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iii:i; M.i'ic BB1L8. 

1. (No. 509). Bed ofThomai Plantagenet, k.<;., Duke of Gloucester, \.i>. 1395. 

2. (No. 397). Seal of William de Bohun, K.<i., Earl of Northampton, a.i». I860. 
:{. (No. 898). Seal of Humphrey de Bohun, Earl of Hereford, a.d. 1320. 

I, (No 525). BealofThomaf Holland, K.<;., Earloi Kent. \.i>. L880. 




S&itfj &eocn fQunoreto Ellustratums. 


" All the devices blazoned on the shield 
In their own tinct." 


&ra pro&at artificem. 


»p Appointment, to &er «c5t B an* $fe late &opl highness the prince Consort. 



Printed bj A. Schulzo, 13, Poland Street. 


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1 ?C3 



Preface ..... 



Introductory ... . 

. 5 


Blazon, Nomenclature, Language, and Laws 

. n 


The Shield — its Parts, Points and Primary Divisions . 19 


Dividing and Border Lines . 

. 24 


Tinctures and Furs . 

. 25 


The Ordinaries, with their Diminutives, and the Roundles 27 


The Heraldry of the Cross . 

. 32 


The Subordinaries .... 

. 37 




Varied Fields and Diapers . . . . .40 

Miscellaneous Charges : Section I, Inanimate Objects . 44 

Miscellaneous Charges : Section II, Animate Beings . 58 

Miscellaneous Charges : Section III, Natural Objects . 70 

Descriptive Terms . . . . . .76 


Miscellaneous Names and Titles, not included under the 
term " Charges" . . . , . .89 

Marshalling ....... 127 

Cadency ....... 157 

Badges, Knots, Mottos, Crests, and Supporters . 201 

Flags 220 

The Royal Heraldry of England . . . .226 

Orders of Knighthood and Insignia of Honor . . 259 

Official and Corporato Heraldry .... 280 



Architectural Heraldry ..... 292 

Monumental Heraldry ..... 300 

The Heraldry of Seals and Coins . . . .817 

The Heraldry of Illuminations .... 329 

Examples of Shields of Arms .... 333 

Genealogies ....... 338 

Precedence ....... 345 

Modern Heraldry . . . ... . 350 

Heraldic Treatment, Drawing and Color . . . 357 

Foreign Heraldry ...... 363 

Abatement ....... 372 


Supplemental . . . . . . 375 



List of Plates .... 

General List of Illustrations 
General Index .... 

Index to, Heraldic Charges, Terms, and Figures 
Index to Names, Titles, Offices, and Places 


. 389 
. 392 
. 404 

. 407 
. 416 

^No. G27-— Whito Hart lodged. Badge of Kichabd II, from his 
elfigy at Westminster. Page 385, see abo pages 20G and 207. 


It is the aim of this Manual to inquire into the true 
character and right office of Heraldry, and to describe and 
illustrate its general condition as it is in use amongst 

Of the rise and progress of Heraldry, and of its almost 
universal prevalence under variously modified forms, I 
have not attempted to give more than a slight and rapid 
sketch. I have been content also to refer only incident- 
ally and in a few words to the value and interest of 
Heraldry, as a handmaid of History, as an ally of Art, 
and as the chronicler of Archaeology — my purpose being 
not so much to lead students on to the application of 
Heraldry, as to enable them to apply it by becoming 
Heralds. In the following pages, accordingly, I have 
sought to define and elucidate the principles of Heraldry, 
to exemplify its practice, and to illustrate at once its 
utility and its attractiveness. The Heraldry of the pre- 
sent time I have desired uniformly to exhibit as the direct 
descendant and the living representative of the Heraldry 
of the past ; and the student will observe that I have 
systematically endeavoured to impress him with the con- 
viction that Heraldry is, essentially and at all times, in- 



separably associated with History, or at any rate with 

This Manual does not profess to extend its range to 
legendary Heraldry, nor does it include even references 
to those fanciful and often fantastic speculations, in which 
the early Heralds delighted to indulge. " The Curiosities 
of Heraldry," in like manner, this Manual leaves, with 
grateful and admiring acknowledgment, in the accom- 
plished hands of Mr. Mark Anthony Lower. Repeated 
references to standard works upon Heraldry I have con- 
sidered to be neither necessary nor desirable, but instead 
of this, I have prepared and inserted a complete list of 
heraldic authorities ; and, in the preparation of this Ma- 
nual I have been scrupulously careful that every state- 
ment contained in its pages should be based upon certain 
and approved authority. 

Historical Heraldry occupies a position of such impor- 
tance in Histories of England, that a certain amount of 
heraldic knowledge has become indispensable to the 
student of English History. 

Every Gothic Architect ought to be a thorough Herald. 
Heraldry alone can enable him to render his works, in the 
noblest and most perfect sense, historic monuments. 
Without Heraldry, no lover of the great Art, which has 
been so happily revived amongst us, is able either to feel 
the full power of what the Gothic has transmitted to him 
from the olden time, or to realise all that it is now able 
to accomplish as a living art. 

Historical Painters, having at length learned to esti- 
mate aright the worth of archaeological accuracy, con- 
stantly require that information which Heraldry is ever 
ready to impart. 


It is the same with Sculptors, when they treat of sub- 
jects that are derived from either mediaeval or modern 
History, or that are in any way associated with Gothic 

To Illuminators, Heraldry opens a wide and richly 
diversified field of attractive study. The beautiful and 
deservedly popular Art of Illumination finds in Heraldry 
a most versatile and eflicient confederate. True Illumi- 
nation, indeed, is in its nature heraldic ; and true 
Heraldry provides for Illuminators the most appropriate, 
graphic and effective both of their subjects, and of the 
details and accessories of their practice. 

In some sense or degree also Heraldry enjoys the 
favour of the general public. To many persons, as to 
seal engravers and herald painters, it provides what may 
be styled a profession. Whoever has, or desires to have 
a " coat-of-arms," professes to know something about 
Heraldry ; that is, he is favourably disposed towards it, 
though perhaps he is unconscious of the sentiment. It 
is always pleasant to the pedestrian public, many of them 
bearers of time-honoured arms and having the reddest of 
red blood flowing in their veins, to be familiar with the 
heraldic blazonry that appears upon the panels of aristo- 
cratic carriages. Nor is it less satisfactory, when we 
chance to see a flag displayed and blowing out in the 
breeze, or when our eyes rest upon an heraldic seal, or 
when we discover a shield-of-arms in a book, or on a monu- 
ment, or amidst the decorative accessories of some building, 
to be able to read what Heraldry thus has written with 
her peculiar symbols. And then, as a matter of course, 
Heraldry, as of old, receives a becoming homage from the 
wealthy inheritors of historic names and noble titles; 

b 2 


while a similar homage is no less cordially tendered by 
those whose Heraldry, like their own position in the great 
world of society, is at least of comparatively recent 

From each and all of these Friends of Heraldry, this 
Manual ventures to anticipate a welcome, inasmuch as 
it aspires to place before them, in a plain and simple 
form, whatever heraldic teaching they may require ; and 
also because, as a book of reference, they will find it to be 
trustworthy, easy to be consulted, and, as far as it pro- 
fesses to go, complete. 

a No. 1. B 


A. Early form of the Cross in the Jerusalem shield. 

b. More recent and generally accepted form of the Jerusalem Cross. 






An inquiry into the Heraldry of the past leads us 
back almost to the remote fountain-head of human his- 
tory. From the very earliest periods, we find it to have 
been an usage universally prevalent amongst mankind 
for both individuals and communities to be distinguished 
by some sign, device, or cognizance. The idea of symbolical 
expression coupled with a love of symbolism, appear, 
indeed, to constitute one of the component elements of 
the human mind, as well in the rude condition of savage 
life, as in every progressive advance of civilization and 
refinement. Through the agency of such figurative 
imagery the mind is able both to concentrate a wide 
range of thought within a very narrow compass, and 
to give to the whole a visible form under a simple image. 
The mind thus speaks to the eye. By this symbolical 


blazonry a multiplicity of definite impressions are con- 
veyed, in the simplest manner, and with poetic impres- 
siveness. By such means, also, the mind is empowered 
to combine the imaginative with the real, and, while 
extending its speculations beyond the bounds of ascer- 
tained verities and actual facts, to impart a definitive 
character to the visions of the imagination. 

The exercise of a faculty such as this, it is easy to 
conceive, would be held in the highest estimation in the 
primitive stages of human society. Men so circumstanced 
had much to say; but they had only rare opportunities 
for speaking, and they knew but few words in which 
to convey their meaning. They delighted, therefore, in 
an expressive symbolism, which might speak for them, 
laconically, but yet with emphasis and to the point. 
Their symbolical language, also, would commend itself 
to their favour in a peculiar manner, through the facility 
with which it would extend and intensify its own phonetic 
powers by means of accumulative association. 

War and the chase would naturally furnish the ima- 
gery that would first become prevalent. A man's physical 
powers or peculiarities, as a warrior or a hunter, or the 
issue of some exploit in which he might have been 
engaged, would determine his distinctive personal cog- 
nizance. If swift of foot, or strong of hand, or fierce 
in demeanour, or patient of hardship, he would naturally 
seek to symbolize himself under the form of some animal 
distinguished pre-eminently for one or other of those 
qualities. For, it is natural that man should find symbols 
of his own physical attributes in the inferior animals ; 
because in mere swiftness, or strength, or such like 
qualities, those animals are superior to man. The next 


thing would be to render this personal symbolism here- 
ditary. A man's son would feel a natural pride in 
preserving the memorial of his father's reputation, by as- 
suming, and also by transmitting his device. It would 
be the same with the comrades of a chief, and with the 
subjects of a prince. Thus a system of Heraldry would 
arise and become established. 

And such is actually the process, which has produced 
and matured its own Heraldry amongst each of the 
various races and tribes of the earth. In the far West, 
the Red Indian, from time immemorial, has impressed 
upon his person the totem of his people — the cognizance 
that his fathers bore, and by which they were dis- 
tinguished before him. In the very constitution of his 
mind essentially a lover of symbolism, the Oriental revels, 
and he always has revelled, in a truly characteristic 
Heraldry. In the relics of the wonderful races that 
once peopled the valley of the Nile, this Heraldry of 
the East is everywhere present. Another expression of 
the same semi-mystic symbolism was found, deep buried 
beneath the mounds of Assyria. Somewhat modified, 
it was well known in ancient Israel. In Europe, with 
the first dawn even of historical tradition, the existence 
of a Heraldry may be distinguished. Nearly six hundred 
years before the Christian era, iEschylus described the 
heraldric blazonry of the chieftains who united their 
forces for the siege of Thebes, with all the minute 
exactness of our First Edward's chronicler of Caerlaverock. 
The well-known Eagle of the Romans may be said to 
have presided over the Heraldry of Rome, as their own 
Dragon has ever presided over that of the Chinese. The 
legendary annals of mediaeval Europe abound in traces 


of a barbaric Heraldry, in the war-banners of the chiefs 
and in their personal insignia. The Bayeux Tapestry of 
the Conqueror's consort may be placed at the head of 
the early existing illustrations of the Heraldry of Britain. 
That celebrated piece of royal embroidery exhibits a com- 
plete display of the military ensigns in use at the period 
of the Conquest, by both the Norman invaders and the 
Saxon occupants of this island. Illuminations in MSS. 
take up and carry on the heraldic record. Seals, carvings 
in ivory, monumental memorials, stained glass, and the 
various productions of the architectural sculptor, gradually 
contribute their several memoirs, and lead us on to the 
full development of English mediaeval Heraldry through 
the agency of the Crusades. 

The Crusades formed the armed followers of the 
different European princes into a military alliance for 
a common purpose, and also brought the rude yet gallant 
soldiers of the West into contact with all that then 
existed in Eastern lands of the refinement, both military 
and social, of still earlier times. Among the many and 
important results of those strange and strangely romantic 
enterprises, were great changes in the weapons and 
armour of the western chivalry ; and these changes were 
accompanied with the introduction of an infinite variety 
of armorial devices. The Crusade confederacy itself would 
necessarily demand the adoption, by the allied Sovereigns, 
of a more definite system of military standards and 
insignia than had been previously prevalent. The use 
of improved defensive armour, also, combined with a 
better system of organization and discipline in the 
armour-clad bands, rendered it necessary for each warrior 
of any rank to assume and wear some personal cog- 


nizance, without which he could not have been dis- 
tinguished, at a time when the ascertained presence 
of certain individuals was of such grave importance. 
And the device of each baron and knight would be 
assigned, with appropriate modifications, to their res- 
pective retainers and followers. In this manner, Crests 
were introduced, and placed on bascinets and helms ; 
and thus some recognized device or composition was 
displayed upon all knightly pennons and banners, and 
was emblazoned both upon the rich surcoats which the 
knights wore over their armour, and upon the shields 
which so long formed most important components of 
their defensive equipment. Such is the origin of Shields- 
qf-Arms and Coats-of-Arms, — terms that we still retain, 
with representations of the Shield, and with Crests, in our 
own Heraldry at the present day. 

In England, Heraldry may be considered to have first 
assumed a definite and systematic character during the 
reign of Henry III., a.d. 1216 to 1272 ; and at the close 
of the thirteenth century it may be said to have been 
recognized as a distinct science. The heraldic devices 
that were adopted in England in the thirteenth century, 
in common with those which were added to them during 
the century that followed, partook of the ideal character 
of all symbols, but at the same time they were dis- 
tinguished by a simple and dignified expressiveness. 
And they were associated directly, and in a peculiar 
manner, either with individuals, families, establishments, 
potentates, or with the community at large; so that 
they may be considered after a definite method, their 
varieties readily admit of classification, their charac- 
teristics may be clearly elucidated and fully set forth, 


and they may be subjected to certain general laws and 
treated as forming a system in themselves. This classifi- 
cation and description, and the general laws themselves, 
we now unite with the devices and compositions, under 
the common name of HERALDRY. And with the 
Heraldry of the thirteenth century we associate that of 
the fourteenth, and of succeeding centuries, and of our own 
era, assigning to the whole the same common title. For, 
as it happened in the instance of Architecture, when once 
it had been duly recognized in England, Heraldry rapidly 
attained to an advanced degree of perfection. Whatever 
the Heralds of Edward I. might have left to be accom- 
plished after their time, their successors of the fourteenth 
century were not slow in developing. Under the genial 
influences of the long and brilliant reign of Edward III., 
mediaeval Heraldry attained to its culminating point. The 
last quarter of the fourteenth century proved to be equally 
favourable to the Heralds. And again, during the Lan- 
castrian era, and throughout the struggle of the Roses, 
English Heraldry maintained its reputation and its popu- 
larity. Its practical utility was felt and appreciated by 
the Plantagenets in their fierce social wars, as it had been 
before their time by the Crusaders. Then, with a general 
decline of the Arts, Heraldry declined. Its art-character, 
indeed, had shewn signs of a coming degradation, before 
the accession of the Tudors to the disputed throne of this 
realm. The next downward step seriously affected the 
early simplicity of the art- science, so that the Heraldry of 
the sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth centuries can 
advance but comparatively slight claims upon our present 
consideration. And thus we are brought onwards to the 
great and general Art-Revival of our own times, in which 


Heraldry again appears in the act of vindicating its title 
to honourable recognition, as an Art- Science that may be 
advantageously and agreeably studied, and very happily 
adapted, in its practical application, to the existing con- 
dition of things by ourselves. 

When thus directing the attention of students to the 
Heraldry of the past, I am anxious to impress upon them 
the remembrance of the fact, that the main object of our 
inquiry has reference to our own present use and applica- 
tion of Heraldry in the days of Queen VICTORIA. All 
true Heraldry is historical, though it by no means follows 
that it must always be necessarily popular. Our Heraldry, 
however, is to be such as may claim to be entitled both 
" popular" and " historical :" but the historical condition of 
our Heraldry does not imply that we should enter into the 
elucidation of mediaeval Heraldry, purely for its own sake. 
"We find Heraldry to have been in England a growth of the 
Middle Ages : and, consequently, when we desire to fami- 
liarise ourselves with this Art- Science, we are constrained 
in the first instance to direct our thoughts back to the mid- 
dle ages, in order to obtain much of the information that 
we need for present use. This differs widely from a study 
of mediaeval Heraldry, undertaken and conducted for the 
sake of reproducing mediaeval Heraldry. It is impossible 
to press this consideration too urgently, not only upon 
living Heralds, but also upon all who are interested in 
the Arts and Art-Manufactures of our country at the 
present day. The Arts of the middle ages are replete 
with precious teachings for ourselves ; and yet they are 
not by any means calculated to be reproduced by us in 
their original condition. They were the Arts of those 
times — they then arose, and they flourished through their 


direct association with their own era. It is most true, 
that at all times they may be studied with certain ad- 
vantage ; and it is also no less true, that a mere imitation 
of their former operation indicates that error in judgment, 
which ignores the all-important mutatis mutandis, and so 
leads to a mistaken course of action. And then, on the 
other hand, nothing can be more absurdly irrational than 
to reject what the Arts of the middle ages can teach so well, 
upon the alleged plea that any such study involves a 
modern medievalism. Here, as in other matters, a middle 
course lies open invitingly before us. Whatever we find to 
be really valuable and useful in the Arts of the middle ages 
we gratefully accept; and, as we know that our prede- 
cessors in departed centuries matured their own thoughts 
for their own advantage, and applied their Arts to their 
own use, so we take their teaching, and associate it in its 
practical application, not with them, but with ourselves. 
When we seek to apply our knowledge, from what source 
soever we may have acquired it, we look around us, and 
we look before us, seeking both to adapt our knowledge 
to present requirements, and to expand its range that it 
may become applicable to the requirements of the future. 
By no means content to be imitators and copyists, we 
aim at excellence in our works, through the judicious, 
consistent, and appropriate application of sound principles, 
under the guidance of an observant and well- disciplined 
experience. It will be understood, then, when I refer in 
the following pages to the Heraldry of the thirteenth and 
fourteenth centuries, that I do so without the slightest 
intention, on the one hand, to suggest that either our 
Guardsmen or our Volunteers should be equipped in the 
armour and surcoats of the Plantagenets, or, on the other 



hand, to fix the standard of the Heraldry of to-day in 
accordance with the heraldic fashion prevalent when 
the Black Prince was invested with the Order of the 

No. 198. — ENGLAND. 

The Crown and Shield of the time of Henry III. 

No. 283. 
Coronet of William Fitzalan, Earl of Arundel, a.d. 1487. 



In Heraldry, the term Blazon, or Blazoning, is applied 
equally to the description and to the representation of all 
heraldic figures, devices, and compositions. It also indi- 
cates the arrangement of the component members and 
details of any heraldic composition. Historical Blazoning, 
also entitled Marshalling, denotes the combination and 
arrangement of several distinct heraldic compositions, with 
the view to produce a single compound composition. In 
like manner, the disposition and arrangement of a group 
or groups of heraldic compositions or objects, is styled 

All heraldic figures and devices, whether placed upon 
shields, or borne or represented in any other manner, are 
entitled Charges ; and every shield or other object is said 
to be charged with the armorial insignia that may be dis- 
played upon it. 


Heraldic Language is most concise, and it is always 
minutely exact, definite, and explicit ; all unnecessary 
words are omitted, and all repetitions are carefully 
avoided ; and, at the same time, every detail is specified 
with absolute precision. 

The Nomenclature is equally significant, and its aim is 
to combine definitive exactness with a brevity that is 
indeed laconic. As might naturally be expected, both 
the Language and the Nomenclature of Heraldry habitu- 
ally indicate their Norman-French origin. 

Heraldic Devices are described, first, in the order of 
their comparative importance ; and, secondly, in the order 
in which they are placed upon the shield, or other object 
that bears them. Thus the character of the surface of 
the shield itself, which forms the foundation of the 
heraldic composition, is first specified. Then follows a 
description of the principal charge, which occupies the 
most central and most commanding position, and which 
also is considered to rest immediately upon the surface of 
the shield. Objects of secondary importance, which also 
rest upon the shield itself, are next described; and 
finally, descriptions are given of such other devices and 
figures as may be placed upon another charge, and which 
consequently appear to be carried by an object that is 
nearer to the surface of the shield than they are them- 
selves. In some instances, as when a Chief, a Canton, and 
a Bordure appear and are charged, the composition 
will require to be blazoned in two groups, precedence 
being given to the central and more important group. 

In blazoning any Charge, the title, position or disposi- 
tion, tincture, and distinctive conditions of the device or 
figure are first to be specified, and then there will succeed 


such descriptions of details and accessories as may be 
necessary, in their order of comparative importance. 

If a tincture or a number should occur twice in the 
same sentence of any descriptive blazon, such tincture 
or number is to be indicated by reference to the words 
already used, and not by actually repeating them. Thus, 
should any Charge be of the same tincture as the field, 
it is said to be " of the field" or, as the tincture of the 
field is always the first that is specified in the blazon, a 
Charge of that tincture may be blazoned as " of the first." 

So any Charge is said to be " of the second" " of the ( ^ 

third" " of the last," &c, if its tincture be the same as 
the second, the third, the last, or any other that has 
been already specified. In the instance of the metal gold, 
instead of reference to the heraldic term " Or," the word 
u gold" itself may be used. The position or disposition 
of any Charge or Charges are to be blazoned first after 
the name or title of the Charge or Charges. When the 
same Charge is several times repeated in the same com- 
position, the figures are generally arranged in rows, 
one row being above another. Such an arrangement is 
indicated by simply stating the number of the figures 
in each row : as " six crosses crosslets, 3, 2, 1," to denote 
three in the uppermost row, then two below them, and 
then one crosslet in base. 

In heraldic descriptions, the presence and the position 
of the stops or points demand especial attention. A 
comma precedes and follows each item of every descriptive 
clause ; and the consistent intervention of the more im- 
portant points must be observed with rigid precision. 
The student will bear in mind that in Heraldry, while 
nothing is specified that can be distinctly and certainly 



understood without description, so nothing whatever is 
left to the possibility of contingency or misapprehension. 

It is a positive rale in Heraldry, that Metal shall not 
appear upon Metal, nor Colour upon Colour ; that is, a 
Charge of one of the Metals must rest upon, or be in con- 
tact with a surface or another charge of one of the 
Colours ; and in like manner, a charge of one of the 
Colours must rest upon, or be in contact with a surface or 
object of one of the Metals. This rule, absolute in its 
primary application, admits of a partial relaxation in the 
case of varied surfaces, and of certain details of charges ; 
and also in those compositions, in which a supported device 
or figure extends in the shield beyond the charge that 
supports it. The solitary early violation of this heraldic 
law is the armorial ensign of the Crusader Kings op 
Jerusalem, who bore five golden crosses upon a silver 
shield, that thus their Arms might be distinguished from 
those of every other potentate. Nos. 1 and 1 a, p. 4. 

When any Charge is repeated in such considerable num- 
bers, in the same composition, as to produce almost the 
appearance of a pattern, the Field so covered is said to 
be Semee with the Charge in question. It will be ob- 
served that a Field which is Semee, is often treated as if 
it were cut to the required size and shape from a larger 
extent of surface, some of the Charges being only parti- 
ally represented. The ancient shield of France, nobly 
emblazoned in the North Choir-Aisle of Westminster 
Abbey, in the work of Henry III, bears azure, semee de 
lys, or. No. 2, p. 18. 

When the often-repeated figure is of very small size, 
the term Powdered is substituted for Semee. 

In Heraldry, every ' Coat' or Shield-of-Arms, Crest 



and Badge is attached to the Name, and not to the Title, 
of the person who may bear them. 

All figures and devices represented in heraldic compo- 
sitions have various attributes, qualities, and epithets 
assigned to them by Heralds, which express their several 
positions and dispositions, and indicate the parts which 
they take in the aggroupment of the whole. Thus the sun 
is said to be in its glory, or eclipsed ; the moon is said to 
be increscent, or decrescent ; human figures are variously 
habited ; animals are said to be armed with the horns, or 
the appendages provided for them by nature for their 
defence or for aggressive purposes. Similar appropriate 
terms indicate the circumstances under which figures and 
objects of all kinds appear in heraldic compositions, to- 
gether with their individual peculiarities, details and 
accessories. These terms are classified and explained in 
Chapters X, XI, XII, XIII and XIV. 


Westminster Abbey— time of Henry III. 

No. 3. 

No. 4. No. 5. 

Heraldic Shields. 

No. 6. 



The Shield, the most important piece of their defensive 
armonr, was derived by the knights of the middle ages 
from remote antiquity, and at almost all times it has been 
decorated with some device or figure. The ancient Greek 
tragedian, iEschylus, (about B.C. 600,) describes with 
minute exactness the devices that were borne by six of 
the seven chiefs who, before the Trojan War, besieged 
Thebes. The seventh shield is specially noted to have 
been uncharged. In the middle ages, in Europe, there 
prevailed a precisely similar usage ; and, indeed, so uni- 
versal was the practice of placing heraldic insignia upon 
shields, that the shield has been retained in modern 
Heraldry as being inseparable from all Heraldry, so that 
it still continues to be the figure upon which the heraldic 
insignia of our own times are habitually charged. 

Early heraldic shields vary very considerably in their 
forms, the simplest and most effective form having the con- 
tour of an inverted equilateral arch, slightly stilted, as 
No. 3. The shields actually used by the Normans in 


England were long and tapering ; they are exemplified in 
the equipment of the knightly effigies in the Temple 
Church, London. To these succeeded short, almost trian- 
gular, heater-shaped shields. Examples abound in the 
monumental effigies of the thirteenth and the fourteenth 
centuries. The equilateral form became prevalent early 
in the fourteenth century, at which period several modifi- 
cations of the prevailing form were introduced. Two of 
the more effective of these varieties, Nos. 4, and 5, are 
severally drawn from the Percy Monument at Beverley, 
a.d. 1350, and the Monument of John op Eltham, in 
Westminster Abbey, a=d. 1336. In the next century the 
shields were shortened, and as it advanced their form 
was altogether changed, and became somewhat square, 
the outlines being produced by a series of concave curves. 
Shields of this class appear to have been introduced 
during the second half of the fourteenth century, but 
they did not become general until a later period. In 
these shields a curved notch is cut out, for the lance to 
pass through, in the dexter chief ; when thus pierced, the 
shield was said to be a louche, No. 6. This form of 
shield may be advantageously used in Modern Heraldry, 
particularly when any composition has many charges, or 
when there are quarterings ; it would seem, however, to 
be desirable not to represent any shield as a louche in 
modern Heraldry, since shields now do not require any 
adjustment to knightly lances laid in rest. And there is 
some danger lest a misapprehension should arise with 
reference to the shield a louche, now that its use has so 
long passed away : thus, in each of the upper spandrels of 
the fine trussed timber roof of Lincoln's Inn Hall there is a 
carved shield a louche ; and these shields have been made 




Westminster Abbey, about 1260 



Westminster Abbey about 1260 


WestmmsterAbbeyAD.1290. SoutkacreCburch Norfolk, A. D. 1384. 


K os 7 78, 135 k 301. 



to correspond with one another, as they range along the 
two opposite sides of the Hall, so that on one side the 
shields have the notches cut out, quite correctly, in their 
dexter chief, and the other series have their notches cut 
in their sinister chief. 

The form of the Shield, as a matter of course, may be 
determined in Modern Heraldry in accordance with the 
preference of every Herald. All that I would suggest is, 
that the preference may as well rest upon the more agree- 
able rather than the less attractive forms. 

In early architectural and monumental compositions, 
and also often upon seals, heraldic shields are represented 
as' if suspended from the guige,- or shield-belt, which was 
actually worn by the knights to sustain and to secure 
their shields to their persons. In some instances of this 
always effective, because always consistent and appropri- 
ate arrangement, the long guige appears oh either side of 
the shield, and is there passed over a corbel, as in No. 7, 
one of the beautiful series of shields of the time of 
Henry HE, in the choir-aisles of Westminster Abbey. 
No. 7 is charged with the arms of Raymond, Count of 
Provence, — or, 3 pallets, gules. The more prevalent usage 
was to represent the shield as being suspended from a 
single corbel, boss, or a cluster of foliage, or from some 
architectural member of the composition. Occasionally, 
and more particularly on seals, the shield appears as if 
suspended by the sinister chief angle, and so hangs 
diagonally from the helm and crest : Nos. 135, 301, 
Plate I. These modes of arrangement, with the various 
modifications of them that will readily suggest themselves, 
are worthy of the most thoughtful attention of the 
practical modern Herald. 


The Heraldic Shield is sometimes entitled an Escutcheon ; 
and when one shield is charged upon another, the shield 
thus placed is distinguished as an Inescutcheon, and is 
said to be borne in pretence. 

The different parts of an heraldic shield are distin- 
guished and entitled as follows : — No. 8. 
A. Dexter Side. B. Sinister Side. 

C. Chief. "D. Base. 

E. Dexter Chief. F. Sinister Chief. 

G. Middle Chief. H. Dexter Base. 

I. Sinister Base. K. Middle Base. 

L. Honor Point. M. Fesse Point. 

Heraldic shields are divided in the manner indicated by 
examples, Nos. 9 to 14. 

No. 9, is Per Pale, or Impaled. No. 10, is Per Fesse. 
No. 11, is Per Cross, or Quarterly. No. 12, is Per Bend. 
No. 13, is Per Saltire, and No. 14, is Per Chevron. 

When a Shield is divided into more than four parts by 
lines drawn in pale and in fesse, crossing each other at 
right angles, it is said to be Quarterly of the number of 
divisions, whatever that number may be : thus, No. 15 is 
Quarterly of eight. 

In the instance of a Quartered Shield having one or 
more of its Quarters quartered, this compound division is 
indicated by the term Quarterly -quartered ; and the four 
primary Quarters are distinguished as Grand Quarters; 
thus in No. 16, A, B, C, D are the Grand Quarters, of 
which the first and the fourth, A and D, are Quarterly- 

The Heraldic Shield is always considered to bear its 
charges upon its face, or external surface, and consequently 
the Dexter and the Sinister sides of the shield itself are 



those, which would severally cover the right or the left side 
of a warrior when holding the shield in front of his 
person. The Dexter side of an heraldic composition or 
object, therefore, is opposite to the left hand of an observer, 
and the Sinister to his right hand. This use of the terms 
Dexter and Sinister is invariable in Heraldry. 

The heraldic shield is sometimes represented as bowed, 
or as if having a slightly convex contour ; and shields of 
the form of No. 6 often have a ridge dividing them in 

The entire surface of a Shield is called the Field. The 
same term Field is also applied to the entire surface of 
any Charge or Object. 

The same terms that denote the parts and points of a 
Shield, are also applicable to a Flag, or to any figure 
that may be charged with an heraldic composition. In 
Flags, the depth from chief to base is entitled the 
" Hoist," and the length from the point of suspension to 
the fore extremity is distinguished as the " Fly." 

No. 15. 

No. 16. 

\ L 



4. / 

\ 5, 




3 1 



No. 9. 

No. 10. 

No. 11. 

No. 12. 

No. 13. 

No. 14. 

No. 18. No. 19. 

Two Metals. 



Dividing and Border Lines, in addition to simple 
right lines and curves, assume the forms indicated in 
Example, No. 17. 

A. Engrailed . , 

B. Invected . . , 

(J. Wavy, or Undee. 

T>. Nebulee . 

E. Indented . 

F. Dancette . 

G. Embattled 
H. Bagulee . 

I. Dovetail . 


No. 20. 

No. 21. 

No. 22. 
Five Colours. 

No. 23. No. 24. 



The Tinctures of Heraldry comprise two Metals, five 
Colours, and eight Furs. 

They are severally distinguished, entitled, and indi- 
cated as follows, in Examples, Nos. 18 to 32. 

Titles. Abbreviations. 

1. Gold. Or. Or. 

2. Silver. Argent. Arg. 


1. Blue. Azure. Az. 

2. Ited. Gules. Gu. 

3. Black. * Sable. Sa. 

4. Green. Vert. Vert. 

5. Purple. Pur pure. Purp. 

furs. (See page 26.) 

1. Ermine. Black spots on a white field. 

2. Ermines. White spots on a black field. 

3. Erminois. Black spots on a gold field. 

4. Pean. Gold spots on a black field. 

5. Vair. NTos. 28 and 29. 

6. Counter Vair. No. 30. 

7. Po«. „ 31. 

8. Counter Potent. „ 32. 





















The Metals may be expressed by gold and silver, or by 
yellow and white. 

The representation of the Tinctures by means of dots 
and lines was not in use amongst Heralds before the 
time of the accession of the Stuarts to the English 

The student will observe that the metals always take 
precedence of the colours, unless a contrary arrangement be 
specified. Also, that Vair, Counter fair, Potent and 
Counter Potent, are always Argent and Azure, unless other 
tinctures are named in the blazon. 

Objects and Figures represented in heraldic composi- 
tions in their natural colours, are said to be proper, 
abbreviated ppr. 

In early Heraldry, surfaces were commonly enriched 
with designs and patterns simply of a decorative charac- 
ter, which scrupulously avoided assuming the distinctive 
attributes of charges. This very beautiful method of 
ornamentation, which is termed Diapering, is fully des- 
cribed in Chapter IX. 


No. 29 

No. 30. 

No. 31. 

No. 32. 






Plate H 

N os 33 to 56. 

No. 40 A. — DE CLAEE. 



The earliest devices of Mediaeval Heraldry are simple 
figures, entitled Ordinaries, which have been held by all 
Heralds in high esteem and honour, and retain their old 
rank in the Heraldry of the present day. They still 
sometimes appear, as of old, alone, or almost alone ; while 
in other instances the Ordinaries are associated with 
other devices, or are themselves charged with various 
figures. In their simplest condition, the Ordinaries are 
formed by right lines ; but they also admit, instead of right 
lines, the various border lines of Example, No. 17. 

The Heraldic Ordinaries are nine in number, and are 
severally entitled, the Chief, No. 33 ; the Fesse, No 34 ; 
the Bar, No. 35 ; the Pale, No. 36; the Gross, No. 37 ; 
the Bend, No. 38 ; the Saltire, No. 39 ; the Chevron, 
No. 40 ; and the Pile, No. 41. See Plate II. 

Several of these Ordinaries have Diminutives, which are 
grouped with them in the following descriptions of the 
Ordinaries themselves. 

I. The Chief, No. 33, formed by an horizontal line, 
contains in depth the uppermost third part of the field, or 


area of the shield. It may be borne in the same composi- 
tion with any other Ordinary, except the Fesse. 

The Diminutive of the Chief is the Fillet, the contents 
of which must not exceed one-fourth of the Chief, of 
which it always occupies the lowest portion. 

II. The Fesse, No. 34, which is identical in form and 
in area with the Chief, differs from that Ordinary only 
in its position in the field of the shield, of which it 
always occupies the horizontal central third part. 

The Fesse has no Diminutive, but it may be sur- 
mounted by a Pale or a Bend. 

III. The Bar, No. 35, differs from the Fesse in its 
width, being one-fifth, instead of one-third of the field. 
The Bar may be placed horizontally in any part of the 
field, except absolutely in chief or in base. Two Bars 
frequently appear in the same composition, in which 
case it is the usual practice to divide the field horizontally 
into five equal parts, and to assign to the Bars the two 
spaces that are on either side of the central space, as in 
No. 42. A Single Bar never appears in an heraldic com- 
position without some other Ordinary. 

The Bar has two Diminutives, the Closet, and the Barru- 
let, which are respectively one-half, and one-fourth of the 
width of the Bar itself. 

When either of these Diminutives is placed on each side 
of a Fesse or a Bar, the Ordinary is said to be cotised, as 
No. 43. 

When Barrulets are placed together in couples, as in No. 
44, each couple is entitled a pair of Bars Gemelles. 

TV. Like the Chief and the Fesse, the Pale, No. 36, 
occupies one-third of the field ; but its position is vertical 
instead of horizontal, and it accordingly appears in an 


erect position always in the centre of the field. The Pale 
is an Ordinary of comparatively rare occurrence. It has 
two Diminutives, the Pallet, and the Endorse, which are 
severally one-half and one-fourth of its width. 

A Pale between two Endorses is said to be endorsed. 
No. 45. 

A Pallet may appear in any vertical position in the 
shield. See No. 7, Plate I. 

V. In its simplest form, the heraldic Cross, No. 37, is 
produced by the meeting of two vertical with two horizon- 
tal lines, about the Fesse point, No. 8, M, of the Shield ; 
or it may be denned to be the combination of a Fesse with 
a Pale. When charged, the Cross occupies about 
one-third of the field ; but otherwise it occupies only one- 
fifth of the field. So numerous are the modifications 
of form, decoration, and arrangement which Heralds 
have introduced into this Ordinary, that I propose 
to devote a separate chapter to the " Heraldry of the 

VI. The Bend, No. 38, is formed by two parallel 
lines drawn diagonally, at equal distances from the Fesse- 
point, from the Dexter Chief to the Sinister Base. When 
charged, the Ordinary contains one-third, but when plain 
it contains one-fifth part of the field. Two uncharged 
Bends may appear in the same Composition. The Bend 
also is associated with other Ordinaries, or it may be 
placed over other Charges. Charges set on a Bend are 
placed Bend-wise: that is, they slope with the Bend. 
No. 46. 

The Diminutives of the Bend are the Bendlet, contain- 
ing one-half of the Bend, and the Cotise containing one- 
half of the Bendlet. 


A Bend placed between two Cotises, is said to be cotised. 
No. 47. 

A Riband is a Cotise couped (cut off smooth) at its 
extremities, so that it does not extend to the edges of the 
Shield. No. 48. 

A Bend, when issuing from the Sinister instead of the 
Dexter Chief, is distinguished as a Bend Sinister. 

VII. The Saltire, No. 39, or Diagonal Cross, is a 
combination of a Bend with a Bend Sinister. It con- 
tains one-fifth of the field, but one-third when it is charged. 

The Saltire may appear in the same Composition with 
the Chief. It has no Diminutive. Charges set on a Saltire 
slope with each of its limbs. No. 49. 

Villi The Chevron, No. 40, which comprises some- 
what more than the lower half of a charged Saltire, 
occupies one-fifth of the field. 

Two Chevrons may appear in the same Composition. 

The Diminutive of this Ordinary is the Chevronel, which 
contains one-half of a Chevron. The De Clares bore, 
Or, three chevronels, gules. No. 40 A, (p. 27.) 

IX. The Pile, No. 41, a wedge in form, generally 
issues from the Middle Chief, and extends towards the 
Middle Base, of a shield. Occasionally, however, this 
Ordinary is borne in the same direction as the Bend ; or 
it may issue from various parts of the enclosing line of a 

In early shields the Fesse, Pale, Cross, Bend, Saltire 
and Chevron are generally very narrow, as Nos. 33 a, and 
33 b. 

Charges are often placed and arranged after the form 
of the Ordinaries : thus, charges may be in Chief, No. 
49 a ; in Fesse, No. 49 b ; in Pale, No. 49 c ; in Cross, 



No. 49 d ; in Bend, No. 49 e ; in Saltire, No. 49 f ; in 
Chevron, No. 49 g ; and in Pile, No. 49 h. 

With the Ordinaries may be associated another group, 
of the simplest character and in general use. These 
figures are the Seven Boundles, each of which possesses 
its own distinctive title. Plate II. 

They are : — 

1. The Bezant,— or. No. 50. 

2. The Plate,— argent No. 51. 

3. The Hurte, — azure. No. 52. 

4. The Torteau, — gules. No. 53. 

5. The Pellet— sable. No. 54. 

6. The Pomme, — vert. No. 55. 

7. The Fountain. No. 56, 

which last is divided horizontally by wavy lines, and is 
alternately argent and azure. 

In representation, the Bezant, Plate and Fountain are 
flat, but the other Eoundles are to appear spherical 
and to be shaded accordingly. 

A Eoundle of one of the Furs, or tinctured in any 
other manner, or if charged, must have its distinctive 
character specified in the blazon. 

No. 33 A. No. 33. 


(Eoll of Arms, temp. Edw. I.) (Counter Seal, A.v. 1235.) 

x\x // 





No. 63. 
First Union Jack. 

No. 64. 

Second Union Jack. 



The Cross, as an heraldic symbol, has already been 
denned to be a combination of two others of the Or- 
dinaries of Heraldry, the Fesse and the Pale. When it 
is not repeated in the same Composition, and when the 
contrary is not set forth in the blazon, the simple Cross 
is placed erect in the centre of the Shield, and it extends 
to the limits of the field. Many Crosses, however, may 
be introduced into the same composition : or a single 
Cross may be placed within a Bordure : or it may be 
interposed between other Charges npon the Shield : or it 
may itself be charged : or it may appear under a variety 
of conditions affecting both its form and its position. 

The Greek Cross, No. 57, has its four limbs all of 
equal length. Plate III. 

The Latin Cross, No. 58, has its uppermost limb and 
its transverse limbs of the same length, the fourth limb 
or shaft being considerably longer than the other three. 
In some cases the uppermost limb of a Latin Cross is 
either longer or shorter than the two transverse ones. 

The Cross without any upper limb, No. 59, is en- 


titled the Cross of St. Anthony, or the Tau Cross, from 
its form being the same as the Greek Character Tau 

A diagonal Cross is entitled a Saltire. The Crosses of 
St. Andrew of Scotland, No. 60, and of St. Patrick 
of Ireland, No. 61, are Crosses- Saltires, the former 
being Argent, on a field Azure, and the latter Chiles, on 
a field Argent. 

The Cross of St. George of England, No. 62, is 
Gules, upon a field Argent. 

The Combination of the Crosses of St. George and 
St. Andrew produced the First Union Jack, No. 63, 
which was declared in 1606, by King James I., to consti- 
tute the National Ensign of Great Britain. It happily 
symbolises the Union of England and Scotland, in the 
union of the Crosses of the two realms. 

In 1801, in consequence of the legislative Union with 
Ireland, a Second Union Ensign superceded its prede- 
cessor. The new compound device was required to com- 
prehend the three Crosses of St. George, St. Andrew, and 
St. Patrick in combination. It appears, charged upon a 
banner, in No. 64, and is well known to every Englishman 
as the blazonry displayed upon that "Meteor Flag of 
England," of which the poet wrote in words of fire. The 
blazonry of. this, the Second Union Jack, is borne by 
the Duke of Wellington, charged upon a Shield of 
Pretence over his paternal arms. It is an " Augmenta- 
tion of Honor," significant and expressive, granted to 
the Duke. The Duke of Marlborough bears, in like 
manner, the Cross of St. George upon a Canton. The 
Union Device is displayed, as a national ensign, in Flags 
only, — except in the copper coinage of the realm, which 



exhibits a seated Britannia, with a shield always incor- 
rectly blazoned with this Union Device. 

It will be observed that in both the Union Devices, 
Nos. 63, and 64, the Cross of St. George appears with a 
narrow white border, which is entitled a Fimbriation. 
Also, that in the Second Union, the Cross- Saltire 
of St. Patrick has its four limbs fimbriated on one side. 

No. 65 is an example of a fimbriated Cross. It will be 
observed that the Fimbriation lies in the same plane with 
the Cross, to which it forms a border. Hence there is 
no shading between the Fimbriation and the Cross, but 
the Fimbriation itself is duly shaded. In case one Cross 
should be placed upon another, the primary or lower Cross 
would display a broader border than the Fimbriation ; and 
it is also indicated, by shading both the Crosses, that one 
Cross is surmounted by another. The student will com- 
pare Nos. 65, and 66. 

When the central area of a Cross is entirely re- 
moved, so that of the Ordinary itself little more remains 
than the outlines, such a Cross is said to be voided, as 
No. 66 a. 

No. 67 is a pointed Cross. 

A Cross crossed at the head, as No. 68, is a Patriarchal 
Cross ; and when placed upon steps, as No. 69, a Cross is 
said to be on Degrees. 

When the extremities of a Cross do not extend to the 
Chief, Base, and Sides of a Shield, it is said to be 
couped, or humettee, as No 70. 

The Cross of eight Points, distinctively so called, and 
known also as a Maltese Cross, is represented in No 71. 
This Cross was borne by the Knights Templars, Chiles, 
upon a Field Argent. By the Hospitallers, or Knights 


Kate HI- 

N os - 57 to 91 


of St. John, the same Cross was borne Argent, upon a 
Field Sable. The student of Mediaeval History will re- 
member that between the years 1278 and 1289, when 
engaged in military duties, the Knights Hospitallers 
bore a white Cross, straight, upon a red field. 

A Cross which expands into a square at the centre, 
as in No. 72, is a Cross Quadrate. When a square aper- 
ture is pierced through its centre, as in No. 73, a Cross 
is quarter pierced. The term quarterly pierced, denotes 
the entire removal of the central portion of the Cross, the 
four limbs only being left in contact, as in No. 74. This 
arrangement appears in the arms of the Earl of Win- 

The beautiful varieties of the Heraldic Cross which 
follow are generally borne in small groups ; occasionally, 
however, a single figure of any one of these Crosses may 
be seen alone. 

The Cross Moline is represented in No. 75. 

No. 76 is the Cross Becercelee. 

The Cross Patonce, No. 77, perhaps the most beautiful 
of the Heraldic Crosses, expands more widely than the 
Moline, and has its extremities floriated. It appears in 
the arms assigned to Edward the Confessor, No. 78, 
as they yet remain to illustrate the Heraldry of Henry 
III, in the south choir-aisle of Westminster Abbey. The 
Cross Patonce was borne by William de Vesci, a.d. 

The Cross Fleurie, No. 79, has its four limbs straight, 
instead of expanding like the Patonce ; and the Cross 
Fleurettee, No. 80, which may be regarded as a modifica- 
tion of the Cross Fleurie, (though by some Heralds these 
two Crosses are considered to be identical), is a plain 

d 2 


Cross, couped, and having a Fleur-de-lys issuing from 
each extremity. 

Examples of Crosses having floriated terminations, 
occur in Eolls of Arms of Henry III. and Edward I. 

No. 81 is the Cross Pommee, and No. 82 is the Cross 

A Cross crossed towards the extremity of each limb, as 
No. 83, is a Cross Crosslet, and is an equally favourite and 
beautiful Charge. When the Field is covered with small 
Crosses Crosslets, it is said to be Crusilly, or Crusilee. 

When the Shaft of any Cross is pointed at the base, such 
a Cross is said to be Fitchee, " fixable," that is, in the 

The Cross Crosslet Fitchee is shown in No. 84. 
The Crosses Patee or Formee, and Patee or Formee 
Fitchee, are shown in Nos. 85, and 86. These Crosses may 
be drawn either with right lines, or with their radiat- 
ing lines slightly curved. 

The Crosses Botonee, and Botonee Fitchee, Nos 87, and 
88, are modifications of the Crosslet. 

The Cross Potent, No. 89, resembles the Fur which bears 
the same name, No. 31. Nos. 90 and 91, severally repre- 
sent the Crosses Potent Fitchee, and Potent Quadrate. 

A Cross may be formed of any of the Border Lines ; 
thus, Nos. 92, 93 and 94 are respectively Crosses Engrailed, 
Wavy or TJndee, and Ragulee. 

When any Charges are placed upon a Shield in a cruci- 
form order of arrangement, they are said to be in Cross ; 
thus, No. 95 is Argent, 7 Fusils in Cross, gules. 




N os - 96 to 126. 


No. 99. 

No. 99 a. 




The term Subordinary is applied to a group of devices, 
less simple, and also less important than the Ordinaries, 
but which still admit of a certain general classification. 
They are fourteen in number. Plate TV. 

1. The Canton, No. 96, is a square, situated in the 
dexter chief of the shield, and it occupies about one-ninth 
part of the entire field. This Subordinary in early 
shields was of larger size, and it appears to have super- 
ceded the Quarter, now not in use. See p. 39. 

2. The Gtyron, No. 97, is half of the first quarter 
of the shield, that quarter being divided diagonally by a 
line drawn from the dexter chief. 

3. The Inescutcheon, or Shield of Pretence, No. 98, 
is a small shield pretended upon the face of the shield. An 
Inescutcheon of silver, or sometimes of ermine, was borne 
by the Mortimers. Nos. 99 and 99 a, and Nos. 269, 270. 
See also Chap. XXVI. 

4. The Orle, No. 100, may be described as the nar- 
row border of a shield charged upon the field of a larger 
shield. Sometimes a series of separate charges form an 
Orle ; that is, when they are so arranged that they form a 
kind of border to the shield. In this case, such charges 


are said to be In Orle, or they may be blazoned as an 
Orle. Thus, the historic shield of the De Valences, Plate 
V, No. 101, bore Barruly argent and azure, an Orle of 
Martlets, gules. See page 43. 

5. The Tressure, No. 102, is a double Orle enriched 
with Fleurs-de-lys. The Tressure appears in the Eoyal 
Shield, No. 103, Plate V, and in several of the baronial 
shields of Scotland. 

6. The Lozenge, No. 104, is a four-sided figure, set 
diagonally upon the shield. 

7. The Fusil, No. 105, is a narrow Lozenge. 

8. The Frette, No. 106, is an interlacing figure, which 
may be said to be compounded of a narrow Saltire, and a 
Mascle. It was borne by the Despencers, No. 107, and 
still appears in Arms of the Earl Spencer. When the in- 
terlacing bars of a Frette are repeated, so as to cover the 
field either of the Shield or of any Charge, such a field 
is said to be Frettee. This Frette-Work is supposed to be 
in relief upon the field, and therefore in any representa- 
tion of it it is to be shaded. No. 106 a.. 

9. Flanches, No. 108, and Flasques or Voiders, No. 
108 a, are formed by two curved lines, and are always 
borne in pairs, one on either side of the field. 

10. The Mascle, No. 109, is a Lozenge voided. 

11. The Eustre, No. 110, is a Lozenge, pierced with a 
circular opening in its centre. 

12. The Billet, No. Ill, is a rectangular oblong. A 
field semee of Billets is Billetee. 

13. The Label, No. 112, is a Eiband crossing the shield 
bar-wise, and having three or five shorter ribands 
depending from it at regular intervals. 

14. The Bordure, No. 113, constitutes a border to 







1 IMI 

A A A A A . 

nm *#*? 1 

\ A A A A - 


V f J T T 

7 ^rHI 








Plate V 

W 8 101 103, 107' 116 &194. 


the shield, and contains in breadth one-fifth part of 
the field. In Mediaeval Heraldry, both the Label and 
the Bordure were borne as Differences. The Bordnre now 
is frequently borne as a Charge. It may be plain, as in 
No. 113, or engrailed, or indented, as in Nos. 114, and 115 ; 
or it may be charged with any device, as in No. 194, the 
Arms of Richard Planta genet, Earl of Cornwall, 
son of King John, who died a.d. 1296. His Shield 
remains in the work of his elder brother, in "Westminster 
Abbey. See Plate V. This Shield is blazoned — argent, 
within a bordure, sable, bezantce, a lion rampant, gules, 
crowned, or. Another curious early example of a Bor- 
dure bezantee is preserved on the Shield of an unknown 
Knight, whose effigy yet remains at Whitworth. This 
Shield, No. 115 a, is carved in low relief. 

A Canton, No. 96, always surmounts a Bordure, as in 
No. 116, the Arms of John de Dreux, Count of Brit- 
tany, nephew of Edward I., thus blazoned in the 
Caerlaverock Eoll, — chequee, or and azure, a bordure, gules, 
semee of Lions of England; a canton for quarter), ermine. 
Plate Y. 

No. 115 A. Shield of Effigy at Whitworth 

No. 121. — DE GKREY. 



Both Shields and the Charges which they bear fre- 
quently have their surfaces varied in their tinctures, the 
devices or patterns thus adopted being derived from the 
Ordinaries and Subordinaries. 

It must be carefully observed, that in these Varied 
Fields all the 'parts lie in the same plane or level, and that 
they differ in this respect from fields which are charged, 
or have devices set upon them. It follows that in Varied 
Fields no shading whatever is introduced, and no relief is 
indicated. See Plate IV. 

1. A Field that is divided after the manner of a Gyron, 
is said to be Gyronny. This division generally com- 
prises eight pieces, as in No. 117 ; but sometimes, as in 
No. 118, it has six only. 

2. A Field Lozengy, No. 119, is divided into Lozenge- 
shaped figures. 

3. In a Field Fusilly, No. 120, the divisions are narrower 
than in Lozengy. 

4. Barry is formed by dividing a Field into an even 
number of Bars. In blazoning the number is specified ; 


thus, No. 121 is Barry of Six, 'argent and azure, borne by 
the Earl De Grey. When the bars are more than eight 
in number, the term Barruly may be used as in No. 101. 

5. Paly is formed by dividing the Field into an even 
number of Pales, the number to be specified ; thus, No. 
121 a is paly of 8. Compare No. 7, Plate I. 

6. Bendy is formed by dividing the Field into an even 
number of Bends, in blazoning the number being spe- 
cified. No. 121 b. 

7. Barry Bendy, No. 122, is produced by lines drawn 
horizontally, bar-wise, crossed by others drawn diagonally, 
or bend-wise. 

8. Paly Bendy, No. 123, is produced by lines drawn pale- 
wise, crossed by others drawn bend-wise. 

9. When the Field of any charge is divided into a series 
of small squares, if there is a single row only of such 
squares, that arrangement, exemplified in No. 124, is styled 
Compony ; accordingly No. 124, is blazoned, — A Bordure 
compony, argent and azure, borne by the Duke of Beau- 

10. When there are two rows of squares, having the 
metal and colour alternating, it is Counter Compony, as in 
No. 125. 

11. Should the division exhibit more than two rows of 
alternate squares, as in No. 126, it is Checquee. In all these 
instances the Tinctures must be specified in the blazon. 

12. A Field may also be divided simply after the man- 
ner indicated by the form and position of an Ordinary, as 
Per Pale, &c, as I have already shown in Chapter III. 

13. The term Counter-changing is employed to denote a 
reciprocal exchange of Metal for Colour, and Colour for 
Metal, either in the same Composition, or the same 


Charge. This arrangement implies the presence of one 
Metal, (or Fur), and one Colour, and that whatever is 
charged upon the Metal should be tinctured of the Colour, 
and that whatever is charged upon the Colour, should 
be tinctured of the Metal. In one of the Kolls of Arms 
of Henry III a curious early example of Counterchanging 
occurs in the Shield of Eobert de Chandos, No. 127, Or, 
a Pile, gules, charged with three Estoiles, and between six 
others, all of them counterchanged. Plate VI. 

14. Diaper is every system of decorative design that is 
introduced by Heralds to increase the vividness of any 
surface, whether the Field of a Shield or of any 
Charge. Diaper, accordingly, is an ornamental accessory 
only, and not a Charge. Great care, therefore, must 
always be taken in the introduction of Diapering, to keep 
the accessory in due subordination to the true heraldic design, 
that there may not arise even a suspicion of the Diaper 
taking a part in the blazon. 

This Diaper may be executed in any Tincture that is in 
keeping with heraldic rule, but it does not affect in any 
degree the heraldic Tinctures of the composition. A very 
effective Diaper is produced by executing the decorative 
accessory in a different tint of the same tincture with the 
Field, or in black. Gold and Silver Diapers may be placed 
upon Fields of any of the Colours ; and all Diapers are 
applicable to every variety of Charge. 

In the early Heraldry of the Middle Age3 Diapering 
was in constant use, and the Heralds of those days have 
transmitted to us abundant evidence of their skill in its 
application. It appears to be most desirable to revive the 
general adoption of this beautiful system of ornamentation 
in all surfaces of any extent. 


i ;haf ters x k xxvi. 



Roll of Arms, about 1250 Beverley Minster, about 1350 


I • ield BroadoakEssex, AD 1238. 

Castle AorePnory Norfolk, about 1390. Beverley Minster, about 1350 

'late VI. 

N oa 127&156. 



Plate YU. 

A.DurlacTwr iith 18, Brewer S* W. 

IT? 101 

Shield of William de Valence, Earl of Pembroke, 
AD. 1296._ Monument in "Westminster AEbey. 

See pages 45 and 76&. 


In Heraldry in stained glass it is always peculiarly 
desirable to diaper the Field, and also all Ordinaries and 
other Charges of large size and simple form ; such also is 
the case in whatever Heraldry may be introduced into 
Illuminations. In Sculptured Heraldry, Diapers may be 
executed in slight relief. 

From amongst almost innumerable fine examples of 
early heraldic Diaper, I must be content to specify those 
which may yet be traced upon the Monuments of Queen 
Eleanor of Castile, a.d. 1290 ; of William de Va- 
lence, Earl of Pembroke, a.d. 1206, No. 101 ; and of 
Edmond Plantagenet, named Crouchback, Earl of 
Lancaster, a.d. 1296 : and upon the Effigies of King 
Henry III., a.d. 1272 ; of King Eichard II, and Anne, 
of Bohemia, his Queen, a.d. 1394, all of them in West- 
minster Abbey : as also the Shields upon the Percy 
Shrine, about a.d. 1350, in Beverley Minster ; the Shield 
of Eobert de Vere, a.d. 1298, at Hatfield Broadoak, 
Essex ; Nos. 156 and 237. See Mullet. The field of the 
Brass to Abbot Thomas De la Mere, about a.d. 1375, 
in .St. Alban's Abbey ; and the entire Brass, a.d. 1347, 
to Sir Hugh Hastings, at Elsyng, in Norfolk. In Plate 
VI. two of the diapered Shields of the Percy Shrine are 
represented : No. 127 a is Percy — Or, a lion rampant, 
azure; and No. 248 is De Warrenne, Chequee, or and 
azure. No. 127 b is another example of the Shield of 
De Warrenne, from the remains of Castle Acre Priory, 
Norfolk, about a.d. 1390 : the diaper of this Shield is 
shewn enlarged in No. 127 c. The examples of admir- 
able Diaper that appear in early Seals and Illuminations, 
defy selection. See also Plate VII. 

No. 128.— Admiralty Flag. 




With the view to place in the simplest manner before 
students of Heraldry the various objects and figures that 
are charged upon heraldic shields, I have arranged in 
classified groups these different Charges, only excluding such 
as are too simple, and too well known in their non- 
heraldic capacity, to require any specific notice when the 
Herald summons them to appear and act at his bidding. 

All descriptive terms I have placed in a separate group. 
So also all heraldic titles and terms that are neither simply 
descriptive, nor the names of Charges, form a group by 
themselves. In each group the terms are placed and 
treated after the manner of an Heraldic Glossary. 


Anchor: — appears as a Charge in Heraldry. It is 
borne with a cable, set Fesse-wise, all Or, on a Flag, Gules, 
by the British Admiralty. No. 128. 

Angenne : — a six-leaved flower, or six-foil. No. 244. 

Annulet : — a ring, plain, and of any size. In Cadency, 
the difference of the fifth son. No. 129, Plate VIII. 

Arrow : — this missile, when borne as a Charge, is 


blazoned as armed and feathered, or flighted. A bundle of 
arrows is entitled a Sheaf. No. 129 a. 

Ball : — a spherical Roundle. 

Banner : — borne by Sir R. Bannerman. 

Bar : — one of the Ordinaries. No. 35. 

Barrulet : — a diminutive of the Bar. See Chap. VI. 

Baton : — a diminutive of the Bend Sinister, couped 
at its extremities. See Chap. VI. 

Battering Bam: — borne by the Earl of Abingdon. No. 
129 c. 

Beacon : — an iron-case containing some inflammable 
substance in active combustion, set on the top of a pole, 
against which a ladder is also placed. It was a Badge of 
Henry V, and appears on his monument at Westminster. 
No. 130. It is also a Badge of the Comptons. 

Bend : — one of the Ordinaries. No. 38. 

Bend Sinister: — see Chap. VI. 

Bendlet : — a diminutive of the Bend. See Chap. VI. 

Bezant : — a plain flat golden Disc, or Roundle, No. 50, 
supposed to be derived from the gold coins found by the 
Crusaders to have been current at Byzantium. 

Billet: — an oblong square of any tincture. No. 111. 

Bird-bolt : — an arrow with a blunt head. 

Book : — borne both open and closed. 

Bordure: — No. 113. 

Botonee, and Botonee Fitchee: — a Cross, having its 
arms terminating in trefoils, Nos. 87 and 88. 

Breys : — barnacles for a horse's nose, used in breaking 
the animal. This Charge appears on the shields of the 
brothers De G-eneville, in the Roll of Henry III ; also 
in the stained glass at Dorchester. Nos. 13 and 131 a. 

Brizure : — a Difference or Mark of Cadency. 


Buckle : — the common instrument for fastening, which 
is borne in Heraldry both separately, and attached to 
straps, as in the arms of the Pelhams. Nos. 132 and 132 a. 

Burgonet: — a variety of Helmet, worn principally in 
the sixteenth century. 

Caltrap : — a ball of iron, from which four long and 
sharp spikes project in such a manner, that when the 
Caltrap lies on the ground, one spike is always erect. It 
was used in war to maim horses. No. 133. 

Canton: — No. 96. 

Cap of Maintenance, or Chapeau : — a Cap of crimson 
velvet, lined and guarded with ermine. No. 133 a. 
See Chap. XVII. 

Carbuncle, or Escarbuncle : — in Heraldry, a figure 
formed by a rose, from which issue eight rays of sceptre- 
like form and character ; these rays are sometimes united 
both at their extremities, and again midway between their 
extremities and the central rose. It appears upon the 
shield of Geoffrey de Mandeville, Earl of Essex, in his 
Effigy in the Temple Church, the date of the effigy being 
about a.d. 1160. This example, however, is earlier than 
the period, in which any peculiar heraldic charges can be 
considered -to have assumed definite and recognized 
forms. The Escarbuncle constitutes the arms of Navarre, 
(it superseded the silver cross upon blue about a.d. 1200), 
and appears charged upon the Royal Shield of Henry IV, 
by impalement, as the ensign of Queen Joanna of 
Navarre. Nos. 134 and 134 a. 

Castle: — a turretted and embattled military edifice, 
generally triple-towered. It is the well known heraldic 
device of Castile, borne by Eleanor, Queen of Ed- 
ward I. Nos. 135 and 135 a. 




[ate VIII 

N os 129 to 146 


Cham/ron : — armour for a horse's head. 

Chaplet : — an entwined wreath. See Garland. 

Chess-rook: — one of the pieces used in the game of 
Chess. No. 136. Borne by the name Rokewoode. 

Chevron : — one of the Ordinaries. No. 40. 

Chevronel : — a diminutive of the Chevron. No. 40 a. 
See Chap. VI. 

Chief: — one of the Ordinaries. No. 33. 

Cinque-foil, or Quintefoil: — a figure formed after the 
fashion of a five-leaved grass. No. 136 a. 

Civic Crown : — a wreath of oak-leaves and acorns. 

Clarion : — this charge is also called a Best, and occa- 
sionally a Sufflue, or a Claricord or Clavicord. It most 
probably is the heraldic representation of the ancient 
military musical instrument called a " Clarion," possibly 
a species of " Pandean Pipe." It was borne in the arms 
of Neath Abbey, and was apparently a Rebus-Badge of the 
De Clares. It is now charged upon the shield of the 
Earl Granville. Nos. 136 and 137. 

Closet : — a diminutive of the Bar. See Chap. VI. 

Comb : — borne for the name Ponsonby. 

Cotise : — a diminutive of the Bend. See Chap. VI. 

Couple-Close : — half a Chevronel. See Chap. VI. 

Cross ;— one of the ordinaries. See Chap. VII. 

Crozier : — see Pastoral Staff. 

Cross-Crosslet : — No. 83. 

Cup, or Covered Cup: — No. 137a, from the Slab of 
John le Botiler, about a.d. 1300 ; and the Brass to 
Judge Martyn, a.d. 1436, Graveney, Kent. 

Cushion, or Pillow (Oreiller) usually of a square form, 
with a tassel at each corner, borne by the Kirkfatricks. 
No. 138. The Cushions represented beneath the heads of 
mediaeval effigies are often richly diapered, and it is 


common for the upper of two cushions to be set lozenge- 
wise upon the lower, as in No. 138 a, from the De Bohun 
Brass, Westminster. 

Dagger : — a short sword, commonly called in the Middle 
Ages a " Misericorde." It appears in military monu- 
mental effigies worn on the right side. This Charge is 
cantoned with the Cross of St. George in the Arms of the 
City of London, No. 139. It commemorates the gallant act 
of the Lord Mayor, William Walworth, who struck 
down the rebel, Wat Tyler, June 13, 1381. The original 
weapon is still preserved. 

Dancette or Danse : — sometimes used by early Heralds 
to denote a Fesse Dancette. It occurs in this acceptation 
in the Roll of Caerlaverock. 

Degrees : — steps. 

Endorse : — a diminutive of the Pale. See Chap. VI. 

JEstoile : — a star, having six, or sometimes eight, or 
more wavy points or rays. No. 140. See Mullet. 

Fan :— a winnowing implement used in husbandry. It 
appears charged upon the Shield, and also upon the Sur- 
coat and Ailettes of Sir E. De Sevans, in his Brass at 
Chartham, Kent, about a.d. 1305, No. 141. 

Fer-de-Moline : — See Millrind. 

Fesse : — one of the Ordinaries. No. 34. 

Fetter -lock : — a shackle and padlock. It was the Badge 
of Edmund Plantagenet, of Langley, fifth son of Ed- 
ward III, and of his great-grandson, Edward IV. It 
appears, charged on a shield, in the Brass of Sir Symon 
de Felbrigge, K.G., Banner-bearer to Eichard II., 
a.d. 1416. No. 122. 

File : — a Label, apparently from filum, a narrow riband. 

Fillet : — a diminutive of a Chief. See Chap. VI. 

Flanches and Flasques : — Nos. 108, and 108 a. 


Fountain: — No. 56. 

Fourchee : — a modification of the cross moline, No. 82. 

Frette:— No. 106. 

Fusil : a narrow Lozenge. No. 105. 

Fylfot : — a device represented in No. 143. It is sup- 
posed to be a mystic symbol. 

Gads or Gadlyngs : — small spikes projecting from the 
knuckles of mediaeval gauntlets. In some instances, 
small figures in metal were substituted for the spikes, as 
in the instance of the gauntlets of the Black Prince, 
still preserved at Canterbury, which have small gilt lions 
for gadlyngs. 

Galley : — see Lymphad. 

Garland: — a wreath, whether of leaves only, or of 
flowers and leaves intermixed. Garlands appear quar- 
tered upon the banners that are sculptured as accessories 
of the monument of Lord Botjrchier, banner-bearer of 
Henry V., in Westminster Abbey. They are also bla- 
zoned upon the banner itself, harry, argent and azure, 
of Ralph de Fitz William, in the Caerl^Roll. No. 144. 

Gauntlet : — an armed glove. No. 145. 

Gemelles, or Bars Gemelles : — barrulets placed together 
in couples. No. 44. 

Globe, the Terrestrial, or Sphere : — borne in his arms by 
Sir H. Dryden, and in the Crests of the Hopes and the 
Drakes. Nos. 144 a, 144 b. See Chap. XVII. 

Gorge, or Gurge: — No. 146, supposed to indicate a 
whirlpool. It appears in the Roll of Henry III. 

Greeces : — steps. 

Guttee .—see Chap. XIII, and Nos. 250, 251. 

Gyron:— No. 97. 

Hackle : — see Hemp-brake. 


Hammer : — this charge is also blazoned as a martel. 

Harp : — one of the Devices of Ireland. 

Hatchet : — an early charge. 

HawVs-lure : — a decoy used by falconers, and composed 
of two wings with their tips downwards, joined with a 
line and ring. No. 147. 

Hawk's hells and jesses : — bells, with the leather straps 
for fastening them to the hawk's legs, borne on a chevron 
by Baron Llanover. No. 148. 

Helm, Heaume, Helmet : — defensive armour for the 
head. This charge is variously modified, in accordance with 
the varieties of the early head pieces. Thus, the Earl of 
Cardigan bears three morions, or steel caps, while the Mar- 
quis of Cholmondeley bears, with a garbe, two helmets. 
See Helm, Chap. XIV. 

Hemp-bracke or Haclde : — a serrated instrument, for- 
merly used for bruising hemp ; borne by Sir G-. F. 
Hampson, Baronet. No. 149. 

Horse-shoe : — a charge borne in the arms of the 
Ferrers, Earls of Derby, who appear to have derived it 
from the Marshals. 

Hunting-horn : — a curved horn, the crest of De 
Bryenne. No. 267. When it has a belt or baudrick, it 
is said to be stringed. No. 150. 

Hurte : — a blue roundle. No. 52. 

Javelin : — a short barbed spear. 

Jesses : — straps for hawk's bells. 

Key : — borne in the arms of several of the bishops. 

Knot .—see Chap. XVII. 

Label : — a narrow ribband or bar, having three or five 
pendants: it is always borne in chief, and should ex- 
tend across the field. No. 112. The Label is the Difference 


which distinguishes an eldest son, except in Boyal 
Cadency. See Chap. XVI. 

Letters of the Alphabet are sometimes used as Charges. 

Lozenge : — No. 104. The arms of an unmarried lady and 
of a widow are placed upon a lozenge, and not on a shield. 

Lure : — see HawJc's-lure. 

Lymphad : — a galley of early times, having one mast, 
but also propelled by oars. It is blazoned with its sail 
furled, and with its colours flying. The Lymphad is 
borne by the Duke of Argyll and the Marquis of Aber- 
corn. It was also the device of the Macdonalds, the 
Lords of Lorn, and it appears repeatedly upon their 
monumental memorials at Iona. No. 151. 

Manche or Maunche : — a sleeve having long pendant 
ends, worn in the time of Henry I. It has been borne 
from the earliest time by the family of Hastings. The 
prevalent modes of representing the Maunche in Heraldry 
are shown in No. 152. 

Mascle : — a voided Lozenge. No. 109. 

Mill-rind or Fer-de-Moline : — the iron affixed to the 
centre of a Mill-stone. No. 153. 

Mitre : — this episcopal ensign is borne in the arms of 
the Sees of Norwich, Chester, Llandaff, Meath, and others. 
See Mitre in Chap. XIV. 

Moline : — a cross terminating like a Millrind. No. 75. 

Morion : — a steel cap. 

Morse : — a clasp, usually enriched with varied orna- 

Mount : — the base of a shield, when made to represent 
a hillock, and tinctured vert. 

Mullet : a star of five points or rays, all formed by right 
lines, as No. 154. This charge is also borne with six, or 

e 2 


eight, or even more points, but the rays are always 
straight, and thus the Mullet essentially differs from the 
Estoile, the, rays of which are always wavy. When they 
exceed five in number, the rays of the Mullet must be 
specified, thus :— No. 155 is a Mullet of eight points. This 
favourite charge, so well known in the first quarter of the 
shield of the De Veres, Plate VI. (Quarterly, gules and 
or, a Mullet, argent), may be regarded as representing tlie 
rowel of a spur, and it is often pierced, No. 157, (to be 
indicated in blazon), as if to exhibit the adjustment of 
the rowel to its axis. In Cadency, the Mullet is the dif- 
ference of the third son. See Chap. XVI. 

Ogress : — a Pellet. 

Ordinaries : — the nine primary simple charges of He- 
raldry. See Chap. VI. 

Oreiller : — a cushion or pillow. 

Orle :— No. 100. 

Pale : — one of the Ordinaries. No. 36. 

Pall : — an archi-episcopal vestment, worn by the Roman 
hierarchy, and indicative of the order and rank of Arch- 
bishops. In Heraldry, the Pall, of which one half only 
is displayed, in form closely resembles the letter Y, and it 
is always charged with crosses patees fitchees. It is borne 
in the arms of the archi-episcopal sees of Canterbury 
Armagh, and Dublin, No. 255. As a vestment, the Pall 
is a narrow circular band of white lamb's-wool, which is 
adjusted about the shoulders, and has two similar bauds 
hanging down from it, the one before, and the other 
behind. It is clearly shewn in the Brasses of archbishops 
at York, Westminster, and elsewhere ; and in the early 
effigies of ecclesiastics not of episcopal rank it is frequent- 
ly represented in embroidery upon the Chesuble, as in the 


sculptured effigy at Beverley, and in the incised Brasses 
at St. Alban's, North Mimms, and Wensley. No. 158. See 
Archbishop, Chap. XIV. 

Pallet: — a diminutive of the Pale. See Chap. VI. 

Palmer's Staff : — an early charge. This device appears 
on a slab at Haltwhistle. 

Pastoral Staff: — the official staff of a Bishop or Abbot, 
having a croolced head, No. 159, and thus is dis- 
tinguished from an Archbishop's Crozier, the head of 
which is cruciform, No. 160. (See Crozier in Chap. XIV.) 
A Vexillum, or scarf, hangs from almost all representa- 
tions of the Pastoral Staff, encircling its shaft. The 
earlier examples are generally very plain ; but the custom 
of richly adorning this staff was prevalent also from an 
early period. The enamelled s f aff of Bishop William op 
Wykeham, preserved in New College, Oxford, is a splen- 
did specimen of the second half of the fourteenth century. 
The Pastoral Staff is borne in the arms of the See of 
Llandafp, &c. See Bishop in Chap. XIV. 

Pattee or Formee : — a variety of the Cross, No. 85. 

Pattee or Formee Fitchee : — a similar Cross, pointed at 
the foot. No. 86. 

Patonce : — a Cross, of which the four arms expand in 
curves from the centre, and the ends are foliated. No. 77. 

Patriarchal : — a Cross which has its head crossed hori- 
zontally. No. 68. 

Pellet : — a black spherical roundle. No. 54 

Penner and Irikhorn : — a pen-case and vessel containing 
ink, as they were carried in the Middle Ages by Notaries, 
appended to their girdles, No. 161. The Penner and Ink- 
horn are represented in two Brasses of Notaries, a.d. 1475 
and 1566, preserved in the Church of St. Mary Tower, 
Ipswich. Other early examples have also been noticed. 


Pheon : — the barbed head of a spear or arrow, No. 162. 
Unless the contrary be specified, the point of the Pheon 
is blazoned to the base, as in the arms of the Earl 
Brownlow, and the Baron De L'Isle. 

Pickaxe : — an early Charge. 

Pile:— No. 41. 

Pillow: — see Cushion. 

Plate : — a silver or white flat roundle. No. 51. 

Pomme : — a green spherical roundle. No. 55. 

Pommee: — a form of Cross. No. 81. 

Portcullis : — a defence for a gateway, formed of trans- 
verse bars bolted together, the vertical bars terminating 
in base in pheons. In Heraldry, a Portcullis is always 
represented as having rings at its uppermost angles, from 
which chains depend on either side. This charge is the 
well known Badge of the Beaxjforts, and also of the 
Tudor Princes, and it is borne in the arms of Westmin- 
ster. No. 163. See also Herald. 

Quadrate : — squared ; a form of the cross. No. 72. 

Quarter: — The first quarter of the Shield, now super- 
ceded in use by the Canton. 

Quarter-Pierced, and Quarterly -Pierced : — Nos. 73, 74. 

Quatrefoil : — a figure formed of four curved leaves. In 
architecture, a Quatrefoil within a circle, or a square, or 
lozenge panel, very commonly contains an heraldic shield, 
as in No. 164. 

Rainbow : — borne with their Crest by the Hopes. No. 
144 a. 

Rapier : — a narrow stabbing sword. 

Rays : — when drawn round the disc of a figure of the 
sun, heraldic rays are sixteen in number, and they are 
alternately straight and wavy. 

Recercelee .-—curled j a form of the Cross, No. 76. 


Best : — see Charion. 

Biband : — a diminutive of the Bend. See Chap. VL 

Boundle i — a circular charge, which, when of metal is 
flat, but when of color, spherical. See Chap. VI. 

Bustre:— No. 110. 

Saltire : — one of the ordinaries. Nos. 39, 49. 

Scaling -Ladder : — No. 164 a. The Crest of the Greys. 

Scarpe : — a diminutive of the Bend Sinister. 

Seax : — a Saxon weapon, or scimetar, having a curved 
notch cut off the back of it near the point. It is borne in 
the arms of the County of Middlesex. No. 165. 

ShacMe-bolt : — see Fetter-Loch. 

Shake-fork : — a Charge resembling a Pall, but humettee, 
and pointed. It is borne by the Marquess of Conyngham. 
No. 166. 

Shield : — a shield is sometimes borne as a Charge ; thus 
the Hays bear, Argent, three shields gxdes. No. 167. In ad- 
dition to their habitual use as achitectural accessories 
in every variety of early Gothic edifice, Shields- 
of-arms, in the Middle Ages, were often employed as 
decorative accessories of costume ; thus the surcoat of 
William de Valence, at Westminster, the Brass of 
Lady Camoys, at Trotton, Sussex, and the effigy of a Lady 
at Worcester, are thus decorated. See Chap. III. 

Ship: — besides the ancient Galley, ships of a more 
modern character appear amongst the Charges of Heraldry 
Thus, the arms of the Corporation of the Trinity House 
are four Ships under sail, gules, cantoned by a Cross of St. 
George. No. 168. 

Spear : — borne on a bend by Shakespere. See 
Chap. XXVI. 

Spur : — this knightly appointment, which from its 
associations claims the special regard of the Herald, was 



worn with a single goad-like point, and known as the 
" Pryck-Spur," No. 169, before the reign of Edward II. 
About a.d. 1320, the Spur having a Wheel began to 
supersede the earlier form, No 170 : and, shortly after, 
the true Bouelle Spur, having the wheel spiked, made its 
appearance, No. 171. The examples that I have given in 
Nos. 169, 170, 171, and 172, are from the* effigies of 
John op Eltham ; of a Knight at Clehongre, Hereford- 
shire ; of the Black Prince ; and of Eichard Delamere, 
Esq., Hereford. In the beginning of the fifteenth 
century, spurs appear to have been sometimes worn with 
Chmrds to their Bouelles, No. 172. In the middle of that 
century they became of extravagant length, but towards 
its close they assumed a more sensible form. 

Steel-cap : — a close-fitting defence for the head. 

Stirrup : — an early Charge borne by the Baron Gtfford. 

Sufflue : — see Clarion. 

Sword : — the Knightly Weapon of all ages in Heraldry 
is generally represented unsheathed, straight in the 
Blade, and pointed. In blazon, the Hilt, Pommel, and 
Accoutrements of Swords are always to be specified. 
Swords are borne in the Arms of the Sees of London, 
Winchester, Exeter, and Cork ; also the Earl Potjlett 
bears, Sa, three Swords in Pile, the Points in Base, arg., 
Hilts and Pommels, or. No. 173. 

Target : — a circular Shield. 

Tau : — a Cross resembling the letter T. No. 59. It is 
borne in the arms of Drury. 

Torch : — generally borne inflamed, or lighted. 

Torse : — a wreath. 

Torteau, plural Torteaux : — A red spherical Eoundle. 

Tower: — a small Castle. No. 173 a. 

Treille, or Trellise : — latice-work. It differs from 




te n 

N os 147 to 177. 



Frette, and Fretty, in that the pieces do not interlace under 
and over, but cross each other in such a manner that all 
the pieces from the dexter are in the same plane, and lie 
over those from the sinister, and they are all fastened by 
nails at the crossings. No. 174. 

Tressure : — one of the Subordinaries, No. 102. It is 
commonly blazoned as a Tressure fleurie. The Royal 
Tressure of Scotland is blazoned as a Double Tressure, 
fleurie, counter fleurie. No. 103. 

Trumpet : — in Heraldry, a long straight tube, exempli- 
fied in the Brass of Sir Roger de Trumpington. No. 

Vair .—one of the Furs. Nos. 29, 30. 

Vanibrace : — armour for the fore-arm. 

Vervels : — small rings. 

Water-Bouget : — a vessel used by mediaeval soldiers for 
carrying water. It is borne by the Baron De Ros, and 
by the Bottrchiers. Two modifications of the form of 
this Charge are shown in No. 176. 

No. 144.— De Fitz William. No. 167. — Hay. 

No. 139. 

No. 185. Percy Ceest. No. 186. Howakd Cbest. 




This Group of Charges comprises, with a varied series 
of Creatures that exist in Nature, several others that are 
indebted for their shadowy existence only to the poetic 
imagination of the early Heralds. Those Parts of the 
Bodies of Animals also, which constitute distinct Heraldic 
Charges, I have associated with the Creatures themselves ; 
and the whole have been subjected to a classified arrange- 

1. Human Beings occasionally appear in heraldic com- 
positions, in which case the blazon always expresses with 
consistent distinctness the attitude, costume, action, &c, 
of every figure. Human figures, however, generally 
occur as Supporters, or Crests ; and Parts of the human 
body are more frequently introduced than actual Figures. 

Human figures appear in the arms of the Sees of 
Salisbury, Chichester, Lincoln, Clogher, and Water- 
ford. In the Arms of the See of Oxford are three 
demi-figures. The Head and the Hands of a man, when 
they appear as Charges, must be so blazoned as to define 
and describe their position, &c. Thus, a Head would be 


in profile, or affrontee, or reguardant, or uncovered, or 
helmed, &c. ; and the Hand would be either the Dexter, or 
the Sinister, or erect, or grasping some object, &c. ; an 
open hand is said to be appaumee. The same would be 
the case with an Arm, which, when bent at the elbow, is 
emhowed, &c. The very singular armorial ensign of the 
Isle of Man, now quartered by the Duke of Athol, is 
thus blazoned : Gules, three Legs, armed, proper, conjoined in 
the Fesse point at the upper part of the thighs, flexed in a 
triangle, garnished and spurred, or. No. 176 a. Archbishop 
Juxon, who died a.d. 1663, bore — Or, a Cross, gules, between 
four Blackamoors* Heads, couped at the shoulders, proper, 
wreathed about the temples, of the field. The same 
Charge is borne by the Earl Canning. The Badge of 
Ulster, the distinctive Ensign of the Order and Bank of 
Baronets, instituted in 1612, by James I, is the ancient 
armorial Ensign of the Irish Kingdom of Ulster, and is 
thus blazoned, upon a small shield — argent, a Sinister 
Hand, couped at the wrist and erect, gules. No. 17 7. 

Inseparably associated with their historic name, the 
Douglases bear, as the armorial insignia of their house, 
Argent, a human Heart, gules, imperially crowned, proper ; on 
a Chief, azure, three Mullets, of the Field. The royal 
Heart was that of Robert Bruce, which the " Good Sir 
James Douglas" was carrying to the Holy Land, that he 
might bury it at Jerusalem, when he himself fell in battle 
with the Saracens of Andalusia, a.d. 1330. The 
crown is a comparatively recent addition to the original 
charge. No. 177 a. 

II. The Heraldry of the Lion. The King of Beasts 
is the animal which, as a Charge of Heraldry, has always 
been held in the very highest estimation. He appears in 


heraldic Blazonry under the most varied conditions, and 
in association with almost every other device. I have 
considered it to be desirable, accordingly, to assign to the 
" Heraldry of the Lion," a distinct section of its own. 

The Lion is borne in heraldic Compositions em- 
blazoned in thirteen varieties of attitude. 

1. The Lion Passant, No. 178, is walking, and has 
three of his paws placed on the ground, the fourth (one of 
the fore paws) being raised up. He looks in the direction 
that he is walking, which, unless the contrary be specified, 
is towards the Dexter. This Lion was borne by the 
Carews, and it is now charged upon a Fesse by the Earl 
of Carysfort. 

2. The Lion Passant Guardant, No. 179, differs from 
the Lion Passant, in the circumstance that he is affronte 
— looking out from the shield at the spectator. A Golden 
Lion Passant Guardant, upon a Field gules, is a Lion of 
England. No. 198. In early Heraldry, and particu- 
larly in the blazon of the French Heralds, the term 
Leopard was applied to the lion when passant or passant 
guardant ; hence the Lions of England were often bla- 
zoned as Leopards. 

3. The Lion Passant Beguardant, is walking in 
the same manner and towards the same direction, but he 
looks back to the Sinister. No. 179 a. 

4. The Lion Rampant, No. 180, stands erect on his two 
hind legs, but has only one of his fore legs elevated. 

The Scottish Lion is Rampant, his Tincture being 
gules, on a field, or : thus, Sir Walter Scott, speaking of 
the Royal Banner of Scotland, says that upon it 

" The ruddy lion ramps in gold." No. 103. 


- TER XI. 

Plate X 

N os 178 to 199. 


5. The Lion Rampant Ghiardant, No. 181, is the same 
as the Lion Rampant, except that he is affronte instead of 
looking before him. The Dexter Supporter of England 
is snch a Lion, of gold. This is the habitual attitude of 
Lions when they are Supporters. 

6. The Lion Rampant Reguardant, No. 182, looks behind 
him. Such lions are the Supporters of the Barons 
Braybroke and Brownlow. 

7. The Lion Salient, No. 183, is in the act of making 
his spring, erect, with both his fore paws elevated. 

8. Two Lions Combattant, No. 184, are Rampant and 
face to face, as if in combat. They were thus charged 
upon the shield of Richard I, before he assumed upon 
it the three Lions Passant. Two Lions Combattant are 
now borne by the Viscount Lorton. 

9. A Lion Statant, has his four feet upon the 
ground, and looks before him. A Lion Statant, having 
his Tail extended in a right line, is the Crest of the Duke 
of Northumberland, No. 185. 

10. A Lion Statant Chiardant, stands looking affronte. 
Such a Lion, having his Tail extended in a right line, 
is the Crest of the Duke of Norfolk, No. 186. 

11. When sitting down, his four legs being strectched 
out on the ground, but his head erect, a Lion is Sejant, 
No. 187. 

12. A Lion Sejant, having his fore legs elevated, is 
Sejant Rampant. No. 187 a. 

13. When in the attitude of taking repose, the Lion is 
Couchant, or Dormant. No. 187 b. 

A Demi Lion Rampant, No. 188, is the upper half of 
the body of the animal, and half its tail with the tuft in 
which it terminates. 


A Lion's Face, No. 189, is a Charge : and his Head also 
is a Charge that frequently occurs; it may be either 
couped, No. 190, or erased, No. 191. 

The entire leg, No. 192, is a Lion's Jambe, or Gambe, 
when borne alone ; but if the limb be cut off, whether 
erased or couped, at or below the middle joint, it is a 

Two Lions Kampant, placed back to back, are addorsed, 
No. 193. If they are passant, the one to the dexter, 
and the other to the sinister, they are Counter-passant 

The Lion is frequently crowned, No. 194 ; or he grasps 
some object in either his mouth or his paw, No. 195 \ or 
he is collared, and perhaps a chain may be attached to his 
collar, No. 196 ; or he may have his neck gorged, (encircled, 
that is) with a coronet ; or his body may be charged with 
various devices, or he may be Vigilant, or Vorant — watch- 
ing for his prey, or devouring it ; or he may have Wings, as 
in the instance of the Supporters of the Baroness Be aye ; 
or he may be double tailed, No. 197, (queue four chee) , as 
he was borne by the De Montforts. 

A Lion is said to be armed of his claws and teeth, 
and langued of his tongue. 

When an Ordinary is set over a Lion, the animal is 
debruised by such Ordinary. 

When a Lion is represented as proceeding or rising 
up out of a Chief, or Fesse, or any other Charge, he is 
said to be issuant, or naissant- as in the Arms of the 
Baron Dormer. 

Several Lions, whether Passant, or Rampant, may 
be charged upon a single shield ; thus, England bears 
No. 198, p. 13 — gules, three Lions Passant Ouardant, in 
Pale, or ; and the Earl of Pembroke bears — per Pale, 


azure and gules, three Lions Rampant, two and one, argent 
No. 199. 

When more than four Lions occur in the same com- 
position, they are termed Lioncels. In this case, the 
animals are almost invariably Eampant. When charged 
upon an Ordinary, even two or three Lions would be 
entitled Lioncels — as in the chevron of the Cobhams. The 
Shield No. 200, of William Longspee, Earl of Salis- 
bury, who died a.d. 1226, bears six Lioncels upon a Field 
azure. Another fine early example is the Shield of the 
De Bohuns, Earls of Hereford, which is thus bla- 
zoned : Azure, a Bend, Argent, cotised and between six 
Lioncels, or: No. 201. Amongst the other celebrated 
names with which the Lion is associated as an heraldic 
charge, are Percy, De Laci, Fitz Alan, Mowbray, De 
Bruce, Segrave, &c, &c. See Chap. XXYI. 

The Lion is borne of every variety of Tincture. He is 
always armed and angued, gules; unless he himself or the 
field be of that colour, in which case both his claws and 
his tongue are azure. 

I have considered the Drawing of this animal in 
Chap. XXX. 

III. Various other Animals take those parts which 
Heralds have been pleased to assign to them; their 
especial vocation, however, appears to be to act as Sup- 
porters. As Charges, the Horse, the Elephant, the Camel, 
the Dog, the Stag, the Antelope, the Tiger, the Leopard, 
the Bull, the Calf, the Goat, the Lamb, the Boar (tang- 
lier), the Fox, the Wolf, the Cat-a-mountain or Wild Cat, 
the Squirrel, the Hedgehog, the Beaver, and many others 
will attract the attention of the student. The Heads 
of many Animals also appear in Blazonry., In every 


instance, the terms that give a precise and definite indi- 
viduality to each may easily be acquired. 

The terms that are applied to Lions are also applicable 
to all beasts of prey. Any animal in a sitting posture is 
Sejant, and Statant when standing ; and, in like manner, 
other terms, which have no special reference to habits 
of violence and ferocity, are alike applicable to every 

Stags and their kindred animals have several terms 
peculiarly their own. Their antlers are Tynes ; when they 
stand, they are at gaze, No. 202 ; when in easy motion, they 
are tripping, No. 203 ; when in rapid motion, they are at 
speed, No. 203 A; and when at rest, they are lodged, No. 204. 

All the fiercer animals are armed of their horns, but a 
stag is attired of his antlers. 

The head of a stag, when placed affrontee, is cabossed. 
This is the well known charge of the families of Stanley 
and Cavendish, the former bearing three Stags 1 Heads 
cabossed, of silver, upon an azure bend ; the latter a similar 
number of the same device, argent, upon sable. No. 205. 

A stag, full-grown and of mature age, is generally 
styled a Hart ; the female, without horns, is a Hind. A 
Reindeer, in Heraldry, is represented as a stag with 
double attires. The Bear and Ragged Staff, No. 206, are 
famous as cognizances of the Earls of Warwick, and 
the Talbot Dog, No. 207, of the Earls of Shrewsbury. 
The Marquis Camden bears three Elephants' heads. The 
Baron Blayney bears three Horses 1 heads. The sup- 
porters of the Earl of Orkney are an Antelope and a 
Stag ; those of the Baron Macdonald are two Leopards ; 
and those of the Duke of Bedford are a Lion and an 
Antelope, the Russell crest being a Goat. The Earl of 





N os 202 to 220 


Malmesbury bears three Hedgehogs; and two Foxes are 
leaping, saltire-wise, on the ancient shield of Sir Watkin 
Williams Wynne. 

A singular Charge, that must be placed with this 
group, was borne by the De Cantelupes, and it also 
constitutes the Arms of the See of Hereford : this is a 
Leopard's face, affrontee, resting upon a Fleur-de-lys, and 
having the lower part of the flower issuing from the 
animal's mouth. In the Hereford shield, the Leopards' 
Faces are reversed. This is emblazoned as jessant-de-lys. 
Nos. 207, 208. 

IV. Birds, Fishes, Insects, and Reptiles, also, form 
Charges of Heraldry. They appear in Blazon under their 
habitual natural guise : but there are descriptive terms 
used by Heralds, which these creatures may claim as 
exclusively their own. 

Birds in the act of flight are volant, when flying aloft 
they are soaring, and their expanded wings are said to be 
overt, No. 209. In the instance of Birds of Prey, the ex- 
panded wings are also said to be displayed, while those of 
all birds that are not Birds of Prey, are disclosed. If the 
tips of the wings droop downwards, they are inverted, or in 
Lure, No. 210 ; but if elevated without being expanded, the 
wings are erect, No. 211 ; and if turned backwards, addorsed, 
Nos. 212, 213. A Bird, about to take wing, is rising or rous- 
sant ; but trussed or closed, No. 215, when at rest. A Bird 
preying on another, No. 21 2, is trussing it, and not vorant, 
as a Beast of Prey. 

A Hawk is belled and jessed. 

A Game-cock is armed of his Beak and Spurs, crested of 
his Comb, and jowlopped of his Wattles. 

A Peacock, having its tail displayed, is in its pride, 
as it is borne by the Duke of Rutland for his crest. 


An Eagle, or Erne, with expanded wings, No. 212 a, 
is displayed ; as borne by the Monthermers and Mon- 
tagues. An Eagle appears on the seal of Richard, 
Earl of Cornwall, supporting his Shield-of-Arms from 
its beak, about a.d. 1260. 

A young, or a, small eagle, is an Eaglet. 

An Imperial Eagle has two heads, as No. 212 b. 

A Pelican, represented as standing above its nest, 
having its wings addorsed, and nourishing its young 
with its blood, is blazoned as a Pelican in its Piety. 
The example, No. 213, forms the finial of the fine Brass 
to Dean Prestwych, at Warbleton, Sussex, a.d. 1436. 

A Swan, when blazoned proper, is white, with red beak, 
and has some black about the nostrils. A Black Swan, 
ducally gorged and chained, was the Badge of the De Bo- 
huns, No. 214. and No. 234 b. 

Various sea-birds appear in blazon. 

A Cornish Chough, No. 215, the crest of the Baron 
Bridport, is black, with red legs and beak. 

Small Birds are generally drawn in the form of Black- 
birds, but their colour must be blazoned. 

The Martlet or Merlotte, No. 216 and 216a may be regard- 
ed as the heraldic swallow. In Cadency, the Martlet is the 
Difference of the fourth son. It was borne by the De 
Valences, No. 101, and in the Arms of Edward the Con- 
fessor, No. 78. It now is charged upon the shield of 
the Earl of Arundel. See p. 69. 

Ravens, Parrots called by Heralds Popinjays, Herons, 
Falcons, Doves or Colombs, and many others, and the 
Wings of birds in various attitudes, appear in Heraldry. 

Fish of every variety are borne as heraldic charges ; 
but when no particular variety is specified and the crea- 


ture is of small size, the blazon simply states the charge 
to be " a fish." 

When swimming in f esse, across the field, a fish is naiant, 
No. 217. When in pale, No. 218, as if rising to the sur- 
face for breathing, it is hauriant ; but urinant when its 
head is in base, No. 218 a ; and when its body is bent, as a 
dolphin is represented, it is emhowed, No. 219. 

The fish borne by the Duke of Northumberland are 
styled Lucies, a kind of pike. Amongst the other fish com- 
monly borne in Heraldry are Barbels, Herrings, Roach, &c. 

Various Shells occur in Heraldry, and particularly the 
Escallop, No. 220, borne by the Eussells. See Chap. 

Bees and Butterflies are blazoned volant. A Tortoise 
as passant. A Snake may be gliding, or if twined into 
a knot it is nowed. 

Imaginary Beings. Heralds have introduced amongst 
the figures that act as both supporters and charges, ima- 
ginary representations of the heavenly hierarchy. Thus 
Angels form the supporters of the Barons Decies, North- 
wick and Abinger, of Sir M. Barlow, Bart., and others. 

Several animal forms have been added by heralds, 
from their own creative imaginations, to those which 
Nature had provided for them to introduce into their 
symbolical blazonry. A few only of these occur in Eng- 
lish heraldry. 

The Allerion, — an eagle destitute of both beak and 
feet. The same term is also applied to natural eagles. 

The Cockatrice, No. 221, a winged monster, having the 
head, body, and feet of a cock, and the tail of a dragon j 
borne for supporters and crest by the Earl of Donough- 
more. The head of a Cockatrice is borne as a Crest, 

f 2 


and is represented in the Brasses to Sir N. Dagworth, 
a.d. 1401, at Blickling, Norfolk, No. 222, and to Roger 
Elmebrygge, a.d. 1435, at Bedington, Surrey, No. 222 a. 
It was also the crest of the Earls of Arundel. 

The Centaur or Sagittarius, which was the device, and 
has been mistaken for the arms, of King Stephen. 

The Dragon, No. 223, a winged animal, generally with 
four legs and having a tail like that of a serpent. It appears 
as a military ensign in the Bayeux Tapestry, No. 223 a, 
and is common in more recent Heraldry. 

The Griffin or Gryphon, No. 224, combining the 
bodily attributes of the lion and the eagle, is of the 
same family with a group of the sculptured figures of 
Assyria. When in its customary attitude, erect and with 
wings expanded, this monster is segreant. A gryphon is 
the dexter supporter of the Duke of Cleveland, and the 
sinister supporter of the Duke of Manchester; the 
Baron Dynevor has, for his dexter supporter, a gryphon co- 
ward — that is, having his tail hanging down. The gry- 
phon borne by the Marquess of Ormonde is wingless. 
This creature, distinguished in blazon as a Male Gryphon, 
has two horns. 

A Mermaid, No. 225, a Badge of the Berkeleys, was the 
Dexter Supporter of Sir Walter Scott ; and both the sup- 
porters of the Viscount Boyne are also Mermaids. Lord 
Berkeley, in his Dine Brass at Wotton-under-Edge, 
a.d. 1392, wears a Collar of Mermaids, No. 225 a, over 
his camail. In St. Alban's Abbey there is an early tile 
charged with a Mermaid. The shields of the Baron Lyt- 
tleton and Sir G. G. Otway, Bart., are supported on 
either side by a Triton, No. 226, or Merman. 

The Wyvern, No. 227, may be described as a flying mon- 


Plate XII 

N os - 221 to 240 


ster of the Dragon order, having only two legs and feet ; 
its Tail is said to be nowed. Two Wyverns support the 
Shield of the Earl of Eglinton. 

The Unicorn is the well known Dexter Supporter of 
England, (See Chap. XIX) ; a pair of Unicorns also 
support the shield of the Duke of Kutland. No. 227 a. 

A Monster, a compound of a Lion and Fish, or a 
Sea-Lion, is known in the fabulous menagerie of Heraldry. 
Two of these Sea-Lions are supporters of the Viscount Fal- 
mouth. So also are the Pegasus, No. 227 b, the winged 
Horse of Classic antiquity, the Dexter Supporter of the 
Baron Berwick ; the PJwenix, another relic of remote tra- 
dition that sits amidst flames, doing duty for a crest above 
the shield of Sir W. B. Johnston; the Salamander, another 
inhabitant of flames, the crest of the Earl of Selkirk ; 
the heraldic Ibex, or Antelope, the Sinister Supporter of 
Baron Dunsany ; and certain heraldic Panthers and Tigers, 
and other fierce animals, which breathe fire, and have 
various strange modifications of what nature has assigned 
to their prototypes. I must add to the imaginary groups 
the little Martlet, No. 216 a, when that favourite heraldic 
bird is blazoned without feet. 

No. 225 A.— Collar of Mermaids. 

Brass to Thomas, Lord Berkeley, a.d. 1392, Wotton-under-Edge, 


No. 239A— CIIESTEK. No. 234.— BLACK PEINCE. 

No. 239— LEVESON. 




Natural objects of every kind have placed themselves 
without reserve under the orders of the Herald, that they 
may contribute to the Charges which he places upon 
shields, and in any other capacity may realise his 

The Sun, the Moon, and the Stars, appear in He- 
raldry. Trees, Plants and Flowers, in like manner, are 
constantly to be found in the capacity of heraldic Charges 
and Devices. A few descriptive terms are peculiarly 
appropriate to objects of this class. Thus : trees, &c, 
if grown to maturity, are accrued; if bearing fruit or 
seeds, fructed ; if clothed with leaves, in foliage ; if droop- 
ing, pendent ; if having their roots exposed, eradicated ; 
slipped, when irregularly broken or torn off; when cut 
off, couped ; when deprived of their leaves, blasted ; and 
when of their natural aspect and hue, proper. The term 
" barbed" denotes the small green leaves, the points 
of which appear about an heraldic rose : and " seeded " 
indicates any seed-vessel, or seeds. 




The Sun in Heraldry is generally represented with a 
human face upon its disc and environed with rays, these 
rays being sometimes alternately straight and wavy. 
The great celestial luminary is blazoned as " in his splen- 
dour," or " in his glory." He appears thus in the shield 
of the Marquess of Lothian ; and in a Eoll of arms of 
about 1250, (British Museum, Harl. MSS. 6589) Jean de 
la Hay, bears, — " Argent, the Sun in his splendour, gules, 
No. 228. In some instances, always to be specified, the sun 
appears as shining from behind a cloud ; or, as rising, or 
setting; or, a ray of the sun is borne alone, as by Bauf 
de la Hay, in the Eoll of Henry III, No. 229. 

The Moon is in her Complement, or in Plenitude, when 
at the full ; she is a Crescent, when her horns point to- 
wards the chief, No. 230 ; in Cadency, this is the Dif- 
ference of the second son. She is Decrescent, No. 231, 
when her horns point to the sinister. She is Increscent, 
or in Increment, when her horns point to the dexter, No. 232. 

Star : — see Mullet and Estoile, in Chap. X. 


The Charges of this class which are generally in use, 
are the following : — 

Cinquefoil, or Quintefoil : — a leaf or flower, having five 
cusps, No. 233. In the early Eolls the cinquefoil and the 
six-foil are used without any distinction. 

Ears of Barley, Wheat, &c : — represented in their 
natural forms. At St. Alban's Abbey, the shield of Abbot 
John de Wheathampstede, of the time of Henry VI., 
displays gules, a chevron, between three clusters of as many ears 
of wheat, or: No. 201. 



Feather : — the Ostrich feather is the one that is usually 
borne as an heraldic device. It sometimes is charged 
upon shields ; and it constantly appears as a favourite 
Badge of the Plantagenets. The shields that are placed 
about the monument of the Black Prince, are alternately 
charged with his arms, and with three ostrich feathers upon 
a sable field, No. 234, p. 70. Each of these feathers has its 
quill piercing a small scroll, bearing the words — Ich dien, 
No. 234 a. The ostrich feather was habitually used 
by the Black Prince, as a Badge. It appears, with 
the scroll, upon the seal of Henry IV., before he became 
sovereign. His son, Henry V., bore a similar badge, the 
feather being carried by a black swan (a badge of his 
mother, Mary de Bohun) in its beak : No. 234 b. The 
ostrich feather and scroll have a place also amongst the 
heraldic insignia of Prince Arthur Tudor, a.d. 1502, at 
Worcester : No. 235. The three ostrich feathers of the 
Prince of Wales do not appear to have been grouped 
together within a coronet, as they are now borne, before 
the time of the Stuarts. No. 235 a, Plate XV. 

Fleur-de-Lys : — this most beautiful and effective 
Charge, generally supposed to be the flower of the Lily 
is the ancient cognizance of France. In its origin, the 
Fleur-de-Lys or Fleur-de-Luce, may be a Rebus, signify- 
ing the " Flower of Louis." Mr. Planche, (who always 
speaks with authority when he dons his tabard), after 
stating this supposition, adds that " Clovis is the Fran- 
kish form of the modern Louis, the G being dropped, as 
in Clothaire, Loihaire, &c." If Clovis himself bore the 
Fleur-de-Lys, that famous heraldic charge may have been 
assumed by the Frankish Prince as his Rebus, from the 
favourite Clove-pink, or gillyflower. The Fleur-de-Lys 


appears in early Heraldry under several modifications of 
its typical form. It was in especial favour with the 
designers of the inlaid pavement-tiles of the Middle Ages, 
Nos. 236, 236 a, 236 b. It forms one of the figures of 
the diaper of the shield of Eobert de Vere, No. 156, 
Plate VI., and it decorates the Eoyal Tressure of Scot- 
land, in the shield that Henry HE. placed in Westminster 
Abbey, No. 103. This same figure was known to the Eo- 
mans ; and it formed the ornamental heads of sceptres and 
pommels of swords from the earliest period of the 
French monarchy, No. 238. See also No. 237, 237 a, 
Plate XV. 

The Fleur-de-Lys was first borne on a royal seal by 
Louis VII. of France, a.d. 1137—1180. Edward III. 
quartered the French shield, semee-de-Lys, on his Great 
Seal, a.d. 1340 ; and in or about 1405, Henry IV. 
reduced the number of the Fleur-de-Lys to three, that 
reduction having been effected in the French Seal by 
Charles V., a.d. 1364—1380. The Fleurs-de-Lys were re- 
moved from the English Shield in 1801. 

This charge is blazoned in the Eoll of Henry III. 
One of the shields of Henry III. in Westminster Abbey 
is semee-de-Lys, No. 2. It is now borne, without any 
other charge, in the shield of the Baron Digby. 

Garbe : — a wheatsheaf, borne in the arms of the Earls 
of Chester, and still apparent in the greater number of 
the shields of the nobility and gentry of the County 
Palatine of Cheshire, No. 239, Plate XII., and 239 a, 
p. 70. 

Gillyflower : — a species of pink, in great favour in the 
middle ages. 

Hill and Hillock : — a green mound. When only one 


appears, the former term is used ; but the latter denotes 
several mounds, their exact number to be specified. 

Hurst: — a group of trees. Thus, Elmhurst bears 
seven elm trees on a mound. 

heaves : — the leaf or leaves, or the branches of any 
tree or plant must be specified and described in the 
blazon. Hazel-leaves are borne by Hazlerigg; Oak- 
branches by Okstead, No. 239 a, Plate XII., and Oakes ; 
Strawberry-leaves (or Fraises) by Frazer ; Laurel-leaves, 
by Leveson, No. 239, p. 70 ; Holly-leaves, by Blackwood. 

Planta- Genista : — the Broom-plant, the famous Badge 
of the Plantagenet family. The pods, with their seeds, 
as well as the leaves and flowers, are represented upon 
the bronze effigy of Richard II. in "Westminster Abbey, 
No. 240, Plate XII. 

Pods of Beans, &c. : — when used as Charges, the pods 
are open, and shew their seed. 

Hose : — in Heraldry, the Rose is represented after the 
conventional manner exemplified in No. 241. In some few 
early examples the small leaves are omitted, as in No. 
242. When tinctured gules, the Rose is the Badge of the 
Plantagenets of the House of Lancaster, the Yorkist 
Rose being argent, No. 242 a. In Cadency, the Rose is the 
Difference of the seventh son, No. 385. Occasionally, the 
Queen of Flowers is in use in Heraldry in its natural 
form and aspect, with stalk, leaves and buds. Such a Rose 
is the Emblem of England. See Chap. XIX. 

Bo8e-en-8oleil : — the white Rose of the Plantagenets 
of the House of York, surrounded by rays, as of the 
sun. It was assumed by Edward IV., after the Battle 
of Mortimer's Cross, Feb. 2nd, 1461 : Nos. 243, 248 a. 
The Monument of Prince Edward Tudor, a.d. 1502, at 



m m 


1 st SON. 



30* ^\^ 305.^0^ 

3 T .l SON. 4.4- SON. 5*- SON. 

8^ SON. 

9% SON. 



Plate XDI. 

N os '236to248 & 303 to 387. 


Worcester abounds in fine examples of the heraldic roses 
of the House of York and Lancaster, and of the Tudors, 
as in Nos. 242, 243, and 247, Chap. XVII. 

Shamrock: — a trefoil, or three-leaved grass, the Em- 
blem of Ireland. It is represented now as growing on 
the same stalk as the Eose and the Thistle. See Chap XIX. 

Six-foil: — a flower having six leaves or cusps. It is 
an early Charge. By the French Heralds, at an early 
period, six- foils were blazoned as Angennes. No. 244, 
Plate XIII. 

Stock:— the stump of a Tree: No. 245, Plate XIII. 
Eebus of Woodstock. 

Teazle : — the head or seed-vessel of a species of thistle 
used in cloth manufactures. 

Thistle: — the Emblem of Scotland. It is now repre- 
sented as growing on the same stalk as the Rose and the 
Shamrock. See Chap. XLX. 

Trefoil: — a flower or leaf, having three cusps. It is 
generally blazoned with a stalk — a trefoil slipped : No. 246. 

Tudor- Rose : — a combination of the Lancastrian and 
Yorkist Roses. Sometimes it quarters the two tinctures, and 
sometimes has the rose, argent, charged upon the rose, gules ; 
No. 247. Splendid examples of Heraldic Roses, occur in 
King's College Chapel, Cambridge, and in Henry YII's 
Chapel, Westminster. At King's, the Rose, Fleur-de-Lys 
and Portcullis, are sculptured with extraordinary bold- 
ness, each figure being surmounted by a crown, as in 
No. 248. 

Various Fruits, Seeds and Berries are borne as 
Charges, and they are tinctured as well as drawn proper, 
unless the contrary be specified. For example, three pears, 
ppr. appear in the arms of the Baron Colchester ; three 
acorns, are borne by Sir W. W. Dalling ; three fir-cones 
by Sir E. G-. Perrott, &c. 


No. 250. 

f ? T'M 
f ? ? f 

? ? ? 

No. 249. 

No. 251. 



The Descriptive Heraldic Terms that are arranged in 
alphabetical order in this Chapter, are of general applica- 

Abatement: — any sign of degradation. 

Accosted : — placed side by side. 

Accrued : — grown to maturity. 

Addorsed : — placed back to back ; or, pointing or inclin- 
ing backwards. 

Affrontee : — so placed as to shew the full face, or the 
front of any figure or object. 

Appaumee : — the hand opened and set upright, and 
presenting the palm to view. 

Armed: — denotes the natural weapons for defence 
and offence, with which any beast or bird of prey is pro- 

Armes Parlantes : — heraldic compositions or charges 
that are canting or allusive. 

Arrondie : — rounded, curved. 

Attired : — having Antlers, or such Horns as are natural 
to all animals of the Deer species. 

Augmentations : — honourable additions to Arms. 

Banded : — encircled with a band or riband. 


Barbed : — having small green leaves, as the heraldic 

Barded : — caparisoned, as a Charger. The Bardings of 
the knightly war-horses were commonly charged with 
heraldic insignia. 

Barruly : — harry of ten or more pieces. 

Barry : — divided Bar-wise into an even number of parts. 

Barry-Bendy : — divided into an even number of parts, 
both horizontally and diagonally. 

Bar-wise: — disposed after the manner of a Bar. 

Battled, or Embatled : — having Battlements, or bordered 
after the manner of Battlements. 

Battled- Embattled : — having double Battlements, or one 
Battlement set upon another. 

Beaked : — applied to Birds not of prey, to denote the 
Tincture of their Beaks. 

Belled : — having a Bell or Bells attached. 

Bend -wise : — disposed after the manner of a Bend. 

Bendy : — divided Bend-wise into an even number of 

Bezantee : — studded with Bezants. 

Billetee : — studded with Billets. 

Blasted : — deprived of leaves, or withered. 

Braced, or Brazed : — interlaced. 

Brettepee: — counter-embattled, having Battlements facing 
both ways. 

Cabossed : — when the Head of an animal is borne af- 
frontee, without any part of the neck being seen. 

Cadency : — see Chap. XYI. 

Cantoned : — placed between four objects or Charges : or 
when a single Charge is placed in the first quarter of a 


Cercelee, or Becercelee : — curling at the extremities. 

Charged : — placed or borne upon the Field of a Shield, 
Banner, or any other object. 

Cheky, or Chequee : — a Field covered with small squares 
alternating of two Tinctures, there being more than two 
horizontal rows of such squares, No. 126, Plate IV. The 
shield of the De Warren es, still quartered by the 
Duke of Norfolk, is chequee, or, and azure, Plate VI. 

Clenched : — the Hand closed. 

Close: — when the Wings of a Bird lie close to its 

Combatant : — as if in the act of fighting. 

Compony or Componee : — a series of small squares of two 
alternating Tinctures, arranged in a single row : No. 124. 

Compounding Arms : — see Chap. XV. 

Conjoined : — united and joined together. 

Conjoined in Lure: — two wings joined together with 
their Tips downwards, as borne by the Duke of Somer- 

Contournee : — sitting, standing, or moving, with the 
Face to the Sinister. 

Cotised : — placed between two Cotises. 

Couchant : — lying down. 

Counter-Changed : — see Chap. IX. 

Counter- Compony : — a Double Compony. 

Counter --Embowed : — bent with the Elbow to the Sinister. 

Counter- Fleurie : — a pair or several pairs of Fleurs-de- 
lys set opposite to each other. 

Counter-Passant : — walking in opposite directions. 

Counter-Salient : — leaping in opposite directions. 

Counter-Vair : — a variety of Vair, in which the Bells 
are arranged base to base, No. 30, p. 26. 


Couped : — cut off smoothly as by a sharp instrument, 
and bounded by a right line. 

Courant : — running. 

Coward : — when an animal has its tail between its legs. 

Crenellee ; — embattled. 

Crested: — having a Crest, as a Bird has a crest of 

Crined : — having hair or a mane. 

Crusily or Crusilee : — semee of Crosses-Crosslets. If 
any other form of Cross is introduced, its distinctive cha- 
racter must be specified. 

Dancettee : — deeply indented. 

Debruised j — when an Ordinary rests upon an Animal, 
or on another Ordinary. 

Decked : — adorned. 

Degreed, or Degraded : — placed upon Steps. 

Demembred or Dismembered : — cut into several pieces, 
but without having the severed Fragments disarranged. 

Demi : — the Half. The upper or front Half is always 
understood, unless the contrary be stated. 

Developed : — fully displayed, as a Flag. 

Diapered : — See p. 42, and Plates VI., VII. 

Dimidiated : — cut in halves, and one half removed. (See 
Chap. XV.) 

Disclosed : — having the Wings expanded — applied to all 
Birds that are not Birds of prey. 

Displayed : — having the wings expanded — applied to all 
Birds of prey. 

Disposed : — arranged. 

Dormant : — in the attitude and act of sleeping. 

Double-tete : — having two Heads. 

Double-queue, or Queue-fourchee : — having two Tails, as 
in the case of some lions. 


Dovetail : — a system of Counter-wedging. 

Embattled : — battled. 

Embowed : — bent, with the Elbow to the Dexter : arched. 

Embrued : — stained with Blood. 

Enfiled : — thrust through with a Sword. 

Engoulee : — pierced through the Mouth. 

Enhanced: — raised towards the Chief. Thus, the 
Baron Byron bears three Bendlets enhanced : No. 249, p. 76. 

Ensigned : — adorned. 

Environnee and Enveloped : — surrounded. 

Equipped : — fully caparisoned and provided. 

Eradicated : — taken up by the Boots. 

Erased : — torn off roughly, so that the severed Parts 
have jagged edges. It is the converse to Couped. 

Erect : — set upright in a vertical position. 

Fesse-unse: — disposed after the manner of a Fesse. 

Figured : — any object, as the Sun's Disc, when charged 
with a human Face. 

Fimbriated : — having a narrow Border. 

Finned: — having fins, as Fish. 

Fitchee : — pointed at the Base, and so " fixable" in the 

Fleurettee, or Florettee : — terminating in Fleurs-de-lys ; 
also seme'e of fleurs-de-lys. 

Fleurie : — terminating in three Points. 

Flexed : — bent or bowed. 

Flighted- : — feathered, as an Arrow. 

Fly : — the length of any Flag, from its point of sus- 
pension outwards. 

Flotant : — floating. 

Foliated : — formed like a Leaf or Leaves. 


FourcMe : — divided into two parts at the extremity. 

Fresnee : — rearing up on the hind legs. 

Frettee : — covered with Frette-work. 

Fructed : — bearing fruit, ot seeds of whatsoever kinds. 

Fumant : — emitting smoke. 

Furnished : — equipped with. 

Fusillee : — covered with Fusils. 

Garnished : — adorned. 

At Gaze : — applied to an Animal of the Chase, when 
standing still, affrontee. 

Gerattyng : — see Chap. XVI. 

Girt -, or Girdled : — bound round with any object. 

Gliding : — the movement of Snakes. 

Gobony : — Compony. 

Gorged : — encircled round the neck or throat. 

Gouttee, or Guttee : — sprinkled over with Drops. 

This term is used with various affixes, as follows : Gout- 
tee de larmes, sprinkled with tears, or oVeau, with water 
(tinctured argent) ; a" olive, with oil, (vert) ; d'or, with 
gold ; de poix, with pitch, (sable) ; or du sang, with blood, 
(gules). No. 250, page 76. 

Gouttee reversed : — when the Drops have their natural 
position inverted. No. 251, page 76. 

Gradient : — the act of walking, as by a Tortoise. 

Grafted : — inserted and fixed in. 

Guardant : — looking with the full Face towards the spec- 
tator. It is applied to Beasts of Prey. See Gaze and 

Gyronny or Gyronnee : — divided after the manner of a 

Habited : — clothed. 

Haurient : — applied to a Fish, when placed in Pale. 



Hau8e : — placed higher than its customary position. 

Heightened : — having a decorative accessory, or another 
Charge, placed higher in the field than any Charge. 

Hilted : — having a handle, as a Sword. 

Hoist : — the depth of any Flag from its point of sus- 
pension downwards. 

Hooded: — having the Head covered with a Coif or 

Hoofed : — having Hoofs of any particular Tincture. 

Horned : — having Horns of any particular Tincture. 

Humettee : — cowped at the extremities. 

Hurtee : — seme*e of Hurtes. 

Imbrued, Imbued : — stained with Blood. 

Impaled : — united by Impalement. 

Imperially Crowned: — surmounted by the Crown of 

Incensed: — having Fire issuing from the Mouth and 

Increment, or Increscent: — a New Moon, having its 
Horns towards the Dexter. 

Indented : — having a serrated border line. 

Inflamed : — burning in Flames. 

In Bend : — set Bend- wise. 

In Chevron :— set in the form of a Chevron. 

In Chief: — set in the Chief of the Shield. 

In Cross : — set in the form of a Cross. 

In Fesse : — set Fesse-wise. 

In Foliage :— a Plant or Tree bearing Leaves. 

In Lure: — two Wings conjoined, with their tips in 

In Pale : — set Pale-wise. 

In Pile ;— set after the form of a Pile. 


In Pride :■ — when a Peacock has its tail displayed. 

In Saltire: — set after the form of a Saltire. 

Interlaced : — linked together. 

Invected : — having an arched border line. 

Inverted : — reversed. 

Irradiated : — decorated with Rays or Beams of Light. 

Issuant .'—proceeding from or out of. 

Jessant : — shooting forth, as Plants do from the Earth. 

Jessant-de-lys : — when a Meur-de-lys issues from any 

Jessed : — having straps, as a Hawk in Falconry. 

Jowlopped : — having Gills, as a Game Cock. 

Langued : — applied to denote the Tincture of the Tongue 
of any creature. 

Legged, or Member ed : — to denote the Legs of Birds. 

Lined : — having an inside Lining. Also to denote 
having Cords or Chains attached. 

Livery Colours : — colours adopted by certain eminent 
families and personages, for various decorative uses : 
as scarlet and white by the Plantagenets : white and 
green by the Tudors : blue and crimson by the House of 
York, &c. 

Lodged : — when an animal of the Chase is at rest. 

Lozengy or Lozengee : — divided into Lozenges. 

Maned : — having a Mane, as a Lion, a Horse, &c. 

Mantelee : — a shield divided as in No. 252. 

Masoned : — made to represent Masonry or Brickwork. 

Member ed: — to denote the Beak and Legs of any 

Monogram : — a single initial or other letter ; also a 
combination of several initials or letters, so as to form 
a single compound device. 

a 2 


Mounted : — applied to a Horse when carrying a 

Naiant : — when a Fish swims in Fesse. 

Naissant : — the same as Issuant, but applied only to 
living Creatures. 

Nebulee : — having a peculiar Wavy border line. 

Nerved : — having Fibres, as Leaves have. 

Nowed : — tied in a Knot. 

Oppressed : — the same as Debruised. 

Over all: — when one Charge is borne over all the 

Overt : — having the Wings expanded for flight. 

Pale-wise, or In Pale : — placed or arranged after the 
manner of a Pale; that is, set in a vertical posi- 
tion, or arranged vertically one above another. 

Paly : — divided Pale-wise into an even number of Parts. 

Paly Bendy : — divided evenly both Pale-wise and Bend- 

Party, or Parted : — divided after an heraldic manner. 

Pascuant : — grazing. 

Passant : — walking. 

Passant Chmrdant: — walking, with the Face affrontee. 
A Lion passant guardant was distinguished by the early 
French Heralds, as a Leopard or a Lion Leoparde. 

Passant Beguardant : — walking, and looking bach. 

Passant Bepassant : — the same as Counter Passant ; that 
is, when one animal is passant to the dexter, and another 
to the sinister. 

Pellettee : — studded with Pellets. 

Pendent : — drooping. 
Par : — by means of. 


Pierced : — perforated, so as to show the Field through 
the aperture. 

Pily : — divided Pile-wise. 

Pily Bendy : — divided both Pile-wise and Bend-wise. 

Pomelled: — to denote the Tincture of the uppermost 
part of a sword-hilt. 

Powdered : — semee of small objects. 

Preying : — when a Beast devours its Prey. 

Purfled : — lined, guarded or bordered with Fur. 

Quarterly : — divided into four Quarters ; also divided 
into more than four sections, in which case the number is 
to be specified in the Blazon, as Quarterly of six, of eight, 

Quilled : — to denote the tincture of the Quills of Fea- 

Radiant, or Rayonnee : — encircled with Bays. 

Baguly or Ragulee : — serrated, as in No. 17. 

Rampant, and Rampant Sejant : — see Chap. XI. 

Rebated : — broken off, cut short, or recessed. 

Rebus : — see Chap. XIV. 

Reflected, or Reflexed : — bent, curved, or in any way 
carried backwards. 

Reguardant : — looking backwards. 

Removed : — out of its proper position. 

Retorted : — intertwined, Frette-wise. 

Rising, or Roussant ; — about to take wing. 

Rompu : — broken, or interrupted. 

Salient ; — leaping, or bounding. 

Saltire-wise : — divided, or arranged per Saltire. 

Sarcellee : — cut through the middle. 

Scintillant: — sparkling, or emitting Sparks. 

Seeded : — bearing Seeds, or Seed- Vessels. 


Segreant ;-^when a Griffin is erect with expanded 

Sejant : — sitting. 

Sejant Addorsed : — sitting back to back. 

Semee: — strewed, or scattered over with any Charge or 
Object. See Powdered. 

Shafted : — to denote the Shaft of a Spear, Arrow, &c. 

Slipped: — when a Leaf, Twig, Branch, or Flower, is 
torn from off the parent stem. 

Soaring : — flying aloft. 

Springing : — Salient, also Issuant. 

Statant i — the ordinary attitude in which an animal 
" stands at ease." 

Stringed : — having Strings, as a Harp ; or being sus- 
pended by a Cord, as a Bugle-Horn : or being in any way 
attached to a String, or fastened by one. 

Subverted : — reversed. 

Surmounted : — when one Charge is placed over another. 

Sur-tout : — surmounted, or over all. 

Tasselled .- — adorned with Tassels, as the cushions below 
the heads of monumental effigies. 

Tiercee : — divided into three equal parts. 

Torqued : — wreathed. 

Tournee : — the same as Reguardant. 

Towered :— crowned with Towers or Turrets. 

Transfixed : — pierced through, or Transpierced. 

Transfluent : — flowing through. 

Transmuted : — counterchanged. 

Transposed: — having the original or natural position 
or arrangement reversed. 

Traversed : — facing to the Sinister. 

Tridfted: — sketched in outline with pen and ink. 


Tricorporated : — having three bodies united to a single 
head, from which, as a centre, the bodies radiate at equal 
distances. A tricorporate lion appears on a seal of Edmond 
Plantagenet, Earl of Lancaster, a.d. 1250. 

Tripping, or Trippant: — applied to Animals of the 
Chase, when in easy motion, No. 203, and corresponding 
with Passant. When moving more rapidly, such animals 
are at speed. Counter- Tripping implies that two or more 
animals of the chase are tripping past each other in op- 
posite directions. 

Trononee : — cut to pieces, the pieces standing separately, 
but retaining in their arrangement the original figure or 
contour of the Charge : as in the instance of the Saltire 
in No. 253, Plate XIH. 

Trussed : — having the wings closed. 

Trussing : — devouring, as a Bird of Prey does. 

Tusked: — having tusks. 

Umbrated, or Adumbrated : — shadowed, or under Shadow. 

JJndee or TJndy : — wavy. 

Unguled: — having Hoofs. 

Urniant : — when a Fish swims pale-wise with its Head 
to the Base, the reverse of Hauriant. 

Verdee or Verdoy : — charged with any Plants. 

Verted or Reverted : — the same as Flexed and Beflexed. 

Vested : — habited, clothed. 

Vigilant : — on the watch for prey. 

Voided : — having the entire central area removed. 

Volant : — flying. 

Vorant : — devouring. 

Vulned : — wounded, so that the blood is dropping. 

Wattled : — having a Comb and Gills, as a Cock and a 


Wavy : — having .an undulated border line. 
Winged : — having Wings. 

Wreathed : — adorned with a Wreath, or twisted in the 
form of a "Wreath. 

No. 200.— Shield of William Lonoesp6e, Earl of Salisbury. Died 
a.d. 1226. From his Effigy in Salisbury Cathedral. See p. 63, and Chap- 
ters xv., xvi., xxiii., and xxvi. 

a.d. 1407. 

a.d. 1554. 

No. 309. Mitres. 

a.d. 1631. 



The important Group of Heraldic Terms that consti- 
tute the contents of the present chapter, are arranged in 
the same alphabetical order that obtains in Chapters X, 
XI, XII, and XIII. 

Abeyance : — denotes that condition in the descent of a 
Peerage, in which it is vested in two or more Co-heirs, 
both or all of them having precisely the same claim ; and 
consequently, since the Peerage can descend only in such 
a manner as to be held by one person, when there are 
several equal Claimants, none of them can maintain any 
Claim. This state of things continues, until all the 
original Co-heirs but one fail, and then the representative 
of that one becomes the Heir and inherits the Peerage. 
Thus the Peerage that is in Abeyance is dormant only, 
and not dead, since it revives at once when the Abeyance 
ceases to affect it. 

Achievement of Arms ; — a complete heraldic Composition, 


in which the Shield exhibits all its Quarterings, and its 
Impalement, together with its external accessories of Coro- 
net, Supporters, Crest, Motto, &c. Any Complete heraldic 
Composition may be entitled an Achievement of Arms. 

Archbishop : — the highest Order in the English Church. 
The Archbishop of Canterbury is the first subject of the 
realm, next to the Princes of the Blood Eoyal. He is the 
" Most Eeverend Father in God," is Archbishop " by 
Divine Providence," and is styled " Your Grace." The 
Lord High Chancellor ranks next to the Archbishop of 
Canterbury, and then follows in the order of precedence 
the Archbishop of York: he is "by Divine Permission," 
his style in all other respects being the same as his Grace 
of Canterbury. Of the two Irish Archbishops of Armagh 
and Dtiblin, the former is the Primate : their Graces rank 
immediately after the Archbishop of York. The wives of 
Archbishops and Bishops have no title, and take no rank 
from their husbands. See Pall and Pastoral Staff, in 
Chap. X. ; and Bishop and Mitre in Chap. XIV. 

Argent : — the Metal Silver. 

Armory : — a List of Names and Titles, to which their 
several Arms are attached and blazoned. See Ordinary. 

Attainder :— absolute deprivation of every civil right 
and privilege, involving a transmission of the same fearful 
penalty, and a consequent forfeiture even of pure blood and 
descent, as well as of all hereditary claims. It was the 
weapon with which Treason, or what passed for Treason, 
used to be smitten down. Attainder required a Special 
Act of the Legislature, and it held in force until revoked 
by the same process and authority. 

Augmentation : — an addition to an heraldic Composition, 
which is distinct and complete in itself, and conveys em- 


phatically a definite signification of its own : such as the 
Union Device of the United Kingdom, added as an " Aug- 
mentation of Honour" to the Arms of the Duke of 
Wellington. See Chapter XXVI. 

Azure : — the Colour Blue. 

Badge: — an heraldic Device, having a distinctive sig- 
nification of its own, and borne alone without being 
charged upon a Shield. See Chap. XVII. 

Banner: — a Square Flag, emblazoned in the middle 
ages with a complete Coat-of-Arms, and the distinctive 
Ensign of a Knight-Banneret, and also of the higher Orders 
of Military Chiefs. The Roll of CaerlaverocJc gives the 
Blazon of the Banners of the Princes, Nobles and Knights 
who were present at the Siege of that Border Stronghold 
in the year 1300, under the Eoyal Banner of Edward I. 
This term ought to be retained and used by us for the 
" Colours" of our Cavalry, and for the Flag that we style 
"the Royal Standard," which really is the "Eoyal 
Banner." See Chap. XVIII. 

Banneret, or Knight Banneret: — a Knight, who, for 
good service under the Eoyal Banner, was advanced by 
the King to a higher Order of Knighthood on the Field of 
Battle. From that time he would be entitled to bear, 
and would be distinguished by, a Banner instead of a 

Baron : — a Husband, the Wife in Heraldry being styled 

Baron : — a Title and Eank of Nobility derived from the 
early days of English History, and in a peculiar manner 
associated with the memories of the olden time. It cor- 
responds with the Thane of the Anglo-Saxons. 

A Baron now holds the lowest Eank in the British 


Peerage. He is styled " My Lord," and is " Right Honour- 
able ;" and all his children are " Honourable." The 
Coronet of a Baron has six large Pearls set separately 
upon a jewelled Circlet of gold, of which number four 
only are apparent in representations. The Cap is of 
Crimson Velvet, guarded with Ermine, and is surmounted 
by a gold Tassel. This Coronet, (No. 254,) was first granted 

No. 254. 
by Charles II, before whose time the Barons wore plain 
golden Circles, The Mantle, or Robe of State, is Scarlet, 
and has two Doublings of Ermine. See Chaps. XXI. and 

Baroness: — the wife of a Baron. She is styled "My 
Lady," and is " Right Honourable." Her Coronet is the 
same as that of her Husband. 

Baronet ; — an hereditary Rank, lower than the Peerage, 
instituted by James I, a.d. 1612. Baronets, as originally 
created, were either " of Ulster," or " of Nova Scotia :" 
the armorial Ensign of the former is the Badge of Ulster, 
argent, a sinister hand, couped at the wrist and appaumee, 
gules, No. 177, borne generally upon a small Shield of 
Pretence. The Baronets of Nova Scotia bear, as a Badge, 
the Saltire of Scotland. All Baronets now are " of the 
United Kingdom." 

Bascinet : — a Close fitting Helm. See Helmet. 





Hate XV. 

N os 159 to 318 


Bath, Order of the : — see Chap. XIX. 

Bath: — see Herald. 

Bearing : — any heraldic Device or Figure, or a complete 
Coat- of- Arms. 

Bishop: — the Bishops in number are twenty-one for 
England, four for Wales, ten for Ireland, one for Sodor 
and Man, and forty for the Colonies. The Bishops of 
England and Wales are all Peers Spiritual of Parliament, 
except always the Bishop last consecrated. Also the Irish 
Prelates are Spiritual Peers alternately, four in each 
session of Parliament. The Bishop of London is always 
a Privy-Councillor, and therefore is " Right Honourable." 
He has precedence of all his Brethren. Next in Order 
are the Bishops of Durham and Winchester. The others 
rank according to seniority of Consecration. All the 
Bishops are " Eight Reverend Fathers in God," and 
Bishops "by Divine Permission." «They are styled: "My 
Lord Bishop." 

Archbishops and Bishops impale their own Arms with 
the Arms of their See, the latter being placed to the 
dexter. They have no Supporters, Crest, or Motto, but 
they ensign their Shields with their Mitres. The Arms 
of Canterbury, are : Az., a Crozier, or, the Gross-head, arg., 
surmounted by a pall, of the last, fimbriated and fringed, 
gold, and charged with four crosses patee-fitchee, sa. In 
No. 255 these Arms impale Kempe, gu., three garbs, within 
a bordure engrailed, or, for John Kempe, Archbishop of 
Canterbury, Cardinal and Lord High Chancellor, who 
died a.d. 1454. The Arms of the See of York are, Gu., 
two keys, in Saltire, arg. : in chief, a Boyal Grown, or. The 
Arms of London are, Gu., two swords, in Saltire, arg., pom- 
mels, or : those of Durham are, Az., a cross cantoning four 


lioncels rampt., or : and those of Winchester are, Chi., two 
keys, addorsed, in bend, the uppermost argent, the other, or, a 
sword interposed between them, in bend sinister, of the second, 
hilt and pommel, gold. See Mitre, Pastoral- Staff, and 
Chap. XXI. 

Blazon and Blazonry: — the description and also the 
representation of any heraldic device, figure, or composi- 
tion, in accordance with the principles and the practice 
of Heraldry. 

Blue Mantle : — see Herald. 

Cadency: — that heraldic distinction of the several 
members of the same family, or of collateral branches 
of the same house, which is indicated by some Device 
specially adopted and borne for that purpose. See Chap. 

Canting Heraldry :— also called Armes Parlantes. See 

Cardinal 1 s Hat : — is low in the crown, with a broad 
brim, and of a scarlet colour, with two long pendent 
cords, curiously knotted and intertwined and tasselled. 
It appears above certain shields of arms of the mediaeval 

Clarenceux : — see Herald. 

Coat-of-Arms : — a complete and distinctive heraldic 
composition. The expression is evidently derived from 
the mediaeval usage of embroidering the armorial insignia 
of a noble or knight, upon the surcoat, jupon, or tabard 
which he wore over his armour. 

Collar : — an Ornament to be worn about the neck, and 
indicative of certain rank, office, and position. See 
Chap. XX. 

College-of-Arms : — see Herald. 


Colours : — Naval and Military Flags. The term is now 
used, not only in a general acceptation, but also specifically 
to distinguish the Flags of the Infantry from those (styled 
" standards") of the Cavalry. Shakespeare uses the word 
" Colours" to denote Military Flags. See Chap. XVIII. 

Coins : — the Heraldry that may be learned from both 
British and Foreign Coins is of the utmost value, since it 
is always historically correct, and moreover it invariably 
exemplifies contemporary heraldic feeling and usage. See 
Chap. XXIV. 

Compounded Arms : — Arms formed by the Combination 
of two or more distinct bearings, in such a manner as to 
produce a single Composition. This process has been 
adopted only in rare instances, (as in the Union Flag of 
England, Nos. 63, 64, and Chap. XV.), since the intro- 
duction of systematic Marshalling by Quartering. See 
Chap. XV. 

Coronet: — the Ensign of Princely and Noble Bank, 
corresponding in its own degree with the Crown of a 
Sovereign regnant. The Coronets of the Peers of England 
are worn by them on the occasion of the Coronation of 
their Sovereign. They all enclose a Cap of crimson 
velvet, lined with ermine, and surmounted by a Tassel of 
rich gold bullion. Coronets, as insignia of Nobility, were 
evidently in general use by the Nobles of England in the 
reign of Edward III, but they did not assume their 
present (or, indeed, any) distinctive characteristics until 
a period much nearer to our own times. See Prince , 
Duke, Marquess, Earl, Viscount, Baron, and Crest. 

Contoise : — a scarf, worn loose and flowing, attached to 
the Helm with the crest, but discontinued after the 
middle of the 14th century. A singularly characteristic 


example occurs in the monument of Aymer de Valence, 
tit Westminster. No. 256, PI. XV. 

Count or Convpte: — in Latin, "Comes," a Continental 
title and rank of Nobility, corresponding with that of 
" Earl." The Coronet is set round closely with small 
pearls, slightly raised, and it has no Cap. 

Countess : — the title and rank of the "Wife of an Earl, 
and also of a Count. An English Countess is "Eight 
Honourable ;" she is styled " My Lady ;" and her Coronet 
is the same as that of her husband. 

Courtesy, Titles of: — certain nominal degrees of Eank, 
that are conceded by Eoyal Grace and sanctioned by 
prevailing usage, to some of the children of the Peers. 
The term is especially applicable to the " Second Titles " 
of their Fathers, that are thus borne " by Courtesy " by 
the eldest sons of Dukes, Marquesses, and Earls. 

Crest Coronet: — see Chap. XVII. 

Crown : — the Imperial of Great Britain. See Chap. XIX 

Crowns Foreign : — see Chap. XXXI. 

Crown : — when borne as a charge, a Crown generally is 
drawn after the form of the crest-coronet. The arms of 
St. Edmund, one of the most popular national Saints of 
mediaeval England, in the Caerlaverock Eoll associated 
with the ensigns of St. George and St. Edward, are, — 
azure, three crowns, 2 and 1, or, No. 271. This Shield 
appears on the monument of Prince Edmund Planta- 
genet, of Langley, at King's Langley, in Hertfordshire. 
Three similar crowns on a field gules, constitute the 
arms of the See of Ely. 

Certain varieties and modifications also of ancient 
crowns are in use as heraldic accessories, and sometimes 
they are borne as charges in modern Heraldry. The 



Mural Crown, No. 272, a circle of gold embattled, is 

No. 272. 
associated with military success in sieges : it is borne, as 
a crest of augmentation, with other devices, by Sir 
Edward Kerrison ; and, as both crest and charge, by 
the Baron Seaton. The Naval Crown, borne by Earl 
Nelson, as a similar crest, and by Sir George Parker 
as a charge, No. 273, is formed by the alternate sterns 

No. 273. 
and masts of ships set upon a golden circle, and sig- 
nificantly declares its own peculiar meaning. The 
Crown Vallary, No. 274, borne with his crest by Sir 

No. 274. 
Matthew Barrington, refers to the forcing an enemy's 
entrenched camp, and is formed of small palissades placed 
upon a golden circle. The Radiated or Eastern Crown, 
called also the Antique Crown, No. 275, borne as both 

No. 275. 


crest and charge by the Earl of Seafield, Sir James 
Otjtram, and Sir John Lawrence, has its rays pointed, 
in which respect it differs from the heraldic Celestial 
Crown, which has each of its rays charged with a star. 

Crozier : — the Cross-headed Pastoral- Staff of an Arch- 
bishop, which is borne as a Charge in the Arms of the 
Sees of Canterbury, Armagh, and Dublin. Characteristic 
examples occur in the Brasses to Archbishops de Waldeby, 
1397, Westminster, No. 160, PI. XV., andCuANLEY, 1407, 
New College, Oxford ; in the Brass to Dean Thomas Ne- 
lond, Cowfold, 1443 ; and in the Monument of Arch- 
bishop Warham, 1532, at Canterbury. The effigy 
of Archbishop Walter Grey, 1255, in his noble 
Monument at York, has a staff with a crook-head of 
beautiful foliage. See Pastoral- Staff, Chap. X., and No. 
159, in PI. XV. 

Dalmatic: — a robe of state worn by both Sovereign 
Princes and by the Mediaeval Hierarchy. It was also 
the distinctive vestment of a Deacon. It has rather 
wide sleeves, and it hangs loosely about the person, being 
open at the sides at the lower part. It is exemplified in 
all episcopal effigies, and is represented immediately 
below the chesuble. It occurs in royal effigies, and is 
shewn most clearly in the effigy of Henry IV. at 

Diaper: — a surface pattern, which simply imparts a 
decorative character, without assuming the distinctive 
attributes of a charge. See Chap. IX. 

Difference : — a figure or device*ntroduced into heraldic 
composition, for the purpose of distinguishing several per- 
sons who bear the same arms. See Chap. XVI. 

Dimidiation : — the original method of Impalement, 


effected by mutually dividing the two shields per pale, 
and by forming the compound shield from the union of 
the Dexter-half of one of the divided shields with the 
Sinister-half of the other. Chap. XV. 

Dividing Lines : — see Chaps. III. IV. 

Doubling : — the lining of a robe : also any enrichment 
of a robe or mantle by means of ermine or other rich 

Duke: — next to the Princes and Princesses of the 
Blood Eoyal and to the four Archbishops of England 
and Ireland, the highest order and rank of the British 

This title was introduced by Edward III, a.d. 1337, 
when he created his son Prince Edward, the Black 
Prince, Duke op Cornwall. The second of the English 
Dukes was Henry Plantagenet, Earl of Lancaster, 
Derby, and Leicester, and Count of Provence, who 
was created Duke of Lancaster, a.d. 1351. A Duke's 
coronet, as now worn, has eight strawberry -leaves set 
upon a jewelled circle of gold, the cap being of crimson 
velvet with a golden tassel and guarded with ermine : in 
representations, five only of the leaves are shewn, 
No. 276. The opinion is prevalent that this distinctive 

No. 276. 

h 2 

form of coronet appears for the first time, placed upon 


the basinet of Prince John Plantaoenet, of Eltham, 
Earl of Cornwall, in his effigy at Westminster, a.d. 
1336. That there is no foundation for such an origin of 
the Ducal Coronet is evident from the effigy itself. The 
decorations of the head-piece and of the rest of the 
armour are precisely the same, and they also are identical 
with similar decorations that appear in other effigies of 
about the same date. The basinet of Prince John, No. 
277, PI. XVI., however, evidently was once encircled by a 
plain narrow fillet, which is not the case in any other 
instance, so far as I am aware. In the effigy at York, of 
the nephew of John of Eltham, Prince William, 
second son of Edward III, who was born a.d. 1336, and 
died in childhood, the head has the long and flowing 
hair encircled by a jewelled fillet, represented in No. 278. 
The effigy of the Black Prince himself, a.d. 1376, at 
Canterbury, exhibits on the basinet, No. 279, what may 
possibly have been the prototype of the Dukes' straw- 
berry-leaf coronet. From the jewelled circle that encom- 
passes the basinet there rise sixteen leaves, with a 
second series of the same number and much smaller 
size alternating with the larger ones. These leaves 
differ very slightly from those that are carved upon 
the armour of John of Eltham, and they are in 
exact accordance with a favourite form of decorative 
foliage in general use when the effigy was executed. 
Lionel Plantagenet, Duke of Clarence, who died 
a.d. 1368, in his Will bequeathed " Two Golden Circles" 
with one of which he states that he himself had been 
" created a Duke," while with the other his elder brother, 
the Black Prince, had been "created a Prince." It 
would seem that for a while the coronets of both Dukes 


Plate XVI. 

N os 257. 258, 269 to 280. 


and Earls were decorated rather after an arbitrary taste, 
than in accordance with any established rale. Indeed, 
more than a century after the death of the Black 
Prince, the effigies of John de la Pole, KG-., Duke of 
Suffolk, and his wife Elizabeth Plantagenet, sister 
of Edward IV, have Coronets, No. 280, of Fleurs-de-lys, 
alternating with clusters of three small balls. Possibly, 
the Fleurs-de-lys here may denote the Lady to have been 
a Princess. 

The Latin equivalent of Duke is " Dux." A Duke is 
styled " Your Grace," and he is " Most Honorable ;" all his 
sons are "Lords," and all his daughters "Ladies;" but 
his eldest son bears his father's " second title," and 
accordingly he generally ranks as a Marquess. See 
Chap. XXVIII. 

The Mantle of a Duke is scarlet, and it has four 
doublings of ermine. There nqjv are twenty English 
Dukedoms, seven Scottish, and one Irish. 

Ducal Coronet, or Crest Coronet: — see Crest. 

Duchess: — the wife of a Duke. She is styled "Your 
Grace," and is "Most Honorable." Her Coronet is the 
same as that of her husband. 

Earl: — a title and rank of Nobility, now the third in 
the order of the British Peerage, but the direct descendant 
of the highest dignity amongst the Anglo-Saxons. The 
"Earl" of the Normans, identical with the "Compte" 
or " Count " of France, in Latin, " Comes," succeeded to 
the "Eorl" of the Saxons. 

An Earl is "Eight Honorable," and is styled "My 
Lord." His eldest son bears his father's " second title," 
and therefore is generally styled "Viscount;" his other 


sons are " Honorable," but all his daughters are " Ladies." 
See Chap. XXVIII. 

The Coronet of an Earl has eight lofty rays of gold 
rising from a jewelled circlet, each of which upon its 
point supports a large pearl ; also between each pair of 
rays, at their bases, there is a golden strawberry-leaf. 
In representations, five of the elevated pearls and four 
of the leaves are apparent, No. 281. The cap is the 

No. 281. 
same as in the other coronets. The scarlet mantle has 
three doublings of ermine. * 

In the monumental effigies of noble personages which 
yet remain from the middle ages, there are many highly 
interesting examples of the varieties of Coronets worn by 
the Earls of those days and their Countesses, before this 
Coronet had assumed its present definite and fixed 
character. I must be content to refer to a few examples 
only. The Crest of Eichard Beauchamp, Earl of 
Warwick, No. 265, a.d. 1439, in his effigy at Warwick, 
rises from a plain circlet that is surmounted by series of 
pearls slightly raised, but without any strawberry-leaves. 
The Earl and Countess of Arundel, at Arundel, early 
in the fifteenth century, have remarkably rich Coronets, 
No. 282 : the Earl's has a series of leaves and of clusters 
of three small balls alternating, all of them being 


equally raised to a considerable height j the Coronet of 
the Countess differs in having the raised groups set 
alternately with single balls that are less elevated. 
Later in the century, a.d. 1487, another Earl and Coun- 
tess of Arundel have Coronets, No. 283, p. 13, formed 
entirely of the conventional architectural leaves of the 
period. Similar leaves, no less than thirteen in number, 
rise to a slight and uniform elevation along the front of 
the ample Coronet, No. 284, of Isabel Plantagenet, 
Countess of Essex, in her Brass at Little Easton in 
Essex, a.d. 1483. And, once more, at Hever in Kent, 
a.d. 1536, the Brass to Sir T. Boleyn, KG., Earl of 
Wiltshire and Ormonde, represents the maternal 
grandfather of Queen Elizabeth, in the Insignia of the 
Garter and wearing a rich Coronet, the circle of which 
is set with small pearls, not raised, and in contact, and 
so numerous that upwards of tjventy are displayed : 
No. 285. 

Ermine : — \ 

Ermines:— ( Heraldic Furs. See Chap. V. 
Erminois : — J 

Escutcheon : — an Heraldic Shield. See Chap. III. 

Escutcheon of Pretence : — a small Shield charged upon 
the Field of another Shield. 

Esquire: — a title of honorable distinction, in rank 
below that of Knight. Esquires are personal companions 
and attendants of the Knights of the Orders of Knight- 
hood, — as Knights of the Garter and the Bath. These 
Esquires have their stall-plates at Windsor and West- 
minster. Amongst other Esquires, are all attendants 
upon the Person of the Sovereign: all eldest sons of 
Baronets and Knights : all eldest sons of the younger 


sons of Peers: all persons holding commissions direct 
from the Crown, but not being of rank lower than 
Captain : all Royal Academicians, and Barristers-at-Law: 
also all Bachelors of Law and Physic and Masters of 
Arts. See Chap. XXVHI. 

Femme: — the Wife, as distinguished from the Baron, 
her Husband. 

Fe8se-Point: — the central point of a Shield. See 
Chap, in, No. 8, m. 

Field : — the surface of a Shield or of its Parts, or of 
any Charge or Object. 

Furs : — see Chap. V. 

Garter: — the most celebrated Order of European 
Knighthood. See Chap. XX. 

Garter : — see Herald. 

Garter : — a strap or riband, fastened with a buckle in 
such a manner as to form a circle, and having the end 
depending. Such a Garter may be of any tincture, and 
it may be assumed for the purpose of being charged with 
any motto. It was known to Heralds, and in use as an 
heraldic device, before the institution of the Order. 

The Garter of the Order is azure, bordered with gold, 
and having a golden buckle and appendages. In letters 
of the same precious metal it is charged with the motto, — 
Honi : soit : qui : mal : y : pense. Since the year 1350, 
this Garter has habitually been placed about the Shield 
op England, as in No. 286, which represents the arms 
of Edward III. as they are blazoned upon his monument ; 
the Garter and Motto, however, are added to the shield- 
of-arms, for it is a very singular circumstance that none 
of the insignia of the Order appear in the monuments of 
cither Edward III. or the Black Prince. The Garter 














Plate Xl'i. 

• K os 131 to 289. 


of the Order also encircles the shield- of-arms of every 
Knight of the Order. A shield thus gartered appears 
in the fine Brass to the Baron Camoys, K.G., a.d. 1424, 
at Trotton in Sussex. This Brass also exemplifies the 
heraldic usage, which restricts the knightly ensign of the 
Garter to the shield of the Knight himself. Accordingly, 
above the heads of both Lord and Lady Camoys, on 
either side of the two compartments of their double 
canopy, are two shields; of which one is charged with 
Camoys only, or, on a chief, gu., three plates, and is gartered, 
No. 287 ; and the other bears Camoys impaling Mortimer, 
No. 288. The two shields represented in Nos. 287 and 288 
shew the relative sizes of the originals. In the effigy of 
Lord Camoys, the Garter is adjusted about the left leg, 
as in No. 288 a. The canopy of the Brass at Constance 
Cathedral to Eobert Hallam, Bishop of Salisbury, 
a.d. 1417, is enriched with a gartered shield of the 
Eoyal Arms, No. 289 ; the Fleurs-de-lys are three in 
number, and the shield is environed with rays. Many 
admirable examples of the adjustment of the insignia of 
the Garter occur in monumental effigies : as in that 
of Eichard Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick, 1439 ; of 
Sir E. Harcourt, at Stanton Harcourt, 1471 ; of John 
de la Pole, Duke of Suffolk, No. 290, at Wingfield, 
1431 ; and of Sir Thomas Boleyn, at Hever, 1536. The 
Mantle is represented in all these examples, except the 
first. Sir Thomas Boleyn also wears the Collar of the 
Order. Sir E. Harcourt wears the Yorkist Collar of 
Lions and Eoses, having the white Lion of the Mor- 
timers as a pendent, No. 291 : and, what is remarkable, in 
her effigy, Lady Harcourt wears the Garter of the 
Order buckled about her left arm, No. 292, precisely as it 
is worn by Her Majesty the Queen. See Chap. XX. 


Gonfannon: — a Flag suspended from a transverse bar 
attached to a staff, and commonly swallow-tailed at the 
" fly," as in No. 293. 

Grand Quarters : — the primary sections of a quartered 
Shield. See Chap. Ill, No. 16. 

Chiles : — the Colour Bed. 

Hatchment : — the Armorial Bearings of a deceased per- 
son, usually enclosed within a black lozenge-shaped frame, 
and placed upon a house-front. When a Hatchment is 
erected on the death of a Husband, the Dexter half of the 
Field of the Hatchment itself is Sable, the Sinister being 
Argent. On the death of a Wife, this order of the Tinc- 
tures is reversed. The Whole of its Field is Sable, 
when a Hatchment bears the arms of a Widower a 
Widow, or an Unmarried Person. In the blazoning of 
Hatchments all the rules of Marshalling are to be care- 
fully observed. The Tinctures, Argent and Sable, of the 
Field of Hatchments will require to be thoughtfully 
adjusted, when there are many quarterings and other 
heraldic combinations. See Chaps. XV. and XXX. It 
is customary to place on a Hatchment some brief legend 
of a religious character, in place of the motto of the 

Helm, Heaume, or Helmet : — the defence for the Head. 
In the Middle Ages, the Knights wore a second Helm of 
ample dimensions and great strength when in actual 
action, whether in the Field or the Lists. This great 
Helm was commonly made to rest upon the shoulders, 
and was secured to the Knight's person by a chain, as in 
the Brass to Sir R. de Trumpington. In monumental 
effigies the great Helm frequently forms a characteristic 
pillow for the head of the deceased warrior, and it is 
adorned with its Crest, Wreath and Mantling. Oc- 


casionally, after the year 1425, the smaller Helm is 
similarly used, and the effigy has the Head uncovered. 
Beneath the great Helm the head was protected by a 
Coif of Mail, and sometimes also by a species of close 
fitting steel cap. A small Helm, known as a Basinet, 
was introduced early in the fourteenth century, from 
which a Tippet-like defence of Mail, called the Camail, 
hung down and covered the neck and shoulders. The 
Basinet and Camail of the Black Prince are shewn in 
No. 279. The Camail was superseded by a Gorget of 
plate about the year 1408. 

Modern Heralds place the Helm, as an accessory, above 
a shield-of-arms, and they have both introduced fanciful 
and singularly unbecoming forms of Helms, and have 
adopted absurdly complicated rules for their disposition. 
Such rules were altogether unknown in the palmy days of 
early Heraldry, and might be advantageously dismissed 
from the heraldic usages of our own times. Nos. 263 
and 264 represent such Helms as might be uniformly 
introduced into all modern achievements of Arms. The 
rules at present generally observed are as follows: — 
The Helm of the Sovereign to be of Gold, and to stand 
affrontee being guarded with six Bars, No. 294. The 

No. 294. No. 295. 


Helm of Princes and Nobles to be of Silver, decorated 
with Gold: to stand in profile, and to show five Bars 
only, No. 295. The Helm of Baronets and Knights to 
be of Steel, adorned with Silver, and to stand affrontee, 
having the Vizor raised and without Bars, No. 296. The 
Helm of Esquires and Gentlemen to have the Vizor closed, 
and to stand in profile, No. 297. 

No. 290 No. 297. 

Heralds: — the Officers who preside over the Modern 
Heraldry of England, and who derive both their Titles 
and their official Duties from times long passed away, as 
their Predecessors of the Middle Ages were themselves 
officially the Descendants and Representatives of the 
Eoyal Messengers and Ambassadors of Antiquity. 

The exclusive privilege of deciding officially respecting 
Rights of Arms and Claims for Descent was bestowed 
upon the Heralds by Edward III, and about the year 
1425 they were regularly constituted a Corporate Body. 
Their official residence, situated between St. Paul's 
Cathedral and the Thames, stands upon the site of 
Derby House, which was given to them by Mary and 
Philip, and was afterwards destroyed in the Great Fire. 

The College of Arms or Heralds' College, as at 
present constituted, consists of Three Kin gs-of- Arms en- 


titled, Garter, Clarencmx, and Norroy. Of these G-arter 
is the Chief, and Clarenceux and Norroy have jurisdiction 
severally to the South and North of the Trent : of 

Six Heralds, entitled Windsor, Chester, Lancaster, 
Somerset, York, and Richmond, and of Four Pursuivants, 
Rouge Croix, Rouge Dragon, Bluemantle, and Portcullis. 
There is another King-of-Arms, styled Bath, or Gloucester, 
who has not a place in the Heraldic Chapter, whose juris- 
diction extends to the Principality of Wales. There are 
also two other Heraldic Kings — Lord Lion, for Scotland, 
and Ulster, for Ireland. 

The Kings-of-Arms have a Crown composed of sixteen 
oak leaves, No. 298, set erect upon a golden circle, nine of 
which leaves appear in representations. The Crown 
encloses a Cap of Crimson Velvet, lined with Ermine, but 
without any Tassel; and on the Circle itself is the 
Legend, Miserere mei Deus secundum magnam misericordiam 
tuam. The Herald Kings also have their own official 
Arms, which they impale on the dexter side with their 
paternal Arms. See Chap. XXI. 

The Official Habit of all the Heralds is a Tabard, or 
sleeved Surcoat, upon which the Royal Arms are em- 
blazoned, the Blazonry being repeated on the Front, 
Back and Sleeves. All the Heralds also wear, as part of 
their Official Insignia, the Lancastrian Collar of 8.S. 
See Chap. XX. 

At the Head of the whole Heraldic Brotherhood, 
having his high Commission direct from the Sovereign, is 
the Earl Marshal of England. This Office is held by 
the Duke of Norfolk, and it is hereditary in his Family. 
The Arms of his Grace quarter the hereditary Insignia 
of Howard, Brotherton, Warren, and Mowbray, and 


behind the Shield, crossed in saltire, are two Marshal's 
Staves, or, enamelled at the ends, sable, "No. 299. See also 
Chap. XXVI. 

The present duties of Heralds comprise Grants of 
Arms ; the Tracing and Drawing up of Genealogies ; the 
Recording Arms and Genealogies in the Registers of the 
Heralds' College ; recording the Creation and Succession 
of Peers and others, with all similar matters, including 
the Direction of all Royal Pageants and Ceremonials, and 
Enrolling the Colors and Standards in use in the Army. 
Honor Point : — see Chap. Ill, and No. 8, l. 
Hospitallers: — see Chap. XX. 

Illumination : — for a full and most satisfactory notice of 
this beautiful Early Art, now so happily revived, I must 
refer to the " Manual of Illumination," by Mr. J. J. Laing, 
published by Messrs. Winsor and Newton. 

Impalement : — the vertical division of a Shield into two 
or more equal parts, and the placing two or more distinct 
Coats of Arms severally in those parts. This is the pre- 
vailing arrangement for uniting the arms of a Husband and 
a Wife. In the Impalement of a Bordure, that Subordi- 
nary now is always dimidiated — that is, the Bordure does 
not extend to the impaled side of the Shield. See Dimi- 
diation, and Chaps. VIII and XV. 

Jousts : — tournaments. * 

Jupon: — a Short Surcoat fitting the person, without 
sleeves, worn over their armour by the Nobles and Knights 
of the Middle Ages, from about a.d. 1355, to about a.d. 
1405. The Jupon was generally of rich materials, and 
emblazoned with the heraldic insignia of the wearer ; it 
was also almost invariably invected or jagged at the 
bottom. Fine examples exist in the Effigies of the Black 


Prince, at Canterbury, and of the Earl of Warwick, (a 
Brass, a.d. 1401), at St. Mary's, Warwick. 

King -at- Arms : — see Herald. 

Knight : — in Latin, " Eques," a mounted Warrior, who 
in the Middle Ages was a man of military rank, entitled 
to bear a Pennon and a Shield-of-Arms, and further dis- 
tinguished by his Golden Spurs. When used alone, the 
term now denotes a rank somewhat resembling that of a 
Baronet, except in the important particular that it is not 
hereditary. The Orders of Knighthood of our own day, 
like those of the days of Mediaeval Chivalry, are Fraterni- 
ties of Honor. See Chap. XX. 

Knight- Banneret : — see Banneret. 

Lambrequin : — see Mantling. 

Lists : — enclosed spaces for holding Tournaments. 

Maintenance , Cap of: — also called a Chapeau of Estate t 
was an early symbol of high Dignity and E-ank. It 
appears supporting the (Trest of the Black Prince at 
Canterbury, No. 263. This Cap is still retained in use, 
and is occasionally placed beneath modern Crests in place 
of the customary Wreath. In form, the Cap of Main- 
tenance somewhat resembles the modern Scottish " Glen- 
gary," but it is made of Crimson Velvet, and guarded 
with Ermine, No. 133 a, PI. VIII. 

Mantle : — a long and flowing Eobe, worn in the Middle 
Ages over the armour. The Mantle also constitutes an 
important part of the official Insignia of the Knightly 
Orders, See Chap. XX. In the Middle Ages, Ladies of 
Rank wore similar Mantles, and in many instances they 
were decorated with heraldic charges, in which case the 
Mantle bore either the Impaled Arms of the Lady and her 
Husband, or her Husband's Arms only. Numerous ex- 


amples exist in Monumental Effigies, as in the Brass at 
Enfield, a.d. 1446, to Lady Tiptoft : No. 300, PI. XVII. 

Mantling or Lambrequin : — a small Mantle, attached to 
the Basinet or Helm, and hanging down over the 
shoulders of the wearer. In Heraldry, the Mantling is 
often so adjusted that it forms a back ground for the 
Shield and its accessories, and thus with them it con- 
stitutes an Achievement of Arms : or, it simply hangs in 
such a manner as to cover the back of the Helm, as in No. 
301, PI. I, the Achievement of Sir John Harsyck, a.d. 
1384, at Southacre, Norfolk: the Arms are, or, a chief 
dancettee, az.; and the Crest is, a panache of turkey's 
feathers, sa., rising out of a hoop, or. The Knightly 
Mantling being necessarily much exposed, was constantly 
cut and torn in the melee ; this is indicated by the jagged 
edges and irregular form given to their Mantlings by 

Marquess: — (sometimes also Marquis), the Second 
Order of English Nobility, in rank next to that of Duke. 
The first Marquess in England was Robert de Vere, 
Earl of Oxford, who by Richard II, a.d. 1387, was 
created Marquess of Dublin. This Rank and Title then, 
with one other exception only, lay dormant until the 
time of Henry VI. A Marquess is " Most Honorable," 
and is styled "My Lord Marquess;" his sons are all 
"Lords," and his daughters "Ladies," his eldest son 
bearing the Second Title of his father. The Coronet is 
a circlet of gold, from which there arise four strawberry- 
leaves and as many pearls alternately, all of them being 
but slightly raised, and of equal height; in repre- 
sentations two of the pearls, and three of the leaves are 

MIR S HiLIi U I N G . 


Plate XVII. 

Effigy of Lady 2pto: 

from the Srass. A] 

TT° 300. 

.with, the Shields of Tiptoft ScPowys, 

144 5, at Enfield, Middles ex. 


seen, No. 302. The Cap is the same as in the other 

No. 302. 
Coronets. The Mantle is Scarlet, and it has three and a 
half doublings of Ermine. The wife of a Marquess is 
styled a Marchioness. 

Marshalling: — the arrangement and aggroupment of 
Heraldic Compositions. See Chap. XV. 

Medals .-—honorable insignia, bestowed for meritorious 
service in the Navy and Army, and also for eminent worth 
or noble conduct of ^whatever kind. In very rare 
instances the Medal itself has an intrinsic value, but the 
prevailing usage is that the worth of this decoration of 
Honor should consist exclusively in its associations. See 
Chap. XX. 

Metals : — in Heraldry, Gold, Or, and Silver, Argent. 

Merchants' Marks: — devices that were adopted as a 
species of Mercantile Heraldry by the wealthy Merchants 
of the Middle Ages, to whom the use of true heraldic 
insignia originally was not conceded. They repeatedly 
occur in monumental memorials, and consist of a mono- 
gram of the initials of the Merchant, with a compound 
figure, which is in part a cross, and in a part is derived 
from a mast of a ship. These Marks were often borne on 
shields, and they may be considered to be the prototypes 
of the Trade Brands and Marks of our own times. The 


Example, No. 303, is from the Brass to Thomas Pownder, 
a.d. 1525, in the Church of St. Mary Quay, Ipswich. 
In the Brass to Willtam Grevel, a.d. 1401, at Chip- 
ping Campden, there are both a Merchant's Mark and a 
Shield of Arms ; and the Brass to John Terri, a.d. 1524, 
at St. John's, Maddermarket, Norwich, has a shield which 
quarters the arms of a commercial guild with a merchant's 

Merchants of the Staple, — of London and Calais, 
incorporated by Edward III. They bore, Barry nebulee 
of six, argent and azure, on a Chief, gules, a Lion of 
England, No. 304. See Chap. XXI. 

Merchants- Adventurers, — of Hamburgh and London, 
incorporated by Edward I. They bore Barry nebulee of 
six, argent and azure, on a Chief, quarterly, gules and or, 
a Lion of England, alternating with two Roses, of the third, 
barbed, vert, No. 305. See Chap. XXI. 

Mitre : — the Cap of Official Rank and Dignity, placed 
above their Arms, and used as a Badge of their office by 
the Archbishops and Bishops of the Church of England 
and Ireland, but worn only by prelates of the Roman 
Church. Mitres are always represented as golden, and 
they are all cleft from the summit downwards, so that they 
terminate in two points. Two Irfuloe, or ribbons fringed 
at the ends, depend from every Mitre. The Mitres of 
Bishops rise from a plain golden circlet, as No. 306, but 
those of Archbishops rise from Ducal Coronets, as No. 307. 
The Bishop of Durham also, as nominally Count Palatine 
of the County of Durham as well as Bishop of the See, 
has his Mitre rising from a similar Coronet, as in No. 308. 

In the Middle Ages, Mitres underwent several important 
changes in their contour and general aspect. At first 
very low, simple, and concavj in outline, during the four- 


No. 306. 

No. 307. 

No. 308. 

teenth century they became more elevated, rich, and 
splendid. Still later, Mitres changed their contour from 
concave to convex, and were considerably elevated, and 
thus they assumed their present form and character. In 
Mediaeval Effigies and Seals, Mitres are constantly repre- 
sented with characteristic accuracy. In No. 309, at the 
head of this chapter, I have given outlines from some of 
these examples for the sake of comparison ; they are from 
the Brasses to Archbishop Cranley, a.d. 1417, at Ox- 

i 2 


ford ; Bishop Goodryke, a.d. 1554, at Ely ; and Arch- 
bishop Harsnett, a.d. 1631, at Chigwell, Essex. 

Motto: — a word or a brief epigrammatic sentence, sup- 
posed to be in some manner characteristic of the Bearer, 
and usually placed on a scroll either beneath a shield, or 
about a crest. The latter position would be adopted 
when the Motto has evident reference to the crest itself. 
A Motto may also be charged upon a garter. In Heraldry, 
as a law, a Motto is not held to be hereditary, but is 
supposed to be of a strictly personal character ; in almost 
every instance, however, in actual usage, the Motto is 
transmitted and borne with the Shield and Crest. Mottos 
are not borne by Bishops. See Rebus. 

Mound : — see Chap. XIX. 

Norroy : — see Herald. 

Or:— the Metal Gold. 

Orders of Knighthood : — see Chap. XX. 

Ordinary of Anns : — a series of Heraldic Bearings, or 
Coats of arms, classified and arranged in accordance with 
the principal charges, and having the names of the 
Bearers attached. It is the reverse of an Armoury. 

Panache: — a Plume of Feathers, generally those of 
the peacock, set upright, so as to form a crest. Such a 
decoration for the Helm appears to have been occasionally 
in use from an early period until the concluding quarter 
of the fifteenth century, when waving plumes were first 
introduced. The Panache was almost always regarded as 
a Crest. It appears in the Brass to Lord Ferrers, of 
Chartley, about a.d. 1410, at Merevale, in Warwickshire ; 
also, but not of peacock's feathers, in the sculptured 
effigy of Sir T. Arderne, a.d. 1400, at Elford, in Staf- 
fordshire ; and in the Brass to Sir J. Harsyck, a.d. 



1384, at Southacre, Norfolk : No. 301, PI. I : see Chap. 

Paschal Lamb : — a White Lamb, passant, represented 
as carrying the Red Cross Banner or Pennon of St- 
George. It was a device of the Knights Templars. 

Pean : — an heraldic Fur. See Chap. V. 

Peer: — the general title of the Nobility of Great 
Britain, indicating their equality of rank as a class, as the 
" Nobles," distinguished from the " Commons," of the 
realm. For the History, Succession, Honors, Arms, 
Privileges, &c, of the Peers, I must refer to the 
" Peerage" by Sir Bernard Burke, Ulster King at Arms, 
published every year, and to the other Peerages. 

Pennon: — a small pointed or swallow- tailed Flag, 
carried by every mediaeval Knight upon his own Lance, 
and which bore his own personal Device. The Pennon 
appears to have been adopted in its distinctive character 
during the reign of Henry III. My example, No. 310, 
from the Brass to Sir John D'Aubernoun, at Stoke Dau- 
bernon, Surrey, is of the period of Edward I ; it is azure, 
cliarged with a chevron and fringed, or. See Chap. XVIII. 

Pennoncelle : — a long streamer-like Pennon. 

Planta Genista: — the Broom-plant, the celebrated 
badge of the Plantagenet Princes, which was assumed 
and borne by Geoffrey Plantagenet, Count of Anjou, 
the Founder of the Plantagenet Family. In Heraldry, a 
sprig of the Broom appears with its spike-like leaves, its 
golden blossoms, and its pods, the latter sometimes open 
and disclosing their seeds. The effigy of Eichard II, at 
Westminster, has the Dalmatic and Mantle diapered with 
the Plantagenista, No. 240, PL XII. and the other badges 
of that unfortunate Prince. The pod of the pea-plant is 


used somewhat after a similar manner in the Brass to 
Walter Pescod, Merchant, 1398, at Boston, in Lincolnshire. 

Plume : — see Panache. 

Portcullis : — see Herald ; also see Portcullis in Chap. X. 

Potent : — an Heraldic Fur. See Chap. V. 

Powdering : — scattering irregularly over any field : 
specially applied to small objects. 

Prince and Princess : — see Chap. XIX. 

Purpure : — the colour Purple. 

Pursuivant i — a Herald of the lowest rank. 

Quartering: — the arranging different armorial compo- 
sitions in those divisions of a shield, which are either four 
or more than four in number. See Chap. XV. 

Quarterings : — quarterly divisions of a shield ; also the 
arms emblazoned upon such divisions. 

Rebus: — a charge or charges, or any heraldic compo- 
sition which has an allusion to the name of the bearer, or 
to his profession, or his personal characteristics, and 
thus may be said to speak to the beholder, " non verbis, 
sed rebus." For example, three salmons for the name 
Salmon ; a spear on a bend for Shakspeare, &c, &c. In 
the Middle Ages, the Rebus was a favourite form of 
heraldic expression, and many quaint and curious ex- 
amples remain of such devices : for instance, the monu- 
ment of Abbot Ramrydge, at St. Alban's, abounds in 
figures of Rams, each of which has, on a collar about its 
neck, the letters ridge. An Ash-tree growing out of a 
Cask or Tun, for the name Ashton, at St. John's, Cam- 
bridge, is another example of a numerous series. The 
tun to represent the terminal syllable " ton " was in great 
favour. Thus at Winchester, in the Chantry of Bishop 
Langton, a.d. 1500, a musical note called a long is inserted 


into a tun, for Langton ; a vine and a tun, for his See, 
Winton ; and a &m sitting on a to, for his Prior, Hunton. 

In Westminster Abbey, Abbot Islip's Chapel gives two 
forms of his Rebus ; one, a human Eye, and a small 
branch or " Slip " of a tree ; the other, a man in the act 
of falling from a tree, and exclaiming, " I slip !" Such 
heraldic puns are distinguished as Canting Heraldry. This 
system extends to mottoes, as in the well-known instance 
of the Vernons, whose motto is " Ver non semper viret." 

Regalia : — the insignia of Royalty. See Chap. XIX. 

Boll of Arms: — an heraldic record with a blazon 
of Arms, usually written and illuminated upon a long 
strip of vellum, and rolled up instead of being folded into 
leaves. The earliest English Roll is of the reign of 
Henry III, and it contains almost a complete Baronial 
Armoury of that period, the shields of arms bein g two 
hundred and sixteen in number. 

Rose : — the badge of England. See Rose in Chap X. 

Rouge Croix : — see Herald. 

Rouge Dragon : — see Herald. 

Sable : — the colour Black. 

St. Alban : — the English Protomartyr. The arms of 
the famous Abbey that bore his name were, azure, a saltire 
or. A figure supposed to represent St. Alban, appears 
in the canopy of the Brass to Abbot Delamere, about 
a.d. 1350, still preserved in the Abbey Church of St. Alban. 

St. Andrew : — the Patron Saint of Scotland. His arms 
are, azure, a saltire, argent. No. 60. 

St. Edmund : — one of the favourite popular Saints of 
mediaeval England ; his arms are, azure, three crowns, two 
and one, or, No. 271. 

St. Edward, or Edward the Confessor : — another popular 
Saint of the olden time ; his arms are, azure, a cross 


fleurie, between five martlets, or. Sometimes the cross is 
blazoned patonce. There is a fine example of this shield, 
executed in relief, and diapered, in Henry Ill's South 
Choir Aisle of Westminster Abbey, No. 78 : also, another 
fine example at the entrance to Westminster Hall. This 
coat of arms was impaled by Richard II, and also by 
some of his near kinsmen. It was one of the charges 
against the Duke of Norfolk, in 1546, that he had 
assumed this coat of arms* 

St. George : — the Patron Saint of England. The inci- 
dent (if any) which led to the association of St. George 
with England is unknown. The arms of this illustrious 
saint are, argent, a cross, gules, No. 62. I am not able to 
refer to any earlier example of the arms of St. George, 
as borne by the saintly warrior himself, than that which 
occurs in the Brass to Sir Hugh Hastings, at Elsyng, 
Norfolk, a.d. 1347. In the canopy of this fine Brass, St. 
George appears mounted and transfixing the Dragon, and 
he has his Cross charged upon his Shield, his Surcoat, 
and the Bar dings of his charger: No. 311 shows this 
shield. Another small figure of St. George on foot, with 
his shield duly charged, is introduced into the canopy of 
the Brass to Sir Nicholas Hawberk, a.d. 1407, at 
Cobham, in Kent. St. George appears upon the Great 
Seal of Edward HI, a.d. 1360: and in the Roll of 
Caelarverock, a.d. 1300, the Banner of St. George is 
mentioned, with the Banners of St. Edmund and St. 
Edward, but these saintly ensigns are not blazoned. 
The arms of St. George are also mentioned in the 
inventory of the Earl of Hereford, a.d. 1322. Each 
of the large shields upon the Monument of Edward 
III is charged with a Red Cross, but the field now is or 
and not argent. In illuminations of the fourteenth cen- 


tury, a portraiture of St. G-eorge and the Dragon appears 
upon some of the standards of England. 

St. Michael : — see Chap. XX. 

St. Patrick : — the Patron Saint of Ireland ; his Arms 
are, argent, a saltire, gules, No. 61. 

Second Title : — this expression denotes the second in a 
series of dignities, accumulated in the persons of Peers of 
the higher ranks. Thus, each Peer, in addition to the 
highest rank that he holds and by which he is himself 
known, also generally enjoys the several lower ranks 
besides : for example, — an Earl may be also a Viscount and 
a Baron ; a Marquis may also be an Earl, a "Viscount, and 
a Baron ; and a Duke may hold, with his Dukedom, all 
the lower grades of the peerage. In any such case, the 
second in the order of these lesser ranks and titles is 
conceded " by courtesy " to the eldest son of either a 
Duke, a Marquis, or an Earl. 

Shamrock : — the badge of Ireland. 

Shield: — see Chap. III., also Shield in Chap. X. 

Sinister : — the left side, see No. 8 in Chap. III. 

S. S., Collar of: — the Badge of the Lancastrian Princes 
and their Friends, Partisans, and Dependents. 

Standard : — a Mediaeval Flag, apparently introduced 
during the reign of Edward III, which always was of 
considerable length in proportion to its depth, and was 
made tapering (sometimes swallow-tailed,) towards its 
fly. The devices charged upon early Standards were not 
determined by any heraldic rule. Edward III had one 
Standard with figures of St. G-eorge and the Dragon ; and 
another semee of Fleurs-de-lys and Lions, with France and 
England quarterly at its head, No. 312. The Standard 
of the Earl of Warwick had the Cross of St. George at 


the head, and was semee with his Badge of the Bear 
and the Eagged Staff. Except when they bore Boyal 
Devices, the English Standards of the Tudor era univer- 
sally had the Cross of St. George at their head ; then 
came the Device, Badge, or Crest of the Owner, with his 
Motto. Standards never bore a regular Coat of Anns. 
They were distributed amongst the Corps of any Baron, 
Knight, or other Commander, and were displayed without 
a distinctive or special signification (as was so emphati- 
cally the case with both the Pennon and the Banner), as 
decorative accessories which might enhance " the pomp 
and circumstance of War." Examples Nos. 315, and 316 
are two Standards of Henry VIII, drawn from the 
curious picture at Hampton Court, representing his em- 
barkation at Dover for France, on the occasion of the 
" Field of the Cloth of Gold." Both display the Tudor 
Livery Colors, argent and vert ; one has a Fleur-de-lys 
charged upon these Colors, and the other has the Cross 
of St. George at the Head. See Chap. XVIII. 

Stall Plate : — a square plate of gilt Copper, upon which 
the Arms of Knights of the 'Garter and the Bath are 
emblazoned, and fixed in their stalls in the Chapels of St. 
George at Windsor, and of Henry VII at Westminster. 
The arms of the Esquires of the Knights are similarly 
displayed and recorded in the lower range of Stalls. The 
Stall Plates of the Garter are amongst the most interest- 
ing and valuable of the Historical records that the 
Heraldry of England possesses. 

Star : — an Ensign of Knightly Bank, common to the 
Heraldry of every civilized people. See Chap. XX. 

Star of India : — see Chap. XX. 

Sims and Roses : — see Yorkist Collar. 


Super Charge : — one Device or Figure charged upon 

Supporter: — a Figure, whether of a human or of an 
imaginary being, or of any living creature of whatever 
kind, which stands on one side of a Shield, as if in the act 
of holding it up, (supporting it), or guarding it. Suppor- 
ters always appear in pairs, one on the Dexter and the 
other on the Sinister of the Shield ; sometimes they are 
both alike, but more generally they are altogether distinct 
from one another, as in the instance of the Royal Sup- 
porters of England, the Lion and the Unicorn. 

These honourable Accessories of the Heraldic Shield 
are said to have been introduced, (like Quartering) by 
Edward III, but they are of uncertain authority until 
the reign of Henry VI. Supporters are now borne, by 
right, by all Peers of the Realm, by Knights of the Gar- 
ter, and Knights Grand Crosses of the Bath, also by the 
Novia Scotia Baronets, and the Chiefs of the Scottish 
Clans ; and they are conceded to those Sons of Peers who 
bear honorary titles of Nobility. Supporters are not 
granted in England without the express command of the 
Sovereign ; but in Scotland " Lord Lion " enjoys this 
privilege. Supporters are not borne by any Spiritual 
Peers. They appear associated with the Arms of many 
persons of various ranks, who have derived them from 
some distinguished ancestors. The actual origin of Sup- 
porters has been a subject of much speculation with 
writers on Heraldry. I am disposed to consider that 
they may be derived in part from a desire to combine 
personal Badges with hereditary heraldic compositions, 
while in part, Supporters may have resulted from certain 
early forms of either Marshalling, or Differencing. It is 


probable, also, that the introduction of these accessories 
of Shields of Arms may have been greatly influenced by 
the grotesque figures in such favour with Illuminators, 
and which, with various animals, the early seal engravers 
commonly introduced as ornaments ; " not, however," as 
Mr. Planche judiciously remarks, " without some heraldic 
intention." See Chap. XXIY. 

Surcoat : — a long, loose, and flowing garment of rich 
materials, worn by the early Knights over their armour. 
It was sometimes charged with the armorial Insignia of 
the "Wearer, as in the Brass at Chartham, in Kent, to Sir 
Robert de Setvans, about a.d. 1305. About the year 
1325 the Surcoat began to be superseded by a singular 
Garment entitled a Cyclas which, while long and flowing 
behind, was cut off short in the front. The Brass to Sir 
John D'Atjbernoun the younger, a.d. 1327, and the 
sculptured Effigy of Prince John Plantagenet, of El- 
tham, a.d. 1337, afford admirable examples. About a.d. 
1345 the Cyclas was shortened behind, and about 1355 it 
was superseded by the Jupon. 

Tabard : — the Garment that was worn by the Knights 
of the Tudor Era. When the Jupon ceased to be worn, 
about a.d. 1405, the splendid Panoply of Plate Armour 
was not covered by any Garment, until after 1450, when 
the Tabard was introduced. It was short, and had wide 
sleeves reaching to the elbows; and the arms of the 
wearer were displayed on both the front and back of the 
Tabard itself, and of its sleeves. The Brass to Sir John Say, 
a.d. 1473, at Broxbourne, Herts, is a good example. The 
Tabard remains in use as the Official Habit of Heralds. 

Templar 8: — see Chap. XX. 

Thistle : — the Badge of Scotland. 


Timbre: — the Helm, when placed above the Shield in 
an Achievement of Arms. No. 301. 

Tinctures : — the Metals, Colors, and Furs of Heraldry. 
See Chap. V. 

Truncheon : — the official Badge of the Earl Marshal 
of England, consisting of a golden Rod, tipped at each 
end with black enamel, and having the Royal Arms 
blazoned on the upper, and the Earl's own arms on the 
lower end. It was granted, with the Patent of the Earl 
Marshal's Office, in the ninth of Richard II, to Thomas 
Mowbray, Earl of Nottingham. See No. 299. 

Ulster Badge of: — see Baronet: also, No. 177, PI. IX. 

Vert : — the Colour Green. 

Victoria Cross: — see Chap. XX. 

View : — the trail, or trace of any Animal of the Chase. 

Visitations, Heralds' : — periodical Circuits performed at 
intervals of about thirty years by the Heralds, under the 
authority of Royal Commissions, for the purpose of in- 
quiring into all matters connected with the bearing of 
Arms, Genealogies, and similar subjects, for collecting 
information, and for drawing up authoritative Records. 
The earliest of these Visitations took place in the year 
1413, but they did not become general until after the 
commencement of the sixteenth century. The latest 
Commission of Visitation bears date, May 13, 1686. On 
these occasions the Heralds were attended by Registrars, 
Draftsmen, and other appropriate officers. The Records 
of these Visitations are preserved in the College of Arms, 
and a large proportion of the hereditary Arms of the 
Realm is borne on their authority. 

Viscount: — the fourth Degree and Title in the Order 
of Rank in the British Peerage, intervening between the 


Earl and the Baron. In Latin, Vice-Comes. This Dig- 
nity was first granted by Henky VI, a.d. 1440, to John 
Baron Beaumont, KG. A Viscount is Bight Honorable, 
and is styled " My Lord." His Sons and Daughters are 

]S T o. 317. 
Honorable. The Coronet, first granted by James I, en- 
closing a Cap like those of the other Orders of Nobility, 
has a row of fourteen Pearls (smaller than those of the 
Baron's Coronet) set upon a jewelled Circle of Gold, the 
Pearls being in Contact. In representations nine of these 
Pearls are shown: No. 317. The Mantle of a Viscount 
is scarlet, and it has two and a half Doublings of Er- 
mine. The wife of a Viscount is styled a Viscountess. 

Wreath : — a Circlet entwined about a Helm to support 
the Crest, and which is still represented as discharging 
that office beneath the greater number of the Crests of 
Modern Heraldry. This Wreath was formed of two 
Rounds or Rolls of Silk or other rich material, one of 
them of the principal Metal, and the other of the principal 
Color in the Arms, which were twisted in such a manner 
as to show the Metal and the Color in alternation, the 
Metal having the precedence in representations, Nos. 318, 
and 318 a, PI. XV. Many of the Mediaeval Helm- Wreaths 
were splendidly enriched. See Crest in Chap. XVII. 

Yorkist Badge and Collar : — formed of Suns and Roses. 
See Chap. XX. 

No. 335 a. Quartered Shield of Arms borne upon one of her seals by 
Isabella, Queen of Edward II. 



The Association of certain Heraldic Insignia, or 
" Arms," with the Possessors of certain Dignities or Pro- 
perties, and the Transmission of the Heraldry with the 
Rank and Estates by Hereditary Descent, would often 
render it necessary for the same individual to bear more 
than one Armorial Ensign, since instances might occur in 
which several Dignities with their appanages might 
become concentrated in a single person. So also with 
Families and Estates, it might happen that a single 
individual would in some instances become the sole 
Representative of several Houses, and the Possessor of 
Accumulated Properties. Again : Alliances might be 
formed between persons either entitled to bear the same 
Arms, or distinguished by different Heraldic Insignia, 
which Alliances Heraldry might both significantly 
declare and faithfully record. Hence arose the System 
which Heralds call Marshalling. 

Marshalling, accordingly, is the practical application 


of the Principles which guide Heralds in their own 
treatment of Heraldry, when they would employ it to 
chronicle History, and to record Biography. 

This Marshalling, as distinguished from Blazoning, 
may be denned to signify — I. The Arrangement and 
Disposition of more than one distinct Heraldic Composi- 
tion, or Coat of Arms, upon a single Shield : — or, 

II. The Disposition and Aggroupment of two or more 
distinct Shields of Arms, so that they shall form and con- 
stitute a single Heraldic Composition : — and 

III. The Association of certain Accessorial Devices and 
Insignia with the Shield of Arms, with the view to render 
any Heraldic Composition absolutely complete in every 
consistent and appropriate Detail. It will be desirable to 
consider Marshalling under each of these three applica- 
tions of its Principles and System of Action. 

I. The Arrangement and Disposition of two or 


would naturally admit of two primary distinctions, the one 
having reference to such Combinations as would constitute 
a permanent Heraldic Chronicle, to be transmitted upon 
precisely the same principle as an Heir would inherit the 
Arms with the Estate of his Father ; and the other 
having regard only to a temporary Alliance, which would 
extend to and be terminated with the life of the Person 
who would bear the United Arms. Heraldry is very care- 
ful in thus discriminating between a Combination which 
is, and another which is not, to become hereditary. 

The non-hereditary Combination which is habitually 
marshalled by Heralds, is that produced by the Union of 
the Arms of a Husband with those of his Wife, in all 
cases in which the wife does not possess in her own 


person hereditary rank, or is not the Heiress, or Repre- 
sentative, (or Co-Heiress, or Co-Representative) of any 
Family. It is obvious that if in every instance the Arms 
of a Mother were borne by her sons, with their Father's 
Arms, and the two thus united were to be continually 
transmitted, there would speedily arise so great a compli- 
cation of Armorial Insignia as would inevitably render 
Heraldry itself either an impossibility, or a mere arbit- 
rary and unmeaning method of Ornamentation. Under 
all ordinary circumstances, therefore, in such marriages 
as those that have been specified, the Arms of the Hus- 
band and the Wife are borne together, (in the manner 
immediately to be described) by the Husband and the 
Wife, and by the Survivor of them ; but, the Arms of the 
Wife are not hereditary, and are not borne by any, either 
of her own Children, or of their Descendants. The only 
admissible Deviation from this Law would apply to the 
contingency of some very unusual alliance, (as between a 
private gentleman and a Princess, the Princess being 
absolutely dowerless) when the Lady's remarkable personal 
Rank or Position might justify a departure from heraldic 
Rule — a departure that would exactly fulfil the conditions 
of such an exception as would corroborate the Rule 

The Arms of a Husband and Wife are marshalled in 
a single Shield by an heraldic process, entitled Impalement. 
It is effected by dividing the Shield by a vertical line 
through its Fesse-point, into two equal parts, (as in No. 9, p. 
23), and then placing one complete Coat of Arms in each 
half of the Shield. The Arms of a Husband and Wife 
are thus impaled, the Arms of the Husband always 
occupying the Dexter, and those of the Wife the Sinister 



half of the Shield. In thus impaling two coats of arms, 
the arrangement of the Charges and their proportions 
are in every instance to be adapted to the altered space 
afforded by the impaled Shield. In descriptive blazoning, 
each Coat of Arms so far retains its own distinctive in- 
dividuality, that the second description is treated as 
altogether distinct from the first, though the two descrip- 
tions are grouped together. I assume, for the sake of 
illustration, that a Stafford marries a Butler, then 
their impaled Shield, No. 319, is blazoned, or, a Chevron, 
gules, for Stafford, (No. 319 a) ; impaling, arg., a Chief 
indented, azure, for Butler (No. 319 b.) See Plate XXTY. 
When first introduced, Impalement was effected in a 
manner which, however natural in the first instance, 
would necessarily be speedily abandoned, since it would 
be found in many instances to affect and even to destroy 
the distinctive character of the Charges, and therefore to 
overthrow heraldic accuracy and truthfulness. The 
primitive method of Impalement consisted in actually 
cutting into halves, by a vertical section, each Coat of 
Arms, and taking the Dexter half of the Husband's Arms, 
and the Sinister half of the Wife's Arms, and placing these 
two halves side by side in contact, to form a single com- 
bined armorial composition. This was styled Impaling 
by Dimidiation, or Dimidiating ; and it appears to have 
been introduced into English Heraldry during the Eeign 
of Edward I, a.d. 1272-1307. I illustrate this process 
by another historical example. No. 194, Plate X, is the 
Shield of Edmond Plantagenet, Earl of Cornwall, (son 
of Eichard Plantagenet, himself the Second Son of 
King John) ; and No. 40 a, p. 27, is that of his wife, 
Margaret, daughter of Earl Richard de Clare. 

MAR SHAlrlrlN G 


Plate XV7U 

¥ os 320 to 328. 


This Edmond died a.d. 1300, and his Seal is charged 
with the dimidiated Arms of Cornwall and Clare, No. 
320, Plate XVIII, of which the blazon is,— arg., a Lion 
ramjpt, gu., crowned, or, within a Bordure, sable, bezantee, 
for Cornwall, (the lion for Poictou, and the bordure 
for Cornwall) ; impaling by Dimidiation — or, three Chev- 
ronels, gu., for Be Clare. It will be observed in No. 
320, that each of the Shields, Nos. 194 and 40 a, 
is cut in halves per pale, and that the Dexter half 
of No. 194, and the Sinister half of No. 40 a constitute 
No. 320. The evil effects of Dimidiation are exem- 
plified in a striking manner in this dimidiated Shield, in 
which the three half Chevronels become as many Bendlets, 
and consequently the association with the historical Shield 
of the De Clares is altogether lost. Had Nos. 319 a, 
and 319 b. PL XXIY, been dimidiated, the Stafford chevron 
could no longer have been recognized. In No. 321, I have 
shown the Coats of Arms of Cornwall and De Clare united 
by simple impalement. Here the arms of De Clare appear 
complete, though there is necessarily some modification of 
the proportion of the chevrons ; and, except so far as con- 
cerns the bordure, the arms of Cornwall retain the aspect 
of the dimidiated shield. 

Upon her seal, Margaret of France, the second Queen 
of Edward I, bears England dimidiating France ancient, 
No. 322, PL XVIII. The dimidiation in this instance does 
not very materially affect the arms of England, but the 
fleurs-de-lys are bisected. Two lions rampant are intro- 
duced upon this seal, on either side of the shield, respect- 
ing it. Isabelle, the Queen of Edward II, upon one of 
her seals also dimidiates England and France ancient ; and 
another of her seals is charged with her effigy standing 

k 2 


between two shields, one of them bearing England, and 
the other France ancient dimidiating Navarre, No. 323, PI. 
XVIII ; these shields are severally those of her husband 
and of her father and mother. Another characteristic 
example of the effect of dimidiation upon the fleur-de-lys 
appears in the shield, No. 324, PL XVIII, that is carved 
upon the curious chess-knight (about a.d. 1285), in the 
possession of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. One 
of the shields upon the monument to Earl William de 
Valence in Westminster Abbey, a.d. 1296, bears De 
Valence dimidiating Claremonte (a French coat), gu., semee 
of trefoils, two dolphins haurient, embowed, addorsed, or ; No. 
325. Other examples of dimidiation may yet be dis- 
tinguished in the Heraldry of the noble monument to 
Earl Aymer de Valence, a.d. 1323, also at Westminster. 
From the early dimidiation of two distinct coats of 
arms the compound devices that occasionally appear in 
more recent armorial bearings may be considered to have 
derived their origin. Thus, the arms of the Borough of 
G-reat Yarmouth may be supposed to have resulted 
from the shield of England having dimidiated another 
shield, azure, charged with three herrings naiant in pale, 
arg., finned, or : a shield, No. 326, PI. XVIII, charged 
with these dimidiated arms, and to be referred to about 
the year 1390, occurs upon one of the bosses of the roof, 
of the south aisle of the church of Great Yarmouth. In 
like manner, the arms of Ipswich in Suffolk, are com- 
pounded of Englcmd dimidiating an azure shield, charged 
with the hulls of three ships in pale. In the church of 
St. Mary Quay, Ipswich, are two brasses to burgesses of 
that town, severally a.d. 1525 and 1551 ; upon the for- 
mer, to Thomas Pownder, the shield of the borough is 


blazoned with a single half-lion and a single half-ship, 
the lion facing to the sinister ; but Henry Toolye, on his 
brass, marshals a single lion rampant and three half- 

Mr. Planche is of opinion that " to this practice of 
dimidiation we owe the double-headed eagle of the 
German Empire." This must imply that one of the 
dimidiated eagles should originally have faced to the 
sinister. Mr. Planche adds " that several instances of 
dimidiation occur in the arms of German Cities and 
Counts of Flanders, which will illustrate his theory for 
the origin of the German double-headed eagle, by show- 
ing the effect of the eagle dimidiated by other animals or 
heraldic figures :" and he gives a curious example of the 
incorporation of a semi-eagle and a semi-lion, the evident 
result of dimidiation, the lion facing to the sinister, from 
the seal of Alice D'Avesnes, No. 327, PI. XVIII. I may 
place side by side with Mr. Planchu's example, the seal 
of Peter Tederade " canonici cretensis" (a personage of 
whom I am unable to give any particulars, but whose seal 
is in existence), in which the eagle faces to the sinister, and 
the effect of the dimidiation is peculiarly striking ; No. 
328. The Griffin of English Heraldry might reasonably be 
regarded as a further development of a similar dimidiation, 
unless it is held to be a veritable member of that family 
of mediaeval Griffins whose ancestry flourished in the re- 
mote ages of Assyrian greatness. 

The beautiful and elaborate seals that were held in 
such esteem in the Middle Ages, were frequently charged 
with heraldic insignia in association with rich architec- 
tural details. In many examples the early seals of per- 
sonages of eminence display several shields of arms 


placed in the different compartments of a composition of 
an architectural character. Thus, the seal of Joan, 
wife of John de Warrenne, Earl of Surrey, though not 
more than one and a half inches in diameter, is charged 
with nine distinct heraldic bearings, each of which is 
so placed that it takes a becoming part in the architec- 
tural composition. In No. 329, 1 give a diagram of the 
arrangement of this seal, in the principal parts of which 
the arms are charged upon lozenges. In the centre is 
1. Warrenne; 2, 2. are England; 3, 3. are De Barr, No. 
329 A, PL XIX, (az. crusillee, two barbels haurient addorsed, 
or, within a bordure engrailed, gu. ; 4, 4. Leon ; and 5, 5. 
Castile. The lady was the daughter of Henry, Count De 
Barr (in France), and Alianore, eldest daughter of Ed- 
ward I and of Alianore of Castile and Leon. This sys- 
tem of grouping together several shields of arms in an ar- 
chitectural composition would naturally lead to the group- 
ing together several coats of arms in an heraldic composi- 
tion. The shields were all borne by the same person, and 
so their several bearings might obviously be concentrated 
upon a single shield. In other words, a single shield 
charged with any required series of coats of arms duly 
arranged would naturally be substituted, as a more com- 
pact and expressive arrangement, for a group of separate 
though associated shields. The quartered blazonry also 
might be actually displayed about his person, or on his 
shield, by any noble or knight. 

The seal of Humphrey de Bohun, 4th Earl of Here- 
ford and 3rd Earl of Essex, a.d. 1327, affords an excellent 
illustration of that aggroupment of shields, of which the 
full development was quartering. This seal, No. 201, PI. 
XX, bears a large central shield for the Hereford Earldom 


between two smaller ones, No. 330, both of them {quarter- 
ly, or, and gules) for the Earldom of Essex. Many other 
early examples might be adduced of this practice of form- 
ing groups of shields of arms before true quartering was 
regularly recognized : nor was this usage altogether super- 
ceded by quartering until after the close of the 14th 
century. Accordingly, the secretum of Thomas Plan- 
tagenet, youngest son of Edward III, in its three prin- 
cipal compartments has his own arms, those of his 
Duchess, Alianore de Bohttn, and his helm and 
crest : this arrangement is shown in the diagram, 
No. 331. In like manner, the seal of Thomas Mowbray, 
Duke of Norfolk, who died in banishment at Venice, a.d. 
1400, bears three shields, of which the central shield is 
charged with the arms of the Confessor (a special grant 
from Eichard II), impaling Brotherton (England, with 
a silver label) : the dexter shield bears Mowbray (purpure, 
a lion rampant, arg.), and the sinister shield displays 
Segrave, (sa., a lion rampt., arg., crowned, or,) the 
arms of the Duke's mother. On this seal also, John 
Mowbray, Duke of Norfolk, son of the last-named Thomas 
Mowbray, placed a shield of Brotherton between two 
shields of Mowbray and as many ostrich feathers. Again, 
Margaret, eldest daughter of Thomas Plantagenet de 
Brotherton, charged her seal with three shields, those 
of her father and her two husbands, John Lord Segrave, 
and Sir "Walter Manny (or, three chevronels, sa.) I 
may add that a Castle of Castile appears on either side 
of the reverse of the great seal of Edward II, and that 
Edward III, when on his accession he used his father's 
seal, added a small fleur-de-lys above each of the castles ; 
but on his own first great seal, published in October,. 


1327, there appear two large neurs-de-lys without the 

But, before the usage obtained for marshalling a series 
of distinct and complete coats of arms by quartering so 
as to produce a single compound heraldic composition, the 
desired combination of two or even three coats of arms 
upon a single shield was frequently effected by forming a 
new composition from all the charges of the several shields, 
or from the most important and characteristic of them. 
Many of the early historical shields of English Heraldry 
were unquestionably produced by this simple process of 
compounding arms. For example, John de Dreux, 
Duke of Brittany and Earl of Eichmond (died a.d. 1330) 
whose mother was a daughter of Henry III, when he 
accompanied his uncle, Edward I, to the siege of Caer- 
laverock, displayed a banner charged with chequee, or and 
az. (Be Deux), with a bordure of England (gu., with eight 
lions of England), and a canton, ermine to represent the 
ermine shield of Brittany, No. 116, PI. Y. The fine 
shield of Prince John Plantagenet, of Eltham, second 
son of Edward II and Isabella of France, is charged 
with England within a bordure of France, No. 332, PI. XIX : 
this is both a true example of compounded arms, and 
also a shield differenced with a bordure. The well- 
known shield of the De Bohuns, of which so many fine 
original examples are still in existence, has been adduced 
by Mr. Planche as a remarkable example of the early 
heraldic usage now under consideration. The blazon of 
this shield, No. 201, PI. XX, is azure, a bend, argent, cotised 
and between six lioncels rampt., or. The founder of the 
De Bohuns as an English family was a Humphrey de 
Bohun, one of the fortunate adventurers at Hastings. 





Plate XX 

IT 09 - 201 to 397. 


His son of the same name acquired important territorial 
possessions near Salisbury, by his marriage with Matilda, 
daughter of the feudal Baron, Edward de Sarum. Their 
sou, another Humphrey de Bohun, married Margeria, 
one of the co-heiresses of Milo, Constable and Lord of 
G-loucester and Hereford, and their grandson, Henry de 
Bohun, a.d. 1199, was created Earl of Hereford. Now, 
the arms attributed to the Earls of Salisbury, and borne 
by the renowned son of Fair Rosamond, "Wiiliam de 
Longespee, are, azure, six lionceU rampt., or, No. 200, 
p. 88 : and these arms the De Bohuns may be con- 
sidered to have adopted in commemoration of their own 
advantageous alliance with an heiress of Salisbury. The 
arms attributed to Milo, on the other hand, (and still em- 
"blazoned in the Brass to his descendant, Alianore, 
Duchess of Gloucester), are gules, two Bends, the one or, 
and the other argent, No. 333, PI. XX. As Lords of 
Hereford in their own persons, the De Bohuns evidently 
placed upon their shield the silver Bend of Hereford, in- 
terposing it between the two groups into which their 
Salisbury lioncels would thus be divided : and at the same 
time, further to show their descent from Milo, they 
appear to have bisected his golden bend bend-wise, and 
then to have cotised their own silver bend with the two 
bendlets thus obtained. Possibly these bends of the 
shield of Milo may be heraldic representations of the 
official batons of that bold warrior, as Constable of the 
Castles of G-loucester and Hereford, and in the shield of 
the De Bohuns their bend in the first instance may 
have been regarded as associated with the office and rank 
of Constable of England, so long held in the De 
Bohun family with their Hereford Earldom. 


In Scotland the Stuarts produced a compounded shield 
by encircling their own fesse chequee (arg. and or) with 
the Koyal tressure. In 1374, the seal of David, son of 
King Bobert Stuart and Euphemia, Countess of 
Strathern, is charged with the Stuart fesse interposed 
between the two chevrons of Strathern, the whole being 
within the tressure : and, a.d. 1377, upon the seal of 
Alan Stuart of Ochiltree the chequee fesse is surmounted 
with a bend charged with three buckles, such being the 
arms of Ochiltree. 

The Union Jack Flags of James I and George III are 
more recent but eminently characteristic examples of 
compounding arms. See Chapters YII and XVHI. 

An easy step in advance from such a composition as 
the seal of the fourth Earl of Hereford, No. 201, and from 
others of the same class, leads us on to true Quartering of 
Arms. This mode of arrangement, indeed, was suggested 
to the Heralds of the Edwards by such shields as were 
simply quartered for diversity of tincturing, as in the 
two small shields, No. 330, in No. 33 b, p. 31, and in 
No. 156, PI. VI. 

The process of Quartering divides the field of a single 
shield into four divisions of equal area, by one vertical line 
cutting one horizontal line, as in No. 11. Into each of 
these divisions one of the coats of arms to be " quartered " 
is placed. If there are four coats, one of them is placed 
in each of the four quarters, their precedence being deter- 
mined by their relative importance, — that is, in almost all 
cases determined by the seniority of the several coats in 
their present alliance. Should there be two coats of arms 
only to be quartered, the first and fourth quarters both 
bear the most important coat, and the second and third 


quarters bear the other coat as in No. 355, PI. XXIV. In 
the case of three coats of arms for quartering, the fourth 
quarter repeats the coat that is charged upon the first quar- 
ter. The Eoyal Arms of England, No. 334, Ch. XIX, as 
now borne by Her Majesty the Queen, exemplify a shield 
thus quartered with three quarterings. It is charged 
with, 1 and 4, England; 2, Scotland; and, 3, Ireland. 
Again, should more than four coats of arms require to be 
quartered upon one shield, the field of that shield is to be 
divided, upon the same principle as before, into the requi- 
site number of compartments, and such repetitions are to 
be introduced as the special circumstances of each case may 
render necessary. Thus in No. 15, p. 23, the shield is quar- 
terly of eight. If one of the shields to be quartered is itself 
quartered, it is to be treated precisely as if there were one 
single coat of arms, and such a coat is said to be quarterly 
quartered. Quarterly quarters are shown in No. 16. The 
early Heralds also occasionally quartered impaled coats of 
arms : but in more recent Marshalling, impaled coats are 
held to be ineligible for quartering; and, indeed, the 
act of quarterly quartering at once indicates and supercedes 
an impalement. 

The earliest example known in England of a shield 
upon which two distinct armorial ensigns are marshalled 
by quartering, is the shield, No. 135, PI. I, upon the 
monument of Alianore, Queen of Edward I, at West- 
minster. It bears quarterly, 1 and 4, Castile ; and 2 and 3, 
Leon. Its date is 1291. These quartered arms were 
first adopted by the father of Queen Alianore, Fer- 
dinand III, on the union of the provinces of Castile and 
Leon under his rule. In this noble monument, the beau- 
tiful effigy of the truly royal Lady rests upon a plate of 


gilt latten, that is covered with a diaper of castles and 
lions alternating in lozenges : see PI. VII. 

Contemporary with the Westminster Abbey shield 
is the mail-clad and cross-legged effigy in Winchester 
Cathedral, that Mr. Walford has such good reason for 
assigning to Sir Arnold de Gaveston, the father of 
Piers de Gaveston, the favourite of Edward II. This 
armed effigy has a shield charged with a cross, which 
quarters, 1 and 4, or, two cows passant, gules, collared and 
belted, az., being the arms of Gaston, Viscount de Beam ; 
and, 2 and 3, three garbs, No. 335, PI. XIX. The presence 
of the cross in this curious example is precisely such a 
modification of quartering as might, in the first instance, 
have been expected. This cross may have represented a 
third shield, or it may have been simply either a structural 
or a decorative accessory of the shield itself. For all 
particulars relative to Sir Arnold de Gaveston I must 
refer to Mr. Walford' s equally able and interesting 
paper, in the 15th vol. of the Archmological Journal. 

Somewhat later, Isabella, daughter of Philip IV of 
France, the Queen of Edward II, upon the reverse of one of 
her seals marshals four coats quarterly : that is, 1, England 
(her husband) ; 2, France (her father) ; 3, Navarre (her 
mother) ; and 4, az. a bend, arg., cotised potent, or, for 
Champagne, then a most important appanage of the crown 
of France, No. 335 a, p. 127. 

The inventory of his property, made in 1322, one 
year after the death of Humphrey de Bohtjn, at the 
battle of Boroughbridge, incidentally shows that quarter- 
ing arms was practised by English Heralds in the first 
quarter of the 14th century. Among the objects par- 
ticularly specified is a courte-pointe, quinte-point, or quilt, 


quartered — ecartele or quartele — of the arms of England and 
Hereford, evidently in anticipation of impalement. 

Early in the year 1340 Edward III adopted his fourth 
great seal (seal D. of Willts), upon which the Royal 
Arms appeared quartering France Ancient and England, 
as in No. 336. PI. XXIV. This quartered shield stands 
foremost in the blazonry of the Royal Heraldry of England. 
It appears differenced with the utmost heraldic skill, and 
impaled and quartered with a long array of noble and 
famous arms : and, as the Royal Shield, with no other 
change than the number of the fleurs-de-lys, it continued 
in use until the accession of the Stuarts to the English 
Crown in the person of James I, in the year 1603. The 
change in the 1st and 4th quarters from an azure field 
semee de lys, to a field charged with three golden fleurs- 
de-lys, took place during the reign of Henry IV, perhaps 
in the year 1403. This same change had been made 
by the French Kings as early as the year 1364. I must 
add that Richard II appears to have quartered England 
and France, as well as France and England: that is, he 
sometimes placed England and sometimes France in the 
first quarter. 

Philippa, the Queen of Edward III, on her secretum 
quarters her paternal arms of Hainault with those of her 
husband : thus, this seal is charged with, 1 and 4, Eng- 
land ; and 2 and 3, or, four lions rampant in quadrangle, 
alternately sable and gules; No. 337, PI. XIX. On her 
other seals Queen Philippa impales England and Hai- 
nault, and France and England and Hainault. 

The first English subject who quartered arms is said 
to have been John Hastings, Earl of Pembroke, who 
had married Margaret Plantagenet, the youngest 


daughter of Edward III. In the fine Brass to Sir Hugh 
Hastings, at Elsyng in Norfolk, the date of which is 
1347, there is an effigy of Earl John, (who died in 1375) 
having his jupon charged with Hastings and Be Valence 
quarterly, No. 338, PI. XXI. This same Brass also con- 
tains an effigy of Edward III himself in armour, and his 
jupon of arms bears France and England quarterly. The 
shield of the Earl of Pembroke, No. 338 a, still remains 
beautifully sculptured in alabaster, upon the monument 
of his royal mother-in-law, Queen Philippa. 

In the course of the second half of the 14th century 
both quartering and impaling arms gradually became es- 
tablished as heraldic usages, and impaled and quartered 
shields soon began to abound ; nor was it long before 
quarterings in many instances were very considerably 
increased in their numbers. 

I now give a few additional early examples of both 
impalement and quartering. 

In the well-known Eoll of Arms of Henry III the 
field of the shield of Hugh de Fitz Mayhewe is per 
pale az and gu. : and in the same Eoll and in the Eoll of 
Caerlaverock, the arms of De Laci, De Vere, De 
Mandeville, De Say, Le Despencer, De Eocheford 
and De Beauchamp have the field quarterly ; and Win. 
de Beauchamp charges his quarterly shield with a bend, 
but the Caerlaverock De Laci bears a lion rampt., purpure, 
on a gold field. These early shields may be regarded as 
the prototypes of true impalement and quartering. 

On the monument of Edward III, at Westminster, are 
two noble shields of his own royal arms of France and 
England quarterly , emblazoned in enamel ; also, five others 
in smaller size, but of equal excellence. 

M A RSE K U 1 1 1 N Cr 



from the Momimeirt of Edward HI. 

Plate XXI. 

;K 0S 338, 338 A. 

Effigy of John de Hastings, Earl of Pembroke,, 
from tke Erass at Elsyng, Norfolk, AD. 1347. 















ft. D 



Plate XM. 

IT 09 - 342 to 346 A. 


Another very fine example of the quartered royal shield 
is sculptured in the southern spandrel of the entrance 
archway to Westminster Hall : and other examples, most 
of them with labels, surround the monuments of Bishop 
Burghersh (about a.d. 1370) at Lincoln, PI. XXXIV; 
of the Black Prince at Canterbury ; and of Prince Ed- 
mond of Langley, at King's Langley. King's College 
Chapel at Cambridge, also contains a splendid series of 
sculptured examples of the Royal quartered shield. 

Upon the Brass of Alianore de Bohun, also at West- 
minster, a.d. 1300, are the following shields : 1. The shield 
of the Duchess Alianore and her husband, Thomas 
Plantagenet, Duke of Gloucester — France and England 
quarterly, within a bordure, argent, impaling DeBohun and 
Milo of Hereford, No. 340, PI. XX, quarterly : 2. The 
shield of the father and mother of the Duchess Alianore 
De Bohun impaling FitzAllan and Warrenne quarterly, 
No. 341, PI. XX ; FitzAllan is gu., a lion rampt, or. 

In the former of these two shields the bordure of 
Woodstock is not dimidiated by the impalement. This 
is also the case in many other early examples of impaled 
shields which are charged with bordures. Thus, Thomas 
Holland, Earl of Kent, bore, as a special grant from 
Richard II, the Arms of the Confessor, No. 78, PI. I, 
within a bordure, ermine, impaling Holland modern, that is, 
impaling England within a bordure argent. Upon the 
seal of this Thomas Holland his shield is charged with 
the impaled arms, having both the bordures complete, as 
in No. 342, PI. XXII. The same composition is repeated 
upon the sleeved jupon of the Earl himself and upon the 
barding of his charger. Considerably later, a.d. 1446, the 
Brass of Lady Tiptoft, at Enfield, displays a shield 


charged with a double impalement, that is, Tiptoft, 300 a, 
(arg., a saltire engrailed, gu.) impaling Holland, and this im- 
paled coat impaling Powys, 300 b, (or, a lion rampt, gu.). 
Here, as before, the bordure of Holland is blazoned with- 
out any dimidiation ; No. 343, PI. XXII. In like manner, 
upon the seal of Mary, Queen of James II, of Scotland, 
a.d. 1459, No. 344, PI. XXII, the complete tressure appears 
upon the impaled shield: but, upon the monument of 
Margaret, Countess of Lennox, the mother of Lord 
Darnley, in Westminster Abbey, one of the shields (all of 
them elaborately quartered) impales Scotland, having the 
tressure dimidiated by impalement, No. 345 , PI. XXII. 
One of the quartered and impaled shields upon the 
monument of Margaret of Richmond, mother of Henry 
VII, bears France modern and England quarterly, within a 
bordure compony, which bordure is dimidiated, No. 346, 
PI. XXII : the dexter half of this shield, which is placed 
at the east end of the monument, bears the arms of 
Thomas Stanley, Earl of Derby. The shield at the 
west end of this fine monument bears Tudor, No. 482 
PI. XXXII, impaling Beaufort, both the bordures being 
dimidiated, No. 346 a, PI. XXII. 

Upon one of his seals John Plantagenet of Ghent 
impales Castile and Leon with France and England differ- 
enced with a label ermine ; and in this instance, in honor 
of his royal consort, Constance of Castile and Leon, he 
places his own arms on the sinister side of the shield : in 
his other impaled shields the arms of this prince occupy 
the customary dexter half of the escutcheon : he also used 
seals bearing his own arms without any impalement. 

Henry Bolingbroke, afterwards Henry IV, during 
his father's lifetime bore England differenced with a label 








N os 34-8 to 365. 





1, Crest kz 

2, Arms of Woodstock 
3. -Arms ofDeBohun 

4, Badge 

5, Legend 



# # 


Plate ATX. 

N os 33 J to 347. 



of Lancaster; but, on the death of John of Ghent, he 
assumed the arms his father had borne, and those arms 
he sometimes impaled with the coat of the Confessor. 
On one of his seals, certainly engraved and used between 
Feb. 3, and September 30, 1399, (the dates of his father's 
death and his own accession) Henry bears the Confessor 
differenced with a label of three points, impaling France 
and England quarterly with a label of five points of Brittany 
and of Lancaster } and this impaled coat impaling Be Bohun, 
for Mary de Bohun, his first wife. The annexed diagram, 
No. 347, PI. XIX, shows this remarkable aggroupment. 
In the original seal, the shield hangs diagonally from a 
large helm surmounted by the lion crest and on either 
side is an ostrich feather, curiously entwined with a ribbon 
charged with the word so ve rey ne. Joane of Navarre, 
the second wife of Henry IV, impaled with her husband's 
arms those of her father, Charles II, King of Navarre 
and Count of Eureux ; and she bore Navarre and Eureux 
per fesse, the former in chief, and the latter (France 
ancient charged with a bend compony, arg. and gu.) in 
base, No. 348, PI. XIX. 

Richard II impaled the Confessor with France and Eng- 
land quarterly, and again to the sinister impaled Bohemia, 
for Anne, his first Queen, No. 349, PI. XXIII ; afterwards, 
for Isabella, his second Queen, Richard substituted 
France ancient in the sinister impalement, No. 350, 
PI. XXIII. Upon his monument in his own chapel 
at Westminster, Henry VII displays a shield charged 
with his royal arms of France modern and England 
quarterly, impaling the arms of Elizabeth of York, that 
is, quarterly, in the first grand quarter, France modern and 
England quarterly, for her father, Edward IV j 2 and 


3 Ulster, (or, a cross gu.) ; and 4, Mortimer, — to declare 
her descent from the Houses of both York and Clarence : 
No. 351, PI. XXIII. 

Again, the arms of Eichard III, impaling those of his 
Queen, Anne Neville, are blazoned in the Warwick 
Eoll, now preserved in the College of Arms, as follows — 
France modem and England quarterly, in the dexter half of 
the escutcheon, impaling, quarterly, 1, Newburgh, (chequee 
arg. and az., a chev., erm.,) impaling Beauchamp, (gu., a 
fesse hetween six crosses crosslets, or) : 2. Montagu, (arg., three 
fusils conjoined in fesse, gu.,) impaling Monthermer, (or, an 
eagle displayed, vert,) : 3. Neville, (gu., a saltire, arg.,) dif- 
ferenced with a label compony of silver and azure : and 
4. De Clare, impaling Le Despencer. 

In our own times we have seen, instead of Impalement, 
Quartering adopted, precisely as in the instance of Edward 
III and his Queen Philippa, for marshalling the united 
arms of Her Majesty the Qijeen, and the late lamented 
Prince Consort, No. 353. H.E.H. Prince Albert 
differenced the Eoyal Arms of England, which he thus 
quartered in the first quarter, with a label argent charged 
on the central point with the Cross of St. George, an 
anomaly in Heraldry, and indeed an heraldic contradiction 
for which I am altogether unable to offer any explanation. 
Had the Prince borne the Eoyal Shield of England, (Eng- 
land, Scotland, and Ireland, quarterly) alone, in that case 
a label for difference would have been both a necessary 
and an expressive accessory to his shield ; but to have 
differenced the Eoyal Arms when quarterly quartered, as 
in No. 353, in heraldic language was to declare that the 
Eoyal Consort of the Prince was some near relative to 
the Sovereign of England, but not the illustrious Lady 


herself who wears the crown of these realms. See Chap. 
XVI. The paternal coat of His late Royal Highness, 
marshalled in the 2nd and 3rd quarters of No. 353, is 
harry of ten, or and sable, a bend treflee, vert, for Saxony. 

I conclude this brief series of examples with the his- 
torical shield of four quarters, which, next to the Royal 
armoury, stands at the head of the modern Heraldry of 
England — the Shield of the Earl Marshall, the Duke 
op Norfolk. This Shield No. 299, (as I have already 
shewn) thus marshals four coats of arms of high renown 
in English history: — 1. Howard; 2. Be Brotherton; 3. Be 
Warrenne ; and 4. Be Mowbray. The blazon of these 
arms has been given. 

In Quartering Arms in our own times, we have to keep 
in remembrance that the first quarter is always to be 
charged with the arms that are the most important in the 
group ; and also that the other coats take precedence in 
the quartered composition in their order of chronological 
association, that is, as they severally were added to the 
group, and incorporated with it — as modern Heralds say, 
as they are "brought in." With a view to illustrate 
Marshalling as it is now practised, I proceed to exemplify 
the varied treatment of two Coats of Arms under different* 
conditions of this process. I shall employ throughout the 
Shields of Stafford and Butler, Nos. 319 a, and 319 b, 
which I have already shown combined by simple im- 
palement in No. 319. That impaled Shield sets forth 
that the Stafford who married a Butler had impaled his 
wife's arms, (which she bore as her Father's Daughter, 
and not as his Heiress, or Co-Heiress), with his own arms 
of Stafford. But, should the Lady be an Heiress or Co- 
heiress of the House of Butler, instead of Impalement, 

l 2 


another process would be adopted. The Arms of the 
heiress are placed upon a small shield in Pretence upon 
the Shield of Stafford. And this would be done by each 
Co-heiress on her marriage, should there be Co-heiresses. 
This marshalling is shown in No. 354, PI. XXIV. The 
Impaled Shield, No. 319, is not hereditary, and the 
Butler Arms would not be transmitted to the issue of the 
marriage. But the Arms of the Heiress are hereditary, 
and would be transmitted. They are to be permanently 
associated with the Arms of Stafford, and the two together 
are to become the Quartered Arms of the succeeding Re- 
presentatives and Heirs of the united Houses of Stafford 
and Butler. Thus, if the Butler Lady were not an Heiress, 
her Children and Representatives would bear simply their 
father's arms of Stafford, as No. 319 a ; but the Children 
and Representatives of the Butler Lady who was an Heir- 
ess, would quarter Butler with Stafford, as in No. 355, 
which has in the 1st and 4th Quarters Stafford, and 
Butler in the 2nd and 3rd Quarters. The Blazon would 
be, Quarterly, 1st and 4>th f Stafford; 2nd and 3rd, 

Now, assuming that another Stafford, a son, or lineal 
descendant of this Butler Heiress, and himself therefore 
bearing " Stafford and Butler quarterly," No. 355, 
should marry a Campbell, then, as before, if the lady be 
not an Heiress, he simply impales Campbell, No. 356, 
gyronny, or and sable, with his own quartered Arms, as in 
No. 357 ; or, if the Lady be an Heiress, upon his own 
quartered shield he places Campbell in pretence, as in 
No. 358. From thenceforward the hereditary shield in- 
cludes Campbell in its Quarterings, and it assumes the 
aspect of No. 359. And so, in precisely the same man- 













' ) 


Plate XXIV: 

N os - 319 to 364. 


ner, other Quarterings might be introduced during the 
lapse of time; or the shield, No 359, with its three 
Quarterings, might long remain unchanged. 

There yet remains one contingency that requires atten- 
tion. In the case of a Daughter of the Campbell Heiress, 
any such Lady would bear the arms of Stafford, Butler and 
Campbell quarterly, No. 359. Were she to marry, if she 
herself were not to be an Heiress, her Husband would sim- 
ply impale with his own Arms her quartered Arms, and 
their children would bear their Father's Arms only. But 
if she, like her mother, were to be an Heiress, then, as 
before, her Husband would charge her quartered Arms 
upon a separate shield in pretence upon his own ; and their 
Children and Descendants would quarter the quartered 
Shield of the Heiress. This must be exemplified. 

Suppose the Daughter of the Campbell Heiress, (who 
would bear No. 359 on a Lozenge, and not on a shield) 
to marry a Bentinck:, who bears, Az., a Cross moline, arg., 
No. 360 : if she is not an Heiress, her quartered shield is 
impaled by her Husband, as in No. 362 ; but if an 
Heiress, her quartered shield is set in Pretence upon the 
Bentinck Arms, as in No. 363. In order to transmit 
these Arms by means of Quartering, a new modification 
of that process will be necessary, since now a quartered 
shield has to be quartered. The Marshalling now proceeds 
by Quarterly Quartering. Here, as in No. 16, the 
primary Quarters are Grand Quarters, any or all of which 
may be quartered. We require a Shield quarterly quar- 
tered in the 2nd and 3rd Quarters, as No. 364. In this 
shield, Grand Quarters 1 and 4 bear Bentinck ; and Grand 
Quarters 2 and 3 are each charged with Stafford, Butler 
and Campbell. This shield becomes hereditary, and 


admits of further quarterings, should occasions arise, upon 
the same system. If a son of the Campbell Heiress were 
to marry a Bentinck, he would simply impale her arms, 
or if she were an heiress, would charge them in pretence 
upon his quartered shield, No. 359 ; and in this last case, 
his children would quarter Bentinck in the fourth quarter, 
as in No. 361. 

Should a man bearing a quartered shield marry an 
heiress, he would place her arms in pretence upon his 
own quartered shield. Should her arms be quartered, 
then the hereditary shield would be quarterly quartered, 
and each of the grand quarters would be quartered. If 
any student will work out any such system of marshalling, 
he will speedily become familiar with the entire range of 
quartering, while at the same time he will be impressed 
with the versatility and the precision of heraldic chro- 
nicles. The peerage, with such old authorities as may be 
available, will furnish an ample variety of examples for 
study and practice. 

Augmentations of Honor, which in the first instance are 
charged upon small shields of pretence, are never quar- 
tered, but always retain their original position as integral 
components of their own shields, whether those shields 
themselves be or be not quartered. 

When any coat of arms that bears a Bordure or a 
Tressure, is marshalled quarterly with other coats, then 
no part of the bordure or tressure is to be omitted in the 
quartered coat : that is, Quartering does not affect a Bor- 
dure or Tressure. Thus, in the Eoyal Arms. No. 334, 
the Tressure of Scotland is blazoned complete in the 
second quarter; and in No. 364a, from the Brass to 
Lady Tiptoft, at Enfield, a.d. 1446, Poivys quarters 


Holland, Holland retaining in both quarters the silver 
bordure complete. 

Marks of Cadency remain unaffected by quartering, and 
if they have been assumed, and are retained, they may 
be transmitted and may become hereditary. 

Archbishops and Bishops impale their paternal Arms with 
the Arms of their Sees, placing the latter on the Dexter 
side of their shields. 

The Arms of the Herald Kings are marshalled after 
the same manner ; that is, they place their Official Arms 
on the Dexter side of their shields, impaling their 
hereditary insignia. 

The Daughter of a Peer bears her Father's Arms, but 
without any Coronet or Supporters, and her Husband 
impales her Arms which do not become hereditary. 

Should a Widower marry again, he sometimes impales 
the Arms of both his wives, the two being placed in the 
sinister half of the shield, those of the first wife in Chief, 
and of the second in Base, or both coats marshalled per 
pale. But if the former wife should have been an 
Heiress, her Arms would appear in pretence upon those of 
her husband on the dexter side, and the Arms of the 
second wife would be impaled in the ordinary manner ; 
and, contrariwise, if the second wife be an Heiress, her 
Arms would be charged in pretence upon the shield still 
impaled as at first. In case both the ladies should be 
Heiresses, the husband might quarter the Arms of his first 
wife with his own, then impale the quartered composition 
with his own Arms, and charge the Arms of the second 
wife on a shield of pretence over all. The hereditary 
quarterings in such instances would have to be determined 
in accordance with the special circumstances of each par- 


ticular case, but always in strict adherence to heraldic 
principle and heraldic rule. 

An unmarried Lady bears* her paternal coat of arms, 
whether single or quartered, upon a Lozenge, without any 
Crest. See No. 104. This most inconvenient lozenge was 
in use at an early period. 

A Widow, not an heiress, retains the impaled Arms as 
borne by her late husband and herself ; or, if an Heiress, 
a Widow retains her husband's Arms charged with her 
own in pretence ; but, in either case, the Arms of a Widow 
are borne upon a Lozenge, and without a Crest. Should 
a Widow marry a second time, unless her former husband 
was a Peer, she ceases to bear his Arms. The Marshall- 
ing of the Arms of the Widow of a Peer who may marry 
again is given in the next section of this Chapter. 

The Arms of Corporate Bodies, and also of Institutions 
and Associations, of whatsoever kind, may be marshalled 
by means of regular quartering, the several coats of arms 
being arranged and assigned to their proper quarters in 
the Compound Composition in the order of their relative 

Marshalling by Incorporation, that is, instead of quarter- 
ing, actually constructing a single coat of arms from the 
component elements of two or more distinct heraldic com- 
positions, is generally repudiated by modern Heralds, as 
inconsistent with that distinct and expressive definition 
which Heraldry impresses on its productions. Still, a 
foremost place in the very front rank of English Heraldry 
must be assigned to the Union Jack, which, as I have 
shown, is an example of such Marshalling by Incorpo- 
ration. (See Chap. VII, Nos. 63 and 64; also Chap. 


II. The Disposition and Aggrottpment of two or 
more Shields op Arms, so that they shall form and 
constitute a single heraldic composition. 

In many cases, Marshalling requires that Shields of 
arms should retain their individual characteristics, while 
they also have to form associations with other heraldic 
compositions. This is effected by grouping together the 
allied shields. 

Knights of the Garter, the Bath, and other Orders, if 
married, bear two shields. On the first, placed to the 
dexter, are the paternal Arms of the Knight himself, 
being surrounded with the Insignia of his Order of 
Knighthood. On the second shield he bears his own Arms 
repeated, without any Knightly Insignia, impaling those 
of his wife, or charged with them in pretence. 

Though not customary in actual practice, a similar ar- 
rangement might be adopted, in exact conformity with 
heraldic rule, in the instances of Archbishops and Bishops 
who are married. 

A Peeress in her own Right bears her hereditary arms 
(without Helm or Crest) on a Lozenge, with her Coronet 
and supporters. If she be married to a Peer, both her 
Arms and those of her husband are fully blazoned, and 
the Shield and the Lozenge are grouped together to form 
a single Compound Composition, precedence being given to 
the achievement of the higher rank. If she be married 
to a Commoner, her husband charges her paternal Arms 
ensigned with her Coronet, in Pretence upon his own ; 
and she also bears her own Achievement of arms, distinct 
and complete, as she bore it before her marriage : and, in 
this instance also, the Lozenge and the Shield are grouped 
together, the Lozenge yielding precedence. 


If the Widow of a Peer should marry a Commoner, she 
continues to bear the Arms of her former husband, as 
before, on a separate Lozenge ; and, on another Shield her 
second husband impales or charges in pretence her 
paternal Arms, the two forming a single group, the shield 
having precedence. Should she marry a second peer, she 
would not retain the Arms of her former husband, unless 
his rank had been higher than that of her second husband. 

Royal Personages, when married, bear their own Arms 
on a separate shield, which is placed to the dexter ; and a 
second shield bears the impaled arms of the husband and 
the wife, the arms of the personage of the higher rank 
being to the dexter. In some instances, quartering is 
used in the second shield instead of impalement, — a prac- 
tice that ought to be altogether discontinued. 

Two or more shields may be grouped together by 
placing them upon a mantle of crimson velvet lined with 
ermine ; or by the instrumentality of any such simple 
accessories as the artist may devise. Or it may be suffi- 
cient either to place the shields, or the shield and lozenge, 
side by side, or to arrange them in such a manner that 
the shield to the dexter should rest upon the dexter chief 
of the other shield or of the lozenge. 

III. Marshalling: the Accessories op any Shield, 
Lozenge or Group, is necessarily determined by the 
circumstances of every individual case. 

The Accessories are the Helm, Wreath, Cap, Crest-Coro- 
net, Crest, Coronet, Crown, Mantling, Supporters, Scroll and 
Motto, Badges, and Knightly or Official Insignia. The se- 
veral characteristics and uses of these accessories having 
been described in Chapter XIV, their treatment in Mar- 
shalling requires but brief notice. 


The Helm always rests upon the chief of the Shield. 
Commoners and Baronets have their Crests placed upon 
their Helms, the Crest in every case being supported by its 
"Wreath, Cap or Crest-Coronet. Peers and Princes place 
the Coronet of their rank upon their Helm, and their Crest 
duly supported is introduced above the Coronet. The 
Sovereign places the Eoyal Crest above the Imperial 
Crown. The Mantling always falls, or is displayed, from 
the back of the Helm. The Scroll and Motto, and also 
all Badges are placed below the shield: but should any 
Motto have a special reference to the Crest, in that case 
such Motto should stand either in chief of the entire 
achievement, or, if only the crest and the shield are bla- 
zoned, it may intervene between them. The Supporters 
are to be adjusted to the Shield or Lozenge in such a 
manner, that they may appear to be in the act of sup- 
porting and protecting it. Supporters and Crests also 
admit Marks of Cadency. 

Official Insignia may be associated with any achieve- 
ment, in such a manner as may be best calculated to dis- 
play them with becoming effect. Thus, the official staves 
of the Earl Marshall are blazoned and crossed behind his 
shield. An Official Badge or Jewel may be suspended 
from the shield itself. Other objects and devices must 
determine their own most appropriate display, care being 
taken that the true Heraldic Achievement should maintain 
its own distinct individuality. 

Knightly Insignia are always associated with Achieve- 
ments of arms. The Garter and Motto of the Order en- 
circle the shields of all Knights of the Garter ; and the 
Collar, with the George, may also be blazoned about the 
Garter itself. Knights of the Bath encircle their Shield 


with a Red Riband charged with the Motto of the Order, 
and having the Jewel depending. In like manner, the 
Knights of the Thistle and of St. "Patrick, of St. Michael 
and of St. George, and of the Star of India, place the 
Ribands of their Orders with their Mottos, each about his 
own shield. These Ribands are severally Green, Sky 
Blue, Deep Blue with a Scarlet Stripe, and Light Blue 
having edges of White. The Badge or Jewel of each 
Order depends from the Riband. The Collars also of all 
these Orders may be blazoned about the shield of any 
Knight : and a Knight of more than one Order may dis- 
play the Insignia of each Order. In like manner, all 
honorable Insignia of every kind may be displayed in 
association with a Shield or Achievement of arms. And, 
in accordance with the same rule, Foreign Orders and 
Insignia may be displayed, provided that they have been 
duly recognized and admitted in this country. 

No. 408. Achievement of Arms of John Daubygne, a.d. 1346, 
from bis Monumental Slab at Norton-Brize, Oxfordshire. 

No. 470. No. 471. 

Edward I, as Prince Royal. Henry Plantagenet of Lancaster. 



By Cadency Heralds distinguish the different indi- 
viduals or the several branches of the same family, all of 
whom, in right of their common descent, inherit and bear 
the same arms. 

A shield of arms may thus be " differenced," either by 
modifying or adding to the original blazon, while retain- 
ing its distinctive character ; or by introducing upon the 
shield some fresh charge, which is to take no part in the 
actual composition of the arms, but is to have a special 
and a separate existence of its own as a " Difference." 

The modified shield, when once adopted, would become 
in fact an independent heraldic composition, and would 
be permanently retained, while yet at the same time it 
would indicate clearly and emphatically both its origin 
and its alliances. 

The shield, on the other hand, that in its own blazon 
remains unchanged and without even the very slightest 
modification, but is differenced by a " Mark," or " Marks 


of Cadency," would be borne only as a temporary dis- 
tinction, contingent upon the duration or the change of 
certain conditions ; and, consequently such a shield would 
alter its Differences or remove them altogether, in accord- 
ance with the new requirements of advancing time. In 
these changes in the " Marks of Cadency " which may be 
borne at different times by the same individuals, and in 
the origin of the " Marks " themselves, the student of 
Historical Heraldry will find lying open before him a wide 
field for singularly interesting and attractive inquiry. 

Occasionally, more than one Mark of Cadency appears 
in the same shield ; and it also was a practice habitually 
prevalent with the early Heralds to difference their JDif- 
erences, that is, to charge one Mark of Cadency upon 

I. The former of the two processes for Differencing 
Arms may be effected, first, by changing the tincture either 
of the field, or of the ordinary, or of any other charge, in 
any Heraldic Composition. 

Thus, in the time of Henry III, the two Furnivals 
appear bearing, the one upon a field of gold, and the 
other uppn a field of silver, the same red bend and the 
same six martlets also red. This shield, No. 365, is 
repeated in the curious monument to a lady of the same 
family in Selby Church, Yorkshire. At the same period 
the brothers De la Zouche severally bear, gules, bezantee, 
and azure, bemntee, No. 366. The De la Zouches sub- 
sequently further differenced their shield by introducing 
a canton ermine, as appears in the Brass to Lady Wil- 
loughby de Eresby, a.d. 1391, at Spilsby in Lincoln- 
shire. Again, the De Genevilles, in the Roll of Henry 
III, bear, the elder, sa. three barnacles in pale, or, and on a 



chief, arg., a demi-lion rampt. issuant, gu.; and the 
younger, the same arms, No. 131a, PI. XIV, with the 
field of the shield azure, and that of the chief ermine. 
These arms of the De Genevilles may be considered to 
exemplify the compounding two distinct coats, as 
a Furnival without doubt first bore the bend alone, and 
afterwards the martlets were added " for Difference." 
The Mortimers, again, difference by changing the tincture 
of their inescutcheon from silver to ermine, Nos. 99 and 
99 a, p. 37, and also by substituting gules for the azure 
of the original shield. The change from argent to ermine 
for the tincture of the field was frequently adopted, as by 
the Montacutes ; or, for the tincture of an ordinary, 
as by the Berkleys. The Caelaverock Roll gives an 
example of a double change of tincture in the banner 
of John Paignel, a friend and comrade of the brothers 
De Hastings, who bore a golden maunche upon a field vert, 
the Earl himself displaying a banner of gold charged with 
a maunche gules, which banner Edward de Hastings 
differenced with a label azure. 

Secondly, retaining the identity of the tinctures the 
Cadency may be effected by introducing some fresh charge 
of at least a comparatively subordinate character, and in- 
corporating it with the original composition of any shield ; 
or, by slightly varying the charges that are borne on any 
shield ; or, by substituting one charge for another under 
like conditions ; or, by associating with one heraldic com- 
position the distinctive insignia of another in such a man- 
ner that, while the original design may predominate, the 
presence of the allied arms may readily be recognized. 

It is highly probable that the minor charges of shields 
were originally introduced in almost all cases with a view 


to Cadency ; and, accordingly, Heraldry may be considered 
to have derived a very large proportion of the most 
popular associates of its Ordinaries from its own early 
efforts, more suo, to distinguish and also oftentimes to 
connect the different bearers of those simple insignia. In 
general the fresh charges introduced by the early Heralds 
for marking Cadency do not appear to have been selected 
upon any definite principle ; small crosses, however, were 
evidently held in especial esteem ; and, in some instances, 
devices used as badges may have been adopted as marks 
of Cadency. These fresh charges, which are drawn to so 
small a scale that their presence cannot seriously affect 
the primary idea of the original composition, are placed 
either upon the field of the shield, or upon the Ordinary, 
and in the earliest examples they almost invariably are re- 
peated. When set upon the field of any shield, the small 
charges in the first instance appear either semee over the 
entire area, or arranged to form an orle — the orle being a 
modification of the bordure ; but, subsequently, their 
numbers are generally reduced so as not to exceed six, 
and they are disposed in some regular order. Later 
still — that is to say, about the middle of the 14th century, 
single small charges begin to be used " for Difference." 

The idea of differencing shields of arms by means of 
small charges again and again repeated, may possibly 
have been derived from the early practice of diapering ; 
but, whatever its origin, this system of marking Cadency 
from the first is altogether distinct from any merely de- 
corative accessories. It will be understood, that the term 
" Cadency" applies only to the differencing of the shields 
of several members either of the same family or of dif- 
ferent branches of the same family: at the same time, it 


I R XV] 


oo o 


















Plate XXV. 

N os 365 to 379. 


is obvious that by a change of tinctures, by fresh combi- 
nations and dispositions, and by the introduction of 
various minor charges, a series of shields all bearing the 
same Ordinary may be effectually differenced for different 
families, between which there exists no alliance whatever. 
In the first Eoll of Henry III four shields of Beau champ 
are blazoned, not including the shield of the Earl of 
Warwick, (which is, chequee, arg. and az, a chevron, 
ermine, No. 367) : — of these one is simply vairee, — a second 
is quarterly, arg. and sa., — a third charges a bend gu. upon 
afield, quarterly, arg. and of the first, — and the fourth is 
sa., an eagle displayed; arg., armed, or. The well known 
shield of the Beauchamps, Earls of Warwick, ac- 
cordingly, does not appear in this group. In the Caer- 
laverock Eoll, the shield vairee is repeated, and the arms 
of Gtuy, (Beauchamp,) Earl of Warwick are blazoned, 
gu., semee of crosslets, a fesse, or, No. 368 : there is also a 
third red banner of Beauchamp, which bears the golden 
fesse between six martlets, No. 369. The crosslets were 
probably reduced to the same number, six, early in the 
14th century. In the Elsyng brass, a.d. 1347, in the 
Beauchamp monuments at Warwick, in the Calais Roll 
of Edward III. and in the Windsor Stall-plates, the 
Beauchamps, Earls of Warwick, bear the six golden 
crosslets, — No. 370 ; and in the same Calais Eoll, Sir 
John de Beauchamp, the brother of the Earl, adds a 
sable crescent upon his fesse, No. 371. The shield with 
six martlets is repeated, for Sir Giles de Beauchamp, in 
the Eoll of Edward III ; and, again, upon a monument, 
about a.d. 1400, in Worcester Cathedral, and in the brass 
of the same period, to Sir Nicholas Dagworth, at 
Aylsham in Norfolk ; and, in the Eoll, it is further dif- 



ferenced, for an eldest son, with an azure label. In other 
shields of Beauchamps of different branches of the 
family, six crescents or the same number of billets, all of 
gold, are blazoned with the fesse on a red field. 

The Cliffords, who bear, chequee, or and az., a bend., 
gu, in the Boll of Henry III, No. 372, at Caerlaverock 
display a fesse in place of the bend, No. 373 ; and, sub- 
sequently, they charge on their bend three lions of England. 
The arms of De Eos appear varied in their tinctures in 
the following manner : — gu. three water bougets, arg. ; 
then, ermine takes the place of argent; and then, the 
same charges, sable, are blazoned on a shield, or, No. 374 ; 
this shield of De Eos appears in the Windsor Stall- 
plates, in the well known effigy in the Temple Church 
and in the Spilsby brass. In his brass, a.d. 1275, Sir 
Eoger de Trumpingdon bears on his shield, az., crusillee, 
two trumpets in pile, or, No. 375, and upon his ailettes he 
adds a label of three points, thus corroborating the evidence 
borne by his shield to show that the engraving of this 
brass was never completed. Somewhat earlier two De 
Bruces bear, severally, arg. a lion rampt., az., and, az. semee 
of crosses pattees, a lion rampt. or ; and De Balliol dif- 
ferences, gu. an orle, arg., first, by placing in the dexter 
chief a small blue inescutcheon charged with a lion passant 
of gold, and secondly, by modifying the original blazon to, 
az. semee of crosses pattees, an orle, or — No. 376. The 
De Cobhams bear gu. a chevron, or ; and for difference, 
they charge their chevron with either three crosslets, or 
three lioncels, or three eaglets, or three estoiles, or three 
crescents, or three martlets, all sable. No. 377, with the 
lioncels, is from the brasses at Cobham and Chrishall ; 
No. 378, with the crosslets, (Eauf De Cobham, a.d. 1402, 




E mnnm 

n;v\ AJu 







««» ^ $» 





Plate XXYi: 

^T os 374to 3881, k 461. 462. 



adds an estoile, as in the example, for a secondary 
difference,) is from another brass at Cobham ; and No. 379, 
with the estoiles, is from the Stall-plate of Sir Reginald 
de Cobham, KG-., a.d. 1352. In the Calais Eoll of Edw. 
Ill, Sir John de Cobham bears the chevron uncharged, 
(the original shield, in all probability,) but with the addition 
of a silver label. The Staffords, again, difference their red 
chevron on its field of gold, first, by adding a canton, 
ermine; secondly, by placing the chevron between three 
martlets, sable; and then by surrounding the original 
shield with a bordure engrailed, either sable, or gules. The 
arms of De Lucy are, gu, three fishes haurient in fesse, arg. 
This shield is differenced by substituting or for argent, 
and powdering the field with crosslets, first of silver and 
then of gold. Six shields are blazoned, each with a single 
cinquefoil, in the Roll of Henry III. Of these one bears 
the charge of silver and another of gold, on a red field. 
Fitz Nichol retains the gold and red tinctures, but 
powders his field with silver escallops, No. 388. On a field 
sable, De Fancombe bears both the cinquefoil and an orle 
of martlets, arg. De Umphraville adheres to the 
original tinctures, but adds a bordure, az., semee of 
horse-shoes, or, No. 388 A. Thomas Bardolph has an 
azure shield, crusilee, and with the cinquefoil, or — his 
elder brother, William Bardolph, bearing, az., three 
cinquefoils, or — No. 388 b. (See also Chap. XXIV.) In 
addition to the shields of his own house, Thos. de Saint 
Quintin, a.d. 1445, at Harpham in his brass, has a shield 
charged with the arms of Thos. Bardolph, No 388 c ; in 
this example the crosslets are drawn fleurie, No. 388 d. 
At Trumpington, Elsyng, Warwick, Cobham, and in the 
earlier Stall-plates at Windsor, the crosslets are botonee — 

m 2 


No. 388 e : this appears to be the favourite manner of 
rendering this popular charge, though in many instances 
its points are cut off square, as in No. 83, PI. III. The 
shield of Sir Amorye D'Arcy, in the Calais Roll, bears, 
arg. within an orle of cinquefoils, an inescutcheon, gu. : 
and, in the same Eoll, Sir Wm. D'Arcy differences this 
shield to, az. crusillee, three cinquefoils, arg. Other Darcies 
bear, arg. three sixfoils, gu ; and, az. crusillee, three sixfoils, 
arg. ; and, for further difference, arg. within an orle of 
sixfoils, gu. an inescutcheon, sa. : Nos. 388 p, g, h and i. 
A monument of the Caerlaverock period at Howden in 
Yorkshire, to a De Saltmarsh, displays a shield, crusillee, 
charged with three sixfoils, No. 389. A shield semee of 
quatrefoils, with a wild boar — Sanglier — in chief, appears 
in the brass to Sir Thos. Massyngberde, a.d. 1405, at 
Gunby in Lincolnshire. Under Edward III, Sir John de 
Brewys bears, az. crusilee, a lion ranvpt. crowned, or ; and, 
seventy -five years later, the same shield, No. 390, is six 
times repeated in the brass to another John de Brewys, 
at Wiston in Sussex. And, once more, in their noble brass 
at Little Horkesley in Essex, a.d. 1412, the shields of the 
Swynbornes, No. 391, PI. XXXVII, are, gu., semee of 
crosslets, arg., and charged with three boar's heads couped, 
of the second ; the same shield is blazoned in the Eoll 
of Henry III. 

The red shields of the Berkeleys appear in the early 
Rolls powdered with either silver crosses pattees or silver 
roses, Nos. 392 and 393. As I have already shewn, they 
also bear their chevron both arg. and erm : and they further 
add either a blue label or a silver bordure. The six 
crosslets fitchees of the Howards, No. 394, were doubtless 
added in the first instance to their silver bend, for dif- 

C XX) E U C "Y. 





If 03 375, 488, 411 to 413 445 44/ 






i i 



& & 

396 \v^^ * 00 



Plats XKXVII. 

Jf 03 - 389 to 403. 


ference. For a similar purpose, they afterwards placed 
on the bend itself a single ermine spot. Another shield 
differenced with a single ermine spot placed in the dexter 
chief angle, is engraved on a brass plate in Eishangles 
Church, Suffolk, a.d. 1599 : the blazon of this shield, 
which was borne by Sir. Edw. Grimston, and now is 
marshalled by the Earl of Vertjlam in the 1st and 4th 
quarters, is as follows, arg. on a j 'esse, sa., three mullets of six 
points pierced, or, in the dexter chief point an ermine-spot, 
for difference— Eo. 395, PI. XXXV3Z At Checkenden in 
Buckinghamshire, about a.d. 1275, a spirited effigy of 
a De Montfort exhibits the remarkable shield of that 
family differenced with crosslets : it may thus be blazoned, 
gu. crusillee, a lion ramp, queue fourchee, arg., preying on 
an infant, ppr. : in this example, No. 399, the sculptor has 
represented the lion facing to the sinister. The shield 
quarterly of the De Veres, No. 156, PI. YI, without doubt, 
originally acquired its silver mullet as a mark of Cadency. 
A mullet in the first quarter again appears in the fine 
brass at Chipping Campden, a.d., 1401, to Wm. Grevel, 
differencing the shield that is still borne by the 
Grevilles, — sa., on across engr. or, five pellets, all within a 
a bordure also engr., of the second, No. 396. The Les 
Despencers charge their bend (No. 107) with three mullets, 
for Difference, and they also engrail the bend itself. In 
like manner, in the year 1337, William De Bohun, Earl 
of Northampton, (afterwards a Knight Founder of the 
Garter,) differences his paternal shield by charging upon 
the silver bend three mullets of six points. In the roll of 
Edward III, these mullets are blazoned gules, but they are 
also elsewhere tinctured sable. The shields of this re- 
owned Baron and of his son, both drawn from their seals, 


are placed side by side in Plate XX, Nos. 397, 398. 
It will be seen that in No. 398 the cotises are better 
developed than in the shield of the earlier Humphrey de 
Bohun, No. 201, the father of the Earl of Northampton. 
The shield of the De Bohuns, both with and without a 
label, is blazoned in the Bolls of Henry III, Edward I, 
and Caerlaverock ; it occupies a foremost place amidst the 
Stall-plates of the Knights of the Garter ; it yet lingers 
over what remains of the once honoured burial-place of 
their powerful family, the Llanthony Abbey, founded by 
themselves near Gloucester ; and it occurs repeatedly in 
the Heraldry of both seals and monuments — as in the seals 
of Henry IV and Thomas Plantagenet of Woodstock, 
in the brasses at Westminster, Spilsby and Exeter, and 
the Beauchamp Chapel Monument at Warwick. 

The red pile of Chandos, in one of the Rolls of 
Henry III, appears differenced with mullets. The bla- 
zon of this shield, No. 127, is, or, a pile gu. charged with 
three mullets of six points, of the first, between six others, 
of the second. In the Calais Roll, William Clynton, 
Earl of Huntingdon, bears, arg., six crosslets fitchees, sa., 
on a chief, ar., two mullets, or, No. 400 ; and Sir Thomas 
Ughtred bears, gu. on a cross fleurie, or, five mullets, sa. f 
No. 401. At Caerlaverock the brothers Basset/, who j ■ 
both bear, erm., a chief indented, gu., difference their 
shields by severally charging their chiefs with three 
mulleis and three escallops, or, Nos. 402, 403. I shall have 
occasion hereafter to notice a perfectly different Coat of 
Arms borne by the De Basset^s, Nos. 445, 456. In the 
Arms of Douglas three mullets are charged upon a 
chief: thus, the Garter Plate of James, Earl Douglas, 
in the first quarter bears, arg., a maris heart, gu., im- 


perially crowned, or, and on a chief, ar., three mullets, of 
the field, No. 177 a. The St. Johns, in like manner, bear 
mullets on a chief: in the Caerlaverock roll John de 
St. John bears, arg., on a chief, gu., two mullets, or, and 
his son, John de St. John the younger, bears, arg., 
on a chief, gu., two mullets, or, over all a label of five points, 
az., No. 404. The shield of Wm. de Odingseles 
is blazoned in the Eoll of Henry III. as, arg., a fesse, 
and in chief two mullets, gu. ; R. de Moelles, using the 
same tinctures, substitutes two bars for the fesse, and 
increases the mullets to three ; and on a silver bend 
Rob. de Shastone charges three azure mullets, the field 
of his shield being red. 

Nearly half a century after the siege of Caerlaverock, 
in the year 1345, a monumental slab was sculptured 
and placed at Norton Brise, in Oxfordshire, to com- 
memorate Sir John Daubygne. It is a very remarkable 
composition, and singularly interesting in its Heraldry. 
Three of its five shields are charged with the arms of 
Daubygne : of these one bears simply, gu., four fusils 
conjoined in fesse, arg. ; another bears the fusils erm., and 
adds three mullets, in chief; and the third, which is the 
principal shield of the group, charges each fusil with a 
pierced mullet, Nos. 405, 406, 407. A pierced mullet, which 
appears to demonstrate conclusively the derivation of that 
charge, from a pointed spur-rouelle, within a wreath of 
olive leaves, forms the Crest, and the Mantling of the 
Helm is also powdered with pierced mullets. At the end of 
this chapter I give a representation of this achievement 
of arms, drawn from the original monument. Es- 
callop-shells have already been blazoned as differencing 
charges: I add, for further illustration, from the Rolls 


so often quoted, the shield of Bigot, or, on a cross, gu. t 
five escallops, arg. ; and that of De Graham, gu., a saltire 
and chief, arg., the latter charged with three escallops, of the 
field, No. 409. The Deincotjrts bear, az., billettee, a f esse 
dancette, or, (Eolls of Henry III, Edward III, and Caer- 
laveroek), No. 410. De Gueslyn bears simply, or, billettee, 
a label of five points, az. The shields of De Lorraine and St. 
Omer are severally, gu. and az., billettee, a fesse, or ; and 
another shield differenced with billets appears in the 
brass to John Haydon, at Theddlethorpe in Lincolnshire, 
a.d. 1424, the principal charge being a lion passant, 
No. 411. 

Martlets were evidently held in esteem, as Dif- 
ferencing Charges, in a degree inferior only to that 
accorded to crosslets. To the examples already adduced 
I add, from the Eoll of Henry III, the shields of De 
Merley and De Botjn, which are, barry of six, arg. and 
az., a bordure, of the second, semee of martlets, or ; and, gu. 
within an orle of martlets, a crescent, arg, Nos. 412 and 413. 
Again, we may assume that the Martlets charged upon 
the shield attributed to the Confessor, No. 78, PI. I, 
were originally designed to indicate an heraldic Dif- 
ference. The orle of martlets that is so happily effective 
in the shields of William and Aymer de Valence, 
No. 101, PI. V, is another familiar example of the use 
of this favourite charge in early Cadency. The paternal 
shield of these distinguished barons was simply, barry 
(the bars sans nombre) arg. and az., No. 414. This shield 
was once blazoned upon the Westminster Monument, and 
it is still preserved in connection with the curious semi- 
effigy of Ethelmar or Aymer De Valence, brother of 
Earl William, Bishop of Winchester, in Winchester 








rW- -^ 

^ — %^ 




Plate ZXXVUI. 

j{os m t0 43L 


Cathedral. I have engraved this relic in my " Christian 
Monuments." Upon this shield a label gules is charged, 
for an eldest son, No. 415. Then, upon the barry field 
there is introduced — possibly to compound two Coats of 
Arms — a lion rampt. gu., crowned, or, — No. 416. The orle 
of red martlets succeeds, No. 101 ; and, at the same time, 
three lioncels of the same tincture modify the Difference 
effected by the single lion — No. 417: this last shield, 
No. 417, remains in the Westminster Monument, the 
original enamel being still fresh and brilliant. And, once 
more, Guy, the younger brother of William De Valence, 
so far alters the shield of his house, that he bears, arg., 
three bars, az. over all a bendlet, gu. : I add this shield, 
No. 418, to complete the De Valence group, in which the 
student will observe that the tincture, gules, is retained in 
all these shields for their varied Differences. Another 
group of shields, three in number, may be associated with 
the shields of the De Valences, in order to exemplify more 
fully their system of marking Cadency ; these are the 
shields of the De Chaworths, which severally are 
blazoned, — harry, ar. and gu., an orle of martlets, sa. ; 
then, three martlets, two and one, sa., take the place of the 
orle ; and, finally, a bendlet supercedes the martlets al- 
together: Nos. 419, 420, and 421. 

The always beautiful Fleur-de-lys appears as a 
Differencing charge in the blazon of early shields. It 
would seem, indeed, that the fleurs-de-lys which are scat- 
tered over the field in the old arms of France, were 
designed to mark a difference from a kindred shield, 
charged with a single de-lys, as, subsequently, the shield 
semee de lys, was differenced by Bordures, Bendlets and 
Cantons : or, if not thus in itself an actual example of 

1 70 CADENCY. 

heraldic Cadency, the shield that is so well known as 
France Ancient, No. 2, p. 18, could not fail to be 
regarded as eminently suggestive, when the Heralds of 
England for the first time were engaged in working out 
some system of differencing arms. The brass to a Fitz 
Ealph, at Pebmarsh, in Essex, near Clare, about a.d. 
1320, has a differenced shield of the De Clares, which 
charges each chevronel with three fleurs-de-lys, and sur- 
rounds the whole with a bordure ; and, the same blazon 
is repeated in some remains of early glass in the win- 
dows, from which it is apparent that the field is azure, 
the bordure and the de lys, gules, and the chevronels or, 
No. 422. In the Roll of Henry III, William de 
Peyner bears, arg. on a chevron, gu. three fleurs-de-lys, 
or, No. 423 ; and John de Deyvill modifies this com- 
position to, or, on a fesse, gu., three fleurs-de-lys, the cen- 
tral one reversed, of the field, No. 424 ; and again, one 
of the shields in the Selby monument bears the three 
fleurs-de-lys, all of them erect, upon a fesse, No. 425. 
Fleurs-de-lys in small numbers, as primary charges, are 
of rare occurrence. In the Roll of Henry III, Robert 
Agtjlon bears, gu., a single fleur-de-lys, arg. ; and the 
shield of De Tatelow, is, gu. three fleurs-de-lys, or. A 
very singular incised monumental slab at Abergavenny 
has a shield charged also with three large fleurs-de-lys, 
No. 425 a ; and the brass to Sir John Giffard, a.d. 
1348, which has lately been restored to Bowers Gifford 
Church in Essex, upon a field beautifully diapered bears 
six fleurs-de-lys, three, two and one, No. 425 b. Vincent 
(MS. SS, in Coll. Arm), gives the seal of Melicent de 
Monte Alto, a.d. 1235, with her effigy between two 
shields, the dexter shield bearing a lion rampant, and the 


= • XVI. 




-k * 





'late XXYIE. 

N os 404to409 & 423 to 428 







'late XXXJX 

K os 422, 425, 426, 513,581. 


sinister shield three fleurs-de-lys ; at Stradsett in Norfolk 
there is a noble monumental slab despoiled of its shields, 
cross and inscriptions, to the same Melicent de Monte Alto. 
The shield of Sir Theobald De Eachecotjrte, blazoned 
in the Calais Eoll, displays the singular arrangement of 
five golden fleurs-de-lys set in saltire upon a sable field, No. 
426. In the arms of Sir Thomas Bromflete, in his brass 
at Wimington in Bedfordshire, a.d. 1430, the fleur-de-lys 
assumes a very peculiar position : his shield, No. 426 b, 
bears, sa. a bend, fleurie counter fleurie, or. This shield 
the Bromfletes further differenced by charging their bend 
with three hurtes. The bend of the Bromfletes naturally 
directs the attention of students to the Royal Tressure of 
Scotland, which is also fleurie, counter fleurie, No. 345. 
The shield of the De Cantelupes, No. 426 c, furnishes 
another curious instance of the use of the fleurs-de-lys, 
which have evidently been placed in such strange associa- 
tion with lions' faces with a view to compounding two 
coats of arms ; the blazon of this shield is, for William 
de Cantelupe, at Caerlaverock, gu., between three lions* 
faces, jessant-de-lys, or, a fesse, vair ; No. 426 c. An exam- 
ple of the use of the fleur-de-lys for marking Cadency 
occurs in one of the shields of the Spilsby Brass, which 
bears, for De Beatjmonte, az., semee de lys, a lion rampt., 
or, No. 427. Other branches of the same family change 
the tinctures to gules and argent, they substitute an orle 
of silver crescents for the field florettee, and they place 
over all either an azure label or a bendlet componee, arg. 
and gu. In the Calais Eoll, Sir Thomas Beatjmonte 
bears the crescents; and Sir John Beatjmonte, the 
younger, adds a label to a similar shield. In his effigy 
at Eyther in Yorkshire, William De Eyther, about 


a.d. 1275, bears a shield charged with three crescents, No. 
427 a. Franc le Boun, in one of the earliest Rolls, 
bears the same shield, the tinctures being sa., three cres- 
cents, or. The brass to Robert Parts, a.d. 1408, at 
Hildersham in Cambridgeshire, is charged with a cross 
fleurie, and has two crescents in chief, No. 427 b. I have 
already given, from the other Roll of Henry III, for 
Franc De Boun, a shield charged with a single crescent, 
within an orle of martlets, No. 413. Again, in the Ca- 
lais Roll, John de Potenhall bears, or, on a f esse, ar. 
three increscents, of the field, No. 428. Roses, as I have 
shewn, were used for Difference by the Berkeleys, No. 
393. In the Caerlaverock Roll, the banners of the Earl 
of Lennox and his son are, gu. a lion rampt, within a bor- 
dure, arg., semee of roses, of the field, the son adding 
an azure label, No. 429. Again, Simon de Tressel 
bears, sa. six roses, arg., No. 431 ; and (Roll of H. III.) 
Philip D'Arcy bears, arg. three roses, gu. Grarlands or 
wreaths of roses, with or without leaves, were borne as 
charges, and possibly they may have done duty as Marks 
of Cadency. At Caerlaverock, Ralfh de Fitzwilliam 
bore a banner, harry, arg. and az., charged with three chap- 
lets of roses* No. 432. 

Another example of a shield bearing three wreaths of 
roses, occurs in the Brass to Roger Elmebrigge, a.d. 
1430, at Beddington in Surrey, No. 432 a : this shield is 
also charged with either a chevron cotised, or with two 
chevronels, and it has a label of three points. In the brass 
this shield appears both alone and impaled by Elme- 

* At p. 57, a Shield of De Fitz William has been engraved, hi 
which the Imrry field has been accidentally omitted. 












}T 0S 434ft)446. 


brigge — chequee, arg. and sa., and consequently, it is an 
example of differencing by a label in the arms borne by a 
lady. Eoundels of different tinctures appear as charges 
borne for differencing arms, but not so frequently as 
might have been expected. The arms of the Earl of 
Cornwall, No. 194, PI. V. afford an excellent example of 
a bordure bezantee. The same shield so far modified as 
to have its field ermine, and its bordure engrailed, appears 
amidst the Windsor Stall-plates, for Sir John Corn- 
wall, K.G., who died in 1443, No. 433. In the early 
Roll, the shields of Robert Estofford and Robert de 
Welle, Nos. 434 and 435, are blazoned, the one, arg. a 
cJievron, gu. bezantee, and the other, arg. tivo bendlets, gu. 
bezantee. A century later, Sir Warren Trussell bears, 
arg. frettee, gu., the frette bezantee, No. 435 a ; and Sir Wil- 
liam Trussell bears the same shield with an azure label. 
The banner of Aumery St. Amand is or, frettee, and on 
a chief, sa., three bezants, No. 436. The Shield of Rauf 
de Camoys (Roll H. Ill) bears, or, on a chief, gu. three 
plates, No. 287, PI. XIY, and Sir Thomas Latham (Calais 
Roll) bears, or, on a chief, indented, az. three plates. The 
shields of Cotjrtenay, Wake and Devereux (Roll of 
H. Ill), all bear torteaux, and are thus blazoned : Cour- 
teney, or, three torteaux ; Wake, or, two bars, gu., in 
chief three torteaux, No. 437 ; and Devereux, arg., a 
fesse, gu. in chief three torteaux. At Caerlaverock, Hugh 
de Courtenay bore an azure label, charged over his 
three torteaux, and the shield thus differenced has become 
recognised as the arms of Courtenay, No. 438 ; it appears 
in brasses at Cobham and Exeter. And, (Roll H. III.) 
William de Bascrevil bears, arg. between three hurtes, 
a chevron, gu., No. 439. Annulets, again, appear in early 



blazonry. In the Roll of Henry III, John de Vipont 
and John de Plessis both bear seven annulets, but they 
counterchange the tinctures of the field and the charges ; 
thus, the blazon of the former shield is, gu. six annulets, 
or, and that of the latter is, arg, six annulets, gu., No. 440. 
In the original, these annulets are blazoned as "faux 
rondlets," or false roundlets — that is, as roundlets voided of 
the field. Mascles, in like manner, which appear in seve- 
ral early shields in groups, are blazoned as " voydes du 
champ," when they are to be understood to be what we 
now distinguish as Mascles : otherwise the early mascle, 
when not thus voided, becomes the modern lozenge. 
Shields masculee, like those semee of annulets or roundles, 
or shields charged with mascles in connection with other 
charges, may have been intended by early Heralds to in- 
dicate Difference. 

Mr. Planche has directed attention to the seal of Wil- 
liam de Romare III, Earl of Lincoln, who died as early 
as 1198, which is both masculee and crusillee. My represen- 
tation of this seal in Chapter XXIV, is drawn from Mr. 
Planche's engraving. Roger de Quincey, Earl of Win- 
chester, bears, gu. masculee, or : and this shield which 
is blazoned in the Roll of Henry III, appears amongst the 
few original examples of the Heraldry of that sovereign, 
in the south aisle of Westminster Abbey ; the mascles, 
seven in number, are pierced with very small openings, 
and disposed over the entire field of the shield, being 
in contact with one another, as in No. 441. The 
same Roll blazons the shields of Richard de Rokele, 
Thomas le Fitz William and William le Blond, all 
of them being masculee, and the last bearing, gu. mas- 
culee, or, a canton, erm., No. 442. The shield of Hubert 

C A. D E JST C "Y . 





time of Henry HL. 

Plate XL IX 

N os 399, 432 441, 459, 460 to. 467 



de Burgh, Earl of Kent, bears, masculee, vair and gu. 
— "masculee de verre et de goules ;" but this is really 
lozengy, vair and gu., as appears from the shield that is 
displayed upon the seal of the Earl, and represented in 
No. 443. The Koll of Henry III gives one shield 
charged with an ordinary that is lozengy — the shield of 
De Vaux — which is blazoned, arg. a bend lozengy, gu. 
and of the field, No. 444. A field or an ordinary frettee, 
is apparently a modified form of representing a surface as 
lozengy. The brass to John de Creke, about a.d. 
1320, at Westley Waterless in Cambridgeshire, affords 
an early example of separate lozenges : the shield in 
question bears, or, on a fesse, gu. thtee lozenges, vair, No. 
445. Vair occurs repeatedly in early shields, and it 
certainly bore its part in effecting difference, by means of 
varying the tincture of any shield or of its charges. 
Thus, William de Fortibtjs, Earl De Aumale or Al- 
bemarle (Roll H. III.) bears, gu, a cross patonce, 
vairee. Traces of these arms, emblazoned on the dress 
of Aveline, Countess of Lancaster, the Earl's daugh- 
ter, are yet visible in her effigy, a.d. 1274, at Westmin- 
ster, No. 446. In the same Roll Fitz Geoffrey bears 
a bordure vair; and Fitz Ralph has a fesse vair ; and 
upon his golden shield De Monchesney charges three 
smaller shields, the blazon of each of which is, vair, two 
bars, gu. No. 447 — a truly original mode of diffe- 
rencing, but one which is at once very clear and very 
decided. The brass to Sir Peter Arderne, Chief Baron, 
at Latton, a,d. 1467, gives another example of lozenges : 
one of the shields displayed in this memorial bears, paly 
of six, or and gu, on a chief, arg. three lozenges, of the 
second, the central lozenge charged with a golden chess-roolc, 



No. 448 ; another shield in this same brass bears three 
chess-rooks. From a Roll of Edward II, I add one 
other example — the shield of Sir Robert de Verdon, 
which is thus blazoned, " de argent, a une crois de azure, 
frette de or," No. 449. 

The usage of differencing the Accessories of shields of 
arms as well as the Shields themselves, has already been 
exemplified in the achievement of Sir John Daubygne, 
No. 408. Another characteristic example occurs in 
the brass to Henry Bourchier, Earl of Essex, a.d. 
1483, at Little Easton in Essex, which displays the red 
mantling of the helm billettee, or, its lining, instead of 
the customary ermine, being semee of small water -bougets\ 
A part of this mantling is shewn in No. 450. The Stall 
Plate of John Bourchier, K.G., Lord Berners, exhibits 
his mantling, billettee, the lining being semee alternately 
of water-bougets and B our chier -knots : (Chap. XVII.) Sir 
R. Harcourt, K.G., has his ermine-lined mantling 
semee of quatrefoils: George Plantagenet, E.G., Duke 
of Clarence, the brother of Edward IV has his crim- 
son mantling semee of white roses, No. 451 : and Henry 
V, who, as Prince of Wales, above his Garter Plate dis- 
plays Helms and Crowns of both France and England, 
from his Helm of France has the mantling semee de lys. 
Crests, Supporters and Badges have all been charged with 
Differences, precisely in the same manner as Mantlings : 
when animals are introduced, the marks of Cadency arc 
sometimes formed into Collars; thus the lion crest of 
Thomas Beaufort, Duke of Dorset, is gorged about 
the throat with a collar, compony ermine and azure, as the 
bordure of his shield ; and the lion crest of his father, 
John Beaufort, K.G., Duke of Somerset, has a collar, 



compony of arg. and at., No. 451 A ; in like manner, the 
shield of Sir Thomas Lancaster, in the Calais Eoll, 
bears, gu. a lion rampt., guard., or., gorged ivith a collar 
of France — a blue collar, that is, charged with three 
golden fleurs-de-lys. The animals themselves are also 
sometimes semee of the differencing charges. 

In the " Book of St Alban's," (printed in 1486, 
being a species of paraphrase of a part of an earlier trea- 
tise on Heraldry by Nicholas Upton, a.d. 1440), the 
ancient practice of powdering shields for Difference is 
described under the title of " Gerattyng" This Gerat- 
tyng is denned to include nine figures or charges, each of 
which is said to have been used with a definite and dis- 
tinct signification. The nine figures are crosslets (any small 
crosses, that is), fleurs-de-lys, roses, primroses, (probably 
quatrefoils), cinque-foils, escallops, chaplets, mullets, and 
crescents. This series, accordingly, does not include 
martlets, billets, annulets, or roundles of any tincture. 
Whatever may have been the original intention, in actual 
practice all traces were soon lost of any systematic Ge- 
rattyng, which professed to difference in obedience to any 
established law; and the crosslets and other charges, 
having become integral components of heraldic composi- 
tions, ceased to be regarded as Marks of Cadency ; except, 
indeed, when a single crescent, mullet, or other figure 
was retained to represent the early orle or powdered field, 
and to act alone as a " Difference." 

With the exception of Eoyal Cadency, which now is 
marked exclusively with the Label, the " Differences" of 
Modern Heraldry are the same as they are presumed to 
have been since the 14th century. They are, for 



1. The eldest son, (during his father's life-time) a 
Label: No. 379 a. 

2. The second son — a Crescent: No. 380. 

3. The third son— a Mullet : No. 381. 

4. The fourth son— a Martlet i No. 382. 

5. The fifth son — an Annulet : No. 383. 

6. The sixth son — a Fleur-de-lys : No. 384. 

7. The seventh son — a Rose : No. 385. 

8. The eighth son — a Cross Moline : No. 386. 

9. The ninth son — a Double Quatrefoil : No. 387. 

The first son of the first son may charge his label with 
a label, his second son may charge his label with a cres- 
cent, and so on : and, the first son of the second son may 
charge his crescent with a label, &c, &c. — though happily 
this complicated and involved Differencing is very rarely 
adopted. All Marks of Cadency are now generally borne 
in the chief of the shield. 

Daughters, the Princesses excepted, being all equally 
co-heiresses, do not difference their paternal arms ; but, 
when a differenced coat of arms retains its difference as a 
charge, as in the instance of the arms of the Cotjrtenays, 
such a coat of arms is borne by daughters as well as sons. 
In early Heraldry, however, ladies commonly bore their 
paternal differences. 

One of the earliest known examples of differencing by 
a single small charge has been already noticed — it is the 
shield of Sir John de Beauchamp, brother of the Earl 
of Warwick, No. 371, which is blazoned in the Calais 
Roll of Edward III, the difference being a crescent, sable. 
The same Roll gives the shields of Sir Thomas and Sir 
Otes Holland, who severally difference with an annulet 
and a crescent, gu. ; also the shield of Sir Adam Ashe- 


hurste, gu. a cross engrailed, and in the dexter chief, a 
fleur-de-lys, arg. ; and that of Sir Thomas Bradston, arg. 
on a canton, gu. a rose, or. This shield of Bradston is 
quartered in the first quarter of an escutcheon of pre- 
tence in the Garter-Plate of Sir John Neville, K.G., 
Lord Montagu, at Windsor: the same shield in the 
fourth quarter bears De la Pole, az. on a fesse, between 
three leopards' faces, or, an annulet, gu. No. 452 A; and in 
the second quarter of Sir John's own shield is Neville of 
Salisbury, gu. a saltire, arg. charged with, a label of 
three points, componee, arg. and az. No. 452 b. This last 
shield is several times repeated upon the Beauchamp monu- 
ment at Warwick. Another Neville, Lord Latymer, 
charges a pellet upon his silver saltire, for Difference, No. 
452 c ; and yet another peer of the same family, Neville, 
Lord Bergavenny, differences his saltire with a rose, gu. 
The Beauforts difference with either a single mullet or a 
single crescent, and, as the 15th century advances, exam- 
ples of this mode of marking Cadency increase in number. 
Thus, at Childrey in Berkshire, in his brass, a.d., 1444, 
the arms of William Fynderne, repeated both upon 
shields and upon his tabard, are, — arg. between three crosslets 
fitchees, a chevron, sa., charged for difference with an 
annulet, of the field, No. 452 : and, again, in 1474, Sir 
John Stanley, at Elford in Staffordshire, upon his 
monument, differences his quarterly shield of Stanley 
and Lathom — or, on a chief indented, az., three plates 
— with a crescent, gules. In the Arderne Brass at Lat- 
ton, one of the shields bears Be Bohun differenced 
with a single mullet on the bend ; and, once more, still 
later in a monument of the Verneys at King's Langley, 
the Yerney shield is differenced with a crescent, — az., on 

h 2 


across, arg., five mullets pierced, gu., for difference a crescent 
cantoned, or. At an earlier period the same Verneys 
difference, after the manner then prevalent, by changing 
the tinctures of their shield and its charges, and by 
modifying the general character and arrangement of their 

The Bordure, the Bend, the Canton, and the Chevron 
would always afford ready facilities for compounding two 
coats of arms, and, with the Label, they might also 
with ease be added to any shield " for difference." And, 
Cadency thus effected might as easily receive a secondary 
series of differences — small figures and devices, that is, 
might be charged either upon a label or any of its com- 
rades, thus differencing them from themselves when they 
were added uncharged to any shield of arms. Upon the 
same principle, a Chief may sometimes have first been 
added to shield, and then charged for difference; and 
again, always with a view to differencing, Ordinaries may 
have been cotised ; a Chevron or a Fesse may have been 
resolved into a group of either chevronels or bars gemelles ; 
and a Bend may have been superceded by a single bendlet 
or group of bendlets. 

Before I enter more fully upon a consideration of 
Cadency effected by the Label and the Bordure, it may be 
desirable to adduce a few additional early examples of 
shields, which illustrate those other modes of differencing 
to which I have just referred. 

Examples of Cantons. Wm. de Lancaster — arg., two 
bars, and on a canton, gu. a Lion of England, *No. 453 : 
Rob. de Tateshall, chequee, or and gu., a canton, erm: E. de 
Boys, arg., two bars and a canton, erm : John de Nevil, 
or, seven mascles, gu., a canton, erm, (Roll of Henry III). In 









4-4-9. > 






1 ® 











Plate XL. 

li os 448 to 458. 




the Eoll of Caerlaverock the banner of John de Lancas- 
ter is blazoned as No. 453. At Kilfane in Kilkenny, 
the crossed-legged effigy of a De Catjteville has the 
shield with four annulets and a canton, the canton being 
ermine ; it is probable that this shield, if entirely shewn, 
would have borne six annulets, 3, 2, and 1 : No. 454 repre- 
sents what is shewn of this shield in the original. In 
the Calais Roll, Sir Wm. Warren bears, cheguee or and 
az., on a canton, gu., a lioncel rampt., arg., (compare with 
Nos. 127 b and c). E. de Basset (Eoll of Henry III) 
bears, or, three pallets, gu., a canton, erm. ; No. 455, (compare 
with Nos. 402, 403 p. 166 ;) but Sir Symon de Bassett 
(Calais Eoll) bears, or, three piles in point, gu., a canton erm., 
which shield is repeated in the Windsor Stall-plate of 
Ealph, Lord Basset^ of Drayton, who died in 1390, No. 

456. By comparing these two shields, it will be seen that 
the Bassett^, while retaining the same ermine canton, dif- 
ferenced three pallets with as mamy piles, both the tincture 
and the number and also the general character of the 
charges being the same in the two shields ; and a further 
comparison with Nos. 402, 403 will shew the ermine field 
which is represented in the canton, and the tinctures or 
and gules. 

Examples of Bends and Bendlets. William de Gaunt, 
harry of six, arg. and az., a bend gu. : Thomas Greilly, 
gu., three bendlets enhanced, or, (compare No. 249, p. 76) : E. 
de Kendal, arg., a bend, az., cotised indented, vert ; No. 

457, (Eoll of Henry III.) In a brass at Long Melford 
the same blazonry appears, but differently tinctured, 
for a Clopton, sa., a bend, erm., cotised, indented, or. 
Henry Plantagenet, the younger brother of Thomas, 
Earl of Lancaster, in the Caerlaverock Eoll charges 


his banner of England with an azure bendlet, and upon 
the monument of his father at Westminster the shield of 
this Prince appears bearing the same charges, No. 471, 
p. 157. John de Grey, (Caer. Roll) harry of six, arg., 
and az., a bendlet engrailed, gu., (compare No. 121, p. 40.) 
At Caerlaveroek, John FitzMarmadtjke bears, gu., a f esse 
between three popinjays, arg. ; but in the Roll of Henry III, 
Robert FitzMarmadtjke adds to the same arms an azure 
bendlet, as in No. 458 ; -which example having the bendlet 
added is drawn from the shield of an effigy of the time 
of Edward I, probably the effigy of the Caelaverock 
FitzMarmaduke himself, at Chester-le-Street, Durham. 

The arms of the Grandisons provide a characteristic 
series of examples of differencing by means of a bend or 
a bendlet. Their shield in its original simplicity bears, 
paly of six, arg. and az. Upon this a bend gules is charged. 
Next upon the bend itself there appear three golden eagles 
displayed : (Caer. Roll.) These eagles are then differenced 
by the substitution, first, of three escallops, and subsequently 
of three buckles, all or ; and, finally, John Grandison, 
Bishop of Exeter, a.d. 1327-1369, completes the group 
with his shield, having the red bend charged with a silver 
mitre between two golden buckles, Nos. 459 and 460. 

Examples of Bars Gemelles, Chevrons and Chiefs. De 
Richmond, gu., two bars gemelles, and a chief, or : De 
Met? nell, az., three bars gemelles, and a chief, or : (Roll 
of Henry III.) Bartholomew De Badlesmere, arg., a 
Jesse between two bars gemelles, gu., over all a label of 
three points, azure. (Roll of Caer.). De Monemne, 
or, three chevronels, and over all a fesse, gu., (Roll of 
Henry HI). The Saint Quintins, on a field of gold, 
bear either a single chevron, gu., or two chevrons, or fhrrr 


chevronels, of the same tincture, always retaining the same 
chief vairee, Nos. 461 and 462 : these shields are drawn 
from the brasses to the Saint Quintins at Brandsburton 
and Harpham in Yorkshire. 

The Bordure would enable the early Herald to mark 
Cadency with the utmost distinctness, and yet without 
infringing in the slightest degree upon the original com- 
position of the shield to be differenced ; and also, at the 
same time, in anticipation of marshalling arms, it affords 
ready facilities for incorporating the distinctive insignia 
of two different shields into a single composition. The 
Bordure of France of John Plantagenet of Eltham, No. 
332, PI. XIX, is a fine example of both cadency and 
marshalling. The Bordure bezantee of the Earl of Corn- 
wall, the first of the eight bordered shields that are 
blazoned in the Eoll of Henry III, (No. 194, PI. V), and 
the Bordure of England that surrounds the banner of 
John de Dretjx of Brittany, in the Caerlaverock Roll, 
(No. 116, PI. V), are equally characteristic examples of 
marshalling and cadency effected by the same process. 

Examples of Bordures. Fitz Geoffrey, quarterly, or 
and gu., a bordure, vairee. W. de Montgomery, erm., a 
bordure, gu., semee of horse-shoes, or, (Eoll of Henry III). 
De Ferrers, vair, a bo rdure, az., semee of horse-shoes, or, 
No. 463. B. de Montbotjrchjer, arg., three pitchers, gu., 
within a bordure, sa., bezantee, No. 464. Hugh de Vere, 
son of the Earl of Oxford — De Vere, (No. 156) within a 
bordure indented, sa., No. 477, PI. XXXII, (Eoll of 
Caer.) Richard, Lord Talbot, gu., a lion rampt. within 
a bordure engrailed, or. Sir Eoger Nevill, gu., a fesse 
dancette, arg., within a bordure, or, (Calais Eoll). 

Edmond Plantagenet, of Woodstock, youngest son 


of Edward I, England, within a bordure, arg., No. 475, 
PI. XXXII, (Seals). Thomas Plantagenet, of Wood- 
stock, youngest son of Edward III, France ancient and 
England quarterly, within a bordure, arg. ; Nos. 340 and 
509, (Seals and Brass at Westminster). Humphrey 
Plantagenet, Duke of Gloucester, France modern and 
England quarterly, within a bordure, arg. ; No. 476, PI. 
XXXTT, (Monument at St. Alban's). Eichard Plan- 
tagenet, of Coningsburgh, grandson of Edward III, 
France ancient and England quarterly, within a bordure, 
arg., charged with ten lioncels rampt., purpure, (for Leon) : 
but after his father's death in 1402, he added a label of 
York, and quartered France modern in the 1st and 4th 
quarters, No. 478, PI. XXXII. 

Thomas de Holland, Earl of Kent, England, within 
a bordure, arg., impaled by the Confessor within a bordure, 
erm. No. 342, PI. XXII. (Seal). Thomas de Holland, 
K.Gr., and Edmund de Holland, K.G\, Earls of Kent, 
England within a bordure, arg., No. 475 ; (Monument at 
King's Langley). John de Holland, K.G-., and his son 
and grandson of the same name, all Dukes of Exeter, 
England within a bordure of France; No. 477 a ; (Monu- 
ment at King's Langley). The first John de Hol- 
land impales the Confessor, differenced with a label of three 
points, arg. 

After the year 1397 the Beauforts bear France and 
England quarterly within a bordure, differencing their bor- 
dures for the several members of their family as follows : 
John Beaufort, K.G., Marquess of Somerset, and his 
son, John Beaufort, K.G-., Duke of Somerset, the 
bordure componee, arg. and az. ; Nos. 346, and 346 a, PI. 
XXH, and No. 479, PI. XXXII ; (Stall-platcs, and West- 









"$$/ / 

^ %* %J 

Plate XTXll. 

N os 429 to 484. 


minster Monument). Henry, Cardinal Beaufort, the 
hordure componee, az. and arg., with a crescent for dif- 
ference ; No. 480, PL XXXTT : (Monument at Winchester). 
Thomas Beaufort, K.G., the hordure componee, az. and 
erm., before 1417 ; but after 1417, the hordure componee, 
arg., and of France ; Nos. 481 and 484, Pis. XXXII, 
XXXm, (Stall-plate, Seals, &c.) 

Edmond Tudor, Earl of Richmond, France modem 
and England quarterly, within a hordure, az., charged with 
fleurs-de-lys and muMete, or ; No. 482, (Monument at West- 
minster). Jaspar Tudor, K.Gr., Duke of Bedford — the 
same, but with the hordure charged with martlets only ; 
No. 483, (Stall-plate, &c.) 

Gilbert, Lord Talbot, K.G., brother of the Earl of 
Shrewsbury, gu., a lion rampt., within a hordure engrailed, 
or. John Grey, K.G., Earl of Tankerville, gu., a lion 
rampt, within a hordure engrailed, arg. : John de Corn- 
wall, K.G., Lord Fanhope, erm., within a hordure, sa., 
hezantee, a lion rampt., gu., crowned, or, and charged for 
difference with a mullet, arg, No. 433 ; (Stall-plate.) 

The Bordure was frequently used by Prelates for 
differencing their arms. Thus, Glover gives the fol- 
lowing, amongst other examples : John Stafford, Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, a.d. 1443-1452, or, on a chevron, 
gu., a mitre, arg., the whole within a hordure, sa. Walter 
de Stapledon, Bishop of Exeter, a.d. 1306-1329, arg., 
two hendlets nehulee, sa., within a hordure, of the second, 
charged with eight keys, or. Edmund de Stafford, 
Bishop of Exeter, a.d. 1394-1419, or, a chevron, gu., 
within a hordure of the second, charged with eight mitres, 
arg. Henry le Despencer, Bishop of Norwich, a.d. 
1370-1406, Le Despencer (No. 107,) within a hordure az., 


charged with fifteen mitres, or ; No. 465 : this shield is 
blazoned on a boss in the roof of the south aisle of the 
Church of Great Yarmouth. The seal of Bishop Henry 
Le Despencer is a most interesting example of he- 
raldic composition. From a helm and mantling sur- 
mounted by a mitre and the Le Despencer crest — a 
griffin's head, the shield of the prelate hangs by its sinis- 
ter angle : it is charged with the Le Despencer arms 
within a bordure, upon which are eight mitres. On 
either side of the helm is a shield : the one to the dexter 
bears the arms of the See of Norwich — az. three mitres, or ; 
while the sinister shield is charged with seven mascles. 
At St. Alban's, in the North Aisle, there remains in 
the stained glass a shield of Abbot John de Wheat- 
hamfstede, a.d. 1421-1460, which may be said to bear 
the arms of the Abbey within a bordure of the Abbot, 
az., a saltire, or, within a bordure, gu., charged with 
eight garbs, of the second ; No. 466 : see also No. 201 a. 
PI. XV. 

Cadency marked by the Label. The earliest known 
Label appears upon the counter-seal of the Saer de 
Quincey, first Earl of Winchester, who died in 1219 ; but, 
whether this Label, which has seven or eight points, 
was borne as a Mark of Cadency has not been deter- 
mined. In 1235, John de Laci, Earl of Lincoln, dis- 
plays upon his counter-seal a label of five points, over a 
bendlet, No. 33 b. p. 31. In Westminster Abbey, one 
of the shields emblazoned by the Heralds of Henry III, 
bears the same arms of the Earl of Lincoln : the 
shield is, quarterly, or and gu. ; but the black bendlet, 
which is very narrow, is a bendlet sinister, and the label 
is set very high in the shield, and there is also a narrow 




Plate LI. 

W s 433,460, 451,463 to 466. 


border raised and tinctured black, No. 467. During the 
life-time of his father, Edward I charged his shield 
upon his seal with a Label, as the recognised heraldic 
difference which should distinguish his own shield as 
that of the Prince Eoyal of England, from the shield of 
the King his father. Prince Edward's Label is so 
placed as to form the actual chief of the escutcheon, and 
two of its five points lie alternately over and under the tail 
of the uppermost lion, No. 470, p. 157. Edward II, while 
Prince op Wales, bore the label set lower on the shield 
and with longer points, No. 430 ; this label of Prince Ed- 
ward is blazoned azure in the Roll of Caerlaverock, and 
in the Eoll of Henry III his father's Label has the same 

The early Labels always extend across the entire field 
of the shield from dexter to sinister, and they have the 
ribbon itself very narrow and set in close proximity to 
the uppermost margin of the shield, as in the examples 
upon the monuments of Edward III and Edmond of 
Langley ; see Nos. 486, 489. The points, which are 
broader than the horizontal ribbon, are either five or three 
in number. It does not appear that any peculiar signi- 
ficancy is attached to the number of these points ; at any 
rate, labels of five and of three points were certainly borne 
by the same individual at the same time, and they are 
even charged upon the obverse and reverse of the same 
seal. Thus the seal and the counter-seal of Edward II, 
as Prince op Wales, have severally labels of three and 
five points : Edmond Plantagenet, first Earl of Lancas- 
ter, and his eldest son, both bear labels of either three or 
five points; and Henry Planta genet of Bolingbroke 
displays, on his impaled shield, a label of five points and 


a label of three points side by side, No. 347, PL XIX. 
The charges with which labels are constantly differenced 
are always intended to convey some significant meaning 
of their own, and thus they take an important part in 
giving an historical character to heraldic compositions. 
These charges, necessarily drawn to a very small scale, 
are placed upon the points of any label ; sometimes a 
single charge appears upon one point only, at other times 
it appears upon each point, but more frequently the 
charge is repeated so that the same device is generally 
represented three times upon each point. This arrange- 
ment, however, is left entirely to the discretion of the 
artist, there being no heraldic signification implied in 
the repetition of the charges ; when they are repeated, 
the object is to establish more decidedly the character of 
these small differencing charges, and to render their 
presence more conspicuous. The small figures are almost 
invariably all drawn to the same scale, and placed one 
above another ; but, at St. Alban's there is a shield in 
stained glass of France ancient and England quarterly, 
differenced with a label of three points having on each 
point three ermine spots, which are arranged two and one, 
each of the single spots, being much larger than the pair 
of spots above them : No. 468. In this example, and in 
several others also, I have not considered it to be neces- 
sary to engrave more than the Label with its charges, the 
shields always being repetitions of either England, France 
ancient and England, or France modern and England. 

Labels charged with three ermine spots, three fleurs-de- 
lys, &c, placed in pale on each of the points, are of 
common occurrence ; and this is always implied, unless 
some other arrangement should be expressly specified. 


Two of the Plantagenet Shields at Great Yarmouth have 
two ermine spots only on each point of their Labels ; and a 
third shield has two torteaux only on each point ; Nos. 
469 and 472 : and, in like manner, one of the shields on 
the Burghersh monument has its Label charged on each 
point with two fieurs-de-lys, and another with two ermine 
spots, while a third has a single red cross upon each 
point : PI. XXXIV. Upon the Stall-plate of George 
Plantagenet, K.G-. brother of Edward IV, his label is 
blazoned with a single canton upon each of its three points ; 
and this same label is repeated in the stained glass at St. 
Alban's, No. 473 : and again, Richard Plantagenet, 
second son of Edward IY, upon his Stall-plate charges a 
single red canton upon the first point only of his silver 
label, No. 474. I may add here, that during his father's 
lifetime, Richard II differenced his shield with a silver 
label of either five or three points, charged on the central 
point only with a Cross of St. George, No. 485. Occa- 
sionally two distinct groups of differencing charges appear 
upon the same label ; in this case the label has five points, 
and it either divides its central point per pale, or allots two 
points to one group of charges and three to the other ; thus, 
on the monument at King's Langley, the shield that 
stands last of the series on the south side, bears France 
ancient and England quarterly, with a Label of five points, 
1 and 2 ermine, (three spots on each) ; and points 3, 4, 5, 
of France, (three fleurs-de-lys on each), No. 486. The 
Stall-plate of John Plantagenet, son of Henry IY, is 
differenced with a similar label, charged upon France 
modern and England quarterly. 

In the Roll of Henry III, thirteen shields are diffe- 
renced with labels of five points ; of these labels six are 


azure, five are gules, and there is one of each of the metals. 
There are five banners or shields differenced with azure 
labels of five points in the Caerlaverock Roll ; one of five 
points, vert ; one azure, and one gules of three points, 
and a third of three points, of France. 

The quartered shield of France and England of the 
Black Prince, bears a silver label of three points. This 
shield is splendidly blazoned upon the monument to the 
Prince at Canterbury ; and it also appears amongst the 
enamelled shields upon the monument of Edward III, 
upon the Monuments at King's Langley and Lincoln, 
(No. 339), and in the series at Great Yarmouth. The 
Black Prince charged this same shield upon his seal ; 
and he also used a seal bearing England only, differenced 
with a silver label of five points. On the death of the 
Black Prince, his son, Eichard Plantagenet, removed 
from his label the red cross which he before had borne on 
the central point, and he then bore his label of silver 
without any charge, until his accession to the crown. 
The next silver label of the Heir Apparent of England 
appears upon the shield borne by Henry V, while he was 
Prince of Wales. This shield, which is of a singular form, 
is charged with France modern and England, and is 
blazoned upon the Stall-plate of the Prince, No. 487. 
Since the time of Henry V, the eldest son of the Sove- 
reign of these realms has always differenced the Royal 
Shield with a Label of three points, arg. I may refer to 
a late example in the monument to Arthur Tudor, 
K.G-., Prince of Wales, a.d. 1502, at Worcester Cathe- 

Examples of Labels. Thomas Plantagenet, " De 
Brotherton," Earl of Norfolk, son of Edward I ; died, 






| s cssi gg 





From theMonumenftoBishopBURGJffiESH,inIincQln Cathedral, aWit 1360. 

: 3 XXXIV 

N os 336. ?m k 490 to 493 


1338 : England, with a Label of five points, arg., now quar- 
tered by the Duke of Norfolk, No. 430 ; see also, No. 

Edward III, as Prince of Wales : England, with a label, 
az., (Seal, a.d. 1327.) 

Edmond Plantagenet, " Crouchback," first Earl of 
Lancaster, son of Henry III ; died, 1296 : England, 
with a Label of either five or three points, of France — the 
label azure, charged with fleurs-de-lys ; No 488. See 
also No. 493, from the Burghersh Monument, which has 
two fleurs-de-lys only on each point of the label. The 
same arms were borne by the eldest son of Earl Edmond, 
Thomas Plantagenet ; after the year 1322, by Henry 
Plantagenet, his second son ; and by his grandson, 
Henry Plantagenet, first Duke of Lancaster, until 
Edward III quartered France and England, when the 
Duke of Lancaster charged his Label of France upon a 
shield quarterly of France and England. (Seals; Eoll 
of Edward I ; Caer. Roll ; Elsyng Brass ; Crouchback 
Monument, &c.) 

Henry Plantagenet, " of Bolingbroke :" England, 
with a Label of France, No. 493. This shield differenced 
with a Label of France appears to have been borne, as 
an official ensign, by many persons who were connected 
in various ways with the Lancastrian Princes. A good 
example occurs in the brass to Thomas Leventhorpe, 
a.d. 1433, at Sawbridgenorth, Herts. The Label of 
France, first assumed after his marriage with Blanche 
D'Artois, by Earl Edmond " Crouchback," was evidently 
derived from the paternal arms of the French Princess, 
and thus it may be grouped with the Bordure of France 
of Prince John of Eltham, and the Bordure of England 


of John de Dretjx, Count of Brittany, as an example of 
that early Cadency which anticipated Marshalling. 

Lionel Planta genet, K.G-., third son of Edward 
III, died 1368. Like his brothers Edward, John and 
Edmond, this Prince differences France ancient and Eng- 
land with a label of either five or three points, the label 
itself being charged with certain devices for secondary 
difference. One of the shields upon the Burghersh 
Monument, No. 490, has been assigned to Prince Lionel ; 
this label is of five points, and a single Cross is blazoned 
on each point ; and it has been suggested that this may 
have been a Label of Ulster, that is, or, charged on each 
point with a cross, gu. Lionel married the heiress of 
Ulster in 1352, and in 1355, he became Earl of Ulster, 
jure uxoris. The same lady, Elizabeth de Burgh, was 
also co-heiress of the De Clares, and in 1362, 
her husband was created Duke of Clarence, when 
he appears to have assumed a silver Label, charged on 
each point with a canton, gules — such a canton being re- 
puted to be an ancient bearing of the family of De Clare. 
At St. Alban's, as I have already mentioned, there re- 
mains a shield of France ancient and England, differenced 
with a Label of three points, arg., on each point a canton 
gu., No. 473 Among other authorities for the label 
borne by this Prince, reference has commonly been made 
to the small enamelled shield, the third in the series, 
that remains beneath one of the " Weepers" on the south 
side of the monument of Edward III, in Westminster 
Abbey. In No. 489, I give a facsimile of the label bla- 
zoned upon this shield, from which it appears that each 
point is charged with a canton, gules, (or rather, a billet), 
interposed between two torteaux. The original shield is of 






ill iii 


11 i 

1 II 

i 1 

il |i 



o o o I 

O G ® 

Hale XXXI. 

¥ DS 468to501. 


metal, and the charges upon the label are formed of a 
vitreous paste, inlaid in matrices sunk for its reception, the 
paste itself having been raised so as to represent these small 
charges in relief upon the polished silver of the label. 
It is singular that a correct description of this remarkable 
label should not have been before given. The original is 
open for examination, and it does not appear to be pos- 
sible that it should have been subjected to any alteration ; 
unless, indeed, in the first instance, this label bore three 
torteaux ; and afterwards, on the union of the houses of 
York and Clarence by the marriage of Richard Plan- 
tagenet " of Coningsburgh " with Anne Mortimer, the 
central torteau of York was cut away, and the canton 
of Clarence made to assume its place. This suggestion 
would assign both this shield in its original condition, 
and the statuette above it, to Edmond Plantagenet 
" of Langley," and not to his elder brother Lionel. 

John Plantagenet " of Ghent," fourth son of Ed- 
ward HI, died 1399 : France ancient and England, with 
a Label, ermine. This label may be blazoned " of Brit- 
tany," having been derived from the ermine canton borne 
by John de Dretjx, Count of Brittany, and Earl of 
Richmond, on whose death in 1342, the Earldom of 
Richmond was conferred by Edward III on his infant 
son, Prince John. The ermine label is generally blazoned 
with three spots on each point, as in No. 494, the spots 
being in pale : a different arrangement has been shewn in 
No. 468, at St. Alban's ; and again, at Great Yarmouth, 
No. 469 ; and at Lincoln, No. 491, the same label appears 
charged with two spots only upon each point. 

Henry Plantagenet "of Bolingbroke," after the 
death of his father, Feb. 3, 1399, until his own accession 



on the 30th of September following : France ancient and 
England with a label of jive points, of Brittany, and of 
France, that is, having the three dexter points ermine, 
and the two sinister points aznre charged with golden 
fleurs-de-lys. This label, which is formed by impaling 
his father's label with his own, appears upon a seal of 
Prince Henry to a charter, dated 18 Eich. II. Upon 
the monument at King's Langley, this label has the first 
and second points, ermine, and points three, four and five 
of France, No. 486, page 200 ; at Great Yarmouth, the 
first, second and third points are ermine, as No. 495. 
(See also No. 347, PI. XIX, and p. 145.) 

Edmond Plantagenet, K.G., " of Langley," fifth son 
of Edward III, died 1402 : France ancient and England, 
with a Label, arg., charged on each point with torteaux — 
these torteaux are generally blazoned three on each point, 
as in No. 496 ; but in No. 472, from Great Yarmouth, the 
torteaux on each point of this label are two only. The 
seals of this Prince and his stall -plate blazon his label 
with three torteaux on each point ; and his label appears 
charged in the same manner upon his monument at 
King's Langley. A label counter -componee or cheguee, 
(probably derived from the well-known shield of De 
Warrenne, No. 127 b, PI. VI.) carved upon the Bur- 
ghersh monument, No. 492, has been attributed to Ed- 
mond of Langley, and is considered to nave been borne 
by him before he assumed what may be distinguished as 
the Label of York — the silver label, that is, charged with 
torteaux. The origin of this difference by torteaux is by 
no means easy to be determined. Three torteaux, how- 
ever, were borne in chief, by Thomas, Lord Wake of 
Lydel, (or, two bars, gu., in chief, three torteaux, No. 


437) whose sister and sole heiress married another Ed- 
mond Plantagenet, the youngest son of Edward I. 
This Edmond was executed in 1329, being then twenty- 
eight years of age ; his two sons died without issue, and 
thus his only daughter became the sole heiress of both 
her father and her mother. This lady, the Princess 
Joan, married, first, Sir Thomas Holland, K.G., and 
afterwards, the Black Prince. Sir Thomas Holland 
was created Lord Wake of Lydel, jure uxoris ; his eldest 
son, Thomas Holland, bore the same title ; and the 
second daughter of his eldest son, Joan Holland, after 
the year 1394 married Prince Edmond of Langley, then 
Duke of York. In default of any more probable theory, 
I venture to suggest that the torteaux of the York label 
may possibly have been derived from the shield of WaJce 
of Lydel, No. 437, through Edmond of Woodstock and 
the Hollands. Very strange were both the distribution 
and the combination of titles, and the assignment of 
estates and properties in those days ; so that in the 
torteaux of the York Label there may linger evidence of 
a part, and perhaps by no means an unimportant part 
of the wealth which supported the Dukedom of York at 
the time of its first creation. That Prince Edmond of 
Langley attached very great importance to his alliance 
with the Hollands is declared by the presence of two 
shields, charged with the arms of Holland, upon his 
monument at King's Langley. These two shields, the one 
bearing England within a bordure of France, and the other 
England within a plain bordure, I have recently liberated 
from the thick coverings of mortar which had long com- 
pletely concealed them; they are admirably drawn and 
carved with great spirit and delicacy in alabaster, and 

o 2 


(thanks to the mortar) they remain in perfect preserva- 
tion. The exact time in which Edmond of Langley 
adopted the label charged with torteaux has not yet been 
determined ; but, he is said (See Vincent, 97, in Coll. 
Arm.) to have sealed with his shield differenced with this 
label before his advance to the Dukedom of York in 
1385 ; and, torteaux are certainly upon the label, No. 
489, blazoned on the monument of Edward III. The 
stall-plate of Prince Edmond is differenced with the 
label charged with torteaux, and (at whatever period the 
existing plate may have been executed) its inscription de- 
signates the Prince by the title of Duke of York — " le 
Duk de York Edmod:" this label, therefore, is later than 
1385, and it may have been later than the second mar- 
riage of Prince Edmond with the co-heiress of the Hol- 
lands. Still further inquiry, perhaps, may positively de- 
termine the source from whence the torteaux of the York 
Label were derived, and may also assign an exact date to 
the assumption of that label, in the place of its compony 
predecessor, by Edmond of Langley. 

Edward Plantagenet, K.Gr., Earl of Rutland, and 
l)uke of York, eldest son of Prince Edmond of Langley, 
killed at Agincourt, 1415 : — before the death of his father 
in 1402, France ancient and England, ivith a Label of Cas- 
tile — a Label gu., charged on each point with three Castles, 
or, in commemoration of his mother, Isabelle of Castile 
and Leon, No. 498. Vincent assigns to this Prince at this 
period a label per pale of Castile and Leon, as in No. 499. 
After the death of his father, Prince Edward assumed 
the silver Label of York charged with torteaux, and even- 
tually he substituted France modern for France ancient in 
the first and fourth quarters of his shield. 





late XXXIII. 

N°? 495 to 506 



Richard Plantagenet " of Coningsburgh," Earl of 
Cambridge, second and youngest son of Prince Edmond 
of Langley, executed, August, 1415 : — before the death of 
his father in 1402, France ancient and England within a 
bordure of Leon — a bordure, that is, arg., charged with 
lioncels rampt., pur]?., in commemoration of his mother, 
Isa belle of Castille and Leon ; after the death of his 
father, he added the Label of York within his bordure, 
No. 478. 

Eichard Plantagenet, K.G., Earl of Cambridge 
and Rutland, and Duke of York, only son of Earl Rich- 
ard of Coningsburgh, killed at Wakefield, Dec. 31, 1460 ; 
France modern and England, with a Label of York : (Stall- 
plate ; Seals : see Vincent, MS. SS, in Coll. Arm.) 

Edmond Plantagenet, Earl of Rutland, second son 
of Richard, Duke of York, killed, in his eighteenth year, 
at Wakefield, Dec. 31, 1460 : — France modern and Eng- 
land, with a Label of five points, impaling Leon and York, 
No. 497. 

George Plantagenet, K.G., Duke of Clarence, 
third son of Richard, Duke of York, murdered 1477 : 
France modern and England, with a Label of Clarence — a 
label, arg., charged on each point with a canton, gu., No. 

Richard Plantagenet, K.G., afterwards King 
Richard III, killed at Bosworth Field, Aug. 22, 1485 :— 
France modern and England, with a Label, erm., charged 
on each point with a canton, gu., No. 500. 

Richard Plantagenet, K.G., Duke of York, &c, 
second son of Edward IY : France modern and England 
with a Label, arg., on the first point a canton, gu., No. 474. 

Thomas Plantagenet, K.G., Duke of Clarence, se- 



cond son of Henry IV ; killed in battle in Anjou, March 
22, 1421 ; France modern and England, with a Label, 
ermine, charged on each point with a canton, gu., No. 500. 
Before his advance to the Dukedom of Clarence in 1411, 
this Prince appears to have borne his label of ermine 
only without the cantons. (Seals, Stall-plate, Monu- 
ment at Canterbury.) 

John Plantagenet, K.G., Duke of Bedford, Anjotj, 
and Alencon, Earl of Eichmond, &c. ; died at Rouen, 
1435 ; France modern and England, with a Label impaling 
Brittany and France, No. 486, p. 200. This label, as I 
have shown, was borne by the father of Duke John be- 
tween Feb. 3, and Sept. 30, 1399 ; consequently it may be 
assumed that he did not difference his own shield with 
it until after his father had become king. Duke John 
would bear the label of ermine, as the ensign of his own 
Earldom of Richmond, and also to denote his descent 
from " time honoured Lancaster," Prince John of Ghent, 
his grandfather, whose name he himself bore ; and the 
label charged with fleurs-de-lys he would also bear, as 
the distinguishing label of Lancaster, while at the same 
time the fleurs-de-lys might further refer to his own 
alliances with two Princesses connected -vjjth France. 
His elder brother, the Duke of Clarence, may be con- 
sidered in like manner to have assumed the ermine label, 
as a grandson of John of Ghent ; and the cantons he 
may be considered to have regarded as the difference of 
Clarence. In the Stall-plate of the Duke of Bedford, his 
lion crest is gorged with a label of five points, identical 
in its character with the label that differences his shield. 

Edward Plantagenet, Earl of Warwick, son of 
George, Duke of Clarence, the last of tJie Plahtagenete, 


executed on Tower Hill, Nov. 28, 1499 ; France modem 
and England, with a Label componee, arg. and az. This 
label Earl Edward derived, through his mother, Isabelle 
Neville, from the Nevilles, Earls of Warwick, who in 
their turn had assumed it to denote their own alliance 
with the Beauforts ; No. 501. 

In their seals the Plantagenet Princes both impaled 
the arms of their consorts with their own, and they also 
bore various quarterings. I have not considered it neces- 
sary to give either the impaled or the quartered coats, 
my special object in the foregoing series of shields being 
to indicate the several Labels that were borne by dif- 
ferent members of the Plantagenet family, as marks of 
Cadency. I add a few other examples of early dif- 
ferenced Labels. 

John Lotjell, (Roll of Edward I) : harry nebulee of 
six, or and gu., on a Label of five points, az., fifteen mullets, 
arg. No. 502. 

Sir Edward Montague, (Calais Eoll) : ermine, three 
fusils conjoined in f esse, gu., over all a Label of three points, 
or, charged on each point with an eaglet, vert. No. 503. 

Sir Hugh Courtenay, (Calais Roll) : or, three torteaux, 
two and one, on a Label of three points, az., nine crescents, 
arg. No. 504. 

Sir Peter Courtenay, K.G., (Stall-plate) : Courtenay, 
with a Label, sa., bezantee. No. 505. 

Sir Edward Courtenay, son of Sir Hugh, (Brass at 
Christchurch Cathedral, Oxford, about a.d. 1425) : Cour- 
tenay : a Label, az., charged with nine mullets, or, pierced. 
No. 506. 

Another branch of the Courtenay family differences 
with a label, az., platee. 



The Nevilles, Earls of Salisbury, difference with a 
label, componee, arg. and az., charged upon their " silver 
sal tire." No. 452 b. 

John Bourchier, K.G., Lord Berners, a.d. 1475, 
(Stall-plate) : over Bourchier and Louvaine quarterly, in 
the first and fourth grand quarters, a label, gu., charged 
on each point with three lions of England. This same 
label is repeated upon the crest. 

The Latymers difference with three labels, all of 
them charged as distinct marks of Cadency upon the same 
arms. Thus, gu., a cross patonce, or, for Latymer, is dif- 
ferenced with, first, a label of three points, sa. ; secondly, a 
label of three points, sa., platee, No. 507 ; and thirdly, a 
label of three points, az., semee de-lys, or, No. 508. 

No. 486. — Sliicld, from the Monument at King's Langley, to Ed- 
mond Plantagenet, K.Gr. Duke of York, borne by Heney Plan- 
tagenet of Bolingbroke, a.d. 1399 ; and, after his accession as Heney 
IV, by his third son, John Plantagenet, K.G., Duke of Bedford, 
who died a.d. 1435. 

No. 511. — De Bohttn Badge : from the central spandrel of the 
Canopy of the Brass to Alianore De Bohun, Duchess of Gloucester, 
a.d. 1399, in Westminster Abbey. 



I. Badges. A Badge is an heraldic figure or device, 
assumed for the purpose of being borne either absolutely 
alone, or in connection with a Motto, as the distinctive 
cognizance of an individual or a family of rank and im- 
portance. In the first instance, Badges in all probability 
were selected with a view to some significant allusion, 
which they might convey to the name, rank, office, pro- 
perty, personal appearance or character of the bearer ; 
and thus, to a numerous class of Badges the term Rebus 
may be correctly applied. These Badges may also be 
considered to have constituted in themselves an early 
Heraldry, since they certainly were in use before the 
adoption and recognition of regular coats of arms ; they 
continued, however, to be held in high favour throughout 
the palmy days of mediaeval Heraldry. 

In the 14th and 15th centuries, Badges were habitually 
used for the decoration of costume, military equipments, 
horse trappings, household furniture, and indeed for 
every variety of decorative purpose ; pieces of plate also 
and other valuable objects were at once adorned and 


marked by them ; and in seals, they appear both as the 
accessories of shields, and sometimes as diapers. In his 
will, the Black Prince speaks of " our Badges of ostrich 
feathers." This favourite Badge was habitually used by 
the Black Prince himself, and by other Princes of the 
house of Plantagenet. A large ostrich feather appears on 
cither side of the seal of Henry of Bolingbroke, No. 
847, PI. XIX. A seal of Thomas Plantagenet, youn- 
gest son of Edward III, has two large ostrich feathers, 
similarly placed, and upon the quill of each feather is 
laid a garter, their buckles being in base. The well- 
known seal of John of Ghent, in addition to his achieve- 
ment of arms, is charged with his badges, two falcons 
holding fetterlocks in their beaks. The Swan Badge of 
the De Bohuns appears upon the secretum of Thomas of 
Woodstock, No. 331, between the bases of two shields ; 
and again, in a similar position, upon the seal of Pleshy 
College, founded by the same Thomas and his duchess 
Alianore. The great seal of this same prince has its 
field powered with small swans and ostrich feathers, in 
lozenges, thus forming a diaper for the field of the seal, 
No. 510, PI. VII. Once more, the swan-badge appears in 
the central spandrel of the canopy of the De Bohun brass 
at Westminster, No. 511, p. 201. Besides the ostrich fea- 
thers, the Black Prince in his will speaks of several other 
devices that he appears to have used as Badges — these 
are " Swans, Ladies' Heads, and Mermaids of the Sea." 

The figures and devices that were adopted as Badges 
in the 14th and 15th centuries, like those of an earlier 
period, were frequently rebuses, and they also occasion- 
ally had reference to some feudal tenure ; they were 
sometimes selected from the charges of coats of arms, 


sometimes they were identical with crests, but more 
generally they appear to have been altogether distinct 
from the other heraldic insignia that were borne by the 
same persons. There is also a marked distinction in 
many instances to be observed between the Badges that 
were used, in connection with Livery Colors, to distin- 
guish the armed followers and the retainers and attendants 
of royal, noble and knightly personages, and the Badge 
that any prince, noble or knight might be pleased to 
assume, and to bear about his own person. The Badges 
of the former of these two classes were always well- 
known, and their presence was specially intended to 
declare a certain definite and intelligible fact : whereas, 
on the contrary, the use of the personal Badge was gene- 
rally restricted to the individual by whom it had been 
assumed ; and, while it had some occult illusion to the 
history of the bearer, it was designed rather to disguise 
than to proclaim his identity — it might be suggestive of 
a certain individual, but the suggestion was made by 
means of some quaint or mystic rebus, which would sup- 
press at least as much as it revealed. 

In the Second Part of Henry VI, (Act V, Scene 1, to- 
wards its close,) Shakespeare, with characteristic discri- 
mination, has adverted to the use of Badges. He makes 
Clifford conclude his brief threatening address to War- 
wick with the words — 

" Might I but know thee by thy household Badge !" 

To which appeal, returning defiance with defiance, War- 
wick replies — 

" Now, by my father's Badge, old Neville's Crest, 
The rampant bear chain'd to the ragged staff, — " 


The epithet " household " here, most clearly refers to 
the usage of distinguishing all the followers of an emi- 
nent personage by his well-known Badge ; and the words 
of Warwick shew that the same device was sometimes 
borne both as a Crest and a Badge. It is to be observed 
that a Crest always rises from either a crest-coronet, an 
orle, or a chapeau, while the Badge is never accompanied 
with either of those accessories. Thus, the famous Badge 
of Warwick, the bear chained to a ragged staff, No. 206, if 
borne as a Crest would be placed upon a coronet, as in 
No. 512 ; or, it might rest upon either a chapeau or an 
orle. I may here refer to the singularly fine brass at 
Warwick to Thomas De Beau champ, Earl of Warwick, 
who died a.d. 1401, in which there is a chained bear at 
the feet of the effigy of the Earl ; and the ragged staff 
appears decorating his bascinet, his sword-scabbard and 
elbow-pieces, and it is also charged upon a small 
shield upon the pommel of his sword-hilt. This remark- 
able example of early engraving has been admirably 
rendered by the Messrs. Waller in their great work on 
Monumental Brasses — a work to which I refer all students 
of historical Heraldry. 

In Section IV. of Chapter XIX, I have given a series 
of English Royal Badges ; here, therefore, I may be con- 
tent to adduce only a small number of additional exam- 
ples. Mr. Planche, in his Pursuivant of Arms, has 
printed from a MS (marked 2nd M. 16) of the time of 
Edward IV, preserved in the College of Arms, a list of 
the Badges borne by some of the principal nobility at the 
time this MS. was written. I have selected several of 
the following examples from Mr. Planche' s list. 

Percy : — a silver crescent. 


at« XXX 

N? S 164A, 206, 5]2to525A. 


Mowbray : — a mulberry tree. 

Neville : — a dun bull. 

Beaufort : — a portcullis ; with the motto, Altera 

Pel ham : — a buckle. 

Woodstock : — a stock of a tree. See No. 314, p. 220. 

Dacre : — a silver escallop, attached by an intertwined 
cord to a ragged staff, No. 513. 

Peverell : — a golden garb. 

Hungerford : — a sickle. The Hungerfords also unite 
their sickle to a garb by a cord. The seal of Sir Eobert 
Hungerford, a.d. 1445, bears, for the Crest, a garb be- 
tween two sickles rising from a crest-coronet : there is 
also a sickle on each side of the shield. 

The Duke of Norfolk (Mr. Planche's list) — a white 

The Duke of Suffolk : — a golden lion, queue fourchee. 

The Duke of Buckingham : — the Stafford knot, No . 

The Earl of Douglas : — a heart, gules. 

The Lord Stanley : — a griffin's leg, erased, gold. 

The Lord Howard : — a silver lion, charged on the 
shoulder with a crescent, azure. 

The Lord Clinton : — a golden mullet. 

Sir John Astley : — a cinquefoil, ermine. 

Sir John Arundel : — an acorn. 

Sir John Mauleverer : — a white greyhound, couraut. 
At Allerton Mauleverer, in Yorkshire, the brass (a.d. 
1400) to another Sir John Mauleverer, has the arms — 
gu., three greyhounds courant, in pale, arg., collared, or, 
emblazoned upon the knight's jupon. 

A remarkable instance of the artistic ability and of 


the versatile resources of the early Heralds occurs in the 
interior of Westminster Hall. The string-moulding 
which is carried beneath the windows throughout the 
building, is studded along its entire extent with the helm, 
crown and crest of Bichard II, alternating with his fa- 
vourite Badge, the white hart lodged; the figures are all 
boldly sculptured, and though all are most faithfully 
rendered, every individual white hart, and they are 83 
in number, is unlike every other, and each one has some 
distinct characteristic features of its own. It is the same 
with the lion crest and the helm, which are placed between 
two ostrich feathers having scrolls attached to their quills. 

H. Knots. Amongst the devices that were used as 
Badges in early Heraldry, certain intertwined cords, dis- 
tinguished by the title of Knots, may be considered to 
form a small distinct class of heraldic figures. 

A Knot, probably designed to convey the idea of a 
monogram, appears amongst the various devices, with 
which the robe of Anne of Bohemia, in her effigy at 
Westminster, is diapered ; it is represented in No. 514. 

The Stafford Knot : — No. 515. 

The Bourchier Knot : — No. 516. 

The Heneaoe Knot and Motto: — No. 517. 

The Wake and Ormond Knot : — No. 518, formed from 
a W and an O intertwined. 

The Bowen Knot : — No. 519, formed of four bows. 

III. Mottos. The Motto, or Mot — the word, or brief 
significant saying of a family, which in battle was the 
war-cry, appears to have been habitually associated by 
the early Heralds with the Badge of its owner. 


The present usage is to place the Motto upon a scroll 
or ribbon, below the shield of arms ; and modern Heralds 
generally consider that the motto-scroll forms both a 
convenient and a sufficiently secure standing-place for Sup- 
porters, when Supporters appear with any Achievement. 
When the Motto has direct reference to the Crest, it 
ought always to be represented as placed either imme- 
diately above the Crest itself, or immediately below it. 
The Motto may be charged upon a garter, and this may be 
made to encircle a Shield of arms or a Crest or Badge, 
should either of those cognizances be blazoned alone. 

In the middle ages, Mottos associated with various 
heraldic devices were constantly employed for decoration. 
In those days, in addition to other uses of Mottos, it was 
not uncommon for the blade of the knightly sword to be 
charged with some expressive legend, motto-like in its 
character. Thus, the famous weapon of the great Earl 
of Shrewsbury was taught to tell its own tale* in the 
words — sufficiently good Latin to make their meaning 
intelligible — 

Sum Talboti pro vincere inimicos meos : 
(I am Talbot's, to conquer my enemies). 

A somewhat similar, but a more loyal Motto was 
adopted by the good knight, De Setvans, who bore 
winnowing fans as his armorial insignia : — 

Sic dissvpabo inimicos Regis mei. — (So will I scatter — 
that is, like chaff before the wind — the enemies of my 

As examples of Mottos, I must be content to adduce 
the following small group, which I have selected with a 
view to illustrate Mottos of different varieties. 


Order of the Garter : — Honi soit qui mal y pense. 

Order of the Bath : — Tria juncta in uno. (Three — 
naval, military and civil — united in one). 

Order of the Thistle: — (The Badge is a Thistle), 
Nemo me impune lacessit. (No one injures me with im- 

England : — Dieu et mon Droit. (God and my right). 

Neville: — Ne vile Velis. (Form no mean wish; or, 
Desire Neville). 

Fortescue : — Forte scutum, salus ducum. (The safety 
of the chiefs is a strong shield ; or, Fortescue is the safe- 
guard of the chiefs). 

Cholmondeley: — (Two helms are borne on the shield) ; 
Cassis tutissima virtus. (Valor is the safest helm). 

Birtie : — (Three battering-rams are borne on the shield, 
No. 129 c) ; Virtus ariete fortior. (Valor is more power- 
ful than a battering-ram). 

Major Henniker : — (Three columns are borne in the 
arms) : Deus major Columna. (God the greater column, 
or support). 

Hepblrn : — Keep Tryste. 

Scott of Thirlstane : — (With a Crest formed of a group 
of lances) ; (Ready, aye, ready). No. 519 a. 

Clifford: — Semper par atus. (Always prepared). 

Stuart : — Avant. (Forward). 

Percy : — Esperance. 

Bruce : — Doe well and doubt not. 

Eussell. — Che sara, sara. (What will be, will be). 

Grey, Earl of Stamford : — A ma puissance. (By my 

Temple: — Templa quam dilecta! (How beloved are 
the Temples!) 


Lindsay : — Astra castra, numen lumen. (Stars my 
caDopy, Providence my light. The Crest a military 
tent, and mullets borne on the shield). 

Hood : — Zealous. (Captain Hood commanded the 
"Zealous" at "the Nile.") 

Spring Eice, Baron Monteagle : — (Two Eagles are 
the Supporters). Altefert aquila. (The eagle soars aloft). 

Leslie : — Grip fast. So said Bartholomew Leslie to 
Margaret of Scotland, as she clung to his girdle, when 
he saved her from drowning. 

Home : — Vise a la fin. (Look to the end — to Home). 

IV. Crests. — A Crest is a figure or device which 
originally was actually worn upon a Bascinet and a 
Helm, and now is represented above a Shield of Arms. 
From an early period in the era of true English 
Heraldry, the Crest was held to be an ensign of great 
dignity and honor. In the first instance, the Crest 
was usually some figure or device that was also borne in 
the Arms ; but, in process of time, Crests were more 
generally altogether distinct from the Charges of the 
Shields, though it was common for them to assimilate to 
the Supporters. The Crest was worn supported by a Cha- 
peau or a Wreath, or sometimes it rose above a Coronet. 
It also became a usage in the 15th century, to have the 
Crest rise from out of a Coronet which was simply a 
decoration to the helm, and supplied the place of the 
more prevalent Wreath. This Crest-Coronet, No. 257 a, 
probably derived from such a coronet-like enrichment of 
helms as appears in the effigy of Sir Hugh Calvely at 
Bunbury, No. 257, is still retained in modern Heraldry. 
It is commonly blazoned as a " ducal coronet :" it has 



Crest-Coronet. — No. 257 A 

no reference, however, to ducal or to any other rank, and 
it might with greater propriety be distinguished as simply 
a " crest-coronet." In form it bears a close resemblance 
to the crowns of Henry III, (No. 198, p. 13), and 
Alianore of Castile. The bascinet of Sir Hugh 
Calvely affords a rich example of the Orle or Wreath: 
but this accessory was more generally worn projecting 
from the helm, as in the effigy of Ealph Neville, Earl 
of Westmoreland, at Staindrop, No. 258. See Wreath. 

In his second Great Seal, a.d. 1194, Eichard I wears 
a fan-like decoration surmounting his helm, having 
beneath it a lion, No. 259. In many instances the helms 
of the 13th century have similar crests, variously adorned. 
Humphrey de Bohun, fourth Earl of Hereford, bears the 
fan-like device both on his own helm and on the head of 
his charger, No. 260 ; and, as late as about 1345, Sir 
Geoffrey Louterell's crest retains its fan-like contour, 
but it is charged with his arms, as in No. 261. Edward 
III upon his Great Seal for the first time bears a true 
heraldic crest — the crowned lion of England, standing 
upon a chapeau, No. 262. This Sovereign sometimes 
also bore an Eagle on his crest : but from his time the 
crowned lion has continued to be the Crest of England. 
It is to be observed, that the marks of Eoyal Cadency 
were displayed as well upon crests as upon shields. The 
Eoyal Lion, for example, stands upon the helm of the 
Black Prince gorged with his silver label, No. 263. 


In like manner, Labels and other Marks of Cadency 
appear upon the Crests of personages of noble and 
knightly rank. Thus, the lion-crests of John Plan- 
tagenet, KGr., Duke of Bedford, of George Plan- 
tagenet, KG., Duke of Clarence, and of John Mowbray, 
KG., Duke of Norfolk, (a.d. 1435, 1477, and 1475), as 
blazoned in their stall- plates, are gorged with labels, the 
former having three, and the latter two five points : Nos. 
520 and 521. These labels appear to be worn by the 
lions after the manner of bands or frills. 

In some few instances the devices assumed and worn 
as Crests, are identical with those that appear in the 
shields of arms of the wearers ; but the prevailing usage 
was to assume for the Crest a figure altogether different 
from the charges of the shield, and in not a few instances 
strange indeed must have been the appearance of the 
figures that were thus displayed by the early knights 
upon their helms. A Panache, or upright plume formed 
of a large number of cock's or swan's feathers, was a 
favourite Crest. This is the Crest of the Mortimers, 
No. 269, and it is admirably blazoned on their seals. 

The effigies of Sir Richard Pembridge, KG., at 
Hereford, of Sir Robert de Marmion, at Tanfield, and 
of Sir Thomas Arderne, at Elford, all of them about 
a.d. 1400, are good examples. The panache of Sir 
Edmund de Thorpe, a.d. 1418, at Ashwelthorpe, is 
formed of peacock's feathers, No. 264 ; and such is also 
the panache of Lord Ferrers of Chartley, a.d. 1425, at 
Merevale. The stall-plates of Sir Thomas Erpingham, 
K.G., of Sir William Philip, K.G., of Sir Thomas 
Felton, KG., and John Lord Scrope, KG., all of the 
15th century, display panache-crests ; the crest of Lord 

p 2 


Sceope is represented in No. 522. The Contoise, No. 
256, was worn with the Crest until about the middle of 
the 14th century, after which time this accessory disap- 
pears, and the Crest is placed upon its wreath, coronet, 
or chapeau rising above the mantling. Thomas Plan- 
tagenet, Earl of Lancaster, a.d. 1322, on his seal appears 
having a dragon with a contoise upon his helm, and a 
similar monster upon the head of his charger, No. 524 : 
and the seal of Ralph de Monthermer, Earl of G-loster, 
a.d. 1323, has on his helm an eagle crest, and a contoise. 
This eagle crest was a special grant from Edward III to 
William de Montacute. In achievements of arms, and 
particularly in such as are blazoned upon seals, the group 
is arranged in the manner represented in No. 301, PI. I, 
the Supporters being added on either side. The Crests 
in these compositions are generally very large in propor- 
tion to the shields ; and the same remark is equally appli- 
cable to the Crests blazoned in the Windsor stall-plates ; 
I give, as an example, the achievement of Humphrey 
Stafford, K.GL, Earl Stafford, and afterwards Duke of 
Buckingham, a.d. 1460, No. 523, p. 219. 

In military monumental effigies, the helm of the deceased 
warrior very generally forms his becoming pillow; and 
upon the helm so placed the crest is constantly represented, 
with the orle or the coronet, and the mantling. I may 
specify, as additional examples, the sculptured memorials 
of Sir Edmund de Thorpe, 1418, at Ashwelthorpe, 
Norfolk, No. 264 ; and of Richard Beauchamp, Earl of 
Warwick, 1439, No. 265 ; also the Brasses to Lord 
Stourton, 1404, Sawtry, Hants, (the crest is a demi-friar 
grasping a scourge of knotted cords,) No. 266 ; of Lord 
Wm. de Bryenne, Seal, Kent, No. 267 ; the stall-plate of 



Plate XT/1. 

W 9 lUAkB, 253 to 269, 519 A. 


Sir Guy de Bryenne, K.G., a.d. 1370, bears the same Crest, 
a hunting horn upon a chapeau ; and of Sir John de 
Brewvs, 1426, at Wiston, Sussex. A fine example 
of a crest-coronet occurs in the Brass to Sir Thomas 
Brounflet, 1430, at Wymington, Beds, No. 268, but the 
Crest itself is lost. Seals abound in other admirable 
examples of Crests, and they illustrate many curious 
modifications of mediaeval heraldic usage: thus the Crest 
of the Mortimers, a lofty panache of many feathers rising 
from out of a coronet, No. 269, is represented in various 
seals of the house of March; but Edmund Mortimer, 
a.d. 1372, has a seal charged with his paternal shield 
suspended by its guige from a rose-tree, and having the 
inescutcheon diapered ; and in place of the helm and 
Crest above the shield, on either side of the shield placed 
as a supporter, the white lion of the Earls of March 
is helmed, the two helms almost enclosing the lions, and 
having mantling, coronet, and crest, and respecting each 
other ; No. 270. 

Crests are now generally represented resting upon a 
wreath : but the crest-coronet and also the chapeau are 
still retained in modern blazon. Crests, like shields, 
being held to be hereditary, it necessarily follows that 
the same person may inherit and may rightly bear 
two or more Crests, as he may quarter two or more 
coats of arms. The Earl Fitzwilliam bears these two 
Crests : 1st, — out of a crest-coronet, or, a plume of three 
ostrich feathers, arg. ; and 2nd, — on a wreath, or and sa., a 
griffin, passant, ppr. Walter Long, Esquire, of Preshaw 
House, Hants, bears as his Crest, — out of a crest-coronet, 
or, a demi-lion rampt., arg. The crest of the Duke of 
Eutland is, — on a chapeau, gu., lined erm., a peacoclc in 


his pride, ppr. The Duke of Newcastle has the same 
Crest upon a wreath. 

For further illustration, I add a few other examples of 

Percy, Duke of Northumberland : — On a chateau, a 
lion statant, his tail extended, or. In No. 185, p. 58, this 
lion is represented without the chapeau. 

Howard, representative of Mowbray, Duke of Norfolk : 
— On a chapeau, a lion statant guardant, his tail extended, 
or, and ducally gorged, arg. This lion of the Howards is 
represented in No. 186, p. 58, without either the chapeau 
or the coronet. It was originally granted by Eichard 
II to Thomas Mowbray, Earl Marshal. 

Fitz-Alan, Earl of Arundel : — Out of a crest-coronet, 
a griffin* s head, between a pair of wings erect. 

Neville, Earl of Westmoreland: — Upon a wreath, a 
dun bulVs head and neck erased, ppr. 

Ealph, Lord Bassett, of Drayton, K.Gr. : — Out of a 
crest -coronet, a boar's head, erased, sa., armed, or. 

Stanley, Earl of Derby : — On a chapeau, an eagle, 
wings addorsed, or, hovering over an infant in its nest, ppr. 
swaddled, az., banded, of the first. 

The Stanleys have derived this Crest from the Lathams, 
of whom it is recorded that one of the heads of their 
house adopted as his heir a child which had been ex- 
posed in an eagle's nest in Latham Park, but which the 
eagle ha,d carefully nurtured instead of destroying it. 

Kirkpatrick, of Closeburn : — On a wreath, a dexter 
hand, couped at the wrist, holding erect a dagger imbrued, 
all ppr. with the motto, " Fse male sicker." No. 525. 

The historical origin of this Crest and its motto is well 


Wodehouse, Baron Wodehouse : — On a wreath, a dex- 
ter hand, holding a club, all ppr. In chief, the words, 
" Frappezfort." In base, the word, " Agincourt." 

Pelham-Clinton, Duke of Newcastle : — For Clin- 
ton : — Out of a crest-coronet, a plume of five ostrich fea- 
thers, arg. banded with a line set chevron-wise, az. For 
Pelham : — On a wreath, a peacock in its pride, ppr. 

An early crest of the Pelhams was a lantern. 

Drake : — Upon a wreath, a ship, drawn round a globe, 
with a cable-rope, by a hand issuing out of clouds, all ppr. 
in chief, the motto, Bivino Auxilio, No. 144 b. 

Hope : — Upon a wreath, a broken globe, surmounted of a 
rainbow issuing out a cloud at each end, all ppr. No. 144 a. 

The old Earls of Dunbar and March, who were here- 
ditary Wardens of the Marches of the Scottish border, 
bore for a Crest a horse's head, bridled ; and the Marquess 
of Annandale, also a Lord Marcher, had for his Crest a 
spur erect between a pair of wings, both Crests being de- 
signed to intimate prompt readiness and speed in pur- 

Crests may be considered to have been occasionally 
adopted, with a view to a species of Marshalling. 

V. Supporters. I have already stated (see page 123), 
that the introduction of figures on each side of shields 
of arms upon seals may probably have led in a great 
degree to the adoption of the two figures, that in the 
15th century became regular accessories of the heraldic 
achievements of royal and noble personages. Animals, 
generally either the same as appear in the blazon of the 
shield which they " support," or obtained from some 


allied coat of arms, are common on seals long before the 
regular appearance of true supporters, under the condi- 
tions that they still continue to assume. From their first 
appearance, Supporters, like Crests, have been charged 
with marks of Cadency. 

The figures of animals that were introduced into their 
compositions, and charged by the early heraldic seal- 
engravers with the duty of Supporters, are placed in 
various positions, but they always lead more or less 
directly to the idea of the true Supporter that afterwards 
was accepted with common consent. The seal of Hum- 
phrey de Bohun, a.d. 1322 (No. 201), is a most inte- 
resting example of the seal-engraver's feeling in the mat- 
ter of a Supporter. The guige, or shield-belt, instead of 
being passed over a boss or some other architectural de- 
tail, in this seal is carried by the bird — a swan — that was 
the Badge of the Earl of Hereford. Another seal, to 
which I have already referred in this chapter, (p. 202,) 
exhibits the De Bohun swan in the same position above 
the shield ; but here the guige is omitted, and in its 
stead, the chain that leads from the collar of the bird is 
fastened to the chief of the shield ; this is one of the 
seals of Thomas Plantagenet, Duke of Glos'ter, the 
youngest son of Edward III, who married the elder of the 
two co-heiresses of the last Earl of Hereford. An impres- 
sion of this seal is attached to a deed bearing the date 
1395. The seal of Thomas Holland, Earl of Kent, half- 
brother of Kichard II, of a rather earlier date, repre- 
sents the shield of arms of the Earl — England, within a 
bordure, argent, having the guige buckled round the neck 
of a white hart lodged, King Eichard's own favourite device. 


This singularly beautiful seal, carries out the idea of 
a Supporter in a most agreeable manner. The seal of 
Edmund Mortimer, Earl of March, a.d. 1372, (p. 213,) 
is another early example that is equally curious, charac- 
teristic and interesting. The seal of Henry Planta ge- 
net, first Duke of Lancaster, about 1350, has the shield 
placed between two lions sejant guardant, addorsed, and 
above there is a demi-figure of an angel with expanded 
wings. The seals of two of the Fitz-Alans, Earls of 
Arundel, severally a.d. 1375 and 1397, have as Suppor- 
ters, the former two lions, and the latter two griffins : 
these animals in both seals regularly support — that is, 
hold up — the crested helms. This series of progressive 
examples might be easily carried on, but I have already 
sufficiently illustrated the treatment of Supporters, or of 
the figures that preceded Supporters in the 14th century. 
In Chapter XIX I have described the changes that have 
taken place in the Eoyal Supporters of England ; it will, 
consequently, be sufficient for me here to add a few exam- 
ples, to shew the various figures that are still in use as 
Supporters to the arms of British Peers. 

Somerset, Duke of Beaufort : — Dexter : a panther, 
arg., spotted of various colors, fire issuant from Ms mouth 
and ears, ppr., gorged with a plain collar, and chained, or : 
Sinister : a wyvern, wings addorsed, vert, holding in the 
mouth a sinister hand, couped at the wrist, gu. 

Campbell, Duke of Argyll: — Two lions guardant, gu. 

Campbell, Marquess of Breadalbane : — Two stags, ppr., 
attired and unguled, or. 

Chandos G-renville Nugent Temple, Duke of Buck- 
ingham : — Dexter : a lion, per fesse embattled, or and gu. 
Sinister : a horse, arg., semee of eaglets, sa. 


Nevill, Earl of Abergavenny : — Two bulls, arg., pied, 
sa., armed, unguled, collared and chained, and at the ends 
of the chains two staples, or. 

Gascoyne Cecil, Marquess of Salisbury : — Two lions, 
erm. The same Supporters are also borne by the Mar- 
quess of Exeter. 

Stanley, Earl of Derby : — Dexter : a griffin ; Sinister, 
a hart ; both or, and ducally gorged and chained, az., the hart 
attired, of the last. 

Courtenay, Earl of Devon : — Two boars, arg., bristled, 
tusked, and unguled, or. 

Cavendish, Duke of Devonshire : Two stags, ppr., at- 
tired, or, each gorged with a garland of roses, arg., and az., 
barbed, vert. 

Gordon Lennox, Duke of Eichniond : — Dexter : an 
unicorn, arg., armed, maned and unguled, or : Sinister, an 
antelope, arg., armed and hoofed, or, each Supporter gorged 
with a collar, componee, arg., and gu. 

St. Maur, Duke of Somerset : — Dexter ; an unicorn, 
arg., armed, maned and tufted, or, gorged with a ducal 
collar, per pale, az. and gold, to which is affixed a chain, 
of the last : Sinister : a bull, az., ducally gorged, chained, 
armed and hoofed, or. 

Spencer, Earl Spencer : — Dexter ; a griffin, per fesse, 
erm. and erminois, gorged with a collar, having its edges 
fleurie counter '-fleurie, sa., charged with three escallops, arg. 
and cliained of the third : Sinister : a wyvem, erect on his 
tail, erm., collared and chained as the griffin. 

Granville Leveson Gower, Duke of Sutherland: — 
Dexter ; a wolf, arg., collared and lined or : Sinister ; a 
savage man, wreathed about the temples and the waist with 
laurel, holding in his dexter hand a club, resting on his 



shoulder ', all ppr., and with his sinister hand supporting an 
ancient shield of Sutherland, that is, gu., three mullets, 
within a bordure, or, charged with a tressure of Scotland. 

Graham, Duke of Montrose : — Two stories, arg., beaked 
and membered, gu. 

Stafford Jerntngham, Baron Stafford : — Dexter : a 
lion rampt. : Sinister : a swan, (from the De Bohuns) 
arg., beaked and legged, sa., ducally gorged, per pale, gu., and 
of the second. 

Wellesley, Duke of Wellington : — Two lions, gu., each 
gorged with an Eastern crown, and chained, or. 

No. 523. Achievement of Arms of Httmphbey Stafford, K.G., 
Earl Stafford, a.d. 1460. From his Stall-plate at Windsor. 

No. 314. — Standard of Heney Plantagenet, of Bolingbrote. 



From a very early period Heraldic Devices have been 
emblazoned upon Flags of various kinds ; and similar 
Devices have also been frequently used without any 
Flag, properly so called, to discharge the duty of military 
and official standards. 

Symbolical Figures we know to have formed the 
Standards of the Egyptians and Assyrians. Their own 
heraldic monster, the Dragon, has been the national En- 
sign of China from time immemorial. The Eagle is 
identified with the very name of Rome. Of the Flags of 
our own country, the Bayeux Tapestry of the Conqueror's 
Consort has preserved for us some of the earliest authen- 
tic examples. These are for the most part small in size, 
and they generally terminate in three points. They bear 
simple and indeed rude Devices, such as a Pale, or a Pale 
and three Bars, or some form of Cross, with a group of 
Roundles, generally three in number ; Nos. 526, 527. A 
figure of a Dragon was in use by the Saxons at the time 
of the Conquest, and it appears to have been retained 
amongst their Ensigns of War by the early Norman 
Princes. In the 12th and 13th centuries, repeated men- 



Plate XXIX 

PT 03 293, 310 to 316, 526 & 527 

FLAGS. 221 

tion is made of Car Standards, which were of such ample 
dimensions that they required to be displayed from a 
species of car, which also conveyed them from place to 

With the Crusades, when Heraldry began to assume 
a definite form, Flags became subject to established rules. 
The earlier Saintly Ensigns, which were simply portrait- 
ures of such popular Personages as St. Cuthbert of 
Durham, St. Peter of York, and St. John of Beverley, 
still were displayed, as of yore ; but the regular Military 
and National Ensigns in the 13th and 14th centuries 
were more strictly heraldic, and each had its own proper 
signification. The three principal varieties of these 
mediaeval Ensigns were the Pennon, the Banner, and 
the Standard. 

The Pennon was small in size, pointed or swallow- 
tailed at the Fly, and borne immediately below the Lance- 
head of the knight whose personal Ensign it was. It was 
charged with the Badge, or other armorial Device of the 
Bearer, and sometimes richly fringed with gold. The 
Devices were charged upon the Pennon in such a manner, 
that they would appear in their proper positions when 
the weapon was laid for the Charge. The brass to Sir 
/. D'Aubernoun, a.d. 1279, affords a good example of this 
symbol of Knightly Rank ; No. 310. 

The Banner was square in form, or nearly so, and 
was charged with the Goat of Arms of the owner, and not 
with any other Device. It was borne by Knights 
Bannerets, who ranked higher than the Knights of the 
Mediseval Chivalry, and also by Barons, Princes, and 
Sovereigns themselves. A Pennon with its points torn 
off would make, or at any rate would represent, a Ban- 

222 FLAGS. 

ner ; and this was the form of ceremonial observed when 
a Knight, in reward for his gallantry, was advanced to 
the rank of Banneret on the field of battle by the Sove- 
reign himself, present in person, under his own Eoyal 
Banner displayed. 

The Eoll of Caerlaverock gives the Blazon of the Ban- 
ners of nearly one hundred of the Nobles and Bannerets 
who were present with Edward I in his Campaign 
against Scotland in 1300. The first on the Eoll is the 
Banner of Henry de Laci, who is thus introduced by 
the chronicler : — 

" Henry the good Earl of Lincoln, burning with 
valour, which is the prevailing sentiment of his heart, 
the Leader of the First Division, had a Banner, (No. 528,) 
of yellow silk with a purple Lion rampant." 

The brass of Sir Symon de Felbrigge, K.Gr., has pre- 
served an example of a Eoyal Banner. It is that of 
Eichard II, to whom Sir Symon, (as the inscription at 
his feet declares) was Banner-Bearer. It shows the Eoyal 
Arms quartering France and England, and impaled with 
the arms of the Confessor. No. 529. 

(For further notices of Eoyal Banners, see Chap. 

The Banner, it will be observed, was the Ensign of both 
the Banneret himself, and of his own retainers and fol- 
lowers, and also of the Division of an army that was 
under his command. 

Banners were in use in the middle ages at sea, as well 
as on land ; and in addition to these regular Ensigns, it 
was a prevailing custom to emblazon the sails of the ship- 
ping of those days with armorial insignia, and thus the 
sails themselves became Flags, as in No. 530. 

^pters 7jy, xvn xvni &XIX. 

Plate XXXY 

I^ os 3J3.524to530. 578 to 580. 

FLAGS. 223 

The Standard in use in the reign of Edward III, and 
in especial favour in the times of the Ttjdors, was of 
large dimensions, and always of considerable length in 
proportion to its depth, and tapering towards the ex- 
tremity. See p. 121, and Nos. 312, 315, 316. No. 313 
i-epresents the ship standard of the Earl of Warwick, 
noticed at p. 121. And No. 314 is one of the Standards 
of Henry Plantagenet, of Bolingbroke, (emblazoned in 
Harleian MS., 4632), which is a peculiarly charac- 
teristic example of the heraldic flags of the middle ages ; 
it is per /esse, arg. and gu., the livery colors of the 
Plantagenets, having at the head the Cross of St. George, 
and semee of Badges of Prince Henry, red roses, the De 
Bohun hlach swan, wood-stocJcs, and foxes* tails, p. 220. 
Standards appear to have been used solely for the purpose 
of display, and to enhance "the pomp and circum- 
stance" of military gatherings and royal pageants. 

The National Banners of England, Scotland, and 
Ireland, are severally the Crosses of St. George, St. An- 
drew, and St. Patrick, Nos. 60, 61, 62. From the Crosses 
of St. George and St. Andrew in combination, the First 
" Union Jack," No. 63, p. 32, was formed, and declared to 
be the National Ensign of Great Britain by James I, 
April 12, 1606. 

The era of the Second " Union Jack," No. 64, p. 32, the 
glorious Flag that we now know as " the Flag of Eng- 
land," dates from the commencement of the present 
century. It is a combination of the three Crosses, Nos. 
60, 61, 62. 

The Standards of the Middle Ages are evidently the 
prototypes of English Ensigns of later times. These 
Ensigns, three in number, their tinctures, Bed, White, 

224 FLAGS. 

and Blue, were first cantoned with the Cross of St. 
George, No. 531 ; then the " St. George" was superseded 
by the first Union Jack, No. 532 ; and finally, when the 
present " Jack" was adopted, it took the place of its pre- 
decessor in the National Ensigns, where it still remains. 
The " White Ensign," however, now is not a plain white 
Flag, but a " St. George" cantoned with the " Jack :" 
Nos. 533, 534, 535. The " White" and the " Blue En- 
signs" are restricted to the Eoyal Navy and the Yacht 
Clubs, the " Eed Ensign" being in universal use as the 
" Ensign of England." This same Flag is also worn by 
the Eed Squadron of the Eoyal Navy. 

The Military Flags of England now in use, may be 
grouped in the two grand Divisions of " Cavalry Banners ;" 
(they are styled " Standards," but they are, and they 
ought to be entitled " Banners"), and " Infantry Colors." 
The Banners of the Cavalry are small in size; their 
color is determined by the color of the regimental 
Facings ; they are charged with the Cypher, Number, 
peculiar Heraldic Insignia, and the "Honors" (such 
significant words as " Waterloo," " Alma," " Sobraon," 
&c.) of each Eegiment. The Banners of the Household 
Cavalry, however, are all crimson, and are richly em- 
broidered with the Eoyal Insignia of England. 

Every Infantry Eegiment or Battalion of the Line has its 
own " Pair of Colors." ' Of these, one is the " Queen's 
Color" — a " Union Jack" charged with some of the 
regimental Devices ; the other is the " Eegiinental Color," 
and its Field is of the same tincture as the Facings ; it is 
cantoned with a small " Jack," and bears the Cypher, 
Number, Device, Motto, and Honors of the Corps. At 
the first, each Infantry Eegiment had one " Color" 

FLAGS. 225 

only ; then there were three to each Eegiment ; and in the 
Reign of Queen Anne the " Colors" were reduced to 
their present number of a " Pair." The " Colors" of 
the Foot-Guards reverse the arrangement observed in 
the Line. Their " Queen's Color" is crimson, either 
with or without a cantoned Jack, but always charged 
with the Eoyal Cypher and Crown, and the Eegimental 
Devices. The " Eegimental Color" of the Guards is the 
Union Jack. The Guards also have small " Company 

The Eoyal Artillery and the Eifles of the Line have no 

The Volunteer Eegiments have at present been left to 
determine both whether they should carry " Colors," 
and also what should be the character of their " Colors" 
whenever they may decide to adopt them. What may be 
termed " the Volunteer Banner," is worthy of the Force. 
It is charged with the figures of an archer of the olden 
time and a rifleman of to-day, with the admirable motto, 
" Defence j not Defiance" 

The Flag of the Admiralty is red, with a yellow anchor 
and cable ; No. 128, p. 44. 

The Flags of Admirals of the Eed, are plain red ; those 
of Admirals of the White, are the St. George ; and those 
of Admirals of the Blue, are plain blue. 

Pendants, long and very narrow streamers, either red, 
white or blue, and charged at the head with a Cross of 
St. George, are the symbols of command in the Eoyal 
Navy, and indicate that a vessel is in commission, but 
commanded by an ofhcer of lower rank than an Admiral. 

No. 242. No. 247. No. 243. 

Eoses of York and Lancaster. 



Section I. 


Definite Heraldic Insignia have been assigned by 
more than one writer of English History to those Saxon 
Princes who ruled in England before the Norman era ; 
the early shields, however, must be regarded simply as 
evidences of comparatively modern ingenuity, since the 
genuine Eoyal Heraldry of England unquestionably dates 
its origin from a period subsequent to the successful in- 
vasion of William of Normandy. Even the Heraldry of 
the Norman sovereigns themselves can scarcely be ac- 
cepted, as altogether free from doubt or uncertainty. 
After the Conquest, Willtam I is said to have assumed 
the " Two golden Lions, or Leopards, of his Norman 
Duchy," as the Arms of his Kingdom of England ; and 
these two lions (it does not seem to be necessary to retain 
their other probable title of " Leopards :" See page 60, 
Section 2) are considered to have been borne by William's 
successors, until 1154, when on his accession Henry 
II is supposed to have added the one golden Lion, of 



AD. 1066 to 1154. 

jLD J154 to 1340 

Plate A. 

W s 536 to 537 






^\ D 1714 to 1801 


A.D.J80J to 1837 


S3 «*> 

'late B. 

¥ os 539 to 543 A 



Aquifcaine, (in right of his Queen, Altanore of Aqui- 
taine,) to his own paternal and royal shield. Stephen is 
sometimes said to have borne on a red shield, three gol- 
den centaurs armed with bows and arrows, or a Sagit- 
taries ;" it has been conjectured, however, that this idea 
may have arisen from the circumstance of the " Sagit- 
tary " having been Stephen's Badge, and that it was mis- 
taken for his arms. Since the time of Henry II the 
three golden lions upon a field of red have always been 
held to be the Eoyal Arms of England. They have been 
associated with other devices, as will presently be seen ; 
but still, in a peculiar sense, the three lions passant guar- 
dant have been, as they still are, the " three Lions of 
England." It must be added, that Richard I for some 
time after his accession retained the arms he had borne, 
as Count of Aquitaine, gules, two lions conibattant, or, as 
appears from his first Great Seal. After his return from 
the Crusade, Eichard adopted the three lions, as they 
probably were borne by his father. 

The Modifications and Changes that have taken place, 
from time to time, in the blazonry of the Royal Shield of 
England, may be briefly described as follows : 

I. The Norman Princes, William I, William II, 
Henry I, and Stephen, a.d. 1066 — 1154: gules, two 
lions passant guardant, in pale, or ; No. 536. 

II. The Plantagenet Princes, Henry II, Richard I, 
John, Henry III, Edward I, Edward II, and Edward 
III till the thirteenth year of his reign, a.d. 1154 — 1340, 
gu., three lions pass, guard., in pale, or, No. 198, p. 13. 

The three lions appear on the second Great Seal of 
Richard I ; on the Great Seals of John, Henry III, 
Edward I, (on the bar dings of the King's charger, as 

q 2 



well as on his shield), and of Edward II ; and on the 
first and second Great Seals of Edward III. It is a 
singular circumstance, that the legends on the Great Seals 
altogether omit any notice of England and of England's 
royal estate, until the second Great Seal of Henry III, 
which for the first time bears the words — dei : gratia : 


III. In consequence of the claim advanced by Edward 
III, in the tenth year of his reign, to the Crown of 
France, the Royal Arms of the French Kings, (No. 2, p. 
18) were introduced a.d. 1340, into the English shield, 
and (by what was then a new heraldic process) they were 
quartered with the lions of England, and precedence in 
this heraldic arrangement was given to the Fleurs-de-Lys, 
which were charged upon the first and fourth quarters of 
the English shield, semee over their azure field, exactly as 
they were borne by the sovereigns of France : Nos. 286, 

The third Great Seal of Edward III, published in 
England, Feb. 21, 1340, and the noble seal which super- 
ceded it in the following June, both bear shields charged 
with France and England quarterly, the France being 
semee de-lys. It is to be observed that Edward III had 
placed a fleur-de-lys on either side of his first Great Seal, 
a.d. 1327. 

IV. The Plantagenet Princes, Edward III, Eichard 
II, and Henry IV (Lancastrian Plantagenet) during the 
earlier years of his reign, a.d. 1340 to about 1405 : Quar- 
terly : — 1 and 4, France ancient (semee de-lys) ; 2 and 3, 
England : Nos. 286 and 336. 

The quartered shield is blazoned in the Eoll of Arms 
of the 20th Edward III ; and it appears upon the person 


of the King in the brass to Sir Hugh Hastings, at Elsyng, 
Norfolk, in the same year, 1347. This shield also appears 
upon the Burghersh monument in Lincoln Cathedral, and 
it remains upon the Monument of Edward III himself at 
Westminster, Nos. 286, 336. 

Upon his Great Seal, Richard II retained the arms of 
his grandfather without any change ; but elsewhere he 
delighted to associate with this shield the armorial insignia 
(No. 78, PI. I) attributed to Edward the Confessor. 
Over the entrance to Westminster Hall the two shields 
appear on either side, admirably sculptured in bold quatre- 
foiled circles. Each shield rests upon a white hart 
lodged, and is supported by figures of angels. Sometimes 
Richard II impaled his hereditary quartered shield with 
the arms of the Confessor. An example occurs in the 
brass to Sir Symon de Felbrigge, K.G-., the King's 
Banner Bearer, who is represented with the Royal Ban- 
ner (impaled and quartered) resting on his arm. No. 
529 ; see also Nos. 349, 350. 

About the year 1365, Charles V of France, with a 
view apparently to distinguish between his own arms and 
the Fleur-de-lys borne by the English claimants of his 
crown, reduced the number of his Fleurs-de-lys to three 
only. The same change was effected by Henry IV in the 
1st and 4th Quarters of the Arms of England j and im- 
pressions of his Great Seal, taken in the years 1406 and 
1409 exist, which bear the quartered arms, (on banners 
instead of shields), charged with three fleurs-de-lys only. 
This modification of the French shield, which bears three 
fleurs-de-lys only, is styled in Heraldry, " France modern" 
and thus is distinguished from the shield semce de-lys, 
or " France ancient." See Nos. 476, 478, 484, &c. 


V. The Lancastrian Plantagenet Princes, Henry 
IV, after the first few years of his reign, Henry V, 
and Henry VI: the Yorkist Plantagenet Princes, 
Edward IV, Edward V, and Richard III ; and 
the Tudor Sovereigns, Henry VII, Henry VIII, 
Edward VI, Mary and Elizabeth, abont a.d. 1405 — 
1603 ; Quarterly, 1 and 4, France modern ; 2 and 3, Eng- 

Edward IV sometimes quartered the arms of the Con- 
fessor with France and England quarterly. Many fine 
original examples of the quartered shield of France 
modern and England are still preserved. Amongst the 
most characteristic, in addition to those upon seals, are 
the shields in King's College Chapel, Cambridge, upon 
the Percy shrine at Beverley Minster, and upon the 
Monuments of Henry VII and of his mother, in West- 
minster Abbey. 

When James I ascended the English throne, the arms 
of both Scotland and Ireland were incorporated into 
the Royal Shield of England. The arrangement then 
adopted involved Quarterly quartering. The arms of 
Scotland are blazoned in No. 103, PI. V, and those of 
Ireland are, azure, a Harp, or, stringed, argent ; No. 537 a. 

VI. The Stuart Princes, James I, Charles I, 
Charles II, and James II, a.d. 1603 — 1689, Quarterly : 
1 and 4 Grand Quarters, France modern and England 
quarterly ; 2nd Grand Quarter, Scotland ; Zrd Gh'and Quar- 
ter, Ireland ; No. 537, from the Stuart Monuments in 
Westminster Abbey. 

VI. William III retained the same shield, but ho 
placed upon it in pretence his paternal arms of Nassau, 
azure, bllletee, a Lion rampant, or, No. 538. Mary bore 



the Stuart shield ; and, during her life-time, the Royal 
Arms appeared impaled, to denote the joint sovereignty of 
the King and Queen. The Royal shield, accordingly, 
was charged on both the Dexter and the Sinister half 
with the Stuart arms, those on the Dexter having Nassau 
in pretence ; No. 539, from the Great Seal. 

William and Mary ascended the Throne, Feb. 13, 
1689. Mary died, Dec. 28, 1694. William died, March 
8, 1702. 

On her accession, a.d. 1702, Anne bore the Stuart 
arms, and retained them until the union with Scotland, 
May 1, 1707, when another change took place in the Royal 

VII. The Stuart Queen Anne, a.d. 1707 — 1714: 
Quarterly ; 1 and 4, England impaling Scotland ; 2, France 
modern; 3, Ireland. The shield upon the Great Seal 
adopted on the occasion of the Union with Scotland, bore 
only England impaling Scotland. In this impalement the 
Tressure of Scotland extends only to the chief, sinister 
side, and base of the field. The example, No. 540, is from 
the shield upon the base of the statue of Queen Anne, 
before St. Paul's Cathedral. 

The Succession of the House of Hanover led to a 
place being assigned for the Arms of Hanover in the 
Royal Shield of England. These Arms of Hanover 
are thus blazoned : Per pale and per Chevron : 1, gules, two 
Lions passant guardant, in pale, or, for Brunswick, (the 
same as the Norman Shield of England) ; 2, or, semee of 
Hearts, a Lion rampant, azure, for Lunenburgh ; 3, gules, 
a Horse courant, argent, for Saxony ; and, over all, an 
inescutcheon, gules, charged with the golden Crown of 
Charlemagne, No. 541. 


VIII. The Sovereigns of the House of Hanover, 
George I, George II, and George III, from August 1, 
1714, till January 1, 1801. Quarterly ; 1, England impal- 
ing Scotland ; 2, France ; 3, Ireland ; 4, Hanover ; No. 542, 
from the tympanum of the portico of the Church of St. 
Martin-in-the-Fields, London. In this composition one 
half only of the 1st quarter is assigned to the Lions of 

Upon the 1st of January, 1801, by Eoyal Proclamation, 
the French fleurs-de-lys were removed from the Arms of 
England, and the Eoyal Shield of England assumed the 
general aspect with which we have long been familiar. 

IX. The Sovereigns of the House of Hanover, George 
III, George IV, and William IV, from January 1, 
1801, till June 20, 1837 ; Quarterly, 1 and 4, England ; 
2, Scotland ; 3, Ireland ; and over all in pretence, Hanover, 
the inescutcheon ensigned with an Imperial Crown. No. 543. 

X. On the happy accession of Her Majesty, Queen 
Victoria, June 20, 1837, the Arms of Hanover were 
removed from the Royal Shield; and thus the Eoyal 
Arms of England are now simply a combination of the 
insignia of the Three Eealms op the United King- 
dom, England, Scotland, and Ireland, as in No. 334. 
This noble shield, I venture to suggest, might assume a 
still more impressive aspect, were a ship to appear in the 
fourth quarter, in place of the repeated lions, as the cogni- 
zance of the Colonial Empire of Great Britain. From the 
time of Edward III, the shield charged with the Eoyal 
Arms of England has been encircled with the Garter, 
cliarged with Motto of the Order. See Nos. 286, 289. 

In Plates a, b, which face pages 226, 227, I have 


placed before students of Heraldry the entire series of the 
Royal Shields of England. 

Section II. 


The Eoyal Banners op England have always borne 
the same blazonry as the Royal Shields. The earliest 
blazon of a Royal Banner of which I am aware, appears 
in the Roll of Caerlaverock, a.d. 1300. The Chronicler 
styles the animals " Leopards" and not Lions, (see p. 62, 
sec. 2) ; and he uses the descriptive epithet " courant" 
instead of passant. The Royal Banner of Edward I, 
the Chronicler of Caerlaverock describes after this charac- 
teristic manner : " On his Banner were three Leopards, 
courant, of fine gold, set on red ; fierce were they, haughty 
and cruel, thus placed to signify that, like them, the King 
is dreadful to his enemies. For his bite is slight to none 
who inflame his anger; and yet, towards such as seek his 
friendship or submit to his power, his kindness is soon 

Edward III on his Standards placed his quartered 
shield at their head, and powdered them with Fleurs-de- 
lys and Lions. Several of the Sovereigns, in addition to 
the Banner of their Royal Arms, used other Banners and 
Standards charged with their Badges. It is to be ob- 
erved that the Royal Banners of Arms charged their 
insignia upon their entire field, without any accessories, 
until the time of the Stuarts, when the arms were some- 
times either associated with other Devices, or the Flag 
bore the entire Royal achievement charged upon the centre 


of its Field. Curious examples of Boyal Standards thus 
emblazoned appear in the pictures, now at Hampton 
Court, representing the embarkation of Charles II, in 
1660, and of William III, in 1688. More recently, the 
Koyal Banner has always displayed the Arms of England, 
after the early habit, blazoned over its entire field, and 
without any accessory. See Chap. XVIII. 

Section III. 


With the Blazonry of the Eoyal Shield itself, the 
Supporters, which appear on either side of it, as if dis- 
charging sentry duty, are habitually associated by the 
student of historical Heraldry. 

Supporters are said to have been introduced by Edward 
III ; the fact, however, is doubtful. The Supporters that 
have been assigned to Edward III, are a Lion and a 
Falcon. Two white Harts have been assigned to Richard 
II, if he can be considered to have borne them as true 
Supporters. A Lion and an Antelope, and also an Antelope 
and a Swan, have been attributed to Henry IV, though 
with uncertain authority ; and there is some uncertainty 
about the Lion and Antelope that are said to have been 
the Supporters of the Arms of Henry V. After this 
reign the Supporters are as follows : 

Henry VI. Two Antelopes, argent ; sometimes the Dex- 
ter, a Lion ; the Sinister, a Panther. 

Edward IV. Dex., a Black Bull ; Sin., the White Lion 
of the House of Marche. Also, a white Lion and a white 
//"<•/, or two white Lions. 


Edward V. Dext., a white Lion ; Sin., a white Hart, 
gorged and chained, or. 

Richard III. Dext., a golden Lion ; Sin., a white Boar ; 
but more generally, two white Boars. 

Henry VII. A red Dragon and a white Greyhound, 
sometimes the one and sometimes the other being the 
Dexter ; also, occasionally, two white Greyhounds, as at 
the Bishop's Palace, Exeter. 

Henry VIII. Generally, Dext., a golden Lion ; Sin., a 
red Dragon. Sometimes, Dext., a red Dragon ; and Sin., a 
white Bull, a white Greyhound, or a white Cock. 

Edward VI. A golden Lion and a red Dragon. 

Mary and Elizabeth. Dext., a golden Lion ; Sin., a 
red Dragon, or a white Greyhound. (Mary's shield when 
impaled is supported by an Eagle and a Lion). 

James I. A Lion and a Unicorn. 

Two Unicorns were the Supporters of Scotland ; and 
the first Stuart King of Great Britain assumed, as his 
Supporters, a golden Lion of England on the Dexter, and 
one of the silver Unicorns of Scotland on the Sinister side of 
his shield. 

The Supporters of the Royal Shield of England have 
remained unchanged since the time of James I. They 
are now blazoned as follows : 

Dexter Royal Supporter : A Lion rampant guardant, or, 
imperially crowned, ppr. 

Sinister Royal Supporter : An Unicorn, arg., armed 
unguled and crined, or, gorged with a coronet composed of 
crosses pattees and fleurs-de-lys, gold, a chain affixed thereto, 
of the last, passing between the fore-legs, and reflexed over the 


Section IV. 


At the head of the heraldic Devices and Figures, 
adopted and borne by the Sovereigns of England as 
Badges, stands the Planta Genista — that simple sprig of 
Broom-plant, which gave a name to one of the proudest 
and most powerful Families that ever rose to eminence 
amongst their fellow men. The motive that induced 
Geoffrey of Anjou to assume as his cognizance the 
Sprig of Broom is uncertain, though very probably it had 
its origin in some religious sentiment ; the Device itself, 
however, its Latin name, and its associations, will live 
and be remembered so long as Heraldry exists, or History 
itself is held in esteem. The effigy of Eichard II, at 
Westminster, has the robes diapered with the Planta 
Genista, (See PI. VH ; also, No. 240, PI. XII), with other 
Badges of that unfortunate Prince. 

Second only to the Planta Genista in interest are the 
White and Bed Roses of the rival Plantagenets of York 
and Lancaster. 

Henry II. Badges : The Broom, shoiving the leaves and 
seed-pods of the plant : an Escarbuncle : a Sword : and an 

Eichard I. A Star issuing from a Crescent, No. 544 ; 
a Star and Crescent separately : a mailed Arm, the hand 
grasping a broken lance : a Sun on two anchors, with the 
motto, " Christo Duce." 

John, and Henry III. A Star issuing from a Crescent, 
No. 544. 



Edward I. A Rose, or, stalked, ppr. 

Edward II. A Castle of Castile. 

Edward III. Bays descending from a Cloud : the 
Stock, or stump of a Tree, couped : a Falcon : a Griffin : an 
Ostrich Feather : a Fleur-de-lys : a Sword. 

Eichard II. An Ostrich Feather : the Sun behind a 
Cloud : the Sun in splendor : a white Hart, lodged, (from 
his mother, Joan of Kent, See No. 525) ; the Stump of a 
Tree : a white Falcon. (Examples on his Effigy, and at 
Westminster Hall). 

Henry IV. The Monogram SS. : a Crescent : a Fox's 
Tail : a Stock or stump of a Tree : an Ermine or gennet : a 
crowned Eagle : a crowned Panther : an Ostrich Feather : an 
Eagle displayed : a Columbine Flower : the Lancastrian red 
Rose, and the black Swan of the De Bohuns. 

Henry Y. An Ostrich Feather : a cliained Antelope : a 
chained Swan : a Fire-Beacon. These Badges are some- 
times grouped together, as in the Monumental Chantry of 
the King at "Westminster. 

Henry VI. A chained Antelope : a spotted Panther : and 
two Ostrich Feathers in Saltire. 

He first assumed as a regular Motto the ancient royal 
war cry of England, J)ieu et mon Droit. 

Edward IV. The Black Bull, (Clarence) : Black Dra- 
gon, (Ulster) : White Wolf and White Lion, (Mortimer) : 
White Hart: Falcon and Fetter-lock: Sun in splendor: 
White Rose with Rays. 

Richard III. A White Rose : Sun in Splendor : white 
Boar : and a Falcon with a Virgin's Face holding a White 

Henry VIII. Portcullis : White Greyhound courant, o) 
Red Dragon, (Cadwallader) ; Dun Cow, (Warwick) ; Haw- 


thorn-bush royally crowned, with Cypher, h.r., No. 545- /^ /, 
Rose of York and Lancaster, No. 248 : and crowned Fleur- 

Henry VIII. Portcullis : Fleur-de-lys : Rose of Yorh 
and Lancaster : white Cock : white Greyhound courant. 

Katherine of Arragon had for Badges, the Pome- 
granate, the Rose, and the Sheaf of Arrows ; (See the Monu- 
ment of Prince Arthur Tudor, at Worcester.) Anne 
Boleyn had a Falcon crowned and holding a Sceptre ; Jane 
Seymour had a Phamix rising from a Castle, between Tudor 
Roses ; and Katherine Parr had a Maiden's Head 
crowned rising from a large Tudor Rose. 

Edward VI. The Sun in splendor, and the Tudor 

Mary. A Pomegranate : a Pomegranate and Rose corn- 
joined : the Tudor Rose impaling a Sheaf of Arrows, ensigned 
with a Croivn, and surrounded by Rays. She sometimes 
used as a motto the words, " Veritas Temporis Filia" 

Elizabeth. The Crowned Falcon with a Sceptre (of 
her mother), and the Tudor Rose, with the motto, " Rosa 
sine spina" In addition to the established Royal motto, 
" Lieu et mon Droit," she often used as her own motto, 
" Semper Eadem." 

James I. The Thistle, and the Rose and Thistle dimi- 
diated and crowned, with the motto, " Beati Pacifici," No. 

Charles I, Charles II, and James II. The same 
Badges as James I, without his Motto. 

Anne. A Rose-branch and a Thistle growing from one 
stalk, arid crowned, on the Great Seal of the year 1707. 

From this time personal Badges ceased to be adopted j 
but the Rose, Thistle, and Shamrock, all of them impe- 


rially crowned, as the Badges of England, Scotland, and 
Ireland, and the Motto, " Dieu et mon Droit" . have per- 
manently taken their becoming parts in blazoning the 
Eoyal Achievement of England. The Bed Dragon also, 
with his wings elevated, and passant upon a Mount Yert, 
is still the Eoyal Badge for the Principality of Wales. 

Section V. 


With the Eoyal Arms of the Eeigning Sovereigns of 
England, the student of Historical Heraldry will frequently 
desire to associate those that were borne by the Consorts 
of these Sovereigns. They constantly occur in connection 
with those records of English History, of which Heraldry 
is at once the Chronicler and Illustrator. 

1. Matilda of Flanders : Gyronny, or and az., an ines- 
cutcheon, gu. 

2. Matilda of Scotland : Scotland : No. 103, Pl.ST. 

3. Adelais of Louvain : Or, a Lion ramp., az., langued, 

4. Matilda of Bologne : Or, three torteaux. 

5. Eleanor of Aquitaine and Guyenne: Gu., a Lion 
passant guardant, or. 

6. Berengaria of Navarre: Az., a Cross, arg., after- 
wards superseded by, gu., an escarbuncle, or. 

7. Isabel of AngouUme : Lozengy, or, and gu. 

8. Alianore of Provence : Or, four Pallets, gu. ; No. 7, 
PI. I. 

9. Alianore of Castile: Quarterly, Castile and Leon; 
that is, 1 and 4s, gu., a Castle triple-towered, or : 2 and 3, 


arg., a Lion rampt., purpure, No. 135, PI. I. She also 
bore Ponthieu, in right of her mother, and this shield on 
her monument at Westminster alternates with England 
and Castile and Leon. Ponthieu is, or, three bendlets, az., 
within a bordure, gu., No. 547. On her seal, her effigy 
stands between a Castle surmounting a Lion on her Dex- 
ter side, and on her Sinister side a Lion surmounting a 
Castle ; the Beverse has a shield of England suspended by 
its guige from a Tree. 

10. Margaret of France : France ancient dimidiated by 
England, No. 322, PI. XVIH. 

11. Isabelle of France: France ancient dimidiating 
Navarre, (in right of her mother) — gu., an escarbuncle, or. 
She bore England on one shield, and France with Navarre 
on another; see No. 335 a, p. 127. 

12. Philippa of Hainault : Or, four Lions rampant, in 
quadrangle; the 1st and 4sth sa., the 2nd and 3rd gu. 
She bore these, her paternal arms, quartered with England 
only. Her arms were also impaled by England, and 
by France and England quarterly. See No. 337, PI. 

13. Anne of Bohemia : Quarterly ; 1 and 4, Germany, 
arg., an Eagle displayed, with two heads, sa. ; 2 and 3, 
Bohemia, gu., .a Lion rampant, queue four dice, arg., 
crowned, or. She impaled these arms with the shield of 
Eichakd II, upon which the arms of the Confessor were 
marshalled per pale with Fiance and England ; conse- 
quently the complete shield would be " per pale of three," 
No. 349, PI. XXIII. 

14. Isabel of France : France modern ; impaled, a.d. 
1397, by Kichard II ; No. 350. 

15. Joanne of Navarre : Quarterly ; 1 and 4, Eureux, 



az., three fleurs-de-lys, or ; overall, a Bendlet, compony, arg., 
and gu. ; 2 and 3, Navarre, No. 348, PI. XIX. Impaled 
by Henry IV. 

16. Katherine of France : France modern. Impaled 
by Henry V. 

17. Margaret of Anjou: Quarterly of six : — 

1. Hungary : Barry of eight, arg. and gu. 

2. Naples : France ancient, with Label of three, gu. 

3. Jerusalem : Arg., a Cross potent between four plain 
Crosses, or. 

4. Anjou : France ancient, within a Bordure, gu. 

5. De Barre : Az., two Barbels haurient, endorsed, and 
crusilly, or, within a Bordure, gu. 

6. Lorraine : Or, on a bend, gu., three Eaglets displayed, 

Impaled by Henry VI. No. 352, PI. XXIII. 

18. Elizabeth Widville (or Woodville), Quarterly of 
six : — 

1. Luxemburg : Arg., a lion ramp., double tailed, gu., 
crowned, or. 

2. De Baux : Quarterly ; 1 and 4, gu., a star, arg. ; 2 and 
3, az., semee de-lys, or. 

3. Cyprus : Barry of ten, arg. and az., over all, Lion 
rampt., gu. 

4. UitsiNS : Gu., three Bendlets, arg. ; a chief, per fesse of 
the 2nd, and or, charged with a rose, of the first. 

5. St. Paul: Gu., three pallets, vairy ; on a Chief, or, a 
Label of five points, az. 

6. Widville : Arg., a Fesse and Canton conjoined, gu. 
Impaled by Edward IV. 

19. Anne Neville : Gu., a Saltlre, arg. ; differenced 
with a Label of three points, compony of the second and az. 



Impaled by Eichard III. 

In the " Warwick Boll" she quarters, Beauchamp, Mon- 
tagu and Montliermer with Neville 

20. Elizabeth of York : Quarterly ; 1 and 4. Ulster, 
Or, a Cross, gu. ; 2 and 3, Mortimer. 

Impaled by Henry VII. Emblazoned on the Monuments 
of the Countess of Eichmond, and of Henry YII and 
Elizabeth of York, Westminster Abbey, No. 351, PL 

21. Catherine of Arragon : Quarterly ; 1 and 4 Grand 
Quarters, Castile and Leon, quarterly ; 2 and 3 Grand 
Quarters, Arragon, Or, fonr pallets, gu., impaling Sicily, 

per Saltire, 1 and 4, Arragon, 2 and 3, Suabia, arg., 
Eagle displayed, sa., beaked and membered, gu. In the Base 
Point, the Badge of Grenada, arg., a pomegranate, slipped, 
ppr. Impaled by Henry VIII. The Supporters of Queen 
Catherine of Arragon were a Lion and an Eagle. 

The Arms of Queen Anne Boleyn are the first which 
exemplify the usage, introduced by Henry VIII, of 
granting to his Consorts " Augmentations" to their 
paternal arms. It is a striking illustration of the degene- 
rate condition of Heraldry under the second Tudor 

22. Anne Boleyn : Quarterly of Six : — 

1. Lancaster. 
Augmentation v2. Engoulesme, or Naples. 
3. Guyenne. 

4. Quarterly, 1 and 4; or, Chief intended, az., for 
Butler ; 2 and 3, arg., Lion ramp., sa., crowned, gu., 
for Eochfort. 

5. Brotherton. 

6. Warrenne. 


Impaled by Henry VIII. (See the choir-screen of 
King's College Chapel, Cambridge). 

Supporters : A Leopard, and a male Griffin. 

23. Jane Seymour : Quarterly of six : — 

1. Or, on a Pile, gu., between six Fleurs-de-lys, az., three 
Lions of England. An Augmentation. 

2. Seymour. 

3. Beauchamp of Hache : Vairy. 

4. Stiny : Arg., three demi-Lions ramp., gu. 

5. Mac Williams : Per Bend, arg. and gu., three Roses, 
bend-wise, counter changed. 

6. Coker ; Arg., on a Bend, gu., three Leopards* Heads, 

Impaled by Henry VIII, and blazoned frequently at 
Windsor and Hampton Court. 

Supporters: A Lion and a Unicom. 

24. Anne of Cleves : Chi., an Inescutcheon, arg., over all, 
an Escarbuncle, or. 

Impaled by Henry VIII. 

25. Catherine Howard : Quarterly : — 

1. Az., three Fleurs-de-lys, in pale, or, between two 
Flasches, erm., each charged with a Rose, gu. 

2. Brotherton. 

3. Howard Modern. 

4. Az., two Lions of England ; the Verge of the Escutcheon 
charged with four half fleurs-de-lys. or. 

1 and 4. Augmentations. 
Impaled by Henry VIII. 

26. Catherine Parr : Quarterly of six. ' 

1. Arg., on a Pile, gu., between six Roses, of the 2nd, 
three other Roses, of the 1st. (Augmentation). 

2. Arg., two Bars, . az., within a Bordure engrailed, sa. 

r 2 


3. Ross of Kendall : Or, three water-Bougets, sa. 

4. Marmion : Vairy, a Fesse, gu. 

5. Fitz Hugh : Az., three chevrons, interlaced in Base ; a 
Chief, or. 

6. Green : Vert, three Harts at gaze, or. 
Impaled by Henry VIIT. 

27. Philip, King of Spain. The same arms as those of 
Catherine of Arragon. (See 21). Impaling the arms of 

28. Anne of Denmark. The arms borne by Anne, 
daughter of Frederick II, King of Denmark and Norway, 
are a complicated example of the elaboration of details in 
such high esteem amongst the continental Heralds of 
comparatively recent times. These arms may be described 
as follows : A Cross, gu., surmounted of another, arg. In 
the Dexter Canton, or, semee of hearts, ppr., three lions 
pass, guard., az., crowned, or, for Denmark ; in the sinister 
canton, gu., a lion rampt., crowned, or, holding in his paivs 
a battle-axe, arg., for Norway : in the dexter base quarter, 
az., three crowns, ppr., for Sweden ; aud in the sinister 
base quarter, or, ten hearts, 4, 3, 2, and 1, gu., a lion pass, 
guard , az., for Gothland. In the base of the shield, 
beneath the Cross, the ancient ensign of the Vandals, gu., 
a wyvern, its tail nowed, and wings expanded, or. Upon 
the centre of the Cross an escutcheon of pretence, charged 
with Quarterly, 1. Or, two lions pass, guard., az., for Sles- 
wick ; 2. Gu., an inescutcheon, having a nail in every point 
thereof, in triangle, between as many holly-leaves, all ppr., 
forHoLSTEiN ; 3. Gu., a swan, arg., beaked, sa., gorged with 
a coronet, ppr., for Stormerk ; and 4. Az., a chevallier, 
armed at all points, brandishing his sivord, his helm plumed, 
his charger, arg., trapped, or., for Ditzmers. Over the 



whole, on an inescutcheon, or, two bars, an., for Olden- 
burgh, impaling, for Dalmenhurst, az. f a cross patee 
fitchee, or. 

Borne on a separate shield, and marshalled with the 
Royal shield of James I. 

This shield, with some modification of its marshalling, 
promises again to become well known in England, through 
what all must earnestly hope will prove the auspicious 
and happy alliance between our own Prince op Wales, 
and the Princess Alexandra of Denmark. 

29. Henrietta Maria of France: France modern. 
This shield was sometimes borne impaled by St. George. 

30. Catherine of Braganza : Arg., on each of five escut- 
cheons, in cross, az., as many plates, in saltire, within a 
bordure, gu., charged with eight castles, or, for Portugal. 

Impaled by Charles II. 

31. Mary D'Este, of Modena: Quarterly, 1 and 4, 
Este ; arg., an eagle displayed, sa., crowned, or ; 2 and 3, 
Ferrara ; az., three fleurs-de-lys, or, within a bordure 
counterindented, or and gu. 

Impaled by James II. 

32. Prince George of Denmark : The same as 28. 

33. The Arms of the unhappy Consort of George I do 
not appear ever to have been exhibited in England. As 
she was her husband's cousin, her arms were probably 
the same as those which he himself bore before his acces- 
sion to the English crown. 

34. Caroline Wilhelmina of Brandenburgh Anspach : 
The arms of his Consort, impaled by George II, are 
quarterly of fifteen pieces, and they are blazoned as fol- 
lows, from a contemporary print, by Mr. Willement in 
his most excellent work on " Regal Heraldry." 


1. Per j 'esse , gu. and arg., within a bordure counter - 
changed of the same, for Magdebtjrgh ; 2. Arg., an eagle 
displayed, sa., crowned, or ; 3. Or, a griffin segreant, gu., 
crowned, of the first ; 4 and 5. Arg., a griffin segreant, gu. ; 
6. Or, a griffin segreant, sa. : 7. Arg., an eagle displayed, 
sa. ; 8. Per pale, arg. and gu., within a bordure counter- 
changed of the same ; 9. Arg., an eagle displayed, sa. ; 10. 
Or, a lion rampt., sa., crowned, within a bordure, componee, 
arg. and gu. ; 11. Chi., two keys in saltire, or ; 12. Quar- 
terly, arg, and sa., within a bordure, counterchanged of the 
same ; 13. gu. ; 14. As 1 : 15. Gu., on an inescutcheon, arg., 
an eagle displayed, of the field. 

35. Charlotte of Mecklenburgh Strelitz : Quarterly of 
six, 1. Mecklenburgh, or, a buffalo's head cabossed, sa., 
armed, arg., through the nostrils an annulet, of the last, 
ducally crowned, gu., the attire passing through the crown : 
2. Wenden, az., a griffin segreant, or ; 3. Schwerin Prin- 
cipality, per f esse, az. and vert, in chief, a griffin segreant, or, 
the base bordered round the entire field, arg. : 4. Katzburgh, 
gu., a cross couped, arg., ducally crowned, or : 5. Schwerin 
County, gu., an arm embowed, in armour to the wrist, 
issuing from clouds on the sin. side, and holding between th i 
finger and thumb a gem ring, all ppr., round the arm a 
riband tied, az. : 6. E-oslock, or, a buffalo's head in profile, 
sa., armed, arg., ducally crowned, gu., over all an escutcheon 
of pretence, per f esse, gu. and or, for Stargard. 

Impaled by George III. 

36. Caroline, daughter of Charles Frederick Wil- 
liam, Duke of Brunswick, K.GK, whose arms are bla- 
zoned as follows upon his Stall-plate at Windsor : Quar- 
terly of twelve ; 1. Lunenburgh, or, semee of hearts, 
ppr., a lion rampt., az : 2. Brunswick, gu., two lions pass. 


guard., in pale, or: 3. Eberstein, arg., a lion rampt, az., 
crowned, gu. : 4. Homberg, gu., a lion rampt, or, within a 
bordure componee, arg., and az. : 5. Diepholt, or, a lion 
rampt, az., crowned, gu. : 6. Chi., a lion rampt, or : 7. 
Gyronny of eight, arg. and az., on a chief, or, two bears* 
paws, indorsed and issuant, sa. : 8. Az., an eagle displayed, 
arg. : 9. Barry of six, or and gu., a chief chequee, arg. and 
az. : 10. Arg., a stag's horn in f esse, gu. : 11. Arg., a stag 
tripping, sa. : 12. Arg., a stag's horn in fesse, sa. 

37. Adelaide of Saxe Meinengen ; Quarterly of nine- 
teen: 1. Thuringia, az, a lion rampt., barry of eight, 
arg. and gu., crowned, or : 2. Cleves, gu., an escarbuncle 
of eight rays, or, the rays issuing from an inescutcheon, arg. 
3. Juliers, or, a lion rampt, sa., crowned, gu. : 4. Meis- 
sen, or, a lion rampt, sa., crowned, gu. : 5. Saxony : 6. 
Berg, arg., a lion ramp., gu., crowned, or : 7. Westphalia, 
arg., an eagle displayed, gu., crowned, or : 8. Landesberg, 
or, two pales, az : 9. Pfalz, sa., an eagle displayed, or : 
10. Orlamunde, or, a lion rampt., sa., crowned, gu. : 11. 
Eisenberg, arg., three bars, az. : 12. Pleissen, az., a lion 
rampt, or: 13. Altenberg, arg., a rose, gu., seeded, or, 
barbed, vert : 14. Gu., for right of Eegalia : 15. Brehna, 
or Engern, arg., three boterols, (scabbard-tags,) gu. : 16. 
Marck, or, a fesse, chequee, arg. and gu. : 17. Anhalt, gu., 
a column, in pale, arg., crowned, or, the pedistal of the last : 
18. Hennebergh, or, on a mound, vert, a coclc, sa., crested 
and wattled, gu. : 19. Eavensbergh, arg., three chevronels, 

38. His late Eoyal Highness, Albert the Prince 
Consort, bore the Arms of Saxony, No. 353, p. 146, 
quarterly, with the Eoyal Arms of England, differenced 
with his own Label. At page 146 the Arms of Saxony 



are blazoned after the manner prevalent in England : but 
in Germany the bend treflee is held to be a wreath of olive 
leaves thrown across the shield, and it is blazoned ac- 

Section VI. 


The emblem and ensign of Sovereignty, the Imperial 
Crown of Great Britain, has undergone several very- 
decided changes in its form and enrichments, all of which 
come under the direct cognizance of the historical Herald. 
Many original authorities exist, which in this matter 
mutually illustrate and corroborate each other's contribu- 
tion to heraldic History. These authorities are the Great 
Seals, the Coinage, Monumental Effigies, and miscellane- 
ous Illuminations, Paintings, and Sculptures. 

The earliest form of the Crown worn by the English 
Kings after the Conquest, (which appears from various 
Illuminations closely to resemble the Crowns of the 
Anglo-Saxon Princes), is exemplified in the Effigies of 
Henry II, and his Queen Alianore ; of Eichard 1, and 
Isabella of Angoulcme, at FonteOTaud ; of Berengaria, 
at l'Espan, near Mans, and of John, at Worcester. This 
Crown is a richly jewelled Circlet of gold, heightened with 
what may be entitled heraldic Strawberry Leaves. These 
sculptured Crowns are all much mutilated, but still they 
plainly declare their original character. The Crowns of 
Eichard and Berengaria have four large Leaves only. 
Those of Henry, Alianore, and Isabella have four 


Chaps, xiv. xix and xxxn. 

No. 550. 

No. 551. 

No. 279. 

No. 264. 

264. Helm, Crest, &c, Sir E. de Thorpe.— 279. Basinet and Coronet, the Black 

Prince. — 550. Crown, Edward II. — 551. Crown, Henry IV. 

624. Coronation Crown, II. M. the Queen. 



smaller Leaves alternating with the four larger ones. 
The Crown of John has also eight Leaves, alternately 
large and small, and in form they are almost true trefoils. 
Of this group of examples, the most perfect are the Crowns 
of Kichard I and Berengarja, Nos. 548, 549. 

The Effigies of Henry III and Alianore of Castile 
have Crowns of trefoil-leaves of two sizes, a slightly raised 
point intervening between each pair of the leaves. These 
Crowns doubtless were once enriched with real or imita- 
tive jewels and other adornments, which now leave no 
other traces of their former existence than the small holes 
for attaching them to the Crowns themselves. No. 198, 
p. 13. 

The Coins of Edward I, show that his Crown was 
similar in character to those of his Consort and his 

The Effigy of Edward II, at Gloucester, still retains, 
almost uninjured, its sculptured enrichments. The Crown 
is formed of four large, and four small Strawberry Leaves, 
rising with graceful curves from the jewelled Circlet, and 
having eight small flowers alternating with the Leaves. 
No. 550. 

The Crown appears to have remained the same as that 
which I have last described, until the accession of the 
first Lancastrian Sovereign, Henry IV. The elaborately 
sculptured Effigies of this Prince and of his Queen, 
Joanna, at Canterbury, wear magnificent Crowns, No. 
550. Both have the same general character, the Crown 
of the Queen being distinguished by its smaller size and 
more delicate workmanship. In each, the jewelled Circlet 
is heightened by eight Strawberry Leaves, and as many 
Fleurs-de-lys, the whole alternating with sixteen small 


groups of pearls, three in each. These sculptured images 
of that " golden care," which was the one aim of Henry 
of Lancaster, may be supposed to be faithful representa- 
tions of the splendid " Harry Crown," broken up and em- 
ployed as security for the loan required by Henry V 
when about to embark on his expedition to France. 
Rymer records that the costly fragments were redeemed 
in the eighth and ninth years of Henry VI. 

The next change in the Crown of England is one which 
completely alters its general aspect. This new feature 
consists in arching over the enriched Circlet with jewelled 
Bands of gold, and surmounting the enclosed Diadem with 
a Mound and Cross. The enrichments of the Circlet 
itself at the same time are so far changed, that Crosses 
Patees occupy the positions before filled by the Straw- 
berry Leaves, and Roses, or Fleurs-de-lys appear instead of 
the small clusters of Pearls. The arched Crown at first 
has the arches elevated almost to a point ; after a while, 
the arches are somewhat depressed at their intersection ; 
then this depression is considerably increased ; and at 
length, in the Crown of Her Majesty, Queen Victoria, 
the arches, which bend over almost at right angles, are 
flattened above at the intersection where the mound rests 
upon them. At first, also, the arches recede inwards, 
from their spring from the Circlet ; then they slightly 
project beyond the Circlet; and now they rise almost 
vertically. The arches, in the first instance, are numer- 
ous, bat in the Great Seal of Eichard III there are four 
arcnes omy. Their number in the Crown that ensigns 
the Hawthorn Bush Badge of Henry VII, is six, No. 
545 ; but by Henry VIII they are reduced to four. The 
Crown remained without any change during the Reigns 


of Edward VI, Mary, and Elizabeth ; except that in the 
Great Seal of Elizabeth she appears wearing a small 
Diadem having eight arches. The Crown of the Stuart 
Sovereigns, James I and Charles I, has eight arches. 
On the Great Seals of Charles II, James II, and Anne, 
the Crown has fonr arches ; and that number has since 
remained unchanged. 

The arched Crown was introduced by Henry V, pro- 
bably when a simpler emblem of Eoyalty was constructed 
on the breaking up of the more costly and precious 
Crown of his Father. It will be understood that until 
the close of the Eeign of Edward IV, arched and un- 
arched Crowns are both represented in sculpture, illumi- 
nations, and other works. The arched Crown, the arches 
having an ogee curvature, appears for the first time upon 
the Great Seal of Edward VI, and we learn from illumi- 
nations that a Crown similar to his own was worn by his 

The arches of the Crown always spring from behind 
the crosses patees that heighten the circlet. The Crosses 
on the Great Seal of Henry VIII appear to be only four 
in number ; but the Tudor Crown generally is represented 
with eight crosses and as many fleurs-de-lys. Upon the 
monument of the Countess of Eichmond, the mother of 
Henry VII, there are seven shields and one lozenge of 
arms ; of the former, three are ensigned with large crowns 
heightened with eight crosses, as many fleurs-de-lys, and 
sixteen small roses, and the crowns are arched with two 
depressed arches which support a mound and cross patee ; 
three more of these shields have similar crowns without 
the arches ; and one shield and the lozenge are without 
crowns. At the head and feet of the monument of Henry 


VII there are crowns of four arches splendidly enriched. 
The Crown of James I, represented on his Great Seal, 
retains eight crosses and eight fleurs-de-lys, without any 
roses ; and Charles II reduces both crosses and fleurs- 
de-lys to four, the same number as the arches. The velvet 
cap, worn within the Crown, appears for the first time 
upon the Great Seal of Henry VIII. 

The successive changes in the Crown of England are 
exemplified in No. 552, Henry V, from Westminster 
Abbey ; No. 553, Henry VI ; No. 554, Edward IV, and 
No. 554, from the Great Seal of the same king ; No. 556, 
Henry VII, from King's College Chapel, Cambridge ; it 
will be observed that the Eoyal Motto in this splendid 
Crown is charged upon the circlet of the diadem ; No. 
557, Crown from the Monument of Margaret, Countess 
of Richmond, in Westminster Abbey ; No. 558, Henry 
VIII ; at Norwich on a building, a shield of Henry VIII 
is ensigned with a Crown of the simple form shown in 
No. 558 a ; Nos. 559, and 560, Charles I, and Charles 
II, both from their Great Seals. Thus the Crown is 
brought to assume the character shown in No. 562, which 

No. 562. 
has four crosses pat&B, and four fleurs-de-lys, set alter- 




55 2. Co^ 

Plate XLII. 

N os 548 to 561 



nately on the circlet, and four pearl-studded arches which 
rise from within the Crosses, and carry at their inter- 
section, the Mound and Cross. The arches in this 
example are depressed, and their sweep projects some- 
what beyond the circlet. 

The Crown of Her Majesty, Queen Victoria, differs 
from No. 562 rather in its enrichment than in its arrange- 
ment. There is a slight difference in the contour of the 
arches, which rise almost perpendicularly from the circlet 
and are nearly flat at their intersection. The Crown 
is profusely adorned with diamonds, and is studded 
with various other costly gems. The Mound is en- 
circled with a jewelled fillet, from which rises an arched 
band, also jewelled, that encompasses the upper hemis- 
phere of the mound itself, and is ensigned with a Cross 
patee. The cap is of purple velvet, lined with ermine. 

The Coronet of H.K.H., Albert, the late Prince 
Consort, differs from the Imperial Crown in having 
eight instead of four arches; these arches rise from straw- 
berry leaves and are curved. The details of the enrich- 
ments are also peculiar. No. 562 a. 

]S T o. 562 a. 

The Coronet of H.R.H., Albert Edward, Prince op 
Wales, has two arches only, which rise from a jewelled 
circlet, heightened as the Imperial Crown. The arches 



are surmounted by a mound and cros3. The cap is of 
crimson velvet. 

No. 563. 

The Prince op Wales also bears, as the ensign of that 
Principality, a jewelled circlet heightened with four crosses 
patees, and as many fleurs-de-lys, which encloses a 
plume of three ostrich feathers rising above the circlet 
itself. Below, on a ribbon, the motto, " Ich Dien." No. 
235 a, PI. XV. 

The Coronets of the other Princes, the Sons of the 
Queen, have the circlet heightened with four crosses 
patees, and four fleurs-de-lys. The cap, of crimson velvet, 
is lined with ermine, and is surmounted by a golden 
tassel ; No. 564. 

The Coronets of the Princesses, the Daughters of the 
Queen, differ from those of their Eoyal Brothers, only in 
having the circlet heightened with two crosses patees, as 
many strawberry leaves, and four fleurs-de-lys ; No. 565. 

The Coronets of the Royal Cousins of the Queen have 
the circlet heightened with crosses patees and strawberry 
leaves only ; No. 566. 

The Royal Achievement op Arms of the Queen is 
composed of 

The Royal Shield, bearing England, Scotland, and 




Plate XLI 

N oe - 265, 283 A to 285, 451, 521, 564 to 566. 


Ireland, quarterly ; the Shield being encircled with the 
Garter, charged with the Motto of the Order : 

The Supporters, the Lion and Unicorn : 

The Helm, with its Mantling, ensigned with the 
Crown, and thereon the Crest of England, a Lion statant 
guardant, or, imperially crowned : 

The Motto, being the words, Dietj et mon Droit, 
upon a ribbon beneath the shield, from which issue 

The Badges, the Rose, Thistle, and Shamrock, all of 
them engrafted on the same stem. 

It would be strictly correct to add other Badges, for 
England, a red and white Rose ; for Scotland, a Thistle, 
ppr. ; for Ireland, a Shamrock leaf, vert, and a Harp, 
or, stringed, arg. ; for Wales, a Dragon, with wings 
addorsed, gu., passant, on a mount, vert. 

All these Badges are ensigned with the Imperial 


The Crest for Scotland, on an Imperial Crown, a 
Lion sejant affronte, gu., imperially crowned, holding in 
the dexter paw a sword, and in the sinister paw a sceptre, 
both erect and ppr. ; No. 567 : and 

The Crest for Ireland, on a wreath, or and az., a 
Castle triple-towered, of the first, a hart, arg., attired, or, 
springing from the gate. 

The Badges of the several Orders of Knighthood might 
also be introduced in this composition. 

The Arms borne by his late Eoyal Highness, the 
lamented Prince Consort, I have already described at 
page 146. His quartered shield is encircled with the 
Garter of the Order ; and the shield itself is supported by 
the Eoyal Supporters of England, the crowned Lion 


and the Unicorn, without any Difference. The motto, 
Treu ttnd Fest. 

H.R.H. Albert Edward, K.G., Prince of Wales, 
like the Princes of Wales who have preceded him, bears 
the Royal Arms of England differenced with a Label of three 
points, argent, the shield surrounded with the Garter of 
the Order. The Helm has its proper Mantling, and it is 
ensigned with the Prince's own Coronet, upon which stands 
the Crest of England, differenced with a Label as on the 
shield. The Supporters are those of England, similarly 
differenced with the same Label on their shoulders. The 
Coronet and Motto of Wales are also added, the former in 
chief, and the latter in base. No. 568. 

The Arms of the Prince of Wales are marshalled with 
the arms of Saxony, the paternal and hereditary insignia 
of his Royal Father, emblazoned upon an escutcheon of 
pretence. This does not appear to be in accordance with 
either the spirit or the practical- usage of true historical 
Heraldry. The Arms of the Prince of Wales have a dis- 
tinct individuality of their own, with which nothing ought 
to be directly associated. It would, however, be both 
strictly correct and altogether to be desired that the Prince 
should bear a second shield, in the first grand quarter, 
of which his own quartered arms duly differenced would 
be^placed, while in the other quarters the arms of Saxony , 
and of the Earldom of Cornwall, with those of the other 
Dignities enjoyed by His Royal Highness, would be 
marshalled in becoming order. 

The Princes and Princesses, the younger sons and 
all the daughters of the Queen, bear the Royal Arms of 
England, upon either shields or lozenges, with the Lion 
and Unicorn Supporters. The Princes have the Helm, 




ulJu sfflHi 





I • I 


T7=5 | — ^Tjp ^% — - -=| p 

{M JL Ml ||jp ojL ||| 






[TltTl?] eUhH 


m * 















Plate XXXV] 

K os 531 to 535 & 568A to 377 



Mantling, and Crest. Each Prince and Princess diffe- 
rences with a label charged with the marks of Cadency 
that presently follow. Each shield or lozenge is ensigned 
with its own proper Coronet. Above their Coronets the 
Princes all place the Lion Crest of England, each one 
charging his crest with his own label, and the lion in every 
instance stands upon a second Coronet in all respects 
identical with the one below it, except that it is without 
any cap. The Supporters all bear the labels as in the arms, 
and all the Princes and Princesses ensign both the lion 
and the unicorn with the Coronet of their own degree. 

The Labels which difference the Arms of the Eoyal 
Family are all of silver, and have three points, and each 
is charged with its own marks of Cadency in the order 
following : 

H.E.H., The Prince Alfred : on the first and third 
points, an anchor, az., on the central point a cross gu., 
No. 569. 

H.E.H., The Prince Arthur : a cross, gu., between two 
fleurs-de-lys, az., No. 570. 

H.E.H., The Prince Leopold : a cross, between two 
hearts, all gu., No. 571. 

H.E.H., The Princess Eoyal : a rose, between two 
crosses, all gu., No. 572. 

H.E.H., The Princess Alice : a rose, gu., between two 
ermine-spots, No. 573. 

H.E.H., The Princess Helena : a cross, between two 
roses, all gu., No. 574. 

H.E.H., The Princess Louisa : a rose, between two 
cantons, all gu., No. 575. 

H.E.H., The Princess Beatrice : a heart, between two 
roses, all gu., No. 576. 




The Label of Cambridge is charged on the central point 
with a Cross of St. George, and on each of the other 
points with two hearts, in pale, gu., No. 57?. The Prince 
and the Princesses of the House of Cambridge bear the 
Royal Arms with its accessories, after the same manner as 
their Eoyal Cousins. 

No. 353. Shield of Arms of H.B.H. the late Prince Consort, K.G. 

No. 282. Coronet of Thomas Fitzalan, Earl of Abttndel 
a.d. 1445. 



Early in the middle ages, the Insignia of knightly 
rank, worn alike by every member of the chivalry of those 
days, were the Knight's own Sword and Lance — the latter 
with its pennon, his Shield of arms, and his golden Spurs. 
Then the Crusades led to the formation of the Orders of 
priestly soldiers, so well known as the Hospitallers, or 
Knights of St. John of Jerusalem, and the Knights 
Templars. These Orders possessed distinctive Insignia 
peculiar to themselves. 

1. The Hospitallers, instituted about a.d. 1092, and 
introduced into England about the year 1100, wore over 
their armour a black habit, charged with a silver cross of 
eight points, T$o. 578; but between the years 1278 and 
1289, when engaged in military duties, they assumed a 
red surcoat bearing a silver cross straight. 

2. The Templars, instituted a.d. 1118, were introduced 
into England during the reign of Stephen, about the 
year 1140. Their habit was white, with a red cross of 

s 2 


eight points, the form of this red cross being identical with 
the white cross of the Hospitallers, No. 578. The Cross 
of the Templars was worn on the left shoulder. Their 
war-cry was " Beau Seant t" Their Banner, which bore 
the same name, was per /esse, sa. and arg. It is repre- 
sented in the Temple Church, London, as in No. 579. 
They also displayed above their formidable lances a second 
Banner of their own colors, white, charged with the Cross 
of the Order, No. 580. As Badges, the Templars bore the 
Agnus Dei ; and a device representing two knights mounted 
on a single horse, to denote the original poverty of the 
Order. In the year 1309 the Templars were suppressed, 
and, by a papal bull dated April 3, 1312, their Order was 
abolished. It is remarkable that amongst the numerous 
knightly effigies that are in existence, and of which many 
fine examples belong to the Templar era, not a single in- 
dividual commemorates any brother of the chivalry of the 
Temple. It is highly probable that some now forgotten 
rule prohibited monumental commemoration amongst those 
priest-soldiers, or else their ill repute led to the complete 
destruction of every personal memorial of them. The 
idea that crossed-legged military effigies represent and 
commemorate Templars, though still retained by many 
persons who prefer fanciful theories to more sober facts, 
has long been proved to be without any foundation. 

3. The peculiar form of Cross, entitled, from its re- 
semblance to the Greek T, the Taw Gross, No. 57, PI. Ill, 
appears worn as a knightly ensign upon a small number 
of monumental effigies. This is the symbol of an Order 
established on the continent, and styled the Order of St. 
Anthony. At Ingham, in Norfolk, the curious effigies 
(now sadly mutilated) of Sir Eoger de Bois and his 


Lad j, wear mantles charged with the Tan Cross within a 
circle, and having the word anthon in chief, No. 581 ; 
the date is about 1360. In the sixteenth century, this same 
cross is occasionally found attached to a chain that is 
worn about the neck, as in the brass to Henry Stanley, 
a.d. 1528, at Hillingdon, Middlesex. The Tau Cross is 
borne by the family of Drtjry between two mullets on a 

4. Collars, composed of various heraldic devices, and 
worn about the neck, were in use in the time of Richard 
II. These Collars, however, were not regarded as insignia 
of any Order of Knighthood, as that expression is now 
understood by ourselves, and as the Order of the Carter 
was understood at that period. They were decorations 
of honor, and they also very generally denoted politi- 
cal partizanship. The rival Houses of Lancaster and 
Yore: had their Collars, of which many characteristic 
examples yet remain. Private Collars were also worn, 
as a species of Badge, at the same period; they were 
charged with the personal devices of the wearers. Thus, 
in his brass at Woottonunder-Edge, Glocestershire, a.d. 
1392, Thomas, fourth Baron Berkeley wears, over his 
camail, a collar composed of Mermaids — a Badge of his 
House, which may possibly have been derived from the 
" Mermaids of the Sea" of the Black Prince, and so 
may indicate attachment to that illustrious personage : 
No. 225 a, p. 69. 

5. The Lancastrian Collar of SS. is composed of a 
series of the Letter S in gold, the letters being either 
linked together, or set in close order upon a blue and white 
ribbon. The ends are always connected by two buckles 
and a trefoil-shaped link, from which a jewel depends. 


This Collar was worn by persons of both sexes, and of 
various ranks. It appears, amongst many others, in the 
sculptured effigies of Queen Joanna, at Canterbury ; of 
Ealph Neville, Earl of Westmorland, and his two 
Countesses, at Staindrop, Durham ; of Thomas and John 
Fitz Alan, Earls of Arundel, at Arundel ; of Eobert, 
Lord Hungerford, at Salisbury Cathedral; of Eorert 
de Marmion, at Tanfield, Yorkshire ; of Sir Humphrey 
Stafford, at Bromsgrove, Worcestershire ; of Sir Ed- 
mund and Lady De Thorpe, at Ashwell-Thorpe, Norfolk ; 
and of Sir Eobert Grushill, K.G., and Lady, at Hover- 
ingham, Notts ; also in the brasses to Lord Camoys, 
K.G., at Trotton, Sussex; to Sir Thomas and Lady 
Massyngberde, at Gunby, Lincolnshire ; and Sir William 
and Lady Bagot, at Baginton, Warwickshire. The 
earliest example of this Collar that I have observed, 
occurs in the brass to Sir Thomas Burton, a.d. 1382, 
the fifth of Eichard II, at Little Casterton, Eutland. 
Another early example, in the sculptured effigy of John 
Gower, the poet, at St. Saviour's Church, Southwark, has 
the De Bohun Swan, the favourite Badge of Henry of Bo- 
lingbroke, attached as a pendant to the Collar ; No. 585 a. 
The SS Collar of Queen Joanna, No. 582, has been slightly 
injured, but it still very clearly shews the character of 
this decoration. The Collars of Lord Hungerford, a.d. 
1455, No. 583, and of Sir Eobert de Marmion, aboTt 
a.d. 1400, No. 584, both of which have received some 
injuries, and that of Sir Eobert Grushill, (whose effigy 
is also decorated with the garter of the Order), which is 
very perfect and of elaborate richness, No. 585, (date 
about 1440), are all eminently characteristic examples. 
The SS Collar was assumed by Henry IV, probably many 


Plate XLI1I 

N os 288 A, 582 to 5.92, 


years before his accession, and by him it certainly was 
distinguished as a Lancastrian ensign. The origin of 
the device itself still remains uncertain. It is generally 
supposed to have been intended to represent Henry's 
favourite motto, Soveraygne, by repeating the initial letter 
of the word. Mr. John Gotjgh Nichols, however, has 
suggested the word Seneschal, (John of Ghent was Senes- 
chal, or High Steward of England,) to be substituted for 
Soveraygne ; and Mr. Planche hints that the Swan Badge 
may have had something to do with the SS of the Collar. 
Possibly, after all, the repetition of the letter S may 
denote rather the initials of several words, than the 
initial of any single word. 

Henry VII, under whom the SS Collar had by no 
means altogether lost its Lancastrian character, intro- 
duced his Tudor Badge, the Portcullis, alternating with 
each S ; and he further added either a Tudor Eose, or a 
Portcullis, as a Pendant to the Collar thus modified. By 
Henry VIII the wearing the Collar of SS was restricted to 
the degree of a Knight. This Collar is still worn by the 
Heralds, by the Lord Mayor of London, and by the Lord 
Chief Justices, and some others of the Judges. 

6. The Yorkist Collar of Suns and Eoses, signifi- 
cantly characteristic of the rival House of the Plantage- 
nets, has not left so many examples as there exist of 
the Collar of SS. In the chancel of Aston Church, near 
Birmingham, are two effigies, both finely sculptured in 
alabaster, and resting within a yard or two of each other 
upon raised tombs. The figures are those of knights, 
and their armour is such as two brothers might have 
worn when Edward IV fought his way to the throne. 
In life, these knights were certainly contemporaries ; pro- 


bably they were near neighbours, and possibly near kins- 
men also ; but that they were mortal enemies is clearly 
indicated by the circumstance that one wears the Collar 
of SS, while the Collar of the other is charged with the 
Suns and Eoses of York. Long have these 

" Knights been dust, 

And their good swords rust :" 

their effigies, however, silently though they repose beneath 
the consecrated roof that has sheltered them for four 
centuries, have a tale of English History which they tell 
eloquently enough to every student of historical He- 

The Yorkist Collar is formed of suns and roses, which 
are set, like the SS letters, upon a ribbon, or sometimes 
they are either linked together with chains or placed in 
immediate contact. The white lion Badge of the House of 
March is generally attached to the Collar, and forms a 
pendant from it. The Collar of the Yorkist Knight at 
Aston is represented in No. 586. From amongst other ex- 
amples in sculptured effigies I select for particular notice 
the Collars of Sir Eobert Harcotjrt, K.G., a.d. 1471, 
at Stanton Harcourt, Oxfordshire, No. 291 ; of one of the 
Nevilles and his Lady — probably Ealph Neville, 
second Earl of Westmorland, who died in 1484, and one 
of his two Countesses, at Branspeth, Durham, No. 587 ; 
of the Countess of William Fitz Alan, Earl of Arundel, 
a.d. 1487, at Arundel, No. 588 ; and of Sir John and 
Lady Crosby, a.d. 1475, at Great St. Helen's Church, 
London. In the Collar of the Countess of Arundel, the 
Suns and Eoses are linked together with clusters of 
oak-leaves — a Badge of the Fitz Alans. Ealph Ne- 



Plate XLHI. 

TT os 290 to 292, 586 to 583. 


ville has his collar formed of Hoses en Soleil, with a 
white boar, the Badge of Richard III, as the pendant ; 
and his Countess has both the suns and roses, with a 
pendant jewel. The Yorkist Collar is also introduced 
into the brasses to Henry Bourchier, K.G., Earl of 
Essex, and his Countess, a.d. 1483, at Little Easton, 
Essex, No. 589 ; to Sir Anthony Grey, at St. Alban's ; 
and to Roger Del Bothe Esquire, a.d. 1467, at Sawley, 
in Derbyshire. 

7. The Most Noble Order op the Garter, the first, 
the most renowned, and the most honored of the Orders 
of European Knighthood, was instituted by Edward III 
about the year 1350. The exact occasion and period of 
its institution, and the actual circumstances that attended 
the foundation of the Order cannot now be traced out 
with precision and certainty. That the Order was in 
existence in the middle of the 14th century, cannot be 
questioned. It is equally beyond dispute, that the Order 
from the first has borne the same title, has numbered 
twenty-five Knights, including the Prince of Wales, the 
Sovereign being the twenty-sixth, and that it has ever 
maintained its illustrious reputation. Whatever else 
might be wanted to complete the details of the early 
History of the Order of the Garter, has been provided by 
such Legends as are certain to become popular Tradi- 

The original statutes of the Order have undergone con- 
tinual changes ; but none of these changes have affected 
the fundamental character of the Institution itself. 
By a Statute of Jan. 17th, 1805, it was ordained that the 
Order should consist of the Sovereign, and twenty-five 
Knights Companions, always including in their number 


the Prince op Wales, together also with such lineal 
Descendants of George III as might be elected from 
time to time. Special Statutes have since been adopted for 
the admission of Sovereigns and extra Knights, the latter 
of whom have, however, always been incorporated into the 
number of the " Companions" on the occasion of vacancies. 

The Stalls of the Knights of the Garter are in the 
Chapel of St. George, at Windsor. There their Stall- 
plates are charged with their Arms, and overhead are 
displayed their Banners. The Stall-plates now at Wind- 
sor were evidently emblazoned and fixed in the time of 
Henry VI ; their Helms alone would determine the period ; 
and they are amongst the most valuable and interesting 
of our national heraldic records. 

The Insignia of the Order are the Garter and Motto, the 
Star, the Ribbon and Badge, and the Collar with the 
George : and the costume consists of the Surcoat, Hat, 
and Mantle. See Nos. 591, 591 a, and 592 ; also Nos. 
288 a, 290 and 292. 

The Garter, charged with the Motto, Honi soit qui 
mal y pense, in letters of gold, with golden borders, 
buckle and pendant, was originally of light blue, but 
now, (as it has been since the commencement of the reign 
of George I), it is dark blue. It is worn on the left leg 
below the knee ; but by Her Majesty the Queen, the 
Sovereign of the Order, the Garter is worn on the left arm 
above the elbow. 

The Mantle is of blue velvet, lined with white taffeta. 
It has the Badge upon the left shoulder, and is fastened 
with a rich Cordon and Tassels. 

The Hood and the Surcoat are of crimson velvet, the 
latter being lined like the Mantle. 


Chap. x\. 


No. 590. Insignia of the Order of the Garter. Page 265. 


The Hat is of black velvet, lined with white taffeta. It 
is decorated with a lofty plume of white Ostrich Feathers, 
in the centre of which is a tuft of black Heron's Feathers, 
the whole being attached to the Hat by a clasp of 

The Badge is circular, and is formed of a buckled Gar- 
ter, with the Motto, enclosing the Cross of St. George on 
white enamel. 

The Star is the Badge irradiated with eight rays, first 
ordered by Charles I. The rays are of silver, or dia- 
monds. The Star is worn on the left breast. 

The Collar and the George were added to the Insignia 
by Henry VII. The Collar is of gold, weighing thirty- 
six ounces, and consists of twenty-six pieces, alter- 
nately buckled garters, and interlaced knots of cords. 
The garters encircle alternately a red rose charged 
with a white one, and a white rose charged with a red 

The George, executed in coloured enamel, is a figure of 
St. George on his charger, in the act of piercing the 
dragon with his lance. It forms a Pendant to the Col- 
lar. A second George has the same Device of gold, 
charged upon an enamelled ground, and encircled by a 
buckled Garter, the whole forming an oval. This George 
is worn depending from the Ribbon of the Order. It 
appears originally to have been black, but Queen Eliza- 
beth changed the Ribbon to a light blue, and by George 
I it was again changed to the dark blue, of which hue it 
still continues. The Eibbon passes over the left shoulder, 
and crosses the figure both in front and behind. 

The Eibbon with its George are now commonly worn 
by Knights of the Garter as accessories of their ordinary 


Costume ; the Star and the Garter are also added in 
evening dress. 

The Officers of the Order, are 

The Prelate, always the Bishop of Winchester. 

The Chancellor, now the Bishop of Oxford. 

(The First Chancellor of the Order was Eichard 
Beatjchamp, Bishop of Salisbury, to whom and to his 
successors in that See the Chancellorship was granted by 
a Charter of Edward IV. From the year 1534 till 1671, 
the dignity was in the hands of laymen ; but it was 
recovered from Charles II for the See of Salisbury by 
Bishop Ward. In 1836 Berkshire, in which St. George's 
chapel is situated, was attached to the Diocese of Oxford, 
when the Chancellorship of the Garter passed to the 
Bishops of that See). 

Both the Prelate and the Chancellor wear the Badge of 
the Order attached to a blue Eibbon, with their Episcopal 

The Registrar : the Dean of Windsor. 

The Herald : Garter King of Arms ; and the Usher of 
the Black Rod. 

Knights of the Garter place after their names the 
Initials K.G., which take precedence of all other titles. 
On the death of any Knight, the Insignia which he had 
worn are returned by his nearest representative to the 

Several fine examples of the monumental effigies of 
Knights of the Garter have been preserved ; but it is 
singular that the effigies of Edward III himself, and his 
eldest son, the Black Prince, are without any of the 
insignia of their famous Order. As good specimens of 
their class I may specify the effigy of Eichard Beau- 


champ, KG-., Earl of Warwick, a.d., 1439, at Warwick ; 
of Sir Eichard Pembridge, KG., about a.d. 1390, at 
Hereford Cathedral ; of John Talbot, KG-., the great 
Earl of Shrewsbury, a.d. 1453, at Whitchurch, Salop; of 
Sir Robert Harcourt, E.G., who also wears the Yorkist 
Collar ; of Sir Robert Grushill, KG., who wears the 
Collar of SS ; and of John de la Pole, KG., Duke of 
Suffolk, a.d. 1491. Also the Brasses to Sir Symon de 
Felbrigge, KG., a.d. 1416 ; to Lord Camoys, KG., a.d. 
1424; to the Earl of Essex, E.G., 1483; and to Sir 
Thomas Boleyn, KG., a.d. 1538, at Hever, who is habited 
over his armour in the full insignia of the Order. No. 
290 represents the adjustment of the Garter about the 
leg of the effigy of the Duke of Suffolk ; No. 288 a is 
the Garter of Lord Camoys. 

In the middle ages, the Ladies of Knights were occa- 
sionally associated with the Order of the Garter, but before 
the close of the sixteenth century this singular associa- 
tion fell into disuse. The effigies of Lady Harcourt, the 
wife of Sir Robert Harcourt, E.G., and of the Duchess 
of Suffolk, at Euelme, in Oxfordshire, have the Garter ; 
the former lady wears it upon her left arm, No. 292, and 
the latter adjusts it about her wrist after the manner of a 

8. The Most Noble and Most Ancient Order of 
the Thistle, of Scotland. 

This Order is supposed to have been originally in- 
stituted at an early period of Scottish History. It now 
exists in conformity with the Statutes of James II and 
Queen Anne, the latter dated 1703. By a subsequent 
statute of the year 1827, the Order consists of the Sove- 
reign and sixteen Knights. 


The Star of this Order, worn on the left side, is formed 
of a St. Andrew's Cross, (No. 60) of silver, with rays 
issuing from between the points so as to form a lozenge ; 
in the centre, upon a field of gold is a Thistle, proper, 
surrounded by a circle of green enamel, charged with the 
Motto in golden letters. 

The Collar, of gold, consists of sixteen Thistles, alter- 
nating with as many sprigs of Eue, four in each group, 
interlaced, all enamelled proper. 

The Jewel or Badge, attached to the Collar, or worn 
depending from a broad dark green Ribbon which 
crosses the left shoulder, is formed of a Figure of St. 
Andrew, of gold enamelled, his surcoat purpure, and his 
mantle vert, bearing before him his own Cross Saltire, 
the whole being irradiated with golden rays, and sur- 
rounded by an oval bearing the Motto, " Nemo me im- 
pune lacessit." See No. 593. 

The Order is indicated by the Initials K.T. The In- 
signia are returned to the Sovereign on the decease of a 

The Officers of the Order are the Dean, the Lord Lion 
King-of-Arms, and the Gentleman Usher of the Green 

9. The Most Illustrious Order op St. Patrick, of 
Ireland, instituted by George III, Feb. 5, 1783, now 
consists of the Sovereign, the Grand Master, and twenty- 
two Knights. By the original Statutes the number of 
Knights was fifteen, and the Lord-Lieutenant was Grand 

Tho Insignia are, 

The Mantle f made of rich sky-blue tabinet, lined with 
white silk, and fastened by a cordon of blue silk and gold 


Chap. xx. 


No. 593. Insignia of the Ch dor of the Thistle. Page 269. 


Chap. xx. 


No. 594. Insignia of the Order of St. Patrick. Page 270. 


with tassels. On the right shoulder is the Hood, of the 
same materials as the Mantle, and on the left side is the 

The Ribbon, of sky-blue, four inches in width, is worn 
over the right shoulder, and sustains the Badge when the 
Collar is not worn. 

The Collar, of gold, is composed of Eoses alternating 
with Harps, tied together with a knot of gold, the Eoses 
being enamelled alternately white within red, and red 
within white, and in the centre is an Imperial Crown sur- 
mounting a Harp of gold, from which the Badge is sus- 

The Badge or Jewel, of gold, is oval in form. It is sur- 
rounded with a Wreath of Shamrock, proper, on a gold 
field ; within this is a band of sky-blue enamel, charged 
with the Motto in golden letters ; and within this band 
the Cross of St. Patrick, No. 61, surmounted by a Trefoil 
or Shamrock, vert, having upon each of its Leaves an 
Imperial Crown. The field of the Cross is either argent, 
or pierced and left open. 

The Motto is "Quis Separabit, mdcclxxxiii ." 

The Star, worn on the left side, differs from the Badge 
only in being circular in form instead of oval, and in sub- 
stituting for the exterior wreath of Shamrocks, eight rays 
of silver, four of which are larger than the other four. 
See No. 594. 

The Order is indicated by the Initials, K.P. 

The Officers of the Order are, 

The Prelate, the Archbishop of Armagh. 

The Chancellor, the Archbishop of Dublin. 

The Registrar, the Dean of St. Patrick's. 

The Gemalogist. The Usher of the Black Rod. 


The Ulster King-of-Arms. Two Heralds, and Four 

10. The Most Honorable Order op the Bath. 
Amongst the various Eites and Ceremonies attending 

the ancient admission of Aspirants to the Order of Knight- 
hood, one of the most important was the symbolical act 
of Bathing. The memory of this usage is still preserved 
in the title of the renowned Order of the Bath, though the 
rite itself has long ceased to be administered. The last 
lingering instances of conformity with the primitive 
observances are recorded to have taken place on the occa- 
sion of the Coronation of Charles II, April 23, 1661. 
From that period till the year 1725, the old Institution 
had fallen into total oblivion ; and accordingly, the Order 
as it now exists, may be said to have been founded by 
George I, May 25, 1725. 

In 1815 the Order was completely remodelled, and it 
was decreed that it should consist of Three Classes ; and 
in 1847 it was further extended, and new statutes for the 
government of the Order were promulgated. 
The Order of the Bath is now composed of 
I. Knights Grand Cross, (Gr.C.B.), who form the " First 
Class," for both naval, military, and diplomatic service. 
In their number, the Sovereign, the Eoyal Princes, and 
certain distinguished Foreigners are included. 

11. Knighte Commanders, (K.C.B.), also for civil as well 
as military and naval service. Foreign officers may be 
admitted as honorary K.C.B. All Knights of this " Second 
Class" have the distinctive appellation of Knighthood, 
and they wear the Insignia of the Order. 

III. Companions of the Order, (C.B.) both civil, naval, 
and military, constitute the " Third Class," and take pre- 

PLATE LVII. Chap. xx. 



INo. 595. Insignia of the Order of the Hal h. Page '~7:>. 


cedence of Esquires, but are not entitled to the style and 
title of Knighthood. 

The Naval and Military Insignia are, 
The Collar, of gold, in weight thirty ounces ; it is com- 
posed of nine Imperial Crowns, and Eight Eoses, Thistles 
and Shamrocks, issuing from a Sceptre, and enamelled 
proper, all linked together with seventeen knots enamelled 
argent, and having the Badge as a Pendant. 

The Star, worn by the G.C.B., is formed of Eays of 
Silver, or (Jewels), thereon a golden Maltese Cross, 
charged with the same Device as the Badge. The K.C.B. 
Star omits the Maltese Cross, and is itself in its form a 
Cross Patee. 

The Badge is a gold Cross of eight points, enamelled 
argent. In each of the four angles, a Lion of England. 
In the centre, within a circle, gules, charged with the 
Motto, the Eose, Thistle, and Shamrock, issuing from a 
Sceptre, and alternating with three Imperial Crowns ; 
the circle is encompassed with two branches of Laurel, 
which issue from an azure scroll in base, bearing in golden 
Letters the words, " Ich Dien." 

This Badge is worn by the G.C.B. pendent from a broad 
Ribbon across the left shoulder, by the K.C.B. from a 
narrower red Ribbon from the neck, and by a still narrower 
red Ribbon from the button-hole by the C.B. 

The Diplomatic and Civil Insignia are 

The Badge, of gold, an oval, having the external fillet 
charged with the Motto and encircling the central Device 
of the Order. It is worn by the Three Classes with the 
same distinctions as the Military Badge ; but the C.B. 
Civil Badge is smaller than the Badges of the two higher 


The Star of the G.C.B., of silver, has eight rays, and in 
its centre is the red circle with the Motto, enclosing three 
Imperial Crowns upon a Glory of silver Rays. The Star 
of the K.C.B. is the same in form and size with that of 
the military K.C.B., only omitting the Laurel-Wreath 
round the circle with the motto, and the small Scroll with 
the Legend, " Ich Dien." 

The Motto of the Order is " Tria Juncta in Uno." 
See No. 595. 

The Companions of the Order (C.B.) do not wear any 
other Insignia than their Badge with its Ribbon. 

The Stall* of the G.C.B. are in Henry Vllth's Chapel, 
Westminster, with the Stall-plates and the Banners of 
the Knights. 

II. The Most Distinguished Order op St. Michael 
and St. George. 

This Order was founded in the year 1818, for the pur- 
pose of bestowing honorable Distinctions upon the Natives 
of Malta and the Ionian Islands. The Members of the 
Order enjoy Rank and Precedence immediately after the 
corresponding Classes of the Bath, for this Order, like the 
Bath, is divided into Knights Grand Cross, Knights Com- 
manders, and Companions. 

The Star of the Knights Grand Cross is formed of seven 
rays of silver, alternating with as many small rays of 
gold, and having over all the Cross of St. George. In 
the centre, within an azure circle inscribed with the motto, 
is a Figure of St. Michael encountering Satan. 

The Collar of the same Class of Knights is composed of 
Lions of England and Maltese Crosses alternating, and of 
the Monograms S.M. and S.G. ; in the centre it has the 
Imperial Crown, over two winged Lions, counter-passant 


guardant, each holding a Book and seven Arrows. Oppo- 
site to these are two similar Lions. The whole is of gold, 
except the Crosses, which are enamelled, argent ; and the 
several pieces are linked together with small gold 

The Badge is a Cross of fourteen points, of white 
enamel edged with gold, having in the centre on either 
side an azure circle with the Motto. On one side this 
circle encloses a " St. Michael," and on the other side a 
" St. George." The Badge is ensigned by an Imperial 
Crown, and it is worn by Grand Crosses attached to the 
Collar, or from a broad dark blue Ribbon with a scarlet 
stripe, passing from the right shoulder to the left 

The Mantle is of dark blue satin, lined with scarlet silk 
fastened with cordons of blue, scarlet, and gold, and on 
the left side it has the Star. 

The Chapeau is of blue satin, lined with scarlet, and 
surmounted by a plume of white and black Ostrich 

The Star of the Knights Commanders is silver of four 
Rays, having a Cross of eight Points set saltire-wise, and 
surmounted by a Cross of St. George, and having the 
same centre as the other Star. 

The Badge is the same, and is worn suspended to a 
narrow Ribbon of the same colors from the neck. 

The Companions wear the same Badge, of smaller size, 
from a still narrower Ribbon at the button-hole. 

The Motto of the Order is, " Atjspictum Melioris 

In addition to the Sovereign and the Grand Master, 

t 2 


the Officers of the Order are the Prelate, Chancellor, Secre- 
tary, and King-of-Arms. 

12. The Most Exalted Order op the Star of 
India. No. 596. 

In the month of June of the last year, The Queen 
instituted the new " Order of the Star of India," for the 
express purpose of rendering high Honor to conspicuous 
Loyalty and Merit in the Princes, Chiefs and People of 
Her Indian Empire. The Order consists of the Sovereign, 
a Grand Master, always to be the Governor-General of 
India, and twenty-five Knights, with such Honorary Knights 
as the Crown may appoint. The Knights are to include 
both military, naval, and civil officers, and natives of 

The Insignia are, 

The Collar, which is composed of the heraldic Rose of 
England, and the Lotus Flower, and two Palm-Branches 
in saltire tied with a Eibbon, alternately, all of gold 
enamelled proper, and connected by a double golden chain. 
In the centre is the Imperial Crown, from either side of 
which the series of Devices commences with a Lotus. 
From the Crown depends the Badge, consisting of a bril- 
liant Mullet, or Star of five Points, to which is suspended 
an oval Medallion containing an onyx cameo profile Bust 
of the Queen, encircled by the Motto in letters of gold on 
an enriched Border of light blue enamel. 

The Investment Badge, to be worn pendent from a Eib- 
bon of pale blue with white borders, is the same in Design 
as the Collar Badge, but the Star, the setting of the 
Cameo, and the Motto are all of Diamonds. 

The Star, of Diamonds, is also a mullet, on an irra- 
diated field of gold. It is surrounded by an azure 


Chap. xx. 



Xo. 5U6. The Insignia of the Order of the Star of India. Page 27< 


fillet, bordered with gold, and charged with the Motto in 
Diamonds. The whole is encircled by wavy Rays of 

The Motto is, " Heaven's Light our G-uide." 

13. Decorations of Honor. 

Crosses, Medals, and Clasps, with Ribbons to which they 
should be attached, have been conferred for signal services, 
both naval and military. These Medals commemorate 
the services and the gallant actions of the Navy and Army 
of England in all parts of the world. Clasps or small 
Bars are attached to the Medal Ribbons, each bearing the 
name of some particular action. 

The Waterloo Medal, now rarely to be seen, is of silver, 
with the Head of the Prince Regent, and a winged Victory 
and the words, " Waterloo," " Wellington." The Ribbon 
is crimson, with a narrow stripe of blue near each edge. 

The Crimean Medal is silver, and is worn from a blue 
Ribbon with yellow edges for the Crimea itself, and from 
a yellow Ribbon with blue edges for the Baltic. There 
are separate Clasps for Sevastopol, Balahlava, Inkerman, 
and Alma. 

In 1830 and 1831, " Good Service Medals" of silver were 
instituted, and Rules were framed for their distribution 
to meritorious soldiers, seamen, and marines. The Naval 
Medal is worn from a blue, and the Military from a 
crimson Ribbon. 

There are many other Medals for various services in 
the Peninsula, in India, &c, &c. 

The Name, Rank, and Regiment or Ship, of every 
recipient of a Medal is engraven upon it. 

14. The Victoria Cross, instituted by Her Majesty 
the Queen in 1856, is the decoration of eminent personal 


valor in actual conflict with the enemy. It is a Maltese 
Cross of bronze, charged with the Imperial Crown and 
Crest, and has the words for valor upon a scroll, No. 
597. This Cross is worn on the left breast attached to a 
blue Ribbon for the Navy, and to a red Ribbon for the 
Army. A Bar is attached to the ribbon for every act of 
such gallantry as would have won the Cross. This noble 
decoration is given only for " conspicuous bravery," with- 
out any distinction whatever of rank or other circumstance. 
In the collection of Pictures entitled the " Victoria Cross 
Gallery," painted by Mr. Desanges, the incidents — 
memorable in English History, which have been rewarded 
with Victoria Crosses, are set forth with vivid and graphic 

15. Foreign Orders and Medals. 

The Insignia of Foreign Orders of Knighthood and 
Medals of Honor, the gift of Foreign Sovereigns, cannot 
be accepted and worn by any British subject, without the 
express and especial sanction and authority of the 

The Foreign Insignia and Medals that have been 
bestowed in considerable numbers upon British officers, 
soldiers, seamen, and marines, are those of the Legion of 
Honor of France, and the French Military Medal ; the 
Sardinian War Medal, and the Order of the Medjidie 
of Turkey. 

16. The Legion of Honor comprehends " Grand 
Crosses," " Grand Officers," " Commanders," " Officers," 
and " Knights." 

The Decoration is a Cross of ten Points of white enamel 
edged with gold ; the Points are connected by a Wreath 
of Laurel, proper, and in the centre, within an azure 


circle charged with the words " Napoleon III. Emp. des 
Francais," is a Head of the Emperor. The Cross is 
en signed by the Imperial Crown of France, and is worn 
attached to a red Ribbon. The Grand Officers also wear 
upon the right breast, a silver Star charged with the Im- 
perial Eagle. The same Star is worn on the left breast 
by the Knights Grand Cross, and their Cross is attached 
to a broad red Eibbon which passes over their right 

The French Military Medal is worn from a yellow Eib- 
bon with green Borders. 

17. The Sardinian War Medal is charged with the Cross 
of Savoy, and is suspended from a sky-blue Eibbon. 

18. The Turkish Order op the Medjidie has five 
Classes. The Badge is a silver Sun of seven triple Eays, 
the Device of the Crescent and Star alternating with the 
Eays. In the centre, upon a circle of red enamel is the 
Legend, (in the vernacular), " Zeal, Honor, Loyalty," 
and the date 1852, (Turkish, 1268) ; within this, on a 
golden field, the name of the Sultan. This Decoration 
varies in size for the various " Classes" of the Order. 
The First three Classes suspend the Badge round the 
neck from a red Eibbon having green Borders ; and the 
Fourth and Fifth Classes wear it upon the left Breast by 
a similar Eibbon. A Star, closely resembling the Badge, 
is also worn by the First Class on the left, and by the 
Second Class on the right breast. 

No. 298. Crown of Herald Kings-of-Arms. 



At an early period in the History of Heraldry, Shields 
of Arms were assigned to certain Offices, and also to Cor- 
porate Bodies whether Civil or Ecclesiastical. Armorial 
Insignia of this Class possess many qualities and associa- 
tions, which render them peculiarly attractive to students 
of Heraldry. So numerous are the Arms that would be 
comprehended under this Class, that within the limits of 
a general Manual it is not possible to describe and blazon 
more than a very few illustrative examples. A tolerably 
complete Manual of Official and Corporate Heraldry would 
form a goodly volume in itself. 

1. Arms of the Archbishops and Bishops, and of their 
several Sees. The Arms are the insignia of the Sees, and 
each Prelate impales the arms of his own See on the 
dexter side, with his own paternal arms on the sinister 

1. Archbishops. 

Canterbury : Az., an archiepiscopal staff, in pale, or, 
ens'ujncd with a cross patrc, arg., surmounted by a pall, of 


the last, fimbriated and fringed, gold, and charged with four 
crosses formees fitchees, sa. No. 255, PI. XIV. 

Fine examples exist at Canterbury, Croydon, Guildford, 
and All Souls College, Oxford. 

York : Gu., two keys in saltire, arg., in chief, an Imperial 
Crown of England. 

Armagh : Az., an archiepiscopal staff, in pale, arg., en- 
signed with a cross patee, or, surmounted by a pall, of the 
second, fimbriated and fringed, gold, and charged with four 
crosses formees fitchees, sa. 

Dublin : The same as Armagh. The student will 
observe the difference between the arms of the See of 
Canterbury, and those of Armagh and Dublin. 

2. Bishops. 

London: (hi., two swords, in saltire, arg., hilts and pom- 
mels, or. 

Durham : Az., four lions rampt., cantoned by a cross, or. 

Winchester : Gu., two keys endorsed, in bend, the 
uppermost arg., the other, or, having interposed between them, 
in bend sinister, a sword, of the second, hilt and pommel 

Bangor : Gu., a bend, or, guttee-de-poix, between two 
mullets, arg., pierced, of the field. 

Bath and Wells ; Az., a saltire, quarterly quartered, or 
and arg. 

Carlisle : Arg., on a Cross, sa., a mitre, labelled, or. 

Chester : Gu., three mitres, labelled, or. 

Chichester : Gu., a Prester John, sitting on a tombstone, 
in his left hand a mound, his right extended, all or ; on his 
head a linen mitre, and in his mouth a sword, ppr. 

Ely : Gu., three crowns, or. 


Exeter : Gu., a sword, in pale, ppr., hilt, or, surmount- 
ing two keys, in saltire, gold. 

Gloucester and Bristol : Az., two keys in saltire, 

Hereford : Gu., three leopards 1 faces reversed, jessant 
de-lys, or. 

Lichfield : Per pale, gu. and arg., a cross potent and 
quadrate, (No. 91), between four crosses patees, all counter- 

Lincoln: Chi., two lions of England; on a chief, az., 
the Blessed Virgin, sitting, crowned and sceptred, and hold- 
ing the Holy Child, or. 

Llandaff: Sa., two pastoral staves, in saltire, or and 
arg. ; on a chief, arg., three mitres labelled, gold. 

Manchester : Or, on a pale engrailed, gu., three mitres 
labelled, gold; on a canton, of the second, three bendlets 
enhanced, arg. 

Norwich : Az., three mitres, labelled, or. 

Oxford: Sa., a f esse, arg.; in chief, three ladies* heads, 
issuant, arrayed and veiled, arg., crowned, or ; in base, an 
ox, of the second, passant over a ford, ppr. 

Peterborough: Gu., between four crosslets fitchees, two 
keys, in saltire, or. 

Ripon : Arg., on a saltire, gu., two keys, in saltire, wards 
towards the base, or; on a chief, of the second, an Agnus 

Rochester : Arg., on a saltire, gu., an escallop-shell, or. 

St. Asaph : Sa., two keys, in saltire, endorsed, arg. 

St. David's : Sa., on a cross, or, five cinquefoils, of the 

Salisbury : Az., the Btessed Virgin and Child, in her 
left hand a sceptre, or. 







W^J ^ 

Plate XD/ II. 

N 03 538, 541 to 547, 598 to 600. 607. 


Worcester : Arg., ten torteaux, 4, 3, 2, 1. 
For the arms of the Sees of Ireland and of the Colonies 
I mnst refer to the Peerage. 

3. Deans and Chapters. 

Of this group of Arms I must be content to give a 
single example, as a specimen of its Class. 

Deanerv of Westminster. 

The Arms of the Confessor, (No. 78, PI. I) ; on a chief 
or, between two roses, gu., a pale charged with France modern 
and England quarterly. No. 598. 

4. Monasteries of the Middle Ages. 

Of the Arms of these Institutions, often of great interest 
to the student of historical Heraldry, I have space for 
two examples only. 

St. Alban's Abbey : Az., a saltire, or. See No. 466. 

Westminster Abbey : Az., on a chief indented, or, to 
the dexter a pastoral staff in pale, and to the sinister a mitre, 
gu. No. 599. 

5. Universities and Colleges. 

University of Oxford : Az., on a Booh open, ppr., gar- 
nished, or, having on the dexter side seven seals, gold, the 
words Dominus Illtjminatio Mea, between three crowns of 
the last. No. 600. 

University of Cambridge : Gu., on a cross, erm., between 
four lions of England, a Bible, lying fesse-wise, or, clasped 
and garnished, gold, the clasps in base. No. 601. 

King's College, Cambridge : 

(Founded in 1443 by Henry VI). Sa., three roses, arg., 


barbed, vert, seeded, or ; on a chief, per pale, az. and gu., a 
Fleur-de-lys of France and a Lion of England. 

Christ-Church College, Oxford : 

(First founded by Wolsey, but re-established and re- 
modelled by Henry VIII, in 1532 and 1546). 8a., on a 
cross engrailed, arg., a Lion pass., gu., between four Leo- 
pards' Faces, az. ; on a chief, or, a Rose, of the third, barbed, 
vert, seeded, of the fifth, between two Cornish choughs, 

Trinity College, Cambridge : 

(Founded by Henry VIII, in 1546). Arg., a chevron, 
between three Roses, gu., barbed, vert, seeded, or ; on a chief, 
of the second, a Lion of England, between two Bibles, pale- 
wise, gold, clasped and garnished, of the last, clasps to the 

Trinity College, Oxford : 

(Founded — the first after the Reformation — by Sir 
Thomas Pope, in 1556). 

Arms : Per pale, or and az., on a chevron, between three 
Griffins 1 Heads, erased, four Fleurs-de-lys, all counter- 

Crest : Two Griffins 1 Heads addorsed, issuing from a 
crest-coronet, per pale, or and az., counter-changed. 

6. Public Schools. 

Eton College : (Founded by Henry VI, in 1440) : 
Az., three lilies, slipped and leaved, 2 and 1, arg. ; on a 

chief, per pale, az. and gu., a Fleur-de-lys of France, and a 

Lion of England. 

Amongst the Archives of Eton is the original Grant of 

Arms by Henry VI. It is one of the most beautiful 







late XLVl. 

N os - 537 A, 567, 597 603 to 606. 


examples of Blazonry in existence, and it remains in 
perfect preservation. The seals appended to this and to 
other documents at Eton are of the highest interest. 

The Fraternity of the Trinity House, London : (In- 
corporated by Henry VIII, 1515). 

Arms : No. 168. Arg., a Cross of St. George, betweenfour 
ships of three masts, under full sail, upon waves of the sea, 
ppr., each bearing an ensign and pendant, gu. 

Crest : A Demi-Lion rampant guardant, regally 
crowned, or, holding in his dexter paw a sword erect, arg., 
hilted and pomelled, gold. 

7. The College of Arms, or Herald's College, 

Arms : Arg., a Cross of St. George, cantoning four doves, 
their dexter wings elevated and inverted, az. No. 602. 

Crest : From a crest-coronet or, a dove rising, az. 

Supporters : Two lions tampt. guard., arg., ducally 
crowned, or. 

These insignia were derived from Wriothsley, one of 
tha early Garters. 

8. The Herald Kings-of-Arms. 

Garter : Arg., the Cross of St. George ; on a chief, az., 
a ducal coronet encircled with a garter of the Order, between 
a lion of England and a fleur-de-lys, all or. No. 603. 

Norroy : Arg., the Cross of St. George ; on a chief, per 
pale, az. and gu., between a fleur-de-lys and a hey, the latter 
pale-wise, a lion of England, crowned, all or. No. 604. 

Clarencieux: Arg., the Cross of St. George; on a 
chief, gu., a lion of England, crowned, or. No. 605. 


Ulster : Arg., the Cross of St. George ; on a chief, az., 
between a harp and a portcullis, a lion of England, all or, 
the harp stringed, of the first. No. 606. 

9. Municipal Corporations. 

London : Arms, No. 139, p. 57 : Arg., the Cross of 
St. George ; cantoned in the first quarter, a dagger, erect, gu. 

Crest : A dragon's wing, expanded to the sinister, arg., 
ensigned with a cross of St. George. 

Supporters : Two Dragons, vert, their wings expanded, 
arg., and each charged with a cross, gu. 

Motto : Domine, Dirige Nos. 

Examples : Brasses at Walthamstow, a.d. 1545, and 
Much Hadham, a.d. 1582. The Guildhall, London, &c. 

Westminster : Az., a portcullis, or ; on a chief, of the 
second, the arms of the Confessor blazoned on a pale, between 
two roses, gu. No. 607. 

Canterbury : Arg., on a chevron, gu., between three 
Cornish choughs, ppr., a lion of England. 

York : Arg., on a cross of St. George, five lioncels of 
England. (See a brass in St. Cross Church, York). 

Oxford : Perfesse, arg., and barry wavy, az. and of the 
first, an ox passant, gu., armed and unguled, or. Or thus, 
Arg. in base a ford of water, ppr., through which an ox, gu., 
armed and unguled, or, is passing. 

Norwich : Gu., a castle triple towered, or, and in base, a 
lion of England. 

Bristol : Gu., a castle on a mount by the sea-side, a 
ship under full sail passing by, all ppr. See the brass to 
John Cutte, Mayor of Bristol, a.d. 1575, at Burnet, 


The Crests, Supporters, and Mottos, except in the in- 
stance of London, are omitted, and it must be understood 
that the examples blazoned are simply specimens of their 

10. Commercial Companies and Guilds. 

These important Institutions, the sources from which 
the great stream of English Commerce has flowed onwards 
with ever increasing strength, take us back to the 
grand heraldic era of King Edward III, by whom 
regular Armorial Bearings were assigned both to the 
Associations of Merchants, and to the Fraternities of 
Craftsmen and Traders. And these Coats of Arms of the 
Companies to which they belonged were quartered, in 
many instances, with their Merchants' Maries, by enter- 
prising individuals, a practice that was regarded with 
much jealousy by the Heralds, inasmuch as thus Mer- 
chants' Marks indirectly vindicated their claim to be 
regarded as a species of heraldic Blazonry, and Heraldry 
itself was constrained to extend its range beyond the 
exclusive limits of Chivalry. 

Many examples of the Arms of the early Companies 
or Guilds exist, particularly in Brasses, to which I refer 
the student. I proceed to blazon the arms of the more 
important of these Institutions. 

1. The Merchants of the Staple of Calais, incor- 
porated by Edward III : Barry undee of six, arg. and az., 
on a chief, gu., a lion of England. Example : Standon, 
Herts, a.d. 1477. No. 304. 

2. The Merchants Adventurers, or Hamburgh 
Merchants, received their original Charter from Edward 
I. Barry undee of six, arg. and az., a chief Quarterly, gu. 


and or ; in the 1st and 4th quarters, a Lion of England, and 
in the 2nd and 3rd quarters, two Lancastrian Roses. Ex- 
ample : The Brass to John Terri, a.d. 1524, St. John's, 
Maddermarket, Norwich, which has the arms of the Com- 
pany quartered with the " Mark" of John Terri himself- 
No. 305. 

3. The East India Merchants, incorporated by Queen 
Elizabeth, bore, Az., three ships under full sail, on the sea, 
ppr., their Sails, Ensigns, and Pendants all charged with the 
Gross of St. George; on a chief, arg., between two Lancas- 
trian Roses, a pale, quarterly, of the first and gu., bearing a 
Fleur-de-lys of France, and a Lion of England. Example : 
the Brass to the Navigator, John Eldred, a.d. 1632, 
at Great Saxham, Suffolk. Upon this same Brass are 
the Arms of the Levant and Russia Merchants' Companies. 

4. The Levant, or Turkev Merchants : Az., between 
two Rocks, a ship under full sail on the sea, ppr., the Sails, 
Ensign, and Pendants charged with the Cross of St. George ; 
a chief engrailed, or ; in base, a sea-horse. 

5. The Kussia Merchants : Barry wavy of six, arg. 
and az. : over all a ship under full sail, ppr., the sails, &c, 
charged with the Cross of St. George, all between three be- 
zants ; on a chief, or, between two Lancastrian Roses, a pale, 
gu., bearing a Lion of England. 

6. The Merchants Adventurers of Bristol : Barry 
wavy of eight, arg. and az., over all a bend, or, charged with 
a dragon passant, with wings endorsed and tail extended, 
vert ; on a chief, gu., between two bezants, a Lion of Eng- 

The Arms of the Twelve Great London Companies 
or Guilds, are as follow : 

1. The Mercer's Company, incorporated a.d. 1394 : 


G-u., a Demi-Virgin, couped below the shoulders, ppr., vested, 
or, crowned with an Eastern Grown, her hair dishevelled, 
and wreathed about her temples with roses of the second, 
issuing from clouds, and all within an orle of the same, 
ppr. Example : Higham Ferrers, Northants, a.d. 1504. 

2. The Grocers, (a.d. 1346). Arg., a chevron, gu., 
between nine Cloves, so,. Example : Finchley, Middlesex, 

A.D. 1610. 

3. The Drapers, (a.d. 1332, and 1364 ; Arms, 1439) : 
Az., three Clouds, radiated, ppr., each adorned with a triple 
Crown, or, cap, gu. Example : Walthamstow, Essex, a.d. 

4. The Fishmongers. (The Stock and Salt Fishmongers* 
ancient Companies combined, and their separate Arms 
united on a single Shield, a.d. 1534) : Az., three dolphins 
naiant, in pale, arg., finned, and ducally crowned, or, between 
two pairs of lucies in saltire, (the sin. surmounting the 
dext?), over the nose of each lucy a ducal coronet, gold ; on a 
chief, gu., three pairs of keys, endorsed in saltire, of the last. 
Example : Woburn, Bucks, a.d. 1520. 

5. The Goldsmiths, (a.d. 1327) : Quarterly, 1 andi 
gu., a leopard's face, or; 2 and 3, az., a covered cup, and 
in chief two buckles, their tongues fesse-wise, points to the 
dext., all of the second. Example : Datchet, Bucks, a.d. 

6. The Merchant Tailors: (a.d. 1466 and 1503). 
Arg., a royal tent, between two parliament robes, gu., lined 
erm., the tent garnished, and the tent-staff and pennon all 
or ; on a chief, az., a Lion of England. Example : St. 
Martin Outwich, London, a.d. 1500. 

7. The Skinners : (a.d. 1327 and 1395). Erm., on a 
chief, gu., three Princes* coronets, composed of crosses 



patees and fleurs-de-lys, or, with caps of the first, and 
tasselled of the last. Example: Skinner's Hall. 

8. The Haberdashers : (a.d. 1447, Arms in 1571). 
Barry nebulee of six, arg. and az., over all a bend, gu., 
charged with a Lion of England. Example : St. Andrew 
Undershaft, London, a.d. 1571. 

9. The Salters : (a.d. 1364 and 1530, Arms in 1530). 
Per chev., az. and gu., three covered cups, or salt-sprinklers, 
arg. Example : All Hallows', Barking, London, c. 1535. 

10. The Ironmongers: (a.d. 1462). Arg., on a chev- 
ron, gu., three swivels, or, (the central one pale-wise, the other 
two in the line of the ordinary), between as many steel gads, 
az. Example : Ironmongers Hall. 

11. The Yintners : (a.d. 1365 and 1437). 8a., a 
chevron between three tuns, arg. Example : Yintner's 

12. The Clothworkers ; (a.d. 1482 and 1528, Arms 
in 1530). Sa., a chevron, erm., between two habicks in chief, 
arg., and a tezel slipped in base, or. Example: Cloth- 
worker's Hall. 

To these, as examples of the other Companies of London, 
I add the Blazon of three other Shields of the same 

1. The Painters-Stainers, or Painters : Quarterly, 1 
and 4, az., three shields, 2 and 1, arg. ; 2 and 3, az., a 
chevron, between three phamix* heads, erased, or. Example: 
Painters' Hall. 

2. The Stationers : (a.d. 1556). Az., on a chevron, or, 
between three Bibles lying fesse-wise, gu., garnished, leaved, 
and clasped, gold, (clasps to the base), an eagle rising, ppr., 
enclosed by two Lancastrian Roses ; from the chief of the 
shield, a demi-circle of glory, edged with clouds, ppr., therein 


a Dove displayed, about its head a circle, arg. Example : 
Brass to John Day, printer, a.d. 1564, Little Bradley, 

3. The Brewers : Gu., on a chevron, arg., between three 
pairs of barley-garbs, in saltire, or, three tuns, sa., hooped, 
of the third. Example : at All Hallows, Barking, London, 
a.d. 1592. 

Shields of Arms are considered to belong to the dif- 
ferent Counties of the United Kingdom, and they are 
habitually used in documents and publications having a 
direct reference to the several Counties. It is difficult, 
however, to understand how a County can be supposed 
either to have a corporate existence, or to be able to bear 
Arms. Accordingly, I do not include in this chapter the 
so-called Arms of the Counties — arms which appear to 
have been adapted from the heraldic insignia of the early 
Earls or Counts. 

In this Chapter, had I been enabled to have extended 
it as fully as I should have desired, I should have in- 
cluded a complete series of those arms of which I have 
given only a few selected examples ; and I should also 
have added several other groups, that would have com- 
prehended the heraldic insignia of the Eegiments of the 
British Army, of our various National and Public Institu- 
tions and Associations, and of the most important of 
the incorporated Companies of our own times. I cannot 
resist adding the Mottos of the Eoyal Artillery and 
the Eoyal Marines — the former, with the Eoyal Arms 
and a gun, have the words Ubique, and Quo Fas et 
Gloria Ducunt ; and, with a representation of the ter- 
restrial globe, the latter have these words— Per Mare, 
per Terras. 

u 2 

No. 556. Crown of Henky VII, King's College Chapel, Cambridge. 



English Heraldry and the Gothic Architecture of 
England arose and flourished together. From the first 
they acted in concert, and their allied action has always 
been productive of the happiest results. From the edifices 
that the Gothic of the Middle Ages has left, as its own 
most fitting memorial, we learn many of not the least 
valuable of our lessons in early Heraldry. And it is from 
a thoughtful study of the manner in which the old 
alliance between Heraldry and Gothic Architecture ex- 
pressed itself in the Architectural Heraldry of the Plan- 
tagenet and Tudor eras, that we determine both the 
character and the range of our own Architectural Heraldry 
in the revived Gothic Architecture of the present day. 

Itself essentially an historical Art, Architecture, through 
the agency of other Arts working in close association with 
it, aspires to become a stone-inscribed History. Such co- 
operation necessarily implies that every historical acces- 
sory should be in consistent harmony with the style of 
Architecture with which it would be associated. Classic 


Architecture, accordingly, requires that every historical 
allusion should be made through its own medium. 
"Whatever Heraldry it may recognise, must be a Heraldry 
that derives its imagery from classic sources, and em- 
bodies its symbolism in classic guise. Alike in sentiment, 
in feeling, and in expression, the historical element of 
Classic Architecture must be thoroughly classic, and con- 
sequently it is impossible that any edifices erected in this 
style should be rendered historical of England. At any 
rate, it is not possible to write English History upon a 
classic edifice, with a free and a legible hand, or even in 
English characters, and in keeping with English tradi- 
tions and associations. The style peremptorily refuses to 
concede to English History more than a paraphrase and 
a translation after the classic manner. 

On the other hand, that Architectural Heraldry which 
records English History with the most consistent and 
emphatic expressiveness, is an element of Gothic Archi- 
tecture. Without it the style is imperfect. It carries out 
its ideas. It is the inexhaustible source of its happiest 
decorations. By it the Gothic realizes the peculiarly 
historical attributes of its own character. And, as the 
style is itself of universal applicability, free in action, and 
elastic in the development of its principles — so also 
Heraldry provides for the Gothic Architect, (and par- 
ticularly when employed upon public and national works) 
the most comprehensive and the most plastic of symbolism. 
Such being the case, it is a matter for equal surprise and 
regret that Architectural Heraldry should hitherto have 
been so generally neglected, even by some of our Gothic 
Architects. It is to be hoped that the time at length has 
come, in which both Architects themselves, and all who 



feel a real interest in their great Art, will bestow at least 
a portion of their regard upon Heraldry in its special 
relation to Architecture. From mediaeval Heraldry they 
will find that the Heraldry, which it is for them to intro- 
duce and to incorporate into their Gothic Architecture, 
must be derived. But here, as in the instance of the 
Architecture itself, it is not a blind following, and much 
less is it a mere inanimate reproduction of mediaeval 
Heraldry, and a reiteration of its forms and usages, that 
will enable our Architects to render their Architecture 
historical through a Heraldry of its own. What they 
have to do is to study the old Heraldry, to familiarise 
themselves with its working, to read its records with ease 
and fluency, and to investigate the principles upon which 
it was carried out into action. And having thus become 
Heralds through having attained to a mastery over 
mediaeval Heraldry, our Architects will devote themselves 
to the development of a fresh application of Heraldry in 
their own Architecture. The mediaeval authorities will 
have taught our Architects both what Heraldry is able to 
accomplish, and the right system for its operation ; and 
then with themselves will rest the obligation to produce 
a Heraldry that shall be truly their own, and to asso- 
ciate it with the Gothic Architecture of to-day. 

In their treatment of heraldic devices and composi- 
tions, I assume that our Architects would avoid every 
early conventionalism, which could detract from the 
artistic excellence of their works. Good drawing and 
truthful expression are in perfect keeping with the best 
and purest Heraldry, as an absolute harmony neces- 
sarily exists between the noblest of Architecture and of 
Sculpture and Painting. What I venture to designate 



an archaic system of rendering their figures, certainly 
does not vitiate the Heraldry of the early Heralds : but 
then their Heraldry would have been equally good, had 
their figures been faultless as works of Art. And though 
we may produce good Heraldry without good Art, still 
our Heraldry will never lose anything through an alliance 
with the most perfect Art ; and in the instance of our 
Architectural Heraldry, the very highest artistic merit is 
a positive condition of excellence. I am aware that there 
exist individuals prepared to maintain that good Heraldry 
implies bad Art. To such persons I cannot concede any 
authority to pronounce an opinion upon good Heraldry ; 
but, in illustration of my own sentiments, I refer them to 
the Supporters of the Eoyal Shield of England, as they 
appear at the entrance to Buckingham Palace ; and I ask 
whether in their opinion that Lion and that Unicorn 
would discharge their heraldic duties with less complete 
heraldic efficiency, had they been sculptured after draw- 
ings by Sir Edwin Landseer, instead of being such out- 
rageous burlesques upon both Art and Heraldry as 
have been permitted to intrude themselves under the 
very eyes of their Sovereign ? 

It is a singular circumstance, the causes of which it is 
by no means necessary now to investigate, that Heraldry 
is invariably felt to be one of the most interesting of studies 
by those who have bestowed some thought upon it, while 
by almost all who are absolutely unacquainted with, it it 
is held to be dry and uninviting, if not actually repulsive. 
Whatever the feeling generally entertained for them, the 
peculiar value of heraldic devices for purposes of decoration 
in Gothic Architecture, and their happy facility for adapta- 
tion to almost every possible condition, may justly claim 



for Architectural Heraldry the studious, and therefore the 
cordial regard of every Gothic Architect. Without 
Heraldry, historical sculpture in Architecture must ever 
act at disadvantage. The two in union enable the Archi- 
tect to work with full powers. For Heraldry conies in 
readily on innumerable occasions when sculpture, pro- 
perly so called, would be inadmissible. It enriches 
subordinate architectural details with characteristic 
decoration, by the very process which gives to them a 
meaning ; and thus it inscribes those details with an 
historical record. In the more important members of an 
edifice, also, Heraldry is equally ready to exert faculties 
fully adequate to all that they can require. If it be desired 
to identify an architectural work with a single person or 
with a particular family, Heraldry knows well how to 
symbolize with distinctness and precision the solitary 
impersonation, or the kindred group. Or should the 
edifice be one directly connected with the nation, either 
in some department of the Government, or in the ad- 
ministration of the affairs of some far-off colony or 
dependency — Heraldry here is not found wanting ; but, 
in union with sculpture, it carries around the entire 
building its historical series of much-conveying symbols ; 
and from basement to parapet the Architecture is eloquent 
of the men, who have taken a part in rendering their 
country the great and honored England that she is. 

Amongst the practical lessons that Architects will learn 
from the early Heralds, when they worked with the 
Architects of their own day, are those that will impress 
upon their minds the rule that shields and niches are 
never to be introduced into architectural compositions for 
their own sake alone, but that every shield is to be 


charged with its proper bearings, and every niche is to 
contain a becoming statue. They will also learn that 
heraldic insignia are always to be introduced with a 
definite purpose ; that each class of devices has certain 
functions peculiar to itself, and that the skilful archi- 
tectural Herald will always be able to adapt the devices 
and compositions of Heraldry to every condition and 
circumstance of each particular edifice. In the accessories 
of buildings also, as well as in their structural decora- 
tions, Heraldry is ever ready to provide the most felicitous 
of ornamentation. In Stained Glass, heraldic designs and 
the heraldic treatment of all designs are of the utmost 
value and the greatest interest. In Tile Pavements, 
Heraldry is equally efficient. The Heraldry of the early 
tiles at Malvern, Gloucester, Worcester, Westminster, and 
many other places, abounds alike in historical informa- 
tion, and in practical suggestions. And again, the en- 
graven and inlaid stone pavements that have just been 
revived by Clayton and Bell with such happy effect, may 
derive from Heraldry an infinite series of always appro- 
priate and graphic designs. Architectural wood-carvers, 
in like manner, will find similar advantages in a close 
alliance with Heraldry. It is the same with architec- 
tural metal-workers, and with every artist and craftsman 
that the Architect summons to work with him in the 
realization of his compositions : Architectural Heraldry 
abounds with direct teaching, and indirect suggestions 
available alike by them all. 

Throughout the Gothic era, the custom prevailed to 
introduce shields of arms of the Sovereign and the several 
members of his family into the architectural decorations of 
the more important edifices, and in many instances also the 


armorial insignia of benefactors and persons of eminence 
at the time in the realm. Some relics of this usage 
remain in all our cathedrals, and in almost every early- 
building that still exists. The shields were generally 
placed in the spandrels of some of the arcades and arches, 
in bosses of the vaulting or of the timber roofs, or in the 
stained glass of the windows ; sometimes they occur below 
niches, as on the altar-screen at St. Alban's ; and in other 
instances in various other positions. 

Amongst the most interesting and valuable of the 
collections of early Architectural Heraldry to which I am 
able to direct the attention of the student, are those in 
the Cathedrals, and especially in the Cloisters of 
Canterbury Cathedral, in Westminster Abbey and 
Hall, St. Alban's Abbey, King's College Chapel, 
Cambridge, and St. George's Chapel, Windsor, and 
also many of the Collegiate Buildings at both Oxford and 
Cambridge ; and with them I may associate, as exam- 
ples of parish churches rich in Heraldry, the churches of 
Great Yarmouth, and Fotheringhay. 

The Architectural Heraldry of Westminster Abbey 
commences with the series of shields that were sculptured 
by Henry III in the spandrels of the wall arcades of the 
choir aisles. These noble shields have suffered grievously 
from the barbarous mutilations that, from time to time, 
have been permitted to outrage the Church, which stands 
at the head of the ecclesiastical edifices of England. Of 
the original series there still remain, on the south side, 
the shields of the Confessor, Provence, Winchester, 
{Be Quincy), Lincoln, {Be Lactj), Cornwall, and Essex, 
{Fitz Piers) ; and on the north side, those of Germany, 
France, Gloucester, {Be Clare), Kent, {Be Burgh), Dm 



Montfort, and De Warrenne. More towards the west, 
in Henry the Fifth's work, there are remains of some 
other shields that are painted, (and not sculptured in 
relief) in the aisle-arcades of that portion of the Abbey. 
There is also a fine early shield of the Confessor in the 
south-west window. Of the rest of the Architectural 
Heraldry of Westminster Abbey, it will be sufficient for me 
to specify the Badges of Henry V in his monument ; the 
Stall-plates of the Knights and Esquires of the Bath in 
Henry YII's Chapel, and various Uoyal Badges scattered 
in rich profusion throughout both the exterior and the 
interior of that chapel, together with two fine shields of 
France modern and England, one without, and the other 
with a Label, carved beneath the dark vaulting that 
covers the approach to it. In Westminster Hall, in addi- 
tion to the remarkable series of Royal Crests and Badges, 
and to the fine Shields at the entrance, shields charged 
with the arms of Eichard II and of the Confessor, 
alternate upon the corbels that carry the principal trusses 
of the noble roof. The Royal Shield of Henry VII, with 
its Supporters, and the Grown, and also with the Badges 
of that Prince, are sculptured at King's Chapel in a 
truly splendid style, notwithstanding the decided decline 
of heraldic art that prevails during the period of the 
Tudors : and the entrance gateway to St. John's College 
in the same University, displays another admirable exam- 
ple of Tudor Architectural Heraldry. In concluding this 
chapter, I again refer students to that treasury of his- 
torical Heraldry, the collection of Stall-plates of the 
Garter at Windsor. See No. 556, p. 292. 

No. 557. Crown from the Monument of Maegaeet, 
Countess of Kichmond, a.d. 1509, Westminster Abbey. 



As a general rule, the Monuments of the Middle Ages 
are appropriate, characteristic, and deeply interesting, 
both as works of Art, and as commemorative memorials. 
In the degree also that these early monuments increase 
in their importance, in that same degree do they claim 
an increased measure of admiring approval. On the 
other hand, in our modern monuments the converse of 
this rule obtains ; and particularly in the circumstance 
that the more important the monument, the more deplor- 
ably unworthy it is almost certain to be. The earlier and 
the more recent Monuments in Westminster Abbey 
exemplify the two eras in a significant manner. The 
competitions that within the last few years have brought 
together collections of designs for certain public me- 
morials, have been no less conclusive in demonstrating 
the fact, that the nobler the required monument, the 
more ignoble is the prevailing character of the composi- 
tions that are submitted for it. The evidence of the 
Abbey and of the competitions is corroborated in every 
direction by the innumerable objects that act as monu- 


ments in our cemeteries, and by their contemporaries, the 
marble pyramids, and mural tablets, and tall white 
monotonous slabs of our churches and churchyards. 

Upon consideration, the early Monuments are found to 
be thoroughly heraldic, while it is evident that Heraldry 
knows nothing of those that so clearly indicate the lapse of 
intervening centuries. I believe that to this presence of 
Monumental Heraldry with the memorials of the one era, 
and to its absence from those of the other, may be 
attributed the painful contrast that exists between them ; 
and I am persuaded that true Monumental Heraldry alone 
is competent to render the commemorative memorials of 
our own times worthy to take rank with such monuments, 
as our predecessors of the thirteenth and fourteenth cen- 
turies were in the habit of erecting. It must be added 
that, as a matter of course, a preliminary step to the 
adoption of a genuine and really effective Monumental 
Heraldry must be the absolute exclusion of the pagan 
element from our Monuments — the exclusion of all mytho- 
logical allegories and emblems, from inverted torches to 
the semi-nude figures whose identity has to be determined 
by their names being inscribed beneath their feet. 

The study of Monumental and of Architectural Heraldry 
may be most advantageously pursued together. Indeed, 
the one study may be said to imply the other ; so that 
what has been said in the preceding chapter upon Archi- 
tectural Heraldry, is equally applicable to the Heraldry 
of Monuments. The old Monuments are to be studied as 
authorities for their Heraldry ; but they are not to be 
copied, neither is their Heraldry to be reproduced once 
more in fac-simile. There is much, for example, that the 
modern designer of engraven monumental slabs may 



learn from the Brasses of the reign of Richard XI ; and 
yet who can forbear to smile when he finds a figure of a 
knight, armed and appointed as Bolingbroke and Mow- 
bray were when they met for their famous combat, laid 
down in the year 1861, to commemorate a veteran officer, 
who had for some time been a metropolitan member of 
Parliament since the passing of the Reform Bill ? This is 
a companion work to the Dr. Johnson in a Roman 

Very small is the number of the early Monuments that 
are altogether unable to repay the inquiries of the student 
of Heraldry, while fine and eminently instructive examples 
exist in very considerable numbers. The Cathedrals, and 
both the greater and the lesser churches are alike cele- 
brated for their admirable monuments. None surpass 
those of Edmond of Lancaster and his Countess, of De 
Valence, of Alianore of Castile, of John of Eltham, 
and of Edward III and his Queen Philippa, in Westmin- 
ster Abbey. The Monuments also of the Black. Prince, 
of Henry IV and his Queen Joanna, and of Archbishop 
Arundel, at Canterbury ; of the Beauchamps, at War- 
wick ; of Bishop Burghersh and his brother, at Lincoln ; 
of Edward II, at Gloucester ; of the Countess of Rich- 
mond and her son, Henry VII, at Westminster ; of 
Prince Arthur Tudor, at Worcester, and Duke Humphrey 
Plantagenet, at St. Alban's, are inferior to none in heral- 
dic interest. From a long series of other examples, which 
invite the special attention of the student of Monumental 
Heraldry, I may specify those that are at Beverley, Teu- 
kesbury, St. Alban's, Christchurch, Arundel, Trotton in 
Sussex, Elsyng in Norfolk, and Cobham in Kent. 

Whatever especial points the student may desire to 


investigate, he will find examples that will place before 
him the information that he requires. The earliest 
known quartering of arms appears upon the monument of 
Alianore of Castile ; and the earliest quartering by a 
subject is shown in the shield of the Earl of Pembroke on 
the monument of his royal mother-in-law, Queen Philippa, 
and also upon the surcoat of the Earl himself in the 
Elsyng brass, a.d. 1347. The shields of the Percy Shrine 
at Beverley exemplify the most effective drawing, the 
boldest sculpture, and diapering equally simple and beau- 
tiful. The monument to a priest of the same family, also 
in Beverley Minster, illustrates in a remarkable manner 
the usage of embroidering a series of shields of arms 
upon ecclesiastical vestments. The effigy at Worcester, 
and the brass at Trotton, are examples of a similar 
application of shields of arms to the decoration of female 
costume. And, again, the Heraldry of dress is shown in 
all its curious and sometimes fantastic varieties in almost 
innumerable brasses and sculptured effigies. The monu- 
ment of Abbot Ramrydge, at St. Alban's, abounds in 
Heraldry of the very highest interest. In like manner, 
a profusion of heraldic insignia adorns the monument of 
Ltjdovic B-obsart, Lord Bourchier, Standard Bearer of 
Henry V, at Westminster Abbey. On either side of this 
last monument two large banners are carved in stone, 
with quartered arms in relief, their staves forming mould- 
ings of the canopy, and being held severally by a lion and 
a dragon. Other examples might be adduced in vast 
numbers of monuments of every class, the simplest as 
well as the most elaborate and costly, all of them com- 
petent to bear witness to the justice of the highest en- 


coniiums that may be bestowed upon early Monumental 

II. The Eoyal Monuments op England. 

At Fontevraud, in Normandy, there are original monu- 
mental effigies of Henry II, Alianore of Guienne, 
Richard I, and Isabelle of Angouleme. 

At Rouen is a second monumental effigy of Richard I. 

At the Abbey of UEspan, near Mans, is a monumental 
effigy of Berengaria of Navarre. 

At Mans is a curious enamelled tablet, supposed to be 
monumental, to Geoffrey of Anjou, the Founder of the 
House of Plantagenet. Engraved by Stothard, and 
again in Lab arte' s Hand-book. 

The following are in England. 

1. William Rufus, died 1100. Winchester Cathe- 
dral. Stone coffin. 

2. John, died 1216. Worcester Cathedral. Effigy and 
coffin-lid of the period of his death, now on an altar- tomb 
of about a.d. 1500. This is the earliest Royal Effigy in 

3. Henry HI, died 1272. Westminster Abbey. Tomb 
and Effigy, with mosaic work. 

4. Edward I, died 1307. Westminster Abbey. Plain 

5. Alianore of Castile, died 1290. Tomb, Effigy and 

6. Edward II, died 1327. Gloucester Cathedral. 
Tomb, Effigy, and Canopy. 

7. Edward III, died 1377. Westminster Abbey. 
Tomb, Effigy and Canopy. 


8. Philippa of Hainault, died 1369. Westminster 
Abbey. Tomb, Effigy, and Canopy. 

9 and 10. Kichard II, deposed 1399 ; and Anne of 
Bohemia, died 1394. Westminster Abbey. Tomb, two 
Effigies, and Canopy. 

11 and 12. Henry IV, died 1413; and Joanna of 
Navarre, died 1437. Canterbury Cathedral. Tomb, two 
Effigies, and Canopy. 

13. Henry V, died 1422. Westminster Abbey. 
Tomb, and mutilated Effigy. 

14 and 15. Henry VII, died 1509 ; and Elizabeth 
of York, died 1503. Westminster Abbey. Tomb, two 
Effigies and Enclosure. 

16. Elizabeth, died 1603. Westminster Abbey. 
Eenaissance Monument with Effigy. 

To the foregoing the following monuments of Royal 
Personages may be added : 

1 . William Longespee, Earl of Salisbury, died 1226. 
Salisbury Cathedral. Tomb and Effigy. 

2. Edmond Plantagenet, First Earl of Lancaster, 
(second son of Henry III), died 1296. Westminster 
Abbey. Tomb, Effigy, and Canopy. 

3. Aveline, Countess of Lancaster, died 1269. West- 
minster Abbey. Tomb, Effigy and Canopy. 

4. William de Valence, Earl of Pembroke. (Son of 
Isabelle of Angouleme), died 1296. Westminster Abbey. 
Tomb and Effigy, with rich Enamels. 

5. Aymer de Valence, Earl of Pembroke, (son of 
Earl William), died about 1320. Westminster Abbey 
Tomb, Effigy and Canopy. 

6. John Plantagenet, of Eltham, Earl of Cornwall 



(second son of Edward IT), died 1334. Westminster 
Abbey. Tomb and Effigy ; Canopy destroyed. 

7. William Plantagenet, of Hatfield, (second son of 
Edward III), died about 1340. York Cathedral. Tomb 
and Effigy. 

8. Edward Plantagenet, K.G., the Black Prince, 
died 1376. Canterbury Cathedral. Tomb, Effigy and 
Canopy : also a Shield, Helm, &c. 

9. Alianore de Bohun, (widow of Thomas Planta- 
genet, Duke of Gloucester, youngest son of Edward III), 
died 1399. Westminster Abbey. Tomb, and Brass. 

10. Edmond Plantagenet, K.G., Duke of York, (fifth 
son of Edward III), died 1402. King's Langley, Herts. 
Tomb and Shields of Arms. 

11. Humphrey Plantagenet, K.G., Duke of Glou- 
cester, (fourth son of Henry IV), died 1447. St. Alban's 
Abbey. Architectural and Heraldic Monument. 

12. Catherine, (third wife of Prince John Planta- 
genet of Ghent), died 1403. Lincoln Cathedral. Tomb, 
now despoiled of its Brasses. 

13. Isabelle Plantagenet, (only daughter of Eichard 
Plantagenet, of Coningsburgh), and her husband, Henry 
Bourchier, KG., Earl of Essex and Eu, died 1400. 
Little Easton, Essex. Brass with two Effigies. 

14. Elizabeth Plantagenet, (sister of Edward IV), 
and her husband, John de la Pole, K.G., Duke of 
Suffolk, died 1400. Wingfield, Suffolk. Tomb, with two 

15. Arthur Tudor, K.G., Prince of Wales, (eldest son 
of Henry VH), died 1502. Worcester Cathedral. Archi- 
tectural Monument. 

16. Margaret Douglas, Countess of Lennox, (mother 


of Lord Darnley, and grand-daughter of Henry VII), died 
1577. Westminster Abbey. Tomb and Effigy. 

17. Margaret Beaufort, Countess of Richmond, 
(mother of Henry VII), died 1509. Westminster Abbey. 
Tomb and Effigy. 

18. Margaret Plantagenet, Countess of Salisbury, 
(daughter of George Plantagenet, Duke of Clarence,) died 
1541. Christ Church, Hampshire. Architectural Monu- 

19. Mart Stuart, Queen of Scots, died 1587. West- 
minster Abbey. Renaissance Monument and Effigy. 

Amongst the Crystal Palace Collections there are casts 
of all the Royal Effigies, including those at Fontevraud, 
Rouen and Mans, except the mutilated No. 13 of the 
former of the foregoing lists ; and also casts of Nos. 1, 6, 
8, 17, and 19, in the second Hst. 

The early usage of placing various shields of arms 
upon monuments leads naturally to inquiries into the 
rules, if any ever existed, by which the selection of such 
shields might have been determined. So far as my own 
observation has extended, I have not yet been able to 
detect any rule that was generally recognized upon this 
subject, except the simple and obvious one of placing 
about a monument the shields of the persons who were 
nearest of kin to the individual commemorated. In the 
monuments of Royal personages, considerations of state 
policy might often influence this selection ; and it is evi- 
dent that the propriety of placing about certain other 
monuments the shields of the Sovereign and of the princes 
of the blood royal, was regarded as beyond all question. 

x 2 


The monuments of Bishop Bitrghersh and his brother, 
at Lincoln exemplify this practice. When statuettes, or 
" weepers," as they were called, were placed about monu- 
ments in niches or beneath canopies, the shields asso- 
ciated with the figures would naturally be identified with 
the personages represented. This is the case in the 
Beauchamp Monument at Warwick ; and, so far as there 
exist remains of the original memorials, it is the same in 
the two fine monuments of King Edward III and 
his Queen Philippa, in Westminster Abbey. The 
statuettes and shields upon the magnificent monu- 
ments of Edmond of Lancaster and Aymer de Valence 
now are by no means easily identified; but they are 
second to none in either artistic excellence or heraldic 
interest. In very many instances the arms were origin- 
ally blazoned in color only, without any carving in 
relief, or any incised outlines ; and in such shields the 
blazon is commonly lost, or perhaps it has been repainted, 
and so all traces of the original Heraldry in all probabi- 
lity have been destroyed. 

It was customary to repeat the same shield, or the 
same group of shields, upon early monuments ; and it is 
found that precedence in arrangement was secured for the 
most important shield, which same shield was sometimes 
the only one in a series that was repeated ; an example 
occurs in the monument to Earl William de Valence, 
where the shield of England is the one that has pre- 
cedence and is repeated. Upon the Monument of Alia- 
nore of Castile, the shields of England, Castile and Leon, 
and Ponthieu, (her husband, her father, and her mother) 
alternate, and all are repeated. And again, upon the 
basement of the monument of Edward III, a shield of 


France ancient and England is repeated, alternating with 
one now charged with a red cross upon a golden field ; 
and, in like manner, his shields of arms " for war and 
for peace," surround the monument of the Black 
Prince. See, Supplementary Chapter: V. 

Without attempting any further to suggest what 
usages may have been recognized and adopted in the 
arranging and placing of heraldic insignia upon mediaeval 
monuments, I will now briefly describe the arrangement 
of the shields that are still in existence upon a few re- 
markable early examples. 

The Monument to King Edward III. Upon the 
south side, each placed beneath a bronze statuette, and 
all fixed to the body of the monument itself, there remain 
four shields enamelled upon copper in their proper 
blazonry ; two other shields are lost from the series, but 
the group of six statuettes is complete. 1. France 
ancient and England, with a silver label of three points. 2. 
Castile and Leon impaling France ancient and England. 
3. France ancient and England, with the Label represented 
in fac-simile in No. 489. 4. Lost, (the statuette repre- 
sents a bearded man.) 5. Brittany, (ermine), impaling 
France ancient and England. 6. Lost, (the statuette a 
youth). The shields yet existing are for the Black Prince, 
the Princesses Joan and Mary Plantagenet, and ap- 
parently for Edmond Plantagenet, the first Puke of 
York. As I have already stated, upon the basement of 
this monument there are two large enamelled shields of 
France ancient and England, and two others bearing or, 
a cross, gu. ; probably these last were originally shields 
of St. George. 

The Brass to Alianore de Bohun, Duchess of Glou- 


cester, a.d. 1399, Westminster Abbey. Six shields of 
arms, suspended from the shafts of the canopy. On the 
dexter side : 1. Her husband, Thomas Plantagenet, 
Duke of Gloucester ; 2. Her father, Humphrey de 
Bohun, last Earl of Hereford ; 3. Milo of Hereford. 
On the sinister side: 1. Her husband, impaling De 
Bohun and Milo, quarterly ; 2. De Bohun impaling Fitz 
Alan and Warrenne, quarterly: the third shield on 
this side is lost. See Nos. 333, 340, and 341. 

The Brass to Joice, Lady Tiptoft, a.d. 1446, Enfield 
Church, Middlesex. There are six shields in this brass, 
and they are arranged precisely in the same manner as 
in the last example, the De Bohun brass. On the dexter 
side : 1. Her father, Edward Charlton, Baron Charlton 
de Powys : 2. Her husband, Sir John Tiptoft, impaling 
the impaled shield of her father and mother, in which 
impalement her mother's arms appear to the dexter ; she 
was Alianore, daughter of Thomas Holland, Earl of 
Kent, and widow of Roger Mortimer, fourth Earl of 
March, and precedence was evidently given to her arms 
in the marshalling of this shield in consideration of her 
exalted rank : 3. Tiptoft, her husband. On the sinister 
side : 1. Tiptoft impaling Powys, her husband and her- 
self ; 2. Powys and Holland quarterly, her father and 
mother; 3. Powys, her father and herself. See Nos. 
300 a, 300 b, and 343. 

Edmond Plantagenet, K.G., Duke of York, a.d. 
1402, at King's Langley, Herts. An elaborate altar- 
tomb, supporting a massive plain slab of black marble, 
which evidently does not belong to the monument. On 
the destruction of the monastic church at Langley, this 


tomb was placed in its present position in the north-east 
angle of the parish church. 

The monument is panelled, and in each foliated panel 
is a shield of arms carved in relief upon the alabas- 
ter. At the head are, St. Edmond ; France ancient, 
and England, and Edward the Confessor. At the 
feet the only remaining shield is Holland, the bordure 
plain. On the north side, commencing from the west 
end, Leon, (a lion rampant) and Holland, the bor- 
dure semee de lys. On the south side, commencing 
from the west end, Germany, the eagle having two heads, 
but not crowned ; then two shields of France ancient 
and England, each with a Label of three points ; then 
the same impaling Castile and Leon ; again, France 
ancient and England, with a Label of three points ; 
and the same shield, without any Label, but within a 
bordure ; and the series is completed with the same 
quartered shield with a Label of five points, of Lancaster 
and France. The charges on the other Labels are no 
longer to be distinguished ; all that may be certainly 
affirmed is that, with the exception of the second shield 
of the series, these Labels have all borne charges. See 
Nos. 475, 477 a, and 486. 

Margaret Beaufort, Countess of Richmond, a.d. 
1509, Westminster Abbey. An altar- tomb in the early 
Renaissance style, with an Effigy, the work of Torregiano. 
The Heraldry is singularly interesting, and the whole is 
boldly executed in relief in bronze. At the head, Ed- 
mond Tudor impaling Beaufort, her first husband and 
herself, the shield surmounted by a Crown not arched. 
On the south side : 1. Her son and his consort, Henry 
VII and Elizabeth of York ; the shield ensigned with 


an arched crown ; 2. Her husband's mother, and her 
first husband, Henry V and Katherine of France, the 
crown arched ; 3. Her grandson, Arthur Plantaqenet, 
Prince of Wales, the crown not arched. On the north 
side : 1. The shield lost, but the arched crown remains ; 
2. Her father and mother, John Beaufort, K.G., Duke 
of Somerset, and Margaret Beauchamp of Bletsho, the 
crown not arched ; 3. Her paternal grandfather and 
grandmother, John Beaufort, K.G-., (son of John Plan- 
tagenet of Ghent), and Margaret Holland ; this shield 
is without any coronet. At the feet, her third husband 
and herself, Stanley impaling Beaufort, without any 
coronet. In this shield, Stanley is quarterly, 1 and 4 
grand quarters, Stanley, Lathom, and Warrenne quarterly ; 
2 and 3, Isle of Man; in pretence, Montault. See Nos. 
176 a, 205 a, 346, 346 a, 351, 369, 479, 482, 484, and 

The monument erected by James I to the memory of 
Queen Elizabeth, in Westminster Abbey, is in itself a 
complete chapter of Eoyal Heraldry, as such a chapter 
would be written by the Heralds of the first Stuart who 
wore the crown of Great Britain. About the cornice of 
the architectural canopy of the monument is placed a 
series of thirty-two shields, the shields themselves being 
carved in relief, but their charges are blazoned in gold 
and colors only on flat surfaces ; and as some, if not all of 
these shields have been painted again at no distant 
period, there is consequently a degree of uncertainty as 
to their exact fidelity. As they now appear, these shields, 
with two exceptions, are severally charged with two im- 
paled coats of arms, and they are arranged in the order 
following. 1. The Confessor : 2. William I, England, 


(two lions,) and Flanders : 3. Henry I, England and Scot- 
land: 4. Geoffrey Plantagenet, Anjou and England: 
5. Henry II, England and Aquitaine: 6. John, Eng- 
land, (three lions), and Angouleme, (lozengy, or, and gu) : 
7. Henry III, England and Provence : 8. Edward I, 
England, and Castile and Leon : 9. Edward II, England 
and France ancient : 10. Edward III, France ancient and 
Hainault : 11. Lionel, Duke of Clarence, (label with three 
cantons,) and Be Burgh : 12. Mortimer and Clarence : 13. 
Mortimer and Holland, (plain bordure :) 14. Edmond, Duke 
of York, (label with nine torteaux,) and Castile and Leon : 
15. Richard. Plantagenet " of Coningsburgh," (bordure 
of Leon,) and Mortimer and Be Burgh quarterly : 16. 
Richard, Duke of York, (label with nine torteaux,) and 
Neville: 17. Edward IV, France modern and England, 
and Widville : 18. Henry YH and Elizabeth of York : 
19. Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn : 20. John Planta- 
genet " of Ghent/' label, with nine ermine spots. 21. 
John " of Ghent" and Boett — (gu., three Catherine wheels, 
or) : 22. Beaufort and Holland : 23. Beaufort and Beau- 
champ : 24. Edmond Tudor, and Margaret Beaufort : 
25, 26, 27. Three impaled shields of Boleyn : 28, 29. 
Two impaled shields of Howard ; the bend is plain, but 
the Scottish shield was probably painted out when the 
last re-blazoning took place : 30. Douglas of Angus, 
and Margaret Tudor: 31. Stuart of Lennox and 
Margaret Douglas, (the father and mother of Lord 
Darnley) : 32. Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley, and 
Mary Stuart, Queen of Scotland. 

Upon the canopy, at its four angles, four small shields, 
held by two dragons and two crowned lions, are charged 
with a rose, a fleur-de-lys, a portcullis, and a harp, all 


crowned. On the basement are fonr other shields severally 
bearing, or, three garbs, az., (Chester) : az., a harp, or, 
stringed, arg., (Ireland) : az., ten bezants in pile, (Corn- 
wall) : and Wales. Also, on either side of the canopy- 
there is an achievement of arms ; that to the sonth has 
France modern and England upon a large shield, with a 
golden Lion and Dragon as supporters, and the motto, 
Dietj. et. mon. droit, but without any crown ; and on 
the north side, upon another large shield, Scotland im- 
paling France modern and England, with a unicorn and 
lion crowned as Supporters, the arms of Scotland and the 
unicorn being on the dexter side; the motto is King 
James' own, Beati Pacifici. There is no crown above 
the shield. 

The monument of Lewis Eobsart, K.G., Lord Bour- 
chier, Standard Bearer to Henry V, at Westminster, has 
shields surrounded with the garter of the Order. Several 
slabs, now despoiled of their brasses, in Winchester 
Cathedral, to Prelates of the Order, show traces of having 
once been enriched with gartered shields of arms. And 
in Lincoln Cathedral, upon the monument of Catherine, 
the last wife of John Plantagenet of Ghent, there are 
the sharply cut matrices that once were filled with shields 
of arms surrounded with the collar of SS. 

The use of Badges in the heraldic decoration of monu- 
ments is exemplified at Westminster in the sculptured 
figures in the chantry of Henry Y : and again, upon the 
slab that covers the tomb of Sir Humphrey Bourchier, 
a.d. 1471, which bears four richly quartered shields with 
labels, and six Bourchier-hnots, No. 516, each one of them 
surmounting a piece of armour for guarding the elbow ; 
these knots are formed of straps, one of them distin- 


guished from the other by being studded, and both end- 
ing in buckles. 

Examples of arms emblazoned on Lozenges occur in 
the monuments to Margaret Douglas, a.d. 1577, to 
the Duchess of Suffolk, a.d. 1563, and to Mary Stuart, 
the infant daughter of James I, all of them in Westmin- 
ster Abbey. 

There is another class of early monuments of a simple 
character, which will always be regarded with much in- 
terest by the Herald. I refer to the monumental slabs, 
either incised or sculptured in relief, that bear certain 
significant symbols to denote the rank, profession, or 
occupation of the persons commemorated. In almost 
every instance, the Christian symbol, the Cross, appears 
with the other devices, and occasionally there is also a 
shield of arms. Memorials of this description are charged 
with the mitre, staff, chalice and book of ecclesiastics ; 
with the warrior's sword, and the pilgrim's staff ; with 
keys, bows and arrows, axes, ships, fish, penners and ink- 
horns, trumpets, implements for bell-founding, horse- 
shoes, hammers and anvils, shears, scissors, gloves, shoe- 
makers' implements, (these last at Kilkenny) and various 
other devices of a similar character. I have engraved a 
numerous series of these slabs in my " Christian Monu- 

There still remains a group of symbolical devices, that 
appear in early monuments, and sometimes in both archi- 
tecture and seals, which may be appropriately noticed at 
the conclusion of this chapter. These are what may be 
entitled devices of a sacred character, and they comprise : 
1. The Emblems of the four Evangelists : the angel of St. 
Mathew, the ivinged lion of St. Mark, the winged ox of 



St. Luke, and the eagle of St. John ; these figures were 
constantly placed at the four angles of brasses and other 
commemorative memorials. 2. The Emblems of our Lord's 
Passion : The cross, nails, scourges, crown of thorns, reed 
with hyssop, the dice of the soldiers, and some others, 
which are arranged in groups and charged upon shields. 
And, 3. The singular shield designed to symbolize the 
Holy Trinity, which is represented in No. 608 ; the 

No. 608. 

example is drawn from the Brass at St. Cross, near 
Winchester, a.d. 1382, to John de Campeden. In the 
same brass there is also a striking example of the shield 
of the Passion ; and other good examples occur in the 
inlaid pavement tiles at Great Malvern. 

No. 610. — Secretum of Heney Plantagenet, second son of 
Edmond, first Earl of Lancastee. 


1. SEALS. 

The Art of Seal Engraving, in the first instance singu- 
larly rude but from the first giving promise of future 
excellence, attained to its highest perfection in England 
during the reign of Edward III, when it was very ex- 
tensively practised, and enjoyed the greatest popularity. 

Figures of every kind, architecture, heraldic and other 
devices, with every conceivable variety both of accessory 
and of legend, were introduced into these early seals. 
Hence they afford such varied illustrations of the taste, 
feelings, fancy and humour, of the religion also, and of 
the superstitions of their times. History, genealogy and 
biography derive from them both evidence and facts of 
peculiar importance ; and, above all, Heraldry might be 
content to rely upon Seals alone to exemplify its principles 
and to illustrate its practice. 

Seals were not introduced into England until the 
reign of Edward the Confessor, from whose time the 
Royal Seals of England form an uninterrupted series of 


surpassing interest and value. Within a few years after 
the Norman Conquest, the use of Seals became generally 
established ; and early in the twelfth century they were 
universally adopted for authenticating all written docu- 
ments. On June 15, 1215, Magna Charta was sealed by 
King John ; nor is a royal signature known to have 
confirmed a document until the time of Bichard II, at 
the close of the fourteenth century. Perhaps the earliest 
approximation to the signature of a royal personage 
appears upon a warrant of the Black Prince, a.d. 
1370, under his privy-seal, which is subscribed by the 
Prince himself with the words, Houmont, Ich JDien. 

Signet-rings were made either by engraving the re- 
quired designs upon gems, agates, and other hard stones, or 
by cutting the devices and legends on the metal of the 
rings themselves. The larger Seals (and many of the 
early seals are of very considerable size) were engraven 
on suitable pieces of gold, silver, latten or brass, or 
steel. Jet is found to have been sometimes employed, 
with some other materials. In form the Seals are either 
circular or pointed ovals, the latter shape being that 
generally adopted by Ecclesiastics, though not by any 
means restricted to them. The Eoyal Seals are circular. 
In rare instances seals are found lozenge-shaped, triangu- 
lar, or cut to the form of an heraldic shield. The im- 
pressions were taken in wax of various colors, green, red, 
different shades of brown, a dull yellow, and white. Like 
Coins, the more important Seals were very commonly 
impressed on both sides. Such impfessions were appended 
to documents, and not stamped upon them. In taking 
these impressions, consequently, two dies or matrices, 
each having its own device and legend, were employed ; 


these were severally called the Seal and Counter-Seal; 
but the double impression constituted a single seal, its two 
sides being distinguished as its obverse and reverse. In 
the fifteenth century, it became customary to cover the 
wax for the sake of preserving it with a wrapper of 
paper, or various ingenious devices were employed for 
securing the wax from injury by encircling the impres- 
sions with " fenders" formed of rusheSj leaves, or plaited 
paper. " Fenders" of this kind have been found attached 
to seals as early as 1380. Sovereigns and persons of 
high rank, in addition to their official seal, had a personal 
or private seal, designated a Secretum. The same 
individual also occasionally possessed and sealed with 
more than one Secretum, and where several offices were 
held by one person, he would use a separate seal for each 

A very superficial classification of seals is sufficient to 
convey a correct idea of the comprehensive range of 
Seal Heraldry. Thus, Seals may be classified as, 

I. Ecclesiastical, and II. Lay or Secular. Each of 
these primary groups is divisible into (1). Official, and 
(2). Personal Seals. The Personal Seals necessarily com- 
prise unlimited varieties; and the Official Seals, both 
Ecclesiastical and Secular, may be sub-divided into those 
Seals of individuals which make a reference to the digni- 
ties, offices, or preferments that may be held by them ; 
common seals of bodies corporate, and the like ; and Seals 
of office that are not identified with any individual officer. 
Thus almost every possible application and expression of 
Heraldry appears in association with Seals. 

The student of Heraldry will do well to take up Seals 
with the intention to deal with them upon some definite 



system. His study, to prove really satisfactory to him, 
had better be devoted, first, to one class of Seals, and 
then to other classes, in such order of succession as he 
may find to be most desirable. For example, the Great 
Seals of England, Scotland, and France, form three kind- 
dred groups for separate and yet connected study. 
Other groups may be formed somewhat after the follow- 
ing manner : The Seals of the Archiepiscopal and Epis- 
copal Sees, with the Arms of the Archbishops and 
Bishops : Monastic Seals : Eoyal Secreta : the Seals and 
Secreta of certain noble families, as the De Bohuns, 
the Fitz Alans, the Mortimers, and others : the Seals 
of knights and esquires : the several classes of Seals of a 
particular period : or miscellaneous Seals of any period. 
Or, again, Seals may be selected for study with reference 
to certain special heraldic qualities in the Seals them- 
selves — such Seals, for example, as illustrate Marshalling 
Arms, or Cadency, or Military Heraldry, or Supporters, or 
Crests, or Badges in association with shields, or varied 
forms of Shields, or Legends, or Architectural and other 
Accessories. In every instance Seals will more than 
satisfy the student's highest expectations. Seals were 
evidently the delight of the early Heralds ; and Seal- 
Heraldry, accordingly, is Heraldry thoroughly in earnest. 
Such Achievements of Arms as abound in Seals, so com- 
plete, so spirited, so full of heraldic life and energy, 
rarely occur elsewhere. The History of Heraldry also is 
written in Seals with a comprehensiveness, an accuracy, 
and a copious richness of illustration, that leave very 
little to be desired. I have already shown, (Chap. XV), 
in what manner the aggroupment of several distinct 
shields of arms upon a single Seal led to Marshalling ; 



and Marshalling, in its most expressive historical forms, 
is exemplified in multitudes of Seals. 

The Great Seals constitute a truly important chapter 
in Historical Heraldry. Every seal has two distinct 
designs. In one the Sovereign is represented on horse- 
back, and in the other as enthroned. The mounted 
figures appear always to have been regarded as the 
Obverse j or Seal, and those enthroned as the Reverse, or 
Counter-Seal. Until the time of John, the throne in these 
Seals is a mere stool, with certain ornamental accessories. 
In the second Seal of Henry III, the royal seat assumes 
a more dignified character. Edward I copied his father's 
Seal, but the design is better executed. The same Seal 
was used by Edward II, with a Castle of Castile added 
on each side of the throne. Great improvements in 
design, including elaborate architectural enrichments, 
with peculiarly interesting Heraldry, were introduced into 
the different members of the series of Great Seals made 
by Edward III. He commenced by placing two fleurs- 
de-lys, (his mother, it will be remembered, was Isabella 
of France) above the castles in the Seal of his father and 
grandfather : then he substituted for the old Seal, (in the 
year of his accession, in the October of 1327), a new one, 
of improved general design, with the fleurs-de-lys much 
more emphatic. In 1340, a Seal appeared charged with 
two shields of France ancient and England quarterly. 
After this, two Great Seals of Edward III were in use, 
sometimes concurrently — one by the King himself, in 
which the legend runs Rex Francie et Anglie ; and 
the other, used in England when the King was absent in 
France, with the legend Rex Anglie et Francie. An- 
other Seal, made in accordance with the peace of Bre- 



tigny, a.d. 1360, omits the " Francie" altogether from 
the legend, but retains the quartered fleurs-de-lys in the 
shield as before. The " Francie," however, resumes its 
original place before the close of the reign. Richard 
II, and Henry IV merely substituted their own names 
for the " Edvardus," and they used the same Seal as 
Edward III. In or about 1408, Henry IV added an- 
other Seal, the largest and richest of all the mediaeval 
Seals of England, in which the fleurs-de-lys are reduced 
to three in each quarter of the shield. Edward IV 
placed a Rose of York in alternation with each word 
of the legend of his Seal, and afterwards a fleur-de-lys, 
the whole being encircled with a bordure of Roses. Henry 
VII introduced a Rose on a Branch : and Henry VIII 
separated the words of his legend by alternate Roses and 
Fleurs-de-lys ; he added a Fleur-de-lys and a Lion to the 
obverse of his seal, and eventually he adopted a Seal 
designed after the manner of the Eenaissance. 

The equestrian figures of the obverse of the Great 
Seals afford characteristic illustrations of arms and 
armour, and also of horse equipments. In the second 
seal of Eichard I, the three lions of England for the 
first time make their appearance on the royal shield. 
Edward I places them on the bardings of his charger, 
as well as upon his shield, but not upon his surcoat ; and 
Edward III appears with a full display of royal blazonry 
upon the appointments as well of his horse as of his 
own person. The succeeding heraldic changes in the 
Great Seal of England I leave to the researches of stu- 
dents. The Great Seal of the Commonwealth, how- 
ever, I may describe, as a curious example of Puritan 
Heraldry. This seal, adopted Febuary 8, 16*49, on its 


obverse, quarters the Cross of St. George, and the Saltire 
of St. Andrew, in the first and second quarters; in the 
third quarter is the Harp, (not the Saltire of Patrick), of 
Ireland ; and the St. George is repeated in the fourth 
quarter. In pretence upon this quartered shield the 
Protector charges his own arms on an inescutcheon — 
sa., a lion rampt. guard., arg. Upon the reverse of this 
Seal is a representation of the House of Commons in 
session. Oliver Cromwell himself used the same 
heraldic composition upon his own Secretum, with the 
crowned lion of England, and a sea-horse, as Supporters ; 
the helm, crown, crest, and mantling being borrowed 
from the Boyal Seals. Below the shield is the motto, 
Pax. qu^rittjr. bello., and the circumscribing legend is, 
Olivarius : Dei : gra : Reipub : Anglioe, : Scotim : et : 
Hibernice : &c. : Protector. This Seal was engraved with 
much delicacy, in the heraldic feeling of his time, by 
Thomas Simon. 

The Great Seals of several other personages of impor- 
tance in the mediaeval history of England, abound in 
heraldic accessories and devices ; amongst them, as an 
example of the greatest interest, I may specify the Great 
Seal of John of Ghent, as King of Castile. The Great 
Seal of Thomas Plantagenet, second Earl of Lancaster, 
is a very noble work. On his own helm and on the head 
of his charger, the Prince displays a dragon as his crest, 
No. 524. The counter-seal is also large and very fine. 
The shield is differenced with a label of five points " of 
France," and on either side of it there is a dragon. 

The practice prevalent with the early seal-engravers to 
introduce some figure or figures of animals, all of them 
without doubt Badges, on each, side of either the shield 

y 2 


or the crest, I have already stated to have been in all 
probability instrumental in introducing regular Suppor- 
ters as accessories of achievements of arms ; and I have 
also referred to many fine and interesting examples of 
early Seals. It will be necessary for me here to adduce 
only a few other examples in further illustration of the 
" Heraldry of Seals." No. 609 is copied from Mr. 
Planche's enlarged representation of the shield of Wil- 
liam de Eomare III, Earl of Lincoln, who died as early 
as 1198. This shield is held by the Earl, armed in mail, 
with a cylindrical helm, on horseback. The original 
appears to have been lost, but a drawing of this very 
curious Seal is preserved in an heraldic MS in the City 
Library at Chester. The crosslets are undoubtedly very 
early " differences." A Seal of William Longespee, 
Earl of Salisbury, (" Fair Bosamond's" son), who died 
a.d. 1226, is simple and significant. It is charged simply 
with his long sword and its belt. Eantjlph de Blonde- 
ville, Earl of Lincoln and Chester, a.d. 1217-1232, on 
his Seal carries a shield charged with three garbs, and the 
same bearings appear upon the barding of his charger ; 
the Counter- Seal has a similar shield. The Seal of 
Roger de Quenci, Earl of Winchester, a.d. 1220-1264, 
displays his shield masculee. And, Henry de Laci, Earl 
of Lincoln, a.d. 1272, on both his Seal and his Secretum 
has his shield charged with his rampant lion. 

The dimidiated Seal of Margaret, Second Queen of 
Edward I, No. 322, PI. XVIII, for the first time shows 
the arms of England and France united in a single com- 
position. I may here refer to a notice in the Archaeo- 
logical Jowrnal (for the year 1856, p. 134), of a small 
silver casket in the Goodrich Court Collections, which has 





•ojji the Monument at Yang's Lang ley. 

- XLY 

^ os 430. 477. 488. 609 


on each sloping face of its lid three quatre-foiled panels, 
containing either England dimidiating France ancient, or 
the same dimidiated coat differenced with a label of three 
points : possibly this casket may have been the property 
of Queen Margaret, or of her eldest son. See p. 131. 

The Secretum, No. 610, p. 317, of Henry Plantagenet, 
second son of Earl Edmond, " Crouchback," is a charac- 
teristic example of its class ; it bears his shield, Eng- 
land differenced with an azure bendlet, as he displayed 
the same composition upon his banner at Caerlaverock. 
It will be sufficient for me here to adduce only two other 
examples of heraldic seals. The first of these is the 
Secretum of James I of Scotland, a.d. 1429, which bears 
the Royal Shield ensigned with an early crown of beauti- 
ful design, and regularly supported by two lions rampant 
guardant. This is the earliest known example of Suppor- 
ters to a Royal Scottish Seal. The Seal of Walter 
Leslie, Lord of Ross, a.d. 1367, (twenty years later than 
the Elsyng Brass in England), is the earliest composition 
in which Quartering arms is known to have been adopted 
in Scottish Heraldry. The first Impalements by the 
Heralds north of the Tweed may be assigned to the 
middle of the fourteenth century. 

In the Frontispiece I have given engravings of the 
Seals of Thomas Plantagenet, Duke of Gloucester, 
youngest son of Edward III, No. 509, described at p. 
216 ; and of the Seals of the De Bohtjns, the Earls of 
Hereford and Northampton, Nos. 397 a, 398 a, de- 
scribed at p. 165 ; also of Thomas Holland, K.G., No. 
525, and p. 216. See also pp. 140, 144, 186, 199, and 
213, and example No. 270, at p. 328. 


II. Coins. 

The Heraldry of the Coinage in its general capa- 
city may be said to be identical with other expressions 
of the Eoyal Heraldry of England. The Shield of Arms 
of the reigning Sovereign, with certain significant 
Devices as accessories, would naturally be expected to 
appear on English Coins ; and such an expectation in 
many instances would be realized. In such Coins the 
Herald finds authoritative examples both of the Eoyal 
Shield and the favourite Eoyal Badges of each successive 
period. The Heads of the Sovereigns also place before 
him the changes in the form of the royal crown which 
took place from time to time. But our Coins have other 
types, also heraldic, which possess great historical in- 

The Noble, (introduced by Edward III), the Rose- 
Noble, or Rial, (Edward IV), the Angel, (Henry VI), 
the Sovereign, (Henry VII), the George Noble, (Henry 
VTI), all in gold, and the Crown in both gold and silver, 
(Henry VIII), stand foremost amongst those English 
Coins which do not bear the Eoyal Shield of Arms. The 
Noble of Edward III is charged with a figure of the 
King, crowned, in armour, and with his sword, his shield 
bearing France ancient and England quarterly, standing 
in a ship which carries at its mast-head a pennon of St. 
George. This type is found to have been slightly modified 
under the succeeding princes. Thus, Queen Elizabeth 
is seated in her ship, and holds a sceptre ; and the ship 
itself is charged with a Tudor rose, and carries at the 
bow a Banner bearing the initial, a G-othic E. The Rose 
Noble has one or more Eoses added to the type of the 


Noble itself. Both these coins have on their Eeverse a 
group of Royal Devices with Crowns. The type of the 
Obverse of the Nobles gave rise to the following couplet, 
the significance of which will be felt by every student of 
English History : 

" Four things our Noble showeth unto me, — 
King, Ship, and Sword, and Power of the Sea." 

The Angel, on the obverse, bears a figure of the Arch- 
angel St. Michael thrusting down the Serpent ; on the 
reverse is a ship with a Cross for a mast, with the Royal 
Shield, a rose, and an initial. The George Noble has St. 
George mounted, and the Dragon. The Sovereign has a 
figure of the reigning Prince, generally enthroned, the 
Reverse bearing the Royal Shield, with various accessories. 
The Crown in gold of Henry VIII has a crowned rose, 
and a crowned shield of arms, with the royal cypher. 
The silver Crown of Edward VI has the King on horse- 
back, and the Royal Shield ; but that of Elizabeth sub- 
stituted a crowned bust for the equestrian figure. In 
both of these silver coins the Royal Shield is charged in 
pretence with a floriated Cross, which extends beyond the 
shield, and divides the legend into four parts. This 
arrangement of the Cross was a prevailing type of the 
earlier Coins ; it first appears with the shield of arms 
upon the shilling of Henry. VII, and it was discontinued 
by James I. The Fifteen -Shilling piece of that King is 
charged with the Royal Arms as borne by the Stuarts. 
The Crown of Charles II has four crowned shields of 
England, Scotland, France, and Ireland in cross, the shields 
in the earlier examples alternating with the Royal 
Cypher. Four shields placed in the same manner also 


appear on the Crowns and Shillings of William III and 
Anne, and they are reproduced upon Queen Victoria's 

It is remarkable that, until a comparatively recent 
period, the types of all the coins, whatever their size or 
value, are of equal artistic excellence ; nor is it less worthy 
of remark, that in our own times the types of the Coin- 
age should be distinguished by such excessive degrada- 
tion. With the sole exceptions of the Sovereign and 
Crown that bear the St. George upon their Reverses, and 
the recent bronze coinage, our modern coins appear in 
most unfavourable contrast with the Angels and Nobles 
that have long ceased to be current in this country. I 
still retain, however, a long-cherished hope that the Art 
of the Numismatist may at length revive, and again 
demonstrate its ability to execute truly noble coins in the 
Royal Mint of England. 

No. 270.— Bemains of the Seal of Edmond Mortimer, a.d. 1372. 
See p. 218. 

No. 522. Panache-Crest of John, Lord Sceope, K.Gr., 
from his Stall-Plate. 



The Illuminations which at once illustrate mediaeval 
Manuscripts, and take so important a part in conveying 
the historical information that we derive from them, 
abound both in direct heraldic records, and in those 
practical suggestions which are of such great utility to 
modern Heralds. Authorities for a very considerable 
number of early shields and badges are supplied by these 
Illuminations, and, at the same time, they are rich in 
diapers, and other heraldic accessories. So that the 
student of Heraldry may always look to these early 
works, as to treasuries well stored with objects of value 
and interest. In like manner, Heraldry provides for the 
Illuminators of our own times abundant materials 
exactly adapted to their use. 

The revival of the early Art of Illumination, and the 
degree of popularity which it now enjoys, naturally lead 


to inquiries relative to the means that may be best cal- 
culated to render the revived Art permanently popular. 
I believe that this can be accomplished only by rendering 
it an Art really our own. The mere copying early Illu- 
minations, however attractive in itself and really useful 
as a system of study, will not suffice to produce a school 
of modern Illuminators. Neither will the Art of Illu- 
mination rise even to be recognized as an universally desir- 
able accomplishment, unless it be made to lead beyond 
the most careful coloring of certain sentences and words 
more vetusto. Our Illuminators must embody some 
thought of their own in their works ; they must make 
their works vehicles for recording something and con- 
veying something, that they have themselves imagined 
and devised ; and their illuminated details and acces- 
sories must have a genuine art- character, and a true 
feeling for the particular art of Illuminating as it is 
practised by themselves. I do not desire to suggest that 
all modern Illuminators should aspire to becoming in- 
dependent designers of whatever they may illuminate. 
But while the great majority of them freely avail them- 
selves of the aid that lithography is always ready to 
render, (an aid which their mediaeval predecessors would 
have been but too thankful to have secured, had it been 
placed within their reach), it is most important that 
modern Illuminators should seek, not only for those 
printed outlines that are complete in themselves and 
require only the application of gold and color, but such 
others also as may be of a suggestive character, and which 
the Illuminators may apply in carrying out certain ideas 
of their own. 

There appear to be four distinct classes of modern 


Illuminations. The^rs^ consists of Texts from the Holy- 
Scriptures, or other brief passages of a directly religious 
character. The second class comprises choice brief ex- 
tracts from various authors, both poets and prose 
writers. To the third class belong complete illumined 
metrical works. And in the fourth class I would com- 
prehend every such extract, version, copy, or composition 
as may be directly either historical or biographical, and 
which consequently may obtain from Heraldry its 
happiest and most appropriate illustrations. Heraldry, 
it is true, will provide much that will prove to be emi- 
nently attractive, and truly consistent also, in Illumina- 
tions of every class ; for if it does not always offer Shields 
of Arms or Banners, or Badges, it is certain to suggest 
treatment and to supply accessories. But in all historical 
subjects, Heraldry is the Illuminator's most valuable 
ally. And these are subjects that are certain to be held 
in esteem. Passages from the old chroniclers, brief but 
emphatic summaries of great historical periods, graphic 
records of celebrated historical incidents, or similar bio- 
graphical sketches of the representative personages of 
History ; historical charts and genealogies of every kind ; 
and, in many instances, family genealogies, records, and 
traditions, are all equally suited to form materials for 
illuminating ; and in every case Heraldry is replete with 
exactly what the Illuminator will find to be best qualified 
to illustrate his work, and also to impart to it the most 
brilliant of decoration. 

Groups of historical shields, derivable from early Eolls 
of Arms, with appropriate borders and brief legends, form 
beautiful pages for Illumination. Such Shields and 
Borders amateurs may desire to obtain in outline, to- 


gether with various other accessories and illustrations, 
which are well adapted to be made popular through the 
agency of lithography. I venture to promise to heraldic 
Illuminators that outlines of this description shall be 
provided for their use. 

No. 286. — Shield of Edwaed III, from his Monument in West- 
minster Abbey, the Garter being added. See pp. 104, 228. 

In this example, France Ancient, and in No. 487, p. 333, France 
Modern is quartered with England. 

No. 487. Shield of Heney V, as Prince of Wales, from his 
Stall-Plate in St. Geobge's Chapel, Windsor. See p. 190. 



In this chapter I place before students of Heraldry the 
blazon of a series of shields of arms, in addition to those 
that have been already described. The series compre- 
hends the arms of various historical personages, together 
with those of several families of eminence amongst our- 
selves at the present day. 

From the Eoll of Henry III: 

Bigod, Earl of Norfolk : or, a cross, gu. 

De L'Isle : or, a lion rampt., gu. 

Le Mareschal : per pale, or and vert, a lion rampt., gu. 

De Mandeville : quarterly, or and gu. 

Fitz Geoffrey : within a oordure, vair, quarterly, or 
and gu. 

De Say : the same as De Mandeville. 

De Montfichet : gu., three chevronels, or ; a label, az. 


De Lucy : gu., three lucies haurient, in fesse, arg. 

De Segrave (ancient) : sa., three garbs, arg. 
From the Roll of Edward I : 

Arragon : or, three pallets, gu. 

Chester : az., three garbs, or. 

L'Estrange : gu., two lions passant, in pale, arg., within 
a bordure engrailed, or. 

From the Roll of Caerlaverock : 

De Multon : arg., three bars, gu. 

Le Vavasour : or, a fesse dancette, sa. 

De Carew : or, three lions passant, in pale, sa. 

De Mohun : or, a cross engrailed, sa. 

Anthony Bec : gu., a cross moline, (or recercelee), erm. 
From the Calais Roll of Edward III : 

D'Ufford : sa., a cross engrailed, or. 

Talbot : gu., a lion rampt., or. 

Burwashe : or, a lion rampt., queue four chee, gu. 

De Stafford : or, a chevron, gu. 

De Maltr avers : sa., frettee, or. 

Fitz Warren : quarterly, per fesse indented, arg., and 

Poynings : barry of six, or and vert, over all a bend, 

De Montgomery : or, an eagle displayed, az. 

De Lathom : or, on a chief indented, az., three plates. 

De Radclyffe : arg., a bend engrailed, sa. 

De Holland, ancient: az., fleurettee, a lion ramp, 
guard., arg. 

De Couci : barry of six, vair and gu. 

Glendour : paly of eight, arg. and gu., over all a lion 
rampt., sa. 

Devereux : arg., a fesse, gu., in chief, three torteaux. 


Brandon : harry of ten, arg. and gu., a lion rampt., or, 
crowned per pale, gold and of the second. 

Dudley: or, a lion rampt., queue fourchee, vert. 

Cecil : harry of ten, arg. and az., on six shields 3, 2, 
and 1, sa., as mang lioncels, of the first. 

Charlton : or, a lion rampt, sa. 

Sydney : or, a pheon, az. 

Vernon : arg., frettee, sa. 

Howard: (No. 394). After tlie battle of Flodden, 
Sept. 9, 1513, as a commemorative augmentation, the 
silver bend of the Howards was charged with the Boyal 
Shield of Scotland, having a demi-lion only, which is 
pierced through the mouth with an arrow. The two 
shields, the one without and the other with the augmen- 
tation, may be severally distinguished as Howard ancient, 
and Howard modern. No. 613. 

De Mont acute : gu., a griffin statant, or. 

Piers de Gaveston : or, six eagles displayed, vert. 

De Creveccettr : or, a cross, gu., voided of the field. 

Fitz Urse : or, a hear passant, sa. 

De Heriz, (afterwards Harris) : three Hedgehogs, 
blazoned on the shield of an effigy of the period of 
Edward I, at Gonalston, Notts. 

Chaucer: per pale, arg. and gu., a hend counter- 

Shakespeare, (granted 1546 :) Arms, or, on a hend, sa. 
a spear, gold : Crest, a falcon displayed, arg., holding in its 
heah a spear in pale, or. 

Milton : arg., an eagle displayed, with two heads, gu., 
healced and memhered, sa. 

Scott : quarterly ; 1 and 4, or, two mullets in chief, and 
a crescent in hase, az., within an orle, of the last, for Scott : 


2 and 3, or, on a bend, az., three mascles, gold, in the 
sinister chief point an oval bucMe erect, of the second, for 

Wellesley, Duke of Wellington : quarterly, 1 and 
4, gu., a cross, arg., between five plates in saltire, in each 
quarter, for Wellesley ; 2 and 3, or, a lion rampt, gu., 
for Colley : as an augmentation, on the honor-point an 
inescutcheon charged with the Union Device of Great Bri- 
tain and Ireland. No. 614. 

Spencer Churchill, Duke of Marlborough : quar- 
terly 1 and 4, Churchill, sa., a lion rampt. arg., on a 
canton, of the second, a cross, gu. ; 2 and 3, Spencer, (No. 
107), as an augmentation, on tlie honor-point, an ines- 
cutcheon of St. George, charged in pretence with another of 
France modern. No. 615. 

Pelham Clinton, Duke of Newcastle : quarterly, 1 
and 4, Clinton, (No. 400) ; 2 and 3, quarterly, 1 and 4, 
az., three pelicans, arg., vulned, ppr., 2 and 3, gu., two demi- 
belts, with buckles, erect, arg., all for Pelham. 

Manners, Duke of Rutland : or, two bars, az, ; a chief, 
quarterly, of the second, and gu., charged in the alternate 
quarters with two fleurs-de-lys of France, and a lion of 

Russell, Duke of Bedford : arg., a lion rampt., gu., 
on a chief, sa., three escallops, of the first. 

Graham, Duke of Montrose : quarterly, 1 and 4, 
Graham, (No. 409) ; 2 and 3, for the title, Montrose, 
arg., three roses, gu., barbed and seeded, ppr. 

Campbell, Duke of Argyll: quarterly, 1 and 4, 
Campbell, (No. 356) ; 2 and 3, for the lordship of Lorn, 
arg., a lymphad, sa., sails furled up, flag and pendants 
flying, gu. 



Granville Leveson Gower, Duke of Sutherland : 
quarterly, 1 and 4, Gower, harry of eight, arg. and gu., 
over all a cross patonce, sa. : 2 and 3, Leveson, (No. 
239) ; in pretence, the shield of the ancient Earls of 
Sutherland, ensigned with an EarVs Coronet, hearing, 
gu., three mullets, within a hordure, or, charged with a tres- 
sure of Scotland. The Duke of Sutherland also quar- 
ters Granville, gu., three clarions, or : Egerton, arg., a 
lion rampt., gu., hetween three pheons, sa. ; Stanley, (No. 
205 a), Brandon, Clifford, (No. 373), Strange, gu., 
two lions passant, in pale, arg. ; and the Eoyal Arms of 
the Tudors. 

Fitz-Gerald, Duke of Leinster : arg., a saltire, gu. 9 
being the armorial insignia of St. Patrick. 

No. 614. 
The Duke of Wellington. 

No. 615. 
The Duke of Maelboeough. 

No. 602.— Arms of the Heralds' College, from the Shield, 
blazoned in the College. 



Amongst the most important of the professional duties 
of the Herald who holds office in the College of Arms, are 
the investigation, the display, and the faithful enrolment 
of Genealogies. And in tracing out and arranging 
Historical Genealogies, the Amateur Herald will find 
that he is enabled to elucidate and to illustrate History 
in the clearest and most impressive manner. In the 
History of England, indeed, there occur many important 
chapters and no less numerous episodes, all of which 
absolutely rely upon genealogical illustration to render 
them clearly intelligible. And the genealogical form of 
tabular arrangement is peculiarly adapted to convey his- 
torical teaching with emphatic distinctness, while it is 
always available for prompt reference. I much question 
whether the History of the " Wars of the Roses" can be 
either written or read satisfactorily without historical 


Genealogies. Similar Genealogies are most valuable 
allies to the Student of History, when his attention is 
directed to the claim of Edward III to the Crown of 
France ; or when he is reading the record of the struggles 
between Stephen and Matilda ; or when he desires to 
see very clearly what was the relationship between Mary 
Stuart and Lord Darnley ; or how far Elizabeth of 
York had in her own person a title to the Crown ; or the 
relative positions of Mary and Jane Grey, and those of 
James I and his unhappy kinswoman, Arabella Stuart. 
Various other examples will readily occur to the student 
of English History. 

The heraldic laws of exact definition, simple statement, 
and rigid conciseness, have full force in the arrangement 
and drawing up of Genealogies. The system which the 
student may adopt with advantage may be briefly ex- 
plained. The materials which are to be used for the 
formation of any historical Genealogy consist, first, of 
notes of the facts that are to be set forth in it, and 
secondly, of a recognized series of abbreviations and signs. 
The notes will always comprise the names of every per- 
son who is to take a part in the Genealogy, with all dates 
and every circumstance that it may be desirable to record. 

The following abbreviations and signs have been found 
to work well : Son, son of : daii., daughter of : S. and H., 
son and heir of: daii. and H., or coh., daughter and 
heiress, or co-heiress: W., wife of: if., was married : =, 
placed between their names, signifies that the two persons 

specified were husband and wife : ~^~ signifies that 

such persons had children : ^ • under any name, signi- 

z 2 


fies that the person had children : S. P., (sine prole), with- 
out surviving children : V. P., (vita patris), in his, or her 
father's life- time : d., died, at and on : bu., was buried at : 
mon., has a monument still existing : eff., has a monumen- 
tal effigy : k., killed in battle : ex., executed : murd., mur- 
dered : ban., banished : ac, accession, or came to the 
crown : cr., coronation, or crowned : dep., deposed : K., 
King : Q., Queen : P. and Pss., Prince and Princess : 
Archbp. and Bp., Archbishop and Bishop : _D. and Dss., 
Duke and Duchess : K, Ct., Ctss., Earl, Count, and 
Countess: Ba., Bnss., Baron, Baroness: Ld., Lord: Kt., 
Knight : PI., Plantagenet : Tu., Tudor : Stu., Stuart : 
La., Lancastrian : Yk., Yorkist : W. A., Westminster 

In arranging a Genealogy, the main line of descent is 
to be indicated by keeping the successive names in a verti- 
cal column. All persons of the same generation are to 
have their names in the same horizontal line. Spaces of 
equal depth are to be allotted to each generation. The 
members of the same family are to be arranged in their 
order of birth in two groups, the sons first, then the daughters, 
each series commencing from the heraldic dexter side of 
the paper. Should it be necessary especially to denote 
that any individual is the eldest, or the second, or any 
other son, this may be done by placing the heraldic mark 
of Cadency over the name. Continuous Lines carry on and 
denote the descent, and the formation, and the connection 
of the families ; and, in placing these Lines, great care 
must be taken, lest a connecting line should point to any 
name not included in the order of blood-relationship. In 
extended G-enealogies, distinct groups, (as Lancastrians 
and Yorkists), may be indicated by inks of different colors ; 


Royal personages may have their names in peculiar 
letters ; and the direct line of descent and succession may 
also be indicated by capital letters with initials in red. 
Badges may advantageously be placed with the names, 
as may shields of arms in some instances ; other shields 
and heraldic insignia, with references, &c, may be placed 
in the margin. The figures 1 and 2 may be introduced 
to denote first and second marriages : and, in like manner, 
any simple expedient may be adopted that may express 
a circumstance necessary to be indicated and observed. 
It will be noted, that the rule for arranging the names of 
brothers and sisters does not exclude the heir from oc- 
cupying a central position in the vertical column of suc- 
cession ; also, that where the same father or mother may 
have families by more than one marriage, the children of 
each marriage are to form distinct groups. I must add, 
that the actual arrangement of any historical Genealogy 
must be determined in a great measure by the leading 
object which it is intended to illustrate. Thus, I have 
arranged the following example upon two different plans, 
each of them having its own especial aim. This example 
is a portion of the Royal Genealogy of England. It 
traces the descent of James I. upwards for four genera- 
tions, and it indicates the blood-relationship that existed 
between the parents of that prince, and shows his own 
relative position with reference to both his predecessor on 
the English throne, and his kinswoman, Arabella 
Stuart. My Genealogy, No. 1, treats of the first Stuart 
Sovereign of Great Britain as the descendant of the 
Tudors, and as their heir and representative ; but in No. 
2, he appears as the representative of the Stuarts, who, 
happening also to represent the Tudors, became the heir 









E*a «i- S 





of both those Eoyal Houses. The same historical teach- 
ing is conveyed by both Genealogies, of which No. 1 takes 
the English view, while in No. 2 the Scottish aspect of 
the subject is taken. In No. 1 the relationship between 
Elizabeth and Mary Queen of Scots is shown, and also 
that between Elizabeth (and therefore between her 
sister, Mary), and Lady Jane Grey. The space at my 
disposal has compelled me to omit many details, and in 
No. 2 I have given the names only ; still these genealo- 
gical sketches may serve to exemplify the system for form- 
ing historical Genealogies. Of course, these sketches 
might be rendered more graphic by the use of colored 
inks, and by the addition of Shields of Arms and 

No. 613.— Howard Modern. See page 335. 

No. 299. — Arms of the Duke of Norfolk, the Earl Marshal, 
from the Shield blazoned in the Heralds' College. 



The Order of Precedence, a matter of no inconsider- 
able importance in a highly civilized and equally compli- 
cated condition of Society, was first established upon a 
definite system by a statute of Henry VIII, in 1539. 
Various subsequent regulations have taken effect, and 
have contributed, in connection with Eoyal Letters Patent, 
to produce the Precedence now regarded as established 
and practically in force amongst us. 

This order of Precedence may be considered to be 
based upon the following four-fold principle : first, that 
persons of every degree of rank, except descendants of 
the blood royal, who always have precedence, should take 
place according to the seniority of the creation of such 
rank ; secondly, that the younger sons of each preceding 


degree of rank should take place immediately after the 
eldest son of the next succeeding rank ; thirdly, that in 
certain cases the tenure of office should constitute actual 
rank so long as such tenure should continue ; and, lastly, 
that while a married woman participates in her husband's 
rank, (though not always in his official rank), the same 
precedence is due to all the daughters of a family that is 
enjoyed by the eldest son of that family. 

The Order of Precedence. 

The Sovereign. 

The Prince of Wales. 

The Sovereign's Younger Sons. 

The Sovereign's Grandsons. 

The Sovereign's Uncle. 

The Sovereign's Cousins. 

The Archbishop of Canterbury. 

The Lord Chancellor. 

The Archbishop of York. 

The Archbishop of Armagh. 

The Archbishop of Dublin. 

The Lord High Treasurer, (Prime Minister). 

The Lord President of the Council. 

The Lord Privy Seal. 

These great officers of state precede all Peers of their 
own Degree, (that is, if Dukes, they rank above all other 
Dukes ; if Earls, in like manner, &c), in the following 

The Lord Great Chamberlain. (When in the actual 
performance of official duty). 

The Lord High Constable. 



The Earl Marshal. 

The Lord Steward of the Queen's Household. 

The Lord Chamberlain of the Queen's Household. 

The Secretaries of State. 

Then the Peers according to their Patents of Creation. 

The Dukes. 

The Marquesses. 

The eldest Sons of Dukes. 

The Earls. 

The eldest Sons of Marquesses. 

The younger Sons of Dukes. 

The Viscounts. 

The eldest Sons of Earls. 

The younger Sons of Marquesses. 

The Bishops of London, Durham, and Winchester. 

The Bishops according to seniority of Consecration. 

The Barons. 

The Speaker of the House of Commons. 

The Treasurer and the Comptroller of the Eoyal 

The Master of the Horse. 

The Secretaries of State, being under the degree of 

The eldest Sons of Viscounts. 

The younger Sons of Earls. 

The eldest Sons of Barons. 

The Knights of the Garter, the Thistle and St. Patrick, 
(not being Peers). 

The Privy Counsellors. 

The Chancellor of the Exchequer. 

The Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster. 

The Lord Chief Justice of the Queen's Bench. 


The Master of the Rolls. 

The Lord Chief Justice of the Common Pleas. 

The Lord Chief Baron of the Exchequer. 

The Judge Ordinary. 

The Lord Justices of Chancery. 

The Vice Chancellors. 

The Judges of the Queen's Bench, and Common Pleas. 

The Barons of the Exchequer. 

The younger Sons of Viscounts. 

The younger Sons of Barons. 

The Baronets. 

The Knights Grand Crosses of the Bath. 

The Knights of the Star of India. 

The Knights Grand Crosses of St. Michael and St. 

Knights Commanders of the Bath and other Orders. 


Serj eants-at-Law. 

Masters in Chancery and in Lunacy. 

Companions of the Bath and other Orders. 

Eldest Sons of the younger Sons of Peers. 

Eldest Sons of Baronets. 

Eldest Sons of Knights. 

Esquires, including 

Esquires to Knights of Orders of Knighthood; the 
eldest Sons of all the Sons of Viscounts and Barons, and 
the eldest Sons of all the younger Sons of Peers, and their 
eldest Sons in perpetual succession : 

The Sons of Baronets : 

Persons holding the Queen's Commission, whether in a 
civil, naval, or military capacity : 

Members of the Royal Academy of Arts : 


Barristers : 

Masters of Arts, and Bachelors of Law. 



Before marriage, Women take precedence by the rank 
of their father, and all the sisters of any family have 
the same degree. By marriage, Women participate in 
the dignities of their Husbands, except in the case of 
certain dignities that are strictly official ; but the digni- 
ties of wives are not imparted by marriage to their 

Marriage with an inferior does not affect the pre- 
cedence that any woman may enjoy by birth or crea- 
tion ; but the wife of any Peer always takes her rank 
from her husband. Women ennobled by marriage retain 
their rank as widows ; but should they contract second 
marriages, their precedence is thenceforward determined 
absolutely by the rank of their second husbands. 

The wife of the eldest son of any degree precedes the 
sisters of her husband, and also all other ladies of the 
same degree with them, such ladies having place imme- 
diately after the wives of their eldest brothers. This 
principle of Precedence obtains in all families of the same 
degree amongst themselves. 

No. 334. — Her Most Gracious Majesty, Victoeia, the Queen. 



When not historical of the past, it is the office of all 
true Heraldry to be historical for the future. Our 
Modern Heraldry, accordingly, if it would be consistent 
with both its character and its traditions, must take a 
becoming part in producing that Chapter of English 
History which we shall hand down to succeeding genera- 
tions. It is indeed true that the state of things has 
undergone a marvellous change since Heraldry reigned in 
its full glory under the Plantagenets, and also since 
Henry YIII held the assumption of the Arms of the 



Confessor by a Duke to be an overt act of high treason ; 
and yet the office of the Herald has by no means fallen 
into abeyance amongst ourselves. Our Heralds have still 
to record and to preserve the memory of both public and 
private genealogies. They have to take note of the suc- 
cession of the inheritors of old titles, and of the creation 
of new ones. They have to preside over and to confirm 
the assumption and the bearing of armorial insignia of 
whatever kind ; and all new grants of Arms come under 
their cognizance, and are enrolled in their College. They 
also direct all royal and national solemnities and pageants ; 
and they are at once the guardians and the exponents of 
the heraldic records of their predecessors. 

In some particulars our Heraldry must inevitably 
suffer, when it is brought closely into contrast with the 
Heraldry of the olden time. For example, when helms 
were really worn, and when shields were in actual use, a 
shield of arms and a crest had a significancy which now 
it is not possible for them to retain. We must be content 
to accept shields and crests as heraldic accessories, the 
bequest of the early Heralds, which we can only employ 
in reference to Heraldry itself. Shields and crests, how- 
ever, come to us possessing hereditary claims to recogni- 
tion and acceptance in their heraldic capacity ; and so 
we recognize and accept them. And, at the same time, 
we certainly have it in our power to render our Heraldry 
both dignified and useful. We can adjust our Heraldry 
to early usage, as we must build it up upon early prin- 
ciples. We can reject any Heraldry that is not true as 
Heraldry, that does not accord with early precedent, and 
that is not also consistent with existing circumstances 
and associations. We are able to follow the example of 


the early Heralds, in adhering to sound heraldic rule ; in 
preserving the simplicity which distinguished the best 
Heraldry of the past ; in jealously maintaining the rule 
of marshalling; in adopting a judicious system of 
cadency ; and in drawing a broad line of distinction 
between arms that are borne by right, and therefore have 
authority, and those which are either copied, or parodied, 
or improvised in accordance with the fancy or the caprice 
of unauthorized individuals. 

In blazoning heraldic devices which in a peculiar sense 
are of an historical character, it is important that true 
coats of arms should be clearly distinguished from badges ; 
and, except under very special circumstances, it would be 
well to avoid charging badges upon shields. The simpli- 
city of the early compositions and their heraldic con- 
sistency also ought always to be kept in remembrance. 
These are points that may be strongly urged upon all 
who are desirous to advocate the worthiness of modern 
Heraldry. The historical value of the Heraldry of the 
new Palace at Westminster is most seriously prejudiced 
by the injudicious association of true shields of arms with 
other shields charged with devices, the aim and purpose 
of which I am not able to conjecture, but which certainly 
have no title to appear where they have been displayed. 
The Peerage will supply illustrations of the style of com- 
position that happily is passing away, but which must 
still be regarded as in some degree illustrative of modern 
Heraldry ; two examples of this class will be sufficient to 
act as warnings. The arms granted to Horatio, Viscount 
Nelson, are blazoned in Sir Bernard Burke's Peerage 
after the following fashion : Or, a cross fleurie, sa.,a bend, 
gu., surmounted by another engrailed, of the field, charged 



with three bombs, fired, ppr. ; on a chief, (of honorable aug- 
mentation), undulated, arg., waves of the sea, from which 
a palm-tree issuant, between a disabled ship on the dexter, 
and a battery in ruins on the sinister, all ppr. Crests : 
on the dexter, (as a crest of honorable augmentation), or, 
the chelengk, or plume of triumph, presented to Horatio, 
Viscount Nelson, by the Grand Signior, or Sultan, Selim 
III ; and on the sinister, (the family crest), on a wreath 
of the colors, upon waves of the sea, the stern of a Spanish 
man-of-war, all ppr., thereon inscribed " San Joseff." The 
sailor and the lion which form the Supporters are not 
so bad ; but what ideas of Heraldry could have been 
entertained by those who devised the Nelson crest, and 
j)laced " waves of the sea" and the stern of a Spanish 
line-of-battle ship upon a helm ? The Arms granted to 
G-eneral Sir Edward Kerrison are thus blazoned : Or, a 
pile, az., charged with three galtraps, of the field : the 
augmentation following, on a chief, embattled, erm., a wreath 
of laurel, encircling a sword erect, ppr., pommel and hilt, 
gold, between on the dexter, pendent from a ribbon, gu., 
fimbriated, of the second, a representation of the gold medal 
presented to Sir Edward for his services at the battle of 
Orthes, beneath it the word " Orthes," in letters, sa. ; and on 
the sinister, pendent from a like ribbon, a representation of 
the silver medal presented to him in commemoration of his 
services at the battle of Waterloo, beneath it the word 
" Waterloo," in letters also sa. 

The augmentations of honor that grace the shields of 
the two great military Dukes, Wellington and Marl- 
borough, are such as the old Heralds would have 
devised. The insignia of the United Kingdom, and a 
shield of France charged upon another bearing the cross 

A A 


of St. George, when blazoned in pretence on the honcr 
point by the two Dukes, are as significant and expressive 
as the Howard shield of the days of Flodden, or as the 
quartered shield of Edward III himself; see Nos. 613, 
614, 615, and also 286. In the first and fourth quarters 
the Duke of Marlborough marshals the arms granted 
to the first Duke of his name, Churchill, and here the 
cross of St. George appears on a canton. 

In modern Heraldry Cadency is but little used, since 
its operation is almost superceded by the simple process 
of assuming arms without any shadow of claim to them, 
beyond such claim as is supposed to exist through the 
fact of bearing a particular name. In early Heraldry 
distinctions were carefully marked in the arms borne by 
members of the same family, who had in common the 
same name. Now, on the contrary, when a person de- 
termines to have " arms," he looks out his own name in an 
armory, and the arms he chances to find assigned to some 
one having the same name he forthwith assumes and 
uses as his own. Or he may obtain assistance, and his 
own consciousness of heraldic inexperience may be satis- 
factorily set at rest by gentlemen who, for a considera- 
tion and a very trifling consideration too, find arms for 
hesitating aspirants to heraldic honors. The value of 
" arms" that are " found" on payment of certain shillings, 
under the guidance of a surname correctly spelt and 
legibly written, is precisely the same as the value of those 
which Messrs. A, B, and C may so easily find for them- 
selves ; or, if they should happen to be of an imaginative 
turn of mind, which they may amuse their leisure by 
devising on their own account. It is indeed true that 
every one is at liberty to call anything whatever his 


" Arms," as he may determine either the color and fashion 
of his costume, or the shape of his house ; but, neverthe- 
less, the Herald's College still exists, and is the fountain 
head of true Heraldry ; and, until it is true to itself, 
Modern Heraldry must continue to be but a degenerate 
representative of what Heraldry was about half a thous- 
and years ago, when the marriage of a Prince of Wales 
was an event that for the first time took place in Eng- 

There is one occasion on which in our own times a 
public display of heraldic blazonry is expected, and when 
accordingly such a display is regularly made. I refer to 
the practice of placing Hatchments upon the residences 
that had been occupied by personages of eminence and 
distinction, at the time of their decease. The rules 
that have been adopted for the composition of these 
Hatchments I have described at page 106. I now advert 
to these funereal displays, because so very generally they 
are both conceived and executed in the worst possible 
taste, and in a style that might be supposed to aim at 
demonstrating the impossibility of any alliance between 
Art and Heraldry. Probably the actual shield that is 
charged upon any hatchment may be heraldically correct 
in its marshalling, and also in its blazonry ; the favorite 
accessories, however, of these shields, with rare excep- 
tions, are such as the early Heralds would have regarded 
with indignant surprise. Shields hideous in outline, and 
rendered still more offensive by what I suppose is intended 
to be accepted as ornamentation, the most execrable 
scroll-work with ribbons as bad in their own way and, to 
crown the whole, those painful winged infantine heads 
that are at once so absurd and so offensive, but too 

AA 2 



commonly are the characteristics of modern hatchment- 
painting. I have engraved an average specimen, No. 
616, because I have felt unable in words to do full 
justice to these outrages upon Heraldry. May I venture 
to hope, from all who love the Herald's Art, support, 

No. 616. 

when I claim for Modern Heraldry immunity from such 
systematic efforts to render it contemptible ? Dignified 
hatchments may be produced with ease by any true 
Herald ; and without doubt the services of a true Herald 
may always be secured when the production of a really 
dignified composition of this class may be required. 

No. 617. — Shields from the Monument of Abbot Kamrydge, 
St. Alban's Abbey Church. See p. 360. 



I believe it to be a prevalent misapprehension, either 
that no early Heraldry has any title to be regarded as an 
Art, or that in its artistic capacity all early Heraldry is 
alike. The student who desires thoroughly to understand 
the Heraldry of the olden time, will speedily discover that 
very many of the Heralds who nourished some centuries 
ago were true Artists ; nor will he be long before his 
attention is attracted to the marked differences in heraldic 
style and treatment which distinguish the armorial 
insignia of different periods. In fact, the Art of mediaeval 
Heraldry attained to its highest excellence, and it de- 
clined and sunk down to a condition of lowly humility, 
contemporaneously with the Art of Architecture, and with 
the other Arts of the Middle Ages. A series of heraldic 
seals, ranging in their dates from 1300 to 1550, will very 
clearly elucidate this statement. Or an heraldic monu- 
ment of the time of Edward I, compared with others 


severally of the eras of Edward HI, Henry VI, Henry 
VIII, and James I, will be equally explicit in illustrating 
the progress of Heraldic Art. And, again, much may be 
learned through a comparison conducted within much 
narrower limits. Thus, the brasses to Alianore de 
Bohun, a.d. 1399, at Westminster, and to Lady Tiptoft, 
a.d. 1446, at Enfield, shew how striking is the difference 
in heraldic art that at that period was produced by the 
lapse of half a century. The two memorials resemble 
each other very closely even in minute particulars of 
composition and arrangement ; and yet in treatment and 
in Art-feeling it is scarcely possible that any two works of 
the same order should exhibit more decidedly marked 
differences. These differences extend to the forms of the 
shields, and their adjustment to the canopies of the two 
brasses. In PI. XVII, I have given faithful representa- 
tions of the Tiptoft shields and lions, which may be com- 
pared with those in PI. XX, and at pages 200 and 332 ; 
and the effect of this comparison will be confirmed by ex- 
tending it to the earlier shields engraved at pages 13 
and 88. 

The study of early Heraldry will enable the student, 
perhaps to his surprise but certainly to his ' gratification, 
to determine at least the approximate period of any shield 
of arms, with almost as certain accuracy as an archaeo- 
logical architect is able to read dates in chisel-cut mould- 
ings. The conventional system of treatment adopted by 
the early heraldic artists, when carefully considered under 
the different aspects which it assumed at different pe- 
riods, will also enable us to develop for ourselves such a 
style of heraldic Art as may be consistent with the general 
condition of Art in our own era, while at the same time 


it harmonizes with the best and most artistic Heraldry of 
the past. 

The really important consideration for us is, that our 
style should be at once our own, and also in itself equally 
true to Art and to Heraldry. If we assign a due mea- 
sure of our regard, on the one hand to the requirements 
of modern Art, and on the other hand to the authority of 
early Heraldry, we may confidently anticipate complete 
success. Kejecting the idea that the Art of all early 
Heraldry is of equal authority, we must take as our 
guide only the early Heraldry of the best and most 
artistic period — that is, before 1425 ; and having thus 
determined what early Heraldry we may most advantage- 
ously study, we shall conduct our inquiries in the spirit 
of Artists, and not as imitators merely and copyists. We 
must aspire higher than to succeed in reproducing even 
the best early heraldic compositions. 

A certain degree of conventionalism will be necessary 
in our treatment of all heraldic figures and objects ; but 
this conventionalism imposes no restrictions upon our 
freedom of design, and much less does it require a mono- 
tonous adherence to any particular type. Our Heraldry 
must repudiate interminable repetitions of the same 
composition or the same device, all exactly alike, as if 
they were cast from a single mould. Nor, because our 
designs must be conventional in some degree, is it at all 
requisite that they should be unnatural. Good drawing 
also must be a condition of our Heraldry ; so that our lions 
may be well and artistically drawn, thoroughly lionish 
and as thoroughly heraldic, and yet differ from such 
figures of lions as we should expect to find in an illus- 
trated treatise on mammalia. The heraldic lion is cer- 


tainly the sovereign of the animals who take a part in the 
Herald's composition ; and he is also the most difficult to 
treat. I know no early examples superior to those that 
appear ready to spring out of their shield at Beverley. 
The lions of the monuments of John op Eltham, the 
Black Prince, and Edward III, are excellent heraldic 
lions ; their conventional treatment, however, is somewhat 
exaggerated. We may avoid such exaggeration, without 
either drawing lions as the Heralds of James I would 
have drawn them, or reproducing the grotesque water- 
spouting felince of the majolica fountain in the Great 
Exhibition. Those lions dansant disposed of strict 
naturalism in heraldic animals. The Powys lions, Nos. 
300 b, 300 c, PL XVII, and 364 a, PI. XXIII, dispose in 
a no less peremptory a manner of pure conventionalism. 

I must again refer to the white harts of Richard II, 
in Westminster Hall, as models for the treatment of 
animals of every kind in Heraldry ; (see p. 206) . 

In our drawing of Helms and Shields, since we no 
longer derive our ideas of such objects from examples of 
them that are in actual use by ourselves, we are at liberty 
to select such varieties as may be most appropriate to 
the purposes for which we require them, and also those 
that are most pleasing in their forms. Several very 
effective forms of shields are sculptured upon the monu- 
ment of Abbot Ramrydoe, at St. Alban's, No. 617, 
which may be studied with advantage by modern 
Heralds, together with the simple pointed shields of 
earlier times. The unsightly and inconvenient Lozenge, 
I think, might be superceded in our Heraldry. Simplicity 
in helms and mantlings appears to be most desirable ; and 
helm* certainly may always be advantageously set in 


profile. I have added two other examples of early helms 
in PI. XLVI, Nos. 611, 612, the former from the monu- 
ment of the Black Prince, and the latter from the Stall- 
plate of Ralph, Lord Basset ; and with these examples 
I would associate as a model heraldic helm, No. 264. 
The Label that has its points formed after the early man- 
ner, as I have invariably drawn it, appears to be pre- 
ferable to the later form in which the ends of the points 
or pendants are made to expand; it is also always pro- 
ductive of a good effect that the Label itself should tra- 
verse the entire field of the shield from dexter to sinister. 
Modem Labels are generally couped at both extremities, 
and their points are distorted into a species of dove- 




No. 618. 

In No. 618, I give three varieties of the points of 
Labels ; the first, a, is the early type ; the second, b, 
represents the form of the lable introduced in the begin- 
ning of the sixteenth century ; and the third, c, is 
the more modern form, which is altogether objectionable. 
In many early quartered shields, the quarterings are not 
indicated by any dividing lines, as in No. 486, p. 200 ; 
this is certainly an error, that we shall do well to avoid. 

In the disposition and arrangement of charges, and in 
the laws of tincturing, the usage of the early Heralds may 



be accepted as our best guide. Perhaps we may enrich 
our compositions with less cautious and sparing hands 
than they did ; and certainly we may emulate their 
system of diapering both in surface- carving and in color. 
Colors have been produced for us by the chemical science 
and the mechanical skill of our times, far superior both 
in hue and in variety of tint to anything that was known 
to the Heralds of the middle ages. It will be well for us 
to avail ourselves of our advantages, and to introduce 
into our blazon the most brilliant and lustrous colors. 

With the special view to provide for students of 
Heraldry and amateur Heraldic artists the very best 
materiel for their use, I have suggested the preparation of 
a box of heraldic gold and colors, with drawing imple- 
ments, that may satisfy their most fastidious require- 
ments ; and my suggestions have been carried into effect 
by my publishers in a manner that leaves nothing to be 
desired. I may add that the same materials are equally 
adapted for the use of professional Heralds, and of the 
artists who work under their immediate direction. 

No. 503. Shield of Arms of Sir Edwaed Montague. From the 
Calais Boll of Edward III. See page 101). 

No. 619. Hesse. See p. 369. 



Foreign Heraldry diners chiefly from the Heraldry of 
our own country in its being less severe in its prevailing 
style, and more elaborate and gorgeous in both the cha- 
racter and the treatment of its compositions. The He- 
raldry of Germany, more particularly, is very splendid ; 
and, in accordance with the German sentiment of modern 
times, it indulges in an almost infinite variety of subor- 
dinate details, elaborate combinations, and subtle dis- 
tinctions. The Heraldry of France also is rich, and 
often fanciful, and yet almost always eminently artistic. 
I have already, in the preceding chapters, given 
the blazon of a numerous series of foreign shields, all 
of them in some degree associated with the armory of 
England ; so that in this present chapter it remains for 
me only briefly to notice a few other examples, to which 
reference has not yet been made. 

In foreign Heraldry a free use is made of shields of 
arms for the purpose of decoration, whereas this use of 
heraldic decorative accessories is rare in England. Thus, 


there are email shields of his arms seme*e over the bard- 
ings of the charger of John, King of Bohemia, who fell 
at Cresci, in his seal ; and the king himself has as his 
crest the two wings of a vulture, outspread and of very- 
large dimensions. The shield, which is represented in 
foreign military effigies, is almost invariably placed in 
front of the figure, and in such a position that its base 
almost rests on the ground ; with one hand the knight 
supports the shield, while with his other hand he gene- 
rally either grasps his sword or holds his crested helm. 

In a collection of arms presented to the Heralds' 
College by Sir William Dtjgdale, (Coll. Arm. MS. L. 
xiv), the shield of the Duke of Saxony is blazoned, harry 
of six, or and sable : Bavaria is, gu., a lion rampt., queue 
fourchee, arg., crowned, or. : Aquttaine, France modern, 
within a bordure engrailed, gu. : Brittany, erm., a bordure, 
gu. And, amongst other examples of French Royal 
Cadency, the same MS. blazons the shield of Charles, 
the third son of Philip III of France, as France within a 
bordure, gu.: and the shield of Charles de Valois, 
Count of Aleucon, the second son of Charles " the Fair," 
as France within a bordure, gu., plattee. 

In our own times the Arms of France have undergone 
a complete change ; so that the well known heraldic 
term, France modern, has become as completely historical 
as France ancient, and has been superceded by France 
present. The golden eagle of the Emperor Napoleon, 
sitting calmly vigilant in an azure field, has succeeded to 
the fleurs-de-lys of gold that for so many centuries were 
identified with the Heraldry of France. The English 
lions, accordingly, have survived their French rivals and 
associates, unchanged in their blazonry ; and, still as of 



old representing the Koyal dignity and the Eealm of Eng- 
land, they stand in the front of the Heraldry of Europe. 
The National Flag of France, the tricolor, has its 
colors arranged vertically, the bine being next the staff, 
and the white in the centre. The Imperial Standard is 
semee of golden bees, and it charges the eagle e 'of the 
Empire upon the central white division of the field. 

Three other countries of modern Europe, Prussia, Aus- 
tria, and Eussia, in addition to the French Empire, bla- 
zon in their shields an eagle. These eagles are sable, 
and have their wings displayed ; they all are crowned, 
and two of them have two heads — those of Prussia and 

Prussia : Atg., within a bordure, (either plain or in- 
dented), sa., an eagle displayed, of the last, crowned, armed, 
and membered, or, charged on the breast with the Royal 
Cypher, **L and holding in the dexter claw a sceptre, gold, 
ensigned with a similar eagle, and in the sinister a mound, 
az., the circle and cross, of the third. 

The Prussian Crown has eight arches, and like all the 
crowns of continental Europe, except the Austrian, it 
does not enclose any cap. No. 621, p. 371. 

The Arms of the Princely House of Hohenzollern 
are, per fesse, gu., and chequee, or and az. 

The Prussian Eagle is displayed in the national Flag, 
the naval ensign having in the dexter chief angle a sable 
cross patee, voided of the field. 

Austria : Or, an eagle with two heads, displayed, sa., 
crowned, or, armed and membered, gu., having an Imperial 
crown placed above it in the shield, holding in its dexter 
claw a sceptre and a sword, and in the sinister a mound ; 
charged on the breast with a shield, per pale of three : first, 


or, a lion rampt, gu. : second, gu., a f esse, arg. : third, or, 
on a bend, gu., three eaglets displayed, arg. This shield is 
surrounded with the collars of the Austrian Orders of 
Knighthood. The Austrian Imperial Crown, No. 620, is 
very singular in its form, being cleft somewhat after the 
manner of a mitre. 

No. 620. 

Russia : The Russian Arms differ from the Austrian in 
the eagle holding only a sceptre in its dexter claw, and that 
it is being charged with a shield, gu., bearing a figure of 
St. George mounted, and piercing the dragon. This 
shield is encircled with the collar of the Russian Order of 
St. Andrew ; and the wings of the eagle are also charged 
with two groups of small shields representing the pro- 
vinces of the Empire. 

Both the Austrian and the Russian eagles are blazoned 
on the standards of the two Empires. The Flag of 
Austria is formed of three equal horizontal divisions, the 
central one white, and the two others red ; on the central 
division toward the dexter, is a shield charged as the 
Flag, with a narrow golden border, and ensigned with 
the Imperial Crown. The Merchant Flag omits the 


shield and crown. The Enssian Flag has three horizontal 
divisions, the uppermost white, the central blue, and the 
lowermost red. The naval flag is white, with a blue 
diagonal cross ; and this flag is charged in the dexter 
chief quarter of larger flags of red, white, and blue, for 
the three squadrons of the Eussian Navy. 

The arms of Hanover have been blazoned in No. 541. 
The Hanoverian ensign resembles the red ensign of Eng- 
land, the Jack being charged with a white horse courant 
on the cross which is quadrate. The ensign is yellow and 
white per fesse, the yellow in chief. 

Belgium : Barry of eight, arg. and gu., a lion rampt., 
az., crowned and collared, or. The supporters are two 
golden lions. The standard is black, yellow, and red; 
the colors arranged vertically, the red to the fly, and the 
arms with the supporters and crown are charged on the 
central yellow division. The ensign is the same without 
the arms. 

Italy : Gu., a cross, arg., within a bordure, az. The 
standard of green, white, and red, arranged vertically, has 
the arms ensign ed with the crown on the central white 
division ; the red is to the fly. 

Denmark : Or, semee of hearts, gu., three lions pass. 
guard., in pale, az. These are the arms of Denmark 
proper, as the arms of England are the three golden 
lions on a field, gules. The national shield of the kingdom 
of Denmark has numerous quarterings, and it is a 
characteristic illustration of foreign Heraldry. As it was 
borne in the time of James I, it has been blazoned in 
Chap. XIX. The arms of Norway now are removed from 
the second canton, which is charged with Sleswick : the 
Vandal wyvern is blazoned in base in the fourth canton, 


which has Gothes in chief, the division being per fesse : and 
the third canton bears, per fesse, in chief, Sweden, and in 
base, per pale, first, gu., a dried fish, surmounted by a crown, 
or, for Holstein; and secondly, per fesse, in chief, az. a ram, 
arg., and in base, of the first, a bear, of the second. The ines- 
cutcheon has in its first quarter the old arms of Holstein ; 
in the second and third quarters, Stormerh and Bitzmers ; 
and in the fourth quarter is, gu., a horse's head and neck 
couped, or. The two Crosses are for Oldenburgh. The 
shield of pretence remains as it was in the seventeenth 
century. The Supporters are, two savage men, wreathed 
with leaves about their waists, and holding clubs, all ppr. 
The Danish ensign is red, charged with a white cross, 
and the flag itself is swallow-tailed. In the Standard 
the cross is quadrate, and charged with the Eoyal Shield, 
Crown, and Supporters, the Shield being encircled with 
the collars of the Orders of the Elephant and the Bane- 

Sweden and Norway : Az., three crowns, or ; and gu., a 
lion rampant, crowned, or, holding in his paws a battle-axe, 
ppr., the blade in chief and arg., the two coats being 
marshalled quarterly. The Flag of Sweden is blue, with 
a yellow cross ; and that of Norway is red with a blue 
cross having a white fimbriation. These two flags are 
combined to form a United Ensign, after the manner of 
our Union Jack ; and the united flag is cantoned in the 
national ensigns, the Standard being charged with the 
Eoyal Arms, Crown, and Supporters— two golden lions 
rampt. reguardant. 

Holland : Az., bilettee, a lion rampt, holding a sword 
and a sheaf of arrows, or. Supporters, two lions, crowned, 
or. The Flag is of red, white, and blue, arranged hori- 


zontally, the red in chief; and the Standard is charged 
with the Royal Arms. 

Spain : The same as are blazoned in Chap. XIX, for 
the Consort of Queen Mary, with France modern in pre- 
tence. The standard bears the arms blazoned over its 
whole area. The ensign is yellow, interposed between 
two horizontal bars, (each of them half its own depth), of 
red, and it is charged towards the dexter with Castile and 
Leon impaled, within a red circular bordure, and ensigned 
with the Spanish crown. 

Portugal : Arg., five escutcheons in cross, az., each 
charged with as many plates in saltire : the whole within a 
bordure, gu., upon which eight castles, or. The Standard 
is red, charged with the Arms and Crown ; but the ensign 
is per pale, blue and white, similarly charged, the blue 
being next the staff. 

Bavaria : Paly bendy, arg. and az. 

Brunswick : Gu., two lions of England, with thirteen 

Wurtemburgh : Or, three stags' attires in pale, sa., im- 
paling, or, three lions pass., in pale, sa. Supporters, a 
lion, sa., crowned, or, and a stag, ppr. The Flag is 
crimson and black divided per fesse, the crimson in 

Hesse : Az., a lion, queue fourchee, rampt., barry of ten, 
arg. and gu., crowned, or, and holding in his dexter paw a 
sword, ppr., hilt and pommel, gold. No. 619. The Sup- 
porters, two lions, queue fourchee, crowned, or. The Flag 
is, per fesse, gu. and arg. 

The Flag of Greece is blue charged with a white 
cross ; and this is cantoned on the Ensign, which is white 
with four blue bars. 

B B 


The Arms and the Flag of Switzerland are red, with a 
white cross humettee. 

The Arms and the Flag of Turkey are red, with a 
golden moon decrescent, and a silver star. 

Like those of Italy, the national colors of Hungary 
are red, white, and green, but they are arranged horizon- 
tally instead of vertically, the green being in chief. The 
Arms are, gu., four bars, arg., impaling, gu., on a mount, 
vert, issuing from a ducal coronet, or, a patriarchal cross, 
arg. The crown is of a peculiar form, and its mound 
and cross are now placed upon its arches inclining to 
the dexter. 

The range of this Manual does not admit of my ex- 
tending this chapter so far, as to comprehend the armorial 
insignia and the flags of the free cities and of all the 
minor states of Germany, with those of the several states 
of both North and South America ; nor can I here even 
advert to the barbaric Heraldry of the East. The few 
Foreign Titles of Nobility which are held, either by grant 
or inheritance, by British subjects, do not convey any 
privilege or precedence in this country. However real in 
themselves, and whatever the degree of rank they might 
confer in the dominions of the Sovereigns from whom they 
have been derived, they are purely honorary distinctions, 
and they can be recognized at all only through a special 
Royal Licence from our own Sovereign to that effect. 
The arms of these personages, as would be expected, have 
certain augmentations granted by foreign Heralds, or 
their entire blazonry partakes more of foreign than of 
English heraldic feeling and usage. These arms are 
appended to our Peerages; so that it will be sufficient for me 
to remark that the Coronets with which these shields are 


ensigned, differ from the Coronets of our own Peers in 
having no caps enclosed within and rising above their 
circlets, nor is their rank determined in accordance with 
the English rule. The Coronet of a Baron, indeed, has 
the circlet studded with large pearls set singly ; but 
Counts have a numerous series of small pearls, sometimes 
very slightly raised, and sometimes more elevated, with- 
out any strawberry leaves ; and the Dukes arch their 
coronets, while the Coronet of a Marquess has the so- 
called heraldic strawberry-leaves alternating with clustered 

Foreign Nobility, while resident in England, as a matter 
of course, enjoy every privilege of their rank, and each 
individual bears his own heraldic insignia here as he 
would in his native country. 

No. 621. The Prussian Crown. 

B B 2 

No. 622.— Sir Ralph de Arundel. 



The term Abatement first appears iu the heraldic 
writings of the sixteenth century, and it is then assigned 
to certain marks said to be designed to indicate the 
reverse of honorable augmentations. In practice any 
such thing as an heraldic abatement is unknown, with the 
sole exception of the distinctions adopted for the purpose 
of indicating illegitimate descent. 

In modern Heraldry, the Abatement of Hlegitimacy that 
has been generally recognized is a bendlet, or baton sinister : 
and this bendlet is represented as couped at its extremi- 
ties, so that it does not extend across the entire field of 
any shield. But the early Heralds, whatever their feel- 
ings may have been upon this point, certainly never pro- 
mulgated as a law of heraldic usage any particular dif- 
ference that should distinguish the arms of persons not of 
legitimate birth, or those of the descendants of such 



persons. It would appear, indeed, that this abatement 
was generally if not always determined in accordance 
with the wishes of different individuals. Some abatement 
of illegitimacy was held and admitted to be necessary ; 
and provided that the abatement appeared on the shield, 
it might assume whatever form might be considered best 
suited to each particular occasion. Two or three early 
examples will illustrate the practice of the old Heralds 
with sufficient clearness. 

Sir Roger de Clarendon, son of the Black Prince, 
bore, or, on a bend, sa., three ostrich featliers, labelled, 
arg. His near kinsman, the son of John of Ghent, John 
de Beaufort, before the act of legitimation in 1397, bore 
a somewhat similar parody of the arms of his father — a 
similar parody, at any rate, of the second and third quar- 
ters of his father's shield, retaining his label : per pale, 
arg. and az., on a bend, gu., three lions of England, ensigned 
with a label of France. The tinctures of the field, argent 
and azure, were the Livery colors of the Lancastrian 
Plantagenets. John de Beaufort afterwards retained 
these same tinctures in his bordure compony : see p. 
184. Sir John de Clarence, son of Thomas, Duke of 
Clarence, (himself the son of Henry IV), bore, per chev- 
ron, gu. and az., in chief two lions counter-rampant, and in 
base a fleur-de-lys, all or. Glover gives as the arms of a 
natural son of one of the Fitz Alans, Ralph de Arundel, 
a shield of Fitz Alan, flanched, arg. : that is, a shield, 
arg., having flanches of Fitz Alan and Warrenne quarterly, 
as they were quartered by the Earls ; No. 622. 

The baton sinister was borne by Arthur, Viscount 
Lisle, son of Edward IV : by Henry, Duke of Rich- 
mond, son of Henry VIII : and by Charles Somerset 



Earl of Worcester, son of Henry Beaufort, third Duke 
of Somerset. The seal of this Charles Beaufort shews 
that his baton crossed his quartered arms, but was 
couped by his bordure : the baton itself is plain and very- 
narrow. The eldest son of this Earl removed his father's 
baton from his arms, and charged Beaufort upon a fesse 
on a silver shield, thus recognizing the heraldic propriety 
of retaining an abatement, though rejecting the baton. 
The arms of the natural sons of Charles II were all 
abated with the baton sinister, which was differenced after 
the manner of a label. At the present day, the baton of 
the Duke of St. Alban's is, gu., charged with three roses, 
arg. ; that of the Duke of Cleveland is, ermine ; and 
the baton of the Duke of Grafton is, compony, arg. 
and az. Except in instances such as these, in which the 
abatement is charged upon the Eoyal Arms, there appears 
no reason for transmitting the baton sinister with its 
peculiar signification ; in all less exceptional cases some 
mark of cadency might very properly be substituted in its 
stead, or all traces of Abatement might be removed from 
their shields of arms by the descendants of persons, to 
whom arms had been granted abated with a sinister baton. 

No. 507. No. 508. 

Latymeb. See page 200. 

No. 510. — Diaper of the Seal of Thomas, Duke of G-locester. 
(Enlarged), See p. 202. 



I. Heraldic Authorities and Treatises on He- 
raldry. Copies only of the earliest Bolls of Arms are 
known to be now in existence. These Eolls contain the 
armorial bearings of the Sovereign and his family, and of 
the principal nobles and knights of the time. 

1. Eoll of Henry III. Probable date, about 1250. 
The original lost. A copy by Glover, Somerset Herald, 
with Arms blazoned, but not drawn, presented by him to 
Herald's College in 1586, where it is preserved in Miscel- 
lanea Curiosa, L. 14. 

2 - . Roll of Henry III. Probable date, about 1250. 
The original lost. A copy, with arms, (about seven hun- 
dred in number), tricked by Charles, Lancaster Herald, 
in 1607, in the British Museum, Karl. MSS. 6589. 


3. Eoll of Caerlaverock, a.d. 1300. Contemporary 
copies in British Museum, Cotton MSS., Caligula, A. 
XVIII: and in Herald's College, MS. No. 27. Copies by 
Glover in Herald's College, and in Ulster's Office, Dublin. 
Translated and published, with the original text, notes, 
and wood-cuts, by Sir Harris Nicholas, in 1828. 

4. Falkirk Roll of Edward I, a.d. 1298. Copy, 
British Museum, Karl. MSS. 6589. 

5. Dunstable Eoll of Edward II, a.d. 1309. Copy, 
British Museum. Karl. MSS. 1309. 

6. Roll of Edward II, about 1315. Original, British 
Museum. Cotton MSS. Caligula, A, XVIII. 

7. Boroughbridge Roll of Edward II, a.d. 1322. 
Original, Oxford, Ashmolean MSS. No. 731. 

8. Calais Roll of Edward III, a.d. 1347. Copy, 
a.d. 1607. Herald's College. 

In addition to these, a few other early Rolls of Arms 
are in existence, some of them in the possession of private 

In these Rolls, the heraldic formula, to " bear arms," 
occurs ; also the titles of the tinctures and various heraldic 
terms and expressions now in use ; thus in a Roll of the 
time of Edward III, probably a.d. 1337, there are the 
following entries : 

" Brian Fitz Alan de Bedale porte barre de goules et d'or 
de viij peces ;" 

" Rauf de Carnays porte d'or ove chief de goules et trois 
turteaux d' argent en le chief: 

" Tiers de Eouthe port d' argent ove un chevron de sable et 
trois testes de lou de goules racer." 

The earliest writer on Heraldry whose works are of any 
real value to the student is Camden. 



Published works on Heraldry : 

1. Vincent on Brooke's Catalogue of Nobility, 1622. 

2. Dugdale's Baronage, 1675. 

3. Sandford's Genealogical History of England, 1707. 

4. Nesbit's System of Heraldry, 1722. 

5. G-uillim's Display of Heraldry, 1724. 

6. Anstis' Register of the Garter, 1724. 

7. Histoire Genealogique et Chronologique de la Malson 
Boyale de France, 1726. 

8. Armorial General de France, 1768. 

9. Ashmole's Order of the Garter, 1772. 

10. Edmondson's Complete Body of Heraldry, 1 780. 
And more recently published, 

11. Rev. Mark Noble's History of the College of Arms. 

12. Mottle's Bibliotheca Heraldica. 

13. Berry's Encyclopaedia Heraldica. 

14. Bank's Dormant and Extinct Peerages. 

15. Sir Harris Nicholas' Synopsis of the Peerage. 

16. The Historic Peerage of England, by Sir Harris 
Nicholas, edited by William Courthorpe, Esq., 
Somerset Herald. 

17. Vicomte De Magny's Nobiliare TJniversel. 

18. Planche's Pursuivant at Arms. 

19. Lower's Curiosities of Heraldry. 

20. Willement's Begal Heraldry. 

21. Parker's Dictionary of Heraldry. 

22. Burke's, Lodge's, Debrett's and Dod's Peerages. 

23. Burke's Dormant and Extinct Peerages and Ba- 
ronetcies, Commoners, amd Landed Gentry. 

24. Papworth's Ordinary of Arms. 

25. Burke's Armory. 

26. Eairburn's Crests. 


27. Thoms' Book of the Court 

These works form a selected series, and with them may 
be associated the Archceologia ; the Journals of the 
Archaeological Institute and Association, particularly the 
papers on Heraldic subjects in the latter publication by 
Mr. Planche ; Stothard's Effigies ; Waller's Brasses ; 
the Gentleman's Magazine, and the County Histories, and 
the "Wills of Royal and other important personages. 

II. Cadency. It will be understood that in very many 
instances numerous examples of historical shields are in 
existence, in addition to those which are specified in the 
text. This is particularly the case in the instance of the 
greater number of the Plantagenet shields that are dis- 
tinguished by marks of Cadency. Canterbury Cathedral 
alone, that noble museum of Architectural Heraldry, will 
provide for the student a numerous series of duplicate 
examples of the shields of the Plantagenets themselves, 
with those of the Hollands, the Staffords, the Bohuns, 
the Botjrchiers, the Beatjforts, the Mortimers, the 
Courtenays, and others. The torteaux of the York Label 
appear repeatedly at Canterbury ; also amongst several 
differenced shields of the Cotjrtenays there is one which 
has its Label charged with torteaux. This shield was 
borne by a Courtenay who married a Wake ; another 
Courtenay, who married a Holland, has his shield dif- 
ferenced with a Label charged with fleurs-de-lys. I may 
add that Thomas Holland, Earl of Kent, whose seal I 
have engraved, (No. 525, and p. 216), in a charter dated, 
Feb. 8, 1387, styles himself, " Compte de Kent et Seigneur 
de Wake." 

In his " Pursuivant" (p. 150), Mr. Planche blazons the 
Bordure of Humphrey, Duke of Glocester, as componee 



argent and sable : perhaps he has done this on the autho- 
rity of Upton, who says {Be mili. off., p. 238), that the 
Duke bore such a Label, which he might have assumed 
when the Earldom of Flanders was granted to him, in 
the fourteenth year of Henry VI. The shield of the 
Duke in the cloisters at Canterbury has a plain Bordure ; 
and in his Monument at St. Alban's his shield is repeated 
again and again, carved in relief, but the Bordure is plain ; 
No. 476. Many of these shields at St. Albans are in 
perfect preservation, and they are ensigned with a coronet 
decorated after a most singular manner. The Duke also 
differenced his lion crest with a Collar argent. 

The Seal of Eichard, Earl of Cambridge, which dis- 
plays both his Label of York and his Bordure of Leon, has 
at the base of the shield two lions counter -couchant guard- 
ant, each of them holding an ostrich-feather with a scroll. 
See No. 478, and p. 197. 

The Seal of JohJes B'us de Segrave — the Segrave of 
Caerlaverock — has his shield charged with a lion rampt., 
croivned, and on either side of the shield is a garb. 

On his Seal, Eichard de Beauchamp, (who died in 
1439) quarters Beauchamp and Newburgh, Nos. 367 and 
368 ; and his shield is supported by two chained bears with 
ragged staves. 

Henry Bourchier, Earl of Essex, quartered Bourchier 
and Louvaine, the latter being, gu., billettee, a fesse, or : 
accordingly, the water-bouget and the billet which diaper 
his mantling, were obtained from the charges of his 
shield. See No. 450, and p. 176. The slab, which still 
retains the brass to this Earl and his Countess, Isabella 
Plantagenet, at Little Easton, was originally powdered 
with Bourchier -knots and Fetter-locks. 


III. Princes of Wales. The title of Prince of Wales 
appears to have been borne by Edward II during the 
lifetime of his father, without any formal creation to that 
dignity. Edward III, who succeeded to the Crown when 
in his fifteenth year, was never created Prince of Wales, 
nor does he appear to have borne that title. Before his 
accession he was styled Earl of Chester. At page 191, 
Edward III, before his accession is incorrectly styled 
Prince of Wales, instead of Prince Royal. He bore his 
azure label both of three and of five points. The Black 
Prince was formally created Prince of Wales by Edward 
III in 1343. The next Princes of Wales became Kings 
as Richard II, and Henry V. (See also p. 256). 

His Royal Highness, Albert Edward, our Prince of 
Wales, is Duke of Cornwall and of Bothsay, Earl of 
Chester and of Dublin, and Lord of the Isles, and also Duke 
of Saxony. The quartered shield of the Prince may be 
blazoned as follows : 

1. Grand quarter : Arms of the Prince of Wales. 

2. Saxony ; or, more correctly, quarterly, 1 and 4, the 
United Kingdom : 2 and 3, Saxony : 

3. Quarterly, 1 and 4, Cornwall ; 2 and 3, Chester : 

4. Quarterly, 1 and 4, BotJisay ; 2 and 3, Dublin : and 
iu pretence, the insignia of Lord of the Isles. 

Or, thus : 
Grand Quarters, 

1 and 4 : the Prince of Wales : 

2 and 3: Saxony. 

In pretence, over all, Cornwall, Chester, Bothsay and 
Dublin, quarterly, with the insignia of Lord of the Isles 
charged on an Inescutcheon . 


No. 568. 

Amiorial Insignia of H.R.1I. the Pkince of Wales, K.Gr. Page 387. 


In anticipation of an auspicious event, the arms of the 
Prince of Wales will impale Denmark. See Plate LX. 

IV. The Imperial Crown. To my series of Examples 
of the Crown of England, I add a faithful representation 
of the Crown of Jewels, made for the Coronation of Her 
Majesty the Queen, and in use on those occasions of 
high state ceremonial, which require the presence of this 
emblem of Royal Dignity ; No. 624, Plate LII. 

The Crown, (No. 562, p. 252), of Her Majesty's imme- 
diate predecessors has already become historical, having 
been superceded by the new State Grown, No. 624, 
p. 249. The Heraldic Grown, however, which enjoys the 
Eoyal favour, diners from the State Crown, and inclines 
to the type of an earlier time. This Heraldic Crown of 
our Most Gracious Sovereign I have represented in No. 
354, p. 350. 

The wood-cut at page 253, No. 562 a, ought to have 
represented the Crown of the late Prince Consort with 
a cap enclosed within its arches, and also as being en- 
signed with a Cross Patee, instead of a plain Latin Cross, 

No. 623. — Crown of the Late Prince Consort. 

as No. 623. In its actual condition, No. 562 a, closely 
resembles the Crown of Italy. 
V. The Feather Badge. (See pages 72, and 202). 


In the Monument of Abbot Bamrydge, at St. Alban's, 
three Ostrich Feathers appear united in a single scroll ; 
and they are also represented precisely after the same 
manner in the equally splendid Monument of Prince 
Arthur Tudor, in Worcester Cathedral. Edward 
Tudor, Prince of Wales, the son of Henry VIII, first 
ensigned three Feathers with a Coronet, and he charged 
this group upon a roundle. Henry Stuart, eldest son of 
James I, established the arrangement of the three fea- 
thers within a Prince's Coronet, in place of the scroll, as 
the Ensign of the Prince of Wales. 

At an earlier period, John of Ghent bore Ostrich Fea- 
thers, ermine, on his Badge. Ostrich Feathers were also 
borne by all the sons of Henry IV, and by the Beau- 
forts, and they were held in equal esteem by both the 
rival Houses of York and Lancaster. To Thomas Mow- 
bray, Duke of Norfolk, as an augmentation of high 
honor, Eichard II granted two Ostrich Feathers, to be 
borne erect, u in sigillo et vexillo suo" — in both his seal 
and his banner ; and, in the achievement of this unfor- 
tunate nobleman, which has been discovered at Venice, 
there appear the Feathers, with a Swan, a Hart, and a 
Collar of SS, (see Archsel., XXXI, 350). Amongst the 
devices that diaper the robe of Anne of Bohemia, in her 
effigy, the figure of an ostrich is introduced. In Harl. 
MS. 304, fol. 12, in the British Museum, it is recorded 
that the white Ostrich Feather with its pen golden is the 
King's : the feather entirely white, or silver, is the Prince's : 
the feather golden, with its pen ermine, is the Duke of Lan- 
caster's : and the feather white, having its pen compony, is 
the Duke of Somerset's. 

By the Black Prince himself, the Ostrich Feathers 


were certainly held in high esteem ; and it Would seem 
that he regarded them in a peculiar light. Thus, in his 
will, the Prince gives directions that on the occasion of 
his funeral two distinct armorial compositions should be 
displayed in the procession, immediately before his re- 
mains ; one, for war — "1'un pur la guerre, de nos armes 
entiers quartelles" — of his quartered arms ; and the other, 
of his Badge of Ostrich Feathers, for peace — " et l'autre 
pur la paix, de nos bages des plumes d'ostruce." Similar 
shields " for war," and " for peace," alternate about the 
Monument of the Prince. 

VI. The Collar of SS. In the centre of the Canopy 
above his Monument at Canterbury, the shield of Henry 
IV is encircled with a Collar of SS, after the manner 
of the Garter of the Order. This shield bears France 
modern and England, impaling Navarre and Eureux, (No. 
348, PL XXni) ; upon the Collar the S is repeated 
twenty-three times, and from the customary trefoil clasp 
there hangs as a pendant, an Eagle displayed. Collars of 
SS also surround other shields of France and England, 
and of Navarre and Eureux : and the whole field is dia- 
pered with eagles and greyhounds within garters, charged 
alternately with the mottos, soverayne, and atempe- 
rance, and with gennets that are crowned, collared, and 

Late examples of the SS collar occur at Elford in Staf- 
fordshire ; the latest there appears upon the effigy to Sir 
William Smythe, a.d. 1526. 

VII. Livery Colors. At page 83, the Livery Colors 
of the House of Lancaster are omitted : they were argent 
and azure, whence the Beauforts derived their bor- 



VIII. Miscellaneous. The Charge, a Scaling Ladder, 

No. 164 A. Scaling Ladder. 

No. 625. Cross urdee. 

No. 164 a, which was accidentally omitted from PI. IX, is 
represented here charged upon a shield. See p. 55. 

To the Heraldic Crosses represented in PI. Ill, and 
described in Chap. VII, page 32, I have to add one other 
variety, the Cross urdee, No. 625. This Cross was borne 
sable, on a field argent, by Sir Thomas Bannister, K.G., 
whose name stands fifty-fifth in Ashmole's list of the 
knights. The example is drawn from the Stall-plate. 
Ashmole himself blazons this Cross asfleurie. 

At page 64 the antlers, or attires of a Hart, ought to 
have been described as being in themselves distinct 

In Chap. XIII, amongst other " Descriptive Terms," 
in page 88, should have been inserted the words, In 
Quadrangle, signifying such an arrangement of four 
charges as would place one of them in the centre of each 
quarter of a shield. Also, in page 86, the word Treflee, 
signifying bordered after the manner of a series of 

In order to render the Illustrations as complete as 
possible, in several instances I have either added enlarged 
representations of some of the examples, or extended the 


original series of the examples themselves : accordingly, 
the List of Illustrations contains a few numbers that 
are not inserted in the text ; and also some of the 
numbers refer to two engravings of the same object. 
Thus, in Plate XVI, p. 100, No. 277 refers to both the 
smaller and the larger representation of the basinet of 
John of Eltham. In the same Plate, No. 279 a. is an 
enlarged portion of the coronetted basinet of the Black 
Prince, of which a side view is given in No. 279. With 
a view to show very clearly the adjustment of both the 
Coronet and the Camail of the Black Prince, I have 
added a third engraving from his effigy, No. 279, in Plate 
LII, p. 249. In Plate XLII, p. 252, No. 548 refers 
both to the sketch of the Crown of Eichard I and to 
the enlarged portion of it. No. 194 is repeated in Plates 
V and X ; and No. 239 a. has also been twice used, at 
p. 70 and in Plate XII. Fitz Nichol has inadvertently 
been twice engraved — No. 380 a. in Plate XXVII, and No. 
388 in Plate XLVIH. The woodcuts, Nos. 627 and 628, are 
additional examples ; the former representing one of the 
chained White Harts, the favourite badge of Eichard II, 
from the diaper of his effigy, (see, Contents, p. vi.) : and, No. 
628 is drawn from the panelling of the Chantry of Bishop 
Oldham, a.d. 1519, at Exeter Cathedral — the owl with 
the label in its beak charged with the letters dom, form- 
ing what was held to be a Eebus of the Bishop's name — 
Owld-dom, Old-ham, p. 389 : see also, Bebus, p. 118. I have 
to add, that a single number (Nos. 590, 593, 594, 595, 
and 596) is applied to each group of examples illustrative 
of the insignia of the knightly Orders ; and No. 595 
also denotes each of the two Stars of the Bath, at pages 
391 and 392. In Plate XXVI, p. 212, No. 267 a. the 




panache-crest of Lord Ferrers of Chartley, is an 
additional example, drawn from the brass at Merevale. 
The reference to No. 590, the Insignia of the Order of 
the Garter represented in Plate LIY, has been acciden- 
tally omitted in page 266. In Plates a and b, pages 
226 and 227, the examples are all numbered (536 to 543), 
but the numbers have not been inserted in every instance 
in the text — an accidental omission which I regret. 

The fine enamelled and diapered shield of Earl Wil- 
liam de Valence, a.d. 1206, (No. 101), still remains in 
so perfect a condition in Westminster Abbey, that I hare 
engraved it in the tinctures of the original, in Plate VII. 
This Plate is placed at page 43, as a perfect example of 
heraldic diapering. The wood-cut, No. 338 a, which fol- 
lows in this page, has been engraved in consequence of 

No. 338 a. Shield of John de Hastings, K.G., Earl of Pembeoke, 
quartering De Hastiyigs and De Valence, and impaling France 
Ancient and England quarterly : from the Monument of Edw. III. 
at Westminster. 



an inaccuracy in the corresponding shield in Plate XXI, 
at page 142. This, the earliest known existing example 
of a quartered shield borne by an English subject, is 
also an early example of impalement. 

In Plate XIX, at page 145, the first shield ought to 
have quartered England only, and not France and Eng- 
land quarterly, with Hainault. The correct blazon of 
this very interesting shield is given in the annexed wood- 
cut, No. 337. 

No. 337. Queen Philippa of Hainault. 

In Plate LX, No. 568, page 380, the Armorial Insignia 
of H.E.H. the Prince op Wales, K.G-., are divided into 
two groups, as follows : 

A. Arms of the Prtnce op Wales, having Saxony in 
pretence, and impaling Denmark : with the Coronet, Fea- 
thers, Crown, Helm, Crest and Motto of the Prince. 

B. Arms of the Prince of Wales, quartering Saxony, 
and having, in pretence, Cornwall, Chester, Eothsay, Dublin 
and the Isles ; the shield encircled with the Garter of the 
Order, and supported by the Feather-Badge of the Prince. 

c c 2 



In the Frontispiece, the Seal of Thomas Holland, No. 
525, is charged with the figure of a Hind, and not of a 
Hart, as it is stated at page 216. And the Seal of Hum- 
phrey de Bohun, No. 397 a, also represented in the 
Frontispiece, will be found to bear the three lions of 
England, each within a separate cusped circle, one above 
and the others on either side of the shield ; thus the 
alliance between the Earl of Hereford and the family of 
the Sovereign was significantly indicated before the 
establishment of a system of Marshalling. 

The assistance which I have received from one valued 
friend throughout the preparation of this volume, I desire 
here most gratefully to acknowledge ; and while to all 
who have aided me I tender my cordial thanks, I feel 
bound to record my special obligation to William 
Courthorpe, Esquire, Somerset Herald ; to the Eev. 
H. W. Hodgson, Rector of King's Langley ; and to T. G-. 
Bayfield, Esquire, of Norwich. 

x UH yy& 

]S T o. 628. — Eobus of Bishop Oldham, Exeter Cathedral. Page 385. 


PLATE. Tago. 

I. Shields and Achievement of Arms . . 21 

II. Ordinaries — B-oundlcs . . . .27 

III. Heraldry of the Cross . . . .35 

IV. Subordinates — Varied Fields . . .37 
V. Shields of Arms 39 

VI. Shields of Arms . . . . .42 

VII. Diapered and Enamelled Shield of William de 

Valence . . . . . .43 

VIII. Charges — Inanimate Objects . . .46 

IX. Charges — Inanimate Objects . . .56 

X. Heraldry of the Lion . . . .60 

XL Charges — Animate Beings . . .64 

XII. Charges — Animate Beings and Natural Objects 68 

XIII. Charges— Natural Objects, &c. . . . 74 

XIV. Shields of Arms . . . .105 
XV. Charges — Inanimate Objects and Animate 

Beings . . . . .93 

XVI. Ducal Coronets, Basinets, and Crest-Wreaths 100 

XVII. Effigy of Lady Tiptoft, and Shields of Arms . 112 

XVIII. Marshalling — Dimidiation . . . 131 

XIX. Marshalling — Impalements, &c. . . 145 

XX. Marshalling and Cadency — Arms of the De 

Bohuns . . . .137 



XXI. Effigy and Arms of Earl John de Hastings 

XXII. Marshalling and Cadency — Impalements . 

XXIII. Marshalling — Impalements and Quarterings 

XXIV. Marshalling .... 
XXV. Cadency — Crosslets, Martlets, &c. . 

XXVI. Crests 

XXVII. Cadency — Crosslets, Escallops, Cinquefoils, 
&c. ..... 

XXVIII. Cadency— Mullets, Fleurs-de-lys, &c. 

XXIX. Pennons, Standards, &c. 

XXX. Crests and Knots .... 

XXXI. Cadency — Labels of the Plantagenets 

XXXII. Cadency — Bordures .... 

XXXIII. Cadency — Labels .... 

XXXIV. Cadency — Plantagenet Shields and Labels 
XXXV. Banners, Standard, Helm and Sail . 

XXXVI. Royal Cadency, and British Ensigns 

XXXVII. Cadency— Crosslets, Mullets, &c. . 

XXXVIII. Cadency — Arms of the De Valences, &c. . 

XXXIX. Cadency and Badges — Fleurs-de-lys 

XL. Cadency — Annulets, Roundles, Cantons, 
&c. ..... 

XLI. Coronets and Crests . 

XLII. Crowns . . . . . 

XLIII. Lancastrian Collars, and Insignia of the 
Garter ..... 

XLIV. Yorkist Collars, and Insignia of the Garter 

XLV. Cadency and Helms . 

XL VI. Shields of Arms, Crest and Victoria Cross 

XLVII. Shields of Arms and Royal Badges 

XLVIII. Cadency — Crosslets, Billets, &c. 

XLIX. Cadency 

L. Cadency — Roundles, &c. 

LI. Cadency — Shields of Arms and Mantlings . 

LII. Crowns and Helms . 

LIII. Seals 

LIV. Tnwignia of the Garter 









. 249 

. 266 




LV. Insignia of the Thistle . . . .270 

LYI. Insignia of St. Patrick . . . .271 

LYII. Insignia of the Bath .... 273 

LVI1I. (or Plate A). Royal Arms of England . . 226 

LIX. (or Plate B). Royal Arms of England . . 227 

LX. Armorial Insignia of H.R.H. the Prince of Wales 380 

LXI. Insignia of the Star of India . . .270 

No. 595. Insignia of the Order of the Bath : Star of the Knights 
Commandees. See page 272. 

No. 595. Insignia of the Order of the Bath :— Star of the KNIGHTS 
Grand Cross. See page 272. 




1 A 


> Jn-usalem, p. 4. 
» Jerusalem, p. 4. 


Gules, p. 25. 


Sable, p. 25. 


France Ancient, p. 18. 


Vert, p. 25. 



Purpure, p. 25. 


> Heraldic Shields, p. 19. 


Ermine, p. 26. 
Ermines, p. 26. 




Erminois, p. 26. 


Provence, PL i. 


Vair, p. 26. 


Points of the Shield, p. 23 


Vair, p. 26. 


Per Pale, p. 23. 


Counter Vair, p 26 


Per Fesse, p. 23. 


Potent, p. 26. 


Per Cross, or Quarterly, p. 23. 


Counter Potent, p. 


Her Bend, p. 23. 


A Chief, plate ii. 


Per Saltire, p. 23. 

33 a 

. De Neville, p. 31. 


Per Chevron, p. 23. 

33 b 

De Lacy, p. 31. 


Quarterly of eight, p 23. 


A Fesse, plate ii. 


Quarterly Quartered, p. 23. 


A Bar, plate ii. 


Dividing and Border Lines, p. 


A Pale, plate ii. 



A Cross, plate ii. 


Or, p. 24. 


A Bend, plate ii. 


Argent, p. 24. 


A Saltire, plate ii. 


Azure, p. 25. 


A Chevron, plate ii. 















49 a. 

49 d. 

49 c. 


49 e. 

40 f. 

49 G. 



















66 a. 












De Clare, p. 27. 

A Pile, plate ii. 

Two Bars, plate ii. 

A Fesse Cotised, plate ii. 

Bars Gemelles, plate ii. 

A Pale endorsed, plate ii. 

On a Bend, plate ii. 

A Bend cotised, plate ii. 

A Ribbon, plate ii. 

On a Saltire, plate ii. 

In Chief, plate ii. 

In Fesse, plate ii. 

In Pale, plate ii. 

In Cross, plate ii. 

In Bend, plate ii. 

In Saltire, plate ii. 

In Chevron, plate ii. 

In Pile, plate ii. 

A Bezant, plate ii. 

A Plate, plate ii. 

A Hurte, plate, ii. 

A Torteau, plate ii. 

A Pellet, plate ii, 

A Pomme, plate ii. 

A Fountain, plate ii. 

A Greek Cross, plate iii. 

A Latin Cross, plate iii. 

A Tau Cross, plate iii. 

St. Andrew, plate iii. 

St- Patrick, plate iii. 

St. George, plate iii. 

The First Union Jack, p. 32. 

The Second Union Jack, p. 32. 

A Cross Fimbriated, plate iii. 

A Cross surmounted by a 

Cross, plate iii. 
A Cross voided, plate iii. 
A Cross pointed, plate iii. 
A Cross patriarchal, plate iii 
A Cross on Degrees, plate iii. 
A Cross couped, plate iii. 
A Maltese Cross, plate iii. 
A Cross quadrate, plate iii. 
A Cross quarter pierced, plate 

A Cross quarterly pierced, 

plate iii. 
A Cross Moline, plate iii. 
A Crose Recerce'ee, plate iii. 
A Cross Patonce, plate iii. 
The Confessor — St. Edward, 

plate i. 
A Cross Fleurie, plate iii. 


80 A Cross Fleurettee, plate id. 

81 A Cross Pommee, plate iii. 

82 A Cross Fourchee, plate iii. 

83 A Cross Crosslet, plate iii. 

84 A Cross Crosslet Fitchee, 

plate iii. 

85 A Cross Patee, plate iii. 

86 A Cross Patee Fitchee, plate iii 

87 A Cross Botonee, plate iii. 

88 A Cross Botonee Fitchee, 

plate iii. 

89 A Cross Potent, plate iii. 

90 A Cross Potent Fitchee, plate 


91 A Cross Potent Quadrate, 

plate iii. 

92 A Cross Engrailed, plate iii. 

93 A Cross Uudee, plate iii. 

94 A Cross Ragulee, plate iii. 

95 Five Fusils in Cross, plate iii. 

96 A Canton, plate, iv. 

97 A Gyron, plate iv. 

98 An Inescutcheon, plate iv. 

99 Mortimer, p. 37. 
99 a. Mortimer, p. 37. 

100 An Orle, plate iv. 

101 De Valence, plates v, vii, and 


102 A Tressure, plate iv. 

103 Scotland, plate v. 

104 A Lozenge, plate iv. 

105 A Fusil, plate iv. 

106 A Frette, plate iv. 

106 a. Frettee, plate iv. 

107 Le De Spencer, plate, v. 

108 Flanches, plate, iv. 

108 a. Flasques, plate iv. 

109 A Mascle, plate iv. 

110 A Rustre, plate iv. 

111 A Billet, plate iv. 

112 A Label, plate iv. 

113 A Bordure, plate iv. 

114 A Bordure engrailed, plate iv. 

115 A Bordure indented, plate iv. 
115a. Shield — Whitworth Effigy, 

p. 39. 

116 Brittany — De Dreux, plate v. 

117 Gyronny, plate iv. 

118 Gyronny of six, plate, iv. 

119 Lozengy, plate iv. 

120 Fusilly," plate iv. 

121 De Grey, p. 40. 
121 a. Paly of 8, plate iv. 





121 B. 

Bendy of 8, plate iv. 



Barry Bendy, plate iv. 


Paly Bendy, plate iv. 



A Bordure Com pony, plate iv. 



Bordure Counter Compony, 


plate iv. 



Bordure Chequee, plate iv. 

152 a 


Sir Robert de Chandos, plate 




127 a. 

Percy — Beverley Minster, 


plate vi. 


127 b 

De Warrenne — Castle Acre, 


plate vi. 


127 c. 

De Warrenne — Beverley, plate 





Flag of the Admiralty, p. 44. 



Six Annulets, plate viii. 

129 a. 

Arrows, plate viii. 


129 b. 

Bannerman, plate viii. 


129 c. 

Three Battering Rams, plate 



A Fire Beacon, plate viii. 

164 a. 


Breys, plate viii. 

164 b. 


De Geneville, plate xiv. 


A Buckle, plate viii. 


132 a. 

A Buckle and strap, plate viii. 



A Caltrap, plate viii. 


133 a. 

A Chapeau, plate viii. 



An Escarbuncle, plate via. 


134 a. 

An Escarbuncle, plate viii. 



CastLe and Leon — Queen 


Alianore, plate i. 


135 a 

. A Castle, plate viii. 



A Chess-Rook, plate viii. 


136 a 

A Cinque foil, plate viii. 


136 b 

A Clarion, plate viii. 



A Clarion, plate viii. 



Cups, plate viii. 



Cushions, plate viii. 


138 a 

Cushions— De Bohun Brass, 


plate xv. 



City of London, p. 57. 



An Estoile, plate viii. 


A Winnowing Fan, plate viii. 

179 a. 


A Fetter Lock, plate viii. 


A Fylfot Cross, plate, viii. 

179 b. 


Fitz William, p. 57. 

144 a 

. Crest of Hope, plate xxvi. 


144 b 

Crest of Drake, plate xxvi. 

180 a 


Gauntlets, plate viii. 



G urges, plate viii. 


A Hawk's Lure, plate ix. 


A Hawk's Bell and Jesses, 

plate ix. 
A Hemp-Brake, plate ix. 
A Hunting Horn, plate ix. 
A Lymphad, plate ix. 
A Maunche, plate ix. 
A Maunche, plate ix. 
A Mill-rind, plate ix. 
A Mullet, plate ix. 
A Mullet of 8 points, plate ix. 
De Vere, plate vi. 
A Mullet pierced, plate ix. 
A Pall, plate ix. 
A Pastoral Staff, plate xv. 
A Crozier, plate xv. 
A Penner and Inkhorn, plate 

A Pheon, plate ix. 
A Portcullis, plate ix. 
A Qtiatrefoil and Shield, plate 

A Scaling-Ladder, Seep. 384. 
A Lozenge Panel and Shield, 

plate xv. 
A Seax, plate ix. 
A Shakefork, plate ix. 
Hay, p. 57. 

The Trinity House, plate xiv. 
A Pryck Spur, plate ix. 
A Wheel Spur, plate ix. 
A Rouelle Spur, plate ix. 
A Guarded Spur, plate ix. 
The Earl Poulett, plate xiv. 
A Tower, plate ix 
A Trellise, plate ix. 
A Trumpet, plate ix. 
A Water Bouget, plate ix. 
Isle of Man, plate xiv. 
The Badge of Ulster, plate ix. 
Douglas, plate xiv. 
A Lion Passant, plate x. 
A Lion Passant Guardant, 

plate x. 
A Lion Passant Reguardant, 

plate x. 
A Lion Passant Guardant, 

plate x. 
A Lion Rampant, plate x. 
A Lion Rampant, plate x. 
A Lion Rampant Guardant, 

plate x. 
A Lion Rampant Keguardant, 

plate x. 




183 A Lion Salient, plate x. 

134 Two Lions Combattant, plate 

185 The Crest of Percy, p. 58. 
18G The Crest of Howard, p. 58. 
187 A Lion Sejant, plate x. 
187 a. A Lion Sejant Rampant, plate 


187 b, A Lion Couchant, plate x. 

188 A Demi- Lion Rampant, plate 


189 A Lion's Face, plate x. 

190 A Lion's Head, couped, plate 


191 A Lion's Head, erased, plate 


192 A Lion's Jambe, plate x. 

193 Two Lions Rampant addorsed, 

plate x. 
j" Cornwall, plate v. 

194 •< A Lion Rampant, crowned, 

[ plate x. 

195 A Lion Rampant, holding a 

Spear, plate x. 
193 A Lion gorged with a coronet, 
plate x. 

197 A Lion queue* fourchee, plate 


198 England, p. 13. 

199 The Earl of Pembroke, plate 


200 Longespee, p. 88. 

201 De Rohun, plate xx. 

201 a. De Wheatharapstede, plate 


202 A Stag at gaze, plate xi. 

203 A Stag tripping, plate xi. 

203 a. A Stag at speed, plate xi. 

204 A Stag lodged, plate xi. 

205 A Stag's Headcabossed, plate 


205 a. Stanley, plate xiv. 
2'»5 b. Cavendish, plate xiv. 

206 A Bear and Ragged Staff, 

plate xxx. 

207 A Talbot Dog, plate, xi. 

208 Jessant-de-lys, plate xi. 

208 a. Jessant-de-lys reversed, plate 


209 A Bird soaring, plate xi. 

210 Wings in lure, plate xi. 

211 Wings erect, plate xi. 


212 A Bird trussing another, plate 

212 a. An Eagle displayed, plate xi. 

212 b. An Eagle with two heads, 

plate xi. 

213 A Pelican in its Piety, plate xi. 

214 A Swan chained, plate xi. 

215 A Bird closed, plate xi. 

216 A Martlet, plate xi. 

216 a. A Martlet, plate xi. 

217 A Fish naiant, plate xi. 

218 A Fish hauraint, plate xi. 

218 a. A Fish uriant, plate xi. 

219 A Dolphin embowed, plate xi. 

220 An Escallop shell, plate, xi. 

221 A Cockatrice, plate xii. 

222 Crest— Dagworth, plate xii. 

222 a. Crest — Elmebrigge, plate xii. 

223 A Dragon, plate xii. 

223 a. A Dragon Standard, plate xii. 

224 A Griffin, plate xii. 

225 A Mermaid, plate xii. 

225 a. A Collar of Mermaids, p. 69. 

226 A Meiman, plate xii. 

227 A Wyvern, plate xii. 
227 a. A Unicorn, plate xii. 
227 b. A Pegasus, plate xii. 

227 c. A Phenix, plate xii. 

228 The Sun in splendor, plate xii. 

229 Rays of the Sun, plate xii. 

230 Crescent, plate xii. 

231 Decrescent, plate xii. 

232 Increscent, plate xii. 

233 A Cinquefoil, plate xii. 

234 Black Prince — Shield of 

Peace, p. 70. 
234 a. Feather Badge— Black Prince 
plate xii. 

234 b. Swan and Feather — De 

Bohun, plate xii. 

235 Feather and Scroll — Worces- 

ter, plate xii. 

235 a. Prince of Wales' Plume — 

Modern, plate xv. 

236 A Fleur-de-lys, from tiles, 

plate xiii. 
236 a. A Fleur-de-lys, from tiles, 
plate xiii. 

236 b A Fleur-de-lys, from tiles, 

plate xiii. 

237 A Fleur-de-lys — Windsor, 

plate xv. 





237 a 

, A Fleur-de-lys — Monument 


Helm and Crest — Edward de 

of Edward III, plate xv. 

Thorpe, plate lii. 


A Fleur-de-lys, on Sword and 


Helm and Crest — R. de 

Sceptre, plate xiii. 

Beauchamp, plate xii. 


Leveson, p. 70. 


Crest — Lord Stourton, plate 

239 a 

Chester, p. 70. 

xxvi . 

239 b, 

A Garbe, plate xii. 


Helm and Crest — Sir William 

239 a 

A Slip of Oak, plate xii. 

de Bryenne, plate xxvi. 


Pianta Genista, plate xii. 

267 a 

. Crest — Lord Ferrers of 

24 L 

A Rose, plate xiii. 

Chartley, plate xxvi. 


A Rose — Worcester, p 226. 


Crest Coronet — SirT. Broun- 

242 a 

A White Rose of York, plate 

flet, plate xxvi. 



Crest of Mortimer, plate 


A Rose-en- Soleil — Worcester, 


p. 226. 


Seal— Mortimer, p. 328. 


A Sixfoil, plate xiii. 


St. Edmond, plate xiv. 


The Stock of a Tree, plate 


A Mural Crown, p. 97 > 



A Naval Crown, p. 97. 


A Trefoil slipped, plate 


A Vallary Crown, p. 97. 



An Eastern Crown, p. 97. 


A Tudor Rose — Worcester, 


The Coronet of a Duke, p. 

p. 226. 



A York and Lancaster Rose 


Basinet — John of Eltham, 

crowned, plate xiii. 

plate xvi. 

248 a 

. A White Rose-en-Soleil, plate 


Fillet— William of Hatfield, 


plate xvi. 


Byron, p. 76 


Basinet — Black Prince, plates 


Gouttee, p. 76. 

xvi, lii. 


Gouttee, p. 76. 


Basinet — Black Prince, plate 


Mantelee, plate xiii. 



A Saltire trononee, plate 


Coronet — John De la Pole, 


plate xvi. 


The Coronet of a Baron, p. 


The Coronet of an Earl, 


p. 102. 


Canterbury impaling Kempe, 


Coronet — Earl of Arundel, 

plate xiv. 

p. 259. 


Contoise — Aymer de Valence, 


Coronet — Earl of Arundel, 

plate xv. 

p. 14. 


Basinet — Sir H. Calveley, 

283 a 

Coronet— Countess of Arun- 

plate xvi. 

del, plate xii. 

257 a. 

A Crest Coronet, p. 210. 


Coronet — Countess of Essex, 


Basinet — Ralph de Neville, 

plate xii. 

plate xvi. 


Coronet — Sir T. Boleyn, plate 


Helm and Crest — Richard I, 


plate xxvi. 


Edward III, p. 332. 


Helm and Crest — H. de 


Camoys — with Garter, plate 

Bohun, plate xxvi. 



Helm and Crest — Sir J. 


Camoys and Mortimer, plate 

Loutrell, plate xxvi. 



Helm and Crest — Edward 

288 a. 

Garter — Lord Camoys, plate 

III, plate xxvi. 



Helm and Crest — Black 
Prince, plate xxvi. 


Henry V, plate xiv. 






Garter — John de la Pole, 


Standard — Henry VIII, plate 

plate xliv. 



Yorkist Collar — Lord liar- 


The Coronet of a Viscount, p. 

court, plate xliv. 



Garter — Lady Harcourt, plate 


A Crest Wreath, plate xv. 


318 a. 

A Crest W T reath in perspec- 


A Gonfannon, plate xxix. 

tive, plate xv. 


Modern Helm — Sovereign, p. 


Stafford impaling Butler, plate 




Modern Helm — Princes, p. 

319 a. 

Stafford, plate xxiv. 


319 b. 

Butler, plate xxiv. 


Modern Helm — Knights, p. 


Cornwall dimidiates Clare, 


plate xviii. 


Modern Helm — Esquires, p. 


Cornwall impales Clare, plate 




Crown of Herald Kings-of- 


England dimidiates France, 

Arms, p. 280. 

plate xviii. 


The Duke of Norfolk, p. 


France Ancient and Navarre, 


plate xviii. 


Effigy of Lady Tiptoft, plate 


Dimidiated Shield — Chess- 


man, plate xviii. 

300 a 

Tiptoft, plate xvii. 


De Valence dimidates Clare- 

300 b. 

Powys, plate xvii. 

nionte, plate xviii. 

300 c. 

Tiptoft and Powys, plate 


Great Yarmouth, plate xviii. 



Seal — Alice d'Avesnes, plate 


Harsyck, plate i. 



The Coronet of a Marquess, 


Seal — Peter Tederade, plate 

p. 113. 



A Merchant's Mark, plate 


Seal — Joan de Barr, plate xix. 


329 a 

. De Barr, plate xix. 


The Merchants of the Staple, 


Two small shields of Essex, 

plate xiii. 

plate xx. 


The Merchants Adventurers, 


Secretum — Thomas of Glou- 

plate xiii. 

cester, plate xix. 


The Mitre of Bishops, p. 


John Plantagenet of Eltham, 


plate xix. 


The Mitre of Archhishops, p. 


Milo of Hereford, plate xx. 



Her Majesty the Queen, p. 


The Mitre of the Bishop of 


Durham, p. 115. 


Arnold de Gaveston, plate 


Three Mitres, p. 89. 



Pennon — Sir J. D'Auber- 

335 a 

Isabelle, Queen of Edward 

noun, plate xxix. 

II, p. 127. 


Shield of St. George, Elsying 


Edward III — Lincoln, plate 

brass, plate xxix. 



Standard — Edward III, plate 


England and Hainault, plate 


xix, and p. 387. 


Standard — Earl of Warwick, 


Effigy of John de Hastings, 

plate xxxv. 

plate xxi. 


Standard — Henry of Boling- 

338 a 

. Shield of John de Hastings, 

broke p. 220. 

plate xxi, and p. 386. 


Standard— Henry VIII, plate 


The Black Prince — Lincoln 


plate xxxiv. 




340 Woodstock and De Bohun, 

plate xx. 

341 De Bohun and Fitz Alan, 

plate xx. 

342 Thomas de Holland of Kent, 

plate xxii. 

343 Tiptoft, Holland and Powys, 

plate xxii. 
344. Impaled Shield of James II 
of Scots, plate xxii. 

345 The Countess of Lennox, 

plate xxii. 

346 The Countess of Richmond, 

plate xxii. 

346 a. Edmond Tudor impaling 

Beaufort, plate xxii. 

347 Seal— Henry of Bolinghroke, 

plate xix. 

348 Henry IV and Navarre, plate 


349 Richard II, and Bohemia, 

plate xxiii. 

350 Richard II and France, plate 


351 Henry VII and Elizabeth of 

York, plate xxiii. 

352 Henry VI and Margaret of 

Anjou, plate xxiii. 

353 H.R.H. the late Prince Con- 

sort, p. 258. 

354 Stafford and Butler, plate 


355 Stafford and Butler, plate 


356 Campbell, plate xxiv. 

357 Stafford, Butler, and Camp- 

bell, xxiv. 

358 Stafford, Butler, and Camp- 

bell, plate xxiv. 

359 Stafford, Butler, and Camp- 

bell, plate xxiv. 

360 Bentinck, plate xxiv. 

361 Stafford, Butler, Campbell, 

and Bentinck, plate xxiv. 

362 Bentinck impaling Stafford, 

Butler, and Campbell, plate 

363 Bentinck with Stafford, But- 

ler and Campbell in pre- 
tence, plate xxiv. 

364 Bentinck quartering Stafford, 

Butler, and Campbell, plate 


364 a. Powys and Holland, plate 


365 De Furnival, plate xxv. 

366 De la Zoucbe, plate xxv, 

367 Newburgh, plate xxv. 

368 De Beauchamp, plate xxv. 

369 De Beauchamp, plate xxv. 

370 De Beauchamp, plate xxv. 

371 De Beauchamp, plate xxv. 

372 De Clifford, plate xxv. 

373 De Clifford, plate xxv. 

374 De Ros, plate xxvii. 

375 De Trumpingdon, plate xlviii. 

376 De Balliol, plate xxvii. 

377 De Cobham, plate xxv. 

378 De Cobham, plate xxv. 

379 De Cobham, plate xxv. 

379 a. Label of Modern Cadency, 

plate xiii. 

380 Crescent of Modern Cadency, 

plate xiii. 

381 Mullet of Modern Cadency, 

plate xiii. 

382 Martlet of Modern Cadency, 

plate xiii. 

383 Annulet of Modern Cadency, 

plate xiii. 

384 Fleur-de-lys of Modern Ca- 

dency, plate xiii. 

385 Rose of Modern Cadency, 

plate xiii. 

386 Cross Moline of Modern Ca- 

dency, plate xiii. 

387 Octo-foil of Modern Cadency, 

plate xiii. 

388 Fitz Nichol, plates xxvii and 

388 a. De Umphraville, plate xxvii. 
388 b. W. Bardolph, plate xxvii. 
388 c. T. Bardolph, plate xxvii. 
388 d. Cross Crosslet fleurie, plate 

388 e. Cross Crosslet botonee, plate 

388 p. Darcy, plate xxvii. 
388 g. Darcy, plate xxvii. 
388 h. Darcy, plate xxvii. 

388 i. Darcy, plate xxvii. 

389 De Saltmarsh, plate xxxvii. 

390 De Brewys, plate xxxvii. 

391 De Swynborne, plate xxxvii. 

392 De Berkeley, plate xxxvii. 

393 De Berkeley, plate xxxvii. 



No. No. 

394 Howard Ancient, plate 432 

xxxvii. 432 a, 

395 Grimstone, plate xxxvii. 433 

396 Greville, plate xxxvii. 

397 De Bohun of Hereford, plate 434 

xx. 435 

397 a. De Bohun Seal— Frontispiece, 435 a. 

plate liii. 436 

398 De Bohun of Northampton, 437 

plate xx 438 

398 a. De Bohun Seal— Frontispiece, 439 

plate liii. 440 

?99 De Montfort, plate xlix. 441 

400 Clynton, plate xxxvii. 442 

401 TJghtred, plate xxxvii. 443 

402 Bassett, plate xxxvii. 444 

403 Bassett, plate xxxvii. 445 

404 St. John, plate xxviii. 446. 

405 Dauhygne, plate xxviii. 447 

406 Dauhygne, plate xxviii. 448 

407 Dauhygne, plate xxviii. 

408 Dauhygne, p. 156. 449 

409 Graham, plate xxviii. 450 

410 Deincourt, plate xlviii. 

411 Haydon, plate xlviii. 451 

412 De Merley, plate xlviii. 

413 De Bonn, plate xlviii. 451 a. 

414 De Valence, plate xxxviii. 

415 De Valence, plate xxxviii. 452 

416 De Valence, plate xxxviii. 452 a. 

417 De Valence, plate xxxviii. 452 b. 

418 De Valence, plate xxxviii. 

419 De Chaworth, xxxviii. 452 c. 

420 De Chaworth, xxxviii. 453 

421 De Chaworth, xxxviii. 

422 Fitz Ralph, plate xxxix. 454 

423 De Peyner, plate xxviii. 455 

424 De Deyville, plate xxviii. 456 

425 Shield at Selby, plate xxviii. 

425 a. Shield at Abergavenny, plate 457 

xxxix. 458 

425 b. Giffard, plate xxxix. 459 

426 De Eachecourte, plate xxviii. 460 
426 b. Bromflete, plate xxxix. 461 

426 c. De Cantelupe, plate xxxix. 462 

427 De Beaumonte, plate xxviii. 463 
427 a. De Ryther, plate xxxviii. 464 

427 b. Parys, plate xxxviii. 465 

428 De Potenhall, plate xxviii. 466 

429 Lennox, plate xxxii. 

430 Edward II, as Prince of Wales, 467 

plate xlv. 

431 De Tressell, plate xxxviii. 

De Fitz William, plate xlix. 
Elmebrigge, plate xlix. 
Sir John de Cornwall, K.G. 

plate li. 
Estofford, plate 1. 
De Welle, plate 1. 
De Trussell, plate 1. 
St. Amand, plate I. 
Wake, plate 1. 
De Courtenay, plate 1. 
De Bascreville, plate 1. 
De Vipont, plate 1. 
De Quincey, plate xlix. 
Le Blond, plate 1. 
De Burgh, plate 1. 
De Vaux, plate 1. 
De Creke, plate xlviii. 
De Fortibus, plate 1. 
De Mounchesney, plate xlviii. 
Shield from Arderne brass, 

plate xl. 
De Verdon, plate xl. 
Mantling — Earl of Essex, 

plate li. 
Mantling — George of Cla- 
rence, plate li. 
Crest— John Beaufort, K.G., 

plate xli. 
Fynderne, plate xl. 
De la Pole, plate xl. 
De Neville, of Salisbury, plate 

De Neville, plate xl. 
William de Lancaster, plate 

De Cauteville, plate xl. 
De Bassett, plate xl. 
Ralph, Lord Bassett, K.G., 

plate xl. 
De Kendall, plate xl. 
Fitz Marmaduke, plate xl. 
De Grandison, plate xlix. 
De Grandison, plate xlix. 
St. Quintin, plate xxvii. 
St. Quintin, plate xxvii. 
De Ferrers, plate li. 
De Montbourchier, plate li. 
Le De Spencer, plate li. 
Abbot John De Wheathamp- 

stede, plate li. 
De Lacy, Earl of Lincoln, 

plate xlix. 






Ermine Label — St. Albans', 
plate xxxi. 



Ermine Label — Great Y r- 


rnouth, plate xxxi. 

; 499 


Edward I as Prince Royal, p. 




Henry of Lancaster, p. 157. 


Label of York, Great Yar- 
mouth, plate xxxi. 



Label of George of Clarence, 


plate xxxi. 



Label of Richard of York, 

plate xxxi. 



Holland of Kent, (Bordure 

Argent), plate xxxii. 



Humphrey of Gloucester, 

plate xxxii. 



De Vere with Bordure, plate 




. Holland of Exeter, plate xlv. 



Richard of Coningsburgh, 
plate xxxii. 



Beaufort, plate xxxii. 



Cardinal Beaufort, plate 




Thomas Beaufort, K.G., plate 




Edmond Tudor, plate xxxii. 


Jasper Tudor, plate xxxii. 



Thomas Beaufort, K.G , plate 



Label of Richard II, plate 





Henry of Bolingbroke, p. 200. 



Henrv V as Prince of Wales, 
p. 333. 



Edmond of Lancaster, plate 



519 a. 


Fac-simile of Label — Monu- 

ment of Edward III, plate 




Lionel Plantagenet — Lincoln, 
plate xxxiv. 



John of Ghent — Lincoln, 
plate xxxiv. 



Edmond of Langley — Lincoln 


plate xxxiv. 


Henry of Bolingbroke — Lin- 


coln, plate xxxiv. 


Ermine Label, plate xxxi. 



Label of Lancaster, plate 


525 a. 


Label of York, plate xxxi. 

Label of Leon and York, 

plate xxxiii. 
Label of Castile, plate xxxiii. 
Label of Castile and Leon, 

plate xxxiii. 
Label of Richard III, plate 

Label of the " Last of the 

Plantagenets," plate xxxi. 
John Louell, plate xxxiii. 
Sir Edward Montagu, p. 

Label — Sir H. Courtenay, 

plate xxxiii. 
Label — Sir P. Courtenay, 

K.G., plate xxxiii. 
Label — Sir G. Courtenay, 

plate xxxiii. 
Label — Latymer, p. 374. 
Label — Latymer, p. 374. 
Sea! — Thomas of Gloucester, 

Diaper — Seal of Thomas of 

Gloucester, p. 375. 
Swan Badge — De Bohun 

brass, p. 201. 
Bear and Staff of Warwick, 

as a Crest, plate xxx. 
Dacre Badge, plate xxxix. 
Diaper-knot — Anne of Bohe- 
mia, plate xxx. 
Stafford Knot, plate xxx. 
Bourchier Knot, plate xxx. 
Heneage Knot, plate xxx. 
Wake and Ormonde Knot, 

plate xxx. 
Bowen Knot, plate xxx. 
Crest of Scott of Thirlestane, 

plate xx vi. 
Crest of John, Duke of Bed- 
ford, plate xxx. 
Crest of Johu Mowbray, plate 

Panache-Crest of John, Lord 

Scrope, p. 329. 
Achievement of the Earl of 

Stafford, K.G., p. 219. 
Dragon Crest, Thomas of 

Lancaster, plate ww. 
Seal of Thomas Holland, 

Kirkpatrick Crest, plate 






Lance Flag, Bayeux Tapestry, 
plate xxix. 



Lance Flag, Bayeux Tapestry, 
plate xxix. 



Banner — Henry de Lacy, 
plate xxxv. 



Banner — Sir Symon de Fel- 
bri gge, plate xxxv. 



Heraldic Sail, plate xxxv. 



First Red Ensign, plate 




Second Red Ensign, plate 




Present Red Ensign, plate 




St. George's Ensign, plate 




Present Blue Ensign, plate 




England — (two lions,) plate a. 


536 a 

England, plate a. 

536 b 

France Ancient and England, 


plate a. 


536 c 

Richard II, plate a. 

536 d 

. France Modern and England, 
plate a. 



Royal shield of the Stuarts, 


537 a 

Ireland, plate xlvi. 



Nassau, plate xlvii. 


William III and Mary, 
plate b. 


539 a 

. William III, plate b. 



Arms of Queen Anne, 
plate b. 



Hanover, plate xlvii. 

568 a. 


George I, plate b. 


George III, plate b. 


543 a 

Her Majesty the Queen, plate 




Badge of Richard I, plate 




Badge of Henry VII, plate 




Badge of James I, plate 




Ponthieu, plate xlvii. 


Crown of Richard I, plate 



Crown of Berengana, plate 



Crown of Edward II, plate 


Crown of Henry IV, plate 

Crown of Henry V, plate 

Crown — Henry VI, plate 

Crown — Edward IV, plate 

Crown — Edward IV, (Great 

Seal), plate xlii. 
Crown — Henry VII, (King's 

Chapel^ p. 292. 
Crown — Margaret Tudor, p. 

Crown — Henry VIII, plate 

Crown — Henry VIII, (Nor- 
wich,) plate xlii. 
Crown — Charles I, plate xlii. 
Crown — Charles II, plate 

Crown of England, p. 252. 
Crown — H.R.H. the late 

Prince Consort, p. 253. 
Coronet — H.R.H. the Prince 

of Wales, p. 254. 
Coronet — Royal Princes, 

plate xli. 
Coronet — Royal Princesses, 

plate xli. 
Coronet — Royal Kinsmen, 

plate xli. 
Crest — Scotland, plate xlvi. 
Arms of H.R.H. the Prince 

of Wales, plate lx, p. 380. 
Label of H.R.H. the Prince of 

Wales, plate xxxvi. 
Label— H.R.H. the Prince 

Alfred, plate xxxvi. 
Label — H.R.H. the Prince 

Arthur, plate xxxvi. 
Label— H.R.H. the Prince 

Leopold, plate xxxvi. 
Label— H.R.H. the Princess 

Royal, plate xxxvi. 
Label— H.R.H. the Princess 

Alice, plate xxxvi. 
Label — H.R.H. the Princess 

Helena, plate xxxvi. 
Label— H.R.H. the Princess 

Louisa, plate xxxvi. 
Label — H.R.H. the Princess 

Beatrice, plate xxxvi. 

D D 




577 Label of Cambridge, plate 


578 Banner — Knights Hospital- 

lers, plate xxxv. 

579 Banner — Knights Templars, 

(Beau-Seant), plate xxxv. 

580 Banner — Knights Templars, 


581 Tau Badge— Sir R. de Bois, 

plate xxxix. 

582 SS. Collar — Queen Joanna, 

plate xliii. 

583 SS. Collar— Lord Hungerford, 

plate xliii. 

584 SS. Collar— Sir R. de Mar- 

mion, plate xliii. 

585 SS. Collar— Sir R. Grushill, 

plate xliii. 

585 a. SS. Collar — John Gower, 

plate xliii. 

586 Yorkist Collar — Knight at 

Aston, plate xliv. 

587 Yorkist Collar— De Nevilles, 

plate xliv. 

588 Yorkist Collar — Countess of 

Arundel, plate xliv. 

589 Yorkist Collar— Countess of 

Essex, plate xliv. 

590 Insignia of the Garter, plate 


591 Garter — Earl of Essex, plate 

591a. Garter — Earl of Essex, plate 

592 Garter— Sir T. Boleyn, plate 


593 Insignia of the Thistle, plate lv 

594 Insignia of St. Patrick, plate 


595 Insignia of the Bath, plate 

lvii, and pages 391, 392. 

596 Insignia of the Star of India, 

plate lxi. 

597 Cross of the Victoria Cross, 

plate xlvi. 


598 Westminster Deanery and 

School, plate xlvii. 

599 Westminster Abbey, plate 


600 Oxford University, plate xlvii. 

601 Cambridge University, plate 


602 The Heralds' College, p. 338. 

603 Garter, plate xlvi. 

604 Norroy, plate xlvi. 

605 Clarencieux, plate xlvi. 

606 Ulster, plate xlvi. 

607 Westminster City, plate xlvii. 

608 Sacred Symbolical Shield, p. 


609 Seal — William de Roumare, 

plate xlv. 

610 Secretum — Henry of Lancas- 

ter p. 317. 

611 Helm — Black Prince,plate xlv. 

612 Helm — Lord Bassett, plate xlv. 

613 Howard Modern, p. 344. 

614 The Duke of Wellington, p. 


615 The Duke of Marlborough, p. 


616 Modern Hatchment, p. 356. 

617 Ramrydge Shields, p. 3b7 

618 Examples of Labels, p. 361. 

619 Hesse, p. 363. 

620 The Austrian Crown, p. 366. 

621 The Prussian Crown, p. 371. 

622 Sir Ralph de Arundel, p. 372 

623 Crown of the late Prince 

Consort, p. 381 

624 Coronation Crown of the 

Queen, plate Hi. 

625 Cross urdee, p. 384. 

626 Rays of the Sun and Cloud, 

Effigy of Richard II, p. 383. 

627 White Hart lodged, Effigy of 

Richard II, Contents, p. 

628 Rebus of Bishop Oldham, 

p. 389. 


Plate XXVIII is incorrectly numbered XXXVIII. 

In Plate XXVIII both Shields of St. John to be numbered 404. 

In Plate XXXII for No. 447, read 477. 

In Plate XL read Verdon and Salisbury. 



In Plate XLI for 451, read 451 a. 
In Plate XLII „ 546, „ 548. 
Plate XLIV is incorrectly numbered XLIII. 
In Plate XLV for 477, read 477 a. 

Page 15 is incorrectly nuumbered 14. 
In page 31, the Shield of De Lacy is No. 33 b. 

45, last line but one, for 13, read 131. 

47, line 19, „ 136, „ 136b. 

48, last line but 3, „ 122, „ 142. 
65, line 11, „ 207, „ 208a. 
71, last line „ 201, „ 201a. 
73, last line but 4, „ 239, „ 239b. 

145, line 21, „ XIX, „ XXIII. 

166, last line but 3, „ 445, „ 455. 

202, line 20, „ PI. VII „ p. 375. 

237, last line but one, „ VIII „ VII 

249, last line but 4, „ 550, „ 551. 

266, in line 18, insert a reference to No. 590. 
page is incorrectly numbered 26. 



In page 63, line 18, for angued, read langued. 

74, last line, „ Edward „ Arthur. 

96, after line 16, insert, " Crest ; see p. 209." 
135, line 20, for this, read his. 
143, lines 17 and 18, also in Plate XX, No. 341, read 

Fitz Alan. 
166, last line, for Aylsham, read Blickling. 
185, line 10, „ Mullets „ Martlets. 

191, line 4, for Prince of Wales read Prince Royal. 
248, last line but 7, read Fontevrand. 
335, last line but 7, read counterchanged. 

D D 2 


Abatement, 372. 

Animals, 63. 

Animate Beings, 58. 

Arms, Coats of, 9. 

Arms, Shields of, 9, 22. 

Arms of Companies and Guilds, 287. 

Arms of Corporate Bodies, 152, 286. 

Arms of Deaneries, 283. 

Arms, Episcopal, 151, 280. 

Arms, Examples of, 333. 

Arras of Heiresses, 147. 

Arms of Heralds, 151, 285. 

Arms of Heralds' College, 285. 

Arms of Knights, 153. 

Arras of Monasteries, 283. 

Arms of Peeress in her own right, 

Arms of Peer's Daughters, 151. 
Arms of Peer's Widow, 154. 
Arras of Princes and Princesses, 256. 
Arms of the late Prince Consort, 

146, 255, 258. 
Arms of the Prince of Wales, 256, 

Arms of Public Schools, 284. 
Arras, the Royal, 232, 255. 
Arms of Royal Personages, 154. 
Arms of Universities and Colleges, 

Arms of Unmarried Ladies, 152. 
Arms of Widowers, 151. 
Arms of Widows, 152. 
Augmentations, 150, 242, 353. 

Badges, 201, 236. 
Banners, 91, 221, 233. 
Bath, Order of the, 153, 272. 
Bath, Insignia of the, 273. 

Bayeux Tapestry, 8. 
Birds, 65. 

Blazon, Blazoning, 14. 
Book of St. Alban's, 177. 

Cadency, 94, 157, 378. 

Cadency, Marks of, 151, 177. 

Cadency, Modern, 178. 

Cadency of Plantagenets, 190. 

Cadency, Royal, 257. 

Cadency by small Charges, 160. 

Caerlaverock, Roll of, 91, 222, 334. 

Celestial Objects, 71. 

Changing Tinctures, 158. 

Charges, 44, 58, 70, 71. 

Coats of Arms, 9. 

Coins, 326. 

Collars, 68, 94, 261. 

Collar of SS, 261. 

Collar of Suns and Roses, 263. 

Colors, 25. 

Coloring, 361. 

Compounding Arms, 136. 

Counterchanging, 41. 

Crests, 9, 209, 213. 

Crest-Coronet, 209. 

Crest of England, 210. 

Crests, Examples of, 214. 

Crests, Modern, 213. 

Crusaders, 8, 17. 

Decorations of Honor, 277. 

Descriptive Terms, 76. 

Diaper, 42. 

Differencing Accessories of Shields, 

Differencing by Bars Gemelles, 

Chevrons, and Chiefs, 182. 



Differencing by Bend and Bendlets, 

Differencing by Bordures, 183. 
Differencing by Cantons, 180. 
Differencing by Cinquefoils, 163. 
Differencing by Crescents, 171. 
Differencing by Crosslets, 161. 
Differencing by Fieurs-de-Lys, 169. 
Differencing by Labels, 186, 190. 
Differencing by Mascles, 175. 
Differencing by Martlets, 168. 
Differencing by Mullets, 166. 
Differencing by Roundles, 173. 
Differencing by single small Charges, 

Differencing, Differences, 158. 
Dimidiation, 130. 
Diminutives of Ordinaries, 27. 
Dividing and Border Lines, 24. 

Earl Marshal, 109, 147, 345. 
Ensigns, 223. 

Fish, 65. 

Flags, 220. 

Flags, National, 223. 

Flags, Military, 224. 

Flags, Admirals, 225. 

Foreign Orders of Medals, 278. 

Foreign Heraldry, 363. 

Furs, 25. 

Garter, Order of, 104, 265. 
Garter, Insignia of, 104, 266. 
Garter, Officers, 268. 
Genealogies, 338. 
Great Seals, 321. 

Hatchments, 106, 355. 

Heiress, 147. 

Helms, 106, 212, 360. 

Heraldry, 10. 

Heraldry, Architectural, 292. 

Heraldry of the Cross, 32. 

Heraldry of the Greeks, 19. 

Heraldry, Foreign, 363. 

Heraldry, Hanoverian, 231. 

Heraldry of the Lion, 59. 

Heraldry of Lincoln's Inn Hall, 

Heraldry, Monumental, 300. 
Heraldry, Modern, 350. 
Heraldry, Norman, 227. 
Heraldry, Plantagenet, 227. 

Heraldry of the Palace of Westmin- 
ster, 352. 

Heraldry of Seals and Coins, 317, 

Heraldry, Stuart, 230. 

Heraldry, Tudor, 230. 

Heraldry of Westminster Abbey, 21, 
192, 298, &c. 

Heraldry of Westminster Hall, 206, 
299, 361. 

Heraldic Description, 16. 

Heraldic Drawing, 295, 357. 

Heraldic Language, 15. 

Heraldic Nomenclature, 15. 

Heraldic Publications, 375. 

Heraldic Rules, 17. 

Heraldic Treatment, Color, &c, 357. 

Heralds, 108, 285. 

Heralds' College, 108, 285. 

Illuminations, 329. 
Imaginary Beings, 67. 
Impalement, 129, 142, 325. 
Imperial Crown, 248, 381. 
Insects, 65. 

Inventory of Humphrey de Bohun, 

King's Langley, Monument at, 195. 
Knightly Insignia, 155. 
Knots, 206. 

Labels, 186. 

Lions, 59. 

Livery Colors, 83, 203, 383. 

Lozenges, 315, 360. 

Marshalling, 127, 147. 
Marshalling Accessories, 154, 158. 
Marshalling by Incorporation, 152. 
Medals, 278 
Metals, 25. 

Miscellaneous Names and Titles, 89. 
Monument to Queen Elizabeth, He- 
raldry of the, 312. 
Mottos, 206, 291. 

Names, 18. 

Official Insignia, 155. 
Order of St. Anthony, 260. 
Ordinaries, 27. 

Parts and Points of Shield, 22. 



Pendants, 225. 
Pennon, 221. 
Precedence, 345. 
Precedence of Women, 349. 

Quartered Shields, the earliest exam- 
ples of, 139, 141, 325. 

Quartering, 138, 142, 147. 

Quartering of Bordures and Tres- 
sures, 150. 

Reptiles, 65. 

Rolls of Arms, 375. 

Roundles, 31. 

Royal Arms, 232, 255. 

Royal Badges and Mottos, 236. 

Royal Banners, 233. 

Royal Coronets, 253. 

Royal Monuments, 304. 

Royal Supporters, 234. 

Sacred Emblems, 315. 
St. Michael and St. George, Order 
of, 274. 

St. Patrick, Order of, 270. 

Seals, 133, 138, 141, 144, 174, 186, 

Seals, Classification of, 319. 
Seeds and Berries, 75. 
Shields, 19, 357. 
Shields a, bouche, 20. 
Signet Rings, 318. 
Stags, 64. 
Standards, 223. 
Star of India, 276. 
Subordinaries, 37. 
Supporters, 63, 69, 215, 234. 
Symbolical Slabs, 315. 

Templars, 259. 

Thistle, Order of, 269. 

Tinctures, 16, 25. 

Trees, Plants and Flowers, 71. 

Union Jack, 33, 223. 

Varied Fields, 40. 
Victoria Cross, 277. 



Abatement, 76, 372 

Abbreviations, 339 

Abeyance, 89. 

A bouche, 20. 

Accosted, 76. 

Accrued, 70, 76 

Achievement, 89. 

Acorn, 75, 205. 

Addorsed, 65, 76. 

Admiralty, Flag of, 44, 225. 

Admirals, Flags of, 225. 

Adumbrated, 87. 

Affrontee, 59, 76. 

Allerion, 67. 

Anchor, 44, 236, 257. 

Angel, 67, 326. 

Angenne, 44, 75. 

Annulet, 44, 174, 178, 179. 

Antelope, 69, 237. 

Appaumee, 59, 76. 

Arched Crown, 251. 

Argent, 25, 90. 

Arm, 59, 236. 

Armed, 63, 76. 

Armes Parlantes, 76. 

Armory, 90. 

Arms, '9, 129. 

Arrondie, 76. 

Arrow, 44. 

Attainder, 90. 

At gaze, 64. 

At speed, 64. 

Attire, 64, 384. 

Attired, 64, 76. 

Augmentation, 33, 76, 90, 150. 

Azure, 25, 91. 

Bacinet, Basinet, 92. 100, 107 

Badges, 91, 155, 201, 236. 

Badge of Ulster, 59. 

Ball, 45. 

Banded, 76. 

Banner, 45, 91, 221. 

Bar, 28, 45. 

Barbed, 70, 77. 

Barbel, 67, 134. 

Barded, 77. 

Barley-garb, 291. 

Barnacles, 45. 

Barrulet, 28, 45. 

Barruly, 38, 41, 77. 

Bars Gemelles, 28, 182. 

Bar-wise, 41, 77. 

Barry, 40, 77, 168. 

Barry Bendy, 41, 77. 

Base, 22. 

Baton, 45. 

Battering-Ram, 45. 

Battled, 24, 77. 

Beacon, 45, 237. 

Beaked, 77. 

Bear, 204, 335. 

Bear and Ragged Staff, 64, 203. 

Bearing, 93. 

Beau-Seant, 260. 

Bees, 67. 

Belled, 65, 77. 

Bend, 29, 30, 45, 181. 

Bend Sinister, 30, 45, 372. 

Bend- wise, 41, 77. 

Bendlet, 29, 45, 80, 181, 325, 372. 

Bendy, 41, 77. 

Bezant, 31, 45, 314. 



Bezantee, 39, 77, 173, 183. 

Billet, 38, 45. 

Billetee, 38, 77. 

Bird- Bolt, 45. 

Birds, 65. 

Blasted, 70, 77. 

Blazon, 14, 94. 

Blazoning, 14. 

Blazonry, 94. 

Boar, 63, 237. 

Book, 45. 

Border Lines, 24. 

Bordure, 38, 143, 150, 183. 

Botonee, 36, 163. 

Botonee Fitchee, 36. 

Bourchier-Knot, 176, 206, 314. 

Bowed, 23. 

Bowen-Knot, 206. 

Braced, 77. 

Brazed, 77. 

Brettepee, 77. 

Breys, 45. 

Brizure, 45. 

Broom, 236. 

Buckle, 46, 182, 205, 289, 336. 

Burgonet, 46. 

Butterflies, 67. 

Cabossed, 64, 77. 

Cadency, 77, 94, 157, 160, 257. 

Caltrap, 46. 

Camail, 107 

Canting Heraldry, 94, 119. 

Canton, 37, 39, 180, 192, 257. 

Cantoned, 77, 180. 

Cap of Maintenance, 46, 154. 

Carbuncle, 46, 236. 

Cardinal's Hat, 94. 

Car- Standard, 221. 

Castle, 46, 196, 237, 321. 

Cat-a-mount, 63. 

Cavalry Standards, 224. 

Centaur, 68. 

Cercelee, 78. 

Chamfron, 47. 

Chapeau, 46. 

Cbaplet, 47, 172. 

Charge, 14. 

Charged, 78. 

Chequee or Cheeky, 41, 78, 161, 

Chess-Rook, 47. 175. 
Cbevron, 30. 182. 
Chcvronel, 30, 172. 

Chief, 22, 27, 182. 

Cinque-foil, 47, 71, 163 

Civic Crown, 47. 

Clarion, 47, 337. 

Clenched, 78. 

Close, 78. 

Closed, 65. 

Closet, 28. 

Cloud, 289. 

Clove-Pink, 72. 

Coat of Arms, 9, 94, 221. 

Cockatrice, 67. 

Cock, 238. 

Coif of Mail, 107. 

Coins, 95, 326. 

Collar, 94, 261. 

College of Arms, 94. 

Colors, 16, 25, 95. 

Colomb, 66. 

Colombine Flowers, 237. 

Comb, 47. 

Combattant, 78. 

Complement, 71. 

Componee, 41, 78. 

Compounding Arms, 78, 95, 136. 

Conjoined, 78. 

Conjoined in lure, 78. 

Contoise, 95, 212. 

Contournee, 78. 

Cornish Chough, 66. 

Coronet, 95, 209. 

Coronet of Prince of Wales, 253. 

Coronet of Princes, 254. 

Coronet of Princesses, 254. 

Coronet of Dukes, 99. 

Coronet of Marquesses, 113. 

Coronet of Earls, 102. 

Coronet of Viscounts, 126. 

Coronet of Barons, 92. 

Cotise. 29, 166. 

Cotised, 28, 30, 172. 

Couchant, 61, 78. 

Counterchanged, Counterchanging, 

41, 335. • 
Counter-Componee, 41, 194. 
Counter-Embowed, 78. 
Counter-Fleurie, 78, 171. 
Counter Passant, 62, 78. 
Counter-Potent, 25. 
Counter-Salient, 78. 
Counter- Vair, 25, 78. 
Couped, 30, 34, 70, 
Couple-Close, 47. 
Courant, 79. 



Courte-Pointe, 140. 

Covered Cup, 47, 289. 

Coward, 79. 

Crenellee, 79 

Crescent, 71, 161, 171, 178. 

Crest, 155, 206, 209. 

Crest of England, 210. 

Crest-Coronet, 155, 209, 213. 

Crested, 79. 

Crined, 79. 

Cross, 29, 30, 32. 

Cross, Latin, 32 

Cross, Greek, 32. 

Cross of St. Andrew, 33, 223 

Cross of St. George, 33, 223. 

Cross of St. Patrick, 33, 223. 

Cross of Hospitallers, 259. 

Cross of Templars, 259. 

Crosslet, 36, 161, 163. 

Crosslet Fitchee, 36. 

Crown, 96. 

Crown, Imperial, 248, 253 381. 

Crown of Prince Consort, 253, 381. 

Crowns of England, 248. 

Crowns, Foreign, 365. 

Crown, Antique, 97. 

Crown, Celestial, 98. 

Crown, Eastern, 97, 289. 

Crown, Mural, 97. 

Crown, Naval, 97. 

Crown, Vallary, 97. 

Crown (Coin), 326. 

Crozier, 47, 98. 

Cup, 47. 

Cushion, 47. 

Crusilee, 36, 79, 164, 165. 

Dagger, 48. 
Dalmatic, 98. 
Dancette, 24, 48, 79. 
Debruised, 62, 79. 
Decked, 79. 
Decrescent, 71. 
Degreed, 79. 
Degrees, 48 
Demembered, 79. 
Demi, 79. 
Demi Lion, 61. 
Developed, 79. 
Dexter, 22. 
Diaper, 42, 43, 98. 
Diapering, 26, 202. 
Difference, 98, 157. 
Dimidiated, 79, 325. 

Dimidiation, 98, 131, 324. 
Diminutives, 27. 
Disclosed, 65, 79. 
Dismembered, 79. 
Displayed, 65, 79. 
Disposed, 79. 
Dividing Lines, 24, 361. 
Dolphin, 67, 132, 289. 
Dormant, 61, 79. 
Double-tete, 79. 
Double-queue, 79. 
Doubling, 99. 
Dovetail, 24, 80. 
Dragon, 68, 212, 237, 323, 
Ducal Coronet, 101. 
Duchess, 101. 
Duke, 99. 
Dun Cow, 237. 

Eagle, 66, 133, 199, 311. 

Eaglet, 66. 

Earl, 101. 

Earl Marshal, 109, 147, 155. 

Earl's Coronet, 102. 

Ears of Wheat, &c, 71. 

Eastern Crown, 97, 289. 

Ecartelee, 141. 

Embattled, 24. 

Emblems of Evangelists, 315. 

Embowed, 67, 80. 

Embrued, 80. 

Endorse, 29, 48. 

Entiled, 80. 

Engoulee, 80. 

Engrailed, 24, 165. 

Enhanced, 80, 181. 

Ensign, 223. 

Ensigned, 80. 

En Soleil, 74. 

Enveloped, 80. 

Environnee, 80. 

Equipped, 8U. 

Eradicated, 70, 80. 

Erased, 80. 

Erect, 65, 80. 

Ermine, 25. 

Ermine-spot, 118, 165, 257. 

Ermines, 25. 

Erminois, 25. 

Erne, 66. 

Escallop, 67, 166, 168. 

Escarbuncle, 46. 

Escutcheon, 22. 

Escutcheon of Pretence, 103. 



Esquire, 103. 

Estoile, 48. 

Falcon, 237, 335. 

Falcon and Fetter-lock, 237. 

Fan, 48, 207. 

Feather, 72, 381. 

Fenime, 104. 

Fer-de-moline, 48, 51. 

Fesse, 28, 30. 

Fesse-Point, 22, 104. 

Fesse-wise, 80. 

Fetter-lock, 48. 

Field, 23, 104. 

Figured, 80. 

File, 48. 

Fillet, 28, 48. 

Fimbriated, Fimbriation, 34, 80. 

Finned, 80, 132. 

Fire-Beacon, 45, 237. 

Fir-Cone, 75. 

Fish, 65, 163. 

Fitchee, 36, 80. 

Flag, 23, 220. 

Flanched, 38, 373. 

Flanches, 38, 373. 

Flasques, 38. 

Fleur-de-Lys, 72, 169, 178, 257, 

321 322. 
Fleurie, 35, 80, 163, 171. 
Fleurettee, Floretee, 35, 80, 171. 
Flexed, 80. 
Flighted, 80. 
Florin, 328. 
Flotant, 80. 
Flv, 23, 80. 
Foliated, 80. 
Formee, 36. 
Fountain, 31. 
Fourche'e, 36, 49, 81. 
Fox's Tail, 237. 
Frjiiscs 74« 
France Ancient, 141, 170, 196, 229, 

France Modern, 196, 229, 333. 
Fresnee, 81. 
Frette, 38, 173. 
Frettde, 38, 81, 173. 
Fructed, 70, 81. 
Fiini a ut, 81. 
Furnished, 81. 
Furs, 25. 
Fusil, 38, 167. 
FusilU>e, 40, 81. 
Fylfot, 49. 

Gad, Gadlyng, 49. 

Galley, 49. 

Gambe, 62. 

Game-cock, 65. 

Garbe, 73, 186, 205, 314, 324, 334 

Garland, 49. 

Garnished, 81. 

Garter, 104, 202, 255, 265. 

Gauntlet, 49. 

Gemelles, 28, 49, 182. 

Genealogy, 338. 

Gennet, 237, 383. 

George Noble, 326. 

Gerattvng, 81, 177. 

Gilly-Flower, 73. 

Girt, 81. 

Gliding, 67, 81. 

Globe, 49. 

Gobony. See Compony. 

Gonfannon, 106. 

Gorge, 49. 

Gorged, 81. 

Gouttee, 81. 

Gouttee reversed,, 81. 

Gradient, 81. 

Grafted, 81. 

Grand Quarters, 22, 106. 

Great Seals, 135, 228, 231. 

Greeces, 49. 

Greek Cross, 32. 

Greyhound, 205, 238. 

Griffin, Gryphon, 68, 237, 336. 

Guardant, 81. 

Guarded Spur, 56. 

Guige, 21, 216. 

Gules, 25. 

Gurges, 49. 

Guttee, 49, 81. 

Gyron, 37. 

Gyronnee, Gyronny, 81. 

Habited, 81. 

Hackle, 49. 

Hammer, 50. 

Harp, 50, 230, 313, 323. 

Hart, 64, 206, 237. 

Hatchet, 50. 

Hatchment, 106, 356. 

Hauriant, 67, 81. 

Hause, 82. 

Hawk's Bells and Jesses, 50. 

Hawk's Lure, 50. 

Hawthorne Bush, 237. 

Hazel-leaves, 74. 



Heart, 59, 166, 257. 

Hedgehog, 335. 

Heightened, 82. 

Helm, 50, 106, 155, 361. 

Hemp-brake, 50. 

Heneage-knot, 206. 

Heraldry, 10. 

Heraldry, Language of, &c, 15. 

Heralds, 109. 

Heralds' College, 109, 285. 

Herald Kings, 109, 285. 

Herrings, 132. 

Hill, 73. 

Hillock, 73. 

Hilted, 82. 

Hind, 64. 

Hoist, 23, 82. 

Holly-leaves, 74. 

Honor-Point, 22. 

Hooded, 82. 

Hoofed, 82. 

Horned, 82. 

Horse-shoe, 50. 

Hospitallers, 24, 163, 183, 257. 

Hulls of Ships, 132. 

Humettee, 34, 82. 

Hunting-Horn, 50. 

Hurst, 74. 

Hurte, 31, 50, 173. 

Hurtee, 82. 

Ibex, 69. 

Illumination, 43, 110, 328. 

Imaginary Beings, 67. 

Imbrued, 82. 

Impaled, 22, 82. 

Impalement, 129, 143. 

Imperial Eagle, 66. 

Imperially crowned, 82. 

Incensed, 82. 

Incorporation, 152. 

Increment, 71, 82. 

Increscent, 71, 82, 172. 

Indented, 24, 82. 

Inescutcheon, 22, 37, 164, 231. 

Infantry Colors, 224. 

Inflamed, 82. 

Insects, 65. 

Interlaced, 83. 

Invected, 24, 83. 

Inverted, 65, 83. 

In Bend, 31, 82. 

In Chevron, 31, 82. 

In Chief, 30, 82. 

In Cross, 30, 36, 82. 

In Fesse, 30, 82. 

In Foliage, 70, 82. 

In Glory, 71. 

In Lure, 65, 82. 

In Orle, 38. 

In Pale, 30, 82. 

In Pile, 31, 82. 

In Pretence, 148. 

In Pride, 65, 83, 214, 215. 

In Quadrangle, 141, 384. 

In Saltire, 31, 83. 

In Splendor, 71. 

Irradiated. 83. 

Issuant, 83. 

Jambe, 62. 
Javelin, 50. 
Jessant-de-lys, 65, 83. 
Jessed, 65, 83. 
Jesses, 50, 83. 
Jousts, 110. 
Jowlopped, 65, 83. 
Jupon, 110. 

Key, 50, 185, 289. 
King-of-Arms, 108. 
Knight, 111 
Knightly Insignia, 156. 
Knots, 50, 206. 

Label, 38, 50, 186, 190, 257. 

Lambrequin, 111. 

Lantern, 215. 

Langued, 62, 83. 

Latin Cross, 32. 

Laurel Leaves, 74. 

Leaves, 74. 

Legged, 83. 

Leopards, 60, 226, 233. 

Letters, 51. 

Lined, 83. 

Lion, 59. 

Lion Couchant, 61. 

Lion Dormant, 61. 

Lion of England, 60, 227. 

Lion Issuant, 62. 

Lion Passant, 60. 

Lion Passant Guardant, 60. 

Lion Passant Reguardant, 60. 

Lion of Scotland, 60. 

Lion Queue Fourchee, 62. 

Lion Rampant, 60. 

Lion Rampant Guardant, 61. 



Lion Rampant Reguardant, 61. 

Lion Salient, 61. 

Lion Sejant, 61. 

Lion Sejant Rampant, 61. 

Lion Statant, 61. 

Lion Statant Guardant, 61. 

Lion Vigilant, 62. 

Lion Vorant, 62. 

Lions Combattant, 61. 

Lions Counter Passant, 62. 

Lion's Face, 62. 

Lion's Head, 62. 

Lion's Jambe, or Gambe, 62. 

Lioncel, 63, 162. 

Lists, 111. 

Livery Colors, 83, 223, 378. 

Lodged, 64, 83, 206. 

Lozenge, 38, 51, 152, 360. 

Lozengv, 40, 83, 175. 

Lucies,'67, 289. 

Lure, 51. 

Lymphad, 51, 336. 

Maiden's Head, 238. 

Maintenance, Cap of, 111. 

Maltese Cross, 34. 

Manche, Maunche, 51. 

Maned, 83. 

Mantelee, 83. 

Mantle, 111. 

Mantling, 112, 155. 

Marchioness, 113. 

Marks of Cadency, 151, 155, 157. 

Marquess, Marquis, 112. 

Martlet, 43, 66, 69, 168, 178, 185. 

Marshalling, 14, 127, 154. 

Mascle, 38, 51, 174, 336. 

Masculee, 324. 

Masoned, 83. 

Medals, 113. 

Membered, 83. 

Merchants Adventurers, 114. 

Merchants' Marks, 113. 

Merchants of Staple, 114. 

Mermaid, 68, 202. 

Mermaids', Collar of, 68, 261. 

Merman, 68. 

Merlotte, See Martlet. 

Metals, 16, 25, 26, 113. 

Military Flags, 224. 

Mill-Rind, 51 

Mitre, 51, 89, 114, 186. 

Modern Cadency, 178. 

Moline, 35, 51, 178. 

Monogram, 83. 

Moon, 71 

Morion, 51. 

Morse, 51. 

Motto, 116, 155, 206, 237, 255. 

Mound, 116, 253. 

Mount, 51. 

Mounted, 84. 

Mulberry Tree, 205. 

Mullet, 43, 51, 165, 167, 178. 

Naiant, 67, 84. 

Naissant, 62, 84. 

Nebulee, 22, 84, 185, 199. 

Nerved, 84. 

Noble, 326. 

Norroy, 109, 116, 285. 

Nowed, 67, 84. 

Oak-branches, 74. 
Official Insignia, 155. 
Of the Field, &c, 16. 
Ogress, 52. 
Olive Branch, 236. 
On Degrees, 34. 
Oppressed, 84. 
Or, 25. 

Ordinary, 27, 52, 116. 
Oreiller, 52. 
Orle, 37, 163, 210. 
Ostrich Feathers, 72, 202, 206, 213, 
237, 382. 

Pale, 28, 30. 
Pale-wise, 84. 
Pall, 52. 

Pallet, 21, 29, 53. 
Palmer's Staff, 53. 
Paly, '41, 84, 182. 
Paly Bendv, 41. 
Panache, 116, 211, 213. 
Panther, 69, 217, 237. 
Party, Parted, 84. 
Paschal Lamb, 117. 
Pascuant, 84. 
Passant, 60, 84. 
Passant Guardant, 84. 
Passant Reguardant, 84. 
Passant Repassant, 84. 
Pastoral Staff, 53. 
Patee, 36. 
Patee Fitchee, 36. 
Patonce, 35, 53, 175, 337. 
Patriarchal, 34. 



Pean, 25. 

Peer, 117. 

Peeress, 153. 

Peer's Daughter, 151. 

Pegasus, 69. 

Pelican, 66. 

Pellet, 31, 165. 

Pellettee, 84. 

Pendants, 225. 

Pendent, 70, 84. 

Penner and Inkhorn, 53. 

Pennon, 117, 221. 

Pennoncelle, 117. 

Per, 84. 

Per Bend, 22. 

Per Chevron, 22. 

Per Cross, 22. 

Per Fesse, 22. 

Per Pale, 22, 41. 

Per Saltire, 22. 

Pheon, 54, 335. 

Phoenix, 69, 238. 

Pick-axe, 54. 

Pierced, 85. 

Pile, 30, 42, 166. 

Pillow, 54. 

Pily, 85. 

Pily Bendy, 85. 

Planta Genista, 74, 117, 236. 

Plate, Platee, 31, 54, 199, 336. 

Plenitude, 71. 

Plume, 118. 

Pods of Beans, &c, 74. 

Pointed, 34. 

Pomelled, 85. 

Porame, 31, 54. 

Pommee, 36, 54. 

Pomegranate, 238. 

Popinjay, 66, 182. 

Portcullis, 54, 118, 205, 286. 

Potent, 25, 36. 

Potent Fitchee, 36. 

Potent Quadrate, 36. 

Powdered, 17, 85. 

Powdering, 118. 

Precedence, 346. 

Preying, 85. 

Primroses, 177. 

Prince of Wales' Feathers, 72. 

Proper, 26. 

Pryck-Spur, 56. 

Purfled, 85. 

Purpure, 25. 

Pursuivant, 118. 

Quadrate, 35, 54. 

Quartele, 141. 

Quarter, 54. 

Quartering, Quarterings, 118, 138. 

Quarterly, 22, 85. 

Quarterly Pierced, 35, 54. 

Quarter Pierced, 35, 54. 

Quarterly Quartered, 22, 139. 

Quatrefoil, 54, 178. 

Queue Fourchee, 62, 165. 

Quilled, 85. 

Quintefoil, 71. 

Radiant, 85. 

Ragged Staff, 64, 204, 205. 

Ragulee, 24. 

Rainbow, 54. 

Rampant, 60. 

Rampant Guardant, 61, 325. 

Rampant Reguardant, 61. 

Rams, 118. 

Rapier, 54. 

Rays, 54. 

Rays and Cloud, 237. 

Rayonnee, 85. 

Rebated, 85. 

Rebus, 118, 203. 

Recercelee, 35, 54. 

Red Dragon, 239. 

Reflected, 85. 

Reflexed, 85- 

Regalia. 119. 

Rein-Deer, 64. 

Removed, 85. 

Rest, 55. 

Retorted, 85. 

Reverted, 87. 

Rial, 326. 

Ribbon, 30, 55. 

Rising, 65, 85. 

Roll of Arms, 119. 

Rompu, 85. 

Rose, 74, 164. 172, 178, 257 322. 

Rose of England, 74. 

Rose of Lancaster, 74, 236. 

Rose of York, 74, 236, 322. 

Rose-en-Soleil, 74, 265. 

Rose-Noble, 326. 

Rouelle-Spur, 56. 

Rouge-Croix, 109. 

Rouge Dragon, 109. 

Roussant, 65, 85. 

Rustre, 38. 



Sable, 25, 119. 

Sagittary, 68. 

Salamander, 69. 

Saltire, 30, 33. 

Sanglier, 63, 164. 

Scaling Ladder, 55, 383. 

Scarpe, 55. 

Scroll, 155. 

Seals, See General Index. 

Sea Horse, 323. 

Sea Lion, 69. 

Seax, 55. 

Second Title, 121. 

Sejeant, 64. 

Semee, 17, 71. 

Shackle-bolt, 55. 

Shake-fork, 55. 

Shamrock, 75, 121. 

Sheaf of Arrows, 45, 238. 

Shields, 19, 55, 357, 360. 

Shield of Arms, 9. 

Shield of Pretence, 37. 

Ship, 55, 288. 

Sickle, 205. 

Sinister, 22, 121. 

Sixfoil, 71, 75, 164. 

Slipped, 70, 86. 

Soaring, 65. 

Sovereign, 326. 

Spear, 55, 335. 

Spur, 55. 

SS. Collar of, 121, 261, 383. 

Stafford Knot, 206. 

Stag, 64. 

Stained Glass, 43. 

Stall Plate, 122, 212, &c. 

Standard, 121, 223, 233. 

Star, 71, 122. 

Star and Crescent, 236. 

Star of India, 122, 276. 

Statant, 64. 

Steel Cap, 56. 

Stirrup, 56. 

Strawberry-leaves, 47, 99. 

Stock, 75, 205, 237. 

Subordinary, 37. 

Sufflue, 56. 

Sun, 71, 236. 

Supercharge, 123. 

Supporters, 123, 155, 215, 237. 

Surcoat, 124. 

Suns and Roses, 122, 263. 

Swan, 66, 202, 216, 262. 

Swivel, 290. 

Sword, 56. 

Tabard, 124. 

Talbot-Dog, 64. 

Target, 56. 

Tasselled, 86. 

Tau Cross, 33, 56, 260. 

Teazle, 75. 

Templars, 34, 124, 257. 

Tent, 289. 

Thistle, 75, 124, 238, 255, 269. 

Three, two, one, 16, 170. 

Tiercee, 86. 

Tiger, 69. 

Timbre, 125. 

Tinctures, 25, 26, 125. 

Torch, 56. 

Torqued, 86. 

Torse, 56. 

Torteau, 31, 56, 173, 192, 195. 

Tournee, 86. 

Tower, 56. 

Towered, 86. 

Transfixed, 86. 

Transfluent, 86. 

Transmuted, 86. 

Transposed, 86. 

Traversed, 86. 

Treflee, 147, 248, 384. 

Trefoil, 75. 

Treille, Trellise, 56. 

Tressure, 38, 57, 138, 144. 

Tricked, 86. 

Tricorporated, 87. 

Tripping, 64, 87. 

Triton, 68. 

Trononee, 87. 

Trumpet, 57, 162. 

Truncheon, 125. 

Trussed, 65, 87. 

Trussing, 65, 87. 

Tudor Rose, 75, 238. 

Tun, 290. 

Tusked, 87. 

Tynes, 64. 

Ulster, See Herald. 

Ulster, Badge of, 59, 92. 

Umbrated, 87. 

Undee, 24, 87. 

Unguled, 87. 

Unicorn, 69, 218, 235, 255, 314. 

Union Device, 33, 336. 

Union Jack, 33, 138, 223. 



Urdee, 383. 
Urinant, 67, 87. 

Vair, Vairee, 25, 26, 161, 171, 183. 

Vambrace, 57. 

Varied Fields, 40. 

Verdee, 87. 

Vert, 25, 125. 

Verted, 87. 

Vervels, 57. 

Vested, 87. 

Victoria Cross, 125, 277. 

View, 125. 

Vigilant, 62, 87. 

Viscount, 125. 

Visitations, Heralds', 125. 

Voided, 34, 87. 

Voiders, 38. 

Volant, 65, 87. 
Vorant, 62, 87. 
Vulned, 87. 

Wake and Ormonde Knot, 206. 

Water Bouget, 57, 176. 

Wattled, 87. 

Wavy, 24, 88. 

Wheel-Spur, 56. 

Winged, 88. 

Winnowing Fan, 48, 207. 

Wolf, 237. 

Wreath, 126, 155, 172, 210. 

Wreathed, 88. 

Wyvern, 68. 

Yorkist Badge and Collar, 126, 263. 



Abercorn, Marquess of, 51. 

Abergavenny, Earl of, 218. 

Abergavenny, 170. 

Abingdon, Earl of, 45. 

Abinger, Baron, 67. 

Adelaide, Queen, 247. 

Adelais of Louvain, 239. 

Admirals, 225. 

Admiralty, The, 44, 225. 

iEschylus, 19. 

Agincourt, 196. 

Aguilon, R. d', 170. 

Albermarle, Earl of, 175. 

Albert, H.R.H., the late Prince 

Consort, 146, 247, 253, 255, 381. 
Albert Edward, Prince of Wales, 

253, 256, 380, 387. See Wales. 
Alencon, Count of, 364. 
Alencon, Duke of, 198. 
Alfred, Prince, 257. 
Alianore of Aquitaine, 227, 239, 

Alianore, De Bohun, See Bohun. 
Alianore of Castile, 43, 46, 139, 

210, 239, 249, 303, 304. 
Alianore Plantagenet, 134. 
Alianore of Provence, 239. 
Alice, Princess, 257. 
Allerton Mauleverer, 205. 
All Souls College, Oxford, 281. 
Andalusia, 59. 

Angoulcme, 239. 
Anjou, Count of, 117, 304, 313. 
Anjou, Dnke of, 198. 
Annandale, Marquess of, 215. 
Anne of Bohemia, 43, 145, 206, 

240, 382. 
Anne Boleyn, 238, 242. 
Anne of Cleves, 243. 
Anne of Denmark, 244. 
Anne Mortimer. 193. 
Anne Neville, 146, 241. 
Anne Stuart, 225, 231, 238. 
Aquitaine, 239, 364. 
Archbishop, 90, 151, 280. 
Arcy, D', See Darcv. 
Arderne, Sir T., 116, 175, 211. 
Argyll, Duke of, 51, 217, 336. 
Armagh, See of, 52, 90, 98, 281. 
Armagh, Archbishop of, 90. ' 
Arragon, 242. 

Arragon, Catherine of, 238, 242. 
Arthur, Prince, 257. 
Arthur Tudor, See Tudor. 
Artois, Blanche D', 191. 
Arundel, Earls of, 13, G6, 68, 102. 
Arundel, Countess of, 102. 
Arundel, Sir J., 205. 
Arundel, Sir R. D', 373. 
Ashehurste, Sir A , 178. 
Ashley, Sir J., 205. 
Ashton, 118. 



Ashwelthorpe, 211. 

Athol, Duke of, 59. 

Aubernoun, Sir J. D', 117, 221. 

Aubernoun, Sir J. D', 124. 

Aumale, Count D', 175. 

Austria, 365. 

Aveline, Countess of Lancaster, 175, 

Avesnes, Alice D', 133. 

Badlesmere, De, 182. 

Balliol, De, 162. 

Bangor, See of, 281. 

Banneret, 91, 221. 

Bannennan, 45. 

Bannister, Sir T., 384. 

Bardolph, 163. 

Barlow, 67. 

Baron, 91. 

Baroness, 92. 

Baronet, 59, 92, 123. 

Barr, De, 134. 

Barrington, 97, 

Bascreville, W. De, 173. 

Bassett, De, 166, 181, 214, 361. 

Bath, See Herald 

Bath and Wells, See of, 281. 

Bath, Order of the, 272. 

Bath, Knights of the, 122, 153. 

Bavaria, 364, 369. 

Bayeux Tapestry, 8, 68. 

Beatrice, Princess, 257. 

Beaucharnps De, 142, 161, 178, 

204, 243. 
Beauchamp, Richard De, 102, 105, 

Beauforts, De, 41, 54, 176, 179, 

184, 185, 205, 373, 383. 
Beaufort, Duke of, 217. 
Beaufort, Cardinal H. De, 185. 
Beaumonte, De, 171. 
Beaumont, Viscount, 126. 
Bee, Anthony, 334. 
Bedford, 336. 

Bedford, Duke of, 64, 185. 
Bedington, 68, 172. 
Belgium, 367. 
Bentinck, 149. 
Berengaria, 239, 248. 
Bergavenny, Lord, 179. 
Berkeley, Baron, 68, 172. 
Berkeley, De, 159, 164. 
Berners, Lord, 176, 
Berwick, Lord, 69. 

Beverley Minister, 43, 53, 230, 

Bigot, 168, 333. 
Birtie, 208. 
Bishop, 93, 151, 281. 
Black Prince, See Plantagenet. 
Blackwood, 74. 
Blanche d'Artois, 191. 
Blayney, Baron, 64. 
Blickling, 68, 161. 
Blond, W. Le, 174. 
Blondeville, R de, 324. 
Blue Mantle, 109. 
Bohemia, 240, 364. 
Bohun, De, 63, 66, 136, 179. 
Bohun, Henry De, 137. 
Bohun, Humphrey De, 134, 140, 

166, 210, 216, 325, 387. 
Bohun, William De, 165, 325. 
Bohun, Alianore De, 135, 137, 143, 

202, 306. 
Bohun, Mary De, 72, 145. 
Boleyn, Anne, 238, 242. 
Boleyn, Sir T„ 103, 163. 
Bolingbroke, See Plantagenet. 
Boroughbndge, 140. 
Boston, 118. 
Bosworth Field, 197. 
Botiler, J. Le, 47. 
Boun, De, 168. 
Boun, F. Le, 172 
Bourchier, De, 49, 57, 176, 200, 

314, 379. 
Bowers Giffard, 170. 
Boyne, Viscount, 68. 
Boys, E. De, 180. 
Bradstone, 179. 
Braganza, 245. 
Brandon, 335, 337. 
Brandsburton, 183. 
Braybrooke, Baron, 61. 
Bra'ye, 62. 

Breadalbane, Marquess of, 217. 
Brewers' Company, 291. 
Brewys, De, 164, 213. 
Bridport, Baron, 66. 
Bristol, City of, 286, 288. 
Brittany, 39, 136, 364. 
Bromflete, 171, 213. 
Brotherton De, 109, 135, 190. 
Brownlow, 54, 61. 
Broxbourue, 124. 
Bruce, De, 59, 63, 162, 2J8. 
Brunswick, 231, 246, 369. 
E E 



Bryenne, De, 50. 
Bryenne, William, Lord De, 212. 
Bryenne, Guy, De, 213. 
Buckingham, Duke of, 205, 212, 

Burgh, Elizabeth De, 192. 
Burgh, Hubert De, 174. 
Burghersh, Bishop De, 143. 
Burke, Sir B., 117, 352. 
Burnet, 286. 
Burnvvashe, 334. 
Butler, 130, 242. 
Byron, 76, 80. 
Byzantium, 45. 

Caerlaverock, Castle and Roll of, 7, 
39, 91, 142, 166, 187, 222, 376. 
Calveley, Sir H., 209, 210. 
Cambridge, Royal House of, 258. 
Cambridge, Earl of, 197. 
Cambridge, University of, 283. 
Cambridge, King's College, 143, 

283, 299. 
Cambridge, St. John's College, 118. 
Cambridge, Trinity College, 284. 
Camden, Marquess of, 6 J. 
Camden, 376. 

Camoys, De, 55, 105, 173, 376. 
Campbell, 148, 217, 336. 
Campedene, De, 316. 
Canning, Earl, 59. 
Cantelupe, De, 65, 171. 

Canterbury, See of, 52, 280. 

Canterbury, Archbishop of, 90, 93, 

Canterbury, Cathedral of, 98, 100, 
190, 298, 302. 

Canterbury, City of, 286. 

Cardigan, 50. 

Carew, 60. 

Carlisle, See of, 281. 

Caroline of Brandenburgh, 245. 

Caroline of Brunswick, 246. 

Carysfort, Earl of, 60. 

Castle Acre, 43. 

Castile, 43, 46. 

Catherine of Arragon, 242. 

Catherine of Ghent, 306. 

Catherine of Braganza, 245. 

Catherine of France, 241. 

Catherine Parr, 243. 

Cautville, De, 181. 

Cavendish, 64, 218. 

Cecil, 335. 

Champagne, 140. 

Chandos, 42, 166, 217. 

Chapters, Cathedral, 283. 

Charlemagne, 231. 

Charles I, 230, 238. 251. 

Charles II, 230, 234, 238, 251, 

327. 374. 
Charles II of Navarre, 145. 
Charles the Fair, 364. 
Chailes V, 73, 229. 
Charles of Brunswick, 246. 
Charles, Lancaster Herald, 375. 
Charlotte of Mecklenburgh, 246. 
Charlton, 310. 
Chartley, 116. 
Chartham, 48, 124. 
Chaucer, 335. 
Chavvorth, De, 169. 
Checkenden, 165. 
Chester, Earl of, 73, 380. 
Chester, See of, 281. 
Chester Herald, 109. 
Chester, 51, 324. 
Chester-le-Street, 182. 
Chigwell, 116. 
Childrey, 179. 
Chichester, 58. 
Chichester, See of, 281. 
Chipping Campden, 114, 165. 
Cholmondeley, 50, 208. 
Chrishall, 162. 
Christchurch, Oxford, 284. 
Churchill, 336, 354. 
Clare, De, 27, 30, 47, 130, 170. 
Clare, 170. 
Clarence, Duke of, 100, 176, 192, 

197, 237. 
Clarence, Sir J. De, 373. 
Clarencieux. 109, 285. 
Clarendon, Sir R. De, 373. 
Clayton and Bell, 297. 
Clehongre, 56. 

Cleveland, Duke of, 68, 374. 
Cleves, Anne of, 243. 
Clifford, De, 162, 203, 208, 337. 
Clinton, 205, 336. 
Clogher, 58. 
Clopton, 181. 

Clothworkers' Company, 290. 
Clovis, 72. 

Clynton, 166, 205, 336. 
Cobham, 120, 162, 163. 
Cobham, De, 63, 162 
Cobham, Sir J. De, 163. 



Cobhara, Sir R De, 163. 

Colchester, Baron, 75. 

College of Arms, 235. 

Colleges, 283. 

Colley, 336. 

Companies, 287. 

Compton, 45. 

Confessor, See Edward. 

Constable of England, 137. 

Constance, 105. 

Constance of Castile, 144. 

Conyngham, 55. 

Cornwall, Duke of, 99, 380. 

Cornwall, Earl of, 39, 100, 173, 

183, 314. 
Cornwall, Sir J. De, 173, 185. 
Corporate Bodies, 280, 283. 
Couci, De, 334. 
Count, 96. 
Countess, 96. 

Courtenay, De, 178, 218, 378. 
Courtenay, Sir E. De, 199. 
Courtenay, Sir II. De, 173, 199. 
Courtenay, Sir P. De, 199. 
Courtesy, Titles of, 96. 
Cramley, Archbishop, 98, 115. 
Creke, Sir J. De, 175. 
Cresci, 364. 
Crevecceur, De, 335. 
Cromwell, Oliver, 323. 
Croydon, 281. 
Crusaders, 17, 45. 
Crystal Palace, 307. 
Culte, John, 2S6. 

Dacre, Baron, 205. 

Dagworth, Sir N., 68, 161. 

Dalling, Sir W., 75. 

Darcy, lfi4, 172. 

Darnley, Lord, 313, 339. 

Datchet, 289. 

Daubygne, 156, 167, 176. 

Day, John. 291. 

Deans, 283. 

Decies, Baron, 67. 

Deincourt, 168. 

Delamere, 56. 

Denmark, 245. 367. 

Denmark, Alexandra of, 245. 

Denmark, George of, 245. 

Derby, Earl of, 50, 214, 218. 

Derby House, 108. 

De Spencer, Le, 38, 142, 165. 

De Spencer, Bishop Le, 185, 186. 

Devereux, 173, 33 4. 
Devon, Earl of, 218. 
Devonshire, Duke of, 218. 
Deyvilie, De, 170. 
Digby, Baron, 73. 
Donoughmore, Earl of, 67. 
Dorchester, 45 . 
Dormer, Baron, 62. 
Dorset, Duke of, 176. 
Douglas, 59, 166, 205, 306. 
Drapers' Comoany, 289. 
Dreux, De, 39, 136, 183, 193. 
Drury, 56. 
Dryden, Sir H , 49. 
Dublin, See of, 52, 98, 281. 
Dublin, Archbishop of. 90. 
Dublin, Marquess of, 112. 
Dublin, Earl of, 380. 
Duchess, 101. 
Dudley, 335. 
Dugdale. Sir \V., 364. 
Duke, 99. 

Dunbar, Earl of, 215. 
Dunsany, Baron, 69. 
Dunstable, 376. 
Durham, See of, 93, 281. 
Durham, Bishop of, 93, 114. 
Dynevor, Baron, 68. 

Earl, 101, See Marshal. 
East India Merchants, 288. 
Edward I, 46, 91, 114, 130, 157, 

136, 227, 237, 249, 304, 376. 
Edward II, 58, 135, 136, 227, 237, 

249, 304, 376. 
Edward III, 10, 48, 73, 95, 104, 

108, 121, 123, 141, 135, 191, 

210, 227, 234, 237, 304, 376. 
Edward 111, Monument of, 120, 

192, 229, 309, 326. 
Edward IV, 48, 74, 176, 230, 234, 

237, 251, 252, 326. 
Edward V, 230, 235. 
Edward VI, 230, 238, 251, 327. 
Edward the Confessor, 35, 66, 96, 

119, 120, 143, 145, 168, 229. 
Edward Tudor, 382. 
Egerton, 337 
Eglinton, Earl of, 69. 
Eldred, John, 28S. 
Eleanor, See Alianore. 
Elizabeth Tudor, 103, 230, 238, 

251, 288, 305, 312, 327. 
Elizabeth Widville, 241. 
E E 2 



Elizabeth of York, 145, 242, 305. 
Elmebrygge, 68, 172. 
Elmhurst, 74. 

Elsyng, 43, 120, 142, 161, 163. 
Eltham, 56, See Plantagenet. 
Ely, Cathedral of, 116. 
Elv, See of, 96, 281. 
Enfield, 112, 143. 
England, Banners of, 223. 
England, Lions of, 60. 
England. Crest of, 210, 255. 
England, Crown of, 252, 381. 
England, Shield of, 62, 104, 139, 

227 to 232, 254. 
England, Motto of, 208, 254. 
England, Supporters of, 69, 235, 

Erpingham, D', 211. 
Espan, L', 248, 304. 
Esquires, 103. 

Essex, Earl of, 46, 134, 176. 
Essex, Countess of, 103. 
Esstoford, D\ 173. 
Este, Mary D\ 245. 
Eton College, 284. 
Exeter, See of, 56, 282. 
Exeter, Cathedral of, 166, 389. 
Exeter, Bishop of, 185, 235. 
Exeter, Dukes of, 184. 

Falkirk, 376. 

Falmouth, Viscount, 69. 

Fancorabe, De, 163. 

Fanhope, Baron, 185. 

Felton, Sir T., 211. 

Felbrygge, Sir Svmon De, 222, 229. 

Ferdinand III, 139. 

Ferrers, De, 183. 

Ferrers of Chartley, 116, 211, 385. 

Fishmongers' Company, 289. 

Finchley, 289. 

Fitz Alan, 63, 143. 

Fitz Alan of Bedale, 376. 

Fitz Gerald, 337. 

Fitz Geoffrey, 175, 183, 333. 

Fitz Marmaduke, 182. 

Fitz Mayhew, 142. 

Fitz Nichol, 163, 385. 

Fitz Ralph, 170, 175. 

Fitz William, 49, 57, 172. 

Fitz William, Earl, 213. 

Fitz Urse, 335. 

Fitz Warren, 334. 

Flanders, 239. 

Fortescue, 208. 

Fortibus, W. De, 175. 

France Ancient, 17, 18, 141, 169, 

200, 229, 332. 
France Modern, 144, 190, 229, 299, 

333, 383. 
Frazer, 74. 

Frederick II, of Denmark, 244. 
Fontevraud, 304. 
Furnival, De, 158. 

Garter, Order of the, 104, 155, 

208, 265. 
Garter, King of Arms, 109, 285. 
Gascoyne Cecil, 218. 
Gaston, Viscount de Berne, 140. 
Gaunt, W. de, 181. 
Gaveston, Arnold De, 140. 
Gaveston, Piers de, 140, 335. 
Geneville, De, 45, 159. 
George I, 232. 
George II, 232. 
George III, 232. 
George IV, 232. 
Ghent, See Platagenet. 
Giffard, Baron, 56. 
Giffard, Sir J., 170. 
Glendour, 334. 
Glover, 185, 375, 376. 
Gloucester, See of, 282. 
Gloucester, Cathedral of, 297. 
Goldsmiths' Company, 289. 
Goodryke, Bishop, 116. 

Gothes, 368. 

Gower, 218, 337. 

Grafton, Duke of, 374. 

Graham, De, 168, 219, 336. 

Grandison, De, 182. 

Granville, 47, 218, 337. 

Great Saxham, 288. 

Great Yarmouth, 132, 186, 189, 

Greece, 369. 

Greilly, 181. 

Grevel, 114, 165. 

Grey, Archbishop, 98. 

Grey, Lady Jane, 344. 

Grey, 55. 

Grey, De, 40, 182. 

Grey, Earl of Stamford, 208. 

Grey, Earl of Tankerville, 185. 

Grimstone, 165. 

Gueslyn, De, 168. 

Guyenne, 239. 



Guildford, 281. 
Guilds, 287. 
Gunby, 164. 

Haberdashers' Company, 290. 

Haiuault, 240. 

Haliburton, 336. 

Hallara, Bishop R., 105. 

Haltwhistle, 53. 

Hampton Court, 122, 234. 

Hampson, Sir G., 50. 

Hanover, 231, 232, 367. 

Harcourt, Sir R., 105, 176. 

Harcourt, Lady, 105. 

Harpham, 163. 

Harsnett, Archbishop, 116. 

Harsyck, Sir J., 112, 116. 

Hastings, De, 51, 141. 

Hastings, E. He, 159. 

Hastings, Sir H., 43, 120, 142, 229. 

Hastings, John De, 141, 159. 

Hatfield, Win. of, 100. 

Hatfield Broadoak, 43. 

Hay, De la, 55, 57, 71. 

Haydon, J., 168. 

Hazlerigg, 74. 

Helena, Princess, 257. 

Henry I, 51, 227. 

Henry II, 226, 248. 

Henry III, 9, 17, 21, 35, 43, 117, 

210,227, 236,249,304, 375. 
Henry IV, 46, 72, 73, 98, 141, 228, 

230,237,249,305, 383. 
Henry V, 45, 49, 72, 190, 230, 237, 

250, 252, 305, 380. 
Henry VI, 128, 230, 237, 242, 250, 

252, 284, 326. 
Henry VII, 230, 237, 242, 250, 

251,305, 326. 
Henry VIII, 122, 230, 238, 250, 

252, 284, 345. 
Henry VII, Chapel of, 75, 122. 
Henry Stuart, 382. 
Henrietta Maria, 245. 
Hepburn, 208. 
Heralds, 108, 151, 285. 
Heralds' College, 108, 285, 338. 
Hereford, Earl of, 63, 134, 137,138, 

Hereford, See of, 65, 282. 
Hereford, Cathedral of, 56, 211. 
Heriz, De, 335. 
Hesse, 369. 
Hever, 103, 105. 

Higham Ferrers, 289. 

Hohenzollern, 365. 

Holland, 368. 

Holland, Joan de, 1 95. 

Holland, De, Duke of Exeter, 184, 

Holland, De, Duke of Kent, 143, 

151, 184, 195, 216,378, 335. 
Holland, De, 178, 325. 
Holstein, 368. 
Home, 209. 
Hope, 49, 54, 215. 
Hospitallers, 34, 259. 
Howard, De. 58, 109, 164, 205, 214, 

Howard, Catherine, 243. 
Howden, 164. 
Hungary, 370. 
Hungerford, 205. 
Huntingdon, Earl of, 166. 
Hunton, 119. 

Iona, 51. 

Ipswich, 53, 114, 132. 

Ireland, 50. 

Ironmongers' Company, 290. 

Isabella of Angoulerae, 239, 248. 

Isabelle of Castile, 196. 

Isabel e of France, 127, 131, 240. 

Isabelle of France, 145, 240. 

Islip, Abbot, 119. 

Italy, 367. 381. 

James I, 59, 126, 141, 230, 238, 

251, 327. 
James I, of Scotland, 325. 
James II, 251. 

Joanna of Navarre, 46, 240, 249, 305. 
John, See Plantagenet. 
John, 39, 236, 248, 249, 304. 
Johnstone, Sir W., 69. 
Jerusalem, 4, 17. 

Kemp, Archbishop, 93. 

Kendal, Earl of, 181. 

Kent, Earl of, See Holland. 

Kerrison, Sir E., 97, 353. 

Kilfane, 181. 

King's College Chapel, 75, 230, 243, 

King's Langley, 48, 96, 184, 189, 

190, 194. 
Kirkpatrick, 47, 214. 
Knights, 111, 155,265. 



Knights Hospitallers, 34, 259. 
Knights Templars, 34, 117, 259. 

Laharte, 304. 

Lacv, De, 31, 63, 142, 186, 222, 

Lancaster, See Plantagenets. 
Lancaster, Duke of, 99. 
Lancaster, Earl of, 43. 
Lancaster Herald, 109. 
Lancaster, De, 177, 180, 181. 
Llandaff, 51, 53, 282. 
Llanover, Baron, 50. 
Langton, Bishop, 118. 
Latham or Lathora, 173, 179, 214. 
Latton, 175, 179. 
Latymer, 179, 200. 
Lawrence, 98. 
Leinster, Duke of, 337. 
Lennox, 172. 
Leopold, Prince, 257. 
Leslie, 209, 325. 
Levant Merchants, 288. 

Leventhorpe, 191. 

Lemon, 70, 74, 218. 337. 

Lichfield, See of, 282. 

Lincoln, Earl of, 186, 222. 

Lincoln, See of, 58, 282. 

Lincoln's Inn Hall, 20. 

Lindsay, 209. 

Lisle, De, 54,333, 373. 

Little Bradley, 291. 

Little Easton, 103, 176, 379. 

London, Bishop of, 93. 

London, See of, 56, 93, 281. 

London, St. Paul's Cathedral, 

London, City of, 48, 57, 286. 

Long, 213. 

Longespee, W. De, 63, 88, 137, 305, 

Long Melford, 181. 

Lorton, Viscount, 61. 

Lorn, 51,336. 

Lothian, Marquess of, 71. 

Lothaire, 72. 

Louisa, Princess, 257. 

Louell, 199. 

Louterell, Sir G., 210. 

Louis, 8, 73. 
I.ouvain, 239. 
Lower, M. A., 2. 
Lucy, De, 163, 331. 

Macdonald, 51, 64. 
I Major-Henniker, 208. 

Malmeshury, Earl of, 65. 
i Maltravers, 334. 

Malvern, 297. 
I Man, Isle of, 59, 93. 
Mans, 248, 304. 
Manchester, 68, 282. 
Manny, 135. 

xMandeville, De, 46 t 142, 333. 
Manners, 336. 

March, Earl of, 213,215, 234. 
Marchioness, 113. 

Marlborough, Duke of, 33, 336, 353. 
Margaret of Anjou, 241. 
Maigaretof France, 131, 240, 324. 
Margaret of Scotland, 209. 
Margaret of Lennox, 144. 
Margaret of Richmond, 144, 252. 
Margeria of Hereford, 137. 
Marmion, 211. 
Marquess, 112. 
Marshal, Le, 50, 333, 

Marshal, the Earl, 109, 125, 14 7, 

Martyn, Judge, 47. 

Mary, Queen, 108. 

Mary D'Este, 144. 

Marv Stuart, 230. 

Mary Tudor, 230, 235, 238. 

Massyngberd, 164. 

Matilda of Bologne, 239. 

Matilda of Flanders, 239. 

Matilda of Scotland, 239. 

Mauleverer, De, 205. 

Meath, 51. 

Mere, De la, 43, 56. 

Merchants Adventurers, 114, 287. 

Merchants of the Staple, 114, 287. 

Mercers' Company, 288. 

Merchant Tailors' Company, 289. 

Merevale, 116,211,385. 

Merley, De, 168. 

Meynell, De, 182. 

Middlesex, 55. 

Milo, 137. 

Milton, John, 335. 

Mimms, North, 53. 

Moelles, De, 167. 

Mohun, De, 334. 

Monasteries, 283. 

Monchesney, De, 175. 

Monemne, De, 182. 
Montibrt, De, 62, 165. 



Monthermer, De, 66, 212. 
Montague, De, 66, 179, 199. 
Montaeute, De, 159, 212, 335. 
Monteagle, Baron, 209. 
Monte Alto, Melicent De, 170. 
Monthourchier, 183. 
Montfitchet, 333. 
Montgomery, De, 183, 334. 
Montrose, 219, 336. 
Mortimer, De, 37, 159, 193, 211, 

213, 217, 237. 
Mortimer's Cross, 74. 
Mowbray, De, 63, 109, 125, 135, 

205, 211, 214, 382. 
Municipal Corporations, 286. 

Napoleon, The Emperor, 364. 

Nassau, 231. 

Navarre, 46, 132, 239. 

Neath Abbey, 47. 

Nelond, 98. 

Nelson, Viscount, 97, 352. 

Neville, De, 31, 146, 179, 183, 199, 

200, 208,210,214,218,241. 
New College, Oxford, 53. 
Newcastle, Duke of, 214, 336. 
Nicholas, Sir H., 376. 
Norroy, Herald, 109, 285. 
Norfolk, Earl of, 190. 
Norfolk, Duke of, 61, 78, 109, 120, 

147, 191, 214,345. 
Northumberland, Duke of, 61, 67, 

North wick, Baron, 67. 
Northampton, Earl of, 165. 
Norton Brize, 156, 167. 
Norwav, 367, 368. 
Norwich, 51, 252, 286. 
Norwich, St. John's Church 114, 

Norwich, See of, 185, 282. 
Nottingham, Earl of, 125. 
Nova Scotia Badge, 92. 

Oakes, 74. 
Ochiltree, 138. 
Odingselles, D\ 167. 
Okstead, 74. 
Oldenburg, 368. 
Orkney, Earl of, 64. 
Ormond, Marquess of, 68. 
Ormonde, Earl of, 103. 
Ottway, 68. 
Outram, 98. 

Oxford, Earl of, 183. 
Oxford, City of, 286. 
Oxford, New College, 115. 
Oxford, Christ Church College, 

Oxford, See of, 58, 282. 
Oxford, Trinity College, 284. 
Oxford, University of, 283. 

Paignall, 159. 

Painter's Company, 290. 

Parker, 97. 

Parr, Catherine, 238, 243. 

Pans, 172. 

Pebmarsh, 170. 

Pelham, 46, 205. 

Pelham-Clinton, 215, 336. 

Pembridge, 211. 

Pembroke, Earl of, 43, 62. 

Percv, De, 43, 58, 63, 204, 208, 

Percy Monument, 43, 360. 
Penott, 75. 
Pescod, 118. 

Peterborough, See of, 282. 
Peverell, 205. 
Pevner, De, 170. 
Philippa of Hainault, 240, 305. 
Philip of Spain, 244. 
Philip III of France, 364. 
Philip IV of France, 140. 
Philip, Sir W. 211. 
Planche, Mr., 72, 124, 133, 136, 204, 

324, 378. 
Plantagenets, Family of, 74, 83. 
Plantagenets, Lancastrians, 74, 236, 

261, 382. 
Plantagenets, Yorkists, 74, 236, 

263, 382. 
Plantagenets, Livery Colors of, 83. 
Plantagenet, Alianore, 134. 
Plantagenet, Edmond, of Lancaster, 

43, 87, 187, 191, 302, 305. 
Plantagenet, Edmond, of Cornwall, 

130, 173. 
Plantagenet, Edmond, of Langley, 

48,96,193, 195,306, 313. 
Plantagenet, Edmond, of Woodstock, 

183, 195. 
Plantagenet, Edmond, Earl of Rut- 
land, 197. 
Plantagenet, Elizabeth, 101, 306, 
Plantagenet, Elizabeth, of York. 




Plantagenet, Edward, the Black 
Prince, 49, 56, 70, 99, 100, 104, 
107,111, 190, 195,202,210,300, 
318, 382, 385. 

Plantagenet, Edward, Earl of Rut- 
land, 196. 

Plantagenet, Geuffrev, of Anjou, 117, 

Plantagenet, George, of Clarence, 
176, 189, 197,211. 

Plantagenet, Henry, Earl of Lan- 
caster, 181, 191, 325. 

Plantagenet, Henry, Duke of Lan- 
caster, 99, 157, 191, 217. 

Plantagenet, Henry, of Bolingbroke, 
144, 187, 191, 193, 202, 223. 

Plantagenet, Humphrey, of Glou- 
cester, 184, 306, 378. 

Plantagenet, Isabeile, 103,306, 379. 

Plantagenet, Joan, of Kent, 195, 

Plantagenet, Joan, 309. 

Plantagenet, John, of Eltharn, 20, 
56, 100, 124. 136, 183, 305, 385 

Plantagenet, John, of Ghent, 144, 
193, 202, 382. 

Plantagenet, John, Duke of Bed- 
ford, 189, 198, 211. 

Plantagenet, Lionel, of Clarence, 
100, 192. 

Plantagenet, Margaret, 141, 306. 

Plantagenet, Mary, 309. 

Plantagenet, Richard, of Conings- 
burgh, 184, 193, 197, 379. 

Plantagenet, Richard, of York, 189, 

Plantagenet, Richard, of Cornwall, 
39, 66, 130. 

Plantagenet, Thomas, of Lancaster, 
181, 191,212, 323. 

Plantagenet, Thomas, " De Brother- 
ton," 135, 190. 

Plantagenet, Thomas, of Gloucester. 

Plantagenet, Thomas, of Clarence, 

Plantagenet, William, of Hatfield, 
100, 306. 

Pleshy, 202. 

Plessis, De, 174. 

Pole, De la, 101, 105, 179. 

Ponsonby, 47. 

Ponthieu, 240. 

Pope, Sir T , 284. 

Portcullis, Pursuivant, 109. 

Portugal, 369. 

Poulett, the Earl, 56. 

Pownder, T., 132. 

Powys, 150, 360. 

Poynings, 334. 

Preshaw, 213. 

Prestwyck, 66. 

Prince of Wales, 253, 256, 380, 

381, 387. 
Prince Consort, 253, 255. 
Princess, 254, 256. 
Princess Royal, 257. 
Provence, 21, 99, 239. 
Prussia, 365. 
Pursuivant, 109. 

Queen, Her Majestv, The, 105, 139, 
146, 232,250,253, 276,277,381. 
Quincey, Saer De, 186. 
Quincey, R. De, 174, 324. 

Radclyffe, De, 334. 
Ramrydge, Abbot, 118, 303, 360. 
Havmond of Provence, 21. 
Richard 1, 61, 210, 227,237. 
Richard II, 43, 74, 112, 117, 120, 

141, 145, 189.206, 216, 229, 234, 

240, 305, 382. 
Richard III, 146, 197, 230, 235. 
Richmond, Countess of, 24 2, 307, 

Richmond, Duke of, 218. 373. 
Richmond, Earl of, 185, 193. 
Richmond, De, 182. 
Rishangles, 165. 
Robsart, Lord, 303, 314. 
Rochester, See of, 282. 
Rochfort, 242. 
Rokewood, 47. 
Rokele, De, 174. 
Romara, W. De, 174, 324. 
Ros, De, 57, 162. 
Rothsay, Duke of, 380. 
Rouen, 198. 
Rouge Croix, 109. 
Rouge Dragon, 109. 
Routhe, De, 376. 
Royal Artillery, 291. 
Royal Marines, 291. 
Russell, 64, 67, 208, 336. 
Rin land, Duke of, 65, 69, 213, 336. 
Rutland, Lai 1 of, 196, 197. 



Russia, 366. 
Ryther, De, 171. 

St. Alban, 119. 

St. Alban, Abbey of, 43, 53, 68, 71, 

118, 184, 188, 283, 360,379. 
St. Alban's, Duke of, 374. 
St. Amand, 173. 
St. Andrew, 33, 270. 
St. Andrew's, London, 290. 
St. Asaph, See of, 282. 
St. Anthony, Cross and Order of, 33, 

St. Cross, Hospital of, 316. 
St. David's, See of, 282. 
St. Edward (the Confessor), 96. 
St. Edmond, 96, 119. 
St. George, 33, 48, 96, 120, 274, 

327, 366. 
St. George's Chapel, Windsor, 122, 

St. John, De, 167. 
St. John's College, Cambridge, 299. 
St. Martin's-in-the-Fields, 232. 
St. Martin Outwich, 289, 
St. Maur, 218. 
St. Michael, 121, 274. 
St. Omer, 168. 

St. Patrick, 33, 34, 121, 270, 337. 
St. Quintin, De. 163, 182. 
Salisbury, Cathedral of, 88. 
Salisbury, Earl of, 63, 88. 
Salisbury, Matilda of, 137. 
Salisbury, See of, 58, 282. 
Salisbury, Marquess of, 218. 
Saltmarsh, De, 164. 
Salters' Company, 290. 
Sawbridgeworth, 191. 
Sawtry, 212. 
Say, De, 124, 142, 333. 
Saxony, 247, 256, 364, 380. 
Schools, Public, 284. 
Scotland, 38, 57, 73. 
Scotland, Lion of, 60. 
Scott, Sir Walter, 68, 335. 
Scott of Thirlstane, 208. 
Scrope, Lord, 211. 
Seafield, Earl of, 98. 
Seal, 212. 
Seaton, Baron, 97. 
Sees, Episcopal, and Bishops, 281. 
Segrave, Lord, 63, 135, 379. 
Selbv, 158. 
Selkirk, Earl of, 69. 

Setvans, R. de, 48, 124, 207. 

Seymour, Jane, 238, 243. 

Shakespeare. 55, 95, 118, 203, 335. 

Shastone, De, 167. 

Shrewsbury, Earl of, 64, 185, 207. 

Skinner's Company, 289. 

Sleswick, 367. 

Smythe, Sir W., 383. 

Somerset, Duke of, 176, 184, 218, 

374, 382. 
Somerset, Marquess of, 184. 
Somerset, 217. 
Somerset Herald, 109. 
Southacre, 112, 117. 
Spain, 369. 
Spencer, Earl, 38, 218, 336, See 

De Spencer. 
Spring Rice, 209. 
Stafford, De, 149, 163, 185, 212. 
Stafford Jermingham, 219. 

Staindrop, 210. 

Standon, 287. 

Stanley, 64, 144, 179, 205, 214, 
218, 337. 

Stanton Harcourt, 105. 

Stapleton, De, 185 

Staple, Merchants of the, 114. 

Star of India, Order of, 276. 

Stationers' Company, 290. 

Stephen, 227. 

Stoke Daubernon, 117. 

Stothard, Charles, 378. 

Stourton, Lord, 212. 

Stradsett, 171. 

Stratherne, Euphemia of, 138. 

Strange, 337. 

Stuarts, 72, 208, 233. 

Stuart, Alan, 138. 

Stuart, Arabella, 341. 

Stuart, David, 138. 

Stuart, Mary, 307, 339. 

Suabia, 242! 

Suffolk, Duke of, 105. 

Surrey, Earl of, 134. 

Sutherland, Duke of, 218, 337. 

Sweden, 368. 

Switzerland, 370. 

Swynborne, De, 164. 

Sydney, 335. 


Talbot, De, 183, 
Tanfie.d, 211. 
Tankerville, Earl, 185. 
Tatelow, De, 170. 



Ta:eshall, De, 180. 

Tederade, 133. 

Templars, 34, 174, 259. 

Temple, 208. 

Temple Church, 46. 

Terri, John, 114, 288. 

Thebes, 19. 

Theddlethorpe, 168. 

Thistle, Order of the, 269. 

Thorpe, De, 211, 212, 262, 361. 

Tiptoft, 112, 143, 150, 310, 358. 

Toolye, 133. 

Tower Hill, 199. 

Tressel, De, 172. 

Trussell, 173. 

Trinity House, 55, 285. 

Trinity College, Cambridge, 284. 

Trinity College, Oxford, 284. 

Trotton, 55, 105, 303. 

Trumpingdon, De, 57, 106, 162. 

Tudor, 54, 185, 382. 

Tudor, Arthur, 72, 74, 190, 238. 

302, 306, 382. 
Tudors, Livery Colors of, 83, 122. 
Turkey, 370. 
Tyler, Wat, 48. 

Ufford, D', 334. 

Ughtred, 166. 

Ulster, Badge of, 59, 92. 

Ulster, Earl of, 146, 192, 237. 

Ulster, Herald King, 109, 286. 

Umphaville, D', 163. 

Universities, 283. 

Upton, Nicholas, 177, 379. 

Valence, Aymer De, 96, 132, 168, 

Valence, Guv De, 169. 
Valence, William De, 38, 43, 55 

66, 132, 138, 168, 305, 387. 
Valois, 364. 
Vaux, De, 175. 
Vavasour, Le, 334. 
Vere, De, 43, 52, 73, 165. 

Verdon, De, 176. 
Vernon, 119, 335. 
Verney, 179, 180. 
Verulam, Earl, 165. 
Vesci, De, 35. 
Victoria Cross, 277. 
Vintners' Company, 290. 
Vipont, De, 174. 

Vincent, 170, 197, 377. 

Victoria, 11, 232, 250, 253, 328, 

See Queen. 
Volunteers, 225. 

Wakefield, 197. 

Wake, Lord, 173, 194, 378. 

Waldeby, Archbishop, 98. 

Wales, "The Prince of, 187,380, 

382, 387. 
Wales, Principality of, 239. 
Wallers, 204, 378. 
Walthamstow, 289. 
Walworth, William De, 48. 
Warwick, Earl, 64, 102, 111, 121, 

178, 198, 203, 223. 
Warwick, 102, 111, 163, 166. 
Warrenne, De, 43, 78, 109, 134, 

181, 194. 
Warburton, 66. 
Warham, Archbishop, 98. 
Waterford, 58. 
Welle, De, 173. 
Wellesley, 219, 336. 
Wellington, Duke of, 33, 91, 219, 

336, 337, 353. 
Wensley, 53. 
Westley Waterless, 175. 
Westminster Abbev, 17, 20, 35, 43, 

120, 174, 230, 283, 297, 302, &c. 
Westminster Hall, 143, 206, 

Westminster, Deanery of, 283. 
Westmorland, Earl, 210,214. 
Wheathamptede, De, 71, 186. 
Whitworth, 39. 
Widville, or Woodville, 241. 
William I, 226, 227. 
William II, 227, 304. 
William III, 230, 328. 
William IV, 232. 
Willement, 245. 
Willis, Professor, 141. 
Willoughby D'Eresby, 158. 
Winchester, 56. 
Wiltshire, Earl of, 103. 
Winchester, Bishop of, 93, 281. 
Winchester, Cathedral of, 190. 
Winchester, Earl of, 174, 186. 
Windsor, 163. 
Windsor Herald, 109, 
Wingfield, 105. 
Wiston, 161, 213. 
Woburn, 289. 



Worcester, Cathedral of, 

161, 238, 297. 
Worcester, Earl of, 373. 
Worcester, See of, 283. 
Wodehouse, Baron, 215. 
Wolsey, Cardinal, 284. 
Woodstock, 75, 205. 
Wotton-uuder-Edge, 68. 
Wurtemburgh, 369. 
Wymington, 171. 

55, 75, Wynne, Sir W. W„ 65. 

York, See Plantagenets. 

York, Cathedral of, 100. 

York, Duke of, 193, 195, 196, 197. 

York, See of, 281. 

York Herald, 109. 

Zouch, Dela, 158. 



Printed by A. Sehulze, 13, Poland Street, 



The Revival of Gothic Art, now so happily accomplished, has 
awakened a fresh interest in both the Illumination and the Heraldry 
of the Middle Ages. The Herald's Art-Science, indeed, had never 
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Containing the following Tinctures (Heraldic Colours), viz., 
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JUL 7^984 


■ IUN 7 1984 


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