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Abidas and Chondrinas of the Pyrenees and 
the Iberian Peninsula, by Dr. F. Haas 

Published by the Conchological Department 



Henry A. Pilsbry J. Percy Moore 

Witmer Stone Milton J. Greenman 

William J. Fox Morgan Hebard 

TREASURER: S. Raymond Roberts 


Part 105, pp. 1-80, pi. 1-5, August 29, 1922 
Part 106, pp. 81-128, pi. 6-11, June 13, 1923 
Part 107, pp. 129-176, pi. 12-18, July 16, 1924 
Part 108, pp. 177-369, pi. 19-32, March, 1926 


Descriptive matter relating to Pupillidae is completed in the 
present volume. A summary of the anatomical structure and 
notes on the distribution will form part of the volume to 

In addition to many friends in Europe, America, Australia 
and Asia who gave material and information acknowledged in 
former volumes, I would here thank those who have contributed 
to this one. Dr. F. Haas of the Senckenberg Museum has 
given an admirable exposition of the Pyrenean Abidas and 
Chondrinas which makes amends for the inadequate treatment 
of these groups in volumes XXIV and XXV. Mr. P. Hesse 
of Venice generously lent unfigured types of various Orculae 
and Agardhiae from his collection. Dr. A. Wenz contributed 
catalogues of the Tertiary species of various European genera. 
Mr. J. R. Le Broeton Tomlin, Dr. V. Sterki, Dr. Bryant Walker 
and Professor T. D. A. Cockerell lent types and other speci- 
mens from their collections. Finally, my old friend and 
collaborator Dr. C. Montague Cooke, joined with me in supple- 
mental work on Hawaiian species. 

I wish also to express my appreciation of the work of Mr. 
E. G. Vanatta on the Index, and of Miss Helen Winchester, 
who drew the illustrations for this and the preceding volumes. 

Figures copied from other publications have been reproduced 
from the originals photographically, the sources being duly 
acknowledged in the Explanation of Plates. 

H. A. P. 



Family Pupillidae, subfamily Orculime 1 

Genus Orcula Held 1, 256, 319 

Genus Lauria Gray 43, 258, 320 

Subgenus Lauria proper 45 

Subgenus Leiostyla Lowe 67 

Caucasian and Transcaucasian species . 74 
Species of western Europe and north. 

Africa 83 

Species of Madeira 87 

Section Scarabella 88 

Section Leiostyla s. s 90 

Section Wollastonula 114 

Section Mastula 116 

Species of the Canary Islands 117 

Species of the Azores 121 

Section Leiostyla s. s 124 

Section Petrarca 122 

Section Azoripupa 127 

Genus Agardhia Gude 129 

Subgenus Paracoryna Flach 132, 320 

Subgenus Agardhia proper 135 

Subgenus Agardhiella Hesse 155, 320 

Subfamily Pagodulinin^ 166 

Genus Pagodulina Clessin 166, 320 

Genus Spel^eodiscus Brusina 180 

Subfamily Acanthinulinae 186 

Genus Spermodea Westerlund 186 

Genus Acanthinula Beck 183 

Genus Zoogenetes Morse 195 

Genus Acanthopupa "Wenz 198 

Supplement to volumes 24 to 27 

Key to American Gastrocopta 199 

Genus Hypselostoma Bens 211 

L I B R A R Y j 5] 



Genus Fauxulus Schauf 211 

Genus Abida Leach 212 

Genus Chondrina Reichenbach 212, 320 

Genus Granopupa Bttg 214 

Subfamily Vertigininse 

Genus Vertigo Miiller 216 

Genus Paraticula Oppenh 221 

Genus Glandicula Sandb 222 

Genus Enneopupa Bttg., 222 

Genus Lyropupa Pils 223 

Genus Ptychal^a Bttg 225 

Genus Nesopupa Pils 226 

Genus Pupisoma Stol 228 

Genus Bothriopupa Pils 228 

Genus Truncatellina Lowe 229 

Genus Negulus Bttg 231 

Genus Columella Westerl 232 

Subfamily Pupillinse 

Genus Pupoedes Pfr 248 

Genus Pupilla Leach 253 

Subfamily Orculinse 

Genus Orcula Held 256 

Genus Lauria Gray 258, 320 

Uncertain or non-pupillid species 260 

Genus Phenacharopa Pils 260 

Appendix I. The Abidas and Chondrinas of the Pyrenees 

and the Iberian Peninsula, by F. Haas 267 

Appendix II. Palaeozoic Pupillidae (?) 316 

Genus Anthracopupa Whitf 316 

Genus Maturipupa Pils 317 

Genus Dendropupa Owen 317 

Genus Strophites Daws 319 

Addenda 319 

Explanation of Plates 321 

Index to Volumes 24 to 27 333 


Subfamily Orculin^;. 

Genus ORCULA Held. 

Orcula Held, Isis, 1837, p. 919.— Gray, P. Z. S., 1817, p. 
176, and Herrmannsen, Indicis, ii, p. 158, type P. dolium. 

Spkyradium "Agassiz", Charpentier, Cat. Moll. Suisse, in 
Nouv. Mem. Soc. Helvet. Sci. Nat., i, 1837, p. 15. — Martens, 
Die Heliceen, 1860, p. 295, type Pupa doliolum. 

Pupula "Leach" Moerch, Catal. Yoldi, 1852, p. 34. Pupa 
dolium here selected as type. Not of Charpentier, 1837. 

Scyphus "Monterosato", Caziot and Margier, Bull. Soc. 
Zool. France, 1909, p. 141. Orcula doliolum here selected as 

Pilorcula Germain, Bull. Mus. Nat, d'Hist. Nat., 1912, p. 
448, for Pupa raymoncli; Voy. Kerville: Moll. terr. et nuv. 
Syrie, 1921, p. 328. 

The shell is eylindric or cylindric-conic, riniate and some- 
times perforate, compact, the first whorl smooth, second 
generally microscopically striate spirally; following whorls 
slowing increasing, striate or with epidermal riblets. Peri- 
stome varying from barely expanded to reflected, generally 
thickened within. The parietal lamella enters deeply; an- 
gular lamella small and tubercular or wanting. Columellar 
and supra-columcllar lamelkc developed, at least inside, and 
either emerging to the peristome or immersed ; sometimes 
other short lamella? on the columella, and in some species 
there is a lower-palatal fold, visible in the aperture or deeply 
immersed, subventral. The parietal and columellar lamella? 
arise at the beginning of the neanic stage and are absorbed 
behind as growth proceeds, finally remaining in the last one 
or tAvo whorls only. 

Type: 0. dolium (Brug.). Distribution: France to Trans- 
caucasia and northern Persia; Tunis and Abyssinia. Fossil 
in Eocene of Europe to the Pliocene of Algeria and Italy. 


Though the number of species is small, about 15, over 80 
names have been applied to forms of one kind or another, 
hence the length of this monograph. A large proportion of 
the varietal names are not valid, being homonyms; but since 
the taxonomic values are uncertain, the correction of nomen- 
clature is left to European conchologists. 

The description of Orcula tingitana Pallary, Bull. Hist. 
Nat. Afric. Nord, 1818, p. 149, is not accessible to me. 

Reinhardt (Jahrb. d. m. Ges., 1877, p. 280) has described 
the lamellae of the early stages of 0. doliolum. A resume of 
his description follows. 

The embryonic shell of 0. doliolum (pi. 5, fig. 1) has l 1 /^ 
whorls and is smooth, but under high magnification it shows 
close spiral striation on the upper side, which ceases abruptly 
with the embryonic whorls, to give place to transverse ribs. 
The lower side is smooth. Whether lamellas are present at 
this stage was not ascertained, but none was seen through the 
shell. In the following ribbed stage the ribs run out into 
spines at the keel, as in A. aculeata, giving the young an ex- 
tremely beautiful appearance ; they continue on the base and 
gradually disappear towards the umbilicus. There is a sharp 
thread median on the parietal wall, running far in and show- 
ing through the shell. It usually appears as if interrupted, 
with thickened white points, "knot-points", on the angles 
(pi. 5, fig. 2). In one with 2 whorls, only the last half -whorl 
ribbed, there are 2 knot-points. With the 3-whorled stage a 
new thread, the columellar lamella, appears. There are there- 
fore two threads, a parietal with 3 knot-points, and a sharp, 
horizontal lamellar without knots (pi. 5, fig. 3). With fur- 
ther growth the columellar lamella grows higher. The supra- 
columellar appears weakly at the 41/o-whorl stage, and be- 
comes distinct at 5 whorls. As the shell grows into the Pupa 
form, the knots disappear. In the adult shell all of the 
lamellas of the earlier whorls have disappeared. 

The presence of a lower-palatal fold, so far immersed that 
it is subventral in position, was noticed by Bernhardt (1880) 
but by no other author. Westerlund, indeed, doubted its 
reality, thinking that what Reinhardt saw was the parietal 


lamella shining through (Fauna, iii, 87). From the occur- 
rence of this fold in at least two unrelated stocks, 0. gularis 
and various forms included in or related to 0. scyphus, it 
would appear to be an ancestral structure now disappearing. 
The species are often not strongly differentiated, but some 
characters of value are to be found in the details of structure 
of the lamella? within the last whorl. Unfortunately, nothing 
of this has been noticed by previous authors. 

Tertiary Species. 

Dr. W. Wenz of Frankfurt has contributed a catalogue of 
Tertiary Orculse. 

Orcula oviformis (Michaud). Pupa oviformis Michaud, 
Actes Soc. Linn. Bordeaux, x, 1838, p. 157, pi., fig. 5a, b. — 
Vertigo oviformis Cossmann, Cat. ill. coq. foss. env. Paris, 
iv, 1889, p. 361. Palasocene, Thanetien : Billy near Reims; 
Sparnacien : Bernon near Epernay. 

Orcula plateaui (Cossmann). Pupa (Orcula) plateaui 
Cossmann, Cat. ill. coq. foss. env. Paris, iv, in Ann. Soc. Roy. 
Malac. Belgique, XXIV, 1889, p. 360, pi. 11, fig. 34. Lower 
Palasocene, Thanetien: Chenay (Dep. Marne). 

Orcula subconica (Sandberger). PL 4, fig. 10. Pupa 
(Pupilla) subconica Sandberger, Die Conchylien d. Mainzer 
Tertiarbeckens, 1858, p. 51, pi. 5, fig. 7, pi. 35, fig. 11.— 
Slavtk, Archiv d. naturwiss. Landesdurchforsch. von Boh- 
men, 1869, i, 2, p. 272. — Pupa (Orcula) subconica Sandberger, 
Die Land- u. Siisswasser- Conchylien d. Vorwelt, 1874, pp. 394, 
438, pi. 23, figs. 8-86. — Orcula subconica Boettger, Jahrb. 
Nassau. Ver. f. Naturk. Wiesbaden, xlii, 1889, pp. 238, 241, 
319. Upper Oligoeene, Chattien: Landschneckenkalk, Hoch- 
heim. Lower Miocene, Burdigalien: Landschneckenkalk, Tu- 
chorschitz, Bohemia. Pupa doUum antiquum A. Braun, Verh. 
Naturf. Vers. Mainz, 1842, p, 149, no description, is said to be 
this species. 

This early Orcula is, as Sandberger observed, similar in 
form to the recent 0. conica (Em.). Subequal columellar and 
supracolumellar lamella? emerge to the peristome, and within 


the back are strong and subequal. Below them is an infra- 
coluniellar which does not penetrate. The parietal lamella is 
a whorl long, and the angular tubercle is well developed. 
The shell is apparently of quite as modern type as some of 
the recent Alpic species. The specimen figured is from the 
Landschneckenkalk of Hochheim-Florsheim. 

Orcula amblya (Bourg.). Pupa amblya Bourguignat, 
Paleont. Moll. Algerie, 1862, p. 75, pi. 4, f . 11-13. Pliocene ? 
Oued Tademit, 15 leagues southwest of Djelfa, Algeria. A 
species probably near 0. doliolum, 9-12 mm. long, 2-2.7 wide, 
of 10-12 whorls. The parietal lamella is rather small; no 
columellar folds mentioned or figured, therefore evidently 
deeply immersed. 

0. dolium var. pliopedemontana Sacco, I Moll, terreni 
Terziarii del Piemonte, pt. 22, 1897, p. 69, from the Upper 
Pliocene, Astien, at Fossano, is insufficiently described as 
having more distinct ribs, the columellar teeth quite high, 
produced towards the aperture. No figure; the reference to 
ribs is ambiguous in this species. 

The Recent European species of Orcula are mostly well 
known, and readily distinguishable by external characters, 
but much remains to be done in systematizing the subspecific 
forms and determining which have racial value. Some of the 
Asiatic species, such as scyphus and sirianocoriensis, appear 
to be more or less heterogeneous aggregates impossible to 
systematize until a comparative study of the internal struc- 
ture can be made. 

The species are so connected that no well-defined subgenera 
can be based on shell-characters. Three sections may be dis- 
tinguished thus: 

Outer lip reflected: Section Sphyradium 'Ag.' Charp. (in- 
cluded in paragraphs 7, 8, 10-12 of the key following). 
Outer lip merely expanded more or less, generally thickened 
Having a series of bristles at the upper third of each 
whorl (frequently wanting) ; internal lamellae ex 
tremely broad : Section Pilorcula Germain. 
Without such bristles: Section Orcula proper. 


European Species (exclusive of Caucasus region). 

Lip more or less expanded, not reflected ; shell riinate 

and perforate (2) 
Lip reflected; shell rimate, imperforate (7) 

A white palatal callus a short distance within the outer 
lip, with or without an entering lower-palatal fold. 

2 ^ 0. gularis, no. 2 
Inner margin of lip calloused or not; no palatal fold 


' Parietal and columellar lamella? very much enlarged 
within the last whorl, and emerging to edge of 

3 ^ peristome (4) 
Parietal and columellar lamellae only moderately or not 

enlarged within last whorl (5) 

Shell having irregularly-spaced epidermal riblets ; about 

6.5 x 3.5 mm. 0. jetschini, no. 5 

Finely striate ; 5 to 6 x 2.8 mm. 0. conica, no. 3 

With fine, sharp, largely epidermal striae; thin, ovate; 
aperture indistinctly triangular. 0. schmidti, no. 4 

Striate, without epidermal threads; aperture truncate- 
oval, broadly rounded basally (6) 

Parietal and columellar lamellae penetrating inward to 
or beyond the ventral side. 

0. dolium and varieties, no. 1 
Lamellae much shorter; loess of Germany and Austria. 

0. d. plagiostoma, no. le 

Parietal lamella low and short, no columellar lamellae 
visible ; 6.5 x 3 mm., 9-10 whorls. 0. bidgarica, no. 8 
Parietal lamella entering deeply (8) 

Having spaced epidermal riblets when well preserved; 

parietal lamella not much enlarged within. 

0. doliolum, no. 6 
Finely striatulate ; parietal lamella high and flaring 

outward within ; Greece. 0. s. grcocus, no. 12e 

8 \ 



Species of Asia and Africa. 

Peristome reflected (10) 

Peristome from slightly to well expanded, more or less 
thickened within (13) 

f Perforate, compressed around the base; aperture an- 
gular below, parietal callus very strong ; 10 x 4 mm. 
1 0. robust a, no. 11 

I Imperforate; not angular basally ; smaller (11) 

Having spaced epidermal riblets when well preserved ; 
no palatal fold within; 4.5 to 6.5 mm. long (12) 

Finely striate without spaced riblets; lip strongly cal- 
loused within ; a very deeply immersed palatal fold. 
0. s. batumensis and allies, no. 12d 

{ Early whorls conspicuously convex, overhanging the 
19 I suture. Abyssinia. 0. imbricata, no. 7 

j Whorls moderately convex. Smyrna, Alexandria. 

O. d. turcica, no. 6b 



Small, 2.5 to 6 mm. long; less than 3 wide; lamelhe 
enormously enlarged within ; shell sometimes bristly. 
O. raymondi and varieties, no. 14 
I Larger, 7-12 mm. long, 3-5 wide (14) 


Broad, diam. about 4.5 to 5 mm. (15) 
Narrower, diam. about 3 to 3.5 mm. (16) 

A long, immersed lower-palatal fold. Aleppo. 

O. moussoni, no. 13 
j No palatal fold (in forms examined). Cyprus, Syria. 

0. sirianocoriensis and varieties, no. 10 

Sinistral ; 7.5 x 3.5 mm. Adana, Cilicia. 
16 -j 0. s. heterostropha, no. 12a 

Dextral (17) 

17 1 


r Base well rounded ; no palatal fold ; lamellae very strong 
within. Upper Mesopotamia. 0. mesopotamica, no. 9 
Eight margin of peristome thickened, tooth-like within ; 
9x3 mm., 11 whorls. Brussa, Asia Minor. 

0. scyphus, no. 12 
Last whorl tapering, compressed below; a long lower- 
palatal fold ; 8.2 x 3.2 mm., 9y 2 whorls. Sert, Kur- 
distan. 0. s. palatalis, no. 125 

1. Orcula dolium (Drap.). PL 1, figs. 1, 2, 3, 4. 

The shell is deeply rimate, perforate, cylindric with short, 
conic summit and somewhat obtuse apex; russet or somewhat 
lighter, with a white area behind the lip ; glossy ; finely, 
irregularly striate. Whorls slightly convex, the last slowly 
ascending towards the aperture. Aperture truncate-oval, ver- 
tical, the peristome white, slightly expanded, thickened 
within. Parietal lamella entering spirally nearly one whorl, 
not reaching the edge of the thin parietal callus. Columella 
bearing two rather low lanielke which are visible in direct 
front view but do not reach the peristome; these are sub- 
equal, or the lower one may be slightly stronger or more 
emergent. They ascend inward somewhat more than one 

Length 6.8, diam. 3.4 mm. ; 8VL> whorls. Lyons. 

Length 5.6, diam. 3.2 mm.; 8y 2 whorls. Lyons. 

Middle and lower Rhone valley and Maritime Alps to the 
Carpathians; a subspecies extending northward in loess of 
the Rhine valley, another in Greece. 

Pupa dolium Draparnaud, Tabl. Moll. France, 1801, p. 58 ; 
Hist. Moll. Fr., p. 62, pi. 3, f . 43.— Pfeiffer, Monogr., ii, 325 ; 
iii, 540; viii, 368 (see for older references). — Rossmaessler, 
Icon., pt. 5, p. 17, f . 330, 331. — Reinhardt, Sitzber. Ges. 
naturf. Freunde Berlin, 1880, p. 18 (distribution). — Branc- 
sik, Jahresheft Trencsiner Comitates, x, 1887, p. 81, pi. 1, 
f. 11-19, with var. titan, forms obesa, cylindrica, curta; var. 
minima, with forms obesa, cylindrica, curta. 

Orcula "doliformis Bruguiere," Locard, Conchyl. Fran- 
chise, les Coq. Terr, de France, 1894, p. 322, figs. 450-1. 


Orcula dolium Drap., Kobelt, Rossm. Iconographie n. F., 
viii, p. 76, pi. 262, f. 1499-1501 (references and varieties). 

A somewhat strong shell, without epidermal threads, and 
having the lamellae only moderately enlarged within. In the 
eastern Alps and beyond, it has numerous varieties. Many 
mutations, local forms and races have been named, but as yet 
not systematized. Mutations with the characters assigned to 
major, minor, quadriplicata, and the like, doubtless arose 
independently many times. 

Terver found albino specimens near Lyons. He included 
them with colored ones in a lot sent to us, and probably they 
occurred in mixed colonies. However, Locard states that 
"cette jolie variete constituait une veritable colonie aux en- 
virons de Lyon au Vernay," which he says appears to have 
disappeared now (1880), or at least it has not been redis- 
covered. There is a beautiful albino from Styria in the B. 
"Walker collection. Moquin-Tandon, 1855, has named a var. 
minor, shell smaller. 

The following are described as "variations" in A. Locard 's 
Etudes sur les Variations Malacologiques du Bassin du 
Rhone, i, 1880, pp. 256, 265. Major: shell 7-8 mm. long, of 
regular, cylindric shape, elongate and not ovoid, not very 
ventricose, with one or two columellar lamellae. Rare, en- 
virons of Lyons. Globulosa: shell 6-7 mm. long, but perfectly 
ovoid, globulose, ventricose, with two columellar lamellae. 
Not very common. Isere, Savoy. Quadriplicata: shell as in 
the type, but with 3 columellar lamellae, (the two first quite 
strong, the third rudimentary but readily visible. Environs 
of Lyons. 

In the Kotlina valley and other places in the "Hohen 
Tatra," northern Carpathians, Hazay found three forms: 

(1) long and slender, 8 mm. long, 2% broad, forma gracilis; 

(2) low, broad, 5 to 6 mm. long, 2y 2 wide, forma tumida; 

(3) a form intermediate in shape, 8x4 mm., to be regarded 
as typical {Hazay, Jahrb. D. M. Ges., xii, 1885, p. 31). These 
forms need comparison with those denned from the Tatra by 
Clessin and Brancsik in 1887. 

orcula. y 

Orcula dolium var. triplicata 'Brancsik' Clessin. PL 1, fig. 
6. Shell broader and larger; columellar folds 3, a somewhat 
smaller third one being interposed between the first and 
second. Length 9, diam. 2y 2 to 3 mm. Upper Hungary at 
Trencsin-Teplitz (Clessin, Molluskenfauna, 1887, p. 235, fig. 
138). This is the mutation called quadriplicata by Locard 
and Westerlund, occasionally occurring individually in some 
colonies of dolium. 

"Westerlund defines the following in his Fauna, iii, 1887, p. 
84. Form major: Length 9 to 10, diam. 3y 2 to 3% mm. 
Hungary. Obesa: 8x4 mm. Hungary. Par Westerl. : both 
columellar lamella? strong and produced forward to the mar- 
gin equally strongly. No locality mentioned. Cebratica 
"Westerl. : With two closely contiguous parietal lamella?, the 
inner one smaller and less emerging. Cebrat Mt. (Jetschin). 

The following forms from the Tatra were defined by 
Brancsik, Jahresheft Trencsiner Comitates, x, 1887, p. 81; as 
I have not seen this publication, the descriptions are taken 
from Kobelt's Iconographie, n. ser., vol. 8. 

Var. titan Branc. With considerably widened umbilical 
perforation, more strongly striate, with conspicuously more 
robust figure; with form obesa (pi. 1, fig. 4) higher and 
broader, generally widest at base, length up to 11 mm., of 10 
to 10Vo whorls. Also forms curta and cylindrica. 

Var. minima Branc. With noticeably reduced upper colu- 
mellar fold, relatively strong peristome and strong callus, 
distinct striation and deeper suture; with forms obesa, cylin 
drica and curta. 

Pupa dolium var. cylindrica Fitzinger, Beitrage zur Landes- 
kunde Oesterreich's, iii, 1833, p. 108, no description. 

la. Orcula dolium pfeifferi (Moq.). PI. 1, figs. 8, 9. 

The shell is similar to dolium except that there is a single 
lamella on the columella. Within the last whorl the parietal 
lamella is very low, though about a whorl long, and on the 
axis only one columellar lamella; the supracolumellar being 
wholly wanting or represented by an inconspicuous swelling. 

Length 6.8, diam. 3.3 mm. ; 8^ whorls. Grenoble, type loc. 

Length 7, diam. 3.2 mm. ; 8% whorls. Schwartzenberg am 

Grenoble and Lyons, France; Switzerland. 


Pupa dolium var. pfeifferi Moquin-Tandon, Moll. France, 
ii, 1855, p. 385, not Pupa pfeifferi Krauss. 

Differs from uniplicata P. & M. by the stouter, normal 
shape of the shell, but perhaps intergrades with it. In a lot 
from Grenoble there are some with a very weak supracolu- 
mellar lamella, and also typical dolium. 

lb. Orciila dolium uniplicata Pot. et Mich. PI. 1, fig. 7. 

Generally not so large as dolium, and differing by its more 
cylindric and more lengthened shape. It has only one fold 
on the columella. The strias are finer and the epidermis more 
glossy. High mountains of the Austrian Alps (P. & M.). 
The figure measures, length 8, diam. 2.8 mm. 

Pup. uniplicata Potiez et Michaud, Galerie des Moll. Douai, 
i, 1838, p. 176, pi. 17, f. 13, 14. 

This is evidently a slender, glossy race of the eastern Alps. 
It is probably an error to apply the name uniplicata to pfeif- 
feri Moq., also having a single columellar lamella, but a less 
lengthened shell. 

lc. Orcula dolium brancsikii Clessin. PI. 1, fig. 10. 

Shell rimate, cylindric-conic, very long, with rather pointed 
apex; finely, irregularly striate, brown in color, translucent. 
Whorls 11, very slowly and regularly increasing, separated 
by a moderately deep suture, the last whorl composing a fifth 
of the shell's length. Aperture semi-ovate, with an arcuate 
parietal tooth and a columellar fold in about the middle of 
the columella. Peristome expanded and somewhat reflected, 
weakly thickened and white. Length 8, diam. 2.8 mm. 

Upper Hungary at Manin in the Comitate Trencsin 

Orcula brancsikii Cless., Molluskenf. Oesterreich-Ungarns u. 
d. Schweiz, 1887, p. 236, f. 139. — Pupa dolium var. elongata 
Brancsik on label, according to Clessin. — Pupa dolium var. 
kimakowiczi Brancsik, Jahresheft Trencsiner Comitates, x, 
1887, p. 81, with forms elongata and curia (not seen by H. 
A. P.). — Orcula dolium var. [brancsiki] Kobelt, Rossm. Icon., 
viii, p. 77, pi. 232, f. 1499. 



Branesik stated that he possessed all intergrades between 
this lengthened race and the typical dolium. The figure is 
copied from Kobelt, and represents a specimen from Branesik. 

Id. Orcula dolium pseudogularis Wagner. 

Shell strikingly slender-cylindric, with, thin, weakly-lipped 
peristome and often weak but always present upper columel- 
lar fold. Length 8, diam. 3 to 3.4 mm. (Wagner). 

Lower Austria: Cliffs of the Tuerkensturz at Gleissenfeld 
in the Pittental. 

Orcula dolium pseudogularis Anton Wagner, Verh. zool.- 
bot, Ges. Wien, lxii, 1912, p. 252. 

The similar Orcula dolium kimakowiczi Branesik = Orcula 
brancsiki Clessin, from the Manin gorge in northern Hungary 
also has a slender spire, which however tapers conically from 
the middle on; a strongly lipped, more expanded peristome, 
and also the upper columellar fold is constantly wanting 
(Wagner) . Compare uniplicata P. & M. 

le. Orcula dolium plagio stoma ('Braun' Sandb.). PI. 1, figs. 
12, 13. 

"Mostly smaller than the typical form, and having on the 
columella either only one lamella or none. 

"Length 6-7, diam. 2y 2 -3 mm." (Sandberger) . 

Length 6, diam. 2.8 mm.; 8y 2 whorls (fig. 13) 

The small parietal lamella penetrates hardly half a whorl, 
and diminishes within. The low or obsolete columellar lamella 
is also short, not appearing on the axis within the last whorl. 
Umbilical perforation is small. 

Mid-Pleistocene of many places from Alsace to Austria and 

Pupa dolium (var. plagiostoma) Al. Braun, Amtlicher 
Bericht xx Versamml. Ges. deutscher Naturf. u. Aerzte zu 
Mainz, 1842, p. 143 (1843), name only. — Sandberger, Vor- 
welt, p. 878, pi. 36, f. 21 (1875). 

The degeneration of the lamellae, especially striking when 
the shell is opened (fig. 12), seems to indicate specific dis- 
tinction for this form ; yet as only a single lot from the loess 
is before me, the range of variation and possible intergrada- 


tion with dolium cannot be gauged. It is a problem for Ger- 
man and Austrian conchologists who have long series of speci- 

Sandberger, while figuring and describing the loess form, 
also referred to plagiostoma certain recent shells from some 
places in the Alps of Austria, Bavaria, Lombardy, Switzer- 
land and France (Grenoble). Part of these probably belong 
to the var. uniplicata P. & M. ; others certainly to var. pfeifferi 
Moq. This differs from plagiostoma by having the shape of 
typical dolium, and by the much stronger development of 
the lamella? within the last whorl. I do not think them con- 
nected racially with the loess form. 

In the loess, plagiostoma occurs as a pure race in, as well 
as northward beyond, territory where the typical dolium is 
found living. It is less elongate than the recent var. unipli- 
cata P. & M., though often longer than the loess specimen 

Orcida dolium var. implicata 'Brancsik' Clessin. PI. 1, fig. 
5. Columellar folds indistinct, almost entirely wanting. Upper 
Hungary in the Comitate Trencsin at Vratna. (Clessin, Die 
Mollusken fauna Oesterreich-Ungarns u. der Schweiz, 1887, p. 
234, fig. 136.) It may be surmised that this form is racially 
identical with plagiostoma- Sandb., 1875. 

1/. Orcula doUum transversalis (West.). 

Shell umbilicate-perforate, obese, cylindric, the upper three 
whorls forming an extremely short cone. Nine to ten very 
slowly increasing, transverse, slightly convex whorls, separated 
by an impressed suture, everywhere horizontal except at the 
last whorl where it ascends; the last whorl short, dilated 
above at the aperture, basally rounded. Aperture small, sub- 
semioval, at base outwardly narrowed, columellar margin 
somewhat straightened, vertical; lamellae as in dolium, all 
marginal; peristome straight, acute, simple, connected by a 
wide parietal callus. Length 6%, diam. 2y 2 mm. (West.). 

Greece: Tschumerka, Mt. Pindus (Th. Krueper). 

Pupa (Orcula) transversalis Westerlund, Nachrichtsbl. d. 
malak. Ges., xxvi, Oct. 1894, p. 171. 


Hitherto no form of dolium has been found on the Balkan 
Peninsula, and this is so different from the type that one 
feels impelled to consider it a distinct species. It differs by 
its thick, entirely cylindric form (in dolium at least 5 upper 
whorls form a lengthened cone, or the whole spire is almost 
conic) ; by the more slowly increasing whorls, quite trans- 
versely placed, with horizontal suture, giving the shell a 
peculiar appearance, and by the small aperture with quite 
straight, simple lip, etc. (West.). 

2. Orcula gularis (Rossm.). PI. 1, fig. 14. 

The shell is minutely perforate, deeply rimate, cylindric, 
passing at the upper third into a convexly conic summit; 
chestnut brown, glossy, weakly, irregularly striate. Whorls 
slightly convex, the last slightly swollen and cream-white be- 
hind the lip, ascending a little to the aperture. Aperture 
truncate-oval, the peristome thin, very little expanded, pale 
brownish. Parietal lamella thin but high, emerging nearly 
to the edge of the thin parietal callus, and entering to the 
ventral side. Columellar lamella rather strong, not emerging 
to the lip ; above it a smaller, more deeply placed supra- 
columellar lamella, visible only in an oblique view in the 
aperture, or sometimes wholly immersed. A short distance 
within the outer and basal margins there is a strong ivhite 
callus, inwardly running into an entering lower-palatal fold, 
strong or weak. 

Length 6.5, diam. 2.6 mm. ; 9 whorls. 

Mountains of Carinthia, Carniola, southern Tirol, Steier- 
mark; type locality on the Loibl, in Carinthia, at about 3000 
ft,, on limestone blocks in turf of alpine plants, chiefly Globu 
laria cordifolkv (Rossmaessler). 

Pupa gularis Rossmaessler, Iconographie, i, pt. 5, 1837, p. 
17, pi. 23, f . 333 ; with var. spoliata Rm., p. 18, pi. 23, f . 334. 
— Pfr., Monogr., ii, 326; viii, 368. — Kuester, Ber. nat. Ges. 
Bamberg, x, 1875, p. 58. — Reinhardt, Jahrb. d. m. Ges., 1877, 
p. 282, footnote (armature of young) ; Sitzungsber. Ges. 
naturf. Freunde, Berlin, 1880; p. 20 (distribution). — Orcula 
gularis Rossm., Tschapeck, Nachrbl. d. m. Ges., xix, 1887, p. 


79 (Grimming, Alpe Lawinenstein, cliffs of Altausseer Lake, 

Pupa pollonerce Pini, Atti. Soc. Italiana di Sci. Nat., xxvii, 
1884, p. 79, fig. (Val di Non, Tirol) ; cf. Gredler, Nackrbl. d. 
m. Ges., xvii, 1885, p. 38 (as a synonym of P. gularis var. 
spoliata) . 

Distinguished by the palatal callus, from which, except in 
var. spoliata, a lower-palatal fold runs inward. It is usually 
more slender than other species of the region. 

0. gularis in the young stage has lamellae, that of the pari- 
etal wall showing knots exactly as in 0. doliolum, according 
to Reinhardt. 

2a. 0. gularis restituta (Westerlund). 

Two columellar lamella? long, strong, parallel, running to 
themargn. Carinthia, Feestritz valley at Stein {Westerlund, 
Fauna, iii, 1887, p. 85). 

2b. 0. gularis spoliata (Rossni.). PL 1, fig. 15. 

No palatal fold; neck more swollen (Bossm.). 

Tyrol Alps (Rossm.) ; Val di Non, Nonsberg, Tyrol, for P. 
pollonercc). Central Carpathians. Galizian side of the Tatra, 
Rosenberg and other places in the Waag valley (Reinhardt). 

A specimen from Dennberg, Tyrol, received from the Boett- 
ger collection, is figured. It is but slightly swollen behind 
the aperture, and measures, length 5.3, diam. 2.6 mm., 8^ 

Gredler has shown that P. pollonerce Pini is identical with 

2c. Orcula gularis pseudodolium "Wagner. 

Shell larger, more ventricose, more strongly striate than in 
the typical form from Carinthia, and thus strikingly recalling 
Orcula dolium. Also the upper columellar fold is stronger, 
emerging further, and also distinctly visible in a direct view 
in the aperture ; often as strongly developed as in 0. dolium 
Drap. The palatal callus is as strong as in 0. gularis spoliata 
R., but with a short, fold-like extension; the peristome more 
expanded. Length 7, diam. 3 to 3.5 mm. (Wagner). 


Upper Austria : Feucbtenauer Aim am Hochseugsengebirge 
bei Winclischgarsten. 

Orcula gularis pseudodolium Anton Wagner, Verh. k.-k. 
zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, lxii, 1912, p. 252. 

2d. Orcula gularis tolminensis Wagner. 

Shell smaller, darker reddish-brown, with weak, often 
nearly obsolete columellar folds, which are not visible in a 
direct front view in the aperture. The strong palatal callus 
has a very long, fold-like extension [lower-palatal fold], 
which reaches over a half-whorl to the umbilical crevice. 
Length 5.5, diam. 2.3 mm. 

Italy: At the waterfall Pericnik at Tolmein in the Isonzo 

Orcula gularis tolminensis Anton Wagner, Verh. k.-k. zool.- 
bot. Ges. Wien, lxii, p. 253. 

3. Orcula conica (Rossm.). PI. 1, figs. 16. 

The shell is perforate, ovate-conic, ventricose, thin, horn- 
brown, very finely striate, slightly glossy, scarcely trans- 
lucent. Whorls 9, very slowly increasing, strongly convex ; 
suture deep. Neck but little swollen. The aperture is ob- 
liquely semi-ovate, somewhat triangular. Peristome somewhat 
expanded, simple, sharp. On the parietal wall one, on the 
columella two lamelke (Rossm.). 

Length 5.5, diam. 2.8 mm. ; 9 whorls. 

Steiermark; Illyria; Schottwien to Laibach, especially 
Klagenfurt (Rossmaessler) ; Friaul at Mernicco, Croatia at 
Podsused and at the waterfall at Plitvice (Reinhardt). Ka- 
pellengebirge, southern Croatia (Reitter). 

Pupa conica Rossmaessler, Iconographie, i, pt. 5, 1837, p. 
17, pi. 23, fig. 332. — Ppr., Monogr., ii, 325. — Kuester, Con- 
chyl. Cab., p. 23, pi. 3, f. 13, 14. — Reinhardt, S. B. Ges. 
naturf. Freunde, Berlin, 1880, p. 19. — Boettger, Bericht 
Offenbacher Ver. Naturk., 1880, p. 109. — Orcula conica Cles- 
sln, Molluskenfauna Oesterreich-Ungarns, p. 238, fig. 141 (de- 
tails of distribution). 

In this species the upper half is strongly conic, the last 



whorl very short, not dilated below towards the aperture, but 
the suture ascends strongly near its termination. The whole 
shell is quite thin. The lip is slightly expanded, without in- 
ternal callus. The thin, high parietal lamella emerges to the 
edge of the thin parietal callus. Inside it becomes wider, 
flaring, with somewhat waved free edge, penetrating to the 
ventral side. The columellar lamella emerges to the peri- 
stome and is strong within the last whorl on the left side. 
The supracolumellar lamella is weaker and shorter. 

In specimens seen the length varies from 5 to 6 mm. It is 
sometimes a little narrower and more cylindric than in the 
shell figured. 

4. Orcula schmidtii (Kuester). PI. 1, fig. 11. 

The shell is ovate-conic or shortly cylindric, very obtuse, 
broad above, with a dull luster, very finely ribbed, the riblets 
oblique and epidermal, as in P. doliolwm. The umbilicus is 
round and deep. The 8-9 whorls are slightly convex, very 
low, increasing only very gradually in height and united by 
a simple, impressed suture. Aperture rather large, semi- 
ovate, nearly rounded-triangular. Peristome sharp, only 
slightly expanded, scarcely thickened, sometimes connected 
with the very large oblique parietal lamella by a very thin 
callus. Columella with two horizontal folds, the upper one 
generally larger. Of a corneous brownish-red, the apex 
paler ; aperture dirty flesh-color, peristome and lamellae white. 
Length 1.8 to 2.5, diam. 1.33 lines (Kuester). 

Length 5.2, diam. 3 mm. ; 8% whorls. 

Montenegro: Cettinge, under stones on limestone cliffs 
(Kuester, June, 1842) ; Western Montenegro (Reitter). 

Pupa schmidtii Kuester, Syst. Conch. Cabinet, Pupa, , 

p. 26, pi. 3, f. 20-23 ; Ber. nat. Ges. Bamberg, ix, 1870, p. 98. 
— Pfr., Monographia, ii, 327. — Orcula schmidti Boettger, 
Bericht Offenbacher Ver. Naturkunde, 1880, p. 109. 

The parietal lamella becomes low within the ventral part 
of the last whorl, both columellars being strongly developed 

This rare species is smaller than 0. dolium, more strongly 


sculptured, with stronger, more emerging columellar lamella, 
and without a callus within the outer lip. It is less conic 
than 0. conica, and differs by its epidermal riblets, but this 
is the most closely related species. Figured from a specimen 
from the Boettger collection. 

5. Orcula jetschini Kim. PI. 2, figs. 10, 11. 

Shell perforate, somewhat swollen-cylindric, yellowish- 
brown, often with a reddish tint, dully shining, with more or 
less separated cuticular riblets. Summit bluntly conic, nearly 
hemispherical. The 9 convex whorls increase slowly but reg- 
ularly in width, and are separated by a rather deep suture. 
Aperture somewhat inclined to the axis, truncate-ovate, with 
three folds: the largest on the parietal wall, two emerging to 
the margin on the columella. Peristome somewhat expanded, 
chiefly on the columellar margin, with a white thickening 
within. Length 6y 2 to 7, diam. 3y 2 to 3% mm. (Kim.). 

Transylvania, restricted to the southwestern part: Vajda- 
Hunyad and Bad Gyogy (Kiinakowicz), Judenberg near 
Zalatna (Jickeli). Cerna valley at Mehadia in the Banat 

Orcula jetschini M. v. Kimakowicz, Verh. u. Mitth. Siebenb. 
Ver. naturwiss. im Hermannstadt, xxxiii, 1883, p. 44; also 
xxxix, 1889, p. 98. — Clessin, Molluskenfauna Oesterreichs, 
etc., p. 237, f. 140. 

0. jetschini is related to 0. conica, both having the parietal 
and columellar lamellae very broadly expanded within; but 
jetschini has an irregularly-ribbed surface, while conica is 
finely striate, like dolium. 0. schmidti has closer, finer epi- 
dermal riblets, and the lamellae are less enlarged within, the 
supracolumellar being nearly as large as the columellar. 

When young 0. jetschini is plastered with dirt both above 
and below; on the early whorls this layer projects over the 

The specimens figured are from near Mehadia. 

6. Orcula doliolum (Brug.). PI. 2, figs. 1, 2, 4. 

The shell is imperforate, rimate, cylindric or widest in the 
upper third, terminating above in a very short, eonvexly 


conic or dome-shaped summit; very pale brown (or often 
whitish ) . Surface somewhat glossy, having numerous narrow 
cuticular riblets, more or less widely spaced. The whorls are 
slightly convex, the last flattened laterally, the suture ascend- 
ing strongly to the aperture. The aperture has a broadly re- 
flected white peristome, well thickened on the face and within, 
causing a narrow, opaque buff streak behind the outer lip. 
The parietal lamella emerges very nearly to the edge of the 
very thin parietal callus, and penetrates more than a whorl 
inward. It becomes more or less lower at the back, enlarging 
again towards its inner end. There is a small nodular angular 
lamella, slightly separated from the termination of the outer 
lip. Columellar lamella? two, immersed, the lower one 
stronger, upper weak and more immersed (sometimes obso- 
lete or not visible in a front view). They penetrate slightly 
more than one whorl, and within the back are subequal, or 
the lower a little larger. 

Length 5, diam. 2.3 mm.; 8% whorls. 

Length 4.2, diam. 2.3 mm. ; iy 2 whorls. 

Middle and southern Europe, nearer Asia; from France to 
Asia Minor, Armenia and the Caucasus region, east to Talysch 
and northern Persia. Type loc, environs of Paris. 

Bulimus doliolum Bruguiere, Encyclopedic Methodique, i, 
1792, p. 351. — Pupa doliolum Draparnaud, Hist. Moll. Fr., p. 
62. — Rossmaessler, Iconogr., i, p. 5, p. 16, f. 328, 329. — Ppr., 
Monogr., ii, 326; iii, 540; iv, 667; vi, 305; viii, 368 (see for 
older references). — Moquin-Tandon, Moll. Fr., p. 385, pi. 27, 
f. 32-34. — Westerlund & Blanc, Apercu Fauna Malac. 
Grece, 1879, p. 101 (Grecian records). — Boettger, Jahrb. d. 
m. Ges., vi, 1879, p. 32 (Caucasian forms) ; Jahrb. d. m. Ges., 
viii, 1881, p. 229 (Borsham, Schambobel, coast between 
Suchum and Poti). — Paulucci, Bull. Soc. Malac. Ital., vii, 
119, 1881, with forma curta, p. 120 (dist. in Italy). — 0. dolio- 
lum Vohland, Sitzungsber. u. Abh. Nat. Ges. Isis, in Dresden, 
1911, p. 126 (distribution in Germany). — Boettger, Ber. 
Senckenb. Ges., 1888-9, 23 (Caucasian references) ; Zoolo- 
gischer Jahrb., iv, 1889, p. 958 (Persia). 

Helix coronata Studer, in Coxe's Travels in Switzerland, 


iii, 1789, p. 386, no description; based upon Geoffroy's no. 19, 
Le grand Barillet, Traite som. Coq. env. Paris, 1767, p. 56. 

Juvenile Stage. — Helix templorum Benoit, Illustr. sist., 
crit., iconogr. Testae, estramar. Sicilia, 1857, p. 194, pi. 8, f . 2 ; 
of. Reinhardt, Jahrb. d. m. Ges., iv, 1877, p. 277. — Helix 
villosula Kokeil, Gallenstein, Karntens Land- und Siiss- 
wasser-Conchylien, Jahrb. naturhist. Landesmuseums von 
Karnten, 1852, p. 64 (in der Satnitz; P. doliolum also there, 
p. 78). — Helix spinosa Ferussac, olim, according to Hart- 
mann, Pfr., Monogr., ii, 327 (not traced by H. A. P.). 

This common shell differs from the larger forms of the 
dolium group inhabiting part of the same region by its 
smaller diameter and well-reflected lip. The similarly shaped 
0. scyphus graecus does not have spaced epidermal riblets, 
and the lainellas are more enlarged within the last whorl. 

Piaget (Ann. Mag. N. H., 2d ser., xiii, p. 456) was, I be- 
lieve, the first to notice that four or five upper whorls of 
young specimens are furnished with epidermal ribs termin- 
ating just above the suture in short, triangular spines. These 
are usually worn off in the adult stage. The supposed species 
Helix villomla and templorum were founded upon this early 
neanic stage. 

The earliest name for this species appears to be Helix coro- 
nata Studer. It rests upon a description of Geoffroy, which 
seems to me quite sufficient. However, since European stu- 
dents appear to have thought otherwise, I hesitate to substi- 
tute that name for the universally used doliolum. 

Many mutations, ecologic or local forms have been named, 
most of them probably not races, but included here for what 
they are worth. 

Locard defined the following variations in Etudes Varia- 
tions Malacologiques, i, 1880, p. 267, under Pupa doliolum: 

Major Loc. Shell measuring more than 7 mm. long, nearly 
cylindric, quite regular, slightly more swollen above, covered 
with low stria?. Environs of Lyons and Grenoble. 

Minor Loc. Smaller than the type but with the same num- 
ber of whorls, not over 4 mm. long, short, compact, swollen 
above, striae well marked. Environs de Lyon, le bas Bugey. 


Biplicata Loc. Shell like the type in shape, but with only- 
one columellar fold visible, the second obsolete or reduced to 
the condition of a mere prominence and hardly visible. Les 
alluvions du Ehone a Lyon. 

Moquin-Tandon (Moll. Fr., ii, 1855, p. 386) noticed a var. 
albina (Menke, Syn. Moll., p. 33), with the shell whitish, from, 
the valley of Campan. 

Pupa doliolum form curta Paulucci is said to be entirely 
like the typical form with which it occurs, but the shell 
shorter. Abruzzo or Umbria, Italy. Bull. Soc. Malac. ItaL, 
vii, 1881, p. 120. 

The following descriptions of local forms from France are 
taken from A. Locard's Conchyliologie Francaise: les Co- 
quilles Terrestres de France, published separately 1894, and 
in Annales Soc. d 'Agriculture, Sci et Ind. de Lyon (7 ser.), 
vols, i-iii; the Pupillidffi in vol. iii, for 1895, dated 1896. As 
the two publications were printed from the same type, with 
merely change of pagination, there may be some doubt about 
the date 1894. Perhaps the separates were published in ad- 
vance of Vol. 3 of the Annales. 

All but one of the "species" are ascribed to Bonrguignat 
in coll. The descriptions are by Locard, but who can blame 
him for trying to shift responsibility for them ? 

The following are on page 323 of the Coq. terr. separate ; 
page 211 of the Annales : 

Orcula alpium 'Bourguignat' Locard. Nearly cylindric, 
narrowly elongate, a little tapering at base ; 10 slightly con- 
vex whorls, suture little marked. Aperture narrowly ovate; 
one quite strong median fold above, two immersed columellar 
folds. Peristome expanded, reflected, not very thick. Shell 
reddish-corneous with little gloss, ornamented, with strong, 
regular stria?. Length 5y 2 to 6, diam. 21/4 mm. Eare ; clus de 
St-Auban, Saorgio, de Fontan a Damas (Alpes-Maritimes). 

Orcula sublaevis 'Bourguignat' Locard. Nearly cylindric, 
a little tapering at base ; 8 very slightly convex whorls, suture 
very mediocre. Aperture oboval-rounded ; one large and thin 
median lamella above ; only one quite small and deep-seated 
columellar. Peristome interrupted, expanded, reflected, a 
little thickened. Shell light corneous-reddish, little shining, 
ornamented with more or less obsolete striae. Length 5*4. to 
6, diam. 2 mm. Rare. Menton (Alpes-Maritimes). 


Orcula saint -simonis 'Bourguignat' Gourdon (1881). Sub- 
cylindric, a little elongate, tapering towards the base ; 10 
slightly convex whorls, suture little marked. Aperture 
oboval-rounded ; one large, thin superior lamella, two im- 
mersed columellars, the lower more robust; peristome re- 
flected, a little thickened. Shell ornamented with spaced, 
lamellar, sinuous stria?, of a pale corneous or grayish color. 
Length 5y> to 6, diam. 2y 2 mm. Not common ; Haute- 
Garonne, Lot-6t-Garonne, etc. (Locard). 

0. saint -simonis was first noticed under the name P. dolio- 
lum by Saint-Simon (Moll. Pyr. Haute-Garonne, 1876, p. 16, 
not seen by H. A. P.), who pointed out the differences of this 
Pyrenean race from typical doliolum. Gourdon (Bull. Soc. 
d'Hist. nat. Toulouse, xv, 1881, p. 93) adopted, -without de- 
scription, Bourguigna/t 's name for the form denned by Saint- 
Simon. Type locality "Tour de Castel-Blancat, environs de 

Orcula macei 'Bourguignat' Locard. Very long subcylin- 
dric, quite strongly tapering at the base; 10 slightly convex 
whorls, the suture little marked. Aperture relatively small, 
rounded, a little retracted at the base. One quite strong 
median lamella above; one immersed columellar, robust and 
quite arcuate. Peristome reflected, not very thick. Shell 
ornamented with fine, close, slightly sinuous stria?, of a cor- 
neous grayish color. Length 5y 2 to 6y 2 , diam. 2 mm. Quite 
rare ; clus de St-Auban, Brianqonnet, Alpes-Maritimes, env. 
de Lyon. 

The following are on p. 324 of the Coq. terr. separate, and 
on p. 212 of the Annales: 

Orcula bourguignati 'Mace' Locard. Subcylindric, short 
and squat, tapering quite strongly at the base. Eight slightly 
convex whorls, the suture little marked. Aperture oboval, 
rounded at base. One moderate superior lamella, quite strong 
and very arcuate ; two immersed columellars, the lower more 
robust. Peristome expanded, reflected, not very thick. Shell 
light corneous, ornamented with fine, spaced stria?. Length 5, 
diam. 2% mm. Rare; Brianqonnet, clus de St-Auban, Men- 
ton (Alpes-Maritimes). 

Orcula macrotriodon 'Bourguignat' Locard. Small, cylin- 
droid, very short and squat, tapering at the base. Eight quite 
convex whorls, the suture marked. Aperture somewhat 


rounded. One strong and very arcuate median lamella 
above ; two immersed columellars, the lower robust and ar- 
cuate. Peristome expanded, reflected, a little thick. Shell 
corneous-reddish, ornamented with fine, little marked, quite 
spaced stria?. Length 4%, diam. 2% mm. Rare ; Santa-Clara, 
vallee de Cairos, pres Saorgio (Alpes-Maritimes). 

Orcula doliolum var. tumida Vohland. Shell globose-cylin- 
dric, much more inflated than the type, with small, oblique 
umbilical crevice. The ribbing (only exceptionally well pre- 
served), sharp, regular. "Where the shell is worn a very fine 
striation shows. Whorls only 8 (against 9 or 10 in the type), 
the greatest thickness more towards the middle, then rapidly 
diminishing, much more closely coiled. Last whorl rising 
strongly towards the aperture, which is like the type. Length 
4, diam. 2.5 mm. Pleistocene of the Wilden Sau, flowing into 
the Elbe below Dresden. (Vohland, Sitzungsber. u. Abh. 
nat. Ges. Isis, in Dresden, for 1910, p. 126; 1911.) 

The Sicilian form of doliolum (0. d. var. templorum, pi. 2, 
fig. 3, Catania) is very close to the typical form. It has no 
angular tubercle and the columellar folds emerge only far 
enough to be visible from in front. Shell light brown. The 
early neanic stage has been described as Helix templorum 
Benoit, from the temple of Selinunte in southern Sicily. He 
also figured Sicilian 0. doliolum on his pi. 5, f. 19, but did 
not reach this species in the text. 

Dr. Boettger reports the form from Schah-rud, Prov. Irak 
Adschmi in northern Persia, as similar to that of the Talysch, 
brownish-yellow, the whorls more weakly convex than in the 
type, a distinct angular nodule, two columellar lamellae; lip 
very thick, callous, white. Length 5.5, diam. 2.5 mm. 

Form unifilarw (Boettger). Dr. Boettger writes (Jahrb. d. 
m. Ges., vi, 32) of Caucasian doliolum that in the narrow 
form (compared to German examples) of Mamudly, 2-2 1 / 4 
mm. in greatest diam., and the strongly elongate, rather nar- 
row examples of Zalka ( 6 x 2% mm. ) all of the many speci- 
mens show only one columellar lamella. Of the specimens 
equal to the German in width, also numerous from Kasbek 
(2 1 / 4-2 1 /2 mm. diam.), two-thirds are provided with one, only 
one-third with two columellar lamella?. In all Caucasian ex- 
amples before me, he continues, the sculpture appears some- 
what weaker in adults than in those of Germany and Sicily. 


On the preceding page (31) Boettger had suggested that the 
form with a single fold might be called unifilaris. This name 
was proposed in a casual and tentative manner, in a para- 
graph mainly discussing bifilaris Mouss., so that Kobelt 
(Iconogr. n. F., viii, 1899, p. 76) erroneously supposed that 
unifilaris was a form of bifilaris. Zalka may be considered 
type locality for unifilaris, if it turns out to have any racial 

Retowski notes that the specimens from Samsun belong to 
the small form not uncommon in the Caucasus, all having 
two distinct columellar lamella?. 

6a. Orcula doliolum tereticollis West. 

Shell short, obese, rounded-conic at apex, more strongly 
and distantly lamellose-costulate ; whorls 8, very slowly in- 
creasing, the last very narrow behind, not higher than the 
penult, terete (not slowly, obliquely tapering downwards) ; 
aperture semirotund, the parietal lamella long, one columel- 
lar, thin, situated above, somewhat produced outward, peri- 
stome widely spreading, outwardly thin. No punctiform 
angular tooth (always present in the typical form). Length 
4, width 1% mm. Northern Persia, Siaret, one specimen, 
Keyserling and Bienert [Pupa (Orcula) doliolum var. tereti- 
collis Westerlund, Annuaire Mus. Zool. Acad. Imp. Sci. St. 
Petersb., i, 1896, p. 195]. 

6b. Orcula doliolum turcica 'Bgt.' Let. PI. 2, figs. 5, 6. 

Long, cylindric, pale brown somewhat translucent, sharply, 
finely striate above, the cylindric part weakly so ; in the most 
perfectly preserved individuals having delicate, well-spaced 
cuticular riblets, more or less distinctly legible. Suture im- 
pressed, shortly but rather steeply ascending to the aperture 
in some examples, very slightly and slowly in others. Peri- 
stome white, narrowly reflected, a little thickened within; 
parietal callus thin, tuberculate next to the lip-insertion. 
Parietal lamella of medium size, tapering in front, emerging 
nearly to the edge of the parietal callus. It continues nearly 
of equal height to the inner end. Columellar lamellae are not 
visible in the mouth in some individuals (typical, according 


to Letourneux), but in others the lower one is weakly visible, 
or two very low subequal ones may be seen. Inside there are 
two nearly equal and not very large, parallel columellar 
lamellae. No palatal fold. 

Length 6.3, diam. 2.5 mm. ; 8% whorls. Smyrna. 

Length 5.2, diam. 2.3 mm. ; 7% whorls. Smyrna. 

"Length 6.5, diam. 2.25 mm.; 9 whorls" (Letourneux). 

Santorin, one specimen at Messa Vouno; common around 
Smyrna (which is here designated as type locality) ; Rhodes; 
thrown up on the beach of Ramie near Alexandria (Letour- 

Orcula turcica ("Bourguignat, Species noviss. Moll, in 
Eur. syst. detect., 1878, no. 153"; never published) Letour- 
neux, Bull. Soc. Malac. France, i, 1884, p. 298. — Orcula scy- 
phus Pallary, Mem. Inst. Egyptien, vi, pt. 1, 1909, p. 41, pi. 
3, f. 22. 

Usually of long form with over 8 whorls, though sometimes 
shorter; rarely showing the spaced riblets of doliolum in 
adult shells ; with receding columellar lamellas, weakly or not 
visible in the mouth. The parietal lamella of typical doliolum 
becomes lower in the back, stronger again toward its inner 
end. In turcica, it remains nearly equal in height throughout. 
0. d. turcica appears to me to be a recognizable race, and 
certainly has nothing to do with scyphus. Figured from 
Smyrna topotypes received from Jetschin. 

Pupa critica Zelebor (Pfeiffer, Malak. Blatter, iii, 1856, 
p. 177, as a variety of doliolum; Monogr., iii, 540) has never 
been fully described. In his notes on the shells collected by 
J. Zelebor (preparator of the k. k. Hof-Naturalienkabinet in 
Vienna) on the island of Syra, in the Grecian Archipelago, 
Pfeiffer says : 

Pupa doliolum Brug. "Under stones and on roots, rare." 
A variety with the columellar fold very little developed, which 
was indeed named Pupa critica by Mr. Zelebor, but which is 
certainly not separable from doliolum. 

Both doliolum and "scyphtis" have been reported from 
Syra by Westerlund and Blanc (Aperqu sur la Fauna Malac. 


de la Greee, 1879, p. 101), but just what these authors had 
remains uncertain. It is quite possible that critica was the 
form now called turcica. As it was quite insufficiently de- 
fined, the name should be dropped. Several forms with little- 
developed columellar folds have been fully described since 
critica was published. 

7. Orcula imbricata (Jickeli). PL 2, figs. 7, 8, 9. 

Shell rimate, obovate-cylindric, with oblique membranous 
riblets, rather thin, brown. Spire long with obtuse apex, of 9 
somewhat flattened whorls, imbricating below, the last one- 
third the length. Suture deepened. Aperture rounded-oval, 
biplicate ; one oblique high fold on the parietal wall, deeply 
entering; one inconspicuous columellar. Peristome dilated, 
reflected, the margins converging. Length 5, diam. 2.5; 
aperture, alt. 2, width 1.75 mm. (Jickeli) . 

Abyssinia : Province Hamaszen, on the way from Genda to 
Asmara, under stones (Jickeli). Senafe, Adigrat, Agula and 
Meshek (Blanford). 

Eritrea: Agame, Adi-Guden and Monte Cherseber (Boc- 

Pupa imbricata Jickeli, Malak. Bl., xx, 1872, p. 107 ; Moll. 
nordost-Afr., in Nova Acta k. Leop.-Carol. deutschen Akad. 
Naturforscher, Bd. 37, p. 115, pi. 5, f. 7. — Pollonera, Boll. 
Mus. Zool. Anat. Comp. Torino, xiii, no. 313, p. 5. — Pupa n. 
sp. near doliolum Blanford, Obs. Geol. and Zool. Abyssinia, 
1870, p. 477, no. 15. 

This species stands very near 0. doliolum, but it differs, as 
Jickeli pointed out, by the very convex whorls of the upper 
part of the spire, which overhang the suture. The last whorl 
ascends slowly but considerably, and has a well-rounded base. 
The peristome is well reflected, white, not much thickened. 
Parietal callus thin, with a very weak angular tubercle or 
none. The parietal lamella emerges to the edge of the callus. 
It is high within the last whorl, and penetrates 1% whorls 
inward. The columella shows one or sometimes two low 
lamellae in the mouth, becoming stronger within the back than 
in doliolum, the lower one stronger than the upper. The 


surface is dull, light brown or sometimes whitish. The epi- 
dermal riblets are very delicate, irregularly developed in 
some specimens, nearly regular in others. Specimens seen 
vary in form from cylindric to wider above, and in size from 
length 5.5, diam. 2.3 mm., of Sy 2 whorls, to 4.7 x 2.2 mm., 
barely 8 whorls. 

It seems to be generally spread in northeastern Abyssinia 
and adjacent highlands. Blanford's Pupa no. 15 is a rather 
narrow form of this species according to specimens seen, figs. 

7, 8. The original figure of imbricata are reproduced in fig. 9. 

8. Orcula bulgarica Hesse. 

Shell with closed umbilicus, cylindric, with conically taper- 
ing spire, sculptured with close, oblique rib-striae which are 
rather strongly developed on the upper whorls, while they 
almost disappear on the last; dark horn-color, whitish near 
the aperture. Nine to ten convex whorls, separated by a 
rather deep whitish suture, the last rather strongly ascending 
to the aperture. Aperture semiovate-rounded, the margins 
widely separated, connected by a flat whitish callus; outer 
margin arcuate, especially in its upper part; columella ver- 
tical, somewhat rounded, smooth or with a weak angle, but 
without folds. The dentition is restricted to a somewhat re- 
ceding, pretty low and short parietal lamella ; it begins about 
1 mm. from the margin of the callus, terminating steeply in 
front, diminishing quite gradually behind, and does not pene 
trate far inward. Peristome whitish, reflected, somewhat 
thickened. Length 6.5, diam. 3 mm. ; height of the mouth 
2.2 mm. (Hesse). 

Bulgaria: drift of Devna lake at Gebedsehe, near Varna 
(Prof. Herm. Skorpil). 

Orcula bulgarica Hesse, Nachrichtsblatt d. malak. Ges., vol. 
47, June 1915, p. 62. 

Orcula bulgarica recalls 0. dolium in size and habit, but in 
place of the umbilicus it has only a closed crevice. It differs 
from all species of the genus yet described by the low, rela- 
tively short parietal lamella and the complete lack of colu- 
mellar folds (Hesse). 


One fresh and two bleached specimens found. The lamellae 
must resemble those of 0. dolkim plagiostoma rather closely, 
but the closed umbilicus and reflected lip are characters of 
the doliolum group. It has not been figured. 

9. Orcula hesopotamica (Mouss.). PL 2, figs. 12, 13. 

Shell shortly rimate, cylindric, rather solid, obliquely 
lightly striatulate, glossy, pale or corneous. Spire closely 
coiled, terminating in a short, obtuse cone, the summit rather 
obtuse, not projecting. Suture more impressed on the cone, 
less afterwards. Nine whorls, the first ones rather convex, 
with strong, membranous striae, the following whorls slowly 
increasing, flattened, smooth; last whorl diminishing a little, 
ascending, forming one-third the length, rounded at base. 
Aperture subvertical, with a single compressed parietal la- 
mella, not produced, and two short columellar lamella?. Peri- 
stome expanded, somewhat reflected, rather obtuse, white- 
lipped within, the margins remote, joined by a callous layer 
thickened at the insertion ; right margin regularly curved, 
not thickened in the middle nor impressed outside ; columellar 
rather straight, spreading. Length 7-8, diam. 3 mm. (Mous- 

Upper Mesopotamia, from the plain of Haleb to Biredschek 
(Biredjik; here selected as type locality) and Siverek (Su- 
verek), Dr. A. Schlaefli. 

Pupa (Sphyradium) scyphus Friv. var. me sopot arnica 
Mousson, Journ. de Conchyl., xxii, 1874, p. 31. 

The figures were drawn from a Biredjik specimen from 
Mousson. It is quite thin, very light brown, obliquely striate, 
the striae closer on the cone, where the whorls are quite con- 
vex. Later the whorls become only weakly convex, but the 
suture is well impressed throughout. The apical cone is very 
short. Last whorl ascends very little in front and is broadly 
rounded at base. The white peristome is expanded and well 
reflected, with some inner thickening. Parietal callus thin, 
bearing a tubercle at the insertion of the outer lip. The 
parietal lamella is well developed, not emerging to the edge 
of the parietal callus, penetrating one whorl, very strong 


towards its inner termination. Columella with two lamella, 
the lower strong, upper receding, very weak in front, inter- 
rupted within. Internally (fig. 12) the columellar lamella 
becomes very strong on the left side, where the supracolumel- 
lar also is strengthened. There is no trace of an internal 
lower-palatal fold. Length 7.5, diam. 3.2 mm., 9y 2 whorls. 

0. mesopotamica is thinner, not so broad as 0. orientalis, 
and differs (from the form coerulescens, which alone I have 
opened) in the shape of the inner end of the parietal lamella. 
The two species appear to be quite distinct. It needs com- 
parison with the typical form of 0. scyphus described by 
Pfeiffer, but that appears to be a more elongate shell of more 
whorls, the last one compressed basally, the outer lip thick- 
ened within. 

10. Orcula sirianocoriensis (Mousson). PL 5, figs. 8. 

Shell larger [than 0. dolium], shortly rimate, regularly 
cylindric, the summit very obtuse ; aperture a little inclined, 
retracted, the margins subparallel (Mousson). 

Shell nearly cylindric, whitish-corneous, rimate, slightly 
dilated above, the summit convexly conic, apex obtuse. 
Whorls 10, very slowly increasing, scarcely convex, the upper 
5 obliquely costellate, the narrow costellae narrower than the 
interstices, lower whorls striatulate, the last narrowed basally, 
hardly one-third of the total length, ascending a little in 
front. Aperture truncate-oval. Parietal lamella high, the 
columellar slightly visible in an oblique view (distinct in 
young specimens). Peristome white-thickened, the margins 
converging, hardly connected, the outer margin thin above, 
then rapidly thickening. Parietal wall usually having a 
tubercle at the insertion of the outer lip. Length 9, diam. 
4.5 mm. (Kobelt). 

Cyprus; apparently rather generally distributed but no- 
where abundant; type loc. in debris of the river of Siriano- 

Pupa dolium var. sirianocoriensis Mousson, Mittheil. Natur- 
forsch. Ges. in Zurich, iii, no. 102, 1854, p. 386. — Pupa (Or- 
cula) sirianocorensis Kobelt, Rossmaessler 's Iconographie 


Eur. Land- u. Siisswasser-Moll., n. F., ler Suppl.-Bd., 1897, 
p. 59, pi. 14, f. 9-96. 

Kobelt's figures and description of Cyprus specimens are 
given above, as no shells from Cyprus are accessible to me. 
Mousson's definition was quite inadequate, but his form has 
generally been placed under orientalis of Syria as a synonym 
or variety. Until further comparison can be made, including 
an examination of the internal structure, the status of the 
several forms following remains uncertain. 

10a. Orcula. s. orientalis ('Parr.', Pfr.). PI. 5, fig. 5. 

Shell long-rimate, subcylindric, rather solid, obliquely stri- 
atulate, silky, corneous. Spire thickened above, the vertex 
mucronulate-convex. Whorls 10, the upper 5 a little convex, 
rib-striate, the rest flattened ; the last whorl not reaching one- 
third of the total length, somewhat ascending in front, rather 
compressed basally. Aperture oval, with a compressed, deeply 
entering parietal lamella; columella biplicate above. Peri- 
stome thin, the right margin slightly expanded, columellar 
margin dilated. Length 12, greatest diam. (near apex) 5 
mm.; aperture with perist. 4 mm long, 3y± wide (Pfr.). 

Nazareth (Parreyss). Said to occur in Syria and the 

Pupa orientalis Parreyss in coll., Pfeiffer, Malak. Blatter, 
viii, 1861, p. 168, pi. 3, f . 6-8 ; Monogr., vi, 305 ; viii, 367.— 
Mousson, Journ. de Conchyl., xxii, 1874, p. 31, var. nitida. — 
Pupa (Orcula) doliolum Brug. var. orientalis Parr., Naegele, 
Nachrbl. d. m. Ges., xxxiv, 1902, p. l.—Orcxda orientalis (P.), 
Boettger, Nachrbl., vol. 37, p. 107.— Germain, Voy. Kerville : 
Moll. terr. et fluv. Syrie, i, 1921, p. 327. 

Reinhardt (1880) writes that the true P. orientalis has a 
club-shaped shell, which ranges it in the doliolum group. Its 
nearest relative is mesopotamica Mousson, which is consider- 
ably smaller, with more convex whorls. 

Naegele (1902) reported numerous recent specimens from 
Akbes in Syria, differing from typical orientalis by their 
great size and single coluniellar lamella. Boettger, with the 
same material, states that all the examples have two well- 
developed columellar folds. Length 10, diam. 4.5 mm. 


The original locality, Nazereth, is dubious, but doubtless it 
occurs in Palestine. 

Var. obesa Blanck. More egg-shaped than club-shaped, 11 
mm. long, 5 in diameter; columellar margin more oblique 
than in the type of the species. The true P. orientalis is 
otherwise not now known from Syria, as the specimens cited 
under this name from Aleppo by Mousson do not belong to it, 
according to Bernhardt, and have been distinguished by him 
as P. moussoni Reinh. Syria : Bab el Haua between Djisr el 
Hadid in Antiochia and Bet el Ma. 3 {Pupa orientalis var. 
obesa Blanckenhorn, Naehbl. d. mal. Ges., xxi, June 1889, 
p. 79). The name is preoccupied. 

Var. nitida Mousson. Straightly cylindric, lower whorls 
scarcely striatulate, glossy; aperture broadly semiovate; 2 
distinct folds on the columella. Slope of the littoral range 
of Haleb, upper Mesopotamia, Dr. Schlaefli (Mousson) . 

Var. cedrorum West. Shell very widely rimate, thick, en- 
tirely cylindric, with rounded summit, strong, very finely, 
weakly striate high above, the rest smooth, yellowish white. 
9!/o nearly flat whorls, a little angular at the impressed 
suture, very slowly increasing, the last rounded below, above 
nearly horizontal (very little ascending). Aperture vertical, 
nearly semicircular, slightly narrowed below, with a very 
long and strong parietal lamella and two columellar lamellae, 
the outer ends of which can be seen only in an oblique view. 
Peristome somewhat thickened, the margins not very unequal, 
joined by a thin callus, somewhat thickened near the outer 
insertion. Length 11, diam. 4 mm. Lebanon (West.). 

P. doliolum var. cedrorum Westerlund, Fauna, 1 Supple- 
ment, 1890, p. 141. — [Orcula orientalis var.] "cedretorum 
Westerlund," Germain, Moll. terr. et fluv. de Syrie, i, 1921, 
p. 328. 

10&. Orcula s. coerulescens (Naegele). PI. 5, figs. 6, 7. 

Differs from the type by the smaller length and generally 
bluish color. Serf, upper Mesopotamia (Naegele). 

Pupa (Orcula) orientalis Parr. var. coerulescens Naegele, 
Nachrichtsbl. d. malak. Ges., vol. 42, Dec. 1910, p. 151. 

A topotype figured measures, length 9.8, diam. 4.6 mm., 
w r ith 9% whorls, those of the upper cone very finely striate, 
buff, the later whorls slate-violet to purple-drab. The lip is 


white, very little expanded, somewhat thickened within. 
Parietal callus thickened close to the angle. Parietal lamella 
strong. Columellar lamella rather strong, not emerging; 
above it a lower, blunt supracolumellar. Internally the pari- 
etal lamella is high and strong; on the left side its crest is 
abruptly deflected outward, and a low oblong callous lump is 
developed on the parietal wall external to the lamella ; beyond 
the deflection, within the ventral side, the parietal lamella 
becomes low. The columellar lamella is strong within the 
back, the supracolumellar much weaker. Both are rather 

11. Orcula robusta (Naegele). 

Shell perforate, cylindric with obtusely conoid apex ; whorls 
10-11, a little convex, obsoletely obliquely striolate, the upper 
ones striate, glossy, corneous; the last whorl compressed 
towards the aperture, forming a crest around the umbilicus, 
with stronger stria?, ascending in front. Aperture angular at 
base; peristome broadly reflected, the columellar margin 
straight, outer margin arcuate, thickened in the upper part, 
the margins joined by an extremely strong callus. Deep 
within one columellar lamella; a parietal lamella joined to 
the callus and diminishing inwardly. Length 21 [error for 
12?], diam. 4 mm. (Naegele). 

Upper Euphrates: Balian-Keuy. 

Pupa (Orcula) robusta Naegele, Nachrbl. d. m. Ges., vol. 
38, Jan. 1906, p. 28. 

This Orcula differs from its relatives especially by its sharp 
basal keel, the angular aperture and by the very heavy cal- 
lous connection of the columellar and outer margins. The 
parietal lamella is united with the callus, but becomes weaker 
as it enters. The columellar lamella stands deep within on 
the upper part of the columella. In size this Orcula stands 
near orientalis Parr. (Naegele). 

12. Orcula scyphus ('Friv.' Pfr.). PI. 3, fig. 1. 

Shell rimate, cylindric, striatulate, glossy, diaphanous, 
brownish-corneous. Spire terminating in a very short, rather 
acute cone. Whorls 11, rather flat, the last ascending in 


front, somewhat compressed at the base. Columella with one 
deeply-placed lamella. Aperture semioval, narrowed by one 
compressed parietal lamella. Peristome narrowly expanded, 
lipped, the right margin thickened tooth-like within. Length 
9, diam. 3 mm., aperture 3 mm. long, 2% wide (Pfr.). 

Asia Minor: Brusa (Pfr., type loc). 

Pupa scyphus Frivaldsky on label, Pfeiffer, Zeitschr. f. 
Malak., 1848, p. 7; Monographia, ii, 326; iii, 540; iv, 667; 
vi, 305 ; viii, 368. — Kuester, Conchyl. Cab., Pupa, p. 112, pi. 
15, f . 10, 11. — Westerlund, Fauna, iii, p. 86. — Mousson, 
Journ. de Conchyl., xxii, 1874, p. 32. — Reinhardt, S.-B. Ges. 
naturf. Freunde Berlin, p. 17. — Orcula doliolum Brug. var. 
scyphus Pfr., Boettger, Nachrbl. d. m. Ges., xxvi, p. 3 
(Cerigo) ; 1905, p. 106. 

Pupa lindermeyeri 'Parreyss' Pfeiffer, Monogr., ii, 1848, 
p. 326, as synonym of P. scyphus. — Pupa dormeyeri Sowerbt, 
Conch. Icon., xx, 1878, pi. 20, f. 189. 

Pfeiffer 's description of scyphus indicates a far larger shell 
with more whorls than the specimens commonly known under 
that name in collections, judging by those received from 
Morelet, Jetschin, Conemenos and others. As no specimens 
agreeing with Pfeiffer 's account are accessible and the in- 
ternal structure is unknown, its relations to other forms of 
the region, including those here denned as subspecies, cannot 
be denned. The figures of Kuester, reproduced in our pi. 3, 
fig. 1, do not agree entirely with the original description, 
being smaller and showing two columellar lamellse. 

Whether any of the later references and localities pertain 
to the real scyphus cannot be affirmed at this time. The dis- 
tribution of scyphus is therefore uncertain, and the records 
following undoubtedly were based upon several quite distinct 

Reinhardt, followed by Westerlund, regards P. scyphus as 
specifically distinct from doliolum. Boettger treated it as a 
variety of the latter. He has given the following localities 
for scyphus, but only an inspection of his collection would 
show what forms he included under this name: European 
side of the Dardanelles (v. Maltzan), Brussa (Andreae) and 


Biledjik (Dr. K. Escherich) ; Smyrna (Krueper) ; Phineka, 
Elniali, Adalia (Conemenos) and Makri, in Lycia (Rolle) ; 
Bulghar-Dagh in Cilician Taurus (Naegele), Ordubad on the 
Araxes (Leder), and from Razoki near Urmia, Persia (Nae- 
gele). Other localities for scyphus are given by Germain 
(Moll. terr. et fluv. Syrie, 1921, p. 331) but we do not know 
what he understood that species to cover. He was in error 
in considering turcica a synonym of scyphus. 

Pupa lindermeyeri Parr, was first published by Pfeiffer in 
the synonymy of P. scyphus (Monographia, ii, 326, 1848). 
This use of the name should prevent its restriction to the 
Syrian (Lebanon) form described by Mousson (Mittheil. 
naturforsch. Ges. Zurich, iii, no. 103, 1854, p. 395; also the 
rather perplexing notes in Journ. de Conchyl., 1874, p. 32). 

12<7. 0. scyphus var. heterostropha Boettger. From the 
drift debris of the Sarus river at Adana, Cilicia, the three 
specimens found are sinistral. Length 7%, diam. 3!/o mm. 
Two columellar lamella? (Boettger, Nachrbl. d. m. Ges., vol. 
37, 1905, p. 106). 

126. Orcula scyphus palatalis n. subsp. PI. 3, figs. 5, 6. 

There is fine, sharp striation on the convex whorls of the 
cone, the later whorls being less sharply striate, smooth in 
the middle; last whorl tapers downwards, having a flattened 
or slightly concave zone below the middle. The lip is some- 
what expanded, with a moderate white thickening within. 
Parietal callus thin, weakly thickened at the right insertion. 
Parietal lamella strong, tapering in front, not emerging to 
the edge, penetrating inward one whorl, but the inner half- 
whorl is quite low and weak. One rather strong columellar 
lamella is visible in front, the weak trace of an upper one 
seen in oblique view in the mouth. Both are very low and 
oblique on the axis within. A low lower-palatal fold is seen 
deep in the mouth; it penetrates about one-third of a whorl 
inward, and corresponds to the external impressed zone 
mentioned above. Length 8.2, diam. 3.2 mm., 9Vo whorls. 

Sert, Kurdistan, received from 0. Boettger as 0. d. meso- 
pot arnica Mouss. 

The long lower-palatal fold and the low, subequal spirals 


on the axis (seen by breaking into the whorl just above the 
aperture) are important features. Moreover, the shell is 
larger and the lip much less reflected than in batumensis. 

0. moussoni is described as possessing a lower-palatal fold 
similar to that of palatalis but shorter, and the shell has a 
more robust figure. 

12c. Orcula scyphus crassa n. n. 

Differs from the type [of doliolum] by the thicker shell, 
the aperture contracted by a robust lip, peristome strongly 
dilated. Length 7, diam. 3 mm., 8-9 whorls. Balien-Keuy, 
on the upper Euphrates [Pupa (Orcula) doliolum var. incras- 
sata Naegele, Nachbl. d. m. Ges., vol. 38, 1906, p. 28, not 
Pupa incrassata Sowb.]. 

Without knowledge of the form of the lamellae within the 
last whorl, and the presence or absence of an internal palatal 
fold, it is quite impossible to tell the rank or position of this 
form, which appears to differ from mesopotamica by the 
thicker shell and lip. 

12d. Orcula scyphus batumensis (Ret.). PI. 3, figs. 7-10. 

Very conspicuously different from the parent form [dolio- 
lum] by the strong cervical ring and extraordinary develop- 
ment of the callus. I collected this new variety in the debris 
of the Tschorok at Batum (Caucasus). They belong to two 
forms, one having 9-10 whorls with weakly raised riblets and 
two distinctly visible columellar lamellae in the aperture; 
length 6.5 to 8.9 mm., diam. 2.5 to 3 mm. The second form 
is narrower, has 9-10 nearly smooth whorls, and the two 
columellar lamella? recede so far that they are hardly visible 
in the mouth. Length 5.25 to 7, diam. 1.9 to 2 mm. Such 
slender examples of doliolum as the second form are hitherto 
scarcely known. A separation of the two forms seems to me 
impossible, as transitions occur which could be referred to 
one as well as the other (Ret.). 

Pupa (Orcula) doliolum var. batumensis Retowski, Be- 
richt Senckenb. Ges., 1888-9, p. 254. — Sturany, Ann. k. k. 
Naturhist. Hofmus., Wien, xx, p. 304, fig. 7. 


The more slender form described by Retowski may be con- 
sidered typical of the subspecies. Sturany has noted it from 
Siehe, in Bulghar-Dagh, and Karagol, Bulghar-Maaden, at 
1500 to 1600 meters, in the Erdsahias-Dagh, Asia Minor. He 
figured long and short examples: 1.4x2 to 6.5x2.3 mm. are 
given as extremes, whorls from iy 2 to 9. 

The specimens from Siwas, Tokat Vilayet, drawn in our 
plate, measure up to 6.3 mm. long, 2.2 wide, with 8y 2 whorls. 
They are brown, with a wide opaque white tract behind the 
peristome, and a crest, weak to strong, as shown in the 
profile view. The last whorl is somewhat flattened and taper- 
ing to the base. Spaced cuticular riblets such as typical 
doliolum has, are wanting. The lip is rather broadly re- 
flected. A distinct angular tubercle united with the lip-inser- 
tion. The parietal lamella is remote from the edge of the 
callus and quite low as seen in the mouth; deep within, on 
the left side, it becomes very high. The columellar lamella 
becomes very strong within the left side, where also the supra- 
columellar is represented by a smaller lamella, not connected 
with the very weak one on the columella. These lamella? are 
exactly as in O. mesopotamica. There is a quite short lower- 
palatal fold within the left side (fig. 10, p.), visible exter- 
nally as a light spot immediately to the left of the aperture, 
above the umbilical crevice. 

A smaller form of Asia Minor may be attached to batu- 
mensis as var. enteroplax, n. v., the type from Brussa (pi. 3, 
figs. 11-13). The internal structure is as described for batu- 
mensis, the parietal lamella being low in front, very large 
within. Columellar lamella prominent in a front view, where 
no supracolumella is visible. Palatal fold short, lateral. Ex 
terior brown, white behind the lip, finely striate, without the 
spaced riblets of doliolum. Terminal cone is very short. Lip 
is rather heavily calloused. Length 5.1, diam. 2.1 mm.; 8 

A form from Amasia is similar except that the columellar 
lamella does not emerge, and is visible in an oblique view in 
the mouth only as a blunt prominence or angulation. In- 
ternal structure as in enteroplax. Length 5.4, diam. 2.1 mm. ; 


8 whorls. It was labeled 0. doliolum var. critica by Dr. 
Boettger, but probably is scarcely separable from enteroplax. 

12e. Orcula scyphus gracus n. subsp. PI. 3, figs. 2, 3, 4. 

The shell is cyliridric with short terminal cone, brown, the 
upper third finely, sharply striate, lower whorls obsoletely so; 
last whorl ascending in front, hardly compressed though some- 
what tapering towards the base, paler brown behind the lip. 
Peristome thin, reflected, but little thickened within. An 
angular nodule on the rather thin parietal callus. Parietal 
lamella high, tapering forward and emerging to the edge of 
the parietal callus. "Within it is high and flaring. Two folds 
emerge on the columella, either weakly, distinct only in an 
oblique view, or distinctly in front view. They strengthen 
within, the lower one being somewhat the stronger within the 
back ; but the upper is continuous to the columella, not inter- 
rupted as in batumensis. There is no trace of an internal 
palatal fold. 

Length 6.7, diam. 2.4 mm. ; 9 whorls. 

Length 6.4, diam. 2.3 mm. ; 9 whorls. Type. 

Length 5.5, diam. 2.3 mm. ; 8y± whorls. 

Greece: Chalcis, Eubcea (Conemenos). 

This form differs from batumensis by lacking an internal 
palatal fold, by the parietal lamella being high in front and 
emergent, and by the smaller development of the eolumellar 
lamella within the back of the last whorl, the two lamellae 
being nearly equal there. The peristome also is less devel- 
oped, with only quite moderate internal thickening, conse- 
quently there is no such conspicuous white or buff tract be- 
hind it as in the Asiatic form, and no crest there. 

13. Orcula moussoni (Reinh.). 

Reinhardt separated from orientalis the form of Aleppo, 
received from Mousson, as Pupa moussoni, characterized as 
follows: Shell cylindric or ovate-cylindric, terminating in a 
short, obtuse cone ; solid ; pale corneous, flexuosely rimate. 
Whorls 9y 2 to 10, the first five increasing in width rapidly, 
but little in height, convex, costulate, separated by a deep 


suture ; the remaining whorls slowly increasing, nearly equal, 
flattened, glossy, obliquely striate, joined by a whitish, little- 
impressed suture; the last whorl two-fifths the total length; 
not tapering, ascending a. little to the aperture. Aperture 
semicircular, rounded basally, the peristome expanded, 
strongly white-lipped within, the margins distant and joined 
by a strong callus tubereulate at the insertions ; right margin 
thickened in the middle, columellar margin broadly spread- 
ing. Parietal wall bearing a strong whitish and deeply en- 
tering lamella which does not reach to the callus. Columella 
having two deep, diverging folds. Length 10 to 10.5, diam. 
4.5 mm.; aperture 3 mm. long and wide (Bernhardt). 

Syria: Aleppo (Haleb). 

Pupa moussoni Reinhardt, Sitzungsber. Ges. naturforsch. 
Freunde, Berlin, 1880, p. 44. 

Distinguished from orientalist, by the somewhat smaller 
size, cylindric shell with bluntly conic summit, by the semi- 
circular aperture with broad lip, and by the strong, tuber - 
cularly thickened parietal callus. Another character pecu- 
liar to this species, lacking in all other species of Orcula 
except 0. scyph us, is the internal ridge-like thickening in the 
last whorl, about 2 mm. long, running parallel to the suture, 
and visible externally as a white line above the umbilical 
crevice to the left of the columellar margin (Reinhardt) . 

Series of 0. rajjmondi (Pilorcula Germain). 

Rimate and minutely perforate Orculas, in which the pari- 
etal and columellar lamellse are enormously widened within 
the last whorl j in fresh specimens there is a series of spines 
or points on the epidermal riblets at the upper third of each 
whorl, or present only on the upper whorls (only weakly de- 
veloped or wanting in most apparently fresh adult speci- 
mens). Northern Syria, Asia Minor to Russian Armenia and 

The typical 0. raymondi is known by the original account 
only. The Caucasian forms show considerable variation in 
size and the development of columellar lamellae. As in other 
Orculas, only the columellar and supracolumellar enter 


deeply, others when present being short and confined to the 
columellar lip-expansion. Boettger and Retowski, who 
handled more of the Caucasian forms than any other writers, 
consider all to be forms of raymondi. As the material at hand 
comprises only various forms of trifilaris and bifilaris, and 
not the typical raymondi, I am unable to review the question 
of specific identity of the Caucasian forms with raymondi. 
All of the references are given under the latter. 

Small, length 2.5, diam. 1.5 mm. ; bristles well developed ; 
three thread-like lamellae on columella ; Beyrout. 

0. raymondi. 
Larger, diam. about 2 mm. or more. Caucasus, etc. 

4 lamellae on columella. 0. r. trifilaris f. quadrifilaris. 

3 lamellae on columella. 

Supracolumellar, columellar and infracolumellar. 

0. r. trifilaris. 
A short lamella between columellar and supracolu- 
mellar. 0. r. bifilaris f. intermedia. 
2 lamellae on columella. 0. r. bifilaris. 

14. Orcula raymondi (Bgt.). PL 4, fig. 1. 

The shell is small, perforate, cylindric, of a tawny-corneous 
tint, ornamented with small, oblique, whitish, symmetric raised 
epidermal laminae which are prolonged in the upper part of 
the whorls in stiff, acute, lengthened and ascending points. 
The epidermal laminae, very closely placed on the earlier 
whorls, become more and more spaced as they approach the 
aperture. Spire extremely obtuse, the summit smooth and 
paler. Seven quite convex whorls, slowly, regularly increas- 
ing, and separated by a strongly impressed suture. The first 
whorls are subangular as though keeled, where the epidermal 
laminae are produced in form of acute darts; the carina dis- 
appears on the fourth whorl. The last whorl is rounded, a 
little oblong, and markedly ascending towards the aperture. 
Aperture slightly oblique, oblong, whitish within and pro- 
vided with 4 lamellae : the first [parietal lamella] strong, com- 
pressed and elevated on the convexity of the penult whorl, 


which it follows inward. The three others are small, very- 
long, and on the upper part of the columella. Peristome 
lightly expanded throughout, with a weak white thickening 
within, the margins joined by a thick callus colored like the 
lip. Length 2.5, diam. 1.5 mm. {Bgt.). 

Syria : under dead leaves and stones in an oak forest on a 
mountain the base of which is washed by the river of Bey- 
rout, 6 kilom. from its mouth (Capt. Leon Raymond, 1860). 

Pupa- raymondi Bourguignat, Revue et Mag. de Zoologie 
(2), xv, 1863, p. 259, pi. 19, f. 10-13 ; reprinted in Moll, nouv., 
litig. etc., ii, p. 48, pi. 6, f. 10-13.— Ppr., Monogr., vi, 306.— 
Orcula raymondi Bgt., Kobelt, Rossm. Iconogr. n. F., viii, p. 
75, pi. 232, f. 1497 (from Bgt.). — Orcula {Pilorcida) ray- 
mondi Bourguignat, Germain, Voy. Kerville : Moll. terr. et 
fluv. de Syrie, 1921, p. 328, figs. 27-29 (after Bgt.). 

Pupa trifilaris Mousson, Coq. terr. et fluv. recueillies dans 
l'orient par M. le Dr. Alexandre Schlaefli, ii, 1863, p. 71; re- 
print from Vierteljahrsschrift der Naturforsch. Ges. in Zurich, 
viii, 1863, p. 391. — Reinhardt, Sitzungsber. Ges. naturf. 
Freunde Berlin, 1880, p. 15 (Transcaucasia at Redutkale, 
Lailasch, Suram, Katerinenfeld). — Pupa. {Orcida) trifilaris 
Mouss.. Boettger, Jahrb. d. m. Ges., vi, 1876, p. 404 (Lai- 
lasch, Kreis Letschghum, Caucasus). — Pupa {Orcula) ray- 
mondi Bgt., Boettger, Jahrb. d. m. Ges., viii, 1881, p. 229 
(Kutais, varies up to 11 whorls, of a reddish -brown color, 
5x2 mm. Also Gordi on the Tsheni-Tshali). — Pupa {Sphy- 
radium) bifilaris Mousson, Journ. de Conchyl., xxi, 1873, p. 
210, pi. 8, f. 8 (Forest of Gorktscha) ; xxiv, 1876, p. 142 
(valley of the Akstafa, Transcaucasia, Sievers; the upper 
columellar lamella almost wholly effaced) . — Orcula bifilaris 
Mouss., Kobelt, Iconographie n. F., viii, 1899, p. 76, pi. 232, 
f. 1498. — Orcula raymondi (Bgt.) var. trifilaris Mouss. und 
var. bifilaris Mouss., Boettger, Bericht Senckenb. Natur- 
forsch. Ges., 1889, p. 23 {trifilaris from Waldern der Niede- 
rung Kurdschips u. auf dem Berge Guk ; bifilaris in the S.-E. 
and N. foothills of the Oschten-Fischt group) ; Nachrbl. d. m. 
Ges., 1905, p. 108 (drift of the Sarus, Adana, Cilicia, speci- 
men with 2 columellar folds). — Pupa {Orcula) raymondi 


Bourg. var. bifilaris Mouss. f . longior et f . intermedia Retow- 
ski, Bericht Senckenb. Nat. Ges., 1889, p. 254. — Pupa ray- 
mondi Mss. var. bifilaris Mss., trifilaris Mss. und quadrifilaris 
forma nova, Rosen, Nachrbl. d. m. Ges., vol. 37, 1905, p. 57 ; 
also Pupa raymondi B. f. bifilaris; bifilaris truncata, pi. 2, f. 
3 ; trifilaris Mouss. ; and Pupa raymondi B. f . quadrifilaris 
truncata, pi. 1, figs. 9a-b, Rosen, Annuaire Mus. Zool. l'Acad. 
Imp. St.-Petersb., xvi, 1911, p. 120. 

The small size of the shell (2.5 x 1.5 mm.) and the remark- 
able development of epidermal spines even on the later whorls, 
distinguish typical raymondi from the Caucasian forms. The 
spines in Bourguignat 's figure (which is copied photographi- 
cally on my plate) look almost too good to be true; they were 
probably restored somewhat by the artist. Kobelt, Germain 
and Boettger appear to know this typical raymondi only by 
the original account; and so far as I know, none have been 
collected at Beyrout since the original lot. The internal 
structure is not known. 

14a. Orcula raymondi trifilaris (Mouss.). PI. 4, figs. 2, 3, 4, 
5, 6. 

Shell rimate-p erf orate, ovate-cylindric, closely coiled, slightly 
striatulate, slightly shining, corneous. Spire with very obtuse 
summit and well-marked suture. Eight whorls, of which four 
form the summit, the rest convex, tapering from the fifth, the 
last whorl more tapering, a little compressed, somewhat 
ascending. Aperture vertical, small, ovate-semicircular; on 
the parietal wall one strong and compressed lamella. Peri- 
stome expanding a little, acute, white-lipped within, the mar- 
gins subparallel, the right margin arcuate, columellar margin 
produced, straight, the columellar area with three minute 
folds, diverging backward. Length 4%, diam. 2 mm. {Mouss.). 

Transcaucasia: Reduktaleh (Dr. Schlaefli, type loc). 

This form is at least subspecifically distinct from raymondi 
by its larger size and probably also by the less developed 

Boettger (1876) found that in fresh specimens from Lai- 
lasch on each of the distant raised growth-riblets a long, erect 


bristle stands at the upper third, so that the crown of hairs 
stands near the suture, and not, as in 0. doliolum, at the lower 
edge of the whorls. Reinhardt (1880) made the same obser- 
vation on specimens from the Caucasus, which show somewhat 
whitish epidermal riblets which are rather distant on the 
upper whorls, and produced in a rather long hair-like spine 
on the upper part. The last whorl may have even two rows 
of spines. In most specimens in collections these spines are 
very slightly developed or are entirely rubbed off. 

Internal structure (pi. 4, figs. 2, 5). — The parietal lamella 
becomes a little lower as it enters. Within the left side it 
begins to enlarge, and the edge flares outward. On the ven- 
tral side it attains maximum size, and on the right side the 
flare disappears and the lamella diminishes rapidly; its total 
length is about li/o whorls. The columellar lamella becomes 
very wide within, nearly meeting the enlarged parietal lamella 
on the ventral side ; after that diminishing to the size of the 
supracolumellar lamella, which is nowhere enlarged. The 
infracolumellar lamella is short, near the aperture only. 
Specimens from Suran measure : 

Length 4.5, diam. 2 mm. ; 9 whorls. Fig. 4. 

Length 3.8, diam. 2 mm. ; 8 whorls. Fig. 6. 

Form quadrifilaris Rosen. PI. 4, fig. 7. Having a fourth 
columellar fold below the three characteristic of trifilaris. 
The most conspicuous difference making it easily known from 
all the other forms is the quite flat summit of the shell, which 
appears as though truncate. The shell of 4.2 mm. long has 
7y 2 whorls, of which the first 3% form a flat surface with 
scarcely projecting apex. Drift of the Psekup, Caucasus; 
2 found among 14 bifilaris (Rosen), 

In his paper of 1911 Rosen states that he has recently 
found equally truncate bifilaris Mouss., and Dr. "Wagner in- 
formed him that in typical raymondi of Asia Minor the trun- 
cate spire also occurs. He has named the form bifilaris trun- 
cata, and figured a specimen from flotsam of the Psekup (see 
pi. 4, fig. 8). Rosen also figures what he calls P. raymondi f. 
quadrifilaris truncata, copied in our pi. 4, fig. 7. This is 
exactly what he formerly called quadrifilaris, from the same 


14&. Orcula raymondi bifilaris (Mouss). PL 4, fig. 9. 

Shell small, closely riinate, ovate-cylindric ; smoothish, orna- 
mented with widely-spaced and fugacious membranous lami- 
nas, rufous-corneous. Spire closely coiled, more rapidly de- 
creasing above, the summit obtuse ; suture somewhat im- 
pressed. Whorls 8, the first convex, following ones rather 
flattened; the last whorl slowly ascending a little, rounded, 
rather swollen beneath. Aperture subvertical (12° with the 
axis), semicircular. Peristome white, reflected, lipped within, 
the margins remote, parietal wall having a regular parietal 
lamella ; right margin somewhat sinuated below the insertion, 
then a little thickened and bent forward; columellar margin 
broadly spreading, with two revolving threads, the upper 
minute, immersed, the lower larger. Length 4.1, diain. 2.3 
mm. (Mouss.). 


0. bifilaris was at one time thought to be merely a form of 
doliolum (Reinhardt, Jahrb. d. m. Ges., iv, 1877, p. 76, and 
Boettger, vi, 1879, p. 31; also p. 404), but Boettger subse- 
quently relinquished this opinion, and considered it a variety 
of 0. raymondi. The lamella? of bifilaris are somewhat less 
broadly developed within the last whorl than in trifilaris; 
there is more space between the parietal and the columellar. 
The specimen figured from the Oschten-Fischt range, meas- 
ures, length 4.1, diam. 2 mm. ; fully 8 whorls. 

0. raymondi bifilaris form longior (Ret.). Differs from the 
typical form of bifilaris, found by me in various places in the 
Caucasus, by its significant size, larger aperture, more pro- 
duced apex as well as the more twisted columella. It stands 
in the same relation to bifilaris as trifilaris Mouss. to ray- 
mondi Bgt. Length 4.9 to 5.7, diam. 2 to 2.25 mm. Samsun 
(Retowski, 1889). 

A conspicuously truncate form from the drift of the Pse- 
kup has been named P. bifilaris truncata Rosen (pi. 4, fig. 8). 

0. raymondi bifilaris f. intermedia (Ret.). Whorls 9; 
peristome connected. Columella with three folds, a short 
third one further out placed between the usual two. Length 
6, diam. 2% mm. By the presence of the short third fold 


this form makes a transition to P. raymondi, which has three 
columellar folds of equal strength. One specimen. Sudak, 
Crimea, on the strand. [Pupa (Orcula) doliolum var. inter- 
media Retowski, Malak. Blatter, n. F., vi, 1883, p. 59.] 

Retowski supposed that this, together with specimens hav- 
ing two columellar folds, and many other species of land 
shells, floated from Transcaucasia or Asia Minor, as they 
were not found by him anywhere inland in the Crimea. 

Originally described as a form of 0. doliolum, Retowski 
subsequently (1889) regarded it as an intermediate link be- 
tween bifilaris and trifilaris (an erroneous opinion). Of two 
specimens found at Samsun, one had only a weak, short 
middle fold near the peristome, but in the other this fold is 
as long as the other two, but is notably weaker, while in ray- 
mondi and trifilaris the middle fold is the strongest [being 
the columellar lamella proper] . 

Genus LAURIA Gray. 

Cochlodon Lowe, Trans. Cambr. Philos. Soc, iv, 1831, p. 62 
(emendation of Cochlodonta Fer., a subgenus of Helix) ; first 
species, here designated type, Helix C. anconostoma. 

Laurki Gray, in Turton's Manual of the Land and Fresh- 
water Shells of the British Islands, new edit., revised by J. E. 
Gray, 1840, p. 193, for P. umbilicata and P. anglica; P. Z. S., 
1847, p. 176, type Pupa umbilicata. — Herrmannsen, Indicis 
Gen. Mai., i, May 25, 1847, p. 578, type: Pupa umbilicata 

Eruca Swaixsox, Malacology, 1840, p. 334, no type selected. 
— Herrmaxxsex, Indices Gen. Malac, i, p. 428, type: Pupa 
umbilicata Drap. 

Gastrodon Lowe, Ann. Mag. N. H., Apr. 1852, p. 275, for 
Pupa fanalensis only; P. Z. S., 1854 (1855), p. 207, "type P. 
umbilicata Drap." Not Gastrodon Eaf., 1815. 

Reinhardtia Boettger, Jahrb. D. malak Ges., vi, 1879, pp. 
29, 403 (restricted to group of P. cylindracea DaC). P. 
cylindracea is here designated type. 

The shell is perforate and rimate or umbilicate, ovate, ob- 
long-conic or cylindric, having a deeply penetrating angular 
lamella (rarely wanting) and often other teeth, the immature 
(neanic) stage with lamella? on the parietal wall and columella 


and short radial laminae at intervals within the basal wall. 
Embryonic shell usually very finely striate spirally. Type L. 

Distribution : Palamrctic and Ethiopian regions. 

Orcula resembles this genus by having spiral lamellae in the 
young, but it differs by lacking radial basal lamina?. In the 
adult stage the angular lamella of Orcula, when present, is 
tubercular, not lamellar and entering, as in Lauria. 

Lauria comprises two subordinate groups, rather distinct in 
the apertural teeth, but even more by the reproduction, Lauria 
proper being viviparous, while the subgenus Leiostyla is ovi- 
parous. Perhaps these groups should be ranked as distinct 
genera ; but they are identical in the peculiar armature of the 
young shells. 

Tertiary Species of Lauria. 

No species of the typical group of Lauria are as yet known 
from the Tertiary. It is doubtless a derivative of the more 
fully toothed group Leiostyla, and probably an old branch 
which may turn up in the Eocene. Its discontinuous, far- 
flung distribution certainly denotes a considerable antiquity. 
Probably we will eventually learn that Lauria (Leiostyla) 
was present in the Paleocene ; the Neocene and Recent species 
are to be viewed as scattered survivors of an old genus. The 
extravagant development of teeth and apertural calluses, seen 
in many species, is an expression of racial old age. 

The following list, contributed by Dr. W. Wenz, of the 
Senckenbergische Museum, Frankfurt, contains only species 
of Leiostyla : 

Lauria priscilla (Paladilhe). Vertigo priscilla Paladilhe, 
Rev. Sci. Nat., ii, 1873, p. 53, pi. 2, figs. 22-24. — Vertigo 
(Ptychalcra) priscilla, this work, vol. xxv, p. 220. Middle 
Pliocene, Plaisancien : Celleneuve near Montpellier, France. 

Lauria austriaca "Wenz. Senckbergiana, iii, 1921, p. 28, 
fig. 2. Lower Pliocene, Pontien : Congeria beds, Leobersdorf , 
Lower Austria. 

Lauria gottschicki Wenz. Archiv fur Molluskenk., 1922, 
p. 107, figs. Upper Miocene, Sarmatien : Steinheim am Al- 
buch, Wiirttemberg. 


Lauria minax Boettger. Jahrb. Nassau. Ver. f. Naturk., 
Wiesbaden, xlii, p. 237, 319, pi. 6, f. 2. Upper Oligoeene, 
Chattien: Landschneckenkalk, Hochheim. L. minax micro- 
doma Bttg., I. c, is merely a deformed specimen. 

Key to Subgenera and Sections of Lauria, 

a 1 . Aperture having only angular and columellar lamellae in 
the adult stage, the columellar often immersed or obsolete, 
or rarely both are wanting. 

b 1 . Shell unicolored, only weakly striate. Subgenus 

Lauria proper, p. 45. 
b~. Shell banded or bicolored, distinctly striate. Sub- 
genus Petrarca, no. 51. 
a 2 . Angular, parietal, columellar and palatal teeth present. 
Subgenus Leiostyla, species 15-55. 

b 1 . Parietal lamella higher (i. e., projecting into the 
mouth further) than the angular. Section Wollas- 
b 2 . Parietal lamella not higher than the angular, gener- 
ally lower. 

c 1 . Parietal lamella emerging about as far as the 
angular ; numerous teeth, all emerging to peri- 
stoma. Section Scarabella. 
c 2 . Parietal lamella not emerging so far as the 

d 1 . Diameter about two-thirds of the length ; 
whorls not more than 5y 2 , with lamellar 
ribs; parietal lamella minute or want- 
ing. Section Mastula. 
d 2 . Diameter relatively less, or whorls more 
numerous. Section Leiostyla s. str. 

Keys to species may be found under Lauria and Leiostyla, 
the latter following species no. 14. 

Subgenus Lauria proper. 

Shell perforate and deeply rimate, cylindric-tapering to 
ovate, smoothish or finely striate, the aperture having a small 


angular lamella continued inward as a short or long thread, 
and a very small columellar lamella, sometimes not reaching 
to the columella. No palatal folds. 


Distribution : Europe, the Atlantic Islands, Africa, Island 
of Bourbon. 

This group of L. cylindracea is remarkable for its conserva- 
tism in characters and the wide distribution. Its presence in 
the Azores, St. Helena and Jamaica is apparently traceable 
to importation by commerce ; but there are species apparently 
endemic in places as remote as Madeira, the Canaries, South 
Africa and Bourbon. None of these vary much from the 

A few forms are toothless, such as L. sempronii dilucida, 
and mutations of some forms which normally are toothed. 

Specimens of all of the species except L. vulcanica, L. fagoti 
and L. desiderata are in the collection of the Academy, most 
of them in considerable series. 

Key to species of Lauria proper. 

r Palaearctic species, Europe, Atlantic Islands, northern 
! ) Africa (2) 

(. Ethiopian species, Abyssinia to the Cape; Bourbon (10) 

Larger species, the diam. (above aperture) 1.5 to 2 mm.; 

base distinctly compressed and subangular (3) 
Smaller species, thin, diam. 1.2 to 1.6 mm. ; base rounded 
I or but little compressed (4) 

Umbilicus funnel-shaped, bounded by a strong basal 
keel. L. umbilicus, no. 2 

Umbilicus moderate, basal keel less pronounced. 

L. cylindracea, no. 1 

r Aperture without teeth of any kind. 

-j L. sempronii dilucida, no. 4a 

(. An angular lamella present (5) 

r A low columellar lamella, sometimes nearly immersed (6) 
{ No columellar lamella in the adult stage (8) 






Finely, sharply striate; generally banded, or brownish 

above the periphery. Azores. L. fasciolata, no. 51 

Smoothish or obsoletely striatulate, of uniform, pale 

tint (7) 
Spain. L. fagoti, no. 5 

Madeira, Canaries. L. fwnalensis, no. 7 

Ovate, most minutely striate, silky; Sardinia. 

L. vulcanica, no. 3 
Cylindric-ovate, weakly striatulate (9) 
Thread inward from the angular lamella very weak; 

Europe. L. sempronii, no. 4 

Thread well developed ; Caucasus. L. caspia, no. 6 

Abyssinia. L. bruguierei, no. 8 

Mt. Kenia, British East Africa. L. desiderata, no. 9 

Island of Bourbon. L. bourbonensis, no. 10 

South Africa (11) 
Angular lamella long, curving into the interior (12) 

' Angular lamella short ; lip rather wide ; base pinched 
out in a short blunt keel behind the basal lip. 


L. tabularis, no. 14 

Base subangular; length 3.4 to 4.24 mm. 
12-| L. farquhari, no. 11 

Base narrowly rounded; length 3 to 3.5 mm. (13) 

Radial basal laminae large in the early neanic stage, per- 
sisting smaller nearly to the adult stage. 
13 «| L. cryptoplax, no. 13 

Radial basal laminas veiy small, present only in the 
early neanic stage. L. dadion, no. 12 


1. Lauria cylindrica (Da Costa). PL 6, figs. 1 to 8. 

The shell is perforate and shortly rimate, cylindroid, taper- 
ing slowly upward, or ovate, the summit rounded, obtuse; 
semitransparent-cinnamon, glossy, scarcely striate. The whorls 
are moderately convex, the last ascending somewhat in front, 
compressed at base, forming a blunt basal keel. The truncate- 
oval aperture is slightly oblique, the peristome reflected, white 


or creamy, flattened on the face, with a heavy callous thicken- 
ing towards and at the inner margin. The short, curved an- 
gular lamella connects with the outer lip, and is continued 
inward as a thread about a half whorl long, more or less. A 
very low, thread-like columellar lamella is weakly developed, 
but often lacking. 

Length 3.5, diam. 1.8 mm. ; 6y 2 whorls. Tadcaster. 

Length 2.8, diam. 1.7 mm. ; 5y 2 whorls. Tadcaster. 

Length 4.5, diam. 2 mm. ; 7 whorls. Calvados. 

Length 3.2, diam. 1.6 mm. ; 6 whorls. Calvados. 

Europe, especially in coastal countries, east to the Caucasus ; 
Transcaucasia; Algeria; varieties introduced in the Atlantic 

Turbo cylindraceus DaCosta, Hist. Nat. Testae. Brit., 1778, 
p. 89. 

Pupa cylindracea Paulucci, Bull. Soc. Malac. Ital., vii, 
1881, p. 120; viii, 1882, p. 278 (Sardinia) ; with var. misella, 
p. 279, pi. 8, f. 2. — Westerlund, Fauna, iii, p. 80, with var. 
montigena and incequalis. 

Charadrobia cylindracea (DaCosta) Boettger, Jahrb. D. m. 
Ges., xiii, 1886, p. 148 (Transcaucasia, at Helenendorf, Der- 
bent, Kusary, Schach-Dagh). 

Lauria cylindracea DaC, Kobelt, Iconogr. n. F., viii, p. 72, 
figs. 1490-3, with var. misella, anconostomu, villa and umbili- 
cus. — Kennard & Woodward, Proc. Geol. Asso., vol. 28, pt. 3, 
1917 (Postpliocene, Ireland). 

Pupa umbilicata Drap., Tabl., 1801, p. 58 ; Hist., p. 62, pi. 
3, f. 39, 40..— Pfeiffer, Monogr., ii, 329 ; iii, 542 ; viii, 370 (see 
for older references). — Gray in Turton, Manual, 1840, p. 193, 
with var. edentula, p. 194. — Jeffreys, Brit. Conch., i, p. 246. 
— Bourguignat, Malac. d'Algerie, ii, 1864, p. 91, pi. 6, f. 8-11, 
13, 14, with, p. 92, var. subperforata and bidentata. — Wester- 
lund, Fauna, iii, p. 80. — Mousson, Jahrb. d. m. Ges., i, p. 95 
(Ued Ksib near Mogador). — Reinhardt, Jahrb., iv, 1877, p. 
283, immature stage. — Boycott, Proc. Malac. Soc. London, 
xiv, p. 171. 

Pupa umbilicata var. f blakei Shuttl., v. Martens, Die Hel- 
iceen, 1860, p. 290, name only (Ireland). 

Bulimus unidentatus Vallot, 1801, according to Wester- 

Pupilla drapernaudii Leach, in Turton, Manual, 1831, p. 
98; Syn. Moll. Gt. Brit., 1852, p. 91. — Helix bocconiana 


Benoit, 111. Test, sist., crit,, iconogr., Test, estramar. Sieilia 
ult,, 1857, p. 144, pi. 4, f . 7 ; cf . Reinhaedt, Jahrb. d. m. Ges., 
1877, p. 283.— ? Pupa concolor ZgL, Menke, Syn. Meth. Moll, 
in Mus. Menkeano, 1828, p. 18, name only, but with query 
whether it may be a toothless P. umbilicata Dr. 

This abundant species is readily known by the small an- 
gular lamella, continued inward thread-like, the thickened, 
reflected lip and tapering-cylindroid form. According to 
Boycott it occurs chiefly about ivy-covered stone walls, ledges 
with grass and leaves in limestone quarries, also on trees and 
among stones and rubbish. These conditions being commonly 
found in cultivated districts, it has been accidentally carried 
about with plants etc., thus reaching such remote spots as St. 
Helena, Jamaica and other islands. 

In many museum lots there are short specimens such as fig. 
2, together with the longer ones. Westerlund has called these 
form curt a. Exactly the same dimorphism is seen in ancon- 
ostoma, where the smaller form has been called curta Lowe. 

In Transcaucasia, Boettger notes that at Helenendorf there 
is no columellar lamella ; the lip is broadly reflected, flat, white 
or with a brownish cast. L. 3%, d. 2y± mm. Similar but 
smaller ones from Derbent, where it is common, 3% x 2 mm. 
In Kusary the umbilicus is broader with sharper keel, a tran- 
sition to var. umbilicus Roth ; abundant ; 3y 2 x 2 mm. Those 
from Schach-Dagh are similar. At Mamudly and Zalka 
(Jahrb., vi, 30) the specimens are like small English ones. 

Named varieties and mutations follow, the original descrip- 
tions being quoted. 

Form ederitula Gray. Mouth without teeth; England. 
This apparently includes form inermis West. (Fauna Euro- 
pa?a, 1876, p. 184. Aperture entirely toothless. Visby, Sweden. 

Mut. edentula Jeffreys (Brit. Conch., i, 1862, p. 247). 
Columellar tooth wanting. Name preoccupied by Gray, 1840. 
Mut. alba Jeffr., I. c. Shell white or colorless. A specimen 
from Grange-over-Sands, Lancashire (G. C. Spence), is fig- 
ured, pi. 6, fig. 3. It has also been referred to as P. umbilicata 
var. albina (Ashford, J. of Conch., iv, 312, and by various 
continental authors). 

Form gracilis Issel. Smaller, more elongate than the type, 


and less tapering at summit. 3 1 /! x V/2 mm. Botanical gar- 
den of Pisa. (Pupa umbilicata var. gracilis Issel, Mem. Soc. 
Ital. di Sci. Nat., ii, Milano, 1866, p. 22.) 

Form sub per for at a Bgt. Differs from typical cylindracea 
by the slightly narrower umbilical perforation, and the nearly 
rounded instead of compressed base. Bou-Mecid, near Con- 
stantine, Algeria (Bgt., Malac. Alg., ii, 92). Bourguignat's 
var. bidentata is the typical cylindracea, having a small colu- 
mellar lamella. 

Var. montigena "Westerl., 1884. Smaller, blackish, ventri- 
cose, with short, rounded spire, columella with an emerging 
fold and deep within a conical tooth. 3x2 mm. Skaralid, in 
Skane, Sweden (Westerl.). 

Var. vnaqualis Westerlund, 1887. Ovate-cylindric, reddish- 
corneous; whorls 6, convex, the third from the last much 
(often nearly doubly) lower than the penult, this being only 
one-third shorter than the last, which is ventricose behind. 
Peristome narrow, reddish, outer margin not curved, simple. 
Parietal lamella hardly thickened above, separated from the 
outer lip, with an adjacent tooth. Columellar lamella emerg- 
ing far upon the middle of the columella. 3% x 2 mm. Greece 
(Westerlund, Fauna, iii, 80). 

L. c. villa ('Charp.' Kuester). PI. 6, fig. 9. Differing from 
cylindracea "by the greater size, cylindric shape, wider um- 
bilical cavity (though narrowly perforate), more distinct 
striation and the relatively longer aperture ; especially also 
by the absence of a columellar fold. Length 2, diam. % lines ; 
6 whorls." Neighborhood of Brienz on Lake Pusano, Switr 
zerland (Pupa villa Charpentier, Kuester, Syst. Conch. Cab., 
Pupa, 1849, p. 107, pi. 14, f. 32, 33). 

Kuester's figure, reproduced in fig. 9, looks like ancono- 
stoma. Specimens from Milan and Florence received as villa, 
appear to be anconostoma. The lip is narrow, and there is no 
columellar lamella in the adult, stage; size a little smaller 
than given by Kuester, 3.2 x 1.6 mm. The young have three 
basal laminae at 90° intervals, thus a trifle more widely spaced 
than in anconostoma. 

L. c. sabaudina (Locard). Shape of sempronu; 7 slightly 
convex whorls ; aperture bidentate ; 1 fold above touching the 
end of the outer lip; 1 little fold on the middle of the colu- 
mella; peristome interrupted, expanded, reflected, thick and 
sharp. Shell thin, glossy, corneous or greenish, ornamented 
with fine, very close, half-effaced striae. Length $y 2 to 4, diam. 
1% mm. Aix-les-Bains, Chambery (Savoie). Pupilla sabau- 


dina Locard, Ann. Soc. Agric. Lyon (7), iii, 1895 (1896), p. 

This appears to be intermediate between L. cylindracea and 
sempronii, having the color and sculpture of the latter, but 
the size and columellar lamella of cylindracea. It has not 
been figured, and is known by Locard 's account only. 

The description of variety L. umbiUcata margieri, Bull. 
Soc. Corse, xxii, 1903, p. 278, is not accessible to me. 

Lauria c. poupillieri (Bgt). PL 6, figs. 16, 17, 18. 

Shell subperforate and curved-rimate, obesely subcylindric, 
thin, very glossy, subpellucid, corneous, smoothish, very 
sharply striatulate under a lens. Spire obese, not very high, 
the apex obtuse. Whorls 7, slightly convex, slowly increas- 
ing, separated by a moderately impressed suture, the last 
slightly larger, gibbous and compressed at base, at the aper- 
ture a little contracted and strongly ascending in front. 
Aperture slightly oblique, semiovate, tuberculously thickened 
at the insertion of outer lip, and with a minute spirally en- 
tering lamella. Columella straight. Peristome whitish-thick- 
ened, flat, a little expanded and reflected, the outer margin 
angularly bent, margins approaching. Alt. 4, diam. 2 mm. 

Algeria: drift of the ravine of Chabet-Beinan near Cape 
Caxine, about 14 kilom. west of Algiers. 

Pupa poupillieri Bourguignat, Malac. d'Algerie, ii, 1864 r 
p. 89, pi. 6, f. 4-7. 

By its widely open umbilical region it somewhat approaches 
L. umbilicus Roth. Not seen by the author. 

Lauria cylindracea anconostoma (Lowe). PL 6, figs. 10, 11, 12. 

Lip decidedly narrower than in cylindracea; angular la- 
mella less thick, generally not connected with the outer lip- 
insertion. Length 3 mm. (fig. 11) to 4.3 mm. (fig. 10). 

Madeira (type loc), in the low and intermediate zones, 
abounding about walls and cultivated grounds, seldom ascend- 
ing higher than 2500 ft.; also on the Desertas. Canaries: 
Fuerteventura, Teneriffe, Hierro, in the zone of cultivation. 


Azores: Fayal, S. Miguel. St. Helena. Jamaica. Also found 
in England, France, Italy, Mamudly, Transcaucasia, etc. 

Helix anconostoma Lowe, Cambr. Philos. Soc. Trans., iv, 
1831, p. 62, pi. 6, f. 301. — Pupa anconostoma Lowe, Pfr., 
Monogr., ii, 314 ; iii, 542 ; iv, 668 ; vi, 308. — Pupa umbilicata 
var. anconostoma Lwe., Wollaston, Testae. Atlant., pp. 211, 
450. — Pupilla anconostoma Mabille, Nouv. Archives du Mus., 
(2), viii, 1885, p. 157. — Pupa grevillei Chitty, Contrib. to 
Conchology no. 1, 1853, p. 17 (Newton, St. Andrews Mts., 
Jamaica). — Pfr., Monogr., iv, 666. — Pupa nilssoni Wallen- 
gren, Antekn. i Zoologien, 1856, p. 86, according to Wester- 
lund. — Pupa helenensis Pfr., Malak. Bl., iii, 1856, p. 207 ; 
Monographia, iv, 665 (St. Helena). Cf. Smith, P. Z. S., 1892, 
p. 259. 

The relation of this form to cylindracea is not clear to me. 
The two are found together in some museum lots from Europe ; 
whether they are associated in life, I do not know. A short 
form of cylindracea, generally called curia "West., differs from 
short anconostoma by the more developed callous pad in the 
angle of the aperture. 

Lowe noted two varieties. " (a), gyrata: shell lengthened, 
elbow of the aperture [angulation of the outer lip above] 
very distinct; length 1%, diam. 1 line, 7 whorls." This may 
be regarded as typical anconostoma. " (6), curt a: shell short- 
ened ; elbow of the aperture more obsolete ; length 1*4, diam. 
% line, 6 whorls." These are represented by figures 10, 4.3 
mm. long, and 11, 3 mm., respectively. In several lots exam- 
ined both short, and long examples are present, in others only 
long and intermediate. 

It is very abundant in Madeira, where the typical cylin- 
dracea has been found only in the Jardim da Serra. Both 
are regarded by Wollaston as introduced from the mainland. 
I can find no differences between shells of Madeira, Teneriffe, 
Hierro, Fayal and S. Miguel. A specimen from St, Helena 
(P. helenensis) is of the short form, curta Lowe. 

Two sets of P. grevillei from Jamaica in coll. A. N. S., and 
a lot of 4 in U. S. N. M. (no. 331779), received from Chitty, 
are typical anconostoma, 3.5 to 3.7 mm. long. Whether it is 
colonized in Jamaica, or introduced into Chitty 's collection by 


mistake, remains uncertain. No subsequent collector has 
found it there. 

A. cylindracea misella Paulucci does not appear to differ 
materially from anconostoma. It was described thus: Differs 
from the type [of cylindracea] by the smaller shell, very 
fragile, without teeth or very minutely subdentate on the 
parietal wall ; aperture narrower, rounded ; peristome less re- 
flected, somewhat narrowed. Length 3, diam. 1.75 mm. Sar- 
dinia : forests of Monte Cresia and Valle del Tacquisara, with 
the typical form (Pauhicci). 

Lauria cylindracea dokrm (Pfr.). PI. 6, figs. 13, 14, 15. 

Shell rimate, ovate, glossy, pellucid, delicately striatulate, 
brownish-corneous ; spire convex, obtuse ; 6 slightly convex 
whorls, the last about two-fifths of the length, compressed at 
base, slightly ascending in front; aperture oblique, sinuate- 
oval, with a single compressed, lamelliform tooth on the pari- 
etal wall at the insertion of the lip ; peristome angularly re- 
flected, the right margin attenuate and sinuous above. Length 
3 to 3%, diam. 1% to 2 mm., diam. apert. 1 mm. (Dohrn). 

The shell is very similar to the larger examples of ancono- 
stoma. The lip is well reflected but narrow, brownish ; there 
is no columellar lamella in the typical form from S. Antao 
(but it is present in those of S. Nicolao, form perdubia) . The 
base is perceptibly more rounded, less compressed than in 

Length 3, diam. 1.8 mm., 5% whorls, topotype from Dohrn. 

Length 3.5, diam. 1.9 mm., barely 6 whorls. 

Cape Verde Islands: S. Antao, in the Ribeira de Joao 
Affonso (Dohrn). S. Nicolao (Lowe). 

Pupa milleri Dohrn, Malak. Bl., xvi, 1869, p. 11. Not P. 
milleri Pfr., 1867. — Pupa dohrni Pfr., Monographia, viii, 
1877, p. 371. — Wollaston, Testae. Atlant., p. 513. Not Pupa 
dhorni Desh., 1864. 

This form stands so close to anconostoma that its distinc- 
tion may be superfluous, as Wollaston evidently thought. 

The S. Nicolao form, perdubia, Woll., pi. 6, figs. 14, 15, is a 
little less conic, being wider in the spire, and showing a dis- 
tinct if low columellar lamella. Length 3.3, diam. 1.7 mm., 


or shorter. It stands extremely close to anconostoma. Fig- 
ured from a Wollaston specimen in the Tomlin collection. 

A young specimen of perdubia, pi. 6, fig. 14, of 4 whorls, 
shows four palatal lamina? at closer intervals than in any 
anconostoma or cylindracea seen. In another smaller shell 
there are three lamina? at similarly close intervals. 

Deshayes' name Pupa dhorni was presumably an error for 
dohrni; Sandberger has referred to it as Carychiopsis dohmi. 
In the absence of proof of error, the name can hardly be held 
to invalidate P. dohrni Pfr. 

2. Lauria umbilicus (Roth). PI. 6, figs. 19, 20. 

The shell is narrowly umbilicate within, the umbilicus en- 
larging funnel-like at the opening; ovate, thin, dilute brown, 
somewhat transparent, weakly striatulate. The whorls are mod- 
erately convex, the last somewhat contracted behind the aper- 
ture, pinched out below to form a prominent keel around the 
umbilicus, the keel bordered by an impressed line within the 
latter. The aperture is somewhat narrowed and subangular 
basally. Lip reflected, thickened within, the thickening ex- 
cised above. A small angular lamella connects with the outer 
lip-insertion, and is continued inward as a thread-like lamella. 
No columellar lamella. Length 2.9, diam. 1.5 mm. ; 5y 2 whorls. 

Greece: Island of Syra (Roth and others). Southern Dal- 
matia and Albania (Kuester). 

Pupa umbilicus Roth, Molluscorum species quas in itinere 
per Orientem etc., Diss. Inaug., 1839, p. 20, pi. 2, f. 3. — Kues- 
ter, Conch. Cab., p. 25, pi. 3, f. 18, 19. — Pfr., Monogr., ii, 
330; iii, 542. 

This has been considered a variety of L. cylindracea by 
Kobelt. It differs from that by the much more strongly de- 
veloped basal keel ; and until intergradation is demonstrated, 
may well be left apart. The figured specimen is from S. 
Giorgio, Syria. 

3. Lauria vulcanica (Kuester). PI. 7, fig. 1. 

The shell is very small, egg-shaped, very blunt, nearly 
smooth with a silky luster, thin- walled, transparent; color 
horn-yellow or pale yellow. Base compressed; neck round, 



scarcely contracted; umbilical opening round, deeply pene- 
trating. Aperture large, ovate-rounded, free ; one small tooth 
only on the parietal wall. Peristome sharp, little reflected. 
Length iy 3 , diain. % lines. Animal blackish, lighter beneath 

Sardinia : in the pores of lava blocks of the tumbled-down 
crater of an extinct volcano near Nurri ; few specimens (Kues- 
ter) ; waterfall at Laeoni (Caroti). 

Pupa vulcanica Kuester, Conchyl. Cab., 18. ., p. 18, pt. 2, 
f. 23, 24. — Paulucci, Bull. Soc. Malac. Italiana, viii, 1882, p. 
282. — Pupa rupestris Kuester, Anton, Verzeichniss, p. 47, no. 
1736 ; not of Philippi. 

This appears to be a thin, anconostoma-like form, perhaps 
closer to sempronii, from a station deficient in lime. Kues- 
ter 's size-figure is 3.3 mm. long. Mme. Paulucci states that 
fine, oblique striae are distinctly seen under sufficient magnifi- 
cation, and that the immature stage has a second lamella in- 
ward on the columella. So far as I can learn, it has been col- 
lected only twice, and is one of the rarest European species. 

4. Lauria sempronii (Charp.). PI. 7, figs. 2, 3. 

The shell is most minutely perforate, shortly rimate, cylin- 
dric-tapering with blunt, rounded summit, transparent pale 
tawny-olive, glossy, smooth. The whorls are moderately con- 
vex, the last narrowly rounded basally, the base little com- 
pressed only near the lip. The aperture is truncate-oval. 
Peristome is very narrowly reflected and a little thickened at 
the inner edge ; outer lip sinuated above. A small, short an- 
gular lamella stands upon the parietal wall near the outer 
lip-insertion, with which it is very weakly connected in the 
most strongly developed examples. Columella smooth. 

Length 3.1, diam. 1.4 mm. ; 6 whorls. Lombardy. Fig. 3. 

Length 2.4, diam. 1.5 mm. ; 5y 2 whorls. Lombardy. Fig. 2. 

Entire Alpic region, Sardinia, Balkan Peninsula and Cau- 

Pupa sempronii Charpentier, Cat. Moll. terr. et fluv. 
Suisse, in Nouv. Mem. Soc. Helvet. Sci. Nat., i, 1837, p. 15, 
pi. 2, f. 4 (on granitic rocks around Gondo, on the southern 


slope of the Simplon, type loc). — Paulucci, Bull. Soc. Malac. 
Italiana, viii, p. 280, with var. dilucida, p. 281 (both from 
Osini and valley of Taequisara, Sardinia) ; Materiaux Faune 
Malac. Italie, 1878, p. 10 (dist. in Italy). — Pini, Bull. Soc. 
Malae. Ital., ii, p. 164 (localities in the Esino district). — 
Boettger, Jahrb. D. malak. Ges., viii, p. 228 (Kutais, Trans- 
caucasia). — Odosiomia sempronii Charp. Clessest, Mollusken- 
fauna Oesterreick-Ungarns, 1887, p. 253, f. 153, with var. 
dilucida, p. 254, f. 154 (Tyrol). — Pupilla sempronii Charp., 
Locard, Ann. Soc. Agric. Lyon (7), iii, 1895, (1896), p. 215. 
— Lauria sempronii Charp., Kobelt, Iconogr. n. F., viii, p. 70, 
pi. 231, f. 1486. 

Pupa sempronii var. edentula Gredler, Pfr.-Cless., Nomencl. 
Hel. Viv., p. 353, as synonym of P. dilucida. 

Pupa dilucida Ziegler, Rossmaessler, Iconogr., i, pt. 5, 
1837, p. 15, f. 326.— Pfr., Monogr., ii, 304.— Dupuy, Journ. 
de Conch., xxv, 18 (descr. of living animal). — Pupilla dilucida 
Ziegl., Locard, t. c, p. 216 (le Midi, Gers, Herault, Haute- 
Garonne, Gironde, Alpes-Maritimes). 

Helix vallisnerii de Stefani, Bull. Soc. Malac. Ital., v, 1879, 
p. 39 (immature stage). 

It is much smaller than any form of cylindracea, more deli- 
cate and transparent, and with only a very small angular 
lamella, which sometimes continues as a delicate thread a third 
of a whorl inward, but more frequently the thread is shorter 
or wanting. It has a columellar lamella in the young, but 
none is visible in adult shells examined from France, Switzer- 
land (Lausanne), Lombardy and the Tyrol. 

De Stefani described the immature stage as having spirally 
entering columellar and parietal lamella?, with raised, trian- 
gular denticles, not very distantly spaced. 

Like cylindracea, the specimens of any lot may vary re- 
markably in length. The toothless variety dilucida is said to 
occur with sempronii in some places, but some authors have 
regarded it as a distinct species. I cannot decide upon its 

L. sempronii dilucida (Zgl., Rossm.). PI. 7, fig. 4. 

Aperture toothless. The length is given as iy 2 , width % 
lines. Type locality, Maultaschen Hohle in the Tyrolese Alps, 
discovered by Stenz, jr. ; reported also from many places 



from France to Greece. A specimen from Kalamata, Greece, 
fig. 4, measures 2.4, 1.3 mm., 5y± whorls. 

Gredler has recorded dilucida from the Austrian Tyrol, and 
is said to have named this form P. sempronii var. edentula. 
I have not been able to trace the original source of this name, 
which in any case would be later than dilucida. 

5. Lauria fagoti Westerlund. 

Shell half-covered perforate, obese, subovate, very obtuse, 
corneous, smooth, glossy. Whorls 5, the upper ones slowly 
regularly increasing, convex, , suture deep, the last twice as 
large, convex, horizontal in front. Aperture semioval, the 
external margin regularly arcuate, columella subvertical, 
dilated and reflected above. One thin very long parietal 
lamella and one acute tooth on the columella. Length 1.75, 
diam. 1.25mm. (West.). 

Spain: Sarria, prov. Gerona (Cleve coll., in Upsala). 

Lauria fagoti West., Synopsis Moll. Extramar. Reg. Palse- 
arctica?, 1897, p. 66 ; Nachrblatt., 1894, p. 171. 

Seems to be close to sempronii, but shorter, with a columel- 
lar lamella. Known only by the original account. 

6. Lauria caspia (Pfr.). PL 7, figs. 5, 6. 

Shell perforate, ovate-cylindric, thin, smooth, pellucid, 
glossy, fulvous-corneous. Spire oblong, slowly tapering up- 
ward, obtuse at apex; suture impressed. 6y 2 rather convex 
whorls increase regularly and slowly, the last more than one- 
fourth the length, not descending in front, rounded basally. 
Aperture slightly oblique, truncate-oblong, with a small, com- 
pressed, very shortly entering parietal tooth. Peristome thin, 
the right margin narrowly expanded, sometimes somewhat 
flexuose, columellar margin dilated, reflected. Length 3, diam. 
li/ 3 mm. (Pfr.). 

Length 2.6, diam. 1.4 mm. Lenkoran specimen. 

Transcaucasia : Lenkoran, near the Caspian Sea, under the 
bark of Pterocarya caspia (Dr. Sievers). 

Pupa caspia Pfr., Malak. Bl., xviii, 1871, p. 70; Monogr., 
viii, p. 364. — Mousson, Journ. de Conchyl., xxi, 1873, p. 213, 


pi. 8, f. 9. — Boettger, Jahrb. D. m. Ges., vi, p. 403 (Len- 
koran) ; viii, p. 228. 

This species stands very near L. sempronii, but it differs, 
as Boettger has pointed out, by the far stronger lamella run- 
ning inward, and continuing as high within as at the aperture, 
as seen in the obliquely basal view, fig. 5 ; the whorls are less 
convex, the last one not so high. It is rather more openly 
perforate. There is no columellar lamella. Possibly it will 
be found to intergrade with sempronii, but at present it ap- 
pears to be distinct. A Lenkoran specimen is figured. 

7. Lauria fanalensis (Lowe). PL 7, figs. 7 to 10. 

Allied to P. anconostoma. It differs by the shorter, more 
obese and more ovate form, somewhat wider at base, the 
whorls more convex, suture impressed, the- aperture rounded 
basally, not angular, the ventral fold stronger, and the um- 
bilical keel obsolete (Lowe). 

The shell is most minutely perforate and very shortly 
rimate, very thin ; dilute, transparent isabella color ; glossy, 
weakly striatulate. The whorls increase more rapidly than in 
the short form of anconostoma. Summit obtuse. The last 
whorl is well rounded basally, not compressed. Peristome is 
narrow. Angular lamella small, slender, not connecting with 
the outer lip-insertion. A low, thread-like columellar lamella 
emerges weakly. 

Length 2.5, diam. 1.45 mm. ; 5 whorls. 

Length 2.4, diam. 1.5 mm. ; 4:% whorls. 

Madeira: at the Cruzinhas and the Fanal and Lombarda 
das Vacas; in damp sylvan spots near the highest altitudes, 
among moss and lichen on the trunks of laurels and on ferns 
(Lowe and Wollaston). Canaries on Teneriffe in similar sta- 
tions, wood of Las Mercedas; above Taganana, at the Agua 
Mansa, and near Ycod-el-alto ; and Palma in the Barranco de 
Agua, Barranco de Galga, and ascent of the Cumbre above 
Buena vista ( Wollaston) . 

Pupa fanalensis Lowe, Ann. Mag. N. H. (2), ix, April, 1852, 
p. 275.— Wollaston, Testacea Atlantica, 1878, p. 209, 449.— 
Pupa debilis Mousson, Rev. faune Malac. Canar., 1872, p. 



124, pi. 6, f. 16, 17 ; Novit. Conch., iv, p. 106, pi. 125, f . 16, 17. 
— Ancey, Journ. de Conch., 1901, p. 140.— Pupa py ram id id a 
Ponsonby & Sykes, Proc. Malac. Soc. London, i, 1894, p. 55, 

It is smaller and more fragile than the short form of an- 
conostoma, and the base is well rounded, with scarcely any 
trace of the compression and angulation of L. cylindracea, also 
shared in a less marked degree by L. c. anconostoma. The 
aperture is more rounded than in L. sempronii, and there are 
fewer whorls in shells of equal length. 

There seems to be very little difference between specimens 
of Madeira (figs. 7, 8) and Teneriffe (figs. 9, 10), as Wollas- 
ton has stated ; but in both islands there is considerable varia- 
tion in shape. The figures are from examples from the Lowe- 
Wollaston collection. Two Teneriffe specimens measure: 

Length 2.5, diam. 1.5 mm., 5 whorls. 

Length 2.15, diam. 1.45 mm., 4% whorls. 

A young shell of slightly over 3 whorls shows two minute, 
tubercular basal teeth (pi. 7, fig. 14). In one of a little more 
than 4 whorls (fig. 13) the teeth are radially elongate. Both 
from Barranca de Agua, Palma, Canaries. 

Mousson's description of the Canarian P. debilis follows. 
It appears not to differ from fanalensis, but the type should 
also be compared with pyramidula. Mousson's figure is here 

Pupa debilis Mousson. PI. 7, fig. 15. Shell minute, rimate- 
perforate, globose-ovate, thin, pellucid, slightly striatulate, 
glossy, pale corneous. Spire short, narrowly rounded, the 
summit obtuse ; suture somewhat impressed. Six slightly con- 
vex whorls, the last larger, rounded, somewhat inflated above, 
equably rotund beneath, very slightly compressed at the um- 
bilical crevice. Aperture vertical (10° with the axis), ovate- 
semicircular, curved, and not angular at base. Peristome 
slightly thickened, very narrowly reflected, the margins re- 
mote, a weak compressed tooth at the right third of the pari- 
etal interval ; right margin regularly curved, sometimes thick- 
ened a little above ; columellar slightly reflected. Columella 
straight or gently curved. Length 1.5 [doubtless an error for 
2.5], diam. 1 mm. Teneriffe, Canaries {Mousson). 


Lauria fanalensis pyramidula (P. & S.). PI. 7, figs. 11, 12. 

The form named pyramidula P. & S. is more robust and 
darker colored than typical fanalensis. One of the original 
lot (fig. 11) measures: 2.7x1.6 mm., 514 whorls. The orig- 
inal description follows. 

Pupa pyramidula Ponsonby & Sykes. Shell small, conic, 
unicolored brown, thin; whorls 5%, rather swollen, longitu- 
dinally very lightly striate, the last inflated, large ; spire ob- 
tuse, rather flattened, the apex minute; aperture semioval, 
provided with a thin, oblique, entering plait at the insertion 
of the right margin ; margins remote, narrowly reflected 
throughout; umbilicus moderate, funnel-shaped. Length 3.5, 
width 1.5 mm. Icod, Island of Teneriffe. 

Ethiopian Species. 

As a whole, these forms are remarkably similar to those of 
Europe. The Abyssinian species, bruguierei, differs but little, 
in the adult stage, from some forms of L. cylindracea anccmo- 
stoma and the scarcely separable dohrni of the Cape Verdes. 

The single Mascarene species known, L. bourbonensis, 
stands a little apart by the very thin anterior end of the an- 
gular lamella, which is more removed from the lip-insertion 
than in the Cape species. The Cape of Good Hope species 
are not far from the same type, though certainly distinct 
specifically. They form an intimately related group, separ- 
able by the following characters : 

a 1 . Angular lamella long, curving into the interior, its outer 
end not quite connected with the lip-insertion. 
b 1 . Base subangular; length 3.4 to 4.24 mm. 

L. farquhari, no. 11. 
b 2 . Base narrowly rounded ; length 3 to 3.5 mm. 

c 1 . Radial basal laminas strongly developed in the 
early stage, persisting weakly nearly to ma- 
turity. L. cryptoplax, no. 13. 
c 2 . Basal laminae very small, present only in 
earlier youth. L. dadion, no. 12. 
a 2 . Angular lamella short, its outer end connected with the 
lip-insertion ; base pinched out into a short, blunt keel. 

L. taiularis, no. 14. 



These species have been known chiefly from excellent draw- 
ings by Burnup, published by Melvill and Ponsonby. The 
author is indebted to Messrs. Burnup and Farquhar, and to 
Major Connolly for series of specimens. 

Whether L. tabularis is really distinguishable from cylin- 
dracea, and L. dadion from anconostoma are questions re- 
maining open. Both may be imported forms — a view I am 
much disposed to accept. Yet, as there are several unques- 
tionably endemic South-African species, the possibility of 
convergent evolution of European and Cape forms (all from 
very similar ancestors) must be considered. Possibly a thor- 
ough study of the young may assist the decision. 

8. Lauria bruguierei (Jickeli). PI. 8, figs. 17, 20. 

Shell perforate, cylindric-oblong, rather solid, glossy, diaph- 
anous, brown, under the lens very delicately, irregularly 
striatulate. Spire high-conic, the apex obtuse. Whorls 6V3, 
a little convex, slowly increasing, separated by an impressed 
suture, the last somewhat compressed at base, slightly ascend- 
ing to the aperture. Aperture oblique, ovate-rounded, one- 
toothed, the tooth situated in the outer angle on the parietal 
wall. Peristome white-lipped, exanded, a little reflected, 
the margins approaching. Columella with an obsolete fold. 
Length 3*4> diam. 1%, aperture l^xl mm. (Jickeli). 

Southern Abyssinia (Heuglin and Steudner) ; Enjelal and 
Bagla, Habab Mts., at about 7995 ft., under stones (Jickeli). 

Pupa bruguierei Jickeli, Nova Acta Acad. Caes. Leop.- 
Carol. Germ. Nat. Cur., vol. 37, 1875, p. 112, pi. 5, f. 5, 6.— 
Pupa heuglini Krauss in coll. — Pupa umbilicata Martens, 
Malak. Bl., 1866, p. 96; 1870, p. 84.— ? Pupa undet. near um- 
bilicata, Blanford, Geol. and Zool. Abyssinia, p. 477. 

It is very close to L. cylindracea, particularly the Cape 
Verde form dohrni; also to the South African L. dadion. 
The base is rounded, as in the latter, being less compressed 
than L. cylindracea. Jickeli found that the embryonic young 
have angular and columellar lamellae and a transverse basal 
fold (fig. 17), while in cylindracea of the same stage (fig. 18) 
he found no armature in the basal wall. 


In a specimen from Jickeli (pi. 8, fig. 20), length 3.3, diam. 
1.6 mm., the contour differs somewhat from dadioii, the latter 
being wider below. 

9. Lauria desiderata (Preston). PI. 8, fig. 16. 

Shell small, turbinate, with very obtuse apex, reddish 
brown ; whorls 5%, rather slowly increasing, moderately con- 
vex, the last ascending in front ; suture well impressed ; um- 
bilicus broad, somewhat deep, partly concealed by the re- 
flexion of the columellar margin; columella descending very 
obliquely, bearing rather interiorly a single plait, labrum 
whitish, sinuous, reflexed, projecting inwardly at a point 
some little distance below its junction with the parietal wall, 
which bears a weak, very oblique lamella; aperture irregu- 
larly quadrate. Alt. 3, diam. maj. 2 mm. ; aperture, alt. .75, 
diam. .5 mm. (Preston). 

British East Africa : Mount Kenia, at an altitude of 9,000- 
10,000 feet. 

Jaminia desiderata Preston, Ann. Mag. N. H. (8), vii, May 
1911, p. 470, pi. 11, f. 21. 

If this is a Lauria, as I suppose, the angular lamella is 
rather more removed from the lip-insertion than usual, much 
as in L. bourbonensis. 

10. Lauria bourbonensis n. sp. PI. 8, fig. 19. 

The shell is cylindric-ovate with obtuse summit, minutely 
perforate, rimate, brown, slightly translucent, somewhat 
glossy ; very finely but obsoletely striatulate. Whorls not very 
convex, the last rounded below, compressed within the um- 
bilical region. Aperture ovate, truncate. Peristome pale 
brown, very narrowly reflected, thin, very slightly thickened 
within. Angular lamella very thin throughout, slightly higher 
near the outer end, which falls short of the edge of the thin 
parietal film, and is some distance from the lip -insertion, but 
connected therewith by an extremely low callous ridge, hardly 
discernible except in the oldest examples. Inwardly the an- 
gular lamella penetrates as a whitish thread about a half- 
whorl — at least as far as can be seen in the mouth. Colu- 


mellar lamella immersed, visible in an oblique view as a small 
median prominence. 

Length 3.1, diam. 1.7. ; 5y 2 whorls. 

Island of Bourbon (Nevill). 

The simplicity of the anterior end of the angular lamella, 
which is removed further than usual from the lip-insertion, 
differentiates this species from L. dadion, which is also some- 
what longer, less striate and has a thickened white lip. 

Five specimens in the type lot were collected by Nevill, 
who labelled them P. pupula Dh. — a species of Pupilla. 

11. Lauria farquhari (Melv. & Pons.). PL 8, figs. 1, 2. 

The shell is cylindric-tapering with obtuse, rounded sum- 
mit, perforate and rimate, with a funnel-shaped umbilical 
area bounded by a basal angulation; light brown, somewhat 
translucent ; smoothish, with very fine, faint striation. The 
whorls are somewhat convex, the last a little compressed 
basally, and in typical specimens the base is distinctly angular 
or subangular (but in some examples this is not so conspic- 
uous. The peristome is narrowly reflected, flattened, and 
narrowly thickened at the inner edge, the thickening excised 
at the sinulus. The thin angular lamella gives off a short 
branch towards the lip-insertion, but separated from it by a 
narrow channel. It runs inward about one-third of a whorl. 
The columella bears a small, oblique lamella, emerging nearly 
to the peristome. 

Length 3.8, diam. 1.9 mm. ; Qy 2 whorls. 

Length 3.4, diam. 1.8 mm. ; 6^ whorls. 

Cape of Good Hope : Top of Elandsberg Mt., Cradock dis- 
trict (Farquhar). 

Pupa farquhari Melvill & Ponsonby, Ann. Mag. N. H. 
(7), ii, 1898, p. 128, pi. 7, f. 7; (8), i, 1908, p. 74, pi. 1, f. 7. 

While this species stands close to L. dadion, it differs by 
the somewhat larger size and greater number of whorls ; more 
especially by the subangular base and somewhat more funnel- 
shaped umbilical opening, the perforation of which is small, 
about as in dadion. There are no young ones in several lots 
seen. It varies from 3.93 to 4.24 mm. long, according to M. 


& P., but in one lot seen some specimens are smaller. Figured 
from topotypes received from Farquhar. 

12. Lauria dadion (Bens.). PI. 8, figs. 3, 4, 5, 6. 

Shell rimate-umbilicate, ovate-conic, subcylindric, obliquely 
striatulate, shining, translucid, olivaceous-corneous. Spire 
conoid-cylindric, the suture impressed, apex obtuse. Whorls 
6, convex, the last compressed around the umbilicus. Aper- 
ture slightly oblique, angular-ovate; peristome a little re- 
flected, whitish; columellar margin expanded, deep within, 
parietal provided above with a whitish entering fold. Length 
3%, diam. 2 mm. (Bens.). 

Cape of Good Hope: eastern side of Table Mountain, and 
also at Simonstown (Benson) ; Simonstown; ravine near New- 
lands (Layard) ; Bedford (Farquhar). Natal: Umvoti Coun- 
try (Lightfoot) ; Karkloof ; Nottingham Road; Inhluzani Mt. ; 
Game Pass (Burnup). 

Pupa dadion Benson, Ann. Mag. N. H. (3), xiii, 1864, p. 
495. — Ppr., Monogr., vi, 320. — Melvill & Ponsonby, Ann. 
Mag. N. H. (8), i, 1908, p. 72, pi. 1, f. Z. — Jaminia dadion 
(Benson), Connolly, Ann. S. Afr. Mus., xi, pt. 3, p. 179 (dis- 
tribution). — f Pupa umbilicata Gibbons, Journ. of Conch., ii, 
282 (abundant in garden hedges about Cape Town). — Pupa 
dadioa Bens., Ppeifper-Clessln, Nomencl. Hel. Viv., p. 354. 

The shell is perforate and shortly rimate. The base, while 
somewhat compressed, is rounded, not pinched up as in tabu- 
laris. The small angular lamella is enlarged at the anterior 
end and has a slight tendency to be forked there; inward it 
penetrates about a third of a whorl. The columellar lamella 
is merely a low, blunt prominence. A Simonstown specimen 
measures : length 3.2, diam. above aperture 1.6 mm., 6 whorls. 
Melvill & Ponsonby give the measurements of a paratype as 
3.1 x 1.76 mm., evidently measuring to the edge of outer lip. 

A young specimen from Karkloof, pi. 8, fig. 5, diam. 1.2 
mm., has the usual strong columellar and angular lamella?, 
and three delicate baso-palatal folds, not so strong as usual 
in L. cylindracea but spaced about the same. Other equally 
young ones show one of these folds or none, and there are 


none iu the larger immature shells seen. There is an evident 
tendency to lose the folds in this species. 

In a fully formed embryo, 0.85 mm. in diameter, of V/2 
whorls, there is a quite short but rather high angular lamella 
only (fig. 6). 

Mr. Burnup informs me that he has observed two pairs of 
tentacles in the living animal. 

13. Lauria cryptoplax (Mel v. & Pons.) . PL 8, figs. 7, 8, 9, 10. 
The shell is minutely perforate and shortly rimate, cylin- 

dric-tapering, with obtuse summit ; brown, glossy and smooth- 
ish. The whorls are slightly convex, the last with rounded 
base. Peristome narrowly reflected, thin, a little thickened 
within. Angular lamella is small, slightly higher at the outer 
end, where it gives off a small spur towards, but not quite 
reaching, the lip-insertion. It penetrates as a well-developed 
thread from a third to a half whorl inward. Columellar 
lamella appears deep within as a small prominence. 

Length 3.3, diam. 1.5 mm. ; fully 6 whorls. 

Length 3.36, diam. 1.95 mm. (fig. 9). 

Length 3.12, diam. 2 mm. (Burnup). 

Cape of Good Hope: Kragga Kama, Port Elizabeth (Craw- 
ford, Reeve) ; The Gorge, Somerset East (H. C. Burnup). 

Pupa cryptoplax Melvill & Ponsonby, Ann. Mag. N. H. 
(7), iv, 1899, p. 198, pi. 3, f. 11; (8), i, 1908, p. 71, pi. 1, f. 
1, 2.— Burnup, A. M. N. H. (8), vii, 1911, p. 402. 

Very close to L. dadion, the adult stage scarcely distin- 
guishable ; but the armature of the immature stages is stronger 
and persists longer. 

A half-grown specimen has three strong basal laminae at 
intervals of 14 whorl. The angular and columellar lamellae 
are long and strong (pi. 8, fig. 8). A shell of 5y 2 whorls, 
therefore within a half-whorl of maturity, still shows two 
moderately developed basal laminae. 

14. Lauria tabularis (Melv. & Pons.). PI. 8, figs. 11 to 15. 
The shell is long-ovate, minutely perforate, rimate, light 

brown, smoothish ; whorls are somewhat convex, the last com- 
pressed below, the base being pinched up in a short, rounded 


keel behind the basal lip, generally defined by an impressed 
line. Peristome is rather broadly reflected, flattened, thick- 
ened within, narrowed at the sinulus. Angular lamella some- 
what triangular as seen from below, a callus spreading from 
it toward and joining the lip-insertion. Its inward extension 
is very short (pi. 8, fig. 15). The columella is simple (or 
sometimes shows a faint prominence deep within). 

Length 3.25, diam. 1.6 mm. ; 6 whorls. 

Length 3.1, diam. 1.6 mm. ; 5% whorls. 

Cape of Good Hope: Cape Town (Lightfoot, type loc.) ; 
Rondebosch ( Connolly) . 

Pupa tabularis Melvill & Ponsonby, Ann. Mag. N. H. (7), 
xi, 1893, p. 20, pi. 3, f. 3; (8), i, 1908, p. 82, pi. 2, f. 22.— 
Burnup, A. M. N. H. (8), vii, 1911, p. 410. — Jaminia tabu- 
laris (M. & P.), Connolly, Ann. S. Afr. Mus., xi, pt. 3, 1912, 
p. 184. 

The short keel pinched up at the base (fig. 15) is a con- 
spicuous feature of this shell, though somewhat variable in 
prominence. The rather wide lip and especially the very- 
short angular lamella are characteristic. Other species of the 
region have the angular lamella continued much further in- 

No very young shells are at hand, but one of nearly 5 
whorls shows a well-marked though low lamella on the pari- 
etal wall, an extremely minute, deeply immersed columellar, 
and two minute tubercular basal folds, situated as in dadion 
but much smaller. Several specimens somewhat larger show 
no baso-palatals, no columellar and only a very slight thread 
on the parietal wall. 

In one adult Cape Town specimen (pi. 8, fig. 12) the an- 
gular lamella is reduced to a little callous pad joined to the 
lip insertion. 

This species is certainly very similar to L. cylindracea, 
which many years ago was reported from the Cape (as Pupa 
umbilicata Drap., by Gibbons, Journ. of Conch., ii, 1879, p. 
282, "abundant in garden hedges about Cape Town"). Fur- 
ther series of the immature stages should be examined, as the 
few seen show teeth far smaller than the European species. 


L. tabularis appears to have a shorter angular lamella than 
usual in cylindracca. See also under L. dadion. 

Subgenus Leiostyla Lowe. 

Leiostyla Lowe, Ann. Mag. N. H. (2), ix, April 1852, p. 
276, for P. vincta, irrigua, laurinia, laevigata, recta, maci- 
Imta; P. Z. S., 1854, p. 208, "type P. anglica Fer. "—Liostyla 
Lowe, v. Martens, Die Heliceen, 1860, p. 293. 

Alvearella Lowe, Ann. Mag. (2), ix, 1852, p. 277; P. Z. S., 
1854, p. 212, P. cassidula designated type. 

Charadrobia Albers, Malacographie Maderensis, 1854, p. 
63. — v. Martens, Die Heliceen, p. 293, type Pupa cheilogona 

Caucasica Caziot et Margier, Bull. Soc. Zool. France, xxxiv, 
1909, p. 141 ; P. caucasica type by tautonymy. 

The shell has, in addition to the deeply entering angular 
and columellar lamellae of Lauria. proper, a parietal lamella 
and one or more palatal folds. Immature (neanic) stage hav- 
ing angular and columellar lamella?, usually also a parietal; 
radial teeth in the base as in Lauria proper. The animal is 

Type L. vincta (Lowe). Distribution, islands of the At- 
lantic, western Europe, Caucasus region. 

Leiostyla, like Lauria- proper, is markedly discontinuous in 
distribution, the colonies in the British Islands, Portugal, 
Algeria, the Caucasus region and the islands of the Atlantic 
are all of small area and are completely isolated. The assem- 
blages of Madeira and the Caucasus may be traceable to more 
than one migration, or in other words, may have descended 
from more than one ancestral stock for each, but this can only 
be demonstrated by further discoveries in the Tertiary. At 
present there seems no conclusive evidence that either the 
Caucasian or the Madeiran series is di- or polyphyletic, as all 
of the Tertiary species (possibly excepting L. minax) belong 
to the typical L. anglica group of Leiostyla. The L. cheilogona 
group is probably the most primitive of the Madeirans, being 
very close to Tertiary species of Europe, to the Recent British 
species, and to such Caucasian forms as L. tenuimarginata. 

Part of the Madeiran species agree closely with the Euro- 


pean L. anglica. Others have no callus connecting angular 
lamella and lip-insertion, thereby agreeing with the species of 
the Azores and Canaries, and with the Transcaucasian L. 
tenuimarginata. The Porto Santo species are closely related 
to part of those of Madeira, but the hydrophilous Madeiran 
groups have no representatives on the smaller, dryer island. 

Key to Species of Leiostyla. 

f Species of Western Europe, British Islands to Algeria 

| (2) 

1 ^ Species of the Caucasus and adjacent regions (4) 

{ Species of the Atlantic islands, Madeira, Azores and 
(^ Canaries (12) 

Species of Western Europe, Britain to Algeria. 

- Base with a wide, deep umbilicus as in L. cylindracea; 
surface with strong, regular stria? ; Portugal. 

L. paulinoi, no. 23 

- Base minutely perforate and openly rimate (3) 

Smoothish; angular lamella connected by a callus with 
the lip insertion; British Is., Portugal. 
3-1 L. anglica, no. 22 

Finely subcostulate ; angular lamella free from the lip 
insertion ; Algeria. L. numidica, no. 24 

Species of the Caucasus and Adjacent Regions. 

r Columellar lamella forming a broad and steeply ascend- 
j ing plate deep within (5) 

j Columellar lamella entering horizontally, ascending but 
*> little deep within, its edge slanting downward (6) 

r Smoothish; about 5 or 6 mm. long; columellar lamella 
J not emerging. L. caucasica, no. 15 

I Finely striate ; 3.2 to 3.5 mm. long ; one or two columel- 
v lar lamellae emerging. L. pauUnce, no. 16 

f Surface smoothish (7) 

1 Surface distinctly ribbed or rib-striate (10) 



r Outer lip strongly bent in below the sinulus; peristome 
thick, crenulate ; 3.5 to 4 mm. long. 


L. zonata, no. 19 
^ Outer lip not bent in below the sinulus (8) 

Length less than 3 mm. L. tenuimarginata, no. 17 

Length more than 4 mm. (9) 

Small basal and upper-palatal folds present; peristome 
thick, crenulate ; 4.2 to 5 mm. long. 

L. superstracta, no. 18 
A small basal fold but no entering upper-palatal; peri- 
stome simple, whitish ; 5.25 mm. long. 

L. s. lederi, no. 18a 

No basal or entering upper-palatal folds; 4.6 to 5 mm. 

long. L. s. unibasalis, no. 186 

, Perforate and rimate, the base rounded; 2 lamella? on 
I columella; lip crenulate (11) 

10 I Deeply umbilicate, the base keeled ; 1 lamella on colu- 
l mella. L. pontica, no. 21 

Beautifully, sharply costulate ; 3.5 to 4 mm. long. 

L. pulchra, no. 20 
| Finely rib-striate ; glossy brown ; 4 to 4.5 mm. long. 
I L. p. nit ens, no. 20a 

Species of the Atlantic Islands. 

Madeira group (13) 
2 -> Azores (38) 

Canary Islands (36) 

(Madeiran Species.) 

' Parietal lamella higher than the angular, which is not 
connected with the lip insertion; teeth large, but 
the palatals and basal deeply immersed; lip-tooth 
strong, nearly closing the sinulus; shell small, 
ribbed, the diam. % to % of the length of about 2 
mm. (section Wollastonula). L. gibba, no. 46 

Parietal lamella not higher than the angular, often dis- 
tinctly lower (14) 

15 <! 


( Parietal lamella emerging about as far as the angular; 
shell ovate-conic, solid, closely rib-striate, with a 
very small umbilicus; 8 teeth, all emerging to the 
14 ■{ peristome; length 4 to 4.6 mm. (section Scara- 

bella). L. cassida, no. 25 

Parietal lamella, when present, emerging distinctly less 
than the angular (15) 

Diam. about % the length ; whorls strongly convex with 
lamellar ribs ; angular lamella high within, the pari- 
etal lamella minute or wanting; columellar lamella 
and lower-palatal fold small ; no other teeth ; length 
2 to 2.3 mm., 5y 2 whorls (section Mastula). 

L. lamellosa, no. 47 

Not as above; generally relatively longer, or with more 
whorls (16) 

r Surface ribbed or rib-striate (17) 

| Surface smoothish or finely striate (28) 

Aperture with 4 to 5 teeth ; basal fold wanting or very 

small (18) 
Aperture with 6 to 8 teeth (20) 

Diam. more than half the length ; a well-developed lip- 
tooth nearly closing the sinulus; lower-palatal fold 
long, deeply immersed, its place indicated by a 
shallow furrow externally; closely costulate; 3.25 to 
3.6 mm. long; Madeira. L. abbreviata, no. 39 

Diam. less than half the length; lip-tooth nearly obso- 
lete or wanting, the sinulus open; Porto Santo (19) 

Four well-developed teeth, rarely an additional upper- 
palatal and basal also; shell cylindric; 3.8 x 1.4 mm. 

L. ferraria, no. 42 
19 •{ Only the angular well developed; parietal, columellar 
and lower-palatal present but small, immersed; 
shell cylindric-tapering, 2 to 3 mm. long. 

L. degenerata, no. 43 


Peristome continuous, the parietal callus raised, oblique ; 
20 <! 

diam. less than 1,3 the length of over 4 mm. 

L. relevata, no. 41 

Parietal callus adnate (21) 

f Very strongly ribbed; parietal lamella and basal fold 

very small ; diam. more than half the length of 2.7 

21-1 to 3.6 mm. L. calathiscus, no. 45 

I Costulate or rib-striate; parietal lamella well developed 

I (22) 

f Diam. about 1.8 mm.; stout in figure (23) 
1 Diam. 1 to 1.5 mm.; cylindric (24) 

23 1 

Ovate; subregularly, very finely costulate. 

L. cassidula, no. 30 
Oblong-cylindric ; irregularly striate. 

L. I. transiens, no. 29a 

9 . f Length less than 2.75 mm. (25) 
1 Length more than 3 mm. (27) 

Whorls decidedly convex (26) 
25 -| Whorls only weakly convex; very finely, sharply striate 
on the spire; 2.5 x 1.2 mm. L. wollastoni, no. 34 

r Lip-tooth denning the sinulus tubercular, well expressed ; 

cyo \ 5 to 5% whorls. L. millegrana, no. 38 

I Upper tooth in the lip thin, entering, not prominent on 

^ the peristome ; 6 whorls. L. monticola, no. 44 

( Lip-tooth defining the sinulus strongly developed; 
sculpture rather fine. L. sphinctostoma, no. 33 

27 ■{ L. fusca, no. 37 

Lip-tooth weak; sculpture of strong riblets; lip well re- 
flected. L. corneocostata, no. 40 

,- Angular lamella distinctly connected with the lip-inser- 
tion (29) 

' Angular lamella not connected with the lip insertion; 
no supracolumellar lamella; 4 to 6 teeth (32) 


( Lip-tooth defining the sinulus weak; shell long, cylin- 
dric, the diam. much less than half the length; a 
basal fold present (30) 

Lip-tooth moderately developed; shell cylindric, diam. 
less than half the length ; no basal fold ; 3.7 x 1.5 
mm. L. s. simulator, no. 33c 

Lip-tooth moderately or strongly developed; shell more 
or less tapering upwards ; diam. equaling or exceed- 
ing half the length (31) 

30 \ 

31 \ 


33 < 

Finely striate on the spire ; supracolumellar lamella and 
upper-palatal fold well developed. 

L. s. arborea, no. 33a 

Finely striate on the spire ; a rather weak supracolumel- 
lar lamella and no distinct upper-palatal fold; 4.7 
to 5x 1.5 mm. L. recta, no. 36 

More sharply striate throughout; no supracolumellar; 
3.7 x 1.4 mm. L. r. macilenta, no. 36a 

' No supracolumellar lamella; callus connecting the an- 
gular lamella and lip insertion irregular, inter- 
rupted or tubercular. L. laurinea, no. 32 
Supracolumellar lamella present; an even callus con- 
necting the angular lamella and lip insertion. 

L. irrigua, no. 28 
L. loweana, no. 29 

Parietal lamella small and short, not entering deeply; 

shell rather narrow, diam. less than half the length. 

L. laevigata, no. 35 
Parietal lamella long, entering deeply ; shell wider, diam. 

half the length or more (33) 

Cylindric, the upper third convexly conic ; sharply stri- 
ate ; lip-tooth below the sinulus well developed. 

L. concinna, no. 31 

Somewhat tapering from the last whorl; an inward 
prominence below sinulus but not a definite tooth ; 
striation weak (34) 


c Outlines of spire but slightly convex ; aperture produced 
o , J towards the outer-basal part. L. cheilogona, no. 26 

] Outlines of spire strongly convex; aperture not so pro- 
^ duced (35) 

C Spire convexly conic ; length 3 to 3.5 mm. 

L. vincta, no. 27 
Spire thick in the upper part ; length 4.4 mm. 

L. v. watsoniana, no. 27a 

35 I 

(Canary Island Species.) 

Shell broadly ovate, the diam. 60 to 65 per cent of the 
length; chestnut above, the base pale; angular 
lamella not distinctly connected with the lip-inser- 
tion. L. castanea, no. 48 

Shell narrower, oblong, the diam. 52 to 57 per cent of 
the length; angular lamella connected by a callus 
with the lip -insertion (37) 

Chestnut above, the base pale ; rather finely striate. 
gy I L. pythiella, no. 49 

Banded with chestnut on a pale ground; weakly plica- 
tulate. L. tceniata, no. 50 

(Azores Islands Species.) 

( Aperture with a small angular lamella continued inward 
as a thread, the columellar lamella small or im- 

38 1 mersed ; no parietal or palatal teeth. 

L. fasciolata, no. 51 
(^ Three to six teeth present (39) 

8 to 9 nearly flat whorls; aperture somewhat trilobed; 

39 .| two lamellae on the columella. L. tesselata, no. 55 
6 or fewer whorls (40) 

Angular lamella connected with the lip-insertion; pari- 
etal lamella moderately developed (41) 
. Angular lamella large, widely separated from the lip- 
insertion, the parietal lamella very small or sub- 
obsolete; shell ovate, irregularly, coarsely ribbed. 

L. vermiculosa, no. 54 


f Finely striate. L. fuscidula, no. 52 

1 Closely rib-striate. L. rugulosa, no. 53 

Species of the Caucasus and Transcaucasia. 

The simpler species, such, as L. tenuimarginata, closely re- 
semble those of Western Europe and the less evolved forms 
of the Atlantic Islands ; but in most of the species there is a 
tendency towards further development of the teeth and lip. 
This culminates in forms having a thick, crenulated lip re- 
calling the Caucasian Clausilioid genus Serrulina. In others, 
such as L. caucasica, the columellar lamella is specialized. 
The species form three series : 

Series of L. caucasica (section Caucasica C. & M.), species 
no. 15, 16. 

Series of L. tenuimarginata, no. 17. 
Series of L. superstructa, no. 18-21. 

The following account is in large part given in the words 
of the able investigators Boettger, Retowski and Lindholm. 
The figures are chiefly from specimens received from the 
Boettger collection. I have not been able to obtain L. pau- 
UncB, L. pontica, and some of the races of other species. 

15. Lauria CxUjcasica ('Parr.', Pfr.). PL 5, figs. 15, 16, 17. 

Shell rimate, oblong-ovate, rather solid, smoothish, glossy, 
brownish corneous. Spire terminating in a rather obtuse 
cone; suture subcrenulate. Whorls 8y 2 , rather flat, the last 
about one-third of the length, compressed at base. Aperture 
vertical, truncate-oval, contracted by 2 tooth-like parietal 
lamellae, one subangular, flexuous, entering, the other deep 
within. Peristome whitish, a little expanded, 5-toothed: two 
short teeth and an entering fold on the right margin, one 
basal denticle, and one strong, oblique, deeply entering colu- 
mellar lamella. Length 6, diam. 3 mm. (Pfr.). 

Caucasus: Mt. Kasbek (Parreyss) ; Kobi, southeast of Kas- 
bek, central Caucasus (Bttg.). 

Pupa caucasica Parreyss, Pfeifper, Malak. Bl., iv, 1857, p. 
88 ; Monogr., iv, 675. 


Pfeiffer's type has not been figured. The figures now given 
are from a somewhat smaller Kobi specimen. The thin but 
high angular lamella is connected by a callus with the lip- 
insertion. It bears a tubercle on the right, opposite the labral 
tubercle limiting the rounded sinulus. The parietal lamella 
is stouter, lower and much deeper in. The columellar lamella 
does not emerge, and forms a flat, steeply sloping plate deep 
within. The lower-palatal fold is high within; above it, and 
partially connected by an entering callus, there is a low en- 
tering fold, arising from the lip-callus a short distance below 
the sharp tubercle bounding the sinulus. The basal fold is 
exactly median and short. Length 4.9, diam. 2.4 mm., I 1 /* 

16. Lauria paulin^e Lindh. 

The dextral shell is small, rimate, ventricose-ovate, thin, 
translucent, finely striate, hardly glossy, reddish-brown. The 
spire is inflated-conic, with convex sides and rather pointed 
apex. The 7 to iy 2 convex whorls increase regularly and 
slowly, the last is about twice the height of the preceding, 
ascending in front, and somewhat compressed at the base. 
Suture impressed and nearly horizontal. The vertical aper- 
ture is truncate-oval, with two bays and narrowed by various 
teeth. The outer parietal [angular] fold is simple and high, 
the inner far lower and emerges less than the outer. On the 
outer margin there is a sort of tubercular denticle below the 
sinulus, below it a rather long and high palatal fold and a 
shorter basal fold. On the columella there are two short, 
horizontally placed brown folds, and behind them, in the in- 
terior, a nearly vertical, semicircular plate-like white lamella, 
which is well seen in an oblique view in the aperture, and 
shows through externally in the circum-umbilical region as a 
lightly bowed streak. The lip-margins are not connected, 
distinctly reflected, very thinly lipped; the outer margin is 
strongly impressed below the sinulus, the columellar oblique. 
Length 3.25-3.5, diam. 1.75-1.8 mm. (Lindholm). 

Transcaucasia: near the railroad station Notanebi (37 werst 
northward of Batuni), in swampy, mixed deciduous forest 


Lauria paulimcc Lindholm, Nachrbl. D. Malak. Ges., vol. 45, 
June 1913, p. 62. — Lauria paulincc Ldh., subsp. unicolumel- 
laris Lindholm, Nachrbl., vol. 46, 1914, p. 36. 

By having a nearly vertical, semicircular lamella very deep 
within on the columella, this species appears related to L. 
caucasica, from which it differs by the folds of the columella. 
It appears to be quite unlike other known species of the 

16a. L. paulince unicolumellaris Lindh. 

This new form is distinguished from the type in that the 
columella bears only one horizontally placed fold, while in the 
type two such folds are present. Also, the vertical lamella 
deep in the interior, on the columella, is not white but brown- 
ish, and not quite so semicircular as in the type (Lindholm). 

Transcaucasia: Mt. Salolet at Artwin (Gouv. Batum) in 
beech forest, 5300-5500 ft., two living adult specimens (Lind- 

In size, color, sculpture and thinness of the peristome it 
agrees with the type, differing only in the armature of the 
aperture, as noted above (Lindholm) . 

17. Lauria tenuimarginata Boettger, n. sp. PL 10, figs. 1, 2. 
The shell is perforate, very openly rimate, thin, pale olive- 
buff with a brown band on the last whorl, appearing above 
the suture on the penult. The surface has but little gloss and 
is smooth except for weak, fine growth-lines. The spire is 
convexly conic. Whorls are moderately convex, the last very 
slightly impressed in the place of the lower-palatal fold; 
suture distinctly ascending to the lip. The aperture is irreg- 
ularly ovate. Angular lamella is very high, oblique, thin, a 
low callus connecting with the lip-insertion, and penetrating 
to the dorsal side. Parietal lamella much smaller and shorter. 
The columellar lamella emerges, slants downward and enters 
horizontally, penetrating to the ventral side. The lower- 
palatal fold is thin, moderately high, tapering at both ends, 
not emerging. There is a low denticulate callus between the 
low, wide lip-tooth and the lower-palatal. Basal fold very 


small, immersed. Peristome expanded, rather thin. Length 
2.8, diam. above aperture 1.6 mm. ; 7% whorls. 

Transcaucasia: Nolanebi. Type 130116 A. N. S. P., from 
the Boettger coll. 

A second specimen (pi. 10, fig. 2) has scarcely any callus 
between angular lamella and lip-insertion, and there is only a 
smooth callus between the lip-tooth and the outer end of the 
lower-palatal fold — where the type has two denticles upon the 
callus. As in this specimen the peristome is less calloused 
within, it may not be absolutely mature. 

This species is rather isolated among Caucasian Laurie. 
The smooth surface, rather thin lip, horizontally entering 
columellar lamella and small size are strikingly like the Ma- 
deiran group of L. cheilogona or the Azorean L. fuscidula. 
The resemblance to L. vincta Lowe is astonishing, general 
shape, color and teeth being nearly alike; but the Transcau- 
casian species differs by having more whorls in a smaller 
shell, there is an upper-palatal callus or denticles where vincta 
has none, and the lower tooth of the aperture is truly basal, 
whereas in vincta it is subcolumellar in position. 

I have been unable to find Boettger 's description of this 
species, if any was published. 

18. Lauria superstructa (Mouss.). PI. 9, figs. 1, 2, 3, 4. 

Shell perforate-rimate, obtusely cylindric, well striated ob- 
liquely, a little glossy, pale corneous. Spire ovate-conic, the 
summit shortly conic, minute ; suture slightly impressed. 
Eight whorls are closely coiled, the first a little convex, the 
rest flattened, the sixth largest, the last tapering, ascending 
in front, rounded, slightly compressed at the perforation. 
Aperture exactly vertical, one-third the length, broadly trun- 
cate-semioval, much contracted. Peristome strongly reflected, 
somewhat doubled, having a thick callus built up within; 
margins remote, joined by a thin layer, the right and colu- 
mellar subparallel, basal curved. Folds 5, the 1st and 2d on 
the parietal wall, the latter median, deeply placed, the first 
lateral, stronger, joined to the margin by a sinuate callus; 
3d and 4th on the columella, the lower one stronger ; 5th com- 


pressed, erect behind, arising from the base of the outer mar- 
gin ; a long crest-like tooth in the middle of the right margin, 
2 or 3 other minute fold-like, obsolete teeth in the basal mar- 
gin. Length 5, diam. 2.5 mm. (Mouss.). 

Transcaucasia: Lailaseh, prov. Kutais (Mousson) ; Bor- 
schom, drift of the Kura at Michailowe, living at Kutais. 
Nakerala Mts., Imeretia (Leder), a small form. Suram Mts. 

Pupa superstructa Mousson, Journ. de Conchyl., xxiv, 
1876, p. 37, pi. 2, f. 7.— Boettger, Jahrb. D. m. Ges., vi, 1879, 
pp. 30, 404; vii, 1880, p. 138; viii, 1881, p. 229; x, 1883, p. 
180, with var. lederi, pi. 7, f. 3; var. zonata, pi. 7, f. 2. — 
Charadrobia superstructa (Mouss.) var. unibamlis Boettger, 
Jahrb. D. m. Ges., xiii, 1886, p. 149, pi. 3, f. 5a-b. 

A widely-spread Caucasian form, well distinguished by the 
thick, basally crenulate callus of the lip, the emerging colu- 
mellar lamella, a short one above, the well-developed though 
short twin lamella connected with the angular lamella at its 
right base, and the short, directly entering upper-palatal fold. 
The surface has low traces, more or less obsolete, of rather 
coarse riblets; behind the well-expanded lip these are gener- 
ally stronger. Length 4.7, diam. 2.4 mm., iy 2 whorls. Mt. 

A small form of the typical superstructa was found by Mr. 
Hans Leder in the Nakerala Mts., Imeretia. It differs from 
those of the region of Kutais only by the smaller size, recall- 
ing var. zonata, but it does not vary from the type in shape, 
form of the aperture or denticulation. Length 4^4, diam 
nearly 2 ^ mm. (Boettger). 

At Borschom (Leder, 1886) there is not rarely the trace of 
a dark band on the last whorl, the specimens otherwise typical. 

Young shells of superstructa, Dr. Boettger (1879) writes, 
differ from those of cylindracea, aside from the shape, only 
by the longer internal radial welts, extending over nearly the 
whole breadth of the base, which are arranged like the spokes 
of a wheel, and closer together (so that there would be places 
for about 6 on the last whorl, though only the usual 3 or 4 
are present) than in cylindracea, with which the lamella? of 
youth otherwise agree in structure. 


18a. L. superstructa lederi (Bttg.). PI. 9, fig. 5. 

Appearance of the shell and conformation of the peristome 
as in caucasica Pfr., but armature of the aperture that of 
superstructa Mouss. Shell larger than the type, more cylin- 
dric, paler, corneous-olivaceous; aperture not so wide, the 
right margin more impressed, the peristome simple, not 
doubled, whitish, not orange. No folds or denticles in the 
palatal margin except for a median, long palatal fold and a 
single punctiform denticle on the right margin and one in the 
base of the aperture. Length 5*4, diam. 2% mm. {Bttg.). 

Nakerale Mts., Imeretia, Hans Leder, one specimen. 

Dr. Boettger further remarks in substance that this form 
differs from superstructa chiefly by the simple, thickened 
whitish lip, not doubled and not orange-colored. In dentition 
it differs by having the right parietal lamella arise from a 
wholly simple base, and its duplex nature only revealed by a 
scarcely noticeable little knot on the right side ; the pointed 
tubercle on the right margin limiting the sinulus is not con- 
tinued inward as a fold. Besides this tubercle, and with the 
exception of the long basal-lamella [lower-palatal fold] and 
the basal tubercle between this and the columellar lamella, no 
traces of any denticles are to be seen either within the mouth 
or on the thickening of the right margin. Figure reproduced 
from Boettger. 

18&. L. superstructa unibasalis (Bttg.). PI. 9, figs. 6, 7. 

Differs from the type, of Kutais, by the non-tuberculiferous 
larger parietal [angular] lamella; a single palatal fold, there 
being no small upper one and none between the palatal fold 
and columellar lamella. Length 5, diam. 2% mm. (Bttg.). 

Suanetia. Fig. 6 after Boettger, fig. 7 a topotype from the 
Boettger collection. The absence of upper-palatal and basal 
folds readily distinguish this subspecies. Length 4.6, diam. 
2.35 mm., 7% whorls. 

19. Lauria zonata (Boettger). PI. 9, figs. 8, 9, 10. 

Much smaller than the type (of superstructa), uniform 
corneous-brown or generally paler, corneous-olivaceous with a 


distinct brown band. Aperture narrower, reversed ear- 
shaped, impressed below the sinulus and the umbilicus, being 
thus compressed laterally. The denticle of the right margin 
below the sinulus entering like a large lamella; the small 
fold between the median palatal fold and the columellar 
lamella nearer to the latter than the former; otherwise very 
like the type of super struct a. Length 4, diam. in middle 2 
mm. (Bttg.). 

Southeast and northern outliers of the Osehten-Fischt 
group, in forest, abundant ; Mt. Guk, 3000 ft, ; forests of the 
lower Kurdschips. 

Pupa (Charadrobia) superstructa Mouss., var. zonata 
Boettger, Jahrb. D. m. Ges., x, 1883, p. 182, pi. 7, f. 2a-b.— 
Lauria zonata and mut. albina Bttg., Bericht Senckenb. 
naturf. Ges., 1889, p. 22. — Pupa zonata Bttg., Rosen, Nachrbl. 
D. m. Ges., 1905, p. 57. 

First described as a variety of superstructa, Boettger in 
1889 considered it specifically distinct, I think with good 
reason. He was influenced by the smaller size, the nearly 
constant reddish-brown spiral band, and especially by the pit- 
like impression behind the outer lip close below the sinulus, 
producing a strong inward bend of the lip itself; and also 
the presence of a strong palatal fold running obliquely in- 
ward, parallel to the augular lamella, and corresponding in 
position to the external pit. This is quite unlike the palatal 
fold of superstructa, which is nearer the lower-palatal fold, 
and runs directly inward. Compare figure 4, superstructa, 
and fig. 8, zonata. 

As in s^iperstructa, the thick peristome is cut into numer- 
ous denticles, strongest in the basal lip. Figured from a 
topotype out of the Boettger collection, 3.8 x 2 mm. Fig. 9 is 
reproduced from Boettger. 

While the specimens from the Osehten-Fischt Group and 
those from Mt. Guk measure about, alt. Z 1 /*, diam. in middle 
2 mm., those from the Kurdschips lowlands reach the size of 
33,4x2% mm. 

There is rarely found in the Osehten-Fischt Stock, besides, 
a uniform greenish-white mut. albina, which moreover is dis- 







.• . 













war / 






— ft 



tinguished by the pure white lip, not orange-colored. Only 
V/2 per cent of all the specimens belong to this mutation, 
which seems confined to the higher, colder stations of those 
mountains (Boettger). 

20. Lauria pulchra (Ret.). (PL 9, figs. 11, 13, 14, f. bilabi- 
ata) . 

Shell ovate-oblong, densely costulate, a little glossy, pale 
corneous. Spire ovate-conic, the summit shortly conic, suture 
impressed. Whorls 7%-8, slightly convex, densely obliquely 
costulate, the last tapering, ascending in front, one-third the 
length of the shell. Aperture vertical, truncate-semioval, 
strongly contracted with 5 folds: 1st and 2d on the parietal 
wall, the latter deeper, the first much stronger, joined to the 
insertion of the lip by a sinuate callus; 3d and 4th, the last 
stronger, on the columella; 5th compressed, not erect behind, 
arising from the base of the outer margin. A long, crest-like 
tooth in the middle of the right margin, 5 other minute plici- 
form, obsolete denticles between the 4th and 5th folds. Peri- 
stome thickly white-lipped. Length 4, diam. 2 mm. (Ret.). 

Crimea: Sudak (drift specimens). Tscherkessia, Russian 
Armenia: Uetsche-Dere (Konig). 

Pupa (Charadrobia) pulchra Retowski, Malak. Bl., n. F., 
vi, 1883, p. 57 (not pi. 2, f. 13). — Pupa (Charadrobia) pul- 
chra Ret., Bull. Soc. Imp. Nat. Moscou, Annee, 1888 (1889), 
p. 287. — Pupa (Charadrobia) pulchra Ret. f. bilabiata Re- 
towski, Malak. Bl. n. F., ix, 1887, p. 35. 

It differs from superstructa Mouss. by the smaller size with 
the same number of whorls, the ovate shape and the close 
costulation of all the whorls. The folds of the aperture are 
the same except that the fifth [lower-palatal], which in super- 
structa becomes very distinctly higher within, in pulchra re- 
mains nearly of equal height throughout its length. The 
plate-like widening of the inner right lateral margin of the 
aperture (referred to as a tooth in the description, following 
Mousson's example), projects more strongly in pulchra than 
in superstructa (Ret.). 

The typical pulchra has not been figured, and I have not 


seen it, but except in the less thickened lip it appears not to 
differ from the following form, which is figured from a speci- 
men out of the Boettger collection. 

Lauria pulchra form bilabiata (Ret.). PI. 9, figs. 11, 13, 14. 
Besides the two specimens from which this species (pulchra) 
was described, I have found a third which is distinguished 
from them by its smaller size, 3.5 mm. long, with 7 whorls, 
as well as by having the whitish lip doubled, whilst the first 
two found have only a simple, thickened lip. The form of 
the apertural folds and the close costulation remain as in the 
typical form (Bet.). 

Crimea, in flotsam on the strand between Theodosia and 
Sudak (Retowski). Western Caucasus (Boettger coll.). 

20a. Lauria pulchra nitens (Bttgr.). PI. 9, figs. 12, 15. 

Shell larger than the type, uniform chestnut, the whorls 
more narrowly costulate-striate (not costulate) ; peristome 
doubled, the inner lip orange. Length 4 to 4%, diam. 2^4 to 
2V. mm. (Bttg.). 

Woods of the Kurdschips lowland ; on Mt. Guk, 3000 ft. ; 
and in the forest zone of the southeastern and northern out- 
liers of the Ochten-Fischit group, Circassia (Leder). 

Distinguished from typical examples of var. bilabiata, says 
Boettger, by the gloss of the dark brown shell and the less 
sharp rib-striation, which is about doubly finer. The speci- 
mens from the Oschten-Fischt Stock are smaller than those 
of the lowlands. 

Lauria pulchra (Ret.) var. nitens Boettger, Nachr.-Bl. D. 
m. Ges., 1888, p. 152 ; Ber. Senckenb. Ges., 1889, p. 22. 

The minute tubercular basal fold is immersed and towards 
the left side, not visible in a face view. A topotype out of the 
Boettger collection, from the Kurdschips lowlands, is figured. 
Length 4.5, diam. 2.3 mm., 8 whorls. 

21. Lauria pontica (Ret.). 

Shell ovate, deeply umbilicate, densely costulate, a little 
glossy, pale corneous. Spire ovate-conic, the summit shortly 
conic, suture impressed. Whorls 7, a little convex, densely 


obliquely costulate ; the last whorl ascending in front, com- 
pressed in the middle at the aperture, keeled beneath, one- 
third as long as the shell. Aperture vertical, semioval, with 
5 folds: 1st and 2d on the parietal, the 2d rather small, 
median, deeply placed, (the 1st lateral, curved, much longer 
and stronger; 3d lamella long, oblique, median on the colu- 
mella; 4th basal, short, deeply placed; 5th palatal, long. 
There is a crest-like or doubled tooth in the middle of the 
right margin. Peristome subreflected, white-lipped. Length 
3.5, diam. 2.2 mm. (Bet.). 

Asia Minor: Samsun (Retowski). 

Pupa (Lauria) pontica Retowski, Bericht Senckenb. nat. 
Ges., 1889, p. 253. 

By the close costulation this remarkable new species recalls 
ilic Tscherkessic P. pulchra Ret., with which it cannot be con- 
fused, being sharply distinguished by various characters. P. 
pulchra is only perforate, the last whorl margined below, 
without trace of a keel ; P. pontica has a deep umbilicus, and 
the last whorl is distinctly keeled below. Moreover, the arma- 
ture of the mouth is quite different. In pulchra there are two 
folds on the columellar margin, in pontica only one, but the 
latter has a small, deeply placed little fold in the base, oppo- 
site the parietal wall, which is wholly wanting in pulchra. 
The plate-like dilation of the inner right margin of the peri- 
stome appears to be variable, as in one of my examples it has 
exactly the form of my specimens of pulchra, but in the others 
has the form of a strong double tooth. Between the spiral 
[columellar] and the palatal lamella? the peristome is quite 
smooth in P. pontica, while in P. pulchra there are five small 
fold-like denticles (Bet.). 

Species of Western Europe. 
All belong to the restricted section Leiostyla. 
22. Laueia anglica (Wood). PI. 5, figs. 9, 10, 11, 12. 

The shell is shortly rimate, lengthened-ovate, chestnut- 
lirown above the periphery, transparent olive-buff below ; 
finely, rather weakly striate. The spire is convexly conic, 


the summit whitish, obtuse. Whorls somewhat convex, the 
last ascending slightly close behind the lip, rounded below, 
compressed within the umbilicus. The aperture is subtri- 
angular, rounded basally. Peristome is pale rufous, nar- 
rowly reflected, thickened on the face, the outer lip thickened 
within, tooth-like, above the middle, excised to form, with 
the angular lamella, an oval sinulus above ; lip-insertions very 
widely separated. Angular lamella largest, very high, em- 
erging and joined by a callus with the outer lip-insertion. 
Parietal lamella lower, less emerging. Columellar lamella 
slanting downward, high, emerging to the peristome. All 
of these lamella? enter deeply, the angular and columellar 
about % of a whorl. Lower-palatal fold triangular, rather 
long. One small, tubercular basal fold (rarely two). 

Length 3.3, diam. 1.8 mm., 6V2 whorls. 

Length 2.7, diam. 1.7 mm., 6 whorls. 

British Is. : throughout the northern counties of England, 
the west of Scotland, Shetland and Orkney Is. and all Ireland ; 
Guernsey (Jeffreys) ; also in Pleistocene of Essex and Lancas- 
tershire and Holocene of Ireland. Re Island, Gulf of Gas- 
cony. Portugal. 

Vertigo anglica Ferussac, Tableau Systematise p. 64 (no 
definition). — Turton, Manual Land and Freshwater Shells 
Brit, Is. 1831, p. 102. — Locard, Arch. Mus. d'Hist, Nat. 
Lyon, vii, 1899, p. 154 (Portugal: Cintro and around Porto, 
Morelet; San Felix de Morinho, San Pedro de Coday, 
Covello, Porto, Luso; Bussaco, Nobre; Fario, Castro). — 
Nobre, Mol. de Portugal, p. 239 ; Annaes Sc. Ac. Polyteeh. 
Porto Oporto iii, 1907, p. 56. — Turbo anglicus Wood, Sup- 
plement to the Index Testaceologicus, 1828, p. 19, pi. 6, f. 12. 
— Pupa anglica Fer., Pfeipper, Monographia Hel. Viv. ii, 
351 ; iii, 548 ; iv, 675 ; vi, 321 ; viii, 389. — Westerlund, Fauna 
1887, p. 82, with forms globoso-conica , cyUndracea and 
castanea and var. gmihildcc. — Margier, Feuille Jeunes Nat., 
Annee 35, p. 68, fig. (distribution). — Lauria anglica Caziot, 
Ann. Soc. Linneenne de Lyon, N. S., lxii, 1916, p. 62 (dis- 
tribution etc.). — Pupa rvngens Jeffreys, Trans. Linn. Soc. 
London, xvi, 1829, p. 356 ; British Conchology, i, 1862, p. 244, 
with var. pallida, p. 245. — Pupa anglica. var. alba, Collier, 
Joura. of Conch, ix, 1898, p. 152. 


This well-known species has a remarkably discontinuous 
distribution. The large series examined is from various 
British localities. I have not been able to compare Portuguese 

Half grown young shells (pi. 5. figs. 11, 12) have 4 <u* 
5 radial barriers in the base, at intervals of about 60 degrees. 
The lamella? of parietal and columellar margins are very 
strongly developed. 

According to Locard, there is a Pupa anglica Moq.-Ta nd., 
Moll. Toulouse, 1843, p. 41, which. = Vertigo deswioulinsiana. 

Various mutations and minor variations have been named, 
but so far as known, none of them form races. 

An it. pallida Jeffreys "shell of a lighter color, sometimes 
whitish." Mut. alba Collier, pure white; Kenmare, County 
Kerry, Ireland, with the ordinary form. 

Form globoso-conica West, globose-conic, small, 6 whorls. 
-'■' | — 3 x 2 mm. Cylindracea, West., large, cylindric, 4 x 2 
nun. Castanea West., chestnut-brown, paler around the um- 
bilicus, peristome flesh-colored. Var. gunhildcs West., outer 
lip very weakly lipped ; teeth well developed but without 
any trace of a callus connecting the long angular lamella and 
the rather widely separated outer margin. Scarborough 
mingled with the typical form. J. R. Le B. Tomlin suspects) 
that this is merely an immature stage of anglica (J. of Conch. 
xvi, 1922, p. 264). 

23. I/Auria paulinoi (Locard). 

Shell very small, cylindric-ovoid, short; 7 lightly convex 
wdiorls, regularly increasing, the last somewhat high, rounded 
basally ; summit obtuse ; umbilicus widened, deep, a little 
oval. Aperture small, somewhat rounded; peristome dis- 
continuous, thick, reflected, the outer margin forming a. 
sinus [sinulus] above, with an inner projection below th<< 
sinus; basal margin well rounded; columellar margin nearly 
straight. Within the aperture there are two superior folds, 
the first opposite the sinus, attaining the margin of the 
aperture and strongly developed, the second smaller, more 
immersed : a fold on the columellar margin almost readies 
to the edge of that lip ; on the lower margin another similar 
fold; between the two a little dentiform fold, deeply im- 


niersed. Shell thin, reddish brown, paler around the um- 
bilicus, with the peristome and teeth whitish; ornamented 
with quite strong, close, nearly regular longitudinal stria?. 
Length 3, diam. 1% mm. {Locard) 

Portugal: Coimbra (collect. Paulino d'Oliveira). 

Pupilla paidinoi Locard, Archives Mus. d'Hist. Nat. Lyon, 
vii, 1899, p. 152. 

By its umbilicus it approaches P. umbilicata, but perfectly 
characterized by the apertural characters, with 5 denticula- 
tions of which three emerge, not permitting a comparison 
with any of the described forms. At first view this shell has 
some analogy with Vertigo anglica, but the style of umbilicus 
and form of peristome show it to be a veritable Pupilla. 

Description abbreviated somewhat from Locard. Perhaps 
it is an umbilicate specimen of anglica. 

24. Lauria numidica (Bgt.). PL 5, figs. 13, 14. 

This species differs from anglica, with which it has been 
confused, by the less smooth, more strongly striate shell, by 
the aperture more strongly toothed, and never having a 
tooth-like fold at the base of the aperture, such as occurs in 
the lower part of the aperture in all true anglica. More- 
over, in anglica the first lamelliform fold [angular lamella] 
is always united with the outer margin of the lip by a 
strong thickening. In numidica, on the contrary, this thick- 
ening does not exist, and the [angular] fold is perfectly free. 
Length 3y±, diam. 2 mm. (Bgt.). 

Algeria: Ain-Tlezid, near Blidah (Morelet) ; Kabylia at 
Acherchour-en-Tensaout and Bou lief, Tirourda, Ait Daoud 
and Ait Ouban (Letourneux). 

Pupa anglica Morelet, Journ. de Conch, iv, 1853, p. 292. 
— Vertigo numidica Bourguignat, Malac. de l'Algerie, ii, 
1864, p. 100, pi. 6, f. 33-35 — Hanoteau et Letourneux, La 
Kabylie, i, 1872, p. 228. 

The surface is described as obliquely, elegantly very sharply 
siibcostulate. It is a rather solid, subpellucid, glossy, tawny- 


corneous shell, closely related to L. anglica but decidedly 
narrower. Known to me by Bourguignat's account only. 

Letourneux mentioned, but did not describe, a var. zonata. 
Being a nude name, this does not prejudice the use of the 
same term for a Caucasian species. 

Modi Iran Species. 

Here the Laurie have become adapted to both extremely 
wet and to arid stations, some living on or under rocks, 
others on plants; and here they have undergone greater 
structural modification than in any other area. This radia- 
tion is partially expressed in the classification into several 
sections : 

Scarab clla, for species 25, L. cassida. 

Leiostyla restricted, for species 26 to 45. 

Wollastonula, for species 46, L. gibba. 

Maxtula, for species 47, L. lamcllosa. 

By having an upper-palatal fold in many species the 
Madeiran forms are more primitive than the L. anglica. 
series; but this fold is present also in some other peripheral 
species in the Azores and Caucasus. 

A key to the species may be found on pages 69 to 73. 

The literature of Madeiran Pupillidfe is rather extensive, 
but the publications of Lowe and "Wollaston contain nearly 
all that is original or of value. "Wollaston 's Testacea 
Atlantica, though without descriptions or figures, is indis- 
pensable for its critical notes on these as well as on all other 
land shells of the Atlantic islands. It has been quoted freely 
in the following pages. 

Very few adequate illustrations of these shells have ap- 
peared ; those now offered are from specimens out of the 
Lowe-Wollaston collection, supplemented by others from 
various sources, some of them from the collection of Mr. J. 
R. Le B. Tomlin, who gave various rare species and lent 
others in order that the monograph might be complete. 
Only L. degenerata is wanting in the series at hand. 

Titles of the chief publications on Madeiran Pupillidae fol- 
low : 


Lowe, Kichard Thomas: Primitiae Faunas et Floras Mad- 
eras et Portus Sancti ; sive species quaadam novae vel hactenus 
minus rite cognitae Animaliiun et Plantarum in his Insulisi 
degentiuni breviter descriptas; in Transactions of the Cam- 
bridge Philosophical Society iv, part 1, 1831. Reprinted 
with a prefatory Address and an Appendix, 1851. Also 
papers in the Annals and Magazine of Natural History 1852 
and the Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, 

Albers, Johann Christ. Malacographia MaderensiS 
Berlin, 1854. 

Paiva, Barone de Castello de. Monographia Mollus- 
corum terrestrium nuvialium lacustrium Insularum Mader- 
ensium, 1867. 

Pfeifper, L. Monographia Heliceorum Viventium. Mad- 
eirans in several volumes. 

Wollaston, T. Vernon. Testacea Atlantica, or the land 
and freshwater shells of the Azores, Madeiras, Salvages, 
Canaries, Cape Verdes and Saint Helena. London 1878. 

Section Scarab ella Lowe. 

Scarabella Lowe, Ann. Mag. N. H. (2), is, 1852, p. 277 
(in text under Pupa cassida) ; Proc. Zool. Soc. 1854, p. 212, 
Monotypic for P. cassida-. 

Solid; ovate, the whole spire tapering conically, of nearly 
flat whorls; umbilical area small. The aperture has numer- 
ous teeth, all of them emerging to the peristome ; the angular, 
parietal and columellar lamellae and lower-palatal fold enter 

By the shape of the aperture and spire the single species' 
of this section has some resemblance to L. chcilogona; in 
teeth it is more like cassidula. Though strongly differen- 
tiated, Scarabella probably arose from the ancestral stock of 
these Leiostylas. By having callus within the outer and 
basal margins of the lip it resembles L. calathiscus, which is 
otherwise quite different. 

25. Lauria cassida (Lowe). PI. 14. fig. 1. 

The shell is ovate-conic, compact, solid; perforate, with a 
very small umbilical excavation ; surface with little gloss, re- 
gularly rib-striate, the base very finely striate ; buff, more 1 


or less mottled with brown above, and with the base dark 
brown, generally with a lighter band. The slowly increas- 
ing whorls are nearly flat, the last short, rounded basally. 
The aperture is subtriangular, with 8 (or 9) teeth, all em- 
erging at least to the inner edge of the peristome. The two 
lamella? of the parietal wall, the columellas and the lower- 
palatal, enter deeply. Angular lamella united by a callus 
with the lip-insertion. Parietal lamella smaller, emerging. 
Columellas lamella strong, horizontal, a small supracol- 
umellar above it. Lower-palatal fold strong, long, a short 
upper-palatal fold between it and the strong lip-tooth bound- 
ing the sinulus, these two more or less confluent. Near the 
upper insertion of the lip there is often a quite small tooth. 
Basal tooth short. The peristome is expanded, the lower and 
columellas margins reflected, calloused within. Columellas 
margin very oblique, curved inward. 

Length 4.6. diam. 2.8 mm. ; 8 whorls. 

Length 4, diam. 2.7 mm. ; 7 wiiorls. 

Madeira: extreme head of the Ribeira de Sta. Luzia (type 
loc.) among vegetable detritus, on the steep butress or bank 
immediately to the right of the waterfall, and which consti- 
tutes the base of the lofty, perpendicular rocks; also in 
northern Madeira in the Ribeira de Sao Jorge. Common in 
the Pleistocene at Canical (Wollaston). 

Helix C. cassida Lowe, Cambr. Philos. Trans, iv, 1831, p. 
64. — Pupa cassida Lowe, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1854, p. 212. 
Pfr., Monogr. ii, 344. — Albers, Malac. Mader., p. 68. — 
Wollaston, Test. Atl. p. 213. 

The large size, conic spire and numerous submarginal 
white teeth, the close costulation and mottled coloring of the 
solid, compact shell, will readily distinguish cassida from 
other species. 

It is rather rare as a recent shell, and I have not seen an/ 
young specimens, the teeth in that stage being therefore un- 
known. Wollaston believes that it will prove to be pretty 
generally distributed in the damp, sylvan ravines of inter- 
mediate altitudes. 


Section Lciostyla proper. 

In the Madeira Islands this section begins with species re- 
sembling those of western Europe, of the European! 
Tertiary and the less specialized Caucasians; but by easy 
stages the shape becomes more cylindric, the sculpture 
stronger, and accessory teeth develop. These tendencies cul- 
minate in the L. f err aria group of species (Craticula of 
Lowe), mainly inhabiting dry stations. On Porto Santo this 
cylindric, ribbed, many-toothed line has its fullest expression. 

.26. Lauria cheilogona (Lowe). PI. 10, figs. 3, 4, 5. 

The shell is thin, perforate, rimate, with small, deep um- 
bilical region ; ovate-conic, sides moderately convex ; apex 
obtuse, perfect or but slightly worn. Its surface shining but 
not glossy, very weakly, irregularly striate, chiefly near the 
suture; of a dilute, transparent isabella color, with a trans- 
parent brown peripheral band. Whorls are slightly convex, 
the last slowly ascending in front, compressed laterally, the 
base being somewhat pinched and narrowly rounded below j 
umbilicus with a deep spiral groove. Aperture 4-plicate, 
produced towards the outer-basal margin. Angular lamella 
widely removed from the lip-insertion, thin, high, penetrat- 
ing inward fulty a half whorl, irregularly serrate within. 
Parietal lamella smaller, shorter. Columellar lamella thin, 
broad, sloping downward. Palatal fold low, tapering slowly 
to both ends, more than l/o of a whorl long. The peristome 
is narrowly reflected, its inner edge thickened a little, bear- 
ing a blunt tooth above, defining the sinulus. Length 4.1, 
diam. 2 mm. ; 6% whorls. 

Madeira : in damp, sylvan districts, chiefly toward the 
north, at high elevations: Lombarda das Vacas, Montado dos 
Pecegueiros etc., on fronds of ferns (Wollaston and Lowe). 
Near Sao Vincente (Albers). 

Helix C. cheilogona Lowe, Primitive, 1831, p. 63, pi. 6, f. 
31. — Pupa cheilogona, Lowe, Pfr., Monogr. ii, 327 ; iv, 675. — , 
Albers, Malac. Mader. p. 63. — Paiva, Monogr. p. 122. — 
Wollaston, Test. Atl. p. 213. 


The spire is more straightly conic than in L. viucta, L. v. 
watsoniana or L. concinna. The absence of a supracolumellar 
lamella distinguishes it from L. irrigua, L. loweana ami 

In the juvenile stage there are at first 3, later 2 radial basal 
folds, rather close together. The angular and columella!* 
lamellre are very large, the parietal very small. 

27. Lauria vtncta (Lowe). PL 10, figs. 8, 9, 10, 11. 

" Differs from cheilogona Lowe by the smaller size, shorter, 
more obese shape, the apex more obtuse, aperture rounded- 
oval, not ear-shaped, the shell smoother, more glossy, brighter 
colored, banded; by the larger ventral [parietal] folds, etc. 
Near to P. irrigua but surely distinct " (Lowe). 

The angular and parietal lamella? are higher (that is, pro- 
ject further into the aperture) than in L. cheilogona, but. 
they are shorter, reaching inward only to a dorsal position, 
where they diminish rapidly ; the crest of the angular lamella 
is not serrate. The lower-palatal fold is low, as in L. 
cheilogona, but it is shorter. The base of the shell is rounded, 
not pinched laterally, and there is only a very slight spiral 
groove within the umbilicus. There is no upper-palatal fold, 
but a minute subcolumellar may generally be seen inward 
from the baso-columellar junction. The apex is generally 

Length 3.5, diain. 2 mm.; 5% whorls. 

Length 3, diam. 1.9 mm.; 5% whorls. 

Madeira : chiefly in the north, on dripping masses of 
Marchantia polymorphs which pad the rocks at a low eleva- 
tion, especially at shore level; first waterfall from Sao Vin- 
cente, along the beach road to Seisal, and Passa d'Areia 
(Lowe and Wollaston). 

Pupa viucta Lowe, Aim. Mag. N. H. (2), ix, 1852, p. 276. 
— Albers, Malac. Mader. p. 63. — Pfr., Monogr. iii, 549; iv, 
675; vi, 321.— Wollaston, Test. Atl. p. 214. 

Besides the differential characters given above, it may be 
mentioned that this species is more glossy than L. cheilogona, 


less striate, usually more olivaceous and frequently more dis- 
tinctly banded. The shape of the aperture is characteristic, 
and it has about a whorl less. 

Young shells show 2 to 5 radial folds in the base of the last 
half whorl (pi. 10, figs. 9, 11). 

27a. L. vincta watsaniana n. subsp. PI. 10, figs. 6. 7. 

Much larger than L. vincta, less conic, the outlines of the 
spire being more convex ; summit decorticated. Lamella? as in 
vincta, but there is a larger though still small sub-colum- 
mellar fold inward from the baso-columellar junction. 

Length 4.4, diam. 2.25 mm. ; 6 whorls. 

Length 4.3, diam. 2.25 mm. 

This form is evidently what Wollaston alludes to as being 
the largest Madeiran Pupa, with the exception of P. cassida. 
He notes also that vincta has a larger and a smaller state. 

28. Laueia irrigua (Lowe). PI. 10, figs. 12. 

The shell is minutely perforate, rimate, cylindric-tapering 
with obtuse, generally worn summit, subtranslucent isabella 
color, sometimes indistinctly banded; rather glossy, finely 
striate below the suture, elsewhere smoothish. The whorls 
are very slightly convex, the last a little swollen behind the 
outer-basal margin of lip, and slightly concave behind the 
columellar lip. Aperture is squarish with rounded base, 
7-plicate. Angular lamella very high, somewhat sinuous, 
penetrating to the back, joined to the lip-insertion by a! 
strong callus; often denticulate on the right side within the 
sinulus. Parietal lamella smaller and shorter. Columellar 
lamella wide, sloping downward, a smaller, short supra-colu- 
mellar lamella above it. Lower-palatal fold well developed. 
A very small upper-palatal is weaMy connected with an in- 
ward continuation of the tooth on the outer lip bounding the 
sinulus, the whole parallel to the crest of the angular lamella. 
A small basal fold stands inward from the baso-columellar 5 
margin. Peristome brownish, expanded and very little re- 

Length 4.2. diam. 2.1 mm.; 6% whorls. 


Madeira: mainly in the south, in muddy Marchantia- 
padded deposits of the damp, trickling rocks, in shady ravines 
of intermediate altitudes, also on the wiry roots of coarse 
grasses in the constant drip of such places; on perpendicular 
face of lofty rocks on the eastern side of the Ribeira de Sta. 
Luzia, about two-thirds of the way up to the waterfall. 
Also apparently taken by Paiva in northern Madeira 
(Wollaston) . 

Pupa irrigua Lowe, Ann. Mag. N. H. (2), ix, 1852, p. 276; 
P. Z. S. 1854. p. 208.— Albers, Malac. Mader. p. 63.— Paiva, 
Monogr. p. 124. — Pfr., Monogr. iii, 549. — Wollaston, Test. 
Atl. p. 215. 

A rather large oblong species, resembling L. v. watsoniana 
in shape ; like that it is often decorticated at the summit. It 
differs from all forms of vincta by the strong callus connect- 
ing the angular lamella with the lip-insertion, by the pres- 
ence of a supra-columellar lamella, and of a small upper- 
palatal fold. The small basal fold is very deeply immersed. 

The species irrigua, lowcana, transiens, cassidula form a 
nearly connected series, the successive members discriminated 
by small differences of sculpture and contour. L. lowcana 
stands extremely close to the present species, but L. irrigua 
is a little narrower and decidedly smoother than loweana. 

The radial folds of the young seem to be retained into 
late youth. A specimen of 6 whorls shows 5, and there were 
probably more, as the last part of the base is broken away. 

29. Lauria loweana (Wollaston). PI. 10, figs. 13, 14. 

The shell is oblong-ovate, rather densely striatulate, some- 
what shining, dark umber-brown (generally more or less 
whitish, decorticated, towards the apex), sometimes obscurely 
banded, whorls slightly convex, suture impressed. Aperture 
ear-shaped, ringent, the angles rounded, 5-plicate; there 
being 2 ventral folds, the outer larger, 2 columellars, the lower 
larger, 1 palatal ; the outer ventral and lower columellar of 
about equal size, upper columellar and palatal smaller, in- 
mersed, somewhat inconspicuous. Outer lip somewhat thick- 
ened, a little reflected, with an inwardly projecting tooth 


defining the sinus; sinus (between the angle and ventral 
fold) surrounded with a thick corneous sphincter. Length 
1% — 2 lines {Wollaston). 

Generally similar to L. irrigua, but darker, more striate, 
often of shorter figure. The supra columellas lamella is* 
,^,/igcr, penetrating as far as can be seen in the aperture. 
There is sometimes a small basal fold but usually none. 
A small, immersed subcolumellar fold is present. An upper- 
palatal fold is wanting, or sometimes represented by a mere 
trace, and the lip-tooth limiting the sinulus is generally slen- 
der. As in irrigua, there is a strong callous ridge connecting 
angular lamella and lip-insertion. 

Length 4.35, diam. 2.05 mm. ; 7 whorls. 

Length 3.7, diam. 2 mm. ; 6^ whorls. 

Length 3.2, diam. 1.9 mm. ; 6V2 whorls. 

Madeira : especially northward, believed to be chiefly from 
the Boa Ventura and the Ribeira do Inferno (Paiva 's 
collector) . 

Pupa wollastoni Lowk, Ann. Mag. N. H. (3), xix, Feb., 
1867, p. 81. Not of Paiva, 1866.— Pupa deformis Wollas- 
ton, Test. Atlant., 1878, p. 216. — Pupa conciima Lowe, Paiva 
in coll., and Mon. Moll. Mader. 1867, p. 127, in part. Not of 
Lowe. — Pupa loiveana Wollaston, Test, Atlant., 1878, p. 
217, with var. transit ns. 

It stands close to the south Madeiran L. irrigua, as noted 
above. Wollaston found it mixed with lots of L. vineta re- 
ceived from the Baron de Paiva, and concluded that it lives 
in the drip of 31 archantia '-padded rocks at a low elevation. 

Pupa wollastoni Lowe, renamed P. deformis Woll., was 
based upon a single specimen picked out of a lot of loweana 
and vineta. It is evidently an abnormal shell, in which the 
spire has been somewhat " telescoped ", leaving a projecting 
flange below the suture, an unusual but well-known teratologic 
condition. Wollaston evidently had doubts of its validity. 
As two specific names have been applied to this specimen, 
Lowe's account is here given. 

Pupa wollastoni — The shell is rather large, somewhat solid, 


compact, short, broadly short-oblong, obtuse at botli ends, 
the width subequal in the last 2-2 Vl> whorls, forming %-% 
of the length, then the rest of the whorls suddenly contract- 
ing in a slightly projecting umbonate apex, all obsoletely 
striatulate, smooth, shining; dark browu (the spire decor- 
ticated and white towards the apex), very narrowly 1 to 2 
banded with paler color. Whorls 6, flattened or a little 
convex, (the last 2 or 3 abruptly swollen and projecting be- 
low the somewhat channeled suture, the last whorl anteriorly 
more distinctly concave in the middle, or lightly spirally 
subeanaliculate preceding the labrum, traversed by somewhat 
Huxuously oblique obsolete striohe, the impressed suture 
deeply cut. Aperture siubtrilobate-auriform or triangular, 
the angles rounded, ringent, 5-plicate ; 2 ventral folds, the 
exterior larger, 2 columellar, the lower one larger, 1 palatal; 
two centrals and the lower columellar subequal, large, the 
upper columellar and palatal smaller, less conspicuous, im- 
mersed; outer lip somewhat thickened, a little reflected, in- 
flected above, a distinct tooth projecting inward at the sinus; 
respiratory sinus nearly entire. Length 3, diam. 2'-, 
aperture 1 mm. long, 1 wide; 6 whorls. {Lowe). 

" At once distinguished from P. concinna Lowe by its 
much greater proportionate breadth and short, thick squarish 
figure; and from P. gibba and P. abbreviata, besides other 
differences, by its being so much larger. There is also much 
about it which reminds one of P. cassida and P. cassiduht, 
but it is most distinct from all, especially by the abrupt con- 
traction of the spire about the last two or three volutions, 
and by the scalariform character of these, each rising up 
into a blunt keel or ridge below the deeply impressed or sub- 
canaliculated suture. The colour also is peculiar, being 
more of a dark umber than chestnut brown, with two re- 
mote, narrow pale bands, one at the base, the other on the 
infrasutural ridge or shoulder at the top of the last volution, 
but these will probably prove variable and even in the pres- 
ent example the upper band is obscure and inconspicuous. 
The spire is abruptly contracted above the second or third 
volution into a short obtuse decorticated umbo; the lowest 
two or three volutions are of nearly equal breadth, or broadly 
and shortly barrel-shaped, and the last is spirally concave 
or slightly grooved or channeled a little way backward from 
the outer lip below the middle. The aperture, both in shape 
and in the form, size and proportion of its plaits, differs from 
that of all the species, above mentioned. The umbilicus is 
moderately Large and infundibuliform. 


A unique example of this fine new Pupa, with the remains 
of its animal still present in the aperture, was detected by 
T. Vernon Wollaston, Esq., the well-known explorer of the 
Atlantic insect fauna and author of ' Insecta Maderensia ' 
Canariensia, etc., in a box containing a number of specimens 
of P. concinna Lowe, sent to him from Madeira, about a year 
ago by the Baron do Castello de Paiva, and marked ' Rib. do 
Inferno ' ". 

29a. L. loweana transiens (WolL). PI. 11, figs. 1, 2. 

A little smaller, somewhat more strongly and not so closely 
striate ; shell generally somewhat paler and a little less solid ; 
sometimes subpellucid, conspicuously paler, or banded 
(Wollaston). There is a small upper-palatal fold. 

Length 3.6, diam. 1.85 mm. ; 6V2 whorls. 

Length 3.2, diam. 1.8 mm.; 6V2 whorls. 

The special locality of this form was not noted. Taken 
only by Paiva 7 s collector. It differs very little from L. 

30. Lauria cassidula (Lowe). PL 11, fig. 3. 

The shell is perforate and rimate, ovate, stout, chamois to 
cream-buff. Surface scarcely shining, closely, strongly 
striate, the striae irregular and partly obsolete on the last 
whorl, which is slightly glossy. Outlines of spire are strongly 
convex. The aperture is truncate-oval, 7-plicate. The high, 
thin, angular lamella emerges beyond the lip-insertion, with 
which it connects by an elevated lamina. Parietal lamella well 
developed. Columellar lamella slanting downward as usual, 
a small but deeply entering supracolumellar above it. Lower- 
palatal fold high and strong, entering to the dorsal side; 
above it a short, but well developed upper-palatal fold. 
There is also a very deeply immersed but well developed sub- 
columellar fold. The lip is expanded, slightly reflected, bear- 
ing a stout tooth above, defining the short, squarish sinulus. 
Length 3.2, diam. 1.8 mm. ; 6^/2 whorls. 

Madeira: Ribeira de Sta, Luzia at a rather high elevation, 
at the foot of lofty, perpendicular rocks, amongst vegetable 
debris (Wollaston, Armitage, Watson) ; very rare. 


Pupa cassidula Lowe, Aim. Mag. N. H. (2), ix, 1852, p. 
277.— Kuester, Conchyl. Cab. p. 167, pi. 20, f. 12, 13.— 
Albers, Malac. Mader. p. 68, pi. 16, f. 9, 10. — Paiva Monogr. 
p. 136. — Pfr., Monogr. iii, 553; vi, 323. — Wollaston, Test. 
Atl. p. 218. 

This form, figured from a specimen from the Lowe-Wol- 
laston collection, stands very close to L. loweana transients. 
In L. cassidula the upper-palatal fold is decidedly better de- 
veloped, the whorls of cassidula are perhaps a little shorter 
and the form thus more compact. The aperture is shorter. 
L. I. transiens is supposed to be from northern Madeira, 
while this species is from the south. Wollaston states that 
cassidula " is paler and a little more coarsely striated [than 
L. loweana transiens] ; and the lateral denticle of its outer 
lip is somewhat more prominent internally, causing the sinus 
to be less open, or more narrowly closed in behind." 

31. Lauria concinna (Lowe). PL 11, figs. 4, 5, 6. 

The shell is perforate and rimate, cylindric, with short, 
convexly-conic, obtuse summit, chestnut-brown, with the base 
and a narrow band on the upper surface olive-buff. Surface 
slightly shining, very closely and finely but strongly striate, 
the striation weak on the last whorl, which is smoothish at the 
periphery and beneath. Whorls but slightly convex. 
Aperture 5-plicate. Angular lamella very high, oblique, flar- 
ing outward nearly to the tooth of the outer lip, not con- 
nected with the lip-insertion. Parietal lamella also flaring out- 
ward. Columella!* lamella strong, emerging, horizontal. 
Lower-palatal fold strongly developed, immersed, latero- 
dorsal. No upper-palatal fold. Subcolumellar lamella low, 
tubercular, so deeply immersed that it is only partially 
seen in an oblique view in the mouth. Peristome brownish, 
narrowly expanded and a little thickened, bearing a narrow 
but well developed tooth above. 

Length 3.7, diam. 1.7 mm. ; iy.> whorls. 

Length 3.25, diam. 1.75 mm. ; 6y 2 whorls. 

Madeira: in the highest elevations, on broken sticks and 
small stones near the minute, trickling streams, as well as 


beneath damp moss; extreme head of the Ribeira de Joao 
Delgada and found later on the north side of the Pica 
Casado, at the head of the Boa Ventura (Lowe and Wol- 

Pupa concinna Lowe, Ann. Mag. N. H. (2), ix, 1852, p. 
277.— Kuester, Conchyl. Cab. p. 181, pi. 21, f. 24, 25.— 
Albers, Malac. Mader. p. 65, pi. 16, f. 11, 12.— Pfr., Monogr. 
iii, 544 ; vi, 310.— Wollaston, Test. Atl. p. 219. 

This species is nearest to L. laurinea in shape and arma- 
ture of the aperture, but there is no callus between angular 
lamella and lip-insertion, and the fine striation is entirely 
different. Wollaston writes : " It is darker as well as more 
densely and coarsely striated than that species [laurinea] > 
and its two ventral plaits [lamella of parietal wall] are more 
flexuose and oblique, or less vertical (causing the sinus to 
be even still more closed in), the external one [angular 
lamella] being also more completely unconnected by even a 
rudimentary callosity with the angle of the lip." L. concinna 
differs from L. loweana and cassidula by the more narrowly 
cylindric form, by the absence of a supra-columellar lamella 

A specimen about half grown has 6 radial basal folds (pi. 
11, fig. 5). One of the full-grown shells retains a single 
radial fold within the base on the left side. 

32. Lauria laurinea (Lowe). PI. 11, figs. 8. 9. 

The shell is oblong-cylindric, olivaceous-buff, with a chest- 
nut band median on the last whorl, another below the suture. 
Surface somewhat glossy, most minutely striate on the spire, 
the last whorl smoothish, whorls slightly convex, the last com- 
pressed below, narrowly rounded at base. The aperture is 
truncate-oval, 5-plicate. Angular lamella very high and 
thin, oblique, flaring outward, more or less fully connected 
with the lip-insertion by an uneven or interrupted callus. 
Parietal lamella small, also oblique. Columella!* lamella 
horizontal, no supracolumellar. Subcolumellar very small, 
immersed. Lower-palatal fold rather immersed, high. 
Peristome a. little reflected, brownish, bearing a tooth above. 


Length 3.4, diata. 1.7 mm. nearly 7 -whorls. 

Length 3.2, diam. 1.7 mm. 6% whorls. 

Madeira.-, chiefly about the trunks of old laurels in the 
wooded districts of intermediate elevations; Ribeiro Frio, 
S. Antonio da Serra and the Boa Ventura. Also Pleistocene 
at Canical (Wollaston). 

Pupa laurinea Lowe, Ann. Mag. N. H. (2) ix, 1852, p. 276. 
— Albers, Malac. Mader. p. 64, pi. 15, f. 31, 32.— Pfr., 
Monogr. ii, 543 ; vi. 309.— Wollaston, Test. Atl. p. 220. 

It is much smoother than L. concimta, the striation being 
very fine ; the color is lighter ; there is more or less callus be- 
tween angular lamella and lip-insertion, but this callus is 
sometimes interrupted in the middle ; finally, the sinulus is 
somewhat more open below. The lamella? and folds are other- 
wise nearly similar. 

In quite young shells of 3-3% whorls there are two radial 
basal folds. In those two-thirds grown there may be 4 or 5 
in the last half whorl. 

33. Laubia sphixctostoma (Lowe). PI. 11, figs. 10, 11, 12. 

The shell is slowly tapering subcylindrie, in the upper 
third tapering convexly to the blunt apex; brown, with the 
base and a narrow band in the middle of upper surface pale. 
Surface somewhat shining, strongly striate, this sculpture 
disappearing more or less on the last whorl and absent from 
the first 1%. The whorls are slightly convex, the last a little 
compressed towards the base, excavated behind the columellar 
lip. Aperture 6-plicate. The very high angular lamella is 
branched above, curving into the outer lip. The strong 
emerging columellar lamella slants downward. Supracolum- 
ellar lamella small, less emerging, entering deeply. The 
angular, parietal, columellar and supracolumellar lamellae 
are about equally long, penetrating inward nearly to a dorsal 
position (pi. 11, fig. 12). Low T er-palatal fold strong, 
somewhat immersed, entering to the dorsal side. Upper- 
palatal represented by a very weak callus running inward 
and downward from the strong tooth of the outer lip. Basal 
fold well developed, somewhat immersed. No suhcolumellar 


lamella. The peristome is brown, thin, expanded and some- 
what reflected. Length 3.6, diam. 1.5 mm. ; 7% whorls. 

Madeira: chiefly in the north and towards the coast, at 
rather low elevation, about the roots and dead leaves of 
Sepervivum tabulajorme and a few other plants which 
stud the faces of exposed rocks (Wollaston). 

Helix C. sphinctostoma Lowe, Primitive, p. 63. — Pupa 
sphinctostoma Ppr., Monogr. ii, 335; iii, 543; iv, 569; vi, 
309. — Lowe, P. Z. S. 1854, p. 209, with var. rupestris and 
arbor ea. — Albers, Malac. Mader. p. 64. — Wollaston, Test. 
Atlant, p. 222. 

For comparisons see under L. laevigata and wollastoni. L. 
sphinctostoma in the wide sense is a highly variable species, 
the name covering numerous forms and races which can be 
fully worked out only when sufficient accurately localized 
material is in hand. 

Lowe distinguished two varieties: "rupestris, the spire 
more distinctly striate," and " arborea, the shell smoother, 
more glossy and more obsoletely striatulate. " The first of 
these is what he had at first figured as sphinctostoma, and 
the name rupestris is therefore superfluous and yields to 
sphinctostoma. No definite localities were given for either 
variety. The figures of sphinctostoma and arborea here 
given are from specimens out of the Lowe-Wollaston collec- 
tion, not exactly localized, but serving to fix the identity of 
the two forms. 

In a specimen from Machico (T. D. A. and W. Cockerell) 
the striation is finer than typical. Supracolumellar lamella 
very weak, basal fold minute, tubercular; lower-palatal 
small. There are no subcolumellar or upper-palatal folds. 

Another specimen, locality unknown, has also very delicate 
striation and reduced teeth, the supracolumellar and lower- 
palatal weak, basal, upper-palatal and subcolumellar wanting. 

33ff. Lauria sphinctostoma arborea (Lowe). PI. 11, figs. 
13 to 16. 
The shell is more straightly cylindric than L. sphinctos- 
toma, paler, olive-buff, uniform or banded with brown at 


periphery and above suture; finely, weakly and very lightly 

It lias angular, parietal, columellar and supracolumellar 
lamella?, as in sphmctostoma, but there is also, in typical 
arborea, a very small, immersed subcolumellar. Lower- 
palatal fold flat-topped, a distinct but short upper-palatal 
between it and the lip tooth. Basal fold well developed. 
Apex generally more or less worn. 

Length 4.1, diam. 1.7 mm.; 8 whorls. 

Length 4.4, diam. 1.5 mm. ; 7% whorls. 

Length 3.4 mm. 

^Madeira: at higher elevations than sphinctostoma, in 
woods, in moss and under the loose bark of laurels ; abundant 
at the Ribeiro Frio, at S. Antonio da Serra, in the Ribeira 
de Santa Luzia, and indeed throughout the wooded districts 1 
generally (Wollaston). 

In a series from Santa Cruz (M. Grabham) the shell ia 
more striate above than in typical arborea, the upper palatal 
fold is obsolete or very small, and there is no subcolumellar. 
An immature one of this lot having 6V3 whorls shows 6 evenly 
spaced radial folds within the base (pi. 11, fig. 14). 

L. sphmctostoma heterodon n. subsp. PI. 11, fig. 7. 

Striate as in sphinctostoma, brownish with an olive-buff 
band. Supra and infracolumellar lamellae and upper palatal 
fold are wanting. The angular lamella has no denticle op- 
posite the lip-tooth. Length 3.5, diam. 1.5 mm. ; 7% whorls. 
Type 130428 A N S P. 

L. sphinctostoma simulator n. subsp. PI. 12, fig. 11. 

The shell is finely striate on the spire, as in L. s. arborea; 
dilute chestnut, with the base and a median spiral band on 
the whorls very pale greenish. Angular, parietal and colu- 
mellar lamella? smaller than in arborea or sphinctostoma, the 
parietal not penetrating so deeply; the lower-palatal fold is 
rather short, moderately high, its summit narrow, rounded 
(not enlarged or flattened). No basal or upper palatal folds 
are present; supracolumellar lamella only weakly indicated. 
Length 3.7, diam. 1.5 mm. ; 7V : ; whorls. Type 5611 A N S P. 


This form resembles L. laevigata, but differs by the strong 
connecting callus between angular lamella and lip-insertion, 
and the decidedly larger and longer parietal lamella; this 
however is much shorter than in sphinctostoma, in which the 
parietal penetrates as deeply as the angular lamella, as seeu 
in pi. 11, fig. 12. 

34. Lauria wollastoni (Paiva). PI. 13, figs. 1, 2, 3. 

The shell is cylindric, whitish gray with brown bands at 
suture, periphery and base of last whorl, sharply and very 
finely striate on the spire, the last whorl smoother. The 
whorls are moderately convex, the last whorl tapering down- 
wards, having a spiral impression corresponding to the lower- 
palatal fold. The folds are visible as white lines externally 
in well preserved examples. 

Aperture auriform, 9-toothed. Angular lamella large, 
strongly connected with the lip-insertion ; parietal lamella 
almost equally large but somewhat immersed. Columellar 
lamella strong, slanting downward, a small supracolumellar 
above it. In the outer lip there is a small tubercle close 1 
to the insertion, an acute, emerging tooth defining the sinulus, 
a small, short, immersed upper-palatal below it, followed by 
the rather large but immersed lower-palatal fold. In thel 
base there is a well developed but immersed fold. The) 
peristome is reflected, slightly thickened within. 

Length 2.5, diam. 1.2 mm. ; 6i/o whorls. 

Madeira: Pleistocene at Canical. 

Pupa wollsatoni [err. typ. for wollastoni] Paiva, Journ. 
de Conchyl. 1866, p. 339, pi. 11, f. 2. — Pupa canicalensis 
Paiva Man. Moll. Mader., 1867, p. 131, pi. 2, f. 8 (new name' 
for P. wollastoni). — Pupa wollastoni Paiva, Wollaston, 
Test. Atl. p. 221. 

It resembles L. sphinctostoma arbor ea in the teeth, but the 
lower-palatal fold is not so flattened. The shell is much 
smaller and more sharply striate. Though found fossil, it 
often retains the colored bands. Besides some small dif- 
ferences in the teeth, it differs from L. sphinctostoma by the 
small size and finer sculpture. 


Paiva renamed this species when under the erroneous im- 
pression that the name first given was preoccupied. 

35. Laubia laevigata (Lowe). PI. 13, figs. 4. 5. 

The shell is cylindric, slowly tapering above, the summit 
rounded, obtuse; thin; subtransparent light brownish olive. 
Surface shining; upper half very finely but sharply striate, 
the last whorl nearly smooth. Aperture ear-shaped, 4-plicate 
and with the usual lip tooth. Angular lamella thin, not con- 
nected with the lip-insertion, penetrating inward nearly to 
the ventral side. Parietal lamella small and very short, 
not entering. Columellar lamella small, horizontal, entering 
to the left side. Lower-palatal fold running to the dorsal 
side, rising in a. median point. Lip narrowly expanded, 
slightly reflected, bluntly toothed above. Sinulus rather 
widely open below. 

Length 4.1, diam. 1.6 mm.; T 1 /^ whorls. 

Length 3.6, diam. 1.55 mm. ; 7y± whorls. 

Madeira : in the southern part, near the head of the Ribeira 
de Sta. Luzia, under the dead and loosened bark of old 
laurel trunks (Wollaston). 

Pupa laevigata Lowe, Ann. Mag. N. H. (2), ix, 1852, p. 
276. — Albers, Malac. Mader. p. 65. — Ppr., Monogr. iii, 544. 

With much the general form of L. sphinctostoma and 
arborea, this species differs conspicuously by the simpler 
aperture. There is no callus connecting angular lamella and 
lip-insertion, and deep within small points arm the free edge 
of the angular (not always so well developed as in fig. 5 — an 
obliquely basal view). The parietal lamella is very short, the 
columellar lamella is low, and no basal fold is present. It is 
thus very distinct. The striation mentioned in the descrip- 
tion is sometimes rather weakly developed. 

The immature shell has radial folds in the base arranged 
as in sphinctostoma, but they are very small and short, three 
or four being developed in the later stages of youth. No 
parietal lamella was seen in any of 8 young shells examined, 
from small to large. 


36. Lauria recta (Lowe). PI. 13, figs. 6, 7, 8. 

The shell is long, cylindric, banded with chestnut brown 
on a slightly paler, more olive ground, rather opaque. Sur- 
face lusterless, very closely and minutely, weakly striate. 
Whorls at first convex, then somewhat flattened. Angular 
lamella thin, straight and oblique, connected by a high 
callous ridge wth the lip-insertion, penetrating to the dorsal 
side. Parietal lamella not penetrating quite so far. Colu- 
mellar lamella rather strong, horizontal ; the weak trace of a 
supracolumellar above it. The upper-palatal fold is not very 
long. Basal fold smaller or quite small. Only the angular 
lamella emerges to the peristome. The peristome is nar- 
rowly expanded, a little reflected, brown, bearing a small 
tooth above. 

Length 5, diam. 1.5 mm. ; 7y 2 whorls. 

Length 4.7, diam. 1.5 mm. ; 7i/> whorls. 

Madeira : around roots and among dry leaves of Semper- 
vivicm tabula forme growing on rocks, particularly tow r ards 
the coast ; sea cliffs below Sao Vicente and towards the Ribeira 
da Janella, and along the whole north shore (Wollaston). 

Pupa recta Lowe, Ann. Mag. N. H. (2), ix, 1852, p. 276; 
P. Z. S. 1854, p. 210.— Ppr., Monogr. iii, 543; vi, 309.— 
Kuester, Conchyl. Cab. p. 168, pi. 20, f. 16, 17.— Wollaston 
Test. Atlant. p. 224. 

It is a more elongate, duller shell than L. laevigata, with 
the parietal lamella larger, and having a. conspicuous callus 
between angular lamella and lip-insertion. 

Lauria recta macilenta (Lowe). PI. 13, fig. 9. 

Differs from L. recta " in being somewhat smaller, paler, 
thinner and just appreciably more distinctly striate, in its 
ultimate volution being a trifle shorter, and in its two palatal 
plaits being greatly reduced in dimensions" (Wollaston). 
The basal fold is small or very small, and deep within ; upper- 
palatal fold from small to rather long in different examples. 
Length 3.7, diam. 1.4 mm. ; 7!/2 w T horls. 

Madeira group : Deserta Grande, in crevices and hollows of 


the red volcanic soil on the great western promontory known 
as the Pedragal (Wollaston). 

Pupa macilenta Lowe, Ann. Mag. (2), ix, 1852, p. 276. — 
Wollaston, Test. Atl. p. 225. 

Group of L. ferraria {Craticula Lowe). 

Craticula Lowe, Ann. Mag. N. H. (2), ix, 1852, p. 277, for 
P. fusca, millegrana, ferraria; P. Z. S. 1854, p. 211, " typ, 
P. substriata Jeffr." — v. Martens, Die Heliceen, 1860, p. 
295, "Typus P. calathiscus Lowe." — Eryma Albers, Malac. 
Mader. 1854, p. 67, for P. calathiscus (here designated type), 
P. cassida, P. cassidula, P. gibba. 

Cylindric, ribbed or costulate forms with strongly convex 
whorls (except L. abbreviata), the aperture as in Leiostyla 
proper. The first three species are from Madeira, the rest 
from Porto Santo. Type of Craticula is L. ferraria Lowe. 

Lowe formed a section for part of these species, but the 
group is connected so closely with species immediately pre- 
ceding that a separate designation is scarcely needed. Lowe 
and von Martens subsequently, nominated type-species for 
Craticula which were not mentioned in the original proposi- 
tion of the group, therefore not available. The note on 
Craticula. in vol. xxvi, p. 233 should be deleted; the writer 
was misled by Lowe's unlawful type designation. 

This group includes all of the Lauriae of Porto Santo and 
a few species of Madeira. 

37. Latria fusca (Lowe). PI. 13, figs. 10, 11. 

The shell is cylindric with blunt, rounded summit, tawny 
or somewhat olivaceous pale brown with a chestnut-brown 
band, faint or distinct. Surface rather shining when clean, 
with close sculpture of regular striae (fine costulae), which 
are but slightly oblique, either a little weaker or coarser on 
the last whorl ; about 18 riblets in one mm. on the last whorl 
near suture. The whorls are rather strongly convex. 
Angular lamella is weakly denticulate on the right side, op- 
posite the lip-tooth, and is bifid anteriorly, giving off a strong 
callous ridge to the lip-insertion. Parietal lamella nearly as 


high as the angular, long. Columellar lamella is strong, 
slants downward, and emerges to the peristome. There ia 
a small but distinct and deeply entering supracolumellar. 
The lower-palatal fold is long, strong and emerging. The 
lip-tooth is continuous inwardly with a short upper palatal 
fold. Basal fold well developed and but little immersed. 
Peristome brown, narrowly expanded, slightly reflected. 

Length 3.25, diam, 1.4 mm. ; 7 whorls. 

Length 3.2, diam. 1.3 mm. ; 7 whorls. 

Madeira: chiefly in the north and Avest; under dry leaves 
of Sempervivum tabul&forme on rocks, like L. recta; along 
the whole coast below Sao Vicente, Ribeira da Janella and 
Porto Moniz, as well as near Feyaa d' Ovelha and Ponta de 
Pargo ("Wollaston). 

Pupa fusca Lowe, Ann. Mag. N. H. (2) ix, 1852, p. 277. 
— Kuester, Conchyl. Cab. p. 169, pi. 20, f. 21, 22.— Pfr., 
Monogr. iii, 558. — Albers, Malac. Mader. p. 66, pi. 15, f. 

37, 38.— Wollaston, Test. Atl. p. 226. 

Smaller than L. recta and macilenta, with a distinct supra- 
columellar lamella, the whorls more convex, and the striation 
less oblique, more regular and relatively stronger. 

The sculpture of the last whorl varies; the riblets may be- 
come more spaced but less regularly on the last whorl ; in one 
specimen 10 may be counted in 1 mm. on the face. In others 
the sculpture is weaker and not much coarser on the last 
whorl, 18 riblets in 1 mm. ; on earlier whorls it varies less. 
The first li/o whorls are smooth. 

An immature specimen shows 3 strongly developed radial 
folds in the base of the last quarter turn. 

38. Lauria millegrana (Lowe). PI. 13, figs. 12 to 15. 
The shell is cylindric with obtuse, rounded summit, brown. 

dull. Surface finely costulate, the riblets a little narrower 
than the intervals. The whorls are rather strongly convex. 
Aperture much obstructed by 7 lamella?, folds and teeth. 
The angular lamella is strong, somewhat sinuous, united by 
a callus with the lip-insertion. Parietal lamella about as 
high as the angular, stout, not emerging. Columellar 


lamella is stout, slants downward, and does not emerge to 
the peristome. A small, less emerging supracolumellar pres- 
ent. The lower-palatal fold is very stout, its edge broad, 
but it is rather short ; above it is a strong, short upper-palatal 
fold, midway between lower-palatal and the lip-tooth. Basal 
fold stout but short. The peristome is brownish, narrowly 
•expanded and a little reflected. 

Length 2.3, diam. 1.1 mm. ; 5% whorls. 

Length 2, diam. 1 mm. ; 5 wdtorls. 

Madeira: in the south, also Deserta Grande and the South- 
ern Deserta (Bugio) ; Pleistocene of Canical and Pta. S. 
Lo;»renzo. Occurs principally under stones and within the 
hollows of scoria? of dry and exposed places at a rather low 
elevation, near the coast (Wollaston). 

Pupa millegrana Lowe, Ann. Mag. (2), ix, 1852, p. 277. — 
Ppr., Monogr. iii, 558; vi, 333. — Kuester, Conchvl. Cab. p. 
175, pi. 21, f. 10-12.— Wollaston, Test. Atl. p. 227. 

This is the smallest Madeiran species of the genus; more 
coarsely sculptured than L. fusca, with a more massive lower- 
palatal fold. The whorls are strongly convex. 

A young one two-thirds grown has three stout radial folds 
in the base, at about quarter-whorl intervals. Very young 
ones of 3-3 1 /-; whorls have one or two (pi. 13, fig. 15). Under 
the microscope the initial 1% whorls show very delicate light 
spiral lines in young shells. 

39. Laitria abbreviata (Lowe). PI. 14, figs. 12, 13. 

Shell small, rather solid, compact, short, shortly-oblong, 
the width two-thirds of the length, very obtuse at both ends; 
closely costellate-striate, somewhat shining. Whorls 6-7, 
flattened, closely and equally costellate-striate, the last whorl 
lightly grooved with a subspiral furrow r , with rather strong 
oblique, generally sinuous striae, suture distinct. Aperture 
semioval subtriangular, 4-plicate: two ventral [parietal 
lamella?] parallel, oblique, and one rather large columellar; 
one obscure, immersed palatal. Lip rather broadly reflected, 
above with a bend inward at the distinct tooth, which pro- 


jects inward; respiratory sinus complete. Length 2-2 1 / 4, 
diam. 1*4-1% mm.; 6-7 whorls (Lowe). 

Madeira: Pleistocene near Canical, type loc. ; extremely 
rare living. 

Pupa abbreviata Lowe, Ann. Mag. N. H. ix, 1852, p. 277 ; 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1854, p. 213.— Wollaston, Test. 
Atl. p. 235. 

This species differs from the ribbed Porto-Santan forms 
by having the whorls but slightly oblique, the last one quite 
short, slowly ascending to the aperture, spirally furrowed 
externally over the lower palatal fold, the base rather 
pinched. The very high, thin and long angular lamella is 
united with the lip-insertion by a heavy callus. Parietal 
lamella rather deep within, long. Columellar lamella hori- 
zontal. The lower-palatal fold is very strong, long, deeply 
immersed. There is a small, quite inconspicuous, less im- 
mersed upper-palatal fold, but so far as can be seen in the 
aperture, no basal fold. The peristome is expanded, and 
bears a conspicuous tooth which nearly touches the angular 
lamella, almost closing the shortly oval sinulus. 

Length 3.6, diam. 1.9 mm. ; 7 whorls. 

Length 3.25, diam. 1.9 mm. ; 7 whorls. 

Said to be not uncommon in the calcareous deposits, but 
almost unique as a recent shell. It is not closely related to 
any other species, and just where it belongs in the series is 

40. Lauria corneocostata (Woll.). PI. 12, figs. 1 to 5. 

Related to P. relevata, but a little smaller, less lengthened, 
and a little more remotely ribbed; umbilicus conspicuously 
wider; whorls generally a little more plainly banded (rarely 
quite uniform) ; last whorl slightly shorter. Peristome hav- 
ing a broad corneous reflection, and less continuous, being 
somewhat interrupted between the columellar and ventral 
[parietal] lamellae, and conspicuously less raised and stand- 
ing out. The aperture is more sinuate auriform, (less 
rounded), and 7-plicate instead of 4, the upper columellar, 
though minute, is hardly completely obsolete, and the 1st and 


3d palatals little distinct but immersed. Length iy 2 to 
scarcely 2 lines long (Wollaston). 

The shell is hazel, or paler above and below a hazel zone, 
the apex pale. The upper margin of the peristome is ir- 
regular, the half between columellar insertion and angular 
lamella being formed of a heavy adnate callus, reaching as 
high on the face of the preceding whorl as the upper curve of 
the outer lip. Only the angular lamella emerges. The 
supracolumellar is a low, obtuse prominence, deeply placed, 
in the angle between columella and parietal wall. Lip re- 
flected with thickened face, pale flesh-colored. There are 
6 or 7 ribs in 1 mm. on the face of the last whorl. 

Length 3.8, diam. 1.4 mm. ; 7 whorls. 

Length 3.6, diam. 1.35 mm. ; 6% whorls. 

Porto Santo : here and there in fissures of the rocks in the 
shore zone; especially abundant at Cabeco da Malhada (de 
Paiva) in the western part of the island, opposite Ilheo de 
Baixo (Wollaston). 

Pupa corneocostata Wollaston, Testacea Atlantica 1878, 
p. 227, with var. resticula, p. 228. 

In the still more elongate L. relevata the peristome is built 
out free of the whorl, hence the teeth are more deeply im- 
mersed; moreover, its upper margin slopes regularly down- 
ward, towards the umbilicus, unlike the irregular but roughly 
level upper margin of the aperture in corneocostata. 

Lauria corneocostata resticula (Woll.). PI. 12, figs. 8, 10. 

Peristome more thickened between columellar insertion and 
angular lamella, continuous, shell plain dark brown or 

Length 3.85, diam. 1.4 mm. ; 7% whorls. 

Length 3.2, diam. 1.3 mm. ; 6% whorls. 

This form is nearer L. relevata in having the peristome 
continuous, but it differs by the shape of the superior lip- 
margin. The smaller figure given is from a Wollaston ex- 
ample, the larger from one in the Tomlin collection, also from 


41. Lauria relevata (Woll.) PL 12, figs. 6, 7. 8. 

The shell is cylindric, long and narrow, solid, dull brown. 
Surface sharply and strongly ribbed, the ribs rather oblique, 
about 8 in 1 mm. on the last whorl. The earlier whorls are 
quite convex, the later ones somewhat flattened, the suture 
deeply impressed. Aperture small, ovate-trapezoidal. Parie- 
tal lamella emerging, oblique ; parietal and columellar lam- 
ellag deeply immersed. Lower-palatal fold long, rather strong, 
immersed; a very weak, short upper-palatal above it, and 
below the weak lip-tooth, which is a little within the margin. 
Basal fold rather feebly developed, immersed. The -peristome 
is continuous, reflected, very pale flesh-tinted, the upper mar- 
gin built out free of the whorl. 

Length 4.45, diam. 1.25 mm. ; 7% whorls. 

Length 4.3, diam. 1.3 mm. ; 7% whorls. 

Madeira group: Ilheo de Baixo (near Porto Santo), in 
crevices of exposed rocks in the shore zone, extreme southern 
point of the island (Wollaston and Lowe). 

Pupa relevata Wollaston, Test, Atlant., 1878, p. 229. 

Distinguished characters are the extreme length of this 
parallel-sided species, together with the shape of the mouth, 
of which the peristome is built out on a very short neck 
(fig. 8). 

42. Lauria ferraria (Lowe). PI. 12, fig. 12. 

The shell is elongate, parallel, cylindric, subopaque, bright 
rufous or somewhat blackish-brown, closely and sharply 
costulate, a little less solid (than corneocostata). Whorls 
convex, either uniform or with contrasting bands. Aperture 
large, rounded ear-shaped, 4-plicate thus: 2 ventral [parietal 
lamella?] the outer [angular] thin, lamelliform, oblique, 
sinuous, the inner [parietal] small, short and deeply im- 
mersed. 1 columellar lamella (no supracolumellar). 1 
palatal (the first and third wanting). Peristome narrow, 
thin, somewhat acute, the outer lip rounded (not bent in- 
ward), with an obsolete denticle; the indistinct sinulus open. 
Length about 1% lines (~Wollaston) . 


Length 3.8, diam. 1.4 mm. 9-10 riblets in the space of 1 
mm. on face of last whorl ; closer on preceding whorls. 

Madeira group: Porto Santo, in mountains of the western 
part; Pico d'Anna Perreira in crevices of the exposed, 
weather-beaten rocks; also Pico d'Espigao (Wollaston). 

Pupa ferraria Lowe, Ann. Mag. N. H. (2) ix, 1852, p. 277 ; 
P. Z. S. 1854, p. 211.— Wollaston, Test. Atl. p. 230. 

Wollaston has discriminated L. ferraria and L. corneo- 
costata, very clearly. The former, somewhat thinner, has 
more numerous riblets, a narrower, more rounded-out outer 
lip; the columellar insertion and angular lamella less con- 
nected, the callus there being thin and longer in ferraria; 
there is no tubercle in the supracolumellar region and the 
upper-palatal and basal folds are wanting or reduced to very 
indistinct vestiges. The parietal lamella is smaller and the 
angular thinner in ferraria. 

This species is not so common in collections I have seen as; 
L. corneocostata. The latter is often foimd under the name 

The upper-palatal and basal folds are sometimes present 
though small. 

43. Lauria degenerata (Woll.). 

Shell subconic-cylindric, being slightly tapering towards 
the apex, opaque, pale brown, remotely but sharply and 
obliquely ribbed. Whorls convex, strongly swollen, some- 
times obsoletely subfasciate. Aperture small, rounded, dis- 
tinctly 1-plicate, but showing 4 indistinctly, as follows: two 
on the ventral [parietal] wall, the outer [angular lamella] 
being small, short, the inner [parietal] minute, deeply im- 
mersed and inconspicuous; one small, deeply immersed colu- 
mellar (no upper columellar) ; and one immersed, subobsolete 
palatal fold. Peristome incomplete, being continued only 
as a thin callus between columellar and angular lamella. 
Outer lip rounded outwardly, the denticle obsolete: sinulus 
open, indistinctly defined. Length l-l 1 /-* lines {Wollaston). 

Madeira group: Porto Santo; four examples found among 


specimens of L. monticola pumilio sent by Baron Castello de 
Paiva (Wollaston). 

Pupa degenerata Wollaston, Testacea Atlantica 1878, p. 

An unfigured species which I have not seen. 
44. Lauria monticola (Lowe). PI. 12, fig. 13, 14. 

Shell cylindric, chestnut-colored, banded with a pale tint; 
whorls convex, swollen, sculptured with elevated, equidistant, 
transverse striae. Suture impressed. Aperture 6-toothed;': 
columella 2-plicate, the posterior fold very obsolete ; two con- 
tiguous parallel folds in the ventral [parietal] wall, the 
anterior one smaller, posterior large, continuous with the 
lip. Lip somewhat reflected, equal, 3-plicate, the inter- 
mediate fold larger, anterior and posterior minute. Length 
V/2, diam. scarcely 1 line; 6 whorls {Lowe). 

The free edge of the angular lamella curves towards the 
outer lip. The columellar is well developed, and there may be 
a small supracolumellar, but more often none. The lower- 
palatal fold enters deeply, becoming higher within. Upper- 
palatal is shorter ; above it there is a small suprapalatal, also 
shortly entering. The basal fold is strongly developed, more 
deeply immersed than the other folds. In all there are 8 
teeth, or 7 when the supracolumellar is lacking. The sinuous 
riblets are about 0.15 mm. apart — 7 in 1 mm. — on the face 
of the last whorl, closer on that above. 

Length 2.25, diam. 1.15 mm. ; fully 6 whorls. 

Length 2.5, diam. 1.2 mm. ; 6% whorls. 

Madeira group, Porto Santo; Summit of Pico de Facho, 
among small stones and vegetable detritus; also on that of 
Pico Branco, often in company with L. calathiscus (Lowe and 

Helix C. monticola Lowe, Trans. Cambr. Philos. Soc. iv, 
1833, p. 63, pi. 6, f. 33.— Pupa, monticola Lowe, P. Z. S. 1854, 
p. 212. — Pfr., Monogr. ii, p. 335. — Wollaston Test. Atl. p. 
232, with var. pumilio, p. 233. 


44a. L. monticola pwmilio (Wollaston). PI. 12, fig. 15. 

Rather short, obtusely cylindric, subopaque, reddish-brown, 
densely costnlate. Wliorls convex, rather swollen, some- 
times banded. Aperture rather small, rounded-auriform, 
distinctly 6-plieate (indistinctly 7-plicate), thus: two ven- 
trals, the outer oblique, tiexuous, the inner a little immersed 
but not so large; 1 columella!- (the upper being subobsolete) ; 
and 3 palatals, remote but conspicuously lengthened. Peri- 
stome incomplete, being widely interrupted between colu- 
mella and the outer ventral fold, the outer lip rounded out- 
wardly (scarcely sinuate), with an obsolete denticle, sinulus 
not very distinct. Length 1 to 1*4 lines. (Wollaston). 

A trifle smaller, darker and more solid (than typical 
monticola), with its costa 1 a little less sinuate and more 
closely set together, and with its ultimate volution and aper- 
ture just appreciably less developed ; the third palatal plait, 
on the contrary, being more so, and distinctly larger 
(Wollaston) . 

Porto Santo, in certain exposed, weather-beaten spots but 
slightly raised above sea-level. 

The distinction between the species and this variety from 
lower levels seems to me rather slight, being somewhat in- 
constant in several lots examined from the Lowe- Wollaston 
collection. A specimen of pumilio measures 2.2 x 1.2 mm. ; 

6 whorls. 

45. Laubia calathiscus (Lowe). PI. 14, figs. 2, 3. 

The shell is shortly cylindric, with short conic summit, 
solid; chocolate or somewhat lighter, with two pale bands, 
one midway between periphery and suture, the other below 
the periphery. Surface matt, with sculpture of strong, 
curved ribs separated by spaces double the width of the 
ribs. The whorls are very convex. Aperture auriform, with 

7 teeth. Angular lamella large, oblique, connected with the 
lip-insertion, entering nearly to the dorsal side. Parietal 
lamella very small and short. Columellar lamella strong, not 
emerging to the peristome. The lower-palatal fold is strong 
and rather long. Upper-palatal short, united with the lip- 


tooth, aud with the latter defining the sinvdus. Basal tooth 
small, sometimes divided, and like the palatals, arising from 
a callous ridge. Peristome somewhat expanded ; parietal 
callus thin. 

Length 3.6, diam. 2.1 mm. ; 6% whorls. 

Length 3.5, diam. 1.9 mm. ; 6% whorls. 

Length 2.7, diam. 1.6 mm.; (Pleistocene). 

Madeira group, Porto Santo : summits of Pico de Facho 
(fig. 2), Pico Branco, etc.. in crevices and on ledges of the 
rocks among vegetable detritus; Pleistocene of Zimbral 
d 'Areia ( Wollaston ) . 

Helix C. colathiscus Lowe, Cambr. Philos. Soc. iv, 1831, 
p. 64, pi. 6, f. 34. — Pupa calathiscios Lowe, P. Zool. Soc. 
1854, p. 212. — Pfr., Monogr. ii, 1845. p. 244. — Woleaston, 
Test. Atl. p. 234. 

L. calathiscus is larger than any of the related ribbed 
species, further distinguished by the small parietal lamella, 
peculiar upper-palatal fold and the strong sculpture. It is 
type of the section Eryma, Albers. 

This species is found only at high elevations. The fossil 
form, of which specimens collected by Professor Cockerell 
are before me, is smaller than recent examples, a peculiarity 
already noticed by Wollaston. 

Section Wollaston ula Pils. 

Wollastonvla Pilsbry. this volume pp. 45, 69 (Aug. 29, 

Leiostyliform Lauria 1 in which the parietal lamella emerges, 
and projects into the aperture further than the angular; 
upper-palatal fold very long, much exceeding the lower, both 
immersed; sinulus nearly closed. The shell is small and 
ribbed in the single species known. 

L. gibba, the type of this section, is perhaps the most 
specialized of Madeiran Laurias ; indeed its evident approach 
to extinction maj^ be due to over-specialization of the teeth. 


4(>. Laikia gebba (Lowe). PI. 14, figs. 4, 5, 6, 7. 

A very small, compact, very shortly cylindric shell, obtusely 
rounded at both ends, the diam. about : y { of the leng'th ; 
coarsely ribbed, the ribs curved, rather widely spaced on the 
last one or two whorls, closer and regular on the preceding 
whorls, the first 1% being smooth. The whorls are only 
slightly convex, but tend to project a little above the suture; 
the last one is slightly compressed below the periphery, and 
slowly ascends to the aperture. The aperture is somewhat 
trilobed, the lower lobe widely open, upper lobes smaller, 
contracted. The emerging angular lamella bears a lobe bent 
towards the sinulus, is not connected with the lip-insertion, 
and penetrates to the dorsal side. The parii tal lamella is 
higher than the <i)i!jnl<ir, and emerges nearly to the edge of 
parietal callus; it enters straightly, then becomes much lower 
ami turns towards the axis, penetrating to the dorsal side. 
The columella!* lamella is broad, horizontal, and emerges 
weakly to the peristome ; it descends as it enters, and pen- 
etrates deeply. Within the outer lip there is a strong mar- 
ginal tooth defining the sinulus, extending inward in a supra- 
palatal fold (pi. 14, fig. 7, sp.) a long, strongly sinuous, high, 
deeply immersed upper-palatal fold (fig. 7, up.) ; a lower 
oblong lower-palatal fold ( fig. 7, Ip), also deeply immersed. 
Far within the basal mai'gin there is an oblique basal fold 
(pi. 14, fig. 6 &.), not visible in the aperture. The peri- 
stome is reflected, somewhat retracted at the sinulus. Par- 
ietal callus not very thick. 

Length 2, diam. 1.4 mm.; 6 1 ,:' whorls. 

Length 2.1, diam. 1.4 mm.; 6V» whorls. 

Madeira : at the base of lofty, perpendicular rocks to- 
wards the head of the Ribeira de Sta. Luzia, among loose? 
vegetable detritus. Pleistocene in the Canical beds fWol- 

Pupa gibba Lowe. Ann. .Mag. \. 11. (2) ix, 1852, p. 277; 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1854, p. 213.— Wollaston, Test, Atl. 
p. 235. 

Differs from all others by its diminutive size, wide contour. 


strong ribbing, and especially by the very high parietal lam- 
ella, higher than the angular. The parietal lamella is/ 
notched where the columellar crosses it, deep in the throat, 
and the upper-palatal is similarly notched at its upward 
bend, for the angular lamella. 

Only two recent specimens have been found, but it is not 
very rare in the fossiliferous beds. 

Subgenus Mastula Lowe. 

Mastvla Lowe, Ann. Mag. N. H. (2) ix, 1852, p. 278; 
P. Z. S. 1854, p. 213 ; monotypic, for P. lamellosa. 

Short Lauriae with distinctly spirally striate embryonic 
whorls, the rest with partially epidermal ribs, the aperture 
short and wide with nearly simple lip. Angular and colu- 
mellar lamella? well developed, but the parietal is small or 
absent ; lower-palatal fold small. Basal teeth of the im- 
mature stages are very weak or wanting. 

47. Lauria lameelosa (Lowe). PI. 14, figs. 8, 9, 10, 11. 

The shell is small, shortly cylindric or nipple-shaped, 
shortly subturbinate, very obtuse at both ends, thin, submem- 
branaceous, brown, not banded, lamellate-striate. Whorls 5, 
convex, swollen, rather remotely, equidistantly, obliquely, 
transversely ribbed with submembranaceous lamellae, which 
spread leaf-like in the middle or are lacerated-aculeate. 
Suture deeply impressed. Aperture semioval, depressed, 
wider than long, 3-plicate: one ventral fold [angular lam- 
ella] largest; one smaller columellar, situated low; a palatal 
fold opposite this, immersed, obsolete, indistinctly visible. 
Lip slightly expanded, very slightly sinuated, with a small, 
obsolete denticle ; the respiratory sinus indistinct, open. 
Length 2, diam. 1% mm.; 5 whorls (Lowe). 

Madeira : at intermediate elevations in the south ; Vasco Gil 
ravine and Ribeira de Sta. Luzia; fossil at Canical (Wollas- 
ton and Lowe). 

Pupa lamellosa Lowe, Ann. Mag. N. H. (2) ix, 1852, p. 
278 ; P. Z. S. 1854, p. 214.— Wollaston, Test. Atl. p. 236. 


The lamella-like ribs, chiefly epidermal, the scarcely ex- 
panded Lip, and the absence of any trace of a parietal lamella 
(while the angular is strongly developed), all distinguish this 
extremely rare shell from the other Madeiran species. 

The largest example seen is a fossil (PL 14, fig. 8). It is 
more cylindric than any recent shell in the series of 15 ex- 
amined. The whorls above the last are so convex as to ap- 
pear subangular. There is no parietal lamella, and the 
lower-palatal fold is very small. Length 2.3, diam. 1.55 mm. ; 
5Vi> whorls. If these characters are constant in the fossil 
form it should be separated subspecifically. 

Recent specimens are smaller and taper more. They have 
a pale band below the periphery. The initial l 1 /^ whorls 
are finely striate spirally, after which the riblets begin, at 
first close, then more spaced, and generally high and thin 
in the middle, especially in immature stages. The lip is 
scarcely expanded, but is thickened within. The high, thin 
angular lamella penetrates to the dorsal side. There is a 
very low and short but quite distinct parietal lamella in one 
of the specimens. The lower-palatal fold, though small, is 
more developed than in the fossils. With age it diminishes. 
The ribs become very weak or obsolete on the base. Length 
2, diam. 1.7 mm., 5U, whorls, or slightly larger. 

In the immature stages (3 or 4 whorls) the angular and 
columellar lamella? are well developed, and there are some- 
times weak traces of basal barriers, tubercular or radial. 
5 of these appear in the figure; but in some others none are 
visible (pi. 14, figs. 10, 11). 

Species of the Canary Islands. 

These forms are related to the Azorean L. fuscidula group, 
the L. vincta group of Madeira and to continental species. 
There is no upper-palatal fold in any specimens I have seen, 
and the basal fold is often lacking. The three species are 
closely related, distinguished as follows: 

Wider; no callus between the thin angular lamella and 
the right lip-insertion. Teneriffe. L. castanea. 


Narrower; generally with a callus between angular lamella 
and lip-insertion. 

Sculpture weak. Teneriffe, Pahna, Hierro. 

L. pythieUa. 
Sculpture stronger and coarser. Teneriffe. 

L. tccniata. 

48. Lauria castanea (Shuttl.). PI. 15, fig. 1. 

Shell rimate-perforate, ovate-oblong, striatulate, glossy; 
chestnut-brown the base paler; spire obtuse. Whorls 6, con- 
vex, the last somewhat compressed at the base; suture rather 
deep. Aperture rounded-ovate, 5-plicate : 1 strong, flexuous 
angular lamella, remote from the angle ; one receding 
parietal ; one strong, inflexed columellar ; two palatals, one 
deeply immersed, the other minute, often obsolete. Peris- 
tome fleshy-brown, thickened, expanded, the right margin 
flexuous above, somewhat tuberculate. 

Length 3, diam, nearly 2, aperture 1 mm. (Shuttl.). 

Length 3, diam. 1.85 mm. (fig.l). 

Length 2.9, diam. 1.8 mm. 

Canary Islands: Teneriffe and Palma (Blauner). Ten- 
eriffe, about wet rocks in the neighborhood of Garachico 

Pupa castanea Shuttleworth, Diagn. n. Moll. no. 1 (p. 11 
of separates), in Mittheil. Naturforsch. Ges. Bern for 1852, 
p. 145. — Pfr., Monogr. iii, p. 550. — Mousson, Rev. Faune 
Malac. Canaries, p. 126, pi. 6. — Wollaston, Test. Atlantica, 
p. 452. 

There is no callus between angular lamella and right lip- 
insertion. The lower-palatal fold is weaker than in L. 
pythieUa or tccniata. No basal fold is seen in the specimens 

Wollaston considers the locality Palma as an error due to 
confusion with L. pythieUa. He gives evidence showing that 
the original specimens of castanea were from near Garachico. 
He writes further: 

" As compared with the pythieUa, the P. castanea is ap- 


preciably Larger, broader, and more strictly ovate (or less 
oval), as well as more coarsely striated; its whorls are more 
convex (and the suture consequently deeper) and its aper- 
ture is more widely developed and more auriform — the mar- 
gins of its peristome (which is thicker, and of a more livid 
or carneous tinge, or less white) being much wider apart, 
and the right hand one more outwardly rounded below the 
insertion, as well as a fined with a more distinct tubercle 
within. Its upper ventral plait, also, is more lamelliform 
and less sinuated. and not only a little further removed 
from the angle of the lip, but usually quite unconnected 
with the latter by a carneous sphincter. 

'" Mi-. Lowe's examples of this very distinct Pupa were 
taken, during April of 1861, above Garachico, in the north 
of Teneriffe, — namely adhering to wet rocks and sodden, 
leaves, in the drip of a small waterfall, on the road from, 
that place to Ycod de los Binhos (in company with the 
Ilyalina ( 'lyniene, Physa acuta, Ancylus striatus, and 
Hydroeoena gutta, the moisture loving habits of which it 
would appear to share ". (Wollaston) . 

49. Lauria pythiella (Mouss.). PL 15, figs. 3. 4. 

Shell minute, rimate-perforate, ovate, arcuately striatulate, 
glossy; chestnut-brown, the base whitish. Spire tapering, 
ovoid, the summit minute, a little paler; suture linear, not 
impressed. Whorls 6^, the first somewhat convex, follow- 
ing flat, striatulate at the suture ; last whorl not tapering, 
more convex below the change of color, compressed around 
the umbilicus. Aperture vertical, one-third the length, com- 
pressed semioval, 4-plicate : 2 parietal lamella? (one long, 
strong, protracted, often joined to the right lip by a callus, 
the other thin, deeply placed) ; one palatal, obsolete, entering; 
one columellar, strong, inflexed. Peristome thickened, pale, 
expanded, the right margin flexuous in front, subimpressed 
laterally, subtuberculate within; columellar margin some- 
what sinuous, a little protracted at the insertion. Alt. 3. 
diam. 1.7 mm. (Mousson). 

Canary Islands: Teneriffe, in the forest district above 
Tagenana; Agua Garcia; wood at La Esperanza near 
Laguna. Palma at El Monte above Barloventa, taken by 
Lowe; on the ascent of the Cumbre above Buenavista, [typo 


locality] ; and on wet rocks in the Pinal, near to the edge 
of the great Caldeira, at the head of the small stream which 
supplies the Levada of the Banda. Hierro, in the dense 
forest region of El Golfo. (Wollaston). 

Pupa pythiella Mousson, Rev. Faime Malac. Canaries 1872, 
p. 127, pi. 6, figs 22, 23.— Pfr., Monogr. viii, p. 389; Novit. 
Conch, iv, p. 107, pi. 125, f. 22. 23.— Wollaston, Test. Atl. 
p. 454. 

The shell is smaller and narrower than L. casta in a, with 
the teeth more fully developed. The angular lamella is 
usually joined to the lip insertion by a callus. Basal fold is 
well developed. The base, and usually the summit, are light 
olivaceous, the remainder brown, varying in shade, but with 
an olivaceous tinge. Two specimens from the type locality 
measure — 

Length 2.8, diam. 1.6 mm.; barely 6 whorls. 

Length 2.6, diam. 1.5 mm. 

A young shell (fig. 4) shows three basal lamina? at intervals 
of about one-eighth of a whorl. 

50. Lauria taeniata (Shuttl). PI. 15, fig. 2. 

Shell rimate-umbilicate, globosely ovate, thin, slightly stria- 
tulate, pellucid, somewhat glossy, pale corneous zoned with 
a wide chestnut band visible on all the whorls; spire obtuse, 
whorls 6, rather flat, the last angularly compressed at base 
around the umbilicus. Aperture subovate, 5-plicate: 1 
strong, bent angular lamella : 1 strong parietal, another very 
minute, deeply immersed, generally added. 1 strong, in- 
flexed columella!"; 2 immersed palatals, one strong, the other 
minute. Peristome flesh-colored, thickened, a little expanded, 
the right margin flexuous above. Length about 2%, width 
1% mm.; aperture 1 mm. long (Shuttl.). 

Canary Islands: Teneriffe and Palma under dead leaves 
(Blauner); Teneriffe, in the wood at La Esperanza, near 
Laguna (Wollaston). 

Pupa taeniata Shuttleworth, Diagnosen Neuer Mollusken 
No. 1 (P. 10 of separate), in Mittheil. naturforseh. Ges. 
Bern, 1852, p. 144. — Pfr., Monogr. iii. 549. — Mousson, Rev. 


Faune Malac. Canaries, 1872, p. 125, pi. 6, f. 18, 19. Repro- 
duced in Novitates Conchologicse iv, p. 106, pi. 125, f. 18, 19. 
— Wollaston, Testacea Atlaiitica, p. 455. — Vertigo taeniata 
M.vr.n.i.i:. Nouv. Arch, du Museum (2) viii, 1885, p. 161. 

Wollaston considered taniata and pythiella as doubtfully 
distinct. He writes: — 

"Judging from the few examples to which 1 have access, 
the P. tu-niata may be said to have its volutions not quite so 
flattened and also more strongly striated, being sometimes 
indeed well-nigh costate. and its surface (instead of being of 
an almost uniform concolorous brown) is of an olivaceo- 
corneous hue, but conspicuously banded with a castaneous 
zone (immediately above its suture) on the hinder portion of 
each of the whorls ". 

The figure is from a specimen out of the Wollaston col- 
lection. A callus runs from the angular lamella towards the 
termination of the outer lip. There is a long lower-palatal 
and a short basal fold. No upper-palatal. Length 3, diam. 
1.65 mm., 5% whorls. 

Species of the Azores Islands. 

A key to these forms was given on p. 7:}. They are figured 
on plate 15. 

Aside from L. cylindracea anconostoma (p. 51), probably 
an introduced species, the Azorean Laurise fall into three 

1. Group of L. tesselata (Section Azoriptcpa) , in which 
there are many flat whorls, very deeply entering lamellae, 
and two weak palatals. This is a specially Azorean modifica- 
tion of tbe Leiostyla stock, unlike anything known elsewhere. 

2. Group of L. fuscidula (Section Leiosiyla). These are 
unspecialized Leiostyla' related to the taeniata group of the 
Canaries and the vineta group of Madeira. In the Azores 
species, as in the Canarian, there is no upper-palatal fold. 
In the somewhat aberrant L. vermiculosa the parietal lamella 
is disappearing. 

3. Group of L. fasciolata (Section Petrarca). With the 
color and sculpture of L. fuscidvla, there has been reduction 
of teeth — only the angular lamella and a vestigeal columellar 
remaining. \ 


The Azores Pupillidae are chiefly known by A. Morelet 's 
account in Notice sur l'Histoire Naturelle ties Acores, 1860. 
Some notes were given by H. Drouet in Elements de la Faune 
Acoreenne, 1861. Wollaston has critically reviewed them in 
Testacea Atlantica, 1878. 

One of the species, L. rugulosa, described from a single 
shell. I have not seen. 

Section Petrarca Pils. 
Petrarca Pilsbry, this volume p. 45. 

Like Lauria proper ; angular and columella!* lamellae are 
present, but no folds in the outer and basal margins. The 
surface is finely striate ; banded with brown or bicolored. 
Type L. fasciolata. 

The sculpture and color of L. fasciolata give reason for be- 
lieving it derived from Leiostyla, degenerate in apertural 
teeth. Otherwise its structure is exactly that of Lauria 
proper, and especially of L. fanalensis; a resemblance here 
interpreted as an instance of convergent evolution. 

51. Lauria fasciolata (Morel.) PI. 7, figs. 16-19. 

The shell is deeply rimate, oblong ovate, thin, veiy minutely 
striate under a lens ; pellucid ; corneous, buff or tawny, 
broadly banded with chestnut. Spire obtuse, the summit 
slightly tapering; 5 slightly convex w r horls. Aperture oval, 
obtusely angular at the base, biplicate : one entering parietal 
fold, emerging in an acute triangular lamella, and one slightly 
emerging columellar fold. Peristome is a little expanded, 
somewhat lipped, the right margin arcuate, thickened above 
the middle, the columellar a little dilated and nearly straight. 
Length scarcely 3, diam. scarcely 2 mm. (Morel.). 

Azores: " all the islands, under stones '" (Morelet and 
Drouet). Horta, Fayal (Dr. W. H. Rush, 1890) ; S. Miguel 
(from 0. Boettger coll.). 

Pupa fasciolata Morelet, Hist. Nat. des Acores, 1860, p. 
198. — Ppeipfer, Monogr. viii, p. 872. — Wollaston, Testae. 
Atlant. p. 45. 


A species resmbling L. fanalensis in size and shape, but 
differing by the much more distinct, tine sharp striatum, and 
by the development of a weak columellar lamella which 
emerges nearly to the edge of the columellar lip in some ex- 
amples, in others only so far as to be barely visible. In 
color, too, it is usually unlike fanalensis, yet some specimen* 
are nearly as pale as that species. 

The alleged distribution '* dans toutes les iles de lArch- 
ipel " given by Morelet has been mentioned by Wollaston in 
an ironic note. It will probably be found in different racial 
forms on the several islands inhabited. 

The typical form as figured by Morelet, PL 7, fig. 16, is 
transparent grayish ("corneous") with a cinnamon band 
just above the periphery and a patch at the umbilicus. 
Columellar lamella distinct. 

Length 2.7, diam. 1.5 mm., 5 whorls. 

Length 2.5, diam. 1.4 mm. 

A single specimen from S. Miguel, pi. 7, fig. 17, is corneous, 
very faintly brownish above the periphery. One of this color 
was sent us by Morelet with others of the typical color pat- 
tern, the island not specified. 

In all adults the angular lamella is a mere thread within, 
rising triangularly in front, in a short compressed lamella 
well removed from the termination of the lip. 

Immature specimens probably a half whorl short of full 
size show the usual two lamella?, rather small, and two ex- 
tremely weak radial palatal teeth, placed as in L. cylindracea. 
They may perhaps be found stronger in younger shells. 

Form hortana, n. f., collected at Horta, Fayal, PL 7, figs. 
18, 19, is chestnut-brown above the periphery, pale olive but? 
below, sometimes brownish again at the umbilicus. Colu- 
mellar lamella very weak, less emerging. 

Length 2.6, diam. 1.4 mm., .">' , whorls. Type of /. hortana. 

Length 2.25, diam. 1.4 mm., 5 whorls. 

The color pattern is that of L. angUca. 


Section Leiostyla proper. 
52. Lauria fuscidula (Morelet). PI. 15, figs. 6, 7. 

Shell rimate-perforate, cylindric, rounded apieally, very 
minutely striatulate, glossy, corneous, buff, banded with 
brown, or brown with the base buff. 5 whorls, a little con- 
vex, the last compressed basally. Aperture vertical, ovate- 
sinuate, narrowed by 5 lamella? : 2 strong, parallel, entering 
ones on the parietal wall, the right one [angular lamella] 
emerging, joined to the peristome by an arched callus ; left 
| parietal lamella | further in. One columellar lamella. 2 
palatal folds, not reaching the margin, the right one [lower 
palatal fold ] callous, visible outside, subhorizontal, the left 
one [basal fold | very short, immersed. Peristome a little 
expanded, calloused, the margins somewhat sinuate, the right 
margin thickened above the middle. Length scarcely 3, diam. 
scarcely 2 mm. (Morelet). 

Azores: " the entire archipelago ", under stones and 
among dead leaves (Morelet). S. Miguel (specimens of form 
hr.rodon, received from Morelet). 

Pupa fuscidula Morelet. Hist. Nat. Acores, 1860, p. 202, 
pi. 5, f. 5. — Drouet, Faun. Acor. 1861, p. 165. — Pfeiffer^ 
Monogr. viii, p. 377. — Wollaston, Test. Atl. p. 44. 

With the color of L. fasciolata (with which it is found, ac- 
cording to Morelet), this species differs by its well-developed 
teeth. The sculpture is far less coarse than in L. rugulosa 
and L. vermiculosa. 

A barrel-shaped shell, olive-buff with a broad chestnut 
band in the middle of the last whorl, and occupying the 
lower half of the preceding whorls, or in other specimens, 
such as that figured as typical by Morelet, the band spreads 
over the whole upper surface. In both patterns there is an 
umbilical spot of brown. 

The angular lamella, strongly connected with the outer 
lip, projects into the mouth but little more than the parietal. 
Both are rather short, entering only to a dorsal position. 
The columellar (and when it is present, the supracolumellar 
lamella 1 ) enter to about the same point, but the columellar 


emerges further; the lower palatal fold is well developed but 
often hard to see on its light background. Basal fold is 
variable in size. Figures are from specimens received from 
Morel et. 

Morelet has called attention to the radial lamina' within 
the base of young shells. In one of 3 1 ,o whorls there is a 
lamella on the parietal wall, one on the columella, and two 
radial lamina 1 in the base at intervals of % whorl. A nearly 
adult shell has three such lamiiue, and there is one lamina in 
a specimen with well formed lip and teeth. Morelet states 
that the young are hardly distinguishable from those of L. 

L. fuscidula, being reported from "tout l'Arehipel" is 
evidently a wide-spread species which may be expected to 
show racial differentiation on the several islands. Several 
forms are present in the series (four lots) examined, but 
only two lots are definitely localized. 

The original account of L. fuscidida states that there is one 
lamella columcllaris. This is the case in some examples, such 
as pi. 15, fig. 6, which must therefore be considered .the 
typical form. In some other shells of the same lot, received 
from Morelet, there is a low and very deeply immersed supra- 
columellar prominence visible only in an oblique view in the 
mouth. Whether these forms were associated in life re- 
mains uncertain; also, the island is not stated on the label. 

Form hexodon, n. f. PI. 15, figs. 9, 10, 11. The supraeolu- 
mellar lamella is well developed and visible in a direct front 

Length 2.5, diam. 1.35 mm. ; 6 whorls. Fig. 9, type. 

Length 2.3, diam. 1.5 mm. ; 5% whorls. Fig. 10. 

San Miguel. The type lot, No. 22867, was received from 

Another form in the collection, represented by a single 
specimen without record of the island, is very pale, showing 
scarcely any trace of the brown band. It lacks supracolu- 
mellar lamella and basal fold, and the parietal lamella is 
only about half as high as the angular. Probably this re- 
presents another race. 


53. Lauria rugulosa (Morel.). PL 15, fig. 5. 

Shell rimate-perforate, oblong, closely rib-striate, opaque, 
brown, scarcely shining, at the base buff and obscurely two- 
banded. Spire cylindric, shortly tapering, obtuse. 5 
slightly convex whorls, separated by an impressed suture, 
the last whorl compressed at base, subangular around the 
umbilical crevice. Aperture vertical, semi-ovate, 3-folded: 
2 lamellae on the parietal wall, the right one [angular lam- 
ella] projecting, joined to the lip by a thin callus, the left 
one [parietal lamella] further within, smaller: 1 rather 
strong columellar lamella. Peristome somewhat lipped, nar- 
rowly expanded, the right margin somewhat sinuous, lightly 
calloused above the middle. Length 3%, diam. 2 mm. 

Azores: Pico, in a garden in the western side together with. 
Helix paupercula Lowe. (Drouet). 

Pupa rugulosa Morelet, Hist. Nat. Acores, 1860, p. 199. 
pi. 5, f. 3. — Pfeiffer, Monographia viii, p. 372. — Wollaston, 
Test. Atl. p. 46. 

Of the single specimen collected Morelet writes : 
" A pretty species, distinguished by the close raised and 
regular striae ornamenting it. This Pupa is neither glossy 
or transparent. It is of a uniform chestnut-brown color ex- 
cepting the last whorl, where the base is yellow and shining. 
This part of the shell contrasts the more conspicuously with 
the spire because the general tone is strengthened at its 
border by an indistinct zone of darker color. A second zone 
marks the dorsal groove produced by the compression of the 
last whorl of the spire around the umbilicus ; both of these 
bands appear distinctly in the interior." 

Morelet does not mention any palatal fold, but his figure 
(here reproduced) seems to show a lower-palatal. 

54. Lauria vermiculosa (Morel.). PI. 15, fig. 8. 

Shell rimate-p erf orate, ovate, obtuse, vermiculose-ribbed, 
corneous, opaque, with little gloss, buff-rufescent. Spire, short. 5 slightly convex whorls separated by a deep 


suture, the last compressed basally, obscurely banded, slightly 
ascending in front. Aperture vertical, semioval, 4-plieate: 
2 lamella? in the parietal wall, the right one [angular lamella] 
strong, prominent, obliquely entering, joined to the peristome 
by a callus; the left one [parietal lamella] very small, some- 
times punctiform. 1 columellar lamella, and 1 rather strong 
palatal fold. Peristome a little expanding, calloused, the 
right margin slightly thickened above the middle. Length 
2%, diam. iy 2 mm. (Morelet). 

Azores: San Miguel, at the foot of the wooded mountains 
bordering the southern end of the lake in the valley of Las 
Furnas ( Morelet ) . 

Pupa vermiculosa Morelet, Hist. Nat. Acores, 1860, p. 
201. pi. 5, f. 4. — Pfr.. Mbnogr. viii, p. 390. — AVollaston, 
Test. Atlant. p. 47. 

This rare species is figured from a specimen received from 
Morelet. The sculpture is coarser than in other species of 
the Azores, the ribs somewhat irregular, entirely wanting on 
the first V/2 whorls, small on the next whorl, and on the last, 
they do not extend upon the smooth, glossy base. The color 
is uniform light ochraceous buff in this example, which does 
not show the "une ou deux fascies pen distinctes a la base" 
mentioned by Morelet. 

The very strongly developed angular lamella is remote 
from the posterior angle, about in the middle of the parietal 
margin. It emerges to the edge of the moderate parietal 
callus. The parietal lamella is very small and low, easily 
overlooked. Columellar lamella strong; above it a low r , blunt 
indication of a supracolumellar. Within the lip there is a 
strong lower-palatal fold only. Length 2.2. diam. 1.35 mm.; 
4"' , whorls. 

Section Azoripupa n. sect. 

Leiostyliform Lauria' with numerous (8 or 9) Hat whorls. 
The angular and columellar lamella? penetrate very deeply. 
Parietal and supracolumellar lamella? and two palatal folds 
are present in the type and only species known. L. tesselata. 


The lamellae penetrate more deeply than in any other 
Lauriae — about two whorls in L. tesselata. 

55. Lauria tesselata (Morel.). PI. 15, figs. 12 to 15. 

The shell is openly perforate, ovate-cylindric or cylindric- 
eonie, the apex obtuse; irregularly costulate, slightly glossy 
corneous-buff or tawny, tessellated with squarish chestnut 
spots. 8 to 9 flat whorls, the last ascending, at the base 
angularly compressed and pitted. Suture impressed. Aper- 
ture trilobed, narrowed by 6 folds: 3 [error for 2J on the 
parietal wall, the right one [angular lamella] strong, pro- 
jecting, joined by a callus with the lip; the left one [parietal 
lamella] further in, smaller; 2 lamellae on the columella, the 
upper one larger; 2 thread-like folds trending spirally in 
the palate. Peristome a little expanded, calloused, the right 
margin sinuous, columellar margin reflected. Length 4, 
diam. 2 mm. (Morel.) 

Azores: Santa Maria, in the mountains of the interior 
''Morelet), abundant in the laurel and Myrica woods. 

Pupa tesselata Morelet, Notice sur l'Hist. Nat. des Acores, 
1860, p. 204, pi. 5, f. 6.— Pfr., Monogr. viii, 390.— Wollas- 
ton, Test. Atlant. p. 46. 

This species is strongly characterized by its numerous flat 
and rather closely coiled whorls and spotted color-pattern. 

The angular lamella penetrates 2 whorls inward, and ex- 
cept near the aperture its edge is irregularly serrate (pi. 15, 
fig. 15). The parietal lamella is less than one whorl long. 
The columellar lamella also penetrates two whorls, within, 
and in immature shells it is more prominent than the supra- 
columellar lamella, though the latter is larger at the aperture. 
The two palatal folds are thin and rather low, the lower- 
palatal more immersed than the upper. 

Length 4.2, diam. 1.9 mm. ; 9% whorls. 

Length 3.5, diam. 1.9 mm.; 8% whorls. 

The neanic stage (pi. 15, fig. 12) shows a prominent angular 
lamella. There are two on the columella, the lower one, or 
columellar lamella proper, being more prominent. Within 
the base there are numerous low, curved radial laminae, their 















I ■ 







19 ^P 











distal ends trending forward, and thus not parallel to the 
growth-lines. In the specimen figured, 1.7 mm. diam., there 
are 6 laminae at intervals of about one-eighth of a whorl. 

The character of the surface varies in different specimens. 
It was described by Morelet as " irregularly costulate," and 
this term applies to some specimens; others received from 
Morelet are nearly smooth, with only a few low riblets, 
scarcely noticeable. As Morelet noted, the ground color 
varies. In some shells it is a clear light gray (" corneous ") 
tint, while others are somewhat brownish. Rarely the brown 
spots are wanting. 

Genus AGARDHIA Gude. 

Sphyradium Hartmann, Erd- und Siisswasser-Gastrop. der 
Schweiz, 1844, p. 53 (for S. ferrari Porro). — Reinhardt, 
Jahrb. D. M. Ges., 1877, p. 283, type P. ferrari Not Sphyra- 
dium Charp., 1837, see p- 1. 

Coryna Westerlund, Fauna der in der Palaearct. Reg. 
leb. Binnenconch., iii, 1887, pp. 78, 87 (new name for Sphyra- 
dium Hartmann not Charpentier). — Flach, Verh. phys.- 
med. Ges. Wiirzburg, xxiv, 1890, pp. 2-7. Not Coryna Bill- 
berg, Monographia Mylabridum, 1833, p. 73. 

Agardhia, Gude, Proc. Malac. Soc. London, ix, p. 361, new 
name for Coryna Westerlund, type P. ferrari Porro. 

Rhytidochasma A. J. Wagner, Denkschr. math. nat. Klasse 
k. Akad. Wissenschaften, vol. 91, 1914, p. 48, for the A. oipli- 
cata group ; A. ferrari (Porro) here selected as type. 

The shell is rimate or narrowly umbilicate, long and eylin- 
dric, of 6 to 9 whorls, with very obtuse summit and finely 
rib-striate to nearly smooth surface. Aperture oblong, with 
1 to 8 teeth (or sometimes none), margins expanded, sub- 
parallel, the outer decidedly longer. In a young stage there 
is sometimes a low, spiral basal fold (in A. ferrari). Ten- 
tacles very long, without pigment spots, the animal therefore 
blind (in A. lameUata). 

Type A. ferrari (Porro). Distribution, southern and east- 
ern Alps and Carpathians, extending south in the Balkan 
Peninsula as far as Albania and Philippopolis, Rumelia. 
Living in humid places under bark or wood, deep under stones 
or in caverns. 


The affinities of Agardhia are uncertain. The adult shell 
has some resemblance to Orcula. The stages of immaturity 
have received but little attention. Bernhardt noted that the 
young A. ferrari has a low, spirally entering basal welt but 
no columellar or parietal lamellse. Further observation is 
needed before the position now assigned to Agardhia in the 
subfamily Orculinse can be considered settled. 

Owing to the subterranean habits of part of the species 
and narrowly restricted range of others, many of the Agardhias 
are rare shells in collections outside of Italy, Austria and 

Agardhia probably exists in France as a living snail only 
in the region of Saint-Martin de Lantosque. Probably all the 
other records were based upon Pleistocene specimens, either 
in place or found in river-debris. In the Dep. Alpes-Maritimes 
this genus appears to have been abundantly represented in 
the Pleistocene, down to low levels. 

Literature. — Our knowledge of these snails is largely due 
to conchologists of Italy and Austria. Pollonera's paper of 
1887 is the most helpful work on Italian forms. His descrip- 
tions and figures have been copied by Kobelt in his Icono- 
graphie der Land- und Susswasser-Mollusken, n. F., viii, 1889, 
pp. 98-101, pi. 237, and they are in large part repeated in the 
following pages. 

In 1890 Flach published a review of the recent and fossil 
species then known (excepting those of Nevill, which he did 
not mention), with a full and useful key for their determina- 
tion. Westerlund gave an abridged account of the genus in 
his Synopsis Molluscorum extramarinorum Begionis Palse- 
arctica?, 1897, pp. 73-75, recognizing 9 species and 14 varieties 
and forms. He did not know Flach's work. Finally R. Stu- 
rany and A. J. "Wagner revised part of the eastern group of 
species in an important paper published in the Denkschriften 
der mathematisch-naturwissenschaftlichen Klasse der Kaiser- 
lichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Bd. 91, Wien, 1914. 

At present, 13 recent and Pleistocene species are known, 
with about an equal number of subspecies, though there are 


many other named forms. There are 8 Tertiary species. Of 
the recent species, I have not seen specimens of A. valsabina, 
A. stenostoma, A. truncatella formosa, and A. t. skipetarica; 
also many named forms of other species are known to me only 
by the descriptions. 

Nomenclature. — Sphy radium of Charpentier, sometimes 
used for this group, was a miscellaneous assemblage, given 
definite meaning when von Martens nominated a species of 
Orcula as its type- The group Sphyradium Hartm. contained 
only Pupa ferrari Porro ; that species therefore is the type of 
Coryna West, and Agardhia Gude, proposed as substitutes. 
Coryna for a beetle was not mentioned by Billberg in the 
nominative case, as the rules require, but the name came into 
general use in proper form before the date of Westerlund's 
work. Bhytidochasma Wagner is clearly a synonym of Agard- 
hia, as Hesse has already recognized, since it included the 
type of that group and its immediate allies. 

Palaeontology. — Agardhia appeared in the upper Mio- 
cene of central Europe and continued in the Pliocene of 
France and northern Italy in forms similar to the living group 
of A. biplicata. A. pseudoennea is somewhat less specialized 
than the long recent forms by having fewer whorls; but no 
primitive species of Agardhia have yet been found. The 
reference of these Tertiary forms to the genus Ennea (as in 
Conchylien Cabinet, Enneidae, 1905, p. 348) was doubtless 
due to insufficient comparisons with the biplicata group of 

The Miocene subgenus Paracoryna Flach contains small 
species with fewer, more convex whorls than Agardhia, with- 
out teeth or having a small, short parietal tooth only. W. 
Wenz has with good reason expressed doubt whether P. retusa 
and P. aperta are related to Agardhia. The group may prob- 
ably belong to Pupillincc or perhaps to the Vertiginincc. If 
related to Agardhia, it can only be regarded as the terminus 
of a lateral phyletic line, far from the main line of descent, 
since it is likely that the ancestor of Agardhia was a 5- or 6- 
toothed snail. The resemblance to the A. truncatella group 


is one of convergence, since loss of lamellae in some of the 
latter group was doubtless a relatively recent event. The 
Paracoryna species has already reached a more mature stage 
of tooth reduction in the Lower Miocene. 

Tertiary species of Agardhia. 
(Contributed by Dr. W. Wenz, Frankfurt a. M.) 

1. Agardhia bacillus (Paladilhe). Pupa bacillus Pala- 
dilhe, Rev. Sci. Nat., II, 1873, p. 31, pi. 2, figs. 16-18. Middle 
Pliocene, Plaisencien : Celleneuve near Montpellier. 

2. Agardhia oppoliensis (Andreae). Coryna oppoliensis 
Andreae, Mitt. a. d. Roemer-Museum, Hildesheim, no. 18, 
1902, pp. 16, 27, fig. 8a; with var. turrita, fig. 8b. Upper 
Miocene, Tortonien : Landschneckenmergel, Oppeln. 

3. Agardhia praeambula (Flach). Pupa (Coryna) prae- 
ambula Flach, Verhandl. d. phys.-med. Ges. Wurzburg, n. F-, 
XXIV, 1890, p. 50, pi. 3, fig. 2. Upper Miocene, Tortonien : 
Braunkohlenton, Undorf bei Regensburg. 

4. Agardhia proexcessiva (Sacco). Pupa {Coryna) pro- 
excessiva Sacco, Mem. R. Accad. Sci. Torino, CI. Fis., Mat. e 
Nat. (2), XXXIX, 1888, p. 76, pi. 1, fig. 2; I Moll. terr. Terz. 
Piemonte, pt. 22, 1897, p. 70, pi. 6, f. 4- — Coryna praeexces- 
siva (Sacco), Flach, Verhandl. "Wurzburg, XXIV, 1890, p. 7. 
Upper Pliocene, Astien: Tassarolo, Prov. Alessandria, Pied- 

5. Agardhia pseudoennea (Flach). Pupa (Coryna) pseu- 
doennea Flach, Verhandl. d. phys.-med. Ges. Wurzburg, n. F., 
XXIV, 1890, p. 51, pi. 1, fig. 5. Upper Miocene : Tortonien : 
Braunkohlenton, Undorf bei Regensburg. 

Subgenus Paracoryna Flach. 

Paracoryna Flach, Palaeontologische Beitrage, in Verhandl. 
d. phys.-med. Ges. Wurzburg, n. F., XXIV, 1890, p. 4 (for 
diezi and retusa). 

Aperture wholly toothless. Surface finely, irregularly stri- 
ate with occasional more strongly raised striae. Very similar 
in habit to the Pupilke (Flach). Type: P. diezi Flach. 


Flach's figures of P. diezi are reproduced in pi. 19, figs- 17, 
18. A specimen of A. retusa. from the Hydrobienschichten, 
Wiesbaden, is drawn in pi. 19, fig. 16. 

Flach's definition requires modification to provide for A. 
retusa, in which a parietal lamella is sometimes represented 
by a low, oblong tubercle. 

6. Agardhia diezi (Flach). Coryna diezi Flach, Verhandl. 
d. phys.-med. Ges. Whrzburg, n. F., XXIV, 1890, p. 49, pi- 3, 
fig. 1. Lower Miocene, Burdigalien : Landschneckenkalk, 

7. Agardhia retusa (Sandb.). Pupa retusa (Al. Braun in 
Walchner, Handbuch d. Geognosie, 2d. edit.., p. 1136, worn. 
nud-l) Sandberger, Die Conchylien d. Mainzer Tertiarbeckens 
1859, p. 53, pi. 5, figs. 12-12c. — Coryna retusa Boettger, Jahrb. 
Nassau. Ver. f. Naturkunde, Wiesbaden, XLII, 1889, pp. 242, 
320. — Pupa anodonta Braun, Sandberger, Vorwelt, 1875, pi. 
25. Lower Miocene, Aquitanien : Hydrobienschichten, Mainz, 
Budenheim bei Mainz. 

8. Agardhia reperta Wenz, Fossilium Catalogus Pt. 20, III, 
1923, p. 1039, n. n. for Pupa aperta Sandberger, Neues Jahrb. 
f. Min., Geol. u. Pal., 1895, I, p. 216 (not Pupa aperta v. 
Martens, 1863; not Pupa aperta Sandb. ms., Miller, see Vol. 
XXV, p. 219. — Agardhia aperta (Sandberger), Gottschick u. 
Wenz, Archiv f. Molluskenkunde, 1921, p. 212, fig. 1. Upper 
Miocene, Sarmatien : Steinheim am Albuch, Wiirttemberg. 

Key to Recent Species of Agardhia. 

( Aperture without palatal folds but sometimes a lip- 
I tooth present. (Section Agardiella) (8). 
j 2 to 4 more or less immersed palatal folds present. (Sec- 
tion Agardhia proper) (2). 

Outer lip distinctly toothed within (3). 
Outer lip not toothed, though more or less thickened 
within (7). 

Peristome free, the parietal callus being built forward 
j Parietal wall of the peristome adnate, thin or thickened ; 
surface smoothish or very lightly striate (6). 


f Surface finely, closely rib-striate; base umbilieate (5). 
4 <J Surface smoothish or very slightly striate; nearly im- 
perforate. A. valsabina, no. 3. 

f Aperture much contracted, the lip-tooth large. 

A. bland, no. 2. 
| Aperture less contracted, lip-tooth smaller. 

A. ferrari, no. 1. 

Teeth rather small ; parietal callus thin. 

A- biplicata, no. 5. 
Teeth somewhat larger; parietal callus thick. 

A. bourguignatiana, no. 4. 


Surface distinctly but finely rib-striate. A. bielzi, no. 7. 
Striation weak, subobsolete. A. excessiva, no. 6. 

' 'Deeply constricted behind the peristome, the constric- 
tion terminating and strongly deepened below the 
sinulus. Three strong larnellEe on the parietal wall. 
Aperture much narrowed, outwardly notched, very 

j oblique, nearly slit-shaped. Rib-striation as in par- 
reyssii. A. stenostoma, no. 12. 

Not constricted behind the peristome, though often 
pitted externally at middle of outer lip (9). 

( A distinct tooth within middle of outer lip (10). 
I A callus in middle of outer lip and extending down- 
wards, not distinctly tooth-like and often very weak 

L (14). 

f Parietal lamella appearing weakly S-shaped in a basal 
I view ; a basal fold present ; columellar lamella strong ; 
10 { aperture narrow. A. lamellata, no. 10. 

I Parietal lamella straight or only slightly arcuate in a 
^ basal view; no basal fold (11). 

f Columellar lamella strongly developed; lip-tooth mas- 
sive; length about 4 mm. (12). 
Columellar lamella small or wanting; lip-tooth rather 
small (13). 


11 < 


Coliimellar lamella bilobed; about 15 riblets in 1 mm. 
on face of last whorl ; diam. % the length. 

12 ^ A. macrodonta, no. 8. 
Columellar lamella simple ; about 22 stria? in 1 mm. ; 

diam. less than % the length. A- m. gracillima, no. 8a. 

14-16 fine rib-striae in 1 mm. on face of the last whorl; 
peristome rather broadly expanded below. 

13 <j A. rumelica, no. 9. 
11-12 more spaced riblets in 1 mm. ; peristome narrow. 

A. t. biarmata, no. 13&. 

( Whorls distinctly flattened, the last one or two relatively 
I long; outer lip receding strongly to the suture. 

14 ■{ A. parreyssii, no. 11. 

I Whorls somewhat convex, slowly and regularly increas- 
[ ing (15). 

c Shell 3.6 to 4 mm- long, 6% whorls; rib-striae spaced, 
10-12 in 1 mm. on face of last whorl; aperture tooth- 
less or with small lamellae. A. truncatella, no. 13. 

15 <j Shell 5 to 5.5 mm. long, 8 whorls; striation finer. 

A. t. fjormosa, no. 13a. 

Shell 4 mm. long, very finely striate ; aperture toothless. 

A. t. skipetarica, no. 13c. 

Subgenus Agardhia proper- 
The species are closely related, separated by various com- 
binations of these characters : striation ; degree of develop- 
ment or absence of a lip-tooth ; form of peristome ; size of the 
palatal folds; form of base and umbilicus. Part of their 
characters may be tabulated thus : 

(Names in italics are rib-striate species, the others smoothish.) 
Lip-tooth present < 

' . I Parietal margin or 

olanci r ° 

, , . , peristome tree, 

valsabma J 

No lip-tooth i 

biplicata I Parietal margin of 

excessiva peristome adnate. 


Of these forms, A. blanci is probably a mere local race of 
ferrari. The others seem to be valid species. Perhaps most 
of the named varieties of blanci and bourguignatiana are 

1. Agardhia perrari (Porro). PL 17, figs. 18 to 22. 

The shell is narrowly umbilicate, cylindric, blunt at the 
ends, cinnamon-buff, paler at the rounded summit. First 2 
whorls are smooth, riblets then beginning weakly. The cylin- 
dric part is closely and evenly costulate, the riblets oblique, 
retractive, becoming less oblique on the last whorl, where there 
are about 13 in a millimeter. They become finer behind the 
peristome. The whorls are slightly convex, the last one con- 
tracted and turning forward as it approaches the aperture, 
pinched into a prominent keel at the base ; there is an im- 
pression behind the outer lip above the middle, and a shallow 
furrow near and parallel to the base. The aperture is trape- 
zoidal, rounded below, angular above, the sides subparallel. 
There is a strong, oblique parietal lamella and a transverse, 
median eolumellar lamella, neither of them reaching the peri- 
stome. Three deeply-placed palatal folds, the lower-palatal 
moderately long, the wholly immersed basal very short ; often 
another minute fold, the sutural, is present, making 4 in all. 
The peristome is well reflected, thickened, continuous and 
free, being built forward a little. 

Length 4.9, diam. 1.8 mm. ; 9% whorls. Lugano. 

Length 4.1, diam. 1.7 mm. ; 8% whorls. Lugano. 

Italian Alps of Lombardy and Piedmont and the imme- 
diately adjacent parts of the Tyrol and Switzerland (south- 
ern part of Prov. Ticino) ; also Quaternary of Dep. Alpes- 
Maritimes. Special localities reported are: Valgana in Prov. 
Como (Porro, type loc.) ; around Lugano, Pazzalino, Castag- 
nola, Cadro, Monte Bre in the Lake Lugano region (Stabile) ; 
Varenna, Edolo, Esino, also Nice and San Remo (Flach) ; 
near Anfo on Lago D'Idro (Spinelli). In France, Pleisto- 
cene of the Tumulus de Nove near Vence, Dep. Alpes-Mari- 
times (Bourguignat). 

Pupa ferrari Porro, Malacologia terrestre e fluviale della 


Provincia Comasca, 1838, p. 57, pi. 1, f. 4a-e ; with var. elon- 
gata, intermedia-, guttula. — Kuester, Conchyl. Cab., Pupa, p. 
59, pi. 7, f. 22-25.— Pfr., Monogr., ii, 333.— Gredler, Nachrbl. 
D. M. Ges., xi, 1879, p. 112 (Val Lorrina, Tyrol).— Stabile, 
Delle eonchiglie terr. e fluv. del Luganese, 1845, p. 35, with 
var. parva; Prospetto sist.-statist. dei Molluschi terr. e fluv. 
viv. nel territorio di Lugano, 1859 (in Atti Soc. Geol. Milano, 
i, fasc. 3, pp. 33, 58, with mut. normalis based on Porro's 
var. elongata, fig. 4 a, b, c. — Pollonera, Bull. Soc. Malac. 
Ital., xii, 1887, p. 219.— Pini, Bull. Soc. Malac. Ital., ii, 1876, 
p. 165 (Esino territory). — 0. Reinhardt, Nachrbl., vol. 46, 
1914, p. 75 (immature shell). — Sphyradium ferrari Hart- 
mann, Erd- und Siisswasser-Gastropoden der Schweiz, 1844, 
p. 53, pi. 14, f. 1, 2, and as S. guttula, f. 3, 4. — Clessin, Mol- 
luskenfauna Oesterreich-Ungarns, 1887, p. 248, f. 149. — Coryna 
ferrari Porro, Westerlund, Synops. Moll, extramar. Reg. 
Pakearct., 1897, p. 74. — Caziot, Etude Moll. terr. et fluv. 
Monaco et Dep. Alpes-Maritimes, 1910, p. 334, pi. 8, f. 10, 11. 
— Locard, Ann. Soc. d'Agric. Sci. Ind. Lyon (7), iii, 1896, 
p. 213. — Flach, Verb., phys.-med. Ges. Wurzburg, xxiv, 1890, 
p. 7. 

Pupa biplicata Rossmaessler, Iconogr., 1839, ii, p. 26, pi. 
49, f . 641 ; not of Michaud. 

The combination of a continuous, free peristome, a strongly 
pinched base and a finely ribbed surface distinguishes A. fer- 
rari from all species except A. bland, which differs chiefly by 
its larger teeth. 

Porro noticed three sizes, thus: 

Var.: (a) elongata, alt. mill. 5, width mill. iy 2 , whorls 8. 

(b) intermedia, [no definition] . 

(c) guttula, alt. mill. 4, width mill. 1%, whorls 7. 

Stabile proposed the term "mut. normalis" for Porro's 
elongata without other definition. He added a var. parva, 
alt. 3%', width iy 2 mm., Prov. Ticino, Switzerland. So far as 
I know, these mutations in length have no racial status, being 
fully connected by intermediate sizes in the same lot, as 
Hartmann stated over 80 years ago in his good account of 
this snail. All of the shells before me fall between 4 and 5 
mm. in length. 

The records of this species as a living snail in the Dep. 
Alpes-Maritimes are vague and unsatisfactory. Caziot had 


not found it up to 1910; but Bourguignat 's record from a 
Pleistocene or Holocene deposit near Vence is authentic so 
far as I know, but seems suspicious in view of the fact that 
A. blanci is also reported from that place. This is the only 
definite locality for A. ferrari in France, and is a long dis- 
tance from any known Italian or Swiss locality. 

Flach, who collected many A. ferrari on the Comersee noted 
a wide range of variation in shape of the shell, of the aper- 
ture, and in the teeth, the sculpture and number of whorls 
being more constant. He considered A. blanci a form of 

Bernhardt thus described the young shell : 

Young specimens of Pupa ferrari Porro are very similar to 
those of P. pagodula with which they occur; having the char- 
acteristic Solarium shape with widely open umbilicus. The 
striation, sharper than in P. pagodula, begins on the first 
whorl immediately after the smooth nucleus. The shell is at 
first quite colorless, glassy-clear, and only gradually takes on 
a light yellowish brown tint. Of the columellar fold nothing 
is seen ; but on the base of the temporarily last whorl there 
is a relatively wide, white spiral band, a little raised, and 
without thickenings or projections, traceable about a whorl 
inward and with a double-edged appearance. In preceding 
whorls it is absorbed. 

2. Agardhia blanci (Bgt.). PL 17, figs. 3, 4, 5. 

Shell deeply per\ious-umbilicate, cylindric, obliquely hair- 
costulate, especially on the last whorl, the apex smooth, very 
obtuse. Nine slightly convex whorls, regularly and slowly in- 
creasing, separated by an impressed suture, the last whorl 
not descending but rather slightly ascending, compressed- 
contracted, grooved near the lip and at base, and acutely 
carinate below around the umbilicus. Aperture nearly ver- 
tical, contracted, sinuous, angular above, somewhat channelled 
below ; 5-toothed, as follows : one strong, straight, deeply 
placed parietal lamella; one stronger immersed lamella on 
the upper part of the columella ; two deeply immersed palatal 
folds, of which one above is punctiform, scarcely visible, the 
other below is lamelliform ; on the outer lip a thick triangular 
tooth. Outer lip sinuous, arching forward ; columellar margin 


straightened ; peristome continuous, free, lipped within, ex- 
panded and reflected throughout, especially on the lower 
margin. Length 5, diam. 2 mm. (Bourguignat). 

Length 4.3, diam. 1.65 mm. ; 9 whorls. St.-Martin. 

Length 4.2, diam. 1.7 mm. ; 8y 2 whorls. St.-Martin. 

Alpes-Maritimes : lower layer of the Tumulus de Nove, 
near Vence, abundant (Bgt.) ; near Saint-Martin de Lan- 
tosque, about 50 living specimens under an old stump (Charles 

Pupa blanci Bourguignat, Cat. Moll. plan, de Nove, in Soc. 
Sci. Lettr. et Arts de Cannes, iii, 1873, p. 282. — Pollonera, 
Bull. Soc. Malac. Ital., xii, 1886, p. 218, with var. niciensis, 
p. 219, pi. 6, f. 3, 4.—Coryna blanei Bgt., Caziot, Etude MoU. 
terr. et flu v. Monaco et Dep. des Alpes-Maritimes, 1910, p. 
335, with var. niciensis Poll., p. 336. — ? Coryna curia Locard, 
see below. 

"It differs from P. ferrari, the only comparable species, by 
the more strongly and vigorously striate shell, the more sinu- 
ous outer lip, thicker, more developed and provided with a 
stouter triangular peristomial tooth; by its narrower aper- 
ture, relatively higher, by the umbilical perforation far more 
open, funnel-shaped, so that the whorls can be seen within" 

The chief difference from ferrari is in the teeth, especially 
the lip-tooth, which is certainly much larger in blanci so far 
as the specimens at hand are concerned. Generally the aper- 
ture of blanci is narrower than in the Italian species, and the 
umbilicus is somewhat larger. The striation can be exactly 
matched in some examples of ferrari. The strige are strong 
but rounded, and about equal to their intervals. They are 
rather oblique (retractive) on the spire, more nearly vertical 
on the last whorl, where I count about 13 in a millimeter. 

Flach, who collected long series of A. ferrari, found the 
proportions of shell, aperture and teeth quite variable, and 
it appears likely that blanci is merely a western subspecies of 
that common north Italian species, as he claimed. 

This is a quite local form, its known localities falling within 
an area of about 25 miles along the coast, and in one 


place an equal distance inland. On low levels it is known 
only as a Pleistocene (or possibly Holocene) fossil, or in 
river drift; but Charles Hedley found it living in the Alpes- 
Maritimes over 35 years ago. As a living mollusk it is prob- 
ably restricted to the cooler, more humid zone of this range. 

Bourguignat had only fossil examples, and probably he 
overlooked the sutural and basal folds, which could be seen 
only by breaking the shell if they are present in the type. 
In fresh shells they can be seen from the outside, shining 
faintly through the shell, as in fig. 4 on pi. 17. All of the 
lamella? and folds are immersed and hard to observe. The 
color of living shells is cinnamon-buff. 

Coryna carta Locard came from a locality where A. blanci 
is known to exist, and it will probably prove to be a short 
form of that species. The size of the teeth and of the umbili- 
cus, which distinguish blanci from ferrari, were not brought 
out by Locard, whose description follows : 

Coryna carta Locard. Subcylindric, very short and squat, 
tapering a little at the base ; 7 to 8 quite convex whorls, the 
suture marked. Aperture trapezoidal, a. little receding towards 
the base, somewhat channelled above ; with 1 robust, superior, 
median and emerging fold, 1 equally stout, immersed colu- 
mellar situated somewhat high, 3 palatals, of which a tuber- 
cular one is on the peristome, and the others rudimentary and 
very indistinctly visible. Peristome continuous, thick, a little 
spreading. Shell corneous-red, ornamented with fine, close 
rib stria?. Height 314 to 4, diam. 1% mm. Menton et Saint- 
Martin-de-Lantosque, Alpes-Maritimes {Locard, Les Coquilles 
terrestres de France, 1894, p. 326; Ann. Soc. d'Agric. etc. 
(7),iii, p. 214). 

2a. A. blanci nicien sis (Poll). PI. 17, figs. 1, 2. 

Differs from the typical form by having the columellar lip 
calloused, subdentate; 4 palatal folds. II Nizzardo; 2 speci- 
mens in debris of the Varo (Pollonera) . 

Pollonera further says that the end teeth of the palatal 
series are extremely small. The columellar callus is swollen, 
almost forming a tooth opposite that of the outer lip. 

The specimens known may have floated down from a higher 
elevation in the Alpes-Maritimes. 


26. A. bland johjana (Nevill). PL 17, figs. 6, 7, 8. 

Shell deeply and broadly umbilicate, regularly cylindric- 
ovate, obtuse, silky, corneous; closely, more or less obliquely, 
costulate, the riblets a little flattened, scarcely acute. Whorls 
8, regular, slightly convex, the last larger, compressed at base 
and acutely carinate around the umbilicus. Aperture ver- 
tical, extremely narrow, 4-plicate; parietal lamella strong, 
conspicuous, twisted, slightly oblique ; columellar lamella deep 
within, strong, transverse; palatal folds remote, hardly visible. 
Peristome white, continuous, free, very wide and thickly re- 
flected, the upper margin strongly bent in, forming an acute 
angle with the outer margin; outer margin nearly straight, 
bearing a very strong tooth above the middle ; columellar 
margin straight. Length 4, diam. iy 2 mm. (Nevill). 

Menton: 4 specimens in deposit B. Type in Indian Mu- 
seum; also in coll. Bourguignat. 

Pupa (Sphyradium) jolyana G. Nevill, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1880, p. 129, pi. 13, f. 8.— P. iolyana Nevill, Pollo- 
nera, Bull. Soc. Malac. Ital., xii, p. 221. 

3. Agardhia valsabixa (Spin.). PI. 18, figs. 1, 2, 3. 

Shell subperf orate ; cylindric, the apex obtuse; smooth, 
glossy, corneous-buff ; suture impressed ; whorls 7-8, nearly 
flat, the last compressed-carinate at base. Aperture narrow, 
oblong, contracted, with one very long parietal fold, one 
transverse columellar, two palatals [error for 4, the sutural 
and basal ones minute, not seen by Spinelli] . Peristome con- 
tinuous, white-lipped, expanded, free and shortly built for- 
ward ; right margin having a callus, columellar margin 
straight. Length 4i/> to 5, diam. 1% mm. (Spinelli). 

Italy: Pieve and Anfo in Valsabbia, shore of Lago d'Idro, 
at the foot of Mt. Sassello (Spinelli). 

Pupa valsabina Spinelli, Cat. Moll. Bresciani, 1851 (not 
seen by H. P.) ; Seconda Edizione, Catalogo dei Molluschi 
terrestri e fluviatili della Provincia Bresciana, 1856, p. 25, fig. 
A, 1, 2 of plate. — Pollonera, Bull. Soc. Malac. Ital., xii, 
1886, p. 215, pi. 6, f. 11, 12. 

Pollonera, whose figures are reproduced, pi. 18, figs. 1, 2, 


states that P. valsabina differs from ligustica by its more 
strictly cylindric shape, the whorls flatter, the suture less im- 
pressed, the surface smoother, the umbilicus practically 
closed ; and above all by the characters of the aperture, which 
is very narrow with the peristome continuous and free, and 
oblique in a direction opposite to that of the other species. 
The deeply placed palatal folds are short, thick, and not 
parallel to one another as in other species. The upper and 
lower ones are punctiform. Length 4, diam. iy± mm. 

Spinelli's poor figures are reproduced photographically in 
my pi. 18, fig. 3. I have not seen the species, and have ac- 
cepted Pollonera's identification, considering Gredler 's Pupa 
spinellii as probably synonymous. Gredler identified two 
specimens taken by Baron A. von Tiesenhausen in Val Lorina, 
an alpine transverse valley of the Val Ainpolo, as the true 
P. valsabina, which he considers a variety of biplicata. 

P. spinellii. — Gredler (1885) raised the question whether 
Spinelli's specimens were found in drift debris of the lake 
shore; if so, they were possibly derived from the adjacent 
Tyrol, Judicarien, Val Ampola, etc. In a later communica- 
tion (1889) he stated that Spinelli, in his old age, sent him 
two specimens as his P. valsabina; but that he (Gredler) be- 
lieves that they are really a distinct species, which he pro- 
poses to name P. spinellii; his notes of 1885 pertaining to 
this, and not to the true valsabina. The substance of these 
notes, by which spinellii is solely known to me, here follows. 

The contraction of the aperture [which is so extraordinary 
that it could almost be called a (diagonal-) vertically placed 
slit] is due not only to the callus of the outer lip, but this 
itself apparently depends on the reflected, backwardly rolled 
peristome, which is pinched in behind ; to which may be added 
that the contraction is due also to the lightly bent inward 
columellar margin, which in biplicata and ferrari is bowed 
outward. In fact, the aperture, which is a long quadrangle 
in the two species compared, is here so narrow that it can 
hardly be called fusiform or elliptical (rather bilocular) ; 
and above, as below, it almost runs out and recurves in a 
spout, and is placed more oblique to the axis. The second 
half of the last whorl is flattened on both sides, and set off 
from the rest of the height by a deep notch on the umbilical 


side, as though strangled, so that this part is hardly contin- 
uous with the rest of the shell, and appears like a carved 
pouch. The peristome is straight throughout and without 
thickening, only in the middle of the outer margin laid out 
or finished with a callus, the margins not as in biplicata re- 
mote with a mere connecting callus, but directly connected 
and produced far forward, the columellar margin vertical 
f old-striate outwardly ; the keel of the neck becomes gradually 
less acute backward from the peristome, and not circularly 
surrounding the umbilical slit, but angularly broken in the 
middle. Finally, valsabina [spinellii] does not reach the size 
of the compared allies. 

Gredler states that it has 8-9 whorls and four palatal folds. 

The following references pertain to this form : 

Pupa valsabina Gredler, Nachrbl. D. Malak. Ges,, 1885, pp. 

33-36. — Pupa (Sphy radium) spinellii Gredler, Nachrbl., 

1889, pp. 198-200. 

4. Agardhia bourguignatiana (Nevill). PI. 17, figs. 9. 10, 11. 

Shell openly perforate, cylindric, regularly tower-shaped, 
the apex obtuse, smooth, glossy. Ten slightly convex whorls, 
nearly equal, separated by an impressed suture, the last 
whorl short, a little compressed below ; under a lens obsoletely 
striatulate, the stria? a little oblique, regular. Aperture nar- 
row, triangular, dilated above, tapering and compressed below, 
provided with 4 minute folds ; parietal lamella very strong, a 
little oblique ; columellar lamella prominent, nearly straightly 
transverse; 2 scarcely visible palatals. Peristome expanded, 
thickened, the margins joined by a thick callus, the right 
margin having a strong tooth above the middle, the columellar 
margin abruptly bent down above the middle. Length 5%, 
diam. scarcely IV2 nun. (Nevill). 

Alpes-Maritimes near the Italian boundary and over it, in 
Pleistocene deposits A, B and C. 

Pupa (Sphyradium) bourguignatiana G. Nevtll, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Loud., 1880, p. 127, pi. 13, f. 5, with subvar. obesa, 
p. 127; var. tumida, p. 128; var. plagiostoma, p. 128, pi. 13, 
f . 6 ; subvar. angusta, p. 128 ; var. prccclara, p. 129, pi. 13, f . 7 ; 
var. grimaldiensis, p. 129. 

This was exceedingly abundant in deposits A,B,C;I found 

144 AGARDH1A. 

a single specimen in deposit F, of a short, thick-set variety 
(var. tumida), probably enough a distinct species. Typical 
Pupa biplicata Mich, and P. ressmani Villa are the nearest 
forms I know to P. bourguignatiana; from both the present 
species can be told at once by the above-described characters 
of the aperture. A specimen from Tuscany which I obtained 
from Madame Viment at Paris, labelled P. biplicata, is a 
totally distinct species from the Menton one ; it is the P. tosca- 
nice of Bourg. (Nevill). 

A. ligustica (Poll.) appears to be a living representative of 
this Pleistocene form, probably not specifically distinct. 

The deposits in which the Menton shells are found have 
been described by Nevill as follows: 

A. Alpes-Maritimes, a few yards only from the Italian 
frontier, a stone's throw from the "Pont St. Louis," esti- 
mated about 50 yards above the sea, in a deep cutting of the 
high road under the larger boulders about the level of the 
road, buried beneath approximately 20 ft. of conglomerate. 

B. Underneath the railway viaduct, almost exactly in front 
of the first cavern, something like 100 metres west of the 
tunnel, and about the same distance east of the Gorge St. 
Louis (frontier), about 20 meters above the sea. After pass- 
ing through the arches one finds before one a small amphi- 
theatre, in which these shells can be found here and there in 
astonishing profusion. 

C. Deposit, with a southern aspect, a little more to the 
east than the preceding and somewhat lower down, a few feet 
only above the sea, in a cutting of the new road which is being 
made along the seashore for working a stone-quarry, on the 
sea front of the tunnel. The conglomerate, above the shells, 
was here about 20 to 30 feet in thickness. I am not sure that 
the mollusks lived on this spot. 

D. Deposit, with a northern aspect in a cutting of the rail- 
road about a quarter of an hour's walk to the east from the 
preceding, about a hundred yards east of the tunnel. 

In these deposits the shells are mainly found under large 

Nevill defined five varietal and subvarietal forms of A. 
bourguignatiana, three of which he thought might be species. 
That so many closely related races existed in this very limited 
area seems unlikely; a wide swing of individual variation 
appears more probable. The group of forms is known to me 


only by Nevill's lengthy work, here reproduced. He wasted 
much ink and good white paper over a small matter. 

Subvar. obesa Nevill. "Whorls 8%, a little more convex 
and more rapidly increasing, the last longer, scarcely com- 
pressed at base ; aperture more ample, less contracted below, 
the columellar margin straighter. Length 5, diam. 1% mm.' 7 


Evidently this is what Nevill referred to as "var. tumida" 
in his remarks on bourguignatiana, since that name does not 
occur elsewhere in his paper. 

Var. plagiostoma Nevill. Plate 17, figs. 12, 13, 14. 

" (An potius Pupa plagiostoma n. sp.?) 

"This is a well-marked and very distinct form, distinguish- 
able at a glance by the characters of the aperture which ap- 
pear to be constant. It was bv no means rare in deposits 
B and C. 

"Spire slightly convex, less gradually tapering (or tur- 
reted) ; whorls 8 1 /-), the first 3%, increasing rapidly, the 
others of almost equal breadth, the last one longer in pro- 
portion, more compressed at its base, so much so that it has 
a subcarinate appearance round the umbilicus. Striation a 
little more distinct and more oblique. Aperture quite differ- 
ently shaped, not triangular, but more compressed, narrowly 
oblong, as broad at its base as above, both columellar and 
parietal folds more twisted, the former less straightly trans- 
verse; the two palatal ones, seen through from the back, 
appear more callous and to run into one another ; in the type 
form they appear to run more or less parallel. The peristome 
even more callously thickened, with its margins joined by a 
more developed callosity; the columellar margin has a very 
slight bend at its commencement, otherwise it is quite 
straightly oblique, without the characteristic deflection of P. 
bourguignaticma; the callous tubercular tooth on the outer 
margin equally prominently and robustly developed ; this 
tooth appears to be peculiar in the group to the Menton 
species, in which it exists in every specimen and in all the 
varieties, the other species merely possessing a slight thicken- 
ing in its place, as far as I know. Long. 4 1 /?, diam. I14 mm," 

Subvar. angusta Nevill. "This is a by no means rare form, 
which has decided me on not specifically separating the pre- 
ceding. It has a similar aperture, as also a coarser striation, 


but possesses 10 whorls, the first eight of which are even more 
cylindrical 'than in the type form, and more compressed, the 
last two being in proportion stouter and more convex, im- 
parting to the spire a remarkably emaciated appearance. 

"Types of the variety and subvariety are in the Indian 
Museum, Calcutta, also in collections of M. M. Bourguignat 
and Coombe Williams" (Nevill). 

Var. prceclara Nevill. Plate 17, figs. 15, 16, 17. 

"(An potius P. prceclara, n. sp.?). 

' ' This I for some time considered a distinct species ; at any 
rate it is a well-marked, constant variety. It was not rare, 
in deposit B only, and often in such perfect preservation that 
it looked as if the animal had only just been extracted. Spire 
slightly convex, much like that of var. plagiostoma, but more 
pupiform, that is more tumidly swollen, not so attenuately 
contracted. Whorls 8 to 9, the last two proportionally more 
swollen and convex, the last not compressed at its base (in 
this unlike all the preceding), very translucid, so much that 
the columella can be traced sometimes nearly to the apex; 
smooth, shining, no trace of the oblique sculpture character- 
istic of the preceding ; the aperture is not unlike that of var. 
plagiostoma, though less contracted, equally oblong, as broad 
below as above — that is with the margins parallel; the pari- 
etal fold considerably less vertical than in the type form; 
the columellar one similarly straightly transverse, the palatal 
ones, as seen through the back of the last whorl, seem to me 
much the same ; the outer margin is less straight than in any 
of the preceding forms — that is to say, is more pinched in at 
the callous tooth and is consequently more arcuate above and 
below; the columellar one considerably less oblique, above 
scarcely twisted, at base more gradually rounded. Long. 4%, 
diam. (vix), l 1 /^ mm. 

"Type var., Indian Museum, Calcutta; also in coll. Bour- 
guignat and Coombe Williams" (Nevill). 

Var. grimaldiensis Nevill. 

"(An potius P. grimaldiensis, sp. nov. ?) 

"This form, I believe, will eventually prove to be distinct 
from its allies found on the other side of the headland, as is 
the case with species of Clausilia, and Powiatias; as, however, 
I only found, in deposit D, a single specimen (the preceding 
forms not being found there at all), I do not feel justified at 
present in describing it as a distinct species. 

A short, tumid, pupiform variety, with only 7 whorls, more 
convex and increasing more rapidly than in any of the pre- 


ceding, the last one perfectly rounded at base; the aperture 
much shorter and less contracted, with much less conspicuous 
folds, which are further within; the columellar margin more 
broadly reflected but less callous, without any twist or deflec- 
tion whatever, scarcely oblique, almost rounded at base ; outer 
margin with its well-developed tooth as in the type form. 
Long. 4, diam. 1% mm. 

"Unique type var., Indian Museum, Calcutta" (Nevill). 

4a. A. bourguignatiana ligustica (Poll.). PI. 16, figs. 6, 7. 

Shell cylindric, narrowly umbilicate, pellucid, glabrous; at 
the apex obtuse, somewhat tapering. Under a strong lens it 
is seen to be slightly striatulate. Ten slightly convex whorls, 
the last compressed, obtusely carinate around the umbilicus; 
suture moderately impressed. Aperture is oblique, subtri- 
angular, subangular below; the peristome strong, reflected, 
continuous. One very strong, emerging parietal lamella, 
penetrating very far inward. One strong, thick, transverse 
columellar lamella situated high. Outer lip having a conic 
tooth. Three (sometimes 4) slender, short, deeply placed 
palatal folds, the lowest one punctiform, rudimentary. Length 
4%-5, diam. V/ 2 mm. (Pollonera). 

Italy: Genoa (type loc.) and its environs; also drift of the 
upper Scrivia river in Piedmont at monte di Tortona (Pollo- 
nera) ; Rapallo (J. and A. L. Baily) ; debris of the Torrento 
di Sturla at Genoa (Flach). 

Pupa ligustica Pollonera, Bull. Soc. Malac. Ital., xii, 1886, 
p. 214, pi. 6, f. 9, 10. — Flach, Verh. phys.-med. Ges. Wiirz- 
burg, xxiv, 1890, p. 6, footnote 1, as doubtfully distinct from 

The description and figures are from Pollonera. He fur- 
ther notes that 

A. ligustica is related to A. bourguignatiana Nev., a Men- 
ton fossil, but the last whorl is contracted and the aperture 
somewhat channelled below. It differs chiefly from A. bipli- 
cata by the strong contraction of the last whorl below, the 
carina around the umbilicus being far more pronounced; the 
aperture is longer, more angular below; the peristome more 
solid and almost continuous, with a stouter tooth. The palatal 
folds are shorter, slighter, and much more deeply placed. 


There are three of these, and perhaps a fourth close to the 

A specimen collected by Baily at Rapallo measures: length 
3.7, diam. 1.45 mm. ; &y 2 whorls, being smaller than Pollonera 
indicates. The heavy but adnate parietal callus is a promi- 
nent feature. The parietal lamella is stronger than in bipli- 

5. Agardhia biplicata (Mich.). PI. 16, figs. 1, 2. 

Shell lengthened, cylindric, pellucid, glossy glabrous, urn- 
bilicate, whitish. Nine nearly flat whorls, the upper ones 
small, the rest equal. Aperture triangular; columella with 
one fold, inner lip one fold, outer lip swollen ; peristome re- 
flected, white. Apex very obtuse. Length 2y 2 lines, diam. 
% of a line (Michaud) . Michaud adds that there are also two 
folds within the lateral border of the aperture. 

Shell cylindric, umbilicate, pellucid, subglabrous, obtuse at 
the apex, under a lens slightly striatulate. Whorls 8 to 10, a 
little convex, the last somewhat compressed at base, obtusely 
crested around the circular umbilicus ; suture deep. Aperture 
suboblique, subtriangular, rounded below; peristome paler, 
reflected, interrupted, the margins connected by a callus. 
One strong emerging parietal lamella, continued very far in- 
ward, above it a conic supplemental denticle situated deep 
within. One columellar lamella strong, transverse, situated 
high. Outer lip having a conic tooth. Four palatal folds, of 
which the lower and upper are rudimentary and deep within, 
the second and third lamelliform and produced towards the 
margin. Length 4^2, diam. iy 2 mm. (Pollonera) . 

France: Lyons in debris of the Rhone (Terver, type local- 
ity) ; Alpes - Maritimes ; grottes des Pyrenees (Germain). 
Italy : various places in the Apuan Alps and the adjacent 
Appenines; post-pliocene of Monte Pisano (de Stefani, 1883). 
Southern Tyrol : Bolbeno in Judicaria and Castelfondo im 
Nonsberge (Gredler). Lives in damp places under stones and 
moss, and in caverns. 

Pupa biplicata Michaud, Complement de l'Hist. Nat. Moll. 
Terr, et Fluv. France de J. P. R. Draparnaud, 1831, p. 62, 


pi. 15, figs. 33, 34. — Pfeipfer, Monogr. Hel. Viv., ii, 332 ; iii, 
543 ; iv, 669 ; vi, 309. — Dupuy, Hist. Moll. France, 1850, p. 
406 (in part). — Gredler, Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, 18.16, p. 
110.— De Stefani, Bull. Soc. Malac. Ital., ix, 1883, p. 139.— 
De Betta, Atti Istituto Veneto (3), xv, 1870, p. 1462 (prov- 
inces Verona and Friuli). — Westerlund, Malak. Bl., xxii, pp. 
129, 133 ; Fauna, iii, 1887, p. 89. Pollonera, Bull. Soc. Mai. 
Ital. xii, 1886, pi. 6, f. 7. 

Spkyradium biplicata Mich., Clessin, Moll.-fauna Oester- 
reich-Ungarns, 1887, p. 243, f. 145. 

Coryna biplicata Mich., Cecconi, Boll. Mus. Zool. Anat. 
Comp. Torino, no. 627, p. 3 (Pianosa). — Germain, Moll, de la 
France, ii, 1913, p. 183, f. 238. 

Among the nearly smooth species, this one is distinguished 
by <the long median palatal folds, the small size of the lip- 
tooth, the little denticle on the right side of the parietal 
lamella, and the moderately compressed base. 

Michaud's description of this species was incomplete; he 
did not see all of the teeth. His figure is poor. Dupuy ex- 
amined and drew Michaud's type, but his account and figures 
leave much to be desired. Pollonera. described and figured a 
topotype collected by Locard ; his work is herein reproduced, 
as only Italian forms of the species are accessible to me. 

As in Pupilla, the length of the shell is individually quite 
variable, the diameter remaining more constant. 

The distribution of A. biplicata as given above is subject to 
revision, since some authors have included various allied forms 
under that name. The indefinite Pyrenean record appears 

5a. A. biplicata locardi ('Bgt.,' Loc). PI. 16, figs. 10, 11. 

Exactly cylindric, a little short and swollen, well rounded 
at summit, of 7-8 nearly flat whorls, the suture very little 
impressed. Aperture oval, a little angular at base: 1 median 
superior fold, long, arcuate, nearly immersed ; 1 robust, lamel- 
lar, median, oblique coluniellar fold, nearly reaching to the 
margin; 3 palatals, the upper and lower rudimentary, the 
median tubercular on the peristome. Peristome spreading, 
reflected, a little thickened. Shell glossy, very pale corneous, 
a little striolate. Length 4 1 /., diam. 1% mm. Very rare. 


Bief de Saint- Jeannet vallee de Cagne ( 

Sphyradium locardi Bgt. in Locard, Prodr., 1882, without 
description. Coryno, locardi Bourguignat, Locard, Les Coq. 
Terr, de France, 1894, p. 325; Ann. Soc. d 'Agricult., Sci., 
Ind. de Lyon, (7), iii, 1895, p. 213. — Coryna locardi C. Pollo- 
nera, Caziot, Mem. Soc. Zool. France, xx, 1907, p. 467, fig. 8. 

Locard confused the lip-tooth with the palatal folds. His 
description is otherwise inexact according to Pollonera (in 
Caziot: Etude moll. terr. et fluv. Monaco, 1910, p. 336). 

This form was collected by Caziot and Pollonera in drift 
debris of the Loup, a torrent flowing one kilometer west of 
the Cagne. This specimen is longer than Locard 's type, and 
is thus described by Pollonera : 

Shell cylindric, pale corneous, pellucid, very delicately stri- 
atulate ; 9 whorls, the middle ones a little convex, the rest 
flattened, the last somewhat compressed basally ; suture rather 
deep. Aperture vertical, oblong, subangular at base; peri- 
stome strong, reflexed, interrupted, the margins joined by a 
very thin callus. Parietal lamella 1, strong; columellar 
superior, transverse ; 4 palatal folds, the upper and lower 
ones punctiform, deeply placed, the second and third lamelli- 
form, immersed and not parallel. Alt. 4%, diam. iy.> mm. 

Caziot and Pollonera add that locardi differs from biplicata 
by the slightly more convex middle whorls, the straighter 
aperture with the lip-tooth situated higher, by the absence of 
the very small upper parietal tubercle, and especially by the 
two median palatal folds, which are shorter, less parallel to 
one another, and do not approach so near to the margin of the 
aperture. In a face view of biplicata these folds are readily 
visible, but in locardi they are less apparent and quite notice- 
ably deeper in the cavity of the aperture. 

This form is known by very few examples, and its standing 
as a separate race appears dubious. 

5&. A. biplicata pollonera Flach. 

A form from Caramico in the Abruzzi is well distinguished 
by having the parietal and columellar lamellae very strong, 
emerging to the peristome, as well as by the very long palatal 


folds and horn-brown color ( [Coryna biplicata] var. pollonera 
Flach, Verhandl. d. phys.-med. Ges. Wiirzburg, n. F., xxiv, 
1890, p. 7). 

5c. A. biplicata toscania: (Poll.). PI. 16, figs. 3, 4, 5. 

Differs from the typical form by the slightly paler color of 
the shell, the aperture a little more vertical, by having the 
callus joining the two margins of the aperture weaker or 
wanting, by the absence of the supplementary parietal tooth, 
and by having generally 3, rarely 4 palatal folds. Dimen- 
sions as in the typical form (Pollonera) . 

The length of the spire is quite variable as in others of the 

Italy : Florence in Tuscany and Caramanico, Abruzzo. 
Post-Pliocene of Tuscany. 

Pupa biplicata Issel, Cat. Moll. prov. di Pisa, 1866, p. 22. — 
Gredler, Nachrbl., xvii, 1885, p. 37 (Florence). — Pupa tos- 
cania: Bourguignat, Moll, tumulus de Nove, in Soc. Sci. Lettr. 
et Arts de Cannes, iii, 1873 (no description). — Pupa biplicata 
var. toscania: Bgt., Pollonera, Bull. Soc. Malac. Ital., xi, 
1885, p. 212. — Pupa biplicata forma 1, margidens, Wester- 
lund, Fauna, iii, 1887, p. 89. 

This is the middle Appenine race. A specimen is figured 
from Florence, which may be considered type locality. Prob- 
ably some north-Italian records of biplicata pertain to this 
race. Length 5, diam. 1.6, length of aperture, 1.5 mm. ; 9 x /2 

Westerlund thus described his forma margidens: Outer 
margin of the aperture less thickened, but with a conic tooth 
above the middle ; border brownish. Florence, in the botan- 
ical garden at Boboli. 

6. Agardhia excessiva (Gredl.). PL 16, figs. 8, 9. 

With a third punctiform palatal fold between the lower- 
palatal and the basal keel, deep within, so that it is scarcely 
to be seen in the mouth, and a fourth punctiform streak under 
the suture. It also has a second rudimentary and immersed 
lamella on the parietal wall, between the principal lamella 
and the outer lip insertion, and a conic second tooth on the 


columella, below the principal lamella, and sometimes want- 
ing (Gredler). 

Differs from the preceding [biplicata] by the paler, whitish- 
yellow shell; vertical aperture; peristome white, the outer 
margin not toothed, but a little convex above the middle, and 
by generally having another deeply placed lamella on the 
base of the columella. 

Length 4% to 5, diam. iy 2 mm. (Pollonera). 

Length 4.45, diam. 1.5 mm. ; 9 whorls (Trentino specimen). 

Southern Tyrol: Castelfondo in the Nonsberge (Herrn Aus- 
serer; type loc). Italy: Verona and the Friuli in Veneto 
(Pollonera). Carinthia: Azalla etc. in the Kanaltal (Ress- 
mann, for ressmanni) . In the Trentino on the outlying Vene- 
tian Alps and in the coastal region as far as Malborghet 

Pupa biplicata var.? excessiva Gredler, Verh. zool.-bot. 
Ges. Wien, 1856, p. 110. — Westerlund, Fauna, iii, 1887, p. 
89. — Pupa excessiva Gredler, Pollonera, Bull. Soc. Malac. 
Ital., xii, 1886, p. 213, pi. 6, f . 5, 6. — Pupa ressmanni var. 
biplicata Villa, Ressmann, Nachrbl. d. m. Ges., Nov. 1876, p. 
132 (name and localities; no description). Cf. Gredler, 
Nachrbl., 1877, p. 4. — Pupa ressmanni Villa of some authors. 
— Pupa grimmeri Parr, (undescribed) is probably the same, 
according to Gredler, Nachrbl. 1877, p. 4. 

Though describing it as a variety of biplicata, Gredler 
thought excessiva a separate species, a conclusion supported 
by the material before me. Pollonera considered it perfectly 
distinct specifically from biplicata on the grounds that the 
difference between these two species is not only in the diminu- 
tion of the tooth of the outer lip of excessiva, but also in its 
position, for whilst the tooth of P. biplicata is little above the 
middle and opposite the columellar lamella, the slight swell- 
ing which represents the tooth in P. excessiva is situated quite 
noticeably higher, at the height of the parietal lamella. He 
points out that weakness of the lip-tooth is a character of the 
eastern species related to biplicata, whilst in those of the west 
(Italy, France) this tooth is strong. 

The figures of Pollonera are here reproduced. In some 
examples the lip-callus is less prominent. 


7. Agardhia bielzi (Rossm.). PL 16, figs. 12, 13, 14. 

Shell rimate-perforate, cylindric, apex obtusely rounded, 
corneous-buff, very finely striate-costulate, rather glossy. Nine 
very slowly increasing whorls, a little convex, the last a little 
wider, slightly compressed basally. Aperture oblong-semi- 
ovate, subvertical, 5-toothed : one strong lauielliform tooth on 
the parietal wall, three in the palate (the middle one elon- 
gated fold-like), one on the columella. Peristome reflected, 
thin, very weakly thickened within and colored liver-brown ; 
margins subparallel, straightened, the outer curving inward 
above and then somewhat impressed. Length 5%, diam. 2 
mm. (Rossm.). 

Length 5, diam. 1.9 mm.; 8*4 whorls. Rodna Mts. Figs. 
13, 14. 

Length 5, diam. 1.6 mm. ; 10 whorls. Brosteni, Moldavia. 

Length 5.4, diam. 1.7 mm. ; 8y 2 whorls. Brosteni, Moldavia. 
Fig. 12. 

Length 4.55, diam. 1.8 mm. ; 8 whorls. Rodna ; var. euodon. 
Figs. 15, 16. 

Transylvania: the village Nagy Falu, near Bethlen (Bielz, 
type loc.) ; from the Rodna over the Gyergyo and Hargita 
Mts. to the Barot Mts. at Bad Keroly (Kimakowicz) ; Bros- 
teni in the Moldavian Carpathians (A. Montandon). Also 
northward to the Galician Tatra (var. euodon). 

Pupa bielzi Rossmaessler, Iconographie Land u. Siiss- 
wasser-Mollusken Europa's, iii, 1859, p. 109, pi. 85, f. 942. — 
Sphy radium bielzi Rm., Clessin, Fauna Oesterreich-Ungarns, 
p. 245, f. 146. — Coryna bielzi Rm. Kimakowicz, Verh. u. 
Mittheil. Siebenb. Ver. Nat. Hermannstadt, xl, 1890, p. 101. — 
P. biplicata Mich. Bielz, Vorarbeiten zu einer Fauna der 
Land- und Siisswasser-Mollusken Siebenbergens, in Verh. u. 
Mitth. siebenbiirgischen Vereins fur Naturwiss. zu Hermann- 
stadt, xii, 1861, p. 51, and Fauna, 2te Aufl., 1867, p. 96 
(northern Transsylvania at Czaki-Gorbo, Apa-Nagyfalu near 
Bethlen, Rodna, Gorgeny-Szent-Imre, Gyergyo-Toplitza, Bors- 
zek, Balanbanya and Bad Keroly ; under bark of old trunks 
and fallen leaves and wood on the ground). 

A. bielzi lacks the distinct tooth in the outer lip which 
characterizes A. biplicata and its allies, in this respect stand- 


ing nearer to excessiva; but it differs from both by the fine, 
thread-like striae. These gradually disappear on the last 
whorl, the last fourth being very glossy and nearly smooth. 
The short basal fold is so far in that it is generally not visible 
in a direct front view. The lower-palatal fold is moderately 
long, running forward into the callus within the lip. The 
upper-palatal is quite short. Typically there is but one 
lamella on the parietal wall, but in the form euodon a small 
tubercular angular lamella stands far within near the parietal 

Kimakowicz notes that "the young stage of this species is 
like that of Orcula doliolum except that it has no folds or 
lamella?, these being only developed in the completed shell. 
The gimlet-hole shaped umbilicus of the earlier whorls is 
closed after the end of the sixth whorl. The smallest full- 
grown example of my collection was collected by Dr. Jickeli 
at Bad Borszek. It has the dimensions: height 4.5, diam. 
1.7 mm., 8% whorls. The largest, taken by Dr. Petri from 
Schassburg and Korongyis in the Rodna Mountains, height 
6.7, diam. 1.7 mm., 11 whorls. The diameter has been given 
by all authors too large. Of the many shells before me, none 
reaches a diameter of 2 mm., but at most 1.8 mm." 

Kimakowicz further notes that the form euodon West, is 
sometimes found in Transsylvania. The very small subcolu- 
mellar tooth and the small denticle between parietal lamella 
and suture are often present. But everywhere the characters 
of the typical form predominate, so that he does not count 
var. euodon of Upper Hungary and Galizia as a member of 
the Transsylvanian fauna. 

A. oielzi euodon (Westerlund), pi. 16, figs. 15, 16, is de- 
scribed as having two parietal teeth, the outer one small, thin, 
deeply placed; two on the columella, the upper long, strong, 
the lower tooth-shaped; three in the palate, the upper one 
lengthened, the third wart-like. The palate often has a red- 
dish-white or whitish callus. Length 5 to 7, diam. 2 mm. 
Galicia at Prezmysl and in the Tatra, Kotula {Pupa oielzi 
var. euodon Westerlund, Fauna, iii, 1887, p. 89). 

This is a northern race of Galicia and the Tatra range, but 
specimens with the same characters occur sporadically in 


Transsylvania, the territory of typical bielzi, as noticed by 
Kiniakowicz, and found in a lot before me from the Rodna 
Mts., one of which is drawn in pi. 16, figures 15, 16. It seems, 
therefore, hardly worth recognition as a subspecies. 

la. A. bielzi romanica (Kim.). 

Striation of the shell much finer and less distinct. Colu- 
niellar lamella placed very high, but little emerging and de- 
cidedly obsolete. Parietal lamella rudimentary, scarcely indi- 
cated. The lowest palatal [basal] fold is wanting, the two 
others are markedly weaker than in the type form. Length 
4.6, diam. 1.6 mm., 8% whorls (Kim.). 

Southern slope of the Transsylvanian Alps south of the 
Tomoser Pass in Rumania and spreading over the Kronstadt 
and Bodza Mountains. 

Pupa (Sphyradium) biplicata Clessin, Malak. Blatter (n. 
F.), viii, p. 166. — Coryna bielzi var. romanica Kimakowicz, 
Verh. u. Mittheil. Siebenbiirgischen Vereins f. naturwissen- 
schaften in Hermannstadt, xl, 1890, p. 101. 

Subgenus Agardhiella Hesse. 

Agardhiella Hesse, Archiv f. Molluskenkunde, lv, 1923, p. 
195; for "die Sippe der A. truncatella." 

Agardhias in which there are no palatal folds; outer lip 
tooth, parietal and columellar lamellae may be either present 
or wanting; when an angular lamella is present it emerges 
near the termination of the outer lip. The embryonic 1% 
whorls are microscopically wrinkle-pitted, after which axial 
riblets abruptly set in. Type A. truncatella. 

These forms occur from the Friuli to Transylvania and at 
least as far south as Philippopolis in Rumelia. The species 
and races seem to be somewhat numerous, but outside of Aus- 
trian and Transylvanian collections, specimens are still rather 
scarce. The local races have been little understood, but 
Kimakowicz, Hesse, and especially Sturany and Wagner, have 
worked most of them out satisfactorily. 


8. Agardhia macrodonta Hesse. PL 18, figs. 4, 5. 

Differs from A. lamellata Cless. by the shell smaller and 
more slender throughout, with rather more widely spaced, 
less raised riblets which also appear to be less oblique. The 
aperture is a little less contracted by the lamellae and folds, 
though these lamellae and folds are individually variable as in 
all forms of this group. The always strong and high parietal 
lamella is straight (not bent S-shaped, as in A. lamellata). 
A tooth in the middle of the outer margin is strongly devel- 
oped also in this species, but the outside is less impressed at 
the position of the tooth. On the columella there is a strong 
tooth opposite, below it another fold-like, more or less obso- 
lete one. Likewise there are traces of weak folds in both 
angles of the aperture. The peristome is sometimes shortly 
free. The outer margin is straight and thin in its upper half, 
thickened and expanded outward in the lower half from the 
tooth down. Two well-preserved specimens are before me. 
Height 3.8 and 4.2 mm., diam. 1.2 and 1.5 mm. (Hesse). 

Eastern Ruinelia : debris of the Maritza at Philippopolis. 

Agardhia lamellata Cless., Hesse, Nachrbl., vol. 45, 1913, p. 
9. — Agardhia macrodonta Hesse, Nachrbl. D. M. Ges., vol. 
48, 1916, p. 116. 

This is the form which I formerly took to be Ag. lamellata 
Cless. Subsequently I received from Herrn Oberstabsarzt Dr. 
Wagner the Transylvanian A. lamellata from the original 
locality, Kerczsora im Fogaraser Gebirge, and satisfied myself 
that my Rumelian form is sufficiently distinct from it to pass 
as a separate species (Hesse). 

The two specimens at present known, which have been lent 
me for illustration, represent two rather diverse forms, which 
require separate notice, though it may possibly turn out that 
they are connected by intermediate forms. Hesse's descrip- 
tion translated above covers both. 

Typical A. macrodonta Hesse. PL 18, figs. 4, 5. 

Diameter one-third the length. About 15 riblets in one mm. 
on the face of the last whorl, less oblique than in A. lamellata. 
Parietal lamella straight; without, distinct accessory lamellae 
on the parietal wall. Columellar margin irregularly thick- 


ened ; columellar lamella deeply placed, vertical, bilobed, the 
lower lobe projecting more. Tooth of the outer lip more 
massive than in A. lamellata. No basal fold. Length 4, diam. 
1.35 mm. ; fully 7 whorls. 

8a. A. macrodonta gracillima n. subsp. PI. 18, figs. 6, 7. 

Diameter less than one-third the length. Rib-striae closer, 
about 22 in 1 mm. on face of the last whorl. Small folds in 
both upper angles of the aperture. Columellar lamella a 
simple lobe, steeply ascending spirally. In the massive outer 
tooth and absence of a basal fold it is like typical macrodonta. 
Length 3.8, diam. 1.1 mm. ; slightly over 7 whorls. 

While this form occurred in river drift with macrodonta, 
it is quite likely that they were washed down from different 

9. Agardhia rumelica Hesse. PL 18, figs. 8 to 12. 

Differs from the type [of macrodonta] by the decidedly 
weaker dentition as well as the closer, finer and still less ob- 
lique riblets. In the middle of the parietal wall a strong, 
straight lamella; the tooth of the outer margin much weaker 
than in the type, the outer wall less impressed. Columella 
sometimes quite smooth, sometimes with one or two low folds, 
the lower one generally on the base of the columella. Seven 
to eight whorls. Size very variable; of 13 examples before 
me, the largest measures, 4.9 : 1.5 mm., the smallest 3.7 : 1.4 
mm. (Hesse). 

Rumelia : debris of the Maritza at Philippopolis. 

Agardhia armata Cless., Hesse, Nachrbl. D. Malak. Ges., 
vol. 45. 1913, p. 9. — Agardhia macrodonta rumelica Hesse, 
Nachrbl., vol. 48, 1916, p. 117. 

This is the form which I erroneously called Ag. armata in 
my former work. In Ag. parreyssi the parietal lamella is 
very low and weakly developed, the rib sculpture of the shell 
is almost vertical; outer lip and columella are very weakly 
toothed (Hesse). 

Plate 18, fig. 8, the largest example of thirteen, 4.8 mm. 
long, 1.4 wide, with 8 whorls, may be considered type of this 
form, which at present does not appear to intergrade with 


A. armata, A. biarmata or A. macrodonta. There are 16 rib- 
striae iu 1 mm. on the face of last whorl. These appear slightly- 
less oblique than in A. macrodonta. The aperture has a mod- 
erately developed columellar lamella, not emerging quite to 
the peristome, and a well-developed subcolumellar. The lip- 
tooth projects more than that of biarmata, but it is rather 
slender, not massive as in macrodonta. The summit is hemi- 
spherical, and the diameter is about equal in the last 5 whorls. 

Other specimens are shorter, of 7 whorls. The aperture 
either as described above, or it has three lamella? on the 
columella and an accessory lamella on the parietal wall near 
the left angle. The general shape differs perceptibly, as the 
spire tapers a trifle upward. Length 4.2, diam. 1.5 mm. ; 14 
rib-stria? in 1 mm. on face of the last whorl (pi. 18, fig. 7). 

In still another form there may be only a small subcolu- 
mellar lamella on the columella (pi. 18, fig. 11), or it may 
lack lamella? completely (pi. 18, fig. 10). In either case, a 
more or less deeply immersed columellar lamella is visible in 
an oblique view in the mouth. 

10. Agardhia lamellata (Clessin). PI. 18, figs. 13, 14. 

Having a lamella on the parietal wall considerably length- 
ened inward, with a fold in the left upper angle of the mouth, 
with a denticle on the left side of the basal margin (in the 
corner below the columellar plate), and with a tooth-like ; 
thickened impression of the outer margin (Bielz). 

The shell is rimate but not deeply, cylindric, rather slender, 
grayish white, slightly translucent, of 7 whorls, the last 3 or 
4 flattened, with moderately impressed suture, the last whorl 
not ascending in front. Sculpture of fine, sharp, closely set, 
distinctly oblique rib-stria?. The narrow aperture is shaped 
somewhat like the figure 8. Below the middle the peristome is 
well expanded. There is a strong but rather short parietal 
lamella and a small, short lamella near the left upper angle 
of the mouth, both emerging to the edge of the thin but dis- 
tinct parietal callus. On the columella there is a small pro- 
jection above, and a long, obliquely ascending, entering colu- 
mellar lamella, rather deeply placed. The outer lip arches 


forward and is impressed in the middle, with a pit outside 
and a strong tooth projecting well into the aperture. There 
is a tubercular basal fold near the base of the columella. 

Length 4.8 to 5, diam. 1.6 mm. 

Transsylvania : above the glass-house of Kerczesoara (Kerc- 
sesora) in a beech wood on the left bank of the brook, under 
rotten wood on the ground (Bielz, type loc). 

Pupa truncatella Bielz, Verh. u. Mitth. Siebenburgisehen 
Ver. Naturwiss. Hermannstadt, xiv, 1863, p. 228. — P. trun- 
catella var. e, Bielz, Fauna Land- u. Siisswasser-Moll. Sieben- 
biirgens, 1867, p. 98. — Sphy radium parreyssii var. lamellata 
Clessin, Molluskenfauna Oesterreich-Ungarns etc., 1887, p. 
248. — Coryna lamellata Clessin, Kimakowicz, Verh. u. Mitth. 
des Siebenburgisehen Ver. Nat. Hermannstadt, 39 Jahrg., 
1889, p. 99. — Agardhia lamellata Cless. Sturany and Wagner, 
Denkschr. math.-wiss. Kl. Akad. Wisseusch. Wien, Bd. 91, 
1914, p. 66, pi. 18, f. 107. 

This species is well distinguished by its narrow aperture, 
with the tooth of the outer lip large and projecting strongly, 
the columellar lamella also strongly developed, and by having 
a distinct basal fold. 

Clessin evidently had not seen the species, merely naming 
Bielz 's "P. truncatella var. e," and copying that author's de- 
scription ; but very good descriptions have been published by 
Kimakowicz and by Sturany and Wagner, who gave the 
figure reproduced in my pi. 18, fig. 14. Fig. 13 is from a 
topotype in the Hesse collection. 

Bielz states that "the animal is white, nearly transparent, 
with flesh-colored liver. When extended the foot is 2V2 lines 
long, 3/3 line wide, and has very long (1 line) and relatively 
thick tentacles without terminal knobs, and which, on repeated 
observation in the brightest light showed no eye-spots." 
These specimens were found in autumn under about 6 inches 
of forest debris, near Kerczesoara, in the neighborhood of the 
Bullabach locality near the Glashiitte formerly given for the 
same form, var. e. The country rock is mica-schist ; other 
Transsylvanian stations for the P. truncatella [group] being 
on limestone. 


II. Agardhia PARREYSsn ('Friv.', Pfr.). PI. 18, figs. 15, 16. 

Shell riinate-perforate, cylindric, slender, thin, longitudi- 
nally closely costulate, diaphanous, whitish, the apex very ob- 
tuse. "Whorls 7-8, flat, the lower ones rapidly increasing, the 
last one-third of the total length, somewhat compressed at 
base. Aperture oblong, dilated basally, with one entering 
fold on the parietal wall, another obsolete one on the upper 
part of the columella. Peristome simple, scarcely expanded, 
toothless, the margins joined by a callous lamina. Length 
5%, diam. 1% mm., aperture 1% mm. long (Pfr.). 

Length 5, diam. 1.6 mm.; 7 whorls (Sturany and Wagner). 

Length 4.6, diam. 1.6 mm. ; 15 striae in 1 mm. on face of 
last whorl. 

Length 5.3, diam. 1.7 mm. ; 7 whorls ; 15 striae in 1 mm. on 
face of last whorl. 

Turkey (Pfr.). Transsylvania: Upper Lapugy Valley 
near Dobra, and in woods above Govasdia on the foot of the 
Kacsanyas near Vayda-Hunyad in the Halszeg Mts. (Kima- 
kowicz). Bazias in the Banat (Dr. Wagner). Western 
Transsylvania, Banat, Servia eastward of the Morava and 
Bulgaria (Sturany and Wagner). 

Pupa parreyssii Friv. in sched., Pfeifper, Monogr. Hel. 
Viv., ii, 1848, p. 311. — Westerlund, Fauna, iii, 1887, p. 88. 

f Sphyradiuin parreyssii Pfr., Clessin, Molluskenf. Oester- 
reich-Ungarns, 1887, p. 246, f. 147. 

Coryna parreyssi Pfr., Kimakowicz, Verh. Mitth. Siebenb. 
Ver. Nat., vol. 40, 1890, p. 99. — Agardhia parreyssii Pfr., 
Sturany & Wagner, Denkschr. etc., vol. 91, 1914, p. 65, pi. 
18, fig. 106. 

Pupa truncatella Pfr. Bielz, Verh. u. Mitth. sieben- 
biirgischen Vereins f. Naturwiss. zu Hermannstadt, xii, 1861, 
p. 51; xiv, 1863, p. 228 (living animal) ; Fauna der Land- 
und Susswasser-Mollusken Siebenburgens, 2te Aufl., 1867, 
p. 97. 

Papa truncatella var. d. Bielz, Fauna Land- und Siiss- 
wasser-Moll. Siebenburgens, 2te Aufl., 1867, p. 98. — Sphyra- 
dium parreyssii var. armata Clessln, Molluskenfauna Oester- 
reich-Ungarns, 1887, p. 247, fig. 148. — Coryna p. var. armata 
CI., Kimakowicz, Verh. Mitth. Siebenb. Ver. Nat., vol. 40, 
1890, p. 99. — Papa parreyssi var. cccsa Westerlund, Fauna 


Europa?a Moll, extramar. Prodromus, fasc. ii, 1878, p. 188. — 
Coryna parreyssi var. cccsa West., Synops. Moll, extramar. 
Reg. Palaearct., 1897, p. 73. — Kimakowicz, Verh. Mitth. Sie- 
benb. Ver. Naturwiss., vol. 40, 1890, p. 99. — ? Sphyradium 
parreyssii var. cccsia Clessin, Molluskenfauna Oesterreich- 
reich-Ungarns, 1887, p. 247. 

"It is distinguished from all forms of A. trun-catella by the 
flattened, more rapidly increasing whorls, parted by a scarcely 
impressed suture, and the hair-fine, vertical rib-striae; also 
the aperture appears less contracted below, therefore not of a 
rounded triangular shape, but approaching semi-ovate. 

"Pfeiffer described this species as toothed, so that Clessin 's 
var. armata seems to be superfluous. The relations of breadth 
of the last two whorls are pretty variable, and differ in ex- 
amples from the same place, so that the var. cccsa Wstld. is 
also to be set down as an individual variation" (Sturany arid 

This species was included under P. truncatella by Bielz, 
who described five varieties of that species, thus : 

a. Aperture entirely unarmed. Govasdia and on Mt. Kac- 
zanyas at Vajda-Hunyad. 

b. A fold in the left upper corner of the aperture, at the 
confluence of parietal with columellar margin. At the Csetate 
boli cavern in the Schieltal. 

c. On the parietal wall a small lamellar tooth. This variety 
from Turkey not found in Siebenbiirgen. [This refers appar- 
ently to Kuester's pi. 4, figs. 24, 25.] 

d. Upon the parietal wall a lamellar tooth, and a fold in 
the right and left angles; further, there is sometimes a den- 
ticle on the columella and also an impression of the outer lip, 
thickened tooth-like. [This form was subsequently named 
var. ar/?iata Clessin.] 

e. [This was later named var. lamellata Clessin, see no. 10.] 

Clessin 's figure of his var. armata is reproduced in pi. 19, 
fig. 1. It has been reported from Transylvania : Mt. Mogura 
near Bar and on the Piatra Sipotului at Petrosz (Bielz) ; 
Piatra Zenoga in the Schiel Mts. and on the Piatra Sipotului 
and the Piatra Barului in the Strell Mts. (Kimakowicz). 

The var. cccsa Westerlund was thus described : ' ' Shell slen- 
der, the last and penult whorls of equal width, columellar 
margin of the aperture having a rather deep incision above 


before its insertion. Length 5y 2 , diam. 1%-1% mm. Ban- 
atus, Kuester coll." 

In Westerlund's latest account he says: "Ap. margine 
exter. superne incisura profundiuscula munita," where be- 
fore he had said "margine columellari. " Also in the German 
text (1887) he said: "Aussenrand oben ziemlich tief aus- 
gebuchtet." This is the condition in all of the group, so 
that his first statement was apparently an error. Nothing 
was said of teeth, which presumably are as described by him 
for the typical form, 1-2 slender parietal, and 1 columellar 

Sturany and Wagner do not consider arm at a and cccsa to 
be valid races. 

12. Agardhia stenostoma (Flach). 

Shell rimate, narrow, cylindric, at the apex obtuse, nar- 
rowly costulate, similar in stature to parreyssii, a little 
smaller. 6% slightly convex whorls. Differs primarily by 
having the neck before the aperture very strongly and 
abruptly constricted as far as the sinulus; the aperture is 
very narrow, strongly oblique, outwardly sinuate ; outer lip 
simply expanded ; 3 parietal folds, the middle one prominently 
arcuate. Length 4.2, diam. 1.2 mm. (Flach). 

Dalmatia. One example in the Boettger coll. 

C. [oryna] stenostoma Flach, Verhandl. d. phys.-med. Ges. 
Wiirzburg, n. F., xxiv, 1890, p. 5, footnote 2. 

This unfigured form has not been noticed by subsequent 

13. Agardhia truncatella (Pfr.). PI. 19, figs. 2, 3, 4, 5. 
Shell rimate, cylindric, obtuse at apex; thin, diaphanous; 

vertically elegantly costulate; waxy whitish; 6 to 7 rather 
flattened whorls, the last rotund basally, slightly over a fourth 
of the total length. Aperture subvertical, obliquely semi- 
oval, toothless; peristome nearly simple, a little reflected, the 
right margin arching forward, columellar margin shorter. 
Length 4; diam 2 mm.; aperture 1% mm. long (Pfr.). 


The peristome is very narrow and slightly thickened within ; 
the outer margin weakly impressed in the middle, with a 
weak to indistinct tooth-like callus within. Lamella? and folds 
are nearly always lacking on the parietal wall and columella ; 
only in occasional examples weak, short folds can be seen at 
the inner angle of the aperture or in the middle of the pari- 
etal wall. Length 4, diam. 1.6 mm., 6y 2 whorls (Sturany and 

Eastern outliers of the Alps in Steiermark (south of the 
Semmering), Karnten, Krain, Kustenland, Istrien, Kroatien, 
Bosnien ; only in the valley region, and always found subter- 
ranean or in caverns (Sturany & "Wagner). Mt. Karst, Castel- 
nuovo, between Triest and Fiume (Pfr., type loc). Drift of 
the Save at Laibach (Schmidt) ; lower Dalmatia (Neumeyer). 
Carinthia, Satnitz near Klagenfurt. Grosskahlenberge near 
Laibach, on the Nanos and Golove, at Glince, Ursanica and 
Weichselburg in Krain; in the mountainous region of the 
Friaul, in the upper Trebusa valley and on the Alp Gozdec 
(Clessin). Tanneben, back of Peggau, near Graz and near 
Frohnleiten, Steiermark (Tschapeck, Nachrbl., 1885, p. 18). 
Kapellagebirge in southern Croatia (Reitter). 

Pupa truncatella Pfeiffer, Syniboke ad Hist. Helic, i, 
1841, p 46 ; Monogr. Hel. Viv., ii, p. 303. — Kuester, Conchyl. 
Cab., Pupa, p. 34, pi. 4, f. 20, 21 ; Ber. nat, Ges. Bamberg, ix, 
1870, p. 100 (Triest and Cattero, those from Cattaro more 
slender, less sharply rib-striate. — Rossmaessler, Iconogr., ii, 
pt. xi, 1842, p. 12, pi. 53, f. 733. -de Betta, Atti Istituto 
Veneto (3), xv, 1870, p. 1462 (Prov. Friuli). — Westerlund, 
Malak. Bl., xxii, 1875, p. 135 ; Fauna, iii, 1887, p. 88.— Hirc, 
Verh. zool.-bot. Ver. Wien, xxx, 1880, p. 527 (Lukvodol, Li- 
burnischen Karst). — Pupa (Sphyradium) truncatella Pfr., 
Boettger, Nachrbl., 1882, p. 179 (Morautscher Grotten, Ober 
Krain, Stussiner). — Agardhia (Agardhia) truncatella Pfr., 
Sturany & Wagner, Denkschr. Math.-Wiss. Kl. K. Akad. 
Wissenseh., Bd. 91, 1914, p. 64, pi. 18, f. 102 (good).— Pupa 
intermedia Kokeil, Gallensteest, Jahrbuch des naturhistor- 
ischen Landesmuseums von Karnten, i, 1852, p. 78, in the 
synonymy of Pupa truncatella Pfr. 

"This species is distinguished from the form-series of A. 
parreyssii (Pfr.) by the more strongly convex, more slowly 


increasing whorls, parted by a deeper suture, as well as by 
the stronger, more widely-spaced and distinctly oblique rib- 
striffi ; whilst the apertural characters of both species are very 
similar and equally variable" (Sturany and Wagner). 

Kuester 's figure is photographed in our fig. 5; but it is 
rather poor. A typical specimen from Carinthia (fig. 2) 
measures, length 3.9, diam. 1.6 mm., 6% whorls, 12 riblets in 
1 mm. on the face of the last whorl. Another having a fold 
in the left upper angle, and a stronger lip-callus (figs. 3, 4), 
measures 3.6 x 1.55 mm., and has 10 to 11 riblets in 1 mm. 

13a, A. truncatella formosa ( ' Parr. ' Pf r. ) . PL 19, figs. 6, 7, 8. 

Larger, more finely costulate ; 8 whorls ; outer margin of 
peristome impressed outside. Length 5*4, diam. 2 mm. (Pfr.). 

Larger, more slenderly cylindric, with 7 to 8 whorls and 
three folds on the parietal wall, of which the median one is 
raised lamella-like, and penetrates far within. Length 5 to 
5.5, diam. 2.6 mm. (Sturany and Wagner). 

Ragusa and Castelnuovo, in southern Dalmatia (Sturany 
and Wagner). 

Pupa truncatella Kuester, Conchyl. Cab., pi. 4, f. 22, 23. 
— Pupa formosa Parr, in sched., Pfeiffer, Monogr. Hel. Viv., 
1848, ii, 304 (as a var. b of Pupa truncatella). — Agardhia 
(Agardhia) truncatella formosa Pfr., Sturany and Wagner, 
Denkschr., vol. 91, 1914, p. 65, pi. 18, f. 103. 

The figures of Kuester (pi. 19, figs. 6, 7) and that of Stu- 
rany and Wagner (fig. 8) are reproduced. 

13&. Agardhia truncatella biarmata (Boettg.). PI. 19, figs. 9 
to 14. 

Shell more slender than the type [of truncatella] , distantly 
costulate ; aperture with a distinct parietal lamella and armed 
with a large callous denticle in the middle of the outer mar- 
gin ; callus joining the margins denticulate. Length 3%, 
diam. l 1 /^ mm. (Bttg.). 

Dalmatia: Ragusa and Pridworje, very scarce (Reitter). 
Cavern near Zavala (but not the well known "Windloch"), 
Hercegovina (G. Paganetti-Hummler, 1903). 


Pupa (Sphyradium) truncatella var. biarmata 0. Boettger, 
19r.-21r. Bericht Offenbacher Vereins f. Naturkunde, 1880, p. 
109. — Coryna biarmata Bttgr., Sturany, Nachrbl. D. M. Ges., 
vol. 36, July 1904, p. 105, text-figs. — Agardhia (Agardhia) 
truncatella biarmata Bttg., Sturany and Wagner, Denkschr., 
vol. 91, 1914, p. 65, pi. 18, f. 104a-c. 

Dr. Sturany has given figures (which we reproduce in pi. 
19, figs. 11, 12) and the following notes on this species: 

The cylindric, stab-like umbilicate, pale yellow colored 
shell consists of 7 whorls, of which the first 2 to 2^ are 
smooth, the rest provided with numerous transverse riblets, 
placed a little obliquely. In shape, sculpture and build there- 
fore agreeing with P. truncatella, Pfr. ; but distinguished 
principally from this form by the dentition of the aperture. 
There is here one tooth on the outer margin and a lamella on 
the parietal wall. The margins of the peristome are con- 
nected by a parietal line on which the riblets of the preceding 
whorl end button-like. The outer margin as well as the colu- 
mellas* margin is arcuate and curved forward. The columella 
has 2 or 3 little teeth deep within, which stand on a project- 
ing welt and are thus visible in an oblique view in the mouth. 
Length of the shell 4, breadth 1.7 mm. 

Dr. Boettger was so good as to bring Pupa truncatella var. 
biarmata Bttgr. to my attention and intrust to me one of his 
original specimens for comparison, so that I could convince 
myself of their identity. I publish here the new locality, and 
at the same time follow Boettger 's hint in understanding 
biarmata as a separate species, no longer a variety of trun- 

In the last consideration of biarmata, by Sturany and Wag- 
ner, it is ranked as a subspecies of truncatella. The aper- 
tural armature is said to be variable: there are generally 
three rather short dentiform folds on the parietal wall, but 
sometimes the two outer ones are lacking, sometimes some 
may be doubled. On the columella there are 1, 2 or 3 folds, 
which likewise become indistinct sometimes (figures 9, 10, re- 
produced from S. & W. ) . 

The specimens I have seen, pi. 19, figs. 13, 14 (from Ko- 
meno near Castelnuovo, Dalmatia [Hesse coll.]), appear to 
differ constantly from A. truncatella by the more distinctly 
developed lip-tooth, though agreeing with that form in sculp- 


13c. Agardhia truncatella skipetarica A. J. Wagner. PI. 19, 
fig. 15. 

Shell more slenderly cylindric, extremely closely and finely 
rib-striate; the aperture is wholly toothless, its outer margin 
weakly impressed. Length 4, diam. 1.4 mm. (Wagner). 

Zabljak in Montenegro; Kiribriicke close to Mesi, near Sku- 
tari, Albania (Sturany, 1905). 

Agardhia (Agardhia) truncatella skipetarica A. J. Wag- 
ner, Sturany and Wagner, Denkschr. math. nat. Klasse k. 
Akad. Wissenschaften, Bd. 91, 1914, p. 47, pi. 18, f. 105. 

By its close and fine rib-striation this form approaches a 
toothless form of A. parreyssu remarkably. The oblique 
direction of the striae as well as the more slowly increasing, 
distinctly convex whorls allow it to be recognized as a form 
of A. truncatella (S. & W.). 

Subfamily Pagodulinesle. 

This subfamily is provided for the reception of Pagodulina 
and Spelcrodiscus (Aspasita) , genera which cannot well be in- 
cluded in the Pupillinse or the Orculinse on account of their 
rather peculiar shells. It is a provisional expedient which 
may serve until the affinities of these groups shall be worked 

The species are illustrated on plates 20 to 22. 

Genus PAGODULINA Clessin. 

Pagodina Stabile, Moll. terr. viv. Piemont, Atti Soc. Ital. 
di Sci. nat,, Milano, vii, 1864, p. 100, for Pupa pagodula. 
Not Pagodina Van Beneden, Bull. l'Acad. Roy. Sci., Lettr. 
Beaux- Arts de Belgique, xx, pt. 1, 1853, p. 482 (Crustacea). 

Pagodvlina- Clessln, Deutsche Excursions-Mollusken-Fauna, 
1876, p. 198, a "gruppe" for Pupa pagodula only. 

Pagodula Hesse, Nachrbl. D. M. Ges., v. 48, 1916, p. 124, 
new name for Pagodina Stabile. Not Pagodula Monterosato, 
Nomencl. Generica e Specifica Conchiglie Mediterranee, 1884, 
p. 116 (Mwricidee) . 

The shell is oblong or cylindric, imperforate but deeply and 
very openly rimate (the young stages perforate), of about 8-9 
convex whorls, the last strongly ascending; rib-striate after 


the microscopically pitted iy 2 embryonic whorls. Aperture 
having a reflected lip, the outer margin bent in and often 
thickened in the middle, otherwise toothless. An obliquely 
descending eolumellar lamella, a long palatal fold and a spiral 
lamella above are within the ventral side of the last whorl. 
The animal has very short lower tentacles and carries the 
shell horizontally. 

Type P. pagodula Desm. Distribution, southern and east- 
ern Alps and adjacent mountainous regions ; Caucasus. 

Paleontology. — The single species described from the Upper 
Pliocene is a typical Pagodulina with strongly developed 
palatal fold and lip-thickening. 

Pagodulina bellardii (Sacco). Pupa bellardii Sacco, 
Nuove sp. foss. Moll. lac. terr. in Atti R. Accad. Sci. Torino, 
xix, 1884, p. 353, pi. 8, f. 12; Mem. R. Accad. Sci. Torino, 
CI. Fis. Mat. e Nat. (2), xxxvii, p. 198, pi. 2, f. 5a-b.—Pago- 
dina bellardii Sacco, I Moll. terr. terz. Piemonte e Liguria, 
pt. xxii, 1897, p. 69, pi. 6, f. 2, 3. Upper Pliocene, Astien: 

0. Reinhardt has stated that P. pagodula has no lamellae or 
folds in the young stages (Jahrb. D. M. Ges., 1877, p. 281; 
Nachrbl., 1914, p. 74). The young shell has an open, per- 
spective umbilicus, so that the shell of 3 or 4 whorls looks 
like a miniature Solarium. The internal folds of the adult 
stage are formed only on completion of the last whorl. In P. 
subdola I find a stout but deeply immersed prominence on 
the columella (pi. 21, fig. 4), but no other lamella? or folds 
in immature shells of 6V2 to 7 whorls. 

Pagodulina has generally been understood to contain only 
one Recent species, P. pagodula, with several named varieties. 
Aside from the unfigured and little known P. bourguignati 
Cout., not seen by me, and of uncertain status, the series ex- 
amined appears divisible into three species: (1) the common 
P. pagodula; (2) the Caucasian P. lederi, well distinguished 
by its close, fine sculpture; (3) P. subdola of the eastern and 
southern Alps and their outliers, distinguished from both of 
the preceding by the presence of a lower-palatal fold, ventral 
in position, below the usual long palatal fold. 


The following named forms are not known to me by speci- 
mens: P. pagodula austeniana New., possibly a form of sub- 
dola, but the internal structure is unknown. P. tchapecki 
Gredl., possibly pathologic ; P. pagodula var. adaucta de Betta, 
insufficiently defined. These several forms have not been 
observed by any other authors since their description. 

Key to Species and Chief Varieties of Pagodulina. 

1 f Length 1.4 mm. P. bourguignati, no. 4. 

1 Length 3 mm. or more (2). 

Having a short lower-palatal fold below the long palatal 

fold within the ventral side of the last whorl (3). 
No lower-palatal fold below the long one (5) . 

A suprapalatal fold above the long median one, 3 palatals 
in all. P. subdola admnii, no. 2c. 

No suprapalatal fold, there being only two palatals (4). 

Shape and sculpture about as in P. pagodula, the riblets 
being spaced, becoming close on the last half-whorl. 
4 ^ P. subdola, no. 2. 

More slender, the riblets remaining well spaced on the 
last half-whorl. P. subdola gracilis, no. 2d. 

Riblets rather widely spaced, 6 to 10 in 1 mm. on the 

face of penult whorl ; Europe (6) . 
Riblets closely crowded throughout, about 15 in 1 mm. 

on face of penult whorl; Caucasus region. 

P. lederi, no. 3. 

f About 8i/> whorls, little more than the last one exposed 
J in the closed, J-shaped umbilical cavity (7). 

10 whorls, 4 mm. long, the penult whorl exposed in the 
round umbilicus. P. s. form tschapecki, no. 2a. 

f Riblets well spaced, becoming decidedly closer on the 
J last half-whorl. P. pagodula, no. 1. 

I Riblets remaining well spaced on the last half-whorl. 

P. pagodida sparsa, no. 16. 


1. Pagodulina pagodula (Desm.). PL 20, figs. 1 to 4. 

The shell is imperforate but with a long, deep, J-shaped 
basal suture, cylindric-oblong, cinnamon-buff, with little lus- 
ter. The whorls are quite convex to the last, which is im- 
pressed around the middle; its last half is straightened and 
ascends steeply across the penult whorl, almost to the pre- 
ceding suture ; the base being rounded. The first 1% whorls 
appear smooth (but are microscopically very densely pitted), 
subsequent, whorls ribbed, the ribs straight, retractive, hardly 
one-fourth as wide as their intervals, about 7 to 10 in 1 mm. 
on the face of the penult whorl, microscopic striae between 
them ; on the last half of the last whorl they become crowded, 
the intervals hardly more than half as wide as before. The 
aperture is somewhat oblique, the lower margin being ad- 
vanced, in shape indistinctly triangular. The peristome is 
brown-tinted, reflected ; the outer margin is bent in and thick- 
ened inwardly above the middle, the parietal margin is typi- 
cally a little raised, continuous (but often is adnate) ; colu- 
mellar margin concave, reflected. The cavity of the last 
whorl, in its first half, is narrowed by a strong, obliquely de- 
scending columellar plate, reaching to the basal wall, a strong 
and long palatal fold, and a smaller but long spiral lamella 
on the upper wall. 

Length 3.85, diam. above aperture 1.85 mm. ; 8V2 whorls. 

Length 3.5, diam. above aperture 1.85 mm. ; 8% whorls. 

Length 3.3, diam. above aperture 1.8 mm. ; 8 1 /* whorls. 

Southern France, from Dep. Dordogne (near the chateau 
of Lanquais a trois lieues de Bergerac, type locality) and Puy- 
de-Dome, east to Dep. Haute-Alpes and southward; Alpine 
and neighboring regions of Italy and the Tyrol to Croatia, 
Dalmatia, Montenegro and Rumelia ; sporadically in the 
Morea; northward in southeastern Bavaria around Reichen- 
hall and Schellenberg. In damp places under stones and dead 
leaves; found only in mountainous country, often abundant. 


Pupa pagodula Desmoulins, Actes Soc. Linneenne de Bor- 
deaux, iv, 1830, p. 161, figs. 1-3 of unnumbered plate. — Ross- 
maessler, Iconogr., v, p. 15, f. 325. — Kuester, Syst. Conch. 
Cab., p. 21, pi. 3, f . 8, 9 ; 9ter Ber. naturf . Ges. Bamberg, 
1870, p. 100 (Triest, Croatia, Lacroma, region of Ragusa and 
Cattaro). — Pfeiffer, Mon. Hel. Viv., ii, 310; iii, 534; iv, 
664; vi, 301; viii, 364. — Moquin-Tandon, Moll. France, p. 
388, pi. 27, f. 35-41.— Westerlund, Malak. BL, xxii, p. 129 ; 
Fauna, iii, 1887, p. 90.— Pini, Bull. Soc. Malac. Ital., ii, 1876, 
p. 166 (Esino region; up to 1750 meters on Mt. Codeno). — 
de Betta, Malacologia Veneta, in Atti del Regio Istituto 
Veneto di Sei., dett. Arti (3), 15, 1870, p. 1463 (dist. in 
Verona and Friuli provinces). — Pagodina pagodula Desm., 
Locard, Ann. Soc. Agric. Lyon (7), iii, 1896, p. 214. — Cles- 
sin, Molluskenfauna Oesterreich-Ungarns, 1887, p. 250, f. 150. 
— Caziot, Etude Moll. terr. fiuv. Princ. Monaco et Dep. Alpes- 
Maritimes, 1910, p. 329, pi. 8, f. 15, 27; pi. 9, f. 46, 48 (foot- 
hills between Siagne and Var rivers, especially around Grasse ; 
Fayence (Var) and northward to the Pic de Lachens). — 
Hesse, Nachrbl., 1913, p. 10 (variety, from drift of the 
Maritza, eastern Rumelia). 

This strongly individualized Pupillid is easily known by 
the ascending last whorl, sinuous outer lip and toothless aper- 
ture, the last whorl belted in over the internal palatal fold. 
It differs from related species and races by the spaced riblets 
which become close on the last half-whorl, and by the single 
palatal fold. 

Mut. albina Tschapeck. Three albino specimens were found 
with the ordinary form on outliers of the limestone mountain 
of Tanneben, behind Peggau, on the left bank of the Mur, 19 
kilom. north of Graz, Steiermark (Pupa pagodula- Desm. mu- 
tation albina Tschapeck, Nachrbl. D. M. Ges., 1885, p. 18). 

la. Pagodulina pagodula austeniana (Nevill). PL 20, figs. 8, 9. 

This very curious form, named after my friend Colonel 
Godwin-Austen, was by no means rare, though evidently very 
local [at Mentone] in deposits A and B only. The umbilicus 
is broadly and widely open, but is at the same time very shal- 
low. The two obtuse apical whorls are smooth, the next two 
are moderately convex, short, regular, increase rapidly in 
breadth, the upper one closely costulated, the ribs scarcely 
oblique; the lower one has these ribs more distant, less 

PAG0DUL1NA. 171 

crowded and more acutely raised; the next two, of about 
equal height and breadth, also increase rapidly in breadth, 
are very convex, the ribs become still a little more acute, more 
oblique and less crowded; the antepenultimate has similar 
ribbing, is much the same in size, only a trifle more tumidly 
convex; it has the peculiar character that whilst on the side 
of the aperture it only just equals the preceding one in width, 
on the other side it markedly surpasses it; the last becomes 
abruptly much narrower above, about equal in width to the 
fourth whorl ; on its centre it is girt with an impressed line, 
dividing it into two nearly equal portions, the lower of which 
becomes abruptly narrower and more compressed, and is 
brought round (or ascends) in such a manner as to peculiarly 
evert the aperture, and to bring the latter 's outer margin 
right up to the suture, reminding one of the genera Boysia, 
Scopelophila, etc.; looking at it from behind the aperture, it 
ascends so much that at its termination it completely hides 
the antepenultimate whorl. The aperture is much everted, 
triangular, somewhat contracted by the impressed dividing 
groove of the last whorl. Long. 3%, diam. 2 mm. (Nevill). 

Type, Indian Museum, Calcutta; also in coll. M. M. Bour- 
guignat, Williams, Fagot, Joly and Godwin- Austen (Nevill). 

Pupa (Sphyradmm) austcuiana Nevill, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
London, 1880, p. 130, pi. 13, fig. 9. 

Though Nevill has given a lengthy account of this form, he 
does not mention the striation of the last half-whorl or the 
internal folds, nor does he point out how it differs from P. 
pagodula. Its status and relation to P. s. adamii remain un- 

lb. Pagodulina pagodula sparsa (new name). PI. 20, figs. 5, 

The shell is rather short with sculpture of delicate riblets 
more widely spaced than usual in pagodula, and rcnuiinhng 
about equally wide-spaced on the last half-whorl; about 6 or 
7 riblets may be counted in 1 millimeter on the face of the 
penult whorl. The palatal fold is more oblique, its inner end 
placed lower than in pagodula. The inwardly projecting 
tooth of the outer lip is somewhat more pronounced. 

Length 3.3, diam. 1.8 mm.; 8 whorls (Rakakerwald). 

Length 3.5, diam. 1.85 mm.; 8V2 whorls (Marseilles). 

Length 3.2, diam. 1.9 mm.; 7% whorls (Marseilles). 


Carinthia: Rakakerwald (type loc, from Boettger coll.); 
Malborgeth (Westerlund, for var. obliqua). France: Mar- 
seilles (J. S. Phillips, in coll. A. N. S.). 

Pupa pagodula var. obliqua Westerlund, Fauna, iii, 1887, 
p. 91. Not Pupa obliqua Nevill, 1880. 

The degree of ascent of the last whorl varies rather widely 
among individuals of one lot. Between the spaced riblets a 
microscopic striation may be seen, as in typical pagodula. 

2. Pagodulina subdola (Gredl.). PI. 21, figs. 4 to 7. 

The shell is larger, length 1% lines, diam. scarcely 1 line, 
with nearly rounded summit ; the axis straight, not bowed ; 
the shell quite cylindric (the lowest of the 9 whorls slightly 
narrower) ; reddish brown, with a silvery sheen ; tooth of the 
outer lip weak ( Gredler) . 

The shell is cylindric, of equal diameter in the last 4 whorls. 
The riblets stand slightly closer than usual in P. pagodula, 12 
in one mm. on the face of penult whorl ; on the last whorl 
they become closer (pi. 21, fig. 6). The last whorl is flattened 
laterally, but not impressed as it often is in P. pagodula. In- 
side, the long upper-palatal fold is seen to be strongly devel- 
oped, the lower-palatal small and short. The spiral lamella 
is rather low, and the strongly developed columellar lamella 
forms a rounded lobe. 

Length 3.55, diam. 1.8 mm.; 9 whorls (Alleghe specimen). 

Southern Tyrol: Fondo (Ausserer) and S. Romedio in the 
Nonsberge (Mognani) ; Salurn in the Etschtal (Gredler, type 
loc.) ; under decaying leaves in very damp places, also under 
small bushes and stones and on limestone cliffs. Alleghe, 
western part of prov. Belluno, Italy, rather common under 
stones around the Hotel Regina d 'Italia, also at Le Grazie on 
the lake shore (Hesse). 

Pupa pagodula var. subdola Gredler, Verh. zool.-bot. Ver. 
Wien, vi, 1856, p. 108. — Pagodina pagodula var. subdola 
Gredl., Clessin, Molluskenfauna Oesterreich-Ungarns, 1887, 
p. 250, f. 151. — Hesse, Nachrbl. D. M. Ges., 1915, p. 30.— 
? Pupa pagodula var. admicta Pirona MS., de Betta, Atti del 
Regio Istituto Veneto di Sci., Lett., Arti (3), 15, 1870, p. 


P. subdola differs from. P. pagodula by the presence of a 
distinctly developed lower-palatal fold situated ventrally 
within the cavity of the last whorl. 

Gredler doubted whether the typical form of pagodula 
occurred in the region of this form in the Tyrol, and Hesse 
believes it to be lacking in the Alleghe district also. 

The form mentioned by de Betta as Pupa pagodula var. 
adaucta Pirona in litt., was defined only by the words "whorls 
9" and the locality, "Friuli: valle del Cornappo, with Pupa 
rossmaesleri Schm." It may be identical with P. subdola as 
Hesse suggested ; the number of w r horls agrees with that 
species; but without reference to types or topotypes it can 
hardly be identified. 

The following appear to be forms or local subspecies of P. 
subdola. Their exact status remains to be fixed. 

2a. Pagodulina subdola form tschapecki (Gredler). 

"This goes into the small group of Pupa pagodula, and 
more especially in that of the larger and cylindric variety 
subdola. However, whilst this variety is more finely sculp- 
tured than the typical pagodula, P. tschapecki appears to 
have somewhat more widely spaced, though not stronger, rib- 
lets than the typical form itself. Eleven examples lie before 
me, so that an individual aberration is definitely excluded 
from consideration. Notwithstanding their size, all give the 
impression that the peristome (but this alone) is not fully 
developed" (Gredler). 

Gredler further gives the following as specific characters 
separating it from pagodula: 

"1. Pupa tschapecki is larger (2 lines) than even var. sub- 
dola, and has a whorl more (10) than this; but it is not 

"2. The umbilicus is widely open (as far nearly as the 
third whorl from the last), round, and bordered by a rather 
pronounced angle of the basal whorl. In pagodula it is wholly 
closed by a sudden turning of the last whorl, even before the 
latter is fully formed. 

' ' 3. The aperture is almost pointed at the base, is not quad- 
rangular as a whole, is smaller, less oblique, the peristome 


sharp, not expanded, not continuous. In pagodula as a rule 
it runs up to the suture or beyond it, but in tschapecki it runs 
straight forward; the impression in the middle is weaker. 
Yet these last peculiarities of the peristome may be conse- 
quent upon immaturity. 

"4. Finally, our Pupa lacks a punctiform lamella (which 
authors have ignored), and which in pagodula is behind the 
columellar margin, between the lamella traversing the last 
whorl in the middle and the umbilical crevice" {Gredler). 

Obersteiermark : near the railroad station Peggau, at the 
foot of steep limestone cliffs under stones and leaves, together 
with hundreds of P. pagodula, truncatella, doliolum, etc. (H. 
Tschapeck) . 

Pupa tschapecki Gredler, Nachrbl. D. M. Ges., viii, 1876, 
p. 4. 

While seemingly immature, the characters other than aper- 
tural assigned may give this form standing when mature topo- 
types can be examined. Probably, however, it is a case of 
gigantism, a theory suggested by the length, the incomplete 
peristome, and the fact that the specimens were picked out of 
hundreds of " P. pagodula" (apparently = subdola). 

Gredler was in error in supposing that typical P. pagodula 
has a punctiform palatal fold below the long median one, 
that lower fold being characteristic of subdola and its vari- 
eties, and wanting in P. pagodula. 

2b. Pagodulina subdola sanremoensis n. subsp. PI. 21, figs. 8, 9. 
On a hill above San Remo on the Italian Riviera, Charles 
Hedley collected specimens of Pagodulina which agree with 
P. subdola by the cylindric shape, but differ by the much 
thickened peristome. They are like P. subdola and P. s. 
adamvi in the presence of a short lower-palatal fold, but differ 
from the latter in the shape of mouth and umbilicus, as well 
as of the whole shell, in having no suprapalatal fold, and in 
the peristome, which is flesh-tinted and very much thickened 
icithin. This thickening extends rather far inward on the 
columella. The riblets are a trifle closer; on the last half- 
whorl they are fine and close, as usual. Length 3.5, diam. 
above aperture 1.85 mm. ; 8V2 whorls ; about 12 riblets in one 
millimeter on the face of the penult whorl. 


2c. Pagodulina subdola adamii (West.) PI. 21, figs. 1, 2, 3. 

The last whorl is very closely, vertically and finely striate, 
the rest rather widely spaced, obliquely and strongly, fine- 
ribbed, the last whorl with a shallow impression in the middle, 
hardly as wide in front as behind. Aperture obliquely drawn 
out to the right, triangular, wide above, much narrower and 
rounded below ; outer lip strongly impressed above the middle 
(Westerlv/nd) . 

A topotype received from Boettger is figured. The striation, 
fine and close on the last half-whorl, elsewhere rather wide- 
spaced, does not differ materially from that of typical pago- 
dula. On the face of the penult whorl there are 7 or 8 riblets 
in 1 millimeter. Internally there is the usual long upper- 
palatal fold within the ventral wall of the last whorl, but 
this fold differs from that of P. pagodula by being much 
higher in the middle, tapering towards both ends. Below the 
middle there is a short lower-palatal fold, and further in, 
above the upper-palatal, there is a delicate supra-palatal 
fold. All of these are visible from outside, through the 
shell. The spiral lamella on the parietal wall is well de- 
veloped. The vertical columellar lamella forms a broad plate, 
tapering and turned inward at its upper end, but only very 
weakly notched below, where it runs out on the basal wall 
further than in other forms of P. subdola. Externally, within 
the umbilical cavity, there is a short, radial furrow marking 
the position of the base of the columellar lamella. The spiral 
lamella (on the upper or parietal wall within the ventral 
side) is long and strong, and it is accompanied by a lower, 
shorter lamella, further out, near the suture. These two 
lamella? are immersed representatives of the parietal and the 
angular lamella? of ordinary Pupillidae. Thus there are three 
lamellae and three palatal folds, or six in all, being two more 
than in P. subdola, and three more than in P. pagodula. 

Length 3.3, diam. above aperture 1.9 mm. ; 8y 2 whorls. 

Italy: Edolo, in northeastern Lombardy (Adami). 

Pupa pagodula var. adamii Westerlund, Fauna Palaaret. 
Reg. Binnenconch. iii, 1887, p. 91. 

[Pupa pagodula var.] perplicata Sterki, Nachrbl. D. Malak. 
Ges. xxvi, August, 1894, p. 134. 


This subspecies differs from P. subdola by its somewhat 
more swollen, less strictly cylindric shape, the last whorl being 
more compressed laterally over the palatal folds, and tapering 
towards the base; by the shape of the columellar lamella, 
which extends further out on the basal wall of the last whorl, 
its position being indicated externally by a radial furrow in 
the unbilical region ; also by the possession of six internal 
laminae, 'the upper two (the suprapalatal fold and the outer 
or " angular " lamella on the parietal wall) being additional 
to the four laminae possessed by P. subdola and P. s. 

Perhaps this form deserves the rank of a species, but as yet 
no long series has been examined to test the constancy of its 
special characters. It appears to be a sub-Alpine form, ex- 
tending from northeastern Lombardy to the Departement Var, 
in France, whence it has been described by Dr. Sterki as P. 
pagodula var. perplicata. It is unfortunate that this name 
is later than that of Westerlund, for Sterki was the first and 
only author hitherto who observed the peculiar internal feat- 
ures of the race. 

While I suspect that the forms described as austeniana Nev- 
ill, 1880, adamii Westerlund, 1887, and perplicata Sterki, 
1894, belong to one and the same race, the final nomenclature 
can not be settled until the interior of P. austeniana is in- 

The type lot (six specimens) of perplicata, with the original 
label, "Fayence, Var, T. Berlier, 1899" is before me through 
the courtesy of Dr. V. Sterki. The locality " Payence " 
given in his original paper, was evidently a typographic error 
or a misreading of the label. These specimens are now in 
the Sterki collection of Pupillida? in the Carnegie Museum and 
in coll. A. N. S. P. The sutural fold mentioned in the original 
description is so slight that while it is faintly discernible ex- 
ternally by transparence, in a suitable light, I could not see 
it inside, in the shells opened. 

Sterki 's description of perplicata follows, with figures from 
the type and paratypes, Plate 28, figs. 11 to 14. 






1 ■ 






$ $f i$ 


















"The shell is of the usual size, the rib-striation moderately 
close above, much closer in the last half-whorl. Correspond- 
ing to the long palatal fold there is a moderately deep im- 
pression, and again one at the outer lip. Below the inner 
end of the large palatal fold, which is very high and strong, 
that is, between this palatal and the base, and opposite the 
strong columellar lamella, there is a shorter but rather strong 
fold, and a third fold above it somewhat deeper in the shell. 
High above, near the suture, there is a very small but distinct 
sutural fold. Besides these there are two lamellae deep within 
on the parietal wall : one rather well developed in the middle, 
slowly increasing and diminishing, and another narrow and 
low, near the suture, both about y s of a whorl long, their 
inner ends over the aperture. The palatal folds are visible 
through the shell from the outside, but the shell must be 
opened to learn their form and size, as well as to see the 
parietals and the columellar fold. 

"In specimens [of Pagodnlina] from various places in the 
Austrian Alps no trace of the above-mentioned lamellse and 
folds were to be seen, either through the shell or in opened 
shells. It must be mentioned that in our species the colu- 
mellar lamella is spiral at first and then turns towards the 
base, upon which, if strongly developed, it rests broadly" 
{Sterki). [27th line, page 176, for 1899 read 1889.] 

2d. Pagodulina subdola gracilis (Boettger). PL 20, figs. 13, 
14, 15. 

The shell is deeply rimate, cylindric, with obtuse, convexly- 
conic summit, narrower than P. pagodula; wood-brown or 
very pale brownish gray, the apex pale. Sculpture of very 
close, irregular, microscopic pitting on the first V/ 2 whorls, 
then well spaced, delicate, retractive riblets, about 7 or 8 in 
one millimeter on the penult whorl, about 10 in one mm. on 
the face of the last whorl ; on the last half -whorl the riblets 
become vertical, and remain about as widely spaced as on the 
front of the whorl. The whorls are moderately convex, the 
last one ascending to about the middle of the penult, but 
much less than in P. pagodula. The aperture is vertical, 
trapezoidal with rounded base; peristome continuous, nar- 
rowly reflected, thickened within, flesh-tinted. "Within the 
first half of the last whorl there is the usual long upper-palatal 
fold, a short lower-palatal below it; spiral and columellar 




lamella? as in P. pagodula; and there is a strong callus on the 
columella in the throat. Length 3.5, diam. above aperture 
1.6 mm. ; nearly 8 whorls. 

"Slender, 3%-3% : iy 2 -l% mm. Cattaro, Messenien" 
(Westerlund) . 

Dalmatia: Pridworja (Bttg. coll., type loc.) ; oak groves at 
Spizza-Sutomore (J. Stussiner) . 

Pupa (Pagodina) pagodula Desm. var. gracilis Boettger, 
Nachrbl. D. M. Ges., xiv, 1882, p. 180 (no description). — Pupa 
pagodula forma gracilis Bttg., Westerlund, Fauna, iii, 1887, 
p. 91. 

The narrower shape, the less ascending last whorl, deviating 
much less also in the umbilical region, and the widely-spaced 
riblets of the last half-whorl, all separate P. s. gracilis from 
P. pagodula and P. siibdola. It resembles the latter in pos- 
sessing a well-developed lower-palatal fold. 

I have not found Dr. Boettger 's description of this form. 
In the place cited above he mentions that "pagodula, typical, 
transitions to var. gracilis and var. gracilis Bttg." were ob- 
tained by sieving at Spizza-Sutomore in southern Dalmatia. 
"Were it not for the transitions he alleges, I would think this 
a distinct species. These transitions should be investigated 

3. Pagodulenta lederi (Bttg.). PL 20, figs. 11, 12. 

Differs from typical pagodula by the more conic-ovate 
spire, the less convex whorls, which are densely and acutely 
rib-striate, the last one less distinctly impressed longitudinally, 
ascending more. The aperture is less oblique, obliquely trun- 
cate above ; [peristome] less impressed below the sinulus and 
scarcely tuberculate there. Alt. 3.5, diam. 2 mm {Boettger) . 

Internally there is a well-developed columellar plate, a 
moderately long palatal fold and a weak spiral lamella (on 
the upper wall), in the same positions as in P. pagodula; 
there is no lower palatal fold. Externally the last whorl is 
not impressed though slightly flattened over the palatal fold. 
On the face of the penult whorl there are about 15 strise in 1 


mm. Length 3.7, diam. above aperture 1.9 mm.; S 1 /^ whorls. 
Caucasus region: woods near Lenkoran, abundant; a few 
in the drift debris of the Lenkoranka (Leder). 

Pagodina pagodula (Desm.) var. lederi Boettger, in 
Kadde's Die Fauna und Flora des siidwestlichen Caspi- 
Gebietes, 1886, p. 305, pi. 3, f. Sa-d; also in Jahrb. D. M. Gtes., 
xiii, 1886, p. 253, pi. 8, f. 8a-d. 

In the absence of evidence of intergradation with P. pago- 
dida, this seems specifically distinct. Figured from a Len- 
koran specimen from the Boettger collection. 


Shell minute, umbilicate, globose-cylindrie, very elegantly 
obliquely lamellicostate. Spire very obtuse, the apex smooth. 
Whorls 5, strongly convex, separated by a deep suture, the 
earlier ones increasing rapidly, the last two nearly equal, but 
the last a little smaller and ascending to the aperture. Aper- 
ture subrotund, with sinuous outer margin and having folds 
as follows: a very deeply remote palatal fold, not visible; a 
strong translucent spiral-lamella, reaching nearly to the aper- 
ture. Peristome a little expanded throughout, the margins 
strongly converging. Height 1.4, diam. 0.95 mm. (Cout eigne). 

France, Dep. Bouches-du-Rhone : Le vallon de Rognac, in 
drift debris. 

Pagodina oourguignati Coutagne, Notes sur la Faune 
Malaeologique du Bassin du Rhone, in Ann. Soc. Linneenne 
de Lyon, xxviii, 1882, pp. 22, 39. 

This form appears to be distinct by its few whorls, the very 
small size and the long parietal lamella, reaching nearly to 
the aperture. It seems strange that a form found in a De- 
partement so well known has not occurred to other collectors. 
The small number of whorls as well as the minute size sug- 
gest that this may be a Vertigine snail. It cannot be a young 
P. pagodula as Westerlund thought. 


Genus SPEL^ODISCUS Brusina. 

Spelceodiscus Brusina, Mittheil. des naturwissenschaft- 
lichen Vereines fiir Steiermark, Jahrg. 1885 (1886), p. 37, 
monotypic, for 8. hauffeni. 

Aspasita Westerlund, Fauna Palaarct. Reg. Binnenconch., 
i, 1889, pp. 18, 26; monotypic, for "sp. 75" = H. triaria. 

Helix, Gonostoma and Trigonostoma of various authors. 

The shell is openly umbilicate, depressed, being helieoid, 
much wider than high, of 4^-6^ convex, closely coiled, 
ribbed whorls. The aperture is strongly oblique, triangular 
or trilobed; the peristome is narrowly reflected or expanded 
except at the sinulus, below which the outer lip is calloused, 
toothed or bent in. Teeth are sometimes present also on the 
basal and parietal margins. 

Type A. hauffeni. Distribution, Carpathian mountain sys- 
tem in Transylvania and the Banat, northward to the High 
Tatra, southwest to Albania. 

This group of little Heliciform snails has been associated 
with the Helieodontas until recently. Rossmaessler was struck 
by the resemblance of H. triaria to Pagodulina pagodula in 
texture, sculpture and shape of mouth, but P. Hesse was the 
first to show that one of them, 8. triaria, has Pupillid repro- 
ductive organs. He states that the penis has an appendix 
with long flagellum and a bifid penial retractor, one branch 
inserted on the appendix, the other on the penis (Nachrbl. D. 
M. Ges., no. 47, 1915, p. 58). 

Clessin and others have questioned the specific distinctness 
of the several Transsylvanian forms of this genus, but Kima- 
kowicz, who handled more of these shells than any other 
author, states that the species show no intergradation. They 
appear to me quite distinct with the exception of var. tatrica 
Hazay, which I have not seen, and which has not been dis- 
criminated from A. triadis Kim. All of the species vary- 
rather widely in the height of the spire. 

Kimakowicz states that though the ranges of A. trinodis 
and A. triadis partly overlap, not more than one species of 
the genus has ever been found in one place. 

Sturany and Wagner have shown that Helix hauffeni 


Schin., which had generally been referred to Patula, has the 
essential shell characters of the triaria group, and they have 
described a species of intermediate characters under the name 
albanica. H. hauffeni is a cave animal, without pigmented 
eyes, of very pale tint throughout, and with the peristome 
simplified. If these authors are right in placing hauffeni in 
the same genus as triaria, then the generic name Spelczodiscus 
Brusina, based upon it, will take precedence over Aspasita 
Westerlund, being at least three years earlier. 

Key to Species of Spelceodiscus. 

( Aperture with a stout, obliquely entering parietal lamella 
J and a heavy parietal callus; outer and basal margins 
I of lip toothed. S. trinodis, no. 1. 

^ Without a parietal lamella; parietal callus thin (2). 

f 5% to 6y 2 whorls; species of the Banat and Transsyl- 
2 •{ vania (3). 

I 4% to 5 whorls; species of Carinthia and Albania (4). 

f A conspicuous tooth within the outer lip, the peristome 
below it strongly thickened within. Banat. 

S. triarius, no. 2. 
{ Outer lip somewhat bent in but not toothed; peristome 
(^ thickened but little. Transsylvania. 8. triadis, no. 3. 

' Aperture somewhat trilobed ; ribs strong ; last whorl not 
descending in front ; 4% whorls. Albania. 

S. albanicus, no. 4. 

Aperture lunate ; ribs rather close and delicate ; last 

whorl slowly descending in front ; 5 whorls. Caverns 

L in Carinthia. S. hauffeni, no. 5. 


1. Spel^odiscus trinodis (Kim.). PI. 22, figs. 6, 7, 8. 

The shell is perspeetively umbilicate, rather depressed, 
solid, light to dark brown, lamellose-ribbed, silky. Whorls 6, 
closely coiled, the earlier increasing regularly, the last larger. 
Aperture triangular, 3-toothed, with reddish or brown lip, 
the margins drawn out, approaching. Peristome strongly 


repressed, reflected from the columellar angle to the tooth in 
the outer margin. Diam. 4.3, alt. 3.8 mm. ; alt. and width of 
aperture 1.8 mm. (Kim.). 

Differs from the typical triaria by the conspicuous thick 
parietal tooth, the far narrower umbilicus etc. (Kim.). 

Height 2.9, diam. 4.5 mm. ; 6 whorls. 

Height 2.2, diam. 3.8 mm. ; 5!/2 whorls. 

Transylvania: Piatra Alba, Cimpu-Sirului, Grosser Skok, 
southern spur of the Plesa, Cimpu-Mielului and Dilma Mare 
in the Schiel Mts. ; Skerisora at the ice cave, Unter-Girda, 
Toroczkoer Steinschlucht, Toroezko-Ujfalu and Tordaer Fels- 
spalte in the Transylvanian Erzgebirge (Kim.). 

Anchistoma (Gonostoma) trinodis Kiaiakowicz, Verb. u. 
Mittheil. siebenbiirgischen Vereins f. Naturwiss. in Hermann- 
stadt, xxxiv, 1884, p. 107. — Gonostoma (Aspasita) trinodis 
Km., Verb, etc., xl, 1890, p. 45. — [Helix triaria] var. trans- 
sylvanica Hazay, Jahrb. D. Malak. Ges., xii, 1885, p. 27 (Ge- 
birge Dilma Mare) . 

The stout parietal lamella is strongly connected with the 
columellar insertion. The tooth of the basal lip is sometimes 
low and spreading. Between the two lip teeth and connecting 
them there is a semicircular inward callus. The degree of 
depression of the spire is quite variable individually. 

2. Spel^odiscus triarius (Rossm.). PI. 22, figs. 1, 2, 3. 

The shell is perspectively umbilicate, small, depressed, with 
flatly roof-like spire of 6 closeby coiled whorls separated by a 
deep suture; horn-brown, lusterless, finely ribbed; the last 
whorl angular above, impressed below. Aperture lobed, very 
oblique; peristome reflected, with a thin dirty thickening; 
the outer margin impressed, with a pronounced tooth within ; 
columellar margin with a hardly noticeable little hump (Boss- 

Height 2.5, diam. 3.6 mm.; 5% whorls. 

Height 2.9, diam. 4.6 mm. ; 6*4 whorls. 

In the Banat (Rossm.). Mehadia in the Csernatal (with 
the mutation albina), on the Domoglet, Steierdorf in the 
Anina gorge and at the Panur cave (Jetschin in Kimakowicz). 


Helix triaria Frivaldsky, Rossmaessler, Iconographie, ii, 
1839, p. 13, pi. 47, f . 611. — Gonostoma (Aspasita) triaria 
Rossm., Kimakowicz, Verh. etc., xl, 1890, p. 46. — Helix ocs- 
kayi Stentz in sched. according to Pfeifper, Monographia Hel. 
Viv., i, 1848, p. 411 (in synonymy of H. triaria). — Aspasita 
triaria Hesse, NachrbL, 1915, p. 58 (anatomy). 

The size of the shell and degree of elevation of the spire 
vary widely in the same lot. The sculpture appears to vary 
locally; those from Mehadia, figs. 1, 2 (which may be taken as 
type locality) and from the adjacent Herkulesbad have 
widely-spaced riblets, while in another lot without definite 
locality they are more delicate and closer, fig. 3. 

The invariably strong tooth within the outer lip distin- 
guishes this from A. triadis. The callous thickening of the 
lip is usually rather heavy, in adult shells distinctly thicker 
than in triadis. 

2a. 8. triarius tatricus (Hazay). 

Differs from both of the preceding forms [triaria and tri- 
nodis] by the thin whitish peristome almost without a lip- 
callus, and by having only a denticle at the place where the 
outer lip is impressed, the second tooth being absent or ap- 
pearing hardly indicated {Hazay). 

Northern Carpathians in the High Tatra : Belaer Kalkalpen 
und zwar in der Talschlucht Aufgang zum eisernen Tor und 
unter dem Drechslerhaeuschen (Jos. Ullepitsch, J. Hazay). 

Helix triaria var. tatrica Hazay, Jahrb. D. M. Ges., xii, 
1885, pp. 26, 27. 

I have not seen this form, and it has not been figured. As 
described by Hazay, its characters are those of A. triadis; 
yet as the localities are somewhat remote, a union of the two 
without actual comparison might be premature. 

3. Speueodiscus triadis (Kim.). PL 22, figs. 4, 5. 

The shell is perspectively umbilicate, small, subglobose, 
lamellicostate, brown, silky. The 6 convex whorls increase 
regularly and are separated by a deep suture, the last one not 
wider than the penult. The aperture is inversely ovate, 


lunate, toothless, not lipped. Peristome slightly reflected and 
a little expanded from the eolumellar margin to the impres- 
sion of the outer margin. Diam. maj. 3.9, min. 3.7, alt. 2.6 
mm.; aperture alt. 2, width 1.6 mm. (Kim.). 

Height 2.1, diam. 3.4 mm. ; 5% whorls. Ponor Ohaba, fig. 4. 

Height 2.3, diam. 3.6 mm. ; 5% whorls. Petrozeny, fig. 5. 

Transylvania: Lotriora-Tal in the Cibins Mts. ; Piatra 
Zenoga and Balea-Tal in the Sehiel Mts. ; Dealu Babi, Csetate 
Jidovilor, Piatra Eosia, Csetate Boli, Piatra Sipotului, Piatra 
Barului and Ponor Ohaba (type loc. ; here with mut. albino), 
in the Strell Mts.; Zalasder-Tal and Sehlossberg Vajda- 
Hunyad in the Hatszeger Mts. ; Bergwerksort Boiza and Bad 
Gyogy in the Transylvanian Erzgebirge (Kim.). 

Anchistoma (Gonostoma) triadis Kimakowicz, Verh. etc., 
1884, p. 107. — Gonostoma (Aspasita) triadis Kim., Verh. etc., 
xl, 1890, p. 46. 

Though the outer lip is bent in, it is not toothed as in A. 
triaria, and the lip below it is thinner. 

4. Spel^odiscus albanicus (A. J. Wagner). PL 22, figs. 12, 
13, 14. 

The shell is very similar to A. hauffeni (F. Schmidt), but 
is thicker in profile, more strongly flattened laterally. The 
4% whorls increase somewhat more rapidly, and the last does 
not descend in front. The umbilicus is wider, the ribs sub- 
stantially solider. The oblique mouth is distinctly trilobed; 
the peristome has a broad callus in the basal margin, a weaker, 
tooth-like one in the outer margin. Alt. 2.2, greater diam. 
3.6, lesser 3 mm. (Sturany & Wagner) . 

Northern Albania: in drift debris of the Kiribruecke close 
to Mesi near Skutari, and bank of the Drinasa near Skutari 
(Sturany, 1905). 

Aspasita albanica A. J. Wagner, Sturany and Wagner, 
Denkschr., Bd. 91, 1914, p. 67, pi. 2, f. 10a-c. 

This species is closely related to A. hauffeni of Carinthia 
but also to A. triaria from the Banat. "From A. hauffeni 
this species is distinguished by the more solid riblets, the last 
whorl not descending in front, the shape of the aperture and 


the toothed peristome. Aspasita Maria and its local forms 
are larger throughout, have 6 more slowly increasing whorls, 
a narrower umbilicus, more widely spaced ribs, the last whorl 
descends strongly in front, the aperture is more oblique with 
more distinctly thickened and diversely toothed lip" (S. 
& W.). 

5. Spel/eodiscus haupfeni (F. Schmidt). PL 22, figs. 9, 10, 


Shell perspectively umbilicate, depressed, buff-white, ele- 
gantly costulate ; aperture a little sinuous, very oblique, peri- 
stome acutely subreflexed, lipped with white. Alt. %, diam. 
1%-1% lines; 5 whorls (Schmidt). 

The shell is thick disk-shaped, with flatly conic spire, wart- 
like projecting apex and broad, perspective umbilicus ; yel- 
lowish-white, somewhat opaque, but translucent and rather 
strong-shelled. The sculpture consists of rather close, lamelli- 
form raised regular riblets, the embryonic whorls being 
smooth. Spire consists of 4% slowly increasing, convex 
whorls, which are parted by a rather deep suture, the last 
whorl descends forward slowly but pretty deeply, and is 
somewhat flattened laterally. The oblique aperture is rather 
rounded triangular. The weakly thickened peristome expands 
narrowly, its insertions remote and connected by a thin callus. 
The insertion of the upper margin is distinctly retracted; 
the basal margin somewhat curved forward in the middle, the 
columellar margin narrowly reflected. Alt. 2.1, diam. 3.7 mm. 
(Sturany & Wagner). 

Carinthia: the caves of Duplice, Jelince near St. Katha- 
rina, Mai bukuje near Dobrova, Obergurk, Podpec and Krim- 
berg (Schmidt). 

Helix hauffeni F. Schmidt, Verhandl. zool.-bot. Vereins, 
Wien, v, 1855, p. 3.— Tryon, Man. Conch. (2), iii, p. 30, pi. 
22, f. 15, 16 (copied from Journ. de Conchyl., xi, 1863, pi. 
13, f . 4) . — Aspasita hauffeni F. Schm., Sturany & Wagner, 
Denkschr. math.-naturwiss. Klasse der Kaiserlichen Akademie 
der Wissenschaften, Wien, Bd. 91, 1914, p. 67, pi. 2, f. lla-c. 

Schmidt noted that "the animal is white, nearly trans- 


parent, and like the other land snails has 4 tentacles; but on 
the longer pair I could find no eye-spots, though I observed 
the animal with great care both in the grotto and after I had 
taken it home. ' ' 

Full-grown specimens of this species showing the weakly 
but distinctly lipped and narrowly expanded peristome are 
found in few collections; only so is it explicable that the 
species has been ranked sometimes in Punctum, sometimes in 
Pahda. With these characters of the shell in view we find a 
great agreement with the forms of the group Aspasita Wstld., 
which has been recognized to be a Pupid {Sturany and 
Wagner) . 

Subfamily Acanthinulinas. 

This group of three or four genera is now believed by some 
nialacologists to be closely related to Vallonia. 

Genus SPERMODEA West. 

Spermodea Westerlund, Methodus dispos. Conch, extra- 
mar. Reg. Palaearctica viv., in Rada Jugoslav. Akad. Znanosti 
i Umjetnosti, vol. 151, 1902, p. 90, type Hx. lamellata Jeffr. 

Helix and Acanthinula of authors. 

The shell is umbilicate, heliciform, slightly wider than high, 
with dome-shaped spire of closely coiled, narrow whorls, the 
initial iy 2 microscopically, irregularly pitted, the rest axially 
costulate. Aperture subvertical, lunate, with simple sharp lip, 
the columellar margin dilated, insertions remote. 

Type : Helix lamellata Jeffr. Distribution : Europe. 

By characters of the shell this group appears to differ suffi- 
ciently from Acanthinida for generic distinction. The single 
Tertiary species known, S. plicatella is extremely similar to 
the existing 8. lamellata, and is regarded by Wenz as prob- 
ably ancestral to that. 

Spermodea plicatella (Reuss). Helix plicatella Reuss, 
Palasontographica, ii. 1849, p. 11, 21, pi. 1, f. 10. — Acanthi- 
nida plicatella Wenz, Foss. Cat., p. 975. — Helix corcxdum A. 
Braun, Amtl. Bericht iiber d. 20. Versamml. Ges. D. Naturf. 
u. Aerzte zu Mainz, 1842, p. 148 (nude name). — Helix eorcu- 


lum R. Braun, in Walchner, Handbuch d. Geognosie, 2d ed., 
1851, p. 1139 (nude name). — Helix plicatella comiculum 
Ludwig, Geognosie u. Geogenie der Wetterau, Festschr. Wet- 
terau. Ges. f. d. ges. Naturk. zu Hanau., 50 Jahr., 1858, p. 
118. Upper Oligocene, Chattien: Hochheiin-Florsheim, to 
Lower Miocene, Burdigalien : Bohemia. 

1. Spermodea lamellata (Jeffreys). PL 32, figs. 1, 2, 3. 

The shell is narrowly umbilicate, dome-shaped, thin, 
chamois-colored, with a silky luster; compactly coiled, com- 
posed of about 5y 2 strongly convex, slowly increasing whorls, 
the penult widest, viewed from above, the last rounded peri- 
pherally and at base, impressed around the circular, deep 
umbilicus. Sculpture of narrow, subvertical, cuticular rib- 
lets, with (about 5) microscopic striee in each interval; the 
initial iy 2 whorls microscopically, densely pitted. The aper- 
ture is nearly vertical, lunate; lip thin and sharp, the eolu- 
rnellar margin dilated; lip insertions remote, a smooth area, 
spreading forward, between them. 

Height 1.9, diam. 2.2 mm. 

Great Britain and Ireland; Sweden; Denmark and the 
Baltic coast of Germany; diluvial deposit near Illertissen, 
south of Ulm a. D., southern Germany. Type loc. : Scar- 
borough, York. Usually found among dead holly or beech 

Helix lamellata Jeffreys, Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond., xvi, 
1830, p. 333; Brit. Conch., i, p. 175; iv, p. 158. — Wester- 
luxd, Fauna, i, 1889, p. 17. — Rimmer, Quart. Journ. of 
Conch., i, 1877, p. 265 (description of living animal). — Acan- 
tkinula lamellata Boycott, Journ. of Conch., xv, April, 1917, 
p. 175, figs, (genitalia). — Steenberg, Vid. Meddel. Dansk. 
naturh. Foren. Kjobenhavn, vol. 69, 1918, p. 6, f. 3 (geni- 
talia). — H. Watson, Proc. Malac. Soc. London, xiv, p. 17. — 
Geyer, Xachrbl., 1915, p. 67 (occurrence in southern Ger- 

Helix scarburgensis Turton, Manual Land and Fresh-water 
Shells Brit. Is., 1831, p. 62, fig. 48 (Scarborough). — Ross- 
maessler, Iconogr., ii, pt. 8, p. 37, no. 533. — Helix seminulum 
Rossmaessler, t. c, on pi. 39, f. 533 (Kiel). 

[Helix] holosericea Miller Ms. ace. to Jeffreys, I. c, 1S30. 


Accmtliinula lamellate/, var. albina Schlesch, The Natural- 
ist, Feb. 1921, p. 82. — Cf. Sundler, Journ. of Conch., xvii, 
p. 155! — Acanthinula lamellata var. albida Berthold Sund- 
ler, Journ. of Conch., xvi, 1922, p. 285. — R. A. Phillips, 
Journ. of Conch., xvii, 1923, p. 34 (Maryborough, Queens 
Co., Ireland). 

A very distinct species by the closely coiled whorls of its 
dome-shaped spire and the beautiful sculpture. 

Mut. albina Schlesch is a white form of A. lamellata, found 
in a range of hills west of Boras, Sweden, with the usual form. 
Also taken in Ireland. 

2. Sperm odea spermatia (Castro). 

Shell minute, globulose, perforate, very strongly convex 
above, rounded, convex beneath; rather pellucid, glossy, cor- 
neous-amber colored, under a lens very elegantly lamelli- 
costate. Spire roundly elevated, very obtuse, the apex smooth. 
"Whorls 5y 2 , slightly convex, very slowly and regularly in- 
creasing, separated by an impressed suture, the last whorl 
scarcely wider above, slightly convex, not descending in front, 
rounded below. Aperture nearly vertical, very narrow, 
strongly lunate, rounded; peristome simple, unexpanded, 
acute, the margins widely remote. Height 1^, diam. 2 mm. 

Portugal: wood of Bussaeo. 

Helix spermatia J. da Silva e Castro, Journal de Sci. Math. 
Phys. e Nat. Acad. Real Sci. Lisboa, xi, 1887, p. 249. 

This form has not been distinguished satisfactorily from S. 
lamellata. It has not been figured. 


Acanthinula Beck, Amtl. Ber. Ver. Kiel, 1S46, p. 122. — 
Pilsbry, Manual, ix, p. 280. — Wiegmann, Nachrbl. D. M. Ges., 
1896, p. 129, and in Hesse, Nachrbl., 1915, p. 56, f. 1-3 (anat- 
omy and systematic position). — Steenberg, Videnskab. Med- 
del. Dansk naturkist. Foren. Kjobenhavn, vol. 69, 1918, p. 1-9 
(anatomy). — Watson, Proc. Malac. Soc. Loud., xiv, 1920, pp. 
6-30 (anatomy, systematic position). 


Euaca nth inula Westerlund, Fauna, i, 1889, p. 16. A. acu- 
leata here designated type. 

Aulaca Westerlund, Rada Jugoslav. Akad., cli, 1902, p. 89. 
A. aculeata here designated type. 

Shell turbinate, perforate or umbilieate, of few rapidly in- 
creasing, rounded or subangular whorls. Initial iy 2 whorls 
spirally striate, the rest with oblique riblets, much narrower 
than the intervals, largely cuticular, each bearing a filament or 
spine forming a crown above the periphery (sometimes want- 
ing in the adult stage, and of course lacking in fossils) . Aper- 
ture oblique, rounded-lunate, the lip with remote insertions, 
thin, or thickened within and with a membranous expansion; 
columellar margin dilated. 

Type: A. aculeata (Miiller). Distribution: western Palse- 
arctic and eastern Ethiopian Regions. 

Palaeontology. — Acanthinula appeared near the base of the 
Palasocene in forms somewhat intermediate in shape between 
that genus and Zoogenetes. It was most abundant in species 
in the Oligocene and Miocene, several of them resembling the 
Canarian A. spinifera (Mouss.)). A. nana, with the sculp- 
ture of Acanthinula, is in shape and size more like Punctum; 
it appears to have left no descendants. A. tuchoricensis, the 
only Tertiary species I have seen, has the embryonic whorls 
spirally sculptured like the genotype, A. aculeata. Other Ter- 
tiary species do not appear to have been specially examined 
for this character. 

The following list of Tertiary species is compiled from 
Wenz, Fossilium Catalogus, 1, Animalia, Part 20, iii (1923). 

Acanthinula archiaci (Boissy). Pupa archiaci Boissy, 
Mem. Soc. Geol. France (2), iii, 1848, p. 275, pi. 5, f. 21.— 
? Acanthinula archiaci Wenz, Foss. Catal., iii, p. 969. Lower 
Paleocene, Thanetien: Rilly -la-Montague near Reims. 

Acanthinula armoricensis (Cossmann). Helix stueri 
Cossni., Bull. Soc. nat. Ouest France, v, 1895, p. 172, pi. 5, f. 
16, 17 (not of Cossmann 1892). — Helix armoricensis (Oppen- 
heim) Cossm., Bull. Soc. Sc. Nat. Ouest France (2), ii, 1902, 
p. 115, pi. 11, f. 2. — Acanthinula a., Wenz, Foss. Cat., iii, p. 


969. Lower Eocene, Lutetien; Calcaise grossier, Boisgouet 
(Loire Inf.). 

Acanthlnula cencheidium (Cossmann). Helix cenchri- 
dium Cossm., Bull. Soc. Sci. Nat. Ouest France (2), ii, 1902, 
p. 116, pi. 11, f. 3, 4. — Acanthinula c, Wenz., Foss. Cat., p. 

970. Lower Eocene, Lutetien: Bois-Gouet (Loire-Inf.). 
Acanthinula dumasi (Boissy). Helix dumasi Boissy, 

Mem. Soc. Geol. France (2), iii, 1, 1848, p. 273, pi. 5, f. 13.— 
Helix geslini Boissy, t. c, p. 273, pi. 5, f. 14. — Acanthimda 
dumasi (Boissy), "Wenz, Foss. Cat., p. 970. Lower Paleocene, 
Thanetien: Rilly-la-Montagne near Reims; Cheney (Dep. 
Marne) . 

Acanthinula hesslerana Joos. Centralbl. f . Min., Geol. u. 
Pal., 1911, p. 705; Jahrb. Nassau. Ver. Naturk., Wiesbaden, 
vol. 64, 1911, p. 66, text fig. 3. — A. hessleriana Wenz, Foss. 
Cat., p. 971. Lower Oligocene, Sannoisien : Strophostomakalk, 
Eselsberg bei Ulm, a. D. 

Acanthinula (?) imperforata (K. Miller). Hyalinia 
(Conulus) imperforata K. Miller, Jakresh. Ver. vaterl. Na- 
turk. Wiirttemb., vol. 63, 1907, p. 442, pi. 7, f. 11.— ?? Acan- 
thinula i., Wenz, Foss. Cat., p. 971. Strophostomakalk, Esels- 
berg bei Ulm, a. D. 

Acanthinula nana (A. Braun). Helix nana A. Braun, in 
Walchner, Handbuch der Geognosie, 2d edit., 1851, p. 1140. — 
Sandberger, Vorwelt, p. 324, pi. 22, f. 14. — Acanthimda nana 
Wenz, Foss. Cat., p. 972. — Helix (Hyalina) euristhmia Slavik, 
Archiv d. Naturw. Landesdurchforschung von Bohmen, 1, 
1869, p. 236, pi. 4, f. 5, 6. Upper Oligocene (Chattien) to 
Upper Miocene (Tortonien), Germany, Bohemia. 

Acanthinula paludineformis (Sandberger). Helix p., 
Sandb., Conchyl. Mainzer Tertiarbeckens, 1858, p. 17, pi. 3, 
f . 9. — Acanthimda p., Wenz, Foss. Cat., p. 973. Middle Oligo- 
cene, Repulien: Elsheim, Rheinhessen; Upper Oligo., Chat- 
tien: Hochheim-Florsheim, Hessen-Nassau. 

Acanthinula paron^e (Sacco). Helix (Acanthinula) pa- 
roncB Sacco, Bull. Soc. Malac. Ital., xii (1887), p. 185; I Moll, 
ter. Terz. Piemonte, xxii, p. 68, pi. 5, f. 29. Upper Pliocene, 
Astien : Villafrauchian of Tarsarolo, Prov. Alessandria, Italy. 


Acanthinula stampinensis (Desli.). Helix stampinensis 
Deshayes, Deser. Aiiim. s. Vert. Bassin Paris, ii, 1863, p. 825, 
pi. 52, f . 16-18. — Acanthinula s., Wenz, Foss. Cat., p. 976. 
Upper Oligocene, Chattien: Cote-St.-Martin near Etampes 

Acanthinula stueri (Cossm.). Helix stueri Cossmann, 
Cat. 111. Coq. Foss. Eoe. env. Paris, v, 1892, p. 79. — Acanthi- 
nula s., Wenz, Foss. Cat., p. 977. Helix (Acanthinula) bouryi 
Cossm., 1889, not of de Morgan, 1885. Lower Eocene, Lute- 
tien: Caleaire grossier, Neauphlette (Seine-et-Oise); Trye 
(Oise) ; Middle Eocene, Bartonien: Le Guepelle (Seine-et- 

Acanthinula trochulus (Sandberger). Pupa (Modicella) 
trochulus Sandb., Land- und Siisswasserconch. Vorwelt., 1874, 
p. 601, pi. 29, f. 25. — Acanthinula t., Wenz, Foss. Cat., p. 977. 
Upper Miocene : Wiirttemberg, Austria, Hungary. 

Acanthinula tuchoricensis (Klika). Helix (Acanthinula) 
t., Klika, Archiv naturw. Landesdurchforschung Bohmen, vii, 
1891, p. 42, f. 35. — Acanthinula t., Wenz, Foss. Cat., p. 978. — 
Lower Miocene, Burdigalien : Landscbneckenkalk, Lipen and 
Tucborsbitz, Bobemia; Upper Miocene, Tortonien: Oppeln, 

Acanthinula aculeata (Muller). PL 32, figs. 4, 5, 6. 

Tbe sbell is umbilicate, broadly conic with very obtuse apex 
and rounded periphery and base, thin, cinnamon-colored. 
Whorls convex, the first 1% with sculpture of very fine, raised 
spiral striae, the rest with narrow, oblique, retractive riblets, 
in great part cuticular, and about 30 in number on the last 
whorl ; above the periphery each is widened triangularly and 
produced in a spine, causing the last two whorls to appear 
shouldered. Surface between the riblets is finely, irregularly 
striate and with rather indistinct, impressed spiral lines. The 
aperture is oblique, circular except that about one-fourth of 
the circle is excised by the preceding whorl. Periphery hav- 
ing a cuticular expanded margin and thickened within by a 
white callous rib. Columellar margin dilated. 


Length 2, diam. 2 mm.; 4 whorls (France). 
Length 2, diam. 2.3 mm.; 4 whorls (France). 
Length 2, diam. 1.8 mm.; 4 whorls (Germany). 
Length 1.75, diam. 2 mm. (France). 

Europe; Asia Minor and Transcaucasia; Algeria and Mo- 
rocco. Pliocene, Montpellier; Pleistocene, England. 

Helix aculeata Muller, Vermium etc. Historia, ii, 1774, p. 
81. — Kossmaessler, Iconogr., II, viii, p. 38, pi. 39, f. 536. — 
Pfr., Monogr., i, p. 50. — Moquin-Tx\jstdon, Moll. France, ii, p. 
189, pi. 15, f. 5-9.— Jeffreys, Brit. Conch., i, 1862, p. 176, 
with var. albida. — "Westerlund, Nova Acta Soc. Sei. Upsal. 
(3), viii, 1873, p. 58, with var. sublcevis. 

Acanthinula aculeata Kennard & "Woodward, Essex Nat- 
uralist, x, 1897, p. 93 and table; Journ. of Conch., 1903, p. 
354; Proc. Malac. Soc. London, viii, p. 91; Q. Journ. Geol. 
Soc, vol. 75, 1919, p. 229 (Pleistocene and Holocene of Eng- 
land).— Wenz, Fossilium Catal., Pt. 20, iii, p. 968 (Middle 
Pliocene, Plaisancian: Montpellier). 

Helix spinulosa Lightfoot, Philos. Trans. Roy. Soc. Lon- 
don, vol. 76, 1786, p. 166, pi. 2, f. 1-5.— Montagu, Test. Brit., 
1803, p. 429, pi. 11, f. 10. 

Helix granatelli Bivona, Occhio, 1839, no. 9, f. 2 (teste 
Pfeiffer; not seen by H. P.). 

Helix delectatilis Solander, according to Montagu, 1803, p. 

Helix nucleata Turton, according to Montagu, 1. c. ; appar- 
ently a typographical error for aculeata. 

A widely-spread and variable species. According to Muller, 
who gave an excellent description, there should be 28 to 30 
riblets on the last whorl. The specimen drawn in fig. 5 has 
30. A German specimen, fig. 6, has 22. The filaments at the 
shoulder are extremely variable in degree of development, 
though rather constant, except as affected by wear, in single 
colonies, in the material at hand. The thickness of the lip 
also varies widely in different lots. I do not know that any 
comparative study has been made of these variations, which 
may be correlated with ecologic factors, or perhaps denote 
minor races. 

Sicilian specimens seen, fig. 4, have very delicate riblets, 
often largely deciduous, but when best preserved they bear 


long filaments. The lip-rib is of the same cinnamon color as 
the shell. Perhaps they should be segregated as a race. 
Pfeiffer has mentioned a "Helix granatelli Bivon. fil. in Oc- 
chio, 1839, N. 9, f. 2," which I have not traced. 

Jeffreys has noted a mut. albida, with the shell whitish. 

Acanthinula aculeata sublaevis "West. Shell almost without 
riblets, having no keel filaments, the aperture with a rose- 
colored lip. Sweden, Denmark, Switzerland; type loc. : Ron- 

Boettger reports (Nbl. D. M. Ges., vol. 37, 1905, p. 103) a 
specimen of form sublaevis "West, from the Sarus debris, 
Adana, Cilicia. It is smaller and lower than usual. Alt. iy 2 , 
diam. 1% mm. He regards "Westerlund 's variety as merely 
shells which have lost their cuticular ribs by wear with age. 
He records A. aculeata from Transcaucasia, Russian Armenia 
and the Talysch district. 

Acanthinula spinifera (Mouss.). 

Vol. iii, p. 54. Palma and Grand Canary, Canary Islands. 

Helix spinifera Mouss., Revision Fauna Malac. des Cana- 
ries, p. 25, pi. 2, f. 17-20. — Patula spinifera Mouss., Pfeiffer, 
Novit. Conch., iv, 1870-76, p. 63, pi. 120, f. 17-20. 

Acanthinula azorica n. sp. PI. 32, figs. 7, 8. 

The shell is narrowly umbilicate, turbinate, higher than 
wide, thin, cinnamon or a little darker colored, the apex whit- 
ish. "Whorls convex, the first iy 2 rather coarsely striate spir- 
ally, the rest with delicate, well-spaced, cuticular riblets, ob- 
lique and weakly sigmoid, their intervals having fine, weak 
strige and in places showing low spiral striation. Suture deep 
from the beginning. Aperture rounded-lunate, the outer lip 
very slightly expanded, narrowly thickened within with a cin- 
namon callus, the columellar margin dilated. 

Length 2.25, diam. 1.7 mm., 4% whorls. Type. 

Length 2.1, diam. 1.75 mm., 4*4 whorls. 

Azores: S. Miguel (Morelet). Type 1515 ANSP. 

Helix aculeaia Morelet, Hist. Nat. des Azores, 1860, p. 
175. — Patula aculeata "Wollaston, Testacea Atlantica, 1878, 
p. 23. Not H. aculeata Muller. 


According to Morelet and Drouet, the shell they called H. 
aculeata occurs at high elevations, in the laurel woods among 
fallen leaves. Morelet reported it from S. Miguel and Fayal. 
The specimens before me from the former island were re- 
ceived from Morelet as H. aculeata. 

It differs from the continental A. aculeata by the more 
lengthened shape and the very delicate riblets without trace 
of appendages, though these may be present in fresh, young 
specimens, as Mousson found them in A. spinifera. 

ACANTHINULA EXPATRIATA Preston. PI. 32, fig. 9. 

Shell globosely turbinate, with elevated spire, thin, covered 
with a shining pale bronze periostracum, which is raised on 
the later whorls into rather distant, regular, very oblique 
ridges, each ridge bearing a coarse, long, broad-based, mem- 
branaceous bristle at the periphery ; whorls 4, rapidly increas- 
ing, convex; suture deeply impressed; base of shell convex, 
showing traces of very fine, spiral sculpture between the 
ridges of the periostracum; umbilicus narrow, very deep, 
partly concealed by the expansion of the outer margin of the 
columella; columella descending in an oblique curve and dif- 
fused above into a whitish, parietal callus, both it and the 
labrum white, slightly reflexed and outwardly broadly sur- 
rounded by a reflexed extension of the membranaceous peri- 
ostracum, thus forming a double margin ; aperture subcircular. 
Alt. nearly 2.5, diam. maj. 2 mm. (Preston). 

British East Africa : Mount Kenia, at an altitude of 9,000- 
10,000 feet. 

Acanthinula expatriata Preston, Ann. Mag. N. H. (8), vii, 
May, 1911, p. 469, pi. 11, f. 17. 

This form appears to be very closely related to A. aculeata. 

Acanthinula peracanthoda (Bgt.). 

Vol. iii, p. 54. Abyssinia. 

Species of uncertain position. 

If it were not that Moellendorff was acquainted with the 
genus Pupisoma when he wrote the following descriptions, I 
would refer these species to that genus. Under the circum- 


stances, as I have riot seen the shells, they are left in Acan- 


Shell moderately, deeply umbilicate, globosely turbinate, 
thin, subpellucid, most minutely striate, nearly smooth, cor- 
neous-fulvous. Spire much elevated, the sides rather convex. 
4% moderately convex whorls, subangular at the suture, the 
last very shortly descending in front. Aperture moderately 
oblique, broadly ovate, the peristome slightly expanded, colu- 
mellar margin rather deeply sinuate, dilated. Diam. and 
height 1.5 mm. (Mlldff.). 

Java (Fruhstorfer). 

Acanthinula perpusilla Moellendorff, Nachrbl. D. M. Ges., 
vol. 29, 1897, p. 66. 

Acanthinula ttluana Mlldff. 

Shell narrowly umbilicate, elevated-turbinate, minutely stri- 
atulate, corneous-buff. Spire strongly raised with somewhat 
convex sides. Whorls 5, moderately convex, somewhat flat- 
tened in the middle, the last scarcely descending. Aperture 
rather oblique, oviform; the peristome very narrowly ex- 
panded, columellar margin slightly sinuate, somewhat thick- 
ened, a little dilated above. Diam. 1.33, alt. 1.5 mm. (Mlldff.). 

Java (Fruhstorfer). 

Acanthimda tiluana Moellendorff, Nachrbl. D. M. Ges., 
vol. 29, 1897, p. 66. 

Genus ZOOGENETES Morse. 

Zoogenetes and Zoogenites Morse, Journ. Portland Soc. N. 
H., i, 1861, p. 32, for Helix harpa Say. 
Helix and Acanthinula of many authors. 

The shell is thin and elastic, narrowly umbilicate, ovate- 
conic, higher than wide, of few rapidly increasing, convex 
whorls, the first two smoothish, the rest having delicate, 
widely-spaced, oblique riblets. Aperture ovate, oblique, the 
lip thin and simple, dilated near the columellar insertion, 
margins remote. 

The margins of the foot are crenulated; head with crenu- 


lated labial processes and very short inferior tentacles. Vivip- 

There is only one well-known recent species of Zoogenetes, 
the Japanese Z. harpula being unfigured and referred to this 
genus with considerable doubt. 

The distribution of Z. harpa is remarkably discontinuous, 
the Swiss, Scandinavian, Transcaspian and east Siberian herds 
being widely separated. In America the scattered colonies 
south of Maine appear to be very small and isolated. 

Morse spelled the name Zoogenetes on page 5 of his memoir, 
and in the first and second references on page 32, but then 
wrote the species "Zoogenites harpa." We use his first spell- 
ing, which has already been preferred by Lindholm. 

Zoogenetes harpa (Say). PI. 32, fig. 10. 

The shell is narrowly umbilicate, ovate-conic, thin, somewhat 
transparent, olive-green, rather glossy, early whorls nearly 
smooth, the last two with sculpture of delicate, well-spaced 
cuticular riblets or laminae in the direction of growth-lines, 
about 30 on the last whorl, becoming crowded toward its end. 
Summit obtuse. Whorls nearly 4, rounded. Aperture ob- 
lique, ovate, the lip thin and simple, dilated at the axial ter- 
mination. Length 3.25, diam. 2.5 mm. 

Massachusetts, Maine and Prince Edward Island west to 
Minnesota, Hudson Bay and Alaska; Kamchatka and the 
lower Amur valley; northern Scandinavia; Finland; and 
Peterhof in the Baltic Prov. of Eussia; Horei-Vor on the 
Kolva River, Archangel Government; southern Switzerland; 
Askhabad, Transcaspia. 

Helix harpa Say, App. Long's Exped., ii, 1824, p. 256, pi. 
15, f. 1. — Binney and Bland, Land and Freshwater Shells N. 
A., i, p. 156, f. 266-269 (Gaspe; New Hampshire; English 
River, Manitoba; James Bay). — Westerlund, Fauna, i, 1889, 
p. 17 ; Vega Exped. Vet. Arbeten, iv, p. 149, 152, 159, 160, 
162, 170, 171 (Chuckchi Peninsula; Konyam Bay, eastern 
Siberia; Bering Island, etc.). — Craven, Journ. de Conchyl., 
1888, p. 101 (Riffelalp near Zermatt, Switzerland, 2100 meters 
under fallen bark of Pinus pinea). — Schlesch, Hull Museum 
Publications No. 112, 1917, p. 166, text-fig. (localities in Nor- 


way, Sweden, Finland). — Acu nth Inula harpa Say, Binnet, 
Terr. Moll., v, p. 342. — Hanham, Nautilus, x, p. 99 (Quebec). 
— Henderson, Nautilus, xxvii, p. 96 (Ellsworth, Maine). — 
Nylander, Nautilus, xiii, p. 103 (Ft. Kent, Me.) ; xxvii, p. 
141 (New Brunswick). — Jackson, Nautilus, xxi, p. 144 (North 
Haven, Me.). — Berry, Nautilus, xxiv, p. 63 (Windermere, 
Waldo Co., Me.).— Walker, 111. Cat, Moll. Michigan, i, 1906, 
p. 508, f. 122-125 (Upper Peninsula and Grand Traverse re- 
gion). — Odhner, Moll. d. Lappland Hochgeb., in Hamberg, 
Naturwiss. Unters. d. Sarekgebirges in Schwed.-Lappl., Zool., 
iv, p. 140.— Pilsbry, Man. Conch., ix, p. 281, pi. 70, f. 23-25. 
— Sundler, Journ. of Conch., xvi, p. 285 (hills west of Boras, 
Sweden, the most southern loc. in Sweden). — Patula harpa 
Say, Norman, Ann, Mag. N. H. (7), x, p. 475. 

Zoogenites harpa Morse, Journ. Portland Soc. N. H., i, 
1864, p. 32, pi. 1, f. 1-14; Amer. Nat., i, 1868, p. 608, f. 50, 51. 
— Dall, Harriman Alaska Exped., xiii, Moll., pp. 12, 21 
(Avacha Bay, Kamchatka; Klehini, Chilkat Inlet and valley, 
Alaska; English River, Manitoba; Moose Factory, Hudson 
Bay). — Zoogenetes harpa Lindholm, Annual of the Zool. Mus. 
Russian Acad. Sci., xxiii, 1922, p. 309 (distribution in Europe 
and Asia) . 

Pupa costulata Mighels, Proc. Boston Soc. N. H., i, 1844, 
p. 187 (Portland, Maine). 

Helix amurensis Gerstpeldt, Land- u. Siisswasser Moll. 
Sibir. u. Amur, p. 13, in Mem. de l'Acad. Imp. des Sci. de 
St.-Petersb., Ser. 6, ix, 1859, p. 517, pi. 9, f. 26 (whole lower 
Amur valley) . 

The embryonic whorls appear smooth, but under the micro- 
scope they show an extremely minute, dense and irregular 
roughness of pits and granules. On later whorls there is 
some irregularly developed but very low striation between 
and parallel to the riblets. In some fresh specimens the rib- 
lets are unequal, inconspicuous or in part obsolete. 

Localities in the Academy collection, not mentioned above, 
follow : 

Prince Edward Island (B. Long). North shore of Lake 
Superior. Great Slave Lake (G. H. Horn). Minnesota: 
Duluth (Witmer Stone). Maine: Mt. Desert (Colton) ; Fair- 
field, Somerset Co. (B. Long) ; Buckfield, Oxford Co. (J. A. 
Allen). Massachusetts: High Pines, Duxbury (W. F. Clapp) ; 
New Bedford (Thomson). 


2. Zo6genetes( ?) HARPULA (Eeiiih.). 

Shell dextral, minute, conic, unibilicate, corneous. Four 
cylindric, regularly increasing whorls, under the lens deli- 
cately striate, silky, the last two-fifths of the length, rounded, 
not descending. Suture deep. Aperture oval, vertical ; peri- 
stome unexpandecl, acute, the columellar margin broadly re- 
flected. Length 1.5, width 1.25 mm. (Reinh.). 

Japan: Tokyo, Kanda (Dr. Gottsche). 

Helix (Acanthinula) harpula Reinhardt, SB. Ges. Naturf. 
Freunde Berlin, 1886, p. 115. 

The shell is a diminutive picture of the northern H. harpa 
Say, except that the prominent, regular epidermal ribs of the 
latter are wanting. Isolated ones among the stria? visible 
under the lens show a tendency to stand out as weak ribs, but 
without any regularity (Reinh.). 

An unfigured species, which from the description appears 
to resemble Pupisoma; with that genus the type should be 


"Shell elongate-ovate with blunt embryonic end, narrowly 
unibilicate; with the exception of the first, all whorls have 
oblique, widely-spaced, transverse ribs. Aperture with simple, 
sharp margins and reflected columellar margin." Type Aetni- 
thopupa joossi Wenz, pi. 32, figs. 19, 20. 

"This genus differs primarily from Acanthinula by the 
elongate form of the shell, which is much higher than wide." 

Acanthopupa joossi Wenz (pi. 32, figs. 19, 20), Jahrb. 
Nassau. Ver. Nat., 67th Jahrg., 1914, p. 103, pi. 7, f. 29. 
Upper Oligocene, Chattien: Landschneckenkalk, Hochheim- 

It is regarded by Wenz as probably of great significance in 
the phylogeny of Acanthinula, the shell-form uniting that 
genus to Vertigo. Unless much earlier Acanthopupa? are 
found, it appears uncertain whether the genus is ancestral to 
Acanthinula or a secondarily pupoid derivative thereof. Acan- 
thinula appeared in the Paheocene, long before the advent of 
Acanthopupa as now known. 



Subfamily Gastrocoptesle. 

Falsopupa Germain (see Vol. XXV, p. 370) is a synonym 
of the typical group of Gastrocopta. 

A new key to the North and Middle American species of 
the typical group of Gastrocopta is given below, as that in 
Vol. XXIV, pp. 54-57, is defective, at least one species (which 
was not then accessible to me) being wrongly placed; also, 
there are errors in the lettering of some of the entries. 

Key to American Subgenera of Gastrocopta. 

r One or two teeth on the parietal wall are very small 
j or minute (2). 
' i Teeth of the parietal wall are moderately to strongly 
^ developed (3). 

! Palatal folds present. Subgenus Vertigopsis, xxiv, 27. 
No palatal folds or palatal callus. 
Subgenus Privatula, xxiv, 52. 

f Palatal folds standing on a white callus ; aperture nearly 
3- -j filled by the large teeth. Subgenus Albinvla, xxiv, 13. 
^Palatal folds not connected by a callus (4). 

' Angular and parietal lamella diverging forward, the 
whole like a mirrored letter y. 

Subgenus Immersidens, xxiv, 38. 

\ Angular and parietal lamellae concrescent into a sinuous 
or bilobed lamella, or with the outer end of the pari- 
etal projecting very little or not at all from the an- 
gular. Subgenus Gastrocopta, proper, xxiv, 53. 

Key to North and Middle American species and principal 
subspecies of the subgenus Gastrocopta* proper. 

-< f Lip distinctly or heavily calloused within (2). 
1 Lip thin, not calloused within (16). 


2 J Form decidedly tapering (3). 

I Form cylindric or subcylindric (6). 

5 Lower palatal fold long, its inner end not visible in a 
direct front view ; Curaqao group. G. octonaria, p. 199. 
Lower palatal shorter, wholly visible in a front view (4) . 

4 | Corneous or whitish, the lip white. G. rupicola, xxiv, 58. 
I Cinnamon-colored, the lip tinted (5). 

5 f A subcolumellar nodule present. G. r. duplex, xxiv, 60. 
1 No subcolumellar nodule. G. r. marginalba, xxiv, 60. 

g f Angulo-parietal lamella strongly bifid in a front view (7) . 
I Angulo-parietal lamella simpler, sinuous (15). 

c Small, length about 2 to 2.5 mm., diam. above aperture 
7. -< 1 mm. or less (8). 

(.Larger, length 2.25 to 3, diam. 1 mm. or more (11). 

r Lower-palatal fold very long, its inner half curved, inner 
8.-1 end not visible in a front view. Curacao group (9). 
I Lower-palatal fold of moderate length, straight (10). 

( A strong tubercle below the columellar lamella. 

G. octonaria, p. 199. 
A tapering butress below the columellar lamella. 
^ G. curacoana, p. 197. 

rLower-palatal fold not very deeply immersed. Antilles. 

in J G. barbadensis, xxiv, 83, 85. 

i Lower-palatal fold deeply immersed. Dakota to N. M. 

^ G. r. mcclungi, xxiv, 66. 

( Anterior end of parietal lamella distinctly projecting on 
., * J the columellar side of the tooth (in an obliquely basal 
' 1 view) (12). 
^ Anterior end of parietal lamella not conspicuous (13). 

-. 2 ( Lip-callus marginal. G. p. mcclungi, xxiv, 66. 

' X Lip-callus further within. G. p. sterkiaim, xxiv, 357. 

r Lip heavily calloused (14). 
13. ■] Lip-callus thin; an infraparietal tubercle often present. 
(. G. riograndensis, xxiv, 69. 



( A callus below the eolumellar lamella. 
\± \ G. procera, xxiv, 62. 

I No callus below eolumellar lamella. 
^ G. p. riparia, xxiv, 65. 

r A strong crest behind the lip ; 2.3 to 3.2 mm. long, more 
than 1 mm. wide. Oklahoma to Arizona. 
15. \ G. cristata, xxiv, 68. 

I Length 2 to 2.2 mm., diam. 0.9 mm. Bimini Islands. 
^ G. p. biminiensis, xxiv, 78. 

' Having 5 or more well-developed teeth ; a basal fold 
present (17). 
Having 4 strong teeth, the anguloparietal almost simple ; 

16. <j no basal fold; shell whitish; New Mexico and Ari- 

zona. G. quadridens, xxiv, 57. 

Teeth small (3 to 5), a basal fold usually wanting; upper 
[ palatal fold minute when present (22). 

r Diam. above aperture usually more than 1 mm., about 

17. < 2.5 mm. long; brownish (18). 

vDiam. 1 mm. or less; length 1.5 to 2.6 mm. (19). 

' No crest behind the lip ; angulo-parietal lamella not 
strongly bifid ; no infraparietal tubercle. 

G. servilis, xxiv, 70. 
A narrow crest; angulo-parietal lamella bifid; an infra- 
parietal tubercle often present. 

G. riograndensis, xxiv, 69. 

( Angulo-parietal lamella strongly bifid ; a callus or tooth 
-iq I below the eolumellar lamella (20). 

| Angulo-parietal sinuous or emarginate but not distinctly 
^ bifid. G. pellucida and varieties, xxiv, 75. 

r Lower-palatal fold very long, its inner end not visible 
20. -j in a front view. G. curacoana, p. 197. 

v. Lower-palatal fold not very long (21). 

oi f An infraparietal tubercle present. G. polyptyx, xxiv, 89. 
I No infraparietal tooth. G. barbadensis, xxiv, 83. 




' Length 2.2 to 2.4, diam. above aperture 0.95 mm. St. 
Thomas. G. s. riisei, xxiv, 74. 

. Slightly narrower, with deeper suture ; Arizona. 

G. p. parvidens, xxiv, 80. 

Length 1.36 to 1.55 mm., 4 to 4y 2 whorls ; very thin and 

fragile ; Bimini Islands. G. p. delicata, xxiv, 78. 

Gastrocopta geminidens (Pils.). This species, described 
as a Bothriopupa, vol. xxiv, p. 228, is now transferred to 
Gastrocopta. It will probably form a new subgenus. 

Gastrocopta curacoana Pilsbry. Text-figures 1 to 4a. 

The shell is slender, subcylindrie, slowly tapering to the 
obtuse summit ; cinnamon brown, paler near the apex, weakly 
striate obliquely. The whorls are strongly convex, the last 

Figs, i, 2. — i, ib, G. curacoana, type, la, ic, profile and basal views of opened 
topotype. 2, 2a, profile and face views of a specimen from Seroe Djerimi, Curacao, 
having an infraparietal tubercle. 

half of the last one conspicuously flattened and slightly im- 
pressed laterally over the region of the palatal fold, not 
crested behind the lip. The angulo-parietal lamella is strongly 
bifid, the parietal lobe higher, and in basal view its anterior 
end merges into the angular, without forming a little projec- 
tion on the columellar side. The columellar lamella is strong 


but does 11 ot emerge far. Its inner end turns down on the 
columellar axis, the whole tooth having the shape of an in- 
verted L or the figure 7. The vertical or axial portion tapers 
downwards, and is fully seen only in an oblique view in the 
mouth, though the degree of immersion varies rather widely 
in different lots. The upper-palatal and the basal folds are 
short but well developed, usually brown-tinted. The lower- 
palatal fold is long, reaching to a subdorsal position. Its 
outer half is brownish, the inner half is higher, white and 
strongly curved. The peristome is brown, reflected, thickened 
within more or less. The parietal callus is moderately thick 
and very short. Dimensions variable ; usually between : 

Length 2 mm., diam. above aperture 0.8 mm. ; 4% whorls. 

Fig. 1. Length 2.4 mm., diam. above aperture 0.8 mm. ; 
5y 2 whorls. 

Fig. da. Length 1.85 mm., diam. above aperture 0.75 mm. ; 
4!/o whorls. 

Fig. 3. Length 2.2 mm., diam. above aperture 0.95 mm. ; 
5 whorls. 

Dutch West Indies: Aruba, Curasao, Bonaire and Klein 
Bonaire (H. Burrington Baker) ; type 133584 ANSP. from 
Fort Nassau, Willemstad, Curasao. 

Pupa longurio Crosse, Journ. de Conchyl., xx, 1872, p. 158; 
xxi, 1873, p. 42, pi. 1, fig. 2. Not Pupa longurio Moquin- 
Tandon, Hist. Nat. Moll. France, ii, 1855, p. 379 (=P. affinis 
Rossm.) . — Gastrocopta longurio (Crosse) Pilsbry, Man. Conch, 
xxiv, p. 82, translation of original desc. — Gastrocopta cura- 
coana Pilsbry, Proc. A. N. S. Phila., lxxvi, 1924, p. 62, text- 
figs. l-4a. 

This variable species is related to G. barbadensis, but it is 
certainly distinct by the decidedly longer lower-palatal fold, 
its inner half curved downward, by various small differences 
in the lamella?, and by the long, slim shape and strongly con- 
vex whorls, the last one more compressed laterally. 

The slender shape, which Crosse noted in his description 
of P. longurio, is not invariable ; and indeed, the shape some- 
times varies notably in one colony, as in the case of the shells 
from Bonaire drawn in figures 3, 3a. The details of shape 
and degree of immersion of the columellar lamella also vary. 



In some lots most of the fully adult shells have an infra- 
parietal tubercle, as in figs. 2, 2a, the other characters remain- 
ing typical. 

3 4a ^ 3a 

Figs. 3, 3#, 4, 4a — G. curacoana, Campo el Hato, Bonaire. 

It is an abundant species, found at many localities on the 
islands named. 

Gastrocopta octonaria Pilsbry. Text-figs. 5 to la. 

In shape this species is somewhat broader below and has a 
more rapidly tapering spire than typical G. curacoana; it is 
of a slightly lighter brown color, the apical whorls pale or 
whitish. The whorls are strongly convex. The angulo-parietal 
lamella is strongly bifid; in a basal view, the parietal shows 
no spur on the columellar side. A tubercular, rather deeply 
placed infraparietal lamella is present. The columellar lamella 
is strongly developed; below its inner end there is a strong 
subcolumellar tubercle, somewhat united with the columellar. 
The palatal folds are similar to those of G. curacoana in shape 
and positions, but they are generally white ; the lower-palatal 
is long, the inner half curved. The peristome is reflected, 
thickened within except at the sinulus. 

Length 2.3 mm., diam. above aperture 0.95 mm. ; 5% whorls. 



Dutch West Indies : Aruba, Curaqoa, and Bonaire. Type, 
No. 133559 ANSP. (figs. 5, 5a), from Fort Nassau, Willem- 
stad, Curasao (Horace Burrington Baker). 

Gastrocopta octonaria Pilsbry, Proc. A. N. S. Phila., lxxvi, 
1924, p. 64, text-figures 5-la. 

While many specimens are separable from G. curacoana by 
the different shape, others are indistinguishable from the 
broader examples of that species. In a great number exam- 
ined, the strong tubercular subcolumellar lamella is a constant 

Figs. S> 5a, 7, 7a. — G. octonaria, Fort Nassau, Willemstad. Fig. 6, specimen 
from Seroe Djerimi, broken to show the full length of the palatal folds. 

differential character, being replaced in curacoana by a taper- 
ing buttress. 

The whorls of G. octonaria are more convex than in G. 
pohjptyx Pils., of St. Thomas, and it differs further by the 
longer, curved lower-palatal fold, and by the larger subcolu- 
mellar lamella, which isi more united with the columellar. 

In a few lots there are beautiful albino shells. 

This species was almost always found associated with G. 
curacoana, and in a few cases with G. oarbadensis hojeda also. 

G. octonaria and G. b. hojeda require comparison with G. 
uvidifera Guppy, of Trinidad, which has not been defined ex- 
actly enough for comparison with related species. 


Gastrocopta barbadensis hojeda Pilsbry. Text-figs. 8, 8a. 

The shell is cylindroid-tapering, cinnamon brown to wood 
brown, the whorls convex, the last one less compressed later- 
ally than in G. curacoana. The angulo-parietal lamella is 
bifid, but less distinctly than in curacoana and octonaria; it 
shows no spur on the columellar side in a basal view. The 

6' \^_^X $a 

Figs. 8, 8a. — G. barbadensis hojeda, type and smaller topotype. 

strong columellar lamella has a low tapering buttress below 
the inner end, not always visible in a direct front view. 
Upper-palatal and basal folds are small but distinct. The 
lower-palatal fold is straight, and very muck shorter than in 
G. curacoana or G. octonaria. The reflected peristome is mod- 
erately thickened. 

Length 2.1 mm., diam. above aperture 0.85 mm. ; 5 whorls. 

Length 1.8 mm., diam. above aperture 0.75 mm. ; 4% whorls. 

Dutch West Indies: Aruba and Curaqao (H. Burrington 
Baker). Type, No. 133538 ANSP., from the Tafelberg of 
Sta. Barbara, Curagao. 

Gastrocopta barbadensis hojeda Pilsbry, Proc. A. N. S. 
Phila., lxxvi, 1924, p. 65, text-figs. 8, 8a. 

This form can be readily distinguished from other Gastro- 
copta of the Curasao group by the far shorter lower-palatal 
fold. It differs from typical G. barbadensis by the simpler 
armature of the columella. 



Vol. XXIV, page 65. G. procera duplicata Sterki, pre- 
occupied, has been changed to G. p. sterkiana, vol. xxiv, p. 357. 
The type locality is Glenrose, Somerwell Co., Texas, not 
" Somerville " as printed in line 14 from bottom. 

Gastrocopta pellucida parvidens (Sterki), vol. xxiv, p. 
80, was taken on Tortuga Island in the middle of the Gulf of 
California by the California Academy Expedition of 1921, 
according to G. Dallas Hanna, Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. (4), xii, 
1923, p. 515. 

Gastrocopta rixfordi Hanna. Text-fig. 9. 

"Shell minute, cylindric; whorls four, rounded; glossy- 
transparent when alive; lines of growth very fine but evenly 
spaced; last whorl with an expanded bulge just back of the 
aperture; aperture semielliptical ; peristome broadly reflected 
but not thickened with callus; ends continuous across the 
body whorl ; apertural armature consisting of five or six teeth, 
depending upon the degree of separation of the parietal (type 
specimen has five) ; upper and lower palatal very deeply 

Fig. g.—G. rixfordi (after Hanna). 

seated, flat and blade-like, the latter being larger and deeper 
placed; basal thin, quadrangular, the axis placed parallel to 
the plane of the aperture, and the apex directly beneath the 
apex of the parietal; columellar long, slender and high, the 
interior termination invisible from the aperture ; parietal the 


heaviest of all, reaching nearly to the aperture; angulo 
parietal spur united to the parietal in the type, bending out- 
wardly toward the aperture and merging into the posterior 
peristome (in the para type figured and other specimens the 
angulo-parietal is separated from the parietal by a space). 
Altitude 2.01 mm., diameter .81 mm." (Hanna). 

Montserrate Island, Gulf of California (J. C. Chamberlin). 
Type, No. 1094 Cal. Acad. Sci. 

Gastrocopta rixfordi Hanna, Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. (4), xii, 
art. 26, p. 515, pi. 10, figs. 5-8. 

"In the occasional separation of the angulo-parietal tooth 
from the parietal, this species resembles the genus Sterkia 
where it is normally separated. Part of the type lots of each 
of the West American species of the genus, calamitosa, Clemen- 
tina and hemphilli are in the collection of the California 
Academy of Sciences and the possibility of their having orig- 
inated from some such ancestral stock as G. rixfordi is sug- 
gested. On account of the color of the latter and the usual 
tooth arrangement (as in the type) the species is placed in 
the section Albinula. The shape of the whorl back of the 
aperture is strongly suggestive of the condition in G. armifera 
and G. contracta. 

"The species is named for Dr. Emmet Rixford of San 
Francisco, California" (Hanna). 

I have not seen specimens of this species; its generic posi- 
tion appears somewhat uncertain. 

Vol. XXIV, page 95. 12th line from bottom : For PL 28, 
figs. 1, 2, Ecuador, and pi. 28, fig. 3, Duran, read : PI. 28, figs. 
2, 3, Ecuador, and pi. 28, fig. 1, Duran. 

Page 124. Pupa annobonensis Girard has been figured by 
Germain, Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Giacomo Doria, Genova, 
(3), vii (xlvii), 1916, p. 236, pi. 6, f. 17, 18, but the figures 
are too indistinct to make their reproduction here worth while. 
It is said to be closely related to P. nobrei Girard, of San 

Page 128. Gastrocopta seignaciana (C. et F.). This is 
probably "Pupa leignaciana Cross., Cayenne" of Paetel's 
terrible Catalog, 1883, p. 159. 


Page 135. Gastrocopta ( ? ) barrackporensis (Gude) has 
been transferred to Nesopupa, see vol. xxv, p. 348. 

Page 138. Gastrocopta (? ) thibetica (Bens.) has been 
transferred to Vertigo. 

Gastrocopta recondita (Tapp. Can.). PI. 29, fig. 3. 

Vol. XXIV, p. 153. C. R. Boettger (Abhandl. Senckenb. 
Nat. Ges., xxxv, Heft 4, 1922, p. 393, pi. 22, f. 26) has figured 
one of the original specimens; a photographic copy is here 
given. The aperture is not sufficiently worked up to show 
the relations of the species to G. niobe, G. moellendorffiana 
and others. 

Gastrocopta microsoma (Tapp. Can.). PL 29, fig. 9. 

Vol. XXIV, page 153. A figure by C. R. Boettger (op. cit., 
p. 394, pi. 22, f. 25) is here reproduced. Adequate illustra- 
tion of the aperture is still lacking. 

Gastrocopta niobe (Fulton). Vol. xxiv, p. 153. 

As figured and described by Fulton, this species is elongate- 
oval in shape, with five teeth, thus quite unlike G. moellen- 
dorffiana (vol. xxiv, p. 145), which has a distinctly tapering 
spire and seven or eight teeth (the suprapalatal fold being 
either present or obsolescent). However, specimens in the 
Bryant Walker collection, from Tenimber Is., sent by Fulton 
as P. niobe, prove to be identical with G. moellendorffiana. 
The type of P. niobe should be examined ; possibly it was in- 
correctly described and badly figured. 

In one of the Tenimber Island specimens the basal fold is 
shorter than in my figures 12, 13 of G. moellendorffiana. The 
suprapalatal fold is well developed in one specimen, absent in 

Gastrocorta insulsa Preston (vol. xxvi, p. 229). This 
form, which I consider a synonym of G. klunzingeri, has been 
reported from Dar-es-Salaam, Tanganyika Territory, by Con- 
nolly, Ami. Mag. N. H. (9), xv, 1925, p. 479. 

Gastrocopta microbus 'Morelet' Dautzenberg (vol. xxiv, 
p. 123), is considered by Connolly to be equivalent to G. dama- 



Fig. 12. 

rica (Anc), an opinion in which M. Dautzenberg concurs. 
Ann. Mag. N. H. (9), xv, p. 479. 

Gastrocopta madagascariensis Bavay & Germain. Text-fig. 
Shell small, subcylindric, narrowly umbilicate, thin, smooth, 
pale brown, silky. 5^ convex whorls, the first three more con- 
vex, the last wider, forming nearly 
half the shell. Aperture is oval, little 
lengthened, bitten out by the penult 
whorl; peristome a little reflected 
outwardly, the outer, basal and colu- 
mellar borders continuous, inter- 
rupted at the penult whorl; lower 
margin rounded, columella straight, 
outer margin rather straightened, 
then inflexed. Aperture a little fun- 
nel-shaped, 5-toothed: upper palatal 
[angulo-parietal] tooth large, squarish, somewhat forked, en- 
tering ; columellar tooth conic ; lip teeth immersed, the median 
quite strong, the upper and lower smaller. 
Alt. 2, diam. 1 mm. (Bavay & Germain). 
Madagascar: neighborhood of Cape Diego (Decary). 
Gastrocopta (Falsopupa) madagascariensis Bavay et Ger- 
main, Bull. Mus. Nat. d'Hist. Nat., Paris, 1920, p. 156, figs. 

"This species recalls, by the general form and the char- 
acters of the aperture, the Gastrocoptas of the Mascarenes, 
notably G. microscopica Nevill of the Seychelles and Masca- 
renes. It differs mainly by the less ovate shape, the whorls 
less joined, the aperture less subquadrangular, and the dif- 
ferent position of its denticulations " (B. & G.). 

This is another member of the little group described in 
vol. xxiv, pp. 127-133. The characters assigned and the crude 
figures given scarcely serve to separate it from forms already 
named. The figures are here copied photographically. 

Page 165, 12th line : for fig. 9, substitute fig. 7. 


The following are to be added to the list of Tertiary 
species : 

Gastrocopta nouletiana (Dupuy), vol. xxiv, p. 116. 
Wenz places the following in the synonymy : Vertigo ludovici r 
oarreri, chydcea, eucrina, tapeina, necra, cyclophora of Bour- 
guignat, 1881. — Pupa buchwalderi Heer, Die Urwelt d.. 
Schweiz, (2), 1879, pp. 374-5, fig. 235.— Pupa callosa Hala- 
vats, Fauna d. Pontischen Schichten Umg. Balatonsees, in 
Res. wiss. Erforsch. Balatonsees, i, 1, p. 60, pi. 3, f. 9 (not of 
Reuss). — Pupa longidens and P. miliolum Clessin, 1912 ( ?). 

Gastrocopta (Albinula) kennardi L. R. Cox. Proc. Malac. 
Soc. London, xvi, 1925, p. 221, figs. a-e. Lower Oligocene, 
Tongrian: Bembridge Limestone, Whitecliff Bay, Isle of 

Gastrocopta (Sinalbinula) matura L. R. Cox. Same vol., 
p. 224, figs. f-h. Same horizon and locality. 

HYPSELOSTOMA (Vol. XXIV, p. 175). 

Add to synonymy: Eyperostoma Simroth, in Bronn's Klas- 
sen u. Ordnungen des Tier-Reichs, iii, 1909, p. 103. Remove 
Tonkinia Mabille, known to belong to the Strep taxidse. 

Vol. XXIV, page 182. Hypselostoma insularum. Refer- 
ence to figures should stand : 1 to 5. 

Page 183, 4th line : for 1808 read 1908. 

Page 184, 7th line: for fig. 10, read fig. 9. And in 15th 
line, for figs. 11, 13, read 10, 11, 13. 

Page 183. Hypselostoma crossei; for PI. 32, fig. 5, read 
PL 32, fig. 6. 

FAUXULUS (XXIV, p. 234). 

Page 246. F. fryanus. The name appeared as Pupa fryali 
in Zoological Record for 1864, i, p. 234, 1865. 

Page 252. F. g. tomllni. Add the reference : [Pupa glan- 
villiana Anc] var. tomlini Burnup, Ann. Mag. N. H. (8), vii ?> 
1911, p. 413, pi. 10, f. 7. 


ABIDA Leach (Vol. XXIV, p. 262). 

Additions to, and corrections of, the list of Tertiary species 
follow : 

Page 269. The date of Abida oryza Edw. is 1852. 

Page 270. Abida antiqua (Zieten). Wenz gives Zieten as 
authority for this species in place of Schabler. He places 
Pupa pachygastra 0. Fraas, 1882, in the synonymy, and adds 
the subspecies Abida antiqua grossecostata (Gottschick et 
Wenz), Nachrbl. d. Mai. Ges., li, 1919, p. 4, pi. 1, f. 3, from 
the Sarmatien, Steinheim am Albuch, Wurttemberg. 

Abida antiqua noerdlingensis (Klein). Wenz adds the 
synonym: Pupa laichingensis Quenstedt, Petrefaktenkunde 
Deutschlands, Abt. 1, vol. 8, 1884, p. 85, pi. 187, f. 101. 

? Abida bythineformis (Miller). Pupa bythiniformis Mil- 
ler, Jahresh. Ver. vaterl. Naturk. Wurttemberg, lxiii, 1907, p. 
455, pi. 9, f. 17. Lower Eocene, Lutetien, Bachhagel, Bavaria. 

Abida multicostulata (Gutzw.) (Vol. xxv, p. 4), is placed 
here by Wenz, who gives the horizon as Lutetien. 

Abida schlosseri (Cossmann). Pupa schlosseri Cossm., 
Revue Crit. Pal., 1908, p. 257, n. n. for Pupa (Vertigo) ovi- 
formis Schlosser. See vol. xxv, p. 220, and xxvi, p. 232. 

Abida servasensis (Fontannes). Pupa servasensis Fon- 
tannes, Descr. som. fauna malac. du groupe d'Aix, etc., 1884, 
p. 39, pi. 5, f. 33. Lower Oligocene, Tongrien: Servas, Dep. 
Gard. Wenz, Foss. Catal., iii, 1923, p. 946. 

Abida subfusiformis (Sandberger). Pupa (Torquilla) sub- 
fusiformis Sandberger, Land- und Susswasser-Conchyl. Vor- 
welt, 1874, p. 598. — Pupa loxostoma Quenstedt, Petrefakten- 
kunde Deutschlands, Abt. I, vol. vii, p. 85, pi. 187, f. 98.— 
Pupa subantiqua Lomnicki, Verh. k. k. geol. Reichsanst., Wien, 
1886, p. 423. Upper Miocene, Tortonien : Germany, Galicia. 

CHONDRINA Reichenbach. 

Vol. XXV, p. 1. Add the following synonyms: 
Cercon Megerle, Scudder, Nomenclator Zoologicus, 1882, p. 
65 ("= Pupa"). — Pyrene Mergele, Scudder, t. c, p. 288 
("= Pupa"). — Valgum Megerle, Scudder, t. c, p. 349 ("= 


Pupa"). Scudder elsewhere cites "Pupa Draparnaud" [Tab- 
leau Moll. ten*, fluv. France, 1801, pp. 32, 56 ; Hist. Nat. Moll, 
terr. fluv. France, 1805, pp. 24, 59; Westerlund, Methodus 
disposit. Conchyl. Reg. Pal. etc., 1902, p. 105, type P. fru- 
mentum Drp.]. The names stated to be equivalent to Pupa 
will thus become synonyms of Chondrma. 

Chondrina hegacheilos (C. & J.). Vol. XXV, p. 7. 

Add to synonymy : Torquilla avena Drap. var. a, parva, 6 x 
2.5 mm. Var. b, media, 9x3 mm. Stabile, Fauna Elvetica : 
Conch, terr. e fluv. Luganese, 1845, p. 41. In a MS. note in 
our copy of this paper Stabile wrote that in 1845 he was a 
novice in science, and that the science itself had made prog- 
ress since, so that numerous corrections of his early work are 
required ; among them he lists his T. avena of 1845 as equiva- 
lent to Pupa (Torquilla) mcgacheilos Jan, var. minor. In his 
later work on the same fauna (Prospetto sist-statist. Moll, 
terr. e fluv. Lugano, 1859, pp. 52, 57) he has the following 
entry: Pupa megacheilos mut. minor: smaller, very close to 
P. av&nacea (and on pp. 52, 58) mut. media: double the size, 
brownish corneous or blackish-brown. 

Chondrina avenacea (Brug.). (Vol. XXV, p. 10.) 

N. Pini (BuU. Soc. Malac. Ital., ii, 1876, p. 162) gives the 
following mutations of Pupa avenacea from the Esino region : 
Maxima: Torquilla tricolor Villa, Dispositio 1841, p. 57; 
Rossm. Icon., fig. 318. Major: n. n. for typical megachilos 
Jan. Media, TorqwiUa avena Auct. Lang (albilabris Ziegler). 
Minor: P. megachilos var. b, Porro, P. hordeum Stud, (non 
Charp.), T. hordeum Drap. in Villa, Cat. Sin., 1871. Var. 
multidentata Strobel {circumplicata Mouss.). 

Chondrina simhjs Juliana, vol. xxv, p. 61. Add to syn- 
onymy: Pupa quinquedentata var. iuliana de Stefani, Bull. 
Soc. Mai. Ital., ix, 1883, p. 126. 


GRANOPUPA Bttg. Vol. XXIV, p. 332. 
Granopupa granum (Drap.). Vol. XXIV, p. 335. 

Pupa boettgeriana Clessin (see vol. xxv, p. 49) has been 
examined by Dr. Haas, whose report follows : 

' ' The Clessin collection is contained in the Staatliche Natur- 
liensammlung in Stuttgart, whence I received the type of 
Pupa boettgeriana Clessin as a loan. In the tube marked with 
this name there were 3 identical examples. In his original 
diagnosis (Mai. BL, n. F., v. p. 188, pi. 4, fig. 4; copied in 
Manual, xxv, p. 49, pi. 5, fig. 3) Clessin mentioned that he 
possessed only one specimen. The exact locality is the Cerro 
de Albancha near Jaen, Prov. Jaen, Spain. The original label 
gives the name as "Pupa Bottgeriana n. sp.," but Bottgeriana 
is crossed out, and after n. sp., granum is written in Clessin 's 
own hand. Then granum had been crossed out and Bott- 
geriana adopted again by underlining with dots. 

' ' Clessin thus at some time had doubts as to the validity of 
his new species, which really is not separable from typical 
Granopupa granum. 

"The three specimens all measure 5x1.75 mm. and have 
typical granum teeth, 1-2-4, although Bottgeriana was said by 
Clessin to be toothless. However, as the apertures of all the 
specimens were very dirty, Clessin perhaps overlooked the 
teeth. That the original description does not agree with the 
original figure was recognized, and in the case of Clessin 
occasions no surprise. That the original specimens are now 
found to agree with neither is almost a logical corollary. A 
re-examination of Clessin 's types of Corbicula by Dr. Prashad 
of Calcutta, who worked with me for a time, demonstrated 
conspicuous disagreements, which almost justify the general- 
ization that one has nothing to depend upon in dealing with 
Clessin 's descriptions and figures." 

Granopupa (?) moraguesi (Moragues). 

Shell perforate, conic-elongate, the spire tapering, apex 
acute ; corneous ; under a lens obliquely and closely rib-striate. 
The 5 whorls are somewhat convex, separated by a deep 
suture, regularly increasing, the last slightly wider than the 
penult, slightly ascending to the aperture and very lightly 
flattened behind the margin. Aperture oblique, obliquely 
ovate, nearly cordate, with 6 folds : two [parietal] folds, the 
upper short, lower long, entering ; two columellars, the upper 


at the insertion of the columella, the lower smaller; two sub- 
equal palatals. Peristome slightly thickened, the margins 
joined by a thin callus, columellar margin somewhat dilated, 
spreading. Alt. 4 mm. (Moragues) . 

Pupa moraguesi Kobelt, Mor agues, Anales de la Soc. Es- 
panola de Hist. Nat., Madrid, xv, 1886, p. 235. 

Nothing further is known of this form. 

Granopupa rhodia taurica (Kessler). PI. 31, fig. 16. 

Vol. XXIV, p. 345. Retowski (Malak. Blatter n. F., vi, 25) 
has discussed the Pupa taurica Kessler (Reise nach der Krim, 
1860, p. 226) originally described from the rocks at Jolta. 
The size was given as 5.8 x 2.1 mm., and as a further differ- 
ence, the two palatal folds are of equal length in taurica, 
while in rhodia the lower is always shorter. Near Sudak, 
Retowski collected specimens of intermediate size, 5.2 x 1.7 
mm., with the lower palatal fold sometimes almost equal to 
the upper, although it always remains a little shorter. He 
considers taurica to be specifically identical with rhodia. 

Dr. Boettger stated that this variety is distinguished by its 
greater size, more convex whorls and deeper suture. He gives 
the localities : Sarus River drift, Adana, Cilicia ; Guelek, near 
Adana; Kovelutza near Smyrna; Beirut and Damascus in 
Syria (Modicella rhodia Roth, var. taurica Kessl., Boettger, 
Nachrbl. D. M. Ges., 1905, p. 108). 

Beirut specimens from Boettger are not larger than rhodia, 
but the whorls are distinctly more convex. 

A specimen from Neshori, Macedonia (pi. 31, fig. 16), re- 
ceived from the Boettger collection, measures, length 5.8, 
diam. 2.2 mm. 

Granopupa brondeli (Bourguignat). PI. 31, fig. 14. 

Vol. XXIV, p. 346. A topotype from Pescade Point is here 
figured. There are small angular and parietal lamellae and a 
strong columellar lamella, situated high. No palatal folds. 

Length 5.3, diam. to lip edge 2.2 mm. ; 6 whorls. 

Some examples in the same lot are decidedly more slender. 



Subfamily Vertiginous. 
VERTIGO Muller. (Vol. XXV, p. 69.) 
Vertigo hoppii (Moller). Vol. XXV, p. 135. 

L. Soos and H. Schlesch record this form from five places 
in Greenland: Kangerdluarsuk (61° 53') ; Nisik, Kavssinguak 
and Ameralik near Godtkaab; and Mudderbugton on Disko 
Island (69° 45'). They quote Moller 's description, and con- 
tinue : ' ' Our single specimen 
(from Kavssinguak, fig. 13a) 
agrees with, this description 
except that it has no palatal 
fold; its columellar lamella 
is represented by a very low 
nodule ; its length 2.48, diam. 
1.47 mm. Already Morch had 
noted that it looks most allied 
to Pupa arctica "Wallenb., and 
a careful comparison with 
specimens of this latter has 
shown the accuracy of Morch 's remark, as is shown by fig. 
13b, the latter differing only by its having a palatal fold (which 
may be, however, absent), and stronger developed parietal 
and columellar lamellae. According to Pilsbry, both of them 
may prove to be merely local races of V. moclesta" (Ann. Mus. 
Nationalis Hungarici, xxi, 1924, p. 98, fig. 2). 

Vertigo genesii (Gredler). Vol. XXV, p. 204. 

This species and V. parcedentata have been discussed by 
D. Geyer in Jahres-Berichte und Mittheilungen des Ober- 
rheinischen Geologischen Vereines, n. F., ii, 1912, p. 106, pi. 7, 
f . 32-40. V. genesii is a species of wet places, associated only 
with other hygrophilous snails. V. parcedentata is held to be 
distinct, and a snail of dry situations. Both vary in teeth, 
sometimes having as many as four. 

Vertigo parcedentata (Al. Br.). Vol. XXV, p. 207. Mr. 
B. B. Woodward has called my attention to the fact that 

Fig. 13a. 
V. hoppii. 

Fig. 13b. 
V. arctica. 


Pupa par cedent at a Al. Braun was first defined in Braun 's 
letter to Prof. Bronn in Neues Jahrbuch fur Min., Geogn., 
Geol. u. Petref., 1847, p. 51, thus: "Pupa parcedentata Mini 
(nachstverwandt mit P. pygmcca, aber grosser und dimn- 
schaaliger, die Zahne bloss angedeutet ; bisher bloss bei Wies- 
baden gefunden)." 

If this definition is considered sufficient, this Pleistocene 
form will stand as Vertigo parcedentata (A. Braun), and 
the Recent form, genesii Gredler, will take the trinomial, if 
not considered specifically distinct. 

The following corrections should be made in Vol. XXV : 

Page 82. 11th line : for parietals read palatals. 

Page 109. 18th line : for PI. 12, fig. 12 read fig. 13. 

Page 121. After Fig. 1, V. concinnula Ckll., add : Willow 
Creek, Mogollon Mts., N. M. 

Page 142. 8th line: for elongata (Sterki) substitute longa 
Pils. (See also vol. xxv, p. 377.) 

Vertigo anttvertigo (Drap.). Vol. XXV, p. 163. 

Page 165. 3d line: for septemdenta read septemdentata 

Vertigo reneana Servain (vol. xxv, p. 167) I thought might 
be merely V. antivertigo. Dr. F. A_zpeitia Moros (Bol. Soc. 
Iberica Cienc. Nat., xxi, 106) is inclined to view it as iden- 
tical with V. ovata, suggesting that this American species has 
been accidentally colonized in the neighborhood of Zaragoza. 
Haas (1924) believes it to be certainly only an abnormally 
toothed V. antivertigo. 

Mr. Woodward has suggested to me that Vertigo anglica 
Fer. is identical with V. antivertigo, since Ferussac referred 
to Turbo sexdentatus (Montagu) Maton & Rackett. However, 
as he added a 1 to the reference, it cannot serve to define 
his species, to which, moreover, he attributes a size greater 
than that Vertigo. 

Vertigo substriata. Vol. XXV, p. 172. 

Add on p. 174: Vertigo substriata forma viridina Borcher- 
ding. "This hitherto unobserved form is distinguished from 


the forma typica by its almost albino coloring and the stronger 
striation. It lives together with the typical form in the Blu- 
menthal Wood near Vegesack" (Borcherding, Abhandl. natur- 
wiss. Ver. Bremen, viii, 1884, p. 554). This is an earlier 
name for the albino V. substriata than viridana Lindholm, 
given on p. 174. 

Page 173, 21st line, should read : Vertigo 4-5 dentata Stu- 
der etc., the words "and V. 6-dentata" to be deleted. 

Vertigo pygm^a (Drap.). Vol. XXV, p. 175. 

Add the synonym: Alcea vulgaris Leach MS. Jeffreys, 
Trans. Linn. Soc. London, xvi, 1830, p. 359. 

Vertigo pygmcea graellsiana Serv. PL 29, fig. 5. Vol. xxv, 
p. 183. V. graellsiana was considered to be a form of V. mou- 
Unsiana by Dr. Florentino Azpeitia Moros, in Boletin Soc. 
Iberica Ciencias Naturales, xxi, 1922, pp. 101-103. Dr. Haas 
(Butllet Inst. Catalana Hist. Nat. (2), iv, 1924, p. 13, pi. 2, 
f. 7), however, calls it V. pygmcea graellsiana, giving a figure 
(which is here reproduced) of a specimen from Flix agreeing 
in all respects with Servain's description. 

Page 167. Vertigo lilljeborgi "Westerlund. PI. 29, fig. 7. 

This northern species has been found at Tegel, near Berlin, 
where it is extremely rare. It is one of the hygrophilous 
vertigines, according to Th. Schmierer (Archiv fur Mollusken- 
kunde, liii, 1921, p. 271). Schmierer's figure is reproduced 
on plate 29. The specimen measures : length 1.5, diam. 1 mm. 

Mr. B. Sundler (Journ. of Conch., xvii, March, 1924, pp. 
105, 106) records this species from moist meadows around the 
Varrunn lakes, near Boras, Sweden. Two forms occur, a 
four- and a five-toothed. He proposes (p. 106) the following 
varietal names : 

Form quadridens, tooth formula 1-1-2. 

Form quinquedentata, tooth formula 1-2-2. 

Page 198. 15th line from bottom : after Pupa pygmcea var. 
alpestris insert Middendorff in place of Maack. 


Vertigo westerlundi n. n. 

Vertigo inermis (Westerlund), Vol. XXV, p. 187, originally 
described as Pupa inermis, is preoccupied by Pupa inermis 
Deshayes, 1863, and may be renamed Vertigo westerlundi. 

Vertigo alpestris acheila Serv. PI. 29, fig. 6. 

Vol. XXV, p. 202. Haas (Butllet Inst. Catalana Hist. Nat. 
(2), iv, 1924, p. 13, pi. 2, f. 8) ranks this as a subspecies of 
V. alpestris. While some specimens are without a cervical 
callus (crest), others have the typical development of alpes- 
tris, together with all transitions. The example figured has 
the callosity very weakly indicated. At Flix in the Ebre 
river drift. 

Page 212. 8th line : for V. angustula read V. angustior. 

Vertigo pup^eformis Poll. Vol. XXV, p. 379. First line : 
in place of "PI. 5, fig. 10" substitute PI. 11, fig. 13. 

Vertigo zschokkei Biitikofer. PL 29, fig. 4. 

Shell very small, ovate, ventricose, distinctly but very finely 
striate, glossy purplish-brown. Whorls 4 1 / 4-5, strongly con- 
vex, rapidly and evenly increasing, parted by a deep suture ; 
the last whorl rounded, occupying fully two-fifths the total 
length. Aperture depressed, semicircular, little excised by 
the penult whorl. Outer margin is quite straight, inserting 
in an obtuse arc. Margins approaching, joined by a weakly 
developed whitish callus. Deep within the parietal wall is a 
tooth, wanting in the younger examples. Peristome sharp, 
not thickened, not expanded, only on the columellar margin 
slightly reflected. Umbilical crevice rather large. Length 2.5, 
diam. 1.4 mm. Variation in size rather considerable (Biiti- 
kofer) . 

Switzerland: a high mountain form of the Engadin. On 
Giufplan, 2100 meters; spring near Punt Perif ; Champ, long, 
1950 meters; Lii. On the under side of pieces of rotten wood 
sunk deep in the moss, half in the water. 

Vertigo zschokkei Buetikofer, Denkschr. Schweizerischen 
Naturforsch. Ges., Iv, 1920, p. 82, pi. 2. 


Vertigo zschokkei comes nearest to V. genesii Gredler and 
V. eumicra Bourguignat. It differs from both by the denti- 
tion, and from the last especially by the smaller size and 
darker color, as well as by the characters of the mouth. In 
habits it agrees with Vertigo genesii (Biitikofer). 

The following Tertiary species, taken from Wenz, Fossilium 
Catalogus, are to be added to the list in Vol. XXV : 

Vertigo bifida (Deshayes). Erroneously included in Gas- 
trocopta, vol. xxiv, p. 117. 

Vertigo brusentai Stefani. Atti Soc. Toscana Sci. Nat,, 
Pisa, v, 1880, p. 30, pi. 2, f. 17 (p. 118, pi. 3, f. 17). "Wenz, 
Foss. Cat., iii, 1923, p. 983. ? Middle Pliocene: Marciano, 
Prov. Perugia. 

Vertigo callosa bosniacku (Stefani). Vertigo diver sidens 
var. bosniackii Stefani, Atti Soc. Toscana Sci. Nat., Pisa, v, 
1880, p. 30, pi. 2, f . 16. ? Middle Pliocene : Marciano, Prov. 

Vertigo callosa diversldens (Sandberger). Under this 
subspecies Wenz (Foss. Catal., iii, 1923, pp. 988-991) includes 
V. pygmcua fossilis and V. mitivertigo Noulet, 1854, V. cyclo- 
phora, campanea, sansanica, loemodonta, callostoma, codio- 
lena, milne-edwardsi, oothriocheila, ragia, triodonta, rhynchos- 
toma, onixiodon and micronixia, all of Bourguignat (see vol. 
xxv, p. 219). 

Vertigo callosa globulus (Deshayes). Vol. XXV, p. 218. 
This includes Pupa m/imieri Desh. and P. fischeri Desh. (for- 
merly placed by me in Qastrocopta, vol. xxiv, p. 117), accord- 
ing to Wenz, Foss. Catal., iii, p. 991. 

Vertigo callosa perarmata Gottschick et Wenz. Nachrbl. 
D. Mai. Ges., li, 1919, p. 15, pi. 1, f. 34, 35. Upper Miocene, 
Sannatian : Steinheim am Albuch. 

Vertigo callosa steinheimensis Gottschick et Wenz. Loc. 
cit., p. 15, pi. 1, f. 32, 33. Same locality. 

Vertigo nouleti Michaud, Journ. de Conchyl., x, 1862, p. 
77, pi. 4, f. 1.— Wenz, Foss. Catal., iii, 1923, p. 998. Middle 
Pliocene, Plaisaucian : Montpellier etc. 


Vertigo protracta suevica Gottschick et Wenz, Nachrbl. 
D. M. Ges., li, 1919, p. 21, pi. 1, f. 40, 41. Upper Miocene, 
Sarmatiau : Steinheiin am Albuch. 

Vertigo (Vertilla) angulifera milleri Gottschick et 
Wenz, Nachrbl. D. M. Ges., li, Jan. 1919, p. 21, pi. 1, f. 38, 39. 
— Vertigo peraperta Pils., Manual, vol. xxv, p. 219, June 1919. 

Vertigo miliolum (Sandberger). P.[upa] miliolum Sandb., 
Land- und Siisswasser-Conchyl. Vorwelt, 1874, p. 550. — Ver- 
tigo (Vertigo) sandbergeri Wenz, Fossilium Catalogus, iii, 
1923, p. 1002. Upper Miocene, Tortonien: Sansan; various 
places in Galicia. 

Wenz has renamed this species, supposing the original name 
to be preoccupied by A. d'Orbigny; but miliola Orb. was de- 
scribed originally as a Helix and now belongs to Gastrocopta, 
so there was no real preoccupation, and Sandberger's miliolum 
will stand. 

Vertigo vectensis L. R. Cox. Proc. Malac. Soc. London, 
xvi, 1894, p. 123, figs, a, b, c ; same vol., 1925, p. 225, figs. i-l. 
Lower Oligocene, Tongrian: Bembridge Limestone, Whitecliff 
Bay, Isle of Wight. 

Vol. XXV, p. 216, line 3: for "et" read de. 


Paracraticula Oppenh., Denkschr. K. Akad. Wissensch., 
vol. 57, 1890, p. 126, for Pupa (Paracraticula) umbra Oppenh., 
1. c, pi. 3, f. 10-10&; Zeitschr. Deutsch. geol. Ges., vol. 47, 
1895, p. 104. See also the synonym Pupa turcica var. singu- 
laris De Gregorio, Ann. de Geol. et de Pal., x livr., pp. 19, 25, 
pi. 2, f. 17. — Paracraticula umbra Wenz, Foss. Cat., ii, p. 733. 
Middle Eocene of Pugniello, prov. Vicenza, Italy. 

The type and only species of this group is a minute form, 
about 1 mm. long, having a strongly defined sinulus and nu- 
merous lamellae, as shown in pi. 29, figs. 1, 2, reproduced from 
Oppenheim. It has been considered a Streptaxid snail near 
Ennea by some authors, but appears far more likely to be a 
specialized form related to Ptychalcea, Glandicula etc. and 
thus belonging to the Vertigininse. 


GLANDICULA (Vol. XXV, p. 221). 

Glandicula tiarula (Sandberger). Vol. XXV, p. 221. 
Pupa turcica Deshayes is considered a synonym by Wenz, 
Foss. Catal., iii, 1923, p. 1011. The form described as Pupa 
turcica var. singularis de Gregorio, Ann. de Geol. et Pal., 10 
Livr. 1892, p. 19, pi. 2, f. 17, is a synonym of Paracraticula 
umbra (Oppenh.). 

ENNEOPUPA (Vol. XXV, p. 222). 

Sandberger 's figures, copied in Vol. XXI, pi. 5, f. 12, do 
not give an adequate idea of E. cylvndrella, the type of this 
Upper Oligocene genus. New figures are given, pi. 29, figs. 
13, 14, from a Hochheim-Floersheim specimen. 

The cylindric shell is ribbed excepting iy 2 smooth initial 
whorls. The angular lamella is represented by a nodule in 
the usual place on the raised parietal margin of the peristome, 
and a short, very deeply immersed lamella widely separated 
therefrom. Parietal lamella is also placed deeply. The strong 
columellar lamella runs upward within the dorsal side, and 
there is a well-developed subcolumellar lamella. The posterior 
margin of the peristome is completely developed. The speci- 
men figured is 3 mm. long. 

The structure of the angular lamella and of the peristome 
show this to be a rather highly evolved snail, of which the 
affinities are not clear. While it may possibly belong in the 
Vertigininae, I am more disposed to view it as a lateral branch 
of the ancestral stock of Agardhia. 

Enneopupa cyljndrella (Sandberger). PI. 29, figs. 13, 14. 

Wenz (Foss. Catal., iii, p. 1012) places Pupa coarctata 
Deshayes, Descr. An. s. Vert. Bassin Paris, ii, 1863, p. 856, 
pi. 56, f. 13-15, in the synonymy. Upper Oligocene, Chattien, 
Calcaire d'Etampes; Landsclineckenkalk of Hochheim-F16- 
sheim, Hessen-Nassau. 

An allied form, not named, has been reported from the 
Upper Miocene of Oppeln, Silesia. 


LYROPUPA (Vol. XXV, p. 226). 

(By H. A. Pilsbryj and C. Montague Cooke.) 

Renewed search iu the Museum of Comparative Zoology by- 
one of us (C. M. C.) brought to light Pease's type lots of 
Vertigo striatula and T r . costata, which at the time we dis- 
cussed Lyropupa had been reported as lost. 

Lyropupa striatula (Pease). PL 28, figs. 1, 2. 

See Manual, xxv, p. 246, for original description. A co- 
type from 45234 M.C.Z. here figured is cylindroid-tapering, 
widest at the last whorl, dull chestnut-brown with a pale 
peripheral band, strongly ribbed, about 5 ribs in 1 mm. on 
face of the last whorl. Surface but slightly shining, showing 
weak, fine raised spiral strise between the ribs; on the last 
whorl above the sulcus about 14 of these striae may be counted. 
The whorls are very strongly convex, the last half-whorl 
tapering downward, having a spiral median impression run- 
ning to the lip, and on the back a deeper short impression 
running obliquely downward and forward from it. Angular 
lamella thin and high. Parietal well developed. Columellar 
deeply immersed. Upper-palatal fold emerging, entering 
deeply. A low, wider, lower-palatal somewhat diverging for- 
ward from the upper, is visible in the throat. Length 2.45, 
diam. 1.4 mm. ; 5y 2 whorls. 

Hawaii: Kalapana, Puna (Pease). 

This species stands very close to L. clathratula (Anc), dif- 
fering by the deeper furrows on the back of the last whorl 
and the more numerous spiral threads. These are also weaker, 
but since they are largely cuticular in L. clathratula, their 
weakness in this cotype of L. striatula may be due to wear. 
For the present we allow both to stand as species. 

Lyropupa costata (Pease). PL 28, figs. 6, 7, 8. 

The original description has been reproduced in Vol. XXV, 
p. 272. 

The cylindric shell is strongly ribbed after the smooth 1% 
earliest whorls, the ribs narrow, somewhat flexuous, in the 


last two whorls often weak or sometimes interrupted in the 
middle. The last half- whorl has one long and two short spiral 
furrows. The ribs extend over the base. The aperture has 
the usual angular and parietal lamella?. The columellar 
lamella is readily visible in a front view. The upper-palatal 
is conspicuous, as usual. Below it, and somewhat immersed, 
the lower-palatal is seen. The basal fold is represented by a 
low tubercle below the inner end of the lower-palatal fold. 

Length 2.3, diam. above aperture 1.1 mm. ; 5 whorls. 

Hawaii (Pease, No. 45327 M.C.Z.) ; Kona crater (Thwing). 
Waiaha (A. Gouveia). Also Kahoolawe, Lanai and Molokai. 

Vertigo costata Pease, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1871, p. 
461; reproduced in this work, vol. xxv, p. 272. — Lyropupa 
kahoolavensis Pilsbry and Cooke, Man. Conch., xxv, p. 256. 

By external characters this species is likely to be mistaken 
for L. ovatula kona, but the palatal structure is quite distinct. 

Pease's description was altogether insufficient for the recog- 
nition of the species, and in fact is inaccurate ; but as his 
types have been found it seems best to recognize this widely- 
spread snail under his name. 

Lyropupa ovatula kona Pils. and Cooke. PL 28, figs. 9, 10, 
15, 16, 17. 

Vol. XXV, p. 266, exclusive of pi. 26, fig. 5, and the locality 
Moomomi, Molokai. 

New figures are given of the type from Huehue (figs. 9, 10, 
15) and specimens from Kapulehu (figs. 16, 17). While this 
form is closely related to L. ovatula of Oahu, it differs by 
having a distinctly ribbed base, three distinct impressions 
over the palatal folds, and the basal fold is well developed. 
In some cases the lower-palatal and basal folds are more or 
less contiguous and united, as in fig. 15, a Huehue specimen, 
but usually they are quite separate, as in figs. 16, 17, Kapu- 
lehu. The diagrams of palatal structure, figs. 15, 16, 17, were 
inadvertently reversed by the artist. 

The Kapulehu form has a deeper constriction of the last 
whorl than the type form from Huehue, and the ribs are 
strongly developed and even. 


Lyropupa ovatlua moomomiensis Pils. & Cooke, n. subsp. 
PL 28, figs. 3, 4, 5. 

The last two whorls of the oblong shell are about equal in 
diameter. The last whorl tapers downwards and in its last 
half has a deep spiral furrow in the position of the upper- 
palatal fold ; below it a much shorter furrow at the basal fold. 
The base is narrowly rounded, costate. The angular lamella 
and upper-palatal fold emerge to the peristome; parietal 
lamella is low. Columellar deeply immersed but visible as a 
broad vertical plate in an oblique view in the mouth. The 
strong lower-palatal fold and a lower basal fold are visible 
deep within in a somewhat oblique view, fig. 5. Length 2.2, 
diam. above aperture 1.2 mm.; 5y 2 whorls. 

Molokai: Pleistocene or later, Moomomi. Type 44762 

Lyropupa ovatula kona, Moomomi specimen, P. & C, Man. 
Conch., XXV, p. 267, pi. 26, f. 5. 

The type of this species, formerly referred by us to the 
Hawaiian subspecies L. ovatula kona, was somewhat obscured 
by hard material. On removal of this it became evident 
that our decision was erroneous. The form is most nearly 
related to L. ovatula of Oahu, differing by the smaller pari- 
etal lamella and details of the last whorl and base, as shown 
in the figures now given. 

Genus PTYCHAL^A Boettger. 

Vol. XXV, pp. 157, 220, 273. The type species, P. flexidcns 
(Reuss), of the Lower Miocene (Burdigalian) of Tuchorschitz 
is figured (pi. 29, fig. 8) from a specimen supplied by W. 
Wenz. The species flexidens and capellinii, with their sub- 
species, from the Lower Miocene to the Upper Pliocene, be- 
long here. In the recent fauna, the Bonin Island P. dedecora 
(Vol. XXV, p. 158) is the only known species of exactly this 
type. It appears to me that though the shell is otherwise 
wholly Vertigo-like, the strong angular lamella well connected 
with the peristome differentiates the group sufficiently from 
Vertigo. It stands between Vertigo and Nesopupa, having the 


teeth of Nesopupa proper, while the rest of the shell, the shape 
and smooth surface, is that of Vertigo. To unite the three 
groups into one genus would obscure what vision we have of 
their evolution, so that for the present I incline towards 
recognizing both Ptychalcea and Nesopupa as genera. 

NESOPUPA (Vol. XXV, p. 274). 

Nesopupa (cfr. micro), Tera van Benthem Jutting, Treu- 
bia VI, livr. 2, Feb. 1925, pp. 140, 143, fig. 1, is a species 
found on the eastern part of Krakatau Island by Dammerman 
in 1920. It is said to resemble N. micra of Mauritius, a form 
of somewhat uncertain generic position, and which has not 
been exactly described or figured (see Manual, XXV, p. 351). 
The figures of the Krakatau form look like Gastrocopta; cf. 
Manual, XXIV, pi. 23, 24. 

Nesopupa bandulana Connolly. PI. 29, fig. 15. 

Shell minute, ovate, thin, smooth, glossy, semi-transparent, 
dark corneous-brown. Spire moderately produced, sides con- 
vex, apex rounded. Whorls 4%, moderately convex. Apex 
faintly microscopically punctate, later whorls sculptured with 
the same faint punctation and very faint, comparatively dis- 
tant, slightly oblique, transverse striae, hardly apparent under 
50-fold magnification. Suture simple, shallow. Aperture 
quadrate, narrowing and rounded at the base, with a pro- 
nounced sinus at the top of the outer lip ; peristome white, 
very slightly thickened; columellar margin a little reflexed; 
dental processes six : a deep-set, in-running, mid-parietal 
plait ; a smaller one, a little nearer the surface, half way be- 
tween the last mentioned and the outer lip ; three rather deep- 
set, equidistant, basal denticles, and an equally deep-set hori- 
zontal lamella on the columella. Kima of moderate size. 
Long. 1.5, diam. maj. 1.0 mm. (Connolly). 

Length 1.75, diam. 1.2 mm. ; paratype. 

Portuguese Southeast Africa: near Bandula Siding, B. & 
M. Eailway (B. F. McDowell). 

Nesopupa oandtdana Connolly, Ann. Mag. N. H. (9), ix, 
July 1922, p. 119. 

Here figured from a paratype supplied by Connolly. It is 
remarkably like a Vertigo, but the strength of the angular 



lamella and its connection with the peristome by a callus 
(though very slight), are characters of the Ptychakea-Neso- 
pupa series. It is not an Afripupa. I have suspected that it 
might be referable to PtychaUra; the shape and gloss of the 
smooth shell, the biarcuate outer lip and the arrangement of 
teeth all favor this view. But if it belongs to Ptychalcra, it 
has lost the special character of that group — the very strong 
connection of angular lamella with peristome. For the pres- 
ent, therefore, it is left in Nesopupa. 

Section Nesopuparia n. sect. 

Large Nesopupas of conic shape with a long umbilical 
suture ; aperture about as in Nesopupa proper. Type N. nor- 

folkensis (Sykes). 

Nesopupa norfolkensis (Sykes). PI. 29, fig. 16. 
Vol. XXV, p. 333. 

The conic-ovate, sinistral shell has a minute perforation 
and long umbilical rimation. Sculpture of delicate, very ob- 
lique, partly epidermal riblets, worn off in front of the aper- 
ture. Under the microscope the intercostal spaces are seen 
to be minutely roughened as by shallow, irregularly anasto- 
mosing pits. Isabella-colored, somewhat gleaming. The whorls 
are moderately convex, the last without impressions back of 
the lip, rounded basally. The aperture has 8 teeth. Angular 
lamella strong, curved, joining the outer lip. Parietal lamella 
is more immersed, straight. There is a minute tubercular or 
oblong infraparietal lamella. The columellar lamella is nearly 
horizontal, but ascends slightly as it enters. The basal fold 
is small and short, subcolumellar in position. Lower-palatal 
fold decidedly larger than the upper; above the latter is a 
small, tubercular suprapalatal fold. The lips are well ex- 
panded, thin, colored like the shell, their insertions remote. 

Length 3.85, diameter above aperture 2.1 mm. ; 5% whorls. 

Norfolk Island, on bark of Dracena. 

228 pupisoma. 

Vol. XXV, page 344. 9th line from bottom : for Jaminea 
read Jaminia. 

Page 352. Nesopupa minutalis (Morel.). Mayotte speci- 
mens in the Bryant Walker collection are distinctly and 
densely pitted, as in N. malayana, from which this species 
appears doubtfully distinct. 

Page 362. 5th line from bottom: In place of "fig. 14" 
read fig. 12. 


Page 24. Pupisoma lignicola mut. unidentata was described 
as var. unidentata in Land and Fresh Water Moll. India, II, 
1910, p. 300. 

Helix caratalensis Tate, Venezuela, Guyana (Ann. Mag. N. 
H., (4), iv, Nov. 1869, p. 356), was mentioned as belonging 
to the group including E. c<uca Guppy, ierensis Guppy and 
others, but it has not been otherwise defined. 

Certain species from Java and Japan described as Acanth- 
inula require comparison with Pupisoma. I do not have access 
to specimens, and they have not been figured. See pages 194, 

Pupisoma orcula (Bs.). 

Vol. XXVI, p. 31. Specimens which appear referable to 
this species were found in shell debris dug by Spalding and 
Pilsbry from the well-known boulder ledge at Rocky Hill, 
Manoa Valley, Honolulu. The spire is unusually low. Stria- 
tion distinct. Faint spiral lines are discernible on the base. 
The most perfect one measures: alt. 1.7, diam. 1.9 mm.; 3^2 

BOTHRIOPUPA Pilsbry. Vol. XXIV, p. 226. 

Further consideration of the characters of this group 
causes me to transfer it to the VertigininaB, where it is thought 
to be related to Nesopupa and Pupisoma. The species B. 
geminidens, which formerly influenced me to place the genus 
in the Gastrocoptinge, is now to be transferred to Gastrocopta. 



Vol. XXVI, page 45. 12th line from bottom: for Pupa 
king si read Pupa kingi. 

TRUNCATELLINA Lowe. Vol. XXVI, p. 58. 

Truncatellina cylindrica (Fer.), Vol. XXVI, p. 65, 7th 
line from bottom: for PL 8, figs. 1-4, 8, substitute PL 8, figs. 
3, 4, 8. 

Truncatellina rivierana (Bs.). Vol. XXVI, p. 71. 

Gredler, in Verh. Zool.-Bot. Ver. Wien, VI, 1856, p. 114, 
refers to an earlier publication of Pupa sir obeli in his Bemer- 
kungen ueber einige Conchylien der Gattungen Pupa und 
Pomatias, in the Program Obergymnas. Botzen, III, 1853, 
page not given. I have not seen the work, and do not know 
whether a diagnosis was given, but the name is anterior to 
P. rivierwna Bens. 

Mme. Paulucci (Bull. Soc. Malac. ItaL, XII, p. 40) pre- 
ferred the name P. callicratis Scacchi, 1833. Benoit (Nuovo 
Catal. Coneh. terr. e fluv. Sicilia, 1881, p. 100) recognized 
Scacchi 's species; and Westerlund considered it practically 
equivalent to P. strobeli. See Vol. XXVI, p. 75. On the 
whole, it will probably be best to call the species Truncatel- 
lina callicratis (Scacchi). 

The account of De Stefani's varieties quoted from Wester- 
lund in Vol. XXVI, p. 75, contains several errors. The fol- 
lowing is from De Stefani's publication, which we now possess. 

Vertigo callicratis forma nodosaria De Stefani (Bull. Soc. 
Malac. ItaL, IX, 1883, p. 141, not 182, as in Vol. XXVI, p. 
75) is thus defined: 

Differs by the more convex whorls separated by a deep 
suture; peristome whitish, more solid, more expanded and 
like a little ear; columellar lip less depressed in the middle, 
more straightened. 3 solid teeth deep in the throat, in the 
palate, the columellar lip and in the outer lip. Length 2, 
width 0.9 mm. Sassorosso, Appenines, and Mura di Castel- 
nuovo, Alps. 

Subvar. marcuccii (page 142) : Shell more lengthened, the 


whorls less convex. Length 2.03, width 0.9 mm. Mura di 
Castiglione ; Sassorosso. ( This name was given by "Wester- 
lund as maruccii) . 

Subvar. simii: Differs by the smaller shell, more obese and 
convex ; aperture toothless. Length 1.5, width 0.8 mm. Boz- 

Benoit's account of "Helix zanelliana Testa" (Helix zanel- 
lia Testa, Due nuov. Conch, in Oreteo, 1842, No. 6, f. 2) ap- 
pears to apply to the young of a Truncatellina. See Illustr. 
sist., crit., icon. Test, estramar. Sicilia ult., p. 195, pi. 5, f . 10. 
Benoit has also a var. minutissima, p. 196, with the synonym 
Helix deshayesii Calcara, 1841. "When a Sicilian conchologist 
gets a small shell, look for trouble. The combination is in- 

Pupa minuta Studer, Vol. XXVI, p. 73, was probably stro- 
beli, as it was placed in the division with toothed apertures; 
but the definition by a reference to Draparnaud makes it in- 
clude cylindrica also. Westerlund included it as a synonym 
of "minutissima/' that is, cylindrica. The propriety of using 
minuta Stud, for the present species is further questionable 
for the reason that Helix minuta Miiller (Hist. Vermium, II, 
1774, p. 101) was possibly a Truncatellina, though the descrip- 
tion is insufficient for identification. 

Truncatellina rivlerana laevestriata (Ret.). Differs 
from the type by having the shell not ribbed. 

The single example found differs so much by the almost 
smooth shell from the ribbed parent form that it deserves to 
be a special variety. All three teeth are more weakly devel- 
oped than in the typical form, but this may be merely indi- 
vidual. From the immediate vicinity of Novorossiisk, Cau- 

Pupa (Isthmia) strobeli v. laevestriata Retowski, Bull. Soc. 
Imp. Nat. Moscou, Aimee 1888 (1889), p. 284. 

Truncatellina britannica Pils. 

Vol. XXVI, p. 77. This species has been discussed by 
Kennard & Woodward, Proc. Malac. Soc. London, XV, Oct. 
1923, pp. 294-298, who conclude that it is quite distinct from 
T. cylindrica. They record it from the counties Devon, Dor- 


set, Hants (Isle of Wight), Yorks. ; Holocene of Kent and 
Norfolk; Pleistocene of Cambridge and Kent. 

The original spelling "brittanica" was a pen or typo- 
graphical error. 

Page 79. 8th line : The date should be 1823 ; Nilsson's work 
was predated. See Proc. Malac. Soc. Lond., XVI, p. 23. 


In a specimen from Albastuman no teeth are visible in a direct 
face view, but three appear in an oblique view (pi. 29, fig. 12). 

Page 81. Truncatellina c. salurnensis. The reference to 
the synonym Pupa gredleri Bernhardt is Jahrb. D. M. Ges., 
IV, 1877, p. 87. It is mentioned as a label name which had 
been used for T. c. salurnensis. Not Pupa gredleri Clessin. 

Page 82. 3d line from bottom: for "Vert." read Verh. 

Page 86. Truncatelllna lardea (Jickeli). PI. 29, fig. 11. 
A specimen collected by Jickeli is figured. It measures, length 
1.4, diam. 0.8 mm. ; 5 whorls. There are about 20 riblets in 
one mm. on the face of the last whorl. 

NEGULUS (Vol. XXVI, p. 101). 

Add the following to the list of Tertiary species, p. 104 : 

Negulus suturalis (Sandberger). Wenz (Poss. Catal., iii, 
p. 1025) gives as synonyms: Pupa edentata Deshayes, Descr. 
An. s. Vert. Bassin Paris, ii, 1863, p. 850, pi. 56, f. 28-30.— 
Pupa anoplostoma Bayan, Etudes faites dans la coll. de l'ecole 
des Mines sur foss. nouv. ou mal con., 2 fasc. 1873, p. 93. 

Negulus buxovellanus (Andrese). Pupa buxovillana An- 
drew, Abh. Geol. Spezialk von Elsass-Lothr., II, 3, 1884, pp. 
47, 62, pi. 2, f. la-c— Negulus b., Wenz, Foss. Cat., 1923, p. 
1023. Lower Eocene, Lutetien : Siisswasserkalk, Buchsweiler, 
Alsace. "Possibly identical with N. novigentiensis" (Wenz). 

Negulus (?) novigentiensis (Sandberger). Pupa (Ver- 
tigo) novigentiensis Sdbg., Land u. Susswasserconchyl. Vor- 
welt, 1872, p. 231, pi. 13, f. 22. Lower Eocene, Lutetien: 
Dep. Aube, Seine-et-Marne and Aisne. Wenz (Foss. Cat., p. 
1023) considered the systematic position uncertain. 


Page 105. Negulus raricosta (Slavik). The spelling 
"raricostatus," of Wenz, Foss. Catal., iii, 1923, p. 1024, is an 
error or emendation. Slavik 's name was Pupa (Pupilla) rari- 
costa on pp. 266, 272, and on the plate of his work. 

Genus COLUMELLA Westerlund. 

Sphyradmm (Agass.) Charpentier, Westerlund, Fauna 
Palaarctischien Region Binnenconchylien, III, 1887, p. 125. — 
Sterki, Nautilus, X, 1896, p. 75. — Hanna, Proc. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., vol. 41, p. 371 (monograph, anatomy) ; and of most re- 
cent American and European authors. Not Sphyradium as 
limited by von Martens, 1860. 

Paludimlla Lowe, P. Z. S. 1854, p. 206, type P. edentula 
Drap. Not Paludmella Pf eiffer, 1851. — PaludelUna Tryon, 
Struct, and Syst. Conch., Ill, 1884, p. 72, error for Paludi- 

Edentulina Clessin, Deutsche Excursions-Mollusken-Fauna, 
1876, p. 208, for Pupa inornata =a P. edentula Drap. Not 
'Edentulina Pf eiffer, 1855 (Streptaxidte) . 

Columella "Westerlund, Fauna Europsea Moll. Extramar. 
Prodromus, fasc. II, p. 193, 1878, type Pupa "inornata Mich." 
= edentula Drap. — Pilsbry, Nautilus, XXVI, 1912, p. 60. 
— H. Watson, Proc. Malac. Soc. Lond., XV, 1923, p. 275 

The shell is cylindric or cylindric-tapering with obtusely 
conic summit and distinctly perforate axis, brown and nearly 
smooth, composed of 5 to 9 convex whorls. Aperture sub- 
basal, semicircular, oblique; peristome thin and sharp, the 
outer lip not expanded, regularly arcuate ; columellar margin 

The foot is short, oval, without pedal grooves, above with a 
coarse-meshed network of impressed lines. There are no lower 

Kidney in form of a long slender pouch, the glandular 
matter evenly distributed over the inner surface, not arranged 
in longitudinal ridges as in Pupillidas. Ureter direct, opening 
into the anterior end of the pallial cavity. 

Genitalia about as in Vertigo, but the penis is smaller and 
without glandular tissue. Atrium very short. The penis is 
small, slender anteriorly, bearing the vas deferens and re- 


tractor muscle at the apex. There is no appendix. The ovo- 
testis is composed of a single mass of grape-like follicles, as in 
Vertigo. The spermatheca has a rather long, slender duct. 

The jaw is wide, arcuate, composed of about 16 rhomboidal, 
overlapping plates, not closely united, but not wholly uncon- 
nected as in Punctum. 

The radula of C. edentula has about 42 teeth in a trans- 
verse row. Centrals are tricuspid, side teeth bicuspid, the 
cusps subequal, short; basal plates of all but the outermost 
teeth are long, as in Punctum. There is no distinct differ- 
entiation into lateral and marginal teeth. 

Type: C. edentula (Drap.). 

Columella is widely spread in the Palamrctic Region of 
Europe and Asia, eastward to Japan, with four species in 
North America, one as far south as Nicaragua. Two Hawaiian 
species seem by conchological criteria to belong to the genus, 
but until confirmed by anatomic examination their position 
appears uncertain. The anatomy is known only in C. eden- 

C. edentula was formerly considered a Pupa or Vertigo. 
Sterki (1896, 76) described the jaw and teeth, pointing out 
similarity to Punctum. His description has been corroborated 
by Professor Gwatkin (1897, 227, fig. 1) and by Miss Breen 
(Hanna, 1911, 372), and the subject has been ably considered 
by Hugh Watson (1923, 275, 279), who concludes that the 
jaw of Columella "seems to differ from that of Vertigo in 
that the oblong plates of which it is composed are less closely 
united with one another." The genitalia were found by 
Hanna and Watson to be much as in Vertigo and Truncatel- 
lina. It differs from Vertigo, as Hanna writes, "in having 
no teeth in the aperture of the shell, and the peristome thin 
and without a callus deposit. Also the surface of the foot is 
covered with a network of incised lines, which are not found 
in any of the species of Vertigo examined by the writer. It 
is allied to this genus by the animal lacking a lower pair of 
tentacles and by the vas deferens being attached to the apex 
of the penis, not down on its side as in Bifidaria [Gastrocopta] 
or Pupoides. ' ' 


C. edentula has been reported from the English Upper Plio- 
cene, and Pleistocene of Europe and the United States, but 
the genus has not been positively identified from earlier for- 
mations. Isthmia dubia Newton and Harris, Proc. Malac. 
Soc. London, I, 1894, p. 72, pi. 6, f. 5, from the Oligocene of 
Headon Hill, was considered congeneric with C. edentula by 
its authors, perhaps correctly, but the figure of the shell is 
more that of Vertigo. 

The species are grouped geographically, thus : 

1. Species of the Atlantic Islands, Nos. 1, 2. 

2. European and Asiatic species, Nos. 3-6. 

3. American species, Nos. 7-11. 

4. Hawaiian species, Nos. 12-14. 

1. Species of the Atlantic Islands. 
1. Columella microspoba (Lowe). PI. 30, figs. 2, 3, 4. 

Shell minute, distinctly perforate, ovate-conic, somewhat 
trochiform or turbinate, short, very obtusely obsoletely sub- 
striate, brownish-corneous. Whorls 5, convexly swollen, the 
last obtusely angular with abruptly truncate or somewhat 
flattened base; suture impressed. Aperture depressed, trans- 
versely semioval, wider than long, occupying one-third of the 
total length, wholly toothless; columella with a reflected 
lamina ; peristome equally arcuate-rounded throughout, simple, 
acute. Length I14 to iy 2 , diam. 1 to I14 mm.; apert. % to 
y 2 mm. long; 5 whorls (Lowe). 

Length 1.9, diam. 1.35 to 1.45 mm.; 5y 2 whorls (Madeira). 

Madeira: at high elevations on ferns and grass stems in 
moist, cloudy spots in wooded regions ; Lombarda das Vacas, 
at the Fanal, the Montado dos Peceguiros, S. Antonio da 
Serra and many other places (Wollaston). 

Azores: S. Miguel, Fayal and Pico, in the Caldeiras and 
among fallen leaves of Persea azoriea (Morelet and Drouet). 

Canaries: Teneriffe at Las Mercedes, Ycod el Alto etc. 
Palma, on the ascent to the Cumbre above Buenavista; ob- 
tained from the fronds of ferns by sweeping (Wollaston). 

Pupa microspora Lowe, Ann. Mag. N. H., IX, 1852, p. 275 ; 


Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1854, p. 207. — Ppeiffer, Mouogr. Hel. 
Viv., Ill, 1853, p. 532. — Morelet, Hist. Nat. Azores, 1860, p. 
197, pi. 5, f. 1. — Mousson, Faun. Malae. Canaries, 1872, p. 
124.— Wollaston, Testacea Atlantica, 1878, pp. 43, 207, 449. 
— Pupa edentula var., Paiva, Mon. Moll. Mader., 1867, p. 119. 
—Watson, Journ. de Conchyl., 1876, p. 223. 

This species is readily distinguished from the continental 
C. edentula by the striate surface as well as by the somewhat 
different shape, which Lowe, with some exaggeration, termed 
trochiform. This term is applicable to the young stages, 
which have a somewhat flattened base and subangular last 
whorl, but fully mature shells become more rounded. The 
typical form from Madeira is smaller than edentula. 

Specimens seen from the Canaries (pi. 30, fig. 4, Tenerife) 
are larger than any of the numerous series from Madeira (figs. 
2, 3). One from Las Mercedes, Tenerife, measures: length 
2.25, diam. 1.6 mm., 5% whorls (fig. 4). Those from the 
Azores (Morelet) do not appear to differ from the Madeirans. 

2. Columella limn^eana (Lowe). PL 30, fig. 1. 

Shell distinctly umbilicate, bulimiform, subpyramidal-ovate 
or ovate-turrite, rather ventricose, obtusely, closely substriate, 
thin, fragile, pellucid, pale corneous-yellowish. Five convexly 
swollen whorls, the last ventricose, produced downward; 
suture impressed. Aperture oblique, oval, longer than wide, 
two-fifths to a half of the total length, wholly toothless ; colu- 
mellar plate expanded and reflected over the umbilicus, sin- 
uate, a little convex in the middle ; peristome very narrowly 
expanded, nearly simple, acute, somewhat sinuate above. 
Length 2.5 to 2.75, diam. 1.5 to 1.75 mm. ; aperture 1 to 1.25 
mm. long (Lowe). 

Length 2.8, diam. 1.9, aperture 1.2 mm; 5 whorls. 

Madeira : in moss on the trunks of laurels (Lowe) ; S. An- 
tonio da Serra, Lombarda das Vacas, Ribeiro Frio and Boa 
Ventura, on trunks of laurels and among fronds of moist 
ferns, in damp, sylvan districts of an intermediate and lofty 
elevation (Wollaston). 

Pupa Xvmnceana Lowe, Ann. Mag. N. H., ix, 1852, p. 275; 


Proe. Zool. Soc. LoncL, 1854, p. 206. — Paiva, Mon. Moll. 
Mader., 1867, p. 117. — Pfr., Monogr., iii, p. 531 ; iv, 663.— 
Wollaston, Testae. Atlantica, p. 208. 

The rather broad, inflated, rounded-ovate, or somewhat glo- 
bose, LimnaBus- (or, rather, Paludina-) like form of this re- 
markable Pupa, in conjunction with its few and ventricose 
volutions (which are densely but very finely striated), its 
pale, yellowish-cinereous hue (often becoming whiter towards 
the more or less decorticated apex), its comparatively thin, 
fragile substance, and its perfectly edentate aperture and un- 
thickened lip, will at once separate it from its allies (Wol- 
laston) . 

The first iy 2 whorls are smooth, the rest very finely, closely 
striate, the stria? rather sharp or in places partly effaced. 
This species differs so much from the other Columellas that it 
is rather doubtful whether it belongs to that genus. Figured 
from a specimen collected by Wollaston. 

2. European and Asiatic species. 
3. Columella edentula (Drap.). PI. 30, figs. 9, 10, 11. 

The shell is perforate, oblong-ovate, tapering above, cylin- 
dric in the lower two whorls, or tapering slightly from the 
last whorl, the summit rounded ; thin ; cinnamon or a little 
darker colored, sometimes having some whitish streaks ; glossy, 
nearly smooth, but under the microscope showing some irreg- 
ular wrinkles of growth. The whorls are convex, the last two 
rather strongly so. Aperture oblique, rounded, truncate by 
the preceding whorl, toothless. Peristome with thin, sharp, 
unexpanded outer margin, the eolumellar margin reflected; 
margins remote. 

Length 2.5, diam. 1.3 mm.; 6 whorls. Calvados. 

Length 2.2, diam. 1.3 mm.; 5% whorls. Calvados. 

Length 2.3, diam. 1.3 mm.; 6 whorls. Cruce, Moldavia. 

Length 2.15, diam. 1.25 mm. ; 6 whorls. Dalaroe, Sweden. 

Europe generally; the Caucasus region and Turkestan; 
main island of Japan. America, from Alaska to Oregon, east 
in the northern states to the Middle States, New England, 
and Labrador. 


Pupa edentula Drapaenaud, Hist. Nat. Moll. terr. fluv. 
France, 1805, p. 59, pi. 3, f. 28, 29.— Pfr., Monogr. Hel. Viv., 
ii, p. 305; iii, 531; iv, 662; vi, 300; viii, 361 (see for older 
references). — Kuester, Conchyl. Cab., Pupa, p. 116, pi. 15, f. 
19, 20. — Westerlund, Fauna, p. 125. — Pupa (Columella) 
edentula Kobelt, Iconographie (2), viii, p. 96, pi. 236, f. 
1512-3. — Isthmia edentula Drap., Locard, Catal. Gener. Moll. 
Viv. France, 1882, p. 177. — Sphyradium edentulum Boettger, 
Bericht Senck. Nat. Ges., 1889, p. 25 (Caucasus). — Kennard 
and Woodward, Proc. Malac. Soc. Lond., iii, p. 190 (British 
Pliocene). — Hjrase, The Conchol. Mag., iii, pi. 9, f. 36 
(Japan). — Columella edentula Drap., H. Watson, Proc. 
Malac. Soc, xv, 1923, p. 275, fig. on p. 279 (anatomy). 

Helix exigua Studer in Coxe, Travels in Switzerland, iii, 
1789, p. 386, a nude name, but said by Hartniann to be P. 

Vertigo nitida Ferussac, Tabl. Syst., 1821, p. 64, new name 
for Pupa edentula Drap. 

1 Turbo offtonensis Sheppard, Linnean Trans., xiv, 1823, 
p. 155. 

Alcoa nitida Jeffreys, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, xvi, pp. 
358, 515. 

Alcea revoluta Jeffreys, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, xvi, 
1830, pp. 359, 515. 

Vertigo lepidula Held, Isis, 1837, p. 307 ("V. edentula 
Pfr. not Drap."). 

The shape, tapering above the penult or the last whorl, dis- 
tinguishes this widely-spread species from C. columella. The 
first three measurements given above represent the usual size ; 
Draparnaud's type, according to the size-figure, was 2.5 mm. 
Smaller ones, as in the fourth measurement, are rare in the 
European series before me. 

In Europe, Columella edentula is generally distributed 
south to the Mediterranean, while C. columella is Alpine and 
boreal. America was colonized from the stock of the cool 
north, and C. edentula does not appear to have become 
adapted to warm southern states. 

The Japanese specimens do not appear to differ from the 
typical European form. The localities are : Akkashi, Kushiro ; 
Hakusan, Kaga; Kiyotaki, Omi, all collected by Y. Hirase. 
At present this area is widely separated from other recorded 


Dall has reported edentula from Petropavlovsk, Kamchatka ; 
but as he did not consider the allied C. columella, the exact 
form found there remains uncertain. 

According to Clessin (Malak. BL, n. F., v, 1882, p. 6), C. 
edentula lives in damp places, near springs or damp, shady 
woods. In rainy weather they ascend smooth-barked trees, 
but few old shells are to be found. In late winter (February) 
he found them abundant on fresh shoots of Spiraea filipendula, 
still an inch below the dead-leaf covered earth. It lives in 
rather than upon the soil. Hugh L. Orr (in the Irish Natur- 
alist, xi, 1902, 173) found C. edentula in June on furze bushes, 
which he was beating for beetles. Charles Oldham (Journ. 
of Conch., viii, 1895, p. 190) records finding great numbers 
on the broad leaves of Tussilago petasites, often 2y 2 to 3 feet 
from the ground, growing in a damp spot in a wood in 
Cheshire. Jeffreys, in British Conchology, i, p. 269, reports 
it from among dead leaves, on the trunks of trees and fronds 
of ferns. Von Martens (Sb. Ges. Nat. Fr. Berl., 1903, 399) 
found it in abundance sticking on the undersides of leaves of 
young maples. 

Columella edentula turritella (West.). PI. 30, fig. 8. Shell 
conic, tapering from the base, the whorls from the first to the 
fifth slowly increasing, none of them equal. Sweden ; Bavaria 

Pupa inornata var., Clessin, Malak. BL, xx, 1873, p. 55, pi. 
4, f. 10 (Isar debris at Munich). — Pupa inornata Mich. var. 
turritella Westerlund, Malak. BL, xxii, 1875, pp. 127, 131. — 
Edentulina edentula var. turritella West., Clessin, Moll. 
Oesterreich-Ungarns, 1887, p. 262, fig. 161 (Switzerland and 
the Tyrol). — Pupa edentula Drap. var. "turricula Cless.," 
Boettger, Jahrb. D. M. Ges., vi, 1879, p. 415 (Reichenhall, 
very abundant). 

Columella edentula nana (Boettger) . PL 30, fig. 5. Smaller 
and narrower, 2.4 mm. high, 1.2 wide, with 6 whorls. Cau- 
casus: Kasbek (Bttg.). 

Pupa (Columella) edentula Drap., f. nana Boettger, Jahrb. 
D. M. Ges., vii, 1880, p. 139, pi. 4, f. 9. 


4. Columella columella (Benz). PI. 31, figs. 1, 2, 3. 

Shell small with a very narrow but distinct umbilical per- 
foration, almost completely cylindric, quite blunt, of 8 very 
slowly increasing and strongly convex whorls, therefore sep- 
arated by a deep suture; last whorl is more ventricose than 
the rest, and somewhat larger in circumference. Aperture is 
semi-ovate, toothless; peristome straight, simple and sharp. 
Length V/ s lines, diam. y 2 line; 8 whorls (Rossmaessler). 

Switzerland, the Tyrol and the Tatra range ( Shuttleworth, 
Gredler and others). Sweden: Quickjock, Lulea Lappland; 
Bollnas, prov. Helsingford. Norway : Storvik in Waage ( Wes- 
terlund). Petrograd. Siberia in the Government Jenisejsk, 
61° to 70° 5', and in the Amur valley. Alaska at Port Clar- 
ence (Vega Exp.). Pleistocene of Hungary, Germany, the 
Khone valley and England. Type loc, diluvial near Stutt- 
gart, between Heslach and Kaltental. 

Pupa columella Benz, Verzeichniss der im Koenigreich 
Wurtemburg gefundenen Schalthiere, in Corresp. Bl. Wiirt. 
Landeswirth. Verein, XVII, 1830, p. 49 (not seen by H. P.). 
Rossmaessler, Iconographie, II, pt. xi, 1842, p. 11, pi. 53, f. 
731. — Kuester, Conchyl. Cab., Pupa, p. 19, pi. 3, f. 4, 5. — 
Pfeiffer, Monogr. Viv., Ill, 531. — Wallenberg, Malak. Bl., 
1858, p. 102, pi. 1, f. 6, 7 (Lappland).— Clessin, Malak. Bl., 
XX, p. 56, pi. 4, f. 9. — Westerlund, Expose Crit., Nova Acta 
Reg. Soc. Upsaliensis, (3), VIII, 1873, p. 87; Vega-Expedi- 
tionens Vetenskaplige Iakttagelser, IV, 1887, pp. 155, 159, 163 
(Siberia, Alaska). — Pupa (Alcca) columella G. von Martens, 
Sandberger, Land- und Siisswasser-Conch. Vorwelt, p. 795, 
pi. 33, f. 34; pi. 36, f. 27. — Sphyradium columella Geyer, 
Nachrbl. D. M. Ges., vol. 44, 1912, pp. 122-125. — Columella 
columella (Benz), Kennard, Proc. Malac. Soc. Lond., XVI, 
1924, p. 93 (Boreal stage of English Pleistocene). 

Pupa inornata Mich., Kuester, Conchyl. Cab., Pupa, p. 115, 
pi. 15, f. 17, 18 (in one of the highest woods of the northern 
spur of the Gemmi, on rotten wood). 

Pupa gredleri Clessin, Malak. Bl., XX, 1872, p. 57, pi. 4, 
f. 8. — Edentulina gredleri Clessin, Moll. Oesterreich-Ungarns 
u, Schweiz, 1887, p. 263, f. 162. — Pupa (Columella) gredleri 
Kobelt, Iconographie, (2), VIII, p. 97, pi. 336, f. 1544. Cf. 
Gredler, Nachrbl. D. M. Ges., XI, 1879, p. 5. 


In this species the first three whorls form a very obtuse, 
convexly conic summit, the next two to three are equal in 
diameter, and the last is expanded. The surface is like that 
of typical C. edentula, being marked with very slight, irreg- 
ular growth lines. The initial whorl is white, the rest pale 
tawny in the loess specimens seen. One from Munich meas- 
ures: length 2.75, diam. at last whorl 1.3 mm.; 6% whorls 

(fig. 1). 
Benz appears to have had the name of this snail from Georg 

von Martens, who is quoted as authority for it by some 


Widely spread in the Pleistocene, this species is now rare 

and discontinuous in distribution, being found in the eastern 

Alps and the far north. The recent form described as Pupa 

gredleri, does not appear to differ tangibly from the loess 

fossil. Clessin's account follows: 

Pupa gredleri Clessin (pi. 30, fig. 3). Shell cylindric, with 
very short, obtuse summit, consisting of 7 to Ty 2 rather con- 
vex whorls, the first two increasing very rapidly and forming 
the short summit, the 3d, 4th and 5th almost wholly equal in 
height and breadth, the last considerably higher and wider; 
umbilicus very narrow. Shell in diameter somewhat narrower, 
very finely striate, slightly glossy, distinctly translucent, of a 
reddish-brown color. Aperture nearly rounded, lunate; peri- 
stome blunt, scarcely expanded. Length 2.5, diam. 1 mm. 

In the upper forest and alpine region, in Switzerland 
(Gemmi), in Tyrol, Campen near Bozen, Alpe Perdoi, on the 
Schlern, on the Tristenstein, in the Tauferstal, on the Peitler 
Kofel and the Franzenshohe. 

This species stands nearest to the diluvial P. columella 
Benz, which agrees with it generally in form; it differs from 
that by the smaller diameter and the somewhat smaller size. 
It differs from edentula by the more slender form, greater 
length and the considerably predominating last whorl. 

5. Columella inornata (Michaud). PI. 30, fig. 4. 

The shell is long, cylindric, very delicately striate, pellucid, 
umbilicate, fulvous ; whorls 8, convex ; suture rather deep ; 
aperture semilunar, toothless; peristome subreflected ; apex 
obtuse. Length 2 lines, diam. % line. 


This species is larger than P. muscorum Drap., which it 
quite resembles in appearance. It is not to be confused with 
Pupa edentula of the same author; it is far more lengthened 
and more cylindric (Michaud) . 

Length 4, diam. 1.5 mm. 

France: alluvium of the Rhone, Lyons (Michaud). 

Pupa mornata Michaud, Complement Hist. Nat. Moll. terr. 
fluv. France de Drap., 1831, p. 63, pi. 15, f. 31, 32 ; cf. Boett- 
gek, Jahrb. D. M. Ges., VII, 1880, p. 140.— Dupuy, Hist. Nat. 
Moll. France, p. 423, pi. 20, f. 18. — Westerlund, Fauna, p. 
11'"). — Pupa (Columella) inornata Kobelt, Iconographie (2), 
VIII, p. 97, pi. 336, f. 1545. — Pupa columella Locard, Arch. 
Mus. Hist. Nat. Lyon, II, 1878, p. 231. 

The large size of this species — up to 4.5 mm. long, distin- 
guishes it from the widely-spread C. columella; moreover, the 
shape is strictly cylindric, the last whorl not noticeably 
dilated. Only dead specimens have been found, but whether 
Pleistocene or later has not been made clear. Not seen by me. 

6. Columella gutta (Benson). PI. 31, fig. 5. 

Shell obsoletely rimate, oblong-ovate, smooth, thin, pale 
corneous, translucent ; spire obtusely ovate ; suture impressed ; 
414 slightly convex whorls, the last descending in front. 
Aperture oblique, toothless, angulate-rounded ; margins of the 
peristome remote, the right margin unexpanded, acute, the 
columellar a little expanded. Length 1%, diam. 1 mm. 

India: Spiti Valley, Kunawur ("W. Theobald), a single 

Pupa gutta Benson, Ann. Mag. N. H. (3), XIII, Feb. 1864, 
p. 138. — Hanley and Theobald, Conchologia Indica, pt. 6, pi. 
101, f. 9. — Pfeepfer, Monogr., VI, p. 298. — Pupilla gutta 
Bens., Gude, Fauna Brit. India, Moll., II, 1914, p. 285. 

A lost species, from a high, doubtless Palaearctic station. 
It appears to differ from C. edentula by the smaller size and 
pale color, but if an adult shell, probably belonging to Colu- 
mella. The figure is a photograph of that in Conchologia 


3. American species. 
7. Columella edentula (Drap.). PL 30, figs. 12 to 17. 

Description on page 236. In some localities, such as Oswego, 
Clackamas Co., Oregon, and the Magdalen Islands, Gulf of 
St. Lawrence, the specimens resemble the typical European 
edentula closely. Two from Oswego, Ore., measure : 

Length 2.2, diam. 1.35 mm., 6V2 whorls. 

Length 2, diam. 1.3 mm., 5y 2 whorls. 

Generally in America the size, especially the diameter, is 
noticeably smaller than in the typical form of Europe; and 
there is some reason for segregating the prevalent form in 
the eastern states as a local race, simplex Gld. 

Length 2.15, diam. 1.1 mm., 5% whorls. Oxford Co., Maine. 

Length 2.1, diam. 1.15 mm., G 1 /^ whorls. Clementon, N. J. 

Length 1.85, diam. 1.15 mm., 5y 2 whorls. Beaver Co., Pa. 

Length 1.8, diam. 1.1 mm., 5y 2 whorls. Conecuh Co., Ala. 

Most of the specimens in almost any lot collected are im- 
mature. In some places the full size seems to be rarely if ever 
attained. Gould's type of simplex, measuring y 1 - inch long, 
-fa wide, was either immature or from such a dwarf colony. 
The surface is nearly smooth, showing irregular and very low 
growth-wrinkles under the microscope. 

This simplex form (pi. 30, figs. 15, 16, 17) is about the size 
of the Caucasian C. e. nana Bttg., which from the description 
and figure would hardly be distinguishable from the American 

The small simplex form of the species I have seen from the 
states of Maine, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New York, New 
Jersey, Pennsylvania, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Alabama and 
eastern Canada. 

A few lots appear variable or intermediate between the 
large and small races. 

In a few places there is a larger form (pi. 30, fig. 14) which 
agrees with the account of C. e. var. turitella West, in shape, 
but it has a distinctly striate surface. As the specimens are 
from several rather widely separated places with diverse 
faunal associations, I do not give them a special name. 


Length 2.4, diani. 1.3 mm., 6% whorls. Onondaga Co., N, 
Y., fig. 14. 

Length 2.3, diam. 1.3 mm., 6V2 whorls. Ward, Montana. 

In Canada C. edentula occurs from the Magdalen Islands 
to Vancouver Island, and north (according to Dall) to Lab- 
rador, Alaska and some of the Aleutian Islands. Southward 
it is commonly found as far as New Jersey, Pennsylvania, 
Iowa, Montana and Oregon. I have seen a single very small 
specimen from Evergreen, Conecuh Co., Alabama (H. H. 
Smith), the only locality known in the Southern States 
(fig. 17). 

American references. — Pupa simplex Gould, Boston Jour- 
nal of Nat. Hist, III, 1840, p. 403, pi. 3, f. 21 (grove north 
of Fresh Pond, Cambridge, Mass.) ; Terr. Moll., II, p. 343, pi. 
72, f. S.—Vertigo simplex Gld., W. G. Binney, Terr. Moll., V, 
1878, p. 219 ; Man. Amer. Land SheUs, 1885, p. 191, f . 195.— 
Eandolph, Nautilus, IX, p. 102 (Seattle, Wash.). — Taylor, 
Nautilus, V, p. 91 (Vancouver I.). — Sphyradium edentulum 
Haneam, Nautilus, XI, p. 110 (Quebec). — Sterki, Nautilus, 
X, p. 75 (systematic position). — J. Henderson, Moll, of Colo., 
Univ. of Colo. Studies, IV, p. 177 (Colorado records, probably 
all C. alticola). — Dall, Harriman Alaska Exped., XIII, p. 54 
(northern localities; includes C. alticola as a synonym). — 
Hanna, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 41, 1911, p. 374, f. 2, 3, 4 

8. Columella alticola (Ing.). PI. 31, figs. 6, 7, 8. 

Shell perforate, straight, two and one-half times as long 
as broad, densely striate, subtranslucent, chestnut-brown, apex 
obtuse; whorls 6 or 7, convex, the middle three of the spire 
equal, causing a parallelism in the sides of the shell, the last 
noticeably greater, expanding toward the aperture, not closely 
appressed to the body- whorl ; suture deeply impressed ; aper- 
ture small, oblique, subtriangular, margins connected by a 
thin deposit, without internal processes; peristome simple, 
somewhat reflected over the umbilicus (Ingersoll). 

Length 3, diam. 1.35 mm.; iy 2 whorls. Nat'l Park, Wy- 
oming. Fig. 6. 


Length 2.8, diam. 1.3 mm.; 7 whorls. Howardsville, Colo. 
Fig. 7. 

Length 2.5, diam. 1.3 mm.; 6y 3 whorls. Banff, Alberta. 
Fig. 8. 

New Mexico: Willow creek, Mogollon Mts. (Ferriss & 
Daniels) ; La Belle (Ashmun). Arizona: Millers Park, Hua- 
chuca Mts. (Ferriss). Colorado: Cunningham Gulch (type 
loc.) and Eio La Plata, 8-9000 ft.; Howardville (IngersoU) ; 
Estes Park (Ashmun) ; near Colorado Springs (H. B. Baker) ; 
ToUand, Gilpin Co., 8900-9000 ft. (CockereU) ; Florissant, 
Magnolia and Eldora (J. Henderson) ; Floyd Hill (Hand) ; 
near Ohio City (F. Rohwer) ; Long's Peak Inn (Spangler). 
Utah: Chalk Creek, 7500-8000 ft. (R. V. Chamberlain). Wy- 
oming: Mammoth Hot Spring, Nat. Park (Elliott). Alberta: 
Banff (S. Brown) ; Kananaskis (J. Macoun). British Colum- 
bia: Field (S. Brown) ; Tobacco Plains, Kootenay River valley 
(J. B. Tyrrell). Pleistocene, Kansas: Long Island, Phillips 
Co. (Hanna). 

Pupilla alticola Ingersoll, Bull. U. S. Geol. and Geogr. 
Survey of the Territories, I, 2d ser., no. 1, 1875, p. 128 ; 8th 
Ann. Rep. Hayden Survey, 1876, p. 391, text-fig. — Pupa alti- 
cola W. G. Binney, Terr. Moll., V, p. 212, f . 116 ; Man. Amer. 
Land Shells, 1885, p. 174, f. 166. — Ckll., Journ. of Conch., 
VI, p. 62. — Sphyradium alticola Hanna, Proc. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., vol. 41, 1911, p. 373, text-fig. 2. — J. Henderson, Univ. 
of Colo. Studies, IX, 1912, p. 61. — Columella alticola (Ing.), 
Berry, Canada Dept. of Mines, BuU. 36, 1922, p. 14. 

Sphyradium edentulum J. Henderson, in part, Univ. of 
Colo. Studies, IV, p. 177.— Whiteaves, Ottawa Nat., 1905, p. 
171. — S. edentulum var. alticola Cockerell, Nautilus, XXV, 
p. 58 (Tolland). 

This species is more cylindrie than C. edentula, the summit 
rounded, and when fully developed the last whorl is more 
swollen than those preceding. It reaches a larger size, and 
has more whorls. It is cinnamon-brown, like C. edentula, 
sometimes with some whitish streaks. The surface is finely 
striate, decidedly more so than in typical edentula, but not 
more than in the striate form of that species. All of the 
whorls are rather strongly convex. Young or small individ- 


uals may be recognized by the more cylindric shape of the 
spire and the striation, but occasionally their discrimination 
is difficult. Some of the Colorado records given above may 
possibly pertain to C. edentula. 

Whether C. alticola is really distinguishable from C. colu- 
mella appears to me doubtful, but the whorls are noticeably 
more convex and the striation a trifle more distinct than in 
the German loess columella compared. Larger series of colu- 
mella, including recent specimens, are requisite for a definite 
decision. The form from Port Clarence, Alaska, referred to 
columella by Westerlund, is unknown to me. Hanna has sug- 
gested that some Unalaskan Columella? belong to a new 
species with the following measurements: Length 2.84, diam. 
1.6 mm. 

9. Columella hasta (Hanna). PI. 30, fig. 18. 

Shell more than 5 mm. in height, long and cylindrical. 
Light brown in color and glossy. Spire greatly elevated but 
obtusely pointed on the apex. "Whorls 8% to 9, rather flat- 
tened on the face and the last subangulated around the 
periphery. The last six whorls are of about equal diameter; 
the first three increase rapidly. Lines of growth faint and 
oblique; apex smooth and white. Aperture somewhat angu- 
lated at the base of the columella. Peristome thin and acute, 
forming a regular curve without an indentation in the upper 
palatal region such as is present in most of the Vertigos. 
The aperture is very slightly thickened with callus on the in- 
side of the peristome in the basal region. Peristome not re- 
flected and with no callus crest back of the aperture. Teeth 
and lamella? entirely absent from the aperture. Umbilicus 
with a very small perforation. 

Length, 5.81 mm.; diameter, 2.03 mm. (Hanna). 

Kansas: Pleistocene of Long Island, Phillips County (G. D. 
Hanna, Edw. C. Johnston). 

Sphyradium hasta Hanna, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 41, 
Oct. 14, 1911, p. 372, text-fig. 1. 

"This species differs from all others by its much greater 


size and the relatively smaller aperture." The specimens 
' ' occur in deposits of sandy, green marl of undoubted Pleisto- 
cene age. With them were large numbers of other Pupillida?, 
as well as other land snails. The entire fauna of the beds is 
foreign to the region at the present time, but is allied to the 
present-day Canadian fauna. From this it is supposed that 
the animals lived just before or during the Glacial epoch." 
Probably related to C. inornata. 

10. Columella polvonensis (Pils.). PI. 31, fig. 9. 

The shell is narrowly umbilicate ; oblong-ovate ; opaque 
light buff with cinnamon streaks, the darker color predomi- 
nating on the last whorl ; rather glossy, smooth save for very 
weak growth-wrinkles. The spire tapers with convex outlines 
to the obtuse apex. Whorls moderately convex, the last very- 
little more ample than the penult. Aperture truncate- 
rounded; peristome simple and sharp, the eolumellar margin 
broadly reflected. 

Length 2.5, diam. 1.5 mm. ; 6 whorls. 

Nicaragua: Polvon, Department of Chinandega (McNeil 

Pupa polvonensis Pilsbry, Proc. A. N. S. Phila. 1894, pp. 
31, 61, pi. 1, f. 11. — Sphy rod turn polvonense Pilsbry, Proc. A. 
N. S. Phila. 1903, p. 769. 

The whorls are less convex than in C. edentula, and the 
umbilicus is larger. The whitish color is not present in young 
specimens. The dimensions were not given exactly in my 
former descriptions. 

11. Columella(?) lata (C. B. Ad.). 

Shell very short, subcylindrical, truncated anteriorly ; pale 
brown or horn color ; with very regular, rather distant, micro- 
scopic transverse lines, which are more distinct on the upper 
whorls ; spire cylindrical ; apex conoid ; whorls five, very con- 
vex, with a deep suture; last whorl making nearly a right 
angle between its lateral and anterior surfaces. Aperture 
about two-thirds of a circle, without teeth; lip not reflected, 
with a smooth blunt margin ; without umbilicus. 



Length .075 inch ; breadth .055 inch [about 1.9 x 1.4 mm.] 
(C. B. Ad.). 
Jamaica (C. B. Adams). 

Pupa lata C. B. Adams, Contrib. to Conchology, No. 3, 1849, 
p. 37. — ? Pfeiffer, Monographia, III, p. 530. 

4. Hawaiian species. 

12. Columella sharpi (Pils. & Cooke). PI. 30, fig. 6; text- 
figs. 14, 15. 
The shell is narrowly umbilicate, broadly ovate, the summit 
obtusely conic ; thin ; chestnut brown, paler near the apex, 
the surface somewhat shining and distinctly but not closely 
striate. Whorls slightly over 5, quite convex, the suture 
deeply impressed. The aperture is strongly oblique, rounded 
lunate. Peristome thin and simple, the basal and outer mar- 
gins well arched ; columella vertical with broadly dilated edge. 

Figs. 14, 15. C. sharpi. 

Fig. 16. C. alexanderi. 

The insertions of the lips are remote. The umbilicus is cir- 
cular and deep. Length 1.8, diam. 1.36 mm. 

Hawaii : Crest of the Kilauea crater, about a half mile south 
of the hotel. Types No. 91699, A. N. S. Phila., collected by 
Dr. Benjamin Sharp ; cotype in the Bernice Pauahi Bishop 
Museum, Honolulu. Also taken by Cooke and Pilsbry along 
the road to Kilauea iki, about % mile from the Crater House. 

Sphyradium sharpi Pilsbry and Cooke, Proc. A. N. S. 
Phila., July 23, 1906, p. 215, text-figs. 1, 2. 

This species is closely related to the following two, from 
which it differs in being somewhat larger, broader, but with 

248 pupoides. 

a smaller number of whorls and a less strongly striate surface. 
The shape also differs perceptibly, C. alexanderi and C. 
olaaensis being noticeably more egg-shaped, with a rounded 

13. Columella olaaensis new species. PI. 30, fig. 7. 

The shell is similar to C. alexanderi except that it is broader 
with a longer aperture. 

Length 1.8, diam. 1.35 mm. ; 5% whorls. Type. 

Length 1.9, diam. 1.35 mm. ; 5% whorls. Paratype. 

Hawaii: Olaa (Thaanum). 

Two specimens were found in a topotypic lot of Nesopupa 
wesley ana (Anc). 

14. Columella alexanderi (Cooke & Pils.). Text-fig. 16. 
The shell is openly perforate, dextral, ovate, the apex blunt ; 

glossy, minutely irregularty striate, very thin, cinnamon- 
brown, the apical whorls much lighter; whorls ^fe-^A, well 
rounded, increasing very slowly; sutures simple, well im- 
pressed. The aperture is oblique, quadrate-lunate; columella 
vertical, lip thin, the outer margin simple, reflexed at the 
columella, margins remote; umbilicus circular, deep. Length 
1.7, diam. 1.17 mm. 

West Maui, at the top of Mt. Kukui, overlooking Iao valley, 
elevation about 6,000 feet. Found at base of leaves of low 
shrubs, two or three feet in height (C. Montague Cooke). 
Type in Bishop Mus., cotype No. 91,292 ANSP. 

Sphyradium alexanderi Cooe^ and Pilsbry, Proc. A. N. S. 
Phila., July 23, 1906, p. 216, text-fig. 3. 

Subfamily Pupillln^e. 

PUPOIDES Pfr. Vol. XXVI, p. 108. 

Pupoides pilsbryi Dall. PI. 31, fig. 13. 

The original figure of this species, referred to at the foot 
of p. 109, Vol. XXVI, appears to be incorrect in the teeth 
shown. A specimen kindly sent by Dr. Dall shows a strongly 
developed, rounded, nodular, angular lamella, much as in 
Asiatic Pupoides, being more developed than in Recent Amer- 

pupoides. 249 

ican species. The prominence within the outer lip defining 
the sinulus is more strongly developed than in Recent species, 
though some approach to it has been figured in Vol. XXVI, 
pi. 12, fig. 5, and others. The parietal and columellar teeth 
shown in the original figure appear to have been adhering 
siliceous material ; or at least, I find no definite traces of them 
in the specimen examined. 

The species seems thus to be a true Pupoides, somewhat 
more primitive than existing American species by the more 
distinct angular lamella. 

Pupoides incolatus (White). Pupa incolata White, Pow- 
ell's Rep. Geol. Uinta Mts., 1876, p. 130. Pupa ( Leucocheila) 
incolata White, 12th Ann. Rep. U. S. Geol. and Geogr. Surv. 
Terr, for 1878, pt. 1, 1883, p. 47, pi. 19, f. la-c. Eocene, 
Upper Green River group : Valley of Henry 's Fork south of 
Green River City, Wyoming. 

Pupoides maeginatus (Say). Vol. XXVI, p. 111. 

Recorded by Hanna (Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci., 4th Ser., XII, 
no. 26, p. 514) from several islands in the Gulf of California: 
Angel de la Guarda, Tortuga, San Lorenzo, San Esteban, 
Montserrate. "The specimens cannot be distinguished from 
the species as it occurs in Arizona." 

Pupoides catalinensis Hanna. Text-fig. 17. 

Shell similar to P. marginatus but more slender and cylin- 
drical; whorls five, rounded, suture deeply impressed; epi- 
dermis roughened parallel to growth lines, so the species is 
without gloss; growth lines fairly regular with an occasional 
white streak parallel to them; umbilicus rimate; peristome 
broadly reflected, thickened within and almost complete across 
the body whorl; no indentation of the aperture on the upper 
palatal wall (Hanna). 

Altitude 4.5, diameter 1.9 mm. Type. 

Altitude 4.3, diameter 1.7 mm. 

Altitude 4.0, diameter 1.5 mm. 

Altitude 3.8, diameter 1.6 mm. 

Santa Catalina Island, Gulf of California (J. C. Chamber- 
lin, Cal. Acad. Exped.). 


Pupoides catalinensis Hanna, Proc. California Acad. Sci- 
ences (4), XII, article 26, 1923, p. 514, pi. 10, figs. 1-4. 

"This species has the shape of P. hordaeeus (G-abb) but 
lacks the characteristic rib sculpture of that form. While the 
specimens of Pupoides from all of the other Gulf islands are 
clearly marginatus and agree with that species in size, shape 
and sculpture, this one on Santa Catalina Island is constantly 
different. There does not seem to be a tendency toward inter- 
gradation. There is some variation in altitude but the shape 
still remains more cylindrical than in marginatus' 1 '' {Hanna). 

Page 106. 13th line: for "Basal lamella" read Basal fold. 

Fig. 17. Pupoides catalinensis (after Hanna). 

Page 110. The last four species in the key form a special 
group of Pupoides which may be called section Ischno- 
pupoides, P. hordaeeus being the type. With Pupoides pare- 
desii Orb. (XXVI, 120) I have united Pupa limensis Phil. 
The latter has been placed in the Diplommatinid genus 
Adelopoma by Doering, followed by Kobelt (Das Tierreich, 
Cyclophoridae, p. 480), I think erroneously. 

Page 112. 18th line from bottom: for "shalls" read shells. 

Page 113. Pupoides marginatus nitidulus (Pfr.). 

Aruba, Curasao and Bonaire (H. B. Baker). The speci- 


mens are not distinguishable from those of Cuba, and there 
appear to be no differences between those of the three islands 
mentioned. It is variable in form and degree of development 
of the angular callus. Two from E. Oranjestad, Aruba, 
measure : 

Length 3.6 mm., diam. 1.55 mm. 

Length 3.6 mm., diam. 1.8 mm. 

Probably Leucochila simoni Jousseaume from Caracas is 
identical with P. m. nitidulus. The description and figure 
show no differences (Pilsbry, Proc. A. N. S. Phila., 1924, 
p. 61). 

No doubt it was this race which was formerly reported from 
Curasao as typical marginatus, since the latter was not found 
by Dr. Baker in the course of a thorough search of the island. 

Pupoides lardeus (Pfr.), Vol. XXVI, p. 126, has been re- 
ported from the Salt Range by Annandale and Rao, Rec. Ind. 
Mus., XXV, p. 393. 

Pupoides zanguebaricus (Taylor). PL 31, figs. 10, 11. 

Vol. XXVI, p. 134. This species has about the size of P. 
senaariensis, but it is distinguished by the absence of an an- 
gular nodule, though in some examples there is a slight thick- 
ening there. 

Length 4.1, diam. above aperture 1.7, to edge of lip 1.9 mm. 

Length 3.4 mm., smallest seen. 

The figure is from a Zanzibar specimen from coll. Bryant 

Pupoides bryantwalkeri new species. PI. 31, fig. 12. 

The shell is very slender, the diameter (measured above 
aperture) contained 3*4 times in the length. Summit obtuse; 
spire slowly tapering, the last two whorls of about equal diam- 
eter. The whorls are convex, the median ones more so than 
the earlier or last. Color cinnamon-buff. Surface not glossy, 
nearly smooth, but with some weak growth-ripples. The aper- 
ture is small, broadly ovate, the peristome white, expanded, 
somewhat thickened; outer lip regularly arcuate throughout, 
narrowed above. Parietal callus thin, bearing a large, noduli- 

252 pupoides. 

form angular lamella below the insertion of the outer lip and 
separated from it by a groove. 

Length 4.55, diam. above aperture 1.4, to edge of outer lip 
1.6 mm. ; length of aperture 1.35 mm. ; 6y 2 whorls. 

South Africa: probably from the neighborhood of Port 
Elizabeth ; collected by Crawford. Bryant Walker coll. 

The very slender contour of this form apparently indicates 
specific distinction ; otherwise it is closely related to the wide- 
spread P. coenopictus. 

Pupoides minusculus (Mousson). Vol. XXVI, p. 139. 

E. Degner has proposed Leucochiloides minusculus var. 
major (Beitr. zur Kenntnis Land- und Siisswasserfauna 
Deutsch Siidwestafrikas, Mollusca, 1922, p. 31) for specimens 
with only 5 flatter whorls, regularly increasing in height, the 
suture shallower, last whorl § to ^ of the length. He gives 
localities: Tsumeb, Grootfontein, Otavifontain, Okaputa, Oka- 
hand j a, Karibib, Osona. Whether they are referable to cala- 
haricus or minusculus appears doubtful, as they form an in- 
termediate phase. 

P. calaharicus (Bttg.) is reported from Kuibis (p. 33). 

Glyptopupoides new subgenus. 

The shell is PwpowZes-shaped, of few (about 4^) whorls, 
the embryonic iy 2 minutely, densely pitted, the rest distantly 
ribbed and spirally striate. Peristome expanded, but little 
thickened ; no angular tubercle or other teeth. Type Pupoides 

Pupoides hedleyi new species. PI. 31, fig. 15. 

The shell is oblong with convexly tapering spire and obtuse 
summit ; snuff-brown throughout ; but slightly shining. First 
iy 2 whorls are microscopically, very densely pitted, the rest 
sculptured with narrow, rather widely-spaced, retractive rib- 
lets, the intervals minutely and closely striate spirally, the 
striae varying from distinct (as in the type) to quite weak in 
some other specimens. The whorls are rather convex, especi- 
ally the penult. The aperture is ovate, somewhat oblique, 


without teeth or angular tubercle. Peristome is well ex- 
panded, colored like the shell, very little thickened within, the 
margins converging; columellar margin dilated. Parietal cal- 
lus extremely thin. 

Length 2.9, diam. above aperture 1.35 mm. ; to edge of outer 
lip 1.5 mm. ; 4% whorls. Type, B. W. coll. 

Length 3.1 mm. Paratype, ANSP. 134150. 

Australia: Bundaberg, Queensland (Cox). 

The type lot was from Cox in the Ponsonby collection, now 
in that of Bryant "Walker, a paratype in ANSP. coll. 

This species is quite unlike any known Australian snail by 
its sculpture and entire absence of teeth. It has some resem- 
blance to the American group of Pupoides hordaceus, and also 
to the minute Negulus suturalis. 


MlCROSTELE NOLTEI (Bttg.). Vol. XXVI, p. 150. 

Reported from Omaruru by E. Degner (Beitr. zur Kenntnis 
Land- und Siisswasserfauna Deutsch-Sudwestafrikas, 1922, p. 
33, f. 11). The last whorl has a well-developed keel at the 
base, sharper than in Boettger's type. 

Genus PUPILLA Leach (Vol. XXVI, p. 152). 

The distribution and characters of German species of Pu- 
pilla have been lucidly discussed by D. Geyer in Nachrbl. D. 
Malak. Ges., vol. 42, 1910, pp. 12-18. The distinction of P. 
bigranata Rossm. from all forms of muscorum is upheld, and 
that species is said to occur in England, Iceland, Spain, 
France, Switzerland, Italy, loess of South Russia and in Tur- 

Two keys are given for the discrimination of German 
species, as follows: 

I. Larger forms, length 3 to 3.5, diam. 2 mm. 

1. Whorls wide, weakly convex, suture deep : muscorum. 

2. "Whorls narrow, roundly convex, suture deep : sterri. 
II. Smaller forms, length 2 to 2.5, width 1 to 1.5 mm. 

1. "Whorls weakly convex, suture shallow: bigranata. 

2. "Whorls strongly convex, suture deep : triplicata. 


I. Shell ovate-cylindric. 

1. Strong-shelled, but little striate, with a somewhat 
oily gleam, larger: muscorum. 

2. Thin, pretty smooth, without luster, smaller: bigra- 

II. Shell regularly cylindric with blunt summit, finely, reg- 
ularly and distinctly striate, with silky luster. 

1. Larger, with at most 2 teeth : sterri. 

2. Smaller, with three white teeth, that in the palate 
shining through distinctly : triplicata. 

Section Gibbidinopsis Germain. 

Gibbulinopsis Germain, Bull. Museum Hist. Nat. Paris, 
XXV, 1919, p. 265, as a subgenus of Orthogibbus, for Pupa 
pupula, uvula and turgidula of Deshayes. — Faune Malacol. 
terr. et fhiv. des iles Mascareignes (Miss. zool. de M. Paul 
Carie), March, 1921, p. 23, Orthogibbus (Gibbulinopsis) 
pupulus Deshayes, of the Island of Reunion, named as type. 

Primipupilla Pilsbry, Man. of Conch., XXVI, p. 153, 
August 4, 1921. 

Gibbulinopsis was proposed as a subgenus of Orthogibbus 
(which was a new name for Gibbulina of authors, not Beck, 
with the type 0. modiolus Fer.), and placed in the family 
"Enneidas." In 1921 Germain selected Pupa pupula Des- 
hayes as the type, thereby unconsciously removing Gibbuli- 
nopsis to Pupillidas. 

Primipupilla Pilsbry now becomes a synonym of Gibbuli- 
nopsis. It was proposed before Germain 's publication of 1921 
was received, and while I supposed that Gibbulinopsis would 
be retained for the Streptaxid species of Germain's group, not 
for the single Pupilla contained therein. 

The following are to be added to the list of Tertiary Pupilla; 
in Vol. XXVI, p. 223 : 

Pupilla anodon (Desh.), which was placed with doubt in 
Vertigo (Vol. XXV, p. 218), is considered a Pupilla by Wenz 
(Foss. Catal., Ill, p. 952). 

Pupilla crossei (Michaud) (Vol. XXV, p. 220, as Vertigo) 
is placed in Pupilla by Wenz. 


? Pupilla parvula (Desh.) (Vol. XXV, p. 218, as Vertigo) 
is placed in Pupilla, with a mark of doubt, by Wenz. 

Pupilla scapula (Sandberger). Pupa scapula Sandb., Die 
Land- und Siisswasser-Conehyl. der Vorwelt, 1875, p. 703. 
Lower Pliocene, Pontien : Congeria beds, locality not given. 

Vol. XXVI, page 224 : Pupilla m. lommickii is a typograph- 
ical error for Pupilla m. lomnickii. 

Pupilla muscorum (L.). Vol. XXVI, pp. 156, 173. 

Page 158, 8th line: In place of " Three-tooth mutations" 
read Four tooth-mutations. 

Var. prolongata Baudon. Elongate, cylindric, and reaching 
a length nearly double that of var. orevis [which was not 
stated]. Banks of the Therain at Mouy (Oise). (Pupa mus- 
corum var. prolongata Baudon, Journ. de Conchyl., 1884, p. 

Pages 185-6. Pupilla cupa. Boettger Nachrbl. 1884, p. 
48) has given the synonymy of this species. 

Page 188. The first two paragraphs should follow the 
account of P. cupa turcmenia; they were accidentally trans- 

Page 238. Last line, for ' ' Russo ' ' read Rosso. 
Pupilla pontana (Krauss.). Vol. XXVI, p. 207. 

Connolly writes as follows (Ann. Mag. N. H., Ser. 9, X, p. 
497, Nov. 1922) : 

"Ennea iredalei [Preston, Revue Zoologique Africaine, i, 
1911, p. 218, pi. 11, f. 5, from Naivasha, British East Africa. 
Length 2.75, diam. 1.25 mm.], of which I have examined para- 
types, appears to have been founded on a large bleached ex- 
ample of P. font ana. It represents almost the largest form 
of the latter, and may be attributable to one of the so-called 
"species" evolved therefrom bv Bourguignat; however, nearly 
every variation of size and dentition may be met with together 
in some parts of South Africa, and I agree with Pilsbry 
(Manual, 1921) in placing all the North and South African 
forms of the font ana group under one name. A smaller ex- 
ample of this species was collected by Percival between the 
Laikipia Plateau and Eusso Nyiro. ' ' 

256 ORCULA. 

Pupilla fontana form elizabethensis. Vol. XXVI, p. 213. 
The reference should be added : Pupa elizabethensis Melv. & 
Pons., Ann. Mag. N. H., (6), IX, Jan. 1892, p. 91, pi. 5, f. 13. 

Subfamily Orcullnle. 
Orcula Held. This volume, p. 1. 
Orcula doliolum (Brug.). Vol. XXVII, p. 17. 

Var. breviuscula Baudon. Shell very short, thick-set, with 
the same number of whorls as the type; of a light reddish 
color. Ongy, Ansacq. Houdainville (Dep. l'Oise, France). 
In woods ; covers the shell with earth. (Pupa doliolum var. 
breviuscula [Var. brevis, Nouv. Cat. Moll. Oise], Baudon, 
Journ. de Conchyl., 1884, p. 259.) 

Notes on 0. doliolum, 0. orient alis and 0. raymondi from 
drift debris of the Sarus at Adana, Cilicia, were given by 
Boettger, Nachrbl. D. M. Ges., 1905, pp. 106-108. The three 
specimens of 0. doliolum taken are sinistral. The name var. 
heterostropha is proposed for them. 

Orcula bulgarica Hesse. PI. 21, fig. 11. 

Vol. XXVII, p. 26. Figured from a cotype kindly lent by 

Orcula tingitana Pallary. 

Shell elongate, truncate-conic in the middle, with spheric 
summit, the lower part narrower than the upper. Summit 
smooth, very obtuse. Whorls convex, separated by an im- 
pressed suture and engraved with oblique, fine strias directed 
from left to right. Last whorl narrower than the others. 
Outer margin of the aperture vertical, forming a convex arc 
in the middle. Aperture oval, with an oblique lamella on the 
parietal wall. Columellar margin straight towards the inser- 
tion, then strongly curved in the lower part. Umbilical crevice 
quite apparent. Length 7.5, diam. 3 mm. (Pallary). 

Morocco: margin of the oued Ouerrha (Lt. Burnot). 

Orcula tingitana Pallary, Bull. Soc. d'Hist. Nat. Afrique 
du Nord, ix, July 1918, p. 149. 

ORCULA. 257 

Orcula wagneri Sturany. PI. 21, figs. 12, 13. 

Shell rimate, long-cylindric with broad, conic, rounded 
summit, or ovate-conic ; yellowish to reddish horn-colored ; 
fresh specimens with fine, rather close epidermal rib-striae, 
which give the shell a clear silky luster. The spire consists 
of iy 2 to 8 whorls, at first weakly convex, later nearly flat, 
and separated by a shallow but distinctly impressed suture. 
The last whorl is rounded around the umbilicus, and it ascends 
a little and for a long distance to the aperture. The thin 
peristome is narrowly expanded, the columellar margin 
straight, the outer margin curved nearly in a half-circle, the 
insertions connected by a very thin callus. In the throat there 
is a callus, showing yellowish through the shell outside (simi- 
lar to that of Orcula gularis Rssm., but weaker), which often 
thickens the middle of the outer margin to a weak tooth, 
though appearing never to be prolonged fold-like. The pari- 
etal lamella is high and curved outwardly. On the columella 
there are two weak folds, which usually end deep in the throat, 
rarely reaching the peristome. 

Length 5.3 to 6.5, diam. 3 to 3.2 mm. (Sturany). 

Albania: Mai i Sheit near Oroshi, Merdita; Mt. Munela 
and Mt. Zebia near Oroshi; on the Drin below the Koritnik 
mountains; and in the Ljuma region of the Koritnik moun- 
tains, 2000 meters (Buljubasic and Winneguth). 

Orcula wagneri Sturany, Denkschr. Math.-Naturw. Kl. 
Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissensch., Wien, Bd. 91, 1914, 
p. 63, pi. 15, f. 82a-&. 

Orcula wagneri ljubetensis Sturany. PI. 21, fig. 10. 

The shell is larger with obsolete palatal callus and only one 
(the lower) columellar fold, w T hich terminates deep within 
and is only visible in an oblique view in the mouth. Length 
5.7, diam. 3.2 to 3.5 mm. Found at Ljubeten, Schar Dagh, 
northwest of Uskiib by V. Apfelbeck and Gf. Attems, 1906 

Orcula wagneri ljubelenensis Sturany, torn, cit., p. 64, pi. 
14, f. 81. 

This new Orcula is distinguished from the nearly related 

258 LAURIA. 

Orcula schmidti Kstr. by the smaller number of the more 
rapidly increasing whorls, which appear relatively much 
higher; by the palatal callus present in the typical form; the 
narrow, crevice-like umbilicus; the last whorl rising less in 
front, and rounded around the umbilicus, not compressed into 
an obtuse angle such as 0. schmidti shows. It differs from 
0. gularis and its form spoliata, which are also similar, by the 
thicker, cylindric shell, its apex not tapering but rounded off, 
by the more distinctly convex whorls, separated by a deeper 
suture, the epidermal rib-striae, wider peristome, as well as by 
the much weaker palatal callus (Sturany). 

LAURIA Gray. (This volume, p. 43.) 

Lauria cylindracea DaC. Page 47. 

By a careless oversight, the name was printed Lauria cylin- 
drica on page 47. 

Ernst Schermer-Liibeck has given the distribution of this 
species in Germany. In places about Kellersee and the Ratze- 
burgerseen he found a long form with weakly developed aper- 
tural features. In the same places the toothless form inermis 
Westerl. lives. In the region of these north German lakes L. 
cylindracea has almost become a real water animal, living 
among the dripping- wet beech leaves quite in the water (Ar- 
chiv. f. MoUuskenk. 1922, 171, 178). 

Lauria cylindracea margieri (Caziot). 

This is a short form, ball-like, with the peristome thick and 
white. It differs from the type by the rounded, ventricose 
form, the shortened spire and the absence of teeth in the 

The form curt a West, is toothed like the type. The form 
inermis of the same author is not also ventricose {Caziot). 

Corsica : on dry stones of a wall on the railroad near Bastia ; 
with L. umbilicata. 

Lauria umbilicata var. margieri Caziot, Bull. Soc. Sci. Hist, 
et Nat. de Corse, Bastia, 1903, xxii, Ann., p. 278. 

Lauria cylindracea misella (Paul.). This vol., page 53. 



Add the reference Pupa cylindracea var. misella Paulucci, 
Bull. Soc. Mai. Ital., viii, 1882, p. 279, pi. 8, f. 2. 

Lauria umbilicus (Roth). This vol., page 54, 5th line 
from bottom: for "Syria" substitute Syra. 

Lauria isserica (Letoumeux). 

Shell narrowly perforate, cylindric, fragile, subpellucid, 
nearly smooth, uniform corneous. Spire cylindric, slightly 
acuminate, rather long. Apex strong, paler, very obtuse. 
Whorls 7, somewhat convex, slowly increasing, separated by a 
little impressed suture, the last whorl a little larger, convex, 
rather swollen below. Aperture slightly oblicpie, slightly 
lunate, suboblong ; columella straightened a little ; peristome 
paler, straight, slightly expanded. Length 4, diam. 2 mm. 

Algeria: Tizi R'ir, above the gorge of the Isser, Kabylie 

Pupa isserica Letourneux, Ann. de Malac, I 1870, p. 312 ; 
and in Hanotaux et Letourneux, La Kabylie, I, 1872, p. 226. 

' ' Intermediate between the group of P. umbilicata and that 
of P. inornata. ' ' 

According to M. Margier (Feuille Jeunes Naturalistes, 
Annee 40, p. 160) this is a Lauria. 

Lauria dadion (Bs.). Page 64. 

"A single specimen, taken alive [on Mt. Manotsuri, Shil- 
wane district, 4,000 feet] , gives a remarkable extension to the 
limited range of this species. In L. dadion, as well as in its 
near allies L. farquhari and L. tabularis (M. & P.), there is 
frequently a slight, bluntly pointed swelling half-way up and 
rather deep-set on the columella, showing through the shell as 
a white line observable within the umbilicus; in Junod's shell 
this swelling is more prominent than in any other of twenty 
which I have examined from Cape Town and Karkloof, and 
seems to be represented by a clear furrow, rather than a white 
line, in the umbilicus; it will be interesting to see whether 
this variation is constant if further examples are ever col- 
lected in the same neighborhood" (M. Connolly, Proc. Malac. 
Soc. Lond., XV, Dec, 1922, p. 76). 


Caucasian Lauricu (this vol., p. 74). 

The name of section Caucasica C. & M. proves to be pre- 
occupied by Caucasica Bttg., 1877, in Clausiliidce. As a sub- 
stitute, Caucasipupa may be used for Lauria caucasica, which 
I designated type of Caucasica in 1922 (p. 67), with its imme- 
diate allies. 

For the Series of L. superstructa (this vol., p. 74) may be 
used the sectional term Euxinolauria Lindholm (Proc. Malac. 
Soc. Lond., XVI, June 1924, p. 66, footnote), of which Pupa 
pulchra Ret. was designated type. The distinctions of these 
two groups are given on p. 68, in the section of the key num- 
bered 4. 

Subfamily Pagodulininje. 


This Vol., page 176. P. perplicata, 11th line from bottom: 
the date should be 1889, not 1899. 

Genera and Species op Uncertain Affinities or not be- 

(Family Endodontid^:. ) 
Genus PHENACHAROPA Pilsbry. 

Man. Conch., IX, p. 29.— Suter, Man. N. Z. Moll., 1913, p. 
696, as a subgenus of Endodonta. 

Animal having long peduncles and short tentacles; foot 
with a peripodial groove, and there is no mucous caudal pore 
present. Jaw arcuate, vertically striated. Radula with tri- 
cuspid central and lateral teeth, marginals tri- and quadri- 

Shell pupiform, cylindrical, the height about double the 
diameter ; apex obtusely rounded ; base slightly wider, convex, 
and narrowly perforated ; surface ribbed and maculated as in 
the subgenus Charopa ; aperture subvertical, higher than wide, 
toothless; peristome simple, thin, the columellar margin 
dilated (Suter). 

Distribution : New Zealand. 


Pupillidae are lacking in the New Zealand fauna, but a 
Charopa has evolved a shell with the shape of Papilla or 
Columella, retaining the original sculpture and coloration. 
Its true affinity was first recognized by Henry Suter. As no 
description of Pupa novoseelandica has appeared elsewhere in 
this Manual, it is given here. 

Phenacharopa novoseelandica (Pfeiffer). PI. 29, fig. 10. 

Shell perforate, subcylindric, thin, obliquely closely ribbed ; 
deep brown, variegated with straw-colored spots, especially at 
the impressed suture; spire slightly tapering upward, the 
apex rather rounded. Whorls 7%, a little convex, the last 
less than one-third the length, rounded. Aperture subvertical, 
semicircular, toothless; peristome simple, unexpanded, the 
margins remote, columellar margin slightly dilated above. 
Length 4.75, diam. 2 mm., aperture 1% mm. long. (Pfr.). 

New Zealand, North Island : Gisborne, Waimarama, Napier, 
Dannevirke, Ormundville, Wellington, etc. South Island : 
Happy Valley, Stonyhurst (Suter). 

Pupa novoseelandica Pfeiffer, in Kuester, Conchyl. Cab., 
Pupa, p. 135, pi. 17, f . 18, 19 ; Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1852, 
p. 149; Monogr., Ill, p. 530. — Endodonta (Phenacharopa) 
novoseelandica Suter, Man. N. Z. Moll., 1913, p. 697, pi. 27, 
f. 13. — Pupa neozelanica Pfr., Hutton, Trans. N. Z. Inst., 
XVI, p. 191. 

Pupina Ehrenberg, Symboke Physical 1831, was proposed 
as a subgenus of Chilodonta, for toothed Pupas; no species 
mentioned. Name preoccupied in Cyclophoridce. 

Odostomia Fleming (Brewster's Edinburgh Encyclopaedia, 
VII, p. 76, about 1813) was proposed for a heterogeneous 
group including some Pupillidae, Azeca, Garychiwm and vari- 
ous marine shells. As B. B. Woodward has shown ( Journ. of 
Conch., X, 1903, p. 359), Fleming later eliminated the land 
shells from his genus, which has been generally retained for 
a group of Pyrarnidellidae with Turbo plicatus as type (see 
Dall and Bartsch, Bull. 68, U. S. Nat. Mus., 1909, p. 131). 

Puppa Denys de Montfort, Conch. System., II, 1810, p. 298, 
monotype Pupa uva, becomes a synonym of Cerion Bolt., Vol. 
XIV, p. 174. 


Deloplecta and Hercodonta Agassiz are mentioned with 
false references as subgenera of Pupa in Agassiz 's Nomencla- 
tor Zoologicus. Nothing further is known of them. 

Gibaulina J. Mabille, Bull. Soc. Philomathique (3), IX, 
1896, p. 101, for Pupa dealbata W. & B., is evidently a typo- 
graphical error for Gibbidina. 

Dontostoma Hartmann, Uebersicht der 
Europaischen Gattungen, in Erd u. Siisswasser Gasterop. 
Schweiz, 1840. Name only. 

"Cochlodon Fer." Orbigny, Mag. de Zool., 1835, CI. V, 
No. 61, p. 21, an emendation of Cochlodonta Fer., was used 
for various Pupillidse, Bulimulidee and Megaspiridae. 

Pupa maculosa Lamarck. T. cylindracea, attenuato-acuta, 
pallide cornea, apice rufa, maculis fulvis longitudinalibus 
sparsis picta; apertura (in fundo) quadridentata ; labrum 
tenue, margine reflexo. — Long, b 1 /^ lignes. L'ile de Teneriffe 
(Lamarck, Anim. s. Vert., VI, pt. 2, 1822, p. 107). 

Thought by Anton to be Odontostomus inflatus (Wagn.). 

Jaminia sulculata Risso, Hist. Nat. Eur. Merid., iv, 1826, 
p. 90, from Nice, has never been recognized and the type is 
broken, according to Caziot. 

Jaminia trilamillata Risso, t. c, p. 91, Nice. Not iden- 
tified by other authors. The type has been lost according to 
Bourguignat and Caziot. 

Jaminia heptodonta Risso, t. c, p. 92. Unrecognized. 
Type lost. 

Pupa labyrinthus, Mus. reg. Berol., Menke, Syn. Meth. 
Moll., 1828, p. 19 ; nude name. 

Pupa pachygastra Menke, Syn. Meth. Moll, in Mus. Men- 
keano, 1828, p. 19 (based upon Carychium menkeanum Pfr. 
and H. goodalli Fer.; Torquilla pachygastra Zgl., quoted as 
a synonym) = Azeca; Man. Conch., XIX, 292. 

Pupa hebraica (Tristram). 

The shell is very minute, oblong, regularly and very beau- 
tifully striated with grooves; summit short and very obtuse; 


glossy, corneous, pellucid. Whorls 6, the third more swollen 
than the last ; suture deep ; last whorl strongly contracted at 
the mouth. Aperture nearly round, but contracted below; 
peristome continuous, above with a single callus, slightly re- 
flected; 3-toothed, one on the callus, two situated on the left 
margin. Length 2%, diam. 11/2 mm. (Tristram) . 

Palestine : in a tomb near Jericho. 

Pupa hebraica Tristram, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1865, p. 

' ' The beautiful and regular transverse ridges on the whorls, 
as seen through a magnifying glass, at once distinguish this 
from every other species of Pupa" (Tristram). Westerlund 
places this species in Vertigo, but he had not seen it. 

Pupa bermudensis Temple Prince [misprint for Prime] 
Bermuda Pocket Almanack for the year of our Lord 1853, p. 
55. Name only, and no further information has been pub- 

Pupa terricolor, P. ceylanensis, P. solitaria, P. oleosa 
Nevill, Enum. Helic. Ceylon, 1871, p. 6. Undescribed. 

Pupa ekiote Chitty ms., Gloyne, Journ. de Conchyl., xiii, 
1875, p. 121. Brownstown, Jamaica. Undescribed. 

Pupa simplex Sandberger. Die Land und Siisswasser- 
Conchyl. der Vorwelt, 1872, p. 246, pi. 12, f. 15, 15a. Not 
Pupa simplex Gould, 1840. — Gibbulinella simplex (Sdbg.) 
Wenz, Fossilium Catalogus, Pt. 18, II, 1923, p. 734. Eocene, 
Bartonien : Ronca beds, Prov. Vicenza, Italy. 

As the name of this species is preoccupied, it may be called 
Gibbulinella erro. It is considered to be congeneric with 
the living Pupa dealbata W. & B. of Teneriffe, which is known 
to belong to the Streptaxidae. 

Pupa microstoma Moellendorff, Jahrb. D. M. Ges., 1881, p. 
311, not Pupa microstoma Pfeiffer, 1854, may be called Gu- 


Pupa condita Gassies, Journ. de Conchyl., xvii, 1869, p. 73, 
is a Rissoa in poor condition according to Crosse, Journ. de 
Conchyl., xlii, 1895. 


Pupa anodonta Hedley and Musson, Proe. Linn. Soc. N. S. 
W. (2), VI, 1891, p. 558, belongs to the genus Heterocyclics 

Ptychospira deloplecta Slavik, pi. 32, figs. 14, 15 (Achiv. 
fur naturw. Landesdurchforschung von Bohmen, i, 1869, Sec- 
tion II, p. 267, pi. 4, f. 14, 15) is a new genus and species 
based on a minute shell 2 mm. high, 1 wide, of 4% whorls, 
described as finely rib-striate with transversely oval aperture, 
simple, sharp lip, the parietal wall bent in form of an enter- 
ing fold, the sharp angle of which projects into the cavity of 
the whorl, the cavity between this parietal fold and the 
penult whorl is open towards the umbilicus ; in front the fold 
is truncated and closed by a thin callus. The figures were 
restored from parts of three broken specimens, and may there- 
fore be inaccurate. Marly beds of Tuchoric, Czechoslovakia. 

G. Klika agrees with Sandberger in considering this the 
immature stage of a Pupid shell (Tert. Land- u. Siisswasser- 
Conch. N.-W. Bohmen, 1891, in Archiv. naturw. Landesdurch- 
forschung Bohmen, vii, Geol. Abth., p. 98), though it does 
not appear referable to any known Pupid of the same beds. 

Pupa helicoides Meek & Hayden, Proc. A. N. S. Phila., 
VIII, 1856, p. 118. Paleocene: 3 miles above Ft. Union, 
mouth of the Yellowstone, North Dakota. 

Pupa montolivensis Noulet, Mem. Coq. foss., terr. d'eau 
douce du Sud-ouest Prance, 1854, p. 9. Montolieu, Conques. 
Dep. de l'Aude. 

Pupa isonae Vidal, Mem. Real Acad. Cienc. y Artes de 
Barcelona, XVII, No. 2, p. 18. Cretaceous, Catalonia. 

Pupa bulimoidea Michaud, Actes Soc. Linn. Bordeaux, x, 
1838, p. 153, fig. 1. Fossil, mountain of Eeims. 

Pupa gibbosa Michaud, Actes Soc. Linn. Bordeaux, x, 1838, 
p. 154, fig. 2. Fossil, mountain of Reims. 

Pupa vectiensis Edwards MS., R. B. Newton, Syst. List of 
the F. E. Edwards Collection of British Oligocene and Eocene 
Mollusca in the Brit. Mus., 1891, p. 273 (no description). 
Oligocene : Bembridge Beds, Sconce. 


Pupa archiaci Boissy, Mem. Soc. Geol. France (2), III, 
1848, p. 275, pi. 5, f. 21. — Deshayes, An. s. Vert. Bassin Paris, 

II, p. 850. Killy. 

Pupa bythiniformis K. Miller, Jahresh. Ver. Vaterl. 
naturk. Wiirttemb., vol. 63, 1907, p. 455, pi. 9, f . 17. Eocene : 
Bachhagel, Bavaria. 

Pupa amblymorpha Fontannes, Descr. sommaire Fauna 
malac. form, saumatres et d'eau douce du Groupe d'Aix, Bas- 
Languedoc, etc., p. 38, 1884. Lower Oligocene : Avejan pres 
Barjac (Dep. Gard). 

Pupa fabrei Fontannes, Descript. somm. fauna malac. etc., 
1884, p. 38, pi. 4, f. 58, 59. Upper Oligocene, Chattien: 
Sigean (Aude), Montpezat and Montredon (Gard). 

Pupa antiquitata Clessin, Bericht Naturw. Ver. Regens- 
burg, XIII, 1910-11, p. 106 (1912). Upper Miocene: Undorf 
near Regensburg. 

Vertigo corduensis Noulet, Bull. Soc. Hist. Nat. Toulouse, 
i, 1867, p. 153. Oligocene, Rupelien : Dep. Tarn. 

Pupa elegans Matheron, Ann. Sci., Indust. du Midi France, 

III, 1834, p. 57, pi. 1, f. 11. Lower Eocene, Aix etc., Dep. 

Pupa encolata White, Bull. U. S. Geol. and Geogr. Surv. 
Terr., Ill, 1877, p. 611; Ann. Rep. U. S. Geol. and Geogr. 
Surv. Terr, for 1878, p. 47, pi. 19, f. la-c. Paleocene, Green 
River Beds, Henry's Fork, Wyoming. 

Pupa inversa Grateloup, Bull. Soc. Hist. Nat. Soc. Linn. 
Bordeaux, II, 1827, p. 97. Lower Miocene : Castelcrabe (Dep. 
Landes) . 

Pupa phrygica Oppenheim. Zeits. Deutsch. Geol. Ges., LXX, 
1918, p. 182, pi. 12, f. 3 (1919). Neogen : Issis Han, Phrygia. 

Pupa schweinfurthi Mayer-Eymar, Vierteljahrschr. naturf . 
Ges. Zurich, XXXIV, 1889, p. 204, pi. 1, f. 16. Lower Oli- 
gocene : Cairo. 


Pupa tongriana Mayer-Eymar, Vierteljahrschr. naturf. 
Ges. Zurich, vol. 34, 1889, p. 204, pi. 1, f. 17. Oligoeene: 

Pupa spreta Noulet, Bull. Soc. Hist. Nat. Toulouse, I, 1876, 
p. 153. Oligoeene: Dep. Tarn. 

Pupa striata Grateloup, Conchyl. foss. bassin de l'Adour, 
Actes Soc. Linn. Bordeaux, X, 1838, p. 116, pi. 4, f. 16. — 
Pupa inversa Grat., 1827, undescribed. — Pupa substriata Orb., 
Prodr. de Paleont. strat. univ. des Anim. moll, et rayon., Ill, 
1852, p. 26. Lower Miocene : Dax, Faluns jaunes de Mainot a 
Castelcrabe (Dep. Landes). 

Pupa subquadridens Orbigny, Prodr. de Paleont. strat., 
Ill, 1852, p. 26. — Pupa quadridens antiqua Grateloup, Actes 
Soc. Linn. Bordeaux, X, 1838, p. 116, pi. 4, f . 16 ; Conchyl. 
foss. Terrains tert. du Bassin de 1'Adour, 1840, Atlas I, Pup. 
I, f . 18. Miocene : Dax, Faluns jaunes de Mandillot a Saint 
Paul. Probably a Chondrula. 

Pupa marignanensis Eoule, Ann. de Malacologie, II, 1884- 
86, p. 213, pi. 2, f . 16. Upper Cretaceous : upper zone of the 
Lychnus stage, Rognac, Velaux, Marignane, etc., Provence. 
A rather obese species of the genus Palaostoa. 



By F. Haas, Frankfurt a. M., Senckenberg Museum.* 

Residence as a collector for several years in the Pyrenees 
has brought me to, or it may be assumed sufficiently near to, 
the standpoint specified by Pilsbry (Manual, XXIV, p. 263; 
XXV, p. 44) for a monographer of the Pyrenean Abidas and 

In the summer months of several successive years I sys- 
tematically worked through the Catalonian valleys of the 
Pyrenees from west to east; also the low country on the 
southern flank as far as the Ebro, and on the Mediterranean 
coast even to Valencia. By this investigation I was enabled 
to make many biologic observations which perhaps disclose to 
some extent the normal range of variation. On the other 
hand, the active collecting alluded to supplied extensive 
material for comparison, such as is essential for the critical 
handling of variable groups. Together with A. Bofill of Bar- 
celona, I have already reported on my collection in a series 
of papers, and tried to bring together monographically our 
knowledge up to this time of the molluscan fauna of the 
Catalonian Pyrenees. Reference must be made to these 
monographs for detailed locality records, or for exposition of 
the variability of species in single valleys. In the present 
essay, the distribution and variation can only be discussed in 
broader limits. 

The collaboration with A. Bofill has further put me in a 
position to compare cotypes or at least topotypes of many so- 
called species which have been described by Fagot and other 

i Translated by H. A. P. 


adherents of the school of Bourguignat. In the collection of 
the Senckenberg Museum at Frankfurt a. M. there are also at 
my disposition the types and cotypes of Rossmassler, which 
he had received from such authors as Kuster, Moquin-Tandon, 
Terver and Charpentier; and in the same museum are to be 
found the collections of Boettger and Kobelt, with much val- 
uable material for comparison from Asturias and southern 

With such wealth of material as a basis, many questions 
admit of solution which Pilsbry could not take up in his 
treatment of the Pyrenean and Iberian species ; and again, in 
many cases the conclusions differ from those accepted by Pils- 
bry, working with single or few specimens, or often wholly 
dependent upon published accounts. 

In my account of the several species the sequence of Pils- 
bry 's monograph is followed, and references to the literature 
are repeated only when they appear to be essential. The 
rather extensive Spanish literature, hardly known in other 
countries, is cited in the published Studies of the Malacology 
of the Catalonian Valleys of the Pyrenees, so that I have gen- 
erally confined my references herein to the latter. As these 
seven Studies must often be cited, the full titles are given 
here; in the text they are cited in the abbreviated form Est. 
I, II, and so on. 

Estudi sobre la malacologia de les vails pirenaiques. 

I. Estudi sobre la fauna malacologica de la vail de l'Essera, 
by A. Bofill, F. Haas & J. B. d 'Aguilar-Amat. In: 
Treb. Inst. Cat. Hist. Nat., Barcelona, 1919, pp. 9-110, 
Taf. 1-4. 
II. Vail del Noguera Ribagorcana, by A. Bofill & F. Haas. 
In: Treb. Mus. Ciene. Nat. Barcelona, III, 1920, pp. 
1-95, Taf. 1-3. 

III. Vail del Noguera Pallaresa, by A. Bofill & F. Haas. In : 

Treb. Mus. Cienc. Nat. Barcelona, III, 1920, pp. 1-115, 
Taf. 1-3. 

IV. Vail del Segre i Andorra, by A. Bofill & F. Haas. In: 

Treb. Mus. Cienc. Nat. Barcelona, III, 1920, pp. 1-149, 
Taf. 1-3. 


V. Conca del Llobregat, by A. Bofill & F. Haas. In : Treb. 
Mus. Cienc. Nat. Barcelona, III, 1920, pp. 1-455, Taf. 

VI. Conques del Besos, Ter. Fluvia, Muga i literals inter- 

mit jes, by A. Bofill, F. Haas & J. B. d'Aguilar-Amat. 
In: Treb. Mus. Cienc. Nat. Barcelona, III, 1921, pp. 
1-409 Taf. 1-4. 

VII. Vail d'Aran, by A. Bofill & F. Haas. In: Treb. Mus. 

Cienc. Nat. Barcelona, III, 1921, pp. 1-104, Taf. 1. 

Fagot's work — often cited by Pilsbry and myself, and very 
hard to get — ' ' Catalogo razonado de los moluscos del valle del 
Essera," appeared in the Cronica Cientifica de Barcelona, X, 
1887— XI, 1888. In it, on pp. 127-131 and 191-194 of Vol. 
XI, there is a complete list of all forms of the genera Abida 
and Chondrina which Fagot considered valid species. 

1. Abida polyodon (Drap.). PI. 23, figs. 1, 2. 

Pilsbry, Vol. XXIV, p. 270, pi. 44, figs. 1, 2, 3. 

Nothing further is to be added to Pilsbry 's description 
except that in some places in regions poor in lime, forms of 
polyodon are developed in which peristomal folds are com- 
pletely suppressed. Such specimens are mentioned in Est. VI, 
p. 328, and one is figured, pi. 1, figs. 34, 35, from Setcases, 
near Camprodon, Prov. Gerona, at 1200 m. elevation, where 
it was found with seven other entirely similar examples. One 
of these is drawn in pi. 23, fig. 1. 

It may further be mentioned that in a few localities speci- 
mens occur which far surpass the size given by Pilsbry as 
maximal. At Castelldefels, south of Barcelona, for instance, 
no examples are known to me which fall below 10.5 mm. in 
length, and one of the specimens I collected there measures 
12 mm. long, 3.5 mm. diameter. 

A. polyodon is before me from more than sixty localities in 
Spain. In nearly all of them there lives with the typical form 
also a smaller one, corresponding to Kuster's var. ringicula. 
According to Margier this variety is confined to the valleys 
of the French eastern Pyrenees and those of the Dep. Aude, 
while the typical form, unmixed with ringicula, lives in the 


high Pyrenees and the upper Tech valley. My not very abun- 
dant French material does not contradict this, but my Spanish 
certainly does; so that I cannot bring myself to recognize 
var. ringicula. The Pupa amelicc described by Locard from 
Amelie-les-Bains is nothing else than var. ringicula, to which, 
as Pilsbry correctly thought, Moquin-Tandon's var. minor is 
to be added. 

The varieties attrita M.-T. and ventricosa Locard are forms 
from the variation-range of the species, never thought by 
their authors to be independent species. It is otherwise with 
Pupa montserratica Fag. (Ann. Malac, II, 1884, p. 191) from 
the cloister mountain Montserrat, near Barcelona, which Fagot 
named from its type-locality as a distinct species beside poly- 
odon. I have united it directly with polyodon, as it is con- 
nected therewith by all transitions. A cotype from Fagot 
was figured, Est. VI, pi. 3, figs. 18, 19 ; and here a topotype 
of montserratica is illustrated (pi. 23, fig. 2). 

2. Abida braunii (Rossm.). 

Pilsbry, Vol. XXIV, p. 273, pi. 43, figs. 1-6. 

Here too, little is to be added to Pilsbry 's account. The 
range of variation of the species is small, and never reaches 
such extremes that the specific characters become indistinct. 
Only the height of the spire and development of the peristome 
are subject to considerable fluctuations. Westerlund's var. 
conispira from Albarracin, which is unknown to me, belongs, 
according to the description of the author, within the varia- 
tion-range of the species, and could therefore apparently be 
picked out of large lots of oraunii from other localities. 

In France confined to the High and East Pyrenees, A. 
oraunii has a wider distribution in the Iberian Peninsula. 
Besides occurring in the Spanish Pyrenees, it has been found 
as far as the latitude of Barcelona, enters Arragon over the 
Ebro as far as the Province Teruel (Albarracin), and is be- 
fore me in the Kobelt collection likewise in specimens from 
the Basque country (Orduna and Vergara). I cannot demon- 
strate its alleged occurrence in Portugal by specimens seen, 


but by no means deny it; but the record from Algeria by 
Bourguignat appears to me much in need of confirmation. 

3. Abida partioti (Moq.-Tand.). PI. 23, figs. 3, 4. 
Pilsbry, Vol. XXIV, p. 276, pi. 43, figs. 7, 8, 9. 

To the synonymy of this species belongs also Pupa cadica 
Fagot, which Pilsbry (Vol. XXIV, p. 314) considered a 
species of the series of Abida secale (Drap.). I studied two 
cotypes of this form in the Bofill collection in Barcelona, from 
which I ascertained that cadica, quite as Westeiiund states, is 
a form of A. partioti, while Fagot placed his "species" near 
A. secale. In the Est. IV, p. 121, pi. 2, figs. 1, 2, I announced 
this view and sought to prove it by the illustration of one of 
the two Fagot cotypes. 

Pilsbry did not record A. partioti from Spain. It is before 
me from many places in the valleys of the Segre and its 
Pyrenean affluents. The type locality of Fagot's Pupa cadica 
is the Sierra de Cadi on the Coll de Tanca-la-Porta, at about 
1700 m. elevation. 

Pupa dupuyi West., which its author changed later to P. 
cristella, and which Pilsbry thought might be partioti, belongs 
in the synonymy of this. A specimen before me identified as 
dupuyi in the Boettger collection, from the type locality, 
Saint-Sauveur in the High Pyrenees, seems to prove the 
alleged identity. This specimen is figured (pi. 23, figs. 3, 4), 
as Pilsbry 's figure (Vol. XXIV, pi. 43, fig. 10) is a copy from 
the Iconographic, and consequently is none too distinct. 

4. Abida secale (Drap.). PI. 23, figs. 5, 6. 

The treatment of this species and its varieties or local races 
by Pilsbry (Vol. XXIV, pp. 306-314) appears to require ex- 
tension, according to my abundant material from the Pyrenees 
and Catalonia. Pilsbry (I. c, p. 307) leaves A. secale re- 
stricted to central Europe, and mentions from the Pyrenees 
only a few varieties and the subspecies boileausiana (Charp., 
Kstr.) ; from Spain he mentions no localities. My first opinion 
was that the typical secale really did not reach to and over 
the Pyrenees, and that there the local race boileausiana oc- 


curred, and that the described varieties of secale from the 
Pyrenees were referable to that race. Our entire knowledge 
of boileausiana rested hitherto on Kiister's description and 
illustration, and both of these give the impression that we 
really have to do with a species or subspecies close to secale, 
but yet quite separable from that. However, I now find in 
the Rossmassler collection a number of specimens of an Abida, 
received from Charpentier, and which he had himself marked 
as his boileausiana. They vary somewhat in size, and the 
aperture is not equally developed, but they agree, except for 
small discrepancies in the degree of strength of the several 
teeth, and in that the supracolumellar tooth is wanting. The 
aperture thus appears 8-toothed, as Kiister said at first, al- 
though in the further course of his diagnosis he enumerates 9 
teeth. In my opinion, which is sought to be proved by an 
illustration of one of these Charpentier examples (pi. 23, figs. 
5, 6), P. boileausiana can no longer be retained as a separate 
species or subspecies, but must be gathered into the synonymy 
of A. secale as one of the forms of its great range of variation. 

Bofill and I (Est. V, p. 368, pi. 3, figs. 12, 13) have been 
able to bring Pupa lilietensis Bofill back to A. secale as repre- 
senting a thin-shelled and therefore only weakly-toothed form. 
Pilsbry did not know this form, and mentioned it (Vol. XXIV, 
p. 293) among Bofill names without indication of its affinities. 

The other described forms of secale from the Pyrenees fall 
within the range of its variation, and their names in my 
opinion can pass into its synonymy. Var. cylindroides M.-T. 
is somewhat more cylindric; var. elongata Saulcy somewhat 
longer than the typical form, 9 mm. instead of 8 mm., and I 
could specify still longer ones from several localities further 
south. Var. phymata West, is only a thick-shelled form, there- 
fore with a strong peristome, which from its other qualities 
seems to be a true boileausiana. Pupa fagorum Fag., of which 
I can figure a cotype from Aulus, Dep. Ariege (pi. 23, figs. 7, 
8, 9), is on the contrary a thin-shelled form without thickened 
peristome, and completely identical with the var. abrupta 
West, from the same locality. Of Pupa goudoniana Fag. and 
costata Fag. I do not venture to speak positively, whether 


they are referable to secede or rather to A. pijrencvria. Fin- 
ally, Pupa cadica Fag., which Pilsbry mentioned in the fol- 
lowing of secale, I have already treated as a synonym of A. 

On the Spanish side of the Pyrenees — all of the forms 
already mentioned were described from the French side — in 
my Estudis I could record A. secale in most of the Pyrenean 
valleys. In the regions further south it had never been re- 
corded, but it is before me from several localities outside of 
the mountainous regions, along the lower course of the Ebro. 
There it is notable that the species lives not in the valleys, 
but on the mountains, sometimes at quite a considerable ele- 
vation. On Mt. Mola de Falset, Prov. Tarragona, at about 
900 m., partly large specimens up to 10 mm. in length. Also 
in the Sierra de Cardo near Tortosa at the mouth of the Ebro 
I took it at an equal elevation, and south of the Ebro it was 
found at 1000 m. on Monte Caro, opposite Tortosa. The 
specimens from these southern localities run from 7 to 10 mm. 
long, and vary considerably in the aperture, yet not so as to 
require that special names be applied, as all transitions to 
the typical form occur among them. 

5. Abida bigerrensis (Moquin-Tandon). PI. 23, figs. 10 to 14. 

I'n pa. rmgens Michaud, Compl., 1831, p. 64, pi. 15, figs. 35, 
36. Non Pupa rmgens Jeffreys, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, 
XVI, 1829, p. 356. 

Pupa pyrenaica Boubee, Bull. hist. nat. France, 2nd edit., 
1833, p. 10. Non ClausiUa pyrenaica Boubee, Bull. nat. hist. 
France, 1st edit., 1831, p. 9. 

Pupa bigoriensis Rossmaessler, Iconogr. 1837, Heft V-VI, 
p. 14, pi. 23, figs. 3, 21. Non Pupa bigorriensis Des Moulins, 
Act. Soc. Linn. Bordeaux, VII, 1835, p. 163, pi. 2, figs. D 1, 

Pupa rmgens var. bigerrensis Moquin-Tandon, Moll. France, 
1855, p. 362, pi. 26, fig. 21. 

Pupa baillensi Dupuy, Revue Agric. et Hortic. Gers, 1843, 
p. 3, fig. 

Pupa rmgens var. Rossmaessleri Fagot, Bull. soc. hist. nat. 
Toulouse, XV, 1880, p. 204. 

Pupa fagotiana Locard, Ann. Soc. Agricult. Lyon, (5), IV, 
1882, p. 438. 


The name Pupa ringens Michaud, long in use for this 
species, is unfortunately preoccupied by Pupa ringens Jef- 
freys ; we substitute bigerrensis M.-T. for the Pyrenean form. 

I must make this species more comprehensive than Pilsbry 
has done (Vol. XXIV, p. 278). Especially it seems to me 
necessary to include within the range of its variation Pupa 
baillensi Dup. and P. bigerrensis M.-T. (which Pilsbry con- 
sidered respectively as a species and as a subspecies of 
ringens) . 

Pilsbry has already shown (Vol. XXIV, pi. 43, figs. 12-15) 
that A. bigerrensis {ringens) is rather variable in stature and 
in the development of the aperture. The varieties elongata, 
pulchella and disjuncta described by Moquin-Tandon repre- 
sent only that many single stages in this range of variation, 
and also Fagot's P. subringens gives no sufficient cause for 
distinction. All of these forms Pilsbry has quite rightly 
recognized as indistinguishable forms of ringens. In refer- 
ence to P. bigerrensis M.-T. and P. bailie nsi Dupuy he could 
come to no decisive judgment from the want of authentic 
material, therefore treated these two as forms akin to ringens, 
whereas I dare affirm their complete identity from my orig- 
inal material. 

In the Rossmassler collection there are several P. bigerrensis 
(under the name bigorriensis) , which came from Moquin- 
Tandon, one of which is figured on pi. 23, figs. 11, 12. It 
shows that bigerrensis altogether resembles the true ringens 
except in the development of the peristome, which is not con- 
tinuous and is but little thickened. From another collector I 
possess further specimens from Bagneres-de-Bigorre, the type- 
locality of P. bigerrensis, which differ in no respect from the 
true ringens, even showing the continuous thickened peri- 
stome accepted as characteristic of that species. 

Now, everyone who has collected pupillids often and at 
various times of year, knows that full-grown specimens, with 
the apertural folds of the species, can be found, in which the 
peristome is not continuous, reflected or thickened. But a few 
weeks later one can collect the same species at the same place 
with completely continuous peristome; and not long after, 


specimens with thickened peristome can be found. Thus it 
will be understood that a full-grown Abida with all the aper- 
tural folds the species will have, need not by any means have 
completed the construction of the shell. If it lives in a favor- 
able spot, that is, where lime is abundant, it will continue by 
degrees to add to the peristome until it becomes continuous 
and, according to its kind, reflected or thickened. Also the 
folds and teeth of the aperture increase in strength under 
such circumstances. However, as the average collector and 
also the describing author, who seldom collects personally, 
considers a snail adult when it has finished its increase in 
size, so he may often describe as a new variety or even species 
a pupillid which is of full size, but has not reached the full 
formation of the aperture. Such cases have unfortunately 
been introduced very often by the young adherents of the 
Bourguignat school; and also Westerlund has shown his lack 
of personal experience as a collector by naming immature 

The fundamental mistake, however, which has led to all this 
introduction of needless names, is that authors have thought 
that they must slavishly hold to the original descriptions, and 
demand that every species must agree in all details therewith. 

This theoretic digression was necessary to explain why I 
attach little or no importance to differences in the develop- 
ment of the peristome or in the strength of the apertural 
armature, and why I do not recognize forms which have re- 
ceived names on the ground of such differences. 

Pupa Ugerrensis M.-T. (Vol. XXIV, p. 280, pi. 43, fig. 11) 
I consider a not fully-formed A. ringens; and as explained 
above, the name bigerrensis must now be used for what has 
hitherto been considered typical ringens. Pupa baillensi 
Dupuy (Vol. XXIV, p. 280) is also an uncompleted, but 
shorter and thicker A. bigerrensis {ringens). A specimen of 
A. ringens var. baillensi identified by Boettger, from Bayonne, 
the type-locality, is figured on pi. 23, fig. 10. P. garumnica 
Fagot, from the upper Garonne region, treated by Pilsbry as 
a variety of baillensi, is larger than this, and has a more 
broadly expanded peristome. A specimen collected by Bofill 


near Artias in the Valle d'Aran, thus in the upper Garonne 
valley, serves to illustrate this form in pi. 23, figs. 13, 14. 

Contrary to the view expressed by Pilsbry (Vol. XXIV, p. 
179), A. bigerrensis (ringens) is known to me from, various 
valleys on the southern side of the Pyrenees. I never found 
it outside of the mountains, but there are specimens before 
me from the Basque country (Ordufia and San Sebastian). 

6. Abida pyren^earia (Mich.). PI. 24, figs. 1 to 10. 

To this species of the high Pyrenees I ascribe the following 
forms, treated by Pilsbry (Vol. XXIV, 286 and following 
pages) as separate species: Pupa vergniesiana Kstr. and its 
variety provida West., Papa hospitii Fag., P. clausilioides 
Boubee, P. aulusensis Fag. and P. petrophila Fag. 

The basis of my treatment is similar to that already dis- 
cussed under A. bigerrensis. The original diagnosis of the 
species need not be supplemented further, except by saying 
that the apertural development depends very much upon the 
geologic constitution of the station, which is further not with- 
out influence upon the size of the shell. In some localities A. 
pyrencearia reaches a length of 8 mm., with a diameter of 3.5 
mm. ; in others, with a diameter of 3 mm., it is only 6 mm. 
high; and a third, described under the name clausilioides, 
measures only 2.5 mm. diameter with a length of 7 mm. The 
shell form also is as mutable as the length. The specimens 
illustrated in pi. 24, figs. 1, 2, 3, 4, all came from the same 
place, the Spanish side of the Port de Salau in the Province 
Lerida, where I collected them close together at an elevation 
of about 1800 m. They show that the shape may be from 
narrowly cylindric to bluntly fusiform, the apex more or less 
acute. The striation of the shell varies a good deal. Along- 
side of strongly, distantly striate ones, closely and finely 
striate live, and others in which the kind of striation differs 
on different whorls, and even almost wholly disappears on the 
last. The development of the aperture goes through all the 
stages specified for A. bigerrensis. 

A series of specimens of A. vergniesiana in the Rossmassler 
collection, received from Charpentier, lies before me, agreeing 


well with Pilsbry 's illustrations (Vol. XXIV, pi. 44, figs. 7, 
10, 12). According to these, vergmesiana is a thick-shelled 
form of pyren&aria with the aperture dilated below, and its 
var. provide is nothing else than a weak-toothed form of 
Midland's species. 

The true A. pyrencearia appears to he little known, as the 
illustrations of Michaud and of Dupuy, which last Pilsbry 
has copied (XX1V, pi. 44, fig. 9) are by no means good. The 
Dupuy figure represents pyrencearia. with parietal and angular 
lamellae perpendicular to the shell axis, whereas both of them 
really stand exactly as in P. vergniesiana. My figured speci- 
mens from Port de Salau (pi. 24, figs. 1 to 4) will show this. 

Pupa hospitii was treated by Pilsbry (XXV, p. 37) as a 
Chondrina. In the appendix to the same volume, however, on 
p. 371, he mentioned it as a form of pyrencearia, in conformity 
with the conclusion of Bofill and myself (Est. I, p. 91, pi. 4, 
figs. 10, 11). As I said already (I. c), in P. hospitii, from 
Hospital de Venasque, Prov. Huesca, in the central Pyrenees, 
I can only see a slender and narrow-mouthed pyrencearia, like 
the specimens from that place illustrated in pi. 24, fig. 5. 

Pupa aidusensis Fag., which Bofill and I have already 
placed in the synonymy of pyrencearia (Est., Ill, p. 99, pi. 3, 
f. 14, 15), is only a more slender, more cylindric form of this 
species, with weaker apertural folds, and is connected with 
typical pyrancarki by all transitions, living with it in the 
same locality. A cotype from Fagot is illustrated, pi. 24, fig. 6. 

Pupa aidusensis Fag. is the same as P. saxicola M.-T. Fagot 
chose a new name for it because there was an older P. saxicola 
Lowe. According to cotypes from Moquin-Tandon of his 
saxicola, of which one is figured in pi. 24, figs. 7, 8, 9, there 
can be no doubt that we have to do with a typical pyrencearia. 
Krister's illustration of this form, copied by Pilsbry (XXIV, 
pi. 44, fig. 13) is very imperfectly characteristic. 

Finally, Pupa clausilioides Boubee, of which I can figure a 
good specimen from the Boettger collection (pi. 24, fig. 10), 
is only an especially slender and fusiform shell, otherwise 
differing in no respect from the range of variation of A. 
pyr< ncearia. By its narrow shell it resembles certain forms 


of A. affinis (Rossm.), but by the structure of the aperture it 
does not belong to this, but to pyrencearia. 

Pupa nansoutyi Fag. and P. occidentalis Fag. in Wester- 
lund are not known to me, but it appears certain, from their 
descriptions, that they also are to be referred to A. pyren- 

Abida pyrencearia is a truly Pyrenean snail, not straying 
beyond the limits of the mountains. On the Spanish side it 
is known to me only from the highest parts; I never found it 
below an elevation of 1400 m. In all its localities it is very 
abundant, upon cliffs and under stones. 

The group of Abida affinis (Rossm.). 

While all Pyrenean Abidas already discussed prove to be 
indeed very variable, so as to give occasion for the proposi- 
tion of many new names, none of these variation-forms proved 
to be characteristic of definite, well-defined regions, so that 
none of the new "species" or "varieties" could be retained 
as local forms (subspecies). It is otherwise with A. affinis, 
which in the area it inhabits has developed into a series of 
well-marked forms, which in their respective districts do not 
intergrade with the others. By the admission of the occur- 
rence of such local races it must not be understood that this 
species and its subspecies are less variable individually than 
the Abidas already discussed. In all localities whence I have 
abundant material — and they are many — it is seen that the 
shells ocillate between strictly cylindric and distinctly fusi- 
form; and in the latter case the point of greatest diameter 
may be removed a varying distance from the middle of the 
shell. With relatively constant length, the diameter is sub- 
ject to great variation; shells of 11 mm. long may have a 
diameter of from 2 to 3.5 mm., in fusiform as well as in 
cylindric shell-forms. 

Up to this time, four local races of A. affinis are known to 
me, of which two do not live in the Pyrenees, but in the ad- 
joining mountainous regions southward. 


Abida affinis affinis (Rossni.). 

Vol. XXIV p. 282, pi. 44, figs. 5, 6. 

I have only to add to the description (I. c.) that the little 
ernbayment of the palatal margin of the aperture above is 
characteristic of this form, and that the basal fold may be 
degenerate, as happens to be the case with Rossmassler's orig- 
inal series. 

With Pilsbry I reckon as synonyms Moquin-Tandon 's vari- 
eties cylindrella and elongata. Pupa eudolicha Bgt. I view 
as a slender, abnormally toothless A. affinis affinis. Wester- 
lund's var. saeva (based upon one specimen!) is surely to be 
regarded as abnormal, his Pupa bipalatalis also as abnormal 
in the tooth-reduction. 

Pupa (Torquilla) hetcem West. (Vol. XXIV, p. 294), Pupa 
leptospira West. (p. 295), and P. migma West. (p. 295), all 
three from the French eastern Pyrenees, are not known to 
me, and I can therefore not pass judgment upon them; yet 
they may well belong to A. affinis affinis. 

In distribution, A. affinis affinis is confined to the northern 
side of the Pyrenees; the known localities lying between the 
valley of the Tech (La Preste, type-locality) and Bagneres- 
cle-Luchon. The Spanish localities quoted by Pilsbry (I. c, p. 
282) pertain to A. affinis catalonica (Bof.), the last two, Mont- 
serrat and Paramon, to A. affinis bofilli (Fag.). 

11). Abida affinis catalonica (Bofill). PL 25, figs. 1 to 6. 

Pupa catalonica Bofill, Bull. Soc. Malac. France, III, 1886, 
p. 157. 

Abida catalonica (Bofill) Pilsbry, Man. XXIV, p. 294. 

Pupa (Modicella) affinis catalonica Bofill and Haas, Est. 
VI, p. 328, pi. 1, f. 36-45 (full references to literature). 

Pupa freseriaiia Fagot (= P. affinis var. major Bofill), 
Cron. Cient. Barcelona, XI, 1888, p. 130. 

Pupa perlonga Fagot (= P. affinis var. elongatissima Bo- 
fill), Cron. Cient. Barcelona, XI, 1888, p. 130. 

Pupa phthisica Bofill, Bull. Soc. Malac. France, VII, 1890, 
p. 258. 

It differs from A. affinis affinis by the stronger dentition, 
especially recognizable in the stronger development of the 


parietal lamella; the coluniellar lamellae stands somewhat in- 
clined, not exactly horizontal. The embayment at the upper 
palatal margin of the peristome is scarcely indicated; the 
peristome itself in quite mature examples shows a slight plica- 
tion, similar to that of A. polyodon but much weaker. PL 25, 
figs. 1, 2, illustrate this local race from a Camprodon topotype. 

Pupa freseriana Fag., from the banks of the Freser at 
Queralps (pi. 25, figs. 3, 4, a cotype), is a slightly fusiform 
specimen. P. perlonga Fag. from Montagut near Ribas (pi. 
25, fig. 5, cotype), a slender, regularly coiled specimen. P. 
phthisica Bof. from Besora (pi. 25, fig. 6, cotype) is a patho- 
logic form, the last whorl departing a little from the axis of 
the shell. 

This local race occurs only on the Spanish side of the Pyr- 
enees, in the valleys of the Catalonian eastern Pyrenees, from 
those of the upper Llobregat nearly to the Mediterranean. 

7c. Abida affinis montsicciana (Bofill). PL 25, figs. 7. la. 

Pupa montsicciana Bofill, Bull. Soc. Malac. France, VII, 
1890, p. 263. 

Abida montsiccana (Bofill), Pilsbry, Vol. XXIV, p. 293. 

Pupa (Modicella) affinis montsicciana Bofill and Haas, 
Est. II, p. 83, pi. 2, f. 25-28; Est. IV, p. 118 (full references 
to literature). 

Pupa vidalis J. Maluquer, Butll. Inst. Cat. Hist. Nat., IV, 
1904, p. 40. 

Distinguished from A. affinis affinis by the presence of a 
semi-ovate aperture without any embayment, of numerous 
accessory folds on the parietal wall and considerable size (10 
to 12.5 mm.). The figured specimen is a cotype from Portell 
del Montsech. 

Pupa vidalis J. Maluquer remains a nomen nudum; it was 
based upon specimens of A. a. montsicciana from Hostal Roig 
in Montsech. 

This local race is confined to the Montsech range, which 
does not belong to the Pyrenean system, but which extends as 
a steep wall from the Noguera Ribagorzana to the Segre, in 
the southern part of the pre-Pyrenean sierras. 


Id. Abida affinis bofilli (Fagot). PI. 25, figs. 8, 9. 

Pupa bofilli Fagot, Ann. Malac, II, p. 189. 
Abida bofilli (Fagot) Pilsbry, Manual XXIV, p. 292. 
Pupa (Modicella) affinis bofilli, Bofill and Haas, Est. V, 
p. 367, pi. 3, f. 14-17 (complete literature). 

Remarkable for its constantly small size (8 mm. high, 2 mm. 
diani.), weaker folds in the rounded aperture and the thin 
shell. Apparently to be viewed as an adaptation to the dis- 
trict it inhabits, poor in lime but rich in gypsum. A topo- 
type is figured, pi. 25, figs. 8, 9. 

The habitat of this local race is the gypsum-marl formation 
of the lower Llobregat district; type-locality, the Cloister 
mountain Montserrat. 

le. Abida affinis andorrensis (Bgt.). PI. 25, figs. 10-13. 

Pupa andorrensis Bourguignat, Rev. Mag. Zool., 2 ser., XV, 
1863, p. 153, pi. 14, f. 17-19. 

Abida andorrensis Pilsbry, Vol. XXIV, p. 293, pi. 44, f. 
14, 15. 

Pupa andorrica Fagot, Hist. Mai. Pyr. Franc. Esp., 1892, 
p. 94. 

Pupa (Modicella) affinis andorrensis Bofill and Haas, Est. 
IV, p. 119, pi. 1, f. 15-23 (complete literature references). 

Pupa tuxensis Fagot, in Westerlund, Nachr. Bl. D. Mai. 
Ges., XXXIV, 1902, p. 40. — Fagot, Butll. Inst. Cat. Hist. 
Nat., V, 1905, pp. 139, 143. 

Actually typical A. affinis, as figured by Rossmassler, does 
not occur in the Segre valley, but a local race of it is found 
there, resembling affinis in general shape of the shell and in 
structure of the apertural armature, yet distinguished by the 
stronger and more spreading peristome. This thickening and 
expansion of the peristome gives the aperture a rounded ap- 
pearance, and brings about the disappearance of the embay- 
ment or shallow sinulus so characteristic of A. affinis affinis. 
Specimens thus characterized, therefore differing from the 
specific type only in development of the peristome, were named 
P. tuxensis by Fagot. A cotype of this form, from Tuxent at 
about 1000 m. elevation, is drawn in pi. 25, figs. 12, 13. A 
higher plane of evolution is represented by the specimens 


which have the outer and inner margins of the peristome 
united by a strong callus, forming a continuous peristome, 
which may even stand free of the last whorl. 

Such specimens with continuous peristome, as also those 
without the connection, either as a mark of age or in conse- 
quence of life in a locality rich in lime, can thicken the peri- 
stome and form tooth-like foldlets on the inner and outer 
margins, interposed between the usual folds of the affinis type. 
If this structure of peristomal folds extends upon the upper 
margin also, we have Bourguignat's Pupa andorrensis. 

The transition-stages to the complicated andorrensis are 
illustrated in pi. 25, figs. 10, 11, by two specimens from the 
Congost de Organya in the Segre Valley. 

A correct systematic disposition of andorrensis has been 
difficult on account of the peculiar structure of the basal keel 
and the conformation of apertural folds as inferred from 
Bourguignat's original figures, since the form has not hitherto 
been represented in other collections. Bourguignat himself 
mentioned for comparison P. polyodon (Drap.), apparently 
led astray by the purely superficial similarity of the system 
of peristomal folds. Bofill and I, by the aid of our extensive 
material, were the first to recognize andorrensis as a local 
race of A. affinis. It is moreover to be intimated that none 
of the many specimens examined by us attains to the 
strength of the peristomal folds of Bourguignat's original 
figure. However, as I have had opportunity to compare 
Bourguignat's types with the figures he gave, I know that 
this investigator exaggerated in his figures the peculiarities 
thought to be characteristic of the snails he was illustrating. 
"With this procedure in mind, the difference between the orig- 
inal figure and our material may be minimized. 

A. affinis andorrensis is moreover subject to great fluctua- 
tion in length of the she'll. In the Congost of Oliana live 
specimens of 10 mm. long, 3.75 mm. cliam., together with 
others of 12 mm. long and 3 mm. diam. ; and one from Isobol 
in the upper Segre valley measures only 8 mm. long, 3 mm. 

This local race is restricted to the valley of the Segre so far 


as it flows iii the Pyrenees, and to its right tributary the 
Valira, which flows out of Andorra. In the Pyrenean valleys 
further west, no species of the affinis group could be detected ; 
in those towards the east the above-mentioned A. a. catalonica 
(Bof.) lives. 

Genus CHONDRINA (Vol. XXV, p. 1). 

Chondrina (Solatopupa) similis (Brug.). 

Pilsbry, Manual XXV, p. 57, pi. 4, figs. 1-4. 

As Pilsbry has said, this species has its southeastern limit 
in the Spanish Province Gerona, wherein it occurs southward 
as far as the Ter, thus about to the boundary of Province 
Barcelona. Only the locality Fonteta lies south of this river. 
Couturier's record that C. similis occurs in Barcelona could 
not be confirmed by Bofill and me, at least not in case the city 
of that name was intended. According to Spanish usage, the 
Province is called by the name of its capital city, so that quite 
possibly Couturier's material came from Barcelona Province. 
Though similis is not yet detected there, yet it is by no means 
excluded that it does not live in the northern part, over 
against Gerona Province. 

The variability of Spanish specimens is relatively small, at 
least as compared with those of the Alpes-Maritimes. 

Subgenus Chondrina proper. 

This includes all of the species following. 

The group of Chondrina (Chondrina) bigorriensis (Des M.). 

As in A. affinis among the Abidas, so C. bigorriensis here, 
has formed a series of local races, which however are less dis- 
tinct owing to the greater variability of the species. Only in 
the average can the specimens of a special district be said to 
be characteristic thereof. Among them there are always scat- 
tering specimens which are not separable from the typical 
form of the species ; so that one may venture to say that in 
this species the formation of local races is not yet completed. 
Since the size and thickness of the shell fluctuates between 


wide limits in all localities whence bigorriensis is known, and 
that further, the shape of the aperture is by no means con- 
stant, it is very hard to find characters for separation of the 
races. Here, too, full-grown specimens but with the peristome 
not completely developed have given occasion for the propo- 
sition of new specific names, as will be mentioned under the 
various local races. 

Chondrina bigorriensis bigorriensis (Des M.). PL 26, figs. 

Pilsbry, Manual XXV, p. 29, pi. 2, figs. 1, 2, 3, 7. 

Pupa moquiniana Kuester, Conch. Cab., Pupa, p. 52, pi. 7, 
f. 4, 5. 

Pupa badia var. gigantea Rossmaessler, Iconographie, III, 
p. 106, pi. 85, f. 937. — Chondrina gigantea Pilsbry, XXV, p. 
32, pi. 3, f. 7, 8. 

? Pupa cereana Kuester, Conch. Cab., Pupa, p. 47, pi. 6, f. 
9-11. — Chondrina cereana Pilsbry, XXV, p. 21, pi. 1, f. 11. 

? Pupa baregiensis Locard, Ann. Soc. Agric. Lyon, III, 
1896, p. 187. — Chondrina baregiensis Pilsbry, XXV, p. 35. 

? Pupa centralis Fagot, Hist. Malac. Pyr. Franc. Esp., 
1891. — Chondrina centralis Pilsbry, XXV, p. 35. 

Pupa (Modicella) megacheilos bigorriensis Bopill and Haas, 
Est. VII, p. 91. 

I have nothing to add to Pilsbry 's description of this local 
race. The cotypes before me from Bagneres-de-Bigorre 
(Hautes-Pyrenees) agree fully with Des Moulins' description 
and with Pilsbry 's illustrations. 

Pilsbry (I. c, p. 30) correctly treats P. moquiniana Kstr. as 
a form of bigorriensis, not a distinct species. I was able to 
compare specimens in Rossmassler's collection from the type- 
locality, Mt. Beudat near Pau (not Beudar, as Pilsbry wrote, 
p. 31), and to convince myself of the complete identity of 
Kiister's form with bigorriensis. One of these examples is 
drawn in pi. 26, fig. 1. 

The form described from the Cirque de Gavarnie (H.-Pyr.) 
as Pupa badia var. gigantea has been elevated by Pilsb^ to a 
species. According to the cotypes, of which I figure one on 
pi. 26, fig. 2, I can see in var. gigantea nothing more than an 


extraordinarily large but otherwise typical bigorriensis, which 
besides its size is distinguished only by the weak development 
of its teeth and lamella?. My specimens vary between 11 and 
12 mm. high and 4 to 4.5 mm. diameter. Further on we will 
come to a pronounced giant form of C. bigorriensis tenui- 
marginata (DesM.). 

What Pupa cereana Kstr. is will probably never be cer- 
tainly known. According to Raster's illustration we have to 
do with a species very closely related to bigorriensis, perhaps 
quite identical with it; but the locality records, France and 
southern Germany, does not permit this view. Westerlund 
mentions Carinthia, southern France and northern Spain as 
further localities, whereby the records of Kiister become some- 
what easier to understand, since his "Siiddeutschland" may 
very well coincide with Westerlund 's "Karnten," as in Kiis- 
ter 's time Austria-Hungary was still considered a part of 
Deutschland. But in Carinthia, C. megacheilos (Cr. & Jan) 
occurs, which under the circumstances might be taken to be 
Kiister 's cereana. The western distribution, southern France 
and northern Spain, would answer therefore for C. bigor- 
riensis, though the conjectures expressed above do not justify 
placing cereana directly in the synonymy of that species. 

Pupa baregiensis Locard and P. centralis Fagot, both from 
the High Pyrenees, are known to me only by the descriptions, 
which indicate relationship with bigorriensis. Considering 
the species-splitting of their authors, we will not go far wrong 
if we conclude that their species were based upon individual 
variations of C. bigorriensis bigorriensis. 

Bofill and Haas have mentioned this local race under the 
name P. megacheilos bigorriensis, and have recorded it from 
the Valle d'Aran, the part of Spain lying on the north side 
of the Pyrenees, through which flows the uppermost Garonne. 

For the distributon of C. bigorriensis bigorriensis can be 
given in general: the High Pyrenees. Moquin-Tandon men- 
tions also C. b. tenuimarginata from there (at Luchon) ; but 
I convinced myself, by examples from him in Rossmassler's 
collection, that there had been an exchange of specimens. 
We may therefore regard C. b. bigorriensis as the local race 


of the French High Pyrenees, that is, the region of the water- 
shed of the Garonne and the Adour. This form is not known 
to me from the Spanish High Pyrenees ; all I saw from there 
are C. b. tenuimarginata, which on the French side is re- 
stricted to the eastern Pyrenees. 

Chondrina bigorriensis tenuimarginata (Des M.). PI. 26, 
figs. 3 to 9, 12. 

Chondrina tenuimarginata Pilsbry, XXV, p. 31, pi. 2, figs. 

Pupa leptocheilos Fag., Bull. Soc. Hist. Nat. Toulouse, 
1879, p. 241. 

C. tenuimarginata var. elongatissima Pilsbry, p. 32, pi. 2, 
fig. 6. 

C. goniostoma- Pilsbry, p. 33, pi. 2, figs. 13-14. — C. gonio- 
stoma forma aucta Pilsbry, p. 33. — C. goniostoma var. juU- 
ensis Pilsbry, p. 34, pi. 2, figs. 15-16. 

Pupa (Modicella) megacheilos goniostoma Bofill & Haas, 
Est. VI, p. 128, pi. 1, figs. 46-55 (full literature upon occur- 
rence in Spain). 

Pupa crassata Fag., Cron. Cient. Barcelona, XI, 1888, p. 
127. — Chondrina crassata Pilsbry, XXV, p. 36. 

Pupa angulata Fag., Cron. Cient. Barcelona, XI, 1888, p. 
104. — Chondrina angulata Pilsbry, XXV, p. 34. 

Pupa adeodati Fag., Butll. Inst. Cat. Hist. Nat., VI, 1906, 
p. 134. 

As Pilsbry states, this form is almost identical with the 
typical bigorriensis, only usually somewhat more fusiform and 
lighter colored, and with the aperture somewhat angular 
below. These characters are pretty universal, but not so con- 
stant but that their gradual development has given proofs of 
the relation of species and variety. 

The Fagot name leptocheilos, which its author changed later 
to leptochilos, does not denote a new form, but was only a 
substitute for the septensyllabic tenuimarginata. 

Des Moulins' var. elongatissima of tenuimarginata merely 
stands for a much lengthened form. 

P. goniostoma Kiister is in my opinion completely identical 
with tenuimarginata, a view nearly reached by Pilsbry. The 
distributional areas of both are the same. Westerlund 's 


forma aucta of goniostoma is distinguished by the possession 
of 6 palatal folds, which apparently are the upper-, lower- 
and infra-palatals of typical goniostoma, to which two weak 
supra-palatals and one basal have been added. C. goniostoma 
var. juliensis Bourguignat is characterized by the possession 
of two folds at the insertion of the right lip-margin. 

Bofill and Haas, in their first six Estudis imposed the name 
P. megacheilos goniostoma upon Ghondrina bigorriensis tenui- 

Pupa crassata Fagot, from the Escalas de Sopeira in the 
valley of the Noguera Ribagorzana, is a form with strongly 
expanded, thick peristome, such as may be formed by speci- 
mens living where the country rock is calcareous. In pi. 26, 
fig. 3, I figure a cotype. 

Pupa angulata Fagot, from the valley of the Esera, is that 
form of C. b. tenuimarginata in which the angularity of the 
lower margin of the aperture is most pronounced. A topo- 
type is figured, pi. 26, fig. 4. 

Finally, Pupa adeodati Fagot is, according to a communi- 
cation from Father Adeodat Marcet of the Monastery of 
Montserrat, a deformed specimen of G. b. tenuimarginata 
found on the mountain of the same name. 

The three specimens from the valley of the Noguera Riba- 
gorzana, between Pont de Suert and Sopeira, shown in pi. 26, 
figs. 5, 6, 7, 8, give an idea of how little constancy there is in 
the characters of the aperture (strength of the teeth, angle of 
the lower part of the peristome, strength or expansion of the 
peristome, etc.). They Avere collected on the same cliff, and 
with equally strong peristomes show three different forms of 
aperture. The difference in size is not so considerable as in 
other localities to be discussed later. A race with very weak 
development of peristome lives on the mountains near the 
coast in the northern part of Barcelona Province (Caldas de 
Montbuy, San Miguel del Fay and so on) ; it shows the lower 
peristomal angle especially strong, as in pi. 26, fig. 9, a speci- 
men from Caldas de Montbuy. 

The following will serve to illustrate the size variation, in 
specimens measured from El Bruch, near Montserrat: 7.5 to 


11 mm. high, 3.5 to 4 mm. in diameter; one specimen has a 
diameter of 4.5 mm. with height of only 8 mm. 

Upon the mountains of the mouth of the Ebro, where C. b. 
tenuimarginata has been found in recent years, a form lives 
which can only be compared with the form gigantea of C. b. 
bigorriensis of Gavarnie. It measures up to 10.5 mm. high 
with 4.5 mm. diameter, and is notable for the extremely fine 
striation of the shell and weak structure of the apertural 
lamellae. Besides the two palatals there are indications of 2 
supra- and 1 infrapalatal. A specimen from Forat Negre at 
the Hospitalet del Infant, near Vandellos, Prov. Tarragona, 
is drawn in pi. 26, fig. 12. 

C. bigorriensis tenuimarginata is known up to this time 
from the French and Spanish East Pyrenees, the Spanish 
High Pyrenees, westward to the Rio Salarar in Navarra and 
the coastal region skirting the Pyrenees south of the mouth of 
the Ebro. Included in this area lies the isolated mountain 
mass of Montsech, where a special local race of bigorriensis 
has been evolved, the C. b. microchilus Bofill, about to be dis- 

In his treatise "Estudio critico de la Pupa megacheilos 
Cristofori et Jan y de algunas formas derivadas de ella que 
viven en Esparia" (Real Sociedad Espanola Hist. Nat., Ma- 
drid, Tomo Extraordinario, del 50 Aniv., 1921, pp. 309-336, 
pi. 19), F. Azpeitia treated of the south Pyrenean local races 
of Abida bigorriensis (which species he considered a local 
race of C. megacheilos), and investigated the forms gonio- 
stoma, leptocheilos, adeodati, microchilus, bigorriensis, elon- 
gatissima, gigantea, juliensis and angulata in their relations 
to this. His results are almost the same as those to which 
my own studies have led; only he did not recognize C. bigor- 
riensis bigorriensis as a local form independent of C. b. tenui- 
marginata. This was evidently because his research material 
was from the Aragonian part of the range, whilst A. b. bigor- 
riensis occurs only in the southern part of these mountains. 
Having before him no authentic material, he took Pupa micro- 
chilus Bof. to be merely a small-mouthed form of tenuimargi- 
nata, whereas I hold it to be the local race characteristic of 
the Montsech range. 


Azpeitia figures 8 specimens on his plate, representing as 
many forms, and demonstrating their untenability. Among 
the figured specimens happened to be one of A. b. tenuimargi- 
nata form elongatissima Des M. from Foz de la Binies in 
Aragon, 15.5 mm. in length. 

Chondrina bigorriensis microchilus (Bofill). PI. 26, fig. 10. 

Pupa leptochilus var. microchilus Bofill, Act. Mem. I 
Congr. Nat. Esp. Zaragoza, 1909, p. 198 ; Treb. Inst. Cat. Hist. 
Nat., I, 1915, p. 44, pi. 6, f. 2. 

Pupa (Mod/iceUa) megacheilos microchilus Bofill and 
Haas, Est. II, p. 84, pi. 3, f . 1, 2 ; Est, III, p. 199. 

"This title is proposed for a form which I found in the 
valley of the Noguera Ribagorzana and in the Congost de 
Sabinos between Sot de Fet and Sot de Blancafort. 

"It is distinguished chiefly by its strongly lengthened shape 
and its small aperture" (Bofill). 

From eight localities in Montsech there are specimens of a 
form of bigorriensis before me which all differ from typical 
bigorriensis and its local form tenuimarginata by the pecu- 
liarities mentioned by Bofill. On pi. 26, fig. 10, is figured a 
Bofill cotype of his P. microchilus from Ca'n Quinquilla de 
la Serra in Montsech. Its small, round aperture with the 
very strongly developed angular lamella and the strong colu- 
mellar lamella are very characteristic. 

In size the Montsech form varies relatively little. The 
figured specimen measures 8.5 mm. long, 3 mm. diameter. 

This local race, which differs a good deal from other forms 
of bigorru nsis by the constancy of its apertural and size pro- 
portions, is restricted to the Montsech chain in the Province 

The group of Chondrina avenacea (Brag.). 

As will appear in the following exposition, I cannot, from 
the examination of my Pyrenean and north-Spanish material 
— several thousand specimens strong — arrange the Chondrinas 
of the Pyrenean center in a special Group of C. fa/rmesi as 
Pilsbry has done (XXV, p. 45). What led Pilsbry to this 


arrangement, which seems to me unnatural, was in the first 
place that the forms in question are all more or less deficient 
in teeth or lack them altogether, while typical avenacea occurs 
in the Pyrenees but seldom. Further, that the forms erected 
as distinct species and varieties are in large part known only 
by descriptions, being scarcely to be found in collections, 
which naturally made a correct estimate of them impossible. 

I hope to be able to demonstrate by my arrangement that 
the characters which have appeared certain marks of distinc- 
tion to the authors of the many Pyrenean species and varieties 
of Chondrina, such as shape and size of the shell, number of 
whorls, strong or superficial striation, structure of the peri- 
stome, and not least, the number and combination of apertural 
teeth and folds, can be shown to lead into one another, even 
among specimens taken in the same place, and therefore can 
not be used for specific and varietal distinction. 

The forms placed together by Pilsbry (I. c.) belong, accord- 
ing to my researches, to two different local races. The first, 
which must take the name farinesi, is restricted to the High 
and East Pyrenees, as well as in Aragon, about to the Ebro, 
and northern Catalonia as far as the latitude of Barcelona. 
The second, which groups around P. jumillensis Pfr., belongs 
to the eastern half of southern Spain, and comes into contact 
with the preceding race in the north. How the Chondrinas 
from Asturia and the Basque provinces which muster about 
P. kobelti Hid. are related to the first two local races I cannot 
certainly ascertain without collecting experience and more 
ample material than is now at my disposal. The similarity of 
this group to more fully toothed forms of the Pyrenean fari- 
nesi is great, but the two do not seem to me to be identical. 

In Pilsbry 's list of Pyrenean Chondrinas of the group of 
bigorriensis there is a series of forms which I must refer to 
the avenacea group, and which belong in three form-series I 
have defined. 

10a. Chondrina avenacea farinesi (Des M.). PI. 27, figs. 
1 to 5. 
Synopsis of the combinations of apertural teeth of Chon- 


drina avenacea farinesi now known, with the names which 
have been applied to them respectively, and references to 
Manual, Vol. XXV. 

No. Par. Col. Pal. Names and remarks. 

1. farinesi Des M. and var. obesa Bgt. ; var. 
siibcarinata Bgt. (XXV, pp. 45-47, pi. 5, 
f. 1, 2) ; speluncae Loc. (XXV, p. 47). 

One specimen! Gerona. 

microdon West (XXV, p. 49). 

One specimen! Gerona. 

farinesi var. dentiens M. T. (XXV, p. 47, 
pi. 5,1 4). 

farinesi var. biplicata Bgt. (XXV, p. 47) ; 
jumillensis var. ascendens West. (XXV, 
p. 47). 

ignota Fag. (XXV, p. 51). 

jumillensis var. C, Bof. (Bull. Soc. Mai. 

Fr., Ill, 1886, p. 154) ; longini Fag. 

(XXV, p. 48). 
massotiana Bgt. (XXV, p. 52, pi. 5, f. 5). 
penchinatiana Bgt. (XXV, p. 53). 

penchinatiana var. confusa West. (XXV,. 
p. 55). 
23. 2 2 1 Three specimens ; Segre valley. 

































































24. 2 2 2 sexplicata Bof. (XXV, p. 53) = ilerdensis 

Fag. (XXV, p. 56) ; sexplicata var. 
minor Bof. (Ann. Junta Ciene. Nat. 
Barcelona, II, 1917, p. 545). 

25. 2 2 3 avenacea Brug. (XXV, p. 10, pi. 1, f. 4-6), 

and var. domicella West. (XXV, p. 54) ; 
aureacensis Loc. (XXV, p. 14). 

26. 2 2 4 duplicata Kstr. (XXV, p. 14, pi. 1, f. be- 

low f. 7). 

27. 2 3 2 One specimen ; Escalas de Sopeira. 

28. 3 2 4 

The above table will serve at the same time for a list of 
synonyms of this form. The literature may be found in Vol. 
XXV as cited above. Besides this, it is to be found in the 
Estudis of Bofill and Haas as follows : I, p. 91 ; II, p. 87, pi. 
3, f. 9, 10; III, p. 101; IV, p. 125, pi. 2, f. 5-26; V, p. 372; 
VI, p. 334; VII, p. 92. 

During the preparation of the seven Parts of these Estudis, 
Bofill and I several times changed our point of view regard- 
ing the local races in question. As we at first, in the valley 
of the Esera, only found specimens which represented Bour- 
guignat's P. penchinatiana, we continued them under that 
name. When we studied those of the neighboring valleys 
eastward, we found in the course of time all transitions from 
penchinatiana to the toothless faririesi, so that the latter name, 
as the oldest, was chosen to denote it. In the valley of the 
Llobregat, finally, the typical avenacea and even more fully 
toothed forms were added to those already treated, so that we 
reached the opinion that all the tooth-reduction forms could 
not be separated from avenacea; thus we placed them under 
this name in the last three of our Estudis. 

This opinion can no longer be held today, since I have been 
able to study material of avenacea in great quantity from 
outside of Spain and the Pyrenees. The recognized constancy 
of the apertural characters of this species in all other parts 
of its area of distribution is so sharply detached from the 
mutability and plasticity of the shell-form in the region now 



concerning us, that one may well venture to say that here we 
have to do with a distinct local race, which on the ground of 
priority will naturally take the name farinesi. 

The material investigated by me, about three-fourths of it 
collected by myself, runs up to about 10,000 specimens. The 
more detailed results of the count of apertural teeth and folds 
— arranged by localities — may be found in the pages of our 
Estudis cited, to which reference must be made ; their repe- 
tition in this place would take us too far. Only the results 
of a few especially interesting localities can be noticed here. 

The list of tooth-combinations given above will serve to in- 
terpret the following exposition. It contains all the combina- 
tions of apertural teeth known to me from the Pyrenees and 
northern Spain, from the wholly toothless farinesi up to a 
form exhibiting 9 teeth. I have ascertained 28 such combina- 
tions, only a small part of them, fortunately, have been pro- 
vided with names; the names of each named combination 
being given in the list. As will be seen, several combinations 
have been named more than once. 

Among 121 specimens from the Congost of Organya, Segre 
valley, were present: 

Combination 1, 1 specimen. Comb. 19, 17 specimens. 
10, 1 " " 20, 33 

12, 64 specimens. " 24, 5 

The size fluctuates between : length 4.5 to 5 mm., diam. 1.25 
to 1.75 mm. 

455 examples from El Bruch, Llobregat valley : 







1 1 



i i 



i c 



i i 



1 1 



1 1 



i i 



t i 























The smallest specimen measures, length 4, diam. 1.75 mm., 
having 6 rather coarsely rib-striate whorls. The largest, 
length 6, diam. 2.5, with iy 2 nearly smooth whorls. 

458 examples from Montserrat contain: 

Comb. 1, 93 spec. Comb. 14, 

3, 7 " " 16, 

5, 1 " " 18, 

6, 24 

7, 11 

11, 7 

12, 23 


19, 6 

20, 158 

21, 1 
24, 6 


One of the smallest measures: length 4 mm., diam. 2 mm., 
having 6 rather distinctly rib-striate whorls. The largest ex- 
ample measures: length 7 mm., diam. 3.25 mm., having iy 2 
finely hair-striate whorls. 

Among 231 specimens from Grerona, there were : 






3. 8, 




1 1 

i c 





i t 

1 1 





i i 

c c 





i i 

( i 




Smallest specimen : length 5.5 mm., diam. 2 mm., 614 nearly 
smooth whorls. Largest: length 7 mm., diam. 3 mm., 8 dis- 
tinctly hair-striate whorls. The abrupt transition from the 
relatively few-toothed combination 14 to the 7-toothed com- 
bination 25, is quite remarkable compared with the preceding 

Still more marked is the absence of such transition in the 
following case: Castellfollit, Prov. Gerona, 26 examples, as 
follows : 


1, 1 spec. 

Comb. 1, 20 spec. 

6, 1 " 

" 15, 3 " 

3, 1 " 

Smallest, length 5 mm., diam. 2.25 mm., 6y 2 strongly hair- 
striate whorls. Largest, length 6, diam. 2 mm., 8 lightly rib- 
striate whorls. 


Certain localities afford only a few combinations. Thus, in 
135 examples from Pobla de Segur, in the valley of the No- 
guera Pallaresa, the combinations 19 and 20 occur in equal 
numbers. The smallest example measures: length 6 mm., 
diam. 2.5 mm., having 7% nearly smooth whorls. The largest : 
length 10 mm., diam. 3 mm. ; 9 lightly hair-striate whorls. 

Over 300 specimens from the Congost dels Collegats near 
Pobla de Segur, belong in equal parts to the combinations 11 
and 14. Smallest measures: length 4 mm., diam. 2 mm., and 
has 6y 2 lightly rib-striate whorls. Largest: length 5 mm., 
diam. 2.25 mm., 7^ nearly smooth whorls. This small, slen- 
der form will be discussed further. 

Valley of the Garona de Ruda in the Valle de Aran, thus 
on the northern side of the Pyrenees. Over 100 specimens, 
all with the combination No. 25, the smallest measures, length 
6.5, diam. 2.5 mm., 6% lightly rib-striate whorls. Largest, 
length 7, diam. 2.5 mm., 7% strongly hair-striate whorls. 

The measurements cited suffice to show that the variability 
of the characters considered is considerable, even among speci- 
mens of the same locality. Consequently they will be found 
sufficient to explain why I unite under the oldest name fari- 
nesi all of the mutation-forms of the present Chondrina. 

Although in the course of my collecting I gave serious 
thought to the discovery of some general relation between the 
predominance of a certain tooth-combination or a certain 
average size of shell to a special locality, I could ascertain 
nothing positive of this kind. Only a single correspondence 
between the structure of shell and aperture on the one side 
and ecologic conditions of the station on the other, appears 
to me demonstrable. In the canyon-like gorges of the pre- 
Pyrenean sierras, which have been called "congosts," I always 
found 4-toothed forms of C. avenacea farinesi with more or 
less strongly striate or rib-striate shells, together with strongly 
ribbed forms of Pomatias obscurus esseranus Fag., whilst 
weak-toothed forms of this Chondrina with smooth specimens 
of the same Pomatias lived together. The stations of snails 
of the first category are all remarkable for their dryness and 
lack of vegetation, in consequence of their great insolation, 


and were restricted to the wider parts of the congosts, which 
however formed a large part of those I could search on the 
dry and sterile high flanks of the sierras. On the contrary, 
the smooth snails, of which the Chondrinas were weak-toothed, 
were to be found only in the narrowest parts of the congosts, 
and in the narrow side ravines, in which water trickles down 
the rocks, and the sun's rays do not penetrate directly. 

All of the folds do not participate equally in the tendency 
to reduction noticeable in the synopsis of apertural dentition 
given at the beginning of this discussion. Generally the sim- 
plification of apertural armature proceeds in about the fol- 
lowing order : the lower-palatal shows the greatest tendency to 
disappear; after it comes the infracolumellar lamella. These 
two are very often lacking together, whereas the presence of 
columellar and infracolumellar with lower-palatal lacking is 
one of the greatest rarities, which I found in only three 
among all of the specimens examined. Of the remaining 
folds, the upper-palatal is the next to be suppressed. After 
that, the parietal lamella may disappear, while the angular 
lamella is the last to go. 

As we have already said, all tooth-combinations do not occur 
in all localities. Usually those of the first or the second half, 
or the middle of our tooth-combination table predominate. 
But not all combinations to be found in one locality are pres- 
ent in equal strength. Thus among the 450 specimens from 
El Bruch, with nineteen combinations, there are two dentition- 
forms with 77 and 217 specimens. Among the 458 specimens 
from Montserrat, divided between fifteen combinations, two, 
with 93 and 158 specimens, predominate. 

A striking exception to the examples just mentioned is the 
typical avenacea, to which all of the 37 specimens from 
Capellades and 3 from Vallbona belong, to the exclusion of 
other tooth-combinations. These two localities lie in the valley 
of the Kio Anoya, tributary to the Llobregat, which appears 
to be a refuge for C. avenacea avenacea. 

The forms of possible tooth-combinations which have re- 
ceived names have been sufficiently indicated in our combina- 
tion table, but a few critical remarks may be added. 


Pupa spdunccc Loc, from the Grotto of Eauxbomies, ap- 
pears to me completely identical with farinesi as understood 
by Des Moulins. 

Of Pupa microdon West., a topotype from Montserrat is 
illustrated in pi. 27, figs. 1, 2. 

1'ujtti jumUlensis var. ascendens West, seems to be com- 
pletely identical with the form described by Bourguignat as 
Pupa jumUlensis var. biplicata. Of course neither have any- 
thing to do with forms of C. jumUlensis', which occurs only in 
southeastern Spain, but are a form of C. avenacea farinesi 
which agrees with jumUlensis in its tooth-combination. 

Also P. ignota Fag. has been combined with jumUlensis, 
even supposed to be the typical form of that as described by 
Pfeiffer; but since its type-locality was said to be the Hautes- 
and Basses-Pyrenees, it cannot be placed in the synonymy of 
Pfeiffer 's species, but denotes the northern representative of 
the same tooth-combination. 

Pupa longini Fag. had earlier been termed P. jumUlensis 
var. C by Bofill. It is not by any means restricted to Aragon, 
but is found in many places. 

P. penehinatiana var. confusa West, differs from penehina- 
tiana Bgt. only by the possession of an infracolumellar lamella. 

P. Uerdensis Fag. is synonymous with sexplicata Bof., of 
which a topotype is shown in pi. 27, fig. 3. Bofill described 
this form as P. penehinatiana var. sexplicata, while Fagot 
disputed the specific estimate and therefore ventured to apply 
a new name. P. sexplicata var. minor Bof. applies to particu- 
larly small examples. 

P. domicella West., at first said to be 6-toothed, but which 
in the further course of the original description came into the 
seven teeth proper to typical avenacea, cannot be separated 
from this species, equally with P. aureaeensis Loc. 

P. dicplicata Kstr. I look upon as a strongly-toothed avena- 
cea, such as occurs now and then among typical specimens. 

P. massotiana Bgt. and P. penehinatiana Bgt., the most 
abundant forms of the pre-Pyrenean sierras, were illustrated 
by Pilsbry only by copies of the original figures. For this 
reason I figure the first in pi. 27, fig. 4, the second in pi. 27, 
fig. 5, the specimens being from Pobla de Segur. 


C. avenacea farinesi is relatively rare in the Aragonian 
Pyrenees, though, it is known from there and from the moun- 
tains of Navarra as far as the valley of the Rio Salazar. 
Eastward towards Catalonia, it increases gradually in abun- 
dance, and chiefly in the combinations Nos. 19 and 20. In 
the valleys of the two Nogueras the combination 24 is added, 
while in the Segre valley, nearly all combinations between 1 
and 24 are to be found. In the district of the Llobregat, in- 
cluding in the south the Montserrat district and the plain of 
Barcelona, 23 of the 28 tooth-combinations occur. Further 
east, in places in Province G-erona, combination 1 predomi- 
nates ; combination 25 is also present in a few places, but the 
transitions between them are always incomplete. 

On the French side of the Pyrenees, C. a. farinesi is gener- 
ally reported, but the forms deficient in teeth do not appear 
to extend there. With this the whole distribution of this local 
race is specified. 

Chondrina avenacea pulchella (Bof.). PI. 27, fig. 6. 

Pupa pulchella Bofill, Bull. Soc. Mai. France, III, 1886, 
p. 161.— Fagot, Cron. Cient. Barcelona, XI, 1888, p. 128.— 
Bofill, Treb. Mus. Cienc. Nat. Barcelona, I, 1915, p. 49, pi. 
6, fig. 9. — Chondrina pulchella Bof., Pilsbry, Manual, XXV, 
p. 54. 

Pupa (Modicella) avenacea pulchella Bofill & Haas, Est. 
II, p. 40, pi. 3, figs. 7-8; III, p. 44; IV, p. 124. 

Pupa penchinatiana (non Bourguignat) Bofill, Act. Mem. 
I. Congr. Nat. Esp. Zaragoza, 1909, p. 200. 

? Pupa (Torquilla) pulchella var. manotiana Westerlund, 
Nachr. Bl. D. Mai. Ges., 1894, p. 54. — Chondrina pulchella 
var. manotiana Pilsbry, XXV, p. 55. 

Distinguished from C. avenacea farinesi by the altogether 
more fusiform shape, that is, becoming smaller above and 

Bofill 's type is an extremely small specimen, measuring: 
length 4.5, diam. 1.5 mm. My examples vary between, length 
4 to 7 mm., diam. 2 to 3 mm. The smallest specimens I found 
high on Montsech on the Coll d 'Ares, at 1200 m. above the sea. 
I doubt the correctness of Bofill 's statement that his type 
measured only 1.5 mm. diameter, for I have never found one 


so slender among my many hundred specimens. Tliis size 
record influenced Pilsbry (XXV, p. 55) to think that P. pid- 
chella was perhaps related to Granopupa granum. I figure 
a Bofill cotype from the Valle d'Ager in Montsech (pi. 27, 
fig. 6). 

"Whether Westerlund's var. manotiana belongs to pidchella 
seems to me unproven, as the general locality "Spain" is 
given. Perhaps it is a tooth combination (Par. 2, Col. 1, Pal. 
2) pertaining to some other Spanish local race of C. avenacea. 
Although by no means so variable in apertural dentition as 
avenacea farinesi, yet pidchella is not altogether constant. 
The following five tooth-combinations have come to my notice : 

Parietal 1 2 2 2 2 

Columella!- 1 1 1 2 2 

Palatal 2 1 2 1 2 

C. avenacea pidchella is confined to the Montsech Range, 
where it replaces C. a. farinesi of the surrounding territory, 
with great constancy in the above-mentioned differential char- 

Chondrina avenacea jumillensis (Pfr.). PI. 27, figs. 7, 8, 9. 

Pupa, jumillensis Ppeiffer, Mon. Hel., Ill, 1853, p. 540. — 
Chondrina jumiUensis Pilsbry, XXV, p. 49. — Pupa jumil- 
lensis (non Pfeiffer) Rossmaessler, Icon. Ill, p. 110, pi. 85, 
fig. 943. 

Chondrina jinnillensis guiraonis Pilsbry, XXV, p. 51; 
XXIV, Taf. 47, fig. 9.— Chondrina " guiraoensis Em.," Pils- 
bry, XXIV, p. 372, Explanation of plates. 

Pupa jumillensis var. triplicata Bofill, Bull. Soc. Mai. 
France, III, 1886, p. 154. 

Pupa tarraconensis Fagot, Cron. Cient. Barcelona, XI, 
1888, p. 129. 

This local form has never been comprehensively treated, as 
the Estudis of Bofill and Haas reached only to the limit of 
its area. Only P. tarraconensis extends into the Llobregat 
region (Est. V), and was noted thence as a form of C. avena- 
cea farinesi. In a later work (Mol.luscos terrestres i d'aigua 
dolga de la regio de Tortosa, in : Butll. Inst. Cat. Hist. Nat. 
Barcelona, XIX, 1919, pp. 128-131), Bofill and Haas referred 
to forms belonging here as Pupa (Modicella) avenacea. 


I have now been able to study material from 22 localities, 
in 412 specimens, and it appears fitting to give the data of 
each locality, to show the latitude of variation. The order of 
localities is from north to south. 

In the following paragraphs, a in the tooth-formula denotes 
presence of an angular lamella. The number of specimens is 
enclosed in parenthesis following the formula. 

Sitges, Prov. Barcelona (in Rossmaessler, Icon. Ill, p. 110, 
as "Sitchez"), Sanchez Comendador leg., 8 examples, all 
a-1-0. Length 4 to 5, diam. 2 to 2.5 mm. 

Forat Negre near Vandellos, Prov. Tarragona, Dr. P. Font 
Quer leg., 2 specimens, all a-0-0. Length 4 to 5.5, diam. 2 
to 2.5 mm. 

Mount Montsant, Prov. Tarragona, Dr. P. Font Quer leg., 
13 specimens. 0-0-0 (1) ; a-1-0 (9) ; 2-1-0 (3) ; 2-1-^ £ (3) ; 
2-2-0 (1) ; 2-2-2 (8). Length 4.75 to 7.25, diam. 2.25 to 3 
mm., 6y 2 to 8 whorls. 

Mount Mola de Falset, Prov. Tarragona, F. Haas leg., 9 
specimens. 0-0-0 (1) ; 0-1-0 (1) ; a-0-0 (1) ; 1-1-0 (1) ; 
and 2-1-0 (5). Length 5 to 7.5, diam. 2.5 to 3.5 mm. 

Sierra de la Picosa at Mora, Prov. Tarragona, F. Haas leg., 
1 example, 0-0-0. 

Alfara, Prov. Tarragona, F. Haas leg., 14 specimens, as fol- 
lows: 0-0-0 (1); a-1-0 (5); 2-1-0 (5); and 2-1-2 (3). 
Length 4 to 5.5, diam. 2.5 to 2.75 mm. ; 5%-7 whorls. 

Sierra de la Mola de Tortosa, Prov. Tarragona, 1000-1200 
m., F. Haas leg., 4 specimens, all a-1-0. Length 4.5 to 5.25, 
diam. 2.5 mm. 

Roquetas near Tortosa, Prov. Tarragona. Longinos Navas 
leg., 36 examples, as follows: 0-0-0(2); a-0-0 (5) ; a-1-0 
(21) ; a-l-i (2) ; 2-1-0 (6). Length 4.5 to 6, diam. 2.5 to 
3 mm. ; 7-7!/2 whorls. 

Barranco del Salt del Cabrit, 1000 m., Monte Caro near 
Tortosa, Prov. Tarragona, Dr. P. Font Quer leg., 24 speci- 
mens, as follows: 0-0-0 (2) j 0-1-0 (2) ; a-1-0 (3) ; 1-1-0 (1) ; 
and 2-1-0 (16). Length 5 to 6.5, diam. 2.5 to 3 mm.,- 6y 2 - 
7y 2 whorls. 

La Censola, 1400 m., Monte Caro near Tortosa, Prov. Tarra- 


gona, Dr. P. Font Quer leg., 27 specimens, as follows: 0-0-0 
(1) ; 0-1-0 (1) ; a-1-0 (1) ; and 2-1-0 (24). Length 5 to 6.5, 
diam. 2.25 to 3 mm. ; 6 1 /2- r J 1 /2 whorls. 

Monte Caro near Tortosa, Prov. Tarragona, Dr. P. Font 
Qner leg., 1 example, a-1-0. 

Foot of Montsia near Tortosa, Prov. Tarragona, Dr. P. Font 
Quer leg., 49 examples, thus: 0-0-0 (12) ; a-0-0 (4) ; a-1-0 
(27) ; 0-1-0 (5) ; and 2-1-0 (1). Length 5 to 7, diam. 2.5 to 
3 mm. ; 6^-7% whorls. 

Peak of the Montsia near Tortosa, Prov. Tarragona, Dr. P. 
Font Quer. leg., 15 specimens: 0-0-0 (1) ; a-1-0 (3) ; 2-1-0 

(6) ; 2-1- J (3) ; and 2-2-0 (2). Length 5 to 6, diam. 2.75 

to 3 mm. ; 6%-7% whorls. 

Cenia near Tortosa, Prov. Tarragona, Longinos Navas, 
leg., 3 examples: a-0-0 (2) ; a-1-0 (1). 

Puertos de Beceite near Tortosa, Prov. Tarragona, northern 
side, Dr. P. Font Quer leg., 23 specimens: 0-0-0 (4) ; a-0-0 
(2); 0-1-0(1); a-1-0 (3); 2-1-0(13). Length 4.5 to 6, 
diam. 2.75 to 3 mm.; 6%-7% whorls. Shell from finely to 
coarsely hair-striate. 

Fredes, Puertos de Beceita, south side, Prov. Castellon de 
la Plana, Longinos Navas leg., 30 specimens: a-0-0 (4) ; 
0-1-0 (3) ; a-1-0 (23). Length 5.5 to 7, diam. 2.75 to 3 mm. ; 
6y 2 to 7 1 /. whorls. Shell smooth to finely hair-striate. 

Periarroyo, Prov. Tereul, Longinos Navas leg., 35 examples : 
0-0-0 (9) ; a-0-0 (11) ; 0-1-0 (2) ; a-1-0 (12) ; 2-1-0 (1). 
Length 5 to 6.5, diam. 3 to 3.5 mm. ; 6 to iy 2 whorls. 

Jativa, southward from Valencia. Dr. P. Font Quer. leg., 
24 specimens: 0-0-0 (15) ; a-f-0 (1) ; a-1-0 (2). Length 5.5 
to 7, diam. 2.75 to 3.25 mm. 

Sierra de Biar, Prov. Alicante. Dr. P. Font Quer, leg., 24 
specimens: 0-0-0 (20) ; a-0-0 (4). Length 5 to 6.5, diam. 3 
to 3.25 mm. ; 5% to 6% whorls. 

Alicante, one specimen, 0-0-0. 

Alcaraz, Prov. Albacete, Hidalgo leg., 3 specimens, all 2-1-2. 
Length 6, diam. 3 mm. 

Jumilla, Prov. Murcia. Guirao leg., 8 specimens: a-1-0 


(6) ; 2-1-0 (2). Length 5, diam. 2.5 to 3 mm. Rossmaess- 
ler's original series of his P. jumillensis (= jumillensis guira- 
onis Pils. ) . 

Orihuela Prov. Murcia, Guirao leg. Series from Ross- 
maessler's collection in the Senckenberg Museum, Frankfurt 
a. M., 21 specimens: 2-1-1 (1) ; 2-1-2 (16) ; 2-0-2 (1) ; 2-2-2 
(2) ; 2-2-3 (1). Length 6.5, diam. 3 to 3.5 mm. Series from 
Pfeiffer's collection in the Natural History Museum in Stettin, 
5 specimens: 0-1-0 (1); a-2-0 (2); j J-1-0 (1); j J-1-0 

(1). Length 6.5 to 7, diam. 2.75 to 3 mm. Since the Pfeif- 
fer specimens (type and 4 cotypes) wholly agree in measure- 
ments with those from Orihuela in the Rossmaessler collec- 
tion, I think that I will not go wrong in taking this place as 
the type-locality of the species. Pfeiffer's record "Habitat 
prope Jumilla et Orihuela" (I. c, p. 541), is to be restricted 
in conformity with this. 

Tous on the Jucar, Prov. Murcia. C. Pau, leg., 11 ex- 
amples: 2-2-1 (2) ; 2-2-2 (9). Length 6 to 7, diam. 2.75 to 
3 mm. 

Cartagena, Prov. Murcia. W. Kobelt, leg., 3 examples, all 
0-0-0. Length 5.5, diam. 3.25 mm. 

In the following list the symbol a denotes that only the 
angular lamella is developed on the parietal wall. % denotes 
that the tooth represented is only vestigeal. 



Number of 


























































4 4 

2 2 


























P. jumillensis guiraonis Pils. 

P. jumillensis Pfr. 

P. tarraconensis Fagot. 

It will be seen by this list that combination 5, (a-1-0), cor- 
responding to C. jumillensis guiraonis Pilsbry, occurs most 
frequently, 141 out of the 427 specimens investigated having 
this formula. The combinations 1, (0-0-0), with 80, and 12, 
(2-1-0), with 82 specimens, are almost as strong in numbers. 

All of the specimens examined, however much they may 
vary in size, sculpture, number of whorls and dentition, agree 
in the following characters which differentiate them through- 
out from other local races of C. avenacea. 

The shape of the shell is less fusiform, being conic, with 
rounded, not tapering base ; the whorls are more swollen, the 
suture thereby deeper, and the aperture broader and more 
rounded. In C. avenacea jumillensis I have never found the 
laterally compressed aperture, thus appearing higher than 
wide, significant of other local races. A peristome really re- 
flected throughout or on one side only, this race never forms; 


at most there is only a light thickening of the inner rim of 
the mouth. 

Pupa jumillensis Pfeiffer, as understood by its author, has 
never been found again, as its tooth-combination a-2-0 was 
not present in my material. What Bourguignat (Moll. S. 
Julia de Loria, pi. 2, figs. 7-9, copied by Pilsbry, XXV, pi. 5, 
figs. 6, 7) figures under this name, is according to the aper- 
tural structure, a form corresponding to C. avenacea farinesi, 
and not the true jumillensis. I think I can explain how the 
confusion arose whereby the name jumillensis was employed 
by Pfeiffer as well as Rossmaessler, but used for two different 
forms. Rossmaessler received from Guirao, besides the smaller 
form coming from Jumilla, and which he named jumillensis 
(the jumillensis guiraonis of Pilsbry), also a series of larger 
snails from the locality Orihuela, which were more variable in 
dentition than the smaller ones. He sent authentic specimens 
of both to Pfeiffer, who, under the impression that the larger 
ones pertained to Rossmaessler 's still unpublished name jumil- 
lensis, described one of them under that name. His type 
happened to have the unusual combination a-2-0, while in the 
rest of the original series, only the combinations Nos. 7, 10, 
11, 13, 15, 18 and 19 of our list are represented. Now in view 
of the great variation in teeth and size of this race already 
given under localities, it is quite intelligible that Pfeiffer and 
Rossmaessler selected different types, and considered their 
species to be different, whilst from the standpoint of our 
present knowledge we may confidently unite them under the 
Pfeifferian name. 

It must further be stated that in the original series of 
smaller jumillensis {jumillensis guiraonis Pils.) there are, be- 
sides 6 examples with the combination given as typical, a-1-0, 
also 2 with the combination 2-1-0. 

Pfeiffer 's original series of his P. jumillensis is indeed, as 
shown by the locality list, by no means homogeneous. Of the 
five specimens therein, only two have the combination given 
as typical, a-2-0, the other three standing in quite different 
places in our list of combinations. From this it follows that 
P. jumillensis cannot be accepted in the narrow sense which 


the wording of the original diagnosis seems to prescribe, but 
that the right course is to look upon the jumillensis of Pfeiffer 
and of Rossmaessler as one and the same race. Further, it 
must be brought out that the dimensions ascribed to his species 
by Pfeiffer (length 8, diam. 3.75 mm.) by no means tally; his 
largest specimen having the tooth-combination given by him 
as typical, and which I have designated as type, with an ac- 
curate caliper measures only 7 mm. long and 3 mm. diameter. 
A cotype with similar dentition, but smaller, 6.5 x 2.75 mm., 
is figured on pi. 27, fig. 8. 

Also in the original series of the smaller jumillensis (the 
jumillensis guiraonis), there are besides 6 examples with the 
combination given as typical, a-1-0, also 2 with the combina- 
tion 2-1-0. A specimen of this original series is drawn in 
pi. 27, fig. 7. 

Pupa tarraconensis Fagot had already been described by 
Bofill as P. jumillensis var. triplicata. Fagot, who viewed it 
as a separate species, could not retain this name on account 
of Pupa triplicata Studer, and had to give it a new one. This 
form represents the combination 2-1-0, which frequently, how- 
ever, passes into a-1-0. The snail from Sitges, Prov. Barce- 
lona, mentioned by Rossmaessler (Iconogr. Ill, p. 110), which 
was considered by Fagot to belong to his tarraconensis, shows 
all of these last named combinations. A typical example from 
Mt. Mola de Falset, Prov. Tarragona, is illustrated on pi. 27, 
fig. 9. 

The distribution-area of C. avenacea jumillensis is to be de- 
fined in the north only by further collecting. In the latitude 
of Barcelona it is contiguous to that of C. a. farinesi, with 
apparently a narrow zone of intermingling of the two. Papiol, 
Bofill 's locality of his var. triplicata, therefore that of tarra- 
conensis, lies close to Barcelona, and undoubted C. avenacea 
farinesi is known to me from the same place. Sitges is the 
northernmost locality where jumillensis alone lives. In the 
west, Penarroyo, Prov. Teruel, is the furthest place yet known. 
Southward we know it as far as the Cartagena- Jaen line. 


Chondrina avenacea kobelti (Westerlund). PI. 27, figs. 13, 
14, 15. 

Pupa kobelti "Hidalgo" Westerlund, Fauna Pal. Binnen- 
coneh., p. 102. — Chondrina kobelti Pilsbry, Manual, XXV, 
p. 38. 

Chondrina kobelti ordunensis Pilsbry, Manual, XXV, p. 
39, pi. 3, f. 2-4. 

Pupa (Modicella) avenacea Bopill and Haas, Mol.luscos 
recullits en Asturias en 1918, in : Butll. Inst. Cat. Hist. Nat. 
Barcelona, XIX, 1919, pp. 25-34 (full literature for Asturia). 

This local race is before me from 10 localities. The data 
for the several lots follow, arranged from east to west, the 
number of specimens, in parenthesis, following the tooth 

Cestona near Guipuzcoa, Prov. Bilboa, Hidalgo leg., 9 speci- 
mens, all with 2-2-4 teeth. Length 5 to 6, diam. 2.5 to 3 mm. 

Altamira, Sierra de Gorbea, Prov. Bilboa, Hidalgo leg., 3 
examples, all 2-2-3. Length 5 to 6, diam. 2.5 to 3 mm. 

Orduria, Prov. Vitoria, "W. Kobelt leg., 12 specimens: 
2-2-3 (8) ; 2-2-4 (3) j 2-2-5 (1). Length 5.5 to 7, diam. 2.5 
mm. ; 7-7!/2 whorls. 

Asturia, W. Kobelt leg., 13 specimens, all 2-2-3. Length 
4 to 5.25, diam. 2 to 2.25 mm. ; 5*4 to 7 whorls. 

Santona near Santander, Prov. Santander, Hidalgo leg., 4 
specimens: 2-2-3 (3) ; 2-2-4 (1). Length 5-6, diam. 2.75 to 
3 mm. 

Potes near Santander, J. Rosals leg., 70 examples: 2-2-2 
(1) ; 2-2-3 (48) ; 2-2-4 (21) ; 2-1-3 (1). Length 4.75 to 8.5, 
diam. 2.5 to 3.5 mm. ; 6-8 whorls. 

Gijon, Prov. Oviedo, Hidalgo leg., 3 examples, all 2-2-3. 
Leigth 3.5 to 4, diam. 2 to 2.2.) mm. 

Monsaero near Ovieao, Iliaalgo leg., 17 specimens: 2-2-3 
(16; ; 2-2-4(1). Lengdi 6 to 8, diam. 2.75 to 3.25 mm.; 
7y 2 -8 whorls. 

Caldas de Oviedo, Hidalgo leg. Type-locality of P. kobelti. 
46 specimens: 2-2-2 (2) ; 2-2-3 (36) ; 2-2-4 (8). Length 4 
to 8, diam. 2 to 3.25 mm. ; 6-7 1 / 2 whorls. 

Covadonga near Oviedo, IH.algo leg., 3 specimens: 2-2-3 
(lj ; 2-2-4 (2). Length 5.25, diam. 2 mm. 


Iu the investigation of these 182 specimens it appears that 
only 5 tooth-combinations are present, to which is to be added 
that given for P. kobelti by Westerlund. The combinations 
follow : 

No. of 
No. Par. Col. Pal. specimens. Names. 

1. 2 1 3 2 C. k. ordunensis Pils. 

2. 2 1 4 Pupa kobelti West. 

3. 2 2 2 3 

4. 2 2 3 131 

5. 2 2 4 45 

6. 2 2 5 1 

Combination No. 4 (2-2-3) is by far the most frequent, 
represented by the great majority of specimens received from 
Hidalgo as Pupa kobelti. Westerlund 's combination, 2-1-4, 
did not occur in my material. The single occurrence of 2-2-5 
is noteworthy. 

The dimensions vary between 4 and 8.5 mm. long, 2 and 
3.5 mm. diameter, with 5% to 8 whorls. 

Common to all specimens examined are the smooth, strong 
shell, the narrow, basally rounded-triangular aperture, and 
the presence of a peristome which is reflected on the colu- 
mellar side only. Internal thickening of the aperture would 
not be noticed. In the large number of apertural teeth as 
well as in the general form of the shell, kobelti approaches 
typical C. avenacea far more than the other Pyrenean and 
Iberian local races, but the basally triangular aperture is 
characteristic throughout. This character lends large speci- 
mens some similarity to C. bigorriensis tenuimarginata, but 
only superficially, for the absence or only weak development 
of the spiral lamella indicates their place in the avenacea 
group. Moreover, these large specimens connect with the 
smallest ones by a flawless chain of transition forms. An ex- 
ample of this large form of C. a. kobelti, from Potes, near 
Santander, is drawn iu pi. 27, fig. 15. 

Pupa kobelti has generally been ascribed to Hidalgo, who 
sent out many specimens under this name but never published 


it. Westerlund was the first to publish a description, and thus 
he must be accepted as the author. It happened that in its 
description there was some such substitution as occurred in 
the case of P. jumillensis. "Westerlund selected as type a 
specimen having an extremely rare tooth- f ormula : 2-1-4; a 
combination which has not been encountered again. The 
specimens received from Hidalgo as P. kobelti, in all 179, show 
for the most part (131 examples) the combination 2-2-3; 45 
have 2-2-4, and only 3 have 2-2-2 teeth. The specimen drawn 
in pi. 27, figs. 13, 14, with the combination 2-2-4 represents 
therefore what Hidalgo required for his P. kobelti. It is from 
the hot springs (Caldas) of Oviedo, collected by Hidalgo 

Pilsbry's subspecies ordunensis falls within the range of 
variation of C. a. kobelti, as will be seen by the table given 
above. It is represented in my material by only 2 examples. 

The area of distribution of C. a. kobelti is not yet definable 
with certainty. All of the localities now known lie in the 
parts of the Basque and Asturian Provinces draining into the 
Bay of Biscay. 

Since the above was written a full discussion of the species 
has been published by Dr. Florentino Azpeitia Moros, in Bol. 
Soc. Iberica Ciencias Nat., XXII, 1923, pp. 105-111. 

Chondrina aragonica (Fag.). PI. 26, fig. 11. 

Pupa arigonis Bofill, Bull. Soc. Malac. France, III, 1886, 
p. 160 ; not of Rossmaessler. 

Pupa aragonica Fagot, Cron. Cient. Barcelona, XI, 1888, 
pp. 105 and 128. — Bofill, Treb. Mus. Cienc. Nat. Barcelona, 
I, 1915, p. 46, pi. 6, fig. 5. 

Pupa (Modicella) aragonica Bofill and Haas, Est. I, p. 43, 
pi. 4, f . 8, 9 ; II, p. 39, pi. 3, f . 5, 6 ; III, p. 100. 

Chondrina massotiana var. aragonica Pilsbry, Manual, 
XXV, p. 54. 

Pupa saltus Fagot, Cron. Cient. Barcelona, XI, 1888, pp. 
106, 129.— Bofill and Haas, Est. I, p. 89, pi. 4, f. 8, 9. 

"Shell rimate (the crevice partly covered by the columellar 
lip ) , cylindric-conic, lengthened, somewhat translucent, slightly 
glossy, of yellowish to reddish color, striate (the striae ex- 
tremely fine, hair-like, irregular, arcuate and close) ; spire 


conic or cylindric-conic, awl-shaped; apex yellowish, smooth, 
papillar ; 10 slightly convex somewhat flattened whorls, rapidly 
but regularly increasing, separated by an impressed suture, 
the last whorl the largest, compressed but not carinate basally, 
ascending to the aperture; aperture oblique, lunate-oval, 5- 
toothed as follows: 1 small, oblique, deeply placed columellar, 
visible only in an oblique view; 1 lamelliform, compressed, 
immersed parietal; 1 tooth-like angular fold; 2 quite short 
palatals, of nearly equal length, placed deep in the throat; 
peristome expanded throughout, white, approaching the inner 
margin and thus narrowing the aperture; columellar margin 
nearly straight, the outer margin longer and arcuate. Length 
6 to 9, diam. 2 to 2.5, height of the aperture 2, width 1.5 mm." 

As Pilsbry could only give a copy of Westerlund 's diagnosis 
of this species, the original diagnosis of Fagot is given here. 
Some details are to be added, as it is by no means unexcep- 
tionable. The angular lamella may be present only as a thin 
deposit of callus; the parietal may be completely lacking. 
The columellar is never lamelliform, but always a tubercle. 
The peristome is conspicuous by its white reflection, its mar- 
gins never united. The peristome is well thickened, but re- 
flected only on the columellar margin ; its thickening is visible 
in the aperture as an internal callus in old individuals. 

A typical example from the valley of the Noguera Biba- 
gorzana at Torre de Tamurcia is figured on pi. 26, fig. 11. 

Bofill and I could compare cotypes of Pupa saltus Fagot, by 
which it appeared that this species is merely a more slender, 
thin-shelled, so to speak "rickety" form of aragonica, in 
which, besides, both palatals are suppressed. A cotype was 
illustrated in our Est. I, pi. 4, figs. 8, 9. 

In distribution, this species is restricted to a few valleys of 
the Pyrenees. It is to be found rather abundantly in the 
valleys of the Cinca and the Esera, is less common in the valley 
of the Noguera Ribagorzana, and is very scarce in that of the 
Noguera Pallaresa, so that in fact it occurs only in four val- 
leys of the central Pyrenees, and only on the Spanish side. 

The close affinity of C. aragonica to C. avenacea farinesi is 
unmistakable, but the constancy of its characters is so great 


that I am impelled to award it specific rank. We will see in 
C. arigonis and C. gorbeana two further cases of local races 
of C. avenacea, which within their special areas have devel- 
oped into constant species. 

Chondrin a arigonis (Kossm.). 

Manual, XXV, p. 34, pi. 2, figs. 10-12, 17-18. 

In this species we see a form of C. avenacea jumillensis 
which has become constant in its differential characters, fully 
illustrating what was said above of C. aragonica. I could in- 
vestigate Rossmaessler's series, consisting of about 20 speci- 
mens, varying only in size and thickness. Comparing with 
the original series of jumillensis Rossm. (jumillensis guira- 
onis Pils.), one cannot escape the conclusion that the two are 
quite identical except as to the apertures. The aperture is 
formed entirely as in aragonica so far as the peristome is con- 
cerned, the dentition differing by having two columellar teeth 

Chondrin a gorbeana Pilsbry. 

Manual XXV, p. 56, pi. 3, fig. 12. 

This species too, I view as a form of the avenacea-complex 
which has become constant, and in this case, C. avenacea 
kobelti was evidently the parent form. The characters of 
peristome are entirely similar to those of aragonica and ari- 
gonis. The peristome is thickened within; on the columellar 
side somewhat expanded, but not on the palatal side. Tooth 
reduction has gone further than in the two preceding species, 
there being present only 1 angular and 1 parietal lamella as 
well as 1 columellar. 

Pilsbry conceives that this species may be a degenerate form 
of the bigorriensis group, which in view of its other qualities 
I do not believe; on the contrary, everything favors my view 
that it belongs with avenacea kobelti. 

There are before me 21 Chondrinas from Orduiia, collected 
by Kobelt, thus from near the type-locality, and which both 
Kobelt and Boettger had in their collections under the name 
Pupa farinesi var. biplicata. They are identical with gor- 


beana, and exhibit the tendency of the parietal lamella (which 
is very weak and deep in the throat, therefore readily over- 
looked) to complete degeneration. The dimensions are be- 
tween 6 to 7 mm. long, 2.5 to 3 wide; the number of whorls 
from 6 to 7y 2 . 

Chondrina lusitanica lusitanica (Pfr.). 

Manual XXV, p. 40, pi. 4, figs. 5, 6. 

Pupa obliterata Kstr. (Manual XXV, p. 52, pi. 5, figs. 9, 
10), which Pilsbry thought resembled east Spanish forms, is 
strongly and irregularly striate according to Krister's diag- 
nosis. It may have been based upon a weakly ribbed and 
weak-toothed specimen of C. lusitanica. 

Chondrina lusitanica vasconica (Kobelt) . PL 26, figs. 13, 14. 

Chondrina vasconica Pilsbry, Manual XXV, p. 39. 

Pupa lusitanica Fischer, Manuel de Conch., p. 202 ; not of 

Pupa (Modicella) lusitanica Bofill and Haas, Butll. Inst. 
Cat. Hist. Nat. Barcelona, XIX, 1919, p. 33. 

Kobelt 's otherwise expressive diagnosis, which Pilsbry (I.e.) 
repeated, requires alteration as to the apertural dentition. I 
looked through his entire original series, among them the type, 
and found in this and all the other specimens the tooth formula 
2-2-4, the suprapalatal fold always being weaker and never 
reaching the peristome ; the basal-fold stands quite in the 
lower angle of the aperture, and is as strong and long as the 
two palatals. The cotype figured in pi. 26, figs. 13, 14, shows 
these conditions. 

This form can stand as a dwarf form of the typical lusi- 
tanica, with which it agrees in nearly all points. It differs 
from that by the free, long, spiral lamella, which is not in the 
line of projection of the angular lamella but standing a little 
higher and beginning in advance of the end of the angular. 
The teeth are just as strongly developed as in the typical lusi- 
tanica, and thus the narrower mouth, consequent on the gen- 
eral smallness of the shell in comparison with lusitanica, ap- 
pears quite obstructed. 


The 15 examples of the original series all measure: length 
6, diam. 2.5 mm.; the 9 from Potes near Santander, length 
5.5 to 6.5, diam. 2.5 mm. The records of lusitanica from As- 
turia by earlier authors are apparently referable to C. I. vas- 
conica, which appears to replace lusitanica in the Asturian 
and Basque Provinces. 

Chondrina dertosensis (Bofill). PI. 27, figs. 10, 11, 12. 

Pupa dertosensis Bofill, Bull. Soc. Malac. France, III, 1886, 
p. 162. — Westerlund, Fauna Pal. Binnenconch., p. 103. — 
Bofill, Ass. Exc. Cat., XI, 1890, p. 200. — Chondrina derto- 
sensis Pilsbry, Manual, XXV, p. 36. — Haas, Butll. Inst. Catal. 
Hist. Nat, 1924, p. 55, pi. 1, f. 6a, b. 

Pupa (Modicella) avenacea (in part), Bofill and Haas, 
Butll. Inst. Cat. Hist. Nat. Barcelona, XIX, 1919, pp. 129-130. 

Pupa (Modicella) aff. jumillensis Haas, Butll. Inst. Cat. 
Hist. Nat. Barcelona, XVIII, 1918, p. 72. 

Pupa (Modicella) avenacea dertosensis Haas, torn, cit., pp. 
141, 142. 

Chondrina dertosensis (Bof.) Haas, Butlleti Inst. Catalana 
d'Hist. Nat., 1924, p. 55, pi. 2, f. 6a, b. 

After we (Bofill and Haas) had considered this species to 
be a form of C. avenacea, I find myself compelled to change 
my mind and treat it as a good species of the group of C. lusi- 
tanica. It is much more variable in size and teeth than Bofill 
indicated, as will be seen in the following list of localities, 
arranged from north to south. Number of specimens is en- 
closed in parenthesis following the tooth formula. 

Mt. Montsant, Prov. Tarragona, Dr. P. Font Quer leg., 10 
examples: 2-1-2 (1) ; 2-2-0 (1) ; 2-2-2 (8). Length 5.5 to 7, 
diam. 2.5 to 3 mm. ; 7 to 8 whorls. 

Mt. Mola de Falset, Prov. Tarragona, Dr. P. Font Quer 
leg., 9 examples: 2-2-4 (8) ; 3-2-4 (1). Length 5 to 6.75, 
diam. 2.25 to 2.5 mm. ; 7-8 whorls. 

Composines near Mora, Prov. Tarragona, on Triassic lime- 
stone, F. Haas leg., 2 examples, 2-2-2. Length 6.5, diam. 3 
mm. Shell strongly rib-striate, thick. 

Sierra de Cardo, Prov. Tarragona, A. Bofill leg., 29 ex- 
amples, cotypes: 2-1-0 (14) ; 2-2-0 (12) ; 2-2-1 (2) ; 2-2-2 


(1). Length 5.5 to 7, diam. 2.5 to 3.25 mm.; 6^4 to 7*4 
whorls; the shell finely rib-striate. 

La Censola, Monte Caro near Tortosa, Prov. Tarragona, 
Dr. P. Font Quer leg., 11 examples: 2-2-0 (2) ; 2-2-1 (2) ; 
2-2-2 (7). 

Prov. Cuenca, 14 examples, all 2-2-3. Length 7, diam. 3 
mm. Shell finely hair-striate. 

The 80 specimens examined divide among the following 
eight tooth-combinations : 

No. of 













































r Pupa 

dertosensis Bofill. 

Little is to be added to Bofill 's good diagnosis, repeated by 
Pilsbry (Man. XXV, 36). The apex is smooth, the following 
3-4 whorls always showing a pronounced hair-striation, which 
on the latest whorls generally becomes weaker ; only the thick- 
shelled specimens from the Triassic limestone of Camposines 
are distinctly rib-striate throughout. The shell in these last- 
named specimens is opaque, while in all others examined it 
is translucent horn-brown. The base of the last whorl lacks a 
distinct crest ; only a light lateral compression is present. 
The angular lamella is united with the spiral lamella. 

My specimens from the Sierra de Cardo are Bofill 's cotypes, 
but only one of them has the combination 2-2-2 attributed to 
the species, and the other combination said to occur, 2-2-3 is 
not represented at all. On pi. 27, figs. 10, 11, I figure one of 
this lot with the combination 2-2-1. Fig. 12 of the same plate 
illustrates an example with 2-2-2 teeth, from the Sierra de 
Cardo, opposite Montsia on the south side of the Ebro. 

In a single specimen from the Mola de Falset there was a 


twin lamella alongside the angular, indicated in the table by 
the formula 3-2-4. 

From the Sierra de las Dientes de la Vieja, near Granada 
(Hidalgo leg.) there are before me 24 examples of a form 
showing only the combination 2-1-2, and which agree with 
dertosensis in everything except that they lack a spiral lamella. 
Also one specimen collected by W. Kobelt in Ronda (Prov. 
Malaga) is quite similar to typical dertosensis except in pos- 
sessing no spiral lamella. It has 2-2-2 teeth. Whether the 
forms from these two southern localities are referable to typi- 
cal dertosensis I do not venture to decide. 

C. dertosensis in its typical development, that is, having a 
spiral lamella, is up to the present time known only from the 
mountain ranges along the lower course of the Ebro in Tarra- 
gona Province, and also in Cuenca Province. Its occurrence 
in the Provinces Castellon de la Plana, Valencia and Teruel 
is to be expected. If the two forms from the region of Gra- 
nada and of Rondo are considered to be dertosensis, then its 
distribution will coincide with that of C. avenacea jumillensis, 
including the whole of southeastern Spain. 

Chondrina calpica (West.). PI. 24, figs. 11, 12, 13. 

Pupa calpica Westerlund, Nachr. Bl. D. Mai. Ges., 1872, 
p. 27 ; Malak. Bl., XXI, 1874, p. 58, pi. 2, f . 6-8.— Chondrina 
calpica Pilsbry, Manual, XXV, p. 41, pi. 3, f. 10, 11. 

Pupa tingitana Kobelt, Jahrb. D. Mai. Ges., IX, 1882, p. 
71. — Westerlund, Fauna, p. 103. — Chondrina calpica Pils- 
bry, Manual, XXV, p. 41, pi. 3, fig. 9. 

Pupa tingitana var. algesirce Kobelt, Jahrb. D. Mai. Ges., 
IX, 1882, p. 71. — Westerlund, Fauna, p. 103. — Chondrina 
tingitana algesirce Pilsbry, Manual, XXV, p. 42. 

? Pupa gratiosa Westerlund, Ann. Mus. Acad. St. Peters- 
burg, III, 1898, p. 167. — Chondrina gratiosa Pilsbry, XXV, 
p. 37. 

Ten specimens of Westerlund 's Pupa calpica from Gibraltar 
are before me, varying in dentition of the aperture as follows : 
1-2-2 (4) ; 1-2-3 (3) ; 2-2-2 (2) ; 2-2-3 (1). From this it 
appears that Westerlund 's diagnosis, in which he ascribes only 
one parietal lamella, in the lack of an angular, as a constant 


character of his calpica, is incorrect. Three out of ten speci- 
mens received from his own hand show a distinct angular 
lamella, and in some of the remaining examples it is at least 

The general form of the shell runs from turreted fusiform 
to turreted ovate, and in the first of these aspects reminds one 
of the proportions given by Kobelt for his tingitana from 
Tetuan. This latter form agrees also otherwise with calpica 
in the tooth arrangement from 1-2-3 to 2-2-3, and by the 
strong, remote and irregularly standing ribbing of the sur- 
face, so that I have to consider both as one and the same 
species. Naturally Kobelt 's var. algesircc of tingitana will 
pass into the synonymy of calpica. I have been able to com- 
pare 18 cotypes of this, which show that the dentition ascribed 
to it by Kobelt is not at all constant. Instead of 2 palatal 
folds said to be characteristic of it, 12 specimens have 3. In 
this form also, the angular lamella is not always absent; 
nearly half of the specimens I examined show a distinct one. 

A cotype agreeing with Kobelt 's description of his var. 
algesircc is illustrated, pi. 24, fig. 11. Length 7.5, diam. 2.7 
mm.; 8% whorls. 

Pupa gratiosa Westerlund, supplied with 1-2-4 teeth, may 
turn out to be a form of this species, but at present this dis- 
position of it is conjectural. 

[Two specimens of C. calpica from Tetuan are figured (pi. 
24, figs. 12, 13) from a lot of four in coll. Bryant Walker. 
Three of them have two palatal folds as in fig. 13, correspond- 
ing to var. algesircc Kob. ; the fourth having a basal fold in 
addition, fig. 12. Angular lamella is distinct to vestigeal. 
Both are stouter in figure than the cotype of algesirce figured, 
measuring 7 to 7.3 mm. long, 3 wide; 7^ whorls.] 



Certain fossils of Carboniferous (Pennsylvanian to Permian) 
age have been referred to the Pupillidae. At present their 
affinities must be considered doubtful, pending the discovery 
of Mesozoic forms connecting them with Pupillidae or other 
families. They are of great interest as evidence that a highly 
diversified Pulmonate fauna existed at that time ; but whether 
their affinities are with Auriculidas or with such Orthurethrous 
families as Pupillidae, Tornatellinidae, and others, or with 
several of these, remains to be worked out. With them occur 
snails resembling Endodontidae and Helicinidae. 


Anthracopupa Whitf., Amer. Journ. Sci., XXI, Feb. 1881, 
p. 126 ; Ann. New York Acad. Sci., V, 1891, p. 607. Mono- 
type A. ohioensis. 

The shell is ovate, ventricose, minute (the type about 3.3 
mm. long), finely striate axially, of few, convex whorls (about 
4 in the type) ; aperture vertical, the peristome thickened and 
reflected, with a small but deep rounded sinulus above, inser- 
tions remote; a median parietal and a columellar lamella de- 
veloped. A. ohioensis Whitf., pi. 32, figs. 11, 12, 13. 

While the shape, the small size and the transverse parietal 
margin of the aperture are Pupillid characters, yet the possi- 
bility that Anthracopupa belongs to the Auriculid series is 
strongly suggested by the resemblance of the aperture and 
peristome to those of some Carychiidae. 

Anthracopupa ohioensis Whitfield, Amer. Journ. Sci., 
XXI, 1881, p. 126, f. 1-4; Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci., V, p. 607, 
pi. 16, f . 15-17. Pennsylvanian : near Marietta, Ohio. 


Anthracopupa( ?) dunkardiana Stauffer & Schroyer, Geol. 
Surv. of Ohio, 4th Ser., Bull. 22, 1920, p. 144, pi. 11, f. 12-16. 
Permian, Dimkard Group : base of the Lower Washington 
limestone, half mile south of Pleasant Grove, Belmont Co., 

MATURIPUPA new genus. 

Ovate, Tornatelliniform shells having shortly ovate aperture 
with thin, slightly expanded outer and reflected columellar 
margins, their insertions distant. Parietal margin decidedly 
oblique. A long, median parietal lamella and an entering 
columellar lamella present. Type M. vermilionensis (Brad- 
ley), pi. 32, figs. 17, 18. 

Maturipupa vermilionensis (Bradley). Pupa vermilio- 
nensis Bradley, Amer. Journ. of Sci. (3), IV, 1872, p. 87, f. 
1, 2.— Dawson, Amer. Journ. of Sci. (3), XX, p. 410, f. 7, 8, 
9, 14c. Pennsylvanian : concretionary limestone of underclay 
of Coal No. 6, Wabash Valley Section, at Pelly's Fort, Ver- 
milion River, Illinois. 

This small, densely microscopically striate shell, 3.6 mm. 
long, has more resemblance to the Tornatellinidae or to some 
Auriculidas than to any Pupillidse, and it probably does not 
belong to the latter family. 


Dendropupa Owen, Palaeontology, or a systematic summary 
of extinct animals and their geological relations, 1860, p. 79 
(species alluded to but not mentioned by name). — Dawson, 
Amer. Journ. Sci. (3), XX, 1880, p. 408, for P. vetusta. 

The shell is shaped like Microceramus, subcylindric below, 
tapering in the upper half, of rather numerous whorls (9 in 
the type-species), the initial whorl smooth, the next marked 
with rows of little pits which gradually pass into continuous 
stria? (fig. 21, X 16) ; subsequent whorls closely ribbed axially. 
Aperture toothless, the peristome slightly reflected with widely 
separated insertions. 

Type Pupa vetusta Dawson. PI. 32, figs. 21-24. 


While this genus has generally been referred to the Pupil- 
lidas, it has an equal resemblance to such Urocoptidse as Micro- 
ceramus. That there is any direct relationship with the latter 
genus is highly improbable, though it might be an ancestral 
form of the same family. The type species, D. vestusta has 
the general figure of Abida, and is about 8 mm. long. Its egg 
capsules containing the young shell have been found (pi. 32, 
fig. 24, X 16). 

Dendropupa vetusta (Dawson). Pupa vetusta Dawson, 
Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. London, XVI, 1860, p. 270, f. 1-3 
Arcadian Geology, 1868, p. 383, f. 149; Amer. Journ. of Sci 
(3), XX, 1880, p. 405, f. 1-4, p. 412, f. 14a; with var. tenui 
striata, pp. 406, 412, f. 146.— Salter, The Geologist, 1861, p 
178, f. 1. — Dendropupa vetusta Fischer, Journ. de Conchyl. 
vol. 33, 1885, p. 101. Middle Pennsylvanian : South Joggins 
Nova Scotia, in stump of Sigillaria. 

Dendropupa walchiarum Fischer, Journ. de Conchyl., vol. 
33, 1885, p. 100, fig. 1. Middle Permian: Chambois (Saone- 

Species of uncertain position. 

Pupa bigsbyi Dawson, Amer. Journ. Science (3), XX, 1880, 
p. 410, f. 5, 6. — Dendropupa bigsoyi Fischer, Journ. de Con- 
chyl., 1885, p. 102. Middle Pennsylvanian: South Joggins, 
N. S., with P. vetusta. 

A smaller species than D. vetusta, smooth, and according to 
Dawson, belonging to a different group of Pupae. The aper- 
ture is imperfectly known and its generic relations therefore 

Pupa primaeva G. F. Matthew, Proc. and Trans. Roy. Soc. 
Canada for 1894, XII, 1895, section iv, p. 98, pi. 1, f. 10a, b. 
Pennsylvanian : Little River Group : Fern Ledges, Lancaster, 
St. John Co., N. B., in Plant Bed No. 2. 

As the aperture is unknown, this species cannot be definitely 
classified. With sculpture like Dendropupa, it has fewer and 
longer whorls. It occurred in the same bed in which Stro- 
phites grandceva was found. 


Strophites grand^eva Dawson [PL 32, fig. 16], Amer. 
Journ. Sci. (3), XX, 1880, p. 413, f. 15. Pennsylvanian : 
plant beds of St. John, New Brunswick. 

This genus and species was proposed for a fossil about 8 
mm. long, sharply ribbed axially, and thought to be thin- 
shelled, ' ' cylindrical with obtuse apex ; whorls four or more. ' ' 
The affinities of this form remain quite uncertain, the com- 
parison with Strophia (Cerion) being fanciful. 


Orcula doliolum vohlandi, new name for Orcula doliolum 
var. tumida Vohland, this Vol., p. 22 (not tumida Hazay, p. 8, 
or tumida Nevill, p. 145). 

Orcula kasnakovi. Pupa kasnakovi Rosen, Mittheilungen 
Kaukasischen Museums, VI, 1914, is a Transcaucasian species 
of which I have been unable to obtain the description. 

Lauria cylindracea (Da C.) Vol. XXVII, p. 47. 

Notes on the nomenclature, distribution etc. by M. Margier 
are quoted in Bull. Soc. Sci. Hist, et Nat. de la Corse, XXII, 
1903, p. 276. 

Page 53, third line. For initial A, substitute L. Add the 
reference : Pupa cylindracea var. misella Paulucci, Bull. Soc. 
Malac. Ital. VIII, 1882, p. 279, pi. 8, fig. 2. 

Mut. rufilabris Jackson. " Similar in all respects to the 
type, except the lip, which is reddish. It is not var. semproni 
(Charp.), as this is smaller and toothless. I have found this 
form accompanying the type in a great many places up and 
down the country. It is very common at Grange, Silverdale 
etc., Serpentine Walks " ([Jaminia cylindracea] var. rufilabris 
J. W. Jackson, Mollusca of Kendal, Westmoreland, Journ. of 
Conch. XII, 1909, p. 313). 

Vol. XXVII, p. 54, 5th line from bottom: for " Syria " 
read Syra. 

Agardhia truncatella biarmata (Bttg.), this volume, p. 


The form described and figured by Sturany from a cave near 
Zavala, Herzegovina (the description and figures reproduced 
in this volume, p. 165, pi. 19, figs. 11, 12), has been named 
Coryna biarmata spelaea Kobelt, Iconographie Land- und- 
Siisswasser-Mollusken, n. F., XII, 1906, p. 23, pi. 311, fig. 
1979. The size of spelaea is length 4, diam. 1.7 mm. 

Just how spelaea differs from typical biarmata has not been 
made clear. Boettger's type of the latter has not been figured. 
The figures published by Sturany (pi. 19, figs. 11, 12), Sturany 
and "Wagner (figs. 9, 10) and myself (figs. 13, 14) do not 
appear to differ materially. 

Chondrina avenacea Brug., var. latilabris Stossich. Lip 
broadened, rose-colored. Eare at San Daniele di Gorgna, 
Venetian Alps (Torquilla avenacea Brug. var. latilabris 
Stossich, Boll. Soc. Adriatica di Scienze Naturali in Trieste, 
XVI, 1895, p. 204). A var. elongata is said to be described in 
Vol. XIX of the same bulletin, not accessible to me at present. 

Chondresta psarolena var. rutuba Caziot. Eight whorls of 
the spire not very convex ; suture quite deep ; increase of the 
whorls progressive; aperture oblique (150°). Height 8% 
mm., of aperture 2%, height of last whorl 4 mm. Dep. Alpes- 
Maritimes ; named for the l ' torrent la Roya. ' ' ( [Pupa 
psarolena] var. rutuba Caziot, Etude les mollusques terrestres 
et fluviatiles de la Principaute de Monaco et du Dep des Alpes 
maritimes, 1910, p. 315, pi. 9, figs. 21, 22). 

Pagodulina subdola gracilior, new name for Pupa 
pagodula forma gracilis Bttg., West, (this vol. pp. 177, 178). 
The name gracilis had been used many times in Pupa before it 
was applied to this form. 

Truncatellenta janestensis, new name for Pupa minutis- 
sima var. obscura Mouss. (Vol. XXVI, p. 67), not Pupa ob- 
scura Miihlf. 

Genus ( ?) Paracortna Flach. 
The group Paracoryna Flach, on page 132 might better be 
considered distinct from Agardhia. In subordinating it to 
the latter, it was not noticed that Paracoryna is earlier by 
twenty-one years, Agardhia dating from September, 1911. 


Except where otherwise stated, the specimens figured are in the Museum 
of the Academy of Natural Sciences and were drawn by Helen Winchester. 
Figures borrowed from other works have been copied photographically. 


Plate 1. {Orcula) 

1-3. Orcula doliuru (Drap.) . Lyons. 22679 7 

4. Orcula dolium f. obesa (Branc). After Kobelt .... 9 

5. Orcula dolium var. implieata (Branc). After Clessin. 12 

6. Orcula dolium triplicata (Branc). After Clessin . . 9 

7. Orcula dolium uniplicata (P. & M.). After Pot. et 

Mich 10 

8. 9. Orcula dolium pfeifferi (Moq.). Grenoble. 22675. 9 

10. Orcula dolium brancsikii (Cless.). After Kobelt .. 10 

11. Orcula schmidtii (Kstr.) 16 

12. 13. Orcula dolium plagiostoma (Sdbg.). 3915 11 

14. Orcula gularis (Rssm.) . Tyrol. 22681 13 

15. Orcula gularis spoliata (Rssm.). Dennberg, Tyrol.. 14 

16. Orcula conica (Rssm.) . 22682 15 

Plate 2. {Orcula). 

1,2. Orcula doliolum (Brug.). Valenciennes. 8267 .. 17 

3. Orcula d. templorum (Ben.). Catania 22 

4. Orcula doliolum (Brug.). Lyons. 22687 17 

5. 6. Orcula d. turcica (Let.). Smyrna. 62491 23 

7, 8. Orcula imbricata (Jick.). Abyssinia. 64108 .... 25 

9. Orcula imbricata (Jick.) . After Jickeli 25 

10, 11. Orcula jetschini (Kim.). Near Mehadia. 114974. 17 
12, 13. Orcula mesopotamica (Mss.). Biredjik. 140001. 27 

Plate 3. {Orcula) 

1. Orcula scyphus (Pfr.). After Kiister 31 

2, 3, 4. Orcula s. gracus Pils. Chalcis. 8266 36 

5, 6. Orcula s. palatalis Pils. Sert. 139998 33 

7, 8, 9, 10. Orcula s. batumensis (Ret.) . Siwas. 139997. 34 

11, 12, 13. Orcula s. enteroplax Pils. Brussa. 8265 .... 35 

Plate 4 {Orcula) 

1. Orcula raymondi (Bgt.). After Bourguignat 38 

2, 3. Orcula r. trifilaris (Mss.). Kurdschips. 139996. 40 
4, 5, 6. Orcula r. trifilaris (Mss.). Suran. 115009 40 




7. Orcula raymondi f. quadrifilaris (Rosen). After 

Kosen 41 

8. Orcula raymondi bifilaris truncata (Eosen). After 

Rosen 42 

9. Orcula r. bifilaris (Mouss.). After Mousson 42 

10. Orcula subconica (Sdbg.). Landschneckenkalk. 

139994 3 

Plate 5. {Orcula, Lauria) 

1-4. Orcula doliolum, young. After Reinhardt 2 

5, Orcula sirianocoriensis orientalis (Pfr.). After 

Pfeiffer 29 

6, 7. Orcula s. coerulescens (Naeg.). Sert. 140003 ... 30 

8. Orcula sirianocoriensis (Mss.). After Kobelt 28 

9-12. Lauria anglica (Wood). Belfast. 22674 83 

13-14. Lauria numidica (Bgt.). After Bourguignat ... 86 

15-17. Lauria caucasica (Pfr.). Kobi. 130129 74 

Plate 6. (Lauria) 

1, 2. Lauria cylindracea (DaC). Collingham nr. Tad- 
caster. 22714 47 

3, 5. Lauria cylindracea (DaC.) albino. Lancashire. 

109430 47 

4, 6. Lauria cylindracea (DaC). Calvados. 22664... 47 

7, 8. Lauria cylindracea (DaC.) young specimens. 109430 47 

9. Lauria c. villas (Kstr.) . After Kuester 50 

10-12. Lauria c. anconostoma (Lowe). Madeira. 22865, 

3932 51 

13. Lauria c. dohrni (Pfr.). S. Antonio, Cape Verdes. 

64111 53 

14, 15. Lauria c. dohrni (perdubia Woll.) . Tomlin coll. . . 53 
16, 17, 18. Lauria c. poupillieri (Bgt.). After Bourguig- 
nat 51 

19, 20. Lauria umbilicus (Roth). S. Giorgio, Syra. 130128 54 

Plate 7. (Lauria) 

1. Lauria vulcanica (Kstr.). After Kuester 54 

2, 3. Lauria sempronii (Charp.). Lombardy. 22673 .. 55 

4. Lauria s. dilucida (Rssm.). Kalamata. 130117 ... 56 

5, 6. Lauria caspia (Pfr.). Lenkoran. 130120 57 

7, 8. Lauria fanalensis (Lowe). Madeira. 128899, 

97285 58 

9, 10. Lauria fanalensis (Lowe). Teneriffe, Tomlin coll. 58 

11, 12. Lauria f. pyramidula (P. & S.). Paratypes. 98200. 60 


13, 14. Lauria fanalensis (Lowe). Palma. 12888 58 

15. Lauria fanalensis (Lowe), (debilis Mouss.). After 

]\Iousson 59 

16. Lauria fasciolata (M. & D.). Azores. 22866 122 

17. Lauria fasciolata (M. & D.). S. Miguel. 130115 ... 122 

18. 19. Lauria fasciolata hortana Pils. Horta, Fayal . . . 123. 

Plate 8. (Lauria) 

1. Lauria farquhari (M. & P.). After Burnup 63 

2. Lauria farquhari (M. & P.). Blandsberg. 117277. 63 

3. Lauria dadiou (Bs.). Siinonstown. 22902 64 

4. Lauria dadion (Bs.). After Burnup 64 

5. 6. Lauria dadion (Bs.) . Karkloof. 47249 64 

7, 9. Lauria cryptoplax (M. & P.). After Burnup 65 

8, 10. Lauria cryptoplax (M. & P.). Somerset East. 

140008 65 

11, Lauria tabularis (M. & P.). After Burnup 65 

12, 15. Lauria tabularis (M. & P.). Cape Town. 100457. 65 

13, 14. Lauria tabularis (M. & P.). Rondebusch. 106496. 65 

16. Lauria desiderata (Preston). After Preston 62 

17. Lauria bruguierei (Jick.) After Jickeli 61 

18. Lauria cylindracea (DaC). After Jickeli 47, 61 

19. Lauria bourbonensis Pils. Type. 5513 62 

20. Lauria bruguieri (Jick.). Paratype. 64095 61 

Plate 9. (Lauria) 

1-4. Lauria superstructa (Mss.). Mt. Suram. 115014. 77 

5. Lauria superstructa lederi (Bttg.). After Boettger. 79 

6. Lauria superstructa unibasalis (Bttg.). After Boett- 

ger 79 

7. Lauria superstructa unibasalis (Bttg.). Suanetia. 

130119 79 

8. 10. Lauria zonata (Bttg.) . 130118 79 

9. Lauria zonata (Bttg.). After Boettger 79 

11, 13, 14. Lauria pulchra biblabiata (Ret.). W. Caucasus. 

130127 82 

12, 15. Lauria pulchra nitens (Bttg.). Kurdschips. 

130124 82 

Plate 10. (Lauria) 

1, 2. Lauria tenuiraarginata Bttg. Type and paratvpe. 

130116 * 76 

3-5. Lauria cheilogona (Lowe). Madeira. 97283, 5389, 

128906 90 



6, 7. Lauria vincta watsoniana Pils. Madeira. 97302 . 92 

8, 10. Lauria vineta (Lowe). Madeira. 22863 91 

9, 11. Lauria vincta (Lowe). Young. 5787 91 

12. Lauria irrigua (Lowe). Madeira. 97287 92 

13, 14. Lauria loweana (Woll.). Madeira. 97292 93 

Plate 11. (Lauria) 

1, 2. Lauria loweana transiens (Woll.). 97291 96 

3. Lauria cassidula (Lowe). Madeira. B. Walker coll. 96 

4, 6. Lauria concinna (Lowe). Madeira. 97284 97 

5. Lauria concinna (Lowe), base of young shell. 128904. 97 

7. Lauria s. heterodon Pils. Madeira. 130428 101 

8, 9. Lauria laurinea (Lowe). Madeira. 97289 98 

10, 11, 12. Lauria sphinctostoma (Lowe). Madeira. 

128907, 4927 99 

13, 15, 16. Lauria s. arborea (Lowe). Madeira. 97301.. 100 

14. Lauria s. arborea (Lowe), young shell. Santa Cruz. 100 

Plate 12. (Lauria) 

1, 2. Lauria corneocostata (Woll.). Madeira. 5388 .. 108 

3, 4, 5. Lauria corneocostata (Woll.). Madeira. 87305. 108 

6, 7, 8. Lauria relevata (Woll.). Madeira. 97309 .... 110 

9. Lauria c. resticula (Woll.). From Wollaston. 97306.109 

10. Lauria c. resticula (Woll.). Brocton-Tomlin coll. . 109 

11. Lauria sphinctostoma simulator Pils. Type. 5611 . . 101 

12. Lauria ferraria (Lowe). Porto Santo. 97307 110 

13. 14. Lauria monticola (Lowe). Porto Santo. 128903. 112 

15. Lauria monticola pumilio (Lowe). Porto Santo. 

128903 113 

Plate 13. (Lauria) 

1, 2, 3. Lauria wollastoni (Lowe) . Canical. 114971 . . 102 

4, 5. Lauria laevigata (Lowe). Madeira. 5377 103 

6, 7, 8. Lauria recta (Lowe). Madeira. 97296, 5382 . . 104 
9. Lauria r. macilenta (Lowe). Grand Deserta. 97294. 104 

10, 11. Lauria fusca (Lowe). S. Vicente, Madeira. 140011 105 
12-15. Lauria millegrana (Lowe) . Madeira. 128902 . . 106 

Plate 14. (Lauria) 

1. Lauria cassida (Lowe). Madeira. 97281 88 

2. Lauria calathiscus (Lowe). De Facho, P. Santo. 

130113 113 

3. Lauria calathiscus (Lowe). Porto Santo. 97304 .. 113 

4. 5. Lauria gibba (Lowe). Madeira. 114986 115 



6. Lauria gibba, last part of outer wall broken away, 

showing : a, angular lamella ; b, basal fold ; c, 
columellar lamella; p, parietal lamella; u.p, 
upper-palatal fold 115 

7. Lauria gibba, outer wall viewed from inside, showing: 

l.p, lower-palatal fold ; s.p, suprapalatal fold ; u.p, 
upper-palatal fold. 114986 115 

8. Lauria lamellosa (Lowe). Fossil specimen 116 

9. Lauria lamellosa. Recent specimen. Brocton-Tom- 

lin coll 116 

10, 11. Lauria lamellosa. Top and base of a young shell. 

Brocton-Tomlin coll 116 

12, 13. Lauria abbreviata (Lowe). Near Canical. Broc- 
ton-Tomlin coll 108 

Plate 15. (Lauria, Canaries, Azores) 

1. Lauria castanea (Shuttl.) Teneriffe. B. Walker coll. 118 

2. Lauria taeniata (Shuttl.) Teneriffe. 114473 120 

3. 4. Lauria pythiella (Monss.). Above Buenavista. 

128900 119 

5. Lauria rugulosa (Morel.). After Morelet 126 

6, 7. Lauria fuscidula (Morel.) . Azores 5074 124 

8. Lauria vermiculosa (Morel.). San Miguel. 5076 .. 126 

9, 10. Lauria fuscidula hexodon Pils. San Miguel. 22867. 125 

11. Lauria fuscidula hexodon Pils. San Miguel. 130121. 125 

12. Lauria tesselata (Morel.), base of young shell. 5075. 128 

13, 14. Lauria tesselata (Morel.). Santa Maria. 22868. 128 
15. Lauria tesselata (Morel.), later whorls opened. 5075. 128 

Plate 16. (Agardhia) 

1, 2. Agardhia biplicata (Mich.). After Pollonera ... 148 

3, 4, 5. Agardhia b. toscaniae (Bgt.). Florence. 22691. 151 

6, 7. Agardhia b. ligustica (Poll.) . After Pollonera .... 147 

8, 9. Agardhia excessiva (Gredl.). After Pollonera . . . 151 

10, 11. Agardhia b. locardi (Locard.). After Caziot .... 149 

12. Agardhia bielzi (Rossm.). Brosteni. 22690 153 

13, 14. Agardhia bielzi (Rossm.). Rodna Mts. 114993.153 
15, 16. Agardhia bielzi f. euodon (West.). Rodna Mts. 

114993a 154 

Plate 17. (Agardhia) 

1, 2. Agardhia blanci niciensis (Poll.). After Pollonera. 140 
3, 4. 5. Agardhia blanci (Bourg.). St. Martin Lantosque. 

22730 138 



6, 7, 8. Agardhia blanci jolyana (Nevill). After Nevill. 141 

9, 10, 11. Agardhia bourguignatiana (Nevill). After 

Nevill 143 

12. 13, 14. Agardhia b. var. plagiostoma (Nevill). 1 After 

Nevill 145 

15, 16, 17. Agardhia b. var. prseclara (Nevill). After 

NeviU 146 

18, 19, 20. Agardhia ferrari (Porro). Lugano. 22693.. 136 
21, 22. Agardhia ferrari (Porro). Italy. 22692 136 

Plate 18. (Agardhia) 

I, 2. Agardhia valsabina (Spin.). After Pollonera .... 141 

3. Agardhia valsabina (Spin.). After Spinelli 141 

4. 5. Agardhia macrodonta Hesse. Type. Hesse coll . . 156 
6, 7. Agardhia macrodonta gracillima Pils. Type. Hesse 

coll 157 

8. Agardhia rumelica Hesse. Type. Hesse coll 157 

9, 10, 11, 12. Agardhia rumelica. Face and apertures of 

four of the original lot , . 157 

13. Agardhia lamellata (Cless.). Topotype. Hesse coll. 158 

14. Agardhia lamellata (Cless.). After Sturany & Wag- 

ner 158 

15. Agardhia parreysii (Pfr.). After Sturany & Wagner. 160 

16. Agardhia parreysii (Pfr.). 51814 160 

Plate 19. (Agardhia) 

1. Agardhia parreysii (armata Cless.). After Clessin . 161 

2. Agardhia truncatella (Pfr.). Carinthia. Hesse coll. 162 

3. 4. Agardhia truncatella (Pfr.). Carinthia. 115000. 162 

5. Agardhia truncatella (Pfr.). After Kuester 162 

6, 7. Agardhia truncatella formosa (Pfr.). After Kuester. 164 

8. Agardhia truncatella formosa (Pfr.). After Sturany . 

& Wagner 164 

9, 10. Agardhia truncatella biarmata (Bttg.). After 

Sturany & Wagner 164 

II, 12. Agardhia truncatella biarmata (Bttg.). After 

Sturany 164 

13, 14. Agardhia truncatella biarmata (Bttg.). Komeno. 

Hesse coll 165 

15. Agardhia truncatella skipetarica Wagn. After Stur- 
any & Wagner 166 

1 The name plagiostoma is preoccupied, but probably Nevill's form is not 
a valid race and will not require a new name. 



16. Agardhia (Paracoryna) retusa (Sdbg.). Wiesbaden. 

140018 133 

17, 18. Agardhia (Paracoryna) diezi (Flach). After 

Flach 133 

Plate 20. (Pagodulina) 

1, 2. Pagodulina pagodula (Desm.). Marseilles. 22725.169 

3. Pagodulina pagodula (Desm.). Austria. 22728 .. 169 

4. Pagodulina pagodula (Desm.). Provence. 22724 .. 169 

5. 6. Pagodulina p. sparsa Pils. Rakakerwald. 140013. 171 

7. Pagodulina p. sparsa Pils. Marseilles. 8268 171 

8, 9. Pagodulina p. austeniana (Nevill). After Nevill . 170 

10. Pagodulina pagodula (Desm.). Grenoble. 22726 .. 169 

11, 12. Pagodulina lederi (Bttg.). Lenkoran. 140017.177 
13, 14, 15. Pagodulina subdola gracilis (Bttg.). Prid- 

warje, Dalmatia. 140016 177 

Plate 21. (Pagodulina, Orcula) 

1, 2, 3. Pagodulina subdola adamii (Westerl.). Edolo. 

140015 175 

4-7. Pagodulina subdola (Gredl.). Alleghe. 140014 .. 172 
8, 9. Pagodulina subdola sanremoensis Pils. Type. 

22729 174 

10. Orcula wagneri ljubetensis Stur. After Sturany & 

Wagner 257 

11. Orcula bulgarica Hesse. Type. Hesse coll 26, 256 

12. 13. Orcula wagneri Sturany. After Sturany & Wag- 

ner 257 

Plate 22. Spelaeodiscus 

1, 2. Spelaeodiscus triarius (Km.). Mehadia. 30826 . 182 

3. Spelaeodiscus triarius (Rm.). Hungarv. 30827 182 

4. Spelaeodiscus triadis (Kim.). Ponor Ohaba. 33050. 183 

5. Spelaeodiscus triadis (Kim.). Petrozeny. 65931 .. 183 

6. 7, 8. Spelaeodiscus trinodis (Kim.). Transsylvania. 

4840 181 

9-11. Spelaeodiscus hauffeni (Schm.). After Sturany & 

Wagner 185 

12-14. Spelaeodiscus albanicus (Wagn.). After Sturany 

& Wagner 184 



Plate 23. (Abida) 

1. Abida pblyodon (Drap.). Setcases near Camprodon. 269 

2. Abida polyodon (Drap.). Topotype of P. montser- 

ratica Fag. Montserrat 269 

3. 4. Abida partioti (M.-T.). Topotype of P. dupuyi 

West. St. Sauveur 271 

5, 6. Abida secale (Drap.). Cotype of P. boileausiana, 

Charp. Viedessos 271 

7, 8, 9. Abida secale (Drap.). Cotype of P. fagorum 

Fag. Aulus 272 

10. Abida bigerrensis (M.-T.). Topotype of P. baillensi 

Dup. Bayonne 273 

11, 12. Abida bigerrensis (M.-T.). Paratype. Bagneres 

de Bigorre 273 

13, 14. Abida bigerrensis (M.-T.). (P. garumnica Fag.) 

Artias 273 

Figures from specimens in Senckenberg Museum. 

Plate 24. {Abida, Chondrina) 

1-4. Abida pyrenaearia (Mich.). South, side of the Port 

de Salau 276 

5. Abida pyrenaearia (Mich.). Topotype of P. hospitii 

Fag. Hospicio de Venasque 276 

6. Abida pyrenaearia (Mich.). Cotype of P. aulusensis 

Fag 276 

7. 8, 9. Abida pyrenaearia (Mich.). Cotype of P. sax- 

icola M.-T 277 

10. Abida pyrenaearia (Mich.). (P. clausilioides Boub.). 277 

11. Chondrina calpica (West.). Cotype of P. tingitana 

var. algesirae Kob. Algeciras 314 

12. 13. Chondrina calpica (West.). Tetuan. B. Walker 

coll 315 

Figures 1-11 from specimens in Senckenberg Museum. 

Plate 25 

1, 2. Abida affinis catalonica (Bof.). Topotype. Cam- 
prodon 279 

3, 4. Abida affinis catalonica (Bof.). Cotype of P. 

freseriana Fag. Queralps 280 

5. Abida affinis catalonica (Bof.). Cotype of P. per- 

longa Fag. Montagut near Bibas 280 

6. Abida affinis catalonica (Bof.). Cotype of P. phthi- 

sica Bof. Besora 280 



7, la. Abida affinis montsicciana (Bof.). Cotype. Por- 

tell del Montsech 280 

8, 9. Abida affinis bofilli (Fag.)- Topotype. Montserrat. 281 
10, 11. Abida affinis andorrensis (Bgt.). Congost 

d Organya, Segre valley 281 

12, 13. Abida affinis andorrensis (Bgt.). Cotype of P. 

tuxensis Fag. Tuxent 281 

Figures from specimens in Senekenberg Museum. 

Plate 26 

1. Cbondrina bigorriensis bigorriensis (DesM.). Cotype 

of P. moquiniana Kiister. Mt. Beudat near Pau. 284 

2. Chondrina bigorriensis bigorriensis (Des M.). Cotype 

of P. badia var. gigantea Rossm. Cirque de Gar- 
vanie 284 

3. Chondrina bigorriensis tenuimarginata (Des M.). 

Cotype of P. crassata Fagot. Eseales de Sopeira. 286 

4. Chondrina bigorriensis tenuimarginata (Des M.). 

Topotype of P. angulata Fagot. Esera valley. 286 

5. 6, 7, 8. Chondrina bigorriensis tenuimarginata (Des 

M. ) .Valley of the Noguera Ribagorzana 286 

9, Chondrina bigorriensis tenuimarginata (Des M.). 

Caldas de Montbuy 286 

10. Chondrina bigorriensis microehilus (Bof.). Cotype. 

Ca'n Quinquilla de la Serra, Montsech 289 

11. Chondrina aragonica (Fag.). Valley of the Noguera 

Ribagorzana 308 

12. Chondrina bigorriensis tenuimarginata (Des M.). 

Forat Negre at the Hospitalet del Infant at Van- 
dellos, Prov. Tarragona 286 

13. Chondrina lusitanica vasconica (Kob.). Cotype. 

Ordufia 311 

Figures from specimens in Senekenberg Museum. 

Plate 27 

1, 2. Chondrina avenacea farinesi (Des M.). Cotype of 

P. microdon West. Montserrat 290 

3. Chondrina avenacea farinesi (Des M.). Topotype of 

P. sexplicata Bof. Pobla de Segur 297 

4. Chondrina avenacea farinesi (Des M.). (P. massot- 

iana Bgt.) . Pobla de Segur 297 

5. Chondrina avenacea farinesi (Des M.). (P. prnch- 

lii a liana Bgt.) Pobla de Segur 297 



6. Chondrina avenacea pulchella (Bof.). Cotype. Valle 

d'Ager, Montsech 298 

7. Chondrina avenacea jumillensis (Pfr.). Cotype of 

P. jumillensis Rossm. Jumilla 299 

8. Chondrina avenacea jumillensis (Pfr.). Cotype. 

Jumilla or Orihuela 299, 305 

9. Chondrina avenacea jumillensis (Pfr.). (P. tarra- 

conensis Fag.). Mt. Nola de Falset, Prov. 

Tarragona 299, 305 

10, 11. Chondrina dertosensis (Bof.). Cotype. Sierra 

de Cardo 312 

12. Chondrina dertosensis (Bof.). Montsia near Tortosa. 312 

13, 14. Chondrina avenacea kobelti (West.). Caldas de 

Oviedo 306 

15. Chondrina avenacea kobelti (West.). Giant form, 

Potes near Santander 306 

Figures from specimens in the Senckenberg Museum. 

Plate 28 

1, 2. Lyropupa striatula (Pse.). Cotype. 46234MCZ. 223 
3, 4, 5. Lvropupa ovatula moomomiensis P. & C. Type. 

44762 225 

6, 7, 8. Lyropupa costata (Pse.). Kona Crater, Hawaii. 

131437 223 

9, 10, 15-17. Lyropupa ovatula kona P. & C. Cotype. 

44763 224 

(Figs 15-17 were reversed by the artist). 

11-14. Pagodulina subdola adamii (West,). Type and 

eotypes of P. perplicata Sterki 176 

16, 17. Lyropupa ovatula kona P. & C. Palatal folds of 
two specimens from Kapulehu. 131434. &., 
basal fold ; l.p., lower-palatal ; u.p., upper-palatal. 224 
N. B. Figures 15, 16, 17 were inadvertently reversed in 

Plate 29 

1, 2. Paracraticula umbra Oppenh. After Oppenheim . 221 

3. Gastrocopta recondita (T.-C). After C. R. Boettger. 209 

4. Vertigo zschokkei Biitikofer. After Biitikofer 219 

5. Vertigo pygmgea graellsiana Serv. After Haas .... 218 

6. Vertigo alpestris acheila Serv. After Haas 219 

7. Vertigo lilljeborgi West. After Schmierer 218 

8. Ptychalsea flexidens (Reuss.). Tuchorshitz. 8146 . 225 



9. Gastrocopta mierosoma (T.-C). After C. R. Boettger. 209 

10. Phenacharopta novoseelandiae (Pfr.). North I., N. Z. 

63794 261 

11. Truncatellina lardea (Jick.). Prov. Hamaszen, Abys- 

sinia. 134402 231 

12. Truncatellina elaustralis clavella (Reinh.). Albas- 

tuman. 134592 231 

13. 14. Enneopupa cylindrella (Sdbg.). Hoehheim-Flor- 

sheim. 4148 222 

15. Nesopupa bandulana Con. Paratype. 132321 226 

16. Nesopupa norfolkensis (Sykes). Norfolk I. Walker 

coll 227 

Plate 30. (Columella) 

1. Columella limnasana (Lowe). Madeira. 117134 .. 235 

2, 3. Columella microspora (Lowe). Madeira. 92293, 

128896 234 

4. Columella microspora (Lowe). Teneriffe. Tomlin 

coll 234 

5. Columella edentula nana (Bttg.). After Boettger .. 238 

6. Columella sharpi (P. & C). Type. Kilauea. 58378.247 

7. Columella olaaensis Pils. Type. Olaa, Hawaii. 77990. 248 

8. Columella edentula turritella (West.). After Clessin. 238 

9. 10. Columella edentula (Drap.). Calvados. 134351. 236 

11. Columella edentula (Drap.). Cruce, Moldavia. 22716 236 

12, 13. Columella edentula (Drap.). Oswego, Oregon. 

111396 242 

14. Columella edentula (Drap.). Camillus, N. Y. 113714. 242 

15. Columella edentula form simplex (Gld.). Clemen- 

ton, N. J. 113439 242 

16. Columella edentula form simplex (Gld.). Beaver 

Co., Pa. 46183 242 

17. Columella edentula (Drap.), var. Evergreen, Ala. 

116871 242 

18. Columella kasta (Hanna). After Hanna 245 

Plate 31 

1. Columella columella (Benz.). Debris of the Isar, 

Munich. 134589 239 

2. Columella columella (Benz.). After Rossmaessler .. 239 

3. Columella columella (gredleri CI.). After Clessin .. 240 

4. Columella inornata (Mich.). After Michaud 240 

5. Columella gutta (Bens.). From Conchologia Indica. 241 



6. Columella alticola (Ing.). Mammoth. Hot Springs, 

Wyoming. 63610 243 

7. Columella alticola (Ing.). Howardsville, Col. 59083. 243 

8. Columella alticola (Ing.). Banff. 92135 243 

9. Columella polvonensis (Pils.). Type. 5096 246 

10, 11. Pupoides zanguebarica (Taylor). B. Walker coll. 251 

12. Pupoides bryantwalkeri Pils. Type. B. Walker coll. 251 

13. Pupoides pilsbryi Dall. Cotype. Ballast Point Silex 

beds. 165017 U. S. N. M 248 

14. Granopupa brondeli (Bgt.). Point Pescade. 134591. 215 

15. Pupoides hedleyi Pils. Type. Bundaberg, Queens- 

land 252 

16. Granopupa rhodia taurica Kessl. Neschori. 134590. 215 

Plate 32 

1-3. Spermodea lamellata (Jeffr.). Ingleby, England. 

22653 187 

4. Acanthinula aculeata (Mull.). Sicily. 22650 191 

5. Acanthinula aculeata (Mull.). France. 22651 191 

6. Acanthinula aculeata (Mull.). Waechtersbach. 

123320 191 

7. 8. Acanthinula azorica Pils. S. Miguel. 1515 193 

9. Acanthinula expatriata Prest. After Preston 194 

10. Zoogenetes larpa Say. Buckfield, Maine. 87289 ... 196 
11-13. Anthracopupa ohioensis Whitf. After Whitfield . 316 
14, 15. Ptychospira deloplecta Slavik. After Slavik . . . 264 

16. Strophites grandaeva Dawson. After Dawson 319 

17, 18. Maturipupa vermilionensis (Bradley). After 

Bradley 317 

19, 20. Acanthopupa joossi Wenz. After Wenz 198 

21-24. Dendropupa vetusta Dawson. After Dawson .... 317 

Volumes XXIV to XXVII 

Note. — Subspecies and varieties of all grades are treated as if they were 
sp'- ;ies in this index. "When a name occurs on several successive 
pages, only the first is given. 

A adjuncta, Pupa, Zgl., 24, 303 

adeodati, Pupa, Fag., 27, 286 
admodesta, Pronesopupa, Migh., 

26, 11 
admodesta, Pupa, Migh., 26, 11 
adversidens, Pupa, Sandb., 25, 198, 

aemula, Pupa, Mts., 24, 336, 338 
aeoli, Pupa, Hilb., 26, 199 
aeoli, Pupilla, Hilb., 26, 199 

abanensis, Pupa, Greg., 26, 76 
abbreviata, Bifidaria, Stki., 24, 16 
abbreviata, Gastrocopta, Stki., 24, 

abbreviata, Pupa, Cless., 26, 178 
abessynica, Pupa, Bttg., 26, 103 
Abida, Leach., 24, 233, 262; 25, 

370; 27, 267 
abrupta, Pupa, West., 24, 313; 27, 

abundans, Pupa, West., 24, 313; 

27, 272 
abyssinica, Pupa, Beinh., 26, 103 
abyssinicus, Negulus, Eeinh., 26, 

Acanthinula, Beck., 27, 188 
acanthinula, Pronesopupa, Anc, 

26, 5 

acanthinula, Pupa, Anc, 26, 6 
Aeanthinulinae, 27, 186 
acarus, Gastrocopta, Bs., 24, 122 
acarus. Pupa, Bs., 24, 122 
Acanthopupa, Wenz., 27, 198 
accedens, Vertigo, Anc, 25, 119 
achoila. Vertigo, Serv., 25, 202; 

27, 219 

achila, Pupa, Sowb., 25, 380 
Acmopupa, Bttg., 26, 101 
aculeata, Acanthinula, Mull., 27, 

aculeata, Helix, Mull.. 27, 191 
acuminata, Gastrocopta, KL, 26, 

acuminata, Pupa, EX. 26, 231 
acuta, Pupa, Kteh., 24, 344 
acutula, Pupa. Parr.. 24, 344 
adamii, Pa^odulina. West., 27, 175 
nclamii, Pupa, Wost.. 27, 175 
adaucta. Pupa, Pir., 27, 172 

, Buliminus, A. & A., 26, 

adelaidae, Pupoides, A. & A., 26, 


aequidentata, Vertigo, Poll., 25, 

aethiopicus, Bulimus, Bgt., 26, 132 
affinis, Abida, Bssni., 24, 282; 27, 

affinis, Bifidaria, St., 24, 16' 
affinis, Gastrocopta, St., 24, 18 
affinis, Pupa, A. & M., 25, 66 
affinis, Pupa, Em., 24, 282 
Afripupa, Pils. & Ckc, 25, 276, 357 
Afripupilla, Pils., 26, 153, 215 
Agardhia, Gude, 27. 129, 319 
Agardhiella, Hesse, 27, 155 
agna, Bifidaria, P. & V., 24, 26 
agna, Gastrocopta, P. & V., 24, 26 
alabamensis, Vertigo, Clapp., 25, 

Alaca C. Bttg., 26, 233 
Alaea, Jeffreys, 25, 69, 72 

mica, Aspasita, Wagn., 27, 184 
albanicus, Spelaeodiscus, Wagn., 27, 

alba, Pupa, Baldw., 26, 174 
alba, Pupa, Ckll., 26, 160 
alba, Pupa, Coll., 27. 84 
alba, Pupa, Jeffr.. 27, 49 
alba, Pupilla, Ckll., 26. 237 
albersi, Pupa, Pfr., 1, 97 
albescens. Pupilla, Ferr., 26, 165, 

albida, Acanthinula, Jeffr., 27, 193 
albida, Acanthinula, Sundl., 27, 

albidocostata, (Pupa), West., 24, 





albilabris, (Pupa), 26, 112 
albilabris, (Pupa), Zgl., 25, 8 
albina, Acanthinula, Schleseh., 27, 

albina, (Lauria), Bttg., 27, 80 
albina, (Pupa), Ashf., 27, 49 
albina, (Pupa), Mke., 26, 178 
albina, (Pupa), Tschap., 27, 170 
albina, Spelgeodiscus, Kim., 27, 184 
albina, Spermodea, Schl., 27, 188 
albina, Truncatellina, 26, 67 
albina, Vertigo, Moq., 26, 67 
albina, Vertigo, Tayl., 25, 378 
Albinula, Stki., 24, 11, 13 
algesirae, Pupa, Kob., 25, 42; 27, 

alexanderi, Columella, C. & P., 27, 

alexanderi, Sphyradium, C. & P., 

27, 248 
alleodus, Pupa, Sdbg., 25, 216 
Alloglossa, Lindst., 25, 1 
allogyra, Pupa, West., 26, 79 
alloia, Nesopupa, C. & P., 25, 321 
allyniana, Vertigo, Berry, 25, 376 
alpestris, Vertigo, Aid., 25, 197 
alpicola, Pupa, Chp., 26, 183 
alpicola, Pupilla, Chp., 26, 183 
alpium, Oreula, Loc, 27, 20 
alternans, Pupa, Dh., 25, 223 
alticola, Columella, Ing., 27, 243 
alticola, Pupilla, Ing., 27, 244 
altius, Hypselostoma, Pils., 24, 181 
alumnus, Pupa, ~PaTT.=Chondrula 
Alvearella, Lowe, 27, 67 
alvearia, Pupa, Pfr., 14, 274 
amblya, Oreula, Bgt., 27, 4 
amblya, Pupa, Bgt., 27, 4 
amblymorpha, Pupa, Font., 27, 265 
ameliae, Pupa, Loc., 24, 272; 27, 

amieta, Pupa, Parr., 25, 63, 64 
amphodon, Pupa, M. & P., 26, 208, 

amurensis, Helix, Gerst., 27, 197 
Anauchen, Pils., 24, 174, 188 
aneeps, Pupa, Fag., 25, 68 
anceyana, Lyropupa, C. & P., 25, 

ancevana, Nesopupa, C. & P., 25, 

anceyi, Abida, Fag., 24, 317 
aneeyi, Pupa, Fag., 24. 317 
anconostoma, Helix, Lwe., 27, 52 
anconostoma, Lauria, Lwe., 27. 51 
andorrensis, Abida, Bgt., 27, 281 
andorrensis, Pupa, Bgt., 24, 293 

andorrica, Pupa, Fag., 27, 281 
andrusiana, Vertigo, Pils., 25, 109 
angliea, Lauria, Wood, 27, 83 
angliea, Turbo, Wood, 27, 84 
angliea, Vertigo, Fer., 27, 84 
angularis, Pupa, West., 24, 322, 

angulata, Chondrina, Fag., 25, 34 
angulata, Pupa, Fag., 25, 34; 27, 

angulifera, Vertigo, Bttg., 25, 221 
angulina, Pupa, Grdl., 24, 191 
angulinus, Anauchen, Grdl., 24, 191 
angusta, Nesopupa, P. & C, 25, 

angusta, Pupa, Nev., 27, 143, 145 
angustata, Pupa, Mss., 26, 66 
angustata, Pupa, West., 25, 53 
angustior, Vertigo, Jeffr., 25, 211 
Angustula, Sterki, 25, 75, 145 
angustula, Vertigo, 27, 219 
Anisoloma, Ane., 24, 236, 247 
annaensis, Ala?a, Bk., 25, 333 
annamitieum, Hypselostoma, 

Mlldff., 24, 180 
annandalei, Pupilla, Pils., 26, 202 
annobonensis, Gastrocopta, Grd., 

24, 124 
annobonensis, Pupa, Girard, 24, 

124; 27, 208 
anodon, Pupa, Dh., 25, 218; 26, 

anodon, Pupilla, Dh., 27, 254 
anodonta, Pupa, Brn., 27, 133 
anodonta, Pupa, Hedl., 27, 264 
anodus, Pupa, Grdl., 26, 80 
anoplostoma, Pupa, Bay., 27, 231 
Anthracopupa, Whitf.. 27, 316 
antillensis, Sterkia, Pils., 26, 53 
antinorii, Pupa, Pal., 26, 194 
antinorii, Pupilla, Pal., 26, 193 
antiqua, Abida, Sehubl., 24, 270 
antiqua, Abida, Ziet., 27, 212 
antiqua, Lyropupa, C. & P., 25, 

antiqua, Pupa, Grat., 27, 266 
antiqua. Pupa, Sehubl., 24, 270 
antiquitata, Pupa, Cless., 27, 265 
antiquorum, Pupa, Ckll., 25, 84, 86 
antiquum, Pupa, Brn., 27, 3 
antivertigo, Pupa, Drap., 25, 164 
antivertigo, Vertigo, Dr., 25, 163 ; 

27, 217 
antonii, Pupa, Kstr., 14, 192 
apennina, Abida, Kstr., 24, 305 
apennina, Pupa, Kstr., 24, 297, 305 
aperta, Pupa, ~\lts.z=Napaeus 



aperta, Pupa, Sdbg., 25, 219; 27, 

appeliusi, Abida, West., 24, 329 
appeliusi, Pupa, West., 24, 329 
approximans, Vertigo, St., 25, 92 
aprica, Vertigo, Bgt., 25, 184 
apuana, Pupa, Iss., 25, 15 
arabica, Pupa, T>hn^=Amphiscopus 
aragonica, Chondrina, Fag., 27, 

aragonica, Pupa, Fag., 25, 54 
arata, Pupa, ~Recl.=Petrccus 
arborea, Lauria, Lwe., 27, 100 
arborea, Pupa, Lwe., 27, 100 
areadiea, Torquilla, Beinh., 25, 16 
archiaci, Aeanthinula, Boiss., 2 7, 

archiaci, Pupa, Boiss., 27, 189 
arctica, Pupa, Wall., 25, 190 
arctica, Vertigo, Wallenb., 25, 189 ; 

27. 216 
arctispira, Pupa, Loc, 24, 322, 324 
arenula. Pupa, Whtf., 25, 215 
aridula, Pupa, Held., 26, 186 
arigoi, Pupa, West., 25, 34 
arigonis, Chondrina, Bssm., 25, 34; 

27, 310 
arigonis, Pupa, Em., 25, 34 
arizonensis, Pupa, Gabb., 26, 117 
arizonensis, Pupa, W. G. B., 26, 

arizonensis, Vertigo, P. & V., 25, 

armata, Nesopupa, Pse., 25, 327 
armata, Sphyradium, Cless., 27, 160 
armata, Vertigo, Pse., 25, 328 
armeniaca, Pupa, Iss., 26, 193 
armeniaca, Pupilla, Iss., 26, 193 
armifera, Gastrocopta, Say, 24, 15 
armifera, Pupa, Say, 24, 15 
armigera, Pupa, P. & M., 24, 16' 
armigerella, Gastrocopta, Reinh., 

24, 107 
armigerella, Pupa, Eeinh., 24, 108 
armoricensis, Aeanthinula, Cossm., 

2 7, 1S9 
armoricensis, Helix, Cossm., 27, 189 
artense, Leucochilus, MUdff., 24, 

141', 143 
artensis, Pupa, Montr., 24, 147, 150 
arthuri. Vertigo, Mts., 25, 121 
ascaniensis, Pupa, Schm., 26. 79 
ascendens, Campolsemus, Pils., 25, 

ascendens, Pupa, Mts. — Anosto- 


ascendens, Pupa, West., 25, 47; 

27, 291, 297 
ashmuni, Bifidaria, St., 24, 43 
ash muni, Gastrocopta, St., 24, 41 
asiatica, Pupilla, MUdff., 26, 179 
Aspasita, West., 27, 180 
a-stierianus, Bulimus, Dup., 26, 126 
astieri, Ena, Caz., 26, 126 
atavuncula, Pupa, Wht., 25, 215 
athesina, Pupa, Gredl., 25, 175, 177 
atoma, Pupa, Hde., 24, 108, 109 
atomus, Pupa, Sh., 26, 63 
atomus Truncatellina, Sh., 26, 63 
attenuata, Abida, Fag., 24, 295 
attenuata, Pupa, Fag., 24, 296 
atracta, Abida, Pils., 24, 327 
attrita, Pupa, Moq., 24, 271; 27, 

auberiana. Pupa, Orb., 15, 221 
aucapitainiana, Pupa, Bgt., 26, 182 
aucapitainiana, Pupilla, Bgt., 26, 

aueta, Pupa, West., 25, 33 
Aulaca, West., 27, 189 
Aulacospira, MUdff., 24, 220; 
aulusensis, Pupa, Fag., 24, 290; 

27. 277 
aurantia, Pupa, Grat., 1841= 

aureaeensis. Pupa, Loc, 25, 14; 

27, 292, 297 
auriformis, Pupa, Gpy., 24, 88 
aurissileni, Pupa, Gray, 10, 114 
ausonia, Vertigo, Stef., 25, 176 
austeniana, Pagodulina, IS T ev., 27, 

austeniana, Pupa, ]STev., 27, 171 
Australbinula, Pils., 24, 11. 166 
australis, Gyliauchen, Odh., 26, 

australis, Hypselostoma, Odh., 26, 

australis, Pupilla, Ang., 26, 218 
australis. Vertigo, Aug., 26, 219 
austriaca, Lauria, Wenz., 27, 44 
avanica, Gaestrocopta, Bs., 24, 138 
avanica, Pupa, Bs.. 24. 139 
avenacea, Chondrina, Brug., 25, 

10; 27, 213, 2S9 
avenaceus. Bulimus, Brug., 25, 11 
avena. Pupa, Drp., 25, 11 
aveniculum, Torquilla, Htm., 25, 

arenoides, Pupa, West.. 25. 16 
avus, Pupilla, P. k F., 26, 16^, 171 
azoriea, Aeanthinula, Pils., 27, 193 
Azoripupa, Pils., 27, 121, 127 



azpeitise, Aulacospira, Hid., 24, 224 
azpeitise, Helix, Hid., S, 199 


baeca, Vertigo, Pse., 25, 279 
bacillus, Agardkia, Pal., 27, 132 
bacillus, Pupa, Pal., 27, 132 
bacillus, Pupa, Pfr., 1, 90 
badia, Pupa, Ad., 26, 157 
badia, Pupa, Em., 15, 33 
baillensi, Abida, Dup., 24, 280 
baillensi, Pupa, Dup., 24, 281; 27, 

273, 274 
baillensis, Pupa, West., 24, 281 
bakeri, Sterkia, Pils., 26, 236 
baldensis, Pupa, Parr., 25, 68 
baldwiniana, Lyropupa, Cke, 25, 

baldwini, Nesopupa, Anc, 25, 287 
bandulana, Nesopupa, Conn., 27, 

barattei, Granopupa, L. & B., 24, 

barattei, Pupa, L. & B., 24, 349 
barbadensis, Gastrocopta, Pfr., 24, 

barbadensis, Pupa, Pfr., 24, 83 
baregiensis, Pupa, Loc, 25, 35; 

27, 284, 285 
barrackporensis, Nesopupa, Gde., 

25, 348 
barrackporensis, Pupilla, Gde., 27, 

barreri, Vertigo, Bgt., 25, 116 
basidens, Vertigo, P. & V., 25, 117 
basidentata, Gastrocopta, Pils., 24, 

batkyodon, Gastrocopta, Bs., 24, 

batkyodon, Pupa, Bs., 24, 136 
battagliensis, Pupa, Greg., 26, 76' 
batumensis, Orcula, Ret., 27, 34 
batumensis, Pupa, Pet., 27, 34 
baudoni, Gastrocopta, Mick., 24, 

baudoni, Vertigo, Mick., 24, 117 
baudoni. Vertigo, Mass., 25, 169 
bawriensis, Bulimus, Tayl.. 26, 134 
bavrriensis, Pupoides, Tayl., 26, 134 
bellardii, Pagodulina, Sacco., 27, 

bellardii. Pupa, Sacco.. 27, 167 
beltiana, Pupa, Tate, 26, 145 
beltianus, Pupoides. Tate, 26, 145 
Bensonella, Pils., 24, 174, 198 
bensonianum, Hypselostoma, Blf., 

24, 212 

bensionianus, Gyliaucken, Blf., 24, 

bensoni, Boysia, Pfr., 26, 227 
bergeri, Pupa, ~Roth.=Clwndrula 
bergomensis, Ckondrina, Kstr., 25, 

bergomensis, Pupa, Kstr., 25, 23 
bermudensis, Pupa, Pr., 24, 72; 

27, 263 
bermudensis, Vertigo, Pils., 25, 149 
berryi, Vertigo, Pils., 25, 89 
bertkae, Pupa, Halav. =Carychium 
biarmata, Agardkia, Bttg., 27, 164 
biarmata, Pupa, Bttg., 27, 165 
bibaea, Pupilla, Kim., 26, 191 
bicolor, Pupa, Hutt., 1, 104 
bidens, Pupa, Bk., 14, 227 
bidens, Pupa, Sdbg., 25, 208 
bidentata, Pupa, Bgt., 27, 50 
bidentata, Pupa, C. P±r., 26, 175, 

bidentata, Pupa, West., 26, 190 
bidentata, Vertigo, Jeffr., 25, 168, 

bielzi, Agardkia, Eossm., 27, 153 
bielzi, Pupa, Eossm., 27, 153 
bifida, Pupa, Dk., 24, 117 
Bifidaria, Stki., 24, 6 
bifida, Vertigo, Dk., 27, 220 
bifilaris, Orcula, Mss., 27, 42 
bifilaris, Pupa, Mss., 27, 39 
bigeminata, Pupa, Dk., 25, 223 
bigerrensis, Abida, Moq., 24, 280; 

27, 273 
bigerrensis, Pupa, Moq., 24, 280 
bigoriensis, Pupa, Essm., 24, 280; 

27, 273, 275 
bigorriensis, Ckondrina, Des M., 25, 

29; 27, 284 
bigorriensis, Pupa, Ckp., 25, 29 
bigranata, Pupa, Em., 26, 182 
bigranata, Pupilla, Em., 26, 182 
bigsbyi, Pupa, Daws., 27, 318 
bilabiata, L-auria, Ret., 27, 82 
bilabiata, Pupa, Ret., 27, 81 
bilamellata, Bifidaria, St. & Clp., 

24, 51 
bilamellata, Gastrocopta, St. & Clp., 

24, 51 
biminiensis, Gastroconta, Pils., 24, 

binneyana. Vertigo, St., 25, 90 
bipalatalis. Pupa, West., 24, 283; 

27, 279 
biplicata, Agardkia, Mick., 27, 148 
biplicata. Pupa, Bgt., 25, 47, 51; 

27, 291, 297 



biplicata, Pupa, Mich., 2 7, 148 
biplicata, Pupa, Loc, 27, 20 
bishopi, Nesopupa, C. & P., 25, 

bisulcata, Nesopupa, Jick., 25, 359 
bisulcata, Pupa, Jick., 25, 360 
blainvilleana. Pupa, Drp., 2G, 223 
blainvilleana, Pupilla, Drp., 26, 

blakei, Pupa, Shutt., 27, 48 
blanci, Abida, Poll., 24, 319 
blanci, Agardhia, Bgt., 27, 138 
blanci, Pupa, Bgt., 27, 139 
blanci, Torquilla, Poll., 24, 320 
blandi, Pupilla, Mse., 26, 159 
blanfordi, Pupa, G.-A., Sowb.z= 

blanfordi, Pupa, Jick., 26, 89 
blanfordi, Truncatellina, Jick., 26, 

bleicheri, Xegulus, Pal., 26, 105 
bleieheri, Vertigo, Pal., 25, 219; 

26, 105 
blnmi, Vertigo, Bttg., 25, 220 
bocconiana, Helix, Ben., 27, 48 
boettgeriana, Pupa, Cless., 25, 49; 

2 7. 214 
boettgeri, Boysidia, Mlldff., 24, 208 
boettgeri, Pronesopupa, C. & P., 

26, 8 
bofilli, Abida, Fag., 27, 281 
bofilli, Pupa, Pag., 24, 292; 27, 

boileansiana, Abida, Kstr., 24, 

312; 27, 271 
boileausiana, Pupa, Kstr., 24, 313 
bollesiana, Isthmia, Mse., 25, 101 
bollesiana, Vertigo, Mse., 25, 101 
l.MHiincnsis, Gastrocopta, Pils., 24, 

bonneti, Pupa, Cossm., 25, 216 
borbonica, Costigo, II. Ad., 25,367 
borbonica, Vertigo, H. Ad., 25, 368 
lmrealis, Pnr»a, Mrlt., 25, 127 
bosniackii, Vertigo, Stef., 27, 220 
bothriocheila, Vertigo, Bgt., 25, 

Bothriopupa, PiLs., 24, 226; 27, 

boubeensis, Pupa, P. & X., 24, 289 
bourbonensis, Lauria, Pils., 27. 62 
bourgeaui, I'upa. Shutt., 25. 50 
bourgetica, Pupa, Bgt., 24, 310 
bourguignatiana, Agardhia, Xev., 

2 7. 143 
bourguignatiana, Pupa, Xev., 27, 

bourguignati, Pagodina, Cout., 27, 

bourguignati, Pupa, Dh., 1, 89 
bourguignati, Orcula, Loc, 2 7, 21 
bouryi, Helix, Cossm., 27, 191 
boysianum, Caryckium, Bs., 24, 137 
Boysia, Pfr., 26, 225 
Boysidia, Anc, 24, 174, 192, 194 
boysii, Tomogeres, Pfr., 26, 226 
brancsikii, Orcula, Cless., 27, 10 
braunii, Abida, Rssm., 24, 273; 2 7, 

braunii, Pupa, Rm., 24, 274 
brcvii onus, Bothriopupa, Pils., 24, 

brevicostata, Cha?naxis, Pils., 24, 4 
brevicostis, Xesopupa, Bs., 25, 346 
brevicostis, Pupa, Bs., 25, 346 
brevis, Pupa, Baud., 26, 178 
brevis, Pupa, Mrlt., 1, 90 
brevituba, G-yliauchen, Mlldff., 24, 

brevituba, Hypselostoma, Mlldff., 

24, 216 
breviuscula, Orcula, Baud., 27, 256 
breviuscula, Pupa, Baud., 27, 256 
briobia, Vertigo, Bgt., 25, 185 
britannica, Pupa, Ken., 19, 295 
britannica, Truncatellina, Pils., 27, 

hi'ittanica, Truncatellina, Pils., 26, 

77; 27, 230 
brondeli, Granopupa, Bgt., 24, 346 ; 

27, 215 
brondeli, Pupa, Bgt.. 24, 346 
bruguierei, Lauria, Jick., 27, 61 
bruguierei. Pupa, .Tick., 27, 61 
brusinai, Vertigo, Stef., 27, 220 
bryanti, Pupa, Pfr., 14, 272 
brvantwalkeri, Pupoides, Pils., 27, 


Iwlnvalderi. Pupa, Heer., 27, 211 
bulgarica, Orcula, Hesse, 27, 26, 

bugevsiaca, Pupa, Loc, 24, 297, 

bulima?formis. Pupa, Woll., 24, 337 
bulimiformis, Pupa, Mss., 24, 337, 

bulimoidea, Pupa, TVTicli., 2 7, 264 
bulimoides, Pupa, Pf r .=Pct r ( rns 
buttneri. Vertigo, Siem., 25. 203 
buxovillanus, Xegulus, Andreae., 

27. 231 
buxo\"illana, Pupa, Andreae, 27, 

bvthirrif ormis, Pupa, Mill., 27,212 



cacharicurn, Pupisonia, G.-A., 26, 29 
eadiea, Abida, West., 24, 314 
cadica, Pupa, Fag., 24, 314; 27, 

caeca, Helix, Gpy., 26, 37, 38 
csBsa, Pupa, West., 27, 160, 161 
cafaeicola, Pupa, Crvn., 1, 265 
calaharicus, Buliminus, Bttg., 26, 

calaharicus, Pupoides, Bttg., 26, 

calamianica, Costigo, Mlldff., 25, 

calamianica, Vertigo, Mlldff., 25, 

ealamitosa, Pupa, Pils., 26, 57 
calamitosa, Sterkia, Pils., 26, 57 
calathiscus, Helix, Lwe., 27, 114 
calathiseus, Lauria, Lwe., 27, 113 
calcarea, Pupa, Pfr., 14, 234 
caldwelli, Pupa, Mrlt., 1, 92 
californica, Pupa, Row., 25, 140 
californica, Vertigo, Ing., 25, 119 
californica, Vertigo, Row., 25, 139 
calliearens, Pupa, Bttg., 25, 176 
callicratis, Pupa, Scac, 27, 229 
callicratis, Truncatellina, Sc, 26, 

75; 27, 279 
callicratis, Turbo, Scac, 26, 75 
callifera, Pupa, Mrlt., 1, 89 
callista, Pupa, West., 25, 213 
callista, Vertigo, West., 25, 213 
callocarens, Pupa, And., 25, 177 
callosa, Pupa, Halav., 27, 211 
callosa, Pupa, Reuss., 25, 216 
callosa, Pupa, Zgl., Km., 24, 298 
callosa, Vertigo, Reuss., 25, 216 
callosa, Vertigo, St., 25, 97 
callostoma, Vertigo, Bgt., 25, 219 
calpica, Chondrina, West., 25, 41; 

27, 314 
calpica, Pupa, West., 25, 41 
campanea, Vertigo, Bgt., 25, 219 
Campolaemus, Pils., 25, 364 
canaliculata, Pupa, Crse.=Gibbus 
Candida, Pupa, Lam — V ^ur 
eanicalensis, Pupa, Paiva, 27, 102 
capellinii, Vertigo, Sacc, 25, 221 
capensis, Fauxulus, Kstr., 24, 236 
capensis, Pupa, Kstr., 24, 237 
capillacea, Gastrocopta, D. & S., 24, 

capillacea, Pupa, D. & S., 24, 144 
capillacea, Pupa, Kstr., 26, 69 

capillaris, Pupa, Bk., 14, 281 
€apitani, Gastrocopta, Morg., 26, 

capitani, Pupa, Morg., 26, 231 
capitata, Pupa, Gld., 1, 96 
caprearum, Pupa, Rm., 24, 342 
caratalensis, Helix, Tate., 27, 228 
carbonaria, Pupa, Anc, 25, 234, 

cardiostoma, Pupa, Sdbg., 25, 217 
cardiostoma, Vertigo, Sdbg., 25, 

carinata, Pupa, Gld., 24, 63, 65 
carnegiei, Bifidaria, St., 24, 35 
carnegiei, Gastrocopta, St., 24, 35 
carpathiea, Pupilla, Kim., 26, 187 
cartennensis, Granopupa, Anc, 24, 

cartennensis, Pupa, Anc, 24, 348 
Carychiopsis, Sdbg., 25, 223 
Carychium boysianum, Bs., 24, 137 
Carychium mauritianum, 24, 131 
caspia, Lauria, Pfr., 27, 57 
caspia, Pupa, Pfr., 27, 57 
cassida, Helix, Lwe., 27, 89 
cassida, Lauria, Lwe., 27, 88 
cassidula, Lauria, Lwe., 27, 96 
cassidula, Pupa, Lwe., 27, 97 
castanea, Lauria, Shutt., 27, 118 
castanea, Pupa, Grdl., 24, 297, 303 
castanea, Pupa, Shutt., 27, 118 
castanea, Pupa, West., 27, 84 
castanea, Vertigo, St., 25, 132 
catalinaria, Pupa, St., 25, 142 
catalinaria, Vertigo, St., 25, 142 
catalinensis, Pupoides, Hanna, 27,. 

catalonica, Abida, Bof., 24, 294; 

27, 279 
catalonica, Pupa, Bof., 24, 294 
Caucasica, C. & M., 27, 67, 74, 260 
caucasica, Lauria, Pfr., 27, 74 
caucasica, Pupa, Bttg., 26, 180 
caucasica, Pupa, Pfr., 27, 74 
Caucasipupa, Pils., 27, 260 
caziotana, Chondrina, Pils., 25, 10 
cedretorum, Oreula, Germ., 27, 30 
cedrorum, Pupa, West., 27, 30 
celata, Pupa, West., 25, 188 
celata, Vertigo, West., 25, 187 
cenchridium, Acanthinula, Cossm., 

27, 190 
cenchridium, Helix, Cossm., 27, 190 
centralis, Chondrina, Fag., 25, 35 ; 

27, 284 
centralis, Nesopupa, Anc, 25, 288, 




centralis, Pupa, Fag., 25, 36; 27, 

284, 285 
Cereon, Megerle, 27, 212 
cerealis, Bulimus, Pal., 26, 132 
cerealis, Pupa, Zgl., 25, 12 
cereana, Chondrina, Kstr., 25, 21 
cereana, Pupa, Kstr., 25, 21; 27, 

284, 285 
cerea, Pupa, Dkr., 1, 90 
Cerion, Bolt., 24, 267; 27, 261 
ceylanensis, Pupa, Nev., 27, 263 
ceylanica, Pupa, 'Pir.=.Gulella 
Chaenaxis, P. & F., 24, 1 
ckanlerensis, Leucochiloides, Prest., 

26, 135 
chanlerensis, Pupoides, Prest., 26, 

Charadrobia, Alb., 27, 67 
charlestonensis, Pupilla, Pils., 26, 

charlotia, Clausilia, Eisso., 24, 322 
charpentieri, Pupa, Kstr., 25, 179 
ekarybdica, Pupa, M. & P., 26, 

208, 213 
cheilogona, Helix, Lwe., 27, 90 
cheilogona, Lauria, 27, 90 
cMchijimana, Gastrocopta, Pils., 

24, 105 

chinensis, Pupa, Hilb., 26, 198 
chinensis, Pupilla, Hilb., 26, 198 
chloris, Pupa, Cvse.=Goniodomus 
chondriformis, Pupa, Mss.=Am- 

Chondrina, Reichenb., 24, 234; 25, 

1; 27, 212, 283 
chordatus, Bulimus, Pfr., 26, 119 
chordatus, Pupoides, Pfr., 26, 119 
choroata, Pupa, Schauf., 26, 119 
ohydaea, Vertigo, Bgt., 24, 116 
cianensis, Chondrina, Caz., 25, 20 
cianensis, Pupa, Caz., 25, 21 
cincinnatiensis, Pupa, Jdge., 24, 

28, 29 
cinerea, Pupa, Drp., 25, 58 
cinereus, Bulimus, Mort., 25, 65 
cinghalensis, Nesopupa, Gde., 25, 

cinghalensis, Pupilla, Gde., 25, 348 
circumlitum, Pupisoma, Hedl., 26, 

circumplicata, Chondrina, "West., 

25, 22 

circumplicata, Pupa, West., 25, 22 
cisalpina, Vertigo, Poll., 25, 165 
clappi, Bifidaria, St., 24, 21 
clappi, Gastrocopta, St., 24, 20 
clathrata, Pupa, Humph., 14, 281 

clathratula, Lyropupa, Anc, 25, 

clausa, Gastrocopta, Reib., 24, 99 
clausa, Pupa, Beib., 24, 99 
clausilioides, Pupa, Boub., 24, 288; 

27, 277 
claustralis, Pupa, Grdl., 26, 80 
claustralis, Truncatellina, Grdl., 26, 

clavatula, Pupa, Sowb., cf. clavu- 

clavella, Pupa, Reinh., 26,82 
clavella, Truncatellina, Reinh., 26, 

81; 27, 231 
clavulata, Pupa, Lam., 1, 91 
Clementina, Pupa, St., 26, 54 
Clementina, Sterkia, St., 26, 54 
clessini, Gastrocopta, Doer., 24, 93 
clessini, Pupa, Doer., 24, 94 
clevei, Pupa, West., 25, 210 
clevei, Vertigo, West., 25, 210 
clienta, Pupa, West., 25, 15 
climeana, Bifidaria, Van., 24, 24 
climeana, Gastrocopta, Van., 24, 

coaretata, Pupa, Dh., 25, 218, 223 ; 

27, 222 
cocchi, Pupa, Ben., 25, 13 
coehisensis, Bifidaria, P. & F., 24, 

coehisensis, Gastrocopta, P. & F., 

24, 44 
Cochlodonta, Fer., 24, 268 
Cochlodon, Lowe, 27, 43 
Cochlodon, Orb., 27, 262 
Cocopupa, P. & C, 25, 276, 322 
cocosensis, Nesopupa, Dall, 25, 323 
cocosensis, Vertigo, Dall, 25, 323 
codia, Vertigo, Bgt., 25, 184 
codiolena, Vertigo, Bgt., 25, 219 
coenopicta, Pupa, Hutt., 26, 123 
coenopictus, Pupoides, Hutt., 26, 

coerulescens, Orcula, Naeg., 27, 30 
coerulescens, Pupa, Naeg., 27, 30 
collina, Pupa, West., 25, 163 
collina, Vertigo, West., 25, 162 
coloba, Granopupa, Pils., 24, 352 
colombiana, Gastrocopta, Pils., 26, 

coloradensis, Pupa, Ckll., 25, 116 
coloradensis, Vertigo, Ckll., 25. 115 
Columbiana, Vertigo, St., 25, 108 
columella, Columella, Benz., 27, 239 
columella, Pupa, Benz., 27, 239 
columellaris. Pupa, Mich.— Ki77?/a 
Columella, Westerl., 27, 232 



columnella, Pupa, Loc, 24, 315 
eomorensis, Pupa, Mrlt., 1, 99 
couiorensis, Nesopupa, Pils., 25, 

comes, Pseudelix, Bttg., 25, 223 
concinna, Lauria, Lowe., 27, 97 
concinna, Pupa, Lowe., 27, 98 
concinna, Vertigo, Seott, 25, 206 
concinnula, Vertigo, Ckll., 25, 119, 

concolor, Pupa, Zgl., 27, 49 
condita, Pupa, Gass., 25, 333 
conecuhensis, Vertigo, Clp., 25, 80, 

confusa, Pupa, West., 25, 53; 27, 

291, 297 
conica, Orcula, Eossm., 27, 15 
conica, Pupa, Eossm., 27, 15 
conispira, Pupa, West., 24, 275 
eonoidea, Bothriopupa, Pfr., 24, 

eonoidea, Pupa, Pfr., 24, 231 
consanguineus, Leucochiloides, 

Prest., 26, 136 
consanguineus, Pupoides, Prest., 

26, 135 
conspectus. Buliminus, Hutt., 26, 

138, 139 
conspersa, Pupa, Ant., 14, 68 
conspieua, Boysidia, Mlldff., 24, 

conspieua, Pupa, Mlldff., 24, 194 
constrictum, Pupisoma, G.-A., 26, 

constrietus, Pupa, G.-A., 26, 28 
contorta, Pupa, Calc, 25, 66 
contracta, Gastrocopta, Say, 24, 22 
contraeta, Pupa, Say, 24, 22 
contraria, Pupa, Sm., 26, 144 
contrarius, Campolgemus, Pils., 25, 

contrarius, Pupoides, Sm., 26, 144 
conus, Pupa, Bk., 14, 281 
convergens. Vertigo, Bttg., 25, 216 
corculum, Helix, Braun., 27, 186 
corcyrensis, Pupa, Bttg., 26, 81 
corcyrensis, Truneatellina, Bttg., 

26, 81 
corduensis, Vertigo, Noul., 27, 265 
coreana, Gastrocopta, Pils., 24, 109 
coreana, Vertigo, Pils., 25, 156' 
cornea, Leucocnilus, Mlldff., 24, 

142, 144 
cornea, Vertigo, Loc., 25, 166, 176 
corneocostata, Lauria, Woll., 27, 

corneocostata, Pupa, Woll., 27, 109 

corniculum, Helix, Ludw., 27, 187 
coronata, Helix, Stud., 27, 18, 19 
corpulenta, Istbmia, Mse., 25, 130 
corpulenta, Vertigo, Mse., 25, 130 
corrugata, Jaminia, Prest., 25, 362 
corrugata, Nesopupa, Prest., 25, 

corrugata, Orcula, Loc, 24, 261 
corticaria, Gastrocopta, Say, 24, 52 
corticaria, Odostomia, Say, 24, 53 
corticicola, Pronesopupa, C. & P., 

26, 14 
Coryna, Westerlund, 27, 129 
costata, Lyropupa, Pse., 27, 223 
costata, Pupa, Fag., 27, 272 
costata, Pupa, Loc, 24, 314 
costata, Vertigo, Pse., 25, 272; 27, 

Oostigo, Bttg., 25, 366 
costulata, Carychiopsis, Sdbg., 25, 

costulata, Pupa, Migli., 27, 197 
costulata, Pupa, Nils., 26, 79 
costulata, Truneatellina, Nils., 26, 

costulosa, Vertigo, Pse., 25, 310 
crassa, Orcula, Pils., 27, 34 
erassata, Pupa, Fag., 25, 316; 27, 

crassilabris, Gastrocopta, Pils., 24, 

crassilabris, Pupa, Shutt., 14, 193 
crassilabrum, Pupa, Bgt., 24, 274, 

erawf ordianus, Fauxulus, M. & P., 

24, 242 
crimoda, Pupa, Loc, 24, 298 
cristata, Bifidaria, P. & V., 24, 69 
cristata, Gastrocopta, P. & V., 24, 

cristata, Pupa, Mts., 26, 195 
cristata, Vertigo, St., 25, 100 
cristella, Pupa, West., 24, 277; 27, 

critica, Pupa, Zel., Pfr., 27, 24 
eristallina, Pupa, Dup., 19, 296 
crossei, Gyliauchan, Mori., 24, 215 
crossei, Hypselostoma, Mori., 24, 

216; 27, 211 
crossei, Pupa, Mich., 26, 105 
crossei, Pup ilia, Mich., 27, 254 
crossei, Vertigo, Mich., 25, 220; 

27, 254 
cryptodon, Pupa, Hde., 26, 200 
cryptodonta, Pupa, Auct., 26, 60 
cryptodus, Pupa, Brn., 26, 60 



cryptodus, Truncatellina, Brn., 26, 

cryptoplax, Lauria, M. & P., 27, 

cryptoplax, Pupa, M. & P., 27, 6*5 
crystallum, Pupa, Mrlt., 1, 92 
cabana, Lyropupa, Dall., 25, 268 
cubana, Vertigo, Dall., 25, 269 
cumingiana, Pupa, Pfr., 14, 199 
cupa, Pupa, Jan., 26, 186 
oupa, Pupilla, 20, 185; 27, 255 
cupella, Pupilla, Bttg., 26, 223 
cupressicola, Vertigo, St., 25, 143 
curacoana, Gastroeopta, Pils., 27, 

eurta, Bifidaria, St., 24-, 34 
curta, Coryna, Loc, 27, 140 
eurta, Gastroeopta, 24, 35 
eurta, Helix, Lwe., 27, 52 
curta, Pupa, Ant., 24, 103 
curta, Pupa, Branc, 27, 7 
curta, Pupa, Held., 25, 173 
nut a. Pupa, Iss., 24. 301 
eurta, Pupa, Kstr., 24, 300 
curta. Pupa, Moq., 24, 259, 260, 288 
curta. Pupa, P. & M., 24, 297, 299 
curta, Pupa, Paul., 27, 20 
curtata, Sandahlia, Pils., 24, 261 
curvidens, Pupa, Gld., 24, 28 
custodita, Pupa, M. & P., 26, 208, 

cycloides, Pupa, Moq.. 24, 274, 275 
cyclophora, Vertigo, Bgt., 25, 219 
cyclops, Pupa, St., 25, 142 

ips, Vertigo, St., 25, 141 
cyclostoma, Pupa, Kstr., 14, 195 
cyclostoma, Pupa, West., 26, 195 
eylindracea, Lauria, Da C., 27, 258, 

eylindracea, Pupa, West., 27, 84 
eylindracea, Pupa, Zgl., 24, 297, 

303, 305 
cylindraeeus, Turbo, Da C, 27, 48 
cylindra, Pupa, Gray, 15, 138 
cylindrata, Lyropupa, !'. & ('., 25, 

cylindrata, Pupa, Bttg., 26, 180 
cylindrella, Enneopupa, Brn., 25, 

222; 27, 222 
eylindrella, Pupa, Brn.. 25, 222 
cylindrella, Pupa, Moq., 24. 283 
Cylindrica, Da C, error for cylin- 

dract '. 27. 17 
cylindrica, Helix, Cray, 25, 175 
cylindrica. Pupa, A net.. 1S. 107 
cylindrica. Pupa, Branc, 2 7. 7 
cylindrica, Pupa, Hutt., 18, 107 

cylindrica, Pupa, Loc, 24, 309 
cylindrica, Pupa, Mich., 24, 259 
cylindrica, Pupa, Mss., 26, 194, 195 
cylindrica, Sandahlia, Mich., 24, 

cylindrica, Truncatellina, Fer., 26, 

65, 236 
cylindrica, Vertigo, Colb., 25, 214 
cylindrica, Vertigo, Fer., 26, 66 
cylindricus, Turbo, Hartm., 24, 307 
cylindrif oralis, Orcula, Loc, 24, 

cylindroides. Pupa, Moq., 24, 308 ; 

27 272 
Cylindrovertilla, Bttg., 26, 43 
cylindrus, Pupa, Dh., 15, 138 
cyrenarum, Vertigo, Zinn., 25, 217 
cyrta, Lyropupa, C. & P., 25, 268 

dadioa, Pupa, Bs., 27, 64 
dadion, Lauria, Bs., 27, 64, 259 
dadion, Pupa, Bs., 27, 64 
dsedalea. Pupa, Dh., 14, 98 
dalecarliea, Pupa, West., 25, 193 
dalecarlica, Vertigo, West., 25, 193 
daliaca, Pupa, West., 25, 193 
daliaea, Vertigo, West., 25, 193 
dalliana, Bifidaria, St., 24, 49 
dalliana, Gastroeopta, St., 24, 49 
dalliana, Vertigo, St., 25, 137 
dalmatina, Pupa, Prtsch., 25, 68 
damarica, Gastroeopta, Anc, 24, 

125, 359 
damarica, Pupa, Anc, 24, 125 
danica, Pupa, West., 25, 213 
darglensis, Fauxulus, Bnp., 24, 250 
darglensis, Pupa, Bnp., 24. 252 
dayana, Boysidia, Stol., 24. 205 
dayanum, Hypselostoma, Stol., 24, 

dealbata, Pupa, W. & B., 1, 85; 27 
debilis, Pupa, Mss., 2 7. 5s, 59 
debilis, Pupa, West., 26, 195 
decemplicata. Pupa, Loc, 24. '■'■ '•> 
decollata. Pupa, Nyst., 15, I 
dcc.ra. Pupa, Gld., 25, L26 
decumana, Pupa, Gray, 1 4. 209 

i him, Nesopupa, Pils., 25, 158 
dedecora, Ptyehalaea, Tils., 27. 225 
dedecora, Vertigo, Tils.. 25. 158 
defixa, Systenostoma, B. & D., 24, 

deform is, Pupa, Woll.. 27, 94 
defrancii, Pupa, Brno-., 25. 216 
defrancii, Vertigo, Brug., 25, 216 
degenerata, Lauria, Woll., 27, 111 



degenerata, Pupa, Woll., 27, 112 
delectabilis, Helix, Sol., 27, 192 
delesserti, Pupa, Bgt. — Mastus 
delicata, Gastrocopta, Pils., 24, 78 
Deloplecta, Agassiz, 25, 370; 27, 

deloplecta, Ptvchospira, Slav., 27, 

delphinensis, Pupa, Loc, 24, 322, 

deltostoma, Pupa, Kstr., 24, 22 
Dendropupa, Owen, 27, 317 
dentiens, Pupa, Moq., 25, 46; 27, 

dentiens, Pupa, Mts., 25, 64 
dentiens, Vertigo, Moq., 26, 74 
dentifera, Nesopupa, Pse, 25, 329 
dentifera, Vertigo. Pse., 25, 330 
denudata, Pupa, Mss., 25, 157 
denudata, Vertigo, Mss., 25, 156 
depressilabris, Pupa, Parr., 25, 68 
depressum, Pupisoma, Pils., 26, 26 
dertosensis, Chondrina, Bof., 25, 

36; 27, 312 
dertosensis, Pupa, Bof., 25, 36 
deserti, Gastrocopta, Pils., 24, 170 
deshayesii, Helix, Calc, 27, 230 
desiderata, Jaminia, Prest., 27, 62 
desiderata, Lauria, Prest., 27, 62 
desiderata, Pupa, Wnld, 24, 73 
desmazuresi, Costigo, Cr., 25, 368 
desmazuresi, Pupa, Cr., 25, 368 
desmoulinsiana, Pupa, Jeffr., 25, 

desmoulinsi, Vertigo, Germ., 25, 

Dexiogyra, Stabile, 25, 70 
dextroversa, Pupilla, P. & V, 26, 

dhorm, Pupa, Dh., 25, 223 
diaboli, Vertigo, Pils., 25, 88 
dicsea, Pupa, West., 25, 187 
dicaea, Vertigo, West., 25, 187 
dicrodonta, Gastrocopta, Doer., 24, 

dicrodonta, Pupa, Doer., 24, 101 
didymodonta, Gastrocopta, Brn., 

24, 116 
didymodus, Pupa, Sdbg., 24, 116 
diecki, Pupa, Grdl., 26, 196 
diecki, Pupilla, Grdl., 26, 196' 
diegoensis, Pupa, St., 25, 141 
diegoensis, Vertigo, St., 25, 141 
diezi, Agardhia, Flach., 27, 133 
diezi, Coryna, Flach., 27, 133 
diezi, Pupa, CI., 25, 218 
dilucida, Lauria, Ess., 27, 56 

dilucida, Pupa, Rss., 27, 56 
diluta, Granopupa, West., 24, 336, 

dimidiata, Pupa, Pfr., 14, 206 
dinii, Vertigo, Stef., 26, 74 
diopsis, Pupa, Bs., 26, 205 
diopsis, Pupilla, Bs., 26, 205 
dioscoricola, Helix, Ad., 26, 37 
dioscoricola, Pupisoma, Ad., 26, 

36, 235 
discheilia, Vertigo, Bgt., 25, 170 
disjunct a, Nesopupa, P. & C, 25, 

disjuncta, Pupa, Moq., 24, 279 
dispersa, Nesopupa, C. & P., 25, 

dissimilis, Pupa, West., 25, 60 
divergens, Vertigo, Flch., 25, 217 
diversidens. Vertigo, Sdbg., 25, 

218; 27, 220 
dohertyi, Gyliauchen, Fult., 24. 

dohertyi, Hypselostoma, Fult., 24, 

dohrni, Lauria, Pfr., 27, 53 
dohrni, Pupa, Pfr., 27, 53 
doliformis, Orcula, Loc, 27, 7 
doliolum, Bulimus, Brug., 27, 18 
doliolum, Orcula, Brug., 27, 17, 256 
dolium, Orcula, Drap., 27, 7 
dolium. Pupa, Drap., 27, 7 
domicella, Pupa, West., 25, 54; 

27, 292, 297 
Dontostoma, Hartm., 27, 262 
doria?, Bulimus, Iss., 26, 122 
doria\ Pupoides, Iss., 26, 122 
dormeyeri, Pupa, Sowb., 27, 32 
dorsalis, Boysidia, Mlldff., 24, 196 
dorsata, Boysidia, Anc, 24, 195 
dorsata, Pupa, Anc, 24, 196 
doumeti, Isthmia, L. & B., 26, 68 
doumeti, Truncatellina, L. & B., 

26, 68 
douvillei, Vertigo, Morg., 26, 235 
draparnaudii, Pupilla, Lch., 27, 48 
dubia, Isthmia, N. & H., 27, 234 
dubitabilis, Nesopupa, C. & P., 25, 

dufouri, Helix, Fer.. 24. 259 
dumasi, Acanthinula, Boiss., 27. 

dumasi. Helix, Boiss, 27, 190 
duodecimcostata, Pupa, Loc, 24, 

dunkardiana, Anthracopupa, S., & 

S., 27, 317 
dunkeri, Pupa, Zel., 25, 326, 327 



duplex, Gastrocopta, Pils., 24. 60 
duplicaria, Gulella, Pils., 27, 263 
duplicata, Bifidaria, St., 24, 65, 

357; 27, 207 
duplicata, Fauxulus, Prest., 24, 127 
duplicata, Gastrocopta, Prest., 24, 

duplicata, Gastrocopta, St., 24, 65, 

duplicata. Pupa, Kstr., 25, 14; 

27, 292, 297 
dupontii, Pupa, Paet., 24, 350 
dupoteti, Granopupa, Terv., 24, 349 
dupoteti, Vertigo, Terr.. 24. 350 
dupuyi, Abida, West., 24, 277 
dupuyi, Gastrocopta, Mich., 24,115 
dupnvi, Pupa, West., 24, 277; 27, 

dysorata, Pupa, M. & P., 26, 94 
dysorata, Truncatellina, M. & P., 

26, 94 


oapensis, Nesopupa, Bttg., 25, 335 
eapensls. Pupa, Bttg., 25, 336 
ebrodunensis, Pupa, Loc, 24, 322, 

echthrodes, Pupa, West., 24, 259, 

ectina, Pupa, Bgt., 26, 225 
eetina, Pupilla, Bgt., 26, 225 
ectrodes, Sandahlia, West., 24, 260, 

edentata, Pupa, West., 26, 190 
edentula. Columella, Drap., 27, 

236, 242 
edentula, Pupa, Bk., 14, 227 
edentula, Pupa, Dh., 26, 104; 27, 

edentula, Pupa, Drap., 27, 237 
edentula, Pupa, Gray, 27, 48, 49 
edentula, Pupa, GrdL, 27, 56 
edentula, Pupa, Moq., 26, 174, 175 
edentula, Pupa, Rupp., 18, 111 
edentula, Pupa, Tayl., 24, 310 
Edentula, Clessin., 27, 232 
Edentulopupa, C. & P., 26, 11 
edentulum, Hypselostoma, Mlldff., 

24, 187 
eggeri, Pupa, GrdL, 25. 189 
eggeri, Vertigo, Grdl.. 25, 189 
egregia, Pupa, Jay., 10, 101 
ejecta, Gastrocopta, B. & D., 24, 

ejecta, Pupa, B. & D., 24, 112 
ekiote. Pupa, Chitty., 27, 263 
elata, Pupa, Gld., 16, 186 

elatior, Pupa, Paul., 25, 15 
elatior, Pupa, Spix., 16, 184 
elatior, Vertigo, St., 25, 93 
elegans, Pupa, Bk., 14, 281 
elegans, Pupa, Math, 27, 265 
elegantula, Pupa, Pfr., 1, 93 
elgonensis, Ennea, Prest., 26, 90 
elgonensis, Truncatellina, Prest., 

26, 90 

elizabethensis, Pupa, M. & P., 26, 

elongata, Pupa, Branc, 27, 10 
elongata, Pupa, CI., 26, 178 
elongata, Pupa, Gey., 25, 200 
elongata, Pupa, Mellv.=Palceostoa, 

16, 188 
elongata, Pupa, Moq., 24, 279 
elongata, Pupa, Porro., 27, 137 
elongata, Pupa, Em., 24, 297. 303, 

elongata, Pupa, Sky., 24, 308; 27, 

elongata, Pupa, St., 25, 142 
elongata, Vertigo, St., 25, 142, 199, 

elongatissima, Pupa, Bof., 24, 285; 

27, 279- 

elongatissima, Pupa, Des M., 25, 

32; 27, 286 
elongatissima, Pupa, Dup., 24, 259, 

elsheimensis, Vertigo, Bttg., 25, 216 
emigrata, Pupilla, West., 26, 187 
endochila, Pupa, Germ., 24, 283 
endoplax, Pupa, M. & P., 26, 208, 

endodonta, Gyliauchen, Mlldff., 24, 

endodonta, Hypselostoma, Mlldff., 

24, 216 
Enneopupa, Bttg., 25, 222; 27, 222 
enteroplax, Orcula, Pils., 27, 35 
eogea, Vertigo, Pils., 25, 151 
eremia, Pupa, West., 25, 186 
crania, Vertigo, West., 25, 186 
eremicola. Pupa, Tate, 26, 144 
orlandi, Pupa, West., 25, 163 
erlandi, Vertigo, West., 25. 163 
erro, Gibbulinella. Pils., 27, 263 
Eruca, Swains., 27, 43 
Eryma, Albers., 27, 105 
erythrostoma, Pupa, Mke., 14, 31 
(-■sinensis, Pupa, PinL, 26, 191 
Euacanthimila, West.. 27, 189 
Knliifidaria, St.. 24, 53 
euconus, Boysidia, Mlldff., 24, 194 
eucrina, Vertigo, Bgt., 24, 116 



eueyphogyra, Granopupa, Let., 24, 

eueyphogyra, Pupa, Let., 24, 351 
eudeli, Gastrocopta, Pils., 24, 133 
eudeli, Pupa, Dh., 24, 133 
eudolicha, Pupa, Bgt., 24, 283; 27, 

eumeces, Pupa, Bttg., 26, 223 
eumeces, Pupilla, Bttg., 26, 223 
euodon, Agardhia, West., 27, 154 
euodon, Pupa, West., 27, 154 
euphraticus, Bulimus, Bgt., 26, 128 
eupora, Pupa, West., 25, 12 
eureysii, Pupa, Paet., 25, 380 
eurina, Pupa, Bs., 26, 204 
eurina, Pupilla, Bs., 26, 203 
euristhmia, Helix, Slav., 27, 190 
euryomphalum, Leucoehilus, Mlldff., 

24, 141 
Euxinolauria, Lindh., 27, 260 
everetti, Gyliauchen, Sm., 24, 218 
everetti, Hypselostoma, Sm., 24, 

evezardi, Pupa, Blf., 26, 24 
evezardi, Pupisoma, Blf., 26, 24, 

excelsa, Pupa, Iss., 25, 64, 65 
excessiva, Agardhia, Grdl., 27. 151 
excessiva, Pupa, Grdl., 27, 152 
exigua, Pupa, H. Ad., 25, 352 
exigua, Pupa, Mss., 24, 342 
exigua, Pupa, Qay=zCarychium 
exiguus, Bulimus, Eve., 26, 112 
exilis, Pupa, Ad.=CarycJuum 
exilis, Pupa, Moq., 24, 273 
eximia, Abida, West., 24, 328 
eximia, Pupa, Rm.=zChondrula 
eximia. Pupa, West., 24, 329 
expatriata, Acanthinula, Prest., 27, 

extima, Pupa, West., 25. 191 
extima, Vertigo, West., 25, 190 
extrema, Pupa, Mlldff., 24, 108 
eyriesii, Pupa, Drt., 26, 51 
eyriesii, Sterkia, Drt., 26, 51 

fabianus, Buliminus, Grdl., 26. 133 
fabianus, Pupoides, Grdl., 26, 133 
fabreana, Cvlindrovertilla, Crse., 

26, 47 

fabreana, Pupa, Crse., 26. 47 
fabrei, Pupa, Font., 27, 265 
fagorum, Pupa, Fag., 24, 313; 27, 

fagotiana, Pupa, Loc, 24, 280; 

27. 273 

fagoti, Lauria, West., 27, 57 
fallax, Pupa, Auct., 26, 111, 113 
fallax, Pupa, S&j==Ena 
Falsopupa, Germ., 25, 370; 27, 199 
fanalensis, Lauria, Lwe., 27, 58 
fanalensis, Pupa, Lwe., 27, 58 
farcimen, Gastrocopta, Sdbg., 24, 

farcimen, Pupa, Sdbg., 24, 116 
farinesi, Chondrina, Des M., 25, 

45; 27, 290 
farinesi, Pupa, Des M., 25, 46 
farinesii, Pupa, Settepassi, 25, 20 
farinosa, Pupa, Kstr., 1, 88 
farquhari, Lauria, M. & P., 27, 63 
farquhari, Nesopupa, Pils., 25, 358 
farquhari, Pupa, M. & P., 27, 63 
fartoidea, Pupa, Theob., 1, 106 
fasciata, Pupa, Caz., 25, 61 
fasciata, Pupa, P. & M., 14, 60 
fasciolata, Lauria, Mrlt., 27, 122 
fasciolata, Pupa, Mrlt., 27, 122 
Faula, Ads., 24, 234 
Fauxulella, Pils., 24, 235 
Fauxulus, Schauf., 24, 233, 234; 

27, 211 
ferdinandi, Gastrocopta, And., 24, 

ferdinandi, Leucoehilus, And., 24, 

ferox, Vertigo, West., 25. 164 
ferraria, Lauria, Lwe., 27, 110 
ferraria. Pupa, Lwe., 2 7, HI 
ferrari, Agardhia, Porro, 27, 134 
ferrari, Pupa, Porro, 27, 134 
ferruginea, Pupa, West., 25, 12 
ficulnea, Pupa, Tate, 26, 221 
filocostata, Lyropupa, C. & P., 25, 

filosa, Nesopupa, T. & S., 25, 345 
filosa, Pnpa, T. & S., 25, 346 
fischeriana. Pupa, Mrlt., 1, 100 
fisc-heri, Gastrocopta, Dh., 24, 117 
fischeri, Pnpa, Dh., 24, 117 
fissidens, Gastrocopta, Sdbg., 24, 

fissidens, Pupa, Sdbg., 24, 117 
flexidens, Ptvchala?a, Beuss., 25, 

220; 27, 225 
flexidens, Pupa, Rss., 25. 220 
flocculus, Gastrocopta, Mrl., 24. 

flocculus, Pupa, Mrl., 24. 124 
floridana, Pupilla, Dall, 24, 29, 30 
floridanum, Microcerion, Dall, 26, 

fontana, Pupa, Kr., 26, 208 



fontana, Pupilla, Kr., 26, 207; 27, 

fontenayi, Pupa, ~Roxiis=Pal(cstoa 
fonticola, Pupa, Dh., 24, 239 
forbesi, Nesopupa, 0. & P., 25, 297 
fordiana, Bifidaria, St., 24, 26 
formicina, Pupa, Roms=Cochlicopa 
formosa, Agardhia, Pfr., 27, 164 
formosa, Pupa, Pfr., 27, 164 
formosa, Pupa, Parr., 25, 68 
fossanensis, Gastrocopta, Sacco., 

24. 115 
fossanensis, Vertigo, Sacco., 24, 

fossilis, Lyropupa, C. & P., 25, 237 
francofurtana, Gastrocopta, Bttg., 

24, 117 
francofurtanus, Negulus, G. & W., 

26, 105 
fragilis, Pupa, "Or p. — TJ alea 
freseriana, Pupa, Bof., 24, 284 
freseriana. Pupa, Fag., 24, 284; 

2 7, 279, 280 
frondicola, Pronesopupa, C. & P., 

26, 13 
fruhstorferi, Gyliauehen, MUdff., 

24, 217 
fruhstorferi, Hypselostoma, Mlldff., 

24, 217 
frumentacea, Pupa, Loc, 24, 298 
frumentum, Abida, Drp., 24, 207 
frumentum, Pupa, Drp., 24, 297 
frustillum, Pupa, M. & P., 26, 208, 

fryali, Pupa, 27, 211 
fryaua, Pupa, Bs., 24, 246 
fryanus, Fauxulus. Bs., 24, 246 
funicula, Pupa. Val., 1, 85 
furtoides, Pupa, Sowb.=:C?«?e7ta 
fusca, Lauria, Lwe.. 27, 105 
fusca. Pupa, Lwe., 27, 106 
fuscidula, Lauria, Mrlt., 27, 124 
fuscidula, Pupa, Mrlt., 27, 124 
fusiformis. Pupa, Ad.. 16, 25, 26 
fusiformis, Pupa. Kstr., 24, 328 
fustis, Abida, Bttg., 24, 270 
fustis, Torquilla, Bttg., 24, 270 
Fusnlina, Sdb^, 25. 223 
fusus, Pupa, Lam., 1. 281 

gaali, Vertigo. Wenz., 25. 379 
gabbi, Pupa, Dall., 26. 116 
gabrielensis, Pupa. Greg., 26, 181 
galloprovincialis, Pupa, Marg., 25. 

garumnica, Pupa, Fag., 24. 281 

Gastrocopta, Woll., 24, 6, 11, 53; 

25, 370; 27, 199 
Gastrocoptina?, 24, x 
gastrodes, Abida, Pils., 24, 305 
gastrodes, Torquilla, Zigl., 25, 66 
gaudryi, Pupa, Bgt.—Choadmla 
gaziensis, Leucochiloides, Prest., 

26, 135 

gaziensis, Pupoides, Prest., 26, 135 
Gastrodon, Lowe, 27, 43 
geminidens, Bothriopupa, Pils., 24, 

geminideus, Gastrocopta, Pils., 24, 

228; 27, 202 
gemma, Pupa, West., 25, 194 
gemma. Vertigo, West., 25, 194 
gemmula, Bubmus, Bs., 26, 137 
gemmula, Pupoides, Bs., 26, 137 
genesi, Pupa, Grdl., 25, 204 
genesii, Vertigo, Grdl., 25, 204; 

27, 216 

gereti, Anauchen, B. & D., 24, 189 
gereti, Boysidia, B. & D.. 24, 190 
germanica, Pupa, ~Lam.=Cylindrus 
geslini. Helix, Boiss., 27, 190 
Gibaulina, Mab., 27, 262 
gibba, Lauria, Lwe., 27, 115 
gibba, Pupa, Lwe., 27, 115 
gibbosa, Pupa, Kstr., 24, 63 
gibbosa, Pupa, Mich.. 27. 264 
Gibbulinella, Wenz., 27, 263 
Gibbulinopsis, Germain., 27, 254 
gibilfunnensis, Pupa, Greg., 24, 

gigantea, Pupa, Rssm., 25, 32; 27, 

gigantea. Pupa, Schr.. 24, 303 
girondica. Vertigo, Bttg., 25, 220 
Glandicula, Sandb., 25, 207, 221; 

27. 222 
glans, Pupa, Kstr., 14, 253 
glans, Vertigo, Pils., 25, 155 
glanvilleana, Pupa. M. & P., 24, 

glanvilliana. Pupa, Anc, 24, 249 
glanvillianus, Fauxulus, Anc, 24, 

glis. Pupa. West.. 26. 177 
globosa, Vertigo, Saoc., 25, 220 
globosoconica, Pupa, West., 27, 84 
gloliula, Pupa, floss.. 25, 218 
globula, Vertigo, West., 25. 168, 

globulosa, Pupa. .Tick., 26. 208 
"■Inbulosa, Pupa. Lop., 27. 8 
trlobulu.^. Pupa, Dh., 25, 21 8 
globus, Vertigo, Pils., 25, 218 



Glyptopupoides, Pils., 27, 252 
gnampta, Nesopupa, C. & P., 25, 

godeffroyi, Nesopupa, Bttg., 25, 

godeffroyi, Pupa, Bttg., 25, 331 
goudoniana, Pupa, Fag., 24, 313; 

27, 272 
gonioplax, Nesopupa, Pils., 25, 351 
goniostoma, Chondrina, Kstr., 25, 

goniostoma, Pupa, Kstr., 25, 33; 

27, 286 
goodaill, Pupa, Dup., 19, 296 
gorbeana, Chondrina, Pils., 25, 56 ; 

27, 310 
gorgonica, Pupa, Dim., 26, 206 
gorgonica, Pupilla, Dhn., 26, 206' 
gothorum, Pupa, West., 25, 211, 

gottschicki, Dauria, Wenz., 27, 44 
gouldi, Lyropupa, P. & C, 25, 235 
gouldii, Pupa. Binn., 25, 98 
gouldii, Vertigo, Binn., 25, 98 
gourdoniana, Pupa, Fag., 24, 313 
gouveise, Nesopupa, C. & P., 25, 

gracilior, Pagodulina, Pils., 27, 320 
gracilior, Pupa, Krgl., 24, 308 
gracilis, Boysidia, Mlldff., 24, 194 
gracilis, Gastrocopta, St., 24, 31 
gracilis, Negulus, G. & W., 26, 105 
gracilis, Pagodulina, Bttg., 27, 177 
graeilidens, Gastrocopta, Sdbg., 

24, 116 
gracilidens, Puua, Sdbg., 24. 116 
gracilis, Pupa, Bttg., 27, 177, 320 
gracilis, Pupa, Haz., 27, 8 
gracilis, Pupa, Iss., 27, 49 
gracilis, Pupa, Em., 25, 29 
gracilis, Pupa, Sowb., 16, 107 
gracilis, Pupa, St., 24, 29 
gracillima, Agardhia, Pils., 27, 157 
gracillima, Torquilla, Bk., 24, 273 
graecus, Orcula, Pils., 27, 36 
graellsiana, Vertigo, Serv., 25, 

183; 27, 218 
Granaria, Held., 24, 262 
granatelli, Helix, Biv., 27, 192 
grandaeva, Strophites, Daws., 27, 

grandis, Pupilla, Mlldff., 26, 201 
graniformis, Pupa, Loc, 24, 336 
Granopupa, Bttg., 24, 234, 332; 

27, 214 
granum, Granopupa, Dr., 24, 335; 

27 214 

granum, Pupa, Drap., 24, 335 
grateloupiana, Pupa, Pfr., 1, 81 
gratiosa, Chondrina, West., 15, 37 
gratiosa, Pupa, West., 25, 38; 27, 

314, 315 
gravida, Pupa, West., 25, 182 
gredleriana, Torquilla, CI., 25, IS 
Gredleriella, Mlldff., 24, 194 
gredleri, Pupa, Cless., 27, 239, 240 
gredleri, Pupa, Beinh., 26, 81; 27, 

grevillei, Pupa, Chitty., 27. 52 
grimaldiensis, Pupa, Nev., 27, 143, 

grimmeri, Pupa, Parr., 27, 152 
griqualandica, Nesopupa, M. & P., 

25, 357 
griqualandica, Pupa, M. & P., 25, 

grisebla, Pupa, Bolt., 24, 267 
grossecostata, Abida, G. & W., 27, 

gruneri, Pupa, Pfr., 14, 267 
guadalupensis, Vertigo, Fer., 25, 

gubernatoria, Pupa, Crse, 14, 242 
guidoni, Pupa, Caz., 25, 61 
guiraoensis, Chondrina, Pils., 24, 

372; 27, 299, 303 
guiraonis, Chondrina, Pils., 25, 51; 

27, 299 
gularis, Orcula, Bss., 27, 13 
gularis, Pupa, Ess., 27, 13 
Gulella, Pfr., 27, 263 
gundlachi, Pupa, Pfr., 14, 200 
gunhilda?, Pupa, West., 27, 84 
gutta, Columella, Bs., 27, 241 
gutta, Pupa, Bs., 27, 241 
guttula, Pupa, Porro., 27, 137 
Gyliauchen, Pils., 24, 174, 210; 26, 

gyrata, Helix, Lwe., 27, 52 


haehiioensis, Gastrocopta, Pils., 

24, 109 
hachijoensis, Vertigo, Pils., 25, 

haeusleri, Pupa, St., 25, 177, 17S 
haggenmacheri, Gastrocopta, Jick., 

24, 358 
haggenmacheri, Pupa, Jick., 24, 

halleriana, Pupa, Chp., 26, 185 
halleriana. Pupilla. Chp., 26. 185 
hamata, Vertigo, Hid., 25, 212 



liangchowensis, Boysidia, P. & H., 

24, 196 
liangchowensis, Hypselostoma, P. 

& H., 24, 197 
hannai, Vertigo, Pils., 25, 114 
Haplopupa, Pils., 25, 70 
harpa, Helix, Say., 27, 196 
harpa, Zoogenetes, Say, 27, 196 
harpula, Helix, Eeinh., 27, 198 
harpula, Zoogenetes, Reinh., 27, 

hassiaea, Pupa, Pfr., 25, 11 
hasta, Columella, Hanna, 27, 245 
hasta, Sphyradium, Hanna, 27, 245 
hauchecornei, Vertigo, Kl., 25, 216 
hauffeni, Helix, Schm., 27, 185 
hauffeni, Spelaeodiscus, Schm., 27, 

hawaiensis, Pupoidopsis, P. & C, 

26, 107 
hawaiiensis, Lyropupa, Ane., 25, 

haydeni, Vertigo, Anc, 25, 119 
liebardi, Vertigo, Van., 25, 103 
lieberti, Pupa, Fong. de Pen., 25, 

hebes, Pupa, Anc, 26, 165 
hebes, Pupilla, Anc, 26, 164 
hebraica, Pupa, Tristr., 27, 262 
hedleyi, Cvlindrovertilla, Pils., 26, 

liedleyi, Gastroeopta, Pils., 24, 16'7 
hedleyi, Pupoides, Pils., 27, 252 
heldi, Pupa, Cless., 25, 200 
heldi, Vertigo, Cless., 25, 199 
helenensis, Pupa, Pfr., 27, 52 
Helenopupa, P. & C, 25. 277, 363 
helicoides, Pupa, M. & H., 27. 264 
Helix moricandi, Per., 24, 257 
Helix vertigo, Gm., 25, 161 
helodes, Pupa, Mrlt., 1, 90 
helvetica, Pupa, West., 25, 202 
helvetica. Vertigo, West., 25, 201 
hemphilli, Pupa, St., 26. 56 
hemphilli, Sterkia, St., 26, 55 
heptodonta, Jaminia, Risso., 25, 

66; 27, 262 
Hercodonta, Ag., 27, 262 
hermosa, Gastroeopta, Jouss., 24, 

hermosa, Vertigo, Jouss., 24, 121 
hessleriana, Aeanthinula, Joos., 27, 

hetaera, Abida, West., 24. 294 
hetaera, Pupa. West., 24, 294; 27, 

heterodon, Lauria, Pils., 27, 101 

heterodus, Gastroeopta, Bttg., 24, 

heterodus, Pupa, Bttg., 24, 116 
heterostropha, Jaminia, Risso., 24, 

heterostropha, Orcula, Bttg., 27, 33 
heterostropha, Orcula, Bttg., 2 7, 

heterostropha, Vertigo, Lch., 25, 

heudeana, Pupa, Mlldff., 26, 200 
heudeana, Pupilla, Mlldff., 26, 200 
heuglini, Pupa, Krs., 27, 61 
hexodon, Lauria, Pils., 27, 125 
hexodon, Pupa, Ad., 25, 87 
himalayana, Pupa, Hutt., 26, 71 
himalayana, Truneatellina, Hutt., 

26, 71 

hinkleyi, Vertigo, Pils., 26, 234 
hirasei, Gastroeopta, Pils., 24, 110 
hirasei, Vertigo, Pils., 25, 154 
hojeda, Gastroeopta, Pils., 27, 206 
hololoma, Aulacospira, Mlldff., 24, 

holosericea, Helix, Mill., 27, 187 
holostoma, Pupa, Mrlt., 1, 89 
holzingeri, Gastroeopta, St., 24, 25 
holzingeri, Pupa, St., 24, 25 
homala, Granopupa, West., 24, 352 
homala, Pupa, West., 24, 352 
honesta, Pupa, West., 26, 184 
honesta, Pupilla, West., 26, 184 
hoppii, Pupa, Moll, 25, 136 
hoppii, Vertigo, Moll., 25, 135; 

27, 216 

hordacea, Pupa, Gabb., 26, 116, 

hordaeeus, Pupoides, Gabb., 26, 

116; 27, 250 
hordeacea, Pupa, W. G. B., 24, 

69; 26, 116 
hordeacella, Gastroeopta, Pils., 24, 

hordeacella, Pupa, Pils., 24, 76 
hordeum, Pupa, Auet., 25, 13, 24 
hordeum Torquilla, Hartm., 24, 

hortana, Lauria, Pils., 27, 123 
hornbeckii, Torquilla, Villa., 16,24 
hospitii, Pupa, 25, 37; 27, 277 
hueense, Pnpisoma, Watt., 26, 33 
hueensis, Helix, Watt., 26, 33 
humilis, Torquilla, Bk., 24, 342 
hunana, Boysidia, Grdl., 24, 194 
hunana. Pupa, Grdl., 24, 194 
hunanensis, Pupa, Mlldff., 24. 194 
hungarica, Abida, Kim., 24, 301 



hungariea, Torquilla, Kim., 24, 302 
hungerfordianum, Hypselostoma, 

24, 213 
hungerfordianus, Gyliauchen, 

Mlldff., 24, 212 
hupeana, Boysidia, Grdl., 24, 206 
hupeanum, Hypselostoma, Grdl., 

24, 206 
huttoniana, Gastrocopta, Bs., 24, 

huttoniana, Pupa, Bs., 24, 137 
hyalina, Pupa, Pfr., 1, 92 
hyalina, Pupa, Zel., 24, 147, 152 
hydrobiarum, Vertigo, Bttg., 25, 

Hydrocena milium, Bs., 24, 199 

hydrophila, Pupa, Eeinh., 25, 153 
hydrophila, Vertigo, Eeinh., 25, 

Hyperostoma, Simr., 27, 211 
Hypoma, Pfr., 27, 225 
Hypostoma, Alb., 26, 225 
Hypostrema, Pfr., 26, 225 
Hypotrema, Mts., 26, 225 
Hypselostoma, 24, 175; 27, 211 
hystricella, Pronesopupa, C. & P., 

26, 7 

idahoensis, Pupilla, H. & D., 26, 

165, 166 
idolum, Pupa, Mke., 1, 82 
ignota, Pupa, Fag., 25, 50 
ignota, Pupa, West., 25, 50; 27, 

291, 297 

iheringi, Gastrocopta, Sut., 24, 101 
iheringi, Pupa, Sut., 24, 101 
ilerdensis, Pupa, Fag., 25, 56; 27, 

292, 297 

illyrica, Abida, Em., 24, 303 
illyrica, Pupa, Em., 24, 303 
imbricata, Orcula, -Tick., 27, 25 
imbrieata, Pupa, Jick., 27, 25 
imperforata, Acanthinula, Mill., 

27, 190 
imperforata, Hyalinia, Mill., 27, 

implicata, Orcula, Cless., 27, 12 
impressa, Pupa, Sdbg., 26, 223 
impressa, Pupilla, Sdbg., 26, 223 
imbricata, Hypselostoma, Mlldff., 

24, 183, 184, 360 
Immersidens, P. & V., 24, 11, 38, 

inaequalis, Pupa, West., 27, 50 
incana, Pupa, Binn., 14, 214 

incerta, Nesopupa, Nev., 25, 353 
incerta, Pronesopupa, C. & P., 26, 

incerta, Vertigo, Nev., 25, 354 
incertus, Chondrus, Hartm., 24, 323 
incolata, Pupa, White, 27, 265 
inconspecta, Pupa, Parr., 25, 68 
inconspicua, Pupa, Bnp., 26, 99 
inconspicua, Truncatellina, Bnp., 

26, 99 

incrassata, Pupa, Naeg., 27, 34 
incrassata, Pupa, Sby., 14, 207 
indica, Pupa, Pfr., 24, 136 
indigena, Pupa, Anc, 24, 86 
Indopupa, P. & C, 25, 276, 339 
inermis, Pupa, Desh.=CylindrelUna 
inermis, Pupa, West., 25, 187; 27, 

49, 219 
inermis, Vertigo, West., 25, 187, 

27, 219 

infanda Pupa, Poey., 14, 225 
inflata, Pupa, Cless., 25, 219 
inflata, Pupa, Wagn., 14, 60 
inflatula. Vertigo, Pils., 25, 219 
Infranesopupa, C. & P., 25, 277,. 

infrendens, Pupa, Mts., 1, 98 
infrequens, Nesopupa, C. & P., 25, 

Infundibularia, Pfr., 24, 5 
infundibuliformis, Gibbulina, Orb., 

24, 6 
infundibuliformis, Helix, Orb., 24, 

ingersolli, Vertigo, Anc, 25, 119, 

inops, Pupa, Eeinh., 26, 180 
inornata, Columella, Mich., 27,240 
inornata, Pupa, Kstr., 27, 239 
inornata, Pupa, Mich., 26, 223; 

27, 241 
inornatus, Pupoides, Van., 26, 118 
insculpta, Vertigo, Pils., 25, 131 
inserta, Vertigo, Pils., 25, 118 
insigne, Pupisoma, Pils., 26, 39 
insularis, Pupa, Ehr., 18, 107 
insularum, Hypselostoma, Pils., 24, 

182, 360; 27, 211 
Insulipupa, P. & C, 25, 277, 342, 

insulivaga, Pupa, P. & H., 26, 85 
insulivaga, Truncatellina, P. & H., 

26,' 84 
insulsa, Ennea, Prest., 24, 359; 26, 

insulsa, Gastrocopta, Prest., 24, 

359; 27, 209 



intra dentata, Pupa, M. & P., 26, 

interferons, Pupa, Dh., 25, 223 
intermedia, Pupa, Kok., 27, 163 
intermedia, Pupa, Mrlt., 1, 83 
intermedia, Pupa, Porro, 27, 137 
intermedia, Pupa, Ret., 27, 40, 42 
interpres, Bifidaria, St., 24, 16 
interprets, Gastrocopta, St., 24, 17 
interrupta, Lyropupa, P. & C, 25, 

interrupta, Nesopupa, C. & P., 25, 

interrupta, Pupa, Eeinh., 26, 197 
interrupta, Pupilla, Eeinh., 26, 196 
intersecta, Pupa, Dh., 1, 89 
iiitrrms, Torquilla, West., 24, 300 
intrusa; Abida, Slav., 24, 269 
intrusa, Pupa, Slav., 24, 269 
intuseostata, Bifidaria, Clp., 24, 4 
intuscostata, Chamaxis, Clp., 24, 3 
inversa, Pupa, Grat., 27, 265, 266 
i i. stoma, Pupa, Pfr., 14, 210 
iota, Ennea, Prest., 25, 361 
iota, Nesopupa, Prest., 25, 361 
iota, Pupa, M. & P., 26, 96 
iota, Truncatellina, M. & P., 26, 95 
iratiana, Pupa, Dup., 26, 224 
iratiana, Pupilla, Dup., 26, 224 
lei, Ennea, Prest., 27, 255 
iredalei, Leucochiloides, Prest., 26, 

iredalei, Microstele, Prest., 26, 148 
irregularis, Vertigo, Poll., 25, 165 
irrigua, Lauria, Lire., 27, 92 
irrigua, Pupa, Lwe., 27, 93 
i tabellae, Pupa, Caz., 25, 62 
-a, Pupa, West., 25. 201 
ischna, Pupa, Tate, 26, 146 
Ischnopupoides, Pils., 27, 250 
ischnus, Pupoides, Tate, 26, 146 
isehurostoma, Pupa, Loc, 24, 322, 

isonse, Pupa, Vidal, 27. 264 
isseli, Pupa, Caz., 24. 320 

nana. Granopnpa, Pils., 24,346 
isserica, Lauria, Let., 27, 259 
isserica, Pupa, Anc, 24, 346 
isserica, Pupa, Let., 27, 259 
Tsthmia auot., 26, 58 
Tsthmia, Gray, 25, 69, 71 
iuliana, Pupa, Stef., 25, 61; 27, 

jamaieensis, Pupa, Ad., 24, 75, 81 
Jaminia, Risso., 24, 262, 268 

janinensis, Truncatellina, Pils., 27, 

japonica, Vertigo, P. & H., 25, 155 
japonicum, Pupisoma, Pils., 26, 25 
Jardineana, Pupa, Chitty.=Car,i/- 

c Iiium 
javana, Boysidia, Mlldff., 24. 209 
jehennei, Pupa, ~Eiec\.=Cerastus 
jetschini, Orcula, Kim., 27, 17 
jobae, Pupa, Mieh.=Granoennea 
jolyana, Agardhia, Nev., 27, 141 
jolyana, Pupa, Nev., 27, 141 
joosi, Acanthopupa, Wenz., 27, 198 
Juliana, Pupa, Iss., 25, 61 
juliensis, Pupa, Bgt., 25, 34; 27, 

jumillensis, Chondrina, Pfr., 25, 

49; 27, 299 
jumillensis, Pupa, Pfr., 25, 50 
jumillensis, Pupa, Km., 27, 304 
juniperi, Turbo, Mont., 24, 307 


kaalaensis, Nesopupa, C. & P., 25, 

kabyliana, Granopupa, Let., 24, 

kabyliana, Pupa, Let., 24, 347 
kahoolavensis, Lyropupa, P. & C, 

25, 256; 27, 224 
kaibabensis, Pupilla, P. & F., 26, 

165, 166 
kailuana, Gastrocopta, Pils., 24, 

kanalensis, Pupa, Caz., 24, 305 
kasnakovi, Orcula, Rosen, 27, 319 
kauaiensis, Nesopupa, Anc, 25, 318 
kelantanensis, Boysidia, Sykes, 24, 

keniana, Alsea, Prest., 26, 104 
kenianus, Negulus, Prest., 26, 103 
kennardi, Gastrocopta, Cox, 27,211 
kersea, Pupa, M. & P., 26, 208, 212 
kimakowiezi. Pupa. Branc, 27, 10 
kingi, Oylindrovertilla, Cox, 26, 44, 

kingi, Pupa. Cox, 26, 44: 27, 229 
klunzingeri. Oa<1roeopta, .Tick., 24, 

120; 26, 229 
klunzingeri, Pupa, Jick., 24, 120 
kobelti, Chondrina. West., 25, 38; 

27, 306 
kobelti, Pupa. West., 25, 39 
kochi, Vertigo, Bttg., 25. 218 
kockeilii, Odontocyclas, Poll., 24, 

kokeilii, Odontocyclas, Rm., 24. 256 



kokeilii, Pupa, Km., 24, 256 
kona, Lyropupa, P. & C., 25, 266; 

27, 224 
kraliki, Pupa, Let., 24, 311 
krauseana, Pupa, Reinh., 25, 137 
krauseana, Vertigo, Reinh., 25, 136 
krueperi, Abida, West., 24, 329 
krueperi, Pupa, West., 24, 330 
kruperi, Pupa, West., 24, 330 
kuenowi, Vertigo, Klebs., 25, 216 
kuesteriana, Vertigo, West., 25, 

kiinowi, Vertigo, Kl., 25, 216 
kursiensis, Bulimus, Bgt., 26, 130 
kursiensis, Pupoides, Bgt., 26, 130 
kurri, Pupa, Kr., 24, 239 
kuschakewitzi, Pupa, Mts., 26, 173 
kushiroensis, Vertigo, P. & H., 25, 

kiisteriana, Pupa, West., 25, 182 
kiisteriana, Vertigo, West., 25, 181 
kusteri, Pupa, Pfr., 14, 195 
kutsckigii, Pupa, Kstr. =Chondrula 

labridens, Pupa, Parr. =Chondrula 
labiosa, Pupa, Caz., 25, 10 
labiosa, Pupa, Moq., 24, 274, 323 
labiosa, Pupa, Parr., 25, 68 
labyrinthus, Pupa, Ant., 14, 95 
labyrinthus, Pupa, Mke., 27, 262 
lactaria, Pupa, Gld., 15, 177 
laevigata, Lauria, Lwe., 27, 103 
laevigata, Pupa, Kok., 25, 179 
laevigata, Pupa, Lwe., 27, 103 
laevigata, Pupa, West., 25, 61 
laevis, Pupa, Brn., 26, 60 
laevistriata, Pupa, Ret., 27, 230 
laevistriata, Truncatellina, Ret., 

27, 230 
laeviuscula, Pupa, Kstr, 26, 68 
laeviuseula, Truncatellina, Kstr., 

26, 68 
lagganensis, Vertigo, Pils., 25, 94 
laichingensis, Pupa, Quenst., 27, 

laidlawi, Hypselostoma, Cllge., 24, 

lallemantiana, Chondrina, Bgt., 25, 

lallemantiana, Pupa, Bgt., 25, 42 
lamarckii, Pupa, Aud., 26, 238 
lamellata, Agardhia, Cless., 27, 158 
lamellata, Helix, Jeffr., 27, 187 
lamellata, Spermodea, Jeffr., 27, 


lamellata, Sphyradium, Cless., 27, 

lamellidens, Gastrocopta, Sdbg., 24, 

lamellidens, Pupa, Sdbg., 24, 115 
lamellosa, Lauria, Lowe, 27. 116 
lamellosa, Pupa, Lowe, 27, il6 
lamothei, Boysidia, B. & D., 24, 202 
lanaiensis, Lyropupa, C. & P., 25, 

lanaiensis, Nesopupa, P. & C, 25, 

landurensis, Bifidaria, Pils., 24, 

landurensis, Boysidia, Pils., 24, 204 
lapidaria, Abida, Hutt., 24, 330 
lapidaria, Pupa, Hutt., 24, 331 
larapinta, Gastrocopta, Tate, 24, 

larapinta, Pupa, Tate, 24, 168 
lardea, Pupa, Jick., 26, 86 
lardea, Truncatellina, Jick., 26, 86; 

27, 231 
lardeus, Bulimus, Pfr., 26, 126 
lardeus, Pupoides, Pfr., 26, 126, 

237; 27, 251 
largillierti, Pupa, Phil., 1, 105 
laroisiana, Pupa, West., 25, 183 
larteti, Gastrocopta, Dup., 24, 115 
larteti, Pupa, Dup., 24, 115 
larvula, Pupa, Hde., 1, 93 
lasallei, Pupa, Loc, 24, 311 
lata, Columella, Ad., 27, 246 
lata, Pupa, Ad., 27, 247 
latasteana, Vertigo, L. & B., 25, 

latikibrts, Pupa. Pi'r., 14, 194 
latilabris, Torquilla, Stoss., 27, 320 
Lauria, Graj, 27, 43, 258 
laurinea, Lauria, Lwe., 27, 98 
laurinea, Pupa, Lwe., 27, 99 
Laurinella, Hesse, 26, 58 
lavalleana, Pupa, Orb., 15, 225 
layardi, Fauxulus, Bs., 24, 243 
layardi, Pupa, Bs., 24, 242 
ledereri, Pupa, Zel.=zAmpliiscopus 
lederi, Lauria, Bttg., 27, 79 
lederi, Pagodulina, Bttg., 27, 178 
lederi, Pagodina, Bttg., 27, 178 
lederi, Pupa, Bttg., 27, 178 
lederi, Pupa, Bttg., 27, 78 
leidyi, Pupa, Meek., 15, 68 
leignaciana, Pupa, Paet., 27, 208 
Leiostyla, Lowe, 27, 67 
lentilii, Pupa, Mill., 26. 60 
lentilii, Truncatellina, Mill.. 26, 60 
leontina, Pupa, Grdl., 25, 201 



leontina, Vertigo, Grdl., 25, 201 
lepida, Pupa, West., 25, 23 
lepidula, Buliminus, A. & A., 26, 

142, 144 
lepidula, Vertigo, Held., 27, 237 
lepta, Pupa, "West., 25, 14 
leptocheilos, Pupa, Fag., 25, 31; 

2 7, 286 
leptoehila, Pupa, Loc, 25, 31 
leptospira, Abida, West., 24, 295 
leptospira, Pupa, West., 24, 295; 

27, 279 
lessinica, Pupa, Ad., 25, 16 
letourneuxi, Chondrina, Bgt., 25, 

letourneuxi, Pupa, Bgt., 25, 43 
Leucochila, Mts., 26, 108 
Leucochiloides, Pfr., 26, 108 
Leucoehilus, Bttg., 24, 6, 8, 13 
leucodon, Bothriopupa, Mrl., 24, 

leueodon, Pupa, Mrl., 24, 232 
levenensis, Vertigo, Scott, 25, 206 
libanotica, Pupa, Tristr., 25, 66 
lienardiana, Gastrocopta, Crse., 24, 

lienardiana, Pupa, Crse., 24, 133 
lifouana, Nesopupa, Gass., 25, 333 
lifouana, Pupa, Gass., 25, 334 
lignieola, Pupa, Stol., 26, 23 
lignieola, Pupisoma, Stol., 26, 23 
ligustica, Agardhia, Poll., 27, 147 
ligustica, Pupa, Poll., 27, 147 
ligustica, Vertigo, Sacc, 25, 221 
lilietensis, Pupa, Bof., 24, 293; 2 7, 

lilljeborgi, Vertigo, West., 25, 167; 

27, 218 
limatula, Xesopupa, C. & P., 25, 

limbata, Vertigo, Part., 25, 179 
Linibatipupa, C. & P., 25, 277, 306 
limensis, Pupa, Phil., 26, 121; 27, 

limnaeana, fnlumella, Lowe, 27, 235 
Limnseana, Pupa, Lowe, 27, 235 
limonensis, Pupa, West., 24, 320 
lincolnensis, Pupa, Cox, 26, 219, 

lincolniensis, Pupa, Cox.. 26, 219 
lindcrmeyeri, Pupa, Pfr., 27, 32, 33 
linearis, Pupa, Lwe., 26, 62 
linearis, Truncatellina, Lwe., 26, 62 
lineolatus, Bulimus, Brn., 26, 105 
listeri, Pupa, Gray, 14, 62 
litoralis, Xesopupa, C. & P., 25, 283 

lituus, Pupa, Gld., 15, 220 
livingstonee, Pupa, Bnp., 26, 96 
livingstonae, Truncatellina, Bnp., 

26, 97 

ljubetensis, Orcula, Stur., 27, 257 
locardi, Agardhia, Loc, 27, 149 
locardi, Sphyradium, Loc, 27, 150 
loemodonta, Vertigo, Bgt., 25, 219 
lomnickii, Pupilla, Wenz-rrrmiom- 

nickii, q. v. 
longa, Pupa, Moq., 24, 259, 260 
longa, Vertigo, Pils., 25, 377 
longidens, Gastrocopta, CI., 24, 117 
longidens, Pupa, CI., 24, 117 
longini, Pupa, Pag., 25, 48; 27, 

291, 297 
longior, Pupa, Ret., 27, 40, 42 
longstaffi, Pupisoma, G.-A., 26, 27 
longurio, Gastrocopta, Crse., 24, 

82; 27, 203 
longurio, Pupa, Crosse., 24, 83; 27, 

longurio, Pupa, Moq., 24, 283 
loroisiana, Pupa, Bgt., 25, 183 
loroisiana, Vertigo, Bgt., 25, 183 
loweana, Lauria, Woll., 27, 93 
loweana, Pupa, Woll., 27, 94 
loxostoma, Pupa, Quenst., 27, 212 
lucana, Pupa, Brig., 25, 11 
lucida, Vertigo, Jan., 25, 213 
ludovici, Vertigo, Bgt., 24, 116 
lunatica, Pupa, Ja,n.—Cliondnda 
lundstromi, Pupa, West., 26, 179 
lusitanica, Chondrina, Pfr., 25, 40; 

27, 311 

lusitanica, Pupa, Pfr., 25, 40 
lusitanica, Pupa, Tourn., 25, 4 
luxurians, Pupa, Reinh., 26, 192 
luzitanica, Pupa, Nobre, 25, 40 
luzonicum, Hypselostoma, MUdff., 

24, 183 
lymaniana, Pronesopupa, C. & P., 

26, 18 
lyrata, Lyropupa, Gld., 25, 233 
lyrata, Pupa, Gld., 25, 234 
lyonetti, Pupa, Mtf., Sowb.=Gt'6- 

lyonsiana, Gastrocopta, Anc, 24, 

lyonsiana, Pupa, Anc, 24, 142 
Lyropupa, Pils., 25, 226; 27, 223 
Lyropupilla, Pils. & Cke., 25, 247 

macdonnelli, Gastrocopta, Braz., 
24, 162 



macdonnelli, Pupa, Braz., 24, 163 
maeei, Orcula, Loc, 27, 21 
macilenta, Lauria, Lwe., 27, 104 
macilenta, Pupa, Lwe., 27, 105 
macleayi, Pupa, Braz., 24, 163, 164 
macneilli, Pupisorna, Clp., 26, 41 
maeroclon, Gastroeopta, Pils., 24, 

maerodonta, Agardhia, Hesse., 26, 

macrogyra, Pupa, Mss., 1, 91 
niacrotriodon, Orcula, Loc, 27, 21 
maculosa, Pupa, Lam., 27, 262 
madagascariensis, Gastroeopta, B. 

& G., 27, 210 
madida, Pupa, Grdl., 26, 183 
madiola, Pupa, West., 26, 183 
lnagdalense, Pupa, Anc, 25, 234 
magdalenae, Pupa, Loc, 24, 315, 

magna, Torquilla, Stab., 24, 303, 

maharasicus, Bulimus, Bgt., 26, 

major, Hypselostoma, MUdff., 24, 

183, 184, 360 
major, Pupa, Bgt., 24, 274, 275 
major, Pupa, Bof., 24, 284 
major, Pupa, Kregl., 24, 304 
major, Pupa, Kstr., 25, 24, 26 
major, Pupa, Loc, 27, 8 
major, Pupa, Moq., 24, 323 
major, Pupa, Moq., 25, 61 
major, Pupa, Pini., 27, 213 
major, Pupa, West., 24, 342 
major, Vertigo, Loc, 25, 166 
majuscula, Pupa, Mrlt.=C?0«io- 

malayana, Nesopupa, Iss., 25, 342 
malayanus, Vertigo, Iss., 25, 343 
manica, Pupa, Dh., 14, 226 
manotiana, Pupa, West., 25, 55; 

27, 298 
marcuccii, Truncatellina, Stet.. 27, 

marcuccii, Vertigo, Stef., 26, 75; 

27, 229 
marebiensis, Bulimus, Bgt., 26, 129 
maresi, Vertigo, Bgt., 25, 171 
margaretas, Gastroeopta, Cox, 24, 

margareta?, Pupa, Cox, 24, 161 
margidens, Pupa, West., 27, 151 
margieri, Lauria, Caz., 27, 258 
marginalba, Gastroeopta, Pfr., 24, 

marginalba, Pupa, Pfr., 24, 61 

marginata, Cyclostoma, Say, 26, 

marginata, Pupa, Dr., 26, 175 
marginatus, Pupoides, Say, 26, 

111; 27, 249 
maris?, Microstele, Morg., 26, 148 
marise, Pupa, Morg., 26, 148 
mariei, Nesopupa, Crse., 25, 334 
mariei, Pupa, Crse., 25, 334 
marignanensis, Pupa, Eoule., 27, 

mariposa, Vertigo, Pils., 25, 88 
maritima, Pupa, Loc, 25, 10, 19 
maritima, Pupa, Pfr., 14, 213 
marki, Vertigo, Gul., 25, 107 
marmorata, Pupa, Pfr., 14, 218, 

martensi, Pupa, Weinl., 14, 268 
martiniana, Pupa, Kstr., 14, 264 
martini, Vertigo, H. & J., 25, 114 
martini, Vertigo, Sayn., 25, 206 
maruccii, Pupa, West., 26, 75; 27, 

masclaryana, Pupa, Pal., 26, 175, 

massotiana, Chondrina, Bgt., 25, 

massotiana, Pupa, Bgt., 25, 53; 

27, 291, 297 
mastersi, Pupa, Cox, 26, 45, 46 
Mastula, Lowe., 27, 116 
matacumbensis, Gastroeopta, Pils., 

24, 60 
matura, Gastroeopta, Cox, 27, 211 
Maturipupa, Pils., 27, 317 
maunaloa?, Lyropupa, P. & C, 25, 

mauritianum, Carychium, 24, 131 
mauritiana, Pupa, Mrlt., 1, 88 
maxima, Pupilla, Bttg., 26, 223 
maxima, Pupa, Pini, 27, 213 
maxima, Vertigo, Bttg., 25, 216 
mcbeanianus, Fauxulus, M. & P., 

24, 247 

meclungi, Bifidaria, H. & J., 24, 66 
mea. Pupa, Loc, 24, 298 
media, Gastroeopta, Pils., 24, 50 
mediamericanum, Pupisoma, Pils., 

26, 42 
media, Torquilla, Stab., 27, 213 
megacheilos, Chondrina, C. & J., 

25, 7; 27, 213 
megacheilos, Chondrus, C. & J., 

25 7 
meoacheiloides, Torquilla, CI., 25, 

megacheylos, Pupa, Dup., 25, 8 



megalomastoma, Nesopupa, Malz., 

25, 362 
megoloniastoma, Pupa, Malz., 25, 

melanostoma. Pupa, "West., 25, 15 
meledana, Pupa, Stz., 24, 344 
mellita, Pupa, Gld., 1, 105 
membranacea, Helix, Jiek., 26, 35 
menkeana, Pupa, Pfr., 1, 97 
meridionalis, Gastrocopta, Mlldff., 

24, 111 
meridionalis, Pupa, Ad., 24, 336, 

meridionalis, Pupa, Mlldff, 24, HI 
meridionalis, Pupa, Strob., 24, 303 
merita, Vertigo, West., 25, 16S, 169 
mesopotamica, Orcula, Mss., 2 7, 27 
mesopotamica, Pupa, Mss., 27, 27 
messageri, Anauchen, B. & D., 24, 

messageri, Boysidia, B. & D., 24, 

mexicanorum, Pupa, Ckll., 26, 116 
miccyla, Helix, Bs., 26, 26 
miccyla, Pupisoma, Bs., 26, 26 
michaudi, Granopupa, Terv., 24, 

michaudi, Pupa, Terv., 24, 345 
michaudi, Papilla, Wenz., 26, 225 
micheli, Pupa, Terv., .24, 315 
michoacanense, Pupisoma, Pils., 26, 

micra, Lyropupa, C. & P., 25, 263 
micra, Nesopupa, Pils., 25, 351; 

27, 226 
microbus, Gastrocopta, Dtz., 24, 

123; 27, 209 
microbus, Pupa, Dtz., 24. 124 
Microeerion. Ball., 26, 151 
microceros, Pupa, A. BTn.=Pseudo- 

mierochilus, Chondrina, Bof., 27, 

microdon, Pupa, West., 25, 49; 27, 

291, 297 
microdonta, Gastrocopta, Doer., 24, 

microdonta, Pupa, Doer., 24, 93 
microhelix, Pseudelix, Sdbg., 25, 

microhelix. Pupa, Sdbg., 25, 223 
microlena. Vertigo, Bsrt., 25. 185 
micronixia, Vertigo, Bgt., 25, 219 
Micropetasus, Mlldff., 24, 220 
microphasma, Vertigo, Berry, 25, 

microseopica, Gastrocopta, Mts., 

24, 131 
microseopica, Pupa, Mts., 24, 131 
microsoma, Gastrocopta, T.-C, 24, 

152; 27, 209 
microsoma, Pupa, T.-C., 24, 152 
microspora, Columella, Lowe., 27, 

microspora, Pupa, Lowe., 27, 234 
Microstele, Boettger, 26, 147; 27, 

microstoma, Pupa, Mlldff., 27, 263 
microstoma, Pupa, Pfr., 14, 200 
microstoma, Pupa, Eeuss., 25, 218 
microthauma, Lyropupa, Anc, 25, 

microtragus, Pupa, Parr.=C7ion- 

micula, Pupa, Mss., 26, 70 
micula, Truncatellina, Mss., 26, 70 
migma, Pupa, West., 24, 295 
milaschevitschi, Pupilla, Lindh., 

26, 179 
miliiformis, Vertigo, Bttg., 25, 217 
miliola, Gastrocopta, Orb., 24, 92 
miliola, Helix, Orb., 24, 92 
miliolum, Pupa, CI., 24, 117 
miliolum, Pupa, Sdbg., 27, 221 
miliolum, Vertigo, Sdbg., 27, 221 
milium, Hydrocena, G. A., 24, 199, 

milium, Pupa, Gld., 25, 147 
milium, Vertigo, Gld., 25, 146 
millegrana, Lauria, Lwe., 27, 106 
millegrana, Pupa, Lwe., 27, 107 
milleri, Pupa, Dhn., 27, 53 
milleri, Pupa, Pfr., 14, 243 
milleri, Vertigo, G. & W., 27, 221 
millium, Alsea, Bk., 25, 324 
millium, Pupa, Sowb., 25, 148 
milne-edwardsi, Vertigo, Bgt., 25, 

mimula, Gastrocopta, Bs., 24, 134 
mimula, Pupa, Bs., 24, 134 
minax, Lauria, Bttg., 27, 45 
minima, Orcula, Branc, 27, 7, 9 
minima, Pupa, Cless., 25, 219 
minima, Pupa, Kregl., 24, 301 
minima, Pupa, Loc, 25, 14 
minor, Bifidaria, St., 24, 43 
minor, Gastrocopta, St., 24, 44 
minor, Pnpa, Bgt., 24, 340 
minor, Pupa, Bs., 24, 245 
minor, Pupa, Kstr., 24, 328 
minor, Pupa, Kstr., 25. 24. 26' 
minor, Pupa, Mich., 24. 308 
minor, Pupa, Mill., 24, 115 



minor, Pupa, Mke., 25, 24 
minor, Pupa, Moq., 25, 61 
minor, Pupa, Moq., 24, 323 
minor, Pupa, Moq., 27, 270 
minor, Pupa, Mrlt., 1, 84 
minor, Pupa, Km., 24, 272 
minor, Pupa, Em., 24, 303, 304 
minor, Pupa, Stab., 27, 213 
minor, Pupa, West., 24, 297 
minor, Pupa, West., 25, 9 
minor, Pupa, West., 26, 178 
minor, Vertigo, Bttg., 25, 216 
minor, Vertigo, West., 25, 176 
minuscula, Pupa, IslTlt.—Cruletta 
minusculus, Buliminus, Mss., 26, 

minusculus, Pupoides, Mss., 26, 

139; 27, 252 
minus, Pupisoma, Pils., 26, 40 
minuta, Bifidaria, St., 24, 35 
minuta, Helix, Mull, 27, 230 
minutalis, Nesopupa, Morel., 25, 

352; 27, 228 
minutalis, Pupa, Mrlt., 25, 352 
minuta, Pupa, Pfr., 24, 63, 64 
minuta, Pupa, Stud., 26, 73; 27, 

minutissima, Pupa, Auct., 26, 66 
minutissima, Pupa, Hartm., 26, 73 
minutula, Pupa, CI., 26, 60 
minutula, Truncatellina, CI., 26, 60 
miocaena, Pupa, Brn., 24, 269 
miocaena, Pupa, CI., 26„ 60 
mioeaena, Truncatellina, CI., 26, 60 
mirabilis, Lyropupa, Anc, 25, 249 
mirabilis, Pupa, Anc, 25, 249 
mirabilis, Tonkinia, Mab., 24, 179, 

Mirapupa, C. & P., 25, 255 
misella, Pupa, Paul., 27, 53 
misella, Lauria, Paul., 27, 53, 258 
mitescens, Odontocyclas, West., 24, 

mitescens, Pupa, West., 24, 256 
mitis, Pupa, Bttg., 25, 173 
mitis, Pupa, West., 25, 198 
m.lommickii, Pupilla, Fried., 26, 

224; 27, 255 
m.lomnickii, Pupa, Fried., 26, 224 
m.lomnickii, Pupilla, Fried., 26, 

224; 27, 255 
modesta, Pupa, Say, 25, 125 
modesta, Vertigo, Say, 25, 123, 372 
moclica, Pupa, Gld., 26, 115 
Modicella, Ads., 25, 1, 6, 44 
modicus, Pupoides, Gld., 26, 115 
modiolinus, Pupa, Mrlt., 1, 90 

modiolus, Pupa, M. & P., 1, 89 
moellendorffiana, Gastrocopta, Pils., 

24, 145 

moellendorffi, Boysidia, Bttg., 24, 

moellendorffi, Nesopupa, Bttg., 25, 

moellendorffi, Ptyckockilus, Bttg., 

25, 341 

moellendorffi, Pupa, Bttg., 25, 341 
moenana, Vertigo, Zinn., 25, 216 
molecula, Pupa, Dhn., 26, 63 
molecula, Truncatellina, F/hn., 26, 

molokaiensis, Pronesopupa, C. & P., 

26, 15 

moluccana, Nesopupa, Bttg., 25, 

moluccana, Vertigo, Bttg., 25, 338 
monadicula, Gastrocopta, Hde., 24, 

monadicula, Pupa, Hde., 24, 111 
monas, Pupa, Hde., 24, 108, 109 
monas, Pupa, Mrlt., 25, 353 
monas, Pupa, West., 25, 173, 174 
monodon, Pupa, Biz., 26, 191 
monodon, Truncatellina, Held., 26, 

monodon, Vertigo, Held., 26, 82 
monodonta, Pupa, Gardn., 16, 188 
monodonta, Vertigo, Poll., 26, 74 
montanella, Pupa, Ckll., 24, 29, 31 
monticola, Helix, Lwe., 27, 112 
monticola, Lauria, Lwe., 27, 112 
montigena, Pupa, West., 27, 50 
montolivensis, Pupa, Noul., 27,264 
montserratica, Pupa, Fag., 24, 271; 

27, 270 

montsicciana, Abida, Bof ., 24, 293 ; 

27, 280 
moomomiensis, Lyropupa, P. & C, 

27, 225 
mooreana, Gastrocopta, Sm., 24, 

160; 26, 230 
mooreana, Pupa, Sm., 24, 160 
moquiniana, Pupa, Kstr., 25, 30; 

27, 284 
moraguesi, Pupa, Morag., 27. 214 
moreletiana, Gastrocopta, Grass., 

26, 228 
moreletiana, Pupa, Grass., 26. 228 
moreleti, Nesopupa, Brn., 25, 339 
moreleti, Pupa, Brn., 25, 339 
moretonensis, Gastrocopta, Cox, 24, 

moretonensis. Pupa, Cox, 24. 162 
rroricandi, Helix, Fer., 24, 257 



morsei, Vertigo, St., 25, 81 
mortilleti, Pupa, Stab., 24, 318 
mortilleti, Pupa, Bttg., 24, 320 
mortilleti, Pupa, Mts., 25, 65 
mosbachensis, Vertigo, Bttg., 25, 

moulinsiana, Pupa, Dup., 25, 178 
moulinsiana, Vertigo, Dtap., 25, 178 
moussoni, Orcula, Reinh., 27, 36 
moussoni, Pupa, Reinh., 27, 37 
mucronata, Aulacospira, Mlldff., 

24, 222 

muelleri, Pupa, Mrl., 1, 82 
miihlfeldtii, Pupa, Kstr., 25, 24 
miilleri, Pupa, Mrlt., 1, 82 
multicosta, Pupa, Kstr., 14, 209 
multicostata, Pupa, Sowb., 14, 209 
multicostulata, Abida, Gutz., 27, 

imilticostulata, Pupa, Gutz., 25, 4 
multidens, Pupa, Moq., 24, 274, 

multidentata, Jaminia, Eisso., 24, 

322, 327 
multidentata, Nesopupa, P. & C, 

25, 315 

multidentata, Pupa, Moq., 24, 322 
multidentata, Pupa, Strob., 25, 

22; 27, 213 
multispirata, Pupa, Edw., 16, 188 
mumiola, Pupa, Pfr., 14, 229 
munieri, Gastrocopta, Dh., 24, 117 
munieri, Pupa, Dh., 24, 117 
munita, Gastrocopta, Reib., 24, 96, 

munita. Pupa, Reib., 24, 96 
murchisoniae Vertigo, Moore, 25, 

muscerda, Microstele, Bs., 26, 148 
muscerda, Pupa, Bs., 26, 148 
museicola, Pupa, CI., 25, 219 
muscorum, Pupilla, L., 26, 156, 

173; 27, 255 
muscorum, Turbo, L., 26, 174 
mussoni, Gastrocopta, Pils., 24, 167 
mutabilis, Helix, Fer., 24, 322 
mutandaonsis, Ennea, Prest., 26. 90 
mutandaensis, Truncatellina, Prest., 

26, 90 

myopr>rina>, Bulimus, Tate, 26, 146 
myoporina?, Pupoides, Tate, 26, 146 
myrmeeoon. Pupa, Crse., 24, 82 
myrmidn, Vertigo, Mch., 25, 219 
mystiea, Pupa, Pils., St., 26, 72 

nacca, Gastrocopta, Gld., 24, 149 

nacca, Vertigo, Gld., 24, 147, 150 
naivashaensis, Ennea, Prest., 26, 

naivashaensis, Truncatellina., Prest., 

nana, Acanthinula, Bra., 27, 190 
nana, Columella, Bttg., 27, 238 
nana, Helix, Brn., 27, 190 
nana, Pupa, Bttg., 27, 238 
nana, Pupa, P. & M., 25, 24 
nana, Pupa, Miihl., 24, 342 
nana, Vertigo, Mich., 25, 212 
nannodes, Nesopupa, Q. & M., 25, 

nannodes, Vertigo, Q. & M., 25, 342 
nansoutyana, Pupa, Fag., 24, 290 
nansoutyi, Abida, Fag., 24, 289 
nansoutyi, Pupa, Fag., 24, 290; 

27, 278 
navasi, Pupa, Fag., 25, 48 
Nearctula, Sterki., 25. 70 
nebrascana, Pupa, W. G. B., 24, 23 
nebraskana, Pupa, "W. G. B., 24, 22 
necra, Vertigo, Bgt., 24, 116 
nefas, Pupilla, P. & F., 26, 166 
neglecta, Vertigo, Poey., 25, 87 
Negulus, Bttg., 26, 104; 27, 231 
nelsoni, Pupa, Cox, 26, 219, 220 
neocaledoniea, Gastrocopta, Pils., 

24, 154 
neozelanica, Pupa, Hutt., 27, 261 
Nesodagys, C. & P., 25, 276, 299 
Nesopupa, Pils., 25, 274; 27, 226 
Nesopuparia, Pils., 27, 227 
Nesopupilla, P. & C, 25, 276, 278 
neumeyeri, Pupa, Kstr., 26, 189 
neumeyeri, Pupilla, Kstr., 26, 188 
newcombi, Nesopupa, Pfr., 25. 307 
newcombi, Pupa, Pfr., 25, 310 
niciensis, Agardhia, Poll., 27, 140 
niciensis, Pupa, Poll., 27, 139 
nilssoni. Pupa, Wall., 27, 52 
niobe, Gastrocopta, Fult., 24, 153; 

27, 209 
niobe, Pupa, Fult., 24, 154 
nitons, Lauria, Bttg., 27, 82 
nitens, Vertigo, Pse., 24, 146, 151 
nitida, Granopupa, Kstr., 24, 343 
nitida, Pupa, Kstr., 24, 343 
nitida, Pupa, Mss., 27, 30 
nitida, Vertigo, Fer.. 27. 237 
nitidula, Pupa, Mss., 25, 106 
nitidulns, Bulimus, Pfr., 26, 113 
nitidulns, Pupoides, Pfr.. 26, 113; 

27. 250 
nnbilior, Pupa, Ad., 15, 141 
nobrei, Costigo, Gir., 25, 368 



nobrei, Pupa, Gir., 25, 369 
nodosaria, Gastrocopta, Orb., 24, 

nodosaria, Helix, Orb., 24, 94 
nodosaria, Truncatellina, Stef., 27, 

nodosaria, Vertigo, Stef., 26, 75; 

27, 229 
noerdlingensis, Abida, Kl.. 24, 270 
noerdlingensis, Pupa, Kl., 24, 270 
noerdlingenensis, Torquilla, Bttg., 

24, 270 
noltei, Microstele, Bttg., 26, 150; 

27, 253 
noltei, Pupa, Bttg., 26, 150 
norfolkensis, Nesopupa, Sykes, 25, 

333; 27, 227 
norfolkensis, Vertigo, Sykes, 25, 

normalis, Pupa, Bk., 14, 227 
normalis, Pupa, Stab., 27, 137 
nouletiana, Gastrocopta, Dup., 24, 

116; 27, 211 
nouletiana, Pupa, Dup., 24, 116 
nouleti, Vertigo, Mich., 24, 116; 

27, 220 
nova, Pupa, Loc, 24, 298 
novemplicata, Pupa, Moq., 24, 288 
novemplicata, Pupa, West., 24, 308 
novemplicata, Vertigo, Loc, 25, 

novenarius, Fauxulus, Pils., 24, 250 
novigentiensis, Pupa, Sdbg, 27, 231 
novoseelandica, Phenaeharopa, Pfr., 

27, 261 
novoseelandica, Pupa, Pfr., 27,261 
nucifraga, Pupa, ~P&rT.=Chondrula 
nucleata, Helix, Turt., 27. 192 
numellata, Vertigo, Gul., 25, 91 
numidica, Lauria, Bgt., 27, 86 
numidica, Vertigo, Bgt., 27, 86 
nylanderi, Vertigo, St., 25, 100 

oahuensis, Nesopupa, C. & P., 25, 

obesa, Pupa, Blanck., 27, 30 
obesa, Pupa, Branc, 27, 7 
obesa, Pupa, Bgt., 27, 291 
obesa, Pupa, Bs. —Gonospira 
obesa, Pupa, Moq., 25, 46 
obesa, Pupa, Nev., 27, 143, 145 
obesa, Pupa, Parr— CfcoftdntZa 
obliqua, Pupa, Nev., 24, 324 
obliqua, Pupa, West., 27, 172 
obliquicostulatus, Negulus, Sm., 26, 


obliquicostulata, Pupa, Sm., 26, 

obliterata, Ohondrina, Kstr., 25, 52 
obliterata, Pupa, Kstr., 25, 52; 27, 

oblonga, Gastrocopta, Pfr., 24, 90 
oblonga, Leucochiloides, Bttg., 26, 

oblonga, Microstele, Bttg., 26, 149 
oblonga, Pupa, Parr., 25, 68 
oblonga, Pupa, Pfr., 24, 91 
oblongata, Pupa, Em., 24, 302 
obovata, Pupa, Vir.—Gulella, 1, 98 
obscura, Pupa, Mhlf., 25, 24, 26 
obscura, Pupa, Mss., 26, 67 
obscura, Truncatellina, Mss., 26, 

67; 27, 320 
obstructa, Gastrocopta, Brn., 24, 

obstructa, Pupa, Brn., 24, 117 
obstructa, Pupa, Gass., 24, 154 
obtorta, Pupa, Mke., 15, 220 
obtusa, Pupa, Ckll., 26, 160 
obtusa, Pupa, Drip.=Cylindrus 
occidentalis, Abida, West., 24, 291 
oceidentalis, Pupa, Bgt., 24, 278 
occidentalis, Pupa, Fag., 27, 278 
occidentalis, Pupa, West., 24, 291 
occidentalis, Vertigo, St., 25, 134 
occulta, Granopupa, Em., 24, 353 
occulta, Pupa, Em., 24, 353 
ocsensis, Pupa, Hal., 25, 212 
ocskayi, Helix, Stentz., 27, 183 
octodentata, Vertigo, Stud., 25, 164 
octodentata, Vertigo, West., 25, 

octonaria, Gastrocopta, Pils., 27, 

Odontocyclas, Schlueter, 24, 233, 

odontostoma, Pupa, West., 26, 78 
odontostoma, Truncatellina, West., 

26, 78 
Odontostomia, Flem., 27, 261 
ofella, Pupa, ~Bs.=Gulella 
offtonensis, Turbo, Shep., 27, 237 
ogasawarana, Gastrocopta, Pils., 

24, 106 

obioensis, Anthracopupa, Whitf., 

27, 316 
okinoerabuensis, Vertigo, P. & H., 

25, 155 

olaaensis, Columella, Pils., 27, 248 
■oldroyda?', Bifidaria, Van., 26, 55 
oldroyda?, Sterkia, Van., 26, 55 
olearum, Pupa, Loc, 24, 315, 316 
oleosa, Pupa, Nev., 27, 263 



oligobasodon, Bifidaria, P. & F., 

24, 46 
oligobasodon, Gastrocopta, P. & P., 

24, 46 
oligodonta, Chondrina, Del Pr., 25, 

oligodonta, Pupa, Del Pr., 25, 19 
olivetoram, Pupa, Loc, 25, 60 
omicronaria, Pupa, M. & P., 26, 

208, 212 
onixiodon, Vertigo, Bgt., 25, 219 
oparea, Pupa, Loc, 24, 296 
opisthodon, Pupa, Pveinh., 26, 81 
opisthodon, Truneatellina, Beinh., 

26, 81 
oppoliensis, Agardhia, Andr., 27, 

oppoliensis, Coryna, Andr., 27, 132 
oralis, Vertigo, St., 25, 78 
orcella, Pupa, Stol., 26, 29 
orcella, Pupisoma, Stol., 26, 29 
Orcula, Held., 27, 1, 256 
orcula, Helix, Bs., 26, 31 
orcula, Pupisoma, Bs., 26, 31; 27, 

ordunensis, Chondrina, Pils., 25, 

39; 27, 306 
orientalis, Orcula, Parr., Pfr., 27, 

orientalis, Pupa, Parr., Pfr., 27, 

ortigosana, Pupa, Fag., 25, 37 
ortonensis, Pupa, Greg., 26, 76 
orycta, Pronesopupa, C. & P., 26, 

oryza, Abida, Edw., 24, 269; 27, 

oryza, Pupa, Edw., 24, 269 
oryzana, Pupa, Loc, 24, 310 
oscariana, Vertigo, St., 25, 144 
otostoma, Pupa, West., 25, 209 
otostoma, Vertigo, West., 25, 209 
nvalis, Vertigo, St., 25, 79 
ovampoeneis, Pnpa, M. & P., 24, 

125, 126 
ovata. Vertigo, Say, 25, 82, 372 
ovatula, Gastrocopta, Mlldff., 24, 

ovatula, Leucochilus, Mlldff., 24, 

ovatula, Lyropupa, C. & P., 25, 

ovatula, Pupa, Sdbg, 25, 217 
ovatula, Vertigo, Sdbg., 25, 217 
oviedoiana. Pupa, Orb., 15, 197 
oviformis, Orcula, Mich., 27, 3 
oviformis, Pupa, Mich., 27, 3 

oviformis, Pupa, Schlosser, 25, 

220; 26, 232; 27, 212 
ovoidea, Pupa, West., 25, 195 
ovoidea, Vertigo, West., 25, 195 
ovularis, Pupa, Moq., 24, 323 
ovulina, Pupa, Loc, 24, 322, 323 
ovulum, Pupa, Pfr., 25, 86 
ovulum, Vertigo, St., 25, 79 
ovumformica:, Pupa, Wnld., 24, 82 
ovularis, Pupa, Kstr., 24, 238 
oyonnaxia, Pupa, Loc, 24, 310 

pachygaster, Pupa, Moq., 24, 323 
pachygaster, Pupa, Moq., 25, 61 
pachygaster, Vertigo, Jens., 25, 182 
pachygastra, Pupa, Fraas., 24, 

270; 27, 212 
pachygastra, Pupa, Mke., 27, 262 
pachygastra, Pupa, Em., 24, 297, 

pachygastris, Pupa, Zgl., 24, 302 
pacifica, Pupa, Pfr., 26, 142 
pacificus, Pupoides, Pfr., 26, 141 
padana, Vertigo, Poll., 25, 165 
Pagodula, Hesse., 27, 166 
pagodula, Pagodulina, Desm., 27, 

pagodula, Pupa, Desm., 27. 170 
Pagodina, Stabile., 27, 166 
Pagodulina, Clessin., 27, 166 
Pagodulininffi, 27, 166 
paitensis, Cylindrovertilla, Crse., 

26, 48 

paitensis, Pupa, Crse., 26, 48 
paivse, Nesopupa, Crse., 25, 328 
paiva?, Pupa, Crse., 25, 329 
palaea, Pupa, Bgt., 26, 225 
paleea, Pupilla, Bgt., 26, 225 
Palueostoa, 16, 11; 27, 266 
palangula, Pupa, Boissy, 26, 106 
palangula, Pupa, Mrlt., 1. 87 
palatalis, Orcula, Pils., 27, 33 
pallida, Chondrina, Em., 25, 63 
pallida, Pupa anglica var., Jeffr., 

27, 84, 85 

pallida, Pupa, Em., 25, 63 
pallida, Vertigo, Jeffr., 25, 176 
palmira, Gastrocopta, Stol., 24, 139 
palmira, Pupa, Stol., 24, 140 
Paludellina, Tryon, 27, 232 
paludina?formis, Acanthinula, 

Sdbg., 27, 190 
paludimx'formis, Helix, Sdbg., 27, 

Paludinella, Lowe., 27, 232 
palustris, Alaea, Jeffr., 25, 164 



pamphorodon, Fauxulus, Bs., 24, 

pamphorodon, Pupa, Bs., 24, 241 
Paraboysidia, Pils., 24, 174, 201 
Paracoryna, Flach., 27, 132, 320 
Paracratieula, Opp., 25, 221; 27, 

paradoxa, Vertigo, St., 25, 99 
parcedentata, Pupa, Bra., 25, 207 
parcedentata, Vertigo, Brn., 25, 

207; 27, 216 
paredesii, Helix, Orb., 26, 120 
paredesii, Pupoides, Orb., 26, 120 
parietalis, Pupa, Anc, 25, 129 
parietalis, Vertigo, Anc, 25, 128 
paronse Acanthinula, Sacco., 27, 

paronse, Helix, Sacco., 27, 190 
par, Pupa, West., 27, 9 
parraiana, Pupa, Orb., 26, 113, 114 
parrajena, Pupa, Orb., 25, 68 
parreyssii, Agardhia, Pfr., 27, 160 
parreyssii, Pupa, Pfr., 27, 160 
partioti, Abida, Moq., 24, 276; 27, 

partioti, Pupa, Moq., 24, 276 
parva, Pupa, Stab., 27, 137 
parva, Torquilla, Stab., 24, 303; 

27, 213 
parvidens, Bifidaria, St., 24, 81 
parvidens, Gastrocopta, St., 24, 80 
parvula, Pupa, Dh., 25, 218 
parvula, Pupilla, Dh., 27, 255 
parvula, Pupa, Mss., 26, 192, 194 
parvula, Vertigo, St., 25, 105 
passamaiana. Pupa, Pet.z=Passa- 

patagonica, Pupa, Orb., 14, 96 
patula, Pupa, Mke., 25, 63 
paucidens, Pupa, West., 25, 12 
paulinse, Bauria, Lindh., 27, 75 
paulinoi, Lauria, Loc, 27, 85 
paulinoi, Pupilla, Loc., 27, 86 
pauperrima, Helix, B. & D., 24, 226 
pauperrima, Systenostoma, B. & D., 

24. 225 
paviei, Boysidia, B. & D., 24, 203 
paxillus, Pupa, Grdl. = Diplom- 

pazi, Gastrocopta, Hid., 24, 102 
pazi, Pupa, Crse., Anc, 25, 325 
pazi, Pupa, Hid., 24. 102 
pearlensis, Pupa, Pilsbry, Acteoni- 

d(B (Tectibranehia). 
pectinosa, Pupa, Greg. — Disjunc- 


pediculus, Gastrocopta, Sh., 24, 

145, 158 
pediculus, Pupa, Sh., 24, 146 
pellueida, Gastrocopta, Pfr., 24, 75 
pelludiea, Pupa, Pfr., 24, 75 
penchinatiana, Pupa, Bgt., 25, 53 ; 

27, 291, 297 
peninsularis, Gastrocopta, 24, 24 
pentheri, Pupa, Stur., 26, 98 
pentodon, Gastrocopta, Say, 24, 28 
pentodon, Vertigo, Say, 24, 28 
peponum, Pupa, Gld., 23, 156 
peracanthoda, Acanthinula, Bgt., 

27, 194 
peraperta, Vertigo, Pils., 25, 219; 

27, 221 
perarmata, Vertigo, G. & W., 27, 

percostata, Lyropupa, P. & C, 25, 

perdentata, Pupa, Edw.=PaZfi?os- 

perdubia, Pupa, Woll., 27, 53 
perexilis, Campolsemus, Sm., 25, 

perexilis, Toruigerus, Sm., 25. 365 
pereximia, Pupa, M. & P., 24, 247 
pereximius, Fauxulus, M. & P., 24, 

perlabiata, Pupilla, G. & W., 26, 

perlonga, Lyropupa, Pse., 25, 258 
perlonga, Pupa, Bof., 24, 285 
perlonga, Pupa, Fag., 27, 279 
perlonga, Vertigo, Pse., 25, 259 
perplexa, Pupa, Bnp., 26, 92 
perplexa, Truncatellina, Bnp., 26, 

perplicata, Pupa, Sterki., 27, 175, 

176, 260 
perpusilla, Acanthinula, Mlldff., 27, 

perryi, Vertigo, St., 25, 103 
personata, Vertigo, Moq., 25, 179, 

perversa, Bifidaria, St., 24, 41 
perversa, Gastrocopta, St., 24, 40, 

petitiana, Pupa, Orb., 16, 166 
Petrarca, Pils., 27, 121, 122 
petrophila, Abida. Fag., 24. 291 
petrophila, Pupa, Fag., 24, 292 
pfeifferi, Pupa, Bttg., 24, 96, 98 
pfeifferi, Pupa, Krs., 1, 101 
pfeifferi, Pupa, Moq., 27, 9 
Phenacharopa, Pils., 27, 260 



philippii, Granopupa, Cantr., 24, 

philippii, Pupa, Cantr., 24, 342 
philippinicimi, Pupisoma, Mlldff., 

26, 33 

phrygica, Pupa, Opp., 27, 265 
phthisica, Pupa, Bof., 24. 2S5; 27, 

279, 280 
phymata, Pupa, West., 24, 312 ; 2 7, 

Pilorcula, G-erm., 27, 37 
pilsbryana, Gastrocopta, St., 24, 36 
pilsbryana, Pupa, St., 24, 37 
pilsbrvi, Pupoides, DalL, 26, 109 ; 

27, 248 

pineticola, Pupa, West., 25, 194 
pineticola. Vertigo, West.. 25, 194 
pineta, Helix, Fer., 24, 322 
pinguis, Pupa, Humph., 14, 281 
piniana, Pupa, Fag., 24, 312 
pirriei, Pupa, Pfr., 1, 103 
pitcairnensis, Alsea, Bk., 25, 324 
pithodes, Pupilla, P. & F., 26, 160, 

placida, Pupa, Say, 26, 113 
plagionixa, Pupa, Loc, 25, 60 
plagioptyx, Lvropupa, P. & C., 25, 

plagiostoma, Orcula, Sdbg., 27, 11 
plagiostoma, Pupa, Sdbg., 27, 11 
plagiostoma, Pupa, Loc, 24, 322, 

plagiostoma. Pupa, Nev., 27, 143, 

plateaui, Orcula, Cossm., 27, 3 
plateaui, Pupa, Cossm., 27, 3 
pleimesi, Gastrocopta, Jick., 24, 

pleimesi. Pupa, Jiek., 24, 119 
pleurophora, Nesopupa, Sh., 25, 

pleurophora, Pupa, Sh., 25, 326 
plicata, Vertigo, Mull., 25, 212 
plicatella, Helix, E«uss., 27. 186 
plicatella, Spermodea, Eeuss., 27, 

plicatula, Pupa, Ad., 25, 19 
plieidens, Boysidia, Bs., 24% 198 
plieidens, Pupa, Bs., 24, 199 
plieifera, Nesopupa, Ane., 25, 280 
pliopedemontana, Orcula, Sacco., 

27. 4 
pluris, Lvropupa. P. & C, 25. 240 
plusiodonta, Pupa, Holm., 25. 67 
podolica, Pupa, Lomn., 26, 237 
podoliea, Truneatellina, Lomn., 26, 


poeyana, Pupa, Orb., 15, 176 
polita, Abida, Eisso, 24. 326 
polita, Clausilia, Eisso, 24, 327 
polita, Pupa, West., 24, 305 
pollonera?, Agardhia, Flch., 27,150 
pollonerse, Coryna, Flch., 27, 151 
pollonerae, Pupa, Pini., 27, 14 
poltavica, Pupilla, Bttg., 26, 197 
polvonensis, Columella, Pils., 27, 

polvonensis. Pupa, Pils., 27, 246 
polyodon, Abida, Drap., 24, 270; 

27, 269 
polyodon, Hypselostoma, Mlldff., 

24, 185 
polyodon, Pupa, Drp., 24, 271 
polyodon, Pupa, Moq., 24, 283; 

259, 261 
polyplicata, Torquilla, Muhl., 24, 

polyptyx, Gastrocopta, Pils., 24. ^9 
ponapica, Nesopupa, Mlldff., 25, 

ponapica, Vertigo, Mlldff., 25, 336 
ponsonbyana, Pupa, Mrl., 24, 253 
ponsonbyanus, Fauxulus, Mrl., 24, 

pontica, Lauria. Bet., 27, 82 
pontica, Pupa, Eet., 27, 83 
pontifica, Pupa, Gld., 16, 158 
pontileviensis, Vertigo, Morg., 26, 

porcellata, Pupa, West., 25, 61 
porrecta, Aulacospira, Mlldff., 24, 

porrecta, Pupa, Gld., 15, 272 
potteburgensis, Pupa, Kr., 24, 238, 

poulseni, Pupa, West., 24. 340 
poupillieri, Lauria, Bgt., 27. 51 
poupillieri, Pupa. Bgt., 27, 51 
pra?ambula, Agardhia, Flch., 27, 

prreambula. Pupa, Flch., 27, 132 
praeclara. Pupa, Nev., 27, 143, 14 6 
pra?excessiva, Coryna, Flch., 27. 

praehistorica, Pupa, Nev., 25, 62 
praslinensis. Vertigo, Nev.. 25, 355 
pratensis, Pupa. CI., 26, 178 
presbytorn. Vertigo, Bgt.. 25. 218 
pretoriensis, Pupa, M. & P.. 26, 93 
pretoriensis, Truncatellina, M. & P„ 

26, 92 
primaeva, Pupa. Math.. 27. 318 
Primipupilla, Pils., 26. 153; 27, 




primitiva, Pupa, Mke. — Mastus 
primula, Pupa, West., 24, 301 
prisca, Lyropupa, Anc, 25, 243 
priscilla, Lauria, Pal., 27, 44 
prisciUa, Vertigo, Pal., 25, 220, 

379; 27, 44 
Privatula, St., 24, 11, 52 
procera, Gastroeopta, Gld., 24, 62 
procera, Leucochila, Wenz., 26, 231 
procera, Pupa, Gld., 24, 63 
proexcessiva, Agardhia, Sacco., 27, 

proexcessiva, Pupa, Sacco., 27, 132 
producta, Pupa, West., 25, 211, 212 
profuga, Pupa, West., 24, 337 
prolongata, Pupa, Baud., 27, 255 
prolongata, Pupa, Parr., 25, 68 
prolongata, Pupilla, Baud., 27, 255 
Pronesopupa, Iredale, 26, 1 
proscripta, Jaminia, Sm., 25, 344 
proscripta, Nesopupa, Sm., 25, 344 
protracta, Pupa, Sdbg., 25, 217 
protracta, Vertigo, Sdbg., 25, 217 
proteus, Pupa, Gdl., 14, 206 
prototypus, Bifidaria, Pils., 24, 48 
prototypus, Gastroeopta, Pils., 24, 

provida, Pupa, West., 24, 287; 27, 

proxima, Pupa, Em., 25, 68 
psarolena, Chondrina, Bgt., 25, 65 
psarolenus, Bulimus, Bgt., 25, 65 
pseudantivertigo, Vertigo, Pal., 25, 

Pseudelix, Bttg., 25, 222 
pseudodolium, Orcula, Wagn., 27, 

pseudoennea, Agardhia, Flch., 27, 

pseudoennea, Pupa, rich., 27, 132 
pseudogularis, Orcula, Wagn., 27, 

Pseudostreptaxis, Mlldff., 24, 224 
psichion, Pupa, M. & P., 26, 100 
Ptychala?a, Bttg., 25, 157, 220, 273 ; 

27, 225 
Ptychochilus, Bttg., 25, 274 
Ptychopatula, Pils., 26, 19, 22 
Ptychospira, Slav., 27, 264 
puella, Abida, Pils., 24, 328 
pulchella, Chondrina, Bof., 25, 54; 

27, 298 
pulchella, Pupa, Bof., 25, 55; 27, 

pulchella. Pupa, Moq., 24, 279 
pulchra, Lauria, Bet., 27, 81 
pulehra, Pupa, Eet., 27, 81 

pulverea, Helix, B. & D., 24, 225 
pulverea, Systenostoma, B. & D., 

24, 225 

pulvisculum, Helix, Iss., 26, 30 
pulvisculum, Pupisoma, Iss., 26, 30 
pumilio, Lauria, Woll., 27, 113 
pumilio, Pupa, Woll., 27, 112 
pumilio, Pupa, Gld., 1, 90 
punctilium, Pupa, Iss., 25, 340 
punctilucens, Pupa, Iss., 25, 340 
punctulum, Pupa, Bttg., 25, 195, 

punctum, Helix, Mrlt., 26, 39 
punctum, Pupa, Bttg., 25, 195 
punica, Granopupa, L. & B., 24, 

punica, Pupa, L. & B., 24, 349 
Pupa, Draparnaud, 24, 262, 267; 

25, 370 

Pupa, Lamarck, 24, 267 
pupseformis, Vertigo, Poll., 27, 219 
Puparia, Raf., 24, 268 
Pupella, Swains., 25, 371 
Pupilla, Leach., 26, 152; 27, 253 
Pupillinae, Pils., 26, 106 
Pupina, Ehrenb., 27, 261 
Pupisoma, Stol., 26, 19; 27, 228 
Pupoides, Pfr., 26, 108; 27, 248 
Pupoidopsis, Pils. & Cke., 26, 106 
Puppa, Montf., 27, 261 
pupula, Helix, Bra., 25, 223 
Pupula, Moerch, 27, 1 
pupula, Pupa, Dh., 26, 214 
pupula, Pupilla, Dh., 26, 214 
pupula, Vertigo, Held., 26, 74 
purpurea, Pupa, Gray, 15, 138 
pusilla, Pupa, Biv., 25, 16'6 
pusilla, Pupa, Des M., 25, 29, 30 
pusilla. Vertigo, Miill., 25, 161 
pusillima, Pupa, Zgl., 26, 74 
pusillum, Hypselostoma, Mlldff., 

24, 186 

putillus, Bulimus, Sh., 26, 136, 137 
puukolekolensis, Lyropupa, P. & C, 

25, 258 

pygm&a, Pupa, Drap., 25, 175 
pygmsea, Vertigo, Dr., 25, 96, 174; 

27, 218 
pyramidula, Lauria, P. & S., 27, 60 
pyramidula, Pupa, P. & S., 27, 59 
pyrenasaria, Abida, Mich., 24, 287; 

27, 276 
pyrena?aria, Pupa, Mich., 24, 288 
pyrenaica. Pupa, Boub., 24, 278; 

25, 371; 27, 273 
pyrenaica, Pupa, Far., 25, 31 
pyrenaica, Pupa, Germ., 24, 288 



pyrenaica, Pupilla, West., 26, 190 
Pyrene, Megerle, 27, 212 
pythiella, Lauria, Mss., 27, 119 
pythiella, Pupa, Mss., 27, 120 

queenslandica, Gastrocopta, Pils., 

24, 159 
quadrasi, Hypselostoma, Mlldff., 

24, 185, 360 
quadrasi, Nesopupa, Mlldff., 25, 

quadrasi, Vertigo, Mlldff., 25, 335 
quadridentata, Bifidaria, St., 24, 

quadridentata, Gastrocopta, Kl., 

24, 115 
quadridentata, Pupa, Kl., 24, 115 
quadridentata, Vertigo, Moq., 25, 

quadridens, Gastrocopta, Pils., 24, 

quadridens, Pupa, Sdbg., 25, 198, 

quadridens, Pupa, West., 25, 176 
quadridens, Vertigo, Sundl., 27, 

quadrifilaris, Pupa, Kosen, 27, 40, 

quadrigranata, Pupa, Brn., 26, 223 
quadrigranata, Pupilla, Brn., 26, 

quadriplicata, Gastrocopta, Brn., 

24, 114 
quadriplicata, Pupa, Brn., 24, 114; 

26, 231 
quadriplicata, Pupa, Loc, 27, 8 
quantula, Pupa, M. & P., 26, 95 
quantula, Truncatellina, M. & P., 

26, 95 

quntuordentata, Vertigo, Sacco, 

24, 115 
quinquedentata, Pupa, Born., Pfr., 

25, 58 

quinquedentata, Pupa, M iiM — 

quinquedentata, Vertigo, Joos., 25, 

quinquedentata, Vertigo, Stud., 25, 

quinquedentata. Vertigo, Sundl., 

27. 218 
quinquedentatus, Turbo, Born., 25, 

quinquelamellata, Jaminia, Eisso., 

25, 58 
quinqueplicata, Pupa, Ant., 25, 24 

quinqueplicata, Pupa, P. & M., 25, 


raffrayi, Pupilla, Bgt., 26, 208 
ragia, Vertigo, Bgt., 25, 219 
ragius, Bulimus, Jouss., 26, 130 
ragius, Pupoides, Jouss., 26, 130 
rahti, Pupa, Brn., 26, 224 
rahti, Pupilla, Brn., 26, 224 
ramesi, Pupa, T$oulet.z=Billya 
ramsayi, Pupa, Cox, 26, 141 
raricosta, Negulus, Slav., 26, 105; 

27, 232 
raricosta, Pupa, Slav., 26, 105 
raricostata, Negulus, Wenz., 27, 

raymondi, Orcula, Bgt., 27, 39 
raymondi, Pupa, Bgt., 27, 39 
reboudi, Bulimus, Bgt., 26, 132 
recondita, Gastrocopta, T.-C, 24, 

153; 27, 209 
recondita, Pupa, T.-C, 24, 153 
recta, Lauria, Lwe., 27, 104 
recta, Pupa, Lwe., 27, 104 
reevei, Pupa, Dh., 14, 48 
refuga, Granopupa, West., 24, 355 
refuga, Pupa, West., 24, 356 
regia, Pupa, Bens., 14, 236 
regularis, Pupa, West., 25, 189 
regularis, Vertigo, West., 25, 188 
re'ibischi, Pupilla, Dall., 24, 357 
Keinhardtia, Bttg., 27, 43 
reinhardti, Negulus, .Tick., 26, 102 
reinhardti, Pupa, .Tick., 26, 102 
relevata, Lauria, Woll., 27, 110 
relevata, Pupa, Woll., 27, 110 
remiensis, Pupa, Boissy = Cary- 

chiopsis, 25, 223 
reneana, Vertigo, Serv., 25, 167; 

27, 217 
reperta, Agardhia, Wenz., 27, 133 
ressmanni. Pupa, Ressm., 27, 152 
resticula, Lauria, Woll., 27, 109 
resticula, Pupa, Woll., 27, 109 
restituta, Pupa, West., 27, 14 
retracta, Abida, West., 24, 290 
retracta, Pupa, West., 24, 290 
retusa, Agardhia, Sdbg., 2 7, 133 
retusa, Pupa, Brn., 27, 133 
retusa. Pupa, Sdbg., 27, 133 
revoluta, Ainu, Jeffr.. 27. 237 
rhabdota, Lyropupa, O. & P., 25, 

rhadina, Nesopupa, C. & P., 25, 301 
rhoadsi. Bifidaria. Pils., 26, 53 

dsi, Sterkia, Pils., 26, 52 



rhodanica, Pupa, Loc, 24, 298 
rhoclesiana, Nesopupa, Pils., 25, 

rhodia, Granopupa, Rth., 24, 344 
rhodia, Pupa, Rth., 24, 344 
rhombostoma, Aulaeospira, Mlldff:., 

24, 223 
rhychostoma, Vertigo, Bgt., 25, 219 
Rhytidochasma, Wara., 27, 129 
richthofeni, Pupa, Hilb., 26, 198 
richthofeni, Pupilla, Hilb., 26, 198 
ridibunda, Pupa, M. & P., 24, 125, 

126, 359 
riisei, Gastroeopta, Pfr., 24, 74 
riisei, Pupa, Pfr., 24, 74 
rillyensis, Pupa, ~Boissy=Ilillya 
ringens, Abida, Mich., 24, 278; 27, 

ringens, Pupa, Jay., 14, 64 
ringens, Pupa, Jeffr., 27, 84 
ringens, Pupa, Mich., 24, 278 
ringens, Pupa, Sovfb.=Chondrula 

ringicula, Abida, Kstr., 27, 269 
ringicula, Pupa, Kstr., 24, 272 
riograndensis, Gastroeopta, St., 24, 

riparia, Gastroeopta, Pils., 24, 65 
riviana, Chondrina, Schr., 25, 18 
riviana, Modicella, Schr., 25, 18 
rivierana, Pupa, Bs., 26, 72 
rivierana, Truncatellina, Bs., 26, 

71; 27, 229 
rixfordi, Gastroeopta, Hanna., 27, 

roberti, Vertigo, Morg., 26, 235 
robusta, Boysidia, B. & D., 24, 201 
robusta, Orcula, Naeg., 27, 31 
robusta, Pupa, Naeg., 27, 31 
roehebruni, Anauchen, Mab., 24, 

roehebruni, Hypselostoma, Mab., 

24, 190 
rodriguezensis, Nesopupa, 28 
roebeleni, Hypselostoma, Mlldff., 

24, 186 
romanica, Agardhia, Kim., 27, 155 
romanica, Pupa, Kim., 27, 155 
ronnybyensis, Pupa, West., 25, 192 
ronnvbvensis, Vertigo, West., 25, 

rosea, Pupa, Ad., 15, 117 
rossiteri, Gastroeopta, Pils., 24, 

rossiteri, Pupa, Braz., 24, 147, 159 
rossmaessleri, Odontocyclas, Sehm., 

24, 257 

rossmaessleri, Pupa, Schm., 24, 257 
rossmaessleri, Pupa, Fag., 24, 280; 

27, 273 
rothi, Pupa, Reinh., 26, 70 
rothi, Truncatellina, Reinh., 26, 70 
rowelli, Pupa, Nc., 25, 144 
rowelli, Vertigo, Nc., 25, 143, 378 
rubella, Pupa, Ad., 15, 139 
rubella, Vertigo, L-oc, 25, 176 
rubicunda, Pupa, Mke., 14, 274 
rubra, Pupa, Humph., 14, 281 
rudis, Pupa, Pfr., 14, 194 
rufilabris, Lauria, Jacks., 27, 319 
rufula, Pupa, Moq., 25, 8, 27 
rugosula, Vertigo, St., 25, 77 
rugulosa, Lauria, Mrlt., 27, 126 
rugulosa, Pupa, Mrlt., 27, 126 
ruidosensis, Bifidaria, Ckll., 24, 19 
ruidosensis, Gastroeopta, Ckll., 24, 

rumelica, Agardhia, Hesse, 27,157 
Rupestrella, Monts., 24, 332, 341 
rupestris, Granopupa, Phil., 24, 351 
rupestris, Pupa, Anton, 27, 55 
rupestris, Pupa, Lwe., 27, 100 
rupestris, Pupa, Em., 24, 350 
rupestris, Pupa, Stud., De Greg.= 

rupicola, Gastroeopta, Say, 24, 58 
rupicola, Pupa, Say, 24, 59 
rustica, Pupa, Loc, 24, 298 
rusticula. Pupa, Loc, 24, 315, 316 
rutuba, Pupa, Caz., 27, 320 

sabaudina, Pupa, Bgt., 24, 322, 325 
sabaudina, PupiUa, Loc, 27, 50 
saeva, Pupa, West., 24, 284; 27, 

sagraiana, Pupa, Pfr., 14, 214 
saint-simonis, Orcula, Gourd., 27, 

ealemensis, Ennea, Blf., 25, 347 
salemensis, Nesopupa, Blf., 25, 347 
saliniensis, PupiUa, Loc, 26, 181 
salonensis, Pupa, Jick., 26, 87 
saltus, Pupa, Fag., 25. 51; 27, 308 
salurnensis, Pupa, Reinh., 26, 81 
salurnensis, Truncatellina, Reinh. 

26, 80 
salwineana, Pupa, G.-A., 24, 207 
salwiniana, Boysidia, Theob., 24, 

salwiniana, Pupa, Theob., 24, 207 
samavaensis, Bulimus. Pal.. 26, 127 
snmavaensis, Pupoides, Pal., 26, 




samoensis, Vertigo, Mss., 24. 146, 

samoensis, Pupa, Schm., 24, 146 
sana, Gastrocopta, Pils., 24, 357 
sanbernardinensis, Vertigo, Pils., 

25, 111 
Sandahlia, West., 24, 233, 258 
sandbergeri, Vertigo, Wenz., 27, 

sanremoensis, Pagodulina, Pils., 

27, 174 
sansaniea, Vertigo, Bgt., 25, 219 
saparuana, Costigo, Bttg., 25, 366 
saparuana, Vertigo, Bttg., 25, 367 
sardoa, Pupa, Cantr., 24, 339 
sarena, Pupa, Grdl., 25, 175, 177 
sarratina, Pupa, Moq., 24, 308 
saulcyi, Pupa, Bgt., 24, 336, 338 
savii, Pupa, Clip., 24, 342 
sawii, Pupa, Mss., 24, 342 
saxetana, Pupilla, Piag., 26, 183 
saxicola, Pupa, Ckll., 26, 118 
saxicola, Pupa, Lwe., 25, 225 
saxicola, Pupa, Moq., 24, 292; 27, 

saxicola, Staurodon, Lowe, 25, 224 
scabra, Lyropupa, P. & C, 25, 254 
sealariformis, Pupa, Rm., 25, 68 
scalarina, Pupa, Pfr., 14, 224 
sealarina, Pupa, Sowb., 24, 354 
scalarisca, Pupa, Paet., 24, 354 
Bcalaris, Granopupa, Ben., 24, 353 
scalaria, Pupa, Ben., 24, 354 
scalatella, Aulacospira, Mlldff., 24, 

scapula, Pupilla, Sdbg., 27, 255 

l»ella, Lowe, 27, 88 
scarburgensis, Helix, Turt., 27,187 
scharffi, Pupa, Bttg., 26, 237 
seharffi, Truncatellina, Bttg., 26, 

schilleri, Pupa, Tick., 26, 87 
schilleri, Truncatellina, Jick., 26, 

schista, Chondrina, West., 25, 36 
schista, Pupa, West., 25, 37 
schlosseri, Abida, Cossm., 27, 212 
schlosseri, Pupa, Cossm., 25, 220; 

27, 212 
schlosseri, Torquilla, Wenz., 26, 

schmidtii, Orcula, Kstr., 27, 16 
schmidtii, Pupa, Kstr., 27, 16' 
Bchrankii, Pupa, Rth., 26, 82 
Bchubleri, Pupa, Kl.. 24, 270 
schultzii, Pupa, Ph.. 25, 202 
sehultzii. Vertigo, Ph., 25, 202 

schwageri, Pupa, Rss., 25, 223 
schweinfurthi, Pupa, M.-Ey., 27, 

Scopelophila, Alb., 24, 254 
seotti, Pupa, Braz., 26, 222 
sculpta, Pupa, Poey., 14, 222 
Scyphus, Caz., & Marg., 27, 1 
scyphus, Orcula, Pfr., 27, 31 
scyphus, Pupa, Pfr., 27, 32 
secale, Abida, Drap., 24, 306; 27» 

secale, Pupa, Drp., 24, 307 
secalina, Pupa, Loc, 24, 307 
seductilis, Pupa, ~Rm.=Chondrula 
seignaciana, Gastrocopta, Crse., 24, 

seignaciana, Pupa, Crse., 24, 129 
selebensis, Nesopupa, T.-C, 25, 343 
selebensis, Pupa, T.-C, 25, 344 
selecta, Pupa, Thorn., 26, 223 
semidens, Pupa, West., 24, 290 
seminulum, Helix, Rm., 27, 187 
seminulum, Xesopupa, Bttg., 25, 

seminulum, Pupa, Bttg., 25, 314 
seminulum, Pupa, Lwe., 25, 225 
seminulum, Vertigo, West., 25, 164 
sempronii, Lauria, Chp., 27, 55 
sempronii, Pupa, Chp., 27, 55 
senegalensis, Gastrocopta, Malz., 

24. 121 
senegalensis, Pupa, Malz., 24, 121 
senegalensis, Pupa, Mrlt., 26, 136 
senegalensis, Pupoides, Mrlt., 26, 

senex, Pronesopupa, Ire., 26, 1 
sennaaricus, Leucochiloides, Pall., 

26, 131 
sennaariensis, Pupa, Pfr., 26, 131 
sennaariensis, Pupoides, Pfr., 26, 

septemdentata, Pupa, Hartm., 25, 

septemdentata, Jaminia, Risso, 25, 

septemdentata, Pupa, Uoth.=Chon- 

septemdentata, Vertigo, Fer., 27, 

septemplicata, Pupa, Rm., 14, 58 
serieata, Pronesopupa, C. & P., 26, 

serieina, Pupa. ~Pfr.—Gruhlla 
Sericipupa, C. & P., 26, 13 
seriola, Ennea, Bs., 26, 204 
seriola, Pupilla, P.s., 26, 204 
serrula, Gastrocopta, Bs., 24, 135 



serrula, Pupa, Bs., 24, 135 
servasensis, Abida, Font., 27, 212 
eervasensis, Pupa, Font., 27, 212 
servilis, Gastrocopta, Gld., 24, 70 
servilis, Pupa, Gld., 24, 71 
6exdentatus, Turbo, Mont., 25, 164 
sexplicata, Pupa, Bof., 25, 53; 27, 

292, 297 
sexplicata, Vertigo, Loc, 25, 176 
sextana, Pupa, Gredl., 25, 173, 174 
sharp i, Columella, P. & C, 27,247 
sharpi, Sphyradium, P. & C, 27, 

shrankii, Pupa, Roth, 26, 82 
shuttle-worthiana, Pupa, Pfr., 25, 

sibuyanicum, Hypselostoma, 

Mlldff., 24, 184 
sicula, Pupa, Greg., 25, 13 
sieversi, Pupa, Bttg., 25, 195 
sieversi, Vertigo, Bttg., 25, 195 
signata, Pupa, Mss., 26, 194 
signata, Pupilla, Mss., 26, 194 
siligo, Pupa, Rth., 24, 308 
eimii, Truncatellina, Stef., 27, 230 
similis, Bifidaria, St., 24, 16 
similis, Bulimus, Brug., 25, 58 
similis, Chondrina, Brug., 25, 57; 

27, 283 
similis, Gastrocopta, St., 24, 17 
similis, Pupa, Jick., 26, 88 
similis, Truncatellina, Jick., 26, 88 
similis, Vertigo, Fer., 25, 175 
simoni, Leucocbila, Jouss., 26, 115 ; 

27, 251 
simoni, Pupa, Bttg., 24, 319 
simoni, Pupoides, Jouss., 26, 114 
simplaria, Pronesopupa, Pse., 26, 2 
simplaria, Vertigo, Pse., 26, 2 
simplex, Columella, Gld., 27, 242 
simplex, Pupa, Gld., 27. 243 
simplex, Pupa, Sdbg., 27, 263 
simplex, Pupilla, Loc, 26, 175 
simulator, Lauria, Pils., 27, 101 
Sinalbinula, Pils., 24, 11, 103, 119, 

singularis, Nesopupa, C. & P., 25, 

singularis, Pupa, de Greg., 27, 221 
sinistralis, Pupoides, Pils., 26, 144 
sinistrorsa, Pupa, Anc, 25, 29 
sinistrorsa, Pupa, Crav., 26, 216 
sinistrorsum, Pupa, Baldw., 26, 

174, 178 
sinistrorsus, Bulimus, Tate, 26, 146 
sinuata, Pupa, Miehaud=rOospi- 

sinuata, Vertigo, Mss., 25, 166 
sinulifera, Lyropupa, P. & C, 25, 

sirianacoriensis, Orcula, Mss., 27, 

sirianacoriensis, Pupa, Mss., 27, 28 
skipetarica, Agardhia, Wagn., 27, 

socotrana, Pupa, G.-A. = Passa- 

Solatopupa, Pils., 24, 234; 25, 57 
solidula, Pupa, Bolt., 24, 267 
solidula, Pupa, Lam. — Acteonidc? 
solitaria, Gastrocopta, Sm., 24, 88 
solitaria, Pupa, Nev., 27, 263 
solitaria, Pupa, Sm., 24, 88 
soluta, Pupa, Pfr., 24, 244 
sonorana, Pupa, St., 26, 164 
sonorana, Pupilla, St., 26, 16'3 
sorghum, Pupa, Mrlt., 1, 91 
soror, Leucochiloides, Prest., 26, 

sowerbyana, Pupa, Orb., 14, 95 
spaldingi, Lyropupa, P. & C, 25, 

sparna, Lyropupa, C. & P., 25, 252 
sparsa, Pagodulina, Pils., 27, 171 
spelasa, Coryna, Kob., 27, 320 
spelaea, Pupa, — -V. inn. 
Spelaeodiscus, Brusina, 27, 180 
spelta, Chondrina, Bk., 25, 23 
spelta, Torquilla, Bk., 25, 24 
speluncae, Pupa, Loc, 25, 47; 27, 

^91, 297 
speluncarum, Pupa, Nev., 25, 62 
spermatia, Helix, Castro., 27, 188 
Spermodea, Westerl., 27, 186 
sphinctostoma, Helix, Lwe., 27,100 
sphinctostoma, Lauria, Lwe., 27, 99 
Sphyradium, Auct., 27, 232 
Sphyradium, Charp., 27, 1 
Sphyradium, Hartm., 27, 129 
spinellii, Pupa, Grdl., 27, 142 
spinigera, Pronesopupa, C. & P., 

26, 10 
spinifera, Acanthinula, Mss., 27, 

spinifera. Helix, Mss., 27, 193 
spinosa, Helix, Fer., 27, 19 
spinulosa, Helix, Light!, 27, 192 
spixii, Pupa, Orb., 14, 68 
splendens, Pupa, Mke., 16, 24 
splendidula, Pupa, Costa., 19, 220 
splendidula, Pupa, Sdbg., 26, 60 
splendidula, Truncatellina, Sdbg., 

26, 60 
spoliata, Orcula, Ess., 27, 14 



spoliata, Pupa, Ess., 27, 13 
spreta, Pupa, Noul., 27, 266 
spreta, Pupa, Zg\.z=Cltondrula 
squalina, Pupa, ~Rm.z=Amphiscopus 
stabilei, Abida, Mts., 24, 318 
stabili, Pupa, Mts., 24, 319 
stampinensis, Acanthinula, Dh., 27, 

stampinensis, Helix, Dh., 27, 191 
staszicii, Pupa, Loin., 26, 224 
staszieii, Pupilla, Lom., 26, 224 
Staurodon, Lowe, 25, 224 
steenbuehii, Pupa, Bk., 25, 136 
steerii, Pupa, Kstr., 26, 186 
steinheimensis, Pupa, Mill., 26, 224 
steinheimensis, Pupilla, Mill., 26, 

steinheimensis, Vertigo, G. & W., 

27, 220 
stenostoma, Coryna, Fleh., 27, 162 
sterkiana, Gastrocopta, Pils., 27, 

sterkiana, Pupa, Pils., 26, 156 
sterkiana, Pupilla, Pils., 26, 156 
Sterkia, Pils., 26, 49 
sterkii, Vertigo, Pils., 25, 112 
sterri, Pupa. Voith, 26, 186 
steudneri, Helix, Jick., 26, 35 
steudneri, Pupisoma, Jick., 26, 35 
strangei, Gastrocopta, Pfr., 24, 157 
6trangei, Pupa, Pfr., 24, 157 
striata, Pupa, Grdl., 26, 82 
striata, Pupa, Grat., 27, 266 
striata. Pupa, Schum., 14, 226 
striata, Pupa, Wagn., 14, 68 
etriatella, Pupa, Guer., 14,, 278 
striatissa, Pupa, Grdl., 26, 191 
striatula, Lyropupa, Pse., 25, 246; 

27, 223 
striatula, Pupa, Parr., 25, 68 
striatula, Vertigo, Pse., 25, 246 
striolatus, Gyliauchen, Mlldff., 24, 

striolatus, Hypselostoma, Mlldff., 

24, 215 
Striopupilla, Pils., 26, 153 
strobeli, Pupa, Grdl., 26, 72; 27, 

strobilus, Pupa, Bk., 14, 2S1 
strophiodes. Pupa, Grdl.. 1, 93 
Strophites, Dawson, 27, 319 
Btrophostoma, Boysidia, Mlldff., 

24, 197 
strophostoma, Pupa, Mlldff., 24, 

stoaphora, Fauxulus, Bnp., 24. 245 
stoaphora, Pupa, Bnp., 24. 245 

Stomodonta, Merm., 24, 262 
stueri, Acanthinula, Cossm., 27, 

stueri, Helix, Cossm., 27, 191 
stueri, Helix, Cossm., 27, 1S9 
sturmi, Pupa, Kstr. — Amphiscopus 
stylus, Pupa, Parr.=C7u>?icZrwZa 
subalpestris, Pupa, Bttg., 25, 195, 

subalutaeea, Pupa, WolL, 26, 206 
subantiqua, Abida, Lomn., 24, 270 
subantiqua, Pupa, Lomn., 24, 270; 

subcarinata, Pupa, Bgt., 27, 291 
subcarinata, Pupa, Moq., 25, 46 
subcentralis, Nesopupa, C. & P., 

25, 292 
subcereana, Alloglossa, West., 25, 

snbconica, Orcula, Sdbg., 27, 3 
subconica, Pupa, Sdbg., 27, 3 
subcostata, Nesopupa, P. & C, 25, 

subcylindrica, Pupa, Loc, 24, 297, 

subfusiformis, Abida, Sdbg., 27, 

subfusiformis, Pupa, Sdbg., 24, 

270; 27, 212 
subhordeum, Pupa, West., 25, 13 
sublaevigata, Pupa, Loc, 24. 310 
sublaevigata, Pupa, Pfr., 14, 213 
sublaevigata, Pupa, Pfr., 26, 68 
sublaevis, Acanthinula, West., 27, 

sublaevis, Orcula, Loc, 27, 20 
sublineolatus, Negulus, Bttg., 26, 

sublubrica, Pupa, Anc, 26, 160 
sublubrica, Pupilla, Anc, 26, 162 
submuscorum, Pupilla, G. & W, 26, 

suboviformis, Pupa, Bttg., 26. 192 
subperforata, Pupa, Bgt., 27, 50 
subquadridens, Pupa, Orb., 27,266 
subringens, Pupa, Fag., 24, 279 ; 

27. 274 
substriata, Pupa, Orb., 27, 266 
substriata, Alsea, Jeffr., 25, 173 
substriata. Vertigo, Jeffr., 25, 172; 

27, 217 
subtilissima, Acmopupa, Bra., 26, 

subtilissimus, Bulimus, Al., Br., 26, 

subtrochiformis, Vertigo, Greg., 

25, 214 



subulata, Pupa, Biv., 24, 340 
subvariabilis, Abida, Sdbg., 24, 269 
subvariabilis, Pupa, Sdbg., 24, 269 
suevica, Gastrocopta, Sdbg., 24, 

suevica, Pupa, Sdbg., 24, 115 
suevica, Pupilla, G. & W., 26, 224 
suevica, Vertigo, G. & W., 27, 221 
sulcata, Pupa, Sowb., 14, 227 
sulculata, Jaminia, Eisso, 27, 262 
superioris, Vertigo, Pils., 25, 97 
superstrueta, Lauria, Mss., 27, 77 
superstructa, Pupa, Mss., 27, 78 
suprema, Pupa, Bttg., 26, 223 
suprema, Pupilla, Bttg., 26, 223 
suturalis, Negulus, Sdbg., 26, 104; 

27, 231 
suturalis, Pupa, Sdbg., 26, 104 
sykesii, Pupa, M. & P., 26, 98 
sykesii, Truncatellina, M. & P., 26, 

sylvatica, Pupa, Hutt. — F,na 
syugenes, Pupa, Pils., 26, 167 
Systenostoma, B. & D., 24, 224 

tabularis, Lauria, M. & P., 27, 65 
tabularis, Pupa, M. & P., 27, 66 
taeniata, Lauria, Shutt., 27, 120 
taeniata, Pupa, Shutt., 27, 120 
tamagonari, Nesopupa, Pils., 25, 

tamagonari, Vertigo, Pils., 25, 158 
tantilla, Nesopupa, Gld., 25, 324 
tantilla, Pupa, Gld., 25, 325 
Tanystoma, Bens., 24, 175 
tapeina, Vertigo, Bgt., 24, 116 
tappaniana, Gastrocopta, Ad., 24, 

tappaniana, Pupa, Ad., 24, 33 
tappiana, Pupa, Pfr., 24, 33 
tardiana, Pupilla, West., 26, 190 
tardyana, Pupilla, Loc, 26, 190 
tarraconensis, Pupa, Fag., 25, 48; 

27, 299, 305 
Tarsia, De Greg.=Disjunctaria 
tasmanica, Pupa, Johns., 26, 219, 

tassaroliana, Vertigo, Sacc, 25, 

tatei, Gastrocopta, Pils., 24, 16'5 
tatrica, Helix, Haz., 27, 183 
tatriea, Pupa, Haz., 25, 191 
tatrica, Vertigo, Haz., 25, 191 
tatricus, Spelseodiscus, Haz., 27, 

taurica, Granopupa, Kessl., 27, 215 

taurica, Pupa, Kessl., 24, 344; 27, 

templorum. Helix, Ben., 27, 19 
tenella, Pupa, St., 26, 164 
tenella, Pupilla, St., 26, 164 
tenuidens, Bothriopupa, Ad., 24, 

tenuidens, Pupa, Ad., 24, 229 
tenuilabris, Pupa, Pfr., 14, 201 
tenuimarginata, Chondrina, Des 

M., 25, 31; 27, 286 
tenuimarginata, Lauria, Bttg., 27, 

tenuimarginata, Pupa, Des M., 25, 

teres, Pupa, Pfr., 1, 87 
tereticollis, Orcula, West., 27, 23 
terricolor, Pupa, Nev., 27, 263 
terrse, Pupilla, Pils., 26, 199 
tesselata, Lauria, Mrlt., 27, 128 
tesselata, Pupa, Mrlt., 27, 128 
tetrodon, Pupa, West., 24, 336, 

terodus, Pupa, Bttg., 26, 216 
tetrodus, Pupilla, Bttg., 26, 216 
thaanumi, Lyropupa, C. & P., 25, 

thaanumi, Nesopupa, Anc, 25, 304 
thaanumi, Pupa, Pilsbry= 

thaumasia, Lyropupa, C. & P., 25, 

thaumasta, Vertigo, M. & P., 26, 

theeli, Gastrocopta, West., 24, 118 
theeli, Pupa, West., 24, 118 
thibetica, Pupa, Bens., 24, 138; 

27, 209 
thibetica, Vertigo, Bs., 24, 138; 

25, 378 
tiarula, Glandicula, Sdbg., 25, 221; 

27, 222 
tiarula, Vertigo, Brn., 25, 221 
tiluana, Acanthinula, Mlldff., 27, 

tingitana, Chondrina, Kob., 25, 41 
tingitana, Orcula, Pall., 27, 256 
tingitana, Pupa, Kob., 25, 42; 27, 

tirolensis, Pupa, Grdl., 25, 192 
tirolensis, Vertigo, Grdl., 25, 192 
tirolica, Modicella, West., 25, 16 
titan, Orcula, Branc, 27, 9 
titan. Pupa, Branc, 27, 7 
tolminensis, Orcula, Wagn., 27, 15 
Tomigerella, Pfr., 24, 235, 241 



tomlini, Fauxulus, Bnp., 24, 252; 

27, 211 
tomlini, Pupa, Bp., 24, 252; 27, 

tongana, Nesopupa, Bttg., 25, 331 
tongana, Pupa, Bttg., 25, 331 
tongriana, Pupa, M.-Ey., 27, 266 
Tonkinia mirabilis, Mat)., 24, 359 
tornefortiana, Pupa, P. & M.= 

Torquatella, Held., 26, 152 
Torquilla, Stud., 25, 1; 24, 262, 

tortuosa, Pupa, Gray=T ortulosa 
tosana, Vertigo, Pils., 25, 156 
toscania?, Agardhia, Poll., 27, 151 
toscaniae, Pupa, Poll., 27, 151 
toscolana, Modieella, Schr., 25, 9 
tournouri, Pupa, Anc, 25, 4 
tournouri, Pupa, Cott., 25, 4 
t illusions, Lauria, Woll., 27, 96 
transiens, Pupa, Boub., 24, 286 
transiens, Pupa, West., 25, 17 
transiens, Pupa, Woll., 27, 94 
transiens, Torquilla, CI., 25. 17 
transitans, Gyliauchen, Mlldff., 24, 

transitans, Hypselostoma, Mlldff., 

24, 214 
transitus, Pupa, Boub., 24, 286' 
transsylvanica, Helix, Haz., 27, 

transsvlvanica, Pupilla, Kim., 26, 

transversalis, Orcula, West., 27. 12 
transversalis, Pupa, West., 27, 12 
triadis, Anehistoma, Kim., 27, 184 
triadis, Spelseodiscus, Kim., 27, 1S3 
triaria, Helix, Em., 27, 183 
triarius, Spelseodiscus, Rm., 27,182 
tricolor, Pupa, Sowb., 25, 68 
tricolor, Torquilla, Ant., 25, 8 
tricuspidata, Pupa, Kstr.— Cfto?!- 

tricuspis, Pupa, Hm.=Chondrula 
tridens, Pupa, Sdbg., 25, 198, 208 
tridens, Vertigo, Sdbg., 25, 208 
tridentalis, Pupa, Mich., 26, 190 
tridentata, Pupa, Brard.=C7iO/?- 

tridentata, Pupa, Jeffr., 26. 176 
tridentata, Pupa, T.nm. — Tt rephvlva 
tridentata, Pupa, Rm., 25, 64 
tridentata, Pupa, West., 26, 190 
tridentata, Vertigo, Wolf, 25, 106 
trifilaris, Orcula, Mss., 27, 40 
trifilaris, Pupa, Mss., 27, 39 

trigonostoma, Pupa, Brn., 25, 220, 

trigonostoma, Vertigo, Brn., 25, 

trilamillata, Jaminia, Risso., 27, 

trinodis, Anehistoma, Kim., 27, 182 
trinodis, Spelasodiscus, Kim., 27, 

trinotata, Pupa, St., 25, 141 
trinotata, Vertigo, St., 25, 140 
triodonta, Vertigo, Bgt., 25, 219 
triplicata, Orcula, Cless., 27, 9 
triplicata, Pupa, Bof., 27, 299, 305 
triplicata, Pupa, Stud., 26, 189 
triplicata, Pupilla, Stud., 26, 189 
triplicata, Vertigo, Bgt., 26, 72 
triptycha, Aulacospira, Mlldff., 24, 

tripunctum, Gastrocopta, Mrl., 24, 

tripunctum, Pupa, Mrl., 24, 130 
triticea, Pupa, Zgl., 24, 298 
triticea, Pupa, Zgl., Germ., 24, 304 
triticum, Torquilla, Zgl., 24, 303, 

trochulus, Acanthinula, 27, 191 
trochulus, Chondrina, Sdbg., 25, 4 
trochulus, Pupa, Sdbg., 25, 4; 27, 

trolli, Vertigo, F. & W., 25, 379 
truncata, Lyropupa, Cke., 25, 247 
truncata, Pupa, Rosen, 27, 40, 42 
truncatella, Agardhia, Pfr., 27, 

162, 320 
truncatella, Pupa, Pfr., 27, 163 
Truncatellina, Lowe., 26, 58; 27, 

tryphera, Nesopupa, C. & P., 25, 

tschapecki, Pagodulina, Grill., 2 7. 

tschapecki, Pupa, Grdl., 27, 173 
tuba, Bifidaria, P. & F., 24. 3 
tuba, Chamaxis, P. & F., 24. 2 
tubiferum, Hvpselostoma, Bs., 24, 

tubiferum, Tanystoma, Bs., 24. 178 
tuchoricensis, Acanthinula, Klika., 

27, 191 
tuchoricensis, Helix, Klika., 27.191 
tuchoricensis, Vertigo, Pils., 25, 

tnmida, Orcula, Vohl., 27. 22, 319 
tumida, Pupa, Haz., 27, 8 
tumida, Pupa, Nev., 27, 143, 145 
tumida, Vertigo, West., 25, 162 



tumidula, Pupa, Dh., 14, 209 
turbiana, Pupa, Caz., 24, 338 
turcica, Glandicula, Dh., 25, 222 
turcica, Orcula, Let., 27, 23 
turcica, Pupa, Dh., 25, 222; 27, 

turcmenia, Pupilla, Bttg., 26, 188, 

338; 27, 255 
turgida, Gastrocopta, Ess., 26, 231 
turgida, Pupa, Parr., 24, 300 
turgida, Pupa, Zgl., 25, 68 
turgida, Vertigo, Ess., 24, 115 
turgidula, Pupa, Dh., 1, 86 
turkestanica, Pupilla, West., 26, 

turonica, Vertigo, Morg., 26, 235 
turricula, Pupa, Bttg., 27, 238 
turricula, Pupa, Tayl., 1881= 

turrita, Coryna, Andr., 27, 132 
turrita, Pupa, Ant., 14, 68 
turritella, Columella, West., 27, 

turritella, Pupa, West., 27, 238 
turtoni, Nesopupa, Sm., 25, 363 
turtoni, Pupa, Sm., 25, 363 
tutulus, Bulimus, Eve., 26, 122 
tutulus, Pupoides, Eve., 26, 122 
fruxensis, Abida, West., 24, 277 
tuxensis, Pupa, Fag., 24, 277; 27, 



ulmensis, Abida, Wenz., 26, 232 
ulmensis, Torquilla, Wenz.. 26, 232 
ulmensis, Torquilla, Schlosser, 24, 

ultima, Vertigo, Pils., 25, 128 
umbilicata, Pupa, Drp., 27, 48 
umbilicus, Lauria, Rth., 27, 54, 259 
umbilicus, Pupa, Eth., 27, 54 
umbra, Paracraticula, Opp., 25, 

222; 27, 221 
umbra, Pupa, Opp., 25, 222; 27, 

uncifera, Lyropupa, C. & P., 25, 

undorfensis, Gastrocopta, Pils., 24, 

undorfensis, Vertigo, Cless., 25, 

uniarmata, Pupa, Kstr., 26, 84 
uniarmata, Truneatellina, Kstr., 

26, 83 
unibasalis, Charadrobia, Bttg., 27, 

unibasalis, Lauria, Bttg., 27, 79 

unicarinata, Pupa, Lam., 16, 132 
unicarinata, Pupa, P. & M., 24, 356 
unicolumellaris, Lauria, Lindh., 27, 

unidentata, Pupa, C. Pfr., 26, 175 
unidentata, Pupa, West., 26, 190 
unidentata, Pupisoma, G.-A., 26, 

24, 235; 27, 228 
unidentata, Vertigo, Std., 26, 83 
unidentatus, Bulimus, Vail., 27, 48 
unifasciata, Pupa, Caz., 25, 62 
unifilaris, Orcula, Bttg., 27, 22 
unilabiata, Vertigo, Bgt., 25, 171 
uniplicata, Pupa, P. & M., 27, 10 
upsoni, Zonites, Calk., 25, 84 
usambarica, Pupa, Cvav.=Gulella 
utriculus, Pupa, Mke., 14, 281 
utahensis, Vertigo, St., 25, 109, 116 
uvula, Pupa, Dh., 1, 92 
uvulifera, Pupa, Gpy., 24, 87 

valeourtiana, Pupa, Loc, 24, 315, 

Valgum, Megerle, 27, 212 
vallisnerii, Helix, Stef., 27, 56 
valsabina, Agardhia, Spin., 27, 141 
valsabina, Pupa, Spin., 27, 141 
vara, Pupa, Bs., 1, 106 
variabilis, Abida, Drp., 24, 321 
variabilis, Pupa, Drp., 24, 322 
variabilis, Pupa, C. Pfr., 24, 308 
varia, Pupa, Bonnet, 14, 253 
variegata, Pupa, Pfr., 14, 214 
variegella, Pupa, Zgl., 25, 58, 60 
variolosa, Bothriopupa, Gld., 24, 

variolosa, Pupa, Gld., 24, 231 
vasconensis, Pupa, Noul., 25, 379 
vasconica, Chondrina, Kob., 25, 

38; 27, 311 
vasconica, Pupa, Kob., 25, 38 
vectensis, Vertigo, Cox, 27, 221 
vectiensis, Pupa, Edw., 27, 264 
venetzii, Vertigo, Chp., 25, 212 
ventilatoris. Pupa, Parr., 25, 26 
ventricosa, Isthmia, Mse., 25, 92 
ventricosa, Nesopupa, H. Ad., 25, 

ventricosa, Pupa, H. Ad., 25, 355 
ventricosa, Pupa, Dup., 25, 29 
ventricosa, Pupa, Loc, 24, 297, 

300; 27, 270 
ventricosa, Torquilla, Loc, 24, 272 
ventricosa, Vertigo, Mse., 25, 92, 

ventrosa, Vertigo, Heyn., 25, 181 



venusta, Pupa, Poey., 14, 203 
vergniesiana, Abida, Kstr., 24, 286 
vergniesiana, Pupa, Kstr., 24, 286; 

27, 276 
vermiculosa, Lauria, Mrlt., 27, 126 
vermiculosa, Pupa, Mrlt., 27, 127 
vermiformis, Bulimus, Pal., 26, 129 
vermilionensis, Maturipupa, Brad!., 

27, 317 
vermilionensis, Pupa, Bradl., 27, 

Vertiginida?, Stimps., 25, 69 
Vertigininae, 25, 68 
vertigo, Helix, Gm., 25, 161 
Vertigo, Miiller, 25, 69; 27, 216 
Vertigopsis, St., 24, 11, 27; 27, 199 
vertigo, Turbo, Mont., 25, 212 
Vert ilia, Moq., 25, 210 
Vertillaria, Pils., 25, 75, 144 
vetusta, Dendropupa, Daws., 27, 

vetusta, Pupa, Daws., 27, 318 
vidalis, Pupa, Maluq., 27, 280 
villa?, Lauria, Kstr., 27, 50 
villa?. Pupa, Kstr., 27, 50 
villafranchiana, Vertigo, Saec, 26, 

villafranchianus, Negulus, Sacc, 

26, 105 
villosula. Helix, Gall., 27, 19 
vimontiana, Helix, Crse., 26, 35 
vimontianum, Pupisoma, Crse., 26, 

vincta, Lauria, Lwe., 27, 91 
viiicta. Pupa, Lwe., 27, 91 
violacea, Pupa, Swains., 15, 304 
viridana, Ala?a, Lindh., 25, 174 
viridana. Vertigo, Lindh., 25, 174; 

2 7, 218 
viridina, Vertigo, Borch., 27, 217 
vi'iana, Nesopupa, Bttg., 25, 332 
vitiana, Pupa. Bttg., 25, 332 
vohlandi, Orcula, Pils., 27. 319 
vouastensis, Abida, Basp., 24, 269 
vouastensis, Pupa, Rasp., 24, 269 
vulcanica, Lauria, Kstr., 27, 54 
vulcanica, Pupa, Kstr., 27, 55 
vulgaris, Ala?a, Leach, 27, 218 
vulnerata, Pupa, Kstr., 14, 219 


wagneri, Orcula, Stur., 27, 257 
wahlbergi, Pupa, Krse., 1, 96 
waianaensis, Nesopupa, C. & P., 25, 

walchiarum, Dendropupa, Fisch., 

27, 318 
wallabvensis, Gastrocopta, Sm., 24, 

wallabyensis, Pupa, Sm., 24, 172 
watsoniana, Lauria, Woll., 27, 92 
weinlandi, Pupa, Mts., 14, 238 
wenziana, Gastrocopta, Pils., 26, 

wenzi, Microstele, Fisch., 26, 147 
wenzi, Pupoides, Fisch., 26, 147 
wesleyana, Nesopupa, Anc, 25, 299 
westerlundi, Vertigo, Pils., 27, 219 
wolfii, Gastrocopta, Mill., 24, 94, 

wolfii, Pupa, Mill., 24, 95 
wollastoni, Lauria, Paiva, 27, 102 
wollastoni, Pupa, Lwe., 27, 94 
wollastoni, Pupa, Paiva, 27, 102 
Wollastonula, Pils., 27, 114 

xerobia, Pupilla, Pils., 26, 157, 158 
xenos, Vertigo, Berry, 25, 377 

zanellia, Helix, Ben., 26, 72 
zanellia, Helix, Testa., 27, 230 
zanelliana, Helix, Ben., 27, 230 
zanguebaricus, Bulimus, Tayl., 26, 

zanguebaricus, Pupoides, Tayl., 26, 

134; 27, 251 
zebra, Pupa, Sowb., 14, 253 
zonata, Lauria, Bttg., 27, 79 
zonata, Pupa, Bttg., 27, 80 
zonata, Pupa, Gass., 25, 333 
zonata, Vertigo, Let., 27, 87 
Zoogenetes, Morse, 27, 195 
Zoogenites, Morse, 27, 195 
zschokkei, Vertigo, Butt, 27, 219 























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Special Curator Department of Mollusca, Academy of Natural 
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