L. succincta Newc. 
Hartman 's figure is copied. 

M. Group of L. fossilis. 

78. L. FOSSILIS n. sp. PI. 8, figs. 58, 59. 

The shell is umbilicate, conically ovate, white (in a fossil 
state), somewhat solid, glossy, nearly smooth, under a lens 
minutely striate with lines of growth. Spire ovately conic, 
apex subacute. Suture slightly impressed, simple. Whorls 
7, almost flat, the last rotundate, slightly tapering towards 
the base. Aperture small, acutely angled at both ends, per- 
pendicular, oblique, having, on the parietal wall, a very thick, 
acute callus, which is joined to the columella but separated 
from the outer lip by a narrow sinus. Columella straight, 
simple, with a rather small, almost transverse, deeply situated 
lamella. Outer lip regularly curved, thickened within. 
Umbilicus very large for the genus, circular. Length 7.7, 
diam. 4.0, length of aperture 3.1 mm. 

Kauai (Newcomb). 

This species is represented by a single specimen in the 
collection of Academy of Natural Sciences (no. 57820). It 
was mixed with some specimens labeled L. extincta Pfr., sent 
by Dr. Xewcomb. L. fossilis differs from all the other species 
of this genus in its relatively small aperture, its heavy parietal 



62 LEPTACHATINA, GROUP N. 

callus which is not joined to the outer lip, and its large 
umbilicus. 

N. Group of L. sculpta. 

79. L. LUCIDA Pease. PL 8, figs. 65, 66. 

"Shell elongate, thin, imperf orate, dextral, glossy, trans- 
lucid, longitudinally costulate ; spire somewhat obtuse ; whorls 
7, convex, marginate and scarcely crenulate at the suture; 
suture subimpressed ; aperture almost vertical; columella 
thin; columellar fold obsolete; lip thin; pale yellowish corn- 
eous, sometimes reddish brown at the suture. Length 6.0, 
diam. 2.0 mm." (Pse.) 

Kauai: Kealia (Baldwin); Kilohana, district of Lihue 
(Cooke). 

Leptachatina lucida PEASE, P. Z. S., 1869, p. 650 (nom. 
sol.) ; Journ. de ConchyL, 1870, p. 93. Achatinella (Lepta- 
chatina) lucida PFR., Mon. Hel. Viv., viii, p. 249. 

A single shell, from the last locality, agrees very well with 
Pease's description in the texture of the surface and color, it 
has, however, 8 whorls and is slightly larger than Pease's 
type, having the following measurements: length 6.2, diam. 
2.3, length of aperture 2.0 mm. 

The species is related to L. knudseni, but is easily separated 
by its costulate surface. 

80. L. STRIATA (Newcomb). 

"Shell acutely turrited, reddish horn color, minutely and 
impressly striated transversely ; apex acute ; suture moderate ; 
whorls six to eight, the last % of the whole length ; aperture 
produced, subovate ; columella excavated, truncated, twisted 
below into a fold. Length 5.0, diam. 2.0 mm." (Newc.) 

Kauai (Newc.). 

Tornatellina striata NEWCOMB, Proc. California Acad. Sci., 
ii, 1861, p. 93. Leptachatina striata SYKES, Fauna Haw., ii, 
p. 370. 

I was unable to find a single specimen of this species in 
Newcomb 's collection., now in the Museum at Cornell Uni- 
versity. Probably the type was in the California Academy, 
and is now destroyed. 



LEPTACHATINA, GROUP N. 63 

The species cannot be confused with L. lucida Pease nor 
L. knudseni. 

81. L. COSTULATA (Gulick). PI. 4, fig. 80. 

"Shell dextral, imperf orate, turreted oblong, shining, silky, 
dark corneous, with a pale spiral band cutting the body whorl, 
and revolving above the suture, minutely regularly ribbed; 
spire turrited, with pale, obtuse apex; suture simple, moder- 
ately impressed; whorls 7, convex; columellar fold central, 
brown; aperture pyriform; peristome simple; with dextral 
margin unreflected, pale, laterally compressed, slightly arcu- 
ate anteriorly ; columellar margin thin, brown, adnate ; parie- 
tal margin very thin, white. Length 8.3, diam. 3.3, length of 
body whorl 5.0 mm." (Gulick.) 

Oahu: Pupukee, Waimea and Kawailoa (Gulick). 

Achatinella costulata GULICK, Ann. Lye. N. Y., vi, 1856, 
p. 177, pi. 6. fig. .5. NEWCOHB, Ann. Lye. N. Y., vi, 1858, 
p. 322. Achatinella (Leptachatina) costulata, PFEIFFEB, 
Mon. Hel. Viv., iv, p. 565. Achatinella (Leptachatina) semi- 
costata PFEIFFER, Mon. Hel. Viv., vi, p. 184. Leptachatina 
costulata SYKES, P. Malac. Soc. London, iii, pi. 14, fig. 4; 
Fauna Haw., ii, 1900, p. 360. 

"Newcomb united this shell with L. semicostata Pfeiffer, 
but Gulick ? s type is much more slender than that species, the 
mouth is of a different shape, and other minor differences 
exist, all leading me to regard it as a good species." (Sykes.) 

This species is much more closely related to L. sculpt a 
Pfr. It differs, however, in its less attenuate and slightly 
mor^e convex spire; the costee are slightly finer and closer; 
the color is brownish, while in sculpta the shell is straw color. 
Figured from a cotype. 

82. L. OCTOGYRATA (Gulick). PL 9, fig. 13. 

"Shell dextral, scarcely perforate, ovately turrited, thin, 
somewhat shining, translucent, dark corneous, very finely 
but regularly striated ; apex obtuse, pallid ; spire conical, with 
outlines slightly convex ; suture simple, moderately impressed ; 
whorls 8, somewhat convex; columella light brown, with a 



64 LEPTACHATINA, GROUP N. 

slight fold; aperture subpyriform; peristome simple; with 
dextral margin unreflected, thin, lightly arcuate; columellar 
margin reflected, parietal margin wanting. Length 7.6, diam. 
3.5, length of body whorl 4.3 mm." (Gulick.) 

Oahu: Palolo (Gulick). 

Achatinella octogyrata GULICK, Ann. Lye. N. Y., vi, 1856, 
p. 190, pi. 6, fig. 18. Achatinella obclavata NEWCOMB, Ann. 
Lye. N. Y., vi, 1858, p. 322. PFR., Mon. Hel. Viv., vi, 186. 
Leptachatina octogyrata SYKES, P. Malac. Soc. London, iii, 
1899, pi. 14, fig. 7; Fauna Haw., ii, 1900, p. 366. 

This species is somewhat related to specimens of L. petila 
Gul., or at least to specimens which are referable to this 
species. L. octogyrata is slightly more solid, more finely and 
closely costate, the spire is more regularly turrited and the 
whorls are flatter and more closely coiled. The embryonic 
whorls are pale ; in two of the three specimens which I have 
examined they appear to be perfectly smooth; in the third 
specimen there is an indication of minute strise. Unfortunately 
I have not been able to examine any young specimens of this 
species; the striae of the embryonic whorls are deciduous. 
Figured from a cotype. 

83. L. SCULPTA (Pfeiffer). PI. 4, figs. 73, 74, 75. 

11 Shell conically oblong, solid, sculptured with strong, sub- 
arcuate, longitudinal folds, straw color; spire regularly at- 
tenuate, obtuse ; whorls 8, somewhat flat, the last a little more 
than % of the length, somewhat ascending in front; aperture 
subvertical, sinuately oval; columella slightly arcuate, ob- 
liquely truncate; lip simple, erect, dextral margin slightly 
arching forward, columellar margin slightly callous. Length 
8.5, diam. 3.5mm." (Pfr.) 

Oahu: Waialua (Lyman) ; Haleauau in the Waianae Mts. 
(Cooke). 

Achatina sculpta PFR., P. Z. S., 1855, p. 21; PFR., Mon. 
Hel. Viv. iv, p. 609Leptachatina sculpta PSE., P. Z. S., 1869, 
p. 650. 

My specimens, though slightly smaller, agree almost per- 
fectly with the type in the British Museum. The species 



LEPTACHATINA, GROUP N. 65 

seems to be related to L. lucida Pse. from Kauai. It is how- 
ever, larger, thicker and more strongly sculptured. The em- 
bryonic whorls are smooth and glossy, the aperture per- 
pendicular. 

One specimen from Waialua has the following dimensions; 
length 8, diam. 3.3, alt. of aperture 3.1. 

84. L. SEMICOSTATA (Pfeiffer). 

''Shell subumbilicate, dextral, turrited, somewhat solid, 
closely costate, shining, chestnut corneous ; spire elongate, con- 
vexly conical, somewhat obtuse; suture impressed; whorls 
8y 2 , slightly convex, the last hardly equalling % of the length, 
below the periphery smooth, pale, attenuate, base saccate- 
compressed ; aperture slightly oblique, sinuately oblong ; colu- 
mellar fold broad, oblique, white; lip simple, unexpanded, 
margin of the columella reflexed, spreading throughout. 
Length 9.5, diam. 4 mm." (Pfr.) 

Hawaiian Islands (Pfeiffer). 

Achatinella (Leptachatina) semicostata PFEIFFEB, P. Z. S. 
London, 1855 (1856), p. 206; Mon. Hel. Viv., iv, p. 565. 
NEWCOMB, Ann. Lye. N. Y., vi, 1858, p. 322, 330. Lepta- 
chatina semicostata PEASE, P. Z. S., 1869, p. 651. 

A remarkable species with a very narrow aperture. I know 
of no species to which it may be related, and from the shell 
characters there is no clue as to which island it may have 
come from. I agree with Mr. Sykes that this species is not 
L. fusca Newc. as Newcomb suggested. 

85. L. LANCEOLATA n. sp. PI. 6, figs. 12, 13. 

The shell is imperforate, elongate, attenuately conic, yellow- 
ish corneous, thin, subdiaphanous, glossy, under a lens regu- 
larly and minutely striate or costulate. Spire acutely conic, 
apex obtuse. Suture hardly impressed, narrowly margined, 
slightly crenulate. Whorls 634, nearly flat, the last subcylin- 
drical, tapering towards the base. Aperture slightly oblique, 
perpendicular, pyriform. Columella nearly straight, with a 
very oblique, minute fold. Outer lip slightly arcuate, slightly 
thickened within, columellar margin reflexed, adnate. Length 
6.0, diam. 2.4, length of ap. 2.4 mm. 



66 LEPTACHATINA, GROUP N. 

Molokai: Kamalo (Thaanum), near Waikolu (Cooke). 

L. lanceolata is most nearly related to L. baldwini, from 
West Maui. It differs in its more attenuate form, narrower 
aperture, etc. 

86. L. IMPRESSA Sykes. PL 6, fig. 18. 

"The shell is imperforate, dextral, oblong, pellucid, shin- 
ing, pale corneous, striate; spire elongate, apex obtuse; 
suture impressed; whorls 7%, slightly convex, the last equal 
to one-half the length of the shell; aperture sinuately pyri- 
form; lip simple, thin, dextral margin erect, arcuate, colu- 
mellar margin narrow, adnate, parietal margin lacking. 
Length 7.0, diam. 2.5 mm." (Sykes.) 

Lanai (Thaanum): mountains behind Koele (Perkins). 

Leptachatina impressa SYKES, Proc. Malac. Soc. London, 
ii, 1896, p. 127; Fauna Haw., ii, p. 364, pi. xi, fig. 8. 

A small elongate species related to L. lanceolata from 
Molokai and to L. baldwini from Maui, but slightly more 
costate than either of these two species. 

The species is well represented in Mr. Thaanum 's collec- 
tion. In fresh specimens, the shells are a unicolorous light 
brown to rather dark shade of brown ; a few specimens have 
a broad dark brown band just above the periphery. PI. 6, 
fig. 18 is a copy of the original figure. 

87. L. SUPRACOSTATA Sykes. PI. 6, fig. 19. 

"Shell elongate, turrited, imperforate, dextral, thin, corn- 
eous, polished ; whorls 8, the last equal to % the length of the 
shell, the first subcostulate near the sutures, the rest almost 
smooth; suture impressed, marginate, marked with a spiral 
line; aperture lunate, columella subarcuate; dextral margin 
slightly thickened, columellar margin subreflexed, furnished 
with a very small, obliquely twisted fold. Length 6.3, diam. 
2.0 mm." (Sykes.} 

Lanai: mountains behind Koele (Perkins). 

Leptachatina supracostata SYKES, Fauna Hawaiiensis, ii, 
p. 370, pi. xi, fig. 22. 

' ' Only two specimens. It belongs to the group of L. exilis 



LEPTACHATINA, GROUP N. 67 

Gulick; it is inconspicuously costulate below the suture, the 
sculpture gradually fading out, until the last whorl hardly 
shows any marking beyond the lines of growth. There is a 
faint spiral line just below the suture." (Sykes.) 

I have referred to this species three lots of shells in Mr. 
Thaanum's collection. The shells do not agree with Mr. 
Sykes' measurements but they have the other characteristics 
fairly well represented. 

A well developed specimen, with 10% whorls has the fol- 
lowing measurements : length 9.3, diam. 3.0, 1. of ap. 2.8 mm. 
If these shells do not belong to L. supracostata they must be 
an undescribed species. Fig. 19 is a copy of that of Mr. 
Sykes. 

88. L. LANAIENSIS n. sp. PL 12^ figs. 2, 3. 

The shell is minutely perforate, elongate, light corneous, 
thin, subdiaphanous, of a silky lustre, finely and closely cos- 
tate (except the embryonic whorls), the costae thin. Spire 
elongately conic, slightly attenuate above, apex obtuse. 
Suture simple, slightly impressed. Whorls 8%, convex, 
closely coiled, the last subcylindrical, tapering to the base. 
Aperture narrowly ovate, acute at both ends, very slightly 
oblique and slightly diagonal. Columella nearly straight, 
slightly callous along its face, with a rather small oblique 
fold extending to the margin. Outer lip very slightly thick- 
ened within, regularly curved to the base of the columella; 
columellar margin thin, adnate for about one-half of its length, 
both margins united by a thin transparent parietal callus. 
Umbilicus minute. Length 8.0, diam. 3.2, length of ap. 3.0 
mm. 

Lanai (Thaanum). 

This species is much more abundant than L. impressa, 
Sykes to which it is closely related. It differs in being broader 
in proportion to its length, thinner, with finer and closer 
striae, the whorls are more convex, and it is always minutely 
perforate. 

There are two color forms besides the one noted above : one 
a brownish corneous and the other light corneous with a dark 



68 LEPTACHATINA, GROUP N. 

sutural band. A few specimens also vary in having an al- 
most smooth surface. 

89. L. TENUICOSTATA Pease. PL 1, figs. 10, 11. 

" Shell thin, dextral imperforate : elongately ovate, longi- 
tudinally plicately costate, golden; whorls 5, convex; suture 
well impressed; columellar fold white, small, oblique; lip 
slightly thickened. Length 7.5, diam. 3.5 mm." (Pease.) 

Hawaii: Mana fossil (Henshaw, Thaanum). 

Leptachatina tenuicostata PEASE, Journ. de Conchyl., 1869, 
p. 170. Achatinella (Leptachatina) tenuicostata PFR., Mon. 
Hel. Viv., viii, p. 250. Leptachatina tenuicostata SYKES, 
Fauna Haw., ii, 1900, p. 371. ANCEY, Journ. Malac. xi, 1904, 
p. 69. 

I have been unable to find a single authentic specimen of 
this species. It is not represented in the Pease collection in 
Cambridge. Only a few shells from the Mana deposits seem 
referable to this species. They may be related to L. (Thaa- 
numia) henshawi Sykes, for in the fossil material all trace 
of the spiral lines on the embryonic whorls might have been 
lost. As the shells are imperforate it is probably better to 
leave the species in Leptachatina s.s. In the fossil material, 
the columella is nearly straight, with an acute longitudinal 
thickening along its face; the columellar fold is very deeply 
seated and oblique; the aperture is narrow, acute at both 
ends ; there are 6-6y 2 whorls. An average specimen measures : 
length 8.0, diam. 3.8, length of ap. 3.7 mm. A Mana shell is 
figured, figs. 10, 11. 

90. L. IMITATRIX Sykes. PI. 1, fig. 14. 

"Shell elongate, turrited, imperforate, dextral, somewhat 
thin, yellowish corneous, under a lens minutely longitudin- 
ally striate; whorls 6%, flatly convex, the last equal to 4/7 
the length of the shell ; suture impressed ; aperture elongately 
oval, with the dextral margin arcuate, acute, columellar mar- 
gin slightly thickened, reflexed, furnished with a very small, 
inconspicuous fold, the margins united by a thin callus. 
Length 7.0, diam. 2.6 mm." (SyJces.) 



LEPTACHATINA, GROUP O. 69 

Hawaii: Mauna Loa at 4000 feet (Perkins), Hamakua 
subfossil (Ancey), Kona (Baldwin). 

Leptachatina imitatrix SYKES, Fauna Hawaiiensis, ii, 1900, 
p. 364, pi. xi, fig. 9. ANCEY, Journ. Malac. xi, p. 69. 

"Only a single specimen. It recalls L. exilis of Gulick, but 
is more conic, i. e. the upper whorls are narrower in propor- 
tion and it is of a light straw yellow. The columellar plait 
is deeply-seated and inconspicuous." (Sykes.) The original 
figure is copied. 

Unfortunately the type and only specimen is probably lost. 
I follow M. Ancey in referring the fossil material to this 
species. It agrees fairly well with the description, though 
many of the specimens with over 6 whorls measure only 6.2 
mm. In Mr. Baldwin's collection is a shell which I have re- 
ferred to this species. This shell is broader in proportion to 
its length, being nearly 3 mm. in diameter; in its other char- 
acters it agrees closely with Mr. Sykes' description. 

0. Group of L. striatula. 
91. L. ATTENUATA n. sp. PI. 7, figs. 45, 46. 

The shell is perforate, elongate, attenuate, brownish corn- 
eous, rather thin, sub diaphanous, glossy, rather closely costu- 
late (except on the embryonic whorls) there being 4-6 costas to 
a millimeter. Spire attenuate, apex subobtuse. Suture 
finely margined, lightly impressed, slightly crenulate. Whorls 
8, very slightly convex, the penultimate slightly more tumid 
than the rest, the last elongate, somewhat attenuate at the 
base, slightly ascending near the lip. Aperture subovate, 
slightly diagonal and very slightly oblique. Columella nearly 
straight, with a thick, acute callus along its face; columellar 
fold oblique, strong. Outer lip regularly arcuate, distinctly 
thickened within ; columellar margin adnate for nearly % its 
length, almost covering the perforation. Umbilicus minute, 
with angular margin. Length 13.5, diam. 5.2, length of 
aperture 5.0 mm. 

Kauai: Haleieie, Makaweli, Waiakoali, Ekaula (Cooke) ; 
Hanalei (Lyman, Cooke). 

This species has been referred to L. acuminata Gld., and 



70 LEPTACHATINA, GROUP O. 

to L. striatula Gld., by various authors. L. acuminata is, 
smoother, more slender, with a longer and narrower aperture 
and a weaker columellar fold. L. striatula is smaller, with 
more pronounced costae and a natter base. 

Specimens, from Makaweli, measure 12.0x4.5 mm. They 
differ in that the aperture is more diagonal, the suture is 
usually accompanied with a reddish line and the last whorl 
ascends more abruptly than in specimens from the type 
locality (Haleieie). 

Specimens from Ekaula are more cylindrical in form and 
have an almost perpendicular aperture. Those from 
Hanalei measure 10.0x4.6 mm. The spire is more turrited 
and the aperture less diagonal. 

Unlike most Leptachatinas this species has a tubular colu- 
mella, which is almost straight. The young have a rather 
large, circular umbilicus. 

92. L. BALTEATA Pease. PL 7, figs. 27, 28, 30, 31. 

' * The shell is elongate, turrited, imperf orate, dextral, some- 
what thin, longitudinally closely costulate; whorls 7, flatly 
convex, the last .almost equal to % the length of the shell; 
suture impressed, subcrenulate ; aperture subvertical, oval; 
columella arcuate ; columellar fold callous, hardly prominent ; 
lip thickened within; yellow, the last whorl encircled at the 
middle with a broad reddish brown band ; spire reddish brown, 
yellow at the suture. Length 11.0, diam. 5.0 mm." (Pse.) 

Kauai: Wahiawa (Baldwin) ; at 4000 ft. (Perkins) ; Puu- 
kapele, Halemanu (Cooke). 

Leptachatina balteata PEASE, P. Z. S., 1869, p. 651 (nom. 
sol.) ; Journ. de Conchy!., 1870, p. 91. CROSSE, Journ. de 
Conchyl., 1876, pi. iv, fig. 4. SYKES, Fauna Haw., ii, 1900, 
p. 358. Achatinella (Leptachatina) balteata PPR., Mon. Hel. 
Viv., viii, p. 248. 

There are two color varieties of this species. The color 
variety, described by Pease (pi. 7, figs. 30, 31, copied from the 
original figures, and fig. 27) with a broad reddish brown band 
is rather uncommon ; a unicolorous brownish corneous variety 
(fig. 28) is more abundant. Shells from Puukapele are 



LEPTACHATINA, GROUP O. 71 

slightly larger than those described by Pease. An average 
specimen measuring, length 11.3, diam. 5.3, length of aperture 
4.6 mm. Those from Halemanu are smaller. A well de- 
veloped specimen measuring, length 9.2, diam. 4.5, length of 
aperture 4.1 mm. 

This species appears to be distantly related to L. fusca 
Newc., from Oahu. The embryonic whorls are slightly com- 
pressed and very slightly shouldered, though less so than in 
the latter species. In L. balteata, the embryonic whorls are 
not strongly striate, but are almost smooth. 

93. L. COSTULOSA Pease. PI. 7, fig. 42 ; pi. 12, fig. 6. 

"The shell is elongate, turrited, thin, imperf orate, dextral, 
longitudinally closely costulate; whorls 8, somewhat flat, 
scarcely crenulate at the suture, the last almost equal to % 
of the length; aperture small, broadly elliptical, subvertical, 
angulate at the base of the columella; columellar fold small, 
oblique ; columella erect, callous, white ; lip scarcely thickened ; 
yellow, often colored with purple at the suture. Length 14.0, 
diam. 5.0 mm." (Pse.) 

Kauai (Pease) : "Waimea and Kealia (Baldwin). 

Leptachatina costulosa PEASE, P. Z. S., 1869, p. 651 (nom. 
sol.) ; Journ. de Conchyl., 1870, p. 90. CROSSE, Journ. de 
Conchyl., 1876, pi. 3, fig. 4. Achatinella, (Leptachatina) 
costulosa PFR., Mon. Hel. Viv., viii, p. 248. 

il L. striatula Gould is the closest related species to this" 
(Pse.). I have seen but four specimens which might possibly 
be referred to this species. These were in Mr. Thaanum's 
collection and were collected by Mr. Baldwin. The species 
appears to be more closely allied to L. tenebrosa Pse., than to 
L. striatula. From the former it differs in being larger, with 
a broader spire, much lighter in color and with a slightly 
more diagonal aperture. It may ultimately prove to be a 
variety of this species. The original figure is copied on pi. 7. 

94. L. EXTENSA Pease. PL 8, fig. 67. 

"The shell is elongate, slender, imperf orate, dextral, some- 
what solid, glossy, longitudinally closely impressed striate; 



72 LEPTACHATINA, GROUP O. 

whorls 9, flatly convex, scarcely angulate and crenulate at 
the suture ; suture impressed ; spire somewhat obtuse ; aperture 
small, short, oval, slightly oblique; columella short, simple; 
columellar fold compressed, scarcely prominent, oblique ; lip 
scarcely thickened ; the spire often ashy brown, the last whorl 
reddish brown. Length 11.0, diam. 4.0 mm." (Pease). 

Kauai: Kaholuamano (Perkins) ; Lehuamakanoe, Kumuwela 
(Cooke). 

Leptachatina extensa PEASE, P. Z. S., 1869, p. 651 ( nom. 
sol.) ; Journ. de Conchyl., 1870, p. 92. SYKES, Fauna Haw., 
ii, 1900, p. 362. Achatinella (Leptachatina) extensa PFR., 
Mon. Hel. Viv., viii, p. 249. 

The shells from Lehuamakanoe are slightly larger and 
those from Kumuwela slightly smaller than the measurements 
given by Pease. The former measuring, length 12.5, diam. 

4.5, length of aperture 4.0 mm. ; the latter, length 10.1, diam. 

3.6, length of aperture 3.4 mm. 

This species differs from any of the other Kauaian species. 
Its chief characters are its closely coiled, almost flat whorls 
and the very fine and close striae. The species seems to re- 
stricted to the higher altitudes. 

95. L. GAYI n. sp. PL 7, figs. 39, 40. 

The shell is perforate, ovately turrited, dark brown, thin, 
subdiaphanous, regularly, though somewhat distantly costate. 
Spire ovately turrited, apex obtuse. Suture scarcely im- 
pressed, not margined, crenulate. Whorls 7, nearly flat, 
rather compressed, the embryonic smooth, yellowish, the last 
cylindrical above, tapering towards the base. Aperture 
nearly ovate, slightly angled below, perpendicular, very 
slightly oblique. Columella straight, not truncate, with a 
very small, oblique and deeply situated fold and a slight 
acute callus along its face. Outer lip regularly curved, thick- 
ened within. Umbilicus large, (for the genus), nearly cir- 
cular, with its margin angulate. Length 8.0, diam. 3.8, 
length of aperture 3.3 mm. 

Kauai: Makaweli (Cooke). 

This species is most closely related to L. fusca Newc. from 



LEPTACHATESTA, GROUP O. 73 

Oahu and L. fraterna from Kauai. It differs from the 
former in having a much larger umbilicus, less convex whorls 
and the embryonic whorls are not striate. 

In L. fraterna the umbilicus is smaller, the shell larger, the 
embryonic whorls costulate, etc. 

96. L. LEUCOCHILA (Gulick). PL 7, figs. 33 to 38. 

" Shell dextral, imperf orate, ovately turrited, shining, 
semipellucid, corneous, with crowded longitudinal striae; 
apex obtuse; spire turrited; suture finely margined, moder- 
ately impressed; whorls 7-8, somewhat convex; columellar 
fold sub-basal, white; aperture sinuately pyriform; peris- 
tome pallid, with slight callous thickening; dextral margin 
unreflected, arcuate ; columellar margin dilated, white, adnate ; 
parietal margin very thin, corneous. Length 11.0, diam. 4.8, 
length of body whorl 6.6 mm." (Gul.). 

Kauai : Milolii, Waipo ( Cooke) . 

Achatinella leucochila GULICK, Ann. Lye. N. Y., vi, 1856, 
p. 173, pi. 6, fig. 1. Leptachatina leucochila SYKES, P. Malac. 
Soc. London, iii, pi. 4, fig. 12 ; Fauna Haw., ii, Moll., p. 365. 
Achatinella pyramis NEWCOMB, Ann. Lye. N. Y., vi, 1858, 
p. 319. Achatinella (Leptachatina) pyramis PFEIFFER, Mon. 
Hel. Viv., vi, p. 184. 

This species is closely related to L. balteata Pse. The sur- 
face is, however, more glossy and the embryonic whorls are 
not as compressed as in Pease's species. In all the speci- 
mens referred to his species there is an additional columellar 
fold, which is more oblique and deeply situated than the 
usual fold. This fold is just above the latter, with which 
it forms a very acute angle. The additional fold is easily 
seen in specimens which have the columella exposed. This 
is the only species in which the duplication of the columellar 
fold has been observed. 

The shells referred to this species agree closely with shells 
from Gulick, except that the costae are slightly further apart 
and the additional columellar fold is more prominent. 

One of Cnlick's shells has the following measurements: 
length 11.4, diam. 5.3, length of aperture 5.1 mm. 



74 LEPTACHATINA, GROUP 0. 

Fig. 35 is a copy of Mr. Sykes' figure of Gulick's type. 

97. L. PUPOIDEA n. sp. PI. 7, figs. 43, 44. 

The shell is imperforate, elongate, sub cylindrical, brownish 
corneous, glossy, rather thin, subdiaphanous, very closely 
costulate (except the embryonic whorls), with about 6-7 
costae to <a millimeter. Spire narrowly ovate, apex subacute. 
Suture scarcely impressed, very narrowly margined, crenu- 
late. Whorls 8, scarcely convex, the last subcyclindrical, with 
a somewhat tapering base. Aperture perpendicular, slightly 
oblique, narrowly ovate, acute at both ends. Columella 
nearly straight, with a rather strong, oblique fold and an 
acute callus along its face. Outer lip regularly curved, thick- 
ened within; columellar margin adnate; the margins united 
by a thin, transparent parietal callus, which is spirally striate. 
Length 11.4, diam. 4.5, length of aperture 4.6 mm. 

Kauai: Milolii, at 1500 ft. (type loc.) ; and Halemanu, at 
3500ft. (Cooke). 

This species is most closely related to L. costulosa Pse. It 
differs, however, in size and form; the apex and upper 
whorls are more attenuate, the shell is thinner and the surface 
more closely and finely costate. This species is rather abun- 
dant in the type locality. 

98. L. STRIATULA (Gould). PL 12, figs. 4, 5. 



' ' The shell is small, ovately elongate, glossy, greenish, finely 
and closely longitudinally striate-costate ; whorls 7, convex, 
the last equal to one-half of the spire ; aperture narrow, semi- 
lunate; lip whitish, thickened. Length 7/20, diam. 3/20 inch 
(8.75x3.75 mm.)." (Old.) 

Kauai: Makaweli, Kaholuamano, Lihue and at 4000 ft. 
(Perkins) ; Kipu and Kilohana (near Lihue) (Cooke). 

Achatinella striatula GOULD, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., ii, 
1845, p. 28. LeptacJiatina striatula PEASE, P. Z. S. London, 
1869, p. 651. SYKES, Fauna Haw., ii, Moll., p. 370. Acha- 
tinella clara PFEIFPER, P. Z. S. London, 1845 (Jan., 1846), 
p. 90 ; Mon. Hel. Viv., ii, p. 242. REEVE, Conch. Icon., Acha- 
tinella, sp. 5. Achatinella (L&ptachatina) clara PFEIFFER, 
Mon. Hel. Viv., iv, p. 564. 



LEPTACHATINA, GROUP O. 75 

The bottle in which are the types of this species contains 
a varied assortment of different species, besides the one de- 
scribed above. A form, which comes nearest to the descrip- 
tion, and agrees very closely with some of the shells included 
in the type lot, is from the district of Lihue. A few of them 
are nearly equal to Gould's measurements, the majority are 
slightly larger, and a very few equal or are slightly larger 
than Pfeiffer's (12.0x4.75 mm.). Small adult specimens 
from Kipu measure, length 9.2, diam. 4.1, length of ap. 3.2 
mm. ; the majority from this locality measure : length 10.0, 
diam. 4.2, length of ap. 3.5 mm. ; a large specimen of this 
species has the following measurements: length 12.5, diam. 
5.4, length of aperture 4.8 mm. Most of the shells have a 
dark reddish band at the suture. 

This species and L. leucochila are very closely related. In 
the former the whorls are more closely coiled, the suture 
nearly transverse and scarcely oblique, the surface more 
closely costate, the last whorl is shorter, more tumid, with a 
natter base, the aperture is shorter, broader in proportion to 
its length and the columella has a single fold. 

PI. 12, fig. 5 represents the synonymous A. clara Pfr. 

99. L. TENEBROSA Pease. PI. 7, figs. 25, 26, 29. 

"The shell is imperf orate, elongately turrited, solid, longi- 
tudinally costate; whorls 8, flatly convex, the last equal to 
% the length of the shell ; suture simple, subimpressed ; aper- 
ture small, oval, angulate at the base of the columella; colu- 
mella callous, erect; columellar fold strong, scarcely promi- 
nent; lip thickened; blackish, or reddish brown, apex pale. 
Length 12.0, diam. 5.0 mm." (Pse.) 

Kauai: Kaholuamano (Perkins), Halemanu, Puukapele, 
Kumuwela, Ekaula (Cooke). 

Leptachatina tenebrosa PEASE, P. Z. S., 1869, p. 651 (nom. 
sol.) ; Journ. de Conchyl., xviii, p. 92. CROSSE, Journ. de 
Conchyl., xxiii, 1876, pi. 3, fig. 5. SYKES, Fauna Haw., ii, 
1900, p. ?71. Achatinella (Leptachatina) tenebrosa PFR., 
Mon. Hel. Viv., viii, p. 248. 

Shells from Puukapele are identical with those of this 



76 LEPTACHATINA, S.-G. LABIELLA. 

species in Pease's collection at Cambridge. A few have an 
additional whorl and measure 13.5 x 4.9 mm. 

Specimens from Kumuwela are slightly more obese and for 
the most part lighter colored. One with 8 whorls measured 
12.8 x 5.3 mm. 

Those from Halemanu are somewhat smaller. A well de- 
veloped shell with 8% whorls measured : 11.0 x 4.5 mm. 

A single shell from Ekaula is quite slender for this 
species ; it has 9 whorls and measures 12.8 x 4.3 mm. 

Subgenus LABIELLA Pfeiffer, 1854. 

Labiella PFR., Malak. Blatter, 1854, p. 142 ; P. Z. S., 1855, 
p. 7. HAETMAN, P. Ac. Phila., 1888, p. 41. H. & A. ADAMS, 
Gen. Recent Moll., ii, p. 139. GULICK, P. Z. S. London, 1873, 
p. 91. PEASE, P. Z. S., 1869, p. 651. 

Labiella was proposed by Pfeiffer as a section of Achati- 
nella for A. labiata, with the following diagnosis "Shell ob- 
long, solid; columellar fold twisted; lip obtuse, thickened, 
with a tooth-like callosity within the dextral margin." 

Hartman followed Pfeiffer in considering Labiella as a 
section. H. and A. Adams raised Labiella to subgeneric rank. 
Gulick (1873) transfered Labiella to a section of Leptacha- 
tina. Pease raised Labiella to the rank of a full genus. He 
enumerated twelve species, four of which (crassilabriim, 
ellipsoidea, albolabris and subrostrata) belong to the genus 
Amastra. 

There are but four species (three from Oahu and one from 
Maui) which can properly be included in this subgenus. The 
spire in these species is slightly concave in outline ; the upper 
whorls are closely coiled and increase slowly; the denticle 
of the outer lip is present in three of the four species. This 
character is almost or entirely lacking in lagena but as this 
species is otherwise closely related to labiata it is best to 
include it in the same subgenus. The denticle was lacking 
in the type specimen of lenta, but there is a specimen in Mr. 
Baldwin's collection in which this character is clearly in- 
dicated. 



LEPTACHATINA, S.-G. LABIELL.A. 77 

100. L. LABIATA Newcomb. PI. 3, figs. 45, 49, 55. 

"Shell dextral, elongate-ovoid, plumbeous except the third 
whorl, the margin of the outer lip, and along the suture of 
the last whorl, which are white; whorls 7, flattened; the 
third narrower than the second; suture slightly margined 
below; aperture elongate-ovate; columella short, with a 
strong, plaited projecting tooth; lip thickened, white, with a 
central internal callosity. Length 0.5, diam. 0.21 inch." 
(12.5x5.2 mm.) (Newc.) 

Oahu: Lehui (Newcomb), Mt. Kaala (Baldwin), Palehua, 
Leilehua and Haleauau in the Waianae Mts. (Cooke). 

Achatinella labiata NEWCOMB, Ann. Lye. N. Y., vi, 1853, 
p. 27; P. Z. S. London, 1853 (1854), p. 141, pi. 23, fig. 33. 
Achatinella (Labiella) labiata PFEIPFER, Mon. Hel. Viv., iv, 
p. 530 ; vi, p. 170 ; viii, p. 218. Labiella labiata PEASE, P. Z. 
S. London, 1869, p. 651. Achatinella dentata PFEIFFER, P. 
Z. S., London, 1855, p. 7, pi. 30, fig. 27 .Achatinella (La- 
biella) dentnta PFR., Mon. Hel. Viv., iv, p. 530; vi, p. 170; 
viii, p. 218. Leptachatina (Labiella) labiata SYKES, Fauna 
Haw., ii, Moll., p. 365. 

Shells from Leilehua are quite large, of a uniform dingy 
straw-color, hardly shining, with a much thickened lip and 
having a costiform callus connecting the margins of the aper- 
ture. Those from Haleauau are very glossy, pinkish brown 
at the base, darker at the periphery, the spire and upper 
portion of the last whorl are almost white and the callosity 
of the outer lip is hardly developed. Those from Palehua 
have a dark plumbeous (sometimes with a reddish tinge) 
base, with the spire and upper portion of the last whorl of a 
rusty straw-color. 

Specimens from the different localities have the following 
measurements : 

Length 14.7, diam. 6.4, length of apert. 6.4 mm. Kaala 
(Baldwin coll.). 

Length 13.9, diam. 6.5, length of apert. 6.5 mm. Leilehua. 

Length 1^.2, diam. 5.7, length of apert. 5.9 mm. Haleauau. 

Length 12.6, diam. 6.0, length of apert. 5.9 mm. Palehua. 



78 LEPTACHATINA, S.-G. LABIELLA. 

Length 11.2, diam. 5.5, length of apert. 5.4 mm. Palehua. 
Fig. 55 is copied from the original figure of A. dentata 
Pf r. ; fig. 49 from the original of laliata Nc. 

101. L. CALLOSA (Pfeiffer). 

1 ' Shell imperf orate, dextral, fusiform-oblong, solid, lightly 
striate, white under the tawny epidermis ; spire elongate, ven- 
tricosely conical, apex somewhat obtuse; suture slightly 
ragged; whorls 8, nearly flat, the last a little more than % 
of the length, attenuate at the base; columellar fold acutely 
dentiform, white; aperture scarcely oblique, acuminately 
elliptical; lip callous, obtuse, dextral margin obsoletely den- 
tate within. Length 16, diam. 6 mm." (Pfeiffer.) 

Oahu (Newcomb). 

Achatinella (Laliella) callosa PFEIFFER, P. Z. S. London, 
1856, p. 334; Mon. Hel. Viv., iv, p. 531; vi, p. 170; viii, p. 
218.Laliella callosa PSE., P. Z. S. London, 1869, p. 651. 
Leptachatina (Labiella) callosa SYKES, Fauna Haw., ii, 1900, 
p. 358. 

This species is represented, as far as I know, by the single 
type specimen in the British Museum. It is very closely re- 
lated to L. labiata Newc., and may ultimately prove to be an 
unique specimen of this species. The spires of both species 
are identical. The only differences are that L. callosa is 
larger and has a different shaped aperture. 

102. L. LAGENA (Gulick). PI. 5, figs. 83, 84, 89. 

"Shell dextral, imperf orate, acuminately ovate, rather 
solid, dark resinous, very finely striated; apex somewhat ob- 
tuse, pallid; spire concavely conical; suture simple, slightly 
impressed; whorls 7, rather convex; columellar fold central, 
white, strongly lamelliform; aperture truncately auriform; 
peristome somewhat labiate, white or reddish ; dextral margin 
unreflected, arcuate; columellar margin dilated, white, ad- 
nate; parietal margin thin, dark corneous. Length 13.0, 
diam. 6.6, length of body whorl 9.0 mm." (Gulick.) 

"Var. &. Small, length 10.0, diam. 5.3, length of body whorl 
7.3 mm." (Gulick.) 



LEPTACHATINA, S.-G. LABIELLA. 79 

"Var. c. Light corneous, thinner, with lip but slightly 
thickened." (Gulick.) 

Oahu: Halemanu, Waihiawa, Kalaikoa (Gulick) ; Waianae 
Mts. back of Leilehua (Cooke). 

Achatinella lagena GULICK, Ann. Lye. N. Y., vi, 1856, p. 
175, pi. 6, fig. 3. Achatinella labiata NEWCOMB, Ann. Lye. 
N. Y., vi, 1858, p. 328. Achatinella (Leptachatina) fumosa 
NEWC., var. ? lagena PFR., Mon. Hel. Viv., vi, p. 182. Lepta- 
chatina lagena SYKES, P. Malac. Soc. London, iii, 1899, pi. 14, 
fig. 9. Leptachatina (Labiella) labiata SYKES, Fauna Haw., 
ii, 1900, p. 365. 

L. lagena approaches L. labiata in form ; the spires of both 
species are similar, but the apertures are entirely distinct. 
In the former there is no callosity within the outer margin 
of the lip, which is regularly arcuate and not flattened as 
in the latter species. L. lagena is also thinner, and dark 
resinous in color. This species was considered by Newcomb 
to be an undeveloped L. labiata; but fully adult specimens 
are easily distinguished from the young of the latter species. 
Figs. 83, 84 represent a specimen received from Mr. Gulick. 

103. L. LENTA n. sp. PI. 2, figs. 23, 24. 

The shell is imperforate, elongately conic, the embryonic 
whorls whitish, the rest brown, with a faint reddish line ac- 
companying the suture, under a lens faintly and irregularly 
striate with lines of growth. Spire elongately conic, apex 
rounded. Suture hardly impressed, faintly margined, min- 
utely crenulate. Whorls 6% ? nearly flat, regularly increas- 
ing, the last subcylindrical, tapering to the base. Aperture 
narrow, acute at both ends, oblique, perpendicular. Colu- 
mella nearly straight, with a rather strong oblique fold, and 
an acute callus along its face. Outer lip arcuate, strongly 
thickened within, whitish ; columellar margin reflexed, adnate. 
Length 8.4, diam. 3.7, length of ap. 3.7 mm. 

West Maui- Maunahoomaha (Cooke), Wahakuli (Bald- 
win). 

A rather interesting species, which seems to be related to 
L. labiata Newc., from Oahu. It is much smaller than the 



80 LEPTACHATINA, S.-G. PAUAHIA. 

other species belonging to this section, and, in the type speci- 
men, the denticle on the outer lip is lacking. Unlike any- 
thing from Maui, except possibly L. compacta, Pse., from 
which it differs in its more elongate spire and narrower and 
more perpendicular aperture. 

A single shell, in Mr. Baldwin's collection, undoubtedly 
belongs to this species. It is larger than the type specimen, 
measuring 11.7 x 5.3 mm., and is of a yellowish straw color. 
The denticle on the outer lip is faintly indicated, though 
not as pronounced as in specimens of L. labiata. 

Subgenus PAUAHIA n. subgenus. 

The shells are imperforate or minutely perforate, cylin- 
drical, striate, rather thin ; the embryonic whorls are smooth, 
rounded; the whorls are closely coiled and increase very 
slowly and regularly; the columellar fold is rather weak at 
the aperture but becomes stronger within the shell. In young 
shells there is a rather strong palatal lamina beginning un- 
derneath the junction of the lip and extending under the 
periphery nearly to the margin of the aperture. Type L. 
artata,. 

This subgenus is proposed for three species : artata, tantilla 
and chrysallis, all from Oahu. In the first two the rather 
strong palatal lamina is clearly seen in young specimens, and 
in the case of artata is faintly indicated in adult specimens. 
Unfortunately I have not seen any young specimens of 
chrysallis, so for the present it is not known whether this 
species has this character. There is no doubt that chrysallis 
belongs to this subgenus as it agrees closely in its other sub- 
generic characters. 

Pauahia is dedicated to Bernice Pauahi Bishop, in whose 
memory the museum at Honolulu which bears her name was 
founded. 

104. L. ARTATA n. sp. PL 13, figs. 1, 2, 3, 4. 

The shell is imperforate, subcylindrical to subovate, nearly 
corneous, thin, subdiaphanous, glossy, under a lens minutely 
and regularly striate with lines of growth. Spire subcylin- 



LEPTACHATINA, fc.-G. PAUAHIA. 81 

drical for the last three whorls, the upper 5y 2 somewhat con- 
vex, apex minute, blunt. Suture simple, hardly impressed. 
Whorls 8y 2 , the lower of the nepionic rather broader than 
the early neanic, the latter flat, increasing very slowly in 
size, the last two whorls nearly equal, very slightly convex, 
the last nearly cylindrical, tapering towards the base. Aper- 
ture narrowly pyriform, slightly oblique, acute and nar- 
row above, somewhat angulate at the columella, nearly per- 
pendicular, not diagonal. Columella nearly perpendicular, 
truncate, with a rather small oblique fold which becomes 
stronger about one whorl within. Outer lip erect, very 
slightly thickened within, nearly straight ; columellar margin 
whitish, thin, appressed. A thin whitish callus unites both 
margins. Length 7.2, diam. 3.2 ; length of ap. 3 mm. 

Oahu: Halawa, 1,500 ft. (Cooke) ; Mt. Tantalus 2,000 ft. 
(Lyman). 

The form from Tantalus is smaller, smoother, with a yellow- 
ish corneous color. This species is most closely allied to 
L. chrysallis Pfr. The latter is, however, much larger, more 
cylindrical in outline, with a stronger sculptured surface and 
the aperture is much broader and more ovate. 

105. L. TANTILLA n. sp. PI. 13, figs. 5, 6, 7. 

The shell is minutely perforate, narrowly sub-cylindrical, 
corneous, somewhat glossy, finely striate, with uneven striae, 
somewhat wrinkled and more prominent near the suture. 
Spire subcylindrical, gradually tapering towards the apex, 
which is rather blunt. Suture simple, hardly impressed. 
Whorls 71/2, nearly flat, slowly and regularly increasing in 
size, the last nearly cylindrical, tapering towards the base. 
Aperture pyriform, slightly oblique, perpendicular. Colu- 
mella nearly straight, scarcely truncate, with a very minute 
oblique fold. Outer margin of lip* erect, straight, arcuate 
below, slightly thickened within; columellar margin slightly 
thickened, reflexed, free. Umbilicus minute, nearly circular. 
Length 5.4, diam. 2.4; length of aperture 2.2 mm. 

Oahu : Waianae Mts. back of Leilehua (Cooke). 

This species is closely related to L. artata. It differs, how- 



82 LEPTACHATINA, S.-G. THAANUMIA. 

ever, in being smaller, the surface is more distinctly sculp- 
tured, the aperture is broader in proportion to its length and 
there is a distinct, though minute, perforation. 

106. L. CHRYSALLIS (Pfeiffer). PL 4, figs. 77, 78. 

''Shell oblong turrited, somewhat solid, slightly striate, 
arcuately plicate at the sutural line, pale yellowish; spire 
subcylindrical, apex conic, obtuse; whorls 10, nearly flat, the 
last nearly equal to % of the length, rotundate at the base; 
columella callous, abruptly truncate at the base ; aperture ver- 
tical, sinuately semioval; lip erect, with the dextral margin 
arcuate, thickened within. Length 9.0, diam. 3.5 mm." 
(Pfr.) 

Oahu: Waialua (Baldwin, Lyman), Waianae Mts. and 
Wahiawa (Cooke). 

Achatina chrysallis PFEIFFER, P. Z. S. London, 1855, p. 99 ; 
Mon. Hel. Viv., iv, p. 617; vi, p. 238. Achatina (Electro) 
chrysallis PFR., Malak. Blatter, 1856, p. 169. Lepta- 
chatina chrysallis PEASE, P. Z. S., 1860, p. 650. Leptachatina 
columna ANCEY, Le Naturaliste, 1889, p. 266. SYKES, Proc. 
Malac. Soc. London, iii, pi. 13, fig. 18. Leptachatina chry- 
sallis SYKES, Fauna Haw., ii, 1900, p. 358. 

This species is never abundant in any one locality, but 
seems to be distributed over a rather large area. A single 
specimen from Nuuanu is referable to this species, though 
doubtfully. I have examined both Ancey's and Pfeiffer 's 
types and there is no doubt that both belong to the same 
species. 

Unfortunately I have no young specimens of this species, 
the basal palatal lamella does not appear in adult specimens. 

Subgenus THAANUMIA Ancey, 1899. 

Thaanumia ANCEY, Proceedings of the Malacological So- 
ciety of London, iii, July, 1899, p. 269, monotype T. ompha- 
lodes. 

The shells are openly umbilicate or perforate, sometimes 
imperforate, hardly glossy, of a silky texture, thin or some- 
what solid, costulate to .costate, with the embryonic whorls 



LEPTACHATINA, S%G. THAANUMIA. 83 

encircled by very minute, close, raised, spiral lines ; the suture 
of the embryonic whorls is rather wide and deep and these 
whorls are somewhat flattened and very slightly shouldered 
above. Type L. omphalodes. 

Thaamimia can hardly be ranked as a genus, since except 
for the minutely striate embryonic whorls, all the species 
could undoubtedly be placed in Leptachatina. There are at 
present eight species known. 

L. (Thaanumia) omphalodes Ancey, Oahu. 

L. (Thaanumia) optabilis n. sp., Oahu. 

L. (Thaanumia) morbida n. sp., Molokai. 

L. (Thaanumia) thaanumi n. sp., Molokai. 

L. (Thaanumia) henshawi Sykes, Hawaii. 

L. (Thaanumia) perforate n. sp., Kauai. 

L. (Thaanumia) dulcis n. sp., East Maui. 

All the species are from rather open and dry localities and 
are not found in the deep woods. The characters of the em- 
bryonic whorls are not easily seen, and in most cases are 
only made out under a compound microscope. They are best 
seen in rather young fresh specimens. 

107. L. OMPHALODES (Ancey). PI. 13, fig. 11. 

' ' The shell is openly umbilicate, ovately conic, glossy, with 
a silky luster, acutely and irregularly longitudinally costu- 
late with somewhat lamellate, slightly flexuous costse, dark 
reddish corneous, pale purple at the lip. Spire regularly 
conic, rectilinear in outline, subobtuse at the apex. Whorls 
6, convex, regularly increasing, separated by an impressed 
suture, the embryonic very minutely spirally sculptured, the 
rest costulate, irregularly striatulate in the interstices, the 
last at first subangulate, ovate, dilated, at the end minutely 
and shortly ascending, angulate and compressed about the 
umbilicus. Aperture perpendicular, receding at the base, ir- 
regularly oval, contracted at both ends. Columella perpen- 
dicularly descending, long, joined to the base with an ob- 
tuse angle, at its base lightly twisted-plicate within. Lip 
slightly expanded on all sides, expanded at the columella 
more, with the margins not contracted. Length 6.3, diam. 3.5, 
length of ap. 2.6 mm." (Ancey.) 






84 LEPTACHATINA, S.-G. THAANUMIA. 

Oahu: Waianae Mts. (Baldwin). 

Thaanumia omphalodes ANCEY, Proc. Malac. Soc. London, 
iii, 1899, p. 269, pi. 12, fig. 8. 

This species is the type of the sub genus Thaanumia. 

The comparatively large and open umbilicus easily separ- 
ates this from the other species of the subgenus. 

108. L. OPTABILIS n. sp. PI. 13, fig. 9. 

The shell is minutely but distinctly perforate, ovate, light 
corneous with a broad brown band above the periphery, rather 
thin, silky, minutely and closely striate, with more distinct 
striae on the neanic whorls and just below the suture of the 
last whorl, under a very strong lens the embryonic whorls 
are indistinctly spirally striate. Spire almost conic with 
slightly convex outlines, apex rather blunt. Suture im- 
pressed, not margined, rather deep and very distinct on the 
embryonic whorls. Whorls 5%, the embryonic indistinctly 
shouldered, the rest slightly convex, the last subcylindrical, 
tapering towards the base. Aperture ovately pyriform, 
hardly oblique, very slightly diagonal. Columella slightly 
oblique, narrowly triangular, with a rather strong sub-basal 
fold. Outer lip regularly curved, convex, slightly thickened, 
columellar margin thin, adnate above, reflexed over the min- 
ute umbilicus. Umbilicus minute. Length 6.8, diam. 3.6 
mm. Length of ap. 3.3 mm. (Cooke). 

Oahu: Waianae Mts., back of Leilehua (Cooke). 

There is a unicolorous light brown variety of this species 
from the same locality. This species was found in rather 
open and dry country. The spirally striate embryonic whorls 
and the presence of a perforation places this species in the 
subgenus Thaanumia. It differs from L. omphalodes Anc. in 
having a less open umbilicus and the surface is not as dis- 
tinctly costate. The peculiar silky luster is present in both 
species. 

109. L. FUSCULA (Gulick). PL 3, fig. 51. 

"Shell dextral, imperf orate, ovate conic, thin, with but 
little polish, of a brown succineous color, and very finely 



LEPTACHATINA, S.-G. THAANUMIA. 85 

striated; apex subacute; spire convexly conical; suture sim- 
ple, lightly impressed ; whorls 6, somewhat convex ; columella 
a little oblique, white and plicately truncated ; aperture trun- 
cately oval ; peristome simple with dextral margin unreflected, 
acute, arcuate; columellar margin dilated, thin, white. 
Length 8.3, diam. 4.3, length of body whorl 5.3 mm." 
(Gulick.) 

Oahu: Mokuleia (Gulick) ; Palolo (Gulick, vid. label in 
Bost. Soc.) ; Waianae Mts., back of Waialua (Lyman) ; 
Waianae Mts., back of Leilehua (Cooke). 

Achatinella fuscula GULICK, Ann. Lye. N. Y., vi, 1856, p. 
180, pi. 6, fig. 8. Achatinella (Leptachatina) fuscula 
PFEIFFER, Mon. Hel. Viv., vi, p. 183; viii, p. 245. Lepta- 
chatina fuscula PSE., P. Z. S. London, 1869, p. 651. SYKES, 
Fauna Haw., ii, 1900, p. 362. 

This species appears to be represented by a single shell, in 
the collection of the Boston Society of Natural History. 
Unfortunately the specimen was dead when collected. The 
shells collected by Mr. Lyman and myself agree very closely 
with the type, except that a few are minutely perforate and 
all are slightly larger. The type specimen has Palolo as its 
habitat, I am sure that this must be a mistake, as all the 
species that are in any way related to it are from the other 
end of Oahu. Gulick gave the length of the body whorl as 
4.3 mm., but if we reduce his measurement in inches to 
millimeters it should be 5.3 nun. 

L. fuscula is provisionally located in the subgenus Thaa- 
numia. A few of the specimens collected by Mr. Lyman and 
myself are minutely perforate, and a number show the faint 
spiral striae on the embryonic whorls, which are less flattened 
and have a s 1 ^! lower suture than most of the species included 
in this sut genus. The costae are also less prominent. 

In fresh dark-colored specimens the columella and lip, es- 
pecially the former, are a purplish brown. There is also 
a lighter colored, almost corneous, variety. 

110. L. DULCIS n. sp. PI. 13, figs. 8, 10. 

The shell is perforate, ovately conic, light brown, with a 



86 LEPTACHATINA, S.-G. THAANUMIA. 

yellowish sheen, silky, thin, the embryonic whorls with minute 
spiral striae, the rest closely and regularly costate. Spire 
conic, apex obtuse. Suture simple, impressed. Whorls 5 l /2, 
increasing regularly, the embryonic flattened, compressed, 
shouldered above, the rest somewhat convex, the last rather 
large, tapering gradually to the base. Aperture rather large, 
ovate, hardly oblique and slightly diagonal, brownish within. 
Oolumella narrowly triangular, nearly perpendicular, brown- 
ish, with a minute, oblique basal fold. Outer lip regularly 
curved, convex, indistinctly angulate with the base of the 
columella; columellar margin thin, adnate above, reflexed 
over the perforation. Umbilicus rather small, subcircular. 
Length 7.0, diam. 3.7, length of ap. 3.4 mm. 

East Maui: Ulapalakua, Makawao (Baldwin). 

The only representative of this subgenus from Maui. It 
resembles the species from Oahu and Hawaii rather than those 
from the nearer island of Molokai. This species has a 
smaller umbilicus than L. omphalodes Ancey and it is more 
distinctly costate than L. optabilis. 

111. L. HENSHAWI Sykes. PL 1, figs. 15, 17. 

"Shell ovately pyramidal, rimate, somewhat thin, brown- 
ish-horny in color, longitudinally well marked with filiform 
striae, which become weaker towards the base, apex blunt. 
Whorls 51/2, plano-convex, the protoconch being large and 
smooth, the others sculptured as mentioned above, the last 
whorl measuring 4/7 of the entire length of the shell. Suture 
well marked. Mouth subquadrate, the straight columellar 
margin being slightly reflected. Plica small and ascending. 
Length 7.0, diam. 3.6 mm." (Sykes.) 

Hawaii: (Bucholtz) ; Kona, at 1800 feet (Henshaw), Mana 
fossil (Henshaw), Waimea Plains, near Mana (Thaanum), 
Hamakua and Kona (Baldwin). 

Leptachatina henshawi SYKES, Journ. of Malac., x, 1903, 
p. 2, fig. in text. 

"This pretty little shell recalls somewhat in appearance 
Thaanumia omphalodes Ancey, but lacks the sculpture of 
the protoconch and the distinct umbilical area. The sculp- 



LEPTACHATINA, S.-G. THAANUMIA. 87 

ture is similar in nature to that of L. tenebrosa, Pease, of 
Kauai, etc." (Sykes.) 

L. tenuicostata Pease, is somewhat closely related to this 
species. The latter is, however perforate; the outlines of 
the spire and the whorls are more convex; the columellar 
fold is stronger and approaches the outer face of the colu- 
mella, etc. 

Mr. Thaanum kindly lent me a few specimens of this species 
from the original lot collected by Dr. Henshaw. All the 
specimens had the characteristic blunt apex; in a few the 
spiral lines of the embryonic whorls were made out with a 
strong lens. 

112. L. MORBIDA n. sp. PL 13, fig. 12. 

The shell is minutely perforate (sometimes imperf orate), 
conic, dark brown, hardly glossy, rather solid, not diaph- 
anous, distinctly costate (especially on the neanic whorls), 
the embryonic whorls smooth. Spire conic, apex somewhat 
obtuse. Suture very slightly impressed, crenulate. Whorls 
6, regularly increasing, the embryonic flattened, slightly shoul- 
dered above, with a rather distinct suture, the rest slightly 
convex, the last rotundate, tapering to the base. Aperture 
large, ovate, purplish brown within, hardly oblique, slightly 
diagonal. Columella nearly straight, with a thick acute 
callus along its face; columellar fold median, small, blunt. 
Outer lip regularly convex, thickened within, white; colu- 
mellar margin slightly thickened, reflexed, adnate above. 
Umbilicus minute, oval. Length 9.0, diam. 4.7, length of 
ap. 4.0 mm. 

Molokai: Puu Kolekole, under logs in open country 
(Thaanum). 

This species is provisionally placed in the subgenus Thaa- 
numia. It differs from the other species of this subgenus, by 
not having spirally striate embryonic whorls. These are, 
however, slightly flattened, compressed and have the rather 
distinct suture characteristic of this subgenus. 

The nearest relative to this species, from Molokai, is L. 
(Thaanumia) Thaanumi. The latter is, however, smaller, 



88 LEPTACHATINA, S.-G. THAANUMIA. 

narrower and with, slightly more convex outlines. L. semi- 
picta, from Lanai, is probably related to this species. The 
latter is slightly larger, more solid and more distinctly 
costate. 

113. L. THAANUMI n. sp. PI. 6, figs. 16, 17. 

The shell is imperforate, conically ovate, yellowish corn- 
eous, with a broad reddish brown, band at the periphery, 
thin, subdiaphanous, the embryonic whorls glossy, under a 
strong lens very faintly spirally striate, the rest finely and 
closely costulate. Spire subconic, apex obtusie. Suture 
hardly impressed, faintly margined, crenulate. Whorls 
barely 6, the first two convex, the rest nearly flat, the last 
rotundate, slightly tapering towards the base. Aperture 
broadly ovate, oblique, nearly perpendicular. Columella 
nearly straight, slightly twisted, with an almost obsolete 
oblique fold. Outer margin of lip arcuate, slightly thick- 
ened within, columellar margin thin, reflexed, adnate. 
Length 7.7, drain. 3.8, length of ap. 3.4 mm. 

Molokai: Mapulehu ridge (Thaanum). 

L. thaanumi is provisionally located in the sub genus Thaa- 
numia as the embryonic whorls have the faint spiral sculp- 
ture on which the separation of the subgenus is almost wholly 
dependent This species is, however, imperforate, which char- 
acter is not found in any other species referred to this sub- 
genus. It is also narower in proportion to its length than 
any species of this subgenus, except L. perforata. 

114. L. PERFORATA n. sp. PL 7, fig. 32. 

The shell is perforate, elongate, attenuate, brown or very 
dark brown, rather thin, not diaphanous, under a strong 
lens the embryonic whorls are very minutely spirally striate, 
the rest costate. Costse arcuate, regular, 4.6 to the milli- 
meter, with 45-50 on the last whorl. Spire attenuate, elon- 
gate, apex somewhat acute. Suture not margined, im- 
pressed. Whorls 9, slightly convex, the last rotundate, taper- 
ing towards the base. Aperture perpendicular, slightly ob- 
lique, shaped like an oblique sector of a circle, acute at both 



LEPTACHATINA, S.-G. ILIKALA. 89 

ends. Columella straight, white, hardly truncate, furnished 
with a minute, oblique, deeply situated fold. Outer and 
lower margin of lip regularly curved, slightly thickened with- 
in, columellar margin slightly thickened. Umbilicus rimate, 
with angular margin. Length 7.8, diam. 3.1, length of aper- 
ture 2.7 mm. 

Kauai: Puukapele, 3000 ft,; Waipo, 3500 ft.; Kumuwela, 
3800ft. (Cooke). 

This species is unlike any other from Kauai. The type 
locality is Puukapele. It is not abundant in any one local- 
ity, but is probably to be found over all the higher parts of 
the Island of Kauai. 

L. perforata is provisionally located in Thaanumia, as its 
embryonic whorls are minutely spirally striate in fresh young 
specimens. It seems to be an aberrant form. It is possible 
that L. striata Newc. may be a relative of this species. 

Subgenus ILIKALA n. subgenus. 

The shells are perforate or minutely perforate, elongate 
with slightly convex outlines, costate; embryonic whorls con- 
vex, longitudinally costulate, separated by a rather deep and 
broad suture; columellar fold rather weak, subtransverse. 
Type L. fusca Newc. 

This subgenus is proposed for three species: fusca, petila 
and fraterna; the first two from Oahu, the last from Kauai. 
The most important character on which this subgenus is 
based is the longitudinally costate or distinctly striate em- 
bryonic shell. Ilikala is probably related to Thaanumia, but 
the latter has smoother embryonic whorls which are minutely 
striate spirally, and not axially costulate. (Ilikala, an 
Hawaiian word meaning a rough skin.) 

115. L. FUSCA (Newcomb). PL 4, figs. 65 to 69. 

"Shell thin, cylindrically elongate; whorls 5, nearly flat; 
suture linear, slightly impressed; aperture ovate; lip acute; 
columella dentate within; longitudinal striae strongly de- 
veloped ; color brown, with a narrow horn-colored band re- 
volving below each suture ; lower half of the last whorl horn- 



90 LEPTACHATINA, S.-G. ILIKALA. 

colored. Long. 6/20, diam. 3%/20 poll." (7.5x4.4 mm.) 
(Newc.) Length .35, diam. 0.2 inch (Newc.) 

Oahu: Manoa (Newcomb, Cooke) ; Palolo, Mt. Tantalus, 
Pauoa, Konahuanui and Nuuanu (Cooke). 

Achatinella fusca NEWCOMB, Ann. Lye. N. Y., vi, 1853, p. 
28; P. Z. S. 1853 (1854), p. 145, pi. 23, fig. 44. Achatinella 
(Laminella) fusca PFEIFFER, Mon. Hel. Viv., iv, p. 558; vi, 
p. 181 ; viii, p. 244. Leptachatina fusca PEASE, P. Z. S. Lon- 
don, 1869, p. 651. 

This is one of the most aberrant species of the genus. 
The first whorl is slightly depressed, with a deep broad suture 
separating it from the second whorl which is rather convex 
and somewhat shouldered above. Both the first and second 
whorls are sculptured with rather strong longitudinal striae 
and very fine spiral striae. The latter are clearly visible 
under a strong lens, especially in young specimens. This is, 
also, one of the subgeneric characters of Thaanumia. The 
adult shells of fusca are always imperforate and the lower 
whorl is more drawn out and tapering. In young specimens 
of 5 or less whorls there is a minute perforation. 

There are four distinct color varieties of the typical form 
of this species : the first an4 most abundant, which is also the 
one described by Newcomb, has a dark reddish brown band 
(which sometimes extends to the suture) above the periphery, 
the spire is reddish brown, there is usually a yellowish corn- 
eous band accompanying the suture and the base below the 
periphery is yellowish corneous (figs. 65, 66). The second 
is of a uniform dark reddish brown ; the third is light brown- 
ish corneous, slightly lighter in color below the periphery 
(fig. 67). The fourth has the first 3y 2 whorls of a dark 
reddish brown, the two last are yellowish corneous, with a 
narrow reddish brown band accompanying the suture (fig. 
69). The last two varieties are very rare as I have seen 
only two specimens of the third variety, which came from 
Nuuanu, and a single specimen of the fourth variety was 
collected in Palolo. 

Adult shells vary between the following measurements: 

Length 8.1, diam. 4.2, length of apert. 3.9 mm.; whorls 
51/2 ; Nuuanu. 



LEPTACHATINA, S.-G. ILIKALA. 91 

Length 8.9, diam. 4.4, length of apert. 4.3 mm.; whorls 
5^; Konahuanui. 

Length 10.5, diam. 4.5, length of apert. 4.5 mm.; whorls 
6!/4 ; Nuuanu. 

115a. L. f. striatella (Gulick). PI. 4, figs. 70, 71, 72. 

The shell is very slightly narrower in proportion to its 
length, the costae are slightly finer and the aperture is more 
perpendicular, with the outer lip less arcuate. 

Length 10.0, diam. 4.4, length of apert. 4.2 mm. 

Oahu: Mountain range of Keawaawa, in damp places 
(Gulick). 

Achatinella striatella GULICK, Ann. Lye. N. Y., 1856, vi, 
p. 178, pi. 6, fig. 6. Achatinella fusca NEWCOMB, Ann. Lye. 
N. Y., 1838, vi, p. 330.Leptachatina striatella SYKES, P. 
Malac. Soc. London, iii, pi. 14, fig. 190; Fauna Haw., ii, 1900, 
p. 370. 

116. L. FRATERNA n. sp. PI. 12, figs. 8, 11. 

The shell is minutely perforate, elongately conic, dark 
brown, rather thin, costulate (the embryonic whorls trans- 
versely costulate and under a strong lens indistinctly spirally 
striate). Spire conic, apex rather blunt. Suture deep on 
the embryonic whorls, on the other whorls hardly impressed. 
Whorls 61/2, very slightly convex, increasing regularly, the 
last subcylindrical, tapering gradually to the base and as- 
cending slightly in front. Aperture subovate, bordered with 
yellowish brown, brown within, very slightly oblique, perpen- 
dicular. Columella nearly straight, whitish, almost truncate 
with a rather weak foI5 and with an acute callus along its 
face. Outer lip regularly curved, slightly thickened within, 
forming an angle with the base of the columella ; columellar 
margin thin, reflected, the upper one-third adnate. Umbilicus 
minute. Length 9.4, diam. 4.3, length of ap. 4.1 mm. 

Kauai (Baldwin). 

This species is very closely related to L. fusca Newc., from 
Oahu. It differs, however, in having flatter whorls and a 
more conic spire ; the aperture is less diagonal. 



92 LEPTACHATINA, S.-G. ILIKALA. 

117. L. PETILA (Gulick). PL 4, figs. 61 to 64. 

"Shell dextral, perforate, turreted, rather thin, not pol- 
ished, brown, corneous, obliquely striated; apex somewhat 
obtuse, pallid; spire turreted; suture simple, well impressed; 
whorls 6, convex; columella vertical, brown, lightly plaited 
deep within the aperture; aperture vertical, subelliptical ; 
peristome simple, with margins joining in an unbroken curve ; 
dextral margin unreflected, arcuate; columellar margin 
slightly reflected, not appressed ; parietal margin narrow, cal- 
lous. Length 6.6, diam. 2.8, length of body whorl 3.5 mm." 
(Gulick.) 

Oahu: Koko, under stones in dry rock regions (Gulick) ; 
Wailua (Lyman) ; fossil at Nuuanu, Manoa, and at Rocky 
Hill (Cooke). 

Achatinella petila GULICK, Ann. Lye. N. Y., vi, 1856, p. 
189, pi. 6, fig. 17. Achatinella fusca NEWCOMB, Ann. Lye. 
N. Y., vi, 1858, p. 330. Achatinella (Laminella) fusca PFR., 
Mon. Hel. Viv., vi, p. 181. Leptachatina petila SYKES, P. 
Malac. Soc. London, iii, 1899, pi. 14, fig. 14; Fauna Haw., ii, 
1900, p. 367. 

Newcomb, Pfeiffer and Pease seem to have considered this 
species as identical with L. fusca Newc. It is, however, en- 
tirely distinct. The specimens collected by Gulick were from 
Koko Head, a very dry and almost desert region. All my 
specimens, except the fossil material, was found in the very 
darkest and dampest valleys of Nuuanu. 

The fossil material from Rocky Hill agrees best with 
Gulick 's specimens in the collection of the Boston Society. 
The shells from Nuuanu are imperforate. All my shells are 
considerably larger than Gulick 's. The measurements are as 
follows : 

Length 8.6, diam. 3.6, length of apert. 3.1 mm. Waialua. 

Length 7.8, diam. 3.2, length of apert. 2.8 mm, Nuuanu. 

Length 7.9, diam. 2.8, length of apert. 2.6 mm. Rocky Hill. 



FERNANDEZIA. 93 

Genus FERNANDEZIA Pilsbry, n. gen. 

Shell imperforate, varying from ovate to oblong-turrite, 
thin, yellow or pale brown, glossy, striate or weakly plicate. 
Initial \V- 2 to 1% whorls smooth or very delicately striate 
spirally, semi globose, forming an obtuse summit. Aperture 
irregularly ovate, subvertieal, the outer lip a little thickened, 
having a smooth finish when adult ; the coluinella short, bear- 
ing a more or less prominent, spirally entering fold or la- 
mella. Soft anatomy unknown. Type: F. urilsoni. 

Distribution: Island of Juan Fernandez. The species are 
figured on plate 14. 

These shells resemble species of Glessula and Leptachatina 
so closely that only their geographic remoteness gives reason 
for the belief that they will prove generically distinct, when 
the soft parts can be examined. Like the genera mentioned, 
the lip has a smooth, blunt finish in fully adult shells; there- 
by differing from Subulina, Opeas and Leptinaria, which 
have the lip sharp and unthickened at all stages of growth. 
It must be admitted that the shells, in Glessula, Leptachatina, 
Fernandezia and Cochlicopa furnish no tangible character to 
differentiate one from another genus. What real distinction 
there may be in the animals remains to be discovered. 
\\Tiether reproduction in Fernandezia is oviparous or vivi- 
parous is not known. 

In some forms I have seen excessively superficial and fine 
spiral stria? upon both embryonic and later whorls; in others 
they are not discernible, at least in adult shells. 

Key to spe ies of Fernandezia. 

I. Columella very short, with a strong median spirally 
entering lamella. 

a 10y 2 x 6.2 mm. with 6% whorls ; periphery weakly 

subangular. expansa, no. 3. 

a 1 9 x 4.8 mm. with 6% whorls ; subplicate below suture, 

the last whorl rounded philippiana, no. 4. 

a 2 IQi/z x 5.8 mm. with iy 2 whorls ; finely striate. 

iwilsoni, no. 5. 



94 PERNANDEZIA. 

II. Columella longer, the fold weaker and nearer the base. 

a Length of aperture more than half that of the shell ; 
11 x 6 mm., aperture 6 mm., with 5 to 6 whorls. 

bulimoides, no. 1. 
consimilis, no. 2. 
a 1 Aperture less than half as long as the shell. 

b 12 x 5y 2 , aperture 5 mm., whorls 8 ; columella 
deeply twisted. conifera, no. 8. 

& 1 9.9x4, aperture 4 mm., whorls T 1 /^ ; columella 
straight above, weakly folded below. 

longa, no. 10. 
fc 2 7 x 3 mm. ; columellar fold strong. 

splendida, no. 9. 

& a 6.6 x 3, aperture 3 mm., whorls 6, striate, colu- 
mellar fold small. tryoni, no. 6. 
6 4 9 x 414, aperture 4 mm., whorls 6%, weakly 
plicate below suture. inornata, no. 7. 

1. F. BULIMOIDES (Pfeiffer). PL 14, fig. 4. 

11 Shell ovate-conic, thin, striatulate, covered with a pel- 
lucid corneous-buff epidermis. Spire conic, acute; whorls 
51/2, scarcely convex, the last more swollen, as long as the 
spire. Columella twisted above, thread-like, very obsoletely 
truncated above the base of the broad, semioval aperture, 
provided with a thin callus covering the ventral part of the 
preceding whorl. Peristome simple, thin. Length 11, diam. 
6, aperture 6x3.5 mm." (P/r.). 

Juan Fernandez (Cuming; Challenger Exped.). 

Achatina bulimoides PFR., P. Z. S. 1846, p. 116 (Jan. 26, 
1847) ; Monogr. ii, 271. REEVE, Conch. Icon, v, pi. 19, f. 103 
(June, 1849). Spiraxis &., PFR. Monogr. iii, 472; vi, 193. 
Stenogyra (Nothus) &., E. A. Smith, P. Z. S. 1884, p. 280 
(Juan Fernandez, "Challenger" Exped.). 

2. F. CONSIMILIS (Reeve). PL 14, fig. 11. 

"Shell conically ovate, rather ventricose, whorls 5 to 6, 
rather flatly convex, finely striated, shining, columella short, 



FERNAN>EZIA. 95 

straight, rather callous; yellowish-olive, transparent" 
(Reeve). 

"Shell ovate-conic, thin, smooth, pellucid, glossy, buff- 
olivaceous ; spire convexly-conic, acute ; whorls 5, a little con- 
vex, the last longer than the spire, more convex. Columella 
straightened, callous, highly and shortly twisted-truncate. 
Aperture little oblique, oval; peristome simple, unexpanded. 
Length 11, diam. 6, aperture 6 x 3y 2 mm." (Pfr.) 

Juan Fernandez (Miller, Cuming coll.) 

Acliatina consimilis REEVE, Conch. Icon, v, pi. 19, f. 104 
(June, 1849). Spiraxis c., PFR., Monogr. iii, 471; iv, 574; 
vi, 192. Stenogyra (Euspiraxis) c., PFR., Nomencl. Hel. Viv. 
1878, p. 324. 

"Very similar in general aspect to the preceding species 
[bulimoides] , but clearly distinct. It is less ventricose and 
the columella is nearly straight " (Reeve). 

3. F. EXPANSA n. sp. PI. 14, fig. 1. 

The shell is imperforate, conic, thin, somewhat translucent, 
very glossy, covered with a pale yellow cuticle. Spire 
straightly conic, the apex obtuse, rounded; whorls 6y s , 
slightly convex, the last very obtusely subangular in the 
middle, the base tapering and not very convex. The first 
two whorls are convex and indistinctly, very minutely marked 
with spiral lines; following whorls are irregularly, finely 
striate over a very weak plication, which is hardly noticeable 
except for a short distance below the suture. The aperture 
is trapezoidal. Columella verv short, bearing a very strong, 
spirally entering, median lamella, Length 10.5, diam. 6.2 
mm. ; length of aperture 6 mm. 

Juan Fernandez (A. N. S. P. no. 10164). 

This form resembles F. bulimoides and consimilis in gen- 
eral shape, but differs by the very strong median columellar 
lamella and the subangular periphery. Neither of the speci- 
mens is quite fully adult, the outer lip being sharp, without 
the usual smooth finish. 



96 FERNANDEZIA. 

4. F. PHILIPPIANA n. sp. PL 14, figs. 2, 3. 

The shell is imperforate, ovate-conic, thin, glossy, suffi- 
ciently transparent to show the columellar axis faintly 
through the shell, pale yellow. The spire is straightly conic 
with an obtuse, rounded apex. Whorls 6%, but slightly con- 
vex. The first 1^2 whorls are smooth, the first one wide, the 
next decidedly narrower; near the end of the second whorl 
fine vertical striae appear. The remaining whorls of the spire 
are weakly plicate, the folds moderately strong near the 
suture, weakening rapidly and disappearing downward, and 
on the last whorl nearly or quite obsolete. There are also 
fine, rather weak growth-striae, and under a strong lens in 
favorable light, a very minute and extremely weak spiral 
striation is visible in places. The last whorl is nearly smooth. 
Aperture semioval; outer lip slightly obtuse, smooth-edged, 
a trifle sinuous. 

Columella very short, bearing a median, very strong, 
spirally entering lamella. Length 9, diam. 4.8 mm. ; length 
of the aperture 4 mm. 

Juan Fernandez (A. N. S. P. no. 10165). 

The shell is narrower and paler-colored than F. wilsoni, 
and plicate below the suture. 

5. F. WILSONI n. sp. PI. 14, figs. 7, 8. 

The shell is imperforate, ovate-pyramidal, rather solid, 
opaque, covered with a glossy yellowish cuticle, distinctly 
though finely striate, the striae strongest just below the suture, 
the base smoother. Outlines of the spire straight. Apex ob- 
tuse, rounded, the first iy 2 whorls white, smooth. Whorls 
7%, almost flat, the last very ventricose, rounded at periphery 
and base. Suture linear, narrowly impressed. Aperture 
slightly oblique, light birown within, with a white border near 
the lip. Outer lip blunt, being slightly thickened. .Colu- 
mella very short, with a very strong, obliquely or spirally- 
entering median lamella. Parietal callus rather thick, whit- 
ish but transparent, not spreading forward. Length 10.5, 
diam. 5.8 mm. ; length of aperture 4.9 mm. 



PERNANDEZIA. 97 

Juan Fernandez. Type no. 10166 A. N. S. P. 

This species has more whorls than bulimoides or consimilis, 
and a smaller aperture. The lateral outlines of the spire 
are almost straight. 

Named for Dr. T. B. Wilson, who gave the specimens to 
the Academy. 

6. F. TRYONI n. sp. PI. 14, figs. 12, 13. 

The shell is subimperforate, oblong-conic, thin, translucent, 
pale yellow, glossy. Spire conic, the apex obtuse and 
rounded. Whorls 6, but slightly convex. First iy 2 whorls 
smooth, following whorls of the spire very finely and weakly 
though quite distinctly striate, the striae curved. Suture bor- 
dered by transparence. Aperture irregularly ovate, the outer 
lip obtuse, whitish. Columella rather wide, concave above 
and excavated below a very oblique fold. Parietal callus 
thin and straight. Length 6.6, diam. 3 mm.; length of 
aperture 3 mm. 

Juan Fernandez (no. 10167 A. N. S. P.). 

The smallest species of the group as now known. It is 
much smaller than F. conifera, with fewer whorls. 

7. F. INORNATA n. sp. PI. 14, figs. 14, 15. 

Shell oblong-conic, imperforate, thin, pale brownish yellow, 
glossy, somewhat translucent. Spire with very slightly con- 
vex outlines and obtuse, rounded apex. Whorls 6%, but 
slightly convex, the first 1% smooth, the rest sculptured with 
short, low folds below the suture, and very weak, irregular 
growth-lines. Aperture serrr.jvai, the outer lip white, blunt, 
with a smooth finish. Columella short, concave above, ex- 
cavated below the oblique, somewhat lamellar fold. Length 
9, diam. 4.25 mm. ; length of aperture 4 mm. 

Juan Fernandez (no. 10168 A. N. S. P.) 

Closely related to F. philippiana, but of narrower shape, 
with a more obliquely entering columellar fold. In the type 
specimen (pi. 14, figs. 14, 15) this fold is rather weak, but 
in another shell, which I refer for the present to the same 
species, it is strong and lamellar. 



98 FERNANDEZ1A. 

8. F. CONIFERA (Reeve). PL 14, fig. 5. 

"Shell pyramidally conical, whorls 8, rather narrow, 
rounded, longitudinally obscurely striated, shining, colu- 
mella short, arched, twisted, attenuately truncated, aperture 
small, brown-horny" (Reeve). 

Shell ovate-pyramidal, thin, very finely striatulate, glossy, 
pellucid, brownish-corneous. Spire long-conic, the apex ob- 
tuse. Whorls 8, a little convex, slowly increasing, the last 
sub-rotund, about two-fifths of the total length. Columella 
short, arcuate, twisted, obliquely truncated above the base 
of the vertical, subrhombic-oval aperture. Peristome acute, 
unexpanded. Length 12, diam. 5.5 mm.; oblique alt. of 
aperture 5, width in the middle 3 mm. (Pfr.). 

Juan Fernandez (Cuming). 

Ackatina conifera REEVE, Conch. Icon, v, pi. 18, f. 98 
(June, 1849). PFR. Monogr. iii, 495, vi, 255. 

Distinct by its long spire and deeply twisted columella. 
Reeve's figure is copied, and the descriptions of Reeve and 
Pfeiffer are given. 

9. F. SPLENDIDA (Anton). Cf. PL 14, figs. 9, 10. 

"Oval-conic, spire lengthened, 5 whorls, the last ventricose, 
almost half as long as the whole shell. Transparent, shin- 
ing, very finely striate, olive-green. Aperture long-oval. 
Columella strongly twisted, inconspicuously truncate. Length 
31/2, diam. 1% lines" (Anton). 

Opana (Anton). 

Bulimus (Ackatina) splendida ANTON, Verzeichniss der 
Conchylien welche sich in der Sammlung von Hermann. 
Eduard Anton befinden, p. 44, no. 1590 (1839). 

? Achatina splendida Anton, PFEIFFER in Philippi, Abbild. 
u. Beschreib. neuer Conch, ii, p. 214, Achatina, pi. 1, f. 11 
(1847) ; Conchylien Cabinet, Bulimus, p. 339, pi. 37, f. 10- 
12; Monographia Hel. Viv. ii, 271. REEVE, Conch Icon, v, 
pi. 19, f. 100 (1849). Spiraxis splendida Ant, PFR., Monogr. 
iii, 472; iv, 575; vi, 193. Oleacina splendida ADS., Gen. Rec. 
Moll. p. 105. Stenogyra (Nothus) splendidula Anton, E. A. 
SMITH, P. Z. S. 1884, p. 280. 



FERNANDEZIA. 99 

There is some doubt whether the species described and 
figured by Pfeiffer is identical with that of Anton. Anton 
gives the locality "Opana," meaning the island Opara or 
Rapa, one of the Austral Group. He gives the shell 5 whorls. 
Pfeiffer 's description follows: 

"Shell ovate-conic, thin, striatulate, glossy, olivaceous- 
corneous; spire conic, apex rather acute. Whorls 6 to 7, a 
trifle convex, the last about as long as the spire. Columella 
twisted, very obsoletely truncate. Aperture oblong-oval; 
peristome simple, acute, columellar margin reflexed in a callus 
which often spreads outwardly. Length 7.5, diam. 3.5, 
aperture 3.5 mm. long, 1.66 wide." 

"Island of Juan Fernandez (Cuming)." 

This form was also recorded by Mr. Smith as collected on 
Juan Fernandez by the Challenger expedition. 

Pfeiffer's figure in the Abbildungen of Philippi is copied, 
pi. 14, fig. 9. Reeve's figure agrees with this except that the 
columella is more curved and prominent at the base. In the 
Concliylien Cabinet Pfeiffer figures a more ventricose and 
Bulimoid shell, which certainly looks like a different species, 
but gives the same description. I have copied this figure 
also, pi. 14, fig. 10. 

10. F. LONGA n. sp. PI. 14, fig. 6. 

The shell is imperforate, oblong-turrite, thin, pale brown- 
ish-yellow, somewhat transparent, glossy. Spire long, with 
nearly straight sides, the apex obtuse and rounded. Whorls 
7!/2, but slightly convex, the first 1% smooth, the rest regu- 
larly sculptured with straight vertical, fold-like striae, which 
weakly crenulate the very narrow prominent border below 
the suture. The striaa became less regular on the last whorl 
or two, and the sutural border loses its prominence. In some 
places a very minute spiral striation may be made out in 
favorable light. The aperture is irregularly ovate ; outer lip 
simple; columella subvertical above and somewhat excavated 
below the low, oblique, sublamellar fold. Length 9.9, diam. 
4 mm. : length of aperture 4 mm. 

Juan Fernandez (no. 10168 A. N. S. P.). 



100 CARELIA. 

This species seems to resemble F. splendida (Anton) in 
contour, but according to Anton that has but 5 whorls. 
Pfeiffer's splendida is, according to the figure, a more conic 
shell. Under the circumstances it is probably best to give a 
recognizable account of the form before me, leaving the ques- 
tion of its possible identity with one or other of the forms 
described as splendida for future decision. 

Genus CARELIA H. and A. Adams. 

Carelia H. & A. AD., Genera of Recent Mollusca ii, p. 132 
(February, 1855). PFR., Monographia Heliceorum iv, 571; 
vi, 188; viii, 250. ALBERS-MARTENS, Die Heliceen 1860, p. 
208 (type Achatina bicolor Jay). GULICK, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lfond. 1873, p. 91 (type C. adusta Gld.). W. G. BINNEY, 
Ann. N. Y., Acad. Sci. iii, p. 103 (jaw and teeth). ANCEY, 
Memoires de la Societe Zoologique de France vi, 1893, p. 321 
(monograph). BORCHERDING, Monographic der auf der 
Sandwichinsel Kauai lebenden Molluskengattung Carelia, in 
Abhandlungen Senckenbergischen Naturforschenden Gesell- 
sehaft xxxii (Feb., 1910), p. 225. 

The shell is imperf orate, oblong-turrite, solid; embryonic 
shell conic, with slightly obtuse apex and flat whorls ; first half 
whorl smooth, the next whorl or two with sculpture of arcu- 
ate axial striaB or riblets, which are often split; neanic and 
adult stages irregularly striate or nearly smooth, sometimes 
with spiral lines or ribs, the whorls slightly convex, or with 
one or two spiral carinae. Aperture ovate; outer lip simple 
and acute; columella concave, obliquely or vertically trun- 
cate below, and bearing a small callous lamella. Axis slender 
and nearly straight in the inner whorls, becoming sinuous in 
the last. 

Soft anatomy unknown, except the jaw and teeth, which 
have been described and figured by Binney. The jaw of 
C. bicolor (pi. 21, fig. 12) "is low, slightly arcuate, with but 
little attenuated, blunt ends; anterior surface with ten stout 
ribs, denticulating either margin. 

"Lingual membrane of C. bicolor (pi. 21, fig. 11) long and 
narrow; teeth 37,1,37, of same type as in the species of 



CARELIA. 101 

Laminella, Newcombia and Leptachatina" (W. G. Binney). 
Centrals much narrower than the laterals with a relatively 
very small tricuspid reflection. Lateral teeth with the inner 
cusp as long as the basal-plate, ectocone small as usual. 
Marginal teeth with the ectocone bifid. 

Type C. bicolor (Jay). Distribution, Islands of Kauai and 
Niihau. 

Carelia was proposed by Henry and Arthur Adams for 
the species bicolor, cochlea, fuliginea, newcombi and para- 
doxa, and placed in the genus Achatina next to Homorus. 
The first of these species was selected as type by von Martens, 
who retains the genus in practically the same position. 
Gulick in 1873 removed it to the Achatinellina, a position 
confirmed by Binney 's examination of the teeth, and ap- 
proved by all subsequent students. A full account of the 
soft anatomy is still wanting. 

The genus contains the largest land snails of the Hawaiian 
group. We have but little information upon their distri- 
bution in Kauai, and no real advance in knowledge of the 
races can be made until the results of field work in- that 
island are accessible. 

According to Pease, ' ' The species of Carelia are commonly 
found on the sides of precipitous rocks of the mountains, 
under stones and trunks of dead trees. They do not live 
in large numbers; one finds solitary individuals, or pairs. 
All of them are rare, even in the places where they are most 
often found. C. adusta Old. is the only exception in this 
respect." (Pease, J. de C. 1870, 402.) 

"The young are similar to the young of Kauaia and of 
most of the true Achatinettida in general aspect, but they 
retain an angulated base and primitive aspect until a late 
substage of the neanic in some primitive species like C. bicolor, 
adusta and sinclairi. These resemble the adult whorls of 
Kauaia kauaiensis except in having angulated instead of 
carinated basal volutions and the small but still open um- 
bilicus. The derivation appears therefore to have been from 
some form having angulated base, convex dorsal sides and 
general form of the full grown shells of Kauaia, but this was 



102 CAREL1A. 

not a carinated shell, and the surface was perhaps smoother 
than in K. kauaiensis. The immediate ancestor of Carelia, 
in other words, was probably a Kauaia-like shell with angu- 
lated base, smooth whorls and had a twisted columella with a 
small perforation. This form, if in existence now, would 
probably be placed between Cyclamastra and Kauaia on ac- 
count of its columella and aperture, or be classified as a 
primitive form of Kauaia itself" (Hyatt). 

The amastroid stage of Carelia is shown in pi. 16, fig. 7, 
representing the neanic stage of C. bicolor. 

Key to Species of Carelia. 

a. Later whorls angular or subangular at the shoulder ; per- 
iphery flattened, base obtusely angular. 

&. Diameter nearly half the length ; no spiral striation ; 
25x12 mm. with 6% whorls. C. b. angulata, no. 10 /. 
ft 1 . Longer, more slender, whorls 7 to 9. 

c. Last Whorl very dark and smooth, strongly bi- 
angular, with a creamy zone above the angle; 
diam. one-third the length, or more. 

C. cumingiana, no. 9. 

c 1 . Last whorls biangular, the upper angle rounded, 

striate, lower angle strong; red-brown with a 

sutural light line ; diam. less than one-third the 

length, 47x14 mm. C. rigida, no. 8. 

c 2 . Lower angle rounded, upper acute or weak; 

usually a broad white zone below suture ; shell 

long, slender. C. dolei, no. 7. 

a 1 . Whorls not angular at the shoulder. 

6. Later whorls having more or less coarse spiral stri- 
ation. 

c. Length usually less than 40 mm. ; red-brown 
with a white band below suture; strong, un- 
equal spiral cords. C. cochlea, no. 6. 
c 1 . Similar but with well-rounded last whorl and 
few, very weak spirals. C. bicolor, no. 10. 
c 2 . Larger shells, length 45 to 80 mm., with dark 
base and lighter color above. 

C. turricula, no. 1 ; C. paradoxa, no. 2. 



CARELIA. 103 

b 1 . Not spirally striate. 

c. Large, length 50 mm. or more. 

d. Last whorl rounded; red-brown, fading 

toward the apex ; rather coarse striae ; 65x 

23 mm. C. pilsbryi, no. 3. 

d 1 . Last whorl more or less flattened, suban- 

gular below. 

e. Olive-green, 69x19 mm., 8-9 whorls. 
C. olivacea, no. 4. 

e l . Blackish, suture yellowish, 55x20 
mm., 7 whorls. 

C. o. variabilis, no. 4a. 

e 2 . Reddish-chestnut, fading upwards, 

suture white margined; 54x17 mm., 

whorls 9. C. hyattiana, no. 5. 

c 1 . Length not over 40 mm. 

d. Last whorl rounded, rarely with a weak 
basal angle; shell dark brown or black, 
often light above or with a light sutural 
band. Kauai. C. bicolor, no. 10. 

d 1 . Whorls less convex, coarsely plicate-stri- 
ate. Niihau. C. sinclairi, no. 11. 

1. C. TURRICULA (Mighels). PL 19, fig. 1. 

"Shell cylindrical, turrited, sometimes dark, sometimes 
light brown, imperf orate; whorls 10, convex, more or less 
distinctly striate transversely ; incremental striae coarse ; aper- 
ture oblong; lip simple, acute. Length 2.75 inches, diam. .8 
inch." (Mighels). 

Kauai: Hanalei (Baldwin, Perkins). 

Achatina turricula MIGH., Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist, ii, 
1845, p. 20. PFR., Monogr. ii, 261. Carelia turricula Migh., 
KOBELT, Jahrb. D. Malak. Ges. ii, 1875, p. 225, pi. 7, f. I. 
BORCHERDING, Abh. Senck. Nat, Ges. vol. 32, 1910, p. 229, 
pi. 19, f. 2, 3 (form newcombi). Achatina newcombi PFR., 
P. Z. S. 1851, p. 262 (1853). Spiraxis n., PFR., Monogr. 
iii, p. 470. Achatina obeliscus REEVE, Conch. Icon, v, pi. 



104 CARELIA. 

23, f. 129 (March, 1850). CareKa turricula High., var. 
azona ANCEY, Proc. Malac. Soc. vi, p. 121 (1904). Carelia 
cochlea, GULICK, Evolution, Racial and Habitudinal, 1905, 
p. 38, pi. 1, fig. 1. 

The summit is rather pointed, the first 3 whorls being 
straight-sided, subsequent whorls are slightly convex, and last 
whorl is somewhat cylindric, being flattened in the middle, 
convex or subangular above, and angular at the periphery, 
below which it tapers straightly to the base. Apical sculpture 
as in the other species; the spiral sculpture begins on the 
fourth whorl as spiral series of long granules. On the last 
3 or 4 whorls there are several low, cord-like spirals, more or 
less knotted by coarse, irregular, longitudinal growth-folds. 
This sculpture varies from strong to subobsolete in different 
specimens, and is wanting on the base. There is also a very 
dense, fine, wavy microscopic spiral striation, visible in the 
most perfect shells, but readily worn off. 

The color varies from rather bright yellow to dark chest- 
nut, the base being darker, of a chocolate shade. In the 
color-form newcombi there is a pale belt below the periphery. 

Mr. Ancey's var. azona is identical with the typical 
C. turricula. 

la. Var. NEWCOMBI Pfeiffer. PL 19, figs. 4, 5, 6. 

Chestnut-colored with a pale yellow belt below the peri- 
pheral angle, the base black. Length 71, diam. 19, aperture 
21 mm. (Pfr.). This color form differs from the type only 
in the conspicuous yellow belt bounding the chocolate basal 
area. Sometimes the upper surface is yellow with an orange- 
brown tint, darker than the belt (fig. 4). The spiral sculp- 
ture varies in prominence among individuals of the same lot. 
In some shells the spirals are very conspicuous (figs. 4, 5), 
in others almost obsolete. 

1&. Var. OBELISCUS Reeve. PI. 19, figs. 7, 8. 

The last 3 or 4 whorls have coarse, irregular wrinkles of 
growth and several coarse, low spiral cords, often more con- 
spicuous than in the typical turricula. They are dull brown, 



CARELIA. 105 

with pale or whitish streaks and spirals due to wear. "Last 
whorl banded with chestnut black around the columella" 
or the whole base may be black, with no light band below the 
peripheral angle. Aperture blue-white inside, with a wide 
black border in the outer lip. 

Fig. 8 is copied from Reeve. Fig. 7 represents a speci- 
men from Hanalei, no. 2351 Cooke coll. It measures, length 
68.5, diam. 21.5 mm., with 9y 2 whorls. 

I cannot agee with Borcherding that obeliscus is specifically 
distinct from turricula. The difference in sculpture which 
he relies upon is very inconstant. 

2. C. PARADOXA (Pfeiffer). PI. 19, fig. 3. 

Shell turrite, solid, distinctly and closely granulate, black- 
brown ; spire long, forming an acute cone above. Whorls 8, 
convex, the upper ones remotely costate, the last whorl two- 
sevenths the total length, angular below the middle, smooth; 
aperture a little oblique, subrhombic, bluish within, columella 
calloused, white, twisted, subtruncate at the base; peris-tome 
unexpanded, acute. Length 46, diam. 16 mm., aperture 15 
mm. long, 8 wide. (Pfr.) . 

Kauai (Dr. Newcomb, in Cuming coll.) 

Spiraxis paradoxa PFR., P. Z. S. 1853, p. 128; Monogra- 
phia iv, 572. Carelia p., PFR., Monographia viii, 251. 
PEASE, P. Z. S. 1871, p. 473. BORCHERDING, Monogr. Carelia 
p. 231, pi. 19, fig. 5. 

Pfeiffer also described a var. b ; larger, white becoming 
orange-red towards the apex, the last whorl deep purple- 
chestnut around the columella ; length 60, diam. 18 mm. 
Borcherding 's figure is copied; but it seems to represent only 
an exceptionally granose specimen of newcombi. 

3. C. PILSBRYI Sykes. PL 18, fig. 10. 

"Shell elongate, spire much produced, imperforate ; sculp- 
ture consisting of well-marked, irregular, longitudinal lines, 
these gradually becoming weaker towards the protoconch, 
which is smooth ; color of the last whorl red-brown, gradually 
fading on the upper whorls till the protoconch is only faintly 



106 CARELIA. 

tinged. Whorls 8, the last measuring more than half the en- 
tire length, moderately inflated, with a well-marked suture; 
mouth lunate, outer lip (broken) hardly thickened at all, the 
white columellar margin reflexed and slightly expanded." 
Length 65, diam. 23 mm. (Sykes). 

Kauai. 

Carelia pilsbryi SYKES, Proc. Malac. Soc. London viii, 
April, 1909, p. 204, with fig. BORCHERDING, Monogr. Carelia, 
p. 232, pi. 19, f. 6, 7. 

"A single specimen, purchased from the collection of the 
late Mr. Rogers, has remained some years unnamed in my 
collection. As other workers have also been unable to identify 
it, I now give a description and figure. 

"From C. bicolor Jay, it differs in its larger size and also 
its color; from C. cochlea, Rve., and cumingiana, Pfr., in the 
absence of keeling and the more inflated whorls ; from C. dolei 
Ancey, its size will readily distinguish it ; from C. olivacea 
Pease, it differs in color and shape ; from C. paradoxa Pfr., it 
may be known by the absence of granular sculpture; from 
C. turricula Mighels, it may be separated by the coloring, 
length of the last whorl, and lack of keel at the base. C. 
sinclairi Ancey, is unknown to me, and C. glutinosa Ancey, 
is not, I believe, really a Hawaiian shell. I have only seen a 
single specimen of C. pilsbryi, and the species is, I should 
think an extinct one, like some others of the group. ' ' (Sykes.) 

4. C. OLIVACEA Pease. 

"Shell elongately turrited ; whorls 8-9, flatly convex, smooth 
or obscurely ribbed transversely, the last roundly angulate 
at its base; aperture small, ovate, about one-fifth the length 
of the shell; columella strongly arched and obliquely trun- 
cate at base; covered with a greenish-olive epidermis, which 
often, after the death of the animal, darkens; the suture is 
sometimes margined with a white or light colored band, 
which is free of epidermis; aperture bluish, edge black, base 
of columella dark-chestnut. " (Pease). 

Length 69, diam. 19 mm. 

Sandwich Islands, Kauai (Pease). 



CARELIA. 107 

Carelia olivacea PSE., American Journ. of Conch, ii, p. 293 
(Oct. 1, 1866). C. variabilis PSE., Journ. de Conchyl. 1870, 
p. 402, with var. viridis; P. Z. S. 1871, p. 473, with var. 
olivacea and viridans. BORCHERDING, Monogr. Carelia, 1910, 
pp. 233-235, pi. 19, f. 8, 9. 

This was described from a single example, which Pease 
afterward considered to be "a mere variety of C. variabilis. ' ' 
Pease's account is given in full. No other definite informa- 
tion bearing upon the forms has been published, but Borcher- 
ding has figured a shell which he takes to be variabilis. One 
of his figures is copied, pi. 19, fig. 2. 

40. Var. VARIABILIS Pease. 

Shell elongate-turrite, solid, transversely irregularly 
roughly raised-striate ; blackish, the suture bordered with 
yellowish, spire reddish-brown. Whorls 7, flattened; the last 
two-fifths the length of the shell, sometimes angular below 
the middle. Aperture vertical, ellipsoidal, blue within ; colu- 
mella arcuate, somewhat calloused, plicate at the base, white, 
truncated basally; peristome unexpanded, acute. Length 
55, diam. 20 mm. (Pse.) 

Var. viridis. Shell wholly green, with no band. (Pse.) 

Kauai: this species is found in a space of over 15 miles 
on the eastern part of Kauai, therefore occupying a larger 
area than any other of the genus (Pse.) . 

"The form most nearly related is C. fuliginea Pfr. C. 
olivacea Pease, which I described from a single individual, 
is probably only a mere variety of C. variabilis. 

"When the animal becomes adult it vacates the upper 
whorls; hence the spire in all the living individuals I col- 
lected is as though dead, decolored and turning light brown. 
It is probably the largest species of Carelia. I found the 
last three whorls of a shell which must have had a length of 
3 inches when living." (Pse.) 

Pease subsequently (1871) mentions, but does not define, 
a "var. viridans", doubtless an error for viridis. 



108 CARELIA. 

5. C. HYATTIANA Pilsbry, n. sp. PI. 21, figs. 1, 2. 

The shell resembles (7. turricula in shape. The embryonic 
whorls and up to the end of the 4th taper more rapidly than 
those following. The first 3% are bicolored and nearly flat, 
with a sculpture of narrow, curved, axial grooves, separated 
by much wider intervals. They are somewhat worn in the 
type. The rest of the whorls are rather weakly and about 
equally convex, with sculpture of faint growth-wrinkles and 
indistinct traces of fine, dense, wavy spiral striolation. The 
color of the post-embryonic whorls is fallow or tawny yellow ; 
this deepens to a rich chestnut and then dark reddish chest- 
nut on the last whorl, which is darkest basally. A rather 
narrow (about 1.5 mm.) snow white zone borders the suture 
below, on the last five whorls. The aperture is ovate. Colu- 
mella vertical, brown, with a very weak basal truncation and 
no noticeable spiral lamella. 

Length 54, diam. 17.2, length of aperture 17 mm. ; whorls 9. 

Hawaiian Is. Type no. 10132 A. N. S. P., presented by 
Dr. T. B. Wilson. 

This species is based upon a fossil shell which was asso- 
ciated with C. dolei in the collection, and which evidently 
came from the same formation. It differs from C. dolei in 
wanting an angle or carina at the shoulder at all stages of 
growth. On the last whorl there is an obtuse but quite ap- 
preciable basal angle, which, with its shorter aperture, serves 
to differentiate this species from C. pilsbryi Sykes. 

Compared with C. turricula, this species is less robust at 
all stages of growth ; the columellar twist is weaker, and the 
coloration different. 

C. olivacea Pease may be identical with this shell, but the 
proportions, from Pease's measurements, must be much more 
slender. The var. variabilis of Pease, of the same length as 
hyattiana, is wider and has two whorls less. 

6. C. COCHLEA (Reeve). PI. 18, figs. 5, 6, 8. 

Shell turrited, slowly tapering, more rapidly so near the 
summit; reddish brown, darker towards the apex, with a 



CARELIA. 109 

white band revolving below the suture throughout. The first 
three whorls are nearly flat, the rest moderately convex, the 
last whorl obtusely angular peripherally. The early whorls 
have curved riblets, as usual in the genus; on the fourth 
whorl spiral sculpture begins, often abruptly becoming 
stronger at or near the end of the fourth whorl. Subse- 
quent whorls have 5 or 6 strong unequal spiral cords and 
light growth-lines; base smooth. The aperture is rhombic; 
columella descends in a long spiral curve, the basal truncation 
being very weak. 

Length 38, diam. 13.7 mm.; whorls fully 8. (fig. 6). 

Length 39, diam. 14.5 mm.; whorls 7% (Reeve's type, ac- 
cording to Pfr. ; fig. 5). 

Kauai. 

Achatina cochlea REEVE, Conch. Icon, v, pi. 1, f. 5 (Feb., 
1849). PFR., Monogr. iii, p. 498; Conchyl. Cab. p. 347, pi. 
38, f. 7. Carelia cochlea PFR., Monogr. viii, 251. SYKES, 
Proc. Mai. Soc. Lond. viii, 1909, p. 204. BORCHERDING, 
Monogr. Carelia, p. 236, pi. 20, figs. 3, 4. 

The numerous strong spiral cords of this species differentiate 
it from other forms having a white sutural band. It is a 
rare snail, the exact locality is still unknown. All the speci- 
mens we have seen are "dead" shells, and we presume that 
Reeve's type was equally so. 

7. C. DOLEI Ancey. PI. 18, figs. 1 to 4; pi. 16, fig. 10. 

Shell elongate-turrited. solid, (dead), without gloss; in- 
tense wine-brown colored, darker at the acute apex and the 
aperture. Striate, the stria? less distinct at the aperture. 
Spire very much lengthened, slowly tapering, a little more 
rapidly so above. Whorls 9 to 9 1/2, slowly increasing, the 
first scarcely convex, suture linear, following 5 whorls at 
first sloping, then angular above the middle, flattened below 
the angle; suture impressed; the last whorl has an upper 
angle, with another obtuse one below the middle, sides flat, 
tapering downward. Aperture oblong, acute above, taper- 
ing, brown inside. Columella thick, strongly and obliquely 
truncate, white, arcuate above ; parietal callus strong. Length 




110 CARELIA. 

45 to 51, diam. 14 to 16, alt. of aperture 12 to 13 mm. 
(Ancey). 

Kauai: Hanalei (Baldwin). 

Carelia dolei ANCEY, Mem. Soc. Zool. France 1893, vi, p. 
328 (1894). BORCHERDING, Monogr. Carelia, p. 237, but 
probably not pi. 20, f. 5, 6. Carelia cumingiana var. kobelti 
BORCHERDING, Monogr. Carelia p. 239, pi. 20, f . 1, 2. 

This species was based on dead examples, presumably fossil. 
There is a superb set of 91 shells from sand dunes along the 
shore, Haena, northern Kauai, in the collection of Mr. 
C. M. Cooke. It is a highly variable form, closely related 
to C. cumingiana, from which it differs by the more slender 
spire, the generally weaker basal angle, and the weaker de- 
velopment of minor spirals on the neanic whorls. 

The upper angle or keel begins on the fourth whorl (pi. 
16, fig. 10) ; it varies widely in degree of prominence, and 
sometimes, becomes subobsolete on the last two or three 
whorls. In a few cases it is doubled (pi. 18, fig. 3). The 
basal angle is usually rounded off, and seems never to be so 
strong as in C. cumingiana. The more minute surface- 
sculpture is like that of cumingiana, except in the weaker 
spirals. As in cumingiana the flat, sloping shoulder is often 
weakly plicate ; otherwise the later whorls appear smooth un- 
der the lens. 

The specimens are in large part bleached, but many show 
color. The first four whorls are usually purplish with a 
narrow subsutural white border. This color fades to white 
on the following whorls. The last two or three whorls are 
chestnut, the base darker, with a wide white zone below the 
suture. This zone includes the shoulder-keel, thus differing 
from C. cumingiana in which the white zone lies above the 
keel. In a few examples the early whorls are white. Several 
shells in which the upper carina is weak on the later whorls, 
want the subsutural white zone. They are chestnut-colored, 
paler just below the suture and in the upper part of the spire ; 
apical whorls either pale or dark, (fig. 4). This seems to be 
the typical color form, described by Ancey. 

The specimens figured measure as follows: 



CAREUA. HI 



Length 44.5, diam. 15 mm. ; whorls 

Length 46.5, diam. 13.5 mm. ; whorls 9. 

Length 43, diam. 14 mm. ; whorls Sy 2 . 

Length 36, diam. 13.5 mm. ; whorls 7%. 

This species is slightly more advanced in evolution than 
C. cumingiana, shown by the frequent loss or weakness of the 
keel on the last whorl, a feature of senility. 

Borcherding's C. cumingiana var. kobelti was based upon 
specimens resembling my figs. 1 and 2, and probably from 
the same locality. The form he figures as typical dolei wants 
the spiral angles described by Ancey. If the specimen is 
dolei, it is very far from typical. 

8. C. RIGIDA Hyatt, n. sp. PI. 21, figs. 8, 13. 

The shell is slender, turrited, the last 5 whorls increasing 
slowly, those earlier much more rapidly; red-brown, with a 
narrow whitish band below the suture on the last 5 whorls, 
its lower edge not sharply defined ; the upper whorls and the 
base somewhat darker than the intermediate whorls. Whorls 
8%, the upper ones but slightly convex, the last five moder- 
ately convex, chiefly just above the middle of each, where 
there is a group of about 3 weak spiral striae on the last 
3y 2 whorls. The last whorl is convex close below the suture, 
distinctly flattened peripherally, angular at the base, slightly 
concave below the angle. Aperture small. Columella with 
the twist not very prominent. Length 46.8, diam. 14 mm., 
length of aperture 13 mm. 

Kauai. 

This species is related to C. cochlea and C. dolei, and may 
turn out to be a form of the latter. The strong basal angle, 
the spiral striae of the upper surface, and the much lengthened 
spire of many whorls are its chief characters. Description 
and figures from specimen in coll. Dr. C. Montague Cooke, 
labeled by Hyatt, whose account follows. 

This species is similar to Carelm cumingiana, but the white 
band is much narrower, being often a mere trace, and the 
shoulder less prominent. , The apertures are however very 
much alike, owing to the rate of growth, the flatness of the 




112 CARELIA. 

outer part of the dorsum or sides, and the flattening of the 
base. The dorsum may be covered with longitudinal [spiral] 
ridges until near the basal angle. There are five shells from 
Kauai in the Boston Society collection, and one shell in 
Cooke's collection, from Kauai (Hyatt). 

9. C. CUMINGIANA (Pfeiffer). PI. 21, figs. 3, 4, 5; pi. 18, 
figs. 7, 9. 

The shell is turrited, rather solid, smoothish. The spire 
tapers slowly, but terminates above in a more rapidly taper- 
ing cone. The first half or three- fourths whorl is smooth; 
then rather coarse, curved, vertical ribs set in. On the third 
whorl these become finer and more or less split into sharp 
striae. About the middle of the third whorl some shallow 
spiral sulci appear and part of the striae are cut into oblong 
granules; at the end of 3y 2 whorls, weak cords appear at the 
shoulder and close above the suture below; these gradually 
enlarge into conspicuous angles or keels, the lower one usually 
covered at the suture except on the last whorl. The verti- 
cal sculpture gradually diminishes, leaving the last two 
whorls smooth. The embryonic whorls are bicolored, purple- 
black and tawny, but the dark lower zone gradually fades 
as growth proceeds, and is usually narrow or inconspicuous 
after the 4th whorl. The intermediate whorls of the spire 
are some shade of tawny brown. A pale zone below the 
suture begins on the fifth whorl, becoming opaque white on 
the last two or three whorls. The last whorl is biangular, 
smooth, and very dark brown or black below the white zone. 

Aperture trapezoidal, bluish white within, with a broad 
black margin within the thin, acute lip. Columella concave, 
bluish white with a brown edge, narrowly truncate at base; 
spiral lamella above the truncation moderate or inconspicuous. 

Length 43.5, diam. 16 mm. ; whorls 8. 

Length 46, diam. 14.5 mm. ; whorls 8. 

Length 37, diam. 15.5 mm. ; whorls 7. 

"Length 48, diam. 16 mm.; whorls 8" (Pfr., type). 

Kauai. 

Spiraxis cumingiana, PFR., P. Z. S. 1855, p. 106, pi. 32, f . 1 ; 




CARELIA. 113 

Monogr. iv, 572. Carelia c., PFR., Monogr. viii, 251. BOR- 
CHERDING, Monogr. Carelia p. 238, pi. 19, f. 10, 11; pi. 20, 
f. 5, 6. 

This species differs from C. bicolor by the strong develop- 
ment of spiral sculpture. At least the fourth whorl has 
numerous low spiral cords; the shoulder keel is conspicuous 
on the last three whorls, and the strong baso-peripheral angle 
limits a flat peripheral area on the last whorl. The white 
band below the suture varies but little in width, in the series 
of 14 specimens examined. In C. dolei the spire is decidedly 
more slender above, and the sculpture of the early neanic 
whorls differs. 

10. C. BICOLOR (Jay). PI. 20, figs. 1, 2, 3, 4, 7. 

Shell oblong-ovate, solid though not thick, spire red-brown, 
darkening on the apical and penult, whorls, the last whorl 
or two black or black-brown, with a cream-white zone be- 
low the suture; this zone ascends the spire 2% or 3 whorls, 
and reappears on the earliest whorls. The first S 1 /^ whorls 
are but slightly convex and form a conic terminal cone; fol- 
lowing whorls become decidedly convex, and taper more 
slowly. The indistinct spirals of the early neanic whorls 
often became low subobsolete cords or angles on the last 
whorl. The angle bounding the base, distinct in the neanic 
stage, is sometimes traceable in adult shells. Aperture very 
dark with a bluish iridescence inside. The columella is 
moderately concave, narrowly truncate at the base, and bears 
a very obliquely descending white lamella. 

Length 36.5, diam. 15, length aperture 13 mm. Whorls iy 2 . 

Length 34, diam. 13.5, length aperture 13 mm. Whorls 7i/ 2 . 

Kauai : Hanekapiai ; on the ground, under Dracaena leaves, 
on terraces of the slope at about 800 ft, (C. M. Cooke). 

Achatina bicolor JAY, Catalogue of Shells, 3d edit, 1839, p. 
119, pi. 6, fig. 3. 

The typical form of C. bicolor. is a rare shell in collections. 
The specimens described and figured are from the collection 
of Mr. C. M. Cooke. 

The width of the subsutural white band varies a good deal 



114 CARELIA. 

from 11/2 to 5 mm. wide in shells about 35 mm. long. In 
some shells the junction of the white band with the dark 
color is a sharp line ; in others the dark color fades gradually 
through red-brown ; again, bright blue appears at the upper 
edge of the darker color. The embryonic whorls and a young 
shell in the Amastroid stage are shown in pi. 16, figs. 7 and 9. 

The following form seems to be a synonym. 

Var. suturalis Ancey. "The shell is like typical C. fuli- 
ginea except that it is marked with more conspicuous super- 
ficial spiral lines on the last whorl; upper part of the last 
whorl margined broadly and diffusely with buff-white, and 
sometimes encircled below the sutural zone with a few narrow 
lines of the same color. Length 38, diam. 16.5, alt. aperture 
18.5 mm. Kauai (Baldwin). In this variety the pale band 
is not well defined as in C. bicolor Jay, which is usually con- 
sidered a form of the same species." (Carelia fuliginea Pfr., 
var. suturalis Ancey, Proc. Malac. Soc. London, vi, 122, 1904). 

100 C. B. HYPERLEUCA n. var. PI. 20, figs. 5, 6. 

Upper (outer) surface of the last two or three whorls 
white, with a very thin, pale yellowish cuticle ; base chocolate 
or black, early whorls colored like bicolor. There are inter- 
grading specimens connecting this with bicolor, such as pi. 
20, fig. 5, and others connecting with adusta, pi. 20, fig. 7, 
in which the upper surface of the last whorl is red-brown, 
much lighter than the base. In fact, the color-forms of 
C. bicolor probably have no existence as separate races. 
Their status must be determined by the naturalist in the field. 

10&. C. B. ADUSTA Gould. PI. 20, figs. 8, 9, 10. 

"Shell turrite, with pyramidal apex, imperf orate, solid, 
blackish-brown, pale 'above. Whorls 7, convex, lightly striate, 
the last subcarinate. Aperture oval, opaline within ; lip sim- 
ple, acute, black; columella ivory-like, produced in a tooth 
anteriorly. Length l 1 /^, diam. % inch." (Old.) 

Kauai: Haena. 

Achatina adusta GLD., Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist, ii, 
1845, p. 26. Achatina fuliginea PFR., P. Z. S. 1852, p. 66 




CARELIA. 115 

;i854); Monogr. iii, 490; Conchyl. Cab. p. 367, pi. 43, f. 
21, 22. Achatina bicolor Jay, PFR., Conchyl. Cab. p. 335, 
pi. 39, f. 6, 7. DESHAYES in Fer., Histoire, p. 188, pi. 122, 
f. 4, 5. REEVE, Icon, v, pi. 1, f . 4. Carelia bicolor Jay, 
BINNEY, Proc. A. N. S. Phila. 1876, p. 185, pi. 6, and Ann. 
N. Y. Acad. Sci. iii, p. 103, pi. 6, f. I (dentition), pi. 16, fig. 
D (jaw). 

This form differs from C. bicolor only in the absence of 
a white zone below the suture. The last one or two whorls 
are chocolate or black, the spire red-brown, and the embryonic 
whorls dark again above the suture. Often the red-brown 
of the spire extends upon the upper half of the last whorl, 
the basal half remaining black. Mr. C. M. Cooke found 
adusta living with true bicolor at Haena. All the figures 
published as bicolor represent adusta, except Jay's original 
illustration and Borcherding 's figures. 

lOc. C. B. FULIGINEA Pfeiffer. PI. 21, figs. 9, 10. 

"Shell ovate-turrite, solid, roughly striate, glossy, sooty- 
black ; spire turrite the apex acute. Whorls 6y 2 , convex, the 
last about two-fifths the length, very obsoletely angular be- 
low the middle columella arcuate, vertically truncate at the 
base. Aperture slightly oblique, subrhombric-oval ; peristome 
simple, acute. Alt. 36, diam. 16 mm." (Pfr.) . 

Pfeffer's original figures are copied. Borcherding con- 
siders this form specifically distinct from adusta on account 
of its color, which is black with no visible indication of 
brown, and its luster, fuliginea being glossy when the cuticle 
is preserved, while bicolor and adusta are dull. Pfeiffer's 
original figures show brown upper whorls. In the series be- 
fore me I cannot trace such a difference in luster between 
the forms as Borcherding claims. In fact, I am much dis- 
posed to rank fuliginea as a synonym of adusta. References 
are given under adusta. 

Borcherding has described several supposed varieties of 
adusta as follows: 



116 CARELIA. 

IQd. Var. minor Borcherding. PI. 20, figs. 13, 14. 

"A quite small dark black-brown form only 24 mm. long" 
(C. adusta Old. var. minor Borcherding, Monogr. Carelia p. 
244, pi. 20, f. 17, 18). 

lOe. Var. zonata Borcherding. PI. 20, fig. 15. 

' 'An elegant form of black-brown color and 28 mm. long. 
Comes near the typical form of adusta but has a sharply 
defined white band below the suture" (C. adusta Gld. var. 
zonata Borcherding, Monogr. Carelia p. 244, pi. 20 ? f. 13, 14). 

A "Carelia adusta Gould var. minor form zonata" Bor- 
cherding (pi. 20, figs. 11, 12) is defined as "a third pretty 
form of red-brown color and 25 mm. long stands near var. 
minor but has a sharply defined white band below the suture" 
(Borcherding, t. c. p. 244, pi. 20, f. 15, 16). 

The "zonata" forms are apparently small forms of 
bicolor. 

10/. C. B. ANGULATA Pease. PL 20, fig. 16. 

''Shell generally more slender, whorls above broadly angu- 
lar. The wide and acute angulation which occupies the 
greater part of the width of the whorls gives this variety a 
particular aspect, which I think should be distinguished by 
a special name" (Pease). 

Carelia adusta var. angulata PEASE, Journ. de Conchyl. 
1870, p. 403. 

The specimen figured measures, length 25%, diam. 12. 
mm., having 6% whorls. The first whorl is smooth, the next 
two rather strongly costulate, about as in pi. 16, fig. 9. Then 
the surface becomes' striate. At the first third of the fourth 
whorl an angle at the shoulder begins, becoming stronger to 
the last whorl, where it is rather acute, the surface slightly 
concave above and below it. A less acute angle divides the 
flat peripheral from the slightly convex basal surface. The 
embryonic whorls are bicolored, the upper third pale fleshy 
brown, lower two-thirds dark red-brown; following whorl 
light fleshy brown, becoming darker on the penult., dark 
brown on the last whorl, but pale below the suture. 



CARELTA. 117 

The spire widens more rapidly than in C. dolei, and the 
lower angle is decidedly stronger. In C. cumingiana the sur- 
face is smoother, the coloration much more brilliant, and there 
is more sculpture on the first neanic whorl. 

11. C. SINCLAIRI Ancey. PL 16, fig. 8 ; pi. 21, figs. 6, 7. 

Shell subfossil, reddish white or fleshy whitish, with the 
aperture and part of the last whorl before it usually violet- 
red; scarcely shining, solid, the young very narrowly per- 
forate, generally imperforate; oblong-tapering. Spire 
conoid with subconvex outlines, a little obtuse. Whorls 8, 
the first 4 smooth, the rest obliquely and closely, subirreg- 
ularly plicate, upper whorls flattened, the lower a little 
convex, last whorl ovate, rounded. Suture more or less dis- 
tinctly margined below, simple above. Aperture suboblique, 
tapering-oval, narrow above and below, angular above. Colu- 
mella arcuate, thickened, s-omewhat twisted, obliquely and 
lightly truncate above the base. Basal margin forming an 
angle with the columella, outer lip regularly elliptical. 
Peristome simple, acute, unexpanded. Length 32 to 37, diam. 
14 to 16, alt. aperture 12 to 14 mm. (Ancey). 

Island of Niihau. 

Carelia sinclairi ANCEY, Mem. de la Soc. Zool. de France 
v, 1892, p. 720; vi, 1893, p. 322. BORCHERDING, Monogr. 
Carelia, p. 246, pi. 20, f. 19, 20. 

"It is distinguished easily by the oval shape, oblong last 
whorl without angularity, the striation and the general ap- 
pearance resembling Amastra violacea Newc." 

From the freshness of some of the specimens Mr. Bor- 
cherding concludes that the species is perhaps still living in 
some secluded valley in the somewhat wooded interior of 
Niihau. 

Specimens were distributed many years ago by Dr. Wesley 
Newcomb under the (unpublished) name Carelia extincta 
Nc. One of these is figured on pi. 16, fig. 8. The first whorl 
is smooth, the next very finely striate. While about equal to 
C. b. adusta in size, this species differs by its less convex, 
coarsely striate whorls and margined suture. 



118 PTERODISCUS. 

This species and C. bicolor resemble Amastra much more 
closely than the species having the basal volution angulated. 

Species incorrectly described as Carelia. 
C. glutinosa Ancey. 

Shell long-conoid, imperf orate, solid; white under a var- 
nish-like glossy buff cuticle, which is darker on the last 
whorl, yellowish-green at the summit. Spire long-conic, sub- 
acute, regularly tapering to the summit. Whorls 7, flattened, 
the lower ones a little convex, grooved with very close, slightly 
oblique growth-strige, which are somewhat obsolete in the 
last two or three whorls, very distinct in the upper whorls, 
and are especially impressed at the linear suture; last whorl 
smooth, oblong, obtusely angular at the periphery (perhaps 
by accident). Aperture oblique, rather wide, scarcely angu- 
lar outwardly, tapering above and below, the throat white. 
Peristome simple, acute, unexpanded, the margins remote. 
Length 24, diam. 10, alt. of aperture 8.5 mm. (Anc.) 

Habitat unknown. 

Carelia glutinosa ANC., Memoires de la Societe Zoologique 
de France vi, p. 324, 1893. 

"This very characteristic species has been in my collection 
several years. It was formerly in the Boivin collection. It 
is the smallest of the genus, and easy to recognize by the 
long cone of the spire, the brilliant yellow cuticle, and the 
shape of the aperture, wide in the middle, etc." (Anc.) 

This species is not Hawaiian but belongs to the African 
group Homorus or Bocageia in Achatinida (Vol. XVII). 

Genus PTERODISCUS Pilsbry. 

Pterodiscus PILS., Manual of Conchology (Series 2), IX, 
p. 36, November 16, 1893, type " H. alata Pfr." Pils., = 
P. wesleyi Sykes. SYKES, Fauna Hawaiiensis, Mollusca, 
1900, p. 292. PILSBRY and VANATTA, Proc. A. N. S. PhiK 
1905, p. 572. Helicamastra PILSBRY and VANATTA, Proc. 
A. N. S. Phila. 1905, p. 570, type Amastra discus Tropi- 
doptera ANCEY, Bull. Soc. Malac. France vi, 1889, p. 191, 



PTERODISCUS. 119 



for Helix alata Pfr. Not Tropidopterus Blanchard 1845 
(Coleoptera). 

Amastrinre with the shell lens-shaped or planorboid, much 
wider than high, umbilicate, thin, fragile, dull brown, composed 
of few (3y 2 to 5) whorls, which are carinate or angular per- 
ipherally at all stages of growth; peristome thin, or fragile, 
the colurnellar margin dilated, elsewhere simple. A coin- 
mellar lamella is present at all stages of growth. The em- 
bryonic shell, of about 1% whorls, is flat above, conically 
tapering below, with microscopically crinkled cuticle and 
sculpture of weak, irregular radial wrinkles chiefly on the 
last half whorl. The adult shell is often loaded with for- 
eign material adhering chiefly in the form of an irregular 
extension of the periphery. Viviparous. 

Type : P. wesleyi Sykes. Distribution : Lanai and Oahu, 
living on the ground. 

Pterodiscus was clearly derived from Amastra, agreeing 
with that group in the dentition, the color and texture of 
the shell and in habits. 

Pterodiscus differs from Planamastra and Armsia by the 
presence of a columellar lamella at all stages of growth, from 
embryos of one whorl to the adult; but in some adult in- 
dividuals of P. wesleyi the lamella is very much reduced. 
This reduction does not indicate close relationship between 
P. ivesleyi and Planamastra, since the process has been in- 
dependent in the two forms. The immediate ancestors of 
Pterodiscus wesleyi doubtless had a well-developed columel- 
lar lamella, whereas in Planamastra the lamella was lost so 
long ago that no trace of it remains even in the embryonic 
stage. 

All of the species of Pterodiscus usually plaster foreign 
matter, perhaps in part excrement, upon the shell, where it 
adheres chiefly at the periphery in form of an irregular 
flange. Some individuals are clean. Certain Amastras have 
the same peculiarity, but it has not been observed in Plana- 
mastra or Armsia. The shells of Pterodiscus are so thin 
that it is difficult, to handle them without breaking. 

This genus was first proposed under the name Tropidoptera 



120 PTERODISCUS. 

by Mr. C. F. Ancey, who placed it between Sitala and 
Hycdinia, assigning to it one species, Helix alata Pfr. This 
generic terra being preoccupied, Pilsbry substituted the name 
Pterodiscus, transferring the group to the Endodontida as a 
subgenus of Endodonta. The type of Pterodiscus was stated 
to be H. alata Pfr., but the specimen so identified and figured 
by Pilsbry proved to be not the alata of Pfeiffer, but a new 
species which Mr. Sykes subsequently named P. iveslcyi. 
Sykes raised Pterodiscus to generic rank in 1900 ; and in 
1905 Pilsbry and Vanatta showed it to belong to the Aclia- 
tinellidce near Amastra. At the same time they created a 
group Helicamastra, which is now found to be superfluous. 
Professor Hyatt, in his MS. on Amastrince recognized P. 
cooJcei and P. heliciformis as representing a new genus allied 
to Amastra, but no other species was known to him. The fol- 
lowing accounts of Pterodiscus, Planamastra and Armsia 
have therefore been prepared wholly by Pilsbry. 

The embryonic shell has been fully described under P. tlia- 
anumi and P. a. litus. 

Key to Species of Pterodiscus. 

a. Species of Lanai. 

&. Umbilicus one-sixth the diam. of shell. 

P. alatus, no. 1. 

ft 1 . Umbilicus one-eighth the diam. P. a. litus, no. la. 
a 1 . Species of Oahu. 

&. Spire flat, or convex with flattened apex. 

c. Upper surface flat; umbilicus contained 5^ 
times in the diameter; periphery obtuse; 3.4x 
10 mm. ; Waianae. P. discus, no. 2. 

c 1 . Upper surface slightly convex; umbilicus con- 
tained 4 times in diam.; columellar lamella 
subobsolet2 ; 3.5x8.2 mm. ; Kalaikoa, Wahiawa. 

P. wesleyi, no. 3. 
c 2 . Similar but col. lam. distinct; Ewa. 

P. w. ewaensis, no. 3a. 
c 3 . Upper surface convex ; umbilicus nearly 5 times 



PTERODISCUS. 



121 



in diam. of shell ; col. lam. rather strong ; 4.2x 
9.7 mm., 4 whorls. Near Kaaawa. 

P. thaanumi, no. 4. 

c 4 . Upper surface convex; umbilicus 6% to 9 times 
in the diam. of shell; lamella weak; 6x11 to 
4.5x10.5 mm., 4^ whorls. Nuuanu. 

P. cookei, no. 6. 

c 5 . Spire very low; umbilicus moderate; lamella 
rather strong; 14.5x4 mm., 5 whorls. Kona- 
huanui. P. rex, no. 5. 

l . Spire widely conic; whorls 5, the last carinate; um- 
bilicus contained 5 times in the diameter ; Waianae. 

P. heliciformis, no. 7. 

1. P. ALATUS (Pfeiffer). PI. 22, figs. 1-3. 

"Shell narrowly umbilicate, depressed, membranaceous, 
obliquely irregularly striate, having an oily luster, pellucid, 
brownish-corneous. Spire nearly flat. Whorls 3%, rapidly 
increasing, the last angular, encircled with a thin, deciduous 
wing-like carina, dilated in front. Base convex. Aperture 
very oblique, securiform. Peristome simple, unexpanded, the 
basal margin very deeply arcuate. Alt. 3, greater diam. 
8y 2 , lesser 6 mm." (Pfr.) 

Lanai (Newcomb). Mountains behind Koele (Perkins). 

Helix alata PFR,, P. Z. S. 1856, p. 33; Monographia Hel. 
Viv. iv, p. 116. Amastra (Kauaia) alata Pfr., SYKES, Fauna 
Hawaiiensis, Mollusca, p. 355. Amastra (Helicamastra) 
alata Pfr., PILSBRY and VANATTA, Proc. A. N. S. Phila. 1905, 
p. 571, pi. 38, f. 4-6. 

Mr. E. R. Sykes who examined the type of this species 
writes: "this shell has a columellar plait. It is, in my 
opinion, not a Helicoid at all, but belongs to an aberrant 
group of Amastra. The columellar plait does not ascend 
rapidly into the shell, but stands almost horizontally, and 
has no final knob. ' ' 

The specimen described below and figured on plate 22, 
is from Newcomb 's collection, and since Pfeiffer 's types 



122 PTERODISCUS. 

were from Newcomb, it may be inferred that they were from 
the same lot. In view of Dr. Pfeiffer's well-known accuracy 
as a diagnostician, it is hard to believe that his description 
of Helix alata was based upon the same species, since it dis- 
agrees in the number of whorls and shape of the spire, and 
in omitting a reference to the columellar lamella. 

The shell, in Newcomb 's specimen (pi. 22, figs. 1-3), is 
thin, umbilicate, biconvex, the base more convex than the spire, 
periphery carinate. Brown, nearly luster-less. Whorls 4, 
the first nearly smooth, hardly convex, the second flat, 
obliquely striate, with a peripheral marginal cord, the next 
whorl densely marked with growth-striae, convex near the 
periphery but without a margining cord. Last whorl barely 
convex, sloping above, densely marked with growth-striae and 
on its later portion with some coarse oblique wrinkles; con- 
vex beneath. Umbilicus rather narrow and tubular, its width 
contained about 6 times in the diameter of the shell. Aper- 
ture wider than high, the dilated columellar lip bearing an 
acute, subhorizontal lamella. Alt. 4.3, diam. 8.2 mm. 

The peristome is broken in the specimen figured, which 
has no wing of foreign material adhering to the periphery. 

la. P. ALATUS LITUS n. subsp. PI. 22, figs. 4, 5, 6. 

The shell is lens-shaped, the base usually more convex than 
the top, keeled, thin and fragile, dull, brown. The whorls 
are flat above ; the first half of the second whorl is margined 
above, as usual. Sculpture of very fine, close, retractive 
striae, and on the last whorl some coarse wrinkles in the same 
direction. The base is somewhat convex, not strongly angular 
around the umbilicus. It is more or less copiously smeared 
with dirt, which at the periphery forms an irregular flange. 
The umbilicus is very narrow, tubular, about one-eighth the 
diameter of the shell. Columellar margin dilated, thickened 
within in adults, and bearing a strong, subhorizontal lamella. 

Alt. 4.7, diam. 10 mm.; whorls 3%. (no peripheral flange). 

Alt. 4.3, diam. including flange 11.5 mm. 

Alt. 5, diam. 9.5 mm. (no peripheral flange). 

Lanai (D. Thaanum). Types 94501 A. N. S. P. 




PTERODISCUS. 123 

The umbilicus is decidedly narrower than in Dr. New-comb 's 
specimens of H. alata. The embryonic shell when fully de- 
veloped is 2.5 mm. in diameter, with about 1% whorls. The 
first whorl is slightly convex, smooth except for a dense 
microscopic crinkling or shriveling of the cuticle; the next 
whorl is radially rather coarsely striate. There is no ap- 
pearance of spiral striation due to revolving bands of 
microscopic wrinkles, such as is seen in P. thaanumi. 

2. P. DISCUS (Pilsbry & Vanatta). PL 22, figs. 7, 8, 9. 

Shell thin and fragile, openly umbilicate, flat above, con- 
vex below, the periphery carinate, the keel obtuse. Uniform 
dull brown. Whorls nearly 4, the first hardly convex, marked 
with faint growth-lines; second whorl flat, weakly marked 
with oblique growth-lines, its outer edge distinctly margined, 
cord-like. The next whorl is slightly convex, without a periph- 
eral cord or margin, and has rather rude wrinkled striae. 
The last whorl becomes more swollen above, in part rising 
above the level of the preceding whorls, and is rather rudely 
wrinkled. The angular periphery is on a level with the flat 
spire. The umbilicus is deep and subcylindric. The aper- 
ture is oblique, wider than high; outer and basal margins 
thin and simple, columellar margin dilated, bearing an acute, 
subhorizontal white lamella. Alt. 3.4, diam. 10 mm. 

Waianae, Oahu. Types No. 58,158, A. N. S. P., received 
from D. D. Baldwin. 

Amastra (Helicamastra} discus PILS. & VAN., Proc. A. N. 
S. Phila. 1905, p. 571, pi. 38, f. 1-3. 

This curious snail differs from P. alatus by its flat spire, 
irregular growth and larger umbilicus. It is much more de- 
pressed than P. heliciformis Anc., with fewer whorls. 

Pterodiscus rex Sykes is a larger species with peripheral 
appendages as in Pterodiscus wesleyi. It seems to have a 
much smaller umbilicus than P. discus, but neither the de- 
scription nor figure are clear on this point. 

3. P. WESLEYI (Sykes). PL 23, figs. 1-5, 9. 

Shell umbilicate, thin, flat above, convex beneath, carinated 



124 PTERODISCUS. 

peripherally, brown with some irregular yellowish streaks, 
nearly lusterless. Whorls 3~y 2 , the first perceptibly convex 
at the beginning, soon becoming flattened, the first half of 
the second whorl a little impressed above the suture, which 
thus appears margined for a short distance. It is sculptured 
with very fine oblique growth striae, with some coarser wrin- 
kles on the last whorl. Last whorl is rather bluntly carin- 
ated, the keel on the last half whorl bearing an irregular 
flange or "wing" of adhering earth; base convex, obtusely 
angular around the tubular umbilicus. Aperture oblique, 
much wider than high, the lip thin and simple, the colu- 
mellar margin dilated, bearing a very low, indistinct spiral 
ridge in the middle. This ridge is in the substance of the 
shell, and is hardly perceptibly thickened by callous deposit. 
Alt. 3, diam. 8 mm. 

Kalaikoa, Oahu (D. D. Baldwin). Type No. 58,159, A. N. 
S. P. Ewa (C. M. Cooke) ; Wahiawa (D. Thaanum). 

Endodonta (Pterodiscus) alata Pfr., PILSBRY, Manual of 
Conch., ix, p. 36, pi. 4, fig. 44 (no specific description or 
measurements). Endodonta (Pterodiscus) wesleyi SYKES, 
Proc. Mai. Soc. Lond., ii, p. 127, 1896, based upon preceding 
reference. Pterodiscus wesleyi SYKES, Fauna Hawaiiensis, 
Moll., p. 292. PILSBRY & VANATTA, Proc. A. N. S. Phila, 
1905, p. 573, pi. 39, f. 7, 8, 9. 

This shell agrees well with Pfeiffer's description of Helix 
alata ; but as the British Museum specimens under the name 
alata and those in the Newcomb collection have the columella 
strongly lamellate, it has been held by Mr. Sykes that 
Pfeiffer overlooked the lamella. At all events, alata is cer- 
tainly from Lanai, where it has been taken also by Mr. 
Perkins. Named in honor of Dr. Wesley Newcomb. 

The type specimen is fully described above and illustrated 
on pi. 23, fig. 9. It is evidently not quite adult. The very 
low columellar ridge or incipient lamella was overlooked in 
former accounts of the species. 

Specimens from Wahiawa, Oahu, collected by Mr. Thaanum, 
pi. 23, figs. 1 to 5, are typical, and being fully adult they 
show the characters better than the type. The shell is red- 



PTERODISCUS. 125 

dish-brown with some yellowish streaks along the wrinkles, 
which are quite coarse on the last whorl. The periphery may 
be either clean or heavily loaded with foreign material. The 
outline of the base is slightly convex, and it is distinctly 
angular around the umbilicus, which is one-fourth the total 
diameter. The columellar lamella is excessively weak and 
brownish in even fully adult shells. Its position is indicated 
inside the umbilicus by a slight furrow. A clean adult meas- 
ures: alt. 3.5, diam. 8.2 mm.; whorls 4. 

3a. P. icesleyi cwaensis, n. subsp. PL 23, fig. 10. 

The form from Ewa in the C. M. Cooke collection, is prac- 
tically typical in shape and sculpture, but the columellar 
lamella is decidedly stronger, being distinct and whitish. 

In the type of wesleyi the columellar lamella is represented 
only by a very inconspicuous ridge hardly noticeable. 

4. P. THAANUMI n. sp. PI. 24, figs. 1, 2. 

The shell is lens-shaped, umbilicate, the umbilicus contained 
nearly 5 times in the diameter of the shell, fragile, but 
slightly shining, dull brown, with sculpture of fine retractive 
striaB and on the last whorl some coarse wrinkles. Whorls 
4, the second with a margin above the suture, the first two 
flat, the rest nearly so; last whorl carinate, convex beneath, 
not distinctly angular around the umbilicus. Peristome 
fragile; columellar margin dilated. Columellar lamella thin 
but rather strong, sloping slightly downwards, becoming very 
weak on the dilation of the lip. Alt. 4.2, diam. 9.7 mm. 

Oahu: Kukaeiole, near Kaaawa, on the northeastern coast 
(D. Thaanum) ; type no. 95045 A. N. S. P. 

This species has a narrower umbilicus than P. wesleyi, but 
wider than in P. rex or P. cookei. It is less angular around 
the umbilicus, the base not rising so high there. The colu- 
mellar lamella is stronger than in P. wesleyi. 

The embryo (pi. 25, figs. 1, 2, 3) is about 2.6 mm. in dia- 
meter, with 1% whorls. The first has microscopic crinkling 
of the cuticle as noticed in P. alatus litus, but the striae on 
the second whorl are finer than in that form. There is an 



126 PTERODISCUS. 

appearance of spiral striation, produced by spiral bands of 
microscopic, radially arranged wrinkles, visible on the last 
part of the first whorl, and the first half of the second. 

5. P. REX (Sykes). PL 24, figs. 7, 8. 

"Shell much depressed, heliciform; umbilicus deep, of 
moderate size; dark horn-color, strongly rugosely striated, 
with a fairly large protoconch; whorls five, increasing regu- 
larly, plano-convex, the suture being impressed and well 
marked ; the last whorl is carinate, flattened above and some- 
what inflated at the base ; at the periphery the periostracum 
is exaggerated into a produced layer, from which projections 
in the shape of arrow-heads arise at right angles to the 
periphery ; mouth subquadrate, with the lip hardly thickened 
and not reflected ; columellar plait fairly strong and horizontal. 
Diam. maj. (with the peripheral wing) 14.5, alt. 4' mm." 
(Sykes). 

Summit of Konahuanui, Oahu, Hawaiian Islands, amongst 
dead leaves and moss. This very interesting shell was col- 
lected by Mr. Ernest Lyman, and was kindly sent to me by 
Prof. H. W. Henshaw. 

Amastra (Kauaia) rex SYKES, Annals and Magazine of 
Natural History, ser. 7, vol. xiv, August, 1904, p. 159, wood- 
cuts. 

"It somewhat recalls in form and appearance the well- 
known Helicina agglutinans, the periostracum covering the 
shell and being produced into an uneven wing at the periph- 
ery, some of the projections extending to 2 mm. from the 
shell. The species belongs to the group of Amastra alata, 
Pf r., and A. heliciformis, Ancey ; from the latter, which is 
also an Oahu shell, it may readily be separated, in addition to 
its greater size and remarkable development of periostracum, 
by its more depressed form and smaller (proportionally) 
umbilical area." (Sykes). 

A form which seems probably referable to P. rex was taken 
by Mr. D. Thaanum in Kalihi, a valley west of Nuuanu. The 
umbilicus is much smaller than in P. wesleyi, contained about 
61/2 times in the diameter, angular at its opening, conic 






PTERODISCUS. 127 

within. The second whorl is weakly or distinctly margined 
above the suture. The striation is very fine and close, with- 
out coarse wrinkles. Columellar lamella is well developed 
and horizontal. Some specimens have a flat wing with tri- 
angular processes built out upon the peripheral keel. Alt. 
3.5, diam. 9 mm., with 3y 2 whorls. 

6. P. COOKEI Hyatt & Pilsbry, n. sp. PI. 23, figs. 6, 7, 8. 

The shells are exceedingly thin and fragile, narrowly um- 
bilicate, the umbilicus contained 6y 2 to 9 times in the diameter 
of the shell; biconvex, sometimes inerusted at the periphery 
and umbilicus. It is dull brown, with sculpture of fine re- 
tractive striae and coarse, low wrinkles in the same direction. 
The 4 1 /L> whorls are very slightly convex, the last angular 
at the periphery, convex beneath, not angular around the 
umbilicus. The suture is well impressed, but has no mar- 
gination above on the second whorl. The columella is di- 
lated, thin and paper-like, brownish. The columellar la- 
mella is very weak on the dilated part of the columella, but 
inwardly it becomes somewhat stronger, though thin and 
bent downwards. Alt. 6, diam. 11 mm. ; s-ometimes decidedly 
more depressed. 

Oahu: Nuuanu valley (Cooke). Type in coll. C. M. Cooke. 

This excessively fragile species is probably most closely 
related to P. rex, from an adjacent locality, but it seems to 
differ by the weaker columellar lamella and greater fragility. 
It is also less depressed, the lowest shell measuring about 
4.5 x 10.5 mm.,, so far as can be ascertained in its broken 
condition. It is remarkable for the absence of margination 
above the suture on the second whorl, though there is a barely 
perceptible flattening in that region. Mr. Sykes does not 
mention whether the second whorl has a suprasutural mar- 
gination in P. rex. 

7. P. HELICIFORMIS (Ancey). PL 36, fig. 10. 

"Shell heli'ciform, depressed, broadly umbilicate (the um- 
bilicus open, deep, surrounded by an angle, about 2 mm. 
across), hardly shining, brown, wrinkle-striatulate, a little 



128 PTERODISCUS. 

solid. Spire depressed, very widely conic, rather obtuse. 
Whorls 5, regularly increasing, a little convex, the suture 
impressed, last whorl carinate, convexly sloping above, con- 
vex beneath, slowly but not deeply descending for a long 
distance in front. Aperture oblique, armed with an acute 
revolving simple columellar lamella, emarginate, irregularly 
circular, angular outwardly, the base rounded, margins re- 
mote, columellar margin straightly sloping, forming an angle 
with the basal margin. Greater diam. 10, lesser 9, alt. 6, alt. 
of aperture 3.5 mm." (Ancey) . 

Oahu: Waianae (Baldwin). 

Amastra heliciformis ANCEY, Bull. Soc. Malac. France, vii, 
1890, p. 340. THWING, Occas. Pap. B. P. B. Mus., iii, no. 1, 
p. 162, pi. 3, f. 17 (?). 

"This Amastra is quite lens-shaped and Heliciform, but it 
is to be grouped as an extreme fo-rm, allied to A. kauaiensis, 
agglutinans and spliarica" (Ancey). 

Not seen by Pilsbry, but Hyatt prepared the following 
notes from specimens submitted by Mr. D. D. Baldwin : 

This extraordinary helix-like form has a large open um- 
bilicus and depressed spire, with a strong angulated border 
to the umbilicus and coarse but regular striae of growth; the 
spire even in the extreme young has a very wide angle. The 
subangulation of the whorl is broad or truncated or with an- 
gulated edges, and may have longitudinal ridges both on its 
flattened ridge and accompanying it on the sides. This ap- 
pears late in life of the shell and persists, as in Amastra cy- 
clostoma, throughout life, to a late stage. The spire is more 
elevated and more marinated than in the shells collected by 
Mr. Cooke and described as Pterodiscus cookei. The calcar- 
eous layer, in the three shells received from Mr. Baldwin, is 
deficient in large part, so that it is difficult to handle them. 
The form, columella, the plication or tooth, and the young, 
show that this is an ally of Amastra spherica. Mr. Baldwin 
kindly states in a letter that the shells so far collected by him 
are free from agglutinations. 



PLANAMASTRA. 



129 



Genus PLANAMASTRA nov. 

Amastrinae of discoidal shape, with flattened embryonic 
whorls, like those of Pterodiscus, the umbilicus very broadly 
open. Peristome unexpanded, the columellar margin dilated, 
without a columellar lamella at any stage of growth. Vivi- 
parous. 

Type: P. digonophora. Distribution: Oahu. 

The jaw of P. digonophora is very thin, deeply arcuate, 
smooth except for a few wide plaits or flat ribs in the median 
part. 




Teeth of P. digonophora. 

The radula of P. digonophora has 11, 7, 1, 7, 11 teeth. 
Those of the median field stand in nearly straight transverse 
rows, but at the sides the rows of marginal teeth bend rapidly 
forward. The centrals are narrow, less than half the width, 
of the adjacent lateral teeth, and bear a single small cusp. 
The lateral teeth are square, bicuspid with a large mesocone 
and small ectocone as usual. The marginal teeth are short 
and broad, with the mesocone oblique, and the ectocone split 
into two, three or four minute, acute denticles. 

The embryonic shell of P. digmwphora (pi. 25, figs. 4, 5, 6) 
is much smaller than in Pterodiscus, having a diameter of 
1.8 mm. with 1% whorls. The top is like that of Pterodiscus f 
the first whorl being smooth except for some very faint radial 
ripples and a microscopic crinkling of the cuticle. On the 
second whorl the wrinkle-striation becomes coarser and re- 
tractive, and there are a few very faint spirals. The first 
whorl is slightly convex, the second flatter. 

Planamastra and Pterodiscus have in common a flat-topped 
embryonic shell. They doubtless diverged from a common 



130 PLANAMASTRA. 

ancestor which had become differentiated from Amastra by 
this character; but while Pterodiscus retained the Amastroid 
columellar lamella, this was early lost in the Planamastra 
phylum, -and no trace of it remains even in embryonic shells. 

1. P. DIGONOPHORA (Ancey). PI. 24, figs. 9, 10, 11. 

"Shell depressed, sublenticular, scarcely shining, rather 
thin, opaque, very broadly umbilicate (the umbilicus conic, 
showing -all the whorls, surrounded by a projecting angle, 
4 mm. wide) , irregularly, obliquely and rather roughly sculp- 
tured with growth-lines; chestnut brown. Spire flat. 
Whorls 4, rather rapidly increasing, flattened, separated by 
an impressed and simple suture; the last whorl having pro- 
jecting angles above and around the umbilicus, flat above, 
conically tapering below the upper angle, not descending in 
front or very gradually descending. Aperture somewhat ob- 
lique, somewhat ax-shaped, biangulate outwardly; peristome 
acute, the margins joined by a very thin callus. Alt. 2!/4, 
diam. maj. 6%, min. 5% mm." (Ancey). 

Oahu: Waianae (Baldwin). 

Patula digonophora ANCEY, Bull. Soc. Malac. France vi, 
1889, p. 171. Pterodiscus digonophorus Anc., SYKES, 
Fauna Hawaiiensis p. 292. 

In this species the upper surface resembles that of normal 
forms of Pterodiscus, the embryonic sculpture being similar, 
the second whorl more or less distinctly margin-ate above the 
suture, and the periphery carinate. The lower surface differs 
by the very broadly open umbilicus and the absence of any 
trace of a columellar lamella at all stages of growth. The 
specimens figured were received from Mr. Baldwin. An adult 
measures, alt. 2.7, diam. 7 mm., Whorls 3%. The embryonic 
shell figured (1. 25, figs. 4-6) has a diameter of 1.8 mm. with 
1% whorls. 

2. P. PEASEANA n. sp. PI. 25, figs. 8, 9, 10. 

The shell is discoidal, with very low, convex spire, openly 
umbilicate base, and acutely carinate periphery ; thin ; corne- 
ous, with a brown band revolving in the middle of the upper 



PLANAMASTRA. 131 

surface of the last whorl; slightly shining. Embryonic 
whorls apparently l 1 /^, weakly convex, faintly marked with 
gro\vth-strige and on the latter part having a few delicate 
spiral raised lines and some very fine radial wrinkling. The 
next whorl is moderately convex, with sculpture of faint 
growth-lines and very minute, retractive corrugations, more 
oblique than the growth-lines. The last half whorl is rather 
coarsely, irregularly wrinkle-striate, and microscopically 
granulose. The base has irregular growth-lines, but very 
little microscopic sculpture. Whorls 3, the last acutely 
carinate at the periphery, convex below, very obtusely sub- 
angular near the umbilicus. Umbilicus extremely shallow 
and open, showing 2~y 2 convex whorls. Aperture somewhat 
oblique the outer and basal margins of the peristome sim- 
ple and sharp, columellar margin but slightly dilated, thin, 
unarmed. Alt. 1.7, diam. 4.9 mm. 

Hawaiian Is. (Pease). Type 1984 coll. A. N. S. P. 

Very unlike P. digonophora by its microscopic sculpture, 
more convex whorls, pale color with a band on the last whorl, 
and the very shallow umbilicus; yet I can find no other 
genus which would contain this snail. It may possibly be 
the Helix depressiformis of Pease, but in the collection of 
the Academy it was labelled "H. alata," and Pease makes no 
mention of a band on his species. 

P. depressiformis (Pease). 

"Shell discoidal, planorboid, planulate above, convex be- 
neath, thin, subpellucid, a little shining, brownish-corneous, 
broadly umbilicate, obliquely closely rugose-striate. Spire 
planulate. sometimes a little elevated. Whorls 3%, slightly 
margmate, the last acutely carinate, at the margin compressed 
roundly carinated at the umbilicus. Alt. 2, diam. 7 mm." 
(Pease). 

Islands of the Central Pacific (Pease). 

Helix depressiformis PSE., Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1864, 
p. 670, no. 8. 

This species and the next were apparently based upon 
forms of Planamastra. Both were described from the "Cen- 



132 ABMSIA. 

tral Pacific Islands," and neither has been figured or seen 
by any subsequent author. Mr. Sykes did not find them in 
the British Museum collection; they are not in the collections 
at Philadelphia or Washington, nor is any trace of them to 
be found in the Pease collection at Cambridge, Massachusetts. 
We learn from labels in the Academy collection that Andrew 
Garrett knew them not. It must be admitted that the diag- 
noses are insufficient for positive identification; and in the 
absence of types, the names may be regarded as defunct. 

P. prostrata Pease. 

"Shell thin, depressed, deeply umbilicate, greenislh- cor- 
neous, decussated with close and very fine striae. Whorls 4, 
flat, rapidly increasing, the last wider, acutely angular, 
grooved near the margin above, dilated in front, convex be- 
neath, apex depressed. Aperture widely rotund-lunar; per- 
istome simple, acute. Alt. 2^4, diam. 6 mm." (Pse.) 

Islands of the central Pacific (Pease) ; Lanai? (Pease). 

Helix prostrata PSE., P. Zool. Soc. 1864, p. 670, no. 9; 
P. Z. S. 1871, p. 475. 

Genus ABMSIA, n. gen. 

Amastrina with the shape of Gonyodiscus, very broadly 
umbilicate, the embryonic whorls convex, projecting, and 
spirally striate, the peristome well expanded, thin, and with- 
out a columellar lamella. Type A. petasus. 

This group differs from all forms of Pterodiscus and Plana- 
mastra by the decided convexity of the projecting embryonic 
Whorls and 'the stronger expansion of the peristome. Like 
Planamastra it lacks trace of a columellar lamella. I have 
not seen the embryo except >as exposed in grown shells, but it 
must differ markedly from that of Pterodiscus and Plana- 
mastra. The embryonic whorls are worn in the shells exam- 
ined, but in places they show rather coarse spiral striae, which 
are wanting on the radially costate later whorls (pi. 25, fig. 
7) . The soft anatomy is unknown. It is probably vivi- 
parous, like the related genera. 

While evidently related to Planamastra, Armsia has 



ARMSIA, AMASTRA. 133 

been diversely differentiated, and probably represents a 
parallel phylum derived from the same Amastrine stock be- 
fore the spire had become flat. 

This genus is dedicated to Mrs. J. M. Arms Sheldon whose 
assistance has enabled us to illustrate the Achatinellidae 
more fully than would otherwise have been possible. 

1. A. PETASUS (Ancey). PI. 24, figs. 3, 4, 5, 6. 

"Shell very broadly and perspectively umbilicate, sub- 
lenticular, thin, buff-brown, uniform, slightly shining, rudely 
and closely rugose-striate, the stria? lamellose. Spire broadly 
conoidal, the sides somewhat concave, summit projecting a 
little, rather obtuse. Whorls 5, nearly flat, separated by a 
linear and not very deep suture, regularly increasing, the last 
provided with an acute carina above and another below around 
the umbilicus, hardly descending, somewhat sloping above, 
inversely conic and flat below the principal carina. Umbili- 
cus saucer-shaped, conic. Aperture nearly vertical, ax- 
shaped, acutely angular on the right, more obtusely below, 
toothless. Peristome simple, unexpanded, the margins re- 
mote. Alt. 2.2, diam. maj. 4.33, min. 3.75 mm." (Ancey). 

Oahu: Waianae Mountains (Baldwin). 

Pterodiscus petasus ANCEY, Proc. Malac. Soc. London iii, 
July, 1899, p. 268, pi. 12, f. 4. PILS. & VAN., Proc. A. N. S. 
Phila. 1905, p. 574, pi. 38, f. 7, 8. 

Easily known by its bicarinate body-whorl, low-conic spire 
and very broadly conic umbilicus. The shell described and fig- 
ured by Mr. Ancey (fig. 6) was not mature. Adult shells have 
the outer, basal and columellar margins of the lip broadly ex- 
panded, the revolving angles of the last whorl becoming ob- 
solete upon it. The last third or fourth of the last whorl 
descends rather deeply. Shells measure from alt. 3, diam. 4.8 
mm. to alt. 3.5, diam. 5.8 mm. 

Genus AMASTRA H. & A. Adams. 

Amastra ADS., Genera of Recent Mollusca, ii, p. 137 (Feb., 
1855). PEASE, P. Z. S. 1869, p. 649. GULICK, P. Z. S. 1873, 
p. 91, type A. magna. 



134 AMASTRA. 

Shell usually dextral, varying from globose-conic to oblong- 
conic; umbilicate or imperf orate ; dull or dark colored, or 
light with a dull, darker or yellowish cuticle; whorls 5% to 
8; spire and apex conic. Aperture ovate, the outer lip not 
expanded, often thickened within ; columella bearing a spiral 
lamella which penetrates about a half whorl, but is present 
at all stages of growth examined ; above it the axis is slightly 
sinuous. Viviparous, jaw vertically striate, teeth in nearly 
straight transverse rows, of the usual quadrate form, the 
centrals narrow with small cusp. 

Type: A. magna C. B. Ad. Distribution: Kauai, Oahu, 
Lanai, Molokai, Maui and Hawaii; living on the ground 
under leaves, etc., or rarely on ferns and low bushes, in the 
mountain forests. 

Amastra, as constituted by H. & A. Adams, 1855, was a 
homogeneous group, comprising the species baldwini Newc., 
biplicata Newc., ellipsoidea Gld., gigantea Newc., magna C. 
B. Ad., melampoides Pfr., moesta Newc., nucleola Gld., obesa 
Newc., obscura Newc., reticulata Newc., tristis Fer., ventulus 
Fer., violacea Newc. In Die Heliceen, 1860, von Martens 
distributed the species in Laminella and Leptachatina, ignor- 
ing Amastra. Pease, 1869, gave a classified list of species in 
which several natural groups within the genus were recog- 
nized. Gulick, in 1873, selected A. magna as the type of 
Amastra. 

Amastra differs from the more primitive genus Leptachat- 
ina by its more conic apex, that of Leptachatina being 
rounded. The shell is generally duller, often with a par- 
tially deciduous outer cuticle, wanting in Leptachatina, and 
it differs more fundamentally by the viviparous reproduction. 
Carelia is closely related to Amastra, young shells of some 
species being quite Amastrif orm ; but the adult stage is more 
lengthened and columnar, and the jaw is said to be ribbed. 
The relationship between Amastra and Laminella is very in- 
timate ; indeed the two groups are separated generically in 
this work more as a matter of convenience than for any im- 
portant structural character known to exist, though they 
are no doubt natural groups. If consolidated into one genus, 



AMASTRA. 135 

the name Laminella would take precedence over Amastra for 
the group so formed. 

Characteristics of Amastra. 

THE COLUMELLAR LAMELLA is present from the later em- 
bryonic stages. How early it appears we do not know, but 
in half-grown embryos examined it is either distinct or rep- 
resented by a spiral cord. It is absorbed as growth pro- 
ceeds, leaving the remaining portion about a half-whorl long. 
Very rarely, in old shells, the lamella is wanting, without 
other evidence of abnormality in the shell. Two instances 
have been noted, A. violacea wailauensis, pi. 39, fig. 13, and 
A, lava, pi. 48, fig. 15. The lamella is subhorizontal or bent 
downwards in most Metamastrae. It is small and oblique in 
Amastretta, Cyclamastra and Careliq. 

In some forms of Amastra the columellar lamella is 
doubled, or rather, there is a second fold developed above 
the usual lamella. This structure is usual in the biplicata 
series of Lanai, and it occurs as an occasional mutation in 
the Spirizona series of Oahu. A similar duplication of the 
columellar lamella exists in Leptachatina leucochila Gulick 
(p. 73). In a few species of various groups there is a low 
callous lump on the parietal wall a short distance within, 
not sufficiently definite to be called a tooth, and so far as we 
know rather rarely developed in any species. It has been 
noted in A. decorticata (pi. 33, fig. 7), A. antiqua, A. vio- 
lacea and A. knudseni. 

THE CUTICLE, in primitive species, such as the Kauaian 
and Hawaiian Amastrellas, is thin and pale yellowish. In 
many species of Oahu, Molokai, Lanai and Maui the outer 
layer is dark, usually dull, and more or less completely de- 
ciduous, always transient in front of the aperture, exposing 
the thin, closely adherent and glossy inner layer, which is 
generally of a different color and lighter shade. The outer 
cuticle is frequently mottled or marked with zigzag streaks 
in species of Lanai, Molokai and Maui, somewhat as in Lami- 
nella; but in other islands it is plain or varied with streaks 
along growth-lines. The inner cuticle is transparent, show- 



136 AMASTRA. 

ing the color of the underlying calcareous layer modified by 
its own tint. 

EMBRYONIC SHELL: The sculpture and, to a less degree, 
the shape of the embryonic whorls is remarkably varied. In 
the more primitive forms of Amastrella these whorls are con- 
vex and almost smooth, showing very faint growth-lines only. 
In A. tristis the whorls 'are flattened, and either striate or 
weakly costate longitudinally; while in most Amastra of 
Molokai and Maui the embryonic whorls are flat, strongly 
costate, and carinate above the suture. Some species, as A. 
nigra (pi. 43, figs. 1-3) and others, have costate and carinate 
embryonic whorls in some individuals, while in others they 
are more convex and striate ; the neanic and adult characters 
being alike. This is apparently a case where the larval form 
mutates independently of the adult. Similar conditions 
have been observed by Sturany and others in marine Proso- 
branchs; but in pulmonate snails no such diversity of the 
embryo has come under observation except in this genus. 
Such diversity of embryo with identity) of later stages has 
been observed by both authors in a number of species. It 
should be remembered in this connection that embryo shells 
frequently vary in color, quite independently of the later 
stages, which may be similar in individuals having diversely 
colored embryonic shells. 

Subgenera and Sections of Amastra. 

a. Shell umbilicate ; embryonic whorls smooth. Cyclamastra. 
a 1 . Shell perforate, rimate or imperf orate (or in some Amas- 
trella umbilicate, the embryonic whorls striate). 
&. Last whorl strongly carinate ; shell large and dark. 
c. Last whorl with a peripheral carina. Kauaia. 
c 1 . Last whorl with two ridges or earinae. 

Armiella, 
b 1 . Last whorl not conspicuously carinate. 

c. Embryonic whorls smooth or striate, not car- 
inate; dextral (except A. thaanumi). 
d. Cuticle thin, not figured; shell ovate. 

Amastrella. 



AMASTRA. 137 

d l . No dull or figured outer cuticle, but the 
shell often variegated; ovate or oblong. 

Metamastra. 

d l . Outer cuticle when present not figured; 
shell turrited or pyramidal. Paramastra. 
c 1 . Embryonic whorls generally eostate and car- 
inate, flat; outer cuticle frequently mottled or 
figured with angular lines; shell ovate or ob- 
long-conic, dextral. Amastra. 
c 2 . Embryonic whorls delicately costulate; shell 
sinistral, dark or dull colored, without zigzag 
lines or spots. Heteramastra. 

Arrangement of Species. 

The Amastra? are grouped by islands in the descriptive 
text of this work, as a more convenient arrangement than 
one strictly natural. This plan often separates forms closely 
related; therefore a classified list is given below. This clas- 
sification differs in some important details from that of Pro- 
fessor Hyatt's manuscript. This would not be especially 
significant were it not that the systematic relationships of 
the forms affect fundamentally our zoogeographic concep- 
tions. It has therefore been deemed necessary to give in full 
the senior author's classification, with his deductions regard- 
ing the migrations of the several groups. See Appendix B. 

Systematic List of Amastra. 
Genus AMASTRA H. & A. Adams. 

Subgenus KAUAIA Sykes. 
A. kauaiensis Newc. Kauai. 

Section ARMIELLA Hyatt. 
A. knudseni Bald. Kauai. " 

Subgenus CYCLAMASTRA Pils. & Van. 

[The genera Pterodiscus, Planamastra and Armsia are tan- 
gents of this group.] 
(Sphaerica Series.) 

A. cyclostonia Bald. Kauai. A. obesa Newc. Maui. 
A. sphaerica Pease. Kauai. A. agglutinans Newc. Maui. 



138 AMASTBA. 

(Umbilical a Series.) 

A. similaris Pease. Kauai. A. hartmani 'Ne.' Hartm. 

A. antiqua Bald. Oahu. Oahu. 

A. sola Pils. Oahu. A. morticina Pils. Maui. 

A. extincta Pfr. Oahu. A. umbilicata Pfr. Molokai. 

Sub genus AMASTBA H. & A. Ad. 
Section AMASTBELLA Sykes. 
(Rugulosa Series. Kauai.) 
A. rugulosa Pease. A. nucleola Gld. 

A. r. normalis Pils. A. anthonii Newc. 

(Inflata Series. Oahu.) 
[Note: Species from the Waianae range are followed by W.] 

A. rubens Gld. W. A. luctuosa Pfr. 
A. r. corneiformis Hy. & P. A. 1. sulphurea Anc. 

W. A. decorticata Gul. 

A. r. castanea Pils. W. A. inflate, Pfr. 

A. r. kahana Pils. A. rubida Gul. 

A. r. infelix Pils. A. elliptica Gul. 

A. seminigra Hy. & Pils. A. tristis Fer. 

A. tenuilabris Gul. A. porcus Pils. W. 
A. t. rubicund a Bald. 

(Petricola Series. Molokai.) 
A. petricola Newc. A. abavus Pils. 

(Flavescens Series. Hawaii.) 

A. flavescens Newc. A. hawaiensis Hy. & Pils. 

A. f. saxicola Bald. A. luteola Fer. ( ?) 

A. f . henshawi Bald. 

(Melanosis Series. Hawaii.) 

A. senilis Bald. A. c. gyrans Hyatt. 

A. melanosis Newc. A. c. kohalensis Pils. 

A. conica Bald. A. fossilis Bald. 



AMASTRA. 



139 



Section METAMASTRA Hyatt & Pilsbry (type A. reticulata). 

(Reticulata Series. Oahu.) 
[Note: Species from the Waianae range are followed by W.] 



A. textilis Fer. 

A. t. media Hy. & Pils. 

A. t. kaipaupauensis Pils. 

A. gulickiana Pils. 

A. spaldingi Cooke. 

A. pellucida Bald. W. 

A. breviata Bald. 

A. irwiniana Cooke. 

A. albolabris Newe. W., E. 

A. subrostrata Pfr. 

A. sericea Pfr. 

A. davisiana Cooke. 

A. thaanumi Pils. 



A. solida Pse. 

A. vetusta Bald. 

A. reticulata Newc. W. 

A. r. conspersa Pfr. W. ( *) 

A. r. dispersa Hy. & PiJs. W. 

A. r. orientalis Hy. & Pils. 

A. r. errans Hy. & Pils. 

A. cookei Pils. 

A. transversalis Pfr. 

A. caputadamantis Pils. 

A. undata Bald. 

A. badia Bald. 



(Cornea Series. Oahu.) 

A. cornea Newc. W. A. subcornea Hy. & Pils. 

A. crassilabrum Newc. 



W. 

Section PARAMASTRA Hyatt 

A. mieans Pfr. W. 

A. frosti Anc. W. 

A. tenuispira Bald. W. 

A. turritella Fer. 

A. t. aiea Pils. 

A. t. waiawa Pils. 

A. spirizona Fer. W. 

A. s. nigrolabris Sm. 



A. ^emulator Pils. 

Pilsbry (type A. spirizona). 

A. spirizona rudis Pfr. 

A. s. chlorotica Pfr. 

A. intermedia Newc. W. 

A. porphyrea Newc. W., E. 

A. porphyrostoma Pease. 

A. cylindrica Newc. 

A. variegata Pfr. 



Section AMASTRA s. st-r. 

(Biplicata Series.) 
A. biplicata Newc. Lanai. A. moesta obscura Nc. Lanai. 



A. durandi Anc. Lanai. 
A. moesta Newc. Lanai. 



A. m. longa Sykes. Lanai. 
A. humilis Newc. Molokai. 



140 AMASTRA. 

(Magna Series.) 

(Lanai.) (Molokai.) 

A. magna C. B. Ad. A. violacea Newc. 

A. m. balteata Pils. A. v. wailauensis Pils. 

A. aurostoma Bald. A. nubilosa Migh. 

A. grayana Pfr. A. n. macerata.Hy. & Pils. 
A. rubristoma Bald. 

(Nucula Subseries. Lanai.) 
A. nucula Smith. 

(Pullata Subseries. Molokai.) 

A. pullata Bald. A. seminuda Bald. 

A. p. subnigra Hy. & Pils. A. uniplicata Hartm. 

A. p. umbrosa Bald. 

(Nigra Subseries. Maui.) 

A. baldwiniana Pils. A. makawaoensis Pils. 

A. nigra Newc. A. mastersi Newc. 

A. subcrassilabris Hy. & Pils. 

(Assimilis Series.) 

(Molokai.) (Maui.) 

A. mucronata Newc. A. affinis Newc. 

A. m. simularis Hartm. A. a. pupoidea Newc. 

A. m. roseotincta Sykes. A. a. bigener Hyatt. 

A. m. citrea Sykes. A. a. Cinderella Hyatt. 

A. m. semicarnea Anc. A. a. kaupakaluana Pils. 

A. m. atroflava Pils. A. nana Bald. 

A. sykesi Pils. A. malleata Sm. 

A. nubifera Hy. & Pils. A. conifera Sm. 

A. n. dissimiliceps Pils. A. johnsoni Hy. & Pils. 

A. modesta C. B. Ad. A. erecta Pse. 

A. m. dimissa Pils. A. assimilis Newc. 

A. subobscura Hy. & Pils. A. montana Bald. 



AMASTRA, KAUAI. 141 

(Pusilla Series.) 

A. pusilla Nc. Lanai. A. elegantula H. & P. Molo- 

A. tricincta Pils. Molokai. kai. 

Section HETEBAMASTRA Pils. (type A. hutchinsonn) . 

A. elongata Newc. Oahu ? A. laeva Bald. Maui. 

A. fraterna Sykes. Lanai. A. perversa Pils. Molokai. 

A. soror Newc. Maui. A. hutchinsonii Pse. Molokai 

A. s. interjecta H. & P. Maui. and Maui. 

A. s. laticeps Pils. Maui. A. farcimen Pf r. Maui. 

A. subsoror Hy. & Pils. Maui. A. sinistrorsa Bald. Hawaii. 

(Sedis incerta.} 

A. amicta Smith. A. peasei Smith. 

A. luteola Fer. A. lineolata Newc. 

AMASTR^E OF KAUAI. 

In Kauai forest covers the mountains of the central mass, 
extending down to about 1,200 feet on the windward (north- 
east) slope, and 1,500 feet on the leeward slope. Near the 
coasts shells are very abundant in Pleistocene or later de- 
posits, some species being known only from these fossil ex- 
amples. We do not know that central Kauai around Mount 
Waialeala has been explored. Large additions will probably 
be made to the Leptachatinae and Amastrae when the island is 
adequately searched. 

Niihau is said to be practically all grass-land, a single 
Carelia being found fossil. No doubt further search will re- 
sult in numerous other land shells on this island, in Pleisto- 
cene deposits. 

Kauai, while poor in species, possesses some of the most 
remarkable Amastrina, such as Carelia, Armiella and Kauaia. 
All of them have probably descended from ancestral forms of 
Amastrella and Cyclamastra, which with Leptachatina seem 
to have constituted the entire primitive Achatinellid fauna 
of the island. 



142 AMASTRA, KAUAI. 

Key to Amastra of Kauai. 

a. Shell imiperf orate, large, strongly carinate (Kauaia). 
&. Trochiform, solid, peripheral carina dominating. 

A. kauaiensis, no. 1. 
& 1 . Oblong-conic, the last whorl with two carinae. 

A. knudseni, no. 2. 
a 1 . Shell umbilieate ( Cyclamastra) . 

b. Periphery carinate; shell wider than high, conic 
above, convex below. A. cyclostoma, no. 3. 

&. Periphery rounded. 

c. Globose-conic, diam. and alt. subequal. 

A. sph&rica, no. 4. 
c 1 . Ovate- conic, much longer than wide. 

A. similaris, no. 5. 

a 2 . Shell rimate or imperforate, ovate-conic, white behind the 
lip and around the axis (Amastrella). 
b. Fine spiral lines on the later whorls. 

A. anthonii, no. 8. 
&. 1 Not spirally striate. 

c. Larger, roughly striate, brown. 

A. rugulosa, no. 6. 

c 1 . Smaller, finely striate, purplish with brown 
spire and white sutural line. A. nucleola, no. 7. 

Subgenus KAUAIA Sykes. 

Carinella PFR., Novit. Conch., iv, 1875, p. 116, for A. kau- 
aiensis only. Not Carinella Sowerby, 1839. Kauaia SYKES, 
Fauna Hawaiiensis, ii, pt. iv, Mollusca, May 19, 1900, p. 355 ; 
same type. 

Shell biconic or trochiform, carinated, solid, imperforate; 
dark brown, whitish around the axis, under a thin yellow 
cuticle. Embryonic whorls flattened, sculptured with low 
curved riblets, later whorls with spiral striae. Internal axis 
tubular, contracted near the base in each whorl, in the last 
half -whorl bearing a small columellar lamella. Type A. kau- 
aiensis Newc. 

Kauaia resembles some specimens of Amastrella tristis in its 



AMASTRA, KAUAI. 143 

conic, more or less ribbed embryonic whorls ; also Carelia and 
typical Amastra (magna group) have similar embryos. In 
color and texture the adult shell resembles Amastrella an- 
thonii, etc. ; while the resemblance to Cyclamastra is discussed 
below. The possession of features belonging to several Amas- 
tran groups favors the view that Kauaia is an old form, little 
changed since it arose from the primitive Amastran stock. 

"The resemblance between the neanic stages of Kauaia 
kauaiensis and the adults and older stages of Cyclamastra 
cyclostoma are visible in the flattened, carinated and rapidly 
spreading volutions of the young of kauaiensis through the 
first five volutions. After this the increase by growth is less 
rapid in the transverse diameter of the spire, and the outer 
or dorsal side begins to take on a different aspect. The con- 
tour becomes more or less curved and the spire more elon- 
gated owing to the greater increase of the vertical or dorso- 
ventral diameters. Not only the form, but the open umbilicus 
at this stage, as well as the eolumella and aperture, are gener- 
ically identical with those of Cyclamastra. Later the close 
eolumella and changes of form above described show a wider 
separation in structure. It is also obvious from the above 
that Cyclamastra is nearer to the forms from which Kauaia 
kauaiensis was derived than the full-grown shells of that 
species, and must therefore be looked upon as more primitive. 
The resemblances of the younger stages of kauaiensis to the 
full-grown stages of C. cyclostoma are not as strongly pro- 
nounced in some shells as in others, owing to the fact that 
the young have more elongated spires in some shells. " 
(Hyatt MS.) 

1. A. KAUAIENSIS (Newcoinb). PL 16, figs. 1, 2, 3. 

The shell is imperforate, dextral, trochiform, solid, carinate. 
The first whorl is smooth (worn in examples seen) ; the sec- 
ond is rather coarsely, arcuately ribbed; third whorl more 
finely ribbed ; succeeding whorls are rudely obliquely wrinkle- 
striate. On the fourth whorl spiral sculpture appears, at first 
fine, later becoming rather coarse but very low spiral cords. 
The whorls are very strongly keeled, the keel appearing above 



144 AMASTRA, KAUAI. 

the suture on the last 2 or 3 whorls, or concealed on all but 
the last whorl, on the latter half of which it becomes more 
prominent. Base convex. Whorls 6%, but slightly convex. 
Dull red-brown, becoming darker, purplish-brown at the apex, 
and paler, yellowish, ait the base. There is a whitish border 
below the suture throughout. Aperture oblique, white within ; 
outer lip thick; columella bearing a strong spiral fold below 
the middle. 

Length 23.5, diam. 19 mm. 

Length 23, diam. 17 mm. 

Kauai : Halemanu (Baldwin) ; Makaweli -at 2000 ft. and 
Halemanu 'at 4000 ft. (Perkins) . Type in Newcomb coll. 

Achatinella kauaiensis NEWC., Ann. Lye. N. H. of N. Y., 
vii, 1860, p. 145; Amer. Journ. of Conch., ii, p. 209, pi. 13, 
f. 1. PFR., Novit. Conch., iv, p. 115, pi. 126, f. 8, 9 and f. 10, 
11 (embryo). BALDWIN, Catalogue, p. 9. Amastra (Kau- 
aia) k., SYKES, Fauna Hawaiiensis, p. 355. Helicter kau- 
wiensis PEASE, Journ. de Conchyl., xviii, 1870, p. 88. 

The cuticle is thin and of a light brownish tint, the darker 
color being in the substance of the underlying shell. The 
embryonic shell figured by Pfeiffer is angular at the periph- 
ery and measures 7.5 mm. long. The specimens figured were 
received from Dr. Newcomb. 

In some examples there is the weak indication of a carina 
at the shoulder, especially on the latter part of the last whorl. 
It is faintly shown in fig. 3. This character, which is only 
occasionally obvious, shows a relationship to A. knudseni, in 
which a stout ridge is developed in the same position. 

''There are two types of the apex, one somewhat more 
pointed than the other, and with smoother and more shining 
horn-color due 'to the finer striae of growth, and the dorsal 
outer sides are not strictly flat, slightly rounded, and maybe, 
have a slight shoulder even on the first volution in some 
specimens. The striae are not strictly parallel, but may be a 
little irregular. The other type has more regular fold-like 
longitudinal bands of growth from an early stage, and the 
dorsi of the volutions are flatter" (Hyatt). 

The axis is tubular, the tube rather strongly contracted in 



AMASTRA, KAUAI. 145 

each whorl near the lower partition, and widest where it joins 
the upper partition. Hence, until the shell is nearly mature 
there is an umbilical orifice 'behind the reflexed columellar lip ; 
in the last whorl this becomes closed. In the last half -whorl 
a callous lamella is superposed upon the axis just above its 
basal contraction. 

The shell is -angular at the periphery in all post-embryonic 
stages of growth, but in the third or fourth whorl a project- 
ing periferal keel appears, persisting to the aperture and be- 
coming stronger with age. In the adult stage the aperture 
becomes smaller, especially narrower, than in shells younger 
by a whorl. Finally, senility is marked by the descent of the 
last whorl below the keel, and its further contraction laterally. 
These stigmata appear earlier in some shells than in others. 

Pease collected this species at an elevation of about 4,500 ft. 
"The animal is very small in comparison with the size and 
thickness of the shell, a little larger than the diameter of the 
latter, and excessively narrow. It drags the heavy shell bal- 
anced on its back. When it crawls the head is stretched out 
as far as possible, the two ends of the body solidly fixed, until 
the middle part contracts and draws the shell forward." 

Section ARMIELLA Hyatt. 

At first sight this group appears to be obviously a modifica- 
tion of Kauaia, having an additional carination along the 
shoulder and a broad, flattened or concave zone evolved on 
the outer side of the volutions between the carinae. But 
closer obervation develops the fact that the young probably 
resembles the young of Carelia, and then it is at once evident 
that the volutions with their peculiar angulations and obtuse 
spire are similar to the most primitive forms of Carelia, 
These are C. bicolor (pi. 16, fig. 7, neanic stage) and C. adusta, 
which change the least during their development, and in their 
ephebic stages are more like their own young than the more 
elongated species of Carelia. The present group is, therefore, 
regarded here as an offshoot of Carelia having a stouter spire 
and more pronounced bicarinate volutions than any species 
of Carelia. It is dedicated to Mrs. J. M. Arms Sheldon 
(Hyatt, MS.). 



146 AMASTRA, KAUAI. 

Recognizing the affinity of Carelia, it must also be ad- 
mitted that A. knudseni is closely related to A. kauaiensis, as 
Mr. Baldwin recognized. 

2. A. KNUDSENI Baldwin. PI. 16, figs. 4, 5, 6. 

Shell imperforate, dextral, oblong-conic, bicarinate. The 
first 3 l /2 whorls are slightly convex, forming a conic embry- 
onic shell; the first whorl is smooth; the second has curved 
vertical riblets; on following whorls the riblets become irreg- 
ular, frequently formed of two or more contiguous striae. 
The first post-embryonic whorl has rather coarse wrinkles and 
minute, thread-like striae, and some traces of spiral cords ap- 
pear upon it. The surface at once becomes more convex, and 
then angular, forming a shoulder above the middle of the 
whorl; below this shoulder it is vertical. After the fifth 
whorl the characters of maturity appear ; the whorl expands 
more rapidly, the angle gives place to a keel; on the last 
whorl a second (periferal) keel appears, the space between 
them being concave ; the base is convex, -and the whole surface 
sculptured with spiral cords and striae. Color, purplish red- 
brown, darker towards the apex and on the base, having a 
pale border below the suture, extending to the apex, and more 
or less profusely marked with yellow on the carinae, cords and 
folds of the last whorl. 

The aperture is irregularly ovate, oblique, dark within, but 
having a bluish-pearly luster ; outer lip regularly arcuate, 
scarcely modified by the carinae. Columella short, concave 
above, obliquely truncate at the base, covered with a flesh- 
tinted callus, and bearing a very obliquely descending, thin, 
spiral lamella. 

Length 33, diam. 19 mm. (Type, A. N. S. P.) 

Length 34.5, diam. 19 mm. (Cooke coll.) 

Kauai: Halemanu and Puukapele (A. Knudsen). 

Amastra knudsenii BALDWIN, Proc. A. N. S. Phila., 1895, p. 
234, pi. 11, f. 43, 44. Achatinella knudsenii Newc., THWING, 
Orig. Descriptions, etc., pi. 3, f. 25. 

The type specimen (fig. 4) is a rather thin shell, barely 
adult. With age the shell becomes thick and heavy. A ge- 



AMASTRA, KAUAI. 147 

rontic specimen (pi. 16, fig. 6) in coll. C. M. Cooke is very 
solid, the outer wall thick, parietal wall covered with a thick 
white callus which bears a low, wide, conical prominence, a 
short distance within. The columella is heavily white-cal- 
loused, and its spiral lamella is thick, blunt, and hardly dif- 
ferentiated from the basal truncation of the pillar. The 
specimen is dead and almost wholly denuded of the thin yel- 
low cuticle. 

' ' The species is very rare. We dedicate it to Mr. A. Knud- 
sen, the young naturalist who discovered it. He writes that 
it is of very limited distribution, being found far up the 
mountain only in an isolated tract of woodland which escaped 
the forest fires of twenty years ago. In three days' diligent 
search he found only twelve living examples" (Baldwin). 

Subgenus CYCLAMASTRA Pilsbry & Vanatta. 

Cydamastra PILS. & VAN., Proc. A. N. S. Phila., 1905, p. 
570 ; type A. cyclostoma Bald. 

The shell is deeply umbilicate in all post-embryonic stages, 
varying in shape from biconic, somewhat Heliciform, to glo- 
bose-conic or ovate-conic, the last whorl angular or rotund. 
Embryonic whorls with faint radial ripples or nearly smooth ; 
later whorls brown under a thin brown or yellowish cuticle. 
Type A. cyclostoma Bald. 

Cydamastra occurs on all of the Hawaiian Islands except 
Niihau, Lanai and Hawaii. The open axis is evidently an 
old feature, characteristic of the neanic stage in Kauaia, etc. 
Nearly half of the known species are found only as fossils. 
The genera Pterodiscus, Planamastra and Armsia evidently 
had their source in Cyclamastra. 

Series of A. split/erica. 

Besides the following species, this group includes A. obesa 
and A. agglutinans (carinata) of the island of Maui. 

3. A. CYCLOSTOMA Baldwin. PL 15, figs. 1, 2, 3, 6. 

The shell is umbilicate, conic above, convex below tfoe 
strong median peripheral carina ; moderately solid ; purplish- 



148 AM ASTRA, KAUAI. 

'brown, becoming yellowish-brown on the latter part of the 
last whorl and around the umbilicus. Whorls 5%, weakly 
convex. The spire is conic with concave outlines; first half- 
whorl smooth, with a pale tip, then faint radial ripples ap- 
pear, this sculpture continuing for three whorls. The last 
two whorls have sculpture of fine growth-striae and indistinct, 
coarse, low wrinkles. Last whorl flattened above, convex be- 
low the stout peripheral cardna, which becomes subobsolete 
near the aperture, which it does not modify in shape. Aper- 
ture oblique, ovate, flesh-colored within, but thickened with 
a white callus near the lip. Peristome obtuse, being a little 
thickened within, the columellar margin expanded, generally 
showing the end of a small spiral lamella which penetrates 
about a half whorl inward. Internal axis regularly tapering 
from below upward in each whorl, marked with low, pale, 
obliquely axial striae or wrinkles (fig. 6). 

Alt. 16.8, diam. 17.3 mm. (fig. 1). 

Alt. 16, diam. 19 mm. 

Alt. 16, diam. 18 mm. (figs. 2, 3). 

Kauai: M'akaweli (Judd, Miss Gay). Types no. 65724 A. 
N. S. P. 

Amastra cyclostoma BALDWIN, Proc. A. N. S. Phila., 1895, 
p. 234, pi. 11, f. 53 (July 2, 1895). - 

" Animal when extended in motion .95 inches in length; 
posterior portion of foot tapering and very short, front por- 
tion long; head elongated, ocular and labial tentacles widely 
separated. Mantle dingy-white with streaks of black. Foot 
very light brown, superior portion and sides thickly studded 
with regular, dark brown granulations. Tentacles long, dark 
brown " (Baldwin). 

Respecting the locality of A. cyclostoma, Mr. C. M. Cooke 
(in litt. Apr. 11, 1899) writes: "Mr. Judd told me that the 
locality of this shell is very restricted. It has been found in 
only one place, under a few orange trees. A circle with 
radius of six feet would enclose the whole space in which they 
have been found. ' ' 



AMASTRA, KAUAI. 149 

4. A. SPH^RICA Pease. PL 15, figs. 4, 5 (x 2) ; pi. 42, fig. 12. 

The shell is narrowly umbilicate, globose-conic, moderately 
solid, the spire dull purplish-brown, last whorl in large part 
purplish-brown or chestnut, fading to rather bright yellow in 
the last third or fourth. Whorls 5, moderately convex, the 
last very obtusely sub-angular in front, becoming rounded in 
its last half or third; in old shells it descends distinctly to 
the aperture. The outlines of the spire are straight, or very 
little contracted near the apex. First whorl smooth, the next 
very finely, not sharply, stria te; last two whorls are finely, 
sharply striate, the striae quite irregular and unequal. Suture 
impressed. The aperture is oblique, ovate, white within. 
Outer lip regularly curved, obtuse, thickened within; colu- 
inellar lip oblique, straight, dilated, bearing a strong, sub- 
horizontal lamella at its lower third. Umbilicus narrow, well- 
like, partly covered by the expanded columellar lip. 

Length 10, diam. 11.1 mm. (pi. 15, figs. 4, 5). 

Length 10.6, diam. 10.2 mm. (pi. 42, fig. 12). 

Kauai (Pease) : Puukapele. Type in Mus. Comp. Zool. 

Amastra sph&rica PEASE, Journ. de Conchyl., xviii, 1870, 
p. 94. Achatinella sphcerica, Pease, CROSSE, J. de C., xxiv, 
1876, p. 98, pi. 1, f . 5, 5a. PFB., Monogr., viii, p. 235. BALD- 
WIN, Catalogue, p. 10 ("Lanai"?). A. sphoerica Pse., HART- 
MAN, Proc. A. N. S. P., 1888, p. 50. 

A. sph&rica is most closely related to A. cyclostoma, from 
which it differs conspicuously by the form of the last whorl, 
the larger columellar lamella and the smaller size. There is 
no tendency to agglutinate foreign matter to the shell, as in 
A. obesa and A. agglutinans. The surface of A. obesa is less 
sharply striate than in A. sph&rica. Figures 4, 5 of plate 15 
represent a specimen barely mature. An old shell is drawn 
in pi. 42, fig. 12. Both were received from Pease, and doubt- 
less formed part of the original lot. 

Series of A. umbilicata. 

The shell is umbilieate or quite openly perforate, acutely 
ovate; the embryonic whorls are smooth and convex. 

This is the most widely distributed Amastrine group except 



150 AMASTRA, KAUAI. 

Amastrella, occurring on all the islands except Lanai and 
Hawaii. It is a primitive group, by its smooth apex, small, 
oblique columellar fold and open axis. 

Its wide distribution may be taken as evidence for a con- 
siderable antiquity. Moreover, four or five of the seven 
species known are extinct, mainly occurring in deposits more 
or less remote from the habitats of living Amastrse. We have 
to do, therefore, with an ancient group, now on the verge of 
extinction. The species are as follows: 

Kauai : A. similaris. 

Oahu: A. extincta, hartmani, sola, antiqua. 

Molokai : A. umbilicata. 

Maui : A. morticina. 

A. antiqua is a rather large, solid, thick-lipped form; A. 
sola has the verge of the umbilicus and the basal lip rounded. 
A. extincta is not certainly known to belong to this group. 
The other species are extremely similar, having the verge of 
the umbilicus and the base of the aperture subangular ; and, 
except for their geographic separation, they might almost be 
considered forms of one species. 

5. A. SIMILARIS Pease. PI. 15, figs. 7, 13, 14. 

The shell is umbilicate, ovate-conic, rather solid, with fine 
but rather rough and unequal striation on the last whorl. 
Spire straightly conic, of 5% rather convex whorls. The em- 
bryonic whorls are convex and smooth. The last whorl is 
compressed around the umbilicus, spirally guttered within it. 
The aperture is angular at both ends. The outer lip is ob- 
tuse, a little thickened within. Golumella straight, forming 
an angle with the basal lip, and bearing a retreating, ob- 
lique fold near the base. Umbilicus well-like, very deep. 

Length 12.5, diam. 7.7, length of aperture 6.25 mm. 

Length 12.2, diam. 7, length of aperture 6 mm. 

Kauai, fossil (Pease) ; Waimea (Pse., in coll.) ; Mana 
(Baldwin). 

Amastra rugulosa Pease var. similaris PEASE, Journ. de 
Oonchyl., xviii, 1870, p. 96. Achatmella similaris BALDWIN, 
Catalogue, 1893, p. 10. 



AMASTRA, KAUAI. 151 

The less swollen contour, open umbilicus and biangular 
aperture distinguish this species from A. rugulosa, from which 
it seems to be quite distinct. Five specimens examined, three, 
including the one figured (figs. 13, 14), received from Pease. 

This form must be closely related to A. extincta, said to be 
from Oahu, on the authority of Frick; but as described by 
Pfeiffer, that shell is more slender, the aperture scarcely more 
than one-third the length of the shell, while the aperture of 
similaris is about half as long as the shell. Compared with 
A. morticina of Maui, A. similaris differs by its less attenuate 
early whorls. 

Other specimens received from the Pease collection in Mus. 
Cornp. Zool. are labeled Waimea, a place on the southwest 
coast of Kauai. They are somewhat more slender than those 
described above but agree with them otherwise. 

Length 12.2, diam. 6.8, aperture 5.9 mm. (fig. 7). 

Length 11.5, diam. 7 mm. 

Subgenus AMASTRA H. & A. Adams. 
Section AMASTRELLA Sykes. 

Amastrella SYKES, Fauna Hawaiiensis, ii, pt. iv, Mollusca, 
p. 352 (May 19, 1900). Type A. rugulosa Pease. 

The shell is rimate or imperforate, ovate-conic or oblong- 
conic, the embryonic whorl varying from convex to flattened 
and from nearly smooth to longitudinally striate ; later whorls 
generally not variegated, covered with cuticle which is either 
very thin, or (in Oahuan species) dark and partly deciduous. 
Type A. rugulosa Pse. 

Amastrella occurs on all of the islands, except Lanai and 
Maui, from Kauai to Hawaii. This wide distribution, to- 
gether with the simplicity of the unspecialized shell, leads us 
to regard the AmastrellaB as little-changed remnants of a prim- 
itive Amastrine fauna, which, including also the Cyclamas- 
trae, was spread over the entire group. 

Series of A. rugulosa. 

The shell is narrowly rimate or closed, ovate-conic, rather 
roughly striate, dark-colored with a white streak behind the 



152 AMASTRA, KAUAI. 

outer lip and a white patch around the perforation. Con- 
fined to Kauai, but closely related to forms of Oahu and 
Hawaii. 

6. A. RUGULOSA Pease. PI. 15, fig. 12. 

"Shell ovate-conic, thick, rimate, obliquely wrinkle-striat- 
ulate, covered with a rough brown epidermis, chestnut-colored 
beneath the epidermis, whitish at the lip-edge and around the 
base, the apex blackish. Whorls 6, convex, sometimes a little 
inflated. Suture impressed. Aperture ovate, vertical. Colu- 
mellar fold strong, callous, compressed, almost transverse. 
Lip thickened. Length 12, diam. 9 mm." (Pse.) . 

Kauai (Pease): Kapaa (Baldwin); Lihue (Perkins). 
Type in Mus. Comp. Zool. 

Amastra rugulosa PEASE, Journ. de Conchyl., xviii, 1870, p. 
95. BALDWIN, Catalogue, p. 10. SYKES, Fauna Hawaiiensis, 
p. 354. Achatmella (Amastra) rugulosa Pse., CROSSE, J. de 
C., xxiv, 1876, p. 99, pi. 1, f. 4, 4a. HARTMAN, Proc. A. N. S. 
Phila., 1888, p. 49 ("Kula, East Maui"). 

This species is decidedly more roughly sculptured than A. 
nucleola, more obese, the whorls are more convex, and the 
columellar lamella is stronger. It is very much like A. sphce- 
rica in texture and color, but that is a shorter shell with a 
larger umbilicus and no basal white area. The outlines of 
the spire, while nearly straight, are perceptibly though weakly 
convex below and concave above. The sculpture, at the early 
stage, is like that described for nucleola. Whorls 5% to 5%, 
the first brown or purplish-brown (not blackish, as Pease 
states). The last whorl has rough, uneven striaB, but no 
spiral lines. It has a white area at the base, and a narrow 
streak behind the lip is white or whitish. The aperture is 
brown inside, but there is a narrow white rim within the ob- 
tuse lip. Columellar fold quite strong. There is an axial 
perforation, half closed by the columellar lip. Two specimens 
of the original lot, received from Mr. Pease, have been exam- 
ined, one being figured (fig. 12). 

Length 12, diam. 8.2 mm. ; aperture length 6 mm. 

Length 11.5, diam. 8.1 mm. ; aperture length 6 mm. 



AMASTRA, KAUAI. 153 

Dr. Hart-man's locality "Kula, East Maui" is doubtless an 
error. 

6<z. A. rugulosa normalis, n. subsp., pi. 42, fig. 9; pi. 15, figs. 
8-10. 

A large series from Kipu, in coll. C. Montague Cooke and 
A. N. S. P., consists of shells which are thinner than typical 
rugulosa, with less roughened surface and a half whorl more. 
The color is typical in most examples ; in some there is a pale 
band below the periphery, or the entire last whorl may be of 
a rich reddish- chestnut color, the spire paler. 

Length 12, diam. 8 mm.; 6 whorls (pi. 42, fig. 9; type). 

Length 11.2, diam. 8.1 mm.. 

In an embryo of barely two whorls the periphery is sharply 
angular. The columella is spiral but has no callous fold 
superposed. The axis is very minutely perforated. Exter- 
nally it is finely, very weakly striate, nearly smooth. 

Other specimens, without other locality than Kauai, are 
illustrated in figs. 8, 9, 10, of plate 15. These shells are 
thicker than those of Kipu, but have the same smoothish sur- 
face. The axis is very slender and distinctly sinuous in the 
second whorl ; then rather large in the last three whorls, still 
sinuous; in the last 1% whorls it bears a strong superposed 
lamella (pi. 15, fig. 8). The apical sculpture, as drawn in 
fig. 9 from a worn example, gives an imperfect, somewhat 
erroneous idea. Cotypes are no. 104685 A. N. S. P. and 2316 
Cooke collection. 

7. A. NUCLEOLA (Gould). PI. 15, figs. 16, 17. 

"Shell solid, imperf orate, ovate-globose, livid chestnut, the 
apex pale, at the suture and anteriorly whitish. Whorls 6, 
somewhat tabulate posteriorly. Aperture rounded; lip sim- 
ple; columella excavated, covered with a callus; fold small. 
Length nine-twentieths, width one- fourth inch. [Il%x6% 
mm.]. 

"A small solid species, of a livid hue, whitish at the tip 
and the neighborhood of the suture, and milk-white just be- 
fore the termination of the whorl at the aperture" (Old.). 



154 AM ASTRA, KAUAI. 

Kauai (Newcomb) : Hanalei (Baldwin) ; Waiole (Gulick). 
Type no. 1172 N. Y. State Museum at Albany. 

Achatinella nucleola GLD., Proc. Boston Soc. N. H., ii, p. 
28 (Jan., 1845). PFR., Monogr., ii, p. 241; iii, 457; iv, 545; 
vi, 178. Amastra nucleola Gld., BALDWIN, Catalogue, 1893, p. 
9. SYKES, Fauna Hawaiiensis, p. 353, no. 93. GULICK, Evo- 
lution, Racial and Habitudinal, p. 38, pi. 1, f. 2 (Waiole). 
Achatinella brevis PFR., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1845, p. 90 
(1846). Monogr. Hel. Viv., iii, 458; vi, 181. 

A shell 3.5 mm. long of 2% whorls shows the first iy 2 
whorls smooth, extremely fine, faint striae then appearing. 
There is a well-developed axial lamella. In adults the spire 
is more or less tinted with brown, the last whorl deepening 
to dull purple; a band below the suture, a patch around the 
small axial perforation and a wide stripe behind the lip being 
pure white. The last whorl is irregularly, rather finely, 
wrinkle-striate. The lip is obtuse and thickened a little 
within. The contour varies somewhat. 

Length 11.9, diam. 6.9, length of aperture 5 mm. 

Length 10.7, diam. 6.9, length of aperture 4.9 mm. 

Length 11, diam. 6.1, length of aperture 4.8 mm. 

A. rugulosa is its nearest ally, but that is larger, more obese, 
with a coarser surface and no subsutural white band. 

Though common in collections, all the specimens seen have 
the appearance of having been collected dead. The speci- 
mens figured are from Waiola, Gulick coll. W. H. Pease 
states that he collected the veritable A. nucleola only at 
Manoa, Oahu (Journal de Conchyliologie, 1870, p. 96), but 
this locality has not been confirmed, and is apparently an 
error. 

Harper Pease, followed by Mr. Sykes, places A. brevis Pfr. 
as a synonym of A. nucleola. The description, given below, 
is discrepant in the phrase il T. non rimata" and in color. 
Only one shell in a large series of A. nucleola examined has 
the axial >crevice closed. It is almost invariably open, though 
narrow and short. 

Achatinella brevis Pfr. Shell not rimate, ovate-conic, solid, 
obliquely striatulate, glossy, reddish- brown. Spire convexly- 



AMASTRA, KAUAI. 155 

conic, rather acute. Suture simple, white. Whorls 6, con- 
vex, the last equaling two-fifths the total length. Columella 
subarcuate, provided at the base with a minute, tooth-like 
tubercle. Aperture little oblique, half -oval. Peristome unex- 
panded, thick, obtuse, white. Length 11, diam. 6% mm.; 
aperture with peristome 5 mm. long. Sandwich Is., Cuming 
coll. (P/r.). 

8. A. ANTHONII (Newcomb). PL 15, figs. 15, 18, 19. 

' * Shell conically ovate, solid, blaekish-brown, longitudinally 
striate. Whorls 6, inflated, suture moderately impressed. 
Apex obtuse. Aperture obliquely ovate, subangulate below. 
Lip simple, thickened within. Columella short, straight, with 
a somewhat callous plication below the middle. White-banded 
below the suture, and of a dirty white in the umbilical region. 
Length 15, width 10, length of aperture 6, width 4% mm." 
(Newc.). 

Kauai (at Kaloa?) (Johnson). Type in Mus. Cornell Univ. 

Achatinella anthonii NEWC., Proc. California Acad. of Nat. 
Sci., ii, p. 93, 1861 ; Amer. Journ. of Conch., ii, 1866, p. 210, 
pi. 13, f . 2.Amastra anthonyi Nc., PEASE, P. Z. S., 1869, p. 
649. Achatinella anthonyi Newc., HARTMAN, Proc. A. N. S. 
Phila., 1888, p. 44. 

The outlines of the spire are a little convex, and the apex 
is more obtuse than in A. rugulosa. The striation is rough 
and irregular, and on the last 2y 2 whorls there are spiral 
stricz, weakly shown in fig. 19. The spire is purplish-brown, 
the last whorl of the same shade or lighter reddish-brown. 
The pale sutural band and axial patch mentioned by New- 
comb seem to be always present, though varying in intensity 
and width. The first two whorls are smooth. The shape 
varies from oblong-conic to ovate-conic. 

Length 18.5, diam. 10, aperture 8 mm. ; 6 whorls. 

Length 16, diam. 9.5, aperture 7.7 mm. 

Length 16, diam. 10.3, aperture 8 mm. 



156 AMASTRA, OAHU. 

AMASTR^E OF OAHU. 

Oahu has representatives of four subgenera or sections of 
Amastra. Amastrella and Cyclamastra are widely-spread 
groups in other islands, while Metamastra and Paramastra 
are special to this one. A single species, A. elongata Newc., 
has been referred to Heteramastra, but its claim to a place in 
the Oahuan list is questionable. 

The island consists of two volcanic masses, a higher, prob- 
ably older western mass, the Waianae or Kaala range, and a 
larger, lower, eastern or Koolau range, which has been shown 
by Dana to be later, or at least to have continued in active 
eruption later than the other, by the encroachment of its lava 
streams over the base of the Waianae range. The saddle be- 
tween these ranges reaches an elevation of nearly 900 feet. 
It is arid or grassy, and supports no Achatinellida : 

Pterodiscus, Cyclamastra and Laminella are common to 
both ranges. Metamastra and Amastrella are characteristic 
of the Koolau range, the former with 15, the latter 9 species. 
Three forms of Metamastra, all varieties of Koolau species, 
occur in the Waianae range, and there are two Waianaean 
Amastrella, one varietally connected with a Koolau species, 
the other specifically distinct. 

Armsia and Planamastra, each with one species, are known 
from the Waianae range only. Paramastra, with 7 species, is 
also characteristic of the Waianae range. Two of these species 
occur also in the Koolau range, where there are also two dis- 
tinct species of the same group. The cornea group is like- 
wise probably of Waianaean origin, two species being from 
that range, and two, rare and local, in the Koolau range. 
Not much weight is to be attached to this series, since the re- 
lationship of the Waianae and Main Range species is rather 
uncertain. See pp. 138-9, where the species of both ranges 
are enumerated. 

It appears from the data in hand that both eastern and 
western areas existed as independent evolution-centers for a 
period sufficiently long for the evolution of distinct sub- 
generic groups of Amastras in each, while Planamastra and 
Armsia became differentiated in the Waianae, and various 






AMASTRA, OAHU. 157 

groups of Achatinellae in the Main or Koolau range. Pol- 
lowing this long period of isolation, in quite modern times, 
within the lifetime of existing species, the two radiation- 
centers were transiently connected by a forest area across the 
intervening saddle, which had meantime been built up from 
a lower level or from below sea-level. This allowed the migra- 
tion of a few virile species from range to range. 

Aside from this geologically very recent exchange of species 
between the two Oahuan radiation-centers, there is no evi- 
dence whatever to show that the fauna of either range was 
derived from the other. The truth probably is that both 
arose from an early tertiary fauna which occupied a more 
extensive land, upon which the existing volcanic deposits were 
superposed during Neocene time, with synchronous subsidence 
of the ancient ridge. I cannot find one shred of evidence for 
Hyatt's contention that the southeastern end of the Main 
Range was the primary radiation-center and that the Waianae 
fauna was derived from the eastern range. 

The deposits containing fossil land shells -are probably 
Pleistocene, possibly Pliocene. That on Diamond Head is be- 
lieved by Branner to have been an old forest deposit covered 
with talus. Its fossils belong to modern groups of the same 
district, though not now living in the same locality. 

The first Achatinella known, Helix apex-fulva Dixon, was 
obtained in Oahu (June, 1786) from a necklace prob- 
ably made in Kawailoa valley. In 1819 the French corvette 
Uranie visited Hawaii, Maui and Oahu, lying in Honolulu 
harbor. In the neighboring valleys, probably Nuuanu and 
Manoa or Palolo, the following species were obtained : Achat- 
inella, vulpina, gravida var. graeilis, decora, lorata; Amastra 
turritella, textilis, tristis-, and Lept. ventulus. Amastra lute- 
ola also may have been from Oahu, but it is more likely a 
Hawaiian shell related to A. flavescens. Amastra spirizona 
they also obtained, no doubt from the natives, as it occurs 
only in western Oahu. The next collection of importance was 
made by Lord Byron in H. M. S. Blonde, 1824, who brought 
home a shell necklace, composed of Achatinellida special to 
Kawailoa valley, near the western end of the main range, and 



158 AMASTRA, OAHU. 

described by Swainson. Subsequent to these pioneer collec- 
tions the work was taken up by Neweomb, Frick (whose shells 
were described by Pfeiffer), Gulick, and after the lapse of 
many years by Baldwin, bringing us to the workers of to-day, 
who have begun a new period of 'active investigation of this 
wonderful fauna. 

Key to O'ahuan Amastrce. 

a. Shell umbilicate ; embryonic whorls smooth. 

Cydamastra, p. 158. 

a 1 . Shell imperf orate or narrowly rimate. 
b. Sinistral. 

c. Ovate-conic, rather stout. A. thaanumi, no. 22. 
c 1 . Oblong- turreted, slender. A. elongata, no. 54. 
6 1 . Dextral. 

c. Shell turreted or pyramidal, often banded. 

Paramastra, p. 208. 
c 1 . Shell ovate, oblong or globose-conic. 

d. Curve below the columellar lamella well 

rounded. Amastrella, p. 191. 

d 1 . Curve below lamella narrow, spout-like. 

Metamastra. 
e. Stout, often variegated, variegata 

group, p. 163. 

e 1 . Slender, spire concavely conic, cor- 
nea group, p. 187. 

The following Amastrse are enumerated without descrip- 
tions in Baldwin, Catalogue Land and Fresh-Water Shells of 
the Hawaiian Islands, 1893. 

Achatinella ferruginea Bald. Ewa and Waianae Mts., 
Oahu (p. 9). 

Achatinella testudinea Bald. Ewa, Oahu (p. 10). 

Subgenus CYCLAMASTRA Pilsbry & Vanatta (p. 147). 

Series of A. umbilicata; p. 149.) 
9. A. SOLA n. sp. PI. 38, figs. 6, 9, 10. 

The shell is openly perforate, conic, thin, with but little 



AMASTRA, OAHU. 159 

luster, the last whorl or two dark reddish-brown with some 
light lines and patches, those above pale yellowish from in- 
cipient decay of the cuticle. Outlines of the spire are 
straight, but the individual whorls are very strongly convex. 
Embryonic whorls smooth ; later whorls with irregular sculp- 
ture of fine growth-wrinkles. Aperture reddish-brown within, 
the lip very thin, acute ; basal margin well rounded. Colu- 
inellar margin straight, dilated above, arching over the nar- 
row umbilicus. Columellar fold thin, very small and strongly 
oblique. Length 9.8, diam. 6, aperture 4.9 mm.; 5% whorls. 

Oahu: Wahiawa (Thaanum, type loc.) ; Kawaihulona 
(Spalding). Type to be placed in the Bishop Museum. 

A. hartmani is a more obese shell with larger umbilicus. 
A. umbilicata has the whorls but slightly convex, "anfr. 6 
vix convexiusculi" (Pfr.). A. extincta, a larger shell, has 
similarly low convexity "anfr. 7 vix convexiusculis" (Pfr.). 
In A. sola the convexity of the whorls is unusually emphatic. 
Compared with a Molokai specimen of A. umbilicata, this 
Oahuan shell differs by the more convex whorls, the last whorl 
wider, not angular around the umbilicus, and the aperture is 
rounded below, not angular as in 



10. A. EXTINCTA (Pfeiffer). 

"Shell perforate, ovate-turrite, solid, striatulate, chalky. 
Spire long, tapering upwards, acute. Whorls 7, scarcely con- 
vex, the last less than one-third the total length, somewhat 
compressed around the perforation. Aperture slightly ob- 
lique, rhombic-oval, angular at the base. Columellar fold 
compressed, ascending almost from the base. Peristome sim- 
ple, unexpanded, the margins joined by a thick, somewhat 
nodiferous callus, columellar margin dilated, free. Length 
16, diam. 7.5 mm.; aperture 5.5 mm. long, 3 wide" (Pfr.). 

Oahu, sub fossil (Frick, in Cuming coll.). 

Achatinella extincta PFR., P. Z. S., 1855, p. 204; Monogr., 
iv, 550. THWING, Occ. Papers B. P. B. Mus., iii, p. 184; 
Amastra extincta Pfr., SYKES, Fauna Hawaiiensis, p. 336. 
L[eptachatina] hartmani Ncwc., HARTMAN, Proc. A. N. S. 
Phila.. 1888, p. 54, in part; not pi. 1, fig. 12, "type". 



160 AMASTRA, OAHU. 

Pease (P. Z. S., 1869, p. 651) and Hartman, 1888, referred 
extincta to Leptachatina. Dr. Newcomb (in Hartman, 1888) 
renamed the shell on the ground that having been found re- 
cent, extincta was a misnomer. Mr. Sykes thinks that the 
recent shells in question were probably erroneously identified 
as Pfeiffer's species, an opinion which I share. A. extincta 
has not been figured. The scarcely convex whorls should be 
a diagnostic character. Being described as "perforate," it 
probably belongs to the inflata series of Amastrse; but on 
account of its connection in the literature with A. hartmani, 
we leave it in this group temporarily. 

11. A. HABTMANI 'Newcomb' Hartman. PL 38, fig. 11. 
Hartman figured as the type of L. hartmani a fossil shell 

received from Newcomb as from Oahu, which differs from 
Pfeiffer's description of A. extincta by its very much broader 
shape and distinct umbilicus. The photograph from which 
Hartman 's figure was drawn measures, length 12.1, diam. 8.8 
mm. It is reproduced on our plate 38. No description of 
this shell has been published, since Hartman considered it 
specifically identical with A. extincta Pfr. It is therefore 
defined solely by the figure. 

Oahu, fossil. Type in Hartman coll., Hamburg Mus. 

L[eptachatina] hartmani Ncwc. (MS. coll. Newcomb), 
HARTMAN, Proc. A. N. S. Phila., 1888, p. 54. Leptachatina 
hartmanii Newc., HARTMAN, t. c., p. 56, pi. 1, f. 12 (April 24, 
1888). 

Hartman based his species hartmani on Pfeiffer's descrip- 
tion of A. extincta and on a specimen which he expressly 
designates as the type. It is proposed to restrict the name 
to the latter. 

Photographs of two recent Oahu specimens referred by 
Hartman to L. hartmani are in the collection of the Academy. 
They are much less inflated than the type, and probably not 
identical with it. 

12. A. ANTIQUA Baldwin. PI. 32, figs. 22, 23. 

* ' Shell fossil, dextral, narrowly but deeply perforated, the 



AMASTRA, OAHU. 161 

perforation penetrating almost to the apex ; solid, elongately 
ovate, apex subacute ; surface sculptured with, rude, irregular 
lines of growth, the apical whorls smooth. Color of the living 
shell unknown. Whorls 6, convex; suture well impressed. 
Aperture a trifle oblique, sublunate; peris-tome thickened 
within, columellar margin adnate, slightly expanded over the 
umbilicus, extremities somewhat converging and united by a 
thick parietal callosity; columella flexuous, terminating in a 
narrow plait. Length 20, diam. 12 mm." (Baldw.). 

Oahu: Ewa. 

Amastra antiqua BALDWIN, Proc. A. N. S. Phila., 1895, p. 
233, pi. 11, f. 47. 

"We received this species from Prof. A. B. Lyons, of Oahu 
College. He reports that he found at Ewa a singular accu- 
mulation of these and other fossil land shells, huddled to- 
gether in one spot in a bed of soft tufa-like material, at an 
altitude not far above sea-level. The existence of living ex- 
amples of this and the following species now, or within any 
recent period, is highly improbable " (Baldwin). 

The sculpture consists of coarse, unequal wrinkles separated 
by finely, irregularly striate intervals, the embryonic shell ap- 
pearing smooth in the fossil examples. It is narrowly um- 
'bilicate, rather than "perforated," as described by Mr. Bald- 
win, the umbilicus being nearly 1 mm. wide. The spire is 
slightly contracted near the summit. The peristome is obtuse 
with a callous rib within. There is a low, oblique nodule or 
callous ridge on the parietal wall some distance within, above 
and rather near the origin of the columella. The parietal 
callus is rather thick at the edge in adult shells. Two speci- 
mens of the type lot measure : 

Length 20.3, diam. 13, aperture 10 mm., whorls 6. 

Length 18, diam. 11.5, aperture 8.2 mm., whorls 6%. 

This species is probably related to the group of smaller 
forms comprising A. similaris Pse. (Kauai), A. hartmani Nc. 
(Oahu) and A. morticina Pils. (Maui). In all of these forms 
the umbilicus is large for an Amastra, the embryonic whorls 
are smooth, the columellar lip free and not much dilated, and 
the columellar lamella rather small and oblique. A. antiqua 



162 AMASTRA, OAHU. 

differs from the others by its rough sculpture and large size. 
The thickening-up of the parietal callus is probably an old- 
age feature, which is often correlated with increasing aridity 
of station. Figured from a co-type in coll. A. N. S. P. 

Section METAMASTRA Hyatt & Pilsbry. 
Imperforate or narrowly rimate Amastrae with very finely 
striate or smoothish embryonic whorls, strong, subhorizontal 
columellar lamella, the sinus below it narrow and deep, some- 
what spout-like. Type A. variegata Nc. 

Series of A. variegata. 

Amastrae of compact shape, the spire usually convexly 
conic, whorls 5% to 6%; apex rather obtuse, the embryonic 
whorls convex, very finely striate or nearly smooth (except in 
A. badia) ; later whorls with no dull outer coat of cuticle, 
usually variegated with opaque buff interrupted bands or 
streaks ; rather glossy. Outer lip generally thickened within ; 
columellar lamella strong, subhorizontal, the sinus below it 
rather spout-like. 

These forms differ from the group of A. rub ens and in flat a 
chiefly by the spout-like basal sinus of the aperture, produced 
by an angulation of the whorl around the axis, noticeable be- 
hind the columella in adult shells, while in the neanic stage 
the basal part of the shell is rather straightly conic. The 
cuticle, moreover, never has a conspicuous, dull, deciduous 
layer, as is usual in the in flat a group. 

This Oahuan group has been differentiated from Amastrella 
by the development of variegated coloration in the ''middle 
layer" (not the outer, more or less deciduous cuticle, -as in 
variegated species of Molokai and Maui), and by the peculiar 
shape of the sinus below the columellar lamella, It com- 
prises two series of species: Series of A. variegata (see below), 
and Series of A. cornea, 'acutely ovate shells with the spire 
attenuate, species 41 to 44. 

Metamastra is here used in a somewhat wider sense than 
originally limited by the senior author. 

The reticulata series is copiously developed in the eastern 



AMASTRA, OAHU. 163 

part of the Main Range of Oa.hu, where there are many species 
and races, some of them very local, others more widely rang- 
ing. Two species, aibolcibris and reticulata have migrated to 
the Waianae Range also. 

Key to Species of the Variegata Series. 

1. Shell sinistral, oblong, chestnut with darker spire. 

A. thaanumi, no. 22. 
Shell dextral, 2. 

2. Outlines of the spire concave ; chestnut-brown ; 11x7 mm. 

A. irwiniana, no. 17. 
Outlines of spire straight or convex, 3. 

3. Shell and parietal callus very thick ; oblong-conic ; length 

14 to 15, diam. 8 mm. 

A. solida, no. 23 ; A. venusta, no. 24. 
Parietal callus thin or moderate, 4. 

4. A thread and groove above suture on 3d and 4th whorls; 
cylindric-oblong. A. spaldingi, no. 15. 
Smooth above suture, 5. 

5. Shell distinctly or strongly striate, and usually decus- 

sated with spirals, 6. 
Shell weakly striate or smoothish, 8. 

6. Reddish-brown and whitish, sometimes banded, under a 

yellow cuticle ; 16x9 to MxS 1 ^ mm. 

A. albolabris, no. 18 ; A. subrostrata, no. 19. 
Deep brown, rather rudely striate and minutely decus- 
sate ; 17x9% mm. A. sericea, no. 20. 
Dark brown, oblong-conic, widest near the base; finely, 
rather weakly striate; 16.5x9.2 mm. 

A. davisiana, no. 21. 
Fossil, Diamond Head; cylindric-eomc 14x7.1 mm. 

A. caputadamantis, no. 28. 

Maculate, banded, or with ragged streaks of whitish on 
a dark brown ground ; striation and incised spirals gen- 
erally strong, 7. 

7. Small, 12 to 13 mm. long. A. transversalis, no. 27. 
Larger, 19x12 mm. ; globose-ovate ; embryonic whorls 

striate. A. undata, no. 29. 



164 AMASTRA, OAHU. 

Large, about 20 mm. long, ovate-conic, embryonic whorls 
unevenly ribbed. A. badia, no. 30. 

8. Shell globose-conic, diam. about two-thirds or three- 

fourths the length, 9. 
Shell oblong-conic or ovate, not so wide, 12. 

9. Dark brown under a greenish-yellow suffusion, 10. 
Brown or pale, usually banded or speckled with white, 11. 

10. Much depressed, periphery angular in front ; 10x7.7 mm. 

A. gulickiana, no. 14. 
Ovate, periphery rounded ; length 14, diam. 8 to 9 mm. 

A. t. media, no. 13a. 

11. Thin; whitish, pale or dark brown, usually sparsely 

banded with white. A. pellucida, no. 16. 

Rather solid, speckled or banded with whitish. 

A. reticulata, no. 25. 

12. Aperture small, contained about 2% times in the length; 

mottled and streaked with yellow on a dark ground; 
16.7x8 num. A. cookei, no. 26. 

Aperture about half the length of shell or more. 

A. textilis, no. 13; A. reticulata var., no. 25. 

13. A. TEXTILIS (Ferussac). PL 30, figs. 1 to 7. 

" Shell dextral, ovate, the summit acuminate, engraved 
with longitudinal and transverse striae; epidermis buff or 
reddish, fugacious ; whorls 5 ; aperture semilunate ; peristome 
thickened within; columella short, provided with a distinct 
rib ; umbilical crevice hardly distinct. Length 6%, diam. 3% 
lignes. Sandwich Is." (Ferussac). 

Oahu, southern slope of the eastern third of the Main 
range: Waialae, Palolo, Manoa, Nuuanu, Moanalua, Halawa 
(aulick, Cooke). 

Helix textilis FERUSSAC, Voy. Autour du Monde de 1'Uranie 
et la Physicienne, par L. de Freycinet, Zoologie, p. 482 (1824). 
Achatinella textilis NEWCOMB, Annals of the Lyceum of N. 
H. of N. Y., vi, 1858, p. 305. BALDWIN, Catalogue 1893, p. 
10. BINNEY, Ann. Lye. N. H. of N. Y., xi, p. 190, pi. 14, f. G 
(radula). Amastra textilis HARTMAN, Proc. A. N. S. Phila., 
1888, p. 50, pi. 1, f. 8. SYKES, Fauna Hawaiiensis, p. 345, no. 



AMASTRA, 6/.KU. 165 

60. Achalutt-lla microstoma GLD., Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., ii, 
1845, p. 28. Achatinella ventulus Fer., PFEIFFER, P. Z. S., 
1845, p. 89 ; Monogr., ii, p. 241 ; Conchyl. Cab., p. 287, pi. 67, 
f. 12, 13. REEVE, Conch. Icon., vi, 1850, pi. 4, f. 31.- 
THWING, Orig. Descriptions, p. 143, pi. 3, f. 14. Not of 
Ferussac. Achatinella ellipsoidea GOULD, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. 
H., ii, 1847, p. 200; U. S. Expl. Exped. Moll., p. 87, pi. 7, fig. 
96. Leptachatina textttis Fer., W. G. BINNEY, Ann. N. Y. 
Acad. Sci., iii, p. 99, pi. 6, f. G (teeth). 

Ferussac 's diagnosis of this species is not good. If the 
truth be told, he had little talent for description, and his 
taxonomic instinct was generally at fault. Braguiere's de- 
scriptions and Lamarck's systematies are on a higher plane. 
It was Dr. Newcomb who first recognized the real identity of 
Helix ventulus and H. textilis, having seen the type specimens 
of both in the Jardin des Plantes. The typical form seems to 
have been one of the rather unusual specimens marked with 
spiral lines, such as are found in Nuuanu valley. 

A. textilis is imperforate or sometimes slightly rimate, solid, 
oblong-conic, polished, with weak sculpture of fine, uneven 
growth- wrinkles. Color rich chestnut (varying in intensity), 
paler, and usually yellow below the suture and around the 
columella; spire purplish-brown. The chestnut color some- 
times gives place to yellowish, or again there may be an olive 
or greenish tinge (the color of the form Gould called A. micro- 
stoma). Some yellow shells have numerous indistinct olive- 
brown spiral lines, and these may be very slightly sunken (fig. 
6, Waialae) ; an example so marked was described by Ferus- 
sac. Old shells generally show scattered golden flecks, or 
whitish lines and dots, from disintegration of the cuticle. 
The spire has convex outlines below, straight near the apex. 
Whorls 5y 2 to 6!/2, but little convex. The second embryonic 
whorl has very fine, close longitudinal striae, which in some 
shells are cut by smoothish spiral bands. The last whorl is 
more or less convex. Aperture small, rather oblique, flesh- 
tinted inside, the outer lip strengthened by a narrow whitish 
rib within the acute edge. The columellar lamella is strong 
and subhorizontal ; there is a sort of gutter at the junction of 



166 AMASTRA, OAHU. 

the columellar and basal margins, quite unlike the rounded 
curve of A. decorticata, etc., but similar to the reticulata 
group. Parietal callus usually rather thick, but thin at the 
edge and transparent. 

Fig. 3. Length 15.5, diam. 7.8, aperture 7 mm. Palolo. 

Fig. 1. Length 15, diam. 8.5, aperture 6.9 mm. Palolo. 
Length 14.5, diam. 8.7, aperture 6.9 mm. Palolo. 

Fig. 2. Length 14, diam. 9, aperture 7.2 mm. Palolo. 
Length 13.2, diam. 8.1, aperture 7 mm. Palolo. 

From the figures and measurements it will be seen that the 
shape varies within very wide limits, from the more oblong 
form of typical textilis to a globose-conic shape exactly like 
A. breviata. Many of these short shells are really indistin- 
guishable from the latter, though they may generally be sep- 
arated by the greater solidity and smoother, glossy surface of 
A. textilis. 

The specimens from localities mentioned above do not differ 
materially, -all the lots being variable. Several shells from a 
large series from Nuuanu (pi. 30, figs. 4, 5) measure: 

Length 18, diam. 9.5, aperture 8.3 mm. 

Length 17.5, diam. 9.5, aperture 8 mm. 

Length 16, diam. 9, aperture 7 mm. ; whorls 

Length 15.2, diam. 8, aperture 7 mm. ; whorls 

Length 13.8, diam. 8.5, aperture 6.8 mm. ; whorls 6. 

Length 13, diam. 8.5, aperture 6.8 mm. ; whorls 5%. 

Length 12.5, diam. 8.8, 'aperture 6.5 mm. ; whorls 

In his "Reprint of the original descriptions of the genus 
Achatinella, " p. 143, under ventulus, Mr. Thwing gives part of 
Reeve's description of his ventulus (= textilis), at the same 
time quoting Newcomb's notes relating to Leptachatina ven- 
tulus (see p. 54), thus confusing two distinct species belong- 
ing to different genera. On p. 146 the original description 
of textilis is given. 

Gould described this species twice ; in 1845 under the name 
A. microstoma, no exact habitat, and in 1848 as 1 A. ellipsoidea, 
from Maui. The type of A. microstoma has been lost, but it 
has generally, and doubtless correctly, been considered a syn- 
onym of textilis. The original description follows. 



AMASTRA, OAHU. 167 

A. microstoma (Old.). "Shell ovate, imperf orate, solid, 
epidermis greenish-brown. Whorls 6, the last ventricose. 
Aperture small, ovate-rounded, the throat livid; lip simple, 
thickened within; columella deeply sinuous, covered with a 
thick callus, fold strong. Distinguished by its ovate form, 
dusky green exterior, and small, strongly fortified aperture. 
Length three-fifths, diam. seven-twentieths of an inch" [15x 
8.75mm.] (Old.). 

Compact greenish forms of textilis, which are evidently 
' ' microstoma, ' ' occur from Moanaloa to Nuuanu and on Tan- 
talus. A series from Nuuanu (Cooke coll.) is figured, pi. 30, 
figs. 8, 9, 10. The spire is darker than the last whorl, mainly 
purplish-brown; the last whorl is yellowish- green or brown- 
clouded green, or there may be brownish bands on a yellow- 
green ground, or yellow bands on a brown ground. 

The integradation between these shells and normal textilis 
is complete, and we attach little importance to the distinction. 

A. ellipsoidea, of which we have examined Gould's figured 
type, is no. 5498 U. S. Nat. Mus. (pi. 40, figs. 17, 18). It cer- 
tainly never came from Maui, as supposed by Gould, being 
merely a variegated textilis, exactly like some of the Nuuanu 
specimens. The ground-color is brown, a white band appear- 
ing below the suture on the penult, whorl, widening on the 
last whorl, where it spreads downward. There are some 
narrow whitish spiral lines in the peripheral region, and a 
rather large yellow basal patch. It may be noted that Gould 
himself compares it with "ventulus" Fer., a name at that 
time used for textilis Fer. It has been united erroneously 
with A. pupoidea Newc., which belongs to a separate series. 
The type is figured. 

13a. A. textilis media Hyatt & Pilsbry, n. subsp. PI. 30, figs. 

11, 12. 

The shell is short, rather thin, perforate, compactly ovate- 
conic, the outlines of the spire slightly convex; sculptured 
with fine growth-wrinkles; dull purplish-brown under a very 
thin cuticle which with age becomes light greenish-yellow in 
lines and streaks, or throughout on the spire, "dead" shells 



168 AMASTRA, OAHU. 

becoming greenish-yellow throughout; aperture purplish 
within, the lip, columellar lamella and parietal callus thin. 

Length 14, diam. 8.6 mm.; 5% whorls (figs. 11, 12). 

Length 12, diam. 7.5 mm. ; 5y 2 whorls. 

Aeia (a short valley splitting the ridge northwest of Ha- 
lawa) , co-types no. 1050 Cooke coll., 104686 A. N. S. P., and 
13378 Best. Soc. coll. 

Perhaps a form dwarfed by unfavorable conditions, but 
recognized by the senior author in MSS. as a distinct species. 
Some examples without definite locality in coll. A. N. S. P. 
are rather solid with thickened lip. Its range lies on the ex- 
treme northwestern border of the known range of A. textilis. 

13&. A. textilis kaipaupauensis n. subsp. PL 38, fig. 12. 

The shell is short, subperforate, thin, with straightly conic 
spire and convex whorls, the last quite rotund ; dull purplish- 
brown, the thin cuticle yellowish on the early whorls. Em- 
bryo finely striate ; later whorls with fine, irregular sculpture 
of growth-wrinkles. Aperture purplish within, the lip very 
narrowly thickened. Columellar lamella thin, its lower edge 
Bubhorizontal. Length 11, diam. 7.1, aperture 6 mm. ; 5% 
whorls. 

Kaipaupau (Spalding coll.). 

Near the above, yet with narrower, straightly conic spire 
and more convex whorls. Type to be deposited in the Bishop 
Museum. 

14. A. GULICKIANA n. sp. PL 38, fig. 8. 

Shell narrowly perforate, globose-conic, rather solid, glossy, 
without dull or deciduous outer cuticle. Spire very short, its 
outlines very slightly convex, nearly straight, the summit ob- 
tuse. Embryonic whorls nearly smooth, the first dull purple, 
the rest covered with a thin, light greenish-yellow cuticle, be- 
coming reddish-brown on the latter part of the last whorl. 
Embryonic whorls apparently smooth, rather convex ; follow- 
ing whorls lightly marked with growth-striae, less convex, the 
last whorl subglobose, subangular in front of the aperture, 
becoming rotund in the last two-thirds. Aperture somewhat 



AM ASTRA, OAHU. 169 

oblique; interior purple, becoming paler and a little thick- 
ened near the lip. Columella short, bearing a moderate and 
not very oblique fold below the middle, the edge dilated 
above the fold. Parietal callus thin, purple. Length 10, 
diam. 7.7, aperture 5.3 mm. ; 5^/3 whorls. 

Oahu: Opaiula (Irwin Spalding). Type to be deposited 
in the Bishop Museum. 

This peculiar shell is probably a derivative from the A. tex- 
tilis stock, but its locality is far to the northwest of the textilis 
area. The coloration a greenish-yellow suffusion over dark 
red-brown is the same as in some forms of textilis from Nuu- 
anu and elsewhere. The summit is more obtuse than in tex- 
tilis, and the last whorl retains a juvenile feature in the an- 
gulation of the periphery in front, It is a very rare species, 
known up to this time by two specimens, taken by Mr. Spal- 
ding. The shorter shape and very obtuse summit differentiate 
A. gulickiana from the small varieties of A. textilis. It is a 
very distinct species. 

15. A. SPALDINGI Cooke. Plate 30, fig. 14; pi. 38, fig. 13. 

"The shell is imperf orate, dextral, eylindrically ovate, 
somewhat thin, irregularly and faintly striate with lines of 
growth, the third whorl distinctly and diagonally striate, the 
third and fourth whorls having a distinct spiral thread just 
above the sutures, the first three whorls light brown with a 
yellowish tinge, the lower three of a uniform dark resinous 
chestnut. Spire subcylindrical, with slightly convex outlines, 
apex somewhat obtuse. Suture simple, hardly impressed. 
Whorls Gi/o, increasing somewhat regularly, the embryonic 
somewhat convex, the rest flatly convex, the last cylindrical, 
tapering gradually towards the base. Aperture subpyriform, 
bluish within, scarcely oblique. Columella nearly straight, 
hardly twisted: columellar fold basal, rather small, thin, ob- 
lique, flexuous. Outer margin of lip regularly curved, erect, 
thin, forming a slight angle with the base of the columella ; 
columellar margin thin, appressed, adnate. Length 18.9, 
dia.m. 9.6, length of ap. (diagonal) 8.1 mm." (Cooke}. 

Oahu: Summit of Konahuanui, at 3,300 ft. (Spalding). 
Type no. 16451, Bishop Museum. 



170 AMASTRA, OAHU. 

Amastra spaldingi COOKE, Occas. Pap. B. P. Bishop Mu- 
seum, iii, p. 18 [214], f. 2 (July 24, 1908). 

Figured from specimens 17738 and 17612, Bishop Mus. 
Its nearest congener is probably A. textilis Fer., from which 
it differs by the larger size, more cylindric form, and espec- 
ially by the spiral threads above the suture, on the third and 
fourth whorls, a feature peculiar to this species. These 
spirals are best shown in the enlarged view of the neanic 
stage, pi. 38, fig. 13. Named in honor of Mr. Irwin Spalding, 
of Honolulu. 

16. A. PELLUCIDA Baldwin. PI. 30, fig. 13. 

"Shell dextral, imperforate, very fragile, thin, translucent, 
globosely conic, apex rather acute; surface lusterless, sculp- 
tured with fine incremental lines, apical whorls smooth. Color 
light-brown, apex darker; destitute of epidermis. Whorls 
5%, somewhat convex; suture moderately impressed. Aper- 
ture oval, a trifle oblique, livid- white within ; peristome simple, 
thin; columella white, flexuous, abruptly terminating in a 
thin lamellar plait. Length 12^, diam. 8 mm. 

"Animal of a uniform brown color; the 'head above and 
tentacles of a darker shade. The action of the heart is plainly 
visible through the thin texture of the shell. When first col- 
lected the pulsations were about fifty per minute, growing 
slower and fainter from day to day until the animal died" 
(Baldwin). 

Oahu : Waianae Valley. Co-types no. 65721 A. N. S. P. 

Amastra pellucida BALDWIN, Proc. A. N. S. Phila., 1895, p. 
231, pi. 11, f. 45, 46 (not f. 41, 42). 

' ' This species is well characterized by its thin pellucid tex- 
ture, globose form, abbreviated spire, and light brown color" 
(Baldwin). 

The type specimen which served for Mr. Baldwin's meas- 
urements and fig. 45 of his plate is drawn in fig. 13. It is an 
adult shell, white under a thin, very pale straw-colored cuticle, 
which is deciduous in a band below the suture, the first 3 
whorls being rather light brown and smooth. Though thin, 
it is not fragile, but moderately strong. The aperture is white 



AMASTBA, OAHU. 171 

within and the lip is strengthened by a narrow but distinct 
white rib within the edge. The columellar lamella is strong 
and subhorizontal, and there is an extremely narrow umbilical 
slit in all of the specimens (4) of the type lot. Consequent 
upon the angularity of the base, around the axis, the junc- 
tion of columellar and basal lips is somewhat spout-like. 

The other three shells are immature, wanting the lip-rib. 
One is colored like the type, but the other two are of a slightly 
transparent and dilute reddish-brown tint, the apical whorls 
much darker in one example. All three show traces of a few 
whitish or creamy spiral lines, at and above the periphery, 
and all are covered with a thin cuticle. The periphery is 
noticeably angular in front of the aperture in these immature 
shells, but hardly perceptibly so in the adult type specimen. 
The shortest shell measures, length 11.5, diam. 8.3 mm. 

The following form from the Main Range of Oahu ap- 
proaches pellucida so closely that I hardly see the way clear 
to separate the two forms as species, though I must admit the 
possibility of convergent evolution in this case. 

160. A. BREVIATA Baldwin. PI. 30, figs. 15, 17, 18. 

Shell a little more solid, reddish-chestnut, pale below the 
suture, behind the lip and around the perforation, and often 
encircled with interrupted creamy lines and bands, at and 
above the periphery. Aperture flesh-colored within ; lip very 
little thickened; otherwise as in A. pellucida'. Length 12.3, 
diam. 8 mm., whorls 5%. 

Oahu: Palolo and Halawa, a variety in Waimano. 

Amustra breviata BALDWIN, Proc. A. N. S. Phila., 1895, p. 
231, pi. 11, f. 41, 42. Achatinella breviana BALDWIN, Cata- 
logue, 1893, p. 8, name only. 

The type specimen is figured, figs. 17, 18. In some others 
of the type lot there are no hydrophanous markings. It is 
hardly distinguishable from A. pellucida, although Mr. Bald- 
win states that the animals differ. Some difference in pigmen- 
tation of the soft parts may reasonably be expected in -view 
of the variation in color of the shells. In stating that this 
species and A. pellucida are without epidermis, Mr. Baldwin 



172 AMASTRA, OAHU. 

was in error, for a thin cuticle exists, as in all the Metamastrse, 
though there is no dull or dark outer layer. 

A. p. breviata, while connecting with A. pellucida through 
various shells of intermediate shades of brown, is 'also, on the 
other hand, quite as closely connected with A. textilis. Typi- 
cally breviata is more obese than textilis, a little thinner, a 
trifle more roughly wrinkled, less glossy, and it often has 
hydrophanous bands; but I would not care to attempt the 
separation of a mixed lot. 

In a series from Waimano in coll. C. M. Cooke the color is 
rich red-brown, varying in intensity. One shell has an in- 
terrupted buff line near the suture, and a small yellow area 
at the axis, the others being one-colored. The shell is thinner 
than in typical breviata (pi. 30, fig. 15). 

Probably A. breviata will be found to range from Palolo 
to Waimano. In its characters and distribution it lies be- 
tween textilis and pellucida, though of course separated from 
the latter by the arid inter-montane belt. 

17. A. IBWINIANA Cooke. PI. 30, fig. 16. 

"The shell is minutely (though distinctly) perforate, dex- 
tral, globosely conical, with slightly concave outlines, thin, 
distinctly irregular and closely striate with lines of growth, 
not glossy, the upper whorls and the base of the last whorl 
light brown with a slightly yellowish tinge, the upper por- 
tion of the last whorl of a dark chestnut. Spire slightly con- 
cavely conic, apex acute. Suture simple, well impressed. 
Whorls 6%, the embryonic slightly swollen, the fourth and 
fifth slightly flatter, the last convex, tumid, with an almost 
obsolete angle at the periphery, tapering towards the base. 
Aperture rather large, bluish within, in. the form of a slightly 
oblique sector of a circle, very slightly oblique. Columella 
straight ; columellar fold almost median', rather large, thin and 
slightly oblique. Outer margin of the lip thin, slightly thick- 
ened within, erect, regularly curved, forming an angle with 
the base of the columella ; eolumellar margin thin, reflexed 
above, the umbilicus. Umbilicus minute, semicircular. Length 
11.2, diam. 7.2, length of ap. (diagonal) 5.9 mm." (Cooke). 



AMASTRA, OAHU. 173 

Oahu: Summit of Lanihuli, at 2700 ft (Spalding). Type 
no. 16633, Bishop Museum. 

Amastra irwiniana COOKE, Occas. Papers B. P. Bishop Mus., 
iii, p. 17 [213], f. 3 (July 24, 1908). 

"This species is undoubtedly related to A. breviata Bald- 
win. It is, however, smaller, with a more acute and slightly 
concave spire, and the arrangement of its color is different. 

"A second specimen has the following measurements: 
length 10.8, diam. 6.9 mm." (Cooke). 

Alt. Lanihuli stands between the heads of Nuuanu and 
Kalihi valleys, at the head of Kapalama. The locality is 
therefore within the area recorded for A. breviata. The em- 
bryonic whorls are much more sharply striate than in A. bre- 
viata, more resembling fresh specimens of A. cornea, which 
also agrees in the shape of the spire. A. irwiniana, here fig- 
ured from the type specimen, seems rather isolated in its 
group. Dedicated to Mr. Irwin Spalding. 

18. A. ALBOLABEIS (Newcomb). PL 30, figs. 21, 22, 23. 

' ' Shell conically ovate ; apex acute ; whorls 6, rounded, not 
margined ; aperture ovate ; columella short, plicately toothed ; 
lip semilunar, thickened and white ; color dark umber with a 
yellow sutural line; within bluish white. Length fourteen- 
twentieths, diam 6^-twentieths of an inch" (Newc.). 

Oahu: W-aianae (Newcomb); Lihue (Gulick); Kalihi and 
Kapalama (Baldwin) ; Nuuanu (C. M. Cooke). Co-types in 
coll. Newcomb and British Museum. 

Achatinella albo-labris NEWC., P. Z. S., 1853, p. 149, pi. 24, 
f. 56. A. albolabris Newc., PFB., Monogr., iv, 556. BALD- 
WIN, Catalogue, p. 8. Achatinella nucleola Gld., REEVE, 
Conch. Icon., v, pi. 5, f. 39 (1850), not of Gould, 

This species certainly inhabits both of the Oahuan ranges. 
It was first taken in the Waianae range, but it has also been 
taken in some numbers in the eastern range, in the adjacent 
valleys Kalihi, Kapalama and Nuuanu. Numerous specimens 
from Newcomb, Gulick and Cooke are before us. 

The shell is solid, nearly or quite imperforate, covered with 
a thin, glossy, yellow cuticle, the calcareous layer below it 



174 AMASTRA, OAHU. 

being reddish-brown in the spire or throughout, or the last 
whorl may be almost white under the cuticle. The general 
tone is therefore quite variable, but the pale yellow tint gen- 
erally predominates on the last whorl. Sometimes it is varie- 
gated with narrow spiral bands of olive-yellow and brighter 
yellow. These approach the reticulata type of coloring. 
There is almost always a narrow pale band below the suture. 
The embryonic whorls are very finely, rather sharply striate. 
the last one generally having the striae interrupted by spiral 
lines. The later whorls have coarse wrinkle-striaa, usually 
cut by spiral incised lines, but these may be very weak, or 
even scarcely perceptible. The interior is white or pale flesh- 
tinted; and the lip has a strong white callous rib within. 
The parietal callous is thick and opaque. Lihue shells (fig. 
23) measure: 

Length 16.1, diam. 9, aperture 8 mm. ; 6% whorls. 

Length 13.8, diam. 8.2, aperture 7 mm. ; 5^2 whorls. 

In Nuuanu shells (pi. 30, figs. 21, 22) the cuticle is stronger 
than in those from the Waianae range ; color a rather bright 
yellow, sometimes with interrupted or stippled whitish 
bands ; upper whorls of the spire dull red-brown as usual. A 
shell normal in shape and a very long one are figu-red. 

A. albolabris is related to the much darker and smoother A. 
textilis, but it also has characters of the more typical forms 
of the reticulata series, as shown by the occasional develop- 
ment of a variegated coloration, the spiral incised lines and 
rather strong striation of the later whorls, reminding one of 
A. venusta, which is perhaps its nearest relative. 

19. A. SUBROSTRATA (Pfeiffer). 

"Shell imperf orate, dextral, ovate-conic, solid, irregularly 
striate, a little shining; brown, clouded with tawny. Spire 
swollen-conic, the apex rather acute. Whorls 6, the first 4 
scarcely convex, the last rounded, about two-fifths the total 
length. Columellar lamella nearly basal, acute, oblique. 
Aperture slightly oblique, irregularly semieiliptieal, angular 
at the columella, as if extended into a sort of beak. Peri- 
stome unexpanded, white-lipped within, the right margin 



AMASTRA, OAHU. 175 

somewhat spreading, columellar margin little dilated, adnate. 
Length 15, diam. 8 mm." (Pfr.). 

Sandwich Is. (Frick, in Cuming coll.) ; Oahu (Hartman). 

Achatinella subrostrata PFB., P. Z. S., 1859, p. 31; Monogr., 
vi, p. 181. L[abiella] subrostrata Pfr., HARTMAN, Proc. A. 
X. S. Phila., 1888, p. 43. Amastra subrostrata Pfr., SYKES, 
Fauna Hawaiiensis, p. 345. 

Pfeiffer remarks: "related to A. albolabris Newc." Hart- 
man, who obtained specimens in London, states that it ' ' equals 
albolabris Newc., and is an Amastra," though he gives it 
place in his list as a separate species of Labiella. Mr. Sykes, 
who has seen the type, writes: "It may possibly be an elon- 
gate variety [of A. albolabris], but I doubt it." It has not 
been figured. 

20. A. SERICEA (Pfeiffer). 

"Shell imperf orate, dextral, ovate-conic, solid, rather 
rudely striate, minutely granulate-decussate by spiral striae, 
silky, deep brown ; spire convexly conic, rather acute ; whorls 
nearly 6, convex, paler at the suture, the last two-fifths the 
total length, whitish around the columella, columella provided 
with a short, compressed, oblique lamina. Aperture oblique, 
elliptical; peristome simple, unexpanded, the right margin 
nearly semicircular, joined in an angle with the calloused 
columella. Length 17, diam. 9y 3 mm." (Pfr.). 

Sandwich Is. (Frick, in Cuming coll.). 

Achatinella sericea PFR., P. Z. S., 1859, p. 31; Mono- 
graphia, vi, 179. Amastra sericea Pfr., PSE., P. Z. S., 1869, 
p. 650. SYKES, Fauna Hawaiiensis, p. 343. 

This species seems to be known from Pfeiffer 's description 
only, though Mr. Baldwin has recorded it with doubt from 
AVaialua, Oahu. The rude striation, spiral striae and angular 
junction of basal lip and columella indicate that the species 
belongs to the group of A. transversalis, having perhaps some 
resemblance to large, conic and dark forms of A. ret-iculata. 
Compare also A. davisiana. The type seems to be lost, as 
Mr. Sykes remarks that it is unknown to him. 



176 AMASTRA, OAHU. 

21. A. DAVISIANA Gooke. PL 31, fig. 1. 

' ' The shell is perforate, dextral, subconic, with slightly con- 
vex outlines, obtusely and faintly angular at the periphery, 
with a somewhat flattened base, rather solid, nearly smooth, 
distinctly and almost regularly striate just below the sutures, 
slightly glossy, -dark reddish-brown, with an indistinct broad 
dark band just above the periphery and continued on the 
spire just above the sutures. Spire almost conic, apex very 
obtuse. Suture minutely crenulate, scarcely impressed, yel- 
lowish along its edge. Whorls 6%, the embryonic rather large 
(for the genus), the rest increasing slowly and very regu- 
larly, almost flat, the last descending slightly near the aper- 
ture. Aperture small, subquadrate, oblique, bluish within. 
Inner margin of the columella slightly diagonal, outer margin 
nearly straight; columellar fold nearly basal, strong, thick, 
slightly oblique. Outer margin of lip thin, slightly thickened 
within, nearly straight above, curved below, forming some- 
thing of an angle with the base of the columella; columellar 
margin thin, refiexed above the umbilicus. Umbilicus small, 
semicircular. Length 16.5, diam. 9.2, length of ap. (diag- 
onal) 7.0mm." (Cooke). 

Oahu: About a mile from the summit of Konahuanui 
(Davis) ; summit of Konahuanui (Spalding). Type no. 16,- 
454, Bishop Museum. 

Amastra davisiana C. M. COOKE, Occasional Papers Bernice 
Pauahi Bishop Museum, iii, p. 19 [215], fig. 1 (July 24, 
1908) . 

1 ' I know of no species to which this is at all related. It is 
entirely distinct from any of the other species of Amastra. 
The blunt apex and very regularly coiled and almost flat 
whorls are very peculiar. The single type specimen 1 was orig- 
inally collected by Mr. Elmer Davis, about a mile from the 
summit of Konahuanui. Additional specimens were found 
later by Mr. Spalding at the summit. These are smaller, 
slightly darker, and have about % less whorls. One of these 
(no. 16453, Bishop Museum) measures: length 14.4, diam. 
8.5mm." (Cooke). 

A specimen from the type locality is figured, length 15.5, 



AMASTRA, OAHU. 177 

diam. 9 mm. While in some respects it resembles A. decorti- 
cata and inflata, the texture, short whorls, obtuse summit and 
downward-bent columellar lamella are features more like the 
reticulata group. Compare also A. sericea Pfr. It is an iso- 
lated species. The band mentioned in the description is not 
invariable, the shell figured having the last two whorls of a 
rich chestnut color, darkest at the base. Under the lens, fine, 
superficial and close spiral striae may be traced on the last 
whorl. 

22. A. THAANUMI n. sp. PL 38, figs. 1, 2. 

The shell is sinistral, imperforate, moderately solid, oblong, 
having a somewhat silky luster. Spire widely conic with 
somewhat convex outlines and rather obtuse summit. Em- 
bryonic whorls marked with faint, very fine growth-striae 
only; later whorls distinctly striate obliquely, the striae fine 
and somewhat thread-like. Upper whorls purplish-brown 
with irregular whitish streaks, the last two whorls covered 
with a rich dark chestnut cuticle, yellowish next the suture, 
and deciduous in front of the aperture, showing a glossy 
light green under layer. Aperture rather oblique, livid or 
bluish white within, with a whitish callous rim within the 
dark-edged lip. Columella short, bearing a strong, trian- 
gular, downward-bent lamella. Parietal callus thin. 

Fig. 1. Length 14.6, diam. 9.5, aperture 7 mm. ; 5% whorls. 

Fig. 2. Length 14.9, diam. 9.5, aperture 7.3 mm. ; 6 whorls. 

Oahu: Kaaawa (D. Thaanum). 

Conspicuous for its sinistral coil. The only living speci- 
men found is figured. Several dead shells, similar to fig. 2, 
were taken. These when wet are dull reddish-brown above 
the periphery, paler or whitish below it, the apex dark purple. 
By the character of its cuticle this species resembles some 
forms of A. tristis, but the obtuse summit and short, deep 
curve below the columellar lamella declare it a member of the 
reticulata series. Even if dextral, it would stand isolated 
from other known species. Named in honor of Mr. D. Thaa- 
num. Co-types to be placed in the Bishop Museum. 



178 AMASTRA, OAHU. 

23. A. SOLID A Pease. 

"Shell dextral, imperf orate, thick, long-ovate, whorls 6, 
convex, the last feebly inflated, more rarely rounded-angulate 
at the base, not quite half the length of the shell. Aperture 
broadly elliptical, subangular at the base. Columellar fold 
thick, subbasal, nearly transverse. Peristome rugose, cal- 
loused, the margins joined by a thick callus. Chestnut-brown, 
the apex red-brown, aperture whitish. Length 15, diam. 8 
mm. 

"The peculiar callous deposit around the aperture distin- 
guishes this species from its congeners" (Pease). 

Oahu (Pease). Type in Pease coll., Mus. Comp. Zoology. 

Amastra solida PSE., Journ. de Conchyl., 1869, p. 173. 

An unfigured species of uncertain systematic position, not 
seen by us, and equally unknown to other authors. 

24. A.VETUSTA Baldwin. PI. 29, figs. 16, 17. 

The shell is minutely rimate, oblong-conic, rather thick and 
solid. Being known from fossil examples only, it is whitish 
and without cuticle. Spire slightly conic, a little contracted 
towards the subacute apex. Whorls 61/3, but slightly convex. 
First half-whorl smooth; next two whorls of the embryonic 
shell are sculptured with fine, deeply engraved, slightly 
arched longitudinal striae. Subsequent whorls rudely sculp- 
tured with rather coarse, strong and close longitudinal wrin- 
kles, which are cut by a few irregularly placed spiral lines, as 
if scratched on a soft surface. The aperture is hardly ob- 
lique, small, ovate. Outer lip is obtuse, strongly thickened 
within. Columelk bears <a subhorizontal lamella, rather small 
in front view, but very strong within, as seen in an oblique 
view in the mouth. The parietal callus is heavy, especially 
at the edge. 

Length 13.3, diam. 8 mm. ; length of aperture with peri- 
tome 61/2 mm. 

Length 14, diaon. 8 mm. ; aperture 6y 2 mm. 

Oahu : Fossil at Punchbowl Hill, Honolulu. 

Amastra vetusta BALDWIN, Proc. A. N. S. Phila., 1895, p. 
233, pi. 11, f. 50. 



AM ASTRA, OAHU. 179 

' ' This species was also discovered by Prof. Lyons. It occurs 
near the base of Punchbowl Hill, at an altitude of twenty or 
thirty feet above sea-level, in a conglomerate of volcanic tufa 
and sand cemented together with carbonate of lime. Prof. 
Lyons thinks the shells must have lived near the spot where 
they are now found embedded in the rock, as there is no satis- 
factory way to account for their transportation from any dis- 
tance. If so, the conditions of climate when the shells nour- 
ished in that locality must have been quite different from 
those of the present time" (Baldwin}. 

A. vetusta shows the thickening of shell and rude sculpture 
usual in land shells living in arid places with little shade or 
cover. It is related to A. transversalis and A. undata, both 
of which are thinner shells, also differing in shape. It is not 
more "primitive" than the allied recent forms. The type is 
figured, coll. A. N. S. P. 

25. A. BETICULATA (Newcomb). PI. 29, figs. 2, 3, 4. 

"Shell conically ovate; whorls 6, much rounded; suture 
moderate except at the junction of the last whorl, which is 
deep. Aperture small, ovate ; columella short, with a plicate 
tooth, nearly transverse. Color brown or chestnut with white 
transverse lines and markings laid onto the epidermis in 
various patterns like lace-work or embroidery. Length twelve- 
twentieths, width seven-twentieths of an' inch" [15x8.75 mm.] 
(jfewc.). 

Oahu: Waianae (Newcomb); Lihue (Gulick) ; Mt. Kaala 
(Thwing). Co-types in coll. Newcomb and British Museum. 

Achatinella reticulata NEWC., P. Z. S., 1853, p. 148, pi. 24, 
f. 54 (1854). PFR., Monogr., iv, 544. BALDWIN, Catalogue, 
p. 9. THWING, Orig. Descr., p. 159. Achatinella conspersa 
PFR., P. Z. S., 1855, p. 7, pi. 30, f. 26; Monogr., iv, 544. 

Newcomb 's type was banded below the periphery, like fig. 3. 
The embryonic whorls appear smooth under an ordinary 
lens. Subsequent whorls have fine, unequal growth-wrinkles 
which are strongest below the suture. The aperture is but 
slightly oblique, flesh-tinted within. There is a strong white 
rib within the lip. The columellar lamella is well developed. 



180 AMASTRA, OAHU. 

The ground-color varies from light olivaceous-brown to red- 
dish-brown, and is variously marked with white flecks and 
streaks in spiral or irregular patterns, sufficiently shown in 
the figures. Specimens from Lihue are figured; three meas- 
ure: 

Length 13.1, diam. 8.7, aperture 7 mm. ; whorls 5%. 

Length 13.8, diam. 8.1, aperture 7 mm. 

Length 12.8, diam. 8.7, aperture 6.5 mm. 

25a. A. r. conspersa Pfeiffer. PI. 29, fig. 1. 

" Shell imperf orate, dextral, conic-ovate, rather thin, 
closely striate ; deep brown, bespread with dirty- whitish spots 
forming angulated streaks. Spire convexly conic, the apex 
acute ; suture simple. Whorls 6, the upper ones flattened, the 
penultimate more convex, the last about three-sevenths the 
total length, rounded. Aperture little oblique, sinuate-ellip- 
tical. Columellar fold subbasal, compressed. Peristome sim- 
ple, unexpanded; no columellar margin. Length 18, diam. 
10.5, oblique alt. of aperture 9, width 5 mm." (Pfr.). 

Sandwich Is. (Frick, in Cuming coll.). 

Achatinella conspersa PFR., P. Z. S., 1855, p. 7, pi. 30, f. 
26; Monogr., iv, 544. THWING, Reprints Orig. Descript., p. 
159. 

Unknown to us. Pfeiffer 's description and figure are 
copied. It seems to differ from reticulata only by the larger 
size, and it may possibly be identical with orientalis. We 
follow Newcomb in subordinating the form to A. reticulata. 
Mr. Thwing reports conspersa from near Lihue, remarking 
that it approaches A. reticulata. His translation of Pfeiffer's 
description of the colors is faulty. 

256. A. reticulata dispersa n. subsp. PI. 29, figs. 5, 6, 7. 

Dark chestnut with a columellar yellow patch, profusely 
variegated with light yellow or white, in broken streaks, 
stippled spiral lines or short vermicular spots, frequently 
absent below the periphery, or rarely markings may be absent. 
Last whorl sometimes having a light brown ground. Spire 
short, obtuse, with very convex outlines. Embryonic whorls 



AMASTRA, OAHU. 181 

lower and broader than in reticulata, smooth. Aperture flesh- 
colored within, with a white submarginal callus. Columellar 
fold not so strong and horizontal as in reticulata. 

Length 17, diam. 9.7, aperture 9 mm.; 5% whorls (type, 
fig. 5). 

Length 15.5, diam. 9, aperture 8.1 mm. ; 5% whorls. 

Length 15.9, diam. 10, aperture 9 mm. ; 5% whorls. 

Oahu: Waianae (Baldwin, Cooke). 

The summit is remarkably blunt in this form, and the out- 
lines of the spire typically far more convex than in A. reticle 
lata, yet there are some specimens intermediate in this fea- 
ture. The axis is imperforate in all the adult shells seen. It 
is an extremely variable form. Two "dead" shells in the 
Boston Society collection from Waianae (out of no. 1759 
Cooke coll.) showing extremes of contour in adult individuals, 
measure : 

Length 18.7, diam. 10.1, aperture 9 mm. ; 6 whorls. 

Length 13, diam. 8.2, aperture 7 mm. ; 5% whorls. 

25c. A reticulata orientalis Hyatt & Pilsbry, n. subsp. PI. 
29, figs. 8, 9, 10, 11. 

This includes the shells commonly referred to reticulata 
which occur in the valleys of the eastern range. These differ 
from true reticulata in being somewhat stouter and in having 
blunter apices due to the more rapid widening of the shells. 
Some shells, however, show- apices almost as sharp as in true 
A. reticulata. Some have a uniform brown pattern, but most 
of the shells 'are reticulated or flecked with interrupted light 
bands as in reticulata, and are smooth in texture. There is 
no correlation between the colors and the shapes of the shells. 
The columellar fold is very strong and subhorizontal ; lip-rib 
thick. Apical sculpture as in A. reticulata. 

Length 15, diam. 8.1 mm. ; whorls 5%. 

Length 13.5, diam. 9 mm. ; whorls 5%. 

Oahu, eastern range: Wahiawa (Gulick), types no. 92641 
A. N. S. P.; Kahana (C. M. Cooke coll.). 

This may possibly be A. conspersa Pfr., but the figure of 
that shows a more pointed apex. A. r. dispersa has not quite 



182 AMASTRA, OAHU. 

so strong a columellar fold 'as orientalis, but it differs in little 
except geographic range. A specimen in coll. C. M. Cooke 
shows that this form extends over the crest of the range into 
Kahana valley. 

25d. A. reticulata errans n. subsp. PI. 29, figs. 12, 13. 

Shell with the general shape of A. reticulata, but thinner, 
less obese, with thinner or sometimes scarcely any thickening 
within the lip or on the columella, aside from the lamella, 
which is thin but broad. Axis rimate in two out of three ex- 
amples. Color chestnut of varying shades, with spiral lines 
of yellow spots, sometimes many (fig. 13), sometimes very few 
or scarcely noticeable. 

Length 12.2, diam. 7.3, aperture 6.5 mm. ; whorls 5!/4. . 

Length 13, diam. 7.5, aperture 7 mm. ; whorls 5%. 

Waimano. Types no. 1133 C. M. Cooke coll. ; also Kahana. 

A small race, the thin texture of which is probably due to 
insufficient supply of lime. It occurred with a thin form, of 
A. breviata. Two shells from Halawa, on the north side of 
the range some distance northwest of Waimano, are similar 
but slightly more solid. One is stippled with buff on an olive- 
yellow ground, the other red-brown with indistinct contin- 
uous lighter lines. 

26. A. COOKEI n. sp. PL 38, figs. 4, 5. 

The shell is narrowly perforate, oblong-conic, moderately 
solid, glossy, without trace of dull or deciduous cuticle. 
Whorls very weakly convex; outlines of the spire somewhat 
convex, becoming straight near the apex. Embryonic whorls 
faintly, finely striate (somewhat worn), following whorls 
marked with slight growth-lines, the last two having short, 
irregularly developed folds below the suture. The spire is 
reddish-brown; penultimate and last whorls profusely varie- 
gated with short, forwardly-descending yellow markings and 
oblique streaks along growth-lines, and becoming brown be- 
hind the lip. Two imperfect bands of the dark ground-color 
are visible. Aperture small, purplish within, the outer lip 
thin. Columellar margin brownish, expanded above, bearing 



AMASTRA, OAHU. 183 

a very strong but thin subhorizontal lamella. Parietal callus 
thin. Length 16.7, diam. 8, length of aperture 6.5 mm.; 7 
whorls. 

Oahu: Moanalua ( Irwin Spalding) . 

This species has the coloration and texture of A. reticulata, 
but is notable for its slender contour, rather narrow summit 
and small aperture. The pattern will probably be found 
variable, as in allied species. Type to be deposited in the 
Bishop Museum; collected by Mr. Irwin Spalding and re- 
ceived through Dr. C. Montague Cooke, whose name the 
species bears. 

27. A. TRANSVERSALIS (Pfeiffer). PL 31, figs. 2, 3, 4, 5. 

"Shell subrimate, ovate-conic, solid, closely striate, some- 
what decussated with distant, spiral, impressed lines; black- 
ish-red, covered with a tawny-gray epidermis interrupted in 
spots and bands. Spire inflated- conic, acute. Whorls 6, 
slightly convex, the last two-fifths the total length. Aperture 
a little oblique, sinuate-oval. Columellar fold lamelliform, 
subbasal, almost transverse. Peristome unexpanded, whitish 
within or delicately lipped with rose. Length 12, diam. 6, 
aperture 5y 3 x3 mm." (Pfr.) . 

Oahu (Frick, in Cuming coll.). Southeastern end of the 
main range in Keawaawa (Baldwin, Gulick), and Kuliouou 
valleys (Gulick). 

Achatinella transversalis PFR., P. Z. S. London, 1855, p. 
204; Monographia Hel. Viv., iv, 551. 

The embryonic whorls are dark red-brown, very densely 
and finely striate vertically, and after the first whorl are de- 
cussated with very fine spiral lines. The last whorl has irreg- 
ular vertical striae, cut by incised spirals, which may be deep, 
strong and numerous or few and weak, sometimes so lightly 
marked that mere vestiges may be traced with difficulty. The 
ground-color is a rich dark red-brown, more or less covered 
by the whitish tracery which is wonderfully varied in pat- 
tern. Rarely the ground is a very light tint of brown, on 
which the creamy markings show but faintly. The interior is 
ordinarily dark flesh-colored, with a wide and moderately 



184 AMASTRA, OAHU. 

thick border within the lip. The axis is rimate or imperfor- 
ate. Specimens from Keawaawa measure : 

Length 13.2, diam. 6.1, aperture 5.8 mm. ; 6 whorls. 

Length 12, diam. 6, aperture 5 mm. ; 6 whorls. 

Length 12, diam. 6.5, aperture 5.2 mm. ; 5% whorls. 

Length 10.5, diam. 6.1, aperture 5 mm. ; 5% whorls. 

By its embryonic sculpture, coloration and the spiral in- 
cised lines, this beautiful little snail is related to A. undata 
Baldw. It is not very closely allied to A. reticulata Newc., 
with which Newcomb united it. One of us (Hyatt) consid- 
ered transversalis to belong to Amastrella, near ~brevis, pulla 
and pusilla. Figured from Keawaawa examples. As the 
type locality is unknown, we may consider this place as such. 
It is said to be now extinct. 

28. A. CAPUTADAMANTIS n. sp. PL 30, figs. 19, 20. 

The shell is cylindric-oblong, rather thin, the penultimate 
whorl nearly equal to the last in diameter ; spire consequently 
bulging below, then rapidly tapering in a short cone. The 
surface is finely striate axially, the strige cut on the last two 
whorls by incised spiral lines (sometimes weak or nearly 
effaced). Whorls 5% to 6, slightly convex, the last com- 
pressed laterally. Aperture small, semioval, angular at both 
ends. Outer lip obtuse, thickened within ; columellar lamella 
small, situated near the base. Columellar lip reflexed and 
adnate, the axis imperf orate or having a short, narrow crevice. 
Being fossil, the shells are white and chalky. 

Length 14, diam. 7.1, aperture 6 mm. 

Length 14.5, diam. 7.3, aperture 6 mm. 

Length 13.8, diam. 6.3, aperture 5.8 mm. 

Oahu: Diamond Head, near Honolulu, in a Pleistocene or 
Holocene deposit. Types no. 104687 A. N. S. P., collected by 
C. Montague Cooke, Jr. 

Undoubtedly a member of the A. textilis and transversalis 
group, but much less robust than the cylindric forms of the 
recent fauna and with a smaller aperture. It is more cylin- 
dric than A. transversalis, which occurs farther east and on 
the main range. 



AMASTRA, OAHU. 185 

29. A. UNDATA Baldwin. PI. 29, fig. 14. 

The shell is imperf orate, globose-ovate, moderately solid; 
dark reddish-brown, with broad, irregular, light yellow stripes 
on the last two whorls, zigzag below the periphery, more or 
less confluent above it, and preceded by scattered whitish 
spots and dashes on one or two earlier whorls. Spire 
straightly conic, the whorls but slightly convex; embryonic 
shell rather sharply, finely striate; later whorls deeply and 
finely striate, the strice cut by several incised spiral lines in 
the peripheral region and above it. Aperture subvertical, 
flesh-colored within; a white callous rim within the lip. 
Columellar fold broad and subhorizontal. Length 19, diam. 
12.1, length of aperture 10.2 mm. ; 6 whorls. 

Oahu: Nuuanu (Baldwin); Moanalua (C. Montague 
Cooke). 

Amastra undata BALDW., Proc. A. N. S. Phila., 1895, p. 
230. pi. 11, f. 39. 

This species, here described and figured from the type, no. 
65722 A. N. S. P., according to Mr. Baldwin "is very rare 
and local in its distribution. Its principal features are the 
prominent rib-striae and the beautiful undulating markings of 
light and dark chestnut-brown." The strong spirals cutting 
the rib-strias are also very characteristic. It differs from A. 
reticulata by the sharp striation of the embryonic shell, etc. 
The Moanalua specimen (Cooke coll.) agrees fully with the 
type from Nuuanu. A young one, also in the Cooke collec- 
tion, is very broad, and angular peripherally. The striped 
coloration commences at the beginning of the third whorl. 
The embryonic whorls are not well described by the term 
"sulcated," used by Mr. Baldwin. In the terminology used 
in this monograph they would be termed sharply and finely 
striate, but on the last embryonic whorl there is a low, indis- 
tinct undulation under the fine striation. 

30. A. BADIA Baldwin. PI. 29, figs. 15, 18, 19. 

"Shell dextral, imperforate, rather thin, elongately ovate- 
conic; surface shining, sculptured with delicate, rather close 
thread-like rib-striae in the direction of the growth-lines; em- 



186 AMASTRA, OAHU. 

bryonic whorls radiately sulcated. Color dark chestnut-brown 
with light brown zigzag or undulating lines and markings. 
Whorls 6%, slightly convex; suture moderately impressed. 
Aperture oval, a trifle oblique, livid white within, exhibiting 
the brown color of the exterior ; peristome acute, very lightly 
thickened within ; columella white, flexuous, abruptly termin- 
ating in a thin, slightly arched lamellar plait. Length 20%, 
diam. 10% nun." (Baldwin). 

Oahu: Ewa (Baldwin) ; Moanalua, Aeia and Waimano (C. 
M. Cooke) . 

Amastra badia BALDW., Proc. A. N. S. Phila., 1895, p. 230, 
pi. 11, f . 40. 

In color, pattern and sculpture of the later whorls this 
form resembles A. undata. Whether there are spiral decus- 
sating lines on the last whorl of the type specimen was not 
stated by Baldwin, but they are present in one specimen ex- 
amined from Moanalua, wanting in another. In those from 
Waimano the spirals are either very faint, hardly noticeable, 
or wanting. A. badia differs from undata by its embryonic 
sculpture and the less obese, more ovate shape. 

The columellar lamella penetrates two whorls. The axis is 
imperforate in the adult and later neanic stages, but in the 
half -grown shell there is a rather widely open umbilicus, 
width 'about 1 mm. 

The embryonic whorls (pi. 29, fig. 19) are much more 
strongly sculptured than in A. undata. After the smooth 
initial half -whorl, coarse vertical ribs appear, changing to an 
irregular coarse malleation on the last half of the second 
Whorl. Then short, rather coarse protractive ribs appear 
below the suture, while above the lower suture there is another 
system of smaller, retractive folds, the two systems interfer- 
ing about the middle of the whorl. The third whorl has fine 
growth-lines only, and the color-pattern appears as a few 
white spots and irregular stripes. The ground-color of adults 
is dark red, upon which there are yellow streaks or spots. In 
some shells from Aeia the last whorl has a yellow suffusion, 
faintly mottled with dark. The shell is quite thin. 

Fig. 15 is a copy of Baldwin's type figure; figs. 18, 19 are 
immature shells from Waimano. Type in Baldwin coll. 



AMASTRA, OAHU. 187 

Series of A. cornea. 

Acutely or acuminately ovate Amastras, with the spire 
slender, attenuate, being more or less contracted near the 
apex; embryonic whorls very finely striate vertically and 
usually with traces of spirals (pi. 31, fig. 12). Cuticle thin, 
persistant, the last whorl without a dull outer or deciduous 
coat. Columellar lamella subhorizontal. 

Rather small, long-spired derivatives of the reticulata 
series, two species occurring in the Waianae range, two others, 
rare and local, in the eastern range. 

It is quite possible that the eastern species are divergent 
forms of the reticulata series, related to transversalis, textilis, 
irwiniana, etc., and not directly allied to those of the Waianae 
range. I am unable to settle this point. 

Key to Species. 

a. Lip strengthened by a strong white internal rim; spire 
brown, the last whorl opaque- whitish, often malleate ; Wai- 
anae range. A. crassilabrum, no. 32. 
a 1 . Lip thin or very slightly thickened. 

6. Spire rapidly tapering from the last whorl. 

c. Shell brown, or with the last whorl pale ; pari- 
etal callus thin; Waianae Mts. 

A. cornea, no. 31. 

c 1 . Shell olivaceous; parietal callus thick; east- 
ern range. ' A. (emulator, no. 34. 
6 1 . Penult, whorl rather large, the spire wider below; 
fossil, eastern range. A. subcornea, no. 33. 

31. A. CORNEA (Newcomb). PI. 31, figs. 9, 10, 12, 13, 14. 

' ' Shell irregularly, acutely conical, the apex pointed ; last 
whorl inflated ; thin, corneous, with minute longitudinal striae ; 
whorls 7, rounded; aperture subovate; lip thin, translucent; 
columella straight, white, and armed with a transverse plaited 
tooth. Color uniform dark horn, columella and tooth white. 
Length ten-twentieths, diam. five- twentieths of an inch. Hab- 
itat 1" (Newc.}. 

Oahu: Lihue (Gulick) ; below Kaala (Perkins) ; Kaala and 



188 AMASTRA, OAHU. 

Waianae (C. M. Cooke); Waianae (Baldwin). Co- types in 
coll. Newcomb and British Museum. 

Achatinella cornea NEWC., P. Z. S., 1853, p. 141, pi. 23,' f . 
32. Amastra c., SYKES, Fauna Hawaiiensis, p. 335. 

This rather thin shell has the concavely tapering spire and 
somewhat bulbous last whorl of A. crassilabrum. The convex 
embryonic 2y 2 Whorls show an elegant sculpture of extremely 
fine, sharp and close longitudinal striae. The later and last 
whorls are rather lightly marked with growth-wrinkles, but 
are not malleated as A. crassilabrum usually is. The cuticle 
is rather glossy, with no dull outer layer. Color brown or 
slightly reddish-brown, sometimes having a yellow border be- 
low the last turn of the suture. Newcomb 's figure, as well as 
specimens from him we have seen, show that he was rather 
wide of the mark in calling this species "corneous." The lip 
has only a thin callous rim within, and the parietal callus is 
also thin. Some shells are rather openly perforate, others 
being imperforate. Length 13, diain. 7, aperture 5.9 mm.; 
6% whorls. The smallest adult seen is 11 mm. long. 

In a series from Waianae (Baldwin) the last whorl in old 
shells is light yellow with some brownish streaks; the penul- 
timate whorl has a yellow subsutural line, the spire being 
otherwise rather dark brown. The aperture has the thin lip 
of cornea, with hardly any internal callous rim. Specimens 
measure : 

Length 17.5, diam. 8.5 mm. ; whorls 7%. 

Pig. 14. Length 17.5, diam. 8 mm. ; whorls 7.%. 

Fig. 13. Length 16, diam. 7.9 mm. ; whorls 7. 

An embryo from one of this lot (pi. 31, fig. 12) is long, 
rimate, with the periphery merely subangular, and the colu- 
mellar fold very weak and oblique. 

The shells from Kaala in C. M. Cooke collection are uni- 
form dark red-brown, typical in shape. 

A lot of three shells from Waianae in the Cooke coll. have 
the spire very light brown, last whorl light olivaceous-yellow- 
ish. One of these is figured, pi. 31, fig. 10. 



AMASTRA, OAHU. 189 

32. A. CRASSILABRUM (Newcomb). PL 31, figs. 6, 7, 8. 

The shell is acuminately ovate, solid ; the embryonic whorls 
are purple-brown tipped with white, spire brown, last whorl 
opaque, white or cream- white. The spire has slightly concave 
outlines, being slender above. The embryonic whorls are 
quite convex and are very finely striate, generally worn 
smooth in adults ; subsequent whorls of the spire marked with 
fine, irregular growth-lines only ; the last whorl generally mal- 
leated throughout, or only in the last half. Aperture oblique, 
white within. Peristome somewhat obtuse, with a light brown 
edge, and bordered by a strong callous rib within. Baso- 
columellar junction somewhat spout-like. Columellar lamella 
strong. Parietal callus rather thick, subtransparent. Axis 
rimate or closed. 

Length 14.5, diam. 7.8, aperture 6.5 nun.; 6% whorls. 
(Lihue.) 

Length 15, diam. 8, aperture 7 mm. ; 6% whorls. (Lihue.) 

Length 12.5, diam. 6.7, aperture 5.9 mm.; 6 whorls. 
(Lihue.) 

Length 15, diam. 7.5 mm. ; whorls 6 (Newcomb) . 

Oahu: Waianae (Newcomb, Baldwin); Lihue (Gulick) ; 
near Mt. Kaala (Thwing). Co- types in coll. Newcomb and 
British Museum. 

Achatinella crassilabrum NEWC., P. Z. S., 1853, p. 141, pi. 
23, f. 31 (1854). THWING, Orig. Descriptions, etc., p. 157. 

A very distinct, easily recognized species. The brown color 
of the spire often extends over the front of the last whorl. 
There is generally a light line just above the suture on the 
penult, whorl. Many specimens from two localities, including 
specimens from Newcomb, show but little variation. The re- 
lated A. cornea differs in the color and sculpture of the last 
whorl. Very rarely traces of spiral incised striaB are visible 
in recent specimens. They are rather well developed in fossil 
specimens from Waianae in Dr. Cooke's collection. These 
shells also have the outer lip very thick, like A. vetusta Baldw. 

33. A. SUBCORNEA Hyatt and Pilsbry, n. sp. PL 31, fig. 11. 
This is a sub fossil shell smaller than cornea, but with a 



190 AMASTRA, OAHU. 

similar attenuated and biconcave outline near the apex. It is 
similar to Leptachatina in the aspect of the shell owing to the 
rapid growth of the three last volutions. The apex, however, 
has not the blunted aspect of Leptachatina, nor the dispro- 
portionate rate of growth between the nepionic and neanic 
stages observable in that genus. The aperture is narrow 
owing 'to the 'contraction of the last volution. The columella 
is perforated, but the opening is not large and is almost closed 
in some shells. The surface has coarse ridges of growth. The 
nepionic stage has fine, transverse ridges of growth. The 
characters in all respects are intermediate between cornea and 
those of the more primitive shells of the Brevis series on the 
island of Oahu and make it highly probable that this is a con- 
necting species. 

Oa.hu : Fossil, near the base of Round Top, towards Rocky 
Hill, where the Manoa road enters the valley back of Punahou. 
Type no. 1749 C. M. Cooke coll. ; also 104689 A. N. S. P., and 
in Boston Soc. coll. no. 13397. 

Hyatt's description is given above, and one of the types is 
figured. The non-impressed suture and the sculpture are 
other points of agreement between this species and A. cornea, 
from which sub cornea differs chiefly by the more prominent 
penultimate whorl, which gives the spire a wider shape than 
that of A. cornea, approximating somewhat to the contour of 
A. transversalis. The apical sculpture, very well preserved in 
no. 13397 Boston Soc. coll. (from no. 1747 Cooke coll.), is 
like that of A. cornea, the embryonic whorls being very finely 
and closely striated, the striae arcuate. A. transversalis has 
similar but straighter stria?. It is a fossil form, from a de- 
posit of unknown age, probably Pleistocene, exposed in a road 
cutting. 

Length 12.5, diam. 6.5, aperture 5.3 mm. ; 6% whorls. 

Length 10.8, diam. 5.3, aperture 4.5 mm. ; 6% whorls. 

If this species is really a member of the cornea series, it is 
widely separated from its allies. 

34. A. EMULATOR n. sp. PI. 38, fig. 7. 

The shell is narrowly perforate, ovate-pyramidal, rather 



AMASTRA, OAHU. 191 

solid. Outlines of the spire are nearly straight below, be- 
coming a little concave near the summit ; whorls slightly con- 
vex, short ; embryonic 2% are dull purplish, very finely, reg- 
ularly striate where unworn; subsequent whorls irregularly 
wrinkle-striate, the cuticle at first light olive, on the last two 
whorls olive-brown ; rather glossy ; where worn away showing 
a dull gray and purplish-brown calcareous layer. The aper- 
ture is small, slightly oblique, dull purplish-gray within, paler 
and just perceptibly thickened near the lip. Columella short, 
thick, whitish, bearing a subhorizontal lamella. Parietal callus 
very tihick, its edge forming a ledge connecting the lip-ends. 
Length 15.5, diam. 8.6, aperture 6.9 mm. ; whorls 7. 

Oahu: Kahauiki (D. Thaanum). Type to be deposited in 
the Bishop Museum. 

This species is related to A. crassilabrum, from which it 
differs by its color, the less attenuate spire, much less thick- 
ened lip, and by the thick parietal callus of old individuals. 
Kahauiki is a short valley between Kalihi and Moanalua. 

Section AMASTRELLA Sykes. 
See p. 151. 

Series of A. inflata. 

Amastrae with finely striate or nearly smooth embryonic 
whorls (sometimes irregularly costate in A. tristis) ; the junc- 
tion of columellar and basal margins of the aperture rounded 
(not subangular or spout-like). The shell is more or less 
completely covered with a dull or dark, in part transient, 
sometimes very thin cuticle, under which it is not banded. 

These shells agree well with the typical Kauaian Amas- 
trellse except in the development of a more or less conspicuous 
dark outer layer of cuticle, a character showing an advance 
beyond typical Amastrella. This cuticle is not mottled or fig- 
ured with angular streaks, as it is in typical Amastra. The 
group differs from Metamastra- by the more widely rounded 
margin below the columellar lamella, which is smaller and 
less horizontal. 

The inflata series contains the least specialized of the 



192 AMASTRA, OAHU. 

Oahuan Amastrae. The other groups, Metamastra and Para- 
mastra, have diverged further from the ancestral stock. 

One species, A. tristis, sometimes has rather coarse low ribs 
on the second embryonic whorl, the apex being more conic 
than in most other species, not unlike that of Kauaia. A. 
tristis, together with some other Oahuan species, was grouped 
with the Molokaian pullata and violacea series by the senior 
author (in MS.) . The shape of the embryonic whorls and the 
maculation of the neanic whorls in many individuals are like 
A. badia; the incised spiral striae are also characteristic of 
undata, transversalis and others of the group to which badia 
belongs ; so that A. tristis seems to be a somewhat generalized 
or synthetic species; yet its chief relationship is with the 
in flat a group. 

35. A. RUBENS (Gould). PI. 32, figs. 16, 17, 19, 20, 21. 

' ' Shell elongate-ovate ; thick ; straw-colored, the apex chest- 
nut, anterior end reddish. Whorls 6, convex; suture im- 
pressed ; covered here and there wth brown epidermis. Aper- 
ture ovate; lip simple, thickened within, roseate, the throat 
white; fold thin; imperf orate. Length %, diam. % of an 
inch. A plain species, but well marked by its colors, especially 
by that of the aperture" (Old.). 

"Animal dark slate, as long as the shell, tentacles black, 
bottom of foot and mantle brown. Excessively timid and 
lives buried under leaves and other decaying vegetation " 
(Newcomb). 

Oahu, Waianae range: West mountains (Newcomb) ; Wai- 
anae (Gooke, Baldwin) ; Kaala (Baldwin) ; Kukuiala and 
Mokuleia ( Gulick) . Varieties in the eastern range, see below. 

Achatinella rubens GLD., Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., ii, Jan. 
1845, p. 27. PFR., Monogr., ii, p. 240 ; iii, 459 ; iv, 552 ; vi, 
180 (exclusive of var. b, = A. mastersi Nc.). REEVE, Conch. 
Icon., vi, pi. 6, f. 42&. NEWCOMB, Ann. Lye. N. H. of N. Y., 
vi, p. 314. BALDWIN, Catalogue, 1893, p. 9. 

The first half- whorl is smooth; then very fine, sharp and 
close and weakly arcuate longitudinal striae appear, contin- 
uing for two whorls, after which comparatively coarse but 



AMASTRA, OAHU. 193 

low wrinkles of growth set in. The embryonic shell seems to 
comprise almost 3 whorls. It is dark brown, or when worn, 
purplish-brown. The rest of the whorls of the spire have 
rather coarse wrinkles below the suture, leaving the rest of 
the whorls and the whole last whorl, nearly smooth. Four or 
five upper whorls are reddish-brown, the last whorl or two 
are pale red-brown or whitish under a thin, glossy, yellow or 
flesh-tinted inner cuticle, which is more or less covered by a 
brown (blackish-brown or olivaceous-brown) outer layer, al- 
ways worn off vent rally, and either rather well preserved 
(figs. 19-21, Mokuleia), or remaining in shreds (fig. 17, Wai- 
anae) or almost entirely lost (fig. 16, Kukuiale). The interior 
of the basal and outer lips is typically rose-colored, but some- 
times it is bluish-white. 

Length 19, diam. 9.1, aperture 8 mm. ; whorls 6%. 

Length 17.5, diam. 9.1, aperture 8.1 mm. ; whorls 6. 

A. rub ens differs from A. elliptica and the textilis group 
by its noticeably more conic and sharply striate embryonic 
whorls, and the greater number of whorls in the whole shell. 
The fine striation of the embryonic shell is usually more or 
less completely worn from adult shells. 

Figs. 19 to 21 are from Mokuleia specimens, measuring : 

Fig. 21. Length 18, diam. 9, aperture 8 mm. 

Fig. 19. Length 17, diam. 9.1, aperture 7.9 mm. 

Fig. 20. Length 15, diam. 9.2, aperture 8 mm. 

A large specimen from Waianae, which we consider the 
type locality, is figured, pi. 32, fig. 17. Length 21 mm., 6y 2 
whorls. 

In a series from Kukuiala (pi. 32, fig. 16) the outer layer 
of cuticle is almost wholly wanting, leaving the shell whitish 
or yellowish with more or less pink suffusion, most pronounced 
on the latter half of the last whorl. The shells are rather 
robust. This form has been called var. rubinia, Hyatt in MS, 

Length 17.3, diam. 9.5 mm. (A. N. S. P. no. 92481). 

Length 19, diam. 10.1 mm (U. S. Nat. Mus. no. 4710). 

A. rub ens unites features of Amastrella and Paramastra, 
and it may possibly belong to the latter group, near A. inter- 
media. It has here been associated with the in flat a group 



194 AMASTRA, OAHU. 

chiefly on account of the well-developed outer cuticle. If this 
view be correct, it must be viewed as a recent immigrant in 
the Waianae range. 

Herr Borcherding is hopelessly wrong in lumping rub ens 
with mastersi Nc. His inference that the species ranges over 
three islands is consequently baseless (see Zoologica, xix, Heft 
48 n, p. 117). The embryonic whorls are totally diverse in 
the two species. 

350. A. rubens corneiformis n. subsp. PI. 31, figs. 17 (nat 
size) , 18. 

The shell is subperforate, ovate-turrite, rather solid, some- 
what glossy. Spire with slightly convex outlines in the lower 
part, straightened or a trifle contracted near the summit. 
Embryonic whorls brown, somewhat worn, but apparently 
with a weak sculpture of regular, arcuate striae. Following 
whorls marked with growth-wrinkles, at first brown, whitish 
below the suture, changing on the penultimate whorl, becom- 
ing on the last whorl whitish, faintly brown-tinted. On the 
last half- whorl this ground-tint is largely covered by a smooth, 
dense, blackish-brown outer cuticle, in part deciduous. Aper- 
ture whitish within; lip thin. Columella straight, its edge 
abruptly triangularly dilated above; bearing a thin lamella 
in the middle. Length 16.5, diam. 8.6, aperture 7.1 mm. ; 6% 
whorls. 

Oahu : Waianae. Type no. 1753 C. M. Cooke coll. 

Much more slender than A. rubens, and having much the 
general appearance of A. cornea. 

35&. A. rubens castanea n. subsp. PL 32, fig. 18. 

A reddish-chestnut cuticle covers the whole surface, even 
the spire. It is yellowish below the suture and black behind 
the lip. The spire is a little attenuated near the summit. 
The interior has a faint roseate tint, nearly white. Length 
17, diam. 9.5 mm. 

Waianae. Types no. 1761 Cooke coll. ; co-type no. 104690 
A. N. S. P. 

In the Cooke collection there is a series of stunted or de- 



AMASTRA, OAHU. ' 195 

pauperate specimens from Waianae, evidently from several 
colonies (nos. 1760, 1762, 1763), which agree in the main with 
castanea, but are rather smaller, down to 14 mm. long. 

35c. A. rubens kahana n. subsp. PL 31, fig. 16. 

Similar to rubens in shape, cream-colored under an oliva- 
ceous-brown cuticle which is partially deciduous; the nude 
upper whorls either white, fleshy or reddish. Outlines of the 
spire slightly convex. Peristome rose-tinted in individuals 
having the apex dark, white in others. Length 18.2, diam. 
10 mm. ; whorls 6%. 

Kahana, on the north side of the eastern range. Types 
1417 C. M. Cooke coll. 

35d A. rubens infelix n. subsp. PI. 31, fig. 15. 

Smaller, more shortly ovate than A. r. kahana, the spire 
slender near the apex, whitish under an olive-brown cuticle 
which becomes black behind the outer lip. The latter part of 
the last whorl is compressed peripherally, and swollen or ob- 
tusely subangular at the shoulder. Aperture white. Length 
14.7, diam. 8 mm. ; whorls 5%. 

Kahana. Types 1491 Cooke coll. 

This is apparently a depauperate form. It is just, possible 
that varieties kahana and infelix are satellite forms of tenui- 
labris and rubicunda rather than of rubens, whieh should 
properly belong to the Waianae range. 

36. A. SEMINIGRA n. sp. PL 32, figs. 8, 9, 11. 

Apical whorls fleshy or purplish, fading on the last two 
whorls to light yellow, more or less covered with pitch-black 
cuticle, which may be in shreds throughout (figs. 8, 11), or 
nearly continuous except in front of the aperture (fig. 9, Wai- 
mano) . Interior white or faintly pink. 

Fig. 8. Length 21.2, diam. 10.3, aperture 9.5 mm. ; whorls 



. 

Fig. 11. Length 17.5, diam. 9.2, aperture 8 mm. ; whorls 



Length 19, diam. 9.7 mm. 

Waimano. Co-types no. 1131 Cooke coll., figs. 8, 11 ; also 
Wahiawa, no. 1416 Cooke coll. ; 'also in coll. A. N. S. P. 



196 AMASTRA, OAHU. 

This species differs from A. tristis only by its narrower 
shape at all stages of growth. The apical whorls are worn, 
rather narrowly conic, and seem to resemble those of A. tristis. 
A specimen from Waimano, coll. Spalding, agrees with fig. 9 
in the nearly continuous coal-black cuticle, but where re- 
moved in front of the aperture the under layer is a fine light 
orange-brown color. A. seminigra occurs on the same slope 
of the range northwestward of the area of A. tristis, which it 
resembles in characters other than the shape. In the 'closely 
related A. rubens of the Waianae range the spire is typically 
wider, not so strictly conic ; but at one time one of us thought 
it must be ranked as a variety of rubens. The black cuticle 
and more rectilinear sides of the spire separate seminigra 
from intermedia. 

37. A. TENUILABRIS Gulick. PL 31, fig. 19. 

* ' Shell dextral, ovate-conic, hardly shining, somewhat roughly 
striated with growth-lines; white under a fulvous epidermis, 
which is generally worn off below the suture on the last whorl. 
Whorls 51/2, a little convex. Aperture subquadrate, white, 
not as long as the spire ; peristome thin ; columella straight, 
provided with a small median fold ; lips connected by a very 
thin callus. Length. 15, diam. 8 mm." (Gulick). 

Oahu: Pauoa (Frick, type loc.) ; Nuuanu (Cooke). Type 
in coll. Boston Society. 

Amastra tenuilabris Gulick in GULICK and SMITH, P. Z. S., 
1873, p. 83, pi. 10, f. 16. PFR., Monogr., viii, p. 241. Amas- 
tra t., SYKES, Fauna Hawaiiensis, p. 345. 

" The specimens received are reported by Dr. Frick to be 
from Pauoa, on Oahu ; but there is some reason to believe that 
they could not have been found on Oahu. Its affinities are 
uncertain, Tbut it may be allied to Am. flavescens Nwc., which 
is found on the island of Hawaii" (Gulick). 

The original specimen of this variety, examined by Hyatt, 
is very close to A. rubicunda Baldwin. Gulick 's shell agrees 
very closely with two shells from Nuuanu in the Cooke collec- 
tion. The differences between this and rubicunda consist in 
the warmer hue of the latter and its usually but not invari- 



AMASTRA, OAHU. 197 

ably darker aperture. The growth-wrinkles are more pro- 
nounced through the wearing-off of the more friable perios- 
tracum in this species and the contrast of the brown remnants 
with the more opaque white of the middle layer. Gulick's 
type figure is copied in fig. 19 of plate 31. 

The shells in the Cooke collection and U. S. Nat, Mus. (no. 
4T22&) differ from rubicunda chiefly in the colder color- tones, 
the aperture being whitish rather than pink, and the summit 
white, or in one specimen, purple. The spire is not so high 
as in typical rubicunda. Such differences as there are seem 
insufficient for specific distinction. Pauoa is a small valley 
immediately east of Nuuanu, and which divides the lower 
part of a ridge leading up to Konahuanui, the locality of A. 
rubicunda. 

37. A. tenuilabris rubicunda Baldwin. PL 32, figs. 12, 14, 15. 

''Shell dextral, imperf orate, rather solid, elongately ovate- 
conic ; surface lusterless, striated with irregular growth striae ; 
embryonic whorls smooth. Color reddish, with traces of a de- 
ciduous, thin, brown epidermis. Whorls 7, slightly convex; 
suture well impressed. Aperture elongately oval, a trifle ob- 
lique, rather small, purplish-red within; peristome simple, 
thin, margined with dark purple; columella white with a 
purple tinge, flexuous, abruptly terminating in a thin, slightly 
curved lamellar plait. Length 19, diam. 9 mm. 

''Animal, mantle brown, margin of a deeper shade. Foot 
brown, the superior portion almost black. The formula of the 
dentition is 18.10.1.10.18, according to H. Suter" (Baldw.). 

Oahu: Konahuanui Mt. (Baldwin, type loc.) ; Nuuanu, 
Kalihi and Moanalua (C. M. Cooke). 

Amastra rubicunda BALDW., Proc. A. N. S. Phila., 1895, p. 
229, pi. 11, f. 38. Helicter (Amastra} rubicunda Baldwin, 
SUTER, Proc. A. N. S. Phila.. 1895, p. 240, pi. 11, f. 54,56 (jaw 
and teeth). 

The embryonic whorls are somewhat worn in the type lot of 
four specimens, no. 65719 A. N. S. P., but a few fine striae are 
visible on the second and third whorls. The ground-color is 
light red, sometimes becoming fleshy-yellowish on the last 



198 AMASTRA, OAHU. 

whorl, where there is a thin outer layer of russet cuticle, more 
or less deciduous in front, and worn off before the aperture. 
Behind the lip the cuticle becomes much darker, dark reddish- 
brown with some blackish streaks. The interior is in color 
between rose and lilac, and the lip commonly has a black line 
at the edge. The last half of the last whorl is flattened periph- 
erally and turgid a little distance below the suture. 

Length 19.3, diam. 9, aperture 8.2 mm. ; whorls 6y 2 . 

Length 18.1, diam. 8.9, aperture 8 mm., whorls 6%. 

Length 17.1, diam. 8.5, aperture 7.5 mm. ; whorls 6y%. 

While this shell resembles A. variegata of the Waianae 
range, at the opposite end of the island, it differs in the color 
of the aperture and it does not have so many whorls. It is 
hardly separable from A. tenuilabris, and in our opinion only 
a race of that species. Its recorded range is discontinuous, 
probably because of insufficient collections. A. seminigra, A. 
rubens kahana and infelix inhabit the eastern range west of 
the area of A. rubicunda, to which they are probably related, 
differing chiefly in their colder coloring. Most rubicunda 
have a particularly warm shade of chestnut. Specimens from 
the western valleys are generally smaller than the types, with 
the interior less deeply colored. 

Length 17.2, diam. 8.5 mm.; G 1 /^ whorls (Nuuanu). 

Length 16, diam. 8.3 mm.; 5% whorls (Kalihi). 

Length 15, diam. 9.2 mm.; 5% whorls (KaMhi). 

Figures 12 and 15 are from co-types. Pig. 14 is a Nuuanu 
shell in the C. M. Cooke collection. 

38. A. LUCTUOSA (Pfeiffer). PL 33, figs. 12, 13. 

"Shell imperforate, dextral, oblong-conic, solid, striatulate, 
a little shining, bicolored. Spire inflated-conic, apex acute; 
suture crenu'lated. Whorls 6, the upper four black, nearly 
flat, the penultimate pale, more convex ; last whorl about two- 
fifths the 'total length, pale tawny above, blackish below the 
periphery. Aperture a little oblique, sinuate-semioval, white 
within. Columellar fold laminiform, subbasal, triangular; 
peristome unexpanded, acute, black-edged. Length 16, diam, 
8, aperture 7x3% mm." (Pfr.). 



AMASTRA, OAHU. 199 



Sandwich Is. (Frick, in Cuming coll.). Western and north- 
western Oahu: Waialee (Baldwin); Kawailoa and Kahuku 
(Gulick) ; Kaha.na (Cooke). 

Achatinella luctuosa PFR., P. Z. S., 1855, p. 204 (Feb., 
1856) ; Monogr., iv, 554. BALDWIN, Catalogue, p. 9. Lami- 
nella luctuosa BINNEY, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci., iii, p. 98, pi. 6, 
f. F. Amastra luctuosa Pfr. var. sulphured ANCEY, Proc. 
Malac. Soc. Lond., vi, June, 1904, p. 121, pi. 7, f. 9. 

The type of A. luctuosa has not been figured, and we do 
not know that the typical form described by Pfeiffer has been 
rediscovered. Its habitat is unknown. Baldwin and Gulick 
have found a form differing in color, but which they referred 
to luctuosa, in western Oahu between the southwestern and 
northeastern ranges. It has been described as var. sulphurea 
by Ancey. 

The Gulick collection (in A. N. S. P.) contains a set of 
' 'dead" shells from Kahuku (pi. 33, figs. 12, 13), the north- 
western extremity of Oahu. The last whorl is very pale 
brown under a thin brown cuticle, which is persistent through- 
out or worn-off in front of the aperture, and darker behind 
the lip. The spire is pale violaceous or pale red-brown under 
more or less covering of cuticle. Specimens measure : 

Length 14, diam. 9 mm. 

Length 15, diam. 8 mm. ; 6y 2 whorls. 

Length 14, diam. 8 mm.; 6 whorls (fig. 13). 

Length 15, diam. 7.8 mm. ;-6 whorls (fig. 12). 

The relationships of luctuosa are somewhat uncertain. It 
is an inornate shell with no decided characters, but does not 
seem closely related to any other species. 

38a. A. I sulphurea Ancey. PI. 33, fig. 11. 

* ' Shell similar to the type, but pale buff, uniform, near the 
aperture covered with shreds of pale brown epidermis. 
Length 15.5, diam. 9.5, length of aperture 7 mm. Waialae" 
(Ancey} . 

Specimens from "Waialei" in the Gulick collection are 
pale buff or the spire may be pale brown. The embryonic 
whorls are almost smooth. The upper part of the spire is 
slightly pinched in. 



200 AMASTRA, OAHU. 

Shells from Kawailoa are similar but rather smaller and 
shorter. There is an inner, somewhat glossy cuticle of very 
pale buff, covered with a very thin dull outer layer of a 
slightly darker shade, worn off in front of the aperture. The 
specimens from Kahana are similar. The original figure is 
copied. 

39. A. DECORTICATA Gulick. PI. 33, figs. 4, 5, 6, 7. 

"Shell ovate-conic, dextral, lightly striated with lines of 
growth; chestnut, blackish towards the lip. Whorls 6 to 6%, 
a little convex, the first 3 polished ; suture simple, pale. Aper- 
ture weak dirty-blue inside. Peristome thin, blackish within, 
scarcely thickened; columellar fold thin. Length 16, diam. 
8.5mm." (Gulick). 

Oahu, western part of the main range: Kawailoa, type 
locality; Helemano, Opaiula, Waimea, Waialei, Kahuku and 
Kahana (Gulick). Under dead leaves in the forest. 

Amastra decorticata Gk. in GULICK and SMITH, P. Z. S., 
1873, p. 84, pi. 10, f. 14: Achatinella d., PFR,, Monogr., viii, 
240. Achatinella d., THWING, Orig. Descr. Achat., p. 149. 
Achatinella decortica BALDWIN, Catalogue, 1893, p. 8. Lami- 
nella decorticata GuL, W. G. BINNEY, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci., 
iii, 1884, p. 98, pi. vi, f. D (teeth). 

"It is allied -to A. elliptica Gk., the metropolis of which lies 
to the northwest of this, and to A. inflata Pfr., which is found 
in the valleys to the east. It is always dextral" (Gulick). 

A series of several hundred shells from all the above local- 
ities except Helemano shows this to be quite a constant species. 
It never has the conspicuously patched clothing of A. inflata 
and elliptica, though under a lens some small dull streaks 
may be seen on the 'Otherwise rather glossy surface, which 
elsewhere shows no epidermis in the typical form. The color- 
is reddish-chestnut of varying intensity, frequently shading 
into yellowish on the upper part of the last whorl, and always 
much darker behind the lip. The spire is frequently darker, 
purplish-brown. The suture is usually marked with a yel- 
lowish line, but this is often wanting. There are 2% em- 
bryonic whorls, the last one very lightly, minutely and un- 



AMASTRA, OAHU. 201 

evenly striate. Subsequent whorls have rather coarse, very 
low, uneven wrinkles, the surface being rougher and much 
less glossy than in A. textilis. The outlines of the spire con- 
tract a little near the summit, but the penultimate whorl, 
especially when viewed from the back, bulges noticeably. The 
axis is generally perforated, but in some narrow shells the 
crevice is nearly or quite closed. In a few old individuals 
there is a white callous nodule on the parietal wall, which is 
thinly covered with a subtransparent or dirty-white film, thin 
at the outer edge. Specimens from Kawailoa (pi. 33, figs. 
4-7) measure: 

Length 16.4, diam. 9, aperture 7.2 mm. ; whorls 6. 

Length 15.2, diam. 8.8, aperture 7.8 mm. ; whorls 5^. 

Length 16, diam. 8, aperture 6 mm. ; whorls 6. 

Length 15, diam. 9, aperture 7.5 mm. ; whorls 5%. 

Some of the shells from Kahana, at the eastern limit of dis- 
tribution of the species, have a thin outer layer of dull, red- 
dish cuticle, almost continuous over the last two whorls except 
in front of the aperture, darker as usual on the latter part 
of the whorl ; but owing to the similarity of the outer to the 
inner cuticle in color (the former more of a reddish, the latter 
more yellowish, tone), it is quite inconspicuous unless looked 
for very closely. These more fully clothed shells form an 
approach to A. rubicunda, which occupies the eastern end of 
the range, though of course decorticata is always shorter, and 
abundantly distinct specifically. 

40. A. INFLATA (Pfeiffer). PL 33, figs. 1, 2, 3. 

"Shell imperf orate, conic-globose, rather roughly striate; 
whitish, covered with a black epidermis worn off in a wide 
band below the suture. Spire swollen, terminating in a short, 
acute cone. Whorls 5%, the last three very turgid, the last 
about as long as the spire. Aperture oblique, sinuate-oval, 
white within. Columellar fold subtransverse, ascending 
highly. Peris-tome unexpanded, labiate within; columellar 
margin callous, dilated, adnate. Length 16.5, diam. 10, aper- 
ture 8.5x5 mm." (Pfr.). 

Oahu (Frick, in Cuming coll.) ; Koolauloa (Baldwin) ; 



202 



AMASTRA, OAHU. 



Wahiawa, type loc., and Ahonui (Gulick) ; Kahana (C. M. 
Gooke) ; a variety at Kawailoa (Gulick). 

Achatinella inflata PFR., P. Z. S., 1855, p. 203 (Feb., 1856) ; 
Monogr., iv, 549. BALDWIN, Catalogue, 1893, p. 9. 

This species is known to me by numerous specimens from 
Wahiawa, Ahonui and Kahana. In the Wahiawa lot (pi. 33, 
figis. 1-3), which I consider typical, the shape varies rather 
widely, as shown in the figures. The embryonic whorls are 
nearly smooth, being marked 'with fine growth-striae only, as 
in A. decorticata. The wrinkles of the later whorls are rather 
coarse and irregular, and a few spiral lines cut them in occa- 
sional individuals. The color is rich chestnut with a sugges- 
tion of orange, over which there is a very thin outer layer of 
darker, almost -chocolate-brown, more or less worn from the 
wrinkles and wanting below the periphery in front of the 
aperture. Behind the lip it is much darker, deep chocolate 
or blackish. Often a peripheral darker belt may be seen. 
The denuded subsutural belt mentioned by Pfeiffer is seen in 
some dead shells of the Wahiawa lot, and in a few living ones. 
Under the colored cuticle the shell-substance is fleshy-whitish 
in the last whorl, but generally darker above it, so that the 
spire is purplish-brown. Immature shells are very ventricose 
and have a rather sharp peripheral angle which persists up 
to the end of the fifth whorl. The last two whorls are much 
swollen below the suture, or rarely this swelling is beMed, 
appearing as late as the last half of the last whorl. Nearly 
all the shells are imperforate when mature, but the young 
may remain perforate up to about 10 mm. long, 4^ to 5 
whorls. Specimens measure : 

Length 18, diam, 10, aperture 8 mm. ; whorls 6%. 

Length 16.2, diam. 9.9, aperture 8 mm. ; whorls 6. 

Length 17, diam. 9.2, aperture 7.9 mm. 

Length 15, diam. 9.9, aperture 8.3 mm. 

Length 16.8, diam. 9, aperture 8 mm. 

In Pr. C coke's series from Kahana, on the north side of 
the range, the inflation of the later whorls is minimiized, the 
sculpture less rough, and the color generally somewhat lighter. 
None of the shells, are so inflated as the more obese forms 
from Wahiawa, 



AMASTRA, OAHU. 203 

Ahonui shells are deficient in the dull over-layer, which is 
very thin, and therefore not dark enough to contrast strongly 
with the denuded surface in front of the aperture. 

A small series from Kawailoa, in the Gulick collection, A. 
N. S. P., is intermediate between infl.ata, and decorticata. The 
rough sculpture and rather dull surface resembles inflata, but 
the dull, " bloom "-like layer is extremely thin, remaining 
only in a few shreds, and there is no contrast between the 
area in front of the aperture and that above the periphery. 
In these respects the shells resemble decorticata. It would 
not be amiss to refer these Kawailoa shells to decorticata, 
which is more widely distributed westward than inflata. 

41. A. RUBIDA Gulick. PL 33, fig. 9. 

Shell dextral, long-ovate, striated with growth-lines, dilute 
reddish-chestnut (rarely covered with a blackish epidermis) ; 
whorls 6, a little convex, the first two smooth, brown ; suture 
simple. Aperture small, somewhat purple inside. Peristome 
thin; columellar fold very thin. Length 18, diarn. 9 mm." 
(Gulick and Smith). 

Oahu : Kahuku, at the northwest terminus of the main 
range, on the ground in the forest (Gulick). 

Amastra rubida Gul., GULICK and SMITH, P. Z. S., 1873, p. 
84, pi. 10, f . 12. 

' * It is allied to Am. elliptica Gk., but differs in being more 
elongate in form, thicker in structure, and for the most, part 
destitute of epidermis. It is always dextral" (Gulick). Mr. 
Gulick 's figure is copied. 

The senior author writes as follows, .having before him a 
series of 9 shells in the Gulick collection : ' * This species makes 
a close approach to rub ens in varieties having a reddish- 
brown middle layer, but the periostracum is not so thick and 
persistent. The shell is, in fact, not covered by a perios- 
tracum except along the suture, and is more uniformly of a 
pinkish tone, and the aperture in most shells is pink or purple 
inside. The affinities with decorticata have been noted by 
Gulick, but the thick opaque shell and transient periostracum 
appear to place it in the tristis series. A set of shells consid- 



204 AM ASTRA, OAHU. 

ered by Gulick to be passage forms into decorticata are five in 
number, and of these one is a true decorticata with entire 
periostracum and acute apex ; the four others have the typical 
colors and periostracum of this species, combined with a 
blunter apex, shorter, stouter spires and lighter-colored -aper- 
tures which may be considered as belonging to such hybrids 
as could be called rubida- elliptica. It appears to me to be 
therefore an elliptica form derived from elliptica. ' ' 

42. A. ELLIPTICA Gulick. PI. 34, figs. 17 to 23. 

"Shell dextral, ovate, hardly shining, lightly striated with 
growth-lines. Whorls 5%? convex, the first 4% brownish- 
corneous, and the last whorl paler, clothed with a dark oli- 
vaceous epidermis which is partly worn from the front of the 
last whorl. Spire somewhat turrite, suture simple. Aper- 
ture white, rose-tinted in front (sometimes white) ; peristome 
thin, very slightly thickened within. Columella arcuate, the 
lip-ends joined by a thin callus, provided with a compressed 
subbasal tooth. Length 15, diam. 8.5 mm." (Gulick}. 

Oahu : Waialei, type loc. ; also in Ka'huku and Hanula, and 
rarely in Kawailoa, on the ground in the forest (Gulick). 

Amastra elliptica Gk., in GULICK and SMITH, P. Z. S., 1873, 
p. 83, pi. 10, f. 15. SYKES, Fauna Hawtaiiensds, 1900, p. 336. 

"It is allied to A. rub ens Gld. and A. decorticata Gk., but it 
is thinner, smaller, and darker in color than the former, and 
it has a more convex spire than the latter" (GuL). 

A. elliptica differs from decorticata and its allies by the 
strong development of the outer layer of epidermis. On the 
front of the last whorl it is light olive-brown with many un- 
equal blackish streaks ; on the back the streaks coalesce into a 
more or less continuous black area on the last fourth of the 
last whorl. The under layer of cuticle, exposed in front of 
the aperture, is pale yellow. Dead shells which have lost all 
of the cuticle are reddish on the spire, the last whorl white, 
or in 3 out of 40 from "Waialei the last whorl is white above, 
reddish below the periphery. One of these denuded shells is 
drawn in pi. 34, fig. 22. Normal shells of the same lot are 
shown in figures 20, 21, 23. 



AMASTRA, OAHU. 205 

The embryonic shell has some faint growth-lines only, 
thereby differing from A. rub ens. The young are acutely 
angular up to nearly 10 mm. long, as in decorticata, etc. The 
outlines of the spire are usually convex, and the summit is 
obtuse. The columella and basal curve of the peristome are 
frequently roseate. Waialei shells measure : 

Length 15, diam. 8.5, aperture 7.3 mm. ; whorls 5. 

Length 13.4, diam. 8.9, aperture 7.2 mm. ; whorls 5. 

Length 15, diam. 9, aperture 7.3 mm. 

Shells from Kawailoa have a 'blackish, more deciduous outer 
cuticle, and the shell beneath is pinkish or bicolored. The 
shells from Hanula and those from Kahuku are often paler 
than usual in the type locality. Three from Kahuku figured 
measure : 

Length 16.3, diam. 9, aperture 7.4 mm. ; whorls 5%. 

Length 14.6, diam. 9, aperture 8.2 mm. ; whorls 5. 

Length 15, diam. 8, aperture 7.5 mm. ; whorls 5%. 

An average shell and two extremes of shape from Kahuku 
are figured, pi. 34, figs. 17 to 19. 

Mr. Sykes remarks that two specimens collected by Mr. 
Perkins on Waianae Mts. may belong to a large, incrassate 
variety. I think that they will prove specifically different. 

43. A. TRISTIS (Ferussac). PI. 32, figs. 1 to 7, 10, 13. 

The shell is imperforate or rimate, oblong-conic, rather 
solid, ground-color of first 2 or 3 whorls blackish-purple, 
fading then to red-brown with a pale sutural margin, and 
finally diluted to light red-brown or nearly white on the last 
whorl; the last 2 or 3 whorls having a thin dark brown or 
blackish cuticle which is deciduous, remaining in angular 
shreds and patches, generally lost over an area in front of the 
aperture. Spire a little convexly conic, acute. Whorls 5% 
to 5%, nearly flat, the first nearly smooth, the next having 
regular radial ripples, following whorl with fine growth-striae 
only. The last two whorls are marked with rather coarse 
wrinkles along the lines of growth, and some fine spiral striae ; 
and on the last whorl there are usually several unevenly- 
spaced spiral grooves. The aperture is ovate, slightly ob- 



206 AMASTRA, OAHU. 

lique, white inside. Peristome 'has a rather strong rib within. 
Cohimelia short, rather widely dilated, bearing a strong spiral 
lamella. Parietal -callus than and transparent, The axis is 
slender and sinuous, widening upward in each whorl. The 
superposed lamella penetrates a little less than one whorl. 

Length 18, diam. 11, length of aperture 9 mm. Palolo. 

Length 18, diam. 10.5, length of aperture 8.5 mm. Palolo. 

Length 16.5, diam. 10.2, length of aperture 8.5 mm. Palolo. 

Oahu, valleys of the southeastern slope of the main range : 
Keawaawa, Makiki, Waialae, Palolo, Nuuanu (G-ulick) ; Kalihi 
( Oleson coll. ) ; Niu and Aeia ( Cooke) . 

Helix tristis FEE. (Prodrome, p. 60, undeseribed), Voyage 
autour du Monde de 1'Uranie et la Physicienne, Zoologie, p. 
482, pi. 68, f. 6, 7 (1824). Bulimus tristis PFR., Symbolse, ii, 
p. 52.Achatinella tristis PFR., P. Z. S., 1845, p. 89 ; Monogr., 
ii, p. 240; iii, 456; dv, 444: vi, 177; Conchyl. Cab., p. 286, pi. 
67, f. 10, 11. REEVE, Conch. Icon., vi, pi. 5, f. 37 (1850). 
THWING, Orig. Descriptions, p. 143, pi. 3, f. 13. Amastra 
tristis PEASE, P. Z. S., 1869, p. 649. BALDWIN, Catalogue, p. 
10. Ackatinella fuliginosa GOULD, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., ii, 
1845, p. 28. 

The specimens from Keawaawa, collected by Gulick, are all 
dead shells. 

The outer chocolate or blackish cuticle is unusually per- 
sistent in one lot from the lateral ridge of Nuuanu (no. 530 
Cooke coll.), and in those from Tantalus (pi. 32, figs. 6, 7). 
A similar black form occurred at Aiea, far to the west and 
widely separated from other known colonies, the nearest being 
in Kalihd. 

One of the lots from Niu consists of dwarfed abnormally 
shortened shells (pi. 32, fig. 10), the last whorl more or less 
angular in front, the spire somewhat telescoped into the last 
whorl in part of the shells. One specimen has several spiral 
grooves cutting the growth-wrinkles on the last whorl, as in 
A. undata. 

In Nuuanu shells the cuticle may be either black and in 
shreds, or nearly continuous and of a rich chestnut color (fig. 
5). The size of these chestnut shells varies widely, length 
from 15 to 19 mm. Figures 1 to 4 are from Palolo shells. 



AMASTRA, OAHU. 207 

The shells from other places mentioned show little or no 
local differences in the series examined. 

Ferussac's original description (given in full below) is 
very poor, and the species would hardly have been recognized 
except for his figures. * ' Testa dextrorsa, ovato-inflata, vertice 
acuminate, striatila ; epidermide bruneo^f ugaci ; anf ractibus 5, 
ultimo fere carinato, suturis non distinctis ; apertura semi- 
lunata ; peristomate intus incrassato, fere dilatato ; oolumella 
alba, depressa, costa munita; rima umbilicali vix distincta. 
Elle habite les iles Sandwich" (Ferussac). 

A. fuliginosa Gld. was based upon specimens with a light 
ground, which sometimes has a faint greenish tint, such as 
fig. 2. Occurring with the brown and intermediate shells at 
most, if not all, localities, it has apparently little claim to be 
considered a distinct species or race. Messrs. Baldwin, Sykes 
and Thwing also hold this view. 

Embryonic shell. The first half-whorl is smooth with steep 
sides, the suture at first descending rapidly. Fine, slightly 
arcuate striae then appear. On the first half of the second 
whorl the striae are a little coarser, afterward becoming so fine 
as to be hardly perceptible. The latter part of the last whorl 
has a few white spots on the reddish-brown ground, and the 
acute peripheral keel is white. There are 2% whorls in all. 
The columellar fold is moderately developed, and the umbil- 
ical crevice very minute (pi. 32, fig. 13 ; length 4.4 mm.) . The 
color is almost always purple-black, but rarely shells with a 
pale luteous embryo are found, as at Waialae (188 Cooke coll.), 
the first neanic whorl being sparsely maculate with opaque 
white. This variegation of the spire is unique in shells of 
this group of Amastrae, and with the incised spiral lines of 
the adult stage, it indicates relations-hip with Metamastra. 
A. badia in Mctaniastra has similar embryonic sculpture. 

44. A. POROUS n. sp. PL 38, fig. 3. 

The shell is imperforate, globose-conic, thin, light brown 
throughout. The embryonic shell of 2% whorls is conic, the 
first whorl convex, the rest nearly flat; surface smooth but 
not glossy, under a strong lens showing weak, very fine stria- 



208 AMASTRA, OAHU. 

tdon. The post-embryonic whorls are more convex, roughly 
and irregularly sculptured with growth-wrinkles, which be- 
come quite coarse on the back of the globose last whorl. Aper- 
ture is slightly oblique, with a very thin white lining. Lip 
sharp and thin. Columellar lamella small, thin, white and 
quite oblique. Length 13, diam. 9.1, aperture 7.8 mm. ; 5% 
whorls. 

Oahu : Mokuleia, Waianae mountains ( Irwin Spalding) . 

A thin shell of unusually swollen shape. In contour it is 
not unlike some of the small, sub globose individuals of A. 
tristis, such as occur in Moanalua, but it differs by lacking a 
dark deciduous outer layer of cuticle and in the sculpture of 
the embryonic whorls, so that the relationship cannot be 
thought close. Its relationships are not clear to us. No other 
described Oahuan shell resembles it. The type, to be de- 
posited in the Bishop Museum, is not fully adult. 

Section PARAMASTRA Hyatt & Pilsbry. 

These are pyramidal or more or less turrited forms, usually 
with the spire straight or concave-sided ; whorls rather numer- 
ous, 6 to 8 ; shell often spirally banded or with many lines ; 
cuticle often without a dark, deciduous, outer layer; embryo 
very finely striate vertically ; colors variable, often variegated, 
frequently resembling the Achatinellina rather than the usual 
pattern of Amastra, probably in consequence of an adapta- 
tion to arboreal life in some forms. 

Type A. spirizona. 

The distinction between these shells and the rub ens group 
is not always clear, as there seem to be some intermediate 
species. The group is confined to Oahu. It is much more 
fully developed in the Waianae Range (seven species) , whence 
two species have migrated to the Main Range, there to give 
rise to two species special to the eastern range, A. porphy- 
rostoma and A. turrit ella-, both of these are still connected 
with the parent forms (porphyrea and spirizona nigrolabris) 
by more or less intermediate shells. 

The shells of this group have a tendency to develop a second 
<jolumellar fold above the usual lamella, as in the Lanaian 



AMASTRA, OAHU. 209 

biplicata group. This fold is probably hoinoplastic, not homo- 
logic, in the 'two groups ; for the biplicatce show characters of 
the cuticle of the typical group of Amastra, with which they 
are closely connected by a chain of annectant forms. 

One of us (Hyatt) considered A. turritella "the probable 
ancestor of the entire group ' ' Paramastra. The other author 
(Pilsbry) views the same species as one of the latest deriva- 
tives a terminal twig of the spirizona-nigrolabris branch. 

Key to Species of Paramastra. 

a. Slender forms, the diameter usually less than half the 
length. 

b. Apex rather large, 'bulbous; chestnut to buff, suture 
paler. A. turritella, no. 47. 

ft 1 . Apex small, pointed. 

c. Small, slender shells, with little dull cuticle or 
none. 

d. Glossy, thin ; white, yellowish or brown, 
often variegated with spiral lines; 17x 
7.5 mm. 

A. micans, no. 45; A. frosti, no. 45a. 
d 1 . Very slender, thick, whitish with brown 
apex and pinkish base; 17x6.5 mm. 

A. tenuispira, no. 46. 

c 1 . Stouter shells, with a thin dull outer cuticle. 
d. Spire convexly conic; 18.5x9 mm. 

A. cylindrica, no. 52. 

d 1 . Spire straight ; length 17, diam. 8 to 8.8 
mm. A. variegata, no. 53. 

a 1 . Stout, pyramidal shells, the diam. half the length or more. 
b. Spire concavely turrite, diam. half the length. 

A. t. aeia, no. 47a. 
ft 1 . Spire straightly oonic, stouter. 

A. t. waiawa, no. 47&. 
b. Diam. decidedly more than half the length. 

c. Dark brown with a yellow sutural band; 21x 
11.5 mm. A. spirizona, no. 48. 



210 AMASTRA, OAHU. 

c 1 . Base brown, light above, stouter. 

A. s. nigrolabris, no. 48a. 
c 2 . Shell whitish and rusty-brown. 

A. s. chlorotica, no. 48c. 

c 3 . Shell reddish-brown with pale striae ; no dark 
outer cuticle. A. porphyrea, no. 50. 

c 4 . Whitish, yellow or brown under a fragmen- 
tary cuticle. 

d. Parietal callus purplish. 

A. porphyrostoma, no. 51. 
d 1 . Not so colored. A. intermedia, no. 49. 

45. A. MICANS (Pfeiffer). PL 37, figs. 5, 6, 7. 

Shell subperf orate, dextral, turrited, rather solid; white, 
under a buff epidermis having a varnish-like luster. Spire 
regularly tapering, the apex rather acute ; suture somewhat 
crenated. Whorls 7, a little convex, the last scarcely more 
than one-third the length, rotund. Columellar lamella rather 
small, oblique. Aperture slightly oblique, suboval ; peristome 
simple, unexpanded, the columellar margin a little dilated, 
somewhat free. Length 16, diam. 7% mm (Pfr.). 

Sandwich Islands (Frick, in Cuming coll.). Oahu (Bald- 
win, Huchison) ; back of Leilehua, Waianae valley (C. Mon- 
tague Cooke). 

Achatinella micans PFR., P. Z. S., 1859, p. 31 ; Monogr., vi, 
179. Amastra micans PSE., P. Z. S., 1869, p. 650. HARTMAN, 
Proc. A. N. S. Phila., 1888, p. 47, pi. 1, f. 10. BALDWIN, Cata- 
logue, p. 9. A. (Laminella) micans SYKES, Fauna Hawaii- 
ensis, p. 350. Amastra frosti Ancey, var. unicolor ANCEY, 
Proc. Malac. Soc. London, iii, p. 269, pi. 12, f. 11, July, 1899. 

Hartmans figure was from a specimen apparently identical 
with "A. frosti unicolor," some of which have exactly the 
dimensions of micans, and seem to be entirely identical. 
Since Sykes, who had access to the type specimens of both, 
kept them apart,, and even in different subgenera, I give here 
the descriptions of both. A. frosti, if my view is correct, 
should be ranked as a color- variety of micans. 

A. frosti unicolor Ancey. PI. 37, fig. 4. "Shell shaped 



AM ASTRA, OAHU. 211 

like the type, but uniform straw-yellow, entirely destitute of 
brown bands ' ' ( Ancey ) . 

AYaianae mountains (Baldwin and others). 

Mr. Ancey 's figure is copied in fig. 4. The tint is variable. 
Figures 5, 6 represent brown or yellowish-brown shells. 
Others, about half of the lot seen, are whitish with a very 
faint greenish-yellow tint on the last whorl or two, the upper 
part of the spire 'being brown-tinted, and the embryonic 
whorls purplish-brown or dull blue (fig. 7). Whether these 
color-forms occur in one and the same colony we do not know ; 
nor are we advised whether the banded frosti is found with 
them or not, Their possibly racial status depends upon the 
segregation or association of the forms. The surface in all is 
glossy, and generally they retain traces of a thin brown or 
blackish outer cuticle, of which fragments remain in spots on 
a band below the suture, and sometimes scattered on the last 
whorl, more being retained in half-grown than in adult indi- 
viduals. As a rule, the columellar lamella is rather small 
and the face of the columella above it is smooth ; but in one 
shell there is a second well-marked, more oblique fold above 
the normal one, such as occurs occasionally in A. turritella, 
A. nigrolabris, and others of this group of species. The shape 
is similarly variable in all the color forms, as shown in the 
figures and measurements. Axis rimate. In a few shells of 
typical coloring there is a weak carina on the last whorl. 

Length 15.5, diam. 7.2, aperture 6 mm. ; 7 whorls. 

Length 15, diam. 8, aperture 6.1 mm. ; 6i/> whorls. 

Length 17.2, diam. 7.5, aperture 6.1 mm. ; 7% whorls. 

Length 16.5, diam. 8, aperture 6.3 mm. 

The above notes are from a series of 48 shells in coll. C. M. 
Cooke, from back of Leilehua, Waianae range, 11 in coll. Bos- 
ton Society N. H., and 3 in coll. A. N. S. P. 

45a. A. FROSTI Ancey. PI. 37, figs. 2, 3. 

' * Shell minutely and very narrowly rimate, conoid-turrited, 
glossy, impressed with minute, pliciform, more or less obsolete 
growth-striae; straw-buff or yellowish- tawny, encircled with 
many variously placed narrow, often confluent, bay, spiral 



212 AMASTRA, OAHU. 

lines. Spire long, conoid-tapering, acute. Whorls 8, the first 
uniformly colored, flattened, the rest a little convex, suture 
impressed, last whorl larger, somewhat tapering, rotund-oval. 
Aperture distinctly oblique, not very large, irregularly oval, 
tapering above. Oolumella moderately thickened, whitish, 
armed with an acute, prominent, oblique fold remote from the 
base. Peristome simple, acute, the margins joined by a glossy 
callus in adults. Length 20, diam. 8.5, alt. apert. 7 mm." 
(Ancey). 

Oahu: district of Waianae (Baldwin) ; near Waianae ana 
Waialua (U. S. Nat. Mus.). 

Amastra frosti ANCEY, Memoires de la Societe Zoologique 
de France, v, 1892, p. 719. SYKES, P. Malac. Soc. Lond., iii, 
p. 275, pi. 13, f. 12 (co-type). Achatinella frosti THWING, 
Orig. Descriptions, etc., p. 161, pi. 3, f. 18 (good). 

Smaller than A. cylindrica, with straight lateral outlines 
and a more glossy surface. Mr. Sykes 's figure of one of An- 
cey 's co-types is copied, fig. 2. A lot before us from C. M. 
Cooke coll., consists of shells smaller than the dimensions 
assigned by Ancey. Length 16.7, diam. 7.9, aperture 6.2 mm., 
whorls 7%. The apex is clear whitish with weak, fine, longi- 
tudinal striae ; bands begin on the third whorl. The ground- 
color is whitish, the bands chestnut. There is no outer layer 
of deciduous cuticle. One of these shells is figured, fig. 3. 

46. A. TENUISPIRA Baldwin. PI. 37, fig. 1. 

"Shell dextral, imperforate, solid, acuminately turreted, 
spire 'conical, apex subacute ; surface lusterless, covered with 
somewhat rude, irregular incremental striae; the embryonic 
whorls very finely, radiately sulcated. Color light brown, 
upper whorls darker; covered with an earthy-brown, fuga- 
cious epidermis. Whorls 7, somewhat convex, in some exam- 
ples slightly margined above; suture well impressed. Aper- 
ture oval, oblique, rather small, light brown within ; peristome 
simple, -acute, extremities united with a thin callosity; colu- 
mella sub-biplicate, light brown, tortuous, abruptly terminat- 
ing in an oblique, dentiform plait. Length 17, diam. 
mm." (Baldwin). 



AMASTRA, OAHU. 213 

Oahu : Mt. Kaala, Waianae range, very local (Baldwin). 

Amastra tenuispira BALDW., Proc. A. N. S. Phila., 1895, p, 
232, pi. 11, f. 51. 

Figured from the types. This species very closely resem- 
bles the whitish race of A. micans, but fthe surface is 
rougher and the color of the aperture differs. It is also a 
little more slender, the whorls are slightly more convex, and 
the axis imperforate. 

The shell is very thick. Last whorl white or pale buff, 
more or less pink-tinted towards the termination ; spire gray 
or brownish, the embryonic whorls dark brown. There are 
small spots and shreds of a brown outer cuticle on the last 
whorl. There is sometimes an impressed line below the suture 
on the last whorls. The whole interior is pink-tinted, or some- 
times nearly white, and there is a low, more oblique fold 
above the usual columellar plait, more prominent in some 
specimens than in others. 

Length 15.2, diam. 6.5, aperture 6 mm. ; 6^/2 whorls. 

Length 16, diam. 6.9, aperture 6 mm. ; 6% whorls. 

47. A. TURRITELLA (Ferussac). PI. 35, figs. 1 to 4. 

"Shell dextral, elongate, conic, striatulate ; whorls 6; apex 
obtuse; suture distinct, not duplicate; aperture strongly ob- 
long ; peristome thickened within ; columella perforate, nearly 
straight, provided with a distinct rib. Sandwich Is." (Fer.). 

Oahu, southern valleys of eastern half of the main range : 
Waialae, Palolo, Matiti, Nuuanu, Moanalua, Halawa, Aeia, a 
variety at Waiawa. 

Helix turritelld Fer. (Prodr., Tabl. Syst. no. 434, nude 
name), Voy. autour du Monde de 1'Uranie et la Physicienne, 
Zoologie, p. 481 (1824) ; Hist., pi. 155, f. 13. SOULEYET, Voy. 
Bonite, Moll., pi. 29, f. 7, 8. Achatinella t., REEVE, Conch. 
Icon., vi, pi. 5, f. 34, 41. PFR., Monogr., ii, 233; Conchyl. 
Cab., p. 285, pi. 67, f. 18, 19. NEWCOMB, Ann. Lye. N. H. of 
N. Y., vi, p. 307 (animal) .Amastra t., PEASE, P. Z. S., 1869, 
p. 650. SYKES, Fauna Hawaiiensis, Moll., p. 346. GULICK, 
Evolution, Racial and Habitudinal, p. 39, pi. 1, f. 17 (Palolo). 
Acliatina oahuensis GREEN, Contrib. Maclurian Lye. to the 



214 AMASTRA, OAHU. 

Arts and Sciences, i, 1827, p. 49, pi. 4, f. 5. A. inornata 
MIGHELS, Proc. Best. Soc. N. H., ii, 1845, p. 21. 

"Animal short, only half as long as the shell, of a dark 
slate-color on the sides ; superior portion and tentacles black ; 
under surface of foot light gray; mantle dark brown" (New- 
comb). 

Nuuanu valley may be taken as the type locality of this 
very distinct species. The typical form, as figured by Ferus- 
sac, is chestnut-brown. The embryonic shell is often some- 
what darker, purplish, but it may be whitish- corneous or 
flesh-colored. The apex is rather blunt and rounded, second 
embryonic whorl very finely striated vertically, the striae in- 
terrupted by some weak spirals. The adult stage has fine 
striae over low growth-wrinkles. The subsutural region is 
generally paler-colored. Aperture blue-white or with a faint 
pink tint within. Outer lip acute; columellar plica not very 
strong, and often there is a low, oblique fold above it. Axis 
generally perforate. Length 20, diam. 8.7, aperture 7.5 mm. , 
7 whorls; fig. 2 (Nuuanu valley, C. M. Cooke). Other color- 
forms from Nuuanu valley are as follows : 

2. Fig. 1. Chocolate-brown, with or without a yellow sub- 
sutural line. Length 23, diam. 9, aperture 8 mm. ; 8 whorls. 

3. Fig. 3. Yellow, shading into chestnut towards the end 
of the last whorl, apex generally dark ; a white subsutural 
line sometimes present. 

4. Pale, corneous-buff, the apex generally pale, last whorl 
showing traces of a thin, pale brownish cuticle (fig. 4, Matiti) . 

Two small specimens from Waialae resemble forms 1 and 3. 
A series from Palolo contains forms 1 and 4. In Moanalua 
Cooke found form 2 and an intermediate between 3 and 4. 
In Halawa we have form 3 and intermediate between 3 and 4. 
In Matiti ( Gulick, = M-akikd ? ) forms 2, 3, 4 (fig. 4). 

The synonymous A. oahuensis had the typical coloring of 
turrit ella. A. inornata Mighels had forms 1 and 4, and may 
have been from Palolo. 

Dr. C. Montague Cooke informs us that A. turritella is found 
in grass, and on 'both aerial roots and leaves of the leie (Frey- 
cinetia)* When on these roots the shell is covered with a 



AM ASTRA/ OAHU. 215 

short green growth like the green coating of the roots. Those 
on grass in a dry place were perfectly green. All the shells 
we have studied have been -cleaned. 

47a. Var. aiea, n. var. PL 35, figs. 5, 9. The shell has 
very convex whorls and concave lateral outlines, the last whorl 
more inflated than in turritella. Yellow with a brown sum- 
mit (fig. 5), or dark purple-brown with a light subsutural 
band (fig. 9). 

Fig. 5. Length 16, diam. 8 mm. ; 6y 2 whorls. 

Fig. 9. Length 18.2, diam. 9.3 mm. ; 6% whorls. 

Aeia, a short valley dividing the ridge west of Halawa. 
Co-types no. 1014 and 1045 Cooke coll. ; no. 104691 A. N. S. P. 

47&. Var. waiawa n. var., pi. 35, figs. 7, 8. Shell decidedly 
wider, the outlines of the spire nearly straight. 

Length 16.3, diam. 9.5, aperture 7.2 mm. ; whorls 

Length 16, diam. 9, aperture 6.7 mm.; whorls 

Length 19, diam. 9.3, aperture 7.2 mm. ; whorls 7. 

The colors are : yellow or whitish above, chocolate below 
the periphery, summit dark. Chocolate with a light sub- 
sutural band. Yellow, shading towards chestnut behind the 
lip, summit flesh-colored or light. These occur in the pro- 
portions of 2, 3 and 10 specimens respectively. 

Waiawa. Gulick coll., no. 92231 A. N. S. P. 

It will be noted that these shells parallel in color-patterns 
the forms spirizona, nigroldbris and chlorotica. The nigro- 
labris pattern has not been seen in other lots of turritella, but 
the dark and pale examples have the color of turritella forms 
2 and 3. 

In shape, color and geographic position this race stands 
between nigrolabris and turritella. It is probably a remnant 
of the transitional forms which terminated in the evolution 
of turritella. 

48. A. SPIRIZONA (Ferussac). PI. 35, figs. 16, 17, 18. 

The shell is ovate-pyramidal, rather solid, chestnut or dark 
purplish-brown, with a sharply defined buff band below the 
suture on the last three or four whorls, the summit dull purple 
or purple-black. Spire straightly conic, rather acute. Em- 



216 AM ASTRA, OAHU. 

bryonie whorls slightly convex and very finely striate. Later 
Whorls lightly marked with growth-wrinkles. The cuticle is 
thin and polished, occasionally worn in front of the aperture, 
and often' some trace of a very thin lusterless outer coat re- 
mains in patches on -the last whorl, hardly noticeable except 
by aid of a lens. Whorls moderately convex. Aperture ob- 
lique, white inside, the outer lip thin, with a dark border 
within. Oolumellar plait small. Columellar margin short 
but rather broadly reflexed, generally leaving an umbilical 
crevice. Length 21, diam. 11.5, aperture 9.7 mm. ; whorls 7. 

Oahu, western range: Waianae, Lihue, almost exclusively 
on the ground (Gulick) ; below Kaala on the lee side (Per- 
kins) . Lives on low bushes and ferns. 

Helix spirizona FER. (Prodrome, Tab. Syst., p. 56, nude 
name), Voyage autour du Monde de rUrande et la Physici- 
enne, Zoologie, p. 480; Histoire, pi. 155, f. 14, 15. Helicteres 
spirizona BECK, Index, p. 51 (1837). Achatinella spirizona 
Fer., PFR., Monographia, ii, 235; iii, 458; iv, 548; vi, 179; 
viii, 238. NEWCOMB, Ann. Lye. N. H., vi, p. 307. REEVE, 
Conch. Icon., vi, pi. 2, f. 16. Amastra spirizona Fer., SYKES, 
Fauna Hawaiiensis, p. 344, with var. nigrolabris and rudis. 
Achatinella acuta SWAINSON, Quart. Jo-urn. Sci. Lit. Arts, i, 
1828, p. 84 ; Zool. Illustr., ser. 2, iii, pi. 99, f . 3. Achatinella 
baetica Mighels, in Cuming coll., undescribed. 

According to Newcomb, the animal is "thickly studded 
with very black granulations with the interstices of a light 
slate ; mantle of a yellowish- white. ' ' 

This well-known shell is easily recognized by its rich, dark 
coloration. Ferussac's excellent original figure is copied in 
our fig. 16. The original description follows: "Shell dextral, 
conic, acute, striate, of a brown color encircled with a white 
band at the suture, the apex black-brown. Whorls 6, grad- 
ually increasing; suture not duplicate. Aperture coarctate, 
oval; peristome thick within, violaceous. Columella nearly 
straight, provided with a distinct rib; an umbilical crevice. 
It probably inhabits the Sandwich Islands, ' ' 

The original locality is not known with certainty. The 
Uranie Achatinellidae, with two exceptions, were from Nuu- 



AMASTRA, ^OAHU. 217 

anu and Manoa valleys, back of Honolulu ; where luteola came 
from is not known; and spirizona is the only species known 
to be from any other district. Since exactly typical shells 
occur in the Waianae mountains, especially up Waianae valley 
on Mt. Kaala, this valley may be considered the type locality. 

There is some variation in proportions, chiefly between the 
following extremes : 

Fig. 18. Length 21.3, diam. 10.3, aperture 9 mm. ; 7 whorls 
(Waianae). 

Fig. 17. Length 19, diam. 12, aperture 9.5 mm. ; 6% Whorls 
(Lihue). 

Achatinella acuta Swainson was based upon specimens from 
the northern range having the spirizona coloring, such as 
occur mingled with nigrolabris in Kawailoa valley, and doubt- 
less interbreeding with nigrolabris, which is the dominant 
form; as usual in such Mendelian hybrid races, the mutant 
dominates. Swainson 's type was a shell in which there is a 
deep sinus below the columellar lamella, such as we have 
figured in pi. 40, fig. 16, from Kawailoa. This feature is quite 
variable, both in spirizona and nigrolabris. The basal lip is 
not quite so deeply arcuate as in spirizona. Properly speak- 
ing, the name A. acuta is not a synonym of spirizona, but be- 
longs to the spirizona X nigrolabris hybrid race ; see below. 

It may be mentioned here that all of Swainson 's Achati- 
nellas were collected by Lord Byron, an account of whose 
voyage has been published (Voyage of H. M. S. Blonde to 
the Sandwich Islands in the years 1824-1825. London, 1826) . 
The only Oahuan port visited by the Blonde was Honolulu. 
All of the Achatinellidce brought home were strung on a neck- 
lace, which was evidently made in Kawailoa valley, the species 
and color- forms being all such .as occur in that neighborhood, 
none of them being from the Waianae mountains, or from 
eastern Oahu. Dr. Newcomb has already noted this fact. 

A. s. nigrolabris Smith. PI. 35, figs. 10 to 15. 
"Shell dextral, globose-conic, perforate (the perforation 
letimes covered by callus), little shining, longitudinally 
igose (hardly spirally) striate; deep black-brown, encircled 



218 AM ASTRA, OAHU. 

below the suture by a broad pale dirty flesh-colored zone. 
Whorls 6 l /2, the first 3% nearly flat, blackish, the rest convex ; 
suture hardly margined. Aperture white; peristome with a 
thin blackish- pur pie edge, lightly bordered within; columella 
roseate, provided with a laminiform basal fold (and sometimes 
one or two tubercles). Length 20, diam. 12 mm." 

Oahu, western part of the northeastern range: Wahiawa, 
type loc. ; also found in all the valleys from Kalaikoa to Wai- 
mea, sometimes on the ground but more frequently on trees 
(Gulick). Type in British Museum. 

Amastra mgrolabris Sm., GULICK and SMITH, P. Z. S., 1873, 
p. 85, pi. 10, f. 9. PFR., Monogr., viii, p. 23S.Achatinella 
mgrolabris THWING, Orig. Descriptions, p. 148, pi. 3, f. 15 
(uncharacteristic). Laminella mgrolabris Smith, W. G. BIN- 
NET, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci., iii, 1884, p. 98 "lingual dentition 
as in mastersi. ' ' 

Typically the last whorl of this snail is light-colored from 
suture to, or nearly to, the periphery, 2 or 3 preceding whorls 
being light with a dark band above the suture, and the out- 
lines of the spire are a little concave (figs. 14, 15, Wahiawa.) ; 
but in most of the lots before us there are also specimens in 
which the light color is confined to a narrow band below the 
suture, generally shading into the dark basal color, but some- 
times as sharply defined as in spirizona. Such shells are re- 
ferable to Swainson's acuta. They are figured in pi. 35, fig, 
10, and pi. 40, fig. 16 (Kawailoa), and pi. 35, fig. 12 (Wai- 
mea) . There are also transitional specimens, as Mr. Sykes has 
pointed out, both in color and shape, between spirizona and 
nigrolabris. 

The fact seems to be that a formerly widespread stock has 
been diversely modified on the two ranges. On the northern 
range the herd is composite, consisting of a mixture of spiri- 
zona forms (which might be called acuta Swains, if they need 
a name), with a broad-banded mutation peculiar to that range 
(typical nigrolabris), the latter predominating. This color- 
change is apparently coincident with a change in progress 
from terrestrial to arboreal habits, nigrolabris living on 
bushes, spirizona generally on the ground. 



AMASTRA, OAHU. 219 

Wahiawa topotypes of nigrolabris from the Gulick collec- 
tion measure: 

Fig. 14. Length 18.7, diam. 11.8, aperture 9 mm. 

Fig. 15. Length 20.5, diam. 11, aperture 8.5 mm. 

In Kahana valley (C. M. Cooke coll.) the shells are rather 
small. Some have typical spirizona pattern, others transi- 
tional, others typical nigrolabris pattern (pi. 35, figs. 11, 13). 
Specimens measure : 

Length 16, diam. 10 mm. 

Fig. 11. Length 19.5, diam. 10.8 mm. ; 6y 2 whorls. 

Fig. 13. Length 19, diam. 11 mm. 

Length 18.3. diam. 9.5 mm. 

Specimens have been examined from Waimea, Kawailoa 
(fig. 10), Helemano, Wahiawa, Opaiula, Ahonui, and Kalai- 
koa on the southern slope of the range, collected by Gulick, 
and from Kahana on the northern slope, collected by C. M. 
Cooke, Jr. 

A few specimens from Kawailoa, Helemano 'and Wahiawa 
have the base of the shell of a rusty red-brown color, in place 
of the usual dark purple-brown, the upper surface being light 
buff. These forms resemble A. s. rudis save that the light 
band extends to the periphery. 

486. A. s. rudis (Pfeiffer). PI. 33, fig. 10. 

Shell subimperforate, ovate-turrite, solid, rudely striate, 
fulvous-brown; spire elevated-conic, the apex rather acute, 
suture simple, very lightly crenulate. Whorls T 1 /^ moderately 
convex, the last scarcely forming two-fifths the total length, 
rotund. Aperture oblique, sinuate-oval; columellar fold me- 
dian, laminiform, subtransverse ; peristome simple, acute, the 
columellar margin dilated, reflexed, subadnate. Length 21, 
diam. 11.5. aperture 9 mm. long, 5 wide (Pfr.). 

Var. b. Chestnut, with buff median and basal bands, spire 
less lengthened (Pfr.). 

Sandwich Is. (Frick). 

Achatinella rudis PFR., P. Z. S., 1855, p. 5, pi. 30, f. 17; 
Monogr.. iv, 549. 

Pfeiffer's type figure, copied in fig. 10, represents a form 



220 AMASTRA, OAHU. 

essentially with the color pattern of A. spirizona. It seenis 
to us to represent a pallid form or race of that species, or 
perhaps of the similar narrow-banded form of nigrolabris. 
It can hardly be "a variety of A. intermedia Newc.," 'as Dr. 
Newcomb claimed (Ann. Lye., vi, 320). The var. b was sub- 
sequently referred to A. albida by Pfeiffer. 

48c. A. s. chlorotica (Pfeiffer). PL 35, figs. 19, 20. 

Shell subperf orate, ovate-conic, solid, rugulose-striate, whit- 
ish, variegated in streaks with greenish epidermis ; spire conic, 
rather acute. Whorls 6, the upper a little convex, the penul- 
timate swollen, the last whorl about two-fifths the total length, 
rotund. Aperture oblique, truncate-oval, white within. Colu- 
mellar fold very slight, almost none. Peristome simple, un- 
expanded, the columellar margin dilated, somewhat free. 
Length 18, diam. 10.5, aperture 8x5 mm. Oahu, Frick in 
Mus. Cuming (Pfr.). 

Oahu, Main Range: Kalaikoa, Ahonui, Wahiawa (Gulick) ; 
Kahana (C. M. Cooke). 

Ackatinella metis var. ~b, PFB., P. Z. S., 1855, p. 5. Acha- 
tinella chlorotica PFR., P. Z. S., 1855, p. 203 ; Monogr., iv, p. 
563, no. 4. A. albida PFR., t. <c., p. 203, no. 6. THWING, 
Orig. Descript., etc., pp. 154, 155 (Mt. Kaala) . 

The shells from the localities mentioned above are referable 
to A. albida, which seems to be not separable from chlorotica 
Pfr. Typical chlorotica we have not seen. It appears to 
differ from ' ' rudis var. b " => albida by lacking the tawny 
band or streak coloring ; whether as a race or only as an in- 
dividual mutation we have at present no means of knowing, 
though material to decide the question is probably extant in 
some of the great collections in the islands. 

These shells are merely A. s. nigrolabris in which the 
purple-brown pigmentation is wanting, leaving the rusty-red 
coloring and all other features unchanged. A. chlorotica is 
the blond, A. nigrolabris the brunette. The series before us 
shows no actual intergradation, yet the relationship is so inti- 
mate that it seems proper to rank chlorotica as a variety of 
the other. Such imitations are often observed where a single 



AMASTRA/ OAHU. 221 

color-factor is inhibited without otherwise changing the ani- 
mal. In this case the peculiarity has been perpetuated in a 
race. Specimens from Kalaikoa (fig. 19) and Wahiawa (fig. 
20) are figured. 

Under the cuticle the shell is white below the periphery, 
rusty red-brown, uniform or streaked above it. Over the 
whole there is a light greenish-yellow cuticle, and on the last 
whorl there may also be a very thin, light brown, partially 
deciduous outer cuticle. The spire is streaked with rust- 
brown ; the embryonic whorls yellow- corneous or light brown. 
The outlines of the spire are generally concave. The colu- 
mella and lip have a rose tint. 

Sometimes there is a rusty belt below the periphery, the 
latter then marked with a pale band or zone. Size and shape 
vary as in A. s. nigrolabris. 

Length 18.7, diam. 11 nrm. 

Length 18, diam. 12 mm. 

The columella is heavily calloused above the rather small 
plait, and it occasionally has one or two small tubercles, or a 
low, narrow fold above, such as occurs in some specimens of 
A. s. nigrolabris. The umbilicus may be open or closed. 

Dr. Newcomb (1858) first united A. rudis var. b, A. chloro- 
tica and A. albida. In 1893 Mr. Baldwin subordinated rudis, 
chlorotica and albida to nigrolabris as color- varieties ; but 
Pf eiffer 's names are prior to nigrolabris. It is, however, true 
that nigrolabris is the parent form, the others derivatives. 
Mr. Thwing records A. chlorotica and A. albida from Mt. 
Kaala. It is not likely that he had the form here identified 
as chlorotica. The original description of albida follows: 

Achatinella albida Pfr. Shell perforate, ovate-turrite, thin, 
irregularly striate, whitish streaked with a pale fulvous epi- 
dermis. Spire conic, the apex somewhat acute, the suture 
very slightly crenulate. Whorls 6, the upper flat, following 
more convex, the last scarcely % the total length, rotund, ob- 
soletely subangular at the periphery. Aperture a little ob- 
lique, sinuate-oval. Oolumellar fold median, lammiform, 
oblique. Peristome simple, unexpanded, the columellar mar- 
gin shortly reflexed, nearly free. Length 17, diam. 9~y 2 mm. 
Sandwich Is., Mr. D. Frick, Cuming coll. (Pfr.). 



222 AMASTRA, OAHU. 

49. A. INTERMEDIA (Newcomb) . PI. 33, fig. 8; pi. 34, figs. 6 
to 12. 

"Shell dextral, cylindrical; whorls 7, rounded; suture 
rather deep ; aperture small, subovate ; columella with a small 
flexuous plait ; lip acute ; striae numerous, well developed, and 
longitudinal to the shell ; color uniform dark brown, usually 
lighter at the sutures, interiorly of a bluish-white or slate 
color; columella bluish- white. Length fourteen-twentieths, 
diom. seven-twentieths of an inch" [17.5x8.75 mm.] (Newc.). 

Oahu: Wadanae (Newcomb) ; ridges of Nuuanu [?], and 
Waianae Mts. below Kaala (Perkins) ; Waianae and Lihue 
(Gulick). 

Achatinella intermedia NEWC., P. Z. S., 1853, p. 135, no. 
14, pi. 22, f. 13 (1854) ; Ann. Lye. N. Y., vi, p. 325. Amas- 
tra i., SYKES, Fauna Hawaii ensis, p. 338. Amastra conico- 
spira SMITH, P. Z. S., 1873, p. 86, pi. 10, f. 10. 

We are unable to find any characters to distinguish be- 
tween some varieties of this species and of A. porphyrea. 
Specimens from Wadanae are figured, pi. 34, figs. 11, 12. The 
first half -whorl is smooth; then slightly arcuate stria? ap- 
pear; these are rather strong on the first half of the second 
whorl, after which they become very fine and close, and 
weaker towards the lower suture. The embryo seems to com- 
prise nearly 3 whorls. It is narrower, higher and more conic 
than in A. rubens. The spire is nearly straightly conic in 
Waianae specimens, yet there is a .slight convexity in the out- 
lines of the lower part, while near the summit it is slightly 
contracted. This double curvature is more conspicuous in 
some of the shells from Lihue. Subsequent whorls have rather 
coarse, low and irregular growth-wrinkles. The first 3 or 4 
whorls are of a uniform dark purple-brown color; then a 
yellow line appears at the suture, widening to an ill-defined 
band on the last whorl, and the ground-color changes to dark 
reddish-brown, with some paler streaks along wrinkles, and 
usually remains of dull, blackish streaks of a deciduous outer 
layer of cuticle. There is no distinctly lighter patch in front 
of the aperture, but some shells obscurely show darker bands 
in the ground-color there. The aperture is white or blue- 






AM ASTRA, OAHU. 223 



white within, with a dark border in the acute lip. An axial 
crevice is present in some examples. Length 20, diam. 10.7 
mm.; 6% whorls (Waianae). 

In a series from Lihue (pi. 34, figs. 6 to 10) there are some 
shells having a reddish-brown, uniform or indistinctly banded 
under-color, like those from Waianae; others have a cream, 
pale brown-tinted or dirty-whitish ground with faint or dis- 
tinct reddish bands; and all are covered with a rather thin 
outer cuticular layer, which is brown or olivaceous on the 
pale, blackish on dark individuals. The embryonic whorls 
are generally dark, but sometimes pale. One specimen from 
Waianae (Gulick coll.) is like the paler Lihue shells. These 
light and banded specimens approach very close to A. cylvn- 
drica, and there may be actual intergradation ; yet, in gen- 
eral, A. intermedia is a more robust race, with straighter lat- 
eral outlines and a decidedly more conspicuous outer layer of 
cuticle. 

Up to a length of about 12 mm. the periphery is acutely 
angular, and the umbilicus present as a narrow crevice. In 
the adult stage it is imperforate. 

A shell probably from Waianae is figured, pi. 33, fig. 8, to 
show the coloration when the outer coat of cuticle is re- 
moved. The ground-color is cream-white, with many bright 
chestnut lines and bands, beginning faintly on the penult, 
whorl and becoming dark and wide on the base of the last 
whorl. Much wider at all stages of growth than A. cylin- 
drica. Length 19.2, dia.m. 11, aperture 9.3 mm. ; whorls G 1 /^. 
A young shell in the same lot is 13 mm. long, of 5 whorls, and 
has a width of 8.9 mm. It is wholly imperforate. 

Amastra conicospira Smith. PI. 27, fig. 18; pi. 38, fig. 14. 
' ' Shell ovate-conic, dextral, striated with growth-lines ; dirty- 
whitish, partly covered with olivaceous epidermis. Whorls 7, 
nearly flat, the first three or four light reddish, following two 
purplish-brown. Spire straightly conic. Suture simple. 
Aperture dirty-white. Peristome thin, brownish within, 
scarcely thickened ; columellar fold thin. Length 20.5, diam. 
10 mm. Sandwich Is." (Smith). 

"But one specimen of this species has been received, and 



224 AMASTRA, OAHU. 

without notes concerning the station and habitat, except that 
it is from the Sandwich Islands" (Smith) . 

The original figure is copied, pi. 27, fig.18. In pi. 38, fig. 
14, we have given an enlarged figure of the same unique type 
specimen, now in coll. Boston Society of Natural History. It 
is undoubtedly a rather turrited example of A. intermedia, 
almost exactly like some of the shells from Lihue. The in- 
ternal border of the outer lip and the columella above the fold 
are violaceous rather than "brownish." Length 20, diam. 
10.8 mm. ; 63/4 whorls. 

50. A. PORPHYBEA (Newcomb). PL 33, figs. 14 to 21. 

Shell rather solid, acuminately conical. Whorls 7, subcari- 
nated above, plano-convex; suture 'deeply impressed. Aper- 
ture subovate, contracted below; lip thin; columella short, 
terminating in a twisted plait. Epidermis thin and black; 
striae longitudinal and strong; color beneath epidermis of a 
leaden hue, with numerous transverse lines encircling the 
shell. Length .75, diam. .4 inch. (Newc.) 

Oahu : Waianae (Newcomb, type loc.) . Waianae and Lihue 
(Gulick) ; near Mt. Kaala (Thwing) ; main range at Ahonui 
and Wahiawa (Gulick) and Kahana (C. M. Cooke). 

Achatinella porphyrea NEWC., P. Z. S., 1853, p. 136, pi. 22, 
f. 16; Ann. Lye. N. H. of N. Y., vi, p. 326. PFR., Monogr., 
iv, 554. THWING, Orig. Descript, p. 156, pi. 3, f . 16. Achati- 
nella grossa PFR., P. Z. S., 1855, p. 204 ; Monogr., iv, p. 551. 
A. grassa Pfr., HARTMAN, 1888. 

This species may prove to be indistinguishable from A. in- 
termedia Nc., which seems to be connected with porphyrea by 
intermediate forms. In two lots from Newcomb, none of the 
shells retain an outer coat of "thin and black" epidermis. 
They vary from about the size given by Newcomb to longer, 
less obese forms, 19x11 mm. to 22x11.5 mm. The ground- 
color is a dull, livid, dark red, with or without darker and 
lighter streaks, and sometimes having indistinct spiral lines. 
A subsutural narrow band is yellowish, sometimes indistinct, 
but more often inconspicuous. The striae are livid whitish in 
some of the shells. The apical whorls are dull blackish-purple 



AMASTRA, OAHU. 225 

in five, nearly white in three shells of the lot. Two of these 
shells from Newcomb are figured, pi. 33, figs. 15 (Waianae) 
and 16. Xewcomb's original figure is copied, pi. 33, fig. 17. 

In a series of three shells from Waianae collected and 
labeled porpliyrea by Gulick, one specimen is like the New- 
cornb shells, the others having a buff ground with numerous 
reddish lines, a pink apex, and many shreds of brown cuticle 
on the last two whorls, exactly as in intermedia, to which 
form these shells may perhaps be referable. 

A large series from Lihue (pi. 33, figs. 18-21) labeled A. 
grossa Pfr. by Gulick, consists of rather robust shells, vari- 
ously colored : 

1. Last whorl or two bright yellow with a white subsutural 
band, early whorls fles'h-colored. Cuticle very thin, not de- 
ciduous in shreds, becoming light chestnut behind the lip 
(fig. 20). 

2. Very pale fleshy-buff, early whorls flesh-brown; last two 
whorls partly covered with remains of an opaque, brown or 
blackish cuticle (fig. 21). 

3. Under color fleshy-brown, apex often purplish, cuticle 
opaque and dark (fig. 18). 

4. Same as preceding, but there are darker spiral lines and 
bands on the later whorls ; the coloration being like intermedia 
and cylindrica (fig. 19). 

In these shells the spire is straightly or almost straightly 
conic, and the lip is thickened within. The proportions are 
rather variable : 

Length 18.5, diam. 11.2 mm. ; 6% whorls. 

Length 19, diam. 11 mm. 

Length 20, diam. 11.2 mm. 

Specimens referred by Gulick to porphyrea are also before 
us from the main range of Oahu Ahonui and Wahiawa (pi. 
33, fig. 14), and also from Kahana on the north side, where 
it was collected by C. M. Cooke. These shells have rather 
strongly raised, light-colored striae on a ground of dull red 
and purplish, summit dull purple, blue or flesh-colored ; suture 
generally, but not always, marked with a light line. There is 
no trace whatever of opaque outer cuticle. The fine filiform 






226 AM ASTRA, OAHU. 

light lines on a dark ground give this form a peculiar and 
distinct appearance. The dimensions and proportions vary 
rather widely : 

Length 16.8, diam. 11 mm. 

Length 19.2, diam. 11 mm. 

Length 17.2, diam. 10 mm. 

Another lot from Kahana, Oooke coll., contains fleshy-brown 
shells with a partly deciduous dark brown cuticle, spirally 
banded and lineate shells, and one pale buff throughout. This 
lot is less roughly striate than the preceding, being very much 
like the forms from the Waianae range. The locality "Ma- 
noa" given by Hartman is evidently an error. 

Achatinella grossa Pfr. is identical with porphyrea accord- 
ing to Newcomb, an opinion which later authors have ap- 
proved. The description follows : 

''Shell imperf orate, dextral, conic-ovate, solid, somewhat 
roughly striate, chestnut-colored. Spire ovate-conic, the apex 
acute, blackish, suture pale, crenulate. Whorls 7, the upper 
ones flat, smooth, the following gradually becoming more 
convex ; last whorl about two-fifths the total length. Aper- 
ture oblique, sinuate-semioval, whitish inside ; columellar fold 
laminiform; subtriangular, nearly transverse; peristome un- 
expanded, acute, the margins joined by a whitish callus, righl 
margin somewhat labiate within, columellar margin adnate. 
Length 23, diam. 11, aperture 10x5 mm. Sandwich Islands, 
Frick in Cuming coll." (Pfr.). 

51. A. PORPHYROSTOMA Pease. PI. 37, figs. 8, 12, 13. 

' ' Shell dextral, imperf orate, thick, long-conic, marked witl 
fine rough striae, covered with a very thick, brown, rough epi- 
dermis, below which there is a thin, smooth, brown one. Spire 
convexly conic. Whorls 6, convex, the last convex, half the 
total length ; suture well marked. Aperture subelliptical, sub- 
angular at the base. Columella narrow, vertical ; columellai 
fold thick, lamelliformt, nearly transverse. Outer margii 
simple. Ground-color of the shell under the epidermis yel- 
lowish. Columella and outer lip of a purple tone; summil 
reddish-brown. Length 20, diam. 11 mm. 



AMASTRA, OAHU. 227 

"The peculiar color of the aperture and the rugose, very 
peculiar epidermis with which the animal covers its shell dis- 
tinguishes this species well from its congeners" (Pease). 

Oahu (Pease) : central portion of the main range at Wahi- 
awa (Gulick) ; Kahana (C. M. Cooke, Jr.). 

Amastra porphyrostoma PEASE, Journal de Conehyliologie, 
xvii, 1869, p. 172 ; P. Z. S., 1869, p. 649.Achatinella p., PFR., 
Monogr., viii, p. 233. HABTMAN, Proc. A. N. S. Phila., 1888, 
p. 48, pi. 1, f. 6. 

Fig. 12 represents a specimen from the Pease collection. 
Those ta.ken by Gulick in Wahiawa valley are typical. The 
internal border of the outer lip, the columella and parietal 
callus are of a fine though not very deep purple color. The 
apical whorls are brown, or sometimes purple-brown with a 
pale band at the top. The "rugose-brown epidermis" men- 
tioned by Pease is foreign matter plastered on after the man- 
ner of Pterodiscus, etc. The real cuticle is thin, smooth, and 
of a light yellowish-chestnut color, the calcareous layer below 
being pale fleshy-yellowish. The axis is often perforate. The 
second embryonic whorl is very finely striate, as in A. turri- 
tella, etc. 

The shells from Kahana valley, on the north side of the 
range, have but little purple color within the outer lip, and 
the parietal callus is of a rather dull brownish purple. The 
shredded cuticle is of a dull, cold, brown color (pi. 37, figs. 
8,13). 

Length 20.2, diam. 12, aperture 10 mm. ; whorls 6. 

Length 21, diam. 12, aperture 10.5 mm. ; whorls 6. 

Length 17.8, diam. 11.2, aperture 10 ; whorls 5y 2 . 

This species is somewhat related to A. porphyrea, but it 
differs from all other related species by the colored parietal 
callus. 

52. A. CYLINDRICA (Newcomb). PI. 34, figs. 13, 14, 16. 

"Shell dextral, elongately cylindrical, tapering to a point 
at the summit. Whorls 7, slightly rounded ; suture moderate. 
Aperture oblong-ovate; columella terminating in a flexuous 
tooth. Surface of shell longitudinally strongly striate, of a 



i 



228 AMASTRA, OAHU. 

light 'horn-color, encircled by numerous narrow brown bands. 
Length sixteen- twentieths, diam. six- twentieths of an inch' 7 
[20x7.5 mm.] (Newc.). 

"Animal light gray, marbled with dusky triangular patches, 
mantle light gray, tentacles dark, granulations strong ; a dor- 
sal and two obscure lateral white lines extend from the head 
along the animal" (Newc.}. 

Oahu: Waianae (Newcomb) ; near Mt. Kaala (Thwing). 

Achatinella cylindrica NEWC., P. Z. S. Lond., 1853, p. 134, 
pi. 22, f. 11 (1854) ; Ann. Lye. N. H. of N. Y., vi, p. 325 (ani- 
mal) . PFR., Monogr., iv, 555. THWING, Orig. Descr., p. 156. 

This shell has some resemblance to A. frosti, but that is 
smaller, with more straightly turrited spire, the last whorl 
shorter and more convex. In A. variegata the outlines of the 
spire are straight, while in cylindrica they are typically quite 
distinctly convex, as in Newcomb 's figure which we have 
copied, pi. 34, fig. 13. 

The embryonic shell has a rather narrowly conic shape, as 
in A. variegata, not so blunt and rounded as in A. rubens. It 
is very finely striate, as in variegata. In color it varies from 
purplish-red to whitish-corneous, but the lighter tint prevails. 

Newcomb 's measurement of the diameter was no doubt 
erroneous ; his figure shows no such proportions as the assigned 
dimensions would indicate. Specimens received from him 
measure : 

Length 18.5, diam. 9, aperture 7.8 mm. ; 6% whorls. 

Length 18.3, diam. 9, aperture 8 mm. ; 6~y 2 whorls. 

The adult shell has variously-placed spiral lines and zon< 
of red-brown on a paler ground, which under the lens sho) 
whitish stride with fleshy or creamy intervals, giving a creai 
or fleshy appearance to the eye. Over this there is an e: 
tremely thin, dilute brown outer cuticle, worn off in front 
the aperture, or sometimes extensively lost. The sculpture 
strongly developed and rather irregular. The outer lip is 
little thickened within. Pig. 16 was drawn from a typi< 
specimen received from Newcomb (no. 57689 A. N. S. P.). 

In the same lot with several typical specimens from N< 
comb there is a narrower shell with almost straightly turril 



AMASTRA, OAHU. 229 

spire (fig. 14) but having the sculpture and color of cylin- 
drica. 

Another lot in the Robert Swift collection (57690 A. N. 
S. P.) contains two shells banded with red-brown on a nearly 
white ground, two without the bands but otherwise similar. 
All have a thin light brown cuticle. One of these is drawn 
in fig. 14 of plate 34. It measures, length 21, diam. 9.8 mm. ; 
whorls 7. 

A. rub ens has a thicker, blacker outer cuticle, a more ob- 
tuse apex, and less strong striation than cylindrica, but it 
must be admitted that there are specimens which seem to be 
intermediate between rubens and the bandless form of cylin- 
drica. On the other hand, cylindrica approaches close to A. 
intermedia; yet the typical forms of these three species are 
abundantly distinct. 

53. A. VARIEGATA (Pfeiffer). PL 34, figs. 1 to 5. 

"Shell subperf orate, rather solid, oblong-turrite ; striate; 
brownish-buff variegated with streaks of brown epidermis. 
Spire turrited, the apex ruddy, rather acute ; suture deep, not 
margined. Whorls 7, convex, the last two-fifths the total 
length. Columella indistinctly two-folded, the lower fold 
transverse, compressed, lamelliform, white. Aperture a little 
oblique, semioval. Peristome simple, unexpanded, acute, the 
columellar margin reflexed, overhanging, giving the appear- 
ance of a perforation. Length 17, diam. 8, oblique alt. of 
aperture 7, width 3i/ 2 mm." (Pfr.). 

Sandwich Is. (Pfr.) ; Oahu: Mokuleia, north of the west- 
ern end of the Waianae range (Gulick) ; Waianae valley 
(Baldwin) ; head of Boothes valley (Hartman). 

Achatinella variegata PFR., Zeitschr. f. Mala.k., 1849, p. 90; 
Conchyl. Cab., p. 282, pi. 67, f. 14, 15; Monogr., iii, 466. 
BALDWIN, Catalogue, p. 10. Achatinella rubem REEVE (in 
part), Conch. Icon., pi. 6, f. 42a. Achatinella decepta C. B. 
ADAMS, Ann. Lye. N. H. of N. Y., v, p. 43 ; Contrib. to Conch., 
no. 8, p. 127. Amastra variegata HARTMAN, Proc. A. N. S. 
Phila., 1888, p. 51. 

It is a species of more turrited shape than cylindrica or 
rub ens, the last whorl being shorter. 






230 AMASTRA, OAHU. 

The embryonic shell of 2% whorls is rather high and conic, 
purplish-red, darker at the tip, or rarely pallid. It is very 
finely and closely striate. Subsequent whorls have low wrin- 
kle sculpture, strongest just below the sutures. The last 
whorl retains the thin, light olivaceous-brown cuticle in shreds, 
In adult shells it is entirely worn away in front of the aper- 
ture, and is generally darker, brown-streaked, behind the lip. 
The color below the outer layer of cuticle is pale brown. In- 
terior white or faintly pink. The periphery remains acutely 
angular up to the 5 to 5% whorl stage, then becoming rounded. 
There is an <axial crevice behind the columellar lip. The 
"columella subbiplicata" mentioned by Pfeiffer is an occa- 
sional but inconstant feature, well developed in some shells, 
such as that drawn 1 in fig. 5, but the upper fold is quite in- 
distinct or wholly wanting in most individuals. The lip is 
thin-edged, and generally has a yellowish border within. 

Length 17, diam. 8.8, aperture 7.25 mm. ; 7 whorls. 

Length 17.2, diam. 8, aperture 7 mm. ; 7 whorls. 

Figures 1, 2 are copied from Pfeiffer ; figs. 3, 4, 5 and the 
above notes are from specimens from Mokuleia. 

Section HETERAMASTRA Pilsbry (p. 141). 

The single alleged Oahuan species referred to this group 
may prove to be a sinistral Paramastra, near A. tenuispira 
Baldwin, or perhaps it is not really from Oahu. 

54. A. ELONGATA (Newcomb). 

Shell sinistral, acutely turreted, with numerous well-defined 
longitudinal striae, covered with a brown epidermis. Whorls 
7, rounded ; suture deep, simple. Aperture ovate ; columella 
plicate; lip simple. Length 0.5, breadth 0.22 inch. Oahu 
(Newcomb, A. elongata) . 

Shell acutely turreted, sinistral ; whorls 7, rounded ; suture 
deep; striae numerous, longitudinal and well defined; aper- 
ture ovate; lip simple; columella plicate; color of epidermis 
brown. But a solitary specimen of this shell has been found; 
but its characters are clearly marked, and no described species 



AMASTRA, OAHU. 231 



resembles it in form. Length. 10, diarn. 4 Vfc- twentieths of an 
inch. Lehui, Oahu (Newcomb, for A. acuta). 

Oahu: Lihue, in the Waianae Range. Type in Newcomb 
coll., Cornell University. 

Achatinella elongata NEWCOMB, Annals of the Lyceum of 
Nat. Hist, of New York, vi, May, 1853, p. 26; t. c., Sept., 
1858, p. 328 (identity of A. acuta and A. elongata affirmed 
and explained). Amastra elongata SYKES, Fauna Hawaii- 
ensis, p. 349. Not A. elongata BORCHERDESTG, Zoologica, xix, 
p. 124, pi. 10, f. 24. Achatinella acuta NEWCOMB, P. Z. S., 
1853, p. 142 (not of Swainson; not P. Z. S., pi. 23, fig. 36 = 
A. soror). PFR., Monographia, iv, 528. 

Newcomb at first intended to name this shell A. acuta, but 
that name being in use, it was changed to elongata in the 
paper published in New York, which appeared before that in 
P. Z. S. under the name acuta. Both descriptions were based 
upon the same unique specimen, stated to be from Lihue, in 
the AYaianae range, Oahu. 

Borcherding follows Hartman in uniting A. hutchinsonii of 
Maui as a synonym of elongata. He figures a specimen from 
Waialua, near the eastern end of Molokai, which is clearly 
villosa Sykes, a form of hutchinsonii. We do not endorse this 
view. "With a length of about 12 mm., A. elongata has 7 
whorls. It is therefore only about half the size of A. hutchin- 
sonii or villosa. The embryonic sculpture is unknown. 

Newcomb subsequently procured additional specimens 
which he referred to elongata. Two of these, sent by him to 
Garrett, and now in the Bishop Museum, are certainly the 
Mauian A. l&va Bald., one being quite typical, the other (pi. 
49, fig. 10) is a wider form, 11x6 mm., having the shape of 
interject a, but the rough sculpture, solid texture and white 
aperture of l&va. 

A. elongata has not been found by Oahuan conchologists erf 
the present generation. Competent judges among them doubt 
the occurrence of such a shell on Oahu. 



232 AMASTRA, LANAI. 

AMASTR.E OF LANAI. 

The Amastrae of Lanai are closely related to those of Molo- 
kai. The biplicata series is especially developed, and the as- 
simiUs series of eastern Molokai and Maui is absent. Amas- 
trella and Cyclamastra have not been found, but perhaps they 
may turn up as fossils, or even recent, as the island has not 
been very thoroughly explored. Heteramastra is represented 
by one species. 

Key to Amastrce of Lanai. 

a. Shell sinistral. A. fraterna, no. 55. 

a 1 . Shell dextral. 

6. Shell globose-conic, 12x8.3, aperture 6.8 mm. 

A. nucula, no. 57. 

6 1 . Ovate-conic, oblong or turrited; aperture not over 
half the length. 

c. Small, banded, with costate and carinate 

apex; 11.6x6 mm. A. pusilla, no. 56. 

c 1 . Large (over 18 mm.), embryonic whorls 

handsomely costate and usually carinate. 

d. Whitish, fleshy or purplish under a 

fragmentary brown or blackish cuticle ; 

length 25 to 36 mm. A. magna, no. 58. 

d 1 . A white peripheral band, spire brown; 

smaller. A. m. ~balteata, no. 58a. 

d 2 . Yellow under a deep brown cuticle; 

aperture yellow; length 23 to 25 mm. 

A. aurostoma, no. 59. 

d 3 . Banded with brown; cuticle yellowish, 
dark behind the lip. 

A. gray ana, no. 60. 

d*. Yellow under the blackish cuticle; 

whorls shorter; aperture pink or red. 

A. rubristoma, no. 61. 

c 2 . Shell oblong-conic or turrited, the embryonic 
whorls finely striate ; aperture usually pink ; 
columella often biplicate. 



AMASTRA, LANAI. 233 

d. Yellow under blackish cuticle; last 

whorl strongly convex. 

A. rubristoma, no. 61. 
d\ Whitish under blackish cuticle; last 

whorl rather compressed; length 20 to 

23, diam. 11 mm. A. biplicata, no. 62. 
d 2 . Diameter usually more than half the 

length ; length 14 to 20 mm. 

A. durandi, no. 63. 
d 3 . More slender, smaller, diam. less than 

half the length. A. moesta, no. 64. 

Section HETERAMASTRA Pilsbry. 
55. A. FRATERNA Sykes. PI. 49, fig. 9 ; pi. 17, figs. 11, 14. 

" Shell sinistral, ovate turriform, thin; suture impressed; 
whorls 6 1 /? to 7, a little convex, longitudinally striated, cov- 
ered with a brown or blackish-corneous epidermis. Aperture 
ovate, moderate; peristome unexpanded, acute; lamina mod- 
erate. Length 10, diam. 5.5 mm. ' ' (Sykes) . 

Lanai : Mountains behind Koela (Perkins). 

Amastra fraterna SYKES, Proc. Malac. Soc. London ii, pt. 
3, p. 129, October, 1896. Amastra (Laminella) fraterna 
SYKES Fauna Hawaiiensis, p. 349, pi. 11, f. 23. 

Mr. Sykes 's original figure is copied in our pi. 49, fig. 9. 
The shell is more inflated than any of the soror group of Maui. 
It is entirely clothed with a thin, dark-brown or black cuticle, 
worn off in front of the aperture exposing the purple-brown 
under-color. The typical form has a nearly straight-sided 
spire and is composed of 61/2 to 7 whorls (pi. 49, fig. 9). 

A somewhat different form was collected by Mr. D. Thaa- 
num, exact locality not given. It has fewer whorls and a con- 
cave-sided spire (pi. 17, figs. 11, 14). The embryonic whorls 
are very beautifully costellate, the riblets being narrow. They 
are represented as much too wide in pi. 17, fig. 14. The whorls 
are convex, the last one inflated ; outlines of the spire concave. 
The columellar lamella is rather small, becoming larger within. 
The figures on plate 17 are from specimens collected by Mr. 



234 AMASTRA, LANAI. 

D. Thaanum. Length 10.3, diam. 6.5, aperture 5.3 mm. ; 
whorls. 

Subgehus AMASTRA s. sir. 

Imperforate or narrowly rimate Amastrse with the embry- 
onic whorls typically flattened, costate, and carinate above the 
suture (the carina sometimes concealed), rarely they are con- 
vex and striate. Cuticle generally marked with zigzag or an- 
gular stripes or spots. Type A. magna. 

Distribution : Molokai, Maui and Lanai. 

The variation in embryonic sculpture which is occasionally 
encountered in this subgenus is extraordinary, though in the 
great majority of specimens and species only the costate and 
carinate type of embryonic shell is found. The main excep- 
tions are in the series of A. magna, where the costation is weak 
in A. violacea and wanting in A. nubilosa; and the series of 
A. nigra, where that species has two embryonic forms, figured 
in pi. 43, figs. 1 and 3, and A. subcrassilabris has an embryo 
of the type shown in pi. 43, fig. 3. There are also a few other 
less aberrant cases of non-typical embryos in other series of 
the subgenus. This seems to be a case where the embryonic 
stage mutates independent of the later stages, a condition 
encountered in the Muririda, Buccinidce, etc., and sometimes 
recognized under the term * ' heterostyly. ' ' 

Series of A. pusilla. 

Small Amastrae with the embryonic whorls costate and cari- 
nate, later whorls banded beneath a thin, yellowish, unfigured 
cuticle. 

The single species placed here resembles A. petricola and 
A. abavus of Molokai in form and coloring, but differs en- 
tirely in embryonic sculpture. It is probably related to A. 
tricincta and its allies of Molokai. 

56. A. PUSILLA (Newcomb). PL 17, figs. 8, 13, 15. 

Shell dextral, conically ovate ; apex acute ; whorls 6, plano- 
convex; suture above but lightly impressed, below strongly 
marked; lip simple; columella short, with a twisted plait; 
epidermis light-brown, often encircled by narrow white bands. 



AMASTBA, LANAI. 235 

Length 14, diam. 4 twentieths of an inch, var. major. Length 
8y 2 , diam. 4 twentieths of an inch, var. minor. (Newc.) 

Lanai (Newcomb). 

Achatinella pusilla NEWC., Ann. N. Y. Lye. Nat. Hist, vi, 
Oct., 1855, p. 144: Amer. Journ. of Oonch., ii, 1866, p. 211, 
pi. 13, f. 5. Achatinella pulla Newc., PFR., P. Z. S., 1855, p. 
209 (Feb., 1856) ; Monographic iv, 546. 

PI. 17, figs. 8, 13, 15 were drawn from specimens received 
from Xewcomb, representing his minor variety, which may be 
accepted as the typical form, since it is what he figured in 
1866. The major variety, IT 1 /^ mm. long, noted in his descrip- 
tion, is not known to us by specimens, and may be a distinct 
species. A. pusilla is the smallest Amastra of Lanai. With 
some resemblance to A. petricola of Molokai, this species dif- 
fers entirely in the sculpture of the embryonic whorls. 

The outlines of the spire are convex below," a little concave 
near the apex. The first smooth half whorl is followed by a 
flattened, strongly-ribbed whorl, carinate close above the su- 
ture, the ribs rather widely spaced. On the next whorl they 
become very fine and close, persisting on the upper part of 
the whorl, weaker below. 2% whorls comprise the embryonic 
shell. The later whorls have growth-wrinkles only. The pen- 
ultimate whorl is generally brown with cream-white bands 
bordering the sutures above and below. The last whorl may 
have creamy bands at suture, periphery and base (fig. 13) or 
there may be several above the periphery. In other specimens 
the last two whorls are of an opaque cream tint, with several 
spiral brown bands, as in fig. 15. A very thin yellowish 
cuticle, in part deciduous, covers the last whorl or two. The 
aperture is white within and has a strong lip-rib (not shown 
in the figures). The columellar lamella is subhorizontal. 

Fig. 15. Length 11.25, diam. 6, aperture 5 mm.; whorls 

6y 2 . 

Length 11.6, diam. 6, aperture 5.1 mm. 

Series of A. nucula. 

The following species seems to be related to the nigra series 
of Maui. and the pullata series of Molokai. 



236 AMASTRA, LANAI. 

57. A. NUCULA E. A. Smith. PI. 26, fig. 9 ; pi. 39, figs. 11, 12. 

' ' Shell globose-conic, dextral, striated with lines of growth, 
partly lightly malleated, dirty whitish, partly covered with a 
brown-olivaceous cuticle. Whorls 5%, the first 4% rather 
flat, the last globose. Suture subcrenulate. Aperture whitish ; 
peristome thickened; columellar fold thin. Length 12, diam. 
8 mm. Habitat, probably on the island of Lanai." (Smith). 

Lanai mountains (Thwing) . 

Amastra nucula SMITH, P. Z. S., 1873, p. 85, pi. 10, f. 19. 
Achatinella nucula Smith, THWING, Occas. Pap. B. P. B. Mu- 
seum, iii, no. 1, p. 168, pi. 3, f . 20. 

' * In this species the apex is not strongly radiately sulcated, 
as in A. malleata " (Smith). 

The unique type of this species (no. 89 Gulick coll., Boston 
Society N. H.) is figured on pi. 39, figs. 11, 12, the original 
figure ('copied in pi. 26, fig. 9) giving an inadequate idea of 
the shell, though correct in outline. The first whorl has been 
broken; the second is finely striate, the striae close, arcuate, 
rather sharp and irregular. Subsequent whorls have light, 
irregular growth-wrinkles, in places a little enlarged near the 
suture, which however is not more crenulate than usual. The 
last whorl has a delicate ridge at the periphery in front, 
below which it is distinctly malleated, with f orwardly-descend- 
ing facets. Above the periphery the malleation is much 
weaker. Some specimens of A. nigra have a similar sculpture. 
The outlines of the spire are straight, but if the first whorl 
was present they would probably be a trifle concave. The 
early whorls are flesh-colored, the last two very pale-brown 
under a very thin, light, slightly yellowish-brown cuticle, 
which is worn away in front of the aperture, and becomes 
chestnut-colored close behind the outer lip. The aperture is 
formed much as in A. pellucida or A. nigra. The columellar 
lamella is subhorizontal, the curve below it deep and short, 
and there is a rather strong but narrow rib within the outer 
lip. Length, -as broken, 11.5, diam. 8.3, aperture 6.8 mm. 

This species has much the appearance of A. pellucida of 
Oahu, except that it is malleated; the color, shape and aper- 



AMASTRA, LANAI. 237 

ture being similar. It seems most closely related to the forms 
of A. nigra having rounded and striate embryonic whorls. 
There is no related species known on Lanai, and were it not 
for Mr. Thwing's acceptance of it as a Lanaian species, that 
locality might be doubted. 

(Series of A. magna.) 

58. A. MAGNA (C. B. Adams). PL 26, figs. 1 to 6; pi. 39, figs. 
4,8. 

" Shell thick, ovate^conic, elongate; blackish-brown at the 
apex, reddish-brown on the middle whorls, and ash-colored on 
the lower whorls; with unequal, irregular, very coarse, trans- 
verse striae, with close-set transverse arcuate ribs near the 
apex, and some indistinct raised spiral lines on the lower 
part of the last whorl ; apex subacute ; spire rather long, with 
the oulines quite curvilinear; whorls seven, rather convex, 
with a well-impressed suture; last whorl obtusely angular; 
aperture ovate, acute above, with an extremely thick deposit 
on the inner side, with a very large compressed columellar 
fold. 

Mean divergence 50; length 1.33 inch; breadth .7 inch; 
length of aperture .61 inch. 

The unique specimen which has served for this description 
is somewhat faded, and the lip probably is not quite mature, 
being sharp " (Adams). 

Lanai (Newcomb, Gulick) ; behind Koele (Perkins). 

Achatinella magna C. B. ADAMS, Ann. Lye. N. H. of N. Y. 
v, p. 41 (1850) ; Contrib. to Conch., no. 8, p. 125. NEWCOMB, 
Ann. Lye. N. H. of N. Y. vi, 1858, p. 319 (animal). PFR., 
Monographia iv, 542; vi, 177. NEWCOMB, Ann. Lye. N. H. 
vi, p. 319. Amastra magna C. B. Ad., HARTMAN, Proc. A. N. 
S. Phila., 1888, p. 47. SYKES, Fauna Hawaiiensis, p. 339. 
BORCHERDING, Zoologica, xix, p. 106, pi. 10, f. 2. GULICK, 
Evolution, Racial and Habitudinal, pi. 1, f. 19. Achatinella 
baldwimi NEWCOMB, P. Z. S., 1853, p. 155, pi. 24, f. 72. 
Achatinella gigantea NEWCOMB, P. Z. S., 1853, p. 136, pi. 22, 
f. 17 (Haleakala, Maui). 

" Animal of inky-black above, veined with white, when ex- 



238 AMASTRA, LANAI. 

tended, as long as the shell ; base of foot and mantle of a 
bluish-gray " (Newcomb). 

A. magna differs from the related A. violacea of Molokai 
by its embryonic shell (pi. 26, fig. 5, length 6 mm., 3% 
whorls). The initial half whorl is smooth; next two whorls 
strongly oostate, and earinate above the suture ; on the third 
whorl the ribs are finer than on the second. After the third 
whorl they become weak, persisting longest near the suture. 
The fully-formed embryo, as figured, is imperforate, acutely 
carinate, the carina white. The columellar fold is moderate 
and very oblique. In A. violacea the costation of the embryo 
is less strong and no supersutural carina is visible. 

The last whorl varies from closely, subregulaiiy striate to 
irregularly striate and malleate, the subperipheral portion 
often having revolving, flattened facets. Sometimes the peri- 
phery is angular, as in fig. 3. The blackish cuticle remains in 
shreds or lines between the striae on the last whorl or two. 
There is great variation in the color of the aperture. It may 
be white (fig. 1) or cream-white (fig. 3), salmon-colored (fig. 
2), or purple-brown or leaden^purple (fig. 4). The parietal 
callus is very thick in adult shells (thereby differing from A. 
violacea) ; it is pure white or dark-brown. The columellar 
fold is thin. 

Fig. 4. Length 36.5, diam. 17, aperture 16.2 mm. ; 7 
whorls. 

Fig. 1. Length 30, diam. 16.2, aperture 15.5 mm.; 6y 2 
whorls. 

Fig. 2. Length 30.5, diam. 15, aperture 13 mm.; 6% 
whorls. 

Fig. 3. Length 29.5, diam. 13.2, aperture 12.2 mm.; 7 
whorls. 

Fig. 6. Length 35, diam. 19, aperture 16.8 mm. ; 7 whorls. 

Length 35.5, diam. 15.5, aperture 1.5 mm. ; 7% whorls. 

Length 25, diam. 12 mm. 

The size varies widely. In shape it may be subcylindric, 
ovate or oblong-conic. It is likely that several subspecies will 
eventually be recognized, but a knowledge of the distribution 
of the forms is requisite for any step in this direction. Figs. 



AMASTRA, LANAI. 239 

4, 8, of plate 39, show shells retaining the cuticle, which is 
figured in characteristic patterns. 

A. baldu'inii Newcomb, was based upon a small example 
with the spire rather straightly conic, and the cuticle adher- 
ing in patches. Entirely similar shells are in several of the 
large lots of magna before us. Newcomb conceded its identity 
with magna. The original description and figure follow. 

" Achatinella baldwinii (pi. 39, fig. 1). Shell dextral, con- 
ically elongate, striated longitudinally ; whorls 7, slightly con- 
vex, not margined; suture simple, well- imp ressed ; aperture 
elongate-ovate; columella long, with a white plicate tooth; 
lip acute, margined within with brown. Aperture bluish- 
white; lab rum with a white deposit; color of shell light 
brown, with traces of a thin black epidermis; first four whorls 
black. Length 2.1, diam. 10 twentieths of an inch. This 
species is dedicated to the Rev. Mr. Baldwin of Lahaina. It 
belongs to the limited group of A. gigantea and A. violacea. 
There has been but one specimen as yet obtained " (Newc.). 

Ranai. Length 21, diam. 10 twentieths of an inch (Newc.). 

Achatinella gigantea Newcomb has been considered a syn- 
onym of violacea by Pease, Hartman, Borcherding and Sykes, 
who remarks that probably the locality of Maui, given by 
Newcomb, was an error, as his specimen appears to be only an 
elongate form of the Molokai shell. Specimens received from 
Dr. Newcomb are certainly A. magna. The callosity " con- 
tinued to unite with the outer lip " is a character of magna, 
not of violacea. It seems to be an absolute synonym of 
may ita. The original description and figure are copied: 
'* Achatinella gigantea (pi. 40, fig. 1). Shell dextral, elon- 
gate-ovate, apex pointed: whorls 7, strongly striate, slightly 
carinated superiorly on the last whorl, inferiorly on the penul- 
timate : columella slightly arched, terminating internally in a 
slight callosity; externally continued to unite with the outer 
lip : columellar lip with a strong deposit spread over its sur- 
face : outer lip simple ; suture deep ; striae longitudinal ; color 
light plumbeous externally, internally pale lilac. Length 1^, 
diam. 12 twentieths of an inch. Haleakala, Maui " (New- 
comb). 



240 AMASTRA, LANAI. 

Among the specimens of A. aurostoma sent 'by Mr. Baldwin, 
there is an interesting shell showing some characters of auros- 
toma, though the magna type predominates (pi. 26, figs. 11, 
12). The ground color is pale-brown on the last two whorls, 
red-brown above. The cuticle is dense, unbroken and nearly 
black on the last two-thirds of the last whorl. The striation 
is more pronounced than in aurostoma, and the lower half of 
the last whorl is conspicuously malleate, a feature not very 
clearly indicated in the figure. The aperture is yellow within, 
as in aurostoma, but some magna have the same color. Length 
24.2, diam. 11.5 mm. 

Color- var. balteata n. v. (pi. 26, figs. 7, 8). A small form 
in which the spire is brown, last whorl gradually becoming 
lighter, whitish in its last third, and encircled by a white 
peripheral band, visible as an angular white line close above 
the suture on the spire. Embryonic whorls costate and cari- 
nate. No cuticle remains ; striation well developed on the last 
whorl. Aperture small, acutely ovate, somewhat periform, 
flesh-colored inside. Columellar fold small and oblique. 
Length 23.6, diam. 12.3, aperture 11 mm. ; whorls 6y 3 (fig. 8). 

59. A. AUROSTOMA Baldwin. PI. 26, figs. 13, 14. 

The shell is imperforate, oblong-conic, solid, yellow under 
a dark chestnut cuticle, which is smooth, rather glossy, and 
on the spire streaked with yellow; apex red-brown. Embry- 
onic whorls costate and carinate, the earina very close to the 
suture. Subsequent whorls slightly convex, with sculpture 
of low striae, which are weaker on the last whorl, which is regu- 
larly elliptical and not malleate. The aperture is ovate, yellow 
within; outer lip without a lip-rib. Oolumella yellow, bearing 
a strong fold of the same tint. Parietal callus tinted, typically 
thick. 

Fig. 13. Length 25, diam. 12.6, aperture 11 mm. ; 6!/2 
whorls. 

Fig. 14. Length 23.5, diam. 12, aperture 11.8 mm.; 6y 2 
whorls. 

" Animal when extended in motion as long as the shell; 
mantle dark slate, margined on the outer side with, reddish- 



AMASTRA, LANAI. 241 

brown. Foot above and below very dark brown, the sides 
studded with large patches of darker hue, the posterior por- 
tion tinged with red. The head above and tentacles covered. 
with almost black granulations " (Baldwin). 

Lanai ("Walter H. Hayselden). 

Amastra aurostoma BALDWIN, Nautilus, x, July, 1896, p. 31. 

This species stands close to small forms of A. magna. It is 
smoother, of a brighter yellow color under the cuticle, which 
is more persistent. The last whorl is more regularly ellip- 
tical than usual in magna. The description and figures 13 
and 14 are from cotypes received from Mr. Baldwin. 

The cuticle is typically dense and dark on the last whorl. 

In some specimens (no. 2232 coll. C. M. Cooke) the cuticle 
is much worn. In others it is closely mottled on the penulti- 
mate and front of last whorl. Probably intergrading forms 
with A. gray ana will be found. 

60. A. GRAYANA (Pfeiffer). PI. 39, figs. 2, 3. 

Shell imperforate, dextral, ovate-conic, rather solid, some- 
what shining, grayish-flesh colored, variously marked with 
chestnut bands disappearing above. Spire inflated-conic, the 
apex acute, black; whorls 6%, the upper ones flat, radially 
plicate, the penultimate convex, last whorl nearly as long as 
the spire, lightly striate. Aperture sub vertical, acuminate- 
oval. Columellar fold median, subtransverse, triangular; 
peristome simple, unexpanded, the columellar margin slightly 
dilated, adnate. Length 21.5, diam. 12 mm. Sandwich Is., 
D. Frick (Pfr.) 

Lanai: Lanaihale, a ground shell (Perkins). 

Achatinella grayana PFR., P. Z. S., 1855, p. 204, no. 13; 
Monographia, iv, 554. Amastra grayana SYKES, Fauna Ha- 
waiiensis, p. 337, no. 22. 

It has been recorded from Oahu, evidently in error, since 
no Oahuan species has flat, radially plicate upper whorls. 
Two specimens in the C. M. Cooke collection, received from 
D. D. Baldwin are figured. In these shells (pi. 39, figs. 2, 
3), which are not localized nearer than ;i Lanai," the cuticle 
is olivaceous yellow marked with darker or reddish-brown 



242 AMASTRA, LANAI. 

spiral lines on the penultimate and sometimes the periphery 
of the last whorl, becoming blackish or dark-brown behind 
the lip. Under the cuticle the last whorl or two is light-yellow, 
as exposed in front of the aperture. Apex reddish or purplish 
brown, costate, but the carina is almost concealed in the suture. 
Interior of aperture pink or white. 

Length 21, diam. 10.2, aperture 9.8 mm. ; whorls G 1 ^. 

Length 19.5, diam. 11, 'aperture 10 mm. ; whorls 6. 

This species stands very close to A. aurostoma which differs 
by its thicker, darker cuticle, without bands ; it is also larger 
than gray ana. (Named for J. E. Gray, then keeper of the 
zoological department of the British Museum.) 

61. A. RUBBISTOMA Baldwin. PL 39, figs. 5, 6. 

" Shell dextral, imperf orate, solid, elongately ovate-conic, 
apex acute; surface striated with irregular growth striae; 
nuclear whorls radiately sulcated. Color reddish-brown, 
sometimes almost white, upper whorls darker ; generally cov- 
ered with a dark fugacious epidermis. Whorls 7, convex, 
suture well impressed. Aperture a little oblique, oval, red 
within, sometimes livid-white. Peristome acute, very slightly 
thickened within. Columella terminating in a strong arched 
lamellar plait, tinged with red. Length 19%, diam. 12 mm " 
(Baldwin). 

Lanai (D. Thaanum). 

Amastra rubristoma BALDW., Nautilus, xix, April, 1906, p. 
137. 

This species stands close to A. aurostoma, from which it 
differs by the much shorter whorls. It stands intermediate 
between aurostoma and ~biplicata, differing from the latter by 
its more rotund last whorl, the yellow under-color and the 
more glossy surface. No specimens are well enough preserved 
to show whether the embryonic sculpture is that of aurostoma 
or of ~biplicata. The type specimens are figured. Of the 
three, one is entirely denuded of all cuticle, dull and flesh- 
colored, a little yellowish on the last whorl, darkening near 
the apex and behind the lip (fig. 6). The other shells are 
unworn. They have a glossy yellow under-skin, mainly cov- 



AMASTRA, LANAI. 243 

ered by a thin, much- worn blackish-brown cuticle. The api- 
cal whorls are reddish, worn in all of the specimens, but they 
seem to show traces of costation; the keel, if any, is nearly 
or quite concealed in the suture. The subsequent whorls are 
weakly marked with growth-lines, rather glossy, and strongly 
convex. Aperture bright pink within in the two larger shells, 
merely pinkish-white in the smallest, The pink lip-rib is 
strong or rather weak. The well-developed columellar fold is 
median and quite oblique. 

Length 19.3, diam. 11.7, aperture 9.2 mm. ; 6% whorls. 

Length 19.3, diam. 11.4, aperture 8.9 mm.; 6y 2 whorls. 

Length 17, diam. 11, aperture 8 mm. ; 6% whorls. 

Series of A. biplicata. 

Embryonic shell purple-brown, very finely sharply striate, 
the whorls somewhat convex. Adult stage oblong or turrite, 
partly covered with a blackish deciduous cuticle, which is 
variegated on the intermediate whorls. Columella with one 
or tiuo folds and, with the parietal callus, usually pink. 

The sculpture of the embryonic shell is stronger than in 
the Oahuan group of A. turritella, and the apex is somewhat 
more pointed, but the resemblance is perhaps indicative of 
relationship. It should be noted that in the turritella series 
also there is a tendency to form a second 'columellar fold, in 
rare individuals. The variegated cuticle of the neanic stage 
allies the biplicata group to typical Amastra of Lanai and 
Molokai, from which it differs by the convex, striate, not cos- 
tate, embryonic whorls a character variable in Amastra. 

Species are known from Lanai and Molokai. Data for 
mapping the range of the Lanaian forms are wanting. We 
have as yet only scanty information on the details of distri- 
bution in this island. 

62. A. BIPLICATA (Newcomb). PL 17, figs. 1 to 6. 

Shell dextrorsal, elongately cylindrical ; whorls 7, rounded, 
longitudinally strongly striated ; suture deep ; aperture small, 
subovate ; inner lip rather callous ; columella biplicate ; outer 



244 AMASTRA, LANA1. 

lip acute, submarginate within; color rosy, partly concealed 
by a thin brown epidermis ; upper whorls black ; aperture red 
within. (Newc.) 

No dimensions ; figure measures 23 x 12 mm. 

Lanai (Newc.) ; Waiapaa >and Koele (Perkins). 

Achatinella biplicata NEWC., P. Z. S., 1853, p. 156, pi. 24, 
f. 75 (1854). THWING, Orig. Descriptions, p. 168, pi. 3, f. 
19. Amastra biplicata Nc. SYKES, Fauna Hawaiiensis, p. 
334. 

A variable shell, sometimes quite elongate, sometimes short- 
ened, but typically easy to recognize by the biplicate colu- 
mella and more or less deeply pink aperture. An embryonic 
shell 3.8 mm. long, of nearly 3 whorls, has an angular peri- 
phery, moderate columellar fold and no perforation. The 
first half whorl is smooth; next whorl finely and sharply 
striate, and the following whorl is much smoother. The em- 
bryonic whorls are invariably dark purple-brown. Later 
whorls of the shell are quite convex, with rather low, coarse, 
irregular growth- wrinkles. Cabinet specimens are whitish 
under the dense black or black-brown 1 cuticle, which may be 
nearly continuous or very extensively deciduous. On the 
intermediate whorls the cuticle is generally mottled, or re- 
mains in forwardly descending stripes, which are probably 
due to an oblique malleation of the surface. The aperture is 
pink-tinted or white within, the outer wall is sometimes thin, 
but generally thickened by a heavy deposit of callus, forming 
a low entering ridge above the middle of the outer lip. This 
has been noticed in few Amastras. The columella sandf 
parietal wall are pink. The columella usually bears two sub- 
equal, oblique folds, but occasionally the upper one is weak 
or entirely wanting, and in one shell examined (no. 13433, 
B<oston Society) there is no trace of an upper fold, and the 
lower one is reduced to a low truncation of the 'columella. 

Length 23, diam. 11, aperture 9 mm. ; 7% whorls. 

Fig. 4. Length 20.5, diam. 11, aperture 9 mm. ; 6% whorls. 

Fig. 6. Length 22, diam. 10.2, aperture 8.9 mm. 

A. durandi Ancey, said to be from Waianae, Oahu, but 
known to occur on Lanai, is apparently the most closely re- 



AMASTRA, LANAI. 245 

lated species. It differs chiefly in being smaller and more 
slender than biplicata. 

63. A. DURANDI Ancey. PL 39, figs. 7, 9, 10. 

" Shell imperf orate or nearly perforate, conoid-oblong, 
solid ; fleshy- whitish under a black-brown epidermis which is 
partly deciduous, and sometimes lightning-streaked above; 
somewhat glossy, lightly striate, the apex nude, blackish- 
purple. Spire conic-turrite, acute. Whorls 7, the first 
sharply and closely striate, nearly flat, those following con- 
vex, parted by a narrow and simple suture, the last whorl ob- 
long, rotund. Aperture suboblique, sinuate-semioval, angular 
above; parietal wall and columella glossy reddish, the rest 
concolored, interior pale rose-white. Columella provided 
above with two oblique, acute and equal folds. Peristome 
acute. Length 15.5, diam. 8, alt. apert. 6 mm." (Anc.) 

Lanai (Pease, in U. S. Nat. Mus. ; Cooke coll.) 

[Waianae, Oahu, E. Durand.] 

Amastra durandi ANCEY, Le Naturaliste, xix, 1897, p. 178. 

" This interesting species is incontestably closely related 
to A. biplicata of the island of Lanai, and may be considered 
a derivative form of that which has had an independent de- 
velopment on another island. It is remarkable for the two 
quite equal cokimellar folds, while in its congener they are 
slightly unequal, a size smaller than A. biplicata, and a more 
brightly colored aperture " (Ancey). 

Mr. Ancey 's description and remarks are given above. The 
locality given by him was undoubtedly erroneous. Eight 
specimens of the species from Lanai are before me: one 
from the National Museum, no. 42408&, three from the Cooke 
collection, no. 2230, and four from the Boston Society, nos. 
13432 and 13434. In having finely striate dark-purplish em- 
bryonic whorls it is like A. mcesta. The very shallow pro- 
tractive depressions, retaining dark cuticle on the interme- 
diate whorls of some specimens are also found in mcesta and 
biplicata. The columella is like that of A. biplicata. The 
two folds may be subequal, or the upper one may be wider or 
more oblique. There is sometimes a heavy callus within the 



246 AMASTRA, LANAI. 

mouth, above the middle of the outer margin, as in A. bipli- 
cata. The largest shells have 7% whorls, the smaller ones 7. 

Length 20, diam. 9.2, aperture 7.9 mm. 

Length 20, diam. 8.5, aperture 7.1 mm. 

Length 17.5, diam. 8.3, aperture 7 mm. 

Length 18.3, diam. 7.9, aperture, 7 mm. 

Fig. 9 is from no. 42408a, U. S. Nat. Mus. ; fig. 10 is one of 
three shells in no. 13432, Boston Society, a much stouter var- 
iety, which may represent another subspecies, length 14, diam. 
8 mm., aperture 6.9 mm. ; 6% whorls. 

64. A. MCESTA (Newcomb). PL 17, figs. 7, 9; pi. 26, fig. 10. 

" Shell dextrorsal, turrito-conical ; whorls 7, convex, longi- 
tudinally striated ; aperture small, ovate, slightly contracted ; 
columella straight with a strong white spiral callus in the 
middle. Color reddish-brown; the upper whorls black; the 
middle with black zigzag lines, the last covered with a dark- 
brown epidermis " (Newc.). 

No dimensions given; figure measures, length 18, diam. 7.9 
mm. 

Lanai (Newc.) . 

Achatinella mcesta NEWC., P. Z. S., 1853, p. 157, no. 77, pi. 
24, f. 77 (1854). PFR., Monogr., iv, 555. Amastra mcesta 
SYKES, Fauna Hawaiiensis, p. 340. Achatinella obscura 
NEWC., P. Z. S., 1853, p. 157, no. 78, pi. 24, f. 78 (1854). 
Amastra longa SYKES, Proc. Mala/c. Soc., London, ii, Oct., 
1896, p. 129 ; Fauna Hawaiiensis, p. 339, pi. 11, f . 35. 

Distinguished by its slender and elongate shape, like some 
East Mauian species, but very unlike them in the sculpture 
of the embryonic whorls. After the smooth initial half -whorl 
there are two whorls with fine, close, sharp striation (shown 
too coarse in pi. 26, fig. 10). Later whorls have low growth- 
wrinkles. The first 3 or 4 whorls are dark purple-brown, the 
last two whorls very pale brown or creamy, partly covered 
with a thin blaekish cuticle, which is mottled or obliquely 
striped on the intermediate whorls, and is sometimes almost 
wholly deciduous. The aperture, columella and parietal cal- 
lus are flesh-colored. Columella short, bearing a stout median 



AMASTRA, LANAI. 247 

fold, and often a very low, more oblique rudimentary upper 
fold. 

Fig. 7. Length 15.8, diam, 7, aperture 6 mm. ; 7 whorls. 

Fig. 9. Length 15, diam. 6.5, aperture 6 mm. ; 6% whorls. 

64a. Var. olscura (Newcomb) . PI. 17, figs. 10, 12. 

The form called A. obscura has been considered a synonym 
of moesta by Pease, Hartman and Sykes. It differs only in 
being a little more slender. The figures represent shells re- 
ceived from Newcomb. The brown or dull olive cuticle may 
be merely streaked (fig. 12) or it may be mottled and marked 
with angular lines (fig. 10). As in mcesta, proper, there is 
sometimes a keel visible above the suture on some intermediate 
whorls. 

Fig. 12. Lengfti 16.5, diam. 6.5, aperture 5.7 mm. ; 7 
whorls. 

Fig. 10. Length 13.3, diam. 5.5, aperture 5 mm. ; 7 whorls. 

Length 13, diam. 5.2 mm. 

Length 12, diam. 5.8 mm. 

Newcomb gave no dimensions. His description follows: 
" Shell dextrorsal, turrito-conical ; whorls 7, longitudinally 
striated, rather convex, marginate superiorly ; suture slightly 
impressed. Aperture small, ovate; columella subtortuous, 
furnished with a spiral lamina ; outer lip acute, simple ; color 
dirty fulvous, covered with a blackish-brown epidermis; the 
upper whorls black. Island of Ranai." 

64fc. Var. longa Sykes. PI. 26, fig. 15. 

" Shell dextral, long, subperf orate, solid, substriate, cov- 
ered with a black-brown epidermis; the apex rather acute; 
suture simple. Whorls 7, moderately flat, the last more than 
half the length of the shell. Aperture sinuate-semioval, whit- 
ish inside; columella slightly folded above, provided with a 
small transverse lamina; peristome simple, unexpanded. 
Length 11.75, diam. 6.5 mm. 

" Lanai (Newcomb) ; Windward side of Lanai, apparently 
extinct (Perkins). 

" This is one of those species which are fast disappearing 



248 AMASTRA, MOLOKAI. 

from the fauna of the Hawaiian Islands, or are, indeed, al- 
ready extinct. The two specimens found "by Mr. Perkins have 
lost their periostracum, but others in the British Museum, col- 
lected forty years ago, are in far better condition. The 
species is, in form, of the group of A. turritella Fer., -and has 
the blackish periostracum usually found on the species of 
Amastra from Lanai " (Sykes) . 

The figure published by Mr. Sykes does not seem to repre- 
sent the type-specimen, as the length is indicated as 17 mm. 
Possibly the length " 11.75 " is an error for 17.5 mm. No 
comparison seems to have been made with A. mcesta; and as 
no differential characters are given, I admit it as a variety 
with some hesitation. 

AMASTR^E OF MOLOKAI. 

Molokai is formed of a lower western mass culminating in 
Mauna Loa, 1382 ft. elevation, and a higher, deeply-furrowed, 
forested, eastern mass. The western half is dry and unfor- 
ested, having been in very much this condition for at least 
a century. So far as we know, not a single land shell is 
known from this region, but it was probably once forested, 
and if so, fossil shells will probably be found. Possibly some 
still survive in the higher, rougher portions, but so far as we 
know, none have been reported. 

' ' The only forest now remaining in the mountains of Molo- 
kai is found at elevations above 1500 feet at the east end of 
the island. This forest is inaccessible [for economic pur- 
poses] on account of the precipitous character of the moun- 
tains." 

It is in this forest that the Molokaian snails live. 

"While the Amastrae of Molokai are on the whole closest to 
those of Maui, yet their relationship to those of Lanai is 
hardly less intimate. The Laminellae are nearer those of Maui. 

The Achatinellida of Molokai have been treated monogra- 
phically by Herr Fr. Borcherding, in his Achatinellen-Fauna 
der Sandwich-Insel Molokai, Zoologica, xix, Heft 48, 1906; 
196 pp., with 9 beautiful colored plates and a map. It is an 
excellent and useful work. I hesitate to mention that in my 



AMASTRA, MOLOKAI. 249 

opinion the errors of identification are somewhat numerous, 
because in the present state of the subject, certainty is un- 
attainable in dealing with Molokaian Amastras and Lami- 
nellas. 

Most of the eases cited by Borcherding of Achatinellida oc- 
curring on two or more islands are either based on faulty 
data, or in some cases rest upon a wider conception of l ' spe- 
cies " than the authors have used in this work. So far as we 
know, Amastra hutchinsonii is the only Molokaian species of 
this genus which is common to another island (Maui), though 
several forms of the assimilis group of eastern Molokai and 
Maui are closely related. 

- 
i 

Key to Amastra of Molokai. 

I. Shell deeply umbilicate, small (length about 9 to 11 mm.) , 
brown. A. umbilicata, no. 65. 

II. Shell rimate or imperforate. 
a. Shell sinistral. 

&. Small, 11.5x5.5 mm., with weak sculpture. 

A. perversa, no. 82. 

ft 1 . Larger, length 15 to 25 mm.; roughly sculptured. 

A. hutchinsonii, no. 89. 
a 1 . Shell dextral. 

&. Embryonic whorls finely striate. 

c. Small, length 9 to 12 mm.; banded; no an- 
gularly striped cuticle. 

d. Moderately solid, brown with a subsutural 

whitish band. A. petricola, no. 66. 

d 1 . Very solid, lip, columella and parietal 

callus thick ; fossil. A. abavus, no. 67. 

c 1 . Larger, length over 15 mm. 

d. Cuticle dense, black, variegated on spire; 

dull red within the lip ; 16 to 18x9 mm. 

A. humiUs, no. 68. 

d 1 . Striation very weak; closely speckled and 
ragged-striped on a cream or pale fleshy 
ground; lip white within. 



250 AMASTRA, MOLOKAI. 

e. Rather narrow, with strongly convex 
whorls 16x9.5 to 22.3x11 mm. 

A. nubilosa, no. 70. 

e 1 . Spire more conic, last whorl more 
ample; 20x12 to 25x14 mm. 

A. n. macerata, no. 70a. 
d z . Only some shreds of cuticle remaining; 

striate; violaceous or flesh-colored. 
e. About 29x14 mm. A. violacea, no. 69. 
e 1 . Larger, more ashen. 

A. v. wailauensis, no. 69a. 
& 1 . Embryonic whorls costa-te and carinate, or with 

the carina concealed in the suture, 
c. Last whorl dark or 'covered with an olive or 
dark cuticle, sometimes banded or streaked 
but not mottled or zigzag-striped. 
d. Small (length 8 to 12 mm.), with one to 
three white spiral bands; thin, ovate- 
conic. 

e. Dark brown with white bands at su- 
ture, periphery and base; 8.8x5 
mm. A. tricincta, no. 80. 

e 1 . Pale brown, lighter at suture, a white 
band at the periphery ; 11.8x6.9 mm. 
A. elegantula, no. 81. 

d 1 . Oblong conic, with somewhat streaked 
olive-brown cuticle on last whorl ; rather 
small. 
e. Length 12, diam. 6 mm. 

A. subobscum, no. 79. 
e 1 . Length 16.5 to 17, diam. 8 to 9 mm. 

A. m. dimissa, no. 78a. 

d 2 . Rather large, length 15 to 23 mm. ; wider ; 
last whorl covered with dark-brown or 
black cuticle ; spire sometimes mottled, 
zigzag-striped. 

e. Diam. decidedly more than half the 
length. 



AMASTRA, MOLOKAI. 251 

/. Ovate; last whorl covered with 

dark cuticle. A. pullata, no. 71. 

f 1 . Globose-conic; last whorl light 

above, dark below periphery; 

15x10 to 16x9.3 mm. 

A. seminuda, no. 72. 
e 1 . Diam. half the length, more or less; 

narrower shells. 

/. Dense black cuticle on last whorl, 
often streaked or zigzag on pen- 
ult. ; 20x10 to 11 mm. 

A. uniplicatcb, no. 73. 

f 1 . Very little cuticle remaining; last 

whorl generally malleate; 19x 

10.5 mm. A. borcherdingi, no. 74. 

d 3 . Length 28 to 38 mm.; very little cuticle; 

fleshy, violaceous or gray. 

A. violacea, no. 69. 

c 1 . Cuticle decorated with zigzag or angular mark- 
ings, sometimes wanting. 

d. Globose-conic, the diam. about % the 

length; aperture more than half the 

length. A. sykesi, no. 76. 

d 1 . Ovate or oblong-conic, narrower; aperture 

half the length or less. 
e. Ground-color yellow. A. citrea, no. 
75b ; A. atroflava, no. 75c. 
e 1 . Ground-color brown, fleshy or whit- 
ish. A. borcherdingi, no. 74; A. 
mucronata, no. 75; A. simularis, no. 
75 ; A. nubifera, no. 77. 

Section CYCLAMASTRA Pils. & Van. (p. 147). 
65. A. UMBILICATA (Pfeiffer). PL 36, figs. 6, 7. 

Shell very narrowly but openly umbilicate, dextral, ovate- 
conic, thin, striate, opaque, brown ; spire a little concavely 
conic, the apex acute. Whorls 6, but slightly convex, the last 
a little shorter than the spire, angular at base. Aperture el- 



252 AMASTRA, MOLOKAI. 

liptical, angular at both ends; columellar fold compressed, 
deep, subtransverse. Peristome simple, acute, the columellar 
margin somewhat dilated, and free throughout. Length 10%, 
diam. 5% mm. (Pfr.) 

Oahu (D. Friek in Cuming coll. ; see below) ; Molokai (New- 
comb) ; Mapulehu (Baldwin). 

Achatinella umbilicata PFR., P. Z. S., London, 1855, (Feb., 
1856), p. 205, no. 15, no locality. Malak. Blatter, 1856, p. 
165; Monographia, iv, 557 (Oahu, Frick). A. (Amastra) 
umbilicata Pfr., HARTMAN, Proc. A. N. S., Phila., 1888, p. 
50, pi. 1, f. 11. BALDWIN, Catalogue, 1893, p. 10. Achati- 
nella petricola var., NEWC., Amer. Jour, of Conch., ii, p. 211, 
pi. 13, f. 6. 

This species was described by Dr. Pfeiffer from a specimen 
sent to Cuming by Frick, at first without locality, but later 
with the locality Oahu. Dr. Newcomb in his Synopsis of the 
genus Achatinella, 1858, p. 334, placed it as a synonym of his 
A. petricola, from Molokai, -a position he upheld later in the 
American Journal of Conchology, II. As Newcomb 's shells 
agree fully with Pfeiffer 's description, we accept his iden- 
tification, and figure a specimen received from him, discredit- 
ing the locality Oahu, assigned on the authority of Frick. 

Differs from A. petricola by its larger umbilicus, thinner, 
unicolored shell, the more slender spire, and the smaller, more 
oblique columellar fold. In the specimens seen there is no 
thickening within the outer lip. The two species are not very 
closely related. 

The color is a rather light-brown, darker at the apex. The 
embryo is possibly striate when quite fresh and unworn, but 
is smooth in the specimens examined. Whorls more convex 
than in A. petricola. The umbilicus is circular in a basal 
view, and penetrates deeply, but is rather broadly overhung 
by the columellar lip; an obtuse ridge bounds it, being em- 
phasized by a spiral excavation just within its edge. The 
aperture is angular at the junction of the columellar and 
basal margins. The columellar margin is triangularly di- 
lated, and bears a small, quite oblique fold, which emerges 
more than that of A. petricola, nearly to the edge. There 



AMASTRA, MOLOKAI. 253 

are traces of a very thin, brown, outer -cuticle. The specimen 
described above and figured is not quite adult, judging by the 
very thin outer lip. Length 9, diam. 5, aperture 4.1 mm.; 
5% whorls. A shell in coll. U. S. Nat. Mus. is almost ex- 
actly similar. 

This species is certainly very close to A. morticina of West 
Maui, but in that the whorls are perceptibly shorter, the stria- 
tion a little more distinct, and the suture crenulated. The 
upper part of the spire in A. umbilicata and A. morticina 
tapers more than in A. similaris. 

Section AMA$TRELLA (p. 151). 

Series of A. petricola. 

Small forms with finely striate embryonic whorls; later 
stages streaked or banded, without zigzag lines or fine mot- 
tled pattern. 

The apical sculpture is not unlike that of the 'biplicata 
group, of Lanai. The other characters of the shell point to 
Amastrella as most nearly akin. 

66. A. PETRICOLA (Newcomb). PI. 36, figs. 4, 5. 

:< Shell dextral, acutely conical, longitudinally coarsely 
striate; whorls 6, rounded, sometimes the last one inflated; 
suture simple, well impressed; aperture rounded ovate; lip 
acute, slightly thickened within; columella rather long, with 
a sub-central revolving plait; often with an umbilicus; color 
dark corneous, outer and columellar lips margined exter- 
nally with white or yellowish- white " (Newc.). 

Length 5, diam. 2 inch. (Newc.). 

Molokai: on the rocky sides of a pali or precipice (New- 
comb ) . Mapalehu ( B aldwin ) . 

Achatinella petricola NEWC., Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist, of N. Y., 
vi, 1855, p. 143; P. Z. S., 1855, p. 208; Amer. Jour, of 
Conch., ii, p. 211. PFR., Monogr., iv, 558. Amastra petri- 
color BALDWIN, Catalogue, p. 9. A. petricola SYKES, Fauna 
Hawaiiensis, p. 341 (exclusive of Achatinella umbilicata 
Pfr.). BORCHERDING, Zoologica, xix, p. 122, but not pi. 10, 
f . 22, from Kamalo. 



254 AMASTRA, MOLOKAI. 

Newcomb has related in great detail his adventures in col- 
lecting this snail, but did not mention the location of the pali 
where he found it information more useful if less thrilling. 
We do not know exactly what form Mr. Baldwin reports 
from Mapalehu, which is on the southeastern slope. 

Newcomb declared A. umbilicata Pfr. to be connected with 
petricola by intergrading specimens, a view accepted by 
Pfeiffer in the Monographia, and also by Sykes and Borcher- 
ding. Hartman kept them separate, I believe correctly. The 
two species were mixed in material sent out by Newcomb, 
and both were included in his several descriptions, though 
the umbilicata form only incidentally, in the two phrases 
" sometimes the last one inflated " and " often with an um- 
bilicus." The form figured by Boreherding is evidently 
neither petricola nor umbilicata. 

A. petricola is ovate-conic with the outlines of the spire 
barely convex, nearly straight. The embryonic shell has ex- 
tremely fine longitudinal striae, the later whorls rather coarse, 
low, growth-folds. The shell is of a slightly olive-tinted brown 
color, the embryonic whorls the same or purple-black. After 
the embryonic stage there is a yellow line below the suture, 
becoming a well-defined band on the last 1% or 2 whorls. 
Back of the lip there is a rather broad yellow streak, which 
extends to the umbilical region where it forms a yellow cres- 
centric patch around the narrowly umbilicate axis. There is 
a sort of obtuse ridge around the umbilicus. The outer 
cuticle, visible in fresh specimens, under a lens, is an exces- 
sively thin, dull, light-brown film over the glossy under layer, 
which shows in angular patches. Outer lip acute, margined 
with a white callus within. Columella vertical, its edge re- 
flexed in a narrow triangle, overhanging the umbilicus, and 
slightly channeled at the junction with the basal lip. It bears 
a rather strong fold, which terminates rather far from the 
margin. 

Length 10.2, diam. 5.9, aperture 3.9 mm. ; 5% whorls. 

Length 9.2, diam. 5 mm. ; 5% whorls. 

The specimens described and figured are from Newcomb, 
and presumably part of the original lot. 



AMASTRA, MOLOKAI. 255 

A specimen in U. S. Nat. Mus. (part of no. 117273), meas- 
uring length 9, diam. 5 mm., aperture 4.5 mm., has a half- 
open umbilicus intermediate in size between that of typical 
petricola and umbilicata. It is rather solid, with the color of 
petricola. 

67. A. ABAVUS n. sp. PL 42, figs. 4, 5. 

The shell is imperforate, ovate-conic, very thick and solid, 
rather glossy; fossil, and therefore without cuticle. Color 
(1) first 2% whorls pale brown, next half whorl with brown 
bands and white ground, last 1jvo whorls opaque white, or (2) 
pale brown with white bands beginning on the penult, whorl, 
predominating on the last whorl. Outlines of the spire a little 
convex below, straight above, the apex obtuse. Embryonic 
whorls convex, very finely striate, the first whorl nearly 
smooth. Following whorls weakly convex with the usual 
sculpture of fine growth-lines. Aperture small, indistinctly 
angular at the base of columella; the outer lip very much 
thickened within; columellar margin thick, bearing a small, 
subhorizontal lamella; parietal callus very thick out to the 
edge. 

Length 10.8, diam. 6.3, aperture 5 mm. ; 5% whorls. 

Length 11, diam. 6, aperture 5.1 mm. ; 5y 2 whorls. 

Molokai : Pukoa, fossil. Gotypes to be deposited in Bishop 
Museum, collected by Mr. D. Thaanum. 

This species is very closely related to A. petricola, from 
which it is readily distinguished by the solid shell with very 
thick lip, columella and parietal callus. 

Subgenus AMASTRA (p. 234). 
Series of A. biplicata (p. 243). 

This series, otherwise Lanaian, has one species in central 
Molokai. 

68. A. HUMILIS (Newcomb). PI. 40, figs. 7, 8. 

" Shell elongately conical, longitudinally rudely striate; 
whorls 7, rounded above, flattened centrally; last one ob- 
scurely carinated superiorly ; siiture deep, simple ; apex acute ; 



256 AM ASTRA, MOLOKAI. 

aperture sub-rounded; lip acute, slightly thickened within; 
columella flattened with a thick plait; color of shell pale 
salmon, covered with a densely black epidermis; columella 
and deep margin of the outer lip within dark-brown ; interior 
of aperture bluish- white. Length .7, diam. .35 inch" (Newc.). 

Molokai: Kalai [Kalae], on the ground under low bushes 
(Neweomb, type loc.) ; Makakupaia (Perkins) ; Kamalo (Bor- 
cherding) ; all in the central part of the island. 

Achatinella, humilis NEWC., Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist, of N. Y., 
vi, October, 1855, p. 143 ; P. Z. S., 1855, p. 207 ; Amer. Journ. 
of Conch., ii, p. 211, pi. 13, f. 4. Amastra humilis Newc., 
BALDWIN, Catalogue, p. 9. SYKES, Fauna Hawaiiensis, p. 
337. BORCHERDING, Zoologica, xix, p. 119, pi. 10, f. 21. 

The specimens figured were received from Neweomb. The 
shell is hardly ' ' obscurely carinated ' ' but only turgid below 
the suture, or sometimes so swollen there as to appear ob- 
tusely subangular, an appearance aided by the wear of the 
cuticle from the convexity. The purple-brown embryonic 
she'll is very finely but sharply striate, as in many Oahuan 
species. The following one or two neanic whorls are covered 
with black or blackish-olive cuticle, marked with whitish 
streaks 'and zigzag figures, and f aiding to whitish near the 
suture above ; often partially lost. The last whorl is white or 
brown-tinted under a 'dense black cuticle of which small 
patches are lost. There is usually but not always a nude 
patch in front of the aperture. The interior is dull bluish- 
gray, with a red-brown or dull rose streak on the low callus 
within the lip, which is quite acute. The columella is dull 
purplish. It usually bears a single paler moderate fold, but 
there is sometimes a second more oblique and much smaller 
fold above the principal one. 

Length. 17.2, diam. 9, aperture 7 mm. ; whorls 6%. 

Length 16.2, diam. 8.9, aperture 7 mm. ; whorls 6%. 

There are indistinct traces of a vermiculate-mottled pat- 
tern, like nubilosa, on the spire of A. humilis. It seems to be 
more closely related to A. biplicata of Lanai than to any other 
species. A. humilis is isolated in the Molokai fauna. 



AMASTRA, MOLOKAI. 257 

Series of A. magna (p. 237). 

Large Amastrae with the embryonic whorls varying from 
costate and carinate to finely striate without visible keel; 
later whorls having the thin cuticle mottled or zigzag-striped, 
sometimes almost wholly deciduous. 

Related to the much smaller shells of the assimilis group. 

69. A. VIOLACEA (Newcomb). PI. 27, figs. 3, 4. 

Shell dextral, ovate-oblong, solid ; whorls 7, convex, strongly 
striate longitudinally; suture plain and deeply impressed. 
Aperture ovate; columella short, terminating in a twisted 
plait ; lip simple, color violaceous with light colored striae. 
Length 1.1, diam. .55 inch [27.9x14 mm.] (Newc.). 

Molokai: (Newe.) ; Mapulehu to Halawa (Baldwin) ; Hal- 
awa and Pelekunu (Perkins) ; Pelekunu, Mapulehu and Hal- 
awa, a ground shell (Meyer) ; all in the eastern end of the 
island. 

Achatinella violacea NEWC., Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist, of N. Y., 
vi, May, 1853, p. 18; P. Z. S., Lond., 1853 [1854], p. 135, pi. 
22, f. 14. THWING, Orig. Descriptions, p. 164, pi. 3, f. 23. 
PFR., Monogr., iv, 543. Amastra v., SYKES, Fauna Hawaiien- 
sis, p. 347. BORCHERDING, Zoologica, xix, p. 105, pi. 10, f. 1. 
GULICK, Evolution, Racial and Habitudinai, pi. 1, f. 18. 

A. violacea differs constantly from A. magna of Lanai by 
finer sculpture of the embryonic shell, which never shows 
the peripheral carina above the suture, and in having a thin 
parietal callus. We do not agree with Borcherding in unit- 
ing them specifically. 

Fig. 3 represents a specimen in all respects typical, from 
Halawa, collected by Thaanum. This may be considered type 
locality. The shell is imperforate. This typical form is well 
described as violaceous with light striae, the apex being pur- 
plish and the earliest neanic whorls yellowish, interior purple. 
Sometimes the surface is more worn, and of a nearly uniform 
flesh tint, the apex nearly white. Small fragments of the thin 
brown cuticle remain, and when sufficiently preserved on the 
spire it is seen to have irregular dark figures and lighter 
ground, showing relationship to A. nubilosa. The embryonic 



258 AMASTRA, MOLOKAI. 

whorls form a rather acute, conic summit, the first half whorl 
being smooth, rather coarse, low axial ribs then appearing 
weakly. The second whorl has rather strong, arcuate ribs, 
rather wider than their intervals, and split or weak near the 
lower suture; on the next Whorl the ribs are finer, and weak 
below the middle of the whorl, or split into striae. There 
seem to be 3y 2 embryonic whorls, which in outline are nearly 
flat. 

The following whorls are moderately convex, with sculpture 
of somewhat thread-like striae, though in places they are low 
or partly effaced. The columellar fold is rather small and 
very oblique. Outer lip thin. 

Length 28.3, diam. 15, aperture 13.5 mm. ; 7 whorls. 

Length 30.5, diam. 13.7, aperture 13 mm. ; 7% whorls. 

The size varies a good deal. One shell from the Gulick 
collection measures, length 25, diam. 12.5 mm. ; 7 whorls. An- 
other has a spirally lengthened callous ridge upon the parietal 
wall, revolving into the 'aperture. 

Some of the above-mentioned localities may pertain to the 
following variety: 

69a. Var. waUauensis n. v. PI. 39, figs. 13, 14; pi. 27, figs. 
1,2. 

Larger and more robust than violacea, the striation weaker ; 
dull gray or fleshy-gray, with shreds of dark brown cuticle 
chiefly on the last whorl. 

Length 38, diam. 19, aperture 16.2 mm. ; 8 whorls. 

Length 34.6, diam. 18.5, aperture 16.3 mm. ; 7y 2 whorls 
(no. 104670). 

Length 31, diam. 16.5, aperture 14.8 mm. ; 7% whorls. 

Length 27, diam. 14.5, aperture 12.8 mm. ; 6% whorls. 

Wailau (Borcherding, Thaanum). Type no. 104670 A. N. 
S. P. 

Borcherding 's figures, copied in our pi. 27, figs. 1, 2, repre- 
sent Wailau examples of this variety. A very large specimen 
in the Bishop Museum, collected by Mr. Thaanum (pi. 39, fig. 
13) has no columellar lamella, probably on account of old 
age. Two other shells have calluses on the parietal wall such 
as are mentioned under violacea. 



AMASTRA, MOLOKAI. 259 

70. A. NUBILOSA (Mighels). PL 27, figs. 8, 9, 10, 13. 

The shell is imperforate, oblong-conic, moderately strong, 
lusterless; the apical whorls white, light-brown, or pink, the 
rest cream-white, covered with a thin cuticle closely figured 
with fine zigzag or v-like olive-brown marks and narrow 
streaks, often coalescent behind the outer lip ; nude in front 
of the aperture. Spire a little convexly conic, the penulti- 
mate whorl bulging more or less. Second embryonic whorl 
with sculpture of fine, close, curved striae ; next whorl having 
the striae weak except near the suture. Later whorls marked 
with low growth-wrinkles, stronger near the suture. Penul- 
timate and last whorls strongly convex. Aperture white; 
outer lip thin and acute, or in large shells, thickened within ; 
columellar lamella strong. Parietal callus thin, white. 

Fig. 13. Length 16, diam. 9.5, aperture 8 mm.; whorls 6. 

Length 18, diam. 9.5, aperture 8 mm.; whorls 6%. 

Fig. 9. Length 19, diam. 11, aperture 9.3 mm. ; whorls 6%. 

Fig. 10. Length 22.3, diam. 11, aperture 10 mm. ; whorls 7. 

" Animal tessellated black and gray (when in motion), 
tentacles deep black, bottom of foot and mantle dark brown " 
(Newcomb, Ann. Lye., vi, 312). 

Molokai : Kalae, Kaohu, Kahanui and Makolelau, all in the 
central part of the island (Meyer). 

Achatinella nubilosa MIGHELS, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., 
ii, 1845, p. 20. REEVE, Conch. Icon., vi, pi. 1, f. 1. GLD., 
U. S. Expl. Exped., Moll., p. 86, pi. 7, f. 95. PFR., Monogr., 
ii, 236 ; iii, 459 ; iv, 552 ; vi. 180 ; viii, 240. NEWCOMB, Ann. 
Lye. Nat, Hist, of N. Y., vi, p. 312 (living animal) .BALD- 
WIN, Catalogue, p. 9. THWING, Orig. Descriptions, p. 162, 
pi. 3, f. 21. Amastra nubilosa Migh., SYKES, Fauna Hawaii- 
ensis, p. 341. BORCHERDESTG, Zoologica, xix, 107, pi. 10, figs. 
3-5 -(1906). 

This species is somewhat like A. assimUis Newc., of Maui, 
but it differs by the much finer sculpture of the embryonic 
whorls. A. violacea differs from the Lanaian A. magna in the 
same way. We cannot agree with Borcherding's union of 
these forms. 



260 AM ASTRA, MOLOKAI. 

The thin cuticle, marked with zigzag or v-like olive-brown 
figures on a very pale ground, is characteristic; the variega- 
tion being further produced by partial loss of the cuticle. A 
few specimens, however, such as fig. 8, do not show zigzag 
markings, but only some inconspicuous mottling, the cuticle 
being streaked ; or on the last half of the last whorl it may be 
mainly dark, with a few light streaks. In some shells the 
cuticle is largely lost, as in fig. 13. The locality originally 
given, "Qahu," was doubtless due to faulty labeling or a 
mixture of specimens. No mottled Amastra occurs on that 
island. The original description follows: 

' :< Achatinella nubilosa. Shell dextral, ovate, conic, thin, var- 
iously mottled with dark brown on a light ground, imper- 
forate; whorls 6, convex; aperture semi-circular; lip simple, 
acute. Length 7, diam. .4 inch. Hab. : Oahu " (Mighels) . 

Two specimens of nubilosa received by J. H. Thomson from 
Mighels, and sold by him to the Portland Society of Natural 
History (no. 220) are the form described above and similar 
to pi. 27, fig. 9. They are in poor condition. 

Mighels' type was a small example, 17-18 mm. long. Gould 
figures a much larger, more conic shell, perhaps referable to 
the following race. 

70a. A. n. macemta n. subsp. PI. 27, figs. 5, 6, 7 (11, 12). 

The shell is decidedly wider than nubilosa, the spire more 
straightly conic, its whorls (especially the penultimate) less 
convex; cuticle much lacerated or shredded, the under- tint 
cream or very pale brownish-cream, apex fleshy or pallid; 
interior very pale pink, rarely white. 

Length 25.5, diam. 14 to 14.7, aperture 12 to 12.5 mm. ; 6y 2 
whorls. 

Fig. 5. Length 23, diam. 12.8, aperture 11.9 mm.; 6i/ 2 
Whorls (no. 2086). 

Fig. 6. Length 20.3, diam. 12, aperture 10 mm. (no. 2086). 

Length 25, diam. 13, aperture 11.5 mm. ; 7 whorls. 

Fig. 7. Length 23.2, diam. 13.5, aperture 11.5 mm. 

Molokai: Cotypes no. 105549 A. N. S. P., and 2086 coll. 
C. M. Cooke ; also nos. 2084, 2085 and 2087 Cooke coll. 



AMASTRA, MOLOKAI. 261 

Some smaller shells, 21x11 and 19.5x11.8 mm., have a de- 
cidedly pink ground-color. They may not be fully adult. 
Some of the shells figured as nubilosa by Borcherding seem 
to belong to this variety. Two of his figures are copied, fig. 
11 from Makolelau, and fig. 12 from Kaohu. This form is 
somewhat intermediate between nubilosa and violacea. 

Series of A. pullata. 

Embryonic shell costate, carinated above the suture (the 
carina rarely concealed), last whorl -covered with a dense 
dark cuticle; penult, whorl usually streaked, angularly 
marked or mottled. Bather large species, confined to Molo- 
kai, separated from the assimilis series by the general appear- 
ance, size, and dense, dark cuticle covering the last whorl, 
rather than by any characters of taxonomic value. It is ap- 
parently related to the nigra series of Maui, but has no repre- 
sentatives in Lanai. 

A single Oahuan shell, A. tristis, has much the appearance 
of the pullata group, being similar in shape, covered with a 
conspicuous blackish cuticle, and having an indistinctly cos- 
tate, conic embryonic shell; yet other characters cause us to 
consider it convergent, rather than directly related to pullata. 

71. A. PULLATA Baldwin. PI. 27, figs. 14-16. 

The shell is obese, oblong with conic spire, thin but strong, 
of a very pale ochre tint under the cuticle, which is more or 
less worn from the spire and denuded in a rather large patch 
in front of the aperture. On the last whorl the cuticle is 
rather glossy, chocolate-blackish and very dense. On the 
spire it is copiously streaked with buff, the dark streaks be- 
ginning on the fourth whorl. The embryonic shell is flesh- 
colored, with sculpture of coarse curved ribs (resembling 
aurostoma, pi. 26, fig. 11, except that the peripheral carina is 
less prominent, from being more covered by the following 
whorl). Subsequent whorls are convex, with moderate 
growth-wrinkles. The aperture is pure white within. Outer 
lip thin-edged, sometimes strengthened by a narrow and low 
internal rib. Columellar lamella thin, steeply descending, 
abruptly truncate at the end. 



262 AMASTRA, MOLOKAI. 

Fig. 14. Length 22.8, diam. 13, aperture 11 mm.; 6% 
whorls. 

Fig. 15. Length 22, diam. 12.1, aperture 11 mm.; 6% 
whorls. 

Fig. 16. Length 22.5, diam. 13.5 mm. 

Molokai : Waikolu (type loc.) ; Kaohu, Kahanui and Waia- 
kapuaa (Borcherding) ; all in the northern half of the island, 
south and southeast of the northern peninsula; Kamalo and 
Makakupaia Mts. (Perkins). 

Amastra pullata BALDW., Proc. A. N. S., Phila., 1895, p. 
228, pi. 11, figs. 31, 323 (shell) . GWATKIN, t, c., p. 239 (rad- 
ula) . BORCHERDING, Zoologica, xix, p. 109, pi. 10, figs. 6, 7, 8. 

* ' Animal extended in motion a trifle longer than the shell. 
Mantle almost white with a slate tinge. Foot above and below 
almost white, the posterior portion and edges densely studded 
with very minute pink spots. Tentacle short, light slate, with 
a few spots of the same color on the head above. Unlike 
most of the Amastra, which generally have dark, dingy colored 
animals, this species has fa beautiful, almost white animal. 
The after portion and edges of the foot under a lens are seen 
to be closely studded with minute pink spots which give these 
parts a delicate pink hue " (Baldwin). 

Distinguished from A. umbrosa by the more strongly sculp- 
tured apex. The color of the animal seems also to be charac- 
teristic. Described from the type. In one of five specimens 
of the original lot sent by Mr. Baldwin the interior is a deli- 
cate shade of pink. In the others it is white or blue- white. 

The embryo resembles pi. 26, fig. 5 except that the spire is 
lower and the ribs coarser. They begin on the second half of 
the first whorl, are strong and coarse to the end of the second 
whorl, after which they became closer and weaker. The 
peripheral keel projects very narrowly on the second whorl 
and is marked on the last with a white band. The completed 
embryo has 2y 2 whorls and is imperforate. 

A common form in the C. M. Cooke and other collections 
studied is decidedly more obese, with larger aperture, apex 
white or flesh-colored. The cuticle is slightly mottled with 
dark on the penultimate whorl, the last whorl colored as in 
pullata (pi. 37, fig. 17). 



AMASTRA, MOLOKAI. 263 

Length 21.5, diam. 14, aperture 11.9 mm. ; 6% whorls. 
Length 21.9, diam. 13.5, aperture 11.6 mm.; 6% whorls. 
Other specimens are ochraceous, with small shreds of the 
dark outer cuticle (pi. 37, fig. 21). 

71a. Yar. subnigra n. v., pi. 27, figs. 19, 20, 21. 

Similar to the preceding but smaller, the upper part of the 
spire is purplish-brown; under-cuticle orange or pale yellow 
under the more or less deciduous blackish layer. Shape 
variable. 

Fig. 19. Length 18.5, diam. 10.9, aperture 9.1 mm. ; whorls 
6%. 

Fig. 21. Length 18, diam. 11, aperture 10 mm. ; whorls 6. 
Length 20.3, diam. 11, aperture 9.6 mm.; whorls 6% (cotype). 

Length 19.3, diam. 11, aperture 9.5 mm. (cotype) . 

Molokai : Cotypes 2095 Cooke coll., and 105516 A. N. S. P. 

71b. A. p. umbrosa Baldwin. PL 37, figs. 14, 15, 16. 

The shell is globose-conic, moderately solid, imperforate, 
soiled or isabella-white, covered with an olivaceous-brown, 
black streaked, slightly glossy cuticle, which is irregularly 
streaked with whitish and marked with some triangular spots, 
or on the last half of the last whorl is sometimes nearly con- 
tinuous; the denuded apex being red-brown or dark purple. 
Spire straightly conic, the whorls but very slightly convex. 
Embryonic whorls flat, conic, the first half -whorl smooth, next 
half-whorl coarsely but rather weakly plicate, but showing 
no supersutural keel, following whorl finely plicatulate. 
Later whorls are marked with growth- wrinkles ; the last whorl 
has more or less malleation in a spiral direction, is inflated, 
and descends a little in front. The aperture is white within, 
outer lip thickened within the acute edge. Columella white, 
calloused, bearing a stout, subhorizontal lamella below the 
middle. Parietal callus very thin. 

Length 19.5, diam. 12.9, aperture 10 mm. ; 5% whorls. 

Length 21, diam. 12.5, aperture 10.2 mm. ; 6 whorls. 

" Animal extended in motion longer than the shell. Mantle 
dark brown with a margin of lighter shade. Foot light 
brown, the superior portion and sides studded with large 



264 AMASTRA, MOLOKAI. 

spots of deeper shade. Tentacles short, stout, very dark 
brown " (Baldwin). 

11 The formula of dentition is 28.1.28. The marginals take 
a peculiar form ' ' ( Gwatkin) . 

Molokai: Kamelo (Baldwin); Makolelau and Waiakapuaa 
(Meyer). 

Amastra umbrosa BALDWIN, Proc. A. N. S., Phila., 1895, p. 
229, pi. 11, figs. 36, 37. BORCHERDING, Zoologica, xix, p. Ill, 
pi. 10, figs. 9, 10. Achatinella umbrosa THWING, Orig. De- 
scriptions, etc., p. 163, pi. 3, f. 22. 

This form is closely related to A. pullata (with which Sykes 
unites it as a local form) , but the embryonic shell, especially 
the second whorl, is less strongly plicate in umbrosa, and does 
not show the keel above the suture ; the adult is more inflated 
than typical pullata,, but not more than the obese variety; 
finally, the color of the animal is different. It seems to be a 
local race of pullata. Borcherding affirms the presence of 
transitional examples in his series, collected by Meyer, but 
we are not sure that he had the real umbrosa. Figured from 
the type lot, no. 65714, A. N. S. P. 

72. A. SEMINUDA Baldwin. PL 37, figs. 18, 19, 20. 

The shell is imperf orate (or sometimes rimate), globose- 
ovate, solid, yellow, covered with a thin cuticle which on the 
spire, the front and upper half of the last whorl is yellow 
with sparse chocolate mottling or streaking, and on the lower 
half of the last whorl is in large part black. The embryonic 
whorls are denuded of cuticle, and either white, fleshy or 
purplish (and sometimes the whole spire is of a dull purplish 
color). Embryonic shell of about 2% whorls, the first half- 
whorl smooth, next whorl coarsely costate,with a barely exposed 
basal carina, the following whorl more closely eostate. Later 
whorls are rather rudely wrinkle-striate, with on the last 
whorl some weak spirals cutting the wrinkles, and more or 
less malleation. Last whorl globose (or sometimes com- 
pressed), often obscurely angular above the aperture. Aper- 
ture oblique, white, well-rounded below. Outer lip slightly 
or heavily thickened within; columellar lamella strong, med- 
ian. Parietal callus very thin. 



AMASTBA, MOLOKAI. 265 

Length 16, diam. 9.3, aperture 7.9 mm. ; 6 whorls. 

Length 15.1, diam. 10.1, aperture 8.9 mm.; 5~y s whorls. 

Length 15, diam. 10, aperture 8.9 mm. 

Molokai: Waikalu. 

Amastra seminuda BALDWIN, Nautilus xix, April, 1906, p. 
137. 

Smaller than the very closely related A. puttata, more 
rudely sculptured, the last whorl light-colored above, dark 
below the middle, the division of color generally abrupt. The 
description and figures are from the type lot in the Baldwin 
collection. 

73. A. UNIPLICATA Hartman. PI. 28, figs. 17, 18, 21, 22; 
pi. 49, fig. 12. 

" Shell dextral, solid, elongate oval, occasionally cylindri- 
cal, whorls 7, slightly rounded, the last somewhat inflated, 
suture impressed, longitudinally striate, aperture sub-oval, 
white; a single white elongate twisted plica within; outer lip 
acute, color of the shell a pale ochre-yellow, concealed by a 
black epidermis. Length 20, diam. 9, aperture 28, diam. 4 
mm. 

" This shell is from a different island from A. biplicata, 
Newc., which it resembles; the latter possesses more coarse 
longitudinal strias, and has a double plica within, and the 
aperture is red, while uniplicata has a single plica, and the 
aperture is white " (Hartman}. 

Molokai (Hartman from Pease coll.) : Kamalo (Baldwin, 
Meyer) . 

Amastra uniplicata HARTMAN, Proc. A. N. S., Phila., 1888, 
p. 50, pi. 1, f. 7. BALDWIN, Catalogue, 1893, p. 10. BOR- 
CHERDIXG, Zoologica, xix, p. 112, pi. 10, f. 11. 

Typical specimens, received from Hartman, are figured, pi. 
28, figs. 21, 22. The shell is pale yeUow under a thin, partly 
deciduous cuticle, which is black or dark chestnut on the last 
whorl, and yellow, with or without dark markings, on the 
penultimate whorl. The embryonic whorls are flat, flesh- 
tinted ; initial half- whorl is smooth, next whorl strongly cos- 
tate with a basal carina, following whorl much more finely 



266 AMASTRA, MOLOKAI. 

costulate. The later whorls have weak growth-striae. Length 
20, diam. 10.9, aperture 9.2 mm. ; 7 whorls. 

In a longer specimen, pi. 49, fig. 12, the first 3% whorls 
are brown, dark red-brown at apex; next two whorls white, 
lightning-marked with zigzag black stripes; last 1% whorls 
covered with a dense black cuticle, worn off in front of the 
aperture, exposing a white patch. The penultimate whorl is 
convex, those above it only very slightly so, the last whorl 
being somewhat compressed in the middle. Aperture white ; 
axis perforated. Length 21.9, diam. 10.9, aperture 8.3 mm. ; 
7 whorls (no. 104684, A. N. S. P.). 

A. nubilosa, a species resembling uniplicata in shape and 
size, differs by characters of the embryonic whorls. 

A. uniplicata is closely related to A. pullata, from which it 
differs chiefly by its much narrower contour. It is not allied 
to A. biplicata as Hartman supposed. 

Series of A. assimilis. 

The Molokaian Amastrse having zigzag or angular markings 
are a most intricately related group of forms, which can only 
be understood when large collections 'are made and the dis- 
tribution of the several forms 'adequately mapped. At pres- 
ent we know of them scarcely anything of value to science; 
merely that the series is developed in a rich variety of forms 
in eastern Molokai, that these races vary widely in ground- 
color and markings, and that some of them show close affinity 
with races of Maui. Most of the species and subspecies which 
have been established are merely tentative. 

Through A. borcherdingi and uniplicata this group con- 
nects with the pullata series. 

74. A. BORCHERDINGI Hyatt & Pilsbry, n. sp. PL 41, figs. 1, 
2, 3, 4; pi. 40, figs. 2-6. 

The shell is ovate-conic, narrowly perforate or closed, 

moderately strong; upper 3 or 4 whorls reddish-brown 

(rarely pale yellow), the last two white with a faint flesh tint, 

elaborately figured with angular, zigzag or interrupted dark 



AMASTRA, MOLOKAI. 267 

brown figures, on the last half-whorl becoming chestnut with 
darker streaks ; this cuticle wanting in front of the aperture, 
more or less deciduous elsewhere, and frequently almost 
wholly lost in adult shells. The flat whorls of the conic em- 
bryonic shell are costate and the second one shows a keel 
close above the suture. Subsequent whorls have rather fine, 
irregular growth-lines, and the last whorl sometimes shows 
some obliquely-descending facets or malleation. The aperture 
is nearly white within, and the lip a little thickened towards 
and at the base. Columellar lamella rather small and ob- 
lique. 

Length 17.3, diam. 10, aperture 9 mm. ; 6y 3 whorls. 

Length 17, diam. 9.8, aperture 8.5 mm. ; 6% whorls. 

Length 19, diam. 10.5, aperture 9 mm. ; 6% whorls. 

Molokai (Gulick, Meyer). Cotypes 104688, 57714, A. N. 
S. P., 13446, Boston Soc. 

Amastra mucronata Newc., BORCHERDING, Zoologica, xix, 
Heft 48, 1906, p. 119, pi. 10, f. 17 (Kalae). Not of New- 
comb. Amastra mastersi Newc., BORCHERDING, t. c., p. 116, 
pi. 10, figs. 16, 18. Not of Newcomb. 

The shell is more capacious than A. mucronata or A. simi- 
laris, with a larger aperture. The precise locality of the 
types is unknown, but Borcherding has figured the same form 
from Kalae (copied in pi. 40, figs. 5, 6) and from Kawela 
(pi. 40, figs. 2-4), under the names A. mucronata and A. mas- 
tersi. He states that the long series examined indicates a 
transition between the two forms, " the ornamental marking 
of typical mucronata disappearing gradually and passing into 
a more uniform epidermis." 

Three examples in the Cooke collection, pi. 37, figs. 10, 11, 
12, have the zigzag pattern of the cuticle more confused, in 
one example, fig. 10, it is almost wanting. These shells are 
probably the same as what Borcherding has figured as A. 
mastersi. 

This species is very closely related to the west Mauian A. 
assimilis. It is decidedly more remote from A. mastersi. In 
Molokai it may also claim kinship with A. uniplicata. 



268 AMASTRA, MOLOKAI. 

75. A. MUCRONATA (Newcomb). PI. 40, fig. 9. 

Shell dextral, elongate-ovate, white with numerous trans- 
verse, arrow-headed brown markings except last whorl which 
is covered with a dense brownish-black epidermis; whorls 
6, rounded, the last contracted; suture slightly impressed in 
the upper portion, becoming deep at the junction of the last 
whorl. Aperture small, ovate ; columella with a twisted plait ; 
lip simple. Length .7, diam. .32 inch [17.5x8 mm.] (Newc.). 

Molokai (Newcomb, Baldwin). 

Achatinella mucronata NEWCOMB, Annals of the Lyceum 
of N. H. of N. Y., vi, 1853, p. 28 ; Proc. Zool. Soe. Lond., 
1853, p. 146, pi. 23, fig. 49. PFR., Monogr., iv, 553. Amastra 
mucronata Nc., PEASE, P. Z. S., 1869, p. 650. SYKES, Fauna 
Hawaiiensis, p. 340. BORCHERDING, Zoologica, xix, p. 118, 
not pi. 10, f. 17. A. mueronata Newc., HARTMAN, Proc. A. 
N. S., Phila,, 1888, p. 47 . Achatinella fusiformis PFR., P. Z. 
S., 1855, p. 5, pi. 30, f . 18 ; Monogr., iv, 550. 

PI. 40, fig. 9 is copied from Newcomb 's type figure of A. 
mucronata. 

The description of A. fusiformis (which Baldwin, Sykes 
and Borcherding agree is an absolute synonym of mucronata) 
follows. It is a smaller shell than typical mucronata. A. 
fusiformis Pfr. (pi. 40, fig. 10, copied from Pfr.). " Shell 
imperforate, fusiform-oblong, rather thin, striatulate, deep 
brown, mottled and obliquely lineolate with a pale tint. Spire 
eonvexly-comc, apex black, acute; suture simple; whorls 7, 
slightly convex, the last forming two-fifths of the total length, 
tapering at base. Aperture oblique, ellipsoidal; the colu- 
mellar fold small, compressed, obscurely doubled; peristome 
simple, unexpanded, the right margin regularly arched, colu- 
mellar margin narrowly adnate. Length 14, diam. 6%, aper- 
ture 6 mm. long, 3 wide." Sandwich Islands, Frick. (Pfr.) 

In his article in the P. Z. S., Newcomb gives the locality 
for mucronata as Mani possibly an error, as he has stated 
that he did not see proofs of that article. It must be noted, 
however, that some very similarly marked shells occurring at 
Wailuku, "West Maui, have been identified by Gulick as A. 
mucronata. The shells figured by Borcherding are certainly 



AM ASTRA, MOLOKAI. 269 

not mucronata, being larger with, a larger aperture. See A. 
borcherdingi. So far as we know the typical form of the 
species as figured by Newcomb is not specifically different 
from the shell commonly known as simularis Hartman. 
Hartman notes the resemblance of his species to A. mucronata, 
but does not mention the differences upon which simularis 
was based. The description follows: 

Amastra simularis. " Shell dextral, ovate-conic, whorls 
5%, slightly rounded, body-whorl somewhat inflated, two- 
thirds the length, the first 1% composed of slightly curved 
plicae, suture lightly impressed, epidermis dark brown with, 
black zigzagged lines and linear striae, body-whorl a dark 
red color beneath the epidermis; aperture semi-ovate, dark 
red. columella straight, with a white twisted plait near the 
base. Length 15, width 7, aperture 6x3 mm. Molokai. Re- 
ceived from D. B. Baldwin, Esq., and so called from its size 
and resemblance to A. mucronata Newc." (Hartman.) 

Amastra simularis HARTMAN, Proc. A. N. S., Phila., Oct. 
23, 1888, p. 252, pi. 13, 1 7. GWATKIN, Proc. A. N. S., Phila., 
1895, p. 239 (radula). ANCEY, Proc. Malac. Soc., Lond., iii, 
1899, p. 269. SYKES, Fauna Hawaiiensis, p. 343. BOR- 
CHERDING, Zoologica, xix, Heft. 48n, p. 112, pi. 10, f. 12. 

As stated above, this is specifically identical with mucro- 
nata, from which it differs only in the dark ground- color ; 
but in several large lots examined there are shells with pale 
and even almost white ground, so that the retention of simul- 
aris as a varietal term for the dark form is of doubtful 
utility. 

Figures 1 to 5 of plate 28 represent specimens of the origi- 
nal lot of simularis obtained by Mr. Baldwin, who supplied 
Hartman ? s type. Fig. 6, copied from Borcherding, repre- 
sents a Halawa shell. A fuller description follows. 

The shell is imperforate, oblong-conic, rather solid, glossy, 
of a red-chestnut color, or sometimes pale fleshy-yellow or 
almost white on the last whorl or two; the penultimate whorl 
and first half of the last copiously marked with zigzag Hack 
or chocolate lines, the last half of the last whorl nearly uni- 
form chocolate or blackish. Embryonic sculpture about as in 



270 AMASTRA, MOLOKAI. 

A. uniplicata, etc., coarse ribs on the first, finer on the sec- 
ond whorl, which s'hows the carina at the suture, then the 
riblets shorten, persisting longest below the suture ; the later 
whorls but slightly convex, marked with faint growth- 
wrinkles, and subplicate below the suture. Aperture small, 
violet, livid red or blue- white within. Outer lip hardly thick- 
ened ; columellar lamella small, median. 

Length 17, diam. 9, aperture 7.8 mm. ; 6% whorls. 

Length 17, diam. 9.2, aperture 8 mm. 

Molokai: Mapulehu (Baldwin) : Halawa and Moakea (Bor- 
cherding) . 

Some examples have none of the blackish outer cuticle, the 
whole shell being reddish, with a yellow sutural border, 
purple-black apex and inconspicuous traces of dull outer 
cuticle, 'also reddish, on the last whorl. A very dark speci- 
men in the Cooke collection has some flecks of whitish, hydro- 
phanous -cuticle on the last whorl, between the black stripes. 

A. simularis var. maura Ancey (pi. 28, fig. 14), is not dis- 
tinct from the typical form of simularis judging from a co- 
type which I owe to the courtesy of the Bishop Museum. The 
original figure is copied, and the description follows : ' ' Shell 
much larger and more obese than the type (length 17, width 
9, apert. 7 mm.), with 6 whorls. Color dark red, blackish at 
the apex; periostracum black, decorticated at some places; 
columellar margin very dark with a whitish fold ; interior of 
aperture dark purple-red " (Ancey). 

Amastra simularis var. maura ANCEY, Proc. Malac. Soc., 
Lond., iii, 1899, p. 270, pi. 13, f. 16. BORCHERDING, Zoologica, 
p. 114, pi. 10, f. 14 (Halawa, Molokai). 

75a. A. m. roseotincta Sykes. PL 28, figs. 11, 12, 15. 

" Differs from the type in being of a very much lighter 
shade, the apex, however, being of the usual dusky tint; 
the shell is also more ovate and shorter and the lamina is 
slightly more horizontal. Molokai mountains" (Sykes). 

Amastra simularis H'artman var. roseotincta SYKES, Proc. 
Malac. Soc., Lond., ii, p. 130, October, 1896; Fauna Hawa- 
iiensis, p. 344, pi. 11, f. 3. ? BORCHERDING, Zoologica, p. 113, 
pi. 10, f. 13 (Moakea, Molokai). 



AMASTRA, MOLOKAI. 271 

Mr. Sykes' figure is copied (fig. 15), and two other speci- 
mens from the Cooke collection are figured. Fig. 11 repre- 
sents a roseate shell with dark summit and very small re- 
mains of a brown cuticle on the last whorl. Fig. 12 is a lilac- 
gray shell with yellow upper whorls, and also mere traces of 
cuticle. 

75b. A. m. citrea Sykes. PI. 28, figs. 16, 7 to 10. 

" Shell dextral, imperf orate, ovate- fusiform, rather solid, 
a little glossy, yellow; somewhat obliquely, strongly striate, 
Apex resinous, rather acute. Whorls 6, plano-convex, the 
first moderately plicate, the last two-thirds the length of the 
shell, slightly covered with a black-brown cuticle ; suture im- 
pressed. Aperture ovate-lunate; columella twisted, with a 
strong white lamina; peristome simple, the right margin un- 
expanded, acute. Length 15, diam. 8 mm " (Sykes). 

Molokai (Hutchison, Baldwin) ; Moakea, at the eastern end 
of the island (Borcherding). 

Amastra citrea SYKES, Proc. Malac. Soc., Lond., ii, Oct., 
1896, p. 129 ; Fauna Hawaiiensis, p. 335, pi. 11, f. 5. BOR- 
CHERDING, Zoologiea, xix, p. 114, pi. 10, f. 20. 

This form is usually smaller and a little more widely conic 
than A. simularis, but it is chiefly distinguished by the pale 
yellow ground-color. The shapes intergrade; and there are 
specimens intermediate in color between citrea and roseotincta. 
Typically, only traces of the outer cuticle remain (-as in fig. 
16, copied from Sykes, and fig. 10, Cooke coll.), the apex 
being whitish at the tip in some, dark brown in other indi- 
viduals ; or there may be a brown cuticle in oblique, angular 
lines, becoming nearly uniform behind the lip, as in the typi- 
cal form of simularis (pi. 28, figs. 7, 8, 9). The size varies in 
specimens apparently adult. 

Fig. 7. Length 16.2, diam. 8.4, aperture 8 mm. ; 6% whorls. 

Fig. 8. Length 13.5, diam. 7, aperture 6.2 mm. ; 6% whorls. 

Fig. 9. Length 11.6, diam. 6 mm. ; 5% whorls. 

Fig. 10. Length 13, diam. 7.8 mm. ; 6 whorls. 



272 AMASTRA, MOLOKAI. 

75<j. A. m. atroflava n. subsp. PL 41, figs. 9-13 ; pi. 40, figs. 
13, 14. 

Imperf orate, ovate, thin but rather strong, slightly shining ; 
outlines of the spire nearly straight ; embryonic whorls white 
or pale, very strongly costate and carinate (pi. 41, fig. 10). 
Following whorls irregularly wrinkle-striate, the last Whorl 
usually malleated below the periphery. Neanic and last 
whorls covered with a glossy yellow cuticle, and a very thin, 
yellow outer cuticle wanting in front of the aperture, and 
figured with angular black or umber markings which gener- 
ally coalesce to form a black area on the lower half of the 
last whorl. Aperture white, with the weak trace of a lip-rib. 

Length 17, diam. 8.7, aperture 8 mm. ; 6% whorls. 

Length 14.8, diam. 8, aperture 7 mm. ; 6% whorls. 

Molokai: Kawela (figs. 13, 14) and Kamalo (Borcherding. 
Cotypes no. 105518, A. N. S. P., and no. 1813 coll. University 
of Wisconsin. 

Amastra modesta BORCHERDING, Zoologica, xix, Heft. 48, 
p. 120 (in part), pi. 10, f. 19. 

The main color-patterns are shown in pi. 41, figs. 9-13, 
eotypes, and pi. 40, figs. 13, 14, copied from Borcherding, 
who considers A. rustica Gul. a synonym. It is 'certainly very 
close to rustica, differing in the brighter yellow color and the 
more prominent keel on the second whorl ; but the rather wide 
separation of the localities rustica having been found only 
in East Maui gives reason to think them homoplastic or 
convergent forms ultimately derived from the same stock, 
rather than directly 'connected. It must be freely admitted 
that " species " in the affinis-assimilis group are more than 
usually conventional. A survey of the region, with a thor- 
ough study of the local races must be made before any 
serious attempt at 'classification will be possible. A. m. atro- 
flava differs from A. m. citrea Sykes by somewhat stronger 
striation, coarser embryonic sculpture and generally wider 
contour; yet it may perhaps prove to be a form of that. 

75d. A. m. semicarnea Ancey. PI. 28, fig. 13 ; pi. 39, fig. 16. 
" Shell larger than the type, but more slender than var. 



AMASTEA, MOLOKAI. 273 

maura (length 16.5, width 8.5, apert. 6 mm.), with 6 whorls. 
Apex blackish, the^ subsequent whorls fulvous, sometimes with 
straight, somewhat obscured, revolving lines, the lower half 
of the last whorl yellowish flesh-colored. Columellar margin 
bluish, with a white plait. Mouth light-colored " (Ancey). 
Amastra simularis var. semicarnea ANC., 1. c., pi. 13, f . 8. 

Not BORCHERDING, 1. C., p. 114, pi. 10, f. 15. 

A cotype from Ancey 's collection, no. 18345, Bishop Mu- 
seum, is figured on pi. 39. The first l 1 /^ whorls are flattened, 
strongly costate and carinate, as in typical mucronata (simul- 
aris) . Subsequent whorls have the color of A. mastersi; 
and no doubt this form is what Newcomb referred to as mas- 
tersi from Molokai in his Synopsis, p. 149, as Dr. Cooke has 
suggested to me. It differs from the true mastersi by the 
less inflated shape and the very strong sculpture of the early 
whorls. Length 16, diam. 8.8 mm. Borcherding's figures 
represent a rather obese form of " simularis ". 

76. A. SYKESI n. sp. PI. 42, figs. 2, 3. 

The shell is subrimate, globose-conic, thin, not shining. 
After the smooth initial half -whorl there is a flat, strongly cos- 
tate whorl, with a carina half-concealed in the suture; the 
next whorl is costulate only below the suture, its lower part 
smooth. Following whorls but weakly convex, finely marked 
with growth-wrinkles which are a little stronger on the glo- 
bose last whorl. The entire shell may be fleshy-ochraceous, 
with some faint angular brown markings on the penult, 
whorl, the last whorl without outer cuticle; or it may be 
very faintly yellow-tinted white, the apex brownish, last two 
whorls partly covered with an extremely thin cuticle which 
is marked with zigzag olive-brown streaks. Aperture pinkish 
in the one, white in the other color- form; outer lip narrowly 
rimmed within. Columellar lamella triangularly projecting. 

Length 11.1, diam. 7.5, aperture 6 mm. ; 5% whorls. 

Length 10.8, diam. 7, aperture 6 mm. ; 5% whorls. 

Molokai: Halawa (D. Thaanum). Cotypes to be deposited 
in Bishop Museum, from no. 5316, Thaanum coll. 

Very much more inflated than any other zigzag-striped 






274 AMASTRA, MOLOKAI. 

species of Molokai or Maui, but other wise related to A. mu- 
cronata and atroflava. A. nucula Smith differs by its very 
much more finely striate second embryonic whorl, and less 
importantly by the more solid texture and malleated surface. 
Moreover, in the type of nucula, the 'cuticle is preserved ex- 
cept in front of the aperture, and it shows no color markings 
of any kind. Named for E. R. Sykes, author of the molluscan 
part of Fauna Hawaiiensis, and other useful works. 

77. A. NUBIPERA n. sp. PI. 41, figs. 6, 7. 

Shell subperforate or imperforate, ovate-conic, rather thin, 
scarcely shining. Outlines of the spire straight, First half- 
whorl smoothish, next whorl rather weakly but coarsely cos- 
tate, the ribs low, a keel indistinctly showing very close above 
the suture ; succeeding whorl very finely costulate. Following 
whorls weakly convex, with fine sculpture of growth- wrinkles. 
Under the cuticle the shell is pale reddish-brown above the 
periphery, the first three whorls dark purple-brown; base 
white. Cuticle thin and smooth, in front pale with olivaceous 
angular or dislocated stripes, on the back of the last whorl 
olivaceous with darker longitudinal streaks and some light 
and dark mottling. Aperture bluish or fleshy-white within 
lip thin and sharp ; columellar lamella moderate, strongly 
oblique. Length 12.5, diam. 7.3, aperture 6.1 mm. ; 5% 
whorls. 

Molokai : Cotypes no. 2048, C. M. Cooke coll. 

This species differs from A. siibobscura by broader contour 
at all stages of growth, and by the coloration, subobscura 
having no cuticular maculation. It is a broader, thinner 
shell than dissimiliceps, which is closely related. The mas- 
ter si type of ground- color this species shares with A. m. semi- 
carnea, some forms of A. affinis, and other species. There are 
two shells in the Cooke collection, one in coll. Boston Society. 

There is also in the Boston collection, no. 13468, a somewhat 
smaller form, length 12, diam. 6.8 mm., in which the under- 
color of the last two whorls is white and the apical costa- 
tion is stronger. This may perhaps prove distinct. 



AMASTRA, , MOLOKAI. 275 

17 a. A. N. DISSIMILICEPS n. subsp. PI. 28, figs. 19, 20. 

Shell oblong, similar to A. mucronato, in size and general 
shape, but the long spire has more convex outlines. Em- 
bryonic whorls purple-brown, convex, with somewhat finer 
sculpture than A. (simularis) mucronata and not showing 
the keel above the suture. Ground-color of the later whorls 
cream or slightly flesh- tinted; cuticle entire on the last half- 
whorl, brown with black streaks; on the preceding 1% or 2 
whorls it is largely deciduous, but where retained it forms a 
rather coarse, irregular tracery, similar to some examples of 
A. uniplicata, and unlike the angular striping of A. mucro- 
nata. Aperture pink within (fig. 20) or blue- white (fig. 19). 
6!/2 whorls. 

Fig. 20. Length 17.5, diam. 8.2, aperture 7.3 mm. (type). 

Fig. 19. Length 16.3, diam. 8, aperture 7 mm. 

Molokai : Type no. 2047, coll. C. M. Cooke. 

A longer, more solid shell than A. nubifera, but like that 
in the color, shape and sculpture of the embryonic whorls. 

78. A. MODESTA (C. B. Adams). 

" Shell rather thick and short, ovate-conic; dingy reddish 
or ash brown ; more or less covered with a dingy dark-brown 
epidermis ; with fine irregular transverse striae, which are 
coarser on the upper whorls ; without spiral stria? ; apex sub- 
acute ; spire short, with the outlines quite curvilinear ; whorls 
six, moderately convex, with a well impressed suture; last 
whorl rather ventricose; aperture ovate, somewhat acute 
above ; lip sharp, not expanded, moderately thickened within ; 
eolumellar fold well developed, quite opaque. Mean diver- 
gence 50 degrees. Length .54, breadth .3, length of aperture 
.26 inch." [= length 13.5, diam. 7.5, aperture 6.5 mm.] 
(Ad.) 

Sandwich Islands (Adams). 

Achatinella modesta C. B. AD., Ann. Lye. N. H. of N. Y., v, 
p. 44; Contrib. to Conch., no. 8, p. 128 (Oct. 21st, 1850). 
PFR., Monogr., iii, p. 457. BALDWIN, Catalogue, p. 9 (Molo- 
kai). 

The type of A. modesta has not been figured, and its recog- 



276 AM ASTRA, MOLOKAI. 

nition as a Molokaian species is at present hypothetical. 
Borcherding has figured a form from Kawela which closely 
resembles the East Mauian rustica Gulick. It seems to differ 
from Adams's description of modesta in color and shape of 
the spire. 

78a. A. M. DIMISSA n. subsp. PL 40, figs. 11, 12. 

Some specimens received from Gulick as A. modesta are 
larger, the last two whorls cream- white, earlier whorls fleshy- 
brown; the last whorl is covered with a thin olive-brown 
cuticle with pale streaks. The dull surface is unlike A. simy- 
laris. These shells have no zigzag lineolation, but the cuticle 
is slightly mottled in places. The lip has a narrow white 
thickening within; the vertical, blue columella bears a very 
oblique fold. Embryonic whorls costate and carinate. 

Fig. 11. Length 17, diam. 8.9, aperture 8 mm. ; 6% whorls. 

Fig. 12. Length 16.5, diam. 8, aperture 7.1 mm. 

Molokai : Cotypes 92683 and 10209, A. N. S. P., from the 
Gulick collection. Temporarily grouped under modesta. It 
is very unlike atroflava. 

79. A. SUBOBSCURA Hyatt & Pilsbry, n. sp. PL 42, fig. 6. 

The shell is minutely perforate, oblong-conic, rather thin, 
slightly shining. Outlines of the spire are nearly straight; 
embryonic whorls reddish-brown; after a smooth half -whorl 
there is a coarsely costate whorl, carinated close above the 
suture; the next whorl is finely and very closely costulate, 
and subangular next the lower suture. Following whorls con- 
vex, sculptured with growth-wrinkles, subplicate just below 
the suture, pale fleshy-gray, partly covered with a very thin, 
smooth olivaceous cuticle, darkest on the last half-whorl, 
wanting in front of the aperture. Aperture pinkish-white, 
the outer lip not thickened. Parietal callus whitish, rather 
thick. Length 11.9, diam. 6, aperture 5.1 mm. ; 6 whorls. 

Molokai : Ulapue. Type to be deposited in Bishop Museum, 
collected by D. Thaanum. 

Well distinguished by its plain cuticle, without mottling 
or markings of any kind. A. amicta Smith differs by the 



AMASTRA, MOLOKAI. 277 

roughness of the epidermis; its embryonic sculpture is un- 
known. A. su~bol)scura, resembles dimissa, in miniature. 

Three specimens, no. 13447, Boston Society, also belong to 
this species, and were studied by the senior author and the 
present writer. The ground-color is pale yellow with oliva- 
ceous cuticle, fleshy-yellowish, and fleshy-brown with chestnut 
cuticle. The parietal callus is very thin. 

Series of A. pusilla. 

Two Molokaian species seem to belong with the Lanaian 
A. pusilla. They are banded or banded and streaked, but 
without angular zigzag markings or mottling. 

80. A. TBICINCTA n. sp. PL 39, fig. 15. 

Shell perforate, ovate-conic, very small, thin, a little shin- 
ing. Outlines of the spire nearly straight. Embryonic 
whorls somewhat convex, the first half nearly smooth, cari- 
nate close above the suture, the next whorl very finely costu- 
late or sharply striate, subangular close above the suture. 
Following whorls moderately convex, marked with fine, ir- 
regular growth-wrinkles. Last whorl rounded peripherally. 
Dark brown, the last whorl having opaque white revolving 
bands at the suture, periphery and around the umbilical slit, 
and several narrow, obliquely longitudinal, black streaks; 
upper whorls reddish-brown. Aperture dark within, show- 
ing a median white band. Outer lip thin, acute. Columella 
dark, bearing a rather thin, strongly oblique lamella. Length 
8.8, diam. 5, aperture 4.3 mm. ; 5 Whorls. 

Molokai: Kolekole. Type to be deposited in Bishop Mu- 
seum, collected by Mr. D. Thaanum. 

About the size of A. petricola, from which it differs in char- 
acters of the embryonic whorls and in coloration. A very 
distinct species. 

81. A. ELEGANTTJLA n. Sp. PI. 40, fig. 15. 

The shell is imperforate, small and rather thin, ovate with 
straightly conic spire. The last whorl is very pale brown, 
lighter at the suture, with an opaque white band at the peri- 
phery, and sparsely streaked with brown, becoming chestnut- 



278 AMASTRA, MOLOKAI. 

brown behind the lip. Embryonic whorls slightly convex, 
the first very finely striate, the second finely plicatulate below 
the suture, becoming striate in the middle; following whorls 
sculptured with growth-striae. Outer lip thin. Golumella 
purplish, bearing a rather strong, thin lamella. 

Length 11.8, diam. 6.9, aperture 6 mm. ; whorls 5%. 

Molokai : Type 2050, C. M. Cooke coll. 

This species resembles A. petricola by having an opaque 
white band, but it differs in shape, etc. The sculpture of the 
second whorl is coarser than in petricola. It is a broader 
shell than A. tricincta, which is rather closely related. In 
general shape the shell is not unlike A. rustica Grulick. The 
type, and 'another specimen in Cooke coll., are probably not 
fully adult. Borcherding's pi. 10, fig. 22, from Kamalo may 
be this species. It does not seem to be A. petricola. 

Section HETERAMASTRA Pilsbry (p. 283). 
82. A. PERVERSA n. sp. PI. 49, fig. 5. 

Shell sinistral, oblong-turrite, rather solid. Spire a trifle 
contracted near the summit. Embryonic whorls delicately 
costulate as in A. l&va; following whorls having subobsolete 
growth-wrinkles, less developed than in A. lava. Aperture 
small, somewhat thickened within. Columellar lamella re- 
ceding, small and oblique. Length 11.5, diam. 5.5, aperture 
4.3 mm. ; 6% whorls. 

Molokai : Halawa, near the eastern end of the island, fossil 
(D. Thaanum). Type in Bishop Museum. 

This shell is very closely related to A. Iceva of East Maui, 
differing only in being smoother and in having whorls of 
slightly smaller caliber about one more in shells of equal 
length ; the aperture therefore smaller. Whether these dis- 
tinctions will hold in further specimens remains to be seen. 
Only one example, collected by Mr. D. Thaanum, has been 
examined. The dilated columellar margin is broken in the 
figured type. 

00. A. HUTCHINSONII Pease. PI. 49, figs. 3. 4. 
See species no. 89. 



AMASTRA, MAUI. 279 

AMASTR^E OF MAUI. 

The Amastrae of Maui are in the main smaller than those 
of Molokai and Lanai, the magna and 'biplicata series being 
absent here, while globose Cyclamastrce, wanting in the other 
two islands, are present. Otherwise the species are closely 
related to those of Molokai, and in some cases hardly separ- 
able. 

The Amastrae of the eastern and western mountain masses 
of Maui are specifically distinct but so closely related that 
we have reason to believe that the present isolation by a 
treeless, grassy area has been effected in Pleistocene time. 
The two areas apparently existed as a continuous forested 
tract up to and probably for a short time after the separation 
from Molokai. 

The island is therefore by no means so fundamentally dual 
as Oahu, where distinct groups of Amastrae were evolved on 
the two areas. 

Luxuriant native forests occupy the higher part of West 
Maui and they are especially extensive on the windward 
(northeastern) slopes of Haleakala, East Maui, where many 
new forms will doubtless be found, for this almost impene- 
trable forest remains unexplored and its molluscan life is 
unknown, as Baldwin writes. On the western slope of Halea- 
kala, in Kula, where most of the Newcomb and Gulick species, 
and the specimens in the older 'collections were taken, the 
forests are in large part dead or dying. 

Key to Amastrce of Maui. 
I. Shell sinistral (see Heteramastra, p. 283). 
II. Shell dextral. 

a. Shell umbilicate (Cyclamastra) . 

&. Globose-conic, diam. about two- thirds the length 

or more. 

c. Periphery rounded. A. obesa, no. 84. 

c 1 . Periphery angular. A. agglutinans, no. 85. 

6 1 . Ovate-conic, diam. not much over half of the 

length. A. morticina, no. 83. 

a 1 . Shell imperforate or nearly so (Amastra). 



280 AMASTRA, MAUI. 

&. Last whorl pale or creamy under a plain black- 
ish cuticle. 
c. Globose- conic, or acutely ovate, diam. more 

than half the length. 

d. Larger, length 19 to 23 mm., spire broadly 
conic; W. Maui. 

A. baldwiniana, no. 91. 

d 1 . Smaller, length 15 to 17 mm., spire con- 
cavely conic; E. Maui. A. nigra, no. 92. 
d 2 . Smaller, more solid; length 12.5 mm. 

A. subcrassilcibris, no. 93. 

c 1 . Oblong-conic, diam. about half the length; 

20x10 mm. A. makawaoensis, no. 94. 

6 1 . Glossy, with no dark outer cuticle; chestnut or 

chestnut and yellow, not malleated ; 18 to 20x10 

mm. A. master si, no. 95. 

ft 2 . Straw-colored or brownish, covered with a thin 

epidermis, the apex purple; 15x7.5 mm. 

A. erecta, no. 101. 

d 8 . Dark reddish-brown, with some dusky cuticle on 
last whorl ; 11.3x6 mm. A. johnsoni, no. 100. 
d 4 . Dark brown, plain or banded with white ; no dull 
outer cuticle; 11x6.3 mm. 

A. a. subpulla, no. 96d. 

fe 5 . Later whorls with mottled or zigzag-marked cu- 
ticle. 

c. Last Whorl angular at periphery; 15 to 16.5x 

9.5 mm. A. conifera, no. 99. 

c 1 . Last whorl rounded. A. affinis, no. 96; mal- 

leata, no. 98; nana, no. 97; assimilis, no. 

102; montana, no. 103. 

Subgenus CYCLAMASTBA Pils. & Van. 

(Series of A. umbilicata; p. 149.) 
83. A. MORTICINA n. sp. PL 36, figs. 8, 9. 

The shell is umbilicate, rather thin, with globose last 
whorl. The spire is straightly conic, a little attenuated near 



AMASTBA, MAUI. 281 

the summit. Whorls 6, the embryonic smooth, convex, the 
rest slightly convex, finely striate, the last whorl inflated at 
periphery and base, weakly plicate close to the suture, which 
is thereby made irregular; obtusely angular around the deep 
umbilicus, which has a spiral gutter just within. The aper- 
ture is small, angular above, subangular at the base of colu- 
mella; outer lip slightly thickened within. Columellar lip 
straight, but little dilated. Columellar lamella small and ob- 
lique. 

Length 10.9, diam. 6.5, aperture 5 mm. 

Length 10, diam. 6 mm. 

West Maui : Kanaio ( type loc. ) ; Kahului, sand hills in 
the isthmian region (Baldwin). 

Leptachatina extincta Pfr., in part, BALDWIN, Catalogue, 
1893, p. 11 (Maui specimens). 

This species is decidedly smaller than A. extincta Pfr., sup- 
posed to be Oahuan. A. similaris Pse., of Kauai, is very simi- 
lar, but the embryonic whorls form a much wider, more ob- 
tuse cone than in A. morticina. A. morticina closely imitates 
A. umbilicata Pfr., of Molokai, but it differs by having shorter 
whorls, more distinct striation and a crenulate suture. They 
probably would not be separated specifically if found on the 
same island. The apical whorl was omitted by the artist in 
fig. 8. Only fossil examples have been found and there can 
be little doubt that the species is extinct. 

The type specimens are of a dull red color (fig. 8) . Others, 
from Kahului, are white, a little larger, with 6^2 whorls, and 
the aperture is noticeably more angular at the base. The 
outer lip is more thickened (fig. 9). Length 12.3, diam. 6.8, 
aperture 5.7 mm. The largest specimen (labeled West 
Maui) is 13 mm. long, with 6% whorls. 

Series of A. sphcerica, (p. 147). 
84. A. OBESA (Newcomb). PL 42, fig. 11. 

" Shell dextral, depressed-conical, inflated, solid, striated, 
covered with an epidermis of dark umber color; whorls 5, 
rounded; apex acute; suture simple, well marked; aperture 



AMASTRA, MAUI. 

ovate, white; columella with a strong white plait; lip thick- 
ened within, simple. Length 0.4, breadth 0.35 inch. [lOx 
8.75 mm.] 

* ' Entire animal of a sooty black ; superior tentacles strongly 
clubbed, lower ones with a light-colored tip, granulations 
large; longer than the shell; motions very slow and timid " 
(Newc.) . 

The shell is imperforate or rimate, globose with short, con- 
cavely conic spire, rather thin, pale brownish under a dull 
chestnut or umber cuticle which covers the surface except 
in front of the aperture. 2~y 2 embryonic whorls convex; 
finely striate, the last subangular and perforate. Later 
whorls rather coarsely, irregularly wrinkled, the last whorl 
rounded peripherally, more or less distinctly marked with 
very shallow, rather coarse spiral striae. Aperture small, 
oblique, white within. The outer lip has a narrow internal 
rib. Columella white, short, bearing an obtuse lamella. 

Length 13, diam. 9.5 mm. ; 5~y 2 whorls. 

Length 10, diam. 7.2 mm. ; 5% whorls. 

Maui: Haleakala (Neweomb, type loc.) ; Makawao and 
Kula (Baldwin). 

Achatinella obesa, NEWC., Ann. Lye. N. H. of N. Y., vi, 
April, 1853, p. 24; t. c., p. 329; P. Z. S., Lond., 1853, p. 143, 
pi. 23, f. 39. PFR V Monogr., iv, 543. BALDWIN, Catalogue, 
1893, p. 9. Amastra heliciformis Anc., THWING, Occas. Pap. 
B. P. B. Mus., iii, no. 1, pi. 3, f. 17. 

The type locality is rather indefinite, but it is known to 
occur on the western (Kula) side of Haleakala. In the typi- 
cal form (pi. 42, fig. 11, length 10.3, diam. 9 mm.) the spire 
is short, either almost straightly conic or concavely conic, as 
in the specimen figured. The last whorl is depressed. This 
form occurs in Kula, where the shells are more or less plas- 
tered with earth or excrement, which sometimes forms a peri- 
pheral keel, somewhat as in A. agglutinans, but less copious. 

Specimens received from Mr. Baldwin, exact locality not 
stated, have the last whorl much less depressed. See meas- 
urements above and pi. 42, fig. 10 ; pi. 15, fig. 11. This high 
form may possibly be segregated as a variety. The surface 



AMASTRA, MAUI. 283 

is also dirty; a character recalling Pterodiscus, and lending 
some little evidence in favor of the view that Pterodiscus 
arose from ancestral obesa. 

Dr. C. M. Cooke informs me that the shell figured by Mr. 
Thwing as A. heliciformis, now in the Bishop Museum, is A. 
obesa. 

85. A. AGGLUTINANS (Newcomb). PI. 36, figs. 11, 12. 

Shell narrowly umbilicate, depressed, angular at the peri- 
phery, pale yellow under a thin light-brown cuticle, the spire 
reddish-brown ; more or less daubed with earth, which forms 
an irregular, broken flange at the periphery. Spire short, 
concavely conic, the finely striate, convex embryonic whorls 
projecting. Last whorl rather coarsely, irregularly striate, 
subacutely angular at the periphery, descending in front. 
Aperture white within, the outer lip but slightly thickened. 
Columella white, oblique, bearing an oblique fold. Length 
8.5, diam., not including agglutinations, 10 mm. ; whorls 5. 

West Maui: Wailuku (Gulick). 

Achatinella obesa var. agglutinans NEWCOMB, P. Z. S., 
1853, p. 143, pi. 23, fig. 39a. Amastra carinata GULICK, P. 
Z. S., 1873, p. 83 (no description). 

This very peculiar species has characters which must have 
belonged to the ancestors of Pterodiscus. It is remarkable in 
Amastra for the peripheral keel and the bedaubed surface. 
Gulick based his species upon Newcomb 's description and 
figure. The original description follows : ' ' Var. agglutinans. 
Shell somewhat, carinated on the last two whorls, with the 
keel extended by agglutinations, giving it a pagoda4ike 
form." 

The figures were drawn from a specimen received from 
Newcomb. Although this form has been united with obesa as 
a variety by Xewcomb and Baldwin, the series of both ex- 
amined leads us to agree with Gulick and Sykes that it is 
distinct. There seems no good reason for changing the name 
originally given by Newcomb. 

Section HETERAMASTRA Pilsbry (p. 141). 
Sinistral Amastrae with rather oblong, delicately costulate 



284 AMASTRA, MAUL 

or thread-striate embryonic whorls, later whorls with a thin, 
dark cuticle, sometimes longitudinally streaked but never 
mottled or figured; columellar lamella receding and steeply 
ascending, generally small ; axis rimate or imperf orate. Type 
A. hutchinsonii. 

Distribution, Lanai, Molokai, Maui and Hawaii. 

These forms have been classified with Laminella by many 
writers, as Baldwin and Sykes, while others have considered 
them sinistral Amastra, directly related to dextral forms of 
the region, a view taken by Borcherding, Hyatt, and appar- 
ently by Thwing. Differences in the embryonic whorls and 
the color pattern indicate that the relationship between these 
shells and the dextral Amastraa of Maui and Molokai is not 
close, though both groups are of common ancestry. The sin- 
istral species form a natural group, which seems to have split 
off from Amastra at an early period. 

The embryonic sculpture and dark, inornate coloration 
separate Eeteramastra from Laminella. 

Professor Hyatt intercalated these forms among dextral 
shells in various groups, as may be seen by reference to his 
classification, Appendix II. 

Key to species of Heteramastra. 

a. Diameter of shell equal to or exceeding half the length; 
surface not strongly rugose, smoothish or with weak 
sculpture. 
6. Spire not contracted near the summit. 

c. 12x6.9 mm. ; Maui. A. s. laticeps, no. 86b. 

c 1 . 10x5.5 mm.; last whorl swollen; blackish; Lanai. 

A. fraterna, no. 55. 
6 1 . Spire noticeably contracted near the summit. 

c. Moderately solid; spire brown, last whorl lighter 

colored; Maui. A. soror, no. 86. 

c 1 . Thin, shell of nearly uniform dark color; about 

5% whorls. 
d. Brown, thin, 10x5 mm.; Maui. 

A. subsoror, no. 87. 
d 1 . Blackish, obese, 10.3x6.5 mm. ; Lanai. 

A. fraterna, no. 55. 



AMASTRA, MAUI. 285 

a 1 . Diameter of shell less than half its length. 

6. Embryonic whorls carinate above the suture, 14.7x 
6.2 mm. ; Hawaii. A. sinistrorsa, no. 104. 

6 1 . Embryonic whorls not carinate. 

c. Rather large species, 15-25 mm. long; coarsely 

wrinkle-striate ; whorls 7 to 7%. 
d. Maui, 15x7 to 24.5x7.3 mm. 

A. hutchinsonii, no. 89. 

d 1 . Molokai, 20x7 mm. A. h. villosa, no. 89. 

d 2 . Wider, 19x9 mm. ; Maui. A. farcimen, no. 90. 
c 1 . Smaller shells, with finer or weak sculpture. 
d. Shell finely striate. 

e. Brown; 7 whorls; Oahu. 

A. elongata, no. 54. 

e 1 . Spire brown, last whorl paler; 5-6 whorls; 
Maui. A. lava, no. 88. 

d 1 . Weakly wrinkled; 11.5x5.5 mm.; Molokai. 

A. perversa, no. 82. 

d 2 . Weakly wrinkle-striate; spire brown, last 
whorl lighter; Maui. A. soror, no. 86. 

86. A. SOROR (Newcomb). PL 48, figs. 1-5. 

" Shell sinistral, conically-turrited ; whorls 7, rounded; 
suture deeply impressed ; aperture subovate, small ; lip simple ; 
columella very short, terminating in a twisted plicate tooth; 
epidermis thin, dark corneous above and light corneous 
below. Length 12, diam. five-twentieths of an inch. 

" Var. a. Last whorl white, shell solid. Length 9, breadth 
five-twentieths of an inch. 

' Var. &. Shell thin, dark corneous, polished. Length, 10, 
diam. four-twentieths of an inch. 

* This species is the complete analogue of A. acuta [i. e., 
A. elongata] found in Oahu; it has a more ventricose aspect, 
and the striae are more developed in the A. acuta " (New- 
comb) . 

Maui (Newc.) ; Lahaina, W. Maui (Gulick coll.). 

Achatinella soror NEWC., P. Z. S., 1853, p. 143, pi. 23, f . 38 
[also fig. 36] (1854). PFR., Monogr., iv, 548. Amastra 
soror PSE., P. Z. S., 1869, 650. 



286 AMASTRA, MAUI. 

The typical form of A. soror may be considered that illus- 
trated by Newcomb, whose figure is copied in our pi. 48, fig. 
5. It is a variable species but whether the individual colonies 
are homogeneous or not we do not know. The spire is brown, 
darkest above, very little contracted near the summit; last 
whorl (or last two whorls) opaque yellow or buff, glossy, re- 
taining fragments of a very thin olive or brown cuticle. 
First half-whorl of the embryo smooth, next whorl finely cos- 
tellate, the riblets 'Curved ; next whorl with much finer riblets, 
as usual ; a keel is visible just above the suture. Following 
Whorls have a weak sculpture of low but nearly regular 
wrinkles along lines of growth. A delicate keel is visible on 
some of the whorls, just above the suture, and sometimes it 
extends as far as the penult, whorl. The aperture is white 
within, lip acute, slightly or heavily thickened within. Colu- 
mellar lamella moderately strong, axis closed in specimens 
examined. 

Length 13.8, diam. 7.1, aperture 6 mm. ; 6% whorls. 

The specimens described and figs. 1, 2 are no. 1566, Boston 
Soc. N. H., from Lahaina, Gulick coll. 

There is also a more slender form in coll. A. N. S. P. (pi. 
48, figs. 3, 4). The spire is more contracted near the apex. 
The embryonic whorls are more finely striate and without 
distinct keel or angle above the suture. Following whorls 
have irregular wrinkles of growth, and are rather glossy. 
On the longest shell seen, a carina is visible above the suture. 
The >aperture is very oblique, white, a little thickened within 
the outer lip. The columella is very short, dilated above, 
nearly closing the perforation. It bears a quite small fold 
which is larger within. The color is reddish-brown at the 
apex, gradually fading downwards, the last whorl being very 
pale-brown or white, with traces of a very thin brown cu- 
ticle. 

Length 14, diam. 6.1, aperture 5.1 mm. ; 7 whorls. 

Length 13, diam. 6.1, aperture 5.1 mm. ; 6% whorls. 

The exact locality of the type specimens as well as of this 
more slender form is unknown. This slender form may be 
referable to the following variety. 



AMASTRA, MAUL 287 

86a. A. soror inter jecta n. var. PL 48, figs. 9, 10, 11. 

Smaller than soror; more solid than subsoror. Spire 
brown, slightly contracted above, the last whorl a lighter 
shade of brown or pale buff, covered with a very thin brown 
cuticle which seems to be more permanent than in soror. 
Whorls of tlie spire less convex than in A. subsoror, usually 
showing a delicate carina above the suture, but none is visible 
on the embryonic whorls. Aperture white within, having a 
rather thick callus lining. Columellar fold moderate. 

Fig. 10. Length 11, diam. 6, aperture 5 mm. ; 6^4 Whorls 
(no. 57827). 

Fig. 9. Length 11.5, dram. 6, aperture 5 mm. ; 6^2 whorls 
(no. 1566&). 

Length 11, diam. 6.3, aperture 4.9 mm. ; 6 whorls. 

Lahaina : Cotypes no. 1566a, Boston Soc. and 57827 A. N. 
S. P. 

There is often a pale line at the periphery of the last 
whorl. Dr. Newcomb sent out A. subsoror and inter jecta as 
soror, evidently thinking them a form of his species. Work- 
ing with museum specimens, we are unable to properly test 
the question of specific or racial distinction, which must be 
left to naturalists who 'Can study the problem on the ground. 

86b. A. soror laticeps n. var. PI. 48, fig. 8. 

Similar to inter jecta, except that the spire is wider, con- 
tracts less above, the last whorl of the embryonic shell being 
decidedly wider. Aperture whitish, somewhat thickened 
within; columellar lamella receding, rather heavy and sub- 
vertical within. Length 12.8, diam. 6.9, aperture 5.5 mm.; 
6 whorls. 

Maui : Type no. 10213, A. N. S. P., received from Dr. New- 
comb with A. subsoror. 

87. A. SUBSOROR Hyatt & Pilsbry, n. sp. PI. 48, figs. 6, 7. 

The shell is sinistral, narrowly rimate, ovate-turrite, 
thin, dull brown. Spire a little contracted near the summit; 
the embryonic whorls reddish-brown, convex, delicately stri- 
ate, the striae arcuate, thin, narrower than their intervals. 



288 AMASTRA, MAUI. 

Subsequent whorls strongly 'convex, brown, with slight 
sculpture of low growth- wrinkles. Aperture quite oblique, 
brown within, the outer lip scarcely thickened internally; a 
white callus emerges, strengthening the basal lip within, its 
inward portion showing through the shell as a yellowish or 
whitish tract around the axial crevice. Columella straight, 
its edge narrowly dilated, bearing a strongly oblique, rather 
small lamella, which is stronger within; parietal film trans- 
parent. 

Length 10, diam. 5, aperture 4 mm. ; 5% whorls. 

West Maui: Lahaina (Gulick). 

Smaller, more delicate than A. soror, with the whorls much 
more convex, last whorl brown, not opaque and yellow or 
whitish, except close to the perforation. Some shells of the 
type lot (no. 57786, A. N. S. P.) are decidedly broader than 
the type: Length 9, diam. 5.2, aperture 4 mm.; 5% whorls. 
The largest shell seen is 10.5 mm. long. 

In the young and half -grown stages the periphery is ob- 
tusely subangular, but the angle is usually not visible in 
adults. The shell is usually dirty, but not 'copiously smeared, 
as A. hutchinsoni generally is. 

88. A. L^VA Baldwin. PI. 48, figs. 12 to 15. 

" Shell sinistral, imperf orate, rather thin, conically tur- 
rited, apex acute ; surface striated with fine incremental lines, 
embryonic whorls with delicate radiating sulcations, color 
brown, with irregular patches of a dark fugacious epidermis. 
"Whorls 6, somewhat convex; suture well impressed. Aper- 
ture oblique, oval, livid-white within. Peristome simple and 
thin. Columella terminating in a thin lamellar plait. Length 
12, diam. 5 mm." (Baldwin). 

East Maui : Mt. Haleakala. 

Amastra (Laminella) l&va BALDWIN, Nautilus, xix, April, 
1906, p. 138. 

11 This species is the counterpart of Laminella soror, Nc. 
found on West Maui, but the latter is a larger and more 
obese shell " (Baldwin). 

The specimens figured are from a series sent by Mr. Bald- 



AMASTRA, MAUI. 289 

win. The shell is rather solid; spire is a little contracted 
above, embryonic whorls finely costellate as in A. hutchin- 
sonii. The following whorls have sculpture of irregular 
rather coarse wrinkles, and in some individuals there are dis- 
tinct spiral striae. Usually an inconspicuous angle or keel 
is visible just above the suture. The last whorl is yellow or 
buff, with fragments of a very thin brown cuticle. On the 
spire the tint darkens, becoming reddish-brown at the em- 
bryonic whorls. Aperture white, the lip acute, somewhat 
thickened within. Columellar lamella small, variable in size. 
Length 11.5, diam. 5.4, aperture 4.7 mm. ; 5% whorls. 

In one specimen sent by Mr. Baldwin no trace of a colu- 
mellar lamella is visible, the shell being normal otherwise 
(pi. 48, fig. 15). In another shell, old and dead, the lamella 
is very strongly developed (pi. 48, fig. 13). Length 12, 
diam. 5.9, aperture 5 mm.; 6% whorls. 

A. lava stands intermediate between A. soror and A. hut- 
chinsonii, having sculpture and cuticle like the latter, while 
the shape of the spire is rather that of soror. Dr. Newcomb 
sent out specimens of lava, under the name elongata. See p. 
231. 

89. A. HUTcniNSONn (Pease). PI. 49, figs. 1, 2, 14. 

" Shell acuminately turrited, sinistral, imperforate. 
Whorls 7, flatly convex, coarsely and irregularly striated lon- 
gitudinally, not marginated. Sutures somewhat rude, well 
impressed. Aperture ovate, about two-fifths the length of 
the shell ; columellar fold slight, oblique and tortuous. Shell 
covered with an earthy-brown epidermis; apex of a darker 
color; aperture and columella white, shining. Maui, Sand- 
wich Islands " (Pse.) 

East Maui: Makawao and Kula (Baldwin); Molokai: 
Waialua (Borcherding). 

Helicter hutchinsonii PSE., P. Z. S., 1862, p. 7. Achatin- 
ella h., PFB., Monogr., vi, 180. THWING, Orig. Descript., p. 
177, pi. 3, f. 24. Amastra h., HARTMAN, Proc. A. N. S., 
Phila., 1888, p. 45, pi. 1, f. 9. 

Molokai references. Amastra villosa SYKES, Proc. Malac. 



290 AMASTRA, MAUI. 

Soc., London, ii, pt. 3, p. 129, October, 1896. Amastra 
(Laminella) villosa SYKES, Fauna Hawaiiensis, p. 352, pi. 
11, f. 24. Amastra elongata Newc., BORCHERDING, in part, 
Zoologica, xix, 1906, p. 124, pi. 10, f. 24 (Waialua, Molokai). 

The shell in Mauian specimens is usually rimate, not often 
imperforate as described by Pease. The embryonic whorls 
are very beautifully costellate, the riblets curved as usual. 
The later whorls have a coarse sculpture of uneven wrinkles. 
The later whorls have a thin rusty or chestnut cuticle over a 
light yellow under-layer which is exposed by wear on the 
wrinkles, and is plastered or daubed with blackish dirt. Be- 
neath the cuticle the shell is white. The columellar lamella 
is small and strongly oblique. 

Length 24.5, diam. 7.3, aperture 6 mm. ; 1% whorls. 

Length 15, diam. 7, aperture 6 mm. ; 7 whorls. 

There are two forms or races, a larger, with aperture one- 
fourth the length, and a smaller or typical race, aperture two- 
fifths the length, as in Pease's description. Both occur at 
Makawao. The species is readily known by its long contour 
and rude sculpture. " We have attached to this species the 
name of the Hon. F. W. Hutchinson, Judge of the Circuit 
Court, to whom we are indebted for several rare shells " 
(Pse.\. 

Having examined a series of shells from Molokai we are 
unable to find any character to separate them from the 
larger race of Maui. We agree with Borcherding that A. 
villosa is a synonym. The original description and figure 
(pi. 49, fig. 8) are given; also other figures representing 
Molokai specimens (figs. 3, 4). The original description fol- 
lows. 

"Amastra villosa. Shell elongate-turrited, sinistral, sub- 
imperf orate, rather thick ; pale corneous covered with a brown 
epidermis. Whorls 7 to 7%, convex, longitudinally and ir- 
regularly, strongly striated; suture well impressed. Aper- 
ture lunate, nearly vertical; peristome unexpanded, acute, 
whitish; columellar lamina small. Length 20, diam. 7 mm." 
Molokai, Perkins. (Sykes.) 

11 This shell, nearly related to A. kutckinsonii Pease from 



AMASTRA, MAUL 291 

Maui, may be separated by its greater size, more elongate 
spire, and the shape of the last whorl which is not so fusi- 
form as in that species. The suture is also more deeply im- 
pressed. The specimen here figured [pi. 49, fig. 8, copied 
from Sykes] is not the one whose measurements were given 
in the original diagnosis, but a slightly smaller shell whose 
periostracum is better preserved " (Sykes). 

In shells of maximum size the dull olivaceous-brown or 
reddish-brown cuticle is largely lost. The columellar lamella, 
in the Molokai shells we have seen, is very small, sometimes 
inconspicuous in front view. 

90. A. FARCIMEN (Pfeiffer). 

Shell subperforate, sinistral, oblong-conic, rather solid, 
somewhat rugose; whitish under a blackish epidermis; spire 
terminating above in an acute nude cone. Whorls 7, the 
upper flat, the last two very convex, last whorl a little ex- 
ceeding one-third the length, subangular in the middle. 
Columellar fold compressed, oblique. Aperture oblique, semi- 
oval, white within; peristome simple, unexpanded, the colu- 
mellar margin somewhat spreading. Length 19, diam. 9, 
aperture 8x5 mm. (Pfr.). 

Maui (Newcomb, in Cuming coll.). 

Achatinella farcimen PFR., P. Z. S., 1856, p. 334; Mono- 
graphia, iv. 552. Not Amastra farcimen Pfr., HARTMAN, 
Proc. A. N. S., Phila., 1888, p. 56, pi. 1, f. 5. 

Possibly a form of A. hutchinsonii; yet Sykes, who had 
opportunity to examine the type, makes no suggestion as to 
its affinities. He points out that Hartman's figure of a sup- 
posed " typical " farcimen belongs to some very different 
species. The aperture is longer in farcimen than in hutchin- 
son ii. 

Section AMASTRA s. str. 

Series of A. nigra. 

Moderately large shells, sometimes wholly wanting dark 
outer cuticle, but usually covered with a blackish cuticle 
which may be more or less deciduous, not conspicuously mot- 
tled or zigzag striped. Embryonic shell typically costate and 






292 AMASTRA, MAUI. 

carinate, 'but rarely these whorls are convex and striate. The 
series is closely related to the pullata group of Molokai. 

91. A. BALDWINIANA n. sp. PL 43, figs. 4, 5. 

Shell imperforate globose-conic, moderately solid, very pale 
brown or creamy-white under a thin, rather glossy dark- 
brown, black-streaked cuticle, which is inconspicuous or want- 
ing above the last whorl. When preserved on the penult, 
whorl the .cuticle is irregularly mottled or angularly streaked, 
as in A. nigra; and the light streaks of the last whorl show 
traces of spiral bands. The substance of the shell is white 
throughout or purplish-brown on the spire. The spire is 
straightly conic or a little contracted near the summit. First 
half- whorl smooth; next whorl strongly costate, and carinate 
above the suture, the following whorl more finely costulate. 
Later whorls with fine growth-lines, the last whorl smooth, or 
sometimes spirally malleated, very convex. Aperture short, 
white within, very slightly thickened within the outer lip. 
Columellar lamella strong and very oblique. Parietal callus 
thin. 

Length 22.7, diam. 13.1, aperture 10 mm.; 6% whorls. 

Length 21, diam. 13.5, aperture 10 mm.; Qy 2 whorls. 

Length 19, diam. 12, aperture 9 mm. ; 6^2 whorls. 

West Maui: Wailuku (D. D. Baldwin). 

A larger, less globose species than A. nigra, with the spire 
more broadly conic, and the last whorl less malleated or 
smooth. 

92. A. NIGRA (Newcomb). PL 43, figs. 1, 2, 3, 6. 

' ' Shell dextral, globosely acuminate, rather solid ; the two 
lower whorls inflated, the superior ones subulate; whorls 6; 
the last two cut upon the surface into rude cicatrices by lon- 
gitudinal striae crossed by revolving elevations, irregularly 
distributed; superior whorls flattened, with closely-crowded, 
strong longitudinal striae; suture simple, well impressed; 
aperture round ovate; columella short, terminating in a 
lamellar tooth; color yellowish- white, with a thin black epi- 
dermis. Length 14, diam. nine-twentieths of an inch 
mm.] (Newcomb). 



AMASTRA, MAUI. 293 

East Maui: Ulupalakua (Baldwin). 

Achatinella nigra NEWC., Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., v, 1855, 
p. 219 ; P. Z. S., 1855, p. 209 ; Amer. Journ. of Conch., ii, p. 
210, pi. 13, f. 3. PPR., Monogr., iv, 545. THWING, Occas. 
Papers, B. P. B. Mus., iii, no. 1, p. 177. BALDWIN, Cata- 
logue, 1893, p. 9. Amastra nigra PSE., P. Z. S., 1869, 649 
GULICK, Evolution, Racial and Habitudinal, pi. 1, f. 17. 
Achatinella globosa GULICK, MS. teste Newc. 

The second embryonic whorl is nearly flat-sided, with 
sculpture of rather strong curved riblets, and a carina above 
the suture ; the next whorl has fine ribs, partly effaced in the 
middle. The very globose last whorl is conspicuously mal- 
leated, having flattened facets and irregular ridges running 
spirally and descending. The spire is brown, but the last 
whorl, under the lusterless blackish cuticle, is nearly white. 
The cuticle is more or less varied with angular streaks on the 
spire. The outer lip has a heavy rib or a thin callus within. 

Length 17, diam. 11.2 mm. ; whorls 6%. 

Length 15, diam. 10 mm. 

In one specimen received from Dr. Newcomb the whorl fol- 
lowing the smooth initial half-whorl is convex, with a few 
low coarse folds and some fine striae ; next whorl finely striate, 
the striae partly effaced in the middle (pi. 43, fig. 3). In all 
other respects the shell is a typical nigra. 

A. nigra is related to the West Mauian A. baldwiniana. 
It has no other close relatives. 

93. A. SUBCRASSILABRIS n. sp. PL 45, figs. 14, 15. 

The shell is perforate, acutely ovate, solid, not glossy, out- 
lines of the spire straight or very little contracted near the 
summit; whorls nearly flat. Embryonic whorls very finely 
striate, following whorls marked with growth-wrinkles, the 
last one spirally malleate below the periphery in the type 
(smooth in another specimen). Spire brown, the penultimate 
whorl becoming paler, last whorl cream-white, retaining small 
patches of a thin brown cuticle. Aperture slightly oblique, 
white within, the lip thickened by a rather strong white rib. 
Columella white, straight, narrowly reflexed, bearing a small 



294 AMASTRA, MAUI. 

white submedian fold. Length 12.5, diam. 7.4, aperture 6 
mm. ; G 1 /^ whorls. 

East Maui: Kula, with. A. affinis, etc. (Gulick). 

Two specimens of this form were in a vial of the Gulick 
collection, no. 1541, Boston Society, with A. affinis, A. mal- 
leata and A. a. Cinderella, labeled Kula, E. Maui. Compared 
with A. crassilabrum Nc., this species differs by its flatter 
whorls, more distinctly striate embryonic whorls, by the pres- 
ence of brown cuticle on the last whorl, and the smaller colu- 
mellar lamella. It is probably a relative of A. nigra, having 
the striate embryonic whorls of certain exceptional individ- 
uals of that species. 

94. A. MAKAWAOENSIS n. sp. PL 43, figs. 7, 8, 9. 

The shell is imperforate, oblong-conic, the outlines of the 
spire straight in the upper part, then convex. Ground-color 
very pale o<chre or 'cream, or sometimes reddish-brown above, 
pale yellow below the periphery ; except in front of the aper- 
ture it is covered by a dense, somewhat glossy cuticle, which 
is black (or with some reddish streaks) on the last whorl, 
copiously streaked with cream or brownish-white on the 
penult, whorl; earlier whorls red-brown with pale dots or 
streaks. Embryonic whorls flattened, the first coarsely cos- 
tate, with a carina which is nearly 'concealed at the suture; 
second whorl more finely costulate; subsequent whorls with 
sculpture of growth-wrinkles and on the last two whorls 
numerous unequal, shallow spiral striae (often weak or obso- 
lete) ; the last whorl is not very convex, usually contracted, 
and usually has flattened, spirally descending facets, or mal- 
leation. Aperture white, oblique, the lip acute, somewhat 
thickened within. Columellar fold more or less thickened 
at the end, very obliquely ascending. 

Length 20, diam. 10, aperture 9.5 mm. ; 6% whorls. 

Length 20.5, diam. 10, aperture 8.3 mm. ; 7 whorls. 

Length 19, diam. 10, aperture 9 mm. ; 6% whorls. 

East Maui: Makawao (Baldwin). 

This species is one of several forms which have been 
grouped under the comprehensive name A. mastersi. It dif- 



AMASTRA, MAUI. 295 

fers from that species, as now restricted, by its oblong shape, 
the penultimate whorl bulging more, and the last whorl less 
convex, more or less contracted; by being covered with a 
blackish cuticle, and by the usual (though not invariable) 
spiral striation, or spirally descending malleated facets. It 
is also less glossy. 

The penultimate and last whorls are sometimes uniform 
black, except where the cuticle is lost in front of the aperture 
and above the last half-turn of the suture. Usually the 
penultimate whorl and front of the last are more or less 
streaked. They are never marked with angulated streaks, 
though at times there is some light maculation or mottling 
on some of the dark streaks. 

A form somewhat similar to this has been figured by Bor- 
cherding from Molokai (Zoologica, Heft. 48, p. 116, pi. 10, 
fig. 16). It is herein described as A. borcherdingi, as I be- 
lieve it to be quite distinct from mastersi and makawaoensis. 

95. A. MASTERSI (Newoomb). PL 43, figs. 12-17. 

" Shell dextral, thin; whorls 7, rounded, slightly rugose 
above, the last strongly inflated ; apex acute ; suture well im- 
pressed; aperture ovate; lip simple; columella short, with a 
thin lamellar plait; color of shell white or rich chestnut, 
with traces of a thin brown epidermis ; within white or bluish- 
white. 

" The size varies much in this species, and the coloring is 
also various, running from pure white through various tints 
to a light mahogany. The lower part of the shell is not in- 
frequently \Vhite, and the upper portion bright chestnut or 
rose-colored. 

" Length sixteen- twentieths, width eight-twentieths inch 
[= 20x10 mm.] . Mani. ' ' (Newc.) 

11 Animal longer than the shell, of a fine flesh-color, covered 
with granulations tipped with carmine ; tentacles and anterior 
superior portion of the body dark-brown or black. Motions 
fearless and active. An inhabitant of bushes (the ' Olona ') " 
(Newc.). 

East Maui: Makawao (Baldwin, Thwing). 



296 AM ASTRA, MAUI. 

Achatinella mastersi NEWC., P. Z. S., Land., 1853, p. 153 r 
pi. 24, fig. 67 (1854) ; Ann. Lye. N. H. of N. Y., vi, 1858, p. 
332 (animal). Laminella mastersi Nc., W. G. BINNEY, Ann. 
Lye. N. H. of N. Y., x, p. 335, pi. 15, figs. 7, 9-11 (jaw and 
teeth) ; Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci., iii, 1884, p. 98, pi. 16, f. E 
(jaw) ; pi. 6, fig. E (teeth). 

Neweomb's description is given above and his figure is 
copied, pi. 43, fig. 12. The original locality was Maul. In 
his paper of 1858, where the animal is described, Newcomb 
states that "A. mastersi is an inhabitant of Molokai, and is 
sparsely found on Maui." It is evident that more than one 
form was included by Newcomb in his definition of the species. 
The form selected for his figure is, as Mr. Thwing has im- 
plied, the bicolored race from Makawao, in East Maui. While 
this does not agree with all of the description, it was evi- 
dently regarded by Newcomb as a typical mastersi. He 
records other species from Makawao, and this was doubtless 
the type locality of mastersi. 

The shell is glossy, the upper half of the last whorl rich 
chestnut, lower half yellow, sipire brown, the embryonic 
whorls reddish or dull-purple. Other shells have the last 
whorl chestnut, spire either a lighter or a darker shade. 
There is no outer layer of dark cuticle. The outlines of the 
spire are convex. The second embryonic whorl is strongly 
eostate, with a earina which is concealed at the suture. Fol- 
lowing whorls are irregularly plicate below the suture, the 
last whorl well rounded, not malleate. Aperture white, the 
lip acute, not thickened within. Columellar fold small and 
oblique. Axis imperforate. 

Length 18, diam. 10 mm. ; 6 whorls. 

Length 18, diam. 9.5 mm. 

In another color-form the shell is pale-yellow, spire gray- 
brown (pi. 43, fig. 17). 

Typical A. mastersi, as restricted to this form, is special 
to East Maui, occurring on the northeastern flank of Halea- 
kala, on one of the routes to the crater. A more globose 
form, length 16, diam. 10 mm., with 5% whorls, occurs at 
Honomanu, inland from Keanae, north of Haleakala crater. 



AMASTRA, MAUI. 297 

The series examined from this place is in the C. M. Cooke 
collection. 

Series of A. assimilis. 

Small or moderate sized shells, generally with mottled or 
zigzag-striped outer layer of dark cuticle. Embryonic whorls 
typically costate and carinate. Common to East and West 
Maui and Molokai. 

Perhaps an additional Series should be erected for A. john- 
soni (no. 100). A. erecta (no. 101) and A. subpulla (no. 
96d), which have plain or banded coloration, and so far as 
known have plain, not figured cuticle. 

96. A. AFFINIS (Newcomb). PL 44, figs. 1-4, 6. 

" Shell acutely conical; whorls 6, rounded, not margined; 
suture well impressed; aperture ovate; lip thin; columella 
with a white lamellar twisted tooth; color white, roseate or 
salmon, with traces of a dark-brown epidermis; last whorl 
lighter-colored than the upper ones. Length 12, diam. 5% 
twentieths of an inch " (=15x7.2 mm.) (Newc.). 

East Maui: Kula (Newcomb). 

Achatinella affinis NEWC., P. Z. S., 1853, p. 142, pi. 23, fig. 
35 (1854). PFR., Monogr., vi, p. 180. Achatinella gonios- 
toma PFR., P. Z. S., 1855, p. 103 ; Monographia, iv, p. 550. 
Amastra rustica GULICK, in Gulick and Smith, P. Z. S., 1873, 
p. 84, pi. 10, f. 17. 

A. affinis t rustica and pupoidea, together with the forms 
bigener, Cinderella and subpulla, distinguished by Hyatt, 
make up a group of very closely-related forms, which seem 
to me inextricably connected ; yet as my knowledge of them is 
limited to a couple of hundred museum specimens, without 
field notes, my course should not unduly prejudice a natura- 
list who may study the group at Kula, its headquarters. As 
a, whole, the species differs from A. assimilis by its generally 
smaller size. 

Newcomb 's type figure of affinis is copied, pi. 44, fig. 4. 
Figs. 1 to 3 represent typical specimens enlarged to show the 
sculpture. The embryonic whorls are brown or whitish, flat- 
tened, strongly costate, and carinate above the suture, the 






298 AMASTRA, MAUI. 

carina often conspicuously projecting. The following whorls 
of the cone (which is straightly conic above the penultimate 
whorl) 'are unevenly striate, and the intermediate whorls are 
usually more or less pitted, cicatricose, or irregularly mal- 
leated, the impressions gray, fleshy or pink. The last whorl 
is yellowish white, generally with small fragments of a brown 
cuticle adhering on the last half. In some shells there remain 
traces of angular dark lines of cuticle on the last whorl. The 
aperture is white, with a narrow lip-rib or none. Columella 
very narrow with a small oblique fold in the middle. 

Other specimens of the same lot from Kula have the em- 
bryonic whorls more finely striate, and in one shell they are 
convex and finely striate; so that this species varies much 
as figured for A. nigra in characters of the embryo, while the 
later stages seem alike. 

In some lots the carina of the neanic whorls is concealed 
at the suture ; in others it may show above the suture on the 
third whorl. 

A. rustica Gulick, according to paratypes from Kula, re- 
ceived from Gulick (pi. 44, figs. 12 to 16), is not, I think, 
specifically separable, On the last half-whorl it usually re- 
tains much of the cuticle, which is dark olivaceous or brown- 
ish, streaked and mottled with lighter, or variegated with 
dark zigzag streaks on >a pale ground. The original descrip- 
tion follows. 

"Ama-stra rustica Gk. Shell dextral, imperf orate, ovate- 
conic, striated lightly with growth-lines, very pale reddish 
under an olivaceous 'Cuticle. Whorls 6, a little convex, the 
first two very strongly, the third lightly sulcate. Suture 
simple, not very deep. Aperture small, not as long as the 
spire, somewhat reddish; peristome arcuate, thin; columella 
short, provided with an inconspicuous fold, joined to the lip 
by a very thin callus. Length 141/2, diam. 7% mm. Kula, in 
East Maui, on the ground. It is allied to Am. affinis Nwc., 
but is readily distinguished by its convex spire " (Gulick). 

A. goniostoma has been accepted as a synonym of affinis by 
Newcomb, Hartman -and Sykes. The description follows. 

"Achatinella goniostoma Pfr. Shell rimate, dextral, tur- 



AMASTRA, MAUL 299 

rited, solid, obliquely striatulate ; corneous- gray under a de- 
ciduous fulvous epidermis. Spire elongate-conic, the apex 
acute ; suture subcrenate. Whorls 8, rather flat, the penulti- 
mate more convex, the last whorl scarcely more than one- 
third of the length, rotund. Aperture oblique, elliptical, 
angular at both ends; peristome unexpanded, produced 
basally, the margins joined by a callus, right margin some- 
what labiate within; columellar margin somewhat dilated, 
adnate. Length 16, diam. 7%, aperture 6 mm. long, 3.5 wide. 
Sandwich Is., Mus. Cuming " (Pfr.). 

Dr. Newcomb (Ann. Lye. N. H. of N. Y., vi, 328) remarks: 
" Two of the three specimens in Mus. Cuming labelled A. 
goniostoma Pfr., clearly belong to this species [a/finis] ; a 
larger specimen may be distinct." 

96a. A. a. pupoidea (Newcomb). PI. 44, figs. 5, 9, 10, 11. 

Shell dextral, cylindrically elongate; whorls 7, rounded; 
suture deep; aperture small, subovate; lip simple; columella 
short, lightly toothed; epidermis thin, of a light brown, be- 
neath which the body- whorl is white, the three above pinkish, 
and the others leaden; brown zigzag undulations are some- 
times found on the upper portions of the lower whorls. 
Length 14, width five- twentieths of an inch [17.5x6.25 mm.] 
(Newc.). 

East Maui (Newcomb). 

Achatinella pupoidea Nc., P. Z. S., 1853, p. 144, pi. 23, fig. 
42 (1854). 

Newcomb 's original figure is copied, fig. 5. Numerous spe- 
cimens before us differ from affinis only by being more length- 
ened, a variable character. Some cuticle is retained on the 
last whorl. The pale ground is sometimes reddish above the 
periphery, or has pale-reddish bands there. A delicate carina 
is generally visible above the suture as far down as the fourth 
whorl. The size varies. 

Length 17, diam. 7, aperture 6 mm. ; 7 whorls. 

Length 14.2, diam. 6.5, aperture 6 mm. ; 6^2 whorls. 

Length 17, diam. 8, aperture 7 mm. ; 6% whorls. 



300 AMASTRA, MAUI. 

96b. A. a. Ugener Hyatt, n. var. PL 44, fig. 7. 

Smaller than typical affinis, creamy, the apex brown or 
white, last whorl retaining dark cuticle in angular or zigzag 
lines. Apex with typical costation and carination; whorls 
fewer. 

Length 12, diam. 6.2 mm. ; whorls 

Length 11.9, diam. 6.1 mm. ; whorls 

Maui : Types no. 57685, A. N. S. P. 

A form without cuticle, except for some shreds close behind 
the lip, is whitish below the periphery, flesh-colored, with 
numerous pale lines above it. Length 12, diam. 6.8 mm. ; 
5% whorls. This form was called A. bigener var. abberans 
Hyatt, MSS. (pi. 44, fig. 8). The exact locality is unknown. 
The figured type is 117264, U. S. Nat. Mus. 

96c. Var. Cinderella Hyatt, n. v. PI. 45, figs. 1, 2. 

Smaller than affinis, white mottled with flesh-color, or pink- 
ish-brown with scattered White maculae, or with white streaks 
also. Length 10.7, diam. 6 mm. ; 5% whorls. Kula. 

This form, distinguished by Hyatt, is based upon no. 1546 
of the Gulick coll., Boston Society collection. Figured from 
the cotypes. 

96d. A. a. subpulla Hyatt & Pilsbry, n. subsp. PI. 45, figs. 
3,4. 

The shells are stouter than in Cinderella. The color of one 
is uniform brown without bars and it has a lighter or yellow 
tone along the shoulder of last volution, apex ashen (fig. 4). 
The other shell has broad pearl-grey bands cut up by smaller 
brown bands and a pearl-grey area around the columella 
on the base. The preceding Whorl is brown with light pearl- 
grey shoulder, and apex ashen. These are the colors and 
ornaments of A. pulla of Lanai, but the shell is distinct in 
being a little stouter or more globose than in that species. 
It is also wider than A. johnsoni. There is no trace of an 
outer layer of cuticle. The apex is costate and carinated. 
Length 11, diam. 6.3 mm. (fig. 3, type). 

Kula, East Maui, associated with var. Cinderella. Cotypes 
in coll. Boston Society. 






AMASTRA, MAUL 301 

This may be specifically distinct from A. affinis, as Hyatt 
believed; but variation in this group is so imperfectly 
understood that for the present it may be described as a sub- 
species. 

96e. A. a. kaupakaluana n. subsp. PL 46, figs. 1 to 6. 

The shell is imperf orate, oblong-conic, rather solid; pale 
yellowish, becoming brown on the spire or near the apex, in 
large part covered by a thin, smooth olivaceous cuticle, often 
marked with dark oblique stripes on a paler ground on the 
front, and becoming denser and chestnut-colored on the last 
part of the last whorl. It is worn away in front of the 
aperture. First whorl costate and carinated, second whorl 
much more finely costulate; subsequent whorls somewhat 
plicatulate below the suture. Aperture impure white within, 
often pinkish towards the black lip-edge. Columellar fold 
small, obtuse, median. 

Length 16, diam. 8.9, aperture 7.6 mm.; 6% whorls. 

Length 16, diam. 8.3, aperture 7.3 mm. ; 6% whorls. 

East Maui: Kaupakalua (Baldwin). Cotypes no. 2156, 
coll. C. M. Cooke. and 104760, A. N. S. P. 

Darker colored than A. affinis, retaining more cuticle, and 
rather different in pattern ; it has an appearance of distinct- 
ness. Inhabits a district north of Kula, the home of A. 
affinis. 

Two other lots in the Cooke collection without exact locality 
data are referable to this subspecies. In lot 2150 the shell 
is rather solid, obese, length 15, diam. 9 mm., cuticle blackish, 
the mouth rose or white (pi. 46, figs. 1, 2). In lot 2149 the 
shell is thinner, cuticle black (pi. 46, figs. 3, 4). 

97. A. NANA Baldwin. PI. 43, figs. 11, 20, 21. 

The shell is rimate, ovate-conic, thin; impure whitish or 
pale brown, the apex dark brown, covered (except in front 
of the aperture) with a brown or olivaceous-brown cuticle, 
which is varied with light streaks or zigzag stripes. Em- 
bryonic shell costate and carinate, later whorls more or less 
irregularly wrinkle-striate. Aperture small, the lip some- 



302 AMASTRA, MAUI. 

what thickened within. Columellar fold rather sharp. The 
spire has nearly straight outlines, whorls but slightly convex. 

Length 12, diam. 6.7, aperture 5 mm. ; whorls 6*4. 

Length 11.2, diam. 6.6, aperture 5.4 mm. 

" Animal when extended in motion as long as the shell. 
Mantle light brown. Foot above and below brown with spots 
of deeper shade on the sides. Tentacles and front above al- 
most black " (Baldwin). 

East Maui : Makawao. Common, but very local in its dis- 
tribution, in a belt of forest land about 4,000 feet above sea 
level (Baldwin). 

Amastra nana BALDWIN, Proc. A. N. S., Phila., 1895, p. 
232, pi. 11, figs. 48, 49. 

Shorter, thinner, less calcareous and darker than A. ajfinis, 
and much smaller than A. a. kaupakaluana, which occurs 
farther north. The description and figures are from the 
types, no. 65718, A. N. S. P. 

The color pattern varies within wide limits, as shown by 
the figures. 

There is in the Boston Society collection a shell, no 13423, 
said to be from Molokai, which Hyatt described in MS. as a 
new species, but which seems to me to be identical with nana. 
The shell (pi. 42, fig. 1) is subrimate, thin, ovate-conic, not 
shining; outlines of the spire straight. Embryonic whorls 
flat, strongly costate and conspicuously carinate, purplish- 
brown. Following whorls very slightly convex, marked with 
rather distinct wrinkles of growth, reddish-brown under a 
thin pale-brown cuticle which is profusely but indistinctly 
marked with abruptly-waved longitudinal stripes of reddish- 
chestnut, fading at their edges. Last whorl well rounded at 
the periphery. Aperture dark within, the lip thin. Length 
9.2, diam. 5.8, aperture 4.9 mm.; 5% whorls. The locality 
assigned seems to me doubtful, but the description and figure 
are inserted to call attention to the matter. 

98. A. MALLEATA Smitfi. PI. 45, figs. 5, 6 

Shell 'acutely-ovate, dextral, striated with growth-lines, 
prettily malleated, dirty whitish variously 'colored with a 






AMASTRA, MAUI. 303 



brownish-olivaceous epidermis. Whorls 6, a little convex, the 
first three strongly radially sulcate; suture simple. Aper- 
ture white; peristome thin, very slightly thickened within; 
columellar fold thin. Length 14, diam. 8 mm. (Smith). 

East Maui: Kula, >on the ground (Gulick). 

Amastra malleata SMITH, P. Z. S., 1873, p. 85, pi. 10, f. 18. 

The type (pi. 45, figs. 5, 6) and another specimen, from 
the Boston Society collection, are before us. It is very closely 
related to A. affinis, and may prove to be connected with that 
species, but the shell is quite noticeably broader and the last 
whorl is more malleated than usual in affinis. The pattern 
of the cuticle is the same as in " rustica ". The type meas- 
ures, length 14, diam. 8, aperture 7 mm. 

A third shell of the original lot (pi. 45, figs. 7, 8) is more 
inflated, the last whorl very densely malleate, and marked 
with close pattern of f orwardly converging olive lines. Length 
13, diam. 8.2, aperture 7 mm. Still another specimen with 
the same markings is intermediate in shape between the pre- 
ceding and the typical shells. 

99. A. CONIPERA Smith. PL 45, figs. 10 to 13. 

Shell ovate-conic, dextral, lightly striated with lines of 
growth, very pale-reddish, partly covered with brownish- 
olivaceous epidermis. Whorls G 1 /^, a little convex; the first 
2% to 3 reddish, strongly radially sulcate, with a spiral 'cord 
at the base. Suture simple. Aperture whitish; peristome 
thin, blackish, slightly thickened; columellar fold thin. 
Length 17, diam. 9 mm. (Smith). 

East Maui: Kula, on the ground under dead leaves (Gu- 
lick) . 

Amastra conifera SMITH, P. Z. S., 1873, p. 85, pi. 10, f. 11. 

The type (pi. 45, figs. 10, 11) and four other specimens 
of the original lot (figs. 12, 13) in the Gulick collection, Bos- 
ton Society of Natural History, are before us, with others. 
All are imperforate, thin, with the outlines of the spire either 
straight, or a little contracted near the summit. The color 
varies: (1) Very pale reddish, becoming lighter, more creamy 
on the last whorl. (2) Spire rather dark reddish-brown, 



304 



AMASTRA, MAUI. 



with a white sutural border, the last whorl cream-white. 
(3) Cream- white throughout, or with only the embryonic 
whorls reddish-brown. Very little of the thin, olive or olive- 
brown cuticle is retained above the last whorl. What there 
is on the penult, whorl and front of the last is marked with 
angular dark figures, or mottled with light on a dark ground 
or net-work. On the latter part of the last whorl it becomes 
continuous except where worn off. The apex is of the typical 
costate and carinate form. The last whorl is angular at the 
periphery, the angle usually rather sharp and distinct in 
front, but sometimes quite weak. There is a very thin callus 
within the lip in the oldest shells, but usually it is quite thin. 
A blackish cuticular edge is present in the type, but not in 
other examples. 

Length 16.5, diam. 9.7, aperture 7.9 mm.; 6% whorls 
(type) . 

Length 16.5, diam. 10, aperture 8 mm. 

Length 15, diam. 8.7, aperture 7 mm. 

Length 15, diam. 9.5, aperture 8.2 mm. (not mature). 

It is a larger, more capacious shell than A. affinis (or rus- 
tica), further differing by the angulation of the last whorl 
and the less elaborately figured cuticle. A. montana is a 
shorter shell with rounded periphery. 

100. A. JOHNSONI Hyatt & Pilsbry, n. sp. PL 45, fig. 16. 

Shell nearly imperforate, oblong-conic, rather thin, some 
what glossy. Outlines of spire straight above, a little conve: 
below, the whorls nearly flat. Embryonic whorls costate, the 
second carinate, about as in A. affinis. Later whorls mark* 
with growth-wrinkles. Color brown, the last whorl partiall; 
covered with a thin, darker cuticle having some darker an< 
lighter streaks but no oblique or angular markings. Aper- 
ture whitish within; lip acute, very little thickened within. 
Columella straight, reflexed above, bearing a small, strongly 
oblique lamella. Length 11.3, diam. 6, aperture 5.1 mm. ; 
whorls. 

West Maui: Wailuku (Gulick, in coll. Boston Society). 

This shell is narrower than A. affinis subpulla, with a mucl 



AMASTRA, MAUI. 305 

smaller columellar lamella. The monotype was found by 
Hyatt among Gulick's shells labeled assimilis. It is evi- 
dently a mature shell, much narrower than young assimilis 
of the same length. Named for Mr. C. W. Johnson, Curator 
of the Boston Society of Natural History. 

This form, A. erecta and A. subpulla do not agree with the 
assimilis group in coloration, but they are closely related in 
other characters and may be aberrant members of that series. 

101. A. ERECTA (Pease). 

Shell dextral, imperforate, rather solid, turrited, irregu- 
larly delicately striate, slightly shining, covered with a thin 
epidermis; whorls 7, convex, the last forming % the length; 
suture impressed; columellar fold laminiform, thick, slightly 
oblique. Aperture ovate; columella arcuate. Straw-colored, 
light-reddish or brownish with the apex purple. Length 15, 
diam. 7.5 mm. (Pse) . 

Maul (coll. Pease and Crosse). 

Laminella erecta PEASE, Journ. de Conchyl., 1869, p. 174. 
Amastra (L.) erecta Pse., SYKES, Fauna Hawaiiensis, p. 
349. 

" I know of no other species with which L. erecta may be 
compared. The shell is very regular in shape, its whorls in- 
creasing regularly' 1 ' (Pse.).. "Close to A. micans Pfr." 
(Sykes). 

This species seems to be unknown to collectors in the Islands, 
as it is to us. Pease and Sykes place it in Laminella, but 
from the description it seems to be an Amastra. The presence 
of enough epidermis to be noticed by Pease is against its 
reference to Laminella. Dr. C. M. Cooke in a recent letter 
states that L. erecta is identical with A. micans (p. 210), an 
opinion which seems to me well founded. 

102. A. ASSIMILIS (Newcomb). PL 27, fig. 17; pi. 46, figs. 9 
to 14. 

Shell conically elongate, acute above; whorls 7, rounded; 
suture well impressed. Aperture small, ovate, columella very 
short, plicate, twisted; lip acute, thickened slightly within. 
Color white or salmon, sometimes the lower half of the last 



306 AMASTRA, MAUI. 

whorl white and the rest of salmon, within pure white. 
Length 11, diam. 5% twentieths of an inch [14x6.5 mm.] 
(Newc.). 

W. Maui (New<comb) ; Wailuku and Lahaina (Gulick). 

Achatinella assimilis NEWC., P. Z. S., 1853, p. 148, pi. 23, 
f. 53 (1854). Amastra assimilis Newc., SYKES, Fauna Ha- 
waiiensis, p. 334. Achatinella deshaysii MORELET, Bulletin 
de la Societe d'Histoire naturelle du Departement de la 
Moselle, viii, 1857, p. 27. 

This shell has much in common with A. affinis and pupoidea 
of East Maui in texture, color and apical sulpture. The 
original enlarged figure of Newcomb 's type is copied on pi. 
27, fig. 17. 

A. assimilis is frequently larger and usually more robust 
in figure than A. affinis; yet when all is said, the specific dis- 
tinction is chiefly geographic ; this is West Mauian, the other 
East Mauian. Each specific name denotes in the conventional 
mode, a series of more or less divergent races, sometimes very 
variable and possibly composite or hybrid. 

lao valley above Wailuku is (or in the time of Newcomb 
and Gulick was) a locality for shells agreeing with the typi- 
cal form of assimilis. On the western side of the summit of 
West Maui, in Lahaina opposite the head of lao valley, the 
shells are larger and more obese, and have often been referred 
to A. mastersi certainly an error. 

PL 46, figs. 9, 10, 11, 13 represent Wailuku specimens. 
The ground-color is whitish throughout, whitish with ruddy 
spire, or coffee-tinted above, white below the periphery. Over 
this there is a much abraded, dark cuticle, forming zigzag 
lines or angular spots, or sometimes an olive and brown 
cuticle is streaked and mottled with whitish (figs. 9, 10). 
The surface is subplicate below the suture, elsewhere more or 
less distinctly, rather coarsely striate. Embryo costate and 
carinate (the carina sometimes almost concealed). Colu- 
mellar fold small and median. Specimens measure : 

Length 13, diam. 7.2, aperture 6 mm. ; whorls 5%. 

Length 15.5, diam. 8.3, aperture 7 mm. ; whorls 6. 

Another shell from Wailuku is figured, pi. 41, fig. 8. The 



AMASTRA, MAUI. 307 

white ground is nearly covered with a whitish cuticle densely 
marked with zigzag stripes. The last whorl is carinate in 
front, and somewhat malleated below the carina. On the 
last third of the last whorl the cuticle becomes nearly uni- 
form and blackish. Length 14, diam. 8.2 mm. 

There are also some stouter shells in this lot, resembling 
those from Lahaina. 

In the Boston Society collection (part of no. 1519) there 
is a small form with the ordinary Waialua shape, which was 
segregated by Hyatt as subassimilis (pi. 46, figs. 7, 8). It 
has a ground-color of pale fleshy-brown above the periphery, 
the embryonic whorls dark brown, and the base brown-tinted 
whitish. Cuticle remains in angular blackish figures on a 
pale ground on the last part of the penult, whorl, becoming 
dense, black and continuous on the latter half of the last 
whorl. The carina of the neanic stage is visible above the 
suture on the penult, whorl, and continued as an impressed 
line on the first half of the last whorl. Aperture as in as- 
similis. Length 12.7, diam. 7.1, aperture 6 mm.; 6 whorls. 
Waialua, Gulick coll. Probably a local race. 

In Lahaina (pi. 46, figs. 12, 14, 15) the shells are mainly 
larger, more obese though some also occur exactly similar to 
those of "VVailuku. The color-patterns are as described above, 
with transitions between them, but most large shells are 
almost wholly denuded of the outer cuticle. 

Fig. 14. Length 18, diam. 10, asperture 9 mm. ; 6 whorls. 

Fig. 15. Length 17, diam. 11, aperture 9.4 mm. ; 6 whorls. 

Fig. 12. Length 16, diam. 9 mm. 

Length 15, diam. 8 mm. 

This form resembles some of the Molokai shells identified 
as A. mastersi by Herr Borcherding, but which are now re- 
ferred to A. borcherdingi. 

Morelet's original series of A. deshaysii, now in the British 
Museum, has been examined by Mr. Sykes, who states that 
two specimens belong to A. assimilis and one to A. biplicata. 
The diagnosis, translated below, applies to assimilis only. 

"Achatinella deshaysii. Shell slightly rimate, ovate-tur- 
rite, longitudinally rugose, fleshy straw-colored under a deep 



308 AMASTRA, MAUI. 

chestnut epidermis which is partly worn off; spire turrite, 
the apex mucronate and beautifully plicatulate; whorls 7, 
the upper flat, following convex, the last inflated, tapering 
basally, more than half the total length. Columella straight, 
provided with a spiral callus. Aperture small, oval, sub- 
angular below; peristome simple, unexpanded; columellar 
margin very narrowly reflexed. Length 22, diam. 10 mm. 
Sandwich Islands " (M orelet) . 

103. A. MONTANA Baldwin, PI. 43, figs. 18, 19. 

The shell is imperf orate, ovate-conic, thin; spire straightly 
conic, a little concave near the apex ; covered ( except in front 
of the aperture) with a blackish-brown cuticle copiously 
streaked or zigzag striped with yellowish. After the smooth 
initial half -whorl, the embryo is coarsely ribbed, the ribs pro- 
tractive, terminating in a carina above the suture; on the 
next whorl they are much finer, becoming short and disap- 
pearing. Neanic and last whorls rather finely marked with 
growth-lines. Above the suture a peripheral carina may 
usually be traced as far as and sometimes upon the penulti- 
mate whorl. The whorls of the spire are nearly flat. Last 
whorl large, inflated. Aperture whitish within, the lip thin, 
acute. Columellar fold median, oblique and rather thin. 

Fig. 18. Length 15, diam. 9.1, apert. 7.9 mm. ; 6% whorls. 

Length 14, diam. 8.5, apert. 7.9 mm. ; 5% whorls. 

Length 14, diam. 9.5 mm. (Baldwin). 

11 Animal in motion as long as the shell. Mantle dark- 
brown with a light-brown border. Foot and tentacles almost 
black. Head above coarsely granulated " (Baldwin). 

West Maui: Mt. Kukui, 6000 ft, elevation (Baldwin). 

Amastra montana BALDWIN, Nautilus xix, April, 1906, p. 
136. 

" This species was found in company with Laminella alex- 
andri Newc., at an altitude uncongenial to most Achatinellid 
species " (Baldwin). It is thinner, darker and more inflated 
than A. assimilis Newc. Fig. 18 was drawn from one of th< 
type lot, received from Baldwin. This individual is streak< 
with yellow but has no zigzag markings. Other shells of th< 



AMASTRA, HAW AH. 309 

type lot have longitudinal zig-zag stripes, which sometimes 
partly anastomose to form a net-work, as in fig. 19. 

AMASTILE OF HAWAII. 

In Hawaii Amastrae have been found from the Kohala 
Mountains and the northern slopes of Mauna Kea, district of 
Hamakua, to the southeastern slope of Mauna Loa in Kau 
district. They also occur with many other land shells as 
fossils in Holocene deposits at the upper edge of the Waimea 
plains, at about 3000 ft. elevation, at Mana and Palihou- 
kapapa, in northern Hamakua. " At Mana the shells occur 
in horizontal strata two or three inches thick and under a 
deposit of about a foot of humus." At Palikoukapapa they 
are in " pockets, sometimes containing a bushel or more of 
shells. ' ' Similar deposits occur above Honakaa, and they are 
probably widely spread. The region is said to have been cov- 
ered with fallen tree-trunks less than fifty years ago. Our 
knowledge of the deposits is due to a paper by Mr. H. W. 
Henshaw, Journal of Malacology, xi, Sept., 1904, p. 56, and 
to shells sent by Mr. Baldwin. 

The Hawaiian species belong to two groups, both of Amas- 
trelloid type. The flavescens series is not distinguishable by 
the shell from typical Kauaian Amastrella. The melanosis 
series differs by its striate embryo and tendency to angula- 
tion in the later stages, and forms a specially Hawaiian modi- 
fication of Amastrella. 

We have elsewhere alluded to the possibility that A. luteola 
Fer. may turn out to be an Hawaiian species of the flavescens 
series. 

Key to Hawaiian species of Amastra. 

I. Shell sinistral. A. sinistrorsa, no. 104. 

II. Shell dextral. 

a. Embryonic whorls nearly smooth, marked with faint 
growth-striae only; shell rather solid, with thin 
yellow or brown cuticle. 

b. Diameter about two- thirds the length; length 
about 12 mm. A. hawaiiensis, no. 110. 



310 AMASTRA, HAWAII. 

6 1 . Diam. less than two-thirds the length; length 14 

to 20 mm. A. flavescens, no. 109. 

a 1 . Embryonic whorls very finely, sharply striate; shell 

thin, with brown or black cuticle (wanting in fossil 

forms) ; lip thin. 

&. Openly umbilicate, broadly conic, subangular 
peripherally ; 21x16 to 23x18 mm. ; fossil. 

A. senilis, no. 105. 
6 1 . Perforate. 

c. Ovate-conic, diam. more than half the length, 
the last whorl usually slightly angular, 
with black cuticle. Length 13 to 14, diam. 
8 mm. or smaller. A. melanosis, no. 106. 
c 1 . High-conic, the last whorl rounded; 15.5x8 
mm., with 6% to 7 whorls; fossil. 

A. conica, no. 107. 
c 2 . Similar but smaller, dull brown; recent. 

A. c. gyrans, no. 107a. 
c 3 . Yellow streaked with chestnut ; 15x7 mm. 

A. c. kohalensis, no. 107b. 

c 4 . A little broader, length 15.3 to 18, diam. 9 
mm. ; whorls 6 to 7 ; fossil. 

A. fossilis, no. 108. 

Section HETERAMASTRA Pilsbry (p. 283). 

104. A. SINISTRORSA Baldwin. PL 49, figs. 6, 7. 

Shell imperforate, sinistral, lanceolate, rather thin. Spire 
long, with straight outlines. First half-whorl smooth, convex, 
forming an obtuse apex; next whorl flattened, subacutely 
carinate near the base, sculptured with fine, curved riblets; 
on the next whorl the carina weakens and then disappears, 
and the riblets become finer and closer. Later whorls are 
moderately convex, rather rudely sculptured with growth- 
wrinkles, not angular above the impressed suture. Aperture 
strongly oblique, the outer lip thin. Columella straight, il 
edge narrowly reflexed and adnate above; bearing a smal 
and very oblique fold. Length 14.7, diam. 6.2, aperture 5. r 
mm. ; 6!/2 whorls. 



AMASTRA,, HAW An. 311 

Hawaii: Mana, Hamakua district, fossil (H. W. Henshaw). 

Amastra (Laminella) sinistrorsa BALDWIN, Nautilus, xix, 
April, 1906, p. 138. HENSHAW, Journ. of Malae., xi, p. 63. 

This apparently extinct species from the Holocene deposits 
of the Hamakua district, is the only member of its group 
found on Hawaii. It is more slender than the Mauian A. 
hutchinsonii, and differs by its carinate embryonic whorls 
and less coarse sculpture. Described and figured from the 
type specimen, kindly lent by Mr. Baldwin. Another shell 
of the original lot is slightly broader. Like all the shells of 
the Mana deposits, it has lost all color and cuticle. 

Section AMASTRELLA Sykes (p. 151). 

Series of A. melanosis. 

By the cuticle and striate apex, A. melanosis and its allies 
are very similar to Oahuan Amastrellas of the inflata group. 
Other species, such as A. senilis and fossilis have the umbil- 
icus of Cyclamastra, but differ from that group by the sculp- 
tured embryonic whorls. While the group is a natural series, 
its species are rather diverse, indicating long isolation of a 
stock derived from rather generalized ancestors. Northern 
Hawaii, by its mature topography and the great cliff gnawed 
by the waves, may be as old as any of the islands; and its 
Amastrellse were no doubt due to an early radiation of these 
primitive Amastrae. 

105. A. SENILIS Baldwin. PL 47, fig. 5. 

The shell is openly umbilicate, broadly conic, thin. Spire 
conic with nearly straight outlines, the apex subacute, em- 
bryonic whorls closely, finely and sharply striate; following 
whorls moderately convex, roughly marked with growth- 
wrinkles, the last three whorls sometimes showing small, very 
shallow spiral strise, the last whorl carinate at the periphery 
in front, coarsely malleated, producing irregular, spiral, de- 
scending ridges between the flattened facets. The columella 
is dilated above, vertical, and bears a small fold. The um- 
bilicus is cylindric and deep, 2 mm. wide. 

Length 21.2, diam. 16, aperture 11.1 mm. ; 6% whorls. 



312 AMASTRA, HAWAII. 

" Length 23, diam. 18 mm.; 7 whorls " (Baldwin). 

Hawaii: Palihoukapapa, on the Hamakua slope of Mauna 
Kea, at an elevation of 4000 ft., fossil in a deposit about a foot 
below the surface (Eugene Homer). 

Amastra senilis BALDWIN, Nautilus, xvii, July, 1903, p. 35. 
HENSHAW, Journ. of Malacology, xi, p. 63. 

The largest Hawaiian Amastra, recalling A. kauaiensis in 
general contour, but with the thin texture and striate embryo 
of A. melanosis and its allies. Baldwin states that there is 
' ' a thick parietal callosity, ' ' but this is evidently only in old 
shells, as the parietal callus is quite thin in the cotypes which 
he sent for figuring. The species is most nearly related to 
A. melanosis, and is remarkable for its open umbilicus, as in 
Cyclamastra. 

106. A. MELANOSIS (Newcomb). PI. 47, figs. 1, 2, 6, 7, 9. 

Shell dextral, thin, conically depressed ; apex acute ; whorls 
5, rounded, the last inflated ; suture well-impressed, aperture 
subrotund; lip simple, thin; columella straight, white, and 
terminating in a very oblique plait; color black. Length 8, 
diam. five- twentieths of an inch (Newc.). 

Hawaii (Newcomb) ; Hamakua (Baldwin) ; Kukaiau 
(Thaanum). 

Achatinella melanosis NEWC., P. Z. S., 1853, p. 144, pi. 23, 
fig. 41. 

The typical form of melanosis as figured by Newcomb 
pi. 47, fig. 6) is more widely conic than any specimens we 
have seen. Probably the type colony has not been rediscov- 
ered. The locality is unknown, but probably the type came 
from somewhere in Hamakua district, north from Mauna 
Kea. 

Specimens from Hamakua, received from Mr. Baldwin 
are figured, pi. 47, figs. 1, 2, 9. The embryonic whorls have 
a very fine sculpture of sharp, close, curved striae. Later 
whorls have more oblique, irregular growth-lines, and are 
quite convex. Sometimes by the slow descent of the last 
whorl, a peripheral angle is disclosed on the penultimate, 
while in other shells it is covered. The last whorl is more 



AMASTRA, HAWAII. 313 

or less strongly angular peripherally, and the surface espec- 
ially on the base, has spiral grooves or sulci, sometimes very 
lightly impressed. The last whorl is covered with a yellow, 
glossy inner cuticle, exposed in front of the aperture, else- 
where concealed by a dull-brown outer cuticle with blackish 
streaks. The interior and columella are blue-white, the 
columellar fold small and very oblique, and the axis rather 
openly perforate. 

Length 14, diam. 8 mm.; 5% whorls. 

Length 13, diam. 8 mm. ; 5^ whorls. 

At Kukaiau the shells collected by Mr. Thaanum are but 
weakly angular peripherally, and the epidermis, brown and 
somewhat streaked on the spire, becomes intensely black on 
the last whorl. Length 13, diam. 8 mm. (pi. 47, fig. 7). 

Three smaller shells in Cooke collection (no. 2267) are nar- 
rower, with the peripheral angle very weak or wholly lacking 
on the last whorl. Length 11, diam. 6.6 mm. 

Another lot (57713, A. N. S. P.) consists of small shells 
with the angle obsolete or wanting, and dull whitish or pink- 
ish under the dull brown cuticle, having no glossy, yellow 
layer. These probably form a distinct subspecies, but the 
exact locality is unknown. Length 12, diam. 7.1 mm. 

107. A. CONICA Baldwin. PI. 47, fig. 8. 

" Shell fossil, dextral, minutely perforated, thin, elongately 
conical, apex acute ; surface sculptured with fine growth-lines, 
apical whorls radiately sulcated. Color of living shell un- 
known. AYhorls 7, convex; suture well impressed. Aper- 
ture oblique, oval. Peristome simple, very thin. Columella 
terminating in a slightly developed fold. Length 15^, diam. 
8 mm." (Baldwin). 

Hawaii: Mana, district of Hamakua, fossil (H. W. Hen- 
shaw). 

Amastra conica BALDWIN, Nautilus, xix, p. 137, 1906. 

This species has about the contour of A. henshawi, from 
which it differs by its thinness, the much more convex and 
more numerous whorls, and the very finely but sharply striate 
embryonic whorls. The largest of several of the type lot sent 



314 AMASTRA, HAWAII. 

by Mr. Baldwin measures, length 15.2, diam. 7.9, aperture 6.5 
mm. ; 6% whorls. It differs from A. melanosis by its narrow 
contour and rounded last whorl, but is very closely related to 
A. fossilis. The columellar margin is more broadly reflexed 
than in the following recent forms. Above the suture an an- 
gulation is visible as far as the middle or even the end of the 
penultimate whorl. The following varieties also show this 
feature. 

107a. Var. gyrans Hyatt, n. v. PI. 47, figs. 3, 4. 

Shell extremely thin, smaller than A. conica, the summit a 
trifle more slender. Pale-brown under a thin dull-brown 
cuticle, the colors showing through in the aperture. Colu- 
mellar fold very small and oblique, axis perforate or rimate. 
Embryonic whorls convex, somewhat produced, very finely, 
sharply striate. 

Length 14, diam. 7.1, aperture 6.5 mm. ; 6 whorls. 

Length 12.5, diam. 6.25, aperture 5 mm. ; 6 whorls. 

Hawaii : Types no. 2268, Cooke coll. 

Although Mr. Baldwin expressed the opinion that A. conica 
would not be found living, a comparison of specimens shows 
that gyrans is practically only a somewhat smaller living 
form of the same species, if indeed it can be discriminated 
even varietally. 

107b. Var. kohalensis n. v. PI. 49, fig. 13. 

The shell is thicker than var. gyrans, fleshy whitish under 
the cuticle, apex brown. The thin cuticle is yellow, copiously 
streaked with chestnut, the streaks rather narrow; aperture 
and parietal callus faintly flesh-tinted; columellar lamella 
very oblique and very low, suprasutural keel well developed 
as far as the front of the penultimate whorl. Length 15, 
diam. 7, aperture 5.5 mm. ; 6% whorls. 

Kohala Mts. (D. Thaanum, no. 5158, communicated by Dr. 
C. M. Cooke) . 

This form resembles Newcomb's figure of A. lineolata, but 
the streaks are not in the lest zigzag. It may turn out that 
Newcomb's phrase refers to some slight irregularity due to 
wear ; yet I do not feel justified in making this assumption. 



AMASTRA, HAWAII. 315 

108. A. FOSSILIS Baldwin. PI. 47, fig. 10. 

; ' Shell fossil, dextral, minutely perforated, somewhat solid ; 
elongately conical, apex rather acute; surface striated with 
somewhat irregular growth-lines ; embryonic whorls under a 
lens exhibiting very delicate and regular sulcations. Color 
of living shell unknown. Whorls 7, slightly convex. Aper- 
ture oblique, ovate; peristome simple, very thin, columellar 
margin slightly expanded over the umbilicus; columella ter- 
minating in a flexuous thread-like plait. Length 18, diam. 9 
mm." (Baldwin). 

Hawaii : Palihoukapapa, 4 miles from Mana, on the Hama- 
kua slope of Mauna Kea, elevation about 4000 ft., fossil in a 
deposit about a foot below the surface (Eugene Horner). 

Amastra fossilis BALDWIN, Nautilus, xvii, July, 1903, p. 
35. HENSHAW, Journal of Malacology, xi, p. 63. 

One of the types from the Baldwin collection is figured. 
The shell differs from A. conica by being wider below, more 
turrited, resembling some wide forms of A. turritella in con- 
tour. It is moreover somewhat malleate, in some examples. 
The embryonic whorls are worn, so that their sculpture is 
lost. Later whorls are rather convex and have rather coarse 
growth- wrinkles, and in the larger shell some irregular mal- 
leation on the last whorl. The columellar fold is small and 
oblique, and the axial perforation rather large and open. 

Fig. 10. Length 17.21, diam. 9, aperture 7.25 mm.; 6y 3 
whorls. 

Length 15.3, diam. 9, aperture 6.9 mm. ; 6 whorls. 

This form may turn out to inter grade with A. conica. 

Series of A. flavescens. 

This series contains but two well-defined species, which are 
very close to typical Amastrella conchologically. Probably 
A. luteola, Fer. (species no. 113) may prove to be a slender 
form of this series. It is to be looked for in northwestern 
Hawaii. 

109. A. FLAVESCENS (Newcomb). PI. 47, figs. 12, 13, 14, 17. 
" Shell dextral, conical; whorls 6, slightly rounded; suture 



316 AMASTBA, HAWAII. 

simple, well-impressed; striae numerous, longitudinal an< 
well-developed. Aperture semiovate; lip simple; columella 
short, with an oblique plaited tooth. Color of shell externally 
of a uniform light reddish-yellow, internally white or pale 
rose. Length 13, diam. six-twentieths of an inch " (Newc.). 

Hawaii (New-comb). Eastern Hawaii, from the northern 
slope of Mauna Kea at Hamakua, to the eastern (Olaa) and 
southeastern (Kau) slopes of Mauna Loa. Above Kukui- 
haele; rare in the deposit at Manu, and common living at 
about 2000 ft. ; Laupahoehoe Gulch, 800 ft, ; near Olaa, Puna 
district (Henshaw). 

Ackatinella flavescens NEWC., P. Z. S., 1853, p. 151, pi. 24, 
f. 62. PFR., Monogr., iv, 553. THWING, Occ. Pap., B. P. B. 
Mus., iii, no. 1, p. 178. Amastm flavescens PSE., P. Z. S., 
1869, p. 650. HENSHAW, Journal of Malacology, xi, p. 63. 
Amastra saxicola BALDWIN, Nautilus, xvii, July, 1903, p. 34. 

The shell is imperforate or shortly rimate, with straightly 
conic spire. The whorls are all convex, the embryonic 
are glossy, almost smooth, marked with extremely faint, fine 
growth-lines only. The last whorl is generally quite noti< 
ably swollen below the suture. The thin cuticle is yellowisl 
except on the last half of the last whorl where it becomes 
chestnut, at least near the lip. On the spire the yellow tint 
fades to white at the summit. Under the cuticle the shell is 
white, or sometimes faintly ruddy. There is more or less lip- 
rib, of a pink or flesh tint. The >columellar fold is strongly 
oblique. Length 15.5, diam. 8.1 to 8.5, aperture 7.1 mm.; 
6 whorls. Specimens from Newcomb. The largest of the lot 
is 16.8 mm. long. Newcomb gives the length as 16.25 mm. 

The definite localities for flavescens given above are based 
on specimens in U. S. Nat, Mus., collected by H. W. Henshaw. 
Specimens from a lot from near Olaa (no. 172935) vary as 
follows : 

Length 17.2, diam. 8, aperture 7.2 mm. 

Length 15.8, diam. 8.1, aperture 7.1 mm. 

Length 14, diam. 7.8, aperture 6.7 mm. 






AMASTRA, HAWAII. 317 



109a. Var. saxicola Baldwin. PL 47, figs. 11, 16. 

A. saxicola Baldwin does not seem specifically separable 
from A. flavescens. Four specimens of the type lot from 
Baldwin's collection are before us, are a very light pinkish- 
brown tint, with the thin lip edged with pink within, fading 
inward. One of these is figured, fig. 16. 

Length 17, diam. 9.2, aperture 7.5 mm.; 6% whorls. 

Length 16.9, diam. 9.2, aperture 7.3 mm. ; 6% whorls. 
x Length 16, diam. 9, aperture 7.2 mm. 

The dimensions given by Baldwin were evidently taken 
from a much more oblong shell than those sent for figuring, 
but one of a set of 10 shells from H. W. Henshaw (no. 172937, 
U. S. Nat. Mus.) has the same ratio of diam. to length. Others 
agree with those from Baldwin, extreme examples measuring: 

Fig. 11. Length 18, diam. 9, aperture 8 mm. ; whorls 6%- 

Length 15.3, diam. 9, aperture 7.2 mm. ; whorls 6. 

This lot is labeled : A. A. flow, Kahuku ranch, Kau, 2400 
ft, alt. 

Baldwin's description follows: 

"Amastra saxicola n. sp. Shell dextral, imperf orate, rather 
solid, elongately ovate-conic, apex subacute; surface lustre- 
less, sculptured with delicate 'growth-lines ; embryonic whorls 
smooth and polished. Color reddish-brown, tending to lighter 
shade on the middle whorls ; apex pearly white ; destitute of 
the usual fugacious epidermis of this genus. Whorls 7, 
slightly convex; suture well-impressed. Aperture ovate, a 
little oblique, pinkish within. Peristome simple, acute, not 
thickened within, extremities joined by a very thin, pinkish 
parietal callosity ; columella white ; flexuous, terminating in a 
moderately-developed lamellar <plait. Length 20%, diam. 10 
mm. Habitat : Kau, Island of Hawaii. 

1 * This shell seems to live among and under rocks to an un- 
usual degree. It is found on old lava flows attached to the 
under side of rocks, or in loose soil and trash at the base of 
bunch grass growing on lava flows. The locality is very 
arid " (Baldwin). 



318 AMASTRA, HAWAII. 

109b. A. flavescens henshawi Baldwin. PL 47, fig. 15. 

" Shell dextral, imperf orate or subperf orate, solid, ovately 
conical, apex subacute ; surface lustreless, striated with some- 
what irregular lines of growth; embryonic whorls under a 
lens showing very delicate radiating sulcations. Color varies 
from light to very dark brown, the upper whorls generally 
much darker than the body whorl; the lower whorls with 
traces of a deciduous, brown epidermis. Whorls 6, somewhat 
convex, the last one with a light carination at the periphery ; 
suture well impressed. Aperture ovate, a little oblique, livid 
white within; peristome acute, slightly thickened within, ex- 
tremities united with a thin, livid- white parietal callosity; 
columella white, flexuous, abruptly terminating in a thin 
lamellar plait. Length 18, diam. 10 mm." (Baldwin). 

Hawaii : South Kona, in damp woods at the roots of ferns 
and nearly buried in trash, at altitudes of from 1,800 to 
4,000 feet. 

Amastra henshawi BALDWIN, Nautilus, xvii, July, 1903, p. 
34. HENSHAW, Journ. Malac. Soc., Lond., vi, p. 121. Acha- 
tinella henshawi Baldwin, THWING, Occ. Pap., P. B. P. Mus., 
ii, no. 1, p. 179. 

" We take pleasure in dedicating this shell to Prof. H. W. 
Henshaw, formerly of the Smithsonian Institution, Wash- 
ington, D. C." (Baldwin). 

A specimen of the original lot, received from Mr. Baldwin, 
is figured. These shells have the apex glossy, very faintly, 
finely striate, but nearly as smooth as in A. flavescens. The 
term " sulcations " used by Mr. Baldwin is misapplied. 
There is only the least trace of angulation at the periphery 
not enough to mention had it not been for Mr. Baldwin's 
phrase. The aperture is oblique, white within, columellar 
fold small and oblique. Cuticle brownish-yellow, thin, the 
surface below it, exposed in front of the aperture, whitish or 
very pale yellow. Early whorls slightly olivaceous. The 
shell differs from A. flavescens chiefly by its slightly nar- 
rower contour, and may without violence be ranked as a form 
of flavescens. Mr. Thwing has expressed the opinion that they 
are identical. Length 16, diam. 7.9, aperture 7 mm. ; 6 whorls. 



AMASTRA. 319 

110. A. HAWAIIENSIS n. sp. PI. 42, figs. 7, 8. 

Shell imperf orate, ovate-conic, thin but rather strong, white 
or faintly flesh-tinted under a thin, pale, yellowish-brown 
cuticle. Outlines of the spire straight, the embryonic whorls 
smooth, as in A. flavescens; following whorl strongly convex, 
with fine sculpture of growth-wrinkles. Last whorl inflated, 
short, often weakly subangular at the periphery, in front of 
the aperture. Aperture white; outer lip a little obtuse but 
not thickened within. Columellar fold moderately strong; 
parietal callus distinct or rather thick, dirty whitish. 

Length 11.8, diam. 8, aperture 6.5 mm.; 5% whorls. 

Length 12, diam. 7.9, aperture 6 mm.; 5% whorls. 

Hawaii : Waimanu, in the northeastern part of the island 
(Baldwin). Cotypes, no. 105540, coll. A. N. S. P., and in the 
Boston Society and Baldwin's collections. 

This species, while closely related to A. flavescens, is per- 
fectly distinct by its shortened form. In old shells the sinus 
below the columellar fold is preceded by a plicate area, show- 
ing former positions of the margin. 

Mr. Baldwin states that this is the only true Amastra ever 
found on plants. According to Mr. Henshaw the shells were 
taken in the deep forest at an altitude of 2550 ft. All were 
found either on the Olona or near them on the ground. This 
plant, Touchardia latifolia, is generally four to six feet high 
with large leaves but slender stems. It is the favorite resort 
of Laminella. L. alexandri is about the only exception, it 
being found at a much higher altitude than where the olona 
grows. Mr. Henshaw thinks the Amastra may have a wide 
, range at about the elevation of 2500 ft. In a subsequent 
letter he states that 85 per cent of the shells were found on 
the olona and ferns beneath. They affect ferns that are 
partly dead and also partially dead leaves found upon the 
ferns, a few varieties found upon the ground beneath the 
dead leaves. 

AMASTRA OF UNKNOWN HABITAT. 

An examination of the type specimens of the following 
species would probably reveal their approximate habitats to 



320 AMASTBA. 

an expert in Achatinellidae, but the published descriptions are 
inconclusive. 

111. A. AMICTA Smith. PL 43, fig. 10. 

" Shell dextral, thin, ovate-conic, subperf orate, hardly 
glossy, rugosely striate with growth-lines; purplish beneath 
an olivaceous, rough epidermis. Whorls 6, convex, suture 
somewhat constricted but not margined. Aperture small, 
slightly over one- third the total length, purplish within; 
peristome thin. Columella nearly straight, provided with a 
small oblique fold. Length 13, diam. 6% mm." (Smith). 

Sandwich Is. (Brit. Mus.). 

Amastra amicta SMITH, P. Z. S., 1873, p. 86, pi. 10, f . 20. 
SYKES, Fauna Hawaiiensis, p. 333. 

" This species is remarkable for the roughness of the epi- 
dermis, which is generally worn away from the front of the 
body- whorl near the aperture" (Smith). 

" It appears to me quite distinct " [from petricola] 
(Sykes). 

Unknown to us except by the original description and fig- 
ure, here reproduced. Cf. A. affinis and A. nana. 

112. A. LINEOLATA Newcomb. PI. 45, fig. 9. 

Shell dextral, elongate-turrited, shining, covered with a 
yellowish epidermis; whorls 6, ventricose, last one thickly 
marked with longitudinal umber-colored zigzag lines; suture 
simple; aperture ovate; 'Columella with an oblique plaited 
tooth. Length .5, breadth .22 inch (Newcomb). 

Maui or Hawaii. 

Achatinella lineolata NEWC., Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist, of N. Y., 
vi, May, 1853, p. 29 (Maui) ; P. Z. S., 1853, p. 140, pi. 23, f. 
29 (Hawaii). Amastra L, PEASE, P. Z. S., 1869, p. 650. 

Newcomb 'gave the locality Maui in his first paper, Hawaii 
in the second. The characters of the shell so far as made 
known, seem not unlike the affinis series of Maui, and not like 
any Hawaiian species, in which zigzag lines are unknown. 
We do not know that any subsequent investigator has met 
with the species, which is thus imperfectly known and of un- 
certain position. Hartman considered it a Leptachatina; but 




AMASTRA. 321 

coloration and acute apex are against this view. New- 
comb 's figure, which we copy, does not show the zigzag lineo- 
lation described, probably because of its small size; but it 
has a marked resemblance to the small recent form of A. 
conica from Hawaii. Whether drawn from a Mauian or a 
Hawaiian shell we do not know. It measures about 13.5 mm. 
long, 7 wide, while the measurements of Newcomb 's type were 
given as about 12.5x5.5 mm. Cf. A. conica kohalensis. 

Dr. C. Montague Cooke, in a recent letter writes that "New- 
comb, in a letter written to Garrett, July 8, 1854, gives the 
exact locality of this species (with melanosis) as 'near Kun- 
neys. ' This is now the Paris place at South Kona, Hawaii. 
Newcomb 's original material was collected by Dr. Smith. In 
the same letter Newcomb states that A. remyi is from Waimea, 
Hawaii. No doubt that a number of Newcomb 's localities 
are wrong at least it seems so to me in working over his 
species. ' ' 

113. A. LUTEOLA (Ferussac). PI. 35, fig. 6. 

" Shell dextral, elongate, striatulate; white with a fuga- 
cious buff epidermis ; whorls 5-6 ? the last scarcely carinate ; 
suture not duplicate; aperture ovate-elongate; columella 
white, arcuate ; umbilical crevice not distinct. It was found 
by M. Gaudichaud. It is probable that it lives on the Mari- 
anne Is. We have seen but one example without the tip " 
(Fer.). 

Helix luteola Fer. Voy. de TUranie, etc., 1824, p. 480; 
Hist., pi. 155, f. 12. A. luteola DESH., in Fer., Hist., p. 195. 
Laminella luteola Fer. (sic) HARTMAN, Proc. A. N. S., 
Phila., 1888, p. 42. 

H. luteola Fer.. has been supposed to be a form of A. turri- 
tella, but the figures show a shell with the last whorl more 
oblong. Newcomb was unable to trace the type in the Paris 
collection, and it is unknown to Hawaiian collectors so far 
as we know. The original description is translated above. 
If the figure in the Histoire was taken from the type speci- 
men, which we have no reason to doubt, the apex was restored. 
It is copied in our pi. 35, fig. 6. 



322 AMASTBA. 

The Uranie visited Hawaii in August, 1819. Some time 
was spent in Kailua Bay, near the middle of the west coast, 
where Gaimard, the surgeon-naturalist, explored the neigh- 
borhood. A second stop was made further up the coast at 
Kawaihae Harbor in Kohala district. Whether Amastra ex- 
tends down the west coast to Kailua or Mt. Hualalai is not 
known, but it certainly occurs in the Kohala mountains. I 
suspect that A. luteola was procured in that region. It should 
be looked for on the western slopes of the Kohala Mts., 
towards Kawaihae. 

I cannot endorse Borcherding's contention that luteola is 
a dextral Laminella citrina. The shape of the shell is en- 
tirely different. Moreover, the Uranie did not visit Molokai, 
but only Hawaii and Oahu. 

114. A. PEASEI Smith. PL 49, fig. 11. 

" Shell dextral, globosely ovate-conic, subperforate, a little 
glossy, lightly striated with lines of growth, covered with a 
very thin epidermis. Whorls 6, the first four reddish-brown, 
a little convex, penultimate whorl large, inflated, and paler 
like the last whorl; the spire passes abruptly into a cone 
above the penult, whorl. Suture simple. Aperture small, 
not as long as the spire, subquadrate, reddish inside. Peris- 
tome thin ; columella straight, slightly reflexed, nearly cover- 
ing the small umbilical crevice, provided with a thin, sub- 
basal fold, and joined to the lip by a very thin callus. Length 
17, diam. 10 mm. 

" Var. &. Spire almost straightly conic " (Smith). 

Sandwich Islands (Gulick). Type in British Museum. 

Amastra peasei SMITH, P. Z. S., 1873, p. 86, pi. 10, f. 13. 
A. peasii HARTMAN, Proc. A. N. S., Phila., 1888, p. 48. 

II Remarkable for the large size of the penultimate whorl " 
(Smith). 

We have not seen this species. It may be a Lanai shell re- 
lated to A. aurostoma, but it also seems not unlike A. in flat a 
of Oahu. 



LAMINELLA. 323 

Genus LAMINELLA Pfeiffer. 

Laminella PFR., Malakozoologische Blatter, i, June, 1854, 
p. 126 (no type selected). VON MARTENS, Die Heliceen, 
I860, p. 250 (type Achatinella gravida Fer.). PEASE, P. Z. 
S., 1869, p. 648. GULICK, P. Z. S., 1873, p. 90, same type. 
SYKES, Fauna Hawaiiensis, p. 348, same type. BORCHER- 
DING, Zoologica, xix, Heft 48, p. 84 (type L. citrina High.). 

Shell pyramidal or ovate- conic, almost always sinistral and 
perforate, smooth or nearly so; yellow, whitish or pink, usu- 
ally striped longitudinally or dotted with black; columella 
straight, often with accessory folds above the columellar 
lamella. Embryonic shell with the first y 2 to 1% whorls 
smooth, the rest more or less costate or grooved longitudinally, 
columellar with no columellar lamella or a very small one. 
Radula substantially as in Amastra. Viviparous; arboreal. 

Type L. gravida Fer. Distribution, Oahu, Molokai, Maui 
and Lanai. 

Unlike the Amastras, nearly all Laminellas are sinistral. 
L. concinna seems to be indifferently dextral or sinistral. L. 
venusta orientalis is dextral so far as known. Dextral speci- 
mens have also been noted in L. citrina and L. bulbosa. 

" Laminella lives on bushes, vines and ferns. The most 
common stations are the olona (Touchardia latifolia) and 
ieie (Freycinetia arnotti) . It is usually found in rather 
damp, dark, mountain ravines " (C. M. Cooke). 

NOMENCLATURE AND TAXONOMIC HISTORY. Pfeiffer 's origi- 
nal list of species under the then new section Laminella 
seems now rather heterogeneous; but at the time it was pro- 
posed the group was a natural and very judicious one, pro- 
viding a place in the system for the Laminella and Amastra 
groups now known to be intimately related, and by some 
authors united into one genus. The first species of Pfeiffer 's 
list is A. marmorata Gld., of which he writes "mir noch un- 
bekannt " ; the second species is A. gravida, which von Mar- 
tens in 1860 selected as the type, a course followed by Gulick 
and Sykes. Borcherding's selection of A. citrina as type of 
Laminella was therefore nugatory. Nearly a year after the 
publication of Laminella, H. and A. Adams separated from 



324 LAMINELLA. 

it part of the species to form their new group Amastra. The 
lists of species given by von Martens, Adams and Pease show 
that their views of the groups dealt with were hazy, in con- 
trast with Pfeiffer's clear vision. Von Martens placed the 
yellow Laminellas in Newcombia, his Laminella being com- 
posed of L. gravida and most of the Amastra; other Amastra 
he included in Leptachatina. Pease was the first to give 
Laminella generic rank. Sykes has herded several sinistral 
Amastrae among his Laminellae ; but Baldwin, in his Catalogue 
of 1893, eliminated all Amastroid forms, limiting the group 
exactly as in the present work. 

ORIGIN. The ancestral stock of Laminella probably had 
shells marked with oblique or angulated dark lines or stripes 
on a yellow or pale ground. This inference rests upon the 
fact that the pattern is 'common to almost every species, if 
not in the adult, then on the early neanic or last embryonic 
whorls. The exceptions are a few species or individuals in 
which no pattern is developed. Part of the Amastrae of Molo- 
kai, Maui and Lanai have a similar pattern. They probably 
descended from the same Amastrella stock, though a tendency 
to zebra-striping in various totally diverse Achatinellid 
groups of Molokai-Maui must be conceded. Certain of the 
angular-striped Amastrae (the biplicata group) have a simi- 
lar tendency to duplicate the columellar fold. Whether the 
color-pattern and columellar structure were expressed in the 
common ancestors of Laminella and Amastra is somewhat 
doubtful. They may have been developed orthogenetically. 
Cf. also Partulvna, Newcombia and Perdicella. 

The theory that Laminella had its origin in the Molokai- 
Maui-Lanai area has its basis in two facts: In this area the 
genus has many diversified species, while in Oahu there are 
but three species, these belonging to one of the Molokai- 
Maui-Lanai groups. In the eastern islands Laminella has its 
very characteristic color-pattern in common with Amastrae 
special to the same islands, suggesting the inference of a com- 
mon ancestry, while in Oahu the Laminella species stand con- 
spicuously apart from all other snails of the island. 

COLOR-PATTERNS. The color-pattern in Laminella is usu- 



LAMESTELLA. 325 

ly of highly ' ' accelerated ' ' type, neanic or adult patterns 
>pearing in the embryonic stage. In forms which have not 
mdergone degeneration of the color-pattern, the sequence in 
ontogeny is about as follows: (1) on the second embryonic 
whorl longitudinal streaks appear; (2) on the third whorl 
near the end of the embryonic stage, these are replaced by a 
few well-separated, Ion gitudinally-p rot r active stripes, pi. 56, 
figs. 6, 8, L. picta; (3) on the early neanic whorls the stripes 
are closer, vary in direction, and often become angulated; 
(4) on the later neanic and last whorl the stripes become zig- 
zag, or anastomose in various patterns; (5) on the last part 
of the last whorl, especially basally, the dark stripes be- 
come coalescent, producing a more or less uniform blackish 
color. 

In more accelerated species the successive patterns may 
'appear earlier; in less accelerated forms, patterns (2), (3) 
or (4) may persist (as in L. a. duoplicata), later patterns 
not appearing; various stages may be left out; or degener- 
ative change may set in at any stage, the stripes breaking into 
dots, as in L. semivenulata, pi. 56, fig. 7, or disappearing en- 
tirely. That such degeneration of pattern is secondary is 
evident from the fact that the disappearance is progressive 
from the last towards the earlier stages, as in L. helvina, L. 
semivestita, etc. L. concinna circumcincta has a highly 
evolved color-pattern, in which the primitive longitudinal 
stripes have been broadly interrupted, their separated rem- 
nants coalescing spirally to form encircling bands. Some spe- 
cimens of L. citrina semivenulata show a tendency towards 
a similar pattern. 

I look upon L. picta and its allies as the more primitive 
forms of the genus, approaching nearest to the Amastrae of 
the same islands, though it is evident that all the Laminellae 
are rather evolved forms. Professor Hyatt held L. gravida 
to be the most primitive Laminella, apparently on account of 
its Amastroid shape and cuticle. This species seems to me to 
be not primitive but highly evolved. The zigzag-striped stage 
is confined to the early neanic whorls (pi. 56, fig. 1), while 
the later neanic and last whorl have a uniform, dark cuticle 



326 LAMINELLA, OAHU. 

(when not deciduous), such as appears only in the latest 
stage the latter part of the last whorl of the less evolved 
forms. Such a highly accelerated color-pattern can hardly 
characterize a primitive form. 

No phylogeny of the species can be suggested, in the ab- 
sence of fossil or retarded recent forms, but the principal 
forms seem to be related somewhat thus. 

duoplicata 

alexandri 

depicta 

helviina 
semivenulata 

picta } f remyi 

bulbosa } ( tetrao 

i 

sanguinea gravida, straminea 

Diagram to show the affinities of Laminellae, picta being considered the 
most primitive form. 

While the gravida and sanguinea groups of Oahu seem 
very distinct, yet both are related to the picta group, which 
has both white and pink-mouthed forms. 

SPECIES OF OAHU. 

The Oahuan Laminellas are isolated, having been separated 
for a long period from the other forms, among which they 
seem nearest to L. picta and bulbosa of Maui and remyi of 
Lanai. Two species are confined to the eastern or Koolau 
range, the other inhabiting the western part of the Koolau 
range and the Waianse mountains. 

a. Shell ovate with light ground-color. 

b. Diam. more than % length ; cream- white, partly cov- 
ered with deciduous dark cuticle. 19x11 to 28x15 
mm. L. gravida, No. 1. 

6 1 . Pale flesh or pink, cuticle nearly all lost. 

< L. g. suffusa, No. la. 

b 2 . White or pale yellow, without noticeable dark cuticle ; 
more turrite ; aperture not quite % length. 

L. straminea, No. 2. 



327 

a 1 . Shell turrite, with angular black stripes on a reddish 
ground. L. sanguined, No. 3. 

1. L. GRAVIDA (Ferussac). PI. 55, figs. 1, 2, 3, 4. 

1 ' Shell sinistral, inflated, finely striate ; spire conic, acute ; 
epidermis brown, fugacious; whorls 5%; suture not dupli- 
cated; aperture semilunate, white; peristome thickened 
within; columella white, provided with a distinct rib; an 
unbilical fissure. This species, which also inhabits the Sand- 
wich Islands, has especial resemblance to the preceding [vul- 
pina], but it is more swollen, the spire is more pointed and 
the sutures are simple. The columella affords more distinctly 
an elevated rib, revolving around it and penetrating into 
the shell." (Per.) 

Oahu: Niu to Kalihi (Baldwin); Waialae Nui, Palolo, 
Manoa, Tantalus, Nuuanu, Kalihi, Moanalua (Cooke and Gu- 
lick). 

Helix gravida FER., Voyage autour du Monde de 1'Uranie 
et la Physicienne pendant les annees 1817-1820, Zoologie, p. 
L78, pi. 68, figs. 4, 5 (1824), with b. gracilis, undefined; His- 
>ire, etc., pi. 155, f. 3 (cuticle restored!). Bulimus gravidus 
^R., Symbolae ad Hist. Heliceorum, i, p. 82; ii, p. 115. 
ichatinella gravida PFR., P. Z. S., 1845, p. 90; Monographia 
[el. Viv., ii, p. 238; iii, 456; iv, 546; vi, 178. NEWCOMB, 
in. Lye. N. H. of N. Y., vi, p. 307 (animal). THWING, Occ. 
>ap. B. P. B. Museum, iii, p. 126, pi. 2, f. 23. Amastra 
[Laminella) gravida Fer., SYKES, Fauna Hawaiiensis, p. 349. 
-Achatinella suffusa REEVE, Conch. Icon., vi, April, 1850, 
>1. 2, f. 11. A. gravida var. concolor MARTENS, Die Heliceen, 
L860, p. 250, new name for suffusa Rve. Achatinella di- 
mdi C. B. ADAMS, Ann. Lye. N. H. of N. Y., v, 1850, p. 42 ; 
Jontrib. to Conch., no. 8, p. 126, with var. lata, p. 127. 

Ferussac 's original specimens were doubtless taken in the 
vicinity, while the Uranie lay in Honolulu Harbor. Palolo 
valley may be considered the type locality. 

The ovate-pyramidal shell is solid, cream-white or towards 
the base brown-tinted, apex flesh-tinted. It is more or less 
covered with dark cuticle, which remains in patches and 



328 LAMINELLA, OAHU. 

shreds, or may be almost wholly wanting. The spire has 
straight outlines and nearly flat whorls. The apex is conic; 
first half -whorl smooth; then longitudinal folds or ribs ap- 
pear. On the second whorl these ribs shorten, usually not 
reaching below the middle of the exposed surface of the 
whorl; they become finer, and on the third whorl become 
merely growth-striae. The whole embryonic stage com- 
prises about three whorls (pi. 56, fig. 1). Subsequent whorls 
have fine growth-striae only. On the early neanic whorls the 
thin, olivaceous cuticle is streaked, and mottled with trian- 
ular light spots, or it is pale with ragged zigzag or angulated 
dark lines (lower whorl in pi. 56, fig. 1). This pattern usu- 
ally extends to the penultimate or last whorl, which has a 
denser, blackish <cuticle, retained in fragments, very rarely 
almost continuous, or sometimes wanting. The aperture is 
very oblique, and typically almost white. Lip thin, usually 
dark at the edge. Columellar lamella thin and ascending 
steeply. 

Length 25.5, diam. 14.3, aperture 12 mm.; 7 whorls (Pa- 
lolo) . 

Length 28.3, diam. 15, aperture 14 mm.; 7 whorls (Nuu- 
anu). 

Length 23, diam. 15, aperture 13 mm. ; 6% whorls (Nuu- 
anu). 

Length 20, diam. 12 mm.; 6% whorls (Nuuanu). 

Length 19, diam. 11 mm.; 6% whorls (Tantalus). 

The contour varies a good deal in the same colonies. Fer- 
ussac's gracilis and C. B. Adams' lata pertaining merely to 
rather slender and wide individuals respectively, and have 
no racial standing. A. dimondi of Adams is identical with 
typical L. gravida. 

la. Form suffusa Rve., pi. '55, figs. 5-8. In some colonies 
the shells have a pale flesh or pinkish tint, early whorls yel- 
lowish, the interior pale pink or fleshy; dark cuticle usually 
almost all lost. Palolo, Tantalus, Nuuanu (figs. 5-7), Kalihi, 
Moanalua. 

Fig. 8 is a copy of Reeve 's figure. Figs. 5 and 6 are tran- 
sitional to gravida. 



LAMINELLA,, OAHU. 329 

L. STRAMENEA (Reeve). PL 55, figs. 10, 11. 

" Shell acuminately oblong, sinistral, whorls convex, ob- 
liquely striated, columella strongly twist-plaited; straw col- 
ored, unspotted. Sandwich Islands " (Reeve). 

' ' Animal of a uniform light flesh color, oral aperture mar- 
gined with a line of orange " (Newcomb). 

Oahu: Waialae nui (Cooke) ; Palolo, Pauoa (Gulick) ; 
MaMki, Tantalus, Nuuanu (Ck>oke). Found almost entirely 
on the olana, a broad-leaved bush, in sheltered, shady places 
(Gulick). 

Achatinella straminea RVE., Conch. Icon., vi, pi. 5, f. 38 
(April, 1850). PFR., Monogr., iii, 463. BALDWIN, Catalogue, 
p. 8. NEWCOMB, Ann. Lye. N. H. of N. Y., vi, p. 318, living 
animal. 

More turrited and slender than gravida, the embryonic 
whorls not costulate, and the shell retaining very little dark 
cuticle or none at any stage of growth. 

The embryonic whorls are finely, irregularly striate, but 
not ribbed. The very pale yellow or nearly white cuticle is 
somewhat glossy when unworn, and rarely shows a few 
minute flecks of dark cuticle on the last whorl. The axis is 
generally imperforate. Interior white, the outer lip strength- 
ened by a rather strong internal rib in many adult shells. 
The steeply ascending columellar lamella is rather strong. 
The last whorl is sometimes weakly angular. 

Length 23, diam. 11.5, aperture 9.8 mm.; 6% whorls (Pa- 
lolo) . 

Length 22.7, diam. 12.7, aperture 10.5 mm.; 63/4 whorls 
(Tantalus). 

Fig. 10. Length 24, diam. 12.6, aperture 11 mm. ; 7 whorls 
'Tantalus). 

Fig. 11. Length 22, diam. 10.8 mm. (Pauoa). 

While it is closely related to L. gravida, yet there seems to 
be no connecting specimens between the two species. L. 
gravida is the more abundant and widely spread species. 

In the Cooke collection there is a set of four specimens, no. 
1778, said to be from Waianae. They are rather long, closely 



330 LAMINELLA, OAHU. 

marked with shreds of cuticle over a dull cream-whitish, 
ground. Interior pinkish-white, with a rose or purplish 
band within the lip, columella of the same color. 

3. L. SANGUINEA (Newcomb). PI. 55, figs. 9, 12 to 16. 

Shell acuminately oblong; whorls 7, convex below, plano- 
convex above; suture distinctly marked; aperture subovate; 
columella armed with a twisted plicate tooth; lip simple. 
Color of' shell from roseate to sanguineous, thickly covered 
with black lineations forming chain-work and zigzag markings 
on the three lower whorls ; denuded of epidermis above ; apex 
mamillate and black. Length eigh teen-twentieths, diam. eight- 
twentieths inch (Newc.). 

Animal as long as the shell; anterior superior portion a 
dark brown, with tentacles of the same color ; posteriorly cut 
up into squares and other geometrical figures by light-colored 
lines. Mantle light flesh color; bottom of foot light-green 
(Newcomb). 

Oahu, western range: Lihue (Newcomb) ; Waianae (Cooke, 
Baldwin). Interior of Koolau range: Kawailoa (Perkins), 
Helemano (Gulick, Perkins). Wahiawa, Kalaikoa, Ahonui 
(Gulick) ; and on the ocean slope in Kahana valley (Cooke). 

Achatinella sanguined NEWC., P. Z. S., 1853, p. 135, pi. 22, 
f. 15; Ann. Lye. N. H. of N. Y., vi, 326 (animal). PFR., 
Monogr., iv, 547. BALDWIN, CataL, p. 8. THWING, Occ. 
Papers, B. P. B. Mus., iii, p. 127, pi. 2, f. 24. Amastra 
(Laminella) sanguined Newc., SYKES, Fauna Hawaiiensis, p. 
351. Achdtinelld ferussaci PFR. [" Fernsfaci ' : in some 
copies, according to Pfr.] P. Z. S., 1855, p. 203 ; Monogr aphia, 
iv, 546. Laminella sanguined Nc., GULICK, Evolution, Racial 
and Habitudinal, p. 38, pi. 1, f. 6 (Helemano). 

In embryonic shells of 3% whorls, length 5 to 5.6 mm., 
the first whorl is flesh-colored, the rest pale-yellow. The first 
whorl is glossy and shows very fine, weak growth-striae. On 
the next whorl the striae become strong and arcuate ; and on 
the third whorl there are also low ribs, sculptured by the 
striae. The periphery at this and earlier stages is angular 
and the base nearly smooth. Axis is narrowly perforate. 



LAMINELLA, OAHU. 331 

Fig. 5 is from a Wahiawa shell, fig. 4 from a slightly older 
Ahonui shell, plate 56. 

The embryonic whorls but slightly convex with non-im- 
pressed sutures, and very finely striate, reminding one 
forcibly of Amastra turritella, some forms of which have 
much the same contour. The last 3 or 4 whorls have, on a red 
ground, angular, zigzag, black streaks, sometimes separate, 
sometimes enmeshed, forming varied patterns, as shown in 
the figures. The outlines of the spire are always concave. 
The columellar lamella is strong and enters subhorizontally. 

"In adult shells the protoconch and part of first volution 
are dark and have a glassy, smooth aspect. This changes 
on the second and third whorls to opaque purple or ashen, 
and fine stria3 of growth appear. Dark blotches or longitu- 
dinal bars appear in many shells before this, even on the 
second or third volution, but these are straight, coincide with 
the growth-bands of the shells, and are often discontinued on 
the latter part of third or first part of fourth volution. These 
must, however, be reckoned as the forerunners of the zigzag 
pattern of the later stage, because in some shells they are not 
discontinued but pass into the zigzag lines of the fourth volu- 
tion, and in some examples a zigzag form is assumed by iso- 
lated bars in the midst of the straight ones. A faint pink 
hue comes in usually on the latter part of the fourth volu- 
tion, and at about the same time the black zigzag markings 
of the later stages begin to make their appearance with regu- 
larity. The color deepens into a pinkish red on the sixth 
volution, and the zigzag markings become broader; on the 
seventh volution the zigzags usually enmesh, and near the 
aperture, in old shells, form a black periostracum. The aper- 
ture is usually deep pink with a dark border ; columella simi- 
lar with a white subhorizontally entering tooth and dark re- 
flected umbilical margin. 

"In a living condition this shell is covered by a vegetable 
growth, apparently an alga, that entirely covers the shell 
except where worn off or kept away by friction in front of 
the aperture. No part of the elaborate pattern and brilliant 
color therefore is visible in the living animal. Each apical 



332 LAMINELLA, OAHU. 

volution is convex but the increase by growth may vary from 
a straight spiral to one with concave sides, the last volution 
is as a rule gibbous but may as in one shell, no. 1042 Gul. 
coll., from Ahonui, verge on the sub angular. 

"The eolumella varies excessively in one large shell, no. 
1042 Gul. coll., from Ahonui, it is widely open and the aspect 
of the base is quite distinct from that of the majority of the 
forms in which it has long narrow elongated perforations. 
In a certain number of shells a limited number it may be 
almost closed " (Hyatt}. 

The ground-color varies in tint, and in a few examples 
becomes nearly white. There is a tendency to form a second 
and even a third columellar fold, as in Amastra turritella, 
but in an insignificant proportion of the shells examined, 
and not restricted to those of any special locality. Although 
this species ranges across the island, from Waianae valley on 
the southwest to Kahana on the northeast, we note no ten- 
dency towards local or racial differentiation. Specimens 
from various places measure : 

Length 18.5, diam. 10 mm. (Waianae). 

Length 17.5, diam. 10.3 mm. (Waianae) . 

Length 21.3, diam. 10 mm. (Helemano). 

Length 21, diam. 11 mm. (Helemano). 

Length 22, diam. 11 mm. (Wahiawa). 

Length 19, diam. 9.8 mm. (Wahiawa). 

Length 22.3, diam. 11.5 mm. (Ahonui). 

Length 21.5, diam. 11.3 mm. (Kahana). 

L. sanguinea has very much the same distribution as Amas- 
tra spirizona, including nigrolabris. Whether it originally 
belonged to the Waianae or to the Koolau range is undeter- 
mined. 

A. ferussaci Pfr. was based upon a shell which had lost 
the dark markings, either artificially or by weathering. 

Mr. Oleson reports that there are two varieties in Palolo 
valley, the rose-colored which is found in a little offshoot from 
the main valley and the paler-colored ones are found in the 
main valley itself. Their habitat is uniformly on a single 
plant, the olona, having large succulent leaves, growing 



LAMINELLA,,LANAI. 333 

from 2-4 feet high, commonly about 2 feet. The bark is used 
for twine, after being properly prepared by the natives. It 
always grows in damp places. 

A peculiarity about these shells is that they will drop 
from the leaves at the least disturbance. Mr. Oleson has 
never found the living shells on the ground when the plant has 
not been disturbed. It is a very prolific shell, and is gener- 
ally in great numbers. 

SPECIES OF LANAI. 

The species of Lanai are related to the picta group of 
Maui, and in a much smaller degree to Oahuan forms. L. 
concinna is a rather isolated species. 

a. Small shells, less than 10 mm. long; ovate, yellow, some- 
times with black bands; whorls convex. 

L. concinna, no. 6. 
Larger shells, with network of angular black lines on a 

pale ground. 

&. Pale buff with a rose band below suture; 18.5x11 to 
14x9.5 mm. L. tetrao, no. 4. 

6 1 . Narrower, diam. about y 2 length. 

c. Somewhat turrite; early whorls smooth. 

L. t. gracilior, no. 4a. 
c 1 . Ovate, third whorl costulate. L. remyi, no. 5. 

4. L. TETRAO (Newc.). PI. 54, figs. 1-7. 

Shell subperforate, sinistral, globose-<M>nic, pale, broadly 

ided with red below the suture, all over densely reticulated 
ith greenish-brown epidermis; spire conic, rather acute. 

lorls 6%, the upper ones flat, the rest very convex; last 
rhorl globose, a little shorter than the spire. Aperture ob- 
lique, semioval, white within; columellar fold laminiform, 
somewhat oblique; peristome simple, unexpanded, acute, the 
columellar margin roseate, somewhat free. Length 16, diam. 
8.5 mm. (Pfr.). 

" Animal tessellated above with brown and white; mantle 
dirty yellow ; bottom of foot same color margined with white ; 
tentacles light-brown " (Newc.). 



334 LAMINELLA, LANAI. 

Lanai (Newcomb) ; behind Koela (Perkins). 

Achatinella tetrao NEWC., Proc. Boston Soc. N. H., v. 1855, 
p. 219; P. Z. S., 1854, p. 311 (animal) ; Ann. Lye. N. H. of 
N. Y., vi, p. 334; Amer. Journ. of Conch., ii, p. 214, pi. 13, 
figs. 11, 12 (shell). PFR., P. Z. S., 1855, p. 207 (1856); 
Monogr., iv, 547. THWING, Occ. Pap. B. P. B. Mus., iii, p. 
131, pi. 3, f. 1. Amastra (Laminella) tetrao SYKES, Fauna 
Hawaiiensis, p. 352. Laminella tetrao Nc., GULICK, Evolu- 
tion Racial and Habitudinal, 1905, p. 38, pi. 1, f. 8. 

The apex is somewhat more acute than usual. The first 
half- whorl is smooth ; then weak longitudinal ribs begin, con- 
tinuing for about two whorls; but in some shells they are 
very weak, hardly noticeable as ribs. Subsequent whorls are 
lusterless and marked with growth-lines only. The dark 
markings often are visible in adults on the second whorl, 
form a more or less dense network over the later whorls, and 
on the last part of the last whorl they often become >coal- 
escent into a nearly uniform blackness. The ground- color is 
usually pale buff, the embryonic whorls, a band below the 
suture and the columella rose, the interior more or less 
roseate. Exceptionally the rose color is altogether wanting, 
the apex yellowish, and the mouth white. Mr. Sykes notes 
that in the series collected by Perkins the ground-color varies ; 
" shades of crimson or rich orange predominate, but occa- 
sionally the color is confined to a band below the suture, the 
rest of the shell being whitish." The columellar lamella is 
strong and less steeply ascending than usual in Laminella. 
In one specimen two small folds were noticed above it. 

Length 17.2, diam. 11.2, aperture 8 mm. ; 6% whorls. 

Length 18.5, diam. 11, aperture 8 mm. ; 6% whorls. 

Length 17.2, diam. 10 mm. 

Length 14, diam. 9.5 mm. 

L. tetrao is closely related to the West Mauian L. picta, 
from which it differs chiefly in the more copious marking, 
producing a denser reticulation ; also in the prevalence of rose 
color below the suture. 

Several embryonic shells washed out of one of the adult 
shells figured, show that the coloration is greatly accelerated, 



LAMINELLA, -LANAI. 335 

appearing on the first whorl. Dark streaks begin with the 
second half-whorl in two, with the third fourth in another 
shell. The streaks are faint at first, dark and close on the 
second whorl; on the first and second whorls they are not in 
the least zigzag, but run with growth-lines. Angular figures 
appear on the third whorl. The earlier streaks are lost by 
wear in adult shells. Embryos of three whorls (pi. 56, fig. 
2) have a small columellar lamella. At the two-whorled stage 
there is merely a sinuosity of the columella. Axis perforate. 

4a. L. tetrao gracilior n. var. PI. 54, fig. 8. 

Among specimens in the Swift collection (A. N. S. P.), 
there is one extremely slender shell which approaches L. remyi 
in contour, but the early whorls are smoother, as in tetrao. 
Whether this is a local race or only an individual mutation 
we cannot tell. Length 15.5, diam. 8, aperture 6.1 mm. ; 6% 
whorls. 

5. L. REMYI (Newcomb). PI. 54, fig. 9. 

Shell acuminately elongate, striae numerous, well-defined, 
obliquely longitudinal ; whorls 7, rounded, minutely margined 
above or plain ; suture rather deep ; aperture subovate ; colu- 
mella slightly callous, with a terminal lamellar plait; color 
salmon, painted with numerous zigzag black lines continuous 
from the summit to the base of the shell ; lip margined within 
with reddish-purple. Length fourteen-twentieths, diam. six- 
twentieths inch (Newc.). 

Lanai (Newcomb). Type in Newcomb coll., Cornell Uni- 
versity Mus. ; mountains behind Koela (Thwing). 

Achatinella remyi NEWC., Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist, of N. Y., 
vi, October, 1855, p. 146 ; Amer. Journ. of Conch., ii, p. 215, 
pi. 13, f. 13. PFR., P. Z. S., 1855, p. 207; Monogr., vi, 178. 
THWING, Occ. Pap. Bishop Mus., iii, no. 1, p. 130. 

A very rare species, here figured from a specimen received 
from Newcomb. It is closely related to L. tetrao, but differs 
by the much more slender contour and especially by the more 
rugose third and fourth whorls. The aperture and last 
whorl are longer than in L. tetrao gracilior. 



336 LAMINELLA, LANAI. 

Borcherding has added remyi to the Molokai fauna by an 
incorrect identification of specimens of venusta or depicts 
The Lanaian species is not closely related to any Molokai ' 
form. 

The shell is very pale 'buff, with some pink suffusion on 
the last whorl and the embryonic whorls. The first half- 
whorl is smooth, convex and uniform pinkish-brown; next ; 
whorl streaked, flattened and unevenly, rather weakly cos- 
tate ; on part of the third whorl the costation or corrugation 
is stronger, more or less irregular, after that weakening. 
The last whorl is very finely striatulate. There are reddish 
streaks between the ribs on the embryonic whorls; near the 
end of the third whorl these give place to a few widely-spaced 
oblique blackish stripes; after which the angular, zigzag or 
netted pattern begins. This pattern is essentially like that 
of L. tetrao. The interior of the aperture and the columella 
are pink ; columellar lamella simple, steeply ascending. Per- 
foration minute, or even closed. Length 14, diam. 7.25, 
aperture 6.3 mm. ; fully 6 whorls. 

6. L. CONCINNA (Newcomb). PI. 54, figs. 10, 11. 

" Shell dextrorsal, umbilicated, longitudinally very finely 
striated rather shining; whorls 6, convex; suture impressed; 
aperture ovate ; columella short, straight, the margin reflexed, 
furnished anteriorly with a spiral plait; outer lip simple, 
acute; color pale yellow, the uppermost whorls rosy (New- 
comb ) . 

Lanai (Newcomb); Koela side of highest point; side op- 
posite Koela, and near Koela at 3,000 ft. (Perkins). 

Achatinella concinna NEWC., P. Z. S., 1853, p. 157, pi. 24, 
fig. 79. PFR., Monogr., iv, 536. THWING, Occ. Pap. B. P. B. 
Mus., iii, p. 131, pi. 3, f. 2. Amastra (Laminella) concinna 
Newc., SYKES, Fauna Hawaiiensis, p. 348. 

This small yellow or olivaceous-yellow shell is very distinct 
from all other species. It may be either dextral or sinistral 
in the same colony. 

The embryonic whorls are smooth and convex, the rest 
strongly convex and weakly striatulate. Last two whorls 



LAMINELLA, MAUI. 337 

covered with a pale or rather deep yellow cuticle, the earlier 
whorls denuded ; first two pale yellow, the next faintly pink 
in a specimen received from Newcomb (fig. 10). In other 
shells the embryonic whorls are very pale yellow, and in one 
lot the first three whorls are dull cadmium yellow. The in- 
terior and columella are white. Columella triangularly re- 
flexed, convex and calloused, as usual in Laminella. Coln- 
mellar lamella rather small, steeply ascending ; above it there 
is the weak trace of a fold. Axis perforate. Length 9.8, 
diam. 6, aperture 4.5 mm.; 5% whorls (pi. 54, fig. 10, from 
Newcomb). 

In a lot of 4 shells collected by Mr. Thaanum, 3 are sinis- 
tral, 1 dextral. Two have a strong, callous fold above the 
columellar lamella, and three are imperforate. The spire is 
longer than in the shells from Newcomb. Length 11.2, diam. 
6.1, aperture 4.7 mm.; 5% whorls (pi. 54, fig. 11). 

Color-var. circumcincta Dall, n. var. PI. 54, figs. 12, 13. 
Last whorl having blackish bands; a narrow one below the 
suture, a wide band above the periphery and a narrow one 
below it, the middle band sometimes wanting, upper band 
or bands ascending on the penult, whorl. 

This form occurs in some colonies of the one-colored concin na. 
and its characters are probably not yet of racial significance. 
I have retained the collection name in order to call attention 
to the form, which is important as showing a color-pattern 
otherwise unknown in Laminella. The bands are very super- 
ficial, as if painted on. The typical example, no. 31404 U. S. 
Nat. Mus., from the Dall coll., has three bands. One in coll. 
C. M. Cooke, no. 2201, lacks the broad median band. Both 
are figured. 

Sykes notes that " in the very fine series collected by Per- 
kins, both dextral and sinistral forms occur; black bands are 
either absent or present, and in the latter event vary from 
one to even four in number." 

Species of Maui. 

L. picta and bulbosa are the more primitive forms, having 
relationships with species of Lanai and Oahu as well as with 



338 LAMINELLA, MAUL 

the group of small yellow species of Maul 'and Molokai. The 
other species have very close affinity with the Molokai forms. 

a. Marked with separate, deeply sunken, dark stripes ; 11x7 
mm. L. aspera, no. 11. 

a 1 . Markings not conspicuously sunken. 

&. Ground-color brown, with some obscure darker mark- 
ings. L. kuhnsi, no. 10. 
& 1 . Ground yellow or reddish, glossy; length 12-15 mm. : 

diam. about % length. 
c. Copious anastomosing black lines. 

L. alexandri, no. 9. 
c 1 . Widely separated black stripes. 

L. a. duoplicata, no. 9a. 
~b 2 . Ground-color nearly white, dull; diam. usually moi 

than y 2 length. 

c. Whorls strongly convex, with copious tracery oJ 

black zigzag lines or dots ; length 14 to 19 mm. 

L. picta, no. 7. 
c 1 . Whorls less convex, the last with pattern of 

streaks ; spire paler or white ; length 21-25 mi 

L. ~bulbosa, no. 8. 

7. L. PICTA (Mighels). PL 53, figs. 1 to 9. 

Shell sinistral, short, thick, conical ; light yellow with bla( 
zigzag lines, more or less numerous; perforate. Whorls 
convex; aperture campanulate; lip simple, acute. Leng 
.7 inch, average diameter .4 inch. Hab. Oahu (Mighels) . 

W. Maui: Lahaina (Gulick) ; Moomuku, Kahana, H< 
kohau (Thaanum) ; lao valley (Perkins). E. Maui: Maki 
wao (Baldwin) ; Haleakala at 4,000 ft. (Perkins). 

Achatinella picta MIGH., Proc. Bost. Soc., N. H., ii, Jan. 
1845, p. 21. PFR., P. Z. S., 1845, p. 90; Monographia H< 
Viv., ii, 234; iii, 466; iv, 548; vi, 178; Conchy!. Cabinet, 
284, pi. 67, figs. 28, 29. REEVE, Conch. Icon., vi, pi. 5, f. 36. 
-NEWCOMB, P. Z. S., 1854, p. 311 ; Ann. Lye. N. H. of N. Y. 
vi, 311 (animal) . THWESTG, Occas. Pap. B. P. B. Mus., iii, no. 
1, p. 132, pi. 3, f. 3. Amastra (Laminella) picta Migh., 
SYKES, Fauna Hawaiiensis, p. 351, with var. bulbosa Gul., p. 



LAMINELLA, ' MAUI. 



339 



52. Newcomlia picta High., W. G. BINNEY, Ann. N. Y. 
Acad. Sci., in. 1884, p. 98, pi. 16, 1 M (jaw), pi. 6, f. B 
(teeth) . 

" Animal densely black; tentacles long, slate colored; 
mantle and foot brownish-black " (Newcomb). 

The locality given by Mighels is certainly erroneous. His 
type is lost, but the description applies to shells from Lahaina. 
This place, or rather the valley back, may be taken as type 
locality. The shell is turrited, the lateral outlines straight 
or slightly concave. The first % whorl is smooth, corneous 
and convex ; the second whorl is flat, finely striate and irreg- 
ularly, coarsely but not strongly costate, and usually has 
some blackish longitudinal streaks (pi. 56, figs. 6, 8). Suc- 
ceeding whorls are strongly convex, white or very pale- 
yellow, copiously marked with a tracery of black or blackish- 
olive zigzag or angular lines which may extend over the base, 
or stop short at the periphery in front. The last whorl is 
especially convex. The aperture is either pink or white 
within. Columellar lamella strongly developed, emerging 
to the edge of the well-reflexed columellar lip. Contour var- 
iable. 

Length 16. diam. 10 mm.; whorls 6^. 

Length 15.3, diam. 9.5 mm. ; whorls 6%. 

Length 14.3, diam. 7.7 mm. ; whorls 6%. 

In some specimens, also from Lahaina, the dark lines are 
broken into dots (figs. 4, 9). 

An embryonic shell (pi. 56, figs. 6, 8) removed from one 
of these shells is figured. The second whorl is strongly cos- 
tate and copiously marked; the columellar lamella is ex- 
tremely small and low ; axis perforate. Length 3.8 mm. ; 2% 
whorls. The acceleration of the color-pattern is a marked 
feature. 

Figures 1 to 6 are from one lot of Lahaina shells. Fig. 1 
may be considered typical. Some received from Newcomb, 
without exact locality, are larger, length 19, diam. 10.3 mm., 
typical in color. In some shells, figs. 3 and 5, the dark mark- 
ings are distinctly sunken. 

A lot from Makawao, E. Maui, in the Cooke collection from 



340 LAMINELLA, MAUI. 

Baldwin, do not seem specifically separable from Lahaina 
picta, though their markings are heavier, and the shape more 
oblong. The mouth is pink (pi. 53, figs. 7, 8). Possibly they 
represent a variety or subspecies. 

Dr. Newcomb describes the animal as " densely black, sur- 
face 'checkered by fine lines of a light color; tentacles slate, 
much produced; mantle and bottom of foot brownish-black; 
when extended same length as the shell. ' ' 

Other shells (four in a lot of 38 from Lahaina, Gulick coll.) 
have the spire somewhat more concave, and opaque white, 
but showing a few small dark dots; the last whorl is suban- 
gular in front, and becomes more or less streaked and 
speckled with blackish or dark green on the last half. The 
aperture is flesh^colored within- the base. Length 17.8, diam. 
10 mm. ; whorls 6%. These white-spired shells are entirely 
like some of the young of Kula bulbosa received from Gulick. 
The possibility of accidental mixture must be considered. 

8. L. BULBOSA (Gulick). PI. 53, figs. 13, 14, 15. 

" Shell sinistral, imperf orate or sometimes slightly pei 
forate, subpyriform, rather solid, unpolished, striate, yellow 
ish-white, covered with irregular streaks of black epidermis 
which blend in broad patches towards the base; apex acul 
spire concavely conic; suture simple, well impressed; whoi 
7, convex; the last large; columellar fold central, b 
lamelliform, nearly transverse; aperture oblique, sinuatel 
lunate, pale pink within, shading into brown near the coll 
mella; peristome thin, acute; with external margin uni 
fleeted, arcuate; columellar margin dilated, adnate, or soi 
times slightly detached; parietal margin wanting. Lenj 
21.6, diam. 13.2 mm.; average weight 7 grains " (Gulick). 

Honuaula, E. Maui (E. Bailey) ; Kula, on trees and vim 
(J. M. Alexander). 

Ackatinella bulbosa, GULICK, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist, of N. 
vi, 1858, p. 253. Laminella bulbosa GUL., Evolution, Raci* 
and Habitudinal, 1905, p. 38, pi. 1, f. 10 (Kula). 

11 I have a dextral specimen, which is the only one I 
seen belonging to any species of this group " (Gulick). 



LAMINELLA; MAO. 341 

The shell is larger than picta, with more confused and 
streaked pattern; last whorl often malleated. The spire may 
be white with rare green specks, or it may be rather well cov- 
ered with green or olive-black lines. The specimens figured 
are from Kula, Guliek coll. This place may be selected as 
type locality. 

Length 24.3, diam. 12.4 mm. ; 7% whorls. 

Length 21.3, diam. 11.5 mm. ; 7 whorls. 

Length 21.5, diam. 12 mm. ; 6% whorls. 

An embryonic shell examined is entirely like that described 
above, except that it is a little smaller, with the columellar 
fold barely indicated by a narrowing of the columella. 

9. L. ALEXANDRI (Newcomb) . PL 52, figs. 1, 2, 9. 

" Shell perforate, left-handed, elongately subcylindrical, 
shining, reddish-brown, with painting of elongate, inosculat- 
ing black veins. Whorls 6, convex, regularly but slowly in- 
creasing; apex a little obtuse; suture moderately impressed, 
not emarginate; aperture small, subovate; lip acute: colu- 
mella white, short, almost straight, truncate, terminating by 
a twisted plait passing within. Length .6, diam. .25 inch; 
aperture length .2, width .1 inch " (Newc.). 

West Maui, at an elevation of 7,500 feet (Rev. M. Alex- 
ander) ; Puu Kukui (Thaanum). 

Achatinella alexandri NEWC., Proc. California Acad. Sci., 
iii, Jan., 1865, p. 182; Amer. Journ. of Conch., ii, 1866, p. 
216, pi. 13, f. 14. THWING, Occ. Pap. B. P. B. Mus., iii, p. 
132, pi. 3 7 f. 4. L[aminella] alexandria Newc., HARTMAN, 
Proc. A. N. S., Phila., 1888, p. 42. 

' ' This species is more cylindrical than any of its congeners, 
resembling most A. remyi Newc., which is longer, not umbili- 
cated, more pointed at the apex, with a twisted, not truncate 
columella. From venusta and citrina Mighels it varies both 
in form and color. With some varieties of picta it claims 
analogy only in the general plan of painting. Its striking 
characteristics are its blunt apex, slightly rounded whorls, 
small aperture, short and white columella, umbilicus, and 
general plan of coloring " (Newcomb). 



342 LAMINELLA, MAUI. 

Newcomb's original figure is copied, pi. 52, fig. 9. The 
shells we have seen (pi. 52, figs. 1, 2) differ from the descrip- 
tion by having a pale greenish-yellow ground, otherwise they 
are typical. In embryonic shells the first whorl is flesh-col- 
ored and convex ; second whorl flattened, becoming yellowish, 
first half unicolored, then distant brown spots appear below 
the suture. On the third whorl there are oblique, protractive, 
distant deep-brown stripes. The embryo consists of 2y 2 very 
smooth whorls. 

With the beginning of the neanic stage the chocolate or 
black stripes are close, more or less forked above, or anas- 
tomosing into a network. On the last whorl they do not run 
over the base, at least on the front of the whorl. The neanic 
and last whorls are delicately striatulate, and so smooth that 
the shell is slippery to handle. The columellar margin sud- 
denly dilates above, arching over the rather widely-open per- 
foration. Columellar lamella well developed, very obliquely 
entering. Above it the columella is calloused and there is 
often a weak fold. 

Length 13, diam. 6.2 mm. ; 6 whorls. 

Length 12.8, diam. 6.9 mm. 

The embryonic shell described above was washed out of one 
of the adults figured. A set of three young shells received 
from Mr. Baldwin (without adults) are rather different. The 
first whorl becomes much darker in adults than in the em- 
bryos, as usual in Laminella. 

9a. L. alexandri duoplicata Baldwin. PL 52, figs. 3, 4, 5. 

Shell shaped as in alexandri, last whorl straw-yellow, the 
spire whitish, apex dull purple or blackish, last 3 to 4 whorls 
decorated with widely-spaced, protractive, black stripes, 
which neither branch or anastomose, and often become re- 
duced in number and size on the last whorl. Columellar la- 
mella rather blunt, and nearly always there is a second much 
smaller fold above it, often rather indistinct and sometimes 
wanting. Perforation variable in size, often nearly closed. 

Length 13, diam. 6.5 mm. ; 6 whorls. 

Length 13, diam. 6.8 mm. 



LAMINELLA,, MAUI. 343 

Length 12, diam. 6 ram. 

West Maui: Waiehu valley (Baldwin) ; Lahaina (Gulick). 

Laminella duoplicata BALDWIN, Nautilus XXII, November, 
1908, p. 68. 

Differs from alexandri chiefly by the color-pattern, but the 
small accessory columellar fold seems to be developed more or 
less in most examples (5 out of 6 seen by H. P.), while in 
alexandri it is exceptional. Described and figured from co- 
types, no. 104692, A. N. S. P. A specimen of this variety 
was found among L. picta from Lahaina, in the Gulick lot. 

10. L. KUHNSI (Cooke). PI. 52, figs. 11, 12; pi. 49, fig. 15. 

" The shell is minutely perforate, sinistral, elongately con- 
ical, nearly solid, minutely and irregularly striate with lines 
of growth (the striaB slightly stronger just below the su- 
tures), the first four whorls glossy, the rest somewhat glossy, 
cinnamon brown (apex darker), with a few indistinct irregu- 
lar zigzag transverse brown lines on the penultimate and last 
whorls. Spire elongately conic, apex obtuse. Suture min- 
utely crenulate, slightly oblique, well impressed. Whorls 6, 
the embryonic smooth, convex, the rest increasing slowly and 
regularly, convex, the last somewhat rotundate, tapering 
towards the base. Aperture rather large, broadly subovate, 
oblique, whitish within. Columella nearly straight; colu- 
mellar fold median, oblique, not strongly developed, thick, 
blunt. Outer margin of lip convex, erect, thin; columellar 
margin thin, adnate above, below free, reflexed over the um- 
bilicus. Umbilicus minute, circular. Length 13.4, diam. 6.5, 
length of ap. (diagonal) 5.5 mm." (Cooke). 

West Maui: Kahakuloa (Kuhns, Baldwin). Type no. 
15142, cotypes 16662, Bishop Museum, 

Amastra (Laminella) kuhnsi COOKE, Occasional Papers 
B. P. Bishop Museum, iii, no. 2, p. 21 (217), (July 24, 1908). 

" Specimens of a Laminella from West Maui under the 
name of Laminella erecta Pease were kindly sent the Bishop 
Museum by Mr. D. Thaanum. The shells were, I think, iden- 
tified by Mr. D. D. Baldwin. Lately the specimens were com- 
pared with Pease's description and were found to differ con- 



344 LAMINELLA, MAUI. 

siderably from the description. As there is no description 
with which it agrees I venture to describe it as a new species. 
I have followed Mr. Sykes in placing Laminella as a sub- 
genus of Amastm. 

16 This species differs from A. erecta Pse., as all the speci- 
mens are sinistral and are minutely perforate. The brown 
epidermis covers the whole of the shell and is not fugacious 
as in all the other species of Laminella. The darker zigzag 
markings are in the epidermis and are, also, not fugacious. 
There is a straw-colored variety of which I have seen a single 
specimen " (Cooke). 

A cotype from no. 16662 Bishop Museum is drawn in figs. 
11, 12. It measures 11.8x6.8 mm., having 5% whorls. There 
are some sparse dark markings on the last whorl of this in- 
dividual. The type figure is also copied, pi. 49, fig. 15. 

11. L. ASPERA Baldwin. PL 53, figs. 10, 11, 12. 

The shell is perforate, conic, rather short; fleshy- white,, 
yellow, or almost orange, the apex bluish or purplish black, 
last 2% to 3i/2 whorls decorated with irregular longitudinal 
black stripes which are deeply sunken; the surface therefore 
being strongly corrugated or plicate. Rarely the stripes are 
absent, and the surface sunken in few places. 2% embryonic 
whorls are smooth, the apex rather blunt and rounded, as in 
L. alexandri. Neanic and last whorls are strongly convex, 
marked with fine growth-lines. Aperture is short, wide, but 
slightly oblique. Columellar fold small, not ascending steeply. 
Above it the columella is calloused and bears a fold, some- 
times irregular or small, sometimes almost as large as the 
eolumellar lamella. 

Length 11, diam. 7 mm. ; 5% whorls. 

Length 10, diam. 7 mm. 

Length 10.2, diam. 6.2 mm. 

West Maui: Wailuku valley (Baldwin). 

Laminella aspera BALD., Nautilus, XXII, November, 1908, 
p. 68. 

Very distinct by its sunken stripes. It is much shorter 
than the Molokaian L. venusta, a species having this character 



LAMINELLA, MOLOKAI. 345 

somewhat less developed. The figures are from cotypes, no. 
104693, A. N. S. P. 

Species of Molokai. 

The data on distribution of Molokaian species is fragmen- 
tary, and little profitable systematic work can be done 
until the field is well explored. Borcherding has done val- 
uable work by recording definite localities and giving good 
figures; but by dragging in the species luteola and remyi, 
surely not Molokaian, and by identifying depicta as venusta, 
he gives an impression of scrambled Laminellas. We heartily 
join in his belief that the species are excessively variable and 
rich in transition-forms. 

Key to Species. 

a. Pale yellow with sunken black stripes, often broken into 

spots; whorls strongly convex, especially the last: 

length about 14 mm. L. venusta, no. 13. 

a 1 . Last whorl salmon tinted, aperture and columella pink; 

immaculate or dotted; length 14 mm. 

L. v. muscaria, no. 136. 

a 2 . Uniform yellow, dextral. L. v. orientalis, no. 13c. 

a 3 . Narrowly pyramidal, glossy, whorls less convex; with 
black anastomosing stripes, sometimes broken. 

L. depicta, no. 12. 
a 4 . Rather large, length 17 to 19 mm.; whorls convex. 

6. Primrose yellow, uniform, early whorls dotted, or cov- 
with a stippling or network. 

L. citrina and vars. no. 14. 

12. L. ALEXANDEI DEPICTA Baldwin. PL 52, figs. 6-8, 10, 13-16. 

The shell is sinistral, narrowly perforate or closed, narrowly 
pyramidal with obtuse summit and straight lateral outlines; 
thin but strong. The glossy surface is marked with very fine 
growth-lines and near the summit there are usually some shal- 
low pits or cicatrices below the suture. Embryonic whorls 
nearly smooth, dark purple or pale; subsequent whorls but 
slightly convex, yellow or pale brownish-yellow or dull orange, 
typically marked with black or blackish-brown veins which 



346 LAMINELLA, MOLOKAI. 

anastomose more or less freely, and very frequently converge 
downwards forming wedge-shaped figures at the periphery o! 
the last whorl (or rarely, dark markings are absent). The 
aperture is white within, the basal lip and columella white in 
yellow shells, reddish in the orange form. Columellar fold 
moderate. There is almost always a low callous fold above it 
on the columella. 

Length 17, diam. 7.2, aperture 6.2 mm. ; 7 whorls. 

Length 15, diam. 7, aperture 6 mm. ; 6% whorls. 

Length 15, diam. 6.5, aperture 5.8 mm. 

Molokai: Kamalo (Baldwin) ; Pelekunu valley and Haupu 
(Borcherding). 

Laminella depicta BALDWIN, Proc. A. N. S., Phila., 1895, p, 
228, pi. 11, figs. 33, 34, 35. BORCHERDING, Zoologica, p. 89, 
f. 21. L. venusta Mighels, BORCHERDING, t. c., p. 87, pi. 8, 
f. 22 (Haupu). L. alexandri Newc., BORCHERDING, p. 88, pi. 
8, f. 22. 

Typical forms of L. depicta are more slender than L. aletr- 
andri, the spire being longer; yet this does not hold with all 
the Molokaian shells, some lots (pi. 52, figs. 6-8) being as wide 
as alexandri. The chief difference between the shells of L. 
depicta and alexandri is in the locality. Nobody could separ- 
ate a mixed lot. While locality is a character to be given dn 
weight, yet I am inclined to believe that this is a case of two 
now isolated 'colonies of an old species, which have not di- 
verged enough to call for specific separation. Yet it may bo 
that a thorough examination of the soft anatomy would show 
changes not recorded in the shell. Baldwin writes, " Animal 
extended in motion shorter than the shell. Mantle very light 
brown. Foot above and below almost white. Tentacles short, 
light brown. This species is allied to A. alexandri Newc., 
from the island of Maui, and to A. remyi Newc., from the 
island of Lanai, but differs from both in the color and habits 
of the animal." 

Figures 13, 14, 15 are from shells of the type lot, no. 65711, 
A. N. S. P. In one of them there are no dark lines or mark- 
ings of any sort. Figs. 14, 15 are from the types of Baldwin's 
figs. 34, 35. Figs. 6, 7, 8 are Kamalo shells received from 



LAMINELLA, MOLOKAI. 347 

Mr. Thaanum. showing decadence of color-pattern on the 
last whorl, such as occurs in other Molokaian Laminellas. 
Fig. 10 is an unusual color-form from the Cooke collection, 
in which the lines remain for the greater part single and 
separate. 

Inconspicuous pits on the early whorls of most specimens 
show a relationship to L. venusta, in which the whorls, es- 
pecially the last, are more convex than depicta; moreover. 
venusta is much less glossy. 

Mr. Sykes notes that the fine series collected by Mr. Per- 
kins above Pelekunu ranges ' * from pale-yellow to rich orange 
tinged with crimson. It is sometimes dextral, but sinistral 
forms predominate. ' ' 

13. L. VENUSTA (Mighels). PL 51, figs. 1-10, 12. 

' * Shell sinistral, conical, body- whorl large and tumid ; red- 
dish yellow, beautifully ornamented with black zigzag lines, 
more or less numerous and regular ; perforate ; whorls 6 ; con- 
vex ; aperture subovate, lip simple, acute. Length three-fifths, 
diam. four-fifteenths inch [15x6.3 mm.]. Hah. Oahu " 
(Mighels). 

Molokai : Mapulehu (Baldwin). 

Achatinella venusta MIGHELS, Proc. Boston Soc. N. H., ii, 
1845, p. 21. PFR., Monogr., ii, 234; iii, 466; vi, 179. 
REEVE, Conch. Icon., vi, pi. 5, f. 32 (1850). NEWCOMB, Ann. 
Lye. N. Y., vi. p. 311, living animal. THWESTG, Occas. Pap. 
B. P. B. Mus.. iii, p. 128, pi. 2, f. 25. BALDWIN, Catalogue, 
p. 8 (Mapulehu). ? Laminella depicta, eine schlankere 
Forma von Haupu BORCHERDING, Zoologica, p. 90, pi. 8, f. 20, 
on the same page called L. remyi. Newcombia venusta 
hels, W. G. BINNEY Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci., iii, 1884, p. 
98, pi. 6. f. A (teeth). ( ^Laminella venusta Migh., GULICK, 
Evolution, Racial and Habitudinal, 1905, p. 38, pi. 1, f. 9 
(Lahaina). 

Mighels ? s description of venusta is inconclusive. The Port- 
land Society of Natural History possesses three specimens 
which had been given by Mighels to J. H. Thomson, and by 
him turned over to the Society. Since the original type has 



348 LAMINELLA, MOLOKAI. 

been destroyed by fire, we propose to regard one of these 
shells (no. 218 Portland Soc. coll.) as the type. It is very 
conspicuously marked with scar-like, sunken areas at the 
stripes, and the summit is purplish. The traditional identifi- 
cation of venusta, as preserved in old collections such as that 
of the Academy, of Cuming (figured by Reeve), and of New- 
comb, is therefore sustained. Two other shells of the same 
lot have the last whorl immaculate (pi. 51, fig. 12) . 

L. venusta differs from L. alexandri and depicta by the 
more swollen last whorl and the sunken black markings, 
which are generally coarser than in depicta, and do not form 
the characteristic depicta patterns. 

The typical, copiously striped form (pi. 51, figs. 1-4) seems 
to be what Borcherding has figured as * ' a more slender form 
[of depicta] from Haupu," a place on the northern coast. 
Baldwin, however, gives Mapulehu, one of the southern val- 
leys, as the locality of venusta. I suspect that Gulick's record 
of venusta from Lahaina, W. Maui, was based on a small L. 
picta. 

The dimensions given by Mighels agree with some slender 
specimens before me. The color, " reddish yellow " appears 
on the last whorl of some shells, and the phrase ' ' body- whorl 
large and tumid " is especially characteristic, and could not 
be applied to A. depicta. The assigned locality, like many 
in Mighels 's paper, is certainly incorrect, for no such shell 
occurs on Oahu. 

The shell is always sinistral (so far as we know), perforate 
or narrowly umbilicate, ground-color light yellow, sometimes 
orange towards the base. The outlines of the spire are more 
or less concave, the summit obtuse, reddish, violet or white, 
Initial half-whorl smooth and convex; following whorl flat- 
tened, more or less striate and weakly, longitudinally sulcate, 
the sulci distinct or weak, sometimes beginning on the first, 
sometimes not before the middle of the second whorl, the first 
1% whorls then being smooth. Some widely spaced oblique 
stripes begin on the second whorl, and about the middle of 
the third they become more or less irregular. Subsequent 
whorls have many angular or serrate black stripes sunken 



LAMINELLA, MOLOKAI. 349 

~below the light intervals, the surface being more or less, and 
very irregularly, <jorrugated. Typically the stripes continue 
upon the last whorl. The aperture is white (rarely pink), 
rather oblique. Columella straight, abruptly dilated and re- 
flexed above, bearing a small lamella. There are often one 
or two accessory callous folds above the lamella. 

Length 15. diam. 7.3, aperture 6 mm, ; 6y 2 whorls. 

Length 13.5, diam. 6.2 mm. 

Length 13.5, diam. 7 mm. 

The animal of L. venusta is ' * slender, body flesh-color with 
black puncta down the sides ; tentacles very black. When ex- 
tended, two-thirds as long as the shell " (Newcomb). 

13a. Color-var. semivestita H. & P., n. var. PI. 51, figs. 6-10, 
12. 

Shell striped on the spire, the last whorl uniform yellow 
in the typical form; but in some specimens the dark stripes 
are represented only by a few dots, which may be numerous 
or very rare; others have stripes on the last whorl, but less 
numerous than in venusta. Columella uniplicate in the type 
lot, but biplicate in some others. Length 13, diam. 7 mm. 

Doubtless connected with the typical form, but perhaps 
worthy of notice as a stage in the decadence of color-pattern. 

13b. Yar. muscaria n. v. PI. 51, figs. 13-16. 

There is also a smaller form, salmon tinted with the apical 
whorls paler or purple, the aperture and columella deep pink ; 
marked at and above the periphery with spiral lines of black 
dots or short dashes, the base usually immaculate. The most 
fully marked individuals have the stippling arranged ir- 
regularly in subvertical series also, showing its origin in 
original subvertical stripes, and these are a little sunken, 
like the stripes of L. venusta. In one shell (fig. 14) there is 
a band of black blotches on the base. The least marked 
shells are merely minutely fly-specked, the dots either scat- 
tered or forming a subsutural series, in which case they are 
sunken. Above the small columellar lamella there is a more 
oblique callous fold, generally small and indistinct. 

Length 13.8, diam. 7.5, aperture 6 mm.; 5% whorls. 



350 LAMINELLA, MOLOKAI. 

Length 14.2, diam. 7, aperture 6 mm. ; 614 whorls. 

Molokai : Cotypes no. 104716, A. N. S. P., and 1818 Univ. 
of "Wisconsin. 

Eight specimens of this race were in a collection presented 
by Mr. Jos. Button to the University of Wisconsin. By its 
size and the sunken streaks of the most fully marked shells 
it evidently belongs to venusta, but the pattern is practically 
identical with semivenulata, which so far as seen is invariably 
larger and yellow. 

13c. Yar. orientalis n. v. PL 51, fig. 11. 

This name is proposed for the dextral form from Puukaeha 
(on the -central ridge near the east end of Molokai) , figured 
by Borcherding as Laminella luteola Fer. (Zoologica, p. 86, 
pi. 8, fig. 19). The figure indicates a rather deep yellow shell 
of the size of A. venusta. Whether the race at that place is 
dextral, or only the specimen figured, is not stated. Bor- 
cherding 's figure is copied. The real luteola Fer. is probably 
a Hawaiian Amastra. See p. 321. 

14. L. CITEINA ' Mighels ' Pfeiffer. PI. 50, figs. 1-5, 8. 

' ' Shell sinistral, oblong-conic, rather solid, very finely stri- 
atulate, glossy, buff. Spire long, slender, the apex somewhat 
obtuse. Whorls 6, the upper ones flat, the rest rather convex, 
last whorl subcarinate, the carina disappearing in front. 
Columellar fold doubled, the lower one stronger, twisted, 
lamelliform. Aperture semioval; peristome simple, acute, 
the columellar margin reflexed. Length 17.5, diam. 7 mm. ; 
aperture 7x3% mm. Sandwich Is., Mus. Cuming " (Pfr.). 

Animal of a uniform light yellow color, superior tentacles 
and tentacular sheath light slate (Newcomb). 

Molokai: Kalae to Waikola (Baldwin); Makanalua and 
Kahanui (Borcherding). 

Achatinella citrina Mighels in sched. Cuming, PFR., Mono- 
graphia Heliceorum Viventium, ii, 1848, p. 234. REEVE, 
Conch. Icon., vi, pi. 5, f. 33 (1850). NEWCOMB, Ann. Lye. 
N. H. of N. Y., vi, p. 312, living animal. BALDWIN, Cata- 
logue, p. 7. Laminella citrina Mighels, BOCHERDING, Zoolog- 



LAMINELLA, MOLOKAI. 351 



.ca. p. 84, pi. 8, f. 17, and dextral form, f. 18. GULICK, Evo- 
lution, Kacial and Habitudinal, 1905, p. 38, pi. 1, f. 7. 
A. citrina inhabits a narrow area perhaps 6 or 7 miles long, 
:>n the ridge of the island south of the northern peninsula. 
It is therefore rather widely separated from the area of the 
closely related A. helvina, so far as present information goes. 

L. citrina is distinct from L. venusta variety semivestita 
by the larger size, when other characters fail. Pease (P. Z. 
S., 1869, p. 652) unites it to venusta as a plain variety. Typi- 
cally it is spotless and very pale yellow throughout (primrose 
yellow of Ridgway's Nomenclature of Colors), the columella 
white. The type, and some specimens collected by Newcomb 
and Gulick, was weakly angular in front (not " subcarinate " 
as Pfeiffer says), by retention of a feature of immaturity; 
but most adult shells seen have the last whorl well rounded. 
The contour varies a good deal, as usual. 

Two of these typical subangular shells are figured and 
measured below. Five out of the lot of six received from 
Newcomb are more or less distinctly biplicate, the others hav- 
ing the upper fold bifid. A few shells in this and another lot 
received from Newcomb have small olive dots or flecks scat- 
tered on the first two neanic whorls. 

PI. 50, fig. 2. Length 17.5, diam. 8.1 mm. ; 6% whorls. 

PI. 50, fig. 1. Length 16, diam. 8 mm. 

Three specimens from the Mighels collection, procured 
through Thomson by the collection of the Portland Society 
of Natural History, are of the immaculate form commonly 
accepted as citrina. 

In a large series received from Gulick, about one-third 
have the neanic whorls variously dotted, the dots sometimes 
scattered along the suture which is margined below (pi. 50, 
figs. 4, 5, 8). The rest are plain throughout, Columella bi- 
plicate. The only dextral specimen of citrina in the collec- 
tion before me is dotted along the suture (pi. 50, fig. 4), and 
occurred in a lot of citrina otherwise sinistral and plain. 
Borcherding has figured a plain dextral specimen from Ka- 
hanui, in the central part of the island. 

Several lots in the Cooke collection, received from Baldwin 



352 LAMINELLA, MOLOKAI. 

consists of spotless shells in which the yellow color becomes 
much deeper on the last whorl, in some becoming deep chrome 
behind the lip. Columella uniplicate (pi. 50, fig. 3). Other 
shells are pale yellow, with more or less olive punctation or 
streaking on the early whorls; 'Columella white, usually one- 
folded but very strongly biplicate in one shell. In some shells 
the last whorl is unusually swollen, others being normal in 
shape. Length 17.8, diam. 9.8 mm. Length 19, diam. 9 mm. 

14&. L. CITRINA HELVINA Baldwin. PI. 50, figs. 12-15. 

11 Shell sinistral, imperf orate or subperf orate, sometimes 
narrowly and deeply perforated, rather thin, elongately con- 
ical, apex rather acute ; surface scarcely shining, covered with 
very fine incremental striag; nuclear whorls smooth. Color 
uniform light or dingy yellow, with a few black markings 
on the upper whorls. Whorls 6%, lightly margined above, 
convex; suture deeply impressed. Aperture a little oblique, 
oval, white, with the tint of the outside; peristome simple, 
thin, margins connected by a thin, orange-yellow callus ; colu- 
mella biplicate, the 'terminal plication a thin, oblique lamellar 
plait, the inner one less prominent, tortuous, of an orange- 
yellow 'Color. Length 18, diam. 10 mm. 

* ' Animal extended in motion as long as the shell. Mantle 
and foot above and below very light brown. Tentacles dark 
slate, with a sprinkling of slate on the sides of the foot. Pos- 
terior portion of foot very tapering and thickly studded with 
minute red spots. A remarkably prolific species; 4 or 5 em- 
bryonic shells in successive stages of growth often observed 
ih the oviducts. A jaw is present and the dentition is the 
same as that of the Amastra species. The tooth formula of 
this species is 32.1.32 X 108 == 7,020. The central tooth is 
a little wider than usual " (Baldwin). 

Molokai: Ohia valley, near Kaluaaha (Baldwin). 

Laminella helvina BALD., Proc. A. N. S., Phila., 1895, p. 
227, pi. 11, f. 30 BORCHERDING, Zoologica, p. 91, pi. 8, f. 25. 

This shell is shaped like L. venusta, the last whorl being 
more swollen than in typical citrina, though not more than 
in some forms of that species. Typically it differs from 



LAMINELLA, MOLOKAI. 353 

citrina by the very strongly triplicate, orange or reddish eolu- 
mella ; but these are variable features. Baldwin writes : ' ' The 
typical forms are found in the small valley of Ohia on Molo- 
kai. Departing from this locality on either side, modified 
forms without the biplicate columella are somewhat common. ' ' 

In the cotypical lot, 65712 A. N. S. P., there are two color- 
patterns. In three specimens the neanic whorls have olive- 
black dots and a few dotted streaks (pi. 50, figs. 12, 14, 15), 
the apex salmon colored in two of them. Baldwin's figured 
type (fig. 14) was one of these. In four shells, streaks pre- 
dominate, there being few dots or none, apex gray or yellow 
(pi. 50, fig. 13). In all, the markings begin on the second 
whorl, and are most numerous on the third and fourth, in 
some shells continuing on the fifth. There are weak traces of 
pits or depressions on the second whorl, but the dark streaks 
are not sunken as in L. venusta. The columella in all is more 
or less deeply orange tinted, this color often extending weakly 
upon the parietal callus. The columellar folds are subequal 
in 4, the lower one much larger in 6 of the shells examined. 
In one shell there is a small intermediate fold. 

Length 19, diam. 9.8, aperture 7.7 mm. ; whorls 6%. 

Length 17.5, diam. 9.7 mm. 

Length 17, diam. 8.8 mm. 

Length 17, diam. 9.8 mm. ; whorls 6%. 

The figures represent cotypes, fig. 14 being that originally 
illustrated by Baldwin. 

In an embryo of 3 whorls, length 4 mm., the first whorl is 
smooth, the second and third longitudinally costate. The 
columella shows no trace of a lamella, and the axis is almost 
closed (pi. 56, fig. 3). 

14&. L. CITRINA SEMIVENULATA Borcherding. PI. 50, figs. 6, 
7, 9, 10, 11. 

Shell sinistral, imperforate, sometimes distinctly perforate, 
rather solid, smooth (very finely striated longitudinally under 
the lens), somewhat shining, pale buff, figured with very 
small black spots, the upper whorls and the last one below 
the middle elegantly ornamented with black veined lines. 



354 LAMINELLA, MOLOKAI. 

Spire turrited, the apex subaeute, suture well impressed, with 
a thread-like margin. Whorls 6%? the first flattened, the 
rest convex, last whorl inflated, nearly half the total length. 
Aperture slightly oblique, ovate, whitish; columellar fold bi- 
plicate, the lower fold stronger, twisted, lamelliform, upper 
fold less prominent; columella roseate or white; peristome 
simple, unexpanded, rather thin. Length 18, diam. 9 mm. 
(Borcherding) . 

Molokai : Manawai, on the southern slope. 

Laminella semivenulata BORCHERDING, Zoologica, xix, Heft 
48, p. 92, pi, 8, f. 24, and var. f. 23 (1906). 

Borcherding 's type figure is copied, pi. 50, fig. 6. Also his 
figure of a " transition-form to L. citrina," from the same 
locality, pi. 50, fig. 7. Some figures are added of specimens 
in coll. C. M. Cooke (figs. 9, 10, 11). 

On the third whorl there are often some oblique stripes, 
reminiscent of an earlier pattern, before the stippled stage 
sets in (pi. 56, fig. 7) ; rarely a modification of this pattern 
'Continues, as in pi. 50, fig. 9, but usually it gives place to a 
fine stippling, or scattered fly-specks, with a blotched band 
on the base, the ground-color being yellow. The striped stage 
is often omitted. Length 15 to 18 mm. 

Similar coloration is seen in the neanic stage of some indi- 
viduals of helvina and citrina, as noted above. 



APPENDIX A. 



ADDITIONS AND CORRECTIONS. 
LEPTACHATINA MAUIENSIS (Pfeiffer). 

Shell subrimate, oblong, rather solid, smoothish, pale cor- 
neous; spire convexly turrite, the apex obtuse; suture mar- 
gined. Whorls 6, scarcely convex, the last about two-fifths 
the length, somewhat compressed basally. Columella ver- 
tical, somewhat twisted inward, truncate at the base of the 
subrhombic-oval aperture; peristome simple, obtuse, the colu- 
mellar margin a little reflexed, adnate. Length 7, diam. 3 
mm.; aperture 2y 2 mm. long, 1% wide (Pfr.). 

Maui (Newcomb). 

Achatina maniensis PFR., P. Z. S., 1854, p. 126; Mono- 
graphia, iv. 620. Cionella (Zua) ? mauiensis PFR.-CLESS., 
Nomencl. Hel. Viv., p. 333, no. 8. 

This species has been overlooked by writers on Hawaiian 
shells. It seems to be a slender Leptachatina, and Dr. C. M. 
Cooke, to whom I applied, thinks it close to L. fulgida (p. 
12), perhaps the same species. 

All published information is given above. 

LEPTACHATINA IRREGULARIS ( Pfeiffer) . 

Shell imperforate, dextral, rather thin, longitudinally 
closely plicate; blackish, sometimes banded with whitish. 
Spire irregular, conic, obtuse ; suture subcrenate ; whorls 5%, 
rapidly increasing, convex, the penultimate swollen, the last 
about three-sevenths the total length, smoother below the 
middle, sometimes corneous. Aperture slightly oblique, oval- 
oblong; columellar fold above, little projecting; peristome 
simple, the right margin arching somewhat forward, colu- 

(355) 



356 ADDITIONS AND CORRECTIONS. 

mellar margin dilated, adnate. Length. 9, diam. 4% mm., 
aperture 4% mm. long, 2% wide. Sandwich Is., Frick, in 
Cuming coll. (Pfr.). 

Achatinella irregularis PFR., P. Z. S., Lond., 1855, p. 205 
(Feb., 1856) ; Monogr. Hel. Viv., iv, 546. 

This unfigured species has been considered an Amastra by 
authors who have noticed it. Mr. C. Montague Cooke agrees 
with me in referring it to Leptachatina. It is almost cer- 
tainly identical with L. fused Newc., p. 89, which has priority. 

P. 21. LEPTACHATINA SAXATILIS (GuL). Add the synonym 
L. saxitilus Hartman, Proc. A. N. S., Phila., 1888, p. 55. 

P. 52. LEPTACHATINA CINGULA (Migh.). Add: PL 12, fig. 5. 

P. 54. LEPTACHATINA VENTULUS (Fer.). In line 5 from top 
add the words " columella short " between " within " and 
11 umbilical." Add the synonym Achatinella manoaensis 
Newc. Ms., PFR., Monographia, iv, 545; vi, 177; viii, 235; 
Nomencl. Hel. Viv., p. 311, no. 159. This name has been 
quoted as a synonym in several works, but no description has 
been published. 

P. 73. LEPTACHATINA LEUCOCHILA. In 12th line from bot- 
tom replace " his " by " this." 

P. 74. LEPTACHATINA STRIATULA (Gld.). PI. 12, figs. 4, 
7 (not 4, 5). 

P. 75. PL 12, fig. 5 does not represent Ach. clara Pfr., as 
stated on p. 75. It is Leptachatina cingula Migh., p. 52. 

P. 92. LEPTACHATINA PETILA GuL PL 11, fig. 9 represents 
the type specimen ; copied from Sykes. 

P. 99, last line : type of F. longa is 10214 A. N. S. P. 

P. 111. CARELIA RIGIDA is, according to Dr. Cooke, a fossil 
species from the eastern or northeastern side of Hanalei; 
C. turricula from the center and western side of the valley. 

PTERODISCUS HELICIFORMIS (Ancey). PL 36, figs. 1, 2, 3. 

See page 127. Three specimens, part of the original lot, 
from the collection of D. D. Baldwin, are now before me. 
They are less fragile than other Pterodisks. The embryonic 
shell, of fully 2 whorls, measures 2.3 mm. in diameter. The 
last third of a whorl has a peripheral cord, and is grooved 



ADDITIONS AND CORRECTIONS. 357 

slightly above it, as in the embryos of most species of this 
genus. The embryonic whorls are slightly convex, but they 
do not project mucro-like. The specimen figured measures, 
alt. 6.3, diam. 9 mm. 

The reference to figures of P. heliciformis on p. 127 should 
read " PI. 36, figs. 1, 2, 3." 

P. 162. Upper third of page, for " Series of A. variegata " 
read Series of A. reticulata. A similar correction is to be 
made on the following page, and on the 14th line from bottom 
of p. 158. On p. 162, the paragraph beginning * * This Oahuan 
group " should follow the diagnosis of Metamastra. 

P. 226. After A. porphyrostoma read PI. 37, figs. 8, 9, 13. 

P. 227. Line 10, read Fig. 13 in place of Fig. 12. 

Line 12 from bottom read 8, 9 in place of 8, 13. 



APPENDIX B. 



CLASSIFIED LIST OF AMASTR^:, AND ZOOGEOGBAPHIC DEDUC- 
TIONS, FROM HYATT'S MSS. 

The manuscripts on Amastrina submitted to the junior 
author contain no discussion of the zoogeographic data bear- 
ing on Hawaii, and the Molokai-Maui group is considered 
only in connection with Laminella. The discussion of Oahu, 
with references to Kauai, is printed in full below, following 
the classified list. 

NOTE. Substitutes have been inserted in square brackets 
for a few names in the original list which for one cause or 
another are untenable. 
I. Hyatt's classified list of genera and species of Amastrina. 

CARELIA Ads. 
[Species substantially as in pp. 103-117.] 

ARMIELLA Hyatt. 
A. knudseni Bald. 

KAUAIA Sykes. 
K. kauaiensis Newc. 

[CYCLAMASTRA P. & V.] 

[C.] cyclostoma Bald. [C.] obesa Newc. 

[C.] sphaerica Pse. [C.] carinata Gul. 

[PTERODISCUS Pils.] 
[P.] cookei Hyatt. [P.] heliciformis Anc. 

(358) 



HYATT'S CLASSIFICATION, ETC. 



359 



Kauai. 

A. similaris Pse. 
-A. brevis Pfr. 
A. nucleola Gld. 
A. anthonyi Nc. 

Oahu. 

A. antiqua Bald. 
A. extinct a Pfr. 
A. vetusta Bald. 
A. breviata Bald. 
A. pellucida Bald. 
A. transversalis Pfr 
A. cornea Newc. 
A. crassilabrum Nc. 
A. albolabris Nc. 



AMASTBELLA Sykes. 

Lanai. 

A. extincta( ?) 
A. longa Sykes. 
A. pulla Newc. 

East Maui. 

A. subcrassilabris Hyatt. 
A. nana Bald. 
A. subpulla Hyatt. 
A. subsoror Hyatt. 

West Maui. 
A. soror NC. 
A. interject a Hy. 
A. [johnsoni Hy. & Pils.' 



Molokai. 

A. petricola Nc. A 

A. subnana Hy. A 

A. [nubifera Hy. & Pils.] j 

A. subobscura Hy. j 
A. elegantula Hy. 

METAMASTRA 
( [Textilis] subseries.) 

A. [textilis] Fer. A 

A. media Hy. A 

A. rubicunda Bald. A 

A. tenuilabris Gul. A 

A. decorticata Gul. A 

A. inflata Pfr. A 
A. luctuosa Pfr. 



Hawaii. 

. melanosis Nc. 
. gyrans Hy. 
. flavescens Nc. 
. hawaiensis Hy. 

Hyatt. 

(Keticulata subseries.) 
. orientalis Hy. 
. [errans] Hy. 
. badia Bald. 
. undata Bald. 
. reticulata Newc. 
. dispersa Hyatt. 



AMASTRA Ads. 
(Tristis subseries, Oahu.) 

A. tristis Fer. A. rubinia Hy. 

A. seminigra Hy. A. elliptica Gul. 

A. rubens Gld. A. rubida Gul. 

A. corneif ormis Hy. A. cylindrica Nc. 

A. grossa Pfr. A. porphyrea Nc. 



360 HYATT'S CLASSIFICATION, ETC. 

(Violacea subseries.) 

Molokai. East Maui. 

A. violacea Newc. A. conicospira Smith. 
A. macerata Hyatt. Lanai. 

A. nubilosa High. A. magna Newc. 

East Maui. A. nucula Smith. 

A. gigantea Newc. A. aurostoma Bald. 

(Pullata subseries.) 

Molokai. A. mucronata Nc. 

A. pullata Bald. A. montana Bald. 

A. subnigra Hy. A. affinis Nc. 

A. uniplicata Hartm. A. rustica Gul. 

A. modesta Ad. A. pupoidea Nc. 

A. sinralaris Hartm. A. bigener Hyatt. 

A. advena Hyatt. A. Cinderella Hyatt. 

A. umbrosa Bald. A. malleata Sm. 

West Maui. A. conifera Sm. 

A. nigra Nc. A - farcimen Hartm. 
A. mastersi Nc. 

PAEAMASTEA Hyatt. 

(Turritella series.) 
Oahu. East Maui. 

A. turritella Fer. A. hutchinsonii Pease. 

A. variegata Pfr. A. [laeva Bald.] 

A. tenuispira Bald. 

A. frosti Anc. 

(Nigrolabris series.) 
Oahu. Molokai. 

A. nigrolabris Sm. A. villosa Sykes. 

A. rudis Fer. 

A. spirizona Fer. 

A. intermedia Nc. 

(Biplicata series. Lanai.} 

A. obscura Nc. A. [durandi Anc.] 

A. moesta Nc. A. biplicata Nc. 



HYATT'S CLASSIFICATION, ETC. 361 

LAMINELLA Pfr. 

[Species substantially as in the text, but their affinities are 
somewhat differently estimated. See below.] 

II. Migrations of Amastra (Hyatt's MS.). 

The general trend of migrations in all of the islands is 
here assumed to be from Kauai to Hawaii. 

METAMASTRA. This group has been divided into two sub- 
series, because in these Am. textilis or some form of its series 
is the primitive or radical form of the associated or branch- 
ing forms. The evidence of this series as a whole is strongly 
in favor of the theoretic assumptions of this paper. The 
reticulata subseries does not afford much evidence, but it 
shows clearly derivation from textilis, and, in spite of gaps 
in the evidence, there are no facts positively contradicting 
any of my theoretic results. The textilis subseries, however, 
presents a fine series of gradations and these all harmonize 
perfectly with the theory of descent of primitive species 
from Kauaian Amastras; the incoming of migrants at the 
southeastern extremity of Oahu, their successful colonization 
of the valleys of this region first, their subsequent migrations 
with the evolution of new forms as they traveled northwards, 
and lastly the final colonization of the western range of Oahu 
by migrants from the east range. 

This series ranges from Nuuanu to Ahonui on the eastern 
range, but it is not represented in many of the valleys be- 
tween these two. It is also found on the western range from 
Lehui to Waianae. The transitions from textilis seem to have 
occurred through the Am. orientalis of the eastern range. 
These facts accord with the position here taken that the fauna 
of the western range was derived from that of the eastern 
range, and was of later origin. The accompanying assump- 
tion that the fauna of the eastern range itself was derived 
from Kauai through Am. textilis its most primitive form, is 
also well supported. The final theoretic conclusion that the 
landing place of the Kauaian colonists was at the most south- 
easterly end of the island is sufficiently but not so strongly 
sustained as the above. There is a gap between Am. orientalis 



362 HYATT'S CLASSIFICATION, ETC. 

of the valley of Wahiawa and Am. textilis of Halawa, with 
some six valleys between them. There are species of this 
series, Am. badia and undata, found as far south as Nuuanu, 
but these are only known through highly specialized forms 
with very blunt apices. The evidence that there was a land- 
ing made at the southeastern end of the eastern range by the 
primitive ancestor of the series, viz., textilis, is strong enough, 
but the gap between this species and orient alis in their dis- 
tribution, which is more or less filled by some specialized 
species may be due to insufficient exploration, but it does 
not give positive evidence of a northward continuous migra- 
tion of textilis into orientalis and of the latter into the other 
species of the reticulata series that should be demanded for 
demonstration. 

Reticulata Subseries. Amastra textilis connects directly 
with orientalis of the eastern range, and this last is transi- 
tional to reticulata and cotispersa of the western or Waianae 
range. These species have generally the reticulated and 
olivaceous pattern which rarely occurs in Am. textilis. The 
tendency to evolve extremely blunted spires is also peculiar 
to this series. 

PARAMASTRA SERIES. This series is remarkable for its 
evenly developed spire which can, with the exception of the 
earliest age, be expressed by a single angle in most of the 
species. While this is a wide departure from typical Amas- 
tran forms of Oahu and such forms as A. rugulosa of Kauai, 
it is very similar to the more turritelloidal and primitive 
Kauaian species A. brevis. The aspect of the columella also, 
which is often perforated and has a well developed fold and 
is straight with a similarity situated tooth-fold, and the sim- 
ilarity of the aperture and smooth apex, are all character- 
istics showing affinity for A. brevis. Thus it seems to be 
shown so far as collateral evidence goes, that the series has 
been derived from the species of Kauaian Amastrae directly, 
without the intervention of any intermediate form having 
less primitive characters. Nevertheless if one follows the 
species through their intermediate forms, the series is built 
up according to the table. In this it will be seen that there 



HYATT'S CLASSIFICATION, ETC. 

are only two species on the inner watershed of the east range, 
A. turritella and A. nigrolabris, connected in a line accord- 
ing to their geographic distribution, turritella occupying the 
more southern valleys and overlapping nigrolabris, that is 
found only in the more northern valleys. These are both 
radical of two subseries that were evolved in the western 
range. The turritella subseries is the most interesting and 
most highly modified, not only in turritella itself but in its 
apparent descendants. The shells are narrower and more 
elongated than in the other subseries, and in their evolution 
on the western range the banded pattern becomes probably 
of specific value in A. cylindrica. In other series, as stated 
above, this pattern appears occasionally on this range, but 
not at all perhaps on the eastern range, and always in a few 
shells appears to be distinct only as varieties of accepted 
species. There is a decided trend towards albinism in tur- 
ritella, that, however, tends as in the nigrolabris subseries, to 
affect the exposed sides and leave the base dark, if any color 
is retained. Shoulder-bands are also formed as in spirizona 
and some shells of nigrolabris. When, however, the western 
range is reached the variations are different, and in rudis the 
base of the last volution fades out, often leaving sides or 
dorsuru comparatively dark. 

The forms of the nigrolabris subseries are larger and darker 
than the above. Their affines on the western range are also 
large shells, but, except for the decisive shoulder-band in 
spirizona, do not exhibit similar tendencies to become banded. 
There is, however, a decided tendency to the evolution of 
albinoid variations but these are apt to retain a dark base 
and have the dorsal sides lighter, just the reverse of the other 
subseries. 

The wide gap between turritella of the southern valleys and 
the Kauaian A. brevis is not so satisfactory evidence as exists 
in other series of the probable derivation of this genetic 
series from migrants that come from that island to Oahu by 
way of the southeastern valleys of the Konahuanui [i. e., 
Koolau] range. The collateral evidence is, however, all in 
this direction. It appears to be certain that the most highly 



364 HYATT'S CLASSIFICATION, ETC. 

modified shells in the turritella subseries both in color pattern 
and form, viz., A. cylindrica and its affines, occur at Waianae 
on the western range, and that the second subseries must 
have arisen from a modified descendant of turritella, A. 
nigrolabris, that starts upon its career of evolution some- 
where in or about the valley of Kalaikoa, This valley is the 
next in succession going north to Waipio, which last marks 
the northward extension of A. turritella, unless the Peck 
collection is correct in carrying this species to Helemano. 

The reader will see at once that one cannot trace two sub- 
series back into one radical species occurring in the south- 
eastern valleys of the eastern range especially in a wave like 
this, where other series have been traced, with abundant evi- 
dence, in the opposite direction. 

The overlapping of turritella to the north to this extent, 
if it were true, would, however, not invalidate the zoological 
evidence. The conjunction of both subseries in the valleys 
of the eastern range, and their continuation in the more modi- 
fied forms of the Waianae range, can be accounted for only 
on the supposition that they arose in that range, and sub- 
sequently migrated to the western range. The distribution 
of the two species turritella and nigrolabris and their rela- 
tions, in converging lines of affinity and distribution, point 
to turritella of the southernmost valleys as the probable an- 
cestor of the entire group. There is one doubt in my mind, 
that is whether A. variegata and turritella are so closely con- 
nected as is here represented. I have thought that more ma- 
terials might transfer this species and its affines to the same 
series with rub ens. This removal, however, would resolve the 
group into one series and still leave the argument intact for 
this series, which would then be a single line of species from 
turritella, nigrolabris, rudis, spirizona. 

III. Relationships and migrations of Laminellcz, according to 

Hyatt. 

The species of this genus found on Oahu are much larger 
and stouter shells than those of Molokai (which are decid- 
edly dwarfish), and somewhat larger also than those of Maui 



HYATT'S CLASSIFICATION, ETC. 365 

or Lanai. The patterns of color are primitive and Amastra- 
like in the most primitive species of the group, L. gravida, 
that occurs in the southern valleys of the eastern range, from 
Waialae to Makiki, and reappear in the western hills in 
Waianae, according to Cooke's collection. The aperture and 
columella become darker in this form, but the pattern remains 
similar. The primitive brown periostracum of L. gravida is 
wanting in some of its varieties, and in L. straminea, but 
modifications are retained, and no reticulated or zigzag mark- 
ings are present. The evidence of transition from gravida 
to some species of Amastra, although less convincing than if 
intermediate varieties had been actually found, is neverthe- 
less, considering the Amastra-like characteristics of gravida, 
sufficiently complete to indicate that Laminella originated 
from some form of Amastra. There is only one species of 
that genus, however, that approximates closely in appear- 
ance, and when this is compared it is seen to be obviously 
different. This is A. grossa, in which some varieties are very 
similar to L. gravida. The affinities of gravida are, however, 
decidedly more with the turritella series, to which this species 
belongs, than to any other. The form of the spire and gen- 
eral aspect being much alike. 

There is a distinctly barred pattern in the young of L. 
gravida, but this subsequently gives place to a uniform pat- 
tern. The young of L. sanguinea are so similar to those of 
L. venusta of Molokai that the latter must perhaps be con- 
sidered a dwarfed descendant of sanguinea of Oahu. The 
protoconchs in both of these species are of a dark color, and 
the shape of the spire is peculiar on account of the closely 
coiled and slender aspect of the younger or apical volutions, 
as well as the barred and zigzag patterns. The dwarfish 
species of Molokai are succeeded in West Maui by a shell, 
L. picta, that runs close to venusta, but is considerably larger ; 
and this is succeeded in East Maui by L. bulbosa, a larger but 
closely allied species. The species of Lanai, L. tetrao, is 
more closely allied to L. picta of W. Maui than to any other. 

The genus can in fact be divided into two sections, which 
are in accord zoologically and zoogeographically : The first 



366 

section is found, one species in Oahu and one in Lanai. The 
most abundant species is L. gravida. This form connects the 
whole series as stated above, with Amastra. This inference, 
based upon the form, periostracum, and development, is also 
not inconsistent with the habitat of L. gravida, which oc- 
cupies semi-arboreal positions on bushes, and also arboreal 
stations, but only on leaves of certain species of short trees 
especially the olona. L. concinna is found only on Lanai 
and is perhaps a dwarfish descendant of the L. gravida. It 
has a similar stout spiral, the apex has a suffused pinkish 
tone in most shells, and the colors are superficial. 

L. gravida leads into a very distinct variety, L. suffusa, 
and in another direction to the albinic shell L. straminea. 
The turritelloidal character of the spire is most pronounced 
in 'certain varieties of sanguinea, reported also as occurring 
upon bushes and ferns. The nearest aifine of this shell on 
Oahu is L. gravida passing into suffusa, which sometimes has 
a pink shell with a dark periostracum and dark apex. But 
the pattern and aspect of L. sanguinea is not that of a denizen 
of Oahu. Its zigzag pattern and narrow spire would be more 
suitable in Molokai or Maui than in this island. Under these 
circumstances it is not practicable to decide whether san- 
guinea arose on Oahu, or is descended from some form that 
migrated from Molokai or Maui. Information is also scanty 
with reference to the direction of migrations on Oahu, but 
so far as the evidence goes it would seem to have been in the 
usual direction, from the southern valleys to the north and 
then to the west. 

L. sanguinea is 'certainly the most highly specialized form 
and thus occurs only in the more northern valleys of the 
Konahuanui range, while gravida stops short with Nuunau, 
leaving a gap from there to Ahonui of numerous valleys in 
which neither species has been observed. This gap may pos- 
sibly account for the want of obvious connection between 
sanguinea and gravida. At any rate the distribution and re- 
lations of the more Amastra-like gravida shows that the mi- 
grations of the group were from the south to the north. 
Since gravida is alone represented and only by a rare and 



HYATT'S CLASSIFICATION, ETC. 367 

modified form in the Kaala range, it follows also that the 
directions of these migrations was finally turned towards 
the west. That the gravida may have been artificially trans- 
ported to the western range must also be admitted, so long 
as the evidence remains as it is at present, because any na- 
tural transit across the valley of the Ewa district would be 
impossible from a point so far south. Luckily the arrange- 
ment of the second section, which comprises all shells found 
to the eastward of Oahu, does not present the difficulties just 
noticed in tracing the genealogy of L. sanguinea. 

It is comparatively easy starting with L. venusta of Molo- 
kai to trace this by gradations into L. depicta, and this in 
turn into helvina and citrina. There is also a lateral off- 
shoot from venusta in L. alexandn. In whichever direction 
one looks at related forms, whether to the west or the east 
of Molokai. it is obvious that this fauna, so far as Laminella 
is concerned, is retrogressive in size. That it is not retro- 
gressive in the pattern of coloration is shown by the evident 
relationship of the highly colored and complex pattern of 
sanguinea on Oahu to the simpler gravida. 

In passing from the dwarfs of Molokai to the larger shells 
of TVest Maui, strong evidence of direct connection between 
venusta of Molokai and picta of the last locality is shown in 
all the characters of all the species, including their develop- 
ment, and it is evident also that the latter is the progressive 
descendant form, if the migrations of the species took the 
same direction as those of other genera. The evidence with 
regard to this is not as complete as is desirable, but it is cer- 
tainly easier to account for the generation of the different 
island faunas of Laminella by assuming an easterly set from 
island to island of the tide of migration, starting with Oahu, 
than to start with Lanai and end in Oahu. In West Maui 
L. picta leads into L. bulbosa of East Maui, and connects 
more nearly with L. tetrao of Lanai than the latter. This 
accords with the geographic approximation of W. Maui to 
Lanai. and the connection of the fauna in other genera. 



368 



HYATT'S CLASSIFICATION, ETC. 



Lanai. 



Maui. 



Molokai. 




remyi 



Oahu. 



venusta alexandri 

(Maui) 

sanguinea 

straminea 

gravida, suffusa concinna 
(Lanai) 



Table showing the relations of Laminellse and their migrations (Hyatt MS.)' 



REFERENCE TO PLATES, VOL. XXI. 

PLATE 1. HAWAII. 

FIGURE PAGE 

1, 2. Leptachatina konaensis Sykes. Cooke coll. no. 143. 45 

3. Lepachatina konaensis Sykes. Fauna Hawaiiensis. . 45 

4. Leptachatina. k. olaaensis Cooke. Cooke coll. no. 210. 45 

5. Leptachatina arborea Sykes. Fauna Hawaiiensis. . 38 

6. 7. Leptachatina arborea Sykes. Cooke coll. no. 130. 38 
8, 9. Leptachatina simplex Pease. Coll. A. N. S. P. no. 

57821 38 

10, 11. Leptachatina tenuicostata Pease. Mana. Cooke 

coll 68 

12, 13. Leptachatina lepida Cooke. Cooke coll. no. 206. 40 

14. Leptachatina imitatrix Sykes. Fauna Hawaiiensis. 68 

15. Leptachatina henshawi Sykes. Cooke coll. no. 131. 86 

16. Leptachatina defuncta Cooke. Mana. Cooke coll. 

no. 136 39 

17. Leptachatina henshawi Sykes. Journ. of Malacol. 86 

18. 19. Leptachatina anceyana Cooke. Mana. Cooke 

coll. no. 133 39 

PLATE 2. MAUL 
20, 21. Lepachatina nitida Newc. Coll. A. N. S. no. 

57807 42 

22. Leptachatina n. occidentals Cooke. Cooke coll. no. 

116 43 

23, 24. Leptachatina lenta Cooke. Cooke coll. no. 121. 79 

25. Leptachatina compacta Pease. Cooke coll. no. 120. 44 

26, 27. Leptachatina grana Newc. A. N. S. no. 57810. 34 
28, 29. Leptachatina vitreola Gul. A. N. S. P. coll 35 

30. Leptachatina ovata Cooke. A. N. S. P. coll. no. 123. 33 

31, 32. Leptachatina obsoleta Pfr. Haleakala crater. 

Cooke coll. no. 125 23 

33, 41. Leptachatina baldwini Cooke. Maunakooma. 

Cooke coll. no. 126 12 

34, Leptachatina guttula Old. U. S. Expl. Exped., 

fig. 98 36 

35, 36. Leptachatina guttula Gld. Cooke coll. no. 129. . 36 

(369) 



370 REFERENCE TO PLATES, VOL. XXI. 

FIGURE PAGE 

37, 38. Leptachatina praestabilis Cooke. Cooke coll. no. 

128 43 

39, 40. Leptachatina fulgida Cooke. Cooke coll. no. 203. 12 

41. Leptachatina baldwini Cooke. Maunakooma 12 

Between 27 and 35. Leptachatina parvula Gul. P. 

Malac. Soc., iii 36 

Below 30. Leptachatina isthmica Anc. P. Malac. Soc., 

iii 44 

PLATE 3. OAHU. 

42. Leptachatina resinula Gul. Pupukea. A. N. S. P., 

91808 59 

43. 44. Lepachatina pyramis Pfr. Cooke coll. no. 43. . 47 

45. Leptachatina labiata Newc. A. N. S. no. 57837 77 

46. Leptachatina approximans Anc. Cooke coll. no. 103. 52 

47. Leptachatina gracilis Pfr. Cooke coll. no. 89 16 

48. Leptachatina gracilis Pfr. P. Z. S., 1855, pi. 30, 

f . 22 16 

49. Leptachatina labiata Newc. P. Z. S., 1853, pi. 23, 

f. 33 77 

50. Leptachatina crystalline Gul. Kamao. A. N. S., 

91807 , 26 

51. Leptachatina fuscula Gul. Waianae Mts. Cooke 

coll. no. 93 84 

52. Leptachatina triticea Gul. P. Malac. Soc., iii 

53. 56. Leptachatina accincta Migh. Cooke coll. no. 14. 25 

54. Leptachatina gummea Gul. Olomana, A. N. S., 

91801 .., 26 

55. Leptachatina dentata Pfr. (= labiata). P. Z. S., 

1855, pi. 30, f. 27 77 

56. Leptachatina accincta Migh. Cooke coll. no. 14 .... 25 

57. Leptachatina vana Sykes. Fauna Hawaiiensis, pi. 

11, f. 27 28 

58. Leptachatina fumida Gul. Kawailoa. A. N. S. P., 

no. 91786 40 

59. Leptachatina oryza Pfr. Coll. A. N. S. P 28 

60. 61. Leptachatina. o. subeylindrica Cooke. A. N. S., 

no. 57822 28 

PLATE 4. OAHU. 
61-63. Leptachatina petila Gul. Manoa. Cooke coll. no. 

84 92 

64. Leptachatina petila Gul. Nuuanu. Cooke coll. no. 57. 92 

65. Leptachatina fusca Nc. P. Z. S., 1853, pi. 23, f . 44. 

66. Leptachatina fusca Nc. Cooke coll. no. 55 89 



REFERENCE TO PLATES, VOL. XXI. 371 

FIGURE PAGE 

67, 68. Lepachatina f usca Nc. Cooke coll. no. 55a .... 89 

69. Leptachatina fusca Nc. Cooke coll. no. 222 89 

70-72. Leptachatina f. striatella Gul. Keawawa. A. N. 

S. P., 91804 91 

73-75. Leptachatina sculpta Pfr. Cooke coll. no. 98.. 64 

76. Leptachatina saxatilis Gul. P. Mai. Soc., iii, pi. 14, 

f . 17 20 

77, 78. Leptachatina chrysalis Pfr. Kawailoa. A. N. S. 

P., 91785 82 

79. Leptachatina saccula Hartm. From a photograph 

of the type 61 

80. Leptachatina costulata Gul. Waimea. A. N. S. P., 

91802 63 

PLATE 5. OAHU. 

81. 82. Leptachatina ventulus. Nuuanu. A. N. S. P., 

91806 54 

83, 84. Leptachatina lagena Gul. Kalaikoa. A. N. S. 

coll 78 

85. Leptachatina cingula Migh. Manoa. A. N. S. coll. 52 
86-88. Leptachatina cingula Migh. Palolo. A. N. S., 

91790 52 

89. Leptachatina lagena Gul. Proc. Mai. Soc., iii, pi. 

14, f. 9 78 

90, 91. Leptachatina succincta Nc. A. N. S.. 57823 60 

92. Leptachatina glutinosa Pfr. Cooke coll. no. 63 .... 46 
93-96. Leptachatina dimidiate Pfr. Kalaikoa. A. N. S. 

91798 47 

PLATE 6. 

1, 2, Leptachatina emerita Sykes. Cooke coll. no. 109. 31 

3. Leptachatina. laevigata Cooke. Cooke coll. no. 200.. 11 

6, 7. Leptachatina coruscans Hartm. Cooke coll. no. 195. 41 

8. Leptachatina c. disimilis Cooke. Cooke coll. no. 112. 42 

9, 10. Leptachatina concolor Cooke. Cooke coll. no. 199. 31 

11. Leptachatina conicoides Sykes. Fauna Hawaiiensis, 

pi. 11, f. 26 32 

12, 13. Leptachatina lanceolate Cooke. Cooke coll. no. 

107 65 

14, 15. Leptachatina conicoides Sykes. Cooke coll. no. 6. 32 

16, 17. Leptachatina thaanum Cooke. Cooke coll. no. 201. 88 

18. Leptachatina impressa Sykes. Fauna Hawaiiensis, 

pi. 11. f . 8 66 

19. Leptachatina supracostata Sykes. Fauna Hawaiiensis, 

pi. 11, f. 22 66 



372 REFERENCE TO PLATES, VOL. XXI. 

FIGURE PAGE 

20, 21. Leptaehatina semipicta Sykes. Cooke coll. 113. 49 

22. Leptachatina semipicta Sykes. Fauna Hawaiiensis, 

pi. 11, f. 12 49 

23. Leptachatina perkinsi Sykes. Fauna Hawaiiensis, 

pi. 11, f. 30 56 

24. Leptachatina smithi Sykes. Fauna Hawaiiensis, pi. 

11, f . 29 49 

PLATE 7. Kauai. 

25. 26. Leptachatina tenebrosa Pse. Exauct. A. N. S., 

no. 57798 74 

27. Leptachatina balteata Pse. Punkapele, Waimea . . 70 

28. Leptachatina balteata Pse., var. Cooke coll 70 

29. Leptachatina tenebrosa Pse. Journ. de Conch., 1876, 

pi. 3, f . 5 74 

30. 31. Leptachatina balteata Pse., var. Journ. de 

Conch., 1876, pi. 4, f. 4 . 70 

32. Leptachatina perforata Cooke. Milolii. Cooke coll. 88 

33, 34, 36. Leptachatina leucochila Gul. Cooke coll. no. 

42a 73 

35. Leptachatina leucochila Gul. P. Mai. Soc., iii, pi. 

14, 1 12 73 

37, 38. Leptachatina leucochila Gul. Cotype. A. N. 

S., 91809 73 

39, 40. Leptachatina gayi Cooke. Makaweli. Cooke coll. 72 

41. Leptachatina acuminata (Gld.). U. S. Expl. Exped., 

pi. 7, f. 100 5 

42. Leptachatina costulosa Pse. Journ. de Conch., 1876, 

pi. 3, f . 4 71 

43. 44. Leptachatina pupoidea Cooke. Milolii. Cooke coll. 74 
45, 46. Leptachatina attenuata Cooke. Haleieie, Waimea. 

Cooke coll 69 

PLATE 8. Kauai. 

47, 48. Leptachatina pachystoma, Pse. Haleieie, Waimea. 

Cooke coll 50 

49. Leptachatina cylindrella Cooke. Haleieie. Cooke 

coll 51 

50. Leptachatina p. turgidula Pse. Cotype. A. N. S., 

57824 51 

51. 52. Leptachatina p. turgidula Pse. Journ. de Conch., 

1876, pi. 4, f. 5 51 

53. Leptachatina p. brevis. Haleieie, Waimea. Cooke coll. 52 

54. Leptachatina brevicula Pse. Cotype. A. N. S., 57802. 24 



REFERENCE TO PLATES, VOL. XXI. 373 

FIGURE PAGE 

55. Leptachatina b. micra Cooke. Haleieie, Waimea. 

Cooke coll 24 

56. Leptachatina laevis Pse. Journ. de Conch., 1876, 

pi. 14, f. 6 7 

57. Leptachatina laevis Pse. Cooke coll 7 

58. 59. Leptachatina fossilis Cooke. Type. A. N. S., 

57820 61 

60, 61. Leptachatina antiqua Pse. Koloa. Cooke coll. 

no. 192 7 

62. Leptachatina antiqua Pse. Journ. de Conch., 1876, 

pi. 3, f . 6 7 

63, 64. Leptachatina cylindrata Pse. Cotype. A. N. S., 

57806 18 

65, 66. Leptachatina lucida Pse. Cooke coll. no. 151 . . 62 

67. Leptachatina extensa Pse. Cooke coll. no. 105. ... 71 

PLATE 9. Leptachatina. 
1, 2. Leptachatina convexiuscula Sykes. Nuuanu. 

Cooke coll 19 

3, 4. Leptachatina scutilis Migh. Cooke coll 10 

5. Leptachatina convexiuscula Sykes. Fauna Hawaii- 

ensis 19 

6. Leptachatina exilis Gul. Keawaawa 19 

7. 8. Leptachatina sandwichensis Pfr. Cooke coll. ... 9 
9. Leptachatina stiria Gul. Cotype ^ 9 

10. Leptachatina exilis Gul. P. Mai. Soc., iii 19 

11, 12. Leptachatina knudseni Cooke. Cooke coll. no. 149. 8 

13. Leptachatina octogyrata Gul. Palolo. Gulick coll. 

A. N. S., no. 91781 63 

14. Leptachatina subula Gul. P. Mai. Soc., iii 17 

15. Leptachatina terebralis Gul. P. Mai. Soc., iii 17 

16. Leptachatina turrita Gul. P. Mai. Soc., iii 15 

PLATE 10. Leptachatina. 

1, 2. Leptachatina cuneata Cooke. Cooke coll 6 

3. Leptachatina illimis Cooke. Cooke coll 10 

4. Leptachatina persubtilis Cooke. Cooke coll 15 

5. 6. Leptachatina exoptabilis Cooke. Cooke coll 21 

7, 8. Leptachatina pulchra Cooke. Cooke coll 29 

9, 10. Leptachatina leiahiensis Cooke. Cooke coll. ... 22 

11, 12. Leptachatina molokaiensis Cooke. Cooke coll. 22 

PLATE 11. Leptachatina. 

1. Leptachatina varia Cooke. Cooke coll 32 

2. Leptachatina subovata Cooke. Cooke coll 37 



374 REFERENCE TO PLATES, VOL. XXI. 

FIGURE PAGE 

3. Leptachatina kuhnsi Cooke. Cooke coll 48 

4. Leptachatina ventulus Per. Punaluu 54 

5. 6. Leptachatina pilsbryi Cooke. Cooke coll 55 

7. Leptachatina cerealis Gld. U. S. Expl. Exped 13 

8. Leptachatina marginata Gul. Ann. Lye. N. H. of 

N. Y 58 

9. Leptachatina petila Gul. P. Mai. Sac., iii 92 

10. Leptachatina conspieienda Cooke. Bishop Museum. 56 

11. Leptachatina longiuscula Cooke. Cooke coll 57 

12. Leptachatina captiosa Cooke. Cooke coll 29 

PLATE 12. Leptachatina. 

1. Leptachatina opipara Cooke. Cooke coll 30 

2, 3. Leptachatina lanaiensis Cooke. Cooke coll 67 

4. 7. Leptachatina striatula Gld. Cooke coll 74 

5. Leptachatina cingula Migh. A. N. S. P., 57795 .... 75 

6. Leptachatina costulosa Pease. Thaanum coll 71 

8. Leptachatina fraterna Cooke, apex 91 

9, 10. Leptachatina isthmica Anc. Topotype 45 

11. Leptachatina. fraterna Cooke. Cooke coll 91 

PLATE 13. Leptachatina. 

1-4. Leptachatina artata Cooke. Cooke coll 80 

5-7. Leptachatina tantilla Cooke. Cooke coll 81 

8, 10. Leptachatina dulcis Cooke. Cooke coll 85 

9. Leptachatina optabilis Cooke. Cooke coll 84 

11. Leptachatina omphalodes Anc. Proc. Mai. Soc., iii. 83 

12. Leptachatina morbida Cooke. Cooke -coll 87 

PLATE 14. Fernandezia. 

1. Fernandezia expansa Pils. Type, no. 10164 A. N. 

S. P 95 

2, 3. Fernandezia philippiana Pils, Type, no. 10164 A. 

N. S. P 96 

4. Fernandezia bulimoides Pfr. Conch. Icon 94 

5. Fernandezia conifera Rve. Conch. Icon 98 

6. Fernandezia. longa Pils. Type, no. 10214 A. N. S. P. 99 

7. 8. Fernandezia wilsoni Pils. Type, no. 10166 A. N. 

S. P 96 

9. Fernandezia splendida Ant. Abbild. n. Conch 98 

10. Fernandezia splendida Ant. Conchyl. Cab 98 

11. Fernandezia consimilis Rve. Conch. Icon 94 

12. 13. Fernandezia tryoni Pils. Type, no. 10167 A. N. 

S. P. 97 



REFERENCE TO PLATES, VOL. XXI. 375 
FIGURE PAGE 

14, 15. Fernandezia inornata Pils. Type, no. 10168 A. 

N. S. P 97 

PLATE 15. Amastra of Kauai. 

1, 2, 3, 6. Amastra cyclostoma Bald. Cotypes, etc., no. 

65724 and 68876 A. N. S. P 147 

4, 5. Amastra sphaerica Pse. No. 57744 A. N. S. P. . . 149 

7. Amastra similaris Pse. Waimea. No. 57746 A. N. 

S. P 150 

8, 9, 10. Amastra rugulosa normalis Pils. No. 57725 A. 

N S P 153 

11. Amastra obesa Newc. Maui. No. 57732 A. N. S. P. 281 

12. Amastra rugulosa Pse. No. 57743 A. N. S. P 152 

13. 14. Amastra similaris Pse. No. 57745 A. N. S. P. . . 150 

15, 18, 19. Amastra anthonii Newc. No. 57686 A. N. S. P. 155 

16, 17. Amastra nucleola Gld. x 2. Xo. 92694 A. N. S. P. 153 

PLATE 16. Kauaia, Armiella, Carelia. 

1, 2, 3. Amastra kauaiensis Newc. Coll. A. N. S. P., 

from Newcomb 143 

4, 5. Amastra knudseni Bald. Cotypes, 65725 A. N. 

S. P 146 

6. Amastra knudseni Bald. Cooke coll 146 

7. 9. Carelia bicolor Jay. Young and apex. A. N. S. P. 114 

8. Carelia sinclairi Anc. A. N. S. P 117 

10. Carelia dolei Anc. Cooke coll 109 

PLATE 17. Amastra of Lanai. 

1-6. Amastra biplicata Newc. A. N. S. P. coll 243 

7, 9. Amastra moesta Newc. A. N. S. P., no. 92678. . 246 

8. Amastra pusilla Newc. A. N. S. P., no. 57792 234 

10, 12. Amastra m. obscura Newc. A. N. S. P., no. 57845. 247 
11, 14. Amastra fraterna Sykes, var. A. N. S. P., no. 

94499 233 

13, 15. Amastra pusilla Newc. A. N. S. P., no. 57838. . 234 

PLATE 18. Carelia. 

1-4. Carelia dolei Anc. Cooke coll 109 

5, Carelia cochlea Rve. Conch. Icon 108 

6, 8. Carelia cochlea Rve. CoU. A. N. S. P 108 

7, 9. Carelia cumingiana Pfr. Coll. A. N. S. P 112 

10. Carelia pilsbryi Sykes. Proc. Malac. Soc., Lond. . . 105 



376 REFERENCE TO PLATES, VOL. XXI. 

FIGURE PAGE 

PLATE 19. Carelia, 

1. Carelia turricula High. Proc. Malac. Soc., Lond. . . 103 

2. Carelia variabilis Pse. After Borcherding 107 

3. Carelia paradoxa Pfr. After Borcherding 105 

4, 5, 6. Carelia t. newcombi Pfr. Coll. A. N. S. P 104 

7. Carelia t. obeliscus Rve. Cooke coll 104 

8. Carelia t. obeliscus Rve. Conch. Icon 104 

PLATE 20. Carelia. 
1-4. Carelia bicolor Jay. Cooke coll 113 

5, 6. Carelia bicolor hyperleuca Pils. Coll. A. N. S. P. 114 

7. Carelia bicolor Jay. Coll. A. N. S. P 113 

8, 9, 10. Carelia bicolor adusta Old. Coll. A. N. S. P. 114 
11, 12. Carelia adusta minor zonata Borcherding. After 

Borcherding 116 

13, 14. Carelia adusta minor Borcherding. After Bor- 
cherding 116 

15. Carelia adusta zonata Borcherding. After Borcher- 

ding 116 

16. Carelia bicolor angulata Pse. Coll. A. N. S. P 116 

PLATE 21. Carelia. 

1, 2. Carelia hyattiana Pils. Coll. A. N. S. P 108 

3, 4, 5. Carelia cumingiana Pfr. After Borcherding . . 112 

6, 7. Carelia sinclairi Ancey. After Borcherding .... 117 

8, 13. Carelia rigida Hyatt. Cooke coll , 111 

9, 10. Carelia b. fuliginea Pfr. Conchylien Cabinet. . 115 
11, 12. Carelia bicolor Jay, teeth and jaw. After Binney. 100 
13. Carelia rigida Hyatt. Cooke coll Ill 

PLATE 22. Pterodiscus. 

1-3. Pterodiscus alatus Pfr. Newcomb coll 121 

4-6. Pterodiscus a. litus Pils. Coll. A. N. S. P 122 

7-9. Pterodiscus discus Pils. & Van. Coll. A. N. S. P. 123 

PLATE 23. Pterodiscus. 
1-5. Pterodis'cus wesleyi Sykes. Wahaiwa. Coll. A. N. 

S. P 123 

6-8. Pterodiscus cookei Hyatt & Pils. Cooke coll 127 

9. Pterodiscus wesleyi Sykes. Type. Coll. A. N. S. P. 123 
10. Pterodiscus wesleyi ewaensis Pils. Coll. A. N. S. P. 125 

PLATE 24. Pterodiscus, Planamastra, Armsia. 
1, 2. Pterodiscus thaanumi Pils. Type. Coll. A. N. 

S. P. . 125 



REFERENCE TO PLATES, VOL. XXI. 377 

FIGURE PAGE 

3-5. Annsia petasus Ancey. Coll. A. N. S. P 133 

6. Armsia petasus Ancey. Proc. Malac. Soc., Lond. . . 133 
7, 8. Pterodiscus rex Sykes. Proc. Malac. Soc., Lond.. 126 

9-11. Planamastra digonophora Anc. Coll. A. N. S. P. 130 

PLATE 25. Pterodiscus, Planamastra, Armsia. 
1-3. Pterodiscus thaanumi Pils. Embryonic shell. A. 

N. S. P 125 

4-6. Planamastra digonophora Anc. Embryonic shell. 

A. N. S. P 130 

7. Armsia petasus Anc. Embryonic whorls. A. N. 

S. P 133 

8-10. Planamastra peaseana Pils. A. N. S. P 130 

PLATE 26. Amastra of Lanai. 
1-4. Amastra magna Ad. Coll. A. N. S. P 237 

5. Amastra magna Ad. Embryonic shell. Coll. A. N. 

S. P 237 

6. Amastra magna Ad. 57698 A. N. S. P 237 

7, 8. Amastra magna balteata Pils. Coll. A. N. S. P. . . 240 
9. Amastra nucula Smith. P. Z. S., 1873 236 

10. Amastra moesta Newc. Embryonic whorls 247 

11-14. Amastra aurostoma Bald. Cotypes. A. N. S. P. 240 
15. Amastra m. longa Sykes. Fauna Hawaiiensis 247 

PLATE 27. Amastra of Molokai, etc. 
1, 2. Amastra violacea wailauensis Pils. After Bor- 

cherding 258 

3, 4. Amastra violacea Newc. CoU. A. N. S. P 257 

5-7. Amastra n. macerata Hyatt & Pils. A. N. S. and 

Cooke coll 260 

8, 9, 10, 13. Amastra nubilosa High. Coll. A. N. S. P. 259 

11, 12. Amastra nubilosa macerata H. & P. After Bor- 

cherding 260 

13. Amastra nubilosa High., var. 92689 A. N. S. P 260 

14-16. Amastra. pullata Bald. Types. 65715 A. N. S. P. 261 

17. Amastra assimilis Newc. P. Z. S., 1853 305 

18. Amastra conicospira. Smith (= intermedia) . P. Z. 

S 1873 223 

19-21. Amastra pullata subnigra Hy. & Pils. 2098 

Cooke coll 263 

PLATE 28. Amastra of Molokai. 

1-5. Amastra mucronata Newc. 66542 A. N. S. P 269 

6. Amastra mucronata Newc. After Borcherding .... 269 



378 REFERENCE TO PLATES, VOL. XXI. 

FIGURE PAGE 

7-10. Amastra m. citrea Sykes. Cooke coll 271 

11. 12. Amastra m. roseotincta Anc. Cooke >coll 270 

13. Amastra m. semicarnea Anc. Proc. Malac. Soc 272 

14. Amastra m. maura Anc. Proe. Malac. Soc 270 

15. Amastra m. roseotincta Anc. Proc. Malac. Soc 270 

16. Amastra m. citrea Sykes. Fauna Hawaiiensis 271 

17. 18. Amastra uniplicata Hartm. After Borcherding. 265 

19, 20. Amastra n. dissimiliceps Pils. Cooke coll 275 

21, 22. Amastra uniplicata Hartm. Coll. A. N. S. P. . . 265 

PLATE 29. Amastra of Oahu. 

1. Amastra r. conspersa Pfr. P. Z. S 180 

2-4. Amastra reticulata Newc. 92520 A. N. S. P 179 

5-7. Amastra r. dispersa Hy. & Pils. 1783 Cooke coll. 180 

8-11. Amastra r. orientals Hy. & Pils. 9246 Cooke coll. 181 

12. 13. Amastra r. errans Hy. & Pils. 1133 Cooke coll. 182 

14. Amastra. undata Bald. Type. 65722 A. 1J. S. P. . . 185 

15. Amastra badia Bald. Proc. A. N. S. P., 1895 v . 185 

16. 17. Amastra venusta Bald. Type. 65717 A. N. S. P. 178 

18. 19. Amastra badia Bald. Waimano. 1139 Cooke 

coll 185 

PLATE 30. 

1-3, 7. Amastra textilis Fer. Palolo. 92602 A. N. S. P. 164 
4, 5. Amastra textilis Fer. Nuuanu. 701 Cooke coll. 164 
6. Amastra textilis Fer. Waialae. 92306 A. N. S. P. 164 
8-10. Amastra textilis microstoma Gld. Nuuanu. 798 

Cooke coll 167 

11, 12. Amastra textilis media Hy. & Pils. Aeia, 1050 

Cooke coll 167 

13. Amastra pellucida Bald. Type. A. N. S. P. . 170 

14. Amastra spaldingi Cooke. Type. Bishop Museum. 169 

15. Amastra breviata Bald. Waimano. Cooke coll. . . 171 

16. Amastra irwiniana Cooke. Type. Bishop Museum. 172 

17. 18. Amastra breviata Bald. Type. A. N. S. P. . . 171 

19. 20. Amastra >caputadamantis Pils. Type. A. N. S. P. 184 
21, 22. Amastra albolabris Newc. Nuuanu. 767 Cooke 

coll 173 

23. Amastra albolabris Newc. Lihue. 92517 A. N. S. P. 173 

PLATE 31. Amastra of Oahu. 

1. Amastra davisiana Cooke. Bishop Museum 177 

2-5. Amastra transversalis Pfr. 92269 A. N. S. P. ... 183 
6-8. Amastra crassilabrum Newc. 92518 A. N. S. P.. . 189 
9. Amastra cornea Newc. 92521 A. N. S. P. . .187 



REFERENCE TO PLATE .3, VOL. XXI. 379 

FIGURE PAGE 

10. Amastra cornea Xewc. Cooke coll 187 

11. Amastra subcornea Hy. & Pils. 1749 Cooke coll. . . 189 
12-14. Amastra cornea Xewc. 1782 Cooke coll 187 

15. Amastra rubens infelix Pils. 1491 Cooke coll 195 

16. Amastra rubens kahana Pils. 1417 Cooke coll 195 

17. 18. Amastra corneiformis Hy. & Pils. 1753 Cooke 

coll 194 

19. Amastra. tenuilabris Gul. P. Z. S., 1873 196 

PLATE 32. Amastra of Oa.hu. 

1-4. Amastra tristis Fer. Palolo. 92601 A. N. S. P. . . 205 

5. Amastra tristis Fer. Xuuanu. Cooke coll 205 

6, 7. Amastra tristis Fer. Tantalus. Cooke coU 205 

8, 9, 11. Amastra seminigra Hy. & Pils. Cooke coll. . . 195 

10. Amastra tristis Fer. Niu. Cooke coll 205 

12. 15. Amastra rubicunda Bald. Type. Konahuanui. 

65719 A. X. S. P 197 

13. Amastra tristis Fer. Embryonic shell. A. N. S. P. 205 

14. Amastra rubicunda Bald. Xuuanu. 799 Cooke coll. 197 

15. Amastra rubicunda Bald. Type. Konahuanui. A. 

X. S. P 197 

16. Amastra rubens rubinia Hy. 92481 A. N. S. P 193 

17. Amastra rubens Gld. Waianae. 1765 Cooke coll. . . 192 

18. Amastra rubens castanea Pils. 1761 Cooke coll. . . . 194 
19-21. Amastra rubens Gld. Moknleia. 92253 A. N. S. P. 192 
22, 23. Amastra antiqua Bald. Type. 65716 A. N. S. P. 160 

PLATE 33. Amastra of Oahu. 

1-3. Amastra inflata Pfr. Wahiawa. 92637 A. N. S. P. 201 
4-7. Amastra decorticata Gul. Kawailoa. 92492 A. N. 

S. P 200 

8. Amastra intermedia Xewc. Loc. ? ex Newc. A. N. 

S. P. coll 202 

9. Amastra rubida Gul. P. Z. S., 1873 203 

10. Amastra spirizona rudis Pfr. P. Z. S. ? 1855 219 

11. Amastra luctuosa sulfurea Anc. Proc. Malac. Soc. 199 

12. 13. Amastra luctuosa Pfr. Kahuku. 92258 A. N. 

S. P 198 

14. Amastra porphyrea Xewc. Wahiawa. 92640 A. N. 

S. P 224 

15. Amastra porphyrea Xewc. Waianae. 57736 A. N. 

S. P 224 

16. Amastra porphyrea Xewc., from Xewcomb. 57735 

A. X. S. P. . . 224 



380 REFERENCE TO PLATES, VOL. XXI. 

FIGURE PAGE 

17. Amastra porphyrea Newc. P. Z. S., 1853 224 

18-21. Amastra porphyrea Newe. Lihue. 92516 A. N. 

S. P 224 

PLATE 34. 

1, 2. Amastra vareigata Pfr. Conchyl. Cabinet 229 

3-5. Amastra vareigata Pfr. Mokuleia. 92252 A. N. 

S. P 229 

6-10. Amastra intermedia Newc. Lihue. 92519 A. N. 

S. P 222 

11, 12. Amastra intermedia Newc. Waianae. 92470 A. 

N. S. P 222 

13. Amastra cylindrica Newc. P. Z. S., 1853 227 

14. Amastra cylindrica Newc. Var. 57690 A. N. S. P. 227 

15. Achatinella monacha Pfr. P. Z. S., 1855 Vol. XXII. 

16. Amastra cylindrica Newc., from Newcomb. 57689 

A. N. S. P 227 

17-19. Amastra elliptica Gul. Kahuku. 92259 A. N. S. P. 204 
20-23. Amastra elliptica Gul. Waialae. 92647 A. N. 

S. P 204 

PLATE 35. Amastra of Oahu. 
1-3. Amastra turritella Fer. Nuuanu. 684-686 Cooke 

coll 213 

4. Amastra turritella Fer. Matiti. 92554 A. N. S. P. 213 

5. Amastra t. aeia Pils. Aeia. 1074 Cooke coll 215 

6. Amastra luteola Fer. Histoire v 321 

7. 8. Amastra t. waiwa Pils. Waiawa. 92231 A. N. 

S. P.' 215 

9. Amastra t. aeia Pils. Aeia. 1045 Cooke coll 215 

10. Amastra s. nigrolabris Sm. Kawailoa. 92280 A. N. 

S. P 217 

11. Amastra s. nigrolabris Sm. Kahana. 1407 Cooke coll. 217 

12. Amastra s. nigrolabris Sm. Waimea. 92223 A. N. 

S. P 217 

13. Amastra s. nigrolabris Sm. Kahana. 1403 Cooke Coll. 217 

14. 15. Amastra s. nigrolabris Sm. Wahiawa. 92638 A. 

N. S. P 217 

16. Amastra spirizona Fer. Histoire 215 

17. Amastra spirizona Fer. Lihue. 92515 A. N. S. P. 215 

18. Amastra spirizona Fer. "Waianae. 1776 Cooke coll. 215/ 

19. Amastra s. chlorotica Pfr. Kalaikoa. 92347 A. N. 

S. P 220 

20. Amastra s. chlorotica Pfr. Wahiawa, 92636 A. N. 

S. P. . 220 



REFERENCE TO PLATES, VOL. XXI. 381 

FIGURE PAGE 

PLATE 36. Amastra of Oahu, Molokai and Maui. 

I, 2, 3. Pterodiscus heliciformis Anc. Oahu. Baldwin 

coll 127 

4, 5. Amastra petricola Newc. Molokai. 57734 A. N. 

S. P 253 

6, 7. Amastra umbilicata Pfr. Molokai. A. N. S. P. 251 

8. Amastra morticina Pils. Kanaio. Baldwin coll. . . 280 

9. Amastra morticina Pils. Kahului. Baldwin coll. . . 280 

10. Amastra obesa Newc. Maui. A. N. S. P 281 

11, 12. Amastra agglutinans Newc. Maui. A. N. S. P. 283 

PLATE 37. Amastra of Oahu and Molokai. 

1. Amastra tenuispira Bald. Cotype. A. N. S. P 212 

2. Amastra frosti Anc. Proc. Malac. Soc., iii 211 

3. Amastra frosti Anc. Cooke coll. no. 1751 211 

4. Amastra micans (frosti unicolor Anc.). Proc. Malac. 

Soc., iii 210 

5. 6, 7. Amastra micans Pfr. Cooke coll 210 

8, 9. Amastra porphyrostoma Pse. Kahana. Coll. A. 

N. S. P 226 

10, 11, 12. Amastra borcherdingi H. & P. Molokai. 2097 

Cooke coll 

13. Amastra porphyrostoma Pse. From photo of type. 

Pease coll 226 

14-16. Amastra umbrosa Bald. Cotypes. 65714 A. N. 

S. P 263 

17. Amastra pullata Bald. Var. Cooke coll 262 

18-20. Amastra seminuda Bald. Cotypes. Baldwin coll. 264 
21. Amastra pullata Bald. Var. Cooke coll 263 

PLATE 38. Amastra of Oahu. 

1, 2. Amastra thaanumi Pils. Cotypes. Bishop Mus. 177 

3. Amastra porcus Pils. Type. Bishop Mus 207 

4, 5. Amastra cookei Pils. Type. Bishop Mus 182 

6. 9, 10. Amastra sola Pils. Type. Bishop Mus 158 

7. Amastra emulator Pils. Type. Bishop Mus 190 

8. Amastra gulickiana Pils. Type. Bishop Mus 168 

9. 10. Amastra sola Pils. Type. Bishop Mus 158 

II. Amastra hartmani Nc. Hartm., from photo of type. . 160 

12. Amastra textilis kaipaupauensis Pils. Type. Bishop 

Mus 168 

13. Amastra spaldingi Cooke. Neanic stage. Bishop Mus. 169 

14. Amastra conicospira Sm. Type. No. 87 Boston Soc. 

(= intermedia) 223 



382 REFERENCE TO PLATES, VOL. XXI. 

FIGURE PAGE 

PLATE 39. 

1. Amastra baldwini Newc. (= magna) . P. Z. S., 1855. 239 

2, 3. Amastra grayana Pf r. Cooke coll 241 

4. Amastra magna Newc. No. 79959 A. N. S. P 237 

5, 6. Amastra rubristoma Bald. Baldwin coll 242 

7. Amastra durandi Ancey. No. 2230 Cooke coll 245 

8. Amastra magna Newc. No. 92680 A. N. S. P 237 

9. Amastra durandi Ancey. No. 42408a U. S. Nat. Mus. 245 
10. Amastra durandi Ancey. Var. No. 13432 Boston 

Soc 245 

11, 12. Amastra nucula Smith. Type. No. 89 Boston Soc. 236 

13. Amastra violacea wailauensis Pils. Cotype. Bishop 

Mus 258 

14. Amastra violacea wailauensis Pils. Cotype. No. 104- 

670 A. N. S. P 258 

15. Amastra tricincta Pils. Type. Bishop Mus 277 

16. Amastra semicarnea Ancey. Cotype. Bishop Mus. . . 272 

PLATE 40. Amastra of Molokai, Oahu, Lanai. 

1. Amastra gigantea Newc. P. Z. S., 1853 239 

2-4. Amastra mastersi Borch. (= borcherdingi P. & H.). 

Zoologica, pi. 10, figs. 16, 18 267 

5, 6. Amastra mucronata Borch. (= boreherdingi P. & 

H.) . Zoologica, pi. 10, f. 17 267 

7, 8. Amastra humilis Newc. No. 57704 A. N. S. P. . . 255 
9. Amastra mucronata Newc. P. Z. S., 1853 268 

10. Amastra fusiformis Pfr. (= mucronata). P. Z. S., 

1853, pi. 30, f. 18 268 

11, 12. Amastra modesta dimissa Pils. Cotypes. 92683 

and 10209 A. N. S. P 276 

13, 14. Amastra modesta Borch. (= atroflava) . Zoolog- 
ica, pi. 10, f. 19 272 

15. Amastra elegantula H. & P. Type. Cooke coll 277 

16. Amastra spirizona acuta Swains. Kalaikoa. 92280 

A. N. S. P 217 

17. 18. Amastra ellipsoidea Gld. (=> textilis). Type. 

No. 5498 U. S. N. Mus 167 

PLATE 41. Amastra, Molokai. 
1, 2, 3. Amastra borcherdingi Pils. Cotypes. No. 57714 

A. N. S. P ! 266 

4. Amastra borcherdingi var. No. 13446 Boston Soc. 266 

5. Amastra borcherdingi var. No. 2095 Cooke coll. . . 266 

6. 7. Amastra nubifera H. & P. Cotypes. No. 2048 

Cooke coll. . 274 



REFERENCE TO PLATES, VOL. XXI. 383 

FIGURE PAGE 

8. Amastra assimilis Newc. Wailuku. Boston Soc. . . 305 
9-13. Amastra mucronata atroflava Pils. Cotypes. Ooll. 

A. N. S. P 272 

PLATE 42. 

1. Amastra nana Bald. Molokai ( ?) . 13423 Boston Soc. 302 

2, 3. Amastra sykesi Pils. Cotypes. Bishop Mus 273 

4, 5. Amastra abavus Pils. Cotypes. Bishop Mus. . . 255 

6. Amastra subobscura Hy. & Pils. Type. Boston Soc. 276 

7, 8. Amastra hawaiiensis Hy. & Pils. Cotypes. A. N. 

S. P 319 

9. Amastra rugulosa normalis Pils. Type. Kipu. 104- 

685 A. N. S. P 153 

10. Amastra obesa Newc. Var. No. 67076 A. N. S. P.. . 282 

11. Amastra obesa Newc. Spec, from Newcomb. No. 

57731 A. N. S. P 281 

12. Amastra sphserica Pse. Spec, from Pease. No. 577- 

744 A. N. S. P * 149 

PLATE 43. Amastra of Maiii. 

1. 2, 3, 6. Amastra nigra Newc. A. N. S. P 292 

^ 5. Amastra baldwiniana Pils. Cotypes. A. N. S. P. 292 

6. Amastra nigra Newc. 92667 A. N. S. P 292 

7, 8, 9. Amastra makawaoensis Pils. Cotypes. 67075 

A. N. S. P 294 

10. Amastra amicta Smith. P. Z. S., 1873 320 

11. Amastra nana Bald. 65718 A. N. S. P 301 

12. Amastra mastersi Newc. P. Z. S., 1853 295 

13-17. Amastra mastersi Newc. Cooke coll 295 

18, 19. Amastra montana Bald. Coll. A. N. S. P 308 

20. Amastra nana Bid. 2148 Cooke coll 301 

21. Amastra nana Bald. Cotype. 65718 A. N. S. P. . . 301 

PLATE 44. Amastra of Maui. 

1, 2, 3. Amastra affinis Newc. 92665 A. N. S. P 297 

4. Amastra affinis Newc. P. Z. S., 1853 297 

5. Amastra a. pupoidea Newc. P. Z. S., 1853 299 

6. Amastra affinis Newc. 2147 Cooke coll 297 

7. Amastra a, bigener H. & P. 57685 A. N. S. P 300 

8. Amastra a. bigener H. & P. 117264 U. S. Nat. Mus. 300 

9. Amastra a, pupoidea Newc. 92659 A. N. S. P 297 

10, 11. Amastra a. pupoidea Newc. 57691 A. N. S. P. . . 299 

12-16. Amastra a. rustica Gul. 92664 A. N. S. P 298 






384 REFERENCE TO PLATES, VOL. XXI. 

FIGURE PAGE 

PLATE 45. Amastra of Maui. 

1, 2. Amastra affinis 'Cinderella H. & P. Cotypes. Bos- 
ton Soc. no 300 

3, 4. Amastra affinis subpulla H. & P. Cotypes. Bos- 
ton Soc. no f . 300 

5, 6. Amastra malleata Smith. Type. Boston Soc. no. 302 

7, 8. Amastra malleata Smith. Var. Boston Soc. no. 

302 303 

9. Amastra lineolata Newc. P. Z. S., 1853 ' 320 

10, 11. Amastra conifera Smith. Type. Boston Soc. 

no. 81 303 

12, 13. Amastra conifera Smith. Boston Soc. no. 1540. . 303 
14, 15. Amastra subcrassilabris H. & P. Type. Boston 

Soc. no. 1541 293 

16. Amastra johnsoni H. & P. Type. Boston Soc. coll. 304 

PLATE 46. Amastra of Maui. 

1-4. Amastra kaupakaluana Pils. 2149, 2150 Cooke coll. 301 
5, 6. Amastra kaupakaluana Pils. Cotypes. 2156 

Cooke coll 301 

7, 8. Amastra subassimilis Hyatt. Type. Boston Soc. 

coll 307 

9, 10, 13. Amastra assimilis Newc. Wailuku. 92479 A. 

N. S. P 305 

11, Amastra assimilis Newc. Var. Wailuku 306 

12, 14, 15. Amastra assimilis Newc. Lahaina. 92706 A. 

N. S. P 305 

PLATE 47. Amastra of Hawaii. 

1, 2. Amastra melanosis Newc. No. 104710 A. N. S. P. 312 
3, 4. Amastra conica gyrans H. & P. Cotype. Cooke 

coll 314 

5. Amastra senilis Bald. Cotype. Baldwin coll 311 

6. Amastra melanosis Newc. P. Z. S., 1853 312 

7. Amastra melanosis Newc. Bishop Mus 312 

8. Amastra conica Bald. Baldwin coll 313 

9. Amastra melanosis Newc. Apex. A. N. S. P 312 

10. Amastra fossilis Bald. Baldwin coll 315 

11. Amastra f. saxicola Bald. 172937 U. S. Nat. Mus.. . 317 

12. Amastra flavescens Newc. Cooke coll 315 

13. 14, 17. Amastra flavescens Newc. From Newcomb. 

57694 A. N. S. P 315 

15. Amastra f. henshawi Bald. No. 104709 A. N. S. P. 318 

16. Amastra f. saxicola Bald. . 317 



REFERENCE TO PLATES, VOL. XXI. 385 

FIGURE PAGE 

PLATE 48. Heteramastra. 

1, 2. Amastra soror Newc. No. 1566 Boston Soc 285 

3, 4. Amastra soror Newc. No. 57776 A. N. S. P 285 

5. Amastra soror Newc. P. Z. S., 1853 285 

6, 7. Amastra subsoror H. & P. No. 57786 A. N. S. P. 287 
8. Amastra soror laticeps Pils. No. 10213 A. N. S. P. 287 
9-11. Amastra. soror interjecta H. & P. No. 57827 A. N. 

S. P 287 

12-15. Amastra lava Bald. No. 105556 A. N. S. P 288 

PLATE 49. Heteramastra, etc. 

1. Amastra hutchinsonii Pse. Large form. No. 71268. 289 

2. Amastra hutchinsonii Pse. No. 67077 289 

3. 4. Amastra hutchinsonii Pse. Molokai 289 

5. Amastra perversa Pils. Type 278 

6, 7. Amastra sinistrorsa Bald. Cotype. Baldwin coll. 310 

8. Amastra villosa Sykes. Fauna Hawaiiensis 290 

9. Amastra fraterna Sykes. Fauna Hawaiiensis 233 

10. Amastra ' ' elongata Newc. ' ' Bishop Museum 231 

11. Amastra peasei Smith. P. Z. S., 1873 322 

12. Amastra uniplicata Hartm. Var. No. 104684 A. N. 

S. P 266 

13. Amastra conica kohalensis Pils. Bishop Museum. . 314 

14. Amastra hutchinsonii Pease. Section 289 

15. Laminella kuhnsi Cooke. After Cooke 343 

PLATE 50. Laminella. 
1, 2. Laminella. citrina ' High.' Pfr. No. 57766 A. N. 

S. P. 350 

3. Laminella citrina ' Migh.' Pfr. No. 1987 Cooke coll. 350 

4. Laminella citrina 'Migh.' Pfr. No. 104713 A. N. 

S. P 350 

5. 8. Laminella citrina. Var. No. 92687 A. N. S. P. . . 350 

6. Laminella semivenulata Borch. Zoologica 353 

7. Laminella semivenulata Borch. Zoologica 353 

8. Laminella citrina, Var. No. 92687 A. N. S. P 350 

9-11. Laminella semivenulata Borch. No. 1992. Cooke 

coll , 353 

12-14. Laminella helvina Bald. No. 65712 A. N. S. P. . . 352 
15. Laminella helvina. Bald. No. 1987 Cooke coll 352 

PLATE 51. Laminella, 

1-3. Laminella venusta Migh. No. 57767 A. N. S. P. . . 347 

4. Laminella venusta Misrh. Xo. 1994 Cooke coll 347 

5. Laminella. venusta Migh. No. 57768 A. N. S. P. ... 347 



386 REFERENCE TO PLATES, VOL. XXI. 

FIGURE PAGE 

6-10. Laminella v. semivestita Pils. No. 92686 A. N. 

S. P 349 

11. Laminella v. orientalis Pils. Zoologica, pi. 8, f . 19 . . 350 

12. Laminella venusta High. Portland Society 349 

13-16. Laminella v. nmscaria Pils. No. 104716 A. N. 

S. P 349 

PLATE 52. Laminella. 

1, 2. Laminella alexandri Newc. No. 2131 Cooke coll. 341 
3, 4, 5. Laminella a, duoplicata Bald. No. 104692 A. N. 

S. P 342 

6, 7, 8. Laminella a. depict a. Var. Kamalo. No. 94- 

494 A. N. S. P : 345 

9. Laminella alexandri Newc. Amer. Journ. Conch. . . 341 

10. Laminella a. depicta Bald. No. 1999 Cooke coll. ... 345 

11. 12. Laminella kuhnsi Cooke. No. 16662 Bishop Mus. 343 
13-15. Laminella a. depicta Bald. Cotypes. No. 65711 

A. N. S. P 345 

16. Laminella a. depicta Bald. No. 104715 A. N. S. P. 345 

PLATE 53. Laminella, Maui. 
1-6. Laminella picta High. Lahaina. No. 92703 A. N. 

S. P 338 

7, 8. Laminella picta Var. 2132 Cooke coll 338 

9. Laminella picta High. A. N. S 338 

10-12. Laminella aspera Baldwin. Cotypes. 104693 A. 

N. S 344 

13-15. Laminella bulbosa Gul. Kula, A. N. S 340 

PLATE 54. Laminella, Lanai. 
1-7. Laminella tetrao Newc. Nos. 92679 and 57784 A. 

N. S. P 33 

8. Laminella t. gracilior Pils. A. N. S. P 335 

9. Laminella remyi Newc. No. 57774 A. N. S. P 335 

10, 11. Laminella concinna Newc. Nos. 57819 and 94493 

A. N. S. P 336 

12. Laminella -c. circumcincta Dall. No. 31404 U. S. Nat. 

Mus 337 

13. Laminella c. >circumcincta Dall. No. 2201 Cooke coll. 337 

PLATE 55. Laminella, Oahu. 

1. 4. Laminella gravida Fer. Palolo. 92600, 57702 A. 

N. S 327 

2. Laminella gravida Fer. Waialae. 128 Cooke coll. . . 327 

3. Laminella gravida Fer. Tantalus. 418 Cooke coll. 327 



REFERENCE TO PLATES, VOL. XXI. 387 

FIGURE PAGE 

5, 6. Laminella gravida suffusa Eve. (intermediate 

form) . Nuuanu. 693 and 1778 Cooke coU 328 

7. Laminella gravida suffusa Rve. Nuuanu. Cooke coll. 328 

8. Laminella gravida suffusa Rve. Conch. Icon., f . 11 .. 328 

9. Laminella sanguinea Fer. Wahiawa. 92621 A. N. S. 330 

10. Laminella straminea Rve. Tantalus. 423 Cooke coll. 329 

11. Laminella straminea Rve. Pauoa, 92606 A. N. S.. . 329 

12. Laminella sanguinea Fer. Waianas. 1775 Cooke coll. 330 

13. 14. Laminella sanguinea Fer. Ahonui. 92415 A. N. 

S 330 

15, 16. Laminella sanguinea Fer. Helemano. 92212 A. 

N. S 330 

PLATE 56. Embryonic Shells of Laminella. 

1. Laminella gravida Fer. Embryonic and first neanic 

whorl 327 

2. Laminella tetrao Nc. 51184 A. N. S 333 

3. Laminella c. helvina Bald. 65712 A. N. S fc . 352 

4. Laminella sanguinea. Fer. Ahonui. 92415 A. N. S. 330 

5. Laminella sanguinea Fer. Wahiawa. 92621 A. N. S. 330 

6. 8. Laminella pic to Fer. 92703 A. N. S 338 

7. Laminella c. semivenulata Borch. Early whorls 354 



Aehatinellidse 



PLATE 1 




16 






17 



18 



19 



Aehatinellidse 



PLATE 2 




37 




Achatinellidse 



PLATE 3 







60 



61 



Achatinellidee 



PLATE 4 




Aehatinellidse 



PLATE 8 




95 



96 



Achatinellidj 



PLATE 6 




Aeh&tinellidee 



PLATE 7 







v 




AehatineUidee 



PLATE 8 




63 



Achatinellidae 



PLATE 9 




8 



10 





13 




15 




Achatinellidee 



PLATE 1O 






/ 7 



9 i 





8 



10 




Achatinellidse 



PLATE 11 




>w 






11 



12 



Achatinellidse 



PLATE 12 




v, 



I 






\ 



. 




6 




Achatinellidse 



PLATE 13 




Achatinellidse 



PLATE 14 




13 



Achatinellidse 



PLATE 15 












16 



17 



18 



19 



Achatinellidae 



PLATE 










Achatinellidse 



PLATE 17 




Achatinellidse 



PLATE 18 




\ 




Achatinellidae 



PLATE 19 




8 



I Achat 



Achatinellidse 



PLATE 2O 
















II 



10 







13 



14 



15 



16 



Achatinellidse 



PLATE 21 









6 



8 








v 
11 





10 



13 



PLATE 22 




tinellidse 



PLATE 23 




Achatinellidae 



PLATE 24 




2 





PLATE 28 



. 











10 



PLATE 26 




8 






Li:^- 
11 



9 












10 






*v 

14 




itinellidse 



PLATE 27 






. 









11 



13 



: > 



17 






chatinellidse 




PLATE 28 




* 







8 



10 



11 



i 



12 




\ T 




13 



14 





16 



A 





17 



18 



* 




19 



20 





21 



Achatinellidse 



PLATE 29 




16 



Achatinellidse 





1 1 



PLATE 30 










17 




18 





10 




13 





15 




16 



"Ti 

^ 






19 








22 



23 



20 



Achatinellidae 



PLATE 31 




11 








* 




13 



15 



16 









8 



10 



l 



14 




19 



Achatinellidse 






3 4. 



PLATE 32 






13 



16 






17 





10 










15 



19 20 



21 



22 




Achatinellidee 



PLATE 33 



* I * 4 







8 





10 






11 



13 



14 






15 



17 



16 







18 



19 



20 21 



Achatinellicise 



PLATE 34 





M 

4 





10 




13 




17 




8 





11 






14 



15 





18r 



19 






Achatinellidae 



PLATE 38 









8 




10 





11 




13 




14 




15 




16 



17 





18 19 




20 



Achatinellicise 



PLATE 36 







Acha,tinellidse 



PLATE 37 













12 



10 



11 





14 





15 



16 








* 9 

13 



18 



19 



20 




Achatinelliclse 



PLATE 38 





PLATE 39 





8 





Lchatinellidse 



PLATE 4O 








11 






15 






9 




13 






10 




14 




Achatinellidse 



PLATE 41 







Achatinellidse 




PLATE 42 






^c 

7 














8 






11 



Achatinellidse 



PLATE 43 











18 



19 20 



Achatinellidae 



PLATE 44 




kchatinellidce 



PLATE 45 




Achatinellidse 




PLATE 46 







Achatinellidse 



PLATE 47 



-: 





9 









15 



16 



i 










10 








17. 



Achatinellidse 



PLATE 48 




\ 



Achatinellidae 



PLATE 49 

















8 




I 




Achatinellidse 



PLATE SO 






13 




15 



Lchatinellidse 



PLATE 81 




m 



p 

1*7 






8 




9 



A 






13 





10 




14 



11 



- J 



N- 

15 







16 



Achatinellidae 



PLATE 82 









15 



16 



Achatinellidse 



PLATE 83 




PLATE 84 




LO 



13 



Achatinellidse 



PLATE 88 









4 






a 




10 




ii 




12 






16 



\chatinellidae 



PLATE 86 




:: 







\i 










I IB 

'. *.?, .. 

I,."*... 



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8 




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