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Full text of "A manual of the gymnastic exercises as practised by the junior class in Amherst college, Amherst, Mass"

J-NRLF 




LIBRARY 

OF THE 

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 



Deceived 
^Accession No.fy- fy- 3 .& / .' Class No. 








.,.HUICHO 



A MANUAL 



GYMNASTIC EXERCISES 



AS PRACTISED BY 



THE JUNIOR CLASS IN AMHERST COLLEGE 

AMHERST, MASS. 

PREPARED UNDER THE DIRECTION OF 

DR. EDWARD HITCHCOCK 

PROFESSOR OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND HYGIENE 




BOSTON 
PUBLISHED BY GINN, HEATH, & COMPANY 

1884 



COPYRIGHT BV 

EDWARD HITCHCOCK, 

*3> 

1884. 



] ELECTROTYPE D AND PRINTED 
/BY RANU, AVERY, AND COMPANY, 

(BOSTON. I 



INTRODUCTION. 



THE need of a manual like the present is seen in the 
fact that three editions of a similar work have been 
issued at Amherst during the past few years. The 
recent advances made in this department, and the 
increased facilities of our new Pratt Gymnasium, now 
ready for occupancy, seem to demand a new manual, 
and one which shall more fully meet the practical wants 
of teachers and educational institutions everywhere. 

The object of this manual is to furnish a series of 
exercises, by the use of which a teacher can directly 
instruct a class in light gymnastics ; or an ingenious 
person may take the leading points in these exercises, 
and adapt them to peculiar wants and circumstances, 
thus giving a greater variety and pleasure of movement. 

There is also given a series of simple military move- 
ments that may be made by a class or company of from 
twenty to a hundred, male or female, either in a 
small out-of-doors area, or in an ordinary hall. 



4 INTRODUCTION. 

Persons who may wish either to direct themselves or 
others to a special use of certain parts of the body, and 
to learn what muscles are used in different exercises, 
will find a portion of the manual devoted to this use : 
it is not claimed, however, that every muscle used in 
each of these exercises is clearly stated here. Most 
movements of the body are too complex to allow of 
perfect specialization in so short a work as this. 

Two tables are given, showing certain measurements 
of the human body. One is made from several thousand 
measurements of twenty-one hundred and six students 
of Amherst College, covering an interval of twenty 
years, and expressed in the ordinary English system of 
measures. The other is made from measurements of 
four hundred and sixty-one students, comprising more 
than fifty different data, covering a space of three years, 
and expressed in the metric S} T stem. 

The dumb-bell exercise was devised and first given by 
Professor E. Hitchcock, jun., of Cornell University; 
but the preparation of it in a written- form, as well as of 
the marching movements, has been most carefully made 
by Mr. Frank E. Whitman, the captain of '85. The 
study of the muscles used in the dumb-bell movements 
has been made by Mr. C. H. Nichols of the same class, 
and the cuts have been designed by Mr. H. M. Waite 
of the class of '85. All the exercises bells and 
marching are executed by the present senior class, or 
the class of '85. 



INTRODUCTION. 5 

A schedule for marking the different movements and 
exercises in a gymnastic exhibition is given directly after 
the tables. In its present form, it supposes at least three 
classes in competition for a prize, and the contest to con- 
sist of marching movements and a dumb-bell exercise. 
It also supposes that the dumb-bell exercise shall receive 
one mark, while each one of the several marching move- 
ments is to be graded by the maximum as expressed 
in the printed number against each movement. 

EDWARD HITCHCOCK, 

Profesxor of Hygiene and Physical Education, 
AMHERST COLLEGE. 



MANUAL 



GYMNASTIC EXERCISES. 



MARCHING EXERCISE. 

IN the following instructions for the drills in marching 
and light gymnastics as practised in Amherst College, an 
attempt has been made to describe the various movements 
in the manner best suited for the use of the gymnasium. 
It will, on this account, be noticeable to any one versed 
in military tactics, that many deviations have been made 
from the instructions as laid down in ''Upton's Infantry 
Tactics," or as taught in the military schools. In the 
main, however, the marching movements here given are 
taken, with only slight changes, from " Upton's Infantry 
Tactics ; " and man}' of the instructions are given just as 
they appear in that book. 

1 . The Arrangement of the Gymnasium. In 
order that the class may have ample room for the dumb-bell 
exercise, and particularly for marching, the apparatus for 
heavy gymnastics should be arranged, as far as practicable, 
on the sides and at the back of the hall. A platform for 
the pianist and captain should be placed in the front of the 
hall. For holding the bells when not in use, hooks may 
be arranged in a row around the hall, at about five feet 



8 MANUAL OF GYMNASTIC EXERCISES. 

from the floor ; or boxes may be placed at convenient 
points, so that the men may take and leave their bells as 
they file around the hall. 

2. The Dumb-bell. The dumb-bell should be turned 
out of well-seasoned, first-quality rock-maple, and meas- 
ure ten inches in length ; the balls being three inches in 
diameter, and the handle measuring four by one and one- 
fourth inches. Such a dumb-bell weighs one and one- 
fourth pounds, and may be considered too light ; but 
a heavier one has been found to be unwieldy, and too 
fatiguing for a briskly performed exercise. 

3. The Uniform. It has been found very conven- 
ient, in fact almost necessan*, for the classes to have 
some kind of uniform for gymnasium practice. The uni- 
form that has given most satisfaction in Amherst consists 
of a loose-fitting shirt and a pair of trousers, both of dark- 
blue Middlesex flannel. The shirts are usually made to 
button on the shoulder, so as to leave the breast clear for 
a class or college monogram. The trousers are of the 
style commonly known as " hip-pants." 

4. Arrangement of Classes into Platoons. Classes 
numbering more than thirty men should be divided into 
platoons, and each of these placed in charge of a "platoon 
captain," whose duty it is to see that the class movements 
are properly executed, and to give such orders as are indi- 
cated in the instructions. A platoon should consist of 
not less than three nor more than six fours. It will be 
noticed, that in the marching movements, as arranged 
for the gymnasium, there is no such thing as "double 
rank." 

5. Music and Time. In theory, the time occupied by 
the motions in the dumb-bell exercise is nothing, the body 
and bells being at rest all the time ; and in practice, we 



MARCHING EXERCISE. 9 

must come as near to this as possible, that is, the 
motions must be made very rapidly. The time of the 
music may vary, and with it will vary also the periods of 
rest between the counts ; but the rapidity of the move- 
ments should be always the same. 

Galop or march music may be used, and hence the term 
"count" has been employed instead of " beat." 

The phrase " through - - counts " may seem ambigu- 
ous in some places. It invariably means, till counts 

have been completed. 

6. Commands. Commands are of two kinds, the 
preparatory command, such as Forward, which indicates 
the movement that is to be executed ; the command of 
execution, such as MARCH, HALT, which causes the execu- 
tion of a command. In the following instructions, the 
preparatory commands are distinguished by italics, and 
those of execution by SMALL CAPITALS. 

The tone of command is animated, distinct, and of a 
loudness proportioned to the number of men under in- 
struction. 

Each preparatory command is pronounced in an ascend- 
ing tone of voice, and always in such a manner that the 
command of execution may be more energetic and ele- 
vated. 

The command of execution is pronounced in a tone firm 
and brief. 

7. Assembling the Class. At the captain's com- 
mand, Fall IN, each platoon takes its proper position in 
a column of files ; i.e., in " single file," following the cap- 
tain as he marches around the hall. The men must keep 
their heads and eyes directly to the front, must cover the 
men in front of them, and keep closed to the facing dis- 
tance; that is, such a distance, that, in forming into line, 



10 MANUAL OF GYMNASTIC EXERCISES. 

the elbows will just touch. The arms should hang natu- 
rally at the sides, without stiffness, but without swinging. 
The full step is twenty-eight inches in length, measuring 
from heel to heel ; and the cadence for inarching in the 
gymnasium should be ninety steps per minute. 

8. To bring the Platoons on Line. At the cap- 
tain's command, On line MARCH, the platoon captains 
take command of their platoons, and, by repeating the 
above order, bring their platoons to their respective 
places. 

9. To arrest the March. The command is, Platoon 
HALT. At the word Halt, given the instant either foot 
is brought to the ground, the foot in the rear is brought 
up, and planted by the side of the other without shock. 

10. Facings. The command is, Left (or Eight) 
FACE. At the word Face, raise the right foot slightly, 
face to the left (or right), turning on the left heel, the 
left toe slightly raised ; replace the right heel by the side 
of the left, and on the same line. If the proper facing 
distance was kept in marching, it will be found that the 
elbows just touch. It will be seen that the facings to 
the right or left are both made on the left foot. 

11. Alignment. The platoon captains place them- 
selves at the heads of their respective platoons, facing 
down the line, and command, Right DRESS. At the com- 
mand Dress, every man turns the head and eyes sharply to 
the right, so that he can see the breast of the second man 
from him ; then, without inclining the head, he takes very 
short steps, either backward or forward, or to the left if 
the line is crowded, but never crowd iwj toward the right 
until the line is perfected, when the platoon captain com- 
mands FRONT, at which word every head turns sharply to 
the front. 



MARCHING EXERCISE. 11 

The class captain then commands, Company Right 
Dress FRONT, at which the entire class repeats the 
above. 

12. The Position. The men should now be occupy- 
ing the following position : After effecting an equal 
squareness of the body and shoulders to the front, place 
the heels well closed on the same line, with the knees 
straight, and the feet forming an angle of about sixty 
degrees. 

Let the arms hang naturally, slightly turning at the 
elbows, with the palms of the hands turned slightly to 
the front, and the little fingers touching the seams of the 
trousers, the thumb and forefinger closed. 

Hold the body erect on the hips, inclining it sufficiently 
forward to cause its weight to principally bear upon the 
fore-part of the feet. 

Hold the head erect, with the eyes straight to the front. 

13. The Salute. The command is, Company 
SALUTE. At the word Salute, (1) raise the right hand 
smartly, pointing in the same direction as the right foot, 
the palm of the hand down, the thumb close to the fore- 
finger, the arm extended and horizontal ; (2) bring the 
hand around till the point of the thumb and side of the 
forefinger touch the forehead; (3) bring back the hand 
and arm to the position of the first motion ; (4) drop the 
arm quickly by the side. 

14. To count Fours. The command is, Count 
FOURS; at which each platoon, beginning on the right, 
counts 1, 2, 3, 4, 1, 2, 3, 4, etc., through the platoon. 

The class is now ready for either the dumb-bell exercise 
or the marching movements. If it is desired to take the 
former, the captain commands, Offset MARCH. At the 
word March, man number one remains where he is ; iiniu- 



12 MANUAL OF GYMNASTIC EXERCISES. 

ber two takes two paces to the front, and stands on the V 
in front of him ; number three takes four paces, and 
number four takes six paces, occupying their respective 
Vs. This will be made clear by a glance at the floor 
diagram, Fig. 1. 

If, however, it is desired to take the marching move- 
ments, the class should be made 

15. To form Column of Piles from Column of 
Platoons. The command is, By Platoons By the Right 
Flank MARCH. At the word March, the platoon which 
is in front is commanded by its captain, Right FACE. 
This is described in Section 9. At the command, For- 
ward MARCH, the platoon, now in a column of files, 
marches promptly with the full step. The other platoons 
are commanded by their captains, Forward Guide Right 
MARCH ; care being taken, however, to wait long enough 
to avoid colliding with the platoon next in front. At the 
word March, the men step off smartly with the left foot ; 
the guide (i.e., the man on the extreme right of each pla- 
toon) marching straight to the front. It must be observed, 
in marching thus, that the men touch lightly the elbow 
toward the side of the guide ; that they open out neither 
arm ; that they yield to pressure coming from the side of 
the guide, and resist pressure coming from the opposite 
direction ; that, shortening or lengthening the step, they 
gradually recover the alignment and touch of the elbow, 
if lost ; and that they keep the head direct to the front. 

When the platoon reaches the front of the hall, the 
captain commands, By the Right Flank MARCH. At the 
word March, given as the right foot strikes the floor, 
advance and plant the left foot, then turn to the right, 
and step off in the new direction with the right foot. If 
it is desired to flank to the left, give the word March MS 



MARCHING EXERCISE. 



13 



PIANO 




CAPFAIN 
o 



0' 



V 6'*" V 



V <* 
^ 

V 



V V V V 

v v v v 

V V V V 

FIG. 1. 



14 MANUAL OF GYMNASTIC EXERCISE*. 

the left foot strikes the floor, advance and plant the right 
foot, turn to the left, and step off in the new direction 
with the left foot. 

When all the platoons have executed this movement, 
the class will be marching around the hall in a column of 
files. 

The movements from Section 15 to Section 21, inclusive, 
are executed at the class captain's command. 

16. To form Column of Two from Column of 
Files. The command is, Form Twos Left Oblique 
MARCH. At the word March, numbers one and three take 
the short step, numbers two and four oblique to the left 
until they uncover the men in front of them, when they 
resume the forward march ; the twos having united, all 
resume the full step. It will be observed, that the distance 
between the twos remains the same as it was between 
numbers one and three. [Fig. 2.] 

,/D /D ,'0 /fl /H /D /D /D 
W Q-'E D- X fl--i 0/8 0-"1 M CMS 

FK;. 2. 

17. To form Column of Fours from Column of 
Twos. The command is, Form Fours Left Oblique 
MARCH. At the word March, the leading two of each four 
take the short step ; the rear two oblique to the left until 
they uncover the leading two, when they resume the for- 
ward march ; the fours having united, all resume the full 
step. It will be observed, that the distance between the 
fours is twice the distance between the twos ; in fact, the 
space between the fours should be a square. 

18. To shorten the Step. The command is, Short 
Step MARCH. At the word March, the length of the 



MARCHING EXERCISE. 15 

step is reduced to fourteen inches ; the class resuming the 
full step at the command, Forward MARCH. 

19. To change Step. The command is. Change 
Step MARCH. At the word March, given the instant 
the right foot comes to the floor, the left foot is advanced 
and planted ; the hollow of the right is then advanced 
against the heel of the left, the man again stepping off 
with the left. 

20. To march to the Rear. The command is. To 
the Rear MARCH. At the word March, given as the 
right foot strikes the floor, advance and plant the left 
foot ; then turn on the balls of both feet toward the right, 
and immediately step off with the left foot. 

21. To mark Time. The command is, Mark Time 

MARCH. At the word March, given the instant one 
foot is coming to the ground, continue the cadence, and 
make a semblance of marching, without gaining ground, 
by alternately advancing each foot about half its length, 
and bringing it back on a line with the other. 

At the command, HALT, given as either foot comes to 
the floor, plant that foot, and bring the other to its side. 
The class resumes the march at the command, Forward 

MARCH. 

22. To march Column of Fours in Retreat. 
The command is, Fours Left (or Right) About MARCH. 
The fours wheel on a fixed pivot: i.e., the pivot-man, 
number four, in Fours Left About, simply marks time in 
his place, turning his body as the four turns ; the flank 
man, number one, in Fours Left About, takes the full 
step, describing a semicircle to the left ; the other men in 
the four turning with him, and accommodating their step 
to their position in the four. When the fours have com- 
pleted a semicircle, all, thus faced directly to the rear, 



10 MANUAL OF GYMNASTIC EXERCISE*. 

step off with the full step in the new direction. In exe- 
cuting movements similar to this, in order to preserve the 
alignment of the fours, the flank-man casts his eyes toward 
the pivot-man, and feels lightly the elbow of the next 
man toward the pivot, but never pushes him. The other 
men touch with the elbow toward the pivot, and resist 
pressure from the opposite side. 

The movements from Section 22 to 28, inclusive, are 
executed at the command of the platoon captains, who 
take the command from the class captain. 




FIG. 3. 

23. To oblique in Column of Fours. The com- 
mand is, Left (or Right} Oblique MARCH. At the 
command, March, every man faces one-half to the left, 
and marches with the full step in that direction, resuming 
the forward march at the command, Forward MARCH. 
During the oblique, the fours preserve their parallelism ; 
the man in each four, on the side toward which the oblique 
is made, is the guide of the rank. [Fig. 4.] 

24. To form Column of Platoons from Column 
of Fours. The command is, (1) Left Front into Line 
(2) MARCH; (3) Platoon (4) HALT; (5) Right (G) 
DRESS (7) FRONT. At the command, March, the first 
four moves straight to the front, dressing to the right ; 
the other fours oblique to the left, till opposite their places 
in the line, when each marches to the front. At the 



EXERCISE. 



17 



command, HALT, the first four halts, and at the sixth com- 
mand, given immediately after, dresses to the right ; the 
other fours halt, dressing to the right on arriving in line ; 
the seventh command is given when the last four com- 
pletes its dressing. As each four arrives in line, the men 
must be careful not to overstep the line, but to halt 
together a few inches in the rear of the line. [Fig 1 . 5.] 






/ 

- 



I/S/ 



s 

PIG. 4. 



25. To break into Column of Pours. The com- 
mand is Right Forward, Fours Right MARCH. At the 
command, March, the right four moves straight to the 
front, shortening the first three or four steps ; the other 
fours wheel to the right, on a fixed pivot; the second 
four, when its wheel is two- thirds completed, wheels to 
the left on a movable pivot, and follows the first four ; 
the other fours, having wheeled to the right, move for- 
ward, and wheel to the left on a movable pivot, on the 
same ground as the second. [See Fig. 3.J 

The difference between wheeling on a fixed pivot and 
wheeling on a movable pivot is, that in the former the 
pivot-man simply marks time in his place, turning in con- 
formity with the marching flank, and making no headway ; 
while, in wheeling on a movable pivot, the pivot-man 



18 



MANUAL OF GYMNASTI 



takes short steps of nine inches, turning in conformity 
with the marching flank, and making slight headway. 



H 



D 



FIG. 5. 

26. To flank to the Front, from Column of 
Fours. The command is, Fours Left (or Right} - 
MARCH. At the command, March, the fours wheel to the 
left, on a fixed pivot. The platoon captain commands 
Guide RIGHT (or LEFT), the instant the fours unite in 
line. The instructions for Guide Right, and for marching 
in line across the floor, are given in Section 14. When 
the platoon reaches the front of the hall, if it is desired 
to break into a column of fours, the command is, Right 
Forward, Fours Right MARCH. This is described in 
Section 24. If it is desired to break into a column of 
files, the command is, By the Right Flank MARCH. This 
is described in Section 14. 

27. To flank to the Front from Column of Files. 
Considering that the last command was, By the Right 
Flank, and the class thus formed into a column of files, 
tlio command for this movement is, By the Left Flank 



MARCHING EXERCISE. 19 

MARCH. This is described in Section 14. On reaching 
the front of the hall, either command suggested in Section 
25 may be used. 

28. To form Column of Twos from Column of 
Files. See Section 15. 

This completes the marching-drill as practised at the 
exhibition in Amherst College. There may be occasions 
when it will be convenient to use a few movements which 
are not given in the foregoing instructions for the march- 
ing-drill. A few of these movements are thus described : 

29. To march to the Side. Being at a halt, the 
command is, Side Step to the Right (or Left) MARCH. 
At the command, March, carry the right foot six inches to 
the right, keeping the knees straight and the shoulders 
square to the front; as soon as the right foot is planted, 
bring the left foot to the side of it, and continue the move- 
ment, observing the cadence, until the command, HALT. 

30. To march Backward. Being at a halt, the 
command is Backward - Guide Right (or Left) MARCH. 
At the command, March, step off smartly, with the left 
foot, fourteen inches straight to the rear, measuring from 
heel to heel. At the command, HALT, bring back the foot 
in front to the side of the one in the rear. 

31. To form Column of Twos from Column of 
Fours. The command is, Right by Ttvos MARCH. At 
the command, March, the two men on the left of the four 
(i.e., numbers three and four) mark time for an instant, 
till they become disengaged, when they oblique to the right, 
and take their positions behind numbers one and two. 

32. To form Column of Files from Column of 
Twos. This is executed in precisely the same manner 
as Section 30 ; the command being, Right by File _MABC_H.__ 

/ "* OF THE ' ^\ 

UNIVERSITY ] 
J 



20 



MANUAL OF GYMNASTIC EXERCISES. 



The following schedule will show the relative impor- 
tance attached to the different movements, and also the 
order usually pursued. 

MARKING SCHEDULE FOR GYMNASTIC EXHIBITION. 



COMPANY MOVE MK NTS. 


Maxima. 


Freshmen. 


Sophomores. 


Juniors. 


1. To form columns of twos . . 
2. To form columns of fours . . 
8 Short step 


3 
3 
3 








4 Change step 


q 








5 To the rear 


5 








(}. Mark time, halt 


3 








7. To march column of four in 
retreat 


10 








8. To oblique in column of fours 
(by platoons) 
9. To form platoons (left front into 
line) 


10 
10 









10. To break into column of fours . 
11. To flank to front from column 
of fours 


5 
10 








12. To break into column of files . 
13. To flank to front from column 
of files 


5 

10 








14. To form column of twos and 
leave the hall . 


5 








1~ ( Steadiness, ) 


15 








1 Distances, ) 










Dumb-bell exercise .... 


100 








Totals 




















Average 





















THE DUMB-BELL EXERCISE. 21 



THE DUMB-BELL EXERCISE. 

After the men have taken their positions on Vs, at the 
command, Offset MARCH, the captain commands, Belh 
READY. At the word " Ready," the bells are brought 
instantly and noiselessly to the sides, where thej- are 
held horizontal and parallel to each other. At the com- 
mand, BEGIN, the class begins the following exercise, 
accompanied by the pianist. 1 

Movement 1. DIRECTION A. Forcibly twist both 
bells inward, and back again to position, on each count, 
through six counts ; on seven, carry the bells to the 
breast, just in front of the armpits ; on eight, extend 
the arms horizontally forward, bells perpendicular, when 
the men will be in position for 

DIRECTION B. Twist bells as in A, through six 
counts; on seven, carry bells to the breast; on eight, 
extend arms horizontally at sides, bells perpendicular, the 
position for 

DIRECTION C. Twist bells as in A, through six 
counts ; on seven, carry bells to the shoulders ; on eight, 
extend arms perpendicularly, bells horizontal, the position 
for 

DIRECTION D. Twist bells as in A, through six 
counts : on seven, carry bells to the breast, and rest there 
through count eight. 

Movement 2. DIRECTION A. Forcibly thrust the 



1 For the arrangement of the class for dumb-bell exercise, consult 
page 5 et seq. 



22 MANUAL OF GYMNASTIC EXERCISES. 

right bell forward horizontally on count one, and return 
to breast on two, continuing thus through eight counts. 

Same with left bell, through eight counts. 

On count one, forcibly thrust the right bell forward 
horizontally, and return on count two ; on count three, 
thrust left bell forward in same manner, and return it to 
breast on count four ; continuing thus alternately through 
eight counts. 

Forcibly thrust both bells forward simultaneously, 
through eight counts. 

DIRECTION B. Repeat all the movements of A hori- 
zontally outwards. 

DIRECTION C. Repeat all the movements of A per- 
pendicularly upwards. 

DIRECTION D. Repeat all the movements of A ver- 
tically downwards. 

Movement 3. The bells being at the breast, parallel 
to each other, on count one forcibly thrust the right bell 
vertically upwards and the left bell vertically downwards ; 
on count two, return both bells to the breast ; on count 
three, thrust the left bell upward and the right down- 
wards, returning to breast on count four, and so continue 
through twelve counts. 

Movement 4. Both bells being at the breast on 
count twelve, on count one extend both bells horizontally 
outwards, bells perpendicular, and hold them thus through 
four counts. 

Movement 5. DIRECTION A. Drop the arms, with- 
out bending the elbows, so that the bells strike just in 
front of the body, on the ends toward the little fingers ; 
on count two, turn the bells, and strike the ends toward 
the thumbs ; continuing thus through twelve counts. 
[Fig. 6.] 



THE DUMB-BELL EXERCISE. 23 

DIRECTION B. Same as A, but striking just behind 
the body, through twelve counts. 




DIRECTION C. On count one, strike bells just in front 
of the body, ends toward little fingers together ; on count 
two, strike just behind the body, ends toward thumbs 
together ; and continue thus through twelve counts. 

DIRECTION D. On count one, strike the bells just in 
front of the body, ends toward little fingers together, as 
before ; on count two, strike behind ; on three, in front 
again ; on count four, let the bells describe a semicircle 
outwards, and strike above the head on ends toward 
thumbs ; continuing thus through twelve counts 

Movement 6. DIRECTION A. The bells being above 
the head on count twelve, on count one advance the right 



24 MANUAL OF GYMNASTIC EXERCISES. 

foot, with a stamp, about four inches in the direction of 
the right arm of the V ; separate the bells slightly, about 
six inches, and strike them on the ends toward the 
thumbs, at the same time the step is taken ; continue 
the step and stroke through four counts. The right knee 




being slightly bent, at count one strike the bells together 
ends toward little fingers just above the leg ; on 
count two, strike ends toward thumbs together just be- 
neath the leg ; on count three, strike ends toward thumbs 
together above the head ; and continue thus through 
twelve counts. Recover the regular position by drawing 
the foot back four inches each count, through four counts, 
striking the bells above the head as in making the charge. 



THE DUMH-HELL EXERCISE. 25 

DIRECTION B. Repeat A toward the left. 

Caution. Bend the back but slightly in striking 
beneath the leg. 

Movement 7. After recovering from the charge to 
the left, the bells are above the head on count four. On 







FIG. 8. 

count one, bring the bells to the shoulder ; on two, thrust 
them vertically upward, bells parallel ; on three, return 
them to the shoulder ; on four, with knees rigid, stoop 
forward, and strike the bells upon the floor ; on count five, 
return bells to the breast ; on six, thrust upward ; on 
seven, return bells to the breast ; on eight, strike the 
floor ; and so continue through twelve counts. [Fig. 8.] 



26 



MANUAL OF GYMNASTIC EXERCISES. 



Movement 8. The bells being at the floor on 
count twelve, at count one return the bells to the breast, 




and, in so doing, allow the bells to slip through the hand, 
so that each is held by the end ; on count two, extend 
the arms horizontally outwards, bells horizontal ; on count 
three, put the right bell over the right shoulder, and 
the left bell under the left shoulder, until the free ends 
strike behind the body ; on count four, bring the bells to 
the position held at count two ; on count five, put the left 
bell over, and the right bell under, until they strike ; and 
so continue through twelve counts. [Fig. !).] 

Movement 9. The arms being extended horizontally 
outwards at count twelve, allow the bells to slip through 



THE DUMB-BELL EXERCISE. 27 

the hands until they are grasped in the usual manner ; 
on count one, bring the bells to the breast, resting there 
through count two ; on count three, drop the arms to 
the sides, resting there through count four. 

On count one, bend the right elbow, keeping the upper 
arm fixed, until the bell strikes the shoulder; on count 
two, drop it back to the side ; continuing this movement 
through eight counts. 




FIG. 10. 

The same with the left arm, through eight counts. 

The same with the right and left alternately, through 
eight counts. 

The same with the right and left simultaneously, 
through eight counts. 

Movement 1O. DIRECTION A. The bells being at 
the side at count eight, on count one raise the right arm 



28 MANUAL OF GYMNASTIC EXERCISES. 

in a forward direction, so that the bell describes a quarter- 
circle, thumbs up, elbows stiff ; on count two, return the 
bell to the side ; and continue the movement thus through 
eight counts. [See Fig. 10.] 

The same with the left, through eight counts. 

The same with the right and left alternately, through 
eight counts. 

The same with the right and left simultaneously, 
through eight counts. 

DIRECTION B. The same as A, except "that the arms 
are raised to the height of the shoulder outward, later- 
ally, bells horizontal. 

Movement 11. Bend the elbow, and raise the right 
bell to the height of the ear, on count one ; carry the bell 




back to the side on count two ; and continue the movement 
thus through eight counts. [Fig. 11.] 



THE DUMB-BELL EXERCISE. 21> 

The same with the left, through eight counts. 

The same with the right and left alternately, through 
eight counts. 

The same with the right and left simultaneously, 
through eight counts. 

Movement 12. DIRECTION A. With stiff arms 
describing a semicircle in a horizontal plane, strike the 




Fia. 1-2. 



hells on the ends toward the thumbs together in 
front ; return arms to a horizontal position at the side on 
count two; strike again on count three ; and so continue 
through twelve counts. 



80 



MANUAL OF GYMNASTIC EXERCISES. 



DIRECTION B. On the count one, with stiff arms 
describe a semicircle in a vertical plane, and strike the 
bells on ends toward the thumbs together above the 
head ; on count two, return the arms to a horizontal posi- 
tion at the side ; and continue thus through twelve counts. 

DIRECTION C. The arms being extended in a horizon- 
tal position at the side on count twelve, on count one let 
the bells describe a semicircle downward, striking together 
on the ends toward the little fingers just behind the 
body ; on count two, strike above the head as before ; on 
count three, behind the body ; and so continue through 
twelve counts. [See Fig. 12.] 




Via 1:5. 



Movement 13. The bells being above the' head on 
count twelve, on count one bring them to the breast, and 



THE DUMK-JtELL EXEHVIXE. 31 

rest there through count two ; on count three, thrust both 
arms downward and forward, keeping the arms parallel 
and the bells parallel, the arms making an angle of forty- 
live degrees with the body ; rest thus through count four ; 
on count five, return the bells to the breast ; and continue 
the movement through sixteen counts. [See Fig. 13.] 

Movement 14. On count one, charge the right foot, 
with a stamp, about sixteen inches to the right, extend 




FIG. 14. 

the right arm outward horizontally, palm up, bell hori- 
zontal ; bring the left bell to the left shoulder, turning 
the head sharply to the right. On count two, bring the 
right foot, without dragging^ to its place beside the left 
foot, extend left arm to a position like that held by the 
right, sharply turn the head to the front ; on count three, 



32 MANUAL OF GYMNASTIC EXERCISE*. 

drop arms, and strike the bells on the ends toward little 
fingers behind the body; on count four, turn the bells, 
and strike the ends toward the thumbs together behind 
the body ; continue this movement through twelve counts. 

The same movement toward the left, through twelve 
counts. 

The same alternately to the right and left, through 
twelve counts. 

At count twelve the bells being behind the body, on 
count one bring both bells to the shoulder, upper arms 
extended laterally and .horizontally ; on count two, extend 
both bells outward horizontally ; on counts three and 
four, strike bells behind the body as above ; and continue 
thus through twelve counts. [See Fig. 14.] 

Movement 15. DIRECTION A. On the count one, 
charge the right foot with an emphatic stamp in the direc- 
tion of the right arm of the V, about sixteen inches, 
turning the body in that direction, and bending the right 
knee slightly ; at the same time bring the bells to the 
breast. Maintain this position until four counts have 
been completed. On the count one, forcibly extend the 
right arm horizontally in the direction faced ; on count 
two, return the right bell to the breast, and extend the 
left bell ; continuing this movement through eight counts. 
On the count eight, the left arm is extended and the right, 
at the breast ; on count one, thrust the right arm outward 
horizontally, and bring the left to the breast ; on count 
two, bring the right bell to the breast, and thrust the left 
outward horizontally ; continuing thus through eight 
counts. On count eight, the right bell is brought to the 
shoulder, the left being extended. On count one, thrust 
the right bell vertically upward, and bring the left to the 
shoulder ; on two, bring the right bell to the shoulder, and 



THE DUMB-BELL EXERCISE. 33 

thrust the left upward ; continuing thus through eight 
counts. On count eight, the right bell is brought to the 
breast, the left being thrust upward. On count one, thrust 
the right bell vertical!}' downward, and bring the left to 
the breast ; on count two, bring the right bell to the 
breast, and thrust the left downward until the count seven 
is reached, when the left bell remains at the breast, and 
the right bell is brought to the breast on count eight. On 
count one, the body assumes an erect position, the right 
foot being brought to the side of the left ; remain thus 
through count two. On count three, charge to the left, 
and remain thus through count four. 

DIRECTION B. Repeat A toward the left The bells 
being at the breast on the last count eight, on count one 
let the body become erect, the left foot being brought to 
the side of the right ; remain thus through four counts. 

DIRECTION C. With the body in an erect position 
facing forward, repeat A. 

Movement 16. The bells being at the breast on the 
last count eight, on one thrust the right bell forward 
horizontally, and return it to the breast on count two ; on 
count three, thrust it horizontally outward, and return it 
to the shoulder on count four ; on count five, thrust the 
bell vertically upward, and return it to the breast on 
count six ; on count seven, thrust it vertically downward, 
and return it to the breast on count eight ; continuing 
thus through sixteen counts. 

The same with the left bell, through sixteen counts. 

The same with the right and left bell alternately, 
through thirty-two counts. 

The same with the right and left simultaneously, through 
sixteen counts. 

Movement 17. The bells being at the breast on 



34 



MANUAL OF GYMNASTIC EXERCISES. 



count sixteen, thrust both horizontally forward on count 
one, the bells being perpendicular and two inches apart ; 
on count two, sweep the arms apart so that each bell 
describes a quarter-circle in a horizontal plane ; on count 
three, return the bells sharply toward each other, as far 




FIG. 15. 



as possible without striking ; on count four, sweep them 
apart again, returning on count five ; and continuing thus 
through twelve counts. [See Fi^. IT).] 

Movement 18. The arms being extended horizon- 
tally outward on count twelve, on count one bend the 
elbows so as to bring the bells to the shoulders ; at the 
same time, turn the body in the direction of the right arm 
of the V, and charge the right foot in that direction. On 
count two, thrust both bells vertically upward, and bring 
the right foot to the side of the left ; on count three, 



THE DUMB-BELL EXERCISE. 



35 



return the bells to the shoulder; and, on count four, 
twisting the bells so that the ends toward the little fingers 
almost touch, throw the arms outward before the body 
and downward past the sides, back to the shoulders ; con- 
tinue thus through sixteen counts. [Fig. 16.] 







FIG. 16. 



The same toward the left, through sixteen counts. 

The same toward the right and left alternately, through 
sixteen counts. 

The same motion of the arms directly to the front, with 
body erect and heels together, through sixteen counts. 



36 



MANUAL OF GYMNASTIC EXERCISES. 



Movement 19. DIRECTION A. On the last count. 
sixteen, bring the bells together parallel to each other at 




FIG. 17. 

the breast, and strike them thus through four counts. 
On count one, charge the right foot as in Movement 15, 
thrust the right arm vertically upward, and the left verti- 
cally downward ; on count two, return the bells to the 
breast. With foot still advanced, continue the motion of 
the arms through eight counts, returning the right foot to 
its place on count eight. [Fig. 17.] 

The same to the left, through eight counts. 

DIRECTION B. As at the beginning of this movement, 
strike the bells through four counts. On count one, 



THE DUMB-BELL EXERCISE. 



37 



charge to the right, thrust right arm up and left arm 
down, remaining thus through count two. On count 
three, return the bells to the breast and the foot to its 
place, remaining thus through count four. On the next 
four counts, repeat the same to the left ; and continue 
thus alternately toward the right and left, through sixteen 
counts. Then strike the bells together on the breast as 
above, through four counts. 

Movement 2O. On count one, grasping the bells by 
the ends, throw the bells over the shoulder until they hang 




FIG. IS. 



almost perpendicularly ; at the same time, charge the right 
foot sixteen inches in the direction of the right arm of 
the V. On count two, swing the bells forward, allowing 



38 



MANUAL OF GYMNASTIC EXERCISES. 



them to describe parallel three-quarter circles as in cut. 
The bells should be at 2 on count two, at 3 on count 
three, and at 2 again on the return, on count four ; on 
count three, the foot is placed beside the other. Continue 
thus through sixteen counts. [See Fig. 18.] 

The same toward the left, through sixteen counts. 




FIG. 19. 

The same toward the right and left alternately, through 
sixteen counts. 

The same directly toward the front, without the charge, 
through sixteen counts; on the last count sixteen, let the 
bells stop at the side when the arms reach the vertical 
position. 



DIVERSITY 
THE DUMB-BELL EXERCISE. 39 

Movement 21. Charging forward with the right foot 
four inches on each of the next four counts, place the 
right bell vertically on the right knee ; on count one, 
swing the left arm back in a circle up and forwards 
and strike the bell on every odd count, swinging the arm 
back on the even counts, through twelve counts ; then 
replace the right foot, stamping four times, and advance 
the left, repeating the same motions with the bells, after 
which replace the left foot. [See Fig. 10.] 




FIG. 20. 



Movement 22. The bells being at the side on the 
last count, on count one bring each bell to its respective 
shoulder ; on count two, extend the arms horizontally 



40 MA .V i'A L OF G YMNA S TIC EXER C1SES. 

outward; on count three, strike the bells together on 
the ends toward the little fingers just in front of. the 
body ; and, on count four, strike the ends toward the 
thumbs together ; continuing thus through sixteen counts. 

The same, striking behind the body, through sixteen 
counts. 

The same, striking in front of the body on the ends 
toward the little fingers on count three, and striking 
behind the body on the ends toward the thumbs on 
count four, through sixteen counts. [See Fig. 20.] 

Movement 23. Repeat Movement 1, Directions A, 
B, C, and D, except that on the count seven of D a twist 
is made instead of returning to the breast ; and the bells 
are returned to the breast, and the arms folded promptly, 
on the count eio'ht, which closes the exercise. 



THE ANVIL CHORUS. 



41 



THE ANVIL CHORUS : AN EXERCISE IN LIGHT 
GYMNASTICS. 

THIS Exercise is performed to the music of the Anvil 
Chorus, from "II Trovatori," as arranged in the World's 
Peace Jubilee music of 1872. 




The Position, body erect, bells at sides, knuckles in 
front, is assumed during a prelude, usually beginning at 
"God of the nations." On fourth count, before "Proudly 
our banners," etc., bring right bell to back of neck, thumb 



42 MANUAL OF GYMNASTIC EXERCISES. 

down, and left bell to level of eyes in front, arm straight, 

thumb up. Thus remain through four counts. [Fig. 21.] 

No. 1. Sweep right bell over the head to strike left 

smartly on the top, on first count, knocking left downward 



i 




FIG. 22. 



and under, arm stiff, to come to back of head on second 
count, right bell remaining in place of left ; on third 
count, left bell sweeps over, and strikes right, knocking it 
downward and round to come to back of head on fourth, 
left bell remaining in place of right ; on fifth count, right 
bell sweeps backward, downward, and under, to strike 
left bell underneath, and left sweeps over, to come to back 
of head at sixth count, right bell remaining at level of 



THE ANVIL CHORUS. 



43 



eyes; on seventh count, left bell sweeps backwards, 
downwards, and under, to strike right bell underneath ; and 
both together sweep upwards, outwards, and downwards, 
to strike behind the body on the eighth count, little fingers 
together. [See Fig. 22.] 

No. 2. Strike bells together, arms stiff, thumbs 
together, above the head, and stamp right foot about eight 




FIG. 23. 

inches forward, on first count ; strike downward behind 
the body, little fingers together, returning foot to position, 
on second count ; strike above the head as before, stamp- 
ing left foot, on third ; fourth same as second ; and so on, 
with alternate feet, through seven counts; on eighth, 
come to position assumed at the beginning of No. 1. 



44 



MANUAL OF GYMNASTIC EX EXCISES. 



No. 3. Same as No. 1. 

No. 4. With stiff arms, always : on first count, strike 
hells together at level of eyes in front, thumbs together ; 
on second, strike downward behind, little lingers together ; 
on third, strike above head ; on fourth, downward behind ; 
and so on, through seven counts ; on eighth, come to posi- 
tion assumed at beginning of No. 1. 

No. 5. Same as No. 1 . 




KM;. '24. 



No. 6. Charge laterally to the right, extending right 
bell over and about six inches above right leg, at same 
time sweep left bell over to strike right, thumbs together, 
on first count ; on second, straighten right leg and bend 



THE ANVIL CHORUS. 45 

left, keeping feet in place, at same time turning bell once 
so that the thumb end points in direction in which bell is 
to go ; sweep it in circle in front of body, arm straight, 
round to strike right bell on third count, when legs come 
back into position of first count ; and so on, through seven 
counts ; on eighth count, come to position assumed at 
'beginning of No. 1, springing back with right foot. [Fig. 
24.] 

No. 7. Same as No. 1. 

No. 8. Same as No. 6, except charge made to the 
left, swing right and extend left arm. 

No. 9. Same as No. 1 . 

No. 1O. Charge to right, extend right bell as before, 
and sweep left over to strike right on first count ; and, 
keeping legs and feet in position, with stiff arms and full 
swing strike right bell through the next six counts ; on 
eighth count, come to position at beginning of No. 1, 
springing back with right foot. 

No. 11. Same as No. 1. 

No. 12. Same as No. 10, except charge made to left, 
left arm extended, and right swung in circle. Except, 
however, on eighth count, coming to erect position, bring 
bells to chest instead of into position of No. 1, and, at the 
command "Halt," forcibly bring them to sides, knuckles 
in front, as at the first. 

It will be seen, from the length of this exercise, that the eight 
measures beginning "Proudly," etc., must be played three times. 

It will be both beautiful and beneficial if performed with a snap, 
and every movement vigorously executed. The stiff straight arm 
must be insisted upon when, according to the nature of the move- 
ment, it is not impossible. This specification has been made occa- 
sionally through the exercise; being a point most likely to be 
overlooked and forgotten, and yet of primary importance if either 
of the above effects would be attained. 



4(> MANUAL OF GYMNASTIC EXERCISES. 

TABLE SHOWING THE PRINCIPAL MUSCLES BROUGHT INTO 
ACTION BY THE DUMB-BELL EXERCISE OF THE CLASS 
OK '85, AMHERST COLLEGE. 

THIS exercise is so varied as to bring into action all the 
more important muscles of the upper extremity, thorax, 
and back, as well as many of those of the lower extremity 
and abdomen. It is likewise arranged in such a manner 
as to give to each group of muscles an amount of work 
proportionate to its relative importance. 

In addition to the muscles brought into play by each 
particular part of the exercise, the fourteen flexor muscles 
of the hand are in constant use in holding the bells firmly 
in the grasp. 

I. There are, in this exercise, two distinct movements : 
1st, rotation of the arm and fore-arm inwards, accom- 
panied by a pronation of the hand ; 2d, rotation of the 
arm and fore-arm outwards, with a supination of the hand. 
These two movements follow each other in quick succes- 
sion, and are repeated twenty-four times, six in each of 
the positions, a, 6, c, and d. 

1. Rotation of the arm inwards is accomplished by 

Subscapularis, 
assisted by 

Pectoralis major, 

Latissimus dorsi, 

Teres major ; 
rotation of the fore-arm, and pronation of the hand, by 

Pronator radii teres, 

Pronator quadratus, 

Flexor carpi radialis, 

Palmaris longus, 

Flexor sublimis digitorum. 



MI'SVLEti BROUGHT INTO ACTION. 47 

2. Rotation of the arm outwards, by 
Supraspinatus, 
Infraspinatus, 
Teres major ; 

rotation of fore-arm outwards, and pronation of hand, by 
Supinator longus, 
Supinator brevis, 
Biceps extensor cubiti, 
Extensor secundi internodii. 

II. This may be analyzed into two sets of movements : 
1st, a forcible extension of the fore-arm, followed by a 
flexion of the same ; 2d, a thrusting of the arm from the 
shoulder, in each of the four directions indicated under 
a, 6, c, and d. 

a. 1. Fore-arm extended by 

Triceps, 

Anconeus ; 
flexed by 

Biceps, 

Brachialis anticus, 

Pronator radii teres ; 
assisted by 

Flexor carpi radialis, 

Flexor sublimis, 

Flexor carpi ulnaris, 

Supinator longus. 
2. Arm extended horizontally forwards by 

Anterior fibres of deltoid, 

Part of pectoralis major, 
assisted by 

Biceps, 

Coraco-brachialis ; 



48 MANUAL OF GYMNASTIC EXERCISES. 

depressed to the side by 

Posterior fibres of deltoid, 

Latissimus dorsi, 
assisted by 

Subscapularis. 

b. 1. Same as a. 

2. Arm extended horizontally outwards by 

Deltoid, 

Supraspinatns ; 
depressed to the side by 

Pectoralis major. 

Latissimus dorsi, 

Subscapularis, 
assisted by 

Teres major, 

Teres minor. 

c. 1. Same as a. 

2. Arm raised vertically upwards by 

Deltoid, 

Supraspinatus ; 

depressed by the same muscles as in b. 
(1. 1. Same as a. 
2. The arm lies passive at the side. 

III. This is simply a variation of II. As the right arm 
is raised vertically above the head, the left arm is simul- 
taneously thrust downwards, and vice versa; each move- 
ment being executed six times. 

IV. The bells are now held horizontally outwards, 
chiefly by the action of the deltoid, during four counts. 

V. This motion, as well as the following, brings the 



MUSCLES BROUGHT INTO ACTION. 49 

muscles of the shoulder, arm, and fore-arm into most 
vigorous action. 

a. The bells are forcibly drawn down till they meet in 
front of the body, by the 

Pectoralis major, 

Anterior fibres of deltoid. 

Then the arm is twisted, and the hand pronated (see 1), 
so that the other ends of the bells meet. This latter 
motion is repeated twelve times. 

b. The bells are now drawn behind the body by the 

Latissimus dorsi, 

Teres major, 

Posterior fibres of deltoid ; 

and the twisting of the bells is repeated in that position, 
through twelve counts. 

c. a and b repeated alternately, there being six motions 
in front, and six behind the body. In all three of these 
movements, the arm is raised by the 

Deltoid. 
Supraspinatus. 

VI. In addition to the muscles of the upper extremity, 
those of the thigh and leg are used somewhat in retaining 
the body in the position elsewhere described, 
a. Arms raised perpendicularly by 

Deltoid, 

Supraspinatus, 

and struck together by the action of that muscle ; then 
drawn apart by its antagonists, the 

Subscapularis, 

Latissimus dorsi, 

Pectoralis major. 
This is repeated four times. Bells are now lowered in 



50 MANUAL OF GYMNASTIC EXERCISES. 

front of the right leg, and struck together ; then struck 
together behind that leg, by the other ends. Finally, they 
are raised over the head. This is repeated to the left, the 
left leg being advanced instead of the right. 

VII. a. Arms raised perpendicularly upwards, and 
lowered to the breast, as in II. c ; then lowered to the 
side by extension of fore-arm, as previously described. 

6. At the same time, an entirely new set of muscles are 
brought into play, in drawing the body downwards and 
forwards ; viz., the abdominal muscles, 

Obliquus externus, 

Obliquus iuternus, 

Tran sversalis, 

Rectus abdominis ; 
assisted by 

Psoas magnus, 

Iliacus, 

Rectus. 
This is repeated three times. 

VIII. a. Right fore-arm flexed by 

Biceps, 

Brachialis anticus, 

Pronator radii teres, etc., 

as in II. At the same time, the arm is drawn as far 
backwards and inwards as possible, chiefly by the 

Deltoid ; 

left fore-arm flexed as in a, and arm drawn backwards 
and upwards by the 

Latissimus dorsi. 

b. Both arms extended to a horizontal position, by an 
extension of the fore-arm upon the arm, by 



MUSCLES BROUGHT INTO ACTION. 51 

Triceps, 

Anconeus ; 
a lowering of the right arm, by 

Subscapularis, 

Pectoralis major, 

Latissimus dorsi ; 
and an elevation of the left, by the 

Deltoid. 
Repeated six times. 

IX. This motion simply exercises the flexors and 
extensors of the fore-arm. Repeated ten times with each 
hand. Muscles same as in II. a 1. 

X. Elbows kept stiff by muscles on back of arms, 
while the 

Deltoid 

raises the arms horizontally ; and their own weight, 
together with the 

Latissimus dorsi, 

Pectoralis major, 
draws them down. Repeated ten times with each arm. 

XI. Arm raised forwards and upwards by 

Anterior fibres of deltoid, 

Part of pectoral is major ; 
assisted by 

Biceps, 

Coraco-brachialis. 

Fore-arm flexed as above. Repeated ten times with each 
arm. 

XII. a. Elbows rendered stiff by the extensors, and 



52 MANUAL OF GYMNASTIC EXERCISES. 

the arms held in a horizontal position by the deltoid 
muscle. The arm is now drawn forward by the 

Anterior fibres of deltoid, 

Pectoral is major ; 
then back to a straight line, chiefly by the 

Posterior fibres of deltoid, 

Pectoralis major. 

b. Arms in position as above, but raised over the head 
until bells strike, by 

Deltoid, 
Supraspinatus. 

c. Arms raised as in 6, and then lowered so that bells 
strike below and behind the bod} 7 , by 

Latissimus dorsi, 
Teres major. 

XIII. This is designed to furnish a brief respite, rather 
than to exercise actively any set of muscles, and will, 
therefore, not be described. 

XIV. Right fore-arm extended, and arm raised hori- 
zontally outwards, as before described. Left fore-arm 
flexed, and left arm raised horizontally. Each motion 
repeated twelve times with each arm. At the first four 
movements, the right foot is brought forward by flexors 
of thighs and extensors of the leg, and, at the end of 
each movement, returned to position by the antagonists 
of those muscles. During the next four movements, the 
left foot is brought into a similar position. On the last 
four, the body is in its natural position. 

XV. This exercise is essentially the same as II. The 
arms are alternately thrust in the directions a, b, e, and 



MUtiCLEN HROUGHT INTO ACTION. 58 

r?, four times with the right foot forward, four times with 
the left foot forward, and four times with feet together. 

XVI. This is another modification of II. Here, eacii 
of the four motions a, 6, c, and d, is performed, in suc- 
cession, by each hand, and repeated six times by each. 

XVII. Same as XII. , with bells parallel. Repeated 
six times. 

XVIII. d. Arms raised vertically, and fore-arms 
extended as before ; then arms lowered horizontally out- 
wards, and fore-arms flexed. 

b. Arms drawn forwards ninety degrees, and fore-arms 
extended again to the front. Now, the arm, in describing 
a circle backwards, is acted upon by all the principal 
muscles of the arm and shoulder in succession. Repeated 
twelve times, four times in each of the positions. 

XIX. Modification of III. Muscles the same, with the 
addition of those of the lower extremity used in the 
charge. Repeated eight times. 

XX. a. Arms raised to a vertical position by 

Deltoid, 

Part of pectoralis major. 

At this point, the fore-arms are flexed, so that the bells 
are perpendicular behind. 

b. Fore-arms extended, and (with elbows stiff) arms 
brought forward and downward to the side of the body, 
by the 

Subscapularis, 

Pectoralis major, 

Latissimus dorsi, 



54 MANUAL OF GYMNASTIC EXERCISES. 

(together with their aids) , acting in succession. Repeated 
twelve times. 

XXI. The elbow remains stiff, while the arm describes 
a circle backward. This brings into play almost all those 
muscles situated about the shoulder-joint, in different 
parts of the motion, including all those which can possibly 
move the arm on the shoulder in any direction. 

XXII. Same as V. Repeated twelve times. 

XXIII. Same as I., with d repeated seven times. 



MEASURES OF WEIGHT, HEIGHT, ETC. 



55 



THE MEASURES OF WEIGHT, HEIGHT, CHEST, ARM GIRTH, 
LUNG CAPACITY, AND BODY LIFT OF 2,106 DIFFERENT 
STUDENTS OF AMIIERST COLLEGE, ARRANGED BY AGE. 



Age. 


Number 
of 
observa- 
tions. 


Weight. 


Height, 


Chest. 


Arm. 


Lung 
capacity. 


Body 

lift. 


17 


330 


131.99 


66.60 


33.87 


11.12 


224.8 


8.58 


18 


1172 


134.07 


80.96 


35.10 


11.36 


238.7 


10.35 


19 


1511 


135.84 


67.30 


35.38 


11.52 


240.3 


10.82 


20 


1358 


138.12 


67.95 


35.52 


11.57 


248.8 


10.97 


21 


1171 


140.00 


68.01 


35.58 


11.69 


250.1 


10.84 


22 


807 


141.07 


68.11 


35.98 


11.77 


250.8 


10.92 


2:] 


559 


141.21 


68.31 


36.29 


11.71 


257.0 


10.63 


24 


362 


142.42 


68.44 


37.23 


11.74 


261.0 


10.62 


25 


216 


145.12 


68.68 


36.66 


11.79 


263.6 


10.11 


26 


141 


144.91 


68.82 


37.46 


11.81 


262.5 


10.71 


27 


71 


144.40 


68.30 


36.95 


11.84 


268.4 


10.37 


28 


30 


140.71 


68.52 


36.28 


11.57 


269.8 


8.51 


29 


19 


142.68 


68.09 


36.41 


11.51 


260.5 


9.86 


30 


18 


146.50 


69.19 


36.70 


11.61 


279.5 


7.50 



In this table, the average measures of the men of the 
ages between seventeen and thirty are given ; the second 
colnmn shows the weight in pounds and decimals ; the 
results of height, chest, and arm are given in inches and 
hundredths ; those of chest capacity, in cubic inches ; 
and the body-lift means the number of times the indi- 
vidual is able to lift the body up to the hands, when 
hanging freely suspended above the floor. 



MA SCAL OF G YM.\A STK ' EXE1W1XES. 



A TABLE OF THE BODILY MKASUJKMKXTS OF THE STI - 
DENTS OF AMHKKST COLLEGE, FORTJIE YEARS 1881-82. 
1883-84, iNCLrsiVE, AVERAGED r,v YKAKS OF A<;E. 



YEARS OF AGE. 


17 


is 


19 


20 


21 


22 


2:; 


24 


WEIGHT 


59.30 


59.70 


61.10 


61.30 


63.20 


63.70 


63.90 


64.70 


HEIGHT . 


1.70 


1.70 


1.71 


1.71 


1.72 


1.72 


1.72 


1.72 


" Knee .... 


465.00 


466.00 


469.00 


469.00 


477.00 


478.00 


480.00 


481 .00 


" Sitting .... 


S87.00 


889.00 


900.00 


901.00 


904.00 


902.00 


902.00 


910.00 


" Pubes .... 


855.00 


857.00 


858.00 


860.00 


863.00 


863.00 


863.00 


867.00 


Navel .... 


1.00 


1.00 


1.01 


1.01 


1.02 


1.02 


1.02 


1.02 


" Sternum . . . 


1.37 


1.38 


1.39 


1.39 


1.40 


1.40 


1.41 


1.41 


GIRTH, Head .... 


56S.OO 568.00 568.00 


569.00 


575.00 


575.00 


575.00 


575.00 


Neck .... 


337.00 


."41 .00 


348.00 


350.00 


354.00 


356.00 


358.00 


356.00 


" Chest, full . . 


887.00 


903.00 


923.00 


922.00 


925.00 


933.00 


934.00 


942.00 


" repose 


853.00 


865.00 


877.00 


883.00 


896.00 


897.00 


899.00 


908.00 


Belly .... 


703.00 


713.00 


714.00 


723.00 


735.00 


736.00 


747.00 


753.00 


Hips 


872.00 


875.00 


893.00 


897.00 


900.00 


900.00 


901.00 


901.00 


Thighs .... 


501.00 


501.00 


:>12.oo 


513.00 


523.00 


523.00 


525.00 


527.00 


" Knees .... 


353.00 


354.00 


355.00 


356.00 


357.00 


35S.OO 


358.00 


358.00 


" Calves .... 


337.00 


340.00 


344.00 


346.00 


351.00 


356.00 


357.00 


360.00 


" Insteps .... 


236.00 


237.00 


238.00 


240.00 


243.00 


244.00 


245.00 


247.00 


" Right upper arm 
contracted . . 


275.00 


279.00 


281.00 


284.00 


298.00 


299.00 


301.00 


307.00 


" Upper arms . . 


242.00 


247.00 


252.00 


253.00 


257.00: 2.")S.OO 


261.00 


268.00 


Elbows .... 


242.00 


243.00 


246.00 


24S.OO 


251.00 


252.00 


253.00 


254.00 


" Fore-arms . . . 


251 .00 


253.00 


257.00 


261.00 


265.00 


2C.C..OO 


266.00 267.00 


" Wrists .... 


162.00 


162.00 


162.00 


163.00 


166.00 


166.00 


167.00 167.00 


BREADTH, Head .... 


152.00 


152.00 


153.00 


153.00 


155.00 


155.00 


156.00 


156.00 


Neck .... 


106.00 


106.00 


107.00 


108.00 


109.00 


109.00 


109.00 


109.00 


" Shoulders . . . 


414.00 


423.00 


425.00 


428.00 


435.00 


441.00 


442.00 


442.00 


Waist .... 


247.00 


247.00 


248.00 


248.00 


256.00 


259.00 


259.00 266.00 


" Hipg 


319.00 


321.00 


325.00 


326.00 


329.00 


.",20.00 


330.001 332.00 


" Nipples. . . . 
Shoulder-elbows .... 


188.00 
362.00 


192.00 
367.00 


195.00 
367.00 


197.00 
369.00 


202.00 
375.00 


202.00 
376.00 


202.00 202.00 
376.00 378.00 


Elbow-tips .... 


460.00 


460.00 


460.00 


4ti!).oO 461.00 


462.00 


466.00 467.00 


LENGTH Feet 


257.00 


257.00 


258.00 


25S.OO 262.00 


262.00 


262.00 ' )M ^n 


Stretch of Arms . . 


1.77 


1.77 


L77 


" 1.77 l.'so 


1.80 


1.80 


" T.'so 


Horizontal length . . . 


1.72 


1.72 


1.72 


1.72: 1.73 


1.73 


1.73 


1 .7", 


STRENGTH of Lungs . . 


10.00 


13.00 


13.50 


1=5.00; 12.00 


12.00 


12.60 12.00 


' of Back . . 


132.00 


132.00 


139.00 


Uii.oo l.-)O.(M) 


151.00 


156.00 159.00 


Chest, dip . . 


3.60 


5.20 


5.80 


(5.20 7.00 


7.00 


8.20 8.30 


" pull-up, 
' of Legs . 


7. c,o 
160.00 


7.90 
161.00 


8.80 
172.00 


S.'.MI 9.00! 9.10 
IStl.Oii v.cs.oo I'.IS.OO 


9.10 ;i.20 
199.00 199.00 


' of Fore-arm . 


33.90 


."4. SO 


36.10 


."S.40 40.00 


40.10 


40.60 40.70 


Capacity of Lungs . . . 


3.86 


3.91 


4.0", 


4.07 4.10 


4.20 


4.29 4.:U 


Pilosity . 


2.10 


2.20 


2.20 


2.30 2.40 


2.60 


2.70 ' an 


NUMBER MEASURED . . 
TOTAL . 


47.00 
461.00 


100.00 








26.00 




90.00 


'.17.00 ;,o.ou 


30.00 


11.00 



EXPLANATION OF TABLE. 57 

The table on page 56 gives the average results of the 
study of four hundred and sixty-one students, during the 
past three years, in the more than fifty measures and tests 
that are applied. They are grouped under the different 
years of seventeen to twenty-five inclusive ; and the 
results are given in kilograms, metres, and millimetres, 
except the capacity of lungs, which is in litres, and the 
chest strength, the unit of which is the bodily weight as 
raised in a " dip " and a w - pull-up." 

Such a table cannot show a true ascending and descend- 
ing grade, on account of its limited data ; but, assuming 
that the large part of the students approach the normal 
and healthy standard, their measures will give more than 
an approximate chart for guiding others of the same ages 
in the examination and care of themselves. 

These data are so obtained as to find out the important 
facts in relation to the bones and ligaments, their size and 
rate of growth, and at what time of college life they 
increase the fastest. Some of the nu<*des are measured, 
especially those of the extremities, to learn the normal 
size of these parts of the body. Other girths are taken 
to find out the amount of skin, fat, and other protective 
tissues. Safe trials of muscular strength are emploj^ed, 
not only to test the general condition of muscles, but to 
know if the different portions of the body are relatively 
strong, and properly co-ordinated to each other. Lung 
tissue is also tested both in capacity and strength. The 
stethoscope is used to learn the condition of some of the 
more important vital organs, and lenses to ascertain the 
refractive power of the eye. 



TJHIVBR3ITY 




BOSTON GYMNASIUM CONSTRUCTION 
AND SUPPLY COMPANY. 



R. J. ROBERTS, President. A. H. HOWARD, Secretary. 

Stipt. Boston Y.M.C.A. Gymnasium. Supt. DepL Physical. Culture, Boston 

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the matter, addressing all communications to 

A. H. HOWARD, Secretary, 

No. 9 Ashburton Place, Boston, Mass. 

For references, correspond with Dr. E. HITCHCOCK, Amherst 
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A STUDY OF THE DRINK QUESTION, 

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