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This book was presented by 

Mr. & Mrs. Thomas Littleton 




M A ]\ U A L, 



^BPSi^gsi §j®^®esi 







By Professor RAFINESQUE, A. M. 



Botanical Piinciples, - - - - 1 

Chemical Principles, - - - - 6 

Medical Principles, - - - - 8 

Medical Properties, - - - - 11 

Table of Properties, - - - - 13 

Explanation of Botanical Terms, - - - 22 

Agrimony, - - - - - 34 

American Senna, - - , ' - - 93 

Alum Root, - - - - - 1841 

American Hemlock, - - - - 107 

Bitter Dogbane, - . . . 49 

Bear-berry, - - - - - 57 

Bitterwort, ----- 61 

Broadleaf Asarabacca, - - - - 70 

Barberry Bush, - . - . 83 

Black Cohosh, - - - - - 85 

Blue Cohosh, - . - . 97 

Buttonwood Shrub, - - .100 

Bind Weed, ----- 123 
Bonesett, ----- 174 

Blooming Spurge, ^ - . . 181 

Black Henbane, - - - - 255 

Camomile (wild), - - - - - 44 

Common Hemlock, - ' - - - 118 

Columbo, - - - - - 196 

Creeping Pollom, - - - - 202 
Common Hops, ----- 246 


Dogwood, - - - - - 131 

Ditany, - - - - - - 136 

Dropwort, - - - . - 224 

Eye wort, - - - - - 251 

Fleabane, - - - - - 162 

Goldthread - - - - - 127 

Gentian, . . . . . 208 

Leatherwood, • - - - - 158 

Liverwort, ----- 238 

Maidenhair, - - - - - 30 

Mealy Starwort, - - - . 37 

Pleurisy Root, - - - - - 74 

Pennyroyal, - - - - - 231 

Persimon Tree, - - - - - 153 

Sweet Flag, - . * - . - 25 

Sorrel Tree, - - - - - 41 

Spikenard, ----- 43 

Stone Root, - - - - - 1 1 1 

Sweet Fern, - - - - - 115 

Strawberry, - - - - - 189 

Spotted Cranesbill, - - - - 215 

Sneezewort, - - . - - 235 

Three-leaf Arum, . - . _ 66 

Thorn Apple, - - - - - 146 

Winter Shield, - - . - 90 

Worm-seed Goose Foot, - - - - 103 

White Avens, - - . - 220 

Witch Hazel, - - - - - 227 

Yellow Indigo, - . . . 76 

Yellow Lady's Slipper, - .- - . 140 

Yellow Snake Leaf, - - - - 168 


1. The Science of Botany was at all times 
intimately connected with medical knowledge. 

2. Several ancient nations, such as the Gre- 
cians, Romans, Hindoos, Chinese, &c. consi- 
dered Medical Botany as equivalent to both 
botanical and medical knowledge. 

3. Medicine was then, and is still among 
rude nations, nothing more than the application 
of an empirical knowledge of vegetable sub- 

4. Thence the usual vulgar division of Plants, 
into the five great Classes of Aliments, Sim- 
ples, Poisons, Flowers and Weeds, or ali- 
mentary, medical, poisonous^ ornamental and 
useless plants. 

5. At the revival of learning in Europe, this 
notion being general, the first works on Botany, 
were of couise mere sketches of Medical Bo- 
tany, and comments on Grecian or Roman wri- 

6. When Tournefort and LinnsBus, about a 
century ago, became botanical reformers, and 
made Botany a separate Science, their efforts 
and improvements were resisted by those who 
at all times contend against useful innovations. 


7. Linnseus in his Materia Metlica, gave a 
niodel of systematical Medical Botany, equally 
concise, perspicuous and accurate; but desti- 
tute of the help of figures. 

8. This model was followed by Schoepf in 
his Materia Medica of North x\merica, the 
first general work on our medical plants, pub- 
lished in Germany and in Latin towards 1787* 
This small work of Schoepf has never been 
translated nor republished in America^ although 
highly deserving of it. 

9. When America was settled, the native 
tribes were in possession of many valuable ve- 
getable remedies, discovered by long experi- 
ence, the knowledge of which they gradually 
imparted to their neighbours. 

10. This knowledge partly adopted even as 
far as Europe, and partly rejected by medical 
skepticks, became scattered through our country 
in the hands of country practitioners, Herba- 
lists, Empirics and Botanists. 

11. Schoepf collected his materials from them, 
and noticed about three hundred and sixty plants 
as medical; but he did not go every where, nor 
exhaust the subject, since nearly double that 
number are actually in common use in different 
States of the Union. 

±2. Since the United States have become an 
independent and flourishing nation, much has 
been done to teach and spread correct medical 

13. The establishment of Medical Schools, 
Chairs of Materia Medica, of Medical and 
Systematical Botany, Medical and Botanic 
Gardens, Infirmaries, Hospitals, have largely 


contributed to impart Medical and Botanical 
knowledge, through the professional class. 

14. This purpose has been aided by nume- 
rous publications of learned Physicians and 
Botanists, Medical Works, Pamphlets and 
Journals, Pharmacopeias, Dispensatories, In- 
augural Theses, &c. 

15. Notwithstanding all these means, it is a 
positive and deplorable fact, that but few medi- 
cal practitioners, apply themselves to the Study 
of Botany, and therefore are deprived of the 
aid of comparative Medical Botany. 

16. It is not less certain, but still more de- 
plorable that beyond the immediate sphere of 
medical knowledge, the majority of the people 
are yet in prey to medical credulity, supersti- 
tion and delusions, in which they are confirmed 
by the repeated failures of Theorists, and the 
occasional success of Empirical Rivals. 

17. Even in large cities and in the centre of 
medical light, Empirics are thriving, because 
they avail themselves of the resources aflbrded 
by active plants, often neglected or unknown to 
the regular practitioners. 

18. It is not perhaps so well known that there 
are in this Age and in the United States, Ame- 
rican Marabouts who like the Marabouts of 
the wilds of Africa, attempt in some remote 
placesj to cure diseases by charms, prayers, 
blowing, spitting, &c. 

19. It is therefore needful to spread still 
further correct medical knowledge; and the 
state of medical science is such in the United 
States, as to require a greater diffusion of the 


acquired knowledge, aided by freedom of en- 
quiry, liberal views, and mutual forbearance. 

20, The practice of medicine is now exer- 
cised in the United States by three sets of men 
or Classes of Practitioners. 1. The Rationals, 
S. the Theorists, and 3. the Empirics. 

SI. The Rational medical men are liberal 
and modest, learned or well informed, neither 
intolerant nor deceitful, and ready to learn or 
impart information. They comprise the Im- 
provers, Kclectics, and Exjperiinentalists, 

22, The Improvers study nature and the hu- 
man frame, write their observations, and im- 
prove medical knowledge. 

23. The Eclectics are those who select and 
adopt in practice, whatever is found most bene- 
ficial, and who change their prescriptions ac- 
cording to emergencies, circumstances and ac- 
quired knowledge. 

24. While the Experimentalists are those 
who are directed by experience and experi- 
ments, observations, dissections and facts. 

25, But the Theorists are often illiberal, 
intolerant, proud and conceited ; they follow a 
peculiar theory and mode of practice, with little 
deviation, employing but few vegetable reme- 
dies, and enlisting under the banner of a teacher 
or sect. 

2Q, They are divided into many Sects, al- 
ways at war among themselves and their rivals : 
such are the Brownists, Galenists, JMesme^ 
Tiansj SJceptickSf Chemicalists, CalomelistSf 
Entomists, &c. 

27, The Empirics are commonly illiterate, 
ignorant, deceitful and reserved : they follow a 


secret or absurd mode of practice, or deal in 
patent remedies. 

28. They include the Herbalists, vulgarly 
called Indian or Root Doctors, and the Steam 
Doctors, who follow the old practice of the na- 
tives, the Qiiacks or dealers in Nostrums, the 
Patent Doctors, the Prescrihers of receipts, 
the Marabouts, &c. 

S9. All these classes need instruction on the 
natural knowledge of medical substances, and 
it ought to be afforded to them, that they may 
become properly acquainted with those which 
they employ or may avail themselves of. 

30. Medical Sciences have lately been widely 
enlarged, by borrowing the help of all the Na- 
tural Sciences; and the enlightened physicians 
begin to avail themselves of all the materials 
they can command, rendering all the Sciences 
subservient or auxiliaries to their pursuits. 

31. By Botany, the great majority of medi- 
cal Substances are ascertained and become 
available: while the study of natural aflRnities 
enables to detect; and compare botanical and 
medical Equivalents. 

32. Medical Botany teaching to know and 
appreciate the greatest number of articles em- 
ployed in Materia Medica, is become indispen- 
sable to the enlightened physician. 

83. Vegetable Chemistry analyses vegetable 
substances, discovers their active principles, re- 
lative medical value, and ascertains the equi- 
valent or incompatible substances. 

34«. Even Pharmacy is become a science, by 
the aid of Botany and Chemistry. Druggists 
and Pbarmacians who sell vegetable Articles or 

A o 


Drugs ought to be botanically acquainted with 
them, so as to distinguish the genuine kinds^ 
and detect the frauds or blunders of the collec- 
tors and herbalists. 

3.^. Works on Medical Botany are of two 
kinds, with or without figures. This last kind 
includes all the Materia Medicas, Dispensa- 
tories, Pharmacologies, Pharmacopeias, &c. 
which try to convey the knowledge of medical 
substances by mere descriptions. 

S6. The other kind, and the most useful, em- 
ploy, Iconography or figures, besides descrip- 
tive references, to give a complete knowledge 
of the officinal plants: such are the Herhals, 
Medical Botanies, Medical Floras, &c. 

37. A Critical List shall be given of such 
Works or Essays relating to our Plants, which 
have been consulted: but the three principal 
works with figures, deserve perhaps a separate 

38. Bigelow and W. Barton published some 
years ago, and towards the same time, two vo- 
luminous and expensive Works on Medical 
Botany. Barton's Work in two volumes quarto, 
contains only fifty plants and figures, and Bige- 
low's sixty in three volumes quarto. 

39. Several plants are described and figured 
in both works, reducing the total number of 
medical plants given to about eighty, for which 
the price is about forty dollars or half a dollar 
for every plant. 

40. These imperfect and costly works have 
each their merit, and although not free from 
errors and omissions, are useful assistants to 
those who can afford to buy them. Bigelow 's 


is the most learned, accurate and useful, while 
Barton's has often the best figures. 

41. It is to be regretted that these authors by 
following the expensive plan of Woodville's 
Medical Botany liave lessened their utility and 
public circulation. 

42. Some years before the above publications, 
a herbalist or spurious Botanist, Samuel Henry, 
printed in New York, 1814, a Medical Herbal, 
comprising in one octavo volume of five dollars, 
about one hundred sixty medical plants, with 
small fictitious figures. 

43. This Work is merely mentioned here to 
warn against it. It is a worthless book, with 
incorrect names, wrong descriptions, erroneous 
indications, and figures mostly fictitious or 
misapplied. It is of no medical nor botanical 
account; yet it contains some of the Empirical 
concealed knowledge, available in a few in- 

44. Works of general utility ought to be ac- 
curate, complete, potable and cheap. Such 
alone can spread the required correct know- 
ledge, and suit every class of readers. 

45. The popular knowledge of the natural 
sciences has been prevented in the United 
States, by the first works published on them, 
having followed the model of the splendid Eu- 
ropean publications intended for the wealthy or 
public libraries. 

46. It is time that we should return to the 
pristine Linnean simplicity, and by the addition 
of cheap but correct figures of objects, engraved 
on copper, zinc, pewter, stone or wood, speak 
to the eyes as well as the miod. 


47. Such is the aim of the actual work, which 
is intended as a portable manual of Medical 
Botany, for the daily use of medical Students, 
Physicians, Druggists, Pharmacians, Chemists, 
Botanists, Florists, Herbalists, Collectors of 
herbs, heads of families, Infirmaries, &c. 

48. It was many years in contemplation, and 
publicly proposed ever since 1816. It is now 
offered to the public, as a humble attempt to 
render one of the popular branches of medical 
and natural science, attainable and available 
by all. 

49. The author has been collecting his mate- 
rials for many years, while travelling through 
fourteen states of the Union, and lecturing on 
medical plants in Transylvania University. 

50. His qualifications for the task result from 
fifteen years of botanical and medical obser- 
vations and researches, and 8000 miles of bo- 
tanical travels, wherein he diligently enquired 
and elicited from the learned and the illiterate, 
the result of their practicj^ experience. 

51. He has never despised knowledge because 
imparted by an uncouth mouth, and has often 
made experiments on himself and others to test 
peculiar facts. 

52. Several Physicians and Botanists in Phi- 
ladelphia, Baltimore, Washington City, Wil- 
mington, Winchester, Alexandria, Bethlehem, 
Pittsburg, Wheeling, Lexington, Bowling- 
green, Sandusky, &c. have at different times 
communicated to him additional facts, or con- 
firmed the properties of some plants, 

53. He feels particularly indebted to the ob- 
liging kindness of several friends for many im- 


portant facts or valuable commuiiications, for 
which he feels happy to tender this public tes- 
timony of gratitude. 

54. They are Dr. Mease, and Z. Collins of 

Drs. Short and Brown of Lexington. 

Dr. Eoff of Wheeling. 

Dr. MuUer of New Harmony. 

Dr. Drake of Cincinnati. 

Dr. Crockett of Frankfort. 

Dr. Graham of Harrodsburg. 

Dr. Mac Williams of Washington City. 

Dr. Hales of Troy. 

Dr. Lawrence of New Lebanon. 

Drs. L. Beck and Tully of Albany. 

Drs. Mitcliell and Torrey of New York. 

55. It has been ascertained that there are 
nearly six hundred medical plants actually 
known and used as such in the United States: 
many of which are merely medical equivalents. 

5Q, This number being too great for the pur- 
pose of a manual, one hundred and five of the 
most active and efficient medical Types have 
been selected, figured and described. 

5y* The others have been referred to these 
as substitutes or succedanea, when they possess 
nearly the same ostensible qualities and pro- 
perties. In fact they are mostly used for each 
other throughout the country. 

58. Those selected include all the species of 
Bigelow and W. Barton, with twenty. five addi- 
tional species. It had been advised to reduce 
the whole number to fifty active plants; but 
such a reduction would have left out many va- 


liiable plants and not offered a sufficient quan- 
tity of generic Types or typical Equivalents. 

59. When a Genus contains several medical 
species, only one is figured, unless their pro- 
perties are quite different, and the others are 
mentioned with some remarks as equivalent 
substitutes. The plants of genera not figured 
are inserted in the general table or appendix. 

60. The Botanical alphabetic order has been 
adopted, as the most easy, obvious and service- 
able, since no scientific arrangement could have 
been equally available. 

61. The medical arrangements are as nume- 
rous as the writers on Materia Medica. Every 
plant having commonly many properties, cannot 
be classed into any definite medical order, but 
should belong to several at the same time. 

62. The defective and indelicate sexual sys- 
tem of Linnaeus is now. too obsolete for the state 
of the science. 

63. The natural method would have been 
preferred, if the novelty of the attempt had not 
been anticipated as an obstacle to practical use. 

64. Most of the figures have been drawn by 
the author, and a few reduced from Bigelow or 
Barton ; they have been engraved and printed 
in a style suited to the assumed purpose. 

65. For the sake of perspicuity and conveni- 
ence every article is divided into sections. The 
names are at the head, and the Botanical name 
is the first. 

6Q, The English, French and German names 
are given, next the officinal names used iu 
Pharmacopeias, and last the vulgar or common 
names of the country, which are variable in al- 


most every section or state. When a plant had 
received several botanical names, the obsolet© 
are given as synonyms. 

67. After the names follow the botanical and 
medical authorities connected, the generic and 
specific characters, the complete botanical des- 
criptions, the locality or native places of growth, 
with the general history of the genus and spe- 
cies, forming the botanical sections of each ar- 

68. The medical division contains the sen- 
sible and chemical qualities of the plant, with 
the medical properties, including uses, doses 
and preparations. 

69. Equivalent substitutes, and various re- 
marks conclude the article. The plan of adding 
medical substitutes is borrowed from the ex- 
cellent French work of Peyrilhe on Medical 
Natural History. 

70. The knowledge of those medical Equi- 
Talents will be found very useful, when the re- 
quired plants are not obtainable, while some 
substitute may perhaps be procured. It fol- 
lows of course tiiat each Equivalent is vice- 
versa a mutual substitute in most cases: although 
the plants are seldom identical in power and 

71. Botanical accuracy has been strictly at- 
tended to throughout, and all the descriptions 
are original. To avoid other novelties, but few 
improvements have been attempted or sugges- 
ted in nomenclature or criticism. The locali- 
ties are however greatly extended. 

72. In the medical part, brevity has been 
adopted; without impairing accuracy. All the 


matter of Schoepf and subsequent writers has 
been incorporated. Nothing essential has been 
omitted, but discussions are avoided, and ex- 
periments merely stated in result. 

73. This order and plan has enabled to give 
a complete knowledge of the objects in all their 
botanical, medical, chemical and historical 
points of view: while the general principles of 
the science are prefixed as preliminary guides* 

74. If this labour may suit all the classes of 
readers and all those who employ medical 
plants, the wishes and object of the author will 
be fulfilled. 





I. BOTANY is the science and knowledge of vegetable bodies 
or plants. 

2* A botanical species is formed by the collective association 
of all the individual bodies, which have a similar form. 

3. VARIETIES are mere occasional deviations from this spe- 
cific typical I'orm. 

4. All the individuals of the same species, have the same 
forms, qualities and properties, but modified in some varieties. 

5. The principal branches of Botany, are, GLOssotoGT, No- 

HISTORY and Philosophy. 

6. Glossology gives names or Botanical terms to every Organ 
of plants, and to all their modifications of form or structure. 

7. These names must be sought for in special botanical works; 
it is beyond this scope to notice them here, except in general. 

8. NoMEifCLATURE applies names to every species, and succes- 
sive groups of species, referring their Synonyms to each. 

9. These names derived chiefly from the Latin and Greek 
languages, become universal, and common to all languages and 

10. Synonyms are of wo kinds, 1. Erroneous or obsolete 
botanical names, 2. Local or variable Vulgar names employed 
by each nation. 

II. Classification teaches how to co-ordinate the species in 
Genera, orders and classes by methodical or systematical arrange- 



12. Genera are groups of species having the same essential 
Organs of fructifi cation or reproduction, and affording the same 
collective characters in their structure and form. 

13. Orders and Classes are successive groups of Genera af- 
fording some similar general characters. Families, Sections, 
Subclasses are Divisions of these groups based upon some pecu- 
liar considerations. 

14. A Method studies, seeks and preserves iall the natural 
affinities of plants, grouping together, those which have the- 
greatest resemblance. 

15. SisTEi^rs follow a peculiar theory, or are based upon a sm- 
gle consideration, without attending to natural affinities. 

16. Descriptive B.OTANx gives accurate descriptions of all the 
species and their varieties. Genera and Groups of Genera. 

IT. These Descriptions consist of two modes or parts 1. 
Complete Descriptions, 2. Defhtitioits or abridged Descrip- 
tions, being the analytical epitome of the principal descriptive 

18. Botanical history includes many details and considera- 
tions comprising the Etymology of names, mode of growth, time 
of flowering and seeding, cultivation, collection, discovering, 
introducing, authors who have described plants, their biography, 
bibliography or knowledge of Botanical Books, criticism, &c. 

19. The Locality of plants is a branch of Botanical history, 
which has lately been separated and called Botanical Geogra- 
THY ; it teaches the soils, climates and places where plants^grow 
spontaneously, and also their migrations, naturalization, &c. 

20. Botanical Philosophy considers plants under all their 
points of view, which are many ; forming the following branches ; 

1. Organology, studying their organization. 

2. Physiology — their vital functions. 

3. Anatomy — their internal structure. 

4. Chemistry — their component elements. 

5. Pathology — their diseases, 

6. Cultivation — their culture. 

7. Utility — their useful or noxious properties. 

21. The ORGANS are external or internal ; the internal be- 
long to botanical anatomy : the external or the most conspicuous 


afford the obvious descriptive characters, and form several series 
according to their vital use, as follows : 

22. NuTBiTivE Orgaks are the Cotyledons, Roots, Leaves, 
&c. The Roots are commonly under ground, and the Leaves 
above : while the Cotyledons are within the seed. 

23. Reproductive Organs which are the Flowers, Fruits and 
Seeds, with the Buds, Bulbs, and Gems. 

24. Upon the flowers, fruit and seeds are chiefly based the 
generic and other general characters ; being present and conspi 
CU0U3 in every plant except those of the lowest orders. 

25. The Roots, Leaves, Flowers, and Fruits assume a great 
variety of shapes, which have all peculiar names, and off'er the 
specific characters and distinctions usually resorted to. 

26. Upholding Organs such as the stem and branches, the 
Scapes or leafless radical stems. Petioles, Pedicles, Nerves, kc. 

27. Preserving Organs as the Barks, Cuticles, Sec. 

28. CiRcuLATivE Organs which are the Wood, Liber, Pith, 
Fibres, Vessels, &c. The woody plants are called Ttees or 

29. Secretoby Organs, such as Glands, Pores, Hairs, &c. 

30. AncEssoiiT- OnoAvs are the thorns, bracteolcs, Stipules, 
tendrils, tubercles, down, wool, &c. 

31. Inflorescence is the mode in which the flowers are dis- 
posed and unfolded. 

32. The essential parts of the flowers are the Stamina or Sta- 
mens and Pistils : a complete flower has both ; when they are 
separate, the flowers are called Staminate or Pistilate. 

33. The essential part of the Stamen is the Anther; when the 
filament or support is missing, the anther is called sessile. 

34. The essential parts of the Pistil are the Germ or Germeit, 
and the Stigma. The germ is the bud of the fruit ; it is usually 
sessile; when it has a support or Podogtne, it is called stipitated. 

35. The Germ is usually free and central ; but when it is 
connected or coherent with the perigone, it is called adherent or 
inferior, and the perigone becomes symphogyne or superior, 

36. The Stigma is a pore, gland or appendage upon the 
Germ, single or multiple, sessile or supported by a base called 


o7. The accessory parts of the flowers are the Pebigone, Nec- 
TAHiES and Bracteoees. 

38. The Perigojie around the Stamina and Pistils is either 
single, double or multiple. When single it retains that name ; 
but w hen double the exterior is called Calix, and the interior 
Conoi or Coroexa. In the multiple perigotie, the inner range 
is the trueCoROE. 

39. The segments of the perigone and calix are called Sepals, 
or folioles, and those of the Corel Petals. 

40. The Nectaries are Glands, scales, crowns, disks and other 
appendages within the flower. 

41. The Bracteoles are small leaves, scales, involucres, 8tc. 
around the flowers, when they resemble a perigone and sur- 
round many flowers, they are called Perianthe or common calix. 

42. Plants being organized bodies like Animals, perform the 
same vital functions, three of which are essential to life, and 
common to all plants, 1. Nutuitiox, 2. Growth, 3. Reproduc- 

43. The others are l.'ss essential, or less evident; they are 
1. Circulation, 2. Respiration, 3. Secretion, 4. Irritability, 5. Ca- 
lorification, 6. Sulidifictttion, &c- 

44. Plants are also like Animals subject to Sleep, hyemal Tor- 
por, Diseases, Necropsy and Death. 

45. The ANATOMICAL structure of plants offers a mul'.itude 
of internal apparatus (about thirty kinds) formed by the aggre- 
gation of vessels, fibres and tissues. 

46'. The principal are the Cellular, fibrose, glandular, absor- 
bing, moving, vital, nutritive, reproductive, &,c. 

47. CHEMICAL BOTANY detects almost all the simple ele- 
rnents in the vegetable substances : the most abundant and pre- 
vailing are however. Carbon, Oxigen, Hydrogen, Azote, Potas- 
um, Sodium, Calcium, Sulphur, &.c. 

48. The coiiipound chemical bodies absorbed or formed by 
vegetable Life are very numerous, the principal are Water, Air, 
Oils, Acids, Aromes, Tannin, Extractive, Alkalis, Resins, Muci- 
lage, Sugar, Fecula, &c. 

49. Diseases in plants are as numerous as among Animals, if 
not Men ; they have only been attended to as yet with fruit trees, 
and useful cultivated plants; many are easily curable. 

gi;neral principles. 5 

50. Agriculture and Horticulture are two arts, having for spe- 
cial object the cultivation of useful or ornamental plants. 

51. Thesearts are closely connected with Botany, from which 
they borrow their materials. The general cultivation of medical 
plants in medical gardens is highly desirable. 

52. Useful plants have three kinds of properties, 1. Alimen- 
tary, 2. Economical, 3. Medical. The noxious and poisonous 
properties are included with the medical. 

53. We are dependent upon vegetables for our food anddrink» 
our solid and liquid aliments; they furnish us materiah forour 
dress, dyes, fuel, buildings, arts and manufactures. 

54. Every plant has two names and two characters, both Ge- 
neric and Specific. 

55. The Generic name is the first and !^ a substantive, the 
Specific follows and is an adjective appellation. 

56. The Generic character is the collective definition ef the 
principal organic indications of each Genus, which constitute 
the TYPE of the Genus. 

57. The Specific character is an abridged description of all the 
individuals forming a species, and it constitutes the TYPE of the 

58. Orders and Families, Classes and Sections have also sub- 
stantive names, and peculiar characters assigned to each. 

59. Three great natural classes constitute the vegetable King- 

60. The DICOTYLES are Vascular plants, with concentric 
fibres and vessels, and a bilobe or multilobe germination. They 
comprise two thirds of all the plants, shrubs and trees. 

61. The MONOCOTYLES are Vascular plants with fascicu- 
lar fibres and vessels, and a lateral unilobe germination. ^Such 
are the Palms, Lilies, Grasses, Ferns, and Mosses. 

62. The ACOTYLES are Cellular plants without vessels nor 
fibres, and destitute of lobes in the germination. Such are the 
Lichens, Algae and Fungi. 

63. These natural classes may be divided in other less natural 
classes, and these into natural orders and families, by the botani- 
cal process of analysis. 

64. The natural orders of Linn 8eus were fifty-eight, Jussien has 

•n 9 

6 genehal principles, 

enumerated one hundred, now upwards of one hundred and fifty 
are known or designated. 

65. Many of these being rather natural families may be reduced 
to about sixty-four great natural orders, including upwards of two 
hundred natural families. « 

66.^Each natural family and order has some qualities and pro- 
perties, common to all their genera, and may therefore serve of 
Medical Indication. 


1. The knowledge of the substances which enter into the 
bodily composition of Plants, form a branch of Chemical Sciences 
called Vegetable Chemistry. 

2. This branch'of Chemistr)^ is intimately connected with Me- 
dical Botany, and becomes an essential part of it. 

3. By it, the three Sciences of Botany, Chemistry, and Patho- 
logy are rendered subservient to each other. 

4. Chemistry borrows from Botany the true knowledge of the 
Plants, while Chemistry teaches Botany the nature of the Sub- 
stances in these plants, 

5. The Medical Sciences receive from Vegetable Chemistry 
the more intimate knowledge of the greatest proportion of Sub- 
stances employed in practice. 

6. Chemistry acquires this knowledge by tests, analytical de- 
compositions, and reaching the first Elements or elementary 
bodies evolved in the plants. 

7. Vegetable life assimilates or produces nearly all the Natural 
Bodies and creates many Substances peculiar to itself. 

8. This is the foundation of three ^reat Divisions or Classes in 
Vegetable Substances or their proximate Elements. 

1. Class. MINERAL, common to plants, animals and Mine- 

2. Class. ANIMAL, foreign to Minerals, but common to 
Plants and Animals. 

3. PECULIAR. Not found either in Animals nor Minerals. 


9. These Classes may be divided into Orders, Genera and Spe- 
cies of Chemical Bodies, each possessing peculiar properties and 

10. Vegetable Chemistry has not yet obtained the same cer- 
tainty and attention as Mineral Chemistry. It is now emerging 
from the Clouds of ancient errors, and becoming a Science of de- 
cided importance. 

11. A small portion as yet of the endless chemical Constituents 
of all the plants, has become known. • • 

12. A long time will be required before the 60,000 known 
plants be analyzed, or even the 5000 Speciesof North America. 

13. But some Substances are common to many different plants, 
and each active Genus has generally the same active principles. 

14. The special knowledge of this branch of Medical Botany 
must be sought for in the Chemical Works. We shall merely 
give here a small Table of the principal Orders and Genera, 
lately detected and well ascertained. 

15. It must be remembered that every plant contains many 
Elementary bodies, and that these Bodies are all reducible to 
their pristine Simple Elements. 

16. It is not our purpose to designate the properties of these 
Vegetable Substances. This knowledge constitutes Medical 
Chemistry, a new Science, or branch of Pharmacy. 


I. Class— MINERAL ELEMENTS.— 5 Orders. 

1. Order. SIMPLE ETHERIAL. G. Caloric. Light. Oxi- 
gene. Hydrogene. Azote. 

2. Order. SIMPLE and COMBUSTIBLE. G. Sulphur. Car- 
bone. Phosphore. 

3. Order. SIMPLE and OXIDABLE. G. Tlie Metals. 

4. Order. OXIDES. G. Airs. Waters. Limes. Potashes. 
Alumines. Chalybates. Silicates, &c. 

5. Order. SALTS. G. Carbonates. Citrates. Fungates. Muri- 
ates. Malates. Gallates. Nitrates. Oxalates. Phosphates. Sul- 
fates. Tartrates, &c. 


II. Class— ANIMAL ELEMENTS— 1 Order. 

1. O. COMPOUNDS of Carbone, Hydrogene, Oxigene and 
Azote. G. Glutten. Albumine. Gelatine. Adipocire. Fungin, &c. 

III. Class.— PECULIAR ELEMENTS.— 4. Orders. 

1. Order. AZOTES or Vegetable Alkalies, containing Azote. 
3 Families. Carbonits. Oxigenits. Ammonits or true Alkalis. G. 
ferment. Narcotine. Asparagine. Morphium. Quinine. Eupato- 
rine. Cornine. Daturine, &c. 

2. Orde"r. 'ACIDS, formed by Carbone, Hydrogene, with Oxi- 
gene in excess, G. Acetic. Malic. Oxalic. Benzoic. Citric. Tar- 
taric. Gallic. Moric. Fungic, &c. 

3. Order. WATERS, formed by Carbone with Hydrogene and 
Oxigene in the proportion of Water. G. Lignites. Fecules. Sac- 
charines. Gums. Amarines. Polychromites. Tannines. Extrac- 
tives. MHcilages. &c. 

4. Order. OILS, formed by Carbone, Oxigene, with Hydrogene 
in excess. G. Gluines, Wax. Fixed Oils. Aromes. Resins. Picrines. 
Acrines. Camphors, &c. 


1. Every vegetable substance produces efTects on the human 
frame ; but these effects can only take place by actual contact of 
the parts, or their effluvia. 

2. These effects are either grateful, or unpleasant, or noxious, 
and either nutritive, or medical, or poisonous. 

3. Nutritive substances sustain life, the noxious impair it ; 
while the medical preserve or restore health. 

4. Plants may be noxious to man, while they are innocent 
or nutritious for animals or cattle, and the everse may as ofte n 

5. The popular belief that every country produces simples 
suitable to cure all their prevaiUng local diseases, is not devoid 
of truth. 

6. There are many modes of effecting cures by equivalent re- 


medies ; but vegetable substances afford the mildest, most effi- 
cient, and most congenial to the human frame. 

7. A vegetable substance is called active when producing 
strong or quick effects, and inactive or inert, when producing 
weaker or slower effects. 

8. But th&re is hardly a plant totally inert, and not producing 
in large doses some sensation or effect. 

9. Active plants and substances are commonly known by the 
senses of smell or taste : while inert plants are scentless and 

10. The most active plants are not always the best for use, be- 
ing less grateful than others, and more liable to impair the func- 
tions of life. 

11. Poisonous plants are all available as medicinal, and often 
the most active ; but they are liable to tiie same objection, in a 
greater degree. 

12. Active and poisonous plants, must be used with care and 
judgment, sparingly and in small doses only. 

13. Similar or consimilar tastes or smells, indicate similar or 
consimilar Qualities and Properties. 

14. The sensible QuaJitip.s nf plants are the results of their or- 
ganization, and chemical composition \ their medical Properties 
arise from these 'Qualities. 

15. Plants of the same Genus have commonly the same quali- 
fies and properties, more or less unfolded. 

16. Genera of the same Natural Family or Order, have often 
consimilar qualities and properties. 

17. Modifications or Deviations from these two last rules occur 
when the organization and locality are very different. 

18. Artificial Systems, like the sexual system of Linnxus 
separating the most related Genera, and uniting the most remote, 
cannot indicate medical affinities. 

19. Where the artificial systems coincide with the natural me- 
thod; they may both answer the purpose of medical indications. 

20. Few plants possess a single property ; many are commonly 
blended in the same plant. 

21. Different parts of a plant have often separate qualities and 


22. Incompatible Substances are seldom or never found in the 
same plant. 

23. Every plant has a peculiar and specific mode of action on 
the human body, in health or disease. 

24. Even cong-eneric and consimilar species have their modi- 
fied effects at equal doses, which a difference in the dose may 

25. The medical effects of the same plant are also modified by 
the soil, climate, season, and age ; also by exhibition and dose. 

26. Botanical affinities indicate medical equivalents, which may 
be substituted to each other. 

27. But Experience alone can decide if the substitution will 
be available and efficacious, and teach when and how it ought to 
be made. 

28. Vegetable Equivalents are either botanical or medical, and 
each of three degrees. 

29. In Botanical Equivalents these three degrees are : 1st Con- 
generic, belonging to the same genus : 2d Affiliated belong- 
ing to different genera of the same family. 3d Remote, belonging 
to remote genera. 

8Q. Medical Equivalents have the degrcee of 1. Specific or 
having exactly the same value, 2. Similar or producing the same 
effects, 3. Consimilar or producing effects somewhat different. 

31. Evert medical PLANT is a compound medicine prepared 
BY THE HANDS OF NATURE, in the most Suitable form for exhibi- 
tion and efficacy in suitable cases. 

32. Medical substances becoming more powerful by admixture, 
those which enter by vital action into the organs of plants, are 
rendered more powerful by intimate combination. 

33. By combining several medical plants in prescriptions their 
effect is increased. 

34. Nauseous or noxious plants may be rendered grateful and 
available by combination wit^ others of a different character. 

35. But all combinations mi\st either coincide or correct each 
other, else they are superfluous and useless. 

36. When too many substances are mingled, or several that do 
not well coincide, they qften impair each other. 

,3r.^The combination of substances which exert a chemical ac- 



tion on each other, must be avoided, unless a peculiar medical 
result is required. 

38. When an unexpected result happens by a combination of 
substances, it must be corrected by suitable changes. 

39. The active principles of medical plants may be obtained in 
a concentrated form by chemical operations. 

40. When these active principles are obtained, their effects 
are stronger and quicker ; but less congenial to the human frame, 
than in their natural pristine combination. 


1. The medical properties were detected by chance, or as- 
certained by indication, and,confirmed by experience. 

2. There are four kinds of indications, 1. Botanical, 2. Che- 
mical, 3. Medical, 4. Evident. 

3. Botanical indications have already been alluded to, they are 
proximate or remote, and teach us Botanical Equivalents. 

4. Chemical indfcations result from analysis and decompssi- 
tion : when the same elements and substances are found in equal 
proportions ; the presumption must be that chemical equivalents 
have been detected. ~ *• 

5. Medical indications are the result of medical inference ; 
when substances act alike or produce similar effects in some 
cases, they may do the same in other cases. 

^, The most obvious indications are however, those which 
arise from the Evidence of the sensible qualities of plants. 

7 . These qualities are constituted by chemical elements, and 
evinced to our senses by contact or effluvia. 

8. Each plant, and sometimes each part of a plant, has a pecu- 
liar smell and taste, hardly alike in any two of them. 

9. No plant is absolutely scentless or tasteless, even the most 
insipid evince themselves to our nose, and palate. 

10. The vegetable Orders and Sapors may be classed under 
two great divisions, GRATEFUL or UNPLEASANT. 

11. Orders may be further divided into six series, and one hun- 


clred and fifty Genera: Sapors into ten series and as many genera 
at least. 

12. The GRATEFUL Odors or Smells indicate wholesome' 
properties, the three Series are 

1. Fragraxp, indication of stimulants and sudorifics, 8cc. 

2. Aromatic — of stomachics, warm stimulants, 8ic. 

3. Sweet — of Pectorals, Demulcents^ &c. 

13. The UNPLEASANT Odors indicate active properties, 
their three Series are 

1. Fetid, indication of noxioMS plants, emetics, &c. 

2. Graveolent — of powerful medical plants. 

3. Insipid — of Emollients, inert plants, 8tc. 

14. GRATEFUL SAPORS or Tastes, belong to plants of mild 
properties. Their five Series are 

1. Flatorei), belonging to palatable substances. 

2. Spicy — to stimulants, sudorifici?, stomaciiics; &c, 

3. Acid — to Refrigerants, Diluents, he. 

4. Sweet — to Nutrients, Demulcents, 8tc. 

5. Sapie or Saltish — to Antiscorbutics, &c. 

15. UNPLEASANT SAPORS belong to plants of active pro- 
perties. Their five Series are 

1. Nauseous, belonging^ to Narcotics, Emetics, Cathartics, 
Antispasmodics, Sec. 

2. Acrid — Vo Salivatories, Stimulants, Epispastics, Anthel- 
minthics, Emena'gogues, &c. 

3. Bitter — to Tonics, Corroborants, &c. 

4. Acerb — to Astringents, Diuretics, &c. 

5. Insipid — to Emollients, Demulcents, Diluents, &c. 

16. The sense of feeling is susceptible of ascertaining at least 
five qualities in substances. 

1. CooiNESS, belongipg to Refrigerants. 

2. Heat — to Stimulants and Rubefacients, 

3. Stinging — to external stimulants. 

4. Vesication — to Epispatics, 8cc. 

5. CoRRosioN-^to Escharotics, and Caustics. 

17. These different qualities variously combined and modified 
by each other, form all the immense variety perceptible in plants. 

18. Medical Properties of a corresponding nature being co- 


existent with these sensible qualities, are obviously indicated by 

19. Yet some plants of weak qualities and seemingly inert, are 
often possessed of unindicated active properties, resulting from 
chemical combinations or gazeous emanations. 

20. Classifications of medical properties and remedies are end- 
less, and of little use. Every writer on Materia Medica common- 
ly contrives a new one. 

21. As much could be done here, or some one adopted ; but 
it will be sufficient to mention that the most general Distribu- 
tion is at present in three Classes, 1 Stimulant, 2 Chemi- 
cal, and 3 Mechanical Properties or Remedies. 

22. The following alphabetical Glossary of the principal medi- 
cal properties, will probably be more useful for reference. 


ABSORBENT, absorbing or involving noxious matter. 

ABSTERGENT or DETERGENT, cleaning foul ulcers and 

ANODYNE, soothing the nerves, allaying pain, very similar 
to Sedative and Nervine. 

ANTACID, chemical remedies, neutralizing Acids. 

AGGLUTINANT, uniting divided solids. 

ALTERATIVE, producing a change in the whole system, or 
altering the appearance oflocal diseases. 

AMBROSIAL, of exquisite smell or taste, very palatable and 

ANALEPTIC, gentle stimulant of the nerves. 

ANTIBILIOUS, correcting the Bile. 

ANTIDOTE or ALEXITERIAL, commonly counter poisons, 
chemical remedies correcting the effects of poisons. 

ANTI-DYSENTERIC, against dysentery and bowel complaints, 
local and mechanical, unless astringent. 

ANTILITHIC, curing the gravel and stone. 

ANTISPASMODIC, diffusible stimulant, acting on the muscles, 
curing spasms, pains, &c. 

ANTHELMINTIC, expelling worms. 

ANTISCORBUTIC, useful in scurvy. 

ANTISCROFULOUS, useful in scrofula. 



ANTEROTIC, sedatives of venery. 

ANTISEPTIC or ANTIPUTRID, Tonic useful to prevent 
external or internal mortification. 

ANT ALKALINE, neutralizing alkalies. 

APERIENT, promoting- excretions. 

APHRODISIAC, stimulating- Venery; 

AROMATIC, diffusible stimulant,heating the stomach and body. 

ASTRINGENT, permanent stimulant, corrugating the fibres. 

ATTENUANT, or DEOBSTRUENT, local stimulant, remov- 
mg obstructions of the glands, liver, 8cc. 

BALSAMIC, mild healing stimulant. 

CALEFACIENT, local stimulant, heating the parts. 

CARMINATIVE, Or RUCTANT, local stimulant, expelling 

CARDIAC or CORDIAL, acting on the heart, and increasing 
its muscular action. 

CATHARTIC or PURGATIVE, local stimulants cleaning the 

CAUSTIC, local stimulants, burning the parts, 

CEPHALIC, curing the head ache. 

CHOLOGOGUE, purging the bile. 

CONSOLIDANT, a kind of tonic, repairing defects in solids. 

CORROBORANT, a kind of stomachic, giving strength, 

COSMETIC, smoothing or lubricating the skin. 

DEMULCENT, mechanical remedy, shielding the surfaces 
from acrid matter, and lubricating the organs. 

DEPILATORY, removing the hair. 

DIAPHORETIC, increasing the insensible exhalation of the 
skin and lungs. 

DIFFUSIBLE, spreading through the whole frame. 

DILUENTS, diluting and expelling morbific matter, increas- 
ing the fluidity of the blood, &c. 

DISCUTIENT, healing sores of the skin. 

DIURETIC, stimulant, increasing the discharge from the 
bladder and kidneys, expelling accumulated fluids, and promoting 
dropsical discharges. 

DRASTIC, cathartics purging with violence and pain. 

EFFLUVIAL, producing gazeous emanations which affect the 


EMENAGOGUE, increasing the menstrual discharge. 

EMETIC or VOMITIVE, local stimulant producing a dis- 
charge from the stomach. 

EMOLLIENT, the opposite of tonic, relaxing the fibres. 
^ . EPISPASTIC or BLISTER, local stimulant, acting on the 
' skin and membranes, blistering them, &c. 

ERODENT, removing spots and warts of the skin. 

ERRHINE, promoting sneezing and a discharge from the nose. 

ESCHAROTIC, corroding and decomposing the skin and 
other solids.' 

EXHANTHEMATIC, useful for Exhanthems. 

EXHAURIENT, exhausting vital powers. 

EXCITANT, stimulant exciting the vital functions. 

EXPECTORANT, promoting expectoration. 

FEBRIFUGE, curing fevers, one of the effects of tonics. 

HEPATIC, useful in diseases of the Liver. 

HUMECT ANT, a kind of Diluent moistening the solids. 

HYDRAGOGUE, a kind of Diuretic, discharging waters. 
^. ^ INCITANT or INCISIVE, stimulant, acting on the glandular 

INEBRIATING or EXHILARATING, producing intoxication 
in different degrees. 

INVISCANT or COAGULANT, mucilagiaous remedies, thick- 
ening the fluids. 

LAXATIVE, useful against constipation and mild purgatives. 
^. LITHONTHRIPTIC, chemical remedy, dissolving the gravel 
or stone in the bladder, or bezoars of the liver, 
'^ \ " LOCHIAL, a mild Menagogue. 

£ ir, NARCOTIC or STUPEFIANT, diffusible stimulant, acting 
on the nervous and vascular system, producing sleep, stupor and 
death in large doses. 

NAUSEANTS, producing Nausea without Emesis. 

NEPHRITIC, local stimulant of the kidneys. 

NERVINE, acting particularly on the nerves, and soothing 
pain, promoting sleep, useful in hysterics, epilepsy, &c. 

NOXIOUS or DELETERIOUS, or Pebnicious, or Basefui, or 
Venomous, all Synonymous of Poisons, producing pain, disease or 

NUTRIENT, furnishing nourishment to the body. 


ODONTALGIC, allaying or curing the tooth-ache. 

OPHTHALMIC, useful in diseases of the Eyes. 

PECTORAL, useful in diseases of the breast and lungs. 

PELLENT or REPELLENT, charging the course of dischar- 
ges, or repelling the morbid fluids. 

PHTHIRIAC or PSORIC, destroying Lice and Itch. 

PHRENETIC or PHANTASTIC, acting on the brain, pro- 
ducing delirium and dreams. 

PROPELLENT, moving the fluids. 

PROPHYLACTIC, preserving health, or preventic, a peculiar 

REFRIGERANT, cooling, lessening the heat of the body, al- 
laying local or general inflammations. 

RESTORATIVE, restoring strength. 

REVIVING, diffusible stimulant, relieving from faintness, 
torpors, and necropsy. ' 

REPERCUSIVE, throwing back an eruption, a kind of repel- 

REVULSIVE, a local stimulant, promoting a change or re- 
vulsion in a disease. 

RUBEFASCIENT, topical remedy, exciting redness and heat. 

SEDATIVE, allaying inordinate motions and pains, by lessen- 
ing the action of the heart and circulation of the blood. 

SIALOGOGUE or SALIVATORY, exciting salivation. 

SOLVENT or RESOLVENT, a kind of Diluent, promoting 
solution of the solids, acting on the lymphatic system, useful in 
scrofula, &c. 

SOPORIFIC or HYPNOTIC, promoting sleep. 

SORBEFACIENT, raising pimples, &c. 

SPECIFIC, a remedy supposed to act especially on a disease. 

STIMULANT, acting by stimulating the body or some parts 
of it. 

STINGING, acting like nettles by producing a burning pain. 

STOMACHIC, promoting appetite, useful in diseases of the 
stomach, and cholics. 

STYPTIC, stoping bloody discharges. 

SUDORIFIC, promoting a copious perspiration. 
SUPPURATIVE or RESOLUTIVE, promoting suppuration of 
ulcers, tumors. Sec. 


SYPHILITIC, useful in syphilis and venereal diseases. 

TONIC, permanent stin\ulant, acting on the whole body, in- 
creasing the tone of the fibres, &c. 

TOPICAL, a remedy acting by external application. 

UTERINE, acting on the uterus. 

URETHRAL or STRANGURIAL, a local stimulant, acting on 
the Urethra, producing Strangury, &c. 

VIRULENT, of strong active properties, producing powerful 
and somewhat noxious effects. 

VULNERARY, healing wounds and sores. 


1. Physicians do not agree on the mode of action of the pro- 
perties, nor the proximate and intricate operation of remedies ; 
but the ultimate effects and results being ascertained, they are 
sufficient for practical use. 

2. Drugs are Vegetable substances prepared for use, and kept 
for sale by Druggists or Pharmacians. 

3. Those which are imported, are often adulterated, or in- 
ferior kinds are substituted ; for instance Peruvian Bark or Cin- 
cHOKA, and Saffron or Cnocrs, are hardly to be met with in the 
U. S. — Caribean bark or Portlandia, and Bastard Saffron or Cah- 
THAMUs, are usually sold instead, which are very weak substitutes. 

4. This arises from a want of medical inspections and officinal 
knowledge : the results are, that prescriptions fail, physicians 
are disappointed, and patients suffer. 

5. To avoid in part these evils, it is desirable to employ our 
own genuine medical substances, whenever they afford sufficient 
remedies and suitable equivalents. 

6. Medical substances being often impaired by age, it is de- 
sirable to obtain them fresh, or in yearly rotation. 

7. Fresh and genuine substances can only be obtained at aU 
times from medical gardens, or honest dealers. 

8. The best medical gardens in the United States are those 
established by the Communities of Shakers, or modern Esse- 
nians, who cultivate or collect about one hundred and fifty kinds 
of medical plants. 

9. They sell them cheap, fresh and genuine, in a compact and 

c 2 


portable form. Pharmacians would do well to supply themselves 
with them, or to imitate their useful industry. 

10. Several of our medical plants and drugs are already an 
object of trade to Europe and elsewhere. Many more may be- 
come in demand, when their valuable properties will be better 

11. Anew branch of trade may thus be opened, which it is 
our duty to encourage, by collecting and cultivating our medical 

12. Herbalists and Collectors are often ignorant and deceitful. 
The best way to prevent their fraudsjfand correct their blunders 
is, by enlightening them, adopting botanical names, and refusing 
spurious drugs. 


Adansojt families of plants. Paris. 

AiToir, hortus kewensis — had many new American plants. 

American Pharmacopeia, or rather of the United States. 

Atlee, Dissertation on Monarda punctata. Fig. 

B. Barton, collections towards a Materia Medica of the United 
States. Phil. 1798, and Suplt. 1804 — many medical plants and 
properties indicated, no descriptions nor figures. 

W. Barton, 1. Vegetable Materia Medica of the United States. 
Phil. 2 vols. 4to. 50 fig. — 2. Flora of North America, 3 vols. 4to. 
106 fig. — Another costly work mentioning about 1 plant in 40 
of N. Amer. Descriptions short and flimsy. 

Bartram — Travels in Florida and the Southern States. Phila. 

Bece, plants of Missouri, in Silliman's Journal. 

BiGELow, 1. American Medical Botany, 3 vols. 4to. Boston, 
1817, &c. 2. Sequel to the American Pharmacopeia, 1 vol. 8vo. 
1822. 3. Florula Bostoniensis, 1 vol. 8vo.— deficient in specie* 
and descriptions. 

Brickei.1,, Essay on the plants of Georgia and N. Carolina. 

BuRsoN, Dissertation on 7 medical plants. 

Cadet, Materia Medica Veget. Guyamensis, 1816. 

Cabteb, Travels in' North America. 


Cahpbbtteb, on Cinchonas, &c. 

Chapman, Materia Medica. Philad. — mentions some American 

Charlevoix, useful plants of Canada, with figures. 

CrAYTOx, Flora Virginica, with medical indications. 

CoELK, Specifica Canadensis, in Amenit. Acad. 

CoLDEif, useful plants of New York. 

CoRNUT, Plants of Canada, in liatin and French. 

CoxE, American Dispensatory, 7th Edit. Philad. 1827. — Use- 
ful compilation, few original indications on plants. 

CuiEEx, Materia Medica, Amer. Ed. Philad. 

Cutler, Plants of New England, rude attempt, many botanical 
mistakes, some medical indications. 

Decandolle. 1. French Flora. 2. Species Plantanum. 3. Si- 
nopsis pi. 4. Theory of Botany. 5. Medical Natural Families, &c. 
— All classical works, following and improving the natural me- 
thod, the species pi. is not yet completed. 

DicTioiyAiRE des Sciences Medicales. Paris. 

Dispensaries, or American Edition of European Dispensatories. 

Dissertations on Medical Plants, Inaugural and others, by 
Shultz, Eberle, Tully, Mead, Atlee, Cogswell, Burson, Watkins, 
Dupuy, Horsefield, Macbride, Mease, &c. &c. 

Drake, Picture of Cincinnati with a list of medical plants. 

Drayton, View of South Carolina, with ditto. 

DuMONT-CorRSET, Botanistc Cultivateur, 7 vols. 8vo. Paris 

Duncan, Amer. Ed. of New Edinburg Dispensatory. 

DuHAMEL, Arbres et Arbustes. Paris. 

Eaton, Manual of the Botany of the Northern and Middle 
States, 4th Ed. Albany, 1824— A popular elementary work, as 
good as a. Flora. 

Elements of Botany, by B. Barton, Wildenow, Necker, 
Mirbel, Scopoli, Sprengel, Link, Sumner, Smith, Lea, Thornton, 
Locke, Nuttal, Decandolle, Richard, &c.— the best are by De- 
candoUe, Sprengel, Wildenow, Mirbel, and.Necker. 

Elliott, Sketch of the Botany of Carolina and Georgia, 3 vols. 
Svo. Charleston, 1818 to 1822.— Under that modest title, we 
have the best Flora of the Southern States, full of New Species, 
good descriptions and with several medical indications. 


Garden, Observations on the plants of Carolina. 

Gronovils, Flora Virginica from Clayton's. 

Henry, Medical herbal, 1 vol. 8vo. New York, 1814. — Empe- 
rical, erroneous in names, descriptions, facts and figures, some 
medical facts, and local names. 

Hunter, Narrative, 1 vol. Svo. Philad, 1824. — Another impos- 
tor, he has given a list of western medical plants with Osage 
names, not to be depended upon nor ascertained. 

Inaugural Theses of Medical Students, some on medical plants 
with experiments. 

A. IvEs, Amer. Ed. of Paris Pharmacology, 2 vols. 8vo. New 
York, 1825. — Many medical plants introduced. 

E. Ives, Tracts and Observations in Journals. 

Journals, Many Medical and Scientific, Med. Repository," 
Med. Recorder, Med. Register, Med. Museum, New Eng. Med. 
Journal, Silliman's Journal, Philad. Journal of Med., 6. Barton's 
Journal, &c. 

JussiEu, Genera phantarum. Paris, 1789. 

Kalm, Travels in North America. 

Lamark, Dictionary of Botany, &c. 

Laurence, Catalogue of Medical Plants, cultivated at the Medi- 
cal Garden of New Lebanon, New York. 

Lewis and Clarke, Travels to the Pacific Ocean. 

LiNsaius, 1. Philosophy of Botany. 2. Genera Plantarum. 
3. Species Plantarum. 4. Materia Medica. 5. Amenitates Acade- 
mica, &c. 6. Systema Vegetabilium, &c. — All classical works. 

Macbride, Medical remarks in Elliott's Flora. 

Marshall, American Grove. Philad. 1785. 

Mease, Medical Tracts and Dissertations. 

MicHAux, Flora boreali Americana, 2 vols. 8vo. Paris, 1803. — 
Edited by Richard, incomplete, some figures. 

MicHAux, Junior, American Sylva, 3 vols. 8vo. Paris. — Good 
work ; but many trees are omitted. 

MiTCHiLL, Many Tracts and Dissert, in Med. Repository, &c. 

MuHLENBisHG, 1. Catalogue of Amer. Plants. 2. Graminea. 
3. Florula Lancastrieusis. 4. New plants communicated to Wilde- 

Murray, Amer. Ed. of his Materia Medica. 

NuTTALL, 1. Genera of North American Plants, 2 vols. 12mo 


Pliilad. 1819. Good botanical work. — 2, Elements of Botany. 
1 vol. Bost. 1827 unworthy of him, not keeping- pace with ac- 
tual knowledge. 

Pehsoo^t, Sinopsis Plantarum, 2 vols. Paris, 1805 & 7. — Excel- 
lent manual. 

Pexbilhe, Medical Natural History in French, 2 vols. Svo. 
1805. — Excellent work and plan, including- the officinal plants. 

Pharmacopeias of London, Dublin, Edinburg, Paris, America, 
Thatcher, Coxe, Dr. Paris, &c. 

■PuKSH, Flora Americ. Septentr. 2 vols. Svo. Lond. 1815; — good, 
but many oversights, classical, till a better Flora is given ; has 
some figures and medical indications. 

RAFINESQ.UE, 1. New Gen. 8c Sp. of Amer. plants, and remarks 
on Amer. and Naturalized plants, in Med. Repository, N. York, 
1808. — 2. Precis des Decouvertes Pal. 1814. — 3. Principles of 
Semiology Pal. 1814. — 4. Encycl. Journal of Sicily, 1814. — 5. 
Analysis of Nature, 1815. — 6. Florula of Louisiana. N.York, 1817. 
— 7. Florula Kentuckensis, 1825. — 8. Many Tracts and Disserta- 
tions, &c. 

RoBix, Travels in Louisiana, 3 vols. Svo. in French, with an 
Account of the Plants at the end. 

RoMER, Systema Segetabilium, Zurich, 1818. 

Salisbury, Tracts and Botanical Dissertations. 

ScHOEPF, Materia Medica Americana potissimum regni vegeta- 
bilis, Erlang, 1787. — Classical on our Materia Medica. . 

ScopoLi, Materia Medica, and Botanical works. 

Peter Smith, the Indian Doctor, Dispensary, Cincinnati, 1815. 
A guide for Empirics, some medical fadts ; but it is difficult to as- 
certain to what species they apply, no descriptions nor figures, 
nor correct names are given. 

SwEDiAXJB, Materia Medica, Paris, &c. in Latin. 

Thatcher, Pharmacopeia, — the first to introduce many nevr 
medical plants. 

Samuel Thompson, New Guide to Health. Boston, 1825-— An 
Empiric who has introduced some efficient plants in practice. No 
descriptions nor figures, names local. 

ToRBEY, 1, Flora of the Northern and Middle States, 1st vol. 
N. Y. 2. Compendium of the same, including all the Species to 


Cryptogamia, N. Y. 1826. — 3. Many Botanical Tracts. — An accu- 
rate writer; classical works. 

TuLLT, Medical Tracts in Journals, &c. 

ViTMAN, Summa plantarum, 6 vols. 8vo. Milan, 1789. 

Walter, Flora Caroliniana, 1789 — only a florula. 

WiLDENOw, Species plantarum. — Laborious heavy work on 
the linnsean plan, carried as far as the Ferns. 

WooDViLEE, Medical Botany, in 4 vols. 4to. with coloured 
figures, London. — Expensive work, noticing about one tenth of 
the medical plants known. 

ZoLiicKOFFER, Materia Medica of the United States. Bait. 
1826. No descriptions, and many errors. 


Achene, a single seed like wheat. 
Acuminate, abruptly sharp. — Acute, same as sharp. 
Adnate, connivent or growing together. 
Alternate, situated on two sides, but not opposite. 
Ament, catkin or spike of the oak, willow, &c. 
Ancipital, having two sharp sides like a sword. 
Angular, forming angles. 
Annual, lasting only one year. 
Anomalous, out of order or irregular. 

Axillary, situated at the corner between the stem and leaves. 
Biennial, lasting two years. 
Bifid, divided in two, trifid Avhen in three, &c. 
Binate, twin leaves or flowers. 
Bract, a floral leaf, bracteole a small one. 
Bulb, scaly thick root like Onions, Tulips, &c. 
Campanulate, shaped like a bell. 
Capsul, a dry fruit opening by valves or holes. 
Cells, the mternal divisions of the fruit, one celled or unilocu- 
lar, two celled or bilocular, three celled or trilocular, &c. 
Ciliate, having hairs on the edges. 

Cluster, or thyrsus, a bunch of flowers or fruit, like Lilac. 
Cordate, shaped like a heart. 
Coryj7ib, umbel with scattered shafts. 
Cuspidate or mucronate having a bristle at the end. 
Cylindric, long and round like a cylinder. 
Deciduous, falling off". 

Decomposed, cut up in many successive segments. 
Deltoid, triangular like a Delta. 
Dichotome, forked several times. 
Diclinous, with staminate and pistillate flowers. 


Dioicaly having staminate and pistilate flowers on different in- 

Disk, the flat part of a leaf or petal, &c. 

. Discolor, leaves having two colors. 

Distichal, in two flat rows. 

Drupe, a stone fruit like Peach or Plumb. 

Elliptic, oblong with rounded ends as an ellipsis. 

Exsert, protruding out of the flowers, &c. 

Fascicle, a small bundle of leaves or flowers, called then fasci- 

Filiform, shaped like a thread. 

Fistvlose, a hollow stem, &c. 

Flexuose, bent in many ways, or crooked. 

Floret ar Floscule, a small flower in compound flowers. 

Foliole or leaflet, a small leaf of compound leaves. 

Fronde, leaves bearing the fructification, or stems shaped like 

Fusiform, shaped like a spindle. 

Glabrous, same as smooth. 

Gladiate, sword shaped. 

Glanditlar, having glands. 

Glume, the perigone of grasses. 

Hastate, halbert shaped. 

Imbricate, slanting over each other, like tiles or shingles. 

Inferior, below something. 

Inflorescence, mode in which the flowers grow. 

Involucre, bracteoles surrounding or annexed to several flowers 

Labiate, flowers with one or two lips uni or bilabiate. 

Lanceolate, shaped like a lance. 

Legume, the pods of Peas, Beans, &c. 

Ligulate, like a small tongue. 

Lobe, a rounded segment, lobed with lobes. 

Lyrate, shaped like a lyre. 

Monoical, having staminate and pistilate flowers on the same 

Muricate, covered with short prickles. 

JS^erves, prominent fibres in the leaves, &c. 

J^^eutral, flowers without Stamina nor pistils and sterile. 

Oblique or Obliqual, having a slanting position, oblique leaves 
like those of the Elm, have two unequal sides. 

Obtuse, not sharp, blunted or rounded. 

Ojjposite, situated one over the other. 

Orbicular, perfectly round. 

Oval, shaped like an egg. 

Panicle, a loose bunch of flowers, much divided. 

Pappus, the downy or bristly calix of florets. 

Parted, cut into segments, 2 — 3 — 4 — 5 parted, &c. 

Pedicel, a small peduncle, or a branch of it. 

Peduncle, the foot stalk of flowers and fruits. 

Perianthe, the involucre or calix of compound flowers. 


Petal, parts or leaves of the Corolla, monopetal or peripetal 
having only segments ; 2—3 — 4 — 5 petal, having as many leaves 
or petals ; poly petal having many petals. 

Perennial, lasting several years. 

Persistent, not falling off. 

Petiole, support of the leaf ; petiolate having a petiole. 

Phoranthe, the central part of compound flowers bearing the 

Pinnate, leaves having many folioles. 

Pinnatifid, having many deep lateral segments. 

Pinnule, the segments of pinnatifid parts. 

Polygamous, having complete flowers, as. well as some either 
Staminate or pistillate. 

Pome, fruit similar to an apple. 

Raceme, a spike with pedicels to the flowers. 

Radiate, having rays or ligulate flowers around the floretjs. 

Radical, growing from the root. 

Ramose, branching, divided into branches. 

Receptacle, the place where the seeds are attached. 

Reniform, shaped like a kidney.' - 

Retuse, blunt and notched. 

Rugose, wrinkled or roughened by nerves, &c. 

Runcinate, cut up into sharp segments like a barbed arrow. 

Sagittate, shaped like a forked arrow. 

Scape, stem, surrounded by radical leaves. 

Segment, a part not quite jlivided. 

Sepals, the folioles of the Calix or Perigone. 

Sessile, having no support. 

Serrate, toothed like a saw. 

Siliqne, the pods of Turnip, Cabbage, &c. 

Sinuate, having sinuses. 

Solitary, standing by itself. 

Spadix, a thick support of many crowded flowers. 

Spatha, Involucre surrounding a Spadix, or involvirg- flowers. 

Spur, a hollow appendage to some flowers. 

Stipule, appendage to some leaves. 

Subulate, shaped like an awl. 

Superior, standing above somethin,<y. 

Terminal, standing at the end. 

Ternate, three by three. 

Tomentose, covered with woolly hairs like cloth. 

Trioical, bearing complete, staminate and pistilate flowers in 
three diflferent individuals. 

Tuberous, thick roots like Potatoes and Turnips. 

Tubular, forming a tube. 

Umbel, cluster of flowers forming a kind of umbrella, as in 
Carrot and Fennel. 

Undulate, having waved margins. 

F>ms, fibres of leaves not prominent like nerves. 

Verticillate, forming whorls. 

No. 1. 



No. 1. ACORUS. ^5 

- - ■ ' ■ - 

No. 1. 


English Name— SWEET FLAG. 

French Name — Acore Odorant. 

German Name — Kalmus. 

Officinal Names — Calamus Aromaticus, Calami 

Vulgar Names — Flag-root, Sweet Cane, Myrtle 
Flag, Sweet Grass, Sweet Root, Sweet Rush. 

Authorities — Linnaeus, Michaux, Pursh, Dispen- 
saries, Schoepf, Woodville, Thacher, Coxe, Swediaur, 
Bigelow's Sequel, W. Barton fig. 30 bad, &:c. 4'C. 

Genus Acorus — Spadix cylindrical with crowded 
flowers. Perigone simple, six-parted persistent. 
Stamina six pericentric. Germen one, no style, stig- 
ma punctiform. Capsuls three celled, many seeded. 

Species A. Calamus Var. A me rig anus — Leaves 
and stems sword shaped, ancipital, stems longer. 
.Spadix cylindrical, obtuse, solitary, oblique, subme- 
dial lateral. Capsuls oblong acute. 

DESCRIPTION— Root perennial, horizontal, 
jointed, rugose, nearly cylindrical, from six to 
twent}^-four inches long, joints from half an inch to 
an inch long, white, with triangular shades, or rings 
of brown and rose ; the inside is spongy, and loses 
much by dessication ; bunches of coarse fibres hang 
downwards, and hairy brown fibres spread upwards 

26 ACORUS. No. 1. 

The leaves are all radical sheathing at the base, 
and variegated of white, rose and green ; they be- 
come flat above, green and smooth, with a ridge on 
each side in the middle, the end is very sharp, 
length from one to three het. The stems are similar 
to the leaves ; but commonly longer and bearing 
near the middle on one edge, the spadix or thick 
spike of flowers. 

Spadix solitary, oblique, cylindrical from one to 
three inches long, both ends tapering but obtuse. — 
Flowers small, crowded spirally on it, and yellow. 
Perigone with six equal and truncate segments — 
Stamina six, filaments thick, anthers bilobe — Ger- 
men one gibbose, oblong, stigma sessile, pointed — 
Capsul oblong with many minute, slender seeds. 

HISTORY — The Genus Acorus is so perfectly 
natural that the few species belonging to it, are hardly 
distinguished from each other. The Chinese Acorus 
(*/f. gi^amineiis) has narrow leaves and the spadix 
nearly terminal. The Asiatic and Malabar species 
(^z? verus,^ has a slender root and thin leaves. The 
European Acorus is deemed by all Botanists similar 
to the North American, and yet differs as much from 
it as the Chinese. The above specific character ap- 
plies to our American variety or species : while the 
European plant may be distinguished by the follow- 
ing definition. 

A. Calamus Var. Europeiis — Leaves and stems 
sword-shaped, nearly equal, hardly ancipital. Spadix 
cylindrical, obtuse, oblique, lateral, often double. 
Capsuis trigone obtuse. 

No. 1. ACORXTS. ^7 

These distinctions hardly amount to specific differ- 
ence, land therefore the genus might properly be con- 
sidered as having a single type, which being widely 
spread has undergone some variations in China, India, 
Europe and North America. This surmise will be 
confirmed by the habit of these plants being perfect- 
ly identical, and all possessing the same aromatic 
smell and medical properties. 

Acofius is a name derived from llie Greek and 
alluding to a former belief that it was beneficial for 
disorders of the eyes. Calamus meant a Reed or 
Rush in Greek and Latin. 

This genus belongs to Hexandria Monogyiiia of 
Linnaeus ; but in the natural arrangement to the tribe 
of ' RONTiDES, a branch of Typhides, next to the 
genus Orontinm. It is like them an aquatic plant, 
growing on the borders of streams and ponds or mea- 
dows, ditches, &c. throughout North America, from 
Canada to Louisiana, east and west of the mountains, 
in company with the Iris or Flags, Typha, Sparga- 
7iium, Orontlunii Juncus, and other Rushes. The 
fine smell of the leaves and roots, enables to distin- 
guish it from all other Flags and Rushes at any time. 

The roots are the most essential part. They form 
an article of trade in China, Malabar, Turkey, &c. — 
In the early stage of the North American Colonies, 
it was exported to England ; and is even now occa- 
sionally sent abroad. It might be carried to China 
where it is esteemed. It grows so copiously that 
there will be no need to cultivate it ; but when it 
may become expedient to produce more, it will be 

28 ACOnuS. No. >, 

very easy to raise it by planting slips of the roots in 
ditches and swampy grounds. To prepare thcf roots 
tor use or exportation they must be dug, cleaned and 
dried. The best time to collect them is the spring 
and fall. 

Cattle will not eat this plant, and it is noxious to 
insects ; the leaves, therefore, may be used to advan- 
tage against moths and worms. This is owing to 
their strong smell. Leather can be tanned by the 
whole plant. 

The blossoms appear in May or June ; they are 
yellow and crowded on a thick spike or spadix. 

Qualities — A chemical examination of the roots, 
evinces the presence of Tannin, Amarine, and an es- 
sential Oil, in which resides the aromatic smell ; but 
this last can only be obtained in the proportion of 
half per cent. The bitter principle is better soluble 
in water than alcohol. 

PROPERTIES — The roots are warm, aromatic, 
pungent and bitter. They are deemed stomachic, to- 
nic, corroborant and carminative. The infusion in 
wine or spirits becomes bitter, but acquires a nauseous 
flavour. The infusion in water preserves the fine 
smell, and becomes pleasantly v/arm and bitter. 

It is useful in disorders of the stomach, flatulency, 
vertigo, cholics, dyspepsia, &:c. ; candied roots and 
the extract, or chewing the roots and swallowing 
the juice, are efficient in those cases. — The warm 
infusion like tea, cures the wind cholic of infants, 
sailors, &c. 

The dose of the extract is half a drachm. When 

No. 1. ACORUS. 29 

the root is masticated, a copious salivation is produc- 
ed, which has cured the tooth ache. Children are 
fond of this root in many places, and may be indulged 
with it ; the taste is spicy and pleasant. The can- 
died roots are palatable and much used in Asia. — 
This root enters into many compound preparations, 
theriaca, mithridate, &c. 

It has been recommended in intermittents, which it 
has cured when the bark had failed but more eflfec- 
tual tonics, may be used. 

Substitutes — Panax quinquefoUum or Gin- 
seng — Anisum or Aniseed — Angelica — Illicium — 
Solidago odora or Golden Rod — Frasera or Golum- 
bo — with all mild tonics and aromatic-bitter sub- 

Remarks — ^The Iris pseudo-Acortis of Europe 
doe« not grow in America, and cannot be mistaken 
there for this. Some other Iris roots (I. Jlnreniina^ 
I, versicolor^ Sac. J which are also sweet scented, but 
more agreeable, may be distinguished by the violet 

Henry calls this Serous ! and gives a bad figure 
of it. 

c 2 

30 ADZAKTTUM, No. % 

No. 2. 



French Name — Capillaire du Canada. 

German Name — Frauenhaar. 

Officinal Names — Capil Veneris, Herba Teneris. 
Filix Veneris. 

Vulgar Names — Maiden-hair, Rock-fern, Sweet- 

Authorities — Linnaeus, Michaux, Pursh, Schoepfi 
Charlevoix, French Dispensaries, &.c. not in Barton 
Hor Bigelow. 

Genus Adiantum — Fern with divided Frond. 
Fructification in small interrupted marginal lines. 
Integument univalve, opening below. 

Species A. Pedatum — Petiole glossy pedate dich- 
©tome. Frondules pinnate, folioles alternate, pe- 
tiolate, oblong, trapezoid, entire before and below, 
jagged and fructiferous on the upper margin, obtuse 
"and crenate at the end. 

DESCRIPTlON—i^oot Perennial, large, fibrous, 
brown. Frond about a foot high ; stems or petioles 
of the Frond smooth, compressed, contorted, .':hin- 
'ing or glossy chesnut color, forked upwards, and 
each branch bearing upwards from four to seven 
frondules, the first being the ha-gest, which gives 
the pedate appearance. Tnese frondules are pinnate, 

No. 2. 



No. 2. ADIANTtTM. 31 

€lon2;ated, having each from twenty to sixty distichal 
folioles, vvhich are inserted by a corner, and a small 
petiole. The shape is oblong quadrangular, the out- 
side or end being rounded and crenate, while two 
sides are square and entire ; but the upper side is 
jagged and bears the fructification. Color pale green, 
surface smooth, with many oblique nerves. 

The fructification is marginal on the upper border 
of the folioles, of a pale yellowish color, formed by 
unequal and irregular marginal lines. The integu- 
ment is membranaceous, growing from the maro-in in 
transversal lines, which extends under it, and open 
transversally below, showing the cluster of small 
granular capsuls which they inclose. 

HISTORY — The Adiantum Capilveneris of 
Europe is the type of this genus, and has long held 
there a rank in medical plants, as a mild pectoral. 
The specific name meaning hair of Venus, is of old 
standing; the English, French and German names 
derive from it. 

*5. ptdatum possessing the same qualities, being 
larger, and more common, has long been an article 
of exportation from Canada, &:c. to Europe ; where 
it has gradually superseded the other, although it is 
less fragrant. The specific name indicates the pe- 
date appearance of the Frond or foliage, the whole 
of which is used and being very easily dried, like all 
ferns, is packed up in bags. It is from Canada and 
Nova Scotia that most is sent, and spread all over 
Europe ; but it could be sent from many other quar- 
ters since it grows all over the United States from 

abzantuim:. no. 2. 

New England to Missouri and Virginia. It becomes 
more scarce in the South, being confined to the 
mountains. It delights in rich soil and deep woods, 
but is also found on hills and among rocks. It may 
be collected at any time; but must not be mistaken 
nor blended with the Sweet fern shrub, Compionia 
%^sph7ii folia, which is a shrub with fragrant leaves. 

This genus belongs to Cryptogamia Filices of 
Linnaeus. The natural order of Ferns or Filices is 
very easily known by having a Frond or flat foliage, 
bearing an inconspicuous fructification in lines or 
dots without flowers. All the ferns have a peculiar 
smell, rather grateful, and more or less fragrant ; it 
is very perceptible in the Brake or Pteris aquilina, 
the Thelipteris, Driopteris, kc. Although but 
slightly unfolded in the t^. pedatum, yet it gives a 
flavor to its decoction or syrup. 

Qualities— The active qualities of this fern, 
reside in its mucilage united to a small portion of 
aroma and tannin. The same principles are found in 
various proportions in all the other medical ferns. 

PROPERTIES — Pectoral and expectorant, muci- 
laginous, subastringent, ?ubtonic. It is used in decoc- 
tion or syrup. The celebrated Syrop de Capillaire 
of the French is made with it, which is a pleasant 
summer drink, and popular pectoral remedy through- 
out Europe, although little known in America, ex- 
cept among the French and Germans. It is found 
useful in all coughs and hoarseness, also in asthma 
and tickling of the throat, and even in pleurisy and 
all disorders of the bronchia, larynx and breast. 

No. 2. • ADIANTUM. 83 

Its properties as a promoter of secretions, and a 
cure for the jaundice are doubtful. But it strength- 
ens the fibres and promotes expectoration. It is a 
very good vehicle and auxiliary for pectoral remedies, 
and even for cathartics, such as Croton-oil, Castor-oil, 
&c. which are rendered palatable by it. Liquorice 
may be added to the decoction, instead of sugar, to 
render it more efficient 

Influenza is often cured by using some of the 
syrup to sweeten its^ own decoction or any other 
suitable herb tea. It has the advantage that it may 
be used ad libitum, or in any chosen dose. My own 
experience has tested the value of this plant and its 
syrup, in cough and influenza, and I can recommend 
the following cathartic, as one of the most effectual 
and withal pleasant to the taste : One single drop of 
Croton Oil dissolved in a SDOon-full or cup-full of this 

Substitutes — Althea officinalis or Marsh Mal- 
low — Agrimonia — Violet flowers — Gaultheria pro- 
cumhens or Mountain Tea — Tussi/as;o or Coltsfoot 
— Pulmonaria /^e>^/;22c« or Lungwort — Inula He- 
lenium or Elecampane — Evonymtts atropurpxireus 
or Wahoon — Crategvs crusgalli or American Haw- 
thorn — Marrtibium Vulgar e or ikOrehound, and 
many sweet Filices, &:c. &c 

Remarks — In Renry's herbal the figure of this 
plant is nothing like it ; perhaps the J3. capilveneris 
is meant ; which, however, does not grow in 


No. 3. 



French Name — Aigremoine Commune. 

German Name — Gemeine Oderminig. 

Officinal Names — Herba Agrimonia. 

Vulgar Names — Cockle-bur, Stickwort, &c. 

Authorities — Linnaeus, Decandolle, Michaux, 
Pursh, Henry, Schoepf, Dispensaries, &c. — Not in 
Bigelow nor Barton. 

Genus Agrimonia — Calyx permanent urceolate 
five toothed, bristly outside. Corolla with five petals 
inserted on the calyx. Stamina twelve to fifteen in- 
serted on the calyx. Two germens, two styles, and 
two seeds surrounded by the calyx — Leaves pinnate. 

Species A. Eupatoria — Stem simple; leaves inter- 
l*upted pinnate, folioles opposite, sessile, oval, oblong, 
deeply serrate, the terminal petiolate; interfolioles 
short and jagged. 

DESCRIPTION— Root Perennial— Stem hairy, 
rounded, one or two feet high, seldom branched — 
Leaves alternating, the inferior larger, hairy, pinnate 
or compound, having from five to nine larger folioles 
and some smaller ones interposed, which are broad 
but short, and much divided. All the folioles arc 
sessile and opposite except the last. Shape oval or 
oblong, acute at both ends, margin deeply and une- 

No. 3. . 



No. 3. AaXlZMOKZA. 35 

qually serrated. Inflorescence in a terminal slender 

Flowers small, sessile. Calj^x 2;reen, bearing the 
Corolla and Stamina, bristl)'^, five toothed. Corolla 
yellow, with five oblong petals. Stamina yellow, 
short, anthers oval. Fruit, a small green bur, form- 
ed by the permanent Calyx, enclosing two seeds, 
convex outside, flat inside, and crowned by the two 
styles. This bur often sticks to clothes, like other 
bristly burs. 

HISTORY — This plant has a wide range, being 
found in Europe, Asia, and North America, with 
hardly any change. It has been deemed medical 
very anciently, and although not very powerful, is 
not destitute of efiiciency. 

The Genus contains but few species ; the Jlp^ri^o- 
nia parvijlora isanother found in North America, and 
probably equal in properties ; it merely difiers from 
this by narrower leaves, more numerous folioles, 
longer slender spike, and smaller flowers, but more 
fragrant. The Agrimonia Eupatoria is spread 
from Canada to Missouri and Carolina, and grows in 
woods, fields, glades and near streams. The AgrU 
iuonia j)arviJlora is more common in the west and 
south. Both blossom in summer. The whole plant 
is used and is slightly fragrant. 

The Genus belongs to the natural order of Rosacea 
or RiiODANTiiEs, next to Poteriuni and Waldstei- 
nia. In the Linnean arrangement it is placed in 
DoD- CA vDRiA Digynia. The name is a classical one, 
and Eupatoria comes from Eupator, to whom many 

36 AanXlMEONXA. No. 3. 

useful plants were dedicated by the Greeks : here it 
is employed for the species, while in Eupatorium 
it becomes a generic denomination. 

Qualities — Similar to Adiantum ; but it has 
less mucilage, and more tannin, with some gallic 
acid. The Aroma is different, rather similar to that 
of Melilot or Clover. 

PROPERTIES— A mild astringent, tonic and cor- 
roborant. Useful in coughs, and bowel complaints. 
Being a very mild astringent it may be given in 
diarrhea, dysentery and relaxed bowels. It has 
been recommended in many other complaints, and is 
said to have cured the asthma. The best way to 
take it, is in a strong decoction sweetened with honey 
or Maiden-hair syrup. The dose is four cups every 
da^. Both root and plant may be boiled. 

Substitutes — Jidiantum pedatum or Maiden- 
hair — Solidago odora or Golden-rod — Geum vir- 
ginicum — Glechoma Hederacea or Ground Ivy- 
Rose flowers and all mild vegetable astringents. 

Remarks — This is one of Ihe few plants which 
Henry has not altogether mistaken either in name or 
figure ; yet his figure has both leaves and flowers too 
large and too sharp. 

No. 4. 



N*o.4. AZiSTRXS. 37 

... I ■ .■ ., , . , ■ , I i ^^^ 

No. 4. 


English Name— MEALY STARWORT. 

French Name — Aletris Meunier. 

German Name — Mehlige Sterngrass. 

Officinal Name — Aletris Radix. 

Vulgar Names — Star-Grass, Blazing Star, Alo- 
root, Bitter Grass, Unicorn Root, Ague Root, Ague 
Grass, Star-root, Devil's-bit. 

Authorities — Linnaeus, Wildenow, Michaux, 
Schoepf, Pursh, Elliot, Cutler, Bigelow Mat. Med. 
fig. 50 bad, Bigelow Sequel, &c. 

Genus Aletris — Perigone simple, corolliform, 
tubular, persistent, six cleft, wrinkled, six stamina 
inserted at the base of the segments. Germ one 
oblong. Style one triangular tripartible. Capsul 
three celled, many seeded, opening at the top — Leaves 
radical, stem simple, scaly, flowers in a slender spike. 

Species Al. Farinosa — Leaves lanceolate mucro- 
nate membranaceous, scales adpressed, subulate, 
flowers cylindrical, white, farinaceous. 

DESCRIPTION— Root perennial small, black 
outside, brown inside, ramose, crooked — Radical 
leaves from six to twelve, spreading on the ground 
like a star ; but all unequal in size, sessile, lanceolate, 
entire, very smooth, membranaceous, with many 
longitudinal yeins, sometimes canaliculate, very 


:38 ALETRIS. Ko. 4. 

sharp at the end : they are of a pale green or glan- 
cous, and bleach in winter or by drying; the longest 
are four inches — Stem from one to two feet high, 
:very simple and upright, scapiform or nearly naked, 
Avith remote, scales, whitish, adpressed, sometimes 
changing into leaves, subulate, acute. 

Flowers white, forming a long slender scattered 
spike ; each flower has a minute bract and very 
short pedicel ; shape oblong, spreading into six acute 
segments like a star at the top, the outside has a 
mealy, rugose appearance — six short stamina are in- 
serted near the mouth, anthers cordate. Germ 
one, central (not inferior) pyramidal. Style one, 
separable into three. Capsul triangular, clothed by 
the perigone, triangular, three valved at the top, 
three celled, and with many central minute seeds. 

HISTORY — A true natural genus peculiar to 
North America, and containing two species very 
similar to each other. The Jl. Jiurea differs merely 
by narrower leaves, and yellow flowers more cam- 
panulate. "Vhe %,^. fragrans, and others of Africa, 
must form a peculiar genus, the Osmanthes, different 
from this in habit and fruit. Both American species 
have the same properties. 

This genus does not belong to Liliacea nor %^S' 
phodelides ; but to Aloides, next to ^loes and Cri- 
?ium, in the natural arrangement. In the Linnaean 
it ranks in Hexandria Monogynia. Aletris means 
a miller in Greek, and farinosa means mealy in 
Latin ; both names allude to the mealy appearance of 
the flowers. 

No. 4. AXiETnZS. 39 

This species has a wide range, being found from 
New England to Georgia, and west to Kentucky and 
Missouri. But the A, Aurea is confined to llie south 
from Carolina to Alabama. I'he A. farinosa is also 
more abundant in the south, and always confined to 
dry and poor soils, in sunny glades and fields. It is 
unknown in the rich limestone soils and alluvial re- 
gions. In Kentucky and the west it is confined to 
the hilly glades, open prairies and barrens of the 
knob-hills. It is cstival, blossoming- in June and 

Many vulgar names given to it are common to 
other plants, dissimilar in properties if not in aspect. 

The Veratrum luteum or dioicum which is also 
called Star-grass, may be distinguished by its thick 
plumose dioical spike. The Sisyrinchium, another 
Star-grass, has single, blue and triandrous flowers, 
besides long grass leaves. Unicorn -root is :ilso a 
name of Vtratrum and of Neottia. Aoue-root is a 


name applicable to a dozen roots. Such is the con- 
fusion arising from vulgar names. The root is the 
part employed, and being small, does not afford much 
hope to become an article of trade. 

Qualities — The root contains an intense bitter 
emulsive resin, soluble in Alcohol, somewhat similar 
to Aloes, but less cathartic. This bitter principle is 
also partly soluble in water. The tincture is render- 
ed milky by water. 'J he resin is therefore different 
from Amarine and Aloine, and is perhaps a peculiar 
compound, %filetrine^ formed by Amarine. an oil and 
a gum. 

No. 5. 


SORIUBi; TRfifi. 

No. 5. A3TDROMSBA. 41 

No- 5. 


English Name— SORREL TREE. 

French Name — Andromedier. 

German Name — Safer Haum. 

Officinal Name — Andromeda folia, lignum, &c' 

Vulgar Names — Sour Tree, Sour Wood, Elk 
Tree, Elk Wood, Sorrel Wood, Sour Leaf. 

Authorities — Linnaeus, Clayton, Michaux Flora 
and Sylva, Pursh, Elliot, SchoepC, W. Barton Flora 
fig. 30. 

Genus Andromeda — Calix minute five parted. 
Corolla ovate or cylindric, border live cleft. Stami- 
na ten inclosed equal. One Pistil superior inclosed, 
style pentagonal. Capsul five celled, five valved, 
valves septiferous, many minute seeds. 

Species A. Arborea — Leaves petiolate, oblong 
acuminate, smooth, beneath glaucous ; Panicle termi- 
nal and loose, flowers racemose and lateral. Co- 
rolla ovoid pubescent, anthers linear mutic. 

DESCRIPTION— A small tree from fifteen to 
forty feet high, seldom fifty to sixty. Branches cy- 
lindrical, slender. Bark of the stem light brown, of 
the old branches reddish, of the young shoots green. 

Leaves large, crowded, alternate and jjotiolatc, 
from three to six inches long, from one to two brdad, 
oblong, base acute, end acuminate, margin often nn- 

D 2 


dulate, entire, or sometimes serrulate, nerve with 
regular veins, surface smooth, glossy, green above, 
glaucous beneath, the young leaves are slightly 
downy at first. 

Flowers white, terminal, one third of an inch long,' 
forming a large, loose panicle, composed of many 
Jong and loose racemes, bearing each from twelve to 
twenty flowers pedunculate, alternate and secund — 
Calix small, greenish, with five acute teeth — Corolla 
pubescent ovate with five acute teeth — Stamina and 
Pistil inside of the Corolla ; ten equal filaments, an- 
thers small mutic linear — Pistil one, germ oval, 
style pentagonal persistent, stigma obtuse— Capsuls 
ovate mucronate, reddish brown, with five cells con- 
taining many small subulate seeds, imbricate and 

HISTORY— The Genus Andromeda belongs to 
the natural order of Ekicides or extensive heath 
tribe ; and to Decaxdria Monogynia of Linnaeus. 
The name is poetical or mythological, being dedicated 
to the Nymph Andromeda. 

This species is the largest and the only tree of the 
genus, whence its specific name ; all the others being 
shrubs, many of which are ornamental like this, and 
mostly native of Nortli America. This tree attains 
its largest size in the most southern states ; but be- 
comes almost a shrub in Tennessee and Kentucky. 
It blossoms in May. 

The common names of tliis tree have all a reference 
to the acidity of the leaves and wood. The elk and 
^&ex eat those leaves, and even cattle like themv 


They are palatable and allay thirst when chewed by 
the hunters in want of water. 

Locality — The Alleghany mountains, and the 
hills and valleys diverging from them, as far as their 
most southern limits in Georgia and Alabama ; but 
seldom met north of Virginia and Kentucky, although 
Schoepf gives New York as its northern range. It 
is unknown in the alluvial and limestone regions. 

Qualities — A fine acid, (is it the malic acid ?) 
similar to that of the cranberries and whortleberries 
is diffused throughout this tree, and most unfolded in 
the leaves ; but united to some astringency owing to 
a mixture of gallic acid. 

PROPERTIES— The leaves and wood are a fine 
astringent acid, refreshing, cooling, allaying thirst, 
and antifebrile. Clayton says that a decoction of 
the leaves mitigates the ardour of fevers, and helps 
their cure. It is useful in all cases where a refrige- 
rant astrin2:ent is needed. A kind of lemonade can 
be made v/ith it. It may be substituted to the Rhtis 
glabrttm, or shumac, and the cranbeiries. Like shu- 
mac the leaves impart a black color to wool. The wood 
is soft, reddish, and will not burn ] but like the buck- 
eye wood may be used to make chip hats and paper. 
Substitutes — Shumac berries — Pomegranate- 
Strawberries — Cranberries — Currants — Sorrels, &c.— 
with many other mild vegetable astringents and acids. 

RcMARKs — B. Barton mentions the t/S, Mariana 
another species as pernicious, but a decoction of it 
useful in ulcers of the feet, for which this might be 
perhaps substituted. 

41f AKTBSXMtZS. No. 6. 

No. 6. 


English Name— WILD CAMOMILE. 

French Name — Camomile Puante. 

German Name — Stinkende Kamille. 

Officinal Names — Cotula, Camomlla Spuria. 

VuLOAR Namer — May-Weed, Dog's Fennel, Dil- 
iy, Dilweed, Fieldweed, &c. 

Authorities — Linnaeus, Wildenow, Pursh, La- 
mark, Schoepf, Dispensaries, Bigelow Seq. W. Bar- 
ton Mat. Med. fig. 14. 

Genus Anthemis — Flowers compound radiate 
Perianthe hemispherical imbricate. Rays above five, 
female. Phoranthe conical, chaffy. Seeds naked. 

Species A. Cotula — Annual puberulent, stem 
angular, furrowed, branched- Leaves bipinnatifid, 
sessile, carinate, pinnules linear, acute. Peduncles 
grooved, naked, thicker above ; chaff" bristly, seeds 
obovate, four sided, furrowed. 

DESCRIPTION— Root annual, crooked, fibrous. 
Stem and leaves covered v/itli short, adpressed, wooly 
hairs. Stem from one to two feet high, erect and 
very much branched, irregularly angular and striated ; 
branches corymbose. Leaves alternate sessile, flat, 
doubly pinnatifid, or almost pinnate, carinate beneath 
in the middle ; pinnules flat unequal, linear, acute, 
eTitire or trifid. 

No. 6 



No. 6. AKTHEMZS. 45 

Flowers many, forming a terminal corymb ; each 
on a naked peduncle, erect, grooved and thicker up- 
wards. Perianthe or common calyx, hemispherical, 
imbricated hairy, rough ; scales linear, pale green, 
nearly equal, scariose on the margin and end. The 
central florets of the disk are numerous and bright 
yellow ; those of the rays are ligular, from seven to 
twelve, and white. Phoranthe or common recepta- 
cle conical, covered with short bristly chaff, or palea. 

Central florets tubular, glandular, five-toothed, with 
five stamina, anthera united. Germ inferior obo- 
vate. Style filiform bifid. Stigmas two filiform 

Rays or ligular florets without stamina, oblong, 
two nerved, bidentate or tridentate at the end. 

Seeds brown, obovate, four sided, grooved and 

HISTORY— The genus Cotula of Toumefort has 
been blended with Anthemis by Linnaeus, from 
which the naked seeds, without a membranaceous 
appendage, and the conical instead of convex phoran- 
the, partly distinguish it, so as to allow of a subgenus 
or section at least. 

There appears to be some differences between the 
^i. Cotula of the north and south of Europe and 
our American plant ; but although the various bota- 
nical descriptions offer several trifling diversities, 
they hardly amount to specific distinctions. Our de- 
scription applies to the American plant. The Euro- 
pean is smoother, more fetid, and sometimes describ- 
ed with bipinnate leaves, and trifid folioles. I have 

46 ANTHESdZS. No. 6. 

seen both, and once had distinguished this by the 
name oi %^. Cotuloides ; but being unwilling'to inno- 
vate in this work, I have followed our Botanists in 
uniting the plants of both continents, although I great- 
ly doubt the botanical propriet}^ of it. 

It blossoms from June to November, affording a 
profusion of flowers in succession, of the size of 
Camomile, but never double. The v/hole plant has a 
strong graveolent smell, disagreeable to some per- 
sons, but not fetid. It is not eaten by cattle nor 
domestic animals. 

The name of Jinthemis is Greek, and applies to the 
profusion of flowers. Cotula is a diminutive of Cota% 
aaother plant of the same genus. 

Jinthemis belongs to the natural tribe of Radiates, 
section oi Antheniides. In the Linnean system it is 
placed in class Syngenesia. Order Polygamia Su- 
per flua. 

Abundant as it is, the collection of it becomes easy; 
the whole plant may be dried when in bloom, or the 
blossoms alone may be collected. 
. Locality — Our plant is indigenous and not natu- 
ralized as mentioned by some Botanists. It is spread 
all over the United States from Maine to Louisiana ; 
but confined almost every where to open fields. It 
is never found in woods, but delights in the sun, road 
sides, stony places and old fields, or near towns and 
villages. It is scarce in mountains, but prefers the 
limestone soils and plains. It is extremely abundant 
on the Ohio and in the Western States, covering ne- 
glected fields, and alternating in fallows with the Iron- 

No. 6. ANTBXSMZS. 4*7 

weed or Vernonia, It is deemed a troublesome 
weed, although being annual it is easily destroyed by 
early ploughings. 

Qualities — Graveolent, bitter, and nauseous ; 
the smell of the plant resides in a Volatile Oil, pos- 
sessed of a strong or graveolent aroma, and diffused 
throughout the plant, although more concentrated in 
the flowers. It is similar to the smell of Camomile, but 
more pungent, and less balsamic. This oil is bitter and 
communicates a bitterish acrid taste to the whole plant. 

PROPERTIES — The same as those of Camomile, 
but weaker and less pleasant to the taste : it may be 
substituted thereto with safety. It is an active tonic, 
sodorific, stimulant, anodyne, emetic, and repellent; 
extensively used throughout the country for rheuma- 
tism, hysterics, epilepsy, dropsy, asthma, scrofula, &c, 
both internally and externally. The external use in 
warm baths or fomentations is proper in rheumatism, 
hysteric fits, suffocations, hemorrhoidal swellings, 
pains and contusions. The decoction and infusion are 
given for colds, fevers, rheumatism, asthma, &c. but 
a single cupful, if too strong, may produce vomiting, 
and even a weak infusion nauseates the stomach. It 
acts always as a sudorific, promoting copious sweating, 
and is often beneficial as an auxiliary to an emetic. 
In large doses it becomes emetic : in small ones it is 
a gentle tonic and diaphoretic, useful whenever it is 
needful to promote perspiration in fevers. Its advan- 
tages in epilepsy, dropsy and scrofula, are doubtful. 
The European plant is said to blister the hands, which 
is not the case with ours. 


Substitutes — Camomile or Matricaria Chamo- 
mila — Eupatorium perfoliatum — Ruta vulgaris 
or Rue — Hedeoma pulegioides or Fenny-royal — 
Marruhium Vulgare or Horehound — Achillea mil- 
lefolium or Yarrow — Tanacttum or Tansey, with all 
the graveolent bitter tonics and sudorifics. 

Remarks — The figure in Henry's, under the name 
of May weed, is quite fictitious, having entire leaves; 
but his article applies to this plant. 

No. T. 


-^- — ^— — i — ■ • V" ;•- ' .1 V ' : ' 




No. 7 JLTOCYISnmi, 4,9 

No. 7. 


French Name— Apocyn Amer. 
German Name — Fliegen Fangemdes. 
Officinal Name — Apocynum radix. 
\ llgar Names — Milk- weed, Bitter-root, Honey- 
. m, Catchfly, Flytrap, Ipecac. 
Authorities — Linnaeus, Kalm, Michaux, Pursh, 
Schoepf, Elliot, Bigelow, fig. 36, &.c. 

Genus Apocynum — Calyx five cleft. Corolla bell 
shaped, five cleft. Five Corpuscles surrounding the 
germ. Five Anthers alternating with them, conni- 
vent and adhering by the middle to the stegyne or 
cover of the pistils, which are two, small and conceals- 
•'.d; succeeded by two follicles, with numerous downy 

Species A. Androsemifolium — Smooth, stem 
erect, dichotome ; leaves petiolate, opposite, entire, 
acute ; cymes nodding, lateral, and terminal, beyond 
the leaves. Follicles linear. 

DESCRIPTION— Root perennial, large, bitter 
and milky like the whole plant. Stem very smooth as 
well as ^he leaves, lactecent and with a tough fibrous 
bark : from three to five feet high, with few branches 
and leaves, cylindrical, often rose coloured : forked 
several times upwards. Leaves opposite, petiolate, 


dO APOCYNUM, No. r. 

pale beneath, ovate, acute, entire, two or three inches 
long, with one large nerve. 

Flowers on cymose racemes, lateral and terminal; 
always longer than the leaves, lax nodding and few 
flowered. Minute acute bracts on the peduncles. 
Calyx short, five cleft, acute. Corolla white, tinged 
with red, similar to a little bell, divided into five 
spreading acute segments at the top. Stamina five, 
with short filaments, anthers connivent arrow shap- 
ed, cohering with the stegyne or singular body co- 
vering and concealing the pistils, (mistaken for a stig- 
ma by many Botanists) : it is thick and round. Five 
glandular corpuscles, (called nectaries by some,) al- 
ternate with the stamina. Two pistils ovate, con- 
cealed, two sessile stigmas. Fruit a pair of follicles, 
slender, linear, acute, drooping, cylindrical. Seeds 
numerous, oblong, embricate, seated on a central re- 
ceptacle or spermophore, and crowned by a long 

HISTORY — -A pretty and interesting plant be- 
longing to a very distinct genus, which gives name to 
a large natural tribe of plants the Apocynes, distin- 
guished by the singular stegyne, double follicles, &c. 
In the Linnaean system they are put in Pentandria 
digynia, although the stegyne was mistaken for a 
single stigma. 

Apocynum means dogsbane in Greek, and the 
specific name implies the similitude of the leaves to 
%/indrosemum. There are some other species of the 
same genus in North America, but none so pretty. 
All have small white flowers, while in this the flow- 

No. r. APOClTNUiyX. 51 

ers are larger, flesh or rose coloured. The Sp. can* 
nabinum has been used by the Americans to make 
a kind of hemp : the fibrous tough bark of all the spe- 
cies are calculated to afford it by maceration. AH 
have a bitter milky juice, and yet the flowers smell 
of honey, and produce that sweet substance. 

Bees and other insects, collect this honey; but 
small flies are often caught by inserting their probos- 
cis between the fissures of the anthers, where it is 
jiot easy for them to extricate it ; they are often seen 
dead in that confined situation, after unavailing strug- 
gles. Whence one of the names of this plant, Catch- 
fly. No animals eat it. 

Locality — Rather a common plant, found from 
Canada to Georgia and Missouri. It grows in woods, 
hills, dry or sandy soils, along fences, and over old 
fields : it is rare in limestone soils, and rich land. It 
blossoms in summer from June to July. 

Qualities — Kalm has mentioned this plant to be 
poisonous and blistering like Rhus Vernix ; but it is 
quite harmless. The root when chewed has an in- 
tensely bitter and unpleasant taste, perceptible in the 
whole plant in a lesser degree, except the flowers, and 
arising from the bitter milk it contains. The decoc- 
tion is of a red colour and very bitter. The spiritu- 
ous solution is colourless but bitter. It contains there- 
fore a bitter principle soluble in water and alcohol, 
and a colouring principle not soluble in alcohol ; be- 
sides a volatile oil and caoutchouc. 

PROPERTIES— This is a very active plant, high 
\y valued by the Southern Indians, It is tonic, 

5S APOCYNUM. No. 7u 

f^metic, alterative and syphilitic. The root is the 
most powerful part : but it must be used fresh, since 
time diminishes or destroys its power. At the dose 
of thirty grains of the fresh powdered root, it acts as 
an emetic, equal to Ipecacuana ; in smaller doses it is 
:i tonic, useful in dyspepsia and fevers. The Chicka- 
s-aw and Choctaw Nations employ it in syphilis, and 
•ionsider it a specific, they use the fresh root chewed, 
swallowing only the juice. This later use has been 
introduced into Tennessee and Kentucky as a great 
secret. It must act as a tonic in all those cases, to- 
nics being often emetic and antivenereal. An ob- 
jection to this plant is its nauseous bitter taste. Many 
substitutes may be found of a less disagreeable na- 

Substitutes — Ipecacuana — Eupatorium perfo- 
llatum^-^Prenanthes opicrina — Lobelia siphilitica 
— Jiletris farinosa — Sanicula marilandica — Eu^ 
phorbia Corollata ^' E. Ipecacuana — Frasera-—' 
Mezereon — Gaayncum, &c. and all bitter tonics or 

Remarks — Barton and Henry have not mentioned 
this plant. Bigelovv represents it with leaves too 
sharp or acuminate. All the other species of the same 
genus have the same properties in a lesser degree. 
The A. cannabinum is distinguished from this by 
smaller leaves and flowers in shorter panicles ; while 
the A. hypericifolium has prostrated stems with nar- 
row leaves, and grows only on the banks of streams 
and lakes. 



No. 8. ARAUA. 53 

No. 8- 



French Name — Petit Nard. 

German Name — Nardwurzel Aralie. 

Officinal Names — Aralia radix, Nardus Ameri- 

Vulgar Names — Spiknard, Sassaparil, Sarsaparil- 
la, Wild Liquorice, Sweet-root. 

Authorities — Linnaeus, Wildenovv, IVIichaux, 
Pursh, Schoepf, Golden, Dispensaries, Bigelow Se- 

Genus Aralia — Calix united or superior five- 
toothed. Petals five entire. Stamina five epigyne 
a^lternate. Pistil united to the calix, five styles and 
stigmas. Berry crowned by the calix and styles, 
five celled, five seeded — Flowers in simple umbels. 

Species A. Nudicaulis — Stem naked, straight^ 
smooth, bearing three umbels without involucrum : 
leaves radical, biternate ; folioles ovate, acuminate, 

DESCRIPTION— Root perennial, brown, yellow- 
ish, cylindrical, creeping twisted, sometimes many 
feet long, thickness of the finger. One stem and one 
leaf mostly rising together, and less than two ket 
high. The stem is straight, leafless, cylindric, with 
three sftiall simple naked umbels at the end. Leaf 

54* ARAZ.XA. No. 8. 

biternate or with nine folioles, the lateral ones sessile, 
the terminal ones petiolate, all ovate, oblong, round- 
ed at the base, end acuminate, margin serrulate, sur- 
face smooth. Sometimes some folioles are coales- 

Flowers from twelve to thirty in each umbel, pe- 
dunculate, small, yellowish. Calix greenish, obconi- 
cal, united to the pistil, crowned with five teeth. 
Petals five, oboval, obtuse, yellowish white. Five 
stamina and five styles filiform. Berries small, round, 
similar to Elder berries in size. 

HISTORY— The genus ^ralia is the type of a 
natural tribe the Aralides, to which Panax or Gin- 
seng belongs likewise ; this last differing only by hav- 
ing two styles and two cells instead of five. This 
family differs from the Umbellate by producing 
berries instead of two seeds. All the plants of this 
genus and family have active properties. Two other 
American species v^. racemosa and ji. hispida^ have 
the same properties as this, and may be used for each 
other. The ji. spinosa or Angelica Tree partakes of 
the same, and also of the properties of Angelica root 
and Xanthoxylum. 

Aralia belongs to Pentandria ptntagynia of 

This species blossoms in summer. It is often called 
Sarsaparilla, the root being similar to that article, and 
having similar properties. It might become an arti- 
cle of trade as such, and deserves to be cultivated. 

Locality — Found from New-England to Carolina, 
Snd Indiana, more conrimon in the north than the 

Na. 8. ARAZiZA. 55 

south : it delights in deep woods, shady groves and 
valleys, good soils, &c. 

Qualities — The whole plant is balsamic, fragrant, 
and has a warm aromatic sweetish taste ; most un- 
folded in the root and berries. They contain muci- 
lage, aroma, and an essential milky oil or balsam. 

PROPERTIES—All the Spikenards or Aralias 
are popular medical plants throughout the United 
States : they made part of the Materia Medica of the 
native tribes, and are extensively used by country 
practitioners. They are vulnerary, pectoral, sudori- 
fic, stimulant, diaphoretic, cordial, depurative, &c. 
The roots and berries are most efficient ; in Ji. spi- 
nosa the bark. 

The roots bruised or chewed, or in poultice, are 
used for all kinds of wounds and ulcers by the In- 
dians. Fomentations and cataplasms are useful for 
cutaneous affections, crysipels and ring-worms. An 
infusion or a decoction of the same, are efficient sub- 
stitutes for those of Sarsaparilla, (and more powerful,) 
in all diseases of the blood, syphilitic complaints, 
chronical rheumatism, local pains, cardialgy, belly- 
ache, &c. As a pectoral both roots and berries may 
be used in syrups, cordials, decoctions, &c. and have 
been found useful in coughs, catarrh, cachexia, lan- 
gour, pains in the breast, &c. The cordial of Spike- 
nard berries is recommended for the gout, and the 
juice or essential oil for the ear ache and deafness. 

Substitutes — All the Aralias — Elder — Sarsapa- 
rilla — Guayac — Angelica-root — Cunila mariana — 
Sassafras — Ginseng — Eryngiuni aquaticum — Xan- 

56 ARAt.XA. No. g. 

thoxylum or Prickly Ash — Magnolia Bark — Collin- 
sonia Canadensis, &c. and many aromatic stimu- 

Remarks — Henry calls this plant Nardus Ame- 
ricanus, and his figure is fictitious, being like Fennel. 

Since all our species may be substituted to each 
other, and we can only give the figure of one at pre- 
sent, it may be well to add a short notice of each. 

./?. racemosa or Large Spikenard — Root larger and 
thicker. Plant larger. Stem leafy, leaves similar to 
Ji. nudicauUsj but with larger and cordate folioles. 
Flowers in large axillary clusters, formed of many 
racemose umbels — Common from Canada to Alabama. 

Ji. hispida or Rough Spikenard — Stem hispid, 
leaves decomposed, folioles small oval, um.bels ter- 
minal, &c. — Confined to Canada, New-Endand, 
^'€w-York, and the Alleghanies. 

A, spinosa or Spikenard Tree, called also Angeli- 
ca Tree, Tooth-Ache Tree, and Prickly Elder — A 
small tree full of thorns, leaves ample, decomposed, 
prickly. Flowers terminal, forming an amp'e pani- 
cle of umbels— From New-York to Georgia, and 
west to Missouri, &c. 


No. 9. 


No. 9. AHBVTUS. Sy 

No. 9. 


English Name— BEAR-BERRY. 

French Name — Bousserole Raisin d'Ours. 

German Name — Erdbeartegb Sandbeere. 

Officinal Name — Uva-Ursi. 

Vulgar Names — Mountain Box, Redberry, Up- 
land Cranberry. 

Authorities — Linnaeus, Woodville, Michaux, 
Pursh, J. S. Mitchell, Murray, Girardi, Dispensa- 
ries, Schoepf, Ferriar, Dehaen, B. Barton, Bigelow, 
fig. 6, and Sequel, &c. 

Genus Arbutus — Calix five parted and free. Co- 
rolla ovate, five toothed. Stamina ten basilar, fila- 
ments hairy, anthers bifid, each part bipore. One 
pistil, one style, stigma simple. Berry free, five 

Species A. Uva- Ursi — Stem procumbent ; leaves 
scattered, cuneate, obovate, entire, coriaceous : flow- 
ers in small clusters, peduncles reflexed, bracteolate : 
berries globular, smooth, five seeded. 

DESCRIPTION — Roots perennial, creeping, slen- 
der. Stems procumbent, trailing, cespitose, radicate, 
the young shoots tending upwards, cylindric, cuticle 
pealing off. Leaves numerous, scattered, variable in 
shape, narrow or broad, always acute and alternate at 
the base, on short petiols, thick, coriaceous, evergreen^ 

58 ARBUTUS. No.^. 

j » . - I . .. , , ■■■ ■ 

and smooth, shining above, pale beneath, margin en- 
tire, thick or rounded, and nearly obtuse. 

Flowers nearly terminal in a small racemose clus- 
ter, from six to twelve together, of a pale, rosy, flesh 
color. Peduncles shorter than the flowers, colored, 
reflexed, with some minute acute bracts, two of which 
in the middle. Calix colored, with five rounded 
acute segments. Corolla ovate, urceolate, white with 
a rosy tinge, transparent at the base, contracted above, 
hairy inside, with five acute, short, and reflexed seg- 
ments or teeth. Ten equal stamina inserted at the 
base of the corolla, with hairy, short, cuneate fila- 
ments, anthers equal in length, bifid, each part with 
two pores. Germ round, style straight, longer than 
the stamina, stigma obtuse. A black indented and 
persistent ring around the base of the germ, called 
nectary or gynophore. Berries globular, depressed, 
of a scarlet color, pulp insipid, mealy, five seeds al- 
most coalescent together. 

HISTORY — The G. Arbutus is very near to Vac* 
ciriium, (whortleberry,) differing chiefly by the free 
calix and berry, and to Andromeda, which has a cap- 
sul instead of a berry for fruit. It is divided into two 
sections or subgenera, (by some considered as gene- 
ra.) 1. Unedo, having a rough, many seeded berry. 
2. 3fairania, a smooth five seeded berry. To this 
last belongs our actual species. Arbutus is an an- 
cient name, Mairania is dedicated to the French phi- 
losopher Mairan, Uva-Ursi means Bear's-grape in 
Latin. It was known under this last name to the 
Grreeks, and Galen mentions it as a medical plant. 

No. 9. ARBxrrns. 59 

Belonging to the natural order of Ericines, (heath 
tribe,) section with berries : and to Decandria mo~ 
nogyiiia of Linnaeus. 

Locality — This plant is scattered throughout the 
northern hemisphere in Europe, Asia and America. 
In Europe, found from Lapland to the Pyrenees and 
Apenines. In Asia, from Armenia and the Volga to 
Kamtschatka. While in America it grows from Ice- 
land and Greenland to Hudson Bay and Alaska, ex- 
tending south to Canada, New-England, the high- 
lands, and hills of north New-Jersey. It covers dry, 
stony and gravelly soils, barren spots, and even sandy 

It blossoms late, and the red berries are ripe in 
winter. These are eaten by bears, and man^y other 

The leaves are chiefly used, and may be easily dried. 
In Sweden and Russia they form an article of trade, 
being used to tan Russia leather. They begin to be 
collected in America. 

The Indians smoke them like tobacco, and call 
'them Sagack-homi in Canada. They dye black. 

Qualities — Taste astringent, styptic and bitterish; 
inodorous. It abounds in Tannin, which is the active 
principle, and is easily soluble in water. The other 
substances are mucus, resin, lime, and bitter extrac- 

PROPERTIES— Astringent, tonic and diuretic. 
It was extolled once in Europe as a remedy against 
gravel ; but has since been found to be only a toler- 
able palliative in nephritis, gravel, calculous cases, 

60 AKBUTUS. Nd. 9. 

disury, strangury, acting as an astringent, useful even 
when other remedies fail. Dr. Wistar, B. Barton, 
Mitchell, Bigelow, &c. recommend it in those cases. 
It has also been used for leucorhea, gonorhea, the ca- 
tarrh of the bladder, menorhagia, debility » diabetes, 
cnnuresis, disentery, ulcerations of the kidneys and 
bladder, and has often given relief or even cured ; 
yet more efficient tonic remedies may be substituted. 

It was once recommended in pulmonary consump- 
tion ; but it only abates the hectic feyer. 

The powder, decoction or syrup, may be used. 
The doses are from five to twenty-five grains of the 
powder, or a wine glass of the decoction every hour. 
A syrup of the leaves and berries is made in Sweden, 
which is preferable. 

Substitutes — Chimaphila or Pipsiseva — ErU 
geron Philadelphicum, &c. — Heuchera or Alum- 
root — Geranium maculatum — Statice Cay^oliniana 
— Asparagus — Strawberries — Tannin — and many as- 
tringents, acids, tonics and diuretics. 

Remarks — The figure of Henry is fictitious. 


No. 10. 



.._ .^ L_ 


No. 10. 



French Name — Serpentaire de Virginie. 

German Name — Schlangen Osterluzey. 

Officinal Name — Serpentaria Virginiana. 

Vulgar Names — Virginia Snakeroot, Snakeweed, 

Authorities — Linnaeus, Schoepf, Woodville, 
Pursh, Elliot, Catesby, Golden, Cornutus, Moseley, 
B. Barton, Bigelow fig, 49, W. Bart. 2. fig. 28, and 
all the Dispensaries, Pharmacopeias and Materia Me- 
dicas, &c. 

Genus Aristolochia — Perigone tubular colored, 
base swelling, tube tortuose, limb labiate, often ligu- 
lar. No corolla. Germ inferior : stigma sessile lobed, 
surrounded by six stamina epigynous sessile. Capsul 
six celled, many seeded. 

Species A. Serpentaria — Stem simple flexuose j 
leaves lanceolate, cordate, entire, and acuminate : 
flowers bilabiate subradical, peduncles curved, uni- 
flore, scaly and jointed. 

DESCRIPTION— Root perennial, knotty and gib- 
bose, brown and very fibrous, fibres long, small, yel- 
low when fresh — Stems round, slender, weak, flex- 
uose, jointed, less than a foot high, bearing from three 
to seven leaves, and from one to three flowers — Leaves 


0^ ARXSTOLOCnXA. No. 10. 

alternate and petiolate, oblong or lanceolate, base cor- 
dolate, end acuminate, margin entire, sometimes un- 
dulate, surface smooth or pubescent, of a pale green. 

Flowers nearly radical and solitary, on peduncles cur- 
ved, jointed, colored, with some small scales. Germ 
inferior, perigone redish or purplish, tube crooked, 
limb bilabiate, upper lip notched, lower entire, both 
short and lobular. Six sessile anthers, oblong ob- 
tuse, attached to the sides of a large round sessile 
stigma. Capsul oboval, with six angles, six cells, 
and many minute seeds. 

HISTORY — The genus Aristolochia requires a 
thorough investigation and reform, being rather a fa- 
milv than a 2;enus : two subj°jenera at least must be 
made of it. 

1. Glossula. Flowers unilabiate and ligular. True 
type of the genus. 

2. Pistolochia, Flowers bilabiate and ringent. To 
this belong A, serpentaria, A, ringens, A. bilabia- 
ta, &c. 

While many species widely deviating from the ge- 
neric characters must form peculiar genera, such as 

Siphwia, Flowers not labiate, limb equal trilobe. 
Such are A, sip/io, A. tripteris, A, tomentosa^ &c. 

Endodeca, With twelve stamina, Ex. A. dodecan- 
dra, and perhaps Bigelow's A. serpentaria, 

Einomeia, With only five stamina, capsul five 
celled, such as ./^. pentundra, &c. 

The actual species is by no means very definite as 
yet. The Virginia Snakeroot of Commerce is col- 
lected from half a dozen species or varieties, «^. has- 

No. 10. AKZSTOX.OCHZA. 63 

tata^ A. tomentosa, and many called •/?. serpcnta- 
ria, because they have consimilar leaves and roots, 
while the flowers are different. The *^. serpentaria 
of W. Barton appears to be a peculiar variety, with 
long slender peduncles, having few scales and not co- 
lored, vvhile the flowers are small, purple, and hard- 
ly bilabiate. 

Bigelow's plant, which is from the Southern States, 
has the leaves trinervate, less acuminate, and more 
undulate ; vvhile the flowers are large, bilabiate and 
red, scales^ many and broad, stamina twelve ! and stigma 
lobed convolute. This may be a distinct species be- 
longing perhaps to Endodeca. 

Our figure is from a large flowered variety of the 
western glades ; but many other varieties exist there, 
one has broad leaves. 

All these plants blossom but seldom or once in their 
lives, in May or June ; being very similar to each 
other, (except S. tomeiitosa,) they are collected in- 
discriminately. The roots alone enter into Com- 
merce, and sell for more tlian the Seneca Snakeroot. 
They are an article of exportation to Europe. 

Aristolochia belongs with Asarum to the natural 
order of Asarides. Linnaeus has put it into GrxMAN- 
DRiA hexandria. 

Locality — In shady woods from New-England to 
Florida and Missouri, most abundant in the Allegha- 
ny and Cumberland mountains, scarce in the* alluvial 
and limestone resrions. 

Qualities — The root has an agreeable, penetrating, 
aromatic smell, somewhat similar to Valerian and 

i34 ARlSTOLOCRZA. No. 10. 

Spruce : and a warm bitterish pungent taste. It 
contains pure camphor, a resin, a bitterish extractive, 
and a strong essential oil. By distillation a pearly 
fluid is produced. By infusion in alcohol, it gives a 
yellow or green tincture ; and in water a brown li- 
quor : the tincture is most powerful. By decoction 
or distillation much of its active principles evaporate, 

PROPERTIES — Diaphoretic, tonic, anodyne, an- 
tispasmodic, cordial, antiseptic, vermifuge, exanthe- 
matic; alexitere, and a powerful stimulant of the whole 
system. It was first introduced into Materia Medica 
as a remedy against snake bites, whence its name, and 
was used as such by the Indians, with many other 
plants : it acts then as a sudorific and antiseptic. It 
is useful in the low stage of fevers to support strength 
and allay irregular actions : too stimulant in inflam- 
matory fevers and disorders ; but an excellent auxili- 
ary to Peruvian bark and other tonics in intermit- 
tents, enabling the stomach to bear them, and increas- 
ing their effects. In remittent fevers it is preferable 
to bark. It is deservedly a popular country remedy 
in infusion, for pleurisy, exanthems, cachexia, catarrh, 
rheumatism, &c. acting as a sudorific. In bilious 
pleurisy it has been found higlily serviceable : in bi- 
lious complaints it checks vomiting and tranquillizes 
the stomach. In typhus and typhoid pneumonia it 
has beneficial effects, promoting perspiration, check- 
ing mortification, and abating the symptoms. 

Thus the Snakeroot may be deemed an active and 
valuable medicine, it is often associated with other to- 
nics, and camphor, opium, valerian, &c. to increase 


their action. It is probably a good substitute for cam- 
phor and valerian in many cases. The doses of the 
powder are froni ten to thirty grains, often repeated, 
or an' ounce of the warm infusion every three hours. 
Wine is an excellent vehicle for it in fevers. Many 
compound tinctures contain it. When too stimulant 
Spikenard {Aralia) and Elder {Samhucus) may be 
substituted to advantage. 

Substitutes Camphor Rosemary Seneca 

Snakeroot — Eupatoriuni perfolialum — Asarum 
Canadense and Virginicum — All the native Arts- 
tolochias — GauUheria procumbens, and many other 
tonic and diaphoretic stimulants. 

Remarks — The bark, seeds, and roots of the A, 
Sipko, (or Siphisia glabra,,) called vulgarly Dutch- 
man-pipe flower or Pipe Vine, may be substituted, 
having the same properties. It is a tall vine, with 
large cordate smooth leaves, and brown flowers like 
a pipe v^^ith a trilobe mouth, growing on the Ohio, &c. 

«/^, tonientosa (or Siphisia tonitfntosa) is a low- 
vine, with cordate woolly leaves, growing in the 
Western States. 

A. hastata is a small plant, with long narrow 
leaves, having obtuse auricles at the base : it grows 
in the Southern States. The roots of these two last 
are often mixed with the common kind in the shops. 

Henry's figure represents probably the A. iomcn- 
fosa, but the leaves are too sharp. 

F 3 

6Q AKUM. No. li. 

No. 11. 



French Name — Pied-de-Veautriphylle. 

German Name — Dreyblattrige Aron. 

Officinal Name — Arisarum trifolium, Arum ra- 

Vulgar Names — Indian Turnip, Dragon Root, 
Dragon Turnip, Pepper Turnip. 

Authorities — Linnaeus, Michaux, Pursh, Elliot, 
Schoepf, Dispensaries, Bigelow fig. 4, Sequel, &c. 

Genus Arum — Spathe univalve cucullate, convo- 
lute at the base. Spadix naked above : no perianthe. 
Stamina and pistils naked separated at the base of the 
spadix : filaments with two or four anthers ; berries 
conglomerate, one celled, few seeded. 

Species A. tripJiyllum — Leaves radical, ternate, 
folioles sessile, oval, acuminate, entire and smooth : 
scape with one spathe ovate acuminate, inflexed : spa- 
dix club shaped, shorter : flowers polygamous, trioi- 

DESCRIPTION— Root perennial, round, flatten- 
ed, tuberous, with many white fibres around the base: 
skin dark, loose, and wrinkled. — Leaves one or two 
on long sheathing petiols, three folioles very smooth 
and sharp, pale beneath, oval or rhomboidal or ob- 
long, entire or undulated, with regular parallel nerves. 

Ko. 11. 



No. 11. AAum. 67 

Scape or leafless stem, tunicated at the base by vagi- 
nated membranaceous acute sheaths, supporting one 
large upright spathe, tubular at the base, hooded at 
the top, either green or purple, or variegated with 
both colours in stripes within. Spadix cylindric, ob- 
tuse at the top, also variable in colour, bearing the 
flowers at the base where it is contracted. Some plants 
have only stamina, others pistils, and others have 
both, wherefore it is polygamous trioicious. Anthers 
two or four on short crowded filaments. Pistils crowd- 
ed below, round, without styles, stigma punctiform. 
Sometimes abortive pistils and stamina intermixed. 
The upper part of the spadix withers with the spathe, 
while the pistils grow into a large compact head of 
shining scarlet berries. 

HISTORY — Arum is the type of a natural family, 
the Aroides, among Monocotyle plants. In the Lin- 
tiaean system it has been put in Gynandria or in Po- 
ly andria ; yet many species are polygamous. Lin- 
naeus did very improperly, and against his own. bota- 
nical rules, change the previous name of Tournefort 
Arisaruni into Arum, which is a mere termination 
of many other genera, Asarum, Comarum, &c. : 
triphyllum means three leaved. 

The A, tryphillum blossoms with us from May to 
July, and in the summer bears its bright scarlet ber- 
ries. The vulgar names are common to all the North 
American species, which have similar roots. Their 
leaves are sensible to a harsh grasp like Onoclea se?i- 
sibilis, and the A. dracontium coils them when pluck- 
ed. The seeds and roots may be rendered edible like 

6g AAUM. No. 11. 

A. esculentum (notwithstanding their caustic pun- 
gency) by long coction ; they were eaten by the In- 
dians roasted and otherwise. 

Locality — All over North America in woods : it 
is said to extend to South America as far as Brazil ; 
but probably a different species is found there. All 
soils and regions appear to suit this plant : it delights 
however in good, rich, and shady grounds. 

Qualities — The whole plant, and particularly the 
root, is violently acrid, pungent, and even caustic to 
the tongue, but not to the skin. It burns worse than 
Capsicicm or Cayenne pepper. This active princi- 
ple is a peculiar substance, •droine, highly volatile, 
having no affinity with water, alcohol, oil or acids, 
and becoming an inflammable gas by heat or distilla- 
tion. The roots yield one fourth of their weight of a 
pure amylaceous matter, like starch or arrow-root, 
or a fine white delicate nutritive fecula, by the same 
process as Cassava or Jatropha manihot^ 

PROPERTIES— Powerful acrid, stimulant, inci- 
sive, restorative, expectorant, calefacient, carmina- 
tive and diaphoretic. The fresh roots are too caus- 
tic to be used internally, unless much diluted, and 
when dry they are often inert, unless they have been 
dried very quick, or kept buried in sand or earth. It 
must be used in substance mixed with milk or mo- 
lasses, since it does not impart its pungency to any 
liquor ; or the fresh roots must be grated, or reduced 
to a pulp, with three times their weight of sugar, 
thus forming a conserve, the dose of which is a tea 
spoonful twice a day. 

No. 11. ARtTM. 69 

In these forms it is used for flatulence, cramp in the 
stomach, asthmatic and consumptive affections. It 
quickens circulation, and promises to be a useful to- 
pical stimulant when the acrid principle may be ren- 
dered available. It has been found beneficial in lin- 
gering atrophy, debilitated habits, great prostration 
in typhoid fevers, deep seated rheumatic pains, or 
pains in the breast, chronic catarrh, &c. 

Substitutes — Capsicum — Salep — Erythronium — 
Squill — Arrow-root — Polygonum hydropiper — Salvia 
urticifolia — Cyclamen europeum — Arum dracontium^ 
and other native Arums — besides Ranunculus bulbo- 
suSf and some other acrid pungent substances. 

Remarks — A. dracontium has a large pedate leaf, 
with five to fifteen oblong segments, and grows in the 
Southern and Western States. 

A^ virgtnicum has sharp, wide, cordate leaves, and 
grows in Virginia, &.c. 

A, sagitefolium has sharp, long, sagittated leaves, 
and grows from New- York to Carolina. All these 
have similar roots, seeds, and properties. 

Henry has assumed the name and figure of the Eu- 
ropean A, maculatum for this plant. 

70 ASARUM. No. K. 

No. 12, 



French Name — Asaret du Canada. 

German Name — C anadkche Haselwurz. 

Officinal Names — Asari Canadensis, radix and 

Vulgar Names — Wild Ginger, Indian Ginger, Ca«- 
nada Snakeroot, Heart Snakeroot, Coltsfoot, &c. 

Authorities — Linnoeus, Schoepf, Michaux, Pursh, 
Cornut, Coxe, Dispensaries, B. Barton, W. Barton, 
fig 32, Bigelow fig. 15 and Sequel. 

Synonyms — A. latifolium of Salisbury. A» carO' 
linianum of Walter. 

Genus Asaruii — Perigone urceolate trifid. Sta- 
mina twelve epigynous, anthers adnate. Germ coa- 
lescent with the base of the perigone, style short, 
stigma stellated six parted. Capsul six locular, many 
seeded. — Stemless, leaves radical geminate, flowers 
solitary in the bifurcation. 

Species -4. Canadense — Leaves broad, reniform, en- 
tire, puberulent : flower woolly, tripartite, segments 
lanceolate reflexed. 

DESCRIPTION— Roots perennial, creeping, 
fleshy, cylindric, jointed, with scattered fibres, brown 
outside, white inside. — Radical leaves, geminate, pu- 
bescent, with long and round petioles, reniform or 

No. 1 2» 



a^. 12. ASARUIML yi 

kidney shaped, broad, entire, tip often mucronatebut 
obtuse, surface puberulent, veined like a net work, 
and often spotted, glaucous beneath. No stems. 
Flower solitary between the two leaves, on a curved 
peduncle, tomentose, purple, darker inside. Peri- 
gone with three equal segments, acuminate reflexed. 
Stamina twelve unequal, filaments mucronate, an- 
thers adnate laterally. Three filiform nectaries or 
abortive stamina, alternating with the segments. 
Style conical grooved, or six coalescent styles, crown- 
ed by six thick revolute stigmas. Capsul round, hexa- 
gonal, crowned, and with many small seeds. 

HISTORY — A humble stemless plant, with flow- 
ers nearly concealed in the ground. It has many va- 
rieties, with small or large leaves, rounded or mucro- 
nate, spotted or unspotted ; the flowers also vary in 
colour from greenish purple to dark purple ; they 
blossom in May and June. 

Asarum is an ancient name, the genus gives name 
to a natural order Asarides, called Aristolochides 
by Jussieu, and Sarrnentacea by Linnseus. In the 
Linnean system it is placed either in Dodecandria or 
Gynandria. It has been called Canadense, because 
first noticed in Canada, the name latifolia of Salisbury 
would be preferable. 

The names of Wild Ginger, Heart Snakeroot, &c. 
arc common to all the other species, 'i'he roots are 
often collected and sold for Virginia Snakeroot, al- 
though yQ,VY different in appearance, but simJlar in 
taste, smell and properties. They deserve to be col- 
lected more extensively, as an article of tyade and ex- 

7^ ASARUM. No. 12. 

portation ; being an excellent substitute for ginger in 
every instance. 

Locality — From Canada to Carolina and Missou- 
ri, in shady woods, it is most abundant in hills, val- 
leys, and rich alluvions. 

Qualities — The whole plant, but particularly the 
root, has an agreeable aromatic bitterish taste, inter- 
mediate between Ginger and Aristolochia serpentana ; 
but more pleasant, warm, and pungent. The smell 
is spicy and strong. The active substances are a vo- 
latile oil, possessing the taste and smell of the plant, 
with a red and bitter resin, both soluble in alcohol j 
they contain besides much fecula and mucilage. 

PROPERTIES— Aromatic stimulant and diapho- 
retic, cordial, emenagogjue, subtonic, errhine, &c. ; 
but not properly emetic like the A. europeuin, al- 
though often mentioned as such. It is a grateful sub- 
stitute of the Serpentaria in many cases. It is useful 
in cachexia, melancholy, palpitations, low fevers, 
convalescence, obstruclions, hooping-cough, &c. The 
doses must be small and often repeated, since it be- 
comes nauseous in large doses. The best preparation 
is a cordial made with the tincture and syrup j the 
tincture is coloured dark red by the resin. 

The dried leaves make a fine stimulating and ce- 
phalic snuff, when reduced to powder, which may be 
used in all disorders of the head and eyes. 

A grateful wine or beer may be made by the infu- 
sion of the whole plant, in fermenting wine or beer. 

Substitutes — Ginger — Aristolochia serpfntaria — - 
Aralia species — Helenium oiitumnale — Spices — Lau- 

No. 12. ASARtTlMC. 73 

rus benzoin, with many aromatic stimulants, and all 
the other American species of this genus. 

Remarks — A, Virginicum may be known by its 
smooth cordate leaves ; it is found from Maryland to 
Georgia and Tennessee, particularly in mountains, 
and is still more grateful than A. Canadense, 

*/?. arifolium has smooth, hastated, spotted leaves, 
and a tubular flower ; it is found in Carolina and Ten- 

The figure of Henry represents the leaves sharp, 
which is never the case, and he calls it Swamp Asa- 
rabocca, although never growing in swamps. 


No. 13. 



French Name — Houatte Tubereuse. 

German Name — Knollige »schwalbenwurz. 

Officinal Name — A. tuberosa radix. 

Vulgar Names — Pleurisy root, Butterfly weedj 
Flux root, Wind root, White root. Silk weed, Canada 
:Toot, &c. 

Authorities — Linnaeus, Schoepf, Michaux,Pursli, 
B, Barton, Chapman, Thacher, Dispensaries, Parker, 
Tully, Bigelow, Med. Bot. fig. 26 & Seq. W. Bar- 
ton M. Med. fig. 22, &c. 

Genus Asclepias — Calix quinquefid. Corolla five 
parted, flat or reHexed, bearing five auricles with ap- 
pendages and a large central truncate stegyne, sup- 
porting and concealing the five stamina, covering the 
two pistils : which are succeeded by two follicles. 

Species A. Tuberosa — Hairy, leaves scattered, 
variable, nearly sessile, oblong or lanceolate, entire : 
umbels with subulate bracts, flowers lax and orange 

DESCRIPTION— Root perennial, large, fleshy, 
white, of variable form, fusiform, crooked or branch- 
ed — Many stems either erect or ascending oi pro- 
cumbent, round, hairy, green or red — Leaves scat- 
tered, sessile, or on short petiols, very hairy, pale 

No. 13. 



So. 13. ASCX.CPZAS. 70 

beneath, entire or undulate, oblong or lanceolate, or 
nearly linear, obtuse or acute. 

Several terminal or lateral umbels, divaricate, with 
subulate bracts for involucre. Flowers erect, pedun- 
cled, and of a bright orange color. Calix small re- 
flexed, five parted Corolla reflexed, five parted, seg- 
ments oblong ; auricles erect, nearly as long, cuculate, 
with incurved appendages or horns. Stegyne tough, 
pyramidal, having five coalescent stamina around, 
each with two cells and two masses of pollen suspend- 
ed by a threat. Two pistils completely concealed by 
the stegyne ; germs ovate with short styles, stigmas 
jobtuse. — Follicles two, often abortive, lanceolate, 
acute, erect, downy, dehiscent laterally ; seeds many, 
imbricate, flat, ovate, connected to a longitudinal re- 
ceptacle by long silken hairs. 

HISTORY — The beautiful genus Asclepias be- 
longs to the natural order of Apocynes, section t^^s^ 
clepides. In the Linnean system, it has been put in 
Pentandria digynia ; but the singular structure of 
the flower is such as to puzzle Botanists, and it might 
as well be considered as decandrous, or monadel- 
phous ! the flowers appear to have a double corolla, the 
inner one has five lobes called nectaries or auricles. 
This structure renders, however, the genus very na- 
tural and easily recognizable. It is dedicated to Es- 
culapius, the ancient god of medicine, under his 
Grecian name of x\sclepias. 

This species is easily known at first sight by its 
bright orange flowers blossoming in July and Au- 
gust, among all the numerous American congeneric 

76 ASCLSPXAS. N«. 13:. 

species ; which are upwards of thirty. It is a very 
ornamental plant, although inodorous, while many 
others are sweet scented. The roots which are near- 
ly tuberous, have given name to it, although the •/?. 
acuminata is also tuberous. The Jl. decitmbens of 
some Botanists is only one of its varieties : it is very 
variable in the stems and leaves. 

All the Asclepias are milky ; but this less than 
others. They all produce a fine glossy and silky down 
in the follicles or pods ; which has been used for beds, 
hats, cloth and paper. This down makes excellent 
beds and pillows, being elastic, and one pound and an 
half occupying a cubic foot. Light and soft hats are 
made with it : the staple is too short to be spun and 
woven alone ; but it may be mixed with flax, cotton, 
wool and raw silk. It makes excellent paper, and the 
stalks of the plants afford it likewise, as in flax and 
Jipocynum. The A, syriaca or Silky Swallow-wort 
producing more of the down, has been cultivated for 
the purpose, and a pound of down produced from 
forty to fifty plants. Its young shoots are edible 
like poke, and the flowers produce a honey by com- 

The Ji. syriaca, Ji. incarnata, and several other 
species, have similar medical properties, and may be 
substituted to this, although somewhat less active. 

Locality — Found all over the United States, but 
most abundant in the South ; it prefers open situa- 
tions, poor and gravelly soils, along gravelly streams ^ 
and on hills. Rare in rich and loamy soils. 

Qualities — The root is brittle when dry, and easi- 

Ko. 13. ASCtEKAS. 77 

ly reduced to powder ; it is somewhat bitter, but not 
unpleasant : it contains a bitter extractive and fecula, 
both soluble in boiling water. When fresh the root, 
as well as the whole plant, is rather unpleasant, sub- 
acrid and nauseous. 

PROPERTIES— Subtonic, diaphoretic, expecto- 
rant, diuretic, laxative, escarotic, carminative, antis- 
pasmodic, &c. It is a valuable popular remedy, and 
a mild sudorific, acting safely without stimulating the 
body. It is supposed to act specifically on the lungs, 
to promote suppressed expectoration, and to relieve 
the breathing of pleuritic patients. It appears to ex- 
ert a mild tonic effect, as well as stimulant power over 
the excretories. It relieves the dyspnoea and pains 
in the chest. It often acts as a mild cathartic, suita- 
ble for the complaints of children ; it is also useful in 
cholic, hysteria, menorhagia, dysentery, &c. 

In the low state of typhus fever, it has produced 
perspiration when other sudorifics had failed. In 
pneumonia and catarrh it is always beneficial. It re- 
stores the tone of the stomach and digestive powers. 
It has been given in asthma, rheumatism, syphilis, 
and even for worms. 

Ail these valuable properties, many of which are 
well attested, entitle it to general notice, to become 
an article of commerce, be kept in shops, &c. 

The doses are from twenty to thirty grains of the 
powdered root three times a day, or a gill of the de- 
coction and infusion every few hours : a vinous infu- 
sion and a decoction in milk are also recommended 
in some cases. 

ct 2 

78 ASCLSPXAS. No. 13. 

Substitutes — Snakeroots — Myrrh — Spikenard — 

Squ il I Asarabaca — Sassafras — Tol u — %fipocynu7ii 

andro semi folium Liquorice— Ginseng Many 

other Swallow-worts, &c. 

Remarks — It may be useful to notice some other 
species possessing the same properties. 

%^. syriaca or common Silkweed, grows all over 
the United States near streams ; it has large oblong 
opposite leaves, white beneath, and large globular 
umbels of sweet scented flowers of a lilac color. 

«y5. incarnata, grows also near streams every 
where, has lanceolate leaves, opposite and acute ; 
flowers flesh colored or red, scentless. 

j1. acuminata, also near streams in New-Jersey, 
&c, with opposite ovate acuminate leaves, flowers red 
and white. 

^. quadrifolia, from New-York to Kentucky in 
woods, beautiful little plant with leaves like the fore- 
going, but four in a whorl, flowers flesh coloured and 
very fragrant. 

Henry calls our plant ./?. decumbens, but his fi- 
gure is a very bad one of *d. incarnata. 

No, 14. 



No. 14. BAPTZSXA. 79 

No 14. 


English Name— INDIGO-BROOM. 

French NAftiE — Indigo trefle. 

German Name — Farbende Baptisia. 

Officinal Names — Baptisia tinctoria, herba & 

Vulgar Names — Wild Indigo, Indigo weed, 
Horsefly weed, Yellow broom, Clover broom, Rat- 
tle-bush, Yellow Indigo. 

Synonyms — Sophora tinctoria^ Lin. Podalyria tinc- 
toria, Mich. &c. 

Authorities — Linnaeus, Michaux, Pursh, Elliot, 
Weems, Thacher Dispensary, Comstock, Schoepf, 
Bart. M. Med. fig. 29. 

Genus Baptisia — Calix bilabiate, four cleft. Co- 
rolla papilionaceous, petals nearly equal, vexillum la- 
terally reflexed. Stamina ten, free unequal. Pistil 
stipitate, ventricose, many seeded — Leaves ternate. 

Species B. tinctoria — Very smooth and branched, 
leaves small nearly sessile, folioles cuneate, obovate, 
obtuse ; racemes terminal, few flowered ; pods ovate 
on long pedicles. 

DESCRIPTION — Root perennial, large and woody, 
irregular, blackish outside, yellowish within, fibres 
lighter. Stems two or three feet high, round and 
smooth, yellowish green with black dots, very much 

80 BAPTISIA. No. u. 

ramified ; but branches thin and with small leaves. 
These leaves are alternate, and with three folioles 
nearly sessile, obovate, smooth, of a bluish green ; 
stipules minute, evanescent, oblong, acute. — Flowers 
bright yellow, in small loose spikes at the end of 
branches, pea like, but smaller. — Calix campanulate 
bilabiate, upper lip entire or notched, lower trifid. — 
Stamina inclosed deciduous. — Pistil single and stipi- 
tate, succeeded by a swelled oblong pod of a bluish 
black color, with a row of small rattling seeds, 

HISTORY — This plant has the appearance of a 
small shrub and broom : it blossoms in July and Au- 
gust. The whole plant (even the flowers) often be- 
come black in the fall or in a herbarium ; it dyes a 
kind of blue like Indigo ; but greatly inferior. The 
young shoots are eaten like those of Poke in New- 
England, and are like it of a drastic nature. It is 
often used to keep off the flies from horses, as these 
insects appear to avoid it. 

Several other sp€cies grow in the Southern and 
Western States, which have probably similar quali- 
ties. The B. australis with large blue flowers, very 
t)rnamental, grows on the banks of streams : the B* 
alba has white flowers, &c. These plants were an- 
nexed to Sophoj'a by Linnaeus, and to Podalyria by 
other botanists, until properly separated by Vente- 
nat, &c. 

Baptisia belongs to the great natural order of Le- 
ctUMiNosE plants, (bearing pods,) and to the section 
Lomentaceous, having free stamina : also to Decan- 
DRiA mo;^o^y?^^tf of Linnaeus. 

No. 14. BAFTZSZA. 81 

Locality — Found all over the United States from 
Maine to Louisiana and Illinois, in woods, and on 
hills ; it prefers dry and poor soils, is unknown in 
lich loamy soils, and seldom met in alluvions. 

Qualities — The whole plant, but particularly the 
root, is nauseous, subacrid, subastringent, but inodo- 
rous. It is active and dangerous in its fresh state, if 
taken internally, but loses much of its action by long 
keeping, and by boiling. Its active principles are lit- 
tle known ; it contains tannin, indigo, and an acid. 

PROPERTIES— Astringent, antiseptic, febrifuge, 
diaphoretic, purgative, emetic and stimulant. It is 
a valuable remedy for all kinds of ulcers, even the 
foulest, either gangrenose, phagedenic, or syphilitic: 
also for almost every sore, such as malignant ulcerous 
sore throat, mercurial sore mouth, sore nipples, aph- 
thous, chronic sore eyes, painful acrid sores, and every 
ulcerous affection. It must be used externally in 
strong decoction as a wash or in fomentation, also in 
poultice, or ointment with lard or cream. 

This is one of the most powerful vegetable anti- 
septics in putrid disorder and in internal mortification, 
it may be given internally at the dose of half an ounce 
of a decoction, made with twenty times its weight of 
water. It stops gangrene, has cured Scarlatina angi- 
nosa, inverted uterus, and sometimes putrid and ty 
phus fevers. ' As a cathartic and emetic, it is incon- 
venient and variable in results. 

Substitutes — Kalmia latifolia — Charcoal — To» 
nic Barks — Kubus villosus — Collinsonia Canaden 
sis — Solarium dulcamara & S. virginicum, 4*c. 


No. 15. 


English Name— BARBERRY. 

French Name — Epine Vinette, 

German Name — Berberitze. 

Officinal Name — Berberis baccae, &c. 

Vulgar Name — American Barberry bush. 

Synonyms — Berberis Vulgaris Var. Canadensis 
of Linnaeus, Michaux, &c. 

Authorities — Linnaeus, Michaux, Pursh, Schoepf, 
several Dispensaries, and Mat. Med. 

Genus Berberis — Calix free with six sepals or fo- 
lioles, and three small bracts outside. Corolla with 
six petals, biglandular at the base. Stamina six, op- 
posite to the petals. One free pistil, germ oblong, 
stigma sessile and umbilicate. Berry one celled, 
two-four seeded. 

Species B. Canadensis — Shrubby, upright, bran- 
ches dotted, with triple thorns ; leaves fasciculate obo- 
vate, remote serrulate : racemes nodding or drooping. 

DESCRIPTION — A pretty shrub rising from four 
to eight feet high, with long bending branches, hav- 
ing many confluent dots and some smaH thorns, often 
three together. The leaves are crowded and unequal 
in each fascicle ; on short petiols ; they are smooth 
and glossy, oboval, obtuse, with small remote teeth. 
The flowers are on slender and lax racemes, either 

No. 15. 


No. 15. BERBEKXS. S3 

nodding or pendulous ; they are yellow, on long pe- 
dicels, and rather small. The petals are oblong ob- 
tuse, and have each two glands and a stamen at the 
base. The berries hang in loose bunches, they are 
oblong and red, smaller and less juicy than in the com- 
mon garden Barberry of Europe. 

HISTORY — Berberis is an ancient name, it is the 
type of the natural order of Berberides. In the Lin- 
nean system it is placed in Hexandria monogynia. 
This species was considered a variety of the B. vuU 
garis of Europe, till Pursh separated it, and it hardly 
differs from it. It blossoms in April and May, and 
ripens the berries in June ; but they are sometimes 

The stamina of the flowers are irritable, and bend 
with elasticity towards the pistil. It is supposed that 
the vicinity of this shrub is injurious to wheat, and 
this has been noticed os one of the instances of vege- 
table antipathy or incompatible vicinity. It is liable 
to the rust, sterility, and many other diseases. 

Locality — From Canada to Virginia, in moun- 
tains, hills, among rocks, &c. Common in New- 
England in rocky fields : rare in the West and in 
rich soils. 

Qualities — The whole shrub (even the root) is 
acid ; in the berries this acid becomes very pleasant, 
and is probably the tartaric ; but mixed with some as- 
tringency 5 the bark is yellow and bitter. 

PROPERTIES — Antiseptic, acid, subastringent,^ 
refrigerant, &c. The berries, leaves, bark and roots, 
»iay be used in putrid fevers, dysentery, bilious di- 

84 BERBERZS. No. 15. 

arrhea, summer flux, and all kinds of acute inflamma- 
tions, A syrup, jelly, conserve, &c are made with 
them, which prove very palatable, cooling, and bene- 
ficial in those complaints, as auxiliary remedies It 
has also been used in the jaundice and other diseases ; 
but with less success and certainty. The bark has 
very difierent properties : it is tonic and purgative ; it 
has been given in Leucorhcea, aphthes, jaundice, &c. 
it also dyes of a yellow color. 

Substitutes — Red Currants — Pomegranate — Le- 
mon Juice— Cream of Tartar — t^ndromeda Arbor ea 

Callicarpa %^mericana — Oxalis — Common 

terry — Tamarinds, and all strong vegetable a' 
also Elixir of Vitriol, &c. 


IVo. 16. 



No. 16. 



No. 16. 


English Name—black SNAKE ROOT, 

French Name — Serpentaire noire. 

Ger3ian Name — Schwarz Schlangewurz. 

Officinal Name — -Serpentaria nigra. 

Vulgar Names — Squaw root, Rich weed, Rattle 
weed, Rattle-Snake-root, Black Cohosh &c. 

Synonyms — Actea raceniosa, Lin. &c. Cimicifu' 
ga Serpentaria, Pursh, &.c. Macrotrys, Sub-G. Ra- 
finesque and Decandolle. 

Authorities — Linnaeus, Schoepf, Colden, Mi- 
chaux, Pursh, B. Barton, Elliot, Decandolle, some 
Dispensaries, Tully, Big. Sequel, &c. 


1, Cal. four leaved Calix four leaved 

2. Corolla, with'CoroUa, with four 
large flat petals. 

Stamina many. 
Pistil one. 
Berry not open- 

many minute 
flat petals. 

3. Stamina many. 

4. Pistil one. 

5. Capsul dehis- 
cent longitudi 

6. Seeds many la 

Species B. Serpentaria — Leaves ample, decom- 
posed or tripinnate, folioles ovate acute, serrate oi' 


Seeds lateral. 


Calix four leaved. 
Corolla with four 
urceolate petals* 

Stamina many. 
Pistils several. 
Several dehiscent 

Seeds scaly. 

86 BOTROPKXS. No. 16. 

'■ ■ ' . , . . ^ .. . — 

jaggetl ; raceme terminal, very long, more or less 
bent: flowers scattered, peduncled, bracteolate. 

DESCRIPTION— Root perennial, blackish, thick, 
with long fibres. — Stem simple straight, from three 
to six feet high, smooth, angular, furrowed, often, 
crooked — leaves few and alternate, one nearly radical, 
remote, ample, decomposed, tripinnate, upper one 
bipinnate; folioles sessile, opposite, three to seven on 
each last division of the petiole, oval or lanceolate, 
acuminate, smooth, pale beneath, with yellowish re- 
ticulated veins, margin unequally jagged, or sharply 
serrate, particularly outsider the last foliole is trifid. 

Flowers in a long terminal raceme, from one 
"to three feet long, often with one or two shorter ones 
near its base. This raceme is cylindrical, white, al- 
ways bent or crooked at first ; the flowers are scatter- 
ed, lax, often geminate or fasciculate, on short pedun- 
cles, with a subulate bract. The calix is white, like a 
corolla, with four thick rounded and obtuse sepals ; 
ihe petals are very small, shorter than the calix 
and stamina : these last form a pencil, the filaments 
are white, club shaped ; the anthers yellow, oblong, 
terminal. Pistil oval, without style, stigma sessile, 
Tateral and flattened. Capsul blackish and dry, with 
one cell and a longitudinal receptacle, opposite to the 
opening, to which many flat seeds are attached. 

This plant has many varieties, one is dwarf, a foot 
high, with a triangular stem, leaves small, biternate, 
and wiiii several racemes : growing in the moun- 
tains of New York. If it is a peculiar speeiesj it might 
be called 7?. pumila. 


HISTORY — Notwithstanding my reluctance to in- 
novate in this work, I am compelled to separate this 
plant from the Genera Actea and Cimicifnga, to 
which it has been by turns united. I did so ever 
since 180S, calling it Macrotrys^ which meant long 
raceme^ which name Decandolle has adopted as a 
subgenus oi Actea\ but this name being delusive, too 
harsh, and an abbreviation of MucroboirySy I have 
framed a better one, meaning Snake raceme : the ra* 
ceme or long spike of flowers being mostly crooked, 
and like a snake. To convince any one of the neces^ 
sity of this change and impossibility of leaving this 
plant with Actea or Cimicifuga, I have given the 
characters of the three genera in opposition to each 
other, whereby the striking difference in the corolla, 
pistils and fruit, will be perceived at once. 

Actea and Botropkis belong to a peculiar natural 
family, the Acteides, having single pistils and fruits: 
while Cimicifuga belongs to Ranunculides with 
several pistils. Botrophis must be put with Actea in 
PoLYANDRiA monogynia, while Cimicifuga belongs 
to PoLYANDRiA pcntagynia or polygynia. 

The Actea joponica is probably a Botrophis. The 
American species has an extensive range, and was 
used by all the Indians. It blossoms in June and 
July. The whole plant, and even the flowers are 

Locality — All over the United States, from 
Maine to Florida, Louisiana and Missouri, also in 
Canada and Texas ; very common in open woods, rich 
grounds and sides of hills 5 less common in -rocky 

88 BOTROPHIS. No. 15. 

■ » ■ ■ ■ ■ •»■ ■ ■ ^ — 

mountains and sunny glades, very rare in moist and 
wampy soils. 

Qualities — The root and plant have rather an un- 
pleasant smell, and a disagreeable nauseous taste. 
Schoepf considers it as nearly poisonous, and to be 
used with caution, yet powerful and heroic. It has 
not been analyzed, but appears to contain extractive 
and a fetid oil. 

PROPERTIES— Astringent, diuretic, sudorific, 
anodyne, repellent, emenagogue, subtonic, &c. It is 
an article of the materia medica of the Indians, much 
used by them in rheumatism, and also in facilitating 
parturition, whence its name of Squaw-root. It has 
been found useful in sore-throat, as a gargle : also in 
dropsy, hysterics and psora, in decoction alone, or 
united with Sahgiiinaria Canadensis, It is a bene- 
ficial auxiliary in the treatment of acute and chronic 
rheumatism. It is used by the Indian doctors for 
agues and fevers, which it cures like Eupatorhim 
perfuliaiiim, by a profuse perspiration. Yellow fe- 
ver is said to have been cured by it, after an emetic 
had been taken. 

This is one of the numerous In(Jian cures for the 
bites of snakes :. they use the root chewed and ap- 
plied to the wound ; but they consider the Eryn- 
gium aquaiicum ^ E. yuccefolium (corn Snake- 
root, or Rattle-snake flag) as by far more powerful 
and efficient. A decoction of the root cures the itch! 
It is useful for the diseases of horses and cattle, is said 
to purge them, expel their worms and cure the mur- 
rain, given as a drench. 

No. 16. BOTROPBXS. 89 

Substitutes — »M-ctea alba <^' ^^. rubra — Eryngi- 
um aquaticum 4' -^. yuccefolium — Eupatorium 

pei'foliatum — Snakeroots — Spikenards or Aralias 

Cohosh or Caxdophyllum — Juniper and other similai 
sudorifics and diuretics. 

Remarks — Not figured in Bigelovv nor Barton's 
works. Henry's figure of the Squawroot, which he 
wrongly calls Asclepias purpurascens, is a bad re- 
presentation of this plant; but his description and text 
apply to some other plant. 

The Actea alba or Whiteberry Snakeroot, which 
has the same properties, will be known by a shorter 
stem, smaller leaves, short, oblong raceme, with 
round white berries like wax. It grows from New 
York to Tennessee, in rich woods. 

The A. rubra or Redberry Snakeroot, hardly dif- 
fers from A^ alba, but has red berries and is less 

These two plants aj-e also called Baneberries, and 
their berries are poisonous. They aie called White 
and Red Cohosh by the Indians : the blue Cohosh is 
the Caulophyllum, and the black Cohosh the Botro- 

H 2 


90 BZlASBiirZA. No. 17. 

No. 17. 


English Name— WATER-SHIELD. 

French Name — Hydropelte. 

German Name — Wasserschild. 

Officinal Name — Gelatina aquatica, Biasenia. 

Vulgar Names — Frogleaf, Little Water Lily, 
Water Jelly, Deerfood. 

Synonyms — Hy dr op elt'is purpurea y Michaux, &.c. 

Authorities — Schreber, Wildenow, Persoon, JNIi- 
chaux, Pur^, Elliot, Nuttal, &c. 

Genus Brasenia — Perigoiie simple, colored, co- 
roliform, with six equal sepals or petals, stamina 
ttiany, shorter, hypogynous, anthers adnate : many 
pistils, germs sessile with a style. Fruit, many 
small one-seeded achenes. 

Species B. Hydropeltis — Roots creeping, leaves 
floating, alternate, peltate, elliptic, entire, gelatinous 
beneath : flowers axillary, solitary, peduncled. 

DESCRIPTION— The roots are perennial, creep- 
ing under water and mud, cylindric, jointed with 
bundles of fibres at the joints — Stems many, growing 
till the leaves reach the surface of the water, almost 
similar to the roots — Leaves alternate, on very long 
blender petioles, floating on the water, of a regular el- 
liptic form, like an oblong shield, entire and obtuse, 
s-nooth and lucid above, with regular radiating veins, 

No. IT. 




No. ir. BJIASENIA. 91 

whit6 and veinless beneath, but covered with a coat of 
pale jelly, sometimes purplish : the leaves are two or 
three inches long. 

Flowers on long axillary and solitary peduncles, 
similar to the petioles: these flowers are ofa dark pur- 
ple color,, the six petals are oblong and acute : Stami- 
na from twenty to thirty, shorter than the petals, sur- 
rounding the pistils which are from twelve to twenty, 
germs oblong, styles short, stigma obtuse. Achenes 
or small nuts naked, maturing under water, oval ob- 

HISTORY — This plant was unknown to Linnaeus; 
it was first described by Schreber, and called Bras- 
enia, from a German botanist, Brasen ; IVIichaux 
changed improperly that name into Hydropeliis, 
meaning water-shield in Greek ; both names may be 
retained, but Brasenia has a prior claim to be the 
generic. Only one species is known. 

It belongs to the natural order of Ranttnculides, 
and to Voi.Yi\^D'&ix polygyuia of Linnaeus. It blos- 
soms in July and August. The flowers are pretty, but 
have no smell : the leaves are very singular, and af- 
ford one of the few instances of pure homogenous ve- 
getable jelly, being spontaneously produced, and co- 
vering the whole under surface of the leaves, the 
stems and petioles are also more or less covered with 
it. Deer and cattle are very fond of eating these 
leaves : they resort to the places where they grow 
plentifully, and even swim in the water in seai'ch of 

Locality — From Carolina to Kentucky, and Flo- 

9B BRASSKXA. No. 17. 

rida, rare in Virginia, Missouri and Kentucky, found 
only in some local places, but there extremely abun- 
dant, and spreading so as to cover the whole surface 
of ponds, lakes, marshes and sluggish streams. 

Qualities — =The plant has no smell, but the taste 
is subastringent and bitterish ; the jelly is a pure muci- 
lage similar to that of Lichen and Sesamum, and 
spontaneously evolved ; becoming gummose in dry- 

PROPERTIES— Mucilaginous, astringent, demul- 
cent, tonic, nutritive, &c. Intermediate between 
Lichen Islandicus and the Water Lilies. The fresh 
leaves may be used like Lichen, in pulmonary com- 
plaints and dysentery : when dry the gelatinous mat- 
ter almost disappears, yet they impart mucilage to 
water. If novirose quality exists in this plant, as the 
taste of deer for it appears to indicate, it may become 
a useful substitute or auxiliary to Lichen in phthisis, 
inflammations, debility, &c. boiled into decoction or 

Substitutes — Lungwort or Pulmonaisa — Lichens 
— Arrow-root — Salep — Nymphea & NelumhiuTn — 
Polypodium — jidianthum — Titssilago — Elecampane 
— Liquorice — Marshmallow — Sesamum — Flaxseed. 

Remarks — Unnoticed as yet by all medical wri- 
ters, but well known to the Indians. 

No. 18. 



No. 18. CASSIA. 93 

No. 18. 


English Name— AMERICAN SENNA. 

French Name — Senne' d'amerique. 

German Name — Marilandische Cassia. 

Officinal Names — Senna Americana, folia, &c. 

Vulgar Names — Wild Senna, Locust plant. 

Authorities — Linnaeus, Michaux, Pursh, Schoepf, 
€oxc, Thacher, Chapman, B. Barton^ W. Bart. fig. 
12, Big. fig, 39, & Seq. &c. 

Genus Cassia — Calix five parted, colored, deci- 
duous and unequal. Corolla with five unequal pe- 
tals. Stamina ten, unequal and free, the three up- 
per sterile, the three lower longer, anthers linear 
curved. Pistil stipitate. Pod bivalve, curved, many 
celled transversally — Leaves even pinnate. 

Species C. Marilandica — Herbaceous, leaves 
with eight or ten pairs of oblong mucronate folioies, 
petiole uniglandular : racemes axillar and terminal, 
panicled : pods linear, flat and pendulous. 

DESCRIPTION — Root perennial, contorted, irre- 
gular, woody, black, fibrose — Stems many, nearly 
smooth, upright, from three to six feet high, cylindri- 
cal and simple — Leaves alternate, not many, large, 
horizontal ; petioles compressed, channelled above, 
with an ovate stipitate gland at the base, bearing from 
eight to ten pairs of folioies or leaflets, which are 

Qii CASSIA. No. 18. 

smooth, green above, pale beneath, with short unL 
glandular petioles, shape ovate, oblong or lanceolate 
entire, equal, mucronate at the end — stipules subu- 
late, ciliate, deciduous. 

Flowers of a bright or golden yellow, forming a 
panicle, although partly axillary and in short racemes, 
having each from five to fifteen flowers ; peduncles 
furrowed, pedicels long, glandular, with short bracts. 
Calix colored, with five oval obtuse and unequal seg- 
ments. Petals five, spatulate, concave, obtuse, une- 
qual, two lower larger. Stamina with yellow fila- 
ments and brown anthers, the three upper filaments 
have abortive anthers, the three lower filaments are 
longest, crooked, with long rostrated anthers, all the 
anthers open by a terminal pore. Germ jdeflexed with 
the lower stamina and hairy, style ascending, stigma 
hairy. The fruits or pods are pendulous, linear, hard- 
ly curved, flat and membranaceous, a little hairy, 
blackish, from two to four inches long, holding from 
tvvelve to twenty seeds, or small brown beans. • 

HISTORY — The genus Cassia, although very 
striking by the structure of its flowers, varies much 
in its pods, and must be divided into many genera ; 
Tournefort and Gaertnesr had separated the Cassia 
fistula &c. with cylindrical, pulpy, evalve pods, cal- 
ling the others Senna ; but Persoon, &c. called the 
Cassia fistula by the new name of Cathartocarpus, 
leaving the name of Cassia to the Sennas. This was 
superfluous, and if I was not unwillingto increase this 
confusion, I would call this species Senna riparia, 
the name of Marilandica being also improper ; it was 

No. IB. OASSXA. %3 

given to it because sent first from Maryland to Eu- 

Cassia is an oriental name, derived from Kets'ich, 
name of the Cassia lignea and fistula. The genus 
belongs to the natural order of Leguminose, section 
Lonientaceous. In the Linnean system it is placed in 
Decandria monogynia, although it has only seven 
fertile stamina. 

This plant blossoms from June to August ; the best 
time to collect it, is in September, when the pods are 
ripe ; since they are with the leaves, the efficient 
parts of the plant. It has been ascertained th^t this 
plant is more efficacious than the Senna of Egypt ; it 
ought therefore, to superse le it altogether with us, 
and even to be exported to Europe : but the East In- 
dia senna is said by Bigelow to be a little stronger. — 
The Senna of the shops is obtained from different 
plants, Cassia lanceolala^ C. Serma, C, iialica, &c, 
and even from Cynanchiim olefolium. 

Locality — Found from Massachusetts to Mis- 
souri and Georgia, in rich moist and alluvial soils, 
near streams principally. Very common in the west- 
ern States. 

Qualities — The taste of the leaves is slightly nau- 
seous : they have no smell ■. they contain resin ex, 
tractive and a volatile oil. The infusion and decoction 
have the taste of the plant ; the distilled water is nau- 
seous ; the tincture is dark brown and rendered tur- 
bid by water. 

PROPERTIES— All the Sennas are simple ca- 
thartics, some kinds occasion gripings and yet are not 

96 CASSIA. No. 18. 

so active as rhubarb or jalap. /This kind operates with 
mildness and certainty, at the dose of an ounce in de- 
coction : both the leaves and pods are employed ; the 
infusion is weaker, the tincture is less available, al- 
though stronger. They may enter into compound 
laxatives and cathartics, &c. 

Substitutes — Senna — Cassia fistula — Rhubarb — 
Jiiglans Cinerea — Podophylluin peUatum — Castor 
oil, and all mild purgatives, besides the following spe- 
cies of Cassia ; which are, however, still left active. 

Remarks — Clayton and Schoepf, mentions the C. 
ligustrina as equal to Senna : it grows from Virginia 
to Georgia, has seven pairs of lanceolate, unequal fo- 
lioles, and oblong curved pods. 

C. chamecrista, small plant found everj^ where in 
dry soils; it has many pairs of linear folioles, and 
large geminate flowers with two purple spots. 

C. nictitans, or sensitive Senna, similar to the fore- 
going, but with very small flowers : common. 

C. t oroides, N. Sp. or sickle Senna, is perhaps the 
C tora of ^ome botanists ; found from Georgia to 
Kentucky, it has three pairs of ovate folioles and long 
fulcated axillary pods. 

All the American Sennas have yellow flowers. — 
Schoepf, says that the C hijiora is antisyphilitic. 

Henry's figure of the American Senna is fictitious, 
having four pairs of folioles and regular terminal 

No. 19. 


■'^D^ W^^-' 


No. 19. CAUZ.0PHYLX.U2ME. 97 

No. 19. 


English Name— BLrEBERRY COHOSH. 

French Name — Cohoche Bleu. 

German Name — Blau Cohosch. 

Officinal Name — Caulophyllum radix. 

Vulgar Names — Cohosh, Cohush, Blueberry, 
Pnpoose root, Squaw root, Blue Ginseng, Yellow 

Synonyms — Leontice thaUctroides Linnaeus, &c. 

Authorities- — Mi-^haux, Pursh, Elliot and some 
dispensaries. Not in Barton nor Bigelow. 

Genus Caulophyllum — Calix colored with six 
equal sepals. Corolla with 6 small petals, opposite to the 
sepals of the calix and much shorter. Stamina six op- 
posite to the petals, anthers opening laterally. One 
central free pistil, one Style and Stigma, Fruit a glo- 
bular one seeded drupe. — Leaves three on a trifurcate 

Species C. thalictroides — Very smooth, three 
leaves with three dissected or lobed folioles, the ter- 
minal cordate: in the centre a dichotome corymb, 
shorter than the leaves. 

DESCRIPTION— Whole plant from tv/o to four 
feet high. — Root perennial, yellow inside, brown 
outside, hard, irregular, knobby, branched, with many 



fibres — Stem upright, straight, smooth, trifurcate at 
the top or dividing into three leaves, in the centre of 
wrhich comes out the panicle of flowers — Leaves pe- 
tiolate smooth, pinnate lobed, with three, very sel- 
dom five folioles, the lateral ones nearly sessile, oval 
or oblong, inequally bifid and acute: the terminal fo- 
liole separated, larger, subcordate, with five, seldom 
three, unequal lobes or segments, oval and acute. 

Flowers in a short central loose corymb, yellowish 
green, rather small ; rachis slender, dichotome, with 
minute bracts at each division. Each flower pedun- 
cled, with six equal elliptic obtuse sepals — Petals six 
very small, opposite and notched, with each an op- 
posite longer stamen, filaments short, anthers elliptic 
bilocular, opening on each side — Germ globular, 
style short, stigma obtuse — Drupes resembling ber- 
ries succeed the blossoms; they are smooth of a dark 
blue, globular, rather large, with only one hard seed. 

HISTORY — This genus which includes only one 
species, was united to Leontice by Linnaeus; but se- 
parated by Michaux; they both belong to the natural 
family of Berberides, and to Hexandria monogy- 
nia, Cauiophyllum implies that the stem and leaves 
are connected as it were, and the specific name alludes 
to the leaves being similar to many Thalictrums — Co- 
hosh was the indigenous name of this plant, and a 
better one than Blueberry, the usual one in many 
parts: it blossoms in May and June, while the leaves 
are yet tender and small, the berries are ripe in sum- 
mer ; they are dry, sweetish, insipid, similar to 
hwckle berries, but larger. 

1^0. 19. OAUS.OPHYLI.U1VL 99 

This is a medical plant of the Indians, and although 
not yet introduced into our officinal books, deserves 
to be better known. I have found it often used in 
the country and by Indian Doctors ; Smith and Hen- 
ry extol it. 

Locality — All over the United States, from Ca- 
nada and New England to Missouri and Georgia ; 
but chiefly on mountains and shady hills, rare in 
plains and glades, yet often found in deep fertile soils, 
iswampy and moist grounds ; in river islands, &c. 

Qualities — The root is the, only part used : in 
smell and taste, it partakes of Ginseng and Seneca 
root, and is sometimes mistaken for both. It Is sweet- 
ish, a little pungent and aromatic: the infusion and 
tincture are yellow — it contains a gum, resin and oil. 

Properties — Demulcent, antispasmodic, cmena- 
gogue, sudorific, &:c. It is used by the Indians and 
their imitators for rheumatism, dropsy, cholic, sore 
throat, cramp, hiccup, epilepsy, hysterics, inflamma^ 
tion of uterus, &c. It appears to be particularly suit- 
able for female diseases, and Smith asserts that the 
Indian women owe the facility of their parturition, to 
a constant use of a tea of the root for two or three 
weeks before their time. As a powerful emenagogue 
it promotes delivery, menstruation, and dropsical 
discharges. It may be used in warm infusion, de- 
coction, tincture, syrup or cordial. 

Substitutes — Saiiguinaria canadensis — Penny- 
royal — Poly gala Senega— -SndkQ roots — Red Cedar 
— Spikenard — Camphor — Ginseng, &c. 

Remarks — The figure of Henry has trifoliate 
leaves and the berries on the leaves ! 

100 CEPHAI.ANTIIUS. No. 20. 

No. 20, 


r:NGLisH Name—button-wood shrub. 

French Name — Cephalanthe d'amerique. 

German Name — Americanische Weissball. 

Officinal Names — Cephalanthus Cortex, &c. 

Vulgar Names — White Ball, Little Snowball, 
Svvampvvood, Pond Dogwood, Globe flower, in Lou- 
isiana Bois de Mar ah. 

Authorities — Lin. Mich. Piirsh, Elliot, Robin, 
W. Bart. Fl. fig. 9L 

Genus Cephalanthus — Flowers crowded on a 
globular and hairy phoranthe. Calix symphogyne 
quadrangular, margin small fourtoothed. Corolla 
tubular-funnelform, four cleft, epigyne, bearing four 
stamina equal and protruding. Pistil one cohe- 
rent with the caliX; st3^1e long, stigma globose. Cap- 
sule two celled, tw^o seeded, nearly bipartible, and 
each cell nearly bivalve, valves uniserial. 

Species C. occidentalis — Leaves ternate or oppo- 
site, petiolate, oval-accuminate, entire and smooth : 
heads of flowers terminal, peduncled, upright. 

DESCRIPTION—A fine ornamental shrub from 
five to fifteen feet high, very branched \ bark yellow 
brown spotted with red, rough on the stems. Leaves 
ternate or opposite, with red petiols from two to four 

No 20. 



No. 2a. OEPHAtANrHUS- 101 

inches long, oval, base acute, end acuminate, maro-in 
often undulate, smooth on both sides, but glaucous 
beneath, nerves often red, veins yellow. 

Flowers terminal peduncled, forming round balls 
of a cream white color, and sweet scented, fringed 
all over by the protruding Stamina and styles, nearly 
as large as a walnut Phoranthe or common recepta- 
cle globular and hairy, flowers crowded all over it. 
Calix coherent with the pistil, with four small 
acute teeth — Corolla inserted on the Pistil, tubular or 
nearly funnel form, with four ovate segments. Sta- 
mina and style filiform, double the length of the Co- 
rolla, anthers and stigma yellow — Capsuls small, 
crowded, formed by two semibivalve cells, the valves 
opposite to each other, the two outside valves angular, 
each cell has only one seed. 

Locality — All over the United States from Cana- 
da to Louisiana, Missouri and Florida ; mostly found 
near streams, ponds, swamps, lakes, &:c. 

HISTORY — Cephalanthus means head-flower in 
Greek, alluding to the globular form of the blossoms. 
Linneus only knew this species, and gave to it the 
name of occidental. It is peculiar to North America ; 
the same kind said to be found in Cochinchina is a 
difierent species ; but there are several varieties in 
the United States, not yet well noticed, some of 
%vhich may be perhaps peculiar species ; such are 

Var. pubesccns, with pubescent leaves, in Georgia. 

Var. macrophylla, with large leaves half a fooi 
long, corolla hairy inside : in Louisiana, &c. 


10^ CEPHAl.AS^TEtJS. No. iv 

Var. ob til si folia, leaves oval-oblong, obtuse, not 
undulate : in New York. 

They all blossom insunnmer, July and August : 
the flowers have a peculiar fragrant snnell, similar to 
Jessamine. The wood is brittle and useless. 

The Genus belonsis to the screat natural order of 
RuBiACEOtTS, forming with Nauclea, &.c. a peculiar 
section or family, with capitate flowers. It ranks in 
Tetrandria Monogyjiia. 

Qualities — The whole shrub active, and bitter- 
ish, the bitterness is most enfolded in the bark of the 
roots ; this bark and the inner bark of the stem are 
brittle, somewhat resembling Cascarilla and Cog- 
wood, in appearance and qualities. It has not been 
analyzed; but contains an essential oil, besides (he 
usual principles of tonic barks : the oil is most abun- 
dant in the flowers. 

PROPERTIES— Tonic, febrifuge, cathartic, dia- 
phoretic, &c. The flowers, leaves, bark of stem.s and 
roots, are used by the Southern Indians, and the 
French settlers of Louisiana. It has not yet been 
noticed in our materia medica, and is even omitted by 
Schoepf and Henry ; but it deserves further atten- 
tion. A fine fragrant syrup may be made with the 
flov/ers and leaves, which is a mild tonic and laxative. 
The most efficient part is the bark of the root. A decoc- 
tion of it, cures intermittent fevers, acting on the bow- 
els at the same time, is useful in relaxed bowels, &c. 

Substitutes — Cornus or Dogwood — Magnolias 
— Pinckneya — Liri oJendron — Cascarilla, &c. 

Remarks — The Platonus occidentalis or Syca- 
more, also called Button-wood i& a large tree. 

No. 21. 



No. 20 CHI3HOPODlU3«r- 103 

No. 21. 



French. Name — Anserine Vermifuge. 

German Name — Wurmsamen Gansefuss. 

Officinal Name — Chenopodium sen Botiys An- 

Vulgar Names — Jerusalem Oak, Wormwood, 
Worm seed, Stinking weed. 

Authorities — Linnaeus, Michaux, Pursh, Schoepf, 
B. Barton, Mease, Wilkins, Coxe, Thacher, Chap- 
man, Stoker, Big. seq. W. Bart. Mat. IVIed. fig. 44. 

Genus Chenopodium — Perigone simple persistent, 
caliform, rive parted. Stamina five perigyne. Pistil 
free with a bifid style. Seed single, lenticular, co- 
vered by the perigone. 

Species Ch. anthelminticum. — Leaves oval-ob* 
long, sessile, sinuate-toothed : flowers terminal, ses- 
sile, in glomerules, forming leafless panicled slender 

DESCRIPTION— Root perennial and branched— 
Stem upright, grooved and branched, branches fasti- 
giate, giving a shrubby appearance to the whole plant, 
which rises from two to five feet in height — Leaves 
sessile, alternate or scattered ; attenuated at both ends, 
oval or oblong, rather thick, dotted beneath, margin 
sinuate by large unequal obtuse teeth, nerves very 

Flowers very small, numerous and yellowish green 

101 CHENOPODIUM. No. 21. 

like the whole plant, forming large, loose leafless ter- 
minal panicles, composed of many slender alterning 
small spikes, and these of many small scattered une- 
qual glomerules, containing from five to twelve sessile 
flowers. Calix or simple perigone with five short 
oval segments; stamina opposite to the segments, 
and protruding. Styles bifid or trifid, filiform, lon- 
ger than the stamina. Seed flat, lenticular, shining, 
covered by the persistent calix. 

HISTORY — 1 he whole plant has a strong, pun- 
gent smell, somewhat like valerian, which is disgust- 
ing to many persons ; this smell is easily known and 
enables to distinguish it from some other consimilar 
species, which are often blended with it : such are the 
Ch. nmhrosioidesSf Ch. botrys, whose smell is agree- 
able and fragrant, although strong. 

The genus belongs to the natural order of Atripli- 
CEs, and to Pentandria digynia of Linnaeus. The 
generic name means Goosefoot in Greek, the specific 
refers to its value against worms. 

It blossoms from July to September, at which time 
the plant may be collected and dried ; but if the seeds 
are wanted, October is the best time, although they 
ripen in succession during all the autumn. The plant 
is now sometimes cultivated for medical uses, both in 
America and Europe. The dried plant retains the pe- 
culiar smell. 

Locality — From New England to Missouri and 
Georgia, more abundant and larger in the South : 
common in old fields, along fences, in alluvions, gra- 
Tel, rubbish, and even in streets 5 but never in woods 
nor mountains. 


Qualities — The strong and lasting smell of the 
whole plant, is owing to an essential oil, very pene- 
trating or pungent, and in which resides the medical 
property. It is diffused throughout the plant, parti- 
cularly in the globular dots of the leaves, and the 
seeds. The taste is bitter, acrid and aromatic. 

PROPERTIES— A powerful vermifuge used both 
in America and Europe ; found equal to the officinal 
wormseed, which is the Artemisia Santolina, a very 
diflferent plant, native of Syria and Africa. It expels 
speedily, the Lumbrics and other worms of the in- 
testines. It must be given in repeated small doses, 
and the most palatable form : the seeds and their es- 
sential oil are the most efficacious, eight or ten drops 
of the oil, mixed with sugar are a common dose for a 
child, or a table spoonful morning and night fasting, 
of an electuary mode of the pulverized seeds with 
honey. A conserve, marmelade, syrup, beer, decoo- 
tion in milk, of the leaves, (or even their juice.) are 
also used. Children often dislike the strons: smell of 
this medicine, and it must be disguised by orange peel 
or sweet substances. The seeds and oil are now kept 
in the pharmacies, but the last is often adulterated 
with oil of Botrys or of Turpentine ; which lessen its 
power ; it may then be known by a less pungent 

This plant has only been employed against worms, 
as yet, but it possesses probably all the properties of 
the Ch Rofrys and amb, osioides, whicli are pecto- 
ral, resolvent, carminative and emenagogue: useful in 
asthma, suppressed menstrations, &c. 

Sii^BSTiTUTEs — Spigelia or Piukroot — Lobelia 

106 CHBNOPODIUM. No. 21. 

cnrdinalis — Wormwood — Silene Virs^inica — Pola- 
nisiagraveolens, and all other vermifuges. 

Remarks — Many other species of Chenopodi- 
urn are medical ; but none vermifuge like this : those 
which approximates in appearance and smell are the 
following ; which must not be mistaken for this al- 
though useful in other respects. 

Ch, hotrys or sweet Jerusalem oak, has oblong ob- 
tuse sinuate leaves, and crowded panicles. Common 
all over the United States, in sand and gravel near 

Ch. anihrosioides or Fragrant Jerusalem oak, has 
narrow or lanceolate toothed leaves, and leafy pani- 
cles, with a very fragrant smell, stronger than in the 
foregoing. Grows promiscuously with Ch, anthel- 

The whimsical name of Jerusalum oak has been 
given to these plants, from a fanciful similitude to the 
leaves of the oak. 
Henry's figure represents probably the Ch. botrys* 




No. 22. CICUTA. 107 

No. 22. 



French Name — Cigue d'Amerique. 

German Name — Americanische Schierling. 

Officinal Names — Cicuta Americana. 

Vulgar Names — Snakeweed, Death of man, Wa- 
ter Parsley, Poison root, Wild hemlock, Children's 

Authorities — Linnaeus, Sclioepf, Pursh, B. Bar- 
ton, Ely, Stockbridge, Bigelow, fig. 1£. 

Genus Cicuta — Flowers umliellate : No invo- 
lucres, involuccls many leaved and short ; calix sym- 
phogyne, crown five toothed : petals ohoval, entire, 
inflexed ; five long stamina ; Fruit orbicular, crown- 
ed ; with ten furrows, bipartible, bisperme. 

Species C. maculata — Root fasciculate, tube- 
rose : Stem hollow and striated ; leaves tripinnate, 
folioles lanceolote, serrate, acuminate, teeth mucro- 
nate, veins exmedial: involucels acute, fiowers lax. 

DESCRIPTION — Root perennial, composed of 
many oblong fJeshy tubers, of a finger's size — Stem 
from three to six feet high, hollow, striated, jointed, 

purple or green, smooth and branched. Leaves 

smooth, decomposed, alternate with petioles clasping 
at the uase, bi'obe, membranaceous ; decreasing in 
size L!pwjr<rs, w' ere they are only ternate, while the 
lower are tripinnate or triternate, folioles sessile, op. 


108 CICUTA. No. 22. 

posite, lanceolate, serrate, acuminate, with veins end- 
ing at the notches, which is very uniisuah 

Flowers whitein terminal umbels, withoutinvolucres, 
umbels with seven to twelve umbellules, each having 
from twelve to twenty flowers, upright, not crowd- 
ed : Involucels very short, oblong, acute ; calix con- 
nected with the pistil, crowned, crown with five 
minute segments. Petals five obovate, wliite, entire, 
end inflexed. Filaments longer filiform, anther? 
ovaL Twoshort recurved styles. Fruit nearly globular, 
divisible into two seeds as in all the umbellate plants,, 
each is flnt inside, convex outside, with five furrows. 

Locality — In wet m^eadows, pastures, and ditch- 
es ; near streams and swamps, from New England to 
Georgia and Ohio: also in the. mountains of Penn- 
sylvania and Virginia. — Blossoming in summer, from 
July to August. 

HISTORY — The genus Ciciita is one of the poi- 
sonous hemlocks ; the Cominn 7naailuium^ is, how- 
ever, considered as the true hemlock and the most 
virulent: but the deadly poison of that name (ren- 
dered famous by the death of Socrates) was a com- 
pound beverage, in the United Slates, the same 
name Is capriciously given to a beautiftd and useful 
species of Fir-tree. 

Both Ciciifa and Conhini belong to the natural or- 
der of UMBELLATE, or Umbclliferous plants, and to 
Pentandria dis^ynia of Linnaeus, although they 
have only one pistil. 

Ciciita was the old latin name, macuJata means 
spotted } but the plant not being spotted, it is a very 

No. ^2. CICUTA. kQ^ 

bad specific name ; which Bigelow would have 
changed into fasciculata^ if changes of old names 
should not be avoided. 

Many umbellate plants growing near waters are 
poisonous, although the Sweet Sisily or Myrrhis is 
not. The root of the last is often sought for by chil- 
dren, who like its sweet taste ; but are apt to mistake 
this and many other poisonous plants for it, by which 
mistake several have been poisoned. It would be- 
well to avoid all similar plants; or at least to attend 
to their different smell and taste, which is strong and 
disagreeable in all the pernicious kinds. 

These deleterious plants appear to lose some of 
their virulence when growing in a drier soil, or cul- 
tivated in gardens. Sheep and goats eat them with 
impunity, and even cattle do not appear injured by 
them vvhen mixed with hay. 

Several persons searching for Angelica root. Sweet 
ftag, Sweet Sisily (which have all a pleasant aromatic 
smell and taste,) have eaten this root by mistake, and 
some have died in an hours time. The effects of the 
poison were violent convulsions, a frothing mouth, 
a bleeding nose, dilated pupils, fixed eyes, &c. » hen 
vomiting was produced naturally, they were saved, 
after being very sick for three days, with stupor, 
paleness, &c. Persons poisoned in this way, ought 
therefore to evacuate the stomach, by tickling the . 
throat, OF taking an emetic ; sulphate of zinc is the 
most speedy. Vinegar or Lemon juice may also be 
given to neutralize the narcotic poison, and next Cas- 
tor oil, mild purgatives, strong coffee, &:c. after vo- 

IfO CZCtJTA. No. 22; 

Qualities — The root has a strong penetrating 
smell and taste, its bark contains a yellowish juice in 
small cavities. The juice of the root is viscid, resin- 
ous, dissolves in alcohol, and is precipitated by wa- 
ter. It produces a thick volatile oil by distillation, 
and a resin of a dark orange color is left. The de- 
coction of the root is whitish. The extract of the 
whole plant is dark and has a nauseous smell. 

PROPERTIES — A strong narcotic, solvent, and 
good substitute for the Coiiiuni viaeulatum, being 
more powerfuly^ arrd requiring a lesser dose. A few 
grains of the dried leaves or extract have been given 
in schirrose and scrofulous tumors and ulcers, with 
equal advantage ; but a larger dose produces nausea 
and vomiting : the doses should be very small, often 
repeated and gradually increased. It has been used 
in gargle for the sore throat, but safer substances 
flight to be preferred. 

Stjbstitutes — Coiiium maculatum — Angelica 
airopuryurca^ and other violent narcotics. 

REMARKs-^The Indians when tired of life, are 
said to poison themselves vvith the roots of this plant 
^j)d the purple Angelica^ t^a?. airopurpurca. 

No 23. 



No. 23. COLX.ZNSONZA. Ill 

No. 23. 



French Name-^Collinsone du Canada. 

German Name — Canadische Collixsonie. 

Officinal Name— Collinsonia. 

Vulgar Names — Richweed, Richleaf, Healrall, 
Horsevveed, Knot-root, Stone-root, Knot-weed, &c. 

Authorities — -Lin. Mich. Pursh, Schoepf, Mease^ 

Genus Collinsonia — Calix campanulate, bilabiate, 
iive toothed. Corolla tubulose, limbus unequal sub-bi- 
labiate, campanulate, upper lip very short, notched? 
lower lip fringed. Stamina two or four, or rather 
four, two of which are often sterile, or without an- 
thers. One pistil, one style, stigma lateral. Fruit 
-four seeds, often only one or two by abortion — Leaves 
opposite, flowers terminal panicled, commonly yel- 

Species C. canadensis — Smooth; leaves .few, am- 
ple, petiolate, cordate, serrate, acuminate : panicle 
lax, teeth of the calix subulate, equal to the tube of 
the corolla, two fertile stamina. 

DESCJIIPTION— Root perennial, knotty, depres- 
sed, hard with many slender fibres — Stem simple, 
round, straight, about two feet high. — Only two or 
-jjiree pairs of large tU in leaves, on long petioles, cor- 

lis COZ.X.XNSONXA. No. 23. 

date at the base, broadly ovate, acuminate, with broad 
teeth, surface smooth, with small veins. 

Inflorescence in a terminal leafless panicle, formed 
by branched racemes — Flowers opposite on long pe- 
duncles, with short subulate bracteoles. Calix cam- 
panulate, with five subulate teeth, forming two lips, 
the lower lip is longer and with two segments. Co^ 
roUa yellowish, tubular at the base, spreading above 
in two lips ; the upper lip is very short and notched, 
the lower lip is lobed on the sides, and fringed 
around. Two long protru-ding stamina, filaments fili- 
form, anthers oval. Style protruding. Seeds oftea 
abortive, and only one ripening. 

HISTORY — Collinsonia is a genus peculiar to 
iS^orth America, and dedicated to Collinson, an En- 
o-lish botanist and philosopher. It was at first formed 
by this single species, but has since been increased by 
many others, which have all the same habit : where- 
by the genus is easily distinguished from the Salvia 
(Sage), Monarda and Lycopus, genera belonging to 
the same natural order of Labiate, and section of 
Diandrous. But this genus offers the anomaly of 
having some tetrandrous species : wherefore it might 
he placed both in Diandria^ Tetrandria ov Didyna- 
?nia of Linnaeus ! 

The species with four stamina are C. *^iiisata, 
C. longtjlora 4- C. Verticillaris ^, ludov. They 
must of course form a peculiar subgenus, which I have 
called Ilypogon ; and perhaps consistency requires to 
make a genus of it, in order to obviate the anomaly 
in. classification. However, thev all possess the same 

-^o. 23. COZ.X.ZNSONX A, 4 1 3 

qualities and properties, as well as the strikino- habit 
of large leaves and panicled fringed flowers often yeU 

The C. canadensis is a handsome estival plant, 
blossoming from July to September. 

Locality — ^Found from Canada to Carolina, is 
woods ; rare tovvards the south and confined to rich 
valleys; very common in the mountains of Pennsyl- 
vania and New York. It disappears west of the mouii- 
tains ; but is replaced by other congeneric species. 

Qualities — The whole plant has a strong balsamu 
smell, somewhat similar to that of Salvia Sclarea : it 
is sweeter and stronger in the blossoms and worse in 
the root. It affords by distiljation an essential oiL 
possessing the same smell. The taste is pungent and 

PROPERTIES — ^Vulnerary, coroborant, carminar 
live, subtonic, diuretic, and a warm stimulant. It ap- 
pears to combine the properties of Sage, Mint and 
Woundwort: {Anthyllis Vulneraria^ therefore it may 
be substituted to them. It is one of the plants called 
Heal-all, in the United States, because they cure 
sores and wounds : the Indians employ this plant for 
that purpose. In the mountains and hills of Virginia, 
Kentucky, Tennessee and Carolina, this genus is con* 
sideredas a panacea, and used outwardly and inward- 
ly in many disorders ; it is applied in poultice and 
wash for bruises, sores, blows, falls, wounds, sprains, 
contusions, and taken like tea for head aches, cholics, 
cramps, dropsy, indigestion, &c. The whole plants 


115. CTOr-tlNSONIA. No. 23 

are used, both fresh and dry : they are also employed 
for the sore-backs of horses. 

According to Schoepf, it is useful in the dumb fe- 
Ter, lochial cholic, bites of snakes, and for rheuma- 
tic pains, in strong frictions of the leaves. Dr. Mease 
Telates that the root infused in cider has cured the 

Substitutes — t^corus Calamus — Aniseed — Sal- 
via or Sage — Monarda or Horsemint — Mentha or 
Mint — Cunila or Dittany — and many other labiate 
plants. — For sores Ba^.^sia tinctoria — Solanum 
Virginicuni — Galax rotundifolia^ &c. 

Remarks — All the other species df this genus have 
the same smell, taste and properties : they are equal- 
ly employed. The C. anisata has a finer smell, 
somewhat similar to aniseed, by which it may be easi- 
ly known. The other species are so much alike as 
to be easily blended, or taken for each other. They 
have, hov^ever, narrower leaves, often hairy : and 
the C, tuberosa has a larger softer root. 

The most common and officinal in Kentucky, Ohio 
&e. is a new species, which I have called C. angustt- 
folia; it is about a foot high, has smooth lanceolate 
or oblong leaves, three inches long, acute at both 
ends, margin crenate serrate ; racemes slender, flow- 
ers small, yellowish, teeth of the calix acute, shorter 
than the tube ; corolla less fringed than in the others; 
%\vo long stamina* 

No. 24. 


samvBBY swssTrsiuv. 

No. 24. COMPTONZA. 1 i& 

No. 24, 



French Name — Comptonier odorant. 

German Name — Streifenfarp^^. 

Officinal Names — Comptoii. alcifilix folia. 

Vulgar Names — Sweet-fern, Sweet-bush, Sweet- 
ferry, Fern-bush, Fern-gale, Spleen wort-bush, &c. 

Synonyms — Liquidambar peregriniim Sf L. Cisple- 
nifolia of Linnaeus. Mi/rica aspleiii/olia Gronov'ius, 

Authorities — Linnaeus, Aiton, Michaux, Pursh, 
^Schoepf, B. Barton, W. Barton, M. M. fig. 19, &e. 

Genus Comptonia — Monoical, amentaceous — ^M. 
fl. in long cylindrical catkins, scales one flowered, 
'perigone two-leaved, three forked stamina, six anthers. 
JF. fl, in globular inferior catkins, scales one flowered, 
perigone six leaved, one pistil, two styles, fruit ovate, 
evalve, one-seeded nut or achene. 

Species C. Asplenifolia — Shrubby, leaves crowd- 
ed, sessile, narrow lanceolate, alternately crenate-si- 

DESCRIPTION— A small shrub from two to five 
feet high, with many crooked branches and long hori- 
zontal roots — Leaves alternate, crowded, sessile, with 
*two small oval acute stipules at the base, from three to 
five inches long, half an inch broad, acute at both 
ends, with a strong middle nerve -, each side regul^- 

116 COMPTONIA. No. S4. 

\y sinuate by large equal obtuse lobules — (Flovvers ap- 
pearing before the leaves ; the male in many superior 
lateral and cylindrical catkins, the female inferior in a 
few globular or oval lateral catkins — scales of both 
^catkins imbricated concave, reniform, acuminate, ca- 
ducous and one flowered. Male flowers with a two- 
leaved perigone, shorter than the scales, each part 
equal and keeled. Six stamina or anthers, on three 
short forked filaments. Female flowers with a bristly 
perigone of six filiform persistent segments, longer 
than the scales. Pistil oval, two capillary styles. 
Seeds evalve oval nuts or achenes, compressed yel- 
low, forming a round burr. 

HISTORY— This pretty shrub forms by itself a 
solitary genus of the natural order amentaceous, de- 
dicated by Solander and Aiton to Compton, an En- 
glish bishop, and friend of Botany. It may be placed 
in MoNOECiA triandria or hexandria or triadd- 
jahia ! 

It has been called Sweet-fern, owing to its singular 
leaves, similar to the Spleenwort fern, and having a 
pleasant spicy scent. It blossoms very early in March 
and April, before the leaves are unfolded. 

Linnseus had united it to Liquidambar or the sweet 
o-um tree, and Gronovius before him to Myrica or wax 
shrub, which have a similar inflorescence. 

Locality — ^From New England to Carolina, on 
hills and alluvial plains, in poor, roeky and sandy 
soils, forming vast glades in thin woods. Common 
both on the Allegheny mountains and the plains of 

Ko. 24, COMPTONXA. il7 

New Jersey, &c. but nearly disappearing west of the 
jnountains, and unknown to the western plains. 

Qualities — The whole plant, but chiefly the leaves 
have a peculiar strong smell,, of a sweet and balsamic 
nature; becoming stronger by pressing or bruising 
them. It contains the benzoic acid, tannin and a resi- 
nous substance. The taste is balsamic and pungent. 

PROPERTIES— Astringent, tonic, calefacient, 
Gjephalic, balsamic, expectorant, &c. It possesses all 
the properties of the tonic and astringent balsams* 
Barton recommends it for diarrhea, loose bowels and 
the summer complaint of children, or cholera infan- 
tum, in the form of a weak decoction ; but it is used 
in Pennsylvania and Virginia for many other diseases, 
such as all children's bowel complaints, (where it 
forms a grateful drink for them) in rhachitis, in debili- 
ty, in fevers as a diluent tonic ; in rheumatism and 
contusions it is less available. The root chewed stops 
blood-spitting, according to Scboepf. Upon the whole 
this shrub appears to be deserving of further atten- 
tion, I have seen it employed throughout the country 
as a substitute or auxiliary to the more expensive bal- 
sams, in asthma, bronchitis, &c. 

Substitutes — Storax — Tolu — -Sassafras — Laurns 
benzoin— A^Yixnony — Mitchella repens — Gaultherta 
procumhensy and all mild balsamic astringents. 

il8 CONIUIVE. No. 25. 

No. 25.. 



French Name — Cigue commune. 

German Name- — ^Oemeine Schierlikg. 

Officin-al Name — Conium, Cicuta oiEcinalis, 

Vulgar Names — Poison Parsley, Spotted Pars- 

Authorities — Linnaeus, Schoepf, Murray, Culr 
ien, Coxe, many Dispens. Bigelow, fig. ll,, and Seq. 

Genus Conium — Flowers umbellate, witli many 
leaved involucres, and dimidiate involuceis. Calix 
concrete with the pistil, margin entire. Petals five 
entire inflexed. Stamina five, Styles two. Fruit bi- 
partible, two seeded, oval, compressed, ribbed, ribs 
wrinkled or crenate. 

Species G Maculatum — Stem round, hollow, 
striated, and spotted : leives decomposed, bi or 
tripinnate, folioles opposite, sessile, pinnatifid : frui^ 
with undulated ribs. 
DESCRIPTION— Root biennial, elongated, branch- 
ed or fusiform — Stem from two to four feet high, 
branched, smooth, round, striated, hollow, jointed, 
and with oblong purplisii dotts— Leaves smooth, de- 
composed, two or three times pinnate, with short 
sheathing petioles, leaflets or folioles pinnatifid^ QXSi}^ 
nearly obtuse, often conijiient. 

No. 25. 



Flowers in terminal peJuncled umbels, with an in- 
Tolucre of ten to twelve lanceolate, reflected, acute 
leaflets — Umbellules from six to nine on long pedun- 
cles, involucels with three or four similar leahets situ- 
ated on one side. Flowers very small and white* 
Calix without apparent teeth — Petals five, oval, in- 
flexed, obtuse and entire at the end — Stamina five, as 
long as the petals. Pistil coherent with the calix, 
rounded, bearing the petals and stamina : Styles twoy 
reflexed outside. Fruit nearly oval compressed, with 
crenate ribs, separating into two elliptical seeds, flat 
inside, convex outside. 

HISTORY— The Coiiium of the Greeks and the 
Cicuta of the Romans, was a poisonous plant, the 
juice of which was used to produce death in Ceos and 
Athens. Socrates and Phocion, two virtuous, emi- 
nent and innocent Athenians, were condemned to 
drink it, and their death has rendered famous, that 
poisonous potion. ' Either this plant or the Cicuta 
virosa of Europe afi'orded it, or a compound beve- 
rage was made from several poisonous umbelliferous 
plants, which procured a speedy but tranquil disso- 

It has since been found, that these plants, like ma- 
ny other poisons, have valuable medical properties, 
nearly similar in all the deleterious species of this 
family. The Conium macidafum, is tlie most em- 
ployed, and must be distinguished from others, either 
more or less active, by its botanical characters; be- 
sides its strong smell, spotted stems, parsley leaveS;, 
&c. The power of this plant vary exceedingly, ac- 

IgO eONXXnU. No. 2av 

cording to the place and clinnate where it grows, the 
time when collected, and the preparations of it. 

It is most powerful in warm climates, in the sum- 
mer, and when fall grown. Some persons are hardly 
affected by it : while others are more susceptible ; on 
these it produces dizziness, nausea, disturbed sight, 
faintness, &c, w^hich symptoms appear in half an 
hour and last half a day or more. A large dose pro- 
duces worse symptoms, vertigo, paralysis, convul- 
sions and death. There is little danger of being poi- 
soned by this plant through mistake, owing to its bad 
smell ; yet there are instances on record that children 
have taken it for parsley and the root for carrot : 
whereby sickness and death have been produced. In 
the United States, the Cicuta maciduta is more dan- 
srerous on that score. 

This plant blossoms in summer from June to Au- 
gust. It belongs like all the Umbellate to Pen- 
TANDRiA digyiiici of Linnseus. 

Locality — Native of Europe ; but now naturaliz- 
ed in New England, New York, Pennsylvania, Vir- 
ginia, Ohio, &c. mostly found in old fields, near roads 
and fences, ou the banks of rivers, &c. Very com- 
mon in some local spots ; but not found every where. 

Qualities — The whole plant has a disagreeable 
virose smell (somewhat like the urine of a cat) which 
becomes stronger when the leaves are bruised. The 
root contains in the spring a milky juice, highly vir- 
ulent. The essential active acrid principle of this 
plant appear to reside in a green resinous substance, 
called Coneiney dissipating by exposure to air atfid 

No. 25. CONXUM. ±2i 

light, but not by fire. It contains Gum, Extractive, 
a green fecula, Resin, Albumen and many alkalies ; 
but no essential oil. The taste is bitter and nau- 

PROPERTIES — A powerful acrid narcotic and 
resolvent; but the uncertainty of its action lessens 
its value. It is never dangerous in very small doses, 
often repeated, and gradually increased. It is also aii 
efficient anodyne, sedative and antispasmodic, useful 
to allay pain in acute diseases. It has been recom 
mended in many chronic diseases, such as cancer, 
epilepsy, mania, syphilis, &c. but in those cases it 
acts only as a palliation to pain, like opium, to which 
it is often preferable, as less constipating. 

The diseases in which it has been found useful, are 
chronic abcesses, schirrose tumors, foul ulcers, ric- 
kets, caries, repelled itch, abdominal and internal 
swellings, obstructions, hemicrania, dropsy of the 
joints, obstinate ophthalmia and cataracts, &c. In all 
these cases it acts as an efficient repellent and resol- 
vent. • 

True Schlrrus and Cancer cannot be cured by it ; 
but obstinate and scrofulous tumors or swelled testi- 
cles (which terminate in, or are mistaken for schin- 
rus) have been removed by its use. 

The effects of this plant are so variable, that some 
physicians have pronounced it inert or a mere diuretic, 
having been deceived in their prescriptions owing to 
bad preparations or otherwise. 

In tic douleureux it has afforded relief or even ef- 
fected a cure, when nothing else could avail. While 


123 CONXUM. No. 25. 

- . . . . —aa 

it is highly extolled in jaundice, removing the yel- 
lowness in a short time, and curing the disease, when 
not too complicated. It has also a relaxing effect in 
facilitating the passage of biliary concretions. 

Although recommended for the whooping cough, it 
is not a safe medicine for children. 

The bast way to administer it, is that of the pow- 
dered leaves, beginning with two or three grains, and 
increasing the doses gradually. The leaves must 
preserve their green color to be efficient. Yet the 
most usual form is the green extract, beginning with 
one to five grains j but it is difficult to regulate the do- 
ses, each parcel having a different strength, and being 
even nearly inert when made with dry leaves, or young 
plants, or with too much heat, or when become old. 
It would therefore be desirable to procure the Coneine 
of a permanent strength. An extract from the seeds 
is said to be stronger and produces giddiness very 
soon. Externally it has been used in cataplasms for 
carcinoma, syphilis, leprosy and obstructions. Vine- 
gar and lemon juice are the antidotes for the poison 
or over-doses of this plant. 

Substitutes — Cicuta macuIatO'^^ngeUca atrO' 
purpurea — Datura stramonium — Hyosciamus ni- 
ger — Solarium dulcam,ara — Opium, &c. 

Remarks — The white and milky root of this plant 
is considered a violent poison and not used, although 
t might be more efficient than the leaves. It cannot 
contain however the active principle called Coneine, 
which is green, and it is found that whenever the 
leaves or extract lose their green color they become 

No. 26. 





No 26. 



French Name — Liseron mechamec. 

German Name — Geigenblattrige winde. 

Officinal Names — Convolv. pandurati sen Pseu- 
do-mechoacana, radix. 

Vulgar Names — Wild Potatoe, Wild Rhubarb, 
Mecbameck, M ild Jalap, Man in the ground, Meco- 
acan, Potatoe Vine, Kussander, Kassader, &c. 

Authorities — Linnaeus, Schoepf, Coxe, Disp. 
Bigelow Seq. B. Barton, Nuttal, W. Bart. V. M 
M. fig. £3. 

Genus Convolvulus — Calix five parted, segments 
unequal imbricated. Corolla bell or funnel shaped, 
iimbus equal, nearly entire, with five folds and teeth. 
Five unequal stamina on the corolla. One pistil sur- 
rounded by a glandular disk, one style, stigma bifid 
or bilobe. Capsule bilocular, few seeded. 

Species C. Panduratus — Root tuberose ; stem 
twining ; leaves cordate, acute, entire or pandurate ; 
peduncles multiflore, calix mutic, corolla funnel- 

DESCRIPTION— Root perennial, very large, cy- 
lindric or fusiform, from two to four feet long, as 
thick as the arm, yellowish outside, whitish and mil- 
ky inside, with many fissures, often branched below 

i2it OONVbiiVtrLES. No. 2^. 

and attenuated above. — Stem procumbent or climbing, 
round, purplish, from three to twelve feet long, some- 
times branched — Leaves cordate at the base, broad, 
alternate, petiolate, margin entire or undulate, or 
lobed on the sides like a fiddle, very sharp, but hard- 
ly acuminate, smooth, deep green above, pale green 

Flowers in fascicles of two to six, on long pedun- 
cles, longer than the petioles, and axillary, pedicels un- 
equal. Calix with five unequal segments, ovate ob- 
tuse, concave, mutic, two smaller opposite outside — 
Corolla large, funnel shaped, about two or three in- 
ches long, and as broad above, base tubulose, color 
white or incarnate or purplish. Stamina white, fila- 
ments filiform, unequal, inclosed, anthers oblong. 
Style white, filiform, stigma bipartite, segments li— 
4iear. Capsule oblong, with two cells and four seeds. 

HISTORY — A great botanical confusion had arisen 
m this genus, and the natural tribe of Volvulides or 
Convolvulacea, of which it is the type. The genera 
of this family had not been well fixed, and Ipomea 
particularly was so little distinguished from ConvoU 
vulus that many species were considered as belonging 
to both ! It is now ascertained (as I pointed out in a 
dissertation published in 1820) that the inequality of 
the stamina is the principal character of the family, 
and that Ipomea is distinguished, not by the variable 
corolla, but by the trilocular capsul and capitate or 
trilobe stigma. Both genera contain a multitude of 
species, many of which are medical, such as C Sea- 
moniaf C. turpethum, C.jalapa, &c. which are all 
firastic or cathartic. 

No, 26. COKVOZ.Vt7X.US. ±25 

The true jalap of commerce has been ascribed to se- 
veral plants, and a controversy exists on the subject, 
This plant is one of the false jalaps, the others are the 
Ipomea rnacrorhiza of Michaux, found from Georgia 
to Yucatan on the sandy shores, and several Bind- 
weeds growing in South America* The true Cja- 
lapa appears to grow on the Andes of South America 
and Mexico. 

Our C panduratus has also been mistaken for Sea- 
mony, Rhubarb and Meclioacan. The native name 
of Mechameck ought to be given to it as a distinc- 
tive appellation. It blossoms in summer, from June 
to August. It was named panduratus by Linnaeus, 
because the leaves are often lobed on the sides like a 
fiddle ; but this does not always happen, and some 
plants have all the leaves cordate and entire. 

The cathartic properties of this plant and of Ipo- 
mea rnacrorhiza have been denied by Bigelow, 
Baldwm, &c. and even the latter considered as edible; 
but it appears that all the species of these two ge- 
nera, having milky roots, are more or less cathartic, 
particularly when fresh. 

They both belong to Pentaxdria monogynia of 
Linnaeus. Convolvulus, {XWieEvolvulus) dQiiv^shom 
the twining habit of the genus. 

Locality — Common all over the United States, 
from Canada and New England to Florida and Mis- 
souri, in poor and loose soils, sandy and slaty fields, 
gravelly hills and alluvions, open glades and ihicketsj 
but seldom in shady \voods. 

Qualities — The taste and smell of the root, ap- 
proximate to Scamony and Jalap ; but are less nau- 


136 CONVOLVULUS. No. 26. 

seous and acrid. This root may be known by its size, 
yellowish color, and crevisses. It is milky when 
fresh. The extract from it resembles Scamony and 
possesses the same properties. 

PROPERTIES— Cathartic, diuretic and pectoral. 
It acts like jalap, Thubarb, briony and scamony at a 
larger dose, when given in substance ; but the extract 
from the fresh root is more efficient, and is a mild ca- 
thartic at a small dose of ten or twelve grains. It is 
seldom used by physicians, but often by Indian doc- 
tors. It is a safe substitute for the more costly roots 
above mentioned, and as a root often weighs twenty 
pounds, it might be made an article of trade. As a 
diuretic it is useful in gravel, strangury, dropsy, &c. 
it enables to evacuate small calculous granulations, 
and may be taken in substance or decoction. As a 
pectoral it has been used for consumptive coughs and 
asthma ; a syrup is made of it with Skunk cabbage, 
for that purpose. 

Substitutes Jalap Rhubarb — Scamony 

Briony — Erigeron Sp, — Pyrola umbellata — Jis- 
clepias tuberosa, 4'C. 

Remarks— It is asserted that the Indians can han- 
dle Rattle-snakes with impunity, after wetting their 
hands with the milky juice of the root of this plant, 
or of Jirurn triphyllum, 

Henry's figure is erroneous, having triangular leaves 
and bracteolate flowers. 

The root must be collected at the end of summerj 
and if to be dried ought to be cut in slices. 

No. 27. 



No. 27, COPTXS. 127 

No. 27. 



French Name — Coptis triphylle. 

German Name — Kleinste christwurz. 

Officinal Names — Helleborus trifolius, Coptis^ 
Fibraurea, &c. 

Vulgar Names — Gold-Thread, Mouthroot. 

Synonyms — Helleborus trifolius Linujeus, &ic. 
Fibra aiirea Golden and Schoepf. Anemone groel- 
and'ica Oeder. Chryza fibraurea Raf. 

Authorities — Linnaeus, Michaux, Pursh, Salis- 
bury, Schoepf, Pallas, Oeder, Thacher, Coxe, B. 
Barton, Bigelovv, M. B. fig. 5, & Sequel, W. Bart 
V. xM. M. fig 34. 

Genus Coptis — Calix corolliform and caducous, 
with five or six leaves. Corolla with five or six nec- 
tariform cucullate petals. Many hypogynous stamina. 
Pistils five to eight, stipitate, germs oblong, styles re- 
curved. Capsuls as many, stipitate, oblong, beaked, 
one celled, many seeded, dehiscent longitudinally. 

Species C. trifolia — Roots filiform, creeping ; 
leaves sub-radical, ternate ; folioles sessile, rounded, 
crenate; scapes one flowered. 

DESCRIPTION— Roots perennial, creeping, fili- 
form, of a bright yellow, with many small fibres — 
Caudex or base of the scapes and radical leaves, cover- 

128 COPTIS. No. 27. 

ed with imbricate scales, ovate acuminate and yellow- 
ish — Leaves evergreen, on long slender petioles, pro- 
ceeding from the caudex, with ternate folioles, ses- 
sile, rounded or obovate, base acute, margin with 
unequal acuminate crenatures and lobes, surface 
smooth, firm and veined. Scapes as long as the leaves, 
slender filiform, with one flower and a minute mucro- 
nate bract under it.' 

Flowers about half an inch wide, with a white co- 
rolliform calix of five, six or seven sepals or folioles, 
oblong, obtuse, concave. Petals as many, shorter, 
nectariform, obovate, hollow, yellow at the top. Sta- 
mina man}i, filaments slender and white, anthers 
rounded, adnate and yellow. Pistils from five to eight, 
stipitate germs shorter than the gyriophore or base, 
oblong, acute, compressed. Styles short and curved, 
stigmas acute. Capsules like the pistils naked, the ca- 
lix having fallen ofi*, umbellate, on long divaricate pe- 
dicels, oblong rostrate, unilocular, dehiscent on the 
inner side, and many seeds attached to the other 

HISTORY — This plant was erroneously united to 
Helleborus by Linnaeus. I proposed to call it Ckry- 
za, in 1808 : it was since called Coptis by Salisbury; 
although my name is anterior and more descriptive, 
and Fibraurea of Golden would have been good also, 
I am so little tenacious as to admit the Coptis which 
has already been adopted by many. The principal 
distinctions are found in the stipitate pistils and cap- 
sules, besides petals not bilabiate. My new genus 
Enemion biter7iatum, difiers from Coptis by w^ant of 

No. 27, dOPTXS. i2d 

petals, and two seeded capsuls. Many botanists call 
the petals of this plant nectaries, and the calix corol- 
la, thus saying that they have no calyx : but the na- 
tural affinities teach that wherever the perigone is dou- 
ble, the inner range is the corolla, whatever be its 

Both Coptis and Helleborus belong to Poltandria 
polygynia of Linnaeus, and to the Ranunculaceoits 
tribe, or natural order Adnantheria, section with 
irregular petals, and dehiscent fruits. This plant blos- 
soms early in the spring of the cold regions or in May. 

The roots are the only parts used ; they are of a 
fine golden color, whence the name. They ought to 
be collected in the summer, and are easily dried ; but 
not easily reduced to powder. The plant itself is a 
pretty evergreen, having the appearance of the straw- 
berry plant. 

Locality — A boreal plant found from Canada to 
Greenland and Iceland on the east, and to Siberia on 
the west. The most southern limits are New En- 
gland, New York, and the shores of Lake Erie. It 
is commonly found in mossy swamps and bogs of 
evergreen woods ; but also on the rocks of the White 
Mountains, Labrador, Newfoundland, &c. 

Qualities — A pure intense bitter, without smell, 
nor astringency, consisting of extractive matter and 
a bitter principle, soluble in water and alcohol : the 
tincture is yellow. 

PROPERTIES— Tonic and stomachic, promoting 
digestion, strengthening the viscera, useful in dyspep- 
sia, debility, convalescence from fevers, and whenever 

130 C0PT2S. No. 27. 

rr ■ ■-.' .- ■ . ... - ■ -- — ■- 

a pure bitter is required ; being a good substitute for 
Quassia, Columbo, Gentian, &c. A tincture made 
with an ounce of the roots in a pound of diluted alco- 
hol, is recommended in doses of a tea spoonful thrice 
a day, or ten to twenty grains of the powder : both 
agree with the stomach. 

It has been used for ulceration of the mouth, in gar- 
gle, &c. but Bigelow pretends that it is inert in that 
case, being devoid of astringency ; and to other arti- 
cles added to it, are to be ascribed the benefit it may 
have afforded. 

Substitutes — Quassia — Columbo — Menyanthts 
irifoliata — Frasera verticillata — Aletrh farinosa" 
Sabbatia angularis, and other pure bitters. 

No. 28. 






No .28, COBNUS. 131 

No. 28. 


English Name— COMMON DOGWOOD. 

French Name — Cornouiller fleuri. 

German Name — Schonbluhender Hartriegel» 

Officinal Name — Cornus florida. 

Vulgar Names — Dogwood, Dogtree, Boxtree, 
Florid Cornel, Monhacaniminschi, &c. 

AuTHORiTii-s — Lin. Mich. Pursh, Schoepf, Cates- 
by, Thacher, Coxe, Carpenter, Elliot, B. Barton, Big. 
fig. 28, and Seq. W. Bart. fig. 3, &c. 

Genus Cornus — Calix symphogyne, four toothed. 
Petals four, small and broad. Stamina four, epigyne 
alternating with petals. One style and stigma. Fruit 
a drupe inclosing a bilocular two seeded nut. 

Species C. Florida — Asborescent ; leaves oppo- 
site, ovate, acuminate, base acute, glaucous beneath ; 
Involucres corolliform, nearly obcordate ; drupes 
ovate and scarlet. 

DESCRIPTION— Stem rising from fifteen to thir- 
ty feet, with a rough blackish bark full of fissures : 
branches opposite, spreading, with reddish bark and 
rings where the old leaves grew. — Leaves opposite, 
petiolate, oval, entire, base acute, end acuminate, pale 
beneath, with strong parallel veins. 

133 ^^ coRinrg. No. 2s, 

Flowers terminal, appearing when the leaves are 
young, with a large four leaved involucre three in- 
ches broad, commonly mistaken for the blossom, 
white, obcordate, veined. The true flowers are in the 
centre, small, crowded, sessile, yellowish. Calix cam 
panulate, symplrogyne, with four obtuse teeth. Co- 
rolla with four oblong, obtuse petals. Stamina four 
erect, anthers oblong, style short, erect, stigma ob- 
tuse. Fruits several oval scarlet drupes, with a nut 
inside having two cells and two seeds. 

HISTORY — The genus Cornw^ or Cornel, must be 
divided into two sections, those species having the 
flowers copitate, sessile, and with an involucre, are 
the true Dogwoods, (Cynoa^y /on), and those with cym- 
ose, naked flowers, are the true Cornels. It belongs 
with Hedera to the natural family of Hederaces, and 
to Tetrandria monogynia of Linnaeus. Cornns is 
the ancient latin name of the Cornels, ^w(\ florida im- 
plies that the blossoms are more conspicuous than in 
any other species. 

The C. Jlorida is a handsome tree, enlivening the 
woods in the spring by a profusion of large white 
blossoms, and bearing in the fall clusters of beautiful 
scarlet berries. In Louisiana, where it is called Bois 
bouton, or Bois de fleche, (Budwood and Arrow- 
wood) it blossoms in February ; in the middle states 
in April and May, and more northwardly in June. It 
lasts a fortnight in full bloom, and every where indi- 
cates according to the Indians, when Indian corn is to 
be planted. 

No. 28. CORNUS. 

This tree grows very slow, and the wood is hard, 
compact, heavy and durable ; it is white outside, and 
chocolate color in the centre, taking a very fine polish. 
It may be used like Boxwood, and when stained of a 
light yellow color, resembles it altogether. All kinds 
of tools and instruments are made with it, also cogs 
of wheels, teeth of harrows, spoons, &c. 

Locality — All over the United Htates, and almost 
in every soil, from INIassachusetls to Louisiana, and 
from Florida to Missouri. Most abundant in swampy 
and moist woods. 

Qualities— The bark of the root, stem and branches 
is bitter, astringent and slightly aromatic. Ily analysis 
it has been found to contain in different proportion 
the same substances as Cinchona, having more of Gum 
mucilage, extractive and Gallic acid, and less of Re- 
sin, Quinine, and Tannin. The Quinine of the Cor- 
nus has been called Cornine, it has all the properties 
of the genuine Sulphate of Quinine, but very little is 
afforded. The double distilled water o£ Cornus is le- 
mon color, that o^ Cinchona is reddish. 

The extract of Corniis is less bitter and more as- 
tringent than that of the best Cinchona, but prefera- 
ble to the extract of the inferior kinds. 

This extract contains all the tonic properties, the 
resin alone is merely stimulant. The bark of the root 
is the strongest ; it is more soluble in water than Cin- 
chona, The fresh bark frequently disagrees with the 
stomach, and is improved by keeping at least one year. 

PROPERTIES — Tonic, astringent, antiseptic, co- 
roboiant and stimulant. It is one of l|;ie best native 


13-1: CORKUS. No. 28. 

substitutes for Cinchona, although evidently different 
in some respects ; the powdered bark quickens the 
pulse, and sometimes produces pains in the bowels ; 
but the Sulphate of Cornine and the extract are not so 
stimulant. They are used in intermittent and remit- 
tent fevers also, typhus and all febrile disorders. The 
doses of the powder are from twenty-five to thirty- 
five grains, often repeated. The Cornine like Quinine. 

In cases of debility it acts as a corroborant ; it may 
be joined in practice with Gentian, Colombo, Camo- 
mile, Liriodendron, Seneca root, &c. It is often used 
in decoction in the country, and even the twigs are 
chewed as a prophylactic against fevers. Drunkards 
use a tincture of the berries as a bitter for the same 
purpose and for indigestion. 

The flowers have the same properties, and are 
chiefly used by the Indians, in warm infusion for 
fevers and cholics. All these preparations have a 
more agreeable bitterness than the Peruvian bark. 

It is said that the twigs rubbed or chewed, clean and 
keep sound the gums and teeth. A decoction of the 
bark is used to cuie the distemper of horses called the 
yellow water. Joined with sassafras it is employed 
in strong warm decoction to clean foul ulcers and can- 
cers. Lastly, a kind of black ink can be made with the 
bark, in the usual way, instead of galls. 

Substitutes — Cinchojia — Liriodendron Mas:- 

nolia sp — Pinckneya — Cephalanthus, and most of 
the astringent tonics, besides several species of the 
same genus. 

Remarks — Almost all the species of this genus have 
more or less the same tonic properties, and may be 

No. 28. coaNus. 1S5 

substituted to the C. florida. Three of the best 
known as ntost efficient will be mentioned here. 

1. Cornxis Sericea or Blueberry Cornel, vii]2;arlv 
called Swamp Dogwood or Rose Willow, is a shrub 
from six to twelve feet high, growing from Canadii 
to Virginia, near swamps and streams. There is a 
figure of it in W. Barton, iig. 9. The leaves are like 
those of C. florida, and silky beneath, but the flowers 
are very different, in large terminal cymes, without 
involucrum, yellowish white, and succeeded by large 
clusters of small round blue berries. — The bark is less 
bitter, more astringent and pleasant to the taste than 
in C. florida. 

2. C. circinnata or Round leaved Cornel, also 
called Alder Dogwood, is a shrub with warty twigs, 
large rounded leaves^ woolly beneath : the fiovs^ers 
are in cymes, without involucrum. It grows from 
Canada to Pennsylvania. — Prof. E Ives of New Ha- 
ven, and Dr. A. Ives of New York, extol this kind, 
they say it resembles the pale Peruvian Bark, Ciu' 
chona lancifolia : an ounce of the bark yields by boil- 
ing 150 grains, of an astringent and intensely bitter 
extract. In use it is found preferable to Colombo and 
Cinchona cordifolia, it is much employed in the 
Northern States, in substance and otherwise, for 
diarrhoea, dyspepsia; but is too heating in fevers. 

3. C alba or Wax-berry Cornel, is also, a shrub, 
growing from New England to Siberia in Asia, with 
broad ovate leaves, white beneath, flowers in cymes, 
berries round, white like wax. — All these blossom 
from May to June: many birds are fond of their ber- 
ries and the beavers eat their bark. 

136 CUNILA. No. 29. 

No. 29. 



French Name — Cr2siLE d'amekique. 

Gekman Name — Amekicanisciie cunile. 

Officinal Name — Cunila herba. 

Vulgar Names — Mountain Dittany, Stone Mint, 
Wild Easily Sweet Horsemint, &.c. 

Authorities — Linnaeus, Schoepf, Mich. Pursh, 
Elliot, Torrey, Stokes, W. Barton, fi*. 42, &c. 

Genus Cunila — Calix tubular, striated with five 
subequal teeth. Corolla tubular, ringent, upper lip 
erect flat emarginate, lower lip three parted. Two 
exerted fertile stamina, two sterile stam. very short. 
Gerinen four lobed, style exerted, stigma lateral. 
Four seeds within the calix closed by hairs. 

Species C. Mariana — Smooth, stems slender and 
branched; leaves opposite, sessile, punctate, ovate, re- 
mote, serrate; flowers in terminal fasciculate corymbs. 

DESCRIPTION— Root perennial, fibrous, yel- 
\o\y. — Stem about a foot high, smooth, yellowish 
or purplish; slender, hard brittle, with many brachi- 
ate remote branches. — Leaves remote, sessile, smooth, 
dotted, pale green, glaucous beneath, base subser- 
date, end acuminate or sharp, margin with small 
remote acute teeth, nerves regular, texture dry. 

Flov.'crs ^jH'JaU but handsome, of a pink or white 

No. 29. 




No. 29. cxyNii.A. 137 

color, forming terminal clusters or corymbs, by tho- 
union of several branched fascicles of three to seven 
flowers, with very small short oblong bracteoles. 
Each flower peduncled and naked, calix green nearly 
cylindrical with ten furrows, and five small sharp 
teeth nearly equal. Corolla twice as long as the 
calix, nearly cylindric, with two short lips, lower 
lip larger with three rounded lobes, upper lip smaller, 
flat and notched.' Four stamina, two of which are 
long, slender and protruding with the style, bearing 
small didymous anthers; two small, very short, without 
anthers. — Fruit formed by four small obovate seeds at 
the bottom of the persistent calix, mouth of it closed 
by hairs. 

HISTORY — This genus belongs to the great na- 
tural order of Labiate, section with two fertile 
filaments, next to the genera Lycopv.s, Collinsonia 
and Hedeoma. It ranks with them in Diandria 
inojiogynia of Linnceus. It contains now only Was 
species, which has been called markina because first 
sent to Europe from ^Maryland. Linnaius had 
united it to Satiircja at first, and called it S. ori- 
ganoides. When he made a new genus of it, he 
united with it the C. pulegioides, which is now 
Hedeoma piihgioides : these are examples of the 
botanical vacillations and errors, to which great 
writers are liable when they wish to improve the 
science, and are not ashamed of correcting them- 

The C. mariana is a pretty plant, with a very- 
fragrant smell, similar to Marjoran and Dittany. It 

M 2 

138 CUNX1.A. No. 29. 

is commonly called by this last name throughout the 
United States ; but is very different from the Dit- 
tany of the gardens, which is the Dictamniis 
fraxinelluy and the other Dittanies of Europe, Ori- 
ganiiin diciarnnus, Marriibium pseudodictamnus, 
&c. Our Dittany is peculiar to America, and distin- 
guished by its corymbose flowers, which blossom in 
summer from July to September. 

Locality — All over the mountains and dry hills 
from New England to Kentucky and Carolina, com- 
mon among rocks and sides of hills, unknown in tlie 
plains and alluvions. 

Qualities— The whole plant has a warm fragrant 
aromatic pungent taste and smell, residing in an es- 
sential oil, which can easily be extracted by distilla- 
tion, and approximates to the oil of Origanum, but 
is more balsamic. It is the most fragrant of all the 
native labiate plants, and the essential oil has a very 
strong balsamic fragrance. 

PROPERTIES — Stimulant, nervine, sudorific, 
sublonicj vulnerary, cephalic, &:c. The whole plant 
is used, and usually taken in warm infusion : Dit- 
tany tea is a popular remedy throughout tie Country 
for colds, headaches, and whenever it is requisite to 
excite a gentle perspiration. It partakes of the pro- 
perties of ail the grateful aromatic labiate j)lants, and 
also of Camomile, Sntkemis Colula, and the Eypa- 
torium perfotiatiini : while it affords a more palata- 
ble drink. Its fragrant tea is preferable to that of 
Sage and Monarda, it has neither the pungency of 
Miiit, nor the nauseous sraell of Pennyroyal or 

No. 29. CUNILA. 139 

Hedeoma. Solidago Odora conies' nearest to this, 
by its fragrance ; but is weaker and not so grateful. 
It relieves nervous headaches and hysterical disor- 
ders. It is used in Carolina, Kentucky, &:c. in fevers 
to excite perspiration, and suppressed menstruations, 
&c. It is a useful drink in nervous diseases, cholics 
and indigestion. Externally it is employed like CoU 
Unsonia for bruises, sprains, &c. but is not so effi- 
cient. According to Schoepf, it was one of the plants 
resorted to for curing the bites of snakes ; the juice 
was mixed with milk for this purpose. There are 
fifty plants in the United States, employed occasion- 
ally as an antidote for this purpose, which merely act 
as sudorifics The essential oil possesses all the pro- 
perties of the plant, and a few drops of it are sufficient 
to impart them to mixtures. 

Substitutes — Besides the plants mentioned above, 
all the mild sudorifics, and Eryngium ijucefulium, 
Yarrow, Tansey, Snakeroots^ hnda heknium, &c. 

140 CrPRIPEDIUM. No. 3Q, 

No. 30. 


English Name- — Yellow Ladies' Slipper.. 

French Name — Sabot de venus jaune. 

German Name — Gelb Frauenschuh. 

Officinal Name — Cypripedium radix. 

Vulgar Names — Mocasin flower, Yellows, 
Bleeding heart, American Valerian, Yellow Umbil^ 
Male Mervine, Noah's Ark, &c. 

Synonyms — Cypripedium Calceolus Var. b. Lin. 
■ — Cijpr. luteum Aiton — C flavescens Redoute — C. 
pubescens and C. parvijlorum Wildenow, Salisbury, 
Persoon,Pursh, Elliot, Torrey^ Eaton, W. Barton,&c. 

Authorities — Wildenow, Aiton, Pursh, Elliot;> 
W. Bart, flora fig. 74, &c. 

Genus Cypripedium — Perigone symphog3^ne con- 
crete with the germen at the base, with five unequal 
sepals or divisions, superior and often colored ; the 
innermost or labellum larger, different, ventricose, 
split. Central pillar or gonophore bearing two Anthers 
and a terminal lobe. 

Species C. Luteum — Stem leafy, leaves broad, 
often acute and pubescent ; fiowers with the labellum 
shorter than the other sepals, saccate and compressed, 
two inner sepals linear spiral and very long, terminal 
central lobe deltoid nearly obtuse. 

DESCRIPTION — Roots perennial with many long, 
thick, fleshy cylindrical an^ flexuose fibres^ of a pale 

No 30. 



No. 30. CYPE-IPEDIUM. 141 

yellowish castj diverging horizontally from the cau- 
tlex. — Stems one to five from the same caudex, sim- 
ple, erect, often pubescent and angular, rising one or 
two feet, three to seven leaves, and one to three 
flowers. Leaves alternate, sessile, sheathing, ovate or 
oblong, acute pubescent or smooth, but always entire 
and with many parallel nerves, green above, paler be- 

Flowers sessile, when more than one, each has a 
bracteal leaf. Germen concrete or inferior, green, 
cylindrical, often curved. Perigone with five unequal 
and different sepals, called petals by the Linnean Bo- 
tanists : two are external oblong or lanceolate, acute, 
longer than the labellum and green : two are internal 
longer, narrower, spirally contorted and green : the 
fifth or innermost and lower, called Labellum, is to- 
tally ditferent from the others, shorter but larger, 
yellow with or without red spots, hollow like a bag, 
convex beneath, rounded in front, split above with 
inflexed margins. Style and stamina concrete in 
the centre, above the germen, fonning a central pil- 
lar, flattened above into an oblong deltoid lobe, sup- 
posed to be the stigma by some Botanists, and bear- 
ing before two anthers, lodged in separate cells. — The 
fruit is an oblong capsul, with one cell, three valves, 
and a multitude of minute seeds, as in all the Orchi- 
deous tribe. 

HISTORY — The natural order of the Orchideofs 
to which this plant belongs, is a very striking and 
peculiar tribe of Monocotyle vegetables, which even 
Linnceus considered as natural, and put in his class 


Gynandria and order Diandria, although most of 
them are truly monandrous. He called their peri- 
gone, a corolla, because often colored, and deemed 
the labellum a nectary, while it is evidently a part 
of the perigone or sexual covering. The generic 
name of Cypripedhim, means Venus' Slioe ; it is a 
splendid genus containing several beautiful American 
and Asiatic species. Many Botanists have made two 
species, C, pubescens and C. parvijloriim of this, to 
which the previous and better name of C lufeum 
ought to be restored. I have ascertained that they 
form only one species^ affording many varieties, some 
of which are 

1. C, L. Var. pubescens, entirely pubescent even 
the flowers. 

2. C. L. Var. glabriim, nearly smooth. 

3. C. L. Var. grandijiorum, slightly pubescent, 
labellum very large. 

4. C. L. Var. /?(3rz;iy7orw7?2, slightly pubescent, la- 
bellum small. 

\ 5. C. L. Var. maculatum, labellum more or less 
spotted, with red dots, lobule often red. 

6. C. L. Var. bifloriim, with two flowers and 

7. C, L. Var. concolor, the whole flower yellow 
or yellowish, unspotted. 

8. C. L. Var. angusti folium, leaves and brac- 
teoles lanceolate. 

A multitude of intermediate varieties or deviations 
may be seen, with undulate or spiral sepals, obtuse 
or acute lobule, broader or narrower leaves, &Ck 

No. }0. CYPJllPEDIUM. 143 

This plant blossoms in May and June; it is much 
valued in gardens for its beauty and singularity, but 
it is difficult to cultivate : it will seldom grow from 
seeds; the roots must be taken up with earth round 
them, and transplanted in a congenial rich light 
soil. For medical use, they must be collected in the 
fall, or early in the spring, carefully dried and re- 
duced to powder. 

Locality — Found all over the United States, from 
New England to Louisiana ; but very rare in some 
places, while it is common in the hills and swamps 
of New York, the Highlands, Green and Catskill 
Mountains, and also in the glades and prairies of the 
Western States. 

Qualities — The roots are the only medical parts: 
they have a pungent, mucilaginous taste, and a pe- 
culiar smell, somewhat nauseous. They contain ex- 
tractive, gum, fecula, and perhaps a small portion of 
essential oil. 

PROPEilTIES— It is with some satisfaction that 
I am enabled to introduce, for the first time, this beau- 
tiful genus into our Materia JMedica : all the species 
are equally medical ; they have long been known to 
the Indians, who called them ISIocasin flower, and 
were used by the Empirics of New England, parti- 
cularly Samuel Thompson. Their properties how- 
ever have been tested and confirmed by Dr. Hales of 
Troy, Dr. TuUy of Albany, &c. The most efficient 
is the C. hifeum, next C. acaule, and last C spec- 
tabile and C. candidum. Neither Schoepf nor any 
«ther medical writer has mentioned them. 

144- CYPRIPEBIUM, No. 30. 

They are sedative, nervine, antispasmodic, <S'C. and 
the best American substitute for Valerian in almost 
all cases. They produce beneficial effects in all nerv- 
ous diseases and hysterical affections, by allaying 
pain, quieting the nerves and promoting sleep. They 
are also used in hemicrania, epilepsy, tremors, 
nervous fevers, &c. They are preferable to Opium 
in many cases, having no baneful nor narcotic effects. 
The dose is a tea spoonful of the powder, diluted in 
sugar water, or any other convenient form. As in 
Valerian, the nervine power is increased by combina- 
tion with mild tonics. The powder alone has been 
used ; but an extract might be also efficient, unless 
the active principle is very volatile. 

It is well known that the roots of all the tubercular 
Orchideous, afford the officinal Salep, which is so 
highly esteemed in Asia as aphrodisiac, nutritive and 
pectoral. The roots of many species of Orchis could 
afford it in America. The Cyprijjedium having 
long fleshy roots appear to afford a different kind of 
substance, by their efficiency as equivalents to Vale- 
rian and Opium. 

Substitutes — All the species of this fine genus 
being equally nervine, it will be well to notice them, 
so as to be easily known. 

1. C acaide or Red Ladies' Slipper, Dwarf Umbil, 
&c. — Two radical leaves, one large red flower on a 
naked stem. Common in New Jersey, and on the 
alluvial plains of the Atlantic States. Best substitute. 
Roots smaller and brownish. There is a bad figure of 
it in W. Barton's Am. Flora. 

No. 30. CYPRIFEDZUM. 145 

2. C. spectabile, or Red and White Ladies' Slip- 
per, Female Nervine, &c. — Stem leafy, one or two 
flowers white and rose colored, sepals oval and short 
— Rare from New York to Louisiana. 

3. C, candidum, or White Ladies' Slipper, White 
Umbil, &c. — Stem leafy, flower white, sepals longer 
than the labellum — Rare in deep woods, Pennsylva- 
nia to Ohio. 

The other succedanea may be Valeriana officinalis 
— Humulus lupulus or hops — Ulmus fulva — Arni* 
ca Montana — Doronicum sp. — Cunila mariana — 
Inula helenium, &c. 

Remarks — The Orchideous plants which have 
long roots like the Cypripedium, appear to have dif- 
ferent properties from those which have round or 
oval tubercles. The Goodyera is antiscrofulous. 

The Genus Cladorhiza or Corallorhiza, which 
has fleshy branched roots, has also active properties, 
&c. The Hahenaria fimhriaia has anthelmintic roots, 
and theiy<z6 orbiculata is one of the Heal-alls or com- 
mon Vulneraries. 

All the bulbs of our tubercular Orchideous are 
more or less like Salep, Aphrodisiac and Uterine. 
But one of them the Aplectrum hyemale, (called 
formerly Cymbidium and Corallorhiza by other 
Botanists,) commonly known by the vulgar name of 
Adam and Eve, furnishes a kind of Glue, and has ac- 
tive properties. A species of the same genus ^Bphc- 
trum lutescens which grows in the Western States, 
is said to be a powerful Uterine, employed by the In- 
dian Women to procure abortion. 


1 16 DATURA. No. 31 . 

No. 31. 



French Name — Stramoine vulgaire. 

German Name — Gemeine Stechapfel. 

Officinal Name — Stramonium. 

Vulgar Names — Jamestownweed, Jimson, Stink- 
weed, &c. 

Authorities — Linn, and all botanical writers, 
Schoepf, Stoerck, B. Barton, Marcet, Hufeland, 
Woodville, Fisher, CuUen, Murray, Chapman, Ar- 
cher, Thatcher, Coxe, A. Ives, Bigelow, fig. 1. & Seq. 

Genus Datura — Calix tubular, angular, deciduous, 
five toothed. Corolla funnel-shaped, plaited, five 
toothed: stamina five equal. Pistil one, style fili- 
form, stigma bilobe. Capsule four celled, four valved, 
many seeded. 

Species D. Stramonium — Stem dichotome; leaves 
alterne oval, sinuate-angular, acute, smooth : flowers 
solitary, capsuls erect, ovate, thorny. 

DESCRIPTION— Root annual, white, crooked. 
Stem erect, from one to eight feet high, branched 
by forks or dichotome, cylindrical, often hollow, 
smooth or pubescent. Leaves alternate at the forks, pe. 
tiolate, oval or oval-oblong, base decurrent, end acute, 
margin almost angular by large unequal acute teeth, 
sinuses rounded, and irregular. — Flowers axillary 
solitary, on short peduncles, erect, or sometimes 

No. 31. 






No. 31. DATURA. 147 

nodding, large, white or blueish. Calix monophylle, 
tubular, with five angles and teeth, deciduous, but 
leaving a rinr at the base. Corolla twice as long, 
monopetalous, base tubular, subangular, limb with 
five angles, plaits and teeth, these last are acuminate. 
Stamina five, filaments coherent with the tube, fili- 
fijrm, equal, anthers oblong erect. Germen central, 
free, but the base concrete with the persistent rim of 
the calix, oval, hairy ; one style filiform, as long as 
the stamina, one stigma bilobe at the base or sub- 
reniform. Fruit a large fleshy capsule, ovate, thorny, 
with four valves opening at the top, inside with four 
cells. Many black seeds filling each cell, and at- 
tached to a central receptacle in each cell, shape 

HISTORY — The Genus Datura belongs to the 
LuRiDEs of Linnaeus or Solanea of Jussieu ; but 
ought to be the type of a peculiar family Daturines, 
hardly different from the Convolvulides, except by 
having equal stamina. It is one of the numerous 
genera of the linnean Pentandria monogynia. 

Some obscurity appear to exist on this species and 
several others, ovving to mistakes of the best botanists. 
Linnaeus blended the Datura tatula of Africa, with a 
variety of D, Stramonium, and the D. metel hardl}^ 
differs from both. Individual varieties answering to 
these three species, are found in the United States; 
but they have all the same properties, as well as the 
D.fastuosa and D./erox of the East Indies. The 
following varieties are common with us, and are 
linked by imperceptible changes. 

448 DATURA. No. 31, 

1. Var. Tatuloides. Stem purple dotted with 
green, leaves subtruncate at the base, flowers purplish. 
This is the Z>. tatula of some botanists, but not the 
real one of South Africa and Asia. 

2. Var. Cordata. Leaves cordate at the base, 
stem green, flowers pale bluish. 

3. Var. JJngustifolia. Leaves oblong-lanceolate, 
sinuate, flowers pale bluish. 

4. Var. Physaloides, Leaves oblique at the base, 
viscid, flowers white. 

5. Var. Meteloides. Stem viscid, tall, leaves sub- 
cordate pubescent viscid, flowers white, nodding. — 
This is the D. metel of some Botanists, but not the 
true kind of Africa, which has globose capsuls, and 
leaves nearly entire. 

6. Var. %/ilba. Stem green without dots, flowers 
pure white. 

This plant has handsome flowers, sometimes four 
inches long, with leave* from three to seven inches 
long, of a lurid aspect. It has been formerly culti- 
vated for its beautiful blossoms, although they have a 
lurid smell. Children use them as yet for garlands, 
by forming strings of the flowers within each other. 
Notwithstanding its noxious qualities, I have seen 
Cows, Sheep and Goats browze on the leaves. 

It blossoms from May to September, in the Southern 
States, and in the Northern from July to October, 
bearing yet blossoms when the seeds of the first 
flowers are ripe. It is killed by the frost with us ; 
but in warmer climates becomes a half biennial plant. 

The whole plant is a narcotic poison, producing 

No. 31. DATURA. I4.9 

many strange effects on the human system, according 
to the doses and constitutions. The leaves eaten 
boiled, have occasioned delirium and intoxication for 
many days, without producing death, or else madness 
or tetanus and death. The Antidotes of this poison 
are emetics, vegetable acids, and strong coffee. 

The vulgar name of Jimson is a corruption from 
Jamestown ; as it is said to have spread from the 
town of that name in Virginia. 

Locality — One of the erratic or wandering plants, 
common to all the parts of the world, and spreading 
with the utmost facility. It is probably a native of 
Persia and India; but has spread to Europe, Africa 
and America. It was once thought to be a native of 
North America ; but it has spread in it only since its 
colonization: the Indians call it the White people's 
plant. Its migrations and colonies might be traced 
from Virginia, and New England. In the Western 
States it has sprung only since their late settlement, 
and from seeds carried there as a pretty garden plant. 
It is now become a noxious weed, infesting the fields, 
&c. ; but as it is annual, it might easily be destroyed 
by pulling it before seed time. It is commonly met 
with near houses, along the roads, in commons, old 
fields, &c., never in woods nor mountains, and is 
found in all the States; also in Canada, and beyond 
Louisiana to Mexico, and even to Peru in South Ame- 

Qualities — The whole plant has a fetid, lurid and 
narcotic smell, causing head ache and stupor ; it has 
a bitter and nauseous taste. It contains gum, resin, 

N 2 

150 DATURA. No. 31. 

carbonate of ammonia, nitrate of potash, malic acid, 
and a peculiar alkaline principle called Daturin, to 
which most of its activity is ascribed. Daturin cris- 
talizes in quadrangular prisms, and is only soluble 
in boiling alcohol : yet the plant yields its properties 
to Water and Alcohol, because the Daturin is com- 
bined with the acid and forms a soluble mallate of 

PROPERTIES— This loathsome weed is one of 
those bounties of nature scattered almost every where, 
and possessing energetic medical powers. It is narcotic, 
phantastic, antispasmodic, anti-epileptic, anodyne, 
sedative, &c. and externally refrigerant, detergent, 
resolvent, &c. It has been recommended by Physi- 
cians in Asia, Europe and America, in Epilepsy, 
rheumatic pains, tic douleureux, Gout and all kinds of 
pains, Mania, Convulsions, Asthma, Chorea, Sciatica, 
&c., and externally for burnings, scaldings, tumors, 
ulcers, cancer and piles. It is now a common article 
of Materia Medica every where ; but it fails some- 
times and requires care in the exhibition, owing to 
its noxious qualities when taken internally in too 
great quantity. It produces then Vertigo, confusion 
of mind, dilatation of the pupil, loss of sight, head 
ache, tremors of the limbs, loss of motion, dry throat, 
nausea, anxiety, faintness, delirium, convulsions, 
lethargy and death. Vinegar neutralizes the Datu- 
rin, as wtll as all vegetable acids ; but an emetic is 
always serviceable when poisoned by narcotics. 

The effects of this narcotic when administered in- 
ternally for medical purposes, and in proper doses, is 

No. SI. DATURA. 151 

to lessen sensibility and pain, to cause a kind of ner- 
vous shock attended with some nausea, a feeling of 
intoxication and suffocation, to have little influence 
on the pulse, to relax the bowels, to dilate the eyes, 
&c. , followed by a sensation of ease and quiet, which 
induces sleep. 

It has been too much extolled by some writers ; 
but the results of the numerous cases in which it has 
been given, are as follows: — In asthma, it is only a 
palliative, useful in the paroxysms, but useless in ple- 
thoric cases, it is commonly smoked like Tobacco, 
a practice likely to be attended with some danger, 
and suitable only for smokers. In Mania it is of little 
use except in some cases difficult to be ascertained ; 
but in Epilepsy and Convulsions it cures the periodi- 
cal fits, while it avails not in the sudden fits. It is 
highly serviceable in Chronic acute diseases, such as 
Sciatica, Syphilitic pains, disease of the spine, para- 
plegia, Cancer of the breast, uterine pains, rheuma- 
tism, &c., also in chorea and dysmenorhea, strangury 
and Calculus, acting in all those cases as an antispas- 
modic. In tic douleureux it has only afforded relief 
in some cases, and has required repeated doses, but 
it has failed in others. 

Externally it is a safer and certain remedy for 
burns, tumors, gout, ulcers, inflammations and some 
cutaneous eruptions. The leaves or their ointment 
are applied to the parts, they promote the granulations 
or cicatrization of the worse ulcers, and afibrd speedy 
relief in piles and painful hemorrhoidal tumors. Sur 
geons use them topically to enlarge the pupil of the 

153 DATURA. No. 31. 

eye previous to the operation of Cataract. It is said 
that the leaves applied to the head, produce sleep 
and dreams. The plant may be gathered for use at 
any time ; but it is best when in blossom. All the 
parts of the plant are efficient even the root; but the 
seeds contain more Daturin, and are preferable in 
some instances. 

Many preparations are made for internal use; but 
the distilled water is nearly inert. The powdered 
leaves, juice, extract, decoction, tincture, &c. are all 
available ; for external use an ointment is made by 
simmering one pound of fresh leaves in three pounds 
of lafd. The doses for internal use are to be very 
small. Dr. Bigelow recommends the following: one 
grain of dry powdered leaves or extract, half a grain 
of powdered seeds, one quarter of a grain of extract 
from the seeds, and from 15 to 20 drops of the tinc- 
ture. Marcet and others say that_even one-eighth of 
a grain is a sufficient dose to begin with. One pound 
of seeds afford two ounces of extract, and one pound 
of leaves three ounces. 

Substitutes — Hyosciamiis n'lger — Conium ma- 
culaium — Lactuca elongata — Solanum Virgini- 
cum and S. dulcamara — Cypripedium Sp — Opium 
and other active narcotics or sedatives. 

No. 32. 



No. 32. DZOSPYROS. 153 

No. 32. 


English Name— PERSIMON TREE. 

French Name — Plaqueminier. 

German Name — Persimon Baum. 

Officinal Name — Diospyros. 

Vulgar Names — Persimons, Yellow Plums, Win- 
ter Plums, Guaiacan, Seeded Plums, Pishmin, &c. 

Authorities — Lin. Mich. Fl. and Sylva, Pursh, 
Eaton, Torrey, Elliott, Schoepf, Kalm, Catesby, 
Woodhouse, Coxe, Brickell, ZoUickoffer, &c. 

Genus Diospyros — Diclinous, Calix 4 to 8 cleft. 
Corolla rotate or urceolate 4 to 8 cleft. Staminate 
flowers with 8 to 20 Stam. filaments free with one or 
two anthers. Pistilate flowers with one Pistil, a 
short style and 4 to 6 stigmas. Berry with 8 to 12 
seeds. — Trees with alternate leaves. 

Species D. Virginiana — Leaves ovate oblong, acu- 
minate, entire, smooth, pale and reticulate beneath, 
petiolate, petiols pubescent; Berries solitary globose. 

DESCRIPTION— The Persimon is a common 
tree rising from 15 to 60 feet, with a smooth bark, 
and spreading branches. The leaves are from three 
to five inches long, shining above, whitish or pale 
and reticulate beneath, oval or oblong, base acute, 
end or tip acuminate, margin entire, on short alter- 
nate and pubescent petioles. These leaves vary in 

154 DX0SP7R0S. No. 32. 

■■ ' " ' ■ . — 

size, and some varieties have them glaucous or pu- 
bescent beneath. Buds smooth. 

Flowers lateral, extra axillary, solitary, nearly 
sessile or on a short pedicel. Calix spreading persis- 
tent, commonly 4 cleft, seldom 5 or 6 cleft, seg- 
ments oval acute shorter than the Corolla, v^^hich is 
yellowish, with as many segments as the calix, broad 
ovate, acute. Diclinous blossoms on separate trees 
or dioical, sometimes a complete flower occurs, in 
which are as many stigmas as segments to the Calix, 
and double the number of Stamina. The filaments 
are short, free or inserted on the calix instead of the 
corolla, depressed, anthers bilobe. One Pistil, ger- 
men round, style very short, stigmas obtuse, spread- 
ing.— -Fruit a globular yellow berry, similar to a 
plum, with a thin skin, fleshy pulp and many com- 
pressed hard seeds. 

HISTORY — This genus amply evinces the ab- 
surdity of the Linnean system, since hardly two spe- 
cies of it have the same number of stamina. Linnaeus 
put it in his class Polygamia ; it is now put in Dioe- 
da octandriay although many species have 10 or 12 
or 16 or 20 Stamina, and 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6 Styles or 
Stigmas. It however belongs to a very natural family 
the Ebenaceous. The whole genus appears to need 
reform, and ought to be divided in many Sub Genera 
or Genera, such as 

Diospyros to which Z>. Lotus, Virginiana, &c. 

Embriopteris (Gaertner) 20 stam. One cruciate 

No. 32. DIOSPYKOS. 155 

Ebenum, Cal. 5 Segm, Stam. 10. Berry 10 locular. 

DimiayVfiih 2 or 3 Styles, typ^ D, digyna, 

Chloroxylon, type D. ditto. 

Gonopyros, Cal. and Cor. 5 fid. Berry angular or 

The D. Virginiana is by no means a definite spe- 
cies. Pursh and Michaux, jun. have noticed that two 
species are probably blended under that name : to one 
of them Pursh gave the name of D. pubescens, I 
have ascertained three principal varieties at least, (and 
there are more) which might almost be deemed spe 
cific ; they are 

1. Var. Macrocarpa, Leaves smaller, glauceous 
beneath, fruit very large — Southern States. 

2. Var. Concolor, Leaves middle size, hardly pale 
beneath, somewhat obtuse, fruit of a good. size. 

S. Var. Microcarpa. Leaves large acute, pubescent 
beneath, fruit very small. — Virginia, &c. This is the 
D, pubescens of Pursh, who says that the leaves are 
tomentose beneath, petioles longer, &.c. 

The blossoms are of a pale yellow or orange color, 
they appear in May and June, when the leaves are 
yet small and not quite unfolded. The berries are 
only ripe late in the fall, and after frost; they re- 
semble a yellow plum, but are globular: before their 
maturity they are exceedingly acerb and astringent; 
but when fully ripe and soft, become sweet, and have 
a fine flavor. These berries were one of the spon- 
taneous fruits used by the native Tribes ; who pre- 
served them in various ways, dried them and made 
a paste with them : also a kind of Beer or Wine : this 

156 BIOSPYROS. No. 32. 

liquor contains alcohol, which has been attempted to 
be extracted ; but too many substances afford it al- 

A gum exudes sometimes from the tree, but in 
small quantity. The Persimon Beer is made by 
forming the fruits into cakes with bran, drying them 
in an oven, and bruising these cakes afterwards in 
water. The large variety has fruits as big as an egg, 
and deserves to be cultivated on a large scale as a fruit 
tree. The wood is hard and fine, suitable for tools 
and many other domestic articles. To make Persimon 
Wine the skin of the ripe fruits ought to be taken off, 
as it contains too much astringency. 

Locality — From New York to Louisiana, rare 
beyond the 42d degree of latitute, common in the 
South, in woods and groves ; more common in the 
plains than the mountains. 

Qualities — Bark bitter and acerb, containing 
Tannin, Extractive, &c. Fruit sweet and well fla- 
voured when ripe, containing sugar, mucilage, gallic 
acid and several other substances. 

PROPERTIES— Bark astringent, styptic, tonic, 
corroborant, antiseptic, &c. Ripe fruits subastrin- 
gent, nutrient, antiseptic, anthelmintic, &c. The 
inner bark is the most officinal part : it is extremely 
bitter, and a good astringent tonic, useful in sore 
throat, fevers, intermittents, and Dysentery. In this 
last disorder it is often united with rhubarb. It is 
much used in Carolina and Tennessee for intermit- 
tent fevers. It is also a powerful antiseptic, and 
equal to the Cinchona : Some physicians consider 

No. 32. DIOSPYROS. 157 

it, as well as its equivalent the Sorbus %8.rtiericana 
as the best succedanea to Cinchona. It has been 
useful in ulcers, and ulcerous sorethroat. The doses 
are the same as common tonics either in substance or 
extract. It has not yet been analysed; but probably 
contains a peculiar principle, Diospyrine, which is 
by far more astringent than Cornine or even Quinine, 
owing to its union to the gallic acid. 

In the South of Europe the Diospyros Lotus, 
w^hich is very much like the Var. microcarpa, is 
called holy wood, and employed as a substitute for 
Guayac wood. This may perhaps possess similar 

The unripe fruit has nearly the same properties as 
the bark ; but is too austere and very styptic. The 
ripe fruit is very palatable, sweet and vinous ; it has 
been used to kill the worms of children. 

Substitutes — Sorbus t^mericana — Prunus Vir- 

giniana Quercus rubra Spirea tomentosa 

Pinckneya bracteata — Cinchona Sp. and most of 
the Astringent Tonics. 

Remarks — The Persimons, Wild Grapes, Papaws 
(^»/Ssi7nina) Hickorynuts, Pecans, Walnuts, Chesnuts, 
Chincapins, Filberts, Whortleberries, Cranberries, 
Strawberries, Mulberries, Raspberries, Blackberries, 
Crab Apples, Wild Plums, &c. were the fruits of the 
native tribes. Several have been introduced already 
in our gardens^ but the Persimon has not yet been 
cultivated, although no fruit deserves it better: it pro- 
mises to improve in flavor and size under the care of 
the gardener, affording a fine table fruit, many pre- 
serves, and a peculiar kind of wine. 

158 BZRCA. No. 33. 

No. 33. 



French Name — Diecier triflore. 

German Name — Leder-holz. 

Officinal Name- — Dirca. 

Vulgar Names Leatherwood, Moosewood, 

Swampwood, Ropebark, (Bois de plomb in Canada.) 

Authorities — Linnaeus, Pursh, Kalm, Bartram, 
Duhamel, fig. 212. Torrey, Eaton, Elliott, Locke, 
B, Barton, Zollickofier, Bigelow, fig. 37, &c. 

Genus Dirca — Perigone simple, colored or corol- 
liform, tubular, funnelshaped, nearly entire, sub-eight 
toothed. Stamina eight perigynous, exserted, four 
alternate longer. Germen free oval, style lateral. 
Berry one seeded. 

Species D. palustris — Shrubby, branches articu- 
lated; leaves alternate, subsessile, oval, entire; pe- 
duncles triflore drooping. 

DESCRIPTION— Shrub, from three to seven feet 
high, with branches spreading, cylindric, flexuose 
articulate, green, smooth. Leaves alternate or scat- 
tered, distichal, nearly sessile, petioles very short; 
shape oval entire, acute at both ends, downy when 
young, smooth and membranous when full grown, 
pale beneath, unfolding after the flowers. 

No 33. 



No. 33. DIRCA. 159 

Flowers blossoming early and before the leaves 
come out, forming in the fall within terminal buds, 
where they hybernate, buds with many oblong hairy 
scales, and three flowers. Peduncle bearing a fascicle 
of three flowers, formed by three cohering pedicels. 
Each flower yellow, half an inch long, with a simple 
perigone, called Corolla by Linnaeus because it is co- 
lored: this perigone is drooping, tubular, contracted 
at the base and middle, campanulate at the end, with 
eight obscure teeth on the margin. Eight Stamina 
inserted on the perigone, with slender filaments, longer 
than the perigone, and alternately longer and shorter, 
anthers rounded. Germen oval, central free, with a 
long filiform curved style inserted on one side of the 
base, Stigma acute. Fruit a small orange berry, oval, 
acute, with a single seed. 

HISTORY — One of the few American genera con- 
taining as yet a single species. It is a very distinct 
genus belonging to the natural family of Daphnides, 
called Thymelea by Jussieu and Vepreciilse by Lin- 
naeus, and also to Octandriavionogynia of his sexual 
system. The specific name palustris implies that it 
grows in swamps ; but it is oftener found on the banks 
of rivers and even among rocks. 

The blossoms are scentless and appear very early 
in the Spring, as soon as the Maples blossoms, long be- 
fore the leaves are unfolded. The bark is very tough, 
can hardly be broken, and tearing in long stripes is 
used as yet in many parts for ropes, a practice bor- 
rowed from the Indian tribes : the wood is also flexible. 

The berries are poisonous, children must avoid 

160 DIRCA. No. 33. 

them : if eaten by mistake, an emetic must be re- 
sorted to. 

Locality — From Maine and Canada to Georgia 
near streams, and in shady swamps, rare west of the 
Alleghany mountains, yet occuring in Ohio and 

Qualities — The bark and root have a peculiar 
nauseous smell, and unpleasant acrimonious taste; 
they contain an acrid resin, bitterish extractive, mu- 
cilage, &c. : the resin or active principle, is only so- 
luble in boiling alcohol. The decoction and extract 
are bitter, but not acrimonious. 

PROPERTIES — Emetic, cathartic, rubefacient, 
epispastic, &:c. and the berries narcotic. The fresh 
root and bark in substance at the dose of five to ten 
grains produce vomiting, with a sense of heat in the 
stomach, and sometimes act as a cathartic also. They 
are an active and dangerous medicine, to which less 
acrimonious substances ought to be preferred. Ap- 
plied to the skin they produce rubefaction and vesi- 
cation in thirty hours; this appears a more safe mode 
to use them, as they might become auxiliaries to the 
Spanish flies. The berries produce nausea, giddiness, 
stupor, dilatation of the pupil and insensibility like 
other narcotics. Bigelow considers this plant as a 
substitute for Ihe Poly gala Senega; but this last is 
by far better and safer, and therefore preferable. We 
are not told whether it acts like the Poly gala and is 
expectorant, sudorific, &c. Upon the whole this 
shrub possesses such active properties as to deserve 
attention ; but we do not possess as yet sufficient evi- 

No. 3d. DZRCA. 161 

dence of its utility. When the bark is chewed it 
produces salivation, it is so tough that it cannot be 
reduced to powder, but forms only a kind of lint. 
The watery preparations are nearly inert. 

Substitutes — All the milder emetics and acrid 
substances, Cantharides — Baptisia tinctoria — Coni- 

um maculatum Polygala senega */3pocynu7n 

androsemifoliuTn — Eupatoriuvi perfoliatum — Ba- 
nunculus sp. — Euphorbia coroUata and E. Ipeca- 
cuana — R/ms Sp. — Clematis Sp. &c. 

Remarks — Our native epispastics are little known 
as yet, and deserve attention. The Juglans Cinerea 
and the Oil of Sassafras are with the Dirca most 
likely to become practically useful. 

We have also in the United States, several species 
of Cantharides, such as Cantharis Vittata. C. mar- 
ginata, C, atrata, C. cinerea, &c. which are equal 
to the officinal Spanish flies, and w^ould be available 
if not so scarce. 


16S ERZ6ERON. No. 34. 

No. 34. 



French Name — Erigeron de Philadelphie. 

German Name — Skewisch Berusungskraut. 

Vulgar Names — Skevish, Scabish, Sweet Sca- 
bious, Daisy, Cocash, Frostweed, Fieldweed, Squaw- 
weed, &c. 

Authorities — Linn. Mich. Pursh, Pers. Torrey, 
Eaton, B. Barton, Depuy, Hales, A. Ives, Bigelow 
Seq. Thatcher, Coxe. W. Bart. fig. 20. 

Genus Erigeron — Flowers compound radiate. Pe- 
rianthe imbricated, folioles subulate unequal. Pho- 
i^nthe naked. Rays ligulate, linear, entire, nume- 
rous, pistillate; central flowers of the disk tubular 
complete or staminate, five toothed. Seeds oblong 
crowned by a simple pappus. 

Species. E. Philadelphicum — Pubescent, leaves 
cuneate oblong obtuse, lower petiolate, upper semi- 
amplexicaule, nearly entire subciliate: flowers co- 
rymbose, rays twice as long as the hemispherical peri- 

DESCRIPTION Roots perennial yellowish, 

formed by many branching thick fibres. The whole 
plant is pubescent and rises two or three feet, stems 
one to five, straight, simple, branched and corymbose 
at the top, a little angular. Radical and lower leaves 

No. 34. 



No. 34. ERZGERON. 163 

oblong, base cuneate decurrent on a long petiole, 
nearly obtuse, margin ciliate entire or seldom serrate : 
upper leaves sessile or nearly amplexicaule, cuneate, 
narrow oblong, obtuse, entire, alternate remote : floral 
leaves small lanceolate. 

Flowers numerous forming a panicled Corymb, 
peduncles scattered, slender, bearing one to three 
flowers. Buds globular. Perianthe or common calix 
hemispherical, formed by many subulate, adpressed 
folioles. Flowers radiate, half an inch in diameter, 
with yellow disk and rays white, bluish or purplish. 
Rays or radial florets ligular numerous, spreading, 
crowding, narrow, entire, pistilate. Florets of the 
disk, convex, crowded, the central ones sometimes 
staminate and abortive. Phoranthe or common re- 
ceptacle, bearing all the florets, flat, naked, pitted. 
Germen of the pistillate and complete florets oblong 
smooth, having a symphogyne calix forming above a 
pilose pappus which crowns the seeds. Each floret 
produces a single seed. 

Locality — Found all over the United States, al- 
though bearing the name of Philadelphian. It grows 
in New England, New York, Ohio, Kentucky, Mis- 
souri, and as far South as Louisiana and Georgia. It 
is a field plant, seldom seen in woods and mountains; 
but covering sometimes whole fields, dry meadows, 
commons and glades. In old fields it is deemed a 
pernicious weed, like the other kinds which com- 
monly accompany it. 

HISTORY— Three species (if not more) of this 
genus have similar properties, and will therefore be 
included in this article, the other two are. 

164} ERieimowr. no. 34, 

1. Erigeron heterophyllum, (Aster Annuus of 
Linnaeus) Jagged Fleabane, which merely differs 
from this by broader jagged difforme 'leaves, the ra- 
dical and inferior ovate, sinuate dentate, acute, the 
upper one lanceolate subpinnatif, and the floral entire 
— Common in meadows, &c., mixed with E. phila- 
delphicum. Figured by W. Barton, fig. 21. Biennual. 

2. Erigeron Canadense, Canada Fleabane. It has 
linear crowded entire leaves ; flowers paniculate, very 
small, with oblong perianthe and rays exceedingly 
short. One of the most common weeds from Canada 
to Kentucky, and yet perhaps the most efiicient of 
the three. It infests old fields, and has been spread 
in Europe by chance. Very variable, principal varie- 
ties 1. Uiiiflorurrif 2. Pusillum, 3. Maritimum, 
4. Virgatum, 5. Serratum, 6. Lanceolatum, &c. 

A multitude of vulgar names are applied to these 
plants. Fleabane is the true English name, Daisy 
alludes to the flowers which are similar to those of 
the true Daisy or Bellis perennis, but the Bellis in- 
tegr'i folia is the true American Daisy, Scabious is 
erroneous, since they are nothing like the genus 
Scabiosa, Skevish derives perhaps from Scabious or 
from Cocash the Indian name. 

They all blossom from July to October, or until 
frost. They are deemed bad weeds ; but are easily 
extirpated. The E. canadensis is annual. 

Erigeron is a genus of the Radiate Order next to 
Sster^ of which it merely differs by numerous narrow 
rays. Both belong to Syngtnesia Superflua of 

No. 34. ERZGERON. 165 

Qualities — These plants have a peculiar smell 
most unfolded by rubbing them, which is not dis- 
agreeable. Their taste is astringent, acrimonious and 
bitter: the smell and taste are most unfolded in 
E, canadense and E. philadelphicum. They contain 
Tannin, Amarine, Extractive, Gallic Acid and an 
essential Oil. This Oil is very peculiar, as fluid as 
Water, of a pale yellow color, a peculiar smell 
somewhat like Lemon, but stronger and a very acrid 
taste. It holds probably in solution Acrine or a pe- 
culiar substance Erigerine, 

PROPERTIES— These Weeds are valuable medi- 
caments, possessing very active powers; they are 
Diuretic, Sudorific, Astringent, Styptic, Menagogue, 
Pectoral and Tonic in a high degree, and act in a 
mode peculiar to themselves, by means of their acrid 
quality. Their Oil is so powerful that two or three 
drops dissolved in Alcohol, have arrested suddenly 
uterine hemorrhagy, in the hands of Dr. Hales of 
Troy, who employs the Oil of E, canadense. This 
kind is most used in New England and New York, 
the others in Pennsylvania and New Jersey. The 
whole plants are available. 

The Diseases already relieved or cured by these 
plants are Chronic Diarrhoea, Ascites, Disury, Nephri- 
tis, Gravel, Gout, Anasarca, Suppressed Menstrua- 
tions, Dropsy, Hydrothorax, Dry Coughs, Cutaneous 
Eruptions, Hemorrhagies, Dimness, Rash, Cold hands 
and iQQtf &c. The whole plants are used fresh or 
dried, in infusion, decoction or tincture. Their ex- 
tract is rather fetid, more astringent than the infusion 

166 ERXGEKON. No. 34. 

'or tincture ; but less than the Oil, which is one of the 
most efficient vegetable Styptics. This -extract and a 
syrup of the plant have been given usefully in dry 
coughs, hemoptysis, and internal hemorrhages. The 
dose is from five to ten grains of the extract, often 

As diuretic the infusion, decoction and tincture are 
preferable and more active ; they have increased the 
daily evacuation of urine from 24 to 67 ounces, A 
pint or two of the former may be taken daily; they 
agree well with the stomach, even when Squill and 
Digitalis are intolerable : the dose of the tincture is 
from two to four drachms daily ; it is made by di- 
gesting one ounce of the leaves in a pound of proof 
Spirit. They are beneficial in all diseases of the 
bladder and kidneys, attended with pain and irritation, 
in which they give speedy relief. Also in all com- 
pound cases of gravel and gout. In rheumatism they 
have not been tried, although they are sudorific. In 
all Dropsical disorders they act as diuretic. In chro- 
nic Diarrhoea as astringent and have cured it without 

They are even useful externally in wounds, also in 
hard tumors and buboes, which a cataplasm of the 
fresh plants dissolve as it were. But the most valu- 
able property is the astringent and styptic power of 
the Oil, which has saved many lives in parturition 
and uterine hemorrhagy. A saturated solution of 
the Oil in Alcohol is applied and a little given in a 
spoonful of Water; and an instantaneous stop takes 
place in the bloody flow. 

No. 34. EKIGEHON'. 167 

Since these plants appear to increase as well as to 
prevent several discharges from the body, they must 
not act as other diuretic and astringent remedies ; but 
by a peculiar acrid effect on the system, worthy of 
investigation. I highly recommend these plants to 
medical attention. They were known to the North- 
ern Indians by the name of Cocash or Squaw-weed 
as menagogue and diuretics, and are often employed 
by Herbalists. They may be collected for medical 
use at any time when in blossom. 

Substitutes — Erynghini yucefolium and Aqua- 
ticiim, or Corn-snake root, said to be the strongest 
diuretic and sudorific of the Southern States — Botro- 
phis Serpentaria — Fyrola umhellata, maculata, 
&c. — Daucus Carota and other diuretics. — For as- 
tringents Spirea totnentosa — Heuchera Sp. — Statue 
Caroliniana — Arbutus Uva Ursa — Geranium ma- 
culatum — Comptonia asplenifolia, &c. 

Remarks — Other species of this genus may possess 
the same properties: they are very similar to each 
other. The following might be tried. 

E. bellidifolium or Daisy Fleabane, a vernal kind. 
E, IntegrifoUum, or Slender Fleabane. 
E. purpureum, or Purple Fleabane. 
E. strigosum^ or Rough Fleabane, &c. 

1 68 ERYTHROKIUM. No. 35 . 

No- 35. 



French Name — Dent-de-Chien Jaune. 

German Name — Gelb Hundzahn. 

Officinae.Name — Erythronium. 

Vulgar Names — Yellow Adder's tongue, Adder- 
leaf, Dog-Violet, Rattle Snake violet. Lamb's tongue, 
Scrofula root. Yellow Snow drop, &c. 

Synonyms-—^. Jiavum Smith. E. americanum 
Ker, Nuttal, Torrey, &c. E. dens-canis Mich, 
Eaton, &c. E. lanceolatum Pursh. E. longifoUum 

Authorities — Michaux, Pursh, Smith, Nuttal, 
Elliott, Torrey, Bigelow, fig. 58, and Sequel, W. 
Barton, flora fig. 33, Coxe, Zollickofier, &lc. 

Genus Erythronium — Perigone corolliform, with 
six deciduous colored sepals, subequal, campanulate ; 
the three inner ones with a fossule at the base. Sta- 
mina six subequal, inserted at the base of each sepal. 
One pistil, germ turbinate. Style fistulose. Stigma 
clavate three lobed. Capsul obovate, three celled, 
three valved, with many ovate seeds. — Stem with 
two opposite leaves and one flower, root bulbous. 

Species E. Flavum — Leaves subequal, subradical, 
lanceolate, mucronate, smooth, entire, flower nodding, 
sepals oblong-lanceolate, obtuse, the inner ones bi- 

No. 35. 




dentate near the base : Stigma with three united 

DESCRIPTION— Root perennial, a solid pyriform 
bulb, deep in the ground, white inside, covered out- 
side with a brown loose tunic, sheathing the base of 
the Stem, fibres of the root inferior, thick and short. 
Stem partly under ground with two leaves appearing 
radical because near the ground, the whole plant 
smooth and shining ; Stem white below, greenish pur- 
ple above, slender cylindrical from five to twelve inches 
long, two sessile leaves : on the first year of the 
growth only one leaf is produced, and it is commonly 
broader and elliptic. Leaves a little unequal, one 
being commonly narrower or smaller, they are from 
three to seven inches long, lanceolate or oval-lanceo- 
late, shining and glabrous, veinless and with a single 
nerve, often spotted by large irregular spots of a dull 
brown above, pale and unspotted below, and with 
an obtuse callous point. 

A single flower at the end of the Stem, one inch 
long, nodding, of a yellow colour, sometimes with a 
mixture of red outside by a stripe or veins on the 
external sepals or petals, which are lanceolate reflect- 
ed, sometimes acute, while the inner ones are oblong 
lanceolate, obtuse, quite yellow, veinless, with a cal- 
lous notch on each side at the base, and a furrow in 
the middle above the fossule or little pitt of the base, 
above the Stamina, which are inserted quite at the 
base, shorter than the sepals, yellow, with depressed 
subulate filaments, and depressed linear anthers. Germ 
turbinate triangular, Style fistulose, Stigma clavate 

170 EnYTKRONIUM. No. 35. 

prismatic trilobe above. The Capsul is naked, turbi- 
nate triangular, with three cells and many large oval 

HISTORY — This pretty genus was long formed 
by a single species E, dens-canis growing in Europe 
and Asia, to which was referred this at first. Several 
species have since been discovered in Anierica, and 
they afford many varieties, some of which may on 
further attention be deemed peculiar species. They 
all possess the same properties as well as a striking 
peculiar generic habit, somewhat similar to Claytoniaj 
Clintonia, Mayanthiis, <§'C. The Stem has been mis- 
taken for a Scape by many, because it is partly sub- 
terraneous. When this species was distinguished 
from E, dens-canis, several names were given to it 
by Botanists nearly at the same time, I have chosen 
the best if not the oldest also, applying to its yellow 
flo\yers, while all the others have white flowers ; the 
name of Jlmericanmn so often proposed, is become 
absurd now. The varieties of this yellow species 
which I have detected are, 

1. Var. Viperinuin, Leaves canaliculate with large 
reddish brown spots; external sepals acuminate, 
veined with red outside, all the sepals with small 
purplish dots inside. Stigma entire, trigone, pubescent. 
This is probably the kind figured by W. Barton. 

2. Var. Croceum, Leaves narrow flat with small 
spots, flower drooping, external sepals partly red out- 
side and obtuse, Stigma trilobe smooth. This is 
figured by Bigelow. 

3. Var. Bracteaiumy Leaves unequal. Stem with 

No. 35. ERYTKRONIUl^r. I7I 

a lanceolate bract, flower small. This is the E, brae- 
teatum of Boott and Bigelow, from Vermont and the 
Alleghany ; probably a peculiar species. 

4. Var. Lucid.utn, Leaves unspotted, flat shining, 
oblong lanceolate, flowers quite yellow. This is 
figured here. 

5. Var. Glaucum, Leaves unspotted glaucous, 
flower yellow with some red veins. 

6. Var. Lati folium^ Leaves broad oval or elliptic, 
flat, seldom spotted, flower yellow. 

7. Var. GrandiJIornm. 

8. Var. Parvijloruni, &c. 

Many strange vulgar names have been given to 
these plants, the spotted kinds are called Snakeleaf, 
Adder's tongue or leaf, because compared to Snake's 
spots, while the unspotted kinds become Lamb's 
tongue. The Goodyera and Hieracium Venosujn 
are also called Rattle Snake leaf and used as equiva- 
lents. Snow-drop alludes to its early blossoms, com- 
inar often throusrh snow. In fact it is in the United 
States the representative of the Gala?ithus nivalis or 
true Snow-drop of Europe, blossoming in March and 
April, while snow is yet falling. The E. albidum 
is called W'hite Snow-drop. They are both pretty 
vernal blossoms, deserving to be cultivated in gardens 
although scentless, 

Erythronium is a generic name of Greek origin, 
applying to the red spots of the leaves. The genus 
belongs to the fine natural order of Liliacea, near 
Tulipa and Fritillaria, It belongs to Hexandria 
7no7Xogynia of Linnaeus. 

172 EHYTHRONIUM. No. 35. 

™ * ■ 

Locality — It grows from New England to Ohio 
and south to Carolina ; in the Western States it is 
often superseded by the E* albidum, which extends 
from New York to Missouri and Tennessee. They 
both grow in woods, and under the shade of trees, 
shrubs or plants. 

Qualities — The whole plant, but particularly the 
root, contains fecula, mucilage, a resin, and some 
volatile principle rather acrid. When dry, the root 
is farinaceous and loses its unpleasant flavor. 

PROPERTIES— The root or bulb and the leaves 
are emetic, emollient, suppurative and antiscrofu- 
lous when fresh, nutritive when dry. The plant 
appears to possess nearly the same properties as the 
bulbs of many Lilies ; but with the addition of an 
acrid emetic eti'ect, which is lost by drying, boiling, 
roasting, &c. The dose to produce the emesis is 
twenty-five grains of the fresh root, or forty of the 
recent dried root. As it loses its activity by keeping, 
it is an inconvenient and unsafe emetic. Bigelow 
proposes to try it as a substitute of CoIchicu7n: al- 
though they belong to different Natural Orders. This 
plant promises better as an antiscrofulous, for which 
purpose it is employed as well as the JS. albidum 
from New York to Kentucky, &c. the fresh roots 
and leaves are stewed with milk and applied to the 
scrofulous sores as a poultice, healing them speedily: 
this new medical property was first communicated to 
me by Dr. Crockatt. Many bulbs of Lilies have 
been used in the same way for sores, but the active 
acrid principle of this, may act beneficially on the 

Ko. 35. ERYTHRONITTM. 173 

scrofulous sores. Bigelow mentions that even bulbs 
of Tulips and Daffodils have acted as emetics sometimes. 
The roots and leaves of this plant may be eaten after 
boiling, like those of E, dens-canis ; but the broth is 
emetic and nauseous, while it is said that the E» dens- 
canis makes good broth in Siberia. Salep could be 
made of these roots by scalding them and drying 
them afterwards. 

Substitutes — Erythronium albidum and Goodr 
yera picbcscens for Scrofula, Salep, Roots of Acrid 
Liliaceous plants, many Emetic roots, &c. 

Remarks — The E, albidum, White Snakeleaf or 
Snow-drop, will be known by its bluish white blos- 
soms, and trifid stigma. It offers as many varieties 
as the E.Jlavum, such as 1. Cerulescens, 2. Candi- 
dum, 3. Maculatum, 4. August if oliumy 5. Bract ea- 
turn, 6. Grandijlorum, 7. Parvijlorum, 8. Clan- 
destinum, 9. Glaucum, &c. Found from New York 
to Missouri and Kentucky. 

F 2 

174 EUPATORZUlMt. No. 36. 

No. 36. 


English Name— BONESET. 

French Name — Eupatoire percefeuille. 

German Name Durchwachsener Wasser- 


Officinal Name — Eupatorium perfoliatum. 

Vulgar Names — Thorough-wort, Boneset, Joe- 
pye, Teazel, Feverwort, Sweating-plant, Thorough- 
stem, Crosswort, Indian Sage, Agueweed, Thorough- 
wax, Vegetable Antimony. 

Synonym — E, connatum Michaux. 

Authorities — Lin. Mich. Pursh, Golden, Schoepf, 
Cutler, Stokes, B. Barton, Torrey, Eaton, Elliott, 
Thatcher, CoXe, Anderson, Guthrie, Burson, A. 
Ives, all the Dispens. and Mat. Med. Bigelow, fig. 
£ and Sequel, W. Barton, fig. 37. 

Genus Eupatorium — Flowers compound floscu- 
lose. Perianthe imbricate, unequal, oblong or cy- 
lindric. Phoranthe naked, Floscules five toothed, 
Style exserted bifid. Seeds oblong angular. Pappus 
subplumose. — ^Leaves commonly opposite or verticil- 
late, flowers corymbose. 

Species E. perfoliatum — Stemvillose, cylindric; 
leaves opposite connate-perfoliate, oblong, tapering, 
acute, serrulate, rugose above, tomentose beneath: 
flowers with a dozen of floscules. 

No. 36. 




DESCRIPTION Root perennial, horizontal, 

crooked, with scanty fibres, and sending up many- 
Stems, which are upright, simple at the base, branched 
above in a trichotome form, forming a depressed 
corymb ; from two to five feet high, round, covered 
with flexuose hairs ; the whole plant has a greyish 
green color, and even the flowers are of a dull white. 
Leaves opposite, decussate, connate at the base, or 
united to each other there, where broadest, and gra- 
dually tapering to a sharp point, from three to eight 
inches long, narrow oblong, rough above, woolly be- 
neath, margin serrulate, upper leaves often sessile, 
not united. 

Inflorescence in a dense depressed terminal Corymb 
formed by smaller fastigate corymbs, peduncles hairy ,^ 
as well as the.perianthe or common calix, each in- 
closing from twelve to fifteen floscules or florets, 
Scales lanceolate acute, florets tubulose white, five 
black anthers united into a tube. Seeds black, pris- 
matic, oblong, base acute, pappus with scabrous hairs. 

HISTORY — A very striking plant, easily recog- 
nized among all others, even when not in bloom, by 
its connate leaves, perforated by the Stem, as in the 
Teazel or Dipsacus fullonum. It belongs to a genus 
containing nearly one hundred species, all very dif- 
ferent from this except the E, sessilifolium which is 
nearly alike, but has smooth Stems, leaves rounded at 
the base, not united nor tomentose, flowers whiter, 
whereby they will be easily distinguished. 

One half of the Species grow in America, and many 
have medical properties; but this appears the most 

176 EUPATORltriMt. No. 36. 

efficient, and being also best known, deserves a pre- 
ference, although several are useful substitutes in 
some cases. It is by no means a handsome plant, 
while many congeneric are quite elegant plants, in- 
troduced into many gardens, such are the E. celesti- 
num with beautiful azure blossoms, common all along 
the western streams, and the K. purpureum with 
large purple flowers, on a stem five to eight feet 
high, with whorled leaves. 

The genus belongs to the great Natural Order of 
Corymbose plants, family Flosculose, or to Synge- 
nesia Equalis of Linnaeus. It takes its name from 
Mithridates Eupator, an ancient eastern king 5 it was 
first given to the E, cannabinum, the Asiatic and 
European species, whose medical powers were made 
known by him ; it is an emetic, purgative and altera- 
tive like this. 

They are all autumnal plants : this blossoms from 
August to October. 

Locality — Common in swamps, marshes, and 
near streams, from Maine to Florida, and from Ohio 
to Louisiana: where it appears to have been stationed 
by the benevolence of nature, wherever men are 
liable to local fevers. It is found also in Nova Scotia, 
Canada, Missouri, Arkansas, &c. 

Qualities — The whole plant, roots, stems, leaves, 
and flowers are intensely bitter, but not astringent; 
they have a peculiar flavor and faint smell. They 
have been analized by Anderson, Bigelow and Lau- 
rence, and found to contain Extractive, Amarine, a 
gum, a resin, an acid similar to the gallic, Acetate of 

No. 36. EUP AT0RIU2VE. 177 

lime, some azote and tannin, and lastly a peculiar 
substance Eupatorine, brown, bitter, resiniform, 
soluble in water and alcohol, forming sulfates, ni- 
trates, &c. 

PROPERTIES— A valuable sudorific, tonic, al- 
terative, antiseptic, cathartic, emetic, febrifuge, cor- 
roborant, diuretic, astringent, deobstruent and stimu- 
lant. It was one of the most powerful remedies of 
the native tribes for fevers, &c. It has been intro- 
duced extensively into practice all over the country 
from New England to Alabama, and inserted in all 
our medical works, although writers differ as to the 
extent of its effects. It appears to be superior to A^n- 
themis nobilis or Camomile as a sudorific tonic, and 
preferable to Barks in the treatment of the local au- 
tumnal fevers of the country, near Streams, Lakes 
and Marshes. I have seen them cured efficiently 
by it when other tonics failed. It acts somewhat like 
Antimony, without the danger attending the use of 
this mineral. The cold preparations are powerful 
tonics and do not produce emesis as an over-dose of 
the w^arm decoction. It acts powerfully on the skin 
and removes obstinate cutaneous diseases. It has 
cured the following disorders in many instances. In- 
termittent and remittent fevers; petechial or spotted 
fever, called also malignant or typhoid pleurisy ; dis- 
eases of general debility. Ascites, Anasarca, Anorexia, 
and debility arising from intemperance ; acute and 
chronic rheumatism; violent catarrhs; bilious and 
typhus fever, particularly low typhus, incident to 
marshy places, and attended with a hot and dry skin ; 

178 EUPATORIUM. No. 36. 

also influenza, the Lake fever similar to the yellow 
fever, and the yellow fever itself; ring- worms, and 
Tinea Capites, Dropsy, Gout and Syphilitic pains : 
dyspepsia and complaints of the Stomach, and Bites 
of Snakes. 

This plant may be so managed as to act as a tonic, 
a sudorific, a laxative or an emetic, as required. No 
other tonic of equal activity can be exhibited in fevers, 
with less danger of increasing excitement or produc- 
ing congestion : the only objection to its general use 
is its nauseous and disagreeable taste. In substance 
or cold decoction, and combined with aromatics it 
becomes very efiicient in intermittents and dyspeptic 
disorders : it strengthens the viscera and restores tone 
to the system. The doses of the powder are from ten 
to twenty grains, the decoction and infusion from 
one to three ounces. No unpleasant effects follow the 
cold preparations. 

Ample accounts of the beneficial effects of this 
plant, are to be found in all our medical Works. 
Burson says that in Anorexia consequent to drunken- 
ness, a cold infusion has speedily restored the tone of 
the stomach. Zollickoffer extols it as an alterative 
remedy in tinea capites, united to cremor tartar and 
sugar, two spoonfuls given three times a-day. Thatcher 
says that the cold infusion cures bilious cholic with 
obstinate constipation, a tea-cup full every half hour 
producing a cathartic effect. The warm infusion 
causes a copious perspiration, and often becomes a 
safe and certain emetic. Chapman relates that it 
cured the kind of Influenza called Breakbone fever. 

No. 36. EUPATORIUM, I79 

acting as a diaphoretic, whence its popular name of 
Boneset. The name of Joepye is given to it, and to 
E. picrpureum, in New England from an Indian of 
that name, who cured typhus with it, by a copious 
perspiration. Eberle says that catarrhal fevers may 
be removed by drinking a weak infusion of it in 
going to bed. It is particularly useful in the Indi- 
gestion of old people : and may be used as an auxiliary 
to other tonics and emetics in all cases. The extract 
and syrup preserve all the properties, and are less 
disagreeable to the palate. 

Substitutes — Anthemis nobilis and Cotula — 
Matricaria Camomila-^Marrubium Vulgare or 
Common Horehound — Jisdepias tuherosa — Leptan^ 
dra — Botrophis — Yarrow, Tansey and Sassafras, &c. 
Besides the following species of the same Genus. 

1. E. teucrifolium or Rough Boneset (Wild hore- 
hound, &c.) has rough sessile ovate leaves, with some 
teeth at the base, the flowers white with five florets. 
Common from New England to Georgia. — Milder, 
less bitter and disagreeable than the former, a larger 
dose may be given, chiefly used in the South, in 
bilious remittent fevers, when Barks are inadmissible, 
dose two or four ounces of the infusion made by one 
ounce in a quart of water. 

2. E, yurpureum or Purple Boneset (Joepye, Gra- 
vel root, &c.) Stem hollow, rough, five to six feet 
high, leaves whorled, four to five, petiolate, lanceo- 
late, serrate, rugose : flowers purple, many florets. — In 
meadows and near streams from New England \.o 
Kentucky. It has the same properties as E.perfolia- 
turn, has been used in fevers and gravel, &c. 

180 EUPATORIXnVC. No. 36. 

3. E. verticillatum or Tall Boneset (Joepye, &c. ) 
Stem solid, smooth, five to eight feet high, leaves 
whorled three to five, sessile, ovate-lanceolate, base 
attenuate, unequally serrate, smooth : flowers pur- 
plish with many florets — With E, purpureum, same 
properties often blended together. 

4. E, Tnaculatum or Spotted Boneset. Stem solid 
sulcate, spotted ; leaves petiolate, ovate-lanceolate, 
pubescent beneath, four to five in a whorls — With 
the last. Stem four to five feet high. 

5. E, trifoliatum or Wood Boneset. Stem solid, 
leaves petiolate, ternate, ovate, acuminate, serrate, 
punctate, rough. — In woods from New England to 
Kentucky, Stem three to four feet high. 

6. E. sessUifolium or Bastard Boneset. Described 
above, common in dry and hilly grounds, while the 
E, perfoliatum is always found in damp and low 

7. E. urticefolium or Deerwort Boneset. Leaves 
opposite, petiolate, ovate, serrate, similar to nettle 
leaves, flowers white, many floscules. — In woods, 
exceedingly common in the Western States, eaten 
by Deer. 

8. E. violaceum, Violet Boneset. Leaves oppo- 
site, petiolate, cordate, toothed, undulate, pubescent. 
— In Louisiana, Alabama, &c. a beautiful species with 
fine blossoms of a violet color, deserving to be culti- 

These and many others are much weaker than the 
three first. 

No. 37. 


No. 57. EUPHORBIA. 181 

^ No. 37. 



French Name— Tithymale fleuri. 

German Name — Blum Wolfsmilch. 

Officinal Names — Ipecacuana, Euphorbia radix. 

Vulgar Names — Milkweed, Ipecacuana, Picac, 
Hippo, Ipecac, Persely, Milk-purslain, White-pursely, 
Indian Physic, Purge-root, Emetic-root, Bowman- 
root, Apple-root, Snake's milk, and Peheca in Loui- 

Authorities — Lin. Clayton, Schoepf, Michaux, 
Pursh, Torrey, M*Keen, Zollickoffer, A. Ives, B. 
Barton, Coxe, W. Bart. Eberle, Bigelow, fig. 53, 
and Seq. 

Genus Euphorbia — Monoical. Perianthe persistent 
caliciform, ventricose, alternate Segments petaloid. 
Staminate flowers eight to sixteen in the Involucre, 
naked, each has one bilobe anther with a filament 
articulated to a pedicel. Pistilate flowers solitary 
central, stipitate, one germ, three bifid styles. Cap- 
sul stipitate, three celled, cells formed by the involv- 
ed valves, one or two seeded. 

Species E. Corollata — Stem simple erect ; leaves 
scattered sessile, oblong-euneate, obtuse, entire; umbel 
with five rays and leaves, rays trifid with two oblong 

iS2 EX7PB0RBZA. No. 37. 

bracts ; flowers pedicellate, rotate, five lobed, corolli- 
form ; capsuls smooth. 

DESCRIPTION— Root perennial, large, one inch 
thick, two feet long, yellowish. Several Stems from 
two to five feet high, simple, round, erect, often 
smooth. Leaves sessile, entire scattered, often crowd- 
ed, oblong, obovate, cuneate or linear, flat or revolute, 
smooth or hairy, A large terminal umbel with five 
rays, and as many leaves in a whorl, similar to the 
stem leaves. Rays trifid and next dichotomous, each 
fork has two oblong bracts. Perianthe (mistaken for 
the Calix by Linnasus, &c.) large, rotate, white, with 
five rounded flat segments, looking like a corol. Five 
small inner segments (nectaries of Lin.) like obtuse 
projections at the base of the segments, A dozen of 
Stamina, evolving gradually, each is a true flower 
on a pedicel, with an articulate filament and a bilobe 
anther. Many perianthes without pistil, when ex- 
isting it is central, stipitate, nodding, rounded, with 
three bifid Styles. Capsul three cocca or formed by 
three valves rolled in and making three cells, each 
with a seed convex outside, angular inside, where it 
is inserted. 

Locality — From Canada to Florida and Louisi- 
ana, in dry soils, barren fields, among stones and 
rocks, also in glades, seldom in woods and never near 
waters, nor in rich alluvial soils. 

HISTORY— As in the case of the Erigeron this 
article shall include three species, which have equi- 
valent properties, the two others are 

1. E, Ipecacuana Lin. Ipecacuana Spurge. Fe- 

No. sr. EUPHORBIA. 183 

rennial, smooth, dififuse or procumbent, dichotome, 
articulated : leaves opposite, sessile, entire, variable, 
round, oboval, elliptic, oblong, lanceolate or linear : 
Flowers solitary at the forks, on long pedicels, peri- 
anthe small, campanulate five lobed : capsuls round 
and smooth. — Confined to the great Atlantic alluvial 
region exteniiing from New Jersey to Florida and 
Mexico, along the Sea : very common there in sands 
and Pine woods. It blossoms from June to August, 
and affords a multitude of varieties, such as 1. Cespi- 
tosa, 2. Prostrata, 3. Kotundifolia, 4. Lanceolata^ 
5. Uniflora^ &.c. this last has only a single white 
flower, with procumbent stem, and obovate leaves. I 
described it in 1808, as a N. Sp. E. unijiora, 6. 
Rubra, the whole plant is red, 7. Portulacoides with 
erect stems and oval leaves, described by Linnaeus as a 
peculiar species. — Root grey, white inside, very long. 
It is figured by Bigelow fig. 52 and by W. Barton, 
fig. 18. 

2. E. hypericifolio Lin. (also E. maculata of 
Lin.) Black Spurge, (or Spotted Pursely, black 
Pursely, &c.) Annual, smooth, dichotome, erect or 
procumbent, divaricated : leaves opposite, petiolate, 
oblique, subfalcate, oblong, serrate, acute ; flowers ter- 
minal fasciculate, perianthe four lobed and white, cap- 
suls smooth. — Common all over the United States, in 
fields, &c. Several Varieties, 1. Prostrata, 2. Mtd" 
tijiora, 3, Maculata with a purple spot on each leaf. 
4. Simplex, &c. 

The varieties of E. corollata are 1. Linearis all 
the leaves linear obtuse. 2. Plcbescens, Stems and 

184^ EUPHORBIA, No. 37. 

leaves pubescent. 3. Rosea flowers tinged with rose 
color. 4. Paucijlora only 5 or 6 flowers, &c. They 
all blossom in Summer, from June to September, and 
make a pretty appearance by their fine umbels of 
snowy blossoms: they are bad weeds in some fields, 
and all animals avoid them. 

In these plants, we have quite efficient substitutes 
for the Brazilian Ipecacuana, Calicocca, which is 
often adulterated or old in our shops. We could even 
export them as true Equivalents of the officinal Ipe- 
cacuana. The E. hypericifolia^ however, which is 
an annual plant is available as an herb, while the 
E, IpecacAiana has a large root from four to six feet 
long, which might be exported and afforded cheap. 
It is a singular coincidence that the name given to 
these roots by the Indians of Louisiana is FehecOf very 
similar to the Brazilian native name of Ipeca^ both 
meaning Emetic-root. The Psyckotria emetica and 
Viola Ipecacuana furnish also similar emetics. 

The Genus Euphorbia has been named after Eu- 
phorbus, physician of Juba, king of Mauritania, who 
brought the Euphorbium or Juice of the E. offici- 
nalis into practice. It is a very extensive and ano- 
malous genusj divided into many sections. Esula, 
Tithymalus, Characias, Lathyras, &c. It is the 
type of the Natural Order of Tricocca or Euphor- 
biaceous plants. Linnaeus put it in Dodecandria 
monogynia, mistaking the*perianthe for a Corolla, 
but it is now properly removed to Monoecia monan- 
dria. Most of the species are medical, more or less 
drastic and emetic, but difficult to manage, and in large 

No. 37. EUPHOUBXA. 185 

doses they bring on violent pains, heat and thirst, de- 
bility, cold sweats -and even death. The E. helios- 
copia and a species akin to E. pephis grow also in 
the United States and have been used in Europe in 
small doses, as well as the E. esula, dulcis, exigua, 
characias, palustrh, cyparissias, &c. Each has a 
peculiar mode of action, and the E, officinalis of 
Africa produces a blistering gum. They are all 
milky plants. 

Qualities — These plants have been analysed by 
Barton, Bigelow and ZoUickoffer ; they contain mu- 
cilage, sugar, starch. Caoutchouc, Resin, an essential 
Oil, Tannin, and a peculiar principle similar to Emeta, 
which is soluble in Alcohol and colors it yellow, 
but insoluble in Water, forming oxalic Acid with 
Nitric Acid, it might be called Oxalemis. The ana- 
lysis of the true Ipecacuana differs from Jhis and gives 
Starch forty, Gum twenty, Wax six, Fibrine twenty, 
Oil two. Emetine or Acidified Emeta sixteen parts. 
The roots and leaves of these Euphorbia have a 
sweetish taste subastringent and not unpleasant, with 
a peculiar smell, when rubbed; but no nauseous taste 
nor smell : the milk is acrid. 

PROPERTIES— Emetic, cathartic, diaphoretic, 
expectorant, astringent, rubefacient, blistering, and 
stimulant. These plants are highly recommended by 
some physicians as equivalent to the officinal Ipecac, 
which it is said they ought to supersede ; but Bige- 
low contends that they are less mild and bland, and 
although equal or even stronger, are not so useful in 
all indications. They were formerly considered too 


i86 EUPHORBIA. No. 37= 

violent in their operation ; but have since been found 
to be manageable and safe : the action is always pro- 
portionate to the quantity taken, which does not hap- 
pen with common Ipecac. As a cathartic they have 
been found equal or better than Jalap or Scammony ; 
requiring only "half the dose, ten grains will com- 
monly purge well, while twenty-five to thirty grains 
produce repeated evacuations from the stomach. 
Given in large doses they excite violent vomiting, 
attended with heat, vertigo, dizziness and debility. 
The E, corollata appears to be the most efficient 
since it purges at the dose of three to ten grains, and 
vomits at ten to twenty. But a diversity has been 
noticed in various constitutions, the same doses being 
sometimes inert, cathartic or emetic, or both in some 
instances; they often produce nausea even in small 
doses, and then act as diaphoretics like Ipecac, to 
which they are preferable by having no unpleasant 
taste, nor exciting pains and spasms. 

The medical properties reside in the thick bark of 
the root, which forms two thirds of the whole root, and 
produces one twelfth of watery extract, and one tenth 
of alcoholic extract. They may be substituted to 
Ipecac in all the pharmaceutical preparations, wine, 
tincture, extract, &c. ; the emetic dose of the wine is 
an ounce, of the extract three to five grains. When 
used as a diaphoretic and expectorant, the dose is 
three or four grains of the powder : it may be com- 
bined with opium or antimonials. The bruised root 
applied to the skin, produces vesication in about twelve 
hours, which lasts two or three days ; this property 

No. sr. EUPHORBIA. 187 


has not yet been applied to practical use ; but might 
be equivalent to that of the officinal Euphorbium used 
by farriers. The milk of all the species of this genus 
destroy Warts and cure Herpes, they may afford a 
kind of black Varnish, or Gum Elastic. The other 
diseases in which these plants have been occasionally 
employed are Dropsy, asthma, also hooping cough and 
fevers, but we have no great evidence of their success, 
except in Asthma when they act as pectoral sudorifics. 
The E. hyper id folia appears to differ in its effects 
from the two others, it is an annual, the herb being 
employed instead of the root : it has been bror^ht into 
notice by Zollickoffer, who says that it is more astrin- 
gent and slightly narcotic ; but it is also purgative, &c. 
After evacuations, he prescribes it in tea-spoonfuls of 
the decoction, for Cholera infantum, diarrhea and 
dysentery. This plant is also one of those producing 
the salivation of horses, called Slabbering, when eaten 
by them through chance in meadows, and the remedy 
for which are Cabbage leaves. All our Spurges are 
more or less active plants, those with large perennial 
roots are all emetic, while the annual kinds are altera- 
tive or pernicious. One species E. peploides {E, 
peplus Americana) is said to cause the milk fever, or 
disease of Cows and cattle which render their milk or 
flesh pernicious. It grows from New- York to Ten- 
nessee, on rocks near streams. By a strange mistake 
the capsuls of the E, lathyrus (Capper plant of New 
England) are pickled instead of Cappers, being mis- 
taken for the Capparis Spinosa or true Capper, and 

188 EUPHORBIA. No. sr. 

are not found unpalatable, although they cannot be a 
healthy condiment. 

Substitutes — Gillenia Sp, — Sanguinaria Cana- 
densis — Lobelia in flat a — Asclepias Sp. — Erythro- 
nium Sp, — Eupatorium perfoliatum — Officinal Ipe- 
cacuana and other active Emetics. 

Remarks — The figure of Henry, under the name 
oT Bowman's root is fictitious ; the true Bowman's 
root is the Leptandra, 

The helioscopia, which grew in the Northern States, 
has nearly the properties of the E. hyperici folia, as 
was well as the E, polygonifolia 2i small annual plant, 
growing on the sea shores from New England to 
Florida, and spreading flat on the sand. 

No. 38. 



No. 38. PRAGARIA. 189 

No. 38. 



French Name — Fraisier Sauvage. 

German Name — Gemeine Erdbeere. 

Officinal Name — Fragaria baccae. 

Vulgar Names — American Strawberry, Wild 

Synonyms — F. virginiana and F, canadensis, 
Wildenow, Persoon, Pursh, &c. 

Authorities Lin. Clayton, Colden, Cutler, 

Schoepf, Michaux, Pursh, Torrey, Eaton, many bo- 
tanical works and some Materia Med. &.c. 

Genus Fragaria — Calix ten cleft, subequal, bear- 
ing the corolla and stamina. Petals, five on the base 
of the calix. Many stamina, unequal, filaments fili- 
form, anthers round. Large central gynophore, pulpy, 
deciduous, bearing many Pistils immersed in it, and 
forming together a pulpy many seeded berry, — Leaves 
trifoliate, serrate, stipulate. 

Species F. Vesca — Stoloniferous and hairy ; radi- 
cal leaves as long as the stems, stem leaves few, sub- 
sessile : folioles subsessile, oboval, lateral ones oblique. 

DESCRIPTION — Root perennial, creeping, knot- 
ty, bunches of fibres at the knots. Stems of two 
kinds, some procumbent, stoloniferous, creeping, 

190 FRAGABXA. No. 38. 

' * ' — — — ~-— — -^— .^ .. 

rooting, slender, with few small leaves, and commonly 
sterile; true stems upright or reclined, short, with 
few leaves; both stems and leaves are more or less 
hairy. Leaves either radical or caulinal, the former 
on long petiols, the others nearly similar when at the 
base of the stem ; but much smaller and with short 
petioles when higher up : stipules lanceolate or oblong, 
acute: three folioles sessile or nearly so, the middle 
one subpetiolate, nearly equal, but the lateral ones 
Qommonly oblique, and with fewer teeth inside ; shape 
oboval or oval or nearly round, margin broadly ser- 
rate, surface with regular veins, lower surface pale 
and more hairy. 

Flowers one or many on each stem, with pedicels 
erect or drooping. Calix spreading or reflexed, di- 
vided into ten acute segments, the alternate somewhat 
shorter. Five white petals, oboval or obcordate in- 
serted on the calix. Many small stamina inserted 
there also, with short filiform filaments and small 
round anthers. Pistils many, very small, oval, with 
a small sessile stigma, forming a convex head, being 
inserted on a fleshy gynophore, which grows, becomes 
pulpy and colored, involving the pistils or the small 
seeds succeeding them, and forming together the fruit 
or Strawberry, which is either round or oval, and 
scrobiculate or punctate by little pitts, each corres- 
ponding to a seed inside : these fruits are either red 
or white. 

HISTORY— Few plants are better known at first 
sight, and yet more difficult to describe, owing to the 
variable characters. Linnaeus and many botanists 

No. 38. PR AG ARIA. 191 

thought that all the Strawberries of the five parts of 
the world, formed only one species, the actual one. 
Others have thought otherwise and attempted to dis- 
tinguish several species and varieties, among those 
found in America, Africa, Asia and Polynesia; but 
the difficulty has been to ascertain (as among the 
Roses) which are the specific or constant forms and 
which are variable deviations. 

If every deviation of form, color, direction, pubes- 
cence and composition, was to be considered specific, 
we should have 100 kinds of Strawberries, and indeed 
some gardeners have described thirty or forty kinds, 
while more accurate botanists only acknowledge ten 
to fifteen species as yet. Meantime these species have 
all the same habit and flowers, difiering only by some 
inconspicuous details. 

Our wild Strawberry was long thought the F. vesca, 
until Wildenow and Pursh made two new species of 
it. In attending to the many varieties which I have 
seen in my travels, I thought that three or four more 
species could be made from them ; but noticing that 
they are all connected by intermediate links, I came 
to the conclusion that they were only varieties of the 
F, vesca, and that the whole genus requires a revision, 
I could mention about twenty varieties of our wild 
Strawberries and seventeen from our gardens; but 
shall confine myself to seven of the most remarkable 
native kinds. 

1. Var. Uniflora, stems simple, one flowered, one 
leaved, as long as the radical leaves, folioles sessile, 
auboval, incise-serrate ; calix spreading or erect, pe- 

192 FHAGAHZA. No. 38. 

tals rounded, fruits rounded or depressed — Common 
in glades. This is figured here. 

2. Var. Clandestina. Nearl}- stemless, stems short 
leafless, two to five flowered, concealed by large radi- 
cal leaves, folioles oboval, sessile; calix spreading or 
reflexed, fruit round or oval. — Rare in New York, 
Ohio, &c. 

S. Var. Piunila. Stems short, one to two flower- 
ed, leaves shorter, very small oval and oboval, with 
adpressed silvery hairs, calix spreading and small. — 
In the mountains of Virginia ~&:c. one or two inches 

4. Var. Glabra* Stems two to three flowered, 
leaves ample, longer, nearly smooth, folioles oboval, 
subsessile, fruit oval. On the banks of the Ohio, Ten- 
nessee, Cumberland, &c. 

5. Var. yBprica. Stems one to five flowered, leaves 
shorter, hairy, glaucous beneath, folioles subsessile 
oval and oboval, calix spreading, fruit suboval. — Very 
common in the western glades, and open fields from 
New Jersey to Virginia. 

6. Var. Sylvatica, Stems 1-5 flowered as long as 
the leaves, folioles broad oval, subsessile, smooth 
above, calix spreading, fruit round or oval — This is 
probably the F. virginiana of many; common in 
woods and mountains, 

7. Var. Pendula. Stems three to five flowered, 
leaves ample, folioles broad oval, smooth above, sub- 
sessile, calix spreading; fruits pendulous, globular, 
pubescent. — In the mountains of New England, Penn- 

Ko. 38. TRACrAXlZA. 193 

isylvania, &c. This must fee the Fr. Canadensis of 
Pursh, &c. 

All these varieties afford excellent fruits, rather 
ismall, but highly flavored, tfeey are red, seldom white, 
and ripe from May to June, the blossoms appear in 
April and May. Strawberries are deservedly esteem- 
ed as pleasant and healthy fruits, and have long been 
tenants of gardens : the wild ones are always as good 
as those cultivated. 

Fragaria belongs to the natural family of Senti- 
cosEs next to Rubus and Comarum, and to Icosan- 
dria poli/gynia of Linnseus. 

LocALiTY^-Strawberries are scattered all over the 
globe, in cold climates, or on the high mountains of 
warm countries. They are found on the Himala 
mountains of the centre <5f Asia, and from Natolia to 
Siberia and Japan in that Continent ; they grow all 
over Europe, on Mount Atlas of Africa, on the moun- 
tains of the Polynesia Islands, and in America all 
over the Andes from Oregon to Chili, also from Alas- 
ka to Canada. In the United States, they are found 
every where in woods, glades, &c. 

Qualities — The whole plant has a subastringent 
taste, the flowers have a honey smell, the fruits have 
a peculiar fragrant smell, and ambrosial acid flavor. 
The plant contains tannin : and Strawberries contain 
the malic and tartaric acid, some sugar and much 
water, besides an essential oil giving the Aroma. 

PROPERTIES — Although Strawberries have been 
commonly considered as an article of food, they highly 

194< PRAGARIA. No. 38. 

deserve a place among medicaments, which are not 
the worse I should think for being palatfible. Lin- 
naeus introduced them in his Materia Medica, as well 
as Schoepf, &c. They are diluent, refrigerant, sub- 
astringent, analeptic, diaphoretic, diuretic, pectoral, 
eccoprotic, &c. They are useful in fevers, Gravel, 
Gout, Scurvy, and Phthisis. They are cooling, pro- 
mote perspiration, give relief in diseases of the blad- 
der and kidneys, upon which they act powerfully, 
since they impart a violet smell and high color to 
urine. Hoffman and Linnaeus have long ago extolled 
them in gout and phthisis ; persons labouring under 
these chronic complaints ought to eat them frequently 
when in Season, and use at other times their Syrup. 
An excessive dose of either is however liable to pro- 
duce emesis or a painful stricture in the bladder, with 
red urine, as I have experienced myself. But used 
moderately they are certainly a valuable medical diet 
in many cases. They possess also the property of 
curing chilblains, their water is used in France for 
that purpose as a wash. A fine wine can be made 
with them and some sugar. The Plant and leaves 
have nearly the same properties, although they are 
less cooling and more astringent. Both have been 
employed like Cinquefoil and Agrimony for sore 
throat, swelled gums, bowel complaints, jaundice and 
fevers in infusion and decoction. A Vinegar Infu- 
sion, Distilled Water, S3^rup, Conserve, &c. of Straw- 
berries are kept in shops in Europe. 

Substitutes — Raspberries best substitute, Black- 

No. S8. FRAGARIA. 195 

berries, Mulberries, Red Currants, Cranberries and 
other acid berries, but none is so good, lacking either 
the diuretic or diaphoretic property. 

Remarks — The Arbutus Unedo or Strawberry 
tree of Europe, is a fine evergreen and ornamental 
shrub, producing large berries similar to Strawberries, 
but belonging to different orders of plants, the Bi- 
CORNES and Decanclria Monogynia like the Arhutus 
Uva ursi. These berries are edible but less acid than 
Strawberries, and they are emetic even at a moderate 
dose, as I have myself experienced. This fine shrub 
does not grow in the United States, except in gardens. 

The Evonymus *dmericanus is also called Straw- 
berry shrub with us ; but erroneously, since the ber- 
ries hardly resemble Strewberries, being depressed, 
with four or five warty lobes, not eatable, and without 
any of their properties. The leaves of this shrub, 
however, as well as of Evonymus atropiivpiireiis (the 
Wahoon or Arrow wood of the West and South) make 
a fine pectoral tea, much used for colds, coughs, ca- 
tarrh, influenza, &c. The leaves of the Crategiis 
cniS'gaUi, or White-thorn are also used for the same 

ig5 rZlASERA. No. 39. 

No^ 39. 

English Naivie— AMERICAN COLOMBO. 

French Name — Frasere Colombo. 

German Name — Colombo Wurzel. 

Officinal Name — Colombo. Frasera radix. 

TuLGAR Names — Colombo-root, Columbia, In- 
dian Lettuce, Yellow Gentian, Golden Seal, Curcuma, 
Meadow Pride,. Pyramid, &c. 

Synonyms — Sivertia difformis Lin. Sw. frasera 
Smith in Rees' Cyb. Frasera carolmensis Walter. 
Fr. officinalis B. Bart. Fr, Walteri Mich. &c. 

Authorities — Waller, Bartram, Michaux, Pursh, 
Persoon, Nuttall, Torrey, Schoepf, Elliott, Drake, 
Bigelow Sequel, Thatcher, Coxe, A. Ives, Hildreth, 
ZoUickofier, many Dispens. B. Barton, W. Barton^ 
fig. 35 bad. 

Genus Frasera — Calix persistent, four parted. 
Corolla spreading, rotate, four parted, segments ellip- 
tic, each having in the middle a large bearded gland. 
Stamina four short, alterne with the segments. One 
pistil, germen oval compressed, one style, two stig- 
mas. Capsul oval flat, one celled, two valved, several 
winged imbricate seeds inserted on the valves. 

Species Fr. verticillata — Very smooth, leaves ses- 
sile, entire, radical leaves procumbent, elliptic, obtuse ;: 
stem leaves vesticillate by five ta seven, oblong or 

No. 39. 






No. 39. PRASEEA. 197 

lanceolate, acute: flowers in a pyramidal panicle, 
bracts opposite. 

DESCRIPTION—Root triennial, large, yellow, 
rugose, suberose, hard, horizontal, spindle shaped, 
two feet long sometimes, with few fibres. The whole 
plant perfectly smooth, stem from five to ten feet hio^h 
cylindrical, erect, solid, with few branches, except at 
the top, where they form a part of the pyramidal in- 
florescence. Leaves, all vcrticillate, sessile and entire, 
with a single nerve : the radical leaves form a star 
spread upon the ground, they are elliptical and obtuse, 
from five to twelve in number, from ten to eighteen 
inches long and from three to five broad, constituting 
the whole plant in the first years, or before the stem 
grows. The stem leaves are in whorls of four to eight, 
seldom more or less, smaller and narrower than the 
radical leaves, the lowest are narrow oblong, the un- 
per lanceolate, acute, and sometimes undulate. 

Flowers yellowish white, numerous, large, forming 
an elegant pyramidal panicle, the branches of which 
are axillary to leaves or bracts, unequally verticillate 
or trichotome : this pyramid is from one to five feet 
long: the bracts are ternate or opposite, shorter than 
the leaves, broader at the base, acute: pedicels lax, 
longer than the flowers, cylindric. Calix deeply four 
rted, spreading, segments lanceolate, acute, per- 

.ent, nearly as long as the Corolla, which is one 
.ich in diameter, open, flat, deeply four parted, with 
four elliptic cruciate segments, margin somewhat in- 
flexed, end cucullate obtuse, a large gland in the mid- 
dle of each, convex on both side, ciliate. The four 


igS FKASEHA. No. 39. 

stamina opposite to the sinuses and inserted on them, 
filaments short, subulated, anthers oval oblong, base 
^lotched. Germen central aval, compressed, desinent 
into a style as long, and having two thick glandular 
stigmas. Capsul yellowish, borne on the persistent 
calix, oval, acuminate, very compressed, margin thin, 
sides subconvex, with a suture, opening in two flat 
valves, one celled. Seeds flat, elliptic, imbricated, 
-winged around, inserted on the sutures of the valves. 
Sometimes a few flowers have five or six stamina, and 
as many segments to the Corolla. 

Locality — It grov/s West, South and North of 
the Alleghany mountains ; but neither on them, nor 
East of them. It is spread from the w^estern parts of 
New York to Missouri and thence to Alabama and 
Carolina. It is fouad in rich woody lands, open 
glades and meadows. Rare in some places, in others 
extremely abundant. 

HISTORY — One of the handsomest native plants 
of America: I have seen it in the western glades of 
Kentucky ten feet high, with a pyramid of crowded 
blossoms 4 or 5 feet long. They are scentless and in 
full bloom from May to July. It is a true triennial, 
the root sending only on the third year a stem and 

Linnaeus did nat know well this plant, and called 
it Sweriia difformis: it is so large that botanical spe- 
cimens of it are generally defective like the patched 
figure of Barton. Walter gave it the name of Fraseray 
thinking that it was new, and dedicating it to an En- 
gJLsh gardener, Mesadenia would have been a better 

No. 39. FRASSHA. 109 

name, expressing its generic peculiarity, of having 4 
central glands, while Swertia has 8 glands, 2 at the 
base of each segment. Four specific denominations 
have been given, among which I have selected the 
best. It bears also many vulgar names, but Colombo 
root is the most common, since it has been found 
medical, and very similar to Calumba, once called 
Colombo also, the Cocculus palmatus. It is become 
a kind of substitute for it, and an article of trade on 
that account, bexng largely collected in the western 

It affords few varieties, and stands as yet alone in 
its genus, the varieties are, 1. Oppositi folia. 2. Un- 
dulata, 3. Pauciflora. 4. JlngusHfaliUj &c. the 
names expressing their deviations. It belongs to the 
Natural order of Gentianides next to Si(Tertia, and 
to Tetrandria monogynia of Linnaeus. 

Qualities — The root is the officinal part, it has a 
sweetish bitter taste like Gentian, and resembles Ca- 
lumba in appearance, having a thick yellow bark, and 
a yellowish spongy wood. But their chemical cha- 
racters are very different, the Frasera contains Ex- 
tractive, Amarine, and Resin ; while the Cocculus 
palmatus contains Cinchonin, a bitter Resin, Oil, 
Starch, Sulfate of Lime, and Calumbine, I sus]>ect, 
however, that the analysis of the Frasera has not been 
accurate, and that it contains Inuline or a peculiar 
substance, FraserinCy intermediate between Inuline 
and Calumbine. It yields its qualities to water and 
alcohol. The leaves are also bitter. 

PROPERTIES— Emetic and Cathartic when fresh, 

200 PRASERA. No. 39^, 

Tonic, antiseptic and febrifuge when dry. When first 
brought into notice it was supposed to be equal to the 
Cahimba, and substituted thereto; but has been found 
to be inferior, A. Ives even contends that it is infe- 
rior to many other native tonics. It has however 
the advantage over them to afford a very large rooty 
often weighing several pounds, and to sell cheap: it 
is about equal to Gentian and Rhubarb, in diseases of 
the stomach, and debility. It has cured a wide spread 
gangrene of the lower limbs by internal use and ex- 
ternal application, when bark had failed. It avails in 
Intermittents like other pure bitters, and is exten- 
sively used in the Western States in Fevers, Cholics^ 
Griping, Nausea, relaxed stomach and bowels, Indi- 
gestion, &c. As a purgative it is substituted to Rhu- 
barb in many cases, particularly for Children and 
Pregnant Women, being found serviceable in the 
constipation of pregnancy, &e. It has the advantage 
of not heating the body. Cold water is said to add to 
its efficiency and prevent nausea or emesis. A tea- 
spoonful of the powder in hot water and sugar will 
give immediate relief in case of heavy food, loading 
a weak stomach. It is a good corrector of the bile 
alone or united with other bitters. Clayton and 
Schoepf, calling it Swertia difformis, say that it is 
employed in jaundice, scurvy, gout, suppressed men- 
struation and is a specific in hydrophobia! these indi- 
cations require confirmation. The root ought to be 
collected from the fall of the second year to the spring 
of the third year growth ; when in blossom the root 
becomes softer and less bitter. The doses are two. 

No. 39. FRASERA. J^Q^ 

drachms of the powder, one or two ounces of the 
infusion ; an extract of it ought to be made which 
would probably be like that of Gentian ; a Vinegar is 
made of it in the west, useful as a refrigerant tonic, &c» 

Substitutes — Coptis trifolia — Xanthorhiza api- 
folia — Triosteum perfoliatum — Menyanthes trU 

foliata Sabhatia nngularis Getitiana Sp. — 

Rhubarb, Common Gentian, Calumba or Cocculu^ 
palmatus and many other tonics, chiefly roots, rather 
than barks. 

Remarks — The Frasera deserves to be cultivated 
for its beauty and utility. It grows easily from seeds. 
It begins to disappear like the Ginseng, from large 
tracts of country, by being wastefully gathered. Per- 
haps the true Calumba might also be cultivated ia 
Florida and Louisiana. 

202 GAUTIERA. N<r. 40, 

No. 40. 


English Name— MOUNTAIN-TEA. 

French Name — Gautiere rampante. 

German Name — Bergbeere. 

Officinal Names — Gaultheria, Gualtheria. 

Vulgar Names — Partridge-berry, Grouse-berry, 
Deerberry, Spiceberry, Teaberry, Redberr}'^, Win- 
tergreen, Redberry-tea, Mountain-tea, Groundberry, 
Ground Ivy, Ground holly, Hillberry, Box-berry, 
Chequer-berry, &c. 

Synomyms — Gualtheria or Gaulthe^na procum- 
bens of many Botanists, &c. 

Authorities — Lin. Schoepf, Kalm, Duh. Golden, 
Mich. Pursh, Eaton, Torrey, B. Bart. fig. 15. Coxe, 
Zollickoffer, Big. fig. 22 bad and Seq. 

Genus Gautiera — Calix campanulate five cleft 
persistent with two scales at the base. Corolla oval 
five toothed. Stamina ten equal, on the base of the 
Corolla, filaments hairy, anthers bifid above, ten 
scales alternate with the filaments. Germen free 
round, style filiform, stigma obtuse. Fruit a round 
berry formed by the persistent calix become globulous, 
fleshy, five toothed, inclosing a Capsul five celled, 
five valved, many seeded. 

Species G. repens — Root creeping, Stems erect, 
leaves few, terminal, conferted, evergreen, petiolate. 

fNo. 40. 



No. 40. GATJTIEIIA. S03 

obovate, mucronate. Flowers few, terminal, with 
drooping peduncles. 

DESCRIPTION— Root horizontal, creeping, slen- 
der, yellowish, with few fibres. Stems several, up- 
right, few inches high, slender, base naked with a 
few scales. Leaves terminal, nearly fasciculate, un- 
equal, few, three to five on short petiols, scattered, 
coriaceous oval or oboval, pale beneath, acute, with 
some short mucronate teeth. 

Flowers few, terminal, subaxillary, on drooping 
downy peduncles. Calix double, external bifid, scaly, 
interior campanulate five cleft, changing afterwards 
into the fleshy covering of the fruit. Corolla ovate, 
white or flesh colored, with five teeth. Ten Stamina 
of a rose color, filaments plumose, bent on the base of 
the corolla, alterne with ten small scales, anthers ob- 
long orange color, bilobe two-horned, dehiscent out- 
side, pollen white. Germ round, depressed resting 
on a ring which bears the ten scales or teeth. Style 
erect, filiform. Stigma obtuse, moist. The fruit is 
a small five celled five valved and many seeded cap- 
sul, inclosed \vithin the fleshy calix, which assumes 
th€ appearance of a round scarlet perforated berry, of 
the size of a pea. 

Locality — On hills and mountains, in shady woods, 
Pine woods, rocky and sandy soils, from INIaine to 
Carolina and Indiana ; unknown in rich alluvial or 
limestone plains. 

HISTORY— Dedicated to Dr. Gautier of Canada 
by Kalm, wrongly mispelt Gaultheria and Gualthe- 
ria by many ; but errors ought not to be copied for- 

g04 GAUTIERA. No. 40. 

ever, thus the misname of procumbens given to it 
must at last be changed into G, repens, since it is 
creeping and not procumbent. It belongs to the Na- 
tural family of Ericines or Bicornes, and to Decan- 
dria monogynia of Linnieus. 

The whole plant has long been known and used as 
a pleasant common drink in the country by the name 
of mountain-tea. The berries have a peculiar grate- 
ful flavor, and are eaten by children, although rather 
dry. They are eaten greedily by Game and birds, 
Deer, Rabbits, Partridges, Grouse, &c. and impart a 
fine flavor to their flesh, in the fall and winter, when 
ripe. The plant blossoms from June to Septenrber. 
It is known by a multitude of local names. 

Qualities — The whole plant has a peculiar taste 
and smell, aromatic and sweet It contains sugar, 
tannin, mucilage and an essential Oil, in which reside 
the taste, smell and properties. This Oil is very sin- 
gular and peculiar, it is very heavy, sinking in water, 
yet volatile, perfectly transparent of a greenish white, 
aromatic, sweet and highly pungent, containing a 
peculiar principle Gautierine, 

PROPERTIES— Stimulant, anodyne, astringent, 
menagogue, antispasmodic, diaphoretic, lacteal, cor- 
dial, &c. A popular remedy in many parts of the 
Country. It is generally used as a tea, but the essence 
and Oil possess eminently all the properties, and are 
kept in shops. The tea is used as a palliative in 
asthma, to restore strength, promote menstruation, 
also in cases of debility, in the secondary stage of 
diarrhoea, and to promote the lacteal secretion of the 

No. 40. GAUTIERA. 205 

breast, Sac, : it is a very agreeable and refreshing be- 
verage, much preferable to imported China Teas. 
The Oil and Essence prepared by dissolving it in Al- 
cohol, are employed whenever warm and cordial sti- 
mulants are required. The Oil cures the tooth-ache 
or allays the pain of carious teeth, like other strong 
essential Oils. The Indians made great use of this 
plant as a stimulant, restorative, cordial, &c. It is 
injurious in fevers. 

Substitutes — Monarda Sp. — Panax or Ginseng 
— Laurus benzoin — %^ristolochia serpentaria — Asa- 
rum canadense, &.c. &c. 

Remarks — All the plants which have more or less 
the smell and taste of Gautiera, contain the same 
Oil and principle, and may probably be available 
equivalents. They are Gautiera hispidula and 
Spirea ulmaria, roots of Polygala paucifolia and 
Spirea lobata, bark of Betula lenta or Sweet Birch 
tree, &c. They are called Pollom by the Indians. 

The Oil of Gautiera is now used in all the secret 
officinal Panaceas to disguise or cover the taste of the 
other ingredients, which are generally common arti- 
cles such as Guayacum, Solanum dulcamara, Sarsa- 
parilla, Mezereon, Siillingia sylvatica, Snake roots. 
Spikenards, &c 

S06 GENTS AH A. • No. 41. 

No. 41. 



French Name— Gentiane de Catesbt. 

German Name — Katesbys Enzian. 

Officinal Name — Gentiana Catesbiana. 

Vulgar Names — Blue Gentian, Southern Gen- 
tian, Blue-bells, Bitter-root. 

Authorities — Catesby fig , Walter, Elliott, 

Macbride, Bigelow, fig. 34, and Seq. Coxe Disp. 
Zollickoffer, &c. 

Genus Gentiana — Calix campanulate four or five 
tleft, segments unequal. Corolla with a tubular base, 
and a variable limb, with four to fifteen lobes or 
teeth. Stamina five equal, inserted on the tube, not 
exserted. One stipitate Germen oblong, two stigmas 
sessile or with a style. Capsule 1 celled, 2 valved, 
many seeded. 

Species G. Catesbei — Stem rough, leaves oppo- 
site, sessile, ovate lanceolate, subtrinerve, acute, 
flowers capitate ; calicinal segments longer than the 
tube: Corolla tubular, ventricose, plaited, with ten 
teeth, five alternc larger acute, five smaller bifid. 

DESCRIPTION Root perennial, yellowish, 

branching, fleshy. Stem simple, erect, cylindric, 
rough, 1 or 2 feet high. Leaves remote, opposite, 
decustate, ovate or lanceolate, entire, slightly trinerve, 

. No. 41. 




Ko. 41. eSNTI^KA. g07 

~~ - ■ ■ ■ — 

acute, rough in the margin. — Flowers subsessile in a 
crowded terminal head, of six to twelve, surrounded 
by an involucrum of four leaves and some lanceolate 
bracts, often some axillary flowers below the head. Calix 
with segments longer than the base, linear-lanceolate, 
unequal, acute. Corolla large two inches long, of a 
line azure blue, base short tubular, limb large, plaited, 
swelled, tubular, open at the top; border ten cleft j 
five smaller lobes alternating with the others, but op- 
posite to the calicinal and stamina, bihd, acute, cili- 
ate: the five larger lobes rounded, axiute, entire. 
Five Stamina shorter than the corolla, with subulate 
filaments and sagittate anthers. Germen oblong- 
laneeolate, compressed, stipitate; style very short, 
two oblong reflexed stigmas. Capsule oblong, acute 
at both ends, one celled, two valved, many small 
seeds inserted on the valves or a longitudinal placenta 
on each valve. 

Locality — It grows from Carolina to Alabama 
and West Kentucky, in glades and open plains. 

HISTORY — This species was long considered as 
a variety of the G. Saponaria of the Northern States ;. 
but distinguished by Walter and Elliott, and named 
after Catesby, who gave an imperfect figure of it long, 
before. It is one of our best native Gentians, 
but we have many others ; in the Northern States the 
G. qmnqueflora is the officinal kind. 

All the Gentians are beautiful plants, more or less 
bitter in the roots or leaves. There are many species 
in the United States, some of which have only lately 
b^en noticed and many are as yet undescribed. The 

£08 (^SKTIAKA. No. 41. 

Genus Genfiana took its name from Gentius, king of 
Illyria, it gives its name to a large Natural Family, and 
belongs to Pentandria digynia o^JAnn^ns, although 
it has often more or less than five Stamina, and seldom 
if ever two styles. That genus is a very heterogene- 
ous one, although striking by its habit; but the 
flowers have the peculiarity of being variable in shapes 
and numbers ; wherefore many botanists have ration- 
ally divided it into subgenera, which might be rather 
deemed Genera. Almost all our species belong to 
the S. G, PneuTTionanthe having oblong or tubular 
Corolla, and five Stamina, except the G, crinita 
which belongs to S. G, Eublephis having four Sta- 
mina and a hypocrateriform ciliated Corolla. While 
the officinal Gentian or G. lutea of Europe belongs to 
S* G. Rotularia having rotated Corolla, with five to 
nine Stamina. 

All our Gentians are autumnal plants, blossoming 
very late from September to November: They are 
all ornamental and would adorn our gardens, where 
some are already introduced. 

Qualities — The root has a mucilaginous and 
sweetish taste, followed by an intense bitterness like 
that of the officinal Gentian. It contains Amarine, 
Extractive, Mucilage, Resin, Sugar, Oil, and the 
principle Gentia, which is soluble in Water and Al- 
cohol, as well as all the active parts: the solutions are 
more bitter than the root in substance: No astrin- 

PROPERTIES Tonic, Sudorific, Antiseptic, 

Corroborant, Cathartic, &c. It is very little inferior 

No. 41. G22NT1ANA. §09 

to the officinal Gentian in strength and efficacy, it 
invigorates the stomach, and is very useful in de- 
bility of the stomach and the digestive organs : it in- 
creases the appetite, prevents the acidification of food, 
enables the Stomach to bear and digest solid food, 
and thus cures Indigestion or Dyspepsia. It is much 
used in the Southern States in hectic and nervous 
fevers, pneumonia, &c. acting as a sudorific tonic. It 
may be used like com.n\on Gentian in general debility, 
Marasm, Hysteria, and even Gout. Also united to 
astringents for intermittents and other fevers. The 
dose is in substance from 10 to 40 grains, in tincture 
one fourth of an ounce to one ounce, in extract 2 to 8 
grains. In large doses the Gentians prove cathartic 
like Frasera. They enter in all digestive pills and 

Substitutes — Frasera VerticiUaia, Menyanthes, 
Triosteum, Coptis, Sabbatia, Xanthorhiza, &c., 
besides nearly all the native Gentians that follow. 

Remarks — Our native Gentians being little known 
as yet, and all medical, I deem it proper to annex 
here a complete account of them, with notices on the 
new kinds. 

1. G. Quiiiquejlora Lin. or five flowered Gentian. 
Easily known by its branched winged Stem; small 
oval, clasping leaves; flowers five cleft, small, axillary 
by bunches of three, four or five and blue — Common 
from New England to Kentucky, and the best sub- 
stitute, the whole plant may be used, being intensely 
bitter like Sabbaiia angularis. Annual. 

3, G, %flmardloides Michaux or Yellow bunch 

2 s 

glO GENTIANA. No. 41. 

Gentian. Differs from the former by oval lanceolate 
leaves, stem round with four small angles, flowers 
axillary and terminal, yellowish, calix longer foliace- 
ous. — In Kentucky, Illinois, &c. Equal to th« former. 

3. G. Crinita Wild. Fringed Gentian. Easily 
knov/n by its lanceolate leaves, large solitary flowers 
on long peduncles with a fringed four cleft corolla, 
&.C. — An elegant species found from New York to 
Carolina. Perennial like all the following. 

4. G. Saponaria Lin. Soap Gentian. Leaves 
oval lanceolate, acute, trinerve, flowers verticillate, 
sessile ; calix v/ith short oval segments : corolla ob- 
long, with ten teeth, the interior unequally trifid. — 
Common from New England to Virginia, medical. 

•5. G, Clausa Raf. Closed Gentian. Stem round 
smooth, leaves ovate lanceolate, acuminate, subtri- 
nerve: flowers verticillate, sessile ; calix four to six cleft 
angular, segments foliaceous short : Corolla clavate, 
short, closed 8-10 teeth, internal teeth equally bilobe. 
On the Taconick and Green mountains, flowers blue, 
half the size of G. Saponaria and quite shut. Variety 
with ternate lanceolate leaves. 

6. G, Angustifolia Michaux. Narrow leaved G. 
Stem simple, slender, one flowered, leaves narrow 
linear spreading: Corolla funnel shaped ten cleft, 
with*five internal lacerate segments. — Rare, beautiful 
large flowers, in New Jersey, Carolina, &c. 

7. G. Linearis Willd. Linear G. Stem rough, 
leaves linear lanceolate, undulate, ciliate; flowers ca- 
pitate, sessile, Corolla campanulate five cleft, with 

No. 41. 6XSNTZANA. Si £ 

the internal folds denticulate. — In the Alleghany 

8. G. Ochroleuca Wild. Pale G. Stem rough an- 
gular, leaves elliptic rough ; flowers capitate, ses- 
sile: Corolla ventricose, closed, five cleft, inner folds 
simple, acute. — In New York, Pennsylvania, &c. 
flowers yellowish white. 

9. G, Heterophylla Raf. Grey G. Stem simple, 
erect, round, smooth ; leaves subtrinerve, lower ob- 
oval obtuse, medial elliptic, upper oblong acute: 
Flowers terminal, sessile two to four, calix campanu- 
late, segments cuneate obtuse ; Corolla ventricose, 
five cleft, segments 'aoute, bidentate on one side. — On 
the mountains of Virginia, East Kentucky and Ten- 
nessee, flowers of a pale bluish grey. Sometimes 
called Flux-root and used for the Disentery. 

10. G, SerpentaHa Raf. Snake-root G, Stem 
smooth, flexuose, subangular; leaves obovate or ob- 
long, subobtuse, subtrinerve, undulated : Flowers 
fascicled sessile, bracteoles petiolate, calix campanu- 
late, angular, segments linear and carinate: Corolla 
tubular five cleft, segments obtuse notched, inner 
folds lacerated. — In Indiana, Illinois, &c. Root consi- 
dered a specific for men and cattle bitten by Rattle- 
snakes and Copper-heads ; it is also said to stupify 

11. G, Shortiana Rdi^. Shortian Gentian. Several 
assurgent stems, rough, ancipital, one]flowered ; leaves 
oblong or cuneiform, as long as the intervals, glau- 
cous beneath, edges rough, uninerve, the lower ob- 
tuse. Flower sessile bracteate, calicinal segments 

g i a G3HTI AH A. No. 41 . 

short, oblong: Corolla nearly campanulate, five cleft, 
internal folds lacerated — Common in the glades of 
Kentucky, Tennessee, Illinois, &:c. Stem sometimes 
only four inches, and flower above one inch, blue. 
Var. biflora, stem upright, two flowered. Dedicated 
to Dr. Short of Kentucky, who has communicated 
to me several of the fine following new species. 

12. G. Tor rey ana or HoYYQydiXi, Stem erect, rough, 
quadrangular, leaves linear-lanceolate, obtuse, glau- 
cous, short, twice as long as the intervals, uninerve, 
clasping, often revolute. Flowers three to five, ter- 
minal, sessile, calicinal segments linear, as long as the 
tube : Corolla nearly campanulaje* five cleft, segments 
acute, inner folds entire — In the glades with the fore- 
going, flowers blue, one inch long. Dedicated to Dr. 

13. G, Rigida Raf. Stiff G. Stem stifi; round, 
rough ; leaves lanceolate, acute, stiff, small, subtri- 
nerve, clasping, longer than the intervals. Flowers 
one to five terminal, calicinal segments linear, as long 
as the tube: Corolla campanulate five cleft, segments 
acute, inner folds entire — In West Kentucky, Ten- 
nessee, &c. stem red, flower Wue, one inch long,* 
leaves glaucous beneath, small. 

14. G. Elliottea Raf. or Elliottian G. Stem 
round, smooth, leaves oblong, narrow, subacute at both 
ends, as long as the intervals, subtrinerve, glaucous 
beneath: Flowers three to five terminal, sessile; calix 
elongated, segments oblong acute, as long as the tube : 
Corolla campanulate, segments acute, inner folds lace- 


rated — In West Kentucky, leaves few, three inches 
long, flowers 1 1-2 inches, blue. Dedicated to Elliott. 

15. G. Gracilis Raf. Slender G. Stem slender, 
rough, round ancipital ; leaves twice as long as the 
intervals, not spreading, linear, uninerve, clasping, the 
lower obtuse, upper acute : Flowers two to five, ses- 
sile, long and slender, calicine segments linear, as 
long as the tube: Corolla slender, tubular sub-cam- 
panulate, five cleft, segments deep, acuminate, inner 
folds simple — In West Kentucky. It has neither the 
leaves ciliate and undulate as in G. linearis nor the 
glaucous short leaves of G. torreyana* A variety of 
this with broader leaves, more spreading, may be the 
O. pneumonanthe of Michaux, but not Linnaeus. 
Leaves in both one inch long, and flowers two inches 

16. G. Axillaris Raf. Axillary G. Stem round, 
rough ; leaves oblong lanceolate, acute at both ends, 
trinerve, twice as long as the intervals : flowers axil- 
lary, pedicellate, shorter than the leaves; segments of 
the calix linear, as long as the tube : Corolla tubular, 
five cleft, segments acute, with a lateral tooth — Glades 
of West Kentucky. Leaves three inches long, flow- 
ers one inch, with two lanceolate bracts. 

17. G. Co/Zm^fa/iaRaf. Collinsian G. Stem round, 
smooth ; leaves lanceolate, acuminate, trinerve, longer 
than the intervals^ flowers capitate, involucrate, seg- 
ments of the calix lanceolate, acute, as long as the 
tube: Corolla campanulate, five cleft, segments mu- 
cronate, inner folds rounded, notched. — A fine species, 
leaves three inches long, flowers two inches, blue.— 

tiii GSNTZANA. No. 41. 

In the glades of Indiana, Illinois, Missouri and West 
Kentucky. Dedicated to Z. Collins. 

I have never seen the G^ pneiimonanthe nor G, 
Villosa of Linnaeus. I suspect that the true G. pneu- 
monanthe of Europe, does not grow in America, all 
our species being different from the European, and 
that either G. gracilis or G. torreyana was meant by 
Michaux. As for G, villosa it is a doubtful plant, 
seen by very few botanists, all our Gentians have 
smooth leaves, I suspect that it may be a hairy variety 
of my G. heterophyllo. 

The above account may be considered as a concise 
monography of our Gentians; but there are some 
other species in the southern states. The perennial 
kinds, which are the most numerous, have their medi- 
cinal properties concentrated in the roots, which may 
safely be substituted to the officinal Gentian. The 
annual kinds have the whole plant intensely bitter and 
available as in Sabbatittf Chelone glabra, Verbena 
hastata &c. They all ought to be cultivated for their 
beautiful blue blossoms, and officinal utility. 

No. 42. 



Ko. 42. aEnANlUM. f SlSf 

-' , ■ ■ ••■' ■ - ' - . " ■■■! :=— 

No. 42. 


French Name — Geranium Macule. 

German Name — Geflecter Storchschnabel. 

Officinal Names — Geranium radix, Kino Ame- 

Vulgar Names — Crowfoot, Alum-root, Tormen- 
til, Storkbill. In Canada and Louisiana' Bacine a 

Authorities — Lin. Mich. Pursh, Schoepf, Colden, 
Cocln, Thacher, B. Barton, Mease, Coxe, Eberle, 
A. Ives, Zollickoffer. Big. fig. 8, and seq. W. Barton 
fig. 13. 

Genus Gerani-um — Calix five parted, equal, per- 
sistent. Corol five equal petals. Stamina 10, hypogy- 
nous, filaments monadelphous or united at the base, 
five alternate shorter. Germ central with five glands 
at the base, a persistent style, five stigmas. Ftuit five 
capsuls one seeded, attached by a beak to the persist- 
ent style. 

Species G. Maculatum — Perennial,' hairy, erect 
dichotome; leaves few, opposite,. three to five parted, 
palmate, segments oblong acute, jagged : peduncles 
elongated, biflore, petals obovate. 

DESCRIPTION—Root perennial, horizontal, ob- 
long, thick, rough, knobby, brownish spotted with 
greenish, whitish inside, very brittle when dry, with 

S16 GERANIUM. «^ No. 42.. 

few short fibres. Stem erect, round, with few di- 
chotome branches and leaves, covered as well as the 
petiols with retrorse hairs, and from one to three feet 
high. Several radical leaves on long petiols, the stem 
leaves opposite, at the distant forks, on shorter petiols; 
floral leaves nearly sessile: all are palmate, five parted, 
seldom three parted, segments oblong or cuneate, pu- 
bescent entire at the base, unequally jagged above, 
sometimes spotted: stipules linear or lanceolate, mem- 
branaceous ciliate. 

Flowers geminate on biflore peduncles, arising from 
the forks, erect, round, swelled at the base, with linear 
bracts, similar to the stipules. Calix formed by five 
deep segments, oval lanceolate, cuspidate, five nerved, 
hairy outside, margin membranaceous or ciliated. 
Five equal petals, obovate, entire, red with purple 
veins, twice as'long as the calix. Stamina 10, filaments 
erect, shorter than the petals, connected at the base, 
filiform above, five alterne shorter, anthers oblong 
violet — Germ ovate, with five glands at the base, 
style erect, grooved, persistent, five oblong obtuse 
stigmas, l^ruit a capsul divided into five coccas or 
one seeded capsuls, attached inside to the style, and 
curling up at maturity. 

LocALiT-f — All over the United States from Maine 
to Louisiana, Missouri and Florida ; very common in 
woods, copices, hedges, glades, &c. no vvhere more 
abundant than in the western glades of Kentucky, &c. 
HISTORY — The genus Geranium of Linnaeus 
forms a most beautiful group of plants, of which nearly 
200 kinds are known, and many adorn our gardens. 


They are now the type of a natural family Gruinales 
or Geranides, divided into many genera: Erodium 
with five stamina, Pelargonium with seven, besides 
Gruinalium, Monsoniaf Oxalis, &c. The name is 
now restricted to the species with ten stamina ; it de- 
rives from a Gj;eek name meaning Crane. The G. 
maculatum belongs to the true decandrous Geraniums: 
the specific name applies to the root and leaves which 
are often spotted or mottled ; but a variety is spotless. 
The varieties are many, such as 1. Humile, 2, Di- 
phyllum, 3. Viride, 4. dlbifloruin, 5. Macrophyl- 
lum, &c. 

It is a beautiful plant, deserving cultivation, the 
flowers are large, but scentless, red, purple or white, 
with darker veins. It blossoms in the spring, from 
May to July. It has an extensive native range, and I 
have seen it growing by millions in the glades of 
West Kentucky, where it could be collected cheaply 
for use and exportation. The best time for collection 
is the fall. 

Geranium belongs to Monadelphia decandria of 
Linnseus, the Pelargonium or African Geraniums of 
the gardens, to M. heptandria. 

Qualities — Root nearly scentless, taste astringent, 
but not unpleasant; it contains much tannin, more 
than kino, extractive, lignine and kinic acid? or a 
peculiar acid difiering from gallic acid in not redden- 
ing vegetable blues, and not passing over in distilla- 
tion. The active principles are soluble in water and 
alcohol: the alkalies neutralize them. 

PROPERTIES — Powerful astringent, vulnerary, 


S18 geranium:. no.42. 

subtonic and antiseptic. The root is the officinal part, 
' and is a pure, pleasant and valuable astringent, equal 
to kino and catechu, and deserving not only the name 
of American Kino ; but to be introduced in Materia 
Medica as a superior equivalent. It is a better tonic 
than kino, and therefore preferable t© it in the treat- 
ment of morbid fluxes connected with relaxation and 
debility. Its internal use is indicated in the secondary 
stages of Dysentery and Cholera Infantum : it is ex- 
tensively used in the country for all bowel complaints ; 
but sometimes improperly or too early. A gargle of 
the decoction is useful in cynanche tonsilaris and in 
ulcerations or aphthous sores of the mouth and throat. 
,>R.The infusion is a valuable lotion in unhealthy ulcers 
and passive hemorrhagy, also one of the best injec- 
tions in gleet and leucorhea. It was once deemed a 
styptic in bleeding hemorrhagy, but has failed in many 
instances. United to our native Gentians or to Fra- 
sera, it forms one of the most efficient cures for inter- 
mittents. A decoction in milk is very good in loose- 
ness of bowels and diarrhea. Our Indians value this 
plamt highly, and use it for wounds, gonorrhoea, ulcers 
on the legs, diabetes, bloody urine, involuntary dis- 
charges of urine, immoderate menstruations, &c. The 
general effects on the system are to give tone to the 
bowels and stomach, stop all immoderate discharges, 
and prevent internal mortification. It has also been 
recommended in scurvy, nephritis and phthisical diar- 
rhea, but does not avail much in those disorders. Not 
being at all stimulant, it may be useful when sedative 
astringents are required. • It has cured a periodical 

No. 42. GERANIUM. SI 9 

hemoptysis according to Dr. Harris. It is also used 
in Veterinary for the diseases of cattle or horses, and 
cures the bloody water of cattle. The doses are one 
to two ounces in infusion or decoction, two to four 
drachms of the tincture, fifteen to forty grains of the 
powder, and ten to fifteen grains of the extract, which 
is a most powerful and efficient astringent, equalled 
only by the extract of Spirea tomentosa. 

Substitutes — Orobanche Virginiaiia — Statics 
Caroliniana — Tormentilla erecta — Rubus villosus 
— Heuchera species — Geum Sp, — Spirea tome?itosa 
and Sp. cpulifolia — Kino, Catechu, Galls and all 
powerful vegetable astringents. 

Remarks — The officinal kinos are four. 1. African 
Kino or Fterocarpus erinacea^ 2. Botany Bay Kino 
or Eucalyptus resinifera, 3. Jamaica Kino or Butea 
frondosa, 4. American Kino or Geranium macula- 
turrif this last is the most efficient and powerful, by 
far preferable to all the others, since it has no bitterish 
taste nor resinous matter, like the first and third, nor 
the disagreeable sweetish taste of th.e second. It ought 
to supersede them in our pharmacies at least, if not 
elsewhere. The Catechu or extract of Minosa Cate- 
chu is merely equal to it. 

The Geranium robertianmn of Europe, grows also 
in North America from New England to Ohio, on 
stony hills, and is a weak equivalent of the G. macu- 
latum; but it is also diuretic, and therefore more 
available in nephritis, gravel, and diseases of the blad- 
der. It will be easily known by its musky smelly 
annual root, small flowers, &c. 

220 GEUM. No. 43. 

No. 43. 


English Name— WHITE AVENS. 

French Name — Benoite de Virginie. 

German Name — Bennet. 

Officinal Name — Geum radix. 

Vulgar Names — Evan root, Avens, Chocolate 
root, Bennet, Cure-all, Throatroot. 

Authorities — Lin. Mich. Pursh, Kalm, Schoepf, 
Cutler, A. Ives, Buckhaven, Melandri, Zollickoffer, 
Bigelow seq. Coxe^ &c. 

Genus Geum — Calix ten cleft, spreading, the alter- 
nate segments smaller. Petals five on the calix. Many 
stamina inserted on the base of the calix. Many cen- 
tral pistils, each with a long persistent style and ob- 
tuse stigma, and becoming a seed. Seeds forming a 
cluster, awned by the styles. 

Species G. Virginianum — Pubescent, stem erect, 
radical and lower leaves ternate, petiolate, upper ses- 
sile and simple, folioles ovate, lanceolate, acute, un- 
equally serrate, stipuks ovate, serrate or entire: 
flowers few, erect, petals oboval, shorter than the calix; 
awns uncinate, hairy, twisted. 

DESCRIPTION— Roots perennial, small, brittle, 
brown, crooked, tuberculated, oblong, horizontal. 
Stem simple, erect, about two feet high, pubescent, 
few flowered. Radical leaves on long petioles, with- 

No. 43. 



No. 43. &£UM. ^2i 

out stipules, lower leaves with large stipules and 
shorter petioles, up'per leaves sessile, simple, similar 
to the folioles of the lower leaves, which are oval, or 
oval- lanceolate, or lanceolate, base acute, and acumi- 
nate, border deeply and unequally serrate : stipules 
large, broad, sessile, ovate or rounded, serrate or near- 
ly entire. 

Flowers terminal, white, few, on erect peduncles. 
Calix spreading, ten cleft, segments lanceolate, acute, 
five alternate smaller. Five yellowish white petals, 
opposite to the short segments, shorter than the longest, 
and inserted on the base of the calix, oboval, entire, 
flat. Stamina many, short, unequal, perigynous ; fila- 
ments filiform, anthers roundish and yellow. Pistils 
many, conglomerate, oval, styles long, hairy, stigma 
hooked. Fruit a small burr or round cluster of achenes 
or single seeds, oval, brown, smooth, having a long 
tail or awn, formed by the persistent styles, filiform, 
hairy, t^visted and uncinate at the top. 

Locality — Common from Maine to Carolina and 
Kentucky, in woods, groves, thickets, hills, &c. 

HISTORY — An estival plant blossoming in June 
and July, the flowers resemble those of Strawberries, 
but are smaller; a variety has them yellowish. The 
varieties are 1. Uiii flora, 2. Macrophylla, S. Lan- 
ceolata, 4. Ochroleuca, 5. JRamosa, &c. 

The Geum rivale or water Avens, a boreal plant, 
spread from New England to Canada in damp places, 
is more commonly employed in the north, and this 
species in the south ; they are both equivalents. 

Geum belongs to the natural order of Senticoses 

T 2 

aSTTM. No. 43, 

near Dryas, Dalibarda and Stylypus, and to Ico- 
sandria polygynia of Linnaeus. * 

Qualities — The whole plant is available, but the 
root is principally used, it has a bitterish astringent 
taste, and a pleasant smell,'somewhat like cloves, only 
perceptible in the spring, when it must be collected 
for use. It contains resin, gum, tannin, extractive, 
mucilage, fibrine, a volatile oil, &c. The Geiim xir- 
banum, a consimilar and equivalent species, has been 
found to contain out of two ounces, 496 grains of lig- 
nine, 118 of tannin, 181 extractive, 61 of saline and 
soapy matter, 92 of mucilage, 23 of resin, 76 of oil 
and water. - It yields these principles to water and 
alcohol, and dies them red ; the alcoholic preparations 
are scented, the watery scentless and merely astrin- 

PROPERTIES— All the Avens have nearly the 
same properties, they are astringent, styptic, tonic, 
febrifuge, stomachic, &c. They are much ^ used in 
the Northern States and Canada. In Connecticut 
they supersede the Chincona ; but they are weaker, 
although less stimulant, in fevers. They do not in- 
crease excitement and are therefore useful in hemop- 
tysis and Phthisis. They are decidedly excellent in 
dyspepsia and visceral affections ; Ives states that its 
long use, restores to health the most shattered and 
enfeebled constitutions. They are often used in de- 
coction with sugar and milk, like chocolate or coffee, 
to which they resemble : and also for dysentery, chro- 
nic diarrhea, colics, debility, asthma, sorethroat, leu- 
corhea, uterine hemorrhagy. They are the base of 

No. 43. 6EUM. 2^3 

the Indian Chocolate of Empirics. The doses are a 
daily pint of the weak decoction, or about 60 grains 
of the powder daily, divided into three doses : this 
powder may be mixed with honey. A table-spoonful 
of the tincture is also given in some cases. These 
roots are sometimes put in Ale, as stomachics. 

Substitutes — Gei^anium maculatum and all the 
plants mentioned as equivalent to it ; the Geum rivale 
and 6r. urbanum, also the Stylypus Vernus, 

Remarks — The E, urhanuin does not grow in 
America, although indicated by some. The G, rivale 
of America is a peculiar variety. It will be known 
from this, by its locality in the north, near waters, 
the radical leaves pinnate, cauline three cleft, and 
large purplish nodding flowers. It is said to be more 
efficient than this kind. 

My Stylypus vermis is a new annual plant, grow- 
ing only in the Western States, from Ohio to Ten- 
nessee, in woods, and bears small yellow blossoms in 
March and April. It has the properties of this plant 
and Agrimony. The generic and specific character 
are as follows, 

G. Stylypus. Calix persistent, campanulate, five 
cleft, segments reflexed. Five small petals and many 
Stamina inserted on the top of the calix. Many 
Pistils in a head borne by a cylindrical gynophore. 
Several Seeds or Achenes, with persistent smooth 
Styles. — Stylypus vernus Annual, many decum- 
bent Stems, leaves int^rupted pinnate, folioles laci- 
niated, upper leaves simple jagged : flowers terminal, 
few, peduncled. 

^M 6ZLZ.EKZA. No. 44. 

No. 44. 



French Name — Gillenia occidentale, 

German Name— Gillenwurzel. 

Officinal Name — Gillenia radix. 

Vulgar Names — Indian Physic, Indian hippo, 
Ipecac, Beaumont root, Bowman's root. Meadow 
sweet, &c. 

Synonyms — Spirea trifoliata Var. Auct. 

Authorities — Pursh, Wildenow, Schoepf, Thatch- 
er, Coxe, Duncan, Nuttal, Moench, Eberle, A. Ives, 
Baum, W. Bart. fig. 6, &c. 

Genus Gillenia — Calix campanulate 5 cleft. Five 
narrow unequal petals inserted on the calyx. Many 
short Stamina inserted there also. Five coherent 
pistils, five Styles, Capsules five connate at the base, 
opening inside, unilocular, two seeded. 

Species G. Stipulacea — Lower leaves pinnatifid, 
upper leaves trifoliolate, folioles lanceolate [incise 
serrate ; stipules foliaceous, ovate, oblique, jagged : 
flowers loosely corymbose. 

DESCRIPTION— Root perennial, dark brown, 
amorphous, with large and long fleshy fibres. Several 
Stems from two to three feet high, slender, smooth, 
brittle, reddish, branched. Leaves large, alternate, 
sessile, with three folioles and two large stipules; 

No. 44. 




No. U. 6II.X.ENIA. gS5 

these last are oblique, ovate, irregularly jagged, acute. 
Folioles smooth, lanceolate, acute at both ends, with 
a large nerve, border unequally serrate or jagged, and 
in the lower leaves often pinnatif. — Flowers in loose 
thin terminal corymbs, peduncles clingated, calix 
campanulate with five teeth; petals white, three times 
as long, linear lanceolate, a little unequal, base cunei- 
forrrt, and nearly obtuse. Stamina short, inclosed, 
anthers round yellow. Pistil central free, five parted, 
five filiform Styles, five obtuse stigmas, five connected 
Capsuls, &c. &c. 

Locality — Found only West of the Alleghany 
mountains, from Ohio and West Virginia to Missouri 
and Louisiana ; rare in the limestone and alluvial re- 
gions, very common in the hilly and sand-stone re- 
gions, growing always in poor or gravelly soils, both 
in woods and glades. 

HISTORY — This genus contains two species, this 
and G. tr'ifoliata, which .has similar properties, and 
will be known by its locality, growing on the moun- 
tains Alleghany, or north, east and south of them from 
Canada to Florida, but never west of them. It is a 
larger plant, with broader folioles, small linear sti- 
pules and fewer flowers, but larger. It has been figur- 
ed by Barton and Bigelow, but resembles this so 
much as not to need it. 

Both blossom in June and July, and are pretty 
plants, worth cultivation. They had formerly been 
united to Spirea, Filipendulaf and Ubnaria, Moench 
proposed long ago the genus Gillenia, but it was only 
lately adopted. It belongs to the Natural Order of 

n^Q 6II.X.ENZA. No. U. 

Senticoses, family Spireadia, and to Icosandria 
pentagynia. The G. Stipulacea was only lately des- 
cribed. It offers many varieties, 1. Unijlora, 2. Pin- 
natijida, 3. Virgata, 4. F'ariegata, &c. Cattle do 
not eat it. 

Qualities — Roots scentless, taste bitter but not 
unpleasant. Containing a resin, extractive, lignine, 
fecula, amarine, and a coloring matter, which <lies 
the solutions red. 

PROPERTIES — Both species are emetic, cathar- 
tic, and tonic; but the G, stipulacea is by far the 
best and strongest. It has even happened that the 
G. trifoliata has proved inert, in some cases, when 
old, or taken from cultivated plants : while the 6?. 
stipulacea has never failed, and supersedes'the Ipecac 
in common practice throughout the West. It is as 
mild and efficient, milder than the Euphorbia corol- 
lata. The roots are collected in the fall, and kept 
in many stores : the bark of the root is chiefly used, 
but the woody part is not inert as supposed. The 
dose is from 15 to 30 grains of the powder. It ope- 
rates often also as a cathartic. In small doses it be- 
comes a tonic, and is used in intermittents. The In- 
dians employed it, and took larger doses or strong 
decoctions of it, which operated violently ; this prac- 
tice is yet followed and brings on debility : Eberle 
has successfully used the G. trifoliata in dyspepsia, 
also in dysentery with opium. It is given in decoc- 
tion to horses and cattle as a tonic and digestive. 

Substitutes — Euphorbia Sp, Sanguinaria-^ 

Ipecacuana and all the mild Emetics. 

No. 45. 



No. 45. HAMAMELIS. 2^7 

No. 45. 



French Name — Hamamelier d'hyver. 

German Name — Hexehasel. 

Officinal Name — Hamamelis Cortex. 
' VuL'GAR Names — Witch hazel, Snapping hazel- 
nut, Winter bloom, Pistachoe nut, &c. 

AtJTHORiTiEs — Lin. Mich. Pursh, Cutler, Schoepf, 
Mitchell, Golden, Catesby, fig. 2. Barton Flora, fig. 
78, Elliott, &c. 

Genus Hamamelis — Calix four cleft, persistent, 
with scales at the base. Petals four long and linear. 
Stamina four opposite to the petals. Filaments broad 
and short, anthers adnate, two celled, dehiscent by 
vertical valves, one pistil, two stigmas. Capsule coria- 
ceous nut-like, two celled, two lobed, two valved 
above, valves cleft : one oblong seed in each cell. 

Species St. Virginica — Leaves obovate, obtuse, 
smooth, base obliquely cordate, margin erose; flow- 
ers in small remote clusters, calix and fruit pubescent 

DESCRIPTION— A shrub from six to ten feet 
high, with irregular branches, flexuose and knotty : 
bark smooth grey, with brown dots. Leaves rather 
large, smooth, alternate, petiolate, obovate, base with 
a small sinus and unequal lobes, margin with unequal 

2^ HAIMtAMEZiXS. No. 45. 

faint teeth, commonly obtuse, end obtuse, nerves pro- 

Flowers on short pedicels, clustered three to five 
together, in several places along the branches. Calix 
small, but enlarging with the fruit, with three or 
four scales at the base, divided into four thick oval 
pubescent segments. Petals yellow, much longer, 
linear, obtuse, often undulate or revolute. Stamina 
four opposed to petals, shorter than the calix. Pistil 
oval central, a short style, two stigmas obtuse. Fruit a 
nut-like Capsule, similar to a hazel-nut ; but bilobed 
and split above, pubescent, yellowish, with two cells 
containing each an oblong black seed, with a broad 
arilla at the base. This capsule is one year ripening, 
and opens with elasticity and instantaneously with a 
noise, by two half valves, throwing the seeds off. 

Locality — From New England to Carolina and 
Ohio, commonly on hills and mountains, near stony 
banks of streams. Rare in plains and alluvions. 

HISTORY — This is a very singular Genus, formed 
by Linnaeus with the Trilopus of Mitchell, which 
name he ought not to have changed for the actual, 
which is the Greek name of the Mespilus or Medlar 
tree. He knew only one species, several are now 
known, which are sometimes polygamous, monoical 
and even dioical. They all blossom in winter, when 
no other tree is in bloom ; the blossoms last from Oc- 
tober to February. The fruits stand on the whole 
year, till next fall, and then explode successively 
with a noise, like Hura crepitans^ scattering the 
seeds around. These seeds are eaten by the Indians, 

No. 45. HAMAIVI2L2S. g'oq 

and in the South where they are called erroneously 
Pistachoe nuts, although quite unlike the Pistacia 
vera or true Pistachoe of the Mediterranean.' They 
are similar in shape to the esculent Pine seeds of 
Finns picea, cylindrical, shining black outside, white 
and farinaceous inside, rather oily and palatable. 

The shrub resembles very much in the appearance 
of the leaves and nuts, the common hazelnut, Cory- 
luS Americana ; but the blossoms are totally different. 
It has become in the United States the Witch hazel, 
affording the divining rods, employe'd by the adepts 
of the occult arts, to find or preteifd to find Water, 
Ores, Salt, &c. unuer ground. The Alnus and Cory' 
lus are often substituted, a'forked branch is used, the 
two branches held in both hands; when and where 
the point drops, the springs or metals sought for, are 
said to be! A belief in this vain practice is as yet 
widely spread. 

It belongs to tiie Natural Order of Berberides, 
distinguished by opposite petals and stamina, and to 
the section or family with capsular fruit like Jcffer- 
sunia. Also to Tetrandrta monogyiiia of Linnans. 

Qualities — The bark and leaves are somewhat 
bitter, very astringent, leaving a sweetish pungent 
taste: The smell is not unpleasant. It has not been 
analyzed as yet, but probably contains tannin, ama- 
rine, extractive, and an essential oil. 

PROPERTIES — Sedative, astringent, tonic, dis- 
cutient, &c. The Indians value this shrub highly, 
and it is much used in the North by herbalists. The 
bark affords an excellent topical application for paii> 


,^30 HAMAMSLIS. No. 45. 

ful tumors and piles, external inflammations, sore and 
inflamed eyes, &c. in cataplasm or poultice or wash. 
A tea is made with the leaves, and employed for 
many purposes, in amenorrhea, bowel complaints, 
pains in the sides, menstrual effusions, bleeding of 
the stomach, &c. In this last case, the chewed leaves, 
decoction of the bark or tea of the leaves, are all em- 
ployed with great advantage. A strong infusion is 
given in injection for bowel complaints. It is said- to 
be a mild yet efficient astringent in all cases, and a 
safe substitute of Statice, Myrica and Ruhus, 

Substitutes — *Conmm viaculatiitn — Vlhirmivi 
ctcerifolium and V. dentatutn — Nymphea odor^ata 
Myrica ccrifera — Jlgrimdnia Enpatorium — Geiini 
g.p^ — Rhus typhinum and R. glcibritTn — Statice Ca- 
rolinm^ia and many other mild astringents. 

Remarks — All tbe species of this genus have pro- 
bably the same properties. In the north the H. par- 
vlfolia is equally used. It is distinguished by smaller 
leaves, pubescent beneath, hardly cordate at the 
base, undulate and sinuate. The shrub is smaller, 
with blossoms of a brighter yellow, and grows in 

The H. macrophijlla or Bigleiif Witch hazel, is 
only found in the Southern mountains, and will be 
knovs-n by its large, rough and round leaves. 

No. 46. 



No. 46. HEBEOll^A. 231 

No. 46. 



French Name — Hedeome Pouliot. 

German Name — Poleyblattrige. 

Officinal Name — Hedeoma herba. 

"N'ulgar Names — Pennyroyal, Tickwecd, Stink- 
ing Balm, Squaw-mint, &c. 

Synonyms — Melissa pidegioides Lin. Cu7iila jju- 
Icgioides Lin. and many botanists. 

Authorities — Lin. Mich. Pursh, Persoon,.KaIm, 
S^choepf, Thacher, Cullcn, Big. scq., Duncan, Eberle, 
Zollickoffer, Chapman, Elliott, B. Barton, W. Bar- 
ton, M. M. fjg. 41. 

Genus Hedeoma — Calix bilabiate, ten striated, base 
gibbose, upper lip trifid, lower with two subulate 
teeth and ciliated bristles, corolla bilabiate, upper lip 
nearly entire, lower trilobe, middle lobe obcordate. 
Two fertile stamina as long as the corolla, two sterile 
and short. One style, four seeds. 

Species H. -pulegioides — Annual, leaves sub])e- 
tiolate, oblong, acute, subserrate, a little rough. 
Flowers axillary, verticillate by six, on short pedi- 
cels, with two small bracteoles. 

DESCRIPTION— Root annual, small, ycllowii^h, 
branched fibrose. Stem upriglU, about a foot high, 
with slender erect-branches, terete, pubescent. Leaves 

233 HSDEOMA. No. 46. 

opposite, small, oblong lanceolate or suboval, on short 
petioles, base attenuated, end subacute, margin with 
small remote serratures, surface rough or pubescent, 
nerved and pale beneath. 

Flowers all along the branches in axillary whorls 
of six, nodding, on short pedicels, very small. Calix 
as above, pubescent. Corolla very small, hardly 
longer, white, with the lips purple, base slender, then 
campanulate with two small lips, the upper rounded, 
seldom notched, the lower with two rounded lateral 
lobes, and an obcordate middle lobe. Stamina and 
style filiform, anthers oblong. Stigma lateral acute. 
Fruit four small oblong seeds in the persistent calix, 
mouth closed by the ciliated bristles of the lower lip. 

Locality — Very common and abundant all over 
the United States, and in Canada, in dry woods and 
hills chiefly, but also in plains, alluvions, roads, stony 
fields. Never in moist soils. No where more abun- 
dant than in lime soils or arid grounds. 

HISTORY — IL was the fate of this plant to be suc- 
cessively united by Linnaeus and other botanists to 
Melissa and Cunila, until distinguished and named 
fey Persoon, and it is as yet commonly blended, even 
by medical writers, with the European Pennyroyal 
or Mentha jmlegium^ which does not grow in Ame- 
rica; the shape, smell, and properties being somewhat 
similar, whence the same vulgar name; but our plant 
appears to be more efficient. 

It belongs to the natural order of Labiate, and to 
Diandria monogynia of Linnaeus. It blossoms in 
summer from July to September. • The name of lie- 

No. 46. HSDEOMA. ^33 

deoma means sweet smelling in Greek; the whoie 
])lant is scented ; but the smell far from agreeable, 
being strong and graveolent: many persons, however, 
like it and call it pungent,* reviving and pleasant: 
females are sometimes fo'nd of it as well as of Rue or 
Ricta graveolens, although both very graveolent. 

Qualities — The smell and taste are very warm, 
pungent, strong, and hardly aromatic, but pleasant or 
disagreeable according to different personal affections. 
The medical principle resides in an essential oil, pos- 
sessing eminently the same smell and taste. 

PROPERTIES — Carminative, resolvent, pectoral, 
diaphoretic, antispasmodic, menagogue,pellent, stimu- 
lant, &:c. It is a popular remedj^ throughout the coun- 
try for female complaints, suppressed menstruations, 
hysterics, &c. It is chiefly beneficial in obstructed 
catamenia, and recent cases of suppressions, given as 
a sweetened tea, with the pediluvium. Eberle, how- 
ever, deems its menagogue property problematical, 
and useful only as a vehicle for other- remedies: that 
he is mistaken, is proved Ijy daily experience. It 
promotes expectoration in the whooping cough, it al- 
leviates spasms, pains in the hips, and the spasmodic 
or dyspeptic symptoms of menstruation. Schoepf 
mentions it for palpitations, fevers and gout; but it is 
too stimulant in fevers. A warm cataplasm of the 
herb is useful in severe pains, and thrilling palpita- 
tions. Zollickoffer says that it is a valuable medicine 
in some cases of diarrhea, but which ? Some herbalists 
in the north, employ it extensively for colds, cholics 
of children, to remove obstruction, warm the stomach 


23 1 HEDEOMA. No. 46. 

and promote perspiration. Although it affords one of 
the most popular graveolent tea, there are many other 
labiate plants which are equivalent to it and more 
agreeable withal: the be^t are Mint, Dittany, Balms, 
Sage, Monarda, Isanthus, &c. The oil is now kept 
in pharmacies, and often used instead of the infusion, 
in mixtures, &:c. 

Substitutes — Monarda Sp. — Mentha pulegium 
and M, piperita — Cunila mariana — Isanthus ceru- 
teiis — Riita graveolens — Salvia officinalis — Melissa 
nepeta — Jiiniperus Sp. — Rosmarinus officinalis — 
Rnhia tinctoria — Poly gala senega, &c. 

Remarks — This plant is also frequently used to 
kill the Ticks, [Ixodes) which attach themselves to 
men, dogs and cattle, in summer. These troublesome 
animals are found wherever the Hedysarums and Le- 
spedezas or true Tickweeds grow, upon which they 
breed, but both are unknown in the limestone plains. 
By rubbing the legs or boots with this plant or its oil, 
these insects will avoid you, or if they have taken 
hold, the oil kills them.* A strong decoction of the 
plant is equally convenient, and a strong decoction of 
Tobacco as good likewise. 


coMnxonr snteezewort. 

No. 47. HSLEinUM. 235 

No.* 47. 



French Name — Helenie d'automne. 

German Name — Niessenkraut. 

Officinal Name — Helenium. 

Vulgar Names — Sneezeweed, Sneezewort, Swamp 
Sunflower, False Sunflower, Yellow Star, Oxeye. 

Authorities — Lin. Mich. Pursh. Torrey, Elli- 
ott, Cornut, Clayton, Schoepf, B. Barton, W. Bart, 
ft. fig. 26, Duncan, &c. 

Genus Helenium — Perianthe many parted, seg- 
ments linear. Flowers radiate, rays cuneate trilobe, 
styliferous, from 15 to 30. Phoranthe hemispherical, 
naked, chaffy on the margin. Florets complete, four 
or five cleft. Pappus with five chaffs. Seeds hairy. 

Species H. autumnale — Pubescent, Stem corym- 
bose above, winged : leaves lanceolate, serrate, de- 
current: peduncles thicker above, rays flat, florets 
five cleft. 

DESCRIPTION— Root perennial, fibrous. Seve- 
ral Stems from three to seven feet high, erect, angu- 
lar, winged by the decurrent leaves, branched and co- 
rymbose above: covered as well as the leaves with a 
very short and dense pubescence. Leaves glaucous, 
alternate, sessile, decurrent, lanceolate, acuminate, 
'unequally serrate, dotted by small pits, subtrinervate. 

236 IIELEN3UM. No. 47. 

Flowers corymbose, golden yellow, large, one or two 
inches in diameter. Peduncles axillary, uniflore, 
with one oval lanceolate bract, clavatc or thicker 
upwards. Perianthe with many unequal linear acAte 
segments. Phoranthe semiglobose, with chaffs near 
the rays, lanceolate. Rays from five to twenty, 
spreading flat, or sometimes rather rcflexed, shape 
cuneate, end broad trilobe, middle lobe often smaller. 
Disk greenish yellow convex, florets small crowded 
five cleft, with syngenesious stamina, a bifid style, 
oblong germ, pappus formed by three to five chaffs 
subulate anji awned. 

Locality — It grows all over the United States, 
and from Canada to Texas and Florida, in wet mea- 
dows, and Savannas, damp fields, overflowed grounds, 
banks of streams, &c. 

HISTORY — Linnaeus has employed the specific 
name of the Inula heleniuTn or Elecampane as a 
generic one in this instance, owing to a faint resem- 
blance. The Helenium was said by the Greeks to 
have sprung from the -tears of the fair Helen. This 
was once a unique species, but now several others are 
added, which grow in the Southern States. It be- 
longs to the great Order of Radiate, where it is the 
type of a small family the Helenides : Linnaeus puts 
it in his Syngenesia swperjlua. 

It is a fine plant, rather ornamental, and adorning 
in the fall the meadows with its golden blossoms, ap- 
pearing from September to November. The Cattle 
do not touch it. The varieties are 1. Villosa, 2. Pu- 
mila, 3. Prealta, &c. 

No. 47. HSLENIUai. 237 

Qualities — The plant has hardly any smell : the 
taste is bitter, and a little pungent or even acrid. It 
has not been analyzed ; but contains amarine, extrac- 
tive and an oil. 

PROPERTIES— Tonic, febrifuge, errhine. Clay- 
ton and Schoepf mention its use in intermittents ; but 
it is not extensively employed as yet in fevers : while 
it is known and employed all over the country as a 
valuable Errhine. The whole plant reduced to pow- 
der act as such ; but the flowers and particularly the 
central florets are powerful sternutatory. A very 
small pinch of their powder produces a lasting sneez- 
ing. The late B. Barton has eminently extolled it, 
as a substitute to more acrid Errhines, either alone 
or united to other ingredients. It may be used in 
diseases of the head, deafness, anavrosis, head-ache, 
hemicrania, rheumatism or congestions in the head 
and jaws, &c. The shocks of sneezing are often use- 
ful in those cases, when other remedies can hardly 
avail. This plant has probably many other proper- 
ties, little known as yet, and deserving investigation. 

Substitutes — As a tonic Chelone gluhra, and 
other herbaceous tonics. As an errhine, Asarum 
Caiiadense, Sunguinaria ca7iadensis, Myrica ceri- 
Jera, Tobacco and Cephalic Snuffs. Besides the 
Helenhun quadridentatum of Louisiana and Florida, 
which will be known by its lower leaves pinnatifid, 
upper, entire, and the florets quadrifid or four cleft. 


38 HEPATSOA. No. 48. 

No. 48. 


. French Name — Hepatique teilobe. 

German Name — Leberkraut. 

Officinal Name — Hepatica. 

Vulgar Names — Liverweed, Trefoil, Noble Li- 

Synonym — Jlnemone hepatica Linn. &:c. 

Authorities — Linn. Schoepf, Pursh, Torrcy, 
Eaton, Hereford, &c. 

Genus Hepatica — Involucre caliciform, near the 
flower, persistent, three parted. Perigone corolliform, 
with six to nine oblong petals. Many short Stamina. 
Many pistils, Styles short. Seeds awnless achenes. 

Species H. triloba — Leaves radical, cordate, three 
lobed, lobes entire, petioles and scapes equal in length 
and hairy, scapes uniflora, flowers drooping before the 
anthesis and pilose. 

DESCRIPTION— Root perennial, fibrose, fibres 
long fasciculate, brown. Leaves all radical, on long 
hairy petioles, somewhat leathery and partly persis- 
tent in winter, base cordate, divided into three equal 
entire lobes, rounded, obtuse or acute, with obtuse 
or acute sinuses, nearly smooth, mottled of olivaceous 
and purplish above, glaucous and purplish beneath. 
Several scapes equal in length to the petiols, upright. 

i\X 48. 






coiMExaonr lxvsrwort. 

No. 48. HEPATICA. §39 

1 . ■ ■- ■ • 

four to eight inches long, invested at the base with 
several membranaceous sheaths, hairy, round, bear- 
ing a single flower. 

Flowers terminal, drooping at first, spreading when 
unfolded. Involucre resembling a calix, very hairy, 
hairs grey and long, segments very deep, oval, entire, 
obtuse. Perigone like a Corolla bluish, purplish or 
white, sepals elliptic obtuse, equal, but in two or 
three series. Filaments subulate, anthers elliptic, 
pale yellow. Pistils and seeds oval, acute. 

Locality — A boreal plant, native of the northern 
parts of Europe, Asia and America, spreading in this 
last continent from Labrador to Virginia and the 
Pacific Ocean, common in woods, hills and moun- 
tains of the United States from New England to 

HISTORY — A pretty vernal plant, the leaves stand 
the winter, and early in the spring the flowers come 
out, even when snow" is yet falling: thej last from 
jNIarch to May, are rather pretty and deserving culti- 
vation. The varieties are 1. Jllhijiora. 2. Jlcutiloha, 
5. Parvijloray flowers half the usual size and blue. 
In Kentucky, perhaps a peculiar species. 

Tournefort established this genus, Linnceus wrongly 
blended it with Anemone, it has again been sepa- 
rated lately. The name derives from its hepatic pro- 
perties. It belongs to the Natural Order of Adnates 
or Ranunculaceous, and to Poly andria poly gynia. 

Qualities — Scentless and nearly insipid, not bitter; 
but a little astringent and mucilaginous. It contains 
-tannin, mucilage, extractive, &e. 

240 KSPATICA. No. 4S. 

PROPERTIES — Subtonic, subastrlngent, hepatic, 
deobstruent, pectoral, demulcent. It was kno"" 
the ancients as a medical plant, and Linnseus has it in 
his Materia Medica; but it had fallen into disuse, its 
properties being very mild. It was formerly used in 
fevers, liver complaints, indigestion, cachexy, hypo- 
chondria and hernia. It lias lately been brought to 
notice in America for hemoptysis and coughs, it has 
been used in Virginia with benefit in the form of 
a strons: infusion, drunk cold. It may be serviceable 
in hepatisis and hepatic phthisis, as well as all com- 
plaints arising from dyspepsic and hypochondr?'^ -ffec-' 
tions ; it may be used as a tea, warm or cold and ad- 
libitum ; but it has no effect on the lungs beyond that 
of a mild demulcent astringent. 

Substitutes — Jigrimonia — Oeum Sp. — Lijcopus 
Virginicus— Tussilago — Symphytuni — Leoiitodon 
tariixaciun or Dandelion, — Sisyrnhi^ium or Water 
Cresses, 6cc. 

No. 49. 



No. 49. HEUCHERA. ^H 

No. 49. 



French Name — Heuchere Erable. 

German Name — Ai/Aunwurzel. 

Officinal Name — Heuchera radix. 

Vulgar Names — Alumroot, Sanicle, Ground 
Maple, Cliffweed, Split-rock, &c. 

Authorities for the Genus — Lin. Mich. Pursh, 
Nuttal, Eaton, Torrey, Elliott, Dispens. Murray, 
Stokes, B. Barton, W. Barton, Bigelow seq., Zol- 
lickoiler, Coxe, &c: 

Genus Heuchera — Calix persistent, campanulate, 
live cleft. Five entire equal lanceolate petals inserted 
on the calix. Five stamina inserted on the calix. 
Pistil central,* free, round, cleft, two styles. Capsule 
bifid, bilocular, many seeded. Leaves radical, cor- 
date and jagged, loith radiatim^ ntrvcs, scape ivith 
a terminal panicle of flowers. 

Species H. Acerifolia — Petioles hirsute, leaves 
smooth, glaucous beneath, acutely five cleft, unequally 
toothed, teeth mucronate : scape smooth, panicle elon- 
gated, laxiflore, minutiflore, petals short, stamina ex- 

DESCRIPTION — Root perennial, yellowish, hori- 
zontal, crooked, with few fibres. Radical leaves on 
,cng petioles, slender and covered with short stiff 


243 HEUCHERA. No. 49. 

hairs : shaped like those of the maple trees, base deeply 
and acutely cordate, circumference acutely five cleft, 
sometimes seven cleft or even nine cleft ; segments 
angular, acute, unequally toothed, teeth short, round- 
ed, mucronate; only five branched nerves: both sur- 
faces smooth, upper green, lower glaucous. Scapes 
round, smooth, fistulose, straight, one or two feet 

Flowers very small, forming a long panicle, occu- 
pj'ing the upper half of the scape, cylindrical, but 
loose, small pinnatifid or pectinated bracts at the base 
of the branches, which are scattered and irregularly 
divided with small subulate bracteoles at the lower 
divisions: pedicels longer than thie flower. Calix with 
five acute teeth. Petals lanceolate, flesh colored, fila- 
ments subulate, erect, jutting out, anthers rounded. 
Pistil bifid with two long styles. Stigma obtuse. Cap- 
sule with two beaks, opening inside of the beaks, with 
two cells formed by the involute valves. Many small 
blask seeds. 

Locality — In the mountains, hills, clifis and fis- 
sures of rocks in Kentucky, Tennessee, West Vir- 
ginia, and Pennsylvania, Ohio, Maryland, &c. 

HIS-TORY — All the species of this very natural 
genus have the same properties, and are used indis- 
criminately under the name of Alumroot: they shall 
therefore be united in this article. I have thought 
preferable to figure one of my new species, rather than 
to give another figure of the most common kind, 
wrongly called H. americana. Since the If, dicho- 
toma has been removed from this genus, all the known 

No. 49. HEUCHERA. 243 

species are North American/ and possess the same 
peculiar habit. 

Linnaeus only knew one species, Michaux two, 
Nuttal three, Pursh five, and I know seven, besides 
many varieties, without being sure of having seen all 
the species of Pursh and Elliott. As this genus is 
yet in a great confusion and uncertainty, I shall men- 
tion here only those which I have seen : they are be- 
sides the actual. 

1. //. Viscida of Pursh, (or //. cortusa of Mi- 
chaux, the H, americana of Linnaeus, &c. and W. 
Bart. fig. 40.) Vicidly pubescent, scapes and leaves 
a little scabrous, leaves oblong cordate ciliate, with 
many rounded lobes, and unequal mucronate teeth, 
surface concolor: panicle short and laxiflore, calix 
short, obtuse, petals short lanceolate, stamina exsert- 
ed. — The most common species east of the Alleghany 
mountains, rare to the west: petals rose. The varie- 
ties are 1. Macrophyllo^ 2. Maculata, 3. Scabra, &.c. 

2. II. Villosa of JNlichaux, (or H. hispida of 
Pursh.) Entirely hairy, leaves cordate, with acute 
lobes, panicle laxiflore, minutifiore, pedicels filiform, 
calix acute, petals short, &c. — In the Alleghany moun- 
tains of Virginia, Carolina, Sic. Flowers very, small, 
petals white. 

3. H. Pulverulenta (ov H. piihescens of Pursh, &c.) 
Leaves pulverulent-pubescent, cordate, with acute 
lobes, toothed, smooth beneath ; scape smooth below, 
rough above, panicle crowded, petals longer than calix, 
?tamina hardly exserted. — In the mountains from New 

244j HEUdMERA. No. 49. 

England to Pennsylvania : petals red and yellow. 
Var. 1. Rubra, 2. Grandijlora, &c. 

4. H. Squamosa Raf. Petioles pilose, leaves sub- 
hirsute, ciliate, cordate, acutely seven lobed, denticu- 
late, glaucous beneath : scapes hairy, with oval distant 
scales ; panicle short or ovai, crowded, and scaly, pe- 
dicels short, calix obtuse, stamina exserted. — In the 
mountains of Maryland and Virginia, the Cumberland 
mountains of Kentucky, &c. Leaves rather small, 
flowers middle size. Var. 1. Pumitn, 2. Laxijiora, 
3. Confertijlora, 

5. H. Reniformis Raf. Petioles smooth, leaves re- 
niform rounded, faintly lobed and toothed, ciliolate, 
concolor, sub-hirsute above, smooth beneath : scapes 
rough, panicle elongated, grandidore, laxiflore, pedi- 
cels filiform, calix urceolate obtuse, petals and stamina 
exserted. — In the Cumberland mountains and Knob 
hills of Kentucky : leaves aad flowers large, petals 
white. * " 

6. H. Glauca Raf. Smooth, glaucous, leaves cor- 
date obtusely lobed, mucronate-denticulate ; panicle 
laxiflore, elongated, minutiflore, petals and stamina 
short. In the Cumberland mountains. 

They all grow among; rocks and near streams, blos- 
soming in June and July. The genus has been dedi- 
cated to Heucher, a German botanist. It belongs to 
the natural order of Diceres or Saxifragides, diflei ing 
from Saxifi'aga merely by having five instead of ten 
stamina, and to Pentandria Digynia of L. 

Qualities — The whole plants are astringent; but 
the roots strongly so, and biting on the tongue like 

No. 49. HEUCHERA. 245 

alum, but nearly scentless. They contain nearly the 
same elements as Geranium maculatznn, but more 
tannin and acid. 

PROPERTIES— The root of these plants is a pow- 
erful astringent styptic, antiseptic, vulnerary and de- 
tergent, probably equal to Geranium maculaium 
and Spirea tomenfosa. It was used by the Indians, 
and is still used in Kentucky and the Alleghany moun- 
tains, in powder, as an external remedy in sores, 
wounds, ulcers, and even cancers : it is one of the 
bases of the cancer powders of Empirics ; united to 
Orobanche, Hydrastis, &c. It is employed as a styp- 
tic in internal and external hemorrhagy, bleeding of 
the nose, foul or indolent ulcers, wounds and cuts. It 
is seldom taken internally the taste being so inten- 
sively astringent ; i)ut it promises to be useful even 
in very small doses, whenever astringents are indi- 
cated. Coxe says that the Alumroot has been sold 
for the Colchicum, to which it bears no resemblance 
in form nor properties. 

Substitutes — Geranium, Geum, Spirea, Sfaiice 
Sp. and other powerful astringents. 

2 X 

£46 KUMtTLUg. Ko. 50. 

No. 50. 


English Name— COMMON HOP. 

French Name — Houblon commun. 

German Name — Hopfen. 

Officinal Names — Lupuli coni, humuli strobili. 

Vulgar Names — Hops, Wild-hops, Hopvine. 

Authorities Lin. Pursh, Nuttal, A. Ives» 

Schoepf, Treaks, Bryorly, Bigsby, many Dispens. 
Alibert, Goxe, Eberle, Maton, Roches, ZoUickofler, 
Bigelovv, fig. 60 and Seq. 

Genus Humulus — Dioical, Staminate flowers with 
a five leaved perigone, Stamina five, anthers bipore. 
Pistilate flowers strobilate: bracts biflore, perigone 
one leaved, persistent entire, concave, involute. One 
pistil, two styles, one seed. 

Species H. lupulus — Stem twining and rough, 
leaves opposite, petiolate, cordate, three or five 
lobed, acute, sharply serrate, rough: staminate flow- 
ers panicled, fertile strobiles axillary peduncled. 

DESCRIPTION— Root perennial. Stem annual, 
forming a climbing vine, twining from right to left, 
angular, rough with minute reflexed prickles. Leaves 
opposite, petiols crooked, smaller and floral leaves 
cordate, acuminate, serrate: the fhain* leaves nearly 
palmate, trilobe, sometimes five lobe; lobes large, 
oval acute^ sharply serrate j sinusses obtuse, without 

No. 50. 



No. 50. KUSaULUS. 247 

teeth; surface very rough with three main nerves and 
many veins. 

Flowers numerous and greenish. The staminate 
on different individuals, forming axillary panicles, 
with two or four bracts, reflexed, opposite, petiolate, 
oval: each flower peduncled, Perigone caliciform, 
with five oblong obtuse concave and spreading sepals: 
five stamina, filaments short, anthers oblong, opening 
by two terminal pores. Pistilate flowers forming 
oval, opposite, axillary, tlrooping and peduncled 
strobiles or cones. Scales imbricate, oval, acute, 
tubular at the base, each covering two sessile flowers. 
Perigone (Corolla of Linnaeus) shorter than the 
scales, lateral, oval obtuse, infolding the pistil by the 
edges. Germen rounded, compressed, two short 
styles, two long subulate and downy stigmas. Each 
flower produces a single roimd seed. 

Locality — Native of Europe and America, and 
cultivated also in both continents. Schoepf found it 
wild in Virginia, Nuttal on the Missouri, and I have 
seen it spontaneous from New York to Kentucky in 
groves, thickets, coppices and banks of streams. 

HISTORY — This vine is ornamental and useful. 
It is extensively cultivated wherever malt liquors are 
used, and forms a profitable branch of agriculture. 
The fertile plants alone are raised, since the medical 
and economical parts are the strobiles of the seeds. 
The young shoots, when emerging from the ground, 
are however eaten like Asparagus in Italy and Ger- 
many. The fibres of the vine are also made into 
coarse cloth in Sweden and England. The blossoms 

S48 HUMULUS. No. 50. 

appear in the summer, and although un colored are 
not devoid of elegance. 

Humulus belongs to the Natural Order Scabrides 
or Urticides, and to Dioecia pentandria. It has 
but this species, both names are ancient. 

Qualities — The whole plant, but particularly the 
strobiles have a fragrant sub-narcotic smell, and a bit- 
ter, astringent, aromatic taste. A. Ives has shown 
that this taste and smell reside in a fine impalpable 
yellow powder, sprinklecT over the fertile plants, and 
chiefly on the strobiles, which may be separated by 
threshing and sifting. This powder has been called 
Lupulin, although it is not a proximate principle, but 
a dry secretion from the plant, and a compound sub- 
stance containing the active principles and properties. 
The Lupulin contains out of 120 parts, 46 of lignin, 
36 resin, 12 wax, 11 amarina, 10 extractive, 5 tannin, 
besides two per cent, of a singular essential oil, very 
volatile, partly soluble in water, very acrid, and 
having the narcotic smell of the Hop. The Lupulin 
is very inflammable, it becomes soft and adhesive by 
handling: the strobiles contains one-sixth of their 
weight of it, and it may be available in brewing like 
the hops : one pound being equal to six pounds of 

PROPERTIES— The whole plant, but chiefly the 
Strobiles and the Lupulin are tonic, narcotic, phan- 
tastic, anodyne, sedative, alterative, astringent, anti- 
lithic, diuretic, corroborant, &c. The strobiles or 
hops have long been an ingredient of porter, ale and 
other malt liquors, to which they impart a bitter and 

No. 50. BUlMEUZaUS. S49 

aromatic flavor, besides a small share of their proper- 
ties ; but by the habitual use of these liquors all the 
good effects are destroyed. The hop-beer made with 
molasses, hops and yeast, is a better liquor still, and 
an agreeable, refreshing, tonic beverage. 

As a medicinal article hops have been praised by 
many physicians, and employed in Nephritis, Gravel, 
Gout, Phrenitis, Alopecia, Luxations, articular Rheu- 
matism, Dyspepsia, Scrophula, Rachitis, Eresypelas, 
Debility, Strangury, Hysteric and Nervous com- 
plaints. Cancer, &c. As tonic, stomachic and corro- 
borant, they are available in diseases depending on 
debility or a loss of tone in the stomach ; but their 
powers are weak in this as well as all the other pro- 
perties ascribed to them, which, however, may ren- 
der them useful when mild remedies are required. 
As a narcotic and sedative they operate mildly, and 
are often preferable to opium: they induce sleep with- 
out producing the bad effects of opium. Even the 
external application of hops, produces the same effect, 
and a pillow of hops is a popular mode of promoting 
sleep. Poultices and fomentations of hops are common 
applications for painful swellings. Their antilithic 
and diuretic property is questionable, they can at ut- 
most act as palliative, and are sometimes injurious; 
but available in the strangury produced by Cantha- 
rides. Besides allaying "pain and producing sleep, 
hops have been found to reduce pulsations from 96 to 
60, while rendering the pulse more firm. They are 
useful in the weakness and watchfulness of hysteric 
patients. An ointment of hops Is a palliative in the 

250 HUMITLUS. No. 50, 

last stage of Cancer. They are said to act as antisep- 
tic and corroborant in bowel complaints. Some phy- 
sicians consider them as general alterative of the sys- 
tem. Schoepf mentions the seeds as used in Obstipa- 
tion. ZollickofFer has used the flowers to relieve the 
pains after parturition. . 

Many preparations are made with them ; the tinc- 
ture and extract of hops were formerly most used. 
Now the pills, syrup, infusion, tincture, extract and 
ointment of Lupulin are employed. Boiling water 
and alcohol dissolve the Lupulin. The doses must be 
small and gradually increased, beginning with one 
grain of Lupulin, four of the extract, a tea spoonful 
of the tincture, or two ounces of the infusion. An 
over dose produces sore throat, nausea, purging, tre- 
mor, head ache, &c. 

Substitutes — The mild aromatic tonics and nar- 
cotics ; but none are similar, nor combine the same 
number of properties, the Lyoopus virginicus alone 
comes nearest to it. 

Remarks — The malt liquors brewed in the United 
States, instead of being a wholesome beverage, are 
often rendered deleterious by the substitution or ad- 
dition of bitter and narcotic ingredients: the harmless 
substitutes to Hops are, Liquorice, Wormwood, Quas- 
sia, Teucrium Virginicum, &c. but Datura StramO' 
nium, Cocculus, Aloe, &c. that have been added in 
Pittsburg and elsewhere, are dangerous, pernicious or 
useless ingredients. 

No. 61. 



No. 51. HYDRASTIS. 251 

No. 51. 


English Name— YELLOW PUCOON. 

French Name — Hydraste du Canada. 

German Name — Gelb Puckuhn. 

Officinal Name — Hydrastis radix. 

Vulgar Names — Yellowroot, Ground Raspberry, 
Yellowpaint, Golden Seal, Orange root, Indian paint, 
Eyebalm, &c. 

Synonyms — Warner a CanadensisyiiW^r — Hydro- 
phylluni verum Linn, Hydrastis Ellis. 

Authorities — Linn. Mich. Pursh, Miller, Elliot, 
Eaton, Torrey, Stokes, Coxe, B. Barton, W. Barton, 
fig. 26, bad. 

Genus Hydrastis — Perigone simple, petaloid, 
three leaved, caducous. Stamina many, unequal, 
linear. Pistils many forming an ovate head, Styles 
very short, stigmas compressed. Fruit a compound 
berry, formed by acines or fleshy seeds. 

Species H, Canadensis — Stem two leaved, uniflore: 
leaves unequal, alterne, lower petiolate, upper sessile, 
palmate, cordate, three to seven lobed, lobes acute, 
unequally serrate; flower terminal on a short pedun- 
cle. ^ 

DESCRIPriON— Root perennial, of a bright yel- 
low, tortuose, knobby, wrinkled, with many long 
fibres. Stem a foot high or less, simple, straight, 

25S HYDRASTIS. No. 51. 

round, pubescent, base naked, top with two unequal 
alterne leaves. First leaf petiolate, cordate, palmate, 
five or seven lobed, sinuses oblong and obtuse, lobes 
oval, unequal, acute, wiA irregular sharp serratures, 
five branched nerves. The upper or second leaf 
similar, ;but sessile and commonly trilobe. These 
leaves are not quite expanded when the blossoms ap- 

Flowers single terminal, on a peduncle shorter than 
the upper leaf. Three petals or petaloid leaves, flesh 
or rose colored, oval, obtuse, equal. Many unequal 
filaments, shorter than the petals, linear and com- 
pressed; anthers oblong, obtuse, compressed. Many 
Pistils oval, crowded forming an oval head, styles 
very short, stigma dilated, compressed. Berry red and 
oval, formed by many oblong grains or acines ; fleshy, 
obtuse, muricatcd by the persistent styles, each one 
seeded, seeds oblong. 

Locality — From Canada and Maine to Carolina 
and Tennessee, in rich shady woods, on the banks of 
streams, sides of hills, deep valleys : very common 
in West Kentucky, Indiana, Ohio, &c., rare in lime- 
stone plains. 

HISTORY — A pretty and singular plant, easily 
known by its habit. It blossoms very early in the 
spring in March and April, and the petals are so ca- 
ducous and fugaceous that they fall off, as soon as the 
blossoms expands, leaving the Stamina and pistils bare. 
The fruit ripens in May, and is very much like a 
Raspberry of a Bright red color ; but scarcely edible. 

Linnaeus knew so little of this plant, that he united 

No. 51. HYDRASTIS. 253 

it at first with Hydrophyllum! he afterwards adopted 
the name Hydrastis of Ellis, which is a very bad 
name meaning imbibing water, while this plant is 
not at all aquatic. The name of Miller Warnera 
would have been better, and I should have adopted 
this last and called it fVarnera diphylla or tinctoria 
if established errors were not so difficult to correct. 
The vulgar names of this plant are also various, and 
common to many others, yellow root is a name given 
to ten or twelve plants, Jeffersonia, Coptis, Xan- 
thorhiza, &c. Pucoon is an Indian name for all roots 
dying red, orange or yellow, such as Sanguinaria, 
Batschia, Galium, Cecmothus, &c. ; but this is their 
best yellow Pucoon. affording a juice of a brilliant yel- 
low color, which they use to stain skins and clothing; 
it may become a valuable dye. 

Hydrastis belongs to the Racunculaceous Order 
where it forms a very distinct genus, by its berry 
like seeds. Also to Poly andria poly gynia. 

Qualities — The root is only used, it is juicy when 
fresh, and loses two thirds of its weight by drying. 
The taste is exceedingly bitter, rather pungent and 
nauseous. The smell is strong and virose. It con- 
tains Amarine, Extractive, several salts, and a pecu- 
liar principle Hydvastin of a yellow color, 

PROPERTIES— Tonic, ophthalmic, detergent, 
&c. This plant is much used in Ohio, Kentucky, 
&c. for diseases of the eyes, the juice or an infusion 
are used as a wash, in sore or inflamed eyes. It is 
considered a specific by the Indians for that disorder; 
they also employ it for sore legs, and many external 


254i HYDRASTIS. No. 51. 

complaints, as a topical tonic. Internally it is used as 
a bitter tonic, in infusion or tincture in disorders of 
the stomach, the liver, &c., and is equivalent to */9le- 
tris and Coptis.- It is said to enter into compound 
remedies for the Cancer, acting as a mild detergent 
tonic, and the Cherokees are supposed to use it in that 
disease ; but better detergents are known. The proper- 
ties of this plant are not yet fully known, it appears 
to be slightly narcotic and available in many other 
disorders. Some Indians employ it as a diuretic, 
stimulant and escharotic, using the powder for blister- 
ing, and the infusion for the Dropsy. 

Substitutes — Jeffersonia binata — Coptis tri folia 
Xanthorhizaf *Mletris^ Sanguinaria, Sigillaria, 
Frasera, Menyanthes, &c. But none of these is so 
efficacious for sore eyes, except perhaps the Jeffer- 
sonia. For Cancer Viburnum dentatum, Rumcx 
and Orobanche, 

No. 52. 


BKAOS BsmjurB. 

No- 52. HYOSCIAMUS. 255 

No- 52. 


English Name— BLACK HENBANE. 

French Name — Jusquiame noire. 

German Name — Schwarz Bilsenkraut. 

Officinal Name — Hyosciamus. 

Vulgar Names — Henbane, Poison-Tobacco, 
Stinking Nightshade, &c. 

Authorities — Lin. Pursh, Eaton, Torrey, Cullen, 
Murray, FoLhergill, Kinglake, Withering, Schoepf, 
Thacher, Duncan, Coxe, and all Dispens. Eberle, 
A. Ives, Vv^oodviile fig. 52, Bigelow fig. 17 and seq. 

. Genus Hyosciamus — Calix persistent, urceolate, 
with five unequal teeth. Corolla funnel shaped, with 
five unequal lobes. Stamina five, unequal. Pistil 
oval, stile filiform declinatc, stigma obtuse. Capsule 
two celled, many seeded, operculate. 

Species //. niger — Viscid hairy, leaves clasping, 
lower oval oblong, acute, sinuate or undulate: flowers 
unilateral, sessile, calix with sharp teeth, corolla reti- 
culate, with rounded lobes. 

DESCRIPTIOx\— Root biennial, fusiform, whitish. 
The whole plant glaucous, hairy, glutinous, lurid, and 
fetid. Stem one or two feet high, stiif, round, branch- 
ed. Radical or first year leaves spread on the ground, 
oval or oblong, undulate, contorted, acute, sessile, 
feinuated by large acute unequal teeth, nerve thick and 

g56 HYOSCIASMUS. No. 52. 

branched. Lower leaves of the stem similar, crowded, 
alterne, clasping: upper leaves smaller, narrower, 
nearly entire. 

Flowers forming unilateral rows on the branches, 
extra axillary and opposed to the leaves. Calix urceo- 
late with five short acute and stiff segments. Corolla 
irregular, funnel shaped, with five unequal, spreading, 
rounded and entire lobes, with acute sinuses: this co- 
rolla is of a dingy yellow, with a pretty net work of 
purple veins. Stamina inserted in the tube of the 
corolla; filaments filiform unequal; anthers oblong, 
large, yellow. Style slender, longer than stamina, 
with an obtuse stigma. Capsule rounded, invested 
by the calix, two celled, opening by a circular lid. 
Seeds numerous, unequal, small, oblong, brownish. 

Locality — In the Northern and Eastern States 
only, from Nova Scotia to Rhode Island, and extend- 
ing West to New York and Canada: very rare in Ohio 
and Pennsylvania; unknown in the South. It is sup- 
posed to be a naturalized plant, being found merely 
near houses, roads, rubbish, in old fields and gardens. 
It is properly an European plant, scattered all over 
Europe and extending to Asia. 

HISTORY — This genus belongs to the natural order 
of LuRiDES, and family Verbascides, having irregular 
corolla or stamina, and capsular fruits. Also to Pen- 
tand^na monogynia of Linnseus. 

It was known to the ancients as a violent narcotic 
poison ; horses, cattle, deer and swine eat it with im- 
punity, but it poisons rats. The appearance is lurid, 
the smell offensive and disgusting: there is therefore 

No. 52. HYOSCIAMUS. 257 

little danger of using it inadvertantly. The whole 
plant, roots and leaves, produce the usual effects of 
narcotics. It blossoms in June and July. The seeds 
are said to have the property of keeping lon^ under 
ground, and germinating whenever brought to light. 

Qualities — The taste is insipid, slightly acrid and 
mucilaginous; but the smell is virose, rank, strong, 
fetid, pernicious and narcotic, which, however, is lost 
by exsiccation : when burpt it smells like Tobacco. 
It contains resin, mucilage, extractive, gallic acid, 
nitrates and other salts, besides Hi/osciam an alka- 
line and crystalline active principle, which does not 
decompose by red heat. Yet decoction is said to de- 
stroy the narcotic power of this plant, water and di- 
luted alcohol extract it. 

PROPERTIES — Narcotic, phantastic, phrenetic, 
anodyne, antispasmodic, repellent, discutient, &c. 
The whole plant may be used ; but the seeds contain 
more Hyosciam, Externally the bruised leaves are 
employed in cataplasm or an ointment made of them : 
while internally the extract and tincture are chiefly 
used. The extract ought to be made with the inspis- 
sated juice w^ithout boiling, the doses are from one to 
ten grains. This plant operates as a powerful narcotic, 
and if taken in large doses, it produces drowsiness, 
intense thirst, anxiety, head ache, irregular hard pulse, 
vertigo, intoxication, delirium, dilatation of the pupil, 
difficulty of breathing, aphonia, trismus, coma, a fall- 
ing sensation, risus sardonicus, double vision or blind- 
ness, convulsions, apoplexy, loss of speech, cold ex- 
tremities, blue face, typhomania, carphologia, gan- 

253 HYOSCIAMUS. No. 52. 

grene, and death. A single dose of one grain has 
even produced delirium in nervous persons. The root 
having been mistaken and eaten for Parsnip, has caused 
many of these alarming symptoms : the remedies are 
vegetable acids, sulphate of iron, &c. which neutralize 
the poison, and emetics which discharge it. 

The internal use of this poison has been recom- 
mended in epilepsy, hemoptysis, colica pictorum, 
rheumatism, hysteria, mania, melancholy, trismus, 
palpitations, spasms, arthritis, glandular swellings, 
obstinate ulcerations, asthma, spasmodic coughs, tic 
douleureux, &c. by many phj'sicians, and deemed a 
good substitute to opium and stramonium in most 
cases ; but it is not so safe nor certain, and far less 
uniform in its operation: the smallest doses are apt to 
produce nausea, head ache, laborious sleep, confusion 
of ideas and even delirium. The stomach is inflamed 
and evinces dark gangrenous spots when death follows 
overdoses, therefore it must be considered as one of 
the most dangerous narcotics. It ought to be handled 
by experienced physicians only, and always begun by 
minute doses gradually increased. It may be prefer- 
able to opium in some cases, as it is rather laxative 
than constipating, arid does not stimulate the body. 
It has often failed in epilepsy and convulsions. It acts 
better in spasmodic coughs, the leaves are directed to 
be simmered in olive or almond oil, and the oil used 
in emulsions. It is highly praised in Tic united to 
Valerian and Oxide of Zinc. It has been found useful 
in some puerperal complaints, &.c. 

The external use of Henbane is more safe, and equal 

No. 52. EYOSOIAMUS. 259 

to that of Stramonium. It may be safely employed 
in painful swellings, schirrous or scrofulous or can- 
cerous ulcers, inflamed piles, indolent tumors or milk 
indurations of the breast, wandering rheumatic pains, 
inflamed eyes, spasms of the bowels ; inflammation of 
the kidneys, urethra, bowels, testicles, &c.; in chordee, 
blind piles, and all painful external afiections, as a 
very eflicient topical anodyne. The fresh or powder- 
ed leaves are used as well as poultices with bread and 
milk, or liniments in wax and oil. Injections of it 
for bowel complaints ought to be given in decoction 
of milk. The extract has been used to prepare for 
ophthalmic operations, by dilating the pupil, contract- 
ing the iris and diminishing sensibility. The smoke 
of the leaves and seeds, directed by a funnel to a cari- 
ous tooth, is said to cure odontalgy ; but the practice 
may be deleterious and attended with danger. 

Substitutes — Datura Stramonium — Atropa 

belladonna — Solanum Sp. — Conium — Cicuta 

Tobacco, Opium and other powerful narcotics. The 
Hyosciamus albus of Europe is a milder equivalent, 
as well as Humulus or hops.