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Full text of "A manual of natural history, for the use of travellers : being a description of the families of the animal and vegetable kindgoms: with remarkable on the practical study of geology and meteorology. To which are appended directions for collecting and preserving"

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NATURAL HISTORY, 

FOB 

THE USE OF TRAVELLERS; 

BEING A 

DESCRIPTION OP THE FAMILIES 

OF THE 

ANIMAL AND VEGETABLE KINGDOMS: 



REMARKS ON THE PRACTICAL STUDY OF GEOLOGY AND 
METEOROLOGY. 

TO WHICH ARE APPENDED 

Birecti0ns for Collecting antJ Iteerintttj. 

BY 

W ARTHUR ADAMS, 

y > *" OXO.8. ; -F.L.S. }7y.E.X STETTIN ; 

WILLIAM BALFOTJR BAIKIE, M.D., 

F.B.S.E. ; LATE ONE OF TUB PRESIDENTS OF THE ROYAL MEDICAL SOCIETY 
OF EDINBURGH. 

AND 

CHARLES BARRON, 

Curator of the Royal Naval Museum, at Haslar. 




LONDON: 
JOHN VAN VOORST, PATERNOSTER ROW. 

MDCCCLIV. 



Ah me! those joyous days are gone! ff 

I little dreamt, till they were flown, /ff 

How fleeting W ere the hours! 
For, lesi he break the plepsing ppell, 

Time bears for \ outh a muffled bell, / 

And hides his face in flowers ! / 

Ah! well I mind me of the days, 
Still bright in memory's flattering rays 

When all was fair and new; 
When knaves were only found in books, 
And f tiends were known by friendly looks, 

And love was always true! 

While yet of sin I scarcely dreamed, 
And everything was what it seemed, 

And alt too bright for choice; 
When fays were wont to guard ipy sleep, 
Crusoe still cou'd make 



And 
And Santadaus, rejoice! 



i me weep, 



When heaven was pictured to my thought, 
(In spite of all my mother taught 

Of happiness srene) 
A theatre of boyish play 
One glorious round of holidays, 

Without a school between! 

Ah me! these joy out days are gone; 
L little dreamt, till they were flown, 

How fleeting were the hours! 
For, lost he break the pleading spell, 
lime bears for youth a m* ffled bell, 

And hides bis face in flowers! John G, Saxe. 



A3 



Stop Thief ! r ^ 

I saw a figure iu my rear, 

With stealthy step he ventured near / 

And sna'ched a curl away. 
" Give back the ringlet, give," I cried, 
" I need it a defect to hide" 
He gave, but it was gray. 

Thftn with a cold and formal bow 
He touched hi* pencil to my bow 

Ah, what a mark was there! 
" Oh, wipe ir off, you imp," I cried; 
He left another b/ its side. 

And moc&ed at my despair. 

And th D n, as if to leave a trace 
Of all hia footprints on my face, 

He stole the peach's fcloom 
Which mantled o'er my rosy cheek, 
And le't me callow, pale and weak, 

Fit teuant ior the tomb. 

He ptole my merry heart so gay, 
He stole my ringing laugh away, 

He veiled ray lustrous eye; 

H stole my firm elastic step, > 63, SNOW HlLL 

Stole all my charms, is stealing yet, 

And will steal till I die. 

" Stop thief ! stop thief ! stop thief !" I cried. 
A gentle angel-voioe replied, 

" Weep not for faded flowers; 
The arrant thief you so much tear, 



PREFACE. 



THE design of the following pages is to endeavour 
to supply what seems to be a blank in the scientific 
literature of this country, for, although numerous 
treatises exist upon every branch, yet no work has 
hitherto appeared, comprising either succinctly or 
in detail, a comprehensive outline of Natural His- 
tory. It may appear presumptuous on the part of 
the Authors to attempt to grapple with such an 
extensive range of subjects, which, they feel 
must be, in many instances, inadequately treated, 
still they trust that their effort to condense, within 
the limits of a portable volume, the leading features 
of Animate and Inanimate Nature, may prove of 
service to those at least for whom it is more espe- 
cially intended. Their chief aim has been to ren- 
der their work at once sufficiently popular for the 
general reader, without, at the same time, lessening 
its scientific value. For this purpose technicalities 
have been avoided whenever their employment 
could be dispensed with, English names have been 
given to all the Classes, Orders, and Families, and 
the principal divisions have been prefaced by brief 



IV PREFACE. 

introductory remarks. The classification adopted 
is that which has seemed most closely to accord 
with the advanced views of the time; and through- 
out the Animal and Vegetable Kingdoms a uniform 
system has been employed, so that similar subdi- 
visions are designated by a cognate nomenclature. 



January, 1854. 



THE AURORA BOREALIS SEEN AT SACRAMENTO 
16 Aurora Borealis was seen on the night of 16th 
scember, about half-past 11 o'clock, at Sacramento, 
is described as having been a beautiful exhibition, 
id is supposed to be the first that has been observed 

this country since it became an American State. 
le Union remarks on the phenomenon '-Jtf^ ^7 
To the observer on Second street, the aurora first 
ipeared in a northeasterly direction, presenting every 
tpearance of an extensive fire, and, therefore, creating 
general alarm and turning out of the entire apparatus 

the Fire Department. The phenomenon extended 
adually and rapidly over the northern section of the 
javens, the dominant hue being a beautiful crimson. 
a duration was probably only about fifteen minutes; 
it during that time its aspect was frequently changed 
7 the successive appearance and shifting of streak? 
columns of white light, which seemed to be more 
inspicuous at either extreme of the arch. 




SNOW \EiiEAS. ^While perambulating over the 
ep snqws, lyingpdn the mountains everywhere 
ousdlus . weJHave often observed myriads of 
^pvering the surface in almost every 
)nr curiosity being excited, we have 
to examine them more minutely, 
to be what we call (in the absence 
name) snow fleas. They closely, 
the regular flea, both as regards action 
d appearance, but are not over half the size, 
hile watching them we have seen them burrow 
neath the snow to the depth of an inch, and 
d reappear with all the sprightliness of the 
ck biting tribe ; so far as we have been able to 
irn; they derive their sustenance from the 
ow exclusively, never having observed them 
any other substance. Can any one inform 
more fully of the nature oLthese beasts ? $ 
i Porte Messenger. **r** M m*> 



o- 




INTRODUCTION. 



NATUKAL History, or the study of the Mundane 
Creation, may be primarily divided into two grand 
empires, whose territories are distinct, and whose 
boundaries are well defined. The one is the Or- 
ganic, or that of Animated Nature ; the other is the 
Inorganic, or Inanimate. The first of these, which 
comprises within its realms everything possessed 
of life on our planet, is sub-divided into two king- 
doms, viz., the Animal or Zoological, and the Vege- 
table or Phytological. The domains of Inorganic 
Nature again comprehend Meteorology, or the 
science of atmospheric phenomena, and Geology, or 
the history of the composition of our globe, which 
includes Physical -Geography, or the superficial 
structure of the earth, and Mineralogy, or a know- 
ledge of the component parts of rocks. A con- 
necting link between these two great divisions is 
supplied by Palaeontology, or the study of Fossil Re- 



VI INTRODUCTION. - 

mains, which, though now petrified and inanimate, 
were once living organisms, abundantly supplied 
with vitality. A thorough acquaintance with all 
these varied branches being almost impossible, the 
student of Nature must make a selection according 
to his predilections or his opportunities. But while 
occupied more intently with one subject, the others 
need not be entirely overlooked, and particu- 
larly when travelling facts and appearances may 
be recorded, and specimens collected which will 
serve to facilitate the studies of fellow-labourers in 
the same field. 

The pursuit of Natural History, though adapted 
more or less to almost any locality, cannot be 
followed to more advantage, than by persons visit- 
ing distant countries or little-explored regions. The 
desirableness of collecting cannot be too strongly 
impressed upon travellers, as frequently with but 
little exertion on their part, much valuable infor- 
mation may be gleaned. To forward such views, 
the following work has been written, combining 
within portable bulk sufficient instruction on these 
diversified topics to point out to the reader what 
he ought to observe, and how he ought to pre- 
serve. And who can tell the result of well- 
directed exertions? Some "strange, bright bird" 
may, perhaps, on examination, serve to fill up an 



INTKODUCTION. Vll 

unoccupied space in the web of nature, a fossil 
bone may possibly reveal the existence of some pre- 
viously unknown, monstrous, pre-Adamite form, 
a broken branch may disclose invaluable materials 
for future Navies, a mineral fragment may indicate 
a yet untried gold region, or a geological observa- 
tion may point out a new locality for that indis- 
pensable aid to industry, coal. Of late years, 
Natural History, no longer a chaotic mass of wild 
theories or vague assertions, but a truly inductive 
science, has proved of vast service to commercial 
pursuits, and now possesses a truly national in- 
terest. Already the names of its cultivators oc- 
cupy a proud position in the annals of fame, and 
with another generation they may rank, at least, as 
high as those of the warriors and heroes of past 
ages. Let the Zoologist, the Botanist, or the Geolo- 
gist consider that their discoveries and labours will 
be remembered when deeds of blood are thought of 
no more ; and, in the meantime, they may, with 
pleasure and satisfaction, reflect that they have 
made themselves known to the world, not by in- 
flicting pain or misery on their fellows, but by 
working peaceably yet earnestly for their welfare; 
that those who venture into remote lands, or among 
savage tribes, in attempting to elucidate the laws 
of Nature, have as high a claim to distinction as 



V1U 



INTRODUCTION. 



the ruthless conqueror; and that those who devote 
their talents and their labours to furthering this 
great end, will secure for themselves an honourable 
position in the lasting records of science. 



ERRATA. 


Page 65, line 


20 


for 


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Turbots 


273 


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Araneida 


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Padipalpi 


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Pedipalpi 


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23 





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Astr olepas 


346 


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place 


Family 


379 


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Coelelmintha 


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for 


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read 


Cam-wood 


446 


16 


after 


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508 


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after 


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place 


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575 


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read 


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preparations 





preparation 





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miniature 


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omit 


four- 






,, 712 




after 


Dendrocoela insert Dendronotidse ...141 




PART I. 



ZOOLOGY. 

THE NATURAL FAMILIES OF THE ANIMAL KINGDOM, ARRANGED 
ACCORDING TO THEIR ORGANIZATION. 

THE ANIMAL KINGDOM. 

IN pursuing the study of the Animal Kingdom, two 
different methods may be followed. The one named 
the Zoological, considers more especially the classi- 
fication and arrangement of living creatures from 
their external configuration and general shape ; the 
other, by the aid of Comparative Anatomy, directs 
attention more particularly to their internal struc- 
ture and physiological analogies. To obtain a com- 
plete acquaintance with the subject, both plans of 
research must be adopted, but by those whose time 
and opportunities are too limited for such a compre- 
hensive study, either of these two branches may be 
followed out, without totally losing sight of the other. 
The latter is most successfully studied at home, 
while the former is of greater consequence to the 
travelling naturalist, for whose behoof this work is 
intended. In describing therefore the various classes, 
orders, and families, attention will be paid more par- 
ticularly to external configuration, and the leading 



2 MANUAL OF NATUEAL HISTOEY. 

characteristics will be, as far as practicable, of a 
strictly Zoological nature; not that for a moment 
we would, by so doing, wish to cast any slight upon 
the other branch, which is undoubtedly the higher 
and more philosophical of the two, but merely be- 
cause it is not of so practical a nature, nor so univer- 
sally applicable for general discrimination of forms, 
and consequently less adapted for the purpose we 
have in view. 

A succinct and exact definition of an animal, as 
distinguished from a vegetable, is not an easy task. 
The two kingdoms do not run into each other by 
any means, but both appear to spring from a com- 
mon root, viz., vitality; and, for some distance from 
their origin, are so closely blended that a separation 
is extremely difficult. Accordingly we find that 
the lowest members of each group are, by different 
writers, described as animals, or as vegetables, just as 
their ideas happen to dictate. Linnaeus on this point 
gave utterance to a celebrated axiom, viz., "Stones 
grow, vegetables grow and live, animals grow, live, 
and feel/' This, though perhaps true enough in the 
main, is not sufficiently explicit, as it is difficult to 
prove that Sponges, which are generally admitted 
as animals, are possessed of feeling ; while again Sir 
James Edward Smith argued, though quite on hypo- 
thetical grounds, that plants might be endowed with 
sensation, though in a very low degree, in which 
opinion, however, he had but few followers. The 
power of voluntary motion has also been brought 
forward as a test, but such a criterion is alike futile 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 3 

and inapplicable. Another distinguishing feature 
was believed to be afforded by burning the sub- 
stance in question, when, if of an animal nature, 
it would give out an empyreumatic odour, because 
of its containing nitrogen ; but it has since been 
shewn that this element is also afforded by vege- 
tables. The most satisfactory definition yet advanc- 
ed is, that "animals are possessed of an internal 
receptacle for food, wherein they collect the nutri- 
ment destined for their support/' * Even this, how- 
ever, is not fully correct. Another line of demar- 
cation has been attempted to be drawn from the 
circumstance that animals obtain nutriment only 
from previously organized matter, while plants ar 
nourished by inorganic material, which they thus 
prepare for the ultimate support of animal life. 
Many, if not all of these hold good, and are quite 
applicable in reference to the more advanced forms 
of both kingdoms; but in their primary stages the 
question still remains to be solved. It , has been 
beautifully observed by an eminent zoological autho- 
rity, " Light and darkness are distinct from each 
other, and no one possessed of eye-sight would be in 
danger of confounding night with day ; yet he who, 
looking upon the evening sky, would attempt to 
point out precisely the line of separation between 
the parting day and the approaching night, would 
have a difficult task to perform." And so it is with 
the point we have had under consideration. Nature 

* Vide " Rymer Jones." Nat. Hist, of Animals. Vol. I., p. 5. 

B2 



4 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

throughout her works erects no lofty barriers, no 
visible boundaries ; for however well marked the cen- 
tral portions of her various territories may seem, yet 
on their confines they are so closely united, so inti- 
mately combined, as to blend her entire domains into 
a perfect and harmonious whole. 

The most simple division of the Animal Kingdom 
is into Vertebrates and Invertebrates, the latter 
being again divided into four sub-kingdoms. These 
are distributed into classes, orders, sub-orders, and 
families, which is the extent to which we shall trace 
them in the following pages ; as an enquiry into sub- 
families, genera, sub-genera, and species, would be 
perfectly impracticable within the limits of a portable 
volume. The system of nomenclature adopted is as 
uniform as circumstances allow, especially in the case 
of the families, which, according to the prevalent 
zoological views of the day, are always indicated by 
ending in idee. 



CLASSIFICATION OF THE ANIMAL 
KINGDOM. 



I. SUB-KINGDOM. VERTEBRATE ANIMALS. 

Vertebrata, Guv. Spinicerebrata, Encephalata, 
Grant Myelencephala, Owen. 

1 Class Mammals (Mammalia, Mammifera) 

2 Birds (Aves) 

3 Reptiles (Reptilia) 

4 Amphibians (Amphibia) 

5 Fishes (Pisces) 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 5 

II. SUB-KINGDOM. MOLLUSCOUS ANIMALS. 

Mollusca, Guv. Cyclogangliata, Grant. Hetero 
gangliata, Owen. 

1 Class Cephalopoda (Cephalopoda) 

2 Pteropods (Pteropoda) 

3 Gasteropoda (Univalves) (Gasteropoda) 

4 Bivalves (Conchifera) 

5 Tunicaries (Tunicata) 

6 BracMopods (Brachiopoda, Palliobranchiata) 

III. SUB-KINGDOM. ANNULOSE /ANIMALS. 

Articulata, Guv. Annulosa, Macleay. Diplogan- 
gliata, Entomoida, Diploneura (part) Grant. Ho- 
mogangliata, Owen. 

1 Class Cirrhopods (Cirrhopoda, Cirripedes) 

2 Crustaceans (Crustacea) 

3 fish-Parasites (Epizoa) 

4 A rachnidans (Arachnida) 

5 Insects (Insecta) 

6 Myriapods (Myriapoda) 

7 Annelids (Annelida, Annulida) 

iy._SUB-KINGDOM. RADIATE ANIMALS. 

Radiata (part), Cuv. Diploneura vel Helminthoida 
(part), Cycloneura (part), Grant. Nematoneura, 
Owen. Zoophyta, Auct. 

1 Class Echinoderms (Echinodermata) 

2 Wheel- Animalcules (Rotifera) 

3 Ascidian-Polyps (Polyzoa, Bryozoa) 

4 Cavitary-Entozoa .. (Coelelmintha, Nematoidea) 

5 Parenchymatous-Entozoa (Sterelmintha) 

6 Sea-Nettles (Acalephse, Malactinia) 

7 Polyps (Polypifera, Phytozoa) 



6 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

V._ SUB-KINGDOM. ACBITE ANIMALS. 

Acrita, Macleay. Cryptoneura (part) Rudolphi. Cy- 
cloneura (part), Grant. Oozoa, Cams. Protozoa, 
Oken. 

1 Class Poly gastric- Animalcules (Polygastrica, Infusoria) 

2 Foraminifers (Foraminifera) 

3 Sponges , (Porifera, Amorphozoa) 



SUB-KINGDOM OF VERTEBRATES. 

The vertebrate animals constitute the first great 
division of the Animal Kingdom, and embrace the 
highest and most intelligent forms of living crea- 
tures, ascending from fishes, and finally arriving at 
man himself. The members composing this import- 
ant group are very numerous, and are formed to 
inhabit the air, the earth, and the waters, different 
individuals being adapted for each element by 
their external configuration and internal structure. 
Among them are to be found the largest and most 
bulky of living forms, as the whale and elephant 
among mammals, the ostrich among birds, the rep- 
tilian crocodile, and the basking-shark the giant of 
the finny tribes. In them the nervous centres are 
more specially allocated and protected by being 
placed in a bony canal ; and the organs of special 
sense are most perfectly developed. The expansion 
of nervous matter forming the brain first commences 
in them, at first small and unimportant, but gradu- 
ally increasing in size and volume until it finally 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 7 

appears in the human race in its most perfect con- 
dition. In the size, number, and complicated nature 
of most of their viscera the Vertebrates shew a 
great advance over the inferior classes ; but on these 
points it would be out of place here to enlarge ; 
suffice it to say, that the body is generally divisible 
into a head, a trunk, and extremities, the latter 
never exceeding four in number. The voluntary 
movements attain perfection, being less automatic 
and more the result of volition than among the 
lower orders; and the system of organic life, so 
developed in the mollusks, here gives way to the 
more important system of animal life. In short, 
taking a mollusk or a star-fish as examples of an In- 
vertebrate, we find them to live within themselves 
and for themselves, not exactly worshipping their 
bellies, as they can hardly be said to possess one, yet 
devoted to gastronomy, in which they are probably 
adepts, and spending their time in alternate feeding 
and repose. While in Vertebrates higher occupations 
manifest themselves, sight, hearing, smell, taste, and 
touch become more refined, social feelings, of a dif- 
ferent description from those of the ants and bees, 
are observed, passions of various kinds disturb the 
frame, until finally the whole are centred in talking, 
reasoning, busy, marrying man. 

1. SUB-KINGDOM OF VERTEBRATES. Vertebrata. 

Skeleton internal, jointed, vital, cartilaginous, or 
osseous. Head distinct, enclosing, and covering 
with the vertebrae the principal nervous centres. 

I r 



8 MANUAL OF NATUKAL HISTOKY. 

Extremities never exceed four. Anal and oral ori- 
fices distinct, remote, mostly at opposite extremi- 
ties. Organs of special sense well developed, chiefly 
situated in or near the face. Mouth with two jaws 
opening vertically, one situated either above or be- 
fore the other; blood, red; heart, muscular; sexes, 
separated ; generation, viviparous or oviparous. 



MAMMALS. 

Among the many and singular forms to be met 
with in this class, are numerous examples which 
alike puzzle the systematist and astonish the be- 
holder; forms which clearly prove that though linear 
arrangements may be most convenient for our pur- 
poses, and such they certainly are with the present 
state of knowledge, they yet are naught but artifi- 
cial. Some have thought circular arrangements to 
be the natural method; but all are found imperfect, 
unusual forms occurring, having so many apparent 
affinities, yet with such an amount of differences 
as to baffle the ingenuity of the most profound na- 
turalists. A fit symbol of the arrangement of the 
Animal Kingdom in nature might perhaps be found 
in the beautiful web of the garden spider (Epeira 
diad&ma). 

The Mammalia are placed at the head of the Ani- 
mal Kingdom, because in them are to be found the 
most complete development of faculties and the most 
advanced structure. 

Man, regarded as an animal, stands first ; having 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 9 

the most perfect form, the most delicate sensations, 
pre-eminent intelligence, and being little dependant 
on instinct. Those which follow are all found to be 
endowed with faculties and forms admirably suited 
to their modes of living, and to the vicissitudes to 
which they may be exposed. Those singular ani- 
mals, the Bats whose noiseless flight and rapid evo- 
lutions we witness in the summer evenings may 
well arrest attention, as amongst the many examples 
affording proof of design and adaptation ; nor, as 
we proceed, shall we be at a loss to find numerous 
others equally striking. The Mole, doomed to live 
a subterraneous life, and seek its food beneath the 
surface of the soil, requires suitable adaptations ; 
these it has to perfection in its fore feet, so admir- 
ably formed for digging ; the Hedgehog, not endowed 
with speed or strength to avoid a combat with an 
enemy, rolls itself up, and presents a prickly ball, 
which few dare touch, and as its food, chiefly con- 
sisting of coleopterous insects, is only to be found 
during the warmer seasons of the year, it passes the 
winter in a state of hybernation, instead of being 
subjected to the torture of a long fast. The Lion 
and Tiger, with the rest of the cat tribe, intended 
to live a rapacious life, possess great strength and 
agility, with teeth and claws of a most formidable 
nature; the latter, in order to preserve them with 
constant sharp points, are ordinarily kept in a re- 
tracted state, and are only thrust forward at the 
will of the animal, when about to seize its prey, or 
to act defensively; their habits too, being chiefly 



10 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

nocturnal, require appropriate organs of vision ; thus 
we find the pupils of the eyes Very large and sus- 
ceptible, and that they may not be inconvenienced by 
the glare of day, the irides remain contracted during 
that time, leaving but a small part exposed. In the 
Seals, and more particularly in the Whales, we see 
the form modified, so as to be entirely adapted for an 
aquatic life. With the former it becomes necessary 
that they should at times seek the land or the ledges 
of rock for repose; their shape therefore has still 
some resemblance to the terrestrial members of the 
class to which they belong; while in the latter, des- 
tined to reside wholly in the water, the external 
form is fish-like, only, however, purely adaptive, as 
they still possess the essential character of mammals, 
having the organs of respiration and circulation so 
arranged as to enable them to dive down and re- 
main for a limited period in the depths of the ocean. 
The Camel, intended to live on barren sandy tracts 
of dry and heated desert land, where other animals, 
without some special provision, would perish from 
thirst, are provided with the means of allaying 
theirs, by a peculiar modification of the stomach, 
which thus becomes a reservoir of water sufficient 
for many days' consumption ; their feet, too, broad, 
padded, and elastic, are well suited for travelling 
over such light and yielding soil. The teeth of the 
Rodents furnish us with another instance. The 
front, or cutting teeth, by continually growing from 
a persistent pulp, compensate for the wear to which 
they are constantly subjected, and the inner part, 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 11 

being of a softer material than the outside ayer, a 
sharp edge is always preserved by their mutual 
attrition. The Sloth, destined to pass an arboreal 
life, and to feed on the foliage of trees, has its limbs 
modified into organs of suspension, and from their 
peculiar form and the position they hold in regard 
to the trunk, progression along the ground is to the 
animal a very difficult matter. 

In the great imitative power of the Apes, the 
craftiness of the wily Fox, and the sagacity of the 
Elephant, we may see the modifications of instinct 
which are more or less observable in all, and in the 
exercise of which we may find much to admire and 
astonish us, whether we witness it amongst the 
unreclaimed in their native haunts, or in the domes- 
ticated about the abodes of men : in the former it 
is especially interesting, though very much so also 
in the latter ; and how many are the pleasing anec- 
dotes recorded of the instinct of animals as exhibited 
in such as have become familiarized. To that power 
man is greatly indebted as exercised by those ani- 
mals which have been tamed and rendered subser- 
vient to his purposes. What he owes to the labour 
of the Horse, to the prosperity of his flocks and 
herds, or to the faithful companionship of the Bog, 
need scarcely be mentioned, being all self-evi- 
dent. 

In the vast diversity of form, and wide differences 
of size, how much there is to attract and engage us ; 
whether we gaze on the massive structure of the 
Elephant, or the light and graceful outline of the An- 



12 MANUAL OF NATUEAL HISTOEY. 

telope ; the huge, unwieldy Whale, or the tiny 
creeping Mouse. How much, in the fleet and 
bounding step of the Gazelle, and the slow move- 
ments of the Ant-eater; in the gay and lively 
actions of the Squirrel, or the dulness of the 
Sloth. So likewise in the singular provision of 
the pouch amongst the Marsupials, whose young, 
brought forth at an early period, require some 
special protection in their then utterly defence- 
less state, and again in the extraordinary forms 
of the Echidna and the Duckbill. 

The covering of the members of this class too, 
is a subject deeply interesting, regarded either in 
connection with their own economy, or in relation 
to man. The spiny covering of the Porcupine con- 
trasts strongly with the woolly coat of the Sheep ; 
the thick, almost naked skin of most of the Pachy- 
derms, with the long, silky hair of the Llama. The 
smooth and closely adpressed hair of the Seal, points 
to its fitness as a clothing for an animal whose life 
is chiefly spent in the water ; while the smooth and 
naked skin of the more aquatic Whale, is evidently 
best suited to the almost fish-like habits of the 
Cetaceans. 

These are a few of the subjects of interest, rapidly 
sketched, which are to be met with in studying the 
forms and habits of the members of this class, and 
viewed in connection with the circumstances under 
which they severally live, attest "the wisdom of 
God in Creation/' 



MANUAL OF NATUEAL HISTORY. 13 

I._CLASS MAMMALS (Mammalia}. 

Faculties in most advanced state of perfection; 
powers of motion varied ; sensations delicate ; intel- 
ligence superiorly developed ; young suckled; mostly 
fitted for walking; a few are enabled to fly, and 
some are destined to live in the water. 

1. SUB-CLASS. PL ACENTAL MAMMALS 
(Placentaiia). 

I. ORDER. MAN (Primates). 
Position of body vertical ; senses delicate, and 
nicely balanced ; organs of voice pre-eminent; intel- 
ligence in a high degree ; capable of progressive de- 
velopment. 

1. FAMILY. Men (Hominidse). Characters as in 
Order. 

II. ORDER. FOUR-HANDED MAMMALS (Quadrumana). 

Limbs more or less lengthened ; possess four or- 
gans of prehension similar to hands, generally with 
an opposable thumb on each. 

1. FAMILY. Apes (Simiidse). Nostrils divided by a 

narrow septum ; opposable thumbs on fore 
and hind feet ; generally naked callosities on 
rump ; sometimes cheek pouches ; usually 
furnished with a tail. Dentition incis : J 
can. i = J pre mol: mol: tJ=32. 

2. FAMILY. American Monkeys (Cebidse). Nos- 

trils separated by a broad septum; thumbs 
sometimes absent on fore feet ; no callosities 



14 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

or cheek pouches ; tail often prehensile. Den- 
tition incis: * can: J~J mol: ^=36. 
The lacchi have only five grinders on either 
side of each jaw. 

3. FAMILY. Lemurs (Lemuridse). Muzzle pointed ; 

fur woolly; grinders tubercular; tail some- 
times long, sometimes absent ; first, or second 
and third toes of hind foot furnished with 
claws. Some have large nocturnal eyes. In- 
cisors varying in number in upper and lower 
jaws. 

4. FAMILY. Flying-Lemurs (Galeopithecidse). 

Hairy skin, expanded from sides of body, 
extending between fore and hind legs, and 
including the tail ; toes furnished with sharp 
compressed claws; cutting teeth pectinated. 
Habits nocturnal. 

III. ORDER. BATS (Cheiroptera). 

Fingers of fore limbs very long, connected by a 
membrane, which is continued to unite the anterior 
and posterior extremities, forming wings, by which 
the animals are enabled to fly. 

1. FAMILY. Insectiverous Bats (Yespertilionidse). 

Grinders acutely tubercular ; index, or first 
finger, with one or two phalanges, without 
a nail; many have a nasal disk expanded 
in the form of a leaf. Those which are pecu- 
liar to the new world have three phalanges 
to middle finger ; the others have but two. 

2. FAMILY. Frugiverous-Bats (Harpyidae). Grind- 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 15 

ers bluntly-tubercular; index with tliree pha- 
langes, usually furnished with a nail ; without 
nasal disk. Generally of larger size than the 
Vespertilionidce 

IV. ORDER INSECT-FEEDERS (Insectivora). 

Teeth beset with conical points; limbs short; feet 
mostly plantigrade ; mammae ventral. Nature timid ; 
habits mostly nocturnal, subterraneous, frequently 
aquatic. 

1. FAMILY. Moles (Talpidse). Head long, narrow, 

somewhat depressed; nose much prolonged, 
pointed, flexible ; eyes very minute ; ears 
hidden ; feet plantigrade. The more typical 
forms have anterior limbs largely developed 
and furnished with strong nails adapted for 
digging ; tail of various lengths. 

2. FAMILY. Elephant Mice (Macroscelididse), Head 

conical ; nose lengthened into a trunk ; eyes 
large ; hind legs and feet long ; fur long and 
soft ; habits of the Jerboas. 

3. FAMILY. Banxrings (Tupaiidae). Head broad, 

somewhat depressed, tapering to a pointed 
muzzle, which is divided in the centre by a 
furrow ; eyes large ; ears naked ; feet plan- 
tigrade ; toes long, five in number ; tail often 
broad and hairy like the squirrels, sometimes 
hairy only at the tip ; habits arboreal, 

4. FAMILY. Hedgehogs (Erinaceidse). Muzzle point- 

ed; eyes small and prominent; body covered 
above with sharp spines ; feet with five toes, 



16 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY 

nails strong. Some have the power of rolling 
themselves up. 

V. ORDER. RAPACIOUS MAMMALS (Carnivora). 

Teeth more or less trenchant, canines large and 
pointed, six incisors in each jaw ; muscular energy 
great. By a comparison of the tubercular portions 
of the teeth with the cutting parts, the degree of 
sanguinary appetite, in these animals, can be deter- 
mined. 

1. FAMILY. Dogs (Canidae). Muzzle lengthened; 

jaws with three false molars above, five be- 
low ; two true molars, behind each carnivor- 
ous tooth; tongue smooth; limbs lengthened ; 
tail generally more or less bushy ; feet digi- 
tigrade. The diurnal Canidse have the pupils 
round ; the nocturnal have them elliptical ; 
and many have the feet furred beneath. 

2. FAMILY. Civet Cats (Viverridse)". Muzzle long ; 

form lengthened, comparatively low ; body 
somewhat compressed ; one true molar in 
lower jaw, two in upper jaw, two tubercles 
on inner side of lower carnivorous tooth ; 
tongue covered with sharp papillae; claws 
semi-retractile ; anal pouch with glands 
which secrete an odorous matter ; fur gene- 
rally spotted, that of tail annulated. 

3. FAMILY. Cats (Felidse). Muzzle short and 

rounded ; jaws short ; number of teeth small, 
no true molar in lower jaw, one very small in 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 17 

upper ; upper carnivorous tooth three lobed, 
with a broad heel inside, lower two lobed, no 
heel ; tongue roughened by horny, recurved 
papillae ; body compressed ; anterior limbs 
massive; digitigrade. Habits chiefly noc- 
turnal. 

4. FAMILY. W easels (Mustelidse). Muzzle short, 

obtuse ; body long, slender, flexible ; limbs 
short; tail lengthened; one true molar on 
either side of each jaw ; digitigrade ; stature 
small ; disposition very sanguinary. They 
diffuse, when alarmed, a fetid stench. False 
molars in the typical forms |^j*. 

5. FAMILY. Skunks (Mephitidse). Muzzle slightly 

elongate, obtuse ; body heavy ; limbs stout ; 
tail short and bushy, usually erect ; claws 
strong; lower carnivorous tooth with two 
tubercles on inner side ; feet plantigrade ; 
hair of body generally longitudinally striped. 
Commonly mephitic. 

6. FAMILY. Bears (Ursidse). Body usually heavy, 

with or without a tail ; limbs long and thick ; 
plantigrade ; claws strong ; cartilage of nose 
elongated and moveable ; lips generally mo- 
bile ; tongue extensible ; molars tubercular. 
Most have the power of climbing trees. Ha- 
bits omnivorous. 

7. FAMILY. SWs (Phocidse). Body lengthened, ta- 

pering posteriorly ; feet short, in the form of 
flippers ; toes connected by a membrane ; 
teeth variable ; fur short and close. Able 



18 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

swimmers, and spend the greater part of their 
time in the water. 

VI. OKDER CETACEANS (Cetacea). 

External appearance somewhat fishlike; body ge- 
nerally covered with a smooth skin ; anterior limbs 
in the form of paddles ; no posterior limbs ; tail 
expanded horizontally into a fin of greater or less 
breadth. 

I. SUB-ORDER. CARNIVOROUS CETACEANS (Carnivora). 

Skin smooth, shining, generally destitute of hairs ; 
nostrils in the form of spiracles and pierced on sum- 
mit of head ; mammae placed near vent ; teeth coni- 
cal or wanting. 

1. FAMILY. Baleen- Whales (Balsenidse). Head 

large ; upper jaw much arched ; no teeth, but 
from each side of the upper jaw is suspended 
a series of plates of baleen or whalebone, the 
edges of which are formed into a loose fringe 
of fibres which fill cavity of mouth ; spiracles 
on upper part of head ; with or without a 
dorsal fin. 

2. FAMILY. Sperm-Whales (Physeteridse). Head 

very large, with an extremely obtuse snout ; 
lower jaw narrow, corresponding to a groove 
in upper, and furnished with a row of conical 
teeth which fit into cavities on edge of palate 
when the mouth is shut, there being no teeth 
in upper jaw ; blow-hole situated on anterior 
part of head. 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 19 

3. FAMILY. Dolphins (Delphinidse). Head small, 

short, and rounded, or lengthened into a 
beak ; jaws generally furnished with a num- 
ber of conical teeth ; with or without a dor- 
sal fin. For the most part of comparatively 
small size, and in form taper towards each 
extremity. 

II. S UB-ORDER.. HERBIVOROUS-CETACEANS 
(Herbivora). 

Grinders with flat crowns ; two mammae on breast ; 
hairy whiskers ; orifices of nostrils pierced at end of 
muzzle. 

4. FAMILY. Manatees (Alanatidse). Skin thick, and 

coarse-grained, with a few scattered hairs ; 
head conical; muzzle large and fleshy, two 
tufts of stiff bristles at its sides ; upper lip 
cleft ; mouth moderate ; nails on edges of 
swimming paws ; tail terminated by a length- 
ened oval fin ; grinders |j ; no cutting or 
canine teeth in adult. 

5. FAMILY. Dugongs (Halicoridse). Skin smooth, 

with a few scattered hairs ; head small in 
proportion, and of a peculiar form, owing, in 
great measure, to the large, thick, and trun- 
cate upper lip, forming a blunt thick snout, 
truncated portion furnished with bristles ; 
nostrils on summit of upper jaw at the point 
where it is bent down ; two cutting teeth in 
upper jaw in form of tusks, grinders ^J ; 
caudal fin bilobed. 



20 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

5. FAMILY. Stellerines (Eytinidae). Skin thick, 
hard, rugged, forming a kind of cuirass of 
agglutinated hairs ; head small, obtuse ; nos- 
trils at end of snout ; lips double, space be- 
tween lips filled with strong bristles ; no 
external ears ; teeth horny \ J attached to 
the gums, having no insertion in the bones ; 
tail ending in a stiff crescent-shaped fin. 

VII. ORDER PACHYDERMS (Pachydermata). 

Form heavy, unsymmetrical ; skin thick, hard, 
deeply furrowed, generally but scantily clothed with 
hair ; toes included in a skin and tipped with broad 
nails, or enclosed in hoofs ; teeth often very large ; 
some have the nose lengthened into a proboscis. 

1. FAMILY. Hippopotami (Hippopotamidse). Form 

unwieldy ; skin smooth ; head large, termi- 
nated by a broad swollen muzzle ; mouth 
very large ; four incisors and two canines in 
each jaw, lower canines long, thick and bent, 
forming large tusks ; legs very short ; four 
toes on each foot, terminated by small hoofs. 
Habits aquatic. 

2. FAMILY. Elephants (Elephantidae). No front 

teeth in lower jaw, two large projecting tusks 
in upper jaw, which grow from a persistent 
pulp ; nose greatly prolonged, forming a pro- 
boscis of extraordinary flexibility and pre- 
hensive power, and furnished at tip with a 
small finger-like appendage ; limbs very mas- 



MANUAL OF NATUKAL HISTORY. 21 

sive ; toes five on each foot, included in 
hard skin. 

3. FAMILY. Tapirs (Tapiridse). Nose lengthened 
into a short proboscis of considerable flexi- 
bility and prehension; six incisors and 
two canines in each jaw ; fore feet have each 
four toes, hind three, cased in small hoofs 
at tip. 

4 FAMILY. Hogs (Suidse). Muzzle long, narrow, 
and truncate ; nose mobile ; incisors vari- 
able ; canines large and projecting, those of 
upper jaw turned up, lower longer, often very 
angular, recurved ; skin covered with strong, 
stiff hair ; tail rather short, or none ; legs 
rather short ; feet with four toes furnished 
with hoofe, the two middle toes being consi- 
derably the largest, postero-lateral pair small 
and scarcely reaching the ground. 

5. FAMILY. Rhinoceri (Rhinocerotidse). Skin of 

extraordinary strength and thickness, often 
arranged in folds ; nose furnished with one 
or more formidable recurved horns ; upper 
lip long and flexible ; toes three in number 
; g on each foot, shod with blunt hoofs. 

6. FAMILY. Damans. (Hyracidse). Form some- 

what like the Rodents ; size not exceeding 
that of a Hare ; muzzle and ears short ; tail 
a mere tubercle ; body clothed with fur ; two 
incisors in upper jaw, four in lower ; three 
or four toes to each of fore feet, three to 
hind, united by the skin to the nails, which 



22 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

are short, broad, and flat, except the inner 
posterior toes which are armed with a crook- 
ed nail. 

VIII. ORDER SINGLE-HOOFED MAMMALS 
(Solipedes). 

Hoofs undivided ; six cutting teeth in each jaw ; 

upper lip whole and mobile. Use their hind legs in 

defence. 

1. FAMILY. Horses (Equidse). Characters as given 
in order. Some have tail covered with long 
hair throughout its length, others have long 
hair only at tip. The Equine group have a 
wart on inside of each leg ; the Asinine 
have a wart on inside of fore legs only. 

IX. ORDER RUMINANTS (Ruminantia). 

No incisors in upper jaw, a considerable space be- 
tween incisors of lower jaw and molars, crowns of 
molars marked with a double row of crescents ; feet 
with two toes in front, furnished with hoofs, which 
appear like a single hoof cleft, behind and rather 
elevated are two small, and more or less rudimen- 
tary toes provided with hoofs ; generally furnished 
with horns. 

1. FAMILY. Camels (Camelidae). Without horns ; 

upper lip cleft ; canine teeth in both jaws ; 
feet broad, expanded, elastic, terminated by 
two small hoofs ; generally one or more pro- 
tuberances on back. 

2. FAMILY. Deer (Cervidse). Horns solid, deci- 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 23 

duous, covered with a hairy skin when grow- 
ing, generally more or less branched or palma- 
ted; usually provided with lachrymal sinuses. 

3. FAMILY. Musks (Moschidse). Without horns ; 

long projecting canine teeth in upper jaw of 
males ; size small ; of slender and very elegant 
proportions ; no lachrymal sinus. 

4. FAMILY. Gira/s (Cameleopardalidse). Perma- 

nent, solid, simple horns in both sexes, always 
covered with a hairy skin, crowned with a 
tuft of stiff, upright hairs ; neck very long ; 
fore legs disproportionate in length ; tail 
rather long, and tufted ; tongue long, pre- 
hensile ; whole appearance graceful. 

5. FAMILY. Hollow-horned Ruminants (Bovidse). 

Horns persistent, sheathing a bony core, 
round, or compressed and angular, often 
annulated, bent or curled in various ways ; 
with or without lachrymal sinus ; tail short, 
or elongated and tufted. 

The Antelopes (Antilopinse). Have the limbs long 
and slender in the typical species, general 
contour light and graceful ; no dewlap ; tail 
short and hairy. The more aberrant species 
assume a more or less bovine or caprine 
form ; the former are of large size with 
heavy bodies, tail lengthened and tufted ; 
the latter have rather heavy bodies, and 
stout limbs, legs short, hoofs large ; tail 
short and flat. Muzzle narrow or broad. 
Horns conical, or angular; straight, recurved, 



24 MANUAL OF NATUEAL HISTOEY. 

lyrate, or spirally twisted, frequently annu- 
lated ; sometimes large and approximated at 
base, descend, and turn up at point. 

The Goats (Caprinse). Have a narrow clothed 
muzzle ; chin generally well bearded ; hair 
sometimes long and shaggy ; limbs short and 
stout ; hoofs large ; tail depressed and hairy ; 
horns generally large, directed upwards, back- 
wards, and outwards. 

The Sheep (Ovinae). Have the muzzle narrow 
and clothed ; limbs strong ; horns angulated, 
rugose, massive, directed backwards, then 
drooping assume a more or less spiral form. 

The Oxen (Bovinse). May be known by their 
large and powerful form, short neck, dewlap, 
comparative shortness of legs in proportion to 
length and bulk of bodies, and their broad 
naked muzzle ; tail generally long and tufted ; 
horns usually round and tapering, sometimes 
flattened, occasionally very massive at base. 

X. ORDER. EDENTATES (Edentata). 

No front teeth, or toothless ; molars, when pre- 
sent, of simple structure, being destitute of enamel 
and of distinct roots; large claws embracing extre- 
mities of toes ; the whole group marked by a want 
of agility. 

1. FAMILY. Sloths (Bradypodidse). Head short 
and rounded ; no cutting teeth, canines rather 
pointed, molars cylindrical ; two pectoral 
mammae; anterior limbs long and weak, 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 25 

adapted for suspension; toes completely join- 
ed by skin, and armed with very long, strong, 
compressed, and curved claws ; tail none. 

2. FAMILY. Armadillos (Dasypodidse). Head long 

and pointed, mouth small, tongue somewhat 
extensible ; no cutting or canine teeth ; grind- 
ers cylindrical; body covered by a hard, scaly 
armour ; fore feet with four or five toes, hind 
feet five. They have the power of rolling 
themselves up. 

3. FAMILY. Earth-Hogs (Orycteropodidse). Head 

lengthened and pointed, tongue extensible; 
form bulky, long, and low; skin thick, co- 
vered with bristles ; nails thick and fitted 
for digging; grinders jj^j, cylindrical, and tra- 
versed in a longitudinal direction by a num- 
ber of little canals. 

4. FAMILY. Anteaters (Myrmecophagidae). Head 

generally very long, tapering to a point; 
mouth small, toothless, tongue long, exsertile ; 
body long, thickly clothed with long hair ; 
tail long and bushy, or naked at tip and pre- 
hensile ; or body and tail covered with dense 
horny imbricated scales; claws long, cutting, 
incurved. Walk on sides of feet. 

XL ORDER EODENTS (Kodentia). 

Two long curved incisors in each jaw, which are 
bevelled off on inner surface, and always present a 
sharp cutting edge, a wide space between these and 



26 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

molars, which have flat or blunt tuberculated crowns ; 
eyes large and lateral. 

1. FAMILY. Squirrels (Sciuridse). Head rather 

broad ; eyes large and prominent ; fore feet 
with four toes, hind five; tail more or less 
lengthened, generally very hairy and ex- 
panded in the arboreal species, bushy in the 
terrestrial ; some have skin of body extended 
between limbs ; fur usually soft. For the 
most part lively and agile. 

2. FAMILY. Jerboas (Jerboidse). Head large ; eyes 

very prominent ; fore feet short, with five 
toes ; hind legs and feet very long, with three, 
four, or five toes ; tail very long and tufted ; 
fur soft. Progress by leaps. 

3. FAMILY. Rats (Muridse). Teeth with tubercu- 

lar crowns; muzzle conical; nose somewhat 
prolonged ; facial line nearly straight, or 
slightly curved ; or with nose short and 
blunt, and facial line more curved ; ears 
rounded ; tail long, tapering, and scaly, scan- 
tily clothed with hair; toes usually long. 

4 FAMILY. Voles (Arvicolidse). Molars with flat 
crown ; head blunt ; facial lines much arched 
body usually stout; tail scaly, sometimes 
clothed, and rather tufted at apical portion, 
generally about half the length of body, 
sometimes longer. 

5. FAMILY. Mole-Rats (Spalacidse). Head large 
and blunt; eyes very small; sometimes fur 
nished with cheek pouches; body thick, cy- 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 27 

lindrical ; tail absent or very short ; limbs 
short ; cutting teeth often very large. 

6. FAMILY. Spiny-Rats (Echimyidse). Facial line 

slightly curved ; nose generally blunt, some- 
times rather produced, giving a more murine 
aspect; tail usually very long, scaly, but 
more or less clothed with hair, occasionally 
forming a brush at end; body clothed with 
fur, more or less intermixed with strong, 
grooved, lance-like spines, or with longer and 
larger hairs, which are flattened and grooved 
like the spines; molars with flat crowns. 

7. FAMILY. Porcupines (Hystricidae). Body more 

or less armed with spines ; muzzle broad, 
thick, clothed with soft hairs ; facial line 
rather hollow between eyes and nose ; upper 
lip slightly notched or divided by a vertical 
groove ; tail short, and furnished with spines, 
or long, more or less destitute of hair at 
apical portion and prehensile; soles of feet 
naked and smooth, and having five toes, or 
with expanded and rough soles, and toes 
45 or 44. 

8. FAMILY. Chinchillas (Chinchillidse). Head 

broad; eyes placed far back ; whiskers long; 
ears large, rounded or elongated; tail long 
or moderate, recurved and bushy; toes 4-3, 
4-4, or 5-4; fur soft. 

9. FAMILY. Cavies (Caviidse). Head generally 

large and thick; facial line nearly straight 
or slightly curved ; eyes large ; upper lip 

c2 



28 MAmTAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

entire; body generally clothed with coarse 
hair, which is sometimes very long on hinder 
parts of back ; tail wanting, or rudimentary ; 
limbs short, or long and fitted for running; 
feet naked beneath; toes 4-3, 5-3, or 5-5, 
nails strong, sometimes almost hoof-like. 
10. FAMILY. Hares (Leporidse). Upper lip cleft ; 
tip of muzzle clothed ; four incisors in upper 
jaw, two small ones being hidden behind the 
front pair, which are grooved, lower incisors 
smooth, always white and shorter than in 
most other rodents ; tail short and turned up 
or not visible ; fur soft ; soles of feet hairy. 
Dentition in. |, molars ^J or ^J. 

II. SUB-CLASS. APLACENTAL MAMMALS 

(Aplacentalia). 

I. ORDER MARSUPIALS (Marsupialia). 

Females of most of these animals provided with 
a peculiar pouch on lower part of abdomen for the 
reception of their young, which are brought forth 
prematurely ; scrotum of male hangs before penis 
both sexes have two bones (marsupial bones) at- 
tached to pelvis anteriorly. With the exception of 
the Wombat (Phascolomys) none have the same 
number of incisors in both jaws. 

1. FAMILY. Opossums (Didelphidse). General 
contour rat-like, with muzzle longer and 
naked at tip; tail long, very scantily clothed, 
covered by a scaly skin, prehensile ; feet with 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 29 

five toes, furnished with claws, except inner 
toes of hind feet ; plantigrade ; pouch some- 
times rudimentary. Dentition in. ^ can. J~J 
pre-molars |j, molars ^t molars tubercu- 
lous. 

2. FAMILY. Dasyures (Dasyuridse). Head rather 

depressed, tip of muzzle naked ; five well 
developed toes on fore feet, nails crooked; 
hind feet with the thumb small resembling 
a tubercle, or absent, and four disunited 
toes ; tail long, well clothed, non-prehensile ; 
pouch sometimes absent. Dentition in. **, 
canines large, molars trenchant. 

3. FAMILY. Bandicoots (Peramelidse). Head long, 

very pointed, tip of muzzle naked; ears some- 
times very large; outer toes of fore feet re- 
sembling tubercles, the others fully deve- 
loped; hind feet considerably longer than 
fore, inner toes sometimes present, but rudi- 
mentary, the two next united as far as the 
nails, the fourth large and furnished with a 
strong nail ; pouch opening backwards. Den- 
tition in. ^ in. J~ J, pre-mo. Jj, molars j, 

4. FAMILY. Phalangers (Phalangistidse). Head 

broad, short, tip of muzzle naked, upper lip 
cleft ; fore feet with five toes, armed with com- 
pressed curved claws ; hind feet with a nail- 
less opposable thumb, remainder furnished 
v with curved claws, second and third toes 
united; skin sometimes expanded from sides 
of body and extended between fore and hind 



30 MANUAL OF NATUKAL HISTORY. 

legs; tail generally long, frequently prehen- 
sile; pouch well developed. Dentition in. 
J, can. J-J or Jj, pre-mo. Jj^J, mo. j or jjj. 

5. FAMILY. Wombats (Phascolomyidse). Head 

large, flat, eyes small; upper lip cleft; muz- 
zle obtuse, tip naked, nostrils widely sepa- 
rated; body stout; limbs short; feet broad; 
tail only a tubercle; fur long and coarse; 
nails on toes of fore feet broad and solid, on 
hind toes curved; teeth bearing a general 
resemblance to the Rodents. Dentition in. 
I grinders ^. 

6. FAMILY. Kangaroos (Macropodidse). Muzzle 

elongated, contracted ; upper lip cleft ; fore 
legs small, with five toes; hind legs very 
long and powerful, two inner toes small and 
united, the next large, long, and armed with 
a very strong claw ; tail long and strong ; 
pouch well developed ; fur soft. Dentition, 
in. , can. jj, or J^J, pre-mo. J-J, molars j. 

II. ORDER. MONOTREMES (Monotremata). 

Animals so called on account of their possessing 
but one opening (cloaca) for all their excretions. 
Have no pouch, but have marsupial bones ; tooth- 
less, or provided with horny teeth. 
1. FAMILY. Porcupine Ant-Eaters (Echidnidse). 
Snout long and narrow ; mouth very small ; 
tongue protractile; body covered above with 
strong sharp spines ; legs short, thick, and 
strong, a spur on hind foot of males ; toothless. 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 31 

2. FAMILY. Duck-Bills (Ornithorhynchidse). Body 
depressed, tapering at each extremity, clothed 
with a mixture of crisp and soft fur ; muzzle 
elongated, flattened, somewhat like a duck's- 
bill, and covered with a thick skin ; tail short 
and flat ; feet webbed, the membrane con- 
tinued beyond the toes ; a spur on hind foot 
of the males ; teeth horny. 



BIRDS. 

The arrangement chosen for this class, is that 
employed by Mr. G. R Gray in his "Genera of Birds," 
with such slight alterations as were thought to be 
necessary. That arrangement appears to be the 
best which has hitherto been brought forward, yet 
much remains to be done by travellers and others, 
having opportunity for making original observa- 
tions, towards determining the natural affinities of 
species and groups, which object can be greatly 
aided by carefully recording, in detail, the habits of 
such species as may come under their observation. 

Much has been written upon birds, by many 
authors, both of ancient and modern date, though 
the wonder is that more has not been written, for a 
general interest seems to have been always felt in 
them, which is not at all surprising, when we con- 
sider the charm they lend to nature, and the sur- 
prising manifestation of a beautiful adaptation of 
means to ends exhibited in their conformation. 



32 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

No place appears cheerful without them ; the land- 
scape seems imperfect in their absence. The Swal- 
low must flit around the old church spire, the Rook 
strut upon the glade, the Daw must harbour in the 
ruined castle, the Wagtail follow the plough. The 
comfort too which man derives from the domesti- 
cated sorts is sufficient to interest him largely in 
these, whether they are kept as articles of food, or 
as objects of ornamental attraction. Nor is super- 
stition a small source from which attraction has 
sprung; numerous spots in Old England may even 
now be found where the Raven's croak is still re- 
garded as an omen of ill ; and many a ghost story 
is still rehearsed around the winter fire, originating 
in some benighted swain's having been startled in 
the woods by the hobgoblin hootings of an Owl. 
But it is in their native haunts where birds are best 
seen to perfection, and where they interest us the 
most, some being confined to comparatively limited 
spots, others having a world-wide range. The 
Swallow tribes, impelled by the nature of their 
food to lead a migratory life, may be said to live in 
a perpetual summer, and to spend the greater part 
of their existence on the wing ; the fine plumaged 
Trogons, the Puff-birds, and the Jacamars, dwell 
in the woods of tropical America; in the deep re- 
cesses of the forest, the Todies, the Boatbills, and 
the Motmots take up their abode, and there, in keep- 
ing with the gloom which pervades such spots, utter 
their melancholy croak. In the soft twilight the 
Goatsuckers course the pasture land, the river mar- 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 33 

gin, and the swamp, and hunt around the woods for 
those insects of crepuscular habits, on which they 
subsist ; while the beautiful Sun-birds of the Old 
World, amidst the glare of day, seek the flowers from 
which to sip the nectar ; and the Humming-birds 
of the New World, glittering with dazzling bril- 
liancy, poise themselves around the blossoms, to 
pluck from them the insects which there lie hid. In 
Australia, the Honey-eaters, more retired, creep 
among the foliage, and find their food in the flowers 
of the Eucalypti and other plants. In all parts of the 
world the Creepers are seen climbing the trunks and 
branches of trees, in search of the minute creatures 
which conceal themselves in the fissures of the bark ; 
while the Fly-catchers enjoy a like extended range, 
charming the woods with their song, or enlivening 
them by their activity ; and among the trees which 
border streams their short and fitful flight may 
often be seen, as they dart forth to seize some pass- 
ing insect. Pasture lands are the resort of the Star- 
lings and the noisy Crows; the sterile expanse and 
sandy deserts of Africa and Asia furnish subsistence 
and a home for the Sand-grouse ; the Plovers fre- 
quent the moorland and the plain ; the sly and 
timid Rails seek their food and screen themselves 
from observation amidst the long rank grass and 
sedge which grow in the marsh ; along the swamps, 
the sandy margin of the stream, or the sea-shore, in 
all parts of the world, may be heard the whistle of 
the Curlew, the Sandpiper, and the Snipe, some re- 
presentative being every where found; while the 

c 5 



34 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

little Phalarope may be seen swimming buoyantly 
on the sea, the lake, or the fresh-water pond. In 
the quiet, lonely pool, or sequestered swamp, the 
Heron may be detected standing, silently watching 
for its prey ; the migratory Spoonbill has a similar 
resort ; and the Crane, and the Stork seek their food 
alike in the morass or the open plain. The Geese 
and the Ducks are universally observed, some fre- 
quenting the rivers, others resorting to the sea, while 
some find sustenance on the shores and flats left 
exposed by the retiring tide. The Gulls seek for 
food near the sea-coast, or resort to cultivated lands 
in search of worms ; a few lead a piratical life, and 
subsist by plundering other species. The Albatros 
and the Petrels roam at large over the waste of 
waters ; the Divers, the Grebes, and the Auks, are 
found in bays, creeks, rivers, or near cliff-bound 
coasts, in all parts of the world ; while the sin- 
gularly formed Penguins select their habitations 
around the rocky islands of the Southern Ocean. 

The architecture of birds is also a subject for our 
admiration. The curiously constructed nests of the 
Weavers of Africa, and the beautifully woven cradles 
of the Hangnests, suspended in numbers together 
from the slender branches of trees in the forests of 
tropical America, are among the most remarkable ; 
though not less interesting are those of others, par- 
ticularly when taken in connection with the condi- 
tions under which they live. The heaps of vegetable 
matter brought together by the Mound-bird of Aus- 
tralia, wherein several females deposit their eggs to 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 35 

be hatched by the heat developed during fermenta- 
tion, astonish us by their novelty; and amongst 
other extraordinary habits may rank that of the 
Bower-birds of the same country, for whose singular 
bower-like erections it is difficult to determine a use. 
These, with numberless others, form subjects for 
pleasing investigation ; and the more such enquiries 
are pursued, the keener will be the interest taken 
in them, for truly in nature every charm is really 
supreme. 

II. CLASS. BIRDS (Aves). 

Body clothed with feathers ; anterior limbs con- 
structed for flight (with few exceptions) ; bills horny ; 
feet covered with a scaly skin. 

I. ORDER RAPACIOUS BIRDS (Accipitres). 

Bill strong, upper mandible sharp, pointed, and 
curving downwards; cutting margins toothed or 
festooned ; nostrils pierced in a membrane (cere) in- 
vesting the base of the bill; talons sharp, strong, 
much hooked ; muscular power great. 

I. SUB-ORDER. DIURNAL RAPACIOUS BIRDS (Diurni). 
Eyes placed laterally. 

1. FAMILY. Vultures (Vulturidse). Head more or 
less denuded ; eyes level with surface of 
cheeks ; bill not toothed, lateral margins of 
upper mandible rather sinuous, extensively 
covered with the cere ; tarsi short and covered 



36 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTOEY. 

with reticulated scales ; claws but slightly 
curved, blunt ; crop prominent. 

2. FAMILY. Falcons (Falconidse). Head clothed; 

eyes sunk ; bill more or less curved from base ; 
cutting margins toothed, festooned, or sinu- 
ated ; tarsi variable in length, usually covered 
in front with large scales, seldom reticulated ; 
claws much curved, very acute. 

II. SUB-ORDER. NOCTURNAL RAPACIOUS BIRDS 
(Nocturni). 

Eyes large, placed in front, surrounded by a circle 
of radiating feathers. 

3. FAMILY. Owls (Strigidge). Head large ; bill 

short, much hooked, upper mandible entire, 
lower notched ; tarsi and toes more or less 
feathered. 

II. OKDER PERCHING BIRDS (Passeres). 

Feet more or less formed for clasping the branches 
of trees ; toes generally three before and one behind, 
sometimes two and two. Very numerous ; divided 
into the Fissirostral, Tenuirostral, Dentirostral, 
and Conirostral tribes. 

I. SUB-ORDER. FISSIROSTRAL BIRDS (Fissirostres). 

Gape wide, extending beneath eyes ; feet variously 
formed ; tarsi nearly always short. 

1. TRIBE NOCTURNAL FISSIROSTRAL BIRDS 
(Nocturni). 

Eyes very large ; plumage dingy, soft, downy. 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 37 

1. FAMILY. Goatsuckers (Caprimulgidge). Bill 

very wide at base; margins of upper mandible 
sometimes folding over lower, occasionally 
provided with a tooth, short and compressed 
at tip ; gape furnished with long stiff bristles. 
Many have inner side of claw of middle toes 
serrated. 

2. TRIBE. DIURNAL FISSIROSTRAL BIRDS (Diurni). 
Eyes smaller ; plumage compact. 

2. FAMILY. Swallows (Hirundinidae). Bill small, 

weak, very broad at base ; tarsi very short, 
occasionally feathered ; sometimes all the toes 
turned in front ; claws curved , wings very 
long and pointed ; plumage more or less 
glossy. 

3. FAMILY. Wood- Swallows (Artamidse). Bill 

stout, broad at base, more or less compressed ; 
culmen rounded, curved from base to the tip ; 
nostrils round, pierced in substance of bill ; 
upper mandible distinctly notched near tip ; 
tarsi short, strong, covered with broad scales ; 
toes rather long ; claws strong and com- 
pressed ; wings long and pointed. 

4. FAMILY. Trogons (Trogonidse). Bill short, broad 

at base, narrowed and curved to tip, margins 
serrated or notched near tip, base furnished 
with bristles ; tarsi short, small, more or less 
feathered ; toes two before, two behind ; plu- 
mage very rich. 

5. FAMILY. Rollers (Coraciadidse). Bill broad at 



38 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

base, varying in length, curved to the tip, 
where the upper mandible is more or less 
bent over the lower, margins sometimes ser- 
rated, sometimes notched near tip ; tarsi 
usually short ; toes three before, one behind ; 
wings generally lengthened and pointed 

6. FAMILY. Kingfishers (Alcedinidse). Bill broad 

at base, lengthened, generally straight, tip 
acute where upper mandible is sometimes 
bent over, culmen often keeled ; tarsi short, 
robust, occasionally partly clothed with fea- 
thers ; toes 3], 22, or 21. 

7. FAMILY. Bee-Eaters (Meropidse). Bill assuming 

the tenuirostral character, long, curved, acute, 
compressed, culmen carinated ; wings some- 
times long and pointed; tarsi short; toes ra- 
ther long, lateral ones more or less united to 
middle toes ; claws curved ; tail long, with 
sometimes the two middle feathers prolonged. 

II. SUB-ORDER. TENUIROSTRAL BIRDS (Tenuirostres). 

Bill varied in form and length, often arched and 
compressed, always slender and acute ; tongue often 
extensible and ending in a brush of filaments ; tarsi 
usually short ; hind toe strong, and armed with a 
strong claw. 

8. FAMILY. Hoopoes (Upupidse). Bill long, slen- 
der, more or less arched, much compressed ; 
tarsi strong ; claws strong and curved ; outer 
toe partly united to the middle one ; wings 
somewhat rounded. 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 39 

9. FAMILY. Sun-Birds (Promeropidse). Bill gene- 

rally lengthened, slender, curved or straight, 
gradually compressed from base to tip, cut- 
ting margins sometimes finely toothed ; nos- 
trils covered by a long membranous or hard 
scale ; claws curved and acute. Males gene- 
rally remarkable for brilliancy of plumage. 

10. FAMILY. Humming-Birds (Trochilidse). Bill 

more or less long, slender, straight or curved, 
generally acute ; tongue long, capable of being 
darted forward at the will of the bird ; tarsi 
very short, more or less clothed with feathers ; 
toes more or less united at base ; claws curved ; 
wings very long. 

11. FAMILY. Honey-Eaters (Meliphagidse). Bill va- 

riable in length, of moderate strength, curved, 
often rather broad at base and gradually com- 
pressed to tip, which is acute and notched, 
sometimes subconic; nostrils in a large groove, 
covered by a scale ; tongue extensile, with a 
pencil of fibres at tip ; outer toe united at the 
base. 

12. FAMILY. Creepers (Certhiidse). Bill more or 

less lengthened, often slender, compressed, 
arched, or with culmen curved or straight ; 
nostrils covered by a scale, or with bill 
broader and nostrils placed in a long groove ; 
tarsi and toes very strong, the latter fur- 
nished with curved claws, hind toe long, 
and armed with a strong claw; tail feathers 
often rigid, with shaft projecting and pointed. 



40 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

Many have the central portion of the feathers 
light with a dark margin, or dark with a light 
margin, giving them a mottled appearance. 

III. Sl7-0DEfi.DvNTiKOSTXAL BIRDS (Dentirostres). 

Upper mandible more or less notched near tip, 
and bent over lower ; gape often furnished with 
bristles ; tarsi comparatively slender ; toes formed 
for perching. 

13. FAMILY. Warblers (Lusciniidae). Bill gene- 

rally slender, straight, more or less depressed 
at base, which is sometimes furnished with 
bristles ; nostrils placed in a groove ; tarsi 
generally elevated, slender ; claws curved, 
acute ; eyes, in most, bold and prominent ; 
plumage soft and loose. Mostly of solitary 
habits. 

The Tit-mice (Parince) have the bill stronger 
and more conical ; and the tarsi, toes, and 
claws stouter than most others. 

14. FAMILY. Thrushes (Turdidse). Bill strong, 

sides compressed more or less, culmen cari- 
nated, straight or curved to tip, which in 
some cases is considerably bent over, denti- 
tion variable ; gape sometimes bristled ; tarsi 
and toes strong ; hind claw rather long ; 
wings moderate, generally rounded. 

15. FAMILY. Flycatchers (Muscicapidse). Bill de- 

pressed, broad at base, narrowed to tip, where 
upper mandible is suddenly bent over and 
notched ; gape furnished with bristles ; nos- 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 41 

trils round, frequently exposed; feet short and 
weak; claws moderate; tail often lengthened. 

16. FAMILY Chatterers (Ampelidse). Bill short, 

strong, broad and more or less depressed at 
base, culmen more or less curved to tip where 
upper mandible is bent down and notched ; 
gape wide, generally without bristles ; tarsi 
short and strong ; claws very strong ; tail 
often very short. 

17. FAMILY. Butcher-Birds (Laniidse). Bill strong, 

culmen curved more or less, a deep notch 
near tip of upper mandible, which is hooked, 
generally a few bristles at base ; nostrils 
round ; tarsi of moderate length and strong ; 
claws acute. 

IV. SUB-ORDER. CONIKOSTRAL-BIRDS (Conirostres). 

Bill of various lengths, strong, conical, seldom 
notched ; feet well developed, fitted for walk- 
ing or perching, tarsi boldly scutellate ; wings 
generally pointed. 

18. FAMILY. Crows (Corvidse). Bill strong, some- 

what compressed, generally straight, some- 
times arcuated, or upper mandible gently 
curved to tip, which is sometimes slightly in- 
flexed ; nostrils frequently covered with stiff 
feathers, directed forwards ; tarsi strong, co- 
vered with thick scales ; wings generally long 
and pointed. 

19. FAMILY. Corvine-Starlings (Chlamyderidse). 

Bill strong, not very lengthened, more or less 



42 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

compressed, culmen curved to tip, commissure 
curved, upper mandible inflexed and emargi- 
nated at tip ; nostrils generally round, ex- 
posed, or partly covered by frontal plumes ; 
wings moderate and pointed ; tail often 
lengthened ; tarsi rather long, strong ; toes 
and claws strong, especially the hind claw. 

20. FAMILY. Starlings (Sturnidse). Bill in form of 

a compressed cone, ctilmen more or less ad- 
vancing on forehead, straight or very slightly 
inflexed near tip, commissure greatly angu- 
lated at base, upper mandible rarely emargi- 
nate ; frontal feathers advancing to posterior 
part of nostril-openings ; wings moderate and 
pointed ; tail often short. 

21. FAMILY. Finches (Fringillidse). Bill short, 

thick, conical, broad, and often angular at 
base, more or less pointed at tip, where upper 
mandible is sometimes slightly inflexed, com- 
missure angulated at base, or sinuated ; tarsi 
of about equal length to middle toe, hind 
claw more or less lengthened. 

22. FAMILY. Colies (Coliidse). Bill short, broad at 

base, culmen elevated and arched ; nostrils 
naked, placed in a large membranous groove ; 
wings short, pointed; tail long, cuneated. 
Possess the power of turning all the toes for- 
wards. 

23. FAMILY. Plantain-Eaters (Musophagidse). Bill 

rather large, broad at base, compressed, cul- 
men high, curved to tip, sometimes advancing 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 43 

on forehead, lateral margins generally ser- 
rated; nostrils placed near middle and ex- 
posed ; tarsi short, strong ; outer toe fre- 
quently capable of being turned backwards ; 
wings rounded. 

24. FAMILY. Hornbills (Bucerontidse). Bill very 
large, long, broad at base, curved and com- 
pressed to tip, upper mandible generally sur- 
mounted with protuberances of various shapes 
at base, which advance more or less on fore- 
head ; lateral margins serrated ; tarsi short, 
strong. 

III. ORDER SCANSORIAL-BIRDS (Scansores). 

Feet particularly formed for climbing, having two 
toes before and two behind ; tarsi usually very short. 

1. FAMILY. Toucans (Rhamphastididse). Bill very 

large, light, cellular, long and compressed, 
curved to tip, margin serrated ; tarsi short ; 
toes long ; wings rounded. 

2. FAMILY. Parrots (Psittacidse). Bill very strong, 

short, compressed, deep, upper mandible form- 
ing a short curve from base to tip, which 
beads considerably over and is much longer 
than lower, lateral margins of upper mandible 
sometimes toothed ; nostrils placed in a cere ; 
tarsi short, strong, and rounded. 

3. FAMILY. Barbets (Capitonid^). Bill thick, di- 

lated at base, which is generally furnished 
with stiff bristles, compressed towards tip, 
culmen gently curved to the tip which is 



44 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

slightly prolonged, sometimes inflexed, mar- 
gins of upper mandible at dilated part falling 
deeply over lower ; tarsi short ; toes rather 
long ; tail feathers soft ; plumage brightly 
coloured. 

4. FAMILY. Woodpeckers (Picidse). Bill lengthened, 

straight, angular, wedge-shaped, compressed, 
and more or less truncate at tip ; tarsi short ; 
toes long, particularly outer hind toe ; tail 
feathers stiff and pointed. 

The Wrynecks (Yuncince) have tip of bill 
acute, and tail broad and soft. 

5. FAMILY. Cuckoos (Cuculidse). Bill very variable 

in size, generally more or less curved, culmen 
sometimes straight and inflexed at tip, gene- 
rally curved, sometimes elevated and keeled, 
lateral margins of upper mandible arched or 
undulating, emarginated at tip ; gape large ; 
tarsi very variable in length, covered with 
large, broad scales ; inner hind toe sometimes 
furnished with a long spur-like claw ; wings 
rounded, or long and pointed ; tail long and 
rounded 

IV. OKDEB. PIGEONS (Columbse). 
This embraces but one great group. The 

1. FAMILY. Pigeons (Columbidse). Bill moderate, 
rather slender, soft at base, hard at tip, which 
is more or less elevated and arched ; nostrils 
covered by a soft fleshy tumid membrane ; 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 45 

tarsi generally short, sometimes feathered, 
usually covered in front with broad scales, 
strong ; toes moderate. 

V. ORDER. GALLINACEOUS, or GAME-BIRDS (Gallinse). 

Feet especially adapted to walking ; legs long and 
strong ; tarsi generally provided with one or more 
spurs ; toes connected at their base by a membrane ; 
claws blunt ; wings short ; bill arched. 

1. FAMILY. Curassows (Cracidse). Bill varied in 

form, covered at base by a soft skin, more or 
less curved, sometimes much compressed, with 
culmen greatly elevated; nostrils generally 
exposed ; cheeks more or less denuded ; head 
sometimes crested or ornamented with curled 
feathers ; tarsi without spurs ; claws some- 
times much curved ; hind toe long and placed 
on a level with others, forming a good perch- 
ing foot ; tail lengthened and broad. 

2. FAMILY. Mound-Birds (Megapodiidse). Bill not 

stout, rather weak, with culmen low at base, 
apical half slightly elevated and curved to 
tip ; nostrils placed near middle of bill ; tarsi 
very stout, without spurs; toes long; hind 
toes on same plane as the others ; claws very 
long, slightly curved ; wings rather large, 
rounded ; tail sometimes very short. 

3. FAMILY. Brush- Turkeys (Talegallidse). Bill 

strong, thick, somewhat compressed, culmen 
curved to tip ; head and neck very scantily 
clothed, with skin brightly coloured and more 



46 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

or less wattled; tarsi strong, without spurs ; 
toes and claws long ; tail long, and more or 
less broad. 

4. FAMILY. Turkeys (Meleagridse). Bill broad at 

base, and invested by a soft membrane, in 
which the nostrils are pierced, narrowed to 
tip ; head and neck very scantily clothed 
with hairs, carunculated ', tarsi without spurs 
or only an obtuse knob ; toes moderate, hind 
toe elevated and short ; tail lengthened and 
broad, or short and drooping. 

5. FAMILY. Pheasants (Phasianidse). Bill curved 

to tip, upper mandible prolonged, culmen 
somewhat elevated at base ; lateral margins 
rather undulating ; nostrils covered by a hard 
tumid scale ; cheeks more or less naked ; head 
sometimes furnished with a fleshy crest, and 
pendulous wattles from base of lower man- 
dible ; wings rounded ; tail long, broad, gra- 
duated or arched ; tarsi with one or more 
spurs ; hind toe elevated and short. 

6. FAMILY. Grouse (Tetraonidse). Bill short, 

curved from base to tip ; margins of upper 
mandible arched; nostrils covered by a hard 
scale, sometimes partly concealed by the fea- 
thers ; tarsi sometimes clothed with feathers, 
with or without spurs; hind toe short and 
elevated, or wanting; tail lengthened or 
short. 

7. FAMILY. Plover -Quails (Pedionomidae). Bill 

rather slender, compressed, culmen slightly 



MANUAL OF NATUKAL HISTOKY. 47 

elevated and curved towards tip, nostrils 
placed in a long groove, covered by a scale ; 
lower part of tibiae sometimes bare; tarsi 
generally lengthened, covered in front with 
transverse scales; hind toe generally want- 
ing, when present short and elevated ; back 
much arched; tail very short. 

8. FAMILY. Tringoid-Grouse (Thinocoridse). Bill 

short, rather broad at base, compressed to 
tip, culmen curved to tip; nostrils fleshy; 
wings long and pointed; tail short, rather 
broad and rounded; tarsi short, strong, and 
covered in front with transverse scales, or 
wholly with reticulated scales, hind toe very 
short. 

9. YAMiLY.Sheathbills (Chionidse). Bill rather 

short, strong, compressed, base of upper man- 
dible invested by a folded horny sheath 
covering nostrils; orbits partly encircled by 
a warty skin; wings rather long; tail of mo- 
derate length and even; tarsi very strong 
and covered with small rough scales. 

10. FAMILY. Tinamous (Tinamidse). Bill rather 

lengthened, not stout, slightly curved, some- 
what depressed at base, which is covered by 
a membrane, frontal feathers sometimes ad- 
vancing to aperture of nostrils; wings short 
and concave ; tarsi covered in front with 
large scales; hind toe small or wanting; tail 
rudimentary. 



48 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

VI. ORDER. RUNNING-BIRDS (Struthiones). 
Legs long, fitted for running; wings generally ru- 
dimentary ; clothed with feathers of a peculiar 
character. 

1. FAMILY. Ostriches (Struthionidae). Stature 

large; bill broad, depressed; nostrils placed 
in a large membranous groove; head and 
neck sometimes destitute of feathers, the for- 
mer surmounted by a crest, the latter wat- 
tled; wings rudimentary; tarsi long and 
very strong, covered with broad scales, two 
or three in number; claws blunt. 

2. FAMILY. Ki-wis (Apterygidse). Bill long, slen- 

der, curved and grooved, very hard; nostrils 
small and placed at tip; tarsi rather short, 
strong; hind toe small and armed with a 
long acute claw; wings rudimentary, con- 
cealed by the feathers ; tail none. 

3. FAMILY. Bustards (Otididse). Bill rather length- 

ened, broad at base, compressed towards tip, 
culmen straight for a portion of its length, 
then curved to tip, lateral margin of upper 
mandible undulating ; emarginate at tip ; 
nostrils large, placed in a membranous groove ; 
tarsi long, covered with small scales; toes 
short, three in number; wings long and 
pointed ; tail broad and rounded. 

VII. ORDER. WADING-BIRDS (Grallse). 
Legs long and slender, with lower part of tibias 
naked ; bill often long and more or less slender. 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 49 

1. FAMILY. Plovers (Charadriidae). Bill variable 

in length, basal half soft and weak, apical 
part hard, with culmen generally somewhat 
elevated and curved to tip, which is more or 
less pointed ; nasal groove deep, extending 
about half the length of the bill ; tarsi more 
or less lengthened ; toes connected at then- 
base by a membrane, hind toe small or 
wanting ; wings long and pointed ; tail 
generally broad and even. 

The Oyster-catchers (Hcematopodince) have 
the bill long, much compressed, and trun- 
cate. 

2. FAMILY. Herons (Ardeidse). Bill long, more 

or less slender, compressed, pointed ; long 
much depressed and spatuliform, long slen- 
der and arcuated, or short with culmen 
curved to tip ; tarsi long and slender ; toes 
lengthened and furnished with acute curved 
claws ; neck long and slender ; back gene- 
rally much arched ; wings usually rounded ; 
tail mostly short and even. 

3. FAMILY. Snipes (Scolopacidse). Bill more or 

less lengthened, slender, generally obtuse, 
straight, arcuated or recurved, soft for a 
considerable portion of its length ; culmen 
sometimes curved at tip j upper mandible 
grooved to near tip, which is sometimes 
dilated ; nostrils basal, placed in groove ; 
tarsi variable in length, slender; toes more 
or less connected by a membrane ; wings 



50 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

long and pointed ; tail generally short and 
rounded. 

4 FAMILY. Screamers (Palaniedeidse). Bill not 
very long, rather slender with culmen to- 
wards tip somewhat elevated and curved, 
or stouter and the culmen elevated at base 
and curved to tip ; upper mandible rather 
prolonged ; nostrils placed near middle of 
bill j tarsi long, sometimes very stout ; toes 
very long and armed with long, acute, and 
straight or curved claws ; wings moderate 
and armed with an acute or blunt spur ; tail 
generally short. 

5. FAMILY. Rails (Rallidse). Bill varying in length, 
compressed, culmen sometimes advanced and 
dilated, shield-like on forehead, always more 
or less curved at tip , nostrils placed in a 
groove towards middle of bill ; toes long, 
sometimes margined on each side by a lobed 
dilatation of the skin ; wings usually round- 
ed ; tail generally very short ; body com- 
pressed. 

VIII. ORDER. AQUATIC BIRDS (Anseres). 

Tarsi generally short, feet webbed ; plumage close 

and dense. 

1. FAMILY. Ducks (Anatidse). Bill covered by a 
membrane, elevated and compressed at base, 
depressed towards tip, and often more or less 
dilated ; tip of upper mandible furnished 
with a nail ; lateral margins furnished with 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 51 

lamellar plates or serrated ; tarsi generally 
short ; toes connected by a membrane, hind 
toe free. 

2. FAMILY. Divers (Colymbidse). Bill generally 

lengthened, compressed, pointed ; tarsi much 
compressed ; toes webbed or margined by a 
lobed dilatation of skin ; wings pointed ; tail 
very short or wanting ; legs placed far back 
causing the bird to stand erect ; neck slender, 
and lengthened. 

3. FAMILY. Auks (Alcidse). Bill varying in length, 

often short, sometimes greatly compressed, 
culmen curved to tip, where upper mandible 
is slightly prolonged and inflexed ; tarsi 
short and compressed; toes connected by a 
web, hind toe generally wanting; legs placed 
far back compelling an erect position when 
standing; tail feathers short and stiff; wings 
small and pointed, sometimes useless for 
flight ; neck short and thick 

4. FAMILY. Petrels (Procellariidse). Bill rather 

long, straight, compressed, deeply grooved; 
upper mandible hooked ; nostrils tubular ; 
tarsi usually shorter than middle toe; toes 
webbed; wings long and slender. 

5. FAMILY. Gulls (Laridse). Bill of moderate 

length, compressed, culmen straight for half 
its length, then curved to tip, which is acute ; 
nostrils lateral, linear, placed about middle 
of bill ; tarsi about the length of the middle 
toe ; toes connected by a web, hind toe ele- 

D2 



52 MANUAL OF NATUEAL HISTORY. 

vated, sometimes very small; claws curved, 
sometimes very acute ; wings long and point- 
ed. The Skimmers ( lihynchopince) have 
lower mandible much longer than upper, and 
both suddenly compressed from base, and 
truncate. 

6. FAMILY. Pelicans (Pelecanidae). Bill long, 
strong, pointed or hooked, lateral margins 
sometimes serrated ; nostrils basal ; tarsi 
short ; all the four toes connected by a mem- 
brane; throat sometimes furnished with a 
dilatable pouch ; wings long and pointed. 



KEPTILES. 

The Reptiles, though not a very extensive group, 
present numerous points of great interest to the 
observant naturalist. Among them is to be found 
extreme diversity of external configuration, more 
so, perhaps, than in any other class of vertebrate ani- 
mals. They include, among their varied forms, the 
gliding, hissing Serpent ; the lively, active Lizard; the 
gigantic Crocodile ; and the huge, unwieldy Turtle. 
Yet all these, though differing so much from each 
other in outward appearance, nevertheless possess 
a sufficient number of characters in common as to 
enable them to be united into one class. They are 
all cold-blooded creatures, and their movements are 
more sluggish than in either of the preceding classes; 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 53 

the size of the brain and the amount x>f nervous 
matter is proportionally small, and their motions 
appear to proceed less from a common centre. They 
abound more in the warmer regions of the globe, 
where they remain lively all the year through, while 
in colder climes they become torpid during the win- 
ter months. The typical family of Reptiles is that 
of Lizards, in which the essential characteristics are 
well marked, and the individuals belonging to which 
attain to a more advanced state of development, 
generally speaking, than any others of the group. 
Many possess an amount of beauty capable of arrest- 
ing the attention of any ordinary observer, their 
hues being rich and varied, and their actions grace- 
ful and agile. Few exceed in these particulars the 
handsome Green Lizard, so abundantly met with in 
the South of Europe, and which may there be seen 
basking on sunny banks, darting from spot to spot, 
or retreating hastily under some friendly rock to 
escape the gaze or the grasp of some too curious 
stranger. Presenting a striking contrast to this, is 
a wild, forbidding-looking reptile, aptly named by 
Gray "Moloch horridus," which, with its short, 
broad, dark-coloured body, armed at all points with 
sharp, bristling spines, and with an unshapely head, 
appears to be the incarnation of some mischievous 
imp or unclean spirit. The Skinks, with their curi- 
ously-rounded toes, the Blind -Snakes, with their 
extremities concealed under the skin, the limb-less 
Serpents progressing on their belly, or the strange 
Amphisbsenians, so named from being believed to 



54 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

advance by either end, also present singular and 
wonderful gradations. The Tortoises, lacustrine and 
terrestrial, with rounded bodies and more slug- 
gish motions, appear, at first sight, widely removed 
from the more slender and active creatures to which 
we have just alluded; yet these, as well as the ma- 
rine Turtles which propel themselves through the 
water by means of their fin-shaped extremities, alike 
agree in presenting all the essential characters of the 
class. New-Holland, so prolific in novel forms, sup- 
plies a Tortoise (Chelodina), whose long, swan-like 
neck, bearing a small head, with fierce-looking eyes, 
almost carries us back in fancy to those remote times 
when the somewhat similarly-constituted Plesiosau- 
rus moved through primeval waters, of which ani- 
mal this Australian species would seem to be a living 
representative. The Chameleon, so renowned in 
story and in fable, is one of the existing wonders of 
this class, and still condescends to exhibit to the 
amazed beholder its seemingly magical power of 
changing its complexion. The origin of the belief 
in some of the fabulous creatures of antiquity, as 
the Dragon or the Basilisk, may be traced to forms 
which prevail even in these matter-of-fact-days. 
The latter name is still retained by an elegant tro- 
pical Lizard, which has, however, lost the dread 
power of its namesake of old, and we still possess a 
Flying-Dragon, which, though terrible no longer, 
flits about with its wing-like appendages from tree 
to tree among the forests of the Indian Archipelago. 
A mystical member of this alliance is the semi- 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 55 

fabulous monster of our own times, the celebrated 
Sea-Serpent, whose existence, though repudiated by 
all sufficiently learned to be sceptical, still forms 
part of the creed of honest Jack-tars and other dwel- 
lers on the mighty deep, and which is reported still 
to pay an annual visit to the Scandinavian fisher- 
men on the shores of Norway. 

The flesh of many reptiles is eaten by the inhabi- 
tants of the countries in which they are found, and 
that of the turtle forms a very important item in the 
bill of fare of English epicures. In a really econo- 
mical point of view they are not of much import- 
ance, the principal product which they yield being 
" Tortoise-shell/' so extensively employed in the arts 
and manufactures. 

Though this class is now far from numerous, yet 
at one period of the earth's history Reptiles formed 
its principal inhabitants, and in size exceeded any- 
thing of the kind now extant. Oar crocodiles 
and boa-constrictors, the largest now in existence, 
were far outvied by the Saurians, whose fossil re- 
mains so abound in the lias and oolitic formations, 
among which the Megalosaurus and Ichthyosaurus 
may be noted for their almost colossal proportions ; 
while the Plesiosaurus, with its elongated neck, is 
no less remarkable for its singular fish-like contour. 
Among the terrestrial species of that era were the 
gigantic Iguanodon, and a strange, flying Lizard, 
named the Pterodactylus, which, with expanded 
wings, Bat-like, flitted through the air. 

All true Reptiles are air-breathing, and respire by 



56 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

-Hearts of lungs, to which, rule those which are 
aquatic form no exception, as they must obtain 
*heir supply of fresh atmospheric air by coming to 
the surface of the water. As far as regards man the 
majority are harmless, though some, as the Croco- 
diles and Alligators, will occasionally attack him ; and 
others, as the venomous Serpents, are justly feared, 
from the deadly nature of the secretion from their 
poison glands. 

In the following list, the arrangement followed is 
that given by Dr. Gray in his Catalogues of the Rep- 
tiles of the British Museum, which seems to be at 
once a convenient one, and also adapted to the pre- 
sent extent of our knowledge. The descriptions 
therefore of the orders and families, have been chiefly 
condensed from these valuable works. 

III. CLASS.- REPTILES (Reptilia). 

Air-breathing ; cold-blooded ; skeleton bony ; in- 
tegument clothed with horny plates, or imbricated 
scales, which are covered with a thin and often de- 
ciduous epidermis ; lungs cellular ; heart trilo- 
cular ; no transformation after birth ; reproduction 
oviparous.* 

I. SUB-CLASS. SCALY-REPTILES (Squamata). 

Body covered with overlapping scales ; skull 
formed of separate bones ; tongue free, elongate, 
nicked at tip, often extensile ; vent a cross slit ; 

* With some exceptions, as in the case of the " Viviparous Li- 
zard " (Zootoca vivipara) of our own country. 



MANUAL OF NATUKAL HISTORY. 57 

generative organs bifid ; oviparous, rarely ovovivipa- 
rous ; eggs when deposited with a more or less co- 
riaceous shell. 

I. ORDER. LIZARDS (Sauria). 

Mouth not dilatable ; jaws toothed ; lower jaw- 
bones united in front by a bony suture ; eyes gene- 
rally with distinct eyelids ; drum of ear generally 
distinct, exposed ; limbs 4, distinct, rarely rudimen- 
tary ; toes clawed ; body elongate, rounded, co- 
vered with imbricated or granular scales ; tail elon- 
gate, tapering, rarely prehensile, generally covered 
with whorls of scales ; eggs with hard skin. 

I. SUB-ORDER. SLENDER-TONGUED LIZARDS 

(Leptoglossata). 
Tongue flat, elongate, and bifid. 

1. TRIBE. CYCLOSAURIANS (Cyclosauria). 
Scales of belly square, in cross bands ; of back and 
tail rhombic and imbricate, or circular and sub-gra- 
nular, in cross-rings ; of sides generally granular ; 
tongue elongate, flattened, base sometimes sheathed, 
generally free, with two elongate, cylindrical, horny 
tips ; tail elongate, with whorls of scales, generally 
conical, tapering, sometimes compressed, with two 
elevated crests above. 

A. Head with small many-sided shields. Tongue 
sheathed at base. Sides flattish, granular. 

1, FAMILY. Monitors (Monitoridse). Head-shields 
minute, flattish, polygonal; tongue retrac- 
tile ; scales small, roundish, in cross rings, 



58 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

those of sides like those of back. Legs 4, 
strong. Toes 5-5, compressed, unequal. 
Thighs poreless. 

2. FAMILY. Galtetepons (Helodermidse). Head de- 

pressed ; head-shields many-sided, convex ; 
muzzle rounded ; femoral pores none ; scales 
of back and sides oblong, 6-sided, very convex ; 
of belly oblong, rather convex ; tail round, with 
oblong convex scales above, and flat, elon- 
gate, thin plates beneath; legs 4, strong; 
toes 5-5, curved. 

B. Head with large, regular shields. Tongue mostly 
free at base. 

3. FAMILY. Teguexins (Teidse). Head pyramidi- 

cal : shields regular, many-sided ; teeth solid, 
rooted ; tongue free, elongate, flat ; scales of 
back granular or keeled, rhombic ; sides flat, 
scales small, granular ; throat scaly, with a 
double collar. 

4. FAMILY. Lizards-proper (Lacertidse). Head pyra- 

midical ; shields regular, many-sided ; throat 
scaly, often with a cross fold in front, and a 
collar of larger scales behind ; tongue elon- 
gate, flat, long-forked ; teeth hollow, rooted ; 
scales granular or rhombic, keeled ; sides 
flat, scales small, granular. 

5. FAMILY. Gordyles (Zonuridse). Head pyramidal 

or depressed; shields regular, many-sided; 
tongue flat, nicked at tip ; scales of back 
and tail large, rhombic ; sides with a distinct 



MANUAL OP NATURAL HISTORY. 59 

longitudinal fold, with small granular scales ; 
ears distinct ; eyes with two valvular lids ; 
limbs 4, strong, rarely wanting, or hid 
under skin. 

6. FAMILY. Short-legged Lizards (Brachypodidse). 

Head-shields regular, many-sided ; temples 
shielded. Tongue squamose, with two small 
pointed -tips ; palate toothless ; nostrils late- 
ral; eyelid distinct; ears hidden ; limbs 4, 
rudimentary; femoral pores none; body elon- 
gate, cylindrical ; lateral fold indistinct ; 
scales of back and tail 4 or 6-sided, imbri- 
cate, in cross bands, of belly square. 

7. FAMILY. Argalias (Argaliidse). Head-shields 

regular ; cheeks, eyelids, and eye-brows 
shielded ; lower eyelid scaly, opaque ; nos- 
trils lateral, anterior ; body subcylindrical ; 
sides rounded, smooth; scales in thin, smooth, 
imbedded, transverse series, scarcely overlap- 
ping ; of back, sides, and tail 4-sided, longer 
than broad, in alternating series, of belly and 
under side of tail in longitudinal series, of 
limbs oblong ; limbs rather short, strong ; 
femoral pores distinct, numerous ; claws 
short, compressed ; tail cylindrical, tapering. 

8. FAMILY. Anadias (Anadiidae). Head-shields 

regular, many-sided ; ears distinct ; eyelids 
distinct ; scales of back and sides squarish, 
6-sided, thin, smooth, imbedded, in alternat- 
ing cross rings, of belly 4-sided, of tail 4- 
sided, in rings, one behind another, forming 



60 MANUAL OF NATUKAL HISTOKY. 

longitudinal series ; sides rounded ; scales 
of throat square ; toes 5-5, unequal, clawed ; 
nostrils in facial ridge ; temples shielded ; 
femoral pores numerous. 

9. FAMILY. Iphisas (Iphisidse). Head and chin 

shielded ; ear open, circular ; sides rounded ; 
scales of back, belly, nape, and throat smooth, 
broad, 6 -sided, transverse, forming a single 
series on each side of tail, narrow, lanceolate, 
elongate, regularly keeled, in rings alternat- 
ing with each other. 

10. Chirocoles (Heterodactylidse). Head-shields 

regular, many-sided ; tongue scaly ; palate 
toothless ; nostrils lateral ; eyelids distinct, 
lower transparent ; collar double ; ears hid- 
den ; body and tail elongate, subcylindrical ; 
scales of back, sides, and tail slender, 6- 
sided, lanceolate, keeled, imbricate, in regular 
rings, those of neighbouring rings alternating 
with each other, of belly square, smooth, im- 
bricate, in longitudinal series ; legs 4, short ; 
femoral pores numerous, in the centre of a scale. 

11. FAMILY. Ming-tailed Lizards (Cercosauridse). 

Head-shields many-sided ; upper eyelids very 
short ; ears distinct ; collar rather distinct ; 
body subcylindrical ; sides rounded ; scales of 
back, sides, and upper part of tail ringed, 
large, keeled, in longitudinal series ; of belly 
and tail beneath flat, square ; legs 4, mode- 
* rate ; toes 5-5, unequal, smooth beneath ; 

tail rounded. 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 61 

12. FAMILY. Anguine- Lizards (Chamsesauridse). 

Head-shields many-sided ; tongue nicked ; 
palate toothless ; temple scaly ; eyelids dis- 
tinct, lower scaly ; body subcylindrical, elon- 
gate, all except head covered with rings of 
elongate keeled scales in longitudinal series ; 
limbs rudimentary ; ears distinct ; no lateral 
groove. 

2. TRIBE. GEISSOSAURIANS (Geissosauria). 

Scales of belly, back, and sides rounded, quincun- 
cial, imbricate ; sides rounded, with scales like those 
of back ; tongue narrow, short, flat, and slightly 
nicked ; head with regular many-sided shields ; neck 
not contracted ; body fusiform or sub-cylindrical ; 
praeanal pores mostly none. 

A. Eyes distinct, exposed; eyelid rudimentary; 
head conical. 

13. FAMILY. Gape-eyed Skinks (Gymnophthalmi- 

dse). Body fusiform ; ears distinct ; eyelid 
circular, iinmoveable ; nostrils lateral in a 
nasal shield ; teeth conical, simple ; palate 
toothless ; tongue scaly, nicked ; limbs 4, 
weak, unequal ; femoral pores none. 

14. FAMILY. Pygopodes (Pygopodidse). Body cy- 

lindrical, elongate ; ears distinct ; eyelid rm- 
moveable, scaly ; head pyramidical, shielded ; 
nostrils oblong; teeth conical, simple, palate 
toothless ; tongue flat, scaly in front, velvety 
behind, nicked ; ventral shields in 2 or 4 



62 MANUAL OF NATUKAL HISTOKY. 

series ; tail with a central series of larger 
shields ; limbs 2, posterior, rudimentary. 

15. FAMILY. Aprasias (Aprasiidse). Body and tail 

cylindrical, tapering ; ears hidden ; nostrils 
small ; head small, half-conic, shielded ; muzzle 
rather produced ; eyelids edged with small 
scales ; pupil round ; scales of back and belly 
hexagonal ; limbs none ; prseanal pores none. 

16. FAMILY. Scaly-cheeked Lizards (LialisidaB). 

Body elongated, sub-cylindrical ; head elon- 
gated, depressed ; head- shields subimbricate, 
scale-like ; cheeks scaly, muzzle flattened ; 
eyelid scaly, pupil elliptical, erect; ears dis- 
tinct; scales oval, smooth, imbricate; belly 
with 2, tail with 1 series of large shields; 
limbs 2, posterior, short; series of prseanal 
pores in front edge of a scale. 

B. Eyes distinct; eyelids distinct , valvular; head 
conical. 

17. FAMILY. Skinks (Scincidse). Body fusiform, 

or sub -cylindrical; head sub-quadrangular, 
shielded ; nostrils lateral ; rostral plate mode- 
rate, triangular ; limbs 4, more or less strong, 
sometimes hidden; femoral pores none. 

18. FAMILY. Snake-Lizards (Ophiomoridse). Body 

cylindrical, elongate; head shielded, muzzle 
rather produced ; nostrils lateral ; teeth 
straight, conical, blunt ; palate not toothless ; 
tongue flat, scaly, feebly nicked ; ears hidden ; 
rostral moderate, triangular; limbs none ex- 
ternal ; scales smooth, 6-sided. 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 63 

19. FAMILY. Seps (Sepidse). Body fusiform or 

subcylindrical, elongate; tongue flat, scaly, 
nicked; teeth conical, simple; palate tooth- 
less ; rostral rather large, square ; scales 
smooth ; toes simple, unequal, clawed ; tail 
conical, pointed. 

20. FAMILY. Acontias (Acontiidse). Body cylin- 

drical ; head small, shielded ; muzzle coni- 
cal; upper eyelid small or wanting; ears 
very small or hidden; tongue scaly, imbri- 
cate, nicked; rostral large, cup-like; scales 
smooth ; limbs 4, very short, or none ; femo- 
ral pores none 

C. Eyes hidden under skin. 

21. FAMILY. African Blind-Lizards (Typhlinidae), 

Body and tail cylindrical ; head conical ; chin 
with a cup-like shield ; rostral rather large, 
cup-shaped ; ears hidden ; scales smooth, equal, 
6-sided ; limbs 2, posterior undivided, or none. 

22. FAMILY. Blind-Lizards (Typhlopidse). Body 

cylindrical, sometimes larger behind ; head 
broad, depressed; nostrils lateral; tongue 
elongate, flat, forked; mouth small, lineate, 
inferior ; rostral elongate ; scales 6-sided, 
smooth. 

23. FAMILY. Rough-Tails (UropeltidaB). Body cy- 

lindrical; head conical, compressed; nostrils 
roundish, lateral ; tongue elongate, flat, fork- 
ed; eyebrow-shields none; rostral produced, 
erect, convex ; scales 6-sided, smooth ; vent 
with three scales in front. 



64 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY 

IT. SUB-ORDER. THICK-TONGUED LIZARDS (Pachy- 
glossata). 

Tongue thick, convex, attached to the gullet at 
the base. 

3. TEIBE. NYCTISAURIANS (Nyctisauria). 

Scales of belly small, rhombic, imbricate ; of back 
and sides granular; tongue thick, short, convex, 
slightly nicked; eyes nocturnal; eyelids circular, 
not conni vent ; pupil linear, erect ; body depressed ; 
toes sub-equal, lamellar beneath. 

24. FAMILY. Gekkoes (Gekkonidse). Body depressed, 

sometimes fringed on the sides ; pupil linear, 
rarely round ; eyes nocturnal ; scales of belly 
small, rhombic, imbricate ; of back and sides 
granular; feet for walking; toes generally 
dilated. 

4. TRIBE. STROBILOSAURIANS (Strobilosauria). 

Scales of belly small, rhombic, imbricate ; of back 
and sides, imbricate; tongue thick, short, convex, 
slightly nicked ; eyes diurnal, eyelids valvular, pupil 
round; feet for walking, toes unequal, compressed; 
tail with more or less distinct whorls of scales. 

25. FAMILY. Iguanas (Iguanidse). Body com- 

pressed, sub-trigonal, or depressed; toes sim- 
ple or dilated; teeth round at root, dilated 
and compressed at tip, toothed on the edge, 
placed along inner side of jaws, just below 
the edge. 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 65 

26. FAMILY. Crested-Lizards (Draconidae). Body 

compressed; tongue short, depressed, apex 
entire, or slightly nicked ; eyelids connivent ; 
feet for walking; thumb anterior and inter- 
nal; great toe of hind foot occupies same 
position ; teeth on edge of jaw-bones ; live in 
trees. 

27. FAMILY. Spinous-Lizards (Agamidse). Body 

depressed; tongue short, depressed; eyelids 
valvular ; scales of back imbricate ; throat 
with a cross fold ; toes free, unequal ; terres- 
trial. 

5. TRIBE. DENDROSAURIANS (Dendrosauria). 

Scales of belly, sides, and back, granular; tongue 
elongate, sub-cylindrical, worm-like, very exsertile; 
eyes globular, very mobile, with a small, central, 
round opening; toes equal, united into two opposing 
groups ; ears hidden. 

25. FAMILY. Chameleons (Chamseleonidse). Body 
compressed; scales generally granular; tail 
prehensile; teeth implanted on edge of jaw- 
bones; males distinguished by thickness of 
base of tail ; slow-moving animals. 
The arrangement of the toes of the Chamelions 
into two opposing groups is beautifully adapted to 
their habits, enabling them to take a firm hold of 
what they crawl along, and almost quite to encircle 
small branches. The division of their toes is rather 
singular, on the fore feet two toes being external 
and three internal, while in the hind feet the num- 



66 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

bers are reversed, three being external and two in- 
ternal, so that their whole number of twenty toes 
may be looked on as arranged in four longitudinal 
series, each containing five. 

II. ORDER. SERPENTS (Ophidia). 

Mouth dilatable ; facial bones moveable ; jaws 
toothed ; lower jaw bones united by ligaments in 
in front ; eyes without eyelids ; external ears none ; 
tongue very long, retractile into a sheath at its base, 
apex forked, very long, slender, tapering ; limbs none, 
or only rudimentary ; one lung very large, the other 
very small or rudimentary. 

I. SUB-ORDER. VENOMOUS-SERPENTS (Viperina). 

Jaws weak, upper one toothless, with distinct poi- 
son-fangs in front, lower toothed ; head large behind ; 
crown with scales, rarely with shields ; hinder limbs 
not developed ; eyes lateral ; nostrils apical, lateral 

1. FAMILY. Rattle-Snakes (Crotalidse). Face with 

a large pit on each side, between eye and 
nostril ; crown covered with scales or small 
shields ; upper jaw with long fangs ; belly- 
shields broad, band-like ; anal spurs none; 
viviparous. 

2. FAMILY. Vipers (Yiparidse). Face without sub- 

orbital pits ; rostral shields broad, band-like ; 
scales mostly keeled ; tail short, tapering. 

II. SUB-ORDER. WATER-SERPENTS (Hydrina). 
Jaws strong, toothed ; fangs moderate, intermixed 



MANUAL OF NATUEAL HISTORY. 67 

with maxillary teeth ; eyes and nostrils superior ; 
pupils small, round ; hind-limbs not developed ; ven- 
tral shields narrow, hexagonal, or band-like. Live 
in water. 

3. FAMILY. Salt-Water Serpents (Hydrophidae), 

Head usually small, with shields or scales ; 
belly keeled, with two rows of small scale-like 
shields, often united together ; nostrils val- 
vular ; tail mostly broad, compressed ; colours 
chiefly green or yellow. Can live only for 
a short time out of water. Live in the sea 
or in salt lakes. Venomous. 
The genus " Ackrocordus" is included with this 
family by Gray, but its tail is conical It 
inhabits rivers, and in Manilla and Java, 
is considered by the inhabitants as quite 
innocuous. 

4. FAMILY. Fluviatile- Serpents (Homalopsidse). 

Belly rounded, with more or less broad band- 
like shields ; head moderate, often depressed, 
mostly shielded ; tail conical, tapering ; eyes 
and nostrils small ; colours mostly sombre. 
Inhabit rivers and ponds. 

III. SUB-ORDER. HARMLESS-SERPENTS (Colubrina). 

Jaws strong, both toothed ; no poison-fangs ; head 
moderate or indistinct ; crown at times with regular 
shields ; tongue very extensible. 

5. FAMILY. Boas (Boidse). Hinder-limbs rudimen- 

tary, spur -like ; nostrils lateral ; eyes lateral, 
pupils oblong ; ventral-shields narrow, trans- 



68 .MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

verse, band-like, often 6-sided ; tail short, 
conical, generally prehensile. Live in marshy 
places. 

6. FAMILY. -Serpents-proper (Colubridse). Vent 

without spur-like feet ; head usually shielded ; 
belly with broad band-like shields; nostrils 
apical, lateral, open; tail conical, tapering. 
Live chiefly in dry places. 

7. FAMILY. Grown- Serpents (Coronellidse). Size 

moderate or small ; body compressed, often 
angular ; scales generally smooth, temporal- 
scales large ; tail conical, rather long. In- 
habit dry or humid regions. 

8. FAMILY. Short-Headed Serpents (Oligodontidse). 

Size small ; head short, narrow, obtuse ; pala - 
tine teeth wanting ; colours mostly bright. 

9. FAMILY. Wood- Serpents (Herpetodryadidas). 

Form slender ; head elongate ; tail much 
lengthened ; mouth very wide ; scales small, 
partly carinated, in oblique series. Colours 
chiefly green. Live in woods. 

10. FAMILY. Tree-Serpents (Dendrophidse). Form 

elongated ; trunk compressed ; tail slender, 
in some angular ; head small, not broader 
than body ; pupils mostly orbicular ; colours 
generally vivid. 

11. FAMILY. Forest-Serpents (Dipsadidse). Body 

somewhat lengthened, vigorous, compressed; 
head thick, obtuse, broader than body ; pupils 
often vertical ; row of scales along spine 
larger than those of sides. 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 69 

"II. SUB-CLASS. SHIELDED-REPTILES (Cataphracta). 

Body covered with square imbedded plates, 
generally forming a dorsal and a ventral shield ; 
bones of skull thick, united into a hard mass ; tongue 
short, affixed to mouth, scarcely exsertible ; jaws 
united into a solid mass ; mouth not dilatable ; vent 
round or linear, plaited ; oviparous ; egg with a hard 
sheU. 

I. ORDER CHELONIANS (Chelonia). 

Body short, depressed, enclosed in a case, formed 
by two shields united at their margins ; jaws tooth- 
less ; upper bill covers lower like a box ; eyes with 
distinct eyelids ; drum of ear visible ; legs short, 
thick ; tail conical ; vent circular. 

1. FAMILY. Land-Tortoises (Testudinidse). Head 

ovate, shielded ; jaws naked ; nostrils apical ; 
neck retractile ; feet short, club-shaped ; claws 
5-4, or 4-4, blunt ; shell very solid, thick, 
ovate ; tail short, thick ; slow moving. 

2. FAMILY. River-Tortoises (Emydidse). Head 

rather depressed ; jaws naked; nostrils apical, 
small ; feet depressed, palmate ; toes 5-5, or 
4-4, mostly webbed to the claws ; claws sharp ; 
tail conical, shielded beneath ; thorax gene- 
rally depressed; pelvis united to vertebrae 
only; sternal shields 11 or 12 ; egg oblong, 
white ; carnivorous ; rapid. 

3. FAMILY. Long-necked Tortoises (Chelydidse). 

Head much depressed, broad ; nostrils elon- 
gate, tubular ; eyes superior ; jaws horny ; 



70 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

neck long, broad, contractile ; feet webbed ; 
toes 5-5 ; claws 5-5, 5-4, or 4-4, elongate, 
acute ; shell depressed ; pelvis attached to 
vertebrae and sternum ; sternal shields 13. 

4. FAMILY. Soft-Tortoises (Trionycidse). Head 

flattened, ovate ; eyes small, superior ; jaws 
horny, with dependant fleshy lips ; nostrils 
elongated into a thin cylindrical trunk ; neck 
long, contractile ; feet palmate, short, strong; 
toes 5-5, short, expanded, webbed ; two outer 
clawless ; claws 3-3, acute ; tail short, conical, 
simple ; bones covered with a soft skin with 
a flexible margin ; pelvis attached to verte- 
brae ; eggs spherical. 

5. FAMILY. Turtles (Cheloniidse). Head globose, 

shielded ; nostrils rather tubular ; jaws 
horny, naked ; neck short, sub-retractile ; 
feet very long, not retractile, compressed, fin- 
shaped ; toes depressed, with flat claws ; tail 
short, thick ; shell low, cordate, with a de- 
fined bony margin. 

II. OKDER. EMYDOSAURIANS (Emydosauria). 

Head large, covered with a thin skin ; ears linear ; 
gape wide ; tongue short ; jaws with a single series 
of conical teeth ; nostrils small, anterior ; eyes small ; 
body fusiform, covered with square bony plates in 
longitudinal lines ; limbs 4, free ; tail compressed 
vent linear, longitudinal. 
1. FAMILY. Gavials (Gavialidse). Muzzle very long, 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 71 

slender, sub-cylindrical ; teeth nearly equal ; 
feet webbed. Old World. 

2. FAMILY. Crocodiles (Crocodilidse). Body fusi- 

form ; muzzle oblong, depressed ; teeth un- 
equal; lower canines fit into notches in edge of 
upper jaw ; feet webbed. Old World chiefly. 

3. FAMILY Alligators (Alligatoridae). Muzzle 

broad, obtuse ; teeth unequal ; lower canines 
fit into a pit in edge of upper jaw; feet 
scarcely webbed. New World. 

III. ORDER. AMPHISB^ENIA^S (Amphisbsenia). 

Body elongate, cylindrical, naked, with square 
imbedded plates in cross rings ; tail short, conti- 
nuous, blunt ; tongue flat, not sheathed, nicked ; 
eyes small, hidden ; eyelids none ; ears hidden ; 
mouth small ; jaws not extensile ; feet none, or 
rarely in front ; skull very solid ; vent rather trans- 
versely plaited. 

1. FAMILY. Trigonophes (Trigonophidae). Teeth 

on edge of jaws, nearly united at base, un- 
equal, conical, rather compressed ; nostrils 
lateral, small, oval ; prseanal pores none ; limbs 
none. 

2. FAMILY. Double - Walkers (Amphisbsenidse). 

Teeth on inner side of jaws, conical, simple, 
pointed ; nostrils lateral, small ; nape with a 
longitudinal groove ; limbs none ; prseanal 
pores distinct ; tail short. 

3. FAMILY. Lepidosternons (Lepidosternidse). 

Teeth on inner side of jaws, conical, simple, 



72 MANUAL OF NATUEAL HISTORY. 

pointed; nostrils lateral, small, inferior ; chest 
covered with large and differently shaped 
shields from rest of body ; limbs none ; prae- 
anal pores none ; tail short, truncate. 
4. FAMILY. Chirotes (Chirotidse). Teeth on inner 
edge of jaws, conical, recurved, simple, point- 
ed, unequal, separate; limbs 2, anterior, short, 
weak ; toes 5, sub-equal, one clawless ; prse- 
anal pores distinct ; tail short, cylindrical. 



AMPHIBIANS. 

Until a recent period Amphibians were, by syste- 
matic writers, included under the head of Reptiles, 
constituting the Linnaean order of Batrachians ; but 
a more careful and attentive study of their develop- 
ment and structure, led to their being established as 
a separate class.* To the popular mind most of the 
members of this tribe are objects of the greatest ab- 
horrence, whereby many an unfortunate toad has 
been sacrificed at the shrine of vulgar prejudice. For- 
merly they were subjects of even more intense de- 
testation, so much so as to be commonly connected 
with what was then looked on as a deadly crime, 
viz., witchcraft ; and Shakspere mentions, among 
the contents of the witches' cauldron, not merely the 
persecuted toad, but likewise 

" Eye of newt, toe of frog." 

Nay, to such an extent was this belief carried, 

* By Latreille. Vide " Nouveau Dictionnaire d'Histoire Na- 
turelle," Ire. edition. 1804. 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 73 

that many an ancient crone, who, in a blazing tar- 
barrel, expiated at once her own ugliness and her 
supposed dealings with the evil one, was held to 
have her familiar spirit near her, encased in the out- 
ward form of some hateful reptile. 

But to the more enlightened understanding of the 
present age, Amphibians, though constituting by far 
the smallest class of vertebrate animals, have been 
shewn to present a vast number of singular and 
curious facts in their history, and in their habits, so 
as to yield to none in the interest they excite in the 
mind of the Zoologist. The most remarkable point 
connected with their development is, that they all 
undergo transformation after birth, being in early 
life entirely aquatic, respiring by gills, and at that 
period in most respects closely allied to fishes ; 
while, after a time, they throw aside their ichthyic 
characters, their gills disappear, and they come out 
as inhabitants of dry land, breathing like all other 
terrestrians, by means of lungs. A few, however, 
seem to be so attached to early habits as never to be 
able to dispense with their gills, which, therefore, 
they retain for life, at times more for ornament 
than for use. One individual, is named "Proteus," 
after his celebrated namesake of antiquity, whom he 
tries to imitate in a small way, having the external 
appearance of an Amphibian, but the manners of a 
Fish. In the young, or tadpole state, they generally 
have a long tail, which in many, on arriving at 
maturity, becomes atrophied and finally disappears. 
Altogether they constitute a most interesting transi- 



74 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

tion class, forming an intermediate, connecting link 
between Fishes on the one hand, and Reptiles on 
the other. 

Amphibians can hardly be said to play an import- 
ant part as far as man is concerned. The legs of the 
Edible-Frog (Rana esculenta) are eaten in France, 
where they are reckoned a great delicacy, fit only 
for the table of the opulent and dainty. In Mexico, 
another species, rejoicing in the almost unpronounc- 
able name of " Axolotl," is at times an article of food ; 
but from their small size and slight muscular deve- 
lopment, they cannot afford much nourishment. 
The different viscera of the Toad, or at times the 
entire animal dry roasted, and reduced to powder, 
formed in the good old times an article of Materia 
Medica, and entered into the composition of many a 
wonderful nostrum, and in Sir Kenelm Digby's 
"Choice and Experimented Receipts in Physick and 
Chirurgery," the calcined powder is ranked along 
with the " fat of a buck rabbit/' " powdered cock- 
chaffers," &c., as capable of performing wonderful 
cures. 

The Amphibians are here classified according to 
Professor Bell's plan, which seems to form a very 
natural arrangement. In the detail some of the 
families given may afterwards require to be united ; 
but as many of the genera are yet but imperfectly 
understood, it has been considered advisable rather 
to amplify the sub-divisions, as more useful for 
obtaining a practical acquaintance with the class. 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 75 

IV. CLASS-AMPHIBIANS (Amphibia). 

Respiration atmospheric or aquatic ; cold-blooded ; 
skeleton bony ; skin naked ; lungs cellular ; heart 
trilocular. Most (if not all) undergo a transforma- 
tion or metamorphosis after birth; re-production 
oviparous ; eggs with a soft shell. 

I. ORDER. TAIL-LESS AMPHIBIANS (Anoura). 

Body short, broad, depressed ; feet wanting during 
tadpole state, afterwards 4, hinder ones longer ; 
tail before metamorphosis long, compressed, after- 
wards wanting ; tympanum open or hid. 

1. FAMILY. Frogs (Ranidse). Body tapering ; head 

flat ; hind legs extremely long ; feet webbed ; 
skin smooth ; teeth on upper jaw and palate, 
minute ; tympanum open. 

2. FAMILY. Toads (Bufonidse). Body bulky; hind 

legs slightly elongated; skin covered with 
warts ; no teeth ; tympanum open ; avoid 
water. 

S. FAMILY. Palmate-Batrachians (Dactylethridse). 
Body short or oval ; skin smooth or tubercu- 
lated ; tongue wanting or distinct ; teeth 
minute or partly absent ; tympanum hid ; 
hind feet broadly palmate; toes pointed. 

4. FAMILY. Cell-backed Toads (Pipidse). Body flat- 
tened horizontally ; head triangular ; tongue 
wanting ; no teeth ; skin granulated ; tym- 
panum hid. In females, during fecundation, 
skin of back forms cells, in which the eggs 
are hatched. 

E2 



76 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

II. ORDER. GILL-LUNGED AMPHIBIANS (Amphipneurta). 

Body elongate, naked, smooth ; feet 4, or 2 ante- 
rior only, rudimentary ; toes short, weak ; tail com- 
pressed, persistent; eyes small; eyelids none; res- 
piration aquatic by means of persistent external 
branchise co-existing with rudimentary lungs. 

1. FAMILY. Proteans (Proteidse). Legs 4, weak ; 

tail compressed; gill-flaps distinct ; gills large ; 
palatine, teeth in two long series on front 
edge of vomerine bones. 

2. FAMILY. Sirens (Sirenidse). Legs 2, anterior; 

body sub-cylindrical ; operculum none ; gills 
small ; palatine teeth in numerous cross series 
on vomerine bones. 

III. ORDER. LONG-TAILED AMPHIBIANS (Urodela). 

Body elongate ; tail long, persistent ; limbs 4, 
weak ; skin naked, smooth, or warty ; ears hidden ; 
respiration at first aquatic by external branchiae, 
afterwards atmospheric by cellular lungs. 

1. FAMILY. Salamanders (Salamandridse). Tail 

compressed or round (remains compressed 
in aquatic species) ; palatine teeth in two 
diverging series, one on inner posterior edge 
of each elongate palatine bone ; sphenoid 
toothless ; females of some viviparous. 

2. FAMILY. Smooth-Salamanders (Molgidse). Head 

depressed ; tongue large ; tail rounded ; pala- 
tine teeth in two converging series along 
outer and posterior edge of each elongate 
palatine bone ; sphenoid toothless. 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 77 

3. FAMILY. Cross-toothed Salamanders (Plethodon- 
tidae). Skin smooth, rarely granular ; pala- 
tine teeth in interrupted cross series in front 
of palate ; sphenoid mostly toothed. 

IY. ORDER GILL-LESS AMPHIBIANS (Abranchia). 

Body elongate, formed for swimming; legs 4, 
rudimentary; tail compressed ; respiration by means 
of lungs only ; branchiae rudimentary, internal. 

1. FAMILY. Menopomas (Protonopsidse). Body 

depressed ; legs 4, strong, fringed on sides ; 
toes 4 or 5 ; head depressed ; palatine teeth 
in a transverse arched series. 

2. FAMILY. Amphiumas (Amphiumidse). Body 

very elongate ; head oblong; lips thick; gape 
small ; legs 4, rudimentary ; neck with a 
foramen on each side ; palatine teeth in two 
longitudinal diverging series. 

Y. ORDER. ANGUIFORM- AMPHIBIANS (Apoda). 

Body slender, elongate, anguiform ; feet none ; 

tail almost wanting ; branchiae exist in the young 

state, disappear in the adult.* 

1. FAMILY. Blind-Newts (Caeciliidse). Skin smooth, 
wrinkled, with minute scales ; head depressed ; 
eyes very small, mostly concealed beneath 
skin; gill opening closed in adults. 

* See Miiller in Oken's "Isis" for 1831, p. 710, or a translation 
by Mr. J. Hogg, in " Annals and Magazine of Natural History," vol. 
vii. 1841, p. 354. 



78 MANUAL OF NATUKAL HISTOKY. 

FISHES. 

Among the countless myriads of living creatures 
which inhabit the boundless domain of waters on 
our globe, none are more extensively diffused, or are 
more generally known to mankind than the finny 
tribes which we are now about to consider. They 
are found alike in salt and in fresh water ; in the 
former, whether it be the vast ocean, or the more 
restricted sea, gulf, or inlet; and in the latter they 
equally pervade lake, river, streamlet, or pond. None 
of their fellow inhabitants of the deep present greater 
diversity in size, form, or general configuration, and 
none more abound in points interesting to the human 
race. As fully two-thirds of the earth's surface are 
occupied by water, it may be easily supposed that 
fishes form considerably the largest division of the 
vertebrate sub-kingdom. In the zoological scale 
they stand lowest in the list of vertebrate animals ; 
that is to say, that although perfect in their own 
day and generation, they never attain to such an 
advanced state of general development as those 
classes which precede them. Their structure is 
admirably adapted for residence in the medium by 
which they are surrounded, as their bodies are nearly 
of the same specific gravity as the element which 
they inhabit, while their shape being that which 
offers the least amount of resistance, is no less beau- 
tifully calculated for favouring their powers of mo- 
tion. 

Being excluded from direct contact with atmos- 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 79 

pheric air, the oxygenation of their blood is depend- 
ant on the air dissolved in the water, which requires 
a special adaptation of their breathing apparatus. 
Accordingly we find that their permanent condition 
resembles that which is seen to exist in the young 
of the immediately preceding class of Amphibians, 
that is to say, they respire throughout their life by 
means of aquatic lungs or gills. By their agency 
the venous blood is exposed in a state of minute sub- 
division to the influence of streams of water, which 
is effected by the blood-vessels leading to them di- 
viding again and again until they become nearly 
microscopic, in which state they are supported by a 
thin, delicate membrane, the whole being arranged 
as a series of plates or processes placed on what are 
named the branchial arches. In the greater number 
of fishes the water meant to supply these vessels 
enters by the mouth, and, being directed backwards, 
passes over them, and is finally expelled by the gill- 
opening under the gill-cover or opercuLum. Fishes 
are cold-blooded animals ; that is, their temperature 
hardly exceeds that of the medium in which they 
live; yet to this there are some exceptions, as in the 
case of the " Bonito," mentioned by Dr. John Da- 
vey, whose temperature, he ascertained, surpassed 
that of the surrounding water by nearly ten degrees 
of Fahrenheit. Their chief propelling power is their 
tail, which acts by alternate strokes on either side, 
similar to the action of an oar in sculling. It is 
observed that their swiftness varies with the form 
of the tail ; that those whose velocity is very great, 



80 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

such as the Mackarel, have this organ deeply forked 
and pointed ; while in the more slowly-moving it is 
square or rounded. The projection backwards of 
water through the gill-aperture is also believed to 
have some effect in assisting their forward progress, 
which is also probably affected by the movements of 
their various fins. These last-named organs are 
among the most distinguishing objects of the class, 
and mostly consist of thin, delicate membranes, 
spread upon and supported by filaments or rays of 
more 'or less power and flexibility. These may be 
modified or divided in various ways, but an ac- 
quaintance with their names and situations is requi- 
site, as by their differences families and genera are 
often separated. When complete they are seven in 
number; viz., one on the back, named the dorsal; 
two attached to the breast, the pectoral; two ven- 
tral, one on either side of the belly; one anal, situ- 
ated along the under surface of the body; and one 
caudal, forming the tail. Of these the pectoral and 
ventral fins may be looked on as analogous to the 
fore and hind extremities of higher animals. The 
dorsal fin was formerly considered as influencing the 
perpendicular position of the fish in water, but from 
some experiments mentioned by Yarrell,* the idea 
would seem to be erroneous. The bodies of the 
greater number are covered with scales, which, how- 
ever, vary much in their size, shape, and arrange- 
ment. These are attached by their anterior edge 
being left free posteriorly. Four principal forms are 

* 2nd ed., vol. i. p. 365. 



MANUAL OF NATUKAL HISTOEY. 81 

described, of which some knowledge is required, as 
they are frequently mentioned in the following classi- 
fication. Agassiz has considered them of such im- 
portance that he has founded an arrangement on 
their differences, whereby fishes are divided into 
four orders, named respectively Ganoidians, Placoi- 
dians, Ctenoidians, and Cycloidians. Ganoid scales 
are so designated from their being covered with 
bright enamel ; they are mostly thick and angular. 
Species of this order chiefly belong to extinct forms, 
the Sturgeons, and a few others, being the only living 
representatives. Placoid scales are composed of hard 
osseous matter, sometimes large, at other times re- 
duced to small points, as when they form the prickly 
tubercles of the Skates. The third variety, or Ctenoid, 
derives its title from having the outer or posterior 
edge toothed like a comb. It is found occasionally 
in fossil genera, and is abundantly numerous among 
the Perches and other allied families. The last, or 
Cycloid, is that which is most characteristic of the 
fish of the present era, and is composed of smooth 
rounded layers of horny matter, entire at the mar- 
gins. 

The external configuration of fishes is extremely 
diversified. The most usual appearance is that of a 
cylindrical body, more or less pointed at the extre- 
mities. Others, as the common Cod, are broader 
anteriorly, and taper towards the tail. Some are 
short and broad, as the Chsetodons ; others, as the 
Eels, long and narrow. Some present a considerable 
thickness of body, as the Salmons ; while others, like 

E 5 



82 MANUAL OF NATUEAL HISTOKY. 

the Dealfish, are excessively thin. The mouth may 
be enormous as in the Fishing-Frog, or small, as in 
the File-Fishes ; it may be situated beneath as in 
the Rays, or at the end of a long tube as in the 
Trumpet-Fish. Their teeth may be large, sharp, and 
numerous, as in the hungry Sharks ; or they maybe 
perfectly toothless. They may carry about with 
them long, gracefully waving rays, as the Gemmeous- 
Dragonet ; be variously ornamented with leaf-like 
growths like the Phyllopteryx ; or be armed at all 
points with sharp spines as the Diodons. Their 
exteriors may be hard and resisting, as those of 
the well-named Trunk-fishes ; or soft and gelatinous, 
like the Lancelet or Myxine. Their nose may, as in 
some Breams, be snub, and not even so long as their 
chin ; it may confer an air of impudence as in the 
Lesser- Weever ; be a regular beak as in the Sea- 
Snipe ; or be so prolonged like that of the Sword- 
Fish, as to make its possessor formidable even to the 
mighty Leviathan of the deep. 

The eyes of fishes have been formed more to allow 
of ample power within a limited distance, than for 
extensive range of vision. In structure they vary 
from the simple eye-speck of the Amblyopsis to the 
singularly framed organ of the Anableps. They are 
most commonly situated one on either side of the 
head, but are sometimes brought more forwards. 
They may be far apart, as in the Hammer-headed 
Shark; be situated superiorly as in the star-gazing 
Uranoscopus; or, as in the Flounders and Skates, 
be placed both on one side of the head. 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 83 

One striking internal peculiarity of fishes must 
here be noted, viz., the possession of a swimming- 
bladder, or " sound/' as it is popularly termed. This 
organ, which is generally situated in the abdomen, 
laying close to the under surface of the back-bone, 
is, from various anatomical and physiological char- 
acters, which need not here be more than alluded to, 
considered to represent the lungs of air-breathing 
animals. It is found to exist in about three-fourths 
of the total amount of species, and is believed to be 
connected with their amount of buoyancy, as the 
greater number of those which do not possess it are 
ground fish. It is not found in the Sharks, as it 
might interfere with their power of turning on their 
side previously to seizing their prey. In a few it is 
thought to be subservient to the production of sound. 

Among fishes remarkable for peculiar individual 
properties, may be mentioned the Flying-Fishes, 
which, by means of their extended pectoral fins are 
enabled to^take flights, or leaps out of the water ; and 
which, while so engaged, form one of the strange 
sights of tropical seas. The Pegasi, or Flying Sea- 
Horses, also at times appear above the surface. There 
are likewise wandering Fishes, which, imbued per- 
haps, with a strong spirit of curiosity, like the 
"Tree-Climber" (Anabas testudineus), set out on 
their travels, leaving their native element, and pre- 
senting the singular sight of "fish out of water/' 
Some fishes, as the Gurnards, are known to utter 
strange sounds. A species of Pogonias, named the 
the "Organ/' or "Drum-fish/' mentioned in the 



84 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

" Account of the Voyage of the ' Samarang/ " * as- 
sembles in numbers, and holds a kind of " solemn 
aquatic concert ;" and lastly, the electric fishes, such 
as the Torpedo and Gymnotus, resent the rude in- 
terference of strangers in a very unpleasant manner. 

Fish are very important in an economical and 
commercial point of view, and are taken in great 
numbers for the sake of the food and other products 
they afford. Fisheries are encouraged and protected 
by all enlightened governments ; and in our coun- 
try, those more especially of the Cod, Ling, Coalfish, 
Torsk, Herring, Pilchard, Salmon, and Mackarel, 
afford employment to many thousands. The oil 
afforded by their livers is used for light by many 
northern races, and in Britain is also similarly em- 
ployed in places along the sea-coast. Of late, that 
yielded by the Cod, Haddock, and Skate has been 
extensively administered as a medicinal agent in 
consumption, with wonderful results. 

It is not, however, only in modern times or among 
civilized nations that fishes are sought after and 
prized ; as food they have been in use from the ear- 
liest times. Whole tribes have been recorded by 
Pliny, Strabo, and other ancient writers, as Ichthy- 
ophagi, or fish-eaters ; and among the most savage 
people, rude hooks and other implements for their 
capture are in constant employment. The spawn- 
ing season varies in different species. Previous to it, 
some migrate from fresh to salt water, others from 
salt to fresh, in their endeavours to attain which 

* Adams' Nat. Hist, of the Voyage of H.M. S. " Samarang," p. 259. 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 85 

many will encounter and overcome apparently in- 
surmountable obstacles. In ascending streams, Sal- 
mon and Trout take often wonderful leaps, clearing 
thereby small rapids and falls. The former species 
leaps farther and higher than the latter, which is 
used to measure the size and strength of falls in some 
North American rivers, a Salmon leap being more 
considerable than a Trout leap. At present consider- 
able attention is being paid to the artificial impreg- 
nation of fish-roe, a process which promises to prove 
of no little importance. 

The most simple and primitive division of fishes is 
into osseous and cartilaginous, according to the na- 
ture of the skeleton. This was done by Cuvier, who 
sub-divided the former from the nature and position 
of the fins. Agassiz, as before stated, proposed a 
classification founded on the shape and structure of 
the scales, which, however, being founded on one par- 
ticular system, may be looked on as somewhat artifi- 
cial. In the following arrangement, the orders have 
been taken from Professor Owen's modification of 
Miiller's classification; while the descriptions of fami- 
lies are mostly from Cuvier and Swainson. The more 
comprehensive families of Muller and Owen, however 
perfect in a philosophical point of view, or however 
well adapted for a work including mention of ge- 
nera, are not suited for our pages, as they would 
afford but little assistance to those most likely to 
require directions. The details have therefore been 
more amplified than they would otherwise have 
been. The terms " Endo-skeleton" and " Exo- 



86 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

skeleton/' are employed in the sense in which they 
are used by Owen, the former meaning the vertebral 
centre, with the attached bones ; and the latter im- 
plying the external, or what is often called the tegu- 
mentary covering of the body. 



V. CLASS. FISHES (Pisces). 

Live habitually in water ; cold-blooded ; respira- 
tion aquatic ; skeleton bony or cartilaginous ; body 
generally covered with scales ; heart bilocular ; no 
organ of prehension except mouth ; flexure of spine 
principally lateral ; reproduction oviparous.* 

I. ORDER. WIDE-MOUTHED FISHES (Plagiostomi). 

Endo-skeleton cartilaginous, or partially ossified ; 
exo-skeleton placoid ; gills with 5 or more gill aper- 
tures ; no swimming-bladder. 

I. SUB-ORDER. RAYS (Raiinse). 

Body horizontally flattened, and more or less dis- 

cous ; dorsal fins mostly on tail ; a peculiar (naso- 

pectoral) cartilage, arising from nasal part of skull, 

extends towards or meets anterior part of crest of 

pectoral fin ; branchial openings inferior. 

1. FAMILY. Horned-Rays (Cephalopteridse). Muzzle 

with two horn-like processes ; mouth before 

or beneath, very broad ; teeth very small, in 

some wanting in upper jaw ; tail as long, or 

longer than body, with a back-fin, and a spine. 

With many exceptions, such as the 'Viviparous Blenny ' (Z octrees 
viviparm) of our own shores. 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY 87 

2. FAMILY. Eagle-Rays (Myliobatidse). Head par- 

tially disengaged from pectorals ; mouth 
transverse ; teeth large, mosaic-like ; eyelids 
wanting ; tail long, with a back-fin on root, 
and a serrated sting behind. 

3. FAMILY. Sting-Rays (Trygonidse). Head la- 

terally enclosed by pectorals ; teeth trans- 
versely elliptical; tail without any fin, or 
merely a low, vertical, cuticular hem, and 
with one or more sharp serrated spines. 

4. FAMILY. Stingless-Rays (Anacanthidse). Teeth 

flat, transversely elliptical ; tail without any 
fin, or with a small one on under side ; no 
spine. 

5. FAMILY. Skates (Raiidse). Body rhomboidal; 

tail depressed, slender, generally with a low 
terminal fin, and frequently with rows of 
small spines ; skin smooth, or with small 
curved prickles ; teeth flat, pavement-like, 
and pointed in males in spawning time. 

6. FAMILY. Torpedos (Torpedinidse). Head very 

large and surrounded by pectorals, so as to 
form a circular disk ; tail short, fleshy, de- 
pressed at base, cylindrical at extremity ; 
mouth beneath ; teeth pointed or flat. 
Some members of this family are remarkable for 
their power of communicating at will powerful elec- 
tric shocks. The organs whence these proceed are 
two in number, lodged on either side of the head, 
and encompassed by the gills, and the anterior bor- ' 
ders of the pectoral fins. They consist of a mass of 



88 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

perpendicular, hexagonal columns, the ends of which 
are covered by the dorsal and ventral integuments. 
Each separate column, when recent, seems like a 
mass of clear trembling jelly ; but consists of a series 
of delicate membranous plates, inclosed by a proper 
capsule, and separated from each other by a small 
quantity of limpid, albuminous fluid. Each half of 
this electric battery derives its nervous influence 
from one branch of the trigeminal, and four branches 
of the vagus nerves. The battery is thus vertical, 
and its plates horizontal, and the direction of the 
current is from above downwards, the dorsal surface 
being positive, and the ventral negative.* 

7. FAMILY. Beaked-Rays (Rhinobatidse). Muzzle 

generally beaked and pointed ; mouth undu- 
lated ; teeth rounded or elliptical, in some 
broader than long, and longer on summit of 
undulations ; body smooth ; caudal fin bilo- 
bular, or cut obliquely, forming one lobe. 

8. FAMILY. Saw-Fishes (Pristidae). Snout pro- 

duced into a long, flat, osseous, saw-shaped 
blade, with teeth on the lateral edges ; body 
flattened before, somewhat elongated pos- 
teriorly ; skin with very small, flat, roundish, 
or six-cornered scales ; mouth beneath. 

II. SU-OfiDfiIt.SiLAKKS (Squalinse). 

Body elongated ; tail fleshy, thick ; branchial 
openings lateral ; skull without frontal cartilage. 

* See " Swainson's Natural History of Fishes," vol. i., p. 178 ; and 
" Owen's Lectures on Comparative Anatomy," vol. ii., p. 212. 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 89 

9. FAMILY. Hammer-headed Sharks (Zyggenidse). 
Head excessively elongated on either side, so 
as to resemble a hammer; eyes remote, on the 
lateral ends ; teeth serrated in adults. 

10. FAMILY. Angel -Fishes (Squatinidse). Body 

flat above and below ; mouth at fore end of 
snout ; eyes on dorsal aspect ; pectorals large, 
expanded anteriorly. 

11. FAMILY. Greenland-Sharks (Scymniidse). Head 

flat, or compressed on sides, obtusely pointed ; 
mouth beneath ; dorsal fins without spines ; 
gill-openings small. 

12. FAMILY. Fox-Sharks (Alopeciidse). Snout short 

and rounded ; teeth sharp, triangular ; bran- 
chial openings small ; tail unequally divided, 
upper lobe greatly prolonged, so as nearly to 
equal length of body. 

13. FAMILY. Porbeagles (Lamniidse). Branchial 

openings large ; spiracles very small ; caudal 
fin crescentic, with a lateral keel ; second dor- 
sal and anal fin opposite each other. 

14. FAMILY. True-Sharks (Squalidse). Body elon- 

gate, sub-cylindrical ; head flat ; mouth con- 
vex ; teeth sharp-edged and pointed, mostly 
serrated ; no spiracles in adult ; dorsal-fins 
two, the second opposite anal fin ; tail with 
a short under lobe. 

15. FAMILY. Topes (Galeidse). Head flat ; snout 

pointed or blunt ; teeth in both jaws alike, 
flat or pointed, sharp-edged, sometimes ser- 
rated along one or both edges ; spiracles small 



90 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

or large ; tail-pits indistinct, or wanting ; 
under lobe of caudal-fin abortive in some; 
upper lobe notched. 

16. FAMILY. Spotted Dog-Fishes (Scylliidse). Snout 

generally obtuse ; teeth tricuspidate ; an anal 
and two dorsal fins ; first -dorsal opposite, or 
behind abdominal fins, never before ; caudal 
none ; spiracles distinct, generally large ; 
colours lively. 

17. FAMILY. Piked Dog-Fishes (Spinacidse). Strong, 

sharp spine before each dorsal fin ; skin 
rough in one direction ; teeth in both jaws, 
mostly small, sharp, and cutting. 

18. FAMILY. Gray-Sharks (Notidanidae). Head 

flat ; branchial openings six or seven, decreas- 
ing in size from first to last ; one dorsal fin ; 
tail-fin with a small under lobe, notched at 
the end, obliquely or directly truncated. 

19. FAMILY. Cestracions (Cestraciontidse). Bran- 

'* chial openings small; mouth at fore-end of 
snout; teeth pavement-like, anterior rows 
small and pointed ; spiracles small ; a prickle 
or sting before each dorsal fin ; tail-fin short, 
with distinct under lobe. 

II. ORDER FALSE-SHARKS (Holocephali). 

Endo-skeleton cartilaginous ; exo-skeleton as pla- 
coid granules ; most of the fins with a strong spine 
for the first ray ; gills laminated, attached by their 
margins ; a single external gill-aperture; no swim- 
ming-bladder. 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 91 

1. FAMILY. Chimceras (Chimseridas). Beak conical, 
in some ending in a foliaceous appendage ; 
one external branchial opening, with five ter- 
minal sub-divisions ; tail long, attenuated, 
and pointed ; dorsals contiguous or remote ; 
jaws furnished with hard plates instead of 
teeth. 

III. ORDER -^AMPHIBIAN-FISHES (Protopteri). 

Endo-skeleton partly osseous, partly cartilaginous ; 
exo-skeleton as cycloid scales ; pectorals and ven- 
trals as flexible filaments ; gills filamentary, free, 
swimming-bladder as a double lung, with an air- 
duct. 

1. FAMILY. Lepidosirens (Lepidosirenidse). Body 
lengthened, or long, covered with scales ; sur- 
face of body spotted; gill-filaments, in some, 
tripinnatifid ; ribs 36 to 55 pairs. Inhabit 
marshy spots. Some remain torpid under 
ground during dry season. 

Obs. The position of this singular creature in the animal 
kingdom has been keenly debated. It possesses in nearly 
equal proportion characters of an Amphibian and of a 
Fish, and it has accordingly been arranged by different 
authorities in one or other of these two classes. The 
former are held to predominate by Milne - Edwards, 
Bischoff, and Gray, while by Owen and by Muller the 
latter are believed to deserve the preference. In accord- 
ance with the views of these last, and until further enqui- 
ries finally decide the matter, it has been deemed advisable 
to continue it among the fishes. Its ichthyic claims have 
been favoured by Owen upon the " accumulative evideace of 



92 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY 

the structure of its dernal, dental, osseous, digestive, sen- 
sitive, and generative systems," but especially from the 
construction of the nasal cavity, and the microscopic cha- 
racter of the teeth and ossified parts of the endo-skeleton. 
Its amphibian alliance is again chiefly supported by the au- 
ricle of the heart being double, and by the large size of 
the blood discs. But three species are as yet known; one 
from the Amazon (L. paradoxa), one from the Gambia 
(L. annectens), and the third (L. amphibia), discovered by 
Dr. Peters, from the Quillemane marshes. Possibly these 
may represent genera, for which the names of Lepidosiren, 
Protopterus, and Rhinocryptis have been proposed to be 
respectively appropriated. For further information, see 
"Fitzinger," in "Wiegmann's Archiv," 1837, p. 232; 
" Lepidosiren paradoxa," von Johann Natterer, Annalen 
des Wiener Museums der Naturgeschichte, 1837, vol. ii. 
p. 165; "Owen," in Linn. Trans., vol. xviii. ; "Owen's 
Odontography," vol. i. p. 166; "Milne -Edwards," in 
"Ann. des Scien. Natur.," Sept. 1840, p. 159, and in 
" Ann. and Mag. of Nat. Hist." vol. vi. 1841, p. 466 : also 
papers, &c., by Jardine, Owen, Hogg, Muller, Smith, and 
Gulliver, in "Ann. and Mag. of Nat. Hist." vol. vii. 1841, 
pp. 21, 211, 358; xvi. 1845, p. 348; and ii. 1848, p. 292; 
"Owen's Lectures on Comp. Anat." vol. ii. pp. 78, 278 ; 
"Gray's Brit. Mus. Cat. of Amphibia," P. ii. p. 61. 

IY. ORDER GANOID-FISHES (Ganoidei). 

Endo-skeleton in some osseous, in some cartilagi- 
nous, in some partly osseous and partly cartilagi- 
nous ; exo-skeleton ganoid ; fins with the first ray 
usually a strong spine; a swimming-bladder; 1 air- 
duct. 



MANUAL OF NATUEAL HISTORY. 93 

1. SUB-ORDER. CARTILAGINOUS GANOID-FISHES 
(Chondrostei). 

Skeleton partly cartilaginous ; vertebral column 
contains a soft chorda instead of vertebral bodies. 

1. FAMILY. Sturgeons (Acipenseridse). Body co- 

vered with large indurated plates or tuber- 
cles; mouth beneath, cirrhated; bony jaws 
perform office of teeth, 

2. FAMILY. Spoonbill-Sturgeons (Polyodontidse). 

Body without any tubercles or bony plates ; 
muzzle excessively prolonged into a flat lan- 
ceolate plate ; opercula absent. 

2. SUB-ORDER. OSSEOUS GANOID-FISHES (Holostei). 

Vertebral column osseous. 

3. FAMILY. Bichirs (Polypteridse). Body anguil- 

liform, with hard scales; upper jaw not di- 
vided ; dorsal fin sub-divided into a row of 
perfect, distinct finlets; gill-membrane cleft; 
no opercular-gill, or pseudo-branchia ; a blow- 
ing-hole on each side with an osseous valve ; 
pectorals pedunculated ; swimming-bladder 
double. 

4. FAMILY. Diamond-Fishes* (Lepisosteidae). Head 

and body mailed with thick plates and scales 
of stony hardness; upper jaw composed of 
several pieces; gill-membrane undivided, 
3-rayed; a respiratory opercular-gill and 
pseudo-branchia; no blowing-hole; anterior 
margin of fins covered with two rows of 

* Called also "Bony-Pikes." 



94 MANUAL OF NATUKAL HISTORY. 

spinous scales; caudal fin truncate or bilobed 
swimming-bladder cellular. 

5. FAMILY. Amias (Amiidse). Form elongate 
head rounded; hard buckler on lower jaw, 
conical teeth on edges of jaw, and pavement- 
like ones behind ; scales soft, without enamel, 
flexible, and rounded ; no opercular accessory 
gills ; no fulcra on fin-margins ; swimming- 
bladder cellular. 

Y. ORDER TUFTED-GILL FISHES (Lophobranchii). 

Endo-skeleton partially ossified ; exo-skeleton ga- 
noid; gills tufted; opercular aperture small; swim- 
ming-bladder without air-duct. 

1. FAMILY. Pipe-Fishes (Syngnathidse). Body 

prolonged, slender, linear, or angulated ; snout 
greatly prolonged, cylindrical ; mouth termi- 
nal, vertical ; ventral fins absent ; caudal fin 
wanting in some. 

2. FAMILY. Sea-Horses (Hippocampidse). Head 

and body compressed ; snout narrow, tubu- 
lar ; mouth terminal ; pectorals small ; dorsal 
single ; caudal fin wanting. 

3. FAMILY. Winged Sea-Horses (Pegasidse). Body 

broad, depressed ; snout suddenly contracted, 
narrow, somewhat protractile; mouth ter- 
minal, beneath; pectorals generally large; 
caudal fin small. 

VI. ORDER. SOLDERED-JAW FISHES (Plectognathi). 

Endo-skeleton partially ossified ; exo-skeleton as 
ganoid scales or spines ; maxillaries and pre-maxil- 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 95 

laries fixed together; swimming-bladder without 
air-duct. 

1. FAMILY. Sun-Fishes (Cephalidse). Body oval 

or orbicular, compressed, spineless, not capa- 
ble of inflation ; jaws undivided ; dorsal, 
caudal, and anal fins united. 

2. FAMILY. Globe-Fishes (Gynmodontidse). Body 

oval, scabrous or defended by prickles or by 
spines ; belly capable of being greatly in- 
flated ; teeth none ; jaws in some divided, 
giving the appearance of teeth. 

3. FAMILY. Trunk-Fishes (Ostraciontidse). Body 

smooth, triangular, or quadrangular, covered 
by angulated bony plates, soldered at su- 
tures ; dorsal single ; ventral none. 
4 FAMILY. File-Fishes (Balistidse). Body com- 
pressed; skin coriaceous, granulated; muzzle 
prolonged ; mouth very small ; a few sharp 
teeth in each jaw ; dorsals 2, ventral single. 

VII. ORDER. SPINY-FISHES (Acanthopteri). 

Endo-skeleton ossified; exo-skeleton as ctenoid 
scales ; fins with one or more of first rays unjointed, 
or inflexible spines ; ventrals in most beneath, or in 
advance of the pectorals ; swimming-bladder with- 
out air-duct. 

1. FAMILY. Fishing-Frogs (Lophiidse). Head very 
large, much flattened, often spiny or tuber- 
culated; body depressed; tail small, com- 
pressed ; skin naked; mouth often very wide, 
cleft horizontally ; pectorals pedunculated. 



96 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

2. FAMILY. Hand-Fishes (Chironectidse). Body 

naked, thick, generally compressed, some- 
times tuberculated, no scales; mouth cleft 
vertically, lower jaw longest ; pectorals pe- 
dunculated, capable of being used as feet. 

3. FAMILY. Blenny-Bullheads (Batrachidse). Head 

broader than body, obtuse, depressed, with 
slender cirrhi ; no distinct spines or bony 
tubercles; scales small, regular, sometimes 
embedded in skin and not visible externally 
pectorals broad, not pedunculated ; mouth 
wide, not vertical ; ventrals very small, 

4. FAMILY. Blennies (Blenniidae). Body com- 

pressed ; ventrals before pectorals, very slen- 
der, of two or three cylindrical rays ; head 
thick, obtuse ; lips fleshy ; body covered with 
a slimy mucus; dorsal fins composed of 
spinous and soft rays. 

5. FAMILY. Gobies (Gobiidse). Body elongated, 

slimy ; head large, depressed ; dorsal fins 
two, rays thin, setaceous, and flexible ; ven- 
trals united into a funnel ; eyes approxi- 
mating. 

6. FAMILY. Dragonets (Callionyniidse). Head and 

body depressed ; first dorsal rays in some 
much elevated ; ventrals larger than pecto- 
rals, distinct, shortest rays, in some, in front j 
in some, wanting. 

7. FAMILY. Suckers (Cyclopteridse). Body ovoid 

or oblong, slimy, scales none ; pectorals very 
broad, and uniting with a transverse mem- 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 97 

ferane connecting the ventrals, forming an 
oval, concave disk ; branchial spiracle one ; 
eyes on each side, approximating. 

8. FAMILY. Sucking-Fishes (Echeneidae). Body 

lengthened, sub-anguilliform, covered with 
small scales ; crown flat, bearing a flattened 
disk, composed of moveable, transverse, car- 
tilaginous laminse, placed obliquely back- 
wards; mouth cleft horizontally. 

9. FAMILY. Slender -rayed Blennies (Chiridse), 

Body compressed ; dorsal rays slender ; ven- 
trals distinct ; several lateral rows of pores 
along side of body ; mouth slightly cleft. 

10. FAMILY. Wolf -Fishes (Anarrhichadidae). Body 

elongate, slightly compressed j dorsal, caudal, 
and anal fins united ; rays soft. 

11. FAMILY. Flute-Mouths (Fistulariidee). Body 

long, slender, linear ; scales none j long tubu- 
Jar projection in front of cranium formed by 
an extension of anterior cranial and facial 
bones ; mouth terminal, vertical. 

12. FAMILY. Sea-Snipes (Centriscidse). Body oval 

or oblong, unelongated, compressed ; snout 
tubular, prolonged ; first dorsal spines long ; 
body covered with scales, or mailed with 
broad scaly pieces. 

13. FAMILY. Lancet-Fishes (Acanthuridse). Body 

compressed, ovate or oblong ; tail armed with 
lateral spines ; dorsal single ; mouth small, 
slightly or not at all protractile. (Theutyes, 
Cuv.) 



98 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

14 FAMILY. Riband-Fishes (Gymnetridse). Body 
very long, thin, and compressed ; head large, 
generally truncate ; eyes very large ; mouth 
nearly vertical ; consistence soft ; rays fragile. 

15. FAMILY. Star-scaled Dolphins (Astrodermidse). 

Crown gibbous, obtuse ; mouth and eyes very 
small ; ventrals on the throat, nearly obso- 
lete, first ray serrated ; body with scattered, 
detached, star-like scales. 

16. FAMILY. Scabbard-Fishes (Trichiuridse). Yen- 

trals rudimentary or wanting ; finlets none ; 
body narrow, linear; jaws lengthened, the 
under the longest ; chin pointed ; teeth ge- 
nerally large, remote, unequal, and acute. 

17. FAMILY. Pomfrets (Stromateidae). Body very 

thin, short, rhomboid ; back with minute 
prickles ; head obtuse ; ventrals generally none ; 
scales minute ; apparently two lateral lines. 

18. FAMILY. Fish-Dolphins (Coryphsenidse). Body 

compressed, oblong, slender ; scales small, nu- 
merous ; head large ; crown gibbous ; pecto- 
rals falcate ; eyes close to angle of mouth. 

19. FAMILY. Dories (Zeidse). Body stout, oval, or 

rhomboid, very broad in middle, and exces- 
sively thin ; mouth small compared with size 
of head, often protractile ; dorsal generally 
single ; caudal sometimes forked ; scales mi- 
nute or none. 

20. FAMILY. Spiny - Mackar els (Centronotidae). 

Body lengthened or oblong ; spines in front 
of dorsal ; dorsals two, not connected ; ven- 
trals perfect ; scales generally very small 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 99 

21. FAMILY. Spine-Backs (Notocanthidse). Body 

anguilliform, much compressed ; dorsal and 
anal, when present, very long, and close to 
caudal which is small ; series of free, detached 
spines before dorsal ; snout produced. 

22. FAMILY. Scale-less Mackarels (Alepisauridse). 

Body lengthened, linear, much compressed ; 
head lengthened, pointed ; teeth large, un- 
equal, very acute ; mouth wide ; two dorsals, 
the hinder adipose ; scales none. 

23. FAMILY. Sword-Fishes (Xiphiidse). Upper jaw 

excessively prolonged, considerably flattened 
above, the edges sharp ; mouth beneath ; ven- 
trals either wanting, or a single inflexible 
bone in each. 

24. FAMILY. Mackarels (Scomberidse). Body ob- 

long, lengthened, smooth, covered with very 
small scales ; caudal fin deeply forked, large; 
tail often bearing spurious finlets ; no fleshy 
lips ; dorsals two, in some close together. 

25. FAMILY. Climbing-Fishes (Anabatidse). Body 

ovate, sub-fusiform, or cylindrical ; dorsal fin 
single, mostly with spinous rays ; upper pha- 
ryngeals of branchia divided into numerous 
small, irregular lamellae, forming small cells, 
in which they have the power of retaining 
water, for moistening the gills when the ani- 
mal is on shore ; dorsal single ; ventral gene- 
rally extremely long, narrow, and ending in 
a filament. 

The members of this family are remarkable for 

F 2 



100 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

the property they possess of being able to 
crawl out of the water, being enabled to re- 
spire by means of the water contained in the 
labyrinthic cells connected with the gills. 
Some species are exhibited for this purpose 
by Indian jugglers. (Labyrinthici, Cuv.) 

26. FAMILY. Stickle-Backs (Gasterosteidse). Body 

oblong, or linear ; back armed with a row of 
small spines, or prickles ; snout often pro- 
longed into a tube. 

27. FAMILY. Sea-Pikes (Sphyrsenidse). Body li- 

near ; jaws produced, broader than high ; 
teeth strong, those in front much lengthened ; 
dorsals two, triangular, remote ; ventral under 
first dorsal. 

28. FAMILY. Gray-Mullets (Mugilidse). Body ob- 

long, sub-cylindrical ; scales large ; snout 
short, obtuse, generally projecting beyond 
mouth ; dorsals two, remote, the first of 
strong spiny rays ; teeth very small ; eyes 
large, close to snout ; caudal fin forked, or 
lunated. 

29. FAMILY. Sea-Breams (Sparidae). Fins naked ; 

pectorals pointed ; caudal fin forked ; no 
spines on operculum ; pre-operculum smooth ; 
snout not gibbous ; teeth strong, none on 
palatines. 

30. FAMILY. Maigres (Sciaenidse). Fins generally 

scaled at base ; operculum armed with spines ; 
pre-operculum serrated ; teeth strong ; none 
on vomer or palatines ; bones of cranium and 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 101 

face generally cavernous ; snout more or less 
obtuse ; dorsals two or one. 

31. FAMILY. Ckcetodons (Chsetodontidae). Body 

short, broad, much compressed ; dorsal, cau- 
dal, and anal fins thickly covered with minute 
scales ; mouth very small ; teeth setaceous, 
long ; dorsal fin generally single. 

32. FAMILY. Nendoles (Moenidse). Body oblong 

or fusiform ; upper jaw extremely exten- 
sible ; teeth small, fine, crowded ; covered with 
scales ; caudal generally forked or lunate. 

33. FAMILY. Riband-Gurnards (Lepidosomatidae). 

Body anguilliform, sword-shaped, very thin, 
covered with osseous scales, rough, and be- 
set with small acute spines ; head depressed, 
mailed ; dorsals two, the first small, the se- 
cond long, and united with anal and caudal ; 
ventrals small. 

34. FAMILY. Gurnards (Triglictee). Head co- 

vered with bony plates resembling armour, 
and defended with large spinous processes ; 
scales rough, cuspidate, or prickly ; caudal 
fin generally lunate ; distinct finger-like pro- 
cesses generally placed at base of pectorals ; 
pectorals often very large. 

35. FAMILY. Sea-Scorpions (Scorpsenidse). Head 

compressed ; mouth opens horizontally ; body 
generally covered with smooth scales ; eyes 
prominent, lateral ; pectorals with some of 
lower rays detached, but without digitated 
.processes. 



102 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

36. FAMILY. Hog -Fishes (Synanchiidas). Body 
naked, without scales, thick, gross, often de- 
formed with fungus, or spongy skin, with 
fleshy lobes, or cirrhi on sides ; head spinous, 
directed upwards; eyes small, close to or 
upon crown ; mouth large, vertical ; pectorals 
large, often very long. 

37- FAMILY. Weevers (Trachinidae). Body ovate 
or elongate ; head compressed or cuboid ; 
mouth and eyes mostly vertical; body co- 
vered with compact scales ; ventral before 
pectorals, very small in some. 

38. FAMILY. Flat-Heads (Platycephalidae). Head 

and body broad, and depressed ; eyes large, 
vertical ; ventrals large j dorsals two ; body 
scaly ; no tubercles or filaments on head. 

39. FAMILY. Mailed-Bullheads (Agonidas). Body 

angulated, generally long and slender, co- 
vered with mailed plates ; jaws prolonged, 
somewhat tubular ; no teeth on vomer ; ven- 
trals of two rays, very small. 

40. FAMILY. Bullheads (Cottidae). Head large, 

broad, depressed, armed with spines and tu- 
bercles ; mouth large ; small teeth on jaws 
and vomer, none on palate ; body naked, or 
with patches only of minute scales; dorsals 
generally two, either separate, or united at 
base ; ventrals small, imperfect, behind pec- 
torals. 

41. FAMILY. Surmullets (Mullidse). Body obovate, 

anterior part thicker than posterior ; head 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 103 

large, high ; profile abrupt, sub-vertical ; eyes 
lateral, close to crown ; mouth and teeth very 
small ; ventral profile of fish nearly straight ; 
opercula denticulated ; covered along the 
body with large deciduous scales ; dorsals 
two, remote ; caudal fin forked ; two fleshy 
cirrhi beneath lower jaw. 

42. FAMILY. Naked-headed Perches (Helotidae). 

Head and muzzle naked ; dorsal fin one, 
deeply emarginate ; dorsal, and often anal 
fins sheathed at base with scales ; pectorals 
pointed ; spines on middle of operculum ; 
jaw-teeth numerous, small, close-set. 

43. FAMILY. Spiny-headed Perches (Holocentridse). 

Body covered with hard, rough, or denticu- 
lated scales, or mailed plates ; head very 
spiny ; mouth often oblique ; dorsal emar- 
ginate. 

44> FAMILY. Serpentiform- Perches (Percophidse). 
Body ovate, or lengthened; ventrals before 
pectorals ; dorsals entire, mostly single ; spi- 
nal rays weaker, and shorter than the others. 

45. FAMILY. Sea-Perches (Serranidse). Body ob- 

long ; dorsal fin single, emarginate ; branchial 
membrane mostly with seven rays ; jaws 
with strong canines. 

46. FAMILY. Perches (Percidse). Body oblong; 

scales distinct, generally hard or rough ; teeth 
in jaws, on vomer and palate ; operculum 
spined ; pre-operculum serrated ; dorsal fins 
two, distinct ; no canines. 



104; MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

VIII. ORDER. SPINE-LESS FISHES (Anacanthini). 

Endo-skeleton ossified ; exo-skeleton in some as 
cycloid, in others as ctenoid scales ; fins supported 
by flexible or jointed rays ; ventrals beneath pec- 
torals, or none ; swimming-bladder without air-duct. 

I. S UB-ORDER. THORACIC SPIXE-LESS FISHES 
(Thoracici). 

1. FAMILY. Flat-Fishes (Pleuronectidse). Body oval, 

very thin ; dorsal and ventral fins extend 
nearly whole length of fish ; head non-sym- 
metrical ; both eyes on same side of head ; 
swim on the side ; seldom quit the bottom. 

2. FAMILY. Anguilliform God-Fishes (Brotulidse). 

Body anguilliform ; scales very small ; dorsal 
fin one, united to caudal and anal, termi- 
nating in a point. 

3. FAMILY. Torsks (Brosmiidse). Body elongated ; 

dorsal fin one, long, extending whole length 
of body ; ventrals fleshy. 

4 FAMILY. Forked-Beards (Phycidse). Head broad, 
depressed ; dorsal fins two ; ventral fins with 
posterior rays obsolete, or altogether wanting, 
the anterior rays being prolonged and forked ; 
chin furnished with a cirrhus. 

5. FAMILY. Hakes (Merlucciida3). Body elongate ; 

dorsals fins two, the first sometimes composed 
of fleshy filaments, and scarcely perceptible ; 
anal fin one ', ventrals with five distinct rays. 

6. FAMILY. God-Fishes (Gadida3). Body slimy; 

scales very small; fins fleshy; all the rays 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTOEY. 105 

soft, and covered with the common skin ; 
head large, depressed ; body more or less 
lengthened, compressed ; dorsal fins three ; 
anal two ; ventrals very small. 

II. SUB-ORDER. APODAL SPINE-LESS FISHES 

(Apodes). 

7. FAMILY. Donzelles (Ophidiidse). Body anguil- 
liform, compressed, fins more or less fleshy ; 
ventrals obsolete ; dorsal, caudal and anal 
fins united ; body invested with small scales 
in the thickness of the skin. 
IX. ORDEK. PHARYNGEAL FISHES (Pharyngognathi). 

Endo-skeleton ossified ; exo-skeleton in some as 
cycloid, in others as ctenoid scales ; inferior pharyn- 
geal bones coalesced ; swimming-bladder without 
duct. 

I. SUB-ORDER. SPINY PHARYNGEAL-FISHES 
(Acanthopterygii). 

1. FAMILY. Ctenoid -Wrasses (Cteno - Labridse). 

Body oval ; pre-operculum mostly dentated ; 
lateral line interrupted ; colours diversified ; 
scales ctenoid. 

2. FAMILY. Cycloid - Wrasses (Cyclo - Labridse). 

Body oval or fusiform, scaly; colours bril- 
liant ; lips thick, fleshy ; cutting teeth sharp, 
simple, distinct ; those in front longest ; oper- 
culum smooth ; pre-operculum sometimes ser- 
rated ; lateral line abruptly bent, or totally 
interrupted at end of dorsal fin ; scales cycloid. 

3. FAMILY. Parrot-Fishes (Scarid^e). Head and 

F 5 



106 MANUAL OF NATUKAL HISTORY. 

crown elevated ; jaws convex, rounded, with 
teeth arranged like scales on their edge and 
anterior surface; scales at base of caudal very 
large. 

4. FAMILY. Coracines (Chromididas). Body oval 

or elongate ; teeth setaceous, often minute, 
and very fine ; operculum scaled ; pre-oper- 
culum smooth ; ventrals very long. 

II. SUB-ORDER. SOFT-FINNED PHARYNGEAL-FISHES 
(Malacopterygii). 

5. FAMILY. Saury-Pikes (Scomberesocidse). Body 

herring-shaped or elongate ; mouth obliquely 
cleft ; teeth small, acute ; eyes large. 

X. ORDER. SOFT-FINNED FISHES (Malacopteri). 

Endo-skeleton ossified ; exo-skeleton in most as 
cycloid, in a few as ganoid scales ; fins supported 
by rays, all, save the first sometimes in the dorsal 
and pectoral, soft or jointed ; abdominal or apodal ; 
gills free ; operculate ; a swimming-bladder and air 
duct. 

I. SUB-OEDER. ABDOMINAL SOFT-FINNED FISHES 
(Abdominales). 

1. FAMILY. Mailed Sheat - Fishes (Loricariidse). 

Body lengthened ; head and body mailed 
with large osseous plates ; head depressed ; 
eyes small; mouth beneath. (Goniodontes,Ag.) 

2. FAMILY. Naked Sheat- Fishes (PimelodidaB). 

Body compressed, more or less naked ; dorsal 
fins two, the hinder adipose ; muzzle not pro- 
duced ; anal fin short. 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 107 

3. FAMILY. True Sheat-Fishes (Siluridse). Body 

slightly elongate, compressed, generally slimy ; 

anal fin and tail long ; operculum moveable ; 

mouth furnished with cirrhi. 
The genus Malapterurus possesses electric pro- 
perties, but in a less degree than the Gymnotus or 
Torpedo. 

4. FAMILY. Flat -Headed Sheat-Fishes (Aspredi- 

nidae). Eyes very small, vertical ; operculum 
immoveable, the aperture opening only by a 
a narrow slit beneath the head ; under jaw 
transverse, and shorter than the upper ; first 
pectoral ray generally excessively developed ; 
dorsal single, close to head. 

5. FAMILY. Long-Headed Sheat-Fishes (Pterono- 

tidae). Head large, much lengthened, de-- 
pressed, bony ; muzzle broad and obtuse, pro- 
jecting beyond the lower jaw; cirrhi long; 
dorsal fins two, the hinder generally adipose ; 
caudal lobed or forked, rarely lunate. 

6. FAMILY. Double -Eyed Loaches (Anablepidaa) 

Body cylindrical, covered with stout scales ; 
head small, short, depressed, not widened ; 
eyes very prominent, apparently double ; 
mouth transverse ; generation viviparous. 

7. FAMILY. Loaches -proper (Cobitidse). Body 

lengthened, slimy ; head Vith cirrhi ; mouth 
inferior ; teeth none ; gill-opening small ; 
dorsal fin central, above the ventral. 

8. FAMILY. Thick - bodied Loaches (Poeciliidse). 

Body thick, oval, compressed ; scales large ; 



108 MANUAL OF NATUKAL HISTOKY. 

head small, flattened above ; snout sharp ; 
mouth small, transverse ; jaws protractile ; 
generation viviparous. (Cyprinodontes, Ag.) 
9. FAMILY. Carps (Cyprinidse). Body compress- 
ed, covered withs cales, which are generally 
large ; fins naked ; mouth small ; jaws weak, 
without teeth ; strong teeth on pharynx ; 
tongue smooth ; dorsal single, generally in 
centre of back. 

10. FAMILY. Small-mouthed Pikes (Mormyridse). 

Body compressed, oblong, scaly ; muzzle pro- 
duced ; mouth terminal, vertical ; teeth small, 
slender ; branchial aperture resembling a spi- 
racle. 

11. FAMILY. Pikes (Esocidse). Body compressed, 

scaly ; dorsal fin single, close to end of tail ; 
mouth large ; teeth numerous, acute ; very 
voracious. 

12. FAMILY. Galaxies (Galaxiatidse). Scales obso- 

lete; mouth small, slightly cleft; pointed teeth 
on palatines and jaws, strong hooked teeth 
on tongue ; dorsal, and anal fins opposite. 

13. FAMILY. Deep -bodied Salmons (Myletidse). 

Depth of body as much, or more than half the 
length; head small; snout blunt; upper jaw 
small, strongly angulated in some ; sharp, 
triangular cutting teeth on lower jaw larger, 
than those of upper ; belly in some sharp 
and serrated. 

14 FAMILY. Wide-mouthed Salmons (Scopelidse). 
Snout short ; mouth deeply cleft ; teeth 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. J 09 

rather small, sharp j branchial rays eight to 
fifteen; first dorsal behind ventral; body in 
some semi-transparent. 

15. FAMILY. True-Salmons (Salmonidse). Body 
covered with compact scales ; jaws generally 
well furnished with teeth ; dorsal fins two, 
first with soft rays, the second small and 
adipose ', mostly voracious. 

3 6. FAMILY. Herrings (Clupeidse). Body com- 
pressed, always covered with numerous 
scales ; mouth mostly moderate ; lips thin ; 
teeth minute or none ; gill-aperture large ; 
dorsal fin single. 

]7. FAMILY. Blind-Fishes (Amblyopsidse). Form 
elongate ; head obtuse, rounded, without 
scales ; scales on body very small, oval, en- 
tire, concentrically striated ; eyes as minute 
black points covered by the skin, or none, 
cornea none ; gills four ; pseudo- branchiae 
none ; anus in front of pectoral fins between 
posterior inferior terminations of opercula. 
Viviparous. (Heteropygii, Tellkampf) 



II. SUB-ORDER. ASQVPJ. SOFT-FINNED FISHES 
(Apodes). 

18. FAMILY. Electric-Eels (Gymnotidse). Body 
linear, anguilliform, but compressed, often 
with small scales ; ventrals none. 

In this family the most noted species is the Elec- 
tric Eel (Gymnotus electricus) of South America. 



110 MANUAL OF NATUKAL HISTORY. 

The electric apparatus is placed along the under 
side of the body, extending from behind the pec- 
torals to the tail. The organs are four in number, 
two on either side, and one above the other, the 
upper ones being the larger. The organs of one 
side are separated from those of the other by the 
vertebral column, its muscles, the air-bladder, and an 
aponeurotic septum, from which last, and from one 
covering the air-bladder, extend outwards to the 
skin numerous horizontal membranes, arranged in 
the longitudinal axis of the body. These are inter- 
sected transversely by more delicate vertical plates, 
which thus form cells, filled with a pellucid liquid. 
The battery is thus horizontal ; and it has been 
shewn by Faraday, that the electric current is al- 
ways from the anterior to the posterior parts of the 
animal. In this fish the electric organs are supplied 
by the ventral branches of all the spinal nerves.* 

19. FAMILY. Eels (Mursenidse). Body serpentiform ; 

scales very small, enveloped in a mucous 
epidermis; branchial spiracles two, lateral, 
placed one on each side ; ventral fins wanting. 

20. FAMILY. Sub-branchial Eels (Synbranchidse). 

Body anguilliform ; spiracles two, or in some 
one, placed under the throat. (Symbranchii, 
MulL) 

XL ORDER SUCTORIAL-FISHES (Dermopteri). 
Endo-skeleton unossified ; exo-skeleton, and ver- 
tical fins muco-dermoid ; vermiform, or abrachial, 
and apodal ; no pancreas ; no air-bladder. 

* See Owen's " Lectures on Comparative Anatomy," vol. ii, p. 213. 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. Ill 

I. SUB-ORDER. ROUND-MOUTHED SUCTORIAL-FISHES 
(Marsipobranchii, sen Cyclostomi). 

Gills fixed, bursiform, inoperculate, receiving re- 
spiratory streams by apertures usually numerous 
and lateral, distinct from the mouth ; a heart. 

1. FAMILY. Lampreys (Petromyzontidse). Body 

elongated ; eyes small or none ; mouth cir- 
cular ; teeth distinct ; branchial openings 
mostly seven ; nasal aperture closed ; palate 
entirely covered with skin. 

2. FAMILY. Glutinous -Hags (Myxinidse). Body 

cylindrical ; eyes none ; branchial apertures 
two ; a single tooth on upper part of maxil- 
lary ring ; palate perforated. 

II. SUB-ORDER. FRINGED-MOUTHED SUCTORIAL-FISHES 
(Pharyngobranchii, seu Cirrhostomi). 

Gills free, pharyngeal, inoperculate ; no heart 

3. FAMILY. Lancelets (Amphioxidse). Body com- 

pressed, hyaline ; mouth narrow, elongated, 
the margins furnished with slender filaments. 



MOLLUSKS. 

The unsymmetrical, soft, and fleshy bodies of the 
animals forming the Sub-Kingdom of the Mollusks 
have no internal bony skeleton to protect the ner- 
vous centres, nor are they covered with a horny, 
jointed skin like the tribes of Annulosa. Nature, 
however, not to leave them altogether destitute in 
this respect, has invested them with a muscular 



112 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

tunic or mantle, which often secretes a shelly coat 
to guard the more delicate organs from external 
violence. These shelly envelopes are the prized, 
and much sought for, objects of the Conchologist, 
and are alike remarkable for their imperishable 
nature, the extreme beauty and elegance of their 
forms, the richness of their colouring, and the deli- 
cacy and endless diversity of their sculpture and 
markings. The molluscous architects of these cal- 
careous homes are generally apathetic beings, dis- 
playing but a small amount of energy when con- 
trasted with the restless, active, air-breathing legions 
of the articulated classes. 

They comprise the Cephalopoda, the highest of 
their class, with prehensible arms disposed around 
their mouth, large and perfect eyes, and with the 
sexes separate ; the Pteropods, with their bodies 
often enclosed in fragile shells of glassy transpa- 
rency, and with fin-like expansions on the sides of 
their heads to enable them to navigate the high 
seas ; the Gasteropoda, furnished with a muscular 
disk on the lower portion of their bodies adapting 
them for crawling on the ground, and with distinct 
head, eyes, and tentacles ; the Bivalves, protected 
by solid shelly plates, headless, and breathing by 
means of plait-like gills ; the soft, aquatic, headless 
Tunicaries, either free and isolated, or united or- 
ganically in a common brotherhood ; and the Brach- 
iopods, enclosed in bivalve shells, breathing by the 
mantle, and with long spiral or twisted arms on the 
sides of the mouth, by the ciliary movements of 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 113 

which they create currents to bring them food. In 
arranging the classes of Mollusca, the characters 
are principally determined by the organs of loco- 
motion ; in the orders the nature of the branchial 
apparatus is taken advantage of ; in the diagnosis 
of families the lingual dentition and peculiarities of 
configuration form the leading points; in genera, 
the form of the shell is chiefly considered ; and in spe- 
cies, the colour and sculpture of the shelly envelope. 
The molluscous tribes, with a few exceptions, re- 
produce by eggs which are deposited by the mother 
in situations best adapted to insure incubation, and 
in numerous instances, are protected by a leathery 
envelope or gelatinous nidus ; the young fry, when 
first excluded from the egg, are enclosed in little 
shells fitted with a lid, and swim about by the aid 
of fins ; as the animal grows older the fins disap- 
pear, and frequently the shell falls off, and gills 
and tentacles become developed. The senses of the 
Mollusca are not acute; they are mostly dumb, 
their vision is imperfect, their smell limited, their 
taste implied, their touch obtuse, and their energies 
are mainly directed to the procuring of food, and 
the multiplication of their species. The intensity 
of their instinct, and the power of their volition 
and motive power will, however, be found to vary 
in proportion to the complexity of their organiza- 
tion, being feebly expressed in the lowest or Annu- 
loid forms, and more perfectly manifested as we 
approach the Vertebrate type, as shewn in the class 
of Cephalopods. 



114 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

Like other animals, the Mollusca obey certain 
laws, and offer peculiarities in their geographical 
distribution. Thus, as we approach the equator 
from the poles, we find their size, beauty, and va- 
riety, gradually increase ; the species are also more 
numerous near the shores, but perceptibly diminish 
as the water deepens ; and, in like manner, the 
land shells are large and abundant in the valleys, 
and become smaller and less in number as we 
ascend the mountains. Rivers, lakes, ponds, and 
springs are peopled by numerous tribes, as the Am- 
pullarice of South America ; the Melanice of the 
East Indies; and iheLimncei of Europe. The pela- 
gian forms are found in all oceans, as the lanthina, 
the Carinaria, and the Argonaut. 

In the Northern Seas the shells are of a dingy 
hue, and often covered with an epidermis, while in 
the tropics they often vie in splendour with the 
fishes, and are sometimes highly polished. The 
Mediterranean and the surrounding regions are very 
rich in Mollusca, the number of species of Glausilia 
being especially great ; the deserts of Africa give 
sustenance to few species, but what are known are 
of a peculiar character ; while the rivers also yield 
singular types, such as JEtheria and Galathea ; in 
South Africa we observe the great Achatince, and 
the sinistral Lanistes ; while the Cape of Good 
Hope is famous for its species of Patella. The 
shells of the Canary Islands and of the Madeiras, 
are nearly all of a peculiar stamp ; and the West 
Indies harbour an abundance of forms, each island 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 115 

containing species peculiar to itself, Jamaica being 
particularly rich in Gyclostomata, Helicince, and Cy- 
lindrellce. South America is the grand emporium 
of the Bulimi and Ghilince ; while the great rivers 
of North America are extremely prolific in Unio 
and Anodonta; and the West coast is remarkable 
for its numerous examples of Chiton, Calyptra and 
Fissurella. The islands of the Pacific Ocean also 
exhibit several peculiarities in their molluscous 
fauna ; the Struthiolaria and Amphibola are from 
New Zealand ; the Trigonia, Chamostrea, and M y- 
ochama, are from New Holland ; the Partula is 
from the Society and Sandwich islands ; while the 
Orthostylus and kindred forms people the wooded 
parts of the Philippines ; and the Nanina is from 
Borneo and Java, which also furnish us with nume- 
rous Auriculce. The great Island of Madagascar 
and the other islands in the Indian Ocean, also 
yield their peculiar species of mollusks, both terres- 
trial and marine. 

II. SUB-KINGDOM OF MOLLUSKS. Mollusca. 

Animal invertebrate, without jointed limbs ; body 
soft, furnished with a mantle, which usually secretes 
a calcareous envelope or shell; heart bilocular; ner- 
vous system forming a transverse series of medullary 
masses, or ganglia arranged around the gullet. 

CEPHALOPODS. 

The Cephalopods, comprising the Cuttle-fishes, 
the Squids, the Argonauts, and the Nautili, are by 



116 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

far the most highly organized and intelligent of the 
Molluscous tribes. Their head is separate from the 
body, their eyes are large and complex, their ears 
are developed, and they even possess the rudiments 
of an endo-skeleton. They are varied in their habits 
and mode of life, but all agree in being carnivorous 
and raptorial, preying on Crustacea and other small 
animals, which they seize with their long and mus- 
cular arms, secure near their mouth by innumerable 
suckers, and tear in pieces with their horny mandi- 
bles. The Octopi frequent the shores, and when 
molested escape from the pursuit of their enemies by 
ejecting a coloured fluid from their ink-bag, which 
obscures the water around them ; crabs and lobsters 
constitute their favourite food. The Argonauts are 
oceanic in their habits, frequenting the high seas, 
swimming rapidly backwards by ejecting the water 
through their funnel, while their upper expanded 
arms firmly embrace the sides of their shell, recent 
observation having effectually dispelled the poetic 
notion so long entertained of their sailing along the 
surface. Some, like the Ommastrephes or Flying 
Squids, have the power of leaping out of the water, 
so as sometimes to fall upon the decks of vessels ; 
others, like the Pelagian Cuttles (Philonexidce), in- 
habit the solitudes of the ocean, assembling together 
in large shoals, so as even sometimes to discolour 
the water, and preying in the night upon the small 
fishes and floating Medusce that swarm in the upper 
regions of the ocean. 

That somewhat apocryphal Cephalopodic monster, 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 117 

the "Kraken," concerning which the fishermen of 
the Scandinavian shores have many legends, will 
most probably be found to belong to the family of 
Cuttles. 

During the early ages of the world's history, when 
vast tracts were covered by a surging ocean, the 
Cephalopods played an important part in the drama 
of animal existence, peopling the warm seas in pro- 
digious numbers. Then might be seen gigantic 
Ammonites, with large and lustrous eyes, and long 
extended arms, shuffling awkwardly along the sur- 
face of the primeval rocks, or engaged in deadly 
struggles with strange-formed antediluvian fishes ; 
then solitary Octopi, of colossal size, equally carni- 
vorous and fierce, might be seen prowling among 
the sunken reefs, with eager heads directed down- 
wards, seeking whom they might devour. At that 
epoch Belemnites, with long slender bodies and small 
lateral fins, were darting vertically up and down the 
watery abyss ; while thousands of pearly Nautili, 
taking the place of the predaceous Gasteropods that 
now keep in check the excessive increase of the 
smaller marine animals, might have been detected 
crushing with their calcareous mandibles the plaited 
bodies of the old-world Trilobites. 

I. CLASS. -CEPHALOPODS (Cephalopoda). 

Body ovate; mantle open in front; gills one or 
two pairs ; head large, separate from the body ; 
mouth with horny or shelly jaws, surrounded by 



118 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

eight or ten fleshy arms ; a tube or siphuncle used 
in locomotion ; sexes separate ; shell internal or 
external. 

I. OKDER OCTOPODS (Octopoda). 

Body roundish ; head with eight fleshy arms fur- 
nished with sessile cups or suckers ; eyes fixed ; gills 
two ; shell none or rudimentary. 

1. FAMILY. Octopods (Octopodidse). Arms similar, 

elongated, united at the base by a web, mantle 
supported by fleshy bands ; cephalic aqui- 
ferous-apertures none ; shell represented by 
two short styles in the substance of the 
mantle. Littoral. 

2. FAMILY. Pelagian - Octopods (Philonexidae). 

Arms subulate ; cups peduncled, in two rows ; 
eyes large and prominent ; mantle supported 
by two buttons at base of siphuncle fitting 
into grooves of mantle ; shell none. Pelagian. 

3. FAMILY. Argonauts (Argonautidse). Arms subu- 

late, the two upper dilated, secreting (in the 
female) a symmetrical involute shell ; mantle 
supported by two buttons fitting into grooves 
at base of siphuncle ; shell external, one- 
celled, thin ; apex involute. 

II. ORDER DECAPODS (Decapoda). 

Body naked, more or less elongated; head with 
ten fleshy arms, the two longer or (tentacular) arms 
with peduncled cups with horny rings ; eyes free in 
orbit ; gills two ; shell internal, medial. 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 119 

I. SUB-ORDER. CHONDROPHORES (Chondrophora). 

Shell solid, horny or cartilaginous, more or less 
lanceolate, with a produced and thickened apex. 

1. FAMILY. Cranchias (Cranchiidse). Body large 

and membranous ; head small ; eyes large 
and prominent, covered with a skin ; mantle 
supported by two internal fleshy bands ; 
siphuncle with a valve ; club of tentacular 
arms finned ; fins of body small and terminal. 

2. FAMILY. False- Squids (Loligopsidse). Body 

elongate, membranous, tapering behind ; eyes 
peduncled, not covered by a skin ; mantle 
supported by two internal fleshy bands ; 
siphuncle simple ; fins caudal, terminal, semi- 
circular. 

3. FAMILY. Long-armed Calamaries (Chirateu- 

thidse). Body elongate, tapering ; ears with- 
out crest ; eyes naked, simple, above ; mantle 
with three internal cartilages, one dorsal and 
two ventral ; siphuncle simple, without a 
valve ; tentacular arms outside the web, not 
retractile ; fins on hind part of back 

4. FAMILY. Hook-armed Calamaries (Onychoteu- 

thidse). Head moderate, cylindrical ; eyes 
naked with a sinus at upper part ; ears with 
a longitudinal crest ; mantle with three in- 
ternal cartilages, one dorsal and two ventral ; 
tentacular arms with a group of small sessile 
cups at end of club ; fins posterior, dorsal, 
angular. 



120 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

5. FAMILY. Squids (Loliginidee). Eyes simple, co- 

vered with skin ; ears with a transverse crest ; 
buccal membrane often with cups ; mantle 
with three internal cartilages, one dorsal two 
ventral ; tentacular arms partially retractile ; 
fins on sides of hind part of back. 

II. SUB-ORDER. SEHOPHORES (Sepiophora). 

Shell cellular, calcareous, back hard ; cavity filled 
with laminae, separated by numerous cells. 

6. FAMILY. Cuttles (Sepiidse). Head united to 

mantle by a broad cervical band ; eyes co- 
vered with the skin ; mantle with two carti- 
laginous ridges on ventral side ; tentacular 
arms* expanded at the end, entirely retrac- 
tile ; buccal membrane without cups ; si- 
phuncle with an internal valve. 

III. SUB-ORDER. BELEMNOPHORES (Belemnophora). 

Shell calcareous, internal, chambered; chamber 
traversed by a siphon. 

7. FAMILY. Spirulas (Spirulidse). Eyes covered 

with the skin, lower eye-lid distinct ; mantle 
free all round, a linear cartilage on inner side 
of ventral surface ; body sub-cylindrical, 
rounded at the end ; buccal membrane with- 
out cups; sessile arms triangular, with six 
rows of small peduncled cups tentacular 
arms elongate, cylindrical, club ? siphuncle 
with an apical valve ; shell internal, shelly, 
spiral, chambered ; chambers with a siphon. 
Pelagic. 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY 121 

III. ORDER POLYPODS (Polypoda). 

Body without fins ; head not separate from the 
body ; with a great number of cylindrical, retractile, 
annulated arms, without cups ; gills four. 
1. FAMILY. Nautili (Nautilidse). Siphuncle slit ; 
a distinct foot-like appendage ; body enclosed 
in the last chamber of a shell ; shell involute, 
discoidal, few-whorled; septa dividing the 
chambers simple ; inner surface pearly. 



PTEROPODS. 

The Pteropods rank among those little-known 
beings that serve to people the expanse of the great 
oceans, occurring both in northern latitudes and in 
intertropical regions in vast multitudes. Being noc- 
turnal or crepuscular in their habits, they are not 
generally observed ; at the setting of the sun, how- 
ever, they come from various depths towards the 
surface, and may then be readily taken in a towing- 
net. They swim rapidty, though in an irregular 
manner, progressing by sudden jerks, and move in 
every direction by means of their large lateral wing- 
like fins. The different species make their appear- 
ance near the surface at certain fixed times, and 
seem to dwell in the water at a depth peculiar to 
themselves ; some come to the surface at the setting 
of the sun, but many of the larger ones do not 
ascend till towards midnight. Those genera that 
have their bodies protected by a shell are most nu- 



122 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

merous in species ; their shells are varied in form, 
and are glassy, clear, and transparent ; they are 
beautiful objects, but on account of their fragile 
nature and their inaccessible oceanic habitats, are 
not often found in the Collections of Conchologists, 
or even in those of National Museums. 

Many peculiar forms of Pteropods seem to swarm 
in the polar seas ; and one genus, the Limacina, 
occurs in such prodigious multitudes as even to 
constitute the principal food of the mighty Baleen- 
Whale. The long pallial prolongations often pro- 
truded from the fissures in the sides of the shells, do 
not appear to be of much service in propelling or 
guiding these animals through the water, but are 
most probably subservient to respiration. 

II. CLASS. PTEROPODS (Pteropoda). 

Head more or less distinct ; eyes none ; mouth 
often furnished with cup-like appendages ; fins two, 
usually on sides of mouth, often with an interme- 
diate lobe ; body ovate or roundish ; unisexual ? 
free, floating on the surface of the sea by means of 
their fins ; crepuscular or nocturnal. 

I. OKDER SHELL-BEARING PTEROPODS (Thecosomata). 

Head indistinct, with two wings on sides of mouth; 
tooth of lingual membrane hooked, with a strong 
hooked tooth on each side ; gills internal ; body en- 
closed in a shelL 

1. FAMILY. Spiny-Pteropods (Cavolinidse). Fins 
united, no foot-like appendage between them ; 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 123 

gills in pairs ; abdomen voluminous ; shell 
symmetrical, calcareous, globular or elongate- 
conical, furnished with spiny processes. 

2. FAMILY. Subulate-Pteropods (Tripteridse), Body 

elongate, cylindrical, fore part with two large 
lateral wings united below to a flat central 
portion ; shell sub-cylindrical, calcareous, sub- 
angular near the mouth, ending in an acute 
point separated from the anterior cavity by a 
transverse septum ; tip often deciduous in the 
adult. 

3. FAMILY. Slipper -shaped Pteropods (Cymbu- 

liidse). Animal globular or ovate ; fins two, 
on each side of mouth, with a small interme- 
diate lobe ; shell cartilaginous, slipper-shaped, 
rarely wanting. 

4. FAMILY. Spiral-Pteropods (Limacinidse). Body 

spiral, fins elongate, rounded, united at their 
base by an intermediate lobe bearing an oper- 
culum ; mantle large, open in front ; shell 
spiral, usually sinistral, and produced on the 
collumellar side; operculum ^stinct, spiral 
vitreous. 

II. ORDER. NAKED-PTEEOPODS (Gymnosomata). 
Body naked, without any shell ; head distinct ; 
fins two or four, at junction of head and body, a cen- 
tral intermediate lobe ; gills exterior ; shell none. 
1. FAMILY. Olios (Clionidse). Body fusiform ; head 
with a series of conical prominences on each 
side ; wings two, with an intermediate foot- 
like appendage. G 2 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

2. FAMILY. Pneumoderms (Pneumodermonidae). 

Body fusiform ; head with arms furnished 
with pedicellate suckers ; wings two, with a 
central foot-like appendage ; gills on hind 
part of body. 

3. FAMILY. Cymodoceas (Cymodoceidse). Body 

divided into two parts; wings four, two on 
each side, at the junction between head and 
abdomen, with a foot-like appendage. 



GASTEROPODS. 

The Gasteropods, comprising the tribes of the 
spiral shell-bearing Mollusks, will be eagerly sought 
after by the enterprising traveller on account of 
their rarity and beauty, nor will he have to look in 
vain for traces of their whereabouts. 

On the bosom of the ocean fleets of purple lan- 
thince and sprightly Atalants, with clear transparent 
shells, and sometimes a Glassy-Nautilus (Carina- 
ria), swift and rapid in its movements, will be no- 
ticed on his outward voyage ; nor will the pelagian 
Dorids and Eolids that occupy the stems of floating 
sea-weeds escape his observation. 

Wandering amid the labyrinths of tropical forests, 
he will discover, sheltered by the leaves, or hid 
among the fissures of the bark, showy-looking Bu- 
limi, and fine banded Snails, while active Nanince, 
with their truncate, glandular tails, will be seen 
among the foliage of the lower bushes, or hiding in 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 125 

the moss and dead leaves at the foot of the trees; 
and among their tangled roots . he will bring to 
light earth-loving Cyclostomes and ear-shaped Land- 
Volutes. The beds of ancient torrents, decaying 
rocks, and the debris of mountain slopes, will also 
yield him curious flattened, dingy Helicidce, and 
the slug-like forms of Onchidium and Veronicella. 
If he is near the coast, he will find, on the rocks, 
the Chitons, with their coats of mail, the curious 
Cup-and-Saucer Limpets, and the beautiful pearly 
Ear-shells ; and among the coral reefs the polished 
Cowry, or the spine-armed Murex; nor will the 
numerous kind of Wreath and Top-shells be over- 
looked in his search among the stones along the 
strand. Here also, perchance, he may discover some 
of the elegant Volutes, frequently as rare and costly 
as they are beautiful ; and he may notice the large 
and powerful animals of the Strombidce, or Wing- 
Shells, with their telescope-eyes and strong muscular 
foot, leaping and rolling about in pursuit of prey ; 
Purple-Shells and Periwinkles will be observed 
grazing on their sea-weed pastures, in company with 
gaudy-coloured Nerites ; while on the sand-flats he 
will see the Naticas and the glossy Olives, partially 
covered by expansions of their foot, forming bur- 
rows in the moist soft bed on which they pass their 
lives ; here also will be seen the large-footed Bullia 
and the Nassas, with their bifid turned-up tails, 
describing sinuous tracks as they quickly traverse 
the surface of the yielding sand ; while in the coral- 
.masses around him a careful search will enable him 



126 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

to discover, securely lodged, the curious Magilus and 
the Leptoconchus. 

III. CLASS. GASTEROPODS (Gasteropoda). 

Head distinct, furnished with eyes and tentacles ; 
body usually protected by a spiral or conical shell ; 
adult walking on an expanded foot. 

I. SUB-CLASS. PROSOBRAIJCHS (Prosobranchiata). 

Heart placed behind gills ; sexes distinct ; gills 
comb-like, on back of mantle or round its edge. 

I. ORDER. PECTIKIBRANCHS (Pectinibranchiata). 

Gills formed of one or two series of laminae on left 
side of mantle over back of neck ; shell spiral. 

I. A^ UB-ORDER. PROBOSCIDIFEROUS-PECTINIBRANCHS 
(Proboscidifera). 

Head with a long retractile proboscis ; tentacles 
close together at their origin ; eyes sessile at their 
outer bases. Carnivorous. 

1 . FAMILY. Rock-Shells (Muricidse). Teeth in three 

rows ; mantle with a long straight siphon ; 
foot simple in front ; shell with a more or 
less elongated canal at fore part of aperture ; 
whorls with varices. 

2. FAMILY. Trumpet-Shells (Tritonidse). Teeth in 

seven rows ; mantle enclosed, with a straight 
siphon; shell with irregular or few varices 
on the whorls ; aperture with an elongated 
siphonal canal. 

3. FAMILY. Whelks (Buccinidse). Mantle enclosed ; 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 127 

siphon short, recurved ; foot simple in front ; 
shell without varices on whorls; aperture 
with no canal but an oblique notch at the 
fore part. 

4. FAMILY. Olives (Strephonidse). Mantle enclosed ; 

siphon recurved ; foot fissured on each side in 
front, the margins reflexed on shell; shell 
with last whorl enrolled round the others, 
polished ; aperture with an oblique notch in 
front. (Olividce, Auct.) 

5. FAMILY. Tulip-Shells (Faseiolariidse). Mantle 

enclosed ; siphon straight ; lateral teeth not 
versatile as in Muricidce, but broad and mul- 
tidentate ; shell without varices on whorls ; 
siphonal canal straight ; columella with plaits 
on fore part. 

6. FAMILY. False-Volutes (Vasidse). Mantle en- 

closed ; siphon straight ; lateral teeth nar- 
row, with a single large denticle ; shell with 
the aperture channelled in front ; pillar with 
plaits on the middle. (Turbinellidce, Gray.) 

7. FAMILY. Volutes-proper (Yolutidse). Siphon short, 

recurved, with auricles on each side at base ; 
tentacles far apart, united by a veil over the 
head ; shell with apex of spire mammillated ; 
columella with plaits. 

8. FAMILY Mitres (Mitridse). Siphon simple at 

base ; tentacles close together at base ; mantle 
enclosed ; foot small ; shell with apex of spire 
acute ; columella with plaits. 

9. FAMILY. China-Shells (Porcellanidse). Siphon 



128 MANUAL OF NATUKAL HISTORY. 

simple at base; tentacles close together at 
base ; mantle-lobes expanded, covering sides 
of shell; operculum none ; shell polished, with 
plaits on pillar ; margin of outer lip thick- 
ened. (Marginellidce, Auct.) 

10. FAMILY. Fissure-Shells (Turritidse). Siphon 

straight ; mantle with a slit on hind part of 
right side ; shell turreted ; aperture with a 
straight canal in front ; outer lip with a fis- 
sure or sinus at hind part of margin. (Pleu- 
rotomidce, Gray.) 

11. FAMILY. Tun-Shells (Doliidae). Mantle en- 

closed ; siphon recurved ; foot small ; oper- 
culum none ; shell thin, ventricose, witl 
transverse ribs or grooves ; aperture with an 
oblique notch in front. 

12. FAMILY. Fig-Shells (Sycotypidse). Mantle 

with expanded lobes covering sides of shell ; 
siphon produced ; operculum none ; shell 
light, ventricose ; aperture with a produced 
canal ; whorls with transverse ribs. (Ficula, 
Swains.) 

13. FAMILY. Velvet-Ears (Velutinidse). Eyes on 

outer side of tentacles ; margin of mantle in- 
flated, folded on the edge into two canals; 
operculum none ; shell thin, turbinate, co- 
vered with a velvety epidermis; aperture 
wide, simple in front. 

14. FAMILY. Dwarf-Ears (Otinidse). Tentacles 

obsolete ; eyes on upper part of head ; man- 
tle enclosed; foot divided by a transverse 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTOEY 129 

fissure into two creeping disks ; operculum 
none; shell ear-shaped, spire minute; aperture 
large. 

15. FAMILY. Coriocellas (Lamellariidse). Eyes at 

bases of tentacles ; mantle very large, en- 
tirely covering the shell, notched in front ; 
operculum none ; shell thin, semi-pellucid, 
ear-shaped ; aperture wide. 

16. FAMILY. Sea-Snails (Naticidse). Eyes none; 

mantle enclosed ; foot very large, produced 
in front, operculigerous, lobe greatly deve- 
loped, partly covering the shell ; operculum 
sub-spiral ; shell smooth, spiral ; aperture 
semi-lunar, entire in front. 

17. FAMILY. Helmet-Shells (Cassididse). Teeth nu- 

merous, similar, in many rows ; mantle en- 
closed, with a recurved siphon ; operculum 
annular ; shell ventricose, whorls often variced; 
aperture with a recurved canal, or a notch in 
front ; outer lip thickened. 

18. FAMILY. Wentletraps (Scalidse). Mantle en- 

closed, without a siphon ; foot moderate ; 
eyes on outer side of tentacles ; operculum 
horny, spiral ; shell turreted, variced ; aper- 
ture round, without any canal. 

19. FAMILY. Awl-Shells (Terebridse). Mantle en- 

closed, with an elongated siphon ; eyes on tip 
of tentacles or wanting ; tentacles small ; foot 
small ; operculum annular, nucleus apical ; 
shell turreted ; outer lip thin, not variced. 
(Terebrina, Morch ; Acusidce, Gray.) 

o5 



130 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

20. FAMILY. Pyramid-Shells (Pyramidellidse). 

Tentacles ear-shaped; eyes on their inner 
sides ; mantle enclosed ; foot moderate ; shell 
turreted ; columella plicated. 

21. FAMILY. Eulimas (Eulimidse). Tentacles 

simple, subulate ; eyes on their outer bases ; 
mantle enclosed ; foot moderate ; shell tur- 
reted ; columella simple. 

22. FAMILY. Star-fish Parasites (Stylinidse). Foot 

greatly produced in front ; tentacles subulate, 
simple : eyes on their outer bases ; mantle 
enclosed; shell globose or turreted ; aperture 
oblong columella simple. Parasitic on Star- 
fishes. 

23. FAMILY. False Club-Shells (Cerithiopsidae). 

Eyes on centre of tentacles at their base ; 
mantle enclosed, with a short siphon; foot 
grooved beneath ; operculum with the nu- 
cleus apical ; shell turreted, granular ; aper- 
ture with a short anterior canal. 
24 FAMILY. Stair case -Shells (Architectonicidse). 
Tentacles folded, with the suture below ; eyes 
sessile on upper surface of their base ; ten- 
tacles close together at their base; foot small ; 
operculum ovate or circular ; shell trochiform, 
with a wide umbilicus. (Solarium, Lamck.) 

II. S UB-ORDER. ROSTRIFEROUS-PECTINIBRANCHS 
(Rostrifera). 

Head with a non-retractile rostrum ; tentacles 
subulate, wide apart, on the sides of the rostrum. 
Mostly phytophagous. 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 131 

25. FAMILY. Wing-Shells (Strombidse). Eyes on 

the end of cylindric peduncles, with the ten- 
tacles on their middle ; mantle with outer 
margin lobed ; foot divided, formed for leap- 
ing not walking ; operculum claw-like ; shell 
with the outer lip expanded, notched near 
the fore part, changing in form with age. 
Marine. 

26. FAMILY. Auger-Shells (Terebellidse). Eyes on 

the end of cylindric peduncles ; tentacles 
none ; foot compressed, sub-ovate ; operculum 
horny, tricuspid externally; shell subulate, 
involute ; aperture linear, outer lip simple. 
Marine. 

27. FAMILY. Cones (Conidse). Eyes near the ends 

of the tentacles ; teeth barbed, in two rows ; 
mantle enclosed ; operculum ovate, nucleus 
apical ; shell cone-shaped ; aperture straight ; 
outer lip simple. 

28. FAMILY. False Wing-Shells (Aporrhaidse). Eyes 

sessile on outer bases of tentacles ; mantle with 
the outer edge expanded or lobed ; siphon 
bent to the right ; foot simple ; operculum 
annular, ovate ; shell with the outer lip sinu- 
ous, lobed, or digitate. 

29. FAMILY. Lattice- Shells (Cancellariidse). No 

tongue nor teeth ; eyes sessile on outer bases 
of tentacles ; mantle enclosed ; siphon ru- 
dimentary ; operculum none ; shell spiral, 
whorls cancellated; columella with plaits. 
Marine. 



132 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

30. FAMILY. HoAr-Keels (Trichotropidse). Teeth 

in seven rows ; tongue short and broad ; eyes 
on lower halves of tentacles ; mantle with a 
rudimentary siphon; operculum ovate, annu- 
lar ; shell spiral ; aperture nearly simple in 
front ; columella without plaits. 

31. FAMILY. Coral-Parasites (Pediculariidse). Eyes 

on outer bases of tentacles ; mantle enclosed, 
simple in front ; operculum none ; shell non- 
spiral ; apex lateral ; aperture very wide ; 
columella simple ; outer lip thin. 

32. FAMILY. Egg-Shells (Amphiperatidse). Lateral 

teeth pectinate ; mantle lobes expanded, co- 
vering the sides, of the shell, bearded exter- 
nally ; operculum none ; shell porcellanous, 
smooth; outer lip with the edge inflexed. 
(Ovulum, Lamck.) 

33. FAMILY. Cowries (Cyprseidse). Outer lateral 

teeth conical; eyes sessile on outer bases of 
tentacles ; mantle-lobes expanded, covering 
the shell ; operculum none ; shell involute, 
the last whorl enrolling and concealing all 
the others ; spire none ; columella toothed. 

34. FAMILY. Carriers (Onustidse). Eyes sessile on 

outer bases of tentacles ; mantle simple in 
front ; foot compressed, formed for jumping 
not walking ; operculum horny, sub-annular ; 
shell trochiform ; whorls more or less covered 
with fragments of shells, &c. (Phoridce, Gray; 
Xenophoracea, Phil.) 

35. FAMILY. Chambered-Shells (Calyptridse). Eyes 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 133 

sessile at base of tentacles ; gills placed ob- 
liquely across neck ; foot expanded, simple ; 
operculum none ; shell conical, non-spiral ; 
aperture wide, with an internal testaceous 
appendage. 

36. FAMILY. Bonnet-Shells (Capulidse). Eyes on 

outer bases of tentacles ; gills placed obliquely 
across neck ; foot folded on itself; operculum 
none ; shell simple, cap-shaped ; aperture wide, 
simple internally. Marine. 

37. FAMILY. White-Ears (Vanicoridae). Eyes ses- 

sile on outer bases of tentacles ; foot small ; 
circular, winged at the sides, and with a 
narrow lobe in front ; operculum ovate, 
horny ; shell spiral, white ; last whorl large ; 
aperture semi-lunar. Marine. (Naricacea, 
Phil.) 

38. FAMILY. Worm -Shells (Vermetidse). Eyes 

sessile on outer bases of short tentacles ; foot 
cylindrical, produced and truncate in front, 
not fit for walking ; operculum circular, spi- 
ral ; shell attached, tubular, irregularly spiral. 
Marine. 

39. FAMILY. False Tooth-Shells (Cteecidse). Eyes 

sessile on the head behind bases of ten- 
tacles ; foot short ; operculum circular ; shell 
many-whorled, sub-cylindrical, arched ; apex 
sub-spiral, deciduous. Marine. 

40. FAMILY. Apple -Snails (Ampullariidse). Ten- 

tacles subulate ; eyes on peduncles at their 
outer bases ; mantle with a siphon ; rostrum 



134 MANUAL OF NATUKAL HISTORY. 

bilobate, lobes subulate ; operculum annu- 
lar, regular ; shell turbinate, thin ; aperture 
entire in front. Fluviatile. 

41. FAMILY. River -Snails (Viviparidge). Eyes 

sessile on outer bases of tentacles ; rostrum 
entire ; mantle simple in front ; operculum 
annular, regular; shell turbinate, covered 
with an epidermis ; aperture entire in front. 
Fluviatile. (Paludinacea, Phil.) 

42. FAMILY. Valve-Shells (Valvatidse). Eyes ses- 

sile on outer sides of tentacles ; siphon none ; 
gills plumose, exposed, protected by a long, 
slender lobe ; operculum spiral, many-whorl- 
ed ; shell spiral, turbinate or discoidal ; aper- 
ture entire. Fluviatile. 

43. FAMILY. Periwinkles (Littorinidse). Eyes ses- 

sile on outer side of tentacles ; mantle-margin 
with a slight siphonal fold ; operculum sub- 
spiral ; shell turbinate ; aperture simple in 
front. Marine. 

44. FAMILY. Rissoas (Rissoidae). Eyes on outer 

bases of tentacles ; rostrum adnate to fore 
part of foot ; mantle simple in front ; oper- 
culigerous lobe with tentacular appendages ; 
shell spiral, white, more or less turreted ; 
aperture entire in front. Marine. 

45. FAMILY. Quoyias (Planaxidae). Eyes sessile 

on outer bases of tentacles ; mantle with a 
siphon in front ; foot with the sides simple ; 
operculum sub-spiral ; shell turreted, with 
a notch at fore part of aperture. Marine. 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 135 

46. FAMILY. Sargasso, - Shells (Litiopidse). Eyes 

sessile on outer bases of tentacles ; mantle 
with a siphon in front ; foot with tentacular 
filaments on the sides ; operculum sub-spiral; 
shell sub-turreted ; aperture with a distinct 
notch in front. Marine. 

47. FAMILY. Salt-Water Clubs (Cerithiidge). Eyes 

on outer sides of tentacles ; mantle with a 
siphonal fold or a distinct siphon in front ; 
operculum ovate, sub-spiral ; outer lateral 
teeth conical, curved ; shell turreted ; aper- 
ture more or less beaked and channelled in 
front ; outer lip expanded. Marine. 

48. FAMILY. Fresh-water Clubs. (Melaniidse). 

Eyes sessile on outer bases of tentacles ; 
mantle margin fringed, with a slight siphonal 
fold in front ; operculum sub-spiral ; lateral 
teeth multicuspid ; shell spiral, many-whorl- 
ed, covered with an epidermis ; aperture 
usually simple in front. Fluviatile. 

49. FAMILY. Screw-Shells (Turritellidse). Tongue 

very short, minute ; eyes on bulgings at 
outer bases of tentacles; mantle - margin 
fringed, nearly entire in front ; a single long 
branchial plume ; operculum circular, mul- 
tispiral, edges of whorls fimbriated ; shell 
turreted, many-whorled ; aperture simple 
in front. Marine. 

50. FAMILY. Rissoellas (Rissoellidse). Eyes sessile, 

far back behind tentacles ; rostrum bifid, 
lobes nearly as long as tentacles ; opercu- 



136 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

him annular, with an internal process ; shell 
spiral, hyaline, sub-turreted ; aperture en- 
tire in front. Marine. 

51. FAMILY. Macgillivrayias (Macgillivrayiidae). 

Tentacles four (?), nearly equal ; eyes (?) ; 
mantle with an elongate siphon in front ; 
foot large, produced behind ; a float (?) ; oper- 
culum annular, with an internal process ; 
shell spiral, sub-globose, horny, sub-pellucid. 
Pelagian. 

52. FAMILY. Oceanic-Snails (lanthinidse). Ten- 

tacles subulate, with pedicles at their outer 
bases ; eyes none ; foot small, flat, with a 
vesicular appendage on hind part ; shell 
thin, turbinate, violet ; aperture sub-quad- 
rate ; columella straight ; outer lip notched. 
Oceanic. 

II. ORDER. SCUTIBRANCHS (Scutibranchiata). 

Gills of two series of lamellae, forming one or 
two series over back of neck, or on under edge of 
mantle round foot; shell spiral, or symmetrical 
and conical. 

I. SUB-ORDER. PEDUNCLE-EYED SCUTIBRAJTCHS 
(Podophthalniata). 

Eyes pedicelled, separate from the tentacles ; 
teeth numerous, lateral ones reniform, very numer- 
ous, crowded. 
]. FAMILY. Wreath-Shells (Turbinidse). Foot with 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 1 37 

a lateral fringe ; head-lobes developed ; shell 
turbinate, pearly within ; operculum calca- 
reous. 

2. FAMILY. Top-Shells (Trochidse). Foot with a 

lateral fringe ; head-lobes rudimentary ; shell 
conical, spiral, pearly within; operculum 
horny. 

3. FAMILY. False-Ears (Stomatellidse). Foot with 

a lateral fringe ; front edge of mantle entire ; 
muscular impression crescentic ; shell ear- 
shaped, imperforate, pearly within ; opercu- 
lum none or rudimentary. 

4. FAMILY. Sea-Ears (Haliotidge). Foot with a 

lateral fringe ; head-lobes developed ; mantle 
with the front edge fissured ; muscle of at- 
tachment oval, central; shell ear -shaped, 
pearly within, with a series of holes ; oper- 
culum none. 

5. FAMILY. Nerites (Neritidae). Foot simple, with- 

out a lateral fringe ; head-lobes none ; shell 
spiral, turbinate, not pearly within; oper- 
culum sub-spiral, calcareous, with an internal 
process. 

II. SUB-ORDER. SESSILE-EYED SCUTIBRANCHS 
(Edriophthalmata). 

Eyes sessile, or on a slightly-raised tubercle on 
outer side of base of tentacles ; shell (adult) symme- 
trical, conical, not spiral, not pearly within ; oper- 
culum none. 



138 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

6. FAMILY. Fissure-Limpets (Fissurellidse). Gills 

two, symmetrical, on back of neck ; foot di- 
lated ; sides with a series of short tentacles ; 
shell conical ; apex perforate, or margin fis- 
sured. 

7. FAMILY. Tooth-Shells (Dentaliidse). Head with- 

out tentacles or eyes ; foot small, conical ; 
sides simple ; shell elongate, conical ; apex 
perforate. 

8. FAMILY. False-Limpets (Tecturidse). Gill single, 

on side of back of neck ; foot with a simple 
groove on the sides ; tentacles simple ; shell 
conical, simple. 

9. FAMILY. Blind-Limpets (Lepetidse). Gills two, 

pinnate, on back of neck ; tentacles subulate ; 
eyes none or rudimentary ; shell conical, 
simple. 

10. FAMILY. Groove -Limpets (Gadiniidas). Gills 

simple, placed obliquely across back of neck ; 
tentacles folded, expanded ; eyes sessile on 
middle of their bases ; shell conical, with a 
groove for vent in front of right side. 

11. FAMILY. True-Limpets (Patellidse). Gill under 

edge of mantle, forming a more or less com- 
plete ring round the body; tentacles subu- 
late ; shell conical, simple. 

12. FAMILY. Chitons (Chitonidse). Gills in two 

series, one on each side of hind part of body ; 
head covered by a hood, formed of the united 
tentacles ; eyes none ; shell formed of eight 
imbricate pieces along the back. 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 139 

II. S UB-CLASS. OPISTHOBRANCHIATE-GASTEBOPODS 
(Opisthobranchiata). 

Heart placed before gills ; gills plume-like, on the 
side under the mantle, or arranged along the back, 
exposed. 

I. ORDER. TECTIBRANCHS (Tectibranchiata). 

Gill forming a plume on the side under a fold of 
mantle, usually protected by a shell. 

1. FAMILY. Umbrella -Shells (Pleurobranchidae). 

Tentacles ear-shaped ; eyes sessile on their 
inner bases ; gill on the side, under mantle ; 
shell external or internal, membranous or 
calcareous. 

2. FAMILY. Sea -Hares (Aplysiidse). Tentacles 

separate, ear-like ; eyes sessile on head ; foot 
with large lateral lobes, usually folded across 
back ; shell internal. 

3. FAMILY. Long -tailed Bullas (Lophocercidse). 

Tentacles distinct, ear-like ; eyes sessile ; 
organs of generation close together in one 
tubercle ; shell external, partly covered by 
lobes of foot. 

4. FAMILY. Bullceas (Philinidse). Tentacles form- 

ing a square frontal disk with lobes ; eyes 
none ; shell concealed in substance of mantle. 

5. FAMILY. Bubble -Shells (Bullidse). A tentacu- 

lar frontal disk, notched behind ; eyes sessile 
on the middle ; foot -lobes covering sides of 
shell ; mouth of shell entire in front. 



140 MANUAL OF NATUKAL HISTOEY. 

6. FAMILY. Banded Bubble-Shells (Aplustridse). 

Frontal disk produced into ear-like tentacles ; 
eyes at their bases ; operculum none ; shell 
with mouth channelled in front. 

7. FAMILY. Cylindric-Bullas (Cylichnidse). Ten- 

tacles broad, flattened, lateral, recumbent ; 
eyes on their inner bases ; foot short ; shell 
external, cylindric, with a plait on colu- 
mella. 

8. FAMILY. Turned ' - Shells (Acteonidse). Head 

depressed, with broad posterior tentacular 
lobes ; eyes sessile on middle of head ; an 
operculum ; shell with the columella plicate. 

II. ORDER. NUDIBRANCHS (Nudibranchiata). 

Gills exposed, or contractile into cavities of mantle; 
shell only present in the larva state. 

L SUB-ORDER. ANTHOBRANCHS (Anthobranchiata). 

Gills surrounding vent, on middle of hind part of 
back. 

1. FAMILY. Dorids (Dorididse). Gills in a com- 

mon cavity ; mantle -edge simple ; teeth 
many in each cross series, sub-similar, inner 
often smaller. 

2. FAMILY. False-Dorids (Onchidorididse). Gills 

in separate cavities ; mantle edging the foot 
and simple ; teeth two in each cross series. 

3. FAMILY. Clubbed-Dorids (Triopidse). Gills in a 

common cavity ; mantle small, edged with 
tentacles ; teeth many (rarely only four) in 



MANUAL OF NATUKAL HISTORY." 141 

each cross series, inner lateral ones large, 
irregular. 

IT. SUB-ORDER. AIOLOBRAKCHS (Aiolobranchiata). 

Gills superficial, generally in the form of fusiform 
processes, plaits, or branching vessels. 

4. FAMILY. Tritonias (Dendronotidae). Tongue 

broad ; teeth many in each cross series ; jaws 
horny ; tentacles sheathed ; gills fusiform or 
branched, on each side of back ; vent lateral. 

5. FAMILY. Antiopas (Proctonotidse). Tongue 

broad, teeth many in each cross series 
jaws horny; tentacles simple, linear, not 
sheathed ; gills fusiform, on sides of back ; 
vent dorsal. 

6. FAMILY. Pleurophyllidians (Pleurophyllidiidse). 

Tongue broad ; teeth many in each cross 
series ; jaws horny ; tentacles simple, united, 
expanded ; gills in folds, on under side of 
mantle-margin, which is bent up. 

7. FAMILY. Dotos (Dotomdse). Tongue narrow ; 

teeth in a single central series ; tentacles 
sheathed at base, retractile ; gills fusiform, 
on sides of back. 

8. FAMILY. Eolids (Eolididse). Tongue narrow; 

teeth in a single central series ; tentacles 
subulate, simple, rarely ringed ; contractile ; 
gills fusiform or branched, on sides of back ; 
jaws horny. 

9. FAMILY. Hermceas (HermseidaB). Tongue nar- 



144 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

tentacles cylindrical, shorter than and under eye- 
peduncles. Living on the land. 

1. FAMILY. Water-loving Slugs (OnchidMso). Eye- 

peduncles contractile (not retractile), eyes 

at their ends ; body covered with a large 
coriaceous mantle shell none. 

2. FAMILY. Burrowing-Slugs (Testacellidse). Eye- 

peduncles retractile ; mantle usually con- 
cealed under shell ; breathing orifice on hind 
part of mantle ; shell external, small, on hind 
part of body. 

3. FAMILY. True-Slugs (Limacidse). Eye-peduncles 

retractile ; mantle shield-shaped, covering the 
shell ; breathing orifice on right side ; caudal 
gland none ; shell rudimentary, internal. 

4. FAMILY. Arions (Arionidse). Eye-peduncles 

retractile ; mantle shield-shaped, covering 
the shell ; breathing orifice on right side ; 
foot with a distinct caudal gland near the 
end ; shell internal, rudimentary, or external 
and well developed. 

5. FAMILY. Snails (Helicidse). Eye-peduncles re- 

tractile ; mantle lining the shell ; caudal 
gland none ; shell external, spiral, well-de- 
veloped. 

1. Bulimi/nce. Aperture of shell longer than 

wide, columella not truncate ; spire ele- 
vated. 

2. Helicince. Aperture of shell wider than 

long ; columella simple in front ; spire 
moderate. 



MANUAL OF NATUEAL HISTORY. 145 

3. AchatinincB. Aperture of shell longer than 

wide ; columella truncate ; spire more or 
less elevated. 

4. Vitrinince. Animal not completely retrac- 

tile within the shell ; shell thin, trans- 
parent. 

II. SU-0I)E. FRESH-WATER PULMONIFERS 
(Limnophila). 

Eyes sessile ; tentacles sub-cylindrical or flat- 
tened, simply contractile ; operculum none. 

6. FAMILY. Pond-Snails (Limnseidse). Tentacles 

contractile, flattened ; eyes sessile on their 
inner bases ; shell horn-ooloured ; aperture 
without plaits. Fluviatile. 

7. FAMILY. Marsh - Volutes (Auriculidse). Ten- 

tacles contractile; eyes sessile on nape at 
inner sides of bases of tentacles ; shell with 
the aperture plaited. Terrestrial, or living in 
marshes. 

III. SUB-ORDER. MARINE-PULMONIFERS 

(Thalassophila). 

Eyes sessile on front part of frontal disk formed 
by the expanded tentacles. Living on the shores or 
in salt marshes. 

8. FAMILY. Siphon-Shells (Siphonariidse). Ten- 

tacles forming a large bilobed frontal disk ; 
mantle with a fleshy lobe on right side co- 
vering the respiratory aperture ; shell coni- 



146 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

cal, simple, with an internal groove on middle 
of right side ; operculum none. 
9. FAMILY. Amphibolans (Amphibolidae). Ten- 
tacles forming by their union a large frontal 
disk with the eyes sessile on the fore part ; 
shell spiral, turbinate ; outer lip notched in 
the middle ; operculum horny. 

II. ORDER PHANEROPNEUMONS (Phaneropneumona). 

Edge of mantle free from nape, leaving the pul- 
monary cavity open ; operculum distinct ; animal 
unisexual. 

I. SUB-ORDER. OPISOPHTHALMIANS (Opisophthalmata). 

Eyes sessile on upper part of head behind base of 
tentacles. 

1. FAMILY. Looping-Snails (Truncatellidse). Eyes 

sessile behind base of tentacles ; tentacles 
subulate ; foot divided across ; operculum 
horny, sub-spiral ; shell turreted, spiral. 

II. SUB-ORDER. ECTOPHTHALMIANS (Ectophthalmata). 

Eyes placed on sides of head at outer base of 
tentacles ; operculum horny or testaceous. 

2. FAMILY. Cyclostomes (Cyclophoridse). Eyes at 

outer base of tentacles ; foot moderate ; oper- 
culum spiral ; shell with the aperture cir- 
cular. 

3. FAMILY. Helicines (HelicinidsB). Eyes at outer 

bases of tentacles ; foot elongate ; operculum 
annular ; shell with the aperture semi-lunar. 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 147 



BIVALVES. 

The Conchifera, comprising the Bivalve Mollusks, 
have the sides of their mantle protected by shelly 
valves, which, however, are not spiral as in the Gas- 
teropods, but simply concave and united together 
by a horny ligament. The Conchifera are without 
any apparent head, nor are they possessed of either 
eyes or tentacles. There is usually a pair of gills 
between the mantle and the body on each side; and 
the foot, although attached to the belly, does not 
form a flattened disk as in the Gasteropods, but is 
laterally compressed, allowing the animals to leap 
or burrow, but not serving as an organ of reptation. 
The mantle, in many of the families, is posteriorly 
prolonged into two siphons or tubes, the upper one 
of which is anal and excretory, and the lower one 
branchial or respiratory; in other families the si- 
phonal tubes are entirely wanting. Some Bivalve 
Mollusks swim freely about by alternately closing 
and expanding their valves, as the Pectens, which 
have hence been termed the "butterflies of the 
deep;" others, on the contrary, are securely an- 
chored to foreign bodies at the bottom of the sea, 
as the Clam-shells and the Oysters ; while others, 
as the Venuses and Cockles, are enabled to move 
about on the surface of the sand by placing their 
bent foot under their shells and suddenly straighten- 
ing it, causing it to act like a lever. Some Conchifera 
bury themselves with great facility in the mud or 

H 2 



148 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

sand by means of their long conical muscular foot, 
as the Razor-fish, the Gapers, and the fresh-water 
Pearl-Mussels ; some again are loosely attached to 
sub-marine rocks by a long byssus, as the Mussels 
and Pinnas, in which case the foot, being useless, is 
rudimentary or obsolete. Others perforate stones, as 
the Pholades, or wood, as the Ship-worms or Tere- 
dines, which are often very destructive to the bot- 
toms of vessels, and do much mischief in dockyards 
to timber. Many Bivalves are excellent articles of 
diet, as the Scallop and the Cockle ; nor must that 
epicurean morsel be omitted, the much-prized Oyster ; 
other Conchiferous shell- fish are important in a 
commercial point of view, on account of the pearly 
nature of their shells, and the globules of free nacre 
they sometimes secrete, as the Pearl-Oysters. 

IV. CLASS. BIVALVES (Conchifera). 

Head indistinct ; body covered with a bilobed 
mantle, each lobe protected by a shelly valve ; gills 
lamellar, two on each side ; foot usually compressed 
and keeled ; mouth with elongate fleshy lips ; valves 
of shell united on their dorsal edges by a ligament. 
Aquatic. 

I. SUB-CLASS. BlMUSCULAR-BlVALVES 

(Dimyaria). 

Animal with two nearly equal adductor muscles 
for closing the valves. 

I. ORDER PHYLLOPODS (Phyllopoda). 
Foot lamellar or elongate ; gills not produced into 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. ] 49 

anal siphon ; mantle-lobes more or less disunited ; 
siphons elongate, usually separate at their ends. 

1. FAMILY. Venuses (Veneridae). Siphons short, 

united for the greater part of their length ; 
foot large, compressed ; shell regular, closed ; 
hinge with three diverging cardinal teeth; 
ligament external. Marine. 

2. FAMILY. Cyprinas (Cyprinidas). Siphons very 

short ; mantle-lobes free beneath ; shell 
ovate, cordate, covered with an epidermis ; 
hinge -teeth 3 3 ; anterior lateral teeth 
none ; siphonal inflection none or rudimen- 
tary. 

3. FAMILY. Glauconomes (Glauconomidse). Shell 

oblong, covered with a green epidermis ; 
hinge- teeth 3-3, in right valve the hinder 
elongate and bifid, in left valve the hinder 
small and laminar ; lateral teeth none. 

4. FAMILY. Rock -Borers (Petricolidse). Siphons 

elongated, separate ; foot small, lanceolate, 
with a byssal groove ; shell boring, gaping, 
often irregular; ligament external; hinge- 
teeth large and irregular. 

5. FAMILY. Gyrenoids (Cyrenoididse). Mantle- 

lobes free beneath, with two united siphons ; 
gills two on each side ; shell oblong, ventri- 
cose, covered with a thin epidermis ; cardinal 
teeth 3-3 ; siphonal inflection none. 

6. FAMILY. Freshwater- Venuses (Corbiculidse). 

Siphons produced, more or less united ; foot 
large, linguiform ; shell tumid, covered with 



150 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

an epidermis ; ligament external ; hinge with 
cardinal and lateral teeth. Fluviatile. 

7. FAMILY. Paphians (Paphiidse). Shell variable 

in form ; ligament internal ; pallial impres- 
sion sinuated ; hinge with the anterior car- 
dinal tooth simple, compressed. 

8. FAMILY. Madras (Mactridse). Siphons united 

to their extremities, which are fringed ; foot 
linguiform, geniculate ; shell with the carti- 
lage internal ; two cardinal teeth in each 
valve, the anterior usually bifid. 

9. FAMILY. Anatinellas (Anatinellidse). Shell 

oblong, rather gaping behind, equivalve, 
covered with an epidermis ; cartilage internal, 
in a pit ; lateral teeth none ; siphonal inflec- 
tion none. 

10. FAMILY. Tellens (Tellinidse). Siphons long, 

slender, entirely separate ; foot broad, geni- 
culate ; shell regular ; hinge with two primary 
teeth in each valve ; ligament external ; si- 
phonal inflection deep. 

11. FAMILY. Mud- Madras (Scrobiculariidse). Ori- 

fices of siphonal tubes plain j mantle-margin 
toothed ; foot large, compressed ; shell slightly 
gaping posteriorly ; hinge with an internal 
cartilage situated in a pit. 

12. FAMILY. Wedge-Shells (Donacidse). Mantle 

freely open in front ; siphons separated to 
their bases ; foot large, sharp-edged, with a 
byssal groove ; shell variable in form, more or 
less wedge-shaped ; hinge with primary teeth. 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 351 

II. ORDER. CLADOPODS (Cladopoda). 
Foot large and club-shaped, often truncate and 
expanded at the end ; mantle-lobes usually united, 
with a passage in front for the foot ; siphons large, 
produced, generally united to their ends ; gills pro- 
duced into the anal siphon. 

1. FAMILY. Borers (Pholadidse). Siphons greatly 

prolonged, united as far as their ends ; foot 
club-shaped, truncate at end ; shell free, or 
within a tube, without ligament, and with 
apophyses under the beaks ; often with sup- 
plemental valves, 

2. FAMILY. Tube-Shells (Gastrochsenidse). Siphons 

very long, united almost to their ends and 
fimbriated ; foot small, digitiform ; shell equi- 
valve, often gaping, incrusted in whole or 
partly, or free in a tube, which is either free 
or enclosed ; no apophyses at the hinge. 

3. FAMILY. Razor-fish (SolenidsB). Siphons short, 

united ; orifices fimbriated ; foot elongated, 
thick, club-shaped, truncated ; shell sub- 
cylindrical, greatly elongated transversely, 
gaping at each end ; hinge with two or three 
teeth in each valve, the hinder bifid, carti- 
lage external, on a pad or fulcrum. 

4. FAMILY. Pod-Shells (Pharidse). Siphons sepa- 

rated for more than half their length ; foot 
ovate, elongate, truncated ; shell greatly 
elongated transversely, gaping at each end ; 
ligament external; hinge simple, or with 
one or two hooked teeth. 



152 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTOET. 

5. FAMILY. Lantern-Shells (Laternulidse). Siphons 

slender, separated, with fringed orifices ; foot 
small ; mantle almost entirely closed ; shell 
inequivalve, gaping at the hinder extremity ; 
ligament internal; usually a free ossicle at 
the hinge ; a siphonal inflection. 

6. FAMILY. Arctic-Gapers (Glycimeridse). Siphons 

elongated, united ; mantle-lobes united ; shell 
more or less gaping at the sides, transversely 
elongated ; ligament large, prominent, exter- 
nal, on a fulcrum ; hinge simple or with a 
few primary teeth. 

7. FAMILY. Gapers (Myidae). Siphons greatly 

elongated, united to their ends ; foot small ; 
mantle almost entirely closed ; shell oblong, 
gaping at the extremities ; cartilage in a 
spoon-shaped cavity in one of the valves ; 
hinge edentulate ; no free ossicle. 

8. FAMILY. Pearly - Gapers (Pholadomyidae). 

Mantle- lobes united ; siphons none ; an open- 
ing under siphonal orifice ; foot bifurcate ; 
shell transverse, pearly within, gaping pos- 
teriorly ; hinge without teeth ; ligament ex- 
ternal. 

9. FAMILY. Pod-Gapers (Solenomyidse). Mantle al- 

most entirely open, with a single cirrhated 
orifice behind ; foot cylindrical, truncate, 
ending in a fimbriated disk ; shell transverse- 
ly oblong, with a thick epidermis extending 
beyond the margins ; hinge with a cardinal 
tooth in each valve. 



MANUAL OF NATUKAL HISTORY. 153 

10. FAMILY. Galeommas (Galeommidse). Mantle 

very large, double-edged, tubercled, almost 
entirely open, with a single aperture at hind 
part ; foot long, ligulate, perforate, byssifer- 
ous ; shell thin, equivalve, transversely oval, 
entire, ventral margin gaping ; hinge eden- 
tulate ; ligament internal. 

1 1 . FAMILY. Pandoras (Pandoridse). Siphons 

short, united nearly to their ends, ends diver- 
gent, fringed ; shell equivalve, pearly within ; 
ligament internal, hinge often with an inter- 
nal ossicle. 

1 2. FAMILY. Corbulas (Corbulidse). Siphons very 

short, united, ends fringed, and with a mem- 
branous tube ; mantle almost entirely open ; 
foot narrow ; shell inequivalve, beaked an- 
teriorly; hinge with primary teeth in one 
or both valves ; cartilage in an internal pit. 

13. FAMILY. Stone-Borers (Saxicavidse). Mantle 

closed except for passage of foot; siphons 
elongate, united ; foot byssiferous ; shell ir- 
regular, gaping at ventral margin ; hinge 
with a few primary teeth. 

14. FAMILY. Laseas (Laseidse). Mantle with only 

one (anal) opening, folded anteriorly into a 
canal or tube ; foot ligulate, grooved, byssi- 
ferous ; shell small, tumid or compressed ; 
ligament and teeth variable. 

15. FAMILY. Scale-Shells (Leptonidse). Mantle- 

margin extending beyond the shell and cirr- 
hated ; siphon short ; foot keeled and disked ; 

ii 5 



154? MANUAL OF NATUKAL HISTORY. 

shell orbicular, compressed, gaping at the 
sides ; pallial impression simple. 

III. ORDER. GONIOPODS (Goniopoda). 

Foot angular, more or less compressed ; siphons 
none or rudimentary ; mantle-lobes more or 
less united. 

1. FAMILY. False-Cockles (Carditidse). Lobes of 

mantle disunited in their entire length, with 
a single posterior opening ; foot compressed, 
with a byssal groove ; shell closed, regular, 
free ; hinge with one or two oblique cardinal 
teeth, lateral teeth none. 

2. FAMILY. Chamas (Chamidse). Two short si- 

phons beset with cirrhi; lobes of mantle 
united behind ; foot small, cylindrical, trun- 
cate ; shell irregular, porcellanous, attached, 
inequivalve, with a single large hinge-tooth ; 
pallial impression not sinuated. 

3. FAMILY. Cockles (Cardiidse). Siphons short, 

their bases beset with cirrhi, margins fringed ; 
foot large and geniculate ; shell cordate, with 
radiating ribs and furrows ; hinge usually 
with two primary teeth in each valve, and 
distinct lateral teeth ; pallial impression not 
sinuated. 

4. FAMILY. Heart- Cockles (Glossidse). Mantle- 

lobes united behind, with two short siphons ; 
foot small, sub-angular, compressed, and 
trenchant ; shell symmetrical, heart-shaped, 
ventricose ; beaks spirally inrolled ; hinge 



MANUAL OF NATUKAL HISTOKY. 155 

with two primary teeth in one valve and 
three in the other ; ligament internal. 

5. FAMILY. Astartes (Astartidse). Mantle almost 

entirely open ; siphons rudimentary, consist- 
ing of two scarcely separated orifices ; foot 
thick, hatchet-shaped, without a byssus ; shell 
thick, closed ; hinge with primary teeth ; 
ligament external ; pallial impression nearly 
entire. 

6. FAMILY. Crassatellas (Crassatellidse). Animal 

? shell with the valves closed ; hinge 

with two cardinal teeth ; lateral teeth none ; 
cartilage in an internal triangular pit. 

7. FAMILY. Lucinas (Lucinidse). Mantle-lobes 

half united, with two openings at the hind 
part; foot cylindrical, folded on itself, hol- 
low, the tube opening into the visceral cavity ; 
shell more or less orbicular ; ligament ex- 
ternal or sub-internal ; muscular scars large. 

8. FAMILY. False-Lucinas (Diplodontidse). Mantle- 

margins united except for a large inferior 
opening for foot, and a small posterior anal 
opening without any siphon; foot vermi- 
form ; shell irregular, closed, with cardinal 
teeth in each valve. 

9. FAMILY. Arks (Arcidse). Mantle freely open ; 

siphons none ; gills of separate filaments ; 
foot bent, grooved, with slightly crimped 
margins ; shell not pearly within, closed or 
gaping at ventral margin; hinge multiden- 
tate, teeth interlocking. 



156 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTOKY. 

10. FAMILY. Solen-Arks '. (Solenellidse). Mantle 

open the entire length, margin double, with 
a single anal siphon ; labial palps elongate ; 
foot compressed, geniculate, with a disk with 
crenate margins ; shell thin, gaping slightly 
posteriorly, not pearly within ; hinge-margin 
with comb-like teeth ; ligament external, 
prominent. 

11. FAMILY. Pearly- Arks (Nuculidse). Mantle 

completely open, with or without siphonal 
tubes ; one of the labial palps curled, with 
fimbriated margins ; gills foliaceous ; foot 
deeply grooved, forming an ovate disk with 
serrated margins ; shell pearly within ; teeth 
comb-like ; ligament internal. 

12. FAMILY. Cockle -Arks (Trigoniidse). Mantle- 

lobes free, prolonged into short siphons ; gills 
foliaceous ; foot large, geniculate, with a disk ; 
shell equivalve, with radiating ribs, pearly 
within ; hinge with a few broad, lamelliform, 
grooved teeth interlocking with each other. 

13 FAMILY. Pond-Mussels (Unionidse). Mantle 
freely open, branchial orifice fringed, anal 
plain or tube-like ; gills foliaceous ; foot 
broad, compressed, without a byssal groove ; 
shell pearly within, covered with an epider- 
mis ; hinge variable ; ligament external. Flu- 
viatile. 

14. FAMILY. Nile -Mussels (Mutelidse). Mantle 
freely open, united behind and prolonged 
into two short siphons ; gills foliaceous ; foot 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 157 

large, compressed ; shell transverse, pearly 
within ; hinge-margin tuberculated ; ligament 
marginal, external. Fluviatile. 

15. FAMILY. JRiver-Solens (Mycetopidse). Mantle 

freely open ; siphons none ; foot long, cylin- 
drical, produced, inflated at the end ; shell 
thin, sub-cylindrical, gaping at both sides ; 
beaks nearly central. Fluviatile. 

16. FAMILY. River-Oysters (^Etheriidas). Lobes of 

mantle entirely disunited, prolonged into 
short siphons ; gills foliaceous ; foot large, 
thick, oblong; shell irregular, attached; hinge 
edentulous ; ligament in a groove of beaks. 
Fluviatile. 

IY. ORDER POGONOPODS (Pogonopoda). 

Siphons indistinct or rudimentary ; animal at- 
tached by a bundle of fibres arising from front of 
base of foot. 

3. FAMILY. M ussels (Mytilidse). Mantle-margins 
more or less united ; siphonal tubes distinct 
or wanting; gills foliaceous; foot small, nar- 
row, byssiferous ; shell elongated, equivalve ; 
hinge simple or sub-dentate ; ligament mar- 
ginal, sub-internal; muscular scars unequal. 
Marine. 

2. FAMILY. Fresh-water Mussels (Dreissenidse). 
Mantle closed ; branchial opening tube-like, 
with a fringed orifice, anal sessile and plain ; 
foot short, byssiferous ; shell with the beaks 



158 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

terminal ; hinge usually edentulate, with a, 
transverse septum. Fluviatile. 

3. FAMILY. Pearl-Oysters (Aviculidse). Mantle 

freely open, margins cirrhated ; foot small, 
cylindrical, with a byssal groove j shell foli- 
ated, irregular, pearly within, right valve 
with a notch for the byssus ; hinge-margin 
straight ; ligament marginal, simple or inter- 
rupted. 

4. FAMILY. Pinnas (Pinnidse). Mouth with folia- 

ceous lips ; no separate posterior opening ; 
anal siphon with a long ligulate valve ; gills 
foliaceous ; shell wedge-shaped, gaping at 
ventral margin, pointed at dorsal ; hinge 
lateral, without teeth ; ligament linear, al- 
most internal. 

5. FAMILY. Clams (Tridacnidse). Mantle closed, 

except for the branchial and anal orifices, and 
the aperture for the thick, cylindrical, byssi- 
ferous foot ; shell regular, transverse, truncate ; 
hinge with two compressed teeth ; ligament 
external ; muscular scars united, irregular. 

II. SUB-CLASS. UNIMUSCULAR-BIVALVES 
(Monomyaria). 

Animal with a single adductor muscle for closing 
the valves. 

I. OEDER. MICROPODS (Micropoda). 

Mantle-lobes entirely free ; siphons none ; foot 
rudimentary. 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 159 

1. FAMILY. Scallops (Pectinidse) Mantle open in 

its entire length, with pendent tentacular 
edges, usually with eye-like spots ; foot small, 
cylindrical, with a byssal groove shell free, 
regular, not foliaceous, usually auricled ; liga- 
ment in a cardinal groove. 

2. FAMILY. Water-Clams (Spondylidse). Mantle- 

margins with truncate cirrhi ; foot short, pe- 
dunculate, ending in a disk, with an elongate 
cylindrical tendon arising from its centre ; 
shell irregular, attached ; hinge with two 
strong teeth ; ligament internal. 

3. FAMILY. Oysters (Ostreidse). Mantle open in 

its entire length, without siphons, edges 
double bordered with cirrhi, no conspicuous 
ocelli ; foot obsolete, rudimentary ; shell irre- 
gular, attached, foliated ; hinge without teeth ; 
ligament internal or semi-internal. 

4. FAMILY. Perforated-Oysters (Anorniidse). Mantle 

freely open, with cirrhated margins, no con- 
spicuous ocelli ; foot rudimentary ; shell emar- 
ginate, or perforated near the beak, through 
which opening the adductor muscle passes, 
attached to an opercular shelly plug. 
6. FAMILY. Window-Oysters (Placunidse). Shell 
compressed, thin, transparent ; cartilages on 
the edge of two divergent ridges on one of 
the valves, which fit into grooves in the other. 



160 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 



BRACHIOPODS. 

The Brachiopods are headless Mollusks like the 
Conchifera, and the foot is also wanting ; they are, 
moreover, destitute of true gills, and appear to re- 
spire by means of their mantle. Their bodies are 
protected by two unequal, symmetrical, valves united 
by a hinge without a ligament ; the under or ven- 
tral valve is sometimes attached, and the upper or 
dorsal is frequently perforated near the beak for the 
passage of a tendon, by means of which the animal 
is anchored to sub-marine bodies. The mantle-mar- 
gins are disunited, but the great distinguishing fea- 
ture of these remarkable creatures is the existence 
of two, strangely contorted or spiral, bony arms 
covered with a ciliated membrane, and arising from 
each side of the mouth. The ends of the spiral 
arms, in some genera, are endowed with voluntary 
motion, the movement being effected by the injec- 
tion of a fluid into the hollow spiral tube by which 
the coils are separated. The peculiar bony apophy- 
sary skeleton exhibits various modifications; two 
thin processes usually proceed from near the hinge 
of the upper perforated valve, and form loops or 
simple apophyses ; sometimes there is a median per- 
pendicular lamella between them, and sometimes 
they develope other processes, and constitute a very 
complicated apparatus. Their nervous system is 
composed of several ganglia surrounding the ceso- 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 161 

phagus ; their organs of taste are probably situated 
in the filaments of the mantle-margin ; and those of 
touch most probably consist of the curious ciliated, 
twisted or spiral, tentacular arms. Their digestive 
organs do not differ materially from those of the 
Bivalves, the alimentary canal commencing in a 
simple oral aperture situated between the bases of 
the tentacular arms ; in Terebratula it is tubular 
and curved for some distance, and then becomes di- 
lated into a stomach, while in other genera, it makes 
several turns and continues throughout of the same 
calibre ; there are no salivary glands, and the dis- 
integrated liver pours its secretion directly into the 
digestive tube. The structure of the shell varies 
in different genera ; in Discina it is almost entirely 
horny, in Lingula it is covered with an epidermis, 
which in Terebratula is entirely wanting. The 
shells of the Terebratulidce are finely perforated, 
the tubular apertures being lined, in the living ani- 
mal, with prolongations of the mantle. The Brachio- 
pods are extremely numerous in fossil genera and 
species, and appear to have been among the forms 
of Mollusca earliest created. The recent genera are 
few, and live in all seas, usually at very consider- 
able depths ; the Craniidce being sessile on stones 
and other sub-marine bodies ; the Terebratulce are 
also attached by means of their tendons ; while 
the Lingulce perforate the mud in more shallow 
situations. 



162 MANUAL OF NATUEAL HISTOEY. 

V. CLASS. BRACHIOPODS (Bracliiopoda). 

Animal furnished with a pair of ciliated oral 
arms, sometimes supported by a calcareous append- 
age ; respiration performed by the vascular mantle ; 
body covered with two shells. Attached to marine 
objects. 

S UB-CLASS. ANCYLOPOD-BRACHIOPODS (Ancylopoda). 
Oral arms recurved and attached to fixed appen- 
dages on the disc of ventral valve ; shell with nu- 
merous minute perforations. 

I. ORDER. ANCYLOBRACHIATE-BRACHIOPODS 

(Ancylobrachiata). 

Oral arms affixed to calcareous plates, forming 
hoops attached to the hinge-margin of the ventral 
valve, and prominent in its cavity. 
1. FAMILY. Lamp-Shells (Terebratulidse). Arms 
looped or contorted, fixed to an apophysary 
skeleton; shell regular, valves articulated, 
attached by a tendinous band which passes 
out of a hole in upper valve. 

II. ORDER. CRYPTOBRACHIATE-BRACHIOPODS 

(Cryptobrachiata). 

Oral arms sunk into grooves in the convex centre 
of the inner surface of the ventral valve. 
1. FAMILY. Thecidians (Thecideeidae). Arms con- 
torted, fixed to margin of apophysary ribs 
and cardinal teeth ; shell attached by apex 
of lower valve, which is produced. 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. J63 

IT. S UB-CLASS. HELICTOPOD-BRACHIOPODS 
(Helictopoda). 

Oral arms regularly spirally twisted when at rest ; 
shell not pierced with minute perforations. 

I. ORDER. SCLEROBRACHIATE-BRACHIOPDOS 

(Sclerobrachiata). 

Oral arms supported by a shelly plate arising 
from the hinge-margin of ventral valve. 

1. FAMILY. Beaked Lamp-Shells (Lampasidse). 
Arms spiral, supported only by short curved 
processes ; shell not punctate, usually tetra- 
hedral and sharply plaited. (Rhynchonellidce, 
Auct.) 

II. ORDER. SARCICOBRACHIATE-BRACHIOPODS 
(Sarcicobrachiata). 

Oral arms fleshy, without any shelly support ; 
lower valve of shell simple, or with a slight median 
elevation. 

1. FAMILY. Skull-Shells (Craniidse). Arms fleshy, 

spiral, attached to a process in centre of lower 
valve ; upper valve limpet-like. 

2. FAMILY. Disk-Shells (Discinidse). Arms cili- 

ated, fixed to a central process of lower 
valve, which is perforated for the passage of 
a peduncle, or tendon of attachment ; upper 
valve conical, simple. 

3. FAMILY. Duck-billed Limpets (Lingulidas). Ani- 

mal attached by a tendinous tube, which pro- 



164 MANUAL OF NATUKAL HISTOEV. 

jects between the apex of the gaping valves ; 
rudimentary branchiae developed from the 
mantle ; shell almost equivalve. 



TUNICARIES. 

The Tunicaries comprise the " acephalous Mol- 
lusks without shells " of Cuvier, and are the same 
as the " Heterobranches " of Blainville. They are 
marine animals of variable form, their bodies in- 
vested in a thick coriaceous or gelatinous sac-like 
mantle, with a branchial and an anal aperture, with 
the gills differently formed, attached to the inner 
lining membrane. They are usually fixed to rocks 
and other sub-marine bodies, as the Ascidians and 
Botrylli, but others among them are free and pela- 
gian, as the Salpians and Pyrosomes. They are 
either simple, or united together organically, form- 
ing a compound animal of great diversity of shape 
and complexity. In the warm seas of equinoctial 
countries, their star-like bodies arrest the eye by 
the richness of their tints, and the curious manner 
in which the individuals are grouped. In their 
young or larval state the Tunicaries are free, but 
afterwards become fixed to one spot for the re- 
mainder of their lives. Some species are employed 
as food in certain parts of China and the Mediter- 
ranean, although by no means inviting in their 
general appearance. In the genus Chelysoma of 
Broderip and Sowerby, the mantle is strengthened 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 165 

externally with horny plaits, resembling those on 
the carapace of a Tortoise ; in the Boltenia of 
Savigny, the body is globular and placed on a long 
peduncle ; in Clavellina the individuals composing 
the general mass are connected by creeping, root- 
like prolongations ; in the Botrylli they are ad- 
herent, side by side ; in the genus Polydinum they 
are placed at unequal distances from a common 
centre ; in Distoma the individuals are in one or 
two ranks, at unequal distances from the common 
centre ; while in Diazona they are arranged in con- 
centric circles. The Pyrosomes, having the animals 
united together in whorls, forming a common cylin- 
drical tube, float freely about the warmer parts of 
the ocean, and are frequently met with in incre- 
dible numbers ; at night these tubular brotherhoods 
are vividly phosphorescent, and exhibit a striking 
effect as they move vertically through the water. 
The Salpians are also remarkable animals, occurring 
under two distinct forms, being met with sometimes 
associatec 1 in long strings, at others, solitary and 
isolated ; the solitary kinds, as discovered by Cha- 
misso, not being specifically distinct from those 
united in chains, but either their parents or their 
progeny. The Pelonaians resemble the Sipunculi 
among the Echinoderms, and differ from the Asci- 
dians in being bilateral ; in the transverse plaits of 
their bodies they seem also to present an analogy 
to the Annulose animals. The very singular genus 
Appendicularia, for which we have constituted a 
family, has been ably investigated by Huxley, who 



164 MANUAL OF NATUKAL HISTOKV. 

jects between the apex of the gaping valves ; 
rudimentary branchiae developed from the 
mantle ; shell almost equivalve. 



TUNICABJES. 

The Tunicaries comprise the " acephalous Mol- 
lusks without shells " of Cuvier, and are the same 
as the " Heterobranches " of Blainville. They are 
marine animals of variable form, their bodies in- 
vested in a thick coriaceous or gelatinous sac-like 
mantle, with a branchial and an anal aperture, with 
the gills differently formed, attached to the inner 
lining membrane. They are usually fixed to rocks 
and other sub-marine bodies, as the Ascidians and 
Botrylli, but others among them are free and pela- 
gian, as the Salpians and Pyrosomes. They are 
either simple, or united together organically, form- 
ing a compound animal of great diversity of shape 
and complexity. In the warm seas of equinoctial 
countries, their star-like bodies arrest the eye by 
the richness of their tints, and the curious manner 
in which the individuals are grouped. In their 
young or larval state the Tunicaries are free, but 
afterwards become fixed to one spot for the re- 
mainder of their lives. Some species are employed 
as food in certain parts of China and the Mediter- 
ranean, although by no means inviting in their 
general appearance. In the genus Chelysoma of 
Broderip and Sowerby, the mantle is strengthened 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 165 

externally with horny plaits, resembling those on 
the carapace of a Tortoise ; in the Boltenia of 
Savigny, the body is globular and placed on a long 
peduncle ; in Clavellina the individuals composing 
the general mass are connected by creeping, root- 
like prolongations ; in the Botrylli they are ad- 
herent, side by side ; in the genus Polyclinum they 
are placed at unequal distances from a common 
centre ; in Distoma the individuals are in one or 
two ranks, at unequal distances from the common 
centre ; while in Diazona they are arranged in con- 
centric circles. The Pyrosomes, having the animals 
united together in whorls, forming a common cylin- 
drical tube, float freely about the warmer parts of 
the ocean, and are frequently met with in incre- 
dible numbers ; at night these tubular brotherhoods 
are vividly phosphorescent, and exhibit a striking 
effect as they move vertically through the water. 
The Salpians are also remarkable animals, occurring 
under two distinct forms, being met with sometimes 
associated in long strings, at others, solitary and 
isolated ; the solitary kinds, as discovered by Cha- 
misso, not being specifically distinct from those 
united in chains, but either their parents or their 
progeny. The Pelonaians resemble the Sipunculi 
among the Echinoderms, and differ from the Asci- 
dians in being bilateral ; in the transverse plaits of 
their bodies they seem also to present an analogy 
to the Annulose animals. The very singular genus 
Appendicularia, for which we have constituted a 
family, has been ably investigated by Huxley, who 



166 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

first shewed the true relations of the animal and 
its position among the tunicated Mollusks. 

VI. CLASS. TUNICARIES (Tunicata). 

Animal acephalous, with a soft organized coria- 
ceous or gelatinous test or shell provided with a 
branchial and an anal orifice ; mantle forming an 
interior coat ; gills attached wholly or partly to 
inner surface of mantle ; mouth without labial ten- 
tacles ; animals single or aggregate ; fixed or free. 
Hermaphrodite. 

1. FAMILY. Ascidians (Ascidiidse). Body sacci- 

form, gelatinous or coriaceous, fixed at one 
end, free at the other, with two more or less 
prominent orifices ; isolated or gregarious, 
not united by a common integument. 

2. FAMILY. Social-Ascidians (Clavellinidse). In- 

dividuals each having its own heart, respira- 
tion, and system of nutrition ; but fixed on 
peduncles that branch from a common creep- 
ing stem, and all connected by a circulation 
that extends throughout. 

3 FAMILY. Compound - Ascidians (Botryllidse). 
Animals oval, adhering by their sides in a 
greater or less number so as to resemble a 
single complex animal ; each individual with 
distinct branchial and anal orifices. 
]. Polydininm. Body divided into three 
distinct portions, or a thorax, a superior- 
abdomen, and a post-abdomen. 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 167 

2. Diademnince. Body distinctly divided into 

two parts, thorax and abdomen. 

3. Botryllince. Body not divided into a dis- 

tinct thorax and abdomen, the viscera being 
pushed forward on side of branchial cavity 
and forming, with thorax, an ovoid mass. 
4 FAMILY. Pyrosomes (Pyrosomatidse). Common 
body semi-cartilaginous, floating, cylindrical, 
open at one of its extremities only ; animals 
associated in a verticillate arrangement, hav- 
ing two orifices one at each extremity. 

5. FAMILY. Salpians (Salpidse). Animal free, pela- 

gian, in form of a more or less cylindrical 
tube open at one or both ends ; test and 
mantle continuous at respiratory aperture, 
but elsewhere separated by a wide space ; 
gill forming a hollow band across respiratory 
cavity ; anal orifice ending close above and 
to right side of mouth. 

6. FAMILY. Pelonaians (Pelonaiidse). Body cylin- 

drical, with the branchial and anal orifices 
on the same plane on papillary eminences 
at one extremity ; no rays or tentacles sur- 
rounding either of the 4-cleft orifices. 
7- FAMILY. Appendicularians (Appendiculariidse). 
Body flask-shaped, with a lanceolate append- 
age ; mouth at bottom of respiratory cavity ; 
respiratory orifice at smaller extremity ; gills 
represented by a ciliated band of mantle ; 
anus on dorsal surface, in front of insertion of 
caudal appendage. 



168 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 



ANNULOSE ANIMALS. 

The classes of the Animlose division of the Ani- 
mal Kingdom, which is characterised chiefly by the 
segmented nature of the skin, the possession of 
jointed limbs, and a double knotted chord of nerv- 
ous matter, vary greatly among themselves accord- 
ing to the modifications of their organs of locomo- 
tion, their breathing system, and their generative 
apparatus. Thus we find the Cirrhopods, covered 
with a- testaceous envelope, fixed to one spot, and 
with their legs metamorphosed into breathing or- 
gans, living in the water ; the Crustaceans, also 
aquatic animals, respiring by means of gills, and pro- 
tected by a hard skin composed of carbonate of 
lime, and having never less than ten legs, but often 
furnished with many more variously modified ; the 
Insects, the most highly organized and intelligent 
of all the Annulose classes, breathing the free air, 
having only six legs, usually provided with wings, 
and undergoing a regular metamorphosis ; the 
Arachnidans, which have eight legs, respire free 
air, have no wings, and whose head, deprived of 
antennae, is consolidated with the thorax forming 
a single piece ; the Aiolopods, comprehending a 
a large portion of the Ametabolous Insects of Leach 
and Macleay, in which the number of legs is vari- 
able, where the head is provided with antennse, and 
where the metamorphosis is irregular ; and finally 
the worm-like Annelids, which gradually conduct 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY 169 

us to the next and more apathetic Radiate division 
in which we see the locomotive organs begin to as- 
sume the form of jointless tubercles and even simple 
bristles, and where the ringed character of the skin 
becomes less and less obvious. As we have seen 
already in our sketch of the two former mighty 
zones of animal life, the Vertebrate and the Mol- 
luscous, so shall we be led by the study of the 
Annulose tribes to see many marvels of instinctive 
sagacity, of constructive power, and of admirable 
structure. We may be led to trace the changes 
from infancy to fixed old age of the molluscous, 
crab-like Barnacle ; we may investigate the moulting 
of the Crustacean, read of the journeys of the Land- 
Crab, smile on beholding the monstrous claws of 
the Calling-Crab, or wonder at the ingenuity of the 
Soldier -Crabs ; we may watch the ingenuity of 
the artful, spinning Spiders with their curious foot- 
brushes, egg-baskets, geometric webs, envenomed 
bite and cruel cunning ; or admire with the Ento- 
mologist the plumed antennse of the Gnats, the 
symmetric honey-cells of the ingenious Hive-bees, 
with their pollen-brushes, their pollen-baskets and 
their wax-pockets, or praise the colonising Ant and 
the paper-making Wasp, examine the structure of 
the houses of the Caddis-Flies, the conical den of 
the clever Ant-Lion, the wondrous domes of the 
methodical White- Ants, or deplore the ravages of 
the Plant-Lice, the Cockroaches, and the Locusts. 
Perhaps the Zoologist looking yet among the tribes 
with jointed skins, may pause to ponder on the 



170 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

gradual change exhibited by the Annelids from the 
vivacious Nereis with its powerful teeth- armed pro- 
boscis and numerous feet, down to the soft-bodied 
Leech and limbless Earth-worm. Thus we find 
crawling on the earth, or winging through the air, 
peopling the ocean, the river, and the swamp, or 
lending new beauty to the leaves, the flowers, and 
the trees, active, eager, Annulose creatures, bent 
upon rapine, eager for food, ardent in love, bust- 
ling, chasing, slaying, and caressing over the entire 
domain of Nature's Kingdom. 

III. SUB-KINGDOM OF ANNULOSE ANIMALS 
(Annulosa). 

Nervous system composed of two parallel chords, 
united by a regular series of ganglia ; body symme- 
trical, jointed, often with jointed appendages ; re- 
spiratory organs distinct ; jaws, when present, lateral, 
with lateral movements. 

INSECTS. 

The travelling naturalist will find himself sur- 
rounded by the wonders of the insect-world, what- 
ever may be his destination. The singing of Cicadce 
in the woods, the leaping of Grasshoppers in the 
prairies, the flitting lights of Fire-Flies at night, 
the glittering forms of Beetles in the sun, the nests 
of Wasps hanging on the trees, the galls of Cyni- 
pidce on the leaves, the cocoons of Moths in cre- 
vices of bark, the flights of Locusts on the plains, 
the ravages of Aphides, the depredations of Ants, 



MANUAL OF NATUEAL HISTORY. 171 

the attacks of Mosquitoes, and the swarms of Flies 
that make the air above him musical, will all force 
themselves upon his notice. Among the Beetles he 
will of necessity acquire many fine species, these in- 
sects being very numerous, more than eighty thou- 
sand species being already known. He will see the 
splendid Buprestidce alighting on the leaves and 
trunks of trees in sunny spots of the woods, the 
Tiger-Beetles flying over sandy tracts, the Ground- 
Beetles running among the herbage, the Diving- 
Beetles in the ponds, the Carrion-Beetles preying on 
the carcases, the Dung-Beetles revelling in the ex- 
crement of various quadrupeds, the Fungus-Eaters 
in the rotting Toadstools and Agarics, and the Stag- 
Beetles and Darkling-Beetles hiding under bark, or 
among the tangled roots of old forest trees. 

Among Orthopterous insects, tropical forms of 
large size and splendid colours will often arrest his 
attention, nor will he fail to marvel at the wondrous 
forms of the Walking-Stick and Leaf-Insects he may 
encounter on his path. Among this order he will 
also find the devastating Locusts, the lively Crickets, 
the pestiferous Cockroaches, and the pious Sooth- 
sayers, which raise their fore-feet as in the act of 
prayer. 

The little Bee-Parasites (Strepsiptera) must be 
sought after by the intelligent traveller in the bodies 
of the Bees he may capture, on examining the abdo- 
mens of which he will see their small white heads 
protruding from between the segments. Of course 
among the Neuropterous insects the Dragon-Flies 

i 2 



172 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

will be most eagerly pursued ; they will be found 
especially numerous in marshy places, where their 
blue, green, and crimson bodies impart a brilliant 
aspect to the scenery. The White- Ants (Termitidce), 
though not so beautiful, are also important objects 
of observation, from their being active agents in re- 
moving decomposing matter, on account of the pro- 
digious damage they do among the habitations of 
man, and for the curious edifices they rear. 

The Hymenopterous tribes need only be referred 
to as comprising the Bees, the Ants, the Wasps, and 
the Ichneumon-Flies, to remind our travelling in- 
quirer of the curious nests of wax and paper they 
manufacture, and the stores of honey many of them 
gather for the use of man. Among the Homoptera, 
he will find in the course of his rambles the musical 
GicadcB, the strangely-fashioned Lanthorn-Flies, the 
Cochineal insects, manufacturers of a valuable dye, 
the destructive Aphides, the curious Wax-Insects, 
the useful Lac-Insects, to whom we owe shell-lac, and 
the pernicious Scale-Insects so injurious to the agri- 
culturist and the lover of flowers. Clinging to the 
leaves, upon the juices of which they feed, or prey- 
ing on smaller and more defenceless insects, the va- 
rious forms of Hemiptera will attract his notice ; 
they are extremely numerous in the tropics, and ex- 
hibit not only wonderful forms but great and varied 
brilliancy of colour ; when touched they emit a pe- 
culiar odour, and some inflict a painful sting. 

The Caterpillars of the Lepidoptera will be ob- 
served eating the leaves of various plants, frequently 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 173 

of considerable size, and of the strangest forms; 
Chrysalids suspended by their tails, braced by silken 
bands, or encased in shrivelled leaves, will be seen 
hanging from the branches, or entombed among the 
crevices of the bark ; and the perfect Butterflies will 
court his notice as they alight to suck the juices of 
the fruits and flowers, or as their splendid wings 
glance in the sunbeams among the forest glades. 
With the setting sun the Butterflies will give place 
to the noiseless Moths, some of which, as the Satur- 
nia Atlas, are eight or nine inches across the wings, 
and all of which are worthy of capture. The two- 
winged Flies, or Diptera, he will see hovering over 
woody places during the heat of the day, or settling 
on the flowers in the sun ; the Forest-Flies (Taba- 
nidce) will put his patience to the test, and in the 
swamps the Mosquitoes will sorely try his temper, 
which pernicious Gnat is the Culex Mosquito in the 
West-Indies, and the Culex molestus in the Brazilian 
forests. 

I. CLASS. INSECTS (Insecta). 

Animal breathing by tracheae ; head furnished 
with antennae ; eyes compound ; body in general 
winged, composed of a series of segments disposed in 
three portions, or head, thorax, and abdomen ; legs 
six, jointed ; sexes distinct. Undergoing a regular 
metamorphosis. , 

I. SUB-CLASS. BITING-INSECTS (Mandibulata). 
Mouth furnished with transverse jaws. 



174 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

BEETLES. 

Beetles are readily distinguished from the other 
insect tribes on account of their first pair of wings 
being changed into hard horny coverings, or elytra, 
which protect and conceal the hind wings when they 
are at rest. Except by the eye of the Naturalist 
these insects are seldom seen on the wing ; in cross- 
ing sandy heaths near the sea, the beautiful Tiger- 
Beetles will, however, occasionally start up beneath 
the feet ; in the woods the Springing-Beetles will be 
seen alighting on the leaves, and often in an evening 
stroll the poet's well-known lines, 

" Save where the Beetle wheels his drony flight," 

is brought vividly before the mind by the steady 
course of the Dor- and the Stag-Beetle. The ex- 
treme diversity of form often assumed by these case- 
winged insects may be well shewn by contrasting 
the curious Mormolyce of Java, with its flattened 
leaf-like body and elongated head, with the leaping 
Mordella in which the head is entirely concealed, 
and the elytra pointed and narrow ; or by compar- 
ing the diving Dyticus, with its compact and horn- 
less body and oar-shaped feet, with the long horned 
South American Acrocinus or long legged Harle- 
quin-Beetle ; or again, the Elephant Balaninus, with 
its arched back and slender proboscis, with the de- 
pressed form and powerful mandibles of the Cicin- 
delidce. In like manner what shall we say to the 
remarkable Kangaroo -Beetle, with its enormous 
thighs, wheD contrasted with the short-legged Byr- 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 175 

rhus, or the Helmet-Beetle. In confirmation of their 
beauty the advocate of the beetles may point to 
our native Rose-Chaffer, and bid us gaze on the 
splendour of the Sun-Beetles and the Diamond- 
Beetles. 

The utility of these despised creatures to lordly 
man is by no means so great as the loss they occasion 
him by the depredations of their larvse ; we may, 
however, refer to the useful labours of the Blister- 
Beetles, the Carrion-Beetles, the Dung-Beetles, and 
the Rove-Beetles, to enlist our sympathy in their 
behalf ; while to prove the importance of becoming 
acquainted with their habits we may allude to the 
ravages of the Turnip-Fly, the Chaffer's-Grubs, the 
Corn- Weevils, the Skin-Beetles, the Book- Worms, 
and the Wood-Borers. Beetles, like Butterflies, pass 
through several stages in their lives, being hatched 
from eggs, then existing as greedy grubs (often 
mischievous withal), next becoming inert chrysalids, 
and finally assuming their nuptial attire, in which 
they prosecute their loves and are often seen no 
more. The instinctive sagacity of our little favourites 
is also worthy of our notice, whether we contemplate 
the Sexton-Beetles burying the bodies of the dead as 
nutriment for their own young progeny, the Bom- 
badier-Beetles repelling their enemies by repeated 
discharges of an acrid vapour, a kind of small artil- 
lery, or the cunning Mimic and Pill-Beetles, Hister 
and Byrrhus, feigning death when they fall into 
the hands of their enemies, and thus escaping de- 
struction. 



176 MANUAL OF NATUEAL HISTORY. 

I. OKDEK. BEETLES (Coleoptera). 

Wings four, the anterior one (or elytra) hard, 
horny, or leathery, covering the hind wings and 
abdomen in repose, united down the back by a 
straight suture ; hind wings membranous, folded 
when at rest ; mouth with transversely moveable 
jaws. 

I. LEGION. ADEPHAGOUS-BEETLES (Adephaga). 

Outer lobe of maxillae distinct, jointed, palpiform ; 
lower jaws armed with spines and ending in an acute 
hook; antennse long and slender; anterior tarsi 
generally dilated in the males. Predaceous, feeding 
on other insects. 

I. SUB-ORDER. PREDACEOUS GROUND-BEETLES 
(Geodephaga). 

Legs long, formed for running ; the four hinder 
placed at equal distances apart ; body oblong ; an- 
tennse filiform or setaceous ; eyes prominent. Ter- 
restrial, 

1. FAMILY. Tiger-Beetles (Cicindelidae). Maxillae 

with a moveable claw at tip ; mandibles 
strong, acute, armed with teeth; antennae 
filiform ; labial palpi hairy, 3-jointed, with a 
moveable base ; head large ; eyes prominent ; 
legs long, slender ; fore-tibiae not notched on 
inner side. Carnivorous ; fly in the sunshine ; 
run with great agility. 

2. FAMILY. Bombardier-Beetles (Brachinidae). Max- 

illae with a fixed claw at tip ; labrum linear, 



MANUAL OF NATUKAL HISTORY. 177 

notched or trilobate ; labium exserted ; labial 
palpi 4-jointed, basal joint fixed ; antennae 
filiform ; elytra truncate behind, shorter than 
abdomen ; legs moderate ; fore-tibiae with a 
notch on inner side near the tip ; anterior 
tarsi rarely dilated in the males ; head and 
thorax narrower than abdomen. Emit a 
pungent vapour, accompanied by an explo- 
sion. 

3. FAMILY. Burrowing Ground-Beetles (Scaritidae). 
Maxillae with a fixed claw at tip ; labrum 
short, sometimes trilobate ; labium short ; 
labial palpi 4-jointed, basal joint fixed ; elytra 
entire behind ; abdomen pedunculated ; fore- 
legs expanded and palmate externally ; an- 
terior tarsi simple in both sexes ; antennae 
moniliform ; nocturnal, living in holes near 
the sea shore. 

4 FAMILY. True Ground-Beetles (Carabidae). Max- 
illae with a fixed claw at tip ; labrum lobate ; 
labium usually toothed ; labial palpi 4-jointed, 
basal joint fixed ; mentum large, produced in 
the centre ; elytra entire, not truncate ; fore- 
tibiae slender, not notched within ; fore-tarsi 
greatly dilated in the males. Run fast ; when 
irritated eject an acrid fluid from abdomen. 

o. FAMILY. False Ground - Beetles (Harpalidae). 
M axillae with a fixed claw at tip ; labrum 
usually quadrate; labium not toothed, fur- 
nished with a process on each side ; labial 
palpi 4-joiiited, basal joint fixed ; mandibles 

i 5 



178 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

slightly toothed within; mentum deeply 
notched ; body elongate, neck rarely distinct ; 
elytra entire or slightly notched behind ; an- 
terior tibiae notched on inner side ; fore-tarsi 
more or less dilated in the males. 

1. Feroniince. Two anterior tarsi alone dilated 

in the males ; four hind tarsi simple ; central 
tooth of mentum notched at tip. 

2. Harpalince. Four anterior tarsi dilated in the 

males ; mentum tooth acute, never notched. 

3. Ghlceniince. Front tarsi of males with two, 

three, or four of the basal joints square or 
cordate. 

The species of this family are exceedingly nu- 
merous. 

6. FAMILY. Subaquatic-Beetles (Bembidiidae). Max- 

illae with a fixed claw at tip ; labrum trans- 
verse ; labium quadrate ', maxillary and labial 
palpi with the last joint minute ; mentum 
notched ; antennae filiform ; elytra entire ; 
fore-tibiae not palmate, their inner edge 
notched; anterior tarsi with one or more 
dilated joints in the males. Live on the 
margins of streams. 

7. FAMILY. Marsh-Beetles (Elaphridae). Maxillae 

with a fixed claw at tip ; labrum entire ; 
mandibles simple; labial palpi 4-jointed, api- 
cal joint tumid, basal, fixed; mentum notch- 
ed, with a bifid central tooth ; elytra entire ; 
anterior tibiae not palmate, without a notch 
on the side, slightly notched at tip ; fore-tarsi 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 179 

not dilated in the males. Living in marshy 
situations. 

II. SUB-ORDER. PREDACEOUS WATER-BEETLES 
(Hydradephaga). 

Legs short, formed for swimming hinder pair re- 
mote from the others and horizontal; hind-tibiae and 
tarsi generally compressed and fringed with hair ; 
body ovate ; antennae setaceous ; eyes not prominent. 
Aquatic. 

8. FAMILY. Diving-Beetles (Dyticidae). Antennae 

long, setaceous ; legs unequal, hind pair long- 
est, deeply fringed ; tarsi broad, flat, fringed, 
ending in a point ; males with the fore tarsi 
dilated, females often with elytra sulcate. 
Swim and dive with agility, inhabit ponds, 
often fly by night. 

9. FAMILY. Whirlwigs (Gyrinidae). Antennae short, 

clavate, rigid, second joint with a lobate ap- 
pendage ; eyes divided ; thorax transverse, 
waved before and behind ; legs unequal, the 
two front very long, ambulatory; the four 
hind very short, compressed, formed for swim- 
ming ; with a metallic lustre. Usually swim 
on the surface of the water. 

II. LEGION". RYPOPHAGOUS-BEETLES (Rypophaga). 

Mouth with four palpi, the inner maxillary repre- 
sented by outer lobe of maxillae, which is dilated or 
jointed but not palpiform ; antennae gradually or 
abruptly clavate ; males with basal joints of tarsi 



180 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

more or less dilated. Feeding on animal and vege- 
table substances in a state of decay. 

III. SUB-ORDER. WATER-LOVING BEETLES 
(Phi%dride). 

Mandibles small, rarely exserted ; maxillary palpi 
usually 4-jointed ; body short, convex ; elytra cover- 
ing abdomen; hind-legs usually formed for swim- 
ming, sometimes for walking ; fore-tibiae often spi- 
nose. Aquatic or sub-aquatic. 

10. FAMILY. Mud-burrowing Beetles (Heteroce- 

ridae). Antennae 11 -jointed, two basal joints 
large, the others forming an obscurely ser- 
rated mass thickened towards the tip ; head 
elongate, deeply inserted into thorax ; thorax 
transverse ; body flattish ; tibiae compressed, 
spinose. Form burrows in muddy banks of 
ponds. 

11. FAMILY Pond -Beetles (Parnidae). Antennae 

9-jointed, the second with a lobate append- 
age, the rest forming a clavate serrated 
mass ; body sub - cylindric, convex ; head 
deeply inserted into thorax ; thorax quad- 
rate, narrowed in front ; tibiae cylindric, 
simple ; tarsi filiform, long, 5-jointed. Bur- 
row among the roots of aquatic plants. 

12. FAMILY. Stream-Beetles (Limniidae). Antennae 

9 13-jointed, somewhat filiform, terminal 
joints largest, forming a club ; body ovate 
or sub-globose, convex ; head inflexed, deep- 
ly inserted into thorax ; thorax sub-qua- 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 181 

drate, margined; legs long, tibiae slender, 
not spinose ; tarsi 5-jointed. Live under 
stones in running streams. 

13. FAMILY. Herbivorous Water-Beetles (Helopho- 

ridae). Antennae 9-jointed, perfoliate, cla- 
vate ; club sub-serrated ; mandibles not tooth- 
ed at tip ; maxillary palpi very long ; body 
oblong, flattish ; thorax sub-quadrate ; tibiae 
slightly spinous ; tarsi 5-jointed, filiform, not 
ciliated, basal joint minute. Inhabit ponds 
and ditches ; herbivorous in the perfect state. 

14. FAMILY. Water-Beetles (Hydrophilidae). An- 

tennae 6 9-jointed, perfoliate, clavate, club 
distinctly cleft, mandibles bidendate at tip ; 
maxillary palpi very long, filiform ; body 
oval or globose ; thorax short, transverse ; 
tibiae slightly spinose ; tarsi 5-jointed, fili- 
form, hind pair often ciliated Frequent the 
water, fly abroad in the evening. 

15. FAMILY. Excrement-Beetles (Sphaeridiidae). An- 

tennae short, 9-jointed, basal joint very long, 
four next short, the rest forming a com- 
pressed perfoliate club ; maxillary palpi as 
long as antennae, second joint thickened, 
head round in front ; thorax transverse ; 
body more or less hemispheric ; tibiae com- 
pressed, spinose ; tarsi filiform ; claws two, 
unequal Living in the excrement of vari- 
ous animals. 

16. FAMILY. Armadillo - Beetles (Agathidiidae). 

Antennae 11-jointed, rather long, slender at 



182 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

base, ending in a club ; palpi short ; head 
small, ovate ; thorax more or less gibbous ; 
body convex, orbicular or globose ; tibiae 
often spinose and compressed ; tarsi of four 
or five joints. Counterfeit death by rolling 
themselves into a ball. (Anisotomidce, Ste- 
phens.) 

IV. S UB-ORDER. CAKKION-BEETLES (Necrophaga). 

Mandibles generally elongate, exserted ; maxillary 
palpi with the basal joint minute or wanting ; 
maxillae with a double membranaceous process, the 
outer lobe often slender, rarely jointed ; body more 
or less elongate, depressed ; elytra frequently ab- 
breviated ; legs all formed for walking ; anterior 
tibiae simple. Feed on decaying animal and vege- 
table matter. 

17- FAMILY. Scavenger-Beetles (Scaphidiidse). An- 
tennae more or less clavate ; club 5-jointed, 
the second joint often minute ; maxillary 
palpi generally exserted ; mandibles mostly 
bidentate at tip; head inserted up to eyes 
in thorax ; thorax convex ; legs long. Feed 
on decaying fungi, rotten bones. Frequent 
dunghills. 

18. FAMILY. True Carrion-Beetles (Silphidae). An- 
tennae clavate ; club usually 4 or 5-jointed, 
maxillary palpi filiform, the last joint cylin- 
dric ; mandibles entire at tip ; head inflexed, 
contracted behind into a neck ; thorax large, 
shield-shaped; elytra simple, outer margin 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 183 

generally with a groove ; body depressed ; 
legs rather short. Found in carrion and the 
carcasses of animals. 

19. FAMILY. Bone-Beetles (Nitidulidse). Antennae 

abruptly clavate ; club 3 or 4-jointed ; palpi 
filiform, short ; mandibles elongate, notched 
at tip ; head inserted up to eyes in thorax ; 
thorax broad ; body flat, wide ; legs short. 
Feed on bones and other animal remains. 

20. FAMILY. Hairy Fungus - Beetles (Mycetopha- 

gidae). Antennae gradually clavate ; club 
from two to four joints ; palpi rather long ; 
maxillae bilobed ; mandibles short, bifid at 
tip ; labrum transverse ; head somewhat in- 
serted into thorax ; body rather wide, hairy 
or pubescent. Living principally on decay- 
ing fungi. 

21. FAMILY. Smooth Fungus-Beetles (Erotylidae). 

Antennae ending in a large 3-jointed club ; 
palpi with apical joint large ; maxillae com- 
pressed, subulate ; mandibles short, dentate 
at tip ; head small ; body oval or hemispheric, 
smooth, polished. Feeding chiefly on putre- 
scent fungi. 

22. FAMILY. Elongate Bark-Beetles (Engidae). An- 

tennae short, more or less distinctly clavate ; 
club 2 5-jointed ; palpi rathers hort ; maxillae 
mostly one-lobed ; mandibles bifid at tip ; 
labrum transverse ; head deeply inserted in 
thorax ; body elongate, glabrous. Usually 
found under bark of trees. 



184 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTOKY. 

23. FAMILY. Flat Bark-Beetles (Cucujidae). An- 

tennae rather long, moniliform, slightly thick- 
ened at tip or distinctly clavate ; palpi short, 
filiform ; mandibles large, exserted, bifid at 
tip ; labrum rounded ; head large, exserted ; 
body oblong, flat. Chiefly found beneath the 
bark of trees. 

24. FAMILY. Skin-Beetles (Dermestidae). Antennae 

short, rather abruptly clavate ; club 3 
4-jointed ; palpi very short ; mandibles short, 
thick, toothed at tip ; labrum short, membra- 
nous at tip ; body convex, oval, rounded at 
each end, clothed with scales or pile ; legs 
contractile. Counterfeit death. Found in old 
skins, furs, and dried carcasses. 

25. FAMILY. Nocturnal Wood-Beetles (Paussidae). 

Antennas very large, of two or more joints ; 
irregular ; palpi much developed, unequal ; 
head small, generally narrowed behind into 
a neck ; body oblong, quadrate, depressed ; 
elytra broader than thorax ; legs short, 
strong, compressed. Nocturnal, wood-eating. 

V. SUB-ORDER. ROVE-BEETLES (Brachelytra). 

Mandibles strong, seldom exserted; palpi gene- 
rally filiform or subulate, rarely clavate ; maxillary 
palpi 4-jointed, labial 3-jointed, their last joint some- 
times minute or obsolete ; maxillae with the tip 
often bifid ; outer lobe palpiform ; body very long, 
narrow, with two vesicles at tip ; elytra consider- 
ably abbreviated, rarely covering half the abdomen ; 



MANUAL OF NATUKAL HISTORY 185 

legs formed for walking, anterior pair with elongate 
.coxae ; antennae usually moniliform, slightly thick- 
ened at tip. Voracious, living on decaying animal 
and vegetable matter. 

26. FAMILY. True Rove-Beetles (Staphylinidae). 

Antennae short, stout, inserted between the 
eyes ; maxillary palpi short, filiform ; labrum 
mostly with a deep notch in front ; head ex- 
serted, neck distinct ; thorax quadrate or 
sub-ovate ; body elongate ; elytra moderate ; 
tibiae spinose. Usually found under dead 
leaves, stones, or dung. 

27. FAMILY. Large-eyed Rove-Beetles (Stenidae). 

Antennae sub-filiform ; mandibles long, acute, 
sharply toothed internally; maxillary palpi 
long, clavate, apical joint minute ; labrum 
entire ; eyes usually very large ; head large, 
exserted, with a short neck ; thorax rounded, 
heart-shaped, or globose; tibiae simple. Inha- 
bit damp situations ; run with great agility. 

28. FAMILY. Burrowing Rove-Beetles (Oxytelidae). 

Antennae thickened towards apex ; maxillary 
palpi short ; apical joint distinct ; labrum en- 
tire ; head exserted ; neck distinct ; thorax 
mostly heart-shaped ; body linear ; anterior 
tibiae spinose or toothed on outer margin. 
Burrow underground, under dung, or form 
galleries in rotten bark. 

29. FAMILY. Broad-bodied Rove-Beetles (Omaliidae), 

Antennae rather short, thickened at tip, rarely 
filiform; maxillary palpi short, apical joint 



186 MANUAL OF NATUKAL HISTORY. 

minute ; labrum transverse, entire ; head 
exserted; thorax usually convex, wide behind > 
body broad, flattened ; elytra rather long ; 
tibiae simple. Found in decaying vegetables, 
dung, and moss. 

30. FAMILY. Small-headed Rove-Beetles (Tachypo- 

ridae). Antennae gradually thickened to apex ; 
last joint sometimes very large ; maxillary 
palpi generally acute ; eyes small ; head 
usually inserted deeply into thorax; thorax 
broadest behind ; elytra short ; tibiae some- 
times spinose. Frequent putrescent fungi 
and other decaying vegetable substances. 

31. FAMILY. Moss-loving Rove-Beetles (Pselaphidse). 

Antennae clavate ; maxillary palpi generally 
very long, clavate ; labrum minute ; eyes 
prominent ; head exserted, narrowed behind 
eyes ; body short, robust ; elytra nearly half 
the length of abdomen, broader than thorax, 
folded at base ; tarsi 3-jointed, with a single 
claw. Generally found during the winter 
and spring in moss. 

III. LEGION. VARICOKN-BEETLES (Yaricornes). 

Palpi four, two labial and two maxillary, the 
inner maxillary pair wanting; head not produced 
into a rostrum in front ; antennae various ; tarsi 
usually 5-jointed. 

VI. SUB-ORDER CLAVICOEN-BEETLES (Helocera). 
Antennae more or less clavate, tip sometimes rather 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 187 

abruptly slender, joints unequal ; basal occasionally 
half the entire length ; thorax often with a groove 
beneath to receive the antennse ; body more or less 
globose and convex, or quadrate and depressed ; 
sternum often produced in front, concealing the 
mouth beneath ; legs more or less compressed, capa- 
ble of being closely applied to body in excavations 
for receiving them. 

32. FAMILY. Pill-Beetles (Byrrhidse). Antennse 

not elbowed, mostly placed in repose in a 
groove beneath sides of thorax; mandibles 
not exposed ; body short, oval, very convex, 
generally pilose ; legs contractile. Found in 
sand-pits and on foot-paths. Feign death, 
folding up the legs and antennse. 

33. FAMILY. Mimic-Beetles (Histeridse). Antennas 

elbowed, basal joint long, the others placed 
angularly at its tip ; mandibles rather long, 
exserted ; body hard, polished, square or ob- 
long, quadrate ; elytra generally short and 
truncate ; legs dentate, the hinder inserted, 
widely apart. Counterfeit death. Found in 
dung or beneath bark of trees. 

VII. S UB-ORDER. LAMELLICORN-BEETLES 
(Lamellicornes). 

Antennse clavate, the club composed of three or 
more lamellse or pectinations, the apical joints either 
lamellated or the basal joint cup-like, receiving the 
other joints ; legs robust, the fore-tibise generally 
dilated and toothed. 



188 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

34. FAMILY. Stag-Beetles (Lucanidae). Antennae 

strongly elbowed, with the club pectinated ; 
mandibles (especially in the male) very large ; 
body oblong, oval, depressed ; elytra entirely 
covering the abdomen; legs elongate, claws 
large, with a bifid process between them. 

35. FAMILY. Sacred-Beetles (Scarabaeidae). An- 

tennae 8 or 9-jointed ; labrum, mandibles, and 
maxillae membranaceous ; club of antennae 
large, 3-leaved ; clypeus large, advanced, 
notched in front ; body broad, depressed ; 
scutellum concealed ; legs stout, the hinder 
remote ; tibiae broad, dentate ; claws small. 
Terrestrial. Living on excrementitious matter. 

36. FAMILY. Shard-Beetles (Geotrupidae). Anten- 

nas 10 or 11 -jointed; mandibles porrect, 
horny, exposed ; club of antennae large, glo- 
bose ; body short, thick, convex, elytra en- 
tirely covering the abdomen ; legs very stout ; 
tibiae broad, spinose at tip, dentate; tarsi 
long and slender. Terrestrial. Living on ex- 
crementitious matter. 

37. FAMILY. Sand-Beetles (Trogidae). Mandibles 

horny, stout, exposed, acute at tip ; club of 
antennae transverse ; body ovate, gibbose ; 
elytra inflexed at the sides ; legs short, stout ; 
tibiae compressed. Terrestrial Living in the 
sand on excrementitious matter. 

38. FAMILY. Dung-Beetles (Aphodiidae). Antennae 

8 or 9-jointed; labrum, mandibles, and max- 
illae membranous, concealed; club of antennae 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 189 

sub-ovate ; body oblong ; abdomen entirely 
concealed by the elytra; legs short, equi- 
distant ; thighs with a row of hairs within ; 
tibiee broad, dentate. Terrestrial. Living on 
excrementitious matter. 

39. FAMILY. Rhinoceros-Beetles (Dynastidse). An- 

tennaa 10 or 11-jointed; mandibles horny, 
convex, obtuse at tip, exposed; club of an- 
tenna3 short, ovate ; clypeus small, triangular, 
usually horned ; body large, the males often 
with horns and tubercles on thorax, legs 
stout, anterior tibia3 strongly dentate ; tarsi 
long. Arboreal. Living on decayed trees. 

40. FAMILY. Kangaroo-Beetles (Rutelidas). An- 

tenna3 10 or 11-jointed; mandibles horny, 
exserted, with a notch on inner margin near 
tip ; body ovate, depressed ; scutellum dis- 
tinct ; elytra shorter than abdomen ; thorax 
and clypeus unarmed ; legs robust, hinder 
thighs sometimes greatly thickened; claws 
of tarsi usually unequal in size. Arboreal. 
Living on the decomposed matter of decaying 
trees. 

41. FAMILY. True-Chafers (Melolonthidae). An- 

tennas 10 or 11-jointed; mandibles horny, 
stout, concealed ; labium concealed by men- 
turn ; club of antennas foliated ; labrum bi- 
lobed ; body ovate, sub-convex, shorter than 
abdomen ; legs rather long and slender ; 
tibiaB not dilated ; claws bifid or dentate. 
Arboreal. Eating the leaves of trees. 



190 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

42. FAMILY. False-Chaffers (Anoplognathidae). An- 

tennae 10 or 11 -jointed; mandibles large, 
horny, obtuse at tip ; labium concealed by 
mentum ; clypeus dilated in front, entirely 
concealing the mandibles ; body ovate, con- 
vex, or sub-quadrate ; mesosternum often 
produced into a spine in front ; legs robust, 
the hind pair often greatly thickened. Arbo- 
real. Eating the leaves of trees. 

43. FAMILY. Flower-Beetles (Glaphyridse). Anten- 

nae 10 or 11 -jointed; mandibles horny, con- 
cealed, dilated ; labium produced ; maxillae 
with a coriaceous pilose lobe forming a small 
brush; body ovate, depressed, squamose or 
pilose ; elytra shorter than abdomen ; legs 
long, hinder thighs sometimes thickened ; 
tarsi spinulose. Floral. Living on the juices 
of flowers. 

44. FAMILY. Sun-Beetles (Cetoniidae). Antennae 

10 or 11 -jointed; mandibles membranous, 
compressed, slender, lanceolate; maxillae with 
the inner margin ciliated ; labium concealed 
by mentum ; antennae glabrous ; body ob- 
long-ovate, depressed ; scutellum distinct ; 
mesosternum often produced into a spine in 
front ; legs slender, claws simple, acute. 
Floral. Living on the juices of flowers. 

YTIT. SUB-ORDER. HARD-SKINNED SERRICORN- 
BEETLES (Sternoxi). 

Antennae filiform, pectinate or serrated ; sternum 



MANUAL OF NATUKAL HISTORY. 191 

armed with a spine, the tip received into a cavity of 
breast ; body hard, elliptic, conic, or trigonate, some- 
times elongate ; head short, deeply inserted in tho- 
rax ; thorax with hind edges acute ; legs short, 
capable of being closely applied to body. Feed on 
wood, sap leaves, or flowers. 

45. FAMILY. Gold-Beaters (Buprestidae). Antennae 

short, serrated ; mandibles entire ; palpi 
mostly filiform ; thorax sometimes lobate 
^ behind, the hind angles slightly produced, 
never acute ; body hard, oblong-ovate or de- 
pressed; elytra frequently narrowed at tip; 
tarsi short, third and fourth joints generally 
heart-shaped. Reside in thick woods and 
forests ; fly actively in the sunshine ; colours 
bright, often metallic. 

46. FAMILY. Oak-Beetles (Eucnemidse). Antennae 

pectinated or serrated, lodged in repose in 
grooves on under side of thorax ; mandibles 
ending in a simple tooth ; palpi with apical 
joint large ; body oblong-cylindric, or ovoid ; 
elytra rounded at tip ; tarsi compressed or 
dilated ; claws sometimes denticulated. Liv- 
ing in decayed oak-trees ; flying in the hot 
sunshine ; unable to leap. 

47. FA.mi.Y.Springing-Beetles (Elateridae). An- 

tennas short, more or less serrated ; mandibles 
notched at tip ; palpi ending in a large trian- 
gular joint ; thorax with hind angles produced 
into an acute spine, sides grooved for recep- 
tion of antennae; prosternum produced be- 



192 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

hind into a compressed spine which fits into 
a groove in front of mesothorax ; tarsi rather 
long and slender. Possess the power of spring- 
ing when laid on their backs ; creep slowly ; 
fall to the ground on approach of danger; 
colours dingy. 

IX. SUB-ORDER. SOFT-SKINNED SERRICORN-BEETLES 
(Malacodermata). 

Antennae usually elongate, more or less serrated 
or pectinate, the last three joints often produced or 
clavate ; head deflexed, usually deeply inserted into 
thorax ; thorax semicircular or cylindric ; body soft, 
depressed, usually elongate or cylindrical; legs rather 
long. 

48. FAMILY. Flabellicorn- Beetles (Cebrionidse). 
Antennae pectinate or flabellate in males ; 
palpi filiform ; labium short ; mandibles 
strong, curved, entire at tip, exposed ; head 
small, inclined ; body hard, convex, deflexed 
in front ; legs not contractile, nor formed for 
leaping. Found in forests on low plants, 
feeding on leaves and stems; fly and walk 
slowly. 

4-9. FAMILY. Reed-Beetles (Cyphonidae). Antennas 
filiform, sometimes subserrated ; maxillary 
palpi filiform, labial furcate ; mandibles con- 
cealed ; body soft, hemispheric, ovate or de- 
pressed ; elytra flexible ; head very small. 
Colours dull ; found among reeds and plants 
in damp situations; fly and run with agility. 



MANUAL OF NATUKAL HISTORY. 193 

50. FAMILY. Glow-worms (Lampyridse). Antennas 

close together at base, filiform, serrated or 
pectinate ; maxillary palpi slightly thickened 
at tip, much longer than labial; mandibles 
acute ; head small, concealed beneath front 
of thorax ; thorax semicircular or quadrate, 
forming a hood over head ; elytra wanting 
in females of some species. Feign death ; 
both sexes often emit a bright interrupted 
light, whence they are called " Fire-flies/' 

51. FAMILY. Sailor-Beetles (Telephoridse). An- 

tennae rather remote at base, elongate, seta- 
ceous, rarely serrated ; maxillary palpi with 
terminal joint ovate or hatchet-shaped ; head 
exserted ; body very soft ; elytra long ; pe- 
nultimate joint of tarsi bifid. Predacious ; 
found upon Umbelliferous flowers and White- 
thorns. 

52. FAMILY. Insectivorous Flower-Beetles (Me- 

lyridse). Antennae short, setaceous, sometimes 
serrated; palpi nearly equal, sub-filiform ; man- 
dibles elongate ; head small, deeply inserted 
in thorax ; thorax wider than head ; body 
rather firm, elongate ; tarsal joints all simple. 
Found on flowers ; voracious, preying on 
other insects. 

53. FAMILY. Cuckoo-Beetles (Cleridae). Antennae 

with the three or four terminal joints thick- 
ened ; head inflexed, retractile within thorax 
to the eyes ; eyes lunate ; body elongate, 
rather soft, often cylindric ; penultimate joint 



194 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

of tarsi bilobed. Variegated in colour ; de- 
posit their eggs frequently in nests of bees 
and wasps. 

54. FAMILY. Deathwatches (Ptinidae). Antennae 

filiform, elongate, occasionally serrate or pec- 
tinated, or rather short, thick at apex with 
the last three joints suddenly elongated ; 
mandibles and palpi short ; head rounded, 
deeply inserted in thorax ; thorax generally 
produced in front ; tarsal joints simple. Feign 
death ; slow-moving ; found in old furniture, 
rotten palings, and stumps of trees, which they 
perforate in every direction; produce a ticking 
noise by striking the wood with their jaws. 

55. FAMILY. True Wood-boring Beetles (Lymexy- 

lonidse). Antennae short, fusiform, some- 
what serrated ; maxillary palpi of male with 
branched appendages, labial simple ; neck 
narrow, distinct ; mandibles short, stout ; 
body linear ; elytra gaping at tip ; tarsal 
joints simple. Wood-boring, causing much 
damage in dockyards to timber. 

56. FAMILY. Hooded Wood-boring Beetles (Bostri- 

chidse). Antennae clavate, basal joint robust ; 
club solid or perfoliate, intermediate joints 
small ; palpi short ; head globose, deeply in- 
serted in thorax ; thorax obliquely truncate 
in front, forming a hood over the head, often 
roughened in front ; body cylindric, tarsal 
joints simple. Found on trunks of old trees ; 
commit depredations on timber. 



MANUAL OF NATUEAL HISTORY 195 

IV. LEGIOK HETEROMEROUS-BEETLES (Heteromera). 

Palpi four, two labial and two maxillary ; labrum 
distinct ; mandibles horny, inner edge with one or 
two teeth and furnished with a fleshy lobe ; mentum 
distinct, labium leathery, pilose ; antennae various, 
never laminated or pectinate ; legs various ; tarsi 
heteromerous, or with the four anterior 5-jointed, the 
two posterior 4-jointed. 

X. SUB-ORDER. DARKLING-BEETLES (Melasomata). 

Antennae moniliform ; maxillae with an internal 
tooth ; head not narrowed behind into a neck, apter- 
ous. Colours usually black or dingy. 

57. FAMILY. Meal-Beetles (Tenebrionidae). An- 

tennae generally moniliform ; palpi thickened 
at tip, apical joint mostly hatchet-shaped ; 
head inserted up to eyes in thorax ; thorax 
quadrate ; body oblong flattish ; claws simple. 
Feed upon wheat and flour ; frequent corn- 
mills and bake-houses. 

58. FAMILY. Sexton-Beetles (Blapsidse). Antennae 

nearly filiform ; palpi with terminal joint 
large, dilated, triangular ; head inserted ; 
thorax sub-quadrate ; elytra soldered to- 
gether; wings none ; body elongate ; claws 
simple. Found in churchyards and damp 
obscure situations. 

59. FAMILY. Burrowing Shore-Beetles (Pimeliidae). 

Palpi filiform ; mandibles bifid at tip ; max- 
illae concealed by mentum ; labium slightly 
produced; elytra soldered together; wings 



196 MANUAL OF NATUEAL HISTOKY. 

rudimentary or obsolete. Sluggish, living in 
sandy situations, or burrowing in the sea 
shores 

XL SUB-ORDER. TAXICORN-BEETLES (Taxicornes). 

Antennae perfoliated ; maxillae unarmed head not 
narrowed behind into a neck ; elytra hard ; tarsal 
claws simple. 

60. FAMILY. Shield-Beetles (Cossyphidae). Antennse 

ending in a 4 or 5-jointed club; body narrow, 
margins of thorax and elytra extended into 
a flattened shield all round the body. Co- 
lours dull ; live under bark. 

61. FAMILY. Fungivorous-Beetles(Diaperid.8Q). An- 

tennae short, moniliform or pectinated ; palpi 
nearly filiform, rarely enlarged at tip ; head 
inserted ; thorax quadrate, trapeziform, or 
somewhat cylindric ; body rounded or qua- 
drate, convex. Found in Boleti and Fungi. 

XII. S UB-ORDER. STENELYTROUS-BEETLES 
(Stenelytra). 

Antennae simple ; maxillae unarmed ; head not 
narrowed behind into a neck ; elytra hard ; winged ; 
tarsal claws simple. 

62. FAMILY. Garden-Beetles (Helopidae). Antennae 

filiform, base concealed ; palpi with terminal 
joint large, hatchet-shaped ; head inserted ; 
thorax transverse ; elytra not soldered to- 
gether ; wings rudimentary or short ; claws 
simple. Often found in gardens upon flowers. 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 197 

63. FAMILY. Narrow-winged Flower-Beetles (Cis- 

telidse). Antennae filiform, sometimes pec- 
tinate or serrated, base not concealed ; palpi 
filiform or with the apical joint hatchet- 
shaped ; head inserted ; thorax transverse ; 
elytra free ; wings ample ; body elongate, 
softish ; claws denticulated. Chiefly found 
upon flowers and in hedges. 

64. FAMILY. Leaping Bark-Beetles (Melandryidse). 

Antennae shortish, filiform ; maxillary palpi 
with the last three joints large, often de- 
flexed ; eyes occasionally notched ; head in- 
serted, sometimes inflexed ; thorax widest 
behind ; body elongate, sub-cylindric or flat- 
tish ; hind legs often long, compressed, form- 
ed for leaping. Chiefly reside beneath the 
bark of trees. 

65. FAMILY. Thick-legged Flower-Beetles (CEdeme- 

ridse). Antennae rather long, filiform ; head 
deeply inserted in thorax, more or less elon- 
gate in front ; thorax somewhat quadrate ; 
body elongate, flattish ; elytra sometimes 
narrowed at tip ; hind thighs of males often 
greatly thickened ; claws simple. Of lively 
colours ; frequent flowers, fly with agility, 
but do not leap. 

XIII. S UB-ORDER. TEACHELIDAN-BEETLES 
(Trachelides). 

Head narrowed behind into a neck ; body soft ; 
tarsal claws often bifid. 



198 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

66. FAMILY. Mimic Flower-Beetles (Lagriidae). 

Antennae filiform, inserted in a notch of the 
eyes ; palpi thickened at tip ; mandibles thick, 
short ; head inserted ; thorax narrower than 
elytra ; body elongate ; elytra, free, ample, 
soft, flexible ; femora oval, clavate j penul- 
timate tarsal joint bilobed, claws simple. 
Found on plants in woods and hedges. Feign 
death when alarmed. 

67. FAMILY. Blistering - Beetles (Cantharididae). 

Antennas various ; palpi mostly filiform ; head 
dilated behind eyes, united to thorax by a 
distinct neck ; thorax somewhat quadrate ; 
elytra flexible, deflexed at sides, often short- 
ened or devaricating ; claws bifid. Varie- 
gated in colour ; feign death. Many possess 
powerful blistering properties. 

68. FAMILY. Soldier -Beetles (Pyrochroidae). An- 

tennae filiform, pectinate or serrated ; maxil- 
lary palpi with terminal joint somewhat 
hatchet-shaped ; head exserted, with a dis- 
tinct neck ; thorax small, somewhat orbicu- 
lar j elytra ample, flattish ; penultimate joint 
of tarsi bifid ; claws simple. Colours often 
red. Frequent leaves and flowers. 

69. FAMILY. Parasitic Flower-Beetles (Mordel- 

lidse). Antennae short, often flabellate or 
serrated ; head inflexed, closely applied to 
thorax ; thorax trapeziform ; body elevated, 
arched ; elytra narrowed at tip ; abdomen 
conic, sometimes with an anal style ; legs 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY 199 

dissimilar, the hinder often compressed, with 
long tibial spurs ; tarsal claws bifid. Fre- 
quent flowers, fly with rapidity, leap well ; 
often parasitic on other insects. 

70. FAMILY. Unicorn-Beetles (Notoxidae). An- 

tennae simple, rarely filiform ; maxillary palpi 
with terminal joint hatchet - shaped ; head 
subcordate, with a distinct neck ; thorax 
narrowed behind, sometimes armed in front ; 
elytra rigid, as long as abdomen legs rather 
short, claws simple. Found about roots of 
grass in sandy situations. 

71. FAMILY. Parasitic Wood - Beetles (Horiidse). 

Antennae rather short ; palpi filiform, labial 
as long as maxillary ; jaws large, porrected, 
ending in an acute point ; head large, dilated 
behind eyes ; thorax sub-quadrate ; elytra 
flexible ; tarsal claws denticulated, furnish- 
ed beneath with a long slender filament. 
Parasitic in the nests of wood-boring Bees. 

72. FAMILY. Social Grass-Beetles (Scydmaenidae). 

Antennae rather long, distinctly clavate ; 
palpi with third joint large, pear-shaped, 
terminal, minute; head slightly narrowed 
behind ; thorax sub-globose, broader than 
head ; elytra ample, convex, entire ; legs 
slender, thighs incrassated; tarsi 5-jointed. 
Live among grass and moss, in society. 

73. FAMILY. False Snout - Beetles (Salpingidae). 

Head deeply inserted, produced in front 
into a short flattened snout; antennae in- 



200 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

serted at the base in front of eyes ; palpi fili- 
form, short ; maxillae bilobed ; thorax more 
or less heart-shaped ; body ovate or oblong, 
flattish ; legs slender ; penultimate joint of 
tarsi bilobed. Often brightly coloured ; found 
in flowers or beneath the bark of trees. 

Y. LEGION. PSEUDOTETRAMEROUS-BEETLES 
(Pseudotetramera). 

Palpi four, two labial and two maxillary ; head 
produced in front into a rostrum with the mouth at 
its apex, with the antennae 9-10-jointed, more or 
less clavate, or head not rostrate, with the antennae 
11 or 12-jointed, filiform or setaceous, occasionally 
serrated ; labium more or less heart-shaped ; tarsi 
5-jointed, the fourth joint very minute and concealed 
by the third. 

XIV. SUB-ORDER. SNOUT-BEETLES (Rhynchophora). 

Head produced in front into a rostrum with the 
mouth at the apex ; palpi minute ; labrum wanting 
or obsolete ; mandibles generally small, stout ; an- 
tennae inserted on rostrum, mostly clavate, basal 
joint usually elongate ; funiculus (joint between 
basal one and club) slender ; body short, firm, hard ; 
abdomen mostly robust. Subsisting upon plants. 

I. TRIBE. STRAIGHT-HORNED SNOUT-BEETLES 
(Orthocerata). 

Antennae not elbowed, basal joint not much elon- 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 201 

gated ; rostrum without lateral canal for reception 
of basal joint of antennae. 

74. FAMILY. Grain-eating Snout-Beetles (Bruchi- 

dae). Antennae filiform or slightly thickened 
ate tip, serrated or pectinate ; eyes emargin- 
ate ; rostrum broad, deflexed ; elytra not en- 
tirely covering abdomen ; hind-legs often very 
large. Feeding on grain, seeds, and nuts. 

75. FAMILY. Club-horned Snout-Beetles (Anthri- 

bidse). Antennae distinctly and suddenly 
clavate ; eyes entire ; rostrum short, broad, 
deflexed; elytra truncate ; mandibles robust, 
toothed ; labium and labial palpi arising 
from a large, lunate, horny piece. Usually 
found among old wood, or on the trunks of 
trees. 

76. FAMILY. Leaf -rolling Snout-Beetles (Attela- 

bidae). Antennas straight, inserted upon ros- 
trum, the terminal joints forming a club ; 
labrum obsolete ; palpi conical ; head pro- 
duced into a cylindrical bent rostrum without 
lateral grooves ; body ovate, narrowed in 
front ; tarsi with third joint bifid. Females 
roll up portions of leaves in which the eggs 
are deposited. 

77. FAMILY. Elongate Snout-Beetles (Brenthidae). 

Antennae straight, filiform, last joint alone 
elongated ; head elongated, produced in front ; 
rostrum varying in length according to the 
sex. Usually of a black colour, varied with 
red or yellow ; burrowing under bark of trees. 

E 5 



202 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

II. TRIBE. BENT-HORNED SNOUT-BEETLES 
(Gonatocerata). 

Antennae elbowed, basal joint elongated, inserted 
in an elongated canal on side of rostrum. 

78. FAMILY. Weevils (Curculionidae). Antennae 

elbowed, basal joint elongate, second joint 
inserted obliquely at its end, three or four 
terminal ones forming a club; labrum obso- 
lete; palpi minute, conical; head produced 
into a rostrum, at the end of which the 
mouth is placed, its sides with a groove to 
receive the antennae ; body oval, narrowed 
in front. 

1 . Curculionince. Rostrum short, thick ; anten- 

nae inserted near its extremity. 

2. RhynchoBnince. Rostrum cylindric or filiform, 

elongate, antennae inserted between its base 
and middle. 

79. FAMILY. Wood-eating Snout-Beetles (Scolyti- 

dae). Antennae short, slightly elbowed, basal 
joint elongate, apical joints forming a more 
or less solid mass ; labrum obsolete ; max- 
illae thin, broad, spined externally; palpi 
conical, minute ; body oblong, convex ; tibiae 
hooked at tip. Burrowing in trunks of trees ; 
causing great injury in pine-forests and parks. 

XV. SUB-ORDER. LONGICOKN-BLETLES (Longicornes). 

Head not produced in front into a rostrum ; palpi 
conspicuous; labrum more or less conspicuous, rarely 
obsolete ; mandibles generally large, robust ; an- 



MANUAL OF NATUKAL HISTOKY. 203 

tennae filiform or setaceous, more or less elongate, 
sometimes very long and slender ; body more or 
less elongated, convex or slightly depressed ; eyes 
generally lunate. Wood eating ; larvae residing in 
trees. 

80. FAMILY. Goat-Beetles (Prionidae). Antennae 

stout, moderate, serrated in the males ; eyes 
notched ; labrum very small or obsolete ; 
mandibles large, robust ; head not narrowed 
behind into a neck ; thorax transverse, usu- 
ally toothed on the sides ', body elongate, 
convex. Found on trunks of trees ; fly by 
twilight ; colours obscure. 

81. FAMILY. Husk-Beetles (Cerambicidae). An- 

tennae very long, never serrated ; eyes notch- 
ed ; labrum exserted, transverse ; maxillary 
lobes distinct, membranous ; head exserted, 
deflexed ; thorax somewhat cylindric, lateral 
margin sometimes spined ; body long and 
rather flat, occasionally somewhat convex ; 
femora often clavate. Often gaily coloured ; 
found in woods and forests, sitting on trunks 
of trees ; frequently emit a fragrant odour. 

82. FAMILY. Long-horned Flower-Beetles (Leptu- 

ridae). Antennae moderate, inserted before 
the eyes ; eyes entire, rounded or very slightly 
notched ; labrum exserted, transverse ; head 
deflexed, with a distinct neck ; thorax some- 
what conical, narrowed in front ; elytra nar- 
rowed behind. Active ; usually found upon 
Umbelliferous flowers in the hot sunshine. 



204 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

XVI. SUB-ORDER. LONG-LEGGED HERBIVOROUS- 
BEETLES (Eupoda). 

Head not produced in front into a rostrum, deeply 
inserted into thorax ; thorax mostly cylindric, nar- 
rower than elytra ; elytra elongate, sometimes de- 
pressed; body elongate; palpi andlabrum conspicuous, 
labrum generally entire ; mandibles short, entire or 
bifid ; antennas not longer than head and thorax, 
somewhat filiform, often thickened at tip ; eyes entire, 
rarely emarginate ; hind femora more or less clavate 
and elongate, sometimes toothed. 

83. FAMILY. Lily-Beetles (Crioceridae). Antennas 

filiform'; eyes prominent ; mandibles truncate 
at tip, with two or three teeth; lower lip 
entire ; head and thorax narrower than ab- 
domen; head immersed nearly to eyes in 
thorax ; thorax cylindric or sub-quadrate ; 
hinder thighs frequently clavate, elongate, 
sometimes toothed. Usually found on leaves 
or stems of liliaceous or aquatic plants. 

84. FAMILY. Thick-Legged Lily-Beetles (Sagriidse). 

Antennae filiform, inserted before the eyes; eyes 
prominent ; head immersed in thorax ; outer 
lobe of maxillae broad ; mandibles terminated 
by an acute point ; lower lip bilobed ; hind 
femora incrassated and toothed ; tibiae curved. 
Frequently of brilliant tints. 

XVII. S UB-ORDER. SHORT-LEGGED HERBIVOROUS- 
BEETLES (Cyclica). 
Head not produced in front into a rostrum, fre- 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 205 

quently concealed beneath front of thorax ; thorax 
often as broad at base as elytra ; body oval or ovoid, 
more or less globular ; antennae filiform, or gradually 
thickened at apex; palpi thickened in middle; la- 
brum distinct ; labium thick, square or oval ; eyes 
simple ; legs moderate, femora sub-equal, or hind pair 
much thickened. 

85. FAMILY. Tortoise-Beetles (Cassididse). Anten- 

nae inserted near together, short, slightly 
thickened towards tips ; head concealed be- 
neath front edge of thorax ; thorax generally 
semi-circular ; body shield-shaped ; sides of 
thorax and elytra dilated. Generally remain 
motionless, lying close upon the leaves of 
plants. 

86. FAMILY. Spiny Tortoise-Beetles (Hispidae). An- 

tennae filiform, porrect; head exserted; mouth 
not concealed ; palpi short ; thorax trapezi- 
form ; body oblong, more or less armed with 
spines ; tibiae compressed. Larva mines the 
leaves of plants. 

87. FAMILY. Flea-Beetles (Galerucidae). Antennas 

approximating at base, exserted, filiform, ra- 
ther long ; palpi with terminal joint thickest 
in middle ; body somewhat oval or hemi- 
spherical ; elytra wider than thorax ; thorax 
mostly transverse ; legs simple ; hind thighs 
often considerably thickened. Often possess 
the power of leaping. Herbivorous, feeding on 
the leaves of plants. 

88. FAMILY. Golden-Beetles (Chrysomelidse). An- 



206 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

temi86 remote, short, moniliform,- sometimes 
rather serrated ; palpi short ; body generally 
hemispherical or ovate ; thorax with base 
usually as broad as elytra ; legs of equal 
size, not formed for leaping. Herbivorous ; 
often ornamented with brilliant colours 
among which gold is conspicuous. 



EARWIGS. 

The Earwigs form the connecting link between 
the Beetles and the Orthopterous insects, and re- 
mind one especially of the Rove-Beetles, in their 
long and flattened body, in their short wing-covers, 
and in the menacing habit they have of presenting 
their armed tails against their enemies. Although 
founded on a mistake, the ominous names they have 
received, as "perce-oreille" and "ear- wig/' usually 
cause them to be regarded with peculiar aversion. 
The original word was probably Ear-wing, from the 
shape of the beautiful hind wings, which are so 
elaborately folded up under their short elytra. These 
insects are of small size, and of dingy colours, and 
are widely diffused, being found in North and South 
America, the Cape of Good Hope, India, and New 
Holland. In some of the exotic species the forceps 
at the end of the tail is straight, and as long as 
the body (Forficula parallela W.~), while in others, 
it is singularly contorted, as in F. macropyga, 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 207 

W. The Euplexoptera are nocturnal in their habits, 
and often migrate in the evening in considerable 
flocks ; they feed on fruits and flowers, and often 
do great damage in gardens by depriving the petals 
of dahlias, pinks, and carnations of their symmetry, 
by their hungry bite, causing the florist to wage 
against them a war of extermination. The female 
Earwig sits on her eggs in the manner of a hen, 
and after the young ones are hatched they follow 
their mother, who continues to brood over them for 
many days with true maternal solicitude. 

II. ORDER EARWIGS (Euplexoptera). 

Fore-wings very small, coriaceous, without veins, 
horizontal, uniting in a straight suture ; hind- wings 
large, membranous, with radiating nervures, and with 
numerous transverse and longitudinal folds ; mouth 
with transversely moveable jaws, hind pair galeated ; 
tail armed with a forceps. Pupa semi-complete, 
active, with rudimentary wings. 

1. FAMILY. Earwigs (Forficulidse). Antennae long, 
slender, many-jointed; head moderate, flat, 
narrowed behind into a short neck ; eyes 
small, lateral ; ocelli none; jaws small, robust, 
notched near tip ; abdomen ending in a for- 
ceps formed of two long, curved, horny ap- 
pendages pointed at tip, and toothed on inner 
margin. Fly by night ; feed on flowers 
and fruits. 



208 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 



STRAIGHT-WINGED INSECTS. 

Among the cursorial tribes of the Orthoptera we 
find those common pests, the Cockroaches, remark- 
able for their omnivorous propensities ; one of which, 
the domestic " Black-Beetle " (Blatta orientalis), is 
an importation from our Indian possessions of by 
no means a satisfactory nature. Here, also, we find 
the Camel-Crickets or Soothsayers, raptorial insects, 
so named from their long necks, and the imitative 
movements of their fore-legs, and which comprise 
several strange tropical genera, as Empusa, with the 
top of the head formed into a leaf-like lobe, Eremia- 
phtta, whose movements are slow, and whose colour 
resembles that of the sandy plains on which it lives, 
and Deroplatys, with the legs furnished with mem- 
branous appendages. In the ambulator ial group, 
where all the legs are alike, we meet with those 
phantasms of the insect world, the " Walking- 
leaves/' and the stick-like Phasma, which seems 
made up of dead twigs, and some Australian species, 
which attain the length of more than a foot-; these 
curious forms move about the branches of low 
shrubs in a sluggish manner, either singly or in 
pairs. In the saltatorial tribes the hind legs are 
formed for leaping like the Frogs ; indeed, some 
writers have compared the Orthoptera with the 
Batrachian-Reptiles, instancing their loud singing 
noise, their leaps, and even a singular coincidence 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 209 

of form among certain species. This section in- 
cludes our familiar merry little friend, the Cricket 
(Acheta domestica) ; the Mole-cricket (Gryllotalpa 
vulgaris), with its broad, burrowing fore-feet ; and 
that joyous chorister, the Grasshopper, with his less 
agreeable consimilars, the Migratory - Locusts, so 
notorious for their devastating powers, and the vast 
swarms in which they sometimes appear. These 
latter are herbivorous, the Mantidce are predatory 
and carnivorous, while the Crickets and Cockroaches 
are indiscriminate devourers. 

III. ORDER. STRAIGHT-WINGED INSECTS (Orthoptera). 

Fore-wings large, coriaceous, thickly- veined, over- 
lapping at tips; hind -wings large, membranous, 
thickly netted, folded longitudinally ; mouth with 
transversely moveable jaws, the hind pair galeated ; 
tail often styliferous. Pupa active, semi-complete, 
with rudimentary wings. Chiefly herbivorous ; ter- 
restrial. 

I. SUB-ORDER. RUNNING-ORTHOPTERA (Cursoria). 

Legs long, compressed, formed for running ; wings 

horizontal ; fore-legs not raptorial. 

1. FAMILY. Cockroaches (Blattidse). Antennae very 
long, setaceous, many-jointed ; mandibles 
strong, horny, toothed at tip ; upper lip en- 
tire ; eyes kidney-shaped ; ocelli obsolete ; 
body flattened, oval ; thorax large, shield- 
shaped, concealing head ; legs long, com- 
pressed ; tibiae with spines and spurs ; ab- 



210 MANUAL OF NATUEAL HISTORY. 

domen with two jointed appendages at tip. 
Omnivorous ; nocturnal. 

IT. SUB-ORDER. RAPACIOUS-ORTHOPTERA (Raptoria). 

Legs long, formed for walking, the fore-legs larger 
than the others, formed for seizing their prey ; fore- 
wings long, horizontal when at rest. 

2. FAMILY. Leaf -Insects (Mantidse). Antennae in- 

serted between the eyes, usually slender and 
filiform ; eyes large, on sides of head ; head 
vertical, exposed ; face triangular ; ocelli 
three, in a triangle in middle of forehead ; 
upper lip entire ; mandibles horny, trigonal, 
with acute teeth at tip and a strong tooth 
at inner margin ; thorax produced and nar- 
rowed in front, forming a narrow neck, to 
which the large raptorial fore-legs are at- 
tached ; hind legs long, slender. Predacious ; 
found on plants and trees, where they re- 
main stationary with the fore- legs raised pre- 
pared to seize any insect that comes in their 
way. 

III. SUB-ORDER. WALKING-ORTHOPTERA 

(Ambulatoria). 

Fore-legs of the ordinary form, fitted for walk- 
ing ; hind-legs not saltatorial ; fore- wings of small 
size. 

3. FAMILY. Stick - Insects (Phasmidse). Antennae 

usually long, slender, many-jointed, placed 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 211 

in front of eyes ; eyes large, globular ; ocelli 
rudimentary or obsolete ; head moderate, 
oval, sub-depressed, porrect ; jaws strong, 
horny, entire at tip, or with inner margin 
notched or toothed ; thorax greatly elon- 
gated ; body usually long, slender, sometimes 
broad, depressed ; fore- wings rudimentary ; 
hind- wings, when present, large and membra- 
nous ; fore-legs not raptorial. Resemble 
sticks, straws, and leaves ; sluggish, solitary, 
living among low shrubs ; herbivorous. 

IV. SUB-ORDER. LEAPING-ORTHOPTERA (Sanatoria). 

Hind-legs long, formed for leaping, four anterior 
legs short, simple ; wings deflexed at the sides ; 
females with an exserted ovipositor. 

4. FAMILY. Crickets (Achetidse). Antennas very 

long and slender ; eyes large, round ; ocelli 
distinct, usually two ; jaws strong, with seve- 
ral acute transverse teeth ; labium four-lobed ; 
body robust, somewhat depressed ; wings 
large, horizontal when at rest ; fore-wings 
when folded forming a pair of long slender 
filaments ; abdomen ending in two slender 
setae ; tarsi 3-jointed, slender, joints simple 
on under side. The chirping of the Crickets 
is produced by rubbing the inner edges of 
the wing-covers together ; the females are 
mute. 

5. FAMILY. Grasshoppers (Gryllidas). Antennse 



212 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY 

very long and slender ; head short, vertical ; 
upper lip rounded, entire ; body rather ro- 
bust ; wings large, delicate ; wing-covers and 
wings deflexed in repose ; mandibles strongly 
toothed ; ovipositor of female long, sword- 
shaped ; tarsi 4-jointed, joints dilated and 
obed. The chirping of the Grasshoppers is 
produced, like that of the Crickets, by rub- 
bing the bases of the wing-covers rapidly 
together, these organs being furnished with 
a round talc-like plate, and strong rough 
ribs serving as a sort of drum. 
6. FAMILY. Locusts (Locustidse). Antennae short, 
filiform, cylindric ; ocelli three, distinct ; 
upper lip notched on front edge ; jaws strong, 
very much toothed; body robust, laterally 
compressed ; wings and wing-covers de- 
flexed in repose, the latter not furnished 
with a talc-like plate for stridulation ; ovi- 
positor short, not exserted ; tarsi 3-jointed. 
Leap with great force ; flight continuous ; 
associate in numbers. Herbivorous. The 
noise made by the Locusts is produced dif- 
ferently from that of the Crickets and 
Grasshoppers, and is owing to the friction of 
the hinder thighs against the sides of the 
wing-covers. 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 213 



NET-WINGED INSECTS. 

Many of the insects which compose this Order 
live, during the earlier stages of their existence 
in the water, where some spend the greater portion 
of their lives, for no sooner is the nuptial garb as- 
sumed, and do their fairy sports commence, than 
death closes their career, and in the stream which 
gave them birth they find a grave. Others, as the 
Dragon-flies, enjoy an serial existence for a longer 
period, and pass as rapacious a life in the air as they 
did before in the water ; with powerful flight they 
course the marsh, the meadow, and the river-bank 
in search of food, which consists of other insects 
both in their larval and perfect states. The White- 
Ants are universally known for the remarkable 
nests which they construct, wonderful both for 
size and form ; they live mostly either a terrestrial 
or an arboreal life, possessing wings for a short 
period only, during the season of courtship, which 
after that period, fall or are bitten off, leaving them 
to complete the objects of their existence on foot. 
The tiny Thunder-Flies which we often find during 
the summer in countless multitudes, are notorious 
for the injury they occasionally do to particular 
plants, and though individually small, the results 
of their combined operations assume a degree of 
importance which we cannot pass unnoticed, add- 
ing another instance tending to shew, that little 



214 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

objects passed without a thought by thousands, are 
often those which produce imperceptibly, yet not 
less certainly, most important changes around us. 

IY. OKDER. NET-WINGED INSECTS (Neuroptera). 

Wings four, long, membranous, transparent, tra- 
versed by a net-work of nervures, lie flat on the back, 
carried erect or horizontally when at rest, ante- 
rior and posterior pairs often of equal size, posterior 
pair sometimes very small ; antennae variable, mi- 
nute, and setiform, or long, filiform or setaceous ; 
legs moderate ; abdomen more or less lengthened, 
cylindrical or depressed, sometimes terminated by 
filaments. 

1. FAMILY Day-Flies (Ephemeridae). Head small; 

eyes large and oval ; antennae very short ; 
body long, slender, soft, terminated by long 
filaments ; wings carried erect when at rest, 
posterior pair small or wanting; tarsi 5-jointed. 

2. FAMILY. Hammer-headed Dragon-Flies (Agri- 

onidse). Head hammer-shaped ; eyes round, 
lateral, widely separated ; mandibles and 
maxillae well developed ; antennae very short ; 
abdomen long, slender, cylindrical ; wings of 
equal size, gradually increasing in breadth 
from the base to near the apex, meeting each 
other, and carried erect when at rest. Flight 
feeble and heavy. 

3. FAMILY. Dragon- Flies (Libellulidae). Head 
large ; eyes very large, approximate on top 
of head ; mandibles and maxillaa well deve- 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 215 

loped, powerful, toothed ; antennse very short ; 
abdomen long, cylindrical or depressed ; wings 
long, of equal size, carried separately and 
horizontally when at rest. Flight quick and 
powerful. 

4 FAMILY. Willow-Flies (Perlidse). Head broad; 
eyes prominent, wide apart; antennse long, 
filiform, composed of many joints ; body de- 
pressed ; abdomen sometimes terminated by 
two slender filaments ; wings longer than 
abdomen, recumbent, posterior pair largest, 
and folded when at rest. 

5. FAMILY. White- Ants (Termitidse). Head and 

body depressed, abdomen flat and composed 
of narrow segments ; mandibles strong and 
horny, toothed ; maxillae terminated by hook- 
ed teeth ; antennse of moderate length, mo- 
niliform ; legs rather short ; wings narrow, 
of equal size, nearly twice the length of body, 
not much reticulated, semi-transparent. Only 
males and females have wings, neuters are 
apterous, and have the head large and the 
mandibles very long. 

6. FAMILY. Book-Insects (Psocidse). Size small ; 

head large ; eyes rather prominent ; antennae 
long and setaceous ; body short, soft, ovate ; 
anterior wings larger than posterior, which 
are slightly folded, deflected when closed. 
Often found among books and old papers. 

7. FAMILY. Thunder-Flies (Thripidae). Head ob- 

long; eyes large, distant, placed forward; 



216 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTOEVT. 

antennae of moderate length, moniliform ; 
body long, linear, depressed ; wings four, 
similar, long, narrow, membranous, very little 
veined, fringed with silky hairs, laid along 
the back when at rest ; tarsi 2-jointed, vesi- 
cular at the tip. 



KOOF-WINGED INSECTS. 

These insects, in their larval and pupa state, are 
met with in various situations ; some search the 
stems of plants for Aphides, some lurk beneath the 
bark of trees, others are found in moist earth. The 
Ant-Lions attract attention from the singular form 
and habits of their larvae, which dig pitfalls in the 
sand, at the bottom of which they lie in wait until 
some unfortunate insect falls in, when they imme- 
diately seize their victim with the long forceps-like 
mandibles with which they are provided, or, fail- 
ing in this, and their prey attempts to escape, cast 
after it a shower of sand, which probably causes 
it to fall again within their reach ; their form 
contrasts strangely with that of the imago, being 
somewhat spider-like, the body thick and fleshy, 
and beset with bundles of stiff hairs, and by no 
means pleasing, while the perfect insect is of grace- 
ful figure, with a long slender body and beautiful 
reticulated wings. 

The Water-Moths and their larvae are well known 
to the angler as bait, under the names of Caddice- 
Flies and Caddice- Worms. These latter construct 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTOEY. 217 

for themselves a curious little house of shells, small 
pieces of stick, and other such materials, kept toge- 
ther by threads similar to those spun by caterpillars ; 
in this tube-like home they dwell, at the bottom of 
streams, and in it undergo their metamorphosis into 
the pupa, state ; when about to assume the perfect 
form they crawl out of the water up the stem of 
some plant, cast their exuvia, and become denizens 
of the air. 

Thus, from forms singular, grotesque, and most 
unlike, proceed those which can scarcely fail to ar- 
rest our gaze and excite our admiration. 

Y. ORDER. ROOF-WINGED INSECTS (Stegoptera). 

Wings four, large, membranous, often beautifully 
reticulated, frequently dissimilar, deflexed when not 
in use, never carried erect, seldom porrected, ante- 
rior pair sometimes hirsute, posterior generally folded 
when at rest ; antennae more or less lengthened, 
filiform, multiarticulate, sometimes pectinate, occa- 
sionally shorter and clavate ; abdomen usually of 
moderate length and cylindrical; legs often long 
and slender. 

1. FAMILY. Scorpion-Flies (Panorpidse). Head 
produced into an elongated deflexed rostrum ; 
eyes prominent ; antennae long, slender, many 
jointed ; anterior segment of thorax forming 
a narrow collar ; body slender, posterior seg- 
ments of abdomen narrowed, the last segment 
in the males sometimes armed with a pair of 
forceps ; wings variable, sometimes porrected 



218 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

when at rest, with posterior pair much 
lengthened and linear, sometimes large, simi- 
lar, and roof-like when at rest, sometimes 
rudimentary. 

2. FAMILY Snake-Flies (RaphidiidaB). Head flat- 
tened ; eyes prominent ; antennae slender, 
many jointed ; anterior segment of thorax 
narrow and much lengthened (whence their 
English name) ; mandibles strong, corneous ; 
abdomen of moderate length, terminated, in 
the females, by a long sabre-like ovipositor ; 
wings rather large, posterior-pair rather 
smaller than the anterior, strongly veined. 

3. FAMILY. Mantis -Flies (Mantispidas). Head 

broad, flat ; eyes prominent ; antennas short, 
sub-moniliform ; anterior segment of thorax 
narrow and much lengthened, often trans- 
versely furrowed ; fore-legs long, attached 
close to the head, and formed as in Mantis, 
having the thighs large, compressed and 
armed with spines, and the tibiaB curved ; 
abdomen of moderate length ; wings of nearly 
equal size, beautifully reticulated. 

4. FAMILY. Ant -Lions (MyrmeleonidaB). Head 

rather small, transverse ; eyes prominent ; 
antennae usually of moderate length, hard, 
thickened and curved at tip, sometimes longer 
and nearly filiform; abdomen long, slender 
and cylindrical, sometimes terminated by two 
filiform appendages ; wings long, of equal 
size, delicately reticulated. 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 219 

5. FAMILY. Lace -Wings (Heinerobiidae). Head 

small; eyes prominent, often of a brilliant 
metallic lustre ; antennae long, filiform, com- 
posed of many joints ; first segment of thorax 
small ; abdomen soft, of moderate length ; 
wings large, very delicate, posterior pair ra- 
ther smaller than anterior. 

6. FAMILY. May-Flies (Sialidae). Head moderate, 

transverse ; antennae long, filiform, sometimes 
pectinated and many jointed ; first segment 
of thorax as large as the head ; abdomen not 
long ; anterior wings very large, posterior a 
little smaller, carried horizontally or deflexed 
along sides of body, hind-wings folded when 
at rest. 

7. FAMILY. Water-Moths* (Phryganeidae). Head 

small; eyes prominent; antennae slender, se- 
taceous or pectinated, generally longer than 
the body; wings roof-like, membranous, of 
nearly equal size, nerves simply branching, 
anterior pair generally pilose, posterior trans- 
parent and folded when at rest ; abdomen 
rather soft ; legs long and slender ; tibiae 
spurred. 



CLEAR-WINGED INSECTS. 

This Order is very extensive, comprising about a 
fourth of the entire insect race ; its members are 



* Called also "Caddice-Flies." 

L2 



220 MANUAL OF NATUKAL HISTORY. 

especially numerous in tropical regions, while, in our 
own country, we may reckon three thousand species. 

It is among the hymenopterous tribes that we 
find those remarkable social communities, where the 
workers consist of abortive females, where the idle 
drones are the males, and where one chosen female 
is elected queen, and made the prolific mother of an 
entire generation. The nectar of flowers is the fa- 
vourite drink of these active, bustling, tribes in their 
perfect state ; but when we see the busy Bees intent 
upon fresh-blown flowers, we must not imagine the 
luscious banquet spread for themselves alone, it is 
for the young of the community, yet unborn, that 
they labour to collect the honey and the pollen. In 
the same manner, when we spy out a robber wasp 
dragging away the dead carcase of a fly bigger than 
herself, it is for the sustenance of her future progeny 
that the deed of poisoning was done. The Aphidian 
cows kept by Ants, and watched with so jealous a 
care, are valued only for the honey- dew they yield, 
and with which they nourish their young ones. 

Belonging to this Order we find the Saw-Flies, 
which make incisions into the leaves and stems of 
plants, by means of elaborately-formed saws, placed 
at the end of their bodies, and the larvae of some 
species of which live in societies covered over with 
a tent of leaves, fastened together by silk. The Gall- 
Flies are another remarkable race, which puncture 
the surface of plants, by means of a boring instru- 
ment, and, by depositing their eggs in the punctures, 
produce " galls" of various kinds ; to the "gall" pro- 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 221 

duced by one species we are indebted for our ink, 
that most important fluid in the history of learning 
and civilization. Here also we find the Ichneumon- 
Flies, which deposit their eggs in the bodies of other 
insects, and which are eventually devoured by the 
parasites. In tropical countries, species of Sphegidw 
will be observed, forming nests in the corners of the 
rooms, composed of several earth-cells, in each of 
which the mother Pelopceus deposits a green cater- 
pillar. The Velvet- Ants are also numerous in equa- 
torial regions, and may be seen running briskly 
about in hot, sandy, situations. Nor must we omit 
to mention the Ants-proper, those memorable little 
insects, which live in societies like the social bees ; 
and the Social- Wasps, which manufacture galleries 
of hexagonal cells out of paper, and surround their 
cities with a wall ; and, lastly, the Honey-Bees, those 
oft-quoted examples of industry, loyalty, and good 
order, which live gregariously, and form elaborate 
houses, to the robbery of which we owe our honey 
and our wax. 

VI. ORDER CLEAR- WINGED INSECTS 
(Hymenoptera). 

Wings four, naked, membranous, hind pair the 
smallest and few- veined ; mouth with horny jaws, 
and with a lower lip or tongue sheathed by the 
maxillae ; abdomen in females armed with an ovi- 
positor or sting ; tarsi usually five-jointed. Larva 
usually vermiform, apodal ; pupa inactive, incom- 
plete. 



222 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTOBY. 

I. SUB-ORDER. STINGLESS-HYMENOPTERA 
(Terebrantia). 

Abdomen of females furnished with a saw or 
borer for depositing the eggs. 

I. TRIBE. SAW-BEARING HYMENOPTEEA (Securifera). 

Abdomen sessile ; larvae with a well-developed 
mandibulated mouth. Feeding upon vegetable 
matter. 

1. FAMILY. Saw-Flies (Tenthredinidse). Antennae 
variable, usually short, of males often pecti- 
nate, furcate, or flabellate ; mandibles elon- 
gate, narrow, compressed, toothed; thorax 
solid, broader than head; abdomen sessile, 
of female furnished with a pair of saws ; 
wings ample, with numerous complete cells ; 
hind-tibiae often spurred. Introduce their 
eggs by sawing edges of leaves, or by making 
incisions in their surface. 

1. Tenthredinince. Antennae 9 11 -jointed, 

simple, filiform to tip ; labrum apparent ; 
saws with parallel sides. 

2. Cimbicince. Antennae short, clavate, with 

notmore than eight joints ; larvae 22-footed, 
emitting drops of viscid matter. 

3. Hylotomince. Antennae 3-jointed, terminal 

joint greatly elongated ; labrum apparent ; 
larvae 18 20-footed, not emitting drops of 
viscid matter. 

4. Lydince. Antennae many-jointed, sometimes 



MANUAL OF NATUEAL HISTORY, 223 

strongly pectinate in males ; hind-tibiae 
often spined in middle ; saws slightly ser- 
rated at tip ; dilated and elbowed at base ; 
larvae various. 

2. FAMILY. Auger -Flies (Uroceridae). Antennae 

filiform or setaceous, vibratile ; head rounded, 
as broad as thorax ; upper lip minute, elon- 
gated ; mandibles short, strong, horny ; tro- 
phi irregular ; prothorax and collar elongated ; 
body elongated, sub-cylindrical ; abdomen 
sessile, furnished in females with a borer or 
awl-like ovipositor ; fore-tibiae with a single 
spur. Females deposit their eggs in timber 
by means of their powerful boring instru- 
ment. 

II. TKIBE. PARASITIC-HYMENOPTERA (Pupivora). 

Abdomen attached to thorax by a portion only 
of its transverse diameter; larvae with slightly- 
developed mandibulated trophi, for the most part 
feeding parasitically upon other living insects ; ab- 
domen with an elongate, many-valved oviduct. 

3. FAMILY. Gall - Flies (Cynipidae). Antennae 

straight, inserted in middle of face, long, 
slender ; labrum minute ; mandibles short, 
robust, toothed at tip ; maxillae with a broad 
ciliated lobe ; head small, transverse ; palpi 
short ; wings with few veins ; abdomen oval, 
compressed, basal joint largest, the others 
imbricate ; peduncle short ; ovipositor spiral, 
retractile when at rest. Females deposit 



224 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

their eggs in the tissues of plants and pro- 
duce the tumours known as " galls/' 

4. FAMILY. Thick-legged Ichneumon-Flies (Eva- 

niidse). Antennae straight, filiform or seta- 
ceous ; mandibles toothed on inside ; fore- 
wings with several irregular cells ; hind-wings 
without veins ; abdomen attached to dorsum 
of metathorax by a peduncle often arising 
close to scutellum ; ovipositor straight ; hind- 
legs elongated, tibiae often thickened. Para- 
sitic on other insects. 

5. FAMILY. Ichneumon - Flies (Ichneumonidse). 

Antennae straight, usually filiform or seta- 
ceous ; head small, free ; eyes large, lateral ; 
mandibles slender, curved, bidentate at tip ; 
wings veined, anterior with perfect cells ; 
body long, narrow; abdomen attached at 
extremity of thorax between base of hind 
coxss ; ovipositor straight, often exserted ; 
legs long, formed for running; tarsi long, 
slender. Pupa enclosed in a cocoon. Usually 
black, varied with red, yellow, and white. 
Females deposit their eggs in larvae or pupse 
of other insects. 

1. Ichneumohince. Wings with two recurrent 

nerves; nerve separating first cubital cell 
from external discoidal cell nearly or en- 
tirely obliterated ; an articulation between 
second and third dorsal segments of ab- 
domen. 

2. Braconince. Wings with only one recur- 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 225 

rent nerve, which unites with the nerve 
extending between first cubital and ex- 
ternal discoid cells ; no articulation be- 
tween second and third dorsal segments of 
abdomen. 

6. FAMILY. Cuckoo-Flies (Chalcididae). Antennae 
elbowed, thickened at tips ; palpi short ; man- 
dibles broad, horny, ending by several teeth ; 
head transverse ; eyes lateral, often very 
large ; wings nearly destitute of veins ; ab- 
domen varied in shape, attached by a pedun- 
cle, or nearly sessile ; ovipositor usually con- 
cealed, not longer than abdomen ; hind-legs 
often toothed and thickened. Pupa naked. 
Parasitic on other insects. 

1. Chalcidince. Collar transverse, quadrate; 

hind femora thickened. 

2. Eurytomince. Collar transverse, quadrate ; 

hind femora simple. 

3. Pteromalince. Abdomen flat, sessile ; an- 

tennae filiform, fusiform, or clavate; stig- 
mal branch straight. 

4. Eupelmince. Abdomen flat, sessile ; anten- 

nae filiform, fusiform, or clavate; stigmal 
branch incurved. 

5. Encyrtince. Collar more or less narrowed 

in front ; antennae with not more than 
eight joints ; middle legs strongly spurred 

6. Eulophince. Collar more or less narrowed 

in front; antennae with not more than 
eight joints; tarsi with less than five joints. 

L 5 



226 MANUAL OF NATUEAL HISTOKY. 

7. FAMILY. Sharp-tailed Cuckoo-Flies (Procto- 
trupidse). Antennae more or less elbowed ; 
palpi long and pendulous ; mandibles long, 
somewhat sickle-shaped, notched at tip ; eyes 
entire ; ocelli three ; abdomen usually ovate- 
conic ; ovipositor elongate, conic, acute, formed 
of two united pieces, enclosed in a tube, or 
exposed ; fore-wings veinless, or with few 
veins; body long and slender; legs long, 
femora often clavate ; anterior-tibiae with a 
terminal curved spur. Very active, usually 
black, varied with brown ; minute ; found 
in grass, on aquatic plants, or in hot sandy 
situations. Parasitic. Females deposit their 
eggs in other insects. 

1. Mymarince. Head transverse, areolate ; an- 

tennae inserted above middle of face, long, 
slender in males, clavate, elbowed in fe- 
males ; palpi none ; wings narrowed, densely 
ciliated. 

2. Platygasterince. Abdomen sessile, depressed, 

first segment not campanulate ; antennae el- 
bowed, 10~12-jointed, inserted near mouth. 

3. Ceraphrontince. Abdomen sub-sessile, cam- 

panulate; terminal and ventral segment 
carinated ; antennas elbowed ; wings nearly 
exareolate. 

4. Gonatopince. Abdomen convex, not campa- 

nulate ; last ventral segment carinated; an- 
tennae porrected, 10-jointed; hind-wings 
lobed ; mandibles toothed. 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 227 

5. Proctotrupince. Abdomen sub-sessile, cam- 

panulate ; antennae porrected, 12-jointed, 
inserted beneath front ; maxillary lobe bi- 
partile. 

6. Diapriince. Abdomen petiolated, campanu- 

late ; antennae 10 15-jointed, inserted in 
front ; maxillary palpi long, 5-jointed. 

III. TRIBE. TUBE-BEARING HYMENOPTERA 
(Tubulifera). 

End of abdomen tubular, retractile, furnished with 
a minute sting. Larvae feeding on other insects. Pa- 
rasitic on other Hymenoptera. 
8. FAMILY. Ruby-tailed Flies (Chrysididae). An- 
tennae filiform, elbowed at end of long basal 
joint; head transverse above; maxillae end- 
ing in a large pilose outer lobe ; mandibles 
long, sub-trigonal ; thorax oblong, metathorax 
armed on each hind margin with a spine; 
fore- wings with a single marginal cell ; hind- 
wings nearly veinless ; abdomen with under 
side concave, with a very short peduncle, ter- 
minal segments telescopic, retractile ; ovipo- 
sitor sting-like, with two styles of the same 
length. Adorned with brilliant metallic 
tints ; fly and run in the hot sunshine with 
great vivacity. 

II. SUB-ORDER. STINGING-HYMENOPTERA (Aculeate). 

Abdomen of females armed with a sting connected 
with a poison reservoir. 



228 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

I. TEIBE. HETEROGYNOUS-HYMENOPTERA (Heterogyna). 

Fore-wings not folded ; larvae social. 
9. FAMILY. True- Ants (Formicidae). Antennae 
elbowed ; eyes distinct ; thorax continuous, 
more or less contracted in middle ; abdomen 
without a sting, peduncle composed of a 
single elevated scale. Males and females 
with wings ; neuters wingless. Social and 
gregarious. 

10. FAMILY. Stinging-Ants (Myrmicidae). An- 
tennae elbowed ; eyes distinct ; thorax con- 
tinuous, more or less contracted in middle ; 
abdomen armed with a sting, peduncle 2- 
jointed ; males and females with wings; neu- 
ters wingless. Social and gregarious. 

II. FAMILY. Blind-Ants (Poneridae). Antennae 

elbowed ; eyes of neuters obsolete ; thorax 
continuous, more or less contracted in middle ; 
abdomen armed with a sting, peduncle formed 
of one large scale ; males and females with 
wings ; neuters wingless. Social and grega- 
rious. 

12. FAMILY. Velvet- Ants (Mutillidse). Antennas 
inserted in middle of face thorax continuous, 
the segments soldered together ; ocelli want- 
ing ; body clothed with hair ; abdomen armed 
with a sting, peduncle short, simple ; legs 
robust ; tibiae and tarsi spined and ciliated ; 
females destitute of wings. Solitary. Males 
and females, no neuters. 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 229 

II. TBIBE. FOSSORIAL-HYMENOPTERA (Fossores). 

Fore-wings not folded; larvae solitary, feeding 

on other insects. 

13. FAMILY. Spine-tailed Wasps (Scoliidae). An- 
tennae short, thick, more or less serrated and 
convolute in the females ; collar laterally di- 
lated, extending as far as bases of wings ; 
abdomen ovate, peduncle short ; abdomen of 
males ending in three spines ; legs short, ro- 
bust ; tibiae thick, spinose, or denticulated ; 
both sexes winged. Burrow in sand. 

14 FAMILY. Parasitic Spine-tailed Wasps (Sapy- 
gidse). Antennas long, straight, more or less 
clavate ; collar laterally dilated, extending 
as far as bases of wings; abdomen ovate; 
peduncle short ; legs slender ; fore-legs not 
ciliated in the females ; both sexes winged. 
Parasitic in nests of bees ; live and burrow 
in sandy situations. 

15. FAMILY. Dark-winged Sand-Wasps (Pompi- 

lidae). Antennae filiform, often convoluted in 
females ; collar laterally dilated, extending as 
far as bases of wings, transversely or longi- 
tudinally quadrate ; abdomen more or less 
oval, attached to thorax by a short peduncle ; 
legs very long ; fore- wings with two or three 
perfect sub-marginal cells. Burrow in sandy 
places. 

16. FAMILY. True Sand-Wasps (Sphegidae). An- 

tennae filiform, often convoluted in females ; 



230 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

collar laterally dilated, extending as far as 
bases of wings; abdomen elongate, attached 
to thorax by a long peduncle ; body narrow ; 
legs, especially the hind pair, very long; fore- 
legs strongly ciliated ; hind-tibise spurred in 
females. Nidificate and burrow in sand. 

17. FAMILY. Beaked Sand-Wasps (Bembecidse)- 

Head transverse ; mandibles acute, with a 
tooth on inside ; jaws produced into a long 
beak ; collar minute, not extending to bases 
of wings ; body elongate, tapering behind ; 
legs short, fore -legs strongly ciliated. Form 
burrows in sandy situations. 

18. FAMILY. Ichneumon Sand-Wasps (Larridae). 

Head moderate ; mandibles with a deep notch 
on outer side near base ; jaws not prolonged 
into a beak ; collar small, not extending to 
base of wings ; abdomen sub-conical and not 
peduncled ; legs moderate, ciliated in females. 
Perforate the sand, in which they nidificate. 

19. FAMILY. Bee-like Sand- Wasps (Nyssonidse). 

Head moderate ; antennse filiform, basal joint 
slightly elongated ; mandibles slightly notch- 
ed on outside of base ; jaws not prolonged 
into a beak ; abdomen ovoid-conic, broadest 
at base, not peduncled; fore-tibise with a 
dilated spur. Nidificate in sandy localities. 

20. FAMILY. Predacious Wood-Wasps (Crabro- 

nidse). Head large, square ; antenna straight 
or somewhat elbowed, often thickened at tip ; 
mandibles with outer margin entire ; jaws 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTOEY. 231 

not prolonged into a beak ; abdomen oval, 
broadest in middle or clavate, peduncled ; 
fore-tibiae with a dilated spur. Usually bur- 
row in old wood, and occasionally in sandy 
places. 

III. TRIBE. FOLDED-WINGED HYMENOPTERA 
(Diploptera). 

Fore-wings folded on themselves. Larvae, in the 
social species, separately enclosed in cells. 

21. FAMILY. Solitary- Wasps (Eumenidae). An- 

tennae of males curved at tips; eyes notched; 
mandibles elongate, produced ; labium di- 
vided into four pilose setee ending in glands ; 
wings folded when at rest ; abdomen con- 
tracted, with a long narrow peduncle ; legs 
not ciliated or spinose. Solitary. Males and 
females only. Form cells of sand and clay. 

22. FAMILY. Social - Wasps (Vespidae). Antennae 

of males not hooked or recurved at tip ; eyes 
notched ; mandibles as broad as long, trun- 
cate at end ; wings folded when at rest ; ab- 
domen rarely contracted into a peduncle ; 
hind-tibiae with two spurs. Social. Males, 
females, and neuters. Form cells of paper 
arranged in tiers. 

IV. TRIBE. HONEY-GATHERING HYMENOPTEEA 

(Mellifera). 

Basal joint of hind-tarsi dilated, provided with 
instruments for collecting and carrying pollen; larvae 
living on honey. 



232 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

24. FAMILY. Solitary-Bees (Andrenidse). Labium 

small or cordate ; jaws moderate, not form- 
ing an elongated proboscis ; hind-legs gene- 
rally clothed with hair ; trochanters and 
femora in the females pollenigerous ; basal 
joint of hind-tarsi not dilated into an angle. 
Solitary. Males and females only. 

25. FAMILY. Social-Bees (Apidae). Labium long 

and filiform ; jaws extended into an elon- 
gated proboscis usually folded up beneath 
the head ; basal joint of hind-tarsi externally 
dilated and angled ; the second joint arising 
from the inner angle of the preceding joint. 
Social. Males, females, and neuters. 

II. SUB-CLASS. SUCTORIAL-INSECTS (Haustellata). 

Mouth produced into a more or less elongated 
proboscis. 



SCALY-WINGED INSECTS. 

The Lepidoptera have been arranged into those 
that fly by day, or the Butterflies, those that come 
forth at twilight, or the Hawk-moths, and those 
that are nocturnal in their flight, as the Moths 
properly so called. On account, however, of the 
number of exceptional cases, we have followed 
M. Boisduval, and thrown them into two divi- 
sions, or those with clubbed and those with varied 
antennae. As humble worms, toiling and spinning, 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 233 

these insects are usually despised ; wrapped in their 
mummy-clothes, as inert grubs, they are forgotten ; 
but when they come forth glorious in their Psyche 
state, " all with admirable beauty deck't," they are 
admired and sought after ; a fit subject for a moral. 
It is in this form of beauty, when they add an 
extra charm to the smiling landscape of summer, 
and make the glory of the woods yet more attrac- 
tive, that they become the favourite Order, with 
many, among all the insects. The illustrious Swede, 
Linnseus, conceived the poetic idea of naming the 
butterflies after the heroes and heroines of the Iliad, 
thus recalling to memory the glorious verse of the 
" blind old bard of Scio's rocky isle." Those clothed 
in sombre colours he called Trojans, and those clad 
in gay attire, he christened Greeks ; and her he re- 
garded as the greatest beauty, was -Papilio Helena. 
The night-flyers are no less worthy of consideration 
than the more highly-coloured lovers of the sun. 
Some are remarkable for their size and vivid paint- 
ing, as Saturnia Atlas, which often measures nine 
inches across the wings; others for the valuable 
web they spin in their caterpillar state, as the Silk- 
worm-moth (Bombyx mori) ; some are notorious for 
the injury they inflict on certain trees, as the Goat- 
moth (Cossus ligniperda) ; others attract notice by 
their large size and powerful flight, as the Hawk- 
moths ; while some, again, present the peculiarity 
of being infested lay fungi, as the Hepialus vires- 
cens, or New Zealand Swift-moth, the caterpillar of 
which is often entirely converted into a fungus 



234 MANUAL OF NATUKAL HISTOEY. 

(Sphc&ria Robertsi}. During the summer time in 
New Holland, the natives of certain tribes princi- 
pally subsist upon a species of Butterfly, which then 
occurs in countless myriads, and which they col- 
lect, bake, and form into smoked cakes. In their 
caterpillar or larval condition these insects often 
assist in the removal of offending substances, and 
tend also to keep in check the superabundance of 
vegetation, which might, otherwise, become too luxu- 
riant in its growth. 

VII. ORDER SCALY-WINGED INSECTS (Lepidoptera). 

Wings four, large, extended, membranous, clothed 
on each side with imbricate scales ; neuration branch- 
ing ; mouth in form of a spirally-involute proboscis ; 
thorax ovate, with lateral appendages (patagia and 
tegulce) ; tibiae spurred. Pupa covered with a skin. 

I. SUB-ORDER: BUTTERFLIES (Rhopalocera). 

Antennse slender, elongated, ending in a knob ; 

wings erect during repose, not connected by a hook 

and bristle ; hind-tibiae spurred. Chrysalis angu- 

lated, usually naked. Diurnal. 

]. FAMILY. Butterflies-proper (Papilionidse). An- 
tennse with the club distinct, never hooked 
at tip; labial palpi with third joint rudi- 
mentary, or clothed with scales; all four 
wings elevated in repose ; central cell of hind- 
wings closed ; tibiae with only one pair of 
spurs at the end ; all the feet fit for walking 
and nearly alike ; tarsal claws large. Cater- 






MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 235 

pillar nearly cylindrical ; chrysalis girt round 
the middle as well as attached by tail. 

1. Papilioninm. Anal edge of hind- wings 

hollowed or folded. 

2. Pierinoe. Anal edge of hind-wings pro- 

duced under abdomen, forming a kind of 
gutter. 

2. FAMJLY. Simple -winged Butterflies (Helico- 

niidae). Antennae with club distinct, never 
hooked at tip ; labial palpi with third joint 
rudimentary or scaly ; all four wings elevated 
in repose ; central cells of hind-wings closed ; 
tibiae with only one pair of spurs at end ; 
fore -legs shortened, unfitted fo-r walking, 
small; tarsal claws large, with a long ap- 
pendage on each side ; wings entire, often 
long and narrow, sometimes nearly naked. 
Caterpillar nearly cylindrical ; chrysalis sim- 
ply suspended by tail. 

3. FAMILY. Tooth-winged Butterflies (Nympha- 

lidae). Antennae with club distinct, never 
hooked at tip ; labial palpi with third joint 
rudimentary or scaly ; all four wings ele- 
vated in repose, central cell of hind-wings 
open ; tibiae with only one pair of spurs at 
end ; fore-legs shortened, unfitted for walk- 
ing, visible and hairy, or small and conceal- 
ed ; wings dentate, hinder grooved for abdo- 
men ; tarsal claws with a brush or pulvillus. 
Caterpillar nearly cylindrical ; chrysalis sim- 
ply suspended by tail. 



236 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

4. FAMILY. Clawless - Butterflies (Erycinidre). 

Club of antennae distinct, not hooked at tip ; 
labial palpi with third joint naked ; all four 
wings elevated in repose ; anal edge of hind- 
wings slightly prominent ; discoidal cell open 
or closed ; tibiae with only one pair of spurs ; 
fore-legs of males rudimentary ; tarsal claws 
obsolete. Caterpillars short, hairy ; chrysa- 
lis girt round middle as well as attached at 
tail. 

5. FAMILY. Eye -winged Butter-flies (Polyomma- 

tidae). Club of antennae distinct, not hooked 
at tip ; labial palpi with third joint naked ; all 
four wings elevated in repose ; anal edge of 
hind-wings embracing abdomen; discoidal 
cell closed ; fore-legs fitted for walking ; ti- 
biae with only one pair of spurs ; tarsal claws 
minute. Caterpillars like wood-lice ; chry- 
salids girt, as well as attached by tail. 

6. FAMILY. Skippers (Hesperiidae). Antennae 

ending in a strong hook ; two hind-wings 
horizontal in repose ; feet of uniform size ; 
hind-tibiae furnished with two pairs of spurs. 
Caterpillars cylindrical, roll up leaves ; spin 
a silken cocoon ; chiysalids without angu- 
lar prominences. 

II. SUB-ORDER. MOTHS (Heterocera). 

Antennae filiform or fusiform, those of the males 
often pectinated ; wings connected by a hook 
and bristle ; chrysalids without angular projec- 



MANUAL OF NATUEAL HISTOKY. 237 

tions, usually enclosed in a cocoon. Mostly night- 
flyers. 

7. FAMILY. Butterfly Hawk -Moths (Uraniidae). 

Antennae long and variable, not prismatic, 
nor ending in a brush ; proboscis elongated ; 
fore-tibiae spurred ; wings expanded in repose. 
Caterpillar cylindrical, with slender bristles ; 
chrysalis enclosed in a lax cocoon. Flight 
diurnal. 

8. FAMILY. Hawk-Moths proper (Sphingidae). 

Antennae prismatic, ending in a little feather 
or thread ; proboscis greatly elongated ; body 
long, acute behind ; wings narrow, the hinder 
small. Caterpillars naked, usually with a 
horn on hind part of back. 

9. FAMILY. Burnet Hawk-Moths (Anthroceridae). 

Antennae simple, fusiform, pectinated in the 
males ; wings deflexed in repose ; legs long ; 
hind - tibiae with four spurs. Caterpillars 
clothed with short hairs, without any spine. 
Day-flyers. 

10. FAMILY. Clear -winged Hawk-Moths (Mge- 

riidae). Antennae simple, fusiform, usually 
ending in a pencil of hairs ; proboscis elon- 
gated ; wings more or less transparent ; legs 
elongate, the hinder with long spurs ; abdo- 
men ending in a dilatable brush. Caterpil- 
lars naked, without a caudal horn. 

1 1 . FAMILY. Swift-Moths (Hepialidae). Antennae 

short and filiform, not feathered at tip ; 
proboscis short or obsolete ; wings elongated, 



238 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

deflexed in repose ; abdomen produced into 
a retractile ovipositor. Caterpillars naked, 
with a few straggling hairs. 

12. FAMILY. Lappet-Moths (Bombycidse). An- 

tennae of males strongly pectinate ; proboscis 
obsolete ; body thick and hairy ; wings large, 
extended, or deflexed at the sides, the hind 
pair extending beyond the costa of the in- 
terior. Caterpillar with a series of tufted 
warts. 

13. FAMILY. Tiger-Moths (Arctiidae). Antennae of 

males strongly pectinate or serrated; pro- 
boscis small or obsolete ; wings deflexed in 
repose, the hinder not extending beyond the 
costa of the anterior. Caterpillars naked, 
tubercled, or hairy. 

14 FAMILY. Lackey-Moths (Lithosiidae). AntennaB 
setaceous ; proboscis elongate, spiral ; thorax 
not crested ; body slender ; wings elongated, 
horizontal in repose. Caterpillars cylindri- 
cal, somewhat hairy. 

15. FAMILY. Rustic-Moths (Noctuidae). Antennae 

simple, rarely pectinate in the males ; body 
robust ; thorax stout, often crested ; wings 
deflexed in repose, moderate, the anterior 
usually with ear -shaped spots; proboscis 
greatly elongated and spiral. Caterpillars 
naked. 

16. FAMILY. Geometric-Moths (Geometridae). An- 

tennae variable ; proboscis short, weak, mem- 
branous ; body slender ; thorax never crest- 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 239 

ed ; wings large, extended horizontally ; legs 
slender, fore-tibias armed internally with a 
spur. Caterpillars naked, looping. 

17. FAMILY. Meal -Moths (Pyralidas). Antennas 

simple or ciliated in the males ; proboscis 
moderate ; thorax never crested ; body slen- 
der, elongated ; wings moderate, arranged 
in a triangle during repose; the anterior 
angled at tip. Caterpillars long and slightly 
hairy. 

18. FAMILY. Leaf-rolling Moths (Tortricidse). An- 

tennae simple ; fore-legs with a central spur ; 
body slender ; fore- wings broad, deflexed at 
the sides, dilated at the shoulders, forming a 
triangle in repose. Caterpillars naked, living 
in cylindric tubes which they form by rolling 
up leaves. 

19. FAMILY. Ermine-Moths (Yponomeutidse). An- 

tennas long, slender, simple ; labial palpi long 
and slender; maxillary palpi slightly deve- 
loped ; body slender, rather depressed, wings 
entire, long and narrow, the hinder fringed 
with very long cilia. Caterpillars often living 
under the parenchyma of leaves. 

20. FAMILY. Clothes-Moths (Tineidas). Antennas 

moderate, slender, simple, pubescent beneath 
in the males ; proboscis short ; thorax rarely 
crested ; body long and slender ; wings en- 
tire, often narrow, mostly convoluted in re- 
pose. Caterpillars usually living in portable 
cases, which they form of various materials. 



240 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

21. FAMILY. Plume -Moths (Alucitidse). Antennae 
long, slender, setaceous ; proboscis long and 
spiral ; body elongated ; wings horizontal in 
repose, cleft into narrow, feathered rays ; legs 
long and slender. Caterpillars clothed with 
long hairs. 



BUGS. 

Among the members of this Order many singular 
and strange forms are to be met with. They abound 
in gay and lively colours, in which, perhaps, they are 
exceeded by few of the Insect-Tribes. Green, gold, 
purple, scarlet, and similar brilliant hues frequently 
adorn them, as in the Coleoptera, their assemblage, 
and bold contrasts being very similar in both Orders. 
Many of these insects live chiefly in the water, 
having greatly depressed bodies, and their legs 
formed into natatory organs ; others run upon the 
surface of the water, as the little Velia currens, 
which may be seen during the summer months 
in great numbers about our rivulets and ditches. 
But it is upon plants that the majority are to 
be found, and from which they draw their nour- 
ishment, piercing them and extracting the fluids ; 
a few attack man, as the common bed-bug (Cimex 
lectularius), and some suck the juices from other 
insects. We observe in them a fine adaptation for 
drawing nourishment in this manner; the mouth 



MANUAL OF NATUBAL HISTORY. 241 

is formed into a long jointed canal enclosing se- 
veral fine bristle-like lancets, which are used in per- 
forating the substances on which they feed. When 
not employed, this rostrum is laid along the ventral 
surface of the body, and often extends two thirds of 
its length. 

These insects arrive at maturity by a series of 
moultings ; they have no inactive pupa state, but 
both as larvae and pupae continue lively and feeding, 
and in general appearance bear a strong resemblance 
to the perfect insects, the principal difference being 
the absence of wings in the larva and the possession 
of these, in an immatured state, and enclosed in 
cases, on the back of the pupa. When arrived at 
this stage, one moult completes the tranformation to 
the imago. 

Most of them possess the property of emitting a 
strong, and generally very disagreeable odour when 
handled or crushed. 

VIII. ORDER BUGS (Hemiptera). 

Body depressed ; wings generally horizontal, an- 
terior pair coriaceous at the base, membranous at the 
terminal part ; antennae usually long ; mouth in the 
form of a long jointed canal, which, when unemploy- 
ed, is laid along the ventral surface of the body. 

The larvae and pupae differ from the perfect insect 
only in not possessing wings, at which last state 
they arrive by a succession of moultings. 

I. SUB-ORDER. WATER-BUGS (Hydrocorisa). 
Antennae very short, concealed beneath the eyes ; 



242 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

fore-legs fitted for seizing prey, posterior pair cili- 
ated, and formed for swimming. Aquatic. 

1. FAMILY. Boat-Flies (Notonectidse). General 

form boat-shaped ; head broad ; eyes very 
large, and so formed that the insect may see 
both above and below when swimming ; 
wings generally deflexed ; posterior legs 
long and broadly ciliated, forming excellent 
paddles. 

2. FAMILY. Water -Scorpions (Nepidae). Head 

small ; rostrum short ; body depressed ; ab- 
domen sometimes terminated by two long 
slender filaments ; fore-legs especially adapted 
for seizing prey, the thighs being dilated, the 
tibiae curved, united with the tarsus, and 
fitting in a channel on the under part of the 
thighs. 

II. SUB-ORDER. LAND-BUGS (Geocorisa). 

Antennae usually long, very seldom concealed, legs 
fitted for walking. Terrestrial, or only found, in a 
few cases, on the surface of the water. 

3. FAMILY. Sand-Bugs (Galgulidae). Eyes pedun- 

culated j body short and depressed ; antennae 
small, placed in a cavity beneath the eyes ; 
rostrum short. In some the wing cases are 
soldered together at the suture. 
L FAMILY. Jumping -Bugs (Acanthiidae). Eyes 
large ; rostrum long and slender ; body de- 
pressed, oval ; legs long j antennae long or 
short. Of small size. 



MANUAL OF NATUEAL HISTORY 243 

5. FAMILY. Water -Measurers (Hydrometridse). 

Head generally as broad as thorax ; antennae 
long, 4-jointed; rostrum of moderate length; 
body long, narrow, clothed on ventral surface 
with a fine down ; legs long. Found running 
on the surface of water. 

6. FAMILY. Long-necked Bugs (Reduviidse). Head 

small, narrowed behind into a sort of neck ; 
eyes prominent ; rostrum rather short, ro- 
bust ; antennae long, terminal joints very 
slender ; thorax frequently spined ; body va- 
riable, long and narrow, short, or abdomen 
much dilated and very thin at the edges ; legs 
long. 

7. FAMILY. Bed-Bugs (Cimicidse). Body very flat ; 

wings rudimentary, in the form of small 
scales ; antennae 4-jointed ; legs slender, of 
moderate length. 

8. FAMILY. Bark-Bugs (Tingidae). Size small ; 

body very flat and broad ; antennae moderate, 
of equal thickness throughout, sometimes 
knobbed ; rostrum very short, 3-jointed ; fore- 
legs occasionally fitted for seizing prey ; tho- 
rax sometimes having a membranous dilata- 
tion in place of a scutellum, which, with the 
hemelytra, are reticulated. 

9. FAMILY. Soft -bodied Bugs (Capsidae). Size 

small ; body convex ; antennae elongated, 
second joint thickened at the end, terminal 
joints slender ; rostrum long, 4-jointed ; legs 
long and slender, hind-legs sometimes very 



244 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

elongate with the femora thickened, fitted for 
jumping. The females have a rather long 
sabre -shaped ovipositor which fits into a 
groove on the under side of the abdomen. 
3 0. FAMILY. Painted-Buys (Lygaeidae). Size small 
or moderate ; body generally narrow ; an- 
tennae 4-jointed, not thinner at apex ; ros- 
trum of moderate length ; apical membrane 
of wing-covers longitudinally nerved, mem- 
brane sometimes absent ; some have the fore- 
* legs thickened. Remarkable for their varied 
colours. 

11. FAMILY. Club-horned Bugs (Coreida3). Fre- 

quently of large size ; form elongate, often 
slender ; antennae 4-jointed, terminal joint 
large, thickened or elongate, sometimes one 
of the intermediate joints dilated ; rostrum 
rather long; apical membrane of wing-co- 
vers generally having numerous longitudinal 
nerves ; legs long, femora sometimes much 
thickened, curved and spined, tibiae occa- 
sionally curved and hooked. 

12. FAMILY. Shielded-Bugs (Scutelleridse). Size 

moderate or large ; colours varied, often splen- 
did ; scutellum generally very large, some- 
times covering abdomen ; rostrum long, 4- 
jointed ; antennae long, usually o-jointed ; 
body generally rather short and oval ; meso- 
sternum sometimes elevated in the form of a 
keel, or produced into a spine ; legs moderate. 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 245 



SIPHON-MOUTHED INSECTS. 

The Homoptera have also been termed "plant- 
suckers/' on account of their feeding on the juices of 
vegetables. The Order comprises many most anoma- 
lous forms ; some having curved horns on their backs 
like the Centrotus and Membraces, and others being 
provided with hollow appendages on their heads 
as the Lantern-Flies. Some among them, as the 
Aphides, or plant-lice, have the extraordinary fa- 
culty of producing living young ones without a pre- 
vious union with the other sex, which power may 
be exercised through as many as nine generations. 
Madam Merian has stated that the Lanthorn-Fly 
of South America is luminous by night ; the Chinese 
species kept alive by one of the Authors, shewed 
however, no signs of luminosity either by night or 
day. The insects celebrated in the songs of the an- 
cient Greek and Roman poets (Cicada plebeia), on 
account of the loud chirping they produce as they 
sit among the leaves of the trees, belong to this 
Order. The "Cuckoo-spit/' often seen on the leaves 
of plants, is produced by the larva of Aphrophora 
spumaria; and another species, A. Goudotii, a na- 
tive of Madagascar, has the siugular power of emit- 
ting a considerable quantity of clear water during 
the greatest heat of the day. 

These insects are often highly injurious to vegeta- 
tion, for example the American blight, Lachnus lani- 
gcrus, and the species of Coccus that infests the vine 



246 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

and other plants in hot-houses. The Cicada septen- 
decem sometimes appears in America in prodigious 
numbers, and does great injury to the timber. Their 
numbers on these occasions are so great as to break 
the branches of the trees by their weight, and the 
noise of their discordant drums is heard in the woods 
from morn to eve. Another instance of the damages 
occasioned by some of them is seen in the Sugar-cane 
Fly, Delphax saccharivora, so injurious to the West- 
Indian plantations. On the other hand, the fine 
white wax manufactured by the Chinese, and highly 
prized in the East Indies, is obtained from species of 
Hata in an immature state. Cochineal is produced 
from the Coccus cacti ; the "scarlet grain" of Poland, 
also a valuable dye, from Coccus Polonicus ; lac is 
derived from Coccus lacca ; the Coccus ceriferus 
is used in the production of a white wax; and 
the manna of Mount Sinai is owing to the punc- 
tures of Coccus manniperus on the Tamarix man- 
nifera. 

IX. ORDER. SIPHON-MOUTHED INSECTS (Homoptera). 

Wings four, entirely membranous, deflexed ; an- 
terior the largest, not overlapping in repose ; anten- 
nae short, setigerous ; mouth produced, arising from 
under hind surface of head; mandibles and max- 
illae setaceous, enclosed in labium, which forms a 
jointed siphonal canal ; body convex ; tarsi not more 
than 3-jointed. Pupa active, semi-complete. Subsist 
upon vegetable juices which they pump up by means 
of their siphon-like mouth. 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 247 

T. SUB-ORDER. TRIMEROUS-HOMOPTERA (Trimera). 

Tarsi 3-jointed ; antennae minute, setigerous ; wings 
areolate. 

1. FAMILY. Musical Harvest-Flies (Cicadidae). An- 

tennae 7-jointed, inserted between the eyes ; 
head short, broad, transverse; eyes large, 
prominent ; ocelli three, on back of head ; 
proboscis greatly elongated, 3-jointed ; fore- 
wings large, membranous, usually transpa- 
rent, with few nervures ; legs short, with- 
out spurs, not formed for leaping. Males 
possess musical powers. 

2. FAMILY. Lantern-Flies (Fulgoridae). Antennae 

3-jointed ; ocelli two, placed beneath eyes ; 
head often dilated into hollow appendages 
varying in form and size ; proboscis variable in 
length; wings usually thickly reticulated; legs 
generally fitted for leaping; spurs of hind feet 
large. Often secrete a white waxy product. 

3. FAMILY. Leaping Harvest-Flies (Cercopidae). 

Antennae 3-jointed, the last joint setiform, 
inserted between the eyes ; ocelli two, on 
forehead or face ; head rarely produced into a 
proboscis ; prothorax variable in form and size ; 
wings usually strongly veined ; legs fitted 
for leaping, hind-tibiae often spurred. Varied 
in colour ; found among plants and on trees. 

II. SUB-ORDER. DIMEROUS-HOMOPTERA (Dimera). 
Tarsi 2-jointed ; antennae moderate, filiform, o 
10-jointed; wings sub-areolate. 



248 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

4 FAMILY. Blight-Flies (Psyllidge). Antennae 
moderate, filiform, 10-jointed, inserted in 
front of eyes ; head deeply cleft in front ; 
eyes lateral, prominent ; ocelli three, on top 
of head ; proboscis short, 3-jointed ; wings 
deflexed at sides of body, the fore-wings 
with three strong, furcate nerves ; hind- 
legs fitted for leaping, with two strong 
spurs. Live upon plants; often produce 
galls. 

5. FAMILY. Plant-Lice (Aphididse). Antennae 

moderate, 7-jointed ; head entire in front ; 
eyes moderate ; ocelli three, on top of head ; 
proboscis long, perpendicular or inflexed ; 
wings greatly deflexed in repose, the hinder 
with strong nerves ; legs long and slender, 
formed only for walking. Females often 
apterous ; body sometimes clothed with a 
white cottony secretion ; live in society on 
various plants. 

6. FAMILY. Mealy-winged Scale-Insects (Aley- 

rodidae). Antennae short, 6-jointed; head 
small ; eyes bipartite ; proboscis short, 2- 
jointed ; wings broad, oval, of equal size, 
covered with a white powder, nearly hori- 
zontal in repose, the anterior with only 
one strong central nerve ; abdomen simple 
at tip ; legs short, simple ; larva scale-like. 
Both sexes with four wings in perfect state ; 
feed on leaves of plants. 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 



III. S UB-ORDER. - MONOMEROUS-HOMOPTERA 

(Monomera). 
Tarsi 1 -jointed ; antennas 6 25-jointed ; wings 

not areolate. 

7. FAMILY. Scale-Insects (Coccidse). Antennae, in 
females, short, subsetaceous, inserted befoie 
eyes, in males, more or less elongated ; mouth 
in females a short 3-jointed proboscis, in males 
obsolete; head in males, small, rounded; eyes 
composed of about ten grains, placed irregu- 
larly ; ocelli none. Males winged ; fore- 
wings large, horizontal in repose, hind-wings 
rudimentary; abdomen with two long anal 
setae. Females apterous; body ovate, glo- 
bose or shield-shaped, often densely clothed 
with a white downy or waxy secretion. In- 
fect various plants, and do great damage ; 
some species produce a valuable dye (cochi- 
neal). 



BEE-PARASITES. 

These singular little parasites are found, in the 
larval state, in the bodies of wasps and bees, and 
their oval white heads may frequently be observed 
protruding from between the rings of the abdomen 
in species of Andrenct and other bees ; in their 
imago condition they are short-lived, and fly with a 
vacillating motion, making a sort of humming noise. 
Their thorax is very long ; their eyes are large and 
prominent ; their antennae are forked or branched ; 

M 5 



250 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

their wings are large, opaque, and membranous ; and 
there are two subspiral appendages at the base of 
the fore-legs. These insects have been placed by 
some between the Beetles and the Earwigs, while 
others have considered their natural position to be 
between the Lepidoptera and the Diptera ; they 
are, indeed, often termed "Wasp-Flies/' and " Wild- 
Bee Flies." 

X. ORDER. BEE-PARASITES (Strepsiptera). 

Anterior wings in form of short, slender, contorted 
appendages ; hind-wings very large, folding longitu- 
dinally, like a fan ; mouth with two slender acute 
jaws wide apart, and two large 2-jointed palpi ; tarsi 
2-3 or 4-jointed. Larva apodal, vermiform, with a 
flattened head ; pupa coarctate, inactive. 
1. FAMILY. Bee-Parasites (Stylopidae). Antennse 
of few joints, often furcate or branching, aris- 
ing from between the eyes ; head distinct, ex- 
posed; eyes large, lateral, prominent, upon 
the contracted sides of head ; thorax very 
large ; body long and narrow ; wings opaque, 
membranous ; legs moderate, weak, two ante- 
rior pairs with elongate coxse ; tarsal joints 
with fleshy cushions beneath, without termi- 
nal claws. Parasitic on bees and wasps. 



FLIES. 

Although not so numerous in species as some of 
the other Orders of Insects, with regard to indivi- 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 251 

duals the Flies muster in very great force. They 
surround us, in some form or other, all the year 
throughout ; and, during the hot weather the whole 
atmosphere seems filled with the humming sound of 
their wings. The Flies, in their perfect state, hover 
over flowers, and sip honey, like the Bees ; but in 
their larval condition, their habits are very varied. 
Some among them prefer a vegetable diet, like the 
Mycetophiloe, which are found on fungi ; some, like 
the Syrpkidce, feed upon the plant-lice, and help to 
keep those injurious hordes in wholesome check. 
The Volucellce deposit their eggs in the nests of 
the Humble-Bees, that their young may take advan- 
tage of the food there stored up ; others, as the Gad- 
Flies, lay their eggs in the skins of Ruminating ani- 
mals, on which the larvae subsist ; while some devour 
putrescent bodies dissolved in water, as the Gnat 
and Mosquito. Some Flies are carnivorous and pre- 
datory in their perfect state, as the Asilidce, which 
seize other insects, and suck their blood ; others feed 
on decaying timber ; others on bulbs, as the Eristalis 
Narcissi and the Scatophaga Ceparum. The pupi- 
parous Forest-Flies nourish their offspring in a kind 
of marsupial pouch, and the Flesh-Flies lay their eggs 
on dead bodies, which their larvae, when hatched, 
very soon consume. 

XI. ORDER. FLIES (Diptera). 

Mouth suctorial, with a fleshy proboscis enclosing 
several lancet-like organs (formed by the tongue 
jaws and mandibles) ; labial palpi obsolete or none ; 



252 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

thorax compact, prothorax very short, fixed immov- 
ably to mesothorax ; wings two, anterior membran- 
ous, not scaly, variously veined, with produced lobes 
or winglets at the base ; hind- wings replaced by 
small clavate appendages or balancers ; tarsi 5- 
jointed. 

I. SUB-ORDER. PROBOSCIDEAN-FLIES (Proboscidea). 

Head distinct from thorax ; legs close, side by 
side ; claws of tarsi not dentate ; larva not under- 
going its metamorphosis within body of parent. 

I. TRIBE. SLENDER-HORNED FLIES (Nemocera). 

Antennae composed of more than six joints; palpi 
4 or 5-jointed ; pupa incomplete. 

1. FAMILY. Leaping-Gnats (Mycetophilidae). An- 

tennae slender, 15 or 16-jointed, longer than 
head, compressed, never fasciculated ; last 
joint of palpi not ringed ; ocelli two or three, 
unequal ; head not rostrate ; coxae elongated ; 
hind-tibiae spined, mostly with long spurs. 
Fungivorous ; capable of leaping by means 
of their hind-legs. 

2. FAMILY. Gall-Gnats (Cecidomyidae). Antennae 

more or less moniliform, of 13 joints, simply 
ornamented with a few verticillate hairs; 
eyes lunate ; ocelli wanting ; wings with few 
nerves, carried flat on the back, or roof-like, 
when at rest; legs long, not armed with 
spines. Deposit their eggs in leaves and 
stems ; producing galls. 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 258 

3. FAMILY. Sand-Flies (Bibionidae). Antennae sel- 

dom longer than head, thick, cylindric, moni- 
liform or perfoliate ; wings large ; ocelli two 
or three ; pronotum conspicuous ; palpi 4- 
jointed ; eyes, in males, large, contiguous. 
Found in marshy places ; very troublesome to 
man and domestic animals. 

4. FAMILY. Black-Flies (Simuliidae). Antennae 

seldom longer than head, cylindric or moni- 
liform ; ocelli none ; wings and halteres large ; 
costal vein ending near tip of wing; tibiae 
and metatarsi broad, compressed. Found in 
damp marshy places ; sometimes termed 
"Mosquitoes"; obnoxious to man and beast. 

5. FAMILY. Midges (Chironomidae). Antennae slen- 

der, filiform, beset with long hairs forming in 
the males a large plume or brush, longer 
than head, basal joint very large ; ocelli ob- 
solete ; eyes lunate, separate ; body long and 
slender ; legs very long, tibiae simple, not 
armed with spines ; often assemble in cloud- 
like swarms, and perform aerial dances. 

6. FAMILY. True-Gnats (Culicidae). Antennae slen- 

der, filiform, plumose ; basal joint sub-globose, 
tubercular ; palpi very long, pilose at end ; 
head small; mouth produced into a long 
slender rostrum ; ocelli obsolete ; eyes lunate ; 
body long and slender ; wings oblong, round- 
ed at tip, incumbent, hind margins fringed 
with scales. Produce irritating bites ; species 
constitute the true " Mosquitoes/' 



25-4 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY 

7. FAMILY. Phlebotomists (Phlebotomidae). An- 

tennae slender, filiform, plumose in the males ; 
head small ; mouth rostrate ; ocelli none ; 
wings broad, ovate or lanceolate, deflected or 
divaricate ; costal vein attenuated round hind 
margin, veins in their last divisions more than 
six. Troublesome blood-suckers. 

8. FAMILY. Moth-Gnats (Psychodidse). Antennae 

elongate, composed of globular, verticillate 
joints ; head small ; wings oblong, rounded 
at tip, broad, deflexed, hairy, hind margin 
fringed with hairs. Small moth-like insects ; 
often found on windows. 

9. FAMILY. Crane-Flies (Tipulidse). Antennae 

longer than head, simple, not plumose, rarely 
pectinated ; eyes entire, ocelli obsolete; front 
of head beaked ; proboscis short, ending in 
two large fleshy lips ; body elongated ; wings 
long, nervures numerous ; legs long. Found 
in damp meadows. 

10. FAMILY. False Crane-Flies (Rhyphidae). An- 
tennae longer than head, simple ; eyes entire ; 
ocelli two or three ; wings and halteres large ; 
body elongated ; legs long ; discal areolet 
complete. 

II. TRIBE. SHORT-HORNED FLIES (Brachocera). 

Antennae shorter than head, terminal joints indis- 
tinctly articulated, or soldered together in a mass 
terminated by a seta ; maxillae and maxillary palpi 
usually distinct. 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 255 

11. FAMILY. Chameleon-Flies (Stratiomidas). An- 

tennae of six or seven joints, usually end- 
ing in a style or seta ; organs of mouth ru- 
dimentary scutellum often spined ; body 
broad, depressed ; wings incumbent when at 
rest ; terminal veins very slender. Found 
upon flowers in watery situations. 

12. FAMILY. Tree-Flies (Xylophagidae). Antennas 

10-jointed, without any seta, the last joints 
forming a cylindric mass; scutellam unarm- 
ed ; body narrow, cylindrical ; wings parallel, 
incumbent or laid upon abdomen in repose. 
On trees. 

13. FAMILY. Breeze-Flies (Tabanidse). Antennas 

with third joint large, remaining joints 3 7, 
closely united, tapering to the tip ; proboscis 
exserted, enclosing lancets, and ending in two 
fleshy lobes ; eyes large ; scutellum large, 
elevated ; abdomen triangular, depressed ; 
wings extended horizontally, winglets large 
Pierce the skin and suck the blood of man 
and the lower animals. 

14). FAMILY. Humming-Bird Flies (Bombyliidaa). 
Antennas close together at base, often with a 
short terminal style ; proboscis long, por- 
rected in front of head ; thorax much ele- 
vated ; body short, thick, often clothed with 
hairs ; wings horizontal, winglets small ; legs 
very long and slender. Fly with great rapi- 
dity; hover over flowers without settling ; 
make a humming noise with their wings. 



256 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

15. FAMILY. Mottled -winged Flies (Anthracidae). 
Antennae short, wide apart, ending in a pear- 
shaped joint, very slender at tip ; proboscis 
short ; head nearly spherical ; thorax slightly 
elevated; abdomen somewhat square, often 
hairy ; wings variously mottled and spotted ; 
legs long, slender. Fly in sunshine with 
great agility. 

16. 'FAMILY. Vesicular -Flics (Acroceridse). An- 
tennae minute, inserted close together ; head 
minute, nearly all eye ; thorax elevated ; 
body round, inflated ; wings deflexed, wing- 
lets very large, covering balancers, wings 
with the veins often indistinct. Slow-mov- 
ing ; found upon plants and among flowers. 

17. FAMILY. Hornet -Flies (Asilidae). Antennae 

with third joint clavate, ending in a 2-jointed 
seta ; head transverse, depressed ; eyes late- 
ral ; lower part of face bearded ; proboscis 
moderate, porrect in front ; thorax narrowed 
in front ; body long, clothed with bristles ; 
wings incumbent. Predacious ; active in 
sunshine; make a humming noise. 

18. FAMILY. Large-eyed Flies (Hybotidae). Pro- 

boscis short, horizontal ; head small, globu- 
lar ; eyes occupying nearly its entire surface ; 
clypeus slightly hirsute ; thorax greatly ele- 
vated ; abdomen narrow ; wings with a dis- 
coidal post-medial cell ; thighs of hind legs 
often thickened. Active ; prey on other in- 
sects. 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 257 

19. FAMILY. Mydas-Flies (Mydasidae). Antennae 

longer than head, 5-jointed, the two terminal 
ones large, forming a club ; body elongated ; 
wings with apical nerves running parallel 
with posterior margin ; legs strong ; tarsi 
with two brushes ; hinder thighs thickened. 
Attack and devour other insects on the wing. 

20. FAMILY. Leaf-nosed Flies (Therevidae). Third 

joint of antennae ovate-conic, ending in a 
small 3-jointed style ; palpi enclosed in oral 
cavity ; proboscis ending in a pair of large 
membranous labial lobes; wings divaricate, 
apical nervures running to extremity of wing; 
abdomen conical. Found on trees ; often fly- 
ing in swarms. 

2 1 . FAMILY. Raptorial - Flies (Tachy dromiidae) . 

Antennae apparently only 2-jointed, the basal 
being very minute ; palpi incumbent, pro- 
boscis short ; wings often with coloured bands, 
without any large cell beyond tlie middle ; 
fore -legs elongate, thickened, spined, rap- 
torial. Kun very rapidly on trunks of trees ; 
rapacious. 

22. FAMILY. Spur-legged Flies (Leptidae). Palpi 

large, external, filiform or conical ; proboscis 
large, fleshy, ending in two elongate labial 
lobes ; antennae inserted near base* of head, 
third joint round or reniform ; wings divari- 
cate, external nerve furcate ; middle and hind- 
tibiae with two apical spurs. Wings often 
spotted ; frequent sunny sides of trees. 



258 MANUAL OF NATUEAL HISTORY. 

23. FAMILY. Flat-bodied Flies (Scenopinidae). An- 

tennae with the setae wanting, terminal or 
dorsal ; labium thick, ending in large lips ; 
palpi long, thickened at tips ; head hemi- 
spherical, almost entirely occupied by eyes 
in males ; body flattened ; wings with few 
veins ; legs short. Colours obscure. 

24. FAMILY. Predatory-Flies (Empidae). Antennae 

as long as head, tapering to tips ; head small, 
sub-globose ; eyes large ; proboscis elongate, 
perpendicular or folded beneath breast ; palpi 
reflected, usually 2-jointed ; body elongated ; 
wings incumbent, large. Voracious, seizing 
on other insects and sucking their juices. 

25. FAMILY. Water -loving Flies (Dolichopidae). 

Antennas short, ending in a small oval or 
palette-shaped joint emitting a long seta ; 
labium in females forming a conical muzzle ; 
abdomen compressed, incurved at tip ; wings 
incTimbent when at rest ; legs long, slender, 
armed with bristles. Metallic coloured ; de- 
light in frequenting the edges of water. 

26. FAMILY. Marsh -Flies (Lonchopteridae). Pro- 

boscis distinct ; cheeks bristly ; eyes wide 
apart; wings pointed at tip, cubital vein 
simple, discal areolet wanting, axillary lobe 
obsolete. Frequent damp and marshy situ- 
ations. 

27. FAMILY. Wood-Flies (Platypezidse), Proboscis 

distinct ; antennae with last joints forming 
a slender arista attached to tip of third joint ; 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 259 

wings with axillary lobe rounded, cubital 
vein simple, brachial vein without a spurious 
vein. Inhabit damp woods. 

28. FAMILY. Hovering-Flies (Pipunculidse). Head 

large, hemispheric ; eyes large ; ocelli three, 
in a triangle on vertex ; antennae short, third 
joint compressed, deflexed, with a 3-jointed 
arista ; proboscis very short ; thorax globose ; 
wings long, costal vein not continued round 
hind margin, cubital simple, axillary lobe 
rounded ; abdomen cylindric or compressed. 
Inhabit woods and fields ; often hover in 
the air. 

29. FAMILY. Aphis-eating Flies (Syrphidae). An- 

tennas with third joint dilated, emitting a 
seta, jointed at base, sometimes plumose ; 
head hemispherical ; eyes large ; front of head 
beaked; proboscis long, membranous, elbowed 
near base, ending in two lobes, and enclosing 
four pieces ; abdomen never incurved at tip ; 
wings with perfect cells. Of variegated co- 
lours ; fly with rapidity ; hover in the sun. 

30. FAMILY. Parasitic-Bee Flies (Conopidae). An- 

tennae with short setae either dorsal or ter- 
minal ; palpi minute, without joints ; pro- 
boscis long, always exserted, elbowed, si- 
phon-shaped, enclosing two pieces ; abdomen 
usually incurved at the extremity. Colour 
varied ; frequenting plants and flowers. 

31. FAMILY. Flesh-Flies (Muscidae). Antennae 

3-jointed, the last with a dorsal seta or arista; 



260 MANUAL OF NATUEAL HISTORY. 

proboscis distinct, short, membranous, end- 
ing in two large labial lobes, entirely retrac- 
tile, and enclosing only two pieces or setiform 
organs j body short, robust ; abdomen not in- 
flexed at end ; wings and legs moderate. 
Feed on various substances both living and 
dead. 

32. FAMILY. Gad-Flies (GEstridae). Antenngevery 
short, terminal joint rounded, emitting a seta ; 
proboscis rudimentary or obsolete, consist- 
ing of two or three minute fleshy tubercles ; 
wings divaricate, winglets very large, hiding 
the balancers, nervures few. Large hairy 
flies, often coloured in transverse bands ; 
parasitic on different species of mammals. 
Larvae termed " bots." 

III. TEIBE. HYPOCEROUS-FLIES (Hypocera). 

Antennae near epistome, with a single inconspicu- 
ous joint, and an arista ; mandibles and maxillae 
obsolete. 

S3. FAMILY. Phoridean - Flies (Phoridse). Palpi 
porrect, without joints ; wings with anterior 
veins strong, costal ending about middle of 
rib, posterior very thin, simple, disunited ; 
coxae and femora thickened, compressed. 

II. SUB-ORDER. EPROBOSCTDEAN-FLIES (Eproboscidea). 

Head immersed in thorax ; claws denticulated ; 
legs distant ; larvae nourished in body of parent 
until it has passed the pupa state. 



MANUAL OF NATTTRAL HISTORY. 2,61 

34 FAMILY. Spider -Flies (Hippoboscidss). An- 
tennge immersed in anterior angles of clypeus ; 
head circular, closely united to thorax ; eyes 
large ; mouth covered with a membranous 
plate perforate at end, and with bristly nar- 
row plates on sides, extended to form a kind 
of rostrum ; body clothed with bristles, 
short, depressed, leathery ; wings often rudi- 
mentary ; head prone, the neck lying on 
prosternum. Parasitic ; reside on birds and 
quadrupeds, running about the hairs and 
feathers with great agility. 

35. FAMILY. Bat-Lice (Nycteribiidas). Head turned 
back and upside down over mesonotum ; an- 
tennse very short, two-jointed ; mouth with 
two large lateral setose valves, and a central 
style, enclosing several setse ; thorax flat ; 
wings and balancers none, replaced by two 
comb-like organs; legs very long; claws 
strong, hooked. Parasitic on the bodies of 
bats. 



FLEAS. 

The insects forming this small Order, though de- 
prived of wings, yet have a regular metamorphosis, 
and in their general structure, and especially of that 
of their mouth, closely approach the Order of Flies, 
with which indeed they are sometimes associated. 
They are remarkable for their extraordinary strength, 



262 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

sometimes ingeniously tested by making them draw 
miniature carriages, &c., and by the wonderful agi- 
lity they display, often exciting the extreme wrath 
of him who desires to prevent them from enjoying a 
carousal off his blood. The common Flea (Pulex 
irritans) is produced from a small white polished 
egg ; the larvae are without feet, and beset with 
hairs, the head has short antennae, and there is a 
pair of curved forks at the end of the tail. When 
the larva is full-grown, it casts its skin, becomes a 
grub or pupa ; from which, in twelve days, the per- 
fect insect emerges, with its sharp proboscis, and its 
shelly armour. Another troublesome insect be- 
longing to this Order, is the Chigoe or Jigger 
(Sarcopsylla penetrans), a small black flea, which 
penetrates the flesh, and, if neglected, produces 
troublesome sores on the feet. A very large species 
of flea is found on the Mole; another species, of 
yet larger dimensions (Pulex Echidnce), is found on 
the Australian-Porcupine ; but perhaps the largest 
known is the Pulex gigas, from some northern 
animal. 

XII. ORDER FLEAS (Aphaniptera). 

Wings four, rudimentary, in form of small scaly 
plates on sides of body ; antennas minute, lying flat 
in cavities at sides of head ; mouth formed for suc- 
tion ; mandibles and lingua setiform ; body com- 
pressed ; tarsi 5-jointed. Larva vermiform ; pupa 
inactive, incomplete. 
1. FAMILY Fleas (Pulicidae). Head small ; mouth 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 263 

a tubular beak formed of the labial palpi ; 
mandibles elongate, flattened, serrated ; body 
compressed, covered with a hard shining skin, 
clothed with rows of sharp bristles ; segments 
continuous ; fore-legs placed under the head ; 
hind-legs formed for leaping; coxae very 
large ; tibise setose ; tarsal claws double. 



AIOLOPODS. 

The Aiolopods comprise an extensive group of 
annulose animals which breathe like the Insects by 
means of tracheal tubes, but which undergo no regu- 
lar metamorphosis ; they are distinguished from the 
Arachnidans by the possession of a distinct head 
with two antennae, and by the varied nature of their 
feet ; like the Crustaceans they cast their skin, but 
are known at once from those animals by the ab- 
sence of gills or respiratory feet. They are princi- 
pally terrestrial in their habits, solitary, and usually 
of uninviting aspect. 

The Myriapods are distinguished by the absence 
of a regular metamorphosis, and the large number 
of nearly equal-sized segments into which their 
bodies are divided. They comprise an assemblage 
of curious, though little known, animals, and are 
found in all parts of the globe. The best known 
among them are the Centipedes (Scolopendra), 
dreaded in tropical countries on account of their 
venomous bite. These Myriapods are easily known 



264 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

from others of their Order by means of their long 
flattened bodies. They are nocturnal in their 
habits, shunning the light, and usually conceal- 
ing themselves under logs of wood, among loose 
stones, under the bark of decayed trees, or in the 
timbers of buildings. In hot climates they fre- 
quently attain to a formidable size, and their bite is 
then considered dangerous. They chiefly inhabit 
tropical countries, though a few small and harmless 
species occur in the southern parts of Europe, and 
one (Lithobius forcipatus) under damp moss, &c., in 
England. A few slender species are found to ex- 
hibit a vivid phosphorescent light. The hollow 
mandibles of the poisonous species end in a sharp 
hook, which is perforated at the point for the 
passage of the venomous fluid. The Juli, another 
group frequently observed, are at once distin- 
guished from the Centipedes, by their long, slen- 
der body not being flat but cylindrical. These are 
perfectly harmless, and feed upon decaying vege- 
table matter. They are found in the loose earth, 
among moss, or under stones. Some of the large 
Asiatic species attain a length of six or seven inches. 
When they walk they move with a sort of undulat- 
ing motion like a serpent, and when alarmed coil 
themselves up in a spiral form. 

The Spring-tails, including the first part of the 
ThysanuTdj, are usually found lurking under stones, 
or in the crevices of the bark of trees. By placing 
the elastic forked appendage of their tail under 
the body, and suddenly straightening it, they are 



MANUAL OF NATUEAL HISTORY. 265 

enabled to leap and spring about. They feed on de- 
caying animal and vegetable matter. The Sugar- 
lice, constituting the other section, are little active 
animals, covered with bright silvery scales. They 
are often seen running briskly about among old 
books and boards. They have simple eyes, like 
those of spiders, on each side of the head ; and, in 
some respects, resemble Myriapods. Their antennae 
are setaceous and elongated, and there are three 
setaceous appendages at the end of the tail. 

The young Parasites differ from the parent only 
in size. Nearly every kind of quadruped and bird 
harbours species of these animals ; and even in the 
human subject they have been known, by an exces- 
sive multiplication, perhaps induced by want of 
cleanliness, to have produced a loathsome disease, 
from which it is said Herod, Sylla, Antiochus, and 
Calisthenes perished. These pestiferous insects, in- 
cluding the Louse and its allies, have six feet formed 
for walking ; their mouth is furnished with a sucto- 
rial proboscis; their antennae are as long as the 
thorax; their abdomen is depressed and formed of 
several segments ; and their mode of respiration is 
by tracheal tubes as in the insect races. 

II. CLASS. AIOLOPODS (Aiolopoda). 

Animal breathing through stomata by means of 
respiratory tubes or tracheae ; apterous ; head dis- 
tinct, with two antennae. Undergoing no regular 
metamorphosis, but casting their skin like Crusta- 
ceans. 



266 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

I. ORDER. MYRIAPODS (Myriapoda). 

Eyes compound and granular; mandibles for 
cutting and bruising their food ; no true jaws ; 
sometimes two false labial palps ; body elongated, 
formed of numerous rings, not divided into regions; 
feet more than six, often very numerous. Animals 
free. 

I. SUB-ORDER. CHILOPOVS (Chilopoda). 

Antennae with four or more joints, tapering to- 
wards the extremity ; lower lip double ; segments 
flattened, each with one pair of feet. 

1. FAMILY. Shielded - Centipedes (Cermatiidae). 

Body elongated, linear, depressed, with about 
eight imbricated coriaceous shield-like plates 
above, below divided into fifteen segments ; 
antennae setaceous, many-join ted, much longer 
than the head ; mandibles two ; palpi slender, 
exserted, spinulose ; legs very long, slender, 
tarsi many-jointed. 

2. FAMILY. Stone-Centipedes (Lithobiidae). Anten- 

nae setaceous, a little longer than the head, 
seven or more jointed; mouth as in Scolo- 
pendra ; body elongated, linear, depressed, 
equally divided above and below, the upper 
dorsal plates alternately larger and smaller ; 
legs moderate. 

3. FAMILY. True - Centipedes (Scolopendridae). 

Body elongated, linear, depressed, equally 
divided above and below ; segments nume- 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 267 

rous, sub-equal, not imbricate ; legs numerous, 
moderate ; antennas subulate, a little longer 
than the head, joints short, fourteen or more; 
eyes two, distinct, granular ; hind lip armed 
with two strong hooks forming a pincer. 

4. FAMILY. Earth-Centipedes (Geophilidae). Body 

very long and narrow ; legs very numerous ; 
antennae composed of fourteen cylindrical 
joints, very slender towards the end; eyes 
not distinct ; often electrical. 

II. SUB-ORDER. CHILOGNATHS (Chilognatha). 

Antennae with seven joints, either equal through- 
out, or more or less thickened near the end ; lower 
lip single, without curved hooks ; segments of body 
annular, each with two pairs of legs. 

5. FAMILY. Woodlouse-Millipedes (Glomeridae). 

Body elongately oval, convex above, arcuate 
beneath, rolling up in a ball ; segments eleven 
or twelve, semi-lunar, crustaceous, with a 
lateral scale, the last segment large, concave, 
semi-circular; feet 16 20; antennae very 
short, sub-moniliform, 7-jointed, the sixth 
enveloping the last. 

6. FAMILY. Tufted-Millipedes (Polyxenidse). Body 

soft, elongated, depressed, furnished at the 
sides with tufts of piliform scales, the hind 
segment ending in a pencil of ciliated scales ; 
antennae very short, moniliform, inserted 
under the front margin of the head ; palpi 
none. 

N 2 



268 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

7. FAMILY. True-Millipedes (Julidse). Body elon- 

gate, cylindrical, smooth, crustaceous, rolling 
up spirally ; segments formed of three im- 
bricated parts with simple margins ; antennae 
short, sub-moniliform, a little thicker towards 
the tips, 7-jointed ; mandibles two, horny, 
truncato-dentate at the apex ; palpi none ; 
lip flattened, with the upper margin crenate. 

8. FAMILY. False-Millipedes (Polydesmidae) Body 

depressed or sub-cylindric, rolling up spirally; 
segments formed of a single piece with di- 
lated margins ; antennae slender ; mouth as 
in Julus. 

II. ORDER. FRINGE-TAILS (Thysamira). 
Eyes compound, granular ; mandibles for dividing 
the food ; sometimes jaws and distinct palpi ; feet 
six, and other motive organs either on the sides of 
abdomen, or at its extremity. Free. 

1. FAMILY. Sugar-Lice (Lepismatidae). Antennae 

many-jointed ; palpi distinct, exserted ; ab- 
domen with moveable appendages on each 
side of lower part, and with jointed filaments 
at the extremity. 

2. FAMILY. Spring-Tails (Poduridae). Antennae 

4-jointed ; no distinct palpi ; abdomen with- 
out lateral scales, ending in a forked caudal 
appendage folded under the body when at 
rest. 

III. ORDER. PARASITES (Anophira). 
Eyes smooth, simple ; legs six ; body not scaly ; 



MANUAL OF NATUKAL HISTORY. 269 

abdomen not furnished with lateral or anal appen- 
dages ; mouth with a retractile sucker, or in the form 
of a fissure with two hooked mandibles. 

I. SUB-ORDER. SUCTORIAL-PARASITES (Suctoria). 

Mouth tubular, rostrate, enclosing an instrument 
for suction. 

1. FAMILY. Lice-proper (Pediculidse). Antenna 

filiform, as long as the thorax ; a single eye 
on each side ; muzzle terminal, short, with a 
retractile sucker; tarsi of a single joint, ending 
in a folding hooked claw. 

II. SUB-ORDER. JAWED-PARASITES (Mandibulata). 

Mouth composed of two lips and two hooked 
mandibles, 

2. FAMILY. Bird-Lice (Nirmidse). Antennae small, 

shorter than the head ; eyes one or two on 
each side ; mandibles two, hook-like ; mouth 
inferior, sometimes a little below apex of 
head, sometimes sub-central, rimate, with 
two lips. 



ARACHNIDANS. 

Baron Walckenaer, the greatest authority on 
this class of animals, justly conceiving the intimate 
relation that must exist between the organization 
of these creatures and the webs they spin, has di- 
vided them into sedentary and wandering Spiders. 



270 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

The first, or Sedentaries, are elongated, with slender 
legs, and construct large nets, in the middle of which 
they remain motionless, or retire to a side avenue to 
watch the unfortunates that fall into their snares. 
Some of these spin geometric webs, composed of con- 
centric circles crossed by rays which unite in a com- 
mon centre, and which are suspended vertically. The 
Spiders which construct these kinds of webs are 
of brilliant colours, and of singular forms, as Epei- 
ra, Gasteracantha, Tetragnatha, and Uloborus ; 
others among them construct large irregular nets of 
threads crossing each other in all directions, these 
are formed by little but very industrious spinners, 
such as Theridion and Episinus ; some, again, com- 
pose horizontal toils of a closely-woven fabric in 
the angles of walls and under stones, and furnished 
with a tubular passage formed of the same material, 
in which they lie and watch, such as Tegenaria, 
Agelenar and Nyssus; many again, form toils of 
compact meshes, suspended horizontally betweeen 
plants, but without any tubular passages, and with 
the webs more open and transparent, these cloth- 
weavers principally compose the genus Linyphia. 

The Vagabonds, on the other hand, lead a wan- 
dering and desultory kind of life, and do not spin 
regular webs ; some of them, however, throw out 
long single threads to entangle the feet of their vic- 
tims, while they themselves watch vigilantly in the 
neighbourhood to take advantage, such are the 
Drassi, the Dysderce, and the Dolomedes. Others, 
of these Vagabonds, on the contrary, are hunting 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 271 

Spiders, pass their days pleasantly in the chase, 
and often travel to considerable distances, such are 
the great powerful Bird-Spiders (Mygale), the Ta- 
rantulas, the Jumping-Spiders (Attus), and those 
that move with cautious sidelong pace, as Thomisus 
and Sparassus. In many tropical countries the 
threads of gigantic species of Spiders (Nephila) are 
sufficiently strong to entangle small birds, and even 
to prove troublesome to the passage of the traveller 
through the woods. These artful nets of "long- 
legged spinners" are, moreover, of different colours 
according to the nature of the weaver, being white, 
yellow, blue, and green ; and in Mexico there is one 
composed of red, yellow, and black threads, inter- 
laced with great and singular ingenuity. 

Among other remarkable snares constructed by 
these daughters of Arachne may be mentioned that of 
the Trap-door Spiders, species of Cteniza, which bore 
galleries in the ground, coat the walls with mortar, 
line them with silk, and fit a door with a hinge, to 
the aperture ; another curious application of their 
spinning powers is seen in the fabrication of the 
diving-bell of the Water-Spider (Argyroneta aqua- 
tica), which is an oval cocoon filled with air, lined 
with silk, and fastened by lines to plants under the 
water ; one of the authors presented to the Linnagan 
Society the habitation of a Madagascar Spider com- 
posed of grains of quartz- sand united together by 
a fine web, forming a horn-shaped nest ; these hung 
from the low shrubs that grow near the shore ride out 
in safety gales that would destroy ordinary webs. 



272 MANUAL OF NATUEAL HISTORY. 

The food of the Spiders being entirely insect, they 
are armed with powerful hollow jaws, which inject 
a poisonous fluid, by means of which they slay their 
victims when fairly entangled in their toils. Some, 
as the Jumping-Spiders, spring upon their prey like 
the Feline-Mammals ; others hunt it down like the 
Wolves and Dogs ; while some again patiently await 
their victims in their artful nets, or lie motionless 
on the leaves and in the blossoms of plants ; others 
sit at the mouths of their subterranean tubes and 
keep a keen look out for stragglers, upon which 
they pounce, then kill and suck their blood. Some of 
the pedipalp Arachnidans, as the Scorpions, are pro- 
vided with a powerful instrument of attack in the 
form of a sting at the end of their long jointed ab- 
domen. As Typhon, or the Evil Spirit, the Scor- 
pion figures as one of the signs of the Zodiac ; some 
of the species which inhabit the hottest parts of 
Africa are often five or six inches in length, and 
produce highly venomous wounds ; one, in fact, has 
received the generic name of Androctonus or Man- 
killer. These animals never spin webs but live on 
the ground, concealing themselves under stones ; 
they feed on wood-lice, beetles, grasshoppers, and 
will devour also the eggs and larvae of various 
Insects. 

The Mites are found in various situations ; some 
as the Cheese- Mite (A earns domesticus) in our pro- 
visions ; some, as the Ticks (Ixodidce), fasten upon 
horses, cows, and dogs, and suck their blood ; some 
are parasitic on birds and bats, and others on in^ 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 273 

sects ; the Water-Mites (Hydrachnidce), live in the 
water; while others again are found crawling slowly 
about the leaves of various shrubs. One species, 
called the Red-Spider (Gamasus telarius), is a great 
pest to nurserymen and gardeners, producing much 
injury to plants in hot-houses ; another well-known 
member of this tribe is the little Harvest-Bug (Lep- 
tus autumnalis), the bite of which occasions a pain- 
ful irritation in those employed in the fields. 

The Sea-Spiders form the connecting link be- 
tween the Crustaceans and the Arachnidans ; the 
Pycnagonidce are parasitic upon Whales ; the Nym- 
phonidce, harmless, inert, and slow -moving crea- 
tures, take up their abode among madrepores and 
branching corals. 

III. CLASS. ARACHNIDANS (Arachnida). 

Head and thorax united, forming a cephalothorax ; 
eyes simple ; antennae none ; feet eight, formed for 
walking ; no regular metamorphosis. 

I. S US-CLASS. PULMONARY- ARACHNIDANS 
(Pulmonaria). 

Respiration by means of pulmonary sacs ; eyes 
612. 

I. ORDER. SPIDERS (Araiieidse). 

Palpi simple, pediform ; mandibles armed with a 
moveable, perforated claw emitting a poisonous 
liquid ; abdomen not jointed, terminating in spin- 
nerets. JN 5 



274 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

I. S HE-ORDER. QUADRIPULMONARY-SPIDERS 

(Tetrapneumona). 

Two pulmonary sacs and two spiracles on each 
side ; legs robust. 

1. FAMILY. Bird-Spiders (Mygalidse). Eyes eight ; 

spinnerets four, two short and two promi- 
nent ; hook or moveable claw of chelicerae 
folded on the lower side, or that of the first 
joint, moving vertically. 

2. FAMILY. Hunting-Spiders (Dysderid^e). Eyes 

six in many ; spinnerets six, very short ; 
hook of chelicerse folded transversely or 
along their inner side, moving laterally. 

II. SUB-ORDER. BIPULMONARY-SPIDERS 
(Dipneumona). 

A single pulmonary sac and spiracle on each side 
of abdomen. 

3. FAMILY True - Spiders (Araneidae). Hook of 

chelicerse folded transversely or along their 
inner side, moving laterally. 

1. GROUP. Sedentary Spiders (Sedentaria). Eyes 
arranged transversely on front of cephalo- 
thorax ; throw out threads for the capture 
of their prey, and station themselves upon 
or near their webs. 

1. Tapestry -Weavers (Clubioninse). Spin- 
nerets cylindrical, placed together and 
directed backwards ; legs robust ; recti- 
grade. 



MANUAL OF NATUKAL HISTORY. 275 

2. Spinning -Spiders (Theridioninae). Spin- 
nerets conical, slightly exserted, arranged 
in a rosette ; legs slender ; maxillae narrow 
at tip, not dilated ; rectigrade. 

3. Geometric -Spiders (Linyphinae). Spinne- 
rets conical, slightly exserted, arranged 
in a rosette ; legs slender ; maxillae straight, 
widened at tip ; rectigrade. 

4. Crab - Spiders (Thomisinae). Fore -legs 
longer than the others ; chelicerae small ; 
body depressed ; abdomen broad, round 
or triangular ; not making webs, but 
throwing out a few solitary threads ; re- 
main immovable, fixed upon the leaves of 
plants. 

2. GROUP. Wandering-Spiders (Errantia). Eyes 
arranged lengthwise on the cephalothorax ; 
do not spin webs but wait for their prey, 
seize it running or leap upon it. 

1. Wolf-Spiders (Lycosinae). Front row of 
eyes in a curvilinear series; thorax ovoid, 
narrowed in front, with a central longi- 
tudinal ridge ; legs only fitted for run- 
ning ; maxillae straight, rounded at tip. 

2. Jumping- Spiders (Salticinae). Front row 
of eyes extending across the thorax in a 
straight line ; thorax square, fiat, not nar- 
rowed in front, sides deflexed; legs fitted 
for running and leaping. 



276 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

II. ORDER. PEDIPALPS (Padipalpi). 

Palpi produced, cheliform or shaped like pincers ; 
mandibles furnished with a moveable claw, not 
emitting a poisonous liquid ; abdomen jointed, with- 
out spinnerets. 

1. FAMILY. Scorpions (Scorpionidse). Stigmata 

eight, situated along lower and lateral part 
of abdomen ; mandibles chelate or ending in 
two digits, the outer of which is moveable ; 
comb-like organs on inferior part of thorax. 

2. FAMILY. Tarentulas (Phrynidse). Stigmata 

four, situated near origin of abdomen ; man- 
dibles unguiculate or ending in a moveable 
claw ; thoracic combs none. 

II. S UB-CLASS. TRACHEARY-ARACHNIDANS 
(Trachearia). 

Respiration by means of ramifying tracheal tubes ; 
eyes two or four, smooth. 

I. ORDER. SIMPLE-TRACHEARIANS (Monomerosomata). 

Body without division, the head, trunk, and ab- 
domen being united into a single mass ; abdomen 
not annulated. 

I. SUB-ORDER. MITES (Errantia). 

Mouth with distinct mandibles ; palpi always pre- 
sent. Animals free. 

1. FAMILY. True-Mites (Acaridae). Palpi slightly 
developed, adherent to the lip; mandibles 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 277 

cheliforrn ; eyes none ; legs for walking, tarsi 
ending in a vesicle. 

2. FAMILY. Garden -Mites (Trombiidse). Palpi 
pointed, with a moveable appendage below 
the tip; feet formed for walking; eyes latero- 
anterior; chelicergp ending in a moveable 
claw. 

3 FAMILY. Spider-Mites (Gamasidse). Palpi fili- 
form, incurved, short, free ; mouth with two 
didactyle chelicerse ; body depressed, skin 
soft or scaly ; legs formed for walking, tarsi 
unguiculate. 

4. FAMILY. Wood-Mites (Orbitidse). Palpi fusi- 

form, hid under the head, without hooks ; 
mouth with didactyle chelicerse ; eyes not 
distinct ; body hairy or scaly, produced and 
rostrate in front ; legs formed for walking. 

II. SUB-ORDER. TICKS (Suctoria). 

Mouth in form of a sucker, with or without palpi ; 
no apparent mandibles. Animal attached. 

5. FAMILY. True-Ticks (Ixodidae). Palpi valvi- 

form, enclosing the sucker ; mandibles 3- 
jointed, the last joint scale-like and denticu- 
late ; chelicerse none ; eyes none ; legs formed 
for walking. 

6. FAMILY. Plant-Ticks (Bdellidse). Palpi antenni- 

form ; mandibles unguiculate or cheliform ; 
eyes distinct ; sucker in form of elongated 
beak ; body with a corselet ; legs formed for 
walking. 



278 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

7. FAMILY. - Water-Ticks (Hydrachnidas). Palpi 

with the last joint armed with points, the 
third and fourth joints larger than the others ; 
body simple, oval or rounded ; eyes supero- 
anterior ; legs ciliated, formed for swimming ; 
parasitic in the young state. Aquatic. 

8. FAMILY. Harvest-Ticks (Leptidse), Palpi short ; 

sucker porrected ; body depressed, coriaceous, 
ovately rotund ; legs six, two being unde- 
veloped. 

II. OKDEE. JOINTED-TRACHEARIANS 
(Adelarthrosomata).' 

Body divided into three or four distinct segments; 
abdomen distinct, annulated ; mouth with conspi- 
cuous didactyle pincers' or chelicerse. 

1. FAMIY. False-Scorpions (Solpugidae). Mandibles 

in the form of large compressed claws, with a 
moveable finger ; palpi large, in the form of 
feet or of cheliferous arms ; body oblong, soft ; 
abdomen hairy. 

2. FAMIY. Book-Scorpions (Cheliferidse). Man- 

dibles short, didactyle at the ends ; palpi 
very large, arm-like, with a pincer at the 
end ; body ovate, depressed, narrowed in 
front ; legs of equal size, short, ending in two 
hooks. 

3. FAMILY. Shepherd-Spiders (PhalangidaB). Man- 

dibles very conspicuous, composed of two or 
three pieces, free, ending in a didactyle pin- 
cer ; palpi filiform, ending in a hook ; body 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 279 

short, rounded ; abdomen segmented ; legs 
elongated. 

III. S UB-CLASS. APOROBRANCHIATE- ARACHNIDANS 
(Aporobranchiata). 

Body linear, divided into four distinct segments j 
spiracles none ; feet eight, for locomotion, in the 
females two false feet for carrying the eggs ; eyes 
four, smooth, situated on a tubercle. 

1. FAMILY. True Sea-Spiders (Nymphonidae). Body 

small, elongated ; palpi filiform, furnished 
with a hooked claw at the end ; legs very 
long. Free. 

2. FAMILY. Parasitic Sea-Spiders (Pycnogonidse)- 

Antennae and palpi obsolete ; legs short and 
robust. Parasitic on Whales. 



CRUSTACEANS. 

These annulose animals differ from the insects in 
their respiration being performed by means of gills ; 
their circulation is double, the blood passing through 
the gills as well as through the body generally; their 
nervous system forms two ganglionic chains, as in 
other Annulosa; they have no wings ; and some of 
their legs are modified to serve as organs of prehen- 
sion around the mouth. In the Decapods the fore- 
legs are transformed into arms, with a prehensile 
pincer at the end, composed of a finger and a move- 
able thumb, by the help of which strong calcareous 



280 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

hands they are enabled to crack the shells of mol- 
lusks and convey the food to their mouths. In 
some, as the Mantis-Crabs, these claws are long and 
prehensile, the moveable thumb being folded in a 
groove of the tibia. In numerous instances the 
Crustaceans seem to be the marine representatives 
of the Insects of the land, the sessile-eyed tribes cor- 
responding to the Myriapods, and the peduncle-eyed 
families to the Arachnidans ; the names of others 
suggest similar analogies, as Spider-Crabs, Scorpion- 
Crabs, Mantis-Crabs, &c. 

The habits of these animals are extremely va- 
ried : thus we find some living on the land, as 
the Gecarcini; others inhabiting sandy places near 
the sea, as the Horseman-Crabs, which run very 
fast, and form deep burrows ; others, also living 
in holes in similar situations, like the Gelasimi, 
hold up and snap their great disproportioned claw, 
appearing to beckon with one hand, and hence 
have been termed Calling-Crabs. The Hermit- 
Crabs are true pirates, seizing upon the shells of 
various mollusks, and using them as houses for them- 
selves, their abdomens being soft and spiral to adapt 
them to such a mode of life. The Ccenobitce, which 
live in wide-mouthed shells, have one claw very 
large to serve as an operculum ; but the Paguri, 
which inhabit shells with narrow mouths, have both 
claws equal. Another genus of this family has the 
abdomen hard, and lives in holes of the mountains; 
this, which is the Tree-Lobster (Birgus latro), 
ascends the Palms and devours the fruit, and is in 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 281 

turn pursued by the Climbing-Perch (Anabas testu- 
dineus) ; thus we have both Crabs and Fishes climb- 
ing up terrestrial Palm-trees. Some Crustaceans 
attain a large size when compared with the Insect 
tribes, the Thorny-Lobster (Palinurus vulgaris) 
being sometimes nearly three feet in length. The 
common Lobster (A stacus gammarus) is an especial 
favourite among epicures, and is easily recognized by 
its enormous claws. The tribes of Crustacea change 
their skins or moult regularly, while among insects 
this takes place only in the larval state ; but in 
these animals, which continue to grow all their lives, 
the changing of their coats occurs at regular inter- 
vals. They have the singular power, moreover, of 
replacing a lost or mutilated limb by growing 
another, which reconciles them to parting with their 
legs when seized by their enemies. Some among 
them are enabled to leap about, like the Sand- 
hoppers ((7ammari<ice), while the extinct tribe of 
Trilobites possessed the faculty of rolling themselves 
up in a ball like the Wood-lice of the present epoch. 
The members of the great Entomostracous group, 
which are covered with a thin horny skin, are ex- 
tremely varied in their external form ; some have 
suctorial mouths, and live parasitic on other animals ; 
others masticate their food by means of horny jaws ; 
while some, as the King- Crabs, employ the dilated 
coxae of the six anterior pairs of legs for the same 
purpose ; thus these animals may be said to eat with 
their legs. Some of them, as the Cypris, are enclosed 
in a bivalve shell, and represent the Mollusca ; 
others, again, approximate the Arachnidans, as the 



282 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

King-Crabs, in which the head is united to the 
thorax ; while others show an affinity with the Cir- 
rhopods, as the Water-Fleas, which have their bodies 
enclosed between shell-like plates, and produce cur- 
rents of water by means of vibratile feet. The 
Branchipi, as their name implies, breathe by 
means of their legs, and inhabit stagnant water. 
The Xiphosurans have a long and spine-like tail, 
and all their legs are furnished with pincers, by 
means of which the food is conveyed to the maxil- 
lary legs ; these crustaceans form the symbol among 
the Japanese for the zodiacal sign " Cancer." 

Whatever region is visited by the Carcinologist, 
there will he find objects for his study and consi- 
deration. The northern shores, although numerous 
in individuals, harbour but a small number of spe- 
cies, among which the curious Amphipods, the Sea- 
Centipedes (Idotea), the Stone-Crabs (Lithodes), the 
Spiny -Shrimps (Hippolyte), the Shrimps -proper 
(Crangori), besides the odd-shaped Caprella and 
Cuma, will reward his research. Some of these 
forms remain on the sands, and among the rocks, at 
great depths in the sea ; others are found in muddy 
shallows near the shore. 

In all seas, among the gulf- weed, the Sailor-Crab 
(Nautilograpsus) will be met with, that same crab, 
which in a critical moment, served Columbus just 
before he discovered the New World ; in the dense 
masses of floating sea- weed he will also find Ampho- 
roidce, Sphceromata, Cassidince, &c., spinning and 
darting about, or crawling on the stems of the Sar- 
gassa. 



MANUAL OF NATUEAL HISTORY, 283 

On the coast of the Scandinavian countries he 
will encounter the Norway-Lobster (Nephrops), the 
Spider-Crabs (Oxyrhynchi), the Common- Lobsters 
(Homari), and many members of the Crabs-proper 
(Ganceridce). Some of these remain habitually on 
the sands and among the rocks, at great depths, 
and must be dredged; some spend their days alto- 
gether on shore, living in burrows and holes, or 
under stones and sea-weed. 

On the shores of France and England, the Carci- 
nus mcenas, or Common-Crab, the large Edible- 
Crab (Cavicer Pagurus), the Hermit-Crabs (Pagu- 
ri\ the Cray-Fish (Astaci), the Prawns (Palcemori), 
and the Spiny-Crabs (Maia, Pisa, &c.), will all 
be met with ; but the Crustaceous Class, besides 
the Crabs, Prawns, and Lobsters, comprises many 
curious forms, which, if not equally as savoury, are 
yet well worthy of the traveller's attention ; their 
habits especially require much investigation, their 
modes of changing their skin, reproducing lost 
limbs, and luminous properties, also demand his 
consideration. 

In the Mediterranean, the collector of Crusta- 
ceans will first meet with the Swimming-Crab 
(Lupa), and in bottoms covered with weeds and 
coral, Mithrax and Acanthonyx; and hiding and 
shuffling under stones, Trapezice, and the Porcella- 
nous-Crabs : here also he will see, for the first time, 
Calappa, or the Crested-Crab, feigning death on the 
moist loose sands ; and also the Sea-Locusts (Scyl- 
lari), and the Sea-Mantises (Squillce), in shallow, 



284- MANUAL OF NATUEAL HISTORY. 

weedy, and sandy bottoms, darting rapidly above 
the surface in straight lines, leaving turbid tracks, 
or in shallow bays, springing backwards through 
the water. 

In Chili and Patagonia, the Horseman -Crabs 
(Ocypodce) will be found, coursing along the sands 
in a sidelong manner, and rapidly disappearing in 
holes of the sand when almost caught. Many other 
interesting genera will also here be met with, as 
Hepatus, Leucippe, Epialtus, Eurypodius, Atelecy- 
clus, Platycarcinus, and Grapsus or the Painted- 
Crabs, which, active, bold, and predaceous, will be 
seen running over the rocks near the sea. 

If he visit the shores of Madagascar, our tra- 
veller-Carcinologist must look for Mencethius, Xan- 
tho, Ranina, Ixa, besides the Horseman and Call- 
ing-Crabs, Calappa, Pisa, and others ; and the same 
forms will be met with at the Cape of Good Hope, 
in the Isle of France, and at the Seychelles. 

In India and New Guinea, the Decapodous Ege- 
ria, Dodea, Pericera,and Varuna, and the Swimm- 
ing-Crabs, Thalamita, Lupa, Pseudocarcinus, and 
Matuta, must be hunted ; on gravelly floors, and on 
submerged beds of broken shells, the Long-armed 
Lambri must be sought for ; under stones, turned on 
the beach at low water, Alope and Alpheus, snap- 
ping loudly the pincers of their fore-legs, will be dis- 
covered ; the fresh-water Sesarmce frequenting the 
running brooks ; the Telescope-eyed Crab (Ma- 
crophthalmus) burrowing in the sand; the Moun- 
tain-Pirate (Birgus) inhabiting holes in the hills ; 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 285 

the China Crabs (Leucosiidce) in the sandy bays ; 
and when the tide leaves the mud banks, Calling- 
Crabs (Gelasimi) coming out of their burrows in 
dense crowds ; and the Gebice, or Mud-Bores, per- 
forating the flats at the mouths of rivers, must all 
be noticed, and if possible captured. 

In the Japan and China Seas many curious ge- 
nera, not before seen, will be encountered, as Oeidia, 
Acanthodes, Curtonotus, Berenia, and Eriocheir; in 
New Zealand, and along the shores of New Holland, 
will be found Naxia, Pseudocarcinus, Xantho, and 
Portunus. In fact, whether they are " good for the 
pot/' as the larger species ; whether they are para- 
sites, on whales and fishes, as the Cymothoidce; whe- 
ther they chew their food by teeth in their stomach, 
as the Canceridce, or masticate it by the bases of their 
hips, as the Limulidce; whether they breathe by 
gills, as the Podopkthabni, or by their legs, as the 
Amphipoda; whether they have long telescope-eyes, 
as the Hacrophthalmus, or a single large eye, as in 
Cydopidce, they are all equally remarkable animals, 
and, as such, deserving of especial observation. 

IV. CLASS. CRUSTACEANS (Crustacea). 

Animal articulated, covered with a horny or cal- 
careous skin ; legs jointed ; head furnished with 
antennse and jaws ; respiration aquatic, by gills ; 
blood colourless, in distinct vessels ; sexes distinct. 

I. LEGION. PEDUNCLE-EYED CRUSTACEANS (Podoph- 
thalmata). 

Animal with gills properly so called ; eyes on 



286 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

moveable peduncles ; rings of thorax covered by a 
carapace. 

I. OEDER DECAPODS (Decapoda). 

Five pairs of ambulatory legs ; gills at their base, 
under the thorax; mouth with five pairs of feet- 
like jaws ; head covered by the thorax. 

1. SUB-ORDER. SHORT-TAILED DECAPODS (Brachyura). 

Abdomen slightly developed, not serving for nata- 
tion, folded under body, without appendages. 

1. FAMILY. Spider-Crabs (Inachidse). Carapace 

triangular, beaked in front; fore-legs short, 
slender, second and third pairs very long ; 
third joint of outer foot-jaws not bearing the 
next joint at its anterior and inner angle. 

2. FAMILY. Spiny-Crabs (Maiidse), Carapace spiny, 

sub-triangular, with two horns in front ; fore- 
legs longer and thicker than second pair ; 
third joint of outer foot-jaws with the fourth 
joint on its anterior and inner angle. 

3. FAMILY. Long -armed Crabs (Parthenopidse). 

Carapace triangular, tubercular, entire or 
simply grooved in front ; fore-legs greatly 
developed, hand triangular, pincers recurved, 
other legs short. 

4. FAMILY. True-Crabs (Canceridse). Carapace 

convex, rounded at margins ; fore-legs usually 
very large and prehensile, ending in strong 
pincers, the others short and ambulatory ; 
third joint of outer foot-jaws quadrilateral, 
not truncate at its front inner angle. 



MANUAL OF KATUKAL HISTOEY. 287 

5. FAMILY. Swimming-Crabs (Portunidse). Cara- 

pace trapeziform, slightly elevated ; fore-legs 
very long and spiny, hind legs natatory, 
with flattened tarsi ; third joint of outer 
foot-jaws strongly truncate at its front outer 
angle. 

6. FAMILY. Freshwater-Crabs (ThelphusidaB). Ca- 

rapace wider than long, straight anteriorly ; 
eye-peduncles thick, short; fourth joint of 
outer foot-jaws never inserted at outer angle 
of the preceding joint; fore-legs strong, longer 
than the others. 

7. FAMILY. Land-Crabs (Gecarcinidse). Carapace 

transversely oval, rounded and tumid at the 
sides, front wide, recurved ; eye-peduncles 
moderate ; fourth joint of outer foot-jaws in- 
serted at outer angle of the preceding joint ; 
fore-legs long and stout; lining membrane 
of gill -cavity spongy. 

8. FAMILY. Pea-Crabs (Pinnotheridge). Carapace 

soft, circular, front very narrow; eyes small; 
fourth joint of external foot-jaws inserted at 
outer angle of the third joint. 

9. FAMILY. Sand-Crabs (Myctiridse). Carapace 

thin, flattened, or globular, front narrow, 
strongly inclined ; eyes small, short, not fold- 
ing in the orbits ; inner antennse small ; outer 
foot-jaws long and narrow, or vertical and 
forming a cone-shaped cavity. 

10. FAMILY. Horseman-Crabs (Ocypodidse). Cara- 

pace quadrilateral or rhomboidal ; eye-pedun- 



288 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

cles usually very long, with the cornea pro- 
duced; front narrow, recurved; fourth joint 
of outer foot-jaws inserted on the external 
angle of the preceding joint. 

11. FAMILY. Angular- Crabs (Gonoplacidse). Ca- 

rapace transversely quadrilateral ; eye-pedun- 
cles usually very long, cornea small ; front 
very wide ; fourth joint of outer foot-jaws 
inserted in a groove of front inner angle of 
the third joint. 

12. FAMILY. Painted-Crabs (Grapsidse). Carapace 

sub-quadrilateral, depressed ; eye-peduncles 
very short and thick ; front very wide, 
strongly recurved ; fourth joint of outer foot- 
jaws inserted at the middle of the anterior 
margin, or at the outer angle of the third 
joint; fore-legs usually short, hind- legs 
compressed. 

13. FAMILY. Crested-Crabs (Calappidse). Carapace 

subcircular, gibbous, the front moderate, edges 
thin or denticulate ; external antennae small ; 
fore-legs strong, compressed, and elevated 
above into crests. 

14. FAMILY. China-Crabs (Leucosiidse). Carapace 

usually circular, porcellanous ; produced an- 
teriorly with front and orbits at the end ; 
no branchial apertures before base of fore- 
legs. 

15. FAMILY. Globular-Crabs (Corystidse). Cara- 

pace more or less globular, usually rough ; 
gill openings before base of fore-legs ; exter- 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY 289 

nal antennae very large ; hind-legs ambula- 
tory, the same as the others. 

16. FAMILY. Shielded-Crabs (Dorippidse). Cara- 

pace depressed, quadrilateral, short behind, 
often protected by shields of foreign bodies ; 
external antennae very large ; fore-legs short, 
hind-legs very short, not ambulatory, placed 
above the others, and serving to secure the 
adventitious shields. 

II. SUB-ORDER. VARIED-TAILED DECAPODS 
(Anomoura.) 

Abdomen slightly developed, not serving for nata- 
tion, sometimes folded under the body, sometimes ex- 
tended, bearing appendages more or less developed. 

17. FAMILY. Sponge-Crabs (Dromiidse). Body glo- 

bular, front strongly recurved ; eyes short ; 
outer foot-jaws enlarged, and operculiform ; 
legs short and stout, fore-legs ending in 
strong pincers, fifth pair raised above the 
others on the sides of the carapace, and end- 
ing in a hook. 

18. FAMILY. Stone-Crabs (Homolidse). Carapace 

spiny, beaked in front ; internal antennse ex- 
posed ; foot-jaws pediform ; legs long, fifth 
pair very short, not ambulatory. 

19. FAMILY. Frog-Crabs (Raninidse). Carapace 

ovate, narrowed in front ; eye-peduncles com- 
posed of three moveable pieces ; internal an- 
tennj0e exposed ; outer foot-jaws elongated, 
not pediform ; fore-legs strongly compressed 



290 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

hind-legs flattened, ending in a large lamel- 
late joint for natation. 

20. FAMILY. False Frog-Crabs (Hippidse) Cara- 

pace transversely oval, convex, prolonged on 
each side into a lamella which covers bases of 
legs ; antennae very long ; foot-jaws with 
last joint very much developed ; fore-legs 
monodactyle or sub-cheliform, hind-legs end- 
ing in a lamellar joint for digging in the 
sand, fifth pair filiform. 

21. FAMILY. Hermit-Crabs (Paguridae). Carapace 

triangular ; outer antennas with a spiniform 
piece below second joint ; outer foot-jaws pe- 
diform ; fore-legs unequal, ending in a large 
hand with short strong pincers, fourth pair 
of legs short, didactyle, raised above the 
others, fifth pair very short, on the sides of 
the body, ending in a pincer more or less 
well-formed ; abdomen soft, usually protected 
by an adventitious shell. 

22. FAMILY. Lobster-Crabs (Porcellanidas). Cara- 

pace sub-circular, depressed, front produced 
below insertion of inner antennas ; eyes small ; 
outer antennae very long ; outer foot-jaws 
very large, their second joint with a lamellar 
dilatation on the inner side ; fore-legs large 
and flattened, hind-pair slender and didac- 
tyle ; abdomen large, ending in a laminated fin. 

TIL SUB-ORDER. LONG-TAILED DECAPODS (Macroura). 
Abdomen greatly developed, serving for natation, 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 291 

extended posteriorly, bearing false feet, and ending 
In a caudal fin. 

23. FAMILY. Plaited-Lobsters (Galatheidse). Cara- 

pace oblong, depressed, front beaked ; outer 
foot-jaws pediform ; fore-legs large, ending in 
a well-developed pincer, fifth pair very slen- 
der, folded below the others in the branchial 
cavity ; abdomen longer than thorax ; caudal 
fin large and lamellar. 

24. FAMILY. Locust-Lobsters (Scyllaridse). Cara- 

pace very large, slightly elevated, straight in 
front, with a horizontal prolongation between 
the bases of the outer antennae ; outer an- 
tennae foliaceous and very large ; foot-jaws 
moderate, sub-pediform ; fore-legs ending in 
a styliform tarsus, hind-legs of female end- 
ing in a small incomplete pincer ; abdomen 
very large. 

25. FAMILY. Thorny-Lobsters (Palinuridse). Cara- 

pace convex, longitudinal, front with two 
large horns ; eyes large, short, rounded ; in- 
ner antennae very long ; outer antennae vei;y 
thick and long, basal joints spiny; outer 
foot-jaws small, pediform; mandibles very 
thick, with cutting edges ; legs all monodac- 
tyle, fore-legs the shortest ; abdomen very 
large and long. 

26. FAMILY. Scorpion-Lobsters (Thalassinidse). Ca- 

rapace small, laterally compressed, shortly 
beaked in front ; eyes small ; external an- 
tennas with a small moveable spine at base ; 

o2 



292 MANUAL OF NATUKAL HISTOET. 

fore-legs large, more or less completely didac- 
tyle, the others elevated on each side of 
thorax ; abdomen narrow ; body rather soft. 

27. FAMILY. True-Lobsters (Astacidae). Carapace 

elongated, beaked in front ; outer antennae 
with a moveable lamina at their base ; outer 
foot-jaws elongated ; fore-legs very large, end- 
ing in thick didactyle pincers, second and 
third pair with a small pincer, the others 
monodactyle. 

28. FAMILY. Prawns (Crangonidae). Carapace 

rather depressed, slightly beaked in front; 
eyes short, thick, free ; mandibles slender, 
without palpi ; outer foot-jaws pediform ; 
fore-legs ending in a flattened monodactyle 
hand, with the finger rudimentary, second 
pair with very small pincers, hind-legs 
strong, monodactyle. 

29. FAMILY. Clicking-Shrimps (Alpheidae). Cara- 

pace rather compressed, shortly beaked in 
front ; one pair of legs very large, and in 
general ending in a strong didactyle hand, 
two pairs of anterior legs didactyle, third 
pair monodactyle, hind-legs robust, for swim- 
ming or walking. 

30. FAMILY. Shrimps-Proper (Palaemonidas). Body 

laterally compressed ; carapace with a large 
pointed serrated beak in front; first pair 
of antennae often with three terminal fila- 
ments ; legs all slender, the two first pair in 
general didactyle, the three last monodactyle. 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 293 

31. FAMILY. Pencean-Shrimps (Penasidae). Ab- 

domen extremely elongated ; legs often with 
a palpiform appendage at their base ; beak 
short or wanting ; antennae very long ; legs 
long and slender for swimming, last pair 
rudimentary or wanting. 

32. FAMILY. Horned-Shrimps (Cerataspidse). Ca- 

rapace large, sub-ovoid, tumid at the sides, 
surface tubercled, prolonged inferiorly so as 
to conceal the legs and antennae, leaving a 
longitudinal fissure, armed with five horns, 
one forming the beak, two on the sides in 
front, and two behind these ; legs long and 
slender with a lateral appendage ; abdomen 
narrow. 

II. OKDER STOMAPODS (Stomapoda). 

Gills external, on the abdomen ; head horny, se- 
parated from the thorax ; mouth with three pairs of 
jaws ; legs seven pairs, prehensile or for swimming. 

1. FAMILY. Opossum-Shrimps (Mysidae). Cara- 

pace slightly beaked in front ; mandibles with 
a palpiform appendage on upper and lower 
lip, and two lamellar jaws ; foot-jaws, each 
with two well-developed branches at their 
base ; abdomen moderate. 

2. FAMILY. Spectre-Grabs (Phyllosomatidae). Ani- 

mal transparent ; carapace large, lamellar, 
horizontal ; thorax lamellar ; eyes large and 
prominent ; mouth with a large upper jaw, 
a pair of hooked mandibles, a membranous 



294 MANUAL OF NATUEAL HISTORY. 

bilobed lower lip, and a pair of jaws ; foot- 
jaws rudimentary ; legs seven or eight pairs, 
first short, the others long and slender ; ab- 
doinen narrow, rudimentary. 

3. FAMILY. Glass-Shrimps (Erichthidse). Gills ru- 

dimentary; carapace large, lamellar, tran- 
sparent, with a styliform beak in front ; first 
two joints of head moveable, second joint of 
outer antennse with an oval lamina with 
ciliated margins ; upper lip triangular ; man- 
dibles with two branches with dentate mar- 
gins ; abdomen elongated, last segment very 
large. 

4. FAMILY. Mantis-Crabs (Squillidse). Carapace 

leaving uncovered the first two rings of head 
and last four of thorax ; thorax sub-quadri- 
lateral, with a small moveable triangular 
plate in front ; mandibles ending in two 
divergent branches, with dentate margins ; 
lower lip deeply bilobed ; second pair of 
jaws long, and pediform, anterior foot-jaws 
largely developed in the form of raptorial 
feet folded thrice on themselves, and resem- 
bling the fore-legs of the "Mantis"; abdo- 
men very large. 

II. LEGION. SESSILE-EYED CRUSTACEANS 
(Edriophthalmata). 

Gills replaced by portions of the legs modified for 
that purpose. Body divided into head, thorax, and 
abdomen ; no carapace ; eyes sessile. 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 295 

I. ORDER. AMPHIPODS (Amphipoda). 
Palpi of the thoracic extremities vesicular and 
subserving respiration ; abdomen greatly developed, 
serving for locomotion ; six pairs of legs, the three 
first differing in form and use from the three last. 

1. FAMILY. Sandhoppers (Gammaridae). Head 

small ; fore-legs developed for digging ; foot- 
jaws very large, covering the entire mouth, 
ending in four large horny laminae, and two 
very long jointed palpiform appendages. 

2. FAMILY. Hyperians (Hyperiidae). Head large ; 

thoracic legs often prehensile ; abdomen end- 
ing in a swimming fin; foot-jaws moderate, 
ending in three horny laminae without any 
palpiform appendages. 

II. ORDER L^MODIPODS (Laemodipoda). 
Palpi of thoracic extremities vescicular, and sub- 
serving respiration; abdomen rudimentary, in the 
form of a small tubercle. 

1. FAMILY. Skeleton-Shrimps (Caprellidse). Body 

elongated, cylindrical, narrow ; four well-de- 
veloped antennae ; legs long and slender, fore- 
legs inserted near mouth, ending in an oval 
hand. 

2. FAMILY. Whale-Fleas (Cyamidaa). Body de- 

pressed, oval ; head small, second paif'bf an- 
tennae very small ; legs short, curved, pre- 
hensile ; fore-legs inserted under the head, 
ending in a small sub-cheliform hand. 

III. ORDER. ISOPODS (Isopoda). 
Palpi of thoracic extremities not vesicular ; abdo- 



296 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

men well-developed; five first pairs of abdominal 
extremities lamellar, and subserving respiration. 

I. SUB-ORDER. AMBULATORY-!SOPODS (Ambulatoria). 

Mouth with two pairs of jaws besides mandibles 
and foot-jaws ; hind false-feet styliform or opercular, 
not forming a caudal fin. 

1. FAMILY. Sea-Centipedes (Idoteidse). Body li- 

near, elongated ; terminal appendages of hind 
false-feet large, lamellar, opercular, covering 
all lower surface of abdomen ; not prolonged 
beyond the last segment, which is scutiform 
and very large. 

2. FAMILY. Sea-Woodlice (AsellidaB). Body more 

or less elongated ; terminal appendages of 
hind false-feet styliform and prolonged be- 
yond abdomen like a tail ; last joint of abdo- 
men very large, scutiform ; internal antennae 
small but distinct. 

3. FAMILY. Fork-tailed Sea-Woodlice (Lygiidse). 

Body oval, head small ; terminal appendages 
of hind false-feet styliform, slender, elongated, 
completely exposed, and ending in two styli- 
form appendages ; last joint of abdomen very 
small, not scutiform ; internal antennae rudi- 
mentary. 

4. FAMILY. Woodlice-proper (OniscidaB). Body 

oval, convex ; terminal appendages of hind 
false-feet short, not extending beyond last 
segment of abdomen, last joint of abdomen 
very small, not scutiform ; internal antennas 
rudimentary. 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 297 

II. SUB-ORDER NATATOKY-ISOPODS (Natatoria). 

Mouth with two pairs of jaws besides mandibles 
and foot-jaws ; hind false-feet ending in horizontal 
laminae, which form with the last segment of the 
.abdomen, a caudal fin. 

5. FAMILY. Pranisians (Pranizidse). Head united 

to the first two thoracic rings ; antennae seta- 
ceous ; thorax composed of five rings ; the 
two first pairs of legs rudimentary or want- 
ing, five last pairs of legs slender, ambula- 
tory ; abdomen narrow, but greatly deve- 
loped. 

6. FAMILY. Sphceromids (Sphseromatidse). Body 

oval, convex; thorax of seven moveable rings ; 
seven pairs of legs nearly equal; abdomen 
short ; foot-jaws palpiform ; first five rings of 
abdomen soldered together, hind false-feet 
ending in two lamellar appendages, the outer 
one only moveable ; head large ; legs simply 
ambulatory. 

7. FAMILY. Fish-Lice (Cymothoidse). Body oval ; 

head small ; thorax of seven moveable rings; 
seven pairs of legs, nearly equal ; abdomen 
very short ; foot-jaws opercular ; first five 
segments of abdomen not soldered together, 
last false-feet ending in two moveable la- 
minae ; legs short and hooked. Parasitic on 
fish. 

III. S UB-ORDER. SEDENTAKY-ISOPODS (Sedentaria). 

Mouth without jaws, but with distinct mandibles 

o 5 



298 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

and foot-jaws ; hind false-feet replaced by two mem- 
branous filaments, not jointed. 

8. FAMILY. Tailed Crab-Lice (lonidae). Body nar- 

row, elongated ; head large ; outer antennae 
styliform ; abdominal appendages filiform, 
and extending beyond abdomen; legs all 
ending in sub-cheliform hands. Parasitic on 
Callianassa. 

9. FAMILY. Tail-less Crab-Lice (Bopyridse). Body 

pyriform, depressed ; head inserted, rounded 
in front ; antennae rudimentary ; abdominal 
appendages lamellar, and concealed under 
abdomen. 

III. LEGIOK BRANCHIOPODS (Branchiopoda). 

Mouth with organs of mastication ; no gills pro- 
perly so called ; thoracic members foliaceous, mem- 
branous, subservient to respiration. 

I. ORDER PHYLLOPODS (Phyllopoda). 

Body naked, covered with a carapace, or enclosed 
in a bivalve test ; legs, eight pairs, simple, natatory, 
the rest foliaceous. 

1. FAMILY. Nebalias (Nebaliidae). Body enclosed 

in a bivalve test ; carapace beaked in front ; 
eyes peduncled ; antennas large, forming na- 
tatory oars ; four pairs of natatory non-bran- 
chial feet, the rest branchial. 

2. FAMILY. Apuses (Apodidae). Carapace bivalve 

or scutiform ; all the feet branchial, consisting 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 299 

of more than eighteen pairs ; abdomen nar- 
row, cylindrical. 

3. FAMILY. Pond-Shrimps (Branchipidae). Body 
elongated, without a bivalve or scutiform 
carapace; eyes pedunculated ; nine pairs of 
branchial feet. 

II. ORDER LOPHTROPODS (Lophyropoda). 

Body enclosed between two valves ; feet four or 
five pairs, foliaceous. 

1. FAMILY. Water-Fleas (Daphniidae). Head dis- 

tinct, prominent, prolonged below into a 
beak ; a single eye on anterior part ; upper 
antennae in the form of large oars ; abdomen 
conical. 

2. FAMILY. Polyphemuses (Polyphemidse). Head 

very large, nearly all occupied by a single 
great eye ; upper antennae very large, ending 
in two branches with long hairs ; feet four 
pairs ; abdomen recurved, not lodged in valves 
of carapace. 

3. FAMILY. Beaked Water-Fleas (Lynceidse). Head 

small, curved below in form of a beak and 
prolonged posteriorly over back ; a single 
eye ; antennae short ; valves of carapace very 
large. 

IV. LEGION. ENTOMOSTKACANS (Entomostraca). 

Gills none ; eyes sessile ; mandibles adapted for 
mastication ; feet natatory, -not foliaceous, or mem- 



300 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

branous, always ending in two oars each, composed 
of two or more joints. 

I. ORDER OSTEACODS (Ostracoda). 

Body enclosed in a bivalve carapace ; first pair of 
antennae setaceous, second pair very large, forming 
natatory oars ; two posterior pairs of jaws with a 
large fan-shaped appendage. 

1. FAMILY. Cyprises (Cypridse). A single large 
eye on upper part of face ; abdomen conical, 
ending in two styles ; two pairs of slender 
legs. 

II. ORDER. COPEPODS (Copepoda). 

Body divided into several segments, not enve- 
loped in a bivalve test ; furnished with foot-jaws, 
and with four or five pairs of legs. 

1. FAMILY Pontias (Pontiidse). Eyes two, dis- 

tinct, non-pedunculated ; body oval, ending 
in a narrow prolongation ; head distinct, 
armed in front with a moveable rostrum. 

2. FAMILY. Cydopses (Cyclopidse). A single eye 

situated on the middle line at fore and upper 
part of head ; head indistinct, with no move- 
able rostrum ; abdomen elongated. 

III. ORDER KING-CRABS (Xyphosura). 

Jaws replaced by the basal part of the six pairs 
of fore-legs, which are furnished at that part with 
minute teeth ; hind-legs serving for respiration. 
] . FAMILY. King - Grabs (Limulidae). Carapace 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 301 

large, rounded, divided into two parts, the 
anterior large and semilunar, the posterior 
smaller, toothed at the sides, and ending in 

mfr^ *^ 

a long pointed spine. 




CIRRHOPODS. 

The Cirrhopods, generally known under the names 
of Acorn-shells and Barnacles, are marine articulated 
animals, forming a class intermediate between the 
Crustacea and the Mollusca. Their body is more 
or less jointed, and is placed with the back down- 
wards, the cirrhated feet being protruded from the 
aperture of the shell ; the jaws resemble those of 
Crustaceans, the head is indistinct, and, in the adult, 
there are no distinct eyes or antennae ; the part cor- 
responding to the abdomen of Crustaceans is fur- 
nished with a series of lateral lobes, each bearing two 
long, curled, many-jointed, ciliated false-feet, which in 
the living animal are constantly in motion, being al- 
ternately protruded and withdrawn, causing cur- 
rents which procure food and subserve respiration. 
Their nervous system resembles that of annulose 
animals, and consists of a double series of ganglia ; 
their blood is white, and they have a complete 
double circulation ; from the circumstance of their 
bodies being protected by shelly plates, they have 
been confounded with the Mollusca. They are en- 
dowed with locomotion only in the young state, 
but when adult, are always fixed. 



7 



302 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTOET. 

The metamorphosis of the Cirrhopods is very curi- 
ous. The young are hatched from an egg, and re- 
seuible the larvas of Cyclops and other Entomostra- 
ca; they swim freely about, have two long antennas, 
three pairs of jointed legs (the hind pair of which 
is bifid), a bilobed, jointed tail, and eyes. They 
soon become invested with a coriaceous bivalve shell 
like that of Cypris, to the sides of which the animal 
fixes itself by the head ; the shelly valves then make 
their appearance ; the antennae and eyes disappear ; 
three more pairs of legs are developed, and the 
creature finally assumes the shape familiar to our 
admiring eyes. 

The Cirrhopods have a wide range in their geo- 
graphical distribution, being found in all seas ; the 
particular localities in which they occur are ex- 
tremely varied. Some sessile forms, as the Bala- 
nidce, live attached to tidal rocks, stones and shells ; 
some, as the Acasta of Leach, take up their abode 
in sponges, and the Catophragmus of Sowerby in 
coral ; others, again, are found imbedded in Ma- 
drepores and Fungice, as the genera Pyrgoma, Da- 
racia, Megatrema and Creusia, while the Conopea 
of Say is affixed to Gorgonice and horny corals. 
Some live parasitic in the skins of whales, as the 
Cetopirus, the Tubicinella, and the Diadema; 
others, as the Platylepas of Gray, and the Coro- 
nula testudinarius, Lin., fix themselves upon the 
backs of turtles ; others have been found on the 
bodies of sea-snakes ; one, the Asterolepas Icevis 
of Gray, on the Voluta; and another, the GOTO- 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 303 

nula denticulata of Say, on the King-crab. Some 
of the pedunculated genera form grooves in stones 
and shells, as Gonchotrya of Gray, and Lithotrya 
of Sowerby ; others are found attached in bunches 
to float ing objects, as Lepas anatifera, Linn. ; while 
others again, as the Alepas parasita of Lesson, are 
found parasitic on Nedusce and A. minuta of Rang, 
on the spines of the Gidaris or Turban-Urchin. 
The curious genus, Alcippe of Hancock, is truly a 
burrowing Cirrhopod, perforating the substance of 
shells, and entirely concealing itself in chambers of 
its own formation, which are lined with a calcareous 
deposit ; the exact mode in which this naked ani- 
mal, totally unprovided with shelly plates, forms the 
excavations in which it lives, has not yet been as- 
certained. 

V. CLASS. CIRRHOPODS (Cirrhopoda). 

Animal soft, symmetrical, covered with a fleshy 
mantle, and fixed in a multivalve shell ; body re- 
versed, ending in a tail somewhat jointed and furn- 
ished with long, horny, articulated cirrhi subservient 
to respiration ; mouth with mandibles and maxillae ; 
sexes united. In the young state swim freely about. 

I. ORDER. PEDUNCULATE-GIRRHOPODS (Pedunculate). 

Body supported on a coriaceous, hollow, contrac- 
tile peduncle, fixed to submarine bodies, and usually 
protected by five shelly valves disposed in two la- 
teral plates, with a medial narrow piece behind. 
1. FAMILY. Barnacles -proper (Lepadidae). Pe- 



304 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

duncle elongated, naked, fleshy, contractile ; 
body compressed, the sides protected by shelly 
plates (2.1. 2). (Anatiferidce, Gray.) 
2. FAMILY. Ramphidian- Barnacles (Ramphidi- 
onidae). Peduncle short, hard, wrinkled or 
scaly ; body compressed, protected by trian- 
gular shelly plates. (Pollicipidce, Gray.) 

II. ORDER BURROWING- CIRRHOPODS (Terebrantia). 

Body naked, attached to the upper wall of a cham- 
ber, excavated by the animal in some foreign sub- 
stance, and communicating with the water by an 
orifice. 

1. FAMILY. Burrowing - Barnacles (Alcippidse). 
Cirrhi six, composed of three articulations, 
the last simple ; branchiae setaceous, attached 
to the external surface of the upper lip. 

III. ORDER. SESSILE-CIRRHOPODS (Sessilia). 

Body not peduncled, enclosed in a cylindrical or 
cone-shaped tube formed of one or more shelly 
valves ; aperture closed by a two- or four-valved 
operculum. 

1. FAMILY. Coral-Barnacles (Pyrgoinatidse). Shell 

composed of a single undivided cone ; aper- 
ture small ; operculum of two or four pieces ; 
base calcareous, cup-like or tubular. Para- 
sitic on madrepores. 

2. FAMILY. Acorn-Shells (Balanidse). Shell com- 

posed of six or eight valves, more or less 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 305 

united ; operculum of four valves ; base cal- 
careous or membranous. Living attached to 
stones, shells, &c. 

3. FAMILY. Whale -Barnacles (Coronulidse). Shell 
composed of six, distinctly separate, porous 
valves ; operculum of four thin valves united 
to the margins of the aperture by a mem- 
brane ; no distinct base. Parastic on whales, 
fee, 



FISH-PARASITES. 

The Epizoa or Fish-Parasites are either Worm- 
like or Crab-like: the higher forms, or Carcinoid 
type, comprehending the " Siphostomes" of Latreille, 
or those suctorial Crustaceans with rudimentary 
legs, sometimes in the form of little swimming- 
paddles, and sometimes shaped like hooks, to en- 
able them to retain their hold on the skins of fishes 
which most of them infest ; the lower forms, or 
Helminthoid type, partly comprising the Polycotyla 
of Blainville, and sometimes included with the 
Parenchymatous Parasites of Cuvier. 

The shapes these singular animals assume in the 
various genera are frequently most grotesque, and 
seem to resemble higher organisms in an embryonic 
state. In the young stage, they are subject to seve- 
ral metamorphoses, often casting their skin ; in this 
condition they swim freely about, but after they be- 



306 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

come fixed as parasites, their limbs become rudimen- 
tary, and they are not able to enjoy individual pro- 
gression, although transported along with animals 
upon whose juices they subsist. The females of the 
Carcinoid genera nearly always carry their eggs in 
long cylindrical tubes or ovarian sacs, which arise from 
the last thoracic segment on each side of the body ; 
the males are frequently very minute, and so unlike 
those of the other sex, as to resemble totally distinct 
species. The instruments by means of which the 
Fish-Parasites retain their hold of the animals they 
infest, are either sharp curved hooks or prehensile 
sucking disks ; in the Helminthoid families the 
mouth is very simple, but in the higher Carcinoid 
forms rudimentary mandibles are seen, together 
with antennae and often a single eye. One of the 
most curious genera is the Diplozoon, well named 
paradoxum, an animal which assumes the shape 
of two united beings forming a kind of Siamese- 
twins, the bond of communion being simply a nar- 
row band. The bodies named Pedicellarice seen 
scattered over the surface, and around the mouth 
of various Echinoderms, have been considered by 
Monro, Forbes, Oken, and Sharpey as organs of the 
animals on which they are found. The discovery 
by one of the authors of an animal resembling 
those bodies on Valuta Vespertilio as a true para- 
site on the skin, seems, however, to confirm the 
views of Muller, Lamarck, and Cuvier, in regarding 
the Pedicellarice as independent parasitic organ- 
isms. 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 307 

VI. CLASS. FISH-PARASITES (Epizoa). 

Animal parasitic on the skin or in the gills and 
mouths of fishes ; mouth tubular, prolonged in the 
form of a sucker, armed with styliform mandibles; 
legs natatory or rudimentary. 

I. ORDER SHIELD-HEADED FISH-PARASITES 

(Peltocephala). 

Head clypeiform, furnished in front with frontal 
laminae, and bearing on each side flattened antennae 
formed of two joints ; thorax jointed ; abdomen 
ending in ciliated fins ; feet four pairs, entirely na- 
tatory. 

1. FAMILY. Fresh-water Fish-Parasites (Argu- 

lidse). Dorsal surface of thorax without 
lamellar appendages ; foot-jaws of second 
pair replaced by large suckers ; legs lamel- 
lar, horizontal, and ciliated ; abdomen with 
caudal lamellae on the under surface. 

2. FAMILY. Fish -Parasites proper (Caligidae). 

Dorsal surface of thorax without lamellar 
appendages ; no suckers in place of second 
pair of foot-jaws ; legs with long silky 
plumes ; abdomen ending in two small pos- 
terior laminae. 

3. FAMILY. Elytroid Fish- Parasites (Pandaridae). 

Dorsal surface of thorax with lamellar ap- 
pendages or elytroids ; no suckers in place 
of second pair of foot-jaws ; legs rarely fur- 
nished with silky tufts ; terminal fins lobu- 
lar and foliaceous. 



308 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

II. ORDER THICK-HEADED FISH-PARASITES 
(Pachycephala). 

Head thick, obtuse in front, with two slender, 
cylindrical, setaceous, many-jointed antennae arising 
from under its anterior margin ; legs not natatory ; 
thorax jointed. 

1. FAMILY. Tufted Fish - Parasites (Ergasilidse). 

Head large ; body pyriform, abdomen coni- 
cal, ringed, coding in two long tufted ap- 
pendages ; anterior foot -jaws in form of 
cylindric appendages ending in a two-jointed 
hook, posterior foot-jaws not cheliform. 

2. FAMILY. Pincer-bearing Fish-Para,sites (Diche- 

lestiidse). Head small ; body elongated ; ab- 
domen rudimentary ; legs slightly developed ; 
first pair of foot-jaws cylindrical, ending in a 
curved hook, posterior foot-jaws sub-cheli- 
form. 

III. ORDER LERNEAN FISH-PARASITES (Lerneida). 

Thorax not jointed ; legs always rudimentary ; 
foot-jaws undeveloped. 

1. FAMILY. Hook -jawed Lerneans (Chondracan- 

thidse). Foot jaws in form of strong hooks ; 
antennae generally distinct ; thoracic mem- 
bers of many pairs, free, rudimentary. 

2. FAMILY. Brachial - Lerneans (Lerneopodidse). 

Thorax with large, brachiform appendages 
united at the ends ; usually with antennae, 
and at least two pairs of curved jaw-feet. 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 309 

3. FAMILY. Lerneans -Proper (Lernseidse). Head 
furnished with horns ; antennae none ; a 
single pair of curved jaw-feet ; no brachi- 
form appendages. 

IV. ORDER WOKM-LIKE FlSH-PAKASlTES 

(Helminthoidea). 

Body worm-like, skin usually without segments ; 
legs rudimentary or reduced to tubercles or hooks ; 
antennae none ; foot-jaws undeveloped. 

1. FAMILY. Tongue-Worms (Linguatulidse). Body 

flattened, tapering, with imbricate segments ; 

mouth with several suctorial pits containing 

as many recurved hooks. 

In this anomalous family, which is parasitic in 
the intestines of fishes, the animal, according to the 
researches of Van Beneden, is provided, in the young 
state, with two pairs of jointed hooks, the nervous 
system shews the double -knotted chord, and the 
ovaries are bulky and internal. 

2. FAMILY. Double-Worms (Diplozoonidse). Body 

double, each half resembling the other ; 
mouths each with two suckers ; hind part 
of each half furnished with four membran- 
ous expansions, each with four prehensile 
suckers. 

This curious form of Fish-parasite is found on the 
gills of the Bream and other fishes ; the stomach 
is single, but each half of the body contains a dis- 
tinct system of reproductive organs. 

3. FAMILY. Hook-tailed Worms (Gyrodactyliclse). 



310 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

Hind part of body with a large capsular ex- 
pansion formed by a thin membrane, the 
margin of which is sustained by two large 
hooks and by a crown of simple or double 
moveable spinous claws. 

4. FAMILY. Cotyloid - Worms (Octobothriidse). 

Mouth anterior and ventral, usually with a 
tapering cirrhus ; fore part of body tapering, 
hind part dilated, furnished above or on the 
sides with six or more prehensible sucking 
disks or acetabula, simple or armed with 
hooks. 

These Epizoa are parasitic on the gills of fishes ; 
the genus Aspidocotylus, however, inhabits the in- 
testines of a species of Cataphractus. The genus 
Hectocotylus of Cuvier has been ascertained by F. 0. 
Muller to be one of the detached arms of the male 
Argonaut containing the spermatic organs. (Vide 
H. and A. Adams " Genera of Mollusca/' page 23.) 

5. FAMILY. Disk- Worms (Capsalidse). Mouth with 

a sucker on each side ; body large, flat, disk- 
like ; lower surface with a large cartilaginous 
pedunculated sucker of adhesion on hind- 
part. 

6. FAMILY. Plaited - Worms (Aspidogasteridae). 

Body convex above, flat beneath, under sur- 
face with a lamina folded on itself, the plaits 
disposed so as to form numerous pits. 

7. FAMILY. Pedicellate -Worms (Pedicellariidae). 

Body disk-like ; oral orifice in centre of 
lower concave surface, surrounded by three 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 311 

incurved hooks; dorsum convex, produced 
in the middle into a long straight styliform 
process. 



ANNELIDS. 

The Eed-blooded Worms, as the Annelids are fre- 
quently termed, are elongated animals with jointed 
bodies, and are either aquatic or terrestrial in their 
habits. They are at once known from other Classes 
of the Annulosa by never having jointed limbs, 
these being represented by simple bristles. There 
are regular tentacles in some genera, the head is 
usually furnished with eyes, and the mouth is often 
provided with jaws ; the most curious character 
about them, however, is the colour of their blood, 
which is red, an unusual circumstance among in- 
vertebrate animals. 

Among the Annelids we find the Tube-worms 
(Tubicold), which construct for themselves cover- 
ings either entirely calcareous and fixed to the 
surface of stones, as the Serpulce, or formed of 
agglutinated fragments jointed together by an 
insoluble cement, as the Terebellce; the tufts 
of gills attached to the front part of the bodies of 
these animals when fully expanded are adorned with 
brilliant colours, and form beautiful fans and plumes 
protruding from the mouth of the shell ; some- 
times one of the tentacles of the head is formed 
into a curious funnel-shaped operculum, which pro- 
tects the creature from injury when it has with- 



312 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

drawn into its shell-like habitation. Some of the 
Wandering Annelids, as the Sea-Centipedes, swim 
readily along the surface of the water, and are 
vividly phosphorescent during the night; most of 
them, however, live in damp sands along the coast. 
A few among them attain to considerable dimen- 
sions, specimens of Leodicea gigantea being known 
twelve feet in length. The sides of many are covered 
with beautiful iridescent setae arranged in tufts ; 
these bristles are often converted into barbs and 
harpoons, which, however, are enclosed in horny 
sheaths, into which these sharp weapons of defence 
can be retracted, and thus avoid injuring their pos- 
sessor ; these are well seen in the Aphrodite his- 
pida. Sometimes the bristles are placed on tubercles, 
and sometimes they are reduced to a few stiff hairs, 
as in the Earth-worm. In Nereis prolifera re- 
production occurs by means of spontaneous division, 
the hind part of the body becoming provided with 
a new head, and the fore part with a new tail. 

In this Class is found the invaluable medicinal 
Leech (Hirudo), and its consimilar, the Horse- 
Leech (Sanguisuga). The species of Leeches em- 
ployed as medicinal agents, are the Hirudo medici- 
nalis and H. officinalis, which are principally ob- 
tained from the South of France, Sweden, Poland, 
and Hungary. The cupping apparatus consists of 
the sucker surrounding the mouth and three jaws 
with serrated edges placed in a triangle which act 
the part of scarificators, and which occasion the 
tri-radiate form of the bite. Of such value is this 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 313 

cupping apparatus of nature considered by the 
members of the medical profession, that upwards of 
seven millions are imported into Britain every year 
by four only of the principal dealers. The Bran- 
chellion is a peculiar kind of Leech, which is para- 
sitic on the Electric-Torpedo ; and another kind has 
been found attached to the Turtle of the Pacific. 
The Planaria appears to be the molluscan repre- 
sentative among the Annelids ; and the remarkable 
genus Herpa, described|by Guilding, resembles a Pla- 
naria which respires free air, being found on decayed 
fronds of Palms on the summits of high mountains. 
The Gordius and other kindred forms appear to re- 
present the Helminthoid Orders of the Radiate type 
of animals. 

VII. CLASS. ANNELIDS (Annelida). 

Body soft, vermiform, divided into segments or 
transverse rings more or less distinct ; blood colour- 
ed (usually red) ; respiration performed by external 
or internal gills, or by the skin ; organs of locomo- 
tion variable, not jointed. 

I. SUB-CLASS. POLYPOD-ANNELIDS (Polypoda). 

Body provided with distinct feet-like appendages 
with setae at their ends, and with various dermoid 
appendages. Marine. 

I. ORDER. FREE-ANNELIDS (Errantia). 
Body extending beyond the oral aperture, and 



314 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

terminated always by a distinct head often provided 
with eyes and jaws. Dermoid appendages usually 
disposed over the entire length of body ; pediform 
tubercles furnished with bristles. 

I. SUB-ORDER. ANTENNATE- ANNE LIDS (Antennata). 

Head distinct, with antennae more or less deve- 
loped ; eyes ; and usually a proboscis armed with 
jaws. 

1. FAMILY. Sea-Centipedes (Nereidaa). Mouth with 

one pair of jaws ; body slender ; gills in the 
form of small laminae ; feet with two tuber- 
cles, two bundles of bristles and a cirrhus 
above and below. 

2. FAMILY. Eunices (Eunicidae). Mouth with three 

pairs of horny jaws; body elongated; gills in 
the form of tufts ; feet with two cirrhi and 
a bundle of bristles. 

3. FAMILY. Amphinomes (Amphinomidae). Mouth 

without jaws ; body broad, depressed ; gills 
crested or tufted, on each ring of body ; feet 
with two bundles of bristles and two cirrhi. 

4. FAMILY. Sea-Mice (Aphroditidae). Mouth with- 

out jaws ; body broad, depressed, with two 
ranges of broad, membranous scales ; gills 
tufted, under the scales ; feet with cirrhi and 
tufts of bristles. 

5. FAMILY. Polynoes (Polynoidae). Mouth with 

jaws ; head with five tentacles ; body simple, 
without scales ; feet with cirrhi and tufts of 
bristles. 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 315 

6. FAMILY. Campontias (Campontiidae). Body 

cylindrical, of few joints ; pediforni appen- 
dages two, large, retractile, without cirrhi, 
furnished with setae ; hook-like organs on the 
first segment behind the head ; penultimate 
ring with two bundles of bristles ; last seg- 
ment with two large tubercles, each with a 
circle of hooks. 

As in the other families of this Order, there 
are distinct eyes, tentacles, and horny jaws. 

7. FAMILY. Peripatiens (Peripatidae). Body sub- 

cylindrical, of few segments, which are again 
annulate ; no distinct gills nor dermal appen- 
dages; pediform appendages numerous, with- 
out cirrhi at their bases, but with tufts of 
bristles at their ends. 

Like the other members of this Order, there are dis- 
tinct antennae, and a proboscis armed with two jaws. 

II. SUB-ORDEE. EXANTENNATE-ANNELIDS 
(Exantennata). 

Head not very distinct, without antennae, eyes, 
or jaws ; dermoid appendages none, or branchi- 
form ; pediform tubercles often reduced to setae. 

8. FAMILY. Earth-Worms (Lumbricidae). Body 

elongate, cylindrical, without dermoid appen- 
dages, divided by transverse furrows into a 
great number of rings ; rudimentary eyes on 
the head ; mouth simple. Live in perforations 
of moist earth. 
9 FAMILY. Fresh-water Worms (Naidse). Body 



316 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

elongated, cylindrical, rings indistinct; no 
dermal appendages ; a few setae in place of 
feet ; eyes on the head ; mouth simple. Live 
in perforations of mud, in fresh water. 

10. FAMILY. Shore - Worms (Thalassematidae). 

Body soft, elongated, sub-cylindrical, annu- 
late, obtuse behind, the posterior segments 
spinulose ; two shining, hooked spines be- 
neath the neck. Live in perforations of 
sand, on the sea shore. 

11. FAMILY. L ob -Worms (Arenicolidae). Body 

with branchial, arbuscular appendages on the 
middle ; segments with bundles of silky 
bristles ; tentacles none ; head simple. Live 
in the sand. 

12. FAMILY. Bristle-Worms (Chaetopteridae). Body 

with branchial appendages in form of small 
laminae in a single series on upper sides of 
body ; nine pairs of feet-like appendages, and 
posteriorly a pair of long silky fasciculi. 

13. FAMILY. Aricians (Ariciidae). Body slender, 

with the gills in the form of broad laminae in 
a series on each side ; feet-like appendages 
with setae ; no posterior silky fasciculi. 

II. ORDER. SEDENTAKY- ANNELIDS (Tubicola). 

Body with soft appendages, for the most part col- 
lected together at the anterior extremity ; feet usu- 
ally of two kinds, without cirrhi ; head not distinct ; 
without eyes or antennae. Living in attached tubes. 
1. FAMILY. Amphitrites (Amphitritidae). Gills 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 317 

pectinated, on the fore part of body; oral 
tentacles numerous, filiform ; front of head 
with golden spines, arranged crown-like or 
comb-like. 

2. FAMILY. Terebellas (Terebellidse). Gills arbus- 

cular, on each side of mouth ; oral tentacles 
numerous, filiform. Tube composed of grains 
of sand and fragments of shells. 

3. FAMILY. Sabellas (Sabellidse). Fore part of 

body dilated, the sides fringed with setae ; 
gills fan-like, on each side of mouth ; oral 
tentacles pointed, not modified to serve as an 
operculum. Tube composed of grains of clay 
or mud. 

4. FAMILY. Tube- Worms (Serpulidse). Fore part of 

body dilated, fringed with setae; gills fan- 
like, on each side of mouth; oral tentacles 
unequal, one variously modified to serve as 
an operculum. Tube calcareous, attached. 

II. SUB-CLASS. APODAL-ANNELIDS (Apoda). 

Body without bristles or feet-like organs for loco- 
motion ; head not distinct, but generally provided 
with eyes and jaws. 

I. ORDER. SUCTORIAL- ANNELIDS (Suctoria). 

Body soft, articulation obsolete or indistinct ; head 
not distinct, but furnished with eyes and jaws ; or- 
gans of locomotion in form of a sucker at one or both 
extremities of the body. 
1. FAMILY. True-Leeches (Hirudinidse). Body ob- 



318 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

long, depressed, without appendages, trans- 
versely wrinkled ; a prehensile disk at each 
end of body; mouth with horny jaws. Aqua- 
tic. 

2. FAMILY. Simple Parasitic-Leeches (Phyllinidse). 

Body wide, depressed, wrinkled, simple above; 
. a disk at the hind extremity only; mouth 
proboscidiform, without jaws. Parasitic. 

3. FAMILY. Branchiferous Parasitic-Leeches (Bran- 

chellionidse). Body depressed, with a double 
series of branched appendages on the back; 
oral sucker distinct, separated from the body 
by a constriction ; mouth without jaws ; anal 
sucker large and concave. Parasitic on the 
Torpeda 

III. SUB-CLASS. NEMERTOID- ANNELIDS (Nemertina). 

Body soft, mucous ; articulation obsolete ; apodal ; 
head indistinct ; antennae none ; organ of locomotion 
an expanded ventral disk, or not defined. 

I. ORDER. MOLLUSCOID- ANNELIDS (Dendroccela). 

Alimentary tube ramifying, arbusculiform ; a 
single oral aperture ; anal aperture not distinct. 
1. FAMILY. Aquatic -Molluscoids (Planariidse). 

Body depressed ; oral orifice on middle of 

lower part of body and proboscidiform ; eyes 

minute, rudimentary. Aquatic. 
2: FAMILY. Terrestrial -Molluscoids (Herpidae). 

Body depressed, soft, attenuated in front ; 

oral aperture minute, at the extremity of 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 319 

the body ; eyes sessile on the neck ; mucous 
glands on sides of body. Terrestrial. 

II. ORDER. HELMINTHOID- ANNELIDS (Rhabdocoela). 

Alimentary tube simple, cylindrical or conical ; 
oral aperture and anus variously disposed. 

I. SUB-ORDER. AMPHISTEREANS (Amphisterea). 

Neither oral nor anal aperture terminal, but both 
either superior or inferior. 

1. FAMILY. Turbellas (Vorticidse). Body gene- 

rally tapering, covered with vibratile cilia ; 
eyes two or four. 

2. FAMILY. Leptoplanas (Leptoplanidse). Body 

depressed, membranaceous ; intestinal canal 
simple ; eyes one or many, on the neck. 

II. SUB-ORDER. MONOSTEREANS (Monosterea). 
Oral or anal aperture terminal. 

3. FAMILY. Gordians (Gordiidse). Oral orifice ter- 

minal, anal inferior ; body tapering, filiform, 
elastic, often coiled up in knots ; caudal ex- 
tremity bifid ; eyes none, 

4. FAMILY. Short-tailed Worms (Micruridse). Oral 

orifice terminal, anal inferior ; body tapering, 
filiform, elastic ; tail simple ; eyes six or more. 

5. FAMILY. Long -mouthed Worms (Derostomati- 

dse). Anal orifice terminal, oral inferior ; body 
tapering ; eyes none. (Ghilophorina, Ehrenb.) 



320 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

III. SUB-ORDER. AMPHIPOKINES (Amphiporina). 

Oral and anal apertures terminal, at opposite ends 
of the body. 

6. FAMILY. Gyratrices (Gyratricidse). No dis- 

tinct genital aperture ; body tapering ; blind, 
or with numerous eyes. 

7. FAMILY. Nemertides (Nemertidse). A distinct 

anterior genital aperture ; body filiform, soft, 
often depressed ; blind, or with a simple 
series of frontal eyes. 



SUB-KINGDOM OF RAD I ATE- ANIMALS. 

Constructed on a widely extended principle of 
nature, namely, radiation from a central point, the 
classes of this Sub-kingdom exhibit extremely 
simple forms of distinctive animal life. In the 
lower grades, the growth is unlimited and plant- 
like, and the digestive cavity possesses only a 
single terminal orifice, surrounded by tentacles ; 
in the higher forms, however, the alimentary sys- 
tem is more complex, and the anal orifice becomes 
separated from the oral. Usually the nervous sys- 
tem is distinctly present in the form of a ring sur- 
rounding the oesophagus, which gives off filaments 
in a radiate manner to supply the different parts of 
the body; the senses are usually but feebly deve- 
loped, little more than touch and taste having been 



MANUAL OF NATUKAL HISTOEY. 321 

bestowed upon the members of this Sub-kingdom ; 
their powers of locomotion are also limited, and 
their muscles weak and rudimentary. In the higher 
forms the digestive organs are well developed; the 
circulation is carried on in distinct blood-vessels, 
although the heart is wanting; and the mode of 
reproduction is by fertile ova, but without the mu- 
tual co-operation of the sexes. 

Foremost in the rank of animals constructed on 
the radiate type, stand the hard and rough-skinned 
Echinoderms, locomotive stomachs, groping their 
way, mouth . downwards, along the bottom of the 
sea, true " scavengers of the deep " singular beings, 
varying extremely in their outward form ; sometimes 
soft and languid like the worm-like Holothuria and 
the mud-boring Sipunculus ; sometimes with fixed 
calcareous stems, and jointed tentacle-like rays, as in 
the zoophytic Encrinite, or detached and free with 
compound plumose arms, like the elegant Antedon ; 
or sometimes snake-rayed, like the Ophiurus ; mem- 
branaceous, like the Palmipes ; flattened and shield- 
shaped, like the Clypeaster ; ovoid, like the Spatan- 
gus ; or spinose and globular, like the Echinus and 
the Cidaris. 

Here also we place the Acalephce, elegant pellucid 
beings, symmetrical and of delicate organization, 
and yet the sport of oceanic waves ; whose skin, 
though not of leathery toughness or bony consist- 
ence, yet possesses the remarkable power of para- 
lyzing their prey, and producing a stinging sen- 
sation when handled. Like the Star-fishes and 

p 5 



322 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY 

the Sea-Urchins, these likewise exhibit various forms 
departures from the usual stellate type. Thus we 
have the globular Beroe rolling along the surface of 
the sea ; the crested Physalia, with its hydrostatic 
float ; the disk-like Cuvieria ; the Rhizostoma and 
Medusa with their umbrelliform bodies and tenta- 
cular filaments ; the Velella with its little lateen 
sail ; and the Cestum, like a long translucent riband, 

Next come the Rotifers, spinning through the 
stagnant waters by means of ciliated wheel-like 
organs, which appear to have a revolving motion, 
singular but minute animals, whose bodies are 
enclosed in clear pellucid shells, and whose giz- 
zards are armed with powerful teeth for crush- 
ing their food, and which, moreover, possess the 
extraordinary property of being restored to life 
and activity after they have been completely dried 
up and converted into dust Belonging also to 
that division in which the oral and anal apertures 
are distinct, we find the phytoid Polyzoa, animals 
so like the Polypi/era as formerly to have been con- 
founded with them. As in the true Polyps, their 
mouth is surrounded with tentacles, but the diges- 
tive apparatus, instead of being confined to a simple 
stomach with an oral orifice, is produced into an ali- 
mentary canal furnished with a distinct excretory 
aperture ; the tentacles, moreover, are not simple as 
in the Polypi/era, but are fringed with vibratile 
cilia, which produce rapid and powerful currents to 
direct the food towards the opening of the mouth. 

The class of Ccelelmintka, or Cavitary-Parasites, 



MANUAL OF NATUKAL HISTORY. 323 

recedes more, perhaps, from the radiate type than 
any of the others, the creatures comprising it hav- 
ing long, flexible, worm-like bodies, but whose nerv- 
ous system is composed of a collar surrounding the 
gullet, from which filaments are distributed to 
various parts of the body, and where the radiate 
character is still preserved in the organs that sur- 
round the mouth. 

Belonging to those organisms of a humbler type 
of structure, but still created on the grand radiated 
model, we observe the Polypi/era, in which we find 
the organs of the senses gradually disappearing, 
and the individual becoming reduced to a mere 
stomach, either fixed or endowed with locomotion, 
and furnished with organs, by means of which it 
procures itself food, for in these flower-like living 
stomachs no digestive canal is appended, and there 
is no distinct excretory orifice ; the growth, more- 
over, is indefinite and plant-like, taking place by 
gradual deposits on the outside, by means of a num- 
ber of polyps, which we may compare to buds. In 
the class of Parenchymatous-Parasites or Stercl- 
mintha, we again observe a departure from the 
typical form of this Sub-kingdom, in creatures of 
low organization with a single oral aperture leading 
to a simple stomachal cavity, and destined to sub- 
sist on substances already elaborated by the animals 
upon which they are parasitic. 

IV. SUB-KINGDOM RADIATE -ANIMALS (Radiata.) 
Nervous system without ganglia, composed of 



MANUAL OF NATUKAL HISTORY. 

simple filaments disposed in a circular form round 
the buccal orifice ; organs of body arranged in a 
radiate manner round the digestive cavity j not 
amorphous or bilateral ; organs of digestion a simple 
sac or short alimentary canal. Animal mostly 
aquatic, breathing by gills, usually free. 



ECHINODERMS. 

Echinoderms constitute an exceedingly natural 
and well-defined group of Radiate Animals, of 
which Sub-kingdom they form the first and most 
highly organized class. They derive their name 
from the spiny covering with which many of them 
are invested, whence also the popular designation 
of the typical order, " Sea-Urchins/' Others again, 
from a fancied resemblance between their rayed 
outline, and the popular idea of the true figure 
of the celestial bodies, are generally known as 
"Star-Fishes/' and "Sea-Stars." They are all 
aquatic, without exception marine, and include 
among their number some of the loveliest in- 
habitants of the deep, the more stellate forms, 
especially, appearing to the imagination as re- 
flected images of the starry heavens. 

Being very generally distributed, they will fre- 
quently arrest the attention of the observant tra- 
veller in the progress of his researches along the 
sea-coast and the neighbouring waters. Buried in 
sand he will occasionally find Brittle-Stars (Ophio- 
lepis, Ophiopholis, Ophiothrix), and in rock-pools 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 325 

young specimens of many of the AsteriidcB, as As- 
terias, Henricia, &c., or full grown Starlets (Aster- 
ina). There also, or on rocks, he will frequently 
discover various members of the family Echinidce ; 
and if he happens to visit Madeira, a species of Ophi- 
diaster, mentioned by Lowe, may be sought for. 
A greater variety will, however, reward an examin- 
ation beyond low-water mark, for which purpose a 
dredge is requisite. Here, if the bottom be sandy, 
he will bring up examples of many of the Ophi- 
uridce, and in the bay of Panama he may include 
among his captures the genus Gymnasteria. From 
rocky bottoms with deep water in our own seas 
the Spiny-Crossfish sometimes appears; on fisher- 
men's lines he will often see the Common-Crossfish 
busily engaged in devouring the bait ; and after the 
same fashion other Echinoderms, as Porania and 
Pentacta may be procured. On examining the leaves 
of Fuci brought up in dredging, he may perchance 
be rewarded by the appearance of a graceful Feather- 
Star (Antedori)jpiOYe frequently by a showy Sun-Star 
(Solaster), and on the stems of Laminaria a small 
Holothurian genus, (Psolinus), may be found. At 
various depths, from two or three fathoms as far as 
twenty or thirty fathoms, at different times will occur 
Sand-Stars, Cushion-Stars (Pora/nia, Hippasteria), 
Bird's-foot Sea-Stars (Palmipes), Egg-Urchins (Echi- 
nus, Echinometra, &c.), Pea-Urchins (Echinocya- 
mus) Heart-Urchins (Echinocardium), also Clypeas- 
ter, Spatangus, and many others. Huge, unwieldy, 
but curiously constituted Holothurice may present 



326 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

themselves, or worm-looking Sipunculidce, some- 
times, Cuckoo-like, occupying habitations not of 
their own construction. The collector may very 
possibly be foiled in his most determined attempts 
to preserve intact some obstinately-fragile Luidia, 
which not only refuses to be captured entire, but, 
according to Forbes, adds insult to disappointment, 
by vexatiously winking at its baffled tormentor. 
In deeper water in northern seas a stray Gorgon V 
Head (Astrophytori), with its strangely twisted arms, 
may remind its captor of Medusa, with her tangled 
locks; a rare Cake-Urchin (Echinarachnius) may 
enrich his collection ; or, if off the Zetland Islands, 
a fine, showy " Piper" (Cidaris), with its long, 
cylindrical spines, like the drones of a bag-pipe, 
may amply reward a day of toil. In tropical 
seas specimens of pedunculated Pinnigrada (Pen- 
tacrini) should be diligently sought for, and, if ob- 
tained, will prove valuable acquisitions, both from 
their great rarity, and from the knowledge afforded 
by their structure of extinct, allied genera. Much 
may be done in collecting members of this class in 
eastern and southern regions, as China, Japan, and 
Australasia, many also inhabit the shores of the 
great Pacific Ocean, the seas around the Cape of 
Good Hope, the Red Sea, and the Mediterranean. 
The stomachs of fish, especially of such as are in 
the habit of preying upon these animals, should, 
when practicable, be carefully examined, as not only 
have rare examples been frequently so obtained, but 
by the same means new species have at times 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 327 

been revealed to science. A curious form (Rhopalo- 
dina) has been lately described by Dr. Gray, which 
presents many striking affinities both with the Ho- 
lothurice, and with the Vermigrada ; judging from 
the published description that the former predo- 
minate, we have placed it provisionally among 
the Cirrho- Vermigrada. 

From the numerous fossil remains of animals of 
this Class, they appear to have been very abundant 
during former eras. They occur in Palaeozoic rocks, 
also in various parts of the Oolitic and Cretaceous 
systems, and in many tertiar}^ formations. Among 
the most singular are the Encrinites, or " stalked 
Pinnigrada," now nearly extinct. Their remains are 
popularly known as " Lily-stars/' and fragments of 
the stalks or peduncles, from occurring plentifully 
in Holy-Island, were by our pious ancestors named 
" St. Cuthbert's beads/' according to the tradition, 
that 

" On a rock by Lindisfarne, 
St. Cuthbert sits, and toils to frame 
The sea-born beads that bear his name.'' 

Accordingly, in the middle ages they were strung 
and used as rosaries, being in Germany, also, known 
as " bead-stones/' or " St. Boniface's pennies/' 

Among the Malays and Chinese some Holothu- 
rian species are used as food under the name of 
" Trepang ;" and in Europe the Common Sea-urchin 
(Echinus esculentus) is, as its specific name implies, 
frequently accounted edible. In some parts of the 
Mediterranean, especially among the islands of the 



328 MANUAL OF NATUEAL HISTOEY. 

Grecian Archipelago, another species (E. lividus) 
is also occasionally eaten by goatherds and fisher- 
men. 

In the following arrangement the orders are those 
of Professor E. Forbes ; the families are from vari- 
ous sources, those of the Cirrhigrada being in ac- 
cordance with Dr. Gray's monograph. 

I. CLASS. ECHINODERMS (Echinodermata). 

Animal mostly free ; body in the typical orders 
radiate, with a quinary division of segments, in the 
rest molluscoid or annuloid ; usually covered with 
a coriaceous skin, strengthened in some by calca- 
reous plates or spines. Progression by means of 
cirrhi or suckers, or, in some, by contraction and 
extension of the body. 

I. ORDER WORM-LIKE ECHINODEKMS (Vermigrada). 

Body annuloid ; cirrhi obsolete, or only as bristles ; 
motion effected by contraction and extension of the 
body ; mouth seldom surrounded with tentacles. 

1. FAMILY. Spoon-Worms (Thalassemidse). Body 

oval or oblong ; proboscis with a long, fleshy 
appendage ; vent at posterior extremity ; 
tentacles none. 

2. FAMILY. Fork-nosed Worms (Bonnelliidse). Body 

oval; proboscis very protractile, forked at 
the extremity j vent at posterior extremity ; 
tentacles none. 

3. FAMILY. Tailed - Worms (Priapulidse). Body 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 329 

cylindrical, truncate posteriorly ; proboscis 
sub-conical, retractile ; caudal appendage 
long, pyramidal, filiform, with the vent at 
its extremity ; tentacles none. 
4 FAMILY. Syphon-Worms (Sipunculidse). Body 
cylindrical, elongate ; skin rugose ; proboscis 
retractile ; vent at base of proboscis, sur- 
rounded by a circle of tentacles. 

II. ORDER. SLUG-LIKE ECHINODERMS 
(Cirrho-Vermigrada). 

Body molluscoid ; quinary division obscure ; mo- 
tion effected by rows or groups of cirrhi, assisted by 
contraction and extension of body ; mouth and anus 
at opposite extremities of body ; mouth surrounded 
by tentacles. 

I. SUB-ORDER. APODAL-HOLOTHURIANS (Apoda). 

Suckers undeveloped, or absent ? 

1. FAMILY. Vermiform - Holothurians (Synap- 

tidse.) Body cylindrical, vermiform, contrac- 
tile, covered with numerous minute papillae ; 
mouth surrounded by tentacles, which are 
usually digitate or pinnatifid 

2. FAMILY. Sea-Gourds (Rhopalodinidse). Body 

elongate, rigid, brittle, covered with im- 
bedded calcareous plates ; anterior extremity 
cylindrical, tubular, posterior dilated sud- 
denly, ovate, somewhat compressed, with a 
slight keel on each of the two edges ; pos- 



330 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

terior half of dilated portion furnished with 
ten ambulacra. 

II. SUB-ORDER. PEDATE-HOLOTHURIANS (Pedata.) 

Body furnished with suckers variously arranged. 

3. FAMILY. Sea-Cactuses (Thyonidse). Body pyri- 

form when at rest, cylindrical when extended, 
contractile ; covered all round with numerous 
papillose suckers ; tentacles ten, branching. 

4. FAMILY. Sea-Melons (Pentactidse). Body more 

or less angular or cylindrical ; suckers ar- 
ranged in five longitudinal rows ; tentacles 
pinnate or ramose. 

5. FAMILY. Holothurians-proper (Holothuriidae). 

Body cylindrical or flattened horizontally, 
cartilaginous or gelatinous ; mouth somewhat 
inferior ; suckers principally over inferior 
surface, irregularly scattered, a few on the 
dorsal surface ; tentacles mostly twenty, 
short, peltate. 

6. FAMILY. Trepangs (Trepangidse). Body cylin- 

drical or sub-cylindrical, soft, gelatinous, 
with numerous papillae on back ; mouth an- 
terior ; suckers placed on inferior surface ; 
tentacles 6 8 ? peltate. 

7. FAMILY. Scaly-Holothurians (Cuvieriidse). Body 

convex superiorly, sometimes with bony 
plates ; inferior surface soft, flat, with nu- 
merous suckers; oral opening tentacular, 
stellate. 

8. FAMILY. Sea-Cucumbers (Psolidse). Body ir- 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTOKY. 331 

regular, molluscoid ; suckers mostly in three 
rows, on a circumscribed disk on inferior sur- 
face ; animal when moving turns up the two 
extremities. 

III. OEDEE. TRUE-ECHINODERMS (Cirrho-Spinigrada). 

Body covered with closely-jointed, calcareous 
plates, mostly armed with spines ; lobes obscure ; 
arms none ; progression by joint action of suckers 
and spines. 

I. SUB-ORDER. AIOLOPYGIANS (Aiolopygia). 

Vent eccentric, sometimes marginal. 

1. FAMILY. Heart-Urchins (Spatangidas). Body 

irregular, cordate or ovate ; some with long 
slender spines ; mouth transverse, sub-cen- 
tral or lateral, surrounded in some by ten- 
tacles ; vent terminal ; ambulacra not con- 
tinuous ; teeth none ; ovaries four. 

2. FAMILY. Helmet-Urchins (Galeritidse). Body 

conoid or sub-oval, base flattened ; mouth 
inferior, usually central ; vent marginal ; am- 
bulacra extend from middle of back to mouth, 
sometimes interrupted at the margin ; jaws 
rudimentary. 

3. FAMILY. Shield-Urchins (Scutellidse). Body 

mostly flat and depressed, seldom convex, 
margin orbicular or oval, sometimes rayed or 
pierced with holes ; mouth inferior, central ; 
vent sub-central or marginal ; ambulacra 
petaloid. forming arched series on the middle 



332 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

of the back, not continuous ; jaws compli- 
cated ; ovaries five. 



II. SU3-01tDEIt.AKROWGiAXS (Akropygia). 

Mouth inferior, central ; vent superior, apical. 

4. FAMILY. Sea-Urchins (Echinidse). Body globose, 

sometimes depressed; ambulacra five, con- 
tinuous from mouth to apex ; spiniferous 
tubercles simple, rounded; spines generally 
numerous, mostly equal sized ; ovaries five ; 
dental apparatus complex. 

5. FAMILY. Turban -Urchins (Cidaridse). Body 

oblato- spheroidal ; ambulacra continuous , 
from mouth to vent ; spiniferous tubercles 
perforate ; spines often of different kinds, 
usually long, unequal, seldom numerous ; 
teeth complicated ; ovaries five. 

IV. ORDER. TRUE-STARFISHES (Cirrhigrada.) 

Form stellate or angular ; body covered with a 
tough, leathery integument, more or less strength- 
ened with a net-work of calcareous plates, and in 
most with strong spines ; mouth central, inferior, 
from which radiate to the extremities of the arms 
grooves (ambulacra) containing extensile suckers. 

I. SUB-ORDER. DISTACHIAN-STARFISHES (Distachiata). 

Ambulacral grooves with two rows of suckers. 
1. FAMILY. Membranous Sea-Stars (Asterinidse). 
Body discoidal or pyramidal, mostly pent- 
agonal, sharp edged ; skeleton formed of com- 



MANUAL OF NATUEAL HISTORY 333 

pressed, imbricate plates ; dorsal wart single, 
rarely double. 

2. FAMILY. Porous Sea -Stars (Pentacerotidse). 

Body mostly pentagonal or sub-orbicular, in 
some discoidal, supported by roundish or 
elongated pieces, covered with a smooth or 
granular skin, pierced with minute pores 
between the tubercles ; rays mostly short, 
but in some elongated. 

3. FAMILY. Tubercular Sea-Stars (Astropectini- 

dse). Stellate or multi-radiate ; back flattish, 
netted with numerous tubercles, crowned 
with radiating spines at the tip, named 
Paxilli ; arms mostly more or less rounded. 

II. S UE-ORDER TETRASTACHIAN-STARFISHES 
(Tetrastachiata). 

Ambulacral grooves with four rows of suckers 

4. FAMILY. Sea-Stars proper (Asteriidse). Rays 

generally five, usually rounded, elongate, 
sometimes spiny ; dorsal wart simple. 

V. ORDER. SPINOUS STARFISHES (Spinigrada). 

No branchial membranes ; body covered with 

calcareous scales or plates ; form regularly radiate ; 

true arms, clothed with spines by which motion is 

effected. 

1. FAMILY. Brittle-Stars (Ophiuridse) Body orbi- 
cular, depressed, covered with spines or scales ; 
arms mostly five, simple, with cross series of 
spines on the sides ; mouth inferior, central. 



334 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

2. FAMILY. Gorgon-Heads (Euryalidse). Body or- 
bicular, depressed, covered with a leathery 
skin, strengthened behind by five pairs of 
radiating ribs ; arms compressed, rounded or 
square, with a series of pores on each side, 
and usually repeatedly branching; mouth 
inferior, central. 

VI. ORDER PINNATE-ARMED STARFISHES 
(Piniiigrada). 

Rays furnished with pinnae, having the skin deve- 
loped on their sides, so as to be the principal organs 
of progression through the water ; generative sys- 
tem spread over tegumentary covering of body and 
arms ; free, or attached to foreign bodies by a peduncle. 

I. SUB-ORDER. FREE-CRINOIDEANS (Liberida). 

Either permanently unattached or become so in 
their mature state ; some furnished with a tapering 
column, enabling the animal to attach or detach 
itself at will. 

1. FAMILY. Feather -Stars (Antedonidse). Rays 

five, subdivided and pinnate, resembling fea- 
thers ; free when adult, young fixed and 
stalked. (Comatula, Lam.) 

II. SUB-ORDER. FIXED-CRINOIDEANS (Oionacineta). 

Fixed to extraneous objects, usually by a jointed, 
flexible column attached to the dorsal surfaca 

2. FAMILY. Pedunculated Lily -stars (Pentacrini- 

tidse). Rays with numerous jointed lateral 
appendages ; peduncle five-sided, jointed, with 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 335 

several whorls of secondary simple rays, which 
are destitute of lateral appendages. 
Of this family, so abundant in former ages, the 

only existing representatives are one or two little 

known tropical species. 

3. FAMILY. Sessile Lily-stars (Holopodidse). Body 
short, thick; rays dichotomous, convex ex- 
ternally, grooved along the inside, with nu- 
merous compressed conical armlets ; oral and 
anal opening in common (?) * ; sessile or nearly 
so, and permanently fixed. 
The only known recent example of this family 

is the curious genus Holopus of D'Orbigny 



SEA-NETTLES. 

In the warmer regions of the globe, the surface of 
the ocean teems with transparent, fragile beings of 
delicate organization, sometimes of considerable di- 
mensions, and possessed of a peculiar stinging power, 
but oftener of minute size, and only rendered ob- 
vious by their phosphorescent properties These are 
the Sea-Nettles (Acalephce), or as they are frequently 
termed, "Sea-Blubbers" and " Jelly-fishes/' 

They are distributed into groups according to 
their organs of progression through the water. In 
the Pulmonigrade forms the animals resemble mush- 
rooms, sometimes with roots depending from their 

* D'Orbigny. 



336 MANUAL OF NATUKAL HISTOKT. 

lower surface, and often with the margin of their 
disk simply fringed. The larger kinds, as Medusa 
and Cydippe, are often seen languidly floating in 
calm weather in our harbours, making their way 
slowly by the regular expansion and contraction of 
their umbrella-like bodies. In the Ciliograde kinds, 
as may be observed in the globular Beroe, the organs 
of progression are in the form of long filaments, 
which enable their possessors to roll along through 
the water in a very rapid manner, often appearing, 
as they turn about, perfectly iridescent. One of them, 
of singular transverse flattened form, the " Girdle of 
Venus'" (Cesium Veneris), appears like a luminous 
snake, as its long riband-shaped body, vividly phos- 
phorescent, and often five or six feet in length, passes 
along the surface of the water during a tranquil night. 
Among the Physograde families, we find the well- 
known Portuguese-man-of-war (Physalia pelagica), 
those purple-crested vesicles seen by the voyager 
floating so buoyantly in fleets upon the bosom of the 
tropical seas. In the Cirrhigrade division we meet 
with another delicate sailor in the form of the Por- 
pita, with its purple tentacles and circular disk-like 
skeleton ; here likewise we find Velella, also with a 
cartilaginous support and of a lovely blue colour, but 
with an oblique vertical plate on the horizontal sur- 
face, which acts like a little lateen sail. In the 
Diphydous Order are placed those curious double ge- 
latinous animals the Salpce, which resemble two little 
glassy bells, one fixed to the inside of the other ; 
these perfectly transparent creatures are also pelagic, 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 33*7 

and swim through the water with tolerable velocity, 
propelled by the 1 alternate contractions of the bell- 
shaped halves of their bodies. 

The Sea-Nettles are predaceous in their habits, 
and, notwithstanding the eztremely delicate nature 
of their organization, are enabled frequently to seize 
and devour animals of much greater power by means 
of their long stinging tentacles, which enlace their 
victims, and at the same time benumb them. 

II. CLASS. SEA-NETTLES (Acalephee). 

Animals soft, aquatic, free, gelatinous, emitting an 
acrid secretion ; mouth and anus distinct. Swim by 
contractions of the mantle, or by air-bladders. 

I. ORDER PHYSOGRADE SEA-FETTLES (Physogradse). 

Body symmetrical, bilateral, fleshy, contractile, 
provided with an aeriferous sac. 

1. FAMILY. Portuguese Men-of-war (Physaliidse). 

Vesicle large, irregular, without stalk or am- 
pullae ; with terminal suckers and cirrhi. 

2. FAMILY. Bubble-bearers (PhysophoridaB). Vesicle 

small, regular, on a stalk, with lateral am- 
pullae and terminal suckers. 

3. FAMILY. Scale-bearers (Rhodophysidae). Loco- 

motive organs in the form of smooth scales, 
disposed in transverse series. 

IT. ORDER. PULMONIGRADE SEA-NETTLES 

(Pulmonigradse). 
Body entirely gelatinous, circular, without any 



338 MANUAL OF NATUKAL HISTOKY. 

solid axis ; margin with cirrhi or folicaceous appen- 
dages pendent from the lower surface. 

1. FAMILY. Simple Jelly-fishes (Eudoridse). Sim- 

ple, without true tentacles, peduncles, or arms. 

2. FAMILY. Tentacular Jelly-fishes (^Equoreidse). 

Circumference of body, and sometimes the 
mouth, surrounded by tentacles. 

3. FAMILY. Pedunculate Jelly-fishes (Oceaniid). 

Gastric cavity prolonged into a sharp pedun- 
cle, at the end of which is the mouth, sur- 
rounded by four brachial appendages. 
4 FAMILY. Proboscis Jelly-fishes (Geryoniidse). 
Lower and central part of body prolonged into 
a proboscis-like appendage, either simple, or 
provided with arms. 

5. FAMILY. Jelly-fishes proper (Medusidse). With 

a central mouth ; lower surface furnished with 
more or less numerous ramified brachial ap- 
pendages. 

6. FAMILY. Root-mouthed Jelly-fishes (Khizostoma- 

tidse). Without an open mouth in the centre ; 
nourished by suction through the tentacular 
ends of their ramified peduncle. 

Til. OKDEB. CIRKIGRADE SEA-NETTLES 
(Cirrigradae). 

Body oval or circular, gelatinous, supported by an 
internal, sub-cartilaginous body, and with extensile, 
tentacular cirrhi pendent from the whole of the under 
surface. 
1. FAMILY. Velellas (Velellidse). Body discoid or 



MANUAL OF NATUKAL HISTORY. 339 

irregularly oblong, flat above, with, a ver- 
tical lamina on the upper surface. 

IV/. ORDER. DIPHYDIAN SEA-NETTLES (Diphydse). 

Body bilateral, symmetrical, with two or more 
hollow, contractile, sub-cartilaginous swimming or- 
gans, placed one before the other ; an ovigerous fila- 
ment prolonged posteriorly. 

1. FAMILY. Diphyds-Proper (Diphyidse). Body 

composed of two pieces adhering together, and 
capable of separation. 

2. FAMILY. Polytomes (Polytomidse). Body com- 

posed of numerous pieces aggregated together. 

V. ORDER. CILIOGRADE SEA-NETTLES (Ciliogradse). 

Body gelatinous, free, marked on the surface with 
narrow ambulacra formed by rows of vibratile cilia. 

1. FAMILY. Beroes (Beroidse). Body symmetrical, 

terminated at each pole by an opening, with 
ciliated ribs and two ciliated tentacles arising 
from the inferior extremity. 

2. FAMILY. Alcynoes (Alcynoidse). Body cylindri- 

cal, open at one end, furnished at the other 
with two large wings which often envelope 
the entire body ; ribs of body ending in a 
point. 

3. FAMILY. Winged-Heroes (Callianiridse). Body 

with projecting ciliated ribs, united together 
and forming lateral wings. In Cesium the ribs 
are two, and the wings excessively prolonged. 

Q 2 



340 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 



ROTIFERS. 

The Rotifers or "Wheel- Animalcules" have been 
so designated on account of the little, ciliated, circu- 
lar organs which serve them as means of progression 
through the water, for, like the Infusory or Poly- 
gastric Animalcules, they are all aquatic. Like those 
organisms, also, they are extremely minute, but their 
structure is much more complex, the intestinal canal 
having two distinct openings like that of the Polyzoa, 
to which they somewhat closely approach. In fact, 
these small and delicately organized Rotifers are co- 
vered with a clear, transparent skin, which corre- 
sponds to the hardened shells of the Polyzoa, to 
which they seem to have the same relation that the 
Tunicata have to the bivalve acephalous Mollusca. 
The front part of their thin, coriaceous envelope is 
open, and frequently toothed round the margins, the 
hind part is closed, and usually ends in a little pair of 
forceps, which serves the purpose of anchoring the 
individuals to fixed or floating bodies. The ciliated 
wheels which constitute the organs of locomotion of 
these little animals do not actually rotate, but only 
appear to do so, on account of the rapid undulations 
of their marginal cilia. One very remarkable fea- 
ture in the organization of these microscopic beings, 
is the presence of a muscular gizzard with distinct- 
teeth, for the purpose of masticating or grinding the 



MANUAL OF NATUEAL HISTORY. 341 

food which is conveyed to their stomachs by 'the in- 
cessant vibratile action of their ciliated wheels. The 
Wheel- Animalcules propagate their species by means 
of eggs, or ova. which are invested with a thin 

OO ' ' 

transparent shell, through which the embryo Rotifer 
may be plainly discerned. 

III. CLASS. ROTIFERS (Rotifera). 

Mouth in general armed with jaws, and furnished 
with rotatory cilia ; intestinal canal ending by two 
distinct orifices; formed for swimming. Repro- 
duce by eggs. 

I. OBDER. MONOTROCHIANS (Monotroch^). 

A single continuous ciliated wheel. 

1. FAMILY. Fish-Rotifers (Ichthydiidse). Margins 

of the rotatory organ entire ; skin soft or 
naked. 

2. FAMILY. Social-Rotifers ((Ecistidse). Margins 

of wheels entire ; skin hard or loricated. 

3. FAMILY. Large-wheeled Rotifers (Megalotrochi- 

dse). Margins of the rotatory organ incised 
or flexuous ; not enclosed in a shell. 
4 FAMILY. Bristle-Rotifers (Flosculariidse). Lori- 
cated ; rotatory organ with sinuous, lobed, or 
multifid margins. 

II. ORDER. SOROTROCHIANS (Sorotrocha). 

A compound or divided ciliated wheel. 
1. FAMILY. Pellucid-Rotifers (Hydatinidss), Body 
without a shell ; rotatory organ many-parted. 



342 MANUAL OF NATUEAL HISTOEY. 

2. FAMILY. Grab-Rotifers (Euchlanidse). Body lo- 

ricated ; wheels many-parted. 

3. FAMILY. Rotifers-proper (Rotiferidse). Body 

without a shell ; rotatory organs two, se- 
parate. 

4. FAMILY. Tortoise-Rotifers (Brachionidse). Body 

loricated; rotatory organ double. 

5. FAMILY. Tardigrade-Rotifers (Macrobiotidse). 

Body with four pairs of short legs, each end- 
ing in two pairs of small claws. 



ASCIDIAN-POLYPS. 

* in ' ** 

The Ascidian-Polyps are compound plant-like ani- 
mals of great interest and beauty ; on account of 
their branching fronds and phytoid aspect they were 
named by Ehrenberg Bryozoa, or "animal mosses;" 
but the designation of our own countryman, J. V. 
Thompson, claims priority. Although in general 
they possess the form of the Polypifera, they have 
been shewn to have an organization so superior to 
that of the true Polyps as to authorize their removal 
to another section. They are in fact provided with 
a distinct alimentary canal with two orifices, and 
externally are at once distinguished from the Poly- 
pifera by the ciliated tentacles which surround the 
mouth. The individual polyp-like animals are fre- 
quently lodged in little horny cells, which are some- 
times isolated as in the genus Bowerbankia ; some- 
times arranged side by side as in Eschara and Flus- 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

tra, and some among them are even free, as the 
fresh-water genus Gristatella. In some forms the 
cells are very thin and pellucid ; in others they are 
horny or membranous ; while many again inhabit 
cells of a hard calcareous material. The general 
form of the polyzoary is susceptible of very great 
variation, from the broad palmate expansion of the 
Flustm foliacea to the lobate fleshy Alcyonidium; 
from the long tubular cells of the Tubulipora to the 
elegant, jointed Eucratea; from the crustaceous Le- 
pralia to the plant-like Salicornaria ; or, lastly, 
from the locomotive Cristatella to the fixed confer- 
void Plumatella. These remarkable little animals 
are usually found adhering by a kind of root to 
stones, rocks, and other marine bodies, their delicate 
and fragile forms being swayed to and fro by the 
motion of the water that surrounds them; and, 
often after storms, they strew the sandy shores with 
their elegant uprooted fronds. The increase of the 
Polyzooi is by buds or gemmules, but some among 
them are developed from ova, which minute eggs 
are covered by a remarkable shell, being furnished 
with numbers of little horny hooks to enable them 
to retain their hold upon marine bodies. 

IV. CLASS. ASCIDLAN-POLYPS (Polyzoa). 

Animal polypiform, enclosed in horny or calca- 
reous cells, united together in a common mass ; diges- 
tive canal with a distinct mouth and vent ; mouth 
surrounded with eight or more, ciliated, retractile 
tentacles. 



344) MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

I. OEDER. MAKINE ASCIDIAN-POLYPS 
(Infundibulata). 

Polyps compound, mouth surrounded with ciliated, 
filiform, retractile tentacles, which form an uninter- 
rupted circle ; ova ciliated. Marine. 

I. SUB-ORDER. LIP-MOUTHED ASCIDIAN-POLYPS 
(Chelostomata). 

Aperture of cell filled with a thin membranous or 
calcareous velum, with a crescentic mouth, provided 
with a moveable lip. 

I. TRIBE. JOINTED ASCIDIAN-POLYPS (Articulata). 

Polyzoary divided into distinct portions or joints, 
by flexible articulations. 

1. FAMILY. Chain-like Ascidian-Polyps (Cateni- 

cellidse). Cells disposed in a single series, and 
connected by flexible joints. The cells are 
horny, and arise one from the other by a 
short continuous tube, all facing the same 
way, and forming dichotomously divided 
branches. 

2. FAMILY. Salicornian Ascidian-Polyps (Sali- 

cornariidse). Cells disposed in a double or 
multiple series, around an imaginary axis, 
forming cylindrical branches of a dichotom- 
ously divided, erect polyzoary ; branches of 
polyzoary with distinct articulations. 

3. FAMILY. Cellular Ascidian-Polyps (Cellularii- 

Cells disposed in a double or multiple 






MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 345 

series in the same plane, forming linear 
branches of a dichotomously divided, phy- 
toid, erect polyzoary. 

II. TEIBE. JOINTLESS ASCIDIAN-POLYPS (Inarticulata). 

Polyzoary continuous throughout. 

4. FAMILY. Club-celled Ascidian-Polyps (Scrupa- 

riidse). Cells disposed in a single series ; 
junctions rigid, or of the same consistence as 
the cells; polyzoary usually loosely adnate. 
The cells are elongate, clavate, with an 
oblique, subterminal aperture with a simple 
margin. 

5. FAMILY. Alternate-celled Ascidian-Polyps (Far- 

cimenariidse). Cells disposed in a double or 
multiple series round an imaginary axis, 
alternate, forming cylindrical branches of 
an erect, dichotomously divided, continuous 
polyzoary. 

6. FAMILY. Opposite-celled Ascidian-Polyps (Ge- 

mellariidse). Cells disposed in a double or 
multiple series ; cells opposite, in pairs. Dif- 
fers from Bicellariidce in general habit, in 
the position of the cells in pairs, and in the 
absence of avicularia. 

7. FAMILY. Tentacular Ascidian-Polyps (Cabe- 

reidse). Polyzoary dichotomously divided into 
ligulate, bimultiserial branches ; on the backs 
of which are vibracula or avicularia, one 
common to several cells ; avicularia sessile. 

8. FAMILY. Bicelhdar Ascidian-Polyps (Bicella- 

Q 5 



346 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

riidaa). Polyzoary dichotomously divided into 
narrow, ligulate, bi- or multi-serial branches ; 
no vibracula; avicularia, when present, pe- 
dunculate and articulated ; polyzoary erect, 
phytoid. 

9. FAMILY. Foliaceous Ascidian-Polyps (Flustri- 

dae). Polyzoary flexible, expanded, foliaceous, 
erect, sometimes decumbent and loosely at- 
tached ; cells multi-serial, quincuncial, or 
irregular. 

10. Cellular Ascidian-Polyps (Celleporidse). Poly- 

zoary calcareous, cellular, composed of ovate 
cells in juxta-position ; the aperture terminal, 
often furnished with a globular capsule. 

11. FAMILY. Membranous Ascidian-Polyps (Mem- 

braniporidse). Polyzoary forming a gauze- 
like incrustation, loosely adherent ; cells ob- 
long, quadrangular, with a blunt hollow spine 
at each angle. 

12. FAMILY. Honey-comb Ascidian-Polyps (Es- 

charidae). Polyzoary membrano-calcareous, 
frondescent j the cells immersed in a double 
layer placed back to back, like the cells in 
honey-comb. 

II. SUB-ORDER. RoimD-MOUTHED ASCIDIAN-POLYPS 
(Cyclostomata). 

Aperture of cell simple, circular. 

13. FAMILY. Tubular Ascidian-Polyps (Tubuli- 

poridse). Polyzoary massive, orbiculate or 



MANUAL OF NATUEAL HISTOEY. 347 

lobed ; cells long and tubular, with a round, 
prominent, unconstricted aperture. 
14 FAMILY. Confervoid Ascidian-Polyps (Crisii- 
dse). Polyzoary plant-like, dichotomously 
branched, jointed; cells tubular, in one or 
two series, with the circular apertures alter- 
nately looking to opposite sides. 

III. SUB-ORDER. FRINGE-MOUTHED ASCIDIAN-POLYPS 
(Ctenostoxnata). 

Aperture of cell with a more or less well-marked 
fringe of setae around the margin when the animal 
is protruded. 

15. FAMILY. Vesicular Ascidian-Polyps (Vesicu- 

lariidse). Polyzoary slender, plant-like, horny, 
fistular ; aperture of polyp-cell fringed ; body 
of polyp separate from walls of cell, which 
is deciduous. 

16. FAMILY. Pedicellate Ascidian-Polyps (Pedice- 

linidae). Polyzoary pedunculate, clavate, ris- 
ing from a filiform, creeping shoot ; body of 
polyp adnate to cell. 

IY. SUB-ORDER. FLESHY ASCIDIAN-POLYPS 
(Haley onellea.) 

Polyzoary sponge-like, fleshy, polymorphous ; 
cells irregular in disposition, immersed ; aperture 
contractile ; no ovarian capsules. 

17. FAMILY. Sponge-like Ascidian-Polyps (Alcyo- 

nidiidse). Polyzoary fleshy, lobed ; cells 
with nbro-corneous walls ; aperture terminal, 



348 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

simple, contractile ; polyps with a double 
sheath. 

II. ORDER. FRESH-WATER ASCIDIAN-POLYPS 
(Hyppocrepia). 

Lacustrine, or natives of fresh water ; polyps com- 
pound ; mouth surrounded with ciliated, retractile 
tentacles, interrupted or depressed on one side so as 
to assume a crescentic or horse-shoe form ; ova not 
ciliated. 

1. FAMILY. Crested Ascidian- Polyps (Cristatel- 

lidse). Polyzoary free, floating, contractile, 
locomotive ; polyps issuing from apertures 
arranged upon the upper surface ; tentacular 
disk crescentic. 

2. FAMILY. Plumose Ascidian- Polyps (Plumatel- 

lidae). Polyzoary fixed, incrusting, confer- 
void or sponge-like, inarticulate, composed 
of aggregated membranous tubes opening on 
the surface. 

3. FAMILY. Marsh Ascidian- Polyps (Paludicel- 

lidse.) Polyzoary fixed, jointed, coriaceous ; 
composed of a single series of claviform cells 
with a concatenated arrangement ; apertures 
uni-lateral, tubular, near the wide end of the 
cell. 



CAVITARY-PARASITES. 

The Ccelelminiha of Owen, or the " Vers cavi- 
taires " of Cuvier, assume a much higher standard 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY 349 

of organization than the " Vers parenchymateaux" 
of the same illustrious savan. Together these two 
types of structure constitute the Entozoa of many 
authors, from the greater number living in the in- 
testines and other internal parts of various animals. 
In these higher forms, nervous fibres connect the 
different organs of the body by a common sym- 
pathy ; the muscles become more apparent and as- 
sume greater energy; the alimentary tube is en- 
closed in walls of its own, and not simply hollowed 
out of the tissues ; it, moreover, possesses two dis- 
tinct orifices, an oral and an anal ; and the sexes 
are separate in different individuals. The bodies 
of these parasites are worm-like, long, elastic, and 
cylindrical, are never provided with limbs or organs 
of locomotion, while the only sense they seem to 
possess is that of touch. They obtain their food 
by dwelling always parasitically in the bodies of 
other animals, subsisting on their juices. Among 
these by no means attractive members of the king- 
dom of animals we find the Guinea worm (Filaria 
tnedinensis), which burrows beneath the skin, and 
sometimes grows to several feet in length ; the As- 
caris lumbricoides, which lives upon the substances 
of the intestinal canal already elaborated for it by 
man and quadrupeds ; the Ophiostoma, which in- 
habits the air-bladders of fishes ; and others are 
found in the various localities selected by different 
members of this tribe of beings. One of the most 
anomalous among them is the tiyngamus trachealis, 
in which the male is organically blended with the 



350 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

tail of the female, producing a kind of hermaphro- 
ditism of a most remarkable description. 

V. CLASS. CAVITARY-PAEASITES 

(Coelelmintha.) 

Alimentary canal distinct, tubular, with an oral 
and an anal orifice ; mouth without radiating ten- 
tacles ; body elongated, cylindrical, not divided into 
segments ; sexes distinct. Parasitic in other ani- 
mals. 

1. FAMILY. Proboscidean -Worms (Liorhynchidse.) 

Mouth terminal, obtuse, emitting a simple 
retractile proboscis ; body elongated, cylin- 
drical, elastic, tapering posteriorly. 

2. FAMILY. Spiniferous-Worms (Cheiracanthidse.) 

Oral aperture terminal, bivalve, simple ; head 
beset with simple spines ; body cylindrical, 
elastic, armed at fore-part with palmate 
spines ; tapering posteriorly ; tail of male 
spiral ; spiculum simple. 

3. FAMILY. Hooded-Worms (Cucullanidse.) Anal 

aperture terminal ; head or neck covered 
with a plicate or striated hood ; body elon- 
gated, cylindrical, obtuse anteriorly, atten- 
uate posteriorly ; tail of males straight, point- 
ed, without a bursa at hind end. 

4. FAMILY. Star-mouthed Worms (Strongylidse.) 

Oral aperture ample, orbicular, surrounded 
by teeth, papillae, or cilia ; body elastic, cy- 
lindrical, tapering anteriorly ; tail of males 






MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 351 

ending a styliferous bursa, and with a single 
or double spiculum. 

5. FAMILY. Hermaphrodite-Worms (Syngamidse). 

Oral aperture terminal ; body moderate, sub- 
cylindrical ; male animal organically blended 
with female by its caudal extremity. 

6. FAMILY. Round -Worms (Ascarididae). Oral 

aperture terminal, small, covered and con- 
cealed by three rounded valvular lips ; body 
cylindrical, elongated, tapering at each end 

7. FAMILY. Slender-headed Worms (Trichocepha- 

lidae). Oral aperture very small, punctiliform, 
at the end of a very slender non-retractile 
peduncle or neck ; body elongated, cylindri- 
cal posteriorly, gradually thickened and cla- 
vate. 

8. FAMILY. Larval- Worms (Amblyuridae.) Oral 

aperture orbicular, simple or cirrhate ; body 
cylindrical, elastic, sometimes free and na- 
tant ; head continuous with body ; tail subu- 
late, acute or obtuse. Parasitic in aquatic 
larvae, or found in stagnant water. 

9. FAMILY. Guinea-Worms (Filariidae.) Oral aper- 

ture terminal, small, orbicular ; body cylin- 
drical, filiform, of the same thickness through- 
out, often very long and rigid, extremities 
obtuse. Parasitic in the skin of man. 



POLYPS. 

These plant-like animals, sometimes known under 



352 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

the name of Zoophytes, are usually fixed to rocks 
and stones or other marine bodies at the bottom of 
the sea ; either throwing out numerous branching 
fronds, spreading laterally in the form of mush- 
rooms, or incrusting the surface in an irregular 
manner ; gradually depositing calcareous matter, 
previously held in solution by the water, and build- 
ing up those remarkable coral-reefs and shoals, fre- 
quently the cause of dread to mariners, and often, 
when covered with vegetation, becoming the ocean- 
abodes of man. The living portion of the bodies 
of these animals is composed of a transparent or 
coriaceous covering, which incrusts their horny or 
calcareous skeletons. This wonderful, gelatinous 
fabric, though apparently so simple, has yet the 
vital power of growing, of separating the earthy 
particles dissolved in the water which surrounds it, 
and of propagating its kind by means of little buds 
or gemmules. The higher, or more highly organized, 
creatures of this Class are not only, however, in- 
vested with a living bark, but the surface of their 
bodies is studded with numerous useful organs called 
polyps, which serve the purpose of stomachs, and 
which are provided with sensitive tentacles to secure 
a proper amount of food. Sometimes the entire 
animal consists of a single, free, and locomotive 
polyp, as the Hydra of the fresh waters ; some- 
times the polyps are associated together in prodi- 
gious numbers, as in the A Icyonium, in which the 
common mass is soft, and in the Madrepores, in 
which the common basis is calcareous. These latter 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 353 

are especially the animals that propagate their kind 
upon the crests of mountain-ranges under the sea, 
on the tops of submarine hills, or round the margins 
of the craters of submerged volcanoes, forming, by 
their gradual growth and decay, those ""atolls," 
barrier-reefs, and coral-islands, met with so abun- 
dantly in the great Pacific Ocean. The Actinice 
are isolated, fleshy polyps, attached to marine 
bodies by their bases, and with their mouths sur- 
rounded with numerous coloured tentacles, which 
give them, when expanded, the appearance of ani- 
mal-flowers ; hence they have been named " Sea 
Anemones." The red coral of commerce (Coral- 
lium rubrum) is obtained principally from the 
Mediterranean, about the islands of Majorca and 
Minorca; it is also procured from the Coast of 
Africa. The Corallines of Linnseus are cellular in 
their microscopic character, and although they re- 
semble the skeletons of polyps, yet belong to the 
Vegetable Kingdom. 

VI CLASS. POLYPS (Polypifera). 

Animal with a circle of retractile, non-ciliated 
tentacles surrounding the mouth ; stomach simple, 
with a single orifice ; geinrniparous and oviparous. 

I. ORDER. HYDROID-POLYPS (Hydroida). 

Polyps compound, rarely single and naked ; ten- 
tacles filiform, roughish ; stomach without proper 
parietes ; reproductive gemmules pullulating from 
the body, and naked or contained in external ve- 



354 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

sides. Polypary horny, fistular, external, plant- 
like. 

1. FAMILY. Clavate fleshy-Polyps (Corynidse). 

Ovisacs budding from the bases of the ten- 
tacles ; polyps naked, or with only a rudi- 
mentary polypary. 

2. FAMILY. Fistular-Polyps (Tubulariidse). Ovi- 

sacs budding from the bases of the tentacles ; 
polyps with the tentacles whorled ; polypary 
fistular, horny, simple, tortuous or ramified. 

3. FAMILY. Plant-like Polyps (Sertulariidse). Ovi- 

sacs in the form of horny, deciduous capsules, 
scattered on the polyparies ; polyps with 
simple tentacles lodged in sessile cells ; poly- 
pary tubular, ramified, and plant-like. 

4. FAMILY. Bell-bearing Polyps (Campanulariidse). 

Ovisacs in the form of horny, deciduous cap- 
sules, scattered on the polyparies ; polyps 
with a simple series of tentacles ; polyp-cells 
on ringed stalks, terminal, campanulate ; 
polypary horny, plant-like. 

5. FAMILY. Freshwater-Polyps (Hydridse). Pro- 

pagation by buds and ova, which develope 
themselves on and in the body of the parent. 
Polyps locomotive, free, single, naked, gela- 
tinous, with long, simple tentacles. 

II. ORDER. ZOANTHOID-POLYPS (Zoanthoida). 

Polyps single, free or fixed, fleshy, naked, or with 
calcareous polyparies with radiating lamellae ; ten- 



MANUAL OF NATUKAL HISTORY. 355 

tacles tubular ; stomach membranous, plaited ; ovi- 
parous ) ovaries internal. 

1. FAMILY. Sea-Anemones (Actiniidse). Polyps 

fleshy, soft, separate, single ; ovi-viviparous ; 
mouth with several rows of simple or branched 
tentacles. 

2. FAMILY. Lucernarians (Lucernariidse). Polyps 

companulate, fixed by a narrow stalk, in the 
centre of an umbrellar expansion ; tentacles 
in tufts. 

3. FAMILY, Animal-Flowers (Zoanthidae). Polyps 

coriaceous, incrusted or solidified by foreign 
bodies ; gemmiparous ; associated by a com- 
mon base. 

4. FAMILY. Pocillopores (Pocilloporidse). Polypary 

solid, spinulose or granulated ; polyp-cells 
circumscribed, ridged, 6-sided, shallow, cili- 
ated or spinulose ; polyp with few tentacles, 
in a single series. 

5. FAMILY. Stylasters (Stylasteridae). Polypary 

minutely porous ; polyp-cells deep, cylindri- 
cal, with six grooves, each ending in a pore 
and a central style ; polyp with few tentacles, 
in a single series. 

6. FAMILY. Madrepores (Madreporidse). Polypary 

spongy, porous, rough ; coral cells deeply cir- 
cular, with 6 or 12 longitudinal folds, im- 
mersed or produced, sub-cylindrical, without 
any central style ; tentacles in a single series. 
"7. FAMILY. Porites (Poritidse). Polypary very 
' porous, spongy, rough ; polyp-cells many- 



356 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

sided, with granulose edges, more or less in- 
complete ; spinous lamellae, surrounded by 
pierced or netted parietes ; polyps with a single 
series of tentacles. 

8. FAMILY. Dendritic-Corals (Dendrophylliidse). 

Polypary hard, porous ; surface minutely 
longitudinally striated; polyp-cells with a 
single centre, truncated, concave, generally 
with a convex centre polyp with numerous 
tentacles in several series ; gemmiparous. 

9. FAMILY. Eyed-Corals (Oculinidae). Polypary 

hard, covered with enamel ; coral-cells with 
a single centre, concave, with radii extended 
over the edges, or with the outer edge radi- 
ately ground ; polyp with numerous tentacles 
in two or more series ; gemmiparous. 

10. FAMILY. Starred -Corals (Caryophylliidas). 

Polypary hard, with an enamelled surface ; 
polyp-cells with many centres, or confluent, 
deep, round ; laminae torn, serrated, with 
a twisted centre, often with intermediate 
smaller plates not reaching the centre ; polyp 
with numerous tentacles, in two or more 
series ; gemmiparous. 

11. FAMILY. Brainstone - Corals (Maeandrinidae). 

Polypary hard ; cells confluent, deep, elon- 
gate, compressed, with a single series of equal 
laminae forming a single, linear, impressed line 
in the centre ; polyp with numerous tentacles 
in two or more series ; growing by sponta- 
neous division. 



MANUAL OP NATURAL HISTOKY. 357 

12. FAMILY. Mushroom-Corals (Agariciidse), Poly- 
pary hard ; polyp-cells shallow, not circum- 
scribed, but scattered and united to one 
another by laminae on the star-bearing sur- 
face of the coral.; animal growing laterally, 
forming a leaf-like frondose mass. 

III. ORDER. ASTEEOID-POLYPS (Asteroida). 

Polyps compound ; tentacles eight, fringed ; sto- 
mach membranous, with internal appendages; ovules 
produced interiorly ; polypary free or fixed, fleshy, 
strengthened by a horny or calcareous axis, covered 
with a gelatinous crust. 

1. FAMILY. Alcyonians (Alcyoniidse). Polypary 

fixed, coriaceous or fleshy, strengthened with 
calcareous spicula ; polyp-cells subcutaneous, 
scattered over the surface. 

2. FAMILY. Sea-Pens (Pennatulidae). Polypary 

free, pennate, fleshy ; axis bony, simple, con- 
tinuous ; skin spiculiferous ; polyps with eight 
pinnate tentacles, arranged along margin of 
pinnae. 

3. FAMILY. Umbellate - Corals (Umbellulariidae). 

Polypary free, simple, elongated, with the 
polyps at the summit ; axis stony, inarticu- 
late, covered with a fleshy cortex; polyps 
large, terminal, arranged in an umbellate 
manner at the end of the polypary. 

4. FAMILY. Calcareous-Corals (Coralliidae). Poly- 

pary fixed, arborescent, calcareous ; covered 



358 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

with a fleshy cortex ; polyps prominent, scat- 
tered over the whole surface. 

5. FAMILY. Horny-Corals (Antipathidae). Poly- 

pary fixed, ramose ; axis horny, solid, flexi- 
ble ; cortex gelatinous, disappearing when 
dried ; polyps prominent, scattered over the 
entire surface. 

6. FAMILY. Sea- Fans (Gorgoniidse). Polypary 

fixed, branching, often reticulate ; axis horny, 
solid, flexible; cortex thick, firm, porous, 
cretaceo-gelatinous, persistent when dried ; 
polyps scattered over the whole surface. 

7. FAMILY. Arragonite-Corals (Briareidse). Poly- 

pary branched, formed of large, transparent, 
rough, fusiform spicula, regularly placed side 
by side along the stems, embedded in the cor- 
tex, cortex covered with large conical tubercles. 

8. FAMILY. Glass -Rope Corals (Hyalonemidse). 

Axis composed of a congeries of siliceous fila- 
ments, slightly twisted together in the form 
of a rope, covered with a coriaceous tubercu- 
lated cortex ; tubercles depressed, scattered. 

9. FAMILY. Incrusting-Corals(Cl&vn~[a,i:uddd). Poly- 

pary in the form of a thin flattened mass, co- 
vering marine objects ; polypi non-retractile, 
with eight pectinate tentacles, prominent, 
close together on the surface. 

10. FAMILY. Organ-Corals (Tubiporidse). Poly- 

pary composed of calcareous tubes arranged 
in stages like the pipes of an organ ; polyps 
terminal, in the mouths of the tubes. 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 359 

11. FAMILY. Horn-like Corals (Cornulariidse) Poly- 
pary horny, fixed, composed of small horn- 
like conical tubes, erect, each containing a 
single terminal solitary polyp, with eight 
dentato-pinnate tentacles. 



PARENCHYMATOUS-PARASITES. 

The Parenchymatous Worms of Cuvier, or the 
Sterelmintha of Owen, are much more simple in 
their structure than the Cavitary or Coelelminthous 
Parasites, their intestinal canal not being provided 
with distinct walls, and their nervous system being 
very faintly developed. They are nourished by the 
juices of other animals, within whose bodies they 
take up their abode. On this account their diges- 
tive organs are very simple ; there is no trace of 
locomotive organs or even of muscles, and the senses 
are reduced to a single diffused and general sense of 
touch. 

These parasitic worms are found infesting man 
and the lower animals, inhabiting various tissues 
and parts of the body, as the eyes of fishes, the 
brains of sheep, the muscles, the air-passages, the 
liver, the blood, and the alimentary canal. Among 
the Cystiform families we find the Hydatids, which 
resemble transparent bladders filled with fluid, with 
mouths at the small end furnished with little hooks 
and suckers. The common species, sometimes found 
in man, is the Cysticercus tenuicollis ; another 



360 MANUAL OF NATUEAL HISTORY. 

pernicious parasite, well known to farmers as 
the cause of the fatal disease termed "stag- 
gers " in sheep, is the Ccenurus cerebralis, and 
is found in the brain. One very curious form, 
Trichina spiralis, has been discovered embedded 
in the muscles of the human frame ; the Tcenia 
soliuwi is the species of Tape-worm most frequently 
met with in the intestinal passages of man ; and 
another pest belonging to the same class is the 
Fluke (Fasciola hepatica) which infests the livers of 
sheep and other ruminating animals, and causes the 
destructive malady named the " rot/' The Vertum- 
nus thethydicola is an example of the propriety of 
changing the name of Entozoa into " Parenchyma- 
tous-Parasites," for, although in structure it agrees 
with the other animals of the class, it does not live 
in the interior, but is parasitic on the skin of a Nu- 
dibranch Mollusk, the Thethys fimbriata. 

VII. CLASS. PARENCHYMATOUS- 
PARASITES (Sterelmintha.) 

Alimentary canal ramified in substance of animal, 
with only one aperture, oral and anal ; mouth with- 
out radiating tentacles ; sexes mostly united. Para- 
sitic in other animals. 

I. ORDER HOOK-WORMS (Acanthocephala.) 

Body cylindrical or sacciform ; mouth in form of 
a retractile proboscis, armed with recurved hooks ; 
sexes distinct. 
1. FAMILY. Hook - Worms (Echinorhynchidae.) 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 361 

Mouth with a single, terminal, retractile pro- 
boscis, armed with recurved hooks ; body 
elongate, cylindrical, sac-like. 

II. ORDER CESTOID- WOKMS (Cestoidea). 

Body often flattened, sometimes composed of a 
number of segments ; mouth variously armed with 
hooks and suckers. 

1. FAMILY. True Tape-Worms (Tgeniidse). Head 

with four, lateral, suctorial pits ; neck elon- 
gated ; body composed of numerous segments 
united together in a linear series. 

2. FAMILY. Armed Tape-Worms (Bothryocepha- 

lidae). Head with a single suctorial pit on each 
side ; pits simple, or furnished with suckers 
extended into filaments ; body divided into 
numerous segments arranged in a linear 
series. 

3. FAMILY. Spiny-headed Worms (Acanthocepha- 

lidee). Head with a large suctorial pit on 
each side, with two or four retractile trunks 
armed at the end with hooks or simply papil- 
lary ; body short, sac-like, not divided into 
distinct segments. 

4. FAMILY. Strap-Worms (Ligulidse). Mouth a 

little below the larger anterior extremity, 
armed with moveable hooks on each side. 

5. FAMILY. Tricuspid- Worms (Tricuspidariidse). 

Mouth sub - terminal, bilabiate, armed on 
each side with two tricuspid hooks ; body 
elongate, sub- articulate posteriorly. 



362 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

III. ORDER SUCTORIAL-WOKMS (Trematoda). 

Body flattened, more or less oval, with one or 
more prehensile disks on various parts ; mouth ter- 
minal, in form of a circular sucking disk. 

1. FAMILY. Flukes -proper (Fasciolidas). Mouth 

with a single terminal sucker ; body soft, 
oblong, depressed, tapering, with posterior 
ventral prehensile disk. 

2. FAMILY. Diplostome - Flukes (Diplostomidae). 

Mouth with a single terminal sucker, body flat 
or sub-cylindrical, with two suckers on lower 
surface, and a purse-like appendage at hind part. 

3. FAMILY Fringed - Flukes (Caryophyllidse). 

Mouth bilabiate, surrounded by a fimbri- 
ated, contractile, dilated disk; body soft, 
elongated, tapering posteriorly. 
4 FAMILY. Tailed-Flukes (Cercariidse). Mouth a 
simple suctorial disk, with a smaller sucker 
behind it ; body with a long posterior caudal 
appendage, which can be readily cast off by 
the animal. 

5. FAMILY. Proboscidean-Flukes (Tetrarhynchidae). 

Head with four retractile proboscidiform 
suckers ; body sack-like, subclavate, anteriorly 
obtuse, tapering behind. 

6. FAMILY. Eared-Flukes (Scolecidse). Mouth ter- 

minal, encircled by four plicate, sub-perforate, 
ear-like suckers ; body gelatinous, elongate, 
sub-depressed, contractile, anteriorly clavate, 
posteriorly acuminate. 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 363 

7. FAMILY. Polystome - Flukes (Polystomatidse). 
Mouth with six, bilocular, biperforate suckers, 
placed beneath anterior extremity ; body 
elongated, depressed, not segmented, con- 
stricted anteriorly, ending in a point behind. 

IV. ORDER. VESICULAR- WORMS (Cystica). 

Body cystiform, filled with fluid ; mouth furnished 
with suckers, hooks, or filaments. 

1. FAMILY. Hydatids (Hydatidse). Body round 

or oblong ; mouth with four suckers, armed 
with a hooked crown. 

2. FAMILY. Horned-Hydatids (Ditrachyceratidee). 

Body ovate, compressed ; anterior extremity 
furnished with two long horns and filaments. 



ACRITE-ANIMALS. 

The Sub-kingdom of Radiata of Cuvier, which 
nearly corresponds with the Polyps of Linnaeus, 
has, from its vast extent, been of late years again 
sub-divided. It therefore now comprehends the 
Radiata or Nematoneura of Owen, which include 
all the higher forms, or those in which a nervous 
system can be distinctly traced, and the Acrita, 
first separated by Macleay, comprising the lowest 
and most simple forms of animal existence. The 
characters of Acrite animals being principally nega- 
tive, nervous matter not having been hitherto 
detected in their organization, it follows that its 

R 2 



364 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

constituent classes must vary in number, for as 
further or more accurate research indicates the 
separate existence of this system, such animals 
become entitled to occupy a more advanced position. 
In the Acrites, animal life exhibits itself in its most 
primitive type, and shews clearly that corporeal 
existence does not depend on an assemblage of im- 
portant viscera, or the possession of numerous nerves 
and blood-vessels, but that organized matter can 
live, move, and have being in a most humble and 
rudimentary form, descending ultimately to a vivified 
molecule, or a mere microscopic cell endowed with 
vitality. The majority of the members of this Sub- 
kingdom, though often minute, and likely to escape 
the notice of any but a vigilant observer of nature, 
are not on that account the less interesting in their 
developement, habits, or destiny; nor do they the 
less exhibit the wondrous power and skill of their 
omnipotent Creator. Destitute of organs of special 
sense, endowed most feebly even with sensation, 
shewing hardly any evidence of being possessed of 
nervous matter, the whole aim and object of their 
short-spanned lives appears, to our limited minds, 
to be self-subsistence and the propagation of their 
race. In the simplest of the class there are scarcely 
any signs of a digestive cavity, while others more 
in advance, and more adapted for enjoying the good 
things of this life, seem to be all stomach and 
nothing else. 

Their number may be truly said to be "Legion/' 
for they are countless. They are found alike inhabit- 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 365 

ants of all parts of the world, but their especial 
element is the boundless expanse of waters. Here 
myriads glide about free to go wherever they will, 
and, masters over their movements, roam as they list 
from place to place. Some again, remain more or 
less in one locality, while to others the power of 
free motion is denied, and they have, accordingly, to 
spend the allotted period of their existence fixed in 
one spot. Most inhabit salt, but a few are found in 
fresh water. 

But innumerable as they are in our times, they 
are shewn by geological explorations to have been 
even still more abundant during former periods of 
the earth's history, their remains being very nu- 
merous in certain strata. Such are the fossil 
madrepores of the chalk system, in which, also, the 
large isolated masses of flint that so frequently 
occur, represent, it is believed, old-world sponges. 
Abundant occupation for palaeontologists is supplied 
by the Foraminifera of ancient eras, the number 
of extinct species already known being very con- 
siderable. The " Bergmehy too, or mountain-meal 
of Sweden, exhibited to the microscopic eye of 
Ehrenberg the skeletons of primitive animalcules, 
which had finished their career long ere man had 
made his appearance on the scene. 

To most of these curious beings it is a matter of 
comparative indifference if a portion of their frame 
is lopped off, as they remain quite as lively after 
the amputation as before. Many indeed, propagate 
their kind after this fashion, little portions, or buds, 



S66 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

being thrown off, which by degrees, grow to be as 
their parent was before them, and in time con- 
tribute their own quota to the numbers of their 
race by this mode of paring or budding. 

In searching for them the naturalist must have 
his eyes on the alert in every direction. On the 
sea-shore, attached to rocks, or fastened on sea- 
weeds, he will reap an ample harvest. Numbers oc- 
cur in stagnant waters, but here the magnifying 
assistance of the microscope must be brought into 
requisition, and the greater its power, the more 
astounding will be its revelations, strange-shaped, 
curious-looking creatures being thus brought before 
our view, whose wondrous forms bear no resemblance 
to those of higher classes. The Foraminifers, until 
lately arranged with Mollusks, in accordance with 
their more primitive organization, here find an ap- 
propriate neighbourhood. And lastly, we have the 
Sponges, the most simply constructed members of 
the Animal Kingdom, an ill-used tribe, often 
rudely rejected both by zoologist and by phy- 
tologist ; but at present permitted a resting place 
by the former, and looked upon as composing the 
humblest order of one great department of na- 
ture. 

V. SUB-KINGDOM. ACKITE-ANIMALS (Acrita). 

Animal gelatinous, polymorphous, composed of 
simple nucleated cells, either solitary or aggregated ; 
without distinct nervous fibre, or visceral cavities. 
Generation either fissiparous or gemmiparous. 



MANUAL OF NATUEAL HISTORY. 367 



INFUSORIAL-ANIMALCULES. 

THESE microscopic beings are usually termed "In- 
fusory-Animalcules," which term formerly embraced 
the Rotifers, and several other kinds of animals, en- 
tirely different in their organization. It is now, 
however, restricted to the present class, characterized 
by a number of internal sacs or stomachs, which 
simple feature will at once distinguish them from 
other minute forms. The Polygastrica are all aqua- 
tic, some inhabiting the waters of the ocean, and 
some being found in fresh water. The discoverer of 
most of them, and the great authority on their his- 
tory, is Ehrenberg, whose works display extraordi- 
nary patience and profound research. The name of 
"Monad" is often employed to express the lowest 
grade of organized beings, and with some degree of 
truth, for their structure is reduced to very simple 
elements, and they are so minute that a single drop 
of water may contain five hundred millions of indi- 
viduals. Some of the Polygastrica, as the Proteus, 
change the forms of their bodies in a very surprising 
manner, appearing under the microscope sometimes 
as a round atom of jelly, then becoming slender and 
worm-like, and even throwing out different parts of 
their body, and assuming shapes enough fully to 
justify the name bestowed upon them. 

These animals appear to have been equally as 
numerous during the earlier periods of the world's 
history as they are now : vast deposits of chalk hav- 



368 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORF. 

ing been ascertained to consist almost entirely of 
their extinct remains. The Swedish-earth, eaten by 
the inhabitants mixed with flour, under the name of 
" Bergmehl," is also entirely composed of their ske- 
letons, which, in the course of ages, have been accu- 
mulating so as to form thick and extensive beds. 

The Polygastrica are either naked or entirely soft 
and gelatinous, or they are protected by a thin 
glassy shell, which often varies in form, sometimes 
constituting a dorsal shield, as in Euplcea, and some- 
times resembling a bivalve shell, as in the Naviculce. 
Their organs of progression consist either of delicate 
filaments, called cilia, with which their bodies are 
covered, or of stiff, moveable, bristle-like organs, or 
little hooks, which also serve to attach them to 
foreign bodies. The reproduction of these minute 
organisms is by means of buds, which sprout from 
the surface of their bodies, and become, in the course 
of time, like the parent animals, or by free gem- 
mules, contained in the interior of the mother, whose 
globular body bursts, and the little ones come forth 
at the sacrifice of their parent's life. They also in- 
crease by spontaneous fissure, so that an old animal 
may thus renew his youth, by becoming two or more 
young ones. 

I CLASS. INFUSORIAL-ANIMALCULES 

(Polygastrica). 

Intestinal canal replaced by a number of small, 
interior cavities ; multiply by spontaneous division 
of their bodies. 



MANUAL OF NATUKAL HISTORY. 369 

I. ORDER. ANENTEROUS-INFUSOJEUALS (Anentera). 
No internal nutritive tube, nor anal orifice. 
I. SU-OfiDEIt.GmcAKS (Gymnica). 

Body with no external cilia, nor pseudopediform 
prolongations. 

1. FAMILY. Monads (Monadidse). Without exter- 

nal shell ; body uniform, dividing by simple, 
spontaneous fissure into two or several in- 
dividuals. 

2. FAMILY. Shelled -Monads (Cryptomonadidse). 

Individually enveloped in a soft or slightly 
indurated shell. 

3. FAMILY. Globe-Animalcules (Volvocidse). An 

external envelope or shell, spontaneously 
dividing into a number of animals which 
take the form of a polypary. 

4. FAMILY. Thread -Animalcules (Vibrionidse). 

Filiform ; without shell ; associated in fili- 
form chains by means of imperfect transverse 
spontaneous division. 

5. FAMILY. Parasitic-Animalcules (Gregarinidse). 

Single, solitary, nucleated cells, without cilia ; 
parasitic in the intestines of many inverte- 
brates, especially insects. 

6. FAMILY. Closterians (Closteriidse). Dividing 

spontaneously, into a baciliform polypary; 
shell with moveable papillae in the aperture. 

7. FAMILY. Astasians (Astasiidse). Body with a 

single aperture, changing at pleasure to 
caudate, or ecaudate ; shell none. 

B5 



370 MANUAL OF NATUKAL HISTOEY. 

8. FAMILY. Shelled -Astasians (Epipyxididse). 

Body with, a single aperture, changing the 
form at will ; an external shell. 

II. SUB-ORDER. EPITKICHANS (Epitricha). 

Body ciliated, or furnished with setae, without 
pseudopediform prolongations. 

9. FAMILY. Disk-Animalcules (Cyclidiidse). Body 

with ciliated appendages ; shell none. 
10. FAMILY. Wreath-Animalcules (Peridiniidse). 
Ciliae often in the form of a zone or crown ; 
an external shell. 



III. SUfi-ORDER.PsEUDOPOVS (Pseudopoda). 

Body with variable pseudopediform prolongations. 

11. FAMILY. Protean -Animalcules (Amcebidae). 

Body without a shell ; furnished with vari- 
able processes. 

12. FAMILY. Capsule-Animalcules (Arcellidse). 

Body with changeable appendages ; enclosed 
in an urceolate or scutellate shell. 

II. ORDER ENTERODELOUS-INFUSORIALS (Enterodela). 

An internal digestive canal, provided with a 
mouth, and an anal opening. 

I. SUB-ORDER. AffOPiSTHiAtfs (Anopisthia). 

Mouth and anus contiguous. 

1. FAMILY. Bell - Animalcules (Vorticellidae). 
Without shell; developicg by imperfect 
spontaneous division ; free and solitary, or 
fixed and associated. 



MANUAL OF NATUKAL HISTOEY. 371 

2. FAMILY. Loricated Bell-Animalcules (Ophry- 

diidse). Animal loricated ; solitary or ag- 
gregated ; with a shell 

II. SUB-ORDER. ENANTIOTRETANS (Enantiotreta). 

Mouth and anus terminal, and opposite ; repro- 
duction by transverse division. 

3. FAMILY. Rolling -Animalcules (Enchelidae). 

Without a shell. 

4. FAMILY. Box- Animalcules (ColepidsB). Lori- 

cated, or furnished with a shell. 

III. SUB-ORDER. ALLOTKETANS (Allotreta). 
Mouth and anus terminal and opposite ; repro- 
duction by longitudinal and transverse division. 

5. FAMILY. Neck- Animalcules (Tracheliidse). Anal 

opening alone terminal ; without a shell. 

6. FAMILY. Swan-Animalcules (Trachelocercidse). 

Oral opening only terminal ; without a shell. 

7. FAMILY. Shield - Animalcules (Aspidiscidae). 

Anal opening only terminal ; with a shell. 

IV. SUB-ORDER. KATOTRETANS (Katotreta). 

Mouth and anus not terminal; reproduction by 
longitudinal and transverse division. 

8. FAMILY. Breast - Animalcules (Colpodidas). 

Without a shell ; neither opening terminal. 

9. FAMILY. Hackle - Animalcules (Oxytrichidse). 

Without a shell; with vibrating cilia, and 
with non-vibrating styles or uncini 

10. FAMILY. Boat-Animalcules (Euplotidse). With 

a shell ; neither orifice terminal. 



372 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 



FOKAMINIFERS. 

These singular animals until recently were regard- 
ed as a distinct order of Ceplialopodous Mollusks, 
which the polythalamous nature, and general ap- 
pearance of their small shell-like skeletons, seemed 
to authorize. Although the organization of the 
vital portion of their bodies appears so simple, yet 
these little nautiloid shells are remarkable not only 
for their beauty and varied forms, but for a certain 
degree of complexity in their structure. Minute as 
are the Foraminifera, they yet are powerful auxi- 
liaries to the coral-forming Polypi/era, in building 
up islands in the middle of the ocean, in obstructing 
navigable channels, and in gradually filling up bays 
and harbours. They are found in the greatest 
abundance on the sandy shores of tropical coun- 
tries, although very numerous forms are met with 
on our own coasts. Nine hundred species belong- 
ing to sixty-eight genera, have been described by 
D'Orbigny, from existing seas, and it would appear 
that in the fossil state they are no less numerous, 
the same eminent naturalist having discovered and 
recorded thirty genera, consisting of two hundred 
and fifty species in the Cretaceous formation only. 
In order to render their forms obvious to the. eye 
of the casual observer, M. D'Orbigny made exquisite 
models on a large scale of the different genera, 
copies of many of which, in plaster of Paris, may 
be observed in the British Museum. 



MANUAL OF NATUKAL HISTORY. 



II. CLASS. FORAMINIFERS (Foraminifera). 

Animal bursiform, simple, gelatinous, without 
appreciable organization, but secreting a delicate, 
many-celled, internal, calcareous skeleton, into the 
cells of which the animal can retract ; mouth central, 
surrounded by retractile, tentacular processes, which 
constantly vary in form, and which serve for swim- 
ming and crawling. 

1. FAMILY. Straight-Foraminifers (Vaginulidse) 

Shell many-celled, with the cells placed end 
to end in a single series in a straight or 
slightly curved form. 

2. FAMILY. Alternating -For aminifers (Textu- 

lariidse). Shell many-celled, with the cells 
disposed alternately in two or three parallel 
series, but without forming a regular spiral 

3. FAMILY. Spiral- Foraminifers (Discorbidse). 

Shell many-celled, with the cells arranged in 
a single series, but forming a regular spiral, 
which is discoidal or turriculate. 

4 FAMILY. Imbricated-Foraminifers (Miliolidse). 
Shell with the cells variously clustered and 
imbricate, and each rolled round a common 
axis ; aperture usually furnished with an 
appendage. 

5. FAMILY. Compound -Foraminifers (Orbiculi- 
nidse). Shell with the cells divided into se- 
veral smaller cavities by small tubes, or by 
partitions. 



374 MANUAL OF NATUEAL EISTOEY. 

6. FAMILY. Pelagic-Foraminifers (Thalassicollidse). 
Shell, when present, transparent, brittle, 
either perforated by numerous rounded aper- 
tures, or with the apertures prolonged into 
short tubes. 



SPONGES. 

The Sponges, although they have been claimed as 
the property both of the Phytologist and Zoologist 
respectively, are, at present, usually regarded as 
members of the Animal Kingdom, though their claims 
to this distinction are certainly not very obvious. 
No indication of sensation has been detected in their 
amorphous bodies : in fact they cannot be said to 
feel as much as many undoubted vegetables. They 
have no stomach or receptacle for food, usually re- 
garded as the "sine qua non" of an animal, for their 
substance is permeated by canals, which convey the 
water, in which their nourishment is dissolved, to 
every part. The Sponges, however, differ from plants, 
in giving out, when burned, a smell resembling burnt 
horn, which indicates the presence, in considerable 
abundance, of nitrogen in their composition. Their 
more animal part is a thin, transparent, gelatinous 
layer which invests the complicated tissue of horny 
fibres usually known under the name of " Sponge," 
but which is in reality the skeleton of these animals. 
The Sponges of commerce are obtained in considerable 
quantities from the Mediterranean, and are usually 






MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 375 

prepared by soaking in dilute hydrochloric acid, in 
order to remove all traces of lime, and then bleached 
and well-beaten, to render them fit for the market ; 
but the greater majority of Sponges are unfit for 
useful purposes, on account of the large amount of 
siliceous and calcareous spicula with which their 
skeletons are strengthened. Although the portions 
of a Sponge, when cut in half, will each grow and 
become perfect sponges, yet their usual mode of pro- 
pagation is by means of gemmules, which sprout 
from the delicate granular film covering their ske- 
leton; and which, gradually becoming detached 
from the parent body, are furnished with cilia, swim 
freely about, and afterwards, finding a favourable 
locality, become fixed, and gradually enlarge into 
Sponges. 

III. CLASS. SPONGES (Porifera). 

Body multiform, fixed, fleshy, composed of a 
fibrous axis, covered with a gelatinous coating; 
often interwoven with siliceous or calcareous spicula. 
Reproduction by gemmules. 

I. ORDER. HORNY-SPONGES (Cornea). 

Body very porous and elastic, soft, composed of a 
fibro-corneous skeleton, which anastomoses in all 
directions ; without any spicula. 
1. FAMILY. Sponges-proper (Spongiidae). Body 
irregular, traversed by tortuous canals, open- 
ing externally by distinct oscula. 



376 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

II. ORDER. SILICEOUS-SPONGES (Silicea). 

Body more or less rigid or friable, and strength- 
ened with siliceous spicula. 

1. FAMILY. Thethyan-Sponges (Thethyidse). Body 
irregular, tuberiform, sarcoid, firm; spicula 
fasciculate, and diverging from the centre to 
the circumference. 

III. ORDER. CALCAREOUS-SPONGES (Calcarea). 

Body not very soft, composed of a sub-cartilagin- 
ous substance, supported by calcareous spicula. 
1. FAMILY. Grantian-Sponges (Grantiidae). Body 
more or less solid, irregular, traversed by 
tortuous canals, terminating by oscula over 
the whole surface. 



In finally revising the divisions of the Animal 
Kingdom, we considered it advisable to alter 
somewhat the arrangement as given at page 4 
We have therefore subjoined the order which we 
have adopted in the preceding pages, in which, 
instead of endeavouring to approximate connecting 
links between the different Sub-kingdoms, we have 
placed the Classes of the five primary divisions in 
linear, graduated series, commencing in each with 
the most highly developed. Several additional 
synonymes have also been added for the sake of 
reference. 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 



377 



CLASSIFICATION OF THE ANIMAL 
KINGDOM. 



L SUB-KINGDOM. VERTEBRATE-ANIMALS. 

Vertebrata, Guv. Osteozoa, Blainv. Spinicere- 
brata, Grant. Myelencephala, Owen. 

1 Class Mammals ...(Quadrupedes - vivi- 

pari, Gesn. 
Mammalia, Lin. 
Mammifera, Cuv.) 

2 Birds ...... ...(Aves, Lin.) 

3 Rep tiles ...... (Reptilia, Lin. \ 



Hsematherma, Latr. 

Verte'bre's - allantoi- 

diens, M. Edw. 



)\ <1 

p, % 



4 Amphibians. .( Amphibia, Latr. 

Batrachia, Brongn. 
Malacoderma, Kirby 
Dipnoa, Leuck.) 

5 Fishes .. . ...... (Pisces (pars), Lin. 

Solibranchia, Latr. 
Poissons, Lacep.) 

II. SUB-KINGDOM. MOLLUSCOUS-ANIMALS. 



SS 1 

Iff 



Testacea, Mollia, Pliny. Yermes (pars), Lin. 
Mollusca, Cuv. Gasterozoa, Carus. Malacozoa, 
Blainv. Cyclogangliata, Grant. 
gliata, Owen. 

1 Class Cephalopoda (Cephalopoda, Cuv. 

Antliobrachiophora, Gray) 

2 Pteropods (Pteropoda, Cuv. 

Aporobranchiata, Blainv. 
Stomatopterophora, Gray.) 

3 Gasteropods (Gasteropoda, Cuv. 

Trachelipoda, Lam. 
Gasteropodophora, Gray.) 



Heterogan- 



S78 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 



4 Class Bivalves (Conchifera, Lam. 

Lamellibranchiata, Blainv. 
Conchophora, Gray. 
Tropiopoda, Macgill. 
Dithyra, Aristotle.} 

5 Brachiopods (Brachiopoda, Guv. 

Palliobranchiata, Blainv. 
Spirobrachiophora, Gray.) 

6 Twiicaries (Tunicata, Lam. 

Ascidia, Lin. 

Heterobranchiata, Blainv. 
Apoda, Macgill.) 



I 

o 
bo 



III. SUB-KINGDOM. ANNULOSE-ANIMALS. 

Insecta et Vermes (pars), Lin. Articulata, Cuv. 
Amiulosa, Macleay. Entomozoa, Blainv. Diplo- 
gangliata, vel Entomoidea, Diploneura, Grant. 
Homogangliata, Owen. 



1 Class Insects (Insecta, Ooldfuss. 

Hexapoda (pars), Latr. 
Ptilota, Aristotle. 

2 Aiolopods (Aiolopoda, nolis.) 

3 Arachnidans ...(Arachnida, Macleay. 

Arachnides, Lam. 
Arachnoida, Leach. 
Unogata, Fdbr.) 

4 Crustaceans ...(Crustacea, Cuv). 

5 Cirrhopods (Cirrhopoda, Cuv. 

Cirripeda, Leach. 
Cirripedes, Macleay, 
Nematopoda, Blainv, 
Lepas, Lin,) 



- 3 

It 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY, 379 

6 Class Fish-Parasites . .(Epizoa,, Blainv. 

Siphonostomata, Latr.) 

7 Annelids (Annelida, Macleay. 

Annulida, Grant, 
Annulosa, Latr.) 
Annellides, Lam. 
Annulata, M. Edw.) 



IV.SUB-KINGDOM. EADIATE-ANIMALS. 

Centronix, Pallas. Yermes (pars), Lin. Zoophyta, 
Cwu. Animaux apattdques (pars), Lam. Radiata 
(pars), Flem. Actinozoa, Blainv. Diploneura 
vel Helminthoidea (pars), et Cycloneura (pars), 
Grant. Nematoneura, Owen. 



1 Class Echinoderms , (Echinodermata, Cuv. 

Cirrhodermata, Blainv.) 

2 Sea-Nettles (Acalephse, Cuv. 

Arachnodermata Blainv. 
Malactinia, Grant.) 

3 Rotifers .. (Rotifera, 

T e> ' / \ 

Infusona (pars), 
Rotatoria, Ehr. 
Systolides, Sieb.) 

4 Ascidian-Polyps (Polyzoa, Thomp. 

Bryozoa, Ehr. 
Ciliobrachiata, Farre.) 

5 Cavitary-Parasites ...(Coelmintha, Owen. 

Nematoidea, 



Entozoa (pars), l 
Vers-rigidules, Lam.) 

Polyps (Polypifera, Cfrant. 

Anthozoa, Ehr. 
Phytozoa, Brandt. 
Zoophyta, Gray.) 



380 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTOEY. 

7 Class Parenckymatoits-Parasites (Sterelmintha, Owen. 

Vers-molasses, Lam. 
Entozoa (pars), Rud.) 

V. SUB-KINGDOM. ACRITE-ANIMALS. 

Radiata (pars), Flem. Ciyptoneura (pars), Rudol- 
phi. Animaux apathiques (pars), Lam. Cycloneura 
(pars), Grant. Acrita, Macleay. Oozoa, Cams. 
Protozoa, Oken. 

1 Class Infusorial-Animalcules . (Infusoria (pars), Lin. 

Polygastrica, Ehr. 
Agastria, Blainv.) 

2 Foraminifers (Foraminifera, D'Orb.) 

8 Sponges (Spongia, Lin. 

Porifera, Grant. 
Amorphozoa, Blainv.} 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 381 



PART II. 



PHYTOLOGY. 

THE NATURAL FAMILIES OF THE VEGETABLE KINGDOM, ARRANGED 
ACCORDING TO THEIR ORGANIZATION. 

THE extreme importance of the Vegetable King- 
dom to mankind, the great beauty of some of its 
members, the graceful proportions, or the singular 
construction of others, have rendered it an object 
of engrossing attention from very remote times. As 
knowledge spread and civilization increased, the 
rude acquaintance possessed by early races with 
useful fruits and herbs, gradually increased into a 
special study for ancient sages and philosophers. 
Among the Greeks it was pursued by Hippocrates 
and Aristotle, by Theophrastus and Dioscorides, and 
in the western world it ranked among the scientific 
acquirements of the elder Pliny. Nor was it 
deemed unworthy of the attention of the wisest of 
men, for it is recorded in Sacred writ that Solo- 
mon, King of Israel, spoke of trees, from the cedar- 
tree upon Lebanon, unto the hyssop that sprung 
out of the wall. Nearer our own times it num- 



382 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

bered among its cultivators the industrious Ges- 
ner, Turner, the father of English Botany, quaint 
old Gerard the herbalist, the philosophic Ray, the 
learned Tournefort, and finally it took a lasting 
stand on a fixed and sure basis under the presiding 
genius of the illustrious Scandinavian Linnaeus. 
Since his era it has occupied a high place among 
the natural sciences, having been further advanced 
by the labours of such men as Jussieu, Decandolle, 
and Smith ; while among those still living, it may 
not be invidious to mention the veteran Robert 
Brown, " Botanicorum facile princeps." 

Phytology, or the study of plants and their pro- 
ducts, embraces the consideration of the whole Ve- 
getable Kingdom, and treats of the distribution, the 
conformation, the properties, and the classification 
of trees, shrubs, and herbs, from the minute lichen, 
or simple floating weed, to the gracefully waving 
palm or lofty mountain pine. The latter of these, 
or classification, which will chiefly engage attention 
in the following pages, is founded mainly on exter- 
nal characters, although, more especially of late 
years, differences in internal structure are likewise 
taken into account. Omitting mention of earlier 
more primitive plans, the first division which ob- 
tained great reputation was the celebrated artificial 
arrangement of Linnseus, which, from its simplicity, 
and the comparative facility of its application, 
gained a wide-spread popularity. But, after a time, 
when its novelty had worn off, complaints began to 
be made of its limited nature, as in the absence of 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 383 

the parts of fructification, the class or order of a 
plant could not be determined. Hence arose a cry 
for a natural classification, which, indicated by Ray, 
and acknowledged by Linnseus, was first given to 
the world in a detailed form by Antoine Laurent de 
Jussieu, in 1 789. His system has since been variously 
modified by different writers, of whom the most 
recent is Lindley, whose views are here chiefly 
followed. We have restored to the " orders " of the 
last named writer, their original designation of 
families, while his " alliances " are our orders, as it 
only, we believe, tends to confuse when we find 
phytological and zoological groups of equal value 
differing in their mode of nomenclature. In other 
respects, however, we have adopted nearly through- 
out, the uniform system of termonology employed in 
the last edition of the " Vegetable Kingdom." 

Scarcely any branch can be more universally 
attended to by the travelling naturalist than that 
of Phytology. Wherever he bends his way he will 
almost certainly discover, in some form or another, 
vegetable existences. Water and land alike teem 
with herbaceous productions, the former being either 
marine or fresh-water. Among the latter will be 
found numerous aquatic species, both floating and 
submerged, while the scum on the surface of ponds 
and stagnant pools, will under the microscope, ex- 
hibit various primitive forms of vegetable life. On 
the sea-shores, and extending thence outwards to 
various depths, will be seen numerous varieties of 
marine Algce, and away from the land, often in the 



38 4 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

midst of the ocean, floating masses of sea- weed are 
frequently met with, which are likewise at times 
the abodes of pelagic Crustaceans, and other animals. 
On terra-firma every country has its own peculiar 
plants, which vary from the luxuriant vegetation of 
the valleys, to the bleak and barren wilds of alpine 
regions, or from the thickly-set forests of the tropics 
to the frigid ice-clad rocks of arctic or antarctic 
climes. No country is yet known to be entirely 
destitute of herbage. Melville Island, Novaya Zem- 
lya, and Spitzbergen, in the far north, as well as 
Tierra del Fuego, and the lately-discovered lands of 
the extreme south, alike yield their contributions; 
even from Kerguelen's-land, that Isle of Desolation, 
a limited Flora has been compiled by the younger 
Hooker. 

Vegetables play a most important part in the 
economy of our globe. Not only do they yield 
abundant aliment for man and beast, for insect and 
worm, but also by absorbing carbon from the atmo- 
sphere they purify it and render it fit for respiration ; 
their ashes also, and other debris form the basis of a 
rich soil, which especially in new countries is of vast 
importance. Coals and other bituminous minerals, 
which are the fossilized remains of primeval forests, 
are too well known as most valuable agents in the 
hands of man, to be more than mentioned. In 
short, whether clothing the plain, adding beauty to 
the landscape, or magnificence to the mountain, 
whether charming the eye, or pleasing the imagina- 
tion, affording raiment, food, or medicine, or em- 



MANUAL OF NATUEAL HISTOEY. 



385 



ployed in the arts or sciences, they equally point to 
the great first cause, whose omniscience renders all 
his works subservient to good, 

" Where order in variety we see, 
And where, though all things differ, all agree." 



CLASSIFICATION OF THE VEGETABLE 
KINGDOM. 



I. SUB-KINGDOM. FLOWERING-PLANTS. 

Phanerogamia, Lin. Yasculares, De Cand. Heteror- 
gana, Schultz. Sexuales Lindl. 



1 Class Exoyens 



2 



3 

4 Endogens 



..(Anthophytse, OTcen. 

Dichorgana, Schultz. 

Phylloblastse, Reichen. 

Synechophyta, Schleid. 

Exogense, Lindl.) 
. (Synorhizse, Rich.' 

Gymnospermse, 

Gymnogense, 



Lindl) 



.(Endorhizeae, Rich. 
Synorgana, Schultz. 
Teleophyta, Schleid. 
Endogense, Lindl.) 
.(Ehizanthese, Blum. 
Acrobrya (pars), Endl. 
Evasculares, \ 
Sporogense, I Lindl.) 
Ehizogense, ) 



<1 * CO 



I H 



386 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

II. SUB-KINGDOM. FLOWERLESS-PLANTS. 

Cryptogamia, Lin. Acotyledones, Juss. Cellu- 
lares, De Gand. Homorgana, Sckultz. Esexuales, 
LindL 

1 Class Acrogens (Pseudocotyledonese, Agardh. 

Heteronemea, Fries. 
Hysterophyta^ 1 ^ 
Acrobrya (partim), ) 
Connogense, Lindl. 
Acrogense, Brongn.} 

2 Thallogens (Acotyledoneee, Agardh. 

Homonomea, Fries. 
Cryptophyta, Link. 
Thallo P hyta, ) ^^ 
Protophyta, ) 
Amphigense, Brongn. 
Thallogenae, Lindl.} 



FLO WERING-PLANTS. 

Among Vegetables, Sub-kingdoms cannot be 
defined or limited with the same precision and ac- 
curacy as among animals, for the nervous system, 
of which the different modes of distribution serves 
so well as the basis of primary divisions in the lat- 
ter, is totally wanting in the other, nor do they 
possess any other tissue which can adequately sup- 
ply its place. Some systematical writers, indeed, 
discard the separation into Sub-kingdoms altogether, 
and proceed at once to Classes, Sub-classes, and 
Orders. But without laying too much stress on 
such divisions, they seem to be naturally indicated, 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 387 

and are found useful for purposes of study, and ac- 
cordingly two such have been established, which are 
determined by the presence or absence of flowers, 
and of distinct organs of fructification. The first of 
these, variously named the Flowering, Sexual, or 
Phanerogamic, is the highest in the scale, and 
contains all the more important species. As a gene- 
ral rule, its members attain a much larger size, and 
are in all respects more fully developed. They pos- 
sess vascular as well as cellular tissue, or, as these 
are technically expressed, " parenchyma/" and " an- 
gienchyma ;" they all have distinct sexual organs, 
either in the same or in different individuals, that is 
to say, they are either hermaphrodite or unisexual ; 
and finally they are propagated by seeds. They 
compose nearly six-sevenths of the total number of 
genera and species at present known, the compara- 
tive proportion being greatest within the tropics, 
and diminishing towards the poles. 

Flowers have been arranged according to their 
colour in three series, viz., white, xanthic, and cya- 
nic, the first including all the pale coloured kinds, 
the second comprehending the yellows and scarlets, 
and the third comprising the blue and the pur- 
ple varieties. The white abound more in northern 
situations and alpine regions, the xanthic are more 
common in the tropics, especially during the autumn, 
while the cyanic flourish in the congenial climates, 
and under the clear blue skies of warmer parts of 
temperate latitudes. 

Almost all the vegetable products employed by 

s 2 



388 MANUAL OF NATUEAL HISTORY. 

man are yielded by this Sub-kingdom, which like- 
wise affords abundant food for the lower animals, 
comprehending trees of all kinds, as the Oaks, the 
Sycamores, the Beeches, the Pines of temperate 
climes, also the Baobabs, the Palms, the Cycads of 
the tropics, all fruit-producing species, culinary, 
and other edible herbs, the tea, coffee, and cocoa 
plants, the sugar-cane, the cereal grains, and all 
grasses, and in fine, almost all plants yielding drugs, 
gums, resins, or other economical agents. 

1. SUB-KINGDOM. FLOWERING-PLANTS 
(Phanerogamid). 

Flowers (variously modified) present ; fructifica- 
tion mostly springing from a stem; reproductive 
organs distinct ; propagate by seeds ; sexes in the 
same or in different individuals. 



EXOGENS. 

Exogenous plants constitute the most numerous 
class, not only of the Phanerogamia, but of the 
whole Vegetable Kingdom, comprising upwards of 
six thousand genera, and not fewer than sixty-six 
thousand species. They are in all respects the most 
advanced forms of vegetable life, their organiza- 
tion being more complex, their vitality more in- 
tense, and their powers of endurance and length 
of life more extended. They derive their name 
from the manner in which the woody tissue is 
formed, new matter being annually added from 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 389 

without, which from year to year gives the look of 
a series of concentric rings in a transverse section of 
the trunk. The centre is occupied by a lighter tis- 
sue, named "pith/" while the exterior is covered 
with bark, which is renewed annually by fresh 
matter from within, or on that surface which is in 
contact with the true wood. The appearance of a 
cross section of a stem presents, as just mentioned, 
concentric rings, varying in number according to 
the age of the individual, which are again crossed 
at right angles, by lines radiating from the centre. 
To this, however, there are many exceptions ; in 
some the radii are wanting, in others there is but a 
single ring, or there may be irregular layers of cel- 
lular tissue between the woody zones. These have 
been proposed by Lindley to be placed in a separate 
class, to which the name of " Homogens " has been 
assigned, but this idea, though apparently founded 
on sound principles, has not yet been worked out. 
Exogens were by De Candolle styled Dicotyledones, 
from the seed being composed of two cotyledons. 
The different parts of the flower are generally either 
five or some multiple of that number ; occasionally, 
however, four is the primary number, and in some 
rare cases three. 

Various methods have been proposed for arrang- 
ing this class. Some adopt as the basis of their 
division the existence or non-existence of distinct 
floral envelopes, the former being divided into 
monopetalous and polypetalous. Slightly differ- 
ing from this is the plan of De Candolle, who 



390 MANUAL OF NATUKAL HISTOKY. 

named his divisions Thalamiflorce, Calyciflorce, 
Gorolliflorce, and Monochlamydece. In the suc- 
ceeding pages we shall employ a slight modification 
of the scheme offered by the learned author of the 
"Vegetable Kingdom/' who, considering that the 
parts of fructification are the most important floral 
organs, has founded his classification on their dis- 
tribution and relative situation, and accordingly 
has established four sub-classes, viz., Diclinous, 
Hypogynous, Perigynous, and Epigynous Exogens. 
But we consider that the last three, not being equiva- 
lent in value to the first, must be rejected as sub- 
classes, and continued merely as inferior divisions. 
The great distinction among Exogens, being the 
Hermaphrodite or Unisexual nature of the flowers, 
indicates two primary sections, the one Diclinous, 
and the other Monoclinous or bisexual. The latter 
may be satisfactorily arranged according to the 
position of the stamens into Hypogynous, Perigy- 
nous, and Epigynous alliances, which principle might 
possibly be extended to the other sub-class. Ar- 
ranged therefore in a diagram they appear, thus, in 
descending series. 

1. Sub-class Bisexual Exogens Monoclinese. 

1. Hypogynese. 

2. Perigyneae. 

3. Epigynese. 

2. Unisexual Exogens Diclineae. 

I. CLASS EXOGENS (Exogeme). 
A cellular and a vascular system ; stems with 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 391 

wood and true bark ; wood arranged in concentric 
circles, augmented by growth from without, the 
hardest parts being internal ; bark separable ; 
epidermis furnished with stomata ; leaves reticulated, 
usually articulated to stem ; type of fructification 
quinary or quatenary ; embryo dicotyledonous ; ger- 
mination exorhizal. 

I. SUB-GLASS. BISEXUAL-EXOGENS (Monoclines). 

Male and female organs of reproduction on the 
same flower. 

I. ALLIANCE. EPIGYNOUS-EXOGENS (Epigyneae). 

Flowers commonly hermaphrodite ; stamens grow- 
ing to the side of either the calyx or corolla ; ovary 
inferior or nearly so. 

I. ORDER ASARALS (Asarales). 

Flowers monochlamydeous ; embryo small, lying 
in a large quantity of albumen. 

1. FAMILY. Birthworts (Aristolochiacese). Herbs 

or shrubs, often climbing ; wood without 
concentric zones ; leaves alternate, simple, 
stalked ; flowers solitary, axillary, of a dull 
colour; stamens 6-12; ovary 8-6-celled ; 
ovules 00 ; fruit dry or succulent. Abound 
in warm parts of South America, rare in 
North America, Europe, Siberia and India; 
yield Asarabacca and Virginian Snake-root. 

2. FAMILY. Mistletoes (Loranthacese). Shrubs, 



392 MANUAL OF NATUKAL HISTORY. 

usually parasitic; leaves opposite or alter- 
nate, veinless, fleshy, exstipulate ; flowers often 
showy, axillary or terminal; calyx often 
bracteated ; petals ; ovary unilocular ; ovules 
definite, nucleus naked ; fruit succulent. 
Common in equinoctial Asia, and America, 
rare in Africa, Europe, at the Cape of Good 
Hope, and in Australia. The celebrated 
mistletoe of the Druids (Viscum album) be- 
longs to this family. 

3. FAMILY. Sandal- Woods (Santalacese). Trees, 
shrubs, or herbs ; leaves exstipulate ; flowers 
mostly in spikes ; perianth 4-5-cleft ; ovary 
coherent, 1 -celled; ovules definite,' nucleus 
coated ; fruit 1 -celled, drupaceous ; seed 
solitary. Occur as shrubs in Europe, and 
North America, and as shrubs or small trees 
in the East Indies, Australia, and Polynesia. 
Yield Sandal-wood, Oil-nuts, &c. 

II. OKDER UMBELLALS (Umbellales). 

Flowers polypetalous, dichlamydeous ; seeds large, 
solitary; embryo small, in a large quantity of al- 
bumen. 

1. FAMILY. Bruniads (Bruniacese). Shrubs, 
branched, heath-like; leaves alternate, small, 
imbricated, entire, exstipulate ; flowers small, 
often capitate; petals alternate with seg- 
ments of calyx ; stamens alternate with pe- 
tals ; anthers turned outwards, 2-celled, 
dehiscence longitudinal ; fruit 2 or 1-celled, 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 393 

dicoccous or indehiscent. Natives of the Cape 
of Good Hope. 

2. FAMILY. Witch - Hazels (Hamamelidaceae). 

Shrubs or small trees ; leaves alternate, 
feather-veined, stipulate ; flowers small, some- 
times unisexual; corolla imbricated; anthers 
turned inwards, 2-celled, with deciduous 
valves ; fruit capsular, 2-celled, dehiscence 
loculicidal; seeds pendulous. Occur in North 
America, Japan, China, Central Asia, Mada- 
gascar, and Southern Africa. 

3. FAMILY. Dogwoods (Cornacese). Trees, shrubs, 

or herbs ; leaves mostly opposite, exstipulate ; 
flowers capitate, umbellate, or corymbose ; co- 
rolla valvate ; sepals, petals, and stamens four ; 
anthers 2-celled ; fruit drupaceous, berried, 
2-celled, crowned by limb of calyx ; seed 
pendulous, solitary. Found in temperate 
parts of Europe, Asia, and America. 

4. FAMILY. Ivy-Worts (Araliacese). Trees, shrubs, 

or herbs ; leaves alternate, exstipulate ; 
flowers umbellate or capitate, pentamerous ; 
corolla valvate ; anthers turned inwards, 
dehiscence longitudinal ; ovary inferior, 2 or 
more celled ; fruit mostly succulent, 2-15- 
celled ; seeds pendulous. Occur both in tro- 
pical and in cold climes. Among its mem- 
bers are the common Ivy and other species 
of Hedera. The Ginseng root of the Chinese 
is yielded by a species of Panax. 

5. FAMILY. Umbellifers (Apiacese). Herbs, often 

3 5 



394 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

milky ; stems solid or fistular ; leaves mostly 
alternate, variously divided ; flowers umbel- 
late, involucrate, white, pink, yellow, or 
blue ; calyx superior, 5-toothed ; petals and 
stamens five ; ovary inferior, 2-celled ; ovules 
pendulous, crowned by a double fleshy disk ; 
fruit a cremocarp, consisting of two carpels 
adherent by their face to a common axis ; 
seed pendulous, usually firmly adherent to 
pericarp. From its vast extent, amounting 
to 267 genera, and about 1500 species, it has 
been subdivided as follows : 

1. SUB-FAMILY. Orihospermce. Albumen flat 

on the inner face, neither involute, nor 
convolute. 

2. SUB-FAMILY. Campylospermce. Albumen 

curved at the margins. 

3. SUB-FAMILY. Ccelospermce. Albumen cur- 

ved at the ends. 

The species are also arranged according to their 
properties into 1, harmless ; 2, those affording a 
gum-resin ; 3, those yielding a volatile oil ; and 4, 
the poisonous. Among the first are the Carrot 
(Daucus), Parsnip (Pastinaca), Celery (Apium), 
Parsley (Petroselinum), Fennel (Fceniculum), An- 
gelica (Archangelica), Samphire (Crithmum), and 
Etrth-Nut (Bunium). The second divison affords 
many medicinal agents, as the Assafoetida (Narthex), 
Ammoniac (Dorema), Opoponax (Pastinaca), Gal- 
banum (Opoidia), and Sagapenum, derived from a 
species of Ferula. The third also yields numerous 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 395 

important substances, as Anise (Pimpinella), Cara- 
way (Carum), Coriander (Coriandrum), Cumin 
(Cuminum), and Dill (Anethum). Among the 
dangerous individuals of the last division may be 
noted Hemlock (Gonium), Water-Hemlock (Cicuta), 
Fools-Parsley (jEthusa), and the species of CEnan- 
the. The distribution of this family, which is the 
Umbelliferce of authors, is widely extended. 

III. ORDER CINCHONALS (Cinchonales). 

Flowers dichlamydeous, monopetalous ; embryo 
minute, in a large quantity of albumen. 

1. FAMILY. Madders (Rubiacese). Herbs, stems 

square ; leaves whorled, exstipulate ; flowers 
minute ; corolla 4-6-lobed ; stamens epi- 
petalous; anthers bursting longitudinally; 
fruit didymous ; cotyledons leafy. Natives 
of the Northern Hemisphere, also of moun- 
tainous parts of Peru, Chili, and Australasia. 
Madder is the product of the root of several 
species of Rubia. (Galiacece. Lindley.) 

2. FAMILY. Honeysuckles (Caprifoliacese). Shrubs 

or herbs ; leaves opposite, exstipulate ; flowers 
corymbose, often sweet scented ; calyx 4-5- 
clefb ; corolla lobed ; stamens epicorolline ; an- 
thers bursting longitudinally ; fruit fleshy or 
dry, in dehiscent. Contains two Sub-families, 
viz., 1, the Lonicerece or Honeysuckles pro- 
per, with a raphe on inner side of ovule, 
and 2, the Sambucece or Elders, with a raphe 
on outer side of ovule. Occur principally in 



396 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

Northern parts of Europe, Asia, and America, 
also sparingly in Northern Africa. Contains 
Honeysuckle, Elder, Gueldres-Rose, and the 
beautiful Linncea borealis. 

3. FAMILY. Peruvian-Barks (Cinchonaceae). Trees, 
shrubs, or herbs; stems rounded; leaves 
simple, opposite or verticillate, with inter- 
petiolar stipules ; flowers usually in panicles 
or corymbs ; calyx adherent ; corolla tubular, 
lobed; stamens epipetalous ; anthers straight, 
bursting longitudinally ; ovary crowned 
with a disk ; fruit 2 or many celled, dry 
or succulent, indehiscent, or splitting into 
two mericarps ; cotyledons thin. A most im- 
portant family, yielding the various " Barks " 
of commerce and their products Quina, and 
Cinchonia, also Ipecacuan, Coffee, a variety 
of Catechu, &c. Divided into two Sub- 
families, which are, 1, the Coffece, with one or 
two seeds in each cell of the ovary, and 2, 
the Cinchonece with a many-seeded ovary. 
Live almost entirely in tropical regions. 

4 FAMILY. Columelliads (Columelliacese). Ever- 
green shrubs, or trees ; leaves opposite, ex- 
stipulate ; flowers unsymmetrical, yellow, 
terminal ; calyx 5-parted ; corolla rotate, 5-8- 
parted ; stamens two, epipetalous ; anthers 
sinuous, bursting longitudinally ; fruit cap- 
sular, bilocular ; cotyledons oval, obtuse. Na- 
tives of Mexico and Peru. 

5. FAMILY. Cranberries (Vacciniaceae). Shrubby 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 397 

plants, frequently evergreen, occasionally 
epiphytic ; leaves alternate, undivided, ex- 
stipulate ; flowers solitary or racemose ; ca- 
lyx and corolla usually 4-6-lobed ; stamens 
8-12, distinct ; anthers opening by pores ; 
fruit succulent ; cotyledons very short. 
Found in temperate regions, often in marshy 
places. Yield Bilberries, Cranberries, 
Whortleberries, &c. 

IY. ORDER. GKOSSALS (Grossales). 

Flowers dichlamydeous, polypetalous ; seeds nu- 
merous, minute ; embryo small, in a large quantity 
of albumen. 

1. FAMILY. Barringtoniads (Barringtoniaceae). 

Trees or shrubs; leaves opposite or verti- 
cillate, not dotted ; sepals and petals 4-5 ; 
stamens 00, mostly monadelphous ; anthers 
oblong ; ovary 2-5-celled ; placentas axile ; 
fruit fleshy, 1 -celled. Tropical plants in both 
hemispheres, some found in low, moist situa- 
tions. 

2. FAMILY. Syringas (Philadelphaceae). Shrubs; 

leaves deciduous, opposite, exstipulate, with- 
out dots ; flowers white or pink, in tricho- 
tomous cymes ; calyx valvate ; stamens 00 ; 
styles distinct, or united into one ; placentae 
axile; fruit capsular. Occur in Southern 
Europe, North America, India, and Japan. 

3. FAMILY. Escalloniads (Escalloniaceae). Shrubs; 

evergreen; leaves alternate, simple, resin- 



398 MANUAL OF NATUKAL HISTORY. 

ously glandular, exstipulate; calyx im- 
bricated ; petals and stamens five ; ovary 
2-5-celled ; style simple ; placentae axile ; fruit 
capsular ; albumen oily. Occur chiefly in 
temperate parts of South America, but reach 
as far as the Straights of Magellan ; found 
also in Bourbon, South Australia, and New 
Zealand. 

4. FAMILY. Currants (Grossulariacese). Shrubs ; 
unarmed or spiny; leaves alternate, lobed; 
vernation plicate ; flowers in axillary racemes; 
calyx 4~5-cleft ; petals five, perigynous ; 
stamens 4-5 ; ovary unilocular ; placentae 
parietal ; fruit a 1 -celled berry, crowned 
with the remains of the flower. Live in 
temperate regions in Europe, Asia, and 
America; unknown in Africa. Yield various 
edible fruits, as the Gooseberry and the 
varieties of the Currant. 

V. ORDER CACTALS (Cactales). 

Flowers dichlamydeous, polypetalous ; placentae 
parietal ; embryo with little or no albumen. 
L FAMILY. Indian - Figs (Cactacese). Shrubs; 
succulent ; woody matter often arranged in 
wedges ; stems mostly angular or flattened ; 
leaves usually wanting, when present, fleshy, 
smooth, entire, or spinous ; flowers sessile, 
showy or minute; sepals and petals numer- 
ous, undistinguishable ; stamens 00 ; anthers 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 399 

ovate, versatile ; ovary fleshy, unilocular ; 
styles confluent ; ovules 00, horizontal ; fruit 
succulent, 1 -celled, smooth, scaly or tuber- 
cular ; albumen none. Natives of dry, hot, 
and exposed situations; almost exclusively 
American, though numerous species have been 
introduced into the Eastern Hemisphere. 
Many produce an edible fruit, which is often 
refreshing, as the Barbadoes-Gooseberry, and 
the Prickly-Pear. The principal food of the 
Cochineal-Insect is obtained from plants of 
this family, but especially from the Opuntia 
cochinellifera. 

2. FAMILY. Chili-Nettles (Loasacese). Herbaceous; 

hispid, with stinging hairs ; leaves opposite 
or alternate, exstipulate ; peduncles axillary, 
1 -flowered ; calyx 4~5-parted ; petals five ; 
stamens 00, distinct or polyadelphous ; 
ovules confluent, pendulous ; fruit capsular 
or succulent. American plants. Occurring in 
temperate and tropical regions ; distinguished 
on account of their stinging properties. 

3. FAMILY. Homaliads (Homaliacese). Trees or 

shrubs; leaves alternate ; stipules deciduous; 
flowers in spikes, racemes, or panicles; calyx 
funnel-shaped, 5-1 5 -divided ; petals 5-15 ; 
stamens opposite petals ; styles 3-5, separate; 
ovules pendulous ; fruit baccate or capsular. 
Tropical plants, chiefly African, or Indian ; a 
few are found in the West Indies and South 
America. 



400 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

VI. ORDER MYKTALS (Myrtales). 

Flowers dichlamydeous, polypetalous ; placentae 
axile ; embryo with little or no albumen. 

1. FAMILY. Brazil-Nuts (Lecythidaceae). Large 

trees ; leaves alternate, not dotted ; flowers 
showy, terminal, solitary, or racemose; calyx 
valvate or imbricate ; petals 6 ; stamens mona- 
delphous ; anthers oblong ; ovary plurilo- 
cular; fruit a woody capsule, either re- 
maining closed or opening by a lid. Found 
in Guiana and other hot parts of South 
America. Yield Brazil-Nuts. 

2. FAMILY. Myrtle-blooms (Myrtacese). Trees or 

shrubs ; leaves opposite or alternate, entire, 
usually dotted, and often with an intrumar- 
ginal line ; inflorescence variable ; flowers red, 
white or yellow, never blue ; calyx val- 
vate, 4-5-cleft ; petals 4-5 ; stamens usually 
00 ; anthers oblong, 2-celled ; ovary pluri- 
locular ; fruit dry or fleshy. Natives of hot 
countries, both intratropical and extratro- 
pical. Among the members of this family 
are the huge Eucalypti of New Holland, one 
of which produces "Botany-Bay Kino/' the 
Guava-tree, and the Pomegranate, and among 
the products are Cloves, Pimento, and Caje- 
put-OiL 

3. FAMILY. Melastomads (Melastomacese). Trees, 

shrubs, or herbs ; leaves opposite, undivided, 
usually S 9-ribbed, dotless ; flowers terminal ; 
calyx imbricated, 4-6-lobed ; petals 4-6 ; sta- 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 401 

mens definite ; anthers rostrate ; ovary pluri- 
locular; fruit dry or succulent; seeds very 
numerous. Chiefly tropical plants, some occur 
in North India, China, Australia, and the 
United States. The succulent fruit of some 
species is edible ; that of Melastoma dyes the 
mouth black, whence the name. 

4. FAMILY. Napoleon- Wort s(Belvisiacese). Shrubs; 

wood soft, whitish ; leaves alternate, coriace- 
ous, exstipulate ; flowers axillary, in sets of 
threes ; calyx gamosepalous ; corolla in three 
monopetalous rings ; stamens indefinite, 
monadelphous ; ovary plurilocular ; fruit a 
large, soft, spherical berry ; seeds large, kid- 
ney-shaped. The two curious genera which, 
at present, compose this family are from tro- 
pical Africa. 

5. FAMILY. Mangroves (Rhizophoracese). Trees or 

shrubs ; leaves opposite, simple, occasionally 
dotted ; stipules deciduous, interpetiolary ; 
peduncles axillary or terminal; calyx valvate, 
4-12-lobed; petals 4-12 ; stamens indefinite; 
ovary 2, 3, 4-celled ; fruit indehiscent, ad- 
herent to, and crowned by the calyx ; seed 
pendulous ; cotyledon flat ; radicle long, 
piercing the fruit. Occur on muddy shores 
in the tropics, where they form close thickets. 

6. FAMILY. Evening - Primroses (Onagracese). 

Herbs or shrubs ; leaves alternate or opposite, 
simple, not dotted; flowers axillary or ter- 
minal, variously coloured ; calyx valvate, 



402 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

tubular ; petals usually four ; stamens mostly 
four or eight ; ovary 2 4-celled ; ovules hori- 
zontal or ascending ; fruit baccate or capsular ; 
cotyledons flat, larger than the radicle. Na- 
tives of temperate regions, chiefly American. 
Some as various species of Fuchsia, yielding 
edible fruit, others, as the Water-Chesnut 
(Trapa natans), edible seeds. 

7. FAMILY. Mares' -Tails (Haloragaceae). Herbs 

or under-shrubs, often aquatic ; leaves alter- 
nate, opposite, or whorled ; flowers axil- 
lary, mostly sessile, occasionally apetalous ; 
calyx open, minute; stamens definite; ovary 
plurilocular, adherent to calyx; ovules pen- 
dulous ; fruit dry, indehiscent ; cotyledons 
minute. Distribution pretty general in damp 
places. 

8. FAMILY. Fringe- Myrtles (Cbamselauciacese). 

Shrubs, heath-like ; abound in glandular 
oily cysts ; leaves evergreen, acerose, flat, 
opposite, dotted ; flowers racemose or corym- 
bose, yellow, red, violet or white ; calyx 
adherent to ovary; ovary 1 -celled; fruit a 
dry indehiscent pericarp ; embryo homo- 
geneous. Natives of New Holland. 

9. FAMILY. Alangiads (Alangiaceee). Trees or 

shrubs; branches often spiny; leaves alter- 
nate, exstipulate, dotless ; flowers fascicled, 
axillary ; calyx campanulate ; petals 5-10 ; 
anthers introrse ; ovary globose, 1-2-celled ; 
ovules pendulous ; fruit oval, fleshy ; cotyle- 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY 403 

dons flat. Natives of Southern India; one 
genus (Nyssa) occurs in the United States. 

10. FAMILY. Myrobalans (Combretacese). Trees or 

shrubs ; leaves alternate or opposite, entire, 
dotless; calyx adherent; anthers bursting 
longitudinally ; ovary 1 -celled ; fruit dru- 
paceous, baccate or nut-like; seeds pendulous; 
cotyledons convolute or plicate. Natives of 
tropical Asia, Africa, and America 

11. FAMILY. Illigerads (Illigeracese). Trees or 

shrubs ; leaves opposite or alternate, ex- 
stipulate ; calyx adherent ; corolla wanting ; 
anthers dehiscing by recurved valves ; ovary 
1 -celled ; fruit unilocular, indehiscent ; coty- 
ledons convolute. Occur in inter-tropical 
regions. 

VII. ORDER. CAMPANALS (Campanales). 

Flowers dichlamydeous, monopetalous ; embryo 

with little or no albumen. 

1. FAMILY. Composites (Asteracese). Herbaceous, 
shrubby, or occasionally arborescent ; leaves 
alternate or opposite, exstipulate, simple, but 
often much divided ; flowers, named " florets," 
unisexual or hermaphrodite, collected in 
dense heads upon a common receptacle, and 
surrounded by bracts in the form of an invo- 
lucre ; corolla gamopetalous, ligulate, tubular, 
or bilabiate, aestivation valvate ; anther^ 
syngenesious ; ovary 1 -celled ; ovule erect ; 



404 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

fruit an achsenium; seed solitary, erect, 
exalbuminous. One of the largest of the 
natural families of plants ; divided by Be 
Candolle into 1 Tubuliflorce, 2 Labiatiflorce, 
and 3 Liguliflorce ; arrayed by Jussieu into 
the following Sub-families, viz. : 

1. Cynarocephalce. Florets all tubular ; invo- 

lucre hard, conical, often spiny, 

2. Corymbiferce. Florets tubular in the centre, 

ligulate in the circumference ; involucre 
hemispherical, leafy or scaly, seldom spiny. 

3. Cichoracece. Florets all ligulate. 

To which has been subsequently added, 

4. Bilabiatce. Florets divided into two lips. 
Of these, the first two correspond to the Tubuli- 
florce, the third to the Liguliflorce, and the fourth 
to the Labiatiflorce. The distribution of composite 
plants is very general, but does not follow any very 
fixed law ; in northern climates they are shrubs, 
but in warmer regions they are herbaceous, or even 
arborescent. Cichoracece are more abundant in cold 
climes, while Corymbiferce prefer warm countries ; 
the Bilabiatce are mostly American. Among the 
plants, &c., employed by man from this family are 
Wormwood (Artemisia Absinthium), Southern- 
wood (A. Abrotanum), Moxa (A. Moxa), Tansy 
(Tanacetum vulgar e), Milfoil (Achillea millefolia), 
Chamomile (Anthemis nobilis), Feverfew (Pyreth- 
rum parthenium), Pellitory of Spain (Anacyclus 
Pyrethrum), Leopard VBane (Arnica montana), 
Elecampane (InulaHelenium), Jerusalem-Artichoke 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 405 

(Helianihus tuber osus), Burdock (Arctium Lappa), 
Blessed-Thistle (Cnicus benedictus), Safflower (Car- 
thamus tinctorius), Artichoke (Cynara Scolymus), 
Chicory (Cichorium Intybus), Endive (G. Endivia), 
Dandelion (Taraxacum Dens-leonis), Common-Let- 
tuce (Lactuca sativa), Wild-Lettuce (L. virosa) 
Scorzonera (Scorzonera Hispanica). (Compositce, 
De Candolle.) 

2. FAMILY. Galycers (Calyceracese). Herbs ; leaves 

alternate, exstipulate; flowers sessile, capi- 
tate, surrounded by an involucre ; corolla 
regular, valvate, infundibuliform ; anthers 
syngenesious ; ovary 1 -celled ; ovule pendu- 
lous ; fruit an achsenium ; seeds albuminous. 
Natives of South America, especially Chili. 

3. FAMILY. Teazels (Dipsacacese). Herbs or under- 

shrubs; leaves opposite or verticillate; flowers 
capitate or verticillate, surrounded by a 
many-leaved involucre ; corolla gamopetalous, 
tubular ; aestivation imbricate ; anthers free ; 
ovary 1 -celled ; ovule pendulous ; fruit dry, 
indehiscent ; seeds albuminous. Occur in the 
South of Europe, the Levant, Barbary, and 
at the Cape of Good Hope. 

4. FAMILY. Valerians (Yalerianacese). Herbs, an- 

nual or perennial, usually strong-scented; 
leaves opposite, exstipulate ; inflorescence 
cymose ; corolla imbricate ; anthers free ; 
ovary 1 -celled ; ovule pendulous ; fruit dry, 
indehiscent, with one fertile, and two abortive 
cells ; seed exalbuminous. Natives of tern- 



406 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

perate regions. The root of the Common- 
Valerian (Valeriana officinalis) is employed 
medicinally. 

5. FAMILY. Style-Worts (Stylidiacese) Herbs or 

under-shrubs, non-lactescent ; leaves alter- 
nate, scattered, or somewhat verticillate, 
exstipulate; flowers in spikes, racemes or 
corymbs, or solitary and terminal, rarely 
axillary ; corolla gamopetalous ; aestivation 
imbricate ; stamens two ; filaments and style 
united into a column, which is very irritable ; 
anthers didymous ; ovary 2 or more celled ; 
fruit a capsule, with 2 valves and 2 cells ; 
seeds albuminous. Principally inhabit Aus- 
tralian marshes, but occur also in India, 
the South of New Zealand, and along the 
Straits of Magellan. 

6. FAMILY. Goodeniads (Goodeniacese). Herbs, 

rarely shrubs, non-lactescent; leaves scat- 
tered, exstipulate, usually alternate ; flowers 
distinct, never capitate, yellow, blue, or pink ; 
corolla induplicate ; stamens five ; anthers 
syngenesious or free ; stigma surrounded by 
a cup-like indusium ; ovary 2 or more celled ; 
fruit capsular, drupaceous or nut-like ; seeds 
albuminous. Natives of Australasia and 
Polynesia, 

7. FAMILY. Lobelias (Lobeliacese). Herbs or 

shrubs, lactescent ; leaves alternate, exstipu- 
late ; flowers axillary or terminal ; corolla 
gamopetalous ; aestivation valvate, irregular ; 



MANUAL OF NATUKAL HISTORY. 407 

anthers syngenesious ; stigma surrounded by 
a fringe of hairs; ovary 1-3-celled; fruit 
capsular, dehiscing at the apex; seeds nu- 
merous, albuminous. Found in the West 
Indies, Brazil, Chili, on the Himmalayas, at 
the Cape of Good Hope, in the Sandwich- 
Islands, and Australia. Some species of 
Lobelia are medicinal. The plants are ge- 
nerally acrid. 

8. FAMILY. Bell-Flowers (Campanulacese). Herbs 
or under-shrubs, lactescent ; leaves mostly 
alternate, exstipulate ; flowers in racemes, 
spikes, or panicles, or in heads, usually blue 
or white ; corolla monopetalous ; aestivation 
valvate ; anthers free or half united ; stigma 
naked ; ovary 2 or more celled ; fruit cap- 
sular; seeds albuminous. Occur in the North 
of Europe, Asia, and America, also in the 
Canaries, St. Helena, at the Cape of Good 
Hope, and in Juan Fernandez. 

II. ALLIANCE. PEKIGYNOUS-EXOGENS (Perigynese). 

Flowers commonly hermaphrodite ; stamens grow- 
ing to the side of either the calyx or corolla ; ovary 
superior, or nearly so. 

I. ORDER BIGNONIALS (Bignoniales). 

Flowers dichlamydeous, monopetalous, unsym- 
metrical; fruit capsular or berried, carpels con- 
solidated ; placentae parietal, free, central, or axile ; 
embryo with little or no albumen. 



408 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

1. FAMILY. #u#er-TF(??is(Lentibulariacese). Herbs, 

aquatic or marshy; leaves radical, sometimes 
compound, bearing little vesicles ; flowers 
single, in spikes, or in many-flowered ra- 
cemes; corolla bilabiate; stamens two; ovary 
composed of two carpellary leaves ; fruit 
capsular, dehiscence transverse or apicilar; 
placentae free, central ; seeds minute, exalbu- 
minous; cotyledons much smaller than the 
radicle. Distribution very general, especially 
abundant within the tropics. 

2. FAMILY. Fig-Worts (Scrophulariaceae). Herbs, 

under-shrubs, or shrubs ; leaves opposite, 
whorled, or alternate ; flowers mostly axillary 
or racemose ; corolla bilabiate or personate ; 
aestivation imbricate ; stamens usually four ; 
ovary free, 2-celled ; placentas axile ; fruit 
capsular, rarely fleshy ; seeds albuminous ; 
cotyledons scarcely larger, or not so large as 
the radicle. Found in most parts of the 
world, one species occurs in Melville Island, 
and several in Tierra del Fuego. Several 
members of this family have been used in 
medicine, as Great -Mullein ( Verbascum 
Thapsus), Knotted-Figwort (Scrophularia 
nodosct), and especially Foxglove (Digitalis 
purpurea). 

3. FAMILY. Acanths (Acanthaceae). Herbs or 

shrubs ; leaves opposite, exstipulate ; in- 
florescence terminal or axillary; flowers 
bracteated; stamens 2-4; ovary free, 2-celled; 



MANUAL OF NATUKAL HISTORY. 409 

placentae axile ; fruit capsular, 2-celled, de- 
hiscence loculicidal, by two elastic valves ; 
seeds wingless, exalbuminous, attached to 
hard, persistent, placental processes; cotyle- 
dons large, fleshy. Almost entirely a tropical 
family ; one species occurs in Greece, and a 
few in the United States. 

4. FAMILY. Trumpet - Flowers (Bignoniaceae). 

Trees, shrubs, or herbs ; leaves mostly op- 
posite, exstipulate ; inflorescence terminal ; 
calyx sometimes spathaceous ; corolla usually 
irregular ; stamens five ; ovary 1 -2-celled ; 
placentae axile ; fruit capsular, 2-celled, 2- 
valved ; seeds winged, sessile, exalbuminous ; 
cotyledons large, leafy. Abound in tropical 
countries, but occur in America, from Penn- 
sylvania to Chili. 

5. FAMILY. Crescentiads (Crescentiacese). Small 

trees; leaves alternate or clustered, exstipu- 
late ; flowers growing out of the old stems 
or branches ; corolla irregular ; aestivation 
imbricate; stamens four; ovary free; stigma 
of two lobes ; fruit woody, melon-shaped, 
succulent, containing numerous large seeds 
immersed in the pulp of the placentae ; em- 
bryo exalbuminous; radicle short. Natives of 
tropical Asia, Africa, and America,. especially 
abundant in Madagascar and the Mauritius. 

6. FAMILY. Gesner-Worts (Gesneraceae). Herbs or 

shrubs, soft wooded, often springing from 
scaly tubers ; leaves opposite or whorled, 



410 MANUAL OF NATUEAL HISTOEY. 

rugose, exstipulate ; flowers showy, in ra- 
cemes or panicles ; corolla tubular, irregular ; 
aestivation imbricate ; stamens 2-4 ; ovary 
partly free ; placentae parietal ; fruit capsular 
or baccate, 1 -celled ; seeds very numerous ; 
cotyledons minute, radicle long. Occur in 
tropical countries, but also in Europe, at the 
Cape of Good Hope, in New Holland, and 
the Sandwich Islands. 

7. FAMILY. PecZa?mcfe(Pedaliacese). Herbs, covered 
with glandular hairs ; leaves opposite or 
alternate, exstipulate ; flowers usually large, 
axillary, solitary or clustered ; corolla ir- 
regular, aestivation valvate ; stamens didyna- 
mous ; ovary 1 -celled ; placentae parietal ; 
fruit drupaceous or capsular ; seeds wingless, 
exalbuminous ; embryo amygdaloid ; radicle 
short. Distribution general throughout the 
tropics, but especially in Africa. 

II. OKDER ECHIALS (EcMales). 

Flowers dichlamydeous, monopetalous, symme- 
trical or non-symmetrical; fruit nucamentaceous, 
consisting of 1 -seeded nuts, or of clusters of them 
separate or separable ; embryo large, with little or 
no albumen. 

I. SUB-ORDER. UNSYMMETEICAL-ECHIALS (Lamianse). 

Flowers irregular, unsymmetrical. 
1. FAMILY. Selagids (Selaginaceae). Herbs or 
small branched shrubs ; leaves alternate, 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTOKY. 411 

exstipulate ; flowers sessile, bracteate ; calyx 
spathaceous or tubular ; aestivation imbricate ; 
stamens four ; anthers 1 -celled ; ovules pen- 
dulous ; fruit confluent nuts, 2-celled ; seed 
solitary, pendulous ; radicle superior. Princi- 
pally natives of the Cape of Good Hope ; one 
species is found in Siberia, and a few occur 
in the South of Europe. 

2. FAMILY. White -Mangroves (Myoporacese), 
Shrubs, scarcely pubescent ; leaves alternate 
or opposite, exstipulate, simple ; flowers 
axillary ; stamens four ; anthers 2-celled ; 
ovary 2-4-celled; ovules pendulous; fruit 
drupaceous ; seeds pendulous ; radicle su- 
perior. Occur in the Southern tropical regions 
of Africa and America, also in Australia, 
Van Diemen's Land, and New Zealand 

5. FAMILY. Vervains (Verbenacese). Trees, shrubs, 
or herbs ; leaves mostly opposite, exstipulate ; 
flowers usually in opposite corymbs, or alter- 
nate spikes ; calyx and corolla tubular ; 
aestivation imbricate ; stamens four; ovary 2- 
4-celled; ovules erect; fruit nucamentaceous, 
sometimes berried ; radicle inferior. Common 
in tropical and temperate America. Occur 
also in Europe, and Asia. The most im- 
portant species is the East Indian Teak (Tec- 
tona grandis). 

4 FAMILY.- M ints (Lamiacese). Herbs or under- 
shrubs ; stem tetragonal ; leaves opposite, 
exstipulate, with receptacles of aromatic oil ; 

T 2 



412 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

inflorescence cymose, flowers often in verti- 
cillasters; corolla bilabiate, the upper lip 
entire or bifid, lower layer, 3-lobed ; stamens 
four; ovary free, deeply 4-lobed; ovules four; 
stigma bifid ; fruit 1 to 4 small achasnia, 
enclosed within the persistent calyx ; seeds 
erect ; cotyledons flat ; radicle inferior. Na- 
tives chiefly of temperate countries. Among 
the more important species, are Peppermint 
(Meniha piperita), Spearmint (M. viridis), 
Pennyroyal (M. Pulegium), Lavender (La- 
vandula vera), Rosemary (Rosmarinus offici- 
nalis), Wild-Marjoram (Origanum vulgare), 
Sweet-Marjoram (Melissa officinalis), White- 
Horehound (Marrubium vulgare), Sage 
(Salvia officinalis, S. grandiflora), Thyme 
(Thymus), and Kretan-Dittany (Origanum 
Dictammus). (Labiatce, Jussieu.) 

II. SUB-ORDER. SYMMETRICAL-ECHIALS (Boraginanse). 

Flowers regular, symmetrical 
5. FAMILY. Brunoniads (Brunoniaceae). Herbs, 
stemless, with simple glandless hairs ; leaves 
radical, exstipulate ; flowers capitate, on 
scapes, surrounded by an involucre of en- 
larged bracts, blue ; calyx free ; "corolla 
almost regular ; aestivation valvate ; stamens 
five ; stigma enclosed in an indusium ; fruit 
a membranous utricle ; seed solitary, erect, 
exalbuminous ; radicle inferior. Australian 
species. 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 413 

6. FAMILY. Borages (Boraginacese). Herbs or 

shrubs; stems round; leaves alternate, rough, 
exstipulate ; flowers usually in gyrate cymes ; 
aestivation imbricate ; stamens five ; ovary 
usually 4-lobed ; ovules four ; stigma naked, 
simple or bifid; fruit 2 or 4 distinct nuts; 
radicle superior. Natives of northern tem- 
perate regions. Alkanet, the root ofAnchusa 
tinctoria, is used by dyers. 

7. FAINTLY. Nolanads (Nolanacese). Herbaceous or 

suffruticose, prostrate or erect; leaves alter- 
nate, exstipulate ; inflorescence straight \ 
flowers usually showy ; calyx 5-parted, 
aestivation valvate ; corolla with aestivation 
plicate ; stamens five ; stigma naked, some- 
what capitate ; fruit five or more nuts, distinct 
or partly confluent ; pericarp woody, often a 
little succulent ; embryo curved. A small 
family, almost entirely Chilian. 

8. FAMILY. Ehretiads (Ehretiaceae). Trees, shrubs, 

or herbs ; pubescence harsh ; leaves alternate, 
exstipulate ; flowers gyrate ; aestivation im- 
bricated ; stamens five ; ovary quadrilocular, 
concrete ; style terminal ; fruit drupaceous ; 
seeds usually albuminous. Occur principally 
in South America. 

9. FAMILY. Heliotropes (Heliotropiaceae). Trees, 

shrubs, or herbs ; leaves alternate, simple, ex- 
stipulate ; inflorescence circinnate ; stamens 
five ; stigma naked ; style terminal ; ovary 
entire or 2-lobed ; fruit dry, separable into 



414 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

four achasnia ; seeds exalbuminous. Found in 
the South of Europe, and in tropical regions. 

10. FAMILY. Sacred -Mustards (Salvadoracese). 
Small trees or shrubs ; stem slightly tumid at 
the articulations ; leaves opposite, leathery ; 
flowers minute, in loose panicles ; calyx 4- 
leaved ; corolla 4-parted ; stamens four ; 
ovary 1 -celled; stigma naked, sessile; fruit 
solitary, succulent ; embryo exalbuminous. 
Contains but one genus, viz., Salvadora, to 
which the Mustard-Tree of Scripture has 
been referred by Koyle. The species occur in 
Syria, India, and North Africa. 

11. FAMILY. Jessamines (Jasminaceae). Shrubs ; 
stems often climbing; leaves opposite or 
alternate, compound ; flowers opposite, corym- 
bose, white or yellow ; aestivation twisted or 
valvate ; stamens two ; ovary free, 2-celled ; 
stigma naked, 2-lobed ; fruit a double berry, 
a pyxidium, or a 2-valved capsule ; seeds 
with little or no albumen; radicle inferior. 
Chiefly inhabit Tropical India, but occur also 
in Southern Europe, Africa, South America, 
and Australia. 

III. OKDER CORTUSALS (Cortusales). 

Flowers monodichlamydeous ; placentae free, cen- 
tral ; embryo with much albumen. 
1. FAMILY. Malaspinceads(MgicQYSitsice3Q). Shrubs; 
leaves alternate, undivided ; flowers small, 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY, 415 

monopetalous ; stamens opposite petals; an- 
ther-cells cut transversely ; ovary 1 -celled ; 
stalk of placentae much lengthened during 
ripening, being converted into a false funi- 
culus ; fruit fleshy, follicular when ripe; seeds 
exalbuminous. Composed of a single genus 
inhabiting tropical shores. 

2. FAMILY. Ardisiads (Myrsinacese). Trees, 

shrubs, or under-shrubs ; stem woody; leaves 
alternate or opposite, coriaceous, smooth, ex- 
stipulate ; inflorescence in umbels, corymbs, 
or panicles, mostly axillary ; flowers small, 
white or red, occasionally unisexual; calyx 
and corolla 4-5-cleft ; stamens opposite petals ; 
anthers sagittate ; ovary free or partially ad- 
herent ; fruit drupaceous, indehiscent ; seeds 
angular or roundish. Found in Asia, Africa, 
and America, in Bourbon, the Isle of France, 
Madagascar, the Azores, Canaries, and Ma- 
deira, and in New Zealand. 

3. FAMILY. Primroses (Primulacese). Herbaceous, 

or under-shrubs, annual or perennial ; leaves 
usually radical, opposite, exstipulate ; flowers 
on simple or umbellate scapes ; calyx and 
corolla 5- rarely 4-cleft ; stamens opposite 
segments; ovary 1-celled; style one; fruit 
capsular, valvate, many-seeded; seeds nu- 
merous, peltate. Occur principally in the 
Northern Hemisphere, in temperate and cold 
regions ; in the tropics they inhabit sea-shores 
or lofty situations. Some occur in Australia. 



416 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

Yield numerous horticultural favourites, as 
the Auricula, Primrose, Cowslip, Oxlip, fee, 

4. FAMILY. Rib-Worts (Plantaginacese). Herbs, 

often stemless ; leaves radical, ribbed ; flowers 
hermaphrodite and spiked, or unisexual and 
solitary ; corolla with a 4-parted limb ; sta- 
mens alternate with segments ; ovary sessile ; 
style one j stigma hispid ; fruit capsular, 
operculate ; seeds sessile, peltate or erect. 
Distribution very general, but more abundant 
in temperate regions. 

5. FAMILY. Sea-Pinks (Plumbaginacese). Herbs or 

under-shrubs ; leaves alternate or fasciculate, 
exstipulate, somewhat sheathing at the base ; 
calyx tubular ; corolla monopetalous or pen- 
tapetalous ; stamens opposite petals ; ovary 
free, 1 -celled; styles five, seldom four or three, 
each bearing a subulate stigma ; fruit mem- 
branous, 1 -seeded ; seed inverted. Inhabit 
salt-marshes, and the sea-shores along the 
Mediterranean, Southern Russia, also in 
Affghanistan, Cabul, China, Australasia, the 
Cape of Good Hope, Cape Horn, and in 
Greenland. 

6. FAMILY. Water-leaves (Hydrophyllacese). Trees, 

shrubs, or herbs, often hispid; leaves opposite 
or alternate, exstipulate, often lobed ; flowers 
in gyrate racemes or unilateral spikes, occa- 
sionally solitary and axillary ; calyx deeply 
5-cleft ; corolla shortly 5-cleft ; aestivation 
plicate or imbricate ; stamens alternate with 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. ' 417 

petals ; ovary 1-2-celled ; styles two, long ; 
fruit capsular, 2-valved, 1-2-celled; placentae 
parietal or central ; seeds reticulated. Chiefly 
found in the Northern and Southern pro- 
vinces of America, but occur sparingly also in 
the East Indies and the Cape of Good Hope. 

IY. ORDER SOLANALS (Solanales). 

Flowers dichlamydeous, monopetalous, symme- 
trical ; placentae axile ; fruit 2-3-celled ; embryo 
large, lying in a small quantity of albumen. 

1. FAMILY. Phloxes (Polemoniaceae). Herbs, often 

climbing; leaves opposite or alternate, sim- 
ple or compound ; calyx 5 -par ted ; corolla 
5-lobed; stamens five, free; pollen often blue; 
ovary superior, 3-celled ; style simple ; stigma 
trifid ; fruit capsular, 3-celled, 3-valved ; 
seeds angular, oval or winged; cotyledons 
elliptical or cordate, foliaceous. Natives of 
temperate latitudes, chiefly in North and 
South America. 

2. FAMILY. Dodders (Cuscutacese). Parasitic, leafless, 

climbing, colourless ; flowers in dense clusters ; 
calyx 4-5-parted ; corolla 4-5-cleft ; aestiva- 
tion imbricate ; scales on coralline tube ; sta- 
mens five, free ; ovary 2-celled ; stigmas two ; 
placentas basal ; fruit capsular or baccate, 2- 
celled ; cells l~2-seeded ; embryo spiral, fili- 
form ; cotyledons inconspicuous. Found in 
the temperate parts of both hemispheres. 

3. FAMILY. Bindweeds (Convolvulaceae). Herbs or 

T 5 



418 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

shrubs, usually twining and milky ; leaves 
alternate, undivided or lobed, exstipulate ; 
inflorescence axillary or terminal ; calyx per- 
sistent, in five divisions, imbricated ; corolla 
deciduous, limb 5-lobed; aestivation plaited 
or imbricated; stamens five, alternate with 
segments of corolla; ovary simple, 2 4-celled ; 
style one ; placentae basal ; fruit 1 4-celled, 
succulent or capsular ; cotyledons leafy, 
doubled up. Abundant in tropical, but rare 
in cold climes. Roots generally afford an 
acrid juice ; yield Jalap, Scammony, Sweet 
Potato, Oil of Rhodium, c. 

4. FAMILY. Sebestens (Cordiaceae). Trees; leaves 

alternate, rough, exstipulate ; flowers pani- 
cled, bracteate ; calyx 4-^5-toothed ; corolla 
4-^5-clefb, imbricated ; stamens five, free ; 
ovary 4-8-celled ; stigma 4-8-cleft ; fruit 
drupaceous, 4-8-celled ; seeds exalbuminous ; 
cotyledons leafy, plaited longitudinally. 
Mostly tropical species in both worlds. 

5. FAMILY. Milk-Weeds (AsclepiadaeeaB). Shrubs, 

occasionally herbs, usually milky, often twin- 
ing; leaves mostly opposite, with inter- 
petiolary cilia in place of stipules ; flowers 
umbelled, fascicled, or racemose ; calyx 5-di- 
vided, persistent ; corolla 5-lobed, deciduous ; 
aBstivation imbricate, rarely valvate; stamens 
five ; anthers and stigma consolidated into a 
column ; ovaries two; fruit, two follicles, one 
sometimes abortive , seeds numerous ; coty- 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 4] 9 

ledons leafy. Natives chiefly of Southern 
Africa, but occur also in Tropical India, Aus- 
tralia, Equinoctial and North America, and 
in Sicily. Among the species, is the Cow 
Plant (Gymnema, lactiferum), the juice of 
which is employed as drink in Ceylon, Some 
are supposed to yield a kind of Caoutchouc. 

6. FAMILY. Deadly - Nightshades (Atropacese). 

Herbs or shrubs ; leaves alternate ; calyx 
tubular, 5-divided, persistent ; corolla tubu- 
lar, o-lobed ; aestivation imbricate or plicate ; 
stamens five, alternate with lobes of corolla ; 
anthers bilobed, bursting longitudinally at 
the margin; ovary 2-celled; ovules usually 
ascending ; style simple ', stigma bilobed ; 
fruit baccate or capsular; seeds reniform or 
compressed ; embryo straight or curved. 
Distribution extended. Contain Tobacco, 
Thorn-apple, Henbane, Deadly-Nightshade, 
Mandrake, &c. Most members of this family 
are more or less poisonous. 

7. FAMILY. Nightshades (Solanacese). Herbs or 

shrubs ; leaves alternate ; calyx and corolla 
5- rarely 4 -partite ; aestivation valvate ; 
stamens equal to, and alternate with, lobes of 
corolla; anthers burst by longitudinal slits 
or pores ; ovary generally 2-celled ; style 
simple ; stigma bilobed or clavate, often hol- 
low ; fruit capsular or baccate ; embryo 
terete. Distribution general Among the 
species are the Potato, Bitter-sweet, Tomato, 



420 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTOKY. 

Capsicum, Brazilian-Quina, &c. This family 
contains several innocuous plants. 
8. FAMILY. Olives (Oleacese). Trees or shrubs ; 
leaves opposite, simple or compound ; flowers 
in terminal or axillary racemes or panicles, 
sometimes unisexual ; calyx persistent ; co- 
rolla 4-cleft ; sestivation somewhat valvate ; 
stamens 2, rarely 4, free ; ovary simple, 2- 
celled ; stigma entire or bifid ; fruit drupa- 
ceous, baccate, or capsular, sometimes winged ; 
seeds with abundant albumen ; cotyledons 
leafy. Mostly frequent temperate regions, 
but a few are tropical. In this family are 
found the Olive, yielding olive-oil, the Flower- 
ing-Ash, affording manna ; also the Common- 
Ash, Common-Lilac, Privet, &c. 

Y. OEDER. GENTIANALS (Gentianales). 
Flowers dichlamydeous, monopetalous ; placentse 
axile or parietal ; embryo minute, or with the coty- 
ledons much smaller than the radicle, lying in abun- 
dant albumen. 

1. FAMILY. Gentians (Gentianacese). Herbs, sel- 
dom shrubs ; leaves mostly opposite, exstipu- 
]ate, often 3-5-ribbed ; flowers regular, termi- 
nal or axillary ; calyx and corolla persistent ; 
aestivation plaited or imbricate-twisted ; ovary 
of two carpels; style one, continuous; stigmas 
1 or 2 ; placentse parietal ; fruit capsular or 
baccate, 1 -celled, many-seeded. Distribution 
widely extended. Yields Gentian, Chiretta, 
Centaury, Marsh-Trefoil, &c. 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 421 

2. FAMILY. -Broom-rapes (Orobanchaceae). Her- 

baceous, parasitic, leafless ; stems covered 
with scales ; calyx divided, persistent ; corolla 
usually bilabiate, persistent ; aestivation imbri- 
cated ; stamens four, didynamous ; disk fleshy ; 
style one ; stigma 2-lobed ; placentae parietal ; 
fruit capsular, enclosed within the withered 
corolla, 1 -celled, 2-valved. Inhabit Southern 
Europe, Barbary, Cape of Good Hope, North- 
ern and Middle Asia, and North America. 

3. FAMILY. Stilbids (Stilbaceae). Shrubs ; leaves 

whorled, close, leathery, exstipulate ; flowers 
in dense spikes at the end of the branches ; 
calyx tubular ; corolla valvate ; stamens equal 
to, and alternate with, segments of corolla; 
ovary sessile, 2-celled ; style terminal, ex- 
serted ; stigma simple ; placentae axile ; fruit 
dry, 1 -seeded; seeds definite, erect. A small 
family inhabiting the Cape of Good Hope. 

4 . FAMILY. Diapensiads (Diapensiaceae). Under- 

shrubs, prostrate ; leaves small, densely im- 
bricated ; flowers solitary, terminal ; calyx 
of five sepals ; corolla regular ; aestivation im- 
bricated ; stamens five ; filaments petaloid ; 
anthers dehiscing transversely ; ovary 3-celled; 
style simple, continuous ; stigma sessile, with 
three short decurrent lobes ; placentae axile ; 
fruit capsular ; seeds indefinite, peltate. 
Mountain plants ; found in the North of 
Europe and North America. 

5. FAMILY. Cassipoureads (Cassipoureaceae). Trees 



422 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

or shrubs ; leaves opposite, stipulate ; flowers 
axillary, solitary, or clustered ; calyx campa- 
nulate, 4-5 -cleft, valvate ; petals 4-5, fringed; 
stamens distinct ; ovary 3~5-celled ; style 
simple ; stigma obtuse ; placentae axile ; fruit 
berried or capsular. A small tropical family. 

6. FAMILY. Poison-Nuts (Loganiaceae). Shrubs, 

herbs, or trees ; leaves opposite, usually sti- 
pulate ; flowers racemose, corymbose, or soli- 
tary ; calyx 4-5-parted ; corolla 4-5- or 10- 
divided ; aestivation convolute or valvate ; 
ovary usually 2-celled ; style continuous ; 
stigma simple ; fruit capsular, drupaceous, or 
baccate; seeds peltate, sometimes winged- 
Found in tropical and sub-tropical regions. 
A poisonous series of plants, yielding False- 
Angostura Bark, St. Ignatius' Beans, Strych- 
nia, Brucia, Ourari or Woorali poison, and 
Carolina-Pink. 

7. FAMILY. Dogbanes (Apocynaceae). Trees or 

shrubs, usually milky ; leaves opposite, exsti- 
pulate ; flowers large, showy ; inflorescence 
corymbose ; calyx 5-parted, persistent ; corolla 
5-lobed, deciduous ; aestivation contorted ; sta- 
mens five ; ovaries two, unilocular, or one and 
bilocular ; styles 2 or 1 ; stigma one, contracted 
in the middle ; fruit follicular, capsular, drupa- 
ceous or baccate ; seeds usually pendulous. 
Chiefly a tropical family, containing many 
poisonous species, among which are the tree 
affording Tanghin poison in Madagascar, Ole- 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 423 

ander, Dogbane ; also the Milk-tree of De- 
merara, which yields a fluid. Some supply a 
variety of Caoutchouc. 

8. FAMILY. Hollies (Aquifoliacese). Trees or shrubs, 

evergreen ; leaves alternate or opposite, ex- 
stipulate ; flowers small, white or greenish, 
axillary, solitary or clustered ; calyx and 
corolla 4-6-parted, imbricated ; stamens al- 
ternate with segments of corolla ; disk none ; 
ovary fleshy ; stigma nearly sessile, lobed ; 
placentas axile ; fruit fleshy, indehiscent, with 
2-6-stones ; seed pendulous. Found in North 
and South America, the West Indies, the 
Cape of Good Hope, one occurs in Europe. 
Yield Holly, Paraguay-tea, &c. (Ilicinece, 
Brongniart.) 

9. FAMILY. Ebonies (Guaiacaracese). Trees or 

shrubs ; wood heavy ; leaves alternate, exstipu- 
late, coriaceous ; inflorescence axillary ; flowers 
often unisexual ; calyx 3-7-divided, persist- 
ent ; corolla 3-7-divided, deciduous ; aestiva- 
tion imbricated ; ovary free, sessile, plurilo- 
cular ; style usually divided ; stigma sessile, 
radiating ; fruit fleshy, round or oval ; seed 
suspended. Chiefly tropical. Occur in India, 
also in North and South America, Australia, 
Africa, and Europe. Yield Ebony, Ironwood, 
the Date-plum, &c. (Ebenacece, Vent.) 

VI. ORDER KHAMNALS (Khamnales). 
Flowers monodichlamydeous ; carpels consoli- 



424 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

dated ; placentae axile ; fruit capsular, berried, or 
drupaceous ; seeds definite ; embryo amygdaloid ; 
albumen little or none. 

1. FAMILY. Storax- Worts (Styracaceae). Trees or 

shrubs ; leaves alternate, exstipulate ; flowers 
axillary, solitary or clustered, with scale-like 
bracts, monopetalous ; calyx persistent ; aes- 
tivation imbricated ; stamens epipetalous ; 
ovary 2-5 -celled ; ovules pendulous ; style 
simple ; stigma capitate ; fruit drupaceous, 
enclosed in the calyx ; radicle long ; cotyle- 
dons foliaceous. Chiefly confined to tropical 
and sub-tropical countries. Among their 
products are Storax and Benzoin. (Symplo- 
cinece, Don.) 

2. FAMILY. Sappodillas (Sapotacese). Trees or 

shrubs, often lactescent ; leaves alternate, 
exstipulate ; inflorescence axillary ; flowers 
bisexual; calyx persistent, aestivation val- 
vate or imbricate ; corolla monopetalous, 
deciduous, aestivation imbricate ; stamens 
epipetalous ; ovary plurilocular ; ovules as- 
cending ; style one ; stigma sometimes lobed ; 
fruit fleshy, mostly plurilocular ; cotyledons 
albuminous or exalbuminous, radiate, short. 
Natives of tropical India, Africa, and America. 
Many yield edible fruits, as the Sappodilla- 
plum, Star-apple, Marmalade, Surinam-Med- 
lar, &c. ; Gutta Percha is afforded by Isonan- 
dra Gutta. 

3. FAMILY. Stackhousiads (Stackhousiacese). Herbs 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 425 

or shrubs ; leaves alternate, stipulate ; flowers 
in spikes ; calyx 5-cleft, with an inflated 
tube ; petals five ; stamens episepalous ; 
ovary 3-5-celled; styles 3-5; stigmas simple ; 
fruit of from 3 to 5 indehiscent pieces ; co- 
tyledons short, obtuse. A small Australian 
family. 

4. FAMILY. Spindle-trees (Celastracese). Small 

trees or shrubs ; leaves mostly alternate, sti- 
pules small, deciduous ; flowers in axillary 
cymes, small, white, green, or purple, occa- 
sionally unisexual ; sepals and petals 4-5 ; 
imbricate ; stamens alternate with pe- 
tals ; ovary 2-5-celled ; fruit 2-5-celled, 
capsular or drupaceous; radicle short; coty- 
ledons flat. Inhabit chiefly extratropical 
countries. Found in Europe, Asia, North 
and South America, at the Cape of Good 
Hope, and in New Holland. 

5. FAMILY. Hippocrateads (Hippocrateacese). 

Shrubs, arborescent or climbing, almost al- 
ways smooth ; leaves opposite, stipules small, 
deciduous ; flowers in axillary racemes, 
small ; sepals five, very small ; petals five ; 
aestivation imbricate ; stamens three, mona- 
delphous ; style one; stigma 1-3; fruit of 
three samaroid carpels, or berried. Princi- 
pally a South American family, but a few 
occur in Africa, the Mauritius, and the East 
Indies. Some yield edible fruits. 

6. FAMILY. Chailletiads (Chailletiaceae). Trees 



426 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

or shrubs leaves alternate, stipulate ; 
flowers small, axillary, fasciculate or corym- 
bose ; sepals and petals five ; aestivation 
incurved, valvate ; stamens five, alternate 
with petals ; ovary 2-3-celled ; styles 2-3 ; 
Btigmas capitate or obscurely 2~lobed ; fruit 
drupaceous, rather dry, 1, 2, 3-celled ; seeds 
pendulous. A small family, occurring in 
Sierra Leone, Madagascar, Timor, and Equi- 
noctial America. 

7- FAMILY. Buckthorns (Rhamnacese). Trees or 
shrubs, often spiny ; leaves mostly alternate ; 
stipules when present very minute; flowers 
small, generally green, axillary or termi- 
nal, rarely unisexual ; calyx 4-5-clefb, val- 
vate ; petals distinct, hooded, or convolute ; 
stamens opposite petals ; ovary 2, 3, 4-celled ; 
fruit fleshy and indehiscent, or dry and se- 
parating into three parts ; seeds erect. Found 
in most parts of the world. Among the spe- 
cies are the Common-Buckthorn, Black- Alder, 
the Jujube-plant, the " Lotus" of the ancients, 
Christ's-thorn, New-Jersey Tea, &c. 

8. FAMILY. Aloes-Woods (Aquilariacese). Trees; 
leaves alternate or opposite, exstipulate ; 
flowers apetalous; perianth coriaceous, im- 
bricate, or tubular ; stamens 5, 8, or 10 ; 
ovary 2-celled ; ovules two, anatropal ; stigma 
usually sessile ; fruit capsular, sessile or sti- 
pulate, and 2-valved, or drupaceous and inde- 
hiscent ; seeds two, pendulous. Natives of 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 427 

Tropical Asia. The " Aloes" of Scripture is 
believed to be a species of Aquilaria. 
9. FAMILY. Sarcocols (Penaeaceae). Shrubs, ever- 
green ; leaves opposite, exstipulate ; flowers 
usually red, apetalous ; perianth salver- 
shaped ; aestivation valvate or imbricate ; 
stamens 4 or 8 ; ovary 4-celled ; style simple ; 
stigmas four ; fruit capsular, 4-celled ; cotyle- 
dons two, consolidated. Natives of the Cape 
of Good Hope. 

VII. ORDER SAXIFKAGALS |(Saxifragales). 

Flowers monodichlamydeous ; corolla, if present, 
polypetalous ; carpels consolidated ; placentae sutural 
or axile ; seeds 00 ; embryo small, taper ; radicle 
long ; albumen little or none. 

1. FAMILY. Loosestrifes (Lythraceae). Herbs or 

shrubs ; leaves chiefly opposite, exstipulate, 
sometimes dotted ; flowers solitary or cluster- 
ed ; calyx monosepalous, tubular, permanent, 
valvate; petals very deciduous, sometimes 
wanting ; ovary 2-6-celled ; placentae axile 
or dissepimental ; style filiform ; stigma usu- 
ally capitate ; fruit capsular, dehiscent, mem- 
branous, surrounded by the calyx ; seeds 
numerous. Found in Europe, India, North 
and South America. The Henne' or Henna, 
used by women in Egypt, &c., for staining the 
fingers, is obtained from Lawsonia inermis. 

2. FAMILY. Brexiads (Brexiaceae). Trees ; leaves 



428 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

alternate, stipulate, not dotted ; flowers green, 
in axillary umbels; calyx 5-parted, aestiva- 
tion imbricate ; petals five, aestivation twist- 
ed ; stamens alternate with petals ; ovary 5- 
celled ; placentae axile ; stigma simple ; fruit 
drupaceous, 5-celled; seeds with a double 
integument, exalbuminous (?). A Madagascar 
family. 

3. FAMILY. Cunoniads (Cunoniaceae). Trees or 

shrubs ; leaves opposite, stipules large, inter- 
petiolar ; calyx 4-5-cleffc ; petals 4 or 5, some- 
times wanting ; ovary 2-celled ; styles two, 
distinct or combined ; fruit 2-celled, capsular 
or indehiscent. Found at the Cape of Good 
Hope, in India, Australasia, and South Ame- 
rica. 

4. FAMILY. Hensloviads (Hensloviacese). Trees ; 

leaves opposite, exstipulate ; flowers by abor- 
tion unisexual ; perianth 5-parted, aestivation 
valvate; stamens five, alternate with seg- 
ments ; ovary 2-celled ; stigma obsoletely 2- 
lobed ; fruit capsular. Consists of a single 
genus, inhabiting tropical India. 

5. FAMILY. Hydrangeads (Hydrangeaceae). Shrubs ; 

leaves opposite, exstipulate ; flowers in cymes, 
the marginal often sterile and dilated ; calyx 
4-6-toothed; petals 4-6, deciduous; stamens 
8-12 in two rows, or 00 ; ovary of from 2 to 
5 adherent carpels ; styles 2-5, usually dis- 
tinct ; stigmas simple, reniform ; fruit capsu- 
lar, crowned by the permanent diverging 



MANUAL OF NATUEAL HISTORY. 429 

styles. Inhabit temperate parts of Asia and 
America ; many in China and Japan, 
6. FAMILY. Saxifrages (Saxifragacese). Herbs ; 
leaves alternate, with or without stipules ; 
calyx superior or inferior, of 4 or 5 sepals, co- 
hering more or less at their base ; petals 5 or 
0, inserted between lobes of calyx ; stamens 
5-10 ; ovary usually of two carpels ; placentae 
sutural ; styles none j stigmas sessile on the 
tips of the lobes of the ovary ; fruit capsular, 
membranous, 1- or 2-celled, cells divaricating 
when ripe ; seeds numerous. Natives of 
mountainous regions in northern countries. 

YIII. ORDER EOSALS (Resales.) 

Flowers inonodichlamydeous ; corolla, when pre- 
sent, polypetalous ; carpels distinct; placentae su- 
tural ; seeds definite ; embryo amygdaloid ; albumen 
little or none. 

1. FAMILY. Roses (Rosacese). Herbs or shrubs ; 
leaves alternate, stipulate, often dotted ; 
flowers occasionally unisexual by abortion ; 
calyx 4~5-lobed ; petals 5 or ; ovaries 
solitary or several, sometimes cohering into 
a plurilocular pistil ; styles lateral ; stigmas 
usually simple ; fruit 1-seeded nuts, acini, or 
follicles ; seeds usually suspended. Chiefly 
occur in temperate and cold parts of the 
Northern Hemisphere. No species is un- 
wholesome ; some yield edible fruits, as the 



430 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

Strawberry, Raspberry, and Blackberry. 
Some Roses afford a valuable perfume, viz., 
"Attar of Roses ;" " Kousso," from an Abys- 
sinian plant named Brayera anthelmintica, 
is esteemed as the best remedy for Tape- 
worm. 

2. FAMILY. Burnets (Sanguisorbacese). Herbs or 

under-shrubs, occasionally spiny; leaves al- 
ternate, stipulate ; flowers small, often capi- 
tate and unisexual, apetalous ; perianth with 
a thickened tube ; stamens definite ; ovary 
solitary ; stigma compound or simple ; nut 
solitary, enclosed in the tube of the perianth, 
forming a false pericarp. Found in heaths and 
exposed places in Europe, North and South 
America, and at the Cape of Good Hope. 

3. FAMILY. Apples (Pyracese). Trees or shrubs ; 

leaves alternate, stipulate ; flowers solitary, 
or in terminal cymes ; calyx adherent, 5- 
toothed ; petals five, unguiculate ; stamens 
indefinite ; ovaries 1-5, fleshy ; styles 1-5 ; 
stigmas simple; fruit a pome, mostly 1-5- 
celled. Occur in the Northern Hemisphere, 
in Europe, Northern Asia, North America; 
rare in Northern Africa and Madeira. Many 
afford edible fruits, as the Apple, Pear, Quince, 
Medlar, &c. ; the seeds yield Hydrocyanic 
(Prussic) Acid. (Pomacece, Lindley.) 
4 FAMILY. Almonds (Amygdalaceae). Trees or 
shrubs; leaves alternate, stipulate; flowers 
single or umbellate, white or pink ; calyx 5- 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 431 

toothed, deciduous ; petals five ; stamens 
twenty, arising from the throat of the calyx ; 
ovary 1 -celled; styles terminal, with a fur- 
row on one side, ending in a reniform stigma ; 
fruit drupaceous. Natives of cold and tem- 
perate parts of the Northern Hemisphere. 
Among the species are the Almond, Peach, 
Nectarine, Plum, Cherry, Laurel; the leaves 
and kernels yield Hydrocyanic Acid in 
abundance. (Drupacece, Lindley.) 
5. FAMILY. Peas (Fabaceae). Herbs, shrubs, or 
trees ; leaves alternate, usually compound ; 
stipules two at base of petiole, and two at 
base of leaflet ; flowers polypetalous or apeta- 
lous, frequently papilionaceous; calyx 5- 
partite, toothed or cleft; petals five or by 
abortion 4, 3, 2, 1, or none ; stamens definite 
or indefinite ; pistil simple, 1-celled, 1- or 
many-seeded ; style simple, proceeding from 
the upper or ventral suture ; stigma simple ; 
fruit leguminous or drupaceous ; cotyledons 
epigeal or hypogeal in germination. A very 
widely distributed, and most extensive fami- 
ly, comprising upwards of 6,500 species. It 
has been divided as follows : 

1. Papilionacece. Flowers papilionaceous; 

petals imbricated in aestivation, upper one 
exterior. 

2. Ccesalpiniece. Flowers irregular, not papi- 

lionaceous ; petals spreading, imbricate in 
aestivation, upper one interior. 



432 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

3. Mimosece. Flowers regular ; aestivation 

valvate. 

Among the species of the first Sub-family, are 
Clover, Bean, Pea, Pulse, Liquorice, Cowitch, La- 
burnum, Broom, Whin; and among the products are 
Balsams of Peru and Tolu, Gum-Tragacanth, Indigo, 
African and East Indian Kino, Dragon's-blood, 
Gum-Lac, Red Sandal-wood, Cabbage-tree bark 
(Andira), Ground-nut, Rose-wood (Trioptolomea), 
Tonka-bean (Diplerix). In the second division, are 
Senna, Tamarind, Carob-tree, also Logwood, Brazil- 
wood (Ccesalpinia), Cane-wood (Baphia), Cassia- 
pulp, Balsam of Copaiva. The third contains the 
Sensitive-plants, and the various species of Acacia, 
yielding Gum-Arabic, Gum-Senegal, and numerous 
kindred varieties. (Leguminosce, Juss.) 

6. FAMILY. Cocoa-plums (Chrysobalanacese). Trees 

or shrubs ; leaves alternate, stipulate ; flowers 
in racemes, panicles, or corymbs, polypetalous 
or apetalous, nearly regular ; calyx 5-lobed, 
aestivation imbricate; stamens definite or 00; 
ovary of a single carpel, 1-2-celled; style 
single, arising from the base ; stigma simple ; 
fruit drupaceous, 1-2- celled. Found chiefly 
in tropical Africa, and America. 

7. FAMILY. American-Allspice (Calycanthacese). 

Shrubs ; stems square ; leaves opposite, ex- 
stipulate ; flowers axillary, solitary ; sepals 
and petals confounded, imbricated, combined 
in a fleshy tube ; stamens indefinite ; ovaries 
several, 1 -celled; style terminal; fruit con- 



MANUAL OF NATUEAL HISTOEY. 4o3 

sisting of nuts enclosed in the fleshy tube of 
the calyx ; cotyledons convolute. Natives of 
North America and Japan. 

IX. ORDER DAPHNALS (Daphnales). 

Flowers monochlamydeous ; carpel solitary ; em- 
bryo amygdaloidal ; albumen none. 

1. FAMILY. Dodder-Laurels (Cassythacese). Para- 

sitic, climbing, Dodder-like ; scales for 
leaves ; perianth 6-parted ; stamens twelve, 
in four rows, petaloid; anthers 2-celled, 
bursting by recurved valves ; ovary 1 -celled ; 
style short ; stigma simple ; fruit a nut, 
embedded in the succulent permanent peri- 
anth. Found in hot tropical regions. 

2. FAMILY. Laurels (Lauracese). Trees; leaves 

mostly alternate, exstipulate ; flowers in 
panicles or umbels ; perianth 4-6-cleft ; aesti- 
vation imbricate ; stamens opposite segments 
of perianth ; anthers bursting by longitudinal 
valves; ovary 1 -celled ; style simple; stigma 
obtuse ; fruit baccate or drupaceous, naked 
or covered. Occur in tropical Asia and 
America, rare in Europe and Africa. Most- 
ly aromatic and fragrant ; among their pro- 
ducts are Cinnamon and Cassia-bark, True 
Camphor, Sassafras, Bebeerine (Nectandra), 
Avocados, Brazilian-Nutmegs. (Laurinece, 
Ventenat.) 

3. FAMILY. Silver-trees (Proteacese). Shrubs or small 



434 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

trees ; evergreen ; leaves opposite or alter- 
nate, exstipulate, hard, dry; perianth 4-leaved 
or 4-cleft ; aestivation valvate ; stamens four ; 
ovary 1 -celled ; style simple ; stigma un- 
divided, discoid ; ovules erect j fruit dehiscent 
or indehiscent. Natives of Australia and the 
Cape of Good Hope. 

4. FAMILY. Mezereons (Daphnacese). Shrubs, 
rarely herbs ; leaves opposite or alternate, 
exstipulate ; flowers capitate or spiked, ter- 
minal or axillary ; perianth tubular, 4-, seldom 
5-cleft ; aestivation imbricate ; stamens de- 
finite ; anthers dehiscing lengthways ; ovary 
] -celled ; ovule suspended ; style one ; stigma 
undivided ; fruit nut-like or drupaceous. 
Natives of India, North and South America, 
Australia, the Cape of Good Hope, and 
Europe. The principal species is " Me- 
zereon." (Thymelacece, Lindley.) 

X. ORDER FICOIDALS (Ficoidales). 

Flowers monodichlamydeous ; corolla, if present, 
polypetalous ; placentae central or axile ; embryo 
external, curved ; albumen mealy, scanty. 
1. FAMILY Scleranths (Scleranthacese). Herbs ; 
small, inconspicuous ; leaves opposite, ex- 
stipulate ; flowers minute, axillary, sessile ; 
perianth tubular, 4-5-toothed; stamens 1-10; 
ovary 1 -seeded ; styles two or one ; fruit a 
membranous utricle enclosed within the 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 435 

hardened perianth. Inhabit barren fields in 
Europe, Asia, North America, and some extra- 
tropical regions of the Southern Hemisphere. 

2. FAMILY. Aizoons (Tetragoniacese). Herbs or 

small shrubs ; leaves alternate, exstipulate, 
succulent ; flowers small, axillary ; perianth 
3-5-cleft; stamens definite; ovary 2-9-celled; 
styles equal to cells of ovary ; fruit woody, 
indehi scent. Occur chiefly in Polynesia, the 
Cape of Good Hope, and about the Mediter- 
ranean. 

3. FAMILY. Fig- Marigolds (Mesembryanthemacese). 

Shrubs or herbs, succulent ; leaves opposite ; 
flowers terminal, showy ; sepals usually five ; 
petals indefinite, coloured; stamens inde- 
finite ; ovary usually plurilocular ; stigmas 
numerous, distinct ; fruit capsular, mostly 
many-celled, dehiscence stellate. Natives 
principally of hot plains at the Cape of Good 
Hope, but a few occur in Southern Europe, 
Northern Africa, China, Polynesia, and 
South America. 

4. FAMILY. Basellads (Basellaceae). Herbs or 

shrubs, climbing, often succulent ; leaves al- 
ternate, exstipulate ; flowers coloured, naked, 
sessile or stalked ; perianth imbricated, 
fleshy ; stamens opposite divisions of peri- 
anth ; ovary free, 1 -celled ; styles several ; 
fruit enclosed in the membranous or succulent 
perianth ; seed erect. All tropical plants, ex- 
cept one doubtful species, which is Siberian. 

u 2 



436 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

Til. ALLIANCE. HYPOGYNOUS-EXOGENS (Hypogynese). 

Flowers mostly hermaphrodite ; stamens entirely 
free from calyx and corolla. 

I. ORDER. PIPERALS (Piperales). 

Flowers achlamydeous ; embryo minute, at or 
near the outside of a large quantity of mealy 
albumen. 

1. FAMILY. Lizard' s-tails (Saururacese). Herbs ; 

leaves alternate, stipulate ; flowers in spikes, 
bisexual, on a scale or bract; stamens 3-6, 
clavate ; ovaries 3-4; ovule erect ; stigmas 
sessile, recurved ; fruit either four fleshy in- 
dehiscent nuts, or a 1-3-4-celled capsule ; 
embryo tying in a fleshy vitellus. Natives 
of marshy places in North America, China, 
and Northern India. 

2. FAMILY. Chloranths (Chloranthacese). Herbs 

or under-shrubs, aromatic ; stems jointed ; 
leaves opposite, stipulate ; petioles sheathing ; 
flowers in terminal spikes, bisexual or uni- 
sexual, with a supporting scale ; stamens 
lateral ; ovary unilocular ; ovule pendulous ; 
stigma simple, sessile ; fruit drupaceous, in- 
dehiscent ; embryo naked ; cotyledons di- 
varicate. Natives of India, South America, 
the West Indies, and the Society Islands. 

3. FAMILY. Peppers (PiperaceaB). Shrubs or herbs ; 

stems articulated ; leaves mostly opposite, 
with or without stipules ; flowers spiked or 
racemose, bisexual, supported on a bract ; 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 437 

stamens 2-3-6; ovary 1 -celled ; ovule erect; 
stigma sessile, rather oblique j fruit fleshy 
indehiscent, 1 -celled, 1 -seeded ; embryo in a 
fleshy vitellus. Inhabit chiefly tropical Ame- 
rica and the Indian Archipelago. Among 
the products are long, black, and white Pep- 
pers, Cubebs, Matico, and Betel-Pepper. 

II. OEDER. CHENOPODALS (Chenopodales). 

Flowers monochlamydeous ; carpels solitary, or 
if more than one, distinct ; placentae free, central ; 
embryo external, either curved round, or applied to 
the surface of a little mealy or horny albumen. 

1. FAMILY. Goose-foots (Chenopodiacese). Herbs 

or under-shrubs ; leaves mostly alternate, 
exstipulate ; flowers small, sometimes uni- 
sexual ; perianth deeply divided ; aestivation 
imbricated ; stamens opposite segments of 
perianth; anthers 2-celled; ovary 1 -celled; 
style 2-4-divided; stigmas simple; fruit 
membranous, indehiscent, sometimes baccate. 
Common in waste districts, more abundant 
in extra-tropical countries. Comprise Spin- 
age, Beet, Man gold- Wurzel, &c. 

2. FAMILY. Amaranths (Amaranthacese). Herbs 

or shrubs ; leaves opposite or alternate, ex- 
stipulate ; flowers in spikes or heads, mostly 
bisexual ; perianth 3-5-partite, scarious, 
buried in imbricated bracts ; stamens distinct 
or monadelphous ; anthers usually 1 -celled ; 
ovary unilocular ; style 1 or ; stigma 



438 MANUAL OF NATUKAL HISTORY. 

simple or compound; fruit a membranous 
utricle or caryopsis, rarely baccate. Found 
chiefly in dry spots in tropical Asia and 
America ; a few occur also in Africa, Aus- 
tralia, and Europe. 

3. FAMILY. Surianads (Surianaceae). Shrubby ; 

leaves alternate, exstipulate ; flowers race- 
mose, bisexual ; calyx 5 -partite ; petals five ; 
stamens indefinite, opposite the sepals ; ovary 
of five carpels, distinct, 1-celled; stigmas 
simple ; pericarp woody ; seed solitary, erect, 
compressed. Contains one genus with a 
single species. Common on tropical shores. 

4. FAMILY. Phytolaccads (Phytolaccacese). Under- 

shrubs or herbs ; leaves alternate, exstipulate, 
often dotted ; flowers racemose, variously 
arranged; perianth 4-5-partite ; stamens 
indefinite or alternate with divisions of 
perianth ; ovary of one or several carpels ; 
styles equal to carpels ; stigmas simple or 
divided ; fruit baccate or dry, indehiscent. 
Natives of warm parts of America, Africa, 
and Asia. 

5. FAMILY. Marvels-of-Peru (Mirabilacese). Herbs, 

shrubs, or trees ; leaves opposite or alternate ; 
flowers involucrate ; perianth tubular, often 
coloured, becoming indurated at the base; 
aestivation plaited ; stamens definite ; ovary 
1-celled ; style one ; stigma one ; fruit a 
caryopsis enclosed within the enlarged tube 
of the perianth. Occur principally in warm 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTOEY. 439 

regions in both worlds. The roots are 
usually purgative. (Nyctaginacece, Lindley.) 

Til. ORDER. SILENALS (Silenales). 

Flowers monodichlamydeous ; placentae free, cen- 
tral ; carpels several, combined into a compound 
fruit ; embryo external, curved round a little mealy 
albumen. 

1. FAMILY. Buckwheats (Polygonacese). Herbs, 

rarely shrubs ; leaves alternate, mostly sti- 
pulate ; stipules ochreoid ; flowers often 
unisexual, frequently racemose ; perianth 
divided, often coloured; aestivation, imbri- 
cated ; stamens definite ; ovary unilocular, 
formed of three united carpels ; styles and 
stigmas three ; ovule orthotropal ; fruit a 
nut, usually triangular. Distribution very 
general. Contain much oxalic acid, also 
nitric, malic, and tannic acids : comprise 
Sorrel, Buckwheat, and the various species 
of Rhubarb. 

2. FAMILY. Purslanes (Portulacacese). Shrubs or 

herbs, succulent ; leaves mostly alternate, 
exstipulate ; flowers axillary or terminal, un- 
symmetrical, usually ephemeral ; sepals two ; 
petals five ; stamens variable in number ; 
ovary formed of three united carpels, 
1 -celled ; style single or ; stigmas 
several ; ovules amphitropal ; fruit capsular, 
] -celled, dehiscent, or ] -seeded, and in- 
dehiscent. Inhabit dry places at the Cape 



440 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTOEY. 

of Good Hope and in South America, also 
in Australia. 

3. FAMILY. Knotworts (Paronychiacese). Herbs 

or under-shrubs; leaves opposite or alternate, 
stipules, when present, scarious ; flowers 
minute, symmetrical, with scarious bracts ; 
sepals 3-5 ; petals minute or ; stamens 
generally opposite sepals ; ovary usually 
] -celled ; styles 2-5 ; ovules amphitropal ; 
fruit small, dry, 1-, rarely 3-celled, indehiscent 
or opening by three valves. Principally 
found in Southern Europe and Northern 
Africa, also in Mexico and at the Cape of 
Good Hope. (Illecebracece, Lindley.) 

4. FAMILY. Pinks (Dianthaeeae). Mostly herba- 

ceous ; stems tumid at the articulations ; 
leaves opposite, exstipulate, often connate; 
inflorescence usually cymose ; flowers bi- 
sexual, symmetrical ; sepals 4-5, persistent ; 
petals 4-5, unguiculate, or ; stamens equal 
to, or double the number of, the petals ; 
ovary of two to five carpels ; stigmas 2-5, 
sessile j ovules amphitropal ; fruit capsular, 
2-5-valved, 1- or 2-5-celled. Occupy moun- 
tainous and waste regions in temperate and 
cold countries. (Caryophyllece, Juss.) 

IY. OEDEE. GERANIALS (Geraniales). 

Flowers monodichlamydeous, symmetrical ; calyx 
imbricated ; corolla twisted ; stamens definite ; 
placentae axile ; embryo with little or no albumen. 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 441 

1. FAMILY. Cranesbills (Geraniacese). Herbs or 

shrubs ; stems tumid ; leaves opposite, or alter- 
nate and stipulate ; flowers usually symmetri- 
cal, white, red, yellow, or purple; sepals five, 
persistent ; petals five, unguiculate ; stamens 
monadelphous; ovary of five carpels round an 
elongated axis ; styles five, cohering round the 
axis; fruit of shells cohering round the torus, 
and separable from it. Many are found at 
the Cape of Good Hope, also in Northern 
Asia, Europe, North America, and Australia. 
Yield many favourite species for the florist. 

2. FAMILY. Balsams (Impatientacese). Herbs, 

succulent, usually annual; leaves alternate 
or opposite, exstipulate ; flowers axillary, 
irregular, unsymmetrical ; sepals five, de- ' 
ciduous ; petals five, combined into two or 
three ; stamens five, alternate ; ovary 5-celled ; 
stigma sessile ; fruit capsular, 5-celled, 5- 
valved. Natives chiefly of the East Indies. 
Remarkable for the force with which the seed 
vessels open at maturity. (Balsaminece, Rich.) 

3. FAMILY. Wood-Sorrels (Oxalidaceae). Herbs, 

under-shrubs, or trees; leaves alternate, 
usually exstipulate ; flowers symmetrical ; se- 
pals five, persistent ; petals five, unguiculate, 
or ; stamens ten, more or less monadelphous ; 
ovary 3 -5-celled; carpels larger than the 
torus ; styles 3-5, filiform; stigmas capitate 
or slightly bifid ; fruit capsular, membranous 
or fleshy; albumen abundant. Occur in 

u 5 



442 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

hot and temperate parts of the world, espe- 
cially in North America and at the Cape of 
Good Hope. 

4. FAMILY. Sarcolenads (Sarcolsenacese). Trees or 

shrubs ; flowers fine, showy, usually red, 
unsymmetrical ; involucre 1-2-flowered, per- 
sistent ; leaves alternate, stipulate ; sepals 
three, small ; petals five, convolute ; stamens " 
monadelphous ; ovary trilocular ; style one ; 
stigma trifid ; fruit capsular, 3-celled, or by 
abortion 1 -celled ; albumen abundant. Na- 
tives of Madagascar. (Chlcenacece, Lindley.) 

5. FAMILY. Flaxes (Linacese). Herbs or small 

shrubs; leaves alternate or opposite, exsti- 
pulate ; flowers fugitive ; sepals 3-4-5, 
persistent ; petals 3 -4-5, fugitive ; stamens 
equal to, and alternate with, petals ; anthers 
erect ; ovary with as many cells and styles 
as the sepals ; stigmas capitate ; ovules 
pendulous, anatropal; fruit capsular, pluri- 
locular ; albumen scanty or 0. Most 
abundant in Europe and Northern Africa, 
but occur also in America, India, New 
Zealand, and Australia. Valuable as being 
the source of the flax of commerce ; yield 
also Linseed-oil, Linseed-meal, and oil-cake. 

Y. OKDEK. RUTALS (Rutales). 

Flowers monodichlamydeous, symmetrical ; calyx 
and corolla imbricated ; stamens definite ; placentas 
axile ; albumen little or none. 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 443 

1. FAMILY. Podostemads (Podostemacese). Herbs; 

no stomata nor spiral vessels ; leaves capil- 
lary, linear, lacerated, or minute and imbri- 
cated ; flowers axillary or terminal, bisexual, 
naked, or with a more or less perfect perianth, 
bursting through an irregularly lacerated 
spathe ; stamens definite or indefinite ; ovary 
2-3-celled ; styles or stigmas two or three; 
fruit slightly pedicellate, capsular,2-3-valved. 
Floating plants. Found on rocks, in rivers, 
and still waters, in South America, and some 
African Islands. 

2. FAMILY. Water-peppers (Elatinacese). Herbs, 

annual ; stems fistular, rooting ; leaves oppo- 
site, stipulate ; flowers polypetalous ; sepals 
3-5 ; petals alternate with sepals; stamens 
equal to, or twice as many as, the petals ; 
ovary 3-5-celled ; styles 3-5 ; stigmas capitate ; 
fruit capsular, 3-5-celled, 3-5 valved. Marshy 
plants, generally distributed. 

3. FAMILY. Beancapers (Fabaginacese). Herbs, 

shrubs, or trees ; wood very hard ; leaves 
opposite, stipulate ; flowers solitary, or in 
pairs, or threes, white, blue, red, or yellow, 
regular; calyx 4-5-parted, sestivation con- 
volute ; petals alternate with segments of 
calyx ; ovary 4-5-celled ; style 4 -5- furrowed; 
stigma simple, or 4 - 5-lobed ; fruit capsu- 
lar, rarely fleshy, few-seeded, sarcocarp not 
separable from the endocarp. Chiefly live 
in warm extra-tropical climes, in South- 



444 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

ern Europe, Africa, India, Australia, and 
America. (Zygophyllece, Brown.) 

4. FAMILY. Quassias (Simarubacese). Trees or 

shrubs ; leaves alternate, exstipulate ; flowers 
usually bisexual, whitish, green, or purple ; 
calyx 4- 5-divided ; petals 4-5 ; stamens 
double the number of the petals ; ovary 4-5- 
lobed, 4-5-celled; style simple; stigma 4-5- 
lobed ; fruit of four or five drupes, arranged 
round a common receptacle, indehiscent ; 
seeds exalbuminous. Natives of tropical 
America, Africa, and Asia. Species of Quas- 
sia and Simaruba are employed in medicine. 

5. FAMILY. Coriariads (Coriariacese). Shrubs ; 

leaves opposite, entire ; flowers racemose, ter- 
minal and axillary, unisexual ; calyx 5-par- 
tite, campanulate ; petals five, small, alternate 
with calycine divisions ; stamens ten ; ovary 
of five or six carpels ; stigmas five, subulate ; 
fruit of five crustaceous carpels, covered by 
the membranous sepals and fleshy petals, 1- 
seeded, indehiscent. A small family, inhabit- 
ing Southern Europe. 

6. FAMILY. Ochnads (Ochnacese). Under-shrubs 

or trees ; leaves alternate, stipulate ; flowers 
racemose ; sepals five, persistent ; petals 5-10, 
deciduous ; aestivation imbricate ; stamens 
5-1 ; torus prolonged, succulent ; carpels 
equal in number to petals ; styles united in 
one ; fruit of as many pieces as there were 
carpels, succulent, indehiscent. Natives of 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 445 

tropical India, Africa, and America ; also of 
the Cape of Good Hope. 

7. FAMILY. Prickly- Ashes (Xanthoxyllaceae). Trees 

or shrubs ; leaves alternate or opposite, ex- 
stipulate, dotted ; flowers axillary or termi- 
nal, unisexual ; sepals 3-4-5, aestivation 
imbricate ; petals 3-4-5, rarely 0, aestivation 
imbricate or convolute ; stamens as many as, 
or double the number of, the petals ; ovary 
usually of as many carpels as there are petals, 
more or less united; ovules sessile, pendu- 
lous ; styles more or less combined ; fruit 
baccate or membranous, pericarp separable 
into distinct layers. Chiefly occur in Ame- 
rica, but also in Africa, India, China, and 
Australia. 

8. FAMILY. Rueworts (Rutacese). Trees or shrubs, 

rarely herbs ; leaves opposite or alternate, 
exstipulate, dotted j flowers axillary or ter- 
minal, bisexual ; calyx of 4- 5 segments, aesti- 
vation imbricate ; petal equal to, and alter- 
nate with, calycine divisions, or combined 
below into a gamopetalous corolla, aestivation 
convolute or valvate ; stamens equal to pe- 
tals, or twice or thrice as many, placed round- 
a cup-shaped disk ; ovary sessile or stalked ; 
ovules sessile, pendulous ; styles adherent 
above ; stigmas simple, dilated ; fruit of se- 
veral carpels, combined partially or com- 
pletely ; pericarp separable into two layers. 
Found in Southern Europe, the Cape of Good 



446 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

Hope, Australia, and in America. Among 
the species are Rue (Ruta), Bucku (Barosma), 
also Galidea, which yields Cusparia or An- 
gostura-bark. 

9. FAMILY. Connarads (Omphalobiacese). Trees 
or shrubs ; leaves alternate, exstipulate, not 
dotted j flowers terminal and axillary, in ra- 
cemes or panicles, rarely unisexual ; calyx 
5-partite, persistent ; petals five ; stamens 
ten ; ovary of one or more separate carpels ; 
ovules two, collateral, ascending, orthotropal ; 
styles terminal ; stigmas dilated ; fruit folli- 
cular, dehiscent. Zebra-wood is yielded by 
this family. (Connaracece 3 Brown.) 

10. Sumachs (Anacardiacese). Trees or shrubs ; 

juice resinous, often caustic ; leaves alternate, 
not dotted ; flowers terminal or axillary, 
mostly unisexual; calyx usually 5-divided, 
small, persistent ; petals equal to divisions of 
calyx ; stamens generally equal to, and alter- 
nate with, petals ; ovary single ; ovule soli- 
tary, attached by a funiculus to the base of 
the cell ; styles or stigmas 1, 3, or 4 ; fruit 
indehiscent, usually drupaceous. Inhabit 
tropical parts of America, Africa, and India. 
Among the products, &c., are Cashew-nuts, 
Pistachio-nuts, Chian-Turpentine, Mastic, Su- 
mach, Japan- Varnish, Mango, HogVplums, 
&c. 

11. FAMILY. Margosa-plants (Meliacese). Trees or 

shrubs ; leaves mostly alternate, exstipulate ; 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 447 

flowers usually in loose masses ; sepals 4-5, 
more or less united, sestivation imbricate ; 
petals 4-5, connivent at base, sestivation val- 
vate or imbricate ; stamens mostly double 
the number of the petals, monadelphous ; disk 
often large and cup-shaped ; ovary single, 
plurilocular ; ovules usually anatropal ; style 
one ; stigmas distinct or combined ; fruit bac- 
cate, drupaceous or capsular ; seeds few, 
wingless. Mostly tropical plants, especially 
in Asia and America. 

12. FAMILY. Mahogany-trees (Cedrelacese). Trees; 

leaves alternate, exstipulate ; flowers in ter- 
minal panicles ; calyx 4-5-cleft ; petals 4-5 ; 
sestivation imbricated ; stamens 8-10, mona- 
delphous or free; ovary 4j-5-celled; ovules 
anatropal ; style simple ; stigma peltate ; 
fruit capsular, consolidated ; seeds numerous, 
winged. Chiefly important as yielding Ma- 
hogany and Satin-wood. 

13. FAMILY. Frankincense-trees (Amyridacese). 

Trees or shrubs ; leaves opposite or alternate, 
often stipulate and dotted ; flowers axillary 
or terminal, racemose or panicled, occasion- 
ally unisexual ; calyx 2-5-divided, persist- 
ent ; petals 3-5, mostly valvate ; stamens 
twice the number of the petals ; ovary 1-5- 
celled ; style solitary; stigmas 1-5; fruit 
consolidated, dry, hard, indehiscent or val- 
vular. Inhabit tropical India, Africa, and 
America, A fragrant balsamic family yield- 



448 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

ing Elemi, Olibanum, Arabian- Frankincense, 
Myrrh, Balm of Mecca, Balm of Gilead, 
Bdellium, Incense-wood, &c. 

14. FAMILY. Orange-plants (Citracese). Trees or 
shrubs, with numerous receptacles for vo- 
latile oil; leaves alternate, articulated with 
a usually winged petiole, dotted; calyx 3-5- 
toothed, withering ; petals 3-5, imbricated ; 
stamens mostly equal to, or twice as many 
as, the petals, distinct or combined; ovary 
free, many-celled ; style one ; stigma slightly 
divided ; fruit pulpy, one or more celled, 
with a separable leathery or spongy rind, 
with numerous receptacles of volatile oil. 
Yield many edible and refrigerant fruits, as 
the Orange, Lemon, Lime, Citron, Bergamot, 
Shaddock, and Forbidden-fruit ; and among 
their other products, are Neroli-oil, Napha- 
water, &c. (Aurantiacece, Corr.) 

VI. ORDER. ERICALS (Ericales). 

Flowers dichlamydeous, symmetrical in the ovary ; 

stamens definite ; placentae axile ; embryo enclosed 

in abundant, fleshy albumen. 

1. FAMILY. Heaths (Ericaceae). Shrubs, under- 
shrubs, or herbs ; leaves evergreen, verticil- 
late or opposite, exstipulate; inflorescence 
variable ; calyx 4-5-cleft, persistent ; corolla 
monopetalous, 4-5-cleft ; aestivation imbri- 
cated ; stamens definite ; anthers 2-celled, de- 
hiscing by pores; ovary plurilocular, sur- 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 449 

rounded by a disk or scales ; style and stigma 
one ; fruit capsular or baccate, multilocular ; 
placentae central. Abound at the Cape of 
Good Hope, but occur also in Europe, North 
and South America, Asia, and in the High- 
lands of Java. Some afford an edible fruit, 
as the Bear-berry. Among the genera are 
Erica, Calluna, Menziesia, and Rhododen- 
dron. 

2. FAMILY. Fir-Rapes (Monotropacese). Parasitic 

on the roots of Pines and other trees ; stems 
brown or colourless, with scales instead of 
leaves ; flowers in terminal spikes or racemes ; 
sepals 4-5; petals 4-5, or monopetalous ; 
stamens 8-10 ; anthers 2-celled, often dehis- 
cing longitudinally; ovary 4-5-furrowed ; 
style short, cylindrical ; stigma succulent, 
funnel-shaped ; fruit capsular, dry ; seeds 0, 
loose-skinned or winged. Found in cool 
places in Europe, Asia, and North America. 

3. FAMILY. Francoads (Francoacese). Herbaceous, 

stemless ; leaves lobed or pinnate, exstipu- 
late ; inflorescence racemose ; calyx deeply 
4-cleft ; petals four, sub-persistent ; stamens 
free, four times as many as the petals, alter- 
nately rudimentary ; ovary 4-celled ; stigma 
sessile, 4-lobed ; fruit capsular, membranous, 
4-valved. Natives of Chili. 

4. FAMILY. Winter-greens (Pyrolacese). Mostly 

herbaceous ; flowers terminal and racemose, 
or solitary ; sepals five, persistent ; corolla 



450 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

somewhat monopetalous, 4 - 5 -parted, decidu- 
ous ; aestivation imbricated ; stamens twice 
the number of the corolline divisions, free, 
usually perfect ; anthers 2 - celled, dehiscing 
by pores ; ovary 4 - 5-celled ; style one ; 
stigma slightly indusiate ; fruit capsular, 4-5- 
celled ; seeds 0, loose-skinned ; embryo at 
the base of the albumen. Occur in Europe, 
Northern Asia, and North America. The 
leaves of Chimaphila umbellata are employed 
in medicine as actively diuretic. 

5. FAMILY. Epacrids (Epacridacese). Shrubs or 

small trees ; leaves alternate, exstipulate, 
sometimes half- amplexicaul at the base ; 
flowers in spikes or terminal racemes, or soli- 
tary and axillary, usually white or purple ; 
calyx mostly 5-partite, persistent ; corolla 
monopetalous, 5-divided, deciduous ; aestiva- 
tion imbricate or valvate ; stamens free, per- 
fect, equal to corolline divisions ; anthers 
1 -celled, opening longitudinally ; ovary usual- 
ly several-celled ; style one ; stigma simple ; 
fruit drupaceous, baccate, or capsular ; seeds 
firm-skinned. Natives of Australasia and 
Polynesia, where they appear to represent 
the Heaths. 

6. FAMILY. Umiri-Balsams (Humiriacese). Trees 

or shrubs ; leaves alternate, exstipulate ; 
flowers in terminal or axillary cymes, or 
corymbs ; calyx 5-divided ; petals alternate 
with calycine divisions ; stamens generally 



MANUAL OF NATUKAL HISTORY. 451 

four times as many as the petals, monadel- 
phous ; anthers 2-celled, with a long mem- 
branous connective ; ovary 5-celled ; style 
simple ; stigma 5-lobed ; fruit drupaceous, 
5-celled ; seed with a membranous integu- 
ment. Natives of tropical America. 

VII. ORDER. BERBERALS (Berberales). 

Flowers monodichlamydeous, unsymmetrical in 
the ovary ; stamens definite ; placenta? sutural, pa- 
rietal, or axile ; embryo enclosed in abundant, fleshy 
albumen. 

1. FAMILY. Cyrillads (Cyrillacese). Shrubs ; leaves 

evergreen, exstipulate ; flowers usually race- 
mose; calyx 4-5-partite ; petals five, distinct; 
aestivation imbricated ; stamens 5-10 ; ovary 
2-3-4-celled ; ovules pendulous ; placentae 
axile ; style short ; stigmas with as many 
lobes as there are cells in the ovary ; fruit 
capsular and succulent, or drupaceous. Na- 
tives of North America 

2. FAMILY. Placads (Olacacese). Trees or shrubs ; 

leaves alternate, exstipulate ; flowers small, 
axillary, often fragrant ; calyx gamosepalous, 
aestivation imbricate ; petals 3-6, aestivation 
valvate ; stamens some fertile, some sterile, 
the former 3-10, alternate with the petals, 
the latter opposite the petals ; ovary 1-3-4- 
celled ; ovules pendulous ; placentas axile ; 
style filiform ; stigma simple ; fruit drupa- 
ceous, indehiscent, often surrounded by the 



452 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

enlarged calyx. Mostly confined to the East 
Indies, Australia, and Africa. 

3. FAMILY. Canella-Barks (Winteraniacese). Shrub- 
by, aromatic ; leaves evergreen, alternate, ex- 
stipulate ; flowers purple, corymbose ; calyx 
leathery, sepals three, persistent, imbricate ; 
petals 5, aestivation twisted ; stamens defi- 
nite ; anthers 2-celled ; ovary 1 -celled ; ovules 
anatropal ; stigma slightly emarginate ; fruit 
3-celled(?) Comprises two genera, one of which 
is Brazilian, the other, Ganella, from the 
West Indies is officinal. 

3. FAMILY. Pittosporads (Pittosporacese). Trees 
or shrubs ; leaves alternate, exstipulate ; 
flowers terminal or axillary; sepals and petals 
4-5 ; aestivation imbricate ; stamens 5, alter- 
nate with the petals; ovary single, 2-5-celled; 
style 1 ; stigmas 2-5 ; ovules ascending or 
horizontal ; placentas axile and parietal ; fruit 
capsular or baccate. Chiefly occur in Austra- 
lasia and Polynesia, also in Japan, China, 
Africa, and the Madeiras. 

5. FAMILY. Vines (Vitaceae). Shrubs, climbing ; 
wood with numerous dotted ducts ; abound 
with sap at certain seasons ; lower leaves 
opposite, upper alternate, stipulate or exsti- 
pulate ; floral peduncles racemose ; flowers 
small, green, in thyrses, umbels, or panicles ; 
calyx small ; petals 4-5 ; aestivation valvate ; 
stamens 4-5, opposite the petals ; anthers 
versatile ; ovary 2 - 6-celled ; ovules anatro- 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 453 

pal ; placenta axile ; style one ; stigma simple ; 
fruit round, pulpy. Inhabit the temperate 
and hotter parts of both hemispheres. Valu- 
able as yielding the Grape- Vine and its vari- 
ous products, as Grapes, Raisins, Currants, 
and Wine. (Viniferce, Juss. ; Ampelidece, 
Kunth.) 

6. FAMILY. Berberries (Berberidacese). Shrubs or 

herbs ; leaves alternate, exstipulate ; flowers 
in racemes or panicles ; sepals 3-4-6, decidu- 
ous ; petals equal to, or twice as many as, 
sepals ; stamens equal and opposite to petals ; 
anther-valves recurved; carpel 1 -celled; 
ovules anatropal ; placentae sutural ; style 
sometimes lateral ; stigma orbicular ; fruit 
baccate or capsular. Occur chiefly in moun- 
tainous districts of northern temperate re- 
gions, but also in South America. 

7. FAMILY. Fumitories (Fumariacese). Herbaceous, 

with a watery juice ; leaves alternate, multi- 
fid ; flowers irregular, purple, white, or yel- 
low ; sepals two, deciduous ; petals four, cru- 
ciate very irregular ; stamens four, distinct, 
or six, diadelphous; ovary 1 -celled; ovules 
amphitropal ; placentae parietal; style fili- 
form; stigma with two or more points; fruit 
an achgenium, or capsular and 2-seeded, or 
a many-seeded pod. Occur principally in 
northern temperate climes. 

8. FAMILY. Sundews (Droseracese). Herbaceous, 

delicate ; leaves alternate, stipulate ; verna- 



454 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

tion circinnate ; sepals five, persistent ; petals 
five ; aestivation imbricate ; stamens equal to, 
and alternate with, the petals, or ten, or 
more; ovary single; styles 3-5; ovules ana- 
tropal ; placentae parietal ; fruit capsular, 
3-5-valved. Inhabit marshy spots in North 
and South America, South Africa, Mada- 
gascar, India, China, Australia, and Europe. 
Some possess irritable hairs on the leaves, as 
Dioncea muscipula, called Venus' Fly-trap, 
the opposite laminae of the leaves of which 
suddenly close when the hairs are touched, 
enclosing small insects or other rude aggressors. 

VIII. ORDER RANALS (Kanales). 

Flowers monodichlamydeous ; stamens indefinite ; 

placentae sutural or axile ; embryo minute, enclosed 

in abundant fleshy or horny albumen. 

1. FAMILY. Poppies (Papaveraceas). Herbs or 
shrubs ; often milky ; leaves alternate, ex- 
stipulate ; peduncles long, 1 -flowered ; 
flowers dimerous or trimerous, never blue ; 
sepals 2-3, deciduous ; petals usually four, 
cruciate; anthers dithecal; ovary 1 -celled; 
placentas parietal ; ovules anatropal ; style 
short, or none ; stigmas two or many ; fruit 
pod-shaped with two, or capsular with 
several parietal placenta?. Chiefly a European 
family, but occurring also in Siberia, China, 
Japan, Australia, the Cape of Good Hope, 
and tropical America. The most important 






MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 455 

plant is Papaver somniferum, the concrete 
milky juice from the unripe capsules of 
which constitutes opium. 

2. FAMILY. American Pitcher-plants (Sarraceni- 

aceae). Herbaceous, perennial ; leaves radical ; 
petioles folded and coherent, forming hol- 
low tubes ; scapes one or more flowered ; 
sepals and petals five, or perianth 4-6-leaved ; 
anthers dithecal; ovary 3-5-celled; ovules 
anatropal ; placentae axile ; style single ; 
stigma persistent; fruit capsular, 2-5-celled. 
Occur in North American marshes, and also 
in Guiana. 

3. FAMILY. Cephalotads (Cephalotaceae). Herba- 

ceous ; stemless ; leaves radical, exstipulate ; 
scape with a compound, terminal spike ; 
flowers small ; perianth coloured, 6-parted ; 
aestivation valvate ; stamens twelve ; carpels 
six, distinct, 1 -seeded ; ovule erect; fruit con- 
sisting of membranous achsenia. Contains a 
solitary Australian genus. 

4 FAMILY. Crowfoots (Ranunculaceae). Herbs, 
rarely shrubs ; leaves alternate or opposite, 
with dilated, sheathing petioles ; inflores- 
ence variable ; flowers usually conspicuous ; 
sepals 3-6, deciduous, aestivation mostly im- 
bricate ; petals 3-1 5, rarely abortive ; stamens 
very rarely definite ; carpels numerous, 1- 
celled, distinct, or united into a single many- 
celled pistil ; ovary one or more seeded ; 
ovules anatropal ; styles simple ; fruit dry 



456 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

achsenia, or baccate, or follicular ; albumen 
horny; seeds exarillate. Chiefly occur in 
Europe, but found also in North America, 
and sparingly in South America, Africa, In- 
dia, and New Holland. Most of the plants 
are more or less poisonous, as the species of 
Ranunculus, Aconite, Stavesacre, Black- 
Hellebore, &c. 

5. FAMILY. Dilleniads (Dilleniacese). Trees, shrubs, 

or under-shrubs, rarely herbs ; leaves alter- 
nate, exstipulate ; flowers in terminal ra- 
cemes, or in panicles, often yellow ; sepals 
five, persistent ; petals five, imbricated ; sta- 
mens distinct or polyadelphous; filaments 
dilated at the base or apex ; ovaries definite, 
more or less distinct ; ovules anatropal ; style 
terminal ; stigma simple j fruit of 2-5-capsular 
or baccate unilocular carpels, which are dis- 
tinct or coherent ; albumen fleshy ; seeds 
arillate. Inhabit Australasia, India, Central 
America, and also Equinoctial Africa. 

6. FAMILY. Custard-Apples (Anonacese). Trees or 

shrubs ; leaves alternate, exstipulate ; flowers 
axillary, solitary, or two or three together, 
green or brown ; sepals 8-4, persistent, often 
partially coherent ; petals six ; aestivation 
valvate ; stamens packed closely together ; 
carpels usually numerous, separate or cohe- 
rent ; ovules anatropal ; styles short ; stigmas 
simple ; fruit succulent or dry, the carpels 1- 
or many-seeded, distinct or united; seeds 



MANUAL OF NATUEAL HISTORY. 457 

sometimes arillate ; albumen ruminate. In- 
habit tropical countries in both hemispheres. 
Some yield edible fruits, as the Custard-apples 
from species of Anona. Lance-wood is ob- 
tained in Guiana from Duguetia quitarensis. 
7. FAMILY. Magnoliads (Magnoliacese). Trees or 
shrubs ; leaves alternate, stipules deciduous, 
convolute ; flowers solitary, often odoriferous; 
sepals 2-6, deciduous ; petals 2-30, imbricate ; 
stamens distinct ; carpels numerous, 1 -celled; 
ovules anatropal styles short ; fruit dry or 
succulent, of numerous carpels, which are dis- 
tinct or partially cohering ; albumen fleshy ; 
seeds frequently arillate. Principally inhabit 
North America, but also South America, the 
West Indies, New Zealand, Australia, Japan, 
China, and the East Indies. The most im- 
portant product is " Winter VBark/' which 
is used medicinally. 

IX. OEDER NYMPHALS (Nymphales). 

Flowers dichlamydeous ; stamens indefinite ; pla- 
centae axile or sutural; embryo on the outside of 
abundant albumen, or if exalbuminous, the seeds 
have a large plumule. 

1. FAMILY. Sacred-Beans (Nelumbiacese). Herbs; 
leaves peltate, floating ; trunk prostrate ; 
flowers showy; sepals 4-5; petals numer- 
ous ; stamens in several rows ; filaments pe- 
taloid ; torus large, fleshy, elevated, enclos- 
ing in hollows of its surface numerous 1- 



458 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTOEY. 

seeded carpels ; style very short ; stigma 
simple ; ovule anatropal ; nuts numerous, 
half buried in the hollows of the torus ; albu- 
men none. Found in quiet waters in tem- 
perate or tropical regions, especially in India, 
Said to have disappeared from Egypt, where 
it was formerly common. The flower of 
Nelumbium speciosium is supposed to have 
been the "Lotus" of the ancient Egyptians 
and Indians, and its fruit to have been the 
" Egyptian Bean" of Pythagoras. 

2. FAMILY. Water-shields (Cabombaceae). Herba- 

ceous ; leaves floating, peltate j flowers axil- 
lary, solitary, yellow or purple ; sepals 3-4 ; 
petals 3-4, alternate with the sepals ; stamens 
definite or indefinite ; torus inconspicuous ; 
carpels two, or more; ovules orthotropal; stig- 
mas simple ; fruit indehiscent, tipped with 
the indurated styles; albumen abundant. 
American aquatic plants ; but said to occur 
also on the coast of New-Holland. 

3. FAMILY. Water-lillies (Nymphaeacese). Herbs; 

trunk prostrate ; leaves fleshy, peltate or 
cordate ; flowers showy, often sweet-scented ; 
sepals usually four, persistent, sometimes con- 
founded with the petals ; petals numerous, 
deciduous, often passing gradually into sta- 
mens; stamens numerous; filaments peta- 
loid ; torus large, fleshy ; ovary many-celled ; 
ovules anatropal ; placentas dissepimental ; 
stigmas radiating ; fruit many-celled, inde- 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 459 

hiscent ; albumen farinaceous. Aquatic, 
floating plants. Common throughout the 
northern Hemisphere, but rare in the south- 
ern ; in South America they are represented 
by the gigantic Victoria Regina. 

X. ORDER. GUTTIFERALS (Guttiferales). 

Flowers monodichlamydeous ; calyx imbricated ; 
corolla imbricated or contorted ; stamens indefinite ; 
placentae axile ; albumen little or none. 

1. FAMILY. Reaumuriads (Reaumuriacese). Shrub- 

by; leaves alternate, exstipulate, scale-like, 
glandular ; calyx 5-partite ; petals five, un- 
equal-sided ; stamens definite or indefinite, 
monadelphous or polyadelphous ; anthers in- 
trorse ; carpels free, 2-4-5 ; ovules anatropal ; 
styles long, distinct ; fruit capsular, 2-5-valved, 
2-5-celled ; seeds definite, shaggy. Occur on 
the coasts of the Mediterranean, and in salt 
plains in mild parts of Northern Asia. 

2. FAMILY. Tutsans (Hypericacese). Herbs, shrubs, 

or trees ; juice resinous ; leaves usually oppo- 
site, exstipulate, dotted ; inflorescence vari- 
able ; flowers yellow, red, or white ; sepals 
4-5, persistent, unequal ; petals 4-5, oblique, 
often with black dots ; aestivation contorted ; 
stamens usually polyadelphous ; carpels 2-5 ; 
ovules mostly anatropal ; styles long, usually 
distinct ; stigmas truncate or capitate ; fruit 
capsular, dry or fleshy, many-valved, many- 

x 2 



460 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

celled ; seeds numerous, naked. Distribution 
general. 

3. FAMILY. Harcgraaviads (Marcgraaviacese). Trees 

or shrubs ; leaves alternate, exstipulate ; 
flowers in umbels, racemes, or terminal spikes, 
usually bracteate ', sepals 2-7, persistent ; co- 
rolla of five petals, or gamopetalous ; filaments 
dilated at the base ; anthers versatile ; ovary 
1- or many - celled ; style single ; stigmas 
simple j fruit succulent, capsular, or coria- 
ceous, dehiscent or indehiscent ; seeds numer- 
ous, minute. Natives of Equinoctial America ; 
a doubtful genus (Antholoma), is found in 
New Caledonia. 

4. FAMILY. Gamboges (Clusiacese). Trees or shrubs ; 

juice resinous ; leaves opposite, exstipulate ; 
flowers axillary or terminal, articulated with 
the peduncle, occasionally unisexual, white, 
pink, or red ; sepals 2-5-6-8, usually persis- 
tent, often unequal; petals equals to, or a 
multiple of, the sepals ; stamens rarely defi- 
nite ; anthers adnate, beakless ; ovary 1- or 
many-celled ; ovules orthotropal or anatropal ; 
style none or very short ; stigmas sessile or 
nearly so, radiate ; fruit dry or fleshy, dehis- 
cent or indehiscent ; seeds definite. Natives 
of tropical countries, principally South Ame- 
rica. The principal products of this family 
are the various kinds of Gamboge, yielded by 
species of Hebradendron and Garcinia. (Gut- 
tiferce, Juss.) 



MANUAL OF NATUEAL HISTORY. 461 

5. FAMILY. Souari-nuts (Caryocaracese). Large 

trees ; leaves opposite, exstipulate, digitate ; 
flowers large, racemose ; sepals 5-6, more or 
less combined ; petals 5-8 ; aestivation imbri- 
cate ; stamens slightly monadelphous ; an- 
thers roundish ; ovary 4-5-celled ; ovules 
semi-anatropal ; stigmas sessile ; fruit of se- 
veral indehiscent, 1 -celled, 1 -seeded nuts, 
with a thick double endocarp ; embryo with 
a very large radicle. Inhabit warm South 
American forests. Souari-nuts are produced 
by Caryocar butyrosum. 

6. FAMILY. Tea-plants (Ternstromiacese). Trees or 

shrubs ; leaves alternate, exstipulate, occa- 
sionally dotted ; peduncles axillary or termi- 
nal ; flowers usually white ; sepals 5-7, deci- 
duous ; petals 5-6-9, often combined at the 
base ; anthers versatile or adnate ; ovary 
multilocular ; styles 2-7, more or less com- 
bined ; fruit capsular, 2-7-celled, opening by 
valves, or coriaceous and indehiscent ; seeds 
few, large. Abundant in North and South 
America, India, and China. The principal 
plant is that affording Tea, now in this coun- 
try, become quite a necessary of life. It is 
not quite settled whether the varieties of tea, 
namely, the green and the black, are the 
products of one or of different species. (The- 
acece, Mirbel.) 

7. FAMILY. Scrubby-Oaks (Lophiracese). Trees; 

bark dry ; leaves alternate ; stipules very 



462 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

small, deciduous ; flowers axillary and ter- 
minal, panicled, yellow ; peduncles bracteate ; 
sepals five, unequal ; petals five ; aestivation 
contorted ; anthers adnate ; ovary 1 -celled ; 
ovules indefinite ; stigmas two, very small, 
twisted ; nut coriaceous, 1 -celled, consolidated 
with the enlarged calyx. Contains one 
tropical African genus. 

8. FAMILY. Borneo-Camphors (Dipterocarpacese). 
Large trees ; juice resinous; leaves alternate, 
vernation involute, stipules deciduous ; 
flowers large, racemes terminal and panicled, 
or axillary and solitary ; calyx tubular, 5- 
lobed, unequal, persistent ; petals sessile, 
often combined at the base, aestivation 
twisted ; anthers innate, subulate ; ovary 
3-celled ; style and stigma simple ; fruit 
coriaceous, 1 -celled, 3-valved, or indehiscent. 
Natives of India and the Indian Archipelago. 
Among the products are Borneo-Camphor, 
Gum-Animi, Piney- Varnish, Wood-Oil, &c. 
(Dipteracece, Lindley.) 

XL ORDER SAPINDALS (Sapindales). 

Flowers monodichlamydeous, unsymmetrical ; ca- 
lyx and corolla imbricate ; stamens definite ; pla- 
centae axile ; albumen little or none. 
1. FAMILY. Erythroxyls (Erythroxylaceae). Shrubs 
or trees ; leaves alternate, stipulate ; flowers 
small; peduncles axillary, solitary or clus- 
tered; sepals five, persistent; petals five, with a 



MANUAL OF NATUEAL HISTORY. 463 

small scale at the base ; stamens ten, mona- 
delphous; ovary 3-celled; styles three, distinct 
or united; stigmas three, capitate; ovules 
sessile, pendulous; fruit drupaceous, 1 -seeded; 
embryo straight ; albumen sometimes none. 
Natives of South America and the West 
Indies ; but occur sparingly also in the East 
Indies, the Isle of France, Madagascar, and 
in New Holland. 

2. FAMILY. Malpighiads (Malpighiacese). Trees 

or shrubs ; leaves mostly opposite, stipulate ; 
hairs, when present, peltate ; inflorescence 
variable ; flowers unisexual or bisexual, 
mostly red or yellow ', calyx 5-partite, per- 
sistent, aestivation usually quincuncial; 
petals five, aestivation convolute ; stamens 
generally ten, often monadelphous ; ovary of 
three carpels, more or less combined ; ovules 
with a long pendulous cord ; styles three, dis- 
tinct or united ; stigmas three, simple ; fruit 
drupaceous, nut like, or samaroid ; embyro 
convolute. Tropical plants, mostly South 
American and West Indian, occur also in 
Africa, Arabia,India, China, and Polynesia. 

3. FAMILY. Maples (Aceracese). Trees ; leaves 

opposite, exstipulate ; flowers often poly- 
gamous, axillary, corymbose or racemose; 
calyx mostly 5-divided ; petals five, or 0; sta- 
mens generally eight ; ovary 2-lobed, 2-celled ; 
ovules amphitropal, pendulous j style one ; 
stigmas two ; fruit samaroid ; seeds exarillate ; 



464 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

embryo curved. Occur in Europe, temperate 
parts of Asia, and North America. Among 
the species are the Sugar-Maple, and the 
Sycamore, or Great-Maple. 

4. FAMILY. Guinea-hen Weeds (Petiveriacese). 

Under-shrubsor herbs ; odour often alliaceous ; 
leaves alternate, stipulate, often dotted ; 
flowers racemose or panicled, apetalous ; pe- 
rianth of several distinct leaves ; stamens 
often indefinite ; ovary 1 -celled; ovule erect; 
style one; stigma lateral; fruit 1 -celled, inde- 
hiscent, wingless or winged ; embryo usually 
straight. Natives of tropical America or 
the West Indies. 

5. FAMILY. Soap-Worts (Sapindacese). Trees, 

twining shrubs, or rarely herbs ; leaves alter- 
nate, exstipulate, often dotted ; flowers in 
racemes or racemose panicles, small, mostly 
white or pink; calyx 4-5-partite, or 4-5- 
leaved ; petals 4-5, naked, or with an appen- 
dage inside ; stamens 8-10, sometimes 5-6-7, 
rarely 20; disk fleshy; ovary 3-celled; ovules 
anatropal ; style undivided, or 2-3-cleffc ; 
fruit capsular, and 2-3-valved, or samaroid, 
or fleshy and indehi scent ; seeds usually 
arillate; embryo curved or twisted. Tropi- 
cal species ; chiefly found in India and South 
America. Contain many poisonous plants, 
but yield some edible fruits. Among the 
products are Soap-berries, Horse-chesnuts, 
Guarana, &c. 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 465 

6. FAMILY. Bladder-nuts (Staphyleacese). Shrubs; 

leaves opposite, stipulate ; flowers racemose, 
terminal, stalked; sepals five, coloured; petals 
and stamens five, alternate ; disk large, urceo- 
late ; ovary 2-3-celled ; ovules usually ascend- 
ing; styles 2-3, coherent at the base; fruit 
membranous or fleshy, indehiscent or opening 
internally ; albumen little or none. Distribu- 
tion irregular, in Europe, North and South 
America, the West Indies, India, and Japan. 

7. FAMILY. Vochysiads (Vochysiacese). Trees or 

shrubs ; leaves opposite, stipulate ; flowers in 
terminal panicles or racemes ; sepals 4-5, 
unequal ; petals 1-2-3-5, alternate, equal ; 
stamens 1-5, usually opposite, one having an 
ovate, fertile, 4-celled anther, and the others 
barren ; ovary 3-celled ; ovules amphitropal 
or anatropal ; style and stigma 1 ; fruit cap- 
sular, triquetrous, 3-celled, 3-valved; embryo 
straight. Inhabit equinoctial America. (Vo- 
chyacece, Lindley.) 

8. FAMILY. Milk-Worts (Polygalacese). Shrubs or 

herbs ; leaves alternate or opposite, exstipulate ; 
flowers usually racemose ; pedicels with three 
bracts ; sepals five, distinct, very irregular ; pe- 
tals three or five, unequal ; stamens usually 
eight, monadelphous or diadelphous ; anthers 
1 -celled, dehiscence by pores ; ovary mostly 
2-celled ; ovules anatropal ; style and stigma 
simple ; fruit indehiscent, or with loculicidal 
dehiscence ; seeds carunculate ; albumen abun- 

x 5 



466 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

dant ; embryo straight. Distribution general. 
Among the products are Snake-root (Senega) 
and Rhatany-root (Kra/meria). (Krameria- 
cece, Martius.) 

9. FAMILY. Pore- Forte (Tremandraceae). Shrubs; 
slender, heath-like ; leaves alternate or ver- 
ticillate, exstipulate ; pedicels 1 -flowered ; se- 
pals 4-5, equal, deciduous, aestivation val- 
vate ; petals 4-5 ; aestivation in volute ; stamens 
8 -10 ; anthers 2-4-celled, dehiscence porous ; 
ovary 2-celled ; ovules anatropal ; styles and 
stigmas 1 -2 ; fruit capsular, 2-celled, 2-valved ; 
embryo cylindrical; albumen fleshy. An 
Australian family. 

XII. ORDER MALVALS (Malvales). 

Flowers monodichlamydeous ; calyx valvate ; 
corolla imbricated or twisted ; stamens definite or 
indefinite ; placentae axile ; albumen little or none. 

1. FAMILY. Linden-blooms (Tiliaceae). Trees or 

shrubs, rarely herbs ; leaves alternate, stipu- 
late ; sepals and petals 4-5 ; stamens gene- 
rally indefinite and distinct ; ovary of 2 - 10 
carpels ; style one ; stigmas as many as the 
carpels ; ovules anatropal ; fruit dry or pulpy, 
often prickly ; embryo straight ; albumen 
fleshy. Tropical plants. Russian mats are 
made from the inner bark of the Linden-tree. 

2. FAMILY. Mallows (Malvaceae). Herbs, shrubs, 

or trees ; leaves alternate, stipulate ; hairs, if 
present, stellate ; peduncles usually axillary ; 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 467 

flowers showy; sepals five, rarely three or four ; 
petals equal in number to the sepals ; aestiva- 
tion twisted ; stamens 0, all perfect ; fila- 
ments monadelphous ; anthers 1 -celled, dehis- 
cence transverse ; ovary of several carpels 
united round a common axis ; styles as many 
as carpels ; stigmas variable ; fruit capsular 
or baccate ; embryo curved ; albumen none. 
Abundant in tropical and in warmer tem- 
perate climes. Common-Mallow (Malva) and 
Marsh-Mallow (Althcea) are used medicinally ; 
but by far the most important genus is Gos- 
sypium, the source of the cotton of com- 
merce. 

3. FAMILY. Indian-Cresses (Tropseolacese). Her- 

baceous, smooth; leaves alternate, exstipu- 
late ; peduncles axillary, 1 -flowered ; flowers 
showy ; sepals 3-5, the upper spurred ; petals 
1-5, more or less unequal; stamens 6-10, 
distinct ; disk none ; ovary of 3 or 5 carpels ; 
style single; stigmas 3-5, acute; ovules 
erect or pendulous ; fruit indehiscent, usually 
of three pieces ; seeds exalbuminous ; embryo 
large. Natives of temperate parts of North 
and South America. 

4. FAMILY. Vivianiads (Vivianiacese). Herbaceous 

or suffruticose; leaves opposite or verticillate, 
exstipulate, often downy ; flowers in panicles 
or corymbs ; calyx 10-ribbed, 5-divided ; 
petals five ; persistent ; sestivation twisted ; 
stamens ten, distinct ; disk none ; ovary S- 



468 MANUAL OF NATUKAL HISTORY. 

celled ; stigmas three, sessile ; fruit capsular, 
3-celled, 3-valved ; embryo curved ; albumen 
fleshy. Natives of Southern Brazil and of 
Chili. 

5. FAMILY. Cacao-plants (Byttneriacese). Trees, 

shrubs, or under-shrubs ; leaves alternate ; 
stipules deciduous or ; flowers in clusters, 
spikes, or panicles ; calyx 4-n-lobed ; petals 
4-5, or ; stamens equal to, or some mul- 
tiple of, the petals, more or less monadelph- 
ous, some sterile ; anthers 2-celled, introrse ; 
ovary of 4-10 carpels ; ovules anatropal ; 
styles terminal, as many as the carpels ; fruit 
capsular ; embryo straight or curved ; albu- 
men fleshy. Chiefly tropical or sub-tropical 
plants in Asia, Africa, America, and Austra- 
lasia. The principal plant is the Cacao-tree 
(Theobroma Cacao), yielding chocolate and 
cocoa. 

6. FAMILY. Silk-cotton Plants (Sterculiaceae). Trees 

or shrubs ; leaves alternate, stipules decidu- 
ous ; inflorescence variable ; flowers occasion- 
ally unisexual ; calyx naked or involucrate, 
sepals five ; petals five or ; stamens indefinite, 
perfect, monadelphous ; anthers 2-celled, ex- 
trorse; pistil of five, rarely three, carpels, dis- 
tinct or cohering ; ovules orthotropal or ana- 
tropal ; fruit capsular, follicular, or succulent ; 
embryo straight or curved ; albumen oily or 
fleshy. Distribution tropical, extensive. This 
family boasts of one of the largest trees 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 469 

known, namely, the Baobab-tree of Senegal 

(Adansonia digitata). 

XIII. ORDER. CISTALS (Cistales). 

Flowers monodichlamydeous ; placentae parietal 
or sutural ; embryo curved or spiral ; albumen little 
or none. 

1. FAMILY. Gaper-plants (Capparidacese). Herbs, 

shrubs, or trees ; leaves alternate, exstipu- 
late, or with spines at the base ; flowers soli- 
tary or racemose ; sepals four, often partial- 
ly coherent ; petals 4-8 or 0, usually un- 
equal ; stamens 4-6 or 0, on an elon- 
gated hemispherical torus ; ovary 1 -celled ; 
placentae parietal ; ovules amphitropal or 
campylotropal ; style 0, or filiform ; stigma 
generally round ; fruit pod-shaped and de- 
hiscent, or fleshy and indehiscent ; seeds 
exalbuminous ; embryo curved. Tropical 
genera widely distributed, but especially 
abundant in Africa. Mostly stimulant ; the 
flower-buds of Capparis spinosa constitute 
" capers/' 

2. FAMILY. Mignonettes (Luteolacese). Herbs, 

rarely shrubs ; leaves alternate, stipules 
minute, gland-like ; flowers in racemes or 
spikes ; calyx many-parted ; petals 4-6, un- 
equal; torus glandular; stamens 10-24; 
ovary 3-lobed, 1 -celled ; placentae parietal ; 
ovules amphitropal or campulitropal ; stigmas 
three ; fruit dry and membranous, or succu- 



470 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

lent, opening at the point ; seeds exalbumin- 
ous ; embryo taper. Inhabit Europe and 
Western Asia, also Southern Africa and Cali- 
fornia. (Resedacece, De Cand.) 

3. FAMILY. Cruciferous - plants (Brassicacese). 

Herbs, rarely under -shrubs j leaves alter- 
nate ; flowers generally racemose, usually 
yellow or white ; sepals four, deciduous, val- 
vate or imbricate ; petals four, cruciate, alter- 
nate ; stamens six, tetradynamous ; torus 
glandular ; ovary 1 -celled ; placentae parietal ; 
stigmas two ; fruit a silique or a silicule, 1- 
celled, usually dehiscing by two valves ; al- 
bumen none. Chiefly European, but found 
also more sparingly in most temperate and 
sub-tropical countries. Most are anti-scor- 
butic ; comprise many well-known plants, as 
the Cabbage, Cauliflower, Turnip, Kadish, 
Cress, Horse-radish. Mustard, Scurvy-grass, 
Woad, &c. (Cruciferce, Juss.) 

4. FAMILY. Rock -Roses (Cistaceae). Shrubs or 

herbs ; leaves opposite or' alternate, stipulate 
or exstipulate ; flowers racemose, white, yel- 
low, or red, very fugacious ; sepals 3-5, per- 
sistent, unequal ; petals five, rarely three, 
caducous, twisted in an opposite way to that 
of the sepals ; stamens usually indefinite, dis- 
tinct ; ovary syncarpous, 1- or many-celled ; 
ovules orthotropal; style single; stigma sim- 
ple ; fruit capsular, 8-5-10-valved ; embryo 
inverted, spiral or curved ; albumen horny. 



MANUAL OF NATUKAL HISTOKY. 471 

Chiefly inhabit Southern Europe and North- 
ern Africa. 

XIY. ORDER VIOLALS (Violates). 

Flowers monodichlamydeous ; placentae parietal 
or sutural ; embryo straight ; albumen little or none. 

1. FAMILY. Tiwnerads (Turneraceae). Herbaceous 

or shrubby ; leaves alternate, exstipulate ; 
flowers axillary; calyx 5-lobed, equal, aestiva- 
tion imbricate ; petals five, mostly yellowish, 
perigynous, equal, aestivation twisted ; sta- 
mens five, alternate; ovary 1 -celled; placentae 
parietal ; ovules 00, anatropal ; styles more or 
less coherent, or forked ; stigmas nmltifid ; fruit 
capsular, 1- celled, 3-valved ; albumen fleshy. 
Found in South America and the West-Indies. 

2. FAMILY House-leeks (Crassulaceae). Herbs or 

shrubs, often succulent ; leaves entire or pin- 
natifid, exstipulate ; flowers in cymes ; sepals 
3-20; corolla gamopetalous, or petals 3-20; 
stamens equal to, or twice as many as, 
petals ; carpels same number as petals ; ovules 
00, anatropal ; styles several or combined ; 
stigmas pointed or 4-cornered j fruit of se- 
veral follicles ; albumen fleshy. Distribution 
extended, occurring in very dry situations, as 
on rocks, walls, &c. 

3. FAMILY. Sauvagesiads (Sauvagesiaceae). Shrubs 

or herbs ; leaves alternate, stipulate ; flowers 
terminal, in panicles or racemes, light-co- 
loured ; sepals, five, imbricated ; petals five ; 



472 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

aestivation convolute ; stamens definite and 
fertile, or indefinite, partly fertile and partly 
petaloid ; anthers extrorse ; ovary 1 -celled ; 
ovules anatropal; placentae parietal; style 
terminal ; stigma simple ; fruit capsular, 3- 
valved; albumen fleshy. Natives of South 
America and the West Indies. 

4. FAMILY. Tamarisks (Tamaricacese). Shrubs or 

herbs ; leaves alternate, scale-like ; flowers 
racemose or spiked ; calyx 4-5-partite ; petals 
4-5 ; aestivation imbricate ; stamens equal to, 
or twice as many as, the petals, distinct or 
monadelphous ; anthers introrse ; ovary 1 - 
celled ; styles three ; ovules anatropal ; fruit 
capsular, 3-valved, 1 -celled ; seeds numerous, 
comose ; albumen none. Peculiar to the 
Eastern half of the Northern Hemisphere. 
Mount Sinai manna is obtained from Tama- 
rix mannifera. 

5. FAMILY. Frankeniads (Frankeniaceae). Herbs 

or under-shrubs ; leaves opposite, exstipulate ; 
flowers sessile, terminal ; sepals 4-5, cohering 
into a furrowed tube; petals 4-5, alternate; 
stamens usually equal to, and alternate with, 
petals ; anthers versatile ; ovary 1 -celled ; 
ovules anatropal ; placentae parietal ; style 
filiform; fruit capsular, 1-celled, 2-3-4- valved; 
seeds numerous ; albumen fleshy. Natives of 
Southern Europe and Northern Africa, also 
of the Cape of Good Hope and Australia. 

6. FAMILY. Violets (Violaceae). Herbs or shrubs ; 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTOEY. 473 

leaves mostly alternate, stipulate ; vernation 
involute ; inflorescence various ; sepals five, 
persistent, equal ; aestivation imbricated ; 
petals five, equal or unequal ; aestivation 
obliquely convolute ; stamens five, alternate ; 
anthers introrse ; filaments dilated ; ovary 
1 -celled; ovules anatropal; placentae parie- 
tal ; style single ; stigma oblique-hooded ; 
fruit capsular, 3-valved ; albumen fleshy. 
The herbaceous species are more abundant in 
northern temperate countries, while those 
which are shrubby inhabit South America 
and India. 

7. FAMILY. Ben-nuts (Moringaceae). Trees ; leaves 

2 3-pinnate, stipulate ; flowers irregular, in 
loose panicles ; calyx 5-partite ; petals five, 
unequal; stamens 8-10, perigynous ; fila- 
ments rather petaloid ; anthers 1 -celled ; 
ovary 1 -celled; placentae parietal ; ovules ana- 
tropal ; style filiform ; stigma simple ; fruit 
capsular, pod-like, 1 -celled, 3-valved : seeds 
numerous ; albumen none. Natives of Arabia 
and India. The seeds of Noringa ptery- 
gosperma are the " Ben -nuts " of authors ; 
they yield a fluid oil named " Oil of Ben/' 

8. FAMILY. Crown-worts (Malesherbiaceae). Herbs 

or half-shrubs ; leaves alternate, exstipulate ; 
flowers axillary or terminal, solitary ; calyx 
tubular, 5-lobed ; aestivation imbricate ; petals 
five, alternate, coronetted, persistent, aestiva- 
tion convolute; stamens 5-10, perigynous; 



474 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

anthers versatile ; ovary 1 -celled ; placentae 
parietal ; ovules anatropal ; styles three, very 
long, -dorsal; stigmas clavate; fruit capsular, 
1 -celled, 3-valved ; seeds exarillate ; albumen 
abundant. Natives of Peru and Chili. 

9. FAMILY Passion-flowers (Passifloraceae). Herbs 
or shrubs, generally climbing; leaves alter- 
nate, stipulate ; flowers axillary or terminal ; 
sepals five ; petals usually five, perigynous ; 
aestivation imbricate ; stamens five, mona- 
delphous, surrounding the stalk of the ovary ; 
anthers extrorse ; ovary 1 -celled ; ovules 
anatropal ; placentae parietal ; styles three, 
clavate ; stigmas dilated ; fruit stipitate, 
1 -celled, often 3-valved; seeds arillate; al- 
bumen fleshy. Chiefly occur in South 
America and the West Indies ; found also in 
North America, Africa, and the East Indies. 

] 0. FAMILY. Samyds (Samydaceae). Trees or 
shrubs ; leaves alternate, evergreen, stipulate, 
with linear, pellucid dots ; peduncles axil- 
lary, solitary or numerous ; perianth 4-5- 
divided, usually coloured inside ; aestivation 
somewhat imbricate ; stamens arising from 
tube of perianth, two, three, or four times as 
many as its divisions, all fertile or the alter- 
nate ones sterile; filaments monadelphous at 
the base ; anthers 2-celled ; ovary 1-celled ; 
ovules semi-anatropal ; placentae parietal; 
style filiform ; stigma capitate or slightly 
lobed ; fruit coriaceous, capsular, 1-celled, 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 475 

3-5-valved ; seeds arillate ; albumen oily or 
fleshy. Principally from tropical America; 
a few are African or Asiatic. 

11. FAMILY. Lacistemads (Lacistemacese). Shrubs 

or small trees; leaves alternate, exstipulate (?) ; 
flowers amentaceous, polygamous ; perianth 
in several narrow divisions, covered by an 
enlarged bract ; stamen one, unilateral ; 
anther 2-celled (?) ; ovary 1 -celled ; ovules 
anatropal; placentae parietal; stigmas 2-3, 
sessile or on a style ; fruit capsular, 1 -celled, 
2-3-valved; seed arillate ; albumen fleshy. 
Natives of Equinoctial America. 

12. FAMILY. Bixads (Flacourtiacese). Shrubs or 

small trees ; leaves alternate, exstipulate, often 
dotted ; peduncles axillary, many-flowered ; 
sepals 4-7; petals 4 -7, alternate, or none ; sta- 
mens equal to, or some multiple of, the petals; 
ovary sessile or nearly so, 1-or more-celled ; 
placentae parietal ; style filiform or none ; 
stigmas several; fruit 1 -celled, fleshy and 
indehiscent, or capsular and 4-5-valved; 
albumen fleshy. Chiefly occur in hot parts of 
the East and West Indies and Africa, also at 
the Cape of Good Hope, and in New Zealand. 
" Arnotto " is supplied by the reddish pulp 
surrounding the seeds of Bixa Orellana. 

II. SUB-CLASS. DiCLiNOUs-ExoGENS (Diclinese). 

Flowers unisexual, without any customary ten- 
dency to hermaphroditism. 



476 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

I. ORDER PAPAYALS (Papayales). 

Flowers dichlamydeous ; carpels superior, con- 
solidated; placentae parietal; embryo surrounded 
by abundant albumen. 

1. FAMILY. Pangiads (Pangiacese). Trees; leaves 

alternate; flowers axillary ; sepals and petals 
mostly five; scales equal to, and opposite, 
the petals ; male stamens five or 00, sterile 
stamens equal to the petals ; ovary 1 -celled ; 
ovules indefinite ; fruit capsular, succulent, 
indehiscent, 1 -celled ; seeds 00. Natives of 
hot parts of India. 

2. FAMILY. Papaws (Papayacese). Trees or shrubs ; 

leaves alternate ; flowers in axillary racemes 
or solitary ; calyx 5-toothed ; corolla mono- 
petalous, 5-lobed ; scales in throat of female 
flowers wanting ; stamens definite ; ovary 
1 -celled ; stigma 3 5-lobed j fruit succulent 
or dehiscent, 1 -celled. Inhabit South Ame- 
rica, also temperate and tropical parts of the 
Old World. 

II. ORDER CUCURBITALS (Cucurbitales). 

Flowers monodichlamydeous ; fruit inferior ; pla- 
centse parietal ; embryo without albumen. 
1, FAMILY. Begoniads (Begoniacese). Herbs or 
under-shrubs ; leaves alternate ; stipules 
large, scarious ; flowers cymose, pink ; peri- 
anth adherent, segments coloured, four in the 
male, and 4-8 in the female ; stamens inde- 
finite ; anthers collected in a head ; ovary 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 477 

3-celled ; ovules 00, anatropal ; placentae axile ; 
stigmas three, sessile ; fruit capsular, mem- 
branous, triangular, winged ; seeds 0. Na- 
tives of the East and West Indies, South 
America, and also Africa. 

2. FAMILY. Datiscads (Datiscacese). Herbs or 

trees ; leaves alternate, exstipulate ; flowers 
in axillary racemes, or terminal panicles ; 
/ male flowers, perianth 3 4-divided, stamens 
3-7 ; anthers 2-eelled ; female, perianth ad- 
herent, 3 4-toothed ; ovary 1 -celled ; ovules 
0, anatropal \ stigmas 3-4, opposite lobes of 
perianth ; fruit capsular, 1 -celled ; seeds 
strophiolate. Distribution scattered over 
North America, Siberia, Northern India, 
the Indian Archipelago, and South-Eastern 
Europe. 

3. FAMILY. Gourds (Cucurbitacese). Herbaceous, 

climbing by tendrils formed of abortive 
stipules ; leaves alternate, usually palmate ; 
flowers unisexual, light-coloured ; calyx 5- 
toothed ; corolla 5-parted ; stamens five, dis- 
tinct, or variously united ; anthers 2-celled ; 
ovary adherent, 1 -celled; ovules solitary or 
00 ; stigmas very thick ; fruit a pepo ; seeds 
flat. Natives chiefly of sub-tropical and 
warm-temperate regions, especially India. 
Among the products are the melon, cucumber, 
gourd, pumpkin, vegetable-marrow, also colo- 
cynth and elaterium. 



478 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

III. OKDEK. MENISPERMALS (Menispermales). 

Flowers monodichlamydeous ; carpels superior, 
disunited; embryo surrounded by abundant al- 
bumen. 

1. FAMILY. Moonseeds (Menispermacese). Shrubs, 

sarmentaceous ; wood frequently arranged in 
wedges ; leaves alternate, entire ; flowers 
very small, racemose, often dioecious ; sepals 
and petals undistinguishable, in several rows, 
deciduous ; stamens usually monadelphous ; 
anthers extrorse ; carpels solitary or nu- 
merous ; ovule amphitropal ; fruit drupa- 
ceous, 1 -seeded, oblique or lunate; embryo 
large, curved or periphericaL Common in 
tropical Asia and America, a few also in 
Africa. Yield Calumba-root, Pareira-brava, 
and Coculus-indicus. 

2. FAMILY. Kadsurads (Schizandracese). Shrubs, 

scrambling ; leaves alternate, simple, exsti- 
pulate, often dotted ; flowers small, solitary 
or axillary ; sepals 3-6 ; petals 3-9, hypo- 
gynous ; stamens 0, monadelphous or free ; 
anthers extrorse ; carpels 0, free or adhe- 
rent, 1 -celled ; ovules 2, pendulous ; stigma 
sessile; fruit numerous, berried, i-2-seeded; 
seeds pendulous ; embryo very small. Occur 
in India and the Indian islands, Japan, and 
hot parts of North America. 

3. FAMILY. Lardizabalads (Lardizabalacese). 

Shrubs, twining; leaves alternate, exstipu- 



MANUAL OF NATUKAL HISTOKY. 479 

late, compound; flowers racemose, solitary 
or clustered ; sepals 3-6, in two rows ; petals 
six, in two rows, opposite, or ; stamens six, 
opposite ; anthers mostly extrorse ; rudi- 
mentary ovaries in male flowers ; female 
flowers larger, with six imperfect stamens ; 
carpels mostly 3, 1 -celled ; ovules many ; 
style short ; stigma simple ; fruit short- 
stalked, berried, usually many-seeded ; seeds 
parietal embryo minute. Found in tem- 
perate parts of South America, and in China. 

4. FAMILY. Nutmegs (Myristicacese). Trees ; leaves 

alternate, exstipulate, not dotted ; inflo- 
rescence axillary or terminal, in racemes, 
glomerules, or panicles ; flowers very small, 
completely unisexual ; perianth trifid, rarely 
quadrifid, deciduous in the female ; aestiva- 
tion valvate; stamens 3-12; filaments often 
united into a cylinder ; anthers extrorse ; 
ovary of one or more carpels ; ovule anatropal ; 
style very short ; stigma somewhat lobed ; 
fruit succulent, 1 -celled, 2-valved ; albumen 
ruminate; embryo small. Natives of tropical 
India and America. The chief species is 
Myristica officinalis, affording mace and 
nutmegs. 

5. FAMILY. Plume-nutmegs (Atherospermacese). 

Trees; leaves opposite, exstipulate; flowers 
axillary, racemose, rarely bisexual ; perianth 
tubular, divided at the top into segments, 
usually in two rows, the inner petaloid, and 



480 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

in the females with scales ; stamens 0, but 
fewer in the female ; anthers 2-celled, with 
valvular dehiscence ; ovaries usually ; 
ovule erect ; style and stigmas simple ; fruit 
consisting of achsenia, enclosed within tube 
of perianth ; seed erect ; embryo minute. 
Natives of Australia and of Chili. 
6. FAMILY. Monimiads (Monimiacese). Trees or 
shrubs, aromatic ; leaves opposite, exstipu- 
late ; flowers axillary ; perianth somewhat 
globose, divided at the border ; stamens 0, 
perigynous ; anthers with longitudinal de- 
hiscence ; ovaries several, 1 -celled ; ovule 
anatropal ; fruit of several 1 -seeded achsenia, 
enclosed within the enlarged perianth ; seed 
pendulous ; embryo minute, external to the 
albumen. Mostly occur in South American 
forests, a few also in Madagascar, the Mau- 
ritius, Java, Australia, and New Zealand. 

TY. ORDER GAJIRYALS (Garryales). 

Flowers monochlamydeous, sometimes amenta- 
ceous ; fruit inferior ; embryo minute, in a large 
quantity of albumen. 

1. FAMILY. Helwingiads (Helwingiacese). Shrub- 
by ; leaves alternate, stipulate ; flowers fasci- 
cled ; perianth 3-4-partite, segments deciduous 
in the female ; aestivation valvate ; stamens 
3-4, alternate ; anthers introrse ; ovary 3-4- 
celled ; ovules anatropal ; style very short ; 
stigmas 3-4, subulate ; fruit drupaceous, 3-4- 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 481 

celled ; seeds pendulous. A single Japanese 
genus, with but one known species. 
2. FAMILY. Garryads (Garryacese). Shrubs ; 
leaves opposite, exstipulate ; flowers in pen- 
dulous, amentaceous racemes ; wood without 
distinct zones ; male perianth 4-partite ; fe- 
male perianth superior, 2-toothed ; stamens 
four, alternate with segments of perianth ; 
ovary 1 -celled ; ovules two, pendulous ; styles 
two ; fruit baccate, indehiscent ; seeds two. 
Natives of North America and the West 
Indies. ^ 

V. ORDER. QUEKNALS (Quernales). 

Male flowers amentaceous, monochlamydeous ; 
fruit inferior ; embryo amygdaloid ; albumen none. 

1. FAMILY. Walnuts (Juglandacese). Trees ; leaves 

alternate, not dotted, exstipulate ; flowers her- 
baceous, inconspicuous ; male flowers amen- 
taceous ; perianth membranous, irregularly 
lobed ; stamens 3 or ; anthers erect, 2- 
celled ; female flowers in terminal clusters or 
loose racemes; perianth single or double, the 
outer 3-5-partite ; ovary adherent, ] -celled ; 
ovule erect, orthotropal ; styles 1-2 ; stigmas 
2-4, unequal ; fruit drupaceous, sometimes 
with an adherent involucre. Chiefly North 
American, but a few inhabit Persia, and the 
East and West Indies. Afford the black and 
common walnuts, and hickory wood. 

2. FAMILY. Oaks (Corylacese). Trees or shrubs ; 



482 MANUAL OF NATUKAL HISTOEY. 

leaves alternate, stipulate ; male flowers 
amentaceous ; perianth membranous, valvate ; 
stamens 3-20 ; female flowers aggregate or 
amentaceous; ovary 2- or more celled, crowned 
by remains of the adherent perianth, seated 
within a coriaceous involucre ; ovules twin or 
solitary, peltate or pendulous ; stigmas seve- 
ral, distinct ; fruit bony or membranous, 1- 
celled, more or less enclosed in the involucre. 
Inhabit forests in temperate parts of both 
hemispheres. A very valuable group, em- 
bracing the oak, beech, hazel-nut, Spanish- 
chesnut; and affording, besides excellent 
timber, cork, gall-nuts, Velonia, Quercitron, 
nuts, filberts, chesnuts, &c. (Quercinece, 
Juss. Cupuliferce, Rich.) 

VI. ORDER. EUPHOKBIALS (Euphorbiales). 

Flowers monodichlamydeous, scattered; carpels 
superior, consolidated ; placentae axile ; embryo 
large, surrounded by abundant albumen. 
1. FAMILY. Pitcher-plants (Nepenthacese). Herbs, 
or half-shrubs ; leaves alternate, slightly 
sheathing at the base, having a dilated, foli- 
aceous petiole, pitcher-shaped at the extre- 
mity, with a lid-like lamina ; inflorescence 
racemose, terminal, dense ; flowers dioecious ; 
perianth 4-parted; aestivation imbricate; sta- 
mens united into a solid column ; anthers about 
sixteen, extrorse ; ovary 4-cornered, 4-celled ; 
ovules ; stigma sessile ; fruit capsular, 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 483 

4-celled, 4-valved ; seeds 0, minute, with a 
loose testa ; radicle inferior. Natives of 
swamps in the East Indies and China. 

2. FAMILY. Bat Ids (Batidacese). Shrubs ; leaves 

opposite, exstipulate, succulent ; flowers in 
spikes ; male flowers, scales of cone 1- 
flowered ; perianth a scale rolled up with its 
back next the axis, and the edges united ; 
female flowers absolutely naked (?), or com- 
posed of succulent scales arranged in a 4- 
rowed cone ; stamens four; filamen ts flattened j 
ovary 5-6-celled; ovules erect; stigma sessile ; 
fruit succulent. Comprises one genus abun- 
dant in West-Indian salt marshes. 

3. FAMILY. Crowberries (Enipetracese). Shrubs, 

heath-like ; leaves evergreen, alternate or 
partially verticillate, exstipulate ; perianth 
of persistent, imbricated scales, the inner 
often petaloid ; stamens equal to, and alter- 
nate with, scales in inner row; anthers 2- 
celled ; ovary seated on a fleshy disk, 3-6-9- 
celled ; ovules definite, ascending, anatropal ; 
style one ; stigma with as many radii as there 
are ovarian cells ; fruit a nuculanium, within 
the persistent perianth ; radicle inferior. A 
small group, inhabiting Europe, North Ame- 
rica, and the straits of Magellan. The fruit 
of Empetrum nigrum, the black crowberry, 
which is not unpleasantly acid, is frequently 
eaten in Northern Europe. 

4. FAMILY. Star-worts (Callitrichacese). Herba- 

T 2 



484 MANUAL OF NATUKAL HISTOEY. 

ceous, small ; leaves opposite ; flowers axil- 
lary, very minute, monoecious, naked; stamen 
hypogynous j filament filiform ; anther reni- 
form, 1-celled, 2-valved j ovary 4-cornered, 
4-celled ; ovules definite, suspended, amphi- 
tropal ; styles two, subulate ; stigmas simple 
points ; fruit 4-celled, 4-seeded, indehiscent ; 
radicle superior. Inhabit still-waters in 
Europe and North America. 

5. FAMILY. Scepads (Scepacese). Trees ; leaves 

alternate, stipules membranous ; flowers dioe- 
cious ; male /lowers amentaceous ; perianth 
4 5 -leaved, imbricated; stamens 2-5; fila- 
ments short, not elastic ; anthers 2-celled ; 
female flowers in short axillary racemes ; 
perianth of six segments in two whorls ; 
ovary 2-celled ; style ; stigma with two 
short emarginate lobes, or four equal fringed 
ones ; ovules in pairs, pendulous, anatropal ; 
fruit 2-celled, 4-valved ; radicle superior. 
Forest trees in tropical India. 

6. FAMILY. Gyrostemonads (Gyrostemonaceae). Trees 

or shrubs ; leaves alternate, stipulate ; male 
flowers, perianth 6~7-lobed ; stamens inde- 
finite, distinct ; female flowers, perianth cup- 
shaped, 6-7-lobed ; carpels 00, round a flat 
torus, 2-seeded ; ovules pendulous, campy lo- 
tropal; fruit of several membranous cases 
arranged in a ring ; radicle inferior. Natives 
of New Holland. 

7. FAMILY. Spurges (Ricinaeese). Trees, shrubs, 



MANUAL OF NATUKAL HISTORY. 485 

or herbs, often with acrid milk ; leaves oppo- 
site or alternate, often stipulate ; flowers 
axillary or terminal, variously arranged, 
sometimes within an involucre ; perianth in- 
ferior, with various glandular or petaloid, 
scaly, internal appendages, sometimes want- 
ing ; stamens definite or 0, distinct or 
monadelphous ; anthers 2-celled ; ovary ses- 
sile or stalked, 1-2-3, or many-celled; ovules 
definite, suspended, anatropal ; sty las equal 
to the cells, distinct or combined ; stigma 
compound, or single with several lobes ; fruit 
usually tricoccous ; radicle superior. A very 
extensive family, especially abundant in 
equinoctial America, but occurring also in 
India and Africa, North America, and Europe. 
Among the products are euphorbium, man- 
chineel, cascarilla, castor and croton oils, 
tapioca, cassava, bottle India-rubber, gum-lac, 
boxwood, African teak, turnsole, &c. (Eu- 
phorbiacece, Juss.) 

VII. ORDER. URTICALS (Urticales). 

Flowers scattered, monochlamydeous ; carpels 
single, superior ; embryo large, in a small quantity 
of albumen. 

1. FAMILY. Planes (Platanacese). Trees or shrubs ; 
leaves alternate, stipules sheathing, scarious, 
deciduous ; flowers in globose catkins, naked, 
the sexes in distinct catkins ; stamen one, 
with scales ; anthers 2-celled ; ovary 1 -celled ; 



486 MANUAL OF NATUEAL HISTORY. 

ovules solitary or in pairs, orthotropal ; style 
subulate ; fruit of compressed clavate nuts, 
terminated by a recurved style ; radicle in- 
ferior ; plumule minute. Inhabit Barbary, 
the Levant, and North America. 

2. FAMILY. Bread-fruit trees (Artocarpacege). Trees 

or shrubs ; lactescent ; leaves alternate, sti- 
pules large, deciduous ; flowers in dense 
heads ; male flowers, perianth 2-4-parted, or 
; female flowers variously arranged over a 
fleshy receptacle, perianth tubular ; stamens 
opposite, and equal to divisions of perianth ; 
anthers 2-celled ; ovary 1 -celled ; ovule erect 
and orthotropal, amphitropal and parietal, 
or pendulous and anatropal ; style lateral or 
terminal, often bifid ; stigma sometimes radi- 
ating ; fruit variable, surrounded by a fleshy 
involucre, or composed of consolidated fleshy 
calyces, containing numerous nuts ; albumen 
abundant or scanty ; radicle superior. Tro- 
pical plants in both hemispheres. Among 
the members are the bread-fruit tree, the 
cow-tree of Demerara, and the upas-tree 
Antiaris toxicaria. 

3. FAMILY. Mulberries (Moracege). Trees or shrubs ; 

lactescent ; leaves often rough ; stipules 
large, often rolled up ; flowers inconspicuous, 
in heads, spikes, or catkins ; male flowers, 
perianth 3-4-parted, or ; female flowers, 
perianth 3- 4- 5-divided, often in two rows; 
stamens 3-4, opposite ; anthers 2-celled ; 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 487 

ovary 1 -celled ; ovules solitary, pendulous or 
amphitropal ; style terminal, bifid ; fruit a 
sorosis or syconus; embryo hooked, albu- 
minous ; radicle superior. Natives of tem- 
perate and tropical climes in both hemi- 
spheres. Comprise the fig, banyan, common 
and white mulberry ; and among their pro- 
ducts are contrayerva-root, fustic, and ca- 
outchouc, which latter is abundantly supplied 
by the Ficus elastica. (Sycoidcce, Link.) 

4 FAMILY. Hemp-worts (Cannabinacese). Herba- 
ceous ; juice watery ; leaves alternate, stipu- 
late ; flowers inconspicuous ; male flowers in 
racemes or panicles; perianth herbaceous, 
imbricated ; female flowers in spikes or 
cones ; perianth single, enwrapping the ovary ; 
stamens few, opposite ; anthers 2-celled ; 
ovary 1 -celled ; ovule solitary, pendulous^ 
eampylotropal ; stigmas two, subulate, ses- 
sile ; fruit indehiscent ; embryo hooked, ex- 
albuminous ; radicle superior. Occur in 
northern temperate regions in the eastern 
hemisphere. Afford hops, hemp, &c. Can- 
nabis Indica, now much used medicinally, 
yields various narcotic products, known as 
haschisch, bhang, gunjah, churrus, &c. 

5. FAMILY. Horn-worts (Ceratophyllacese). Herbs, 
submersed ; leaves dichotomous, verticillate ; 
flowers monoecious ; perianth 10-16-parted ; 
stamens 12-20; anthers 2-celled; ovary 1- 
celled ; ovule pendulous, orthotropal ; style 






488 MANUAL OF NATUKAL HISTORY. 

filiform ; stigma simple ; fruit a 1 -celled in- 
dehiscent nut, terminated by the hardened 
style ; embryo exalbuminous ; plumule large, 
many-leaved ; radicle inferior. Live in ditches 
in Europe, North America, Northern Asia, 
India, Barbary, and Senegal. 

6. FAMILY. Elms (Ulmacese). Trees or shrubs ; 

juice watery ; leaves alternate, stipulate ; 
flowers in loose clusters, frequently unisexual; 
perianth inferior, membranous, imbricated-, 
irregular; stamens definite; filaments erect 
in aestivation ; ovary superior or 2-celled ; 
ovules pendulous, anatropal, or amphitropal ; 
stigmas two ; fruit 1-2-celled, membranous 
or drupaceous ; albumen scanty or ; coty- 
ledons foliaceous ; radicle superior. Inhabit 
northern and mountainous parts of Europe, 
Asia, and America. The principal genus is 
that of the elms. 

7. FAMILY. Nettles (Urticacese). Trees, shrubs, or 

herbs ; juice watery ; leaves alternate, sti- 
pulate, rough, often with stinging hairs ; 
flowers herbaceous, inconspicuous, scattered, 
or clustered, or in catkins, or close heads ; 
perianth membranous, lobed ; stamens defi- 
nite, distinct, opposite ; filaments elastic, 
curved in aestivation ; ovary simple ; ovule 
solitary, erect ; stigma simple ; fruit an in- 
dehiscent nut ; embryo straight, albuminous ; 
radicle superior. Widely distributed, many 
following in the footsteps of man. Remark- 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 489 

able for the extreme causticity of their 
juice 

8. FAMILY. Antidesmads (Stilaginacese). Trees or 
shrubs ; leaves alternate, stipulate ; flowers 
minute, in axillary, scaly spikes ; perianth 
2- 3- 5-partite ; stamens two or more, arising 
from a swollen receptacle ; filaments capillary ; 
anthers 2-lobed, cells vertical, opening trans- 
versely ; ovary 1-2-celled ; ovules two, pen- 
dulous, anatropal; stigma sessile, 3-5-toothed; 
fruit drupaceous ; embryo straight, albu- 
minous ; radicle superior. Natives of the 
East Indies and of Madagascar. 

VIII. ORDER. AMENTALS (Amentales). 

Flowers in catkins, achlamydeous or monochla- 
mydeous ; carpels superior; embryo small; albumen 
little or none. 

1. FAMILY. Oleasters (Elseagnacese). Trees or 
shrubs ; leaves alternate or opposite, exstipu- 
late ; flowers axillary, in catkins or panicles, 
rarely bisexual ; 'male /Lowers amentaceous, 
with 2-4 leaves forming the perianth ; sta- 
mens 3- 4- 8 ; anthers introrse ; female and 
hermaphrodite flowers, perianth tubular ; 
ovary 1 -celled ; ovule solitary, ascending, 
anatropal ; style short ; stigma subulate, glan- 
dular ; fruit a crustaceous achsenium, enclosed 
within the enlarged succulent perianth ; ra- 
dicle inferior. Occur throughout the entire 
northern hemisphere. 

T 5 



490 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

2. FAMILY. Bog-myrtles (Myricaceae). Leafy shrubs 

or small trees, covered with resinous glands 
and dots ; leaves alternate, with or without 
stipules ; flowers amentaceous, achlamydeous ; 
stamens 2-8, in the axil of a scale ; anthers 
2-4-celled ; ovary 1-celled; ovule solitary, 
erect, orthotropal ; stigmas two, subulate or 
petaloid; fruit drupaceous, often with a 
waxy secretion ; seed solitary, erect ; radicle 
superior; inhabit temperate and tropical 
regions in North and South America, and 
India, and at the Cape of Good Hope ; one 
species is European. 

3. FAMILY. Willows (Salicacese). Trees or shrubs; 

leaves alternate, stipulate; flowers amenta- 
ceous, naked, or with a membranous cup- 
shaped perianth ; stamens distinct or mona- 
delphous ; anthers 2-celled ; ovary 1-celled ; 
ovules 00, erect, anatropal; style 1 or 0; 
stigmas 24 ; fruit coriaceous, 1-celled, 2- 
valved ; seeds 00, comose ; embryo erect ; 
radicle inferior. Inhabit temperate and 
arctic regions. Comprise the Willow, the 
Sallow, and the Poplar. 

4. FAMILY. Altingiads (Liquidambaracese). Tall 

trees, balsamic ; leaves alternate, stipulate ; 
flowers with verticillate bracts or minute 
scales ; female catkins on longer stalks than 
the males ; anthers numerous ; ovary 2-celled ; 
ovules 00, amphitropal ; styles two ; fruit of 
2-celled capsules, united into a hard cone; 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTOEY. 491 

seeds numerous, winged ; radicle superior. 
Yield Liquid-Storax. (Altingiacece, Lindl) 

5. FAMILY. Birches (Betulacese). Trees or shrubs ; 

leaves alternate, stipulate ; flowers amenta- 
ceous, with bracts, which are at times verti- 
cillate ; stamens distinct, opposite ; anthers 
2-celled ; ovary 2-celled ; ovule solitary, 
pendulous, anatropal ; style single or ; 
stigmas two ; fruit membranous, indehiscent, 
forming a kind of cone ; seeds pendulous ; 
albumen none ; radicle superior. Natives of 
temperate, arctic, and antarctic regions. 
Comprehend the species of Birch and of 
Alder. 

6. FAMILY. Bee/woods (Casuarinacese). Trees, 

brandling, weeping; leaves 0, replaced by 
membranous, toothed sheaths ; flowers 
bracteate ; 'male flowers in spikes, female 
flowers in dense heads ; stamen one ; anther 
2-celled ; ovary 1 -celled ; ovules one, ob- 
liquely-ascending, or two side by side ; styles 
two ; fruit of winged achsenia, collected into 
a cone ; seed erect ; radicle superior. Natives 
of Australasia. 



GYMNOGENS. 

Gymnogens, called also Gymnosperms, constitute 
a small Class, in many respects closely allied to the 
one last under consideration. Their seeds have two 



492 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

cotyledons, and their stems are Exogenous, but they 
are distinguished by the vessels of the wood having 
large apparent perforations. Their chief peculiarity, 
however, consists in the naked, uncovered condition 
of the seed, and in the fertilization of their female 
organs taking place through the foramen of the 
ovule, without the aid of either style or stigma. In 
general appearance they bear a strong resemblance 
to some flowerless groups, as the Club-mosses and 
Ferns, so much so as to have been, by Linnaeus and 
others, classed with the latter. They contain the 
curious Joint-Firs, the melancholy Yews, the in- 
valuable Pines, and the feathery Cycads, comprising 
in all, thirty-seven genera, and upwards of two 
hundred species. 

II. CLASS. GYMNOGENS (Gymnogense). 

A cellular and a vascular system ; stem with 
wood and true bark ; vessels of wood with large 
apparent perforations ; wood in concentric zones, 
augmented by growth from without ; embryo di- 
cotyledonous ; ovules fertilized by direct contact, 
without the intervention of style or stigma; ger- 
mination exorhizal. 

1. FAMILY. Joint-Firs (Gnetacese). Small trees 
very much branched, or sarmentose shrubs; 
juice watery; stems jointed; leaves opposite, 
simple, net-veined; flowers in catkins or 
heads ; male flowers with a perianth ; female 
flowers naked, or sheltered by a false peri- 
anth ; anthers 1-4-celled, opening by pores ; 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 493 

ovary ; ovule with a style-like process 
formed from the inner covering of the 
nucleus ; seed drupaceous ; embryo with a 
long, spirally twisted funiculus. Inhabit 
temperate parts of Europe, Asia, and South 
America. 

2. FAMILY. Yews (Taxacese). Trees or shrubs; 

branches unarticulated j stems continuous ; 
leaves alternate or distichous, evergreen, 
rigid, veinless or fork-veined ; flowers naked, 
but surrounded by imbricated bracts ; sta- 
mens several ; filaments monadelphous ; an- 
thers 2-celled, dehiscence longitudinal ; ovules 
naked, the outer skin becoming finally hard ; 
fruit somewhat drupaceous ; embryo straight. 
Common in mild climates generally, especially 
in Asia, also in elevated tropical districts ; 
often resinous. 

3. FAMILY. Pines (Pinacese). Trees or shrubs, 

evergreen ; resinous ; trunk continuous, 
branched ; leaves simple, acerose or lanceo- 
late ; flowers naked, male flowers monan- 
drous or monadelphous ; female flowers in 
cones ; anthers 2- or many-lobed, dehiscence 
longitudinal ; ovary spread open, resembling 
a flat scale without style or stigma ; ovules 
naked, in pairs or several ; fruit of cones 
composed of hardened, scale-shaped ovaries ; 
embryo albuminous. Widely dispersed, but 
abound more in temperate climes. Among 
the members are the Fir, Pine, Larch, Cedar, 



494 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

Cypress, and Juniper. Among the products 
are Turpentine, Tar, Burgundy-Pitch, Hun- 
garian Carpathian and Canada Balsams, 
Essence of Spruce, Sandarach, Savin, &c. 
(Coniferce, Juss.) 

4. FAMILY. Cycads (Cycadacese). Trees or shrubs ; 
trunks cylindrical, sometimes dichotomous ; 
leaves pinnate, parellel-veined, vernation cir- 
cinnate ; flowers unisexual ; male flowers in 
terminal cones, the scales bearing on their 
lower sides 1 -celled anthers; female flowers 
consisting of naked ovules at the base of flat 
scales, beneath peltate ones, or on the 
margins of altered leaves ; seeds hard, nut- 
like j embryos 1-2, suspended ; albumen 
fleshy or mealy; cotyledons unequal. Occur 
in temperate and tropical parts of Asia and 
America, also at the Cape of Good Hope, and 
in Madagascar. Yield much starchy matter. 



DICTYOGENS. 

On examining the structure of some anomalous 
Monocotyledons, they were ascertained by Lindley 
to possess, in nearly equal proportions, characters of 
Endogens and of Exogens. He therefore separated 
them from the Endogens, with which they had been 
previously united, and established them as a tran- 
sition class, which he named " Dictyogens," on 
account of the reticulated appearance of the leaves. 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 495 

The wood of the stem is Endogenous, the youngest 
parts being in the centre, while, on the other hand, 
the root exhibits concentric zones like an Exogen, 
with a disposition to a radiated distribution of ves- 
sels, and in some with a central pith ; the leaves, 
also, are net-veined, and usually disarticulate with 
the stem. Dictyogens are far from numerous, about 
seventeen genera being at present enumerated, con- 
taining upwards of two-hundred-and-sixty species. 
They may be divided into two Sub-classes, according 
to the unisexual or bisexual nature of the flower, 
the two being united by the Smilaceoe, which con- 
tain both forms of structure. Some of the families 
are small, and imperfectly known, but two are of 
considerable consequence, the one affording the 
Yam, an important farinaceous article of diet in the 
Tropics, and the other yielding the Sarsaparilla 
plants, largely imported into England for medical 
use. 

III. CLASS. DICTYOGENS (Dictyogense). 

Growth of stem endogenous ; root with the wood 
arranged in solid concentric circles ; foliage broad, 
net-veined, deciduous ; cotyledon single. 

I. SUB-CLASS BisEXUAL-DicTYOGENS (Monanthiae). 

Flowers perfect, each bearing male and female 

organs. 

1. FAMILY. Roxburgh-worts (Koxburghiaceae). 
Shrubs, twining; roots tuberous; leaves 
coriaceous ; flowers large, showy, solitary, 



496 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

foetid ; perianth with four petaloid divisions ; 
stamens four, hypogynous ; anthers adnate ; 
ovary superior, 1 -celled ; placentae basal ; 
style none ; ovules 00, anatropal ; pericarp 
1 -celled, 2-valved, with two clusters of seeds 
at the base ; embryo taper, albuminous. 
Natives of hot parts of India. 

2. FAMILY. Trilliads (Trilliacese). Herbaceous, 

simple-stemmed ; leaves verticillate, mem- 
branous ; flowers large, terminal, solitary ; 
periahth 6-8-divided, coloured or herbaceous ; 
stamens 61 ; anthers linear ; ovary free, 
3-5-celled ; styles 3-5, distinct ; ovules 00, 
anatropal ; fruit succulent, 3-5-celled ; seeds 
00 ; embryo minute, albuminous. Inhabit 
temperate parts of Asia, Europe, and North 
America. (Parisidce, Burnett.) 

3. FAMILY. Philesiads (Philesiacese). Shrubs, 

twining or upright ; leaves coriaceous ; 
flowers large, showy, solitary, 3-6-petaloid- 
eous ; stamens six ; anthers linear ; ovary 
free, ] -celled ; placentae parietal ; style long, 
club-shaped ; stigmas three ; ovules 00, 
orthotropal ; fruit succulent. Natives of 
Chili. 

4. FAMILY. Sarsaparillas (Smilacese), Herbs or 

under-shrubs, often climbing ; stems scarcely 
woody ; flowers bisexual or polygamous ; 
perianth petaloid, 6-partite ; stamens six, 
rarely hypogynous ; ovary 3-celled, cells uni- 
or multi-ovulate ; ovules orthotropal ; style 



MANUAL OF NATUKAL HISTOEY. 497 

usually trifid ; stigmas three ; fruit a glo- 
bular berry ; embryo very small, albuminous. 
Occur chiefly in temperate and tropical parts 
of Asia and America. This family yields the 
different kinds of Sarsaparilla, many of which 
are much employed in medical practice ; 
though possessed of valuable properties in 
their native places, they seem to be much 
impaired by exportation, and in Europe to 
have but feeble actions. 

II. SUB-CLASS. UNISEXUAL-DICTYOGENS (Dianthise). 

Male and female organs on separate flowers. 

1. FAMILY. Yams (Dioscoreacese). Shrubs, twin- 
ing, tuberous ; leaves mostly alternate ; flowers 
small, spiked, bracteated ; perianth 6-divided, 
adherent ; stamens six ; anthers introrse ; 
ovary adherent, 3 -celled ; ovules anatropal ; 
style 2-3-fid ; stigmas undivided ; fruit cap- 
sular, compressed, trilocular ; seeds winged or 
wingless ; embryo small, albuminous. Mostly 
inhabitants of tropical countries. Chiefly 
valuable as affording yams, the tropical sub- 
stitute for the potato : in Europe, this family 
is represented by the Black Bryony (Tamus 
communis). 

2. FAMILY. Tail-worts (Triuridacese). Herbs, pe- 
rennial ; rhizome creeping ; leaves solitary ; 
flowers regular, with 1 -flowered, bracteate 
stalks ; perianth free, corolline, 3-6-partite, 
permanent ; stamens 3-6 (?) ; anthers ex- 



498 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

trorse j ovaries 0, sessile ; ovules solitary (?) ; 
styles subulate, or thickened at the apex. 
Found in Brazilian woods. 



ENDOGENS. 

What is commonly known as the endogenous 
type of structure characterizes a large assemblage of 
flowering-plants, forming the class we are now to 
consider. In importance and extent it approaches 
the Exogens, and its geographical distribution is 
quite as varied and general. The most obvious dis- 
tinctive mark of this division is found in the struc- 
ture of the stem, new matter being developed in the 
interior, though, taken in a wide sense, this does 
not strictly apply. If a cross section be made of an 
endogenous stem, it will present an irregular, dotted 
surface, the dots being more numerous towards the 
circumference, where the wood is also hardest : if 
cut again vertically, numerous strings or bundles of 
woody fibres will be seen apparently springing from 
the centre, and proceeding in a curved direction to- 
wards the circumference. But the more accurate 
researches of Schleiden shew that all plants pos- 
sessing a stem are, to a certain extent, endogenous, 
and that the true and essential distinction between 
the monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous classes, 
consists in the mode and degree of development of 
the woody or fibro-vascular bundles. In the latter, 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 499 

their growth is unlimited, terminating only with 
the death of the individual, while among the former 
it is limited, being arrested at a definite period by a 
cessation of generative power in the woody cells. 
Endogens are destitute of true pith, and their stems 
are seldom hollow, exceptional cases such as in 
many of the grasses, being caused by the circum- 
ference growing more rapidly than the centre. The 
leaves are not reticulated, as among exogens, but 
are straight-veined, and the parts of the flower are 
usually arranged in series of threes ; the embryo, 
too, is composed of but one cotyledon, whence they 
were, by De Candolle, termed monocotyledones. 
Their period of vitality, also, is more restricted than 
it is in the higher class, seldom extending beyond 
two or three hundred years, though occasional 
instances of more extended longevity occur, as in a 
dragon-tree, still existing at Teneriffe, which, more 
than 450 years ago, was regarded as very aged. 

The number of genera known at present is up- 
wards of 1,400, which include about 13,600 species. 
Among these are numerous plants of the greatest 
importance io man, as various members of the family 
of grasses, some yielding him abundant farinaceous 
aliment, while others afford nutriment for his flocks 
and his herds. The palms supply wine, sugar, 
edible fruits, and sago j arrow-root is the produce of 
species of Maranta; the aromatic root of the Zin- 
giber constitutes ginger ; while turmeric, obtained 
from Curcuma longa, forms a valuable dye, and is 
the basis of some admired condiments. The number 



500 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

of hurtful species is comparatively few, these being 
principally found among the Melanthiacece, and some 
of the Aracece. 

IV. CLASS ENDOGENS (Endogense). 

Wood of stem and of root, arranged in a confused 
manner, the youngest in the centre ; leaves straight- 
veined, permanent ; organs of fructification ternary ; 
embryo monocotyledonous ; germination endorhizal. 

I. SUB-CLASS. BISEXUAL-ENDOGENS (Diphysese). 
Flowers hermaphrodite ; perianth present. 

I. TRIBE. HYPOGYNOUS-ENDOGENS (Phylleleutherse). 
Flowers free from the ovary, rarely perigynous. 

I. ORDER. ALISMALS (Alismales). 

Perianth 3 - 6-divided ; carpels separate ; albumen 
none. 

1. FAMILY. Arrow-grasses (Juncaginacese). Her- 

baceous ; leaves parallel-veined ; flowers in- 
conspicuous, scaly, white or green, in spikes 
or racemes ; sometimes perianth ; stamens 
six; anthers extrorse ; carpels 3-4-6 ; ovules 
1-2 ; placentae axile or basal ; fruit dry, 1-2- 
seeded; embryo slit on one side; plumule 
very large. Marshy and aquatic plants, in 
most parts of the world. 

2. FAMILY. Water-plantains (Alismacese). Her- 

baceous ; leaves narrow or expanded ; flowers 
in umbels, racemes, or panicles, very rarely 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 501 

unisexual ; perianth 6-divided, in two whorls, 
inner whorl petaloid; stamens definite or 00; 
anthers introrse ; ovaries several; ovules soli- 
tary or in pairs ; placentae axile or basal ; 
fruit dry, 1-2-seeded; embryo curved or 
hooked. Floating or marsh plants, chiefly 
in northern temperate regions. 
3. FAMILY. Flowering-rushes (Butomacese). Her- 
baceous ; often lactescent ; leaves very cel- 
lular ; flowers umbellate or solitary, conspi- 
cuous ; perianth 6-divided, in two whorls, 
the outer herbaceous, the inner petaloid ; 
stamens definite or 00 ; ovaries 3-6, or more, 
united or distinct; ovules 00, anatropal or 
campylotropal ; placentae many-seeded, net- 
ted, and parietal ; fruit of several follicles, 
distinct and beaked, or united ; embryo often 
curved. Aquatic and swamp plants, mostly 
northern. 

II. ORDER LILIALS (Liliales). 
Perianth 6-divided ; albumen copious. 
1. FAMILY. Pontederiads (Pontederiacese). Herba- 
ceous ; leaves sheathing, sometimes cordate 
or sagittate ; flowers solitary, or in spikes or 
umbels, spathaceous ; perianth tubular, co- 
loured, circinnate when withering ; stamens 
3-6 ; anthers introrse ; ovary free, 3-celled ; 
ovules numerous, anatropal ; fruit capsular, 
3-celled, 3-valved; seeds 00; embryo straight; 
albumen mealy. Aquatic species, inhabiting 



502 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

North and South America, India, and tro- 
pical Africa. 

2. FAMILY. Lilies (Liliacese). Herbs, shrubs, or 

trees ; bulbous, tuberous, rhizomatous, or 
fibrous -rooted ; leaves rarely expanded ; 
flowers various, from large and showy to 
small and green ; perianth 6-divided, in two 
verticils, coloured, flat when withering ; sta- 
mens six ; anthers introrse ; ovary free, 3- 
celled ; ovules 00, anatropal or amphitropal ; 
fruit succulent, or dry and capsular, 3-celled; 
albumen fleshy. Distribution extended, but 
more abundant in temperate climates. Con- 
tain numerous important plants, and yield 
a variety of valuable products ; among the 
former are New Zealand flax (P/^ormmm), 
African hemp (Sanseviera), onion, garlic, 
leek, eschallot, chives, asparagus, lily, tulip, 
hyacinth, &c. ; and among the latter, true 
Dragon's-blood from Dracaena Draco, and 
Botany Bay gum from species of Xanthor- 
rhcea. It also affords some active drugs, as 
aloes, the inspissated juice of various species 
of Aloe] and squills, the bulb of Squilla 
maritima. 

3. FAMILY. Meadow-saffrons (Melanthiaceee). 

Herbs ; bulbous, tuberous, or fibrous-rooted ; 
leaves sheathing ; flowers sometimes poly- 
gamous ; perianth 6-divided, petaloid, flat 
when withering ; stamens six ; anthers ex- 
trorse ; ovary 3-celle'd ; ovules numerous ; 



MANUAL OF NATUEAL HISTOKY. 503 

style 3-parted ; fruit capsular, 3-celled ; al- 
bumen dense, fleshy. Distribution exten- 
sive, more abundant in northern temperate 
countries. A poisonous family, yielding col- 
chicum, white hellebore (Veratrum), and 
sabadilla. 

4. FAMILY. Gilliesiads (Gilliesiaceso). Herbs ; 
bulbs tunicated ; leaves grass-like ; flowers 
umbellate, spathaceous; perianth 6-partite, 
in two rows, the outer herbaceous and pe- 
taloid, the inner smaller and more coloured ; 
stamens in two whorls, the outer sterile, scale- 
like, or forming an urceolate, 6-toothed body ; 
the inner of six stamens, being occasion- 
ally sterile ; ovary 3-celled ; style one ; fruit 
capsular, 3-celled, 3-valved ; embryo curved ; 
albumen fleshy. Small Chilian plants. 

III. ORDER. JUNCALS (Juncales). 

Flowers scaly or scarious ; albumen abundant. 
1. FAMILY. Sweet-flags (Orontiacese). Herbaceous; 
occasionally stemless, or aquatic ; flowers on 
a spathaceous spadix ; perianth scaly, or ; 
stamens 4-5-6-8; anthers 2-celled ; ovary 
1- or more celled ; ovules erect or pendulous ; 
stigma sessile, or on a subulate style ; fruit a 
berry; embryo axile, with a lateral cleft. 
Natives of tropical and temperate countries. 
The rhizomes of Calla palustris are used as 
food in Lapland ; Sweet-flag (A corns cala- 
mus) is employed in medicine. 



504 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

2. FAMILY. Rushes (Juncacese). Herbs ; roots 
fascicled or fibrous ; leaves fistular, grooved, 
or flat ; inflorescence often capitate ; flowers 
umbellate, racemose, spiked or panicled ; 
perianth 6-parted, glumaceous or cartila- 
ginous ; stamens 3-6; anthers introrse, 2- 
celled ; ovary 1 - 3-celled ; ovules 1-3, or 
many in .each cell ; style one ; stigmas 1 - 3 ; 
fruit capsular, 3-valved; embryo minute, 
undivided. Inhabit principally colder climes, 
reaching as far north as Melville Island. 
Employed extensively in the manufacture of 
mats, chair -bottoms, candles, &c. 

IY. ORDER. XYRIDALS (Xyridales). 

Perianth mostly 6-divided, the inner whorl peta- 
loidal ; albumen abundant. 

1 . FAMILY. Mayacs (Mayacacese). Herbaceous, 

moss-like ; leaves very narrow, pellucid ; 
flowers small ; perianth 6-divided, the outer 
whorl herbaceous, short ; stamens three ; 
anthers 1 -celled ; ovary of three carpels ; 
style filiform ; placentae parietal ; ovules 
sessile ; fruit capsular, membranous, 1 -celled, 
3-valved ; embryo very minute, on the out- 
side of fleshy albumen. Natives of American 
marshes. 

2. FAMILY. Spider-worts (Commelynaceae). Herbs; 

leaves flat, narrow, usually sheathing; perianth 
in two whorls, the outer 3-partite, herbaceous, 
the inner 3-partite or 3-fid ; stamens 3 - 6 ; 



MANUAL OF NATUKAL HISTORY. 505 

anthers 2-celled, introrse ; ovary 3-celled ; 
ovules few in each, cell ; style and stigma 
one; fruit capsular, 2 -3-celled, 2 -3-valved; 
embryo pulley-shaped, half-immersed in fleshy 
albumen. Occur in the East and West 
Indies, Australia, Africa, and also in North 
America. 

3. FAMILY. Xyrids (Xyridacese). ' Herbs, sedge- 
like ; fibrous-rooted ; leaves radical, sheath- 
ing, flowers in terminal, imbricated, scaly 
heads ; perianth 6-partite, in two whorls, the 
outer one glumaceous ; stamens six, 3-fertile ; 
anthers 2-celled, extrorse ; ovary single, 1- 
celled ; ovules ; placentae parietal ; style 
3- fid ; fruit capsular, 1 -celled, 3-valved ; em- 
bryo minute, on the outside of fleshy albu- 
men. Natives of tropical Asia, Africa, and 
America. 

4. FAMILY. Water-worts (Philydracese). Herbs ; 
root fascicled-fibrous ; stems often woolly ; 
leaves equitant, partly-sheathing; inflores- 
cence in terminal spikes ; flowers alternate, 
solitary, sessile, with a spathaceous, persistent 
bract ; perianth with the outer whorl abor- 
tive, inner 2-divided, petaloid; filaments 
three, united at the base ; two lateral sta- 
mens petaloid and abortive ; ovary superior ; 
ovules ; placentse parietal or axile ; fruit 
capsular, 3-celled, 3-valved ; embryo axile, in 
fleshy albumen. Found in China, Cochin- 
China, and Australia. 



506 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

II. TKIBE. EPIGYNOUS-ENDOGENS (Phyllosynaptse). 
Flowers adherent to the ovary. 

I. ORDER ORCHIDALS (Orchidales). 
Stamens 1-3; albumen none. 

1. FAMILY. Apostasiads (Apostasiacese). Herbs, 

perennial ; leaves firm, thin, sheathing ; 
flowers racemose, terminal ; perianth 6-divid- 
ed; anthers 2-3, sessile on a short column, 
erect, 2-celled ; style filiform, with a 3-lobed 
stigma as long as the anthers, and adherent 
with the filaments into a short column : 
ovary 3-celled ; placentse three, axile, poly- 
spermous; fruit capsular, 3-celled, 3-valved; 
seeds 0. Occur in damp, hot Indian woods. 

2. FAMILY. Orchids (Orchidaceae). Herbs or shrubs ; 

roots fibrous or tubercular; stem long and 
annual, perennial and woody, or none ; leaves 
often sheathing ; flowers solitary, clustered, 
spiked, racemose, or panicled, always sup- 
ported by a solitary bract ; perianth herba- 
ceous or coloured, membranous or fleshy, 
6-partite, the segments arranged in two rows, 
the outer, or calycine (but according to Lind- 
ley the corolla), of three parts ; the inner, or 
corrolliform (petaloid stamens of Lindley), of 
three divisions, rarely one, the odd one being 
the labellwn or lip ; stamens three, the 
lateral ones usually sterile; anthers 1-2-4- 
celled ; ovary 1 -celled, of six carpels, three 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 507 

only bearing placentae ; style incorporated 
with the column; fruit capsular, rarely 
fleshy, 3-6-valved, indehiscent ; seeds 00. 
Distribution universal, except in the frozen 
zones, and in extremely dry regions. Chiefly 
terrestial, but numerous tropical species are 
epiphytic. The Orchidacece comprise nearly 
400 genera, and about 3000 species. 
3. FAMILY. Burmanniads(T>urma,mu.a,cQ3d). Herbs; 
leaves radical or none ; inflorescence ter- 
minal; perianth coloured, tubular, 6-cleft, 
the three inner being minute, and the three 
outer larger and often keeled at the back ; 
stamens three ; anthers sessile, 2- celled ; 
ovary 1-3- celled; ovules 00; style simple; 
stigmas three; fruit capsular, 1-3-celled, 
S-valved, crowned by the persistent perianth ; 
seeds 00. Occur in moist grassy spots in 
tropical countries. 

II. OBDER. AMOMALS (Amomales), 

Flowers unsymmetrical ; stamens 1-6, some being 

abortive ; seeds albuminous. 

1. FAMILY. Arrow-roots (Marantacese). Herba- 
ceous, without aroma ; rhizomes frequently 
tuberous ; leaves simple, sheathing ; inflores- 
cence spiked, racemose, or panicled, terminal 
or radical ; perianth in two whorls, the outer 
3-lobed, short, inner 3-partite, elongated; 
stamens in two verticils, the outer 3-fid, 
petaloid, sterile, the inner three, petaloid, 

z 2 



508 MANUAL OF NATUKAL HISTOEY. 

one lateral being fertile ; anther on the 
margin of the filament ; ovary 1-3-celled ; 
ovules solitary or numerous ; style petaloid or 
swollen ; stigma either the naked apex of the 
style, or hollow, hooded, and incurved ; fruit 
capsular, 3-celled, or baccate and 1 -celled ; 
embryo without a vitellus. Found in tropical 
America and Africa, and in India. The rlii- 
zomes abound in starch, occuring as " Arrow- 
root" in species of Maranta, and as "Tous- 
les-mois " in Ganna. (Cannacece, Agardh.) 

2. FAMILY. Gingers (Zingiberacese). Herbaceous ; 

aromatic ; rhizome creeping ; leaves simple, 
sheathing; inflorescence and flowers as in 
Marantacece; stamens in two whorls, the 
outer 3-partite, sterile, petaloid, the inner of 
three, the central one being fertile ; anther 
2-celled ; ovary 3-celled ; ovules several ; 
style filiform ; stigma dilated, hollow ; fruit 
capsular, 3-celled, occasionally berried ; em- 
bryo with a vitellus. Chiefly tropical plants. 
Afford Ginger (Zvngiber), Cardamoms, from 
species of Amomum, Elettaria, and Reneal- 
mm, and Turmeric from Curcuma longa. 
(Drymyrhizece, Vent. Scitaminece, R Brown.) 

3. FAMILY. Bananas (Musacese). Herbs ; stemless 

or nearly so, with spurious stems of sheath- 
ing leaf-stalks, from subterranean root-stocks ; 
flowers spathaceous ; perianth 6-cleft, peta- 
loid, in two whorls ; stamens six, some 
always abortive ; anthers linear, 2-celled, 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 509 

introrse ; ovary 3-celled ; ovules numerous ; 
style single ; stigma usually 3-lobed ; fruit 
capsular, 3-celled, or succulent and inde- 
hiscent. Natives of warm and tropical 
countries. Species of Musa yield the Banana 
and Plantain. 

III. ORDER. NAECISSALS (Narcissales). 

Flowers symmetrical; stamens 3-6; seeds al- 
buminous. 

1. FAMILY. Flags (Iridacese). Herbs, rarely under- 

shrubs ; roots tuberous or fibrous ; leaves 
mostly equitant or distichous ; inflorescence 
terminal, in spikes, corymbs, or panicles ; 
bracts spathaceous ; perianth 6-parted, 
coloured, in two whorls ; stamens three ; 
anthers extrorse, 2-celled ; ovary 3-celled ; 
ovules numerous ; style one ; stigmas three, 
often petaloid or bilabiate ; fruit capsular, 
3-celled, 3-valved ; seeds numerous. Found 
in warm and temperate regions, especially 
abundant at the Cape of Good Hope. Yield 
Saffron and Orris-root. 

2. FAMILY. Daffodils (Narcissacese). Herbs or 

shrubs ; bulbous or fibrous-rooted ; stem at 
times woody and tall ; leaves ensiform ; 
flowers spathaceous ; perianth regular, 6-cleft ; 
stamens six, sometimes partially coherent ; 
sometimes with additional sterile stamens ; 
anthers introrse ; ovary 3-celled ; ovules 00 ; 
style one; stigma 3-lobed; fruit capsular, 



510 MANUAL OF NATUKAL HISTORY. 

3-celled, and 3-valved, or baccate and 1-3- 
seeded. Principally Cape species, but occur 
also in Europe, the East and West Indies, 
South America, and Australia. Some possess 
poisonous qualities. Yield many garden- 
flowers, as the Narcissus, Daffodil, Snow- 
drop ; the Agave or American Aloe, is also a 
member. (Amaryllidece, R Brown.) 

3. FAMILY. Hypoxids (Hypoxidacese). Herbs ; 

tuberous or fibrous-rooted ; leaves radical, 
plicate ; scapes simple or branched ; perianth 
petaloid, usually 6-partite ; stamens six ; 
anthers introrse, 2-celled ; ovary 3-celled ; 
ovules ; style simple ; stigma 3-lobed ; 
fruit indehiscent, dry or berried, 1-2- 3-celled. 
Natives of tropical and warm countries. 

4. FAMILY. Blood-roots (Hsemodoracese). Herbs, 

fibrous-rooted ; leaves equitant, distichous ; 
perianth 6-cleft, petaloid, tubular, more or less 
woolly ; stamens three or six ; anthers introrse ; 
ovary 1- 3-celled ; ovules one, two, or many ; 
style simple ; stigma undivided ; fruit capsu- 
lar, 3-valved or indehiscent ; radicle remote 
from the hilum, which is naked. Occur in 
North and South America, at the Cape of 
Good Hope, and in Australia. Named from 
the red colour of the roots. 

5. FAMILY. Taccads (Taccacese). Herbs, tuberous; 

leaves radical, stalked ; flowers on the top of 
a simple taper or angular furrowed scape, 
umbellate, involucrate ; perianth with a cy- 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 511 

lindrical ribbed tube ; stamens six ; filaments 
petaloid ; anthers 2-celled ; ovary of three 
connate carpels ; placentae three, parietal, 
polyspermous ; styles three, connate ; stigmas 
2-lobed ; fruit baccate, indehiscent ; albumen 
fleshy. Inhabit woods, and damp maritime 
spots in tropical Africa, India, and Polynesia. 
6. FAMILY. Pine-apples (Bromeliacese). Herbs or 
shrubs ; stemless or short-stemmed, often epi- 
phytic ; leaves rigid, channeled, often spiny- 
edged ; flowers racemose or panicled ; peri- 
anth 6-divided, in two whorls, outer persist- 
ent, inner petaloid, marcescent or deciduous, 
asstivation imbricate ; stamens six ; anthers 
introrse j ovary 3-celled ; ovules 00; style 
simple ; stigma 3-lobed, or entire ; fruit cap- 
sular or succulent, 3-celled ; albumen fleshy. 
All American species. The most important 
product is the Pine-apple or Ananas, yielded 
by Ananassa sativa. 

II. SUB-GLASS. UNISEXUAL-ENDOGENS (Monaphyseae). 
Flowers unisexual ; with or without perianth. 

I. ORDER. HYDRALS (Hydrales). 

Flowers perfect or imperfect, not arranged on a 

spadix ; albumen none ; aquatic. 

1. FAMILY. Sea-wracks (Zosteracese). Sea-weed 
like ; leaves grassy, thin, sheathing ; flowers 
very minute, naked, or surrounded by three 
scales ; stamens hypogynous ; anthers de- 



512 MANUAL OF NATUEAL HISTOKY. 

finite, sessile, 1-2-celled ; pollen confervoid ; 
ovary free, 1 -celled ; ovule solitary ; stigmas 
1-2 ; fruit drupaceous, 1-seeded ; seed pen- 
dulous. Marine plants, inhabiting the bottom 
of the ocean, principally in Northern parts of 
the Eastern Hemisphere. 

2. FAMILY. Pond-weeds (Naiadaceso). Leaves very 

cellular, stipulate; flowers inconspicuous, 
often in terminal spikes ; perianth of 2-4- 
pieces, deciduous, sometimes ; stamens de- 
finite, hypogynous ; pollen globose ; ovaries 
one or more, superior; ovule solitary; stigma 
simple ; fruit dry, 1 -celled, 1-seeded ; seed 
erect or pendulous. Natives of extra-tropical 
countries in fresh-water, or on the sea-shores. 
(Potamece, Juss.) 

3. FAMILY. Frog-bits (HydrocharidacesB). Herbs ; 

leaves sometimes spiny; flowers spathaceous, 
occasionally* bisexual ; perianth with a 6-par- 
tite limb, the outer herbaceous, the inner 
petaloid ; stamens definite or indefinite, 
epigynous ; ovary adherent, 1- or many- 
celled; stigmas 3-6; ovules 00; fruit dry 
or succulent, indehiscent, 1- or many-celled. 
Fresh-water plants, inhabiting Europe, North 
America, and India. 

II. ORDER. PALMALS (Palmales). 

Flowers perfect, on a branched, scaly spadix ; 
embryo minute, placed beneath the surface of horny 
or fleshy albumen ; unisexual or bisexual. 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 513 

I. S UB-ORDER. ATELESPATHEOUS-PALMS 

(Atelespathese). 
Spathes numerous and incomplete. 

1. FAMILY. Sago-Palms (Lepidocaryacese). Trees; 

leaves pinnate or fan-shaped ; inflorescence 
in amentiform racemes ; perianth 6-divided ; 
stamens six, rarely 0, hypogynous or peri- 
gynous ; pistil usually of three carpels, 
becoming connate, usually 3-locular; ovules 
generally solitary, erect ; fruit baccate, lori- 
cate, scales horny, spirally or verticillately 
arranged, imbricated. To this family belong 
the Keed-Palms (Calamus), affording Rat- 
tans, and the Sagus farinifera, supplying 
Sago. (Calamince, Griff.) 

2. FAMILY. Palmyra-Palms (Borassacese). Trees; 

leaves pinnate or flabelliform ; inflorescence 
in amentiform racemes; stamens hypogynous ; 
pistil usually of three connate carpels, which 
are 3-locular ; ovules solitary, ascending or 
horizontal ; fruit drupaceous and undivided, 
lobed and 3-seeded, or baccate and, by abor- 
tion, 1 -seeded. Among the species are the 
Doum-palm of Upper Egypt (Hyphcene coria- 
cea), the Fan-palm, Borassus flabelliformis, 
yielding a copious vinous sap, and Lodoicea 
Seychellarum, or the double Coco-nut tree. 

3. FAMILY. Date-Palms (Coryphacese). Trees ; 

leaves clustered, terminal; inflorescence 
not in amentiform racemes ; stamens hypo- 
gynous or perigynous, 6-9-1 2 ; pistil of three 



514 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTOEY. 

distinct carpels, becoming sometimes connate; 
ovules solitary, erect, lateral or horizontal; 
fruit baccate or drupaceous, threefold, deeply 
lobed, or, by abortion, double or single. 
Among the members of this division are 
the Ceylon Talipot-palm (Gorypha umbra- 
culifera), and the Date-palm (Phoenix dacty- 
lifera). 

II. S UB-ORDER. TELESPATHEOUS-PALMS (Telespatheje). 

Spathes occasionally absent, always complete 
when present. 

4. FAMILY. Betel-nut Palms (Arecacese). Trees; 

spadix scaly ; spathe often wanting ; stamens 
hypogynous ; ovary mostly of three connate 
carpels, which are tri-locular ; ovules erect ; 
fruit baccate or semi-drupaceous, tri-locular, 
or deeply 3-lobed, 1 -seeded. Yield the Betel- 
nut (Areca Catechu), which also supplies 
Colombo Catechu ; the Cabbage-palm of the 
West Indies is A. oleracea; Saguerus 
Rumphii is one of the sources of the Sago 
of commerce. 

5. FAMILY. Oil-yielding Palms (Cocacese). Usual- 

ly trees ; stems sometimes spiny ; stamens 
six or more, hypogynous ; filaments some- 
times conjoined at their base ; pistil of three 
united carpels, rarely 2- 4- 5- or 6 ; ovules 
solitary, erect or horizontal; fruit drupace- 
ous, 1 -seeded, generally uni-locular ; endocarp 
thick, osseous, or stony ; putamen with its 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 515 

cells, when fertile, perforated opposite the 
seat of the embryo, and, when abortive, indi- 
cated by coecal foramina ; albumen cartala- 
ginous or amygdaloid, oleaginous. Among 
these are the Cocos nucifera, or Coco-nut 
palm, species of Elais yielding Palm-oil, 
and Phytelephas macrocarpa, the source of 
Vegetable Ivory. 



III. OEDER ARALS (Arales). 

Petaloidal, or naked-flowered ; spadix simple, 
naked; embryo in the axis of mealy or fleshy 
albumen. 

1. FAMILY. Screw-pines (Pandanacese). Trees or 

bushes, often sending down aerial roots ; 
leaves imbricated, amplexicaul, often spiny- 
edged, or pinnate or fan-shaped ; floral leaves 
smaller ; flowers often polygamous, naked 
or scaly, covering the whole of the spadix ; 
stamens numerous ; filaments with single an- 
thers, which are 2-4-celled ; ovaries in par- 
cels, 1 -celled; ovules solitary or numerous; 
stigmas sessile ; fruit fibrous-drupes collected 
into parcels, or baccate and many-seeded ; 
seeds loose ; embryo minute, solid. Tropical 
plants. 

2. FAMILY. Arads (Aracese). Herbaceous, with a 

fleshy corm, or shrubs ; leaves sheathing ; 
spadix generally spathaceous ; flowers naked, 
on the surface of a spadix ; stamens definite 



516 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

or indefinite, hypogynous ; anthers sessile, 1- 
2- or many-celled, extrorse ; ovary free, most- 
ly 1 -celled ; stigma sessile \ fruit succulent ; 
seeds pulpy ; embryo slit, axile. Inhabitants 
principally of hot countries. Many are poi- 
sonous ; the corms of some abound in amyla- 
ceous matter. (Aroidece, Juss.) 

3. FAMILY. Bulrushes (Typhacese). Herbaceous ; 
stems nodeless ; leaves rigid, ensiform ; flowers 
upon a spatheless spadix ; perianth scaly or 
hairy ; stamens 3-6 ; anthers wedge-shaped, 
on long filaments, which are sometimes mona- 
delphous ; ovary superior, 1-celled ; ovule 
solitary ; style short ; stigma linear ; fruit 
dry, 1-celled, 1 -seeded ; seed adherent to its 
pericarp ; embryo slit. Occur in ditches and 
marshes in northern countries. 

4 FAMILY. Duck-weeds (Pistiacese). Herbaceous ; 
leaves very cellular ; flowers 2-3, enclosed in 
a spathe, without a spadix ; stamens definite, 
often monadelphous ; ovary 1-celled ; style 
short j stigma simple ; ovules two or more, 
erect ; fruit membranous or capsular ; embryo 
slit. Found in ditches in temperate parts of 
the world. 



III. SUB-CLASS. SCALE-FLOWERED ENDOGENS 
(Glumalese). 

Flower glumaceous, i. e , consisting of imbricated, 
colourless herbaceous scales or bracts. 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 517 

I. ORDER. RUSH-LIKE GLUMALS (Skoinoidese). 
Pistil simple ; ovules pendulous. 

1. FAMILY. Pipe-worts (Eriocaulacese). Herba- 

ceous ; leaves cellular, spongy, sheathing ; 
flowers unisexual, capitate, bracteate, very 
minute ; glumes two, unilateral, or three ; 
stamens 2 - 6 ; anthers 2-celled ; ovary supe- 
rior, 2 - 3-celled, surrounded by a 2 - 3-dentate 
or lobed membranous tube ; ovules solitary ; 
style very short ; stigmas 2 - 3 ; fruit capsu- 
lar ; seeds pilose ; embryo terminal. Abun- 
dant in tropical America and Australia, a 
few occur in North America, and one in Scot- 
land. 

2. FAMILY. Cord-rushes (Restiacese). Herbs or 

under-shrubs ; leaves narrow or none ; culms 
naked or sheathed ; flowers in spikes, usually 
unisexual ; glumes 2-6, seldom wanting ; 
stamens 1 - 3 ; anthers generally 1 -celled ; 
ovary 1 - 3-celled, cells monospermous ; styles 
and stigmas two or more ; fruit capsular 
or nucamentous ; seeds not pilose ; embryo 
terminal. Inhabit woods and marshes in 
South America, South Africa, and Australia. 

3. FAMILY. Bristle-worts (CentrolepidaceaB). Her- 

baceous ; leaves setaceous, sheathing ; scapes 
filiform, naked ; flowers in a spathe ; glumes 
one in front, or two opposite each other ; 
palese 0, or one or two tender scales parallel 
with the glumes; stamens 1-2; anther 1- 



518 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

celled; ovaries 1-18, 1-celled ; fruit 1-18, 
1 - seeded, utricles opening longitudinally. 
Natives of Polynesia and Australasia. (Des- 
vauxiacece, Lindley.) 

II. ORDER. PALM-LIKE GLUMALS (Phsenikoidese). 

Pistil compound ; ovule erect or ascending. 

1. FAMILY. Sedges (Cyperacese). Herbaceous, grass- 

like; stems solid, often without joints ; leaves 
narrow, sheaths entire ; flowers unisexual or 
bisexual, generally without a perianth ; each 
flower with a solitary bract ; bracts imbri- 
cated on a common axis, the lowermost often 
empty ; stamens hypogynous, 1-1 2 ; anthers 
2-celled ; ovary 1 -seeded, often surrounded 
by hypogynous bristles ; fruit a crustaceous 
or bony nut ; embryo enclosed within the 
base of the albumen. Distribution almost 
universal. The " Papyrus " of the ancients is 
the product of Papyrus antiquorum, which 
inhabits Syria and Egypt. 

2. FAMILY. Grasses (Avenacese). Herbaceous, ever- 

green ; stems sometimes of large size, cylin- 
drical, hollow, jointed ; leaves narrow, alter- 
nate, with a membranous expansion at the 
junction of the stalk and blade called a 
" ligule/' sheath split ; flowers green, occa- 
sionally monoecious or polygamous, 1, 2, or 
more, on a common axis, forming locustce, 
which are spiked, racemose, or panicled ; 
the outer bracts, usually two, are named 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 519 

glumes, the next, also two, palece or glu- 
mellce, and the innermost set, consisting of two 
or three scales, are styled squamulce or glu- 
mellulce ; stamens 1-6, i^pogynous ; anthers 
versatile; ovary 1 -celled; styles 2-3, rarely 
combined ; stigmas feathery or hairy ; fruit a 
caryopsis ; seed incorporated with the peri- 
carp ; embryo lateral, naked ; albumen farina- 
ceous. Distribution universal; are very nu- 
merous in individuals, and constitute nearly 
one twenty-second part of known plants; in the 
tropics they are larger, being often arborescent. 
Divided into two sub-families, viz. : 1. Pani- 
dnce, locusta of two flowers, the lower or 
outer uniformly imperfect, being either sta- 
miniferous or neuter, and then not unfre- 
quently reduced to a single valve ; 2. Poince, 
locusta 1-2- or many-flowered, the outer or 
lower floret always perfect. Among the 
species are Wheat (Triticum), Oats (A vena) , 
Barley (Hordeum), Rye (Secede), Rice (pry- 
zd), Maize (Zea), and other cereals ; also the 
grasses-proper, as Phleum, Poa, Festuca, An- 
thoxanthum, &c. Among remarkable foreign 
genera are Bamboo (Bambusa), Sugar (Sac- 
charum), and the Tussac-grass of the Falk- 
land Islands (Dactylis ccespitosa). One 
species, Lolium temulentum, or Darnel-grass, 
is believed to be poisonous. (Graminacece, 
Lindley.) 



520 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

RHIZOGENS. 

The anomalous plants which compose the class of 
Rhizogens or Rhizanths, constitute a singular tran- 
sition series between the two Sub-kingdoms of Vege- 
tables. Destitute of stems or of true leaves, they 
present an amorphous appearance, closely resem- 
bling various Fungi ; but being furnished with 
flowers containing undoubted organs of fructifica- 
tion, they are entitled to rank among Phanero- 
gamia. Their mode of life is parasitic, being attached 
to the roots or stems of various plants ; they are 
never green, but are generally brown or some dull 
colour, and they stain any fluid, in which they are 
immersed, red. The species have hardly any econo- 
mical importance ; some which contain an astringent 
principle have been employed as styptics. The most 
curious among them is the Brobdignagian Javanese 
parasite Rafflesia, named in honour of Sir Stamford 
Raffles, the flower of which can hold about twelve 
pints of fluid. 

V. CLASS. RHIZOGENS (Rhizogens). 

Leafless ; often stemless ; never green ; flowers 
usually monoecious or dioecious; fructification spring- 
ing from a thallus. Parasitic. 
1. FAMILY. Patma-worts (Rafflesiacese). Stemless ; 
flowers sessile on the branches of trees, soli- 
tary ; perianth superior, 5-lobed, with calli 
in the throat ; anthers attached to a column, 
2-celled, dehiscing by pores ; ovary 1 -celled ; 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTOEY. 521 

styles conical ; ovules 0, attached to parietal 
placentae ; fruit an indehiscent pericarp, poly- 
spermous. Occur on the stems of Gissi in 
the East Indies, and in South America on 
leguminous branches. Among the species are 
the gigantic Rafflesice of Java, the flowers 
being occasionally three feet in diameter. 

2. FAMILY. Cistus-rapes (Hydnoracese). Flowers 

bisexual or unisexual, in spikes at the end of 
a scaly stem, the males uppermost ; perianth 
3-6-lobed; anthers sessile on a column, 2- 
celled, dehiscing by slits ; ovary inferior, 1- 
celled ; ovules 00, on parietal placentae ; fruit 
baccate, coriaceous, 1 -celled, polyspermous. 
Found on roots of Cistus in Southern Europe, 
also on roots at the Cape of Good Hope. 
Hydnora Africana, smells like tainted roast 
beef. 

3. FAMILY. Cynomoriums (Balanophoraceae). Fun- 

goid ; stems amorphous, horizontal; peduncles 
scaly ; flowers monoecious, spiked ; male 
flowers pedicellate, perianth 3-parted; sta- 
mens 1-3, epigynous; anthers and filaments 
united ; ovary inferior, 1- 2-celled, 1-2-seeded; 
style one; stigma simple; ovule solitary, 
pendulous; fruit 1 -celled, 1 -seeded. Inhabit 
tropical Asia and America, also the Cape of 
Good Hope ; one species, Cynomorium cocci- 
neum (Fungus Melitensis), is found in Gozo, 
near Malta. 



522 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

FLOWEKLESS-PLANTS. 

Flowerless-plants, corresponding with the Crypto- 
gamia of Linnseus, comprehend all the remaining 
forms of vegetable life, and are extremely numerous 
in individuals, and even in species, of which latter, 
above twelve thousand have been described, included 
in about twelve hundred genera. They are sepa- 
rated into two great classes, in one of which an ap- 
proach is made in general configuration, in struc- 
ture, and even in the mode of their fructification to 
the higher forms of vegetation, while the other de- 
scends to mere aggregations of vital cells. Their 
principal characteristics consist in the absence of true 
flowers, and of distinct sexual organs, such as are 
found in the more highly developed classes, repro- 
duction being effected by means of acotyledonous, 
reproductive bodies named spores, which are formed 
either in their interior, or on their surface, by the 
union of (at least in acrogens) two differently en- 
dowed cells. In size they vary from the lofty tree- 
Fern to the minute Lichen or microscopic fungus. 
In many leaves are quite wanting, and where a stem 
exists, it appears to be composed, unlike that of 
Endogens or Exogens, of a mere junction of the 
bases of leaves, the growth being Acrogenous, or on 
the summit. 

In fossil- or Geo-phytology, Cryptogamic plants 
occupy an important position, as they appear to have 
been among the earliest forms of vegetables, their 
remains being very numerous in palaeozoic strata, 



MANUAL OF NATUKAL HISTOEY. 523 

especially in the carboniferous series. Those most 
abundantly met with are Filices, Equisetacece, and 
Lycopodiacece, the latter of gigantic dimensions ; 
also a few mosses and sea-weeds. In more recent 
formations, the proportional numbers of Cryptoga- 
midj are much lessened ; and in the later deposits, 
the various classes of fossil vegetables bear nearly 
the same ratio to each other as in the existing 
Flora. 

II. SUB-KINGDOM. FLOWERLESS-PLANTS 
(Cryptogamia). 

Flowers wanting ; fructification by means of 
spores ; sexes wanting or indistinct ; germination 
heterorhizal. 



ACROGENS. 

The more advanced cryptogamic plants, into the 
composition of which vascular tissue enters, and 
which, in many respects, approach some Phanero- 
gamia, have been separated, as a distinct class, 
under the name of Acrogens, or Cormogens. In 
them a stem and leaves can be distinguished ; flowers 
are absent, but they seem to be represented in 
some instances, by the mode in which the leaves are 
arranged round the spore-cases of Urn-mosses, or by 
the involucrate membrane surrounding the thecce of 
some Liver-worts. Among their reproductive organs 
two forms are generally present, which many writers 
distinguish as male and female, under the names of 



524 MANUAL OF NATUKAL HISTOEY. 

Aniheridia, and Pistillidia or Archegonia; and, 
from late observations by Hofmeister, Suminski, and 
others, the existence of sexuality among these plants 
is rendered highly probable. 

Acrogens comprehend first the Ferns, numbering 
more than two thousand species, in which the fronds 
seem to represent branches, and the ramenta true 
leaves; these are often diminutive and inconspi- 
cuous in northern regions, but in tropical and sub- 
tropical climes, they are frequently arborescent, 
raising, at times, their graceful forms to the height 
of thirty or forty feet ; next, the Club-mosses and 
Pepper-worts small herbs, with a world-wide dis- 
tribution ; and lastly, the True-mosses, including 
the Liver-worts and Horse-tails, nearly equalling 
the Ferns in multiplicity of species, some of which 
are said to form the first appearance of vegetation 
on a new soil, and to be among the last occupants of 
exhausted lands or of an inappropriate clime. 

This class supplies man with but few useful 
plants. The roots of some Ferns are esculent and 
one species, Nephrodium (Aspidium) Filix-mas, is 
employed in medicine. The powdery contents of 
the spore-cases of some species of Lycopodium are 
highly inflammable, and, under the name of vege- 
table-sulphur, or witch-meal, are used in pyro- 
techny. 

I. CLASS. ACROGENS (Acrogense). 

Stem and leaves distinguishable ; surface fur- 
'nished with stomata. 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 525 

I. OEDER FILICALS (Filicales). 

Vascular; spore-cases marginal or dorsal, 1 -celled, 
usually surrounded by an elastic ring ; spores of 
only one kind. 

1. FAMILY. Dancea-worts (Danseacese). Occasion- 

ally arboriform ; spore-cases exannulate, ap- 
pearing sunk within, or seated upon the back 
of the leaflets, conjoined more or less by their 
inner faces, opening irregularly by a central 
cleft. Tropical species in both hemispheres. 

2. FAMILY. Ferns (Polypodiacese). Herbaceous, 

shrubby, or aborescent ; spore-cases on the 
back or edge of the fronds, pedicellate or ses- 
sile, distinct, annulate, bursting irregularly. 
Inhabit especially moist, insular situations, 
and are very abundant in tropical islands ; 
less numerous on continents. Some, as Ne~ 
phrodium Filix-mas, have been used in 
medicine. 

3. FAMILY. Adder' s-tongues (Ophioglossacese). 

Herbaceous; spore-cases exannulate, distinct, 
2-valved, collected into a spike formed out of 
the sides of an altered frond. Principally 
select tropical, insular situations, but occur 
also in temperate regions. 

II. ORDER. LYCOPODALS (Lycopodales). 

Vascular ; spore-cases axillary or radical, 1- or 
many-celled ; spores of two kinds. 
1. FAMILY. Pepper-worts (Marsileacese). Herba- 



526 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

ceous ; stemless, creeping or floating ; leaves 
often stalked ; vernation circinnate ; repro- 
ductive organs enclosed in an involucre, and 
of two kinds 1, membranous sacs, clustered, 
stalked, or sessile, containing minute granules ; 
2, membranous sacs, containing cells, which 
divide into four, only one of which ger- 
minates. Inhabit ditches and wet places, 
chiefly in temperate countries. (Rhizocarpce, 
Agardh.) 

2. FAMILY. Club-Mosses (Lycopodiacese). Herba- 
ceous, moss-like ; stems creeping or corous ; 
leaves imbricated, sometimes subulate ; spore- 
cases axillary, sessile, 1-8-celled, dehiscing by 
valves, or indehiscent ; at times of two kinds, 
the one enclosing minute, powdery matter, 
the other containing a cell, which produces 
four germinating bodies. Most abundant in 
warm, humid situations, especially in tropical 
islands ; but occur also in cold climates. 

III. ORDER MUSCALS (Muscales). 

Cellular or vascular ; spore-cases either plunged 
in the substance of the frond, or enclosed in a cap- 
like hood. 

I. SUB-ORDER.- OPERCULATE-MOSSES (Musci). 

Operculum present ; no elaters. 
1. FAMILY. Urn-Mosses (Bryacese). Cellular; erect 
or creeping, terrestrial or aquatic ; leaves mi- 
nute, imbricated, entire or serrated ; repro- 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 527 

ductive organs of two kinds, viz., Antheridia 
and Archegonia ; spore-cases valveless. In- 
habit damp places all over the world, but are 
more common in temperate latitudes. 

2. FAMILY. Split-Mosses (Andrseacese). Branching, 

reddish or brown ; leaves imbricated, ribbed 
or rib-less ; spore-case opening by four equal 
valves, whose summits are always bound to- 
gether by the persistent operculum. Found 
in temperate and cold countries, especially in 
. bleak and rocky places. 

II. S UB-ORDEE. INOPERCULATE-MOSSES 
(Hepaticse). 

Operculum wanting ; usually furnished with 
elaters. 

3. FAMILY. Horsetails (Equisetacese). Stems sim- 

ple or branched j fistular, jointed, siliceous ; 
branches in whorls, at the articulations of the 
stem ; leaves represented by the green co- 
loured branches; stomata arranged longitu- 
dinally on the cuticle ; spore-cases peltate, 
opening inwards by a longitudinal fissure ; 
an elater to every spore. Widely distributed ; 
occur in lakes, ditches, and rivers. 

4. FAMILY. Scale-Mosses (Jungermanniacese). 

Creeping, moss-like ; leaves imbricated, very 
cellular, round a central axis, or with the 
leaves and axis fused into one common leafy 
expansion ; spores opening by four equal 
valves, mixed with elaters. Distribution ex- 



528 MANUAL OF NATUKAL HISTOKY. 

tended, but abound more in tropical, shady 
woods. 

5. FAMILY. Liver-worts (Marchantiacese). Stem or 

axis leafless, but bordered by membranous 
expansions which sometimes unite at their 
margins, forming a broad lobed frond ; spore- 
cases in heads, stalked, opening by irregular 
fissures, or by separate teeth ; spores globose. 
Inhabit damp, shady places, everywhere. 

6. FAMILY. Crystal-worts (Ricciacese). Submerged 

or floating plants, usually annual ; leaves and 
stems blended into a cellular frond ; spore- 
cases membranous, decaying so as to permit 
the spores to escape; elaters none. Most 
abundant in Europe, but occur also in most 
parts of the world. 



THALLOGENS. 

With Thallogens we reach the extremes of another 
primary division of nature, those confines where 
the vegetable and animal forms of vitality appear to 
encroach upon each other, where cell-life in its most 
simple and primitive form puzzles alike the Phyto- 
logist and the Zoologist. In the great anxiety which 
has been evinced to come to a determination on 
this point, it has been alleged that there is an inter- 
mediate stage, by which the one kingdom passes 
into the other, and some have fancied that they 



MANUAL OF .NATURAL HISTORY. 529 

have actually traced this strange transformation, so 
that certain minute existences are, at one portion of 
their life animal, and at another, vegetable. Such no- 
vel speculations may, perhaps, be ascribed to the ac- 
knowledged difficulty of ascertaining what is the 
essential characteristic which distinguishes two, ap- 
parently similar, vivified globules, what it is that 
determines the one to be phytous and the other 
zoous. And yet that such a primary separation 
exists in reality, though not easily appreciable to 
our senses, can hardly be doubted, when we see 
their varied effects. That many of the simpler 
orders should at different times be looked upon 
either as plants or as animals, is easily to be ac- 
counted for, according to the view of the observer, 
but that the two are connected by direct transition, 
seems not probable, as their vitality differs not only 
in degree, but also in kind. The one more sthenic, 
more intense, giving tone to the fibres, and irrita- 
bility to the nerves, capable of producing quicker 
and more marked effects, but sooner wearing itself 
out, and therefore less lasting, the other more 
chronic, more deficient in positive strength, but, often 
more enduring, and adapted for supporting the more 
simply constructed members of the Vegetable World. 
The marks of animal life have already been al- 
luded to at page 2, so that it is merely requisite to 
say, in addition, that recent researches have shewn 
that starch granules form part of the contents of 
many cells, and when they can be detected, no 
doubt need be entertained of the vegetable nature 



530 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

of the object under investigation. But the present 
amount of our knowledge, while allowing us gradu- 
ally to approximate truth, does not enable us finally, 
as yet, to arrive at the settlement of this important 
question. In the lowest members of both kingdoms, 
sexual distinctions are either wanting or extremely 
obscure, and increase seems to be effected by a spon- 
taneous multiplication of cells. So far, therefore, 
both are alike, but here the resemblance ceases ; as 
we advance upwards in the Zoological series, we 
first find beings in whom the sexes are united, but 
afterwards male and female are completely sepa- 
rated, which is invariable in the higher animals. 
Among vegetables, again, the existence of the two 
sexes in distinct individuals is more general, rather 
low down in the scale, while hermaphroditism 
seems to be the normal condition of the most 
advanced plants. A difference in the sources of 
movements in these two elementary forms is highly 
probable, and may be further established by ana- 
logy with the more developed beings of either class. 
The one seems more the result of internal causes, 
originating, perhaps, in a kind of instinctive volition, 
while the other would appear to depend rather on 
external agents, and to be more allied to irritability. 
Among Thallogens are ranked, first, the Lichens, 
denizens of forest, of mountain, and of plain, ranging 
from the torrid zone to frozen climes ; curious 
little plants, their gracefully twisted and often sil- 
very fronds at times giving a venerable appearance 
to the trees whose trunks they frequently clothe, or 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 531 

covering with their stunted forms arctic rocks, and 
there, in his hour of need, often affording to man a 
scanty sustenance, enabling the polar traveller 
somewhat to mitigate the pangs of hunger. Next 
are the Fungals, often parasitic, or springing from 
dead or decaying matter, confined within no narrow 
bounds, sometimes arranging themselves in circles, 
and popularly known as "Fairy-rings," frequently 
springing up in a night, increasing in size, and 
arriving at a short-lived maturity ere noontide, and 
disappearing with declining day, so as to cause any 
rapid growth or sudden uprise to be denominated 
"fungoid/' from its resemblance to these unstable 
and often noxious plants. Lastly, we have the 
Algals, mostly aquatic, filling ocean and sea, river 
and lake, with innumerable individuals, forming 
sub-marine forests at least equalling in extent those 
of dry land, or as more minute existences in ponds 
and still waters, rivalling the sands of the sea-shore 
in their countless myriads. The " Brittle-worts/' 
the last division of the Algals, constitute a most 
perplexing family, whose relations are not easily 
comprehended, and whose position as vegetables is 
more influenced by strength of analogy than by 
positive right. Here it is that we arrive at the 
debateable land, the disputed territories, a most 
perplexing question, fruitful in dispute, and until 
both sides are fully heard, and their respective titles 
accurately examined, only to be provisionally settled 
by arbitration between the belligerent naturalists 
who have ranged themselves with either party. 

A A 2 



532 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

II. CLASS. THALLOGENS (Thallogense). 

Entirely cellular ; stems and leaves undistin- 
guishable ; stomata none ; reproduction by spores. 

I. ORDER. LICHENALS {Lichenales). 

Live in air ; nourished through their whole 
surface by the medium in which they vegetate ; 
propagate by spores, which are usually enclosed in 
asci, and have always green gonidia in their 
thallus. 

1. FAMILY. Scutiform - Lichens (Parmeliacese). 

Nucleus bearing asci ; thallus heterogeneous., 
pulverulent, or cellular. Several yield dyes, 
as Cudbear, from species ofLecanora; Litmus, 
from various Roccellce and Variolarice; 
others afford nutritive matter, as Iceland- 
Moss (Cetraria Islandica), and some species 
of Sticta, also Cladonia rangiferina, or 
Eein deer-Moss. 

2. FAMILY. Glutinous - Lichens (CollemaceaB). 

Nucleus bearing asci ; thallus homogeneous, 
gelatinous, or cartilaginous. 

3. FAMILY. Graphic-Lichens (Graphidacese). Nu- 

cleus breaking up into naked spores ; 
apothecia resembling Oriental characters. 
Some kinds supply a scanty nutriment, as 
species of Gyrophora, which, under the name 
of "Tripe de Roche/' is occasionally the 
principal subsistence of northern hunters 
and Arctic travellers. 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 533 

II. ORDER. FUNGALS (Fimgales). 

Living mostly in air ; nourished through their 
thallus ; reproduce by spores, which are sometimes 
enclosed in asci ; green gonidia wanting. 

I. SUB-ORDER. SPORIFEROUS-FUNGALS (Sporiferi). 

Reproduction by spores attached externally, and 
often supported on sporophores. 

1. FAMILY Membranous-Fungi (Agaricacese). Hy- 

menium distinct, naked ; receptacle long or 
expanded, superior ; spores generally quater- 
nate, on distinct sporophores. To this family 
belong many edible species, chiefly Agarici 
and Boleti ; some, again, as Amanita, are 
poisonous ; Polyporus and Merulius are the 
chief agents of destruction in what is termed 
"dry-rot" in timber. (Hymenomycetes.) 

2. FAMILY. Ventricose-Fungi (Lycoperdonacese). 

Hymenium enclosed in a membrane (peri- 
dium) ; spores generally in sets of four, on 
distinct sporophores. The genera Phallus 
and Bovista, are remarkable for the extreme 
rapidity of their growth ; Lysurus mokusin 
is applied by the Chinese to foul ulcers ; 
Ileodictyon is eaten in New Zealand. (Gas- 
teromycetes.) 

3. FAMILY.- Bligkting-Fungi(UTedmaucesd). Spores 

single, often partitioned, on more or less dis- 
tinct sporophores ; flocci of the fruit obsolete 
or mere peduncles. Puccinia and Uredo 



534 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

are popularly known as "smut" in corn. 
(Goniomycetes, Fries.) 

4. FAMILY. Botrylloid-Fungi (Botryacese). Spores 

naked, often septate ; thallus floccose. Bo- 
trytis is the cause of a disease in silk-worms '> 
Penicillium appears on books in the form of 
blue mould. (HyphomycetesJ) 

II. SUB-ORDER. SPORIDIOUS-FUNGALS (Sporidiiferi). 

Reproduction by spores enclosed in asci (sporidia). 

5. FAMILY. Follicular-Fungi (Helvellacese). Hy- 

menium distinct, superior, margined ; recep- 
tacle urceolate or reflexed, inferior ; sporidia 
generally eight together. Several are escu- 
lent, as Hdvella, Tuber, Morchella ; Mylitta 
is eaten in Australia, and a Cyttaria supplies 
food to the inhabitants of Tierra del Fuego ; 
the species of Sphceria grow principally upon 
caterpillars. (Ascomycetes, Berk.) 
6 FAMILY. Vesicuiar-Fwngi (Mucoracese). Spores 
surrounded by a vesicular veil or sporan- 
gium ; thallus floccose. Species of Mucor 
enter into the composition of mildew. (Phy- 
somycetes, Berk.) 

Many fungi are not yet sufficiently understood to 
enable them to be classified, among which are Ergot 
of rye, Spermoedia clavus of Fries, or Ergotcetia 
abortifaciens of Queckett ; also Mycoderma, found 
in flour, yeast, &c., and the vegetable crusts appear- 
ing in some skin-diseases in man, as in Mentagra, 
and Tinea favosa. 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 535 

III. ORDER. ALGALS (Algales). 

Living in water or very damp places ; nourished 
through their whole surface by the medium in which 
they vegetate ; propagated by zoospores, coloured 
spores, or tetraspores. 

1. FAMILY. Stone-ivorts (Characese). Aquatic, sub- 

mersed ; odour fetid ; colour dull-green ; a 
central stem or axis, often encrusted with 
carbonate of lime ; branches in regular whorls, 
symmetrical, tubular ; organs of reproduction 
round brick-red globules, and axillary oval 
nucules, the latter containing starch-granules. 
Occur in salt-water, or in stagnant fresh- water 
in all parts of the world, but more abundantly 
in temperate climes. 

2. FAMILY. Rose-tangles (Ceramiacese). Sea-weeds ; 

rose-coloured or purple ; bodies cellular or 
tubular, unsymmetrical ; reproduction by 
tetraspores enclosed within a transparent pe- 
rispore, and collected in bodies of different 
forms. All marine plants, chiefly inhabiting 
from 35 to 48 N. lat., diminishing towards 
the equator and the pole ; rare in the South- 
ern Hemisphere. Several gelatinous species 
are employed as food, as Chondrus crispus 
or Carrageen ; Rhodomenia palmata, or dulse ; 
and Laurentia pinnatifida, or pepper-dulse ; 
Plocaria tenax yields a matter used by the 
Chinese as glue and varnish. 

3. FAMILY. Sea-weeds (Fucacese). Bodies cellular 



536 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

or tubular, unsymmetrical ; fronds of one or 
many cells, often united by gelatinous mat- 
ter ; reproduction by single spores, contained 
in superficial cells, which are scattered through 
the whole frond, or situated in particular 
parts of it. Distribution universal ; marine 
or fresh- water. Some attain a considerable 
size, as Scytosiphon filum of the North Sea, 
or Macrocystis pyrifera of the Pacific, the 
latter said to be occasionally upwards of 1 000 
feet in length. ; Sargassum bacciferum, met 
with in large floating masses, is known as gulf- 
weed ; "kelp," employed in the manufacture 
of glass and soap, is composed of the ashes of 
Fucus vesiculosus, F. serratus, and F. no- 
dosus, the kind which is used for obtain- 
ing Iodine and Bromine, is chiefly made from 
Laminaria digitata, Himanthalia lorea, and 
Scytosiphon filum. 

4. FAMILY. Joint-worts (Confervacese). Bodies 
vesicular, filamentary, or membranous; co- 
lour usually green ; cells solitary or many, 
variously shaped and disposed ; reproduction 
by zoospores generated in the interior, at the 
expense of the green matter. Universally 
found, generally in fresh-, but occasionally in 
salt-water, also in mud, on rocks, or parasitic. 
Some occur in such numbers as to colour the 
waters they inhabit, as Trichodesmium ery- 
thrceum in the Red Sea, or Oscillatoria ceru- 
gescens, which gives a green tint to Glaslough 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 537 

in Ireland ; the appearance described as "Red 
Snow " is caused by Protococcus nivalis ; 
some, as Ulma thermalis, live in hot springs. 

5. FAMILY. Bond-weeds (Desmidiacese). Bodies 

cylindrical, bipartite ; colour green ; highly 
mucous, destitute of silex ; multiply by spon- 
taneous separation ; reproduction by bodies 
analogous to zoospores. Usually found in 
cloudy masses near the bottom of permanent 
old boggy pools. The cells of Bond-weeds 
contain starch granules. 

6. FAMILY. Brittle-worts (Diatomacese). Bodies 

crystalline, angular, fragmentary, very brit- 
tle ; contain much silex ; composition not 
binary ; colour dark brown ; multiplication 
and reproduction as in the last family. In- 
habit still waters, and boggy places, chiefly 
in temperate and northern climes. 



A A 5 



538 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 



PART III. 
GEOLOGY. 

THE STRATA COMPOSING THE EARTH'S CRUST ARRANGED ACCORDING 
TO THEIR RELATIVE POSITION. 

I. SECTION. DESCRIPTIVE GEOLOGY. 

THAT grand poem has not yet been written where- 
in the wonders of the changing epochs of the world's 
early history shall be pourtrayed, as by the pen of 
some pre-adamite and gifted being, who, having 
passed unscathed through all the revolutions of our 
planet, shall record the result of his kosmical expe- 
riences. I have watched, he might declare, 

" The proteus shape of nature as it slept," 

and have seen the sullen ocean heaving waveless 
over the heated, new-formed crust, and heard no 
sound save the snap of armour-clad and buckler- 
headed fishes, as they caught strange floating mol- 
lusks swarming in the deeps, " their dark nativity/' 
And, amid these fishes of surprising shapes their 
bodies covered with enamelled plates were others, 
shark-like, ravaging the waters of that wide ocean ; 
while among the fuci and branching zoophytes that 



MANUAL OF NATUKAL HISTORY. 539 

clothed the heated rocks, were slug-like Nudibranchs, 
whose forms have now for ever perished. I have 
traced the habits and development of the curious 
crab-like Trilobites, and gazed upon the shoals of 
strange-formed Cephalopods that sported near the 
surface. I have seen, clothed with darkling vege- 
tation, islands clustered on the wide expanse, whose 
shores then teemed with Lily-Encrinites and pon- 
derous Madrepores. High-rising, in the carbon-laden 
atmosphere, were Club -mosses eighty feet in 
height, with leaves of similar proportions ; here 
nourished also sombre pine-like trees ; Horse-tails, 
with succulent and jointed stems, surmounted by 
their scaly catkins, arborescent Ferns, marsh-loving 
Stigmarice, Mosses, Lichens, and gigantic Fungi. 
No flowers adorned the scene no insect hordes en- 
livened the air no gambolling of monkeys was 
seen among the trees, nor were heard hoarse notes 
of screaming, gaudy-tinted parrots. I have wit- 
nessed the burial of these vast primeval forests, 
and seen them turned to coal. In gloomy swamps 
I found the home of Archegosaurus that monstrous 
form, half-toad, half-lizard pursuing awkwardly 
the insect tribes around it, and followed with a 
fearful eye those great and sauroid fishes that 
ravaged with a greedy voracity these ancient waters. 
Another epoch, and lo ! the waters had subsided, 
and the flat and muddy shores were tenanted with 
reptile life. That giant Newt Labyrinthodon, ap- 
peared to my astonished sight, leaving, as he moved 
along, lasting imprints of his huge and hand-like feet. 



540 MANUAL OF NATUKAL HISTOKT. 

"In contemplation of created things," 

I have sat beneath the shade of crown-topped 
Cycads, and heard the oft-repeated plunge, and 
watched the gnome-like movements of those new- 
made Saurian forms, the Fish-Lizards, as they 
gambolled in the turbid waters, or basked along the 
reeking mud-flats, while, as the day declined, Ptero- 
dactyles, bat-like Lizards, would flit among the 
trees above my head, snapping their bird-like jaws. 
Half-hid among the Horse-tails of the swamps, that 
"biggest born of earth," the reptile Mosasaurus, 
waited warily for prey ; on the banks of mighty 
rivers I saw the colossal Iguanodon, roaming harm- 
lessly, and browsing on the juicy herbage ; in the 
shadowy woods, that huge basalisk, Hylceosaurus, 
lurked and lived ; while long-jawed Crocodiles, and 
large web-footed Terrapins, usurped the marshes. 
I observed, too, marsupial mammals, like monstrous 
Kangaroos, hopping about vast arid plains, cropping 
the scanty herbage. Another epoch has elapsed, 
and another tribe of beings enter on the scene, 
thick-skinned and snouted, "enormous in their gait/' 
wallowing in estuaries, and seeking their food in 
jungle and savannah. I saw the Dinotherium 
tearing up the banks, or suspended by his tusks to 
the shores of inland lakes ; I watched the fur-clad 
Mammoth feeding in the arctic wilds ; and admired 
the proportions of the great Elephant of the Lena ; 
I gazed with wonder on the moving mass of the 
shielded Glyptodon; and paused to watch the sloth- 
like Mylodon seated on its haunches, tearing the 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 541 

bark from primeval forest-trees. On vast and soli- 
tary plains I have encountered the Megatherium, 
"huge of bulk/' rooting up the herbage with his 
powerful, his devastating claws ; and again, have 
watched the rapid paces of the Epyornis as he 
strode along the grassy valleys, huge, powerful, and 
ostrich-like. 

Amidst these changes of organic life, I have wit- 
nessed, with awe, the throes of nature, as mountains 
were upheaved, craters belched forth liquid fire, and 
lava swept along the plains. I saw that mighty 
torrent moving resistlessly forward, bearing in its 
course rock-masses, and destroying all those tribes 
of living forms whose bones are found in caverns at 
the present day ; and noted, with amaze, the rest- 
ing-places of those mighty boulders borne by ice- 
bergs on the bosom of this fearful deluge. I have 
seen the retiring waters finally leave broad and 
solid tracks, soon to become verdant with ten thou- 
sand varied trees, redolent of life, 

" The breath of nature and her endless bloom." 

The following pages comprise a simple compila- 
tion of the chief facts and features of modern Geo- 
logy ; the strata of the Earth's crust being thrown 
into several classes of formations, the chief pecu- 
liarities of which are defined, the geographical dis- 
tribution mentioned, and their principal organic 
remains briefly alluded to. 



542 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY". 

I. CLASS. HYPOGENE-FORMATIONS. 

This class, comprising the Granitic and Trap 
Rocks, the Gneiss, and Mica-Schist, is composed of 
hard, compact, crystalline strata, and solid rocks of 
quartz and mica. Granite, syenite, hornblende, 
serpentine, together with basalt, chink-stone, and 
clay-stone, also occur, and organic remains are 
absent. 

I. THE GRANITE-BASIS. 

The unstratified and crystalline granite basis, on 
which all the other formations rest, is generally 
believed to have resulted from the gradual cooling 
of the earth when liquified by intense heat. The 
crust of solid granite thus formed, is estimated at 
sixty to one-hundred miles thick, and it is imagined 
that it will continue to increase in thickness as the 
process of cooling goes on. This granite crust is 
flexible, and the expansive force which the fluid 
nucleus exercises upon it, is believed to occasion the 
phenomena of earthquakes. Portions of it are 
found protruding above the other strata in every 
part of the globe, often rising up in extensive 
mountain-chains, as in the Andes of South America, 
the Abyssinian ranges of Africa, the Pyrenees of 
Spain, the Grampians of Scotland, the Alps of 
Switzerland, and the Cornwall hills of England. 

1. Common Granite is composed of felspar, 
quartz, and mica; when hornblende is present 
instead of mica, it is Syenite ; when talc takes the 
place of mica, it becomes Protogine ; when it is 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 543 

formed of quartz and hypersthene, with scattered 
crystals of mica, it is HyperstTienic-granite ; when 
it is mottled with chlorite, it is termed Serpentine ; 
and when larger crystals of felspar are scattered 
indiscriminately through it, Porphyry is the result. 

On account of its extreme hardness and dura- 
bility, granite is chosen for the construction of im- 
portant works, as bridges, docks, and lighthouses ; 
the enduring monuments of ancient Egypt, the 
Pyramids and Colossal Sphynx, are formed of 
granite ; talc is often used for windows, and de- 
composed felspar is employed in the manufacture of 
china. Many Eastern works were formed of Sye- 
nite, which is harder than granite; and columns, 
monuments, and ancient antique works are fre- 
quently of red, brown, green, or black porphyry. 
The verde antico, or green porphyry of the ancients, 
is composed of greenstone, with scattered crystals 
of white and green felspar. Basalt is used in the 
formation of sea-walls, and for road-stones ; some of 
the Sphynxes and Lions sculptured by the Egypt- 
ians, are of this substance. Trachyte, and felspathic 
lavas, are sometimes employed as building materials, 
as tufa, used by the Romans at Pompeii ; and Ser- 
pentine or Ophiolite, a bisilicate of magnesia, has 
been used extensively in the manufacture of idols, 
columns, vases, and ornamental work. 

2. The Trap Rocks comprise the Basalts and 
Porphyries, and commonly occur in the shape of 
veins or dykes, as in the felspar porphyry rising- 
through the granite which constitutes the base of 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

Ben-Nevis, and in the porphyry vein at St. Agnes, 
Cornwall. The columnar Basalt is well shewn in 
FingaFs Cave in the Isle of Staffa, and in the 
Giant's Causeway, in Ireland. No certain traces of 
organized beings have been detected in these rocks. 

II GNEISS GROUP. 

This group is formed by layers of gneiss, syenite, 
and quartz rocks, alternating with clay-slate, mica- 
schist, &c., forming the lower portion of the primary 
stratified rocks. Gneiss is composed of the same 
elements as granite, but these are arranged in con- 
torted or undulated layers, appearing as if produced 
by the disintegration of granite, and then deposited 
in water. The summits of gneiss mountains are 
usually rounded, and numerous beds and veins of 
metals occur in this formation. The ocean which 
deposited the mica, quartz, felspar, &c., was probably 
of too great a temperature for the support of animal 
life, no organic remains having been found in the 
strata of this group. 

III. MICA-SCHIST GROUP. 

This group is composed of mica and quartz, in- 
terlaminated so as to present the appearance of 
stratification j crystalline limestone and hornblende 
also occur ; and the lower strata consist of greenish- 
coloured slates, with mica and talc, schist, chlorite, 
and quartz rock. In the mica-schist and other 
metamorphic rocks, altered by high temperature, 
metallic ores are found in the greatest abundance. 



MANUAL OF NATUKAL HISTORY. 545 

Swedish iron is procured from rocks of this class, 
forming mountain-masses in Smoland ; as is also the 
Elba, or opercular iron. Manganese has been also 
procured from the rocks of this group ; and in gneiss 
and mica-schist, the most important copper-ore (or 
pyrites) occurs on the Continent, and in Cornwall 
and Ireland ; lead, in the form of galena, or bisul- 
phuret, is present in these rocks, as well as in 
the fossilliferous deposits; silver, as a bisulphuret, 
is found in green-stone, cla,y-slate, and syenite, the 
veins sometimes extending, as in Mexico and Peru, 
to the ordinary deposits. Tin, in the shape of 
binoxide, occurs in granite, and in " killas," a pecu- 
liar schist in Cornwall, and in other parts of the 
world; mercury is occasionally detected dispersed 
in globules in granite, but the rich ore of this metal, 
cinnabar, is from the primary or grauwacke strata 
of Almaden, in Spain ; antimony and molybdenum 
are also found in granite, gneiss, and mica-schist; 
and gold has been found disseminated in quartzose 
and chloritic rocks in Brazil, and in various parts 
of the earth it is extracted from auriferous sands, 
produced by the decomposition of these strata, as 
are likewise platinum and diamonds. Flexible 
asbestus, or amianthus, is found among the mica- 
schists, as are also garnets; and some of the lime- 
stones produce valuable marbles. 

II. CLASS. PALEOZOIC-FORMATIONS. 

The different groups composing this class have, 
until of late years, been arranged partly with what 



546 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

were formerly called primary rocks, and others with 
the secondary formations. Some were separated, 
under the name of " transition- rocks/' but they have 
since been more accurately defined, and named 
Palceozoic, from their containing the first remains 
of organized existence. They comprise the Silu- 
rian system ; the Devonian, or old Red-Sandstone ; 
and the carboniferous strata ; to which Murchison 
has added the Permian, or magnesian- limestone 
system. 

I. THE SILURIAN GROUP. 

This group constitutes a series of marine deposits 
of vast extent, composed of sandstones, limestones, 
shales, grits, flagstones, and slates. It derives its 
name from the Silures, who formerly inhabited 
those districts of Britain where the strata occur 
most conspicuously. The Silurian strata extend 
from the heart of South Wales to that of England, 
in Russia, in the Falkland Islands, and in North 
America; they are also found in widely-extended 
bed? abounding in the remains of fishes, mollusks, 
crustaceans, and polyps. The deposit termed Cam- 
brian, the earliest known fossiliferous formation, 
occurs in North Wales, and is placed under the 
Silurian strata ; it consists of slaty and gritty beds. 
The Murchisonian, or Upper Silurian rocks, are 
composed of gray and bluish limestones, coloured 
micaceous shales and flagstones. The Lower Silu- 
rian rocks are formed of impure shelly limestone, 
mottled sandstones, and dark calcareous flags, and 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 547 

occur in Belgium, along the banks of the Rhine, in 
Westphalia, the North of Germany, the extreme 
parts of Russia, and in the lake region of North 
America. 

In this formation the first traces of organic life 
are met with. The vegetable remains are few, and 
chiefly of the lower orders, as algse, ferns, and 
horse-tails. 

Eight hundred and forty-five species of animals 
have been described from the Silurian strata by 
M. D'Orbigny, and eleven hundred species of In- 
vertebrata have been discovered in the Silurian 
system of Bohemia alone, including two hundred 
and fifty species of Trilobites. Only a few scales 
and bones of fishes, belonging to the genera Sclero- 
dus, Pterygotus, Tlielodus, and Onchus, have been 
detected. In this formation those singular crus- 
taceans occur, belonging to an extinct tribe, com- 
prising about six families, and numerous genera. 
These are the Trilobites, clad in mail, with large 
shield-shaped heads, and compound, sessile eyes. 
Among them we notice the Illcenus, of an oval 
shape, and with the angles of the head rounded, 
an allied species (Isotelus gigas, Dekay) is eighteen 
inches in length; Asaphus, with the cephalo- 
thorax ending in a point on each side ; Bumastus, 
or the " Barr-Trilobite," covered with undulating 
imbricated plates, all belonging to the family of 
Asaphidce, having the power of rolling up their 
bodies like woodlice ; these are found chiefly in the 
Lower Silurian group. Here, likewise, we have the 



548 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

curious Homalonotus of tlve Ludlow limestones, with 
its abdomen ending in a long point, and the Caly- 
mene, or " Dudley-Locust/' with large trilobate 
head, besides Cyphaspis, Phacops, and (Eonia, other 
members of the Calymenidce. In the Harpidce, 
where the sides of the segments are rounded, and 
the surface of the body is furrowed, we find the 
Ellipsocephalus, Harpes, and Conchocepkalus, and 
among the Olenidce, which were unable to roll 
themselves into a ball, we include, besides Olenus, 
the singular Paradoxides, with the lateral segments 
ending in long deflexed spines. Brontes was an- 
other remarkable form, having the lateral portions of 
the abdominal sections radiating and forming a fan- 
shaped expansion; this genus, with ftveOdontopleurce 
and Arges formed another family (Odontopleuridce), 
the members of which were also unable to roll them- 
selves up. Among the Ogygiidce, we find the Trinu- 
cleus, with the margin of the cephalic segment per- 
forated, and Ogygia with the same part prolonged 
on each side into slender spines distinct from the 
body, and the family of Eurypteridce, which were 
furnished with antennae. Tentaculites, the tube of 
an Annelid allied to Serpula, is the only repre- 
sentative of other annulose animals ; it is found 
in the Caradoc sandstone of the Lower Silurian 
strata. 

Among Cephalopadous Mollusks the genera P/^ra*/- 
moceras and Lituites have been observed, but these 
chambered forms are very limited in number and 
size compared with their abundance, and the gigantic 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 549 

forms they assume in strata of the secondary forma- 
tion. The Gasteropoda, again, are much less numer- 
ous than the Bivalves. Euomphalus, an extinct 
genus, is common in the grauwacke limestones, and 
there are found also about ten species of Turritella, 
six of Turbo, five of Buccinum, Delphinula, and 
Patella, and three of Nerita, Capulus, Trochus, aud 
Phasianella. The bivalve Mollusca are not much 
more numerous than the spiral Gasteropods ; the 
great majority of Silurian species appearing to have 
been either pelagian, like Bellerophon and Ortho- 
ceras, or inhabitants of deep water, as the Brachio- 
podous tribes. The bivalve genera of Avicula and 
Cypricardia occur in the Upper Ludlow strata, and 
Lingula in the Aymestry limestone. The Brachio- 
poda constitute about a fourth part of the Silurian 
Mollusks. Among them we find the Pentamerus, 
divided into four chambers ; the Spirifer, with long 
spiral arms ; the Orthis, with straight, narrow hinge ; 
the A typa, with a short hinge-line ; besides Tere- 
bratulce, Producti, Gypida, and Chonetes. The only 
Echinodermatous animal met with, is an Ophiura, 
belonging to the family Ophiuridce ; and the cup- 
like Encrinite, belonging to the Crinoid forms, re- 
markable for the jointed peduncle that supports 
their bodies. Among the Polypiferous animals, we 
here find the branched Porites, with rayed cells, and 
the polymorphous tribe of Favosites ; besides these, 
the curious Graptolithus, belonging to the family of 
the Sea-Pens, was an inhabitant of the Silurian 
Seas. 



550 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

II. OLD RED-SANDSTONE GROUP. 

This is a marine formation, composed of strata of 
marls, limestone, micaceous and gray sandstones, 
conglomerates, quartzose grits, crystalline limestone, 
and green slates ; the prevailing colour of all being 
a dull red, derived from sesquioxide of iron. 

In Britain this group is well represented in 
in the South of Devon, in Orkney, Caithness, 
and Cromarty ; in Germany in the limestones 
of Eifel ; in Russia, in a wide area south of St. 
Petersburgh ; and in the United States, at the Falls 
of the Ohio. The Tilestone division is composed of 
finely laminated, hard, reddish, or green, micaceous 
quartzose sandstones, with occasional beds of red- 
dish shale. The Cornstone division consists of red 
and green, argillaceous, and spotted marls, with 
alternating bands of sandstone, and with irregular 
courses of mottled, red and green cornstone, or im- 
pure limestone. The upper portion comprises the 
Quartzose Conglomerates and Sandstones; com- 
prising quart zose-grits, and reddish quartzose con- 
glomerates, passing into reddish coarse - grained 
sandstones, with alternating layers of red and green 
argillaceous marls. The Old Red-Sandstone is a 
marine formation, and is especially remarkable for 
the fossil fishes it contains, entire skeletons of ga- 
noid and placoid families having been discovered. 
A solitary reptile has recently been brought to light 
by Mr. Duff, from the Elgin Sandstone, which ap- 
pears to possess a mixed character between the 
Amphibians and the Saurians ; it is the Telerpeton 



MANUAL OF NATUKAL HISTORY. 551 

Elginense of Mantell. Among the fossil fishes of 
this epoch, we may mention the Ptychacanthus, be- 
longing to the family of Cestracions ; genera of the 
curious extinct family of Ccelacanthidce, with the 
rays in the form of hollow tubes, and the tail pro- 
duced into an elongated style. To these must be 
added five genera of the family Cephalaspididce, 
which have the head and front of the body covered 
with bony plates. The Coccosteus, with an armour 
of tuberculated bony plates, a round head and elon- 
gated tail ; the Cephalaspis, or Buckler-head, with 
its large head with concentric horns, and narrow- 
jointed body ; the Holoptychius, cased in large, 
carved scales; the Pterichtkys, or Winged-Fish, 
with its coat of mail, strong spinous fins, and curi- 
ous tail with the vertebrae extending as far as the 
end ; and the Polyphractus and Pamphractus. To 
another and equally curious family, the Dipteridce, 
belonged the Dipterus and Diplopterus, with their 
fins like two pairs of wings ; the Cheirolepis with 
its scaly pectorals and small, fretted scales ; and the 
Osteolepis, cased from head to tail in complete ar- 
mour. To these we may add the Glyptolepis, with 
its large, sculptured scales ; the Cheiracanthus, or 
Thorny-hand, with spiny pectoral fins ; the Acan- 
thodes, with a spine in each fin ; the little Dipla- 
canthus, covered with extremely minute scales ; and 
last, not least, the highly interesting Asterolepis, or 
Star-scale, with its broad, plaited head, and body 
covered with scales of solid bone, so graphically de- 
scribed by Hugh Miller. 



552 MANUAL OF NATUKAL HISTORY. 

The crustaceans of this group comprise several 
genera of the Trilobite family, as Calymene, Asa- 
phus, Harpes, Homalonotus, and Brontes. 

Among the cephalopodic forms of molluscous ani- 
mals, we find numerous genera of the family Cly- 
menidce, as the straight Orthoceras, with central 
siphuiicle ; the Cameroceras, with the siphuncle 
lateral ; the discoidal Clymenia, with the siphuncle 
internal ; the Aturia, with a large funnel-shaped 
siphuncle ; and the curved, compressed, Pliragmo- 
ceras. Among the cephalopods of this epoch, we 
also observe several members of the family Ammo- 
nitidce, with their shells spiral, straight, or variously 
bent. Here we have the curved Cyrtoceras ; the 
straight Stenoceras ; the nautiloid Gyroceras, with 
the whorls disunited ; and the Goniatites, with dis- 
coidal shell, and lobed sutures ; besides upwards of 
one hundred and twelve fossil species of Nautilidce, 
and among them the curious Lituites, with the last 
chamber produced, besides Aploceras, Gomplioceras, 
Actinoceras, and other extinct genera. The gas- 
teropodous tribes are represented by Pleurotomaria, 
Euomphalus, Bellerophon, Nerita, Natica, Megalo- 
donj Calceola, and Strygocephalus ; and a little un- 
known bivalve has been found in this formation in 
the Orkneys. 

The zoophytic remains are numerous, among 
which we may observe the beautiful honey -combed 
Favosites and the starred Favistella, the cup-shaped 
Cyathophyllum, the net-like Fenestella, and the 
elegant chain-coral Catenipora. 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 553 

III. CARBONIFEROUS GROUP. 

This most extensive series is composed of shales, 
sandstones, ironstones, clays, millstone-grit, and 
limestone, in alternating strata of marine and 
fresh-water formation, interstratified with seams of 
coal. 

The Coal-measures are formed of alternating beds 
of coal, shale, sandstone, and clay, with seams of no- 
dulous ironstone. The coal itself consists of ancient 
plants, altered by chemical agency, and imbedded 
in sand and mud. Sometimes the plants grew where 
the coal now exists, or they were washed down into 
estuaries, forming vast accumulations. The coal- 
fields of the British islands are very numerous, and 
are found in South Wales, England, Ireland, and 
Scotland ; the gross value of the collieries being 
upwards of nine millions sterling. Three millions 
five hundred thousand chaldrons are annually 
brought into London, in nearly ten thousand ships. 
There are also coal formations in New Holland, in 
the East Indies, in China and Japan, in Borneo and 
Labuan ; also in our colonies of Newfoundland, New 
Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Cape Breton, Prince Ed- 
ward's Island, New Zealand, and Port Natal. The 
position of the beds is often very different, many of 
the seams of Newcastle being worked under the sea, 
while at Chipo, which rises above the plain of Santa 
Fe de Bogota, coal is found 800 feet above the sea, 
and at Buanco, at 12,800 feet, or bordering on the 
limits of eternal snow. 

BB 



554 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

Iron-ore or clay-ironstone, from which the valu- 
able product iron is extracted, is also found in this 
formation, which thus produces the mineral, and the 
requisite fuel for smelting it. In 1846, two mil- 
lions two hundred and fourteen thousand tons of 
iron, of the value of eight millions eight hundred 
and fifty-six thousand pounds, were produced in 
England. 

Igneous Rocks are frequent in the Carboniferous 
group, sometimes occurring as overlying stratiform 
masses, alternating with sedimentary deposits, and 
frequently as dykes, penetrating through the strata. 
They principally consist of greenstone and basalt 
or whinstone, in the north of England, the mottled 
toadstone of Derbyshire, and the basaltic masses of 
South Staffordshire. 

The Mountain Limestone, which naturally be- 
longs to this group, is composed of thick-bedded, 
grayish limestones, and shales, with layers and no- 
dules of chert, and ores of lead, zinc, and copper, 
with baryta, and fluor-spar. It is a marine deposit, 
abounding in the crinoid forms of Echinoderms, and 
the shells of cephalopodous and brachiopodous mol- 
lusks. It is extensively developed in the northern 
and western parts of England, rising in picturesque 
peaks and hills, as in Derbyshire, Cumberland, and 
Westmoreland. The mountain limestone of Eng- 
land is rich in lead, producing annually 30,000 tons, 
equivalent to about five hundred thousand pounds 
sterling ; it occurs chiefly in the form of sulphuret 
of lead, or galena ; manganese is also found in this 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTOEY. 555 

formation, and valuable building-stones and marbles 
are likewise afforded. 

Among the organic remains of tlie Carboniferous 
group, we may observe three species of the curious 
reptile, Archegosaurus, with the body of a toad 
and the jaws and teeth of a lizard, and the skin 
covered with long, narrow, tile-like, horny scales, 
arranged in parallel rows ; foot-prints of other rep- 
tiles have been also discovered in the coal strata of 
the United States. The fishes comprehend Pleu- 
racanthus, Hybodus, an extinct genus of Placoids, 
allied to the Sharks, Amblypterus and Palceonis- 
cus, heterocercal Lepidoids, and Megalichthys, and 
Acrolepis, great heterocercal Sauroids, with large, 
pointed, conical teeth, the arch-tyrants of the ancient 
seas ; also the placoid Deplerus, with scaly armour, 
and two dorsal, and two ventral, fins. The remains 
of Annulose animals comprise the fossil King-crab 
or Limulus, Nebalia, and Apus, with a few Tri- 
lobites, and several Entomostraca, as Cypridella, 
Gypridina, and Cyprella. Among Arachnidans, a 
scorpion (Cyclopthalmus), from the coal formation, 
near Prague, and among insects, Curculionidce, 
several Orthoptera, including Cridites and Blatlina, 
and the neuropterous genus, Corydalus, may be enu- 
merated. The molluscous forms embrace the cepha- 
lopodic, chambered shells of the straight, uncoiled 
Ortlioceras, and the Goniatites, with the borders of 
the septa simple ; while Euomphalus, divided into 
chambers, but without siphuncle, and the fragile 
Bellerophon, with Turbo, Trochus, Turritella, and 

BB2 



556 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

Nerita, are the most abundant of the carboniferous 
gasteropods. Polypi/era of the genera Cyathophyl- 
lum, Lithodendron, Syringopora, and Catenipora, 
are numerous in the limestones. 

The remains of ancient plants are numerous in 
this formation; the gigantic Tree Ferns, now confined 
to warm regions, constituted nearly two-thirds of 
the whole known fossil flora, and seem, at that pe- 
riod, as in New Zealand at the present day, to have 
replaced the graminaceous tribes, and to have co- 
vered extensive tracts with their delicate fronds 
and arborescent forms. Besides, however, the vast 
abundance of Ferns, large Coniferous trees related 
to species of warm climates, gigantic Lycopodiacece, 
and tribes related to the Cactacece and Ricinacece, 
were prevalent. Palms, and other monocotyledons, 
also Catamites, referred by some to the Horsetails, 
are also noticed. 

Among the Filices may be discovered the round- 
leaved Cyclopteris ; twenty-four species of Nerve- 
leaved fern, Neuropteris ; the elegant Tooth-leaved 
fern, Odontopteris ; sixty species of Embroidered 
fern, Pecopteris, with beautiful tripinnate leaves ; 
the Spear-leaved feYn,Lonchopteris, and the Fissured 
fern, 8chizopteris. Among the Club-mosses we find 
the Lycopodites with pinnate branches, the Sala- 
yinites, with dichotomous stems, and the Lepido- 
dendron and Ulodendron, with the branches co- 
vered with scale-like leaves. Besides these, the 
Lepidostrombus, forming ovate cones of imbricate 
scales round a woody axis j heart-shaped fruits or 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 557 

Cardiocarpa, and Stigmaria with tubercles on the 
stem, arranged in a spiral manner ; the Asterophyl- 
lites, with its star-like whorls, the leaves of Flabel- 
laria and Zeugophyllum, the fruits of Trigonocar- 
pum and Musocarpum, and about forty species of 
curious furrowed Sigillarice, most probably the 
stems of extinct Coniferous plants. 

IV. PERMIAN, OR MAGNESIAN-LIMESTONE 
GROUP. 

This formation is composed of fragments of moun- 
tain-limestone, coal, shale, &c., cemented together 
by a base of dolomite, or magnesian-limestone. The 
organic remains of this group exhibit some resem- 
blance to those of the Trias, or New Red-Sandstone, 
but approach more closely to those of the Carboni- 
ferous. 

The Permian system is developed fully in Russia, 
and derives its name from Perm in that country ; 
in the south-west of England the beds are composed 
of dolomite ; in the north-east, of a yellow inag- 
nesian-limestone, passing into slate, marl, and marl 
with gypsum. The magnesian-limestone is employed 
for architectural purposes, and was chosen as the 
best stone for building the New Palace at West- 
minster. 

The organic remains at present discovered, com- 
prise seven species of Nothosaurus, a reptile of the 
family of Ichthyosauridce, and Protosaurus an ex- 
tinct genus of Lacertidce, from the Permian stage of 



558 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

Tubingen. The curious Russian fish Ommotolampes 
Eichwaldi of Fischer, which is covered with bony 
shields like a tortoise, and the no less remarkable 
genus Trachelocanthus, which has a spine in its 
throat turned backwards, belong to this period. 
The other fish are remarkable for their heterocercal 
tails, in which the vertebral column extends into the 
upper lobe, as seen in the Shark and Sturgeon, which 
the fossil Palceoniscus probably resembled in its 
habits. The remains of molluscous animals are 
referred principally to the brachiopodous genera, 
Productus and Spirifer. 

III. CLASS. SECONDARY-FORMATIONS. 

Secondary formations, as now restricted, are com- 
posed of various strata of sandstones, aluminous and 
siliceous beds, and chalky deposits ; they commence 
with the New Red-Sandstone, and comprehend be- 
sides the Lias, the Oolitic series, including the 
Wealden-group, and the Cretaceous system. These 
rocks occur in all parts of the world, and abound in 
remains of plants and animals now entirely extinct. 

I. TEIAS, OR, NEW RED-SANDSTONE GROUP. 

This is a marine formation, composed of varie- 
gated marls and sandstones, conglomerates, and 
limestones, frequently of a red colour, with exten- 
sive deposits of gypsum and rock salt, and contain- 
ing numerous brine springs. 



MANUAL OF NATUKAL HISTORY. 559 

The lowest division consists of variegated sand- 
stone, distinguished by greenish stripes and spots, 
and containing clay galls. The middle division, or 
muachelkalk, occurs under several varieties of lime- 
stones, which alternate with marls and clays, some- 
times containing gypsum and rock salt. In the 
upper division, or Keiiper, marls and clays, asso- 
ciated with gypsum and rock salt, and sometimes 
an impure coal occur. 

Deposits of this system are extensively developed 
in France, Germany, Italy, European Russia, North 
America ; and it traverses England from south-west 
to north-east. The organic remains of the New 
Red-Sandstone are tolerably numerous. A gigantic 
extinct species of Kangaroo has been found in fis- 
sures and caves of limestone of this epoch in New 
Holland, associated with the bones of the Wombat, 
and another marsupial mammal allied to Didelpliis. 

In the New Red-Sandstone of Massachusets fossil 
foot-prints of unknown animals, presumed to have 
been birds, have been observed. These imprints 
are of gigantic dimensions, being fifteen inches long 
and ten inches broad, and from four to five feet 
apart. 

Among Reptilian remains, five species of Laby- 
rinthodon, a kind of gigantic Batrachian, of littoral 
habits, with the jaws furnished with teeth, have been 
discovered in the lower stage of the New Red-Sand- 
stone of England ; it is supposed to have resembled 
a monstrous toad, and to have left the remarkable 
foot-prints on the muddy shores, resembling hands, 



560 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTOEY. 

which Kaup has referred to a supposed animal called 
by him Cheirotherium. From the Keiiper of Ger- 
many are derived the extinct fossil forms Mastodon- 
saurus, Metopias, and Capitosaurus, belonging to 
the same family of Labyrinthodontidce, and from 
the muschelkalk, Diacosaurus, Simosaurus, and 
Pristosaurus, genera of the extinct family IchtTiyo- 
sauridce, have also been obtained. Chelonians have 
left their foot-marks on slabs of New Red-Sandstone 
in the quarries of Dumfriesshire, which have been 
referred to Chelichnus and Herpetichnus by Jar- 
dine ; moreover, the genus Cladeiodon, one of the 
Lacertidce, is from the Keiiper of Warwickshire, 
and the Rhynchosaurus, belonging to the same 
family, is from Grinshill. Phytosaurus, the most 
ancient Crocodile, is from the trias of Germany ; 
and from the dolomitic conglomerate of Bristol we 
have the lacertine genera Thecodontosaurus and 
PaloBosaurus. The fishes of this formation belong 
principally to the ganoid family of Pycnodontidce 
and to the Palceoniscidce, lepidoid fishes, with rhom- 
boid scales arranged in parallel lines and with 
heterocercal tails. Among the mollusca the Cepha- 
lopodic family, AmmontiidcB, made its appearance 
here under the form of the genus Ceratites ; the bi- 
valves Posidonia and Avicula also occurred. From 
the muschelkalk, the echinodermatous Encrinus, 
or Lily-Encrinite, is obtained. 

Among plants the epoch of the New Red-Sand- 
stone formation was characterised by the appearance 
of a few Cycadacece, and must have resembled in 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 561 

its flora somewhat the aspect of that of New Hol- 
land. The curious arborescent fern, Anomopleris, 
the coniferous genera Voltzia and Thuia, the pal- 
maceous Cupressites, and the flowering genera of 
jfithophyllum, Echinostachys, and Palceoxyris, also 
occur among the vegetable remains of this period. 

II. LIAS GROUP. 

This is a group of marine argillaceous limestones, 
stratified blue clays, alum shales, marls, and sand- 
stones. 

It extends throughout a great part of Europe ; 
on the Continent, it occurs in the north and south- 
east of France, in Switzerland, and in Germany ; 
and it forms a belt across our island, from Lyme- 
Regis in Dorsetshire to the north of Whitby. 

The Lias was a marine deposit, of which the 
epoch was remarkable as the " age of reptiles ;" 
gigantic saurians having then maintained possession 
of the shallow ocean, preying on the legions of 
cephalopods and other mollusks, and swimming 
around the muddy shores of the half-formed land. 

The remains of the marine, air-breathing, cold- 
blooded Ichthyosauridce, organized entirely for an 
aquatic existence, were especially numerous in the 
Liasic period of the secondary formations. Among 
the principal genera may be mentioned the Fish- 
Lizard, or Ichthyosaurus, with its short neck, great 
eyes, and reptilian head; and the Plesiosaurus, 
with crocodile's teeth, serpent's neck, and porpoise's 
paddles. The fishes comprise many ganoid genera, 

BB5 



562 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

with equal-lobed, or homocercal tails ; also fourteen 
genera of placoid Gestraciontidce, with elongate 
bodies and tessellated teeth, of which A crodus is 
one. The ganoid genera with homocercal tails, are 
principally Lepidotus, Tetragonolepis, Dapedium, 
AmblyuruSj and Semionotus ; Chondrosteus, a 
genus of Acipenseridce, or sturgeons, is also from 
the Lias of Lyme-Regis. 

While all the lepidoid and sauroid fishes which 
inhabited the seas before the deposition of the Lias 
had the vertebral column prolonged into the upper 
lobe of the tail, or were heterocercal, the fishes of the 
Lias group, with the exception of the Coccolepis, 
have the tail homocercal, like most of the fishes 
living in the seas of the present era. 

The anDulose animals found in this formation 
belong to crustaceans of the genus Coleia; species of 
Astacus, and minute entomostracous Cyprididce; 
and, among insects, of coleopterous and orthop- 
terous genera, including the beautiful neuropterous 
dragon-fly, jEsTina liassina, and the remains of air- 
breathing annulose animals, cotemporaries of the 
gigantic marine saurians. Of molluscous animals, 
the Cephalopods were most abundant ; vast numbers 
of Ammonites and Belemnites, several species of 
Nautilus, and the pens of Loliginidce, have been 
brought to light. Among the gasteropodous tribes, 
we only meet with the genera Rotella and Pleuro- 
tomaria bivalves, belonging to the genera Gry- 
phcea, Cardini^LimajAvicula, and Hippopodium, 
have been found in the lower Lias shales ; and 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 563 

Crenatula, Corbula, Pholadomya, and Nucula, be- 
sides an Area, Pinna, Oardium, and Pecten, in the 
higher beds ; with Posidonia, and a large Pla- 
giostoma. The brachiopodous genus, Spirifer, ap- 
pears in the Lias for the last time ; and Leptcena 
occurs in the neighbourhood of Ilminster. Of Echi- 
noderms, we find the slender-armed Ophiuri, and 
elegant plant-like Crinoidea, chiefly belonging to 
the genus Pentacrinus. The Cidaris, a genus of 
Sea-Urchins (Echinidce), is also found. 

The plants of the Lias consist of Zosterites, a 
monocotyledonous genus ; several Coniferce ; Nill- 
sonia, and Zamia, of the cycadaceous family ; the 
Tongue-fern (Glossopteris) ; the Wreath-fern (Tceni- 
opteris) ; and the Lattice-fern (Clathropteris). 

III. THE OOLITE, OR JURA GROUP. 

The Oolite comprises a series of marine strata of 
enormous extent, consisting of limestones, sand- 
stones, and clays, with calcareous grits, replete with 
corals, shells, fish, reptiles, terrestrial plants, and 
species of mammalia. It occurs in England, com- 
mencing at the isle of Portland, follows a winding 
course through several counties, and ends at the 
sea, near Scarborough. On the Continent, it is 
developed in Normandy, traverses France, forms 
the mass of the Jura, ancj part of the Alps ; and is 
found also in Germany, Poland, Portugal, and Spain. 

The Bavarian Jura is celebrated for the litho- 
graphic stone of Solenhofen ; in the lower division 
of the Oolites the Bath stone occurs so extensively 



564 MANUAL OF NATUKAL HISTORY. 

used in delicate mouldings in architecture, and 
which is represented in France by the Caen stone ; 
and in the upper Oolite the celebrated Portland 
stone is found, so useful as a building material. 

With regard to organic remains, the Stonesfield 
slate has furnished us with three little quadrupeds 
of the size of a mole, allied to the Australian genus 
Myrmecobius, and belonging to the extinct genera 
Amphitherium, and Phascolotherium ; they are of 
the lowest, or marsupial tribes of mammals : from 
the same place jaws of other marsupials, species of 
Thylacotherium, have been received. Reptiles of 
several descriptions peopled the ancient earth during 
this epoch, which was also an " age of reptiles." 

Some, as the Pterodactyles, were organized for 
flying through the air like so many Vampire-Bats ; 
others were adapted for frequenting river-banks and 
marshes, like the Crocodiles and the Monitors ; and 
others were entirely marine, propelling themselves 
through the still, warm waters, by means of fin-like 
paddles. 

The Pterodactyl^ or Flying-Lizards, were most 
numerous during the Oolitic period, fourteen species 
having been discovered in the Oxford stage of So- 
lenhofen alone; they are also found in the Stones- 
field slate of Oxfordshire and Gloucestershire. These 
remarkable beings of a former creation were probably 
nocturnal, and differed from all living and extinct 
tribes of Reptiles, in the little finger of the fore-legs 
being greatly elongated and enlarged, to support a 
membranous wing, by means of which they were 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 565 

enabled to enjoy an arboreal life among primeval 
forest trees. The head of these curious creatures 
was prolonged into a muzzle, well furnished with 
sharp teeth, and their neck was long and bird-like. 
From the same strata are derived the fossil remains 
of a gigantic carnivorous Lizard allied to the Moni- 
tor, having powerful teeth with serrated edges, and 
which inhabited the banks of the ancient rivers. 
This colossal saurian (Megalosaurus) appears to 
have reached the appalling length of thirty feet. 
The genus Spondylosaurus, an extinct form allied 
to Ichthyosaurus, is from the Oolite of Moscow ; 
two species of Pliosaurus, a gigantic reptile of the 
same family, are from the Oxford clay; the La- 
certine Geosaurus of Cuvier is from Mannheim ; and 
from the Oxford clay is derived Idiochelys, a Marsh- 
Tortoise of the family Emydidce. There are, more- 
over, several genera belonging to the family Croco- 
dilidce found in different stages of the Oolite, such as 
the ^fllodon, Mystriosaurus, Macrospondylus, Gna- 
thosaurus, Rachceosaurus, Pleurosaurus, Steneo- 
saurus, and Pelagosaurus ; the Pcecilopleuron, of 
the same family, is from the great Oolite of Ger- 
many. 

From the Oxford stage are derived fishes of the 
Ray tribe belonging to the genera Asterodermus and 
Euryarthra. From this formation, also, are pro- 
cured fourteen extinct genera of Polypteridce, sau- 
roid fishes with homocercal tails, of which the Po- 
lypterus of the Nile and the Gambia is the living 
representative ; lepidoid fishes with homocercal tails, 



566 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

belonging to the family Lepidotidce, were also nu- 
merous. 

Remains of Crustaceous animals have been found 
in the lithographic schists of Solenhofen, especially 
numerous genera of the family Sphcerodermidce, as 
Alvis, Naranda, Sculda, Norna, Urda, and Recfaur ; 
several genera also of the Prawn-family, Palcemo- 
nidce, as Dusa, Blaculla, Saga, Udora, &c. ; and 
of the Lobster-tribe Astacidce, as Magila, Orphnea, 
Brisa, Bolina, Aura, &c., have been discovered and 
described by Count Munster, from the Oxford stage 
of Bavaria, Among Insects, the elytra of Beetles 
belonging to the families Prionidce, Blapsidce, and 
Buprestidce, have been found. More than one 
hundred and thirty species of Gasteropodous Mol- 
lusca occur in this group, chiefly belonging to the 
genera Trochus, Patella, Turbo, Turritella, Actceon, 
Melania, Natica, Rostellaria, Cerithium, and Ptero- 
cera, which are recent, and to Nerincea, Cirrus, Pleu- 
rotomaria and Trochotoma, which are extinct genera. 
The bivalve Pholadowiya, and the extinct Gryphcea, 
known from Ostrea by its curved beak and flat 
upper valve, are found in the Oolite ; in the Kim- 
meridge-clay the latter shells form entire layers ; 
species are also common in the Shanklin sand of 
the Isle of Wight. Some Cephalopods are likewise 
present, especially longitudinally-striated Nautili; 
the crosier-shaped Ancyloceras; and the spiral .ZTe^- 
oceras, with the whorls detached. Besides these, 
may be mentioned the curious genus Diceras of the 
Alps, Avicula, Cypricardia, the brachiopodous 



MANUAL OF NATTJKAL HISTORY. 567 

Spirifer, Atryapa, Orthis, Terebratula, Lingula, 
and Pentamerus, and the cephalopodous genera 
Orthoceras, Lituites, and Phragmoceras. 

In the slate of Solenhofen a few impressions re- 
sembling those of Medusae are the only traces yet 
discovered of the evanescent, delicate, and fragile 
Acalephce. One of the limestones of the middle 
Oolite is named the " coral rag/' from the abundance 
of corals it contains ; there is also a bed of coral- 
line limestone upon the freestone of the lower Oolite 
of the Cotteswold Hills. These remains of Zoo- 
phytes consist chiefly of the genera of Explanaria; 
star-like Astrece; fungus-shaped Agaricice; flower- 
like Caryopliyllice ; cup-shaped Cyathophylla ; and 
many other forms of the larger lithophytes now 
confined to equatorial seas. 

Several genera of Sponges have been identified 
in the Oolitic rocks, as the reticulate Achilleum ; 
the turbinated Cnemidium and Siphonia ; and the 
polypiferous genera Catenipora, Porites, Cystiphyl- 
Iwm and Graptolithus have also been met with. 

Belonging to the World of Vegetables we find in 
the Oolitic epoch the elegant Thick-fern or Pachyp- 
teris, the Tongue-leaved Fern, Glossopteris, and the 
Round-leaved Fern, Cyclopteris ; in the family Cy- 
cadacece ; the winged leaves of Pterophyllum, and 
a species of Zamia have been detected ; and among 
the Pinacece, Peuce, Brachyphyllum, Taxites and 
Thuytes; while in the lower Oolite of Yorkshire, a 
colossal Horsetail, or Equisetum, has been dis- 
covered. 



568 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY". 

IV. WEALDEN GROUP. 

The Wealden is a fresh- water deposit, consisting 
of beds of clay, argillaceous limestones, and sands, 
with occasional layers of lignite. It is considered 
to be the delta of an ancient river, containing land 
plants, fresh-water mollusks, fishes, tortoises, and 
enormous saurians. 

In its geographical distribution this formation 
extends from Horsham to Hastings, where it dips 
beneath the sea, forms the bed of the English 
channel, and re-appears in the valley of Braye in 
the Department of the Boulonnois ; similar strata 
occur in Germany and "Westphalia, in the Isle of 
Bornholm, and at Niederschone in Saxony. 

In the Wealden formation an extinct genus be- 
longing to the Order of Wading-Birds (Palceomis), 
and a natatorial genus, the Cimoliornis, also ex- 
tinct, have been detected. Large terrestrial and 
aquatic reptiles abounded during the epoch of the 
Wealden, among which may be mentioned the Igua- 
nodon of Mantell, a gigantic, herbivorous saurian, 
with serrated teeth, and which is calculated to have 
attained the length of thirty feet ; there were also 
the Hylceosaurus, with long, bony processes ar- 
ranged along the back ; the Cetiosaurus, or Whale- 
Lizard, with the spongy bones of a cetaceous ani- 
mal, and of the size of the largest Whales ; the 
Teleosaurus, or slender-nosed Crocodile, with the 
tapering jaws of the Gangetic Gavial ; the Gonio- 
pholis, or Swanage Crocodile, with angular plates 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 569 

on the skin; the Succhosaurus with biconcave, and 
the Streptospondylus with convexo-concave ver- 
tebra-. Besides these, there were several genera 
of Marsh Tortoises, as Tretosternon, Euryster- 
non, Trionyx, Platemys and Emys. The fishes of 
this group comprise the genera Lepidosteus, Lepi- 
dotus and Hybodus. The remains of the little 
entomostracous genus Cypris are very abundant in 
the Wealden of Kent, and of the Isle of Wight, 
their bivalve carapaces occurring in extensive layers ; 
the crustaceous genus, Archceoniscus, is also from 
the Wealden of France and England, and numerous 
remains of Coleopterous, Neuropterous, Orthop- 
terous, Dipterous, and Hemipterous insects have 
likewise been detected. 

Among mollusca the fresh-water genera Oyclas, 
Unio, Paludina,a,ndAnodonta, have been met with. 

V. CRETACEOUS GROUP. 

The Chalk group comprises a series of marine 
deposits, composed of chalk, limestone, sandstone, 
marls, and clays. The lower portion, or gait, con- 
sists of beds of bluish or black clay, with green 
sand, containing hardened concretions ; the upper 
portion, or chalk proper, consists of soft, white 
chalk, with layers of flint, and hard chalk without 
flint. The chalk formation composed the bed of an 
ancient ocean, and contains the organic remains of 
many marine plants and animals. It extends over 
portions of the British Islands, various parts of 
France, Germany, Denmark, Sweden, Russia, and 



570 MANUAL OF NATUEAL HISTOEY. 

America. The group offers varied peculiarities in 
different parts of the world, as in the green-sand of 
England ; the beds of flints of Saxony and Bohe- 
mia ; the indurated chalk of Greece ; the white 
limestone of the Mediterranean ; the quadersand- 
stein of Saxony, and the beds of sand and clay in 
America. 

In the Chalk of Jersey, United States, a gralla- 
torial bird of the genus Scolopax has been disco- 
vered ; a skeleton of a bird, nearly entire has been 
met with in the slate of the Swiss Alps ; and a bird, 
allied to the Albatross, in the white chalk of Eng- 
land. The Lizard of the Meuse, or Mosasaurus, a 
marine saurian about twenty-five feet long, with a 
powerful flattened tail, and intermediate in structure 
between the Monitor and Iguana, has been obtained 
from the river adjacent to the quarries of St. Peter's 
mountain, near Maestricht ; and an allied reptile, 
the Leiodon of Owen, from the Chalk of Norfolk. 
From the Chalk near Cambridge, the Raphiosaurus, 
and from the green-sand of the vicinity of Hythe, 
the remains of a colossal reptile with fold-like mark- 
ings on the teeth (the Polyptychodori), and a species 
of Pterodactyle have also been discovered. The fishy 
tribes of the Cretaceous group, comprise extinct cy- 
cloid genera allied to the Salmon, Carp, and Pike, 
and ctenoids allied to the Perch, found in the upper 
stages of the Chalk of England and Germany \ Osme- 
roides Mantellii, and many fishes of the Shark- 
tribe, belonging to the genera Squalus, Galeus, and 
Isurus, are also found in this formation. 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 571 

In the Molluscous Sub-Kingdom the genera of 
the Cephalopodous family Ammonitidce were very 
numerous in the Chalk ; among which may be no- 
ticed the straight, chambered Baculites ; the hook- 
shaped Hamites, the discoidal, open-whorled Crio- 
ceras, the Ammonites, with the whorls discoid and 
united, the obliquely- whorled Toxoceras ; the Sea- 
phites with the last whorl detached, the Ptychoce- 
ras bent upon itself, the twisted Anciloceras, and the 
sinistral, turrited, spiral, chambered shell, the Tur- 
rilites. The ancient Cephalopods seem indeed to 
have here arrived at their maximum of develop- 
ment, and to have become gradually extinct. The 
Gasteropodous forms comprise species belonging 
chiefly to existing genera, as Rostellaria, Trochus, 
Turbo, Vermetus, Auricula, and Dentalium, and 
the fossil genus Cirrus. The bivalves consist prin- 
cipally of Plagiostoma, a fossil genus allied to Spon- 
dylus, with the valves beset with spines, and which 
is very frequent in the Chalk ; the thin fibrous Ino- 
ceramus ; the spiny Podopsis ; and the extinct ge- 
nus Gatellus are also found j besides Ostrea, Corbis, 
Thetis, Perna, Gryphcea, Trigonia, and Gervillia. 
Pectens are also common, as is also Rhynchonella, 
one of the same family. 

.The Chalk-formation is most numerous in the 
forms of the free Echinoderms, as the fixed, pedun- 
culated genera were more abundant in the older 
secondary rocks. Spatangidce prevail in the lower 
Chalk ; we find Holaster, and smooth Spatangi, and 
species of Micraster and Ananchytes, or Helmet 



572 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

Echinite, in the upper strata. There are also found 
numerous species of Turban-Urchins (Cidaridce), as 
the elegant Hemicidaris, and others. Species of 
Clypeus, or Buckler-Echinite, Cyphosoma, and Sa- 
lenia, are also present. Among the Crinoidea, we 
find the purse-like Marsupites, and the Pear-Encri- 
nite (Apiocrinus) from the Bradford clay of Wilt- 
shire; also the Pentacrinus. A few Asteriidce and 
Ophiuridce, and a Goniaster, or Cushion-star, are 
frequent in the white chalk, besides Gonulus and 
Discoidea of the Cidaridce. Among the Polypi/era, 
those funnel-shaped bodies, often termed " petrified 
mushrooms/' occur ; they belong to the genus Ven- 
triculites, and are very numerous in the Chalk ; Ocel- 
laria is a beautiful allied genus, and, besides these, 
Astrece, Fungice, Meandrince, and Caryophyllice 
prevail. Many Polyzoa also occur, as Eschara, Cri- 
sia, and Flustra. The shell-like skeletons of Fora- 
minifera are found in great abundance in the Chalk, 
thirty genera, comprising two hundred and fifty spe- 
cies, having been described by M. D'Orbigny. Among 
these may be observed the crosier-like Lituola, the 
fan-shaped Flabellina ; the entwined and spiral Tex- 
tularia ; the globular Xanthidium, and the saucer- 
shaped Pyxidiculum. The whole mass of the white 
Chalk, moreover, has been shewn by Ehrenberg 
almost to consist of the skeletons of Infusoria, or 
polygastric animalcules, mixed up with well-pre- 
served Foraminifers. The tabular and nodular 
masses of Chalk-flints are believed to be composed 
principally of fossil Sponges, which are often mine- 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 573 

ralized by pyrites. Among them we may notice the 
reticulate mass of the genus Manon; the branching 
Scyphia; the funnel-shaped Chenendopora; the tur- 
binate Cnemidium ; and the bulbiform Siphonia. 

Among the few vegetable productions found in 
the Chalk, we may mention the liliaceous genus 
Clathraria, and Fucoides from the Glanconite or 
fire-stone. 

VI. CLASS. TERTIARY-FORMATIONS. 

This class consists of an extensive series of strata, 
marine, lacustrine, fluviatile, and volcanic. The 
remains of animals and plants abound, comprising 
extinct and existing species of mammals, shells of 
the river, lake, and land, and many types altogether 
extinct. It comprehends all the deposits of marl, 
clay, sand, and gravel, which occur above the 
chalk. The creation of races of beings that now 
people the surface of the globe had its commence- 
ment in the epoch of these formations. The cities 
of London and Paris are built on marine and 
fresh- water beds, which have been deposited during 
this era, in the form of vast basins ; the tertiary 
strata are found also on the coast of Africa ; the 
shores of the Mediterranean, in the form of num- 
mulite limestone ; in Russia, on the level tract be- 
tween the Baltic and the Northern Ocean ; in Asia, 
near the Bay of Bengal; in the east of North 
America ; and in Equatorial America ; they occur, 
also, in the soft sandstones of the Swiss lakes ; the 



574 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

valleys of the Danube and the Rhone ; and the 
lacustrine sands and marls of Auvergne ; and also 
along the southern basis of the Hinirnalaya. 

I. EOCENE GROUP. 

This group constitutes the most ancient of the 
tertiary formations. It is composed of marine and 
fresh-water beds of blue and plastic clays, thin 
beds of sand, and shingle mixed with lignite, &c. 
Here we find about three and a half per cent, of 
shells which belong to types of existing species. 

Several Quadrumana have recently been dis- 
covered in strata of this epoch ; namely a Macacus 
from the eocene sand of Kyson ; a tail-less monkey 
or Gibbon (Hylobates) in the South of France ; 
several species of Semnopitheci in India; and a 
Callithrix in the basin of the Rio des Velhas, in 
Brazil. The Mammals of the tertiary formations 
were principally, however, ponderous vegetable- 
eating quadrupeds, that loved to frequent the river- 
banks, marshes, and borders of lakes ; such were 
the colossal Mastodon, the lofty Sivatherium, the 
thick-skinned Rhinoceros, the amphibious Hippo- 
potamus, the long-nosed Tapir, and the Hog. 
Among Cetaceous mammals, we here find the great- 
headed Balcena, with its laminated whale-bone, 
the Ztiphius and Balcenodon, with sharp, conical 
teeth, and the Zeuglodon, a gigantic cetacean, 
seventy feet in length. Ziphodon and Adapis are 
pachyderms from the eocene stage, as is also the 
singular Chceropotamus. 



MANUAL OF NATUKAL HISTOEY. 575 

The London clay produces an extinct genus allied 
to the Peccary, the Hyracotherium ; and here, like- 
wise, occurs a species of extinct bat, belonging to 
the genus Molossus, from a bed of eocene sand in 
Suffolk. The extinct, carnivorous genus, Hycenodon, 
is from the lower tertiary of the Isle of Wight ; and 
the small, marsupial Didelphys Colchesteri, is from 
the sand at Kyson. A large mammal, related to 
the water-mole (Paloeospalax) has been discovered 
in a lacustrine deposit at Ostend ; arid the Trogon- 
therium, a large extinct genus, allied to the Beaver, 
in Russia. The Paris basin, the scene of the illus- 
trious Cuvier's labours, has furnished numerous 
extinct mammalian genera. The pachydermatous 
Paloeotherium, with a short proboscis, like a tapir ; 
the Anthracotherium, with a still shorter nose ; the 
Lophiodon, with crested teeth ; and the Anoplothe- 
rium, with only two toes on its feet, are among his 
discoveries. From the quarries of Montmarle have 
been procured three or four species of marsupials, 
two or three of bats, and, among Insectivora, the 
remains of a mole ; among Carnivora, several spe- 
cies of bear, seal, cat, weasel, dog, and fox ; among 
Rodents, ten or twelve species of beaver, rat, hare, 
squirrel, and Lagomys ; besides bones of the great 
thick-skinned Mastodon and Rhinoceros ; also the 
horse, boar, and tapir, and the ruminant forms of the 
elk, stag, antelope, and ox. The same vast cemetery 
of organic remains has supplied us with a list of 
eocene birds. Fossil genera of Raptores, as Halia- 
etus, Buteo, and Strix ; species of the rasorial genus, 



576 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

Perdix; the grallatorial genera of Tantalus, Scolo- 
pax, and Nume&ius, and the natatorial Carbo, or 
Cormorant. In the eocene of Sheppey, an extinct 
raptorial bird, allied to the vultures (Lithornis), 
and another departed form allied to the King- 
fishers (Halcyornis) have been discovered ; and in 
the schists of Glarus, an extinct genus of incessorial 
birds, the Pyctornis. Among reptilian forms, nearly 
perfect carapaces of turtles and tortoises have been 
found in the eocene strata of Hampshire and the 
Isle of Wight ; an extinct genus of serpents, Palce- 
ophis, has been discovered in the sand of Kyson, 
together with species of the fresh -water tortoises, 
Emys and Platemys. The fishes of this group com- 
prise seven extinct genera of Placoids, belonging to 
the family of Chimceridce; a single fossil Diodon ; 
and several genera, mostly extinct, of the Ostra- 
ciontidcB. In Mollusca, extinct species of existing 
genera are very numerous in the marine deposits of 
the tertiary strata ; two hundred and twenty fossil 
species of Cerithium alone having been identified, 
besides numbers of Pleurotomia, Fusus, and Buc- 
cinum. A few extinct genera also occur, as Pile- 
olus, Omalaxis, and Pleurotomaria. But few spe- 
cies of Helicidce have been found ; only ten species 
of Patella; one Haliotis ; about seventeen Neri- 
tince; numerous Trochidce; nineteen Cowries; and 
many species of cones, helmet-shells, rock-shells, and 
tritons. Among Pteropods, a few extinct forms 
occur , two fossil species of Cavolina are found in 
the tertiary beds of Dax and Turin. Nearly a 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 577 

thousand fossil species of Bivalves have likewise 
been discovered in these strata, including the genera 
Ostrea, Pecten, Venericardia, Cytherea, Lucina, 
Gorbula, Tellina, Nucula, Crassatella, &c. The 
fossil oysters often occur in extensive beds, as in 
the tertiary clays near Woolwich, and in the lower- 
most sands and clays of the London basin. 

II. MIOCENE GROUP. 

The Miocene forms the middle group of tertiary 
strata ; it is composed of fresh-water and estuary 
beds of marls, imperfect limestones, and clays, 

The lower part of this formation in England, con- 
sisting of a mass of calcareous marls, shells, and 
small corals, is called the " Coralline Crag of Suffolk;" 
five hundred species of mollusks have been obtained 
from it. Out of England, the faluns of Touraine, the 
beds of Bordeaux, the conglomerate of Piedmont, and 
part of the molasse of Switzerland, belong to this 
group. 

In the Falunian stage, the Metaxyihermm, a cu- 
rious extinct mammal, allied to the Lamantin and 
Dugong, has been found. In beds of sand and marl of 
this group, we see at Darmstadt in Germany thebones 
of one of the most gigantic mammals yet discovered, 
the Dinotherium, an animal as large as an elephant, 
with tusks in the lower jaw curved downwards ; it 
is allied to the Mastodon and Tapir, and is supposed 
to have hung by its tusks to the banks of rivers and 
lakes, like the Walrus to the floating masses of ice 
in polar seas. Belonging to the Miocene stage are 

c o 



578 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

those extinct Pachyderms, the Hyotherium, Macrau* 
chenia, and Ckaltcotherittwi, and four species of Rhi- 
noceros ; a solipede mammal, allied to the Horse, 
from Eppelsheim, the Hippotherium ; and several 
species of Trichechus or Walrus, from the middle 
tertiary beds of France and England, may be alluded 
to. The extinct genera of digitigrade Carnivora, 
Machairodus, with its formidable canine teeth, and 
Amyxodon, are also from these strata, besides nu- 
merous genera of Rodents, as Trogontherium, Ste- 
neofiber, Palceomys, Chalicomys, Archceomys, and 
Chelodus. In the Falunian stage, Insessorial Birds 
of the genera Gorvus and Fringilla, and the Gralla- 
torial forms of Ciconia, Scolopax, and Phcenicop- 
terus, have been identified. 

Loricated polygastric animalcules are found fossil 
in the tertiary deposits of Europe and America, such 
as the simple chain-like Bacillaria; the elegant bi- 
valved Cocconeis ; the boat-shaped shields of Navi- 
cula ; the discoid Gaillonella ; the slender, elon- 
gated Synedra; the cruciform Podosphenia, and 
the toothed carapace of Eunotia, together with 
Chcetotyphla and Peridinium. Many of these sili- 
ceous shields are found in the substance termed 
" Tripoli/' and in the " Bergmehl/' or fossil farina, 
used as food, mixed with the ground bark of trees, 
by the natives of Finland and Lapland. 

III. PLIOCENE GROUP. 

This group forms the most recent of the tertiary 
formations, and is composed of beds of marl, marine 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 579 

shells, and gravel, and calcareous conglomerate ; the 
organic remains consist of species generally resem- 
bling those of existing forms. 

The Pliocene epoch is divided into the lower, in- 
cluding the red crag of Suffolk, in which phospha- 
tized bones and coprolites occur in great abundance ; 
and the upper, or newer Pliocene, which includes 
the red crag of Norfolk, in England, about half 
the Island of Sicily, the blue clay of the Mediter- 
ranean, and the argillaceous limestone around the 
Caspian. 

The species of Mollusca of the newer Pliocene are 
nearly identical with the recent species, while many 
of the mammals belong to forms entirely lost ; the 
species of fish of the Norfolk crag are mostly refer- 
able to genera common in tropical seas. The upper 
tertiary marine deposits exhibit many genera of 
Polyzoa and of polypiferous animals, such as species 
of Isis, Madrepora, Eschara, Nullipora, Flustra, 
Meandrina, Turbinolia, and others. 

The plants of the tertiary formations consist of 
Ferns, Pinacece in great numbers, Pa]ms and tropi- 
cal monocotyledons, Elms, Willows, Poplars, Ches- 
nuts, and Sycamores; Carpinus, Betula, Compto- 
nia, and three species of the Walnut tribe. The 
chief genera of the Pinacece, are Pinus, Taxites, 
and Podocarpus, and among the family of Palms, 
leaves of Flahellaria, Phcenicites, and Juniperites, 
and the fruit of Cocos have been discovered ; and, 
belonging to the Lily-tribe, those of Amomocarpum 
and Pandanocarpum. The bodies called " Gyro- 

cc 2 



580 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

gonitea," or fossil fruits of the genus Chara, with 
spirally twisted valves, are also common. 

IY. GLACIAL, OR POST-PLIOCENE GROUP. 

This group, sometimes called the Ancient or Dilu- 
vial Drift, consists of deposits still in course of 
formation; beds of rivers, lakes, peat-bogs, coral 
limestones, volcanic ejections, and calcareous de- 
posits from mineral springs. These results are com- 
monly ascribed to the unusual operations of water, 
or by the passage of diluvial waters over the sur- 
face of the earth, thus accounting for the gravel, 
sand, and clay, with boulders, or rounded masses, 
and water-worn transported materials. What are 
termed " erratics " also occur in this group ; they con- 
sist of large, angular masses of rock, distinct from the 
rounded boulders, and are now believed to have 
been transported by ice, and so to have preserved 
their angular forms : they occur only in extra-tro- 
pical regions. The scratches or grooves on the 
surface of rocks of this epoch are accounted for by 
the pebbles moving with, and immersed in, the beds 
of boulder-clay, which once covered the rocks ; the 
movements being produced by landslips, and the 
descent of semi-fluid mud down the sides of moun- 
tains and along valleys. 

In this last deposit of the tertiary formations, we 
find the remains of many large mammals of species 
both recent and extinct. Ossiferous Sands and 
Gravel of the valleys of Great Britain, the conti- 
nent of Europe, and the river-plains of North 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 581 

America, contain bones of various mammals, as Ele- 
phants and Mammoths in Siberia and the North 
of Europe, and the Mastodons and Megatheriums 
of the New World. Among Cetaceous mammals, 
which have been observed in alluvial silt, is a species 
of Balcenoptera, seventy-two feet in length, em- 
bedded in clay twenty feet above the highest tide- 
mark at Alloa in Scotland, besides the bones of a 
Narwhal, a Manatee, and species of Physeter and 
Balcena. The remains of colossal Pachyderms are 
frequently found buried in superficial alluvial de- 
posits throughout Europe. The Mastodon, with 
mammillated molar teeth, and without tusks in the 
adult, resembled the elephant in form. The best 
known fossil elephant is the Mammoth (ElepTias 
primogenius). One of these huge Pachyderms was 
found on the banks of the Lena, nine feet high and 
sixteen feet long, and with large recurved tusks ; 
the skin of this Siberian monster was not, however, 
naked like that of the elephants of the present day, 
but was covered with a shaggy woollen coat, to 
guard against the cold of a northern climate. The 
ElepTias Ganesa of the Sevalik hills must also have 
been a quadruped of very formidable appearance. 
Among the Sivalik mountains also formerly roamed 
that immense Antelope-like creature the Sivathe- 
rium, which was furnished with a nasal proboscis, 
and four horns like those of a Giraffe ; here also are 
entombed the remains of fossil Ruminants, Oxen, 
and a gigantic species of Camel ; the Dremotherium 
allied to the Cervidce, has been discovered in the 



582 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

sub-apennine stage of Auvergne, and a fossil genus 
of Camelidce, the Merycotherium, from the glacial 
regions of Siberia. Besides these, we have the ex- 
tinct pachydermatous genera Potamohippus, Chce- 
roiherium, and Elasmotherium, from the sub-apen- 
nine or newer tertiary deposits of Asia, and the 
Toxodon, from the Pampas of South America. In 
the vast alluvial plains of South America, colossal 
edentate mammals have been floated from the in- 
terior of the country in a former age, and embedded 
in the muddy deposits. Among these are the gigan- 
tic fossil Sloth (Mylodon robustum), eleven feet in 
length, which uprooted trees with its fore-feet, and 
fed upon the foliage ; here are also the remains of 
a gigantic Armadillo (Glyptodon clavipes) covered 
with a huge, tessellated shield; and the colossal 
Megatherium, larger than a Rhinoceros, with im- 
mense hind legs, on which the monster rested while 
rooting up the trees with the strong claws of the 
fore-legs. From the Pampas of Buenos Ayres we 
also have the Glossotherium, an extinct genus al- 
lied to the Ant-eaters. Besides the huge Glypto- 
don, these plains furnish us with several other 
extinct Armadillo-forms, as Chlamydotherium, Eu- 
ryodon, Hoplophorus, and Pacfiytherium. From 
the sub-apennine stage of the Pampas, and from 
the caverns of Brazil, the remains of Platyonyx, 
Scelidotherium, and Sphenodon, of the family Me- 
gatheriidce, are collected. The fossil Rodent Lon- 
chophorus, and the Leptotlierium, an extinct genus 
of Bovidce, are also from the same locality. 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 583 

The remains 'of fossil birds are also very numer- 
ous in these post-pliocene deposits. In the sub- 
apennine stage of Auvergne, a raptorial vulturine 
genus, Gathartes, and the natatorial forms of Car- 
bo, Anas, and Mergus, have been discovered. From 
the diluvium of New Zealand colossal skeletons 
have been procured of an extinct genus of Cursorial 
birds, intermediate in structure between the Ap- 
teryx and the Cassowary, the Dinornis, one spe- 
cies of which must have stood twelve feet high ; 
Notornis, an extinct genus allied to Porphyrio, and 
the fossil remains of a large and curious parrot 
related to the genus Nestor, have also been found. 
From Madagascar an extinct genus named Epy- 
ornis, of even vaster dimensions than the Dinor- 
nis, and belonging also to the Cursorial Order, has 
been lately discovered, together with the remains 
of its eggs ; and from the Mauritius and the Isle 
of Rodriguez, enormous extinct species of Colum- 
bine birds (the Didus ineptus or Dodo), allied to 
the recent genus Geophaps, have been made known 
to us by remains of comparatively recent date. 

The Reptilian tribes are here represented by ex- 
tinct species of recent genera of Ophidians, Ba- 
trachians, Crocodilidce and Lacertidce. In the 
newer tertiary bed of the Himalaya, fragments of 
an enormous fossil tortoise (Megalochelys) have 
been discovered, justifying the inference that the 
carapace must have been twenty feet in length. 
In the sub-apennine stage of (Eningen, the famous 
fossil, skeleton of Andreas Scheuchzer, a reptile 



584 MANUAL OF NATUKAL HISTOKY. 

of the family Salamandridce, was found, and which 
its discoverer mistook for a human skeleton; in 
the same strata the Palceophilus, an extinct genus 
of the Ranidce, or Frogs, is found ; and near Bonn, 
the Palceobatrachus, belonging to the same family. 
The Paris beds contain an extinct species ofPristis 
or Saw-fish. 

In this formation those remarkable ossiferous 
caves occur filled with the bones of mammals. 
Among the mud of these ancient caverns in Eng- 
land, France, Germany, Belgium, the coasts of the 
Mediterranean, in North America, and in Australia, 
the carnivorous Tiger, Hyaena, Bear, Wolf, Fox, 
and Weasel ; the pachydermatous Elephant, Rhi- 
noceros, Hippopotamus ; the Horse ; and the rumi- 
nant Ox, and Stag, have been exhumed. Carni- 
vora are especially frequent in these bone-caves ; 
as in Kirkdale, Kent's, and Creston Caves ; in Fran- 
conia, and in parts of the Hartz. Here Bears of 
the size of large horses, as the Ursus spelceus, 
Hysenas, Tigers, Otters, Badgers and Polecats, are 
numerous. Among these are found bones of other 
animals either of existing species, as the Reindeer, 
Red-deer, Goat, Wolf, and Fox, or associated with 
extinct forms of the Ox, Horse, Rhinoceros, Hippo- 
potamus, and Elephant. In Kent's cavern, a horse- 
shoe Bat (Rhinolophus) has been discovered. The 
fossil remains of several birds have also been found 
in these ossiferous caves, as the rasorial genera 
Gallus, Phasianus, Numida, and Crypturus ; the 
grallatorial forms of Otis, Rallus, and Crex ; and 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 585 

the natatorial Larus, Anser, and Colymbus, be- 
sides the raptorial Vultur and Aquila, and the 
insessorial Motacilla, Anabates, Hirundo, and Ca- 
primulgus. In the caverns of Brazil remains of 
scansorial birds, Coccyzus, Picus, and Psittacus, 
and the cursorial Ehea, a bird allied to the Ostrich, 
have been discovered. 

V. CLASS. QUATERNARY-FORMATIONS. 

In the Drift, or Superficial Accumulations, we 
find the present era represented ; the beds of gravel, 
sand, coral-reefs, and peat-moss, being of recent for- 
mation, by the agency of floods, irruptions of the 
sea, and the action of rivers, glaciers, and icebergs. 
When the remains of plants and animals occur, they 
are found to belong to those of existing species. 

I. GROUP. ALLUVIAL DEPOSITS. 

These deposits are produced by the ordinary ac- 
tion of water, and are formed of sand, gravel, and 
clay. The study of these recent or alluvial deposits, 
such as the extension of the deltas at the mouths of 
rivers ; the receding or encroaching of the sea ; vol- 
canic disturbances ; the mud and gravel deposited 
in their course by rivers and torrents, are all im- 
portant, as shewing the nature of the changes on 
the earth's surface that occurred in ancient epochs. 
Raised Beaches are produced by the action of the 
sea, by depositing new matter so as gradually to 
increase the coasts, as in Guadaloupe, where human 
remains have been imbedded ; or they are the re- 

c c 5 



586 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

suits of recent earthquakes, as on the coast of Chili 
and at the mouth of the Indus. In the Mediter- 
ranean is a terrace or raised beach fifty feet above 
the level of the sea, and abounding in shells of the 
present date. Submarine forests of trees belonging 
to species still living, are sometimes found below the 
level of the sea, as on some of the coasts of Great 
Britain, the estuary of the Tay, and in the North 
of France. They owe their unusual position either 
to the encroachment of the sea, or to partial depres- 
sion of the land Marine Silt comprises those re- 
cent accumulations of sand, mud, and clay, collected 
by the tide and waves, and altering the outline of 
promontaries and bays, or filling up fens and marshes. 
The Isthmus of Suez has by this means doubled its 
width since the time of Herodotus ; Tyre and Sidon, 
once sea ports, are now several miles inland ; and 
large districts in Holland are modern formations of 
the existing seas. 

Submarine accumulations are formed by currents 
from the poles to the equator, carrying with them 
rocks and gravel, embedded in icebergs, which gra- 
dually form strata at the bottom of the sea. The 
mud, carried out by great rivers, produces the same 
effect as in the Yellow Sea, the Gulf of Mexico, and 
the Caribbean Sea. In the German Ocean enormous 
shoals are found, as the Dogger-bank, destined, per- 
haps, in future ages, to form new islands. The 
various Deltas, as those of the Ganges, Rhine, and 
Nile, are triangular islands, or mud-flats, formed 
also by alluvial deposits of mud ; they gradually be- 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTOKY. 587 

coine larger and wider, the apex of the triangle 
always pointing up the rivers. Estuary deposits 
are formed by the mud, sand, and vegetable matter 
brought down by the rivers. The bones of animals, 
and plants of the interior, are often found in these 
deposits ; as those of the Elephant and Tiger at the 
mouth of the Ganges ; those of the Camel and Cro- 
codile at the mouth of the Nile ; those of the Hippo- 
potamus, the Rhinoceros, and the Giraffe, at the 
mouth of the Niger ; and those of the Buffalo and 
Elk at the mouth of the Mississippi. Lacustrine 
deposits are beds formed in lakes, morasses, and 
swamps, producing heaps of shell-marl and peat-moss, 
clay-slate, and rolled pebbles, with remains of fresh- 
water fishes. The prairies of North America, the 
pampas of South America, and the steppes of Europe 
and Asia, were, most probably, lakes, filled up by these 
accumulations; bones and horns of deer, horses, bears, 
beavers, and foxes, are found in these deposits. Mi- 
neral deposits constitute all aggregations of mineral 
and saline matter, derived from the action of springs, 
forming crusts of various substances, as the stalac- 
tites and stalagmites of Derbyshire, and the grotto 
of Antiparos. Tufa, or travertine, is a deposition of 
lime, as in cold springs, where it forms calc-spar, and 
in hot springs, where it occurs in the form of arra- 
gonite. These springs are often made to incrust 
various objects, thus producing false fossils. Hot 
springs, as those of Iceland and in the Azores, depo- 
sit silex on cooling, which is called tuff QIC sinter ; 
opal is also formed in this manner. Ferruginous 



588 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

springs, as those of Sweden, deposit sesqui-oxide of 
iron, which is called bog or marsh iron, and, mixed 
with sand or gravel, forms sand-ore. In many 
springs, as in those of Vienna, gypsum and chloride 
of calcium are thrown down ; several lakes of Russia 
also deposit a saline crust ; and in Egypt, soda is 
likewise deposited. The turf-moors at Frauzenbad 
are coated with sulphate of soda, or " Glauber-salt/' 
and sulphate of iron ; and the limestone caverns of 
Brazil and Ceylon are incrusted with nitrate of po- 
tassa, or saltpetre. In the neighbourhood of the 
Dead-Sea, and in the island of Trinidad, there are 
springs of mineral-oil, which, on drying, become 
Asphalt. 

Rivers, in passing through rocks rich in ores, often 
separate particles of these precious substances from 
their matrix, which are afterwards deposited or 
thrown down : as shewn in the stream-gold, tin, 
platinum, and magnetic-iron, found in Wicklow, the 
Ural Mountains, Brazil, Australia, and California. 
All platinum, and the greater portion of gold, is pro- 
cured in this manner; as are likewise the gold of 
Borneo, the zircon of Bohemia, the hyacinths and 
chrysoberyls of Ceylon, and the diamonds of Brazil. 

Turf consists of moss, marsh, and water plants, 
which have gradually died and become changed into 
a brown, combustible substance ; turf-formations 
are extensive in Ireland, where they constitute the 
great bogs ; and in Hanover, and at San Paulo, in 
the Brazils, they are likewise developed on a large 
scale ; a kind of turf is formed on the shores of the 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 589 

North-Sea, from accumulations of sea- weed. Shell- 
beds are formed of dead and drifted shells, heaped 
together by tides and currents ; the fresh-water 
species producing beds of marl, and the marine form- 
ing layers of oysters, mussels, and cockles, which are 
often silted up and form elevated beds. Landslips 
are often recent formations, which are produced by 
a soft stratum being undermined by water, and the 
harder superjacent earth sliding down, as in the 
Undercliff of the Isle of Wight. Some recent de- 
posits are almost entirely composed of polygastric 
animalcules, as polishing-slate, or tripoli. The 
Polypi/era also form superficial incrustations on the 
inequalities of the sea-bottom, caused by lofty moun- 
tains, or banks near the surface ; the labours of these 
small animals forming reefs and atolls, alter consi- 
derably the features of groups of islands. The cir- 
cular reefs, or atolls, are founded on the summits of 
submerged volcanoes ; the edges of the crater form- 
ing a foundation for the reef, and the crater itself 
constituting the central lagoon, as in the coral islands 
of the Dangerous Archipelago. Flat or tabular reefs 
are founded upon an elevated portion of sea-bottom, 
and form solid islands of coral. Long and narrow 
reefs are founded on submerged mountain-ridges, 
and are often of great length, as on the east coast of 
New Holland and in the Indian Ocean. Reefs en- 
circling high land, and separated from it by a narrow 
channel, indicate a submergence of the islands they 
surround, as at Tahaa and Raiatea. Great masses 
of limestone are formed by the sea- water dissolv- 



590 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

ing these coral-masses, and depositing it in a new 
form. 

II. GROUP. SOIL DEPOSITS. 

The uppermost stratum of the earth's crust is 
formed of soil, produced by organic agency, and con- 
sists of decomposed animal and vegetable substances, 
with an earthy admixture. 

Inorganic Soil is composed of clay, silex, or sand, 
with magnesia, saline and metallic compounds, as 
gypsum, salts of soda, and potassa, and the oxides of 
iron and manganese. Organic Soils are formed of 
decayed animal and vegetable matter, with chemical 
compounds of humus, carbon, and ammonia. 



II. SECTION. MINERALOGY. 

Mineralogy treats of those substances, whether 
simple or compound, which exist naturally in the 
crust of the earth, forming collectively the rocks and 
strata which have been already spoken of under the 
head of descriptive Geology ; and it accordingly de- 
scribes the form, structure, composition, properties, 
and uses of inorganic bodies. The term itself is 
objectionable, being derived from a Latin and a 
Greek root, a more correct word being " Metallo- 
logy." Its scope is, at present, tolerably extensive, 
as it is found convenient to include under it all in- 
organic natural substances, whether gaseous, liquid, 
or solid. 

In pursuing satisfactorily this branch of en- 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 591 

quiry, a correct knowledge of the laws of crystal- 
lography is requisite, as minerals were formerly 
principally classified according to their outward 
shape; and crystalline form is still of much im- 
portance, though not of such primary consequence. 
Other qualities to be particularly attended to, 
are lustre, colour, transparency, refraction, irides- 
cence, polarization, phosphorescence, also specific 
gravity, hardness, state of aggregation, fracture, 
taste, odour, and especially chemical composi- 
tion. Those more immediately suitable for our 
purpose, as generally and more easily applicable, 
are, 1. Lustre, which may be metallic, vitreous, re- 
sinous, pearly, silky, or adamantine, while the inten- 
sity may be splendent, shining, glistening, glim- 
mering, or dull. 2. Colours, of which eight are 
accounted as fundamental in mineralogy, namely, 
white, gray, black, blue, green, yellow, red, and 
brown, which are termed "non-metallic" colours; 
others are spoken of as " metallic/' which are cop- 
per-red, bronze -yellow, brass -yellow, gold-yellow, 
silver-white, tin-white, lead-gray, steel-gray, and 
iron-black : these are subdivided into shades, for 
each of which a natural standard has been esta- 
blished, which may be found in Syme's "Nomen- 
clature of Colours/' or in the more recent work of 
Hay. 3. Transparency ; minerals may be trans- 
parent, sub-transparent, translucent, sub-translucent, 
or opaque. 4. Hardness; this is ascertained by 
comparing the resistance offered to the action of a 
file or knife by the mineral in question, with certain 



592 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

other known mineral bodies, selected as standards, 
and arranged in a fixed scale, which is as follows : 

No. 1. Talc. 5'5. Scapolite (crystalline va- 

2. Gypsum-Rock-Salt. riety). 

2'5. Foliated-Mica. 6. Felspar (cleavable variety). 

3. Calcareous-Spar (any cleav- 7. Quartz (transparent). 

able variety.) 8. Topaz (transparent). 

4. Fluor-Spar (any cleavable 9. Sapphire (cleavable va- 

variety). riety). 

5. Apatite (transparent variety). 10. Diamond. 

5. State of Aggregation. This may render them 
brittle, malleable, sectile, flexible, or elastic. 

6. Fracture, may be conchoidal, uneven, even, 
fibrous, splintery, or hackly. 

7. Taste, distinguishes some soluble minerals, 
which may be, 

1. Astringent, resembling Vi- 5. Cooling, resembling Salt- 

triol. petre. 

2. Sweetish-Astringent, resem- 6. Bitter, resembling Epsom 

bling Alum. Salts. 

3. Saline, resembling Com- 7. Sour, resembling Sulphu- 

mon-Salt. ric Acid. 

4. Alkaline, resembling Soda. 

8. Odour, is applicable only to a few substances, 
the divisions are, 

1. Alliaceous, like Garlic. 5. Fetid, like Sulphuretted- 

2. Horse-Radish, like the De- Hydrogen. 

caying root. 6. Argillaceous, like moist- 

3. Sulphureous. ened clay. 

4. Bituminous. 

The other characters, though often of great im- 
portance, can be only properly examined at home, 
and not being applicable for travelling purposes, 
need not here be more than alluded to. 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 593 

Kegarding the classification of minerals, great 
diversity of opinion has prevailed at various periods. 
Formerly they were, like most other natural objects, 
arranged almost entirely according to their external 
characteristics and crystalline affinities. But of late 
years, in this, as in other branches of natural sci- 
ence, internal constitution and arrangement have 
been allowed gradually to assume a more important 
part, until it has been admitted by most modern 
writers, that a truly natural system of classification 
must be entirely based on chemical composition. 
That this is the most correct view, according, at 
least, to the present amount of our knowledge, can 
scarcely be doubted, as by trusting to form only, 
substances of very opposite qualities and structure 
may be placed side by side ; and yet there certainly 
is a considerable connection between external and 
internal properties, but exceptional cases are very 
numerous, and are very puzzling to the systematic 
mineralogist. The first general approach to an ar- 
rangement of this nature, included salts under the 
heads of their acids instead of their bases, thus bring- 
ing together all sulphates, nitrates, carbonates, &c., 
and binary compounds were placed according to 
their electro-negative element, making groups of 
sulphurets, phosphurets, &c. To a strictly chemi- 
cal system there are, at present, several obstacles, 
some arising from the phenomena of isomorphism, 
others from the difficulty of selecting the essential 
element in compound minerals, or those containing 
several bases, but more especially from the complex 



594 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

nature of siliceous minerals, in which the acid 
appears to have more influence than the base in de- 
termining their general physical properties, so that 
in most books, even in the recent works of Dana 
and ADS ted, they are grouped together as a distinct 
set. So long, however, as such classes are admitted, 
the system into which they enter, though possibly 
convenient for study or reference, must remain thus 
far artificial. In the following pages an attempt 
has been made to follow a classification strictly che- 
mical, principally according to a scheme suggested 
in the last part of Professor Dana's work, in which 
minerals are proposed to be arranged according to 
the elementary bodies principally entering into their 
composition, salts being placed with their metallic 
bases. It is perfectly impossible within such a nar- 
row compass to do more than indicate the heads of 
such a plan, the details requiring much working out, 
and possibly considerable modification. In each 
family a few of the chief genera are mentioned, as 
illustrations ; those of more importance have their 
more striking properties alluded to ; and, as che- 
mistry must for the future be an indispensable in- 
gredient in mineralogical analysis, the more simple 
and applicable general reactions of the compounds 
of each metal, or their action under the blow-pipe 
are noted ; the symbols, also, of each element, as now 
usually understood and employed, are appended for 
reference, and to enable the reader more easily to 
understand the formulae employed in most recent 
treatises on this subject. 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 595 

In the following arrangement the letter H signi- 
fies hardness, and the specific gravity is denoted by 

sp. gr. 

I. ORDER HYDKOGENEXIDES. 

Hydrogen, either pure or combined with other 
substances ; liquid or gaseous. 
1. FAMILY. Hydrogenides. Characters as in 
Order. Occur as 1, Pure Hydrogen ; gaseous, 
colourless, inflammable, sp. gr. 0*0694; escapes 
in volcanic districts, from coal beds and stag- 
nant pools ; 2, as Sulphuretted Hydrogen, 
or "Hydro-sulphuric acid m " gaseous, sp. gr. 
1*177, smelling like rotten eggs, contained in 
mineral springs or issuing in volcanic vicini- 
ties ; 3, as Water: liquid, sp. gr. 1., limpid, 
colourless, inodorous, tasteless when pure, or 
combined with various substances, as salts of 
sodium and magnesium in the sea, or with 
other compounds in mineral springs, which 
are variously denominated according to the 
temperature and the prevalent ingredient as 
cold or thermal, acidulous, alkaline, saline, 
sulphureous, siliceous, calcareous, or chaly- 
beate ; 4, as Hydrochloric or Muriatic acid, 
gaseous, sp. gr. 1*284, colourless, pungent, 
taste acid ; escaping from volcanic crevices ; 
5, as Phosphuretted - Hydrogen, gaseous, 
sp.gr. 1*761, odour alliaceous, taste bitter, 
often inflaming on coming in contact with 
atmospheric air, given off in churchyards 
and marshes, and popularly known as " Jack 



596 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

wi' the Lantern/' or " Will wi' the Wisp ; " 
6, as Light Carburetted-Hydrogen, gaseous, 
sp. gr. 0*5555, colourless, inflammable, odour 
empyreumetic, escaping from bituminous 
deposits, and known in coal-mines as " Fire- 
damp ;" and 7, as Olefiant-Gas, gaseous, 
colourless, inflammable, giving off much 
smoke, often accompanying the last-named 
in coal-mines, and entering into the compo- 
sition of " Fire-damp/' Symb. H. 

II. ORDER. CHRYSEXIDES. 

Metals of the gold series, either native or alloyed ; 
solid. 

1. FAMILY. Chry sides. Minerals consisting of, or 
containing principally, gold. Occur 1, native; 
H. 2'5-3, sp. gr. 19*3, in quartz in metamor- 
phic palaeozoic rocks, or in resulting tertiary 
alluvial or diluvial drifts, especially in Hun- 
gary, the Ural mountains, in Africa at Kor- 
dofan, Senegal, and Zanzibar, in some Asiatic 
islands, and in Japan and China, in Australia, 
in Brazil, Chili, Peru, Mexico, the United 
States, and in California ; 2, combined with 
Tellurium as " Graphic Gold ;" H. 1 -5-2, sp. 
gr. 5'73, in Transylvania ; 3, in the same 
locality with silver, antimony and tellurium 
as " Aurotellurite," soft, sp. gr. 8 ; 3, as Gold- 
Amalgam, united with mercury and silver, 
in Columbia ; 4, as Electrum combined with 
silver, in Siberia and Hungary. 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 597 

A rock supposed to contain gold is tested 
by a portion being powdered and washed in 
a shallow iron pan, upon which most of the 
gold will subside, this process is repeated 
until the principal impurities are carried off, 
when mercury is added, which forms an 
amalgam with the gold ; this is strained, to 
carry off any excess of quicksilver, and the 
remainder is expelled by the application of 
heat, leaving the pure gold. Gold is soluble 
only in Nitro-hydrochloric acid (aqua regia), 
from which it may be precipitated pure by 
sulphurous acid gas, and by a solution of 
sulphate of iron (green vitriol) ; as a Sul- 
phuret by sulphuretted-hydrogen gas ; or as 
Purple of Cassius, by solution of protochlo- 
ride of tin. Symb. Au. 

2. FAMILY. Platinides. Minerals consisting of, 

or containing principally, Platinum. Almost 
always combined with other precious metals; 
often in gold alluvial or diluvial washings ; 
H. 4~4'5 ; sp. gr. 173, or 21'5 when pure; 
resembling silver, but less lustrous ; soluble 
in nitro-hydrochloric acid, from which a so- 
lution of chloride of ammonium (sal-ammo- 
niac) throws down a yellow, insoluble com- 
pound. Symb. Pt. 

3. FAMILY. Palladiides. Minerals containing Pal- 

ladium. This metal occurs in Brazilian pla- 
tinum-ore, as small flattened grains, also in 
auriferous sand; H. 4*5-5; sp. gr. ITS 
Symb. Pd. 



598 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

4. FAMILY. Rhodiides. Minerals containing Rho- 

dium. Occurs in platinum-ore ; extremely 
insoluble, brittle ; sp. gr. 11. Symb. R. 

5. FAMILY. Rutheniides. Minerals containing 

Ruthenium. Occasionally present in pla- 
tinum-ore, also in " Iridosmine ;" when pure, 
brittle ; sp. gr. 8 '6. Symb. Ru. 

III. ORDER ARGYREXIDES. 

Metals of the silver series, either native, alloyed, 
or in combination with other substances-; solid or 
liquid. 

1. FAMILY. Argyrides. Minerals consisting of, 

or containing chiefly, silver. Occurs 1, native, 
either massive, or in cubical or octohedral 
crystals, H. 2*5-3, sp. gr. when pure, 10'51 ; 
2, in combination with sulphur, as " Silver 
Glance," H. 2-2-5, with antimony as " Anti- 
monial -Silver/' H. 3*5-4, or with both as 
"Miargyrite" and " Pyrargy rite/' H. 2-2*5, 
with bismuth as " Bismuth-Silver/' and in 
various other states. Found mostly in cal- 
careous-spar or quartz veins, in gneiss and 
early slate rocks. Silver is soluble in nitric 
acid, from which hydrochloric acid, or a so- 
luble chloride, as common salt, throws down 
a white insoluble chloride of silver. Symb. 

2. FAMILY. Hydrargyrides. Minerals consisting 

of, or containing chiefly, mercury. Occurs 1 , 
native, liquid, sp. gr. 13 - 545, in Carniola and 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 599 

at Almaden in Spain ; 2, united with silver 
as "Native Amalgam/' brittle, H. 3--3'5, sp. 
gr. 14 ; 3, combined with sulphur, as " Cinna- 
bar/' its most important ore, H. 2--2'5, sp. gr. 
8, in small red, six-sided prisms, massive, 
granular and steel-gray, or in fine red powder 
(" Native Vermilion"), mostly in slate rocks 
and also in coal formations in China and 
Japan, in Idria, and in Spain, in Brazil, Peru, 
Mexico, and California. Symb. Hg. 
3. FAMILY, Kuprides, Minerals consisting of, or 
containing principally, copper. Occurs 1, na- 
tive, in amorphous masses, or octohedral crys- 
tals, H. 2-5-3, sp. gr. 8'667, in most copper 
mines ; dissolves in nitric acid, giving off 
orange fumes of nitrous acid gas, the solution 
strikes a deep blue with ammonia ; 2, as 
Sulphuret, trimetric, dark-gray, H. 2 '5-3, 
sp. gr. 57, or "Copper-glance" hexagonal, 
dark-blue, sp. gr. 3-8, or " Indigo Copper" 
dimetric, brass-yellow, sp. gr. 4-2, or " Copper- 
pyrites," known from iron-pyrites by being 
able to be cut by a knife ; 3, as Oxide, mono- 
metric, red, brittle, H. 3'5-4, sp. gr. 5 - 99, or 
" Bed-Copper ;" 4, as Silicate, rhombohedral, 
emerald-green, transparent, H. 5, sp. gr. 3*278 
or " Dioptase ;" 5, as Carbonate, H. 3'5-4, in 
oblique prisms, azure, transparent, brittle, 
sp. gr. 3-7, or " Blue-Malachite," massive, bright 
green, sub-translucent or opaque, sp. gr. 3-9, or 
" Green-Malachite ;" 6, as Sulphate, triclinic, 



600 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

blue, sub- transparent, sp. gr. 2 -21, or " Blue- 
Vitriol, " and many other less important forms. 
Found in Siberia, at Fahlun in Sweden, in 
Cornwall, in Australia, and in various parts 
of America. Symb. Cu. 

4. FAMILY. Ammoniides. Minerals containing 

compounds of Ammonium. Occur 1, as Oxide 
or "Ammonia," in small quantities in the 
atmosphere, smell pungent ; sp. gr. - 0'589 ; 
2, as Chloride or "Sal-ammoniac/" as an 
efflorescence; H. = 1-5-2, sp. gr. = T52; 
whitish ; 3, as Sulphate of Ammonia or 
" Mascagnine/' about volcanoes ; 4, also as 
Phosphate, Bicarbonate, and combined with 
with Phosphate of Soda or " Salt of Phos- 
phorus \" compounds of Ammonium vola- 
tize with heat, when triturated with mois- 
tened Hydrate of Calcia (lime) ammonia is 
given off. Symb. Am. 

5. FAMILY. Natrides. Minerals containing com- 

pounds of Sodium. Occur 1, as Sulphate, or 
"Glauber-Salt," in right prisms, H. 1-5-2, 
sp. gr. 1-481, white, efflorescent, in thermal 
springs, &c. ; 2, with Sulphate of Lime, as 
" Glauberite," in oblique prisms, H. 2*5-3, 
sp. gr. 28, gray, brittle, with rock-salt ; 3, as 
Nitrate, or "Soda Nitre/' rhombohedral, 
H. l'5-2, sp. gr. 2*1, white, efflorescent, in 
Chili ; 4, as Chloride, or " Common Salt/' 
cubical, H. 2'5, sp. gr. 2'25, white, somewhat 
brittle and deliquescent, in the ocean, in some 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 601 

inland seas, in brine springs, or in beds, prin- 
cipally in New Ked-Sandstone ; 5, as Biborate, 
or "Borax/' in oblique prisms, H. 2-2'5, sp. gr. 
l'7l, grayish-blue, rather brittle, in Thibet, 
Peru, and Ceylon ; 6, as Carbonate, or " Na- 
tron/' the Nitre of Scripture, in rhombic octo- 
hedrons, H. 1-1 '5, sp. gr. 1*423, effervesces 
with acids, in Egypt ; and 7, as Sesquicar- 
bonate, or " Trona," in rhomboid prisms, H. 
2*5 3, sp. gr.2'11, gray, translucent, in Mara- 
caibo and at Fezzan. Salts of Soda tinge 
flame of a deep yellow colour. Symb. Na. 

6. FAMILY. Kaliides. Minerals containing com- 

pounds of Potassium. Occur as Sulphate, or 
" Aphthitalite/' trimetric, H. 2-3, sp. gr. 173, 
whitish, translucent, on Vesuvian lava ; 2, as 
Nitrate, or " Nitre/' in rhombic prisms, H. 2, 
sp. gr. 1*93, white, sub-transparent, brittle, 
deflagrescent, in crusts on the earth in various 
places ; 3, as Chloride or " Sylvine/' cubical, 
H. 2, sp. gr. 2, white, vitreous, on Vesuvius. 
Salts of potassa colour flame violet. Symb. K 

7. FAMILY. Lithiides. Minerals containing com- 

pounds of Lithium. Occur sparingly as 
Oxide in some Siliceous minerals, as " Lepi- 
dolite," "Petalite," " Spodumene," and "Li- 
thion-mica." Lithia and its salts give a red 
tinge to flame. Symb. Li. 

IV. OEDER MOLIBDEXIDES, 
Minerals containing metals of the lead series, in 
various states of combination ; solid. 



602 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

1. FAMILY. Molibdides. Minerals containing lead, 
either native or in combination. Occurs 1, 
native, monometric, H. 1-5, sp. gr. 11 -381 ; 
very rarely ; 2, as Sulphuret or " Galena," 
monometric, H. 2 '5, sp. gr. 7'5, colour and 
streak lead-gray, easily fused, frangible, in 
beds and veins in crystalline and uncrystalline 
rocks ; 3, as Oxide or " Minium/' pulverulent, 
in minute rhombic prisms ; sp. gr. 4 '6, in 
veins of galena and calamine ; 4, as Car- 
bonate or "Cerusite," in right rhombic 
prisms, H. 3-3 '5, sp. gr. 6 '4, lustre adaman- 
tine, colour white or gray, very brittle, in 
many lead mines ; 5, as Phosphate or "Pyro- 
morphite," in hexagonal prisms, H. 3-5-4, 
sp. gr. 7 ; colour green, yellow, or brown ; 
lustre resinous, brittle, in veins with other lead 
ores ; 6, also less frequently combined with 
selenium, tellurium, antimony, arsenic, va- 
nadic, chromic, molybdic, and tungstic acids. 
Metallic lead fuses at 612F., its soluble salts 
give a black precipitate with hydrosulphuric 
acid. Symb. Pb. 

2. FAMILY. Baryides. Minerals containing com- 
pounds of Barium. Occur 1, as Sulphate of 
Baryta or "Heavy-spar," tabular, H. 2 -5-3 '5, 
sp. gr. 4'7, white or grayish -blue, in metallic 
beds, or in distinct veins in secondary limp.- 
stone ; 2, as Carbonate or " Witherite," 
trimetric, in large masses, H. 3'5, sp. gr. 4'30, 
white, brittle, with lead ore, in coal formations. 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 603 

Salts of baryta tinge flame yellow, sulphuric 
acid throws down a heavy white precipitate 
with those which are soluble. Symb. Ba. 

3. FAMILY. Strontiides. Minerals containing com- 

pounds of Strontium. Occur, 1, as Sulphate 
of Strontia or " Celestine/' in right rhombic 
prisms, H. 3-3*5, sp. gr. 3'9, bluish-white, 
very brittle ; 2, as Carbonate or " Strontia- 
nite," trimetric, often fibrous or granular, 
H. 3*5-4, sp. gr. 3*6, greenish, brittle ; 3, 
combined with Baryta, as "Barystrontianite," 
in Orkney. Salts of strontia colour flame 
deep red, those which are soluble act with 
sulphuric acid like those of Baryta. Symb. Sr. 

4. FAMILY. Calciides. Minerals containing com- 

pounds of Calcium. Occur 1, as Sulphate of 
Calcia (lime) or "Gypsum/' in right rhombic 
prisms, sp. gr. 2*3, H. = T5 2 ; when tran- 
sparent it is Selenite, when massive Alabaster, 
when fibrous Satin-spar, and when an- 
hydrous, H. = 3 3*5, it is Anhydrite ; 2, as 
Carbonate, rhombohedral, sp. gr. 2*6, H. = 
2*5 3*5, when in transparent crystals it 
is Calcareous-spar or Iceland-spar; when 
massive, Limestone; when compact and finely 
crystallized, Marble; when bituminous, Stink- 
stone; when earthy, Chalk; when projecting 
from the roof, or on the floor of caverns, &c., 
Stalactites or Stalagmites; when encrusting 
Calcareous-tufa, and when in rhombic-prisms, 
H. = 3 5 4, it is Arragonite; 3, as Phosphate 

DD 2 



604 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

or "Apatite/' hexagonal, sp.gr. 3*1, H. = 5, 
greenish or bluish, brittle, in crystalline 
rocks ; 4, as Fluoride of Calcium or " Fluor- 
spar/' octahedral, sp.gr. 3-1, H. = 4, bright 
coloured, brittle, in veins intersecting gneiss, 
mica and clay slate, and some secondary 
rocks ; 5, as Silicate combined with magnesia, 
in oblique rhombic prisms, sp. gr. 3-1, H. = 
5-6; when dark coloured, it is Hornblende; 
with felspar, it is Greenstone; with "albite," 
Diorite; when fibrous, Asbestus or Amian- 
thus; with very fine fibres, Mountain-leather; 
when spongy and elastic, Mountain-cork 
Salts of calcia tinge flame brownish-red ; 
when soluble they throw down a white pre- 
cipitate with oxalate of ammonia. Symb. Ca. 
5. FAMILY. Magnesiides. Minerals containing 
compounds of Magnesium. Occur 1, rarely as 
Oxide or "Periclase," cubical and octohedral, 
sp. gr. 3-67, H = 6, grayish; 2, as Sulphate 
or " Epsomite/' in four-sided prisms, sp. gr. 
1 4 75, H. = 2-2, soluble, white, taste bitter, in 
mineral springs, as an efflorescence on rocks, 
&c. ; 3, as Carbonate or " Magnesite/' rhom- 
bohedral, sp. gr. 2-9, H. = 3-4, grayish, in 
magnesian rocks ; 4, with Carbonate of Cal- 
cmas "Dolomite/' or "Magnesian-limestone," 
rhombohedral, sp.gr. 2'9, H. = 3*5-4, generally 
whitish, brittle, often forming beds ; 5, as 
Borate or " Boracite," hemihedral, sp. gr. 2*9, 
H. = 7, whitish, pyro-electric, in beds of 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 605 

gypsum or salt; 6, as Silicate, 1, "Talc/ 7 
"Steatite" or "Soapstone," generally in 
foliated masses, sp. gr. 2 - 7, H. = 1 - 1 -5 , greenish, 
sectile, greasy, when the texture is somewhat 
granular, it is " French-chalk ; " 2, " Meers- 
chaum/' compact, H. = 2-2*5, grayish- white, 
dry and harsh, in alluvial deposits ; 3, " Ser- 
pentine/' trimetric, sp. gr. 2'2-2'5, H. = 3-4, 
greenish, sectile, often forming mountain 
masses ; 4, combined withlron as " Chrysolite/' 
trimetric, usually in small transparent grains, 
sp. gr. 3-3-3-5, H. = 6'5-7, greenish yellow, in 
basaltic rocks. Magnesian compounds if 
moistened with solution of nitrate of cobalt, 
and heated before the blow-pipe, afford a 
clear rose-red colour. Symb. Mg. 
6. FAMILY. Zincides. Minerals containing com- 
pounds of Zinc. Occur 1, as Sulphuret or 
"Zinc-blende," in rhomboidal -dodecahedrons, 
sp. gr. 4, H. = 3*5-4, yellowish or brownish, 
brittle, often with Galena; 2, as Oxide or 
"Red Zinc Ore/' hexagonal, in lamellar masses 
or grains, sp. gr. 5 -4, H. = 4-4'5, red, brittle, 
in iron ore ; 3, Silicate or "Electric-Calamine," 
trimetric, crystalline, fibrous or stalactitic, 
sp. gr. 3'4, H. = 4-5-5, whitish, brittle, pyro- 
electric, with zinc ores ; 4, as Carbonate or 
" Calamine," rhombohedral, sp. gr. 4-4*4, 
H. = 5, grayish, brittle, effervescent, in cal- 
careous rocks; 5, as Sulphate or "White- 
Vitriol," trimetric, in four-sided prisms, sp. gr. 



606 MANUAL OF NATUEAL HISTOEY. 

2, H. = 2-2-5, white, brittle, soluble, formed 
by the decomposition of Zinc blende. Zinc 
compounds form a clear glass with borax ; 
with soda or charcoal, they give a bluish 
flame; with cobalt solution, a green colour. 
Syrtib. Zn. 

7. FAMILY. Cadmiides. Minerals containing com- 

pounds of Cadmium, 1, as Sulphuret or 
" Greenockite," hexagonal, sp. gr. 4-8, H,=3-3'5, 
yellowish, nearly transparent, rare, in por- 
phyritic trap ; 2, as Ooride, with many ores of 
zinc. Compounds of Cadmium, when heated 
on charcoal, deposit a reddish-brown powder. 
Symb. Cd. 

8. FAMILY. Nickelides. Minerals containing com- 

pounds of Nickel. Occur 1, as Sulphur et or 
" Millerite," rhombohedral, sp. gr. 5-4, H. 
. - 3-3 '5, brass-yellow, brittle ; 2, as Arseni- 
uret or "Arsenical-Nickel," hexagonal, me- 
tallic, sp. gr. 7-4, H. == 5-5-5, reddish, brittle, 
with various metallic ores ; 3, as Arseniate 
or "Nickel-Ochre," pulverulent, soft, apple- 
green, with Copper-Nickel ; 4, with Sulphur 
and Arsenic, as " Nickel-glance," hemihe- 
dral, compact or lamellar, sp. gr. 6, H. = 5-5, 
whitish, with galena, quartz, &c. ; 5, with 
Sulphur and Bismuth, or " Bismuth-Nickel," 
in octohedrons and cubes, sp. gr. 5, H. -- 4-5, 
grayish, brittle, with quartz and copper py- 
rites. Oxide of Nickel forms a clear, yel- 
lowish glass with borax, becoming blue on 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 607 

the addition of nitre ; solutions of its salts 
are green. Symb. Ni. 

9. FAMILY. Cobaltides. Minerals containing com- 

pounds of Cobalt. Occur 1, as Sulphur et, or 
" Syepoorite," massive, sp. gr. 5-4, yellowish 
steel-gray, with magnetic pyrites at Syepoor ; 
2, with Sulphur and Arsenic, or " Cobalti- 
glance," hemihedral, sp. gr. 6-29, H. = 5'5, 
metallic, reddish, brittle, often with copper 
pyrites ; 3, as Arseniate, or " Cobalt-bloom/' 
'in oblique prisms, or botryoidal and fibrous, 
sp. gr. 2'9, H. = 2-2-5, reddish, sectile, with 
other cobalt ores. Oxide of cobalt forms 
with borax a deep blue glass ; solutions of 
the salts are bright red, when anhydrous they 
are blue. Symb. Co. 

10. FAMILY. Manganides. Minerals containing 

compounds of Manganese. Occur, 1 , rarely 
as Sulphuret or Arseniuret 2, as Oxide, 1, 
Anhydrous peroxide or "Pyrolusite," trime- 
tric, sp. g. 4-8, H. = 2-2-5, blackish, metallic ; 
2, Sesquioxide or " Hausmannite," dimetric, 
sp. gr. 4'7, H. = 5-5-5, sub-metallic, brownish- 
black ; 3, Hydrated Sesquioxide or " Man- 
ganite," trimetric, sp. gr. 4*3, H. = 4, iron- 
black, sub-metallic ; 3, combined with Baryta 
or " Psilomelane/' massive and botryoidal, 
sp. gr. 4-4, H. = 5-6, sub-metallic, brownish- 
black ; 4, with iron, cobalt, or copper, as 
"Wad," "Earthy Cobalt," or " Cupreous - 
Manganese," amorphous, sp. gr. 3-3'7, 



608 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

H. = 0'5-3'5, dull black; 5, also as Silicate, 
Carbonate, or Phosphate. Manganese com- 
pounds form with borax in the outer flame of 
the blovy-pipe a clear violet-red glass, which 
becomes colourless on being exposed to the 
inner flame ; with soda or platinum, the oxide 
gives a green colour. Symb. Mn. 
11. FAMILY. Siderides. Minerals containing iron 
or its compounds. Occur, 1, native, mono- 
metric, sp. gr. 7 '3-7*8, H. = 4-5, ductile, mag- 
netic, rarely in veins, more frequently in 
masses of meteoric origin on the surface ; 2, 
as Sulphuret, 1, Cubic-pyrites, monometric, 
cubical, sp. gr. 4'8-5, H. = 6-6'5, bronze-yel- 
low, brittle, strikes fire with steel, in rocks of 
all ages ; 2, White iron-pyrites, trimetric, in 
tabular crystals, sp. gr. 4'6-4'8, H. = 6-6*5, 
pale-yellow, brittle, in coal formations ; 3, 
Magnetic-pyrites, hexagonal, sp. gr. 4'4-47, 
H. 3*5 -4*5, reddish-bronze, brittle, magnetic, 
in fissures of crystalline rocks ; 3, as Arse- 
niuret or "Arsenical-pyrites," in rhombic 
prisms, sp. gr. 6'1, H. = 5-5-6, metallic, white, 
brittle, in crystalline rocks ; 4, as Oxide, 1 , 
Peroxide, "Specular-Iron" or "Red-Hsema- 
tite," rhombohedral, sp. gr. 4-5-5 '3, H. = 5'5- 
6 '5, metallic or earthy, steel-gray or red, in 
crystalline or secondary rocks ; 2, Hydrous- 
peroxide or " Brown-Haematite," stalactitic 
and botryoidal,or mammillary, or massive and 
earthy, sp. gr. 3 '6-4, H. = 5-5'5, sub-metallic 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 609 

or earthy, brown, in crystalline and second- 
ary rocks ; 3, " Magnetic Iron Ore/' octahe- 
dral or dodecahedral, sp. gr. 4'9-5'2, H. = 5'5- 
6*5, metallic or sub-metallic, iron-black, mag- 
netic ; 5, as Chromate, in octohedrons, sp. gr. 
4-3, H. = 5-5, sub- metallic, brown, sometimes 
magnetic, in serpentioe ; 6, with Silica, Mag- 
nesia and Alumina, as " Green-Earth '" 7, as 
Carbonate or " Spathic-Iron/' rhombohedral, 
sp. gr. 37, H. = 3-5-4-5, grayish, brittle, in 
gneiss, mica and clay-slate, and in coal strata ; 
8, as Sulphate or " Green Vitriol/' in oblique 
rhombic prisms, sp. gr. I '8, H. = 2, green, so- 
luble, taste inky, from decomposition of "Iron- 
pyrites ;" 9, as Phosphate or " Vivianite," in 
oblique prisms, sp. gr. 2-6, H. = 1-5-2, blue or 
green, sectile. Salts of protoxide of iron give 
a bluish-white precipitate with solution of 
ferrocyanide of potassium (prussiate of po- 
tassa), and a deep blue with the ferricyanide 
(red prussiate of potassa) ; salts of the per- 
oxide give a deep blue precipitate with the 
ferrocyanide ; with borax iron salts form a 
dark red glass in the oxidizing name, becom- 
ing yellow in the reducing flame. Symb. Fe. 
10. FAMILY. Ghromiides. Minerals containing 
compounds of chromium. Occur 1, as Sul- 
phuret or " Shepardite/' in meteoric stones, 
prismatic, H. = 4, brownish-black ; 2, as Hy- 
drous-Silicate or " Wolckonskoite," amor- 
phous, greenish, resinous, fragile ; 3, with 

D D 5 



610 MANUAL OF NATUKAL HISTOKY. 

silica and alumina as "Chrome ochre/' 
clayey, greenish. Oxide of chromium colours 
the emerald, and a variety of chrysoberl. 
Chromic solutions are green or violet, with 
borax a green glass is formed, becoming of a 
deeper shade when cool. Symb. Cr. 
11. FAMILY. - Stypteriides. Minerals containing 
compounds of Aluminium. Occur 1, as 
Oxide, " Sapphire/' " Corundum/' or " Eme- 
ry," rhombohedral, sometimes massive, sp. 
gr. 4, H. = 9, colour various, in crystalline 
rocks, river beds, &c. ; 2, as Hydrous- oxide 
or " Diaspore," trimetric, sp. gr. 3'4, H. = 6 
-6'5 ; grayish, very brittle ; 3, as Sulphate, 
in combination with sulphates of other metals, 
usually of potassa, soda, or magnesia, " Na- 
tive alum," octahedral, soluble, astringent ; 
4, as Phos2Jhate, with silica, calcia. copper, &c., 
or " Turquois," reniform, stalactitic or en- 
crusting, sp. gr. 2'6-2'8, H. -- 6, bluish-green, 
in Persia ; 5, as Hydrous-Silicate in nume- 
rous forms, as " Collyrite," " Halloysite," 
" Allophane," " Finite/' or combined with an 
alkali, as the " Zeolites," which swell before 
the blowpipe; 6, as Anhydrous -silicates, 
also various, as "Kyanite," " Andulusite /' 
with an alkali, forming the Felspars which oc- 
cur in granite, gneiss, mica-slate, porphyry, 
pumice, basalt, obsidian, &c. ; with silicates of 
calcia,oxides of iron and manganese, dodeca- 
hedral, or "Garnet," sp.gr. 3'5-4-3, H.=6'5-7'5, 



MANUAL OF NATUEAL HISTORY. 611 

colour various, in rhombic or hexagonal scales 
or plates, or " Mica /' 7, with silica, boracic 
acid, and various bases or "Tourmaline/' 
rhombohedral, sp. gr. 3 3 '3, H. = 7 7'5, 
generally dark-coloured, pyro-electric, in pri- 
mary rocks ; 8, as Fluosilieate or " Topaz " 
in right rhombic prisms, sp. gr. 3'4 3'6, 
H. = 8, yellow or blue, in cavities and veins 
of granite rocks ; 9, with silica, sulphuric 
acid, soda, calcia and oxide of iron, or 
" Lapis lazuli," or when powdered, " Ultra- 
marine/' in dodecahedrons, sp. gr. 2 '3 2-4, 
H. = 5'5, in granite or crystalline limestone; 
1 0, with magnesia or " Spinel/' octahedral, 
sp. gr. 3'5 4*9, H. = 8, colour shades of red, 
among granitic and micaceous debris. Alu- 
mina forms the chief part of all clays, and is 
the basis of the manufacture of porcelain. 
Compounds of alumina, if heated to redness 
before the blowpipe, then moistened with 
solution of protonitrate of cobalt, and again 
strongly heated, yield a sky-blue unfused 
mass, the colour becoming more distinct on 
cooling, and appearing violet by candle-light. 
Symb. Al. 

1 2. FAMILY. Glucinides. Minerals containing com- 
pounds of Glucinum. Occur 1, as Silicate, 
coloured with oxide of chromium or " Eme- 
rald/' or with oxide of iron or " Beryl/' in 
hexagonal prisms, sp. gr. 27, H. = 7*5 8, 
green or blue, brittle, in dolomite, granite 



612 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

and gneiss rocks ; 2, with alumina or " Chry- 
soberyl," in right rectangular prisms, sp. gr. 
3-5 3*8, H. = 8*5, yellowish-green, in alluvial 
fluviatile deposits in Brazil and Ceylon. Glu- 
cina is precipitated from its salts by pure 
potassa or soda ; it is soluble in a cold solu- 
tion of sesqui-carbonate of ammonia. Symb. 
G., sometimes Be. 

13. FAMILY. Zirconiides. Minerals containing 

compounds of Zirconium. Occur 1, as Sili- 
cate, or " Zircon " or " Hyacinth/' in square 
prisms, sp. gr. 4*5 4*7, H. = 7*5, red, brown, 
yellow, or gray, in fluviatile sand and allu- 
vial deposits in Ceylon, also in Syenite. Zir- 
conia is precipitated from solutions of its 
salts as an insoluble sub-sulphate on being 
boiled with sulphate of potassa. Symb. Zr. 

14. FAMILY. Noriides. Minerals containing com- 

pounds of Norium. Symb. Nr. 

15. FAMILY. Yttriides. Minerals containing com- 

pounds of Yttrium. Occur 1, as Silicate, or 
" Gadolinite," monoclinic, sp. gr. 4--4'5, H. 
=6'5 7, blackish, in Sweden; 2, as "Tan- 
talate " or " Yttrotantalite," not crystalline, 
brownish-black, sp. gr. 5 '3 =5*8, H. = 4'5 5 '5. 
Yttria is precipitated from solutions of its 
salts by ferrocyanide of potassium. Symb. Y. 

] 6. FAMILY. Erbiides. Minerals containing com- 
pounds of Erbium. Symb. Eb. 

17. FAMILY. Terbiides. Minerals containing com- 
pounds of Terbium. Symb. Tb. 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 613 

18. FAMILY. Didymiides. Minerals containing 

compounds of Didymium. Occurs with 
cerium in " Parisite," also in " Tschewki- 
nite/' Symb. D. 

19. FAMILY. Lanthaniides. Minerals containing 

compounds of Lanfchanium. Occur as Car- 
bonate or " Lanthanite," in thin 4-sided 
plates, H. =2'5--3, grayish, coating "cerite" 
in Sweden ; also in " Cerium-ochre/' in 
"Monazite," and in "Mosandrite." Symb. La. 

20. FAMILY. Ceriides. Minerals containing com- 

pounds of Cerium. Occur 1, as Silicate or 
"Cerite," in short 6-sided prisms, H. =5'5 ; 
sp. gr. 4'9 ; also in " Gadolinite," " Mosan- 
drite," "Muromontile," &c. Symb. Ce. 

V. ORDER. URANEXIDES. 

Minerals containing metals of the Uranium series, 
either native or in different states of composition ; 
solid. 

1. FAMILY. Uraniides. Minerals containing com- 

pounds of Uranium. Occur 1, as Oxide, or 
" Pitch-blende/' octahedral, H. = 5-5, sp. gr. 
= 67, black ; also in " Urinite," " Medjidite," 
" Liebigite," &c. Compounds of the peroxide 
afford permanent yellow colours. Symb. U. 

2. FAMILY. Columbiides. Minerals containing 

compounds of Columbium. Occur ], as Co- 
lumbic acid, with Yttrium in " Yttro-tanta- 
lite," H. = 4'5 5-5, greenish-black, or with 



614 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

iron in " Ferro-tantalite," H. 5 6 ; sp. gr. 
= 7'5 ; black, brittle. Symb. Ta. 

3. FAMILY. Niobiides. Minerals containing com- 

pounds of Niobium. Occur as Niobic acid 
in "Polycrase," also in "Niobite." Symb. 
Nb. 

4. FAMILY. Pelopiides. Minerals containing com- 

pounds of Pelopium. Occur as Pelopic acid 
in " Polycrase," also in " Columbite." Symb. 

PP. 

5. FAMILY. Ilmeniides. Minerals containing com- 

pounds of Ilmenium. Supposed to exist in 
"Samarskite." Symb. II. 

6. FAMILY. Kassiterides. Minerals containing Tin, 

either native, or in combination. Occur 1, 
pure or " Native Tin/' in grains with Siberian 
gold, sp. gr. 7'2 ; 2, as Binoxide or " Cas- 
siterite" or "Tin Ore," H. = 6'5, sp. gr. = 
6 '8, crystallised, massive, or in grains, 
brown or black ; 3, as Sulphuret or " Tin- 
pyrites," in cubes, H. 4 ; sp. gr. 4 '4, steel- 
gray. Oxide of tin before the blowpipe, 
with soda, yields metallic tin, and with borax 
an opal white enamel. Symb. Sn. 

7. FAMILY. Titaniides. Minerals containing Tita- 

nium, either native or in combination. Oc- 
cur 1, pure as " Native Titanium," in copper- 
red cubes, in Cornwall, H. = 7, sp. gr. = 5 '3 ; 
2, as Titanic acid or " Rutile," prismatic, 
H. = 6, sp. gr. = 4*2, reddish brown, also 
combined with oxide of iron or some other 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 615 

bases. Titanic acid if fused with an alkali 
is soluble in dilute hydrochloric acid, in 
which a solution of gall-nuts causes an orange 
red colour. Symb. Ti 

8. FAMILY. Tungstenides. Minerals containing 
principally compounds of Tungsten. Oc- 
cur 1, as Oxide or "Tungstie acid," with 
iron and manganese as " Wolfram/' trimetric, 
H. = 5, sp. gr. = 7'3, dark brown ; 2, with 
calcia (lime) as " Scheelite," in square octa- 
hedrons, H. = 4-5, sp. gr. = 6, white. Wolfram 
readily fuses before the blowpipe into a mag- 
netic globule studded with crystalline points. 
Symb. W. 

9. FAMILY. Molybdenides. Minerals principally 
composed of compounds of Molybdenum. 
Occur 1, as Oxide or " Molybdic-ochre," an 
earthy yellow powder, yielding a yellow glass 
with Microcosmic salt ; 2, as Molybdic-acid 
with lead or " Wulfenite," in square octo- 
hedrons, or very short prisms, H. = 2 -8, sp. 
gr. = 6'5, yellow; 3, as bisulphuret or 
" Molybdena," hexagonal, H. = 1 1*5, sp. 
gr. = 4-5, feel unctuous, lustre metallic, 
lead-gray. Symb. Mo. 

VI. ORDER. IRIDEXIDES. 

Minerals containing metals of the Iridium series. 
1. FAMILY. Iridiides. Minerals containing Iri- 
dium. Occur 1, alloyed with Osmium as 
" Iridosmine," H. = 6-7, sp. gr. = 19-21, 



616 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

light steel-gray; 2, with Platinum as 
" Platin-Iridium," in small grains, sp. gr. 
= 16-17, white. Fusible only before the 
oxy-hydrogen blowpipe. Solutions of its 
salts present varied colours. Symb. Ir. 

2. FAMILY. Osmiides. Minerals containing Os- 

mium. Occur with ores of Iridium, and 
Platinum, sp. gr. = 7. Fusible before the 
oxy-hydrogen blowpipe. Forms with oxy- 
gen a volatile acid, with a pungent smell 
resembling that of chlorine. Symb. Os. 

3. FAMILY. Vanadiides. Minerals containing com- 

pounds of Vanadium. Occur as Vanadic 
acid combined, 1, with lead or "Vanadinite," 
hexagonal, H. = 2*5 3, sp. gr. = 6'9, brown- 
ish-yellow ; 2, combined with iron or with 
copper. Dissolves in Nitro-hydrocliloric acid ; 
forms coloured solutions. Symb. V. 

4*. FAMILY. Telluriides. Minerals containing 
Tellurium, either native or in combination. 
Occur 1, pure as "Native Tellurium/' lamellar 
or granular, H. = 2 2'5, sp. gr. = 6'2, white; 
2, in combination with other metals as gold 
or " Graphic Tellurium/' prismatic, H.= 1/5-2, 
sp. gr. 5'7 8*2, gray; also with bismuth, 
silveTj and lead. Tellurium volatizes before 
the blowpipe, emitting no odour. Symb. Te. 

5. FAMILY. Bismuthides. Minerals containing 
Bismuth either native or variously combined. 
Occur 1, pure or "Native Bismuth," rhom- 
bohedral, H. = 2 2 '5, sp. gr. = 9 '7, reddish- 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 617 

white ; 2, as oxide with carbonate of iron or 
"Bismuth-ochre;" 3, as Sulphuret or "Bis- 
muth-glance/' in acicular crystals, H. 2 2'5, 
sp. gr. 6 '5, grayish, fusible in the flame of a 
candle ; 4, as Silicate or " Bismuth-blende/' 
Compounds of bismuth with carbonate of 
soda under ihereducing flame of the blowpipe 
yield brittle grains of bismuth. Symb. Bi. 

6. FAMILY. Stimmiides. Minerals containing 

Antimony either native or in combination. 
Occur ] , pure as " Native Antimony/' rhom- 
bohedral, H. = 3 3'.~, sp. gr. = 67, silver- 
white ; 2, as oxide or " White Antimony/' in 
small lamellar masses, H. = 2-5 3, sp. gr. = 
5-5, fuses in the flame of a candle ; 3, as 
Sulphuret or " Antimony-glance, in rhombic 
or six-sided prisms, H. = 2, sp. gr. = 4'5, lead- 
gray, volatizes before the blowpipe ; 3, as 
oxide and Sulphuret combined, or " Ked 
Antimony " (Kermes mineral), in red acicular 
crystals, H. = 1 1-5, sp. gr. 4'5, fuses on 
charcoal ; also with silver, lead, and arsenic. 
Compounds of antimony with carbonate of 
soda before the reducing flame of the blow- 
pipe yield metallic globules, which at the 
same time volatize. Symb. Sb. 

7. FAMILY. Arsenicides. Minerals containing 

Arsenic, either native or in combination. 
Occur 1, pure or "Native Arsenic/' rhombo- 
hedral, H. = 3 '5, sp. gr. = 5 '7, tin-white, 2, 
as oxide or "Arsenious acid/' in powder or 



618 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

small compact masses, H. To, sp. gr. 37, 
white ; 3, as Sulphuret or " Realgar," in 
small granular masses, H. = 1*5 2, sp. gr. = 
3 '7, red, also "Orpiment,"in lamellar masses, 
H. = 1*5 2, sp. gr. 3 '4, lemon-yellow. Ar- 
senical compounds before the blowpipe give 
off a very peculiar odour resembling garlic. 
Symb. As. 

8. FAMILY. Phosphorides. Minerals containing 

compounds of Phosphorus. Occurs combined 
with metals forming " Phosphurets," or as 
Phosphoric acid with metallic oxides forming 
phosphates, as "Phosphate of Calcia," or 
"Apatite/' also phosphates of magnesia, alu- 
mina, iron, lead, copper, &c. Symb. P. 

9. FAMILY. Nitrogenides. Mineral substances 

containing nitrogen. Occurs 1, pure in the 
waters of many springs, as at Bath, Chelten- 
ham, &c., also given off from the soil in some 
districts in the United States ; 2, combined 
with oxygen as "Nitric acid," forming with 
bases "Nitrates;" 3, mechanically mixed with 
oxygen, forming atmospheric air, gaseous, 
colourless, inodorous, sp. gr. ^-9722, other 
characters principally negative. Symb. N. 

VII. ORDER. ANTHKAKEXIDES. 

Minerals containing elementary substances of the 
carbon series. 

1. FAMILY. Anthrakides. Minerals composed of, 
or containing, Carbon. Occur 1, pure as 1, 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 619 

Diamond, octahedral or dodecahedral, H. = 
10, sp. gr. =3'5, white, or at times variously 
tinted ; found in beds of streams, with sand 
and quartz pebbles, often with gold and 
platinum ; 2, Mineral coal, H. = 1 2'5, sp. 
gr. = 1 -2 1 75, black or brown, opaque, 
brittle or sectile ; sometimes with a small 
proportion of silica, alumina, oxide of iron, or 
bitumen ; divided into bituminous and non- 
bituminous, the forming being the more 
abundant and valuable, comprising all the 
commercial varieties ; 3, as Carbonate of Iron 
or " Graphite/' or " Black Lead/' hexagonal, 
H. 1 2, sp. gr. 2 2 -3, dark steel-gray, 
sectile, greasy, soils paper, in gneiss, mica- 
slate, and primitive-limestone ; 4, combined 
with oxygen or "Carbonic acid/' sp. gr. 
1 *524, contained in many springs, and 
evolved from some volcanoes ; also with 
bases forming " Carbonates." Symb. C. 
2. FAMILY. Halicides. Minerals containing com- 
pounds of Silicon. Occur 1, with oxygen 
as "Silica/' rhombohedral, H. = 7, sp. gr. = 
2*6, forms three varieties, 1, the vitreous or 
"Quartz," or "Rock-crystal," when tinted 
purple by oxide of iron, it is "Amethyst/' 
when smoky-brown it is " Cairngorm-stone /' 
2, the sub-vitreous, or " Chalcedony," or 
" Flint," when coloured with oxide of iron 
it is "Carnelian," when variegated, "Agate," 
or "Onyx;" 3, the dull, or "Jasper," when 



620 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

green with minute red spots it is "Blood- 
stone '" silica is held in solution by the hot 
waters of the Geysers ; quartz is distin- 
guished by its hardness, infusibility, inso- 
lubility, and uncleavability ; 2, as Hydrate, 
or "Opal/' amorphous, H. = 5'5 6'5, sp. 
gr. = 2 2-21, variously tinted, frequently 
opalescent; 3, as Silicic acid, united with 
bases, forming " Silicates/' Symb. Si. 
3. FAMILY. Boronides. Minerals containing com- 
pounds of Boron. Occur 1, with oxygen as 
" Boracic acid/' in yellowish, pearly scales ; 
H. = 1; sp. gr. = 1*48; whitish; 2, united 
with bases forming borates. Boracic acid 
and borates, tinge flame green. , Symb. B. 

VIII. ORDER OXYGENEXIDES. 

Minerals containing elementary substances of the 
oxygen series. 

1. FAMILY. Oxygenides. Minerals containing prin- 

cipally compounds of oxygen. This the most 
abundant element in nature seldom, if ever, 
occurs pure. It unites with all the other 
elementary bodies, except Fluorine, forming 
oxides, which act the part of bases ; mecha- 
nically mixed with Nitrogen it is atmospheric 
air, of which it composes one-fifth ; with Hy- 
drogen it forms water sp. gr. = T1026, 
colourless, supports combustion. Symb. O. 

2. FAMILY. Theionides. Minerals containing Sul- 

phur, either pure, or in combination. Occur 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 621 

1, pure or "Native Sulphur/' massive, or in 
acute octahedral crystals, H. = 1-5 25, sp. 
gr. = 2-072, yellow, lustre resinous, brittle, 
found in volcanic regions, also in beds of 
gypsum ; 2, as binoxide or " Sulphurous acid/' 
gaseous, colourless, sp. gr. 2'222, destroys 
colour, evolved from active volcanoes ; 3, as 
hydrated teroxide or " Sulphuric acid/' liquid, 
colourless, extreme!} 7 acid, sp. gr. TS5 1-86, 
occurs in a diluted state in some volcanic 
districts. Symb. S. 

3. FAMILY. Seleniides. Minerals containing Sele- 
nium or its compounds. Occurs native in sub- 
metallic incrustations, grayish- or brownish- 
black, sp. gr. = 4-3, with metals it forms 
" Seleniurets." Compounds of this metalloid 
when heated, give off an odour resembling 
that of horse-radish. Symb. Se. 

4. FAMILY. Fluoriniides. Minerals containing 

chiefly compounds of Fluorine. Occur in com- 
bination with metals forming " Fluorides/' 
Symb. F. 

5. FAMILY. Chloriniides. Minerals containing 

principally compounds of Chlorine. Occur 
with Hydrogen as " Hydrochloric acid/' or 
with metals forming chlorides. Symb. CL 

6. FAMILY. Brominiides. Mineral substances con- 

taining principally compounds of Bromine. 
Occur with metals as " Bromides," in various 
waters, as in the Dead Sea, and in salt water. 
Symb. Br. 



622 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

7. FAMILY. lodiniides. Mineral substances con- 
taining mostly compounds of Iodine. Occur 
combined with, metals as " Iodides/' in some 
springs, but especially in the sea. Symb. I. 

IX. ORDER. RHETINEXIDES. 

Resins and other organic compounds. 

1. FAMILY Asphaltides. Mineral substances prin- 

cipally composed of bituminous compounds, 
contain Carbon and Hydrogen. Occur as 
Bitumen, Naptha, Petroleum, Asphalte, 
Mineral Oil, &c., issuing from rocks in coal 
formations, also in lakes, and on the shores 
of the Dead Sea. 

2. FAMILY. Electrides. Mineral substances prin- 

cipally composed of resinous compounds, con- 
tain Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen. Occur 
as Amber, Retinite, Fossil-copal, Mountain- 
tallow, Mellite, &c. 



MANUAL OF NATUKAL HISTOKY. 623 



PART IV. 



DIRECTIONS FOE COLLECTING AND PRESERVING OBJECTS OF NATURAL 
HISTORY. 

I. ZOOLOGY. 

THE following suggestions are offered with the view 
of affording to collectors and others, an insight into 
the different methods which may be adopted for pro- 
curing and preserving the various forms of animals 
which will probably be met with during their wan- 
derings ; as although, at times, good specimens 
have been obtained unexpectedly, or almost acci- 
dentally, yet a systematic plan of procedure will, 
undoubtedly, better reward the labours of the 
Naturalist, augment the chances of the traveller, and 
aid in securing to science valuable materials to be 
used in the elucidation of that great and marvellous 
scheme which Omnipotence and Omniscience have 
designed. 

The equipment of a travelling naturalist should 
consist of, 

1st. A rifle, a double-barrelled and a small single- 
barrelled gun, with spare nipples, &c., a good supply of 
percussion caps, the best powder in canisters, shot 
of different sizes (dust-shot, Nos. 8, 6, 4, 1, and 



624 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

swan-shot will prove most serviceable), some of 
Elley's wire cartridges, and balls for the rifle. 

2nd. An ordinary dissecting case will be found 
to contain the instruments necessary for the usual 
purposes of the collector, for skinning, &c. ; in addi- 
tion to which, one or two larger and stronger knives, 
similar to butchers' knives, will be required for large 
quadrupeds ; or, to mention the contents in detail, 
three or four scalpels, of different sizes ; a good strong 
knife for cleaning the heads of the larger quadru- 
peds, &c. ; three pairs of scissors, a moderately small 
short-bladed pair, a larger and stronger pair, and a 
pair with long blades ; two chain hooks, which will 
be found useful in skinning some specimens ; two 
forceps, a pair of round pliars, a pair of barber's 
curling-tongs for stripping the tails of quadrupeds 
(the mode of using which will be mentioned here^ 
after) ; one or two long quills to be cut as scoops, 
or one made of metal for removing the brains of 
animals ; the large knives previously mentioned ; a 
small hatchet, and a hone and strap for sharpening 
instruments. 

3rd. Preservative preparations compounded in 
the following manner, viz. : 

No. 1. Take of Prepared Chalk . . 31b. 

Tannic acid (Tannin) . 2 oz. 
Corrosive sublimate and 

Camphor, of each . 8 oz. 

These are to be well mixed together in a mortar, and 
then kept in glass bottles until required for use. 
No. 2. A solution of corrosive sublimate in alco- 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 625 

hol, in the proportion of a teaspoonful of the former 
to a pint of the latter, is also very good when em- 
ployed as a preservative for skins, and is particu- 
larly useful for applying to the bills, the bare skin 
about the head, and the feet of birds. Or, 
No. 3. Arsenical-paste, made thus : 

Take of Camphor . . . 3 oz. 

Powdered Arsenic . 1 Ib. 

White Soap . . . 1 Ib. 

Carbonate of Potassa . 6 oz. 

The soap should be cut into thin slices, put into 
an earthen crock, with a small quantity of water, 
placed over a gentle fire, and frequently agitated ; 
when it is dissolved add the carbonate of potassa, 
then remove the vessel from the fire and add the 
arsenic, at the same time stirring the whole, and 
lastly mix the camphor, previously well pounded, 
with the other ingredients. The paste should be of 
good consistence, and may be preserved in tin boxes 
for future use. 

The first preservative is that which we should use 
and would recommend. 

4th. A quantity of plaster of Paris should be 
provided for applying to stains and blood -spots on 
the plumage of birds. 

5th. A canvas knapsack. 

6th. Store- and pocket-boxes lined with cork for 
insects. The boxes made by Mr. Robert Downie, 
will be found as good as any. A number of these 
say eight might be placed in a strong outer case, 
the corners of which should be strengthened with 

EE 



626 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTOET. 

iron clamps, and the lid grooved to receive a fillet 
from the lower part, made for additional protection, 
and partitioned into spaces for the store-boxes to 
slide into. These cases should not be made incon- 
veniently large, as it would be better to have two or 
more of them of moderate dimensions, that they 
may be perfectly portable. 

7th. A plentiful supply of solid-headed pins, of 
all sizes, for insects, &c. 

8th. Nets and other implements for the capture 
of insects. The simplest is the hoop- net, consisting 
of a ring of strong wire, with a socket to fit on the 
end of a rod, which latter might, with advantage, 
have an additional piece provided with a socket, or a 
screw-ferrule, if preferred, to enable the collector to 
use a longer or shorter handle, as required. Three 
or more hoops, ten inches or a foot in diameter, 
might be adapted to the same rod, one hoop to have 
a bag-net of gauze twenty inches deep for catching 
insects on the wing, particularly Lcpidoptera ; an- 
other of cheese-cloth, fourteen inches deep, for sweep- 
ing, and for Coleoptera ; a third of muslin, of the 
same or even less depth, for obtaining aquatic insects ; 
and a fourth of fine net, to be used as a kind of 
landing-net in seeking for water insects, small fish, 
and crustaceans. The same rod might serve as a 
handle for the scoop and nets requisite for obtaining 
shells from the bottoms of pools and streams. 

The fly-net is another much used, and is perhaps 
the best for some purposes, particularly " mothing." 
In form it resembles that used by bat-fowlers, and 



MANUAL OF NATUKAL HISTORY. 627 

is composed of two light slender rods, five or six feet 
long, bent at the top, and connected by a piece of 
leather, which serves as a hinge ; on this frame-work 
is placed a net of gauze (green is perhaps the best 
colour) which extends to within about six inches of 
the lower extremity, and falls in a bag, to prevent 
the escape of any insect folded in it. 

Another instrument, the forceps, will prove very 
useful, particularly for the capture of Hymenoptera. 
The handles are somewhat like those of curling- 
irons, having at their tips a frame, which should be 
of brass ; over the frame is fastened a piece of gauze, 
strained tight, and round the rim should be sewn a 
piece of calico, or thin leather, as a protection to the 
gauze. A supply of gauze should be provided, to 
re-cover the frames when needed. 

A strong knife and a digger are requisite, for 
raising the bark of trees in searching for such in- 
sects as lurk there, and for exploring the burrows 
of those which inhabit subterranean retreats. 

For collecting - bottles, common wide -mouthed 
phials, fitted with corks, will be found to answer ; 
one should contain camphorated spirit, which does 
not injure some insects ; and in another, bruised 
laurel-leaves may be put, when they can be obtained ; 
or a collecting-bottle can be simply made thus : into 
the cork of the bottle tightly fix a small glass tube 
open at each end, containing a piece of sponge, the 
outer extremity of the tube to be fitted with a 
cork ; a few drops of chloroform, allowed, from time 
to time, to fall on the sponge, will speedily kill any 

EE2 



628 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

insects placed in the bottle. For Moths the chloro- 
form-bottle is almost indispensable, and a more than 
ordinary wide-mouthed one should be selected for 
the purpose. 

Add to these things, forceps, a pocket lens, a 
lantern with safety oil-cap and bull's-eye reflector 
for " mottling," a setting-needle, which may be made 
by forcing the blunt end of a common needle into 
a piece of wood ; a small and sharp-pointed pair of 
scissors for opening large insects, phials, chip boxes, 
braces made of slips of card-board, or, where they 
can be conveniently used, slips of glass, for extend- 
ing the wings of moths ; if the collector is for any 
time stationary, breeding-cages might be employed 
for rearing larvae and watching the transformation of 
such insects as may be procured in their early stages. 
A cage may be made for this purpose two feet in 
length, the same in height, and from eight inches to 
a foot in breadth ; the lower part, to the height of 
five or six inches, must be of wood, to contain earth 
for such larvae as bury themselves previously to 
their metamorphosis, and the upper part covered 
with gauze stretched over a frame. It may be di- 
vided into several compartments, each provided 
with a door. The entomologist's equipment will 
now only want the setting-box. This, especially in 
tropical countries, should be covered, to exclude de- 
structive foes, but at the same time so as to allow 
a current of air to pass through it and over the 
insects which are placed in it to dry. To accomplish 
this, a frame must be made eighteen inches long, 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 629 

fourteen inches high, and about the same in width, 
having a solid bottom and accurately fitting door 
opening in front ; the whole should be covered with 
wire-gauze, and the interior fitted with three or 
four sliding, corked setting-boards, including the 
bottom, for spreading out insects. By this means 
the specimens within will be protected from those 
pests of the Naturalist, the cock-roaches and other 
destructive insects, which would otherwise, in an 
incredibly short time, destroy the results of a long 
period of labour. 

9th. A strong iron-clamped chest, with the lid 
grooved to receive a fillet, and made to contain a 
number of thin and shallow boxes with lids simi- 
larly constructed, should be provided for the smaller 
and more delicate bird skins, while for the larger 
skins, similar chests without the small ones would be 
sufficient. A collection thus protected, though not 
so numerous in species, would prove far more valu- 
able than a more extensive one received in such a 
condition that little or no use could be made of it. 
Such disheartening instances are of too frequent 
occurrence. What was intended to be a noble col- 
lection, from being consigned to common packing- 
cases, has, after the lapse of a considerable interval, 
sometimes arrived from a distant country almost 
totally destroyed. 

10th. A good store of chip boxes, both round 
and oval, of various sizes, and nests of pill-boxes, 
should be provided for delicate shells, eggs, large 
Coleoptera, Crustaceans, Echinoderms, &c. 



630 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

llth. For procuring shells the collector should 
be furnished with one or two strong knives ; a 
hammer and chisel for those which dwell in rocks ; 
tin boxes and calico bags for specimens ; a large iron 
ladle perforated at the bottom, or a strong hoop 
with a shallow bag of wire-gauze, made with a 
socket to fit on the end of a rod, for examining the 
bottoms of streams for small shells ; a hoop net of 
coarse canvas for similar purposes ; and a kind of 
dredge to fit, by means of a socket, on the end of 
a pole or jointed handle, might be added for such 
species as lie imbedded in mud. 

12th Large-mouthed, stoppered glass jars fitted 
in cases for specimens to be preserved in spirits, or 
wide-mouthed pickle-jars, which when well corked 
and coated with cement, will be found very useful 
for the same purpose ; and a good supply of small 
stoppered bottles for Annelids, and other delicate 
objects, which should, as far as practicable, be pre- 
served separately. 

Lastly. One or two additional pairs of scissors 
might, with advantage, be added, also the following 
articles, viz., needles, thread, silk, twine of different 
sizes, a few brushes both of camelVhair and of bristle, 
card-board, coarse brown and thin white paper, 
calico, common muslin, bags of the two last named 
materials of different sizes for fish, &c. Chloroform 
for killing insects, a good supply of spirits, camphor, 
a quantity of alum, some pieces of cork, bungs ; and 
finally a quantity of tow and cotton, to be regulated 
by the destination of the collector. 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 631 

This equipment will of course require to be modi- 
fied, reduced, or augmented according to circum- 
stances and the locality fixed upon for exploration. 

Before entering into the details of the methods 
to be pursued in the preservation of the different 
groups, it may not be amiss to allude to sketching, 
the utility of which is undoubted, when, as often 
happens, some rare or new object met with is, from 
a variety of causes, not preservable. A Zoologi- 
cal sketch to be of service to the Naturalist, must 
be something more than the mere contour of the 
specimen ; it must contain the essential charac- 
teristics of the object ; or, in other words, those 
points which Zoologists make use of in denning an 
order or a species. Thus, in Mammals, the form and 
number of the teeth, and of the claws, toes, or hoofs, 
should be represented ; the form of the bill, position 
of the nostrils, length, size, and appearance of the 
feet and claws, form of the wings, &c., in Birds; and 
the parts of the mouth, form and size of the antenna, 
and of the legs of Insects. These will serve as ex- 
amples ; for with different classes, different characters 
must of course be selected, and to those already 
mentioned others might be added ; but with prac- 
tise the eye will learn to fix upon, and a little con- 
sideration will suggest, the important points to be 
attended to. 



632 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 



MAMMALIA. 

Here the rifle will be found especially service- 
able, as by it alone most of the large quadrupeds 
can be procured ; while the gun, loaded with large 
shot, will not be less so in procuring many of the 
smaller antelopes and deer ; a charge of shot being 
found to produce a greater shock at the moment 
than a rifle ball, and the creature may thus be 
secured before it has time to recover, otherwise the 
almost invariable impulse, when an animal finds 
itself wounded, is, to seek the seclusion of some 
retired spot, probably in dense cover, and thus be 
totally lost. A small gun with lighter shot will of 
course be required for the smaller species. In all 
cases natives must, if possible, be secured as guides, 
to afford information and to assist in procuring 
specimens. 

Every opportunity should be embraced of ac- 
quiring information relative to the several breeds 
of domestic cattle ; indeed, the vast group of Rumi- 
nants, Wild Antelopes, Deer, &c., are all well 
worthy of attention, many of their habits being 
but imperfectly understood. The range of species 
should, if possible, be ascertained, and the extent 
and kind of influence exerted by local conditions 
in producing varieties traced. Care should likewise 
be taken to observe the changes produced by age 
in individual species, and to note the development 
of the horns of deer at different periods of life. 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 633 

The Rodentia are another class well worthy of 
study, and any light thrown upon their habits and 
peculiarities will prove very serviceable. 

The Cttacea likewise should be carefully ob- 
served, and no opportunity omitted of taking accu- 
rate notes and drawings, and of preserving parts, or 
the whole, of any individuals met with, excepting, 
of course, common and well known species. 

The country to be visited will influence the col- 
lector's mode of procedure ; and it is advisable to 
endeavour to obtain information, and to seek for 
suggestions from competent authorities as to what 
particular localities afford, and what should be espe- 
cially observed. 

Skinning. First attend to wounds and staunch 
the flow of blood, if any, by introducing a plug of 
cotton, or otherwise absorb it. Suppose, for ex- 
ample, the animal to be a monkey, place it on its 
back with the head from you ; cleanse the mouth 
and put in some cotton or tow, to prevent blood or 
any moisture from flowing out ; separate the hairs 
down the middle of the belly to the right and the 
left, then make an incision from the sternum to the 
pubic arch, and if the skin be thin and delicate, 
let it be continued to near the arms ; and here it 
will be necessary to state, that as the process of 
skinning proceeds, dry plaster of Paris should be 
laid on the exposed muscle, to absorb any blood, 
and to render the stripping easier by prevent- 
ing the adhesion of the skin. Care must be taken 
not to cut through the abdominal muscles ; and 

E E 5 



634 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

we would also add, to prevent unpleasant con- 
sequences, that if the operator is performing on one 
of the weasel tribe, or any other animal pos- 
sessing mephitic glands about the posterior ex- 
tremity, great caution is requisite to avoid punc- 
turing these with the scalpel. When the incision 
has been made, let the skin be separated from the 
muscles of the belly on either side, far enough back 
tox expose the outer part of the thigh, then bend 
the leg, push it forward, and separate it at the knee- 
joint, or, if preferred, at its articulation with the 
pelvis ; this being accomplished on both sides, re- 
move the skin from the anus, being careful not to 
cut through too close to the anal orifice, dissect the 
skin back a short distance from the base of the 
tail, fasten a piece of string round that organ close 
to the rump, attach it to some fixed object, and 
with the curling-tongs before-mentioned, grasp the 
exposed part of the tail, pull with a steady strain 
and the skin will be pushed off, with perfect ease, to 
its apex. To strip the skin from the back is a sim- 
ple operation, and may frequently be done, as far as 
the shoulders, without the aid of the scalpel, which 
point being reached, expose the arms to the elbow- 
joint, where the separation may be made, or at the 
shoulder, according to inclination ; continue the 
process by drawing the skin over the head, being 
especially particular to cut through the ears close to 
the skull ; dissect carefully round the eyes, and 
avoid injuring the skin at the corners of the mouth ; 
proceed with caution as far as the nose ; it then only 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 635 

remains to separate the skull at its articulation with 
the neck, at the same time withdrawing the tongue. 
Clean the muscles from the skull, remove the eyes, and 
scoop out the brain through the occipital foramen, 
carefully preserving entire the base of the skull, 
as after the skin is mounted it may, perhaps, be 
removed for comparison. Now skin the legs down 
to the toes, though small animals will not require it 
farther than the feet ; remove the muscles, .apply 
the preservative to the bones, the skull, and the skin 
in general; wrap tow, or some other material round 
the bones of the legs, to compensate for the muscle 
taken away, and replace them as before ; pad the 
skull with tow where the muscle has been removed, 
fill the orbits with cotton, and return the skin over 
it ; turn the skin, and if the animal is not too large 
fill it out with some soft material, but carefully 
avoid unnatural distension ; sow up the opening, 
and the work will be nearly complete. 

It will be requisite, before putting the specimen 
aside to dry, to anoint the bare parts of the skin 
with the solution of corrosive sublimate, and to 
repeat it twice or thrice Attach a little ticket, 
with a number to the specimen, and against a cor- 
responding number in the note-book let all the 
particulars be placed ; viz., the colour of the exposed 
portions of the skin, the locality where obtained, 
habits, whether or not the skins are articles of .com- 
merce, &c. 

When animals are very large it will be necessary 
to cut the skin from the chin to the arms, and even 



636 MANUAL OF NATUKAL HISTORY. 

to the end of the tail, and likewise down the inside 
of each leg. In the case of horned quadrupeds, such 
as deer, antelopes, &c., the incision along the belly 
must be continued to the chin, in order to skin the 
head and remove the muscle from the skull. Ani- 
mals possessing peculiar tails, such as the beaver, 
will require to have a longitudinal cut made beneath 
to effect the skinning process. The ears of large 
quadrupeds, or of any animals which may have 
those organs much developed, should be skinned, 
and card-board substituted for the cartilage removed ; 
this is a difficult operation, but it ought to be done 
if for no other reason than to retain their natural 
form and appearance. 

It may frequently happen that means are wanting 
to preserve more than a part of an animal, par- 
ticularly of large ones ; in such cases the skulls, and 
if horned, the skulls and horns entire, accompanied 
with a full account of the entire dimensions, the 
probable age, colour of the hair, &c., will be found 
very useful. The horns of rhinoceri should accom- 
pany the skulls. The skulls of cetaceous animals 
should be secured, and if possible the entire skeleton. 
Directions for preparing skulls and bones for trans- 
port will be given under a separate heading. 

It will be requisite to scrape the skins of some 
animals, as for instance, the seals, after their removal 
from the carcase, and before applying the pre- 
servative, in order to remove the fat. 

For preserving the skins of large animals, a nearly 
saturated solution of alum, washed repeatedly over 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 637 

the inner surface will answer the purpose. A strong 
infusion of catechu is also very good. The skin 
should be spread out and hung up to dry, and when 
that has been properly effected, it may be rolled up 
and put away for transport ; but if that is not done 
at the time, a careful examination should be made 
before it is finally packed up, to ascertain if it has 
been attacked by insects, in which case the injured 
parts must be washed with the solution of corrosive- 
sublimate, or with turpentine. 

When, from want of means, an animal cannot be 
preserved, or, from its peculiar nature, its proper hue 
cannot be retained, which latter always happens 
with the Cetacea, an accurate drawing ought, if pos- 
sible, to be made of it in its fresh state. 

In skinning Bats it is not necessary, except in 
large species, to strip any part of the arms or legs. 
After skinning one of these animals, when the skin 
has been properly distended, the wings should be 
stretched out on a board with pins, and left to dry 
expanded ; this is much better than allowing them 
to dry folded, as the specimens pack equally well, 
and the necessity is obviated of softening them be- 
fore they are finally set up. 

Birds. The peculiar clothing of this class renders 
it of the highest importance that every precaution 
should be taken to prevent its being soiled, or its 
delicacy injured, both when procuring and when 
preserving the specimens. 

A double-barrelled gun will prove extremely ser- 
viceable, and, if requisite, the barrels may be loaded 



638 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

with shot of different sizes; but although it has 
been frequently recommended to kill small birds 
with dust shot, we would suggest the employment 
of a larger size, inasmuch as specimens shot with the 
former are often found, on inspection, to be exten- 
sively mutilated, the shafts of the large feathers 
being frequently split and broken, and other inju- 
ries done to the toes and tarsi, from the quantity of 
shot which strike the object, while with the latter a 
bird will often be killed by a single lead drop, and 
the laceration of the skin is of far less consequence 
than injury to the feathers. The early morning is the 
best time to procure specimens, and next to that the 
evening ; for at these periods the birds are in a 
greater state of activity, being busied in seeking 
their repast ; it is then, also, that their songs are 
chiefly heard. During the heat of the day, again, 
in Summer and in hot climates, they usually repair 
to quiet retreats, and are little seen. Crepuscular 
and nocturnal birds must, of course, be sought for 
after sun-set, when their time of activity commences. 
In all cases specimens which have been snared are 
preferable to those which ha,ve been shot, and the 
assistance of natives will generally be found very 
serviceable in this particular, from their knowledge 
of the haunts of different species, and the peculiari- 
ties of their habits. 

The collector should have a light box in which to 
deposit specimens procured ; and if a number of 
paper cones, of different sizes, be made of cartridge- 
paper, before starting, and kept in the game box, it 



MANUAL OF NATUEAL HISTORY. 039 

will save much time and trouble. When a bird has 
been shot, the flow of blood from the wound should 
be stopped by putting a little dry powder or a piece 
of cotton over it ; and if a wing be broken, a piece 
of soft paper should be placed between it and the 
body, to prevent injury to the plumage ; the bill 
should be opened, and a piece of cotton thrust into 
the mouth to absorb, and partly prevent the flow of, 
any moisture : the plumage should be put straight, 
and the wings closed on the sides, when the speci- 
men may be put into one of the paper cones and 
deposited in the collecting box. 

Skinning. It will first be necessary to attend to 
wounds, and prevent the escape of blood from them, 
by sprinkling a little plaster of Paris, or covering 
the place with cotton ; if an eye has been wounded, 
a piece of cotton should be applied, and a plug of 
cotton must also be put into the mouth ; a thread 
should now be passed by the aid of a needle through 
the nostrils, and tied beneath the lower mandible, 
from which a loop is then to be formed proportionate 
to the size of the bird and the length of its neck, 
which is to be used in returning the skin to its proper 
position on the completion of the operation of skin- 
ning. If the bird be large, of delicate plumage, and 
much blood has flowed from the wound, which is 
frequently the case with water birds, as for example, 
the gulls, it will be necessary before commencing the 
skinning to sponge the soiled feathers first with 
lukewarm water, then with water having a little 
alum in it, and afterwards to dry them with plaster 



640 MANUAL OF NATUKAL HISTORY. 

of Paris. Next, presuming the above directions 
have been attended to, place the bird on its back, 
with the head to the left, and if a small species, it is 
advisable to break the bones of the wings close to 
the shoulder ; separate the feathers down the breast, 
turning them on either side ; make an incision from 
the upper part of the sternum downwards to near 
the vent, but avoid cutting through the abdominal 
muscles ; dissect away the skin from the body on 
either side, which can generally be effected by raising 
the skin with the fingers or with forceps, and sepa- 
rating it from the muscle with the handle of the 
scalpel, thus avoiding the possibility of cutting the 
skin. As the skinning goes on, a little plaster of 
Paris, or other powder, should be shaken over the 
exposed muscle, to prevent the feathers from adhering 
to it, by which means the process is facilitated, while 
the plumage is at the same time protected from im- 
purities. When the thigh is exposed on one side, 
cut through the leg at the knee-joint, which, when 
the bird is not larger than a crow, can readily be 
done with scissors, then turn the bird round and 
proceed in like manner with the other side. When 
both legs are separated, continue to detach the skin 
backwards and downwards to the rump ; raise, with 
the left hand, the bird by the tail, holding close to 
the rump, bend the tail back and with the scissors 
or knife cut through the coccyx or bones of the tail, 
leaving a part adherent to the skin to keep the tail 
feathers firm. As it frequently happens that at this 
point of the operation some fcecal matter will escape, 



MANUAL OF NATUKAL HISTORY. 641 

it is better to prevent it by putting a piece of cotton 
into the rectum. The bird should now be suspended 
by the rump with a chain hook, and the stripping 
continued down to the wings, which may be sepa- 
rated from the body by cutting through the bone 
with scissors, except in large birds when they must 
be separated at the shoulder-joint ; skin the neck 
and the head beyond the eyes, taking especial care 
on arriving at the ears not to pierce the skin, and 
in dissecting round the eyes not to injure the orbits ; 
separate the head from the trunk at the first joint 
of the neck, at the same time draw out the tongue 
from the mouth and keep it in connexion with the 
trachea which should be removed entire and either 
dried or preserved in spirit. Scoop out the brain 
through the occipital foramen, and remove the eyes 
carefully, as the feathers of the head are frequently 
soiled by their bursting. The muscle should be 
removed from the base of the skull and from between 
the mandibles ; preservative must then be applied 
to all parts of the skull, after which a little tow 
ought to be thrust into the cavity, and some cotton 
into the orbits ; a thread somewhat longer than the 
body should now be fastened to the base of the 
skull, the use of which will be made known pre- 
sently. 

In large birds the wings should be skinned down 
to the elbow on the inside, and the bone separated 
at that joint, thence down to the wrist ; an opening 
ought to be made on the under side of the wing, 
the muscle removed, preservative applied to the 



642 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

bones, cotton inserted, and the skin sewed up again; 
and further, a thread should be attached to each 
wing at the point where the bones have been sepa- 
rated, in order that they may be tied to the proper 
width across the back when the skin has been 
turned. The legs are now to be skinned nearly to 
the top of the tarsi, the muscle removed, preserva- 
tive applied, and tow wound round the bones, when 
the legs may be drawn out naturally. Preservative 
must be applied to all parts of the skin, after which 
the process of returning the head through the neck 
is to be commenced by gently pushing the skull up, 
at the same time drawing the skin down with the 
fingers ; and when it has been brought back to the 
base of the skull, turning the body partly over, and 
letting it lie flat on the table ; then take the loop 
which is attached to the bill in one hand, place the 
other on the skin, and with a gentle strain draw 
the head out. Great caution and some skill are re- 
quired to pass the large skulls of some birds, as the 
Owls, through the neck Dress the feathers of the 
head with a long needle, and the cotton which re- 
placed the eyes should be loosened up, and drawn 
sufficiently far through the orbits to keep them of 
the natural size ; open the bill and pass some cotton 
into the mouth, to keep the chin and upper part of 
the throat properly distended ; and with a thread 
confine the mandibles for drying. Tie the wings at 
the proper width across the back ; pass the thread 
which was previously fastened to the lower part of 
the skull, with a needle, through the base of the 



MANUAL OF NATUEAL HISTOEY. 643 

tail, and draw the neck down to its proper length ; 
with some soft material fill out the skin to the 
proper size ; close the opening by bringing the 
edges together with a few stitches ; tie the feet 
together, and retain the wings in close contact with 
the body by a paper band. Apply some solution of 
corrosive-sublimate to the bill and feet, and when 
the skin is dry a specimen thus prepared is fit to be 
packed for transportation. 

The foregoing instructions apply to the ordinary 
birds ; but it will be necessary to allude to the 
methods to be pursued with peculiar species. 

Long-necked birds with large heads, such as the 
Flamingo. When half the neck has been skinned 
it should be cut across, and the remainder removed, 
and the skull exposed by an incision made in front 
of the neck from the throat, extending it sufficiently 
low down for the skinning to be effected without 
difficulty. It sometimes happens that the bird has 
a sort of crest, in which case a transverse cut may 
be made, if preferred, across the occiput, and the 
remaining portion of the neck taken away by first 
separating it from the skull. The incision down 
the neck is sometimes made on the side which is 
intended to be hid from view. The large skulls of 
some Parrots frequently oblige the operator to skin 
their necks by some such method ; and some of 
the Ducks and Geese likewise require it. 

Birds with large tarsi, as the Screamers. It is 
not only of importance to attend to the feet of such 
specimens, in order to prevent the loss of the epi- 



644 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

dermis, but it is also requisite to retain the size and 
shape of the tarsi which in those birds, form a very 
prominent character. To preserve them, an opening 
must be made down the back of the tarsis, and the 
tendrons, &c., removed; some preservative is then 
applied and the space filled up with cotton. The 
edges of the skin need not be sewn together, but if 
simply brought in contact, and the tarsi bandaged 
with broad tape until they are dry, it will retain 
its proper place and unsightly stitches be avoided. 

Birds with flesliy caruncles. Such species are 
numerous, and the caruncles vary much in form, so 
that the operator must exercise his judgment in pre- 
paring and stuffing them, of course endeavouring to 
keep the opening as much out of sight as possible. 
It will also be requisite to take accurate notes of the 
colour of the naked skin, which in life is often very 
intense, strongly contrasted and beautiful, but which 
rapidly fades after death. 

Birds with tumid nostrils, as Pigeons. As in 
this Order the nostrils form a prominent feature, care 
must be taken to preserve them of the proper size 
and form. Make an incision from beneath into the 
soft and tumid portion, and after applying a little 
preservative, fill it out with cotton. 

Birds with fat skins. Most water-birds, Petrels 
especially, have a quantity of very oily fat beneath 
the skin, which, without the greatest care, will 
seriously soil the feathers ; to avoid which, the olea- 
ginous matter must be absorbed as the skinning 
process proceeds by using plaster of Paris, or placing 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 645 

cotton, rag, or bibulous paper, so as to protect the 
plumage. When the body has been removed it is 
still requisite to take away as much as possible of 
the fat from the skin by scraping it off, and absorbing 
the remainder with plaster of Paris ; not only to 
preserve the feathers clean, but also to prevent the 
skin from becoming rotten. 

Birds which are clothed on the breast with very 
delicate and satin-like feathers, such as the Grebes, 
are frequently skinned from the back, the incision 
being made from below the shoulders to the rump. 
The advantage derived from this is, that the purity 
of the plumage on the breast can be better preserved, 
and the appearance of a seam, which it is difficult to 
conceal, avoided ; while the opening on the back is 
of less consequence, as there the seam can be better 
disguised by the difference in colour and arrange- 
ment of the feathers. 

Some time should elapse after a specimen has 
been killed before attempting to skin it ; but if 
from any cause it is found necessary to skin a bird 
immediately after death, which, from the rapidity of 
putrefaction, as well as from other causes, will some- 
times happen in very hot climates, care must be taken 
to injure as few as possible of the large vessels, and 
some cotton should be at hand to staunch the flow 
of blood. The blood will be found to flow freely 
from most water birds even at a considerable time 
after death, so that the same precautions are neces- 
sary. 

When the skins are dry they should be examined, 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

and, if found free from the attacks of insects, packed 
with camphor in the boxes intended to receive 
them. 

Long-necked birds are sometimes stowed with 
the neck folded down beneath one wing, which 
practice has been recommended by some ; but, if 
possible, it should be avoided, as some of the feathers 
dry in an unnatural position, which it is impossible 
afterwards properly to rectify. 

Notes should be made of the colour of the irides 
of the specimens procured, and of the bill and feet. 

The alimentary canal should be kept either dried 
and inflated or preserved in spirits, or an accurate 
sketch should be made. 

The sterna of the different birds skinned should 
likewise be kept ; the mode of preparing which will 
be given with the directions for bones and skeletons 
for transportation. 



REPTILES AND AMPHIBIANS. 

The assistance of the inhabitants of the places 
visited will, perhaps, be found of fully as much ser- 
vice in this as in any branch of Zoology, not only in 
obtaining specimens, but in furnishing native names, 
and making known the haunts of different species, 
many of which, especially some of the Amphibians, 
lurk in obscure places, and thus might be overlooked 
by the collector ; nor is this all, for information may 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 647 

be procured relating to those species which should 
be avoided in combat, and which should be captured 
with care. 

A very slight blow across the spine of a snake 
will sufficiently paralize it to stop its progress ; 
when secured, with a small and sharp-pointed pen- 
knife, or some such instrument, wound the spinal- 
cord immediately between the base of the skull and 
the first vertebrae, which, without injuring the spe- 
cimen, will instantly put an end to its power to 
escape or to do harm ; this can readily be managed, 
supposing the species to be a venomous one, by 
placing a stick on its head while the operation of 
pithing is performed. A little noose of fine copper 
wire fastened to the end of a rod may sometimes be 
serviceable for capturing specimens. 

All small species are best preserved in spirits, and 
it is only the larger ones which should be skinned. 
When a specimen is put into spirit, care should be 
taken to allow some of the fluid to get into the 
intestinal canal which can most certainly be effect- 
ed by injecting it into the mouth with a syringe; the 
neglect of this precaution often causes the loss of 
the epidermis about the lower part of the abdo- 
men, even when specimens are placed singly in strong 
spirit. When collecting for transportation, too many 
specimens should not be put together into one jar, 
as the quality of the spirit frequently becomes so 
deteriorated as to destroy its preservative properties. 

Skinning. Turtles may be prepared by sepa- 
rating the plastron from the carapace, which can 



648 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

be very readily done by cutting it through at the 
sides with a strong knife ; but for tortoises it will 
be necessary to use a saw, in order to separate one 
side, when the plastron may be elevated and forced 
from its connexion with the other side, where the 
bones unite, but before it is raised, let the skin 
around the legs, tail, and neck, be separated from it. 
When the specimen is opened all muscle and fat can 
be easily removed, and the neck, feet, &c., skinned 
as in other quadrupeds ; which being accomplished, 
and the preservative applied, these parts should be 
filled with cotton, to keep them distended to the 
natural size. The plastron may be confined to the 
carapace by a piece of twine tied round them, which 
will answer the purpose until the specimen is finally 



A l&zards may be opened and skinned like other 
quadrupeds, .but especial caution must be observed 
\^Dj skinning the tail, which operation is rendered ex- 
tremely difficult by the brittleness of that member ; 
and in such species as possess very long and slender 
tails it is better not to attempt it. When filling out 
the skin of such species as possess a gular pouch, 
attention should be paid to that part, so as to keep 
its proper size and form ; and when a specimen pos- 
sesses a dorsal or other crest, it will be well to keep 
it properly stretched with pins, upon cork, until it 
is dry, in order to avoid the necessity of relaxing 
it when the skin is set up. 

In filling out the skins of such species as have 
very depressed bodies, the operator should carefully 
preserve the natural form. 



MANUAL OF NATUEAL HISTORY. 649 

Snakes. In skinning snakes, an incision of three 
or four inches in length should be made on one side 
of the neck, commencing from behind the jaw ; the 
skin must be laid back and the head separated from 
the first cervical vertebra ; if a piece of twine be 
then made fast to the neck and tied to some fixed 
object, the skinning may be speedily accomplished, 
by drawing it back and dissecting with the scalpel a 
little beyond the vent, when it will be sometimes 
necessary to make another incision along the side of 
the tail, towards the tip, in order to skin it. The 
entire skeleton may be very easily preserved along 
with the skin, by dissecting the skull out instead of 
detaching it from the vertebrce. When the skin has 
been removed and preservative applied, it may be 
allowed to dry without being distended, and when 
perfectly dry it can be rolled up and packed away 
in small compass. 

Amphibians. Whenever it may be desirable to 
skin any large toads or frogs, the process can be 
effected as with other quadrupeds ; the skin, after 
the application of the preservative, should be filled 
with sand, or some such material, as it enables the 
operator to mould the form into the natural shape 
much better than if any other stuffing was used. 



FISHES. 

Whenever practicable, fish should be preserved in 
spirits, a quantity of which should be forced into 
the abdominal cavity of each specimen, before it is 



650 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

placed in the collecting-jar ; it is advisable also to 
enclose each individual in a calico or muslin bag, to 
prevent injury from rubbing against other objects. 
Delicate species ought not to be placed indiscrimi- 
nately with tougher kinds, but should be kept in 
small numbers by themselves, and be preserved in 
camphorated spirit. Each, when placed in the col- 
lecting-jar, should have a tally attached to it cor- 
responding with a number in the note-book, where 
all necessary particulars should be recorded. 

Skinning. Extreme caution is sometimes neces- 
sary in skinning fish to prevent the loss of scales ; 
those species, therefore, which have this covering 
loosely attached, should have a piece of tissue or 
other thin paper pasted over them, or be covered over 
with mucilage before the operation is commenced. 

Fish, such as the Perch, may be preserved either 
entire or as sections. For the former method, an 
opening is made along the abdomen extending 
the entire length of the fish, or along the lateral 
line ; in either case, the skin is to be turned back on 
both sides, the head separated from the vertebras, 
the fins cut through with scissors, and, when the 
whole body has been skinned, the fleshy portion and 
spine are to be divided at the tail ; the different parts 
of the head, where there is muscle, should then be 
attended to ; and although it is always difficult, 
and frequently impossible, to remove this, yet an 
opening in it may be made with a blunt scalpel, to 
enable some preservative to be applied, and more 
particularly in order that stuffing may be thrust in, 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 651 

to compensate for the contraction of the muscle in 
drying. After the application of the preservative, 
the skin should be filled out, the form of the fish 
being carefully preserved on one side, after which 
the opening may be sewn up. It is recommended 
that, when circumstances permit, the fins should 
be stretched with pins on cork, as they can seldom 
be so well expanded after having once been dried. 

To prepare sections of fish, the skin must be cut 
all round along the base of the fins on one side, 
separating it from the head, which, however, must 
be left entire ; that part of the skin is next to be 
taken away, and the body may then be removed in 
the usual manner. The proper form and convexity 
are to be given to the section by pinning it upon a 
thin piece of soft wood and stuffing it, at the same 
time expanding the fins. When the skin is dry, it 
may be removed from the board and packed. In 
preparing the skins of fish the gills should, as a ge- 
neral rule, be allowed to remain ; but when, from 
their size, they are likely to retain too much mois- 
ture, they ought to be carefully removed, and dried 
separately. The palatal bones and other parts of 
the mouth should never be mutilated. 

Sharks. The whole of the body and head must 
be removed in skinning these animals, leaving the 
jaws attached ; and as the skin is closely and firmly 
connected to the muscle it will be necessary to dis- 
sect with much caution ; if the skin be filled out, 
the natural form, especially of the head, should be 
accurately retained. 

FF 2 



652 MANUAL OF NATUEAL HISTORY. 

Rays. These should be opened on the ventral sur- 
face by a semilunar incision; in small specimens 
little more can or need be done than to remove the 
viscera, and detach the skin, by the handle of the 
scalpel, from the more muscular parts, to enable the 
operator to apply preservative and insert stuffing. 
More will be required in large specimens, but the 
skinning cannot be carried to the edge of the fins. 

Flat-fish should be preserved entire, the opening 
being made on the ventral edge and carried along 
the fin on the colourless side. 

Eels may be skinned in the same manner as 
snakes, an opening being made in the skin for a 
short distance along the neck, when the head may 
be separated and the body removed. The skin may 
be filled with sand to distend it, which will facili- 
tate the operation of moulding to the proper form, 
and, when dry, the sand may be allowed to fall out. 

Trunk-fishes. These being enveloped in a hard 
and solid covering, a different process is necessary. 
A portion of the external coat, of an oval form, 
must be cut out from the belly, by which means the 
viscera, &c., can be removed ; the vertebrse and 
muscle from the tail may generally also be taken 
away by the same opening, but if not, an incision 
should be made along the skin of the tail to effect 
it, in order that stuffing may be introduced, and 
thus prevent the shrinking of that part. It will 
not be necessary to do more than apply preservative 
to the inside of these fish, as they will retain their 
proper form when dry. 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 653 

Fish-skins should be packed in comparatively 
shallow boxes, to avoid too great pressure on the 
lower specimens, and each one should be covered 
with thin paper, and have the fins properly pro- 
tected with cotton. Tow, or some soft material, 
should be placed between the layers of skins, and 
camphor should be placed in the box. 



Directions for Collecting Bones and Skeletons. 

The preservation of bones and skeletons has been 
generally much neglected by collectors, and while 
the skins of peculiarly interesting animals are often 
very common, their skeletons are extremely rare, or 
altogether unknown ; and yet skulls, bones, and 
entire skeletons of animals can be, in most cases, 
prepared for transportation as readily as skins. 

Skulls may be prepared by removing the principal 
part of the muscle, and allowing the remainder to 
dry ; or, where convenient, they may be boiled first, 
which will greatly facilitate the cleaning process, 
and, when thoroughly dry, they may be separately 
wrapped in paper and packed ; small skulls, in cold 
climates, may be dried with the whole of the .muscle 
attached; but in all cases the brain should be re- 
moved. 

Separate bones may be prepared in the same way, 
and the long bones of large animals should be bored 
at each end to permit the escape of the medullary 
matter, but the holes should not be very large. 



654 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

Skeletons. To prepare the skeletons of large 
mammals, the muscle should be removed, and the 
bones boiled, or they may be dried at once, but the 
former method is preferable, though, perhaps, not 
often practicable ; in either case the bones should be 
separated, as, by so doing, they will not only dry 
more quickly, but can also be packed in smaller 
compass. In separating the bones, the cartilages of 
the ribs which are attached to the sternum should 
be separated with it, the disunion being made at the 
end of each rib. When a skeleton is boiled, the 
sternum and cartilages of the ribs should not be in- 
cluded ; the cartilages of the scapulae should likewise 
be kept above the water. 

The paddles of the Cetaceans should not be boiled, 
but the skin and fat be removed with the knife, and 
the bones, with their natural attachments and what- 
ever else may adhere to them, be allowed to remain 
until the final preparation. 

The skeletons of smaller animals may, in cold cli- 
mates, be very easily preserved by removing a few 
of the larger muscles and allowing the remainder to 
dry. In warm or temperate climates it will be 
necessary to dissect away more of the muscle before 
drying them. The viscera must always be removed. 

The skeletons of Birds may be prepared in a simi- 
lar way, and it will serve as an additional protection 
from injury if the primary wing feathers are allowed 
to remain attached, so that when the head is bent 
down along the side of the body, and the legs folded 
up, the wings may be closed and confined with a 



MANUAL OF NATUKAL HISTORY. 655 

piece of twine, while the quill feathers serve to en- 
close the whole within a small and safe package. It 
will be requisite to remove only the viscera and 
pectoral muscles of small species before drying them. 

The sterna of such birds as have been skinned 
may be preserved by removing the large pectoral 
muscles, and drying them. The furcula, clavicles, 
and scapulae, should be allowed to remain attached 
to each sternum ; all the rest can be separated. 

Reptiles and Amphibians may be prepared as the 
Mammalia, the large species having the bones sepa- 
rated, and either boiled or dried at once, and the 
small species having the chief part of the muscle 
removed and dried entire ; with some it will be 
sufficient to remove the viscera only, and then dry 
them. Turtles and tortoises may be preserved by 
removing the plastron from the carapace as directed 
for skinning, dissecting the muscle from the neck 
and extremities, and taking away the viscera and 
fat from the interior of the shell. Most of the small 
species of Reptiles, and particularly the Amphibians, 
which are intended for skeletons, will be best pre- 
served in spirits. 

Fish. The heads of fish may generally be pre- 
served by removing some of the muscle from the 
cheeks and drying them, or where rapid dessication 
can be effected, they may be dried entire. The whole 
fish may frequently be preserved for a skeleton by 
removing the viscera and drying it; or when it is too 
large, or, where, from other causes it cannot be dried 
with sufficient speed, the muscle may be removed 



656 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

from the back and the sides of the tail en masse, 
commencing by making an incission along each side 
of the dorsal fin, from the back part of the skull to 
the caudal fin, and continuing it round to the an- 
terior part of the anal fin, when the greater portion 
of the muscle can be dissected away on either side 
separately, taking particular care not to interfere 
with the ribs, or the styles which branch off from 
them, and which are sometimes continued along the 
vertebrae nearly to the end of the tail. In some 
fishes, such as the eels, it will not be so easy to 
remove the muscle, on account of the number of 
small bones which pierce it. Such specimens as are 
intended for skeletons and cannot be otherwise 
prepared, will be better preserved in spirits pro- 
vided it is of good quality, that too many specimens 
are not placed together in it, and especially that it may 
have free communication with the abdominal cavity, 
otherwise the ribs will lose their attachments to the 
vertebrae. Skeletons and bones preserved according 
to the foregoing instructions and carefully stowed 
in boxes with soft packing, can be as well prepared 
afterwards as fresh specimens, provided they are 
not allowed to get wet after being packed. 



MOLLUSKS. 

In collecting Hollusca the dredge is the important 
instrument, a single scrape of which, in deep water 
in an unknown portion of the bed of the sea, is 
worth hours searching along the strand. " Having 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTOEY. 657 

arrived at the fishing-ground, ascertain the depth of 
the water and the nature of the bottom with a 
sounding lead ; register these data, which are of the 
greatest importance, in a pocket journal ; drop 
the dredge overboard, allowing one-third more line 
than the ascertained depth, and drag the dredge 
along by sailing or rowing ; when full, let it be 
dragged into the boat. Let the Nudibranchiate- 
Mollusks, Holothurians, and other soft animals, de- 
mand your first attention ; make a sketch of all rare 
and curious forms, and wrap each specimen in a piece 
of tin-foil before putting it into a bottle of alcohol, 
or, if you desire to study their habits to advantage, 
place it in a bottle of sea- water. The remainder of 
the contents is thrown into a tub, and the dredge 
lowered whilst it is being sorted/' When the con- 
tents of the dredge are muddy, they must be placed 
in wire sieves and water poured on them till the shells 
remain visible at the bottom. The best grounds for 
dredging are those of sand, smooth stones, sandy 
mud, and sea- weed bottoms ; rocky and coral bottoms 
often tear the bag and break the line of the dredge. 
The greater the depth dredged, the more important 
the results ; and the objects secured, though few in 
number, will frequently be either new or very rare. 
The best description of dredge is that invented by 
Mr. Ball, of Dublin, the cost of which is only about 
seven shillings, its weight seven or eight pounds, 
and which may be stowed in a carpet bag of mode- 
rate size. In this dredge "the two scrapers are 
each twenty inches in length by two inches in 

FF 5 



658 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

breadth ; parallel with their lower edges, fourteen 
holes are pierced equidistant from each other, to 
receive the laces of the bag. These two plates, or 
scrapers, are joined by means of two cross-bars, so 
as to form an angle of about forty-five degrees with 
the plane of this position ; each bar is five inches in 
length by three-and-a-half-eighths in diameter. The 
arms are each sixteen inches in length by three 
eighths-and-a-half in diameter, and play upon the 
cross-bars by means of double swivel-joints. Their 
anterior extremities are beaten flat, so as to meet 
closely and vertically, and are pierced, for the recep- 
tion of the bolt, which at the same time passes 
through the extremities of what may be termed the 
bridle-ring, to which the rope is affixed/' By draw- 
ing the bolt and folding the arms inwards the 
dredge is readily stowed away. " In no case should 
the bag exceed eighteen inches in depth ; one may 
be best made of twine, with meshes half-an-inch 
apart, and another of cheese-cloth or serge for fine 
work/' The net may also be formed of a raw hide, 
with holes punched in it. The strength of the rope 
must be regulated by the depth at which the dredge is 
used, but in all cases a fourteen pound weight should 
be attached to the rope at the distance of six inches 
from the dredge. 

Small hand-nets made of cheese-cloth and fixed to 
an iron ring with a socket, for a walking stick, will 
be useful, or a circular tin spoon pierced with holes, 
will answer the same purpose, namely, for scraping 
the bottoms of pools for small delicate shells. 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 659 

Several moderate-sized sieves are also requisite for 
sifting mud and sand, and for washing the contents 
of the dredge. These may be four or five inches 
high, and the meshes of their brass or copper bot- 
toms should be one-tenth of an inch apart. These 
sieves should be filled, and the contents frequently 
washed by pouring water on them, or by repeated 
dipping in the sea, by attaching three strings to the 
sides, which are held in the hand. When the ship 
is at anchor " fishing " for Mollusks may be carried 
on by dropping a fine line with a small hook baited 
with a bit of flesh. In this manner Olives, Mar- 
ginellas, Harps, and Volutes may be taken. The 
same method may be adopted among rocks, and 
coral-banks, where the dredge cannot be used. The 
ship's anchor will sometimes bring up shells sticking 
to the mud on the palms. Where divers are em- 
ployed valuable species may often be obtained from 
the stones, sponges, madrepores, &c., they may 
bring up, and in the middle of which they are con- 
cealed. The stomachs of fishes of all descriptions 
should be carefully examined, many among them, 
especially the ground-feeders, being excellent Con- 
chologists. Acquaintance should be made with the 
fishermen of the place, who often procure rare shells 
in fine condition ; these men are often acquainted 
with the localities and habits of Hollusca, and must 
be questioned. 

The markets must be frequented and searched, 
many interesting species of Mollusks being used in 
different countries for food, lamps, and other econo- 



660 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

mical purposes. The Malays and Chinese collect 
great heaps of shells for the purpose of burning 
them into lime for mixing with their betel-nut and 
sirih-leaf for chewing. Fluviatile shells must be 
obtained by the spoon and the water-net, except in 
lakes, where the dredge may be employed. Many 
species are found adhering to the under surface of 
dead-floating leaves, or clinging to old trees and 
logs in the water, or crawling on the stones partially 
out of the water, or along the oozy banks ; while 
many again will be discovered partially or entirely 
buried in the mud. Land shells are taken in the 
greatest abundance after showers and early in the 
morning, or during the evening and night ; they 
are found crawling on the leaves of plants or on the 
the ground among damp moss and dead vegetable 
matter, under heaps of stones or loose bark of 
trees, or in holes of their trunks and fissures of the 
bark, or along pathways, and in fields, woods, and 
heaths. Many of the smaller kinds may be taken 
by sweeping the bushes with a net. 

The littoral species of Mollusca are found on the 
reefs and rocks which the sea leaves uncovered on 
the receding of the water, and where they hide under 
the stones until the tide returns. They are often 
most numerous after a storm ; stones must be turn- 
ed, the heaps of sea-weed raised and their roots 
examined, the little pools must be explored, fis- 
sures of rocks peeped into, and coral-masses broken 
and uprooted. Starfishes, and other Echinoderms 
and Sponges must be very carefully examined for 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 61 

parasitic species which bury themselves in the skin, 
and which may be detected by the tumours they 
produce, or by the holes they inhabit. 

The rocks must be keenly searched for Limpets 
and Chitons, which frequently assume the colour of 
their habitat, and require a practised eye to detect 
them ; they must be taken by surprise, and sud- 
denly lifted off by the point of a knife before they 
can fix themselves firmly. The internal parts of the 
Limpets can be simply removed, but the Chitons 
must be placed in fresh water, their inside carefully 
removed, and then strapped down upon thin strips 
of wood ; tied to layers of talc and placed in spirits 
is the very best mode, taking care, however, not to 
injure the gills or margins of the mantle.* When 
the sea bathes the roots of trees, as the Mangroves, 
which it does in many parts of tropical shores, 
Littorince, Ostrece, Neritince, and Auriculce, will 
be found on their trunks, and among the branches 
and roots that are out of the water. Bubbles of 
air will shew where shells are hid in the mud or 
sand, as will little hillocks, grooves, holes, and ver- 
micular-formed heaps of excrement. The bur- 
rowers in the sand must be turned out promptly 
by a digging implement of some sort, taking care 
not to crush the valves by the pressure of the soil 
arouod them. The Pholades, and other bivalves 
that live in calcareous rocks, may be detected by the 

* Chitons placed in salt-water on a piece of slate will adhere 
naturally, and may then be removed, and their backs held to the 
fire, when they will dry nicely in situ. 



662 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

holes and tubes they form ; the shells must be care- 
fully broken out, and, when a tube is attached, it 
must also be preserved with a portion of the 
rock 

Most Mollusca are killed by plunging them into 
hot water ; when, however, they are very delicate, 
the water should be added gradually. The animal, 
when dead, is removed with a pin or piece of crooked 
wire, or, if a bivalve, with the point of a knife. 
The operculum, when present, must be carefully 
wrapped up in paper and placed in the mouth of 
the shell ; the bivalves must be tied together with 
string or thread. The marine shells may be soaked 
in water before being put away, to extract the salt, 
but no cleaning process, or oiling of the specimens, 
should ever be attempted. 

Shells are best packed in shallow boxes of mode- 
rate size, so as to contain but a single layer, these 
shallow boxes may then be packed in bulk with 
saw-dust or shavings between them. In packing 
the boxes, cotton must be placed between the spe- 
cimens, and very fragile individuals must be placed 
separately in pill-boxes, and the pill-boxes stowed 
in the shallow boxes. When the animal is removed 
from a large shell, ifc is sufficiently valuable for pre- 
servation. If for anatomical purposes, it should be 
placed in spirits, to which a little ammonia has 
been added, to keep it soft ; if for zoological obser- 
vation, simple alcohol will answer the purpose. 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 663 



INSECTS. 

No spot should be overlooked by the collector in 
searcliing for Insects, as the places in which they 
lurk are as numerous and diversified as the forms 
of these creatures themselves. The thick wood and 
the sandy plain, the hedge-row, and the mouldering 
bank, the flowers which bedeck the fields and perfume 
the atmosphere, as well as the putrid carcase which 
fills the air with repulsive odours, must each be care- 
fully explored ; the bark of trees must be raised, and 
decaying timber broken up, in search of the species 
which inhabit such localities ; and old banks and 
sand-pits must be closely examined for the Hymenop- 
tera, which burrow in them. The Entomologist 
must sometimes patiently turn the stones on the 
shore ; at others, he must dabble in the dark still 
pool ; at all times and in all places he must be on 
the alert, for he may extract a Carrion-beetle from 
a filthy mass, or capture a Bee as it sips the nectar 
from the flowers ; he may net a Butterfly in the 
brilliant sunshine, or secure a Moth as it flits about 
his midnight lamp. 

When it can be made convenient, the collector 
will find it advantageous to prolong his visit in any 
place he may select for exploring, as by such means 
a better knowledge can be obtained of what the 
locality affords, and much information may be glean- 
ed relative to the habits of species ; if he reside 
for any length of time in a particular spot, he should 



664 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

not fail to employ a breeding-cage, not merely be- 
cause many rare species are seldom to be procured 
except in this way, but also on account of the light 
which the breeding of insects throws on their meta- 
morphoses ; all the observations made should be 
carefully recorded, and it will likewise prove of 
great service if drawings are taken of larvse and 
pupae, and of the plants on which the former feed. 

Preservation of Insects for transportation. In 
preserving Coleoptera for transport many may be 
kept in camphorated spirit ; but such as are hairy 
had better be pinned down and dried, the pin being 
always thrust through the right elytron, and if time 
permit, the legs and antennae should be placed in 
their natural positions at once ; but, if inconvenient, 
that can be left for a future time, when the speci- 
mens are reset for the cabinet. Large species of 
Coleoptera may be killed by immersion in hot water 
or spirit, or by chloroform, the legs and antennae 
can then be folded up, and the specimens dried and 
placed in separate card- or chip-boxes, with cotton to 
protect them from injury. All species large enough 
to be fastened with pins, can be so done and dried, 
but more time and space are requisite, and the speci- 
mens are more likely to receive injury ; very small 
species must be put on little slips of card with gum- 
tragacanth. 

Euplexoptera and Orthoptera may be preserved 
in spirits, but they are better set out at once and 
dried. The pin should be put through the thorax, 
the wings kept closed, and large species must be 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 665 

opened along the under side of the abdomen, the 
viscera must be removed, and the cavity filled with 
cotton. 

Neuroptera and Stegoptera should be set up at 
once and dried, the wings being kept in that posi- 
tion which is natural to the species when at rest ; 
the pin being inserted through the thorax. They 
are most easily killed by chloroform. Some may be 
better preserved in small glass tubes. 

Hymenoptera are preferably to be pinned through 
the thorax, and set at once with the wings ex- 
panded ; small species must be put on card. Chloro- 
form is the best mode of killing these insects, and 
when dead they should be removed from the col- 
lecting-bottle, and put into a dry box, otherwise the 
soft hairy covering of some species becomes much 
disfigured by moisture. 

Lepidoptera. The delicacy and beauty of this 
Order demand that the utmost care should be taken 
in preserving the specimens, as the slightest touch 
is sufficient to remove some of the scales which 
cover the wings, and at every such loss some colours 
disappear ; it is, therefore, necessary that some 
speedy method of killing them should be adopted, 
and the best and most effectual agent for Moths is 
chloroform, as it immediately stupifies them, prevents 
their fluttering, and quickly terminates their exist- 
ence ; Butterflies can be instantaneously killed by 
compressing the thorax. Specimens should be put 
out at once by being transfixed through the thorax, 
the wings being expanded and kept in that position 



666 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

until dry, by means of braces of card or slips of 
glass ; the latter are best when they can be conve- 
niently used, as their weight is sufficient to retain 
the wings in any position ; and the smoothness of 
the surface and transparency of the material, afford 
advantages which are not possessed by any other, 
so that the operator is enabled to see whether the 
wings are properly placed, and he can alter and ad- 
just them without removing the slips. Moths are 
best set by pinning them to cork, grooved so as to 
receive their bodies. Large-bodied species must be 
opened and filled with cotton, as described for the 
Orthoptera. 

Hemiptera should generally be set out at once 
and dried, the pin being thrust through the thorax, 
and the wings closed. Some may be preserved in 
spirits, others placed on card. 

Homoptera. Some of these may be preserved in 
spirits, but they are better when put out at once, a 
pin being run through the thorax, and the wings kept 
closed. Some are better kept in small glass tubes. 

Strepsiptera may be put on card or preserved in 
small tubes. 

Diptera should be preserved dry, the pin piercing 
the thorax, and the wings being expanded. Small 
species must be put upon card. 

Apkaniptera should be preserved in small glass 
tubes, or they may be put upon card. 

Caterpillars are best preserved in spirits ; but as 
the colours of the smooth-bodied ones are very eva- 
nescent, they should be noted at the time, or, as 
previously mentioned, drawings should be made. 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 667 

Whenever mould makes its appearance on insects 
preserved in boxes, they should be touched with 
camphorated spirit applied with a camers-hair pen- 
cil ; the same thing should be done when mites are 
observed, or they may be touched with a weak solu- 
tion of corrosive sublimate in alcohol. Camphor 
should always be kept in the boxes. 

Aiolopoda. The greater number of these will be 
best preserved in spirits, though some, such as the 
Sugar-lice, should be kept in small glass tubes. 

Arachnida. These are all best preserved inspirits. 

Crustacea and Epizoa. Some are best kept in 
spirits, but many may be preserved in a dry state, 
to effect which, the specimens must first be placed 
in fresh-water for two or three hours, to remove the 
salt, when they may be opened by removing the 
carapace in Brachyurous, and by separating the tail 
from the thorax in Macrourous Crustaceans, and 
taking out the soft parts, at the same time, the 
muscle from the large chelae of Crabs and Lobsters 
should be drawn out by means of a crooked wire, 
and if the specimens are very large, it should also 
be taken from the other legs ; a little preservative 
may then be applied, the separated parts reunited, 
and the specimens set aside to dry, after placing the 
legs and antennae in their proper positions. 

Cirrhopoda. Many of these are best kept in 
spirits, indeed some specimens of all species should 
be so preserved. To preserve them in a dry state, 
they must first be put into fresh water, as mentioned 
for the Crustaceans, the pedunculated species should 



668 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

then have the peduncle stuffed with cotton, to keep 
it of the natural size and form when dry, the valves 
should also be kept apart by the same material, and 
the arms of the animal allowed to dry protruded. 
Sessile species should be emptied of the soft parts of 
the animal, the shell filled with cotton, the opercular 
portions placed in their natural position on the cot- 
ton and fastened to it with gum, and when the 
specimens are in groups, the arms of some of the 
animals should appear through the openings. 

Specimens of Crustaceans and Cirrhopods ought 
to be packed very carefully in soft materials, par- 
ticularly the former, and, as far as practicable, they 
should be placed separately in chip-boxes, and have 
camphor put with them. In case of their becoming 
mouldy or infected with mites, they may be treated 
after the manner described for insects. 

Annelida. All the species are best preserved in 
spirits, and for those which are not liable to be cor- 
rugated by it, undiluted spirit is preferable. The 
specimens should, as far as possible, be kept separate 
in small bottles. 



RADIATA AND ACRITA. 

Star-fishes, Sea-urchins, Sea-cucumbers, and other 
Echinoderms are best preserved in camphorated 
spirits. If any specimens are required for subsequent 
dissection, they should be preserved in alcohol, to 
which a little ammonia has been added. 

The Brittle-stars, however, must be suddenly 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 669 

plunged into fresh-water to prevent them from throw- 
ing off their arms, and then transferred to the spirit ; 
to preserve them dry, they should be dipped for a 
moment in boiling-water, dried in a current of air 
and packed in paper. The Sea-urchins or Echinidce, 
after the inside has been carefully removed, pre- 
serv ing, however, the skeleton of the " lanthorn" or 
jaws, should be sewed up separately in muslin bags, 
to preserve their spines, previously having sub- 
mitted them, for several hours, to a bath of fresh- 
water. 

When parasites are found, such as Cavitary or 
Parenchymatous Entozoa, the part to which the 
animal is attached should be removed along with it, 
in order to preserve the mouth, hooks, or sucking 
disk by which it adheres. These kinds of animals 
will be found in the intestines, liver, &c., of many 
animals which are opened, and also adhering to the 
gills and noses of fish. They should all be carefully 
collected and placed in alcohol diluted with about 
a third of fresh- water. Coloured drawings should 
be made of Sea-nettles or Acalephce, as the beauty 
of their forms is never preserved after death, even in 
spirits; they must be placed in tumblers of sea- 
water, and drawn while in their living state. After 
placing them in the spirit it must frequently be 
changed after the specimens have remained in it for 
some time, as a very large amount of fluid exudes 
from their gelatinous bodies, and weakens its preserv- 
ative power. 

Fleshy-polyps, Sea-anemones, and similar forms 



670 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY, 

of invertebrate animals, must be preserved in diluted 
spirits. By gradually adding the alcohol to the sea- 
water containing the living specimens, the animals 
may die in an expanded state, when they should be 
transferred to some fresh spirit. The same thing 
may occur if a minute portion of corrosive sublimate 
is added to the water. 

To capture Infusorial-animalcules or minute phos- 
phorescent forms, and other microscopic creatures 
floating near the surface of the sea in calms, sheets 
of stout bibulous paper should be lowered, raised in 
a horizontal manner, and afterwards dried and pre- 
served in a book with the little invisible animals 
adherent to the papers. 

Sponges and horny and calcareous Corals, should 
be steeped for a considerable time in fresh-water, 
to extract the salt, and then dried in a current 
of air. 



II. PHYTOLOGY. 

As the collection and preservation of plants, and of 
vegetable products, are subjects of much importance 
to the travelling phytologist, it may be advantageous 
to insert for his use some brief directions when to 
gather, what to choose, and how to prepare, as the 
value, both scientific and intrinsic, of an herbarium 
depends far less on multiplicity of objects, than on 
the careful selection, and the state of perfection 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 



671 




of its contents. The instruments and apparatus 
required by the itinerant botanist are 
by no means so bulky as those of the 
zoologist, nor is the preparations of 
his specimens so complex or so tedi- 
ous. His equipment should com- 
prise, 

1. A digger, which is a kind of 
minature spade ; that usually em- 
ployed, is from seven to eight inches 
in length, the spud being two inches 
and-a-half long, the same in width at the upper 
part, but slightly narrowed across the bottom, and 
with the lower angles rounded. 

Another form which we would more particularly 
recommend, is the one here represented, which is 
more trowel-shaped, the spud being five inches long, 
and concave in front. These should be constructed 
of sufficient strength for digging 
out plants in hard or stony ground. 
It will be found convenient when 
using these instruments to have 
them attached to the wrist by means 
of a loop of cord passed through the 
handles. 

2. A Botanical-box or Vasculum ; 
this which is indispensable for long 
excursions, and particularly in hot 
climates, is made of tin and usually 
japanned. Two or three different sizes are required, 
the largest being twenty or twenty-one inches in 




672 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

length, from nineteen to twenty inches in circum- 
ference, and five inches in depth, of an oblong de- 
pressed form, convex externally, the curves of the 
opposite sides being similar. It should have a strong 
handle at one end, and open on the upper surface by 
a lid thirteen inches long, fastened, when shut, by 
means of two hooked wires sliding into tin sheaths. 
It is generally advantageous to have a small com- 
partment at one end, about an inch and-a-half in 
depth, in which labels may be kept ready for attach- 
ing to plants, or small specimens may be preserved 
separately. This case should have a couple of tin 
bands placed along one of the sides, to permit a 
leather strap to be passed through, for the purpose of 
of slinging it across the back. The next size which 
is useful for ordinary walks, or for short excursions, 
and is adapted for being carried in the hand, is fbur- 
fourteen inches long, five inches wide, and two and- 
a-half inches deep, and has only a handle at one end. 
The third should be small enough to go into the 
pocket, and the upper surface may be concave. 

3. A Field-book, which is merely a portable port- 
folio containing absorbent paper, and secured by a 
couple of straps. Flaps of oiled-silk or other thin 
water-proof material, should be attached to either 
end, and along the inner edge of one side, for the 
purpose of protecting the contents from wet. This 
is employed for preserving small and very delicate 
plants, or flowers which are deciduous or fade 
quickly, which may thus be spread out and pressed 
immediately on being gathered. 



MANUAL OF NATUEAL HISTORY. 



673 




4. An instrument, which will be better under- 
stood by the ac- 
companying outline 
than by description. 
The upper edge a, is 
sharp, and fitted for 
cutting specimens 
from the trunks or 
large branches of 
trees ; the curved 
edge b, is for cut- 
ting branches out 
of ordinary grasp ; 
and c, is a blunt 

curve for hooking them down for the sake of any 
particular part. It may be fitted to a long handle 
by a ferule, and secured by a thumb-screw d. 

5. A portable Bill-hook, with a hatchet edge 
along the back ; this may be carried in a curved 
scabbard, which can 
be attached by a but- 
ton or similar con- 
trivance to a belt, or 
otherwise slung at 

the side. The handle should be made of two pieces 
of rough leather secured to a central plate by rivets. 

6. Two or three good strong jack-knives, and a 
smaller sharp-pointed knife. 

7. A pocket-lens ; one with two glasses is prefer- 
able, and it is safer to carry it in a breast pocket, 
attached by a piece of ribbon or small cord to a 




674 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

button inside the pocket, so that when not in use 
the whole is quite out of the way. 

8. Paper. The kind chiefly required is " drying- 
paper/' which is now manufactured expressly for 
botanical purposes ; in Scotland, by Weir, Queen 
street, Glasgow ; and in England, by Bentall, whose 
London agent is Mr. Newman, No. 9, Devonshire- 
street, Bishopsgate. The most convenient size for 
general use is 18 inches long by 11 inches broad, 
which sells at 18s. a-ream. This should be kept in 
fasciculi of three sheets passed within each other, ex- 
cept for very succulent plants, when four will be ne- 
cessary ; also a small quantity of thin white paper, 
usually known as " Crown tea-paper," which is used 
for holding some delicate plants, before being placed 
in the " drying-paper/' In damp countries nothing 
answers better than coarse brown paper. For some 
Algce a very bibulous paper, such as ordinary blot- 
ting-paper, is preferable. A quantity of common 
writing-paper for cutting into small slips, for attach- 
ing to specimens, should likewise be provided. 

9. Pieces of thin unglazed Calico are frequently 
placed next to such plants as are apt to adhere to 
the drying-paper. 

10. A Press. For travelling purposes the most 
convenient method of pressing plants, is by placing 
the bundles of drying-paper containing them, be- 
tween two stout boards, which should be larger than 
the paper by a quarter of an inch each way, of an 
inch and-a-half in thickness, and each having two 
bars or batons of two inches in breadth, and five- 
eighths of an inch in depth, and rabbited, let into 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 675 

them across the grain, to prevent their warping. 
To equalize the pressure the heap must be divided 
by thinner boards, of from a quarter to three-eighths 
of an inch in thickness, inserted at intervals. On 
the top of the whole a weight should be placed, 
varying from 901bs. to ISOlbs. When stationary for 
a time, the most simple mode of applying pressure 
is by means of stout duck or canvass bags contain- 
ing sand, or fine gravel, which can be filled and 
emptied at pleasure ; but while moving, the best 
means of securing the parcel, and at the same press- 
ing the plants, is by a rope run twice round the 
boards and tightened by a rack-pin. 

11. A pair of botanical-forceps, or, where these 
cannot be procured, a pair of surgeon's forceps with 
rather fine points. 

12. A setting-needle, employed in spreading out 
delicate plants, and especially Algce, easily made by 
inserting a stout needle into a wooden handle : a 
porcupine's bristle answers this purpose well. 

] 3. A small saw will frequently be serviceable 
for cutting off portions of branches or sections of 
small trunks for specimens. 

14. A small drag for searching the bottoms of 
pools for fresh-water species ; this can be made 
by fastening four or five stout fish-hooks together, 
after the fashion of a boat's grapnel. 

15. Bottles and jars for preserving moist speci- 
mens. The bottles we would recommend as well 
adapted for such purposes are similar to those now 
made for containing pickles, &c., with a rim around 




676 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

the outer edge of the mouth, and which we have here 

figured. Inside the mouth 
of the bottle is a rim of 
cork about an inch in 
depth, and an eighth of 
an inch in thickness, into 
which is inserted a stout, 
solid, plug - shaped glass 
stopper, the top of which 

is flattened and made of 

~*- *" 

exactly the same diameter 

as the neck of the bottle. This, when put well in, is 
kept tight by means of the cork-rim, yet not so much 
as to prevent its being easily extracted. When full 
they may be covered over with moistened bladder, 
or better, by putting on a slip of thin sheet Vulcan- 
ized India-rubber, which is made to adhere hy the 
previous application of a little " Caoutchouc-varnish" 
along the edges, and further secured by a piece of 
twine. Bottles of this construction could be made 
with the mouths of any convenient size, and would 
form excellent travelling companions. 

1 6. A quantity of 'twine, some thread, and & pocket 
measuring -tape. 

1*7. One or two pairs of scissors. 

18. When it is intended to transmit living plants 
Ward's plant-cases, which are simply miniature 
green-houses, must be procured. 

General Directions for Dry Specimens. 
1. Selection of Specimens, &c. Whenever it is pos- 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 677 

sible, specimens should be gathered in fine weather. 
If not too large, the whole plant should be taken ; 
but if otherwise, attention should be paid to pre- 
serve all the characteristic parts. Hoots should be 
carefully washed : if the root-leaves or lower stem- 
leaves differ much from the upper leaves, the former 
should be kept with the root or lower portion of the 
stem. Flowers and fruit should, if practicable, both 
be retained ; and in Monoeciousand Dioecious plants 
both male and female flowers are requisite ; in some, 
as in many Salicacece, the young shoot, with its 
fully developed leaves, are desirable. Bad speci- 
mens should not be kept, even as duplicates, unless 
the plant is a rare one. In short, the rule should 
be, to bring away as much as can conveniently be 
managed, and in as perfect a condition as circum- 
stances will permit. 

2. Size and Carriage of Specimens. In general 
no specimens should exceed 16 inches in length by 
9-| inches in breadth ; when under this size, the root 
should be kept attached. Many Grasses, Sedges, and 
slender Ferns, which should be kept entire, may, 
when longer than this, be preserved by folding them 
once or twice backwards and forwards, according to 
their dimensions. In collecting Filices, two fronds 
are required to make one complete specimen. Where 
roots cannot be easily obtained, the stem should be 
separated below the insertion of the root-leaves. 
When plants are gathered they should be retained 
in the hand as short a time as possible, but should be 
immediately placed in the vasculum, a small slip of 



678 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

paper mentioning the locality being attached ; this 
is especially requisite in warm countries, as plants 
begin to fade very rapidly, and their value as speci- 
mens is thereby much deteriorated. If the heat is 
very great, it is advisable to line the inside of the 
collecting-box with large leaves, and from time to 
time to sprinkle a little water on its contents. De- 
ciduous flowers, or those with fugitive colours, should 
be placed at once in the " Field Book/' 

3. Drying. The different apparatus being placed 
at hand take a plant from the vasculum, and opening 
one of the fasciculi of drying-paper place it within the 
centre sheet, with the root or lower part downwards, 
and proceed to lay it out, not displaying the parts 
artificially, but, as far as can be, retaining its natural 
form and appearance. This must then be placed under 
pressure between the boards, and after every ten or 
twelve such parcels one of the thin boards should 
intervene. When plants are likely to adhere to the 
drying-paper they should be laid out in a sheet of tea- 
paper, which should then be placed within the ab- 
sorbent-paper. After an interval of from twelve 
hours to two days the plants should be removed 
into dry paper, and the damp sheets hung up to dry. 
This process must be repeated twice or thrice until 
the specimens are thoroughly dried, when they may 
be transferred, with a piece of paper mentioning all 
particulars, or better, with a number referring to 
an entry in the note-book, into a sheet of common 
gray paper, and be laid aside. 

4. Points of inquiry. These should comprehend 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 679 

the nature and size of the plant, its native name, the 
date, locality, soil, geological formation, elevation 
above the level of sea, its ascertained properties 
and uses, also the colour of the recent flowers, if 
odorous, &c. 

5. Rules for particular plants. Specimens col- 
lected in moist situations, or in damp weather, and 
water-plants should be freed from external moisture 
before being laid out. Succulent plants require 
long continued pressure. Sometimes they are scari- 
fied to facilitate the escape of the juices, at others 
they are plunged for a moment into hot water be- 
fore being pressed. Orchidacece should be laid out 
in warm paper and dried rapidly. Many Heaths 
and Pines, and other plants with fine rigid leaves 
require to be killed by being plunged for an instant 
into boiling water. Mosses should be selected in 
fructification ; they may be gathered in tufts, which, 
if dried by gentle pressure, can afterwards be sepa- 
rated, moistened, and again dried. Fleshy Fungi 
are best kept in spirits ; some of the smaller species 
may be occasionally dried entire, by having holes 
pierced in them by fine pins, and then being exposed 
to a warm dry atmosphere ; others, as many Agarici 
are prepared by taking a thin slice " from the centre, 
extending from the top of the pileus to the base of 
the stipe/' which portion is dried separately ; " the 
inner cellular portion of the pileus and stipe is then 
removed, and these parts are dried so as to give the 
form." Such Lichens as admit of pressure may be 
treated like mosses; when closely encrusting* rocks, 



680 MANUAL OF NATUEAL HISTORY. 

stones, old wood, trunks of trees, &c., a portion of 
the material on which they grow must be kept with 
them, and each specimen be separately wrapped up 
in soft paper. Minute specimens of Cryptogamia 
may be dried at once, and placed on white paper with 
a little gum-tragacanth mucilage. Marine Algce are 
collected along the sea-shore, especially after a storm, 
but are more abundantly procured by dredging, or 
by closely examining nets, fishing lines, &c., when 
hauled up ; fine varieties should be kept in a bottle 
of sea-water until prepared. Fresh-water Algce are 
obtained by searching ponds, lakes, streams, &c. Ma- 
rine species are most easily and most quickly pre- 
pared for transmission, by drying them quickly and 
thoroughly, without previously washing them, and 
then packing them loosely in bags or boxes. Small 
and delicate specimens must, however, be put up at 
once. This is effected by washing them first in salt 
water, next in a little fresh water, and then also in 
fresh water floating them one by one in a shallow- 
dish ; under the specimen a piece of white paper is 
now introduced, and carefully raised to the surface ; 
then, with any pointed instrument, display the 
various parts, remove it from the water, complete 
the setting out, place it between folds of bibulous 
paper, and proceed as for other plants ; a piece of 
calico laid over the specimens will prevent their 
sticking to the paper. Corallines should be roughly 
dried, like the larger sea- weeds. 

Parasitical Cryptogamic plants should be preserved 
adherent upon a portion of the substance on which 
they exist. 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 681 

Varieties should be always carefully kept, nor 
should monstrosities or abnormal deviations be dis- 
regarded. 

Directions for Moist Specimens. 

Flowers, leaves, many fruits, fleshy roots, various 
parasites, and some Fungi are at times preferably pre- 
served moist. For this purpose many fluids have at 
different periods been employed. None is more cer- 
tain in its effect than alcohol, but it labours under the 
disadvantage of usually changing the colours to a 
nearly uniform brown ; it is, nevertheless, the best 
preservative for subjects kept for minute dissection. 
Acetic acid, diluted to the density of 1008, answers 
well for a limited period, as does also sometimes a 
solution of kreosote. Professor Christison recom- 
mends a saturated solution of common salt, made 
with the aid of a boiling heat, as more generally 
applicable than any other antiseptic, and especially 
for purposes of transmission it is very serviceable. 
Pulpy fruits, such as those of the Citracece, must be 
immersed in diluted acetic acid. The bottles we 
have already alluded to will answer exceedingly 
well for such purposes, or, when the objects are 
larger, earthen jars, which should have first a cover 
or stopper of the same material, and then have a 
piece of thin vulcanized caoutchouc secured over all. 
In this manner large Orchids, flowering branches of 
Palms, or the large flowers of the gigantic Victoria 
regia, may be safely kept. From some trials we 
have lately made, turpentine seems to answer as a 
preservative for some delicate Fungi. 



682 MANUAL OF NATUEAL HISTORY. 

Directions for Living Plants. 

1. Entire Plants. These can generally be suc- 
cessfully transported only in "Wardian cases," in 
which they should be placed some days before being 
fastened down, and then well watered. Some small 
Cactuses, Aloes, Orchids, and various epiphytes may 
be transmitted by being removed by the roots, and 
packed in boxes with paper or straw. 

2. Cuttings. Certain plants only can be thus pro- 
pagated, such as many Cactuses, Aloes, Sponges, Fig- 
marigolds, Pine-apples, &c. Cuttings should be re- 
moved at an articulation, the wound dried in the 
sun, and they should then be packed in boxes with 
paper. 

3. Seeds and Fruits. Seeds should be gathered 
when quite ripe, and preserved, if possible, in the 
entire seed-vessel. Pine-cones should be tied round 
with a little thread to prevent the escape of the 
seeds from the bursting of the valves. Seeds should 
be made up in parcels, with brown or cartridge- 
paper, and kept in airy, well ventilated places. De 
Candolle advises seeds, gathered in a moist season or 
country, to be packed in charcoal. Large and oily 
seeds, as those of the Tea and Coffee plants, also 
those of various Laurels and Myrtles, must be placed 
in sandy earth ; boxes may be packed up contain- 
ing alternate layers of earth and seeds, pressed 
closely together. 

4. Bulbs, Tubers, and Rhizomes. These should 
be procured when the foliage has withered, be well 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 683 

dried, and then packed in boxes with dry moss, 
sand, peat-mould, or saw-dust. 

Directions for Vegetable Productions. 

1. Woods. Specimens should be procured when- 
ever practicable, especially of such as seem adapted 
for economical purposes. They should be portions 
of branches, or sections of trunks, and should not 
be too small. 

2. Gums and Resins. The plants whence pro- 
cured, specimens of different varieties, or in various 
stages, should be sought after, also noting native 
names, method of preparation or collection, mode of 
transmission, &c. 

3. Dye-stuffs. As for the last, carefully inquiring 
after such as are in use by natives, but are not com- 
mercial. 

4. Medicinal-agents present a wide field for in- 
vestigation, as the true sources of many drugs in 
every day use are still matters of obscurity, such are 
various Catechus and Kinos, Cassia-buds, Rhubarb, 
Socotrine-Aloes, Balsams of Peru and Tolu, many 
varieties of Cinchona, &c. 

6. General commercial, and other products. 
Examples of which are innumerable, and to be met 
with everywhere, yet many are of exceeding inte- 
rest and importance. 

6. Vegetable -poisons, especially those used by 
savage tribes for poisoning their spears and arrows, 
ought always to be investigated. Many most viru- 
lent substances are as yet but barely known ; one 



684 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

of these, the " Ordeal Bean/' of the old Calabar, the 
fruit of one of the Fabacece has been lately received 
and examined by Dr. Christison. 

All dried specimens should be packed with cam- 
phor, to keep off attacks of insects, and should be 
placed during transmission in cool, dry places. 
Living specimens require to be kept in dry, airy 
situations. When specimens cannot be brought 
away, or if they are likely to lose their natural form 
during transmission, accurate drawings should be 
made, the tints also of colours which alter much in 
drying, should be shaded in. When objects are too 
bulky, such as trunks and branches of large trees, 
their dimensions should be measured and carefully 
noted. 



Ill GEOLOGY AND MINERALOGY. 

The Geologist or Mineralogist, before setting forth 
on his travels, should furnish himself with the fol- 
lowing articles : 

1. Hammers. A large one, of about two pounds 
weight, compressed in form, both extremities wedge- 
shaped, the one end being sharp-edged longitudi- 
nally, and the other end truncate ; also a small one, 
of which the sharp edge may be horizontal, for 
trimming specimens. 

2. Iron chisels, of these three or four should be 
provided, about 7 inches in length, like those used 
by stone-cutters. 

3. A set of small boring instruments. 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 685 

4. A small pickaxe, for fossils. 

5. A stout jack-knife and a file, for ascertaining 
the streak and hardness. 

6. A pocket lens, with two or three glasses. 

7. A bag for carrying specimens, of stout, flexible 
leather, in shape resembling a game-bag. 

8. An accurately graduated compass. 

9. A klinometer, that of Prof. Henslow is one of 
the most simple. 

10. A portable level. 

1 1 . A mountain-barometer, or a sympiesometer. 

12. A magnet 

13. A chemical test-chest. These are now kept, 
ready-fitted, by some chemists and philosophical-in- 
strument dealers in the principal cities ; but for those 
who cannot procure such, or who are desirous of 
making one up themselves, we shall enumerate the 
various necessary apparatus and re-agents, which 
can easily, by a little ingenuity, be adapted to any 
portable chest. This we are the more inclined to 
do, as we would recommend a somewhat larger and 
more extended set than is usually prepared, so that 
the traveller may be enabled to make rough analyses 
of soils, or a general qualitative examination of 
mineral springs. 

I. APPARATUS. 

1. Small scales and weights ; 2, an agate pestle and mortar ; 3, a 
platinum crucible with ground cover ; 4, a platinum spoon ; 5, pla- 
tinum wire and holder ; 6, fine-pointed forceps tipped with platinum; 
7, small porcelain capsules ; 8, test-tubes (of German glass) ; 9, a 
pipette; 10, some glass rods: 11, a small graduated measure; 12, 



$86 MANUAL OF NATUEAL HISTORY. 

small filtering funnel; 13, filtering-paper; 14, a mouth blow-pipe ; 
15, a spirit lamp and wick; 16, density-beads; 17, charcoal, for sup- 
porting ores before the blow-pipe ; 18, pieces of copper and iron- 
wire. 

II. CHEMICAL- AGENTS. 

1, Carbonate of soda, as a flux ; 2, biborate of soda (borax), as a 
flux; 3, phosphate of soda and ammonia (microcosmic salt), as a 
flux; 4, nitrate of potassa (saltpetre), as an oxidizing agent; 5, 
borax-glass, for the determination of phosphoric acid; 6, solution of 
nitrate of cobalt, to distinguish alumina, magnesia, and oxide of 
zinc ; 7, oxide of copper, for determining small quantities of chlo- 
rine ; 8, fluoride of calcium (fluor-spar), to recognise lithia and bo- 
racic acid; 9, metallic lead; and 10, bone-ashes, for separating silver 
from some of its ores; 11, sulphuric acid, as a solvent for detecting 
baryta, strontia, and lead, &c.; 12, nitric acid, as a solvent, and an 
oxidizing agent; 13, hydrochloric (muriatic) acid, as a solvent, for 
detecting oxides of lead and silver, protoxide of mercury, free am- 
monia, &c. ; 14, ammonia, as an alkaline agent, and a solvent; 15, 
solution of sulphuret of ammonium (hydrosulphuret of ammonia), 
for distinguishing various solutions by precipitation ; 16, solution of 
nitrate of baryta, to detect sulphates ; 17, solution of oxalate of am- 
monia, to detect calcia (lime) ; 18, solution of nitrate of silver, to 
distinguish chlorides ; 16, solution of calcia (lime-water), to precipi- 
tate carbonates ; 20, solution of ferrocyanide of potassium, to detect 
oxide of copper and peroxide of iron; 21, solution of acetate of lead, 
to distinguish hydrosulphuric acid (sulphuretted-hydrogen) ; 22, 
alcohol; 23, test-papers, blue and red litmus, or turmeric and 
Georgina papers. 

These substances should all be kept in bottles, of 
which those containing fluids, or substances acted 
on by exposure, should have glass stoppers ; and 
those with acids or caustic alkalies should likewise 
be capped. Phials of from one to two ounces 
will supply abundant materials for numerous minia- 
ture analyses. This list comprises every thing re- 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 687 

quisite for a general examination of rocks and soils, 
or for testing mineral springs. A few other proper- 
ties of minerals may be attended to, as the streak, 
hardness, fusibility, colour, transparency, fracture, &c., 
but the study of their other physical and optical 
qualities must be reserved for the return home. 

For travelling purposes, collections of type mi- 
nerals for illustrating different properties, are now 
prepared. Among the more useful are sets exhibit- 
ing degrees of hardness, fusibility, and cleavage, 
which can be procured at a very reasonable rate from 
Mr. S. Highley, 32, Fleet-street, London, where 
may likewise be obtained models in wood or glass 
illustrative of crystallographic forms, and shewing 
the principal geometric shapes assumed by simple 
minerals. 

Isolated specimens of rocks are of little or no 
value, while, on the other hand, series of examples 
are highly instructive and important. It is of very 
great consequence that the locality be known, there- 
fore the collections of one day should not be allowed 
to interfere with those of the next, but should be 
carefully labelled and packed up on the same evening. 
Specimens should not be too small, those of rocks 
should be about two or three inches square, but 
when any gems or precious minerals are discovered, 
they should always be secured irrespective of size. 
With regard to fossil remains, however, the case is 
quite different, as every fragment should be secured, 
as most valuable to science, species and genera 
having been established on almost a single bone. 



688 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

Being in a state of decay should not preclude an 
attempt at least to bring away the parts, as by 
various processes, such as those mentioned by the 
late Dr. Mantell, in his "Medals of Creation/' re- 
newed stability and firmness may be given to bones 
which, when first discovered, will scarcely bear 
being touched. Not merely should actual remains 
of plants and animals be enquired for, but the marks 
of footsteps, &c., of the latter, or impressions of the 
former, should be sought after and carefully recorded, 
and when practicable, casts should be taken of these 
most interesting tokens. Thus, long before the dis- 
covery of the actual remains of the Labyrinthodon, 
its existence was inferred and demonstrated from an 
examination of its footsteps indelibly impressed on 
the New Red-Sandstone. 

All traces of man should be most carefully at- 
tended to, as being of more than ordinary in- 
terest. 

Mineralogical specimens should be wrapped, first 
in fine paper, then in cotton or tow, and lastly in 
stout paper. Mineral-waters should be preserved 
in bottles completely filled, and carefully covered to 
prevent the access of atmospheric air. Fossils should 
be packed with some soft material, attention being 
paid to keep together fragments of the same bone in 
one spot. 

Geology is a science the study of which may 
be commenced practically with but little previous 
reading. Mineralogy and Palaeontology, again, re- 
quire much patient consideration and enquiry, and for 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 689 

the successful cultivation of the former, considerable 
chemical and mathematical knowledge are neces- 
sary. For those who wish to pursue these subjects, 
the best works in English are, "LyelFs Principles of 
Geology/' Sir H. De la Beche's " How to observe ; 
Geology/' Ansted's " Elementary Course of Geo- 
logy, &c./' MantelFs " Medals of Creation/' Rich- 
ardson's " Geology/' Dana's "Mineralogy;" and for 
an acquaintance with the principles of chemical ana- 
lysis, Bullock's translation of Fresenius's " Chemical 
Analysis." 



IV. METEOROLOGY. 

Although we have been precluded by the length 
to which this volume has already extended, from 
treating of Meteorology somewhat in detail, still it 
may prove of service if we simply mention the pre- 
parations which ought to be made by any traveller 
desirous of attending to this very important branch 
of science, and give some indications of the chief 
points to which his attention should be directed. 
The meaning of the term is frequently misunder- 
stood, thereby frequently preventing its full value 
from being appreciated ; it is by many looked upon 
as merely the study of aerial curiosities, whereas, it 
strictly comprehends an enquiry into the nature, the 
changes, and the influences exerted by, or upon, our 
atmosphere ; including, amongst its varied topics, the 
winds, rain, hail, snow, and electrical phenomena, as 



690 MANUAL OF NATUKAL HISTOEY. 

well as all those appearances in the heavens, of more 
or less frequent occurrence, such as the rainbow, 
waterspout, halos," mock-suns by day, or the fleeting 
aurora by night. 

The instruments and apparatus which will be 
requisite for such enquiries, are, 

1. A Barometer. A portable one is the most 
generally useful, but where it can be managed it is 
advisable to carry also a standard one for comparison. 
The lately invented "Aneroid Barometer" is, for 
many purposes, very appropriate ; it bears carriage 
well, and is not injured by being shaken ; it is also 
extremely sensitive, more so than the mercurial in- 
strument ; we have ourselves frequently watched 
the index falling as a squall or heavy cloud was 
passing overhead, and rising immediately after- 
wards, indeed a good one will distinctly indicate the 
difference in the atmospherical pressure for every 
altitude of eight or ten feet ; we have seen the height 
of mountains varying from 3000 to 4000 feet, ascer- 
tained by its means, and its correctness afterwards 
checked by trigonometrical measurement. 

2. Thermometers. Of these, several should be 
provided. One, well tested and minutely graduated, 
should be carefully kept for comparison; metallic 
frames are preferable to wooden ones, as the latter 
warp. One thermometer, for ascertaining the tem- 
perature of fluids, should have the bulb projecting 
an inch and-a-half beyond the foot of the scale, and 
be carefully packed up in a soft padded case. For 
very cold climates alcohol must be used instead of 



MANUAL OF NATUEAL HISTORY. 691 

mercury. The most convenient register -thermo- 
meter is that of Sykes, in which the extremes of 
heat and cold are recorded by a single instrument. 

3. Hygrometer. One of the most delicate is the 
instrument usually known as the " Wet and dry 
bulb thermometer," which, being rather fragile, must 
be carried in a soft padded, carefully adapted case. 

4 A good Compass. 

Other apparatus, &c. may be added according to op- 
portunity or inclination, such as the "Anemometer/' 
for calculating the force of the wind ; the " Actino- 
meter/' for studying solar radiation; a "Rain-guage," 
for measuring the fall of rain ; a " Cyanometer/' for 
estimating the depth of blue colour of the skies; or, 
where circumstances permit, and previous acquaint- 
ance qualify, "Magnetical Instruments." 

The most important point to be attended to is 
daily general observation, carefully entering in the 
columns of a register particulars of the following 
items, viz. : Pressure, Temperature, Moisture, Wind 
(direction and force), Weather, Clouds, Rain, and 
other observations as may be necessary. The proper 
hours for daily observation are 3 A.M,, 9 A.M., 3 P.M., 
and 9 P.M. ; and, where it can be managed, two addi- 
tional hours should be added, namely, 6 A.M. and 
6 P.M. Occasional hourly observations should be 
made, for which purpose Sir J. Herschell recom- 
mends the 21st of each month to be appropriated, or 
at least in the months of March, June, September, 
and December. The great things, however, to be 
kept in view, are regularity and accuracy. Occa- 



692 MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

sional observations include notice of such pheno- 
mena as are not of regular occurrence, such as un- 
usual barometric disturbance, electric storms and 
other appearances, squalls, hurricanes, hail-storms, 
fogs, water-spouts, halos, mock-suns, zodiacal light, 
the aurora, shooting stars, meteors, &c. Should it 
be the lot of the traveller to encounter one of those 
terrible circular storms, named "Cyclones/' he should 
carefully note his position, the direction of wind, or 
any sudden changes which may occur, on which 
points much information may be obtained from the 
works of Colonel Reid or Mr. Piddiiigton. 



IN conclusion, there are several instruments and 
tools which, if provided, may very probably be found 
of extreme service to the travelling naturalist, among 
which we would particularly mention the " Micro- 
scope," as being nearly indispensable. Those we espe- 
cially recommend are made by Oberhause, of Paris, 
and they excel all others in portability, cheapness, 
and general efficiency. One magnifying from 30 to 
450 diameters maybe obtained for 5 in France, or 
about 6 in this country ; these contain three eye- 
pieces, two or three object-glasses, and a micrometer, 
which, with the stand, &c., are packed in a box 8f in. 
long, 5 in. broad, and 3J in. deep. It is a pity that 
this maker does not establish an agency in Britain, as 
his microscopes are now much employed here, and are 
excelled by none in the facility of their application, or 
the correctness of their revelations. Another very 



MANUAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 693 

essential addendum is a pocket-telescope, which is 
mostly conveniently and safely carried in a leather 
case, slung over the shoulder. A few simple carpen- 
ter's tools, such as a hammer, saw, chisel, gimlet, and 
a few nails, will often be found of great value. Among 
other miscellanea are balls of twine of different sizes, 
thread, a box of colours, stationery, and finally an 
apparatus for instantaneous light, which last will 
often add much to the comfort of the wanderer. The 
most certain plan is by a flint and steel with German, 
tinder, but we have ourselves found the matches 
made by R Bell, 1 6, Basing-lane, or by Bell and Black, 
15, Bow-lane, Cheapside, London, and which appear 
to be tipped with a composition containing chlorate 
of potassa, to resist damp well, and to be fit for ser- 
vice long after all other forms of Congreves and Lu- 
cifers had become quite useless. 



THE END. 



T. E. METCALF, Printer, 63, Snow Kill, London 



INDEX. 





Page 


Page 


ABRANCHIA 


. 77 


Acid, tungstic . 


. 615 


Acacia . 


. 432 


vanadic . 


. 616 


Acalephse . 5, 


321, 337, 379 


Acipenseridse 


. 93 


preserving 


.666 


Aconite 


. 456 


Acanthacese 


. 408 


Acontias 


. 63 


Acanthiidte 


. 242 


Acontiidse 


. ib. 


Acanthocephala 


. 360 


Acorus calamus 


. 503 


Acanthocephalidse 


. 361 


Acotyledonese . 


. 386 


Acanthodes 


285, 551 


Acotyledones . 


. ib. 


Acanthonyx 


. 283 


Acramphibrya . 


. 385 


Acanthopteri 


. 95 


Acrita . 


. 6, 366, 380 


Acanths 


. 408 


preserving 


. 665 


AcanthuridsB 


. 97 


Acrobrya 


385, 386 


Acaridse 


. 276 


Acroceridse 


. 256 


Acarus domesticus 


. 271 


Acrocinus 


. 174 


Acasta . 


. 302 


Acrogente 


. 386, 5 U 


Accipitres 


. 35 


Acrogeus 


386, 523, 52* 


diurni 


. ib. 


Acrolepis 


. 555 


nocturni 


. 36 


Actseon, fossil . 


. 566 


Acephalophora . 


. 378 


Acteonidse 


140, 556 


Aceracere . 


. 463 


Actinise 


. 353 


Achatininse 


. 114, 145 


Actiniidse 


. 355 


Acheta domestica 


. 209 


A ctinoceras 


. 552 


Achetidse 


. 211 


Actinozoa 


. 379 


Achillea millefolia 


. 404 


Aculeata 


. 227 


Achilleum . 


. 567 


Acusidse 


. 129 


Achrocordus 


. 67 


Adansonia digitata 


. 469 


Acid arsenious 


. 617 


Adapis . 


. 574 


boracic 


. 620 


Adder' s-Tongues 


. 525 


carbonic . 


. 619 


Adelarthrosomata 


. 278 


columbic . 


. 613 


Adelopneumona 


. 143 


hydrochloric 


595, 621 


Adelopneumons 


. ib. 


hydrocyanic 


430, 431 


Adephaga 


. 176 


hydrosulphuric 


. 595 


^Egeriidee 


. 237 


molybdic 


. 615 


^Egiceratacese . 


. 414 


muriatic . 


. 595 


j^Elodon 


. 565 


niobic 


. 614 


JEqiioreidse 


. 338 


nitric 


. 618 


-^Eshna liassina 


. 562 


,, pelopic 


. 614 


Jitheria 


. 114 


,, phosphoric 


. 618 


^Ethophyllum . 


. 561 


prussic 


. 430 


^Ethusa 


. 395 


silicic 


. 620 


Agamidse 


. 65 


sulphuric 


. 621 


Agaricacese 


. 533 


sulphurous 


. 621 


Agaricise 


. 567 


titanic 


. 614 


Agariciidse 


. 357 






H H 



696 



INDEX. 





Page 


I 


'age 


Agastria 


. 380 


Alope .... 


2K4 


Agate 


. 619 


Alopeciidse 


89 


Agathidiidse 


. 181 


Alpheidse . . 284, 


292 


Agave 


. 510 


Althsea 


437 


Agelenar 


. 270 


Altingiacese 


491 


Agonidse 


. 102 


Altingiads 


490 


Agrionidse 


. 214 


Alucitidse 


240 


Aiolobranchiata 


. 141 


Alum, native . 


610 


Aiolobranchs . 


. ib. 


Aluminium, mineral compounds 




Aiolopoda 


265, 378 


of,. 


610 


Ailopods 


263,265 378 


Alvis .... 


566 


,, preserving 


. 667 


Amalgam, native . 


599 


Aiolopygia 


. 331 


Amanita 


533 


Aiolopygians 


. ib. 


Amaranthacese . 


437 


Aizoons 


. 435 


Amaranths 


ib. 


Akropygia 


. 332 


Amaryllidese . .. . 


510 


Akropygians 


. ib. 


Amber .... 


622 


Alabaster 


. 603 


Amblyopsidse . ' . " 82, 


109 


Alaugiaceso 


. 402 


Amblypterus . *. 


555 


Alangiads 


- ib. 


Amblyuridse 


351 


Albatross 


. 34 


Amblyurus 


562 


Alcedinidse 


. 38 


Ambulatoria (Isopoda) 


296 


Alcidte . 


. 51 


(Orthoptera) 


210 


AlcippidsB 


303, 304 


Amentales ] . 


489 


Alcynoes 


. 339 


Amentals 


ib. 


Alcynoidre 


. 339 


American- Allspice 


432 


Alcyonians 


. 357 


Amethyst 


619 


Alcyonidiidse . 


343, 347 


Amianthus . . , 


604 


Alcyoniidse 


352, 357 


Amias 


94 


Alder . 


. 491 


Amiidae 


ib. 


black . 


. 426 


Ammonia . 


600 


Alepas minuta . 


. 303 


Ammoniac 


394 


parasita 


. ib. 


Ammoniides . 


600 


Alepisauridse 


. 99 


Ammonitidffi 117, 552, 560, 562, 


571 


Aleyrodidae 


. 248 


Amcebidse 


370 


Algales 


. 535 


Amomales 


507 


Algals . 


. ib. 


Amomals . . 


ib. 


Alkanet 


. 413 


Amomocarpums . 


579 


Alligatoridse 


. 71 


Amomum 


508 


Alligators 


56, 71 


Amorphozoa . . 6, 


380 


Alismacea? 


. 500 


Ampelida? 


41 


Alismales 


. ib. 


Ampelideee 


453 


Alismals 


. ib. 


Amphibia . . 4, 75, 


377 


Allophane 


. 610 


of Linnaeus . 


ib. 


AUotreta 


. 371 


Amphibians . 4, 72, 75, 


377 


Allotretans 


. ib. 


anguiform . 


77 


Alluvial silt 


. 581 


, gill-less 


ib. 


Almonds 


. 430 


, gill-lunged . 


76 


Aloe . 


. 502 


, long-tailed . 


ib. 


Aloe, American 


. 510 


, tail-less 


75 


Aloes-Woods . 


. 426 


, fossil 549, 583, 


584 



INDEX. 



697 





Page 


Page 


Amphibians, preserving 
Amphibola 


. 646 
. 115 


Anatinellida3 . . .150 
Anchusa tinctoria . . 41 3 


Amphibolans . 


. 146 


Ancient drift . . .580 


Amphibolida3 . 


. ib. 


Ancylobrachiata . .162 


Amphibrya 


. 385 


Ancyloceras . . 566, 571 


Amphigense 


. 386 


Ancylopoda . . .162 


Amphinomes . 


. 314 


Andira .... 432 


Amphinomida} . 


. ib. 


Andrseacea3 . . .527 


Amphioxidse . 


. Ill 


Andreas Scheuchzer, Fossil ske- 


Amphiperatidse 


. 132 


leton of . . . 583 


Amphipneurta . 


. 76 


Andrenidaa . . . 232 


Amphipoda 


285, 295 


Androctonus . . . 272 


Amphipods 


. 295 


Andulusite . . .610 


Amphiporina . 


. 320 


Anemometer . . . 691 


Amphiporines . . 


. ib. 


Anentera . . .369 


Amphisbsenia . 


. 71 


Anethum . . .395 


Amphisbsenians 


53,71 


Angel-Fishes . . .89 


Amphisbsenidse 


. ib. 


Angelica . . .394 


Amphisterea 


. 319 


Angostura-Bark . . 446 


Amphistereans . 


. ib. 


false . . 422 


Amphitherium 


. 564 


Anhydrite . . .603 


Amphitrites 


. 316 


Animal, definition of, . .2 


Amphitritidse . 


. ib. 


flowers . . 355 


Amphiumas 


. 77 


kingdom . . 1 


Amphiumida? . 


. ib. 


classification of the, 4, 377 


Amphorida? 


.282 


mosses . . 342 


Ampullarise 


. 114 


Animalcules, bell . . 370 


AmpullariidsQ . 


. 133 


boat . . 371 


Amygdalacese . 


. 430 


box . . ib. 


Amyridacese 


. 447 


breast . . ib. 


Amyxodon 


. 578 


capsule . . 370 


Anabas testudineus 


83, 281 


disk . . ib. 


Anabates 


. 585 


globe . .369 


Anabatida3 


. 99 


hackle . . 371 


Anablepidaa 


82, 107 


infusorial 367, 368 


Anacanthida3 . 


. 87 


loricated bell . 371 


Anacanthini 


. 104 


neck . . ib. 


apodes 


. 105 


parasitic . 369 


thoracici . 


. 104 


protean . .370 


Anacardiaceaj . 


. 446 


rolling . . 371 


Anacyclus Pyrethrum . 


. 404 


shield . . ib. 


Anadias 


. 59 


swan . . ib. 


Anadiidse 


. ib. 


thread . . 369 


Ananas . 


. 511 


wheel . .340 


Ananassa sativa 


. ib. 


wreath . . 370 


Ananchytes 


. 571 


Animals, acrite, 6, 363, 366, 380 


Anarrhichadidro 


. 97 


annulose, 5, 168, 170, 378 


Anas, fossil 


. 583 


molluscous, 5, 111,115,377 


Anatidaj 


. 50 


radiate, 5, 320, 323, 379 


Anatiferida} 


. 304 


vertebrate, 4, 6, 7, 377 


Auatinellas 


. 150 


Animaux apathiques . 379, 380 



698 



INDEX. 





Page 


1 


D age 


Animi, gum 


. 462 


Anthracotherium 


575 


Anise . 


. 395 


Anthrakexides . 


618 


AnisotomidsB . 


. 182 


Anthrakides 


ib. 


Annelida 


5, 313, 379 


Anthroceridae . 


237 


Annelids . 5, 


311. 313, 379 


Antiaris toxicaria ./ . , 


486 


antennate 


. 314 


Antidesmads . ..'. ' 


489 


apodal 


. 317 


Antimonial-silver 


598 


exantennate 


. 315 


Antimony-glance . 


617 


free . 


. 313 


., native , . ^ 


ib. 


helminthoid 


. 319 


red . 


ib. 


molluscoid 


. 318 


white . . 


ib. 


neinertoid 


. ib. 


Antiopas . . , 


141 


polypod 


. 313 


Antipathidae . . ,. 


358 


sedentary 


. 316 


Antliobrachiophora 


377 


suctorial 


. 317 


Ant-lions . ... 


218 


fossil 


. 548 


Ants, blind . , . , 


228 


preserving 


, .668 


stinging . 


ib. 


Annellidea 


. 379 


true . . , 


ib. 


Annulata . . 


. 379 


velvet . 


ib. 


Annulida , 


5, 379 


white 


215 


Annulosa , .5, 


170, 378, 379 


Apatite . . 604, 


618 


fossil 


. 562 


Apes . . 11 


,13 


Anodonta 


115, 569 


Aphaniptera . ... . , 


262 


Anomiidae 


.159 


Aphides . . .. 


245 


Anomopteris . 


.561 


Aphididse . , ,> , 


248 


Anomoura . 


. 289 


Aphodiidaa . . , 


188 


Anonaceae 


. 456 


Aphroditidaa . .,, ,; 


314 


Anopisthia . 


. 370 


Aphrodite hispida . . 


312 


Anopisthians . 


. ib. 


Aphrophora . , 


245 


Anoplognathidse 


. 190 


Aphthitalite . 


601 


Anoplotherium 


. 575 


Apiaceaa 


393 


Anoplura 


. 268 


Apidse . . 


232 


Anoura 


. 75 


Apiocrinus . 


572 


Anser, fossil 


. 585 


Apium .... 


394 


Anseres 


.50 


Aplacentalia . . 


28 


Anteaters 


12, 25 


Aplocerad . ^ . 


552 


Antedon 


321, 325 


Aplustridaa . .- * 


140 


Antedonidae 


. 334 


Aplysiidaa \ . . . 


139 


Antelopes 


11, 23 


Apocynaceae 


422 


Antelopinaa 


. 23 


Apoda . . . . , 


378 


Antennata (Annelida) 


. 314 


(amphibia) 


77 


Anthemis nobilis 


. 404 


(anuelida) 


317 


Antheridia 


. 524 


(holothuria) 


329 


Anthobranchiata 


. 140 


Apodidae . . 


298 


Anthobranchs . 


. ib. 


Aporobranchiata 


377 


Antholoma 


. 460 


(arachnida) 


279 


Anthophytse 


. 385 


Aporrhaidae 


131 


Anthoxanthum 


. 519 


Apostasiaceae . 


506 


Anthozoa 


. 379 


Apostasiads . 


ib, 


Anthribidae 


. 201 


Appendicularians . 165, 


167 


Anthracidse 


. 256 


Appendiculariidas 


167 



INDEX. 



699 





Page 


Page 


Apples . 


. 430 


Arions . . . . ib. 


Aprasias 


. 62 


Aristolochiaceae . . 391 


Aprasiidee 


. ib. 


Arks . . . .155 


Aptera . 


. 378 


cockle . . .156 


ApterygicUe 


. 48 


pearly . . . ib. 


Apuses . 


298, 555 


solen . . . ib. 


Araceae. 


. 515 


Armadillos . . 25, 582 


Arachnida . 5, 


273, 378 


Arnica montana . .404 


errantia 


. 275 


Arnotto . '" . . 475 


sedentaria 


. 274 


Aroidese . " . .516 


Arachnidans . 5, 269, 


273, 378 


Arragonite . . 587, 603 


aporobranchiate . 279 


Arrow-grasses . . . 500 


pulmonary 


. 273 


Arrow-roots . . . 507 


tracheary . 


. 276 


Arsenic, native " .617 


fossil 


. 555 


Arsenical-nickel . . 606 


Arachnides . 


. 378 


Arsenicides . . .617 


Arachnodermata .-'.' 


. 379 


ArtamidsD . . .37 


Arachnoida 


. 378 


Artemisia Abrotanum . . 404 


Arads . . .< 


. 515 


Absinthium . . ib. 


Arales . 


. 515 


Moxa . ., ib. 


Araliaceao * . 


. 393 


Artichoke . . . 405 


Araneidse j . 


. 274 


Articulata . . 5, 378 


Area, fossil . L . '' 


. 563 


(polyzoa) . . 344 


Arcellidae 


. 370 


Artocarpaceae . . .486 


Archaeomys * . : ' 


. 578 


Arvicolidse . . .26 


Archaeoniscus . 


. 569 


Aquifoliaceae . . . 423 


Archangelica 


. 394 


Aquilariaceas . . .426 


Archegonia . ?/'- 


. 524 


Asaphus . . 547, 552 


Archegosaurus . . 


. 555 


Asarabaca . . .391 


Architectonicidae 


. 130 


Asarales . . . ib. 


Arcidae . . * 


. 155 


Asarals . . . . ib. 


Arctiidae 


. 238 


Asbestus . . .604 


Arctium Lappa . . 


. 405 


Ascarididae . . 349, 351 


Ardeidae 


. 49 


Ascidia .... 378 


Ardisiads . . '" 


. 415 


Ascidians . . 164, 166 


Areca Catechu . . 


. 514 


compound . .166 


,, oleracea . 


. ib. 


,, social . . ib. 


Arecacese . 


. ib. 


Ascidian-polyps, 5, 342, 343, 379 


Arenicolidse 


. 316 


, alternate-celled, . 345 


Argalias 


. 59 


, bicellular . . 345 


Argaliidae 


. ib. 


cellular . 344, 346 


Arges . 


. 548 


, chain-like . . 344 


Argonautidae 


. 118 


club-celled . 345 


Argonauts 


. ib. 


, confervoid . 347 


Argulidae 


. 307 


, crested . . 348 


Argyrexides . . ' 


. 598 


fleshy . . 347 


Argyrides 


. 598 


, foliaceous . .346 


Argyroneta aquatica 


. 271 


, fresh-water . 348 


Aricians 


. 316 


, fringe-mouthed . 347 


Ariciidae 


. 316 


, honey-comb . 346 


Arionidse 


. 144 


jointed . . 344 




H H 3 



700 



INDEX. 





Page 




Page 


Ascidian-polyps, jointless 


. 345 


Atalants 


. 124, 143 


Up-mouthed 


. 344 


Atelecyclua 


. 284 


marine 


. ib. 


Atelespathese . 


. 513 


marsh 


. 848 


AtherospermacesB 


. 479 


membranous 


. 346 


Atlantidse 


. 143 


opposite-celled 


. 345 


Atmospheric air 


. 618 


pedicellate 


. 347 


Atolls . 


. 589 


plumose . 


. 348 


Atropace88 


. , . 419 


round-mouthec 


1 . 346 


Atryapa 


. ' . 567 


salicornian 


. 344 


Atteiabidse 


. 201 


sponge-like 


. 347 


Attus . 


.271 


tentacular 


. 345 


Aturia . \.^ 


. 552 


tubular 


. 346 


Atypa . 


. 549 


vesicular . 


. 347 


Auger-shells 


. 131 


Ascidiidse 


. 166 


Auks . """. ! 


34, 51 


Asclepiadacese . 


. 418 


Aura . . 


. 566 


Ascomycetes . '. , 


. 534 


Aurantiacese 


., . 448 


Asellidse 


. 296 


Auricula . 


. 416 


Ash, common . 


. 420 


AuriculidsD 


115, 145, 571 


flowering . , , f 


. ib. 


A vena . 


. 519 


Asilidge . . 


251, 256 


Avenacaae 


.518 


Asparagus . . 


. 502 


Aves 


. 4, 35, 377 


Asphalt 


588, 622 


Aviculidse 158, 549, 


560, 562, 566 


Asphaltides 


. 622 


Avocados 


. 433 


Aspidiscidae 


. 371 


Awl-shells 


. 129 


Aspidium Filix-mas 


524, 525 


Axolotl 


. 74 


Aspidocotylus . 


. 310 






Aspidogasteridse 


. ib. 


BACILLARIA 


.578 


Aspredinidse 


. 107 


Baculites 


. 571 


Assafoetida 


. 394 


Balsena, fossil . 


. 574. 581 


AstacidaB 


292, 566 


Balsenidae 


. 18 


Astacus 


283, 562 


Balasnodon . . 


. 574 


gammarus 


. 281 


Balsenopteron . 


. 581 


Astartes 


. 155 


Balanidae 


302, 304 


AstartidsB 


. ib. 


Balaninus 


. , . 174 


Astasians 


. 369 


Balanophoracese 


;. . 521 


sheUed 


. 370 


Balistidse , 


.95 


Astasiidse 


. 369 


Balsam, Canada 


. 494 


Asteracese 


. 403 


Carpathian 


. ib. 


Asterias 


. 325 


Hungarian 


. ib. 


Asteriidse . 325, 


333, 572 


Balsaminese 


. . . 441 


Asterinidaa 


325, 332 


Balsams 


. ib. 


Asterodermus . 


. 565 


Bamboo. 


. 519 


Asteroida 


. 357 


Bambusa 


. ib. 


Asterolepis 


. 551 


Bananas 


. 508 


Asterophyllites 


. 557 


Bandicoots 


. 29 


Astrese . 


567, 572 


Banxrings 


. 15 


Astrodermidoe . 


. 98 


Banyan . 


. 487 


Astrolepas laevis 


. 302 


Baobab-tree 


. 469 


Astropectinids9 
Astrophyton 


333 

. 326 


Baphia . 
Barbadoes-Gooseberry 


. 432 
. 399 



INDEX. 



701 





Page. 




Page. 


Barbets . 


. 43 


Beetles, broad-bodied rove 


. 185 


Barium, mineral compounds 


burrowing ground 


. 177 


of, 


. 602 


burrowing rove . 


. 185 


"Barks" 


. 396 


burrowing shore 


. 195 


Barley . 


. 519 


carrion . 


. 182 


Barnacles, burrowing . 


. 304 


clavicorn 


. 186 


coral 


. ib. 


., club-horned snout 


. 201 


proper 


. 303 


cuckoo . 


. 193 


ramphidian . 


. 304 


, darkling . 


. 195 


whale . 


. 305 


, diving . 


. 179 


Barometers . -> 


. 690 


, dung 


. 188 


Barosma . ... 


. 446 


, elongate bark 


. 183 


Barringtoniaceaa 


. 397 


, elongate snout . 


. 201 


Barringtoniads . 


. ib. 


excrement 


. 181 


Baryides i 


. 602 


false ground 


. 177 


Barystrontianite , 


. 603 


false snout 


. 199 


Basalt . 


. 543 


,, flabellicorn 


. 192 


Basellacese 


. 435 


flat bark 


. 184 


Basellads 


. ib. 


flea 


. 205 


Basilisk . . . 


. 54 


flower . 


. 190 


Batidacese 


. 483 


,. fungivorous 


. 196 


Batids . ." . f 


. ib. 


garden . 


. ib. 


Batrachia 


. 377 


goat 


. 203 


Batrachians . 


. 72 


golden . 


. 205 


palmate *_,. - 


. 75 


grain-eating snout 


. 201 


Batrachidee 


. 96 


hairy fungus 


. 183 


Bats . . .: 


9,14 


hard-skinned serricorn 


. 190 


fossil 


. 584 


herbivorous water 


.181 


frugivorous 


. 14 


heteromerous . 


. 195 


insectivorous . >. 


. ib. 


hooded wood-boring 


. 194 


Bdellidte 


. 277 


insectivorous flower 


. 193 


Bdellium 


. 448 


kangaroo 


. 189 


Beaches, raised. 


. 585 


lamellicorn 


. 187 


Beadstcnes . *> 


. 327 


large-eyed rove . 


. 185 


Bean . \ 


. 432 


, leaf-rolling snout 


. 201 


Beancapers . ,* 


. 443 


, leaping bark 


. 197 


Bears . 


. 17 


, lily 


. 204 


Bebeerine . . 


. 433 


, long-horned flower 


. 203 


Bee-eaters 


. 38 


, long. legged herbivorous 204 


Bee-parasites 


249, 250 


, longicorn 


. 202 


Beech . 


. 482 


, marsh . 


. 178 


Beefwoods 


. 491 


, meal 


. 195 


Bees, social 


. 232 


, mimic . 


. 187 


solitary 


. ib. 


,, mimic flower 


. 198 


Beet 


. 437 


moss-loving rove 


. 186 


Beetles . 


174, 176 


mud-burrowing . 


. 180 


,, adephagous 


. 176 


musk 


, 203 


armadillo 


. 181 


narrow-winged flower 


. 197 


blistering 


. 198 


nocturnal wood . 


. 184 


bombardier 


. 176 


oak 


. 191 


bone 


. 183 


parasitic flower . 


. 198 



702 



INDEX. 





Page 




Page 


Beetles, parasitic wood. 


199 


Bellerophon . 549, 


552, 555 


pill 


187 


Bell-flowers 


. 407 


,, pond 


180 


Belvisiaceaa 


. 401 


predaceous ground 


176 


Bembecidae 


. 230 


, predaceous water 


179 


Bembidiidae 


. 178 


, pseudotetramerous 


200 


Ben-nuts . " . i* 


. 473 


, reed 


192 


Ben, oil of . . 


. ib. 


, rhinoceros 


189 


Benzoin 


. 424 


, rove 


184 


Berberales V V 


. 451 


, rypophagous . . 


179 


Berberals . 


. ib. 


, sacred . '- . 


188 


Berberidaceae . . * ' 


. 453 


, sailor . ' . 


193 


Berberries 


. ib. 


sand 


188 


Berenia . 


. 285 


, scavenger . ' . 


182 


Bergamot . . 


. 448 


, sexton . ' ^ . 


195 


Bergmehl . 365 


, 368, 578 


, shard 


188 


Beroes . . 322, 


336, 339 


, shield 


196 


winged. 


. 339 


, short-legged herbivorous 


204 


Beroida9 . . 


. ib. 


, skin . . 


184 


Beryl . 


. 611 


small-headed rove 


186 


Betulaceae 


491, 579 


, smooth fungus . 


183 


Bhang . . . 


. 487 


, social grass . , . 


199 


Bibionidae 


. 253 


soft-skinned serricorn . 


192 


Bicellariidse . . 


. 345 


soldier . ;. . 


198 


Bichirs . 


. 93 


spiny tortoise 


205 


Bignoniaceee . 


. 409 


springing 


191 


Bignoniales 


. 407 


stag . . 


188 


Bignonials 


. ib. 


,, straight-horned snout . 


200 


Bilabiatss . . ' 


. 404 


stenelytrous 


196 


Bilberries . - ". 


. 397 


, stream . . . 


180 


Bindweeds . - 


. 417 


, sub-aquatic 


178 


Birches . 


. 491 


, sun 


190 


Birds 4, 3 


1, 35, 377 


, taxicorn . - . 


196 


aquatic 


. 50 


, thick-legged flower 


197 


conirostral 


. 41 


, ' thick-legged lily. 


204 


dentirostral 


. 40 


, tortoise . 


205 


fissirostral 


. 36 


, trachelidan 


197 


diurnal 


. 37 


, true carrion 


182 


nocturnal 


. 36 


, true ground 


177 


gallinaceous 


. 45 


, true rove 


185 


game ^ 


. ib. 


, true wood-boring 


194 


perching . 


. 36 


, unicorn . 


199 


rapacious . . < 


. 35 


, varicorn . 


186 


diurnal 


. ib. 


, water 


181 


nocturnal 


. 36 


, water-loving 


180 


running . 


. 48 


wood-eating snout 


202 


scansorial . . 


. 43 


Begoniacese 


476 


tennirostral 


. 38 


Begoniads . . 


ib. 


wading 


. 48 


Belemnites . . 1 1 7, 


562 


footprints of 


. 559 


Belemnophora . 


120 


fossil 568, 570, 578, 


583, 584 


Belemnophores . 


ib. 


preserving 


. 637 



INDEX. 



703 



Birgus . 

Birtheworts 

Bismuth-blende 

Bismuth-glance . 

Bismuth, native 

Bismuth-nickel . 

Bismuth-ochre . 

Bismuth-silver . 

Bismuthides 

Bitter-sweet 

Bitumen 

Bivalves 

bismuscular 
unimuscular 

fossil, 5 
569, 571, 577 

Bixa Orellana . 

Bixads . 

Blackberry 

Black-lead 

Blaculla 

Bladder-nuts 

Blapsidae . 

Blatlina . 

Blatla orientalis 

Blattidee 

Blennies 

slender-rayed . 

Bleniidse 

Blenny-bullheads 

Blenny, viviparous 

Blessed-thistle . 

Blind-fishes 

Blind-newts 

Blind-snakes 

Blood-roots 

Bloodstone 

Boas 

Boatbills 

Bog-iron 

Bog-myrtles 

Boidae . 

Boleti . 

Bolina . 

Boltenia 

Bombycidse 

Bombyliidse 

Bombyx mori . 

Bond- weeds 

Bones and skeletoi 
for collecting 



Page. 


Page. 


. 280, 284 


Bonito . . . .79 


. 391 


Bonnelliidse . . .328 


. 617 


Bonnet-shells . . .133 


. ib. 


Bony-pikes . . .93 


. 616 


Book-insects . . .215 


. 606 


Bopyridse . . .298 


. 617 


Boracite . . .604 


. 598 


Borages. . . .413 


. 616 


Boraginacese . . .413 


. 419 


Boraginanse , . .412 


. 622 


Borassacese . . .513 


5, 147,148,378 


Borassus nabelliformis . .513 


r . .148 


Borates . . . .620 


r . .158 


Borax . . . .601 


562, 566, 


Borers . . . .151 


. 


Borneo-camphors . . 462 


. 475 


Boronides . . .620 


. ib. 


Bostrichidre . . .194 


. 430 


Botanical apparatus . . 671 


. 619 


Bothryocephalidse . . 361 


. 566 


Botryaceae . . .534 


. 465 


Botryllidaj . . .166 


. 195, 566 


Botryllinse . 164,165,167 


. 555 


Botrytis . . .534 


. 208 


Boulders . . .580 


. 209 


Bovidse . . . .23 


.96 


Boviuse . . . .24 


3d . .97 


Bovista. . . .533 


. 96 


Bower-birds . . .35 


. ib. 


Bowerbankia . . . 342 


. 86 


Box wood . . .485 


. 405 


Brachelytra . . .184 


. 109 


BrachinidsB . . -176 


. 77 


Brachionidse . . .342 


. 53 


Brachiopoda . . 5, 162, 378 


. 510 


Brachiopods . 5, 160, 162, 378 


. 620 


ancylobrachiate . 162 


. 67 


ancylopod . , ib. 


. 32 


cryptobrachiate . ib. 


. 588 


helictopod . . 163 


. 490 


sarcicobrachiate . ib. 


. 67 


sclerobrachiate . ib. 


. 533 


Fossil549, 558, 563, 566 


. 566 


Brachocera . . .254 


. 165 
. 238 


Brachyphyllum . .567 
Brachypodidse . . .59 


. 255 


Brachyura . . .286 


. 233 


Braconinse . . .224 


. 537 


Bradypodidse . . .24 


5, directions 


Branchellionidre . 313,318 


. 653 


Branchiopods . . .298 



704 



INDEX. 





Page 




Page 


Branchiopoda . 


. 298 


Bugs, long-necked 


. 243 


Branchipi 


. 282 


painted 


. 244 


Branchipidae 


. 299 


sand 


. 242 


Brassicaceae 


. 470 


shielded 


. 244 


Brayera anthelmintica . 


. 430 


soft-bodied . 


. 243 


Brazil-nuts 


. 400 


water 


. 241 


Brazil wood 


. 432 


Bulimi 


115, 124 


Bread-fruit trees 


. 486 


Buliminao 


. 144 


Breams 


. 82 


Bullas, cylindric 


. 140 


sea . . 


. 100 


long-tailed 


. 139 


BrenthidaB 


. 201 


Bullseas . . . 


. ib. 


Brexiaceae 


. 427 


Bullheads 


. 102 


Brexiads 


. ib. 


mailed 


. ib. 


Briareidae . . - 


. 358 


Bullia . 


. 125 


Brisa 


. 566 


Bulrushes 


. 516 


Bristle-worts 


. 517 


BuUidse 


. 139 


Brittle-worts 


. 537 


Bumastus ; . 


. 547 


Bromeliacese 


. 511 


Bunium 


. 394 


Brominiides 


. 621 


Buprestidse . . "^ 


191, 56(5 


Brontes . 


548, 552 


Burdock . . 


. 405 


Broom . 


. 432 


Burgundy-pitch 


. 494 


Broom-rapes 


. 421 


BurmanniacesD . ; . : 


. 507 


Brosmiidae 


. 104 


Burmanniads . 


. ib. 


Brotulidae . . 


. ib. 


Burnets. . . 


. 430 


Bruchidae 


. 201 


Bustards 


. 48 


Brucia . 


. 422 


Butcher-birda . 


. 41 


Bruniacese 


. 392 


Butomaceae . . . . . 


. 501 


Bruniads 


. ib. 


Butterflies 


. 234 


Brunoniaceae 


. 412 


clawless 


. 236 


Brunoniads 


. ib. 


eye-winged . 


. ib. 


Bryaceae 


. 526 


proper 


. 234 


Bryony, black . 


. 497 


simple- winged 


. 235 


Bryozoa . . 5, 


342, 379 


tooth-winged 


. ib. 


Bubble-bearers . 


. 337 


Butter-worts 


. 408 


Bubble-sheUs . 


. 139 


Byrrhidae 


175, 187 


banded . 


. 140 


Byttneriaceae . 


. 468 


Buccinidse . 126, 


549, 576 






Bucerontidse 


. 43 


CABBAGE 


. 470 


Buckler-echinite 


. 572 


Cabbage-tree bark 


. 432 


"Buckler-head" 


. 551 


Cabereidae 


. 345 


Buckthorns 


. 426 


Cabombaceae 


. 458 


Bucku . 


. 446 


Cacao-plants 


. 468 


Buckwheats. 


. 439 


Cactaceae . 


. 398 


Bufonidae 


. 75 


Cactales 


. ib. 


Bug, harvest 


. 273 


Cactals . .1. 


. ib. 


Bugs 


240-241 


Caddice-worms . 


. 216 


bark 


. 243 


Cadmiides 


. 606 


bed 


?6. 


Csecidae . 


. 133 


,, club-horned 


. 244 


Caeciliidse 


. 77 


jumping . 


. 242 


Caesalpinieae 


. 431 


land 


. ib. 


Cairngorm-stone 


. 619 



INDEX. 



705 



Cajeput-oil 

Calamaries, hook-armed 
long-armed. 

Calaminae 
Calamine 
Calamites 
Calamus 



. 400 
. 119 
. ib. 
. ib. 
. 605 
. 556 
. 513 



Calappidte . 283, 284, 288 

'Calcareous-spar. . 587, 603 

tufa . . . ib. 

Calceola . . .552 

Calciides . . .603 
Calcium, mineral compounds . ib. 

Caligidee . . .307 

Calla palustris . . .503 

Callianiridse . ] . .339 

Callionymidae . . .96 

Callithrix . . .574 

Callitrichacese . . .483 

Calluna . . 449 

Caltetepons . . .58 

Calumba-root . . . 478 

Calycanthaceae . . 432 

Calyceraceas . . .405 

Calycers . . . ib. 

Calyciflorae . . .390 

Calymene ' . . 548, 552 

Calyptridte " . . 115. 132 

Cam-wood . . . 432 

Cambrian-rocks . . 546 

Camels . . 10, 22, 581 

Cameleopardalidse . .23 
Camelidae 

Camoceras . . . 552 

Camphor, true . . 433 

Campanales . . . 403 

Campanals . . . ib. 

Campanulacese . . .407 

CampanulariidcD . .354 

Campontias . . .315 

Campontiidse . . ib. 

Campylospermse . .394 

Cancellariidae . . .131 

Cancer pagurus . .283 

Canceridge . 2S3, 285, 286 

Cane-wood . . .432 

Canella-barks . . .452 

Canidse . . .16 
Canna .... 508 

Cannabinacesc . . .487 

Cannabis Indica . ib. 



Cannacese 
Cantharididas . 
Caoutchouc 
!aper-plants 
Capitonidee 
Capitosaurus 
Capparidacese . 
Capparis spinosa 
Caprellidse 
CaprifoliaceaG . 
Caprimulgidse . 
Caprinee 



Capsicum 

Capsidse 

Capulidse 

Carabidte 

Caraway 



508 
. 198 

419, 423, 487 
. 469 
. 43 
. 560 
. 469 
. ib. 
. 295 
. 395 
37, 585 
. 24 
. 310 
. 420 
. 243 
. 133 
. 177 

395 



Carbon, minerals containing . 618 
Carbonates . . .619 

Carboniferous-group . .553 

Carcinus mamas . . 283 

Cardamoms . . . 508 

Cardiidse . . .154 

Cardiuia . . . 562 

Cardiscarpa . . .557 

Carditidre . . .154 

Cardium, fossil . . .563 

Carinarias . 114, 124, 142 

Carnelian . . .619 

Carnivora 16, 575, 578, 584, 587 
Carob-tree . . . 432 

Carolina-pink . . .422 

Carpinus . . .579 

Carps .... 108 
Carrageen . . .535 

Carriers . . .132 

Carrot .... 394 
Carthamus tinctorius . . 405 

Carum .... 395 
Caryocar butyrosum . . 461- 

Caryocaracese . . . ib. 

Caryophyllese . . .440 

Caryophylliso, fossil . 567, 572 
Caryophyllidte . . . 362 

Caryophylliidaj . . .356 

Cascarilla . . .485 

Cashew-nuts . . .446 

Cassava . . .485 

Cassia-bark . . .433 

Cassia-pulp . . . 432 



706 



INDEX. 





Page 




Page 


Cassididse (Coleoptera) . 


. 204 


Cephalophora . 


. 377 


(Gasteropoda) 


. 129 


Cephalotacese . 


. 455 


Cassidinae 


. 282 


Cephalotads 


. ib. 


Cassipoureaceae 


. 


. 421 


Cephalopteridae . 


. 86 


Cassipoureads 


. 


. ib. 


Cerambicidae 


. 203 


Cassiterite 


, 


. 614 


Ceramiaceae 


. 535 


Cassythaceae 


. 


. 433 


Ceraphrontinae . 


. 226 


Castor-oil 


. 


. 485 


Cerataspidae 


. 293 


Casuarinaceae 


( 


. 491 


Ceratites . 


. 560 


Cats 




9,16 


Ceratophyllacese . 


. 487 


Catophracta 


. 


. 69 


Cercariidae . 


. 362 


Catechu 




396, 514 


Cercopidae 


. 247 


Catellus 


t 


. 571 


Cercosauridae . 


. 60 


Catenicellidse 


9 . 


. 344 


Ceriides . 


. 613 


Catenipora 


552, 


556, 567 


Cerite . 


. ib. 


Caterpillars, pre 


serving 


. 666 


Cerithiidse 


135, 566, 576 


Cathartes 


. 


. 583 


Cerithiopsidse . 


. 130 


Catophragmus 


, 


. 302 


Cerium-ochre 


. 613 


Cauliflower 


, 


. 470 


Cermatiidae 


. 266 


Cavies . 




. 27 


Certhiidae 


. 39 


Caviidse. 


, 


. ib. 


Cerusite . , 


. ; . 602 


Cavolinidse 


t 


122, 576 


Cervidae . 


. 22 


Cebidaa 


. - 


. 13 


Cestoidea 


. 361 


Cebrionidae 


: 


. 192 


Cestracions 


. 90 


Cecidomyidae 


t 


. 252 


Cestraciontidae . 


90, 562 


Cedar . 


, 


. 493 


Cestum Veneris 


. 322, 336 


CedrelacesB 




. 447 


Cetacea. , 


. 18 


Celastracese 


. 


. 425 


herbivora 


.19 


Celery . 




. 394 


carnivora 


. ib. 


Celestine 


, 


. 603 


Cetaceans 


12,18 


Celleporidse 




. 346 


carnivorous 


. 18 


Cellulares 


. 


. 386 


herbivorous 


. 19 


Cellulariidse 




. 344 


Cetiosaurus 


. 568 


Centaury 


, 


. 420 


Cetoniida3 


. 190 


Centipedes, earth 


. 267 


Cetopirus 


. 302 


sea (annelids) 


. 314 


Cetraria Islandica 


. 532 


(crustacean 


j) . 296 


Chaeropotamus . 


. 574 


shielded . 


. 266 


Chaetodons 


81, 101 


stone 


. ib. 


Cha3todontidae . 


. 101 


true 


263, 266 


Ohaetopteridae . 


. 316 


Centriscidae 


. 97 


Chaffers, false . 


. 190 


Centrolepidaceae 


. 517 


true . 


. 189 


Centronise 


. 379 


Chailletiaceaa . 


. 425 


Centronotidae 


. 98 


Chailietiads 


. ib. 


Centrotus 


. 245 


Chalcedony 


. 619 


Cephalaspididae 


. 551 


Chalcidida3 


. 225 


Cephalidae 


. 95 


Chalcidinse 


. ib. 


Cephalopoda . 5, 


117, 377 


Chalicomys 


. 578 


Cephalopods 5, 115, 


117, 377 


Chalicotherium . 


. ib. 


fossil 548, 552, 555, 562, 


Chalk . 


. 603 


566, 567, 571. 




Chalk-proper 


. 569 



INDEX. 



707 





Page 




Page 


Chambered-shells 


. 132 


Chinchillas 


. 27 


Chamaolauciacese 


. 402 


Chinchillidse 


. ib. 


Chamseleonidse . 


. 65 


Chionidge 


. 47 


Chamsesauridse . 


. 61 


Chiretta . 


. 420 


Chamas . 


. 154 


Chiridse 


. 97 


Chameleons 


54,65 


Chirocoles 


. 60 


Chamidse 


. 154 


Chironectidse . 


. 96 


Chamomile 


. 404 


Chironomidse . 


. 253 


Chamostrea 


. 115 


Chirotes 


. 72 


Chara, fossil fruits of, . 


. 580 


Chirotidse 


. ib. 


Characefe 


. 535 


Chitonidse 


. 138 


Charadriidas 


. 49 


Chitons 


115, 125, 138 


Chatterers 


. 41 


Chives . 


. 502 


Cheiracanthidse 


. 350 


Chlamyderidse . 


. 41 


Cheiracanthus . 


. 551 


Chlamydotherium 


. 582 


Cheirateuthidae 


. 119 


Chlsenacese 


. 442 


Cheirolepis 


. 551 


Chlseniinse 


. 178 


Cheiroptera 


. 14 


Chloranthacese . 


. 436 


Cherotherium . 


. 560 


Chloranths 


. ib. 


Chelichnus 


. ib. 


Chloriniides 


. 621 


Cheliferidse 


. 278 


Chloroform 


. 627 


Chelodina 


. 54 


Choerotherium . 


. 582 


Chelodus 


. 578 


Chondracanthidse 


. 308 


Chelonia . 


. 69 


Chondrostei 


. 93 


Chelonians 


69, 560 


Chondrosteus . 


. 562 


Cheloniidse 


. 70 


Chondrus crispus 


. 535 


Chelostomata . 


. 344 


Chonetes 


. 549 


Chelydidaa 


. 69 


Christ's-thorn . 


. 426 


Chelysoma . 


. 164 


Chrome ochre . 


. 610 


Chenendopora . 


. 573 


Chromididse 


. 106 


Chenopodales . 


. 437 


Chromiides 


. 609 


Chenopodals 


. ib. 


Chrysexides 


. 596 


Chenopodiacese 


. ib. 


Chrysides 


. ib. 


Cherry . 


. 431 


Chrysididse 


. 227 


Chesnut, Spanish 


. 482 


Chrysobalanacese 


. 432 


Chesnuts, fossil 


. 579 


Chrysoberyl 


. 612 


Chetotyphla . 


. 578 


Chrysolite 


. 605 


Chian-turpentine 


. 446 


Chrysomelidse . 


. 205 


Chicory 


. 405 


Churrus 


. 487 


Chigoe . 
Chili-nettles 


. 262 
. 399 


Cicada plebeia . 
,, septendecem 


. 245 
. 246 


Chilinse 


. 115 


Cicadidse 


. 247 


Chilognatha 


. 267 


Cichoracese 


. 404 


Chilognaths 


. ib. 


Cichorium Endivia 


. 405 


Chilophorina 


. 319 


Intybus 


. ib. 


Chilopoda 


. 266 


Cicindelidse 


. 176 


Chilopods 


. ib. 


Ciconia . 


. 578 


Chimseras 


. 91 


Cicuta 


. 395 


Chimscild83 


91, 576 


Cidaridge. 321, 326, 


332, 563, 572 


Chimaphila umbellata . 


. 450 


Ciliobrachiata . 


. 379 


China shells 


. 127 


Ciliogradoe 


. 339 






i i 



708 



INDEX. 





Page 




Page 


Cimbicinse 


. 222 


Closteriana 


. 369 


Cimex lectularius 


. 240 


Closteriidse 


. ib. 


Cimicidse 


. 243 


Clover 


. 432 


Cimoliornia 


. 568 


Cloves 


. 400 


Cinchonacese 


. 396 


Club-mosses 


. 526 


Cinclionalea 


. 395 


Club-shells, false 


. 130 


Cinchonals 


. ib. 


fresh-water 


. 135 


Cinchonese 


. 396 


salt-water . 


. ib. 


Cinchonia 


. ib. 


Clubioninae 


. 274 


Cinnabar 


. 599 


Clupeidae . V;; 


. 109 


Cinnamon 


. 433 


Clusiacese 


. 460 


Cionacineta 


. 334 


Clymenia 


. 552 


Cirrhigrada . . 


. 332 


Clypeaster . 


321, 325 


Cirrhodermata . 


. 379 


Clypeus 


. 572 


Cirrhopoda . . 5, 


303, 378 


Cnernidium . :;* 


567, 573 


Cirrhopods . 5, 301, 


303, 378 


Cnicus benedictus 


. 405 


burrowing . 


. 304 


Coalfish 


. 84 


pedunculate 


. 303 


Coal-measures . 


. 553 


sessile 


. 304 


Coal, mineral . 


. 619 


preserving . 


. 667 


Cobalt-bloom 


. 607 


Cirrho-spinigrada 


. 331 


Cobaltiglance . 


. ib. 


Cirrhostomi . . 


. Ill 


Cobaltidea 


. 607 


Cirrho-vermigrada 


. 329 


Cobitidse - . 


. 107 


CirrigradsB . '>" 


. 338 


Cocacese 


. 514 


Cirripeda . 


. 378 


Coccidse . 


. 249 


Cirripedes " . 


5, 378 


Coccolepis ' . 


. 562 


Cirrus . . . 


566, 571 


Cocconeis . 


. 578 


Cistacese ' 


. 470 


Coccosteus 


. 551 


Cistales . . 


. 469 


Cocculus-Indicus 


. 478 


Cistals . 


. ib. 


Coccus cacti 


. 246 


Cistelidse 


. 197 


ceriferus 


. ib. 


Cistus-rapes 


- 521 


lacca 


. ib. 


Citracese 


. 448 


manniperus 


. ib. 


Citron 


. ib. 


Polonicus . 


. ib. 


Civet Cats 


. 16 


Coccyzus . 


. 585 


Cladeiodon 


. 560 


Cockles . 


. 147 


Cladonia rangiferina 


. 532 


false . 


. 154 


Cladopoda 


. 151 


heart . 


. ib. 


Cladopods 


. ib. 


Cockroaches . ' 


. 209 


Clams 


147, 158 


Coco-nut tree, double . 


. 513 


water 


. 159 


Cocoa plums 


. 432 


Clabhraria 


. 573 


Cocos, fossil . . 


. 579 


Clathropteris . 


. 563 


Cod fishes 


81,84,104 


Clausilia 


. 114 


anguilliform . 


. ib. 


Clavellinidae 


. 166 


Ccelacanthidse . 


. 551 


Clavulariidae 


. 358 


Ccelelmintha . 5, 322, 350, 379 


Cla y> . 


. 611 


Ccelospermse 


. 394 


Clay-iixrastone . 


. 554 


CoenobitsD 


. 280 


Climbing Fishes 


. 99 


Coenurus cerebralis 


. 360 


Clionidse . . 


. 123 


Ccesalpinia 


. 432 


Clios . 


. ib. 


Coffee . 


. 396 



INDEX. 



709 



Coleia . 


Tage 
. 562 


Copper, red 


JPage 
. 599 


Colchicum 


. 503 


Coraciadidae 


. 37 


Coleoptera 


. 176 


Coracines. 


. 106 


Colepidae 


. 371 


" Coral-rag*' 


. 567 


Colies . 


. 42 


Coral-reefs 


. 589 


Coliidae . 


. ib. 


CoralliidEe 


. 357 


Collecting and preservin 


g, direc- 


Corallium rubrum 


. 353 


tions for, . 


. 623 


Corallines 


. ib. 


Collemacese 


. 532 


Corals, arragonite 


. 358 


Collyrite 


. 610 


brainstone 


. 356 


Colocynth 


. 477 


calcareous 


. 357 


Colpodidae 


. 371 


dendritic 


. 356 


Colubridae 


. 68 


eyed . 


. ib. 


Colubrina 
Colurnbse 


. 67 
. 44 


glass-rope 
horn-like 


. 358 
. 359 


Columbidae 


. ib. 


horny ^. 


. 358 


Columbiides 


. 613 


incrusting 


. ib. 


Columbite 


. 614 


mushroom 


. 357 


Columelliaceae . 


. 396 


organ . 


. 358 


Columelliads . 


. ib. 


starred . 


. 356 


Colymbidae 


. 51 


umbellate 


. 357 


Colymbus, fossil 


. 585 


preserving 


. 670 


Comatula . . 


. 334 


Corbiculidae 


. 149 


Combretaceae . 


. 403 


Corbis . 


. 571 


Commelynaceee . 


. 504 


Corbulas 


. 153 


Compositae 


. 405 


Corbulidae 


53,563,577 


Composites 


. 403 


Cord-rushes 


. 517 


Comptonia 


. 579 


Cordiaceae 


. 418 


Conchifera 


5, 148, 378 Cordyles 


. 58 


Conchocephalus 


. 548 


Coreidae 


. 244 


Conchophora . 


. 378 


Coriander 


. 395 


Conchotrya 


. 303 


Coriandrum 


. ib. 


Cones . . . 


131, 576 


Coriariaceaa 


. 444 


Confervaceae 


. 536 


Coriariada 


. ib. 


Conidae 


. 131 


Coriocellaa 


. 129 


Coniferae 


.494 


Cork . 


. 482 


Conirostres 


. 41 


Cormogena9 


. 386 


Conium 


. 395 


Cormogens 


. 523 


Connaraceae 


. 446 


Cornaceae 


. 393 


Connarads . 


. ib. 


Cornstone 


. 550 


Conopidae 


. 259 


Cornulariidae . 


. 359 


Conoplea 


. 302 


Corolliflorae 


. 390 


Contrayerva-root 


. 487 


Coronellidae 


. 68 


Conulus . 


. 572 


Coronulidse 


. 305 


Convolulaceae . 


. 417 


Coronula denticulata 


. 303 


Copaiva, Balsam of, 


. 432 


testudinarius 


. 302 


Copepoda 


. 300 


Cortusales 


. 414 


Copepods 


. ib. 


Cortusals 


. ib. 


Copper-glance . 


. 599 


Corundum 


. 610 


Copper indigo and native . ib. 


Corvidae 


41, 578 


pyrites. . . ib. 


Corydalus 


. 555 


n2 



710 



INDEX. 





Page 




Page 


Corylacese 


. 481 


Crane . 


. 34 


Corymbiferao 


. 404 


Cranesbills 


. 441 


Corynidse 
Corypha umbraculifera 


. 354 
. 514 


Crangonidae . . ' 
Craniidse 


282, 292 
161, 163 


Coryphaenidae . 


. 98 


Crassatellidaa . 


. 155 


Corystidae 


. 288 


Crassatellas 


155, 577 


Cossus ligniperda 


. 233 


Crassulacese 


. 471 


Cottidae 


. 102 


Cray-fish 


. 283 


Cotton . 


. 467 


Creepers ... ; ti 


33, 39 


Cow-plant of Ceylon 


. 419 


Crenatula . .. 


. 563 


Cow-tree of Demerara . 


. 486 


Crescentiacese . . . ', 


. 409 


Cowitch 


. 432 


Crescentiads . .- . < 


. ib. 


Cowries . 125, 


132, 576 


Cress . ; . . . ( 


. 470 


Cowslip 


. 416 


Cretaceous-group 


. 569 


Crabs, angular . 


. 288 


Creusia . , . 


. 302 


calling . 


280, 285 


Crickets . . . r. 


. 211 


china . 


285,288 


noise of . .< 


. 212 


common 


. 283 


Cridites . . . 


. 555 


., crested . 


283, 288 


Crinoideans, fixed ?.' . 


. 334 


edible . 


. 283 


free . #1* 


. ib. 


freshwater 


. 287 


Crioceridse . , .. '.< 


. 204 


frog 


. 289 


Crioceras . . 


. 571 


false 


. 290 


Crisiidae . . . . 


. 347 


globular 


. 288 


Cristateffidse . . .**. 


343, 348 


hermit . 280, 


283, 290 


Crithrnum 


. 394 


horseman 


284, 287 


Crocodiles . . 


>2, 56, 71 


king . 


281, 300 


slender-nosed 


. 568 


land 


. 287 


Swanage . t 


. ib. 


lobster . 


. 290 


Crocodilidae . . :' . i 


71, 565 


long-armed 


. 286 


Crossfish, common 


. 325 


,, mantis . 


280, 294 


spiny 


. ib. 


painted . 


284, 288 


Crotalidse 


. 66 


pea 


. 287 


Croton-oil 


. 485 


porcellanous 


. 283 


Crowberries 


. 483 


sailor . 


. 282 


Crowfoots 


. 455 


, sand 


. 287 


Crows . . .. 


33, 41 


, scorpion 


. 280 


Crown-worts . . . a* 


. 473 


, shielded 


. 289 


Cruciferae . . . 


. 470 


, spectre . 


. 293 


Cruciferous-plants . . < 


. ib. 


, spider . 280, 


283, 286 


Crustacea . . 5, 


285, 378 


, spiny . 


283, 286 


Crustaceans . 5, 279, 


285, 378 


, sponge . 


. 289 


fossil 547,552, 555,562 


,566,569 


, stone 


282, 289 


peduncle-eyed 


. 285 


, swimming 283, 


284, 287 


sessile-eyed 


. 294 


, telescope-eyed . 


. 284 


preserving 


. 667 


, true 


283, 286 


Cryptobrachiata 


. 162 


Crabronidae 


. 230 


Cryptogamia 


386, 523 


Cracidte 


. 45 


Cryptomonadidae 


. 369 


Cranberries 


. 396 


Cryptoneura 


6, 380 


Cranchias 


. 119 


Cryptophyta . 


. 386 


Cranchiidse 


. ib. 


Crypturus 


. 584 



INDEX. 



711 





Page 




Page 


Crystal-worts . 


528 


Cycloidians 


. 81 


Crystallography 


591 


Cyclogangliata 


5, 377 


Cteniza 


271 


Cycloneura . , 


379, 380 


Cteno-Labridse 


105 


Cyclopidaa 


285,