(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Manual of the New Zealand flora"

^ 






^"i..,>" 



>i,^-. 



TTi 



VBNDU EN 1822 ^ 

MANUAL 



OP THE 



NEW ZEALAND FLORA. 



// 



BY 



Ty^-^'CHEESEMAN, F.L.S., F.Z.S., 
I ♦ » 

CURATOR OF THE AUCKLAND MUSEUM. 



LIBRAKT 
NEW YORK 
BOTANICAL 

^lAKUEN 



^ublis^tiy itnbcr tlje ,'^ntljoritg 0f i)^t ^obtxnmtnt of |tefaj ^ealanb. 



NEW ZEALAND : 
JOHN MACKAY, GOVERNMENT PRINTER, WELLINGTON. 

1906. 



QK460 



r, vKOBN 



PEEFACE. 



Forty-two years have elapsed since Sir J. D. Hooker published the 
first part of his " Handbook of the New Zealand Flora." Although 
no complete account of the plants of the colony has since been pre- 
pared, botanical investigations have been actively and zealously carried 
on, and a large amount of fresh material obtained. No less than four 
hundred separate communications or short papers dealing with the 
botany of New Zealand have been published, and the number of new 
species proposed is considerably over a thousand. The literature and 
descriptions of the new species are scattered through the thirty-seven 
volumes of the Transactions of the New Zealand Institute and other 
publications, some of which are not readily accessible to the majority 
of workers in the colony. To make satisfactory use of such a mass of 
unarranged and undigested material is beyond the power of any except 
a few experts : in any case an attempt to do so would prove both 
tedious and troublesome. In short, the want of a compendious Flora 
has long been a serious hindrance to the study of the indigenous vege- 
tation, and a bar to inquiries of any kind connected therewith. 

For many years New Zealand botanists hoped that the preparation 
of a new Flora would be undertaken by the late Mr. T. Kirk. It was 
known that he had long been collecting material for such a work. His 
many journeys, extending from the North Cape to the Auckland and 
Campbell Islands, had given him an unrivalled personal acquaintance 
with the vegetation, while his numerous writings afforded abundant 
proof of widespread knowledge, and of accurate and careful botanical 
research. Under such circumstances, the announcement made in 1894 
that he had been engaged by the New Zealand Government to 
prepare a " Students' Flora of New Zealand " was received with 
general approval. And when his death occurred in 1897 it was a 
'disappointment to find that barely two-fifths of his task had been 
completed. This portion has since been printed by the Government, 
and its value intensifies the regret that the author did not live to 
complete the work for which he had made so much preparation, and for 
which he possessed so many undoubted qualifications. 



IV PREFACE. • 

The publication of the fragment left by Mr. Kirk made the want of a 
complete Flora still more apparent, and in April, 1900, the Government 
was pleased to intrust me with the preparation of such a work. While 
allowed full freedom of action in all details, I was instructed to follow 
the general plan adopted in Sir J. D. Hooker's " Handbook," which, as 
is well known, was based upon that recommended many years ago by 
Sir AV. J. Hooker for a uniform series of Floras of all the British 
colonies. With the view of keeping the work within the compass of 
one volume of poi'table size, I was further directed to confine it to 
the indigenous plants, thus departing from the plan followed by Kirk, 
who included all well-established naturalised plants, distinguishing 
them from the native species by a difEerence in the type. 

The " Manual of the New Zealand Flora," which is the title adopted 
for the present work, is intended to comprise within a reasonable com- 
pass full descriptions of the whole of the indigenous flowering-plants 
and ferns found within the limits of the Colony of New Zealand, in- 
cluding not only the two main Islands, but also the outlying groups of 
the Kermadec Islands, the Chatham Islands, the Auckland and Campbell 
Islands, Antipodes Island, &c. I have also included Macquarie Island, 
for although it is politically an appanage of Tasmania, it is more closely 
allied in its flora and fauna to the Auckland and Campbell Islands than 
to any other land. In addition to the descriptions, I have given as fuUy 
as possible the geographical and altitudinal range of each species within 
the colony ; and, in the case of non-endemic plants, a short statement of 
their range in other countries. I have also inserted, in a concise form, 
such general information, whether economic or scientific, as appeared 
to be of sufficient value. Believing that the main object of a Flora is 
to afiord a ready means of determining the name of any species for 
the purpose of ulterior study, I have endeavoured so to frame the 
descriptive matter as to facilitate the work of identification as much 
as possible. I have therefore prefixed to each order and each 
genus analytical keys in which the salient characters of the 
genera and species are contrasted. With respect to the descrip- 
tions themselves, they are in almost all cases original, and have 
been based on the actual examination of living or dried speci- 
mens, usually both. After their preparation they were compared 
with those of my predecessors, and particularly with those of 
Hooker and Kirk, when any additions or alterations that appeared 



PREFACE. 



to be necessary were made. With regard to the citation of 
previous authors, I have as a rule considered it unnecessary to do 
more than quote the publications that deal solely or mainly with New 
Zealand botany, such as Forster's Prodromus, A. Richard's Flora, 
Cunningham's Precursor, Raoul's Choix, and the works of Hooker 
and Kirk* Had I given references to general works on botany or to 
special monographs, the bulk of this work would have been greatly 
increased without sufficient corresponding advantage. I have, how- 
ever, quoted the publication in which the species under consideration 
was first described ; and, in the case of those plants which extend to 
Australia or Tasmania, I have usually given a reference to Bentham's 
" Flora Australiensis " or Hooker's " Flora of Tasmania." The 
synonomy I have treated in a similar manner. As far as the informa- 
tion at my command would permit, I have quoted all published names 
of endemic New Zealand plants, and all names founded upon New 
Zealand specimens. Further quotation would, in my opinion, be 
neither necessary nor expedient for the purposes of this work. 

Every botanist who prepares a Flora starts from the standpoint 
j'eached by his predecessors in the same field. In the subjoined his- 
tory of botanical discovery in New Zealand I have endeavoured to 
give a sketch of the labours of all those who have investigated the 
botany of the colony, either as authors or collectors, and who have 
thus assisted in providing material for future study and research. 
But, in addition, it is advisable to briefly mention the chief material 
upon which the present work is founded. At the outset I must state 
that I have relied very largely upon my own notes and observations, 
formed during thirty-five years' continuous study of the flora, and 
upon my herbarium, which I believe to be the largest and most com- 
plete formed by individual effort within the colony. 

I am indebted to the Education Department for the loan of that 
portion of the herbarium of the late Mr. Kirk which after his death 
was purchased by the New Zealand Government. Although com- 
prising only a small part of the collections formed by this active 
and enterprising botanist, it nevertheless includes excellent and 
well-selected specimens of most of the species of the flora, in- 
cluding the types of the new species described by him, and has conse- 
quently proved an important aid to me. It is to be regretted that 
Mr. Kirk's botanical papers and other manuscripts, none of which I 
have seen, were not included in this purchase. 



PREFACE. 



The Education Department has also placed at my service a set of 
the plants collected by Banks and Solander during Cook's first voyage, 
a transcript of Solander' s manuscript descriptions, and a set of im- 
pressions from the copper plates prepared by Sir Joseph Banks to 
illustrate the descriptions. All these were presented to the Govern- 
ment a few years ago by the Trustees of the British Museum* and form 
a unique and valuable addition to the public collections of the colony. 

I am indebted to my friend Mr. D. Petrie, well known for his suc- 
cessful explorations in the Otago District, for the very valuable and 
important aid afiorded by the study of his herbarium, which he has 
loaned to me in instalments during the progress of this work. It is 
specially rich in specimens of the rarer alpine plants of Otago, which, 
as a rule, are very poorly represented in other collections. 

The herbarium of the late Mr. Colenso has been lent to me by Mr. 
H. Hill, one of the trustees under his will. It contains a large amount 
of material, collected at various times between the years 1840 and 1898, 
but is to a great extent unarranged and unclassified. Fortunately, 
however, it includes named specimens of many of the supposed " new 
species " described by him during the last fifteen years of his life, and 
has thus enabled me to come to more certain conclusions respecting 
them than would otherwise have been the case. 

The private herbarium of the late Mr. John Buchanan has been 
forwarded for my inspection by the Council of the Otago University, 
to which body it was bequeathed. Although but a fragment of the 
collections he formed during his lifetime, it has been of considerable 
service, as it includes the t}^es of most of his new species, and the 
drawings and analyses prepared for his work on the New Zealand 
grasses. 

My friend Dr. Cockayne has supplied me with much valuable 
information, and a considerable amount of interesting material 
from the Southern Alps, the Chatham Islands, and other localities 
explored by him. Many of his specimens have been of particidar 
value, from being specially selected to show the range and trend of 
variation in some of the more variable species of the flora. 

The Eight Rev. W. L. Williams, Bishop of Waiapu, has placed me 
under many obligations by regularly forwarding specimens collected 
by him in the East Cape and Hawke's Bay districts, and by his invalu- 
able help in compiling the list of Maori plant-names given in the 
Appendix. 



PREFACE. Vll 

Mr. W. Townson, of Westport, has for many years supplied me 
with numerous sets of specimens, both fresh and dried, collected by 
^im in the south-west portion of the Nelson Provincial District, and 
often obtained from out-of-the-way localities and at considerable 
altitudes. So little was previously known respecting the botany of 
this portion of the colony that his collections and notes have been 
of great service to me. 

I am indebted to Mr. A. Hamilton for the loan of his extensive 
collection of the ferns of the colony. This is not only unusually com- 
plete and well arranged, but also contains many specimens of crested 
and other abnormal varieties. 

I have also to record my thanks to Sir James Hector, Mr. J. D. 
Enys, Mr. G. M. Thomson, Mr. H. Hill, Mr. Justice Chapman, Mr. Percy 
Smith, Mr. H. J. Matthews, Mr. F. E. Gibbs, Mr. J. H. Macmahon, 
Mr. J. Adams, Mr. R. H. Matthews, Mr. H. Carse, Mr. Elsdon Best, 
Mr. R. J. Kingsley, Rev. F. R. Spencer, Mr. H. C. Field, Mr. J. Rutland, 
Mr. F. A. D. Cox, Mr. J. Hall, Mr. H. H. Travers, Mr. J. B. Simpson, 
and several others, for the material assistance they have rendered me. 

Turning from New Zealand, I have now to express my gratitude 
to several friends and correspondents in Europe. First of all, I wish 
to tender my special thanks to Sir J. I). Hooker, who during a corre- 
spondence extending over thirty-five years has been at all times ready 
to give me the benefit of his wide knowledge and experience, and who 
has evinced the greatest possible interest in the inception and progress 
of this work. My thanks are also due to Sir W. T. Thistleton-Dyer, the 
present Director of Kew, for his kindness in granting facilities for the 
comparison of my specimens with the types preserved in the Kew 
Herbarium, and for other valuable assistance ; also to Mr. W. B. 
Hemsley, the Assistant Director, who has given me much helpful aid 
with the greatest readiness and kindness ; and to Mr. N. E. Brown, 
who was specially instructed by the Director to make a comparison 
of my specimens with the types of the species in Veronica, Gentiana, 
Myosotis, and other genera, and whose report on the subject has been 
invaluable to me. I am also greatly indebted to Mr. C. B. Clarke for 
his unwearied kindness in supplying me with information and critical 
notes respecting the New Zealand CyperacecB, and for furnishing me 
with a list of the synonymy of the species. Pastor G. Kukenthal, of 
Grub, near Cobourg, has also contributed valuable notes respecting 
the New Zealand species of Carex and Uncinia. Finally, I am under 



Vlll PEEFACB. 

many obligations to Professor E. Hackel, of Graz, Austria, for under- 
taking a critical examination of the whole of the New Zealand grasses, 
and for furnishing me Avith a series of very full and complete notes, 
with permission to use the same for the purposes of this work. 

The elimination of the naturalised species from the present work, 
although absolutely necessary to keep it within the limits of a single 
volume, will not be altogether satisfactory to the student. A 
beginner cannot be expected to distinguish between the indigenous 
and introduced species, especially when it is remembered that in several 
districts the latter now constitute the larger portion of the flora, and 
that there is no part of the country, however remote, into which some 
plants of foreign origin have not penetrated. Altogether, over six 
hundred species, or nearly one-half the number of the indigenous 
flowering-plants, have succeeded in establishing themselves. I am 
not without hopes that I may be enabled to prepare a supplementary 
volume containing concise but sufficient descriptions of the foreign 
element of the flora ; for this alone will remove the inconvenience 
resulting from the want of a ready means of determining all the plants 
which a student may observe in any district. In the meantime, I 
have given in the Appendix a nominal list of all well-established 
naturalised plants, with references to books in which descriptions of 
them can be found. As most of the species are of European origin, 
I would recommend the student to provide himself with a copy of 
Hooker's " Students' Flora of the British Islands," or some similar 
work, and to use it in conjunction with this publication. 

It is not to be expected that a work containing descriptions of over 
1,550 species of plants can be prepared without the occurrence of 
errors and imperfections, and for these I must ask the indulgence of 
the reader. One serious disadvantage under which I have laboured, 
and which I share in common with all colonial botanists, is the im- 
possibility of examining those European herbaria in which the tj/pes 
of so many of the published species are deposited ; and consequently 
mistakes may have been made in the identification of the species, 
especially in genera like Veronica, Gentiana, Myosotis, &c. But I trust 
that the number of such errors is not large. Their detection may be 
safely left to future workers. 

A few statistics respecting the extent and composition of the flora 
may be of interest. The total number of species described, including 
a few additions given in the Appendix, is 1,571, of which 1,415 are 



phaenogams, and 156 vascular cryptogams. These are contained in 
382 genera, distributed in 97 orders. The average number of species 
to each order is slightly over 16 ; the average number of species to each 
genus rather more than 4. The orders containing more than 24 species 
are as under :— 



Compositae 

Filices . . 

Cyperaceae 

Scrophularinae 

Graminese 

UmbelliferEe 

Orchidese 



221 
138 
119 
113 
113 
62 
57 



Ranunculacese 

Rubiacese 

Epacridese 

Onagrariese 

Leguminosae 

Juncaceae 

Boraginacese 



50 
47 
31 
31 
26 
25 
25 



The Composites thus constitute one-seventh of the whole flora, an 
unusually high proportion. The genera containing twenty species 
or more are : — 



Veronica 


. 84 


Senecio 


.. 30 


Carex . . 

Celmisia 


. 54 
. 43 


Epilobium 
Poa . . 


.. 28 
.. 25 


Coprosma ... 

Ranunculus 

Olearia 


. 40 
. 38 
. 35 


Myosotis 
Hymenophyllum 


.. 23 
.. 20 



Of the total number of species (1,571) no fewer than 1,143, or nearly 
three-quarters of the entire flora, are peculiar to the colony. With 
respect to the 428 species which are found elsewhere, 366 extend to 
Australia, and 108 to South America. Coming to the local distribution 
of the species, 789 are found in both the North and South Islands, 
219 occur in the North Island but have not yet been detected in the 
South Island, while 456 species known to occur in the South Island 
have not been collected in the North Island. No fewer than 23 
species are found in the Kermadec Islands but not in any other por- 
tion of the colony ; 25 in the Chatham Islands ; 10 in Stewart Island ; 
and 48 in the outlying islands to the south of New Zealand, including 
in the term the Auckland and Campbell Islands, Antipodes Island, 
and Macquarie Island. 

It now only remains for me to express my grateful thanks to the 
Education Department, under whose auspices the work has been pre- 
pared, for the readiness with which it has co-operated with me in 
endeavouring to render it as complete and reliable as possible. In 
this connection, I would specially mention the Right Hon. R. J. Seddon. 



I PREFACE. 

Minister of Education, and Mr. G. Hogben, M.A., the Inspector- 
General of Schools. My thanks are also due to the Council of the 
Auckland Institute and Museum for kindly allowing me to engage a 
substitute to perform a portion of my duties at the Museum during 
the progress of the work. Finally, I have to express my obligations 
to the Government Printer for the assiduous care with which he has 
attended to the passage of the work through the press. 

Auckland, January, 1906. 



A H ISTOR Y 



BOTANICAL DISCOAERY IN NEW ZEALAND. 



The history of botanical discovery in New Zealand falls naturally 
and conveniently into two periods of almost equal duration. The 
first commences with the year 1769, in which Cook made his first 
visit, and closes with the establishment of British supremacy and 
the commencement of systematic colonisation in 1840. During the 
seventy-one years comprised between these dates, many voyages of 
discovery or survey in the South Pacific were undertaken by the 
British, French, or American Governments, during most of which New 
Zealand was visited. And, as naturalists or collectors were usually 
attached to these expeditions, it was through them that our first 
knowledge of the flora was obtained. During the same series of 
years several travellers of scientific attainments also visited New Zea- 
land, such as the two Cunninghams, DiefEenbach, Bidwill, &c., all of 
whom formed collections of considerable importance. This period 
may therefore be appropriately called the period of investigation by 
visitors from abroad. That extending from 1840 to the present time 
can be just as correctly styled the period of investigation by naturalists 
Tesident in the colony. 

Commencing with the voyages, the first in order of time, as well 
as in degree of importance, is Cook's first visit (1769-1770). For full 
details concerning this celebrated expedition, which has been well 
said " to have been the most momentous voyage of discovery that 
has ever taken place, for it practically gave birth to the great Aus- 
tralian Colonies," I must refer the reader to Hawkesworth's " Cook's 
Voyages," Wharton's transcript of Cook's journal, and Hooker's 
" Journal of Sir Joseph Banks." For the purposes of this work the 
following sketch will be sufficient. Cook's ship, the " Endeavour," 
left England on the 26th July, 1768. For that period, she was un- 
usually well equipped for scientific work. Sir Joseph Banks, one of 
the leading naturalists of his time, and a man of much influence and 



Xll HISTORY OF 

ample fortune, volunteered to accompany the expedition. At his own 
expense lie provided the requisites for making collections in every de- 
partment of natural science, and engaged Dr. Solander, four draughts- 
men or artists, and a staff of servants to accompany him. The cost 
to Banks of these preparations has been estimated at £10,000. After 
rounding Cape Horn, and after a stay of nearly four months at Tahiti 
and other islands of the Society Group, Cook struck south-westwards 
across the Pacific. On Friday, the 6th October, 1769, he first sighted 
New Zealand, and at once stood in for the land. Delayed by calms 
and baffling winds, it was not until the afternoon of Sunday, the 8th 
October, that he anchored on the north-west side of a deep bay, to 
which he afterwards gave the name of Poverty Bay, and almost directly 
opposite the present town of Gisborne. Cook immediately landed, ac- 
companied by Banks and Solander, but an unfortunate skirmish took 
place with the Maoris, one of whom was shot, and the party returned 
to the ship. The next morning a landing was made in greater force, 
and some intercourse took place with the Maoris through the medium 
of a Tahitian interpreter. Their behaviour, however, was so threaten- 
ing that it became necessary to fire upon them, and another man was 
killed and several wounded. Discouraged by this reception Cook 
once more re-embarked. The following morning another landing was 
effected, and Cook, together with Banks and Solander, strolled some 
little distance up the right bank of the Waikanae River. But the 
Natives again became troublesome, and a retreat had to be made to 
the landing-place. Seeing no hope of establishing a pacific intercourse. 
Cook returned to his vessel, and at daylight the following morning 
left the bay. Under the circumstances narrated above, it is obvious 
that little botanising could be done. Banks, in his journal, laments 
that " We took leave of Poverty Bay, as we named it, with not above 
forty species of plants in our boxes, which is not to be wondered at, 
as we were so little ashore, and always upon the same spot. The only 
time when we wandered about a mile from the boats was upon a swamp, 
where not more than three species of plants were foimd." 

After leaving Poverty Bay, Cook followed the coast southwards, 
successively passing Table Cape, Portland Island, Hawke's Bay, and 
Cape Kidnappers, but nowhere making any attempt to land. On 
the 17th October, when off Cape Turnagain, he determined to return 
to the northwards, giving as a reason that there was " no likelyhood 
of meeting with a Harbour, and the face of the Country Visibly alter- 
ing for the worse." On the 19th he repassed Poverty Bay, and on 
the 20th anchored in Anaura Bay, which he called " Tegadoo." Here 
the reception given by the Natives was all that could be desired, and 
Cook consequently remained until daylight on the 22nd, for the pur- 
pose, as he states, of giving " Mr. Banks an opportunity to Collect a little 
of the Produce of the Country." Banks, in his journal, says, " We 
ranged all about the bay, and were well repaid by finding many plants- 



BOTANICAL DISCOVERY. XUl 

and shooting some most beautiful birds." Further on, he gives a 
description of the Maori cultivations, in which were planted " sweet 
potatos, cocos, and a plant of the cucumber kind," doubtless refer- 
ring to the kumara, taro, and hue. Dr. Solander, in his manuscript 
volume of descriptions, presently to be referred to, enumerates ninety- 
eight species of plants as having been collected at " Tigadu." Among 
these were the first specimens of the beautiful Clianthus puniceus, 
which was found cultivated by the Natives near their dwellings. 

On taking his departure from Anaura, Cook at first stood to the 
northwards, but the wind being unfavourable, he determined to put 
into Tolaga Bay, where the Natives had informed him wood and 
water could easily be obtained for his ship. On the morning of the 
23rd he accordingly anchored about a mile from a small cove just 
inside the southern point of the bay. Here a stay was made until 
the 30th October. The Natives were friendly and obliging, and an 
ample supply of wood and water was obtained. Both Banks and 
Solander passed most of their time on shore, and an excellent collec- 
tion of plants was formed. With respect to the vegetation. Cook 
remarks, " The Tops and ridges of the Hills are for the most part barren, 
at least little grows on them but fern ; but the Valleys and sides of 
many of the Hills were luxuriously clothed with woods and Verdure 
and little Plantations of the Natives lying dispers'd up and down the 
Country. We found in the Woods, Trees of above 20 different sorts ; 
Specimens of each I took on board, as all of them were unknown to 
any of us. The Tree which we cut for firing was something like 
Maple and yielded a whitish Gum. There was another sort of a deep 
Yellow which we imagin'd might prove useful in dying. We likewise 
found one Cabage Tree which we cut down for the sake of the cabage. 
The Country abounds with a great Number of Plants, and tlie woods 
with as great a variety of beautiful birds, many of them unknown to 
us." Altogether, Tolaga Bay appears to have left a favourable im- 
pression on the " Endeavour's " people. From the localities cited in 
Solander's manuscripts, it appears that about 160 species of plants 
were collected. 

Leaving Tolaga Bay on the 30th October, Cook made sail to the 
northwards. On the following day he rounded the East Cape, and 
passing Cape Runaway and White Island (which was evidently quies- 
cent at that time), he coasted along the shores of the Bay of Plenty, 
having occasional intercourse with those Maoris who came off to him 
in their canoes, but making no attempt to land. On the 3rd November 
he was abreast of Tauranga, and on the 4th reached the entrance of 
Mercury Bay. Finding in this locality a secure harbour with plenty 
of wood and water, and being anxious to observe the transit of Mercury, 
which was to take place on the 9th, Cook brought his vessel to an 
anchor. During a stay of eleven days many plants were collected, 
figured, and described, the total number, reckoning from Solander's 



siv history: of 

manuscripts, beiug 213. Among those which had not been previously 
observed was the Mangrove {Avicennia officinalis), which occurred 
in such abundance along the sides of the Whitianga River that Cook 
gave it the name of the " River of Mangroves." Through a curious 
misapprehension he states that the mangroves " produce a resinous 

substance very much like Rosia We found it, at first, 

in small Lumps upon the Sea Beach, but afterwards fomid it sticking 
to the Mangrove Trees, and by that means found out from whence it 
came." The resinous substance was no doubt the now well-known 
kauri-gum, pieces of which are often drifted along tidal streams, and 
are not infrequently detained among the roots or lower branches of 
the mangrove. The kauri-tree itself does not seem to have been 
observed, either by Cook or by Banks and Solander, although common 
enough on the hills overlooking Mercury Bay. Probably they did not 
venture far enough from the coast to reach it. 

After leaving Mercury Bay Cook continued to follow the coast- 
line, and rounding Cape Colville, entered the Hauraki Gulf. Here 
he found himself surrounded by islands, and not wishing to lose sight 
of the mainland, kept close under the western side of the Coromandel 
Peninsula. A short sail brought him to the entrance of the Thames 
River, where he anchored, almost directly abreast of the position 
where the town of Thames now stands. On the following day, the 
21st November, accompanied by Banks and Solander, he made a boat 
voyage up the Thames River for a distance of twelve or fourteen miles. 
A landing was effected on the west side of the river for the purpose 
of examining the kahikatea forest which still clothes its banks, and 
which had attracted Cook's attentioii at his anchorage. Describing 
the trees, he says, " We had not gone a hundred yards into the woods 
before we found a Tree that girted 19 feet 8 inches, 6 feet above the 
ground, and having a Quadrant with me, I found its length from the 
root to the first branch to be 89 feet ; it was as Streight as an Arrow, 
and Taper'd but very little in proportion to its length, so that I judged 
that there was 356 Solid feet of timber in this Tree, clear of the branches. 
We saw many others of the same sort, several of which were Taller 
than the one we measured, and all of them very stout ; there were 
likewise many other sorts of very Stout Timber Trees, all of them 
wholy xmknown to any of us. We brought away a few specimens, and 
at 3 o'clock we embarqued in order to return." It is somewhat dis- 
tressing to state that the historic tree mentioned above, after sur\aving 
one hundred and thirty years with unimpaired vitality, was wantonly 
cut down only a few years ago. 

From the Thames River Cook's course was directed to Cape Rodney, 
and from thence northwards to Cape Brett, which was reached on the 
27th November. Here contrary winds were met with, and it was not 
until the 29th that the cape was weathered, and an anchorage found 
in the Bay of Islands, where the " Endeavour " remained until the 



BOTANICAL DISCOVERT. XV 

5th December. During this time visits were made to several of the 
islands in the bay, and to the mainland ; but as it was impossible to go 
far from the coast, along which the vegetation was by no means varied, 
not many plants were collected, only seventy-seven being credited to 
the locality in Solander's manuscripts. 

Leaving the Bay of Islands, Cook continued his survey of the coast 
to the North Cape, where he met with fierce and prolonged gales of such 
exceptional character that three weeks were occupied in rounding it. 
He then proceeded southwards along the western coast, but its danger- 
ously open character prevented him from making a close approach. 
He consequently failed to observe any of the harbours — Hokianga, 
Kaipara, Manukau, Kawhia, &c. — and, as no canoes were seen, there 
was no intercourse with the inhabitants. He passed Mount Egmont 
on the 13th January, entered Cook Strait on the 15th, and on the 16th 
anchored in Queen Charlotte Sound, in the northern portion of the 
South Island. In this locality he made a stay of three weeks, taking 
advantage of his visit to careen and clean his ship, to lay in a stock of 
wood and water, and to give his crew the welcome change of a diet 
of fresh fish and green vegetables. He remarks that Queen Charlotte 
Sound " is a collection of some of the finest harbours in the world," 
and that " the Cove in which we lay, called Ship Cove, is not inferior 
to any in the Sound, both in point of Security and other Conveniences." 
He also says that the land " consists wholly of high hills and deep 
Valleys, well stored with a variety of excellent Timber, fit for all purposes 
except Ship's Masts, for which use it is too hard and heavy." The 
collection of plants made was larger than that formed in any other 
locality, numbering 220 species. 

Taking his departure from Queen Charlotte Sound on the 7th 
February, Cook first took a run northwards to Cape Turnagain, thus 
completing his survey of the North Island. He then turned to the 
south, passing down the east coast of the South Island. On the 
17th February he rounded Banks Peninsula, which he took to be an 
island ; on the 25th February he was off Cape Saunders ; and on the 
10th March he was abreast of the south end of Stewart Island, which he 
assumed to be a peninsula connected with the mainland by a narrow 
neck. On the 13th he passed the entrance to Dusky Sound, from 
whence he followed the western coast northwards, reaching Cape 
Farewell on the 24th March, and thus completing the circumnavigation 
of the South Island. On the 27th he put into Admiralty Bay, to the 
west of Queen Charlotte Sound, for the purpose of again renewing 
his stock of wood and water, and on the 31st he left New Zealand, 
steering a course for the east coast of Australia. 

In 1771 Cook returned to England. The natural-history col- 
lections, which were the property of Sir Joseph Banks, containedj^a 
large amount of material ; but no work has ever been published 
treating of them as a whole. The plants had for the most part been 



HISTORY OF 



fully described by Solander at the time of collection, and coloured 
drawings prepared of many of the species. Little additional labour 
was therefore required to prepare the results for publication. Evi- 
dently Banks intended that this should be done, for at his own 
expense he had 700 plates engraved on copper, and Solander's manu- 
script descriptions were revised and systematically arranged. The 
New Zealand portion, which was entitled " Primitiae Florae Novae 
Zealandise," contained descriptions of nearly 360 species, illustrated 
by over 200 plates, and was practically ready for the press. Why it 
was not actually published is by no means clear, but the suggestion 
has been made that publication was at first delayed by the prepara- 
tions made by Banks and Solander to accompany Cook in his second 
voyage, a project which was ultimately abandoned ; and that a more 
serious interruption was caused by Solander's somewhat sudden death 
in 1782. After his companion's decease. Banks became more and 
more occupied with his duties as President of the Royal Society, and 
as an organizer and promoter of scientific research, and the idea of 
publication appears to have been abandoned. As stated in the pre- 
face, a type-written copy of Solander's descriptions and a set of im- 
pressions from the plates have been liberally furnished by the Trus- 
tees of the British Museum for use in the preparation of this work. Of 
their scientific value I cannot speak too highly ; and it is a matter for 
regret that they were not presented to the world 125 years ago. It 
is, however, some satisfaction to know that the botanical results of 
the whole voyage are now, after this long delay, being issued vmder 
the auspices of the British Museum, and under the careful editing of 
Mr. Britten. 

On the 9th April, 1772, Cook left England for his second voyage, 
the expedition consisting of two ships, the " Resolution " under his 
own command, and the " Adventure " under that of Captain Fur- 
neaux. John Reinhold Forster and his son George Forster, both 
well-known botanists, accompanied him in the capacity of naturalists, 
and were joined at the Cape of Good Hope by Dr. Sparrmann, also a 
botanist of repute, and a former pupil of Linnaeus. After several 
months had been spent in an unsuccessful search for a southern con- 
tinent, Cook made sail for the south of New Zealand. During the 
voyage he was accidentally separated from the " Adventure," and 
failing to rejoin her put into Dusky Sound, the entrance to which 
had been noticed in his first voyage. He remained there from the 26th 
March, 1773, to the 1st May, mainly for the purpose of refitting, and to 
give his crew a rest after the months of incessant buffeting experienced 
in high southern latitudes. During his stay many boat voyages were 
made to various parts of the Sound, and a careful survey was made 
of it. The two Forsters devoted much of their time to botanizing, 
but their collections were by no means so large as might have been 
expected, considering what a productive locality Dusky Sound has 



BOTANICAL DISCOVERT. 



proved to be in later years. Among the plants gathered were Olearia 
operina, Celmisia holosericea, Gentiana saxosa and G. montana, and 
Cordyline indivisa. 

From Dusky Sound the " Eesolution " proceeded northwards to 
Queen Charlotte Sound, which was reached on the 18th May. Here she 
rejoined the " Adventure," which had arrived on the 7th April. Both 
vessels left on the 7th June, in the first place for a cruise to the south- 
east of New Zealand, in further search for a southern continent, and 
then for eastern Polynesia. In October Cook again directed his course 
to New Zealand. Making the coast of the North Island near Table 
Cape, he steered to the south, stopping near Cape Kidnappers 
to give pigs and fowls to some Natives that came off to his ship. 
Up to this time the two vessels had been in company, but off Cape 
Palliser exceptionally severe weather was encountered, and they sepa- 
rated. The " Resolution " proceeded to Queen Charlotte Sound, 
which had been appointed a place of rendezvous, and remained there 
waiting for her consort from the 3rd November to the 25th, when 
Cook left for a cruise to the Antarctic Ocean. Five days after 
his departure the " Adventure " arrived, and remained until the 23rd 
December. During this stay an unfortunate dispute arose with the 
Maoris, which led to the massacre of a boat's crew of ten men. After 
a year's explorations in various parts of the Pacific, Cook once more 
returned to New Zealand, anchoring in his favourite resort. Queen 
Charlotte Sound, on the 19th October, 1774. His stay was but short, 
and on the 10th November he left on his return voyage, reaching 
Plymouth on the 30th July, 1775. 

From the above sketch it will be seen that the only localities bot- 
anized in during Cook's second voyage were Queen Charlotte Sound, 
which had already been explored by Banks and Solander, and Dusky 
Sound. But a much longer period was spent in harbour and on shore 
than during the previous voyage, and the collections ought to have 
been quite as extensive. Instead of this, they were much smaller, 
the total number of flowering-plants and ferns not exceeding 180 
species. Sets of these were distributed to several public and private 
herbaria, unfortunately in a somewhat careless manner as regards the 
nomenclature, thus causing many mistakes and much confusion. 
Within twelve months after their return the two Forsters conjointly 
issued a work entitled " Characteres Genera Plantarum," in which 
seventy-five new genera were shortly described and illustrated, 
thirty-one of them being from New Zealand. The book is interesting 
on account of containing the first published descriptions of New Zea- 
land plants, but otherwise is most disappointing. The descriptions 
are short and meagre, and the illustrations so badly executed as to 
be practically useless. In 1786 George Forster published his " Florulge 
Insularum AustraUum Prodromus," which contains diagnoses of 594 
species, about 170 of which have New Zealand assigned as a habitat. 



XVUl HISTORY OF 

As in the preceding work, the descriptions are short and unsatisfactory, 
and nsually quite insufficient for the proper identification of the species. 
In the same year he also issued a little tract entitled " De Plantis 
Esculentis Insularum Oceani Australis Commentatio Botanica," 
which includes full descriptions and much curious information respect- 
ing the esculent plants, fifty-four in number, observed during the 
voyage, fourteen of which were from New Zealand. These three 
publications, together with a short essay, " De Plantis Magellanicis 
et Atlanticis," which contains no reference to New Zealand, appear 
to be the whole of the matter written by the Forsters respecting the 
botany of Cook's second voyage. 

Cook's third and last voyage can be passed over with a few words. 
He left England on the 12th July, 1776, and after visiting the Cape of 
Good Hope, Kerguelen's Island, and Tasmania, reached his favourite 
anchorage in Queen Charlotte Sound on the 12th February, 1777, this 
being his fifth visit to the locality. His stay was brief, and on the 25th 
February he finally left New Zealand. Cook's surgeon, Mr. W. Ander- 
son, had some knowledge of natural history, and his description of 
Queen Charlotte Sound, printed in Hawkesworth's " Cook's Third 
Voyage " (Vol. i., p. 145), contains an excellent account of the vegeta- 
tion. His collections, however, were small and unimportant. 

In 1791, Captain Vancouver, in command of the " Discovery," 
accompanied by Captain Broughton in the " Chatham," visited Dusky 
Sound, making a stay of nearly three weeks. The surgeon to the 
expedition, Archibald Menzies, devoted himself to the higher crypto- 
gams, and made a large collection of ferns, mosses, and Hepatica;. 
Many of his specimens were figured by Sir W. J. Hooker in the " Musci 
Exotici " or " Icones Filicum," together with a few flowering -plants in 
the " Icones Plantarum." A set of his collections is in the British 
Museum Herbarium, and another at Kew. 

The first of the French voyages of discovery to touch at New 
Zealand was that of Captain De Surville, in the " Saint Jean Baptiste." 
De Surville arrived off Doubtless Bay in December, 1769, only three 
days after Cook had passed the same locality on his way to the North 
Cape. He remained three weeks at anchor in Mongonui Harbour, 
and was most hospitably treated by the Maoris, a hospitality which 
he returned by burning one of their villages and destroying their 
canoes, apparently because he suspected them of stealing a boat which 
had accidentally got adrift. I cannot learn that any natural-history 
collections were made during this visit. 

In 1772 an expedition consisting of two vessels, the " Mascarin " 
and the " Marquis de Castries," under the command of Marion du 
Fresne and Duclesmeur, arrived off Cape Egmont. Proceeding north- 
wards, and failing to find a harbour, the ships rounded the North Cape, 
and eventually anchored in the Bay of Islands, where a stay of over 
two months was made. Marion and his people were welcomed with_ 



BOTANICAL DISCOVERT. XlX 

such apparent cordiality by the Maoris that no suspicions of treacherous 
conduct were aroused. They were thus quite unprepared for the 
sudden attack which was made upon them, and which resulted, as is 
well known, in the massacre of Marion and nearly thirty of his crew. 
A graphic account of this unfortunate incident is given in the journal 
of Crozet, upon whom the command devolved after Marion's death. 
The same journal contains an excellent sketch of the natural productions 
of the country, in which many references are made to the vegetation ; 
but, as in De Surville's expedition, no collections were made. 

In 1824 the surveying corvette " Coquille," under the command 
of Captain Duperrey, arrived at the Bay of Islands, and remained 
for nearly a fortnight. Two naturalists were on board. Lieutenant 
D'Urville (afterwards Admiral D'Urviile), an ardent botanical collector, 
and M. Lesson, both of whom made collections of some extent. 
In the beginning of 1827 D'Urville revisited New Zealand in command 
of the same vessel, renamed the " Astrolabe." He was again accom- 
panied by Lesson, and also by Quoy and Gaimard as zoologists. First 
sighting the coast of the South Island near Greymouth, he proceeded 
northwards, and, rounding Cape Farewell, entered Cook Strait. A 
secure anchorage was found on the west side of Tasman Bay, between 
the mouth of the Motueka River and Separation Point, in which he 
remained for a week, forming important collections. He then crossed 
to the east side of Tasman Bay, and discovered the strait separating 
D'Urville Island from the mainland, known to this day as " the French 
Pass." Several days were occupied in surveying this passage, during 
which time both the botanical and zoological collections were added 
to. D'Urville then sailed through Cook Strait, and followed the 
east coast of the North Island to Tolaga Bay, where a brief stay was 
made. Continuing his voyage, he rounded the East Cape, crossed 
the Bay of Plenty, and, passing to the north of the Great Barrier Island, 
arrived at Whangarei Heads, Avhere he remained for two or three days. 
Turning southwards, he passed Cape Rodney and Tiritiri Island, and 
anchored at the entrance to Auckland Harbour, of which little was 
known at that time. He landed on both the northern and southern 
banks of the Waitemata, and, having sent a boat up the Tamaki River 
as far as the present township of Otahuhu, some of his men were guided 
by the Maoris across the narrow isthmus to the head of the Manukau 
Harbour. D'Urville left Auckland Harbour by the Waiheke Channel, 
passed between the Great and Little Barrier Islands, and after a cruise 
to the North Cape returned to the Bay of Islands. On the 18th March 
he finally left New Zealand, having spent a little more than two months 
on its shores. 

After the " Astrolabe " had returned to Europe the scientific 
results of the voyage were published in elaborate style under the 
auspices of the French Government. The botanical portion was 
undertaken by A. Richard, one of the leading botanists of his time, 



XX HISTORY OF 

and was issued iii 1832, under the title of " Essai d'une Flore de la 
Nouvelle Zelande," accompanied by a folio atlas of plates. Richard 
included not only the species collected in the two expeditions of Duperrey 
and D'Unalle, but also most of those obtained by Forster in Cook's 
second voyage. Altogether 380 species are enumerated, 211 of which 
are pheenogams and 169 cryptogams, 51 of the latter being ferns. 
It is the first publication dealing with the flora of New Zealand as a 
whole, and possesses considerable merit, so much so that it is to be 
regretted that so little use of it has been made by New Zealand 
botanists. 

Early in the nineteenth century a trading intercourse sprang up 
between the North Island and Sydney, and by degrees a small European 
settlement began to form at the Bay of Islands. This led to occasional 
visits from colonial botanists and explorers, and much additional 
information was thus obtained respecting the flora. In 1825 Mr. 
Charles Eraser, Government Botanist and Superintendent of the 
Sydney Botanical Gardens, landed for a day in the Bay of Islands, 
and made a small collection of plants. In 1826 his successor, the 
indefatigable Allan Cunningham, paid a visit of over five months' 
duration. Through the assistance afforded by the resident missionaries 
he was able to explore the greater part of the Bay of Islands district, 
and to visit Whangaroa and Hokianga, making extensive and valuable 
collections. In 1833 his brother, Richard Cunningham, arrived in 
H.M.S. " Buffalo," which had been sent to New Zealand by the Ad- 
miralty to obtain a cargo of kauri spars for experimental purposes. 
He also spent nearly five months in travelling through the Bay of 
Islands, Whangaroa, and Hokianga districts. In 1838 Allan Cunning- 
ham paid a second visit, remaining at the Bay of Islands through the 
whole of the winter and early spring ; but the precarious state of his 
health prevented all active work, and his collections were consequently 
small. He returned to Australia in October, 1838, utterly exhausted 
and worn out, as his biographer says, " by twenty-five years of un- 
wearied exertions and laborious travel," and after lingering a few 
months, died at Sydney in June, 1839. 

During a short visit to England, Allan Cunningham had prepared 
for publication a sketch of the Flora of New Zealand, entitled " Florae 
Insularum Novse Zealandise Precursor ; or, A Specimen of the Botany 
of the Islands of New Zealand." The first part of this work appeared 
in the " Companion to the Botanical Magazine," Vol. ii. ; the remaining 
portions in the " Annals and Magazine of Natural History," Vols. i. 
to iv. In it Cumiingham enumerates the whole of the species published 
by Forster and A. Richard, including also some of Banks and Solander's 
plants which had been described by other botanists. To these he adds 
the new species discovered during his first visit and that of Richard 
Cunningham. Altogether the " Precursor " includes the names of 639 
species, of which 394 are phaenogams and 245_^cryptogams.|j^ Although 



BOTANICAL DISCOVERY. XXI 

containing much valuable information, it bears evident marks of hasty 
preparation, and can hardly be considered an adequate memorial of 
its enthusiastic and talented author. The herbarium of both the 
Cunninghams is now preserved at Kew. 

Mr. J. C. Bidwill visited New Zealand for the first time in 1839, 
and after a short stay at the Bay of Islands proceeded to the Bay of 
Plenty, from whence he journeyed to Rotorua and Taupo. Crossing 
Lake Taupo he reached Lake Rotoaira ; and, using the Native village 
there as a base of operations, succeeded in exploring the spurs of 
Tongariro and in ascending the cone of Ngauruhoe, being the first 
European to accomplish the feat. He returned by way of Rotorua, 
Tauranga, and the Thames Valley. His collections, which were for- 
warded to Sir W. J. Hooker, were the first made in the mountainous 
interior of the North Island, and contained several interesting dis- 
coveries, as Veronica tetragona, Dacrydium laxijolium, Senecio Bid- 
willii, Dracophyllum recurvum, &c. A few years later he visited the 
mountains of Nelson, forming a very interesting collection of mountain- 
plants, which were also forwarded to Sir W. J. Hooker. 

In the years 1839-40-41, Dr. Ernest Dieffenbach made extensive 
travels in New Zealand as naturalist to the New Zealand Company, 
In addition to an examination of the whole of the northern peninsula, 
from the North Cape to Auckland, he travelled along the western 
coast to Raglan and Kawhia, and, crossing to the Waipa Valley, followed 
the western bank of the Waikato River to Lake Taupo. A project to 
ascend Tongariro and Ruapehu was frustrated by the opposition of 
the Maoris, and he returned to Auckland by way of Rotorua, Tauranga, 
and the Thames Valley. During another journey he explored a large 
part of the Taranaki District, and was the first European to ascend 
Moimt Egmont. He also visited Wellington, Wanganui, and Kapiti 
Island, and spent some time in the exploration of Queen Charlotte 
Sound, Cloudy Bay, and the whaling-stations on the north-east coast 
of the South Island. Finally, he paid a visit to the Chatham Islands, 
and brought away the first plants collected in that outlying dependency 
of the colony. On his return to England Dieifenbach published his 
" Travels in New Zealand," the two volumes of which are replete 
with interesting matter relating to the flora, fauna, and Native 
inhabitants. His botanical collections were presented to the Kew 
Herbarium, but, according to Sir J. D. Hooker, they are " most 
scanty, compared with the great extent of interesting ground he 
passed over." 

In July, 1840, the French corvette " L'Aube " arrived at the Bay 
of Islands, and after a brief stay proceeded to Akaroa, remaining there 
until November, 1841. In January, 1842, " L'Aube " was replaced 
by " L'Allier," which was stationed at Akaroa until January, 1843. 
The surgeon attached to these two vessels, M. E. Raoul, made excellent 
collections, mainly at Akaroa, and, as he was the first botanist to 



XXli HISTORY OF 

investigate the flora of the eastern side of the South Island, many of 
his plants were altogether new. Raoul first of all published his dis- 
coveries in the " Annales des Sciences Naturelles " (Series III., Vol. ii.), 
but subsequently he prepared a work of wider scope under the name 
of " Choix de Plantes de la Nouvelle Zelande," illustrated with thirty 
beautiful plates. In it he reprints the descriptions previously pub- 
lished in the Annales, and gives an enumeration of the known sp 'cies 
of the flora, including about 950 species, of which rather more 
than 500 are flowering-plants. But he accepted all Cunningham's 
species, many of which were not well founded, and also included no 
small number of synonyms and introduced plants. If these are elimi- 
nated, his list will be reduced to under 800. Raoul's services to New 
Zealand botany have been well commemorated in the genus Raoulia, 
dedicated to him by Sir J. D. Hooker. 

In the year 1837 an elaborately organized expedition, consisting 
of the corvettes "Astrolabe" and "Zelee," under the command of 
Admiral D'Urville, was despatched by the French Government for the 
purpose of exploration in the Antarctic regions. The expedition visited 
the Auckland Islands during 1839, when M. Hombron, who acted as 
botanist, made a collection of plants, the first formed in the locality. 
The official record of the voyage, which appeared under the title of 
" Voyage au Pole Sud et dans I'Oceanie," contains a folio atlas of 
botanical plates prepared under the direction of M. Hombron, and two 
volumes of descriptive matter ; one including the Cryptogamia, by 
Montaigne, the other the phaenogams, by Decaisne. Drawings and 
descriptions were given of several species from the Auckland Islands ; 
but all, or nearly all, had been already described in Hooker's Flora 
Antarctica, presently to be alluded to. 

About the same period, the well-known American Exploring Ex- 
pedition, under the command of Captain Wilkes, visited both the Bay 
of Islands and the Auckland Islands. Several naturalists were attached 
to the expedition, and collections of considerable importance were 
formed. After Wilkes's return, and after many delays, the botanical 
collections were intrusted to the eminent American botanist, Asa 
Gray. An account of the phsenogams ultimately appeared (in 1854) 
in two volumes quarto, with a folio atlas of 100 plates. The number of 
New Zealand plants enumerated is not large, but Asa Gray's critical 
and descriptive remarks are in many cases of considerable value. 

We now arrive at the Antarctic Expedition of Sir James Clark 
Ross, which left England in September, 1839, for the purpose of in- 
vestigating the phenomena of terrestrial magnetism in high southern 
latitudes, and of prosecuting geographical discovery in the Antarctic 
regions. It consisted of two vessels, the " Erebus," commanded by 
Ross, and the " Terror," under Captain Crozier. To the first-mentioned 
vessel Dr. (now Sir J. D.) Hooker was attached as assistant surgeon 
and naturalist, whilst Dr. Lyall served in a similar capacity on the 



BOTANICAL DISCOVERY. XXlll 

" Terror." After calling at the Cape of Good Hope, Kerguelen's 
Island, and Tasmania, the expedition arrived at the Auckland Islands 
on the 20th November, 1840, remaining until the 12th December. On 
the 13th December it reached Campbell Island, leaving again on the 
17th for a cruise to the Antarctic Circle and the south polar regions. 
Although the Auckland Islands had been visited by D'Urville and 
Wilkes during the previous year, nothing had been published respect- 
ing the vegetation, and with characteristic ardour Hooker devoted 
himself to its exploration. The luxuriance of the flora and the re- 
latively large proportion of plants with brilliant and conspicuous 
flowers at once attracted attention. Hooker goes so far as to say, 
when writing of Bulhinella Rossii, " Perhaps no group of islands on 
the surface of the globe, of the same limited extent and so perfectly 
isolated, can boast of three such beautiful plants, peculiar to their 
flora, as the Pleurophyllum speciosmn, Celmisia vernicosa, and the sub- 
ject of the foregoing description." Under such circumstances the 
scrutiny given to the vegetation was keen and almost exhaustive, as 
evidenced by the fact that but few additions have been made by later 
explorers. The first volume of the " Flora Antarctica," prepared by 
Hooker after his return to England, and issued in 1844, is confined 
to the flora of the Auckland and Campbell Islands. It contains 
descriptions of 100 species of flowering-plants and twenty ferns and 
fern - allies, together with numerous mosses, Hepaticce, and other 
cryptogams, and is illustrated with eighty beautifully prepared 
plates, fifty-six of which are of phsenogams. Altogether, it is a 
splendid monument of painstaking exploration and research, and 
it seems almost incredible that the observations and material on 
which it is founded should have been collected in less than a month. 

After the discovery of Victoria Land in the summer of 1840-41 
Sir James Eoss returned to Tasmania, proceeding from thence to the 
Bay of Islands, which was reached on the 14th August, 1841. Here 
the expedition remained until the 23rd November. During this period 
Sir J. D. Hooker was actively engaged in collecting materials for his 
projected " Flora of New Zealand," receiving much assistance from 
Mr. Colenso and other residents. He remarks that his collections 
" contained no novelty amongst flowering-plants not known to Mr. 
Colenso and Dr. Sinclair, with whom I spent many happy days. 
Amongst cryptogamic plants I collected much that was then new, 
but most of the species have since been found elsewhere." 

With the departure of the Antarctic Expedition in 1841 the first 
period of botanical discovery in New Zealand — that of investigation 
by visitors from abroad^ may be said to have closed ; for, although 
several scientific expeditions, such as the " Novara," " Challenger," 
&c., have since visited the colony, they have done little in the way of 
botanical research. Since 1841 the advance which has been made is 
almost whoUv due to the efiorts of the colonists themselves. 



HISTORY OF 



The foremost place among resident botanists and explorers must 
be granted to the Eev. W. Colenso, both on account of the number and 
variety of his discoveries, and the ardour with which, for a period of 
no less than sixty-five years, he continued to observe and to collect 
facts and specimens in almost all branches of natural science, always 
giving the leading place to botany. Arriving in New Zealand in 1834, 
he was induced, first by the visit of the illustrious Darwin in the 
" Beagle " in 1835, and later by Allan Cunningham in 1838, to take 
up the study of the botany of his adopted country, forwarding his 
specimens from time to time to Sir W. J. Hooker at Kew. At first his 
collections were confined to the district between Whangarei and the 
North Cape, but he soon enlarged his field of operations. Space will 
not permit of a full account of his many journeys, which practically 
covered the whole length of the North Island, but the following were the 
most important. In 1841-42 he travelled on foot from Hicks Bay to 
Poverty Bay, and from thence inland through the rugged and almost 
inaccessible Urewera Country to Lake Waikaremoana, which he was 
the first European traveller to reach. He then crossed the Te Whaiti 
Mountains to Ruatahuna, from whence he proceeded to Rotorua and 
Tauranga. Striking inland again, he followed the upper Thames 
Valley to its head, and, crossing to the Waikato River, canoed a hundred 
miles down the river to its mouth. From thence he followed the 
west coast to the Kaipara Harbour, then again made for the east 
coast at Mangawai, finally reaching the Bay of Islands by way of 
Whangarei and Whangaruru. In 1843 he journeyed from Hicks 
Bay to Poverty Bay, and thence by sea to Castle Point. From that 
locality he proceeded to Ahuriri (Hawke's Bay) and the Wairoa River, 
which he ascended to Waikaremoana, returning by way of Rotorua 
and Tauranga. In 1844 he transferred his residence from the Bay 
of Islands to Hawke's Bay, and in the following year made his first 
expedition to the summit of the Ruahine Range, finding there a harv^est 
of previously unknoMm alpine and subalpine plants. In 1847 he 
travelled by way of Titiokura and the Mohaka River to Taupo and 
Inland Patea, passing along the flanks of Tongariro and Ruapehu, 
and returning to Hawke's Bay over the Ruahine Range, which he was 
the first European to cross. These journeys and many others, all 
made on foot, with a few Native companions only, and often under 
circumstances of great privation and no little danger, are evidence 
of the ardour and enthusiasm with which Mr. Colenso carried on his 
botanical explorations in the early days of the colony. Nor did his 
zeal diminish with age, for the Transactions of the New Zealand Institute 
contain papers written by him describing plants collected during a 
journey made to the flanks of the Ruahine Range in his eighty -fifth 
year. In addition to numerous writings on the Maori race, on which 
he was for many years the chief authority, Mr. Colenso contributed 
no less than fifty-nine papers on botanical subjects to the Transactions 



BOTANICAL DISCOVERY. XXV 

of the New Zealand Institute. Very few volumes, from the foundation 
of the Institute to the time of his death, are without a communication 
from his pen. It is true that in his later descriptive writings he adopted 
views as to the circumscription of species which are in conflict with 
those held by all other New Zealand botanists, and thus introduced 
a vast number of synonyms into the flora ; but that is a circumstance 
which must not detract from the recognition of his undoubted services 
to the botany of New Zealand. 

Dr. Andrew Sinclair was originally a surgeon in the Eoyal Navy, 
and first became known as a botanist from the collections he made 
while attached to the surveying expedition of H.M.S. " Sulphur " 
to the Pacific coasts of North and South America. He first visited 
New Zealand in 1841, during the stay of the Antarctic Expedition 
at the Bay of Islands, and accompanied Sir J. D. Hooker and Mr. 
Colenso in numerous botanical expeditions. Returning to Australia, 
he met with Captain Fitzroy, who was then on his way to New Zealand 
as Governor, and who engaged him as private secretary. Not long 
after his arrival in the colony he was appointed to the post of Colonial 
Secretary, which he retained for several years. His leisure time was 
almost entirely devoted to botanical pursuits, and he collected largely 
in most parts of the North Island, transmitting copious suites of 
specimens to Kew, where they constituted a large part of the material 
used by Hooker in the elaboration of the " Flora Novae Zealandiae." 
After the establishment of parliamentary government in New Zealand 
Dr. Sinclair vacated his position, and after a brief sojourn in England 
returned to New Zealand, with the intention of devoting himself to 
botanical work. After a short stay in Auckland he proceeded to Nelson, 
where he made important collections, adding many species to the 
alpine flora. He then repaired to Canterbury, and joined the late 
Sir Julius Haast in the geological and botanical survey then being 
made of the Southern Alps. There, in the year 1861, he was unfortu- 
nately drowned in an imprudent attempt to ford the Rangitata River. 
Although he never published anything of importance on New Zealand 
plants, his name will always be remembered as one of the pioneers of 
botanical discovery in the colony. 

In the years 1847-51, H.M.S. " Acheron," under the command of 
Captain Stokes, was engaged in the survey of the coast-line of New 
Zealand, and especially of the western and south-western portions. 
Captain Stokes was accompanied as surgeon-naturalist by Dr. Lyall, 
who had served in a similar capacity in H.M.S. " Terror " in the 
Antarctic Expedition, and who made large collections, especially of 
Cryptogamia. Milford Sound, Chalky Inlet, Dusky Bay, Preser- 
vation Inlet, and both shores of Foveaux Strait were the chief 
localities botanized in by Lyall during this expedition. Among 
the plants collected were the first specimens of the magnificent 
Ranunculus Lyallii. 



HISTORY OF 



In 1853 there appeared the first volume, containing the flowering- 
plants, of Sir J. D. Hooker's " Flora Novae Zealandise " ; the second 
volume, including the cryptogams, following in 1855. The publication 
of this important work, in every way worthy of the reputation of itji 
distinguished author, marked a new era in the history of the botany 
of New Zealand. For the first time the student was provided with 
an account of the flora characterized by aptness of description and 
accuracy of detail, and prepared by a botanist who had not only 
studied and collected a large proportion of the species in their native 
habitats, but whose position gave him ample opportunities of examining 
the material upon which the publications of his predecessors were 
founded. Under such advantages, the synonyms and false species 
incorrectly included by previous writers disappeared, and the flora 
assumed more of its real proportions and extent. Altogether, the 
" Flora " contains descriptions of 1,767 species, or more than double 
the number given in the last previous enumeration, that of Raoul in the 
" Choix de Plantes." Of the total number, 731 are flowering-plants 
and 119 ferns or fern-allies, the remainder falling into other orders 
of Cryptogamia. The value of the work is much enhanced by the 
130 carefully prepared plates which accompany it, and by the philo- 
sophic Introductory Essay dealing with the affinities and distribution 
of the species. 

The eleven years subsequent to the publication of the " Flora " 
formed a period of great activity in botanical research in the colony. 
This was mainly due to the rapid settlement of the South Island, 
which led to the exploration of the central range of mountains, from 
Nelson to Otago, and the consequent discovery of the rich alpine 
flora existing thereon. The earhest worker in this field was Sir D. 
Monro, the first of whose contributions was received at Kew while 
the " Flora " was in progress. He explored a large part of north- 
eastern Nelson and Marlborough, making many capital discoveries, 
such as the magnificent Olearia insignis, Helichrysum coralloides, 
Celmisia Monroi, Sefiecio Monroi, &c. His sole publication, so far 
as I can learn, is an interesting essay on the Geographical Botany of 
Nelson and Marlborough, printed in the first volume of the Transactions 
of the New Zealand Institute. 

Mr. W. T. L. Travers arrived in Nelson in 1849. About 1854 he 
took up the study of the alpine flora of the South Island, making many 
excursions into remote and little-explored districts, and forming 
copious collections, the whole of which were forwarded to Kew. Among 
the localities botanized over by him were the upper Buller Valley, 
including Lakes Rotoiti and Rotoroa ; the whole of the Wairau Valley, 
from the mouth of the river to its sources in the rugged Spenser Moun- 
tains ; the upper Clarence Valley, with its tributaries ; the Waiau 
and Hurunui Valleys, with the adjacent mountains ; also the Canter- 
bury Plains and various parts of Banks Peninsula. His discoveries 



BOTANICAL DISCOVERY. XXVll 

included many singular and prominent species, and the genus Traversia 
(now reduced to Senecio) was named in his honour by Sir J. D. Hooker. 
He contributed many papers and addresses more or less relating to 
the botany of the colony to the Transactions of the New Zealand 
Institute, and was an earnest and assiduous supporter of botanical 
research up to the time of his death in 1903. 

The well-known geologist and explorer Sir Julius Haast first 
landed at Auckland in 1858. Meeting Dr. Hochstetter, the geologist 
to the " Novara " expedition, he travelled with him through the 
greater part of the interior of the North Island, subsequently visit- 
ing portions of the Nelson District. After Hochstetter's departure, 
he accepted an engagement from the Nelson Provincial Government 
to explore the western and southern portions of the province, a work 
which occupied the greater portion of 1860, and during which he 
became familiar with the alpine vegetation of that part of the colony. 
In the following year he was appointed geologist for the Province 
of Canterbury, and at once commenced a series of expeditions into 
the then little-known Southern Alps for the purpose of studying their 
geology and physical structure, and of forming botanical and zoo- 
logical collections. The botanical results, with which we are alone 
concerned, proved to be most important, and cast a flood of light 
on the nature and distribution of the alpine flora of the colony. I 
quite concur with Sir J. D. Hooker's opinion that it is difficult to 
imagine how Sir Julius Haast, with so many and such arduous duties 
as surveyor and geologist, could have personally effected so much for 
botany as he has done. Most of his botanical work was performed 
in the years between 1860 and 1870, but his interest in the subject 
remained undiminished until his death in 1887. His name is appro- 
priately commemorated in the genus Haastia, the three or four species 
of which rank amongst the most curious and remarkable in the flora. 
His collections were either forwarded to Kew or distributed among 
European museums, but few being retained in the colony. 

Dr. Lauder Lindsay, a well-known British botanist, visited New 
Zealand in the summer of 1861-62, and spent nearly four months 
in investigating the botany of eastern Otago, the district examined 
stretching from Dunedin to the mouth of the Clutha River, and inland 
to Tuapeka. The results of his journey were published in 1868 under 
the title of ".Contributions to New Zealand Kotany," with four coloured 
plates. Dr. Lindsay gives the total number of species collected at 
612, of which 199 were phsenogams and 413 cryptogams. The memoir 
contains much information of value, the critical notes in particular 
being copious and interesting. 

Mr. John Buchanan arrived in New Zealand prior to 1860, taking 
up his residence in Dunedin. He at once commenced an assiduous 
study of the native vegetation, making many important discoveries 
and collecting large suites of specimens. In 1862 he accepted the 



Xxviii HISTORY OF 

appointment of draughtsman and botanist to the Geological Survey 
of Otago, then being organized by Dr. (now Sir James) Hector. Kl 
the two or three years immediately following he accompanied Sir 
James Hector in a succession of adventurous journeys, during which 
a great part of central and western Otago was visited and explored. 
The collections made, which were mostly forwarded to Kew, contained 
many interesting and remarkable discoveries, among which may 
be mentioned Ranunculus Buchanani, Pachycladon novce-zealandioB, 
Hectordla ccespitosa, Azorella exigua, Celmisia ramulosa, Veronica 
Buchanani, &c. In 1865 Mr. Buchanan prepared his " Sketch of the 
Botany of Otago," the first local Flora issued in the colony, and a work 
of considerable merit, evidencing much industrious research. It was 
written at the request of the Commissioners of the New Zealand Ex- 
hibition of 1865, but was not actually published until 1869, when it 
appeared in the first volume of the Transactions of the New Zealand 
Institute. On the establishment of the Geological Survey of New 
Zealand in 1866 he was appointed draughtsman and botanist, and 
removed to Wellington. He was successively engaged in botanical 
explorations of the North Auckland Peninsula, the Kaikoura Mountains, 
and Mount Egmont, some interesting notes on the two last-mentioned 
districts being printed in Vol. x. of the Journal of the Linnean Society. 
In 1873 he published a valuable paper on the flora of the Wellington 
Provincial District ; followed in 1874 by his " Flowering-plants and 
Ferns of the Chatham Islands," based on the collections made by Mr. 
H. H. Travers in 1863 and 1871. His most important work, published 
in 1880, is the " Indigenous Grasses of New Zealand," a folio volume 
of nearly two hundred pages, illustrated with sixty-four lithographic 
plates. It contains descriptions of the whole of the species then known 
to inhabit New Zealand, together with notes on their economic value, 
distribution, &c. Mr. Buchanan's contributions to New Zealand 
botany include forty separate papers, stretching through twenty 
volumes of the Transactions of the New Zealand Institute. His last 
communication appeared in 1887, after which persistent ill health 
compelled him to give up botanical work. His death took place in 
1898. His earlier collections were mostly forwarded to Kew, but in 
later years he formed an extensive herbarium for the Colonial Museum. 
His private collections, drawings and analyses, manuscript notes, &c., 
were bequeathed to the dtago University Museum. 

No account of the history of botanical discovery in New Zealand 
would be complete without reference to the labours of Sir James 
Hector, the first Director of the Geological Surv^ey and Manager of 
the New Zealand Institute. Arriving in the colony in 1861, his first 
duty was a geological and topographical exploration of the Province 
of Otago, a work which at that time involved many difficulties and 
hardships, and no small amount of danger. As previously mentioned, 
he obtained the services of Mr. Buchanan as collector and artist ; 



BOTANICAI- DISCOVERT. 



but his own share in the work of botanical exploration was by no means 
small. That he fully grasped the leading features of plant-distribution 
in the South Island is evidenced by his essay " On the Geographical 
Botany of New Zealand," printed in the first volume of the Transactions 
of the New Zealand Institute. After his removal to Wellington in 
1866, the official duties appertaining to the Geological Survey and 
Colonial Museum, &c., left little time for botanical research ; but he 
has never missed an opportunity of promoting the efforts of others. 
In fact, it can be said that from the time of his arrival in the colony 
up to the present day no attempt has been made to investigate its 
flora which has not had his countenance and support. His services 
to botanical science are fitly commemorated in the remarkable endemic 
genus Hectorella, and in the magnificent Senecio Hectori, one of the 
finest of the arborescent Compositce of the colony. 

In 1863 Mr. H. H. Travers visited the Chatham Islands for the 
purpose of investigating its flora, at that time only known from a few 
plants collected by Dr. E. Diefienbach in 1840. He remained in the 
group for several months, and succeeded, in forming large collec- 
tions. On his return these were placed in the hands of the late 
Baron Mueller, of Melbourne, who published the results in his " Vege- 
tation of the Chatham Islands," issued in 1864. In it Baron Mueller 
enumerates 129 species, of which sixty-two are phsenogams and sixty- 
seven cryptogams. Seven new species were described. The work 
forms an important addition to the botanical Uterature of the colony, 
but New Zealand botanists entirely repudiate the peculiar views enter- 
tained by the author respecting the circumscription of many of the 
species. For instance, he merges the whole of the species of Veronica 
found in the Chathams, together with thirteen others from New Zealand, 
into one collective species, to which he gives the new name of F. Forsteri. 
An excellent account of Mr. Travers' s visit was contributed by himself 
to the first volume of the Transactions of the New Zealand Institute. 
In 1871 he again visited the group, adding largely to his previous 
list. On this occasion his collections were worked out by Mr. Buchanan 
in his paper on " The Flowering-plants and Ferns of the Chatham 
Islands." Mr. H. H. Travers has also made collections on the Tararua 
Mountains, the Nelson mountains, and in other localities. 

The important discoveries made in the interior of the South Island 
during the ten years following the pubhcation of the " Flora Novae 
Zealandiae," and the increasing demand for a concise and inexpensive 
accoimt of the plants of the colony, induced the New Zealand Govern- 
ment to make arrangements with Sir J. D. Hooker for the publication 
of such a work. The first part, containing the flowering-plants and 
ferns, appeared in 1864, under the title of " Handbook of the New 
Zealand Flora " ; the concluding part, comprising the mosses, Heqmticce, 
and lower cryptogams, foUowed in 1867. Its pubhcation at once 
showed the great advance which had been made in elucidating the 



XXX HISTORY OF 

flora. The 731 species of flowering-plants and 119 ferns known in 1863 
were increased to 935 and 135 respectively, an increase of nearly 
one-quarter ; while the additional information obtained with regard 
to the distribution of the species was correspondingly large. The 
general plan of the work was in accordance with that recommended 
by Sir W. J. Hooker for a uniform series of floras of the British Colonies, 
a project which has been to a considerable extent carried out. In 
point of execution, the " Handbook " realised all the expectations 
which could have been entertained. The clearness and excellence 
of the descriptions and their general accuracy are most noteworthy, 
especially when it is considered that a large proportion of the species 
have been examined and described by the author alone. Its pubhcation 
gave an immense impetus to the study of the indigenous vegetation, 
and it must always remain the foundation for future systematic work 
on the botany of the colony. 

The number of persons who have collected plants or pubhshed 
memoirs relating to New Zealand botany during the forty years which 
have elapsed since the publication of the " Handbook " is so large that 
I can only allude to the chief workers here. The first place must be 
accorded to Mr. T. Kirk, both from the number of his discoveries 
and the importance of his publications. Arriving in the colony in 
1863, he at once devoted himself to its botany, his first discoveries 
being briefly mentioned in the appendix to the second part of the " Hand- 
book.'.' For ten years after his arrival he resided in Auckland, his 
chief explorations during that period being that of the Great Barrier 
Island in 1867, of the north-eastern coast of the northern peninsula 
in 1868, of the Thames Goldfields in 1869. of the Waikato district 
in 1870, and of the Rotorua and Taupo districts in 1872. Among 
the numerous species added to the flora by these journeys are the 
following : Pittosporum Kirkii, Pseudopanax discolor, Coprosma 
arbor ea, Olearia Allomii, Dacrydium Kirkii, Phyllocladus glauca, and 
Isoetes Kirkii. In 1874 Mr. Kirk removed to Wellington, occupying 
firstly the position of Lecturer on Natural Science at Welhngton 
College, and at a later date that of Chief Conservator of State Forests. 
In the performance of the duties of the latter office he travelled through 
the greater part of both the North and South Islands, and these journeys 
were always employed to the furtherance of botanical science. After 
his retirement from the State Forests Department he made a lengthened 
exploration of Stewart Island, detecting several novelties, among them 
the superb Olearia Traillii. In 1890 he paid a \asit to the Auckland 
and Campbell Islands, adding several species to their flora. During the 
same voyage he landed on the Snares and Antipodes Islands, the 
vegetation of which was previously cjuite unknown. The results of 
this expedition were embodied in a memoir printed in the Eeport of 
the Australasian Association for 1891. Mr. Kirk was a voluminous 
writer, and his contributions to New Zealand botany, mostly printed 



BOTANICAL DISCOVERT. XXXI 

in the Transactions of the New Zealand Institute, number nearly a 
hundred and fifty. His most important completed work is " The 
Forest Flora of New Zealand," issued in 1889. Its primary object was 
to diffuse a knowledge of the forest resources of the colony and to describe 
the chief methods of timber working and conversion. It contains 
much information on the economic value and uses of the New Zealand 
timbers, together with descriptions of the species, and is illustrated 
with 150 plates. In 1894 he was commissioned by the New Zealand 
Government to prepare a Flora of the colony, a work for which he had 
long been collecting material, and for which his wide personal knowledge 
of the vegetation of the country gave him exceptional quahfications. 
He entered upon the work with characteristic energy and , ardour ; 
but, unfortunately, his health gradually failed, and after several serious 
illnesses he died in March, 1897. That portion of his work which was 
in a sufficiently complete state at the time of his death, comprising 
the PolypetalcB, and the Monopetalce as far as the Composilj^, was issued 
from the Government Printing Press in 1899. Although printed 
without the advantage of the author's supervision, and without the 
introductory and supplementary matter usually given in such pubh- 
cations, it shows very clearly the loss which botanical science has 
suffered through his decease, and all students will regret that he did 
not live to complete the work for which he had made so many pre- 
parations. 

I do not propose to say anything in regard to my own researches 
into the flora, beyond stating that they have extended continuously 
from the year 1870 to the present time, and include an examination 
of almost the whole colony, from the Kermadec Islands and the North 
Cape to Otago. A list of my papers on botanical subjects will be 
found in Mr. Hamilton's Bibliography, printed in Vol. xxxvi. of the 
Transactions of the New Zealand Institute (pp. 342-72). 

In the years 1874 and 1875 Dr. Sven Berggren, of the University 
of Lund, Sweden, made an extended visit to New Zealand, travelUng 
through the greater portion of both Islands, and making large col- 
lections, especially of cryptogams. The new species of flowering- 
plants were described and beautifully illustrated in a memoir published 
in 1877 in the Proceedings of the University of Lund. The AlgcB have 
been worked out by Dr. Nordstedt and the late Professor J. G. Aghard, 
while scattered memoirs relating to other orders of cryptogams have 
been published from time to time by Dr. Berggren himself. 

From 1875 to the present time many important contributions 
to our knowledge of the flora of the colony have been made by Mr, 
D. Petrie, formerly Chief Inspector of Schools for Otago, and now 
holding a similar position in Auckland. During a residence of more 
than twenty years in Otago he sedulously investigated the vegetation 
of the eastern, central, and southern portions of the province, ascending 
many of the mountains, and forming large collections, especially 



XXXII HISTORY OF 

of the rarer alpine and subalpine plants. Among the species added 
by hini to the flora are Ranunculus Berggreni, Carmichcelia compacta 
and C. Petriei, Coprosma virescens and C. Petriei, Olearia fragrantis- 
sima, Cdmisia prorepens and C. Petriei, Myosotis Goyeni, Tetra- 
chondra Hamiltoni, Veronica Petriei, Ourisia prorepens, &c. In com- 
pany with Mr. G. M. Thomson, he also visited Stewart Island, making 
several discoveries of interest, as Actinotus bellidioides, Liparophyllum 
Gunnii, Carex longiculmis, and Ekrharta Thomsoni. In 1895 Mr. 
Petrie pubUshed his " List of Flowering-plants indigenous to Otago," 
in which he catalogues the whole of the species, numbering over 760, 
observed by himself in Otago, giving at the same time particulars 
respecting the geographical and altitudinal range of the species. Alto- 
gether forty-four papers on botanical subjects are credited to Mr. 
Petrie in Mr. Hamilton's bibliography of New Zealand botanical 
literature. 

Mr. G. M. Thomson, of Dunedin, has also done excellent service 
towards the elucidation of the botany of Otago. As already mentioned, 
he accompanied Mr. Petrie in an exploration of Stewart Island, and 
has collected largely in the vicinity of Dunedin. Several papers on 
Otago plants have been contributed by him to the Transactions of 
the New Zealand Institute ; but probably the most interesting of his 
publications are two memoirs " On the Means of FertiUsation among 
some New Zealand Orchids " (Trans. N.Z. Inst., xi., 418) and " On 
the Fertilisation of New Zealand Plants " {Ibidem, xiii., 241). His 
work on the " Ferns and Fern-allies of New Zealand," issued in 1882, 
is an accurate and useful compendium, containing descriptions of 
all the known species. He is also the author of an " Introductory 
Class-book of Botany," which has been largely used in New Zealand 
schools. 

Mr. J. F. Armstrong, for many years resident in Christchurch, 
has collected largely in the Province of Canterbury, and has published 
several papers of value. Among them are his " Sketch of the Flora 
of the Province of Canterbury " (Trans. N.Z. Inst., xii., 325) and 
" Synopsis of the New Zealand Species of Veronica " {Ibidem, xiii. 
344), the latter pubhcation containing descriptions of several new 
species. He also founded the genus Corallospartium for the reception 
of the remarkable plant first described by Sir J. D. Hooker under the 
name of Carmichcelia crassicaulis. 

The Right Rev. W. L. WilUams, Bishop of Waiapu, has for thirty 
years given special attention to the botany of the East Cape and 
Hawke's Bay Districts, carefully noting the chief features of the 
vegetation, and collecting copiously. Among his discoveries may be 
mentioned the remarkable CarmichcBlia Williamsii, one of the most 
local plants in the colony. Mr. Kirk's paper on the Botany of the 
East Cape District (Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxix., 509) is largely founded 
on Bishop WiUiams's specimens and notes. The collection of Maori 



|BOTANirAL DISrOVRRY. XXXIU 

plant-names is also a subject to which he has devoted much time and 
labour, and the list appended to this work is in great measure due 
to his friendly co-operation. 

Mr. A. Hamilton, the present Director of the Colonial Museum, 
made an interesting collection of plants at Okarito in 1878, which 
included several novelties. Among them was the remarkable species 
described by Hooker as Ewphrasia disperma, which has since been 
taken bv Wettstein as the type of his genus Anagosperma. At a 
later date he botanized in the Hawke's Bay District, along the flanks 
of the Ruahine Range, and elsewhere on the eastern side of the North 
Island. In 1894 he visited Macquarie Island, and, although much 
hindered by exceptionally severe weather and other untoward circum- 
stances, succeeded in adding considerably to our knowledge of the 
botany of the island. A list of the plants collected will be found in his 
'' Notes on a Visit to Macquarie Island " (Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxvii., 559). 

Mr. H. Hill, of Napier, has also collected largely in the Hawke's Bay 
and East Cape districts. Many of his specimens were communicated 
to Mr. Colenso, and were described by that gentleman as new species. 
He was the first to find the widely distributed Peperomia refiexa in 
the colony, and to rediscover the plant to which the name of Veronica 
Colensoi was originally applied by Hooker. 

Mr. J. D. Enys. for several years resident at Castle Hill, in the 
middle portion of the Waimakariri basin, and a keen observer in many 
branches of natural science, made large collections in the Canter- 
bury Alps in the years between 1874 and 1890. Among his discoveries 
)nay be mentioned Banunculus Enysii and R. paucifolius, Carmichwlia 
Enysii, Ligusticum Enysii, Botrychium lunaria, &c. He also paid 
a visit to the Chatham Islands, bringing back a few interesting plants, 
among which were the first specimens of the endemic Sonchus grandi- 
folius. His collections were for the most part communicated either 
to Mr. Kirk or myself. 

Mr. James Adams, of Thames, has botanized in several parts of both 
the North and South Islands, making several interesting discoveries, 
the chief of which are Celmisia Adamsii, Loranthus Adamsii, and Myo- 
sotis aniahilis. His papers on the Botanv of Te Aroha Mountain 
(Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvii., 275) ; on the Botany of Te Moehau {Ibid., 
xxi., 32); and the Botany of Hikurangi Mountain (Ibid., xxx., 414); 
contain much interesting matter bearing on the distribution of the 
New Zealand flora. 

Mr. F. R. Chapman (now Mr. Justice Chapman) has collected in 
Otago, and in 1890 visited the iVuckland Islands and other islands to 
the south of New Zealand. His paper on " The Outlying Islands 
South of New Zealand " contains much valuable information of a 
botanical nature. He has also published two papers containing 
descriptions of certain new species of Celmisia (Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxii., 
444 ; and xxiii.. 407). 
ii-Fl. 



XXXIV HISTORY OP 

Professor J. H. Scott, of Dunedin, vibited Macquarie Island in 
1880. « On his return he pubHshed an excellent account of the fauna 
and flora (Trans. N.Z. Inst., xv., 484), including a catalogue of the 
plants observed by him. 

Among others who have interested themselves with New Zealand 
botany between the pubUcation of the " Handbook " and the year 
1895 may be mentioned the late Mr. Justice GiUies, Captain Hutton, 
T. H. Potts, C. Traill, S. Percy Smith, J. Rutland, P. Goyen, Captain 
G. Mair, A. T. Urquhart, H. Tryon, Archdeacon Walsh, T. W. Kirk, 
J. W. Hall, J. Tennant, and J. Baber. 

In 1896 Dr. L. Diels, of BerUn, published in Engler's Botanical 
Year-book a paper entitled " Vegetations-biologie von Neu-Seeland," 
which deserves special mention on account of being the first at- 
tempt to prepare an account of the flora of the colony from an 
oecological standpoint. Although based entirely on herbarium ma- 
terial and on the observations of other botanists and collectors, and 
consequently containing errors both of omission and commission, it 
is nevertheless a work of considerable originality and merit, and is 
well worth the attention of all students of the flora. 

Since 1897 by far the most important contributions to our knowledge 
of the New Zealand flora have been made by Dr. L. Cockayne, and I 
regret that only brief mention can be made of his work here. In three 
papers " On the Seedling Forms of New Zealand Phanerogams and 
their Development " (Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxxi., 354 ; xxxii., 83 ; and 
xxiii., 264) he describes with considerable detail the seedling leaves of 
many New Zealand plants, giving numerous figures, and in several 
instances tracing the gradual development of the foliage into the 
mature stage. Much information is given respecting the Ufe-history 
of the species treated of, particularly in the genera Carmichcelia and 
Veronica. In the latter genus, most of the species with scale-like 
leaves are very fully discussed, and their early foliage described. In 
a paper on the " Plant-geography of the Waimakariri River-basin " 
(Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxxii., 95) Dr. Cockayne makes the first attempt 
in the colony to treat the flora of a district from an oecological point of 
view. It was followed by his " Account of the Plant-covering of 
Chatham Island " (Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxxiv., 242), a publication which 
has thrown a flood of Hght on the nature and composition of the flora 
of this seldom-visited appanage of New Zealand. Lastly, the volume 
of Transactions for 1904 contains an elaborate paper on " An Excursion 
to the Southern Islands of New Zealand," in which he not only gives 
a detailed account of the " plant-formations " which make up the 
flora of the islands visited, but also contributes a list of the flowering- 
plants and ferns, and a sketch of the physiographv. geology, climate, 
&c. These papers, which mark an entirely new epoch in the history 
of botanical investigation in New Zealand, will induce all students 
of the flora to look forward with impatience for the appearance of the 



BOTANICAT, DISCOVERY. XXXV 

general work on the plant-geography of New Zealand which it is under- 
stood that Dr. Cockayne has in preparation. 

The very important researches made by Professor A. P. W. Thomas 
into the life-history of Phylloglossum, summarised in his " Preliminary 
Account of the Prothallium of Phylloglossum " (Proc. Roy. Soc. 
Vol. Ixix., pp. 285-91) deserve special mention ; as also his suggestiv? 
paper on " The Affinity of Tmesipteris with the Sphenophyllales 
{Ibid., p. 343-50). The more detailed information promised with 
respect to both these communications will be eagerly looked forward 
to by New Zealand botanists. 

During the last five years, Mr. W. Townson, of Westport, has 
diligently explored the greater portion of south-western Nelson, from 
the Mokihinui River southwards to the Grey River, repeatedly ascend- 
ing all the higher peaks of the coast ranges, as Mount Frederic, Mount 
Rochfort, Mount WiUiam, Mount Faraday, Mount Buckland, &c. 
He has also visited the Lyell Mountains, and many of the high peaks 
flanking the Buller Valley, as far up the river as Mount Murchison 
and Mount Owen. Most of this large district had never been carefully 
examined for plants, and Mr. Townson has consequently reaped a 
rich harvest of novelties, most of which are described in this work. 
Among them are Aciphylla Townsoni, Cdmisia dubia, Dracophyllum 
Townsoni and D. pubescens, Gentiana Townsoni, Veronica divergens 
and F. coarctata, and the interesting new genus of Orchidew which I 
have named in his honour Townsonia. Mr. Townson's specimens, 
which have been collected with great care and judgment, have been 
mainly forwarded to me for the purposes of this work, and have proved 
of much service in determining many questions relating to the geo- 
graphical range of the species. 

Mr. H. J. Matthews, the present head of the Forestry Department, 
has collected in many parts of the colony, adding largely to our know- 
ledge of the range of the species, and obtaining a few novelties, notably 
the beautiful Ranunculus Matthewsii, described in the appendix to 
this work. He has also done excellent service in forming an extensive 
collection of living plants in his garden at Dunedin, especially of the 
rarer alpine and subalpine species. If this collection is maintained 
and extended, it will prove invaluable for affording the means of 
leisurely study and comparison in difficult genera like Veronica and 
Celmisia, &c. 

Mr. F. G. Gibbs, of Nelson, has done excellent work during the last 
ten years in the Nelson District, both on the Dun Mountain Range 
and on the chain of mountains extending northwards from Mount 
Arthur to Collingwood. Among his special discoveries are the curious 
Veronica Gibhsii, Gentiana vernicosa, Celmisia Gibbsii, &c. 

The Marlborough District has been carefully and closely examined 
by Mr. J. H. Macmahon, who has made several finds of importance, 
especially in the neighbourhood of Mount Stokes. Celmisia Mac- 



XXXVI HISTORY OF BOTANICAL DISCOVERT 

mahoni, C. Rutlandii, and Veronica rigidula ?re interesting novelties 
first observed by him. 

Mr. K. H. Matthews, of Kaitaia, has assiduously collected in most 
parts of Mongonui County, paying special attention to the Orchidece. 
He has added Corysanthes Matthewsii and Chiloglottis formicifera to 
the flora, and has succeeded in refinding Pittosporum obcordatum, 
which for sixty years after its original discovery by Raoul had eluded 
the search of New Zealand botanists. 

Mr. H. Carse, now resident in Mongonui County, has botanized in 
several portions of the Auckland Provincial District. He has given 
special attention to the CyperacecB, adding Schcpnus Carsei and Lepi- 
dosperma filifonne to the list of those already known to occur in the 
colonv. He was also the first to observe the curious little plant which 
I have provisionally described under the name of Trithuria inconspicua. 

For several years Mr. F. A. D. Cox has carefully investigated the 
flora of the Chatham Islands, obtaining much new information relating 
to the distribution and environment of the species, and collecting a 
few novelties. His specimens, often accompanied by valuable notes, 
have been forwarded to Mr. Kirk, Dr. Cockayne, and myself. 

Other recent workers are R. Helms, R. J. Kingsley, J. Dall, D. W. 
Bryant, Elsdon Best, E. W. Andrews, J. B. Simpson, H. Nairn, J. R. 
Annabell, J. B. Lee, and T. P. Arnold. 

In the preceding sketch I have made no attempt to include the 
names of those authors who have published general works or special 
monographs in which New Zealand plants are casually mentioned or 
described. Nor have I mentioned the labours of those who have 
attended solely to the lower cryptogams, a branch of the flora which 
is outside the scope of the present work. 



MANUAL 



NEW ZEALAND FLORA. 



Order I. RANUNCULACE.^. 

Annual or perennial herbs, rarely shrubs or woody climbers. 
Leaves all radical or alternate, seldom opposite (Clematis). 
Stipules wanting, or adnate to the petiole. Flowers regular or 
irregular, hermaphrodite or more rarely unisexual. Sepals 3 or 
more, usually 5. deciduous, often petaloid, imbricate (valvate in 
Clematis). Petals the same number as the sepals or more, hypogy- 
nous, free, imbricate, sometimes wanting. Stamens hypogynous, 
usually very numerous ; anthers adnate. Carpels generally many, 
free, 1-celled ; ovules one or several, attached to the ventral suture, 
anatropous. Fruit of numerous 1-seeded indehiscent achenes or 
many-seeded follicles, rarely a berry. Seeds small ; embryo minute, 
at the base of copious albumen. 

A large order, most abundant in temperate regions ; rare within the tropics. 
Genera 30 ; species about 550. Most of the species are acrid, and many are 
poisonous. Aconite and Hellebore being familiar examples. All the New Zea- 
land genera are widely distributed in temperate climates. 

Woody climbers with opposite compound leaves. Sepals 

petaloid, valvate. Petals wanting . . . . . . 1. Clematis. 

Minute herbs with radical linear leaves. Petals wanting. 
Carpels with a single pendulous ovule. Achenes in an 
elongated spike . . . . . . . . . . 2. Myosurus. 

Herbs. Sepals deciduous. Petals 3 to many. Carpels 
with a single erect ovule . . . . . . . . 3. Ranunculus. 

Herbs with radical sagittate leaves. Sepals petaloid. 
Petals wanting. Carpels with several ovules . . . . 4. Caltha. 

1. CLEMATIS, Linn. 

Climbing undershrubs with slender flexuous branches, rarely 
dwarf and prostrate. Leaves opposite, usually ternately divided 
iuto 3 stalked leaflets, which are either entire or more often 
variously lobed or cut ; petioles often twining. Flowers in few- or 
many-flowered axillary panicles, dioecious in the New Zealand 
species. Sepals 4-8, petaloid, valvate in the bud. Petals wanting. 

1— Fl. 



2 KANUNCULA.CE^. [Clematis. 

Stamens many. Carpels numerous, each with one pendulous ovule. 
Fruit a head of sessile achenes, in all the New Zealand species pro- 
duced into long feathery persistent styles. 

A genus of over 100 species, found in most temperate climates, rare in the 
tropics. The New Zealand species are all endemic, and all possess once- or 
twice-ternately divided leaves and dioecious flowers, the males without any 
carpels, the females usually with a few imperfect stamens. Most of them vary 
greatly in the foliage, especially the large-leaved species. These in their normal 
state have 3-foliolate leaves with the leaflets toothed or lobed, but all run into 
varieties in which the leaves are biternate or decompound, the ultimate segments 
being much reduced in size. These forms are most difficult of discrimination, 
especially when in a flowerless condition, and some of them, are probably not 
permanent states. 

A. Sepals white. 
Large and stout. Leaflets usually entire. Flowers 2-4 in. 

diam. . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. C indivisa. 

Slender, pale-green. Leaflets toothed or lobed. Flowers 

1-1^ in. diam. . . . . . . . . . . 2. C. hexasepala. 

Small, slender. Leaflets pinnate or pinnately divided. 

Flowers ^1 in. diam. . . . . . . . . 3. C. australis. 

B. Sepals yelloioish or greenish yelloiu [purplish in C. quadribracteolata). 
' Sepals usually 6 (5-8). Leaflets usually large and well developed. 

Slender. Leaflets glabrous or nearly so, toothed or lobed. 
Flowers greenish-yellow. Sepals silky . . . . 4. C. Colensoi. 

Stout. Leaflets coriaceous, pubescent, toothed or lobed. 
Flowers yellow. Sepals densely tomentose . . . . 5. C. fcetida. 

Slender. Leaflets thin, silky-pubescent, often entire. 
Flowers yellow. Sepals silky Anthers broad, tipped 
with a minute appendage . . . . . . . 6. C. parviflora 

** Sepals 4. Leaflets minute, wanting in C. afoliata. 
Usually leafless. Flowers greenish-white, ^-| in. diam. . . 7. C. afoliata. 
Slender, brownish-green. Leaflets minute, ^-^ in. long, 

entire or toothed. Flowers yellow, J in. diam. . . 8. C. marata. 

Very slender. Leaflets minute, usually linear. Flowers 

purplish, ^i in. diam. Sepals narrow-linear . . 9. C. quadribracteo- 

lata. 

1. 0. indivisa, Willd. S^). Plant, ii. 1291. — A large woody 
climber, often covering bushes or small trees. Stem stout, fre- 
quently as thick as a man's arm. Leaves 3-foliolate, coriaceous, 
glabrous; leaflets 1-4 in. long, all stalked, ovate-oblong or ovate- 
cordate, rarely narrower and linear-oblong, usually entire. 
Flowers in axillary panicles, most abundantly produced, large, 
white, 2-4 in. diam. Sepals 6-8, oblong. Anthers oblong, obtuse. 
Achenes numerous, downy, with a plumose tail often more than 
2 in. long. — A. Bich. Fl Nouv. Zel. 288 ; A. Gunn. Precur. n. 635 ; 
Baoul, Chotx, 47 ; Hook. f. Fl. N^v. Zel. i. 6; Handb. N.Z. Fl. 2 ; 
Kirk, Students Fl. 2 ; Hoolc. Bot. Mag. t. 4398 (a form with the 
leaflets lobed). C. integrifolia, Forst. Prodr. n. 231. 

Var. lobulata, Kirk, Students^ Fl. 2. — Leaflets lobed or even twice 
ternate. 

North and South Island.s, Stewart Island : Abundant throughout. 
Sea-level to 2500 ft. Puawhananga. August-November. 



Clematis.] ranunculace^. 3 

A variable plant, but easily recognised by its great size and large showy 
white flowers. The leaves are usually entire, but are occasionally lobulate, 
especially in young plants. Mr. Kirk's variety linearis, which has narrow- 
linear leaves, 4-6 in. long by barely § in. broad, appears to me to be only a 
transient juvenile form. 

2. C. hexasepala, D.C. Syst. i. 146. — Much smaller and more 
slender than (J. %ndwisa. Leaves S-foliolate, pale-green, coriaceous, 
j:;labrous ; leaflets 1-3 in. long, stalked, narrow ovate-oblong or 
ovate-cordate, acute or acuminate, usually irregularly toothed or 
lobed, rarely entire. Flowers numerous, 1-1^ in. diam., white. 
Sepals 6-8, linear-oblong, obtuse, downy. Anthers long, linear, 
obtuse. Achenes numerous, narrow-ovoid, pilose. — A. Gunn. 
Frecur. n. 637 ; Baoul, Ghoix, 47 ; Hooh. f. Handb. N.Z. FL 2 ; 
Kirk, Students' FL 3. C. hexapetala, Forst. Prodr. n. 230 ; 
A. Bich. FL. Nouv. Zel. 288. C. Forsteri, Gmel. Syst. 873. 
C. Colensoi, Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 6, t. 1 {?iot of Handb. N.Z. FL). 

North Island: From the Kaipara Harbour to Cook Strait; not uncommon, 
especially in the Upper Waikato and Taupo districts. South Island : Queen 
Charlotte Sound, Forster ; near Moutere (Nelson), T. F. C Recorded from 
Canterbury (Armstrong), Otago (Lindsay), and the Bluff Hill (Kirk). Piki- 
arero. September-November. 

Easily separated from C. indivisa by the smaller size, narrower pale- 
green leaves, which are almost always toothed, and by the smaller flowers. 

3. C. australis, T. Kirk, Students' FL 3. — Stems and branches 
slender, much branched, glabrous or pubescent at the tips. Leaves 
3-foliolate, glabrous, somewhat coriaceous (especially in the small- 
leaved forms) ; leaflets very variable in size, -^^-1 in. long, pinnate 
or pinnately lobed, segments or lobes usually again toothed or lobed. 
Flowers white, -J—l in. diam., m few-flowered panicles or solitary 
on long slender peduncles clustered in the axils of the leaves. 
Sepals 5-8', downy. x\chenes narrowed into the style, usually 
pilose, sometimes glabrous when fully mature. 

South Island : Hilly and mountain districts in Nelson and Canterbury, 
not uncommon. 500-3500 ft. November-January. 

A puzzling plant, large states of which can only be separated from 
C- hex/tsepala by the pinnately divided leaflets, while smaller forms come 
very nearly to C. Colensoi var. rutaefolia, from which, however, it can usually 
be distinguished by the larger white flowers and more pointed sepals. 

4. C. Colensoi, Hook. f. Handb. N.Z. FL 2. — Stems and 
branches slender, glabrous or silky at the tips. Leaves 3-folio- 
late, membranous or slightly coriaceous; leaflets stalked, ^1:^ in. 
long, crenate, unequally toothed or 3-lobed, or again ternately or 
pinnately divided. Flowers greenish-yellow, I— 1 in. diam., in few- 
or many-flowered panicles, or more usually solitary on slender 
peduncles fascicled in the axils of the leaves. Sepals 5-8, oblong, 
silky. Anthers linear. Achenes silky or sometimes nearly glabrous 
when msdure.— Kirk, Students' FL 3. C. hexasepala, Hook. f. 
FL Nov. ZeL i. 7 {not of D.G.). 



4 BANUKCULACEiE. [Clematis. 

Var. rutaefolia, Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 7. — Leaves biternate or bipin- 
nate ; secondary leaflets often stalked. Usually smaller than the type. 

North Island: Both varieties common about Wellington, and extending 
northward to Hawke's Bay and Cape Egmont. South Island: Nelson — 
Wairau Valley, Buller Valley, T. F. C. Canterburv^ — Kowai River, hetiie! 
Ashley Gorge, Cockayne ! Sea-level to 3000 ft. November-January. 

A variable plant, not always readily distinguishable from states of 
C. hexasepala or C. australis. 

5. C. foetida, Baoul, Choix, 23, t. 22. — Stems stout, woody ; 
branches numerous, mtertwined, often covering bushes or small 
trees ; young shoots clothed with fulvous pubescence. Leaves 
3-foliolate, slightly coriaceous, usually thinly pubescent on both 
surfaces, but often becoming glabrous when old; leaflets 1-2 in. 
long, all stalked, ovate or ovate-cordate, acute or acuminate, entire 
or irregularly toothed or lobed. Panicles large, much divided ; 
branches usually densely clothed with pale or fulvous tomentum. 
Flowers very numerous, small, ^— jin. diam., yellowish, strongly 
odorous but certamly not foetid. Sepals 6-8, Imear, obtuse or 
acute, densely tomentose on the outside. Anthers linear-oblong, 
obtuse. Achenes narrow-ovoid, very silky, narrowed into short 
plumose tails —Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 7 ; Handb. N.Z. Fl. 2 ; 
Kirk, Studcnis' Fl. 4. C. Parkinsoniana, Col. in Trans. N.Z. Inst. 
xii. (1880) 359; xiv. (1882) 331. 

North and South Islands : Not uncommon in lowland districts from the 
North Cape to the south of Otago. September-November. 

Varies considerably in size, texture, cutting of the leaves, degree of pubes- 
cence, &c. ; but can always be recognised by the pale or fulvous pubescence on 
the leaves, young shoots, and branches of the panicle, by the small yellow 
flowers, which are usually produced in enormous numbers, and by the dense 
tomentum on the sepals. The type specimens of Mr. Colenso's C. Parkin- 
soniana, preserved in his herbarium, show no points of difierence from the 
ordinary form of (>'. fcetida. 

6. C. parviflora, A. Cunn. Precur. n. 636. — More or less 
clothed with silky fulvous pubescence. Stems slender, wiry, not 
nearly so robust or so much branched as in the preceding species. 
Leaves 3-foliolate, thin and almost membranous, more rarely sub- 
coriaceous, tawny-pubescent, especially on the veins and under- 
surface ; leaflets i— l|^in. long, all stalked, ovate or ovate-cordate, 
usually entire but occasionally irregularly lobed, subacute. Panicles 
slender, branched ; rhachis and pedicels tawny-pubescent. Flowers 
su)all, I— fin. diam., yellowish. Sepals 6-8, linear, more or less 
clothed with silky pubescence. Anthers short and broad, oblong, 
with a minute appendage at the apex of the connective. Achenes 
narrow-ovoid, silkv. — Raoul, Choix, 47 ; Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. 
i. 7 ; Handb. N.Z.'FI. 2 ; Kirk, Students' Fl. 4. 

Var. depauperata, Hook. f. Handb. N.Z. Fl. 2. — Leaflets very small. 
Sepals narrowed into long slender points. 

Var. trilobata, Kirk, Students' Fl. 5. — Leaflets deeply 3-lobed ; lobes 
entire or cut. Flowers smaller. Sepals more pubescent. 



Clematis.'] kanunculace^. 5 

North Island : The typical form in various localities from the Three 
Kings Islands and the North Cape to Hawke's Bav, but often local. Var. 
trilobata : Bay of Islands, Kirk ! Northern Wairoa, T. F. 0. ; Te Aroha, 
T. F. C; between Gisborne and Napier, Bishop Williams! South Island: 
Var. depauperata : Nelson, Travers. Var. trilobaia : Okarita, A. Hamilton. 
Sea-level to 1500 ft. September-November. 

A handsome species, closely allied to G. fcetida, but at once distinguished 
by the smaller size, more slender habit, smaller and thinner usually entire 
leaflets, narrower silky sepals, and especially by the broad anthers, which have 
a minute swelling at the tip of the connective. I have not seen specimens of 
Hooker's var. depau-perata. 

7. C. afoliata, Bitch, in Trans. N.Z. Inst. lii. (1871) 211.— 
'Stems and branches leafless, wiry, striate, glabrous, often much 
intertwined. Leaves usually reduced to petioles in the mature 
plant, when present consisting of 3 minute long-stalked ovate or 
triangular leaflets ; m young plants njore frequently developed and 
rather larger. Flowers greenish-white, |— f in. diam., in fascicles 
■of 2-0 in the axils of the petioles ; peduncles slender, pilose, each 
with a pair of minute ovate bracteoles. Sepals 4, ovate- or oblong- 
lanceolate, usually acute, silky. Anthers linear. Achenes ovoid, 
silkv. — Kirk, Sticdents' Fl. 3. C. aphvlla, Gol. in Trans. N.Z. 
lyisi. xix. (1886) 259. 

North Island: Without locality, Colenso ! Puketapu (Hawke's Bay), 
H. Hill ! South Island : Various localities from Nelson to Otago, but local. 
Picton, /. Rutland ! Marlborough, Buchanan ; Hanmer Plains, U. J. Mat- 
theivs ! Waiau River, Kirk ; Canterbury Plains, N. T. Carnngton ! Waitaki 
Valley, Buchanan, Petrie ! Duntroon, I'etrie ! Sea-level to 2000 ft. Sep- 
tember-October. 

A very curious plant, often forming dense masses of intertwined steins 
and branches several feet in length. I have not seen flowering specimens of 
Mr. Colenso's C. aphylla, but the stems and branches show no difference from 
the common state of the species. 

8. C. marata, Arvistr. in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xiii. (1881) 335. — 
:Stems slender, much branched, often forming dense interlaced 
masses scrambling over busiies or among grass, brownish-green, 
pubescent, grooved. Leaves 3-foliolate, usually pubescent on both 
surfaces ; petioles variable in length, 1-4 in. ; leaflets small, -^-^-in. 
long, all stalked, exceedingly variable in shape, narrow-linear to 
•ovate, acute or obtuse, entire notched or lobed, or even again 
3-partite. Peduncles 1-flowered, solitary or 2-4 together in the 
axils of the leaves, pubescent. Bracteoles in 2 pairs, connate at 
the base, upper pair much the larger, often foliaceous. Flowers 
yellowish, small, |-f in. diam., sweet-scented. Sepals 4, linear- 
oblong, acute or obtuse, silky. Anthers linear. Achenes narrow, 
margined, silky or nearly glabrous when old, narrowed into rather 
long plumose tails. — Kirk, Students Ft. 4. 

North Island : Upper Thames Valley, from Te Aroha southwards, T. F. C, 
Petrie ! Taupo, T. F. C. ; East Cape, Kirk ; probably not uncommon in the 
interior. South Island : Apparently common throughout, Armstrong ! 
Buchanan! Kirk! &c. Sea-level to 3000 ft. September-November. 



6 EANUNCULACE^. {Myosrirtis, 

The brownish colour, slender habit, minute leaflets, and small flowers dis- 
tinguish this from all others except C. qiiadribracteolata, to which some forms- 
approach far toocloselv. A variety collected by Mr. Petrie at Tuapeka (Otago)- 
appears to be quite intermediate, and might almost be referred to either species. 
North Island specimens are usually more slender and have smaller leaflets than 
the southern ones. Some of Mr. Petrie's Otago specimens are remarkable 
for their large foliaceous bracteoles, which are linear- spathulate and some- 
times I in. long. 

9. C. quadribracteolata, Col. in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xiv. (1882) 
329. — Stems and branches very slender, branched, trailing, 1-3 ft.. 
long, glabrous except the very young shoots. Leaves few, trifolio- 
late ; petioles slender, 1-2 in. long; leaflets minute, ^-^ in. long,, 
usually Imear or lanceolate, but varying to linear-oblong, ovate- 
lanceolate, or triangular-acute, glabrous, entire or one or all 3-lobed. 
Peduncles solitary or 2-3 together in the axils of the leaves,, 
l-flowered, usually shorter than the petioles, pubescent ; bracteoles- 
2 or 3 pairs, connate, upper the largest, sheathing at the base^ 
rounded, obtuse. Flowers purplish, sweet-scented, ^— |in. diam. 
Sepals 4, linear or linear-olDlong, usually acute, silky. Anthers 
linear. Achenes small, almost glabrous when fully ripe, narrowed 
into short plumose tails. — Kirk, Students' Fl. 4. C. foetida var^ 
depauperata, Hook. f. Fi. Nov. Zel. i 7 ; Handb. N.Z. Fl. 2. 

North Island : Low grounds in the Hawke's Bay District ; Lake Rotoatara, 
Colenso ! Petane, .4. Hamilton! between the Ngaruroro and Tukituki Rivers, 
Sttirm 

This can only be separated from the preceding by its smaller size, more 
slender habit, narrower leaflets, purplish flowers, and narrower sepals. Further 
investigation may prove both to be forms of one variable plant. 

2. MYOSURUS, Linn. 

Annual herbs, of small size. Leaves all radical, linear, entire.. 
Scapes usually numerous, naked, 1-fiowered. Sepals 5, rarely- 
more, minutely spurred at the base. Petals wanting in the New 
Zealand species. Stamens 5-8. Carpels numerous ; ovules solitary^ 
pendulous. Achenes closely packed on a long and slender spike- 
like receptacle which usually lengthens much as they ripen, each 
with a raised nerve on the back, ending in a short persistent style. 

A small genus of only two species, one of which is widely spread in the north 
temperate zone, and is also found in Australia ; the other is known only from 
California, Chili, and New Zealand. 

1. M. aristatus, Benth. in Loud. Journ. Bot. vi. 459. — Varying, 
in sii^e from 1-3 in. Leaves numerous, 2^^ in. broad or even less, 
erect, linear or linear-spathulate. Scapes usually several, slender,, 
l-flowered. flower minute, yellowish, apetalous. Sepals 5, spur 
short. Stamens generally 5. Receptacle in fruit oblong or linear, 
|~f in. long ; achenes with a short beak. — Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. L 
8; Handb. N.Z. Fl. 3; Kirk, Students' Fl. 5. 



Hanuncuhis .] kanunculace^. 7 

North Island: Palliser Bay, Colenso ! Ocean beach near Wellington, 
Buchanan. South Island: Moist gravelly places near Lake Tekapo, T.F.C. 
Otago — Hyde, Beaumont, Speargrass Flat, Ida Valley, Lake Wanaka, Petrie ! 
Gimmerburn, Kirk ! Altitudinal range from sea-level to 2500 ft. 



3. RANUNCULUS, Linn. 

Herbs with petioled entire lobed or dissected leaves and yellow 
or white flowers. Sepals 3-5, deciduous. Petals usually about 5, 
but varying in number from 4 to 20, with 1-3 glandular pits or 
scales near the base. Stamens many. Carpels usually numerous ; 
styles short ; ovules solitary, ascending. Achenes numerous, 
1-seeded, collected into a globular or ovoid head, tipped with the 
persistent straight or recurved style. 

A large genus of about 175 species, dispersed over the whole world, but most 
numerous in temperate or cool regions. In New Zealand it forms a very con- 
spicuous portion of the mountain vegetation, especially in the South Island ; 
some of the species, as R. Lyallii a,nd R. iiisignis, being the finest known. Many 
of them are exceedingly variable and difficult of discrimination, especially in 
the section with compressed achenes. Of the 37 species known, 4 are found in 
Australia, 1 in Chili, and another in Kerguelen's Island ; the remaining 31 
are endemic. In addition to the native species, 8 or 9 from the Northern 
Hemisphere have become naturalised as weeds in pastures and waste places, the 
most abundant being R. bulbosns, L., B.. hirsnhis, Curt. {R. sa7-dous, Crantz), 
and the typical state of R. parvifld^-us, L. References to descriptions of these 
■will be found in the appendix. 

A. Stems tall, erect. Flowers large. Achenes villous or silky. 

* Flowers white. 

Leaves large, peltate, margins simply crenate . . . . 1. R. Lyallii. 

Leaves 3-5-partite or dissected ; segments usually linear 2. R. Buchanani. 

** Flowers yellow. 

Villous. Leaves rounded-cordate or reniform, crenate- 

lobed . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. R. insignis. 

Glabrous. Leaves broadly oblong, crenate. Achenes only 

slightly hairy . . . . . . . . ..4.2?. GocUeyanus. 

B. Stems erect, loithout creeping stolons. Achenes glabrotis, turgid or angled, 
not compressed or margined, never inuricate or tuberculate. 

* Stems usually stout, 4-16 in. high. Leaves broad, reniform to ovate, 
coarsely crenate or dentate. 

Leaves reniform to ovate. Scapes 1 -many -flowered. 

Petals twice as long as the sepals . . . . . . 5. i?. Monroi. 

Leaves rounded-reniform. Scape thickened above, seldom 
more than 1-fiowered. Petals hardly longer than the 
sepals . . . . . . . . . . . Q. R. pingnis. 

** Stems tall, slender. Leaves deeply cut and lobed. Petals narrow, 8-15. 

Pilose, stems 1-3 ft., many-flowered. Flowers l-l^in. 

diam. . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 . R. nivicola. 

^Glabrous or slightly pilose, stems 6-8 in., few-fio«ered. 

Flowers ^-1 in. diam. . . . . . . . . 8. B. geraniif alius. 



RANUNCULACE^. 



[Ranunculus. 



*** Stems short, simple. Leaves usually all radical. Scapes 1-flowered 
(1-3-flowered in R. Haastii, and sometimes 2-flowered in R. Enysii). 



Glabrous, 6-15 in. high. Leaves 3-5-foliolate. Scape* 1-5. 

Achenes ovoid ; style short, straight or curved . . 9. 

Pilose or nearly glabrous, 6-15 in. high. Leaves 3-5- 
partite. Achenes fusiform, narrovced into a long spirally 
recurved style . . . . . . . . . . 10. 

Short, stout, glabrous, almost stemless. Leaves all radical, 
fleshy or coriaceous, palmatipartite or 8-foliolate or 
3-5-lobed. 

Leave ■• few, coriaceous, palmatipartite ; segments 
laciniate. Scape l-3-flo\vered, with crowded laci- 
niate bracts under the flowers . . . . . . 11. 

Leaves biternately multifid, glaucous and fleshy ; seg- 
ments ^ in. long. Scape shorter than the leaves . . 12. 
Leaves many, 3-partite ; segments lobed. Scape 
shorter than the leaves . . . . . . 13. 

Leaves 1-3, 3-lobed; segments toothed or crenate. 
Scape longer than the leaves . . . . . . 14. 

Small. Leaves orbicular-reniform, 3-lobed to the 

middle; lobes crenate. Scape longer than the leaves 15. 
Small. Leaves trifoliolate, leaflets lobed or partite. 
Scape longer than the leaves . . . . . . 16. 

Stout or si nder ; silky, pilose, or glabi'ate. Leaves all radi- 
cal, pinnate, pinnatisect, or pinnately multifid. 

Stout. Leaves tripinnatisect, usually copiously silky. 
Scape stout. Flower large .. .. .. 17. 

Slender, almost glabrous. Leaves bipinnatisect or 
multifid ; segments very narrow. Scape slender. 
Flowers small . . . . . . . . . . IS. 

Slender, pilose. Leaves pinnate ; pinnae 3-lobed or 
-partite ; segments oblong or cuneate. Scape slender. 
Flowers small . . 



R. Enysii. 
R. te7iuicaulis. 



19. 



R. Haastii. 

R. crithmifolius 

R. chordorhizos. 

R. paucifolius. 

R. Berggreni. 

R. novcE - zea~ 
landice. 

R. sericophyllus.^ 

R. SiJiclairii. 

R. gracilipes. 



C. Stems not creeping. Achenes glabrous, compressed, with a thickened 
margin, not muricate. (Achenes sometimes obscurely compressed, but 
ahvays thinner than in the previous section. The margins are said to be 
not thickened in R. aucklandicus.) 

Stems branched, leafy, 6-24 in. high. Leaves trifoliolate 

or biternate. Sepals reflexed 
Small, stemless, 1 J in. high at most. Leaves rosulate, 

3-lobed or -partite, exceeding the flower 
Slender, .3-6 in. high. Leaves trifoliolate ; leaflets all 

stalked, obtuse. Achenes few, .3-5 
Stems short, simple. Leaves all radical, usually toothed 

or 3-5 lobed, rarely partite. Scapes 1-5, longer than 

the leaves. Sepals spreading 
Stems branched, hirsute, leafy. Leaves coarsely toothed 

or 3 lobed. Scapes radical and axillary, not exceeding 

the leaves . . 
Erect or suberect, clothed with short stiff appressed hairs. 

Leaves deltoid-cordate, 3-partite. Scapes 1-3-flowered, 

longer or shorter than the leaves. Sepals spreading 
Erect, clothed with strigose pubescence. Leaves rounded, 

3-partite. Scapes 1 or 2, each with 1-3 flowers 
Erect, strigose-hirsute. Leaves rounded-reniform, 3-part- 
ite. Scapes 1-3, 1-flowered. Achenes compressed, 

margins not thickened 



20. 



21. 



22. 



23. 



24. 



25. 



26. 



R. hirtus. 
R. recens. 
R. Kirkii. 

R. lappaceusr.. 

R. foliosus. 

R. subscaposus. 
R. Hectori. 



27. R. aucklandicus.. 



Banunculus .'] ranuncudace^. 9 

D. Stems creeping, or with creeping stolons. Achenes glabrotis, not muricate. 

Stems robust, branched, prostrate and rooting at the 

nodes. Leaves 3-toothed or -lobed. Scapes short, 

axillary . . . . . . . . . . . . 28. ZJ. Cheesemanii. 

Steins weak, mattsd, often rooting at the nodes. Leaves 

tufted, trifoliolate ; leaflets often again divided, small. 

Flowers minute . . . . . . . . . . 29. B. ternatifolius. 

Small, depressed, stoloniferous, 1^ in. high at most. 

Leaves ternatisect or multifid, segments narrow-linear. 

Scapes naked, 1-flowered ; flower small . . . . 30. R. depressus. 

Small, much depressed, Ih in. high at most. Eootstock 

creeping, much branched. Leaves cuneate. Scape 

1 flowered ; flower large .. .. .. .. 31. R. pachyrrhizus. 

Stems fistulose, creeping and rooting at the nodes. Leaves 

on petioles 6-18 in. long; blade 3-5-partite, l-2,Jin. 

diam., segments broad .. .. .. .. 32. R. macropus. 

Stems creeping and rooting at the nodes or floating. 

Leaves on petioles 1-6 in. long; blade ;3-5-partite, 

l^lj in. diam., segments usually narrow .. .. 33. R. rivularis. 

Stems creeping and matted. Leaves small, 3-foliolate. 

Scapes shorter than the leaves, 1-flowered . . . . 34. R. acaidis. 

Stems creeping and rooting at the nodes. Leaves fleshy, 

reniform, 3-lobed or -partite . . . . . . 35. i?. crassipes. 

Stems filiform, creeping and matted. Leaves linear-spathu- 

late, entire. Flowers minute, tetramerous . . . . 36. R. limosella. 

E. Achenes nmricate or tuberculate. 
Small, annual. Stems slender, branched. Flowers 

minute, almost sessile, opposite the leaves . . . . 37. R. parviflorus, 

var. australis. 

1. R. Lyallii, Hook. f. Haiidb. N.Z. Fl. 4. — A tall, erect, ex- 
ceedingly handsome plant, with a paniculately branched flowering- 
stem 1-4 fc. in height. Eootstock stout, with long fleshy roots. 
Eadical leaves on long stout petioles with broad silky sheathing 
bases; limb 6-15 in. diam., orbicular, peltate, concave, crenate, 
•coriaceous, glabrous or with a few weak hairs. Cauline leaves 
few, sessile, lower reniform, upper cuneate-rhomboid or oblong- 
cuneate, lobed and crenate. Leaves of young plants not peltate, 
reniform to rhomboid, cuneate at the base. Peduncles stout, 
villous, with 1-2 linear bracts. Flowers numerous, 2-3 in. diam.. 
white, more rarely cream-coloured. Sepals 5, broad, villous. Petals 
usually numerous, cuneate-obovate, with an obscure gland at the 
base. Stamens many, short ; anthers oblong. Receptacle oblong, 
cylindrical, hairy. Ripe achenes forming a head fin. diam., 
oblique, turgid, villous, narrowed into long slender flexuous styles. 
—Bot. Mag. t. 6888; Kirk, Students' Fl. 7. 

Var. Traversli. — Smaller. Leaves 5-7 in. diam., doubly crenate, and 
with two incisions near the base. Flowers cream-coloured. — R. Traversii, 
Hook. f. Handb. N.Z. Fl. 4 ; Kirk, Students' Fl. 7. 

South Island : Abundant in the central and western portions of the 
Southern Alps, from the Spenser Mountains to the south of Otago. Stewart 
Island : Mount Anglem, Kirk. Altitudinal range from 2000 to 5000 ft. No- 
vember-January. Var. Traversii : Hurunui Mountains, Canterbury, Travers. 



10 EANUNCULACEiE. [Banwnctilus, 

A magnificent plant, by far the finest of the genus ; so conamon in many 
portions of the Southern Alps that in summer the mountain-slopes are whitened 
from the abundance of the flowers. It has received many local names, as the 
"mountain lily," "shepherd's lily," " Mount Cook lily," &c. Its nearest ally 
outside New Zealand is R. Baiirii, MacOwan, from the Transvaal, which ha& 
peltate leaves 4-5 in. diam. and small yellow flowers. R. Travetsii does not 
seem to have been observed since its first discovery more than forty years ago. 
I have seen no specimens, but I am indebted to the Director of the Kew 
Herbarium for a drawing of the type specimen, which leaves no doubt in my 
mind that it is merely a local form of R. Lyallii. 

2. R. Buchanani, Hook. f. Handh. JV.Z. Fl. 5. — Stout, erect, 
more or less covered with long silky hairs, rarely almost glabrous. 
Eootstock thick, with numerous long fleshy rootlets. Eadical 
leaves on long petioles 2-6 in. long, with short and broad sheathing 
bases; blade reniform in outline, 2-6 in. diam., ternatisect, main 
divisions stalked, more or less deeply divided into linear or cuneate 
lobes, which are usually again 3-5-fid or -toothed, rarely entire. 
Cauline leaves similar, but usually more finely cut, sessile or nearly 
so. Flowers solitary or 2-3, large, white, 1^-2+ in. diam. Sepals 5, 
oblong, villous. Petals very numerous, linear-oblong, rounded at 
the apex, narrowed to the base ; gland solitary, basilar. Achenes 
turgid, pilose, forming a globose head -^in. diam. — Kirk, Students' 
Fl. ^8. 

South Island : Otago — Lake district, Buchanan ! Mounts Bonpland, Tyn- 
dall, and Aspiring, Petrie ! Bald Peak, B. C. Aston! Mount Earnslaw, 
H.J.Matthews! Altitudinal range 4000-6000 ft. December-January. 

A singular and beautiful plant, quite unlike any other, confined, so far as is 
known, to the high mountains i.o the west of the Otago lake district. The 
leaves are said to be sometimes nearly entire, and the flowers yellow, but I have 
not seen specimens showing these peculiarities. 

3. R. insignis, Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 8, t. 2. — A stout, erect, 
paniculately branched plant 1-3 ft. in height, usually villous in all 
its parts, iDrownish or rufous when dry. Eadical leaves numer- 
ous, large, on stout petioles with broad sheathing bases, thick and 
coriaceous, rounded-cordate or reniform, crenate and often shortly 
lobed, 4-9 in. diam. ; cauline smaller, upper ones cut and lobed. 
Peduncles often very numerous, stout ; bracts linear - oblong. 
Flowers golden-yellow, 1-2 in. diam. Sepals 5, woolly at the back. 
Petals 5-6, rarely more, obcordate, with 1 or 2 glands at the base. 
Stamens many, short. Eeceptacle oblong, pubescent, .\chenes. 
forming a rounded head -|in. diam., tumid, villous; style long, 
slender. — Handh. N.Z. Fl. 4 ; Kirk, Students' Fl. 7. E. ruahinicus, 
Col. in Trans. N.Z. Inst, xviii. (1886) 256. E. sychnopetala. 
Col. I.e. XXV. (1893) 324, and xxvi. (1894) 313 (a monstrous 
state with very numerous narrow petals). E. rufus. Col. I.e. 
xxviii. (1896) 591. 

Var. b, lobulatus, Kirk, Stude-nts^ Fl. 8. — Leaves membranous, suborbicu- 
lar, deeply lobed or sinuate, with a few weak hairs, rarely sub-peltate. 



Banunculus.] RANUNCULACEiE. 11 

North Island : High mountains of the interior, from the East Cape south- 
wards : Hikurangi ; mountains near Waikaremoana ; Tongariro and Ruapehu ; 
Ruahine Mountains ; Tararua Mountains. South Island : Nelson mountains, 
not uncommon as far south as Lake Tennyson, T. F. C. ; Kgikoura Moun- 
tains, Kirk. Var. b : Marlborough — Kowai River and Mount FySe, Kirk. 

A beautiful plant, varying much in size, stoutness, degree of hairiness, &c. 
I have seen no South Island specimens equalling in size and number of flowers 
those collected by Colenso more than fifty years ago on the Ruahine Mountains, 
a-d now preserved in his herbarium. Mr. Kirk's variety lobulatus is not in 
flower, and may prove distiuct. 

4. R. Godleyanus, Hook. f. Handh. N.Z. Fl. 723.— Stout, 
erect, glabrous, 1-2 ft. high. Leaves all radical, on thick fleshy- 
petioles 2-6 in. long by^-fin. diam. ; blade 3-6 in. long, broadly 
oblong, rounded at the apex, cordate rounded or cuneate at the 
base, coarsely crenate, fleshy or coriaceous; veins reticulate. Scape 
stout, usually longer than the leaves, naked below, bearing above 
the middle 2-4 large sessile or shortly stalked oblong or rounded 
bracts, from the axils of which proceed several simple or branched 
flowering peduncles, each of which usually bears 1-2 secondary 
bracts. Flowers numerous, large, 1-2 in. diam., golden-yellow. 
Sepals 5, broadly oblong. Petals 5, cuneate-obovate, emarginate, 
with 2-3 naked glands at the base. Eeceptacle broadly oblong, 
pilose ; achenes numerous, somewhat turgid, sparingly pilose or 
nearly glabrous, gradually narrowed into a slender curved style. — 
Kirk, Students' Fl. 8. 

South Island : Southern Alps, at Whitcombe's Pass, at the head-waters 
of the Rakaia River, alt. 4000ft., Haast ! Armstrong! Enys ! Mount Cook, 
Herb. Petrie ! 

A remarkable species, apparently with a very restricted distribution. All 
the specimens I have seen are more or less imperfect, with the exception of 
two gathered by Enys, and not one of them shows perfectly ripe achenes. 

5. R, Monroi, Hook. f. FL Nov. Zel. h. 323.— Short, stout, 
4-12 in. high or more, more or less silky-villous or almost glabrous. 
Eootstock short, clothed with the persistent bases of the old leaf- 
sheaths. Leaves all radical, on short stout petioles with broad 
sheatlhng bases, coriaceous or almost fleshy, sometimes thinner and 
submembranous ; blade variable in outline, 1-4 in. diam., reniform 
rounded or ovate, cordate or rounded at the base, coarsely crenate 
or crenate-lobulate. Scapes simple or sparingly branched, 1-3- 
flowered ; bracts entire or deeply lobed. Flowers yellow, ^-1 in. 
diam., rarely more. Sepals 5, linear-oblong, obtuse, glabrous or 
silky. Petals 5-8, almost twice as long as the sepals, narrow 
obovate-cuneate, each with a single glandular pit at the base. 
Achenes numerous, forming a small globose head, usually glabrous, 
turgid, keeled at the back ; style straight or recurved. — Kirk, 
Students FL 9. R. pinguis var. a. Hook. f. Handb. N.Z. FL 5. 
H. Muelleri, Buch. in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xix. (1887) 215, t. 16. 



12 EANUNCULACE^. [RaUUTjlCUluS. 

Var. b, sericeus. Kirk, Students' Fl. 9. — Achenes clothed with silky 
hairs. 

Var. c, dentatus, Kirk, I.e. 9.— Leaves broadly ovate to ovate-lanceolate, 
coarsely toothed "r dentate, clothed on both surfaces wiDh strigose ferruginous 
pubescence, sometimes almost shaggy. 

North Island : Tararua Mountains, Buchanan ! South Island : Wairau 
Gorge and Tarndale, Sinclair, T. F. C. ; Spenser Mountains, Kaikoura Moun- 
tains, Kirk! Marlborough, Monro; Clarence Valley, 7'. F. C; Mount Torlesse 
and Upper Waimakariri, Kii-k ! Cockn.ynf. ! Var. b : Kaikoura Mountains, 
Kirk ! Var. c .• Not uucommon in mountain districts in Marlborough and 
Canterbury, from the Clarence River siuthwards. 1.500-4500 ft. December 
-January. 

A very variable plant, united with R. pinguis by Hooker, but differing from 
that species in the petals being always much longer than the sepals, in the scape 
being usually branched and not thickened upwards, and in the longer styles to 
the achenes. The var. dentatus has a very different appearance to the typical 
form, and but for the occurrence of numerous intermediates might have been 
treated as a distinct species. 

6. R. pinguis, Hook. f. Fl. Antarct. i. 8, t. 1. — Short, stout,, 
usually rather fleshy, 2-10 in. high, sparingly pilose or almost gla- 
brous. Rootstock stout, with numerous fleshy rootlets. Leaves all 
radical, on long stout petioles with stout sheathing bases ; blade 
1-3 in. diam., reniform, deeply crenate-lobed. Scape as long or 
longer than the leaves, stout, thickened upwards, naked or with 1-2 
bracts above the middle, 1-flowered. Flower 1 in. diam., yellow. 
Sepals 5-6, oblong. Petals 5-8, obovate or linear-oblong, hardly 
as long as the sepals, with 1-3 glandular pits towards the base. 
Receptacle broadly oblong. Achenes very numerous, small, gla- 
brous ; style short, straight, with 3 narrow wings at the base. — 
Kirk, Students' Fl. 10. R. pinguis, va7\ b, Hook. f. Handh. N.Z. 
Fl. 5. 

Auckland and Campbell Islands : Not uncommon, ascen^iing to nearly 
2000 ft.. Hooker, Filhol ! Kirk ! 

Sir J. D. Hooker distinguishes two varieties in the Flora Antarctica, one 
(var. pilosus) being much more hairy than the type, with linear petals always 
furnished with 3 glandular pits ; the other (var. rhombifolius) smaller, with the 
leaves rhomboid-cuneate and 3-5-fid. 

7. R. nivicola, Hook. Ic. Plant, t. 571, 572. — Erect, usually 
rather slender, paniculately branched above, 2-3 ft. high, more or 
less' covered with long soft white spreading hairs or nearly gla- 
brous. Rootstock short, stout. Radical leaves on long petioles 
4-12 in. long with broad sheathing bases; blade 3-6 in. diam. or 
even more, cordate-reniform, more or less deeply 3-7-lobed, lobes 
broadly cuneate, inciso-crenate. Cauline leaves deeply cut and 
lobed, upper laciniate. Flowers many, large, golden-yellow, 
1-li-in. diam. Sepals 5, linear-oblong, pilose. Petals usually 
numerous, 8-15, narrow cuneate-obovate, emarginate, each with 
a single glandular pit near the base. Achenes forming a small 
rounded head, glabrous, turgid ; style straight, hooked at the tip. — 



Banunculus.] ranunculace^. 13 

Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 8; Hanclh. N.Z. Fl. 5; Kirk, Students' 
Fl. 8. K. reticulatus, Col. in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xx. (1888) 188. 

North Island : Mount Egmont, abundant, Dieffenbach, Buchanan ! 
T. F. C; TongAriro, Ngauruhoe, and Ruapehu, G. Mair ! H. Hill! Alti- 
tudinal range 3000-6000 fc. December-February. 

A remarkably graceful and beautiful plant, excellently figured in the 
Icones Plantarum. 

8. R. geraniifolius, Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 9, t. 3. — Erect, 
slender, sparingly branched, 1-2 ft. high, glabrous or occasionally 
villous with long white hairs, especially on the petioles. Eadical 
leaves few, on long slender petioles 3-6 in. long; blade 2-4 in. 
diam., broadly reniform m outline, deeply 3-5-lobed, sometimes to 
the very base; lobes either cuneate and crenate-toothed or -lobed 
or agam deeply divided into narrow linear segments. Cauline 
leaves sessile, usually much and finely divided. Flowers few, 
seldom more than 3, 4—1 in. diam., yellow. Sepals 5, oblong, 
glabrous or very slightly pilose. Petals usually numerous, 8-15, 
linear-oblong, rounded at the tip, with a single basal gland. 
Achenes forming a small globose head, glabrous, turgid ; style 
short, subulate. — Handh. N.Z. Fl. 5 ; Kirk, Students' Fl. 9. 
E. verticillatus. Kirk, I.e. 13. 

North Island : Hikurangi, Colenso ! Ruahine Mountains, Colenso ! 
Olsen ! Petrie ! Tararua Mountains, Buchanan ! Arnold ! Townson ! South 
Island : Mountains of Nelson, not uncommon as far south as Lake Tennyson, 
Monro, T. F. C. Mount Murchison, Toivnson ! Mount Stokes, Macmahon, 
Kirk. Altitudinal range 2500-5000 ft. December-January. 

Closely allied to the preceding species, but easily distinguished by the 
smaller size, more slender habit, fewer leaves (which are often very finely cut), 
fewer and smaller flowers, and by the petals being usually rounded at the tip. 
Mr. Kirk's R. verticillatus is based upon a single imperfect specimen, without 
locality, in Mr. Buchanan's herbarium. I consider that it is a small one- 
flowered state of R. geraniifolius, with which it exactly agrees in habit, pubes- 
cence, and flowers, differing only in the more rounded leaf-segments, a character 
of little importance in a species with such variable foliage. 

9. R. Enysii, T. Kirk in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xii. (1880) 394.— 
Slender, leafy, glabrous, 6-15 in. high. Eootstock rather stout, 
with numerous fibrous rootlets. Leaves all radical, numerous ; 
petioles 2-6 in. long, grooved; blade 1-3 in. diam., 3-5-foliolate 
or biternate ; leaflets long -stalked, very variable in size and 
amount of cutting, sometimes large and rounded, toothed or 
3-5-lobed, at other times smaller and cut to the base into 
3-5 narrow - cuneate incised toothed or lobed segments, occa- 
sionally pinnately divided. Scapes 1-5, longer than the leaves, 
simple or rarely with 1-2 short branches, naked or with a single 
stalked or sessile variously divided cauline leaf. Flower i-l in. 
diam. Sepals 5, broadly ovate. Petals usually 5, rarely more, 
broadly obovate, with a single basilar gland. Achenes forming a 
small rounded head, numerous, turgid, glabrous ; style short, 



14 EANUNCULACEiE. [Banunculus . 

stout, straight or cwc-ved..— Students Ft. 13. E. tenuis, Buck, in 
Trans. N.Z. Inst. xx. (1888) 255, t. 12. 

South Island : Canterburj- — Not uncommon on the mountains of the 
Middle Waimakariri from Mount Torlesse to Bealey, Enys ! Kirk ! Petrie ! 
Cockayne! T. F. C. Otago— Lake Harris, Kirk; East Taieri, Btcchanan ! 
2000-ioOOft. December-February. 

A well-marked species, apparenth' not closely allied to any other. Mr. 
Buchanan's R. tenuis differs from the type in the leaves being more pinnately 
divided, but is clearly the same species. I have a specimen with finely cut, 
almost decompound leaves, collected by Mr. Cockayne on the Candlestick 
Mountains, Canterbury. 

10. R. tenuicaulis, Cheesem. in Trans. N.Z . Inst. xvii. (1885) 
235. — Very slender, erect, sparingly pilose or nearly glabrous, 
4-18 in. high. Eootstock slender, with numerous fleshy rootlets. 
Leaves all radical, on slender petioles 2-6 m. long; blade ^1|- in. 
diam., about reniform in outline, cut to the base into 3, rarely 
5, broadly cuneate divisions, which are deeply and irregularly 
2-3-lobed ; lobes narrow, often again toothed. Scape very slen- 
der, grooved, 1 -flowered, usually with 2-3 simple or variously 
cut or lobed bracts about the middle. Petals 5, linear, acute. 
Achenes 5-20, loosely packed, spreading, shortly stipitate, fusi- 
form, gradually narrowed into a long spirally recurved style. — 
Kirk, Students Fl. 14. 

South Island : Canterbury — Mountains above Arthur's Pass, T. F. C. ; 
Craigieburn Mountains, Cockayne '! Otago— Swampy Hill, Lee Stream, Mount 
Kyeburn, Clinton Saddle, Petrie ! 

A very curious species, remarkable for the fusiform achenes and long 
spirally recurved style. 

11. R. Haastii, Hook. f. Handb. N.Z. Fl. 6. — A very remark- 
able stout fleshy or coriaceous glaucous plant, 2-6 in. high, 
glabrous except the leaf-sheaths, which are usually villous with 
long hairs. Eootstock stout and fleshy, often 6 in. long and as 
thick as the thumb, viscid and milky when bruised, horizontal, 
giving off numerous long and stout rootlets as thick as whipcord. 
Eadical leaves 1 or 2 ; petioles stout, fleshy, tapering downwards, 
2-6 in. long; blade 2-4 in. diam., broadly reniform or orbicular in 
outline, palmately cut to the base into 5-7 deeply and irregularly 
incised and lobed segments. Scape very thick and fleshy, grooved 
wiien dry, naked below, furnished above with 1-3 sessile cauline 
leaves which are deeply cut mto linear lobes, forming a leafy 
involucre to the flowers. Peduncles 1-3, barely exceeding the 
cauline leaves, 1-flowered. Flow^ers l-l-Jin. diam., yellow. 
Sepals 5, oblong, glabrous or nearly so. Petals 8-15, narrow- 
cuneate ; gland single, basilar. Eeceptacle swollen, papillose. 
Achenes forming a rounded head fin. diam., glabrous, turgid; 
style flattened, pomted, very broad at the base, the margins con- 
tinued down the front and back of the achene as wings. — Kirk, 
Students' Fl. 10. 



Banunculus.] ranunculace^ 15 

South Island : Bare shingle slopes on the mountains, not uncommon from 
the south of Nelson (Wairau Valley) to Central Otago. Altitudinal range 

3000-6000 ft. December-January. 

A very singular plant, quite unlike any other. I do not find that Otago 
specimens have their leaves less divided than those from Canterbury and Nel- 
son, as stated by Kirk in " The Students' Flora." 

12. R. crithmifolius, Hook. f. Handh. N.Z. Fl. 6.— Small, per- 
fectly glabrous, very fleshy, glaucous, stemless ; rootstock short, 
stout, horizontal, with thick fleshy fibres. Leaves all radical, on 
recurved petioles 1-2 in. long; blade broad, i— 1 in. diam., reniform 
in ovitline, biternately niultifid ; segments short, linear, j^in. long, 
obtuse. Scape stout, fleshy, erect, shorter than the leaves, single- 
flowered. Flowers small. Sepals linear-oblong. Petals not seen. 
Achenes in a globose head, -^in. diam., turgid, keeled ; style sharp, 
straight, subulate.— A'n'A:, Students' FL 11. 

South Island ; Wairau Gorge, on shingle-slips, alt. 6000 ft., Travers. 

A curious little plant, which has not been collected since its original dis- 
covery nearly forty years ago. There are no specimens in any of the New Zea- 
land herbaria, and I have consequently reproduced Hooker's description. He 
remarks that it is easily recognised by its glaucous fleshy habit, finely divided 
leaves, and single-flowered short scapes. 

13. R. chordorhizos, Hook. f. Handh. N.Z. Fl. 723.— Small, 
stout, fleshy and coriaceous, 2-3 in. high, everywhere perfectly 
glabrous. Eootstock short, thick, with numerous long fleshy root- 
lets. Leaves all radical ; petioles stout, 1-2 in. long, with broad 
thin sheathing bases; blade f-l-|-in. diam., orbicular in outline, 
3-lobed or 3-partite to the base, segments obovate-spathulate or 
cuneate, sometimes petiolulate, inciso-crenate or again lobed ; 
upper surface pitted or wrinkled when dry. Scapes usually solitary 
but sometimes 2-3, short, not exceeding the petioles, naked, 
1-flowered. Flower ^-lin. diam. Sepals 5, narrow-oblong. Pe- 
tals 5-6, nearly twice as long as the sepals, narrow linear- 
oblong, with 1-3 glandular pits near the base. Achenes forming 
a small globose head, rounded, turgid, glabrous; style as long 
as the achene, curved, subulate. — Kirk, Students' Fl. 10. 

South Island : Canterbury — Macaulay Kiver and Mount Somers, Haast 
(Handbook) ; Lake Ghau, Buchanan ! Otago — Mount Kyeburn and Mount 
St. Bathan's, Fetrie ! Altitudinal range 3000 -5000 ft. December-Jan- 

uary. 

Hooker based his R. chordorhizos upon specimens collected by Haast at the 
Macaulay River and Mount Somers, and also included a plant obtained on 
limestone gravel in the Waimakariri district. Kirk considered the Waima- 
kariri plant lo be distinct from the others, and has established the next species 
{E. 2^aticifoliits) upon it. The Macaulay River plant he assumed to be the same 
as Buchanan's and Petrie's, quoted above. Whether this view is correct can 
only be determined by examination of the types at Kew. 

14. R. paucifolius, T. Kirk, Sttidents' Fl. 11. — Small, stout, cori- 
aceous, 2-4 in. high, perfectly glabrous. Eootstock short, stout, 



16 RANUNCULACE^. [Banuuculus. 

with very numerous long fleshy rootlets. Leaves 2-3, all radical, 
on short stiff petioles 1-2 in. long, with broad sheathing bases; 
blade 1-2 in. diam., suborbicular or broader than long, slightly 
cordate or almost cuneate at the base, 3-lobed to the middle ; lobes 
overlapping, sharply and finely toothed or crenate. Scape solitary, 
stout, naked, 1-flowered, about equalling the leaves. Sepals 5, 
oblong. Petals 5. Achenes few, forming a small rounded head, 
turgid, glabrous ; style straight, subulate. 

South Island: Canterbury— D<^6m of limestone rocks at Castle Hill, 
Middle Waimakariri, alt. 2500 ft., J. D. Enys ! 

Much more complete material is required before a good description can be 
given of this curious little plant. It is very close to the preceding species, but 
seems sufficiently distinct in the less fleshy and more coriaceous habit ; fewer 
leaves, which are broader, and much less divided ; longer scape, and broader 
petals. Only one flowering specimen has been obtained. 

15. R. Berggreni, Petrie in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xix. (1887) 325 ; 
I.e. xxxi. (1899) 352, t. 26. — Small, stemless, perfectly glabrous. 
Kootstock stout, with numerous fleshy rootlets. Leaves all radical, 
coriaceous ; petioles slender, flattened, |— 1 in. long ; blade orbicular 
or reniform, with an open sinus, -i— |in. diam., unequally 3-lobed 
to the middle, rarely almost 3-partite ; lobes rounded, irregularly 
crenate or crenate-lobed Scapes 1 or 2, 1-flowered, naked, 1-3 in. 
long. Flowers ^— fin. diam. Sepals 5, ovate, margins scarious. 
Petals 5, obovate, rounded at the tip, with a single conspicuous 
gland at the base. Styles rather long, recurved. Ripe achenes not 
seen. — Kirk, Students Fl. 12. 

Sooth Island : Otago — Carrick Range, alt. 4000 ft., Petrie ! November- 
December. 

A pretty and distinct little species, the exact relationship of which cannot 
be determined until ripe achenes are obtained. 

16. R. novae-zealandiae, Petrie m Trans. N.Z. Inst. xxvi. 
(1894) 266. — Small, stout, somewhat fleshy and glaucous, perfectly 
glabrous. Eootstock short, stout, clothed with the remains of the 
old petioles ; root-fibres long and thick. Leaves all radical, coria- 
ceous, on short flattened petioles f-1 in. long; blade ^l^in. long, 
trifoliolate ; lateral leaflets sessile, terminal long-stalked, all more 
or less deeply 3-lobed or -partite, sometimes to the base, segments 
crenate. Scapes 1-3, short, stout, naked, 1-flowered, 1-3 in. long. 
Flowers i— | in. diam. Sepals 5, oblong, much shorter than the 
petals. Petals 5, obovate-cuneate, rounded at the tip, with a single 
broad gland near the base. Ripe achenes not seen. — Kirk, She- 
dents' Fl. 13. 

South Island: Otago - Rock and Pillar Range, opposite Middlemarch ; 
Old Man Range, alt. 4000ft., Peine! November-December. 

This looks like R. Berrjgreni with trifoliolate leaves ; in fact, the terminal 
leaflet often exactly matches a small-sized leaf of that species. But it is pre- 
mature to speculate as to its affinities until the ripe achenes are known. 



lianunculus.] ranunculace^. 17 

17. R. sericophyllus, Hook. f. Handb. N.Z. Fl. 6. — A hand- 
some short stout pale-green phmt 2-8 in. high, usually densely 
covered with long silky hairs, but sometimes nearly glabrous. 
Eiootstock short, stout. Leaves numerous, somewhat membranous, 
all radical; petioles short or long, 1-5 m., with very broad mem- 
branous sheathing bases ; blade -I— l-tin. long, broadly ovate in 
outline, tripinnatisect, ultmiate divisions small, linear or linear- 
oblong, acute or nearly so, generally tipped with a pencil of silky 
hairs. Scape usually longer than the leaves, stout, erect, 1-flowered, 
naked or with an entire or laciniate bract. Flowers large, golden- 
yellow, 1-1-1 in. diam. or even more. Sepals oblong, membranous, 
almost equalling the petals. Petals 5-8, usually broad, obovate- 
cuneate, rounded at the tip ; glands generally 3, near the base. 
Achenes forming a rounded head l^in. diam., glabrous, turgid, 
keeled at the back ; style stout, subulate. — Kirk, Students' Fl. 12. 

South Island : Canterbury — Pouiter Eiver, Cockayne ! Browning's Pass, 
Mount Brewster, Hopkins River, Haast ! Mount Cook district, Dixon, T. F. C. 
Otago — Lake district, Buchanan ! Matukituki Valley, near Mount Aspiring, 
mountains near Lake Hawea, Petrie ! Humboldt Mountains, Cockayne ! 
Altitudinal range 3500-7000 ft . December January. 

An exceedingly beautiful little plant, very abundant in the Mount Cook dis- 
trict, where it ascends to quite 7000 ft. Mr. Petrie's specimens from near 
Mount Aspiring are more slender and almost glabrous, and the petals are more 
numerous and narrower. Mr. Cockayne's, from the Huruboldt Mountains, 
have the leaves much less divided, with broader segments, but the petals have 
the 3 large glands of the type. 

18. R. Sinclairii, Hook.f. Handb. N.Z. Fl. 6. — Small, slender, 
2-6 in. high, sparingly pilose with long white silky hairs or almost 
glabrous. Eootstock stout, sometimes branched above. Leaves 
many, all radical, 1-4 in. long, usually soft and flaccid; petioles 
short, sheathing at the base ; blade 1-2 in. long, ovate-oblong to 
linear-oblong in outline, bipinnatisect or multifid ; primary pinnae 
2-4 pairs, opposite, often rather distant, very variable in the 
amount of cutting, ultimate segments narrow-linear, rarely oblong, 
short, acute. Scape slender, naked, 1-flowered, much longer than 
the leaves. Flowers small, ^in. diam. Sepals 5. Petals 5, nearly 
twice as long as the sepals, linear-obovate, with a single gland near 
the base. Achenes few, forming a small rounded head, turgiii, 
glabrous ; style short, straight, subulate. — Kirk, Students' Fl. 11. 

South Island : Nelson — Wairau Gorge, Travers, T. F. C. Tarndale, Sin- 
clair ! (Herb. Kirk). Canterbury- -Mountains in the middle Waimakariri dis- 
trict, Enys ! Kirk ! Cockayne ! T. F. C. Otago — Buchanaji ! Maungatua, 
Petrie! Altitudinal range 2500 ft. -5000 ft. December-January. 

A pretty little plant, too closely allied to the following, from which it is 
principally separated by the more finely cut leaves. Mr. Petrie's Maungatua 
specimens (distinguished by Kirk as var. angustatus) have narrower leaves and 
hairy scapes, and may belong to R. gracilipes. 

19. R. gracilipes, Hook.f. Handb. N.Z. Fl. 8. — Small, slender, 
pilose or villous with long soft hairs, especially on the petioles and 



18 EANUNCULACE^. [Rammculus, 

scapes, 2-6 in. high. Kootstock short, rather stout, with numerous 
fibrous rootlets. Leaves many, all radical, 1-5 in. long, mem- 
branous, rarely subcoriaceoiis ; petioles slender, sheathing at the 
base ; blade linear-oblong in outUne, pinnately divided ; primary 
pinnae 2-6 pairs, entire, 3-lobed, 3-partite, or again pinnate ; ulti- 
mate segments oblong, cuneate at the base, acute or subacute. 
Scapes 1-3, longer than the leaves, naked, slender, pilose, 1-flowered. 
Flower ^-f in. diam. Sepals 5, oblong, silky. Petals 5, linear- 
obovate, rounded at the tip, with a single gland near the base. 
Ripe achenes not seen. — Kirk, Students' Fl. 12. 

South Island : Canterbury — Mount Dobson, and Mount Cook district^ 
T. F. C. ; Lake Ohau, HaasI, Buchanan ! Otago -Buchanan! Dunstan Moun- 
tains, Mounts Ida, Pisa, Kyeburn, Petrie ! Humboldt Mountains, Cockayne f 
Stewart Island: G. M. Thomson! Altitudinal range 2500-5000 ft., but 

descending almost to sea-level in Stewart Island. December-January. 

An exceedingly variable species, only to be distinguished from R. Sinclairii 
by the narrower outline of the leaves, the more numerous shorter pinnae, which 
are usually much less divided, and in small specimens often nearly entire, and 
by the broader ultimate segments. Many specimens are quite intermediate, and 
might be referred to either species. I can entertain no doubt that both are forms 
of one variable plant. I have never seen specimens perfectly glabrous, as 
described by Hooker in the Handbook, and the roots are certainly not 
creeping. 

20. R. hirtus, Banks and Sol. ex Forst. Prodr. n. 525. — Stout or 
slender, erect or rarely decumbent, more or less branched, 6-24 in. 
high, usually clothed with soft spreading or rarely appressed hairs. 
Eadical leaves numerous, on petioles 1-3 in. long, 3-foliolate; leaflets 
usually stalked, oblong to broadly ovate, rounded or cuneate at the 
base, coarsely and irregularly toothed or 3-5-lobed, or again 3-part- 
ite. Flowering-stems usually branched, with several cauline leaves,, 
the lower of which are similar to the radical, the upper smaller, more 
sessile, and less cut or entire. Flowers small, seldom more than 
-Lin. diam. Sepals 5, oblong, reflexed, fugacious, shorter than the 
petals. Petals 5, obovate, with a single gland near the base. 
Achenes forming a small rounded head, glabrous, compressed, mar- 
gined ; style short, hooked. — A. Ctmn. Precnr. n. 634 ; Raoul, CJtoix 
<ie Plantes, 47 ; Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 9 ; Kirk, Students' Fl. 14. 
R. plebeius, B. Br. ex D.G. Syst. i. 288; Hook. f. Ilandb.N.Z. 
Fl. 7 ; Benth. Fl. Austral, i. 13. E. acris, A. Bich. Fl. Nouv. 
Zel. 289 (non Linn.). 

North, South, Stewart, and Chatham Islands : Abundant throughout, 
ascending to 4500 ft. October-January. Also plentiful in Australia. 

A very variable plant. The typical state can be recognised by the copious 
soft spreading hairs, sparingly branched stem, and trifoliolate leaves with broad 
coarsely toothed or lobed segments. Mr. Kirk's var. rohustus (Students' Fl. 14) 
is simply a large state with the stem more copiously branched and the achenes 
slightly larger, and passes imperceptibly into the usual form. Var. membrani- 
folius (Kirk, I.e.) recedes in the opposite direction by its reduced size, more slen- 
der stems, thin 3-lobed leaves, and smaller flowers. The following varieties are 
more distinct : — 



lianunculus .] eanunculace^. 19 

Var. elongatus. — Tall and slender, often over 2 ft. high ; sparingly hairy 
•or almost glabrate. Leaves trifoliolate or 3-ternately divided, segments cut into 
numerous narrow acute segments, sometimes almost digitate. Stem branched 
above. Differing greatly in appearance from the usual form, and in some 
respects coming nearer to the ordinary state in Australia. It is probably the 
plant referred to R. acris by A. Richard, but can always be distinguished from 
that species by the small flowers and leaves not truly digitate. Lowland dis- 
tricts north of Auckland. 

Var. gracilis. — Slender, erect or suberect, 6-10 in. high, sparingly covered 
with silky appressed hairs. Leaves 3-foliolate ; leaflets often long-stalked, 
■ovate-cuneate, irregularly and sparingly toothed or lobed. Flowers large, 
^-fin. diam. Achenes larger, with a longer style. Mountain districts 
•of the South Island, 3000-4500 ft. This is a well-marked plant, which 
Mr. Kirk described as " sub-species pZedewts," quoting R. plebeius, R. Br., as a 
synonym. But this I feel sure is a mistake, for it does not at all agree either 
with descriptions or specimens of R. Brown's plant. 

Var. stoloniferus, Kirk, I.e. — Small. Stems very slender, procumbent 
And rooting at the nodes. Leaves 3-fid. Flowers and fruit very small. Damp 
sub-alpine localities in the South Island, not uncommon. 

21. R. recens, T. Kirk, Students Fl. 13. — Short, stout, depressed, 
seldom more than l^in. high, sparingly clothed with stiff white 
hairs, especially on the petioles and upper surfaces of the leaves. 
Eootstock stout), with long stringy rootlets, often branched above. 
Leaves all radical, rosulate, thick and coriaceous; petioles broadly 
sheathing at the base, flattened, J-1 in. long ; blade ovate or 
rounded in outline, more or less deeply 3-lobed or trifoliolate, seg- 
ments or leaflets irregularly cut and lobed, acute or obtuse. Scape 
very short and often almost absent, usually hispid with white hairs. 
Flowers minute, |-in. diam. Sepals 5, linear or linear-oblong, 
a,cute. Petals 5, hardly longer than the sepals, linear-spathulate, 
obtuse at the tip, gland just below the middle. Achenes ovate- 
orbicular, red-brown when ripe, slightly compressed ; margin 
thickened, blunt ; face minutely pitted ; style very short, stout, 
minutely hooked at the tip. 

North Island : Taranaki — Moist places on sandhills near Hawera, T. F. C. 
South Island : Ota.go— Buchanan ! Petrie ! (Herb. Kirk) ; sandhills near 
Fortrose, Southland, B. C. Aston! H. J. Matthews! (Herb. Petrie). Probably 
not uncommon, but easily overlooked. 

A very curious little species. The type specimens in Kirk's herbarium are 
-very imperfect, and in fruit only. Those in Petrie's herbarium, collected by 
Aston and H. J. Matthews, show both flower and fruit, and have enabled me to 
•draw up a more complete description. My own specimens, collected at Hawera 
more than fifteen years ago, have smaller and less divided leaves, but the habit is 
the same, and the achenes exactly match those of the southern plant. Mr. Kirk 
was in error in supposing the species to be alpine. All the specimens I have 
seen have been obtained from sandhills near the sea. 

22. R. Kirkii, Petrie in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xix. (1887) 323, 
■and xxxi. 352, t. 25. — Slender, sparingly covered with soft white 
hairs, 3-6 in. high. Eootstock stout, with numerous thick fleshy 
roots. Eadical leaves on long slender petioles 1-3 in. long ; blade 



20 EANUNCULACE^. [Ranxiitculus . 

sometimes linear-spathulate and entire, but usually 3-foliolate ; 
leaflets stalked, rounded-ovate, entire or 3-lobed, coriaceous. 
Scapes several, simple or branched, 3-5 in. high ; cauline leaves or 
bracts few, spathulate. Flowers small. Sepals 5, oblong-lanceo- 
late. Petals 5, linear-oblong, rounded at the tip, clawed at the 
base, with a gland just above the claw. Achenes few, slightly com- 
pressed, keeled ; style subulate, hooked at the tip. — Kirk, Students' 
Fl. 15 (in part only). 

Stewart Island: Swamps at Paterson's Inlet, &c., Petrie ! G. M. Thom- 
son ! Kirk ! 

More specimens of this species are required to fully determine its systematic 
positioa and relationships. I have confined it to the Stewart Island plant, for 
the specimens from the mountains of the South Islaui, included by Mr. Kirk, 
differ in several characters of importance, and are better reserved for further 
inquiry. The figure given in the Tran-;. N.Z. Inst., Vol. xxxi., is not charac- 
teristic of any specimens I have seen. 

23. R. lappaceus, Smith m Bees' Cyclop, xxix. n. 61. — Short, 
stemless, more or less hairy or villous, 2-10 in. high. Eootstock 
short, stout, sometimes branched at the top. Leaves numerous, 
usually all radical, on petioles i- 3 in. long; blade ^-l-|in. diam., 
cuneate or ovate or rounded in outline, sometimes entire or coarsely 
toothed, but more frequently 3-5-lobed or -partite, less commonly 
3-foliolate or pinnately divided ; lobes or segments generally toothed 
or crenate. Scapes 1 to many, usually leafless and 1-flowered, 
1-9 in. high, generally much longer than the leaves, densely clothed 
with spreading or appressed hairs. Flowers very variable in size, 
often a rich golden-yellow. Sepals 5, pilose, spreading. Petals 5, 
obovate ; gland at the base. Achenes forming a small rounded 
head, compressed or rarely slightly turgid, glabrous, margined ; 
style short, recurved. — Hook. f. FL Tasm. i. 6 : Hanclb. N.Z. Fl. 7 ; 
Benth- Fl. Austral, i. 12 ; Kirk, Students Fl. 15. 

Var. macrophyllus, ii-'xrfc, Students' Fl. 15. — Larger. Leaves with peti- 
oles 2-4 in.lon<^; blfide f-ltin. diam., obscurely 3-lobed; margins crenate or 
tootbed. Scapes'.3-8in. high. Flowers large. 

Var. multiscapus, Hook. f. Handb. N.Z. Fl. 7. — Petioles shorter, J-lJin. 
lont^ ; blade smaller, |— f in. diam., ovate or roundef^, cuneate at the base, 
toothed or 3-lobed or 3-partite. Scapes numerous. — R. multiscapus. Hook. f. 
Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 9, t. 5. R. muricatulus, Col. in Trans. N.Z. Inst, xxiii. (1891) 
881 (still smaller, with the leaves occasionally entire). 

Var. pimpinellifolius, Benth. FL Austral, i. 12. — Leaves usually pin- 
nate, with .5 short and liroad 3-51obed segments. — R. pimpinellifolius. Hook. 
Journ. Bot. i. 243 ; Ic. Plant, t. 260. 

Var. villosus, Kirk, Students' Fl. 15. — 1-3 in. high, densely villous or 
silky in all its parts. Scape usually shorter than the leaves. Achenes slightly 
turgid. 

North, South, and Stewart Islands : The var. nmltiscapus abundant 
from Hawke's Bay and Taupo southwards, and ranging from" sea-level to 
4500 fti. November -March. The remaining varieties not uncommon in 
mountain districts in the South Island. 



Banuncuhis.] eanunculace^. 2T- 

R. lappaceiis is probably the most variable of the New Zealand Ranuncnli,. 
and certainly the most difficult to characterize. The above arrangement of its 
forms is mainly that given by Kirk, with the addition of the Tasmanian variety 
'pimpinfllifoliJis, which occurs in several places in the mountains of the South 
Island. But the student must bear in mind that the distinctions used to 
separate the so-called varieties are purely arbitrary, every one of them being 
connected with the others by numerous internaediates. It is often difficult tc>- 
separate some of the aberrant forms from the allied species, particularly fron"k 
H. folios2is, when, as sometimes happens, the scape is branched, and the 
peduncles shorter than the leaves. R. vlehems can generally be distinguished 
by its greater size, more divided leaves, branched flowering-stem, and reflexed 
sepals. 

24. R. foliosus, T. Kirk, Students Fl. 14. — Stout or slender, 
4-12 in. high, more or less hirsute with long soft tawny hairs, 
especially on the scapes and petioles. Eootstock short, stout. 
Stems or branches often numerous, erect or decumbent, leafy. 
Radical leaves numerous, on long petioles 3-6 in. long, with broad 
sheathing bases ; blade -J— 1-^ in. diam., variable in outline, obovate 
or ovate or rounded, cuneate or rounded at the base, rarely 
reniforra with a cordate base, coarsely toothed or incised, or 
3-lobed with the lobes again toothed or cut, both surfaces covered 
with long soft appressed hairs. Cauline leaves often opposite, or 
clustered towards the tops of the stems, like the radical but smaller 
and on shorter petioles. Peduncles variable, always shorter than 
the leaves ; in large specimens some often spring from among the 
radical leaves, and are 3-6 in. high; others from the axils of the 
cauline leaves, and are seldom more than ^3 in. Flower -J^-^in. 
diam. or more. Sepals 5, oblong, spreading. Petals 5, narrow- 
oblong, with a gland near the base. Achenes smooth, somewhat 
turgid, hardly compressed ; style short, subulate. 

South Islajstd : Nelson — Fowler's Pass, Kirk ! near Lake Tennyson, 
T. F. C. Canterbury— Broken River, T. F. C. ; Hopkins River, Haast ; Tas- 
man Valley, T. F. C. Westland — Otira Gorge, Cockayne ! Teremakau, Petrie. 
Otago — Mountain vallevs of the interior, not uncommon, Petrie! Altitudinal 
range 1000-4000 ft. December-March. 

An exceedingly variable plant, but on the whole readily distinguished by 
the branched stems and leafy habit, opposite or clustered cauline leaves often 
with very broad sheathing bases, short stout peduncles which are much 
shorter than the leaves, and the somewhat turgid or bus slightly compressed 
achenes. Mr. Kirk's type specimens are small and in poor condition, and do 
not represent the usual state of the species. 

25. R. sutoscaposus, Hook. f. Fl. Antarct. i. 5. — Erect or 
nearly so, 6-18 in. high, more or less covered in all its parts with 
short rigid appressed fulvous hairs. Eootstock short, stout. 
Radical leaves on slender petioles 3-6 in. long; blade deltoid- 
cordate in outline, 1-liin. diam., 3-partite to the base; segments 
cuneate, more or less deeply and irregularly 3-7-toothed or -lobed,. 
lobes acute. Cauline leaves few, similar. Scape or stem shorter 
or longer than the leaves, 1-3-flowered. Plowers small, |— | in. 
diam. Sepals 5, spreading, hispid. Petals 5, narrow - oblong,. 



■22 EANUNCULACE^. [BqMuncuUis . 

rather longer than the sepals in the only perfect flower I have 
seen ; gland a little below the middle. Achenes forming a rather 
large rounded head, compressed, margined, with a stout slightly- 
hooked style.— Ba7idb. N.Z. Fl. 7 ; Kirk, Students' Fl. 15. 

Campbell Island : Apparently rare. Dr. Lyall (Antarctic Expedition), 
Lieut. Ratliouis ! Dr. Filhol ! Kirk ! 

A specimen in my possession collected by Dr. Filhol, of the French Transit 
of Venus Expedition, almost exaccly matches a drawing taken from the type 
specimen at Kew. Mr. Kirk's specimens are much taller and more slender, 
with long petioles and a flowering-stem much exceeding the leaves, but evidently 
belong to tlie same species. It is probably a variable plant, and better speci- 
mens are required to furnish a good description. Its nearest ally is R. hirtus, 
from which it differs in the short rigid puoescence, in the leaves, in the sepals 
not being reflexed, and in the larger heads of achenes, which are more turgid 
and have much stouter beaks. 

26. R. Hectori, T. Kirk, Students' Fl. 16.— Erect, 6-15 in. high, 
■whole plant more or less clothed with strigose or appressed hairs. 
Eootstock short. Leaves chiefly radical, reticulate above when 
fresh, fleshy, hairy on both surfaces; petioles 4-7 in. long, slightly 
sheathing at the base ; blade 1-li in. long and broad, ovate- 
orbicular, 3-lobed to below the middle, truncate or slightly cordate 
at the base, lobes acute or subacute. Scapes 1-2 ; peduncles 2 or 3. 
Cauhne leaves petiolate, 3-partite, the segments sparingly lobed 
•or toothed. Eeceptacle ovate or conical, papillose, sparingly hairy. 
Flowers not seen. Achenes glabrous, narrowed below, oblique, 
slightly turgid, faintly keeled or margined; style shortly subulate, 
slightly recurved. 

Auckland Islands : Sir James Hector ! 

This is based on a single very imperfect specimen in Mr. Kirk's herbarium, 
and in the absence of additional information I have reproduced his description. 
It is probably a mere state of R. axicklandicits with longer petioles and a 
branched scape. 

27. R. aucklandicus, A. Gray, Bot. U.S. Expl. Exped. i. 8. — 
Eather stout, 6-12 in. high, strigose-hirsute in all its parts. Eootstock 
short, stout. Eadical leaves on petioles 3-6 in. long, sheathing at 
the base; blade l-]^in. diam., rounded-reniform in outline, silky- 
strigose on both surfaces, 3-cleft to or beyond the middle, with the 
sinuses usually closed ; lobes broadly cuneate, again 2-3-lobed or 
coarsely cut and incised. Scapes 1-3, rather stout, 6-10 in. high, 
1-flowered, usually with 1-2 cauline leaves towards the base. 
Flowers not seen. Fruiting-receptacle Jin. long, cylindric or club- 
shaped, papillose, hairy. Achenes ovate, compressed, not mar- 
gined ; style subulate, short, straight. — Hook. f. Handh. N.Z. Fl. 
723 ; Kirk, Students' Fl. 16. 

Auckland Islands : U.S. Exploring Expedition, Kirk ! 

In habit approaching very near to some forms of R. lappaceus, but its 
nearest ally is undoubtedly jR. subscaposzts. 1 suspect that it and the two 
preceding are varieties of one species, but to prove this much more complete 
material will be required. 



Banuticulus.] eanunculace^. 23 

28. R. Cheesemanii, T. Kirk, Students' Fl. 17. — Stems much 
branched, stout, grooved, prostrate, often rooting at the nodes, 
sparingly strigose-pubescent. especially on the leaf-sheaths. Radical 
and cauiine leaves alike ; petioles very short, broadly sheathing at 
the base ; blade -|— fin. diam., broadly cuneate, 3-lobed or -toothed 
at the tip ; surfaces glabrous or nearly so. Peduncles axillary, 
•|-1 in. long. Flovrers not seen. Pruiting-receptacle small, gla- 
brous, papillose. Achenes few, turgid, glabrous ; style short, 
straight or hooked. 

South Island: Nelson — Fowlor's Pass, 3000ft., in places where water has 
stagnated. Kirk ! 

A very curious little plant. Although so dissimilar in general appearance, 
I have little doubt that it is a mere state of R. foliosiis, which often shows a 
tendency to creep, and with which it agrees in the position of the peduncles, 
achenes, &c. 

29. R. ternatifolius, T. Kirk m Trans. N.Z. Inst. x. (1878) 
App. 29. — Slender, sparingly pilose with long weak hairs, 1-4 in. 
high. Stems or branches numerous, long, weak, procumbent or 
prostrate, often rooting at the nodes, sometimes interlaced and 
matted. Leaves on long slender petioles 1-3 in. long; blade 
3-foliolate or 3-ternate, primary leaflets on long petiolules, 
segments small, entire or 3-lobed, acute. Peduncles ^1 in. long., 
usually on the branches opposite the leaves. Flowers minute, 
i— Jin. diam. Sepals 5, ovate, pilose, membranous. Petals 5, 
linear-oblong, clawed at the base, with a single gland above the 
claw. Achenes 5-10, slightly compressed, glabrous ; style short, 
stout, hooked at the tip. — Students' Fl. 18. E. trilobatus. Kirk in 
Trans. N.Z. Inst. ix. 547 (not of Kit.). 

South Island : Canterbury — Source of the Broken River, T. F. C. Otago — 
Swampy Hill, Port Molyneux, Catlin's River, Petrie ! Makarewa, Winton, 
Centre Hill, Kirk ! Sea-level to 3500 ft. December-February. 

30. R. depressus, T. Kirk m Trails. N.Z. Inst. xii. (1880) 393.— 
Small, depressed, rarely more than l-|-in. high, more or less clothed, 
with long straight hairs, usually forming matted patches. Root- 
stock short, often giving oS. short stolons, in large specimens some- 
times branched at the top. Leaves numerous, all radical, on 
decurved petioles ^1-| in. long with broad sheathing bases ; blade 
very variable in size and cutting, i— |in. long, ovate in outline, 
usually trifoliolate with the leaflets ternately or pinnately cut into 
narrow-linear segments, sometimes less divided, 3-lobed with 
broader segments, or occasionally nearly entire. Scapes stout, much 
shorter than the leaves, 1-flowered. Sepals 5, ovate, m.embranous. 
Petals 5, oblong, slightly exceeding the sepals, with a gland just- 
above the base. Carpels few, 4-8, hidden among the leaves, ovate, 
slightly turgid ; style very minute. — Kirk, Students' Fl. 17. 

Var. glabratus. Kirk, I.e. — Smaller and nearly glabrous. Leaves minute, 
3-lobed, lobes fiat, acutely pointed. Achenes smaller. 



:24 RANUNCuiiACE^. [Banunculus. 

South Island : Canterbury — Swamps in the Broken River basin, Enys 1 
Kirk ! T. F. G. ; Tasman Valley, T. F. C. Otago— Mount Cardrona, Jr'etrie ! 
Altitudinal range from 2000 to 5000 ft. 

1 am indebted to Mr. Enys for an instructive series of specimens, all col- 
lected in one locality, showing passage-forms of leaves, from trilobate with entire 
lobes to trifoliolate with almost multifid leaflets. In Mr. Petrie's Mount 
Cardrona plant the leaves are trilobate, with the lobes entire or toothed, and the 
habit is somewhat dilferent ; but it is in young flower only, and more advanced 
specimens are required to prove its exact position with respect to the typical 
state. 

31. R. pachyrrhizus, Hook. f. Hatidb. N.Z. Fl. 8. — Small, 
stout, much depressed, ionning dense patches seldom more than 
li-in. high, more or less clothed with long soft hairs. Eootstock 
scouc, fleshy, creeping, branched ; rootlets thick and stringy. 
Leaves crowded at the ends of the divisions of the rootstock, all 
radical, small, somewhat fleshy; petioles stout, flattened, ^^'iii. 
long; olade i- fin. diain., cuueate or obovate-cuneate, with 3-5 
acute or obtuse teeth or lobes. Scape short, stout, 1-flowered, 

^-1 in. high. Flowers ^f in. diam. Sepals 5, silky, linear-oblong, 
membranous. Petals 8-15, linear-obovate, with 1 or sometimes 3 
glands a little distance above the base. Receptacle hairy. Aehenes 
forming a globose head -^m. diam., turgid, rounded, glabrous or 
with a few long weak hairs ; style stout, subulate. — Kirk, Students 
Fl. 19. 

South Island : Otago — Lake district. Hector and Buchanan ! Old Man 
Range, Hector Mountains, INIomit Pisa, Mount Cardrona, Mount Tyndall, 
Petrie ! Altitudinal range 4000-7000 ft. January-March. 

A singular little plant, of very peculiar habit and appearance. It is not 
allied to any other species of the creeping section of the genus, and would 
perhaps have been better placed in the vicinity of li. sericopJiyUus. 

32. R. macropus, Hook. f. in Hook. Ic. Plant, t. 634. — Per- 
fectly glabrous, smooth and succulent, 6-18 in. high. Stems long, 
fistulose, creeping and rooting at the nodes. Radical leaves on 
petioles varying in length from 4-18 in.; blade 1-2^ in. in diam., 
semicircular, flabellate or reniform in outline, 3-5-partite to the 
base ; leaflets broad or narrow-cuneate, more or less deeply and 
irregularly iobed or cut, lobes toothed at the tips. Flowering-stem 
about as long as the radical leaves, bearing 2 or 3 small cauline 
leaves, opposite to each of which springs a long or short 1-flowered 
peduncle. Flowers small, seldom more than ^ in. diam. Sepals 5, 
oblong or obovate. Petals 5, longer or shorter than the sepals ; 
gland basilar. Aehenes forming a small globose head, turgid, 
glabrous ; style long, subulate. — H<.ndb. N.Z. Fl. 7 ; Kirk, Students' 
Fl. 17. R. longipetiolatus. Col. in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xxv. (1893) 
325. 

North and South Islands : Not uncommon in swamps in lowland dis- 
tricts from the Kaipara River to the south of Otago. December-January. 



Rammc7dus.] banunculace^. 25- 

The usual form of this species, with very long petioles and broad leaf-seg- 
ments, has a very distinct appearance ; but small varieties are difficult to dis- 
tinguish from R. rivnJarls, var. major. Mr. Colenso's R. longi])etiolatux, judg- 
ing from the specimens in his herbarium, cannot be separated even as a 
variety. 

33. R. rivularis, Banks and Sol. ex Forst. Prodr. n. 524. — Smooth, 
perfectly glabrous in all its parts. Stems creeping, often branched 
and forming broad matted patches, rooting at the nodes and giving 
off tufts of radical leaves and erect pedurxles or weak sparingly 
branched fiowering-steuis, or floating and irregularly branched. 
Leaves on slender petioles 1-6 in. long ; blade J-l|in. diam.,. 
ovate semicircular or reniform in outline, usually 3-7-partite to the 
base ; segments varying from cuneate to narrovp-linear, more or less- 
deeply cut at the apex, sometimes to the middle, occasionally ter- 
natisect, rarely entire. Peduncles usually longer than the leaves. 
Flowers yellow, i-f in. diam. Sepals 5, spreading. Petals 5-10, 
linear-oblong, usually longer than the sepals; gland some distance 
above the base. Achenes turgid, glabrous, sometimes rugose from 
the shrivelling of the epicarp ; style rather long, subulate, straight 
or recurved. — A. C%mn. Precur. n. 630 ; Baoul, Ghoix dc Plantes, 47 ; 
Book.f. F>. Nov. Zel. i. 11; Handb. N.Z. Fl. 8; Kirk, Students' 
Fl. 18. 

Var. major, Benth. Fl. AiLstral. i. 14. — Suberect, 3-12 in. high. Leaves 
tufted ; segments often very narrow and much cut. — R. incisus. Hook. f. Fl. 
Nov. Zel. i. 10, t. 4. R. amphitricha, Coleiiso i)i Trans. N.Z. Inst. xvii. (1885)' 
•237. 

Var. subfluitans, Benth. I.e. — Creeping or partially floating. Leaves 
smaller, less divided. Flowers and achenes smaller. — R. inundatus, R. Br. ex 
B.C. Syst. i. 269 ; Hook. f. FL Tasm. i. 8. 

Var. inconspicuus, Benth. I.e. — Smaller, more slender, suberect. Leaf- 
segments 3 fid. Flowers smaller. — R. inconspicuus. Hook. f. Fl. Tasm. i. 8,. 
t. 2b. 

North, South, Stewart, and Chatham Islands : Common in swamps 
and streams, &c., ascending to 2500 ft. Var. inconspicxius : Pencarrow Lagoon, 
near Wellington, Kirk ! Otago, Petrie ! October- !^Iarch. Also plentiful 
in Australia. 

A most abundant little plant, exceedingly variable in most of its characters, 
and particularly so in the extent to which the leaves are divided, and the width 
or narrowness of the ultimate segTnents. Stock owners consider it to be highly 
poisonous, and attribute to it many deaths occurring among cattle feeding in 
swamps in dry summers. 

34. R. acaulis, Banks and Sol. ex B.C. Syst. i. 270. — Small,, 
dark-green, fleshy, perfectly glabrous, sending out creeping stolons 
and often forming broad matted patches. Leaves all radical, on 
slender petioles 1-3 in. long; blade ^fin. diam., trifoliolate or 
deeply 3-lobed ; leaflets or segments sessile, obovate or oblong, 
obtuse, entire or 2-3-lobed. Scapes shorter than the leaves, naked, 
1-flowered. Flowers small, |— ^ in. diam. Sepals 5, roundish-ovate^ 



26 EANUNCULACE^. [Ranuxculus . 

membranous. Petals 5-8, spathulate, with a single gland near the 
middle. Acheues forming a small rounded head ^in. diam., turgid, 
glabrous ; style short, subulate, straight or nearly so. — A. Gunn. 
Frecnr. n. 631 ; Baoul, Choix de Plantes, 47 ; Hook. f. Fl. Antarct. 
i. 4, t. 2; Fi. Nov. Zel. i. 11 ; Handb. N.Z. Fl. 8; A. Gray, Bat. 
U.S. Exped. 7; Kirk, Students' Fl. 18. E. stenopetalus. Hook. Ic. 
Plant, t. 677. 

North, South, and Stewart Islands : Sandy beaches and muddy shores, 
not uncommon. Auckland Islands : Hooker, &c. Chatham Islands : 
Buchanan. Only known inland on the shores of Lakes Eotorua, Tarawera, 
and Taupo. September-Noveoiber. Also found in southern Chili. 

A distinct little species, easily recognised by its creeping and matted 
habit, trifoliolat-i leaves with nearly entire leaflets, short scopes, and spathulate 
petals. Mr. Colenso's herbarium contains no specimens of his R. unifloriLs 
{Trans. N.Z. Inst. xxxi. (1896) 267). The description agrees with R. acatdis in 
most points, but the plant is said not to be stoloniferous, and to possess a 
sheathing bract on the upper part of the scape. 

35. R. crassipes, Hook. f. Fl. Antarct. ii. 224, t. 81. — Smooth, 
glabrous, succulent, stems creeping and rooting at the nodes. 
Leaves on petioles 1-4 in. long; blade cordate-reniform in outline, 
J-1 in. diam. or more, 3-lobed or 3-partite ; segments variable in 
shape, broad or narrow, cuneate at the base, deeply and irregularly 
toothed. Peduncles axillary, stout, erect, shorter than the leaves. 
Flowers small, |— ^ in. diam. Sepals 4-5, ovate, obtuse, mem- 
branous. Petals the same number, slightly longer than the se- 
pals, obovate-spathulate, with a gland a little below the middle. 
Achenes forming a rounded head -J- in. diam., broadly ovate, 
turgid; style short, straight. — Kirk, Students' Fl. 17. 

Macquarie Island : A. Hamilton ! Also found in Kerguelen's Island. 

The closely allied R. biternatus. Smith, from Fuegia, the Falkland Islands, 
.and Marion Island, may possibly occur in Macquarie Island or the Auckland 
Islands. It can be recognised at once by its biternate leaves. 

36. R. Limosella, F. Muell. ex Kirk hi Trans. N.Z. Inst. iii. 
•(1871) 177. — Small, slender, perfectly glabrous. Stems filiform, 
creepmg and rooting at the nodes, often forming matted patches. 
Leaves solitary or in tufts of 2-3 at the nodes, i-3 in. long, very 
narrow linear, usually dilated at the tip and subspathulate, obtuse, 
nerveless. Peduncles filiform, axillary, solitary, much shorter than 
the leaves. Flowers minute, i- in. diam. Sepals 4, rounded-ovate, 
membranous. Petals 4, much longer than the sepals, narrow- 
linear, revolute at the tip ; gland some little distance above the 
base. Achenes 8-12, rounded, somewhat turgid ; style long, 
slender, recurved. —Kirk, Students' Fl. 19. E. limoselloides, F. 
Muell. ex Hook. f. Ic. Plant, t. 1081. 

North Island : Auckland — Lakes in the middle Waikato, Kirk ! T. F. C. 
Taranaki — Between Opunake and Normanby, Kirk. South Island : Canter- 
bury — Swamps and lakes in the middle Waimakariri district, Kirk! Enys ! 



Caltha.] EANUNCULACE^. 27 

T. F. C. Otago—Maniototo Plains, Roxburgh, PeJrie ! E. W. Basti-iigs ! In 
muddy and watery places, often submerged. Altitudinal range from sea-level 
to 3000 ft. December- April. 

A very peculiar little species, readily known by the narrow-linear spathulate 
leaves and minute tetramerous flowers. Sir J. D. Hooker has compared it with 
the Falkland Islands R. hydrophihts, and with R. Moseleyi from Kerguelen's 
Islands, so far as habit and leaves are concerned. In the flowers and fruit 
it differs largely from both. 

37. R. parviflorus, Linn. Sp. Plant. 780; var. australis, 
Benth. Ft. Austral, i. 14. — A small slender hairy annual, with 
sparingly branched suberect or decumbent stems 2-5 in. long. 
Leaves small, radical and cauline, on slender petioles |— li-in. long ; 
blade thin and membranous, orbicular in outline, 3-5-toothed or 
-lobed, sometimes divided to the base. Flowers very minute, on the 
branches opposite the leaves, sessile or nearly so. Sepals fugaci- 
ous. Petals 4-5. slightly longer than the sepals. Mature achenes 
3-6, compressed, margins thin, sides covered with minute tubercles ; 
style very short, hooked at the tip. — Hooh. f. Handb. N.Z. Fl. 8; 
Kirk, Students' Fl. 20. E. sessiliflorus, Pi. Br. ex B.C. Syst. i. 
302 ; Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 11. 

North Island : Sheltered places on lava-streams. Mount Wellington and 
Mount Eden, &c., Auckland Isthmus; once very plentiful, but now becoming 
rare. Originally discovered by Mr. Colenso. September-November. 

A common Australian plant, and possibly introduced from thence in the very 
early days of the colony. The typical state of the species, which is a much larger 
and stouter plant, with a very different aspect, has become naturalised in fields 
and waste places throughout the colony. 

4. CALTHA, Lmn. 

Glabrous tufted perennial herbs ; rootstock creeping. Leaves 
all or chiefly radical, oblong, ovate or rounded, cordate at the base 
or 2-lobed with the lobes turned upwards. Scape 1- or few- 
flowered. Sepals 5 or more, petaloid, usttally deciduous. Petals 
wanting. Stamens numerous. Carpels several, sessile ; ovules 
several or many, attached in 2 series to the ventral suture. 
Follicles 6 or more in a head, spreading, several- or many-seeded,, 
opening along the inner face. 

A small genus of 8-10 species, found in the temperate regions of both hemi- 
spheres. The southern species belong to the section Psychrophila, distinguisbed 
by the turned-up basal lobes or auricles of the leaves. Both the New Zealand 
species are endemic, although closely allied to the Australian and Tasmanian 
C. introloba. 

Leaves entire or sinuate. Flowers yellow. Sepals linear- 
subulate, tapering from the base into almost caudate 
points . . . . . . . . . . ..I.e. novcB-zealan- 

dicB. 

Leaves dentate. Flowers white. Sepals oblong, obtuse 

or subacute, broadest above the middle . . . . 2. C. obtusa. 



"28 RANUNCULACE^. [Caltka. 

1. C. novae-zealandiae, Hook. f. FL Nov. Zel. i. 12, vt. 6. — x\ 
perfectly glabrous perennial herb 1-6 in. high. Rootstock stout, 
with fleshy rootlets. Leaves all radical, spreading; petiole variable 
in length, ^-4 in., grooved, base dilated, membranous, sheathing the 
stetn ; lamina -^1 in. long, ovate-oblong, entire or sinuate, notched 
Ht the apex, deeply 2-lobed at the base, the lobes (auricles) turned 
upwards and almost appressed to the surface of ttie leaf. Scape 
solitary, naked, 1-flowered, ^-5 ni. long, short at tirst but lengthen- 
ing as the fruit ripens. Flowers pale-yellow, sweet-scented, -J-l in. 
<iiam. Sepals 5-7, narrow, linear-subulate, tapering from the base 
into an almost caudate point, 3-nerved. Stamens 15-20. Carpels 
6-12, ovate, narrowed into a short stout style. Follicles spreading, 
with a short hooked style ; seeds few, 2-5. — Hook. f. Handb. N.Z. 
t'L. 9 ; Kirk, Students' Fl. 21. C. margmata, Col. in Trans. N.Z. 
Inst, xxiii. (1891) 382. 

NohTH Island : Ruahine Mountains, Colenso ! Tararua Mountains, Bu- 
chanan, Townson ! South Island : Not uncommon on the higher moun- 
tains as far south as Stewart Island. Altitudinal range 2500 to 5500 ft. 
October- January. 

2. C. ototusa, Cheesem. in Trans. N.Z. Inst, xxxiii. (1901) 312. 
— Smaller than G. novce-zealandice, seldom more than 2 in. high. 
Xieaves smaller ; blade broader, wide-ovate or almost rounded, 
•coarsely dentate, notched at the apex, 2-lobed at the base, Icbes 
turned upwards and appressed to the surface, toothed. Flowers 
white, -i-in. diam., at first sessile among the uppermost leaves, but 
the scape elongates in fruit. Sepals 5, oblong, obtuse or subacute, 
broadest above the middle. Stamens 10-15. Carpels 5-8, narrow- 
•ovate ; style long, slender. Ripe fruit not seen. 

North Island : Herb. Colenso ! (probably from the Ruahine Range, but 
-without locality or collector's name). South Island : Mountains at the head 
of the Broken River, Canterbury, 5000-6000 ft., T. F. C. Otago— Mount St. 
Bathan's and Dunstan Mountains, 5000-6000 ft., Petrie ! Black Peak, 6000 ft., 
BiLchaiian ! 

The white flowers and blunt oblong sepals distinguish this at once from 
C. novce-zealandicB, but in a flowerless state it is easily mistaken for a dwarf 
form of that plant, although the leaves are always broader and coarsely dentate. 
'J'he sepals are markedly different from the long tapering almost caudate sepals 
of C. nov(B-zealandicb. I have not been able to compare it with the Australian 
and Tasmanian C. introloba, F. I\Iuell., which is said to have white flowers, 
but judging from descriptions it can hardly be the same. 

Order II. MAGNOLIACE^. 

Trees or shrubs, often aromatic. Leaves alternate, entire or 
toothed, stipulate or exstipulate. Flowers axillary or terminal, 
solitary or fascicled, often large. Sepals 3, seldom more, deciduous. 
Petals 3-6, in several rows, hypogynous, imbricate in the bud. 
Stamens indefinite, hypogynous ; anthers adnate. Carpels either 
xnany and imbricated on an elongated receptacle, or few in a single 



Drimys.] magnoliace^. 29 

whorl on a flat receptacle, always 1-celled. Ovules 2 or several, 
attached to the ventral suture. Ripe carpels either dry and 
follicular, or succulent and berried, rarely woody. Seeds solitary 
or several; embryo minute, at the base of copious albumen. 

A small order, mainly found in eastern and tropical Asia and North America. 
Genera 11 ; species about 80. Some of the species of Magnolia are strikingly 
beautiful in both flowers and foliage, and must rank among the finest known 
trees. The sole New Zealand genus is a somewhat anomalous member of the 
order, belonging to ihe tribe Winiere.cB, characterized by the exstipulate leaves, 
polygamous flowers, and the carpels few in number in a single whorl. 

1. DRIMYS, Forst. 
Glabrous and aromatic trees and shrubs, usually of small size. 
Xieaves alternate, exstipulate, marked with pellucid dots. Flowers 
small. Calyx cupuliform in the New Zealand species, the margin 
shortly and irregularly toothed or lobed, or entire. Petals 5 or 6 
or more, in 2 or more whorls, spreading. Stamens with the 
filaments thickened above ; anther-cells diverging. Carpels 1 to 
several ; ovules few or many. Fruit of one or several mdehiscent 
berries. 

A small genus of 10 or 12 species, found in South America, New Zealand, 
Australia, New Caledonia, New Guinea, and Borneo. The three New Zealand 
species are all endemic. 

Large shrub or small tree. Bark black. Leaves 2-5 in., 

not blotched. Fascicles 3-10-flowered . . . . 1. D. axillaris. 

Large shrub or small tree. Bark black. Leaves 1^-2^ in., 

blotched with red. Fascicles 2-4-fiowered . . . . 2. D. colorata. 

Small compact shrub, .3-5 ft. high. Bark reddish-yelloA, 
rugose. Leaves ^-1 in. ; petioles appressed. Flowers 
solitary or two together . . . . . . . . 3. -D. Traversii. 

1. D. axillaris, Forst. Char. Gen. t. 42. — A small tree 12-25 ft. 
in height, rarely more ; bark black. Leaves 2-5 in. long, on short 
petioles, elliptic-ovate or elliptic-oblong, obtuse, coriaceous or rarely 
submeinbranous, green on both surfaces or glaucous below, not 
blotched. Flowers small, greenish-yellow, in fascicles of 3-10 m 
the axils of the leaves, or from the scars of fallen leaves ; pedicels 
:|— fin. long. Calyx cupular, with 2-6 irregular shallow lobes or 
notches. Petals 5-6, linear, spreading. Stamens 6-15, in 3 series. 
Carpels 3-5. Berries 2 or 3, about tlie size of a peppercorn ; seeds 
5-6, black, angular. — A. Rich. Ft. Nouv. Zel. 290; A. Cunn. Pre- 
cur. n. 629 ; Baoul, Choix de Pluutes, 47 ; Hook. f. Ft. Nov. Zcl. 
i. 12 ; Handh. N.Z. Fl. 10 ; Kirk, Forest Fl. t. 1 ; Studmts' Fl. 22. 
Wintera axillaris, Forst. Frodr. n. 229. 

North and South Islands : Not uncommon in forests from Ahipara to 
Banks Peninsula. Altitudinal range from sea-level to 2800 ft. Horopito. 

October-December. 

Aromatic and pungent, but not so much so as the following species. The 
wood is serviceable for inla\iog, and a decoction of the bark is occasionally 
used by country settlers as an astringent. 



30 MAGNOLiACE^. [Drimys. 

2. D. colorata, Raoul, Choix de Plavtes, t. 23. — Very similar to 
the preceding, and merged with it by Hooker in the Handbook- 
It is usually smaller and more compactly branched ; and the leaves- 
are shorter, i-2|-in. long, more coriaceous, yellowish-green blotched 
with red, usually more glaucous below. Fascicles 2-4:-flo\vered ; 
peduncles much shorter. Calyx shallowly cup-shaped, often quite 
entire. Carpels 2-4. but it is seldom that more than 2 ripen. 
Seeds 2-3. — D. axillaris, var. colorata, Kirk, Forest Fl. t. 2 ; 
Students' Fl. 22. 

North, South, and Stewart Islands : Not uncommon from the Patetere 
Plateau and Rotorua southwards. Very abundant in Stewart Ishmd, where it 
descends to sea-level. November-December. 

I have considerable hesitation in re-establishing this as a species. It is cer- 
tainly very close to the preceding, and in the dried state it is often difficult to 
separate the two. But in the field it can always be readily distinguished, and all 
my correspondents regard it as distinct. The two species grow intermixed in 
many localities in the Wellington and Nelson Districts. 

3. D. Traversii, T. Kirk in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xxx. (1898) 379.— 
A compact closely-branched shrub, 3-6 ft. high. Branches stout; 
bark reddish or reddish-yellow, rough and wrinkled, almost verru- 
cose, sometimes viscid. Leaves numerous, close-set and often 
overlapping, |-1 in. long, oblong-obovate or obovate-spathulate,. 
obtuse, thick and coriaceous, glaucous below, margins slightly 
thickened ; petiole short, stout, appressed. Flowers small, axillary,. 
1 or 2 together; pedicels short. Calyx saucer-sliaped, entire. 
Petals 5, Imear-oblong, obtuse. Stamens usually 5. Carpel soli- 
tary (always?), obovate. Berry small, globose-depressed; seeds 
3-6. — Hymenanthera Traversii, Bitch, in Travis. N.Z. Inst. xv. 
(1883) 339, t. 28. 

South Island : Western part of the Nelson Province ; near Collingwood, 
H. H. Travers ! Medora Crepk, Wakamarama Range to the Gouland Downs, 
alt. 2000-3000 ft., J. Ball; Mount Rochfort, near Westport, W. Townson ! 

A very curious and distinct species, by far the smallest of the genus. 

Obdek III. CRUCIFER^. 

Herbs, very rarely undershrubs, with pungent watery juice. 
Leaves alternate, entire lobed or pinnately divided, the lower ones 
often forming a rosette at the base of the stem ; stipules wanting. 
Flowers perfect, m terminal racemes, which are often short and 
corymb-like when the flowering commences, but lengthen out as 
it advances, usually without bracts. Sepals 4, free, deciduous. 
Petals 4, free, hypogynous, placed cross-wise. Stamens 6, 2 of 
them shorter than the other 4 ; sometimes reduced to 4 or even 2 
(Lepidnim). Ovary usually 2-celled ; style short or wanting; 
stigma entire or 2-lohed. Ovules few or numerous. Fruit a pod, 
long or short, usually divided into 2 cells by a thin partition called 



Nasturtium.'] 



CKUCIFER^. 



31 



the repluiB, from which the 2 valves fall away at maturity ; more 
rarely the pod is indehiscent or transversely jointed. Seeds with- 
out albumen, entirely filled by the large embryo, which is variously 
bent or folded, the radicle either lying along the edges of the coty- 
ledons (accumbent) or placed along the back of one of them 
(incumbent) . 

The Crucifers form a large and extremely natural famil}% comprising about 
180 genera and between 1500 and 2000 species. The species are distributed 
over the whole world, but are most plentiful in the temperate regions of the 
Northern Hemisphere, and especially so in southern Europe and Asia Minor. 
They are rare in the tropics, particularly where there are no mountain-ranges. 
Most of them possess antiscorbutic and stimulating properties, and many are 
staple articles of food. Not a few of the cultivated species (and others) have 
hecome naturalised in New Zealand, as will be seen from the list of introduced 
plants appended to this work. Of the New Zealand genera, Pachycladon and 
Nolothlaspi are endemic ; the remainder are widely spread outside the colony. 

* Pods long and narrow. 

Pods terete, linear-oblong, tumid. Seeds in two rows m 

each cell. Cotyledons accumbent 
Pods flat, linear, acute ; valves opening elastically from 

the base. Seeds in one row. Cotyledons accumbent . . 
Pods terete or obtusely 4-6-angled, 1-3-nerved. Seeds in 

one row. Cotyledons incumbent 

* * Pods short and broad. 

Alpine herb with stellate pubescence. Pods compressed, 

boat-shaped, not winged. Seeds 3-5 in each cell 
Pods compressed, oblong to obcordate, valves turgid, 

keeled. Seeds numerous 
Pods much compressed, ovate to orbicular, often winged. 

Seeds 1 in each cell 
Alpine herbs with sweet-scented flowers. Pods large, 

much compressed, obovate, very broadly winged. Seeds 

numerous . . 



1. Nasturtium. 

2. Cardamine. 

3. Sisymbrium. 

4. Pachycladon. 

5. Capsella. 

6. Lepidium. 

7. notothlaspi. 



1. NASTURTIUM, r. Br. 

Glabrous or pubescent branched herbs. Leaves generally pin- 
nate or pmnately lobed, sometimes entire. Mowers small, yellow 
■or white. Sepals short, equal, spreading. Petals short, scarcely 
■clawed. Stamens 2, 4, or 6. Stigma entire or 2-lobed. Pod 
almost terete, long or short ; valves generally 1-nerved ; septum 
thin, transparent. Seeds small, turgid, usually arranged in two 
rows ; cotyledons accumbent. 

A genus of between 20 and 30 species, some of them very widely dispersed, 
but most abundant in the temperate and warm regions of the Northern Hemi- 
sphere. 

1. N. palustre, D.C. Sijst. ii. 191. — A slender leafy branched 
herb with weak or decumbent stems 6-20 in. long, glabi^ous or 
slightly hairy. Leaves variable, usually lyrately pmnatifid, auricled 
at the base with the lobes toothed or irregularly lobed, sometimes 



32 CRUciFBR^. [Gardamine. 

almost entire, toothed or sinuate-lobed. Flowers small, yellow, in 
lax racemes. Pedicels slender, ebracteate. Petals about equalling 
the sepals. Pods oblong, turgid, slightly curved when ripe, i— ^in. 
long. Seeds numerous, crowded, in 2 series. — Hook. f. Handb. 
N.Z. Fl. 10; Kirk, Students Fl. 25. N. terrestre, B. Br. in Ait. 
Hort. Kew. iv. 110 ; Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 14. N. semipinnati- 
fidum, Hook. Journ. Bot. i. 246. N. sylvestre, A. Rich. Fl. Nouv. 
Zel. 309, (non B. Br.); A. Cunn. Precur. n. 625; Baoul, Choix 
de Plmites, 47. 

NoETH AND South Islands : Common in moist places from the North Cape 
to the Bluff. Usually in lowland districts, but ascending to over 2000 ft. in the 
river-valleys of Canterbury and Otago. Summer and autumn. An abundant- 
plant in the temperate portions of both hemispheres. 

The common water cress of Europe {Nasturtium officinale, R. Br.) is now 
plentifully naturalised throughout New Zealand. It is easily known by its 
aquatic habit, creeping or floating stem, pinnate leaves, and white flowers. 

2. CARDAMINE, Linn. 

Annual or perennial often flaccid herbs, glabrous or slightly 
pubescent. Leaves entire or more frequently pinnately divided. 
Flowers white or purplish. Sepals equal at the base. Perals- 
clawed. Stigma simple or 2-lobed. Pod long, narrow-linear, 
compressed ; valves usually flat, openmg elastically ; septum mem- 
branous, transparent. Seeds numerous, flattened, in one series ; 
cotyledons accumbent. 

A rather large genus of over 60 species, inhabiting the temperate and cool 
regions of both hemispheres. Of the seven species found in New Zealand one is 
a very widely diffused plant, another extends to Australia, the remaining five are 
endemic. 

A. nootstock slender, ahort. 

Slender, usually flaccid. Leaves pinnate (reduced to a 

single pinnule in var. tiiiiflora). Flowers small . . 1. C. hirsuta. 

Small, depressed. Leaves all radical, spathulate. Flowers 

small . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. C. dfpressa. 

Leaves all radical, pinnatifid at the base. Flowers large 3. C. bilobata. 

Tall, slender, branched and leafy. Flowers in elongated 

racemes. Seeds pitted . . . . . . . . 4. C stylosa. 

B. R otstock stoiu, fleshy, as thick as the finger, crowned with numerous: 
rosulate radical leaves. 

Flowering-stems 6-18 in. Leaves almost glabrous. Pods 

narrow, ^V^A '"• hroad . . . . . . . . 5. C. fastigiata. 

Flowering-stems 6-24 in. Leaves villous. Pods broad, 

^-^ in. . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. C. latesiliqua. 

Flowering-stems short, 2-4 in. Leaves covered with stel- 
late pubescence. Pods narrow . . . . . . 7. C. Enysii. 

1. C, hirsuta, Linn. Sp. Plant. 655. — A very variable glabrous 
or slightly hairy annual or perennial herb, usually much branched 
from the base. Stems erect or do'^.umbent, occasionally as much as 



Cardamine.] CRUCiFERiE. 33 

18 in. high, but usually from 6-12 in., in alpine varieties sometimes 
reduced to 1 in. or 2 in. Lower leaves pinnate; leaflets fevp, 
rounded or ovate, entire or toothed, usually stalked, sometimes 
reduced to 1. Cauline leaves few, pinnatifid with naiTOW seg- 
ments. Flowers usually small, few or many, sometimes reduced 
to 1. Petals narrow, erect or slightly spreading. Stamens some- 
times 4 only, especially in European specimens. Pods erect, slender, 
i— |in. long, very narrow ; style short. — Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 
13 ; Handb. N.Z. Fl. 12 ; Kirk, Students' Fl. 26. 

Var. debilis, Hook. f. Handb. N.Z. Fl. 12. — Erect or decumbent, oftenmuch 
branched. Leaflets in several pairs, rounded or cordate. Pods slender, with 
long slender styles. — C. debilis. Banks and Sol. ex D.C. Syst. ii. 265; A. Cunn. 
Prenir. n. 626; Raoul, Choix de Plantes, 47. Sisymbrium hetetophyllum, Forst. 
Prodr. n. 250 ; A. Rich. Fl. Nouv. Zel. 310. 

Var. corymbosa. Hook. f. I.e. — Smaller. Leaflets in 2 pairs or reduced 
to a terminal one. Flowers in few-flowered corymbs. — C. corymbosa, Hook./. 
Fl. Antarct. i. 6 ; Hook. Ic. Plant, t. 686. 

Var. subcarnosai Hook. f. Fl. Antarct. i. 5.- — Stout and fleshy. Leaflets 
3-6 pairs, obovate or oblong. Flowers numerous, large, corymbose. 

Var. uniflora, Hook. f. Handb. N.Z. Fl. 12. — Small, the leaves reduced 
to one pinnule. Flowers on a slender 1-flowered scape, rather large, sometimes 
Jin. diam. 

North and South Islands, Chatham Island, Stewart Island : The 
variety debilis abundant throughout. The remaining varieties not uncommon 
in mountain districts in the South Island, and extending to the Auckland and 
Campbell Islands. Altitudinal range from sea-level to 6500 ft. 

Widely distributed in the temperate regions of both hemispheres, and ex- 
ceedingly variable wherever it is found. 

2. 0. depressa, Hook. f. Fl. Antarct. i. 6. — A small glabrous 
or pilose stemiess perennial. Leaves numerous, crowded, rosulate, 
1-2 in. long, elliptic or ovate-spathulate, quite entire or varying 
from crenate to deeply lobulate, rounded at the tip or retuse, 
narrowed into petioles of variable length. Flowers small, either 
solitary on slender scapes or in few - flowered corymbs. Pods 
i-l-|in. long, stout, erect; styles short, stout. — Hook. f. Handb. 
N.Z. Fl. 12 ; Kirk, Students' Fl. 27. 

Var. depressa, Hook. f. Handb. N.Z. Fl. 12. — Larger, usually glabrous. 
Leaves generally lobulate.- — C. depressa. Hook. f. Fl. Antarct. i. 6, t. 3 and 4b. 

Var. stellata, Hook. /. Handb. N.Z. Fl. 12. — Smaller, glabrous or pilose. 
Leaves entire or nearly so.— C. stellata, Hook. f. Fl. Antarct. i. 7, t. 4a. 

South Island : Var. depressa : Nelson — Wairau Mountains and Lake 
Tennyson, Travers, T. F. C. Marlborough — Mount Mouatt, Kirk ! Canter- 
bury — Hopkins River and Lake Ohau, Haast. Otago— Lake District, Hector 
and Buchanan. Auckland and Campbell Islands : Both varieties abundant, 
ascending to nearly 2000ft., Sir J. D. Hooker, Kirk! 

Chiefly distinguished from reduced forms of C. hirsuta by the habit, 
spathulate leaves, and stout erect pods. 

2— Fl. 



34 CEUCiFEBJE. [Cardainine. 

3. C. bilolbata, T. Kirk, Students' Fl. 27. — Perfectly smooth 
and glabrous, 4-12 in. high. Kootstock rather stout. Leaves all 
radical, on slender petioles 1-4 in. long ; blade -^-l^ in. long, 
oblong or obovate, in small specimens sometimes entire, but 
usually pinnatifid with a very large terminal lobe and 1 or 2 
pairs (rarely more) of small spreading lobes at its base. Flower- 
ing-stems 1-3, few-flowered, naked ; pedicels slender, -1—1 in. long 
or more. Flowers large, white, sometimes nearly \ in. diam. 
Pods f- lin. long, narrow-linear, spreading; style long and slender. 

South Island : Canterbury — Broken River, T. F. C. Otago — Kurow 
Mountains, Mount Ida Range, Hector Mountains, Peine ! Altitudinal 

range 1000-3000 ft. 

The fully developed state of this plant is well marked by the peculiarly 
lobed leaves, large flowers, and spreading pods with long slender styles. But 
small varieties, with the leaves entire or nearly so, show a tendency to ap- 
proach C. depressa. 

4. C. stylosa, D.G. Syst. Veg. ii. 248. — A tall rather coarse 
perfectly glabrous leafy branching herb 2-3 ft. high ; erect or 
decumbent. Leaves 3-5 in. long, oblong-lanceolate or oblong- 
spathulate, entire or more usually minutely and remotely sinuate- 
toothed, sometimes lobed or pinnatifid at the base; uppermost 
sessile, auricled at the base ; lower on long petioles. Racemes 
very long, 1-2 ft. Pedicels stout, short, spreading. Flowers small, 
white. Pods horizontally spreading, l-l-|in. long, yV^^- broad; 
style stout. Seeds red-brown, with a reticulate testa. — Hook. f. 
Handb. N.Z. Fl. 12; Etrk, Stttdents Ft. 27. C. divaricata. 
Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 13. Arabis gigantea, Hook. Ic. Plant. 
t. 259. 

Keemadec Islands : Macaulay Island, not uncommon, T. F. C. North 
Island : In several localities from Mongonui southwards, but often rare and 
local. South Island : Marlborough — Queen Charlotte Sound, Banks and 
Solander ! Picton, J. Rutland; Mount Stokes, J. Macmahon. 

Readily known by its large size and branched leafy habit long racemes, and 
horizontally spreading pods and pitted seeds. It is a common Australian 
and Tasmanian plant. 

5. C. fastigiata, Hook. f. Handb. N.Z. Fl. 13. — Rootstock long, 
stout, tapering, often as thick as the finger, bearing at tiie top a rosette 
of densely crowded radical leaves Leaves 1-|— 3in. long, Imear- 
or lanceolate-spathulate, acute, sharply and deeply inciso-serrate, 
gradually narrowed into a broad flat petiole, thick and coriaceous, 
glabrous or with a few weak hairs on the margins. Cauline leaves 
similar, but smaller and less toothed. Flow^ering-stems usually 
several springing from the top of the rootstock among the radical 
leaves, simple or branched, 6-18 in. high. Flov\'ers numerous, 
white, corymbose, about ^ in. diam. Petals ^in. long, spathulate, 
on long claws. Pods erect or nearly so, straight or curved, acute 
at both ends, narrow-linear, 1-2 in. long, xV-xV^^- broad. Seeds 



Gardamine.'] crucifer^. 35 

compressed, red-brown. — Kirk, Students' Fl. 28. Arabis fastigiata, 
Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. ii. 324. Pachycladon elongata, Buck, in Trans. 
N.Z. List. xix. (1887) 216. Notothlaspi Hookeri, Buck. I.e. xx. 
(1888) 255, t. 13. 

South Island : Nelson —Wairau Gorge, Sinclair! T. F. C. Marlborough 
— IMacrae's Run, Monro; Upper Awatere, Kirk! Canterbury — River-bed of 
the IMacaulay, Haast. Otago — Mountains near Lakes Wanaka and Ohau, 
Buchanan ! Altitudinal range 2500-5000 ft. 

This and the two following species differ from Cardaniine in the seeds being 
2-seriate. 

6. C. latesiliqua, Cheesem. in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xv. (1883) 298. 
— Rootstock stout, spongy, as thick as the finger, often branched at 
the top, each division furnished with a rosette of densely crowded 
radical leaves. Flowering-stems few or many, erect or spreading, 
branched, leafy at the base, 6-24 in. high. Eadical leaves 3-6 in. 
long, ^— |in. broad, narrow linear-spathulate to obovate-spathulate, 
gradually narrowed to the base, coarsely serrate above, thick and 
coriaceous, more or less villous, especially on the margins. Upper 
cauline leaves smaller, lanceolate, nearly entire. Flowers rather 
large, white, very numerous. Petals nearly -i-in. long, spathulate, 
on long claws. Pods erect or suberect, usually curved, somewhat 
turgid, 1|— 2|-in. long, -i— ^in. broad. Seeds numerous, compressed, 
reddish-brown. — Kirk, Students' Fl. 28. 

South Island: Nelson— Mount Arthur, T. F. C, Bryant! Gibhs! Mount 
Owen and the Raglan Mountains, T. F. G. Altitudinal range 3000-5500 ft. 

December-January. 

A handsome plant, with much of the habit and general appearance of 
C. fastigiata, but easily distinguished by the villous leaves, larger flowers, and 
much broader pods, which have a turgid appearance very unusual in the genus. 

7. C. Bnysii, CJieescm. MSS. — Short, stout, 2-4 in. high. 
Eootstock thick and fleshy, perpendicular, -lin. diam., bearing at its 
summit numerous radical leaves, and a short flowering-stem which 
is much branched from the base, and forms a rounded or pyramidal 
head 2-5 in. diam. Leaves -I— l-^-in. long, ^— ^in. broad, oblong- 
spathulate, obtuse or subacute, narrowed into a broad flat petiole, 
rather thin, sharply serrate, sometimes almost pinnatifid, more or 
less densely clothed on both surfaces with stellate pubescence. 
Cauline leaves linear or linear-spathulate, toothed towards the tip. 
Flowers numerous, corymbose, white. Pedicels slender, spreading, 
■|— |- in. long. Petals spathulate, with long claws. Pods (imma- 
ture) narrows-linear, flat, about 1 in. long. Seeds numerous, in 2 
series. — Kirk, Students' Fl. 28. 

South Island: Canterbury — Mountains at the head of the Broken River, 
alt. 6500 ft., J. D. Enys and T. F. C ; Craigieburn Mountains, alt. 6000ft., 
Cockayne ! Otago— Mount Ida, 5000 ft., Petrie ! 

A very remarkable plant, easily separated from the two preceding species by 
the smaller size, depressed habit, and stellate pubescence. The seeds are too 
immature in all my specimens to allow me to determine the position of the 
radicle, and it is possible that the plant may not belong to Gardamine. 



36 CRUCiFEE^. [Sisymbrium. 

3. SISYMBRIUM, Line. 

Annual or more rarely perennial erect herbs, either glabrous or 
more or less tomentose or hairy. Flowers small, white or yellow, 
usually in rather lax racemes. Sepals short or long, equal or the 
lateral saccate. Petals with long claws. Style short ; stigma 
2-lobed. Pod long, slender, terete or slightly compressed ; valves 
convex; septum membranous. Seeds usually numerous, not mar- 
gined, in a single row in each cell ; cotyledons incumbent. 

A genus of about 80 species, widely spread in Europe and from thence to 
eastern Asia, and with a few representatives in most temperate countries. The 
single New Zealand species is endemic. 

1. S. novae-zealandiae, Hook. f. Handb.N.Z. Fl. 11. — An erect 
slender sparingly branched herb 6-18 in. high, usually hoary 
with minute stellate pubescence, rarely almost glabrous. Leaves 
chiefly radical, very variable in size and shape, -4—2 in. long ; petiole 
long or short ; blade ^1 in., obovate to narrow-oblong, quite entire 
or sinuate-toothed or pinnatifid ; lobes usually blunt. Cauline leaves 
few, smaller. Flowers small, white. Fruiting racemes rather lax; 
pedicels slender, ^—| in. long. Pods 1-2 in. long, Jg-Jj^ in. broad, 
narrow-linear, obtuse, spreading, glabrous ; valves slightly convex, 
midrib distinct ; style very short. Seeds numerous, small ; coty- 
ledons incumbent. — Kirk, Students Fl. 30. 

South Island : Nelson— Wairau Gorge, Travers, Bough. Canterbury — 
Broken River, Coleridge Pass, Porter's Pass, Kirk ! Enys ! Mackenzie Plains 
and Lake Tekapo, T. F. C. Otago — Not uncommon in the eastern and central 
portions of the district, Pe^rie .' Altitudinal range from sea-level to 3000 ft. 
December-January. 

4. PACHYCLADON, Hook. f. 
A short stout depressed alpine herb, clothed with stellate 
pubescence. Eootstock long, thick and fleshy. Leaves small, 
rosulate. Flowers small, white. Sepals equal. Petals with long 
claws. Stamens free, toothless. Pod laterally compressed, linear- 
oblong ; valves boat-shaped, keeled, not winged ; nerves obscure ; 
septum imperfect. Seeds 3-5 in each cell, obovoid ; funicles short. 
Cotyledons incumbent. 

The genus consists of a single species, confined to the southern portion of 
the colony. Sir J. D. Hooker remarks that in technical characters it is inter- 
mediate between the tribes Sisyvibriece and Lepidinece, but is probably referable 
to the latter. 

1. P. novse-zealandiae, Hook. f. Handb. N.Z. Fl. 724. — Eoot 
very long, fusiform, stout and fleshy, as thick as the finger, in old 
specimens branched above, crowned with a dense rosette of imbri- 
cating radical leaves. Leaves J-1 in. long ; blade oblong, pinna- 
tifldly lobed, gradually narrowed into a short flat petiole, clothed 
with stellate pubescence. Cauline leaves few, smaller, digitately 
lobed. Peduncles numerous, springing from below the leaves and 



Fachycladon.] crucifer^. 37 

slightly longer than them, 2-5-flowered. Petals obovate-spathu- 
late, almost twice as long as the sepals. Pods on short stout 
pedicels, J-^ in. long, laterally compressed ; valves keeled, not 
winged. Seeds 3-5 in each cell, obovoid, red-brown. — Ic. Plant, t. 
1009 ; Buck, in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xiv. (1882) t. 24, f. 1 ; Kirk, 
Students Fl. ^1. Braya novae- zealandiae, Hook. f. Handh. N.Z. 
Fl. 13. 

South Island : Otago — Mount Alta, Hector and Buchanan ! Mount 
St. Bathan's, Mount Pisa, Mount Kyeburn, Mount Cardrona, &c., Petrie ! 
4500-6500 ft. 

A very singular plant. Mr. Buchanan's P. glabra (Trans. N.Z. Inst. xiv. 
t. 24, f. 2) is a form with rather larger and almost glabrous leaves, with sharply 
_j)ointed ascending lobes. It passes insensibly into the ordinary state. 

3. CAPSELLA, Medicus. 
Annual or rarely perennial branched herbs, of small size and 
^veak habit, glabrous or pilose. Eadical leaves entire or pinnati- 
iid. Flowers small, white, racemed. Sepals spreading, equal at 
the base. Petals short. Pods oblong, ovoid, or obcordate, laterally 
compressed ; valves convex or boat-shaped ; septum thin ; style 
short. Seeds numerous, in 2 rows. Cotyledons incumbent. 

A small genus, scattered over the temperate regions of both hemispheres. 

1. C. procumbens, Fries Novit. Fl. Suec. Mant. i. 14. — Slender, 
perfectly glabrous. Stems numerous from the root, 2-6 in. long, 
•decumbent at the base, ascending at the tips. Leaves ^-f in. 
long ; lower ovate, oblong, or spathulate, entire or lobed or u'regu- 
larly pinnatind, petioled ; upper smaller, more sessile, often 
entire. Flowers white, very small. Eacemes elongating in fruit ; 
pedicels filiform, spreading. Pod ovoid, i-iin. long; valves boat- 
shaped. Seeds 10-15 in each cell. Benth. Fl. Austral, i. 81. 
C. elliptica, G. A. Meij. in Ledeb. Fl. Alt. iii. 199 ; Kirk, Stu- 
■dents Fl. 33. 

South Island : Otago — On cliffs exposed to sea-spray : Oamaru ; Wai- 
kouaiti ; near Dunedin ; Petrie ! September-October. 

A widely distributed plant, found in Europe, western and central Asia, 
north-west and South America, and Australia. 

G. bursa-pastoris, Mcench, the common " Shepherd's Purse," is now esta- 
blished as a weed in most parts of the colony. It is an erect annual, with 
spreading pinnatifid radical leaves and triangular cuneate or obcordate pods, 
arranged in a long lax raceme. 

6. LEPIDIUM, Linn. 
Erect or spreading, glabrous or pubescent, annual or perennial 
herbs, sometimes almost shrubby. Leaves entire or divided. 
Flowers small, white, ebracteate. Sepals short, equal at the base. 
Petals short, equal, sometimes wanting. Stamens often reduced to 
4 or 2. Pods variable, oblong, ovate, obcordate, or orbicular, much 



38 



CEUCIPER^. 



[Lepidium. 



1. L. oleraceum. 



2. L. Banksii. 

3. L. obtusatum. 



compressed laterally, notched at the summit or entire, winged or 
not ; septum narrow, membranous. Seeds one in each cell, sus- 
pended from the top of the septum ; cotyledons incumbent. 

A large genus of nearly 100 species, found in most temperate or warm cli- 
mates. The New Zealand species are highly variable, and several are very diffi- 
cult of discrimination. All are endemic. 

A. Leaves undivided; serrate, crenate, or quite entire; never pinnate or 

pinnatifid. 

Stout, erect or diffuse, 12-24 in. high. Leaves sharply ser- 
rate. Pods entire, not winged 

Slender, flexuous, suberect, 12-18 in. Leaves spathulate, 
serrate above. Pods winged and notched above 

Slender, decumbent, 9-12 in. Leaves long-petioled, cre- 
nate. Pods ovate, winged and notched above 

Stems prostrate, filiform, 2-5 in. Leaves linear-spathu- 

late, ^1 in., entire. Pods ovate-orbicular, notched .. 4. L. Kirkii. 

B. Lower leaves pinnate or pinnatifid. 
* Flowers hermaphrodite. 

Procumbent, glabrous. Leaves pinnatifid, segments 
toothed at the tips. Racemes short, lateral. Pods 
ovate 

Procumbent or suberect, hairy. Leaves pinnate, segments 
finely serrate on the upper edge. Eacemes long, termi- 
nal. Pods minute, orbicular 

** Flowers dioecious. 
Almost glabrous. Erect, leafy, 6-12 in. high, paniculately 

branched above. Pods ovate 
Hoary and scabrid. Erect, strict, 2-5 in. high. Leaves 

almost all radical, coriaceous. Racemes short, dense. 

Pods ovate 
Hairy. Suberect, 2-5 in. high. Root very long and stout. 

Leaves all radical. Racemes lax, open. Pods ovate 

rhomboid . . 



5. L. flexicaule. 



6. L. tenuicaule. 



7. L. KaioaraiL 



8. L. Matazi. 



9. L. sisymbrioides^ 

1. L. oleraceum, Forst. Prodr. n. 248. — Stout or slender, 
erect or diffuse, perfectly glabrous, 10-24 in. high. Stem branched,, 
leafy above, often naked and woody below, scarred. Leaves 1-4 in. 
long, obovate- or oblong-spathulate to narrow-spathulate, narrowed 
into a short fiat petiole, sharply serrate or incised ; upper smaller 
and narrower, more entire, toothed at the tip only. Flowers 
numerous, in terminal simple or branched racemes, in large speci- 
mens often corymbosely arranged at the ends of the branches. 
Stamens 4. Pods ovate or ovate-oblong, subacute, wmgless, entire 
at the tip, ^ in. long ; pedicels slender, spreading. — Forst. PI. Esc. 30 ; 
A. Cunn. Precur. n. 628 ; Baoul, Choix de Plantes, 47 ; Hook. f. Fl. 
Nov. Zel. i. 15 ; Handb. N.Z. Fl. 14 ; Kirk, Students' Fl. 34. 

Var. frondosum, Kirk, I.e. — Stout, fleshy, much branched. Leaves large,. 
2-5 in., broadly oblong or cuneate-oblong, serrate. 

Var. acutidentatum, Kirk, I.e. — Branches slender, leafy. Leaves 1-2 in.,, 
oblong- or linear-spathulate, acutely toothed towards the tip. 



Xiepidium.] crucifeb^. 39 

NoKTH Island : Var. frondosum : Banks and Solander ; Three Kings 
Island, Little Barrier Island, Cuvier Island, T. F. C. Var. acutidentaticin : 
Shaded and rocky places near the sea ; once plentiful, but now fast becoming 
scarce. South Island : Queen Charlotte Sound, Banks and Solander ! Nelson 
Harbour, Kirk ! Banks Peninsula, Armstrong ; Oamaru, Port Chalmers, Catlin's 
River, Fetrie ! Stewart Island : Kirk. Auckland Islands : Bolton, Kirk ! 
■Chatham Islands : H. H. Travers, Cox! Nau. November-March. 

Best known as "Cook's scurvy-grass." The entire plant has a heavy dis- 
agreeable smell and hot biting taste. It was originally discovered by Banks and 
Solander during Cook's first voyage, and at that time must have been abundant, 
ior Dr. Solander speaks of it as " copiose in littonbus marinis," and Cook states 
that boat-loads of it were collected and used as an antiscorbutic by liis crew. It 
is now quite extinct in several of the localities he visited, and is fast becoming 
rare in others. Its disappearance is due to cattle and sheep, which greedily eat 
it down in any locality they can reach. The figure in the unpublished Banksian 
plates represents var. frondosimi ; but the specimens in the set of Banks and 
Solander's plants presented to the colony by the Trustees of the British Museum 
all belong to var. acutidentatum. 

2. L. Banksii, T. Kirk, Sttidents' Fl. 35.— Perfectly glabrous. 
Stems slender, flexuous, branched, suberect, 12-18 in. long. Leaves 
1-2 in., distant, oblong- or linear-spathulate, sharply serrate or 
"toothed above, belov? gradually narrowed into a short petiole or 
«.lmost sessile. Racemes terminal. Flowers small. Stamens 4. 
Pods ovate, cordate at the base, slightly winged, broadly notched 
-above; style equal to or slightly exceeding the notch. — L. oleraceum, 
A. Rich. FL Nouv. ZeL. 310, t. 35 {non Forst.). 

South Island : Queen Charlotte Sound and Astrolabe Harbour, A. Rich- 
ard ; Pelorus Sound, J. Rutland ! Kenepuru, J. MucmaJion. 

Mr. Kirk appears to have founded this species on A. Richard's plate, 
quoted above, and on a single specimen collected by Mr. Rutland in Pelorus 
Sound. Judging from this scanty material, there appears to be little to 
separate it from L. oleraceiim var. acutidentatum, except the slightly winged 
pod notched at the summit. But some of Mr. Petrie's Otago specimens of 
L. oleraceum show a minute notch, as also do those collected by Mr. Cox on the 
•Chatham Islands. I much fear that the species is of doubtful validity. 

3. L. obtusatum, T. Kirk in Tranti. N.Z. Inst. xxiv. (1892) 
423. — Stems leafy, branched, prostrate or suberect, 6-12 in. long. 
Lower leaves on broad flat petioles, sometimes 2 in. long; blade 
1-2 in., oblong or oblong-spathulate, gradually naiTowed into the 
petiole, obtuse, coarsely crenate or serrate. Cauline leaves sessile 
■or nearly so, obovate or oblong-spathulate. Eacemes numerous, 
terminating small leafy branches. Flowers small, white. Sta- 
mens 4. Fruiting pedicels slender, i in. long. Pods broadly 
ovate, slightly winged above, with a broad shallow notch ; 
style short, stout, about equalling the notch. — Kirk. Students' 
Fl. 35. 

North Island : Auckland — Sea-cliffs to the north of the Manukau Harbour, 
-I'are, T. F. C. Wellington — Maritime rocks at the entrance to Port Nicholson, 
Miss Kirk I October-February. 



40 cRuciFEB^. [Lepidium. 

This is allied to L. oleraceum, but can be readily distinguished by the 
slender often prostrate habit, the long petioles of the radical leaves, their 
crenate margins, and by the notched pods. My specimens from the north of the 
Manukau Harbour are suberect ; Mr. Kirk's are mostly prostrate. 

4. L. Kirkii, Pctrie in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xxii. (1890) 439.— 
Small, prostrate, glabrous or nearly so. Stems many from the top 
of a short stout rootstock, prostrate, branched, flexuous, almost 
filiform, 2-4 in. long. Eadical leaves entire, narrow-linear or 
linear-spathulate, ^1 in. long, sheathing at the base, obtuse at the 
tip ; cauline similar but smaller. Eacemes short, elongating in 
fruit. Flowers minute. Sepals ovate, concave. Petals narrow, 
slightly shorter than the sepals. Stamens 4. Pods on slender 
pedicels about their own length, ovate-orbicular, minutely notched 
at the tip ; style short, exceeding the notch. — Kirk, Students' Fl. 37. 

South Island : Otago — Saline situations in the Maniototo Plains, Petrie t 
December-January . 

An exceedingly well marked little plant, not closely allied to any other. 

5. L. flexicaule, T. Kirk in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xiv. (1882) 380.— 
Perfectly glabrous, smooth and fleshy. Stems numerous, branched,, 
flexuous, procumbent ; branches ascending at the tips. Lower 
leaves 2-3 in. long, petiolate, linear-oblong, pinnatifid ; lobes 2-6 
pairs, entire or toothed at the tips. Cauline leaves smaller, sessile 
or shortly petiolate, linear-spathulate or cuneate, coarsely toothed 
towards the apex. Racemes 1-2 in. long, lateral or terminal, 
leaf-opposed. Plowers small. Petals linear, obtuse. Stamens 2. 
Fruiting pedicels rather longer than the pod. Pod broadly ovate^ 
slightly winged above, notched at the apex ; stjde not exceeding the 
notch. — Kirk, Students' Fl. 35. L. incisum, Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. 
i. 15 ; Handb. N.Z. Fl. 14 {not of Both). 

North Island : Auckland — Mercury Bay, Banks and Solander ! shores of 
the Manukau and Waitemata Harbours, Kirk! T. F. C; Rangitoto Island, 
T. F. C. South Island : Near Westport, W. Toivnson ! November-January. 

This appears to be an exceedingly local plant, and is fast becoming extinct 
in the few habitats at present known. It is well characterized by the procumbent 
habit, lateral racemes, and diandrous flowers. 

6. L. tenuicaule, T. Kirk in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xiv. (1882) 
381. — More or less clothed with minute soft whitish hairs, rarely 
glabrous. Stems numerous, slender, branched, procumbent or sub- 
erect, 6-12 in. long. Radical leaves numerous, thin, 1-4 in. long,, 
linear-oblong, pinnate or pinnatifid ; leaflets sometimes stalked, 
finely and sharply serrate or laciniate on the upper edge ; teeth 
irregular, sometimes piliferous ; petiole sheathing at the base. 
Cauline leaves usually few, sometimes absent, oblong-spathulate to- 
linear, sessile or shortly petiolate, entire or serrate. Flowers very 
numerous, minute, in long and slender terminal racemes. Petals 
wanting. Stamens 4. Pod very small, orbicular, shorter than the- 



Jjepidmm.] ceucifek^. 41 

slender pedicel, winged above, minutely notched ; style scarcely 
longer than the notch. — Kirk, Students' Fl. 37. L. australe, Kirk 
in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xiv. (1882) 381. 

South Island : Otago — Usually near the sea ; Oamaru, Hampden, Awa- 
moko, Weston, Orepuki, Petrie ! Stewart Island : Dog Island ; Ruapuke, 
Kirk! November-January. 

A distinct but highly variable species, easily recognised by the minute 
orbicular pods. Mr. Kirk's L. atcstrale is a state with the stems more erect 
than usual, and with more numerous cauline leaves. 

7. L. Kawarau, Petrie in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xvii. (1885) 270. — 
Dioecious, erect or diffuse, glabrous or slightly hairy, 6-12 in. high 
•or more. Stems leafy, much branched above. Eadical leaves 
numerous, 3-5 in. long, linear-oblong, pinnatifid or pinnate with 
a broad rachis ; leaflets rather distant, linear, entire or with 1-3 
Imear lobes on the upper edge, rarely on the lower as well ; petioles 
sheathing at the base. Cauline leaves many, lower like the radical 
but sessile, gradually passing into the uppermost, which are narrow- 
linear, entire. Eacemes very numerous at the ends of the branches, 
forming a much-branched panicle. Flowers small. Petals ap- 
parently wanting in both sexes. Stamens 4-6. Fruiting pedicels 
spreading or ascending, rather longer than the pods. Pods ovate 
or ovate-oblong, notched at the apex ; style slightly exceeding the 
notch. — Kirk, Students' Fl. 36. 

Var. dublum. Kirk, I.e. — Taller, much more hairy, almost scabrid ; 
branches few, long, lax. Cauline leaves shorter and broader, pinnatifid. 
Petals present in tue male flowers. 

South Island : Otago — Kawarau River, Cromwell, Petrie ! Var. dubium : 
JSfear Duntroon, Petrie ! November-December. 

Allied to L. Matau, with which it entirely agrees in the flowers and pods. 
It differs in the greater size, branched leafy habit and almost glabrous leaves, 
which are much larger and have long and narrow toothed pinnae. The var. 
■dubium has a distinct appearance, but barely seems entitled to specific rank. 

8. L. Matau, Petrie in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xix. (1887) 323.— 
Dioecious, erect, hoary with short scabrid hairs, 2-5 in. high. 
Eoot stout, woody. Stems one or several from the root, stout, 
somewhat strict, branched above. Eadical leaves numerous, 
coriaceous, scabrid, 1-2 in. long, linear or linear-oblong, deeply 
pinnatifid or almost pinnate ; segments rounded or oblong, rarely 
linear, entire or lobed on the upper edge. Cauline leaves oblong or 
ovate, sessile, usually entire. Flowers small, in short and dense 
racemes at the ends of the branches. Petals wanting in both 
sexes. Stamens 4. Fruiting pedicels patent or slightly decurved, 
rather longer than the pods. Pods ovate, not winged, shortly 
notched above ; style short, slightly exceeding the notch. — Kirk, 
Students Fl. 36. 



42 CRUCiFERiE. [Lepidium. 

South Island : Otago — Alexandra South, Gimmerburn, Petrie ! No- 
vember-Deceniber . 

Best recognised by the strict habit, scabrid and coriaceous leaves, short 
dense racemes, and apetalous dioecious flowers. 

9. L. sisymbrioides, Hook. f. Handb. N.Z. Ft. 14. — DicEcious^ 
pubescent or almost glabrous, suberect, 2-5 in. high. Eoot stout 
and woody, often as thick as the finger, very long and tapering, 
much divided at the top. Leaves nearly all radical, numerous,, 
crowded, spreading, 1-2 in. long, linear or linear-oblong in outline,, 
deeply pinnatifid ; segments many, small, short, entire or lobulate 
on the upper edge ; petioles flat, often dilated at the base. Flower- 
ing-stems numerous, slender, branched, spreading or suberect,. 
usually with a few small entire cauline leaves below, sometimes- 
naked. Flowers small, in terminal racemes ; males with 4 narrow- 
petals or apetalous ; females always apetalous. Stamens 4. Pods- 
about half as long as the slender spreading pedicels, ovate-rhom- 
boid, acute at both ends, slightly winged above, minutely notched ; 
style exceeding the notch. — Kirk. Students' Fl. 37. L. Solandri, 
Kirh in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xiv. (1882) 380. 

South Island : Canterbury— Broken Eiver district, Haast, Enys ! Kirk !' 
T. F. C. ; Mackenzie Plains, J. F. Armstrong ; Lakes Tekapo and Pukaki, 
T. F. C. ; Lake Ohau, Haast. Otago - Waitaki Valley, Lake Wanaka, Bu- 
chanan ! Kurow, Petrie ! Altitudinal range 800-3000 ft. December- 
January. 

A distinct species, at once separated from the two preceding by the more 
depressed habit, lax racemes, and ovate-rhomboid pods. The stout cylindrical 
root often descends for distances altogether out of proportion to the short stems. 
Mr. Enys on one occasion showed me specimens nearly 4 ft. in length. 

7. NOTOTHLASPI, Hook. f. 
Small fleshy simple or branched alpine herbs, glabrous or 
slightly hairy. Leaves all radical, or radical and cauline, spathulate, 
petiolate. Flowers rather large, white, densely crowded in a ter- 
minal raceme, or corymbose ar the tips of the branches. Sepals 
erect, equal at the base. Petals spathulate. Pods rather large, 
obovate or oblong, much compressed, valves very broadly winged. 
Seeds numerous in each cell, reniform, attached by slender long 
funicles. Cotyledons incumbent ; radicle often very long. 

The genus is confined to the mountains of the South Island of New Zealand- 
Stem simple. Flowers densely crowded on a stout ter- 
minal peduncle or scape. Style very short . . . . 1. jV. rosulatuvi. 
Stem usually much branched. Flowers corymbose at the 

ends of the branches. Style long . . . . . . 2. JV. australe. 

1. N. rosulatum, Hook. f. Handh. N.Z. FL. 15. — A very 
remarkable scout erect leafy pyramidal fleshy herb 3-9 in. high; 
stem very short or almost wanting. Leaves all radical, very nume- 
rous, most densely crowded, fleshy, imbricated, forming a rosette 



Notothlaspi.] ckuciferje. 43 

or cushion, spathulate, crenate or dentate, when young clothed 
with white cellular ribband-like hairs, glabrous or nearly so when 
old, narrowed into a petiole of variable length. Scape very stout, 
sometimes as thick as the finger, covered with densely crowded 
sweet-scented flowers, forming a conical or pyramidal raceme. 
Pods -g— 1 in. long, obovate, very broadly winged, notched at the 
top ; style very short ; stigma 2-lobed. Seeds numerous, subreni- 
form, pitted ; radicle very long, twice folded, first upwards then 
downwards and backwards over the back of the cotyledons. — 
Xirk, Students' Fl. 38. N. uotabile. Buck, in Trans. N.Z. Inst. 
xiv. (1882) 344, t. 25. 

South Island : Nelson and Canterbury — Not uncommon on dry shingle- 
slopes on the mountains, but easily overlooked. Otago — Mount Ida, P. Ooyen. 
Altitudinal range 2000-5000 ft. December-February. 

One of the most singular plants in the colony. When in flower or fruit it 
lias a conical or pyramidal shape ; but flowerless specimens form rosettes or 
cushions of closely packed imbricating leaves, from which no doubt has arisen 
the local name of " penwiper plant." The flowers are deliciously fragrant. 

2. N. australe, Hook./. Handb. N.Z. FL 15. — Small, densely 
tufted, usually much branched from the base; branches leafy, 
spreading, 1-4 in. long. Leaves radical and cauline, numerous, 
-J— l-|-in. long, petiolate, linear- or oblong-spathulate, entire or 
crenate, glabrous or with a few cellular hairs, often recurved. 
Flowers very numerous, corymbose, about :^in. diam. Pod much 
smaller than in the preceding species, -J— i-in. long, broadly oblong 
or elliptic, winged, barely notched at the top ; style long, almost -J- 
the length of the pod. Seeds numerous, pitted ; radicle long, 
slender. — Kirk, Students Fl. 38. Thlaspi (?) australe. Hook. f. Fl. 
Nov. Zel. h. 325. 

Var. stellatum, Kirk, I.e. 39. — Stems not branched. Leaves narrow 
linear-spathulate ; petioles pubescent. Flowers numerous, on long 1-fiowered 
peduncles. 

South Island : Nelson — An abundant plant on the mountains, from 2500 
to 5000 ft. Var. stellatum : Mount Rintoul, F. G. Gibbs, W. R. Bryant. 

A pretty little plant, originally discovered by Sir David Monro. Although 
very common in the Nelson District, it has not been observed further south than 
Lake Tennyson. 

Okder IV. VIOLARIE-ffi. 

Herbs, shrubs, or small trees. Leaves usually alternate, simple, 
entire lobed or cut, stipulate. Flowers regular or irregular, axillary, 
solitary or arranged in cymes or panicles, rarely racemose. Sepals 5, 
equal or unequal, imbricate. Petals 5, hypogynous, equal or 
unequal, lower one sometimes spurred, usually imbricate. Sta- 
mens 5, hypogynous ; filaments short, broad ; anthers erect, free 
or connate round the pistil ; connective broad, usually produced 
beyond the cells into an appendage. Ovary free, 1-celled, with 



44 viOLARiE^. [Viola, 

3-5 parietal placentas ; ovules many or few to each placenta. 
Fruit either a *3-5-valved capsule or a berry. Seeds usually small ; 
embryo straight, in the axis of fleshy albumen. 

An order scattered over the whole world, containing 22 genera and about 
250 species. The roots of many of the species are emetic, and are used as a 
substitute for ipecacuanha. One of the New Zealand genera is found in most 
countries ; the other two have a very limited distribution outside the colony. 

Herbs. Flowers irregular, the lower petal produced into a 

spur. Fruit a capsule . . . . . . . . 1. Viola. 

Trees or shrubs. Flowers regular. Fruit a berry. 

Anthers free .. .. .. .. ..2. Melicytus. 

Anthers coherent . . . . . . . . 3. Hymenanthera.. 

1. VIOLA, Linn. 

Annual or perennial herbs of small size. Leaves tufted at the 
top of a short woody rootstock or alternate on creeping or trail- 
ing stems, stipulate. Flowers irregular, on radical or axillary 
1-fiowered peduncles. Sepals 5. slightly produced at the base. 
Petals 5, spreading, the lowest usually longer and spurred at the 
base. Anthers 5, nearly sessile, the connectives flat, produced into 
a thin membrane beyond the cells, the two lower often spurred at 
the base. Style swollen above, straight or oblique at the tip. 
Capsule 3-valved ; valves elastic, each with a single parietal pla- 
centa. Seeds ovoid or globose. 

A large genus, widely diffused in all temperate climates, the species 
probably numbering considerably over 100. Two of the New Zealand species 
are enderaic, the third extends to Tasmania. 

In most of the species of the genus the flowers are dimorphic ; some, which 
are usually produced early in the flowering season, having conspicuous flowers 
with large petals, as a rule ripening few seeds ; others, which appear in late 
summer or autumn, being much smaller, with either minute petals or none at 
all, but which ripen abundance of seed. These are usually called cleistogamic 
flowers. 

Stems slender, elongated. Leaves cordate. Stipules and 

bracts lacerate . . . . . . . . . . 1. V. filicaulis. 

Stems slender. Leaves cordate. Stipules and bracts 

entire . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. V. Lyallii. 

Stems short. Leaves ovate. Stipules and bracts entire . . 3. V. Cunninghamii. 

1. V. filicaulis, Hook. f. Ft. Nov. Zel. i. 16.— Slender, per- 
fectly glabrous. Stems numerous, almost filiform, prostrate, some- 
times ascending at the tips. Leaves alternate, ovate - cordate 
orbicular- cordate or almost reniform, |— f in. diam., obtuse or 
subacute, obtusely crenate ; petioles slender. Stipules broad, 
deeply laciniate ; teeth filiform, often glandular-tipped. Peduncles 
slender, 2-4 m. long ; bracts about the middle, linear, toothed oi' 
lacerate. Flowers i in. diam. Sepals linear-lanceolate. Petals 
soathulate; spur short. — Handb. N.Z. Fl. 16; Kirk, Students' 
Fl. 40. 



VIOLARIE^. 45 

Var. hydrocotyloides, Kirk, Students' Fl. 41. — Much smaller, sparingly 
pilose. Leaves |-J in. diam. Peduncles short. — V. hydrocotyloides, Armstr. in 
Trans. N.Z. Inst. xiv. (188-2) 360. 

North and South Islands, Stewart Island : Not uncommon from 
Whangarei southwards. Var. hydrocotyloides : Otago, Pctrie ! Stewart 
Island, Stack! Pctrie! Kirk! Altitudinal range from sea-level to 4000ft. 
November-February. 

The long creeping stems, small leaves, and fimbriate bracts and stipules 
distinguish this from the two following. It produces numerous reduced or 
cleistogamic flowers late in summer and autumn. 

2. V. Lyallii, Hook. f. Handh. N.Z. Fl. 16.— Perfectly glabrous. 
Stems slender, shorter than in V. filicaulis, ascending at the tips. 
Leaves ^-1 in. diam., broadly ovate or rounded, deeply cordate at 
the base, obtuse or subacute, obscurely crenate or nearly entire ; 
petioles variable in length, 2-6 in. Stipules linear, entire. Pe- 
duncles very slender, variable in length, 3-7 in. Bracts usually 
above the middle, linear, entire. Flowers |-in. diam., white 
streaked with lilac and yellow. — Kirk, Students' Fl. 41. V. Cun- 
ninghamii var. gracilis, Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 16. Erpetion 
spathulatum, A. Cunn. Prodr. n. 622 {non G. Don.). 

North and South Islands : Not uncommon from Kaitaia and Hoki- 
anga southwards ; ascending to 4000 ft. on the Mount Arthur Plateau, Nelson. 
October- January. 

Usually a larger plant than the preceding, with the stem not so decidedly 
creeping, larger leaves and longer petioles, and with the stipules and bracts 
entire, not lacerate. The cordate leaves separate it from V. Cunninghamii. 

3. V. Cunninghamii, Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 16.— Glabrous 
except the petioles, which are occasionally pu.bescent. Eootstock 
often somewhat woody, creeping below, often branched above. 
Leaves tufted at the top of the rootstock, or on short branches 
springing from it, |— 1 in. diam., triangular-ovate or ovate-oblong, 
truncate at the base or narrowed into the petiole, obtuse or sub- 
acute, obscurely crenate ; petioles short or long. Stipules adnata 
at the base to the petiole, usually entire, acute. Peduncles slen- 
der, exceeding the leaves; bracts linear, acute. Flowers ^— |in. 
diam., white, usually streaked with lilac and yellow. Sepals 
linear - oblong. Lateral petals bearded. — Handh. N.Z. Fl. 16; 
Kirk, Students' Fl. 41. V. perexigua, Col. in Trans. N.Z. Hist. 
xvi. (1884) 326. 

North and South Islands, Stewart Island : From Rotorua and the East 
Cape southwards ; abundant in many places, especially in the mountains. 
Chatham Islands: Buchanan (Trans. N.Z. Inst. vii. 334). Altitudinal 
range from sea-level to 5000 ft. October-January. Also found in Tas- 

mania. 

The short stems and tufted leaves, which are usually either truncate at the 
base or narrowed into the petioles, are the best distinguishing characters of this 
plant. It varies greatly in size ; lowland specimens, growing among scrub, &c., 
sometimes have the petioles 8-9 in. long, and the peduncles of corresponding 
size, while alpine specimens are frequently much depauperated. The flowers of 
the latter, however, are usually larger than those of the lowland forms. 



46 vioLARiE^. [Melicytus. 

2. MELICYTUS, Forst. 

Trees or shrubs. Leaves petiolate, alternate, toothed or serrate ; 
stipiiles minute. Flowers small, regular, dioecious, in little fascicles 
on the branches or axillary. Sepals 5, united at the base. Petals 5, 
short, spreading. Anthers 5, free, sessile ; connective produced 
above into a broad membrane furnished with a scale at the back. 
Ovary 1-celled, with 3-5 parietal placentas. Style 3-6-fid at the 
apex, or stigma nearly sessile, lobed. Fruit a berry, with few or 
several angled seeds. 

A small genus, limited to the four New Zealand species, one of which is 
also found in Norfolk Island and the Tongan Islands. 

Leaves ohlong or oblong-lanceolate, serrate . . . . 1. M. ramiflorus. 

Leaves large, obovate, coriaceous, sinuate- serrate . . 2. M. macropUyllus. 

Leaves long, linear-lanceolate, sharply and finely serrate 3. M. lanceolatus. 

Leaves small, orbicular-ovate, sinuate-toothed . . . . 4. M. micranthiLS. 

1. M. ramiflorus, Forst. Char. Gen. 124, t. 62. — A glabrous 
tree or large shrub 20-30 ft. high, with a trunk 1-2 ft. in diam. ; 
bark white ; branches brittle. Leaves alternate, 2-5 in. long, 
oblong-lanceolate, usually with a short acuminate point but some- 
times obtuse, bluntly and sometimes obscurely serrate, veins reticu- 
late ; petioles short, slender ; stipules deciduous. Flowers small, 
-|-in. diam., greenish, dioecious, in axillary fascicles or on the 
branches below the leaves; pedicels slender, ^in. long, with 
2 mini;te bracts. Calyx-teeth 5, minute. Petals obtuse, spreading. 
Male flowers with 5 obtuse sessile anthers, each with a concave 
scale at the back. Females with a short conical ovary, crowned 
with a 4-6-lobed stigma. Berry small, violet-blue, i-in. diam. ; 
seeds few, black, angled. — A. Bich. Fl. Nouv. Zel. 313; A. Gunn. 
Precur. n. 623 ; Baoul, Choix de Plantes, 48 ; Hook. f. Fl.Nov. Zel. 
i. 18 ; Eandb. N.Z. Fl. 17 ; Kirk, Forest Fl. t. 3 ; Students' Fl. 42. 

Keemadec Islands, North and South Islands, Stewart Island : 
Abundant throughout, ascending to fully 3000 ft. Malioe. November- 
January. Also found in Norfolk Island and the Tongan Islands. 

The leaves and young branches are greedily eaten by cattle ; the wood is 
white and soft, but has been employed for producing a special kind of charcoal 
used in making gunpowder. 

2. M, macrophyllus, A. Cunn. Precur. n. 624. — A tall slender 
sparingly branched shrub 8-15 ft. high ; bark brownish. Leaves 
3-7 in. long, obovate or oblong, coarsely sinuate-serrate, acute or 
shortly acuminate, coriaceous ; petioles short. Flowers twice as 
large as those of M. ramiflorus, ^in. diam., greenish, in 4-10-flowered 
fascicles ; pedicels stout, decurved, ^in. long, with 2 rounded bracts 
just below the flower. Male flowers : Calyx-lobes broad, obtuse. 
Petals more than twice as long as the calyx, spreading, strap- 
shaped, recurved at the tips. Anthers sessile, apiculate. Females : 
Calvx of the males. Petals shorter, more erect, barely half as long 



Melicytus.] violarie^. 47 

again as the calyx. Style short, stout ; stigma broad, discoid, 
3-5-lobed. Berrv globose, Jin. diam. ; seeds 4-6. — Raoul, Ghoix 
de Plantes, 48; Hook./. Ft. Nov. Zcl. i. 18; Handh. N.Z. Fl. 17; 
Kirk, Studeyits Fl. 42. 

North Island : Not uncommon in hilly forests from Kaitaia southwards 
to the Waikato River. South Island : Waikari Creek, near Dunedin, 
G. M. Thomson ! Petrie ! Sea-level to 2000 ft. September-October. 

Easily distinguished from M. ramiflorus by the larger, more coriaceous, 
obovate leaves, and larger flowers on decurved pedicels, with the bracts placed 
just below the flowers. The Otago specimens have smaller leaves, but are not 
otherwise different. 

3. M. lanceolatus, Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 18, t. 8.— A slender 
glabrous shrub 6-15 ft. high, with brownish bark; branches suc- 
culent, brittle. Leaves y-6in. long, lanceolate or linear-lanceolate, 
acuminate, finely and sharply serrate, membranous ; petioles short. 
Flowers small, in 2-5-flowered fascicles ; pedicels short, slender, 
decurved, with 2 bracts above the middle. Calyx-lobes oblong, 
obtuse or subacute. Petals erect, recurved at the tip. Connective 
of the anthers produced into a long subulate point. Style long ; 
stigmas 3, minute. Berry globose, Jin. diam., blue-black when 
fully ripe; seeds 6-12, angled, minutely tubercled. — Handb. N.Z. 
Fl. 17 ; Kirk, Students' Fl. 43. 

North and South Isl.ands, Stewart Island : Not uncommon in forests 
south of Whangarei. Ascends to 3000 ft. on Te Aroha Mountain. October- 
November. 

This can be recognised by the narrow leaves, subulate appendage to the 
anthers, long 3-iid style, and minutely tuberculate seeds. The anthers often 
cohere at the back, as in Hymenanthera, but in habit and other respects the 
species agrees better with Melicytus. 

4. M. micranthus, Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 18. — A shrub or 
small tree 5-15 ft. in height, very variable in habit, sometimes a 
much-branched bush with tortuous and interlaced rigid branches, at 
other times a small tree with a compact head and slender trunk 
2-5 in. diam. ; branchlets pubescent at the tips. Leaves alternate 
or fascicled on short lateral branchlets, coriaceous, small, -^-1 in. 
long, oblong-obovate or obovate or orbicular-obovate, obtuse, sinuate 
or toothed, rarely lobed ; petioles short, puberulous. Flowers 
minute, axillary, solitary or 2-3 together; pedicels longer or shorter 
than the petioles, pubescent. Male flowers : Calyx-lobes short, 
rounded, often ciliate. Petals twice as long as the calyx, broadly 
oblong, obtuse. Anthers sessile, very broad, rounded, obtuse, con- 
nective fiat. Females : Calyx and petals of the males. Abortive 
anthers present. Ovary ovoid ; style short, thick ; stigma large, 
discoid, with 3-5 fleshy lobes. Berry oval or subglobose, |^-Jin. 
diam., purple or purple-black. Seeds 1-4, smooth or angled. — 
Handb. N.Z. Fl. 17 ; Kirk, Students' Fl. 43. Elseodendron micran- 
thum. Hook. f. in Loud. Joxirn. Bot. iii. 228, t. 8. 



48 vioLARiE^. [Melicytus. 

Var. longiusculus. — Leaves usually larger, ^-lin., oblong -obovate. 
Flowers on longer pedicels. Fruit small, globose, i-J in. 

Var. microphyllus. — Leaves smaller, ^^in., orbicular-obovate. Pedicels 
shorter. Fruit large, ovoid, ^in.— M. microphyllus, Col. in Trans. N.Z. Inst. 
xix. (1887) 260, and xx. (IBSB) 189. 

North and South Islands : Abundant in lowland forests, by the side of 
streams, &c., from the Bay of Islands to Otago. November-May. 

Easily distinguished from all other species of Melicytus by the stiff rigid 
habit, small leaves, and minute few-seeded berries. It is exceedingly variable ; 
and the two varieties characterized above are certainly connected by inter- 
mediate forms. I am much indebted to Mr. Carse for a fine series of flowering 
and fruiting specimens of both varieties, collected near Mauku, where they 
appear to grow intermixed. Mr. Colenso's herbarium also contains numerous 
well-selected specimens. 

3. HYMENANTHERA, E. Br. 

Rigid woody shrubs. Leaves alternate or fascicled, entire or 
toothed ; stipules minute, fugacious. Plowers small, regular, her- 
maphrodite or unisexual, solitary or fascicled, axillary or on the 
naked branches below the leaves. Sepals 5, obtuse, united at the 
base. Petals 5, rounded at the tip. Anthers 5, sessile, connate 
into a tube surrounding the pistil ; connectives terminating in a 
toothed or fimbriate process, and furnished with an erect scale at 
the back. Style short ; stigma 2-fid, rarely 3-4-fid. Fruit a small 
subglobose berry ; seeds usually 2, rarely 3-4. 

A small genus of about half & dozen species, found in New Zealand, Aus- 
tralia and Tasmania, and Norfolk Island. The New Zealand species are 
exceedingly difficult of discrimination. They vary greatly in the leaves and 
vegetative characters generally ; and the flowers and fruit, so far as they are 
known, are very similar in all. Most of them occur in localities which are not 
easily reaciied, making it difficult to secure specimens in a proper state for com- 
parison. 

Much - branched rigid maritime shrub. Leaves small, 

linear-spathulate or linear-obovate, J-1 in. long .. 1. H. crassifolia. 

Shrub, often leafless. Branches flexuous or zigzag, inter- 
laced. Leaves linear or linear-cuneate, J— I in. long .. 2. H. dentata, var . 

angustifolia. 

Slender glabrous shrub. Leaves oblong-obovate, |— 2 in. 

long, quite entire. Flowers solitary or geminate . . 3. H. obovata. 

Stout spreading shrub. Leaves large, 1^-4 in., ovate- 
oblong to obovate, sinuate-toothed. Flowers numerous. 
Berry 2-seeded . . . . . . . . . . 4. iJ. latifolia. 

Tall erect shrub. Leaves large, 3-5 in., lanceolate or ovate- 
lanceolate, serrate. Flowers numerous. Berry 4-seeded 5. H. chathamica. 

1. H. crassifolia, Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 17, t. 7.— A low rigid 
much-branched shrub 2-4 ft. in height ; branches tortuous, stout 
and woody ; bark white, furrowed ; branchlets pubescent. Leaves 
alternate or fascicled, very thick and coriaceous, |— 1^ in. long, 
linear-spathulate or linear-obovate, entire sinuate or toothed, rarely 
lobed, rounded at the apex or retuse ; petioles very short. Stipules 
minute, fugacious. Flowers very small, solitary or few together, 



Hymenanthera.] violaeie^. 49 

axillary; peduncles shorter than the flowers, decurved, with one or 
two broad concave bracts below the middle. Sepals orbicular, with 
fimbriate margins. Petals narrow-oblong, obtuse, recurved at the 
apex. Anthers 5, the broad membranous connectives connate into 
a tube which has a fimbriate projection above each anther and a 
broad scale at the back. Ovary 1-celled ; style 2-fid. Berry 
purplish, broadly oblong, |-4-iii- diam. ; seeds 2. — Handb. N.Z. 
Fl. 18 ; Kirk, Students' Fl. 44. Scsevola (?) novee-zealandiae, 
A. Cunn. Precur. n. 429. 

NoBTH Island : Maritime rocks opposite the Cavalios Islands, R. Cunn. ; 
■Capd Palliser, Colenso ! Port Nicholson, Ktrk ! South Island : Coast be- 
tween Nelson and Croixelles Harbour, Kirk ! T. F. C. ; Pelorus Sound, J. 
Rutland ; Banks Peninsula, Armstrong. Otago — Hampden, Moeraki, Duu- 
edin, Balclutha, Petrie ! Stewart Island : Kirk. October-November. 

A variable plant. One of Mr. Golenso's Cape Palliser specimens has slender 
branches bearing ovate-rhomboid leaves 1 in. long, the same branch also having 
linear- obovate leaves of the ordinary type. 

2. H. dentata, B. Br., var. angustifolia, Be?ith. FL Atistral. 
i. 104. — A much-branched frequently leafless rigid shrub, in shel- 
tered situations 4-8 ft. high, with fiexuous or zigzag often inter- 
laced branches ; in exposed or alpine places shorter and much 
dwarfed, with the branches densely compacted and ending in stout 
tiiorus. Branchlets terete or grooved, covered with minute lenticels. 
Leaves few or many, often altogether wanting, alternate or fascicled, 
|— I in. long, linear or linear-cuneate or linear-obovate, obtuse or 
retuse, entire or sinuate or irregularly lobed, varying from almost 
membranous to thick and coriaceous, narrowed into very short 
petioles. Flowers minute, solitary or geminate, on very short 
decurved peduncles, dioecious. Male flowers : Sepals rounded, 
with fimbriate margins. Petals tvvice as long as the sepals, linear- 
oblong, recurved at the tips. Connective of the anthers with a 
narrow appendage toothed or fimbriate at the tip, and an oblong 
scale at the back. Females : Calyx and petals of the males, but 
rather smaller. Abortive anthers present. Style 2-fid. Berry 
2-seeded ; seeds oblong, flat on the inner face, convex on the outer. 
— Kirk, Sticdents Fl. 44. 

Var. alpina, Kirk, I.e. — Much depressed, 1-2 ft. in diam., forming a mass 
of densely compacted short and thick spinous branches. Leaves ^-J in. long, 
oblong- or linear-obovate, very thick and coriaceous. 

North Island: Wellington ^Turangarere, .'1. Hamilton! Upper Eangi- 
tikei, PetriR ! South Island : Nelson — Wairoa Valley, Bryant ! Wangapeka 
Valley, Wairau Gorge, T. F. G. Canterbury — J. B. Armstrong. Otago — 
Paradise, near Mount Earnslaw, Kirk ! Catlin's River, Kelso, Petrie ! Win- 
ton, B. C. Aston ! Var. alpina : Broken River, Canterbury, Kirk ! Enys ! 
T. F. C. Also found in Tasmania. 

In its usual state this curious plant is best distinguished from H. crassifolia 
by the more slender frequently leafless branches, which are usually thickly 
dotted with minute lenticels, and by the narrower leaves. The Nelson speci- 
mens, which are the only ones I have seen in flower, are certainly dioecious, 
•but Tasmanian specimens are said to be hermaphrodite. 



50 vioLAEiEiE3. [Hymenanthera. 

3. H. obovata, T. Kirk in Trans. N.Z. Inst, xxvii. (1895) 350.— 
An erect glabrous shrub 4-12 ft. in height, in sheltered places 
slender and sparingly branched, in more exposed situations forming 
a compactly branched bush. Leaves of mature plants f- 2in. long, 
obovate or oblong-obovate. thick and coriaceous, obtuse or retuse, 
quite entire, gradually narrowed into a short petiole ; margins 
slightly recurved. Leaves of seedling plants membranous, obovate- 
cuneate, toothed or lobed. Flowers small, solitary or geminate, 
axillary or on the branches below the leaves, apparently dioecious, 
but not seen in a state fit for description. Berry ovoid, purplish, 
2-seeded ; seeds plano-convex. — Students' Fl. 44. 

South Island : Nelson— Between Takaka and Eiwaka, Kirk ! Graham 
Biver, Mount Arthur, Mount Owen, T. F. C. Marlborough — Queen Charlotte 
Sound, Banks and Solander ! Canterbury— Broken Eiver, Kirk! Ashburton 
Mountains, T. H. Potts! Altitudinal range from 1000 to 4000ft. No- 

vember. 

A well-marked plant, at once recognised by the usually slender habit, strict 
branches, and entire obovate leaves. It is generally found on limestone rocks. 

4. H. latifolia, Endl. Prodr. Fl. Ins. Norfolk, 70.— A stout 
sparingly branched shrub 3-10 ft. high ; branches erect or 
straggling ; bark covered with minute lenticels. Leaves alternate, 
variable in size and shape, 1-|— 4in. long, ovate or ovate-lanceolate 
to obovate or obovate-oblong, coriaceous, obtuse or subacute, nar- 
rowed into a short stout petiole, sinuate or sinuate-serrate, rarely 
entire ; margin thickened, slightly recurved ; veins reticulate. 
Flowers dioecious, fascicled, y^oin. diam. Males : Often very 
numerous and clustered on the branches for a considerable length ; 
pedicels decurved, bracteolate about the middle. Sepals ovate, 
obtuse, free almost to the base. Petals twice as long as the sepals, 
linear-oblong, erect at the base, revolute at the tips. Anthers 5 ; 
connectives produced into a long and narrow projection above each 
anther which is almost as long as the anther and jagged at the 
tip. Females : Smaller and less numerous, on shorter pedicels, 
usually erect. Sepals and petals as in the males. Ovary ovoid ; 
stigmas 2. Berry broadly ovoid or nearly globose, purplish ; seeds 
2, plano-convex, grooved on the convex face, with a large strophiole. 
— Kirk, Students' Fl. 45. H. latifolia var. tasmanica, Kirk in 
Trans. N.Z. Inst. iii. 163. 

North Island : Three Kings Islands, T. F. C. ; North Cape Peninsula, 
Buchanan ! Kirk ! T. F. C. ; Taranga Islands, Kirk ! T. F. C. ; Great Barrier 
and adjacent islets. Kirk! Little Barrier Island, Kirk, T. F. C, Miss 
Shakespear ! Waiheke Island, rare. Kirk; Cuvier Island, T. F. C; Shoe 
Island, /. Adams ! August-September. Also in Norfolk Island. 

The identification of this plant with the Norfolk Island H. latifolia must 
not be considered as proved until specimens from both localities have been, 
compared. The large broad leaves and numerous flowers separate it from its 
New Zealand allies. 



Hyvienanthera.] violaeie^. 51 

5. H. chathamica, T. Kirk in Trans. N.Z. Inst, xxviii. (1896) 
-514. — An erect glabrous shrub ; bark furrowed, dotted with minute 
lenticels. Leaves alternate, 2-5 in. long, lanceolate or oblong- 
lanceolate, coriaceous, acute, narrowed into a short petiole, sharply 
toothed ; margins thickened ; veins reticulate on both surfaces. 
Plowers in crowded fascicles along the branches, dioecious ; pedicels 
slender, longer than the flowers, decurved. Male flowers : Sepals 
-ovate, free almost to the base. Petals more than twice as long as 
the sepals, revolute at the tips. Anthers with a lanceolate jagged 
■connective more than half as long as the cells ; dorsal scale cuneate- 
«pathulate. Female flowers not seen. Berry ovoid or subglobose, 
white, usually 4-seeded. Seeds angled, outer surface convex ; 
strophiole small. — Students' Fl. 45. H. latifolia var. chathamica, 

F. Muell. Veg. Chatham Is. 9. 

North Island: Wellington— Patea, Hector! Chatham Islands: Capt. 

G. Mair ! H. E. Travers ! F. A. D. Cox! Mahoe. September-October. 

There is little to separate this from the preceding except the longer and 
narrower sharply toothed leaves and the 4-seeded berry, and I doubt the con- 
stancy of this latter character. Sir James Hector's Patea specimens have 
neither flowers nor fruit, but appear to belong to the same species. 

Order V. PITTOSPOREiE. 

Trees or shrubs, rarely climbers. Leaves alternate or whorled, 
simple, seldom toothed or lobed, exstipulate. Flowers regular, 
hermaphrodite or more rarely unisexual, terminal or axillary. 
Sepals 5, free or connate at the base, imbricate. Petals 5, 
hypogynous, imbricate, often cohering at the base, limb spread- 
ing or recurved. Stamens 5, hypogj^nous, free ; anthers ver- 
satile. Ovary normally 1-celled, with 2-5 parietal placentas, 
but often more or less completely 2-5-celled from the intru- 
sion of the placentas ; style simple ; ovules usually numerous on 
each placenta. Fruit capsular or succulent and indehiscent. 
Seeds generally numerous ; albumen copious ; embryo minute, with 
the radicle next the hilum. 

Genera 9 ; species about 120. The order is confined to Australia, with the 
exception of Pittosporum itself, which has a wide distribution in the warm 
regions of the Old World. Many of the species are more or less resinous and 
aromatic. 

PITTOSPORUM, Banks. 

Trees or shrubs, glabrous or tomentose. Leaves alternate or 
subverticillate, usually entire, rarely sinuate-toothed or lobed. 
Flowers axillary or terminal, solitary or in fascicles umbels or 
corymbs. Sepals free or connate below. Petals 5, with erect 
claws, often connivent below ; tips recurved. Stamens 5, erect ; 
filaments subulate ; anthers 2-celled, introrse. Ovary incompletely 
■2-4-celled ; style short.. Capsule globose, ovoid or obovoid, 



52 



PITTOSPOEE^. 



[Pittosporum. 



1-celled ; valves 2-4, hard and v^oody, bearing the placentas along 
the centre. Seeds immersed in a viscid fluid. 

A genus of between 60 and 70 species, found in Africa, subtropical Asia, 
Australia, the Pacific islands, and New Zealand. All the New Zealand species- 
are endemic, and most of them are confined to the North Island. The flowers, 
are frequently polygamous or even unisexual. 



2a 



A. Flowers axillary and solitary, rarely fascicled, sometiines 
that case axillary flowers are ahcays present as w 

Leaves 1-2 in., obtuse or acute, thin, margins waved. 
Flowers usually solitary. Capsules ^ in. diam., valves 
thin 

Leaves 2-3 in., acute, coriaceous, margins flat. Flowers 
usually solitary. Capsule^ in. diam., valves thick and 
woody 

Flowers in axillary and terminal fascicles, otherwise as in 
P. Colensoi 

Leaves 2-5 in., oblong-lanceolate, submembranous. Pe- 
duncles long, I in., 1-2-flowered. Capsules less than 
Jin. diam. 

Leaves 1^-2 in., oblong-obovate. Flowers axillary and 
terminal, solitary or fascicled. Capsules mostly ter- 
minal, large, | in. diam. 

Leaves large, 3-5 in., broadly oblong, usually covered with 
white floccose tomentum when young. Flowers axillary 
and terminal, solitary or fascicled. Capsules § in. diam. 

Leaves small, jin., obcordate. Flowers axillary, solitary 
or geminate 



terminal, but in. 
ell. 



1. P. tenuifolium^ 



2. P. Colensoi. 



6. 



. P. Colevsoi, var. 
fasciculattini^ 

P. Buclianani. 

P. intermedium^ 

P. Htittaniamim. 
P. obcordatum. 



B. Flowers strictly terminal, in umbels or fascicles, rarely solitary. 

Small rigid shrub. Leaves small, ^Jin., linear-obovate, 

entire or lobed. Flowers solitary. Capsules small, ^ in. 7. P. rigidum. 
Leaves linear or linear-oblong, entire lobed or pinnatifid. 

Umbels 4-8-flowered. Capsules ^ in., globose, 2-valved 8. P. patulum. 
Leaves linear- or elliptic-lanceolate, 1-2 in., often lobed or 

pinnatifid on young trees, clothed with ferruginous 

pubescence. Capsules Jin., globose, 2-valved. . .. 9. P. virgatiivi. 

Leaves elliptic-oblong or elliptic-obovate, 2-4 in., clothed 

with ferruginous tomentum. Capsule broadly ovoid, 

§in., 2-valved .. .. .. .. .. 10. P. ellipticum. 

Leaves oblong or oblong-obovate, 2-5 in., white beneath, 

margins flat. Capsule § in., 3-valved .. ..11. P. Pialphii. 

Leaves linear-obovate, 2-3 in., white or buff below, thick, 

margins recurved. Capsule tomentose,|-l^ in., 3-valved 12. P. crassifolium. 
Leaves elliptic-obovate, 2-3 in., glabrous when mature, 

margins flat. Capsule |-1 in., glabrous, 3-4-valved .. 13. P. Fairchildii. 
Leaves obovate or lanceolate-oblong, glabrous. Umbels 

many-flowered. Capsules small, Jin. diam., tetragonous 

or 4-lobed, 2-valved. . .. .. .. ..14. P. umbellatum^ 

Leaves linear-obovate, 2-4 in., glabrous. Flowers yellow. 

Capstdes large, elliptic-oblong, li in. long, 2-valved . . 15. P. Kirkii. 
Usually epiphytical. Leaves whorled, elliptic-lanceolate, 

lJ-2^ in. Capsules Mn. diam. .. .. ..16. P. comifolium. 

Small undershrub, 1-4 ft. Leaves linear or linear-oblong, 

J-1:V in. Sepals and peta's narrow-linear. Capsule J in. 

diam., beaked .. .. .. .. ..17. P . pimeleoides. 



Pittosporum.] pittospore^. 53 

C. Floivers in terminal coiiq^oimd umbels or corymbs. 

Tree with white bark. Leaves elliptic, 2-4 in. Flowers 

yellow. Capsules small, ;J in. .. .. ..18. P. eiigcnioides. 

1. P. tenuifolium, Banks and Sol. ex Gcertn. Fruct. i. 286, 
t. 59, f. 7. — A small tree 15-30 ft. in height, with a slender trunk 
and dark almost black bark ; young leaves and branchlets usually 
pubescent, becoming glabrous when mature. Leaves alternate, 
1-2^ in. long, oblong-ovate or elliptic-obovate, obtuse acute or 
shortly acuminate, quite entire, membranous or slightly coriaceous, 
margins undulate ; petiole short. Flowers axillary, solitary or 
rarely fascicled, J-iin. long ; peduncles about as long as the calyx, 
pubescent, straight or curved. Sepals oblong to ovate, obtuse or 
subacute, silky or glabrous. Petals dark-purple. Ovary silky. 
Capsule -|-in. diam., 3-valved, broadly obovoid or subglobose, downy 
when young, glabrous and minutely rugose when old ; valves rather 
thin. — A. Cunn. Precur. n. 615 ; Baoul, Choix de Plantes, 48 ; Hook, 
f. FL Nov. Zel. i. 21 ; Handb. N.Z. Fl. 19 ; Kirk, Forest FL t. 46 ; 
Students' Fl. 47. Trichilia monophylla, A. Bich. Fl. No2iv. ZeL 
306, t. 34, his. 

NoBTH AND South Islands : Abundant from the North Cape to the 
Bluff. Altitudinal range from sea-level to 3000 ft. Kohuhu. October- 
November. 

An abundant and variable plant, the best distinguishing characters of which 
are the small submembranous leaves with waved margins, axillary and usually 
solitary flowers, and small capsules with rather thin valves. The leaves are 
often pale-green, especially on young plants. 

2. P. Colensoi, Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 22. — A small tree, very 
closely allied to the preceding, but larger and more robust, with 
stouter branches. Leaves 2-4 in. long, oblong-lanceolate elliptical- 
oblong or obovate-oblong, acute, coriaceous, margins usually flat ; 
petiole short, stout. Flowers axillary and solitary in the typical 
form, rarely fascicled ; peduncles short, erect or decurved, glabrous- 
or pubescent ; bracts not so caducous as in P. tenuifolium. Sepals 
broadly oblong, glabrous or pubescent. Capsule globose ; valves 
thick and woody. — Handb . N.Z. Fl. 19. P. tenuifolium, var. 
Colensoi, Kirk, Students' Fl. 47. 

Var. fasciculatum. — Leaves as in the typical form. Flowers in many- 
flowered fascicles, both terminal and in the axils of the uppermost leaves. 
Sepals lanceolate, acute, and with the peduncles densely covered with soft 
tomentum.— P. fasciculatum, Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 24 ; Handb. N.Z. FL20. 
P. tenuifolium, var. fasciculatum, Kirk, Students' Fl. 47. 

North and South Islands, Stewabt Island : From Eotorua and the 
Patetere Plateau southwards, but often local. Ascends to 3000 ft. Octo- 

ber-November. 

Very closely allied to P. temiifolium, and connected with it by numerous- 
intermediates. Mr. Kirk unites the two, and there is much to be said in 
favour of such a course. But it must be admitted that P. Colensoi, with its. 



54 piTTOSPORE^. [Pittosporum. 

stouter branches, much larger sharply pointed and more coriaceous deeper-green 
flat leaves, has a very distinct aspect from P. tenuifoliwn ; so that, notwith- 
standing the intermediates, I am inclined to regard the differences between the 
usual states of the two plants as being too pronounced for varietal distinction 
alone. 

3. P. Buchanani, Hook. f. Handb. N.Z. Fl. 725.— A shrub or 
small tree 10 to 20 ft. high, with slender spreading or ascending 
branches ; young shoots and leaves silky-pubescent. Leaves alter- 
nate, 2-5 in. long, oblong or oblong-lanceolate or elliptic-oblong, 
rather membranous, acute or acuminate ; margins flat, not waved ; 
petioles slender. Peduncles axillary, solitary, slender, -|-— |in. long, 
1-flowered or rarely 2-flowered, glabrous or silky-pubescent. Sepals 
■ovate-oblong, obtuse. Petals linear, dark-purple ; claw long. Ovary 
silky. Capsule less than -i- in. diam., subglobose, 3-valved, on long 
spreading peduncles. — Kirk, Students' Fl. 47. 

North Island : Auckland — Kaitaia and Mongonui, Buchanan ! Taranaki 
— Near Mount Egmont, Hector ! Wellington — In several localities, Kirh ! 

This appears to be a rare and local species closely allied to P. tenuifolmm, 
and chiefly separated from it by the longer and narrower leaves, long peduncles, 
2iarrower flowers, and smaller spreading capsules. 

4. P. intermedium, T. Kirk in Trans. N.Z. Inst. iv. (1872) 
266. — x\ small tree, in habit and foliage much resembling large 
specimens of P. tenuifohuvi ; bark black ; young shoots and leaves 
pubescent. Leaves 1-|— 2 in. long, obovate or elliptic-obovate, ob- 
tuse or subacute, submembranous or slightly coriaceous, narrowed 
into rather long petioles ; margins flat, not waved. Flowers both 
terminal and in the axils of the upper leaves, solitary or in 2-3- 
flowered clusters ; peduncles short, pubescent. Sepals oblong, 
obtuse or subacute, silky. Capsules usually terminal, large, nearly 
-fin. diam., broadly ovoid or obovoid, downy, 2-3-valved ; peduncles 
stout, decurved. — Students' Fl. 48. 

North Island : Auckland — Kawau Island, Kirk ! October-November. 

A puzzling plant, in habit and foliage not to be distinguished from large 
forms of P. tenuifolirun, but the flowers are chiefly terminal and often fascicled, 
and the capsule is much larger, exactly matching that of P. eUipticit,r,i, Only 
one tree has been seen, and that was cut down several years ago. P. ellipticum 
is not known on Kawau Island or in the neighbourhood, or I should have felt 
tempted to have considered it as a hybrid between that species and P. tenui- 
folium. 

5. P. Huttonianum, T. Kirk in Trans. N.Z. List. ii. (1870) 92. 
— A sparingly branched shrub or small tree 10-25 ft. high ; bark 
black ; young leaves and branches covered with white floccose to- 
mentum, becoming glabrous when mature. Leaves alternate, 3-5 in. 
long, broadly oblong elliptical-oblong or obovate-oblong, obtuse or 
acute, coriaceous, flat; petioles -|— |in. long. Flowers either axil- 
lary and solitary or in 2-5-flowered axillary and terminal cymes ; 
peduncles slender, covered with loose white tomentum. Sepals 



Pittosporum.] pittospore^. 55- 

oblong or laiaceolate, acute, tomentose. Petals ligulate, sharply 
recurved. Ovai-y silky. Capsules larger than in P. tenuifoliuvl, 
fin. diam., globose or broadly obovoid. 3-valved, rarely 2-valved, 
downy or nearly glabrous. — Students' Fl. 48. 

Var. viridifolium, Kirk, I.e. — Branchlets more numerous, slender. Leaves 
thinner, oblong-obovate, acute, tapering into the petiole, perfectly glabrous. 
Flowers axillary, solitary. Approaches P. Colensoi, and has equal claims to be 
considered a large-leaved form of that species. 

North Island : Auckland — Great and Little Barrier Islands, Kirk ! Cape 
Colville Peninsula, from Cabbage Bay to Ohinemuri, Kirk ! T. F. C. Var. virt- 
difolium : Rotorua, Kirk ! Taranaki — Urenui, T. F. C. ; near Mount Egmont, 
Tryon ! South Island : Milford Sound, Kirk ! October-November. 

Varies much in the number and position of the flowers, which may be either 
solitary and axillary, or collected into few-flowered cymes, which are then mostly 
terminal, constituting Mr. Kirk's var. fasclatinn. The typical form appears to 
be restricted to the Auckland District. I leave the var. viridifoliiLm as Mr. 
Kirk placed it, but probably it would be more appropriately included in P. 
Colensoi. 

6. P. otocordatum, Baoiil, Choix des Plantes, 24, fc. 24. — A 
shrub or small tree 8-15 ft. high ; bark pale ; branches numerous, 
spreading, often tortuous, the younger ones silky towards the tips. 
Leaves alternate or in alternate fascicles of 2-4, |^-^in. long, 
broadly obovate or obcordate, gradually narrowed into a short 
slender petiole, coriaceous, entire, glabrous or the margins under- 
surface and petioles more or less silky -pubescent, veins con- 
spicuous beneath. Flowers small, ^in. long, axillary, solitary or 
2-3 together, pale-purple or almost white ; peduncles short, slender, 
silky. Sepals very short, ovate-lanceolate, silky with white hairs. 
Petals linear, with spreading tips. Ovary silky. Capsule ovoid, 
acuminate, glabrous when old, about ^in. long, 2-valved. — Hook. f. 
FL Nov. Zel. i. 22 ; Htrndb. N.Z. Fl. 20; Kirk, Students' Fl. 48. 

North Island : Auckland — Outlet of Lake Tongonge, near Kaitaia, R. U. 
Matthews! South Island: Canterbury— Shady woods near Akaroa, Raoul. 
September-October. 

Mr. Matthews's specimens, from which the above description is drawn up, 
appear to differ from the type in the young leaves and branchlets being silky- 
pubescent. In all other respects they match Raoul's plate very closely. 

7. P. rigidum, Hook. j. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 22, t. 10.— A rigid 
much and closely branched shrub 4-12 ft. high ; branches stout 
and woody, spreading, usually tortuous and interlaced, rarelv 
slender and erect ; young shoots usually pubescent. Leaves small,, 
alternate or fascicled on short lateral branchlets, J— |in. lono^, 
Imear-obovate to oblong or elliptical, very thick and coriaceous or 
almost membranous, entire or sinuate-toothed or even deeply and 
irregularly lobed, glabrous or nearly so ; margins recurved ; petioles 
short, stout. Flowers small, solitary, either obviously terminal on 
the branches or seated at the tip of short arrested branchlets and 
thus appearing axillary, sessile or on very short peduncles. Sepals- 



-56 PITTOSPOEE^. [Pittosponim. 

short, narrow-ovate, caducous. Ovary hirsute. Capsule small, 
broadly ovoid, apiculate, ^-^ in. long, 2-valved, pilose when young, 
almost glabrous when old. — Handb. N.Z. Fl. 20 ; Kirk, Students' 
Fl. 49. 

North Island : Mount Hikurangi, Adams ! Petrie ! Lake Waikaremoana 
and Ruahine Mountains, Coleiiso; Tararua Mountains, H. H. Travers ! T. P. 
Arnold ! South Island : Nelson — Maitai Valley and Dun Mountain Range, 
Rev. F. H. Spencer ! T. F. C. ; Wangapeka and Buller Valley, T. F. C. ; Lake 
Guyon, W. T. L. Travers! Marlborough— Mount Stokes, Macmahon ! Can- 
terbury- -Lake Grasmere, Kirk! Waimakariri Valley, Cockayne! Otago — 
Dusky Bay, Hector and Buchanan. Altitudinal range from sea -level to 

4000 ft. November-December. 

The flov?ers are described as axillary in the Handbook, but in all the 
flowering specimens I have seen they either terminate the main branches or 
are placed at the tip of shore lateral ones, as shown in the beautiful plate given 
in the "Flora Novte-Zealaudias." But the lateral branchlets are sometimes 
very short, giving the flowers the appearance of being axillary. 

8. P. patulum, Hook. f. Handb. N.Z. FL 19. — An erect 
shrub or small tree 6-15 ft. high, glabrous except the young 
shoots and peduncles, which are sparingly clothed with fulvous 
silky hairs ; branchlets stout. Leaves extremely variable, in the 
young state 1-2 in. long, ^—^ in. broad, linear, closely and deeply 
lobed or pinnatifid, the lobes often again toothed, gradually passing 
into the mature stage, which is linetir or linear-oblong, entire or 
crenate-serrate, coriaceous, obtuse, gradually narrowed into a short 
stout petiole. Flowers in 4-8-±lo\vered terminal umbels ; pedicels 
slender, -J- in. long. Sepals ovate-lanceolate, pointed. Petals twice 
as long as the sepals, obtuse, recurved at the tips. Capsules 
globose or broader than long, -^-in. diam., compressed, 2-valved. — 
Kirk, Students' Fl. 50. 

South Island : Nelson — Lake Rotoiti, Buchanan ! T. F. C. ; Wairau Moun- 
tains, Sinclair; Lake Guyon, Travers! Glacier Gully, Spenser Mountains, 
Kirk ! 

A very remarkable and distinct species, of which more specimens are re- 
quired to frame a good description. I have only one flowering specimen. 

9. P. virgatum, T. Kirk in Trans. N.Z. Inst. iv. (1872) 264.— 
A small tree 15-25 ft. in height, with slender trunk and black bark; 
branchlets, young leaves, petioles, and inflorescence densely clothed 
with ferruginous tomentum. Leaves very variable, in young trees 
-J— l^in. long, linear-lanceolate or elliptic-lanceolate, entire lobed or 
pinnatifid, gradually passing into the mature forms, which are 
1-2 in. long, elliptic- or oblong-obovate to oblong-ovate or oblong- 
lanceolate, usually entire but occasionally sinuate or lobed, obtuse 
or acute, gradually narrowed into rather short petioles. Flowers 
terminal, either solitary or in 2-4-fiowered umbels. Sepals linear- 
lanceolate, acuminate, densely tomentose. Petals shortly recurved 
at the tips. Capsules erect, globose, ^in. diam., 2-valved, glabrous 
when fully mature. — Stitdents Ft. 50. 



Pittosponim.] pittospore^. 5T 

North Island : Coast south of Mongonui, T. F. C. Whangaroa, Bil- 
chanan ! Kirk ! Great Barrier Island, Kirk ! Kennedy's Bay, T. F. G. ; hills 
near Tairua, Petrie ! September-October. 

The ferruginous pubescence, small terminal umbels, narrow sepals, and 
small globose capsule are the best characters of this species, which is nearest to 
P. ellipticiim. The extreme variability of the leaves in the young plants is 
noteworthy. The mature stage, which is usually entire, is seldom attained 
until the tree has flowered for some years. 

10. P. ellipticum, T. Kirk in Trans. N.Z. Inst. iv. (1872) 
266. — A small spreading tree with black bark, 15-25 ft. high ; 
branchlets, young leaves, and inflorescence densely covered with 
ferruginous tomentum. Leaves 2-4 in. long, elliptic-oblong or 
elliptic-obovate to oblong-lanceolate, acute or obtuse, quite en- 
tire, coriaceous ; petioles short, stout. Flowers in terminal 2-5- 
flowered umbels ; peduncles short, decurved. Sepals ovate-lan- 
ceolate, acute, densely tomentose. Petals recurved at the tips. 
Capsules broadly ovoid, slightly compressed, fin. diam., tomentose,. 
2-valved ; valves faintly 2-lobed. — Kirk, Students' Fl. 52. 

Var. ovatum, Kirk, I.e. — Leaves smaller, spreading, broadly elliptical or 
obovate, rounded at the apex. Flowers not seen. 

North Island : Whangaroa, Buchanan ! Kirk ! Mount Manaia, Whanga- 
rei Heads, Kirk ! T. F. C. ; coast north of the Manukau Harbour, Waitakerei 
West, T. F. C. Var. ovatum : Whangaroa and Mount Manaia, Kirk ! Oc- 
tober. 

Allied to P. virgatum, but distinguished by the much larger and broader 
entire leaves, which do not differ in the young state, and by the larger flowers 
and capsules. 

11. P. Ralphii, T. Kirk in Trans. N.Z. Inst. iii. (1871) 161. 
— A laxly branched shrub 8-15 ft. in height, with dark-brov7n 
bark ; branchlets, undersurface of leaves, petioles, and inflorescence 
densely clothed with thick w^hite or buS' tomentum. Leaves spread- 
ing, 2-5 in. long, oblong or oblong-obovate, quite entire, obtuse or 
acute, coriaceous, white with appressed tomentum beneath ; mar- 
gins flat; petioles slender, i— |in. long. Flowers in terminal 
3-10-flowered umbels ; peduncles as long as the petioles. Sepals 
narrow-ovate, acuminate, tomentose. Petals spreading or recurved 
at the tips. Capsules on rather slender peduncles, broadly ovoid, 
fin. long, pubescent, 3-valved. — Students' Fl. 51. 

North Island : East Cape district, not uncommon, Banks and Solander ! 
Colenso ! H. Hill! Adams and Petrie! &c. ; Hawke's Bay, A. Hamilton! 
Upper Wanganui River, iT. C. Field; Patea, Dr. Ealph ! October-Novem- 
ber. 

Closely allied to P. crassifolium, but the leaves are much larger, obloug,^ 
not gradually narrowed into the petiole, and the margins are flat, not recurved, 
while the capsules are much smaller. It is without doubt the P. crassifolium 
of Banks and Solander's MSS., as is proved by their drawing and specimens; 
but unfortunately the name was applied by Putterlich and Cunningham to the: 
following plant. 



•58 piTTOSPORE^. [Pittosporum. 

12. P. crassifoliuni, A. Cmiri. Precur. n. 612. — A shrub or 
small tree 15-30 fc. high; branches erect, fastigiate ; bark dark- 
brown; branchlets, leaves below, petioles, and inflorescence densely 
clothed with white or buff appressed tomentum. Leaves 2-3 in. 
long, oblong-obovate or linear-obovate, gradually narrowed into a 
short stout petiole, obtuse, quite entire, very coriaceous, dark-green 
-and shining above, clothed with white or buff tomentum beneath ; 
margins recurved. Flowers unisexual, in terminal umbels ; males 
o-10-flovvered ; females 1-5-flowered ; peduncles f- li in. long, 
drooping. Sepals oblong-lanceolate, tomentose. Petals twice as 
long as the sepals, revolute at the tips. Fruiting peduncle stout, 
decurved. Capsules large, f-ljin. long, subglobose, tomentose, 
3- rarely 4-valved ; valves very thick and woody. — Putterlich, Syn. 
Pittosp. 12 ; UaouL, Choix de Plautes, 48 ; Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. 
i. 23; Handb. N.Z. Fl. 20; Bot. Mag. t. 5978; Kirk, Forest Fl. 
t. 14; Students' Fl. 51. 

Var. strictum. Kirk, Trans. N.Z. Inst. iv. 266. — Fruiting peduncles strict, 
erect. Capsules smaller. 

Kermadec Islands ; Northern shore of Sunday Island, T. F. G. North 
Island : Abundant on the coast, from the North Cape to Poverty Bay. Var. 
strictum: Little Barrier Island, Kirk! East Cn^e, Bishop Williums. Karo. 
September -October . 

A well-known plant, readily distinguished by the strict habit, narrow- 
obovate coriaceous tomentose leaves, and large capsules. The flowers are 
usually dark-purple ; but jNIr. A. Osborne has sent me specimens of a yellow- 
flowered variety collected at Tryphena Harbour, Great Barrier Island. 

13. P. Fairchildii, Cheescm. m Trans. N.Z. Inst. xx. (1888) 
147. — A compact round - topped shrub 8-15 ft. high; branches 
slender, spreading ; bark biown ; branchlets leaves and peduncles 
clothed with white silky hairs when young, glabrous when mature. 
Leaves often crowded, spreading, 2-3 in. long, obovate or elliptic- 
obovate or elliptic-oblong, obtuse or acute, gradually narrowed into 
short stout petioles, coriaceous, margins flat. Flowers terminal, 
solitary or in 2-4-flowered umbels. Sepals linear-oblong, acute, 
tomentose. Petals more than twice as long as the sepals, recurved 
at the tips. Fruiting peduncles slender, decurved. Capsules large, 
depressed, broader than long, f- lin. diam., glabrous even when 
half-grown, 3-4-valved ; valves hard and woody, often lobed. — 
Kirk, Students' Fl. 51. 

North Island : Three Kings Islands, T. F. C. August-September. 

Differs from P. crassifoliinn in the broader flat leaves and smaller glabrous 
depressed capsule. It approaches P. tcmbellatum in the foliage, but is readily 
distinguished by the silky tomentose branchlets, fewer flowers, and much 
larger capsules. 

14. P. umbellatum, Banks and Sol. ex Gcertn. Fruct. i. 286, 
t. 59. — A small branching tree 12-25 ft. high, perfectly glabrous 
■except the young shoots, which are thinly clothed with silky 



Pittosporum.'] pittospoee,e. 53' 

fulvous hairs. Leaves alternate or subwhorled, 2-4 in. long, ob- 
ovate-oblong or elliptic-oblong or lanceolate-oblong, obtuse or acute, 
coriaceous, dark-green above, paler below, narrowed into rather 
long petioles -J— fin. long. Flowers in many-flowered terminal 
umbels ; peduncles slender, longer than the petioles. Sepals ovate- 
lanceolate. Petals ligulate, obtuse, slightly recurved. Ovary 
pubescent. Fruiting peduncles slender, decurved. Capsules -l-in. 
diam., rounded, tetragonous or 4:-lobed, 2-valved ; valves woody, 
granulate. — ^4. Cunn. Precur. n. 613 ; Baotd, Choix cle Plantes, 48 ; 
Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. '24; Haudh. N.Z. Fl. 21; Kirk, Students 
Fl. 50. 

Var. cordatum, Kirk in Trans. N.Z. Inst. iv. 264. — Leaves narrower, 
linear-obovate or obovate-spathulate, acute, gradually narrowed into the petiole. 
Capsules rounded, cordate, acuminate ; valves not lobed. 

North Island : Not uncommon along the shores from the North Cape to 
Poverty Bay. Var. cordatum : Haratoanga, Great Barrier Island, Kirk ! 
September-November. 

Easily recognised by the many-flowered umbels and roundish 4-lobed 
capsules. 

15. P. Kirkii, Hook. f. ex T. Kirk in Trans. N.Z. hist. ii. 
(1869) 92. — A stout sparingly branched glabrous shrub 4-12 ft. 
high, often epiphytic ; branches stout ; bark reddish - purple. 
Leaves crowded or whorled, 2-5 in. long, linear-obovate, obtuse or 
subacute, very thick and coriaceous, quite entu'e, gradually nar- 
rowed into a short stout petiole ; margins thickened, slightly 
recurved. Flowers yellow, in terminal 3-10-flowered umbels. 
Sepals lanceolate, acuminate. Petals more than twice as long as 
the sepals, very narrow linear, acuminate, sharply recurved.. 
Fruiting peduncles short, stout, erect. Capsules large, l^in. long, 
elliptic-oblong or elliptic-obovoid, 2-valved, quite glabrous, cus- 
pidate. — Kirk, Students' Fl. 50. 

North Island: Auckland — Between Whangape and Hokiauga, Kirk! 
Maungatauiwha, T. F. C. ; Bay of Islands, A. Cunningham; plateau near 
Taheke, Fetrie ! Maungatapere, H. Carse ! Whangarei, Buchanan; Great 
Barrier Island and Omaha, Kirk ! Cape Colville Peninsula, from Cabbage Bay 
to Te Aroha, Kirk, T. F. C; Waitakarei and Titirangi Ranges, T. F. C. Tara^ 
naki — Mount Egmont Ranges, J. Adams and T. F. C. Altitudinal range 
from 800 to 3000 ft. December-January. 

A handsome and well-marked species, which cannot be confounded with any 
other. 

16. P. cornifolium, A. Cunn. Bot. Mag. i. 3161. — ■ A slender 
sparingly branched shrub 2-5 ft. high, usually growing as an 
epiphyte on the trunks or branches of forest trees, more rarely 
on rocks, never truly terrestrial. Branches forked or whorlsd, 
glabrous, or the younger ones silky-pubescent. Leaves whorled, 
1|— 2| in. long, elliptic-lanceolate or elUptic-obovate, acute, coria- 
ceous, quite entire, glabrous ; petioles very short. Flowers poly- 
gamous or dioecious, in 3-5-flowered terminal umbels; females- 



60 PITTOSPOREJE. [Pittosporum. 

smaller and on shorter peduncles. Sepals linear-subulate. Petals 
much longer, subulate-ianceolate, broad at the base and then 
narrowed into long acuminate points. Capsules erect or inclined, 
^in. diam., broadly ovoid or obovoid, 3-valved ; valves orange- 
yellow inside. — Precur. n. 616 ; Baoid, Choix de Plantes, 48 ; 
Hook. f. Ft. Nov. Zel. i. 23 ; Handh. N.Z. Fl. 21 ; Kirk, Sticdents' 
FL 49. 

North Island : From the North Cape to Wellington ; abundant in the 
north, often local to the south of Hawke's Bay. South Island : Pelorus Sound 
and Titi Island, J. Butlavd ! Sea-level to 2800 ft. June-September. 

This is a common plant in the forests of the Auckland District, growing 
intermixed with other epiphytes on the trunks and branches of the rata 
{Metrosideros robnsta) and other large forest trees. 

17. P. pimeleoides, B. Cumi. ex A. Cunn. Precur. n. 618. — A 
small slender much-branched shrub 1-5 ft. in height ; branchlets 
usually numerous, almost filiform, pilose when young. Leaves 
numerous, crowded or whorled, very variable in size and shape, 
•J— 1^ in. long, yL—iin. broad, linear-lanceolate to linear-oblong, 
acute or acuminate, rarely obtuse, entire or rarely obscurely cre- 
nulate, patent or reflexed, somewhat membranous. Flowers small, 
yellow-red, in terminal 2-8-flowered umbels or solitary, unisexual ; 
males larger, more numerous, and on longer peduncles than the 
females ; peduncles slender, silky-pilose. Sepals subulate, acumi- 
nate. Petals more than twice as long as the sepals, very narrow, 
linear-acuminate. Ovary silky. Capsules on short erect peduncles, 
ovoid, acuminate, almost beaked, 2-valved. — Baoul, Choix de 
Plantes, 48; Hook. f.Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 24; Handh. N.Z. Fl. 21; 
Kirk, Students' Fl. 49. P. crenulatum, Putterlich, Syn. Pittosp. 15. 

Var. major. — Branches few, slender. Leaves in distant whorls, elliptical 
•or eUiptical-obovate, f-1^ in. long, J in. broad. Capsule rather larger. 

Var. reflexum, Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 24. — Leaves smaller, crowded, 
linear or linear-lanceolate, acuminate, ^-^in. broad. — P. reflexum, R. Ctmn. 
I.e. n. 617; Hook. f. Handb. N.Z. Fl. 19. P. radicans, E. Cunn. I.e. n. 619. 
P. Gilliesianum, Kirk in Trans. N.Z. Inst. i. (1868) 143. 

North Island : North Cape (var. major), T. F. C ; near Mongonui, Kirk ! 
T. F. C, R. H. Matthtws ! Whangaroa, R. Cuymingham; Kawakawa River, 
Bay of Islands, R. Cunningham, Sir J. D. Hooker, Kirk ! March-May. 

Easily recognised by its small size and slender habit, narrow leaves, ter- 
minal umbels of yellow-red flowers, and small-beaked capsules. The var. 
reflexum was restored as a distinct species in the Handbook, but is certainly 
not entitled to more than varietal rank. Both at Mongonui and Kawakawa it 
grows intermixed with the typical •pimeleoides, together with numeious inter- 
. mediate forms. 

18. P. eugenioides, A. Cunn. Precur. n. 614. — A small branch- 
ing round-headed tree 20-40 ft. high, perfectly glabrous except a 
iew silky hairs on the branches of the inflorescence ; trunk 1-2 ft. 
•diam.; bark pale. Leaves alternate or almost whorled, 2-4 in. 



J^ittosponim.] pittospoke^. 61 

long, elliptical or elliptical-oblong, acute or subacute, slightly 
coriaceous, narrowed into slender petioles h-1 in. long ; margins 
often undulate. Flowers polygamous or dioecious, small, yellowish, 
in terminal branched many-flowered compound umbels or corymbs ; 
peduncles and pedicels slender, spreading, silky-pubescent. Sepals 
ovate-lanceolate, acuminate, glabrous. Petals linear-oblong, spread- 
ing and recurved, more than twice as long as the sepals. Capsules 
numerous, small, ;^in. long, ovoid, acute, glabrous, 2-3-valved. — 
Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 22 ; Handb. N.Z. Fl. 21 ; Kirk, Forest Fl. 
t. 49 ; Stiidents Fl. 52. P. elegans, Rao^d, Ghoix de Plantes, 25. 
JP. microcarpum, Putterlich, Syn. Pittosp. 15. 

North and South Islands : Common from the North Cape to the south 
of Otago. Tarata. September-October. 

The largest of the New Zealand species, and the only one with a compound 
inflorescence. The flowers are liighly fragrant, and were formerly mixed by the 
Maoris with fat and used for anointing their bodies. 



Okder VI. CARYOPHYLLE^. 

Herbs, very rarely woody at the base ; branches usually swollen 
at the nodes. Leaves opposite, quite entire or minutely serrulate, 
often united at the base ; stipules scarious or wanting. Flowers 
regular, hermaphrodite. Sepals 4-5, free or cohering into a tubular 
•calyx, imbricate. Petals 4-5 or occasionally absent, hypogynous 
or rarely perigynous, entire or lobed. Stamens 8-10, rarely fewer, 
inserted with the petals. Ovary free, 1-celled or imperfectly 3-5- 
celled at the base ; styles 2-5, free or more or less connate into a 
single style ; ovules 2 to many, attached to a free central or basal 
placenta. Fruit usually capsular, splitting into as many or twice 
as many valves as styles, very rarely indehiscent. Seeds few or 
many ; albumen farinaceous, usually more or less surrounded by 
the narrow curved embryo. 

A large and very natural order, found in every part of the world, but most 
abundant in temperate regions, particularly of the Northern Hemisphere ; rare 
in the tropics, unless on high mountains. Genera about 38 ; species 1000 or 
more. The order contains some handsome garden plants, as the various kinds 
of carnations and pinks, but as a whole the species are insignificant, possessing 
no important properties or uses. Of the 4 genera indigenous in New Zealand, 
Colohanthus is confined to the south temperate zone ; the remaining 3 occur 
in both hemispheres. More than 20 naturalised species have become well esta- 
blished, all of them of northern origin. 

Sepals united into a tubular calyx (Sileneee). 
■Calyx broadly 5-nerved. Styles 2. Capsule deeply 4-valved 1. Gypsophila. 

Sepals free {Msinese). 
Petals 2-fid. Styles 3-5. Capsule globular or ovoid, open- 
ing with as many valves as styles. No stipules . . 2. Stellaeia. 
Petals wanting. Styles 4-5. Stamens equal in number to 

the sepals. No stipules . . . . . . . . 8. Colobanthus. 

Petals entire. Styles 3. Capsule 3-valved. Stipules 

scarious . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. Speegulabia. 



62 CARYOPHYLLE^. [GypsopkUa, 

1. GYPSOPHILA, Linn. 

Annual or perennial herbs, often glaucous, sometimes glandular- 
pubescent or hispid. Flowers usually small, paniculate or solitary 
in the forks of the stem. Calyx campanulate or turbinate, 5-toothed 
or 5-lobed, with 5 broad green nerves separated by membranous 
interspaces. Petals 5, with a narrow claw ; limb entire or notched. 
Stamens 10. Ovary 1-celled ; styles 2 ; ovules many. Capsule 
globose or ovoid, 4-valved to or below the middle. Seeds subreni- 
form, laterally attached, embryo curved round the albumen. 

A genus of about 50 species, with the exception of the following one all 
limited to the Mediterranean region and extratropical Asia. 

1. G. tubulosa, Bciss. Diagn. Fl. Or. i. 11. — A dichotomously 
branched erect or spreading annual 2-6 in. high, glandular-pubes- 
cent in all its parts, often viscid ; stems and branches slender, 
terete. Leaves linear-subulate. A— |in., rarely longer. Plowers 
solitary in the forks of the branches, sometmies appearing axillary 
from one branch only being developed; peduncles slender, |—i- in. 
long. Calyx tubular, with 5 short teeth. Petals red or whitish-red, 
linear-oblong, slightly exceeding the calyx. Capsule ovoid-oblong, 
longer than the calyx, 5-valved at the apex. Seeds black, trans- 
versely rugose and pitted. — Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. ii. 325; Handh. 
N.Z. Fl. 22 ; Be^ith. Fl. Austral, i. 155 ; Kirk, Students' Fl. 54. 

North Island : East Coast, from Ahuriri to Cape Palliser, Colenso f 
South Island : Nelson— Tarndale, Travers. Marlborough, Buchanan. Can- 
terbury — Lake Forsyth, Lake Lyndon, Kirk! Rangitata Valley, Sinclair and 
Haast ; Mackenzie Plains and Lake Tekapo, T.F.C.; Lake Ohau, Haast, 
Otago — Common in the interior. Hector and Buchanan, Petrie ! Altitudinal 
range from sea-level to 3000 ft. November-January. 

Also widely diffused in Australia, but found elsewhere only in South Europe 
and Asia Minor, from whence it was originally described. Several botanists 
have suggested that it has been introduced both into Australia and New Zealand, 
but so far as the latter country is concerned no evidence has ever been obtained 
in support of such a view. 

2. STELLARIA, Linn. 

Annual or perennial herbs of very various habit, usually low- 
growing and diffuse, glabrous or pubescent. Piowers white, solitary 
or cymose, terminal or lateral. Sepals 5, rarely 4. Petals the 
same number, 2-cleft, rarely wanting. Stamens 10 or fewer by 
abortion, hypogynous. Ovary 1-celled ; styles 3, or rarely 2, 4, or 
5 ; ovules few or many. Capsule globose to oblong, few or many- 
seeded, dehiscing to below the middle into twice as many valves as 
styles. Seeds granulate, tuberculate, or pitted. 

A genus of about 75 species, dispersed over the whole world, but most 
abundant in cold and temperate regions. The 6 indigenous species are all 
endemic, but 3 others from the Northern Hemisphere have become naturalised. 
One of these, S. viedia, Linn., the common chickweed, is now so well established 
and has penetrated into such remote localities (it has been gathered in Mac- 



Stellaria.] caryophylle^. • 63 

quarie Island) that a beginner will be certain to consider it indigenous. It has 
flaccid procumbent much-branched stems 6 in. to 2 ft. long, marked by an alter- 
nate pubescent line ; ovate acuminate leaves, the lower on long ciliate petioles ; 
and flowers both axillary and in terminal cymes. 

Creeping and matted. Leaves orbicular. Sepals subulate- 
lanceolate, acute . . . . . . . . . . 1. S. parviflora. 

Creeping and matted. Leaves orbicular, ovate, obovate, or 

lanceolate. Sepals oblong-ovate, obtuse . . . . 2. ,S'. decipiens. 

Small. Leaves soft, ovate. Sepals oblong, obtuse . . 3. S. ininuta. 

Creeping or suberect. Leaves linear-oblong. Flowers 

almost sessile. Sepals ovate-lanceolate, acuminate . . 4. S. elatinoides. 

Glaucous, erect, dichotomously branched. Leaves linear. 

Flowers large, green, | in. . . . . . . . . 5. S. Roughii. 

Tufted, f^uberect, rigid and wiry. Leaves acerose, linear- 
subulate . . . . . . . . . . . . &. S. gracilenta. 

1. S. parviflora, Banks and Sol. ex Hook f. FL. Noo. Zel. i. 25. 
— A slender pale-green flaccid herb with creeping stems rooting at 
the nodes, often much branched and forming broad matted patches 
6-12 in. diam. or more, glabrous or with a few weak hairs on the 
petioles. Leaves membranous, |— | in. long, orbicular or broadly 
ovate, acute or mucronate, rarely cordate at the base ; blade usually 
longer than the petiole. Peduncles solitary, axillary, usually much 
longer than the leaves, 1-3-flowered ; a pair of bracteoles at the 
fork of the peduncle, and another pair on one and sometimes on 
all the pedicels. Flowers minute, Jg- in. diam. Sepals subulate- 
lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, acute, with white scarious margins. 
Petals wanting or 5, 2-cleft to nearly the base, shorter than the 
sepals. Styles 3. Capsule longer than the sepals, deeply 6-valved. 
Seeds 4-12, red-brown, deeply pitted. — Hook.f. Handh. N.Z. Fl. 23 ; 
Xirk, Students' Fl. 57. S. oligosperma, Col. in Trans. N.Z. Inst. 
xviii. (1886) 257. S. pellucida. Col. I.e. xxvii. (1895) 383. 

North and South Islands, Stewart Island, Chatham Islands : Abundant 
throughout in both lowland and mountain districts, ascending to over 4000 ft. 

i\Ir. Colenso's herbarium contains numerous examples of his S. oligosperma 
and S. pellucida, but I can find no characters to distinguish them from the 
ordinary form of the species, even as varieties. 

2. S. decipiens, Rook. f. Fl. Antarct. i. 7. — A pale-green much 
and loosely branched decumbent herb, forming matted patches. 
Leaves ^-f in. long, orbicular or orbicular-ovate or broadly obovate, 
rather fleshy, acute or apiculate, with a callous tip, narrowed into 
a broad and slightly ciliate petiole. Peduncles axillary, usually 
2-flowered, generally longer than the leaves ; a pair of bracts at the 
fork of the peduncle and another on one of the pedicels. Flowers 
■small, rather larger than those of *S'. parviflora. Sepals 5, oblong- 
ovate, obtuse or subacute. Petals 5, 2-cleft to the base, shorter 
than the sepals, often wanting. Capsules -J longer than the sepals, 
oblong-ovoid, deeplv 6-valved. Seeds dark red-brown, tuberculate. 
—Hook. f. Ic. Plant, t. 680; Handb. N.Z. FL 23 ; Eirk, Students' 
Fl. 57. 



64 CABYOPHYLLEiE. [Stellaria, 

Var. angustata. Kirk, I.e. — Leaves narrower than in the type, linear-lanceo- 
late, acute or acuminate. 

Auckland and Campbell Islands : Woods near the sea, not uncommon. 
Hooker, Kirk ! Chapman! Macquarie Island, ^. ifamfZ^on. Yar. angustata : 
Antipodes Island, Kirk ! 

A larger plant than the preceding, with more fleshy stems and leaves, larger 
flowers, and larger and more coarsely tuberculate seeds. It touch resembles the 
European S. media, but can always be distinguished by the less developed inflor- 
escence and by the absence of the pubescent line on the branches. 

3. S. minuta, Kirk, Students' Fl. bl . — " Annual. Stems 
^1 in. high, narrowly winged, branched, glabi^ous, ciliate. Leaves 
ovate, acuminate or acute, narrowed into a short broad petiole ;. 
apex callous. Peduncles axillary, 1-2-flowered, with a pair of 
bracts at the base of the naked pedicels, not diverging. Sepals 
broadly oblong, obtuse. Petals 5, shorter than the sepals, 2-fid 
nearly to the base. Stamens 8, rarely 10. Capsule not seen." 

South Island: Mount Stokes, 3000 ft., J. Macmahon ! Westport, on the 
sea-beach. Dr. Gaze (a scrap only). 

The specimens of this in Mr. Kirk's herbarium are few and imperfect, and I 
have consequently reproduced his description. He remarks that it is "distin- 
guished frcm all forms of S. parviflora, S. derJinens, and S. elatinoides by the 
broadly obtuse sepals, and from S. media by its solitary or geminate flowers and 
the absence of the hairy line on the stems and branches." It looks to me much 
like a reduced form of S. varvifiora. 

4. S. elatinoides, Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 25. — A small 
glabrous pale-green herb ; stems 1-3 in. long, branched, decumbent 
at the base, ascending or suberect at the tips. Leaves -^-^-^ in- 
long, linear or linear-oblong, acute or subacute, narrowed into a 
short flat petiole. Flowers small, J^ in. diam., axillary and soli- 
tary, sessile or on short peduncles. Sepals ovate-lanceolate or 
subulate-lanceolate, acuminate, with white scarious margins. 
Petals absent m all the flowers examined. Stamens 5 or 10. 
Capsule ovoid, as long as the sepals, 6-valved to the middle. 
Seeds 6-12, red-brown, covered with large rounded tubercles.— 
Eandh. N.Z. Fl. 23 ; Kirk, Students' Fl. 58. 

NoETH Island : Hawke's Bay — Lake Eotoatara and Cape Kidnappers, 
Colenso. South Island : Otago — Duntroon, Sowburn, Tuapeka Mouth,. 
Speargrass Flat, Petrie ! November. 

Easily recognised by the small size, narrow leaves, acuminate sepals,, 
almost sessile flowers, and coarsely tubercled seeds. The above description is 
drawn up from Mr. Petrie's Otago specimens, the plant not having been seen in 
the North Island since Mr. Colenso's original discovtry of it more than fifty 
years ago. It is very closely allied to the Tasmanian <S. midtiflora, if indeed not 
a form of that species. 

5. S. Roughii, Hook. f. Havdh. N.Z. Fl. 23. — An erect or 
straggling much-branched glabrous and succulent glaucous-green 
herb 2-6 in. high. Leaves ^-lin. long, linear, acuminate, fleshy, 
1-nerved. Flowers large, green, -|— fin. long, i in. diam., on short 



Stellaria.] caryophylle^. 65 

stout terminal peduncles. Sepals very large, almost foliaceous, 
lanceolate, acuminate, with 3 stout nerves. Petals much shorter 
than the sepals, cleft almost to the base. Stamens 10. Styles 3. 
Capsule about half as long as the sepals, 6-valved to the base. 
Seeds 12-20, red-brown, covered with large projecting papillae. — 
Kirk, Students' Fl. 58. 

South Island: Nelson — Dun Mountain, Rough! T.F.C.; Wairau 
Gorge, Travels; Mount Captain, Kirk! Clarence Valley and Lake Tennyson, 
T. F. C. Canterbury — Mount Torlesse, Haast, Petrie, T. F. C. ; Broken River 
and Upper Waimakariri, Enys! Kirk! T.F.C. Altitudinal range 3000 to 
6000 ft. December-February. 

One of the most distinct species of the genus, remarkable for its fleshy 
glaucous habit, large green flowers, and the large papillce on the seeds. It 
appears to be confined to bare shingle-slopes on the mountains. 

6. S. gracilenta, Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. ii. 326. — A loosely 
tufted rigid and wiry yellow-green herb 1-5 in. high; stems sub- 
erect, slightly scabrid, often matted and interlaced. Leaves oppo- 
site, glabrous, -^-Jin. long, linear-subulate, curved, concave above, 
smooth and convex below when moist, when dry grooved on each 
side of the stout midrib ; tip rigid, terete, acute ; margins thickened, 
slightly ciliate at the base, not revolute ; each stem-leaf with a 
small fascicle of leaves in its axil. Peduncles springing from the 
axils of the uppermost leaves, 1-3 in. long, solitary, strict, erect, 
1-flowered, 2-bracteolate about the middle. Flowers ^in. diam., 
greenish- white. Sepals oblong, acute, with broad membranous 
margins. Petals 5, rather longer than the sepals, 2-cleft almost 
to the base. Stamens 5-10. Styles 3. Capsule ovate-oblong, 
6-valved; seeds pale-brown, papillose. — Handb. N.Z. Fl. 24 ; Kirk, 
Students' Fl. 58. 

South Island : Not uncommon in mountain districts, ascending to 5000 ft. 
Descends to sea-level at the mouth of the Waitaki River. November-Feb- 
ruary. 

Easily recognised by the strict wiry habit, subulate leaves, and very long 
erect peduncles. 

3. COLOBANTHUS, Bartling. 

Small densely tufted usually rigid glabrous herbs. Leaves 
opposite, narrow-linear or subulate, usually imbricate, rigid, cartil- 
aginous, rarely fleshy. Flowers green, solitary, on short or long 
peduncles. Sepals 4-5, coriaceous, erect. Petals wanting. 
Stamens 4-5, alternating with the sepals, slightly perigynous. 
Capsule ovoid or oblong, opening by as many valves as sepals. 

A small genus of about 15 species, most numerous in New Zealand, but 
found also on the mountains of South America, in Australia and Tasmania, and 
in the Antarctic islands. Of the 9 species found in New Zealand, all but 3 are 
endemic. The species are highly variable, and most of them extremely difficult 
of discrimination. 

3— Fl. 



66 CARYOPHYLLE^. [Colobanthvs. 

Colohanthus repens, Col. in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xix. 261, and C. cocspitosns. 
Col. I.e. xxvii. 384, are respectively Saglna procuvibens, Linn., and S. apetala, 
Linn., as i^roved by the type specimens in Mr. Colenso's herbarium. It is 
curious that such an acute observer as Mr. Colenso should have overlooked that 
the stamens are opposite to the sepals in both these plants, and not alternate, as 
is the case in all true Colobanthi. Both the above species of Sagina are now 
copiously naturalised throughout the colony. 

* Flowrers tetramerous. 

Soft, bright-green. Leaves ^^-^in., linear, obtuse, almost 

flesh}'. Sepals ovate-lanceolate, obtuse . . . . 1. C. muscoides. 

Branched, leafy. Leaves flaccid, J-f in., acute or mucro- 

nate, but not acicular. Sepals ovate, obtuse . . . . 2. C. quiteiisis. 

** Flowers pentamerous. 

Leaves grassy, often flaccid, acicular. Sepals ovate, 

acute or acuminate, but slightly exceeding the capsule 3. C. Billardieri. 

Leaves rigid, usually spreading, acicular. Sepals acicular, 

much longer than the capsule . . . . . . 4. C. Muellcri. 

Leaves densely imbricate, small, j^-Jin., obtuse at the 
tip, with a short acicular point. Sepals about equal to 
the capsule . . . . . . . . . . 5. C. brevisepaius. 

Leaves densely imbricate, -^-^in., strict, narrowed into 

short acicular points. Sepals about equal to the capsule 6. C. Benthami- 

Leaves densely imbricate, J-f in., curved, narrowed into anus. 

very long acicular points. Sepals much longer than the 
capsule . . . . . . . . . . ..I.e. acicularis. 

Leaves loosely imbricate, J-Jin., spreading or recurved, 
chaffy, acute or shortly acicular. Sepals 5, ovate, 
acute, about equal to the capsule . . . . . . 8. C canaliculate s. 

Leaves barely imbricate, loosely spreading, membranous, 
^^ in. long. Peduncles axillary. Sepals linear-subu- 
late, much longer than the capsule . . . . . . 9. C. Buchanani. 

1. C. muscoides, Hook. f. Ft. Antarct. i. 14. — A soft almost 
flaccid perfectly glabrous densely tufted bright-green plant, forming 
large irregular patches. Stems numerous, branciied, densely matted 
and compacted. Leaves closely imbricated, connate at the base, 
spreading or ascending, Jg-^in. long, linear from a broad base, 
obtuse at the tip. Flowers minute, on short peduncles which are 
sunk amongst the uppermost leaves or shortly exserted in fruit. 
Sepals 4, ovate-lanceolate, obtuse, concave, obscurely keeled at the 
back. Capsule shorter than the sepals.— S^a^nift. N.Z. Fi. 25 ; 
Kirk, Students' Fl. 62 ; Homb. and Jacq. Voy. an Pole Sud, Bot. 
t. 17. 

The Snares, Auckland, Campbell, Antipodes, and Macquaeie Islands : 
Common on rocks near the sea. 

Forms rounded patches sometimes 18 in. across, although usually much 
smaller, the inner part composed of the decaying foliage and stems of old plants, 
the outside thickly covered with the compacted stems and branches, clothed 
with bright-green leaves. 

2. O. quitensis, Bartl. m Presl. Reliq. Haenk. ii. 13, t. 49, f. 2. — 
A small densely tufted much-branched plant 1-2 in. high, forming 
rather soft rounded patches. Leaves variable in size, lower some- 



ColobanthuS.] CARYOPHYLLEiB. 67 

times over iin. long, upper often very small, i-|in., narrow-linear 
or linear-subulate, acute or mucronate but not acicular at the tip, 
connate at the base, flat or concave above, convex beneath ; texture 
soft. Peduncles short, stout, terminal. Flowers |-iin- ^ong. 
Sepals 4, ovate, broad at the base, obtuse at the tip, rather thick. 
Capsule i shorter than the sepals.— iloo A;. /'. Handh. N.Z. FL 24 ; 
Kirk, Students' FL 60. 

South Island : Nelson — Dun Mountain Range, Mount Arthur, Raglan 
Mountains, T. F. C. ; Wairau Mountains, Travers. Canterbury— Kowai River, 
Haast. Oi&go — Buchanan ! Altitudinal range 1500 to 4500 ft. Also in 
South America, from Mexico to Cape Horn. 

A well-marked species, at once recognised by the soft leaves, which never 
have acicular points, by the tetramerous flowers, and by the broad obtuse sepals. 

3. C. Billardieri, Fenzl. in Ann. Wien Mus. i. 49. — A small 
densely tufced perennial -I— l-|-in. high, rarely more. Leaves in 
crowded tufts, usually grassy, often flaccid, very variable in 
length, sometimes lin. long, very narrow linear or filiform, at 
other times shorter, |-in., linear-subulate; broad and membranous 
at the base and sheathing the stem, gradually narrowed upwards, 
acute or acicular at the tip. Peduncles springing from the centre 
of the leaf-tufts, longer or shorter than the leaves, usually elongat- 
ing in the fruiting stage. Sepals 5, ovate, acute or acuminate, as 
long as or rather longer than the capsule. Capsule broadly ovoid, 
obtuse.— iloo^. /. FL Antarct. i. 14 ; FL Nov. ZcL i. 27 ; FL 
Tosm. i. 45 ; Handh. N.Z. FL 25 ; Benth. FL Austral, i. 161 ; 
Kirk, Students' FL 60. 

Var. alpinus. Kirk, I.e. — Larger, forming tufts sometimes 4 in. diam. 
Leaves 1-2 in., with acicular tips. Peduncles 2-4 in. long in fruit. Sepals 
ovate, acuminate, rather longer than the capsule. 

North Island : Mount Hikurangi, Adams and Petrie ! Ruahine Moun- 
tains, Colenso ; Tarariia Range, Btichanan ; Mount Egmont, T. F. C. 
South Island, Auckland and Campbell Islands, Antipodes Island, Mac- 
QUAEiE Island : Abundant throughout. Altitudinal range from sea-level 

to 4500 ft. November-February. Also found in Victoria and Tasmania. 

Separated from C. q^iitensis by the different habit, acicular tips to the 
leaves, pentamerous flowers, and pointed sepals. From C. Muelleri it can be 
distinguished by the grassy and often flaccid leaves and shorter sepals, which 
last are not acicular ; but some forms are very difficult to place. 

4. C. Muelleri, T. Kirk in Trans. N.Z. Inst, xxvii. (1895) 356.— 
A small densely tufted perfectly glabrous plant, J-l-|-in. high. 
Leaves rigid, cartilaginous, spreading, often recurved, ;j— f in. long, 
linear-subulate, broadly channelled above, convex below, narrowed 
into short acicular tips. Peduncles terminal or lateral, ^f in. 
long, stout, often hidden among the leaves. Sepals 5, ovate or 
ovate-lanceolate, suddenly narrowed into cartilaginous points with 
acicular tips, about ^ longer than the capsule. — Students' FL 60. 
C. Billardieri var. brachypoda, F. MuelL Veg. Chath. Is. 11. 



68 CAEY0PHYLLE5!;. [ColobaiitJius. 

? var. strictus, Cheesevi. — Larger, sometimes forming patches 2 in. diam. 
Leaves strict, erect, often more than 1 in. long. Peduncles equallmg or exceed- 
ing the leaves. Sepals ovate-lanceolate, narrowed into long acicular points, 
nearly half as long again as the capsule. 

? var. multicaulis, Kirk, ShulciiW Fl. 61. — Rigid, much branched, 
branches naked belov?. Leaves rather lax, spreading, linear-subulate, ^ in. long. 
Peduncles about as long as the leaves. Sepals narrovp-ovate, acute or mucronate, 
equalling the capsule. 

North and South Islands, Stewart Island, Chatham Island: The 
typical form not uncommon from the East Cape southwards, usually on cliffs 
or shingly beaches. Var. strictus ; Mountains of Canterbury and Otago. 
T. F. C, Petrie ! Var. multicaulis : Interior of Otago, Buchanan ! 

A puzzling plant. As characterized above, it is distinguished from C. Billar- 
dieri by the rigid habit, harsh often cartilaginous leaves, and especially by the 
rigid acicular sepals, which are much longer than the capsule. The two 
varieties, when better known, may prove distinct. 

5. C. brevisepalus, T. Kirk in Trans. N.Z. Inst, xxvii. (1895) 
357, t. 27e. — A small densely tufted much-branched plant, forminj^ 
compact rounded cushions 1-2 in. diam. Leaves densely imbri- 
cated, straight or curved, smooth and shining, I— iin. long, base 
broad and membranous, sheathing the stem, suddenly narrowed 
into the upper part, which is subulate, concave above, convex 
below, obtuse and almost tumid at the tip, abruptly produced into 
a short acicular point. Flowers terminal, sunk amongst the leaves. 
Sepals 5, ovate-subulate, convex or almost keeled, equalling or 
slightly longer than the oblong capsule. — Students' Fl. 61. 

South Island : Marlborough — Mount Mowatt, Kirk ! Canterbury — Moun- 
tains near Lake Tekapo, T. F. C. Otago — Kuiow, Speargrass Flat, Cromwell, 
Queenstown, &c., Petrie ! Ascends to nearly 6000 ft. 

This appears to be a well-marked form, recognised without any difficulty by 
the short densely imbricated leaves with obtuse tips furnished with a fine hair- 
point. 

6. O. Benthamianus, Fenzl in Ann. Wien Mus. i. 49. — A 
small densely tufted moss - like plant, forming small rounded 
patches about 1 in. high. Leaves densely imbricated, ^^ in. long, 
subulate, strict and rigid, tapering from the base to a shortly 
acicular apex, channelled above, convex below, sometimes with a 
groove between the margin and midrib. Peduncles short ; flowers 
slightly exceeding the uppermost leaves. Sepals 5, ovate-subulate, 
thickened at the base, acute or very shortly mucronate, equalling or 
very slightly exceeding the capsule. — Kirk, Students' Fl. 61. C. 
subulatus. Hook. f. Fl. Antarct. i. 13 and ii. 247, t. 93 ; Handh. 
N.Z. Fl. 25 ; Bcnth. Fl. Austral, i. 160. 

South Island: " Awatere Valley, and rocky places, Sinclair Range, 
alt. 4000 ft., Sinclair and Haast; Otago — Lake District, Hector and 
Buchanan." Campbell Island: Hooker, Kirk! Also found in Victoria and 
antarctic America. 



Colobanthus.] caryophylle^. 69 

Like Mr. Kirk, I have not seen any South Island specimens that I can refer 
to this species, although small forms of C. acictdaris have frequently been mis- 
taken for it. C. Benthamianus appears to me to constantly differ from 
C. acicularis in the shorter and more strict leaves, with much shorter acicular 
points, and in the broader and shorter sepals, which can hardly be called 
acicular, and barely exceed the capsule. In C. acicularis the sepals are nar- 
rower, and have long acicular apices much exceeding the capsule. 

7. C. acicularis, Hook. f. Handb. N.Z. Fl. 25. — A perfectly 
glabrous densely tufted rigid and shining plant, forming green or 
brownish rounded tufts 3-6 in. diam. and 1-3 in. high. Leaves 
very numerous, densely imbricated all round the branches, ;^— fin. 
long, linear-subulate, often curved, broad and sheathnig at the base, 
gradually narrowed into very long acicular points, channelled above, 
■convex and smooth below. Flow^ers almost sessile amongst the 
uppermost leaves, than which they are shorter. Sepals 5, narrow 
linear-subulate, narrowed into long acicular tips, at least ^ longer 
than the capsule. — Kirk, Students Fl. 62. 

Sooth Island : Dry rocky places in the mountains, abundant through- 
out. Altitudinal range from 1500 ft. to 6000 ft. 

Well characterized by the robust stems and branches, long leaves with 
remarkably long acicular points, almost sessile flowers, and long sepals, which 
much exceed the capsule. 

8. C. canaliculatus, T. Kirk in Trans. N.Z. Inst, xxvii. (1895) 
357. — x\ small densely tufted much-branched plant, forming 
rounded cushions 3-4 in. diam. and 2 in. high, occasionally more 
laxly branched and open. Leaves in opposite pairs with broad 
connate sheathing bases, -I— i-in. long, rigid or chaffy, spreading, 
subulate, gradually narrowed into an acute or shortly acicular tip, 
deeply channelled above, convex below, margins thickened. 
Flowers -g-in., terminating short lateral branchlets in the axils of 
the uppermost leaves. Sepals 5, broadly ovate, acute or subacute, 
margins thin and almost translucent. Stamens 5, longer than the 
sepals. Hypogynous disc reduced to a thickened line. Capsules 
equal to or rather shorter than the sepals. — Students' J^I. 61. 
C. squarrosus, Cheesem. in Trans. N.Z. Inst, xxviii. (1896) 534. 

South Island: Nelson— Mount Owen, on limestone rocks, alt. 4000ft., 
T. F. C, W. Toivnson ! Otago — Btwhanan ! 

A well-marked plant, the chief characters of which are the short spreading 
chaffy leaves, either acute or very shortly acicular, the short stout lateral 
peduncles, and the broadly ovate sepals. 

9. O. Buchanani, T. Kirk in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xxvh. (1895) 358, 
t. 27d. — Apparently a laxly tufted plant 2-3 in. high, with slender 
erect stems. Leaves not imbricating, loosely spreading, ^-^ in. 
long, linear-subulate, sheathing at the base, membranous, concave 
above, convex below, gradually narrowed into short acicular points. 
Peduncles axillary, slender, usually rather longer than the leaves. 
Flowers ^-^in. long. Sepals 5, linear-subulate, acuminate, half as 
long again as the short capsule. — Students' Fl. 62. 



70 cARYOPHYLLEJi:. [Golohanthus^ 



South Island : Obago — Manuherikia Valley, Buchanan 



A most distinct plant, of which I have only seen three imperfect specimens. 
The slender stems, loosely spreading membranous leaves, and axillary peduncles 
give it a very different aspect from that of any other New Zealand species. 

4. SPERGULARIA, Pers. 

Spreading or prostrate herbs. Leaves linear or setaceous, often 
with smaller ones fascicled in the axils so as to appear verticillate. 
Stipules small, scarious. Flowers white or pink, pedicelled, in 
subracemose cymes. Sepals 5. Petals 5, entire, rarely wanting. 
Stamens 10 or fewer by abortion. Ovary 1-celled, many-ovuled ; 
styles 3. Capsules 3-valved ; seeds compressed, often winged. 

A genus of 5 or G species, widely spread in temperate or subtropical regions, 
chiefly near the seacoast or in saline localities. The single New Zealand species 
has a very extensive range. 

1. S. media, PresL Fl. Sic. 17. — A rather succulent much- 
branched prostrate or suberect herb, more or less viscid-pubescent ; 
stems 2-6 in. long. Leaves narrow-linear, semi-terete, -J— lin. long,, 
fleshy, quite entire, acute ; stipules broadly ovate, acuminate, con- 
spicuous. Flowers many, axillary and terminal, on slender glan- 
dular peduncles |— 1 in. long. Sepals lanceolate, with a broad white 
membranous border. Petals usually shorter than the sepals. 
Capsule exceeding the sepals. Seeds more or less flattened, often 
surrounded by a broad membranous wing. — Kirk, Students' Fl. 63. 
S. rubra var. marina, Hook. f. Handb. N.Z. Fl. 25. Arenaria 
media, Linn. Sp. Plant. 606 ; A. Citnn. Precur. n. 609 ; Hook. f. FL 
Nov. Zel. i. 26. 

North and South Islands, Stewart Island : Common on the coast, 
from the Three Kings Islands and the North Cape southwards. October- 
February. An abundant plant near the sea in many parts of the world. 

The allied species S. rubra, Presl., which has more slender and flatter leaves, 
smaller flowers, and seeds not so conspicuously naargined, is naturalised in 
several places in both the North and South Islands, but is usually found in 
inland localities. 



Order VII. PORTULACE-ffi. 

Herbs, usually fleshy and glabrous, occasionally clothed witb 
long hairs. Leaves opposite or rarely alternate, entire, generally 
exstipulate. Flowers regular, hermaphrodite. Sepals 2, rarely 
more, imbricate. Petals 4-5, hypogynous or rarely perigynous, 
free or united below. Stamens either equal in number to the petals 
and opposite to them or indefinite, often adnate to the base of the 
petals. Ovary free or rarely half-inferior, 1-celled; style 3-8-fid; 
ovules few or many, afiixed to a free central or basal placenta. 
Fruit a capsule, either dehiscing with as many valves as style- 



■Claytonia.] portulace^. 71 

branches, or opening by a transverse lid. Seeds 1 to many ; 
embryo curved round a farinaceous albumen. 

A small order, having its headquarters in America ; found more sparingly in 
South Africa and Australia ; decidedly rare in Asia, north Africa, and Europe. 
Genera 16 ; species about 125. Some of the American genera are shrubby ; and 
the widely distributed Portulaca (naturalised in New Zealand) differs from the 
rest of the order in having perigynous petals and stamens, and a half inferior 
ovary. Of the New Zealand genera, Hectorella is endemic, Claytonia is mainly 
American, and Montia occurs in the temperate regions of both hemispheres. 

Stems slender. Stamens 5, opposite the petals. Capsule 

3-many-seeded, seeds shining . . . . . . 1. Cl.a.ytonia. 

Stems slender. Stamens usually 3, opposite the petals. 
Capsule 1-3-seeded, seeds dull and opaque . . . . 2. Montia. 

Alpine herb with densely tufted stems. Stamens 5, alter- 
nate with the petals .. .. .. ..8. Hectorei.la. 

1. CLAYTONIA, Linn. 

Annual or perennial low-growing glabrous and succulent herbs. 
Eadical leaves petiolate, cauline opposite or alternate. Flowers 
solitary or in terminal or axillary racemes or cymes. Sepals 2, 
persistent. Petals 5, hypogynous. Stamens 5, adhering to the 
petals at the base. Ovary free ; ovules few ; style 3-cleft. Capsule 
globose or ovoid, membranous, 3-valved. Seeds reniform or orbi- 
cular, flattened. 

Species about 20, all from North America or north-eastern Asia with the 
-exception of the following one, which is confined to Australia and New Zealand. 

1. C. australasica, Hook. f. in Hook. Ic. Plant, t. 293. — A 
perfectly glabrous tender and succulent usually matted plant, with 
slender creeping stems 1-6 in. long. Leaves very variable in size, 
i-l^ in. long, alternate or in distant pairs, narrow-linear or linear- 
spathulate, obtuse, dilated into broad membranous sheaths at the 
base. Flowers large, J-A^in. diam., white or rose, terminal or leaf- 
opposed, solitary or in few-flowered lax racemes; pedicels long, 
slender. Sepals small, broadly orbicular. Petals much longer, 
broad-obovate. Capsule globose, mucronate, usually slightly ex- 
ceeding the sepals. Seeds generally 3, black, smooth and shining. 
—Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 73 ; Handh. N.Z. Fl. 26 ; Benth. Ft. Austral. 
i. 177 ; Kirk, Students' Fl. 65. 

North Island : Euahino Range and Ruapehu, H. Hill ! Pctric ! E. W. 
Andreivs ; Mount Egmont, Buchanan, T. F. C. South Island and Stewart 
Island: Common in mountain districts throughout. Ascends to over 6000 ft. 
on Mount Egmont, and descends to sea-level in Otago and Stewart Island. 

A variable plant. When growing in dry or exposed places it is often very 
small and densely tufted ; but in watery situations the stems lengthen out con- 
siderably and the leaves become longer. Mr. Buchanan (Trans. N.Z. Inst. iii. 
210) has described two varieties characterized by the peduncles in one being 
2-flowered, and in the other racemose ; but I find the number of flowers to be 
very inconstant. 



72 PORTULACE^E. [Mo7itia. 

2. MONTI A, Linn. 

A small glabrous herb. Leaves opposite, slightly fleshy. 
Flowers small, axillary or shortly racemose. Sepals 2, ovate, per- 
sistent. Petals 5, united at the base into a 5-lobed corolla, split 
open on one side. Stamens 3, rarely 5, inserted on the petals. 
Ovary free ; ovules 3. Capsule globose, 3-valved, 3-seeded. Seeds 
nearly orbicular. 

A monotypic genus, widely distributed in the north and south temperate 
zones. 

1. M. fontana, Lijin. Sp. Plant. 87. — A slender perfectly gla- 
brous branching herb, forming dense tufts 1-5 in. high, sometimes 
longer and weaker when growing in water. Leaves opposite, ^-1 in. 
long, linear-lanceolate or spathulate, acute or subacute, quite entire. 
Flowers minute, solitary or in 2-3-ilowered racemes, drooping. 
Petals slightly longer than the sepals. Capsules small. — Hook. f. 
Fl. Antarct. 13; Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 74 ; Handb. N.Z. Fl. 27 ; Kirk, 
Students' Fl. 65. 

North and South Islands, Stewart Island, Auckland, Campbell, 
Antipodes, and Macquarie Islands : Abundant in watery places, from Rotorua 
and Taranaki southwards. Altitudinal range from sea-level to 4000 ft. 

3. HECTORELLA, Hook. f. 

A small densely tufted glabrous perennial. Leaves small, 
densely imbricated, coriaceous, entire. Flowers almost sessile 
amongst the uppermost leaves. Sepals 2, short, truncate. 
Petals 5, connate at the base, thickened below the tip. Stamens 5, 
inserted on the tube of the corolla, and alternate with the petals ; 
anthers linear-oblong. Ovary free ; ovules 4-5, erect from the 
base of the cell ; funicles slender ; style erect ; stigmas 1-3, linear, 
papillose. Capsule membranous, equalling the sepals ; seeds 2-4. 

A monotypic genus confined to New Zealand ; not closely allied to any 
other. 

1. H. csespitosa, Hook. f. Handb. N.Z. Fl. 27. — Stems short, 
stout, densely tufted, with the leaves on almost as thick as the 
little finger, forming compact rounded cushions 2-8 in. diam. and 
1-3 in. high. Leaves very numerous, closely imbricated in many 
series, ^-^m. long, broadly triangular-ovate to linear-oblong with 
a broad base, thin and membranous below the middle, coriaceous 
and keeled above ; margins and tip thickened ; veins reticulated. 
Flowers small, white, very shortly peduncled, forming a ring round 
the top of the branches among the uppermost leaves, often uni- 
sexual, the staminate ones being the smallest. Sepals concave, 
keeled. Petals much longer than the sepals. Capsule globose, 
membranous, as long as the sepals. Seeds 2-4, broadly ovoid, 
smooth and shining. — Hook. f. in Hook. Ic. Plant, t. 1046 ; Kirk^ 



Hectorella.] portulace^. 73 

Students' Fl. 6r5. H. elongata, Buch. in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xvi. 
(1884) 395, t. 35. 

South Island: Canterbury — Mountains above Arthur's Pass, T. F. C; 
Mount Cook district, F. G. Gibbs, T. F. C. Otago— Mount Alta; Mount 
Aspiring, Hector and Bticlianan ! Hector Mountains, Dunstan Mountains, and 
all high mountains west of the Clutha River, Pctrie ! Altitudinal range from 
4000 to 6500 ft. 

Mr. Buchanan's H. elongata, based on more laxly branched specimens with 
longer linear-oblong leaves, looks different at first sight, but (as Mr. Kirk has 
remarked) is connected with the typical state by numerous transitional forms. 



Order VIII. ELATINE^. 

Small herbs or undershrubs, usually growing in wet places. 
Leaves opposite, stipulate. Flowers minute, regular, hermaphro- 
dite. Sepals and petals each 2-5, free, imbricate. Stamens equal 
in number to the petals or twice as many, hypogynous, free ; an- 
thers versatile. Ovary free, 2-5-celled ; styles as many as the cells, 
free from the base ; stigmas capitate ; ovules many, attached to the 
inner angles of the cells, anatropous. Capsule septicidal, the valves 
falling away from the persistent axis and septa. Seeds straight or 
curved ; albumen wanting, or nearly so ; embryo terete, radicle 
next the hilum. 

A small and unimportant order, spread over the whole world. Genera 2 ; 
species about 25. 

1. ELATINE, Linn. 

Small prostrate glabrous annuals, growing in water or wet 
places. Leaves opposite or whorled. Flowers small, axillary, 
usually solitary. Sepals 2-4, membranous, obtuse. Petals the 
same number. Ovary globose. Capsule membranous, the septa 
remaining attached to the axis or evanescent. Seeds cylindric, 
straight, or curved, longitudinally ridged and transversely 
wrinkled. 

Species about 6, found in most temperate and subtropical regions, 

1. E. americana, Am. m Edinh. Journ. Nat. Sc. i. 431, 
var. australiensis, Benth. Fl. Aitstral. i. 178. — A small prostrate 
smooth and glabrous green or reddish annual, forming matted 
patches 1-4 in. diam. ; stems branched, rooting at the nodes, 
succulent. Leaves small, shortly petioled, ^-^ in. long, ovate or 
obovate or oblong, obtuse ; margin usually furnished with a few 
distant glands ; stipules minute, fugacious. Flowers minute, 
solitary, sessile. Sepals 3, obtuse. Petals often absent, when 
present 3, longer than the sepals. Styles 3. Stamens usually 3. 
Capsule globose-depressed, septa complete or evanescent at ma- 
turity. Seeds verv minute. — Kirk, Students' Fl. 66. E. ameri- 
cana, Hook. f. FL Nov. Zel. i. 27 ; Ilandb. N.Z. Fl. 28. E. gra- 
tioloides, si. Gunn. Precur. n. 610. 



74 ELATiNE^. {Elatine. 

North and South Islands, Stewart Island : Muddy places and margins- 
of still waters, not uncommon. 

The New Zealand plant, which is also found in Australia, differs from the 
typical form of the species, which is North American, in the flowers being, 
always trimerous, while in America they are usually dimerous. 

Obder IX. HYPERICINE^. 

Herbs or shrubs, rarely trees. Leaves opposite or occasionally 
whorled, generally furnished with pellucid glands or dark glandular 
dots, simple, entire or with glandular teeth ; stipules wanting. 
Flowers regular, hermaphrodite, solitary or in cymes, terminal or 
rarely axillary. Sepals 5, rarely 4, imbricate. Petals the same 
number, hypogynous, imbricate and usually contorted. Stamens 
numerous, rarely few, hypogynous, usually united into 3 or 5 
bundles. Ovary either 1-celled with 3-5 parietal placentas, or 
3-5-celled from the union of the placentas in the axis ; styles 
3-5 ; ovules few or many, anatropous. Fruit capsular, rarely 
succulent. Seeds without albumen ; embryo straight or curved^ 
radicle next the hilum. 

A rather small but widely dispersed order, comprising 8 or 9 genera and 
about 220 species. Most of the species secrete an abundant resinous juice. 
The single New Zealand genus is widely spread in both temperate and tropical 
regions. 

1. HYPERICUM, Linn. 
Herbs or shrubs. Leaves opposite or rarely whorled, thin, 
usually sessile, entire or rarely minutely toothed. Flowers gene- 
rally yellow, solitary or cymose, terminal or axillary. Sepals 5. 
Petals 5, smooth within. Ovary either 1-celled with 3-5 parietal 
placentas, or 3-5-celled through the placentas meeting in the axis ; 
styles distinct or united at the base ; ovules usually numerous. 
Capsule septicidal or dehiscing at the placentas. Seeds not winged. 

A rather large genus comprising over 160 species, widely dispersed, but par- 
ticularly abundant in south Europe, western Asia, and North America. 

Erect or nearly so. Leaves subcordate at the base, with 

revolute margins .. .. .. .. ..1. H. gramineum. 

Procumbent. Leaves oblong or obovate, margins flat . . 2. H. japonicum. 

1. H, gramineum, Forst. Prodr. n. 281. — A perfectly glabrous 
strict and wiry perennial 4-12 in. high or more. Stems branched 
from the base, erect or ascending, 4-angled, sparingly leafy. Leaves 
^-f in. long, rarely more, oblong or oblong-lanceolate, cordate at 
the base and stem-clasping, obtuse, quite entire, marked with 
numerous pellucid dots ; margins more or less revolute. Flowers 
|— I in. diam., sometimes solitary in small specimens, but usually in 
terminal trichotomous cymes, with a pair of bracts at the base of 
each fork ; pedicels strict, erect. Sepals oblong-lanceolate, acute or 
obtuse. Petals longer than the sepals, golden-yellow. Capsule 
ovoid, acute, 1-celled, 3-valved, usually longer than the sepals. — 



H7jpericuni.] HYPERiciNEa:. 75 

Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 36; Ha^idb. N.Z. Fl. 29; Benth. Fi. 
Austral, i. 182 ; Kirk, Students' Fl. 67. Brath^^s Forsteri, Spachin 
Ann. So. Nat. ser. 2, v. 367 ; Baoul, Ghoix de Plantes, 47. 

North and South Islands : Prom Whangaroa North (Petrie .') to the south 
of Otago, but rare and local to the north of Hawke's Bay. Altitudinal range 
from sea-level to '2000 ft. Also found in Australia and Tasmania, and in New 

Caledonia. 

2. H. japonicum, TImnb. FL. Jap. 295, t. 31. — A slender pro- 
cumbeat or diffuse much or sparingly branched plant 2-6 in. high ; 
branches ascending at the tips. Leaves small, i-^in., broadly 
oblong or oblong-ovate or obovate-oblong, obtuse, quite entire, often 
glaucous, marked with pellucid dots, sessile ; margins usually flat. 
Flowers smaller than in H. gramineum, solitary or in few-flowered 
cymes ; pedicels short, slender. Sepals oblong or ovate, obtuse or 
subacute. Petals slightlv exceeding the sepals. Capsule broadly 
ovoid, small. —i:^oo^-. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 37; Handb. N.Z. Fl. 29; 
Re7ith. Fl. Austral, i. 182; Kirk, Students' Fl. 67. H. pusillum, 
Choisij, Prodr. Hyp. 50; A. Gunn. Precur. n. 596. 

North and South Islands : Not uncommon in moist places from the 
North Cape to Otago. Altitudinal range from sea-level to over 3000 ft. 

Extends northwards through Australia and the Malay Archipelago to India, 
China, and Japan. Very closely allied to the preceding, but usually readily 
distinguished by its procumbent habit, broader flatter obtuse leaves and smaller 
fewer flowers. (The European H. hwnifusum, Linn., has become naturalised 
in many places, and may easily be mistaken for H. japonicum. It is usually 
larger, with stiffer and more wiry stems and branches, larger and more pointed 
leaves which have a row of black glandular dots just inside the margin, and 
larger flowers with more pointed often glandular-toothed sepals.) 



Ordek X. MALVACE^. 

Herbs, shrubs, or soft- wooded trees, usually with tough fibrous 
inner bark, young parts frequently clothed witli stellate hairs. 
Leaves stipulate, alternate, often palmately veined, entire or lobed or 
rarely compound. Flowers regular, hermaphrodite or rarely uni- 
sexual, often furnished at the base with a kind of involucel com- 
posed of few or many free or connate bractlets. Sepals 5, valvate, 
more or less united into a lobed or entire calyx, persistent. Petals 
5, hypogynous, contorted in the bud. Stamens iiiany, hypogynous ; 
filaments united into a tube surrounding the pistil usually called the 
staminal column ; anthers reniform, 1-celled. Ovary 2-many-celled, 
of 2 to many carpels whorled round a common axis ; carpels either 
distinct or united ; ovules 1 or more to each carpel, attached to the 
inner angle. Fruit either of dry indehiscent or dehiscent cocci, or 
a capsule with loculicidal dehiscence. Seeds reniform or obovoid ; 
albumen scanty or wanting ; embryo often curved, cotyledons 
broad, foliaceous. 

A large tropical and subtropical order, less common in temperate regions, 
and not extending either far north or south. Genera about 60; species between 



76 MALVACE^. [Plagiaiithus, 

700 and 800. Most of the species possess mucilaginous properties, and all are 
quite innocuous. Many are cultivated for ornament, and one genus [Gofmypium) 
for the woolly covering which surrounds its seeds, and which constitutes the 
cotton of commerce. Of the 4 following genera, Hoheria is endemic; Plagian- 
thus is found in Australia, and Gaya in South America ; while Hibiscus is uni- 
versal in warm countries. 

A. Staminal column hearing anthers at the top. Carpels closely united in a 
ring around a central axis, from which they fall aivay ivhen ripe (Malvese). 

Mowers more or less unisexual. Styles with linear de- 
current stigmas. Carpels usually solitary in the New 
Zealand species .. .. .. .. . . 1. Plagianthus. 

Flowers perfect. Stigmas capitate. Carpels several, in- 
dehiscent, winged at the back .. .. ..2. Hoheria. 

Flowers perfect. Stigmas capitate. Carpels many, 

2-valved, not winged .. .. .. ..3. Gaya. 

B. Staminal column bearing anthers at the side, naked and 5-toothed at the 

top. Carpels united into a capsule, dehiscing loculicidally (Hibiscese). 
Bracteoles 5 to many. Capsule 5-celled, many-seeded . . 4. Hibiscus. 

1. PLAGIANTHUS, Forst. 
Trees or shrubs, rarely herbs. Leaves entire or lobed or serrate- 
Flowers usually small, hermaphrodite or unisexual, in axillary or 
terminal fascicles or panicles, or solitary. Bracteoles wanting, 
or small and distant from the calyx. Calyx 5-toothed or 5-fid. 
Staminal column split at the top into numerous filaments. Ovary 
1-celled or 2-5-celled; ovules 1 in each cell; styles as many as the 
cells, clavate flattened or filiform, stigmatic along the inner side. 
Fruit of one or several carpels seceding from a common axis, inde- 
hiscent or splitting irregularly. Seed solitary, pendulous. 

A small genus of about 12 species, confined to Australia and New Zealand, 
the species found in each country being endemic. The New Zealand species are 
practically dicBcious, although a few hermaphrodite or female flowers are occa- 
sionally mixed with the males. 

(Plagianthus Lyallii, Hook. f. Handb. N.Z. Flora, 30, is now referred to 
Gaya. P. linariifolia, JSuch. in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xvi. (1884) 394, t. 34, is 
Coprosma Kirkii, Cheesem.) 
Shrub, much branched. Leaves small, linear, entire. 

Flowers solitary or fascicled . . .. .. ..1. P. divaricatus. 

Small tree. Leaves linear-oblong, toothed. Flowers in 

few- flowered cymes . . .. .. .. ..2. P. cyniosiis. 

Tree, 30-60 ft. Leaves ovate or ovate-lanceolate, serrate. 

Flowers numerous, in decompound panicles . . . . 3. P. bctnlinus. 

1. P. divaricatus, Forst. Char. Gen. 86. — A glabrous much- 
branched shrub 4-8 ft. high ; branches tough, slender, divtiricating, 
often much interlaced. Leaves alternate or fascicled on short 
lateral branchlets ; of young plants 1 in. long, Imear-oblong, nar- 
rowed into rather long petioles, entire or sinuate ; of mature plants 
i_|in., narrow-linear or narrow linear-obovate, coriaceous, obtuse, 
quite entire, 1-nerved. Flowers very small, generally unisexual, 
yellowish-white, solitary or fascicled, axillary; peduncles shorter 



Flag ian thus.] malvace^. 77 

than the leaves. Calyx hemispherical, 5-toothed. Petals small, 
oblong-obovate, veined. Staminal tube with 8-12 large sessile 
anthers. Ovary 1-celled, rarely 2-celled ; ovules 1 in each cell ; 
styles the same number as the cells, clavate or flattened. Fruiting 
carpel about the size of a peppercorn, globose or rarely didymous, 
downy, bursting irregularly. Seeds solitary, or very rarely 2. — 
A. Bich. Fl. Nouv. Zel. 299; A. Cunn.Precur. n. 604; Rao2cl, Ghoix 
de Plantes, 48 ; Hooh. Bot. Mag. t. 3271 ; Rooh. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. 
i. 29; Handh.N.Z. Fl. 30; Buck, in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xvi. t. 34, 
/. 2 ; Kirk, Students' Fl. 70. 

North and South Islands, Chatham Islands : Abundant in salt-water 
marshes from the North Cape to the Bluff. September-October. 

In the male flowers the ovary is smaller, almost rudimentary, and the style 
altogether enclosed within the staminal column ; in the females the style is 
exserted, and the anthers are smaller and usually empty. 

2. P. cymosus, T. Kirk, Stiidcnts' Fl. 70. — A small closely 
branched tree about 20 ft. in height, glabrous except a few scattered 
stellate hairs on the young shoots and branches of the inflorescence. 
Leaves alternate or in alternate fascicles, -|-i|-in. long, linear or 
linear-oblong or linear-obovate, obtuse or subacute, with a few deep 
serratures towards the tip ; petioles slender, \-^ in. long. Flowers 
small, unisexual, in small axillary o-15-flowered cymes, l-l-|in. 
long, or in fascicles of 3-5, rarely solitary. Calyx campanulate, 
5-toothed, narrower in the female flowers. Petals 5, ovate-spathu- 
late or oblong-spathulate, much reduced in size in the females. 
Staminal column long and slender, with numerous anthers at the 
top. Ovary 1-2-celled ; styles 1-2, clavate or broad and flattened. 
Fruiting carpels about i-in. diam., didymous or globose, downy, 
seated in the persistent calyx. 

North Island : Auckland — Kaitaia, Mongonui County, R. H. Mattheivs ! 
South Island: Canterbury — Upper Waimakariri, alt. 2800ft., J. D. Enys 
(Kirk, "Students' Flora"). Otago — Near Dunedin, G. M. Thomson! Petrie ! 
October. 

A very peculiar plant, very distinct in habit and inflorescence, although the 
flowers closely agree in structure with those of P. bctidinus, with the exception 
that the ovary is frequently 2-celled. It is remarkable that only one tree (a 
female) has been found in the Dunedin locality, and that only one (a male) is 
known at Kaitaia. The Waimakariri locality is given on the authority of Mr. 
Kirk. There are no specimens from thence in his herbarium. 

3. P. Ibetulinus, A. Chmn. Precur. n. 605. — A handsome leafy 
tree 30-60 ft. high, with a trunk sometimes 3 ft. in diam.; when 
young forming a straggling bush with interlaced tortuous branches. 
Bark exceedingly tough ; branchlets, young leaves, petioles, and 
inflorescence more or less hoarj^ with stellate hairs. Leaves of 
young plants small, i-f in. long, broadly ovate or rounded to ovate- 
lanceolate, deeply and irregularly lobed or crenate-serrate. Leaves 
of mature plants 1-3 in. long, ovate or ovate-lanceolate, acuminate, 
coarsely crenate-serrate or doubly serrate, rounded or cuneate at 



78 MALVACE^. [Plagianthns . 

the base, membranous ; petioles slender, ^-1 in. long. Flowers 
small, unisexual, very numerous, in terminal and axillary decom- 
pound panicles 4-9 in. long ; pedicels slender. Calyx campanulate, 
5-toothed. Petals oblong-spathulate, obtuse, clawed, much smaller 
in the female flowers. Staminal column exserted in the males, 
long and slender, bearing numerous almost sessile anthers at the 
tip. Fruiting carpels iin. diam., seated in the persistent veined 
calyx, OYoid, acuminate, downy. Seed solitary. — Baoul, Glioix dc 
Plantes, 48; Hook. f. Ft. Nov. Zel. i. 29; Handh. N.Z. Fl. 30; 
Kirk, Forest Fl. t. 103, 104; Students' FL 71. P. urticinus, A. 
Cunn. PreciLT. n. 606. P. chathamica, Cockayne in Trans. N.Z . 
Inst, xxxiv. (1902) 319 {name only). Philippodendron regium, 
Poit. in Ann. Sc. Nat. ser. ii. viii. t. 3.. 

North and South Islands, Stewart Island, Chatham Islands : Low- 
land forests from Mongonui and Kaitaia southwards, but often local. Ascends 
to 1500ft. November-December. lUbhon-iuood of Europeans; manatic ot 
the Maoris. 

Practically dioecious, although a few hermaphrodite flowers are sometimes 
mixed with the males. The male flowers are whitish-yellow, and are produced 
in immense profusion ; the ovary is much reduced in size, and the style always 
included in the staminal column. The females are greenish, smaller and less 
numerous, the petals are smaller and adnate for some distance to the staminal 
column, the anthers are devoid of pollen, and the style exserted. 

Mr. Cockayne separates his P. chathamica on the ground of its not passing 
through a young stage with foliage differing from that of the mature tree. 
Flowering specimens from the Chatham Islands in my herbarium have rather 
larger calyces than the type, but I can see no other difference. For a full 
description of the seedlings and young plants of both forms, reference should be 
made to Mr. Cockayne's paper, " An Inquiry into the Seedling Forms of New 
Zealand Phanerogams and their Development, Part IV." (Trans. N.Z. Inst, 
xxxiii. 273-282). 

■2. HOHERIA, A. Cunn. 

A shrub or small tree. Leaves petiolate, alternate, serrate. 
Flowers numerous, in axillary fascicles, white ; peduncles jointed at 
the middle. Bracteoles wanting. Calyx hemispherical, 5-toothed. 
Petals oblique, notched near the apex. Staminal column split at 
the top into numerous filaments, usually arranged in o bundles. 
Ovary 5-celled, rarely more ; ovules 1 in each cell ; siyle-branches 
as many as the cells, filiform ; stigmas capitate. Fruiting carpels 5, 
placed round a central axis from which they fall away when ripe, 
indehiscent, furnished with a broad membranous wing at the back. 
Seed pendulous. 

A genus confined to New Zealand. It is doubtful whether it should be 
regarded as composed of one highly variable species or of .3 or 4 closely allied 
ones. 

1. H. populnea, A. Cunn. Precur. n. 600. — A small handsome 
tree 10-30 ft. high, glabrous except the young shoots, peduncles, 
and calyces, which are usually more or less pubescent; bark tough. 
Leaves extremely variable, especially in young plants, ranging from 



Hoheoia.] Malvaceae. 79 

ovate, ovate-oblong, or ovate-lanceolate to lanceolate or even linear, 
generally sharply and coarsely dentate or serrate, more rarely ob- 
tusely serrate ; in young plants often deeply and irregularly lobed 
or toothed ; petioles slender. Flowers in axillary fascicles, snow- 
white, usually produced in great profusion. Peduncles jointed, 
pubescent. Carpels produced outwards and upwards into a mem- 
branous wing, longer than broad. — Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 30 ; 
Handb. N.Z. Fl. 31 ; Kirk, Shulents Fl. 71. 

Can be most conveniently divided into the following 3 varieties, which pos- 
sibly should have the rank of species : — 

Var. a, vulgaris, Hook. f. I.e. — Leaves coriaceous, ovate, with large sharp 
teeth; blade 3-5 in. long ; petioles 1-2 in. Leaves of young plants differing in 
size only. Fascicles 5-10-flowered. Flowers ^-f in. diam. — Hook. Ic. Plant. 
t. 565, 56G ; Kirk, Forest. Fl. t. 53. {E. Sinclairii, Hook. f. Handb. 81, appears 
to be a form of this with broader more coriaceous obtusely serrate leaves and 
2-3-flowered fascicles.) 

North Island : North Cape to the Waikato River, abundant. March- 
May. 

Var. b, lanceolata, Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 30. — Leaves of mature trees 
coriaceous, ovate-lanceolate oblong-lanceolate or lanceolate, acute or acuminate, 
sharply toothed, 2-4 in. long; of young plants smaller, thinner, ovate or 
rounded-ovate, deeply and irregularly lobed and cut. Flowers smaller and 
fewer.— Am fc, Forest Fl. tt. 54 f. 2, 54a f. 1, 2, 55 f. A. H. sexstylosa, Col. in 
Trans. N.Z. Inst. xvii. (1885) 238. (Var. cratcBcjifolia, Hook, f., is based upon 
the leaves of young trees.) 

North and South Islands : Bay of Islands to Canterbury, but local 
north of the Waikato River. February-April. 

Var. c, angustifolia, Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 30. — Leaves of mature trees 
smaller, 1-2 in., rarely 1-3 in., membranous, oblong or linear-oblong, obtuse or 
acute, spinulose-toothed. Flowers smaller ; fascicles 2-4-flowered. Leaves of 
young plants small, suborbicular or obovate-orbicular, 3-5-toothed at the tip, 
cuneate at the base.— A'irA-, Forest Fl. tt. 54 f. 1, 54a f. 3, 54b f. 2, 55 f. 1, 2. 
H. angustifolia, Raoul, Choix cle Plantes, 48, t. 2G. Mr. Kirk's subspecies 
ohttisifolia connects this with the previous variety. 

North and South Islands : Hawke's Bay to Southland, not uncommon, 
ascending to 1500 ft. December-February. 

An excellent accol^nt of the remarkable tendency to variation exhibited by 
this almost protean species will be found in Kirk's "Forest Flora." The 
Maoris apply the names lioihere or Jwuhere to varieties a and h indif- 
ferently; the European settlers usually call all the forms "ribbon-wood" or 
" lacebark," names which are, unfortunately, also used ior PlagiantJins betulimis 
and Gaya Lyallii. 

3. GAYA, H. B. K. 

Herbs or shrubs, rarely small trees, usually tomentose with 
stellate hairs. Flowers pedunculate, axillary or terminal. Bracteoles 
wanting. Calyx 5-fid. Staminal column split at the apex into 
numerous filaments. Ovary many-celled ; style-branches as many 
as the cells, filiform ; stigmas capitate or truncate ; ovules solitary 
in each cell. Mature carpels membranous, connivent at the apex, 
separable from the axis, 2-valved at the back and leaving a free 



80 MALVACE^. [Gay a. 

appendage within which arises from the base of the carpel and 
partly surrounds the seed. Seed pendulous or horizontal. 

Species 8-12, all South American except the present one, which is endemic 
in New Zealand. 

1. G. Lyallii, /. E. Baker in Journ. Bot. xxx. (1892) 137.— A 
small graceful spreading tree 15-30 ft. in height; young branches, 
leaves, petioles, and inflorescence more or less covered with stellate 
pubescence. Leaves on slender petioles 1-2 in. long; blade 2-4 in., 
ovate, acuminate, usually deeply doubly crenate, sometimes shortly 
lobed and crenate, cordate and truncate at the base, membranous. 
Flowers abundantly produced, large, |-lin. diam., white, in axil- 
lary fascicles of 3-5, rarely solitary; peduncles slender, 1-2 in., 
ebracteolate. Calyx broadly campanulate, 5-lobed ; lobes triangu- 
lar. Petals obliquely obovate, retuse towards the apex. Staminal 
column short, swollen at the base ; filaments numerous, long, fili- 
form. Ovary 10-15-celled ; styles long, slender, filiform, free to 
below the middle; stigmas obliquely capitate. Fruit -J- in. diam., 
globose, slightly depressed, of about 12 much-flattened membranous 
reniform carpels. Carpels not winged, 2-valved, 1-seeded. Seed 
much compressed. — Kirk, Students' Ft. 72. Iloheria Lyalhi, Hook. 
f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 31, t. 11. Plagianthus Lvallii, Asa Gratj ex 
'Hook. f. I.e. ii. 326; Hook. f. Handh. N.Z. 'Fl. 30; Bot. Mag. 
t. 5935; Kirk, Forest Fl. t. 134. Sida Lyallii, F. Muell. Veg. 
Chath. Is. 11. 

South Island : Subalpine forests from Nelson to Otago, most plentiful on 
the western side. Ascends to 3500 ft. Lacebark. December-January. 

One of the most beautiful trees of the New Zealand flora, often forming a 
broad fringe to the subalpine beech forests. It is partly deciduous at high eleva- 
tions, but is certainly evergreen in the river-valleys of Westland and Nelson, 
where it is very abundant. There are apparently two forms of flowers, one with 
long styles almost equalling the stamens, another with styles less than half 
their length. 

4. HIBISCUS, Linn. 

Herbs, shrubs, or trees ; glabrous, tomentose, or hispid, the hairs 
usually stellate. Leaves very various, often more or less palmately 
lobed. Flowers large and showy. Bracteoles numerous, rarely few, 
usually narrow, free or connate at the base. Calyx 5-toothed or 5- 
fid, valvate. Petals 5, adnata at the base to the staminal column. 
Staminal column truncate or 5-toothed at the summit ; filaments 
many, inserted on the sides of the column ; anthers reniform. 
Ovary 5-celled ; ovules 3 or more in each cell ; styles 5, spreading ; 
stigmas capitate. Capsule loculicidally 5-valved. Seeds glabrous 
hairy or woolly. 

A large and beautiful genus, abundant in the tropical regions of both hemi- 
spheres, a few species only extending into the north or south temperate zones. 
Both the New Zealand species have a wide distribution outside the colony. 



Hibiscus.] MALVACE.E. 81 

Annual or biennial, 1-2 ft. Loaves deeply lobed. Flowers 

axillary .. .. .. .. .. ..1. H. trionuui. 

Perennial, 3-Gft. ; stem prickly. Leaves broad, lobes 

shallow. Flowers in terminal racemes . . . . 2. H. divcrsifoliiis. 

1. H. trionum, Liiui. Sp. Plant. 697. — A simple or branched 
annual or biennial 1-2 ft. high, scabrous-pubescent or hispid ; 
branches erect or spreading. Leaves very variable, 1-3 in. long, 
lower orbicular-cordate with 3-5 shallow^ lobes, middle and 
upper deeply 3-5-lobed or -partite; segments oblong or lanceo- 
late, coarsely toothed or incised. Flowers on short axillary 
peduncles, large, 1-1^ in. diam., pale-yellow with a dark-brown 
centre. Bracteoles 7-12, narrow-linear, hispid. Calyx mem- 
branous, inflated, with numerous raised hispid veins, shortly 
5-lobed. Capsule ovoid-globose, hirsute, enclosed in the bladdery 
calyx. Seeds glabrous. — hot. Mag. t. 209 ; Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zcl. i. 
2g ; Handb. N.Z. Fl. 31 ; Bcnth. Fl. Austral, i. 210 ; Ktrk, Stu- 
dents' Fl. 78. H. vesicarius, Cav. Diss. iii. 171, t. 64, f. 2 ; ^4. Cunn. 
Prectir. n. 607 ; Baotcl, Choix de Plaiites, 48. 

North Island : Sheltered places near the sea, from the North Cape to the 
Auckland Isthmus, rare and local. Hicks Bay, East Cape, Bishop Williams ! 
SoDTH Island : South Wanganui, Lyall. In most tropical countries outside 
America. 

2. H. diversifolius, Jacq. Ic. Plant. Bar. t. 551. — A tall stout 
and rigid perennial 3-6 ft. high, often woody at the base ; branches, 
petioles, and nerves of the leaves covered with short conical prickles. 
Leaves on stout petioles 2-3 in. long ; blade 2-4 in., broadly cordate 
or nearly orbicular, irregularly toothed, angular or slightly 3-5- 
lobed, scabrous. Flowers in terminal racemes, large, handsome, 
2-3 in. diam., pale-yellow with a dark centre. Pedicels short; 
bracts lanceolate or 3-fid. Bracteoles 10, linear. Calyx-lobes 
lanceolate, bristly. Capsule ovoid, acuminate, densely hispid. — - 
Bcnth. Fl. Austral, i. 213 ; Kirk in Trans. N.Z. Inst. iii. (1871) 
163 ; Students' Fl. 73. 

North Island : Moist sandy places near the sea, from the North Cape to 
Hokianga and the Bay of Islands, rare, Culenso, Kii-k I R. H. Mattheivs ! 
T. F. C. Also in Australia, the Pacific islands, tropical Africa, &c. 

Both this and the preceding species are being rapidly destroyed by cattle, 
fires, &c., and are now rare or almost extinct in localities where they were plenti- 
ful twenty or thirty years ago. 

Ordeb XL TILIACEiE. 

Trees or shrubs, rarely herbs. Leaves alternate, seldom oppo- 
site, simple, entire or toothed or lobed. Stipules usually present, 
often caducous. Flowers regular, hermaphrodite or unisexual, 
axillary or terminal, usually cymose. Sepals 3-5, free or connate, 
generally valvate. Petals the same number as the sepals or fewer, 
rarely wai^.ting, imbricate or valvate, entire cut or multifid. 



82 TiLiACE^. [Entelea. 

Stamens numerous, rarely few, usually inserted on the torus, which 
is often elevated and disc-like ; anthers 2-celled. Ovary free, 
2-10-celled ; style simple or divided into as many lobes or stigmas 
as there are cells to the ovary ; ovules few or many, attached to 
the inner angle of the cell. Fruit dry or fleshy, dehiscent or inde- 
hiscent, 2-10-celled, or by abortion 1-celled. Seeds solitary or 
many ; albumen usually copious, fleshy ; embryo straight or seldom 
curved, radicle next the hilum. 

An order comprising about 45 genera and 350 species, chiefly tropical and 
subtropical. One genus (Tilia) is found in the north temperate zone ; and 
several are endemic in southern latitudes or extend thereto. The most important 
economic plant is Corchor^ts capsularis, which yields the fibre known as jute. 
All the species are innocuous. Of the three New Zealand genera, Entelea is 
endemic ; Aristotelia extends to Australia, Tasmania, and temperate South 
America ; while EJceocarims is mainly Indian and Malayan, stretching south- 
wards to Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific islands. 

Leaves large, alternate. Capsule clothed with rigid 

bristles .. .. .. .. .. ..1. Entelea. 

Leaves opposite. Fruit a berry .. .. ..2. Aristotelia. 

Leaves alternate. Fruit a drupe . . . . . . 3. El^ocarpus. 

1, ENTELEA, R. Br. 

A shrub or small tree. Leaves large, alternate, cordate, 5-7- 
nerved, toothed or crenate. Flowers in terminal umbelliform 
cymes, large, white, bracteate. Sepals 4-5, free. Petals the same 
number, crumpled. Stamens numerous, all fertile, free ; anthers 
versatile. Ovary 4-6-celled ; style simple ; stigma terminal, denti- 
culate or fringed ; ovules numerous in each cell. Capsule globose, 
covered with long rigid bristles, loculicidally 4-6-valved. Seeds 
numerous, obovoid ; testa coriaceous ; albumen oily. 

The genus consists of a single endemic species. It is very closely allied to 
the South African Sparmannia. 

1. E. arborescens, B. Br. in Bot. Mag. t. 2480. — A handsome 
shrub or small tree 8-20 ft. high, with a trunk 5-9 in. diam. ; 
wood exceedingly light. Young branches, leaves, petioles, and in- 
florescence covered with short soft stellate hairs. Leaves alternate, 
large, on petioles 4-8 in. long; blade 4-9 in. or more, obliquely 
rounded-ovate, cordate at the base, acuminate, irregularly doubly 
crenate-serrate, often obscurely 3-lobed, 5-7-nerved from the base ; 
stipules persistent. Flowers very abundant, in erect terininal or 
axillary cymes, white, lin. diam. Sepals acuminate. Ovary 
hispid. Capsule 1 in. diam., globose, echinate with long rigid 
bristles. — A. Cunn. Precur. n. 601; Raoul, Ghoix de Plantes. 48; 
Hook. f. Ft. Nov. Zel. i. 31 ; Randh. N.Z. Fl. 32 ; Kirh, Forest 
Fl. t. 33; Students Fl. 74. Apeiba australis, A. Bich. FL Nonv. 
Zel. 301, t. 34. 

North Island : Not uncommon along the shores from the Three Kings and 
the North Cape to Tairua and Eaglan, rare and local further south. East Cape 



Entelca.] tiliaceje. 88 

district, Banks and Solamicr ! J. Adams ; Hawke's Bay, Golenso ! Cape Pal- 
liser and Paikakariki, Kirk ; Urenui, Taranaki, T. F. C. South Island ; 
CoUingwood, Hector: islands near Cape Farewell, Kingsley. Whau, Hanma. 
October-January . 

Greedily eaten by cattle and horses, and consequently fast becoming rare on 
the mainland, except in comparatively inaccessil)le situations. It is still plenti- 
ful on most of the small outlying islands on the north-east coast of the Auckland 
District, often exhibiting great luxuriance. On Cuvier Island I measured leaves 
with petioles '2 ft. long, with a blade 1ft. 6 in. diam. The wood is extremely 
light, the specific gravity being much less than that of cork. It is frequently 
used by the Maoris for the floats of fiisbing-nets. 

'2. ARISTOTELIA, L'Herit. 
Shrubs or trees. Leaves opposite or nearly so, entire or 
toothed, exstipulate. Flowers small, unisexual, axillary or lateral, 
racemose or rarely solitary. Sepals 4-5, valvate. Petals the same 
number, 3-lobed, toothed or entire, inserted round the base of the 
thickened torus. Stamens numerous or 4-5, inserted on the torus. 
Ovary 2-4-celled ; ovules 2 in each cell ; styles subulate. Fruit a 
berry. Seeds ascending or pendulous, often pulpy on the outside 
of the hard testa. 

A small genus of 9 species, 3 of which are found in Australia, 1 in the New 

Hebrides, 2 in South America, and the 3 following in New Zealand. 

Leaves large, membranous. Racemes panicled, many- 
flowered .. .. .. .. .. .. 1. A. racemosa. 

Leaves large, not so membranous as the preceding. 

Racemes simple or only slightly compound .. .. 2. A. Colensoi. 

Leaves small, coriaceous. Flowers few together or solitary 3. A. friiticosa. 

1. A. racemosa, Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 33. — A small graceful 
tree 8-25 ft. high ; bark of young branches red, becoming darker 
with age ; branchlets, young leaves, petioles, and inflorescence 
pubescent. Leaves opposite or nearly so, 2-5 in. long, ovate or 
ovate-cordate, acuminate, thin and membranous, deeply and 
irregularly acutely serrate, often reddish beneath ; petioles long and 
slender. Flowers small, ^in. diam., rose-coloured, in many- 
flowered axillary panicles, dioecious ; the males rather larger than 
the females ; pedicels slender. Petals 4, 3-lobed at the tip, smaller 
in the female flowers. Stamens numerous, minutely hairy ; anthers 
longer than the filaments. Female flowers : Ovary 3-4-celled ; 
styles the same number. Fruit a 3-4-celled berry about the size of 
a pea, dark-red or almost black. Seeds usuallv about 8, angular. — 
Randh. N.Z. Fl. 33; T. Kirk, Forest FL. t. 113; Students' Fl. 75. 
Friesia racemosa, A. Gunn. Precur. n. 603; Raoul, Choix de Plantes, 
48; Hook. Ic. Plant, t. 601. 

North and South Islands, Stewart Island : Common in lowland forests 
throughout, ascending to nearly '2000 ft. Makomako, ivineberry. Sep- 
tember-November. 

An abundant and well-known plant, usually the first to appear after the 
forest has been cut down. The wood is largely employed for making charcoal 
for the manufacture of gunpowder. 



84 TiLiACE^. [Aristotelian 

2. A. Colensoi, Hook. f. Handb. N.Z. Fl. 33.— A shrub or 
small tree 6-15 ft. high, very similar in general appearance to A. 
raceviosa, but the leaves are lirmer in texture, sometimes narrower 
and ovate-lanceolate, usually quite glabrous, green below. Racemes 
simple, rarely compound, few-flowered. Berry smaller, the size of 
a peppercorn. — Kirk, Students' Fl. 75. 

NoETH Island : Wairarapa Valley, Golenso ! South Island : Subalpine 
forests from Nelson to Otago, apparently not common. 

A puzzling plant. There is an unnamed specimen of old date in Mr. 
Colenso's herbarium which agrees perfectly with Hooker's description ; but all 
the South Island specimens that I have seen have broader and less acuminate 
leaves. Probably all are nothing more than forms of A. racenwsa. 

3. A. friiticosa, Hook. f. Fl. A'or. Zel. i, 34. — A very vari- 
able much-branched erect or decumbent shrub 3-8 ft. high ; 
branches often close and rigid ; bark red-brown ; branchlets, 
petioles, and pedicels pubescent. Leaves excessively variable, of 
young plants linear or lanceolate, i-li^in. long, acute or acumi- 
nate, toothed lobed or pinnatifid ; on mature plants ^1 in. 
long, ovate-obovate or oblong-obovate or linear-oblong, obtuse, cori- 
aceous, entire crenate serrate or shortly lobed ; petioles short, 
stout. "Flowers small, axillary, solitary or in 3-6-flowered racemes 
or cymes ; pedicels short, pubescent. Sepals 4, oblong, obtuse, 
pubescent. Petals 4, shorter or longer than the sepals, entire or 
with 1-4 irregular shallow notches at the apex. Stamens 4-6 ; 
filaments very short. Berry very small, globose. Seeds usually 4. 
— Handb. N.Z. Fl. 33 ; Kirk, Stiidents Fl. lb. A. erecta, Buck, 
in Trans. N.Z. Inst. iii. (1871) 209. Myrsine brachyclada. Col. in 
Trans. N.Z. hist. xxii. (1890) 478. 

North and South Islands, Stewart Island : Mountainous districts from 
the Thames southwards, but rare north of the East Cape. Ascends to 4000 ft. 

One of the most variable plants in New Zealand. There seem to be two 
well-marked forms — one with an erect and comparatively open habit of growth, 
larger leaves, and 4-6-flowered racemes, answering to the A. erecta of Buchanan; 
the other is often decumbent, with rigid and interlaced often tortuous branches, 
smaller leaves, and frequently solitary flowers. 

3 EL^OCARPUS, Linn. 
Trees. Leaves usually alternate, entire or serrate, exstipulate. 
Flowers hermaphrodite, rarely polygamous, in axillary racemes. 
Sepals 4 or 5, distinct, valvate. Petals the same number, laciniate 
at the apex, inserted round a cushion-shaped torus. Stamens 
numerous, seated on the torus ; anthers long, awned, opening by a 
terminal slit. Ovary 2-5-celled ; ovules 2 or more in each ceil, 
pendulous ; style subulate ; stigma terminal, simple. Fruit a drupe 
with a hard or bony stone, which is 2-5-celled or by abortion 
1-celled. Seeds solitary in each cell, pendulous ; albumen fleshy ; 
cotyledons broad. 



Elceocarpus.] tiliacejs. 85 

A large genus, containing about 60 species. Most plentiful in the hotter 
parts of India and the Malay Archipelago, a few species only extending to 
Australia, the Pacific islands, and New Zealand. Both our species are en- 
demic. 

Branchlets silky. Leaves linear-obovate, margins re- 
curved . . . . . . . . . . .. 1. E. dentatus. 

Branchlets glabrous. Leaves linear-oblong or lanceolate, 
margins flat . . . . . . . . .. 2. E. Hookerianus. 

1. B. dentatus, Vahl. Sijmb. Bot. iii. 66. — A round-headed 
tree 40-60 ft. in height; trunk slender, straight, 1-3 ft. diam. ; 
branchlets often bare of leaves except at the tips, silky when 
young. Leaves erect, on short stout petioles ^-1 in. long ; 
blade 2-4 in., linear-oblong obovate-oblong or obovate-lanceolate, 
narrowed below, obtuse or shortly acuminate, coriaceous, ob- 
scurely sinuate-serrate, often white with fine appressed silky hairs 
beneath ; margins recurved. Racemes numerous, 8-12-flowered, 
silky, usually shorter than the leaves. Flowers drooping, -J— i in. 
diam., white. Petals obovate-cuneate, lacerate. Stamens iO-20 ; 
filaments very short ; anthers linear, with a fiat recurved tip. 
Ovary silky, 2-celled. Drupe about |-in. long, oblong or ovoid, 
purplish-grey ; stone rugose, 1-celled, 1-seeded. — Hook. f. Handh. 
N.Z. Fl. 34; T. Kirk, Forest Fl. t. 11; Students' FL 76. E. 
Hinau, A. Cunn. Precur. n. 602 ; Hook. Ic. Plant, t. 602 ; Hook. f. 
Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 32. E. Cunninghamii, Raoul, Choix de Planies, 25. 
Dicera dentata et D. serrata, Forst. Char. Gen. 80. Eriostemon 
dentatus, Colla. Hort. Bipzd. 52, t. 30. 

North and South Islands : Not uncommon in lowland forests from the 
North Cape to Catlin's River, Otago. Altitudinal range from sea-level to 
2000 ft. Hinau. October-November. 

The fruit was formerly eaten by the Maoris, the pulpy part being rubbed 
off the stone, steeped in water, and then made into large cakes, which were 
baked for a day or two. They also obtained a black dye from the bark, which 
was used for dyeing their flax cloaks, and is still employed for that purpose 
by a few of the inland tribes. The wood is durable, but is little employed, 
although a figured variety is now coming into use for panelling and furniture. 

2. E. Hookerianus, Raotil, Choix de Plantes, 26, t. 25. — A 
small glabrous tree 20-40 ft. high, with a trunk 1-3 ft. diam. ; bark 
pale. Young plants with numerous tortuous and interlaced 
branches, which bear narrow-linear leaves |-2 in. long, sinuate or 
irregularly toothed or lobed or almost pinnatifid, occasionally 
broadly obovate or almost orbicular. Leaves of mature plants 
l-|-3 in. long, elliptical or linear-oblong or lanceolate, coriaceous, 
obtuse, sinuate-crenate or serrate ; margins fiat ; petioles short, 
■J-|-in. long. Eacemes slender, spreading, shorter than the leaves. 
Flowers greenish- white, small, drooping. Sepals lanceolate. 
Petals shghtly longer than the sepals, 4-5-lobed at the tip. Drupe 
similar to that of F. dentatus, but smaller, lin. long. — Hook. f. 
Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 32 ; Handb. N.Z. Fl. 34 ; T. Kirk, Forest Fl 
t. 12, 13 ; Students Fl. 76. 



86 tiliacea;. [Elceocarpus. 

North and South Islands, Stewart Island: Forests from Mongonui 
and Kaitaia southwards, but exceedingly local north of the Auckland Isthmus. 
Altitudinal range from sea-level to 3000 ft. Fokaka. November-January. 

The variability of the leaves in young plants is most remarkable. As the 
young tree grows up it is not uncommon to find on the lower branches a 
curious mixture of linear, obovate, or almost orbicular leaves, which may 
be nearly entire or deeply lobulate ; while on the upper branches the leaves 
have already assumed the shape of the mature stage. 



Order XII. LINE^. 

Herbs or shrubs, rarely trees. Leaves alternate, simple, usually 
entire ; stipules present or wanting. Flowers regular, herma- 
phrodite. Sepals 5, rarely 4, free or coherent at the base, 
imbricate. Petals the same number, hypogynous or slightly peri- 
gynous, imbricate, often contorted. Stamens as many as the 
petals or twice as many, rarely more ; filaments united below into 
a ring which frequently has 5 small glands at the base ; anthers 
2-celled, versatile. Ovary free, entire, 3-5-celled ; styles the same 
number, distinct or more or less united ; ovules 1-2 in each cell, 
pendulous, anatropous. Fruit either a capsule splitting into 3-5 
cocci, or more rarely a drupe. Seeds 1-2 in each cell ; albumen 
fleshy or wanting ; embryo usually straight, radicle superior. 

A small order, scattered over the whole world, the herbaceous species mainly 
temperate, the shrubby almost all tropical. Genera 14; species about 140. 
The common flax, Liniitn iisitatissivitcm, so valuable from the tenacity of its 
fibre and its oily seeds, is the most important member of the order. The 
Peruvian Erythroxylon coca yields the important drug cocaine, and the leaves 
are chewed as a stimulant. The only New Zealand genus is widely distributed. 

1. LINUM, Linn. 

Herbs, rarely shrubby at the base. Leaves usually alternate, 
narrow, quite entire ; stipules generally wanting. Flowers in 
panicled or racemose or fascicled cymes. Sepals 5, entire. Petals o, 
contorted in aestivation, fugacious. Stamens 5, alternate with the 
petals, hypogynous, usually connate at the base, often alternating 
with 5 minute staminodia. Disc of 5 glands opposite to the petals 
and adnate to the staminal ring. Ovary 5-celled, with 2 ovules 
in each cell ; cells sometimes divided into 2 ; styles 5. Capsule 
5-celled, septicidally splitting into 5 2-seeded or 10 1-seeded cocci. 
Seeds compressed, albumen scanty. 

A genus of 80 species or more, mostly natives of temperiite or subtropical 
climates. The single indigenous species is endemic. 

(The Australian L. marginale, A. Ounn., is now plentifully naturalised in 
many parts of New Zealand, especially to the north of Taranaki and Hawke's 
Bay. It can be distinguished from L. monogyimm by its smaller size, more 
slender habit, and small pale-blue flowers.) 

1. L. monogynum, Forst. Prodr. n. 145. — A very variable 
perfectly glabrous perennial herb, sometimes woody at the base ; 



Linuvi.] LiNE^. 87 

stems few or many, simple or branched, erect or spreading, 6-24 in. 
high. Leaves numerous, scattered, ascending, i-1 in. long, linear- 
oblong to linear-lanceolate or linear-subulate, 1-3-nerved. Flowers 
in terminal corymbs, white, often large and handsome, sometimes 
1 in. diam. Sepals ovate or ovate-lanceolate, acute. Styles united 
at the base, theii tips free, recurved. Capsule large, broadly ovoid, . 
splitting into 10 1-seeded cocci. — A. Rich. Fl. Nonv. Zel. 317 ; 
A. Cunn. Precur. n. 608; Hook. Bot. Mag. t. 3574; Raoul, Ghoix 
de Plant.es, 47 ; Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 28 ; Handh. N.Z. Fl. 35 ; 
Kirk, Students' Fl. 77. 

North and South Islands, Stewart Island, Chatham Islands: 
Abundant along the coasts, and occasionally found inland, ascending to almost 
2000 ft. on the mountains of the South Island. October-January. 

A very beautiful but highly variable plant. 



Order XIII. GERANIACE^. 

Herbs or shrubs, very rarely trees. Leaves opposite or alter- 
nate, usually stipulate. Flowers regular or irregular, generally her- 
maphrodite. Sepals 5, seldom fewer, free or united to the middle, 
imbricate or rarely valvate, posterior one sometimes spurred. Pe- 
tals as many as the sepals, rarely fewer or wanting, hypogynous 
or slightly perigynous, usually imbricate. Torus barely expanded 
into a disc, with or without 5 glands alternating with the petals, 
usually raised in the centre into a beak. Stamens generally twice 
the number of the petals or fewer by suppression ; filaments free or 
connate at the base ; anthers 2-celled. Ovary 3-5-lobed, cells the 
same number ; carpels 3-5, adnate to the axis as far as the insertion 
of the ovules, and often prolonged into a beak-like style or styles ; 
ovules 1-2 to each carpel, rarely more. Fruit a 3-5-lobed capsule, 
often splitting from below upwards into as many 1-seeded carpels 
with long styles, which coil up elastically ; or the capsule may be 
loculicidally 3-5-celled, with 2-several seeds in each cell ; or more 
rarely the mature fruit is composed of 3-5 indehiscent 1-seeded 
cocci. Seeds with scanty or no albumen ; embryo straight or 
curved. 

A rather large and somewhat heterogeneous order, composed of several tribes 
differing in important points of structure, and often kept up as separate orders. 
Taken in a broad sense, it contains 20 genera and about 750 species. Probably 
about three-quarters of the species are natives of South Africa, but the order is 
also well represented in the north temperate zone. It is comparatively rare in 
the tropics and in Australasia. Many of the species are highly ornamental, but 
few of them possess any economic value. The three New Zealand genera have 
a wide range. 

-4. Capsule beaked, splitting into 1-seeded lobes ivhich coil up elastically along 
the beak. Leaves toothed or lobed. 

Flowers regular. Perfect stamens 10 . . . . . . 1. Geranium. 

Flowers irregular, with a spur adnate to the pedicel. 

Perfect stamens 5-7 . . . . . . . . 2. Pelargonium. 



88 GBKANiACE.*:. [Geranmm. 

B. Capstile opening loculicidally . Leaves 3-foliolate . 
Flowers regular . . . . . . . . . . 3. Oxalis. 

1. GERANIUM, Linn. 

Annual or perennial herbs, rarely woody at the base, ijeaves 
opposite or alternate, usually palmately lobed or cut, stipulate. 
Peduncles axillary, bracteate, 1-2-fiowered. Flowers regular. 
Sepals 5. Petals 5, hypogynous, imbricate, alternating with 5 
glands. Stamens 10, usually all perfect, rarely 5 without anthers, 
free or connate at the base. Ovary 5-iobed and 5-celled, with a 
long beak terminated by 5 stigmas; ovules 2 in each cell, super- 
posed. Capsule splitting from below upwards into 5 carpels with 
long styles, which roll up elastically ; seeds 1 in each carpel. 

A well-known genus, comprising over 100 species, widely distributed over the 
A'hole world, but naost abundant in the Northern Hemisphere. Two of the New 
Zealand species are endemic ; 1 extends to Australia and temperate South 
.America ; the remaining 2 are found in most temperate regions. 

Stems suberect. Leaves much divided. Peduncles 2-flow- 

ered. Sepals awned. Seeds coarsely reticulated . . 1. G. dissectuiii. 

Stems prostrate. Peduncles 1-flowered. Sepals hardly 
awned. Seeds smooth or very finely reticulated . . 2. G. inicropUylluvi 

Stemless or nearly so. Rootstock stout. Peduncles 

1-flowered. Seeds quite smooth . . . . . . 3. G. sessililiorum. 

Stems prostrate, and with the leaves silky -hoary. Pe- 
duncles 1-flowered. Flowers large . . . . . . 4. G. Traversii. 

Softly pilose. Stems diffuse or prostrate. Peduncles 
2-flowered. Sepals mueronate. Carpels wrinkled. Seeds 
smooth . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. G. niolle. 

1. G. dissectum, Linn. Cent. i. 21, var. australe, Benth. Ft. 
Austral, i. 296. — A branching decumbent or suberect annual or 
perennial herb, sometimes with a stout swollen rootstock. Stem 
1-2 ft. long, often covered witli soft spreading or retrorse hairs, 
rarely almost glabrous. Leaves on long slender petioles ; blade 
1-2 in. diam. or more, cut to che base or nearly so into 5-7 seg- 
ments which are again deeply and irregularly divided into few or 
many usually narrow lobes ; lobes obtuse or acute. Peduncles 
slender, 2-flowered. Flowers very variable in size. Sepals ovate 
or ovate-lanceolate, usually with an awn of varying length, pilose. 
Petals as long or longer than the sepals, slightly notched at the 
apex. Carpels hairy, even. Seeds deeply and coarsely reticulated. 
— G. dissectum var. carolinianum. Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 39 ; 
Uanclh. N.Z. Fl. 36 ; Kirk, Students' Fl. 79. 

Var. a, pilosum, Hook. f. Handb. N.Z. Fl. 36. — Suberect or spreading, 
iilothed with spreading hairs. Petals often large. — G. pilosum, Forst. Prodi-. 
)i. 581 ; A. Cziun. Prccur. n. 593. G. patagonicum, Hook. f. Fl. Antarct. 11. 252. 

Var. b, patulum, Hook. f. I.e. — Suberect or spreading, clothed with spread- 
ing and retrorse hairs. Petals usually small.— G. patulum, Forst. Prodr. n. 530. 
G. retrorsum, L'Hertt, cr D.C. Prodr. i. 614 ; A. Cunn. Precur. n. 594. 

Var. c, glabratum, Hook. f. I.e. — Stout, procumbent, almost glabrous. 
Leaves 3-5-lobed ; lobes much broader and less cut. 



Geranium.'] geraniace^. 89 

Keemadec Islands, North and South Islands, Chatham Islands : 
Extends as far south as the Bluff, but most plentiful in the north. Var. 
australe occurs in Australia, Tasmania, and South America ; the typical form 
is abundant in the Northern Hemisphere. 

2. G. microphyllum, Hook. f. Fl. Autarct. i. 8, t. 5.— A slender 
much-branched prostrate and stragc;hng perennial 6-18 in. long, 
more or less pubescent with appressed silky white hairs, which are 
sometimes retrorse on the peduncles and pedicels. Leaves on long 
slender petioles ; blade -J— 1 in. diam., orbicular in outline, cut to the 
middle or below into 3-7 broad or narrow obcuneate lobes, which 
are more or less deeply toothed at the tips ; stipules small. Pe- 
duncles 1-flowered, rarely 2-flowered ; flowers usually white. Sepals 
ovate-lanceolate, barely awned. Petals longer than the sepals, 
entire or slightly retuse. Carpels smooth and even, pilose. Seeds 
longitudinally striated, reticulations long and narrow, not con- 
spicuous. — Handh. N.Z. Fl. 36 ; Kirk, Students' Fl. 80. G. po- 
tentilloides, Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 40 {non L'Herit). 

North and South Islands, Stewart Island, Auckland Islands : 
Common from the North Cape southwards, ascending to 3000 ft. Endemic. 

This differs from all the forms of G. dissectum in the more slender habit, 
less deeply lobed and smaller leaves, 1-flowered peduncles, paler flowers, and in 
the much smaller and narrower reticulations on the seeds. 

3. G. sessiliflorum, Gav. Diss. 198, t. 77, f. 2. — A depressed 
almost stemless perennial, more or less covered with spreading or 
retrorse silky hairs. Eootstock stout and woody, often branched 
above. Leaves mostly radical, numerous, crowded, on long slender 
petioles; blade :^-fin. diam., orbicular, deeply divided into 3-5 
toothed or lobed segments ; stipules broad, membranous. Flower- 
ing-stems very short or quite undeveloped. Peduncles usually 
1-flowered, short, seldom equalling the leaves. Flowers small. 
Sepals oblong, shortly awned, silky. Petals white, exceeding the 
sepals. Carpels even, minutelv hairy. Seeds smooth, not reticu- 
lated.— Ifoo^. /. Handb. N.Z. 'FI. 36 ; Benth. Fl. Austral, i. 297 ; 
T. Kirk, Stxidents Fl. 80. G. brevicaule, Hook, in Journ. Bot. i. 
(1834) 252 ; Hook.f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 40. 

North and South Islands, Stewart Island : Not uncommon from the 
Lower Waikato southwards, ascending to 3000 ft. Also in Victoria, Tasmania, 
and temperate South America. 

Easily distinguished from all the other species by the small size, stemless 
habit, and even seeds. 

4. G. Traversii, Hook. f. Handh. N.Z. Fl. 726.— A perennial 
herb, more or less hoary in all its parts with short and dense silvery 
white hairs ; stems decumbent or prostrate, 1-2 ft. long. Eadical 
leaves on long slender petioles 4-9 in. long; blade 1-3 in. diam., 
orbicular in outline, 5-7-lobed to the middle ; lobes cuneate, toothed 
or lobed at the tips, silky-hoary on both surfaces. Cauline leaves 
much smaller and on much shorter petioles. Stipules broadly 



90 GEKANiACE^. [Geranium. 

ovate, cuspidate. Peduncles 1-4 in. long, 1-fiowered, with 2 acu- 
minate bracts about the middle. Flowers large, |— lin. diam., 
white or pink. Sepals broadly ovate, cuspidate. Petals broad- 
obovate, entire, much longer than the sepals. Carpels silky-pilose. 
Seeds very minutely reticulated. — T. Kirk, Students' Fl. 80 ; Buck. 
in Trans. N.Z. Inst. vii. t. 13, f. 2. 

Chatham Islands : Not uncommon in open places, H. H. Trovers ! J. JJ. 
Enys ! November-December. 

By far the finest of the New Zealand species. Well characterized by the 
silvery hoary pubescence, 1-flowered peduncles, large flowers, and minutely 
reticulated seeds. 

5. G. molle, Linn. Sp. 682. — A diffuse or procumbent much- 
branched annual or perennial, more or less softly pilose in all its 
parts ; stems 6-12 in. long. Kadical leaves numerous, on long 
slender petioles; blade orbicular, 1-2 in. diam., 5-9-lobed to below 
the middle ; lobes obovate or cuneate, irregularly lobed or crenate. 
Cauline leaves smaller, on shorter petioles, with fewer but deeper 
divisions. Peduncles shorter than the leaves, 2-flowered. Flowers 
small, purplish. Sepals broadly ovate, mucronate. Petals deeply 
notched, barely exceeding the sepals. Carpels usually distinctly 
marked with transverse wrinkles. Seeds smooth, not reticulated. 
—Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 40; Handh. N.Z. Fl. 37; T. Kirk, 
Students' Fl. 81. 

Kbrmadbc Islands, North and South Islands, Stewart Island, Chat- 
ham Islands. — Abundant throughout, ascending to over 2500ft. in the South 
Island. Common in Europe, north Africa, and western Asia ; and natural- 
ised in other countries. 

There can be little doubt that this is introduced, but as it has had a place 
given to it in previous works on New Zealand plants, and as it is now found in 
all soils and situations, and would certainly be considered indigenous by a 
stranger unacquainted with its history, it appears best to retain it in the Flora. 

2. PELARGONIUM, L'Herit. 

Herbs or shrubs. Leaves opposite or rarely alternate, entire 
toothed lobed or variously divided. Flowers usually in few- or 
many-fiowered umbels on axillary peduncles, irregular. Sepals 5, 
the uppermost produced into a short spur adnate to the pedicel. 
Petals 5 or fewer by abortion, the 2 upper different from the 
others and usually larger. Disc without glands. Stamens 10, 
hypogynous, connate at the base, 5-7 (rarely fewer) fertile, the 
remainder without anthers or rudimentary. Ovary 5 - lobed, 
5-celled, beaked ; beak terminated by 5 short styles, which are 
longitudinally stigmatose ; ovules 2 in each cell. Capsule split- 
ting into 5 carpels with long styles, which roll up elastically ; 
seeds 1 in each carpel. 

Species about 180, the whole of which are natives of South Africa except 3 
found in North Africa and the Levant, and 2 in Australia and New Zealand. 



Pelargonium.] geraniace^. 91 

1. P. australe, Jacq. Eclog. t. 100. — A decumbent or erect 
simple or branched more or less hairy herb 6-18 in. high; root- 
stock stout. Leaves on slender petioles 2-6 in. long ; blade 1-2 in. 
diam., ovate-cordate or orbicular-cordate, obscurely 3-5-lobed ; 
lobes finely crenate- serrate, obtuse ; stipules broad. Peduncles 
longer than the leaves ; umbels 10-12-flowered. Flowers small, 
^—|- in. diam., pink. Sepals ovate, acute, hairy; spur usually very 
short. Petals from ^ to -| as long again as the sepals, spathulate, 
notched. Fertile stamens 5, the remainder reduced to membranous 
scale-like staminodia. Carpels very hairy, their beaks long, lined 
on the inner face with long soft white hairs. — Benih. FL Austral, i. 
298 ; Kirk, Students' Fl. 82. P. australe var. clandestinum, Hook, 
f. Handb. N.Z. Fl. 37. P. clandestinum, L'Herit ex B.C. Prodr. i. 
160; A. Cunn. Prccur. n. 595; Baoul, Choix, 47; Hook. f. Fl. 
Nov. Zel. i. 41. 

North and South Islands, Stewart Island, Chatham Islands : 
Abundant throughout, ascending to 2000 ft. Kopata. November-February. 

Also found in Australia and Tasmania, and in Tristan d'Acunha, and 
probably identical with the South African P. gjvssidarioides, Ait. 

3. OXALIS, Linn. 
Herbs, stemless or caulescent. Leaves all radical or alternate, 
compound, usually 3-foliolate, stipulate or exstipulate. Flowers 
regular, on axillary 1- or more - flowered peduncles. Sepals 5, 
imbricate. Petals 5, hypogynous, contorted. Disc without glands. 
Stamens 10, free or connate at the base, all anther-bearing. Ovary 
5-lobed, 5-celled ; styles 5, distinct ; ovules 1 or more in each cell. 
Capsule loculicidally dehiscing, the valves persistent on the axis. 
Seeds with an outer fleshy coat which bursts elastically ; testa 
crustaceous ; albumen fleshy. 

A large genus of over 200 species, chiefiy found in South America and South 
Africa, with a few widely dispersed in most parts of the world. 

Stem elongated. Peduncles axillary, 1-6-flowered. Flowers 
yellow . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. 0. corniculata. 

Stem short or wanting. Peduncles radical, 1-fiowered. 

Flowers white . . . . . . . . ..2.0. magellanica. 

1. O. corniculata, Linn. Sp. Plant. 435. — A prostrate, decum- 
bent or ascending, glabrous or pubescent, much-branched perennial 
2-12 in. long ; stems often matted. Leaves alternate, on long or 
short petioles, 3-foliolate ; leaflets broadly obcordate, very variable 
in size, -1-1 in. long, glaucous beneath. Stipules minute, adnate 
to the petiole or wanting. Peduncles axillary, 1-6-flowered, about 
as long as the petioles. Flowers yellow, variable in size. Sepals 
acute or obtuse. Petals obcordate, notched. Capsule oblong or 
linear, subcylindric ; seeds few or many in each cell. — Hook. f. Fl. 
Nov. Zel. i. 42 ; Handb. N.Z. Fl. 38 ; Benth. Fl. Austral, i. 301 ; 
Kirk, Students Fl. 83. 



92 GERANIACE.E. [OxuUs. 

Var. a. — Decumbent. Leaves stipulate. Capsules ^-1 in. long, downy. 

Var. b, stricta. Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 42. — Erect or suberect. Stipules 
wanting. Flowers small. Capsules large. — O. stricta, Linn. S})- Plant. 435. 
O. Urvillei, propinqua, divergens, lacicola, A. Cunn. Frecur. n. 584, 586, 588, 
.590. 

Var. c, microphylla, Hook. f. I.e. — Stems procumbent, .slender, rooting. 
Leaflets usuall}- minute. Capsule oblong. — 0. exilis, A. Cunn. I.e. n. 587. 

Var. d, ciliifera, Hook. f. I.e. — Stems procumbent, filiform, matted. 
Leaflets membranous, ciliated. — 0. tenuicaulis and 0. ciliifera, A. Cunn. I.e. 
n. 589, 591. 

Var. e, crassifolia, Hook. f. I.e. — Stems rigid, matted. Leaflets small, 
tbick, pilose. — O. crassilolia, A. Cunn. I.e. n. 592. 

Kermadec Islands, North and South Islands : Abundant throughout, 
chiefly in lowland situations. 

One of the most widely diffused and variable plants known, found in almost 
all temperate and tropical countries. 

2. O. magellanica, Forst. m Conim. Gotting. ix. (1789) 33. — A 
small glabrous or pubescent almost stainless herb 2-4 in. high; 
rootstock creeping, scaly. Leaves all radical, on long slender hairy 
petioles, trifoliolate ; leaflets obcordate, glabrous, glaucous beneath. 
Peduncles radical, long and slender, often exceeding the leaves, 
2-bracteolate above the middle, 1-flowered. Flowers rather large, 
pure white, ^-^in. diam. Sepals small, ovate, obtuse. Petals 
obovate or obcordate, often oblique. Capsule globose. — Hook. f. 
FL Antarct. ii. 253 ; Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 42, t. 13; Hanclh. N.Z. Fl. 38; 
Benth. Fl. Austral, i. 300 ; Kirk, Skodents' Fl. 84. O. cataractae, 
A. Ctnni. Precur. n. 585 ; Hook. Ic. Plant, t. 418; Baoul, Choix, 47. 

North and South Islands : Prom Mongonui and Kaitaia southwards, in 
damp and shaded or subalpine localities. Sea-level to fully 4000 ft. Also 
in Australia, Tasmania, Chili, and Fuegia, and closely allied to the common 
O. acetosella of the Northern Hemisphere. 

Okder XIV. RUTACE-ffi. 

Trees or shrubs, very rarely herbs, plentifully supplied with 
pellucid glands tilled with an aromatic or pungent essential oil. 
Leaves opposite or alternate, simple or compound, exstipulate. 
Plowers regular, hermaphrodite or rarely unisexual. Calyx 
4-5-lobed or divided into as many free sepals, imbricate. Petals 
the same number, hypogynous or slightly perigynous, imbricate or 
valvate. Stamens usually free, hypogynous, as many or twice as 
many as the petals, rarely more numerous ; anthers 2-celled, versa- 
tile. Disc placed between the stamens and ovary, usually annular, 
entire or lobed or crenate. Ovary of 4-5 free or connate carpels ; 
styles as many, free at the base, united above ; ovules usually 2 in 
each carpel. Fruit very various, sometimes of 4-5 2-valved cocci, 
or a berry or drupe, rarely a capsule with loculicidal dehiscence. 
Seeds generally solitary in each cell ; albumen fleshy or wanting ; 
embryo large, straight or curved, radicle superior. 



Phebalium.] rutaceje. 93 

As defined by Hooker and Bentham in the " Genera Plantarum," this is a 
large and heteromorphous order, comprising between 80 and 90 genera and 
nearly 700 species. Most of the species are either tropical or inhabit South 
Africa or Australia. They are comparatively rare in the north temperate zone. 
The chief characteristic of the order is the presence of an essential oil, which is 
usually abundant in the loaves and young growing parts, often giving them an 
aromatic odour and bitter or pungent taste. TJie orange, lemon, citron, lime, 
&c., are the chief economic species. The two New Zealand genera are also 
found in Australia, and Melicope extends into the Pacific islands as well. 

■ Leaves simple, petiole terete. Flowers 5-merous . . 1. Phebalium. 

Leaves compound, or if simple with the petioles winged. 

Flowers 4-merous .. .. .. .. ..2. Melicope. 

1. PHEBALIUM, Vent. 

Shrubs. Leaves alternate, simple, entire or slightly toothed, 
pellucid-dotted. Flowers usually in axillary or terminal corymbs, 
rarely solitary. Calyx small, 5-lobed or -partite. Petals 5, imbri- 
cate or valvate. Stamens 8-10, longer or shorter than the petals ; 
tilaments filiform, glabrous. Ovary 2-5-partite almost to the base : 
style simple ; stigma small, capitellate ; ovules 2 in each cell, super- 
posed. Cocci 2-5, truncate or rosti\ate ; endocarp cartilaginous and 
separating elastically. Seeds usually solitary. 

A genus of 28 species, all of which are confined to Australia with the ex- 
ception of the present one, which is endemic in New Zealand. 

1. P. nudum, Hook. Ic. Plant, t. 568. — A graceful much- 
branched perfectly glabrous shrub 4-12 ft. high ; branchlets 
slender, with reddish bark. Leaves alternate, 1-1-J-in. long, linear- 
oblong or narrow oblong-lanceolate, coriaceous, obtuse, obscurely 
crenate, narrowed into short petioles or almost sessile, pellucid- 
dotted. Flowers -g-in. diam., white, fragrant, in terminal many- 
flowered corymbs ; pedicels short, scurfy. Calyx very small, with 
5 broad lobes. Petals 5, lanceolate or linear, obtuse ; margins 
involute. Stamens much longer than the petals. Cocci 1-4, but 
usually only 1 or 2 ripen, obtusely rhomboid, wrinkled, splitting 
into 2 valves. — Baoul, Choix, 48 ; Hook. f. FI. Nov. Zel. i. 44 ; 
Handb. N.Z. Fl. 39; Kirk, Students' Fl. 85. 

NoBTH Island : Hilly forests from Kaitaia southwards to the Thames 
River, ascending to 2.500 ft. Mairehau. October-December. 

Highly aromatic in all its parts. The flowers have been used for the ex- 
traction of a perfume. 

2. MELICOPE, Forst. 
Trees or shrubs. Leaves opposite or alternate, smiple or 
3-foliolate, rarely pinnate, pellucid-dotted. Flowers usually small, 
often unisexual, in axillary or terminal few- or many- flowered 
cymes or panicles. Sepals 4. Petals 4, valvate or imbricate, with 
inflexed tips. Stamens 8, inserted at the base of the disc ; filaments 
subulate. Ovary 4-lobed almost to the base, 4-celled ; style single 



94 RUTACE^. [Melicope. 

or 4 coalescing into 1 ; stigma capitate, 4-lobed ; ovules 2 in each 
cell. Cocci 1-4, distinct, spreading, 2-valved, 1-seeded ; endocarp 
cartilaginous or horny, separating. Seeds usually solitary ; testa 
crustaceous, shining ; albumen fleshy ; embryo straight or slightly 
curved. 

Besides the two species described below, both of which are endemic, there 
are 10 or 12 from the Pacific islands, 2 from tropical Asia, and 3 from Australia. 

Leaves large, 3 foliolate (often 1-foliolate in var. Mantellii) ; 

petioles terete .. .. •• •■ ..1. M. ternata. 

Leaves small, 1-foliolate ; petioles flat .. .. ..2. M. simplex. 

1. M. ternata, Forst. Char. Gen. 56. — A much-branched per- 
fectly glabrous small tree 12-20 ft. high. Leaves opposite, 3- 
foliolate ; leaflets 2-4 in. long, linear-obovate or elliptic-oblong or 
oblong- ovate, acute or obtuse, entire, finely pellucid -clotted. 
Flowers -J- in. diam., greenish, often unisexual, in axillary tri- 
chotomous panicles usually longer than the petioles ; pedicels 
short. Petals ovate-oblong, longer than the stamens, concave. 
Ovary glabrous ; style short, stout. Cocci 4, coriaceous, spreading, 
strongly wrinkled and punctate. Seed black and shining, attached 
by a slender funicle, often protruding from the half-open valves. — 
A. Bich. Fl. Nouv. Zel. 293; A. Ctinn. Precur. n. 582; Hook. Ic. 
Plant, t. 603 ; Baoid, Choix, 48 ; Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 43 ; 
Handh. N.Z. Fl. 40 ; Kirk, Forest Fl. t. 66 ; Stxidents Fl. 86. 
Entoganum laevigatum, Gcertn. Fruct. i. 331, t. 68. 

Var. Mantellii, Kirk, Forest Fl. t. 66. — Smaller, much branched ; branches 
strict. Leaves usually much smaller, 3- or 1-foliolate ; leaflets rounder, often 
obscurely crenate. Panicles 3-6-flowered. — M. Mantellii, Buck, in Trans. N.Z. 
Inst. iii. (1871) 212. 

Kermadec Islands, North Island : Common in lowland districts. 
South Island : Marlborough and D'Urville Island, local. Ascends to 
1000 ft. Wharangi. September-October. 

The Kermadec Island specimens have much larger and more obtuse leaflets, 
but do not seem to differ in other respects. Var. Mantellii combines the 
characters of M. ternata and M. simplex to an extraordinary degree, and may 
be a hybrid between those species. 

2. M. simplex, A. Cimn. Precur. n. 583. — A glabrous shrub 
6-12 ft. high, with slender twiggy branches. Leaves alternate 
or fascicled, rarely opposite, in young plants 3-foliolate, in 
mature 1-foliolate ; petiole flattened or narrowly winged ; leaflets 
small, jointed on the top of the petiole, I— | in. long, rhomboid- 
obovate or rounded, obtuse, doubly crenate, pellucid-dotted. 
Flowers often unisexual, small, greenish-white ; peduncles usually 
several together, axillary, longer than the petioles, 1- or 3-flowered. 
Stamens longer than the petals in the male flowers, shorter in the 
females. Ovary hirsute ; style very short in the male flowers, 
longer in the females ; stigma obscurely 4-lobed. Fruit as in M. 
ternata, but smaller. — Hook. Ic. Plant, t. 585 ; Baoul, Choix. 48 ; 
Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 43 ; Handb. N.Z. Fl. 40 ; Rtrk, Forest 



Melicope.] rutace^e. 95 

Fl. t. 68 ; Students Fl. 86. M. parvula, Buch. in Trans. N.Z. 
Inst. XX. (1887) 255. Astorganthus Huegelii, Endl. Cat. Hort. 
Vindoh. ii. 196. 

North and South Islands : Abundant from the North Cape to South- 
land, ascending to 2000 ft. September-November. 

The flowers are occasionally cleistogamic. (See a paper on the subject by 
Mr. G. M. Thomson, in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xxiv. 416.) 

Order XV. MELIACE-ffi. 

Trees or shrubs ; wood often hard, coloured, odorous. Leaves 
alternate, usually pinnate, rarely simple, exstipulate. Flowers 
regular, hermaphrodite, seldom unisexual. Calyx 4-5-lobed or 
-partite, usually imbricate. Petals 4-5, rarely more or 3 only, 
free or adnate to the lower part of the staminal tube, contorted 
imbricate or valvate. Stamens 8-10, seldom more or fewer ; fila- 
ments united into a tube, rarely free ; anthers generally sessile 
within the top of the tube. Disc within the staminal column, 
annular or tubular, free or connate with the ovary. Ovary generally 
free, 3-5-celled ; style simple ; ovules 2 in each cell, rarely more. 
Fruit usually a capsule, sometimes a berry, rarely drupaceous. 
Seeds often enclosed in an aril, with or without albumen. 

An order of about 37 genera and 300 species, almost wholly confined to the 
tropics, rare in temperate regions. Most of the species are more or less bitter 
and astringent. Some yield a valuable and durable timber, as the mahogany 
{Swietenia), saitinwood (Chloroxylon) , and the so-called Australian cedar (Gedrela 
australis). The single New Zealand species belongs to a genus widely dis- 
tributed in eastern tropical Asia. 

1. DYSOXYLUM, Blume. 

Large usually glabrous trees. Leaves simple, alternate, pin- 
nate ; leaflets entire. Flowers in lax axillary panicles. Calyx 
small, 4-5-toothed -lobed or -partite, imbricate. Petals 4-5, linear- 
oblong, spreading, valvate. Staminal tube cylindrical, dentate or 
crenulate at the mouth ; anthers 8-10, included. Disc tubular, 
sheathing the ovary. Ovary 3-5-celled ; ovules usually 2 in each 
cell. Capsule globose or pyriform, coriaceous, 1-5-celled, loculi- 
cidally 2-5-valved. Seeds with or without an aril, large, oblong, 
exalbuminous ; cotyledons very large. 

A considerable genus of large forest trees, best represented in tropical Asia 
and the Malay Archipelago, but with several species in Australia and the 
Pacific islands. The single New Zealand species is endemic. 

1. D. spectabile, Hook. f. Handh. N.Z. FL 41. — A handsome 
round-headed tree 25-50 ft. high ; trunk 1-3 ft. in diain. Leaves 
unequally pinnate, glabrous, 9-18 in. long ; leaflets 3-4 pairs, alter- 
nate, petioled, 3-7 in., ovate-oblong or oblong-obovate, acute, 
•oblique at the base, undulate. Panicles 6-18 in. long, pendulous, 
usually springing from the trunk or branches far below the leaves. 



96 MELiACE^^. [Dysoxylum. 

rarely axillary, sparingly branched. Flowers waxy-white, li^in. 
diam., shortly pedicelled. Calyx-lobes small, ciliate. Petals 5, 
linear, spreading or recurved. Staminal tube cylindric, fleshy, 
crenate. Style slender, exserted beyond the staminal tube ; stigma 
discoid. Capsule large, broadly obovoid, lin. long, 3-4-celled. 
Seeds 2 in each cell, enveloped in an oi'ange aril. — Kirk, Forest Fl. 
t. 64, 65; Students Fl. 87. Hartighsea spectabilis, A. Jjcss. in 
Mem. Mus. Par. xix. (1830) 228; A. Cwm. Precur. n. 597 ; RaotU, 
Choix, 47; Hook. Ic' Plant, t. 616, 617; Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. 
i. 39. Trichilia spectabilis, Forst. Prodr. n. 188; A. Rich. Fl. Nouv. 
Zel. 306. 

North Island : Abundant from the North Cape southwards. South 
Island: Marlborough, D'Urville Island. Ascends to 1500ft. Kohekohe. 
May-July. 

Timber suitable for inlaying and furniture ; leaves bitter and tonic. 



Order XVI. OLACINE-ffi. 

Trees or shrubs, sometimes climbing. Leaves alternate, rarely 
opposite, srniple or lobed, exstipulate. Flowers regular, hermaphro- 
dite or unisexual, usually cymose. Calyx 4-5-toothed or -lobed, 
free or adnate to the disc. Petals usually 4-5, free or more or less 
connate into a tube, valvate or rarely imbricate. Stamens as many 
or twice as many as the petals, free or adnate to them ; anthers 
2-celled. Disc hypogynous, usually cup-shaped, free or adnate to 
the ovary or calyx. Ovary free or partly immersed in the disc, 
1-celled or imperfectly 2-5-celled ; style simple ; stigma entire or 
lobed ; ovules 2-3, rarely 1, pendulous from the apex of a central 
placenta or from the side or apex of the cavity. Fruit usually 
drupaceous, 1-celled, 1-seeded; albumen fleshy, rarely wanting; 
embryo minute, radicle superior. 

Genera about 40 ; species not far from 200 ; widely spread in tropical and 
subtropical regions, many of them very imperfectly known. The single New 
Zealand genus extends through Norfolk Island to Australia. 

1. PENNANTIA, Forst. 
Shi'ubs or trees. Leaves entire or toothed. Flowers in ter- 
minal corymbose panicles or cymes, dioecious or polygamous. Ca- 
lyx minute, 5-toothed. Petals, 5, hypogynous, glalDrous, valvate. 
Stamens 5, hypogynous, alternating with the petals ; filaments 
filiform. Ovary 1-celled ; stigma nearly sessile, entire or 3-lobed ; 
ovule solitary, pendulous. Drupe small, fleshy ; stone obtusely 
trigonous, grooved at the back to receive a flattened cord which 
passes through a perforation just below the apex, and bears the 
pendulous seed at its tip. 

Besides the New Zealand species, which is endemic, there is one in Norfolk 
Island, and another in New South Wales, 



Pennantia.] olacine^. 97 

1. P. corymTbosa, Forst. Char. Gen. 134. — A small slender tree 
15-35 ft. high; branchlets, petioles, and inflorescence pubescent. 
Young stage a straggling bush with numerous spreading flexuous 
and interlaced slender branches ; leaves distant, alternate or 
fascicled, cuneate, ^-Jin. long or more, 3-lobed or 3-6-toothed at 
the tip. Leaves of mature plants shortly petioled, alternate, 1-4 in. 
long, obovate oblong-ovate or oblong, obtuse, sinuate or irregularly 
toothed or lobed, rarely entire. Flowers small, white, fragrant, 
dioecious. Males : Panicles and flowers larger than in the females. 
Filaments exceeding the petals ; anthers large, oblong-sagittate, 
versatile, pendulous. Ovary rudimentary. Females : Filaments 
shorter than the petals ; anthers erect. Ovary oblong ; stigma 3- 
lobed. Drupe black, fleshy, about ^m. long. — A. Bich. Fl. Nouv. 
Zel. 368; A. Cunn. Precur. n. 576; Baoul, Glioix, 50; Hook./. FL. 
Nov. Zel. i. 35, t. 12 ; Handb. N.Z. Fl. 41 ; Kirh, Forest Fl. t. 77, 
78 ; Students' Fl. 88. 

North and South Islands : From Kaitaia southwards, but local to the 
north of the Waikato River. Ascends to 2000 ft. Kaikomako. Novem- 

ber-December. 

Wood formf rly used by the Maoris to obtain fire by friction ; now occa- 
sionally employed for turnery, furniture, &c. 

Order XVII. STACKHOUSIEu^. 

Perennial herbs, usually of small size. Leaves alternate, nar- 
row, quite entire, often somewhat fleshy. Stipules wanting or very 
minute. Flowers regular, hermaphrodite, in terminal spikes or 
rarely solitary. Calyx 4-5-lobed or -partite, imbricate. Petals 5, 
perigynous, inserted on the throat of the calyx, linear or spathu- 
late, claws long, free at the base but more or less connate above, 
limb reflexed. Disc thin, clothing the base of the calyx-tube. 
Stamens 5, inserted on the edge of the disc. Ovary free, globose, 
2-5-lobed, cells the same number ; style single at the base, 
2-5-lobed above ; ovules 1 in each cell, erect, auatropous. Fruit of 
2-5 globose angular or winged iudehiscent 1-seeded cocci. Seed 
erect, with a membranous testa ; albumen fleshy ; embryo straight, 
radicle inferior. 

A small order of 2 genera and 15 species. With the exception of the New 
Zealand plant and another found in the Philippine Islands, the whole of the 
species are confined to Australia. 

1. STACKHOUSIA, Smith. 
Characters as above. 

1. S. minima, Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 47. — A minute slender 
glabrous herb, with numerous creeping often matted underground 
stems, and short slender erect leafy branches -I— 2 in. high. Leaves 
crowded or distant, rather fleshy, -i— J- in. long, linear or linear-oblong 

4-Fl. 



gg STACKHOUSiE^. [StacJchotisia. 

or linear-obovate, flat, acute. Flowers small, yellow, solitary and 
terminal, almost sessile or on very short peduncles, always exceed- 
ing the leaves. Calvx-lobes short, acute. Petals usually connate 
at the middle to form a tubular corolla but often altogether tree, 
linear, acute or acuminate, tips recurved. Stamens 3 long and A 
much shorter ; anthers glabrous. Ovary 3-lobed ; style very short, 
3-cleft. Cocci obovoid, smooth, 1 or 2 ripemng, seldom d.—Handb. 
N.Z. FL 42 ; Kirk, Students' FL 90. S. uniflora, Col. m Irans. 
N.Z. List, xv'iii. (1886) 258. 

North Island : Hawke's Bay-Open downs on the east coast, Colenso; 
Waipawa County, H. Hill! South Island: Nelson-Mount Arthur Plateau 
Wangapeka, T. F. C. ; Spenser Mountains, Kirk ! Canterbury-Ribband-wood 
Se^Haast; Broken River, Enys ! Burnham, Kirk! Central Otago, not 
rare; Petrie ! Sea-level to 4000 ft. December-January. 

Sir Joseph Hooker describes the flowers as occurring in few-flowered 
spikes, and the anthers as pubescent ; but I have not seen any specimens 
answering to this. 

Oedeb XVIII. RHAMNE-ffi 
Trees shrubs or woody climbers; branches sometimes spines- 
cent. Leaves simple, alternate, rarely opposite, entn-e or tooihed. 
Stipules small, often caducous, sometimes metamorphosed into 
thorns Flowers regular, hermaphrodite or unisexual, small and 
inconspicuous, usually arranged in axillary or termmal cymes or 
panicles. Calyx 4-5-cleft, valvate. Petals 4-5, rarely wantmg 
inserted on the throat of the calyx-tube, small, usually hood-shaped 
or involute. Stamens 4-5, pengynous, inserted with the petals and 
opposite to them ; filaments short ; anthers often concealed within 
the involute tips of the petals. Disc pengynous, adnate to the 
calyx, of very various shape. Ovary free or immersed in the disc, 
altogether superior or more or less adnate to the calyx-tube, 3-celled, 
raretv 2- or 4-celled ; style short ; ovules solitary in each cell, erect, 
anatropous. Fruit free or girt by the persistent calyx-tube dru- 
paceous or capsular, 1-4-celled. Seed sohtary, erect sometimes 
ariUate; albumen fleshy, rarely wanting; embryo large, erect, 
radicle inferior. 

A well-marked order, distributed over most parts of the world. Geuera 
about 40 ; species under 500. The jujube (Zi.yvlms) P^^^duces a wholesome and 
agreeable fruit, but as a rule most of the species possess fitter or astringen^ 
properties, and some are purgative. The 2 genera found /^^^.^^^ , f f^^.^i^^^^f^ 
extend to Australia, and 1 of them (Discana) is found in South America as 

well. 

Tomentose, unarmed. Leaves alternate. Ovary inferior 1. Pomaderris. 

Glabrous, spiny. Leaves opposite or wanting. Ovary ^ -p^g^^^j^j^^ 

superior . . • • • • • • • " . . • 

1. POMADERRIS, LabiU. 
Shrubs, more or less covered with hoary or ferruginous stellate 
tomentum. Leaves alternate. Flowers pedicellate, in small cymes 



Pomaderris.] rhamne^. 99 

usually forming terminal or axillary corymbs or panicles. Calyx- 
tube adnate to the ovary, limb 5-toothed to the base, deciduous or 
reflexed. Petals 5 or wanting. Stamens 5 ; filaments longer than 
the petals ; anthers oblong. Disc inconspicuous, surrounding the 
top of the ovary at the base of the calyx-lobes. Ovary more or less 
inferior ; style 3-fid. Capsvile small, uppei- part protruding above 
the calyx-tube, 3-valved ; endocarp separating into 3 cocci, which 
either split down the inner face or open by an oblong lid. Seed on 
a thickened funicle. 

A genus of about 22 species, restricted to Australia, New Caledonia, and 
New Zealand. Three of the New Zealand species are also found in Australia ; 
he fourth is endemic, 

* Flowers with petals. 
Leaves 2-3 in., elliptic-oblong, obtuse, entire .. ..1. P. elliptica. 

** Flowers without petals. 

Leaves 2-4 in., oblong-ovate, crenulate ; tomentum white 

or grey . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. P. apetala. 

Leaves |-2in., oblong or oblong-lanceolate; tomentum 

often ferruginous . . . . . . . . . . 3. P. Edgerleyi. 

Leaves small, linear or oblong, ^-Jin., margins revolute to 

the midrib . . . . . . . . . . 4. P. phyliccBfolia. 

1. P. elliptica. Lab. Nov. Roll. Pi. i. 61, t. 86. — A sparingly 
branched shrub 4-8 ft. high ; young branches, petioles, leaves 
beneath, and inflorescence densely clothed with fine white or buff 
stellate tomentum. Leaves shortly petiolate, 2-3 in. long, elliptic- 
oblong or ovate-oblong, obtuse or acute, quite entire, glabrous 
above, veins and midrib prominent beneath. Cymes numerous, 
terminal, forming large much - branched corymbose panicles. 
Flowers bright-yellow, i-Jin. diam. Calyx covered with stellate 
tomentum mixed with long silky hairs. Petals with a broad 
blade with crisped margins and a long slender claw. Capsule 
small, the free portion shorter than the calyx-tube. Cocci open- 
ing bv an oblong lid on the inner face. — Bot. Mag. t. 1510 ; Hook, 
f. FLNov. Zel. i. 46; Handh. N.Z. Fl. 43; Benth. Fl. Austral, i. 
417; Kirk, Students' Fl. 91. P. Kumeraho, A. Cwin. Precur. n. 
577 ; Baoul, Ghoix, 50. 

North Island : North Cape to Tauranga Harbour, on open clay hills. 
Kumavahou. September. Also in south-east Australia and Tasmania. 

2. P. apetala, Lab. Nov. Hull. PI. i. 52, t. 87. — A shrub or 
small tree 6-15 ft. high, rarely more ; branchlets, undersurface of 
leaves, and inflorescence covered with dense white or greyish 
stellate tomentum. Leaves petiolate, 2-4 in. long, oblong-ovate 
or oblong-lanceolate, obtuse or subacute, irregularly crenulate, 
glabrous and wrinkled above, veins prominent below. Flowers 
small, numerous, in terminal and axillary panicles 3-7 in. long. 
Calyx-tube short, clothed with stellate hairs. Petals wanting. 



100 RHAMNE^. {Pomaderris. 

Anthers tipped by a minute gland. Style 3-fid to the middle. 
Capsule obtuse, sparsely covered with stellate hairs. Cocci open- 
ing by a valve on the inner face. — Benth. Fl. Austral, i. 419 ; Kirk, 
Forest Fl. t. 8 ; Students Fl. 92. P. Tainui, Hector in Trans. N.Z. 
Inst. xi. (1879) 429. P. molhs, Col. in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xxv. (1893) 
327. 

North Island : Formerly abundant at Kawhia, but now extinct ; between 
Kawhia and Mokau, Gilbert ; between the Mokau and Mohakatina Rivers, 
Hector! Kirk ! Chatham Islands: F. A. D. Cox. Also naturalised in 
Hawke's Bay, and at Geraldine, Canterbury. Tainui. October-Novem- 
ber. 

A common Australian plant. The Maoris assert that it sprang from the 
rollers or skids that were brought in the canoe "Tainui" when they first 
colonised New Zealand. 

3. P. Edgerleyi, Hook. f. Handh. N.Z. Fl. 43. — An erect 
or spreading shrub, variable in habit and size, 2-8 ft. high ; 
branchlets, undersurface of leaves, petioles, and inflorescence 
densely clothed with soft loose whitish or ferruginous stellate 
tomentum. Leaves shortly petioled, |-2 in. long, oblong linear- 
oblong or lanceolate-oblong, obtuse at both ends, rarely acute, 
glabrous or scabrid above, with impressed veins ; midrib and 
prmcipal veins prominent beneath. Cymes axillary and terminal, 
usually broad and corymbose, more rarely lax and racemose. 
Flowers small, yellowish. Calyx-lobes large, ovate, acute, reflexed, 
midrib prominent. Petals wanting. Ovary entirely sunk in the 
calyx-tube ; style 3-cleft almost to the base. — Kirk, Students Fl. 
91." Pomaderris (?) sp. Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 46. 

North Island : North Cape to Mercury Bay, but often local. Sea-level 
to 1500 ft. October-November. Endemic. 

There are two forms of this species — one a small shrub with straggling or 
procumbent branches, and small oblong leaves scabrid above and clothed with 
bright ferruginous tomentum beneath ; the other taller and fastigiately branched, 
with longer and narrower leaves, glabrous above and with paler tomentum 
beneath. 

4. P. phylicsefolia, Lodd. Bot. Cab. t. 120. — A small heath-like 
shrub 1-4 ft. high; branches densely villous, spreading or erect, 
fastigiate. Leaves small, of very young plants ^— f in. long, oblong 
or ovate, obtuse, flat, hairy on both surfaces ; of older plants ^— i- in. 
long, nearly sessile, spreading, linear or linear- oblong, grooved 
down the middle and scabrid with short white hairs above, margins 
revolute to the midrib, concealing nearly the whole of the villous 
undersurface. Flowers minute, in small axillary cymes slightly 
longer than the leaves, very abundantly produced. Calyx small, 
densely pubescent, lobes spreading. Petals wanting. Capsule ovoid, 
hii-sute ; cocci opening along the whole length of the inner face. — 
Benth. Fl. Austral, i. 422 ; Hook. f. Handh. N.Z. Fl. 43 ; Kirk, 
Students Fl. 92. P. ericifolia. Hook, in Joiirn. Bot. i. (1834) 257 ; 



Pomaderris.] ehamne^. 101 

A. Cunn. Precur. n. 578; Baoul, Ghoix, 50; Hook. f. Fl. Nov. 
Zel. i. 46. P. amoena, Col. in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xvii. (1886) 258. 

North Island : North Cape to Otaki and Gape Palliser, plentiful in open 
country, ascending to over 2u00 ft. Tauhinu. November-Decenaber. 

Also found in Victoria and Tasmania. 

2. DISCARIA, Hook. 

Much-branched rigid shrubs or small trees, with opposite often 
spinous branchlets. Leaves opposite or fascicled, sometimes want- 
ing. Flowers axillary. Calyx membranous, free or adnate to the 
ovary at the base; limb campanulate, 4-5-lobed. Petals 4-5, 
hooded, often wanting. Stamens 4-5 ; filaments short. Disc ad- 
nate to the base of the calyx-tube, annular. Ovary more or less 
sunk in the disc, 3-lobed, 3-celled ; style slender ; stigma 3-lobed. 
Drupe (or capsule) dry, coriaceous, 3-lobed, endocarp separating 
into 3 2-valved crustaceous cocci. Seeds with a coriaceous testa. 

Species about 16, mostly natives of extratropical and alpine South America, 
with 1 species in Australia and another in New Zealand. 

1. D. Toumatou, Baoul, Ghoix de Plantes, 29, t. 29. — A much- 
branched thorny bush or small tree 2-15 ft. high or even more, 
glabrous or slightly puberulous. Branches divaricating, flexuous ; 
young ones green, terete ; branchlets reduced to opposite distichous 
or decussate rigid spines 1^-2 in. long. Leaves often wanting, fas- 
cicled below the axils of the spines or opposite on short shoots, 
■|— |in. long, linear-obovate or oblong-obovate, obtuse. Flowers 
small, -^-in. diam., greenish-white, fascicled with the leaves below 
the axils of the spines ; pedicels short, puberulous. Calyx-lobes 
4-5, reflexed. Petals wanting. Capsule 4 in. diam., globose, deeplv 
3-lobed.— iloo^./. Hajidb. N.Z. Fl. 44; "Kirk, Forest Fl. t. 136"; 
Students' Fl. 93. D. australis, Hook., var. apetala, Hook. f. Fl. 
Nov. Zel. i. 47. Notophoena Toumatou, Miers in Ann. d Mag. Nat. 
Hist. Ser. iii. v. (1860) 371. 

North and South Islands : Waikato River to the Bluff, common. 
Ascends to 3500 ft. Tumatukuru. November-January. 

Can only be distinguished from the Australian and Tasmanian D. australis 
by the absence of petals. It attains a large size in the cool mountain-valleys of 
the South Island, but near the coast is usually low and scrubby. 

Oeder XIX. SAPINDACE.^. 

Trees, shrubs, or woody climbers, rarely herbs. Leaves alter- 
nate or more rarely opposite, often compound, exstipulate, seldom 
stipulate. Flowers regular or irregular, generally unisexual or 
polygamous ; inflorescence very various. Calyx 3-5-lobed or of as 
many free sepals, divisions often unequal in size, imbricate or val- 
vate. Petals 3-5 or wanting, free, equal or unequal, often bearded 
or glandular at the base within, imbricate. Disc very various, 



102 SAPINDACE^. [Dodo7icBa. 

annular or unilateral, rarely wanting. Stamens 5-10, in the great 
majority of the order (but not in the New Zealand genera) inserted 
inside the disc at the base of the ovary, more rarely outside or on 
the disc, sometimes unilateral ; anthers basifixed or versatile, 
2-celled. Ovary free, central or excentric, entire lobed or partite, 
1-4-celled ; style simple or divided, usually terminal ; ovules 1-2 in 
each cell, seldom more. Fruit very various, capsular or indehiscent, 
dry or succulent, entire or lobed, sometimes winged. Seeds globose 
or compressed, with or without an aril ; albumen wanting or more 
rarely present ; embryo generally thick, sometimes folded or 
spirally twisted, radicle short, inferior. 

A polymorphous order, exceedingly difficult to characterize as a whole, 
and often separated into 3 or 4 distinct ones. As defined above, it com- 
prises about 80 genera and between 600 and 700 species, many of them very 
imperfectly known. It is chiefly tropical, but extends through both of 
the temperate zones. The properties of the order are very various. The 
majDles contain a sweetish sap, from which sugar is obtained. Several si^ecies of 
Nephelktm, such as the Litchi and Longan, produce some of the most delicious 
of Asiatic fruits. Many species contain bitter or astringent principles, while 
others, as some of the American species cf Serjania and FaulUnia, are reputed 
to be poisonous. The two genera found in New Zealand belong to the tribe 
DodoncBCE, which has regular flowers, stamens inserted outside the disc (not 
inside), and exalbuminous seeds. Alecbyon is endemic, but Dodoncsa is most 
abundant in Australia, extending also through the tropics of both hemispheres. 

Leaves simple in the New Zealand species. Disc wanting. 

Capsule niembranous, often winged . . . . . . 1. Dodon^a. 

Leaves pinnate. Disc 8-lobed. Capsule woody, turgid . . 2. Alectktos. 

1. DODON^A, Linn. 

Shrubs or small trees, often viscid with a resinous exudation. 
Leaves alternate, exstipulate. Mowers unisexual or polygamous, in 
terminal or axillary racemes or panicles, rarely solitary. Sepals 
2-5, imbricate or valvate. Petals wanting. Stamens 5-10, usually 
8 ; filaments short ; anthers linear-oblong. Ovary 3-6-celled, with 
2 ovules in each cell. Capsule membranous or coriaceous, 2-6- 
sided, septicidally 2-6-valved ; valves winged at the back. Seeds 
1-2 in each cell, lenticular or subglobose, compressed, with a thick- 
ened funicle but not arillate ; embryo spirally coiled. 

A genus comprising about 50 species, fully 40 of which are confined to 
Australia, the remainder scattered through the tropical or subtropical regions 
of both hemispheres. The New Zealand species is found in most warm 
countries. 

1. D. viscosa, Jacq. Enum. PI. Carib. 19. — Usually a glabrous 
shrub or small tree 8-20 ft. high, but occasionally dwarfed to 1-3 ft., 
and sometimes attaining 30-35 ft. ; trunk seldom more than 12 in. 
diam. ; young branches usually compressed or triangular, viscid. 
Leaves 1-3 in. long, narrow linear-obovate or oblanceolate, obtuse, 
rarely acute, entire, gradually narrowed into a short petiole. Flowers 
small, greenish or reddish, in few-fiowered terminal panicles, 



Dodonaa.] sapindace^. 103 

dioecious. Male flowers : Sepals 4, free, oblong or ovate. Stamens 
8-10, rather longer than the sepals ; filaments very short. Females : 
Sepals narrower, more erect. Style stout, 2-fid, long-exserted. 
Capsule f in. diam., compressed, orbicular, very broadly 2-3-winged, 
2-lobed at each end ; wings veined, membranous. — Hook. f. Fl. Nov. 
Zel. i. 38 ; Handb. N.Z. Fl. 45; Kirk, Forest Fl. t. 17 ; Students 
Fl. 94. D. spathulata, Smith in Bees Cyclop, xii. n. 2 ; A. Bich. 
Fl. No^lv. Zel. 308; A. Cunn. Precur. n. 599 ; Baoul, Choix, 47. 

North and South Islands : From the North Cape as far south as Banks 
Peninsula, chiefly in lowland districts. Akeake. September-November. 

Wood hard and heavy ; formerly much used by the Maoris for making clubs, 
spears, &c. 

2. ALECTRYON, Gjertn. 

A lofty tree. Leaves alternate, pinnate, exstipulate ; leaflets 
entire or toothed. Flowers hermaphrodite or unisexual, in axillary 
or terminal many-flowered panicles. Calyx 4-5-lobed, villous 
within, lobes unequal, imbricate. Petals wanting. Disc small, 
8-lobed. Stamens 5-8, inserted within the lobes of the disc ; 
anthers large. Ovary obliquely obcordate, compressed, 1- celled; 
style short ; stigma simple or 2-3-lobed ; ovule solitary. Capsule 
coriaceous or almost woody, subglobose, turgid, with a flattened 
prominence or crest towards the top. Seed subglobose, arillate ; 
testa crustaceous ; cotyledons spirally coiled. 

A monotypic genus confined to New Zealand. 

1. A. excelsum, Gcertn. Fruct. i. 216, t. 46. — A handsome tree 
30-60 ft. high, with a trunk 2 ft. in diam. or more ; bark black ; 
young branches, leaves below, inflorescence, and capsules clothed 
with silky ferruginous pubescence. Leaves unequally pinnate, 
4-12 in. long; leaflets 4-6 pairs, shortly petioled, 2-4 in. long, 
obliquely ovate-lanceolate, acuminate, entire or obscurely remotely 
toothed, membranous. Panicles 4-12 in. long, much branched. 
Anthers large, dark-red. Ovary pilose. Capsule ^^ in. long, open- 
ing transversely but irregularly. Seed large, almost globose, jet- 
black and shining, half imbedded in a bright scarlet fleshy cup- 
shaped aril. — A. Cunn. Precur. n. 598 ; Hook. Ic. Plant, t. 570 ; 
Baoul, Choix, 47 ; Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 38 ; Handh. N.Z. Fl. 
45 ; Kirk, Forest Fl. t. 92, 93 ; Students Fl. 95. 

Var. grandis, Cheesem. in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xxiv. (1892) 409.— Leaves 
much larger, 12-18 in. long; leaflets 2-3 pairs, 5-7 in. long, oblong or ovate, 
obtuse or subacute, entire or with 2-3 coarse teeth. Flowers not seen, and only 
fragments of old capsules. 

North and South Islands: North Cape to Banks Peninsula and West- 
land, common. Var. grandis : Three Kings Islands, 2'. F. C. Ascends to 
2000 ft. Titoki. October-December. 

Yields a tough and elastic timber, valuable for axe-handles, bullock-yokes, 
&c. The Maoris formerly extracted an oil from the seeds. Var. grandis is 
doubtless a distinct species, but in the absence of flowers and fruit I hesitate to 
describe it as such. 



104 ANACARDiACE^. [Corynocarpus. 

Order XX. ANACARDIACE-ffi. 

Trees or shrubs, often exuding a resinous and usually acrid juice. 
Leaves alternate, simple or compound, exstipulate. Flowers regular, 
small, hermaphrodite, unisexual or polygamous. Calyx 3-5-partite, 
imbricate. Petals 3-7, rarely wanting, free, perigynous, imbricate. 
Disc usually annular or cup-shaped, entire or iobed. Stamens as 
many or twice as many as the petals, inserted under or upon the 
disc ; filaments usually free ; anthers 2-celled. Ovary superior, 
usually 1-celled, sometimes 2-o-celled, very rarely of 2-5 free 
carpels ; styles 1-3 ; ovules solitary in the cells, either pendulous 
from the top or wall or from a basal funicle. Fruit superior or 
very rarely half-inferior, usually a 1-5-celled 1-5-seeded drupe. 
Seed exalbuminous ; embryo straight or curved, cotyledons usually 
fleshy, radicle short. 

A large order of nearly 50 genera and about 450 species, chief! j' tropical in 
its distribution, rare in temperate regions. It includes several edible species, as 
the mango (probably the best of the tropical fruits), the hog-plum (,Spondias), 
the Pistachia nut, &c. Some species of Rhus and other genera secrete a more 
or less poisonous and acrid juice ; others produce valuable varnishes. The 
single New Zealand genus is endemic. 

1. CORYNOCARPUS, Forst. 

A tree, everywhere perfectly glabrous. Leaves large, alternate 
simple and entire. Flowers small, greenish, in terminal branched 
panicles. Calyx 5-lobed ; lobes rounded, imbricate. Petals 5 
rounded, erose, imbricate. Disc fleshy, 5-lobed. Stamens 5, in- 
serted on the disc, alternating with as many petaloid staminodia. 
Ovary sessile, ovoid, 1-celled, narrowed into an erect style ; stigma 
capitate ; ovule solitary, pendulous from near the top of the cell. 
Drupe large, obovoid, obtuse, fleshy ; endocarp forming a coriaceous 
and fibrous network round the seed. Seed pendulous ; testa mem- 
branous, adhering to the cavity of the cell ; embryo thick ; cotyle- 
dons plano-convex ; radicle minute, superior. 

A genus consisting of a single species, peculiar to New Zealand. It is a 
somewhat doubtful member of the Anacardiacece, as it wants the resin-canals so 
characteristic of the family, and also diiJers in the androecium. Professor 
Engler, in "Die Naturlichen Pflanzenfamilien," has proposed that it should 
form the separate order Corynocarpacece. 

1. C. laevigata, Forst. Char. Gen. 31, t. 16. — A handsome 
leafy tree 30-40 ft. high, with a trunk 1-2 ft diam. or more. 
Leaves 3-8 in. long, elliptic-oblong or oblong-obovate, subacute, 
narrowed into a short stout petiole, thick and coriaceous, dark- 
green and glossy ; margins slightly recurved. Panicles 4-8 in. 
long, broad, rigid, erect, much branched. Flowers small, ^ in. 
diam., on short stout pedicels. Petals concave, barely exceeding 
the calyx -lobes. Filaments stout, subulate. Ovary small, gla- 
brous. Drupe 1-1-Jin. long, orange. — A. Rich. Fl. Noiiv. Zel. 365 ; 
A. Cunn. Precur. n. 638; FmouI, Choix, 50; Bot. Mag. t. 4379; 



Corynocarpus.] anacardiace^. 105 

Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 49; Handb. N.Z. Fl. 46; Kirk, Forest 
Fl. t. 88 ; Students' Fl. 96. 

Kermadec Islands, North Island, Chatham Islands : Abundant, chiefly 
in lowland situations not far from the sea. South Island : Marlborough 
and Nelson to Banks Peninsula and Westland, but very rare and local. 
Karaka. August-November. 

The pulpy part of the fruit is edible ; but the seed is highly poisonous 
unless steamed, or steeped in salt water. See Mr. Colenso's valuable paper 
"On the Vegetable Food of the New-Zealanders " (Trans. N.Z. Inst. xiii. 25), 
also notes by Mr. Skey and Mr. Colenso (I.e. iv. 316). The wood is soft and 
almost useless. 

Order XXI. CORIARIE-ffi. 

Glabrous shrubs, sometimes small and almost herbaceous ; 
branches angular, the lower opposite. Leaves opposite or rarely 
in whorls of 3, entire, exstipulate. Flowers regular, hermaphro- 
dite or polygamous, small, usually in axillary racemes. Sepals 
5, imbricate, persistent. Petals 5, hypogynous, smaller than the 
sepals, keeled within, enlarged after flowering and becoming thick 
and fleshy and embracing the fruit. Stamens 10, hypogynous, 
free, or the alternate ones adnate to the petals ; filaments short ; 
anthers large. Disc absent. Carpels 5-10, free, 1-celled, whorled 
on a shore conical receptacle ; styles as many as the carpels, 
free, thick, elongated, covered for the whole length with stig- 
matic papillge ; ovules solitary, pendulous from the top of the 
cell. Fruit of 5-10 oblong indehiscent cocci, closely embraced 
by the fleshy and juicy petals, 1-celled, 1-seeded. Seed with a 
membranous testa ; albumen a thin layer only ; embryo with 
plano-convex cotyledons and a superior radicle. 

A small order of very doubtful relationship, comprising the single genus 
Coriaria. Species 8 or io, found in New Zealand, South America, Japan, 
China, the Himalayas, north Africa, and south Europe. 

1. CORIARIA, Linn. 
Characters of the order, as above. 

Shrub or small tree. Leaves 1-3 in., oblong-ovate. 

Racemes drooping . . . . . . . . . . 1. C. ruscifolia. 

Suffruticose or herbaceous. Leaves ^lin., ovate-lance- 
olate . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. C. thymifolia. 

Herbaceous. Leaves J— | in., narrow-linear .. . . 3. C. angustissiina. 

1. C. ruscifolia, Linn. Sp. Plant. 1037. — A shrub or small 
tree with spreading 4-angled branches, very variable in height and 
degree of robustness, sometimes attaining 25 ft. with a trunk 10 in. 
diam., at others not more than 2-4 ft., with almost herbaceous 
stems. Leaves 1-8 in., ovate or oblong-ovate, acute or acuminate, 
rounded or cordate at the base, sessile or very shortly petioled, 
3-5-nerved. Eacemes drooping, many-flowered, 4-12 in. long or 
more, slightly pubescent; pedicels slender, ^-^in., bracteolate at 



106 CORIARIE^. [Coriaria. 

the base. Flowers small, green, i-iin. diam., strongly pro- 
terogynous. Sepals broadly ovate, subacute. Filaments elongat- 
ing after fertilisation. Fruit globose, purplish-black, of 5-8 cocci 
enveloped by the persistent enlarged juicy petals. — Hook. f. Fl. 
Nov. Zel. i. 45 ; Hanclb. N.Z. FL 46 ; Kirk, Forest Fl. t. 139 ; Stu- 
dents' FL 97. C. sarnientosa, Forst. Prodr. n. 377; A. liich. FL 
Nouv. ZeL 364; Bat. Mag. t. 2470; A. Cunn. Precur. n. 581; 
Baoul, Ghoix, 47. C. arborea and C. tutu, Lindsay, Gontrih. 
N.Z. Bot. 84. 

Kermadec Islands, Noeth and South Islands, Stewart Island, 
Chatham Islands: Abundant throughout, ascending to 3500ft. Tutu; 
Tupakihi. 

Most parts of the plant are poisonous, and particularly the young shoots 
and seeds. The poisonous principle appears to be a glucoside, to which the 
name " tutin " has been applied. For particulars, reference should be made to 
a paper by Prof. Easterfield and Mr. B. C. Aston, published by the New Zea- 
land Department of Agriculture. The juice expressed from the fleshy petals is 
quite innocuous, and is used as a no Q-intoxicating drink by the Maoris. 

2. C. thymifolia, Humb. and Bonp. ex Willd. Sp. Plant, iv. 
819.— A small suffruticose or herbaceous plant 6 in. to 4ft. high; 
rootstock often stout, woody, much branched ; stems and branches 
slender, with winged angles, often flattened in one plane. Leaves 
variable in size, -^--l in., oblong-ovate ovate-lanceolate or lanceolate, 
acute or acuminate, sessile or very shortly petioled, glabrous or 
slightly pubescent. Eacemes 1-4 in. long, slender, spreading, 
pubescent. Flowers rather smaller than in G. ruscifolia, often uni- 
sexual.— iToo/fc./. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 45 ; Handb. N.Z. FL 47; Lindsay, 
Gontrib. N.Z. Bot. 87 ; Kirk, Students Fl. 98. C. lurida. Kirk, I.e. 

North and South Islands : Mountainous districts from Taupo and the 
East Cape southwards. 1000-5000 ft. Tutupapa. 

In its ordinary state this is distinct enough ; but large-leaved forms pass 
directly into G. ruscifolia, and narrow-leaved varieties into C. angustissima. I 
cannot separate Mr. Kirk's G. lurida even as a variety. 

8. C. angustissima, Hook. f. Handb. N.Z. Fl. 47. — Eootstock 
stout, branched. Stems herbaceous, slender, tufted, often covering 
large patches. Branches numerous, dense, almost plumose ; branch- 
lets filiform or almost capillary. Leaves very numerous, small, 
i_i in. long, narrow-linear or linear-subulate, sessile or very shortly 
petioled, acuminate. Racemes 1-3 in. long, slender, glabrous or 
nearly so. Flowers small, very similar to those of G. thymifolia, 
often unisexual. Fruit rather large, globose, almost black. — Liyid- 
say, Gontrib. N.Z. Bot. 87 ; Kirk, Sticdents FL 98. 

North Island : Mount Bgmont, Dieffenbach ; Ruahine Range, Colenso 
(Handbook). South Island : Subalpine localities in Canterbury and Otago. 
1500-4000 ft. December-January. 

I have seen no North Island specimens, and suspect that slender fine-leaved 
forms of C. thymifolia have been taken for it in the localities quoted above. 



LEGUMINOSiE. 107 

Order XXII. LEGUMINOS-ffi. 

Herbs, shrubs, or trees, of very various habit. Leaves usually 
alternate, stipulate, compound, rarely simple, sometimes wanting. 
Flowers generally irregular, hermaphrodite, occasionally regular 
and polygamous. Sepals 5, usually cohering into a more or less 
deeply divided calyx, sometimes free, often unequal, occasionally 
2-lipped. Petals 5, seldom fewer, perigynous or rarely hypogy- 
nous, either papilionaceous or more or less regularly spreading. 
Stamens 10, rarely less or more, perigynous or almost hypogy- 
nous ; filaments either free or all connate into a tube surrounding 
the ovary, or more generally 9 of them united and 1 free. Ovary 
free, 1-celled, consisting of a single carpel ; style simple ; ovules 1 
to many, attached to the ventral suture. Fruit a pod splitting 
open along both sutures, rarely indehiscent or transversely breaking 
up into 1-seeded joints. Seeds nearly always exalbuminous ; em- 
bryo with large foliaceous or amygdaloidal cotyledons and a short 
radicle. 

Suborder PAPILIONACE^. 

All the indigenous genera belong to this suborder, which is 
characterized as follows : Corolla irregular and papilionaceous, 
seldom almost regular. Petals imbricate, the uppermost (or 
standard) always outside in the bud. Stamens definite, usu- 
ally 10. 

With the exception of Composite^, this is the largest order of flowering 
plants, comprising over 400 genera and about 7000 species. Next to Graminece, 
it is the most serviceable to man for food ; and it produces more substances used 
in the arts and medicine than any other order. Its distribution is practically 
world-wide ; but it is singularly rare in New Zealand, the proportion of species 
being much smaller than in any other country of equal size. In fact, the pau- 
city of Leguminosce is one of the most remarkable peculiarities of the New 
Zealand flora, especially taking into account that the order is the one most 
strongly developed in Australia, the nearest land-area to New Zealand. Of the 7 
indigenous genera, Carmichalia has an outlying species in Lord Howe Island, 
but is otherwise restricted to New Zealand ; while the two closely allied genera 
Corallospartiu7n and Notospartium are endemic. Clianthus has 1, or perhaps 
2, species in Australia, and 1 in the Malay Archipelago ; Sioainsona is largely 
represented in Australia ; while Canavalia and Sophora are widely distributed 
in warm climates. A list of the naturalised species, with references to descrip- 
tions, will be found in the appendix. 

* Shrubs, sometimes very small ; branches flattened, compressed or nearly 
terete, grooved or striate, leafless or nearly so when adult. 

Branches stout, terete, deeply grooved. Pods compressed, 

1-seeded, dehiscing along the sutures . . . . 1. Corallospar- 

Branchlets compressed or terete. Pods short, few-seeded ; tium. 

valves falling away from the persistent thickened sutures, 
to which the seeds remain attached, or rarely the pod is 
indehiscent . . . . . . . . . . 2. Carmich^lia. 

Branchlets terete or compressed, slender, pendulous. 
Pods narrow- linear, torulose, 2-10 -seeded, indehis- 
cent . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. Notospartium^ 



108 LEGUMiNosiE. [Corallospartium. 

** Branches not flattened nor compressed, leafy. 

Shrub. Eacemes pendulous ; flowers large, crimson. Pod 

terete, many-seeded . . . . . . . . 4. Clianthus. 

Small alpine herb. Racemes erect. Pod membranous, 

inflated . . . . . . . . • . . . 5. Swainsona. 

Large twiner. Leaves 3-foliolate. Calyx 2-lipped. Sta- 
mens monadelphous. Pod large and broad . . . . 6. Canavalia. 

Tree or shrub. Leaves pinnate with many leaflets. 
Racemes pendulous. Flowers large, yellow. Stamens 
free. Pod moniliform . . . . . . . . 7. Sophora. 

1. CORALLOSPARTIUM, J. B. Armstrong. 
A leafless shrub. Stems and branches stout, cyHndric, deeply 
grooved. Flowers iu dense fascicles at the notches of the branch- 
lets. Calyx woolly, campanulate, 5-toothed ; teeth about equal. 
Standard large, broad, reflesed, contracted into a short claw. 
"Wings falcate, oblong, obtuse, auricled towards the base, shorter 
than the keel. Keel about equalling the standard, incurved, 
oblong, obtuse. Upper stamen free, the others connate into a 
sheath. Ovary densely villous ; style silky at the base ; ovules 2-4. 
Pod 2-valved, deltoid, rounded and winged at the back, straight in 
front, shortly beaked, villous ; valves thin, faintly reticulated, 
edges not thickened nor consolidated into a replum. Seed solitary, 
reniform ; radicle with a double flexure. 

A genus of a single species, endemic iu New Zealand. It is technically 
separated from CarmicJicelia by the 2-valved pod without a persistent replum. 

1. O. crassicaule, Armstr. in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xiii. (1881) 
333. — Stems erect, 1-6 ft. high, -I— f in. diam., sparingly branched, 
yellow, stout, erect, cylindrical, with numerous parallel tomentose 
grooves ; branchlets compressed at the tips. Leaves rarely seen 
on mature plants, when present very fugacious, small, linear- 
oblong or ovate-oblong ; of young plants broadly oblong or almost 
orbicular, entire or emarginate. Fascicles capitate, densely 
8-20-flowered ; pedicels short, slender, and with the calyces 
ooftly woolly. Flowers ^^in. long, cream-coloured. Pod ^in. 
long. — Kirk, Students' Fl. 106. Carmichaslia crassicaulis, Hook.f. 
Eanclb. N.Z. Fl. 48. 

Var. racemosa, Kirk, Students' Fl. 107. — Branchlets narrower, ^ in. 
broad, compressed. Flowers less than |:in. long, solitary or in 3-5-flowered 
racemes, which are solitary or fascicled. Pedicels and calyx not so woolly. 

South Island : Canterbury — Mount Torlesse, Haast ! Lake Lyndon, 
Enys ! ''. F. C. ; Mount Dobson and other mountains flanking the Mackenzie 
Plains, T. F. C. ; Lake Ohau, Haast. Otago — Lindis Pass, Hector and Bu- 
chanan ; Naseby and westward to the Dunstan Mountains, Petrie ! H. J. Mat- 
theivs ! 1500-4000 ft. Coral-broom. December-January. 

One of the most remarkable plants in the colony ; at once recognised by the 
robust deeply grooved branchlets, densely fascicled flowers, and woolly calyx. 
It appears to be confined to arid situations on the eastern slopes of the Southern 
Alps. 



Carmichoilia.'] leguminos^. 109 

2. CARMICH^LIA, r. Br. 

Erect or depressed shrubs, some species attaining a height of 
6-10 ft., others reduced to broad matted patches hardly rising more 
than an inch or two above the ground. Branchlets flattened or 
terece, grooved or striate, green. Leaves often absent, except in 
seedhngs ; when present deciduous after the flowers have fallen, 
1-foliolate or pinnately 3-5-foliolate. Flowers small, in lateral 
racemes springing from notches on the edges of the branchlets, 
rarely solitary. Calyx campanulate or cup-shaped, 5-toothed. 
Standard orbicular, usually reflexed, contracted into a short claw. 
Wings more or less falcate, oblong, obtuse, auricled towards the 
base. Keel oblong, incurved, obtuse, shorter or longer than the 
standard. Upper stamen free, the others connate into a sheath. 
Ovary narrowed into a slender beardless style ; stigma minute, 
terminal ; ovules numerous. Pod small, coriaceous, narrow-oblong to 
almost orbicular, straight or oblique, compressed or turgid, narrowed 
into a short or long subulate beak ; valves with the edges thickened 
and consolidated, forming a kind of framew^ork called thereplum, from 
which the faces of the valves come av^ay ; or in a few species the 
valves remain attached to the replum and the pod is indehiscent. 
Seeds 1-12, reniform or oblong; radicle usually with a double fold. 

A very remarkable genus, confined to New Zealand, with the exception of 
one species found in Lord Howe Island. Its habit is peculiar, most of the 
species being leafless or nearly so when mature, the green flattened or terete 
branchlets (cladodes) performing the functions of true leaves. The structure of 
the pod is most exceptional, the margins of the valves and placentas being 
thickened and consolidated into a framework (replum), to which the seeds are 
attached. In dehiscence the faces of the valves either come away altogether 
from the replum, which may persist for a long time with the seeds hanging from 
it, or the valves may separate at one side or end, remaining attached at the 
other. In the four species constituting the section HuttonelLa the valves do not 
usually separate from the replum, whicii is frequently incomplete, and the pod 
is thus indehiscent. Had this character been constant, Hicttonella might well 
have been kept as a distinct genus, as proposed by Kirk. But fruiting specimens 
of C. juncea in Mr. Colenso's herbarium show that the valves occasionally 
separate from the replum in that species, and Mr. Petrie informs me that the 
same thing occurs in his C. compacta. 

The discrimination of the species is probably raore difficult in GarmichcBlia 
than in any other genus in the New Zealand flora, and the student will find it 
almost impossible to name his specimens with accuracy until he has collected 
most of the species and become familiar with their characters. In most cases 
characters based upon the vegetative organs are by themselves useless. The 
leaves, when they can be examined, are singularly uniform ; and the branchlets 
are not only highly variable in width, but may be flattened in spring and nearly 
terete in autumn. The flowers vary in size and colour in the different species, 
but present no important structural modifications. The pods afford the most 
trustworthy characters, and in several cases are alone quite sufficient for the 
identification o£ the species. The following analysis of the species is in many 
respects imperfect, and will doubtless require considerable modification. A 
really comprehensive and accurate account cannot be drawn up until the species 
have been carefully studied in the field at different seasons of the year, and in 
all stages of growth. It is specially important, in order to form a safe basis for 
future work, that flowering and fruiting specimens should be taken from the 
same plant. 



110 LEGUMiNOs^. [Carmichcelia. 

A. Aliich depressed leafless plants forming matted patches 1-4 in. high. 

Flowers usually reddish. 

* Branchlets thin, linear or narrow linear. 

Flowers solitary or racemose. Pods obliquely ovate-orbicu- 
lar, usually 1-seeded . . . . . . . . 1. C. Enysii. 

Flowers solitary ; peduncles long. Pods 3-4-seeded . . 2. C. uniflora. 

Flowers racemose. Pods 3-G-seeded . . . . . . 3. C. nana. 

** Branchlets very stout and thick, flattened, with rounded edges. 
Flowers racemose. Pods large, turgid, 6-14-seeded . . 4. C. Monroi. 

B. Erect or spreading shrubs 1-10 ft. high. Flowers usually purplish or 

streaked with purple, rarely white. Valves of the pod separating from the 
persistent replnm. 

* Usually leafless when mature (sometimes leafy in 8, C. subulata). 

t Branchlets broad, flat, and thin. 

Branchlets J-J in. broad. Flowers large, f-1 in. Pod 1 in., 

turgid . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. C. Williamsii. 

Branchlets 5-Jin. Flowers small, J-| in. Pod J-^ in. ; 

valves slightly convex. Seeds red . . . . . . 6. C australis. 

ft Branchlets narrow, terete, plano-convex or compressed. 
Branchlets very stout, often terete, i\-Jin. diam. Pod 

|^--J in., turgid. Seeds 2-6 .. .. .. . . 7. C Petriei. 

Branchlets slender, compressed or plano-convex, ./j-i'ij in. 

diam. Pod J-|in., turgid, subulate, acuminate. Seeds 

usually 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. C. subulata. 

Branchlets slender, terete or plano-convex, ^-^ in. diam. 

Pod J in., oblong, turgid, narrowed below .. . . 9. C. virgata. 

Branchlets very slender, almost filiform. Pod small, 

^-^ in., obliquely oblong. Seed 1, rarely 2 .. . . 10. C. diffusa. 

** Ut-ually leafy in spring and early summer (sometimes leafless in C. flagel- 

lifonnis) . 

t Pod more or less compressed, or only slightly convex. 
Branchlets glabrous, deeply grooved, erect. Racemes 

5-12-flowered. Flowers large, Jin. Pod oblong, beak 

rather long . . . . . . . . . . 11. C. grandiftora. 

Branchlets pubescent, compressed, drooping. Racemes 

10-20-flowered. Flowers small, ^-^ ii- Pocl oblong, 

narrowed into a long beak . . . . . . . . 12. C odorata. 

Branchlets glabrous, compressed or terete. Racemes 

10-40-flowcred. Pod narrowed into a long beak . . 13. C. angustata. 

Branchlets slender, grooved, often fastigiate. Racemes 

3-7-flowered. Flowers small. Pod obliquely ovate, 

suddenly narrowed into a long beak .. .. ..14. C. flagelliformis. 

ft Pod conspicuously turgid. 
Stems slender, often twining. Branchlets almost filiform, 
grooved. Flowers large, ^-^ in. Pod elliptic, beak very 
long . . . . . . . . . . . . 15. C. gracilis. 

C (Huttonella). Erect or prostrate shrubs 1-dft. high. Floivers small. Pod 
small, usually indehiscent, siuollen, often broader than deep ; beak turned 
abruptly uptuards. 

* Leafless whon mature. 

Erect. Branchlets numerous, terete. Racemes lax. 

Flowers^ in. .. .. .. .. . . 16. C. compacta. 



Garmichcelia.] lbguminos^. Ill 

Erect. Branchlets few, terete. Racemes dense. Flowers 

^ in. .. .. .. .. .. . . 17. C curta. 

Erect or prostrate. Branchlets terete or compressed. 

Racemes dense. Flowers .(^^ in. .. ., ..18. G. juncea. 

** Leafy when mature. 
Prostrate. Branchlets compressed . . . . . . 19. C. prona. 

1. C. Bnysii, T. Kirk in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xvi. (1884) 379, 
fc. 30. — A much-dwarfed depressed excessively branched glabrous 
plant, forzning dense patches 1-2 in. high; stems and lower 
branches thick and woody, matted. Branchlets small, |— f in. 
long, ^g-jQ in. broad, erect or suberect, compressed, thin, striate. 
Leaves of young plants orbicular, emarginate. Flowers minute, 
^— ^ in. long, solitary or in 3-6-flowered fascicles or racemes ; 
pedicels slender, usually silky. Calyx carapanulate ; teeth short, 
acute. Standard with a narrow claw ; wings as long as the keel. 
Pod i— ^in. long, compressed, ovate-orbicular, often oblique, some- 
times obliquely deltoid ; replum incomplete ; beak stout, broad at 
the base, recurved. Seed usually 1, rarely 2-3. — Students Fl. 108. 

Var. orbiculata. Kirk, I.e. — Larger and stouter, 2-4 in. high; branchlets 
^in. broad. Pods with rugulose valves. — C. orbiculata. Col. in Trans. N.Z. 
Inst. xxii. (1890) 459. 

North Island : South-eastern base of Ruapehu, Kirk ! Var. orbiculata : 
Rangipo Desert, H. Hill ! Kirk ! Petric ! South Island : Broken River, 
Enys ! Kirk ! Ashburton Mountains, Potts ; Maniototo Plain, Petrie ! Var. 
orbiculata : Mount Ida, Petrie ! 1500-3000 ft. December-January. 

A most distinct and remarkable species, apparently rare and local. The 
pod dehisces by one of the valves separating from the replumi down one side, but 
remaining attached at the tip and other side. 

2. C. uniflora, T. Kirk in Gard. Chron. (1884) i. 512. — A 
much-dwarfed slender matted plant, forming large patches ; stems 
often subterranean, putting out slender branches 1-2 in. high. 
Branchlets very narrow, J^-Jjjin., thin, compressed, glabrous, 
sometimes almost herbaceous. Leaves not seen. Flowers solitary, 
-^in. long, purplish-red; peduncles very long and slender, almost 
capillary, glabrous or puberulous, bracteolate about the middle. 
Calyx campauulate, glabrous or silky ; teeth short, broad, acute. 
Standard broad, with a short broad claw ; wings shorter than the 
keel. Pod l—iin. long, linear-oblong; valves slightly wrinkled; 
beak straight or oblique. Seeds 2-6. — Kirk in Trans. N.Z. Inst. 
xvi. (1884) 379 ; Buck. I.e. 394. C. Suteri, Col. in Trans. N.Z. Inst. 
xxiii. (1891) 383. 

South Island : Canterbury — Lake Grassmere, Lochnavar, Poulter River, 
Enijs ! Otira River, Cockayne ! Mount Cook District, Suter I T. F. C. Otago 
-Waitaki Valley, Buchanan! Lake Hawea, Petrie! 1000-3000 ft. De- 
cember-January. Probably not uncommon, but easily overlooked. 

8. O. nana, Col. ex Hook. f. Handb. N.Z. Fl. 49. — A dwarf 
rigid glabrous plant, forming broad matted patches. Branchlets 
2-4 in. long, ^-^in. broad, thin, much flattened, strict, erect, 



112 LBGUMiNOS^. [CarmichcBlia, 

minutely grooved or striate. Leaves not seen. Eacemes 2-4- 
flowered ; pedicels long, very slender, glabrous or with a few silky 
hairs. Flowers ^-|- in. long, purplish-red. Calyx campanulate, 
usually silky ; teeth short, broadly triangular, subacute. Standard 
broad, with a short broad claw ; wings shorter than the keel. Pods 
■|— fin. long, linear-oblong, often narrowed towards the base ;' beak 
short, straight. Seeds 2-6. — Kirk, Students' Fl. 109. C. australis 
h nana, Benth. in Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 50. 

North Island : Elevated open country between Lfl.ke Taupo, Ngauruhoe, 
and Ruapehu. South Island : Nelson to Central Otago, abundant in stony 
river-valleys. Altitudinal range from almost sea-level to 2800 ft. Decem- 
ber-January. 

One of the most widely spread species of tlie genus. Its nearest ally is 
C. uniflora, from which it is separated by the broader and more obtuse branch- 
lets and racemed flowers. 

4. 0. Monroi, Hook. f. Handb. N.Z. Fl. 49. — A small exces- 
sively branched rigid and woody plant, forming low compact 
masses 6-24 in. diam. or more and 2-6 in. high. Branclilets 
crowded, very stout, flattened with rounded edges, grooved, i— 4in. 
broad. Leaves only seen on young plants, cuneate or obcordate, 
emarginate, silky. Eacemes 2-3-flowered, solitary or fascicled ; 
pedicels long, slender, silky. Flowers ^in. long, purplish-red. 
Calyx silky, sometimes densely so ; teeth long, narrow-triangular, 
acute. Standard longer than the keel, broad, emarginate ; wings 
shorter than the keel. Pods f— | in. long, unusually turgid, straight 
or falcate ; valves conspicuously wrinkled and corrugated when 
mature ; beak short, usually oblique, sometimes straight. Seeds 
4-14, brownish or reddish-brown mottled with darker. — Kirk, 
Students' FL 109. C. corrugata, Col. in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xv. 
(1883) 320. 

South Island : Dry gravelly places on the mountains, Marlborough to 
Otago, not uncommon. Altitudinal range from 250ft. to fully 4000 ft. 

December-February. 

A well-marked plant, easily distinguished by the depressed habit, short 
stout woody branchlets, lax racemes, and large remarkably turgid many-seeded 
pod. 

5. C. Williamsii, T. Kirk in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xii. (1880) 394. 
— An erect much-branched shrub 3-8 ft. high. Branchlets |— f in. 
broad, thin, much compressed, finely and closely striate or grooved, 
glabrous or slightly pubescent when young ; notches distant, alter- 
nate. Leaves seldom produced except on young plants, 1-3-folio- 
late ; leaflets obovate or obcordate. Flowers large, |— 1 in. long, 
yellowish-red, pendulous, solitary or in 2-6-fiowered fascicles or 
racemes ; pedicels short, slender, silky. Calyx large, narrow- 
campanulate or almost tubular, pubescent ; teeth linear-subulate, 
acute. Standard rather lai-ger than the keel, sharply recurved 
one-third of the way from the base ; wings narrow-oblong, falcate,. 



Carmichalia.] leguminos^. IIS 

shorter than the keel. Pod 1-1^ in. long, on stout erect pedicels^ 
oblong, turgid ; beak long, straight or oblique. Seeds 9-12, red 
mottled with black. — Students' Ft. 110. 

North Island : Rare and local. East Cape district, from Te Kaha and 
Raukokore to Hicks Bay, Bishop Williams ! Petrie ! Adams ! November- 
December. 

A very distinct species. The broad thin branchlets, large flowers, and large 
turgid pod separate it from all others. 

6. C. australis, B. Br. in Bot. Beg. xi. (1825) t. 912. — An 
erect much - branched glabroas usually leafless shrub 3-12 ft. 
high. Branchlets straight, often much elongated, J^— ^in. broad, 
thin and flat, finely and closely striate ; notches alternate, close 
or rather distant. Leaves seldom seen except on young plants, 
f-2 in. long, 1-foliolate or 3-5-foliolate ; leaflets obcordate or 
obovate - cuneate, membranous, sessile. Racemes variable in 
length, 3-12-flowered, solitary or fascicled; pedicels puberulous 
or glabrous. Flowers crowded, small, ^-^ in. long, pale-purplish. 
Calyx campanulate, teeth minute. Standard much broader than 
long, retuse, claw very short ; keel equal in length or slightly 
shorter ; wings oblong, almost as long as the keel. Pod oblong, 
compressed, -J— |-in. long, suddenly narrowed into a short acute 
beak ; valves slightly convex ; replum stout, persistent long after 
the valves have fallen. Seeds 1-4, red, usually spotted with 
black. — A. Cunn. Preciir. n. 574 ; Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 50 ; 
Handh. N.Z. Fl. 50 ; Kirk, Students Fl. 110. C. Gunninghamii, 
Baoul, Choix, t. 28b. Boissiasa scolopendrina, A. Bicli. Fl. Nouv. 
Zel. 346. 

Var. strictlssima, Kirk, Students' Fl. 110. — Branchlets J-|in. broad. 
Racemes strict, many-flowered, dense. Pedicels very short. Pods not seen. 

North Island : Abundant from the North Cape to Wanganui and 
Hawke's Bay. South Island : Queen Charlotte Sound, J. Rutland ! Var. 
strictissima : White Cliffs, Taranaki, T. F. G. Sea-level to 2800 ft. Ma- 
kaka. November-December. 

7. O. Petriei, T. Kirk, Students' Fl. 111. — A stout sparingly 
branched shrub 1-6 ft. high, with rigid terete or subterete branches. 
Branchlets stout, x^— g-in. diam., compressed at the tips, plano- 
convex or terete below% grooved or striate. Leaves not seen. 
Racemes laxly 3-8-flowered, solitary or many together, often form- 
ing dense fascicles ; pedicels slender, and with the rachis silky- 
pubescent or almost villous. Flowers rather small, -^in. long. 
Calyx campanulate, sdky ; teeth short, broad, acute. Standard 
broader than long, exceeding the keel and wings. Ovary occa- 
sionally pubescent. Pods J-^in. long, broadly oblong, turgid, 
oblique at the tip ; valves thick, reticulated ; beak short, stout. 
Seeds 1-4, usually 2-3.— C. violacea, Kirk, I.e. 112. 

Var. robusta. — Pods longer, J-Jin., elliptic-oblong. Seeds 3-6. Other 
character much as in the type. — C. robusta. Kirk, I.e. 



114 LEGUMINOS.E. [Carmichcelia. 

South Island : Mount Cook district, T. F. C. ; Central Obago, not uncom- 
mon, Petrie ! Var. robusta: Nelson — Wairau Valley, 7'. F.C. Canterbury — 
Broken Eiver basin, Enys ! Kirk ! Petrie ! T. F. C; Kowai River, Petrie ! 

The distinguishing characters of this species lie in its stout rigid habit, 
almost terete branchlets, numerous often fascicled racemes of rather small 
flowers, and the turgid pod. Mr. Kirk's C. rohusta cannot be separated except 
by the longer and proportionately narrower pod with a larger number of seeds, 
and is best kept as a variety. 

8. C. subulata, T. Kirk, Students' Fl. 112. — A slender erect 
often leafy glabrous shrub 1-3 ft. high, with almost terete branches. 
Branchlets J-^— J-in. broad, compressed or plano-convex, strict and 
rigid, grooved or striated. Leaves 3-foliolate ; leaflets oblong- 
obovate, retuse. Eacemes laxly 3-6-flowered, one or several 
together ; pedicels silky or almost glabrous, shorter than the 
flowers. Calyx campanulate ; teeth minute, acute. Standard 
broader than long, about equal in length to the wings and keel. 
Pod i"- fin. long, turgid, subulate, acuminate; beak short, stout, 
straight. Seeds 1-4, usually 2. 

South Island : Marlborough — Blenheim and Wakamarina, Kirk ! Can- 
terbury — Apparently net uncommon on the plains, Kirk ! Petrie ! T. F. C; 
Akaroa, Kirk ! Broken River, Enys ! Otago — Near Dunedin, Petrie ! 

This appears to be characterized by the strict and slender sometimes almost 
filiform branchlets, small flowers, and turgid subulate pods. Herbarium speci- 
mens in flower alone are easily confounded with C. flagelliformis, but the pods 
are altogether different. 

9. C. virgata, T. Kirk, Students' Ft. 112. — An erect rigid 
glabrous shrub 3-4 ft. high, branched from the base. Branchlets 
numerous, tei'cte or plano-convex, grooved. Leaves not seen. 
Eacemes few, 3-5-flowered, lax ; pedicels and rachis glabrous or 
puberulous. Calyx campanulate, glabrous ; teeth short, acute. 
Standard broader than long, equalling the wings and exceeding the 
keel. Pods (not quite ripe) ^in. long, oblong, turgid, narrowed 
below ; beak short, straight, subulate. Seeds 1-3. 

South Island : Otago — Petrie ; Southland, at Makarewa and Orepuki, 
Kirk ! 

I am only acquainted with this plant through a few imperfect speci- 
mens in Mr. Kirk's herbarium, and have therefore reproduced in its main 
features the description given in the " Students' Flora." Mr. Kirk remarks 
that it is " distinguished by the paucity of its racemes, small whitish flowers, 
and oblong pod narrowed at both ends." I fear that it is much too closely 
allied to C. subulata. 

10. C. diffusa, Petrie in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xxv. (1893) 272.— A 
small erect or spreading glabrous much-branched shrub 1-2 ft. high. 
Branchlets slender, ^^-^g^'i^- wide, compressed or plano-convex or 
almost terete, striate. Leaves not seen. Eacemes numerous, 
short, 3-6-fiowered ; pedicels shorter than the flowers. Calyx cup- 
shaped, mouth ciliolate ; teeth minute, sometimes hardly evident 



GarmichcRlia.'] leguminos^. 115 

Pods very small, ^-i in. long, obliquely oblong, slightly narrowed 
at the base ; valves slightlv convex ; beak short, stout, subulate. — 
Kirk, Students FL 112. 

South Island : Canterbury — Near Lincoln, Kirk ! Otago — Buchanan I 
Otepopo River, Petrie ! 

I have seen few specimens, and those by no means good, of this curious 
ittle species. It appears to have the habit of C. flagellifomiis var. corym- 
bosa, differing only in the smaller size and smaller pod, and will probably prove 
to be a form of that plant. Mr. Kirk's specimens from Dry River, Wellington, 
quoted in the " Students' Flora," are certainly referable to C. flagelliformis. 

11. C. grandiflora, Hook. f. Handh. N.Z. Fl. 49. — An erect 
or spreading much-branched glabrous shrub 2-6 ft. high, usually 
leafy in spring and summer. Branchlets spreading or rarely 
fastigiate, y'j-^in. broad, compressed, deeply grooved. Leaves 
numerous, pinnately 3-5-foliolate ; leaflets narrowly or broadly 
obcordate-cuneate, glabrous. Racemes |— lin. long, pedunculate, 
laxly 5-12-flowered ; pedicels shorter than the calyx. Flowers 
■white or pale-purple, -^in. long. Calyx large, campanulate ; teeth 
acute, ciliolate or glabrous. Standard broader than long, exceed- 
ing the keel; wings as long as the keel. Pods oblong, ^-f in. long, 
gradually narrowed into a rather long subulate beak ; valves 
slightly convex. Seeds 2-4. — Kirk, Students' FL 110. C. aus- 
tralis var. grandiflora, Benth. in Hook. f. Ft. Nov. Zel. i. 50. 

Var. divaricata, Kirk. Students' Fl. I.e. — Branches divaricating at right 
angles, flexuous, compressed at the tips, subterete below. Racemes slender, 
5-15 flowered ; flowers much smaller. Pod elliptic-oblong, narrowed at both 
ends ; beak very short. 

South Island : Mountain districts from Nelson to Otago ; most abundant 
on the western side. Var. divaricata : Upper Waimakariri district, at Mount 
White and the Poulter River, Enys ! near Greymouth, Helms ! Ascends to 
3500 ft. ; descends to sea-level in the West Coast sounds. December-January. 

The chief characters of this variable plant are the leafy habit, glabrous 
deeply grooved bianchlets, lax many-flowered racemes, comparatively large 
flowers, and small pod with slightly convex valves and rather long beak. It 
attains its greatest luxuriance in the moist river-valleys of Westland. 

12. C. odorata, Col. ex Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 50.— A much- 
branched shrub 3-10 ft. high, leafy in spring and early summer. 
Branchlets ^n^ ^^- broad, distichous, slender, pendulous, com- 
pressed or plano-convex, grooved, pubescent towards the tips. 
Leaves very numerous, small, i-f in. long, silky-pubescent, pin- 
nately 3-7-foliolate ; leaflets oblong-obcuneate or narrow-obovate, 
notched at the apex. Eacemes slender, strict, erect (apparently 
drooping in herbarmm specimens on account of the branches being 
pendulous), 10-20-flowered, pubescent, especially when young. 
Flowers small, i— g-in. long. Calyx-teeth short, acute, ciliolate. 
Standard broader than long, about equalling the wings and keel. 
Ovary glabrous. Pod ^-^-in. long, obliquely ovate, abruptly nar- 



116 LEGUMiNOSiE. [CarmichcBlia. 

rowed into a long stout subulate beak ; valves fiat or very slightly 
convex. Seeds 2, rarely more. — Handh. N.Z. Fl.oO; Kirh, Stu- 
dents Fl. 113. 

Var. pilosa, Kirk, I.e. — Habit and flowers of C. odorata, but ovary silky, 
and pod hairv until nearly mature. — C. pilosa, Col. ex Hook. f. Fl. No}\ 
Zel. i. 50; Handh. N.Z. Fl. 49. 

North Island : Ruahine Mountains to Cools Strait. South Island : 
Pelorus ^ound, Kirk ! Nelson, Monro, Travers. Ascends to 2500 ft. No- 
vember-January. 

Separated from C. grandiflora, to which it is very closely allied, by the 
drooping slender pubescent brauchlets, smaller flowers, and shorter flatter and 
broader pod with a longer beak. C. i^ilosa has not been gathered since its 
original discovery by Mr. Colenso, more than fifty years ago ; but, judging from 
the description, it does not differ from C. odorata except in the pubescent ovary. 
This is a character which has been occasionally noted in several of the species, 
but which does not seem in itself to be sufficient for specific distinction. 

13. C. angustata, T. Kirk, Students' Fl. 114. — An erect gla- 
brous shrub 1-3 ft. high, leafy in spring and summer; branches 
spreading, terete. Branchlets /o^xV^'^- b^^oad, slender, filiform, 
sometimes compressed at the tips. Leaves glabrous, f-l-lin. long, 
pinnately 3-5-foliolate ; leaflets obcordate-cuneate, glaucous be- 
neath. Flowers not seen. Fruiting racemes numerous, spreading 
or erect, slender, 1-1-1- in. long. Pods 20-40, obliquely oblong, 
compressed, abruptly narrowed into a stout subulate beak. Seeds 
usually 2. 

South Island: Nelson — Plentiful in the Buller Valley, near the juiction 
•of the Lyell, .Kir/c .' 

I am only acquainted with this plant through the specimens in Mr. Kirk's 
herbarium. It will probably prove to be a variety of C. odorata, from which 
it only differs in the less compressed branchlets and in being glabrous. From 
C. grandiflora it can be distinguished by the more ^ lender habit, terete 
branchlets, large leaves, and numerous flattened pods. 

14. 0. flagelliformis, Col. ex Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 51. — 
A much-branched shrub 3-8 ft. high, very variable in habit ; 
branches erect or spreading. Branchlets numerous, very slender, 
^Q-^Q in. broad, erect and fastigiate or spreading, sometimes droop- 
ing, compressed or plano-convex, grooved. Leaves of young plants 
l-l-|in. long, pinnately 3-5-foliolate; leaflets oblong-cuneate, 
notched at the tip ; of mature plants smaller, usually 3-foliolate. 
Eacemes 1 or 2-3 together, laxly 3-7-flowered, often reduced to 
fascicles ; pedicels usually pubescent. Flowers minute, -iq-^ in. 
long. Calyx campaimlate ; teeth small, acute, ciliolate. Standard 
very broad, retuse, about equalling tlie wings and longer than the 
keel. Pods solitary or several together, ^— ^in. long, erect, com- 
pressed, obliquely oblong or ovate, sometimes nearly orbicular ; 
beak long, stout, subulate. Seeds 1-4, usually 2. — Handh. N.Z. 
Fl. 50 ; Kirh, Sttidajits' Fl. 114. C. australis, Baoul, Choix, t. 28a 



Cariiiichcelia.] LEGUMfNOSiE. 117 

(non B. Br.). C. multicaulis, Col. in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xxv. (1893) 
329. C. micrantha, Col. I.e. xxvi. (1894) 313. Lotus arboreus, 
For St. Prodr. n. 258. 

Var. corymbosa, Kirk, Students' Fl. 114. — Branchlets slender, often 
flaccid and drooping, striate. Pod shorter, broadly oblong, much compressed, 
oblique; valves thin. Seed usually 1. — C. corymbosa. Col. in Trans. N.Z. 
Inst. xxi. (1889) 80. 

Var. Hookeri. — Smaller, 2-4 ft. Racemes very numerous, densely fascicled. 
Flowers larger, ^in. Pod ovate-oblong, less compressed; beak shorter. — 
C. Hookeri, Kirk, I.e. 115. 

Var. acuminata. — PodsJ-|in., broadest at the base, almost obpyriform, 
somewhat falcate, acuminate ; beak oblique. Otherwise as in the type, but 
flowers not known. — C. acuminata. Kirk, I.e. 

North and South Islands : Not uncommon from the Upper Thames and 
Waikato southwards. Var. corymbosa : Hawke's Bay, Colenso ! Var. Hookeri : 
South of Wellington Province, Kirk ! Var. acnminata : Palliser Bay, Kirk ! 
Sea-level to 3000 ft. November-January. 

As a species C. flagelliformis is best distinguished by the slender grooved 
branchlets, minute flowers, which are either in open racemes or fascicled, and in 
the short broad pod, which is much compressed, and ends in a stout subulate 
beak sometimes ^ in. long. In dry places it is usually leafless when adult, but 
frequently produces leaves in moist situations, or where shaded. Mr. Kirk's 
C. Hookeri appears to me to differ iia no essential character ; and his C. acumi- 
nata is founded on a single fruiting specimen, which altogether agrees with 
C. flagelliformis except for a slight difference in the shape of the pod. 

15. 0. gracilis, Armstr. in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xiii. (1880) 336. 
— A slender shrub 3-6 ft. high; stems weak, flexuous, terete, 
sparingly branched, ofcen interlaced or scrambling over other 
bushes, more or less leafy, especially when growing in sheltered 
places. Branchlets almost filiform, grooved, silky or pilose. Leaves 
h-1 in. long, piunately 3-5-foliolate ; petioles silky ; leaflets -§— ^in., 
broadly obcordate, glabrous. Racemes loosely 2-6-flowered ; pedi- 
cels slender, silky. Flowers rather large, ■§— ^in. Calyx cam- 
panulate ; teeth long and narrow, acute, silky within. Standard 
broad, 2-lobed, slightly longer than the keel. Pods |in. long, 
elliptic, turgid ; replum thick ; beak very long, straight, stout, 
subulate. Seeds 2, — C. Kirkii, Hook. f. in Ic. Plant, r. 1332 ; Kirk, 
Students' Fl. 113. 

South Island : Canterbury — Vicinity of Ghristchurch, Armstrong ! Haast ! 
Cockayne! Otago — Cardrona Valley, Kirk! Otepopo River, Sowburn, Pc^rie / 
Sea-level to 1500 ft. November-December. 

A distinct species, at once recognised by the weak terete stems, large flowers, 
and large turgid pod with a long almost pungent beak. 

16. 0. compacta, Petrie in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xvii. (1885) 272. 
— An erect much and closely branched shrub 2-4 ft. high. 
Branchlets numerous, strict, erect, xV^r&i'^i- diam., terete or 
nearly so, striate. Leaves not seen. Racemes -I—fin. long, nume- 
rous, lax, pedunculate, 3-8-flowered ; pedicels slender, glabrous, 
usually longer than the flowers. Flowers i- in. long, pinkish- white, 



118 LEGUMiNos^. [CarmichcBlia. 

fragrant. Calyx somewhat tumid, campanulate, glabrous ; teeth 
shallow, acute. Standard broader than long, 2-lobed, about 
equalling the wings; keel-petals much shorter, broad above, claws 
long. Pod -I— i-in. long, indehiscent, obovoid, turgid, compressed 
from back to front so that the width is greater than the depth ; 
valves reticulate ; beak short, subulate, oblique or recurved. Seeds. 
1-2. — Huttonella compacta, Kirk, Students' Fl. 115. 

South Island: Otago—Clutha Valley, between Lake Wakatipu and Clyde, 
Petrie ! November-December. 

This can be distinguished from the other species of the section Huttonella 
by the crowded terete branchlets, long and lax racemes of rather large flowers, 
and the larger pod. 

17. C. curta, Petrie in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xxv. (1893) 271.— 
An erect sparingly branched glabrous shrub 1-2 ft. high. Branch- 
lets 2n~r5 ^^- broad, slender, terete or nearly so, subeompressed at 
the tips, grooved or striate. Leaves not seen. Racemes variable 
in length, distant, 6-10-flowered ; rachis elongating after flowering ; 
pedicels shore, silky. Plowers ^ in. long. Calyx more or less 
pubescent, campanulate ; teeth short, acute. Standard broader 
than long, retuse, exceeding the wings ; keel with a short claw. 
Ovary silky. Pod ^-i in. long, pendulous, turgid, oblong-obovoid^ 
glabrous when mature ; valves thin ; beak slender, curved upwards. 
Seeds 2-3. — Huttonella curta. Kirk, Students FL. 116. 

South Island : Otago — Waitaki Valley, at Duntroon and Kurow, Petrie ! 

Allied to C. juncea, but separated by the longer distant racemes, larger 
flowers, and larger pod. In none of the flowers which I have examined could I 
find the callosity on the wings mentioned by Mr. Kirk. 

18. O. juncea, Col. ex Rook. f. Ft. Nov. Zel. i. 51. — An erect 
or rarely prostrate glabrous branching shrub 1-2 ft. high. Branch- 
lets very slender, a^^tV ^'^- broad, compressed or almost terete, 
grooved. Leaves not seen. Eacemes short, often fascicled, 
2-8-flowered ; pedicels pubescent, rather longer than the calyx. 
Flowers minute, ■^X)~s i'^- lo^^g- Calyx campanulate, silky ; teeth 
very small, acute. Standard broader than long, slightly exceedmg 
the keel; wings narrow, somewhat shorter. Pod usually inde- 
hiscent, very small, j^j-jLin. long, oblong or ovoid-oblong, turgid 
or almost inflated ; valves thin and membranous ; beak slender, 
curved or sharply bent. Seeds 1-2, rarely 3. — Handb.N.Z. Fl. 50. 
Huttonella juncea. Kirk, Students'' FL. 116. 

North Island : East Cape, Sinclair; Hawke's Bay and Taupo, Colenso ! 
Rotorua, Kirk. South Island : Akaroa, Ramd ; Canterbury Plains, Haast. 
Otago— Waitaki Valley, Maniototo Plains, Lake District, Petrie ! 

Apparently rare and local. The only North Island specimens I have seen 
are Mr. Colenso's, collected many years ago, and which must be taken as the 
type of the species. Those from Otago, in Mr. Petrie's herbarium, differ in 
the stouter and more strict branches and rather longer pods, the beak of. 



Carmichcelia.] lequminos^. 119 

which is abruptly bent, forming almost a right angle with the pod. It is 
possible that two species ara confounded under the name of C. juncea, as Mr. 
Kirk has suggested ; but more complete sets of specimens are required to settle 
the matter. 

19. C. prona, Kirk in Trans. N.Z. Inst, xxvii. (1895) 350. — A 
small much-branched prostrate shrub ; stems and branches closely 
appressed to the ground, 4-12 in. long, rarely more. Branchlets 
2^-1^^^- diam., compressed, grooved. Leaves often numerous, 
l-foholate or pinnately 3-5-foliolate, silky ; terminal leaflet much 
larger than the rest, oblong or oblong-obovate, cuneate at the base, 
deeply retuse at the tip. Eacemes small, 3-7-flowered ; pedicels 
short, silky. Flowers minute, t'sT" i^- loQg- Calyx campanulate ; 
teeth acute. Standard broader than long, retuse; vpings shorter 
than the keel. Pod ^ in. long, broadly oblong, turgid ; valves thin ; 
beak short, abruptly turned upwards. Seed solitary. — Huttonella 
prona, Kirk, Students' Ft. 116. 

South Island: Canterbury — Lake Lyndon, altitude 2800ft., J. D. Enys ! 
Kirk ! Cockayne ! T. F. C. December-January. 

The leafy prostrate habit and flattened branches distinguish this species 
from its allies. 

3. NOTOSPARTIUM, Hook. f. 

Leafless shrubs with slender much-compressed pendulous 
branchlets. Flowers rather small, in lateral racemes. Calyx cam- 
panulate, 5-toothed ; teeth short, about equal. Standard obovate- 
obcordate, narrowed into a short claw, shortly reflexed ; wings 
oblong, shorter than the keel, with an incurved auricle at the base ; 
keel hatchet-shaped, obtuse. Upper stamen free, remainder con- 
nate into a sheath. Ovary sessile or nearly so, linear ; ovules 
numerous ; style incurved. Pod shortly stipitate, linear, straight 
or falcate, compressed, 3-10-jointed, membranous, indehiscent ; 
beak short. Seeds 1 to each joint, oblong ; radicle twisted, with a 
double flexure. 

A genus of 2 closely allied species, both confined to New Zealand. It has 
the leafless habit and compressed branchlets of Carmichcelia, but differs in the 
linear many-jointed pod, and in other respects. 

Flowers pink. Pods f-l^ in. long, J in. wide, straight . . 1. W. Carmichcelice. 
Flowers purple. Pods |-1 in. long, j^i^- "wide, falcate, 

torulose . . . . • ■ • . . • .. 2. N. torulosum. 

1. N. Carmichaeliae, Hook. f. Handh. N.Z. Fl. 51. — A slender 
much-branched shrub 4-10 ft. high. Branchlets Jg-J^in. broad, 
glabrous, compressed, grooved, with distant alternate scales. 
Leaves only seen on young plants, 1-foliolate, obcordate or orbicular, 
entire or emarginate, sometimes mucronate. Eacemes 1-2 in. long, 
8-20-flowered ; pedicels longer than the calyces, and with the rachis 
silky-pubescent. Flowers \-^\n. long, pink. Calyx silky; teeth 



120 LEGCMiNosi. [Notospartuim, 

short, triangular. Pod f-lin. long, linear, 3-S-jointed. Seeds 1 to 
each joint, orbicular-reniform. — Bot. ^ag. t. 67il : Kirk, Sticdeut's 
Fi. 117. 

South Isla>-d : Rare and local. Marlborough — Waihopai River, Monro ; 
Upper Awatere, Suiclair ; Kaikoura Mountains, Buc'na-nan! Medway Creek, 
Kirk! Xelson— Mount Fvfie, Rev. F. H. Spencer; Amuri, J.B.Armstrong! 
S00-2000ft. Pink broo-n. December-January. 

2. N. torulosum, T. Kirk, Students' Fl. 117. — A much- 
branched glabrous shrub 4-8 ft. high ; branches flexuous or trail- 
ing in young plants, pendulous in the mature state. Branchlets 
-^Q-^-gva- diam., slender, strict, terete or slightly compressed at the 
tips, grooved. Leaves only seen in young plants, 1-foliolate, 
broadly oblong or obovate to orbicular, emarginate. Eacemes 
1-2 in. long, strict, glabrous. 3-10-flowered ; pedicels barely longer 
than the calyx. Calyx campanulate, glabrous ; teeth broad, sub- 
acute. Standard narrower than in N. carmichcBlicB , reflexed ; wings 
exceeding the keel. Pod f- 1 in. long, -i^va. wide, falcate, com- 
pressed, about 8-10-jointed ; joints swollen. Seeds 1 to each joint, 
reniiorm, compressed. 

South Isla^t) : Nelson — Gorge of the Mason River, IltKist ! Rev. F. H. 
Spencer. S. D. Barker, Cockayne! ^Yhale's Back, Cockayne. Canterbury — 
Mount Peel and Waikari, Barker. 

The only specimens I have seen of this curious plant are two fragmentary 
ones past flowering in Mr. Kirk's herbariiim, and some fruiting specunens in 
Mr. Petrie's, collected by Mr. Cockayne. Better material is required before a 
good description can be prepared. 

4. CLIANTHUS, Banks and Sol. 

Glabrous or villous herbs or undershrubs, usually woody below ; 
branches weak, ascending or spreading, sometimes almost climbing. 
Leaves pinnate ; leaflets numerous. Flowers large, red, in pendu- 
lous racemes. Calyx campanulate, o-toothed. Standard acumi- 
nate, sharply reflexed over the calyx ; wings much shorter, lanceo- 
late or oblong ; keel equalling the standard, boat-shaped, incurved, 
acute. Ovary stipitate ; ovules numerous ; style subulate, incui-ved, 
bearded below the apex. Pod terete, narrow-oblong, turgid, beaked. 
Seeds numerous, reniform. 

Besides the New Zealand species, which is endemic, there is one from Aus- 
tralia, and another (perhaps not truly congeneric) from the island of Ceram. 

1. C. ptinicetis, Banks and Sol. ex Lindi. in Trans. Hort. Soc. 
Ser. ii. il&35i 521. — Avery handsome much-branched undershrub 
3-6 fl. high, more or less clothed with appressed silky pubescence ; 
branches spreading, younger ones succulent, almost herbaceous. 
Leaves 3—6 in. long, unequally pinnate ; leaflets 8-14 pairs, ^1 in. 
long, sessile, linear-oblong, obtuse or retuse. Eacemes 6-15- 
flowered, pendulous. Flowers bright-scarlet, 2-3 in. long. Standard 
ovate, acuminate ; wings lanceolate, falcate, acute, less than half 



Clianthus.] leguminos^. 121 

the length of the keel ; keel large, falcate, acuminate. Pods 
2-3 in. long, turgid, many-seeded. — Lindl. in Bot. Beg. t. 1775 ; 
A. Cunn. Precur. 572 ; Raoul, Choix, 49 ; Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. 
i. 49; Handh. N.Z. Fl. 52; Kirk, Students' Fl. 118. Donia 
punicea, Don. Syst. ii. 468. 

Var. maximus, Kirk, I.e. — Leaflets larger, sometimes 1^ in. long. Flowers 
rather smaller. Standard broadly ovate, acuminate, often with a dark spot at 
the base ; wings oblong, broad, rounded at the apex. — C. maximus. Col. in 
Trans. N.Z. Inst, xviii. (1886) 294. 

North Island : Exceedingly rare and local in a wild state, and fast 
laecoming extinct. Small islets in the Bay of Islands, Coleuso ; Great Barrier 
Island, Kirk ; Mercury Bay, Banks and Solandfr ; several localities in the East 
Cape district, Bank>i and Colander! Bishop Williams ! Waimarama, Nairn. 
Formerly cultivated by the Maoris in many localities on the shores of the North 
Island. Kowhaingutii-kaka. August-November. 

The brilliancy of the flowers renders this plant a universal favourite, and it 
is now commonly cultivated in gardens throughout the colony under the name 
of "red kowhai." I agree with ]\Ir. Kirk in considering that Mr. Colenso's 
C. maximus is not entitled to the rank of a species. 



5. SWAINSONA, Salisb. 

Herbs or undershrubs. Stems erect or prostrate, sometimes 
climbing. Leaves unequally pinnate ; leaflets usually numerous. 
Flowers in axillary racemes. Calyx campanulate, 5-toothed ; teeth 
nearly equal. Standard orbicular or reniform, spreading or reflexed, 
shortly clawed ; wings oblong, falcate or slightly twisted ; keel 
broad, incurved, obtuse or produced into a twisted beak. Upper 
stamen free ; remainder connate into a sheath. Ovary sessile or 
stalked ; ovules numerous ; style slender, mcurved, bearded along 
the inner edge. Pod ovoid or oblong, turgid or inflated, membranous 
or coriaceous, 2-valved or almost indehiscent. Seeds several, 
small, usually reniform. 

With the exception of the following species, which is endemic in New 
Zealand, the genus is confined to Australia. It is very closely allied to the 
northern genera Colutea and Astragalus. 

1. S. novae-zealandiae, Hook.f. Handh. N.Z. Fl. 51. — A small 
herbaceous perennial 2-4 in. high, more or less clothed with 
silky pubescence. Ehizome creeping, slender. Stems numerous, 
erector spreading, branched above. Leaves 1-2 in. long; leaflets 
6-8 pairs, -^-in. long, opposite, oblong or narrow-obovate, obtuse 
or retuse, sessile. Stipules broadly ovate, obtuse. Eacemes 
3-8-flowered, on stout peduncles longer or shorter than the leaves ; 
pedicels not equalling the calyx, bracteolate at the base. Flowers 
purplish, -J in. long. Calyx silky-hairy, with linear teeth as long as 
the tube, 2-bracteolate at the base. Pod large, inflated, 1 in. long, 
acute at both ends ; valves thin, coriaceous. Seeds 5-10, small. — 
Kirk, Students' Fl. 118. 



122 LEGUMiNOs^. [Swainsona, 

South Island: Nelson- Mountains flanking the Clarence Valley, Travers, 
T.F.C. Marlborough — Kaikoura Mountains, Buclianan ! Canterbury— Kowai 
River, Haast ! Coleridge Pass, Enys ! Kirk ! Otago — Mount St. Bathan's, 
Petrie ! 2000-5000 ft. December-January. 

6. CANAVALIA, d.c. 

Climbing or prostrate herbs, often of large size. Leaves 3-folio- 
late, stipellate. Flowers i-ather large, in axillary racemes. Calyx- 
limb 2-lipped ; the upper lip large and projecting, entire or 2-lobed ; 
the lower shortly 3-toothed. Standard broad, refiexed ; wings 
shorter, oblong or linear, falcate or twisted ; keel incurved, obtuse 
or obtusely rostrate. Stamens all connate into a tube; anthers 
uniform. Ovary shortly stipitate ; ovules numerous ; style filiiorm, 
beardless ; stigma terminal. Pod large, oblong or linear, 2-valved, 
with a distinct rib on each valve near the upper suture. Seeds 
rounded, or oblong, compressed ; hilum linear. 

Species about 12 ; 2 or 3 of them, including the New Zealand one, widely 
spread in the tropics, the remainder mostly American. 

1. C. obtusifolia, D.C. Proclr. ii. 404. — Stems long, trailing, 
glabrous or the young shoots silky-pubescent. Leaflets 2-4 in. long, 
broadly obovate or orbicular, obtuse or emarginate, texture firm. 
Eacemes few-flowered, on stout erect peduncles 6-10 in. long, 
usually overtopping the leaves. Flowers pinkish. Standard orbi- 
cular, fin. diam. Pod 4-5 in. long by 1 in. broad, the longitudinal 
wings very narrow. Seeds 2-8. — Benth. Fl. Austral, ii. 256; Kirk, 
Students' FL. 121. 

Keemadec Islands : Scrambling over rocks and shrubs on Meyer Island, 
T. F. G. A common plant on the shores of almost all tropical countries. 

7. SOPHORA, Linn. 

Small trees or shrubs. Leaves imparipinnate. Flowers in 
racemes or panicles, large, showy. Calyx oblique, broadly cara- 
panulate ; teeth very short. Standard broadly obovate or orbicu- 
lar, erect or spreading ; wings oblong, oblique, shorter than the keel. 
Stamens 10, free or rarely obscurely connate at the base ; anthers 
versatile. Ovary shortly stipitate ; ovules numerous ; style in- 
curved ; stigma minute, terminal. Pod moniliform, elongated, 
terete or 4-winged or -angled, fleshy or coriaceous or woody, inde- 
hiscent or 2-valved, each seed enclosed in a separate cell. Seeds 
oblong to globose, few or many. 

Species about 22, found in most warm countries. The New Zealand sijecies 
belongs to the section Edwardsia, characterized by the short s^tandard, exserted 
stamens, and 4-winged pod. 

1. S. tetraptera, J. M71U. la. Plant, t. 1. — A very variable shrub 
or small tree 15-40 ft. high, with a trunk 6-24 in. diam. ; branches 
of young trees slender, flexuous, often interlaced ; young shoots, 
leaves, inflorescence, and calyces more or less clothed with silky 



Sojjhora.] leguminos^. 123 

fulvous pubescence. Leaves exstipulate, 1-6 in. long; pinnae 4-40 
pairs, sessile or shortly petiolulate, ^1 in. long, linear-oblong to 
obcordate or orbicular, rounded or retuse at the tip. Eacenies 2-8- 
flowered, pendulous. Flowers large, golden-yellow, 1-2 in. long. 
Calyx gibbous, hemispherical, mouth oblique. Standard hardly 
reflexed, broadly obovate, obtuse ; keel and wings oblong. Pod 
2-8 in. long, moniliform, 4-angled, and with 4 narrow longitudinal 
wings ; valves hardly dehiscent. Seeds 3-8, oblong. — Forst. Prodr. 
n. 183 ; Hook. f. Handb. N.Z. Fl. 53 ; Kirk, Students' Fl. 122. 

Var. grandiflora, Hook. f. Handb. N.Z. Fl. 53.— Leaflets 10-25 pairs, 
longer and narrower, linear-oblong. Flowers larger, 2 in. long. Standard a 
fourth shorter than the wings, obviously reflexed. — Kirk, Forest Fl. t. 50. 
S. tetra ptera, .Boi. Mag. t. 167. Edwardsia grandiflora, Salisb. in Trans. Linn. 
Sac. ix. (1808) 299; .4. Rich. Fl. Nouv. Zel. 344; A. Ciinn. Precur. n. 571; 
Hook.f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 52. 

Var. microphylla, Hook. f. Handb. N.Z. Fl. 53. — Leaflets 25-40 pairs, 
small, oblong or obovate to orbicular. Flowers 1-lJ in. Standard narrower, 
as long as the wings or nearly so, hardly reflexed. — Kirk, Forest Fl. t. 51. 
S. microphylla, Ait. Hort. Keiv. ii. 43 ; Boi. Mag. t. 1442. S. Chathamica, Cock- 
ayne, in Trans. N.Z. Inst, xxxiv. (1902) 319 (name only). Edwardsia micro- 
phylla, Salisb. in Trans. Linn. Soc. ix. (1808) 299; .4. Rich. Fl.Nouv. Zel. 344; 
A. Cann. Precur. n. 570. E. Macuabiana, Bot. Mag. t. 3735. E. grandiflora 
var. microphylla. Hook. f. FL. Nov. Zel. i. 52. 

Var. prostrata, Kirk, Forest Fl. t. 52. — Stems prostrate. Leaflets 2-4 
pairs. Flowers small, solitary or in pairs. Standard hardly shorter than the 
wings. Pods small, downy, barely winged ; seeds 1-3. — S. prostrata, Buch. in 
Trans. N.Z. Inst. xvi. (1884) 395, t. 36. 

North and South Islands, Chatham Islands : Var. intcrop^tj/ZZa : Abun- 
dant from the North Cape to Southland. Var. grandiflora : From the East 
Cape to Wellington, and reported from the South Island, but I have seen no 
specimens from thence. Var. prostrata : Mountains of Marlborough and Can- 
terbury. Sea-level to 2500 ft. Kowhai. August-October. Also found 
in Lord Howe Island, Easter Island, Juan Fernandez, and Chili. 

The three varieties described above have a very distinct appearance, and 
many botanists will prefer to treat them as separate species. The timber is 
hard, strong, and durable, but can rarely be obtained of sufficient size fore 
conomic purposes. 



Order XXIII. ROSACE-ffi. 

Herbs, shrubs, or trees. Leaves simple or compound, alternate 
or rarely opposite, stipulate. Flowers usually regular and her- 
maphrodite, sometimes unisexual. Calyx with the tube free or 
adnate to the ovary, limb 4-5-lobed, lobes imbricate or valvate. 
Petals 4-5, rarely w^anting, free, inserted on the calyx at the base 
of the lobes, imbricate. Stamens many, rarely few, inserted on 
the calyx just within the petals ; filaments subulate, often incurved 
in bud ; anthers small, didymous. Ovary of 1 or more free or 
coherent 1-celled carpels, sometimes adnate to the calyx - tube ; 
styles free or connate ; ovules 1 or 2 to each carpel, anatropous. 
Fruit very various, superior, or more or less inferior and combined 



124 EOSACE^. [Bubus. 

with the calyx-tube, of one or many achenes, drupes, or follicles, 
or a pome, more rarely a berry or capsule. Seeds erect or pen- 
dulous, albumen generally wanting ; embryo with large plano- 
convex cotyledons and a siout radicle. 

A large order, found all over the world, but most abundant in the tem- 
perate and colder parts of the Northern Hemisphere ; comparatively rare in the 
tropics and in the south temperate zone. Genera about 75 ; species from 1200 
to 1500. It includes most of the important cultivated fruits of northern 
origin, as peaches, plums, apricots, cherries, apples, pears, strawberries, rasp- 
berries, &c, ; as well as the rose, with its numberless garden varieties. Of the 
4 New Zealand genera, Accena is mainly South American, but extends north- 
wards to California and south-eastwards to Australia and New Zealand ; the 
3 others are widely spread in temperate regions. Many northern species 
have established themselves in New Zealand, as will be seen on referring to 
the list of introduced plants given in the appendix. 

Scrambling or climbing shrubs with prickly stems. Fruit 

of many crowded succulent carpels . . . . . . 1. Rdbus. 

Herbs with pinnately lobed or divided leaves. Styles 
elongating after flowering. Fruit-carpels numerous, 
dry . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. Geum. 

Herbs with pinnate leaves. Styles not elongating after 

flowering. Fruit-carpels numerous, dry . . . . 3. Potentilla. 

Herbs with pinnate leaves. Fruiting-calyx usually with 
stiff bristles, often barbed at the top. Carpels 1, 
rarely 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. Ac^na. 



1. RUBUS, Linn. 

Scrambling or climbing shrubs, rarely herbs, almost always 
prickly. Leaves alternate, simple or compound, usually palmately 
or pinnately divided into 3-5 lobes or segments or separate leaf- 
lets ; stipules adnate to the petiole. Flowers in terminal or axil- 
lary panicles, rarely solitary. Calyx-tube broad, open ; lobes 5, 
persistent. Petals 5. Stamens numerous. Disc coating the 
calyx-tube. Carpels many, seated on a convex receptacle ; style 
subterminal ; ovules 2, pendulous. Fruit composed of many suc- 
culent 1-seeded drupes, crowded upon an oblong or conical dry 
receptacle. Seed pendulous. 

A large genus, common m the temperate portions of the Northern Hemi- 
sphere, rarer in the tropics and south temperate zone. The fruits of all the 
species are edible, and some of them, such as the raspberry and blackberry, 
both of which have become naturalised in New Zealand, are excellent. All the 
New Zealand species are endemic. 

* Leaves 3-5-foliolate. 
A lofty climber. Leaflets glabrous, cordate or truncate at 

the base. Panicles large. Flowers white . . . . 1. E. anstralis. 

Climbing or scrambling, often forming a dense bush. 

Leaflets glabrous, rounded or cuneate at the base. 

Panicles small. Flowers yellowish . . . . . . 2. R. cissoides. 

Climbing or scrambling, often forming a dense bush. 

Leaflets often tomentose beneath, broadly ovate. 

Fruit large, yellowish . . . . . . . . 3. R. schviiclelioides 



Bubus.] ROSACEA. 125 

** Leaves 1-foliolate. 
Small, prostrate. Leaves sharply dentate. Fruit very 
large . . . . . . . . . . . . i. R. parvus. 

1. R. australis, Forst. Prodr. 224. — A tall climber, reaching 
the tops of the highest trees ; stems stout, woody at the base ; 
branches slender, drooping, armed with scattered recurved prickles. 
Leaves 3-5-foliolate or rarely pinnate with 2 pairs of leaflets and a 
terminal one ; leaflets coriaceous, glabrous, very variable in size 
and shape, 2-5 in. long, ovate-oblong or ovate-lanceolate to linear- 
oblong or almost linear, acute or acuminate, truncate or cordate at 
the base, sharply serrate ; petioles and midribs armed with recurved 
prickles. Panicles large, much branched, 6-24 in. long, leafy to- 
wards the base ; pedicels short, glandular or pubescent. Flowers 
white, ^^in. diam., dioecious; males larger and more conspicuous 
than the females. Petals broadly ovate or oblong. Fruit ^in. 
diam., reddish-orange. — A. Bich. Fl. Nouv. Zel. 340; A. Gunn. Pre- 
cur. n. 567 ; Baoul, Choix, 49 ; Kirk, Students' Fl. 125. E. aus- 
tralis var. glaber, Hook. f. FL Nov. Zel. i. 53, t. 14; Handb. N.Z. 
Fl. 54. 

North and South Islands, Stewart Island : Abundant throughout. 
Ascends to 2800 ft. Tataramoa ; Bush-latuyer. September-October. 

Distinguished from the other species by its large size, glabrous leaflets 
cordate or truncate at the base, large panicles, white flowers, and small red 
fruit. 

2. R. cissoides, A. Gunn. Frecw. n. 569. — A scrambling or 
climbing shrub; branchlets slender, unarmed, usually much and 
closely interlaced, forming a dense bush. Leaves 3-5-ioliolate ; 
leaflets 2-5 in. long, narrow-ovate to lanceolate or linear-lanceolate, 
acuminate, rounded or cuneate at the base, sharply and irregularly 
serrate or lobed ; petioles varying much in length, furnished with 
fewer and softer prickles than in B. australis. Panicles 2-6 in. 
long, often reduced to racemes ; pedicels pubescent or glabrate. 
Flowers yellowish - white, ^in. diam., dioecious. Calyx - lobes 
broadly ovate, tomentose. Petals linear - oblong. Fruit orange- 
red, much as in B. australis. — Baoul, Ghoix, 49 ; Kirk, St%idents 
Handb. 126. E. australis var. cissoides, Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 
53 ; Handb. N.Z. Fl. 54. 

Var. pauperatus, Kirk, I.e. — Leaves reduced to prickly midribs, sometimes 
with a minute leaflet at the apex. — R. squarrosus, Kerner. 

North and South Islands, Stewart Island : Not uncommon from the 
North Cape southwards, chiefly in lowland districts. September-November. 

3. R. schmidelioides, A. Gunn. Precur. n. 568. — A scrambling 
or climbing shrub ; branchlets usually unarmed, often intertwined, 
forming a dense bush ; young shoots pubescent or tomentose. 
Leaves 3-5-foliolate ; leaflets 2-4 in. long, orbicular-ovate or ovate- 
oblong to ovate-lanceolate, coriaceous, acute, rounded or cordate at 



126 BOSACB^. [Bubiis. 

the base, coarsely and irregularly toothed, usually tomentose or 
pubescent beneath ; petioles and midribs with recurved prickles. 
Panicles 2-8 in. long ; branches and pedicels stout, hispid or setose 
or pubescent. Flowers ^in. diam., whitish, dicecious. Calyx 
tomentose. Petals broad, rounded. Fruit ^in. diam., pale-yel- 
lowish, juicy. — RaoiU, Clwix, 49; Kirk, Students' Fl. 126. E. aus- 
tralis var. schmidelioides. Hook. f. FL Nov. Zel. i. 53 ; Handb. N.Z. 
Fl. 54. 

Var. coloratus, Kirk, I.e. — Leaflets rugose, white beneath with af)pressed 
tomentum. 

North and South Islands, Stewart Island : Not uncommon throughout, 
but mostly in lowland districts. October-November. 

4. R. parvus, Buck, in Trans. N.Z. Inst. vi. (1874) 243, t. 22, 
f. 2 and 3. — A dwarf prostrate glabrous shrub ; stems creeping, 
12-18 in. long, sometimes partly buried in the soil and rooting at 
the nodes; bark red; prickles few. Leaves 1-foliolate ; leaflets 
bronzy, coriaceous, 1-3 in. long, linear or linear-lanceolate, acute, 
slightly cordate or truncate at the base, acutely dentate ; teeth 
almost spinous ; petioles and midrib with a few stout prickles. 
Flowers few, dioecious, in short terminal or axillary panicles or 
solitary ; pedicels pubescent. Calyx-lobes silky-pubescent, acumi- 
nate, refiexed. Petals white, barely exceeding the calyx. Fruit 
large, -J-l in. long, oblong, juicy.— ZirZc, Students' Fl. 126. 

South Island : River-valleys on the western side of the Southern Alps. 
Heaphy River, Ball; Buller Valley, Kirk; Lyell River, Dr. Gaze; Lake 
Brunuer, Hector ! Teremakau Valley, Kirk ! Otira Valley, Cockayne ! Petrie ! 
Altitudinal range 250-3000 ft. 

Apparently a very distinct species, easily recognised by its small size, 
1-foliolate leaves with sharply dentate margins, long acuminate sepals, and 
large oblong fruit. I cannot agree with Mr. Kirk in thinking that it may be 
*' an arrested form of R. australis.'" 

2. GEUM, Linn. 
Perennial herbs. Eadical leaves crowded, often rosulate, pin- 
nate or pinnatisect ; leaflets toothed or incised, the terminal one 
often much larger than the others ; stem-leaves usually small and 
bract-like. Flowers in a terminal corymbose panicle or solitary. 
Calyx persistent ; lobes 5, usually alternating with 5 bracteoles. 
Petals 5. Stamens numerous, crowded. Carpels many ; ovules 
solitary, erect ; style terminal, filiform, elongating much after 
flowering, bent at or below the end. Achenes numerous, com- 
pressed, crowded on a dry receptacle, each one terminated by the 
persistent elongated naked or plumose style. 

A genus comprising about .35 species, spread through the temperate and cold 
regions of both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. One of the New Zea- 
land species is widely distributed, another occurs in temperate South America, 
the rest are endemic. 



Ge^l,vl.] ROSACEA. * 127 

* Achenes villous. Flowers white except in 1. 

Stem leafy, 2-3 ft. high. Flowers yellow .. ..1. G.urhanum. 

Leaves chiefly radical, 3-5 in. long. Panicles few-flowered. 

Styles longer than the achenes . . . . . . 2. G. parviflorum. 

Leaves all radical, f-l^in. Flowers small, in 3-5-flowered 

racemes. Styles shorter than the achenes . . . . 3. G. sericeum. 

Leaves all radical, 1-3 in. Flowers solitary, large, fin. 

diam. Styles long . . .. .. .. ..4. G.unifiorum. 

** Achenes glabrous. Flowers small, white. 

3-6 in. high. Flowers in cymose panicles .. ..5. G . leiosfermutn. 

1-2 in. high. Flowers solitary .. .. ..6. G. pusillwii. 

G. alvLiium, Buch. in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xix. (1887) 216, is quite unknown to 
me, and there are no specimens in his herbarium. The original description is 
vague and insufficient, and the name had far better be dropped. 

1. G. urbanum, Lian. Sj). Plant, n. 501, var. strictum. — 
An erect sparingly branched herb 1-3 ft. high, usually softly pu- 
bescent or villous in all its parts. Eadical leaves very variable 
in size, 4-18 in. long including the petiole, pinnate ; leaflets 3-5 
pairs with much smaller ones intermixed, 1-3 in. long, ovate or 
obovate, cuneate at the base, sessile, variously toothed lobed or 
pinnatifid. Cauline leaves few, smaller, with fewer and more 
sharply toothed leaflets, sessile or nearly so; stipules leafy, coarsely 
toothed or lobed. Flowers ^fin. diam., yellow, few together in 
a loose terminal panicle ; peduncles slender, erect. Calyx-lobes 
ovate, acuminate, reflexed in fruit. Petals obovate, exceeding the 
calyx. Achenes very numerous, forming a dense oblong head, 
spreading and recurved, hispid with long silky hairs ; awn long, 
hooked at the tiTp.— Hook. f. Handh. N.Z. Ft. 55; Kirk, Students' 
Ft. 128. G. magellanicum, Comm. ex Pers. Syn. ii. 57 ; Hook. f. 
Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 55. 

North and South Islands : Not uncommon from the Paparata Valley 
and Waikato River southward. Sea-level to nearly 3000 ft. November- 
January. 

The New Zealand variety has a wide distribution in the Southern Hemi- 
sphere, and is found in some parts of Asia as well. It differs from the European 
G. U7-banum principally in the taller and more robust habit and larger flowers. 

2. G. parviflorum, Sm. in Bees Cyclop, v. n. 12. — An erect 
or spreading perennial herb 4-18 in. high, everywhere clothed with 
silky or villous hairs, sometimes almost shaggy ; rootstock stout, 
woody. Eadical leaves 2-5 in. long, pinnate; terminal leaflet very 
large, 1—2 in. diam., rouuded-reniform, obscurely 3-5-lobed, crenate, 
hairy on both surfaces ; lateral leaflets 4-8 pairs, all minute, deeply 
cut and lobed. Cauline leaves or bracts few, small, deeply 
toothed. Panicles lax, few-flowered ; pedicels long, slender. 
Flowers -^ in. diam., white. Calyx-lobes broadly ovate, obtuse or 
subacute. Petals broad, obtuse, longer than the calyx. Achenes 
very numerous, spreading, stipitate, clavate, villous ; style slender. 



128 ' BosACE-E. [Geum. 

straight, villous below, glabrous and hooked at the tip, much 
longer than the achene. — Hook. f. Fl. Antarct. ii. 263; Ft. Nov. 
Zel. i. 56 ; Handb. N.Z. Fl. 55 ; 'Kirk, Students' Fl. 129. 

NoETH AND South Islands : In hilly and mountain districts, from Mount 
Hikurangi and the Ruahine Range southwards. 1500-5000 ft. December- 
February. Also in South America, from Chili to Fuegia. 

3. G. sericeum, T. Kirk, Students' Fl. 129. — "Pubescent, 
silky or villous in all its parts. Leaves all radical, f- 1 in. long 
including the petiole ; terminal segment orbicular-cordate or reni- 
form, minutely lobed or crenate-toothed, pubescent and rugose 
beneath, silky above; lateral leaflets minute or wanting. Scape 
strict, downy, 2-4 in. high, with 1-3 toothed bracts. Flowers few-, 
small, white, racemose or solitary and terminal. Calyx-tube open, 
silky ; segments narrow, ovate, subacute ; bractlets short, ovate. 
Petals slightly exceeding the calyx, retuse. Receptacle glabrous. 
Achenes stipitate, obliquely ovate, villous, compressed ; style much 
shorter than the achene, hooked at the tip. Heads not spreading." 
— Sieversia albiflora, Hook. f. Fl. Antarct. i. 9, t. 7. 

Auckland Islands : Sir J. D. Hooker, Kirk. 

There are no specimens of this in Mr. Kirk's herbarium, and I have there- 
fore copied the description given in the "Students' Flora." Mr. Kirk remarks 
that it is separated from G. varviflorum by the short ovate bractlets, and com- 
pressed oblique achenes with very short styles silky nearly to the apex. 

4. G. uniflorum, Bitch, in Trans. N.Z. Inst. ii. (1S70) 88. — 
Eootstock creeping, stout and woody, clothed with the reddish 
bases of the old leaves and stipules. Leaves all radical, 1-3 in. 
long; terminal leaflet large, f- 1 in. diam., oblong- or rounded- 
reniform, obscurely lobed, deeply crenate-toothed ; margins densely 
ciliated ; surfaces with a few sparse long hairs or almost glabrous ; 
lateral leaflets 1-2 pairs, minttte, deeply toothed and ciliated. 
Scapes 3-6 in. high, slender, pubescent or villous ; bracts 1-2, 
small, narrow, entire or toothed. Flower solitary, large, white, 
f- l^in. diam. Calyx-lobes linear-oblong, obtuse, villous with long 
hairs. Petals large, broadly obovate or almost orbicular. Achenes 
villous with long hairs, gradually narrowed into a very long style 
hooked at the tip. — Kirk, Students' Fl. 129. 

South Island : Nelson — Mount Cobb, F. G. Gibbs ! Discovery Peaks, 
H. H. Travcrs ! Mount Buckland, Toivnson ! Canterbury and Westland — Moun- 
tains above Arthur's Pass, T. F. C. ; Kelly's Hill, Petrie and Cockayne ! 
3000-5000 ft. January-February. 

A handsome and distinct species, easily recognised by the large white 
solitary flowers. 

5. G, leiospermum, Petrie in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xxvi. (1894) 
2 7." — Small, slender, 3-6 in. high, silky or villous in all its parts. 
Eadical leaves rosulate, spreading, 1-2 in. long, pinnate ; terminal 
leaflet -J-f in. diam., broadly ovate or rounded, sometimes obscurely 
lobed, closely and unequally sharply toothed ; lateral leaflets 



Gettjyi.] ROSACEA. 129 

6-8 pairs, gradually diminishing towards the base of the petiole, 
sharply toothed or incised ; cauline leaves or bracts few, deeply 
incised. Flowering-stems few or several, erect or spreading, strict, 
terete, clothed witli a short fine pubescence intermixed with long 
silky hairs, branched above, forming a few - flowered cymose 
panicle. Flowers small, white, -^-^ in. diam. ; pedicels elongating 
in fruit. Calyx-tube turbinate; lobes ovate-deltoid, acute. Petals 
small, rounded. Fruiting receptacle silky. Achenes numerous, 
spreading, yVin. long, perfectly glabrous, oblong-ovoid, somewhat 
turgid, narrowed into a short hooked or spirally recurved style. — 
Kirk, Students' Fl. 130. 

South Island : Nelson— Mount Arthur Plateau, T. F. C. ; Mount Mur- 
chison, W. Townson ! Canterbury — Broken River, Enys ! Otago — Upper Wai- 
pori, Mount Cardrona, Cambrians, Petrie ! Ben Lomond, near Queenstown, 
B. C. Aston ! Stewart Island : G. M. Thomson. 1000-4000 ft. 

Readily distinguished from all the preceding species by the smooth and 
glabrous achenes narrowed into a very short recurved style. 

6. G. pusillum, Petrie in Trans. N.Z. Inst, xxviii. (1896) 538. 
— Small, depressed, 1-2 in. high. Leaves few, all radical, rosu- 
late, obovate-spathulate in outline, f-l in. long, sparsely covered 
with rather long strigose hairs, pinnate; terminal leaflet ^-^in. 
broad, rounded, crenate-toothed ; lateral leaflets 5-8 pairs, gradu- 
ally diminishing in size, bluntly toothed. Scapes 1-2 in. high, 
1-flowered. simple, naked or with 1-3 minute bracts, finely and 
closely pubescent. Flowers minute, white. Calyx-tube broadly 
turbinate ; lobes ovate-deltoid. Petals 5-6, small, elliptic-oblong. 
Fruiting receptacle elongated, villous. Achenes very small, per- 
fectly glabrous, obliquely oblong or obovoid ; style minute, reduced 
to a recurved point. — Kirh, Students' Fl. 130. 

Sou-TH Island : Otago — Old Man Range, altitude 5000 ft., Petrie ! 

Allied to G. leiospermnm, but separated by the much reduced size, 
1-flowered scapes, smaller flowers, and minute achenes, the style of which is 
reduced to little more than a hooked point. 

3. POTENTILLA, Linn. 

Perennial herbs, rarely shrubs. Leaves either pinnate or digi- 
tately 3-5-foliolate ; stipules adnate to the petiole. Flowers soli- 
tary or in corymbose cymes. Calyx persistent, lobes 5 or rarely 4, 
valvate, alternating with as many bracteoles. Petals 5, rarely 4, 
usually broad. Stamens numerous. Disc annular or coating the 
calyx - tube. Carpels many, rarely few, seated on a small dry 
receptacle ; style persistent or deciduous, terminal or lateral ; 
ovule solitary, pendulous. Achenes usually numerous, crowded 
into a head surrounded by the persistent calyx. 

A large genus in the arctic and temperate portions of the Northern Hemi- 
sphere, extending into the mountains of the tropics, but extrenjely rare in the 
Southern Hemisphere. The New Zealand species is almost cosmopolitan. 
5— Fl. 



130 KosACE^. [Potentilla. 

1. P. anserina, Linn. Sp. Plant. 495. — Eootstock tufted, 
giving off long creeping runners rooting at the nodes. Leaves 
all radical, numerous, 2-6 in. long, unequally pinnate, green and 
glabrous or slightly silky above, white with appressed silvery 
tomentum beneath ; leaflets numerous, ^1 in. long, oblong or obo- 
vate or rounded, alternate ones often minute, deeply and sharply 
toothed or incised. Peduncles from the rootstock or rooting nodes, 
2-6 in. long, 1-flowered. Flowers ^1 in. diam., yellow. Calyx 
silky and villous ; lobes lanceolate or oblong ; bi-acteoles lobed and 
cut. Petals obovate. Achenes glabrous or nearly so ; receptacle 
villous.— floo/fc. /. Fl. Nov. Zcl. i. 54 ; Handh. N.Z. Fl. 54 ; Kirk, 
Students Fl. 131. 

Var. h, anserinoides. — Leaflets smaller, ^i in. long, sessile or petioled. — 
P. anserinoides, Raotil, Choix, 28. 

North and South Islands, Chathaji Islands : Common in moist 
places from the Auckland Isthmus southwards, ascending to nearly 3000 ft. 
Silver-weed. December-January. 

The typical form of the species is almost cosmopolitan ; the var. anser- 
inoides, which is often difificult to distinguish from it, is said to be endemic. It 
is much the most plentiful state in New Zealand. 

4. AC^NA, Lmn. 

Silky or glabrous perennial herbs ; stems erect at the tips, de- 
cumbent or ci'eeping at the base, or altogether prostrate. Leaves 
alternate, unequally pinnate ; leaflets toothed or incised ; stipules 
sheathing at the base, adnate to the petiole. Flowers hermaphro- 
dite or unisexual, small, crowded in a terminal globose head, or in 
an interrupted spike. Calyx-tube persistent, obconic or turbinate 
or campanulate, constricted at the mouth, terete or angled, naked 
or at length armed with simple or barbed spines ; lobes 3-7, 
valvate, persistent or deciduous. Petals wanting. Stamens 1-10, 
very rarely more. Carpels 1-2, wholly immersed in the calyx-tube ; 
style subterminal, short, exserted, dilated into a fimbriate or plu- 
mose stigma ; ovule solitary, pendulous. Achenes solitary or rarely 
2, enclosed in the hardened calyx, which is usually armed with 
subulate spines or bristles. Pericarp bony or membranous. 

Species about 35, widely spread in the temperate regions of the Southern 
Hemisphere, but most plentiful in Chili and Peru. One of the New Zealand 
species is found in Australia and Tasmania, and another in Fuegia and the 
Falkland Islands ; the remainder are all endemic. 

A. Calyx-tube not corn-pressed, dangled, usually luith a stout spine at each 
angle, rarely spineless. 
* Calyx-tube longer than broad. 

Usually silky. Heads large, f-lj in. ; spines long, red- 
purple. Achene narrowed at both ends .. . . 1. ^. nov(B-zealan- 

Usually silky. Heads J-f in. Achenes broadest near the diiB. 

base, narrowed upwards .. .. .. ..2. A. sangtiisorbcB. 

Usually glabrous ; leaves often glaucous. Heads ^-| in. 
Achenes narrowed at both ends . . . . . . 3. A. adscendens. 



Ac(Bna.] ROSACEA 131 

** Fruiting calyx broader than long. 

Glabrous or sparingly silky. Heads pedunculate or sessile ; 

spines bright-red, rarely wanting . . . . . . i. A microphylla. 

Usually densely villous. Leaves pale, often hoary. Heads 

sessile ; spines usually yellow .. .. .. 5. ^4. Buchanani. 

B. Calyx-ttibe much compressed, spineless. 
Perfectly glabrous. Heads large, J-f in. .. ..6. A. glabra. 

A. Huttoni, R. Br. {ter) in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xvi. (1884) 382, is the Euro- 
pean Potermm sanguisorba, Linn., which is sparingly naturalised in several 
parts of the colony. 

1. A. novse-zealandise, T. Kirk in Trans. N.Z. Inst. iii. (1871) 
177. — Stems prostrate, much branched, stout and woody at the 
base ; branches ascending or erect, leafy, silky or nearly glabrous. 
Leaves 1^-3 in. long, usually glabrous above, silky beneath; leaflets 
4-7 pairs, I— f in. long, oblong or elliptical, rounded at both ends, 
coarsely serrate. Peduncles stout, terminating the branches, 2-6in. 
long; heads globose, large, f-ljin. diam. in fruit. Calyx-tube 
narrow, obconic, 4-angled, pilose ; lobes 4, persistent. Stamens 
2-3. Fruiting-calyx narrow, 4-angled, slightly winged at the 
angles ; bristles 4, very long, reddish-purple, barbed at the end. 
Achene coriaceous, narrow linear-oblong, widest in the middle, 
tapering to both ends. — Students Fl. 133. A. macrantha, Gol. in 
Trans. N.Z. Inst, xxiii. (1891) 383. 

North and South Islands : Not uncommon from the Auckland Isthmus 
southwards. November- January. 

Very closely allied to ^4. sanguisorhcB, but a larger and coarser plant, with 
larger heads, longer purplish-red spines, and a longer and narrower achene. 
Mr. Kirk distinguishes a var. pallida, with paler foliage and the spines often 
greenish. 

2. A. sanguisorlbae, Vahl. Enuvi. i. 294. — Stems prostrate, 
much branched, often woody at the base ; branches leafy, ascending 
at the tips, more or less silky. Leaves very variable in size, 1-3 in. 
or more ; leaflets 3-6 pairs, J— | in. long, oblong or obovate or almost 
orbicular, membranous, deeply toothed or serrate, glabrous or 
nearly so above, silky-hairy beneath, the upper pairs usually longer 
than the lower. Peduncles slender, 2-6 in. long ; heads globose, 
^— |in. diam. in fruit. Calyx-lobes 4, persistent. Stamens 2. 
Stigma broad, fimbriate. Fruiting-calyx 4-angled, with a long 
barbed bristle at each angle. Achene narrow, broadest below the 
middle, tapering to the apex. — A. Cunn. Precur. n. 566; Baoul, 
Choix, 49 ; Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 54 ; Eandh. N.Z. Fl. 56 ; 
Benth. Fl. Austral, ii. 434; Kirk, Students' Fl. 133. Ancistrum 
anserinaefolium, Forst. Char. Gen. 4. A. diandrum, Forst. Prodr. 
n. 52. 

Var. pilosa, Kirk, I.e. — Leaves white with appressed silky hairs ; teeth 
coarser. — Ancistrum decumbens, Gcertn. Fruct. i. 163, t. .32. 



132 KOSACB^. [AccBfia. 

Kermadec Islands, North and South Islands, Stewart Island, 
Chatham Islands, Auckland, Campbell, Antipodes, and Macquarie Islands : 
Abundant throughout, from sea-level to 3500 ft.; the var. pilosa usually sub- 
alpine. Firipiri. November-February. Also in Australia, Tasmania, 
and Tristan d'Acunha. 

A well-known plant. The heads or " burrs " are often troublesome to sheep- 
farmers from the readiness with which they adhere to wool. 

3. A. adscendens, Vahl. Enum. i. 297. — Stems stout, pro- 
strate, much branched ; branches leafy, erect or ascending at the 
tips, glabrous or sparingly hairy. Leaves 2-4 in. long; leaflets 4-6 
pairs, i— |in. long, ovate or obovate or rounded, obtuse, mem- 
branous, often glaucous, coarsely and deeply toothed sometimes half- 
way to the midrib ; teeth often tipped with a pencil of silky hairs. 
Peduncles stout, strict, 4-8 in. long, glabrous or slightly pubescent; 
heads ^— |in. diam. in fruit. Calyx-tube silky, obconic ; lobes 4, 
persistent. Stamens 2. Stigma fimbriate. Fruiting-calyx narrow- 
obconic, 4-angled ; bristles 4, short and stout, barbed at the tip. 
Achene tapering to both ends. — Hook. f. Fl. Antarct. i. 10; ii. 268, 
t. 96; Handh. N.Z. FL 56; Kirk, Students' Fl. 133. 

South Island : Not uncommon in mountain districts, altitude 2000- 
5000ft. Macquarie Island : At sea-level, Fraser,Prof. Scott. 

This is very closely allied to A. kangtiisorhce , but can usually be distin- 
guished by the more glabrous habit, rounder glaucous and more deeply toothed 
leaflets, long stout peduncles, and short stout bristles. The stems and 
peduncles are often reddish-purple. 

4. A. microphylla, Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 55. — Stems pro- 
strate, much branched, often forming extensive patches ; branches 
short, slender, glabrous or nearly so. Leaves |— 2 in. long, glabrous 
or sparingly silky, often glaucous, membranous ; leaflets 3-6 pairs, 
|— Jm. long, broadly ovate or rounded, deeply inciso-serrate or 
creuate, cuneate or rounded at the base. Heads globose, variable 
in size, ^— |in. diam. in fruit, on slender peduncles 1-3 in. long or 
sessile. Calyx-tube silky or glabrous, broadly turbinate ; lobes 4, 
persistent. Stamens 2. Fruiting-calyx short, broader than long, 
4-angled, slightly winged at the angles ; bristles 4, stout, spread- 
ing, bright-red, often wanting. Achenes usually 2, bony. — Handb. 
N.Z. Fl. 56 ; Kirk, Students Fl. 134. 

Var. depressa, Kirk, I.e. — Branches closely appressed to the ground. 
Leaves smaller. Heads few-flowered, sessile or very shortly peduncled. — 
A. depressa. Kirk in Trans. N.Z. Inst. ix. (1877) 548. 

Var. inermis, Kirk, I.e. — Leaves longer, 1-4 in. long, usually glaucous; 
leaflets ^-J in. Fruiting-calyx without bristles. — A. inermis. Hook. f. Fl. Nov. 
Zel. i. 54 ; Handh. N.Z. Fl. 57. 

North and South Islands : Not uncommon in mountain districts from 
the East Cape southwards Sea-level to 3500 ft. November-January. 

A very variable plant. I agree with Mr. Kirk in uniting A. depi-essa and 
A. inermis with it. The length of the peduncle is a very variable character, 
and heads with or without bristles can easily be found on the same plant. Mr. 
Kirk states that the achene is solitary, but I find usually two in each fruiting- 
calyx, as described by Hooker. 



AccBua.] ROSACEA. 133 

5. A. Buchanani, Hook. f. Handb. N.Z. Fl. 57. — Stems and 
branches numerous, prostrate, closely appressed to the ground ; 
young ones more or less villous with silky hairs. Leaves -^1 in. 
long, hoary or silky, sometimes densely so ; leaflets 3-6 pairs, 
broadly oblong-ovate or rounded, deeply minutely toothed. Heads 
small, 3-10-flowered, sessile. Calyx-tube broadly turbinate, 
4:-angled, densely villous ; lobes 4, persistent. Stamens 2. Stigma 
fimbriate. Fruiting-calyx short and broad, 4-angled and ridged, 
pilose ; bristles 4, stout, spreading, yellow, usually hairy above or 
barbed. Achenes 1 or 2, bony. — Kirk, Students Fl. 134. 

South Island : Otago — Lake District, Hector and Buchanan ! upper part 
of the Clutha Valley, Petrie ! 

This can be recognised by the small size, pale-greyish colour, villous leaves 
and branches, small sessile heads, and yellow bristles. 

6. A. glabra, Bitch, in Trans. N.Z. Inst. iv. (1872) 226, t. 14. 
— Everywhere perfectly glabrous. Stems much branched, prostrate, 
stout and woody at the base ; branches erect or ascending, leafy. 
Leaves f— IJin. long; leaflets 3-4 pairs, ^-^in. long, obovate or 
oblong-obovate, cuneate at the base, deeply and coarsely toothed. 
Peduncles 2-5 in. long, stout ; heads globose, -|— fin. diam., often 
unisexual. Calyx- tube much compressed, the lateral angles pro- 
duced into a broad wing-like process on each side ; lobes 4, broad, 
persistent. Male flowers with 20-40 stamens ; females with 1 or 2 ; 
stigma fimbriate. Fruiting-calyx always unarmed, red. Achene 
narrow, tapering to both ends. — Kirk, Students' Fl. 134. 

South Island: Nelson— Wairau Gorge, Rough, T. F. C; Upper Clarence 
Valley, Kirk ! T. F. G. ; Lake Guyon, H. H. Travers ! Marlborough— Mount 
Mouatt and Awatere Valley, Eir-k ! Canterbury — Mount Torlesse, Petrie ! 
Broken River, T. F. C. Otago -Mount Ida, Pebie ! mountains above Lake 
Harris, Kirk. 2500-4500 ft. January-February. 

A very distinct species, easily recognised by the perfectly glabrous habit and 
large unarmed heads. It differs from all the other species of the genus in the 
numerous stamens of the male flowers. 

Oeder XXIV. SAXIFRAGE-^. 

Trees, shrubs, or herbs. Leaves alternate or opposite, simple 
or compound, stipulate or exstipulate. Flowers usually regular and 
hermaphrodite. Calyx free or adnate to the ovary, lobes 4-5, 
imbricate or valvate. Petals 4-5, rarely wanting, imbricate or 
valvate. Stamens as many or twice as many as the petals, rarely 
more, perigynous or epigynous, very rarely hypogynous. Disc 
usually present between the stamens and the ovary, very various 
in shape. Ovary free or more or less adnate to the calyx-tube, 
usually 2-5-celled with 2-5 axile or parietal placentas ; styles as 
many as the cells, free or more or less united ; ovules numerous, 
anatropous, erect or pendulous. Fruit usually capsular, more rarely 
succulent and indehiscent. Seeds usually small, numerous ; albu- 
men generally copious, rarely absent ; embryo terete, usually small. 



134 SAXiFEAGE^. [Douatia. 

A large and polymorphous order, very difficult to define. The herbaceous 
genera are mainly found in the temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere, 
or on the mountains of the tropics ; the arborescent ones have their headquarters 
in South America or Australia, with a few outlying species in Africa or Asia. 
Genera about 75 ; species under 600. The properties of the order are unim- 
portant. Of the 6 genera found in New Zealand, Carpodetus and Ixerba are 
monotypic and endemic ; Ackania and Qiiintinia extend to Australia ; Doiiatia 
has one species in New Zealand and Tasmania, and another in Fuegia ; while 
^VeinnM7inia has a wide distribution in warm climates. 

* Herbs, forming compact patches. Leaves densely imbricate. Flowers 
solitary, sessile. 

Flowers white, J in. diam. Calyx-lobes and petals 5. 

Stamens 2. Ovary inferior, 2-3-celIed . . . . 1. Donatia. 

** Trees. Leaves alternate, simple, exstipulate. Stamens usually as many 
as the petals. 
Flowers racemose, small. Petals imbricate. Ovary in- 
ferior . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. QUINTINIA. 

Flowers panicled, large. Petals imbricate. Ovary superior 3. Ixerba. 
Flowers panicled, small. Petals valvate. Ovary inferior 4. Carpodetus. 

*** Trees. Leaves opposite, stipulate. Stamens usually twice as many as 
the petals. 

Flowers panicled. Calyx valvate . . . . . . 5. Ackama. 

Flowers racemose. Calyx imbricate . . . . . . 6. Weinma:nnia. 

1. DONATIA, Forst. 
Small densely tufted herbs, forming hard compact masses. 
Leaves densely imbricated, linear, coriaceous, quite entire. Flowers 
terminal, solitary, sessile, white. Calyx-tube adnata to the ovary, 
obconic ; lobes 5-7, equal or unequal. Petals 5-10, linear or ovate. 
Stamens 2 or 3, inserted on the middle of an epigynous disc, and 
adnate to the base of the styles ; filaments subulate or filiform ; 
anthers didymous, extrorse. Ovary inferior, 2- or 3-celled ; styles 
2 or 3, short and thick or subulate, recurved ; stigmas simple or 
capitellate ; ovules numerous, aflixed to placentas which are pendu- 
lous from the inner angle of the cells. Capsule turbmate, indehis- 
cent, 2- or 3-celled. Seeds few in each cell, pendulous, obliquely 
ovoid ; testa membranous ; albumen fleshy ; embryo small, remote 
from the hilum. 

A genus of two species, one found in New Zealand and Tasmania, the other 
a native of Fuegia. Its exact systematic position is very doubtful; it was re- 
ferred to Saxifragece by Hooker, who, however, also pointed out its affinity 
with the StylidlecE, with which it agrees in the stamens being placed on the 
centre of an epigynous disc, in the extrorse anthers, and in the placentation. 
It was removed to that order by the late Baron Mueller (" Nuovo Giornale 
Botanico Italiano," xi., July, 1879). On the other hand, both Baillon and 
Engler retain it among the Saxifrages, the latter (" Naturlichen Pflanzenfami- 
lien," Teil iii. Abt. ii.a, p. 67) constituting it a new subsection of the order. 

1. D. novae-zealandise, Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 81, t. 20. — 

Stems short, 1-3 in. high, densely tufted, forming broad compact 
masses in mountain-bogs. Leaves very numerous, imbricated in 
many series and clothing the entire stem and branches, erect, 



Donatia.] saxifrages. 185 

appressed, ^ in. long, subacute, shining, veinless, very thick and 
coriaceous, villous at the base. Flowers -J- in. diam., sunk amongst 
the uppermost leaves. Calyx-lobes 5, ovate, acute. Petals 5, quite 
free, ovate-oblong, obtuse, thick and fleshy. Stamens 2. Styles 2, 
short and thick, recurved. Capsule -^ in. long. — Handb. N.Z. FL 
58; Benth. FL. Austral, ii. 450; F. Muell. Fragm. viii. 41. 

North Island: Mount Holdsworth, Tararua Range, W. Toiunsonl South 
Island : Not uncommon in alpine bogs throughout. Stewaet Island : Petrie ! 
Kirk ! Most abundant between 3000 and 5000 ft., but descends almost to sea- 
level on Stewart Island. December-March. 

2. QUINTINIA, A. D.C. 

Shrubs or trees. Leaves alternate, coriaceous, exstipulate. 
Flowers small, in axillary or terminal many -flowered racemes. 
Calyx -tube obconic, adnate to the ovary; teeth 5, persistent. 
Petals 5, imbricate, deciduous. Stamens 5, filaments subulate. 
Ovary inferior, 3- 5 -celled, the free summit broadly conical, 
narrowed into a persistent 3-5-grooved style; stigma capitate, 
3-5-lobed ; ovules numerous. Capsule small, inferior or half- 
superior, coriaceous, obovoid, 1- celled, 3-5-valved, the valves 
separating up the furrows of the style. Seeds numerous, ascend- 
ing ; testa loose, winged. 

In addition to the two following species, which are endemic in New Zealand, 
there are three others in Australia. 

Leaves 3-6 in., linear-lanceolate to oblong .. ..1. Q. s errata. 

Leaves 3-8 in., obovate or •elliptic-oblong .. ..2. Q. acutifolia. 

1. Q. serrata, A. Cunn. Precur. u. 515. — A small tree 15-30 ft. 
high ; branchlets, leaves, and racemes covered with minute lepidote 
scales, viscid when young. Leaves coriaceous, yellow-brown or 
reddish-brown when dry, 2-6 in. long, linear-lanceolate or linear- 
oblong or oblong, shortly petiolate, remotely and irregularly sinuate- 
serrate, acute or subacute, margins undulate. Eacemes 2-4 in. long, 
erect, strict, axillary, many-flowered; pedicels short, i-in. Flowers 
pale-lilac, ^ in. diam. Capsule woody, i-in. long. — Hook. Ic. Plant. 
t. 558 ; Baotd, Choix, 47 ; Hook. f. FL Nov. Zel. i. 78 ; Handb. JS.Z. 
Fl. 58 ; Kirk, Forest Fl. t. 125'; Students Fl. 137. Q. elhptica, 
Hook.f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 78; Handb. N.Z. Fl. 59. 

North Island : Common in forests from Mongonui to Taranaki and 
Hawke's Bay. Sea-level to 3500 ft. Tawheowheo. October-November. 

Very variable in the size and shape of the leaves. On high mountain-ranges 
they become shorter, broader, and more obtuse, and the plant is then probably 
identical with Hooker's Q. ellvptica. This is said to have elliptic or elliptic- 
lanceolate entire and obtuse leaves, and was collected in some locality on the 
East Coast by Colenso. 

2. Q. acutifolia, T. Kirk, Students' Fl. 137. — A small tree 
20-40 ft. high, with a trunk 1-2 ft. diam. Branchlets, leaves, and 
racemes viscid and clothed with lepidote scales. Leaves much 
broader and thinner than in Q. serrata, 3-7 in. long, 1-2 in. broad, 



136 SAXiPRAGE-ffi. [Quintinia. 

obovate or obovate-oblong or elliptic-oblong, rarely oblong- or 
elliptic-lanceolate, narrowed into a short stout petiole, acute or 
subacute, remotely and often obscurely sinuate-serrate. Racemes 
2-4 in. long, always much shorter than the leaves. Flowers much 
as in Q. serrata, but filaments usually shorter, Capsule slightly 
larger. — Q. serv&ta. var. b, Hook. f. Hanclh. N.Z. Fl. 59; Kirk, 
Forest Fl. t. 125, f. 6, 7. 

North Island : Little Barrier Island, T. F. C. ; East Cape, Bishop Wil- 
liams ! South Island : West Coast, from CoUingwood to Hokitika, Travers, 
Kirk ! Helms ! T. F. C. 

An exceedingly puzzling plant. It is certainly connected by numerous 
intermediates with the typical state of Q. serrata, but its extreme forms appear 
much too distinct to admit of the two species being united. It is abundant on 
the Little Barrier Island, where the leaves attain an extreme length of Sin. by a 
breadth of 2J in. Southern specimens have smaller and more elliptic leaves. 

3. IXERBA, A. Cunn. 

A small glabrous tree. Leaves opposite, alternate or whorled, 
exstipulate. Flowers white, in terminal panicles. Calyx - tube 
short, adnate to the base of the ovary ; lobes 5, imbricate, deci- 
duous. Petals 5, inserted beneath a 5-lobed disc, obovate, clawed, 
imbricate. Stamens 5, alternating with the lobes of the disc ; fila- 
ments filiform. Ovary superior, conical, 5-iobed, 5-celled, narrowed 
into a subulate twisted 5-fui'rowed style ; stigma acute ; ovules 2 in 
each cell, collateral. Capsule coriaceous, broadly ovoid, 5-celled, 
loculicidally 5-valved ; valves extending through the style, ulti- 
mately recurved, cohering below, 2-partite above. Seeds large, 
oblong, compressed, shining ; funicle thick ; embryo large ; albu- 
men very scanty. 

A well-marked monotypic genus, confined to New Zealand. 

1. I. lbrexioid.es, A. Cunn. Precur. n. 580. — A small branching 
tree 20-50 ft. high, rarely more, with a trunk 1-2 ft. diam. Leaves 
3-6 in. long, ^-1 in. broad, linear or linear-lanceolate, coriaceous, 
glabrous, acute or subacute, obtusely serrate ; teeth tipped by a 
gland. Flowers large, l-l^in. diam.; pedicels jointed, silky. 
Calyx-lobes broadly ovate, silky. Capsule fin. diam. — Hook. Ic. 
Plant, t. 577, 578 ; Eaoul, Choix, 44 ; Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zcl. i. 82; 
Handb. N.Z. Fl. 59 ; Kirk, Forest Fl. t. 48 ; Students' Fl. 138. 

North Island : Hilly forests from Ahipara and Maungataniwha to the 
northern part of Hawke's Bay. Ascends to 3000 ft. Taivari. November- 
December. 

A remarkably handsome tree. The wood is hard and dense, and probably 
durable, but I as been little used. 

4. CARPODETUS, Forst. 

A shrub or small tree. Leaves alternate, petiolate, exstipulate. 
Flowers small, white, in axillary a,nd terminal cymose panicles. 



Carpodetus.] saxifrages. 137 

Calyx-tube turbinate, adnate to the ovary ; lobes 5-6, small, 
deciduous. Petals 5-6, inserted under the margin of an epigynous 
disc, spreading, valvate. Stamens 5-6, inserted with the petals ; 
filaments shore, subulate ; anthers oblong. Ovary inferior with a 
free rounded summit, 3-5-celled ; style slender; stigma capitate; 
ovules numerous. Fruit globose, almost fleshy, indehiscent, girt 
round the middle by the cicatrix of the calyx-limb, 3-5-celled. 
Seeds numerous, sn^iall, pendulous ; testa coriaceous, pitted ; 
embryo very small ; albumen fleshy. 

The genus is limited to a single species, endemic in New Zealand. 

1. 0. serratus, Forst. Char. Gen. 34, t. 17a. — A shrub or small 
tree 15-30 ft. high, with a trunk 6-9 in. diam. ; branches often 
flattened, spreading ; young twigs, leaves, petioles, and inflores- 
cence more or less pubescent. Leaves 1-2 in. long, ovate-oblong 
or elliptical, acute or obtuse, sharply and coarsely serrate, nar- 
rowed into a petiole |— |-in. long; in young plants often panduri- 
forra or irregularly lobed. Panicles broad, many-flowered, shorter 
than the leaves. Flowers iin. diam., white, very abundantly pro- 
duced. Capsule about the size of a small pea, black and shining 
when fully ripe. — A. Bich. Fl. Nouv. Zel. 366 ; A. Cunn. Precur. 
n. 575 ; Hook. Ic. Plant, t. 564 ; Baoul, Choix, 50 ; Hook. f. Fl. 
Nov. Zel. i. 78 ; Handb. N.Z. FL 59; Kirk, Forest Fl. t. 47 ; Stu- 
dents' Fl. 138. 

North and South Islands, Stewart Island : Not uncommon from the 
North Cape southwards ; most plentiful in alluvial ground, by the banks of 
rivers, &c. Ascends to 3000 ft. Piripiriwhata ; Putaputawheta. No- 
vember- J anuary . 

Wood strong and tough, but not durable ; sometimes used for axe- 
handles, &c. 

5. ACKAMA, A. Cunn. 

Small trees. Leaves opposite, pinnate, stipulate. Flowers 
small, unisexual, in compound panicles. Calyx-tube short, lobes 
5, ovate-triangular, persistent, valvate. Petals 5, inserted under 
the margin of a perigynous disc, scarcely longer than the calyx. 
Stamens 10, inserted with the petals ; filaments filiform, the 
alternate ones longer ; anthers didymous. Ovary free, 2-ceIled ; 
styles 2, persistent ; ovules numerous in each cell. Capsule 
small, coriaceous, turgid, 2-celled, septicidally 2-valved. Seeds 
ovoid, apiculate, hairy ; embryo cylindric, in the axis of fleshy 
albumen. 

Besides the New Zealand species, which is endemic, there is another from 
Australia. The genus only differs from Weinmaimia in the paniculate in- 
florescence and valvate calyx. 

1. A. rosaefolia, A. Cunn. Precur. n. 520. — A handsome small 
tree 20-40 ft. higii, with a trunk 1-2 ft. diam. ; branchlets, leaves, 
petioles, and inflorescence more or less covered with short brownish 



138 SAXIFRAGES. [Ackama. 

pubescence. Leaves 3-10 in. long, imparipinnate ; leaflets 3-8 pairs, 
1-3 in. long, narrow-oblong to elliptical, sessile or very shortly 
petioled, acute, acutely serrate, membranous, upper larger than the 
lower ; stipules large, leafy, toothed, deciduous. Panicles much 
branched, many - flowered, longer or shorter than the leaves. 
Flowers unisexual, minute, xV in. diam., sessile on the slender 
branches of the panicle. Ovary densely pilose. Capsule very 
small, -Jin. long, sparingly silky when mature. — Baoul, Ghoix, 47; 
Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 79; Bandh. N.Z. Fl. 60; Kirk, Forest 
Fl. t. 63 ; Students'' Fl. 139. Weinmannia rosaefolia, A. Gray, Bot. 
U.S. Expl. Exped. 671, t. 84. 

North Island : From Kaitaia and Mongonui southwards to Whangarei, 
not common. Makaviaka. September-October. 

6. WEINMANNIA, Linn. 

Shrubs or trees. Leaves opposite, petiolate, simple or 3-folio- 
late or imparipinnate, stipulate. Flowers in terminal or axillary 
racemes. Calyx inferior, divided almost to the base into 4-5 im- 
bricate segments. Petals 4-5, inserted under the margin of a 
perigynous disc. Stamens 8-10, inserted with the petals. Ovary 
free, ovoid or conic, 2-celled, 2-beaked ; styles 2, subulate ; ovules 
few or many in each cell, pendulous. Capsule small, coriaceous, 
2-celled, septicidally 2-valved. Seeds oblong or reniform or sub- 
globose, often hairy ; embryo terete ; albumen fleshy. 

A rather large genus of over 50 species, distributed through the Malay 
Archipelago, Madagascar and the Mauritius, tropical South America, Polynesia, 
and Australia. The two New Zealand species are both endemic. 

Branchlets usually pubescent. Leaves of mature trees 

3-foliolate or pinnate . . . . . . .. 1. W. sylvicola. 

Branchlets usually glabrous. Leaves of mature trees 1-fo- 

liolate . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. W. racemosa. 

1. W. sylvicola, Sol. ex A. Cunyi. Precur. n. 518. — An erect 
tree, usually from 25 to 50 ft. high, sometimes taller and reaching 
60-70 ft. ; trunk 1-3 ft. diam. ; branchlets, petioles, and midribs of 
the leaves and inflorescence more or less pubescent or almost 
glabrous. Leaves 3-foliolate or imparipinnate, rarely 1-foliolate ; 
leaflets 1 to 4 or 5 pairs or more, 1-2 in. long, obovate-oblong 
or ovate-oblong to lanceolate, narrowed below, acute or acu- 
minate, coarsely serrate. Leaves of young trees pinnate, v^ith 
numerous membranous leaflets ; of old ones usually 3-foliolate, 
coriaceous. Stipules leafy, entire or toothed. Eacemes 1-4 in. 
long, often numerous towards the ends of the branches, sometimes 
branched. Flowers very numerous, small, J-g i^^- diam., white or 
pale-rose. Capsule usually glabrous, ^-^^in. long. Seeds minute, 
with a tuft of hairs at each end. — BaoiU, Ghoix, 47 ; Hook. f. Fl. 
Nov. Zel. i. 79; Bandh. N.Z. Fl. 60 ; Kirk, Forest Fl. t. 72 ; Stu- 
dents Fl. 140. W. betulina and W. fuchsioides, A. Gunn. Precur. 
n. 516, 517. 



Weinviamiia.] saxifeage^. 139 

North Island : Abundant in forests as far south as the Bast Cape and 
Taupo, ascending to 3000 ft. Taivhero. December-April. 

An exceedingly variable plant. The bark is largely used for tanning. 

2. W. racemosa, Linn. f. Suppl. 227. — A. taller tree than 
W. sylvicola, frequently from 50-80 ft. high or more, with a trunk 
1-4 ft. diam. ; glabrous when mature, except the raceme, which is 
pubescent. Leaves of young plants pinnately 3-5-foliolate, thin 
and membranous, often pubescent ; of mature plants 1-foliolate, 
1-4 in. long, oblong-lanceolate or oblong-ovate to orbicular-ovate, 
obtuse or subacute, coarsely and obtusely serrate, very coriaceous, 
quite glabrous. Racemes 1-4 in. long, axillary and terminal, some- 
times branched ; rachis pubescent ; pedicels stout. Flowers nu- 
merous, very similar to those of W. sylvicola but rather larger. 
Ovary pubescent. Capsule ^in. long, 2-3-valved. Seeds hairy. — 
Forst. Prodr. n. 173 ; A. Bich. t'l. Nouv. Zel. 321 ; Hook. f. Fl. Nov. 
Zel. 1. 80; Handb. N.Z. Fl. 61 ; Kirk, Forest Fl. t. 73; Students' 
Fl. 140. Leiospermum racemosum, Don. in Edinh. N. Phil. Journ. 
1830, 91; A. Gunn. Precur. n. 519. 

North and South Islands, Stewart Island : Plentiful in forests from 
the Thames Goldfields and middle Waikato southwards. Sea-level to 3000 ft. 
Towai ; Kaviahi. December-January. 

Very closely allied to W. sylvicola, but can generally be separated by the 
larger 1-foliolate leaves of the mature stage. 

Order XXV. CRASSULACE-ffi. 

Succulent or fleshy herbs or undershrubs. Leaves opposite or 
alternate, generally simple ; stipules wanting. Flowers regular, 
hermaphrodite or rarely unisexual. Calyx persistent, free, usually 
3-5-fid or -partite. Petals as many as the sepals, free or more or 
less cohermg into a lobed corolla, inserted at the base of the calyx. 
Stamens as many or twice as many as the petals, inserted with the 
petals and sometimes adnate to them. Ovary superior, of as many 
carpels as petals ; carpels free or connate below, 1-celled, usually 
with a small gland or scale at the base of each ; styles simple ; 
ovules usually numerous, attached to the ventral suture (few in 
Ttllcsa). Fruit of several 1-celled follicles, dehiscing along the 
ventral suture. Seeds few or many, minute, albuminous ; embryo 
terete, cotyledons short. 

A rather large order, spread over the whole world except Polynesia. Particu- 
larly abundant in South Africa, where nearly half the species are found ; also 
plentiful in the rocky districts of Europe and central Asia ; rare in Australii* 
and South America. Genera about 15 ; species estimated at 400. All the 
species are inert, and are of little importance from an economic point of view. 
The single New Zealand genus is almost cosmopolitan. 



TILLiEA, L 



mn. 



Small and slender somewhat succulent glabrous herbs. Leaves 
opposite, entire. Flowers minute, axillary, solitary or fascicled, 



140 



CKASSULACE^. 



[Tillaa. 



sometimes cymose. Calyx 3-5-lobed or -partite. Petals 3-5, free 
or connate at the base. Stamens the same number as the petals. 
Hypogynous scales 1 to each carpel or wanting. Carpels 3-5, nar- 
rowed into short styles; ovules 1 or more to each carpel. Follicles 
few- or many-seeded. 

An almost cosmopolitan genus, comprising about 25 species. Two of those 
found in New Zealand also occur in Australia, and another in temperate South 
America, the Falkland Islands, and Kerguelen Island. Several of the New 
Zealand species are imperfectly known, and require careful study with recent 
specimens before satisfactory diagnoses can be prepared. 

* A small scale at the base of each carpel. 
Stems 2-7 in., red-brown. Leaves ^-^iu., oblong-spathu- 

late. Flowers large, J-^ in. diam. 
Stems 2-4 in., reddish. Leaves J-|in., linear, acute. 

Flowers Jj-jijj in. .. 
Stems 1-3 in., reddish, slender, matted. Leaves jij-Jin., 

linear-oblong, obtuse. Flowers Jg- in. 
Minute, delicate, matted, often less than 1 in. high. 

Leaves linear-oblong, fleshy, concave, sV^i^i^- Flowers 

white, ^^^ in. . . 
Prostrate and rooting, intricately branched, matted. 

Leaves thin, obtuse or subacute, ^-^ in. Petals 

rather longer than the calyx 
Prostrate and rooting, intricately branched. Leaves thin, 

acute or apiculate, ^-^^ in. Petals shorter than the calyx 
Stems decumbent and ascending, red-purple, f-2in. 

Leaves ovate-subulate, fleshy, concave. Flowers jLy-i in. 

Seeds 8 . . 

** No scales. 
^ terns erect, simple or branched, red-brown, 1-5 in. 
Leaves oblong, subacute, fleshy. Flowers minute, in 
dense leafy clusters . . . . . . . . %. T. Sieberiana. 

Stems delicate, intricately branched, prostrate, 2-3 in. 
Leaves linear-oblong, acute, ^-^ in. Petals ovate- 
acuminate . . . . . . . . . . 9. T. debilis. 

Minute, delicate, tufted, ^-2 in. high. Peduncles slender, 

much elongated in fruit. Carpels many-seeded . . 10. T. pnrimrata. 

T. Hamiltonii, T. Kirk ex W. Hamilton in Trans. N.Z. Inst, xvii (1885) 
92, is Tetrachondra Hamiltonii, Petrie ex Oliv. in Ic. Plant, t. 2250 (order 
Boraginece). 

1. T. moschata, D.C. Prodr. iii. 382-. — A small tufted succu- 
lent red-brown herb ; stems 2-7 in. long, prostrate and rooting 
below, erect or ascending at the tips. Leaves connate at the 
base, thick and fleshy, i— |-in. long, oblong-spathulate or linear- 
obovate or linear-oblong, obtuse. Flowers ^yin. diam., axillary, 
solitary; peduncles short. Calyx deeply 4-lobed; lobes obtuse, 
much shorter than the oblong obtuse petals. Scales 4, linear- 
cuneate, truncate at the tip. Carpels 4, turgid, obtuse ; styles 
short, recurved. Seeds 6-8, rarely more. — Hook. Ic. Plant, t. 535 ; 
Hook.f. FL Nov. Zel. i. 76; Handb. N.Z. FL 61; Kirk, Students 
Fl. 142. Bulliarda moschata, D'Urv. in Mem. Soc. Linn. Par. iv. 
618 ; Hook. f. Fl. Antarct. i. 13. 



1. T. moschata. 

2. T. Helmsii. 

3. T. diffusa. 

4. T. Sinclairii. 

5. T. pusilla. 

6. T. acutifolia. 

7. T. multicaulis. 



Tillcea.] CRASSULACE^. 141 

North Island : Shores of Cook Strait, from Cape Palliser to Cape 
Terawhiti. South Island : Queen Charlotte Sound, Banks and Solander ! 
Coast near Westport, W. Townson ! Banks Peninsula, Armstrong. Otago — 
Cliffs on the eastern and southern shores, Petrie ! Kirk ! Chatham Islands, 
Stewart Island, Auckland and Campbell Islands, Antipodes Islands, 
Macquarie Island : Not uncommon. 

This is purely a coast plant, and is never seen far from the sea. It is also 
a native of Chili, Fuegia, Falkland Islands, Kerguelen Island, and Marion 
Island. 

2. T. Helmsii, T. Kirk, Students Fl. 142. — Stems numerous, 
often forming large intricate patches, slender, 2-6 in. long, pro- 
strate at the base, ascending above, green or reddish-green. 
Leaves rather distant, ^i in. long, linear, acute. Flowers jV^in i^- 
diam., axillary, solitary, on peduncles shorter than the leaves. 
Calyx deeply 4-lobed ; lobes ovate, acute. Petals a third longer than 
the calyx, ovate-oblong, subacute. Scales 1 at the back of each 
carpel, narrow linear-cuneate. Carpels 4, turgid, about as long as 
the calyx ; styles short, recurved. Seeds 3-5. 

South Island: West Coast— Karamea, Rev. F. H. Spencer; Westport, 
W. Townson ! Greymouth, R. Helms ! December-March. 

Very near to the Australian T. recurva, Hook, f., which, however, is a 
larger plant, with more pointed leaves, and with the calyx-lobes and petals 
decidedly acuminate. It is easily distinguished from T. moschata by the more 
slender habit, narrower acute leaves, and smaller flowers. 

3. T. diffusa, T. Kirk in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xxiv. (1892) 424. 
— A slender much-branched matted plant forming broad reddish 
patches. Stems filiform, erect or prostrate, 1-3 in. long. Leaves 
in distant pairs, fleshy, connate at the base, j-V"! i^^- long, 
linear-oblong, obtuse, concave above, convex beneath. Flow^ers 
minute, about -^^in. diam., solitary, on very short axillary pe- 
duncles. Calyx-lobes 4, broadly oblong, obtuse. Petals equalling 
the calyx-lobes or rather longer, broadly oblong, obtuse. Scales 4, 
cuneate. Carpels ovoid ; styles recurved. Seeds 2-4. — Students' 
Fl. 144. 

North Island : Miramar, Port Nicholson, Kirk ! Stewart Island : 
Kirk ! 

Mr. Kirk states that the scales are absent ; but I find them to be constantly 
present, although difficult to detect except in young flowers. 

4. T. Sinclairii, Hook. f. Handb. N.Z. Fl. 62.— A minute deli- 
cate creeping or erect usually matted plant, rarely more than lin. 
high except when growing in water, when the stems are often 
elongated, and the leaves larger. Leaves minute, closely placed or 
distant, connate at the base, aV-jV i"^- long, linear or linear-oblong, 
acute or subacute, concave above, convex or almost keeled beneath. 
Flowers on short or long axillary peduncles, minute, Jj— J^i^i- 
diam., white. Calyx-lobes ovate-oblong, obtuse. Petals about 
twice as long as the calyx-lobes, oblong, obtuse. Scales 4, linear- 



142 CRAssuLACE^. [Till(za. 

cuneate. Carpels 4, turgid ; styles oblique, slightly recurved. 
Seeds 3-4, rarely more. — Kirk, Students' Fl. 142. T. novae-zea- 
landiae, Petrie in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xxv. (1893) 270; Kirk, I.e. 142. 

Var. obtusa. — Stems stouter, creeping, 1-2 in. long or more. Leaves 
longer, more acute. Flowers rather larger ; petals rounded. — T. novae-zea- 
landise var. obtusa, Kirk, I.e. 

North Island : Matata, Bay of Plenty, Petrie ! South Island : Nelson 
to Southland, not uncommon in watery places. Sea-level to 3000ft. Var. 
obtusa : Lake Waihola, Otago, Petrie ! 

I have felt compelled to reduce Mr. Petrie's T. novce-zealandice to this 
species. The type specimens in his herbarium only differ from the ordinary 
state of T. Smclairii in being stouter, with tliicker and more acute leaves ; but 
these are not characters on which a specific distinction can be based. The 
flowers and fruit appear identical in both. 

5. T. pusilla, T. Kirk, Students' Fl. 143. — Stems numerous, 
very slender and delicate, prostrate and rooting, 1-3 in. long, form- 
ing broad pale-green matted patches. Leaves minute, in distant 
pairs, connate at the base, xV^rtr ^^- ^°^g' linear or linear-lanceo- 
late, obtuse or acute, spreading or reflexed, thin. Flowers minute,. 
Jg-in. diam. ; peduncles longer or shorter than the leaves. Calyx- 
lobes ovate-oblong, acute. Petals rather longer, acute or subacute. 
Stamens equalling the petals. Scales 4, linear-cuneate. Carpels 
4, turgid ; styles recurved. Seeds 2-4. 

North Island : Muddy banks of the Northern Wairoa, T. F. C. ; Kawa- 
kawa. Bay of Islands, Kirk ; Wairoa Falls, Hunua, Kirk ! T. F. C! Petrie ! 

Distinguished from T. Sinclairii by the different habit, longer much- 
branched stems, more distant thin and pointed leaves, and shorter narrower 
petals. 

6. T. acutifolia, T. Kirk, Students' Fl. 143. — Stems very slen- 
der, almost capillary, prostrate and rooting, much and intricately 
branched, forming pale-green matted patches. Leaves minute, 
in distant pairs, connate at the base, yV^ts i'^- lo^^g' narrow-linear 
or linear-lanceolate, acute or apiculate, thin. Flowers minute, 
Jg—Jg in. diam., on peduncles shorter than the leaves. Calyx deeply 
divided ; segments linear-lanceolate, acuminate. Petals narrow- 
ovate, shorter than the calyx. Scales 4, minute. Carpels 4, ovoid^ 
turgid ; styles recurved. Mature seeds not seen. 

North Island : Hurunuiorangi, Kirk ! South Island : Winton Forest, 
Southland, Kirk ! 

This has precisely the habit of T. pusilla, but appears to differ in the nar- 
rower and more acute leaves, and in the calyx-lobes exceeding the petals. I 
have seen no specimens except those in Mr. Kirk's herbarium, which are few 
and incomplete. 

7. T. multicaulis, Petrie in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xix. (1887) 324. 
— A minute slender much-branched reddish-purple plant; stems 
prostrate or decumbent below, ascending at the tips. Leaves oppo- 
site or in opposite fascicles, remote below, close-set and often im- 
bricating above, connate at the base, xV-tV^^- ^O'^g. ovate-subulate. 



Tillcea.] CRASSULACE^. 143 

acute or mucrouate, fleshy, concave above, convex or keeled be- 
neath. Flowers solitary, axillary, Yu^ii^- diam., white or rosy. 
Calyx-lobes ovate-subulate, acute. Petals 4, exceeding the calyx- 
lobes, broadly oblong, obtuse. Scales 4. Carpels 4, ovoid ; style 
recurved. Seeds 8. — Kirk, Students' Fl. 143. 

South Island: Canterbury— Mount Torlesse and Broken Eiver basin, 
Emjs ! Kirk ! Z'. F. G. ; Lake Tekapo, T. F. G. Otago— Maniototo and Manu- 
herikia Plains, Petrie ! 1000-3000 ft. December-January. A well- 

marked plant. 

8. T. Sieberiana, ScMdtz, Mant. iii. 345. — A small pale 
reddish-brown succulent annual ; stems 1-5 in. high, erect, simple 
or branched from the base. Leaves minute, y\j in. long, connate at 
the base, ovate-oblong or linear-oblong, subacute, thick and fleshy, 
concave above, convex beneath. Flowers very minute, in dense 
axillary clusters mixed with small leaves, at first sessile, but the 
peduncles usually lengthen as the fruit ripens. Sepals 4, ovate- 
lanceolate, acuminate. Petals shorter and narrower, acute. 
Scales wanting. Carpels 4, linear-oblong, nearly equalling the 
sepals when ripe. Seeds usually 2. — Kirk, Students Fl. 143. 
T. verticillaris, D.G. Prodr. iii. 382; A. Gunn. Precur. n. 521; 
Baoul, Ghoix, 48 ; Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 75 ; Handh. N.Z. 
Fl. 62 ; Benth. Fl. Austral, ii. 451. T. muscosa, Forst. Prodr. 
n. 61 ((lion Linn.) ; A. Bich. Fl. Nouv. Zel. 322. 

North and South Islands : Abundant throughout, in dry rocky or 
gravelly places. September-January. Also common in Australia and Tas- 
mania. 

9. T. debilis, Col. ex Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 75. — Avery 
small delicate species ; stems intricate, filiform or capillary, pro- 
strate, 2-3 in. long. Leaves in scattered pairs, minute, 3I5-J-L in. 
long, ovate-oblong or linear-oblong. Flowers minute, 1 or 2 in the 
axils of the leaves, sessile or on slender peduncles. Sepals 4, 
oblong, subacute. Petals ovate-acuminate, shorter than the sepals. 
Scales wanting. Carpel ovate-lanceolate, 1- or 2-seeded. — Kirk, 
Students' Fl. 143. 

North Island : East Coast, Colenso ! 

The only specimen I have seen of this species is a mere scrap in 
Mr. Colenso's herbarium, and in the absence of additional information I have 
reproduced the description given in the Handbook. 

10. T, purpurata, Hook. f. in Lond. Joiirn. Bot. vi. (1847) 
472. — A very slender delicate and fugacious annual ; stems 1-2 in. 
high, erect or suberect, sparingly branched. Leaves remote, 
connate at the base, Jq— Jin. long, linear, acuminate, concave 
above. Flowers minute, tV^'^- <3iam., on slender pedicels that 
elongate much in fruit. Calyx-lobes 4, ovate, obtuse or subacute. 
Petals 4, equalling the calyx, acuminate. Scales wanting. Carpels 
broadly oblong, obtuse. Seeds numerous, usually 10-15. — Hook. f. 



144 CKASsuLACE^. [TUlcBa. 

Fl.Nov. Zel. i. 75; Eandb. N.Z. Fl. 62; Benth. Fl. Austral, ii. 
451 ; Kirk, Students' Fl. 144. 

North Island : Cape Palliser, Colenso. South Island : Lake Wanaka, 
Petrie ! 

Also common in south-eastern Australia and Tasmania. The linear acumi- 
nate leaves, long pedicels, and many-seeded carpels at once separate it from all 
the other species found in New Zealand. 

Okder XXVI. DROSERACE^. 

Herbs, rarely undershrubs. Leaves alternate, often rosulate, 
stipulate, usually furnished with glandular irritable hairs; vernation 
circinate. Flowers regular, hermaphrodite. Calyx 4-5-partite or 
divided into 4-5 free sepals, imbricate, persistent. Petals the same 
number, hypogynous, rarely perigynous, free or sometimes connate 
at the base. Stamens 4-5, rarely more, hypogynous or perigynous, 
rarely epipetalous. Ovary free or nearly so, 1-3-celled ; styles 1-5, 
simple or bifid or multifid ; ovules numerous, attached to parietal 
placentas equalling the styles in number. Capsule membranous, 
loculicidally 3-5-valved ; seeds numerous, albuminous ; embryo 
straight, axile. 

A small order, comprising 6 genera and about 120 species, distributed over 
the whole world with the exception of Polynesia, but most abundant is Aus- 
tralia. The whole of the species capture insects, usually by means of glandular 
viscid and irritable hairs ; but in some cases, as the well-known Venus's fly-trap 
(Dioncsa inuscipula) by rapidly closing laminae, which shut the insects as it 
were in a box. For a full account reference should ne made to Mr. Darwin's 
well-known book on " Insectivorous Plants." The single New Zealand genus is 
the largest in the order, and has an almost world-wide distribution. 

1. DROSERA, Linn. 

Herbs, either scapigerous or with a leafy stem. Leaves rosu- 
late or alternate, covered with numerous hair-stalked glands which 
secrete a drop of transparent viscid fluid. Stipules wanting or 
adnate to the base of the petiole. Flowers solitary or in terminal 
often one-sided racemes or cymes. Calyx 4-5-partite. Petals 4-5^ 
hypogynous or rarely perigynous, marcescent. Stamens the same 
number. Ovary ovoid or globose, 1-celled ; styles 2-5, free or 
connate below ; ovules numerous, on 2-5 parietal placentas. Cap- 
sule oblong, 2-5-valved. Seeds minute ; testa lax. 

Species about 100, scattered over the whole world, but most abundant in 
Australia. Of the 6 found in New Zealand, 1 is endemic, the remaining 5 
extend to Australia. 

* Scape 1-fiowered. 
Leaves spathulate. Calyx-lobes short, rounded. Styles 3, 

multifid . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. D. stenopetala. 

Leaves linear - ligulate. Calyx-lobes long, linear-oblong. 

Styles 3 ; stigmas capitate . . . . . . 2. D. Arcturi. 

Minute. Leaves rosulate, orbicular. Styles 4 ; stigmas 

clavate . . . . . . . • . . . . 3. D. pygmcsa. 



Drosera.] droserace^. 145 

** Scape several- or many-flowered. 
Leaves rosulate, spathulate. Styles 3, 2-partite .. 4. D. spathulata. 

Leaves long, very narrow-linear, forked or dichotomous . . 5. D. binata. 
Stem leafy. Leaves lunate, peltate. Flowers pink. Styles 

3, penicillate . . . . . . . . . . 6. D. auriculata. 

1. D. stenopetala, Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 19, t. 9. — Stemless r 
rootstock short, stout. Leaves 1-4 in. long or more; petioles 
slender, flat, perfectly glabrous; blade ^-fin., spathulate, the- 
margins and upper surface densely covered with long glandular 
hairs. Scape 1-6 in. long, exceeding the leaves, slender, glabrous, 
1-flowered. Flowers -J- in. diam., white. Calyx broadly campanu- 
late, 5-lobed, glabrous ; lobes short, rounded. Petals linear- 
spathulate ; claw verv long and narrow. Styles 3, multifid almost 
to the h&se.—Hajidb^N.Z. Fl. 63; Kirk, SUdents Fl. 145. 

North Island : Ruahine Bange, Herb. Colenso ! W. F, Howlett. South 
Island : Noc uncommon on the higher central and western mountains, from 
Mount Arthur southwards. Stewart Island : Petrie, Kirk ! Auckland' 
Islands : Hooker, Le Guillon, Kirk. Altitudinal range 2500-5000 ft. in the 
South Island, but descending almost to sea-level in the Auckland Islands. 
December-February. 

2. D. Arcturi, Hook, in Journ. Bot. i. (1834) 247. — Stemless. 
Eootstock short or 1-2 in. long, clothed with the ragged bases of 
the old leaves. Leaves 1-4 in. long, erect, linear-ligulate, obtuse, 
upper portion covered with glandular hairs, lower half glabrous ; 
petiole almost as broad as the blade ; early leaves shorter and 
broader, sometimes quite glabrous. Scape 2-6 in. high, slender, 
1-flowered or very rarely 2-flowered. Flowers ^in. diam., white. 
Calyx divided almost to the base ; lobes 4, linear-oblong. Petals 
oblong or obovate, slightly exceeding the calyx. Styles 3-4, 
short ; stigmas broad. — Ic. Plant, t. 56 ; Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 20 ; 
Handb. N.Z. Fl. 63; Benth. Fl. Austral, ii. 456; Kirk, Students' 
Fl. 145. D. polyneura. Col. in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xxii. (1890) 460. 
D. Euahinensis, Col. I.e. xxviii. (1896) 593. D. ligulata and D. 
atra. Col. I.e. xxxi. (1899) 269. 

North Island : Ruahine Range, CoUnso, Olsen ! Rangipo Plain, Petrie I 
South Island, Stewart Island : Abundant in mountain districts through- 
out. Altitudinal range usually from 2000-5000 ft., but descends almost to 
sea-level on Stewart Island. Also found in Australia and Tasmania. 

3. D. pygmaea, D.C. Prodr. i. 317. — A very minute stemless 
species forming flat rosettes |— ^ in. diam. Leaves numerous, 
densely crowded; petioles short, slender; limb -^o-ts^^- (^iani., 
upper surface covered with glandular hairs ; stipules large, scarious, 
deeply lobed, forming a beautiful silvery cone in the centre of the 
rosette. Scapes 1-4, glabrous, filiform, ^— |in. high, 1-flowered. 
Flowers minute, white. Calyx 4-lobed. Petals slightly longer 
than the calyx. Styles 4, short, clavate. Capsule oblong,. 
4-valved.— Hoo^^/. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 20 ; Handb. N.Z. Fl. 63 ; Benth. 
Fl. Austral, ii. 457 ; Kirk, Students Fl. 146. 



146 DROSERACE^. [Droscra. 

North Island : Cape Maria van Diemen, Colenso ! Te Paua, Parenga- 
renga, T. F. C. ; near Ahipara, H. Carse ! R. H. Matthews ! South Island : 
Bluff Hill, Kirk. December-January. Also in Australia and Tasmania. 

A beautiful little plant, probably not uncommon in moist peaty situations, 
but very easily overlooked. 

4. D. spathulata, Labill. Nov. Holl. PI. i. 79, t. 106, f. 1.— 
Stemless. Leaves numerous, crowded, rosulate, -J— f in. long; blade 
-1—1- in., spathulate or obovate or orbicular-obovate, narrowed into a 
broad and flat petiole of varying length, upper surface and margins 
covered with glandular hairs ; stipules scarious, narrow, laciniate. 
Scapes 1 or several, 1-6 in. high, usually bearing a secund raceme 
of 3-7 flowers, but often 2-3-flowered or even 1-flowered. Flowers 
small, iin. diam., white or rose. Calyx deeply divided; lobes 5, 
linear-oblong. Petals 5. rather longer than the calyx. Styles 3, 
2-partite almost to the base, branches entire or again forked. — 
Hook.f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 20 ; Handh. N.Z. Fl. 63; Benth. Fl. Aus- 
tral, ii. 459 ; Kirk, Students' Fl. 146. D. propinqua, K. Cunn. Pre- 
cur. n. 620. D. minutula. Col. in Trans. N.Z. List. xxi. (1889) 81. 
D. triflora. Col. I.e. xxii. (1890) 461. 

North and South Islands, Stewart Island : From Mongonui southwards, 
but often local. Sea-level to 4500 ft. November- January. Also in Aus- 
tralia and Tasmania. 

Mountain specimens are often much reduced in size, with shorter and 
broader leaves, 1-2-flowered scapes, and broader calyx-lobes ; but they pass by 
insensible gradations into the ordinary form. 

5. D. binata, Labill. Nov. Holl. PL i. 78, t. 105, f. 1.— Stem- 
less. Eootstock short, emitting numerous fleshy roots. Leaves 
all radical, erect; petioles 2-5 in. long, slender, glabrous; blade 
2-4 in., divided to the base into 2 narrow-linear segments yVtV ^'^• 
broad, which are simple or again forked, upper surface and mar- 
gins clothed with long glandular hairs. Scapes exceeding the 
leaves, 6-18 in. high, slender, glabrous, bearing a loose cyme of 
few or many rather large white flowers ^— J- in. diam. Calyx 
deeply 4-5-lobed ; lobes oblong, entire or lacerate at the tips. 
Petals 4-5, obovate, twice as long as the calyx. Styles usually 
3, penicillate.— 5oi. Mag. t. 3082 ; Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 20 ; 
Handh. N.Z. Fl. 64 ; Benth. Fl. Austral, 'ii. 461 ; Kirk, Students 
Ft. 146. D. intermedia, B. Cunn. Precur. n. 621. D. flagellifera, 
Col. in Trans. N.Z. List, xxiii. (1891) 384. 

North and South Islands, Stewart Island : From the North Cape 
southwards. Sea-level to 2500 h. November-February. A common 

Australian and Tasmanian plant. 

A very handsome and conspicuous species. Mr. Colenso's D. flagellifera, 
as shown by the specimens in bis herbarium, is merely a small state vrith 
narrower and often simple leaf-segments, and can be matched in any locality 
where the plant is plentiful. 

6. D. auriculata, Backh. ex Planch, in An?i. Sci. Nat. Ser. 3, ix. 
(1848) 295. — Rootstock slender, terminating in a globose tuber deep 



Drosej'a.] droserace^. 147 

in the ground. Stems leafy, erect, flexuose and wiry, simple or 
sparingly branched, perfectly glabrous, usually 6-18 in. high buc 
sometimes much longer and almost climbing. Eadical leaves rosu- 
late, sometimes reduced to linear scales ; blade orbicular or reniform, 
glandular ; petiole short, broad, fiat. Cauline leaves alternate, on 
longer filiform petioles, peltate; blade ^in. diam., broadly lunate, 
the two angles with glandular-ciliate appendages, margins frin^-ed 
with long glandular hairs. Flowers J-Jin. diam., pink, in terminal 
3-8-flowered racemes. Sepals 5, oblong, entire or minutely toothed. 
Petals twice as long as the sepals, obovate or obcordate. Styles 3, 
divided to below the middle into numerous dichotomous lobes. — 
Hook. f. Ft. Nov. Zel. i. 21 ; Handb. N.Z. Fl. 64 ; Benth. Ft. 
Austral, ii. 465 ; Kirk, Students' Fl. 146. D. circinervia. Col. in 
Trans. N.Z. Inst. xxvi. (1894) 314. D. stylosa, Gol. I.e. xxviii. 
(1896) 593. 

North and South Islands : Abundant as far south as Banks Peninsula. 
Sea-level to 1500 ft. ■November-January. Also plentiful in Australia and 
Tasmania. 



Order XXVII. HALORAGE^. 

Herbs, often aquatic, rarely undershrubs. Leaves opposite, 
alternate, or whorled, when submerged often pectinately pinnatilid ; 
stipules wanting. Flowers hermaphrodite or unisexual, always 
small and often incomplete. Calyx-tube adnate to the ovary; lobes 
2, 4, or wanting. Petals 2, 4, or wanting, valvate or slightly imbri- 
cate. Stamens 2 or 4-8, rarely 1 or 3, large, epigynous ; filaments 
short, filiform ; anthers 2-celled. Ovary inferior, compressed, 
angled or ribbed, rarely 2-4- winged, 2- or 4-celled, rarely 3-celled ; 
styles 1-4, distinct ; stigmas papillose or plumose ; ovules as many 
as the styles, pendulous, anatropous. Fruit small, dry or succu- 
lent, 1-4-celled, indehiscent or separating into 1-4 indehiscent 
carpels. Seeds solitary in the cells, pendulous ; albumen fleshy, 
usually copious ; embryo cylindrical, axile. 

A small order of mostly inconspicuous plants, many of them water-weeds. 
Genera 8 or 9 ; specie.s from 80 to 90. I have followed Hooker and Bentham in 
keeping Callitriche in this order, but it must be admitted that it has equal 
claims to be placed among the MonochlamydecB. Of the 4 New Zealand 
genera, Haloragis is mainly Australian, but extends northwards as far as Japan ;, 
Myriophyllum and Callitriche are almost of world-wide occurrence ; while 
Gxmnera belongs to the south temperate zone. 



Terrestrial. Calyx 4-lobed. Stamens 4-8. Petals val 

vate. Fruit nut-like, undivided 
Aquatic. Calyx-lobes obscure. Stamens 4-8. Petals im 

bricate. Fruit separating into 2-4 nut-like carpels 
Subaquatic or terrestrial. Stamens usually 2. Fruit 

1-seeded drupe 
Aquatic or subaquatic. Stamen 1. Styles 2. Seeds 4 



1. Haloragis. 

2. Myriophyllum. 

3. Gunneba. 

4. Callitriche. 



148 HALOEAGE^. [Halorcigis. 

1. HALORAGIS, Forst. 

Erect or procumbent branching wiry herns, sometimes almost 
woody at the base. Leaves opposite or alternate, entire or toothed 
■or lobed. Flowers unisexual or hermaphrodite, minuDe, axillary, 
solitary or clustered, often spicate or racemose. Calyx-tube 4-8- 
angled or winged ; lobes 4, erect, persistent. Petals 4, cucuUate, 
acute, coriaceous, often wanting in the female flowers. Stamens 
4-8, filaments usually short. Ovary 2-4-celled ; ovules solitary in 
each cell, pendulous ; styles short, stigmas usually plumose in the 
female flowers. Fruit a small dry 2-4-celled 2-4-seeded nut, some- 
times 1-celled and 1-seeded by abortion ; the adnate calyx-tube 
either smooth, ribbed, or muricate. 

About 50 species are known, mostly from Australia, but a few are also found 
in New Caledonia, eastern Asia, and temperate South America (Juan Fer- 
nandez). Four of the New Zealand species occur in Australia, and one in the 
island of Juan Fernandez as well. 

Leaves large, lanceolate or oblong, 1-3 in. Flowers 

crowded, drooping .. .. .. .. ..1. H. alata. 

Leaves small, :^-f in., floral ones alternate. Flowers erect, 
spicate. Fruit 4-8-costate, rugose or tuberculate be- 
tween the ribs . . . . . . . . . . 2. if. tetragyna. 

Leaves small, j^-Jin., floral ones opposite. Flowers erect, 
spicate or solitary. Fruit 4-8-costate, smooth between 
the ribs . . . . . . . . . . . . -3. Zf. depressa. 

Leaves small, J— ^ in. Flowers in terminal panicles. Fruit 

4-8-costate, smooth between the ribs. . .. ..4. H. spicata. 

Leaves small, ^-^in. Flowers drooping, in naked spikes. 

Fruit 8-costate, smooth between the ribs . . . . 5. H. micrantha. 

1. H. alata, Jacq. Misc. ii. 332. — A coarse erect or suberect 
branching herb 1-3 ft. high; stems sharply 4-angled, minutely 
scabrid. Leaves opposite, petiolate, very variable in size, -|— 3in. 
long, ovate- lanceolate to oblong, coarsely and sharply serrate, 
acute or acuminate. Flowers minute, solitary or clustered, in 
leafy racemes teiminating the braiiches ; pedicels short, curved, 
drooping. Calyx-tube 4-angled ; lobes small, broad. Petals twice 
as long as the calyx-lobes. Stamens 8. Fruit rather small, ^q'iti. 
long, ovoid, with 4 ribs more or less dilated into wings ; inter- 
spaces smooth or rugose. — Forst. Prodr. n. 180; Hook. f. Fl. Nov. 
Zel. i. 62 ; Handb. N.Z. FL 65 ; Bentk. Fl. Austral, ii. 479 ; Kirk, 
Students' Fl. 148. Cercodia erecta, Mitrr. in Comm. Gotting. iii. 
(1780) 3, t. 1. C. alternifolia, A. Gunn. Precur. n. 527. 

Var. cartilaginea. — Shorter and stouter. Leaves J-f in., broadly ovate, 
obtuse or subacute, coarsely serrare, very coriaceous, marains cartilaginous. 
Fruit conspicuously rugose. — H. cartilaginea, Cheesem. in Trans. N.Z. List. 
xxix (1897) 890. 

Kermadec Islands, North and South Islands, Stewart Island : 
Abundant, especially in lowland districts. Sea-level to 2000 ft. Toatoa. 

November-January. Also in south-eastern Australia and the island of Juan 
Ferno.ndez. Var. cartilaginea : Cliffs at the North Cape, T. F. C. 



Haloragis.] halorage^. 149 

2. H. tetragyna, Rook. f. Fl. Nov. Zcl. i. 62. — A rigid and 
wiry niucli-branched herb 6-15 in. high, usually scabrid with white 
oppressed hairs ; stems prostrate or decumbent at the base, erect or 
ascending above, tetragonous. Leaves opposite, shortly petioled, 
|— |in. long, elliptical-ovate or oblong to lanceolate, acute, sharply 
serrate, coriaceous ; floral leaves or bracts usually alternate. 
Flowers minute, sessile or nearly so, solitary in the axils of the 
floral leaves, forming slender leafy terminal spikes, which are some- 
times branched and paniculate. Stamens 8. Styles 4 ; stigmas 
plumose. Fruit ^i^o^"-' broadly ovoid, 4-8-costate, transversely 
rugose or muricate. — Handb. N.Z. Fl. 65 ; Benth. FL AustraL. ii. 
484 ; Kirk, Students Fl. 148. Goniocarpus tetragynus, Labill. PL 
Nov. Holl. 39, t. 53. A. Cunn. Precur. n. 529. Cercodia incana, 
A. Gunn. I.e. n. 528. 

Var. difiFusa, Hook. f. Handb. N.Z. Fl. 65. — Stems slender, spreading, 
prostrate. Leaves ^-iin., broader and more obtuse, with fewer teeth. 

North and South Islands, Stewart Island : The typical form confined 
to the district between the North Cape and the Bay of Islands. Var. diffusa 
abundant throughout the Islands. The species is widely distributed in Austra- 
lia, and is also found in China and Malaya, and in the Khasia Mountains of 
India. 

3. H. depressa, TFaZ^j. Bep. ii. 99. — A small slender wiry 
much-branched herb 1-5 in. high, usually scabrid with short 
white hairs ; rhizomes slender, creeping, often nauch branched ; 
stems prostrate or suberect, tetragonous. Leaves opposite, ses- 
sile or nearly so, i-^in. long, ovate or ovate-oblong, sometimes 
almost cordate, subacute, with 1-4 deep and narrow serratures 
on each side, coriaceous, margins strongly cartilaginous ; floral 
leaves similar but smaller, usually all opposite. Flowers minute, 
sessile, axillary and solitary, forming short terminal spikes. Fruit 
j^Q in. long, 4-angled, 4-8-costate ; interspaces smooth and shining, 
not tuberculate. — Hook. f. FL Nov. Zel. '{. 63 ; Handb. N.Z. FL 65 ; 
Benth. B'L Austral, ii. 485 ; Kirk, Students Fl. 148. H. bibracteo- 
lata, Col. in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xxii. (1890) 462. Gonicarpus de- 
pressus, A. Gunn. Precur. n. 531. 

Var. aggregata, Kirk, I.e. 149. — Flowers clustered at the tips of the 
branches, forming small heads. — H. aggregata, Bmc/i. in Trans. N.Z. Inst. iv. 
(1872) 224, t. 13. 

Var. serpylllfolia, Benth. Fl. AustraL ii. 485. — Stems 1-4 in., usually 
creeping and matted, often forming a dense sward. Leaves yij— |^in., narrow- 
ovate to lanceolate, acute at both ends. Flowers fewer, often solitary on the 
branches. Fruit smaller. — H. uniflora, Kirk in Trans. N.Z. Inst. ix. (1877) 
548. Gonicarpus serpyllifolius and G. vernicosus. Hook. Ic. Plant, t. 290, 311. 

North and South Islands, Stewart Island : Abundant throughout, 
ascending to nearly 4000 ft. Also in Victoria and Tasmania. 

A very variable plant. Some forms approach very close to H. tetragyna, 
but usually it can be easily separated from that species by the opposite flowers 
and the smooth interspaces of the fruit. 



150 HALORAGE^. [Holoragis. 

4. H. spicata, Petrie in Travis. N.Z. hist. xix. (1887) 325. — 
A slender erect or ascending sparingly branched herb 4-10 in. 
high, glabrous or pubescent. Leaves few, opposite, shortly pe- 
tioled, -^-^in. long, ovate or elliptic-ovate, acute or subacute, coria- 
ceous, serrate, pubescent. Flowers in slender terminal branched 
panicles, sessile in the axils of minute opposite or alternate bracts ; 
terminal 1-3 flowers female ; lower flowers apparently all male, 
but many of the bracts empty in my specimens. Calyx-lobes 4, 
triangular. Anthers 4 ; filaments short. Stigmas plumose. Fruit 
yLin. long, 4-angled ; interspaces smooth or slightly wrinkled. — 
Kirk, Students' Fl. 149. 

South Island; Otago — North end of Lake Hawea, altitude 1100 ft. j 
Petrie ! 

A very curious plant, agreeing with H. depressa in the leaves and fruit, but 
differing widely in the paniculate inflorescence. I suspect that it will prove to 
be an abnormal state of H. depressa. 

5. H. micrantha, B. Br. ex Sieb. and Zucc. Fl. Jap. i. 25. — 
A tufted much - branched procumbent or ascending herb 2-6 in. 
high ; stems and branches slender, wiry, glabrous or slightly 
scaberulous. Leaves opposite, very shortly petioled, 4-^ in. diam.,. 
broadly ovate or almost orbicular, obtuse or subacute, coriaceous, 
crenate-serrate, the crenatures broad and rounded. Flowers 
minute, drooping, in slender almost filiform racemes terminating 
the branchlets ; pedicels very short. Petals 4, more than twice as 
long as the triangular calyx-lobes. Fruit o'jjin. long, broadly ob- 
long, 8-costate, interspaces smooth and shining. — Hook. f. Handb. 
N.Z. Fl. 66 ; Benth. Fl. Austral, ii. 482 ; Kirk, Students Fl. 149. 
H. tenella, Brong. in Duper. Voy. Coq. Bot. t. 68, f. 6 ; Hook. f. Fl. 
NoiK Zel. i. 63. H. minima. Col. in Trans. N.Z. Inst, xviii. (1886) 
259. Gonicarpus citriodorus, A . Cunn. Precur. n. 530. 

North and South Islands, Stewart Island : Abundant from the North" 
Cape southwards. Sea-level to 3500 ft. November-January. 

Extends through Australia and Malaya to the Himalayas, China, and 
Japan. All the fruits that I have examined are 1-seeded by abortion. 

2. MYRIOPHYLLUM, Linn. 

Glabrous marsh or aquatic herbs, branches often floating. 
Leaves opposite, alternate, or whorled, the lower leaves when sub- 
merged often pinnately divided with capillary segments. Flowers 
usually mona3cious, axillary, solitary or spiked. Males : Calyx- 
tube very short ; limb 4- or rarely 2-lobed or wanting. Petals 2-4, 
concave. Stamens 2, 4, or 8. Females : Calyx - tube deeply 
4-grooved ; limb wanting, or of 4 minute subulate lobes. Petals 
minute or wanting. Ovary inferior, 4- or rarely 2-celled ; styles 4 
or 2, usually recurved or plumose; ovules solitary in each cell. 
Fruit deeply 4-furrowed, usually separating into 4 dry indehiscent. 
1-seeded nuts. 



Mijriophyllimt,.] halokaqe^. 151 

A widelv distributed genus of from 15 to 20 species, found in fresh waters 
in nearly all parts of the world. One of the New Zealand species is endemic, 
the rest extend to Australia, and one to South America as well. 

Leaves whorled ; lower pectinately pinnatifid, with capil- 
lary segments ; upper oblong, entire .. ..1. M. elatinoides. 

Leaves whorled ; lower pectiuately pinnatifid, with capil- 
lary segments ; upper linear, entire or serrate . . 2. M. intermedium. 

Leaves whorled, all pectinately pinnatifid. Nuts large, 

tubercled . . . . . . . . 3. M. robustuvi. 

Minute, 1-3 in. All the leaves opposite, minute, linear- 

spathulate, entire . . .. .. .. ..4. M . pedunculatum. 

1. M. elatinoides, Gaud, in Ann. Sci. Nat. Ser. i. 5 (1825) 105. 
— Forming dense masses m still waters. Stems slender, 6 in. to 3ft. 
long according to the depth of the water. Submerged leaves in 
whorls of '4:, rarely more, deeply pectinately pinnatifid, the segments 
capillary ; the upper emerged or floral leaves in whorls of 4 or 3, 
sometimes opposite, much smaller, i—i in. long, ovate or oblong 
to broadly lanceolate, sessile, obtuse, entire or the lower slightly 
toothed. Male flowers : Calyx-lobes very minute. Petals 4, ob- 
long. Stamens 8. Females : Calyx-lobes and petals apparently 
wanting. Nuts 4, small, oblong, smooth. — Hook. f. t'l. Nov. Zel. i. 
63 ; Handh. N.Z. Fl. 66 ; Bentli. Fl. Aicstral. ii. 487 ; Kirk, Stu- 
dents' Fl. 150. 

North and South Islands, Stewart Island : Common in rivers and 
lakes from the Auckland Isthmus southwards, ascending to 3500 ft. Novem- 
ber-February. Also in Australia and extra-tropical South America. 

Subalpine specimens are stouter, with less delicate and more closely set 
submerged leaves, and the nuts are rather larger. 

2. M. intermedium, D.G. Prodr. iii. 69. — Very variable in 
habit : in lakes and rivers forming masses of floating stems 1-4 ft. 
long, with numerous submerged leaves ; in wet ground sometimes 
only an inch or two high, with the leaves all linear and entire. 
Leaves in whorls of 3-8, usually 4-5 ; submerged leaves deeply 
and finely pectinately pinnatifid, segments capillary ; upper 
emerged or floral leaves much smaller, |— | in. long, lanceolate 
and inciso-pinnatifid to narrow-linear and quite entire. Male 
flowers : Calyx-lobes evident. Petals white. Stamens 8. Female 
flowers : Calx-lobes and petals apparently wanting. Nuts 4, very 
small, linear-oblong, usually minutely scabrid or almost echinate, 
rarely quite smooth. — M. varigefolium, Hook. f. in Hook. Ic. Plant. 
t. 289 ; Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 64 ; Handb. N.Z. Fl. 66 ; Benth. Fl. 
Austral, ii. 487 ; Kirk, Students Fl. 150. M. propinquum, A. Ctmn. 
Precur. n. 532. 

North and South Islands, Stewart Island : Abundant in lakes and 
streams, wet swamps, &c., from the North Cape southwards, ascending to 
3000 ft. December-March. Also in Australia, Malaya, and India. 

8. M, robustum. Hook. f. Handh. N.Z. Fl. 67. — Stems stout, 
erect, branched at the base, 6 in. to 2 ft. high, rarely more. Leaves 



152 HALOEAGE^. [MynophylhoH^ 

usually 5 in a whorl, 1-2 in. long, all deeply peetinately pinnatifid ;. 
upper rather coarse, usually crowded and overlapping ; submerged 
leaves not often seen, when present with longer capillary segments. 
Flowers rather large, i-^ in. long, solitary or rarely in pairs in the 
axils of the floral leaves, with a pair of minute laciniate bracts at 
the base of each. Calyx-lobes present in both sexes, deltoid, 
jagged. Petals in the males only, linear-oblong. Stamens 8. 
Stigmas usually 4, plumose. Nuts 4, ^in. long, laterally com- 
pressed, usually with a single or double row of tubercles down the 
back, but sometimes smooth and rounded. — Kirk, Students' Fl. 
151. M. variaefolium var. b. Hook./. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 64. 

North Island : In swamps from Ahipara to the Upper Waikato, but often 
local ; apparently rare further south. Hawke's Bay, Colenso ! Mungaroa, 
Wellington, Kirk ! South Island : Awatere, Kirk ! Moutere, Nelson, T. F. C. ; 
near Westport, Tow9iso7i.' Hokitika, Tipper. December-February. 

This is seldom found in lakes or streams, and is a marsh plant rather than 
a true aquatic. It often covers large stretches in swamps that are quite dry in 
summer. 

4. M. pedunculatum, Hook. f. Fl. Tasm. i. 123, t. 23b. — 
Stems short, smiple or sparingly branched, tufted, 1-3 in. high, 
usually forming broad matted patches. Leaves opposite, minute, 
1—1 in. long, linear or linear-spathulate, quite entire, rather fleshy. 
Flowers minute, usually dioecious ; males shortly stalked or sessile ; 
females sessile ; bracts 2 at the base of each flower, minute, linear. 
Calyx-lobes 4, very minute. Petals 4, wanting in the female 
flowers. Stamens 8. Stigmas 4, plumose, recurved. Carpels 4, 
small, oblong, minutely rugose. — Handb. N.Z. Fl. 67 ; Kirk, Stu- 
dents' Fl. 151. 

North and South Islands, Stewart Island : From Cape Maria van 
Diemen southwards, but far from common. Sea-level to 2000 ft. Decem- 
ber-February. Also in Australia and Tasmania. 

M. verracosum, Lindl. in Mitch. Trop. Austral. ; Benth. Fl. Austral, i'. 488, 
is included by Mr. Kirk in the "Students' Flora" as a native of New Zea- 
land, on the authority of specimens gathered by himself near Tauranga Harbour. 
These are very imperfect, having no flowers and few withered fruits ; but, having 
compared them with authentic examples of M. verrucosum from Australia, I can 
state definitely that they are not referable to that species. They only differ 
from M. intermedium in the upper leaves being pinnatifid, and until more 
complete specimens are obtained are best considered as a form of that plane. 

3. GUNNERA, Linn. 
Stemless herbs with creeping rhizomes, often forming broad 
matted patches. Leaves all radical, petiolate, ovate- or rounded- 
cordate, coriaceous and fleshy. Flowers small, unisexual or rarely 
hermaphrodite, in simple or branched spikes or panicles. Male 
flowers: Calyx-tube imperfect or wanting; lobes 2-3, minute. 
Petals 2-3 or wanting. Stamens 2-3 ; filaments filiform ; anthers 
large. Females : Calyx-tube ovoid ; lobes 2-3, small. Petals 2-3 



Gionnera.] halorage^, 153 

or wanting. Ovary 1-celled ; styles 2, rarely 4, linear, papillose, 
stigmatic from the base ; ovule solitary, pendulous. Fruit a small 
fleshy or coriaceous drupe ; seed adherent to the pericarp ; embryo 
very minute. 

From 20 to 25 species are known, nearly half of them being endemic in 
New Zealand. The remiainder are chiefly found in America, ranging from 
Mexico to Chili, Juan Fernandez, Fuegia, and the Falliland Islands. There are 
also outlying species in South Africa, Java, Tasmania, and the Sandwich 
Islands. 

The New Zealand species of Gunnera are very imperfectly understood, and 
are much in need of a thorough revision, which should be based as far as 
possible upon a study of the various forms in a living state. The following 
account, although as complete as the material at my command will permit, is 
deficient in many respects, and I have been compelled to omit all notice of 
several doubtful plants from inability to refer them to their proper places until 
more complete specimens are obtained. The student should be careful to gather 
his flowering and fruiting specimens in the same locality, and if possible from 
the same patch, the similarity between the foliage of several of the species 
making it difficult to be sure tliat the specimens are properly matched unless 
this is done. It is also much to be desired that a regular series of specimens, 
both flowering and fruiting, should be taken at fixed intervals during the season, 
there being reason to suppose that both inflorescence and fruit exhibit differences 
at different periods of the year. 

* Scapes bisexual ; female flowers at the base. 

Leaves coriaceous, orbicular or reniform, crenate-dentate, 

often 3-5-lobed . . . . . . . . . . 1. G. monoica. 

Leaves rather thin, ovate or ovate-cordate .. ..2. G. microcarpa. 

** Scapes unisexual. 

Slender, 1-4 in. Leaves ovate or ovate-cordate. Fruiting 

scape red, exceeding the leaves. Drupes obconic, ^in., 

red or yellow . . . . . . . . . . 3. G. flavida. 

Tall and stout, sometimes 12 in. high. Leaves ovate or 

oblong. Fruiting scape equalling the leaves or longer. 

Drupe obconic, {tin., red .. .. .. ..4. G. prorepens. 

Leaves orbicular-cordate, sharply and minutely toothed. 

Scapes shorter ttian the leaves. Drupes j^ in., oblong 5. G. denaiflora. 
Leaves narrow-ovate to lanceolate, acute, cuneate at the 

base, coarsely dentatn . . . . . . . . &. G. dentata. 

Leaves thick and fleshy, broadly ovate, obtuse, cuneate at 

the base, crenate-lobed . . . . . . . . 1. G. arcvaria. 

Very stout and coriaceous. Leaves deltoid-ovate, minutely 

toothed, cuneate at the bas-e . . . . . . 8. G. Hamiltoni. 

I. G. monoica, liaoul in Ann. Sci. Nat. Ser. iii. 2 (1844) 117. — 
A slender herb with numerous creeping rhizomes and tufts of radical 
leaves, often forming broad matted patches, glabrous or sparsely 
covered with short white hairs, especially on the petioles and nerves 
of the leaves. Leaves ^lin. diam., orbicular or reniform, cor- 
date or truncate at the base, obscurely 3-5-lobed and crenate, or 
cren ate alone ; petioles 1-3 in. long. Panicle very slender, 1-5 in. 
long, usually longer than the leaves. Male flowers occupying the 
upper three-quarters of the panicle, sessile or shortly pedicelled ; 
each flower consisting of 2 stamens arising from between 2 minute 



154 HALORAGB^. [Gunneru, 

sepals, and with 1 or 2 ciliate bracts at the base of the pedicel. 
Females crowded at the base of the panicle. Calyx-lobes 2, linear, 
acute. Styles 2, very long. Fruit minute, Jq in. diam., globose or 
broadlv ovoid, fleshy or coriaceous, red or white. — Baoul, Choix, 
t. 8 ; Hook.f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 65 ; Handb. N.Z. Fl. 67 ; Kirk, Stu- 
dents' FL 152. 

Var. strigosa, Kirk, I.e. — More or less clothed with copious strigose hairs, 
sometimes almost hoary. — G. strigosa, Col. in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xv. (1883) 322. 
Hardly deserves varietal rank. 

Var. ramulosa, Kirk, I.e. — Branches stout, much branched, clothed with 
the bases of the old leaves. Panicles much divided ; branches often long. 
Flowers crowded. Fruit not known. 

Var. albocarpa, Kirk, I.e. — Larger and stouter ; rhizome sometimes as 
thick as a goose-quill. Leaves larger, sometimes IJ in. diam. Panicles 3-6 in., 
much branched ; branches long. Fruit globose, white, tipped with the black 
calyx lobes. 

North and South Islands, Stewart Island, Chatham Islands : 
Abundant in moist places from Mongonui southwards. Sea-level to 3500 ft. 
November-January. 

The chief distinguishing characters of this species are the broad reniform 
or orbicular-cordate leaves, very slender bisexual panicles, and minute glob ise 
drupe. But specimens possessing these characters differ from one another 
considerably in size, cutting of the leaves, size of the panicle and extent to 
which it is divided, and the size and colour of the fruit ; and I suspect that 
a careful study of these forms in the field will result in the species being split 
up into two or more. 

2. G. microcarpa, T. Kirk in Trans. N.Z. Inst, xxvii. (1895) 
348. — Rhizomes slender, creeping. Leaves tufted, 2-4 in. long ; 
petiole slender, hairy or strigose ; blade about 1 in. long, broadly 
ovate or ovate-cordate, obtuse, crenate or crenate-lobed, both sur- 
faces with scattered white hairs. Peduncles very slender, exceed- 
ing the leaves, 1-5 in. long, usually much branched below, rarely 
simple ; upper two-thirds or more male, lower one-third female. 
Male flowers sessile on the branches or very shortly pedicelled, 
each with 2 narrow concave deciduous bracts. Sepals 2, minute, 
linear. Stamens 2 ; filaments often as long as the small broadly 
oblong obtuse anthers. Female flowers : Calyx-lobes 2, minute. 
Styles very long and slender, filiform. Persistent fruiting portion 
of the peduncle shorter than the leaves, often mclined. Drupes 
small, sessile, ovoid-globose, red or yellow, about J^ in. long. — 
Students' Fl. 153. G. mixta, Kirk, Students' Fl. 152. G. ovata, 
Petrie in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xxv. (1893) 274 (in part). 

South Island: Otago and Southland, not uncommon, T. Wmigh ! Petrie! 
B. C. Aston! December-January. 

Mr. Kirk's type specimens of G. mieroearpa are in fruit only, and are few in 
number and otherwise imperfect. Kis G. mixta is ba^ed upon flowering speci- 
mens, to W'icli the tall slender inflorescence gives a somewhat distinct appear- 
ance, althou: h the leaves ar- identical. But the fine series of specimens in all 
stages of flower and fruit preserved in Mr. Petrie's herbarium prove beyond 
doubt that both are one and the same species. Its^ distinguisuing characters are 



Gunnera.'] halorage^. 155 

the tall slender lax-flowered usually branched flowering-stems, the upper part 
of which is male and the lower female ; the small broad antliers, on rather long 
filaments; and the small almost globose drupe. It is probably a widely dis- 
tributed plant. 

3. G. flavida, Col. in Trans. N.Z. Inst, xviii. (1886) 260.— 
Ehizome creeping, slender. Leaves 1|— 3 in. long ; petiole slender, 
glabrous or sparingly clothed with shore white hairs; blade |— lin. 
long, ovate or elliptic-ovate or elliptic-oblong, obtuse, cordate or 
rounded or truncate at the base, finely crenate or sinuate-crenate 
or almost entire, rather membranous, glabrous or slightly hairy. 
Spikes unisexual. Males 1-3 in. long, rather slender; flowers lax 
or close together, on very short unbranched pedicels ; each pedicel 
with a linear bract near the base, and 2 linear-cucullate deci- 
duous bracteoles just under the flower. Sepals 2, small, narrow- 
linear. Stamens 2 ; filaments very short, almost wanting ; anthers 
broadly ovate, apiculate. Female peduncles -g— 1 in. long in the 
flowermg stage ; flowers crowded. Calyx-teeth 2, short. Styles 2, 
long. Fruiting peduncles 1-4 in. long, overtopping the leaves. 
Drupes |-in., spreading, obconic, sessile or shortly pedicelled, red 
or pale-yellow. — Kirk, Students Fl. 153. G. ovata, Petrie in Trans. 
N.Z. Inst. XXV. (1893) 274 (in part). 

North Island : Upper Waikato and Taupo, T. F. C. ; between Taupo and 
Napier, Hill ! Petrie ! South Island : Abundant in Otago and Southland, 
Buchanan ! Petrie ! Kirk ! Hamilton ! Sea-level to 3000 ft. December- 

January. 

A comparison of a type specimen from Mr. Colenso wirh tbe types of Petrie's 
G. ovata prove that the two species are identical. In foliage it greatly re- 
sembles G. microcarpa, but the slender branched monoecious inflorescence of 
that species, together with the minute globose drupes, are altogether different 
from the short unisexual unbranched npikes of G. flavida, with their larger 
obconic fruit. G. yrorepcns only diSers in the much larger size, and the two 
may prove to be forms of the one plant. 

4. G. prorepens, Hook.f. Fl. Nov. Zet. i. 66. — A large and stout 
species, sometimes 12 in. high, although ordinarily less ; rhizomes 
stout, creeping. Leaves 3-8 in. long; petioles 2-6 in., slender, gla- 
brous or sparingly pilose ; blade 1-2 in., ovate or oblong, obtuse, 
rounded or cordate at the base, crenulate, glabrous or slightly 
hairy. Flowers not seen. Fruiting peduncles usually longer than 
the leaves, simple, bearing many sessile lax or densely spiked 
drupes, which are ^in. long, red, fleshy, obconic or nearly globose, 
with an irregular deep furrow at the top from whence the styles 
protrude. — Handh. N.Z. Fl. 68 {excl. var. b). 

North Island : In subalpine wet localities, Colenso ! South Island : 
West Coast, Lyall. 

The only specimens I have seen that I can refer with certainty to this 
species are two in ]Mr. Colenso'a herbarium. Mr. N. B. Brown has kindly com- 
pared one of them with the lype at Kew, and informs me that it exactly corre- 
sponds. G. flavida does not seem to differ except in the smaller size of all its 
parts, and I should not be surprised at the two species proving to be states of 
one variable plant. 



156 HALORAGB^. [Gunncra. 

5. G. densiflora, Hook. f. Handh. N.Z. Fl. 68. — Forming ijroad 
matted patches. Ehizome rather stout, branched. Leaves 1-2 in. 
long ; petioles half the length, strict, villous or glabrescent ; 
blade ^—l in. diam., orbicular or broadly ovate-orbicular, cordate 
at the base, sharply and minutely toothed, rather coriaceous. 
Spikes unisexual ; males not seen ; females short, concealed among 
the leaves. Flowers densely crowded, sessile. Calyx-lobes 2, sub- 
ulate, acute. Styles 2, long, spreading. Fruiting spike shorter 
than the leaves. Drupes crowded, small, pendulous, jQin. long. 
— Kirk, Students' Fl. 154. 

South Island: Acheron and Clarence Rivers, altitude 4000ft., Tiavcs 
(Handbook) ; Craigieburn Mountains, Canterbury, Cockayne ! 

The above description is partly based upon that given in the Handbook, 
and partly upon Mr. Cockayne's specimens, which are the only ones I have seen 
that can be referred to the species. 

6. G. dentata, T. Kirk in Trans. N.Z. Inst, xxvii. (1895) 346. 
— Forming extensive patches in watery subalpine localities. Ehi- 
zome stout, much branched, clothed with the bases of the eld 
leaves. Leaves numerous, densely tufted, 1-3 in. long; petioles 
long, broad and flat, usually clothed with strigose hairs, sometimes 
almost shaggy; blade ^-1 in. long, ovate or elliptic-oblong or elliptic- 
lanceolate, acute, rounded or cuneate at the base, often narrowed 
into the petiole, coarsely dentate, both surfaces with scattered 
white hairs or almost glabrous. Spikes unisexual. Males slender, 
about equalling the leaves ; flowers sessile or nearly so, each with 
a pair of deciduous hood-shaped bracts. Sepals 2, minute, linear. 
Anthers broadly oblong. Female spikes very short, hidden at the 
base of the leaves ; flowers densely crowded. Calyx-lobes 2, linear. 
Styles 2, very long, flattened at the base. Fruiting spikes some- 
times elongated and exceeding the leaves, sometimes short and 
sessile among the leaves. Drupes sessile or nearly so, clavate, 
spreading or pendulous, xi;^^- ^^^^g- — Students Fl. 154. G. pro- 
repens var. b. Hook. f. Handb. N.Z. Fl. 68. 

North Island : Colenso (Handbook) ; Taupo, Petrie ! South Island : 
Subalpine localities from Nelson to Southland, but often local. 1000-3500 ft. 
December-February. 

A distinct speciew, easily recognised by the narrow ovate or elliptic-oblong 
acute leaves, which are often cuneate at the base, and coarsely dentate. 

7. G. arenaria, Cheesm. ex T. Kirk in Trans. N.Z . Inst, xxvii. 
(1895) 348. — A stout much-branched prostrate and matted herb, 
forming extensive patches in damp sandy soil ; rhizome stout, 
clothed with the ragged bases of the old leaves. Leaves |—2^in. 
long, thick and coriaceous, almost fleshy ; petioles long, stout, 
sheathing at the base, glabrous or with a few scattered flattened 
hairs ; blade -i-f in., broadly ovate or elliptic-ovate or oblong, obtuse, 
cuneate at the base or truncate or almost cordate, coarsely crenate 
or creuate-lobed ; veins prominent beneath. Peduncles variable iu 



Chinnera.'] halorage^. 157 

size, unisexual ; males usually longer than the leaves, stout, l-|-3 in. 
long. Flowers sessile or nearly so, with 1-2 linear cucuUate bracts. 
Anthers 2, sessile, broadly oblong. Female peduncles in the flower- 
ing stage short and hidden among the leaves. Flowers densely 
crowded, forming a short oblong spike. Calyx-lobes 2-3, minute. 
Styles long, stout, subulate. Fruiting peduncles either remaining 
short and concealed by the leaves, or greatly elongated and exceed- 
ing them, 1^3 in. long, in that case becoming stout succulent and 
coloured. Drupes ^-^ in. long, fleshy, yellowish-red, clavate and pen- 
dulous or obovoid and suberect. — Kirk, Students Fi. 154. G. deusi- 
flora, Kirk in Trans. N.Z. Inst, xxvii. (1895) 346 (not of Hook. f.). 

North Island : Sand-dunes on the western coast, from Cape Maria van 
Diemen to Port Waikato, T. F. C, Petrie ! R. H. Matthews! H. Carse ! 
South Island: Nelson— Cape Farewell, Kirk! Canterbury — New Brighton, 
Cockayne; Seventy -mile Beach, Buchanan! Southland — Sandy Point, T. 

Waugh ! 

Allied to G. dentata, but easily separated by the stouter and more glabrous 
habit, broader rounder and more fleshy obtuse leaves, stouter peduncles, and 
larger fruit. 

8. G. Hamiltoni, T. Kirk in Trans. N.Z. List, xxvii. (1895) 
347. — A stout coriaceous much-branched plant forming broad 
matted patches ; rhizomes as thick as a goose-quill. Leaves 
numerous, tufted, forming broad flat rosettes 2-4 in. diam., coria- 
ceous ; petioles broad and flat, almost winged, sheathing at the 
base, glabrous or slightly villous; blade -^-l in. long, ovate or 
ovate-deltoid, cuneate at the base, acute, closely and minutely 
toothed, glabrous ; veins prominent below. Spikes unisexual ; 
males stout ; flowers lax, sessile. Female spikes at first hidden 
among the leaves ; flowers crowded ; bracts broadly ovate, laciniate. 
Fruiting spikes 2-4 in. long ; drupes fleshv, clavate, red. — Students' 
Fl. 155. 

South Island : Hills near the mouth of the Oreti River, Southland, 
W. S. Hamilton ! Stewart Island : Mason Bay, W. Traill. 

A very remarkable plant, quite unlike any other, although undoubtedly 
allied tp G. arenaria. 1 have only seen very fragmentary flowering specimens. 

4. CALLITRICHE, Linn. 

Perfectly glabrous slender herbs, usually growing in wet places, 
often aquatic. Leaves opposite, linear or obovate-spathulate, quite 
entire, the upper ones often crowded or rosulate. Flowers monoe- 
cious, minute, axillary, solitary or rarely a male and female in the 
same axil, without perianth. Male flowers of a single stamen sub- 
tended by two minute bracts ; filaments slender, elongated ; anther 
2-celled, cells confluent above. Female flowers with or without 
the 2 bracts. Ovary sessile or shortly stalked, 4-celled ; ovules 
solitary in each cell ; styles 2, elongated, stigmatic throughout their 
length. Fruit flattened, indehiscent, 4-lobed and 4-celled, ulti- 
mately separating into 4 1-seeded carpels. 



158 HALOEAGE^. [CalUtriche. 

A genus of very doubtful affinity, now often placed in the vicinity of the 
EupliorbiacecB. The species are estimated at from 1 or 2 to 20 or 30, according 
to the different views of authors. 

Fruits not winged, edges almost obtuse, groove between the 

carpels shallow . . . . . . . . . . 1. C. antarctica. 

Fruits slightly winged, edges sharply keeled, groove 

between the carpels rather shallow . . . . . . 2. C. verna. 

Fruits broadly winged, wings pale, groove between the 
carpels deep .. .. .. .. .. 3. C. Muelleri. 

1. C. antarctica, Engelm. ex Hegelm. in Verh. Bot. Ver. Bran- 
denb. ix. (1867) 20. — Stems creeping and rooting, rather stout, 
succulent, densely matted, 2-6 in. long. Leaves fleshy, 4— J- in. 
long, narrow obovate-spathulate or oblong-spathulate, rounded at 
the tip, narrowed into a rather long petiole. Fruit sessile, broadly 
oblong or almost ox'bicular, somew^hat turgid, not winged, the 
edges subacute or almost obtuse, separated by a shallow groove, so 
that each pair of lobes is united by almost three-quarters of their 
faces. — Kidder in Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus. iii. 23 ; Kirk, Students Fl. 
156. C. verna, var. h terrestris. Hook. f. Fl. Antarct. i. 11. 

The Snares, Auckland and Campbell Islands, Antipodes Island, 
Macquaeie Island : Not uncommon on damp soil. Also found on Kerguelen 
Island, the Falkland Islands, and South Georgia. 

2. C. verna, Linn. Fl. Suec. ii. n. 3. — Usually floating in still 
water. Stems slender, sparingly branched, 3-12 in. long. Leaves 
^-fin. long, linear -spathulate or oblong-spathulate or obovate, 
rounded or retuse at the tip, very thin and membranous. Fruit 
sessile, rather longer than broad, subcordate, somewhat convex, 
edges shortlv and acutely keeled, groove between the lobes rather 
shallow.— iToo/l;. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 64; Handb. N.Z. Fl. 68 (in 
•part); Kirk, Students Fl. 156. 

North and South Islands : Not uncommon in streams and lakes through- 
out. An abundant plant in many temperate countries. 

3. C. Muelleri, Sond. in Linncea xxviii. (1886) 229. — Stems 
filiform, 2-9 in. long, much branched and interlaced, forming broad 
matted patches on damp soil. Leaves obovate-rhomboid or 
broadly obovate-spathulate, cuneate at the base, suddenly narrowed 
into a distinct petiole. Fruit orbicular-obcordate, often broader 
than long, flattened, margins expanded into a broad pale wing, 
groove between the lobes deep. — Kirk, Students' Fl. 156. C. verna 
var. b. Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel i. 64. C. macropteryx, Hegelm. 
Monog. Callit. 59, t. iv. f. 2. C. microphylla, Col. in Trans. N.Z. 
Inst. XX. (1888) 190. 

Kermadec Islands, North and South Islands, Stewart Island, 
Chatham Islands : Common from the North Cape southwards. Sea-level 
to 2500 ft. Also in Australia. 



Callitriche.] halorage^. 159 

There seem to be two forms of this — one with a broad wing occupying a 
third of the whole width of the fruit, the other with a much narrower wing. 
The last-mentioned form was referred by Mr. Kirk to C. obtusangula, Hegelm, 
Monog. Callit. 54, t. 3, f. 3, but this determination is clearly erroneous, the true 
obtusangula having rounded angles to the fruit, which is not at all winged. 



Order XXVIII. MYRTACE^. 

Trees or shrubs, sometimes climbing. Leaves opposite, more 
rarely alternate or whorled, simple and entire, usually dotted with 
pellucid oil-glands and with a vein rmming parallel to the margin. 
Stipules generally absent. Flowers regular, usually hermaphrodite, 
solitary and axillary, or in axillary or terminal cymes panicles or 
racemes. Calyx-tube adnate to the ovary up to the insertion 
of the stamens, limb 4-5 or many-cleft or -partite, persistent or 
deciduous, imbricate or valvate, sometimes entire or closed in bud. 
Petals as many as the calyx-lobes, rarely wanting, inserted 
on a disc lining the calyx-tube. Stamens usually numerous, 
inserted on the disc with the petals ; filaments free or connate at 
the base or united into separate bundles ; anthers small, roundish. 
Ovary inferior or semi-inferior, crowned by a fleshy disc, some- 
times 1-celled with 1 or few ovules, more often 2- to many-celled 
with numerous ovules ; style simple ; stigma capitate. Fruit either 
crowned by the persistent calyx-limb or marked by its scar when 
deciduous, usually a capsule loculicidally dehiscing into as many 
valves as cells, or a 1- to many-seeded berry, more rarely dry and 
indehiscent. Seeds angular or compressed or cylindrical ; albumen 
usually wanting. 

A very large and distinct order, readily recognised by the opposite exstipulate 
entire leaves, furnished with a marginal vein, and filled with transparent oil- 
glands. The species are mainly tropical or subtropical ; most abundant in South 
America and Australia, much less common in Asia and Africa ; more frequent 
in the south temperate zone than in the north, where they are decidedly rare. 
Genera about 80 ; species probably not exceeding 1800. The order includes 
many plants of economic importance. Some produce valuable spices, as cloves, 
allspice ; or edible fruits, as the giiava, the rose-apple, brazil-nuts, &c. ; others 
yield aromatic essential oils, as eucalyptus, cajeput, &c. The bark of most of 
the species is more or less astringent. Some of the species of Eucalyptus attain 
a height of over 400 ft., being probably the tallest trees in the world. Of the four 
New Zealand genera, Leptospermnnt extends through Australia as far as the 
Malay Archipelago ; Metrosideros occurs in the Pacific and Malayan Islands, 
Australia, and South Africa ; Eugenia is mainly tropical ; and Myrtus mostly 
American. 

* Fruit capsular. 

Leaves small, alternate. Flowers solitary or fascicled . . 1. Leptospeemum. 
Leaves larger, opposite. Flowers usually handsome, 

cymose . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. Metrosidekos. 

** Fruit a berry. 
Flowers usually solitary. Embryo curved, with a long 

radicle . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. Myrtus. 

Flowers cymose. Embryo thick and fleshy, radicle short 4. Eugenia. 



160 MYRTACE^. [Leptospermum. 

1. LEPTOSPERMUM, Forst. 

Shrubs or small trees, glabrous or silky-pubescent. Leaves 
small, alternate, entire. Flowers solitary or 2-3 together,- axillary 
■or at the ends of the branchlets, often polygamous. Calyx-tube 
•caiiipanulate or turbinate, adnate to the ovary below ; lobes 5. 
Petals 5, spreading. Stamens numerous, free, in a single series ; 
anthers versatile. Ovary inferior or half-superior, enclosed in the 
calyx-tube, 5- or more-celled, rarely 3-4-celled ; style filiform ; 
stigma capitate or peltate. Capsule woody or coriaceous, exceed- 
iug the calyx-tube or altogether included in it, opening loculicidally 
at the top. Seeds numerous in each cell, but most of them sterile, 
pendulous, linear or angular. 

A genus of about 28 species, almost wholly Australian ; a few only in New 
Zealand, New Caledonia, and the Malay Archipelago. One of the New Zealand 
species is also found in Australia, the remaining two are endemic. 

Leaves pungent. Flowers J-^ in. diam., solitary. Calyx- 
lobes deciduous. Capsule half-exserted . . . . 1. L. scoparium. 

Leaves not pungent. Flowers i^ in. diam., usually fas- 
cicled. Calyx-lobes persistent. Capsule included in 
the calyx-tube . . . . . . . . . . 2. L. ericoides. 

Leaves not pungent, white with silky hairs. Flowers Jin. 
diam. Calyx-lobes persistent. Capsule deeply sunk 
within the calyx-tube . . . . . . . . 3. L. Sinclairii. 

1 L. scoparium, Forst. Char. Gen. 72, t. 36. — A shrub or small 
tree, extremely variable in size, usually 6-18 ft. high, but sometimes 
dwarfed to a foot or two, occasionally reaching 20-25 ft. with a 
trunk 12-18 in. diam. ; branches fastigiate or spreading; branchlets 
and young leaves silky. Leaves ^^in. long, variable in shape, 
linear or linear-lanceolate to broadly ovate, sessile, rigid, concave, 
acute and pungent-pointed, veinless, dotted, erect or spreading, 
rarely recurved. Flowers sessile, solitary, axillary or terminating 
the branchlets, ^-^ in. diam. Calyx-tube broadly turbinate ; lobes 
orbicular, deciduous. Petals orbicular, slightly clawed. Capsule 
woody, persistent, half sunk in the calyx-tube, which forms a rim 
round it, the free portion 5-valved. — A. Bich. Fl. No2iv. Zel. 337 ; 
A. Gunn. Precur. n. 553; Raoul, Ghoix, 49; Hook. f. Fl. Nov. 
Z,d. i. 69; Handb. N.Z. Fl. 69; Kirk, Forest Fl. t. 117 : Students' 
Fl. 157. 

Var. linifolium, Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 69. — Leaves narrow linear-lanceo- 
late. 

Var. myptifolium, Hook. f. Z.c — Leaves ovate, spreading or recurved. 

Var. parvum, Kii'k, Students' Fl. 158. — 1-3 ft. high. Leaves ^in. long, 
ovate, spreading. Flowers smaller, |-Jin. 

Var. ppostratum, Hook. f. I.e. — Small, often prostrate, branches ascending 
at the tips. Leaves ovate or almost orbicular, recurved. A mountain form. 

North and South Islands, Stewart Island, Chatham Islands : Abund 
ant throughout, ascending to 3500ft. Manuka; Tea-tree. October- April. 
Also plentiful in Australia and Tasmania. 



Leptosper7num.\ myrtace^. 161 

Too well known to need comment here. The wood is dark-red, hard and 
durable, and is applied to a variety of purposes, but can seldom be obtained of 
large size. An infusion of the leaves has been used in the place of tea. 

2. L. ericoides, A. Rich. Fl. Noiiv. Zel. 338. — A shrub or tree 
20-60 ft. high, with a trunk 1-3 ft. diani. ; bark loose, papery; 
branchlets slender, glabrous or the younger sparingly silky. 
Leaves fascicled or alternate, ^— ^ in. long, very narrow-linear or 
linear-lanceolate, sometimes narrow linear- spathulate, acute but 
not pungent, concave, veinless, dotted, glabrous or slightly silky ; 
margins often ciliate when young. Flowers -J^in. diam., axillary, 
solitary or fascicled, usually produced in great profusion ; pedicels 
short, glabrous or silky. Calyx-tube turbinate ; lobes ovate, acute, 
persistent. Petals orbicular, shortly clawed. Capsule small, tur- 
binate, wholly included within the calyx-tube. — A. Cunn. Precur. 
n. 554; Baoul, Choix, 49; Hook. f. FL Nov. Zel. i. 70; Handh. 
N.Z. Fl. 70 ; Kirk, Forest Fl. t. 69 ; Students Fl. 158. 

Var. lineatum, Kirk, I.e.- Smaller and more slender, 2-12 ft. high, usually 
more silky. Leaves narrower, ^-^V i^^- broad. Flowers smaller, ^in. diam. 

North and South Islands : Abundant from the North Cape to the Blufi, 
ascending to 3000 ft. Var. lineatum, from the North Cape to the Auckland 
Isthmus. Kanuka ; Maru. November-January. 

Easily distinguished from the preceding by its greater size, narrower leaves, 
smaller flowers, and much smaller capsules, which are entirely included in the 
<;alyx-tube. Wood durable ; much used for piles, house-blocks, posts and 
rails, &c. 

3. L. Sinclairii, T. Kirk, Students' Fl. 158. — A small prostrate 
or suberect shrub 1-5 ft. .high ; branches spreading ; young shoots, 
leaves, pedicels, and calyces hoary with appressed silky hairs. 
Leaves J-^in. long, hnear-lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, acute, 
flat or concave. Flowers larger than in L. ericoides, lin. diam., 
on longer pedicels, often crowded towards the ends of the branch- 
lets, forming rounded beads. Calyx-tube narrow-turbinate ; lobes 
oblong or ovate, acute or obtuse, persistent. Petals obovate, 
clawed. Capsule narrow-turbinate, more deeply sunk within the 
calyx-tube than in L. ericoides. 

NoETH Island : Three Kings Islands, T. F. C. ; Great Barrier Island, 
Hutton and Kirk ! Sea-level to 1800 ft. November-January. 

This is very close to L. ericoides. Its distinguishing characters are the 
smaller size, broader and flatter silky-hoary leaves, larger flowers, and more 
deeply sunk capsules. 

2. METRO SIDEROS, Banks. 

Erect or climbing trees or shrubs. Leaves opposite, sometimes 
distichous, coriaceous. Flowers often handsome, white or red or 
•crimson, usually disposed in terminal cymes or racemes. Calyx- 
tube adnate to the base of the ovary, campanulate, turbinate or 
urceolate ; lobes 5, imbricate. Petals 5, spreading. Stamens very 
numerous, much longer than the petals; filaments filiform; anthers 

,6— FL 



162 MYRTACE^. [Metrosideros. 

versatile. Ovary inferior or half-superior, 3-celled ; style filiform ; 
stigma small ; ovules numerous in each cell. Capsule coriaceous, 
altogether enclosed in the persistent calyx-tube or protruding be- 
yond it, 3-celled, loculicidally 3-valved or irregularly dehiscent. 
Seeds numerous, densely packed, linear; testa membranous. 

In addition to the 11 species found in New Zealand, all but one of which are 
endemic, there are a few scattered through Polynesia, New Caledonia, Australia, 
and the Malay Archipelago, together with an aberrant species in South Africa. 
New Zealand is the only country which possesses climbing species. 

* Capsule coriaceous or woody, wholly enclosed in the calyx-tube, which is 
produced far beyond it, dehiscing irregularly or by 3 apical valves. 

Climbing. Leaves obtuse. Calyx glabrous. Capsule large, 

^-fin. .. .. .. .. .. ..1. M. fiorida. 

Erect, 30-60 ft. Leaves elliptic-lanceolate, acute or acu- 
minate. Calyx silky. Capsule Jin. .. ..2. M. lucicla. 

A much-branched slirub. Leaves ovate-lanceolate, acute. 

Cymes usually on the old wood below the leaves . . 3. .1/. Parkinsonii. 

** Capsule hardly coriaceous, wholly enclosed in the calyx-tube, which is 
produced far beyond it, dehiscing to the base. All climbers. 

Leaves decussate, large, 1^-8 in., acute or acuminate. 

Flowers large, white, terminal . . . . . . 4. 2lf. albiflora. 

Leaves decussate, smaller, |-l^in., obtuse. Flowers 

crimson . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. M. diffusa. 

Leaves distichous, subacute. Branchlets glabrescent. 

Flowers always lateral . . . . . . . . 6. M. hypericifolia. 

Leaves distichous, acuminate. Branchlets pubescent. 

Flowers usually terminal . . . . . . .. 1. M. Colensoi. 

*** Capsule exserted beyond the calyx-tube, the free portion 3-valved. 
Erect. Leaves decussate, glabrous, obtuse, 1-1^ in. long 8. M. robusta. 
Erect. Leases decussate, white with appressed tomentum 

beneath, 2-4 in. long . . . . . . ..'.). M. tomentosa. 

Erect. Leaves decussate, white with appressed tomentum 

beneath, 5-2 in. long .. .. .. ..10. M. villosa. 

Climbing. Leaves distichous, J-J in. long. Flowers 

white . . . . . . " . . . . . . 11. M. scandens. 

1. M. florida, Sm. in Trans. Linn. Soc. iii. (1797) 269. — 
Usually a tall woody climber, reaching the tops of lofty trees ; 
stems long, cable-like, often 3-6 in. diam. ; bark loose, separating 
in large flakes. Leaves 1^-3 in. long, shortly petioled, elliptic- 
oblong, obtuse, coriaceous, glabrous ; midrib stout. Flowers 
orange-red, in few- or many-flowered terminal simple or branched 
cymes. Calyx obconic or turbinate, glabrous, produced beyond 
the ovary. Petals orbicular, yellowish-red. Stamens scarlet, very 
numerous, f-l in. long. Ovary completely adnate with the base of 
the calyx-tube, 3-celled. Capsule deeply sunk within the persistent 
calyx, and with it forming a woody urceolate 5-ribbed fruit i-f in. 
long, usually dehiscing by 3 valves within the calyx. — A. Rich. 
Fl. Nouv. Zel. 333; A. Cunn. Precur. n. 559; Raoul, Ghoix, 4^9; 
Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 66. t. 15 ; Handh. N.Z. Fl. 70 ; Kirk, Forest 



MetrQsideros.] myktace^. 163 • 

Fl. t. 127 ; Students' Fl. 160, M. speciosa, Col. in Trans. N.Z. Inst. 
xxii. (1890) 463. M. aurata, Col. I.e. xxiii. (1891) 385. Melaleuca 
liorida, Forst. Prodr. u. 214. Leptospermum scandens, Fors^. Char. 
Gen. 72. 

North and South Islands : Common from the Three Kings Islands and 
the North Cape to Nelson and Marlborough. Sea-level to 2.500ft. Aka. 
February-June. 

According to Mr. J. W. Hall, the capsules require a whole year to ripen 
their seeds. Mr. Colenso's M. aurata, which is kept up as a variety by Mr. 
Kirk, only differs in the yellow flowers. It has been noticed in several districts 
from Auckland to CoUingwood, but not more than a single specimen has been 
found in each locality. It can only be considered an accidental sport. 

2. M. lucida, ^. liich. Fl. Nottv. Zel. 333. — Usually a tall erect 
branching tree 30-60 ft. liigh, but often dwarfed to a small bush 
in subalpitie or exposed localities ; bark pale, papery ; branchlets 
and young leaves silky. Leaves l|--3 in. long, elliptic-lanceo- 
late or lanceolate, acuminate, very coriaceous, pale glossy-green 
above, dotted with oil-glands Ifeneath, narrowed into a short stout 
petiole. Flowers bright-crimson, in short broad cymes at the ends 
•of the branches ; peduncles and pedicels short, stout, siiky. Calyx 
obconic, silky ; lobes 5, ovate, obtuse. Petals oblong, exceechng 
the calyx-lobes. Stauiens numerous, 1 in. long. Ovary sunk in 
the calyx-tube, 3-celled. Capsule |-in. long, coriaceous, broadly 
urceolate, obscurely 5-nbbed, crowned by the persistent cup-shaped 
calyx-limb.—^. Cunn. Precur. n. 561; Baoul, Choix, 49: Hooh-. f. 
Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 67; Handb. N.Z. Fl. 71; Kirk, Forest Fl. t. 58;, 
Sttidents Fl. 160. M. umbellata, Cav. Ic. iv. 20, t. 337. Agal- 
manthus umbellatus, Homb. d Jacq. Voy. Astrol. etZH.TS. Mela- 
leuca lucida, Forst. Prodr. n. 216. 

North Island : In hilly or mountain districts from Whangarei and 
the Great and Little Barrier Islands southwards, but often local. South 
Island, Stewart Island, Auckland Islands : Abundant throughout. Camp- 
bell Island: Rare. Sea-level to 3.500ft. MouiUain-rata. December- 
January. 

Wood extremely strong, hard, heavy, and durable; useful for shipbuilding, &c. 

3. M. Parkinsonii, Buck, in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xv. (1883) 339, 
t. 28, f. 2. — -A much-branched shrub with straggling often prostrate 
branches, or a small tree 20-30 ft. high; trunk seldom more than 
6-9 in. diam. Leaves 1-3 in. long, ovate-lanceolate to oblong-lanceo- 
late or elliptic-ovate, acute or acuminate, rounded at the base, 
coriaceous, quite glabrous ; petioles very short. Flowers bright- 
crimson, usually m dense paniculate cymes springing from the 
branches below the leaves, but sometimes terminating the branch- 
lets as well. Calyx-tube turbinate, glabrous ; lobes 5, ovate, 
triangular, obtuse. Stamens 1 in. long. Ovary sunk in the calyx- 
tube, 3-celled. Capsule Jin. long, coriaceous, broadly campanu- 
late, obscurely 5-ribbed, crowned by the persistent cup-shaped 
calyx-hmb. — Kirk, Students' Fl. 160. 



164 MYETACE^. [Metros ideros^ 

South Island : Nelson — Wakamarina Eanges, near CoUingwood ; Ana- 
tori Ranges ; Heaphy River, W. S. Hayward ! J. Ball ! Buller Valley, Nine- 
mile Creek, R. J. Kingsley ! Mount Rochfort, not uncommon, altitude 
1000-2500 tt., W. Townson! Sea-level to 3000 ft. December-January. 

A very handsome plant, which has the most restricted range of any of the- 
New Zealand species. 

4. M. albiflora, Sol. ex Gcertn. Fruct. i. 172, t. 34, f. 11.— A 
much-branched woody climber, glabrous in all its parts ; branchlets 
terete, slender, often drooping. Leaves decussate, 1^3-|in. long, 
elliptic-lanceolate or elliptic-ovate, acute or acuminate, glossy 
above, very coriaceous, narrowed at the base into a short stout 
petiole. Flowers white, in terminal much-branched paniculate 
cymes; pedicels pubescent. Calyx narrow-campauulate or almost 
tubular; lobes 5, ovate, obtuse, persistent. Petals exceeding the 
calyx-lobes, white, orbicular. Stamens and style filiform, -I— f in. 
long. Ovary adnate to the base of the calyx, 3-celled. Capsule 
^^in. long, splitting to the base into 3 valves when mature, urceo- 
late, globose and 3-lobed below, crowned by the much narrower 
tubular calyx, the lobes of which are sharply refiexed at the top. — 
Hook. /. Bh. Nov. Zel. i. 67 ; Hujidb. N.Z. Fl. 71 ; Kirk, Students' 
Fl. 161. M. diffusa, A. Cunn. Precur. n. b^O(not of Smith) ; Hook. 
Ic. Plant, t. 569. 

North Island : Forests from Mongonui and Hokianga southwards to the 
East Cape, but often local. Ascends to 2800 ft. December-January. 

A very handsome species, easily recognised by the large broad leaves and 
large panicles of white flowers. 

5. M. diffusa, Sm. in Trans. Linn. Soc. iii. (1797) 268. — A tall 
and stout woody climber reaching the tops of the highest trees; 
young branchlets, inflorescence, and calyces pubescent or setose. 
Leaves f- l^in. long, very shortly petioled, elliptic-oblong or ovate- 
oblong or ovate, obtuse oi- subacute, very coriaceous. Flowers very 
abundantly produced, bright-crimson, in terminal or rarely axillary 
much-branched cymes. Calyx-tube narrow-oblong, suddenly ex- 
panded into a broad cup-shaped limb ; lobes 5, broadly oblong, per- 
sistent. Petals orbicular, shortly clawed ; margins usually fimbriate 
or jagged. Ovary wholly adnate to the base of the calyx-tube.- 
Capsule -^in. long, globose, rather coriaceous, 3- or 6-ribbed, 
3-celled, loculicidally dehiscing to the base, crowned by the short 
cup-shaped calyx-limb. — Hook. /. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 67 ; Handb. N.Z. 
Fl. 71; Kirk, Students' Fl. 161. 

North Island : Not uncommon in forests from Mongonui and Ahipara to 
the East Cape and Taranaki. Sea-level to 2000 ft. September-October. 

A most brilliant plant when in full bloom, well worthy of cultivation. 

6. M. hypericifolia, A. Cunn. Precur. n. 562. — A climbing- 
shrub ; branches slender, spreading, obscurely tetragonous, usually- 
minutely pubescent. Leaves distichous, -^1 in. long, oblong-lan- 
peolate or ovate-lanceolate or ovate-oblong, acute or apiculate or 



Metrosideros.] myrtace^. 165 

obtuse, rounded at the base, sessile, rather membranous, glabrous 
or slightly silky when young. Flowers small, pink or whitish- 
pink, in small lateral few-flowered cymes or racemes ; pedicels 
slender, glabrous or pubescent. Calyx-tube pyriform, suddenly 
expanded into a short and broad cup-shaped limb ; lobes 5, 
ovate-triangular. Petals orbicular, shortly clawed, exceeding the 
calyx-lobes. Stamens slender, ^in. long. Ovary wholly aduate- 
to the base of the calyx-tube. Capsule small, -|-^in. long, glo- 
bose, 3-lobed, crowned by the funnel-shaped calyx-limb, loculici- 
dally 3-valved to the base. — Baoul, Choix, 49 ; Hook. f. Fl. Nov. 
Zel. i. 67, t. 16; Handb. N.Z. Fl. 71; Kirk, Students' FL 161. 
M. subsimihs, Col. in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xii. (1880) 361. 

North and South Islands, Stewart Island : Abundant in forests from 
the North Cape southwards. Sea-level to 2000 ft. November-January. 

The smallest species of the genus. The flowers are occasionally quite 
•white, and are always produced on the old wood, never terminal. 

7. M. Colensoi, Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 68. — A slender climb- 
ing shrub with numerous very slender leafy terete or obscurely 
tetragonous branches ; branchlets densely pubescent or setose. 
Leaves distichous, often imbricating, sessile or very shortly peti- 
oled, ^— f in. long, ovate or ovate-lanceolate, acute or acuminate, 
rounded at the base, almost membranous, densely pubescent when 
young, often becoming almost glabrous when mature. Flowers 
small, pink or whitish, in terminal or lateral trichotomous cymes 
which are rarely more than l^in. long; peduncles and pedicels 
silky-pubescent. Calyx-tube funnel-shaped, much longer than the 
ovary, pubescent ; lobes small, narrow-triangular, acute, as long as- 
or slightly longer than the small orbicular petals. Ovary wholly 
adnate to the base of the calyx-tube. Capsule small, |— ^ in. long, 
globose, 3-lobed, crowned by the long funnel-shaped calyx-limb,, 
loculicidallv 3-valved to the base. — Hmidh. N.Z. Fl. I'A; Kirk^ 
Students Fl. 162. 

Var. pendens, Kirk, I.e. — Branchlets much more slender, almost filiform,, 
pendulous. Flowers white.— M. pendens, Col. in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xii. (1880) 
360. 

North and South Islands : In forests from the Bay of Islands (Hand- 
book) to Nelson and Marlborough, but far from common. December- 
January. 

Allied to the preceding species, but easily distinguished by the much more 
slender habit, pubescent branchlets, and by the thinner much more acumi- 
nate and usually pubescent leaves. I have seen no specimens from the north of 
the Waikato River. 

8. M. robusta, A. Cunn. Precur. n. 557. — A tall and stout 
forest-tree, 60-80 or even 100ft. high; trunk irregular, 3-8 ft. 
diam. or more ; branches spreading, formmg a huge rounded head ; 
branchlets 4-angled, puberulous. Leaves decussate, l-l|^in. long, 
elliptic-oblong or ovate-oblong or elliptic-lanceolate, obtuse, glabrous^ 



166 MYRTACE^. [Metrosideros^. 

very ■ coriaceous ; petioles short, stout, glabrous or puberulou&. 
Flowers dark-scarlet, very abundantly produced, in broad and 
dense terminal many-flowered cymes ; peduncles and pedicels 
short, stout, pubescent. Calyx-tube short, obconic ; lobes short 
and broad, triangular. Petals exceeding the calyx-lobes, orbicular. 
Ovary adnate to the base of the calyx-tube and included within 
it during the flowering stage. Capsule small, oblong, ^— Jin. long, 
half-superior, girt round the middle by the rim of the calyx-tube, 
the free upper part locuhcidallv 3-valved. — Hook. f. FL. Nov. Zel. 
i. 68, t. 17 ; Handb. N.Z. FL 72 ; Kirk, Forest FL t. 128 ; Students' 
FL 162. M. florida. Hook. Bot. Mag. t. 4471 (not of Smith). 

Var. retusa, Kirk, I.e. — Leaves shorter, ^-| in. long, elliptic, rounded at 
botli ends, retuse. — Two specimens in Mr. Kirk's herbarium, from Lowry Bay, 
Wellington. 

North and South Islands : Abundant in forests from the North Cape south- 
wards to Marlborough. Nelson, and Westland. Sea-level to 3000ft. Rata. 
December-January. 

A magnificent tree, sometimes reaching a gigantic size, specimens having 
been measured wiih trunks over 20 ft. diam. It usually (but not invariably) 
commences life as an epiphyte in the upper branches of some tall forest-tree, 
sending to the ground aerial roots, which coalesce and form a trunk after the 
death of the supporting plant. Terrestr al specituens are frequently seen, but 
these either have no trunk at all, keeping during life the habit of a much- 
branched bushy shrub, or produce a short, straight trunk of no great size. 
The timber is strong, hard, and durable, and is much employed for wheel- 
wrigh s' work, framework for machinery, wagons, &c., and for shipbuilding. 

9. M. tomentosa, A. Bich. FL Nouv. Zel. 336, t. 37. — Usually 
a much-branched tree 30-70 ft. high, with a short stout trunk 
2-6 ft. diam., and large wide-spreading branches, but sometimes 
dwarfed to a few feet in height ; branchlets stout, terete, tomen- 
tose. Leaves decussate, very variable in size and shape, 1-4 in. 
long, lanceolate or elliptic-lanceolate to oblong or broadly oblong, 
acute or obtuse, rounaed at the base, very thick and coriaceous, 
usually clothed with white tomentum beneath, rarely glabrous; 
margins flat or recurved ; petioles short, stout. Flowers large, dark- 
crimson, in broad terminal many-flowered cymes ; peduncles and 
pedicels stout, and with the calyces clothed with dense white 
tomentum. Calyx-tube obconic ; lobes short, deltoid. Petals 
Oblong, obtuse, exceeding the calyx-tube. Stamens numerous, 
li-]iin. long. Ovary 3-celled, adnate to the base of the calyx- 
tube, and sunk within it during tiie flowering stage. Capsule -^-in. 
long, hall-superior, woody, tonientose, girt round the middle by the 
persistent calyx-limb, the free upper part locuhcidallv 3-valved. — ■ 
A. Cunn. Precur.n. 558; Baoid, Choix, 49; Hook. f. FL Nov. Zel. 
i. 68; Handb. N.Z. FL 72; Rirk, Forest FL t. 118; Students 
FL 163. 

NoBTH Island : Abundant along the coast from the Three Kings Islands 
and the North Cape to Poverty Bay and Urenui (Taranaki). Inland at Lake 
Tarawera, Lake Taupo, and Waikaremoana. Sea-level to 2000 It. Pohu- 
tnkawa; Christmas-tree. December-January. 



.Metrosiderds.] mybtace^. (167 

A noble and picturesque tree, very abundant on the rocky cliffs and head- 
lands of the northern portion of the North Island. Banks and Solander recorded 
it from Totarauui (Queen Charlotte Sound) in the South Island; but this is 
probably an error. The wood is largely employed for shipbuilding and other 
purposes requiring strength, hardness, and durability. 

10. M. villosa, Sw. in Trans. Linn. Soc. in. (1797) 268.— A 
much-branched tree 20-60ft. high, trunk 1-4 ft. diam.; branchlets, 
undersurface of leaves, inflorescence, and calyces densely covered 
with v\hite tonientum. Leaves decussate, f-2 in. long, broadly ovate 
or broadly oblong, sometimes almost orbicular, obtuse at both ends, 
very coriaceous ; margins recurved ; petioles short, stout. Flowers 
scarlet, in small teiminal many-fiowered cymes ; peduncles and 
pedicels short, stout. Calyx-tube broadly obconic ; lobes short, 
deltoid, v.'ith a gland at the tip. Petals broadly oblong, exceeding 
the calyx-lobes. Stamens -J— |m. long. Ovary 3-celled, adnate 
to the base of the calyx-tube. Capsule ^ in. long, half-superior, 
woody, tomentose, girt at the middle by the persistent calyx-limb, 
the free portion loculicidally 3-valved. — Kirk, Students' Fl. 163. 
M. polvmorpha, Gaud, in Freyc. Voy. Bot. 482, t. 85 ; Hook. f. 
Handb'.N.Z. Fl. 73 ; Kirk, Forest Fl. t. 119. 

Kermadec Islands : Sunday Island, the most abundant tree, ascending to- 
the tops of the hills, altitude 1700 ft. August-December. 

A common plant in many of the Polynesian islands, varying greatly in size^ 
shape of the leaves, presence or absence of tomentum, &c. The above descrip- 
tion refers solely to the Kermadec Island variety. 

11. M. scandens, Sol. ex GcBrtii. Fruct. i. 172, t. 34, f. 10. — A 
tall woody climber, reaching the tops of the highest trees ; branches 
numerous, spreading, terete ; branchlets tomentose or setose. Leaves 
distichous, sessile, -^^ in. long, broadly ovate or broadly oblong to 
orbicular, obtuse, very coriaceous, glabrous and shining above , 
paler, glandular-punctate and often pilose beneath ; margins re- 
curved. Flowers small, white, in pedunculate 3-fiowered cymes 
crowded towards the ends of the branches, forming a leafy terminal 
panicle; peduncles and pedicels pubescent. Calyx-tube short,^ 
broadly turbinate ; lobes short and broad, obtuse, persistent. 
Petals orbicular, white. Stamens slender, ^in. long. Ovary 3- 
celled, adnate to the base of the calyx-tube, and sunk in it during 
the flowering stage. Capsule globose, ^in. diam., half-superior, 
girt round the middle by the persistent calvx-limb, the free portion 
.loculicidally 3-valved.— S■oo^^/. i^/. Nov. Zel. i. 69; Handh. N.Z. 
Fl. 73; Kirk, Students' Fl. 163. M. perforata, A. Rich. Fl. Nouv. 
Zel. 334. M. buxifolia, A. Giinn. Precur. n. 556; Hook. Bot. Mag. 
t. 4515. M. vesiculata, Col. in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xvi. (1884) 327. 
M. tenuifolia. Col. I.e. xxiv. (1892) 386. Melaleuca perforata, 

.Forst. Prodr. n. 212. Leptospermum perforatum, Forst. Char.. 
Gen. 72. , _ 



168 MYRTACE^. [Metrosideros. 

North and South Islands : Abundant in forests from the Three Kings 
Islands and North Cape to Marlborough and Nelson. Sea-level to 2000 ft. 
Aka. January-March. 

I have seen no specimens from further south than Marlborough, but it has 
been recorded from Banks Peninsula and the Auckland Islands, I believe erro- 
neously. Mr. Colenso's M. tenuifolia, as proved by the type specimens in his 
herbarium, is based upon the young plant, which has slender glabrous stems 
and almost membranous leaves. His M. vesiculata is a state in which the 
glands on the undersurface of the leaves and calyces are more conspicuous than 
usual. 

3. MYRTUS, Linn. 

Shrubs or rarely trees, glabrous or pubescent or tomentose. 
Leaves opposite, often coriaceous, pellucid-dotted. Flowers axil- 
lary, solitary or in few-flowered cymes. Calyx-tube subglobose or 
turbinate ; lobes 4-5, usually persistent. Petals 4-5, spreading. 
Stamens very numerous, in many series, free, longer than the 
petals. Ovary inferior, completely or imperfectly 2-3-celled ; 
ovules numerous in each cell. Fruit a globose or ovoid berry, 
crowned with the persistent calyx-limb. Seeds few or many, reni- 
form or almost globose ; testa crustaceous or bony. Embryo 
terete, curved or annular ; cotyledons small ; radicle long. 

Species about 100, most of them natives of South America, a few extending 
to Mexico and the West Indies. There are also 9 or 10 Australian species, and 
1 (the common myrtle) widely spread over southern Europe and western Asia. 
The 4 New Zealand species are all endemic. 

Leaves 1-2 in. long, tumid between the veins .. . . 1. M. bullata. 

Leaves §-1 in. long, fiat . . . . . . . . 2. M. Ealphii. 

Leaves J-^ in., obcordate. Calyx 4-lobed .. ..3. M. obcordata. 

Leaves J-| in., obovate. Calyx 5-lobed . . .. ..4. M. pedunculata. 

1. M. bullata, Sol. ex A. Cunn. Precur. n. 565. — An erect shrub, 
usually from 10 to loft., but sometimes taller and becoming a 
small tree 20-25 ft. high ; branchlets and young leaves tomentose. 
Leaves 1-2 in. long, reddish-brown, shortly petioled, broadly ovate or 
orbicular-ovate, obtuse or acute or apiculate, coriaceous, the suz-face 
tumid or blistered between the veins. Flowers axillary, solitary, 
•|in. diam., white. Peduncles longer or shorter than the leaves, 
tomentose. Calyx 2-bracteolate at the base ; lobes 4, obtuse or 
subacute. Petals orbicular, white. Berry ^ in. long, broadly ovoid, 
dark-red, becoming almost black when fully ripe, 2-celled Seeds 
numerous, in 2 series in each cell, reniform ; testa bony. — Hook. Ic. 
Plant, t. 557 ; Bot. Mag. t. 4809 ; Baoul, Choix, 49 ; Hook. f. Fl. 
Nov. Zel. i. 70; Handh. N.Z. £1. 74; Kirk, Forest Fl. t. 131; 
Students Fl. 164. 

North Island : Common in woods from the North Cape to Cook Strait. 
South Island : Various localities in Marlborough and Nelson, rare. Ascends 
to 2000 ft. Piamarama. December-January. 

Easily distinguished by the tumid or blistered surface of the leaves, and by 
the calyx and petals being covered with minute warts. The peduncles are some- 
times 2-flowered. 



MyrtUS.] MYETACEiE. 16^ 

2. M. Ralphii, Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. ii. 329.— An erect branch- 
ing shrub 6-15 ft. high, rarely taller and becoming a small tree; 
branchlets very slender, and with the young leaves sparingly 
tomentose. Leaves f-lin. long, usually green, shortly petioled, 
ovate or oblong-ovate to orbicular-ovate, obtuse or acute, thinly 
coriaceous or almost membranous, the surface flat or very slightly 
tumid between the veins. Flowers quite as in M. bullata but 
slightly smaller. Berry i-^in. long, broadly ovoid, dark - red, 
2-celled. Seeds much fewer than in M. hullata. — Handb. N.Z. 
Fl. 74 ; Kirk, Forest Fl. t. 94 ; Stude?its' Fl. 165. 

North Island : From Whangarei to Cook Strait, but often local. South 
Island: Nelson and Marlborough, rare. Sea-level to 1500ft. December- 
January. 

Very closely allied to M. bullata, but the leaves are smaller, usually green,, 
with the surface plane or very slightly tumid ; and the berry has fewer seeds 

3. M. obcordata, Hook.f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 71.— A much-branched 
shrub 5-15 ft. high ; branches slender, spreading, the younger ones- 
pubescent. Leaves opposite or in opposite fascicles, i--J-in. 
long, obcordate, narrowed into a short puberulous petiole, coria- 
ceous, glabrous on both surfaces or slightly silky when young. 
Flowers solitary, axillary, Jin. diam., white. Peduncles as long 
as the leaves, pubescent. Calyx 4-lobed ; lobes oblong, acute. 
Petals 4, orbicular. Berry ^ in. long, broadly ovoid, dark-red or 
violet, 2-celled. Seeds 1-2 in each cell, reniform ; testa bony. — 
Handb. N.Z. Fl. 74 ; Kirk, Forest Fl. t. 70 ; Students' Fl. 165. Eu- 
genia obcordata, Baoul in Ann. Sci. Nat. Ser. iii. 2 (1844) 122. 

North and South Islands : In woods from Whangarei to Foveaux 
Strait, but local north of the East Cape. Sea-level to 2000 ft. Rohutu. 

December-January. 

4. M. pedunculata, Hook. f. in Hook. Ic. Plant, t. 629. — A 
much-branched compact or diffuse shrub 5-15 ft. high ; branches, 
slender, glabrous, 4-angled. Leaves opposite, |— f in. long, obo- 
vate or obovate-oblong or oblong-ovate, rounded at the tip, rarely 
acute, coriaceous, glabrous, narrowed into short petioles. Flowers 
axillary, solitary, Jm. diam., white. Peduncles slender, gla- 
brous, longer or shorter than the leaves. Calyx glabrous, 5-lobed, 
2-bracteolate at the base. Petals 5, rounded. Berry small, Jin. 
long, broadly ovoid, red or vellowish, 2-celled. Seeds 2-5. — 
Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 71 ; Handb. N.Z. Fl. 74 ; Kirk, Forest Fl. t. 112 ; 
Students' Fl. 165. Eugenia vitis-idaea, Baoul in Ann. Sci. Nat. 
Ser. iii. 2 (1844) 122. 

North and South Islands, Stewart Island : From Hokianga and the 
Bay of Islands southwards, but often local. Sea-level to 2000 ft. Rohutu. 
December-January. 

Closely allied to M. obcordata, but easily recognised by the glabrous branch- 
lets, obovate leaves rounded at the tip, and 5-lobed calyx. 



170 MYRTACE^. [Eugenia. 

4. EUGENIA, Linn. 

Shrubs or trees, glabrous or rarely tomentose or villous. 
Leaves opposite, penniveined. Flowers solitary and axillaiy, or 
in terminal or lateral cyuies or pmicles. C ilyx-tube globose to 
narrow-turoinate ; lobes 4, rarely 5. Petals the same number as 
the calyx-lobes. Stamens numerous, in manv series. Ovary 2- or 
rarely 3-celled ; style filifonn ; stigma small ; ovules numerous 
in each cell. Fruit a berry, raiely dry and fibrous, crowned 
by the persistent calyx-limo. Seeds solitary or fevv, globose or 
variously compressed ; testa membranous or cartilaginous. Em- 
bryo thick and fleshy ; radicle short ; cotyledons tihck, more or 
less united or distinct. 

An immense genus of more than 700 species, spread over the tropical and 
subtropical regions of both hemispheres. There is little to separa e it from 
Myitus except the thick and fleshy embryo with a short radicle. The single 
New Zealand species is endemic. 

1. E. maire, A. Cnnn. Precur. n. 564. — A small tree 20-50 ft. 

high, perfectly glabrous in all its parts ; trunk 1-2 ft. diam., with 
white bark ; branchlets slender, 4-angled. Leaves opposite, 1-2 in. 
long, oblong-lanceolate or elliptic-lanceolate to elliptic-oblong, 
acute or acuminate, rather membranous, narrowed into short 
slender petioles. Flowers i in. diam., sometimes almost unisexual, 
white, in terminal many-flowered corymbose panicles 1^-3 in. 
bioad ; pedicels slender, glabrous. Calyx-tube broadly obconic ; 
lobes very short, broad, deciduous. Petals orbicular, falling avvay 
early. ■ Stamens slender, ^-f in. long. Ovary wholly adnate to the 
base of the calyx-tube, 2-celled ; ovules numerous. Berry ^ in. 
long, ovoid, red, crowned by the persistent calyx-limb, 1-celled. 
Seed solitarv, large ; testa hard, coriaceous. — Raoul, Chotx. 49 ; 
Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 71; Bandh. N.Z. Fl. 74; Kirk, Forest 
Fl. t. 122; Students' Fl. 165. 

NoETH Island : Swampy forests from the North Cape southwards, abund- 
ant. South Island : Queen Charlotte Sound and Pelorus VaUey, J. Rut- 
land. Sea-level to 1500ft. Malre-tmuake. March-May. 

Wood hai'd, dense, and durable ; valuable for cabinet-work, turnery, &c. 

Obder XXIX. ONAGRARIE.^. 

Herbs, rarely shrubs or small trees. Leaves opposite or alter- 
nate, simple, entire or toothed, exstipulate. Flowers usually- 
regular, hermaphrodite. Calyx-tube often elongated, altogether 
adnate to the ovary, sometimes produced beyond it ; limb of 2-5 
valvate lobes. Petals as many as the calyx-lobes, inserted at the 
top of the calyx-tube, rarely wanting. Stamens as many or twice 
as many as the petals, inserted with them. Ovary inferior, usually 
2-4-celled ; style simple, filiform ; stigma capitate or 2-4-iobed ; 
ovules usually numerous in each cell, in 1 or 2 series, pendulous or 



■Epilobium.] 6na(SKArie^. ItI 

ascending ; placentas axile. Fruit various, generally a '2-4-celled 
capsule with loculicidal or septicidal dehiscence, sometimes a berry, 
rarely nut-like. Seeds usually small, sometinjes provided with a 
tuft of hairs ; albumen none, or a thin layer only. 

A small order of about 11 genera and 300 species, widely spread in tem^ 
perate regions, rare in the tropics ; most plentiful in North America, especially 
in Mexico. Many of the species have handsome flowers, and are frequently 
cultivated in gardens, particularly the genera Godftin, CEiioth'ra, Clarkia, and 
F2ich:-iii, but they have no other economical importance. Of the New Zealand 
generaj, Epilobium is universal in cool climates; Fuchsia is confined to South 
America with the exception of the New Zealand species. 

Herbs. Fruit an elongated capsule. Seeds with a tuft of 
hairs .. .. .- . .. .. ..1. Epilobium. 

Shrubs or small trees. Fruit a berry . . . . . . 2. Fuchsia. 

1. EPILOBIUM, Linn. 
Herbs ; stems erect or decumbent or creeping, sometimes hard 
and almost woody at the base. Leaves alternate or opposite, entire 
or toothed. Flowers rose-coloured or purple or white, solitary in 
the upper axils or forming a terujinal raceme or spike. Calyx-tube 
scarcely produced beyond the ovary, linear, 4-angled or nearly 
terete ; limb 4-partite, deciduous. Petals 4, obovate or obcordate, 
spreading or erect. Stamens 8, the 4 alternate ones shorter. 
Ovary inferior, 47celled ; style filiform ; stigma clavate or with 
.4 spreading or erect lobes ; ovules numerous, 2-seriate, ascending. 
Capsule elongate, 4-angled, 4 - celled and 4-valved, the valves 
separating and curving back fi'om a central seed-bearing axis. 
Seeds numerous, broadest above, the summit furnished with a tuft 
of long hairs. 

A large genus in the temperate and cold regions of both hemispheres ; rare 
in the tropics, except on high mountains ; more abundant in New Zealand than 
in, any other part of the world. Species variously estimated by authors, from 
60 tonearly 200. 

The species of Epilobium are well known to be "highly variable in any 
country that they inh>\bit, but in New Zealand the amount of variation is in- 
ordinately great, making it difficult to affix limits to many of the species, which 
appear to merge gradually into one another. In the arrangement of the New 
Zealand forms I have for the most {'art followed Prbfessor Haussknecht's 
elaborate and beautifully illustrated monograph, but 1 have been unable to 
accept the whole of the species he has proposed, several of them appearing to 
me to rest on characters much too trivial or inconstant. The b ginner will find 
it most difficult to identify any of the species with certainty, and his only safe 
course is to collect copious suites of specimens and to defer all attempts to name 
them until he has gained a clear idea of the prevalent forms and their characters. 

A. Similes. Stems tall, erect, herbaceous, slightly vwoiy at the base. Floioers 
numerous, towards the ends of the branches. 
* Leaves sessile or nearly so. 

Tall, often 3 ft. high. Leaves lanceolate or linear-lanceo- 
late. Flowers numerous, large, ^-| in. diam., white .. 1. E. pallidiflorum^ 

Slender, 1-2 ft. Leaves distant, ovate-oblong. Flowers 
few, large, ^-^ in., white .. .. .. .. 2. E. chionanthum. 



172 ONAQRABiE^. [Epilobiuvi. 

stout, J-2 ft. Leaves close-set, ovate or ovate-oblong. 

Flowers small, ^-^ in. diam., red . . . . . . 3. E. Billardieri- 

Slender, ^3 ft. Leaves lanceolate or linear-lanceolate. anuni. 

Flowers small, ^^ in. diam., purplish .. ..4. E. junceum. 

** Leaves distinctly petiolate. 

Slender, J-2 ft. Leaves ovate or ovate-oblong, membran- 
ous. Flowers J-J in., white or pink . . . . . . 5. E. pubens. 

B. Microphyllse. Stems small, slender, herbaceous, creeping below, erect or as- 
cending towards the tips. Flowers few, towards the ends of the branches. 

* Fruiting peduncles short, seldom exceeding the leaves. 

Stems 2-6 in., prostrate, matted. Leaves close-set, oblong, 

J-^in. Capsule glabrous .. .. .. .. b. E.confertlfolium. 

Stems 3-10 in., ascending. Leaves linear-oblong, coarsely 

toothed, blotched,^! in. Capsule evenly hoary-pubescent 7. E. pictum. 

** Fruiting peduncles elongated. 

t Leaves comparatively narrow, linear or linear-oblong to oblong. 

Stems 1-4 in. Leaves linear or linear - oblong, ^J in. 

Capsule slender. Peduncles much elongated . . . . S. E. tenuipes. 

Stems 2-6 in. Leaves linear - oblong to oblong, J-Jin. 

Capsule pubescent on the angles . . . . . . 9. E. Hectori. 

ft Leaves broad, oblong to ovate or orbicular. 

Stems 2-10 in., slender, pubescent. Leaves small, ^^in., 

broadly oblong to orbicular. Capsule evenly pubescent 10. E. alsinoides. 
Stems 6-18 in., slender, firm. Leaves ovate - cordate. 

Flowers large, Jin. diam. Capsule 1-2 in. .. ..11. E. chlorce folium. 

Stems 6-18 in., weak and flaccid. Leaves distant, ovate, 

entire or obscurely toothed, almost sessile, membranous 12. E. insulare. 
Stems 6-18 in., weak. Leaves distant, orbicular, sharply 

toothed, petiolate, membranous .. .. .. 13. E.rotundifolium. 

'C. Sparsiflorse. Stems small, slender, prostrate and creeping, herbaceous* 
Flowers few, in the axils of the intermediate leaves. Capsules long-stalked. 

Leaves |— ^ in., orbicular, sharply toothed, membranous . . 14. E. linnceoides. 
Leaves |-^in., suborbicular, entire or obscurely sinuate, 

subcoriaceous . • . . . . . . .. 15. E. nummularifo- 

Leaves J-Jin., orbicular-oblong, thick and coriaceous, litem. 

purplish below . . . . . . . . . . 16. E. purpuratum. 

Xicaves J-|in., ovate, obscurely toothed. Flowers large, 

J-| in. diam. . . . . . . . . ,. 17. E. macropus. 

D. Dermatophyllse. Suffruticulose, usually small, stems hard and woody at the 
base. Leaves more or less rigid and coriaceous. Flowers few, terminal 
or nearly so. 

* Fruiting peduncles elongated. 

Much branched, slender, wiry, bifariously pubescent, 

3-6 in. high. Leaves ovate, petiolate, |—| in. .. 18. E. gracitipes. 

Stout, fleshy, prostrate, glabrous, 2-6 in. long. Leaves 

large, obovate-spathulate, entire, f-l^ in. . . . . 19. E. crassum. 

** Fruiting peduncles short. 
■Stems prostrate or straggling, glabrous, woody at the base, 
6-15 in. Leaves elliptic, coriaceous and shining, red- 
dish, acute, petioled, f-1 in. Flowers J-J in. . . 20. E. brevipes. 



EpilobiuVU] ONAGKARIE^. 173 

Stems decumbent, bifariously pubescent, 4-8 in. Leaves 

oblong or oblong-ovate, obtuse, coriaceous, glossy, J-f in. 

Flowers very large, |-f in. .. .. .. .. 21. E. vernicosum. 

Stems numerous, decumbent, 2-8 in. Leaves densely 

crowded, linear-oblong, coarsely denticulate, ^-f in. 

Flowers sessile, large, white, crowded, J in. Capsules 

almost hidden by the leaves . . . . . . 22. E. pycnostachyum 

Stems numerous, rigid, erect, black. Leaves crowded, 

linear-oblong, deeply toothed or almost lobed, J-|in. 

Flowers small, Jin. Capsules glabrous .. .. 23. E.melanocaulon. 

Stems numerous, erect, 2-6 in., grey with fine pubescence. 

Leaves crowded, linear-oblong, coarsely toothed. Cap- 
sules suddenly narrowed below the tip, finely pubescent 24. E. rostratum. 
Stems numerous, rigid and wiry, purplish-black, 3-8 in. 

Leaves small, uniform, ovate-obicular, entire, J-J in. 

Capsules silvery-pubescent on the angles . . . . 25. E. microphyllum. 

Stems numerous, short, 2-6 in. Leaves oblong-ovate, 

entire, J-^ in. Flowers small, Jin. Capsule glabrous 26. E. Krulleanum. 
Stems numerous, erect, 6-14 in. Leaves oblong or linear- 
oblong, obtuse, often reddish, sinuate-denticulate, J-f in. 

Flowers ^^ in. Capsules on short peduncles . . . . 27. E. glabellum. 

Stems branched, erect, 3-9 in. Leaves narrower than in 

E. glabellum, pale-green. Flowers Jin. Capsules on 

peduncles that slightly elongate . . . . . . 28. E. novce-zealan- 

dice. 

1. E. pallidiflorum, Sol. ex A. Gunn. Precur. n. 550. — Stems 
leafy, terete, 1-3 ft. high, decumbent and rooting at the base and 
emitting numerous stolons, erect above, simple or branched, gla- 
brous below, finely puberulous above. Leaves 1-4 in. long, opposite 
or the uppermost alternate, often semiamplexicaul, sessile or nearly 
so, lanceolate or linear-lanceolate or linear-oblong, gradually tapering 
to an acute point, irregularly denticulate or almost entire, glabrous 
•or the margins puberulous. Flowers usually numerous towards 
the ends of the branches, large, handsome, f in. diam., white or pale- 
rose. Calyx-lobes half as long as the corolla, lanceolate, acute. 
Petals obcordate. Stigma oblong-clavate. Capsules 2-4 in. long, 
finely and densely hoary-pubescent ; peduncles shorter than the 
leaves. Seeds minutely papillose. — Hook. f. Ft. Nov. Zel. i. 61 ; 
Haiidb. N.Z. Fl. 81 ; Benth. Fl. Austral, iii. 305 ; Haussk. Mo?t,og. 
Epiloh. 292 ; Kirk, Students Fl. 169. E. macranthum, Hook. Ic. 
Plant, t. 297. 

North and South Islands, Chatham Island : Abundant in marshes from 
the North Cape to Foveaux Strait. Sea-level to 1500 ft. November- 
February. Also in Australia and Tasmania. 

A very distinct species, readily known by the large size, long acute leaves, 
and large white flowers. 

2. E. chionanthum, Haussk. in Oestr. Bot. Zeitschr. xxix. 
(1879) 149. — Stems slender, 1-2 ft. high, decumbent and stoloni- 
ferous at the base, ascending above, simple or rarely branched, 
terete, glabrous below, usually thinly puberulous above. Leaves 
■all opposite except the floral ones, distant, f-l-i-in. long, sessile or 
nearly so, ovate-oblong or oblong-lanceolate, obtuse or subacute, 



174 ONAGRARiE^. "[Epilobium. 

pale-green, minutely denticulate, glabrous. Flowers in the axils of 
the upper leaves, few (1-6) large, ^^in. diam., white. Calyx- 
segments lanceolate, acute, puberulous. Petals obcordate, much 
longer than the calyx. Stigma capitate. Capsule 2-3 in. long. 
rathor stout, puberulous ; pedicels about twice as long as the 
leaves. Seeds smooth. —Mo nog. EpUob. 287, t. 22, f. 92 a, b ; Kirk, 
SkuUnts Fl. 168. 

North and South Islands, Chatham Islands : Abundant in swampy 
places from the North Cape to Foveaux Strait. Sea-level to 1500 ft. 
November-February. 

A well-marked plant, easily recognised by the slender usually simple stems,, 
distant pale-green and glabrous leaves, large white flowers, and smooth seeds. 

3. B. Billardierianum, Ser. in D.C. Prodr. iii. 41. — Stems 
stout, leafy, -J— 2 ft. high, decumbent and v^oody at the base and 
giving off numerous stolons, strict and erect above, simple or 
branched, dull-green or reddish, usually with hoary-pubescent lines 
decurrent from the leaves. Leaves f-li in. long, variable in shape,, 
ovate or ovate-oblong to linear-oblong, obtuse or rarely subacute, 
sessile, lower opposite and often connate at the base, upper 
sometimes alternate, glabrous, finely and closely denticulate. 
Flowers numerous, small. |^-4 in. diam., pink, crowded in the 
upper axils. Calyx-lobes ovate-lanceolate, nearly equalling the 
petals. Stigma rounded-elavate. Capsules l-2|-in. long, linelv 
and evenly hoary-pubescent ; peduncles shorter or slightly longfr 
than the leaves. Seeds minutely papdlose. — Haussk. Monog. Epl- 
lob. 293 ; Kirk, Students FL 170. E. tetragonum, Hook. f. Fl. 
Nov. Zel. i. 60; Handb. N.Z. FL 80; Benth. FL AustraL lii. 305, 
not of Linn. 

North and South Islands, Stewart Island, Chatham Islands: Abundant 
throughout, ascending to 20G0ft. November-February. Also in Australia 
and Tasmania. 

The distinctive characters of this species are the robust habit, usually reddish 
stems, broad obtuse leaves, and numerous small pinkish flowers; but some 
varieties approach E. junceuvi very closely. Professor Haussknecht distin- 
guishes two forms : a, simplex, with an uubranched few-flowered stem and 
small rather remote oblong leaves narrowed at the base ; and b, major, which 
has the stem stouter and branched, and the leaves larger, broader, and cordate 
at the base. 

4. E. junceum, SoL ex Forst. Prodr. n. 516. — Stems erect or 
ascending from a woody decumbent base, ^2-| ft. high, leafy, 
terete, stout or slender, simple or branched, hoary-pubescent 
or tomentose or nearly glabrous. Leaves opposite or alternate, 
sessile, often crowded, very variable in size, |— Sin. long, oblong- 
lanceolate or linear-lanceolate, narrowed at the base, truncate or 
mucronate or acute at the apex, denticulate or sinuate-toothed,, 
hoary-pubesceut or tomentose or almost villous, sometimes gla- 
brescent. Flowers usually numerous towards the ends of the 
branches, small, purplish, -i— i in. diam.; peduncles longer or 
shorter than the leaves. Calyx-lobes lanceolate, acute. Stigma 



Epilobmm.] onagrarie^. 175 

clavate. Capsule l|^-3 in. long, glabrate or hoary-pubescent or 
tomentose ; peduncles longer or shorter than the leaves. Seeds 
minutelv papillose. — A. Cunn. Precur. n. 551; Raoid, Choix, 49; 
Hook. f. h'L Nov. Zel. i. 60; Handb. N.Z. Fl. 80; Benth. Fl. Aus- 
tral, iii. 304 ; Haussk. Monog. Epiloh. 289 ; Kirk, Students' Fl. 169. 

An exceedingly variable plant, the numerous forms of which may be 
grouped in the three following varieties : — 

Var. cinereum, Haussk. I.e. 290. — Stems slender, often much branched, 
usually more or less covered with fine appressed greyish-white pubescence, rarely 
glabrate. Leaves small, often crowded, J-1 in. long, linear-lanceolate, entire or 
sparinoly denticulate, acute or mucronate, finely ashy-pubescent or glabrate. 
Flowers small. Capsules 1^-2 in. long, slender, hoary-pubescent.— E. cinereum, 
A. Rich. Fl Nouv. Zel. 330; -4. Cunn. Precur. n 544. E. incanum, virgatum, 
and confertum, A. Cunn. I.e. nn. 545, 547, 549. 

Var. hirtigerum, Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 60. — Stems tall, strict, erect, 
simple or sparingly branched, usually villo-s with soft spreading hairs mixed 
with shorter ones. Leaves 1-2^ in. long, lanceolate, acute or obtuse, coarsely 
and irregularly denticulate, both surfaces clothed with soft spreading hairs. 
Capsules 2-3 in long, hoary-pubescent or villous.— E. hirtigerum, A. Cunn. I.e. 
n. 546 ; Haussk. I.e. 291. 

Var. macrophyllum, Haussk. I.e. 290. — Stems tall, often 3 ft. high, strict, 
erect, simple or sparingly branched, glabrous and often re dish below, finely 
and sparsely pubescent above. Leaves large, 1-3 in. long, lanceolate, acute or 
acuminate, rather thin and membranous, sinuate-denticulate, glabrous or the 
upper ( nes thinly puberulou-:. Capsules 2-3 in. long, hoary- pubescent. — 
E. erectum. Peine in Trans. N.Z. hist, xxxiv. (1902) 390. 

North and South Islands : Abundant from the North Cape to Poveaux 
Strait, ascending to 3500 It. October-February. A common Australian 

plant. 

The extrenae states of the above varietie-; have a very distinct appearance, 
ani might have been treated as species were they not connected by numerous 
intermediate forms, which make it quite impossible to draw strict lines of de- 
marcation between them. 

5. E. pubens, A. Rich. Fl. Noitv. Zel. 329, t. 36. — Stems 
|— 2 fr. high, slender, simple or branched, decumbent and woody 
at the base, erect above, terete, uniformly clothed with a short 
fine pubescence. Leaves all alternate or the very lowest alone 
ooposite, ^-l^in. long, ovate or ovate-oblong, obtuse or rarely 
subacute, narrowed into slender petioles, pubescent on both sur- 
faces, membranous, toothed or repand-denticulate. Flowers in the 
axils of tbe upper leaves, numerous, small, i—^ in. diam., white or 
piuk. Calyx-lobes lanceolate, acute, puberulous. Sti^ana clavate. 
Capsules 1-2 in. long, hoary-pubescent; peduncles shorter than the 
leaves. Seeds minutelv papillose. — A. Cunn. Precur. n. 513 ; Baoul, 
Choix, 49 ; Hook. f. H. Nov. Zel. i. 61 ; Handh. N.Z. Fl. SO ; 
Haussk. Monog. Ejnlob. 295 ; Kirk, Students FL 170. 

North and South Islands, Stewart Island, Chatham Islands : Abundant 
from the North Cape southwards. Sea-level to nearly 4000 ft. October- 

January. Also in Australia, according to Professor Haussknecht. 

6. E. confertifolium, Hook. f. Jc. Plant, t. 685. — Priuiary 
stems 2-6 ni. long, creeping and rooting at the nodes, often forming 



176 ONAGRAEiE^. [EpUoMum: 

broad matted patches ; branches rooting at the base, ascending at 
the tips, terete or obscurely tetragonous, usually bifariously pubes- 
cent but sometimes obscurely so. Leaves opposite, usually close- 
set, often imbricating, shortly petioled, i— |in. long, oblong or ob- 
long-obovate or ovate, obtpse, fleshy, glabrous, entire or remotely 
obscurely denticulate ; petioles broad, almost sheathing, connate at 
the base. Flowers few towards the ends of the branches, almost 
sessile, small, ^m. diam. Calyx-lobes lanceolate, acute. Petals 
2-lobed to the middle. Stigma clavate. Capsules ^— f in. long,.. 
strict, perfectly glabrous ; peduncles shorter or slightly longer than 
the leaves. Seeds minutely papillose. — Fl. Antarct. i. 10 ; Handh^ 
N.Z. Fl. 78 ; Haussh. Monog. Epiloh. 295 ; Kirk, Students' Fl. 171. 

Var. tasmanicum.— Pale-green, much more slender. Leaves ovate or- 
ovate-oblong, on longer petioles, usually more distinctly denticulate. — E. tas- 
manicum, Haussk. I.e. 296, t. 20, f. 84 ; Kirk, Students' Fl. 171. 

South Island : Both varieties not uncommon in mountain districts, 
altitude 1500-5500 ft. Auckland and Campbell Islands : The typical form 
only, Hooker, Filhol ! Kirk ! Chapman ! Antipodes Island : Kirk ! 

The slender creeping and rooting usually much-branched stems, oblong or 
obovate leaves narrowed into short petioles, the few small flowers, and the 
glabrous short-stalked capsules are the best marks of this species. Reduced 
forms of E. glabellum and its allies approach it very closely, but are much less 
prostrate and more hard and woody at the base. Professor Haussknecht's 
E. tasmanicum appears to rue to be barely separable even as a variety. 

7. B. pictum, Petrie in Trans. N.Z. Inst, xxviii. (1896) 538.. 
— Stems few, slender, 8-10 in. high, decumbent and sparingly 
branched below, ascending or erect above, terete, finely and evenly 
pubescent, especially towards the tips of the branches. Lower 
leaves opposite, upper alternate, spreading, remote, -J— fin. long,, 
linear-oblong to oblong or ovate-oblong, obtuse, sessile or shortly 
petioled, membranous, often blotched with grey, usually sharpl}'^ 
and coarsely remotely denticulate. Flowers 2-6 towards tne 
tips of the branches, small, pink, ^in. diam. Calyx-lobes ovate- 
lanceolate, almost equalling the petals. Stigma narrow -clavate. 
Capsules l-l|^in. long, slender, densely and evenly hoary-pubescent ; 
peduncles short, never exceeding the leaves. Seeds smooth. — 
E. haloragifoliuni, Kirk, Students Fl. Ill {not of A. Gunn.). 

South Island : Canterbury — Upper Waimakiriri, Kirk ! T. F. C. ; Craigie- 
burn Mountains, Cockayne ! Mount Cook District, T. F. C. Otago^Not un- 
common in the mountain-valleys of the interior, Petrie ! 1000-3000 ft^ 
December-February. 

Professor Haussknecht has suggested that this may be identical with Cun- 
ningham's E. liaLoragifoiium (Precur. n. 552), an obscure plant gathered near 
the Waikare River, Bay of Islands, and this view has been adopted by Kirk in 
the " Students' Flora." But Cunningham's original description is so short and 
incomplete that it might stand for several species, and E. -pictum has not yet 
been found in any locality in the North Island. Hooker referred E. halcnagi- 
foliiiin to E. alsinoides, a plant not uncommon at the Bay of Islands, and it 
appears to me tbat this reduction is much ruore likely to prove correct. 



Epilobium.] onagbaeie^. 177 

8. B. tenuipes, Hook. f. Ft. Nov. Zel. i. 59. — Stems short,, 
slender, 1-4 in. long, decumbent and rooting at the base, ascending 
at the tips, bifariously pubescent. Leaves opposite or alternate, 
crowded, rigid, erecto-patent, i-^in. long, narrow linear-oblong,, 
lower ones obtuse, upper acute, narrowed at the base, glabrous, 
remotely denticulate or almost entire. Flowers few, solitary in the 
axils of the upper leaves or terminal, small, white, ^in. diani. 
Calyx-lobes lanceolate, acuminate. Capsules slender, f-1 in. long, 
glabrous or puberulous ; peduncles much elongated, very slender, 
2-3 in. long, finelv pubescent. Seeds smooth. — Haussk. Monog. 
Epilob. 297, t. 20, f. 83 ; Kirk, Students' Fl. 171. E. nanum, Col. 
in Trons. N.Z. Inst. xxvi. (1894) 315. 

North Island : Dannevirke (Hawke's Bay) and head of the Wairarapa 
Valley, Colenso ! Euahine Moi;ntains, A. Hamilton! South Island: Not 
uncommon in mountain districts from Nelson southwards. December- 

January. 

A pretty little plant, easily distinguished by the narrow linear-oblong erect 
leaves, very long fruiting peduncles, and smooth seeds. Specimens collected by 
Mr. Petrie on Mount Hikurangi (East Cape district) have much broader ovate- 
oblong leaves, but the long fruiting peduncles and smooth seeds are those of 
E. tenuipes. 

9. E. Hectori, Haussk. Monog. Epilob. 298, t. 19, f. 82.— Stems 
slender, branched below, 2-6 in. high, decumbent and rooting at 
the base and then erect or ascending, pale-green or reddish, terete, 
uniformly clothed with short crisp hairs or bifariously pubescent. 
Leaves small, opposite, uppermost alternate, crowded or distant, 
J-4 long, oblong or linear-oblong, obtuse, entire or remotely denti- 
culate, usually glabrous. Flowers in the axils of the uppermost 
leaves, small, erect, l-^in. diam., white. Calyx-lobes ovate- 
lanceolate, acute, shorter than the petals. Stigma clavate. Cap- 
sules |— 1 in. long, purplish-red, obscurely tetragonous, usually 
pubescent on the angles, rarely glabrous ; peduncles much longer 
than the leaves. Seeds smooth. — Kirk, Students' Fl. 172. 

North Island : Euahine Eange, Herb. Colenso ! South Island : Common 
in mountain districts from Nelson southwards. Ascends to 3500 ft. De- 

cember-February. 

Often confounded with E. aUinoides, from which it is separated by the 
much more erect habit, narrower leaves, purplish-red capsules with hairy lines, 
and smooth seeds. The capsule of E. alsinoides is always evenly covered with 
a grey pubescence. 

10. E. alsinoides, A. Cumi. Precur. n. 540. — Stems 4-10 in. 
long, pale-green, slender, branched, decumbent or creeping and 
rooting at the base, erect or ascending above, terete, pubescent or 
more rarely glabrous. Leaves all opposite or the uppermost alone 
alternate, very shortly petioled, J-^in. long, orbicular or orbicular- 
ovate or oblong-ovate, obtuse, rounded at the base, glabrous, entire 
or remotely denticulate. Flowers few in the upper axils, small, 
erect, iin. diam. Calyx-lobes ovate-lanceolate, acute, almost 



178 ONAGRAEIE-E. [EpUobiuVl. 

equalling the petals. Stigma clavate. Capsules |— l^^in. long, 
uniformly clothed with pale-grey pubescence ; peduncles elongating 
much as the fruit ripens, 1-2 in. long or more. Seeds papillose. — 
Baoul, Choix, 49 ; Hook. f. FL Nov. Zd. i. 59 ; Handh. N.Z. Fl. 
79; Haussk. Monog. Epiloh. 298, t. 23, f. 97. E. thymifoUam, 
B. Cunn. ex A. Cuiin. Precur. n. 539 ; Hmcssk. I.e. 297. 

North and South Islands, Chatham Islands, Stewart Island, An- 
tipodes IbLANL) : Abundant throughout, ascending to 2500 ft. November- 
February. 

The small size and slender often prostrate habit, uniform roundish pale- 
green leaves, small flowers collected near the ends of the branche , long 
peduncles, and evenly pubescent capsules are the best marks of this common 
plant. 

11. E. chloraefolium, Haussk. in Oestr. Bot. Zeitschr. xxix. 
(1879) 149. — Stems 6-18 in. high, stout or slender, usually much 
branched at the base but sometimes almost simple, decumbent 
or arcuate below, ascending or erect above, terete, glabrous except 
two pubescent lines decurrent from the margins of the petioles. 
Leaves opposite, remote, -I— fin. long, broadly ovate to ovate- 
oblong, obtuse or rarely subacute, rounded or slightly cordate a,t 
the base, glabrous or nearly so, remotely denticulate or sinuate- 
tootbed ; petioles short, broad, pubescent. Flowers in the axils 
of the uppermost leaves, rather large, white or rose, ^in. diam. 
Calyx-lobes ovate-lanceolate, acute, much shorter than the petals ; 
stigma oblong-capitate. Capsules 1-2 in. long, sparsely pubescent; 
peduncles longer than the leaves. Seeds papillose. — Monog. 
Epilob. 299, t. 19, f. 81 ; Ktrk, Students' Fl. 172. E. perplexum. 
Kirk, I.e. 170. 

North Island: Mount Hikurangi, East Cape, Petrie! Lee; Ruahine 
Range, Colenso, Petrie! Tararua Mountains, T. P.Arnold! South Island : 
Not uncommon in the mountains from Nelson southwards. 2000-4500 ft. 
December-February. 

A well-marked plant, but at the same time a very variable one, especially 
in height, degree of branching, size of flowers and capsules, &c. Mr. Kirk's 
E. i>eitilexum is merely a luxuriant form, and cannot be separated even as a 
variety, as the inspection of any large series of specimens will at once show. 

12. B. insulare, Haussk. Monog. Epilob. 300. — Stems 6-18 in. 
high, slender, weak and flaccid, sparingly branched, creeping and 
rootmg at the base, ascending or suberect towards the tips, often 
glabrous below, usually thinly pubescent above. Leaves opposite, 
the upper alternate, distant, ^-fin. long, ovate or oblong-ovate, 
obtuse or subacute, very shortly petioled, thin and membranous, 
glabrous or nearly so, entire or obscurely sinuate- toothed. Elowers 
in the axils of the uppermost leaves, small, erect, white. Calyx- 
lobes oblong-lanceolate, apiculate, shorter than the petals. Stigma 
clavate. Capsules 1-2 in. long, slenier, pubescent or glabrate. 
Seeds smooth. — Kirk, Students' Fl. 173. 



Epilobium.\ onagrarie^. 179' 

North and South Islands: Abundant in lowland swamps from Tauranga 
and the Thames Valley southwards. Chatham Islands: Cox and Cockayne! 
November-February. 

13. E. rotundifolium, Foist. Prodr.n. 161. — Stems 5-15 in. 
long, weak, creeping and rooting at the base, usually erect or 
ascending above but sometimes altogether prostrate, terete, pubes- 
cent or glabious. Leaves opposite, the uppermost alternate, thin 
and membranous, distant. |^— |in. long, orbicular or orbicular- 
ovate, obtuse, rounded at the base, petiolate, closely and sharply 
unequally toothed, glabrous or slightly puberulous, often reddish 
beneath. Flowers in the axils of the uppermost leaves, ^— |-in. 
diam., pale-rose or white. Calyx-lobes oblong-lanceolate, acute, 
shorter than the petals. Stigma narrow-clavate. Capsules about 
l-Jin. long, glabrous or sparingly pubescent: peduncles much 
elongated. Seeds papillose.— .4. Bich. Fl. Nouv. Zel. 326; Raoui, 
Choix, 49; Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zd. i. 58; Hmvlh. N.Z. Fl. 79; 
Eanssk. Monog. Ep'iloh. 299 ; Kirk, Students' Fl. 172. 

North and South Islands, Stewart Island, Chatham Islands : Abund- 
ant in moist places from the North Cape southwards. October-February. 

Allied to E. linnceoides, but at once recognised by the more erect habit, by 
the uppermost leaves being always alternate, and by the terminal inflorescence. 
From E. insntlaie it is separated by the larger rounder sharply toothed petiolate 
leaves and papillose seed.s. 

14. E. linnaeoides, Book. f. Fl. Antarct. i. 10, t. 6. — Stems 
herbaceous, slender, 2-8 in. long, creeping and rooting at the 
nodes, usually widely and irregularly branched, perfectly glabrous 
or with 2 faint pubescent lines towards the tips of the branches. 
Leaves opposite, :^-|in. diam., orbicular, petioled, flaccid and mem- 
branous, closely and sharply denticulate. Flowers in the axils of 
leaves remote from the ends of the branches, white or rose, |— i-in. 
diam. Calyx lobes lanceolate, shorter than the deeply cleft petals. 
Stigma clavate. Capsules 1-2 in. long, perfectly glabrous; pe- 
duncles usually much elongated, 2-4 in. Seeds densely papillose.. 
—Fl. Nov. Zcl. i. 58 ; Handh. N.Z. Fl. 11 ; Hatissk. Monog. Epiioh. 
301 ; Kirk. Students' Fl. 173. 

North Island : Euahine Mountains, Colenso ; Tararua Range, Buchanan. 
South Island : Not uncommon in damp mountainous places, chiefly on the 
western side. Stkwart Island, Auckland and Campbell Islands : Most 
abundant, descending to sealevel. Antipodes Island : Kirk. Macquarie 
Island: A. Hamilton. Ascends to 4500 ft. November-February. 

Approaches very close to E. rotundifolium, but can usually be separated 
by the smaller size, prostrate habit, leaves all opposite and uniform, and by the 
flowers being further from the ends of the branches. 

15. E. nummularifolium, Pi. Gunn. ex A. Cunn. Precur. n. 535. 
— Stems herbaceous, slender, 2-12 in. long, prostrate and root- 
ing at the nodes, much or sparingly branched, often matted, 
bifariously pubescent or quite glabrous. Leaves opposite, verv 
variable in size, ^|in. long, orbicular or orbicular-ovate, rounded 



180 ONAGEAEiE-E. [EpUobium. 

at the apex, shortly petioled or almost sessile, membranous or fleshy 
or subcoriaceous, entire or sinuate-denticulate ; margins flat or 
slightly recurved. Flowers few, from the axils of leaves remote 
from the ends of the branches, very small, -J— ^ in. diam. Calyx- 
lobes ovate-lanceolate, almost equalling the petals. Stigma clavate. 
Capsules f-l^in. long, glabrous or pubescent; peduncles much 
elongated, slender, 2-4 in. long. Seeds papillose. — Hook. f. FL Nov. 
Zel. i. 57 ; Handh. N.Z. FL 77 ; Haussk. Monog. Eptlob. 302 ; Kirk, 
Students' Fl. 173. 

Var. pedunculare, Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 57. — Stems shorter. Leaves 
smaller, more closely set, entire or nearly so ; petioles shorter. Capsules 
glabrous ; peduncles more slender. — E. pedunculare, A. Cunn. Precur. n. 5.36. 
E. csespitosum, Haussk. Monog. Epilob. .301, t. 20, f. 85. 

Var. nerterioides, Hook. f. I.e. — Shorter and usually more densely matted. 
Leaves smaller, thick and coriaceous ; margins recurved. Capsules glabrous. — 
E. nerterioides, A. Cunn. Precur. n. 541. E. pedunculare var. aprica, Haussk. 
Monog. Epilob. 303. 

Var. minimum, Kh-k, Students' Fl. 174. — Very small. Stems ^1 in. long. 
Leaves close-set, j^ijin. diam., coriaceous; margins revolute. Capsule short and 
stout, J-J in. long, exceeding the peduncle. 

Var. angustum, Cheesem. — Stems 2-4 in. long, sparingly branched. Leaves 
remote, often deflexed, oblong to linear-oblong, entire or nearly so, hardly 
coriaceous. Capsules rather stout, J-|in. long, glabrous or with a fev7 
scattered hairs ; peduncles long. Perhaps a distinct species. 

;. ?C North and South Islands, Stewart Island, Chatham Islands : Abundant 
throughout, ascending to 3000 ft. Var. nerterioides also extends to the Auck- 
land Islands and Macquarie Island. Var. minimum : Bluff Hill and Puysegur 
Point, Kirk ! Var. angustum : Cass River, near Lake Tekapo (Canterbury), 
T. F. C. 

An excessively variable plant. The varieties described above are simply 
prevalent forms, and pass into one another by insensible gradations. 

16. B. purpuratum, Hook. f. Handb. N.Z. Fl. 77. — Stems 
1-4 in. long, branched, prostrate and rooting at the nodes, perfectly 
glabrous, purplish-black. Leaves all opposite, crowded, horizon- 
tally spreading, |— ^ in. long, broadly oblong or orbicular-oblong, 
obtuse, shortly petioled, thick and coriaceous, entire or obscurely 
minutely toothed, purplish below ; veins indistinct. Flowers not 
seen. Peduncles springing from the axils of the intermediate 
leaves, stout, 2 in. long. Capsules as long as or shorter than the 
peduncles, stout, purplish-black, perfectly glabrous. Seeds papil- 
lose. — Haussk. Monog. Epilob. 303 ; Barbey, Gen. Epilob. 1. 18, f. 2 ; 
Kirk, Students' Fl. 174. 

South Island : Alps of Otago, altitude 4000-6000 ft.. Hector and Buchanan! 

Distinguished from all the forms of E. nummularifolium by the larger size, 
stouter habit, and purplish-black colour. I have only seen three indifferent 
specimens. 

17. E. macropus, Hook. Ic. Plant, t. 812. — Stems numerous, 
slender, branched from the base, 3-9 in. long, decumbent or creep- 
ing and rooting below, ascending at the tips, purplish, more or less 



Bpilobium.] onageaeie^. 181 

bifariously pubescent. Leaves all opposite, somewhat remote, 
J— fin. long, ovate or ovate-oblong, obtuse or subacute, shortly 
petioled, obscurely denticulate or almost entire, perfectly glabrous. 
Flowers few, axillary, near or remote from the ends of the branches, 
large, white, J— | in. diam. Calyx-lobes lanceolate, acute, glabrous, 
much shorter than the petals. Stigma shortly clavate, emarginate. 
Capsules 1-2 in. long, erect, glabrous ; peduncles elongating much 
as the fruit ripens, 2-4 in. long. Seeds minutely reticulate. — 
Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 58 ; Handb. N.Z. Ft. 78 ; Haussk. Monog. 
Epiloh. 309, t. 22, f. 93a; Kirk, Students Fl. 179. 

NoETH Island : Ruahine Range, E. W. Andrews ! Petrie ! Rangipo Plain, 
Petrie ! Tararua Mountains and Wainuiomata, Buchanan ! South Island : 
Abundant in mountain districts throughout. Altitudinal range 1500-4500 ft. 
December-March . 

The slender glabrous habit, distant ovate leaves, large flowers, and long 
fruiting peduncles separate this from all its allies. 

18. B. gracilipes, Kirk in Trans. N.Z. Inst, xxvii. (1895) 351. 
— Stems numerous from a woody base, 3-6 in. high, decumbent 
below, erect or ascending above, vviry, reddish, bifariously pubes- 
cent. Leaves opposite or the uppermost alternate, remote, ^-% in. 
long, ovate, subacute or obtuse, shortly petiolate, coriaceous, red- 
dish below, obscurely and remotely denticulate. Flowers 1-3, soli- 
tary in the upper axils, small, white, |-in. diam. Calyx-lobes 
•oblong-lanceolate, acute, shorter than the petals. Stigma obliquely 
clavate. Capsules 1^-2 in. long, slender, glabrous ; peduncles 
elongating much as the fruit ripens, often over 2 in. long. Seeds 
minutely papillose. — Students Ft. 178. 

South Island : Canterbury — Broken River, J. D. Enys ! Kirk ! Craigie- 
burn Mountains, Cockayne ! Bealey, T. F. C. Westland — Kelly's Hill, Cock- 
ayne ! 2000-4000 ft. December-February. 

A handsome little plant, which approaches E. macropus on the one side and 
E, nummularifolium on the other. 

19. E. crassum, Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. ii. 328.— Stout, fleshy, 
perfectly glabrous, smooth and polished. Stems woody at the 
base, prostrate, creeping and rooting at the nodes, 2-6 in. long ; 
branches short, densely leafy, ascending at the tips. Leaves 
opposite, crowded, thick and fleshy, |— 1|^ in. long, obovate-oblong 
or obovate-spathulate, obtuse, gradually narrowed into a long 
and broad sheathing petiole, obscurely and remotely denticulate. 
Flowers few, in the axils of the upper leaves, rather large, -g- in. 
diam. or more, white or rose. Calyx-lobes lanceolate, much 
shorter than the petals. Stigma clavate. Capsules stout, erect, 
rigid, perfectly glabrous, 1-2—2 in. long ; peduncles longer than the 
leaves when fully mature. Seeds minutely papillose. — Handb. 
N.Z. Fl. 78 ; Haussk. Monog. Epilob. 309, t. 22, f. 93a ; Barbey, 
Gen. Epilob. t. 18, f. 1 ; Kirk, Students Fl. 178. 



182 ONAGBARiB^. [Epilobium, 

South Island : Nelson— Wairau Mountains, Travers, T. F. C. ; Mount 
Captain, Kirk! Mount Percival, T. F. C. Marlborough — Upper Awatere, 
Monro, Sivcloir ! Otago— Kurow Mountains, Bxichanan ! Fetiie! Alli- 
tudinal range 3000-6000 ft. 

A remarkably distinct species, in its ordinary state quite unlike any other. 
Its neatest ally is E. brevipes, which is a much larger and more erect plant, 
with shorter elliptic leaves, smaller and more numerous flowers, and much 
shorter fruiting peduncles. 

20. B. brevipes. Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. ii. 328. — Stout, sniooth, 
glossy, reddish-purple. Stems many from a woody rhizome, 
6-15 in. high, prostrate or strags^ling, branched, ascending above, 
perfectly glabrous, densely leafy. Leaves all opposite, spreading, 
•|-1 in. long, elliptic-oblong or elliptic-lanceolate, acute or sub- 
acute, gradually narrowed into a rather long petiole, coriaceous 
and shining, usually reddish, remotely denticulate. Flowers rather 
numerous, in the axils of the upper leaves, sessile, ;|— ^in. diam., 
white or rose. Calyx-lobes lanceolate, acute, almost equalling the 
petals. Stigma clavate. Capsules f-1^ in. long, slender, glabrous, 
exceeding the leaves ; peduncles very short, hardly elongating in 
fruit. Seeds minutelv reticulate. — Handb, N.Z. FL. 78 ; Hmissk. 
Monoq. Epilob. 307, t'. 21, f. 89 ; Bnrbcy, Gen. Epilob. t. 19; Kirk, 
Students' Fl. 176. 

South Island : Marlborough — Upper Awatere. Monro, Kirk ! Taylor's 
Pass, Spe.'icer ; Mount Fyffe, Cockaijne ! Kaikcura Mountains, McDonald. 
Nelson— Hanmer Plains, H. J. Mattheirs ! Gorge of the Conway, C< ckayne ! 
Canterbury - Mount Torlesse, Enijs and Kirk ! Cockayne ! Altitudinal range 
1000-3500 ft. December-February. 

21. E. vernicosum, Cheesem. in Trans. N.Z. hist, xxviii. (1896) 
535. — Stems numerous from a woody rootstock, 4-8 in. high, de- 
cumbent or prostrate at the base, erect or ascending above, terete, 
bifariouslv pubescent. Leaves usually crowded, opposite or the 
uppermost alternate, j-f in. long, linear-oblong to oblong or oblong- 
ovate, obtuse or subacute, shortly petiolate, coriaceous, very glossy, 
usually reddish, obscurely and remotely sinuate - denticulate. 
Flowers 3-5 towards the tips of the branches, almost sessile, very 
large, -|— f in. diam., pale-rose. Calyx-lobes lanceolate, acute, much 
shorter than the broad bilobed petals. Stigma shortly and obliquely 
clavate. Capsules (not quite mature) about lin. long, perfectly 
glabrous; peduncles apparently short. Seeds smooth (?) — Kirk, 
Students' Fl 176. 

South Island : Nelson — Mount Arthur Plateau and adjacent mountains,, 
altitude 3000-5000 ft., T. F. C, Gibbs ! Raglan Mountains and Wairau Gorge, 
T. F. C. Otago- Arrowtown, I'etne ! 

The shining leaves and large rose-coloured flowers, which are produced in 
oreat abundance, make this a very charming plant. The flowers are larger than 
those of any other New Zealand species except E. pallidiflorum. 

22. E. pycnostachyum, Haussk. in Oestr. Bot. Zeitschr. xxix. 
(1879) 150. — Stems numerous from the top of a woody prostrate 



Epilobittm.] onaqrabie^, 183 

rhizome, 2-8 in. high, decumbent at the base and then erect or 
ascending, often reddish, simple or sparingly branched, usually with 
^2 or 4: pubescent lines. Leaves opposite ov the upper ones alter- 
nate, densely crowded, ascending, i-f in. long, narrow-oblong or 
oblong-obovate, obtuse or acute, narrowed into a short petiole, 
coarsely and remotely denticulate, ulabrous or nearly so ; lower 
ones often much reduced in size. Flowers crowded in the upper 
axils, hardly projeciing beyond tne leaves, large, white, -Jin. diam. 
Calyx-lobes lanceolate, acute, much shorter than the petals. 
Stigma clavate. Capsules ^-^ in. long, s"ssile or nearly so, stout, 
glabrous, rarelv exceeding the leaves. Seeds papillose. — Mouog. 
Epilob. 306, t."21, f. 88 ; Kirk, Students Ft. 176. 

South Island : Nelson - Clarence and Waiau Valleys, Travers ! Mount 
■Captain, Kirk ! Lake Tennyson, T. F. C. Canterbury— Mount Torlesse, Petrie ! 
T. F. C; Craigieburn Mountains, Cockayne! Arthur's Pass and Upper Wai- 
makariri, T. F. C; Whitcnmbe's Pass, Hmst ! Oiago -Lake District, Hector 
and Buchanan. 20.J0-1500 ft. January-February. 

Apparently confined to dry shingle slopes. A well-marked plant, not easily 
confounded with any other. The lari^e white flowers are almost hidden by the 
1 aves, and the ripe capsules hardly protrude beyond thtm. 

23. B. melanocaulon, Hook. Ic. Plant, t. 813. — Rootstock stout, 
hard and woody. Stems numerous, arcuate at the base and 
then erect, slender, rigid, wiry, simple, black or purplisii-black, 
obscurely tetragonous, glabrous except 2 or 4 faint pubesc^int lines 
on the angles. Leaves numerous, usually close-set, opposite or 
alternate, -J- f in. long, uniform, narrow linear-oblong, obtuse or 
.apiculate, sessile or very shortly petioled, rigid and coriaceous, 
usually dark-red, glabrous, deeply and coarsely toothed or almost 
lobed. Flowers sessile in the upper axils, small, erect, \m. diam., 
white or pink. Calyx-lobes ovate-lanceolate, acute, shorter than 
the petals. Stigma shortly clavate. Capsules -J-l in. long, slender, 
purplish-black, glabrous ; peduncles very short. Seeds papillose. 
Hook.f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 60; Handb. N.Z. Fl. 80; Hmcssk. Monog. 
Epilob. 307 ; Kirk, Students Fl. 177. 

Var. polyclonum. —Stems much more slender, branched. Leaves distant, 
spreading, not so deeply toothed. Flowers rather smaller. —E. polyclonum, 
Hau^sk.^'.Monog. Epilob. 308, t. 20, f. 87a; kirk, Students' Fl. 111. 

North Island : Ruahine Range and mountains near Lake Taupo, Co- 
lenso ! South Island: Abundant throughout in mountain district-. Var. 
poliiclonuni : Alpine localities in Canterbury and Otago, Travers ! Buchanan I 
Petrte ! 

The typical form is one of the most easily recognised species of the genus, 
from the prominent characters of the numerous rigid simple purplish-black 
stems and small uniform deeply-toothed leaves. 

24. B. rostratum, Cheesem. in Trans. N.Z . Inst, xxviii. (1896) 
534. — Stems numerous from a hard woody rootstock, 2-6 in. high, 
decumbent at the base and then erect, simple or branched, terete, 
wiry, grey with a short uniform pubescence. Leaves opposite or 



ONAGRARIE^. [Epilobiuvt^ 

the upper alternate, crowded, |— l^in. long, linear-oblong, obtuse or 
apiculate, coarsely toothed, rigid and coriaceous, glabrous or pu- 
bescent near the base, sessile or very shortly petiolate. Flowers 
rather numerous in the upper axils, small, erect, -i-in. diam. 
Calyx -lobes ovate - lanceolate, pubescent, almost equalling the- 
petals. Stigma narrow-clavate. Capsules ^— |in. long, sessile or 
very shortly peduncled, stout, curved, suddenly narrowed below 
the tip, grooved, finely and closely pubescent. Seeds minutely 
papillose. — Kirk, Students' Fl. Ill . 

South Island: Canterbury — Shingly beds of streams, apparently not 
uncommon. Upper Waimakariri ; Lake Tekapo and Lake Pukaki, T. F. C. 
Otago—Naseby, Black's, PeiSrie .' 1000-3000 ft. December-February. 

This comes nearest to E. vielanocaulon, from which it is distinguished by- 
its smaller size, paler colour, uniform pubescence, and especially by the short 
curved capsules, which are abruptly narrowed towards the tip. 

25. B. microphyllum, A. Bich. Fl. Noiiv. Zel. 325, t. 36. — 
Stems very numerous from a hard and woody base, much branched 
below, 3-8 in. high, shortly decumbent at the base, erect strict and 
■wiry above, dark purplish-black, hilariously pubescent. Leaves 
small, opposite or the upper ones alternate, -J-iin. long, oblong 
or ovate-oblong or ovate-orbicular, obtuse, sessile or very shortly 
petioled, obscurely denticulate or quite entire, glabrous, coria- 
ceous. Flowers few towards the tips of the branches, small,^ 
white or pink, -Jin. diam. Calyx-lobes ovate-lanceolate, acute, 
almost equalling the petals. Stigma clavate. Capsules ^— |in. 
long, strict, erect, purplish-black with 4 silvery pubescent lines on 
the angles ; peduncles very short, hardly exceeding the leaves. 
Seeds smooth. — A. Cunn. Preacr. n. 537; Baotcl, Choix, 49; Hook, 
f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 59; Handh. N.Z. Fl. 79; Haussk. Monog. Epilob. 

30;^t. 18,/. 79; Kirk, Students Fl. 178. 

North Island : East Coast and Cape Palliser, Colenso ! near Waiapu, 
Petrie ! Lake Waikaremoana, FAsdon Best ! Tukituki River, Petrie ! Orongoro- 
ngo River, Kiik. South Island : Abundant in shingly river-beds in mountain 
districts. Sea-level to 3000ft. Papa-koura. December-February. 

A well-known plant, easily recognised by the strict and wiry habit, purplish- 
black !-tems, small uniform leaves, small flowers, and dark-purplish capsules 
with silvery-pubescent angles. 

26. E. Krulleanum, Hamsk. Monog. Epiloh. 305, t. 23, f. 95. — 
Stems numerous from a hard and woody base, 2-6 in. high, 
decumbent below, erect above, strict and wiry, densely leafy,, 
bifariously pubescent. Leaves opposite or the uppermost alter- 
nate, ■^— |in. long, ovate or oblong-ovate, obtuse, shortly petioled, 
coriaceous, often purplish, entire or very obscurely denticulate. 
Flowers few m the upper axils, small, erect, \ in. diam. Calyx- 
lobes ovate-lanceolate, acute, almost equalling the petals. Stigma 
clavate. Capsule strict, erect, glabrous, f- 1|- in. long; peduncles 
usuallv shorter than the leaves. Seeds papillose. — Kirk, Students 
Fl. 175. 



JE'pilohium.'] onagrarie^. 185 

South Island : Nelson — Hanmer Plains, iiirfe/ Canterbury — Krull, Haast. 
Otago — Mount Earnslaw and the Humboldt Mountains, Cockayne ! 1500- 
3500 ft. December-February. 

A very imperfectly understood species, of which much more complete 
specimens are required before its exact position can be determined. 

27. B. glabellum, Forst. Prodr. n. 160. — Stems 6-14 in. high, 
usually numerous from a hard and woody base, decumbent below, 
strict and erect above, terete or obscurely tetragonous, often red 
or purple, glabrous with the exception of 2 or 4 pubescent lines 
decurrent from the petioles, simple or branched below, remotely or 
densely leafy. Leaves opposite or the upper alternate, ^-f in. long, 
ovate or ovate-oblong to narrow-oblong, obtuse, shortly petioled or 
.almost sessile, perfectly glabrous, usually red or purple, often shin- 
ing, from almost membranous to coriaceous, remotely sinuate-den- 
ticulate. Flowers in the upper axils, few or many, erect, white or 
pink, i-^in.diam. Calyx-lobes ovate-lanceolate, acute, glabrous, 
shorter than the petals. Stigma rounded-clavate. Capsules 1-2 in. 
long, slender, erect, glabrous ; peduncles short, seldom much ex- 
ceeding the leaves. Seeds papillose. — Hook. f. h'l. Nov. Zel. i. 59 ; 
Handh. N.Z. Ft. 79; Haussk. Monog. E-piloh. 304; Kirk, Students' 
Fl. 174. E. erubescens, Haussk. I.e. 306, t. 23. f. 98 ; Kirk, t.c. 
175. 

North Island : Rare and local north of the East Cape, common in moun- 
tain districts from thence southwards. South Island : Abundant throughout. 
Sea-level to over 5000 ft. December-February. 

One of the most variable and puzzling plants in New Zealand ; excessively 
plentiful in hilly and mountainous districts in the South Island. I have re- 
united Professor Haussknecht's E. erubescens with it, finding it quite impossible 
to lay down a strict line of demarcation between the two plants. The true E. 
glabellum is less rigid, with more membranous distantly placed leaves, and the 
capsules are longer and shortly stalked. E. erubescens has numerous rigid 
simple stems, the leaves are crowded and erect, the flowers more numerous, and 
the capsules shorter and almost sessile. But intermediate states are plentiful, 
and many of them might with equal propriety be placed un ier either head. 

28. E. novse-zealandiae, Hmissk. Monog. Epilob. 305, t. 20, 
f. 86. — Stems 3-9 in. high, decumbent or prostrate at the base, 
erect or ascending above, branched, usually pale-green, bifariously 
pubescent. Leaves opposite or the uppermost alternate, ^-1 in. 
long, lanceolate or linear-oblong to oblong, obtuse or subacute, 
sessile or very shortly petiolate, rather thin, light-green, glabrous, 
obscurely and remotely denticulate. Flowers in the axils of the 
upper leaves, small, white, ^-^in. diam. Calyx-lobes ovate- 
lanceolate, glabrous, shorter than the petals. Stigma shortly 
clavate. Capsules f-l^in. long, slender, glabrous; peduncles 
usually longer than the leaves when the fruit is mature. Seeds 
papillose. — Kirk, Students' Ft. 175. E. elegans, Petrie in Trans. 
N.Z. Inst. xxix. (1897) 425. 

North Island : Bay of Islands, Colenso ! n. 103, Wilkes (Haussknecht). 
South Island : Apparently not uncommon throughout. 



186 ONAGRARIE^. [Epilohvum. 

This requires further investigation with more complete material. Some of 
the forms included in it by Haussknecht hard'y differ from E. alabcllum. except 
in the more branching habit, paler colour, and longer stalked capsules, and 
would probably be better placed under that species. Others (f. elegans, 
Petrie) have the steins simple or branched at the base alone, with much, 
narrower leaves, larger flowers, and the peduncles elongate considerably in 
•fruit. 

2. FUCHSIA, Linn. 

Shrubs 01' small trees. Leaves alternate or opposite or whorled. 
Flowers axillary, solitary or clustered, rarely in racemes or panicles, 
usually pendulous, often handsome. Calyx-tube ovoid, produced 
above the ovary into a tubular or companulate 4-lobed limb. 
Petals 4, often small, rarely wanting, convolute, spreading or 
reflexed. Stamens 8; filaments filiform; anthers linear or oblong. 
Ovary 4-celled ; style slender, elongated ; stigma capitate, entire or 
4-lobed ; ovules numerous, attached to the inner angle of the cells. 
• Berry ovoid or oblong, fleshy, 4-c<;lled, many-seeded. 

A beautiful and well-known genus of about 60 species, all of which, with 
the exception of the three following, are natives of America, from Mexico to 
Fuegia. 

* Flowers pendulous. Petals present, small. 

Shrub or tree 10-40 ft. high. Leaves lanceolate or ovate- 
lanceolate .. .. .. .. .. ..1. F. excorticata. 

Small shrub with long straggling branches. Leaves ovate 

or orbicular-ovate . . . . . . . . . . 1. F. Golensoi. 

** Flowers erect. Petals wanting. 

Stems very slender, trailing. L-aves small, orbicular- 
ovate . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. F. prociunbens. 

1. F. excorticata, Linn. f. Siippl. 217. — A shrub or small 
tree 40ft. high; trunk usually 6-18 in. diam., but sometimes reach- 
ing 2-3 ft. ; bark thin, loose and papery ; branches brittle. Leaves 
alternate, 2-5 in. long including the slender petiole, ovate-lanceo- 
late or lanceolate, acuminate, entire or obscurely and remotely 
toothed, thin and membranous, green above, pale and silvery 
beneath. Plowers f- IJin. long, axillaiy, solitary, pendulous; pe- 
duncles long, slender. Calyx-tube inflated at the base, then sud- 
denly contracted and again expanded into a funnel-shaped tube ; 
lobes 4, acuminate, spreading. Petals 4, small. Stamens and 
style very variable in length. Berry oblong, purplish-black, juicy, 
^in. long.^ — Lindl. in Bot. Reg. t. 857; A. Cunn. Precur. n. 533; 
Baonl, Choix, 49; Hook. f. FL Nov. Zel. i. 56; Hanclh. N.Z. Fl. 
75 ; Kirk, Forest Fl. t. 36, 36a ; Students' Fl. 180. Skinnera ex- 
corticata, Forst. Char. Gen. 58 ; Prodr. n. 163; ^4. Rich. Fl. Nouv. 
Zel. 331. 

North and South Islands, Stewart Island : Abundant from the North 
Cape southwards. Sea-level to over 3000 ft. Native fzichsia ; Kotukutuku ; 
the fruit Kornni. August-December. 



Fuchsia.] onagrakie^. 187 

The flowers are trimorphic, there being a long-stjled form in which the 
stamens have short filaments and often abortive anthers, and mid-styled and 
short-styled forms in which the stamens have longer filaments and perfect 
anthers, the last two apparently graduating into one another. For a detailed 
account see a paper by Mr. Kirk in the Transactions of the New Zealand Insti- 
tute, vol. XXV., p. 261. 

2. P. Oolensoi, Hook. f. Handb. N.Z. Fl. 728.— A small shrub 
with long stragyHng branches, sometimes producing slender tlexu- 
ous unbranched shoots several feet in length. Leaves alternate, 
very variable in size, ^-2 in. long including the petiole, ovate or 
orbicular-ovate, rounded or corriate at the base, thin and mem- 
branous, entire or obscui-ely toothed ; petioles often longer than the 
blade. Flowers much as in ^'. excorticata, but shorter and pro- 
portionately broader, and petals smaller. — Kirk, Studenis Ft. 181. 

North and South Islands, Stewart Island : From the Northern Wairoa 
River southwards, but often local. Sea-level to 1500 ft. October-February. 
A very variable plant, large forms of which almost pass into F. excoytlcata. 

3. P. procumbens, R. Gunn. ex A. Gitnn. Precur. n. 534. — 
Stems very slender, much branched, prostrate and traihng, often 
several feet long. Leaves alternate; blade J-f in. long, rounded- 
ovate or almost orbicular, cordate at the base, obscurely sinuate- 
toothed, membranous ; petioles very slender, longer than the blade. 
Flowers axillary, solitary, erect, ^-f in. long; peduncles short, 
J-^in. Galyx-tube cylmdric, without raised ridges, pale-orange; 
lobes sharply reflexed, purple at the tips, green at the base. Petals 
wanting. Stamens erect, ' always exserted ; filaments slender. 
Style longer or shorter than the stamens, or equal to them. Berry 
large, oblong or obovoid, fin. long, bright-red, glaucous. — Hook. Ic. 
Plant, t. 421 ; Eaonl, Clioix, 49 ; Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zd. i. 57 ; 
Handh. N.Z. Fl. 76. 728; Bot. Mag. t. 6139; Kirk, Students' BX 
181. F. Kirkii, Hook. f. in Ic. Plant, t. 1083. 

North Island : Sandy and rocky places near the sea, rare and local. 
North Cape district, J. Adams and T. F. C. ; Ahipara, H. J. Matthews ! 
Matauri, .4. Cunningham; Whangaruiu, Kirk! Whangarei Heads and near 
Ngunguru, T. F. C. ; Cape Colville Peninsula, J. Adams ! Great Barrier Island, 
Kirk ! 

A beautiful and graceful little plant, remarkable for being the only species 
known with erect flowers. As in F. excorticata, the flowers are trimorphic. 
In the long-styled form the flowers are smaller and narrower, much less brightly 
coloured, the stUe is exserted far beyond the anthers, the stigma is very large, 
and the anthers rather smaller. Tlie mid-styled and short-staled forms appear 
to vaiy into one another: in the first the style usually equals the anthers, in 
the second it is shorter and included within the calyx-tube. The stamens are 
of equal length in all the forms. 

Order XXX. PASSIFLORE^. 

Climbing herbs or shrubs, rarely erect. Leaves usually alter- 
nate, entire or lobed or palmateiy divided, stipulate ; petiole generally 
provided with glands. Tendrils often present, axillary. Flowers 



188 PASsiFLORE^. [Passiflora. 

regular, hermaphrodite or unisexual, axillary, solitary or in cymes 
or racemes. Calyx-tube short or long ; lobes 4-5, valvate or im- 
bricate. Petals as many as the calyx-lobes or wanting, inserted 
on the calyx-tube, free or connate. Corona of one or more rows of 
filamentous appendages arising from the calyx-tube, rarely wanting. 
Stamens 3-5, rarely more, usually springing from the base of the 
calyx, but filaments often monadelphous and adnate to the stalk 
of the ovary to near the top. Ovary superior, free, elevated on a 
stalk (gynophore) or sessile, 1-celled, with 3-5 parietal placentas ; 
tyles 3-5 or single ; ovules numerous, pendulous, anatropous. 
Fruit succulent or capsular. Seeds numerous, ovoid or compressed, 
often arillate ; albumen fleshy ; embryo straight, cotyledons flat. 

A small order, chiefly tropical in its distribution, and most abundant in 
South America. Genera 18 ; species about 250. The fruit of several species of 
Passiflora (passion-fruit) is valued on account of the cooling and refreshing 
pulp surrounding the seeds ; the large-fruited kind, known as grenadilla, being 
specially prized. The very different-looking papaw is now everywhere cultivated 
in the tropics for its large fruit, which, though insipid, is cooling and antiseptic. 
The only genus found in New Zealand {Passiflora) is mainly South American, 
but has a few outlying species in Australasia, the Pacific islands, and tropical 
Asia. 

1. PASSIFLORA, Linn. 

Climbing shrubs. Leaves simple or palmately lobed or divided, 
often with glands on the undersurface and petiole ; tendrils axil- 
lary. Flowers axillary, solitary or racemose. Calyx-tube short, 
lobes 4-5. Petals 4-5, rarely wanting, inserted on the throat of 
the calyx. Corona of one or several rings of coloured filaments 
arising from the calyx-tube. Stamens as many as the calyx-lobes ; 
filaments adnate to the stalk of the ovary ; anthers versatile. 
Ovary superior, elevated on a long stalk or gynophore, 1-celled ; 
styles 3 ; stigmas capitate. Fruit succulent or pulpy, indehiscent 
or obscurely 3-valved. 

A large genus of over 120 species, chiefly tropical, and most plentiful in 
South America. The New Zealand species is endemic, and constitutes the 
section TetrapatJuva, characterized by the unisexual tetramerous flowers and 
ebracteate peduncles. 

1. P. tetrandra, Banks and Sol. ex D.C. Prodr. iii. 323. — A 
glabrous climber, ascending to the tops of the highest trees ; trunk 
woody, often 3-4 in. diam. ; branches slender, terete. Leaves al- 
ternate, petiolate, 1-4 in. long, oblong-lanceolate or ovate-lanceo- 
late, acuminate, eglandular, quite entire, smooth and glossy ; 
tendrils slender, elongated. Flowers unisexual, greenish, ^ in. 
diam., in 2-4-flowered cymes or solitary; pedicels slender, jointed 
about the middle. Calyx-lobes 4, oblong, obtuse. Petals the same 
number and about the same size. Corona of numerous yellowish 
filaments. Male flowers with 4 stamens ; filaments long, diverging. 
Females with a stipitate ovary, usually with short barren stamens 
at the base ; styles 2 or 3. Fruit nearly globose, orange, 1-1^ in. 



Passiflora.] passiflore^. ISQ" 

diam. Seeds very numerous, compressed, wrinkled, black. — 
A. Cunn. Precur. n. 524; Hooh. f. FL Nov. Zel. i. 73; Handh. 
N.Z. Fl. 81 ; Kirk, Students FL 182. Tetrapathsea australis, 
Baoul, Choix, t. 27. 

North and South Islands : From the North Cape as far south as Banks 
Peninsula, ascending to 2500 ft. Koliia. November-January. 

Ordeb XXXI. CUCURBITACE^. 

Climbing or prostrate herbs. Leaves alternate, exstipulate, 
usually palmately veined or lobed. Tendrils generally present, 
springing from the sides of the stem near the petioles, simple or 
divided. Flowers monoecious or dioecious, solitary or in racemes 
or panicles. Calyx-tube adnate to the ovary ; limb campanulate or 
rotate or tubular, 3-5-lobed ; lobes imbricate. Petals 3-5, inserted 
on the calyx-limb, free or united into a lobed corolla, often con- 
fluent with the calyx below. Stamens 3 or 5, inserted on the 
calyx-tube ; filaments free or connate into a tube or column ; 
anthers free or united, one 1-celled, the others 2-celled ; cells often 
long and sinuous. Ovary inferior, usually 1-celled when very 
young, with 3 (rarely 4-5) parietal placentas, which thicken and 
turn inwards, meeting in the axis, so that the ovary becomes 
spuriously 3-6-celled ; style simple, entire or 3-fid ; ovules 1 or 
more to each placenta. Fruit succulent or coriaceous, indehiscent 
or bursting irregularly. Seeds usually many, generally flat ; albu- 
men wanting ; embryo straight, cotyledons large. 

A natural and well-defined order, spread over the tropics and warmer por- 
tions of the temperate zones, neiirly absent in cold climates. Genera about 70 ; 
species nearly 500. The order is mainly important on account of the edible 
fruits which many species produce, as the pumpkin, melon, water-melon, 
cucumber, &c. Others are acrid and purgative, as colocynth and bryony, and 
are used in medicine. The common gourd {Lagenaria vulgaris) , the hard-rinded 
fruit of which is so extensively used in the tropics for water- vessels, &c., was 
introduced mto New Zealand by the Maoris, and cultivated by them long before 
the advent of Europeans, but is now seldom seen. The sole indigenous genus 
(Sicyos) occurs in America, the Pacific islands, and Australasia. 

1. SICYOS, Linn. 

Climbmg or prostrate herbs. Leaves angular or 3-5-lobed. 
Flowers small, monoecious. Male flowers racemose. Calyx-tube 
broadly campanulate, 5-toothed. Corolla rotate, deeply 5-partite. 
Stamens connate into a short column ; anthers 2-5, sessile at the 
top of the column, sinuous ; cells confluent. Female flowers capi- 
tate on a short peduncle, rarely solitary. Calyx-tube adnate with 
the ovary ; limb and corolla as in the males. Ovary 1-celled ; 
style short, 3-fid ; ovule solitary, pendulous. Fruit small, coria- 
ceous, dry, indehiscent, covered with barbed spines. 

A small genus of about 20 species, mainly from tropical America, but 
extending to Australia and the Pacific islands. The single New Zealand 
species has the range of the genus. 



190 cucuBBiTACE^. [Sicyos. 

1. S. angulata, Linn. Sp. Plant. 1013.— Stems trailing or 
• climbing, usually from 2 ft. to 10 ft. loug but sometimes much 
more, glabrous or more or less scabrid. Leaves on long petioles, 
2-6 in. diam. or more, ovate-cordate to reniform, palmately 
5-7-lobed, the central lobe the longest, membranous, scabrid 
with short stiff hau's or almost glabrous; tendrils very long, 
branched. Flowers ^in. diam., greenish; males racemose on a 
long peduncle ; females often from the same axil, capitate on a 
short peduncle. Fruits clustered, |^in. long, ovoid, compressed, 
denselv covered with barbed spines. — Forst. Prodr. n. 363; A. 
Rich. Fl Nouv. Zel. 323 ; Hook. f. FL Nov. Zel. i. 72 ; Hcmdb. N.Z. 
FL 82; Benth. FL Austral, iii. 322; Kirk, Students' Fl. 183. 
S. australis, Eyidl. Prodr. Fl. Norf. 61 ; A. Gunn. P recur, n. 525. 

Kebmadec Islands : Abundant, attaining a large size, McGiUivray, T. F. C. 
North Island : In various places on the coast, as far south as Hawke's Bay; 
more plentiful on the outlying islands than on the mainland. South Island : 
Queen Charlotte Sound, Banks and Soiander. Maivhai. November- 

March. Also ill North and South America, Australia, Norfolk Island, Lord 
Howe Island, and Polynesia. 

Okdek XXXII. FICOIDEiE. 

Annual or perennial herbs, rarely undershrubs, of very various 
habit. Leaves opposite or alternate or whoried, simple, often fleshy, 
stipules wanting or scarious. Flowers regular, usually herma- 
phrodite, solitary or fascicled or cymose. Calyx free or adnate to 
the ovary, 4-5-celled or -pai'tite, unbricate. Petals either narrow 
and numerous, or 4-5 and small, or altogether wanting. Stamens 
perigynotis or rarely hypogynous, few or many ; filaments free or 
connate at the base. Ovary superior or inferior, 2-5-celled ; styles 
as many as the cells, free or united at the base ; ovules either 
solitary in the cells and basal, or numerous and axile. Fruit 
generally a capsule with loculicidal or transverse dehiscence, more 
rarely drupaceous or separating into 1-seeded cocci. Seeds solitary 
or many, usually compressed ; albumen scanty or copious ; embryo 
slender, curved round the albumen, terete. 

A large order, comprising 22 genera and nearly 500 species, mostly tropical 
or sub-tropical, and especially plentiful in South Africa ; rare or absent in 
cold climates. The properties of the order are unimportant. Many species of 
MesembryantJieinu.m have showy flowers, and are cultivated in gardens; and 
Tctraii'ima is occasionally used as a pot herb. Tlie remaining genera are mostly 
insignificant weeds. Both the New Zealand genera are widely distributed, 
although much more numerously represented in South Africa than elsewhere. 

1. MESEMBRYANTHEMUM, Linn. 
More or less succulent herbs or undershrubs. Leaves usually 
opposite, thick and fleshy, trigonous or terete or flat. Flowers con- 
spicuous, terminating the branches or axillary. Calyx-tube adnate 
with the ovary ; lobes 5. Petals numerous, linear, in one or 
several rows. Stamens numerous, in many rov7s Ovary inferior, 



' Mesembryaiiihemimi.] ' ficoidem. 191 

with 5 or more cells, rarely 4-celled ; styles as many as the cells, 
free or connate at the base, stigmatic on the inner side ; ovules very 
numerous. Capsule enclosed in the persistent calyx, depressed at 
the apex and loculicidally dehiscent, the valves opening in a star- 
like manner. Seeds numerous, minute ; testa crustaceous. 

An enormous South African genus, containing fully 300 species ; rare else- 
where, although a few species are widely scattered along the shores of many 
parts of the world. 

Leaves less than 1 in. long. Flowers |-1 in. diam. ; 

peduncles usually short . . . . . . . . 1. .If . cnistrale. 

Leaves more than lin. long. Flowers l^in. diam., on 

long peduncles .. .. .. .. ..2. M. cBquilaterale. 

1. M. australe, Sol. ex Forst. Prodr. n. 523. — Stems 1-4 ft. 
long, prostrate and rooting at the nodes, woody, terete. Leaves 
opposite or in opposite fascicles, connate at the base, ^-1;^ in. long, 
linear or linear-oblong, triquetrous, flat above, convex and keeled 
beneath, acute or obtuse, thick and fleshy, often glaucous. Flowers 
|— 1 in diaui., white or pink; peduncles usually shorter than the 
leaves, but sometimes nearly twice their length. Calyx-tube fleshy, 
obconic ; lobes 5, 2 of them much longer than the others. Petals 
very numerous, spreading. Styles 5-8. Capsule 5-8-celled. — A. 
Cunn. Precur. n. 522; Baoul, Choix, 48; Hook. f. FL. Nov. Zel. 
i. 76; Eandh. N.Z. FL 83; Be7ith. Fl. Austral, iii. 324; Kirk, 
Students' Fl. 184. 

Kermadec Islands, North and South Islands, Chatham Islands : 
Common everywhere on the coasts. Horokaka. October-March. Also- 

abundant in Australia and Tasmania, Norfolk Island, and Lord Howe Island. 

2. M. aequilaterale, Haic. Misc. Nat. 77. — Stems robust, woody 
at the base, prostrate or ascending, sometimes several feet in length; 
flowering branches short, suberect. Leaves opposite, stem-clasp- 
ing, 1-3 in. long, very fleshy, linear, acutely triquetrous, smootn, 
equal-sided or laterally compressed. Flowers l|-in. diam.; pe- 
duncles 1-3 in. long, thickened upwards, winged. Calyx-tube 
turbinate, |-in. long or more; lobes unequal, the 2 larger ones 
often as long as the tube. Petals spreading. Styles 6-10. Cap- 
sule 6-10-ce\\ed.—Bentli. Fl. Austral, iii. 324 ; Kirk, Students' FL 
184. 

North Island: Coast near Napier; Castle Point, Kirk! December- 
February. A common plant in Australia and Tasmania, also found in Cali- 
fornia and Chili. 

2. TETRAGONIA, Linn. 

Herbs or undershrubs. Stems trailing or erect. Leaves alter- 
nate, petiolate, flat but more or less succulent. Flowers axillary, 
solitary or few together. Calyx-tube adnate to the ovary and 
often produced above it, terete or angled; lobes 3-5. Petals 
.wanting. Stamens inserted on the calyx-tube, variable in number, 
solitary or few or many. Ovary inferior. 2-8-celled ; styles as many 



192 FicoiDE^. [Tetrayonia. 

as the cells ; ovules solitary in each cell, pendulous. Fruit inde- 
hiscent, globose or obconic, often horned or tuberculate ; endocarp 
hard or almost bony ; epicarp coriaceous or fleshy. 

A small genus of about 25 species, most of which are natives of South Africa, 
a few only being scattered over the coasts of America, Australasia, and parts of 
Asia. 

Leaves 1-4 in. Fruit turbinate, hard, angular, horned 

above .. .. .. .. .. ..1. T. expa-iisa. 

Leaves |-2 in. Fruit globose, succulent, not horned .. 2. T. trigyiia. 

1. T, expansa, M^lrr. in Coynm. Gotting. vi. (1783) 13. — A more 
or less succulent minutely papillose herb. Stems 1-2 ft. high, de- 
cumbent or suberect, glabrous or sparingly puberulous. Leaves 
1-4 in. long, ovate-rhomboid or triangular, obtuse or subacute, sud- 
denly narrowed into the petiole, quite entire or very obscurely 
sinuate. Flowers small, yellowish, solitary or rarely 2 together, 
sessile or on very short peduncles. Calyx-tube broadly turbinate ; 
lobes about as long as the tube, broad, obtuse. Stamens 12-20, 
irregularly inserted. Ovary 3-8-celled ; styles the same number. 
Fruit about -J- in. long, hard and dry, almost turbinate, angular, 
usually furnished at the summit with 2-4 prominent teeth or 
horns. — A. Rich. Fl. Nouv. Zei. 320; .4. Cunn. Precur. n. 523; 
Baoul, Ghoix, 48 ; Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 77 ; Handh. N.Z. FL 
84 ; Benth. Fl. Aicstral. iii. 325 ; Kirk, Students' Fl. 185. T. hah- 
mifolia, Forst. Prodr. n. 223. 

Keemadec Islands, North and South Islands, Stewart Island : Not 
uncommon along the coasts ; seldom found inland. Kokihi. November- 
February. 

This has long been cultivated in Europe as an edible plant, under the 
name of "New Zealand .spinach." It is also a native of Australia and Tas- 
mania, Norfolk Island and Lord Howe Island, Japan, and extra-tropical South 
America. 

2. T. trigyna, Banks and Sol. ex Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 
77. — Stems 1-8 ft. long, branched, trailing or almost climbing, 
terete, woody at the base. Leaves f-2 in. long, broadly ovate- 
rhomboid or rounded-ovate, obtuse, abruptly narrowed into the 
petiole, fleshy, usually covered with transparent papillae. Flowers 
small, yellowish, solitary or rarely 2 together ; peduncles about as 
long as the flower. Ovary 2- rarely 3-celled; styles the same 
number as the cells. Fruit ^in. diam., subglobose, succulent, 
bright-red, obscurely lobed or quite even, not horned. Seeds 1-3. 
— Handh. N.Z. Fl. 84 ; Kirk, Students' Fl. 185. T. implexicoma 
var. chathamica, F. Muell. Veg. Chath. Is. 12. 

Kermadec Islands, North and South Islands, Stewart Island, 
Chatham Islands : In many places on the shores, but often local. Novem- 
ber-February. 

Easily distinguished from T. expansa by the trailing habit, smaller broader 
leaves, and bright-red fleshy fruit. The flowers are often unisexual. It is 
probably identical with the Australian and Tasmanian T. implexicoma. 
Hook. f. 



UMBELLIFERiE. 193 

Order XXXIII. UMBELLIFER-ffi. 

Herbs, very rarely climbing or shrubby, often aromatic when 
bruised. Stems often grooved or channelled, solid or hollow. 
Leaves alternate, usually much cut and divided but sometimes 
simple and entire ; petiole dilated and sheathing at the base ; 
stipules wanting (except in Hydrocotyle). Flowers small, herma- 
phrodite or occasionally polygamous, in terminal or lateral umbels 
which are either simple or compound. Umbels usually furnished 
at the base with a ring of bracts, those below the primary (or 
general) umbel forming the involucre, those below the secondary 
(or partial) ones constituting the involucel. Calyx aduate to the 
ovary, limb either obsolete or 5-toothed. Petals 5, inserted at the 
margin of an epigynous disc, the outer often larger, imbricate or 
valvate, usually infiexed at the tip. Stamens 5, epigynous ; fila- 
ments curved inwards. Disc epigynous, often 2-lobed and con- 
fluent with the base of the styles. Ovary inferior. 2-celled ; 
styles 2, distinct ; ovules 1 in each cell, pendulous. Fruit of 2 dry 
indehiscent carpels cohering by their inner faces {commisaura), when 
ripe separatmg from a filiform central axis [carpophore), from the 
top of which they often remain suspended for a time. Each carpel 
(mericarp) generally bears 5 longitudinal ridges, sometimes ex- 
panded into wings. In the spaces or furrows between the ridges, 
and imbedded in the pericarp, are one or more longitudinal oil- 
canals (vittcB). Secondary rid^'es are also sometimes placed be- 
tween the primary ones. Seeds 1 to each carpel, pendulous; 
albumen abundant, horny ; embryo minute, next the hilum, radicle 
superior. 

A very large and extremely distinct order, represented all over the world, 
but most plentiful in western Asia, south Europe, and north Africa ; rarer in 
the tropics and in the south temperate zone. Genera about 160 ; species esti- 
mated at 1500. The properties of the order are extremely varied. Several 
species secrete a poisonous and narcotic acrid sap, as hemlock, fool's parsley, 
water drop-wort, &c. Others are characterized ty the presence of a gum-resin, 
as Asafcetida and Galbanuni. Many species produce aromatic and carminative 
fruits, as caraway, coriander, dill, &c. The chief edible species are the carrot 
and parsnip, where the roots alone are eaten ; and celery, parsley, and fennel, 
where the leaves and stems are employed. Of the 11 New Zealand genera, 
Aciphylla and Actinotus extend to Australia ; Azorella and Oreomyrrhis occur 
in South America and the Antarctic islands as well. The remaining 7 are all 
v>idely distributed. 

* Umbels simple (sometimes irregularly compound in Azorella). 
a. Vittce absent. 

Creeping herbs with scarious stipules. Fruit laterally 

much compressed .. .. .. .. ..1. Hydrocotyle. 

Tufted or creeping Fruit hardly compressed, subquadrate 2. Azobella. 

Leaves and involucres spinous. Umbels contracted into a 

compact spike or head . . . . . . . . 3. Eryngium. 

Tufted or creeping. Ovary 1-celled, 1-ovuled. Carpel 

solitary . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. Actinotus. 

7— Fl. 



194 UMBELLiFER^. [Hydrocotyle, 

b. VittcB present. 
Tufted or diffuse. Leaves much dissected. Fruit nar- 
rowed above, nearly terete . . . . • . . . 6. Oeeomyrehis. 
Aquatic. Stem creeping. Leaves terete, fistular, septate 7. Crantzia. 

** Umbels regularly compound. Vittae present (obscure in some). Primary- 
ridges of the fruit alone conspicuous. 

Littoral. Stems decumbent. Involucre v^anting. Car- 
pels nearly terete . . . . . . . . . . 5. Apium. 

Leaf-segments ending in acicular or spinous points. Um- 
bels in erect spikes or panicles . . . . . . 8. Aciphylla. 

Leaves pinnate or decompound. Umbels terminal. Car- 
pels with 3-5 narrow equal wings . . . . . . 9. Ligusticum. 

Leaves pinnate or 1-3-foliolate in the New Zealand 

species. Carpels with 2 broad lateral wings . . . . 10. Angelica. 

*** Umbels regularly compound. Secondary ridges of the fruit prominent, 
covered with bristles .. .. .. ..11. Dadcds. 

1. HYDROCOTYLE, Linn. 
Prostrate herbs. Stems long, slender, rooting at the nodes, 
often matted. Leaves orbicular or reniform, deeply cordate or 
peltate, palmately toothed or lobed or divided, rarely entire, long- 
petioled ; stipules small, scarious. Umbels simple, small ; involu- 
cral leaves usually inconspicuous or wanting. Flowers small, some- 
times unisexual. Calyx-teeth minute or obsolete. Petals entire, 
valvate or imbricate. Fruit laterally compressed, with a narrow 
commissure ; carpels flat, placed edge to edge, with 1 or more pro- 
minent ribs on each face ; vittae wanting. Seed straight, laterally 
compressed. 

A genus of about 80 species, spread over the warm and temperate regions of 
the world, but most numerous in the Southern Hemisphere. Of the 9 New 
Zealand species 1 has a wide range in tropical and subtropical countries, another 
is found in North and South America, 2 occur in Australia, the remainder appear 
to be endemic. 

Section I. (Euhydrocotyle). Involucral bracts narroiu or inconspicuous or want- 
ing. Petals valvate. Carpels without secondary ribs or reticulatiotis. 

Leaves deeply 3-7-lobed. Peduncles exceeding the leaves. 

Fruits on long slender pedicels . . . . . . 1. H. elongata. 

Leaves 3-5-foliolate ; leaflets cuneate. Peduncles shorter 

than the leaves. Umbels 2-6-fiowered . . . . 2. H. tripartita. 

Leaves 3-7-lobed almost to the base. Umbels 20-40- 

fiowered ; peduncles longer or shorter than the leaves . . 8. H. dissecta. 
Leaves thin, with 5-7 shallow lobes. Umbels 3-7-flowered, 

sessile or on very short peduncles (sometimes half as 

long as the petioles in var. heteromerta) . . . . i. H. americana. 

Glabrous or nearly so. Leaves obscurely 3-7-lobed. 

Umbels 3-8-flowered. Carpels large, flat, with a broad 

dorsal wing . . . . - . . . . . 5. H. pterocarpa. 

Pilose or nearly glabrous. Leaves obscurely 3-7-lobed. 

Umbels 5-12-flowered. Carpels rounded on the dorsal [dice. 

edge . . . . . . . . . . .. 6. H. novce-zealan- 



Mydrocotyle.] umbellifer^. 195 

Hispidly pilose. Leaves sharply 5-7-lobed. Umbels 

10-20-flowered. Carpels acute on the dorsal edge 7, H. moschata. 

Small, glabrous or nearly so. Leaves j^j-J in., 5-7-lobed. 
Umbels 2-6-flowered. Carpels rounded on the dorsal 
edge . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. if. microphylla. 

Section II. (Centella). Involucral bracts conspicuous, broad. Petals imbricate. 
Carpels -with secondary ribs and reticulations. 

Leaves fascicled, broadly cordate. Umbels 2-3-flowered. 

Carpels large . . . . . . . . . . 9. £f. asiatica. 

1. H. elongata, A. Ciuin. Preciir. n. 495.— More or less softly 
pilose, rarely almost glabrous. Seems 4-12 in. long, very slender, 
branched, creeping and rooting at the nodes. Leaves -^-1 in. 
diam., orbicular-reniform, deeply 3-7-lobed ; lobes rounded, acutely 
toothed ; petioles slender, 1-3 in. long or more ; stipules small. 
Peduncles very slender, exceeding the leaves ; umbels 10-30- 
flovvered Flowers minute, on slender pedicels. Fruit small, 
brownish, J-^in. diam., more or less pubescent or bristly; carpels 
■with one rib on each face. — Raoul, Choix, 46 ; Hook. f. Fl. Nov. 
Zel. i. 84; Haridh. N.Z. Fl. 85 ; Kirk, Students Fl. 187. H. con- 
cinna, Col. in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xvii. (1885) 239. H. echinella, Col. 
I.e. XX. (1888) 191. 

North and South Ish-ands : Not uncommon from the North Cape south- 
wards- Sea-level to 2000 ft. November-March. 

A very distinct plant, easily recognised by the large size, softly pilose habit, 
■deeply lobed leaves, long peduncles, and pedicelled flowers. 

2. H. tripartita, B. Br. ex A. Bich. Hydrocot. 69, t. 61, f. 25. 
— Usually densely matted, dark-green, smooth and shining, glabrous 
or nearly so. SDems branched, filiform, creeping and rooting at the 
nodes, 1-4 in. long. Leaves coriaceous or fleshy, i-iin. diam., 
3-5-partite to the base ; leaflets cuneate, 2-3-toothed or -lobed at the 
tip or quite entire; petioles i— 2 in. long; stipules rather large, entire. 
Peduncles slender, shorter than the leaves ; umbels 2-6-flowered. 
Flowers small, shortly pedicelled or sessile. Fruit small, rather 
turgid, brownish, glabrous. Carpels rounded at the back, convex 
on the sides, with one obscure rib on each face. — Hook. f. t'L Nov. 
Zel. i. 83 ; Benth. Fl. Austral, iii. 341 ; Kirk, Students Fl. 188. 
H. muscosa, B. Br. ex A. Bich. I.e. 68, t. 61, f. 27 ; Hook f. Handh. 
N.Z. Fl. 86. 

Var. hydrophila. — Much smaller and more delicate ; stems -|-1 m. long. 
Leaves ^Jin. diam. ; leaflets minute, entire or with 2-3 shallow crenatures. 
Umbels 1-2-flowered. Fruit much smaller, but otherwise as in the type. — 
H. hydrophila, Petrie in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xxix. (1897) 425. 

NoETH Island : Hawke's Bay and Tongariro, Colenso ! Var. hydrophila : 
Lower Waikato River, Carse ! Matata (Bay of Plenty), Petrie ! South 

Island, Stbwaet Island : Not uncommon in marshy places. Var. hydro- 
j)hila: Otago — Tomahawk Lagoon, Petrie! WicklifEe Bay, Bluff, B. G. 
Aston I 



196 UMBELLiFER^. [Hydrocotyle. 

The trifoliolate leaves at once separate this from all the other New Zealand 
species. Mr. Petrie's H. hydrophila has no distinguishing characters apart 
from its much smaller size. The typical form is also found in Australia and 
Tasmania. 

3. H. dissecta, Hook. f. Ft. Nov. ^el. i. 84. — Small, slender, 
matted, more or less hispid-pilose. Stems much branched, creep- 
ing and rooting, 3-9 in. long. Leaves alternate or in alternate 
fascicles, ^lin. diam., orbicular or orbicular-reniform, 3-7-lobed 
almost to the base ; lobes obovate-cuneate, acutely toothed or 
almost laciniate, hairy on both surfaces; petiole ^—ll-in. long. 
Peduncles variable in length, |— 2 in. long, longer or shorter than 
the leaves ; umbels 20-40-flowered. Flowers small, sessile. Fruit 
densely crowded, small, red-brown, glabrous; carpels somewhat 
turgid, with one obtuse rib on each face ; margins acute. — Handb. 
N.Z. Fl. 86 ; Kirk, Students' Fl. 188. 

NoETH Island : Near Maunganui Bluff, Petrie ! Northern Wairoa, T. F. C. r 
Whangarei, Carse! Petrie ! T. F. C. ; Matakana, Eirk ! Hunua, Kirk ! T. F. C. ; 
Lower Waikato, Carse! Hawke's Bay, Colenso. South Island: Marlborough, 
Macntahon ! near Westport, Tovnson ! Otira Valley and Catlin's River, Petrie ! 
Sea-level to 1200 ft. November-February. 

A well-marked plant, perhaps more closely allied to H. moschata than to any 
other, but difiering widely in the deeply and sharply lobed leaves. Mr. Carse 
sends a form with proliferous umbels. 

4. H. americana, Linn. Sp. Plant. 234. — Small, very slender, 
matted, pale-green and glistening, glabrous or with a few loose 
hairs on the petioles. Stems 3-6 in. long, filiform, much branched. 
Leaves very delicate and membranous, ^— |in. diam., orbicular-reni- 
form, 5-7-lobed : lobes shallow, crenate ; petioles ^-l^in. long; 
stipules small. Umbels small, 3-6-flowered, sessile in the axils of 
the leaves or very shortly peduncled. Flowers sessile or nearly so. 
Fruit minute, pale yellowish-brown, glabrous, or one or both carpels 
more or less hispid ; carpels wath one rib on each face, margins 
acute.— iloo^. /. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 82 ; Ha^idb. N.Z. FL 85 ; Eirk, 
Students' Fl. 187. 

Var. heteromeria. Kirk, I.e. 188. — Rather larger. Leaves J-1 in. diam. ;- 

petioles often 2 in. long. Umbels usually shortly peduncled; peduncles some- 
times half the length of the petioles. Fruit as in the tvpe. — H. heteromeria, 
A. Rich. Hijdrocot. 200; A. Cunn. Precur. n. 499 ; Hook.'f Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 82 ; 
Handb. N.Z. Fl. 86. H. nitens. Col. in Trans. N.Z. Inst, xxiii. (1891) 386. 

North and South Islands, Stewart Island : Not uncommon from the 
North Cape southwards. Sea-level to 2000 ft. October-February. The 
typical form is also found in North and South America. 

5. H. pterocarpa, F. Mucll. in Trans. Vict. Inst. i. (1855) 126. 
— Smooth, often shining, perfectly glabrous or sparingly pilose. 
Stems slender, 6-14 in. long, branched, creeping and rooting. 
Leaves ^-1 in. diam., orbicular-reniform with a narrow or closed 
sinus, very thin and membranous, obscurely 3-7-lobed ; lobes 



Hydrocotyle.] umbellifer^. 197 

crenate ; petioles slender, 1-4 in. long. Peduncles rather slender, 
shorter than the leaves; umbels 3-8-flowered. Flowers shortly 
pedicelled or almost sessile. Fruit large, flat, broader than long, 
notched above and below, often mottled ; carpels with one rib on 
each face, and with the dorsal edge expanded into a broad wing. — 
nook. f. Fl. Tasm. i. 153, t. 33; Handb. N.Z. Fl. 86; Kirk, SUi- 
deuts Fl. 188. 

North and South Islands : In lowland swamps from Mongonui to North 
Canterbury, but often local. December-February. Also in Victoria and 
Tasmania. 

6. H. novae -zealandiae, D.G. Prodr. iv. 67. — Very variable in 
size and habit of growth. Stems 3-12 in. long, much or sparingly 
branched, open or matted, creeping and rooting at the nodes, some- 
times ascending at the tips, pilose or almost glabrous. Leaves 
■|— IJin. diam., orbicular-reniform with usually an open sinus, 
obscurely 5-9-lobed or -angled ; lobes shallow, obscurely and ob- 
tusely crenate, rarely more acutely toothed, usually membranous 
but sometimes subcoriaceous, sparingly hairy or nearly glabrous ; 
petioles ^3 in. long, slender, usually pilose with reversed hairs 
above. Peduncles shorter than the leaves ; umbels 5-12-flowered. 
Flowers shortly pedicelled. Fruit -^^in. diam., broader than long, 
somewhat flattened, glabrous, pale-brown, sometimes mottled ; 
carpels rounded at the back, with an indistinct rib or groove on 
each face. — A. Cimn. Precur. n. 497; Baoul, Ghoix, 46; Hook. f. 
Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 83; Handb. N.Z. Fl. 86; Kirk, Students' Fl. 189. 
H. dichondrsefolia, A. Cunn. I.e. n. 498. H. intermixta, Col. in 
Trans. N.Z. Inst. xvii. (1885) 240. H. alsophila, Col. I.e. xviii. 
(1886) 261. H. involucrata, Col. I.e. xix. (1887) 262. H. amcena, 
Col. I.e. xxi. (1889) 83. 

Var. robusta. — Stems stout, suberect above. Fruit large, J in. broad, tur- 
gid ; carpels with a groove on each face. - H. robusta, Kirk, Students' Fl. 189. 

Var. montana. Kirk, I.e. — Stems stout, creeping, densely matted. Leaves 
usually with a narrow sinus, coriaceous, glabrous or nearly so, lobes shallow. 
Carpels with a groove on each face. 

North and South Islands, Stewart Island : Abundant throughout, var. 
moniana ascending to quite 4,000 ft. Var. robusta : Sandy beaches north of Auck- 
land, rare. November-March. 

A very vaiiable plant, but one that can generally be recognised without 
much difficulty by the shallow and rounded lobes of the leaves, and by the com- 
pressed fruits with thick obtuse margins. I am unable to maintain Mr. Kirk's 
H. robusta as a separate species, the differences between it and the typical state 
being of a very trivial character. Closely allied to it is a large-leaved species 
gathered by Mr. Cockayne in forests in the Chatham Islands, in which the 
leaves are sometimes 2 in. diam. 

7. H. moschata, Forst. Prodr. n. 135. — More or less hispid or 
pilose, rarely almost glabrous. Stems 2-12 in. long, much branched, 
often densely matted, creeping and rooting at the nodes. Leaves 
:^1 in. diam., reniform or orbicular with usually an open sinus. 



198 UMBELLIFER^. [Eydrocotyle. 

distinctly 5-7-lobed ; lobes sharply toothed, usually hispid on both 
surfaces but sometimes glabrescent, firm or almost coriaceous ; 
pedoles rather stout, ^2 in. long, usually pilose above with reversed 
hairs. Peduncles longer or shorter than the leaves ; umbels 5-40- 
flowered. Flowers sessile or nearly so. Fruits usually densely 
crowded, minute, ^^"rV^^- ^^^™-' red-brown; carpels acute at the 
back, with an acute keel or ridge on each face. — A. Cimn. Precur. 
n. 501; Baoul, Ghoix, 46; Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zei. i. 83; Handh. 
N.Z. Fl. 87 ; Kirk, Students Fl. Is9. H. sibthorpioides. Col. in 
Trans. N.Z. Inst. xxi. (1889) 83. 

Keemadec Islands, North and South Islands, Chatham Islands : Abun- 
dant throughout, ascending to 2000 ft. November-March. 

Closely allied to H. novce-zealandia;, but separated by the distinctly lobed 
leaves, by the lobes being acutely toothed, and by the much smaller crowded 
fruits, which are sharply keeled on the back. 

8. H. microphylla, A. Gunn. Precur. n. 496. ^Glabrous or with 
a few loose hairs on the petioles and peduncles. Stems 1-3 in. long, 
slender or rather stout at the base, creeping and rooting, often 
matted. Leaves -^ij-^^ in . diam., orbicular-reniform with usually a 
closed or narrow sinus, 5-7-lobed ; lobes shallow, rounded, obtusely 
crenate ; petiole f— |in. long; stipules rather large for the size of 
the plant. Peduncles variable in length, longer or shorter than the 
leaves ; umbels 2-6-fiowered. Flowers sessile or nearly so. Fruit 
minute, glabrous, Jjj-xVi^- diam.; carpels rounded at the back, 
with an obscure rib or groove on each face. — Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. 
i. 84 ; Handb. N.Z. Fl. 87 ; Kirk, Students Fl. 190. 

North and South Islands, Stewart Island : From Mongonui southwards, 
but apparently local. December-February. 

Cunningham's original description is not at all good, and without access to 
his specimens I cannot be certain that the plant described above is the same as 
his. It differs from H. novce-zealandice in the smaller size, glabrous and more 
deeply divided leaves, few-flowered umbels, and smaller fruit. From H. moschata 
it is at once removed by the round-edged carpels. 

9. H. asiatica, Linn. Sj). Plant. 234. — Very variable in size. 
Stems rather stout, much branched, creeping and rootmg at the 
nodes. Leaves fascicled at the nodes, J-l in. diam., orbicular or 
oblong-reniform, cordate or almost truncate at the base, sinuate- 
toothed or nearly entire, glabrous or slightly pubescent ; petioles 
very variable in length, |— 6 m. or more, often laxly pubescent 
above. Peduncles short, |—1 in. long, rarely more ; umbels 2-4- 
flowered ; bracts 2-3, broad, ovate. Fruit -l-i in. diam.; carpels 
with about 3 stout ribs on each face, but often showing the second- 
ary ribs when young, somewhat reticulated, margins obtuse. — 
A. Gunn. Prectir. n. 502 ; Baoul, Ghoix, 46 ; Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. 



Hydrocotyle.] umbelliper^. 199 

i. 82; Handb. N.Z. Fl. 86; Benth. Fl. Austral, iii. 346; Kirk, Stu- 
dents' Fl. 190. H. cordifolia, Hook. f. Ic. Plant, t. 303. H. uni- 
flora, Col. in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xvii. (1885) 239. 

North and South Islands, Stewart Island, Chatham Islands : Abun- 
dant in moist places from the Three Kings Islands and the North Cape south- 
wards, ascending to 2500 ft. October-March. Also in most tropical and 
subtropical countries. 

2. AZORELLA, Lam. 

Perennial herbs, densely tufted or slender and creeping. Leaves 
simple or 3-5-foliolate, all radical, or fascicled at the nodes of creep- 
ing stolons, or cauline and densely imbricated. Umbels few- or 
many-liowered, simple or irregularly compound; involucral bracts 
free or connate. Calyx-teeth prominent, usually small, acute. 
Petals obtuse or acute, imbricate. Disc thick, flat, often confluent 
with the styles. Fruit but slightly laterally compressed, almost 
tetragonous, the sides furrowed at the commissure when mature. 
Carpels subterete or dorsally compressed, with 5 more or less 
prominent and almost equidistant ribs, the lateral ones not close to 
the commissure. 

A genus comprising about 40 species, found in Andine and extra-tropical 
South America, Australia and Tasmania, the Antarctic islands, and New Zea- 
land. With the exception of A. Selago, all the New Zealand species are 
endemic. 

Section I. (Pragosa). Stems closely compacted, forming rounded pulvinate 

masses. 

Leaves all cauline, imbricate ; blade 3-5-partite .. 1. A. Selago. 

Section II. (Schizeleima). Stems tufted, often emitting creeping stolons or leafy 
flowering branches. 
* Leaves simple. 

Minute, forming tufts ^-2 in. diam. Leaves ^-Jin. diam., 

entire or crenate .. .. .. .. ..2. A. exigua. 

Leaves reniform, J-|in. diara. Stipules entire. Umbels 

3-8-flowered. Pedicels shorter than the fruits .. 3. A. reniformis. 

Leaves reniform, J-2 in. diam. Stipules ciliate. Umbels 

many-flowered. Pedicels longer than the fruits ,. 4. A. Haastii. 

** Leaves 3-5-foliolate. 

Leaves tufted, coriaceous, ^-l^in. diam; leaflets 3-5, 

deeply crenate-toothed or lobed . . . . . . 5. A. Roughii. 

Leaves crowded at the nodes of creeping stolons, excessively 

coriaceous, J-§in. diam.; leaflets bluntly lobed or 

crenate .. .. .. .. .. .. 6. A. hydrocoty- 

Leaves tufted, pale-green, membranous, J-f in. diam. ; loides. 

leaflets 3, toothed at the tips . . . . . . 1. A. pallida. 

Small, densely matted. Leaves ^J in. diam. ; leaflets 3, 

entire or obscurely toothed .. .. .. ..8. A.nitens. 

Creeping. Leaves fascicled at the nodes, membranous, 

J-f in. diam. ; leaflets 3, stalked, obscurely toothed .. 9. ^4. trifoUolata. 



*200 UMBELLiFER^. [Azorella. 

1. A. Selago, Hook. f. Fl. Antarct. ii. 284, t. 99. — Steins 
densely tufted, branched, forming large globular masses 1-4 ft. 
diam. or more, quite glabrous. Leaves alternate, imbricate, i— ^in. 
long; petiole half the length, very broad, membranous, closely 
sheathing the stem ; blade much dilated, broader than long, closely 
appressed, concave, coriaceous, 3-5-partite to the middle, upper 
surface furnished with several long stiff bristles ; lobes spreading, 
oblong, acute or apiculate ; margins quite entire, much thickened. 
Umbels almost concealed amongst the uppermost leaves, shortly 
pedunculate, 3-flowered. Involucral leaves linear, subacute. 
Calyx-teeth acute. Fruits ovoid, terminated by the elongated 
styles ; carpels slightly compressed, convex on the back, 5-ribbed, 
contracted at the commissure. — Phil. Trans. Boy. Soc. clxviii. 20; 
Kirk, Students Fl. 191 

Macquarie Island : Fraser, Prof. Scott! A. Hamilton ! Also in Kerguelen 
Island, the Crozets, Marion and Heard I-lands, and Fuegia. 

2. A. exigua, Benth. and Hook. f. in Gen. Plant, i. 875. — 
Small, stemless, forming little tufts ^-2 in. diam. Leaves nu- 
merous, crowded at the top of a short and stout rhizome, x~f^^- 
long ; petiole long, stout, sheathing at the base ; blade minute, 
|— ^in. diam.. ovate-orbicular, obscurely 3-lobed or crenate, cordate 
or rounded at the base, coriaceous, minutely papillose above ; 
margins recurved. Scapes shorter than the leaves, 3-8-fiowered ; 
involucral leaves linear, obtuse, rounded at the base. Fruit J^ in. 
long, almost tetragonous ; carpels 5-ribbed, rounded at the back. 
— Kirk, Students' Fl. 191. Pozoa exigua, Hook. f. Handb. N.Z. 
Fl. 87. 

South Island: Otago — Black Peak, Hector and Buchanan! Hector 
Mountains and Mount Cardrona, Petrie ! Altitudinal range from 5000 to 
6500 ft. 

A very remarkable little plant, quite unlike any other. 

3. A. reniformis, Benth. and Hook. f. I.e. — Bright-green, 
rather fleshy, perfectly glabrous. Ehizome slender, creeping, often 
emitting short stolons. Leaves tufted, ■§— fin. diam., orbicular or 
reniform, crenate-lobed, coriaceous or almost membranous; petioles 
rather stout, 1-2 in. long, sheathing at the base; stipules acute or 
acuminate, quite entire. Umbels 3-8-fiowered, on rather stout 
peduncles much shorter than the leaves ; involucral bracts linear, 
obtuse, membranous. Fruit ^in. long, linear-oblong, tetragonous, 
rather longer than its pedicel ; carpels obscurely 5-ribbed. — Kirk,, 
Students' Fl. 191. Pozoa reniformis, Hook. f. Ft. Antarct. i. 15, 
t. 11 ; Handb. N.Z. Fl. 88. 

Auckland and Campbell Islands : Hooker, Kirk ! December-January. 



Azorella.] umbellifer^. 201 

4. A. Haastii, Benth. and Hook. f. I.e. — Exceedingly variable 
in size, 1-10 in. high. Ehizome stout, branched, with tufts of 
radical leaves at the tips, often with prostrate or ascending leafy 
and flowering branches. Leaves ^-2 in. diam., reniform or orbi- 
cular with usually an open sinus, glabrous or sparingly setose, 
coriaceous or almost fleshy, brigiit-green and glossy, crenate-lobed ; 
lobes broad, shallow, rounded ; margins thickened, almost carti- 
laginous ; petioles variable in length, -I— 8 in. ; stipules broad, usu- 
ally more or less ciliate at the tips. Umbels peduncled, many- 
flowered, often 1-3 secondary ones arising from the base of the 
primary one and far exceedmg it ; floral leaves cuneate, 3-4-toothed 
or -lobed ; involucral bracts linear-oblong, obtuse. Pedicels usually 
much longer than the oblong tetragonous fruit ; carpels obscurely 
5-ribbed. — Kirk, Students' Fl. 192. Pozoa Haastii, Hook. f. Handb. 
N.Z. Fl. 88. Pozoa elegans, Col. in Trans. N.Z. Inst, xxiii. (1891) 
386. 

North Island : Ruahine Mountains, A . Haviilton ! South Island : Not 
uncommon in mountain districts from Nelson to Otago, altitude 2000-5000 ft. 
December-February. 

This varies much in most of its characters, and as a species is doubtfully 
distinct from .4. reniformis. Ordinarily, however, it can be separated from that 
plant by the ciliate stipules, many-flowered umbels, and long fruiting pedicels. 
But the stipules are sometimes entire, and dwarf specimens frequently have 
short pedicels. Mr. Colenso's Pozoa elegans (as proved by the type specimens in 
his herbarium, labelled in his own handwriting) is founded upon the tips of the 
flowering shoots of A. Haastii. He describes the leaves as " 2-3-foliolate," 
having evidently mistaken the approximate floral leaves for parts of a compound 
leaf. 

5. A. Roughii, Benth. and Hook. f. I.e. — Perfectly glabrous^ 
smooth and shining. Ehizome stout, branched, terminated by 
numerous radical leaves, and usually with prostrate or ascending 
leafy flowering branches. Leaves ^l-|in. diam., orbicular or reni- 
form, coriaceous, 3-5-foliolate or -partite ; leaflets sessile, broadly 
obcuneate, deeply crenate-toothed or lobed at the tip ; lobes 
rounded ; petioles 1-6 in. long ; stipules usually laciniate. Flower- 
ing shoots often exceeding the leaves ; umbels many-flowered^ 
usually 1-3 secondary ones arising from the base of the primary 
and overtopping it ; involucral bracts linear-oblong, obtuse. Pedi- 
cels usually longer than the linear-oblong fruit ; carpels rounded 
at the back, 5-ribbed. — Kirk, Students' Fl. 192. Pozoa Eoughii, 
Hook.f. Handb. N.Z. Ft. 89. 

South Island : Mountains of Nelson and Marlborough, from Dun Moun- 
tain to the Upper Clarence and Waiau, not uncommon. 2500-5000 ft. 
December-February . 

This has the same habit as A. Haastii, but can always be recognised by the 
divided leaves. I have seen no specimens from the south of Lake Tennyson and 
the Upper Waiau. 



202 UMBELiiiFEE^. [Azorella» 

6. A. hydrocotyloides, Benth. and Hook. f. I.e. — Perfectly gla- 
brous, stout, often densely matted. Eoot long and woody. Stems 
creeping and rooting at the nodes and putting up tufts of leaves, 
the runners sometimes 6 in. long or more. Leaves numerous, 
crowded, :^-f in. diam., orbicular or orbicular-reniform, very thick 
and coriaceous, 3-5-foliolate or -partite ; leaflets sessile, sometimes 
overlapping, broadly obovate-cuneate, bluntly 3-5-lobed or -crenate 
at the tip; margins thickened; petioles stout, |— l^in. long; 
stipules narrow, entire or ciliate. Peduncles variable in length, 
solitary from the nodes of the stem or 2-4 at the top of a leaf- 
bearing scion. Umbels 4-15-flowered ; involucral bracts linear, 
obtuse. Fruit linear-oblong, tetragonous, usually shorter than the 
pedicel; carpels 5-ribbed. — Kirk, StudeJits' Fl. 192. Pozoa hydro- 
cotyloides, Hook.f. Handh. N.Z. Fl. 88. 

South Island: Canterbury — Mount Torlesse, Enys ! Kirk! T. F. C. ; 
Kowai River, Haast ; Broken River, Enys ! T. F. C. ; Rangitata, Sinclair, 
Otago — Kurow Mountains and Mount St. Bathans, Petrie ! 2000-4500 ft. 
December-February. 

The creeping stems and excessively coriaceous leaves are the best marks of 
this curious little plant. 

7. A. pallida, T. Kirk, Students' Fl. 193. — Pale-green, per- 
fectly glabrous, smooth and shining. Rhizome creeping, leafy at 
the joints, and emitting creeping stolons. Leaves numerous, 
crowded, ^— Jin. diam., orbicular or reniform, usually flaccid and 
membranous, rarely subcoriaceous, 3-foliolate or rarely 3-partite ; 
leaflets obcuneate, 3-6-lobed at the tips ; petioles slender, 1-3 in. 
long ; stipules laciniate. Peduncles usually shorter than the leaves, 
■either bearing a single terminal umbel with a 3-4-lobed leaf at its 
base, or with 2-3 long-stalked secondary umbels springing from the 
base of the primary one ; sometimes the secondary umbels develop 
1-2 tertiary ones in like manner. Umbels 4-12-flowered ; invo- 
lucral leaves linear, obtuse. Pedicels longer than the linear-oblong 
obtusely 4-angled fruits ; carpels 5-ribbed. — Pozoa pallida. Kirk in 
Trans. N.Z. Inst. x. (1878) 419. 

South Island : Nelson — Mount Arthur Plateau, T. F. C. ; Lake Rotoiti 
and Upper Wairau Valley, Kirk ! T. F. C. ; Lake Guyon, Kirk ! Canterbury — 
Pukunui Creek, Kirk ! Mount Torlesse, Petrie ! Broken River, Enys and 
T. F. C. 1200-4000 ft. December-February. 

8. A. nitens, Petrie in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xxv. (1893) 270.— 
Small, slender, perfectly glabrous, smooth and shining, densely 
matted. Rhizomes creeping, much branched and interlaced. Leaves 
few, minute, ^-|^in. diam., 3-foliolate or 3-partite; leaflets sessile 
or shortly stalked, oblong-ovate to linear-obovate, obtuse or acute, 
■entire or obscurely 2-3-toothed, rather thin, perfectly glabrous ; 
petioles slender, ^-l^in. long. Peduncles as long or longer than 



Azorella.] UMBELLIFEEiE. 203 

the leaves, usually bearing a single terminal 2-3-flowered umbel 
with 1 or 2 3-lobed leaves below it, but often a secondary umbel 
is developed from the base of the primary one ; involucral leaves 
linear, acute. Fruits minute, Jg in. long, obtusely tetragonous, 
rather turgid, about equalling the pedicels ; capsules obscurely 
5-ribbed. — Kirk, Students Fl. 193. 

South Island : Ndson — Lake Guyon, Kirk ! Canterbury — Broken River 
basin, Enys ! Kirk! T. F. C. Otago— LakeTe Anau and Clinton Valley, Petrie. 
700-3000 ft. December-January. 

A very distinct little plant, in habit somewhat agreeing with small forms of 
Hydrocotyle tripartita. 

9. A, trifoliolata, Benth. and Hook. f. I.e. — Very slender, with 
much of the habit and appearance of a Hydrocotyle. Stems fili- 
form, branched, creepmg and rooting at the nodes, 2-12 in. long. 
Leaves 2-6 at each node, membranous, glabrous or with a few 
scattered hairs, 3-foliolate ; leaflets ^-i-in. long, shortly stalked 
or sessile, obovate-cuneate to flabellate, irregularly 2-6-lobed or 
-toothed ; lobes obtuse or apiculate ; petioles slender, 1-4 in. long; 
stipules small, ciliate. Peduncles much shorter than the leaves, 
usually 2-3 springing from the same point. Umbels 2-8-flowered ; 
involucral bracts subulate, ciliate or laciniate. Fruits obtusely 
tetragonous, longer than their pedicels ; carpels rounded at the 
back, 5-ribbed. — Kirk, Students Fl. 193. Pozoa trifoliolata. Hook. 
f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 85, t. 18; Handb. N.Z. Fl. 88. P. microdonta. 
Col. in Trans. N.Z. Inst, xxiii. (1891) 387. 

North and South Islands : Not uncommon from Hawke's Bay and 
Taranaki southwards. Sea-level to 2500 ft. November- February. 

3. ERYNGIUM, Linn. 

Perennial herbs. Leaves usually rigid and coriaceous, spinous- 
toothed. entire lobed or dissected. Flowers sessile in dense heads, 
with a bracteole under each flower, and a whorl of rigid often 
spinous-pointed bracts at the base of the head. Calyx-tube clothed 
with hyaline scales ; teeth rigid, acute. Petals narrow, erect, 
deeply notched, with a long inflected point. Fruit ovoid or 
obovoid, scarcely compressed, covered with hyaline scales or tu- 
bercles ; carpels semi-terete, primary ridges obscure, secondarv 
wanting; vittae inconspicuous or absent. 

A large genus of over 150 species, spread through most temperate and sub- 
tropical regions, but most plentiful in South America and western Asia. The 
single species found in New Zealand extends to Australia as well. 

1. B. vesiculosum, Lah. Nov. Holl. PI. i. 73, t. 98. — A harsh 
and rigid spinous herb 2-9 in. high, with tufted radical leaves and 
prostrate stems much resembling stolons but not rooting. Eadical 
leaves crowded, rosulate, 3-6 in. long, lanceolate or oblanceolate or 
spathulate-lanceolate, deeply toothed or almost pinnatifid, theteetl. 



204 UMBELLiFEBiEJ. [Eryngium. 

spinescent, narrowed into a broad flat petiole. Cauline leaves much 
smaller, opposite, cuneate or linear-cuneate, with fewer spinous 
teeth. Peduncles radical or from the nodes, ^2 in. long, bearing 
a single globose or broadly ovoid head -j-f in. diam. Involucral 
bracts linear or lanceolate, rigid and spinous, spreading, far exceed- 
ing the flowers. Calyx-tube densely scaly. — Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. 
i. 85 ; HMidb. N.Z. Fl. 90 ; Benth. Fl. Austral, iii. 370. 

North and South Islands : On sandy beaches from the East Cape to the 
north of Otago, but often local. December-January. Also in Australia 
and Tasmania. 

4. ACTINOTUS, LabiU. 
Annual or perennial herbs, erect and branching or low and 
densely tufted. Leaves toothed, lobed or ternately divided. 
Umbels simple, with an involucre of spreading bracts. Calyx- 
limb 5-toothed, rarely inconspicuous. Petals 5, ungaiculate or 
spathulate or wanting. Ovary 1-celled, 1-ovuled ; styles 2, often 
united at the base. Fruit ovate, of a single carpel, compressed from 
front to back ; ribs 5, often obscure. 

A small genus of about 10 species, confined to Australia and New Zealand. 
It is remarkable for the 1-celled ovary and single carpel of the fruit. 

1. A. novse-zealandiae, Peine in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xiii. (1881) 
324. — Small, densely tufted. Stems creeping, interlaced and matted, 
forming flat compact patches. Branches villous or shaggy with soft 
white hairs. Leaves Jg^^i^"- long, oblong or oblong-spathulate, nar- 
rowed into a long sheathing petiole, quite entire, coriaceous and 
fleshy, glandular at the apex, glabrous or with a pencil of hairs at 
the tip. Peduncle |— fin. long, usually villous with soft spreading 
hairs, naked or with a single bract towards the top. Involucral 
bracts usually 5, broadly ovate or almost rounded, obtuse. Flowers 
4-5. Calyx-limb apparently wanting. Petals absent. Stamens 2. 
Carpels somewhat compressed, convex on the outer face, obscurely 
ribbed. — Kirk, Students' Fl. 195. A. bellidioides, Benth. Fl. Austral. 
iii. 369 (m part). Hemiphues suffocata. Hook. f. in Lond. Journ. 
Bot. vi. (1847) 471. H. bellidioides var. suffocata, Hook. f. Fl. Tasm. 
i. 158, t. 36a. 

South Island : Nelson^Mountains near the Heaphy River, Dall ! Mount 
Kochfort, Rev. F. H. Spencer ! W. Townson ! Otago — Blue Mountains, Petrie ! 
L/ongwood Range, Kirk ! Stevfart Island : Apparently not uncommon, Pe- 
trie 1 Thomson ! Kirk ! Sea-level to 3500 ft. Also in Tasmania. 

5. APIUM, Linn. 
Erect or prostrate glabrous herbs. Leaves ternately or pin- 
nately divided. Umbels compound, leaf-opposed or terminal. In- 
volucral bracts usually wanting. Flowers white. Calyx-teeth ob- 
solete. Petals ovate, concave, usually inflected at the tip. Fruit 



ApiltmT] UMBELLIFERiE. 205 

ovate or broader than long, slightly compressed laterally, con- 
stricted at the commissure. Carpels ovoid, with five prominent 
obtuse nearly equal ribs. Vittae 1 under each furrow and 2 on 
the commissural side. 

A genus of about 15 species, widely dispersed in most parts of the world. In 
addition to the single indigenous species, two others have become naturalised in 
New Zealand— the wild celery (.4. graveolens, Linn.), which isvery closely allied to 
A. prostratum, differing chiefly in the erect habit and thinner ribs to the carpels ; 
and A. Icvtophi.Uum, F. MuelL, a common plant in many warm climates, and 
which can be recognised by the slender habit and ternately divided leaves with 
filiform segments. 

1. A. prostratum, Lah. Belat. i. 141. — Very variable in size 
and degree of stoutness. Root sometimes as thick as the thumb. 
Stems prostrate or decumbent, more rarely suberect, sometimes 
rooting at the base, 6-24 in. long or more, stout or slender, 
branched, grooved, quite glabrous. Leaves excessively variable, 
2-9 in. long, pinnate or 2-pinnate, sometimes trifoliolace ; leaflets 
sessile or petioled, 3-partite, the segments broad or narrow, cori- 
aceous or membranous, incised or again deeply lobed. Umbels 
sessile or very shortly pendunculate ; rays 3-15, |— 2in. long, each 
bearing a secondary umbel of rather small white flowers on slender 
pedicels \ in. long. Involucral bracts wanting. Fruit broadly 
ovoid, Y^Yo ^^^- ^^'^o ' carpels with prominent almost corky ribs 
vittae not very conspicuous. — PL Nov. Holl. i. 76, t. 103 ; Kirh 
Students' Fl. 196. A. australe, Thoiiars FL Trist. d'Acugn. 43 
Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 86; Handb. N.Z. FL 90; Benth. Fl 
Austral, iii. 372. Petroselinum prostratum, D.G. Prodr. iv. 102 
A. Rich. FL Nouv. ZeL 278 ; A. Cunn. Precur. n. 503. 

Var. a. — Stems usually stout. Leaves pinnate ; leaflets cut into numerous 
broad-obovate or obcuneate segments. 

Var. b. — Stems usually stout. Leaves pinnate ; leaflets cut into numerous 
narrow-linear or lanceolate acute segments. — Petroselinum prostratum, D.C. 
Tar. b, Hook. Ic. Plant, t. 305. 

Var. c, filiforme — Stems slender, prostrate. Leaves usually 3foliolate ; 
leaflets petioled, variously lobed or cut. — A. filiforme. Hook. Ic. Plant, t. 819 ; 
Hook. f. FL Nov. Zel. i. 87 ; Handb. N.Z. Fl. 90. Petroselinum filiforme, .4. Rich. 
Fl. Nouv. Zel. 278 ; A. Cunn. Precur. n. 504. 

Kermadbc Islands, North and Sodth Islands, Stewart Island : 
Common throughout on the shores ; the var. filiforme sometimes found inland 
as well. November-March. Also in Australia and Tasmania, Antarctic 

America, South Africa, and Tristan d'.Acunha. 

The extreme forms of tliis variable plant are very dissimilar, but are con- 
Htcted by numerous intermediates. 

6. OREOMYRRHIS, Endl. 

Perennial herbs, tufted or more rarely diffusely branched, 
glabrous pubescent or villous. Leaves pinnately divided or de- 
compound. Umbels simple, solitary on a scape or prduncle; 



2P6 UMBELiiiFEE^. [Oreomyrmis^^ 

involucral bracts numerous, ovate or lanceolate. Calyx-teeth 
obsolete. Petals oblong, acute, with a short incurved tip. Fruit 
oblong or linear-oblong, usually tapering to the apex, slightly com- 
pressed laterally ; carpels subterete, with 5 equal obtuse ribs, the 
2 lateral ones close to the commissure. Vittae 1 in each furrow 
and 2 on the commissural face. Seed nearly terete, but grooved 
on the commissural side. 

A genus of 5 or 6 species, all of which are natives of America, from Mexico 
to the Falkland Islands, one of them extending to Australia and New Zealand. 

1. O. andicola, Endl. Gen. Plant. 787. — Exceedingly variable 
in stature and habit, 2-24 in. high, either stemless with radical 
leaves and scapes or much branched from the base, with short or 
long slender sparingly divided leafy stems, glabrescent or tomentose 
or pilose. Leaves usually numerous, mostly radical, 1-6 in. long, 
linear-oblong, pinnate or 2-pinnate ; leaflets pinnatifid or variously 
toothed or incised. Peduncles several, usually springing from the 
rootstocks, but in the branched varieties axillary as well, longer or 
shorter than the leaves, glabrescent or pilose, especially towards 
the tip, vyhere the hairs are usually reversed. Umbels few- or 
many-flowered ; involucral bracts 6-8, ovate to linear. Flowers at 
first sessile, but pedicels lengthening as the fruit ripens, often un- 
equally so. Fruit linear- or ovate-oblong, glabrous or more or less 
densely pubescent. — Hook. f. Fi. Antarct. ii. 288, t. 101 ; Benth. 
Fl. Aiistral. in. 377; Kirk, Students' Fl. 197. 

Var. Colensoi, -K^irA;, I.e. 198.— Leaves all radical, pinnate or 2-pinnate; 
leaflets pinnatifid or incised, ultimate segments acute. Scapes numerous, 
simple. — 0. Colensoi, Rook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 92; Handb. N.Z. Fl. 91. 0. 
Haastii, Hook. f. I.e. 

Var. rigida., Kirk, I.e. — Stems stout, branched at the base only, 4-8 in. 
high. Leaves 2-pinnate, pubescent or tomentose ; leaflets pinnatifid or deeply 
incised. Scapes stout and rigid, often depressed. Fruits linear. 

Var. ramosa, Kirk, I.e. — Stems slender, much branched, often 2 ft. long. 
Leaves pinnate ; leaflets membranous, distant, the lowest petioled, deeply 
3-5-lobed or -partite or again pinnate, ultimate segments obtuse or subacute. 
Peduncles axillary, longer or shorter than the leaves, 3-8-flowered; pedicels 
unequal, sometimes 2 in. long. Fruits glabrous or pubescent. — O. ramosa, 
Hook. f. Handb. N.Z. Fl. 91. Mr. Kirk's var. apiculata appears to be a form 
of this. 

NoBTH AND Sooth Islands, Chatham Islands : Abundant from the East 
Cape southwards. Sea-level to 4500 ft. November-February. Also in. 
Australia and Tasmania and in South America. 

I have followed Mr. Bentham and the "Index Kewensis " in uniting the 
three New Zealand species described by Hooker with the American and Aus- 
tralian 0. andicola. Any large series of specimens will show that the develop- 
ment or non-development of a branched stem, and the amount of pubescence, 
which were the characters relied upon for the separation of the species, are in 
Oreomyrrliis far too variable and inconstant to be employed for that pur- 
pose. 



Crantzia.] umbellifer^. 207 

7. CRANTZIA, Nutt. 

A small creeping herb. Leaves linear, terete or compressed, 
undivided, transversely septate. Umbels simple, with minute in- 
volucral bracts. Flowers minute. Calyx-teeth small. Petals con- 
cave, acute, imbricate in the bud. Fruit ovoid-globose, slightly 
flattened laterally. Carpels nearly terete, with 5 ribs separated by 
furrows, the lateral ribs forming a thick and corky mass near the 
commissure. Vittae 1 under each furrow and 2 at the commissure. 

A monotypic genus, found in the United States and Mexico, extra-tropical 
and Andine South America, Australia and Tasmania, and New Zealand. 

1. C. lineata, N71U. Gen. N. Amer. PI. i. 177. — Perfectly gla- 
brous. Ehizome slender, creeping and rooting at the nodes, 
2-6 in. long or more. Leaves usually tufted at the nodes, variable 
in size, ^-4 in. long, narrow-linear, fistulose, terete or sub-com- 
pressed, obtuse at the tip, transversely septate internally. Pe- 
duncles axillary, shorter than the leaves, filiform, bearing a single 
2-8-flowered umbel. Flowers white. Fruit jV in. long. — Hook. f. 
Fl. Antarct. ii. 287, t. 100 ; Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 87 ; Hcmdb. N.Z. Fl. 89 ; 
Benth. Fl. Austral, iii. 374 ; Kirk, Students' Fl. 199. 

North and South Islands, Stewart Island, Chatham Islands : 
Abundant in wet places from the North Cape southwards. Sea-level to 

2500 ft. November-February. 

A very variable little plant. When completely submerged the leaves are 
fistulose and terete, softer in texture, and usually much larger ; but when 
growing in places that are dry for a considerable part of the year the leaves 
are often much compre-sed and minute. 

8. ACIPHYLLA, Porst. 

Erect and rigid usually spinescent glabrous perennials, often of 
large size. Leaves thick and coriaceous, pinnate or 2-3-pinnate, 
the rhachis transversely jointed at the insertion of the leaflets, leaf- 
segments usually ending in stout rigid spines. Umbels compound, 
in the axils of spinescent floral leaves or bracts, usually forming a 
more or less dense paniculate or spicate inflorescence ; male umbels 
much more lax than the females. Flowers unisexual, usually dioe- 
cious. Calyx-teeth small or obsolete. Petals incurved, rarely with 
an inflexed tip. Stylopodia depressed in the male flowers, erect 
and conical in the female. Fruit oblong or linear-oblong ; carpels 
with narrowly winged ridges, usually one 5-winged and the other 
4- winged, or both 5-winged or 4- winged, or not rarely one carpel is 
3- winged and the other 4- winged. Vittae 1-3 under each furrow 
and 2-5 on the commissural face. 

A genus confined to New Zealand, with the exception of 2 species found in 
the Australian Alps. It is mainly characterized by its remarkably distinct 
habit and spinescent leaves and bracts, the flowers and fruit being very similar 
to those of Ligusticuni. Two of the species — .-I. Colensoi anA A. sqtiarrosa — 
•often form almost impenetrable thiclsets in subalpine districts. 



208 UMBELLiFERiE. [Aciphytla. 

A. Leaves rigid and coriaceous, pungent-pointed. Fruit sjuall, j^^-Jin., subterete 
or slightly compressed. 

* Tall and stout, 2-5 ft. or more. Inflorescence a dense linear-oblong 
panicle, often several feet in length. 

2-8 ft. high. Leaves 1-2-pinnate ; leaflets broad, J-|in., 
excessively rigid and spinous. Middle lobe of bract not 
refracted .. .. .. .. .. . . 1. A. Colensoi. 

2-6 ft. high. Leaves 2-.3-pinnate ; leaflets narrow, ^|in. 

broad. Middle lobe of bract refracted . . . . 2. A. squarrosa. 

1-3 ft. high. Leaves pinnate ; leaflets J-^ in. broad, trans- 
versely jointed. Pruit narrov? linear-oblong .. .. 3. 4. Traversii. 

** Small, 4-18 in. high, rarely more. Male inflorescence paniculate; female 
much contracted, almost concealed in the sheaths of the bracts. 

4-12 in. high. Leaves 1-2-pinnate; leaflets almost squar- 

rose, very short, ^-^ in. long, flat, grooved above . . 4. 4. Hookeri. 

12-24 in. high, polished and shining. Leaves pinnate; 

leaflets 3-9 in. long, jij-j in. broad .. .. ..5. A. Lyallii. 

10-16 in. high. Leaves trifoliolate ; leaflets 1^4 in. long, 

^J in. broad .. .. .. .. ..6. A. Hectori. 

3-7 in. high. Leaves trifoliolate or simple ; leaflets 

1-2 in. long, ^-^ in. broad .. .. .. ..7. A. Traillii. 

6-12 in. high, excessively rigid and coriaceous. Leaves 

4-9 in., simple or forked or 3-fid ; segments J-^in. broad 8. A. Kirkii. 

*** Small, 4-18 in. high. Both male and female inflorescence broad and 
paniculate. 

Leaves coriaceous, pinnate or 2-pinnate at the base ; 

leaflets i^j-J in. broad .. .. .. ..9.-4. Monroi. 

Leaves firm but hardly coriaceous, 2-3-pinnate ; leaflets 

^ijj-j^f in. wide .. .. .. .. ..10. A. polita. 

•*** Small, densely tufted, 3-4 in. high. Umbels few, terminal, forming a 
globose head. 

Leaves densely imbricating, 3-fid .. .. ..11. A. Dobsoni. 

Leaves densely imbricating, quite entire .. ..12. A. simplex. 

B. Leaves flaccid. Fruit large, ^— f in. long, oblong, much compressed ; carpels 
broadly 3- or 2-winged. 

Stout, 2-3 ft. high. Leaves 3-4-pinnatc. Inflorescence 
loosely paniculate .. .. .. .. ..13. A. Dieffenbachii.. 

1 . A. Colensoi, Hook. f. Hmidb. N.Z. Fl. 92. — Stem stout, 
erect, 2-5 ft. high, 2-3 in. diam. at the base, deeply grooved. 
Eadical leaves numerous, forming a circle of bayonet-like spikes 
round the base of the stem, 1-2-^ ft. long, pinnate or 2-pinnate at 
the base, with iev^ secondary leaflets; leaflets 5-15 in. long, i— ^in. 
■wide or more, narrow-linear, acuminate, terminating in a long and 
stout spine, excessively thick and coriaceous, rigid, striate, margins 
rough with minute serrulations ; sheaths broad, sometimes quite 
2 in. across, very thick and coriaceous, produced on each side above 
into a spinous simple or forked narrow-linear leaflet 2-6 in. long. 
Inflorescence a narrow - oblong cylindrical panicle composed of 
numerous umbels on branched peduncles springing from the axils 



Aciphylla.] umbellifer^. 209' 

of spinous bracts ; male inflorescence much more lax than the 
female. Bracts with broad sheaths and a 3-5-parfcite limb, the- 
middle segment much the longest, not refracted. Flowers white; 
calyx-teeth obsolete. Fruit oblong, i— i in. long ; carpels usually 
one 4-winged the other 3- winged, but sometimes both 4-wino-ed 
or both 3-winged. Vittae 2-4 in the interspaces and 5-6 on the 
commissural face. — Lindsay, Contr. N.Z. Bot. 49, t. 1 ; Kirk, Stu- 
dents' Fl. 207. A. squarrosa var. b latifolia, Hook. f. FL Nov Zel 
i. 88. 

Var. conspicua, Kirk, Z.c- Leaf-segments not so rigid, with a broad 
orange or red midcib. Bracts bright-orange, often pinnately divided. 

Var. maxima. Kirk, I.e. — Taller and stouter. Stem 4-10 ft. high, 2-4 in. 
diam. at the base. Leaves 1^-5 ft. long; segments fin. broad or even more, 
still more rigid and pungent. Peduncles and pedicels longer. Fruit larger, 
^ in. long. 

North and South Islands : Common in mountain districts from the East 
Cape to Southland; most abundant between 1000-.3000 f t. , but ascending to- 
nearly 5000ft., and occasionally coming down to sea-level. Var. conspicua: 
North Island : Locality not stated, Herb. Colenso ! Ruahine Mountains, W. F. 
Howlett! South Island: Wangapeka, Kingsley ; Mount Murchison, Toionson t 
Upper Waimakariri, Cockayne ! T. F. C. Var. maxima : Mountain districts 
from Nelson to Otago, not uncommon. Taramea ; Spaniard. December- 
January. 

By far the finest species of the genus ; easily distinguished from all others by 
the large size and broad leaf-segments. The two varieties described above have 
a very distinct appearance, but the differences are hardly of specific value. 

2. A. squarrosa, Forst. Char. Gen. 136, t. 38. — Stem tall, 
stout, erect, 2-6 ft. high, 2-4 in. diam. below, deeply grooved, sur- 
rounded at the base by the numerous spreading spmous-pointed 
leaves. Eadical leaves 1-3 ft. long, 2-3-pinnate ; ultimate leaflets 
crowded, 6-12 in. long or more, very narrow-linear, ^|^in. broad, 
coriaceous and rigid, deeply striate, gradually narrowed into rigid, 
spinous points, margins rough with minute serruiations ; sheaths 
broad, produced above on each side into a long pinnately divided 
spinous leaflet. Inflorescence a dense spike-like panicle composed 
of numerous umbels almost concealed in the axils of spinous bracts ; 
female inflorescence much more contracted than the male. Bracts 
with a broad linear-oblong sheath tipped with 3-5 long rigid spines, 
the middle one much the longest and usually sharply refracted 
when the fruit is mature. Fruit oblong, i— i in. long ; carpels 
usually one with 4 wings, the other with 3. Vittae 2-3 in the inter- 
spaces and 4-6 on the commissural face. — Hook. Ic. Plant, t. 607 
608; Hook.f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 87; Handh. N.Z. Fl. 92. Ligusti- 
cum aciphylla, Sprang . in Schultes Syst. Veg. 554. A. Rich. FL 
Nouv. Zel. 274; A. Cunn. Precvr. n. 605 ; Baoul, Choix, 46. 

North and South Islands : Abundant from the East Cape southwards, 
especially in mountain districts. Sea-level to 3500 ft. Taramea; Kurikuri] 
Spear-grass. November- January, 



210 UMBELLiFEB^. [Aciphylla. 

The very narrow leaflets and numerous bracts with long and narrow spinous 
segments, the middle one of which is sharply refracted, easily distinguish this 
from all the forms of A. Colensoi. Both species yield an aromatic gum resin, 
which was formerly used by the Maoris as a masticatory. 

3. A. Traversii, Book. f. Handb. N.Z. Fl. 729. — Stem stout, 
erect, 1-3 ft. high, 1-2 in. diameter at the base, grooved, purplish 
below. Eadical leaves numerous, 6-30 in. long, pinnate; leaflets 
2-4 pairs, 4-15 in. long, ^-\ in. broad, narrow-linear, pungent- 
pointed, coriaceous, striate, conspicuously transversely articulate, 
margins smooth or nearly so; petioles 4-10 in. long, sheaths broad, 
terminated by 2 short spines above. Bracts with a broad rather 
membranous sheath tipped with a simple or 3-fid leaflet ; lobes 
hardly pungent. Umbels very numerous, solitary or two together 
in the axils of the bracts ; males on peduncles 1-5 in. long, forming 
a rather open panicle ; females on much shorter stalks and inflor- 
escence much more dense. Flowers often polygamous. Fruit 
narrow linear-oblong, fin. long; carpels one 4-winged and the 
other 3-winged. Vittae 1-2 in the interspaces and 3-5 on the 
commissural face. — Kirk, Students Fl. 208. Gingidium Traversii, 
F. Muell. Veg. Chath. Is. 18. 

Chatham Islands: H. H. Travers, Captain G. Mair, F. A. D. Cox! 
Taramea. November-December. 

Closely allied to A. Colensoi, from which it principally differs in the less 
rigid and transversely jointed leaf-segments, thinner and scarcely pungent bracts, 
and narrower fruit. 

4. A. Hookeri, T. Kirk, Students' Fl. 209. —Erect, 4-12 in. 
hii=fh. Root long, stout, fusiform. Eadical leaves numerous, often 
curved outwards at the tip, 2-8 m. long, pinnate or 2-pmnate; 
primary leaflets 2-5 pairs, crowded or rather remote, ^1^ in. long, 
simple or forked or trifid or pinnately divided; segments J-f in. 
long, linear, spreading or squarrose, flat, grooved above, rigid and 
coriaceous, narrowed into a spinous point. Petiole more than 
half the length of the blade, weak and flaccid below, with a 
long narrow membranous sheath produced into two short spmes 
at the top. Male scape short, leafy below ; bracts numerous, with 
long membranous sheaths and pinnately divided rigid acicular tips, 
the lowest sometimes 3 in. long. Umbels numerous, compound, 
on slender peduncles equalling or shorter than the bracc-sheath ; 
rays unequal. Female umbels much smaller, densely packed, 
forming a narrow contracted panicle ; bracts much shorter. Fruit 
linear-oblong, i in. long ; carpels 4-5-ribbed. 

South Island: Nelson — Mountains near the source of the Heaphy Eiver, 
Dall ! Mount Faraday and Mount Buckland (near Westport), W. Townson ! 
2500-4500 ft. December-February. 

A very singular and distinct species. It can be recognised at once by the 
short flat almost squarrose leaf-segments. 



Actphylla.] umbellipeb^. 211' 

5. A. Lyallii, Hook. f. Handb. N.Z. Fl. 92.— Erect, smooth and 
shining. Stems 1-2 ft. high or more, i-| in. diam. at the base, 
deeply grooved. Leaves numerous, 4-12 in. long, pinnate ; leaflets 
5-9, 3-9 in. long, xV^i ^^- broad, very narrow-linear, acuminate, gra- 
dually narrowed into spinous points, rigid and coriaceous, striate; 
margins minutely serrulate ; sheaths rather narrow, produced at 
the top into two long spines. Inflorescence forming a linear-oblong 
spike-like panicle. Bracts with broad sheaths and 3-5 spinous 
leaflets. Male umbels on slender peduncles 1-3 in. long ; female 
on much shorter peduncles, almost concealed in the sheaths of 
the bracts. Fruit narrow-oblong, lin. long; carpels 4-5-winged. 

Vittse 1-2 in the interspaces, 2-4 on the commissural face. 

Remsl. in Hook. Ic. Plant, t. 2556 ; Kirk, Students' Fl. 209. A.. 
montana, Ar?nstr. in Trans. N.Z. Inst. iv. (1872) 290. 

Var. crenulata. — Rather taller, much less rigid and coriaceous. Leaves 
sometimes almost flaccid ; margins serrulate ; midrib often bright-red. In- 
florescence more open, with longer and more leafy bracts. Carpels 4-winged, or 
one 3-winged.— A. crenulata, Arvihtr. in Trans. N.Z. hist. xiii. (1881) 336- 
Kirk, Students' Fl. 208. 

South Island : The typical form apparently rare. Rangitata Range and' 
Ashburnham Glacier, Haast ; Mount Ida, Petrie ! H. J. Matthews ! Humboldt 
Mountains, Cockayne ! Var. crenulata : Not uncommon on the central and 
western slopes of the Southern Alps, from Mount Arthur, Nelson, to Lake 
Wanaka. 3000-5000 ft. December- January. 

6. A. Hectori, Buck, in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xiv. (1882) 346, t. 27. 
— Stem 10-16 in. high, stout, deeply grooved. Leaves numerous,. 
3-6 in. long, trifoliolate or rarely pinnate with 2 pairs of leaflets;, 
leaflets li-4 in. long, i-^ in. broad, narrow-hnear, suddenly nar- 
rowed into a spinous point, smooth, rigid and coriaceous, striate : 
margins thickened, entire or serrulate ; sheaths long, narrow] 
produced at the top into 2 very long leaflets almost equalling 
the leaves proper. Inflorescence forming a contracted spike-like 
panicle 2-5 in. long. Male umbels on slender peduncles ; female 
on much shorter ones, crowded in the axils of the bracts. Bracts 
with long narrow sheaths and 3 narrow spinous leaflets. Carpels 
linear-oblong, 3-5-winged. 

South Island : Otago— Hector's Col, near Mount Aspiring, Buchanan ; 
MonntKyehnrn, H. J. Matthews ! 4000-5000 ft. January-February. 

Mr. Kirk reduced this to A. Lyallii in the " Students' Flora," but it differs 
from that species in the trifoliolate leaves, and in the leaflets at the top of the 
leaf-sheath being almost as long as the leaves proper, whereas they do not reach 
the base of the lowest pinnule in A. Lyallii. It is much nearer to A. Trailhi 
which may be a depauperated state of it. 

7. A. Traillii, T. Kirk in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xvi. (1884) 371. 

Small, 3-7 in. high, clothed below with the bases of the old leaves- 
Leaves 2-4 in. long, simple or 3-foliolate, or rarely pinnate with 
2 pairs of leaflets and a terminal one ; leaflets 1-3 in. long, -V— tin.. 



212 UMBELLiFER^. - [Aciphylla. 

broad, narrow-linear, pungent-pointed, rigid and coriaceous when 
dry, striate, margins thickened ; petiole short, sheath narrow, rather 
membranous. Scape slender ; bracts long, with broad membran- 
ous sheaths and a long simple or 3-partite pungent leaflet at the 
top. Male umbels distant or crowded, on short peduncles or 
almost sessile ; females much smaller, concealed in the tumid 
sheaths of the bracts. Fruit linear-oblong, ^S^ii^- ^o^g ! carpels 
5-ribbed. Vittae 1 or rarely 2 in the interspaces, 2 or 4 on the 
commissural face. — Students' Fl. 210. 

South Island : Otago — Mount Ida and Mount Kyeburn, Petrie ! Stew- 
art Island : Mounts Anglem and Kakiahua, Kirk ! Goyen ! 2000-3500 ft. 
December-January. 

Not far removed from A. Lyallii, but smaller in all its parts, and with the 
leaves simple or 3-foliolate, rarely pinnate. Still more closely allied to A. 
Hectori. 

8. A. Kirkii, Buck, in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xix. (1887) 214, t. 17. 
— Stout, erect, smooth and polished, 6-12 in. high. Leaves all 
radical, yellowish-brown, 4-9 in. long, y-^ in. broad or more, 
simple or forked or 3-foliolate, excessively thick and coriaceous, 
striate, suddenly narrowed into a short spinous point ; sheath short 
and narrow, jointed at its junction with the blade. Flowering 
scape stout, naked below, grooved. Bracts coriaceous, spinous, 
simple or 2-3-partite. Male umbels shortly peduncled ; females 
almost sessile in the axils of the bracts, crowded, forming a dense 
spicate inflorescence 2-3 in. long. Fruit linear-oblong, i in. long; 
carpels 4-5-winged. Vittae 1-2 in the interspaces, 4 on the com- 
missural face. — Kirk, Students' Fl. 209. 

South Island : Otago — Mount Alta, Buchanan ! Hector Mountains, hill 
near Mount Aspiring, Petrie ! 5000-6000 ft. January. 

A very remarkable plant, of which more complete specimens are required to 
draw up a good description. My only knowledge of the male flowers is derived 
from Mr. Buchanan's plate. 

9. A. Monroi, Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. ii. 330.— Stems 4-18 in. 
high, densely clothed below with the remains of the old leaves, 
smooth and shining. Eadical leaves numerous, 3-9 in. long, pin- 
nate or 2-pinnate below ; leaflets 2-6 pairs, i-2 in. long, j^-^ in. 
wide, linear, pungent, rigid and coriaceous, striate ; sheaths long 
and narrow, membranous or flaccid, with two subulate leaflets at 
the top. Umbels compound, forming an open branched panicle 
l-|-4in. long. Bracts spreading, sheaths often broad and mem- 
branous, tipped by a pinnately divided leaflet. Peduncles of the 
male umbels ^-2 in. long, females about half the length ; rays 
numerous, slender, spreading ; involucral bracts linear. Fruit 
1 in. long, linear-oblong ; carpels 5-winged or rarely 4-winged. 
Vittae 1-2 in the interspaces, 2-4 on the commissural face. — 
Eandb. N.Z. Fl. 93 ; Kirk, Smdents FL. 210. 



-Aciphylla.] umbellifer^. 213 

South Island : Abundant in mountain districts throughout. 3000- 
6500 ft. December-January. 

A variable plant. The leaves are sometimes uniformly 1-pinnate with 
rather broad leaflets, at other times 2-pinnate at the base with narrower 
leaflets. The female umbels are usually paniculate, but occasionally the 
panicle is somewhat contracted, showing an approach to that of A. Lyallii. 

10. A. polita, Cheesem. — Stems erect, 3-12 in. high, clothed 
at the base with the sheaths of the old leaves. Radical leaves 
numerous, very slender, firm but hardly coriaceous, 2-6 in. long or 
more, 2-3-pinnate ; primary divisions 4-6 pairs ; ultimate segments 
very narrow-hnear, almost capillary, not more than 3^0 in. broad, 
niucronate but hardly pungent ; petiole as long as the blade, sheath 
broad, membranous, produced at the tip into 2 almost filiform leaf- 
lets. Umbels compound, forming a loose open panicle, female 
slightly more contracted than the male. Bracts with a broad 
sneathing base, tipped with a pinnately divided leaflet. Male 
peduncles -1—1 -I in. long, female -|— fin. ; involucral bracts subulate- 
lanceolate. Pedicels short. Flowers white. Fruit narrow-oblong, 
not seen fully ripe, about -|-in. long. — Ligusticum politum. Kirk, 
Students' Ft. 202. 

South Island : Nelson — Mount Duppa, Macmahon ! Ben Nevis, Mount 
Starveall, and Mount Luna, Gibbs, Bniant, Kmgsley ; Mount Arthur Plateau 
and Mount Peel, T. F. C. ; Mount Lockett, Gibbs ! 4000-5500 ft. Decem- 
ber-January. 

Very closely allied to A. Monroi, but much more slender, and with less 
coriaceous almost membranous leaves, which are much more finely divided, the 
segments being sometimes nearly capillary. Mr. Kirk referred it to Ligusticum 
ill the " Students' Flora," but it must certainly remain in the neighbourhood of 
A. Monroi. 

11. A. Dobsoni, Hook. f. Handb. N.Z. Ft. 93. — Stout, smooth 
and shining, forming compact yellowish-brown patches 3-6 in. diam. 
Eootstock thick and woody, branched at the top. Leaves all 
radical, very numerous, densely imbricated, excessively thick and 
coriaceous, 1^3 in. long; sheaths -|-l^in. or more, fin. broad; 
leaflets 3 at the top of the sheath, about equal, 1-2 in. long, 
■Jin. broad at the base, linear-subulate or dagger-shaped, rigid, 
concave, transversely jointed, keeled at the back towards the top, 
pungent-pointed. Flowering-stem very stout, almost as thick as 
the little finger, grooved. Umbels 4-5, clustered at the top of the 
stem, forming a capitate inflorescence ; peduncles short, thick. 
Fruiting umbels densely packed, forming a rounded head 1 in. in 
diam. or more. Fruit linear-oblong, |^ in. long ; carpels 4-5-winged, 
but not seen quite ripe. — Kirk, Students' Ft. 210. 

South Island: On shingle-slopes, rare. Canterbury — Mount Dobson, 
Dobson and Haast, T. F. G. ; mountains above Lake Ohau, Buchanan ! Otago 
— Near Lake Hawea, Haast; Mount So. Bathans, Petrie! 5000-6500 ft. 

A most remarkable plant, nowhere plentiful, and seldom seen in flower or 
fruit. 



214 UMBELLiFERiE. [Aciphylla.. 

12. A. simplex, Petrie in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xxii. (1890) 440.— 
Very similar to A. Dobsoni, and with precisely the same habit, 
but differing in the leaves, which are less coriaceous and quite 
entire, l|-3 in. long ; lower half expanded into a broad sheath ; 
blade linear-subulate, rigid and coriaceous, concave above, ob- 
tusely rounded at the tip with a short pungent mucro, transversely 
jointed and often longitudinally grooved, midrib usually evident, 
margins thickened. Mowering-stem stout, 1^3 in. long; umbels 
and flowers as in A. Dobsoni. Ripe fruit not seen. — Kirk, Stu- 
dents' Fl. 211. 

South Island : Otago — Mounts Pisa and Cardrona, and the Hector 
Mountains, Petrie ! 5000-6000 ft. February. 

13. A. Dieffenbachii, Kirk, Students' Fl. 211. — Stem stout, 
erect, 2-3 ft. high, 1-1^ in. diam. at the base, grooved. Leaves 
all radical, 1-2 ft. long, 4-8 in. broad, flaccid, greyish-green, 3-4- 
pinnate ; petiole usually more than half the length, sheath with 
two blunt lobes at the top ; blade oblong or ovate-oblong in outline ; 
primary pinnae 4-5 pairs; segments 1^3 in. long, j^q^'^- broad, 
linear, flat, striate, mucronate. Inflorescence broad, loosely pani- 
culate, of numerous pedunculate compound umbels. Bracts with a 
broad sheath and rather large pinnatisect lamina. Peduncles 
2-5 in. long; rays of the male umbels numerous, slender, of the 
females about 6 ; involucral bracts few, linear-subulate. Fruit 
large, fin. long, fin. broad, broadly oblong, much dorsally com- 
pressed; carpels one 3-winged and the other 2-winged, rarely both 
3-winged. Vittae 1 in each interspace and 2 on the commissural 
face. — Ligusticum Dieffenbachii, Hook. f. Handb. N.Z. Fl. 729. 
Gingidium Dieffenbachii, F. Muell. Veg. Chath. Is. 17, t. 1. 

Chatham Islands: Rare, H. H. Truvers ! F. A. D. Cox! 

The fruit of this is qinte unlike that of Aciphylla, Ligusticum, or Angelica, 
to all of which genera it has been referred. Mr. Kirk is probably correct in con- 
sidering that it will ultimately form the type of a new genus. 

9. LIGUSTICUM, Linn. 

Perennial herbs, often large and stout, usually with aromatic or 
strong-smelling foliage or roots. Leaves 1-2-3-pinnate or ternately 
divided; rhachis articulated at the insertion of the leaflets. Umbels 
compound, rarely simple, usually of many rays ; involucral bracts 
few or many, sometimes wanting. Flowers white or red, polygam- 
ous or dioecious. Calyx-teeth small or obsolete. Petals incurved 
at the tip. Fruit linear-oblong, oblong, or ovate-oblong ; carpels 
rounded or dorsally compressed, each with 5 equal narrowly 
winged ridges, or one carpel 5-4-winged, the other 4-3-winged. 
Vittae usually numerous in the interspaces in the northern species,, 
seldom more than 1 in each interspace in the southern. 



IJigusticum.] 



UMBELLIFER^. 



215 



A genus of from 30 to 40 species, widely distributed throughout the 
Northern Hemisphere, in the Southern Hemisphere confined to New Zealand, 
with the exception of a few species found in South America and one in Aus- 
tralia. All the New Zealand species are endemic. 

A. Leaves 2-3-pinnate or decompotmd. 
* Tall, stout, leafy, 2-4 ft. high or more. 

Very tall and stout, 3-6 ft. Leaves 2-pinnate ; leaflets 

ovate-oblong, decurrent at the base ; lobes pungent 
Kobust, 2-4 ft. Leaves 2-3-pinnate ; ultimate segments 

linear-subulate, pungent 
Stems 3-5 ft., without milky juice. Leaves 3-pinnate ; 

leaflets ovate ; lobes acute ; petioles with a hooded 

ligule 
Stems 1-2 ft., with milky juice. Leaves 2-3-pinnate; 

leaflets ovate, cuneate at the base ; lobes broad, obtuse ; 

petioles without a ligule 
Stems 1^-2^ ft. Leaves 2-3-pinnate ; leaflets oblong, cut 

into narrow obtuse lobes 
Stems 1-2 ft. Leaves 2-4-pinnate ; leaflets cut into 

narrow-linear piliferous lobes. Styles slender. . 



1. L. latifolium. 

2. L. antipodum. 

3. L. acutifolium. 

4. L. intermedium. 

5. L. Lyallii. 

6. L. Haastii. 

7. L. brevistyle. 

8. L. dissectum. 

9. L. filifolium. 
L. deltoideum. 



** Small, 4-15 in. high, rarely taller. 
Slender, 5-15 in. Leaves flaccid, 2-pinnate ; leaflets cut 

into filiform hair-pointed lobes. Styles short 
Stout, 5-15 in. Leaves coriaceous, 2-3-pinnate; leaflets 

cut into linear rigid and pungent lobes 
Very slender, 5-15 in. Leaves membranous, 2-3-ternately 

divided ; leaflets few, flat, linear or filiform, acute 
Stout, 2-6 in. Leaves deltoid, membranous, 2-ternately 

divided ; leaflets cuneate-deltoid, deeply incised 
Stout, thick, and fleshy, 3-6 in. Leaves few, 2-3-ternately 

muitifid. Involucral bracts like the leaves, very large, 

overtopping the umbel 
Slender, spreading, 6-12 in. Leaves 1- 2-pinnate; leaflets 

distant, cut into narrow-linear acute lobes. Umbels 

simple, 6-10-flowered 

B. Leaves pinnate or 3-foliolate. 

Stout, 8-24 in. Leaflets large, ovate-deltoid, toothed or 

lobed ; lobes piliferous 
Slender, 2-12 in. Leaflets small, orbicular or flabellate, 

toothed or incised . . . . ' 

Small, densely tufted, 1-3 in. Leaves imbricate ; leaflets 

palmately 3-6-lobed, bristle-pointed . . 
Stout, depressed, 3-4 in. Leaflets glaucous, ovate, sharply 

toothed or lobed 
Minute, ^2 in. Leaflets 1-2 pairs, flabellate, entire or 

obscurely crenate . . 

1. L. latifolium, Hook. f. Handb. N.Z. Fl. 94.— Tall, stout, 
erect, coriaceous, 3-6 ft. high or more. Stem frequently 3-4 in. 
diam. at the base, grooved. Radical leaves 1-2 ft. long, coriaceous, 
deep shinmg green ; petioles long, |— 1 in. diam., broadly sheathing 
at the base; blade ovate in outline, 2-pinnate ; primary divisions 
2-6 in. long, linear-oblong ; secondary obliquely ovate-oblong with 



10. 



11, 



12, 



13, 



14 



15. 



16. 



17, 



L. carnosulum, 
L. patulum. 

L. piliferum. 
L. aromaticum. 
L. imbricatum. 
L. Enysii. 
L. fiabellatum. 



216 UMBELLiFER^. [Ligusticum^ 

broad decurrent bases, unequally 3-5-lobed ; lobes acuminate, with 
acicular points and thickened margins; veins reticulate. Bracts 
very large, with broad concave bases 2-3 in. diam., and smaller folia- 
ceous tips. Umbels numerous, compound, 2-3 in. diam., dioecious 
or polygamous ; involucral bracts linear, acute. Flowers red. Fruit 
l^in. long ; carpels with 5 ridges, rarely with 4 or 3 ; vittae solitary 
under each furrow. — Kirk, Students' Fl. 200. Anisotome latifolia. 
Hook. Fl. Antarct. i. 16, t. 8. Calosciadium latifoiium, Endl. ex. 
Walp. Ann. ii. 702. 

Var. angustatum. Kirk, I.e. — Ultimate segments of the leaves narrower, 
Jin. wide or less, acicular points longer. 

Auckland and Campbell Islands : Abundant in moist places throughout 
the group. December-January. 

A noble species, said to occasionally reach the height of 6-8 ft 

2. L. antipodum, Homh. and Jacq. ex Dene. Bot. Voy. Astrol. 
et Zel. 63, t. 3. — Stems 2-4 ft. high, very stout, deeply furrowed. 
Leaves 1-2 ft. long, coriaceous ; petiole as thick as the thumb, 
sheathing at the base ; blade oblong, 2-3 pinnate ; ultimate seg- 
ments very numerous, rigid, crowded, 1 in. long, yV^tV^^- broad, 
linear-subulate, pungent-pointed. Bracts smaller and narrower 
than in L. latifoiium. Umbels numerous, compound, 2 in. diam., 
dioecious or polygamous ; involucral bracts narrow-linear. Flowers 
red. Fruit ^in. long, narrow-oblong; carpels one with 5 wings, 
the other 3-vvinged. — Hook. f. Handb. N.Z. B'l. 94 ; Kirk, Students 
Fl. 200. Anisotome antipoda. Hook. f. Fl. Antarct. i. 17, t. 9, 10. 
Calosciadium antipodum, Fndl. ex Walp. Ann. ii. 702. 

Auckland and Campbell Islands, Antipodes Island : Abundant 
throughout the group. Sir J. D. Hooker, Kirk! December-January. 

Almost as fine a plant as the preceding, which is its nearest ally, and from 
which it is easily separated by the finely divided leave with numerous linear 
segments. 

3. L. acutifolium, T. Kirk in Journ. Bot. (1891) 237. — 
Stems 3-5 ft. high, stout, deeply furrowed ; rootstock as thick as 
the wrist. Leaves spreading, 2 ft. long or more, 6-9 in. broad, 
oblong or ovate-oblong, 3-pmnate ; segments broad, acute, sharply 
toothed ; petiole stout, finely grooved, the upper part of the sheath 
free, forming a ligule. Flowers not seen. Fruiting umbels 2-2i in. 
diam., dense, compound; rays numerous, about 1 in. long. Fruit 
lin. long, exceeding the pedicels; carpels one o-winged, the other 
3-winged. — Kirk, Students' Fl. 201. 

The Snakes : Not uncommon. Kirk ! December. 

My knowledge of this plant is derived from a single imperfect specimen 
in Mr. Kirk's herbarium, and in default of further information I have re- 
produced the description given in the "Students' Flora." It is evidently 
very close to L. intermedium, but according to Kirk can be distinguished by 
the ligulate petiole, acute segments of the leaves, smaller umbels and shorter 
fruits, and by the absence of viscid milky juice. 



Jjigusticum.] umbellifer^. 217 

4. L. intermedium, Hook.f. Handb. N.Z. Fl. 94. — Stems rather 
stout, 6-24 in. high, abounding in viscid milky juice. Leaves 
6-20 in. long; petiole long, stout, sheathing at the base, with 
narrow membranous wings ; blade coriaceous, oblong to ovate- 
oblong, 2-3-pinnate; primary divisions 5-8 pairs, 2-4 in. long; 
leaflets i-l^in. long, rather broad, ovate-triangular, cuneate at the 
base, sessile or shortly stalked, unequally cut to the middle or 
below it into broad-linear obtuse or subacute lobes. Umbels few 
or many, l-L-2in. diam., compound, polygamous or dioecious; 
involucral bracts Imear-lanceolate. Flowers white. Fruit ^-J in. 
long, linear-oblong ; carpels with 5 narrow wings, or one with 5 
and the other with 4 wings. — Kirk, Students' Fl. 201. Anisotome 
intermedia, Hook.f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 89. 

Var. oblongifolium. Kirk, i.e.— Leaves narrower, linear -oblong, seldom 
more than 2 in. broad ; segments more numerous, crowded, narrow - linear, 
subacute. 

South Island : Sounds of the south-west coast of Otago, from Martin's 
Bay to Preservation Inlet and Puysegur Point, Lyall, Buchanan ! Kirk ! 
G. M. Thomson ! South-east coast at Catlin's River aiad the Nuggets, Petrie ! 
Stewart Island : Not uncommon, Petrie! Kirk! Var. oblong if ohum : Inland 
base of the Ruggedy Range, Kirk ! December-January. 

5. L. Lyallii, Hook. f. Handb. N.Z. Fl 95. — Usually taller 
and stouter than L. intermedium. Stem 1^-2^ ft. high, 1-2 in. 
diam. at the base, purplish, obscurely grooved. Leaves 1-2 ft. 
long, linear-oblong. 2-8-pinnate ; primary divisions 6-10 pairs, 
1-4 in. long, linear-oblong; leaflets crowded, lin. long, oblong- 
cuneate, cut to the base into linear obtuse lobes j^^^in. broad. 
Umbels numerous at the top of the stem, compound, many- 
flowered ; involucral bracts linear. Fruit ^-^ in. long, linear- 
oblong, longer than its pedicel; carpels much as in L. interme- 
diicm. — Kirk, Students' Fl. 201. Anisotome Lyallii. Hook. f. FL 
Nov. Zel. i. 88. 

South Island : Sounds of the south-west coast, Lyall, Hector and B?t- 
chanan ! G. M. Thomson ! December- January. 

This only differs from L. intermedixim in the slightly larger size and more 
finely divided leaves, and might well be regarded as a variety. 

6. L. Haastii, F. Muell. ex Hook. f. Handb. N.Z. Fl. 95.— 
Dark-green, very aromatic. Eoot stout, tapering, as thick as the 
finger. Stems 1-2 ft. high, rather stout, purplish, grooved. Radi- 
cal leaves 6-20 in. long ; petioles long, grooved, sheathing at the 
base ; blade linear-oblong to ovate-oblong, membranous, 2-4-pin- 
uate ; primary divisions 8-12 pairs, the lower smaller and remote ; 
leaflets -J— |in. long, deeply cut into numerous crowded linear 
lobes J-iin. long, -^o~-25^^- wide, with short or long hair-like 
points. Cauline leaves or bracts much smaller, with very broad 
inflated sheathing petioles. Umbels dioecious, usually numerous, 



218 UMBELLiFERiE. [Ligusticum.^ 

1-2 in. diam., compound, the lower ones on long peduncles, form- 
ing a terminal open panicle; involucral leaves linear-subulate, 
shorter than the rays. Flowers white. Fruit ovoid-oblong, 3— j-in. 
long; carpels 5-winged. — Ktrk, Students' Fl. 201. 

South Island : Not uncommon in mountain districts from Nelson to 
Southland, especially within the influence of the western rainfall. 1500 ft. 
to nearly 5000 ft. December-January. 

A handsome and graceful plant, easily recognised by the finely divided 
membranous leaves with hair-pointed lobes. Mr. Petrie sends a variety from 
Mount Tyndall with the lobes almost capillary, with much longer hair-points. 

7. L. brevistyle, Hook. f. Handb. N.Z. Fl. 95.— Stems 6-18in. 
high, slender, grooved. Eadical leaves 4-12 in. long; petiole some- 
what rigid, shortly sheathing at the base ; limb Imear-oblong in 
outline, rarely broader and ovate-oblong, 2-3-pinnate ; primary 
divisions 6-10 pairs ; leaflets cut down to the rhachis into 3-5 dis- 
tant very narrow-linear lobes |— f in. long with short acicular tips. 
Umbels few, 1-8, loosely panicled, compound, dioecious ; involucral 
bracts filiform, shorter than the rays. Fruit on very short pedicels, 
oblong, -I— i^in. long; carpels with 5 narrow wings; styles very 
short.— Kirk, Students' Fl. 202. 

South Island : Canterbury — Upper Waitaki and head of Lake Hawea,. 
Haast ! Otago — Lake district, Hector and Buchanan! Kurow, Mount Ida, 
Cromwell, and other localities in eastern and central Otago, Petrie! 800- 
3500 ft. December-January. 

Closely related to L. Haastii, but a much smaller and more slender plant, 
with more sparingly divided leaves, smaller fruit, and shorter styles. 

8. L. dissectum, T. Kirk, Students' Fl. 202. — Rather stout, 
coriaceous, 5-15 in. high. Eootstock thick, covered with the ragged 
bases of the old leaves. Radical leaves 3-12 in. long, coriaceous but 
hardly rigid ; petiole half the length or more, with a long and 
narrow sheath ; blade ovate-oblong or ovate-lanceolate, 2-3-pinnate; 
primary pinnae 4-9 pairs, 1-2 in. long; secondary closely placed, 
ternately or pinnately cut into numerous linear pungent-pointed 
segments -^1 in. long and about /o i*^- wide. Umbels compound, 
few or many in an open branched panicle ; primary rays numerous, 
10-20 ; involucral bracts linear or lanceolate, acuminate. Fruit 
linear-oblong, ^ in. long ; carpels 5-winged. 

North Island : Mount Holdsworth and other high peaks of the Tararua 
Runge, Bucha)ian ! T.P.Arnold! W. To2U7iso7i ! December-February. 

An imperfectly known species, perhaps more nearly allied to L. piliferum 
than to any other, but differing widely in the much more divided leaves. 

9. L. fllifolium. Hook. f. Handb. N.Z. Fl. 95. — Slender, grassy, 
very aromatic. Stems 6-20 m. high, smooth, striate, often much 
branched above. Leaves 4-15 in. long, thin and often flaccid ; 
petioles very long, slender, sheathing at the base, sheaths short and 
broad, membranous ; blade very variable in size and shape, ter- 



Ligusticum.] umbellifer^. 219 

nately divided into narrow-linear flat acute segments ^-1^ in. long 
and varying in width from filiform to |-in., the broadest sometimes 
toothed or lobed at the tip. Umbels few, compound, dioecious, on 
long slender peduncles; rays slender, very unequal, i-2 in. long; 
involucral bracts few, short, subulate-lanceolate. Fruit |^in. long, 
linear-oblong, compressed ; carpels thin, 5-winged, lateral wings 
broader than the dorsal. — Kirk, Students' Ft. 203. 

South Island : Mountain districts from Cook Strait to the souih of Canter- 
bury, not uncommon. 1000-4500 ft. December-January. 

10. L. deltoideum, Cheesem. in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xiv. (1882) 
299. — Small, stout, dark-green and shining, very aromatic, 2-6 in. 
high. Eootstock stout, clothed with pale chaffy scales. Leaves 
numerous, all radical, membranous, 2-4 in. long; petiole half the 
length, sheathing at the base; blade broadly deltoid in outline, 
ternately or 2-pmnately divided; leaflets i— i-in. long, cuneate- 
deltoid, deeply 3-5-lobed; lobes flat, very narrow linear-subulate, 
acute or acuminate Flowering-stems short, seldom exceeding 
the leaves. Umbels small, ^-lin. diam., compound; rays 4-8, 
slender, very unequal ; involucral bracts short, linear-subulate. 
Flowers white or pink. Eipe fruit not seen. — Kirk, Students' Ft. 
203. 

South Island : Grassy slopes on Mount Arthur, Nelson, altiturie 4000- 
5500 ft., 7\ F. C; Mount Stokes, Marlborough, Macmahon! December- 
January. 

Close to L. filifoli'um. but distinguished by the smaller size, more numerous 
leaves with copious divisions, differently shaped leaflets, and short flowering 
stems, which rarely exceed the leaves. 

11. L. carnosulum, Hook. f. Handb. N.Z. Fl. 96. — Small, 
S-6in. high, thick and fleshy, glaucous-green. Eoot stout, often as 
thick as the little finger, tortuous among shingle. Stems usually 
short, tapering downwards. Leaves 1-3 near the top of the stem 
or from the root, very thick and fleshy ; petiole -1-2 in. long, with a 
short broad sheath ; blade 1-3 in. diam., 2-3-ternately multifid, 
ultimate segments J-f in. long, xV~i^o^'^- broad, very narrow linear, 
acute or subacute, curved, obscurely jointed on the rhachis. Umbel 
solitary, compound, large for the size of the plant. 1^-4 in. diam. ; 
involucral bracts about 5, 2-3-ternately divided like the leaves, 
overtopping the umbel ; rays numerous, rigid, almost woody in 
fruit, -1—1 in. long. Secondary umbels small, concealed among the 
bracts of the involucels, which far exceed the small white or pink 
almost sessile flowers. Calyx-teeth acute, prominent. Styles 
rigid, subulate. Fruit oblong, ^ in. long; carpels incurved, with 5 
low obtuse ridges, commissural face rounded ; vittse 1 under each 
furrow and 2 on the commissure.— Kirk, Students' Fl. 203. 

South Island : Bare shinge-slopes on the mountains of Nelson and Canter- 
bury, not common. Wairau Gorge, T. F. G. ; Mount Captain, Kirk ! Lake 



220 UMBELLiFEB^. [Ligtisticwn. 

Tennyson, T. F. C. ; Mount Torlesse, Haast ! Petrie ! T. F. C. ; mountains by 
the upper and middle Waimakariri, Enys ! Petrie ! Cockayne I 3000-6000 ft. 
December-February. 

A very remarkable plant, which cannot be confounded with any other 
found in New Zealand. 

12. L. patulum, T. Kirk, Students Fl. 203. — Slender, greyish- 
green, 6-12 in. high or more. Stems erect or inchned, branched 
above, grooved. Radical leaves 2-6 in. long, linear-oblong in out- 
line, pinnate or rarely 2-pinnate ; leaflets 4-7 pairs, cut down to the 
rhachis into narrow-linear acute lobes, which are again toothed or 
incised at the tips, rarely entire. Caulme leaves smaller, with 
fewer leaflets and narrower lobes. Umbels small, simple in the 
very imperfect specimens seen, on slender peduncles, 6-12-flowered; 
involucral bracts linear, with a broad base, usually shorter than 
the unequal pedicels. Ripe fruit not seen. 

South Island : Canterbury — Limestone cliffs near Burke's Pass, J. B. 
Arvistrong ! Otago (?) Buchanan ! 

There is a fragmentary specimen of this species in Mr. Kirk's herb- 
arium, and another (without locality) in Mr. Buchanan's. The material is far 
too incomplete to form the basis of a satisfactory diagnosis ; and that given 
above will doubtless require amendment when a good series of specimens is ob- 
tained. 

13. L. piliferum, Hook. f. Handh. N.Z. Fl. 96. — Stout, erect, 
glaucous-green, very aromatic. Root thick and tapering. Stem. 
8-24 in. high or more, sparingly branched above, smooth, striate, 
purplish below. Leaves 4-16 in. long, very thick and coriaceous ; 
petioles stout, sheathing, sheath long and narrow ; blade linear or 
linear-oblong, pinnate; leaflets 8-12 pairs, |-lin. long, sessile, 
closely placed and often overlapping, deltoid-ovate or deltoid-orbi- 
cular, coarsely toothed or 2-3-lobed or pinnatifid ; lobes or seg- 
ments again toothed, tipped with a stout bristle. Umbels 2-4, on 
stout peduncles towards the top of the stem, 2-3 in. diam., com- 
pound, dioecious: rays f-l|-in. long, unequal; involucral bracts 
linear or lanceolate. Flowers white, rather small. Fruit ^in. long, 
ovate-oblong; carpels usually 3- winged. — Kirk, Students' Fl. 204. 

Var. «. — Leaflets broad, very coriaceous, usually deeply 3-lobed ; the lobes 
broad, toothed. 

Var. b, pinnatifidum, Kirk, I.e. — Leaflets longer and narrower, not so 
coriaceous, pinuatifidly cut into narrower lobes. 

South Island : Not uncommon in mountain districts from Nelson to the 
west of Otago. 2500-4500 ft. December- January. 

14. L. aroraaticum, Hook. f. Handh. N.Z. Fl. 96. — Very aro- 
matic, variable in size and habit, usually from 4-12 in. high, but 
in alpine situations often much dwarfed, matted and depressed, 
sometimes barely 2 in. high. Root stout, often long and tapering. 
Stem simple or sparingly branched above. Leaves all radical, 



Xjigusticum.] umbellifee^. 221 

numerous, 1-6 in. long, coriaceous or almost membranous; petiole 
short, stout, broadly sheathing at the base; blade linear, pinnate; 
leaflets 6-12 pairs, i— |in. long, deltoid-ovate or orbicular or broadly 
flabellate, more or less toothed or incised, sometimes pinnatifid or 
even again pinnate ; lobes and teeth usually ending in a short or 
long bristle-like point. Umbels small, dioecious, compound, ^-IJ in. 
diam. ; males usually longer and more open than the females ; rays 
slender, unequal, |— 2 in. long ; involucral bracts few, small, linea.r- 
subulate. Fruit linear-oblong, -Jin. long; carpels 5-winged. — 
Kirk, Students' Fl. 204. Anisotome aromatica, Hook. f. Fl. Nov. 
Zel. i. 89. 

Var. Inclsum, Kirk, I.e. — Larger and more membranous, 12-20 in. high. 
Leaflets flabellate or rhomboid, 3-partite almost to the base ; segments deeply 
incised, spreading. 

Var. lanuginosum. Kirk, I.e. — Leaf-segments tipped with copious long 
snow-white hairs, sometimes almost concealing the leaves. 

North and South Islands : Abundant in mountain districts from the 
East Cape to Foveaux Strait. Altitudinal range 1500-6500 ft. November- 
February. Var. incisum : Broken River, Canterbury, Kirk! Ya,v. lanugino- 
sum: Mountains above Lake Tekapo, T.F.C.; Hector Mountains, Mount 
Pisa, Mount Cardrona, and other localities in Central Otago, Petrie ! 

15. L. imbricatum, Hook. f. Handh. N.Z. Fl. 97. — Small, 
much branched, densely tufted, forming large fiat or convex 
patches. Stems stout, 1-3 in. long, densely clothed with nu- 
merous closely imbricating coriaceous shining leaves. Leaves 
J— I in. long ; petioles very short, with large broad membranous 
sheaths produced upwards into a hooded ligule ; blade with a 
broad flattened rhachis and 4-8 pairs of closely placed often im- 
bricating leaflets; leaflets sessile, palmately 3-6-lobed ; lobes ter- 
minated by a stout bristle longer than the lobes. Umbels small, 
simple or compound, sunk among the leaves ; involucral bracts 
few, linear-subulate. Fruit broadly ovoid ; carpels 5-winged. — 
Kirk, Stxidents Fl. 205. 

South Island : High peaks from Nelson and Marlborough to Southland, 
not uncommon. 4000-6500 ft. January-February. 

A very remarkable little plant, easily known by its small size, densely tufted 
habit, imbricated leaves, short peduncles sunk among the leaves, and broad 
fruit. 

16. L. Enysii, T. Kirk in Trans. N.Z. Inst, ix (1877) 548.— 
Small, stout, depressed, glaucous-green, seldom more than 4 in. 
high. Root stout, often very long. Leaves all radical, 1^3 in. 
long, spreading or decurved, thick and coriaceous when fresh, 
linear or linear-oblong, pinnate; leaflets 3.-6 pairs, ^-^in. long, 
sessile, ovate or ovate-orbicular, sharply toothed or lobed ; lobes 
again cut, not piliferous ; petioles with very broad short sheaths. 
Flowering-stems 2-4 in. long, simple or forked, decumbent. Umbels 



222 UMBELLiFEE^. [Ligusticum. 

compound; rays 2-5, slender, spreading, unequal, |— |in. long; 
bracts 2-3, connate almost to the tips into a broad cup-shaped 
involucre. Partial umbels 3-6-flowered. Fruit ovoid, ^in. long; 
carpels with 5 obscure ridges. — Students' Fl. 205. 

South Island : Canterbury — Limestone shingle in the Broken River basin, 
EniiS ! Kirk ! T. F. C. Otago— Naseby, Petrie ! 1500-2500 ft. Decem- 
ber-January. 

17. L. flabellatum, T Kirk, Students Fl. 205. — Minute, 
■i-l^in. high. Leaves all radical, |— 1 in. long, coriaceous, linear, 
pinnate; leaflets 1-3 pairs but sometimes reduced to a single one, 
•|-^in. diam., flabellate or orbicular-rhomboid, rounded at the tip, 
sessile, entire or minutely sinuate-crenate ; margms recurved ; 
petioles rather stout, with broad sheathing bases. Umbels small, 
compound, on short peduncles rarely exceeding the leaves ; rays 
8-4 ; general involucre apparently wanting ; partial involucre of 
3 broad connate bracts open on one side. Fruit broadly oblong 
or ovate ; carpels 4- or 5-winged, not seen quite ripe. 

Stewart Island : Crevices of syenitic rocks near the South Cape, Kirk ! 

A very curious little plant, nearest to 7>. Enysii, but amply distinct. The 
3-lobed partial involucre is quite unlike that of any other New Zealand species. 

10. ANGELICA, Linn. 

Perennial herbs, often tall and stout, usually erect, rarely 
scrambling or subseandent. Leaves pinnate or 2-3-pinnate. 
Umbels compound, dioecious or polygamous. Calyx-teeth usually 
obsolete, rarely prominent. Petals nicurved at the apex. Fruit 
ovate or oblong, more or less dorsally flattened with a broad com- 
missure ; carpels 5-ribbed, the 2 lateral ribs very broad, forming a 
wing on each side of the carpel, the 3 dorsal much smaller and 
narrower. Vittse 1 or 2 in each furrow, rarely more. Seed much 
dorsally compressed, plane or concave on the inner face. 

A genus of about 30 species, in the Northern Hemisphere scattered through 
North America, Europe, and western Asia, in the Southern Hemisphere re- 
stricted to the five following species endemic in New Zealand. 

* Herbaceous, erect. Leaves mostly radical. 
Tall, stout, 1-2 ft. Leaves pinnate ; leaflets many, 1-2 in., 

crenate .. .. .. .. .. ..1.-4. Gingidium. 

Slender, 3-6 in. Leaves pinnate ; leaflets many, pinnatifid 2. A. decipiens. 
Slender, 3-9 in. Leaves 3-foliolate or pinnate ; leaflets 

1-2 pairs, rhombeo-orbicular, crenate .. ..3.-4. trifoliolatum, 

** Suffruticose, subseandent. Leaves cauline. 
Leaves 1-foliolate or 3-foliolate; leaflets small, |-^ in. .. i. A. geniculata. 
Leaves pinnate ; leaflets 2-5 pairs, large, 1-2J in. .. 5. A. roscefolia. 

1. A. Gingidium, Hook.f. Handb. N.Z. Fl. 97. — A stout, erect, 
highly aromatic herb, 1-2 ft. high. Eoot thick and fleshy. Stems 
^in. diam. at the base, smooth and striate, sparingly branched 



Angelica.] umbellifee^. 223 

above. Radical leaves 6-15 in. long, rather fleshy, glaucous, pin- 
nate; leaflets 5-10 pairs, close together or the lower rather distant, 
1-2 in. long, sessile, obliquely ovate or ovate-oblong, obtuse, finely 
crenate or serrate, rarely lobed, veins finely reticulate ; petioles 
stout, often longer than the blade, sheath narrow. Umbels few, 
compound, l-3in.diam. ; rays 10-20, slender, spreading; involucre 
wanting; partial umbels usually with an involucel of a few linear 
bracts. Flowers white. Fruit i-in. long, ovate-cordate; carpels 
much compressed, with a broad lateral wing on each side, which is 
produced downwards at the base ; dorsal ribs small ; vittaB 1 in 
each furrow and 2 on the commissural face. — Kirk, Students' FL 
212. Anisotome Gingidium, Hook. f. FL Nov. Zel. i. 89. Ligusti- 
cum Gingidium, Forst. Prodr. n. 140. Gingidium montanum, Forst, 
Char. Gen. 21. 

North and South Islands : From Taupo southwards to Otago ; once very 
abundant, but as it is everywhere greedily eaten by stock it has become scarce ia 
many districts. Sea-level to 4000 ft. Aniseed. November- January. 

2. A. decipiens, Hook. f. Handh. N.Z. Fl. 98. — Very aromatic, 
3-8 in. high. Eoot stout, thick and woody. Leaves numerous, 
spreading, usually all radical, 3-6 in. long, pinnate; leaflets 6-10 
pairs, ^^\n. long, sessile, ovate or ovate-oblong, membranous or 
flaccid, irregularly deeply toothed or pinnatifid ; lobes linear, acute, 
not bristle-pointed ; petioles shorter than the blade, sheath broad. 
Flowering-stems several, usually unbranched, equalling or longer 
than the leaves. Umbels compound, ^1^ in. diam. ; rays 4-8, 
unequal, ^-1 in. long ; involucral bracts few, ovate-lanceolate. 
Flowers small, white. Fruit ^in. long, oblong, rounded or slightly 
cordate at the base ; carpels 5-winged, the 2 lateral wings much 
wider than the 3 dorsal. Vittae 1 under each furrow and 2 on the 
commissural side. — Aciphylla decipiens, Hook. f. and Benth. Gen. 
Plant, i. 916. Ligusticuni decipiens, Kirk, Stude^its' Fl. 205. 

South Island : Not uncommon in mountain districts from Nelson to 
Otago. 2000-6000 ft. December-January. 

Closely resembling Ligustictini aromaticum in foliage, but the inflorescence 
and fruit are altogether different. Mr. Kirk refers it to Ligtisticum ; but all the 
fruiting specimens I have seen have the lateral wings of the carpels much wider 
than the dorsal. 

3. A. trifoliolata, Cockayne in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xxxi. (1899) 
425. — Slender, perfectly glabrous, 3-9 in. high; stems creeping and 
rooting at the base ; branches few, spreading. Leaves on rather 
long slender petioles, 3-foliolate or pinnate ; leaflets few, in 1 or 2 
distant pairs, simple or again ternately divided ; petiolule slender, 
■J- l|-in. long; blade |-in., rhombeo-orbicular or flabellate, cuneate 
at the base, crenate-dentate at the rounded tip, rather membran- 
ous, glaucous below ; veins reticulated. Umbels small, compound ; 
primary rays few, secondary 3-5 ; involucral bracts minute,. 



524 UMBELLiFEB^. [Angelica. 

linear. Flowers small, white ; styles rather long, slender, spread- 
ing. Fruit J in. long, narrow ovate-cordate ; carpels compressed, 
■with a broad lateral wing on each side, dorsal ribs narrower but 
conspicuous. Vittae 1 under each furrow and 2 on the commissural 
face. — Ligusticum trifoliolatum, Hook. f. Ha^idh. N.Z. Fl. 97 ; Kirk, 
Students FL 206. 

South Island : Canterbiary — Swampy ground near the Kowai River, Haast, 
Cockayne ! 

Apparently a very rare and local plant, quite unlike any other species. I 
have only seen one rather indifferent specimen. 

4. A. geniculata, Hook. f. Handb. N.Z. Fl. 98.— Stems 2-5 ft. 
long, much branched, scrambling over rocks and shrubs ; branches 
slender, terete, flexuose ; internodes 1-3 in. long. Leaves small, 
alternate, 1-foliolate, of young plants 3-foliolate or 3-lobed ; petiole 
slender, ^-^ in. long ; sheaths broad, produced into 2 blunt lobes 
at the top; leaflets J-iin. diam., orbicular-ovate or rhomboid or 
transversely oblong, often cuneate at the base, rounded at the tip, 
obscurely crenate-dentate, rather thin and membranous, finely reti- 
culate. Umbels small, terminal and lateral, on short peduncles ; 
rays 2-5, very slender, about |-in. long; involucral bracts few, 
short, linear-subulate. Flowers small, white ; petals inflexed at 
the tips. Fruit lin. long, oblong-ovoid, cordate at the base; 
carpels much compressed, the lateral wings very broad, pale and 
membranous. Vittge 1 under each furrow and 2 on the commis- 
sure. — Kirk, Students' Fl. 2ia. Anisotome geniculata, Hook. f. Fl. 
Nov. Zel. i. 90, t. 19. Peucedanum geniculatum, Forst. Prodr. 
n. 136; A. Bich. Fl. Nouv. Zel. 272; A. Gunn. Precur. n. 507. 
Bowlesia geniculata, Spreng. Umhellif. 14, t. 5. 

North Island: Rare and local. East Cape and interior, Colenso ; Port 
Nicholson, Buchanan! Paikakariki, H. B. Kirk. South Island: Akaroa, 
Raonl, Kirk ! gorge of the Waimakariri, Cockayne ; east coast of Canter- 
bury and Otago, Armstrong, Buchanan ! Petrie ! G. M. Thomson ! January- 
February. 

5. A. rosaefolia, Hook. Ic. Plant, t. 581. — Stems 2-5 ft. long, 
much branched, scrambling over rocks or among bushes, hard and 
almost woody belovs'. clothed with the persistent sheaths of the old 
leaves. Leaves cauline, alternate, 2-5 in. long, pinnate ; leaflets 
2-5 pairs, 1-2^ in. long, opposite, sessile, ovate or ovate-oblong to 
ovate-lanceolate, often oblique at the base, acute, finely serrate, sub- 
membranous or coriaceous, veins reticulated; petiole slender, rigid; 
sheaths broad, membranous, 2-lobed at the top. Umbels many, 
terminal and axillary, compound, 1-3 in. diam.; rays numerous, 
slender ; involucral bracts linear or lanceolate. Flowers white. 
Fruit 1^ in. long, ovate-cordate; carpels with broad lateral wings. 
Vittae 1 under each furrow and 2 on the commissural face. — 
Hook.f. Handb. N.Z. Fl. 98; Kirk, Students' Fl. 212. Anisotome 
rosaefolia, Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 90. 



Angelica.] umbellifer^. 225 

NoETH Island : Not uncommon on rocky shores from the Three Kings 
Islands to the East Cape and Raglan ; rare inland, and much less abundant fur- 
ther south. Hawke's Bay, A. Hamilton! Petric ! Ruahine Range, Harding! 
V Tp'per 'Rangitikei, Btichanan ! South Island : Akaroa, i?ao?(Z. Sea-level to 
2000 ft. Kohcrika; Eohepiro. October-November. 

This and the preceding species are anomalous in the order from their sub- 
scandent stems. The leaflets are furnished with a pair of minute stipellae at 
the base — one on the upper surface, the other below. 

11. DAUCUS, Linn. 
Annual or biennial herbs, usually hispid. Leaves decompound, 
ultimate segments narrow. Umibels compound; rays numerous; 
bracts of the general involucre usually pinnatisect. Flowers white. 
Calyx-teeth small or obsolete. Petals often unequal, inflexed at 
the tips. Fruit ovoid or oblong, terete or slightly dorsally com- 
pressed ; carpels convex, with 5 slender bristly primary ribs, 
and 4 winged secondary ones bearing rows of hooked bristles. 
Vittae 1 under each secondary rib and 2 on the commissural face. 
Seed flattened dorsally. 

Species about 35, chiefly found in the temperate portions of the Northern 
Hemisphere, and most abundant in the INIediterranean region. The single New 
Zealand species is also common in Australia and Tasmania. 

1. D. brachiatus, Sieb. in D.C. Prodr. iv. 214. — An erect an- 
nual or biennial branching herb, very variable in size, 6-18 in. 
high, more or less bristly with short stiff hairs, rarely almost 
glabrous. Leaves flaccid, on long slender petioles, 2-3-pinnate ; 
primary leaflets 4-6 pairs ; secondary deeply incised or pinnatifid ; 
segments small, linear-oblong, minutely mucronulate. Umbels 
axillary or terminal, compound ; primary rays 4-10, very unequal 
in size ; involucral bracts entire or pinnately divided. Flowers 
small. Fruit ovoid, about -Jin. long; carpels with the secondary 
ridges much the largest, and bearing a single row of purplish 
hooked bristles ; primary with a double row of finer bristles noint- 
ing right and left.— Hoo^'. /. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 91 ; Randh. N.Z. Fl. 
99; Benth. FL. Austral, iii. 376; Kirk, Students' Fl. 214. Scandix 
glochidiata, Lahill. Fl. Nov. Roll. i. 75, t. 102. 

North and South Islands, Chatham Islands : Abundant in lowland dis- 
tricts throughout. October-December. 

The allied D. carota, L., the origin of the cultivated carrot, has become 
naturalised in several localities in both islands. It can be distinguished from 
D. brachiatus by its greater size, broader leaf-segments, and much larger 
compact flat-topped umbels. 

Order XXXIV. ARALIACE-ffi. 

Trees or shrubs, rarely herbs. Leaves alternate or very rarely 

opposite, simple or digitately or pinnately divided, often large ; 

stipules adnate to the base of the petiole or wanting. Flowers 

regular, hermaphrodite or polygamous or dioecious, usually arranged 

8— Fl. 



^226 ARALiACE^. [Stilbocarpa. 

in simple or compound umbels, less often in racemes or panicles. 
Calyx-tube adnate to the ovary ; limb truncate or toothed or almost 
obsolete. Petals usually 5, seldom 4 or more than 5, valvate or 
slightly imbricate. Stamens as many as the petals, and inserted 
with them round the margin of an epigynous disc; filaments usnally 
inflexed. Ovary superior, 2- to many-celled, rarely 1-celled ; styles 
as many as the cells, free or connate ; ovules solitary, pendulous, 
anatropous. Fruit drupaceous, indebiscent ; epicarp usually succu- 
lent ; cells 2 to many, 1-seeded. Seeds pendulous ; testa membran- 
ous ; albumen copious, fleshy ; embryo minute, radicle next the 
hilum. 

An order very closely allied to UmbellifercB, principally differing in the 
arborescent habit, valvate petals, ovary usually more than 2-celled, and succu- 
lent fruit. The species are mainly tropical or subtropical, few of them extend- 
ing into the temperate zones. Genera 40 ; species about 350. The properties 
of the order are unimportant. Of the 6 genera found in New Zealand, 
Stilbocarpa and Pseudopanax are endemic ; Aralia mainly belongs to the 
north temperate zone, Meryta and Schefflera are chiefly Polynesian, while 
Panax has a wide range in the Old World. 

* The New Zealand species herbaceous, with broad orbicular-reniform 
leaves. Petals imbricate. 

Fruit globose, cup-shaped or hollowed at the top . . 1. Stilbocarpa. 

Fruit globose, not hollowed at the top . . . . . . 2. Aralia. 

** Shrubs or trees. Petals valvate. Stamens equal in number to the 
petals. 

Leaves simple or digitate. Ovary 2-celled, rarely 3-4-celled. 

Styles distinct, recurved at the apex . . . . . . 3. Panax. 

Leaves simple, very large. Flowers paniculate . . . . 4. Meryta. 

Leaves digitate. Umbels small, racemed on the branches 

of a large spreading panicle . . . . . . . . 5. Schefflera. 

Leaves simple or digitately divided. Ovary usually 

5-celled. Styles very short, connate into a cone or 

column . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. Pseudopanax. 

1. STILBOCARPA, A. Gray. 
A stout much-branched herb ; stem fistulose. Leaves large, 
orbicular or reniform, setose ; petiole with broad membranous 
stipuliform sheaths. Umbels 3 or 4 times compound, forming a 
large globose head 6-9 in. diam. ; involucral bracts foliaceous. 
Flowers polygamous, jointed on the top of the pedicel. Calyx-tube 
3-4-grooved ; limb obsolete. Petals 5, obovate, obtuse, imbricate 
in the bud. Stamens 5 ; anthers ovate. Disc fleshy, annular, 
3-4-lobed. Ovary 3-4-celled ; styles as many as the cells, recurved. 
Fruit globose, depressed and hollow at the summit, obscurely 
3-4- grooved, dry and corky, covered with a black and shining 
epidermis, 3-4-celled. Seeds as many as the cells. 

A monotypic genus, confined to the islands immediately to the south of 
New Zealand. It is chiefly separated from Aralia by the hollow axis of the 
fruit, which gives the summit a peculiar cup-shaped appearance. 



Stilbocarpa.] aealiace^. 227 

1. S. polaris, A. Gray, Bot. U.S. Expl. Exped. 714. — Forming 
large roundeci masses 3-5 ft. in diam., more or less bristly in all its 
parts. Ehizome prostrate, 2-3 ft. long, thick and fleshy, annulate. 
Stems much branched below, stout, 1-li-in. diam., grooved, succu- 
lent, with a heavy rank smell when bruised. Leaves bright-green, 
9-18 in. diam., orbicular-reniform, thick and fleshy, bristly on both 
surfaces, plaited or rugose, margins many-lobed and sharply 
toothed, veins fiabellate ; petiole 12-24 in. long, erect, semi-terete; 
sheath amplexicaul, produced above into a leafy lobed or laciniate 
membranous ligule. Umbels large, terminal and axillary, com- 
pound. Flowers very numerous, Jin. diam., waxy-yellow with a 
purplish centre, shining. Fruit the size of a small peppercorn, 
globose v^ith a flattened and hollowed apex, black, brilliantly 
shining.— Hook. f. Handb. N.Z. FL 100; Kirk, Students FL 215. 
Aralia polaris, Honib. et Jacq. Voy. au Pole Sud, Bot. t. 2, Phanerog. ; 
Hook.f. FL Antarct. i. 19; Ic. Plant, t. 747. 

Auckland, Campbell, Antipodes, and Macquarie Islands : Not un- 
common. December-January. 

2. ARALIA, Linn. 

Perennial herbs or shrubs, glabrous or setose or prickly. Leaves 
alternate, rarely simple, usually digitate or pinnate or pinnately 
decompound. Umbels solitary or in racemes or panicles, rarely 
compound ; pedicels usually jointed under the flowers. Flowers 
polygamo-monoecious. Calyx-margin truncate or 5-toothed. Pe- 
tals 5, slightly imbricate. Stamens 5. Ovary 2-5-celled ; styles 
2-5, free or connate at the base, at length spreading. Fruit 
3-5-celled and 3-5-angular, or subglobose and 2-3-celled. 

A well-known genus of about 30 species, mainly natives of the Northern 
Hemisphere, stretching from Malaya and India to Japan and North America. 

1. A. Lyallii, T. Kirk in Trans. N.Z. List. xvii. (1885) 295. 
— A stout herb 1-4 ft. high, often forming extensive patches. 
Ehizome prostrate or arcuate, creeping. Stems stout, as thick as 
the little finger, pilose. Leaves radical, crowded, 6-18 in. diam. 
or more, orbicular-reniform, lobed and deeply toothed, usually 
glabrous and shining above, more or less clothed with soft bristles 
beneath ; petiole terete, fistulose, with a broad membranous 
sheathing ligule at the base. Umbels large, compound, forming 
globose masses 6-12 in. diam. Flowers monoecious or polyga- 
mous, -Jin. diam., reddish-purple. Calyx-margin truncate. Petals 5, 
linear or linear-oblong. Ovary 2-celled, crowned by two broad 
and fleshy stylopodia ; styles 2, free. Fruit globose, |-in. diam., 
2-celled, black and shining; seeds 1 in each cell. — Students FL 216. 
Stilbocarpa Lyallii, Arnist. in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xiii. (1881) 336. 

Var. robusta, Kirk, Students' FL 216. — More robust and less pubescent. 
Leaves with the teeth strongly mucronate ; petioles plano-convex, solid or 
nearly so. Flowers smaller, with yellowish petals. 



228 AEALiACE^. [Aralia. 

South Island : Coal Island, Preservation Inlet, Kirk ! Stewart Island 
and adjacent islets, Lyall, Petrie ! Kirk ! Var. robusta : The Snares, Rirk ! 
Punui. December-February. 

Has precisely the habit of Stilbocarpa polaris, and in a flowerless state 
may easily be taken for it. The leaves are less fleshy and coriaceous, and want 
the bristles on the upper surface ; the petioles are terete ; the flowers reddish, 
with narrower petals ; the ovary 2-celled, crowned with the very evident 
stylopodia ; and the fruit is not hollowed at the apex. 

3. PANAX, Linn. 
Evergreen trees or shrubs. Leaves simple or more usuallv 
digitately or piunately divided. Flowers polygamous or dioecious, 
jointed at the top of the pedicels, umbellate ; umbels simple or 
compound, variously arranged. Calyx-limb entire or 5-toothed. 
Petals 5, valvate. Stamens 5. Ovary 2- or rarely S-d-celled; styles 
free or connate at the base, their tips free, usually recurved. Fruit 
compressed or nearly globose, 2-4-celled, exocarp succulent or 
coriaceous ; seeds 1 in each cell. 

Species between 30 and 40, mainly Australasian, Polynesian, and Malayan, 
but extending to central Asia and tropical Africa. The New Zealand species 
are all endemic. 

* Leaves of both old and young plants simple. 

Leaves of young plants narrow-linear, 5-10 in. long ; of old 

plants linear or lanceolate, 2-3 in. .. .. ..1. P. lineare. 

** Leaves of old plants simple ; of young ones 3-5-foliolate. 

Leaflets 2-5 in., lanceolate, serrate. Styles 2 .. ..2. P. simplex. 

Leaflets 2-8 in., obloDg-ianceolate, entire. Styles 3-4 .. 3. P. Edgerleyi. 
Leaflets small, J-§ in., orbicular or obovate. Styles 2 .. 4. P. anomaluvi. 

*** Leaves of old plants 3-5- or 7-foliolate. 

Leaves 3-5-foliolate ; petioles not sheathing. Umbels 

small. Fruit compressed . . . . . . . . 5. P. Sinclairii. 

Leaves 3-5-foliolate ; petioles sheathing ; leaflets sessile, 

veins indistinct. Umbels large, compound . . . . 6. P. Colensoi. 

Leaves 5-7-foliolate ; petioles sheathing ; leaflets stalked, 

veins obvious. Umbels very large, compound . . 7. P. arboreum. 

1. P. lineare, Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 93. — A small sparingly 
branched shrub 5-10 ft. high ; branches spreading, stout and woody, 
bearing numerous simple or trifid coriaceous scales mixed with the 
leaves. Leaves of young trees crowded, ascending, simple, 5-10 in. 
long, 1— |- in. wide, narrow-linear, acute, gradually narrowed into a 
short stout petiole, remotely and obscurely sinuate-serrate, exces- 
sively thick and coriaceous, midrib and margins thickened. Leaves 
of mature trees 2-4 in. long, -i-fin. wide, linear or linear-lanceolate, 
obtuse or acute, obscurely serrate, very thick and coriaceous, midrib 
and margins thickened ; petiole short, ^— J in. long, jointed on to the 
branch. Flowers small, dioecious. Umbels usually terminal, but 
occasionally axillary as well, compound, shorter than the leaves ; 
rays 3-7, bracteolate. Ovary 3-5-celled; styles the same number as 



Panax.] araliace^. 229 

the cells, connate at the base, free and recurved at the tips. Fruit 
broadly ovoid, 3-5-celled and -seeded. — Hanclb. N.Z. Fl. 101 ; Kirk, 
Students' Fl. 217. 

South Island : Subalpine forests from Nelson to Preservation Inlet, 
chiefly on the western side of the island. 2500-4000 ft. January-Feb- 
ruary. 

2. P. simplex, Forst. Prodr. n. 399. — A shrub or small tree 
8-25 ft. high, everywhere smooth and glabrous. Leaves excessively 
variable, polymorphous ; of very young plants either ovate or 
broadly ovate, serrate, or 3-5-foliolate with the leaflets deeply 
lobed or pinnatifid : both these states are succeeded by 3-foliolate 
leaves with lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate sharply serrate leaflets. 
Leaves of mature trees 1-foliolate, variable in size, 2-5 in. long, 
lanceolate to oblong- or obovate-lanceolate, coriaceous and glossy, 
acute or acuminate, rarely obtuse, sharply serrate or nearly entire ; 
petiole 1-3 in. long, jointed at the top. Umbels small, shorter than 
the leaves, axillary or terminal, irregularly compound ; secondary 
umbels 8-16-flowered, the terminal one usually female, the lateral 
male. Flowers small, greenish-white. Ovary 2-celled ; styles 2, 
free to the base, recurved. Fruit |^in. diam., orbicular, compressed ; 
seeds 2. — A. Bich. Fl. Nouv. Zel. 280, t. 31; A. Gunn. Precur. n. 
509 ; Baoul, Ghoix, 46 ; Hook. f. Fl. Antarct. i. 18, t. 12 ; Fl. Nov. 
Zel. i. 93; Handb. N.Z. Fl. 100; Kirk, Forest Fl. t. 106, 107; 
Students' Fl. 217. 

Var. quercifollum, Kirk, I.e. — Leaves of mature plants 1-foliolate, 3-5 
long, lanceolate, deeply lobulate or pinnatifid. — Forest Fl. t. 106, f. 2. 

Var. parvum, Kirk, I.e. — Leaves of mature plants 1-foliolate, |-lin. long 
acute or subacute, crenate or serrate. Umbels few-flowered. 

North and South Islands, Stewart Island, Auckland Islands : Prom 
the Thames Goldfields southwards, but local north of the East Cape. Var. 
qiiercifolium : Canterbury — Upper Waimakariri, E7iys I Var. parvum : Various 
localities from Nelson to Stewart Island, Kirk ! Pctrie ! H. J. Matthews ! 
T. F. G. Sea-level to over 4000 ft. Haumakaroa. November -January. 

3. P. Edgerleyi, Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 94. — A small graceful 
tree 20-40 ft. high ; trunk 12-18 in. diam. Leaves very aromatic, 
bright glossy green, smooth and shining, membranous, dimorphic : 
of mature plants 1-foliolate ; petiole jointed to the blade, slender, 
1-3 in. long ; blade 2-8 in., oblong- or obovate-lanceolate to lan- 
ceolate, acute or acuminate, quite entii-e : of young plants 3-5-fo- 
liolate with the leaflets deeply and irregularly lobed or pinna- 
tifid. Umbels small, -1— fin. diam., 10-12-flowered, in slender 
axillary or lateral panicles 1-2 in. long. Flowers small, greenish- 
white. Ovary 3-4-celled ; styles as many as the cells, connate at 
the base. Fruit ^in. diam., globose; seeds 3-4. — Handb. N.Z. Fl. 
101 ; Kirk, Forest Fl. t. 44 ; Students' Fl. 217. Eaukana Edgerleyi, 
Seem. Journ. Bot. iv. (1866) 352. 



230 AEALiACE^. [Panax. 

Var. serratum, Kirk, Forest Fl. t. 45. — -Leaves of mature plants with the 
margins serrated or lobulate. 

North and South Islands, Stewart Island : Not uncommon in hilly 
forests from Hokianga southwards. Var. serration : Stewart Island, Kirk t 
Sea-level to 2500 ft. Raukatva ; Koare. January-February. 

The Maoris formerly mixed the fragrant leaves with fat or oil, which was 
then used for anointing the person. 

4. P. anomalum, Hook, in Loncl. Journ. Bot. ii. (1843) 422, 
t. 12. — A much-branched shrub 5-12 ft. high; branches spreading 
at right angles, younger ones usually clothed with small bristly 
scales. Leaves of young plants 3-foliolate ; petioles long, slender, 
winged ; leaflets jointed on to the petiole, stipellate at the base, 
elliptic-ovate or orbicular-ovate, sometimes lobed, toothed or crenate, 
usually membranous. Leaves of mature plants 1-foliolate ; petiole 
very short, seldom more than ^m. long; leaflet |— fin. long, orbicu- 
lar or oblong-orbicular, rarely narrower and oblong-obovate, rounded 
at the tip, obscurely crenate, rather coriaceous, usually with minute 
linear stipellae at the base. Umbels small, simple, axillary, 2-8- 
flowered ; peduncles very short. Flowers minute, greenish. Ovary 
2-celled ; styles 2, free. Fruit -I— ^in. diam., orbicular, much com- 
pressed, 2-celled, mottled. — Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 93 ; Handb. 
N.Z. Fl. 101 ; Kirk, Students' Fl. 218. 

Var. roicrophyllum, Kirk, I.e. — Smaller and more slender. Leaves 
smaller, ^-^ in. long, obovate-lanceolate to broadly obovate, sinuate-crenate. — • 
P. microphyllum. Col. in Travis. N.Z. Inst. xvi. (1884) 328. 

North and South Islands : Not uncommon in woods from Mongonui and 
Kaitaia southwards, ascending to 2500 ft. Wautvatipaku. December- 

February. 

A very curious plant, with the habit of Mclicytns micranthus or Melicope 
simplex, quite unlike a Panax. Mr. Colenso's P. micropliylhnn is the common 
form south of the Waikato, but it differs little from the type. 

5. P. Sinclairii, Hook. f. Handb. N.Z. Fl. 103. — A branching 
shrub or small tree 6-15 ft. high. Leaves 3-5-foliolate ; petioles 
2-3 in. long, slender, not sheathing at the base ; leaflets sessile or 
very shortly stalked, 1-3 in. long, obovate- or oblong-lanceolate, 
acute or acuminate, dull-green, coriaceous, sharply serrate; veins 
obscure. Umbels small, unisexual, axillary or terminal, 3-10- 
fiowered or more, on simple or branched peduncles 1-li in. long ; 
pedicels short. Calyx minutely 5-toothed. Ovary 2-celled ; styles 2, 
short, recurved. Fruit orbicular, compressed, 2-celled, -J— i in. 
diam. — Kirk, Stitdents Fl. 219. 

North Island : Thames Goldfields, Adams ! Te Aroha, Pirongia and 
Karioi Mountains, 2\ F. C. ; Opepe, Taupo, Kirk ! East Cape, Sinclair; Rua- 
hine Mountains, Colenso ; Mount Egmont, Buchanan ! T. F. C. 1000- 
3500 ft. January-February. 

Very closely allied to P. simplex, from which it is chiefly separated by the 
leaves being 3-5-foliolate, never 1-foliolate. 



•Panax.] akaliaceje. 231 

6. P. Colensoi, Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. 94, t. 21.— A glabrous 
shrub or small tree, 5-15 ft. high; branches stout, spreading. 
Leaves 3-5-foliolate ; petioles 2-9 in. long, with a stout 2-lobed 
■sheathing base; leaflets 2-6 in., obovate- or oblong-lanceolate, 
acute or obtuse, sessile or shortly petioled, coarsely serrate, thick 
and coriaceous, smooth and glossy, veins usually indistinct. Flowers 
dioecious. Umbels large, compound, terminal, similar to those of 
P. arboreum but smaller and with fewer primary rays ; secondary 
rays -J-l in. long, pedicels short. Ovary 2-celled ; styles 2, slightly 
•connate at the base, tips spreading, recurved. Fruit orbicular, lin. 
diam., much compressed, 2-celled, purplish-black. — Haiidb. N.Z. 
Fl. 102 ; Kirk, Students' Fl. 218. 

North and South Islands, Stewart Island : In hilly or mountainous 
•districts from the Little Barrier Island and Cape Colville southwards. Usually 
from 1500— 4500 ft., but descending to sea-level on Stewart Island. December- 
February. 

Very closely allied to P. arboreum, but the leaves are .3-5-foliolate (not 
•5-7-foliolate), the leaflets are sessile or nearly so, and the veins are usually in- 
distinct. 

7. P. arboreum, Forst. Prodr. n. 398. — A small much-branched 
round-headed tree 12-25 ft. high ; branches stout, brittle. Leaves 
digitately 5-7-foliolate ; petioles stout, 2-10 in. long, with a broad 
2-robed sheath at the base; leaflets 3-7 in., on petioles |-lin. long, 
broad- or narrow-oblong or obovate-oblong, obtuse or acute, serrate 
or sinuate-serrate, coriaceous, smooth and shining, veins distinct. 
Umbels large, terminal, compound, dioecious; primary rays 8-12, 
radiating, 2-4 in. long ; secondary 10-20, -^-l^in. long, each bear- 
ing a 10-15-flowered umbel ; pedicels short, slender. Flowers 
•|-in. diam. Ovary 2-celled; styles 2, connate at the base, tips 
free, recurved. Fruit broader than long, compressed, J-|-in. diam., 
purplish-black, 2-celled; seeds 1 in each cell. — A. Rich. Fl. Nouv. 
Zel. 281; A Gunn. Precur. n. 510; Baoul, Choix, 46; Hook, in 
Loud. Jourii. Bot. ii. (1843) 421, t. 11; Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 94; 
Handb. N.Z. FL 102; Kirk, Students' Fl. 219. 

Var. isetum, Kirk, I.e. — Leaflets much larger, 7-10 in. long, 3-4 in. broad, 
broadly ovate-lanceolate or obovate, abruptly acuminate, coarsely serrate or 
dentate. 

Kermadec Islands, North and South Islands. — Abundant in lowland 
districts throughout. Var. Ice turn ; Thames Goldfields, Z'ir/i; .' T.F.C. Sea- 
level to 1500ft. Whauwhau-paku. June-July. 

4. MERYTA, Forst. 
Small glabrous trees, usually more or less resinous. Leaves 
large, alternate, simple, coriaceous. Flowers dioecious, in terminal 
panicles. Male flowers : Calyx-limb obsolete or minutely 3-5- 
toothed. Petals 4-5, valvate. Stamens 4-5 ; filaments rather 
long; anthers ovate -oblong. Females: Calyx -limb obsolete. 
Petals 4-5, small. Ovary 4- to many-celled ; styles thick, distinct 



232 AEALiACEJE. [Mcryta, 

or slightly connate at the base, their tips at length recurved. Fruit 
broadly oblong or nearly globose ; endocarp succulent ; cells 3-6, 
1-seeded. Seeds compressed. 

A small genus of from 10 to 15 siDecies, most abundant in New Caledonia, 
but extending eastwards to Tahiti and southwards to Norfolk Island and New 
Zealand. The single species found in New Zealand is endemic. 

1. M. Sinclairii, Seem, in Bonplandia, x. (1862) 295. — A very- 
handsome round-headed small tree 8-25 ft. high; trunk 6-18 in. 
diam. ; branches stout, brittle. Leaves very large, crov^ded to- 
wards the ends of the branches; petiole stout, 4-15 in. long; blade 
10-20 in. long or more, oblong-obovate or oblong, obtuse, slightly 
cordate at the base, very coriaceous, smooth and shining, strongly 
veined ; margins entire, slightly undulate, bordered with a stout 
vein. Panicles stout, erect, terminal, 6-18 in. long; branches 
jointed on the rhachis. Male flowers sessile in clusters of 4-8, 
with a broad bract at the base of each cluster. Calyx-limb obso- 
lete. Petals 4, ovate-oblong. Stamens 4 ; filaments slender, ex- 
serted. Female flowers irregularly crowded, with a bract at the 
base of each. Calyx as in the males. Petals 4-5, ovate-triangular. 
Abortive stamens present. Styles 4-5, free to the base. Fruit 
■J— ^ in. long, broadly oblong, succulent, black and shining, 4-5-celled. 
Seeds solitary in each cell, compressed, bonv. — Hook. f. Hajiclh. 
N.Z. Fl. 104 ; Kirk, Forest Fl. t. 121 ; Students' Fl. 220. Botryo- 
dendrum Sinclairii, Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 97. 

North Island: Three Kings Islands, T.F. C; Hen and Chickens (Tara- 
nga Islands), Button and Kirk ! T. F. C. Puka. February-Ma j'. 

The specimens on which Sir Joseph Hooker founded the species were ob- 
tained from a solitary tree planted by the IMaoris at Paparaumu, in Whangaruru 
Harbour ; but it is not known in an indigenous state on any part of the main- 
land, and must be considered one of the rarest species of the New Zealand flora. 
The Maoris state that it exists on the Poor Kiaights Islands, between Whangarei 
and the Bay of Islands, but I have seen no specimens from thence. 

0. SCHEFFLERA, Forst. 

Glabrous shrubs or small trees. Leaves alternate, digitately 
compound; leaflets serrulate. Flowers polygamous, in small um- 
bels arranged in a racemose manner on the branches of a spreading 
panicle ; pedicels not articulate. Calyx-limb minutely 5-toothed. 
Petals 5, valvate. Stamens 5. Disc large, with undulate margins. 
Ovary 5-10-celled ; styles the same number as the cells, connate 
below, free and spreading above. Fruit subglobose, 5-10-celled ; 
exocarp fleshy ; seeds 1 in each cell. 

In addition to the single New Zealand species, which is endemic, there are 
one or two in the Fiji Islands, and several in New Caledonia. 

1. S. digitata, i^orsi. Char. Gen. 46. — A small tree 10-25 ft. 
high, with stout spreading branches. Leaves on sheathing petioles 
4-9 in. long, digitately 7-10-foliolate ; leaflets 3-7 in., petiolate, 



bchefflera.] araliace^. 233 

oblong- or obovate-lanceolate, acuminate, thin and membranous 
finely and sharply serrate, in young plants often irregularly lobu- 
late or pinnatifid Panicles axillary or from the branches 
below the leaves, 8-12 m. long; branches numerous, loncx spread- 
ing at right angles Flowers small, greenish, i-iin."diam., in 
4-y-flowered umbels arranged in a racemose manner alon- the 
branches of the panicle ; peduncles ^ in. long ; pedicels i in Fruit 
g^°bose^Jo-|in.d:amjmcy, grooved when dry. -Hook. f. Handb. 
N.Z. Fl. 103 ; KiTk, Students Fl. 220. S. Cunninghamii, Mia in 
Linn^a xvm. (1844) 89. Aralia SchefHera, Sjyreng. PL PugilL i. 28 ■ 
A. Rich. Fl. Nouv. Zel. 283; A. Gunn. Precur. n. 513- Bao2d 
Chotx, 46 ; Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. I 95, t. 22. ' ' 

c;f„w^°f^r, ^^° South Islands; Abundant in woods from the North Cape to 
Stewart Island, ascending to nearly 3000ft. Pate; Patete. Pebrulry 

6. PSEUDOPANAX, C. Koch. 
Glabrous shrubs or small trees. Leaves extremely variable 
d Zifn^'f.'" f.^^ compound, those of young plants often widel^ 

oln 1 ? ^'f °^ '''^^'''^ ^'^^^' ^^^fl^t« coriaceous, entire or 
more or less too hed or serrate. Flowers dioecious, in racemose or 
paniculate umbels. Calyx-hmb entire or toothed. Petals 5, valvate 
btamens5; anthers ovate or oblong. Ovary 5-celled; styles the 
same number, very short, connate into a short cone or column 
Fruit fleshy, subglobose, ribbed when dry, 5-ceIled ; seeds 1 in each 

Zeali'd'^Ttlf n.tfnl^^rr*^'-\"T,''°^*''^^^' ^ ^P^°i^«' ^^1 ^"^fi'iecl to New 
^!? 1 .u , t ^f ^ly distniguished from Panax by the 5-celled ovarv and 
5 styles the latter being very short and connate into a minute cone or coLnn 
It would form a much more natural group if it were limited to PcmL'?oS" 

SS ovary '''" '"^'' '° ''■ -•«-^^^«"«. ^nd which occasionaUy Tas a 

* Leaves of young plants not markedly different from those of old ones 
Bronzy or yellow-green. Leaves 3-5-foliolate ; leaflets 

sharply toothed, veined .. i p ;• ? 

Dark-green. Leaves 3-5-foliolate ; leaflets 'entire o^ '^^scoZor. 

sinuate-serrate, veins obscure opt 

Dark-green._ Leaves mostly 1-foliolate, with a few 3-folio- ^' ^'''°""' 

late ones intermixed .. on ^■„- •■ 

■ . o. P. Gilliesii. 

** Leaves of young plants altogether different from those of old ones 
Leaves of young trees deflexed, with short distant teeth. 

Fruit small, Jin. diam. .. a v 
Tplr^ °^ yo^ng trees deflexed, with broad lobulale hooked ^^«^^^/'''«^'"- 

teeth. Fruit large, oblong, A in. long « d /• 
^Y^^^^^^^^y^o^^g trees never deflexed. Fruit large, globose, ■^'''''" 

• • 6. P. chatJiainicum. 

T P.v.f i **^^°°^°^' Gheesem.~k much-branched shrub 6-15 ft. high 
Leayes_ bronzy or ydlow-green, 3-5-folioIate, often with l-foholate 
leaves intermixed; petioles slender, 1-3 in. long; leaflets lT-3in 



234 ARALiACE^. [Psexidopanax. 

obovate to obovate-lanceolate or elliptic-lanceolate, narrowed at 
the base, acute or acuminate, glossy and coriaceous, sharply ser- 
rate. Umbels terminal; male of 4-10 slender rays 2-3 in. long, 
bearing numerous racemose flowers on pedicels |— ^ in. long ; 
females (or hermaphrodite?) of much shorter rays |— 2.in. long 
terminating in 2-6-flowered umbellules. Flowers ^ in. diam. 
Ovary 5-celled ; styles 5, connate at the base, very short, tips erect 
or slightly recurved. Fruit ^in. long, broadly oblong, 5-celled. — 
Panax discolor, Kirh in Trans. N.Z. Inst. iii. "(1871) 178. P. dis- 
colorum, Students' Ft. 219. 

North Island : Auckland — Whangaroa North, Great Barrier Island, and 
Omaha, Kirk! Little Barrier Island, Kirk, Shakespear ! T. F. C; Thames 
Goldfields, Kirk ! Adams ! T. F. C. Sea-level to 2800 ft. December - 

January. 

The ovary-cells and styles are very exceptionally less than 5, and the species 
certainly falls into Psetidopanax as that genus is characterized in the " Genera 
Plantarum." Its nearest ally is P. Lessonii. 

2. P. Lessonii, C. Koch in Wochenschrift, ii. (1859) 336. —A 
glabrous much - branched shrub or small tree 8 -20 ft. high; 
branches robust. Leaves dark-green, 3-5-foliolate ; petioles stout, 
2-6 in. long, not sheathing at the base; leaflets 1-4 in., sessile, 
obovate- or oblong-lanceolate, acute or obtuse, entire or sinuate- 
serrate, smooth and shining, very thick and coriaceous ; veins 
indistinct. Umbels terminal, compound; males with 4-8 primary 
rays 1-6 in. long, each ending in 4-10 secondary rays bearing 
numerous racemose flowers ; females with shorter and fewer rays- 
and less numerous flowers, not so conspicuously racemose. Flowers 
4 in. diam. Ovary 5-celled; styles 5, very short, connate at the 
base, their tips at length recurved. Fruit broadly oblong, I- in. 
long, 5-celled. — Kirk, Students' Fl. 221. Panax Lessonii, D.G. 
Prodr. iv. 253; Hook. f. Handb. N.Z. Fl. 102. Cussonia Lessonii, 
A. Rich. Ft. Nouv. Zel. 285, t. 32 ; A. Gunn. Pracur. n. 511 ; Baoul, 
Choix, 46. Hedera Lessonii, A. Gray, Bot. U.S. Expl. Exped. 719. 

North Island : From the Three Kings Islands and the North Cape to 
Poverty Bay, usually near the coast. Houmapara ; Houpara. January- 
February. 

3. P. Gilliesii, T. Kirk, Sttidents' Fl. 221.— A shrub or small 
tree 10-15 ft. high ; branches slender. Leaves mostly 1-foliolate, 
mixed with a few 3-foliolate ones; petiole slender, -|—1^ in. long; 
blade l|-2^in., variable in shape, ovate to ovate-lanceolate or 
lanceolate, acute or acuminate, coarsely sinuate-toothed, rather 
coriaceous. Flowers long past in all the specimens seen, but ap- 
parently arranged in a racemose manner on numerous terminal 
peduncles 2-4 in. long; pedicels |-lin. Fruit |-in. long, broadly 
oblong, 5-celled ; styles 5, very short, connate, free at the very tip. 

North Island : Auckland — Whangaroa North, Buchanan ! Gillies and Kirk ! 
I have seen but few specimens of this curious plant, which may be nothing 
more than a variety of P. Lessonii. 



P&eudopanax.'] aealiace^. 235 

4. P. crassifolium, C. Koch in Wochenschrift, ii. (1859) 336. — 
A small round-headed tree 20-50 ft. high; trunk naked below, 
9-lSin. diam. Leaves excessively variable, differing greatly at 
various stages of growth, the following being the chief forms : 
(1) of seedlings, rhomboid to ovate-lanceolate, cuneate at the base, 
coarsely toothed or lobed, membranous ; (2) of young unbranched 
plants, defiexed, very narrow linear, 6-36 in. long, ^-^in. wide, 
remotely and acutely toothed, excessively rigid and coriaceous, 
dull-green above, often purplish below ; (3) in a more advanced 
stage, during v/hich the stem commences to branch and flowers 
may appear, the leaves are erect or spreading, and may be either 
(a) 1-foliolate, 6-12 in. long, -1-1^ in. wide, linear or linear-obovate, 
coarsely and acutely toothed, very coriaceous ; or (h) 3-5-foliolate 
with sessile leaflets 6-12 in. long by -^-f in. wide, coarsely and 
remotely toothed ; (4) in the mature stage the leaves are 1-foliolate, 
3-8 in. long, 1-1^ in. wide, linear to linear-oblong or linear-obovate, 
obtuse or subacute, narrowed into stout petioles ^-1 in. long, entire, 
sinuate-serrate or coarsely toothed at the tip. Umbels terminal, 
compound ; primary rays 4-10, 2-3 in. long ; secondary 4-10, 
-|-1 in. long ; flowers racemose or umbelled ; pedicels short. 
Ovary 5-celled or rarely 4-celled by abortion ; styles the same 
number as the cells, connate into a cone. Fruit globose, i-in. 
diam.— Zir^, Forest Fl. t. 38, 38a, 38b, 38c, 38d; Students''' FL 
222. Aralia crassifolia, Sol. ex A. Gtinn. Premir. n. 514; Hook. Ic. 
Plant, t. 583, 584 ; Baojil, Choix, 46 ; Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 96. 
Panax crassifoliiim, Dene, and Planch, in Bev. Hort. (1854) 105 ; 
Hook.f. Handb. N.Z. Fl. 101 ; Kirk in Trans. N.Z. Inst. x. (1878) 
app. xxxiii. P. longissinmm, iJoo/c./. I.e. 102. P. coriaceum, Kegel 
in Gartenfl. (1859)45. Hedera crassifolia, yl. Gray,Bot. U.S. Expl. 
Exped. 719. 

Var. a, unifoliolatum, Kirk, Forest Fl. 61. — Leaves of the third stage 
1-foliolate. 

Var. b, trifollolatum, Kirk, I.e. — Leaves of the third stage 3-5-foliolate. 

North and South Islands, Stewart Island : Var. a abundant from 
Auckland southwards ; var. b from the North Cape to Hawke's Bay and Tara- 
naki. Sea-level to 2000 ft. Horoeka; Hohoeka; Lanceivood. February- 
April. 

Eemarkable for its singularly protean foliage. For a detailed account refer- 
ence should be made to Kirk's "Forest Flora," pp. 59 to 62; and to a paper 
by the same botanist in the "Transactions of the New Zealand Institute," 
vol. X. app. xxxi. 

5. P. ferox, T. Kirk, Forest Fl. 35, t. 23, 24, 25, 26.— A small 
slender tree 12-20 ft. high ; trunk 6-12 in. diam. Leaves very 
variable, but always simple ; of seedlings narrow linear-lanceolate ; 
of young unbranched plants deflexed, 12-18 in. long, |— 1 in. wide, 
narrow-linear, slightly enlarged at the tip, gradually narrowed mto 
a short stout petiole, excessively thick and coriaceous, rigid, coarsely 
and irregularly lobulate-dentate ; teeth large, acute, hooked, almost 



236 ARALiACEiE. [Pscttdopanax . 

spinous. Leaves of mature plants erect, 3-6 in. long, ^-f in. broad^ 
linear-obovate, obtuse or apicuiate, gradually narrowed into a short 
stout petiole, very thick and coriaceous, entire or obscurely toothed 
near the tip. Umbels terminal ; males of 6-10 slender rays bearing 
numerous racemose flowers ; females of much shorter rays ending 
in S-l-flowered umbellules. Stamens usually 4. Ovary 5-ceiled ; 
styles 5, short, connate into a column. Fruit broadly oblong, large, 
^ in. diam. — Students' Fl. 222. Panax ferox, Kirk in Trans. N.Z . 
Inst. X. (1878) app. xxxiv. P. crassifolium, Buch. I.e. ix. (1877) 
529, t. 20 {not Dene, and Planeh.). 

North Island : Between Whangape and Hokianga, Kirk ! East Cape,. 
Bishop Williams. South Island : Nelson — Wairoa, Hector and Kirk ! Moutere 
and Matukituki, Kirk ; Motueka Valley, T. F. C. Canterbury — Lake Forsyth, 
Kirk ! Otago — Dunedin, Buchanan ! Petrie ! Otepopo and Lake Wakatipu, 
Petrie ! Sea-level to 1500 ft. 

Easily distinguished from P. crassifolium by the large and broad-hooked 
teeth of the deflexed leaves, by the slender racemes of the male flowers, and by 
the large fruit. 

6. P. chathamicum, T. Kirk, Students Fl. 223. — A small tree 
20-25 ft. high ; branches stout. Leaves dimorphic, always simple ; 
of young unbranched plants never deflexed, 2-6 in. long, f- IJin. 
broad, lanceolate to oblong-lanceolate, acute, coarsely or finely 
toothed towards the tip, membranous or slightly coriaceous ; of 
mature plants 5-8 in. long, linear-obovate or oblanceolate, subacute 
obtuse or truncate at the apex, gradually narrowed into a short 
winged petiole, obscurely sinuate-dentate or with 2-3 coarse teeth 
near the apex. Umbels terminal: male very large, of 6-10 primary 
rays, each with 5-8 slender secondary ones 2-3 in. long, carrying 
crowded racemose flowers often mixed with small umbellules : 
female umbels smaller; rays 3-7, slender, 2-4 in. long, terminating 
in 6-10-flowered umbellules, with or without a few scattered flowers 
below. Stamens usually 1. Ovary 5-celled ; styles 5, connate into 
a short truncate column. Fruit nearly globose, large, -J^ in. diam., 
5-celled, 5-seeded. 

Chatham Islands : Enys ! Cox ! Hoho. February. 

I have seen but few specimens of this, and have consequently availed my- 
self largely of Kirk's description. The absence of deflexed leaves in the young 
state, the larger and broader leaves of the mature plant, and the large globose 
fruit at once separate it from P. crassifolium and P. ferox. 

Order XXXV. CORNACE-ffi. 

Trees or shrubs. Leaves opposite or alternate, usually entire ; 
stipules wanting. Flowers generally small, regular, hermaphrodite 
or unisexual, in axillary or terminal cymes, panicles, or heads. 
Calyx-tube adnate to the ovary, limb 4-5-toothed or wanting. 
Petals 4-5 or wanting, inserted round the margin of an epigynous 
disc, valvate or imbricate. Stamens inserted with the petals and 



Corokia.] coenace^. 237 

equal to them in number, rarely twice as many. Ovary inferior, 
1-4-celled, crowned by a fleshy disc ; style single (3 in Griselinia), 
long or short; ovules solitary (rarely 2-3), pendulous from the top 
of the cell, anatropous. Fruit usually drupaceous, indehiscent, 
1-4-celled, or rarely with 2 pyrenes. Seed pendulous, testa thin ; 
albumen copious, fleshy ; embryo axile, radicle superior. 

A small order, scattered over the whole world, but chiefly found in the north 
temperate zone. Genera 12 ; species 75. Properties unimportant. Of the 2 
New Zealand genera, Corokia is endemic ; Griselinia extends to South America. 

Hermaphrodite. Leaves narrow, silky-tomentose below .. 1. Cokokia. 
Dioecious. Leaves broad, glabrous .. .. ..2. Griselinia. 

L COROKIA, A. Cunn. 

Evergreen shrubs ; branches straight or tortuous ; bark black. 
Leaves alternate or fascicled, petiolate, entire. Mowers small, 
hermaphrodite, yellow, in axillary or terminal panicles, racemes, or 
fascicles. Calyx-tube turbinate ; limb 5-lobed, valvate. Petals 5, 
valvate, furnished with a small scale at the base, silky outside. 
Stamens 5. Ovary 1-2-celied; style short ; stigma almost capitate, 
2-lobed. Drupe ovoid or broadly oblong, crowned by the persistent 
calyx-limb, 1-2-celled ; seeds 1 in each cell. 

A small genus of 3 species, confined to the New Zealand area. 

Leaves lanceolate. Flowers in terminal panicles .. 1. G. buddleoides. 
Leaves oblong-lanceolate. Flowers in axillary racemes . . 2. C. tnacrocar'pa. 
Leaves orbicular or obovate, narrowed into short flat peti- 
oles. Flowers in few-flowered fascicles or solitary . . 3. C Cotoneaster. 

1. 0. buddleoides, A. Cunn. Precur. n. 579. — An erect much- 
branched slender shrub 6-12 ft. high; young branchlets, under- 
surface of leaves, and inflorescence densely clothed with silvery- 
white tomentum. Leaves alternate, shortly petioled, 3-6 in. long, 
lanceolate or linear-lanceolate, acute or acuminate, coriaceous, 
dark-green and shining above ; veins reticulated. Panicles ter- 
minal, leafy at the base. Flowers I— i^in diam., yellow. Petals 
oblong-lanceolate. Drupe oblong, lin. long, dark-red. — Hook. Ic. 
Plant, t. 424 ; Bao^d, Ghoix, 46 ; Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 98 ; 
Ha7idh. N.Z. Fl. 106 ; Kirk, Students' Fl. 224. 

North Island : Not uncommon in woods from the North Cape as far 
south as the East Cape. Sea-level to 8000 ft. Eorokia-taranga. No- 
vember-December. 

2. C. macrocarpa, T. Kirk, Students' Fl. 224. — An erect shrub 
15-20 ft. high ; branches stout, spreading ; branchlets, leaves be- 
neath, and branches of the inflorescence densely covered with 
silvery-white tomentum. Leaves alternate, 2-4 in. long, oblong- 
lanceolate to elliptic-oblong, acute or apiculate, rarely obtuse, 
coriaceous, gradually narrowed into rather short petioles. Flowers 
^in. diam., yellow, in axillary racemes shorter than the leaves; 



238 coRNACE^. [Corokia. 

pedicels short. Petals lanceolate, acute. Drupe ^ in. long, 
broadly oblong, dark-red. — C. buddleoides var. b, Hook. f. Fl. Nov. 
Zel. i. 98 ; Handh. N.Z. Fl. 106; F. Muell. Veg. Chath. Is. 16. 

Chatham Islands : Dieffenbach, H. H. Travers ! Captain O. Mair ! Cox ! 
Whakataka ; Rokotaka. 

Closely allied to C. buddleoides, but amply distinct in the broader leaves, 
axillary racemose flowers, and larger fruit. 

3. C. Cotoneaster, Baoul, Choix, 22, t. 20. — A rigid densely 
branched shrub 4-8 ft. high ; branches tortuous and interlaced ; 
bark black ; branchlets, under-surface of leaves, and inflorescence 
clothed with appressed silvery-white tomencum. Leaves alternate 
or in alternate fascicles, ^-1 in. long ; blade orbicular to obovate or 
oblong-ovate, obtuse or emarginate, coriaceous, shining above, sud- 
denly narrowed into a broad flat petiole. Flowers small, axillary 
and terminal, solitary or 2-4 together ; pedicels short, bracteolate. 
Petals narrow linear-oblong, acute. Drupe globose, Jin. diam., 
red.— Hook. f. FL Nov. Zel. i. 98 ; Handh. N.Z. Fl. 106 ; Kirk, 
Students' Fl. 224. 

North and South Islands : Not uncommon from the North Cape to 
Poveaux Strait. Sea-level to 2500 ft. November-January. 

What may prove to be a fourth species of Corokia has been collected by 
myself at Spirits Bay, in the North Cape district. It is a twiggy bush 6-12 ft. 
high, with slender branches, not tortuous. Leaves alternate, ^1^ in. long, 
narrow linear-obovate or oblauceolate, narrowed into very short petioles. 
Flowers and fruit not seen. 

2. GRISELINIA, Forst. 
Shrubs or trees ; branches terete or angled, transversely scarred 
at the nodes. Leaves alternate, often unequal at the base, broad, 
very coriaceous ; petiole dilated into a short sheath, jointed on the 
branch. Flowers small, dioecious, in glabrous or pubescent panicles 
or racemes ; pedicels jointed. Male flowers : Calyx minute, 5- 
toothed. Petals 5, imbricate. Stamens 5. Disc fleshy, penta- 
gonous. Females : Calyx-tube ovoid or turbinate, limb 5-toothed. 
Petals valvate or wanting. Eudimentary stamens wanting. Ovary 
1-2-celled ; styles 3, very short, subulate, recurved ; ovules solitary 
in each cell. Fruit a 1- or rarely 2-celled berry, 1-seeded ; seed 
oblong, testa membranous. 

A small genus of 6 species, 4 of which are natives of Chili, the remaining 
2 endemic in New Zealand. The Chinese and Japanese genus Aucuba is very 
closely allied. 

Leaves large, 3-7 in., very unequal at the base. Petals 

wanting in the female flowers . . . . . . 1. G. lucida. 

Leaves smaller, 1^-4 in. long, not very unequal at the base. 

Petals present in both male and female flowers . . 2. G. littoralis. 

1. G. lucida, Forst. Prodr. n. 401. — A stout branching shrub or 
small tree 3-25 ft. high, often growing on rocks or epiphytic on the 
branches of tall forest trees ; bark thick, furrowed. Leaves 3-7 in. 



Griselinia.] coknace^. 239 

long, obliquely ovate or oblong, rounded at the tip, very unequal- 
sided at the base, bright yellow-green, glossy, very thick and 
leathery; petiole short, stout. Panicles axillary or subterminal, 
much branched, 3-6 in. long; rhachis and pedicels pubescent. 
Flowers minute, greenish ; females apetalous. Berry ^ in. long, 
fleshy, dark-purple, usually 1-celled. Seed solitary. — A. Cunn. 
Precur. n. 639; Bao7d, Ghoix, 46; Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 98; 
Handb. N.Z. Fl. 105 ; Kirk, Forest Fl. t. 41 ; Students' Fl. 225. 
Scopolia lucida, Forst. Char. Gen. t. 70. 

North and South Islands : Not uncommon in woods from the North Cape 
to the BhiG. Puka. October-November. 

2. G. littoralis, Raoul, Ghoix, 22, t. 19. — x\ round-headed tree 
30-50 ft. high; trunk short, irregular, gnarled or twisted, 2-5 ft. 
diam. ; bark rough, furrowed. Leaves 1-4 in. long, ovate or ob- 
long-ovate, rounded at the tip, less unequal-sided at the base 
than in G. lucida and sometimes almost symmetrical, pale yel- 
lowish-green, thick and coriaceous, veins obscure; petiole rather 
slender, i-lin. long. Panicles axillary, 1-3 in. long, smaller than 
in G. lucida and sometimes reduced to a simple raceme ; rhachis 
and pedicels pubescsnt. Flowers minute ; both male and female 
with petals. Berry lin. long, oblong. Seed solitary. — Hook, 
f. Handb. N.Z. Fl. 105; Kirk, Forest Fl. t. 42; Students' Fl. 225. 
Pukateria littoralis, Baoid in Ann. Sci. Nat. Ser. iii. 2 (1844) 
120. 

North and South Islands, Stewart Island : From Mount Tutamoe 
(Northern Wairoa) and the Little Barrier Island southwards, but rare and 
local to the north of the East Cape ; abundant in the South Island. Sea- 
level to 3500 ft. Kapzika ; Papaumu ; Broad-leaf. October-November. 

Timber strong, close-grained and durable ; frequently used for house-blocks, 
fencing-posts, &c. 



Oedeb XXXVI. CAPRIFOLIACE-ffi. 

Erect or climbing shrubs or small trees, rarely herbs. Leaves 
opposite, seldom alternate, simple or rarely pinnate, usually exstipu- 
late. Flowers hermaphrodite, regular or irregular. Calyx-tube 
adnate to the ovary ; limb 3-5-toothed or -lobed. Corolla gamo- 
petalous, epigynous, rotate or funnel-shaped or tubular ; limb often 
irregular or 2-lipped ; lobes 4-5, imbricate, rarely valvate. Stamens 
4-5, inserted on the tube of the corolla and alternating with its 
lobes, equal or unequal. Ovary inferior, 2-5-celled (rarely 1-celled), 
usually crowned with an epigynous disc ; style long with a capi- 
tate stigma, or short and 2-5-lobed ; ovules 1 or more in each cell, 
pendulous, anatropous. Fruit usually a berry or drupe, rarely a 
capsule, 1- or many-seeded. Seeds with copious albumen ; embryo 
usually minute, radicle superior. 



240 CAPRiFOLiACE^. [Alseiiosmia . 

A small order, comprising 14 genera and about 200 species, mostly natives of 
the Northern Hemisphere, with few tropical or southern representatives. The 
order is of little economical importance, but many of the species are cultivated 
in gardens for the beauty or fragrance of their flowers, as the various kinds of 
honeysuckles and woodbines, &c. The single New Zealand genus is endemic. 

1. ALSEUOSMIA, A. Cunn. 
Evergreen shrubs, usually of small size ; branchlets slender. 
Leaves alternate, petioled, entire or toothed, very variable in shape, 
coriaceous or almost membranous ; stipules wanting. Flowers axil- 
lary, solitary or fascicled, very sweet-scented ; pedicels bracteolate 
at the base. Calyx-tube ovoid ; limb deeply 4-5-lobed, deciduous. 
Corolla tubular or funnel-shaped ; tube long, equal at the base ; 
limb of 4-5 spreading lobes ; margin of lobes inflexed, toothed or 
lobulate. Stamens 4-5, inserted near the mouth of the corolla ; 
filaments short ; anthers oblong. Ovary 2-celled ; style filiform ; 
stigma clavate ; ovules numerous in each cell, in a double row on 
axile placentas. Berry ovoid or oblong, 2-celled, crimson. Seeds 
several in each cell, angular ; testa bony. 

A small genus of four species, confined to New Zealand, and difiering from 
the rest of the order in the alternate leaves. The species are exceedingly 
variable and difficult of discrimination. 

Leaves large, 3-7 in. Flowers 1-1^ in. long, usually 5-merous 1. A. macrophylla. 
Leaves 1-4 in., ovate-oblong to linear-oblong. Flowers 

i-| in., usually 4-merous .. .. .. ..2. A. quercifolia. 

Leaves ^-2 in., orbicular to obovate-oblong. Flowers J-J in. 3. A. Banksii. 

Leaves |-3 in., narrow-linear to lanceolate. Flowers ^-j in. 4. A. linariifolia. 

1. A. macrophylla, A. Gunn. Precur. n. 494. — A perfectly 
glabrous much-branched shrub 4-8 ft. high. Leaves 3-7 in. long, 
obovate or obovate-lanceolate to linear-oblong, obtuse or subacute, 
narrowed into a short stout petiole, remotely sinuate-dentate or 
nearly entire, rather coriaceous. Flowers solitary or in fascicles of 
2-4, large, l-l|^in. long, bright-crimson. Calyx-lobes lanceolate, 
acute. Corolla-lobes 5, rarely 4, margins fimbriate or toothed. 
Berry oblong, crimson, ^-h in. long. — Baoul, Ghoix, 46 ; Hook. f. 
Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 102, t. 23 ; ^Handb. N.Z. Fl. 109 ; Kirk, Students' 
FL 227. 

North Island : Abundant in woods from the North Cape to the East Cape, 
rare and local further south. South Island : Apparently very rare. Marl- 
borough, J. Rutland ! Collingwood, Dall ! Kelly's Creek, Westland, Cockayne ! 
Sea-level to 3200 ft. September-November. 

A very beautiful and exceedingly fragrant plant, well worthy of general 
cultivation. It is easily distinguished from all the other species by the large 
flowers. 

2. A. quercifolia, A. Cimn. Precur. n. 493. — A small slender 
sparingly branched shrub 1-5 ft. high. Leaves excessively vari- 
able in size and shape, 1-5 in. long, ovate-oblong, elliptic-oblong, 
obovate-lanceolate, or linear-oblong, obtuse or acute, narrowed into 



Alseuosmia.] caprifoliace^. 241 

a short slender petiole, entire or sinuate-dentate or deeply sinuate- 
lobed, almost membranous, sometimes glaucous below. Flowers 
solitary or in fascicles of 2-5, i-f in. long, very slender. Calyx- 
lobes triangular, acute. Corolla with a crimson tube and 4-5 
greenish or reddish-green acute lobes. Berry -I— |^in. diam., 
broadly oblong, red. — Baoul, Ghoix, 46 ; Hook. f. Fl. "Nov. Zel. i. 
102; Handb. N.Z. Fl. 109; Kirk, Students' Fl. 227. A. ilex, 
A. Cunn. Precur. n. 492. A. pusilla, Col. in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xvii. 
(1885) 241. 

North Island : From Mongonui and Kaitaia southwards, but often 
local. South Island : Marlborough— Rai Valley, Rutland ; Pelorus Sound, 
MacMahon; Mount Stokes, Kirk. Sea-level to 2500 ft. September- 

November. 

A very variable plant, which in some of its forms comes very near to both 
A. Banksii and A. linariifolia. Mr. Colenso's A. inisilla only differs in its 
rather smaller size. 

3. A. Banksii, A. Cunn. Precur. n. 489. — A small slender 
shrub 1-4 ft. high ; branches spreading, younger ones pubescent. 
Leaves -1-2 in. long, very variable in shape, broadly ovate or or- 
bicular to obovate-oblong or obcuneate, narrowed into a rather long 
petiole, entire or coarsely toothed or lobed, especially towards the 
upper part of the leaf. Flowers solitary or 2-3 together, |—i in. 
long, greenish-yellow, rarely reddish. Berry |- in. diam., globose ; 
■seeds few, ^-Q.—Baoul, Ghoix, 46 ; Book. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 102, 
t. 24; Handb. N.Z. Fl. 110; Kirk, Students' Fl. 227. A. atriphci- 
folia and A. palseiformis, A. Gunn. Precur. n. 491, 490. 

North Island : From Mongonui and Kaitaia southwards to the Auckland 
Isthmus, but often rare and local. September-November. 

4. A. linariifolia, A. Gunn. Precur. n. 487. — An erect much- 
branched shrub 1-4 ft. high, with slender pubescent branches. 
Leaves numerous, crowded, ^3 in. long, J^-|in. wide, linear to 
linear-lanceolate or lanceolate, acute or subacute, gradually nar- 
rowed into a short petiole, quite entire or sinuate-toothed or lobed, 
rather membranous. Flowers solitary or in fascicles of 2-5, -|-f in. 
long, greenish-yellow, rarely reddish. Corolla-lobes 4, toothed and 
fimbriate. Berry broadly ovoid or turbinate ; seeds iev^.—Baoul, 
Choix, 46; Hook. f. Fl.' Nov. Zel. i. 103, t. 25; Ha7idb. N.Z. Fl. 
110; Kirk, Students' Fl. 227. A. ligustrifolia, A. Gunn. Precur. 
n. 488. A. Hookeria, Gol. Excur. North Is. 84. 

North Island : From Mongonui and Kaitaia southwards to the Manukau 
Harbour, not uncommon. September-November. 

A very variable plant. Small forms, with narrow-linear leaves, have much 
of the habit and appearance of Pittosporuvi reflexum ; larger states (A. ligus- 
trifolia, A. Cunn.), with lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate leaves, approach 
A. quercifolia very closely. 



242 KUBiACE^. [Coyrosma. 

Order XXXVII. RUBIACE^. 

Trees, shrubs, or herbs, rarely cHmbing. Leaves opposite or 
whorled, simple, entire or very rarely toothed or lobed. Stipules 
always present, usually interpetiolar, either free or united with the 
petioles into a sheath, or connate into a sheath or ring surrounding 
the stem within the petioles ; in the tribe GaliecB resembling the 
leaves, and with them forming a whorl round the branch. Flowers 
regular, hermaphrodite or unisexual, variously arranged. Calyx- 
tube adnate to the ovary ; limb 4:-5-toothed or cupular, sometimes 
wanting. Corolla gamopetalous, tubular, funnel - shaped, cam- 
panulate, or rotate, usually 4-5-lobed ; lobes valvate or imbricate 
or contorted. Stamens inserted on the tube or mouth of the corolla, 
equal in number to its lobes. Ovary inferior, 2-many-celled, 
crowned by a fleshy disc ; styles 1 or 2 or more ; ovules solitary or 
2 or more in each cell. Fruit very various, a drupe or berry or 
capsule, or composed of dehiscent or indehiscent cocci. Seeds with 
fleshy or horny albumen ; embryo straight or curved ; radicle 
superior or inferior. 

One of the largest and best-defined orders in the vegetable kingdom, con- 
taining more than 350 genera and 4000 species. With the exception of the tribe 
Galiecs, which is almost entirely temperate, the species are mainly tropical or 
subtropical, and are especially plentiful in the warmer portions of South 
America. The medicinal properties of the order are most important. Out of 
many excellent drugs yielded by it, quinine and ipecacuanha are the best knov^n 
and the most valuable. Among the species used for food the most noteworthy 
is the coffee-plant, which is now cultivated in all warm countries, and is of 
immense commercial importance. Many ornamental plants belong to the 
order, the various kinds of Bouvardia, Gardenia, Txora, &c., being well-known 
examples. Of the 4 New Zealand genera, Coprosma extends to Australia and 
Tasmania, the Pacific Islands, New Guinea, and the mountains of Borneo. 
Nertera has the same distribution, and is found in South America as welL 
The two remaining genera are widely distributed in the north temperate zone. 

* Leaves opposite ; stipules interpetiolar. Ovary 2-celled ; ovules solitary in 
each cell. Fruit a drupe. 

Shrubs or small trees. Flowers unisexual . . . . 1. Copeosma. 

Slender herbs. Flowers hermaphrodite .. .. ..2. Neeteba. 

** Leaves whorled; stipules apparently wanting. (In reality the whort 
consists of two opposite leaves and several leaf-like stipules). Ovary 2-celled ; 
ovules solitary in each cell. Fruit of 2 dry indehiscent cocci. Herbs, 

Calyx-limb wanting. Corolla rotate .. .. ..3. Galium. 

Calyx-limb wanting. Corolla funnel-shaped or campanu- 
late . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. AsPEEULA. 

1. COPROSMA, Forst. 
Shrubs or small trees, usually erect, more rarely prostrate or 
creeping, often foetid when bruised. Leaves opposite, petiolate or 
almost sessile ; stipules interpetiolar, acute or acuminate, entire or 
denticulate. Flowers dioecious, small and inconspicuous, solitary 
or clustered in few- or many-flowered fascicles or cymes. Calyx- 



■Coprosina.] rubiace^. 243 

limb 4-5-toothed or -lobed or almost truncate, often absent in the 
males. Corolla funnel-shaped or campanulate, 4-5-lobed or 
-partite ; lobes valvate in the bud. Stamens usually 4 or 5, 
inserted at the base of the corolla-tube ; filaments long, filiform ; 
anthers exserted, pendulous. Ovary 2-celled, rarely 3- or 4-celled ; 
styles the same number as the cells, free to the base, filiform, far- 
exserted, papillose-hirsute ; ovules solitary in each cell. Fruit a 
fleshy oblong or ovoid or globose drupe, with 2 (rarely 4) 1-seeded 
plano-convex pyrenes. 

A genus of about 60 species, having its headquarters in New Zealand ; found 
also in Australia and Tasmania and northwards to New Guinea and Borneo ; 
also stretching through Polynesia as far as the Sandwich Islands and Juan 
Fernandez. In New Zealand it everywhere forms a large proportion of the 
shrubby vegetation, and is equally plentiful in lowland forests or subalpine 
woods, often forming dense and sometimes almost impenetrable thickets. One 
species ascends the mountains to a height of 6000 ft., and reaches as far south as 
Macquarie Island, where it is the sole ligneous plant. The species are extremely 
variable in habit, foliage, and vegetative characters generally ; and, as the 
flowers are small and inconspicuous and very uniform in structure throughout 
the genus, it is no easy matter to obtain good distinctive characters, even when 
dealing with fresh specimens. In the following account I have adhered to the 
plan adopted in my monograph of the New Zealand species, published in the 
" Transactions of the New Zealand Institute '' (Vol. xix., pp. 218 to 252), to which 
reference should be made for many details which cannot be given here. 

In attempting to determine the species of Coprosma really good and well- 
selected specimens showing both foliage and flowers are indispensable. Both 
sexes should be collected ; and, as important characters are often afiorded by the 
fruit, it should be obtained also, if possible from the same plant from which the 
female flowers were taken, notes being preserved of the shape, size, colour, 
and other characters lost in drying. Notes should also be kept of the habit and 
mode of growth, some of the closely allied species being easily distinguished by 
that alone. As the characters on which the species are founded are to a great 
extent comparative, the student must not expect to make much progress until 
he has collected a considerable number of the species and carefully compared 
cue with another. The small-leaved species included in section B are par- 
ticularly difficult to identify until most of them have been studied in detail. 

In many of the small-leaved species the flowers are closely invested by one 
or more series of connate bracts, each series being composed of a pair of minute 
depauperated leaves and their stipules. The upper series usually forms an 
unequally 4-toothed cup-shaped involucel, and is easily mistaken for a calyx, 
especially in the male flowers, where the true calyx is often entirely wanting. 

It is perhaps necessary to state that, with one or two exceptions, I have 
examined authentic specimens in Mr. Colenso's herbarium of the 16 species 
described by him in various volumes of the "Transactions of the New Zealand 
Institute." They are for the most part absolutel}' identical with previously 
described species, and the remainder differ so very slightly that they cannot be 
separated even as varieties. 

A. Erect shrubs or trees. Leaves large, over lin. in length. Floivers fascicled 
on lateral peduncles ; fascicles usually many-flowered. 

* Peduncles 1-3 in. long (short in C. macrocarpa), trichotomously divided ; 
fascicles dense. 

Leaves 3-7 in. long, coriaceous. Peduncles 1-1^ in. Fruit 

very large, J-| in. long .. .. .. ..1. C . macrocarpa. 

Leaves4-9 in., membranous. Peduncles 1-3 in. Fruit ^in. 2. C. grandifolia. 

Leaves 2-5 in., coriaceous. Peduncles 1-2 in. Fruit | in. 3. G. lucida. 



244 EUBiACE^. [Coprosma. 

** Peduncles short, seldom over 1 in. Fascicles dense, many-flowered,. 
rarely few-flowered. 

Subalpine dwarf shrub. Leaves very coriaceous, serrulate. 
Fascicles small, 2-5-flowered . . . . . . 4. C. sernilata. 

Maritime shrub. Branchlets glabrous or nearly so. 

Leaves fleshy, bright-green ; margins recurved . . 5. C. Baueri. 

Tree 15-40 ft. Branchlets coarsely pubescent. Leaves 

1^-3 in., oblong or obovate .. .. .. . . 6. C. chathamica. 

Maritime shrub. Branchlets finely pubescent. Leaves 

1-2 in., subcoriaceous, oblong, obtuse; margins flat .. 7. C. x^tiolata. 

Leaves 2-5 in., elliptic oblong, acute, firm, coriaceous. 
Drupe orange . . . . . . . . . . 8. C robusta. 

Leaves 1^-2 in., linear or lanceolate, coriaceous. Drupe 
pale and translucent .. .. .. ..9. C.Cunninghamiz 

Leaves 1^-3 in., ovate-lanceolate to elliptic-ovate, acumi- 
nate, membranous, glabrous. Inflorescence lax .. 10. C. acutifolia. 

Leaves 14-4 in., ovate-lanceolate to ovate, acuminate, 
membranous ; petioles and midribs hairy. Inflorescence 
dense .. .. .. .. .. . . 11. C tenuifolia. 

Tree 15-30 ft. Leaves ovate- or orbicular-spathulate, nar- 
rowed into winged petioles .. .. .. ..12. C. arborea. 

B. Erect or rarely prostrate shrubs. Leaves small, less than 1 in. Flotoers soli- 
tary or in few-flowered fascicles on minute arrested branchlets, which are 
often so much reduced that tlie floivers appear to be axillary. 

* Twigs glabrate or puberulous. Leaves spathulate. Drupe globose, black. 

Leaves suddenly contracted into a narrow winged petiole 
longer than the blade . . . . . . . . 13. C. spathulata. 

** Twigs densely pubescent (except in C. tenuicaulis). Leaves orbicular,, 
orbicular - spathulate, or broadly oblong (often narrow in C. rhamnoides). 
Drupe globose, black or red. 

Branches divaricating. Leaves J-1 in., orbicular, cuspi- 
date, membranous. Drupe often didymous, ^in. diam., 
red . . . . . . . . . . . . 14. C. rotundifolia^ 

Branches fastigiate. Leaves J-§in., orbicular-spathulate, 
acute, membranous. Drupe ^in. diam., black or nearly 
so . . . . . . . . . . . . 15. C. areolata. 

Branches spreading. Leaves ^-^ in., orbicular-spathulate, 
obtuse, rather coriaceous. Drupe Jin. diam., black .. 16. C. tenuicaulis. 

Branches spreading, often interlaced. Leaves |-fin., 
variable, orbicular to ovate-oblong or linear-oblong. 
Drupe ^ in. diam., red .. .. .. .. 17. C. rhamnoides. 

*** Twigs densely pubescent (except in C. ramulosa). Leaves oblong 
linear-oblong, or linear-obovate. Drupe globose. 

Leaves J-§ in., oblong to obovate, densely ciliate . . 18. C. ciliata. 

Erect, leafy. Leaves ^fin., obovate or linear-obovate. 

Drupe 1 in, diam., bluish or bluish-violet to black . . 19. C. parviflora. 

Prostrate or decumbent, glabrate. Leaves Jin., linear- 
obovate. Drupe Jin. diam., red .. .. .. 20. C. ramulosa. 

*,,, rji^jgg nearly glabrous. Leaves orbicular to oblong or obovate (spa- 
thulate in C. virescens). Drupe oblong, rarely obovoid, usually yellow. 

Branches ascending, puberulous. Leaves J-1 in. long, 
obovate or oblong-ovate, coriaceous .. .. ..21. C.Buchanani. 



Coprosma.] 



RUBIACE^. 



245' 



Branches rigid and interlacing. Leaves J-| in., orbicular 
or broad-oblong, very coriaceous. Drupe jin. long, 
broadly oblong . . . . . . . . . . 22. C crassifolia. 

Branches spreading, often interlaced. Leaves J-|iu., 
obovate or oblong-spathulate, subcoriaceous. Drupe 
J-J in., oblong or obovoid .. .. .. ..23. C. rigida. 

Branches spreading, interlaced. Leaves ^-Jin., oblong 
or linear-oblong, coriaceous. Drupe Jin. diam., obconic 
or obcordate .. .. .. .. .. 24. C. obconica. 

Branches spreading. Leaves J-| in., orbicular or broadly 

oblong, membranous. Drupe Jin. long, yellowish-vrhite 25. C. nibra. 

Branches slender, interlacing. Leaves -i— Jin., ovate- 

spathulate, thin. Drupe J in. long, yellowish-white . . 26. C. virescens. 

***** Twigs pubescent or puberulous. Leaves linear or narrow-linear- 
oblong. Drupe variable. 

Prostrate ; branches flexuous and interlacing. Leaves 

narrow-linear, :^-Jin., T^\n. wide. Drupe globose, 

pale-blue . . . . . . . . . . . . 27. C. acerosa. 

Tall, -erect ; branches spreading. Leaves ^Jin. long, 

linear or linear oblong. Drupe oblong, J in. long, bluish 28. C. jpropinqua. 
Procumbent or suberect. Leaves usually fascicled, ^-1 in. 

long, linear, linear-oblong, or linear-obovate . . . . 29. C. Kirkii. 

C. Erect or rarely prostrate shrubs. Leaves small, less than 1 in. long (except 
in C. foetidissima and occasionally in C. linariifolia). Flotvers terminating 
leafy branchlcts, always solitary (except the males in C. linariifolia and 
sometimes in C. foetidissima). 

Erect, slender, glabrate, 6-15 ft. Leaves ^-1^ in., 
linear-lanceolate ; stipules long, sheathing. Male flowers 
in 3-5-flowered fascicles . . . . . . .. 30. C. linariifolia. 

Erect ; branches stout, setose. Leaves | in., linear-lanceo- 
late, ciliate . . . . . . . . . . 31. C Solandri. 

Erect, slender, 6-15 ft., intensely fcetid when bruised. 
Leaves ^-2 in., oblong or obovate, membranous. Male 
flowers sometimes fascicled .. .. .. .. 32. C. foetidissima. 

Erect or procumbent, 2-8 ft., not foetid. Leaves J-lin., 
linear-obovate or linear-oblong. Flowers solitary on 
decurved peduncles . . . . . . . . . . 33. C. Colensoi. 

Prostrate, fcetid when bruised. Leaves J-§in., linear- 
obovate, retuse or emarginate, coriaceous ; margins 
minutely crenulate . . .. .. .. ..34. C. retusa. 

Erect, rigid, den?ely branched. Leaves numerous, ^-f in., 
linear- or oblong-obovate, coriaceous, spreading or 
recurved . . . . . . . . . . . . 35. C cuneata. 

Erect; branches very slender. Leaves J- J in., linear- 
lanceolate, fiat, thin . . . . . . . . 36. C. microcarpa. 

Prostrate or procumbent . Leaves ^-^ in . , linear-lanceolate, 

concave, coriaceous • . . . . . , . 37. C. depressa. 



D. Stems short, prostrate and rooting, often densely matted. Leaves small. 
Flowers terminal, solitary. 

Leaves glabrous, linear-oblong to rounded-oblong or obo- 
vate Male corolla large, curved, tubular. Drupe Jin. 
diam. . . . . . • • • • ■ . . 38. C. repens. 

Leaves hairy, linear-oblong or linear-obovate. Male co- 
rolla smaller, campanulate above. Drupe J-^ in. diam. 39. C. Petriei. 



246 EUBiACE^. [Coprosma. 

1. C. macrocarpa, Cheesem. in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xx. (1888) 
147. — A robust leafy glossy-green shrub 5-12 ft. high, quite 
glabrous in all its parts ; bark greyish-brown. Leaves large, 
3-7 in. long, li^-3^in. broad, ovate-oblong or elliptic-oblong, obtuse 
or acute or apiculate, rather suddenly narrowed into a short stout 
petiole, coriaceous ; margins slightly thickened ; veins conspicuous, 
reticulated. Stipules large, on the young leafy shoots often sheath- 
ing the branch for some distance. Flowers not seen. Fruit 
much the largest of the genus, in fascicles of 3-7 on very short 
axillary peduncles, -J— 1 in. long, broadly ovoid or oblong or some- 
times nearly orbicular ; not seen perfectly ripe. — Kirk, Students' 
Fl. 230. 

North Island : Hitherto only found on the Three Kings Islands, to the 
north-west of Cape Maria van Diemen, T. F. C. 

At once distinguished by the large fruit, which is more than twice the size 
of that of C. grandifolia, which is its nearest ally. The leaves are almos.t as 
large as those of C. grandifolia, but approach C. robitsfa in shape and texture, 
and dry a brownish-black as in that species. 

2. C. grandifolia, Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 104.— A large 
sparingly branched shrub 8-15 ft. high, with dark-brown bark. 
Leaves large, 4-9 in. long, obovate-oblong or elliptic-oblong, rarely 
narrower and elliptic-lanceolate, acute or acuminate, membranous, 
dull-green, not shining nor glossy; veins finely reticulated; petioles 
rather slender, f-1^ in. long. Peduncles 1-3 in. long, trichotomously 
divided. Flowers in fascicles at the ends of the divisions of the 
peduncle ; male fascicles much more dense than the females. 
Calyx distinct in both sexes, minute, 4-5-toothed. Male corolla 
l^m. long, funnel-shaped; female smaller, i-^in., tubular. Drupe 
about -|-in. long, oblong, obtuse, reddish-orange. — Handh. N.Z. Fl. 
112 ; Cheesem. in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xix. (1887) 229; Kirk, Sticdents' 
Fl. 231. C. autumnalis. Col. in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xix. (1887) 263. 
Eonabea australis, A. Rich. Fl. Nouv. Zel. 265. 

North and South Islands : Abundant from the Three Kings Islands 
and the North Cape to Marlborough and the south-west of Nelson Province. 
Sea-level to 2500 ft. Kunono ; Mdnono. April-June. 

One of the most distinct species of the genus, easily recognised by the large 
membranous leaves and well-developed inflorescence. 

3. C. lucida, Forst. Prodr. n. 137. — A stout leafy glabrous 
shrub 4-15 ft. high. Leaves 2-5 in. long, obovate to oblong-obovate 
or obovate-lanceolate, obtuse or acute or apiculate, gradually nar- 
rowed into a short stout petiole, coriaceous, shining, yellow-green 
when dry. Peduncles 1-2 in. long, trichotomously divided. Flowers 
numerous, in fascicles at the ends of the divisions of the peduncle. 
Calyx present in both sexes, minutely 4-5-toothed. Male corolla 
iin. long, broadly tubular ; female shorter and narrower. Drupe 
i— iin. long, oblong or oblong-obovoid, reddish-orange. — A. Rich. 



Copros77ia.] rubiace^. 247 

Fl.Nouv. Zel. 262; A. Gunn. Precur. n. 470; Baoul, Choix, 46; 
Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 104 ; Eandb. N.Z. Fl. 112 ; Chcesevi. in 
Trans. N.Z. Inst. xix. (1887) 230; Kirk, Students' Fl. 231. 

NoETH AND South Islands, Stewart Island : Abundant throughout, 
ascending to 3200 ft. Karamu. September-November. 

Allied to C. grandifolia, which it approaches in the inflorescence, but 
easily separated by the smaller coriaceous and glossy obovate leaves. 

4. C. serrulata, Hook. f. ex Buch. in Trans. N.Z. Inst. iii. 
(1871) 212. — A robust perfectly glabrous dwarf shrub 1-4 ft. high ; 
branches few, spreading ; old bark white and papery. Leaves 
f-2 in. long or more, oblong- obovate or broadly obovate or nearly 
orbicular, rounded at the apes, obtuse or apiculate, narrowed into 
a short broad petiole, thick and coriaceous ; margins thickened, 
minutely serrulate. Stipules very large, triangular, with toothed 
or ciliated margins. Male flowers in 3-7 -flowered axillary fascicles. 
Calyx wanting. Corolla campanulate, 4-5-lobed. Females solitary 
or in 2-5-flowered fascicles. Calyx-limb obscurely toothed. Corolla 
tubular, shortlv 3-5-lobed. Drupe i— ^in., broadly oblong, red^- 
dish.— C/icesrw! in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xiv. (1887) 231 ; ^Kirk, Students 
Fl. 232. 

South Island : Subalpine localities from Mount Arthur, Nelson, to Dusky 
Sound, chiefly on the western side of the mountains. Altitudinal range 
2000-4500 ft. November- January. 

A very distinct species, differing from all others in the serrulate leaves. 

5. C. Baueri, Endl. Iconog. t. 111. — A shrub or small tree, very 
variable in size and mode of growth ; in exposed rocky places often 
not more than 1-3 ft. high, with almost prostrate branches; in rich 
sandy soils sometimes forming a round-topped tree 15-25 ft. high. 
Branches stout, glabrous, or the younger ones minutely pubescent. 
Leaves bright shining green, almost fleshy, black when dry, 1-3 in. 
long, broadly ovate or oblong, obtuse or retuse ; margins usually 
recurved. Stipules short and broad, minutely toothed. Male 
flowers in dense heads on short axillary peduncles. Calyx minute,, 
cupular, obsoletely 4-toothed. Corolla caixipanulate, |— i in. long, 
4-5-lobed. Females in 3-6-flowered heads ; peduncles shorter and 
more slender than in the males. Calyx-limb minute, truncate or 
obscurely 4-toothed. Corolla tubular, shortly 4-lobed. Drupe 
ovoid, |— ^in. long, orange-yellow. — C. Baueriana, Hook. f. Fl. 
Nov. Zel. i. 104; Handb. N.Z. Fl. 112; Cheesem. in Trans. N.Z. 
Inst. xix. (1887) 232 ; Kirk, Forest Fl. t. 62 ; Students' Fl. 231. 
C. retusa, Hook.f. in Loud. Journ. Bot. iii. (1844) 4:15 (not of Petrie). 
C. lucida, Endl. Prodr. Fl. his. Norf. 60 (non Forst.). C. Stocki, 
Barbier in Bev. Hort. Belg. iii. (1877) t. 12. 

Kermadec Islands, Nobth and South Islands : Common on sea-cliffs 
and sand-dunes as far south as Marlborough and Greymouth. Angiajigi ; 
Naupata. September-November. 



248 EUBiACE^. [Coprosma. 

Nearest to C. rohusta, but distinguished by the more compact habit, glossy 
almost fleshy obtuse leaves with recurved margins, smaller heads of flowers, and 
rounder fruit. 

Mr. Kirk's variety ohlongifolia (Students' Fl. 232), with densely pubescent 
branchlets and small linear-oblong leaves, will probably prove to be a distinct 
species. 

6. C. chathamica, Cockayne in Trans. N.Z. Inst, xxxiv. 
(1902) 317.— A tree 15-40 ft. high, with a trunk sometimes 2 ft. 
in diam. ; bark greyish-brown ; branchlets obscurely tetragonous, 
more or less clothed with short stiff greyish hairs. Leaves 
1^3 in. long, about 1 in. broad, oblong or obovate-oblong or 
obovate, obtuse or subacute, narrowed into a rather slender 
petiole, subcoriaceous, dark-green or glossy above, paler beneath, 
glabrous except the petioles and a few scattered hairs along the 
midrib and margins ; veins conspicuously reticulated beneath. 
Male flowers not seen. Female flowers in few-flowered fascicles. 
Calyx-limb cupular, truncate. Corolla deeply 4-lobed. Drupe 
large, oblong-ovoid, rather more than ^in. long, yellowish-red. 

Chatham Islands : Abundant, H. H. Travels ; Captain G. Mair ! Cox 
and Cockayne ! 

I have only seen two very imperfect specimens of this, and the above de- 
scription is mainly based upon that given by Mr. Cockayne. It was referred to 
C. petiolata by Sir J. D. Hooker (Handb., p. 731), but appears to diSer in the 
very much larger size, the coarser almost shaggy pubescence on the young 
branchlets (in C. petiolata the pubescence is very short, fine, and even), and in 
the larger leaves. 

7. C. petiolata, Hook. f. in Journ. Linn. Soc. i. (1857) 128. — 
A shrub or small tree 6-15 ft. high; bark pale-grey; branchlets 
terete or obscurely tetragonous, uniformly clothed with a fine ashy- 
grey pubescence. Leaves 1-2 in. long, elliptic-oblong or obovate, 
rounded at the apex, narrowed into a short slender petiole, sub- 
coriaceous, glabrous or the petiole and veins beneath puberulous ; 
margins flat or very slightly recurved. Stipules deltoid, acuminate. 
Male flowers in compact rounded heads on short axillary puberulous 
peduncles. Calyx-limb obscure. Corolla companulate, 4 in. long, 
deeply 4-lobed. Females in 3-6-flowered fascicles. Calyx cupular 
or obscurelv toothed. Corolla tubular, 3-5-toothed. Mature fruit 
not seen.— Handb. N.Z. Fl. 113 ; Kirk, Students' Fl. 232. 

Kebmadec Islands : Abundant throughout the group, McGiUivray, T. F. C. 

Very closely allied to C. Baueri, but easily separated by the uniform grey 
pubescence of the branchlets, and by the smaller flat leaves with much more 
slender petioles. I have seen no specimens from the mainland of New Zealand, 
and fear that the locality of " maritime rocks south of Castlepoint," given in the 
" Handbook," is erroneous. 

8. C. robusta, Raoul in Ann. Sci. Nat. Ser. iii. 2 (1844) 121. — 
A stout erect glossy-green shrub 5-15 ft. high, perfectly glabrous in 
all its parts ; bark greyish-brown. Leaves numerous, 1^—5 in. 
long, elliptic-oblong to elliptic-lanceolate, acute or rarely obtuse, 



Goprosma.] euriace^. 249 

Darrowed into a short stout petiole, coriaceous, dark-green and 
shining above, paler beneath ; margins sometimes slightly recurved. 
Peduncles short, stout, simple or branched, bearing dense many- 
flowered glomerules. Male flowers : Calyx minute, cupular, obso- 
letely 4-5-toothed or quite truncate. Corolla campanulate, -I— ^in. 
long, 4-5-lobed. Females: Much smaller, i-i in. Corolla tubular, 
shortly 3-5-lobed. Drupes crowded, oblong to ovoid, ^— Jin. long, 
yellowish- or reddish-orange. — Choix de Plantes, 23, t. 21 ; Hook. f. 
Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 105; Handb. N.Z. Fl. 113; Gheesem. in Trans. 
N.Z. Inst. xix. (1887) 234 ; Kirk, Students Fl. 233. C. coff^oides, 
Col. in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xxi. (1889) 87. 

Var. angustata, Kirk, I.e. — Leaves smaller, |-2in. long, J-^in. broad, 
linear-oblong or lanceolate. Includes var. imrva, Kirk, I.e. 

North and South Islands, Chatham Islands : Abundant throughout, 
ascending to 2500 ft. Earamu. August-October. 

The most generally distributed of aU the New Zealand species. 

9. 0. Ounninghamii, Hook. f. Handb. N.Z. Fl. 113. — A large 
sparingly branched shrub 6-15 ft. high ; bark pale ; branches 
ascending. Leaves erect, ^-2 in. long, linear or linear-lanceolate, 
acute or subacute, gradually narrowed into a short stout petiole, 
flat, coriaceous. Flowers sessile in 3-12-flowered glomerules or 
terminating short arrested branchlets. Males : Calyx minute, 
cupular, truncate or obscurely lobed. Corolla campanulate, -j-^in. 
long, 4-5-lobed. Females smaller and less numerous. Calyx- 
limb 4-5-toothed. Corolla tubular, 3-5-lobed. Styles very long 
and slender. Drupe broadly oblong, Jin. long, pale and translu- 
cent. — Gheesem. in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xix. (1887) 234 ; Kirk, 
Students' Fl. 233. C. foetidissima, A. Gunn. Precur. n. 471 in 
part (non Forst.). 

North and South Islands, Chatham Islands : Not uncommon in lowland 
districts, especially in rich alluvial soils. Mingimingi. August-September. 

Very closely allied to C. robnsta, but distinguished by the linear leaves, 
fewer flowers, and translucent fruit. Intermediate states are not uncommon, 
and are often difficult to place in the absence of fruit. 

10. C. acutifolia, Hook./, in Journ. Linn. Soc. i. (1857) 128. — 
A glabrous shrub or small tree 8-20 ft. high ; bark pale ; branches 
slender, spreading. Leaves 1^4 in. long, lanceolate or ovate- 
lanceolate to elliptic-ovate, acuminate, narrowed into a slender 
petiole ^|-in. long, thin and membranous; veins finely reticulated. 
Peduncles slender, longer than the petioles, simple or trichoto- 
mously divided ; branches ending in little fascicles of 2 or 3 flowers. 
Male flowers rather large, J in. long. Calyx minute, cupular. 
Corolla broadly funnel-shaped, 4-5-lobed. Female flowers smaller 
and fewer. Calyx-limb with 4-5 linear teeth. Corolla tubular, 
3-5-lobed. Drupe oblong. Jin. long, reddish-orange. — Handb. 
N.Z. Fl. 114 ; Gheesem. in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xx. (1888) 169 ; Kirk, 
Students' Fl. 233. 



"250 RUBiACEJi. [Coprosma. 

Kebmadec Islands : Abundant on Sunday or Eaoul Island, ascending to 
the tops of the hills, alt. 1700 ft., McGillivray, T. F. C. July-August. 

A very distinct species, at once recognised by the comparatively narrow 
■thin and membranous leaves and lax inflorescence. 

11. C, tenuifolia, Gheesem. in Trans. N.Z. Inst, xviii. (1886) 
315. — A sparingly branched shrub 8-15 ft. high, glabrous, or the 
petioles and midribs of the young leaves minutely hairy ; branches 
slender, terete; bark pale. Leaves 1^4 in. long, ovate or oblong- 
ovate to ovate-lanceolate or elliptic-lanceolate, acute or acuminate, 
narrowed into slender petioles J— |in. long, thin and membranous 
or rarely subcoriaceous, dull brownish-green above, paler below ; 
veins conspicuous on both surfaces, finely reticulated. Stipules 
rather large, broadly deltoid, margins ciliate when young. Male 
flowers crowded in axillary 3-8-flowered fascicles or terminating 
arrested branchlets. Calyx apparently wanting. Corolla campanu- 
late, 4-5-iobed. Female flowers not seen. Fruit in dense fascicles 
of 3-8 on short lateral branchlets, J-^ in. long, ovoid or oblong. — 
Kirk, Students' Fl. 234. 

North Island : Te Aroha, Pirongia, and Karioi Mountains, T. F. C. ; Mount 
Hikurangi, Adams and Petrie ! Lake Waikaremoana, Bishop Williavis ! 
E. Best ! Ruahine Mountains, Colenso ! Mount Bgmont Ranges, T. F. C. ; 
abundant in the Upper Wanganui and Rangitikei Valleys, Kirk ! 1000- 
4000 ft. 

Distinguished from C. robusta by the membranous pale- brown leaves and 
smaller glomerules. From G. acutifolia it is separated by the broader leaves 
with coarser venation and by the compact inflorescence. 

12. C. arborea, T. Kirk in Trans. N.Z. Inst. x. (1878) 420.— A 
closely branched round-headed tree 15-30 ft. high ; trunk 6-18 in. 
<iiam. ; branchlets slender, puberulous towards the tips. Leaves 
l-2i- in. long, ovate-spathulate or orbicular-spathulate, obtuse or 
retuse, suddenly narrowed into winged petioles J— |in. long, coria- 
ceous, yellow - green above, often reddish beneath; veins reticu- 
lated ; margins flat. Stipules short, deltoid, ciliate when young. 
Flowers densely crowded in many-flowered rounded glomerules or 
heads, terminating short axillary branchlets or at the ends of 
larger shoots. Male flowers : Calyx narrow, deeply divided into 
4-5 ciliate lobes. Corolla short, -i-in. long, campanulate, deeply 
4-5-lobed. Females: Smaller and shorter, in 4-12-flowered 
fascicles. Calyx - limb 4 -5- toothed. Corolla tubular. Drupes 
closely packed, broadly oblong or almost globose, -^in. diam., 
colourless and translucent. — Gheesem. in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xix. 
(1887) 236 ; Kirk, Forest Fl. t. 132 ; Students' Fl. 234. 

North Island ; Not uncommon in woods from the North Cape to the 
Lower Waikato. Sea-level to 1500 ft. October-November. 

One of the largest species of the genus, and one of the most distinct. The 
calyx of the male flowers is better developed and has deeper divisions than in 
any other species. 



Coprosma.] bubiace^. 251 

13. C. spathulata, A. Cunn. Preciir. n. 479. — A small sparingly 
branched shrub 2-5 ft. high, rarely more ; branches slender, young 
ones puberulous. Leaves rather distant, variable in size, ^-1^ in. 
long ; blade orbicular or broadly or transversely oblong, obtuse or 
retuse or emargiuate, suddenly contracted into a narrow winged 
petiole longer or shorter than the blade, coriaceous, glossy ; mar- 
gins recurved ; veins few. Stipules triangular, cuspidate. Flowers 
sessile, axillary, solitary or in 2-3-fiowered fascicles. Males : 
Seated in an involucel composed of a pair of depauperated leaves 
and their stipules, drooping. Calyx deeply 4-5-lobed. Corolla 
campanulate, lin. long, 4-5-lobed to the middle, lobes revolute. 
Stamens usually 4. Females generally solitary, smaller and nar- 
rower than the males. Calyx-limb deeply 4-toothed, teeth acute. 
Corolla tubular, deeply 3-4-lobed. Drupe globose or nearly so, 
Jin. diam., black, very rarely red. — Baoul, Ghoix, 46 ; Hook. f. Fl. 
Nov. ZeL. i. 106 ; Handb. N.Z. Fl. 114 ; Gheesem. in Trans. N.Z. 
Inst. xix. (1887) 237 ; Kirk, Students' FL 234. 

North Island : Abundant in lowland forests from the North Cape to the 
Upper Waikato. Augast-September. 

Allied to C. arborea, from which it is easily separated by the small size, 
straggling habit, smaller leaves on longer petioles, fewer flowers, and solitary 
black fruit. The leaves are often a bronzy colour, shining and polished on the 
upper surface. 

14. C. rotundifolia, A. Gimn. Precur. n. 473. — A laxly branched 
shrub 4-12 ft. high ; branches long and slender, widely spreading, 
irregularly and sparsely branched, the young ones densely pubes- 
cent or almost villous towards the tips; bark greyish - brown. 
Leaves distant, ^-1 in. long, usually orbicular, but varying to 
broadly oblong or ovate-oblong, cuspidate or abruptly acute, rarely 
obtuse, thin and membranous, more or less pubescent and ciliate,. 
especially on the margins and veins, finely reticulated ; petioles 
short, villous. Flowers sessile, in axillary few- or many-flowered 
fascicles, rarely solitary. Males: Calyx wanting. Corolla yo^"- 
long, broadly campanulate, deeply 4-lobed. Female flowers smaller 
and narrower. Calyx-limb minutely 4-toothed. Corolla tubular, 
3-4-lobed. Drupe globose or broader than long, often didymous, 
^in, diam., red. — Baoul, Ghoix, 46; Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 108; 
Handb. N.Z. Fl. 114; Gheesem. in Trans. N.Z. hist. xix. (1887) 
237 ; Kirk, Students Fl. 235. C. rufescens, Gol. in Trans. N.Z. 
Inst, xviii. (1886) 261. 

North and South Islands : Abundant in damp forests, by the side of 
rivers, &c. Sea-level to 2000 ft. September-October. 

The spreading habit, broad membranous leaves, villous branchlets, small 
fascicled flowers, and small globose or didymous red drupes are the best marks of 
this common species. C. areolata is distinguished by its fastigiate habit, 
smaller acute leaves, and black drupe ; C. tenuicaulis by being more glabrous, 
by the much smaller leaves, and by the black drupe ; while C. rubra is at once 



"252 ' KUBiACEiE. [Copros7na. 

separated by the nearly glabrous branchlets and oblong yellow fruit. The leaves 
are often blotched, and are usually more or less deciduous, so that the plant is 
often quite bare in spring. 

15. C. areolata, Gheesem. in Trans. N.Z. hist, xviii. (1886) 
315. — An erect closely branched shrub or small tree 6-15 ft. high; 
branches slender, fastigiate, ultimate pubescent or villous with soft 
greyish hairs. Leaves ^-f in. long, orbicular-spathulate to ovate- 
or elliptic-spathulate, acute or apiculate, abruptly narrowed into 
short hairy petioles, thin and membranous, flat, glabrous or nearly 
so above, usually pubescent on the veins beneath ; veins forming 
large areoles. Flowers axillary, solitary or in 2-4-flowered fascicles. 
Male flowers : True calyx wanting, but one or two calycine invo- 
lucels closely invest the base of the corolla. Corolla broadly cam- 
panulate, ^ in. long, deeply 4-5-lobed. Females : Solitary or 2 
together, -^q in. long. Calyx truncate or obscurely 4-toothed. 
Corolla narrow-funnel-shaped, shortly 4-lobed. Drupe globose, 
^m. diam., black or nearly so when fuUv ripe. — Kirk, Stiidents' Fl. 
235. C. multiflora, Col. in Trans. N.Z." Inst. xxi. (1889) 86. 

North and South Islands : Not uncommon in lowland forests through- 
out. Sea-level to 1500 ft. September-October. 

The fastigiate habit makes this species easy of recognition. Its nearest ally 
is C. tenuicaulis, which is separated by its smaller size, spreading branches, 
<iark-coloured bark, more glabrous leaves and branchlets, and smaller and more 
coriaceous leaves. 

16. C. tenuicaulis, Hook. /. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 106. — A much- 
branched shrub 4-8 ft. high ; bark purplish - brown ; branches 
slender, spreading, often interlaced, young ones finely puberulous. 
Leaves ^h in. long, rarely more, orbicular- or ovate-spathulate, 
rounded at the apex, obtuse or subacute, abruptly narrowed into 
a short flat petiole, somewhat coriaceous, flat, glabrous on both 
surfaces ; veins reticulated in large areoles. Flowers axillary, 
solitary or in 2-3-flowered fascicles, involucellate. Males : Calyx 
wanting. Corolla campanulate, -5— g-in. long, 4-5-lobed. Females 
smaller and shorter. Calyx-limb truncate. Corolla tubular, 3-5- 
lobed. Drupe globose or depressed, ^'m. diam., shining-black. — 
Handh.N.Z. FL 115; Gheesem. in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xix. (1887) 
239 ; Kirk, Students' Fl. 236. 

Var. major, Gheesem. — Leaves much larger and more membranous, 
f-lj in. long ; blade orbicular, suddenly narrowed into a long fiat petiole often 
equalling the blade. Flowers and fruit apparently as in the type. Perhaps a 
distinct species. 

North Island : Abundant in marshy forests or open turfy swamps from 
the North Cape to Hawke's Bay and Taranaki. Var. major : Lower Waikato, 
H. Carse ! Sea-level to 1000 ft. September-October. 

17. C. rhamnoides, A. Cunn. Precur. n. 474. — A small densely 
branched shrub 2-6 ft. high; bark reddish - brown, uneven; 
branches numerous, spreading, often rigid and interlaced when 



^Coprosma.] rubiace^. 253 

growing in exposed places ; young shoots more or less 
clothed with a short white pubescence. Leaves |— | in. long, 
|— i-in. broad, very variable in shape and texture, orbicular or 
broadly ovate to narrow-oblong, in some varieties with lanceolate 
or linear leaves mixed with the broader ones, rounded retuse or 
acute, abruptly narrowed into a very short petiole, coriaceous or 
almost membranous, glabrous or puberulous beneath ; veins re- 
ticulated, evident except in the niore coriaceous forms. Flowers 
axillary, solitary or in 2-3-flowered fascicles, involucellate. 
Males : Calyx wanting. Corolla campanulate, -^^ in. long, 4-5- 
lobed to below the middle, lobes often recurved. Females smaller 
• and narrower. Calyx-limb truncate or obsoletely toothed. Corolla 
tubular, deeply 4-cleft ; lobes narrow, revolute. Drupe globose, 
^in. diam., usually bright-red or reddish-black, rarely quite black. — 
Gheesem. in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xix. (1887) 239 ; Kirk, Students' Fl. 
236. Two main forms are distinguishable as follows : — 

Var. a, vera.— Leaves orbicular or broadly ovate, obtuse, often coriaceous. 
— C. rhamnoides, 4. Gunn. ; Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel.i. 107; Handb. N.Z. Fl. 
116. C. concinna. Col. in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xvi. (1884) 330. C. orbiculata, 
■Col. I.e. xxii. (1890) 465. 

Var. b, divaricata' — Leaves broadly ovate, oblong-ovate, or oblong, acute 
or subacute, rather thin. Narrower leaves, linear or lanceolate, often mixed 
with the broader ones. — C. divaricata, A. Cunn. Precur. n. 476 (not of Hook. f.). 
G. heterophylla, Col. in Trans. N.Z. Inst, xviii. (1886) 263. ? C. gracilis, 
A. Cunn. Precur. n. 475. 

North and South Islands, Stewart Island : Abundant throughout, 
ascending to 3000 ft. August-October. 

An exceedingly variable and puzzling species, for a fuller account of which 
reference should be made to my revision of the genus, published in the 
" Transactions of the New Zealand Institute," Vol. xix. (p. 239). 

18. C. ciliata, Hook. f. Fl. Antarct. i. 22. — A much-branched 
bush 4-10 ft. high, sometimes forming almost impenetrable thickets; 
branches stout or slender, lax or dense, young ones villous with 
rather rigid hairs ; bark pale, almost white. Leaves tufted on 
short lateral branchlets, J-f m. long, oblong or oblong-obovate, 
rarely narrower and linear-oblong, obtuse or subacute, narrowed 
into a very short petiole, flat, rather membranous, under-surface 
slightly pubescent, margins and petiole ciliate ; veins obscure, not 
reticulated. Stipules broad, acute, villous. Flowers unknown. 
Drupe (only a single specimen seen) subglobose, lin. diam., black. — 
Handb. N.Z. Fl. 115 ; Kirk, Students' Fl. 237. 

Auckland and Campbell Islands, Antipodes Island : Abundant, ascend- 
ing to 1000 ft. 

Apparently closely allied to C. parvifiora, but its exact position cannot be 
■ determined until good flowering and fruiting specimens have been obtained. 

19. C. parvifiora, iloo^. /. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 107. — An erect much- 
branched leafy shrub 4-15 ft. high ; branches stout or slender, often 
spreading in a horizontal plane; branchlets densely pubescent or 



254 EUBiACE^. [Coprosma. 

villous ; bark pale-grey. Leaves usually close-set, fascicled on 
short lateral branchlets, -J— fin. long, obovate or linear-obovate or 
linear-oblong, rounded at the top or rarely subacute, narrowed 
into a short petiole, coriaceous, glabrous or the petioles and midrib 
pubescent ; margins flat or slightly recurved ; veins not con- 
spicuous. Stipules broad, pubescent or villous. Flowers involu- 
cellate, solitary or in 2-4-flowered fascicles. Male flowers : Calyx 
wanting. Corolla ^oin. long,, broadly campanulate, i-o-partite 
almost to the base. Females : Calyx-limb minutely 4-o-toothed. 
Corolla j-^m., tubular, 4-lobed. Drupe globose, -Jin. diam., 
variable in colour, bluish or violet-blue or quite black. — Handh. 
N.Z. FL 116 ; Cheesem. in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xix. (1887) 241 ; Kirk, 
Students' FL 238. C. myrtillifolia, Hook. f. FL Antarct. i. 21 ; 
FL. Nov. ZeL i. 108. 

Var. pilosa. — Much more slender and more sparingly branched. Leaves 
broader, thin and membranous ; margins and both surfaces ciliate with soft 
tawny hairs. 

Var. dumosa. — Branches stifJ and rigid, often interlacing, villous. Leaves 
smaller, J-^ in. long, narrow linear-oblong, very thick and coriaceous. 

North and South Islands, Stewart Island, Auckland and Campbell 
Islands : Abundant throughout, ascending to over 4000 ft. October- 

January. 

An extremely variable plant, found in many diverse stations ; abundant in 
rich alluvial soils in lowland forests, and quite as plentiful in high mountain 
valleys or on steep mountain slopes. Its distinguishing characters are the leafy 
habit, uniformly pubescent branches, obovate or linear-obovate coriaceous leaves, 
and small globose drupes. The varieties described above look distinct in their 
extreme forms, but are connected with the type by numerous intermediates. 
Var. lyilosa approaches very close to C. ctliata, the flowers of which, however, 
are quite unknown. 

20. C. ramulosa, Petrie in Trans. N.Z. Inst, xxvii. (1895) 
405. — A slender much -branched prostrate or decumbent shrub 
2-4 ft. high ; branches wide-spreading, the younger ones faintly 
pubescent ; bark pale-brown or grey. Leaves opposite or fascicled 
on opposite twigs, -J- in. long, about ^in. broad, linear-obovate, 
rounded at the apex, narrowed into a short petiole or almost sessile, 
coriaceous or almost membranous, margins flat, veins indistinct. 
Stipules deltoid, acute, pale-grey or almost white. Male flowers 
solitary, terminating short lateral branchlets, involucellate. Calyx 
wanting. Corolla ^ in., campanulate, 4-5-partite. Female flowers 
not seen. Drupe globose, ^in. diam., dark-red. — Kirk, Students' 
FL 236. C. pubens, Petrie, Lc. xxvi. (1894) 267 (not of A. Gray). 

North Island : Mount Hikurangi, Pdrie ! Mount Egmont, T. F. C. 
South Island: Arthur's Pass and Kelly's Hill, Petrie! Kirk! Cockayne! 
T. F. C; Broken River, Cockayne ! 2500-5000 ft. 

I have not seen good flowering specimens of this. In foliage it approaches 
certain states of C. parviflora, and the fruit resembles that of C. rliamnoides ; 
but it differs from both in the slender rambling or prostrate habit. 



'Coprosvia.] rubiaceje. 255 

21. C. Buchanani, T. Kirk in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xxiv. (1892) 
424. — A much and closely branched shrub 5-10 ft. high ; branches 
numerous, ascending, younger ones finely pubescent ; bark reddish- 
brown. Leaves distant, i-1 in. long, broadly oblong or obovate, 
obtuse or minutely apiculate, narrowed into a short pubescent 
petiole, rather coriaceous, puberulous and minutely ciliate when 
young, margins thickened. Stipules deltoid, acute, minutely 
ciliate. Male flowers unknown. Females axillary, solitary or in 
2-3-flowered fascicles, involucellate. Calyx-limb minutely 4-5- 
toothed. Corolla narrow-campanulate, 4-5-lobed to the middle ; 
segments acute, recurved. Styles stout. Fruit unknown. — 
Students' Fl. 239. 

North Island : Wellington — Near Cape Terawhiti, Buchanan, Kirk ! 
October. 

Apparently a very distinct species, the true affinities of which cannot be 
determined until the male flowers and fruit have been observed. 

22. C. crassifolia, Col. Excurs. North Is. 75. — A much- 
branched rigid shrub 4-12 ft. high; branches divaricating, exces- 
sively stiff and rigid, often interlaced ; branchlets glabrous or 
minutely puberulous ; bark reddish-brown or greyish-brown, 
uneven and fissured on the branches, smoother on the twigs. 
Leaves -I— fin. long, rarely more, broadly oblong or obovate to 
orbicular, rounded at the tip or retuse, abruptly narrowed into 
a very short petiole, usually thick and coriaceous, often glaucous 
beneath; margins thickened ; veins obscure. Flowers involucellate, 
solitary or more rarely in 2-3-flowered fascicles. Male flowers : 
Calyx wanting. Corolla -i-in. long, campanulate, 4-partite almost 
to the base. Stamens 4. Female flowers : Calyx-limb minute, 
truncate or obsoletely toothed. Corolla tubular, |— ^in. long, 
deeply 4-lobed. Drupe -^in. long, subglobose or broadly oblong, 
yellow, sometimes white and translucent. — Gheesevi. in Trans. 
N.Z. Inst. xix. (1887) 242 ; Kirk, Students' FL 238. C. pendula. 
Col. in Trails. N.Z. Inst. xxi. (1889) 84. 

North and South Islands : From Hokianga southwards to Otago, but 
often local. Sea-level to 1200 ft. September-November. 

Best distinguished by the excessively stifi and rigid habit, almost glabrous 
branchlets, rounded coriaceous leaves, and subglobose yellow fruit. Mr. Colenso's 
C. pendula has much thinner leaves, but is not otherwise different. 

23. C. rigida, Cheesem. in Trans. N.Z. hist. xix. (1887) 243. 
— An erect shrub 5-15 ft. high ; branches divaricating, stout or 
slender, open or much interlaced, glabrous or the very young twigs 
puberulous ; bark reddish- or purplish- brown. Leaves in opposite 
pairs on short lateral branchlets, J— f in. long, obovate or oblong- 
spathulate, rounded or retuse, gradually narrowed into a short 
petiole, coriaceous or almost membranous, quite glabrous ; veins 



256 RUBiACE^. [Coprosma. 

obscure. Stipules deltoid, glabrous. Flowers involucellate, solitary 
or in 2-4-flowered fascicles. Male flowers : Calyx wanting. Corolla 
lin. long, campanulate, 4-5-partite. Females: Calyx - limb 
minutely 4-5-toothed. Corolla tubular, i-iin., deeply 3-5-lobed. 
Drupe ^-^ in. long, oblong or obovoid, yellow. — Kirk, Students' 
Fl. 239. C. divaricata, Rook f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 107 in part (not 
of A. Cimn.). C. aurantiaca, Col. in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xxii. (1890) 
464. C. lentissima, Col. I.e. 465. C. turbinata. Col. I.e. xxiv. 
(1892) 389. 

North and South Islands : Not uncommon in swampy lowland forests,. 
September-October. 

Very close to C. crassifoUa, but not so rigid, the leaves narrower and less 
coriaceous, and the drupe narrower. In Mr. Colenso's herbarium there are 
numerous specimens of his three species quoted above. There can be no doubt 
whatever that they represent common states of C rigida, and cannot be 
separated even as varieties. 

24. C. obconica, Kirk, Students' Fl. 237. — An erect shrub 
4-5 ft. high or more ; bark pale ; branches numerous, spreading, 
interlaced, younger ones pubescent or puberulous. Leaves ^J in. 
long, xV^iVi^^- broad, oblong or linear-oblong, obtuse or minutely 
apiculate, sessile or very shortly petiolate, coriaceous, glabrous ; 
mai-gins thickened, recurved ; veins obscure. Flowers solitary or 
geminate, terminating short arrested branchlets, involucellate, de- 
curved. Male flowers : Calyx shortly funnel-shaped, teeth deltoid. 
Corolla broadly funnel-shaped, 4-lobed to the middle ; lobes ovate, 
recurved. Females : Corolla tubular, slightly ventricose at the 
base, teeth short, straight. Styles very long. Drupes |— J in. 
diam., broadly obconic or obcordate, yellowish - white, almost 
translucent. 

South Island : Nelson — Wairoa Gorge, Bryant and Kirk. August. 

I am not acquainted with this, and there are no specimens in Mr. Kirk's 
herbarium. I have consequently reproduced his description in an abbreviated 
form. 

25. C. rubra, Petrie m Trans. N.Z. Inst. xvii. (1885) 269. — 
An open or closely branched shrub 5-12 ft. high ; branches slender, 
divaricating, glabrous or the very young ones puberulous ; bark 
reddish-brown. Leaves |— | in. long or more, broadly oblong or 
obovate to orbicular, rounded or subacute or apiculate, abruptly 
narrowed into long or short ciliolate petioles, rather membranous; 
veins obscurely reticulated. Flowers involucellate, solitary or in 
2-4-flowered fascicles. Male flowers : Calyx wanting. Corolla.^ in. 
long, campanulate, 4-partite. Stamens 4. Females : Calyx-limb 
minutely 4-toothed. Corolla ^in. long, tubular, 4-lobed. Drupe 
Jin. long, oblong, vellowish- white, translucent. — Cheesem. in 
Trans. N.Z. Inst. xix. (1887) 243 ; Kirk, Students' Fl. 239.. 
C. divaricata var. latifolia. Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 107. 



Coprosma.] eubiace^. 257 

North Island : Hawke's Bay, Colenso ! South Island : Nelson — Wairoa 
Gorge, Biyant and Kirk. Otago — Near Dunedin ; Catlin's Eiver, Petrie ! 
September-November. 

Nearest to C. crassifolia, from which it is separated by the less rigid habit, 
naembranous leaves, and rather smaller flowers. 

26. O. virescens, Petrie in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xi. (1879) 426. — 
A glabrous much-branched shrub 5-10 ft. high; branches very- 
slender, fiexuose, spreading and interlaced ; bark pale greyish- 
brown. Leaves i-^in. long, spathulate or oblong - spathulate, 
obtuse or subacute, narrowed into a short slender petiole, mem- 
branous, quite glabrous ; margins flat or slightly undulate. Stipules 
acute, ciliolate. Flowers involucellate, solitary or in 2-3-flowered 
fascicles. Male flowers : Calyx wanting. Corolla i in. long, cam- 
panulate, 4-partite almost to the base. Females : Calyx-limb 
obsoletely d-toothed. Corolla shorter and narrower than in the 
males, tubular, deeply d-lobed. Drupe ^ in. long, oblong, yellowish- 
w^hite, translucent. — Cheesem. in Trans. N.Z . Inst. xix. (1887) 244 ; 
Kirk, Skcdents' Fl. 240. C. divaricata var. pallida, Hook. f. Fl. 
Nov. Zel. 107. 

North Island : Wairarapa and Hawke's Bay, Colenso ! South Island : 
Pelorus Sound, Rutland ! Wairoa Gor^e, Bryant and Kirk; Lake Forsyth, 
Kirk ! various localities in Otago, Petrie ! Sea-level to 1500 ft. Septem- 
ber-October. 

A very distinct species, perhaps more closely allied to C. rubra than to any 
other. 

27. C. acerosa, A. Gunn. Precur. n. 477. — A low often exces- 
sively braiiched prostrate or suberect wide-spreading shrub 1-5 ft. 
high ; branches straight or flexuous or zigzag, often closely inter- 
laced, younger ones puberulous ; bark yellowish-brown or dark- 
brown, often fissured and uneven. Leaves in close or distant 
opposite pairs or fascicles, -J— |in. long, about ■^oi'ci. wide, erecto- 
patent, very uniform in shape, narrow-linear, obtuse or subacute, 
veinless. Flowers axillary, terminating minute arrested branchlets, 
involucellate. Males : Solitary or in 2-4-flowered fascicles. Calyx 
wanting. Corolla ^ in. long, campanulate, 4-partite to below the 
middle. Stamens 4. Females solitary. Calyx-limb minutely 
4-toothed. Corolla -lo^i'y. long, tubular, 4-lobed. Drupe globose, 
variable in size, ^—| in., paie-blue, translucent. — Baoul, Ghoix, 46; 
Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 109; Hmidb. N.Z. t'l. 118; Gheesem. in 
Trans. N.Z. Inst. xix. (1887) 244; Kirk, St^tclents Fl. 240. 

Var. a, arenaria, Kirk, I.e. 241. — Yellow-green ; branches slender, wide- 
spreading, flexuous and interlaced. Leaves close-set, very narrow-linear. 

Var. b, brunnea. Kirk, I.e. — Dark-brown, branches fewer, short, stout, rigid. 
Leaves usually distant, shorter and more coriaceous. 

North and South Islands, Stewart Island, Chatham Islands : Common 
throughout, var. a chiefly on sand-dunes, var. b in hilly or mountain districts, 
ascending to 4000 ft. Tatarahake. September-November. 

Easily recognised by the peculiar habit, extremely narrow leaves, and sky- 
blue drupe. 

9— Fl. 



258 EUBiACE^. [Coprosma. 

28. O. propinqua, A. C^inn. Precur. n. 472. — A large branching 
shrub or small tree 6-20 ft. high ; branches widely divaricating, 
young ones puberulous ; bark brown or brownish-grey. Leaves 
opposite, or in opposite fascicles on short arrested branchlets, 
:|— J-in. long, jV-g-in. wide, linear or narrow linear-oblong or narrow 
linear-obovate, obtuse or subacute, gradually narrowed into a very 
short petiole or sessile, rather coriaceous ; veins obscure. Flowers 
solitary or in 2-4-flowered fascicles, each fascicle invested by a 
4-toothed cupuliform involucre, and each flower involucellate. 
Males: Calyx wanting. Corolla |^in. long, campanulate, 4-5- 
partite. Females: Calyx-limb 4-toothed. Corolla ^in. long, 
tubular, 3-4-lobed. Drupe ^in. long, globose or broadly oblong, 
bluish or bluish-black or quite black. — Raoul, Choix. 46 ; Hook. f. 
Ft. Nov. Zel. i. 109; Handh. N.Z. Fl. 116; Gheesem. in Trans. 
N.Z. Inst. xix. (1887) 245 ; Kirk, Students' Fl. 241. C. alba, Col. 
in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xxiv. (1892) 388. 

NoBTH AND South Islands, Stewart Island, Chatham Islands : 
Abundant throughout in swampy forests or by the side of rivers, &c. Sea- 
level to 1500 ft. Mingimingi. September-October. 

Allied to C. Cunninghamii, but distinguished by the more spreading habit, 
dark bark, smaller narrower leaves, smaller and fewer flowers, and by the drupe 
not being white and translucent. 

29. C. Kirkii, Gheesem. in Travis. N.Z.Inst, xxix. (1897) 391.— 
A much and closely branched procumbent or suberect shrub, often 
forming rounded masses 2-4 ft. high and the same in diam. ; rarely 
taller, erect, and loosely spreading. Branches stout, often inter- 
laced ; branchlets obscurely tetragonous, usually more or less 
clothed with short greyish pubescence, rarely almost glabrous. 
Leaves opposite or in opposite fascicles, ^-lin. long, linear or 
narrow linear-oblong or narrow linear-obovate, obtuse or subacute, 
gradually narrowed into a very short petiole, flat, coriaceous or 
almost membranous ; midrib evident below ; lateral veins usu- 
ally indistinct. Stipules very short, broad, ciliate. Flowers in 
3-6-flowered fascicles on short arrested branchlets, rarely solitary. 
Males: Calyx wanting. Corolla ^in. long, broadly campanulate, 
4-5-partite. Females smaller and narrower. Calyx-limb minutely 
4-toothed. Corolla funnel-shaped, deeply 4-lobed. Drupe (im- 
mature) ^in. long, oblong. — Kirk, Students' Fl. 241. Plagianthus 
linariifolia, Bzich. in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xvi. (1884) 394, t. 34, f. 1. 

North Island : Auckland — Tapotopoto Bay, Kirk ! coast between Spirits 
Bay and the North Cape, T. F. C. ; near Ahipara, R. H. Mattheivs ! T. B\ C. ; 
South Head of Hokianga Harbour, Kirk ! Taranaki — Near Opunake, Kirk ! 
Hawke's Bay — Portland Island, Bisliop Williams ! 

It is possible that more species than one may be included in the above 
description, but the material at my disposal is insufficient to determine this. 
Mr. Kirk's original specimens from Tapotopoto Bay are from a procumbent 
shrub with closely placed fascicled leaves and pubescent branchlets, and my 
own, from near the North Cape, agree in habit and the pubescent branches, but 
have larger spreading leaves. The Ahipara plant is erect, with lax almost 



CoprosmaJ] rubiace^. 259 

glabrovis branchlets, and still larger more distantly placed leaves; and Mr. 
Kirk's Opunake specimens are very similar. Bishop Williams's specimens, from 
Portland Island, are remarkable for the very pale bark and densely tomentose 
branchlets, the leaves being broader than the Ahipara specimens. The ripe 
fruit is unknown in all the forms, and the Ahipara plant is the only one of which 
good flowering specimens have been obtained. 

30. C. linariifolia, Hook. f. Handb. N.Z. Fl. 118.— A much- 
branched shrub or small tree 6-20 ft. high ; trunk sometimes 9 in. 
diam. ; branches slender, spreading, younger ones puberulous ; 
bark dark-grey. Leaves all opposite, -^-l^in. long, ^-|^ in. broad, 
linear or linear-lanceolate, rarely oblong-lanceolate, acute, suddenly 
narrowed into a short slender petiole, flat, coriaceous, blackish when 
dry ; veins indistinct. Stipules glabrous or puberulous, upper ones 
connate into a long sheath ; margins usually ciliate. Flowers ter- 
minating leafy branchlets, involucellate. Males in 2-5-flowered 
fascicles, fascicles involucellate. Calyx wanting. Corolla ^-^ in. 
long, broadly campanulate, 4-5-lobed to the middle ; lobes revo- 
lute. Females solitary. Calyx-limb with 4-5 large and erect 
linear-oblong lobes. Corolla |^in. long, tubular, 4-5-lobed. Drupe 
•J- in. long, broadly oblong, crowned by the persistent calyx-lobes, at 
first pale and translucent, ultimateiv black. — Gliet^sem. in Trans. 
N.Z. Inst. xix. (1887) 246; Kirk," Forest Fl. t. 95; Students' 
Fl. 242. C. propinqua var. y, Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 109. 

North and South Islands : Not uncommon from the Tiiames River 
southwards. Sea-level to 3000 ft. October-November. 

Easily recognised by the long sheathing stipules. In several respects it 
approaches C. propinqua and C. Cunninghamii, but is easily distinguished by 
the difierent habit, thinner acute leaves, and by the long calyx-lobes of the 
female flowers. 

31. C. Solandri, T. Kirk in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xxix. (1897) 522. 
— A nmch-bvanched shrub ; branches stout, rigid, obscurely tetra- 
gonous ; branchlets numerous, short, erect ; bark whitish, setose. 
Leaves erect, loosely imbricating, -i-in. long, j-Qin. broad, linear- 
lanceolate, acute or apiculate, very coriaceous ; midrib sunken on 
both surfaces. Stipules setose, ciliate, loosely sheathing. Flowers 
not seen. Drupes solitary, terminal, seated in an involucel com- 
posed of two depauperated leaves and their stipules, J in. long, 
broadly ovoid, crowned bv the persistent calyx-lobes. — Students' 
Fl. 242. 

North Island : East Cape district. Banks and Solander. 

This was described by Mr. Kirk from some specimens in the set of Banks 
and Solander's plants presented to the colony by the Trustees of the British 
Museum. The specimens, with many others, are now missing from the set, 
having probably been mislaid at the time of Mr. Kirk's decease. The species is 
apparently closely allied to C. linariifolia. 

32. C, foetidissima, b'orst. Char. Gen. 138. — Usually a slender 
sparingly branched shrub 6-15 ft. high, but occasionally forming a 
small tree 20 ft. high, with a trunk 1 ft. in diam. or more ; disgust- 



260 EUBiACE-E. [Coprosma. 

ingly foetid when bruised or while being dried. Branches slender, 
glabrous, or the very young ones minutely puberulous. Leaves vari- 
able in size and shape, 1-J— 2in. long, J— |in. broad, usually oblong, 
but varying from linear-oblong or -obovate to rounded oblong or 
broad-ovate, obtuse or acute or retuse, abruptly narrowed inco a 
rather long and slender petiole, slightly coriaceous or almost mem- 
branous ; margins fiat ; midrib distinct ; lateral veins obscure. 
Stipules short, cuspidate. Flowers sessile, terminating the branch- 
lets. Males solitary or 2-3 together. Calyx often wanting, when 
present minute, obscurely 4-toothed. Corolla ^— | in. long, cam- 
panulate, 4-5-lobed to the middle, rarely 8-10-lobed. Stamens the 
same number as the lobes. Females solitary, erect, J-^in. long. 
Calyx-limb truncate or obscurely toothed. Corolla tubular, 3-4- 
lobed. Drupe ^ in. long, oblong or ovoid, red or yellowish-red, some- 
times pale and translucent. — A. Bich. FL Nouv. Zel. 261 ; A. Cunn. 
Precur. n. 471 ; Baoul, Ghoix, 46 ; Hoolc. /. FL. Antarct. i. 20, t. 13 ; 
FL. Nov. Zel. i. 105 ; Handh. N.Z. Fl. 116 ; K%rk, Students Ft. 242. 
C. affinis. Hook. f. FL. Ayitarct. i. 21, t. 14. C. repens, A. Bich. Fl. 
Nouv. Zel. 264 (not Hook. /.). G. pusilla, Forst. Prodr. n. 513. 
C. sagittata, Col. in Trans. N.Z. List. xxxi. (1899) 270. 

North and South Islands, Chatham Islands, Stewart Isljind, Auckland 
AND Campbell Islands: Abundant from the Thames goldfields and Eaglan 
southwards. Sea-level to 4500 ft. Earaniu ; Hupivo. August-October. 

Easily distinguished by the oblong leaves, large terminal flowers, and hor- 
ribly disagreeable odour when bruised. 

33. C. Colensoi, Hook. f. Handh. N.Z. FL. 117.— A small and 
slender erect or rarely procumbent open or closely branched shrub 
2-8 ft. high; bark pale- brown or whitish; young branches puberu- 
lous. Leaves opposite or fascicled on short lateral twigs, yellowish- • 
green, very variable in size and shape, -J-ll-in. long, linear-oblong or 
linear-obovate to broadly oblong or obovate, rarely narrower and 
linear or linear-lanceolate, obtuse or retuse, narrowed into rather 
slender petioles, coriaceous or almost membranous ; margins flat, or 
recurved in the coriaceous forms ; veins indistinct. Flowers ter- 
minating the branchlets, solitary on short decurved peduncles, involit- 
cellate. Males: Calyx wanting. Corolla i in. long, campanulate, 
4-lobed. Females: Calyx-limb minutely 4-toothed. Corolla ^in. 
long, tubular, 4-lobed ; lobes revolute. Drupe I— Jin. long, oblong, 
dark-red. — Cheesem. in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xix. (1887) 248 ; Kirk, 
Students' Fl. 243. C. myrtillifolia var. linearis, Hook. f. Fl. Nov. 
Zel. i. 108. C. Banksii, Petrie in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xxx.(1898) 433. 

North Island : Mountainous districts from the Thames goldfields and Te 
Aroha southwards ; not common. South Island : Western portion of Nelson 
Province and Westland to the West Coast sounds. Stewart Island : Abundant. 
Usually from 1500ft. to 3500ft., but descends to sea-level on Stewart Island. 
November-January. 

A well-marked species, easily recognised by the terminal solitary flowers on 
decurved peduncles. 



Coprosma.] rubiace^. 261 

34. C. retusa, Pctrie in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xxvi. (1894) 268.— 
A nmch-branched procumbent shrub ; branches short, stout or 
■slender, straggUng ; bark pale, marked by two opposite lines of 
pubescence interrupted at the nodes. Leaves J— | in. long, linear- 
obovate or oblong-obovate, retuse or almost 2-lobed at the tip, 
-gradually narrowed into a short stout petiole, thick and coriaceous, 
flat or concave above, midrib usually distinct beneath; margins 
•thickened and recurved, very minutely crenulate. Stipules broad, 
with 3 cartilaginous teeth, oiliate. Flowers solitary, terminating 
short leafy branchlets. Males: Calyx wanting. Corolla i-^-in. 
long, broadly campanulate, 4-5-partite. Females : Calyx-limb with 
4-5 subulate teeth. Corolla narrow-campanulate, 4-5-partite ; seg- 
ments narrow, revolute. Styles stout, sometimes 3. Drupe |-in. 
long, ovoid, yellowish-red. — Kirk, Students' Fl. 243. 

South Island: Nelson — Mouut Rochfort, Toiunson! Westland — Kelly's 
Hill, Petrie ! Arthur's Pass, Cockayne ! T. F. C. Southland — Clinton Saddle, 
Lake Te Anau, Pei> ie .' Longwood Range, iiu-fc .' 2000-;3500 ft. December- 
January. 

A very distinct species, easily known by the straggling habit, retuse leaves 
with minutely crenulate margins, and rather large terminal flowers. It has the 
disagreeable odour of C. fcetidissinia when bruised. 



35. O. cuneata, Hook. f. Fl. Antarct. i. 21, t. 15. — A stout erect 
or spreading closely branched shrub 2-10 ft. high ; branches woody 
and rigid, densely leafy, the younger ones puberulous ; bark greyish- 
white to dark-brown. Leaves close-set, usually fascicled on short 
lateral branchlets, i-f in. long, J^— |-in. broad, linear- or oblong- 
obovate or cuneate-oblong, obtuse or subacute, almost sessile, pa- 
tent or recurved, rigid and coriaceous, often concave above, almost 
veinless ; margins slightly recurved. Stipules short and broad, 
usually densely fimbriate or ciliate. Flowers solitary, terminat- 
ing the branchlets, sessile, involucellate. Males : Calyx wanting. 
Corolla :^in. long, campanulate, 4-5-lobed. Females: Calyx-limb 
4-5-lobed ; lobes unequal. Corolla 4 in. long, 4-lobedto the middle. 
Drupe -|— i in. diam., globose, red. — Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 110; Handh. 
N.Z. Fl. 117 ; Cheeseni. in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xix. (1887) 249 ; Kirk, 
Students' Fl. 244. 

North Island : Mount Hikurangi, Colenso, Adams and Petrie ! Ruahine 
Mountains and Lake Taupo, Colenso ; Mount Egmont, Dieffenhach, T. F. C. 
South Island, Stewart Island, Auckland and Campbell Islands, Anti- 
podes Islands: Abundant in mountain districts. Usually from 2000 ft. to 
5000 ft., but descends to sea-level in the Auckland Islands. November- 

January. 

A variable plant, but separated from any other by the densely leafy habit, 
coriaceous often recurved linear-obovate or cuneate leaves, broad fimbriate 
stipules, and rather large solitary terminal flowers. In alpine localities it is 
often dwarfed to a foot or two in height, with rigid and woody interlaced 
branches aud small excessively coriaceous leaves. 



262 RUBiACE^. [Coprosma. 

36. C. microcarpa, Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 110. — A leafy 
shrub 1-10 ft. high ; branches slender, close - set, divaricating, 
pubescent, leafy ; bark grey. Leaves in pairs on short lateral 
branchlets, ^— Jin. long, -^^-^^m. broad, spreading, linear or linear- 
lanceolate, acute, fiat, veinless, dark-brown when dry, not coria- 
ceous ; stipules short, ciliate. Flowers minute. Males : Calyx 
cup-shaped, 4-toothed. Corolla broadly bell-shaped, ^ in. diani., 
4-partite ; lobes narrow, acuminate, long. Females: Calyx-limb 
shoit, tubular, 4-toothed. Corolla iVi'^-- tubular or funnel-shaped, 
4-cl6ft |- way down. Drupe very small, globose, y^oin. diam. — 
Handb. N.Z. Fl. 118 ; Kirk, Students' Fl. 244. ? C. margarita, CoL 
in Trans. N.Z. Inst, xxviii. (1896) 594. 

North Island : Ruahine Mountains, Colenso ! Olsen ! South Island : 
Nelson — Upper Maitai Valley, Graham River, T. F. C. Westland — Ahaura 
Plain, Kirk ! Canterbury — Oxford Forest, Kirk ! 

The above description is that given in the " Handbook," but without access 
to the type specimens, which are in the Kew Herbarium, it is impossible to say 
whether the plants from the localities cited are really identical with Hooker's 
species or not. 

37. 0. depressa, Col. ex Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 110. — A small 
closely branched usually prostrate bush 1-4 ft. high ; branches 
leafy, trailing or prostrate, younger ones puberulous; bark greyish. 
Leaves usually in opposite fascicles, |— ^in. long, Jg-jLin. wide, 
linear -lanceolate or narrow linear -oblong, rarely linear -obovate, 
acute or obtuse, narrowed into a rather short petiole or almost 
sessile, suberect or patent or recurved, rigid and coriaceous, some- 
what concave, glabrous or the margins minutely ciliate ; veins 
indistinct. Stipules short, broad, ciHate. Flowers terminating the 
branchlets, solitary, sessile, involucellate. Males : Calyx wanting. 
Corolla Jg— g-in. long, cam.panulate, 4-partite. Females: Calyx- 
limb 4-toothed. Corolla tubular, Yoin. long, 4-lobed. Drupe ^iu. 
diam., glo))Ose, orange-yellow. — Handb. N.Z. Fl. 118; Cheesem. in. 
Trans. N.Z. Inst. xix. (1887) 250 ; Kirk, Students' Fl. 245. 

North Island : Lake Taupo and Ruahine Mountains, Colenso ! Ruapehu, 
Kirk ; Rangipo Plain, Petrie ! Mount Egmont, T. F. C. South Island : 
Mount Arthur Plateau, 2'. F. C. ; mountains above the Otira Valley, Petrie ! 
Arthur's Pass, Cockayne, T. F. C. ; Kurow Mountains, Petrie ! 2500-5000 ft. 
December-January. 

Very close to C. cuneata, but a much smaller and more slender plant, with 
smaller and narrower leaves. It also approaches some states of C. acerosa var. 
hiuiinea, but that is a stouter and more rigid plant, with dark bark and narrower 
leaves. 

38. C. repens, Hook. f. Fl. Antarct. i. 22, t. 16a. —A small 
glabrous creeping species, often forming broad matted patches. 
Branches 2-18 in. long or more, prostrate and rooting, stout or 
slender, sometimes almost flaccid ; bark greyish. Leaves usually 
close-set, rarely distant, ^-^ in. long, linear-oblong or linear-obovate 
to broadly oblong or broadly obovate, obtuse or subacute, narrowed 



'Coprosma.] rubiace^. 263 

into very short broad petioles or almost sessile, bright-green, coria- 
ceous, spreading or suberect ; margins thickened. Stipules short 
:and broad, obtuse, glabrous or ciliate. Flowers greenish-white, 
solitary, terminal. Males : Large for the size of the plant, |— |in. 
long. Calyx minute, cupular, 4- or 8-toothed. Corolla tubular, 
often curved, 4-8- toothed or -lobed. Stamens 4-8. Females 
■smaller, i-i in. long. Calyx-limb 4-8-toothed. Corolla tubular, 
4-8-lobed to about ^ way down. Styles 2 or 4, rarely 3 or 5. 
Drupe globose, Jin. diam., red or orange-yellow. — Fl. Nov. Zel. 
i. 110; Handh. N.Z. FL 119; Cheescm. in Trails. N.Z. Inst. xix. 
(1887) 250 ; Kirk, Students' Fl. 245. C. pumila, Hook. f. Fl. 
Antarct. ii. 543; Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 110; Eandb. N.Z. Fl. 119. 
C. perpusilla. Col. in Trans. N.Z . Inst. xxii. (1890) 466. 

North and South Islands, Stewart Island, Auckland and Campbell 
Islands, Antipodes Island, Macquarie Island : Abundant in mountain dis- 
tricts from the East Cape southwards ; ascending to 6000 ft. on Mount Egmont 
and in the Southern Alps, descending to sea-level in the Auckland Islands, 
■&C. December-January. 

Easily distinguished from all other species, except C. Petriei, by the small 
size and creeping and matted habit. Prom C. Petriei it is separated by the 
larger and broader always glabrous leaves, much longer tubular male flowers, 
and smaller drupe. 

39. O. Petriei, Cheesem. in Trans. N.Z. Inst, xviii. (1886) 316. 
— Stem prostrate and creeping, usually forming broad matted 
patches ; branches 6-18 in. long, glabrous or puberulous. Leaves 
usually close-set, erecto- patent, yq-^ in. long, linear-oblong or 
Imear-obovate, acute or obtuse, narrowed into short petioles or 
sessile, often concave, rigid and coriaceous, veinless, glabrous or 
sprinkled over with short white hairs on both surfaces. Flowers 
solitary, terminating short erect branchlets, iavolucellate. Males : 
•Calyx wanting. Corolla i-^ in. long, tubular at the base, cam- 
panulate above, 4 -lobed. Females smaller, about -Jin. long. 
■Calyx-limb irregularly toothed. Corolla broadly tubular, deeply 
4-lobed. Drupe large, globose, -|— |-in. diam., variable in colour, 
dark-purple or bluish-purple, sometimes pale and translucent. — - 
Kirk, St'udents' Fl. 246. 

South Island : Not uncommon in mountain districts from Nelson to 
Foveaux Strait. Descends to sea-level at the mouth of the Waicaki River, 
ascends to over 4000 ft. in the Southern Alps. November-January. 

Easily separated from C. repens by the shape of the male corolla and much 
larger drupe. 

2. NERTERA, Banks and Sol. 
Small slender creeping perennial herbs. Leaves opposite, 
glabrous or sparsely pilose. Stipules small, interpetiolar. Flowers 
solitary, axillary or terminal, sessile or very shortly pedicelled, 
hermaphrodite. Calyx-limb truncate or very obscurely 4-toothed. 
Corolla tubular or funnel-shaped, 4-5-lobed ; lobes valvate. Stamens 



264 RUBiACE^. [Nertera. 

4 or 5, inserted at the base of the corolla-tube ; filaments long, 
fiiliform ; anthers large, far-exserted, usually pendulous. Ovary 
2-celled ; styles 2, filiform, free nearly to the base, hirsute ; ovules 
solitary in each cell. Drupe globose or ovoid, fleshy, containing 
2 1-seeded pyrenes. 

A small genus of 7 or 8 species, found in Australia and New Zealand, Java, 
the Philippine Islands, Andine and Antarctic South America, and Tristan 
d'Acunha. 

Perfectly glabrous. Leaves broad-ovate .. .. 1. A'', depressa. 

Perfectly glabrous. Leaves narrow-ovate .. .. 2. N. Cunning- 

haniii. 
Hairy or villous. Leaves cordate-ovate. Corolla short, 

Jin. long .. .. .. .. .. ..3. N. dichondrcB- 

folia. 
Hispid. Leaves ovate or oblong. Corolla long, ^Jin., 
tubular .. .. .. .. .. . . i. N. setulosa. 

1. N. depressa, Banks and Sol. ex Gartn. Fruct. i. 124, t. 26. — 
A slender glabrous perennial, very variable in size, often forming 
broad matted patches ; stems 2-12 in. long, creeping and rooting at 
the nodes. Leaves J-Mn. long, broadly ovate or almost orbicular, 
acute or obtuse, rounded or truncate or almost cordate at the base, 
quite glabrous ; petioles equalling the blade or shorter. Stipules 
small. Flovpers very small and inconspicuous, solitary, terminal, 
sessile. Calyx-limb truncate or nearly so. Corolla y^in. long, 
broadly funnel-shaped, 4-lobed. Drupe globose or broader than 
long, red. — Forst. Prodr. n. 501 ; A. Cunn. Preciir. n. 481 ; Baoul, 
Choix, 46 ; Hook. f. Fl. Antarct. i. 23 ; Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 112 ; 
Handh. N.Z. Fl. 120 ; Benth. Fl. Atistral. iii. 431 ; Kirk, Students' 
Fl. 246. N. montana. Col. in Trans. N.Z. Inst, xxviii. (1896) 595. 

North Island : Ruahine Range, Colenso. South Island, Stewart Island, 
Auckland Islands : Abundant throughout, chiefly in mountain districts. 
Ascends to 4000 ft. October-January. 

Also found in Australia and Tasmania, South America, and Tristan 
d'Acunha. The leaves very rarely have a few sparse hairs on the upper surface. 

2. N. Cunninghamii, Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 112.— Perfectly 
glabrous. Stems much more slender than in A'', depressa, almost 
filiform, 4-18 in. long. Leaves ^— J- in. long, narrow-ovate, acute, 
rounded at the base ; petioles about as long as the blade. Stipules 
small, acute. Plowers very mmute, terminal. Calyx-limb truncate 
or obsoletely 4-toothed. Corolla shorter and broader than in N. 
depressa, -f-oin. long, 4-lobed. Stamens usually erect. Drupe 
globose, red, lin. diam. — Handh. N.Z. Fl. 120 ; Kirk, Students Fl. 
247. ? N. papulosa. Col. in Trans. N.Z. Inst, xxviii. (1896) 595. 

North Island : Mongonui and Kaitaia southwards to Cook Strait, but 
often local. South Island : Near Westport, 2'oM;7ison.' October-January. 

This differs from the preceding species only in the more slender habit, 
narrower leaves, and slightly smaller drupe. It is said to occur in the 
Philippine Islands. 



Nertera.] rubiace^. 265 

3. N. dichondraefolia, Rook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 112, t. 28a.— A 
slender creeping herb, often forming extensive matted patches. 
Stems 4 in. to 2 ft. long, branched, more or less hairy or villous with 
soft tawny hairs, rarely nearly glabrous. Leaves with the petioles 
J- f in. long, broadly ovate or almost orbicular, acute or apiculate, 
■cordate or rounded at the base, membranous, more or less hispid or 
hairy above, usually glabrous or nearly so beneath ; petiole longer 
or shorter than the blade. Stipules acute. Flowers terminal, 
sessile. Calyx-limb obscurely 4-toothed. Corolla ^'\n. long, funnel- 
shaped, 4-lobed. Drupe globose, red, ^in. diam. — Hanclh. N.Z. Fl. 
120 ; Kirk, Students' Fl. 247. N. gracilis, Baoul in Ann. Sci. 
Nat. ii. (1844) 121. N. ciliata, Kirk, Students' Fl. 247. Geophila 
dichondraefolia, A. Gicnn. Precur. n. 482. 

North and South Islands, Stewart Island : Abundant from Mongonui 
and Kaitaia southwards. Sea-level to nearly 3000 ffc. October-December. 

Very variable in size, amounc of hairiness, &c. Small specimens are some- 
times almost glabrous, while large laxly branched ones are often copiously 
villous. Mr. Kirk's N. ciliata, which he distinguished by the ciliate leaves 
and shorter petioles, appears to me to be a trivial form only. 

4. N. setulosa, Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 112, t. 28b.— Very 
variable in size, more or less hispid with short stiff hairs. Stems 
creeping and rooting, 3-12 in. long, putting up numerous leafy 
suberect branches 1-6 in. high or more. Leaves J-f in., broadly 
ovate or orbicular to oblong or oblong-obovate, obtuse, membranous, 
laxly clothed with stiff white hairs ; margins ciliate ; petiole shorter 
tiian the blade. Flowers axillary or terminal, very slender, |— |-in. 
long. Calyx-tube densely hispid ; limb unequally 4-5-toothed. 
Corolla very long, tubular, hispid, 4-5-toothed ; teeth erect. Fila- 
ments very long, wn-y, far-exserted ; anthers apiculate, sagittate at 
the base. Styles long. Drupe usually dry, ^-^in. long, oblong, 
obscurely ribbed, hispid. — Handh. N.Z. Fl. 120 ; Kirk, Students' 
Fl. 247. N. pusilla, Col. in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xvi. (1884) 331. 

North Island : Auckland — North Cape district, Adams and T. F. C. ; 
Kaitaia, B. H. Matthews ! between Kaihu and Maunganui Bluff, Petrie ! 
T. F. C. ; Patetere Plateau, T. F. C. Hawke's Bay — Dannevirke and Norse- 
wood, Colenso ! Wellington — Wairarapa, Colenso ! near Wellington, Kirk ! 
South Island : Otago — Plentiful, Petrie ! Thomson ! Stewart Island : 
Kiik ! November-January. 

Very distinct from the three preceding species, and at once recognised by 
the long tubular corolla. The Australian N. reptans, F. Muell., should probably 
be united with it. The flowers are strongly proterogynous and possibly dimor- 
phic as well. 

3. GALIUM, Linn. 
Herbs with slender quadrangular stems. Leaves in whorls of 4 
to 8, of which 2 are supposed to be true leaves and the remainder 
stipules, although all are precisely similar in size and shape. 
Flowers minute, in axillary or terminal cymes. Calyx-limb ob- 
solete. Corolla rotate, 4-lobed, rarely 3- or 5-lobed. Stamens 4 ; 



266 EUBiACE^. [Galium. 

filaments short. Ovary 2-celled ; styles 2, connate at the base ; 
stigmas capitate ; ovules solitary in each cell. Fruit didymous, 
small, dry, indehiscent. 

A large genus of over 160 species, found in all temperate regions. Both the 
New Zealand species are endemic. 

Leaves in whorls of 4, linear-lanceolate .. .. 1. G. tenuicaule. 

Leaves in whorls of 4, oblong . . . . . . . . 2. G. umbrosum. 

1. G. tenuicaule, .4. Cunn. Precur. u. 468. — Stems slender, 
straggling, branched. Bin. to 3ft. long, glabrous or slightly scabrid 
on the angles. Leaves in rather distant whorls of 4, :|-f in. long, 
linear-lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, awned or acuminate, narrowed 
to the base, scabrid on the margins and midrib beneath. Flowers 
minute, white, xV^^^- diam., in 1-4-flowered axillary cymes; pe- 
duncles usually longer than the leaves, decurved in fruit. Fruit of 
2 minute globose cocci, dark-brown, glabrous. — Baoul, Choix, 46 ; 
Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 113; Handb. N.Z. Ft. 120; Kirk, Stu- 
dents' Fl. 249. G. triloba. Col. in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xx. (1888) 192. 

North and South Islands : Damp places on the margins of woods and 
swamps; not uncommon from Ahipara southwards. Sea level to 2.500ft. 

December-March . 

2. G. umbrosum, Sol. ex Forst. Prodr. n. 500. — Stems 1-10 in. 
long, suberect or prostrate, much or sparingly branched, weak or 
rather stiff and wiry, glabrous or more or less ciliate on the angles. 
Leaves in whorls of 4, xn~ii^- long, broadly oblong or elliptical- 
oblong, acuminate or mucronate, marked with pellucid dots when 
held between the eye and the light, glabrous or the margins ciliated, 
petioles short. Flowers very minute, white ; peduncles axillary, 
longer than the leaves, usually 1-flowered, more rarely 2- or 3- 
flowered. Fruit of 2 minute globose rugulose cocci. — Hook. f. Fl. 
Nov. Zel. i. 113 ; Handb. N.Z. Fl. 121 ; Kirk, Students Fl. 249. 
G. propinquum, A. Cunn. Precur. n. 469. G. erythrocaulon. Col. in 
Trans. N.Z. Inst. xvi. (1884) 332. 

North and South Islands : From the North Cape southwards to Foveaux 
Strait; plentiful. Ascends to 3000 ft. December-March. 

The Eurooean G. Aparine, L., a much larger and coarser species than, 
either of the above, with weak straggling or subscandent .scabrous stems 2-6 ft. 
long, and lanceolate leaves in whorls of 6-8, has become thoroughly established 
in many localities in both Islands. 

4. ASPERULA, Linn. 
Herbs with slender quadrangular stems. Leaves in whorls of 
4 to 8, of which 2 are leaves and the remainder stipules, as in 
Galium. Flowers minute, solitary or in axillary or terminal 
cymes. Calyx-limb wanting. Corolla funnel-shaped, with a dis- 
tinct limb and 4 spreading lobes. Stamens 4; anthers exserted. 
Ovary 2-celled ; styles 2, more or less connate at the base ; stigmas- 
capitate. Fruit didymous, small, dry, indehiscent. 



Asjjerula.] rubiace^. 267 

A genus comprising about 60 species, found in the temperate and sub- 
tropical regions of the Old World, but not extending to America or South Africa. 
It only differs from Galium in the funnel-shaped corolla. The single New 
Zealand species is endemic. 

1. A, perpusilla, Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 114. — A small 
slender decumbent perennial. Stems weak, filiform, branched, 
1-3 in. high, glabrous. Leaves in whorls of 4, -L- J^in. long, 
lanceolate, acuminate, awned, straight or curved, margins usually 
ciliate. Flowers minute, white, axillary or terminal, solitary, often 
unisexual ; males usually pedicelled ; females sessile. Calyx-tube 
glabrous. Corolla xVi'^- diam., campanulate, 4- or rarely 5-partite, 
tube very short. Styles united below, their tips free, divergent. 
Fruit of 2 globose minutely granulate cocci. — Handb. N.Z. FL 121 ; 
Kirk, Students' Fl. 248. A. aristifera, Col. in Travis. N.Z. Inst. 
xxi. (1889) 88. 

North and South Islands, Stewart Island : Not uncommon from the 
Lower Waikato southwards, ascending to 3000 ft. November-January. 

The corolla-tube is much shorter than is usual in Asperula, and the species 
would almost be better placed in Galium. 

A. fragrantissima, Armst. in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xiv. (1882) 359, is probably a 
form of Galium umbrosimu 



Order XXXVIIl. COMPOSITE. 

Herbs, shrubs, or small trees. Leaves alternate, rarely opposite 
or whorled ; siipules wanting. Inflorescence composed of one or 
many flower-heads {capitula), each consisting of numerous minute 
flowers {florets) sessile and densely packed on the enlarged tip of 
the flower-stalk (receptacle), surrounded by an involucre of whorled 
bracts and resembling a single flower. Heads either solitary and 
terminal (rarely axillary) or arranged in corymbose cymes or 
panicles, sometimes contracted into clusters or even compound 
heads. Involucre of few or many bracts (scales of the involucre) 
arranged m one or several rows. Eeceptacie either naked (no brac- 
teoles mixed with the florets) or with bracteoles in the shape of 
chaffy scales or bristles (palece) placed at the outside of most or all 
of the florets, sometimes with the surface pitted or honeycombed. 
Florets many or few (very rarely 1), either all of one kind as regards 
sex, when the heads are said to be homogamoics, or of more than 
one kind, when they are called heterogamous. The homogamous 
heads either have all their florets tubular and hermaphrodite (dis- 
coid) or all ligulate and hermaphrodite iliguliflorous) . The hetero- 
gamous heads frequently have the central florets tubular and her- 
maphrodite or male, and the outer ones ligulate and female or 
neuter. The heads are then said to be radiate. The tubular florets 
in the centre are called florets of the disc, or simply disc-fl,orets ; 
the ligulate ones florets of the ray, or ray-florets. Heterogamous 



268 COMPOSITE. 

heads are also discoid when the marginal female florets have tubular 
corollas instead of ligulate. Calyx superior, adnate to the ovary 
and hardly to be distinguished from it ; limb either wanting or com- 
posed of scales, bristles, or hairs, and then called pa2)2ms. Corolla 
gamopetalous, superior, either tubular or campanulate with 4-5 
valvate lobes, or ligulate with the lobes cohering into a strap- 
shaped lamina which spreads to one side. Stamens 4-5, inserted 
on the tube of the corolla and alternate with its lobes ; filaments 
usually free ; anthers united into a sheath surrounding the style, 
cells sometimes produced at the base into bristle-like points or tails. 
Ovary inferior, 1-celled; style slender, 2-fid, branches short or long, 
linear, usually semi-terete, furnished with variously placed and 
arranged collecting- hairs for sweeping the pollen from the anther- 
cells, margins stigmatic ; ovule solitary, erect, anatropous. Fruit a 
small dry seed-like nut called an achene, either crowmed by the per- 
sistent pappus or naked. Seed erect, with a membranous testa; 
albumen vv'anting ; embryo straight, radicle short, inferior. 

A vast order, by far the largest of flowering plants, comprising about 800 
genera and 10000 species. It is found in every part of the world, from the 
equator to the limits of phpenogamic vegetation in the arctic and antarctic 
regions, and is equally plentiful in lowland districts and in mountainous or 
alpine situations. In New Zealand it constitutes rather more than one-seventh 
of the total number of flowering plants, a somewhat large proportion, the ratio 
of the whole order to the flowering plants of the world being generally estimated 
at about one-tenth. Although so numerous in species, the order is far from 
being proportionately important from an economic point of view. Edible 
species are singularly few, the chief being the Jerusalem and common artichoke, 
lettuce, and chicory. Oils are yielded by the sunflower and by Madia saliva. 
The chief medicinal plants are arnica, wormwood, and camomile. Many orna- 
mental species are cultivated in gardens, as the various Isinds of chrysanthe- 
mums, dahlias, cinerarias, asters, sunflowers, zinnias, marigolds, &c. ; but on 
the whole it must be confessed that the majority of the plants composing the 
order present a weedy and unattractive appearance. Of the 26 indigenous genera 
16 are widely spread ; 5 extend to Australia alone (Bracliycovie, Olearia, Cel- 
misia, Raotilia, Craspedia), but of these Cclmisia and Raoulia are very feebly 
represented outside New Zealand. One genus (Cassinia) reaches South Africa 
as well as Australia; one (Ahrotanella) occurs in Australia, Tasmania, and 
antarctic South America. The three remaining {Pleurophyllum, Haastia,. 
Br achy glottis) are endemic. Many weeds of cultivation belonging to the order 
have become naturalised in the colony, a list of over 60 species being given in 
the appendix. Most of these are from the Northern Hemisphere, and descrip- 
tions of nearly all will be found in any British Flora. 

Owing principally to the large size and homogeneous character of the order, 
very great difficulty has always been experienced in arranging the species in suit- 
able genera and tribes, and the classification is still in an unsettled state. As 
there are no important differences in the flower and fruit, it becomes necessary 
to use minor characters, such as the shape of the style branches ; the sexual 
differences of the florets composing the heads ; the shape of the corolla ; the 
absence or presence of minute tails to the anthers ; the various modifications of 
the pappus ; and the minute differenced in tiie shape and sculpture of the ripe 
fruit or achene. Considerable practice is required before these distinctions can 
be understood, and a beginner will find it no easy matter to refer the species to 
their proper genera. His best plan will be to induce some friend to name a few 
for him, and then to carefully compare these with the specific, generic, and 



COMPOSITE. 269 

ordinal characters given in this book, or in other works on the flora. By so 
doing he will insensibly acquire a practical knowledge of the characters used in 
distinguishing the species and genera which will ultimately enable him to 
identify them for himself. In using the subjoined key to the New Zealand 
genera it must be remembered that the minute differences in the shape of the 
style-branches, so largely employed to separate the tribes from one another, can 
only be observed in the hermaphrodite florets, the style of tbe female florets 
being very similar throughout the order. 

SuBOKDBR TUBULIFLOEiE. 

Heads with the florets all tubular and hermaphrodite, or with 
the marginal ones alone ligulate and female or neuter. 

Tribe 1. EUPATORIACE^. 

Heads homogamous, florets all tubular, hermaphrodite. Anthers obtuse at 
the base. Style-branches long, obtuse, thickened upwards or club-shaped, 
equally minutely papillose. 

Herb with opposite leaves. Achene 5-angled. Pappus of 

5-10 scales or bristles . . ... . . . . 1. Ageratdm. 

Tribe 2. ASTEROIDE.E. 

Heads heterogamous, radiate or discoid, or with the ray deficient and then 
homogamous. Anthers nearly entire at the base. Receptacle naked. Style- 
branches flattened, produced above the stigmatic margins into a triangular or 
lanceolate papillose appendage. 

A. Female florets ligulate, forming a more or less conspicuous ray. (Ray absent 
in some species of Olearia, and dwarfed in two species of Pleurophyllum.) 

* Pappus wanting, or of minute scales or setae. 

Herbs. Leaves usually radical. Pappus entirely wanting. 

Achene narrowed upwards into a neck or beak . . 2. Lagenophora. 

Herbs. Leaves radical or cauline. Pappus wanting or of 

scale-like bristles. Achene not beaked . . . . 3. Beachycome. 

** Pappus long, copious. 

Shrubs or trees. Scales of the involucre in several series, 
margins scarious. Achenes nearly terete . . . . 4. Olearia. 

Herbs. Leaves all radical, large, many-nerved. Heads 
numerous, racemed . . . . . . . . 5. Pleuro- 

Usually stemless herbs with radical leaves, but steins phyllum. 

sometimes elongated and the leaves cauline. Scapes 
simple ; heads solitary . . , . . . . . 6. Celmisia. 

Branched leafy herb. Heads solitary, terminal. Achene 
much flattened. Style-branches with subulate tips .. 7. Vittadinia. 

B. Female florets tubidar, in many series. 

Alpine woolly herbs. Stems csespitose or compacted into 

hard rounded masses. Heads broad, sessile .. ..8. Haastia. 

Tribe 3. INULOIDE^. 

Heads heterogamous and discoid (rarely radiate in some foreign genera), or 
homogamous through the suppression of the female florets. Anther-cells pro- 
duced at the base into filiform tails. Style-branches linear, obtuse, never 
ending in an appendage. 



270 COMPOSITE. 

A. Female florets fibular, filiform, in from 2 to many series, always outnum- 

bering the hermaphrodite ones. 

Herbs. Heads corymbose or clustered, rarely solitary. 

Pappus-hairs capillary, not barbellate . . . . 9. Gnaphalium. 

B. Female florets tubular, filiform, in 1 or 3 series, sometimes altogether 

wanting, feiuer in number than the hermaphrodite ones (sometimes outnum- 
bering the hermaphrodite ones in Raouliay. 

Herbs, usually alpine. Stems creeping or csespitose, often 
compacted into bard rounded masses. Heads solitary, 
small, sessile. Involucral bracts often white and radiating 10. Raoulia. 

Herbs or small shrubs. Heads solitary or corymbose. 
Pappus-hairs various, often barbellate. Receptacle 
naked .. .. .. .. .. ..11. Helichrysum. 

Shrubs with narrow leaves. Heads corymbose. Recep- 
tacle narrow ; florets few, usually subtended by chaffy 
scales . . . . . . . . . . . . 12. Cassinia. 

Herbs. Flower-heads numerous, aggregated into a globose 
compound head surrounded by scarious bracts. Female 
florets wanting. Receptacle with scales between the 
florets . . . . . . ... . . . . 13. Craspedia. 

Tribe 4. HELIANTHOIDE^. 

Heads heterogamous, usually radiate, rarely discoid, or with the ray deficient 
:and then homogamous. Receptacle with scales among the florets. Anther-cells 
not tailed. Style-branches truncate or furnished with an appendix. Pappus of 
stiff awns or short scales, never of capillary bristles. 

Involucral bracts in two series : outer narrow, glandular, 
spreading ; inner broader, erect, and enclosing the ray- 
florets. Pappus wanting . . . . . . . . 14. Siegesbeckia. 

Involucral bracts in two series, about equal. Pappus of 

2-4 stiff awns . . . . . . . . . . 1.5. Bidens. 

Tribe 5. ANTHEMIDE^. 

Heads heterogamous, radiate or discoid ; or with the ray deficient and then 
homogamous. Involucral bracts dry or scarious at the tips. Receptacle naked 
or paleaceous. Anther-cells without tails. Style-branches truncate. Pappus 
wanting, or a crown of short scales. 

Herbs, usually flaccid or succulent. Heads discoid, pe- 
dunculate ; female corolla short and broad. Achenes 
flattened, often winged . . . . . . . . 16. Cotula. 

Diffuse or prostrate herb. Heads discoid, sessile, axillary. 

Achenes hardly flattened, .3-4-ribbed or -angled . . 17. Centipeda. 

Minute alpine herbs. Leaves entire, fleshy. Heads dis- 
coid. Female corolla tubular. Achene flattened or 
4-angied . . . . . . . . . . . . IS. Abrotanella. 

Tribe 6. SENECIONIDE^. 

Heads heterogamous, radiate or discoid ; or with the ray deficient and then 
homogamous. Involucral bracts usually in a single row, with a few small ones 
at the base. Receptacle usually naked. Anther-cells somatimes sagittate at 
the base, but with no true tails. Style-branches truncate or appendiculate. 
Pappus of capillary bristles. 

Herbs. Heads discoid. Female florets very slender, fili- 
form, in 2-3 series . . . . . . . . . . 19. Erechthites. 



Agcratimi.] coMPosiTiE. 271 

Shrubs. Female florets ligulate ; lamina short, furnished 
at the base with 1 or 2 minute lobes. Achenes terete, 

papillose . . . . . . . . . . . . 20. BRACHYGLOTTISr 

Herbs, shrubs, or trees. Female florets ligulate, never 
filiform . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. Senecio. 

Suborder LIGULIFLOE^. 

Florets all ligulate and hermaphrodite, and hence homogamous. 
Sap milky. Consists of one tribe, Cichorace^. 

Herb with radical leaves. Scapes simple, leafless. Pappus 

of tapering subulate scales, tootVied or plumose above . . 22. Microseris. 

Branched leafy herb. Achene ribbed and transversely 

rugose. Pappus soft, plumose . . . . . . 23. PiCRis. 

Herb with radical leaves (the New Zealand species). 
Achene terete, ribbed. Pappus of simple capillary 
bristles . . . . . . . . . . . . 24. Crbpis. 

Herbs with radical leaves. Scapes simple, leafless. 
Achenes long - beaked. Pappus of simple capillary 
bristles . . . . . . . . . . . . 25. Taraxacum. 

Tall leafy succulent herbs. Achene flat, not beaked. 
Pappus of simple capillary bristles . . . . . . 26. Sonchus. 

1. AGERATUM, Linn. 
Erect herbs or rarely shrubs. Leaves opposite or the upper 
alternate. Heads usually corymbose, homogamous and discoid. 
Involucre campanulate ; bracts 2-3-seriate, linear, subequal. Ee- 
ceptacle flat or nearly so, naked or with deciduous scales among 
the florets. Florets all tubular, hermaphrodite, equal ; corolla-limb 
regularly 5-cleft. Anthers obtuse at the base. Style-branches 
elongate, obtuse. Achenes 5-angled. Pappus of 5 free or connate 
scales, or of 10-20 narrower ones. 

A small genus of about 18 species, confined to America with the exception 
of the following one, which is universally spread through all warm regions. 

1. A. conyzoides, Linn. Sp. Plant. 839. — A stout erect branch- 
ing annual herb 1-3 ft. high, more or less clothed with spreading 
hairs. Leaves opposite, 1-3 in. long, i— 2in. broad, ovate, obtuse or 
subacute, petiolate, crenate or crenate-serrate. Flower-heads small, 
•|-in. diam., in dense terminal corymbs. Involucre nearly glabrous ; 
bracts striate, acute, in about 2 rows. Florets numerous, blue or 
white. Achenes black, glabrous or slightly hispid. Pappus of 
5 awned lanceolate scales. — D.G. Prodr. v. 108 ; Benth. Fl. 
Austral, iii. 462 ; Cheesem. Trans. N.Z. Inst. xx. (1888) 169 ; Kirk, 
Students Fl. 256. 

Kermadec Islands: Abundant, T. F. C, Miss Shakespear ! Wild 
Heliotrope. 

2. LAGENOPHORA, Cass. 
Small perennial herbs. Leaves often all radical. Scapes 
slender, unbranched. Heads solitary, small, heterogaraous. Invo- 
lucre short, almost hemispherical ; bracts in about two rows, with 



272 COMPOSITE. [Lagenophora. 

dry or scarious margins. Eeceptacle convex, naked. Eay-florets 
in 1-3 series, female, fertile, ligulate or rarely short and tubular ; 
ligule usually white. Disc-florets numerous, hermaphrodite, tubu- 
lar, with a broad 5-toothed limb. Anthers obtuse at the base. 
Style-branches of the disc-florets long, flattened, with lanceolate or 
triangular tips. Achenes compressed, abruptly contracted at the top 
into a more or less distinct beak ; those of the disc-florets often 
narrower and sterile. Pappus wanting. 

A small genus of about 16 species, mainly found in Australia and New 
Zealand, but with outlying species in eastern Asia, the Sandwich Islands, and 
extra-tropical South America. 

Glabrate or pilose. Leaves mostly radical ; petioles slender; 

blade orbicular or broadly oblong. Heads J-^ in. diam. 

Achenes small, nearly straight .. .. ..1. L. Forsteri. 

Glabrate or pilose, slender. Leaves mostly radical ; petioles 

slender ; blade orbicular or obovate. Heads ^-J in. diam. 

Achenes larger, curved or falcate .. .. ..2. L. j^etiolata. 

Scaberulous. Leaves mostly cauline ; petioles slender ; blade 

oblong- spathulate. Heads |-^ in. diam. . . . . 3. L. Barkeri. 

Glabrate or pilose. Leaves mostly cauline ; petioles slender ; 

blade ovate. Achene oblanceolate . . . . . . 4. i/. imrpurea. 

Softly hirsute. Leaves all radical ; petiole broad, flat ; blade 

obovate, pinnatifid. Heads J- J in. diam. .. ..5. L. pinnatifida. 

Leaves hirsute, all radical ; petioles short, broad ; blade 

oblong- spathulate. Heads ^— J in. diam. Achene glabrous 6. L.laiiata. 

L. linearb, Petrie in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xxv. (1893) 471, is Brachycome lineata. 
Kirk. L. empliysopns, Hook. f. , an Australian species, has become naturalised 
on Banks Peninsula and near Wellington. It has the habit, fleshy roots, and 
hirsute leaves of L. lanata, bvit can at once be distinguished by the short stouc 
scapes and almost tubular ray-florets. 

1. L. Forsteri, D.C. Prodr. v. 307. — A small daisy-like herb, 
either tufted or with creeping and rooting stolons furnished with 
tufts of radical leaves at the nodes. Leaves all radical or cauline, 
li— 2in. long; petiole long, slender; blade -§-1 in., orbicular or 
orbicular-oblong to obovate, obtuse, narrowed into the petiole, 
coarsely crenate-dentate or almost lobed, almost glabrous or more 
or less hirsute. Scape 1-6 in. long, slender, naked or with 1-3 
minute linear bracts. Heads ^^ in, diam. ; involucral bracts 
linear, acute ; margins thin, scarious, entire or finely jagged. 
Ray-florets numerous ; ligules white, revolute. Achenes small, 
linear-obovate, straight or very slightly curved, abruptly narrowed 
into a short hardly viscid beak; mai"gins thickened. — A. Cttnn. 
Precur. n. 436 ; Baoul, Choix, 45 ; Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 125 ; 
Handb. N.Z. Fl. 137 ; Kirk, Students Fl. 256. Calendula pumila, 
Forst. Prodr. n. 305. MicrocaHa austrahs, A. Bich. Fl. Nouv. Zel. 
231, t. 30. 

KeEMADECIsLANDS, NOETH AND SoUTH ISLANDS, StEWAET ISLAND, CHATHAM 

Islands: Abundant throughout, ascending to 3000ft. Papatanhvlianiivlia ; 
Native Daisy. October-February. 

A variable plant, very closely connected vyith the three following species. 



LagenopJiora.] composite. 273 

2. L. petiolata, Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 125.— Habit of 
L. Forstcri, but smaller and much more slender. Leaves usually 
radical, spreading, ^1^ in. long ; petiole slender, half the length or 
more ; blade variable in shape, obovate to orbicular, sometimes 
broader than long, obtuse, rather thin, acutely coarsely toothed 
with the teeth apiculate, more or less hairy on looth surfaces, often 
purplish beneath. Scape very slender, strict, 2-6 in. long, usually 
hirsute. Heads small, ^-^in. diam. ; involucral bracts linear, 
acute, often purplish at the tips ; margins scarious. Eay-fiorets 
numerous ; ligule very narrov^, revolute. Achenes rather longer and 
more turgid than in L. Forstcri, linear-obovate, curved or falcate, 
slightly glandular above, narrowed into a rather long beak ; margins 
thickened. — Handb. N.Z. Fl. 137 ; Kirk, Students' Fl. 257. 
L. strangulata, Col. in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xxii. (1890) 471. 

Var. minima, Cheesem. — Very small, ^2 in. high. Leaves with the petiole 
^-1 in. long, membranous, dentate, sometimes lobed or pinnate at the base. 
Scapes filiform. Heads small. — L. Forsteri var. minima, Kirk, I.e. 

North and South Islands, Stewart Island : Not uncommon from the 
Upper Thames and Waikato southwards, ascending to 4000 ft. November- 
January. Var. minima : Moist rocks by the side of streams ; Bay of Islands to 
Te Aroha. 

Very closely allied to L. Forsteri, but separated by the more slender habit, 
smaller and thinner leaves, smaller heads with shorter and narrower rays, and 
longer and narrower curved achenes. Mr. Kirk places the var. minima under 
L. Forsteri, but to me it appears much nearer to L. petiolata. 

3. L. Barker!, Kirk, Students' Fl. 257. — Stems leafy, slender, 
erect, 3-9 in. high. Leaves cauline, usually gradually diminishing 
in size upwards, 1-2 in. long; petiole about half the length ; blade 
obovate-spathulate to narrow oblong-spathulate, obtuse or sub- 
acute, gradually narrowed into the petiole, coarsely crenate-dentate, 
scaberulous on both surfaces. Scape shorter or longer than the 
leafy part of the stem, scaberulous and pilose. Head ■^— |-in. diam. ; 
involucral bracts linear, acute, thin, often purplish. Eay-florets 
numerous; ligules white, revolute. Eipe achenes not seen. 

South Island : Nelson — Sphagnum swamps in the Clarence Valley and near 
Lake Tennyson, T. F. C. Canterbury— By the Porter River, Kirk ! Craigie- 
burn Mountains, Cockayne ! Cass River, near Lake Tekapo, T. F. C. 1500- 
3500 ft. December-January. 

Far too closely allied to L. Forsteri, from which it only differs in the leafy 
stems, narrower scaberulous leaves, and (according to Kirk) in the linear short- 
beaked achenes. 

4. L. purpurea, Kirk, Students' Fl. 257. — " Stems leafy below, 
naked above, erect, slender, grooved, 4-6 in. high, pubescent or 
puberulous. Leaves (including the petiole) liin. long, membran- 
ous, ovate, radical and cauline, rather distant, truncate at the base, 
rounded at the apex, serrate or crenate-serrate, teeth apiculate, 
pubescent on both surfaces, ciliate, purple beneath. Heads -J— | in. 



274 COMPOSITE. [Lagenophora^ 

diam. ; iavolucral bracts in about 3 rows, linear, acute, with scarious 
margins, keeled, midrib distinct, often tipped with purple. Achenes 
oblanceolate, compressed, with a rather long beak and thin margins." 

South Island : Otago — Catlin's Eiver, Kirk ! 

This appears to be founded on three immature specimens in Mr. Kirk's 
herbarium, and in the absence of additional information I have reproduced his 
description. It is probably nothing more than a large state of L. petiolata. 

5. L. pinnatifida, Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zei. i. 126.— Softly hairy 
or pilose in all its parts. Leaves all radical, spreading, 1-3 in. long, 
narrow obovate-oblong or obovate-spathulate, obtuse at the tip, 
narrowed into a long broad petiole, membranous, deeply crenate- 
lobed or almost pinnatifid ; margins ciliate. Scapes 3-10 in. long, 
slender. Heads ^-^in. diam. ; mvolucral bracts linear, acute, pubes- 
cent. Eay-florets numerous ; ligules narrow, revolute. Achenes 
compressed, obliquely linear-obovate, narrowed to the base, suddenly 
contracted at the tip into a short straight neck, more or less glan- 
dular-pubescent ; margins thickened. — Handb. N.Z. Fl. 137 ; Kirk, 
Students Fl. 258. 

North Island : Auckland, Sinclair ; sandhills near Helensville, T. F. C. ; 
East Cape, Colenso ! South Island : Nelson- Wairau Valley, Kirk ! T. F. C. ; 
Marlborough, Rough! Canterbury, Sinclair and Haast ; Upper Waimakariri, 
T.F.C.; Ota.go, Lindsay, Buchanan! Peine! Sea-level to over 2000ft. 
December-January. 

6. L. lanata, A. Czonn. Precur. n. 437. — Root -fibres stout, 
fleshy, almost tuberous. Leaves numerous, all radical, densely 
tufted, 1-1^ in. long, oblong- or obovate-spathulate, obtuse or sub- 
acute, narrowed into a rather short broad petiole, coriaceous, 
coarsely and irregularly crenate-dentate, both surfaces hirsute 
or villous with copious soft hairs. Scapes 2-7 in. long, slender, 
wiry, erect, glabrous or nearly so, naked or with a few minute 
linear bracts. Heads J^in. diam.; involucral bracts linear, 
obtuse or subacute, glabrous, purple - tipped ; margins scarious. 
Ray -florets numerous; ligules short, revolute. Achenes quite 
smooth, slightly falcate, compressed, narrowed at the base, suddenly 
contracted at the top into a short curved neck ; margins thickened. 
—Baoul, Choix, 45 ; Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 126 ; Handb. N.Z, 
Fl. 137 ; Kirk, Students Fl. 258. 

North Island : Dry clay hills from Mongonui southwards to the Auckland 
Isthmus ; not common. 

Easily distinguished by the hirsute leaves and glabrous scapes and achenes. 

3. BRACHYCOME, Cass. 
Small perennial herbs ; either tufted with radical leaves and 
1-headed scapes, or the stems branched, elongated, and clothed 
with alternate cauline leaves. Heads heterogamous, usually 
radiate. Involucre hemispherical or nearly so ; bracts in about 
2 series, with scarious margins. Receptacle convex or conical. 



Brachycovie.] composite. 275 

naked. Eay-florets in one series, numerous, female, ligulate. Disc- 
florets numerous, hermaphrodite, tubular, limb more or less dilated, 
5-toothed. Anthers obtuse at the base. Style-branches of the 
disc-florets flattened, with lanceolate or triangular tips. Achenes 
compressed, with winged margins, or thick and obtusely 4-angled. 
Pappus a ring of short scale-like bristles or altogether wanting. 

The genus has its headquarters in Australia, where there are nearly 
40 species. In addition to those, and the five following found in New Zealand, 
there is one from tropical South Africa and another from Assam. 

* Stemless. Leaves all radical. 
Minute, perfectly glabrous. Leaves narrow-linear, ^-1 in. 

long. Heads jij in. diam. .. .. .. ..1. B. lineata. 

Leaves ^-l^in. long, narrow linear-spathulate, closely and 

uniformly pinnatifid . . . . . . . . 2. B. pinnata. 

Leaves ^-3 in. long, oblong- or obovate-spathulate, rarely 

narrower, entire toothed or lobed . . . . . . 3. i>. Sinclairii. 

** Stems branched from the base. Leaves radical and cauline. 

Stems 2-4 in. Leaves few, ^-lin., oblong-spathulate, 

unequally 3-8-lobed. Heads |-J^ in, .. .. ..4. B. odorata. 

Stems 3-12 in. Leaves numerous, 1-3 in., oblong-spathu- 
late, coarsely toothed or lobed. Heads ^ in. diam. .. 5. B. TJiomsoni. 

B. swiplicifolia, J. B. Armstr. in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xiii. (1881) 338, is quite 
■unknown to me, and there are no specimens in any public collection in the 
colony. It probably does not belong to the genus. 

1. B, lineata, T. Kirk, Students' Fl. 259.— A minute tufted 
plant i-l^ in. high, perfectly glabrous in all its parts. Leaves 
numerous, all radical, J-1 in. long, about J^ in. wide, broadest to- 
wards the tip, obtuse or subacute, narrowed to the base, which is 
slightly broader and sheathing, flat, quite entire. Scapes 2-5, 
slender, strict, naked, elongating in fruit, about twice as long as the 
leaves. Heads solitary, small, jV^i'&i'^- diam. ; involucral bracts 
^bout 8, oblong-ovate, with broad purple scarious margins. Eay- 
florets few ; ligules short, white, revolute. Achenes verv small, 
pale, compressed, linear-obovate, obtuse, quite smooth and glabrous. 
Pappus wanting. — Lagenophora linearis, Petrie in Trans. N.Z Inst. 
XXV. (1893) 271. 

South Island : Grassy fiats near Lake Te Anau, Petrie! January-Feb- 
ruary. 

A curious little species, quite unlike any other. 

2. B. pinnata, Hook. f. Handh. N.Z. Fl. 138. — Ehizome stout, 
creeping, branched, ascending at the tips. Leaves radical, -I- l|in. 
long, linear or narrow linear-spathulate, deeply and closely pinnati- 
fid ; segments broadly oblong or rounded, coriaceous, entire, flat or 
concave beneath, glabrous or minutely glandular-pubescent. Scapes 
2-6 m. long, slender, naked, glandular -pubescent. Heads -J- in. 
-diam. ; involucral bracts oblong, pubescent; margins purple, scarious 



276 COMPOSITE. [Br achy come ^ 

and often jagged. Achenes obovate, glabrous ; margins thickened. 
Pappus of very minute scales. — Kirk, Students' Fl. 259. B. radi- 
cata var. b, Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 127. 

South Island: Canterbury Plains — Near Burnham, Kirk! between 
Springfield and the Kowai Eiver, T. F. C. Stewart Island : Lyall (Hand- 
book). December- January. 

Although this has a very difierent appearance from the ordinary state of 
B. Sindaini, some varieties of that plant approach it so closely as to be almost 
indistinguishable. 

3. B. Sinclairii, Hook. f. Handb. N.Z. Fl. 137.— An exceed- 
ingly variable perennial herb 1-12 in. high, glabrous or more or 
less glandular-pubescent. Ehizome short, stout, branched, ascend- 
ing at the tip. Leaves all radical, -I— 3 in. long, oblong- or obovate- 
spathulate to linear-spathulate, rounded at the tip, gradually 
narrowed into a rather broad flat petiole, coriaceous or almost mem- 
branous, sometimes slightly fleshy, entire or variously toothed or 
lobed or even pinnatifid. Scapes 1 or several, strict, 1-12 in. high, 
glabrous or more or less glandular, naked or -with 1-2 minute linear 
bracts. Heads very variable in size, -I— fin. diam. ; involucral 
bracts oblong to linear, obtuse or subacute, glabrous or glandular- 
pubescent ; margins thin, purplish or whitish, usually jagged. 
Eay-florets numerous ; ligules very variable in length. Achenes 
much compressed, narrow-obovate, usually glabrous, margins 
slightly thickened. — Kirk, Students' Fl. 260. 

North Island : Mountainous districts from the East Cape southwards, but 
rare and local. South Island : Abundant in mountain districts throughout. 
1000-6000 ft. December-February. 

Very variable in the size and shape of the leaves, and in their being entire, 
toothed, or lobulate, or even pinnatifid ; but the variations are not constant, and 
entire and lobulate leaves can often be found on the same plant. The heads 
also vary greatly in size. 

4. B. odorata, Hook. f. Handb. N.Z. Fl. 138. — Ehizome 
stout, creeping, branched, ascending at the tips. Stems 2-4 in. 
lono-, erect or ascending, branched from the base, more or less 
pubescent or glandular, as are the leaves, scapes, and involucres. 
Leaves few, i— 1 in. long, including the slender petiole ; blade 
oblono- or obovate-spathulate, obtuse, deeply and unequally 3-8- 
lobed. Peduncles terminating the branches, 1-3 in. long, rather 
slender. Heads J- ^-in. diam.; involucral bracts oblong, obtuse. 
Eay-florets with short ligules. Achenes linear-clavate, densely 
^landular-pubescent. — Kirk, Students Fl. 260. B. radicata, Hook.f. 
'fl. Nov. Zel. i. 127 (in part). 

North Island : Kaweka, Hawke's Bay, H. Tryon ! Patea, Wellington, 
Colenso ! Eoniu. 

Of this species there are three specimens in Mr. Colenso's herbarium, and I 
have also seen a single specimen collected by Mr. Tryon. Mr. Colenso states 
that the plant was prized by the Maoris on account of its fragrance, and that the 
flowers were often strung like daisies and worn round the neck. 



Br achy come.'] composite. 277 

5. B. Thomsoni, T. Kirk in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xvi. (1884) 372, 
t. 27. — Ehizorae stout, creeping, branched. Stems 3-12 in. long, 
stout, branched from the base, decumbent or ascending, densely 
glandular-pubescent, as are the leaves, scapes, and involucres. 
Leaves numerous, radical and caulme, 1-2 in. long, oblong- or 
obovate-spathulate, obtuse, narrowed into a very broad flat petiole, 
coarsely bluntly toothed or lobed or almost pinnatifid. Peduncles 
terminating the branches, 3-6 in. long or more, stout, somewhat 
rigid, naked or with a solitary linear bract. Heads about i in. 
diam. ; involucral bracts oblong or oblong-ovate, obtuse, with purple 
tips. Ray-florets usually numerous, but sometimes wanting in re- 
duced states ; rays white, spreading. Achenes linear-clavate, 
densely glandular-pubescent ; margins thickened. Pappus of minute 
bristly scales. — Students' Fl. 260. 

Var. membranifolia, Kirk, I.e. 261. — More slender and less branched, 
and not so glandular. Leaves 1-3 in. long, membranous; petioles longer and 
more slender. 

Var. polita, Cheesem. — Usually glabrous, except the peduncles. Stems 
very slender, simple or sparingly branched, leafy at the base. Leaves 1-3 in., 
vpry thin and membranous. Heads rather smaller. — B. polita, Kirk, Students' 
Fl. 261. 

South Island : Otago— Cape Whanbrovy, Kirk ! Petrie ! near Green 
Island, Petrie. Stewart Island : Common on the coast, G. M. Thomson ! 
Petrie ! Kirk ! Var. membranifolia : Mount Arthur Plateau, Nelson, T. F. C. 
Var. polita: Arthur's Pass, Kirk! Cockayne! Sea-level to 4000ft. De- 
cember-January. 

A very variable plant, only separated from B. odorata by the much larger 
size and coarser habit and larger heads. It has the same strong fragrance. 

4. OLEARIA, Mcench. 
Shrubs or trees. Leaves alternate, rarely opposite or fascicled, 
usually with white or buff tomentum beneath. Heads lar^e or 
small, sohtary or corymbose or paniculate, radiate or rarely discoid. 
Involucre broad or narrow; bracts imbricated in several rows, 
margins dry or scarious. Receptacle flat or convex, pitted. Florets 
few or many, rarely solitary ; ray-florets female, in a single row, 
usually ligulate, spreading, rarely slender and filiform or altogether 
wanting ; disc-florets hermaphrodite, tubular, 5-lobed. Anthers 
often acute at the base or with minute tails, rarely obtuse. Style- 
branches flattened, with short obtuse or rarely lanceolate append- 
ages. Pappus of one or more rows of unequal scabrid bristles, 
often thickened at the tips. Achenes ribbed or striate, terete or 
slightly compressed. 

In addition to the 35 species found in Nevs^ Zealand, all of v/hich are 
endemic, there are about 70 others, confined to Australia and Tasmania with 
the exception of 2 recorded from Lord Howe's Island. The genus is very closely 
allied to Aster, with which the late Baron von Mueller proposed to unite it, to- 
gether with Celmisia and several other genera. 



.278 COMPOSITE. [Olearia. 

A. Heads large, 1-3 in. diam., solitary or racemed. 

* Heads radiate, very large, solitary on a long naked peduncle. 

Leaves 4-6 in. long, oblong or obovate, entire. Heads 
2-.3 in. diam. .. .. .. .. ..1. 0. insignis. 

** Heads radiate, solitary on bracteate peduncles (racemed in 0. Traillii). 

Leaves 1^-2^ in., linear or linear-lanceolate. Peduncle 

slender. Rays purple . . . . . . . . 2. 0. seviidentata. 

Leaves 1-3 in., elliptic - lanceolate to oblong - obovate. 

Peduncles slender. Rays purple or white . . ..3.0. chathamica. 

Leaves 2-4 in., obovate- lanceolate. Peduncles stout; 
bracts numerous, short, close-set. Rays white ; disc- 
florets yellow . . . . . . . . ..4.0. operina. 

Leaves 3-5 in., narrow- lanceolate. Peduncles stout; 
bracts lax, long, foliaceous. Rays white ; disc-florets 
purple . . . . . . . . • . • . . 5. 0. angustifolia. 

Leaves 3-6 in., lanceolate or obovate-lanceolate. Heads 

racemed. Rays white ; disc-florets purple . . . . 6. 0. Traillii. 

*** Heads discoid, racemed. 

Leaves 2-6 in., obovate or obovate-oblong, acutely serrate 7. 0. Colensoi. 
Leaves 4-8 in., orbicular-ovate, doubly crenate .. ..8. 0. Lyallii. 

B. Heads small, ^J in. diam., panicled or corymbose (solitary in 0. nummulari- 

folia). Florets 6-24. 

* Leaves opposite. 

Leaves 1^-2^ in., oblong. Panicles axillary. Heads dis- 
coid . . . . • . • • • . . . 9. 0. Traversii. 
Leaves 2-4 in., elliptic-lanceolate. Heads radiate .. 10. 0. Biiclianani. 

"* Leaves alternate, large, 1^-4 in. long (less in O. siiavis), ovate to oblong, 
more rarely linear-oblong or oblong-lanceolate, entire or toothed or waved. 

Leaves 2-4 in., ovate-oblong, obtuse, coriaceous, shining 

beneath. Florets 6-12 .. .. .. ..11. O. furfuracea. 

Dwarf shrub. Leaves 1-2 in., oblong-ovate, excessively 

coriaceous, silvery beneath. Heads ^ in. diam. Florets 

15-20 .. .. .. .. .. ..12. 0. Alloniii. 

Leaves 1^-3 in., broadly ovate, acute, rather thin, satiny 

beneath. Florets 15-20 . . . . . . . . 13. 0. nitida. 

Leaves 2-4 in., broadly ovate, coriaceous, sharply and 

coarsely toothed . . . . . . . . . . 14. 0. macrodonta. 

Leaves 2-4 in., linear-oblong or lanceolate, coriaceous, 

spinous-toothed . . . . . . . . . . 15. 0. ilicifolia. 

Leaves 2-Gin., broadly ovate, rather thin, toothed, white 

with soft, tomentum beneath . . . . . . 16. 0. Cunninghamii 

Leaves lj-3^in., oblong - lanceolate, acute, obscurely 

sinuate-dentate .. .. .. .. ..17. 0. excorticata. 

Leaves f-lj in., linear-oblong or oblong, obtuse, entire or 

obscurely sinuate . . . . . . . . . . 18. 0. suavis. 

*** Leaves alternate, 3-7 in. long, linear or narrow-linear; lateral veins con- 
spicuous beneath, at right angles to the midrib. 

Leaves 3-7 in., ^-1 in. broad, linear or narrow-linear, ferru- 
ginous beneath . . . . . . . . . . 19. 0. lacunosa. 

Leaves 5-6 in., | in. broad, very narrow-linear . . . . 20. 0. alpina. 



Olearia.] 



COMPOSITE. 



279 



**** Leaves alternate, small, ;|-ljin. long (longer in 0. oleifolia), coria- 
ceous, quite entire. 

Leaves J-gin., obovate-oblong, clothed with soft white 

tomeiitum beneath. Florets 12-20 . . . . . . 21. 0. moschata. 

Leaves ^1| in., oblong or oblong- ovate. Florets 8-10 .. 22. 0. Haastii. 

Leaves 1-3 in., lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate. Florets 4-8 23. 0. oleifolia. 

Leaves ^-f in., ovate or orbicular-ovate, excessiveh' thick 

and coriaceous. Heads unknown .. .. .. 24. 0. coriacea. 

Leaves ^-^in., orbicular to oblong. Heads solitary. 

Florets 6-12 .. .. .. .. .. 25. 0. numvmlari- 

folia. 

C. Heads small, ^-J in. long, narrow, cylindrical, panicled. Florets few, 1-5, 

rarely more. Leaves large, 1^-iin., alternate. 
Leaves 1^-2^ in., elliptic, obtuse, undulate. Florets 3-5.. 26. 0. angulata. 
Leaves 2-4 in., oblong or ovate-oblong, white beneath, 
often undulate. Florets 3-6 . . . . . . 27. 

Leaves 2-4 in., elliptic-lanceolate, acute, flat. Florets 2-3 28. 



Leaves 1^-3 in., oblong or oblong-ovate, obtuse, undulate. 
Florets never more than one 



0. albida. 
0. avicennice- 
folia. 



29. 0. Forsteri. 



D. Heads small, ^in. long, croioded in axillary sessile glomerules. Leaves small, 
alternate or in alternate fascicles. 

Leaves |-1^ in., elliptic-oblong or -lanceolate 



.. 30. 0. fragrantis- 

sima. 

Leaves opposite or in opposite 



E. Heads small, ^-J in. long, solitary or fascicled, 
fascicles, small, ^-l^in. long. 

Leaves f-l^ m., obovate to linear-obovate, thin, membran- 
ous. Heads fascicled on slender pedicels. Florets 20-25 31. 0. Hectori. 

Leaves ^-lin., linear - spathulate, coriaceous. Heads 
fascicled ; pedicels short. Involucre viscid and glandu- 
lar. Florets 20-35 . . .. .. .. ..32. 0. odorata. 

Leaves ^-lin., linear - spathulate, coriaceous. Heads 
fascicled ; pedicels slender. Involucre tomentose, not 
viscid. Florets 6-8 . . . . . . . . 33. 0. laxiflora. 

Leaves :|-Jin., linear-obovate, white beneath. Heads 
solitary or fascicled, shortly pedicelled or sessile. 
Florets 5-12 . . . . . . . . . . 34. 0. virgata. 

Leaves ^-^in., linear or linear-obovate, yellowish beneath. 
Heads solitary, terminating short lateral branchlets. 
Florets 8-20 . . . . . . . . . . 35. 0. Solandri. 

Olearia rigida. Col. in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xx. (1888) 194 ; Kirk, Students' Fl. 
271, is proved by the type specimen in Mr. Colenso's herbarium to be Senecio- 
Bidwillii, Hook. f. In a similar manner 0. xaiUhophylla, Col. I.e. 193, is shown 
to be Cassinia VativilUersii, Hook. f. 



1. O, insignis, Hook. f. FL Nov. Zel. ii. 331. — A low robust 
spreading shrub 1-6 ft. high, rarely more ; branches stout, densely 
tomentose. Leaves crowded at the ends of the branches, 3-7 in. 
long, 1-4 in. broad, oblong or oblong - ovate or narrow-obovate, 
obtuse, equal or unequal at the base, quite entire, excessively thick 
and coriaceous, glabrous and shining above, under-surface thickly 



280 COMPOSITE. [Olearia. 

clothed with white appressed tomentum, becoming fulvous or red 
when dry, veins evident on both surfaces; petiole ^2 in. long, 
stout. Peduncles 1-5 at the ends of the branches, 4-12 in. long, 
stout, evenly tomentose, naked or with a few foliaceous bracts im- 
mediately below the head. Head large, hemispherical, 2-3 in. 
diam. ; involucral scales imbricated in many series, tomentose. 
Eay - florets very numerous ; ligules narrow, white. Disc-florets 
yellow. Pappus of one series of equal scabrid hairs thickened at 
the tips. Achenes long and slender, silky. — Handh. N.Z. Fl. 125 ; 
Bot. Mag. t. 7034; Kirk. Students' Fl. 266. O. marginata, CoL. in 
Trans. N.Z. Inst. xv. (1883) 321. 

South Island : Marlborough, from Blenheim southwards to the Conway 
and Mason Rivers. Sea-level to 4000 ft. December-January. 

A very handsome and remarkable plant, quite unlike any other species. It 
departs widely from the typical Olearias in the large broadly ovoid involucre 
with the bracts in very many series, and in the pappus of perfectly equal hairs. 

2. O. semidentata, Dene, ex Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 115. — A 
small sparingly branched shrub 1-3 ft. high ; branches slender, 
straggling, more or less clothed with white floccose tomentum. 
Leaves numerous, close-set, ascending or spreading, 1|— 2|^ in. long, 
i-^in. broad, lanceolate or linear-lanceolate, acute, gradually 
narrowed to a sessile base, somewhat distantly serrate towards the 
tip, glabrous above or slightly cottony when young, white with 
appressed floccose tomentum beneath. Peduncles crowded towards 
the tips of the branches, slender, tomentose, equalling or exceeding 
the leaves, clothed with numerous small lanceolate bracts. Heads 
solitary, 1-1^ in. diam. ; involucral scales in about 3 series, acute, 
cobwebby at the tips. Eay-florets ligulate, purple ; disc-florets 
violet - purple. Achenes linear, grooved, slightly pubescent. — 
Hook. f. Handh. N.Z. Fl. 124 ; B^ich. in Trans. N.Z. Inst. vh. 
(1875) 336, t. xiv. ; Kirk, Students' Fl. 264. Eurybia semidentata, 
F. Muell. Veg. Ghath. Is. 21. 

Chatham Islands : Abundant in moist places, near the margin of woods, 
<fec. Hangatare. November-December. 

A beautiful little plant, easily recognised by its small size, narrow leaves, 
slender peduncles, and purple flowers. I am indebted to Mr. Cockayne for a 
very interesting series of specimens showing the range of variation in the size 
and shape of the leaves. See his paper on " The Plant-covering of Chatham 
Island," Trans. N.Z. Inst, xxxiv. 288, for some remarks on the subject. 

3. O. chathamica, T. Kirk in Trans. N.Z. Inst, xxiii. (1891) 
444. — A rather stout branching shrub 3-6 ft. high ; branches, 
leaves beneath, and peduncles densely clothed with soft white 
tomentum. Leaves 1-3 in. long, ^l^in. broad, very variable in 
shape, lanceolate or elliptic-lanceolate to oblong-ovate or oblong- 
obovate, acute, narrowed into a short broad petiole, very thick and 
coriaceous, closely serrate with short blunt callous teeth ; midrib 
and chief veins usually visible beneath. Peduncles few at the tips 



Olearia.] composite. 281 

of the branches, usually exceeding the leaves ; bracts few, linear 
or lanceolate. Heads solitary, large, li-lf in. diam. ; involucral 
scales more or less concealed with white cobwebby tomentuni. 
Eay-florets ligulate, white or purplish ; disc-florets violet-purple. 
Achenes linear, curved, slightly pubescent. — Students' Fl. 264. 
O. operina, Hook. f. Handb. N.Z . Fl. 731 (in part). O. angusti- 
folia, var., Hook./., ex Buch. in Trans. N.Z. Inst. vii. (1875) 336, t. 15. 

Chatham Islands : In swampy places on the higher parts of the island 
and on cliffs, H. H. Travers ! Enys ! Cox ! Keketerehe. November- 

February. 

This comes very near to 0. operina and 0. angustifolia, but is sufficiently 
distinct in the broader leaves and more slender pedunclts with fewer bracts. 

4. O. operina, Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 114. — A stout sparingly 
branched shrub 6-12 ft. high ; branches, leaves beneath, peduncles, 
and inflorescence densely clothed with soft white tomentum. 
Leaves often crowded at the tips of the branches, spreading, 2-4 in. 
long, l^-f in. broad, narrow obovate-lanceolate, acuminate, gradually 
narrowed into a short winged petiole, rigid, very thick and coria- 
ceous, glabrous above ; margins with numerous close blunt teeth 
with callous tips. Peduncles crowded at the ends of the branches, 
1-3 in. long, stout, densely clothed with numerous closely imbricat- 
ing lanceolate or linear obtuse bracts. Heads large, 1-1^ in. diam. ; 
involucral scales in 2-3 series, tomentose. Eay-florets white ; disc- 
florets yellow. Achenes |-in. long, linear, conspicuously ribbed, 
silky.— Handh. N.Z. Fl. 124 ; Kirk, Students' Fl. 264. Arnica 
operina, Forst. Prodr. n. 299. 

Var. robusta, Kirk, Students' Fl. 265. — Branches short, stout. Leaves 
shorter and broader, with more deeply toothed margins. Peduncles shorter and 
stouter. 

South Island : Sounds of the south-west coast, from Martin's Bay to 
Preservation Inlet ; abundant. December-January. 

5. O. angustifolia, Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 115. — A stout 
branching shrub or small tree 6-20 ft. high ; branches, leaves 
beneath, and peduncles clothed with soft white tomentum. Leaves 
8-5 in. long, i— |in. broad, narrow-lanceolate, acuminate, narrowed 
to the base, sessile, extremely rigid and coriaceous, glabrous and 
glossy above, irregularly finely crenate-dentate, teeth with hard 
callotis points ; midrib and principal nerves evident below. Pe- 
duncles crowded at the ends of the branches, stout, shorter than 
the leaves, clothed with laxly imbricating foliaceous bracts, white 
beneath. Heads large, li^-2in. diam.; involucral scales in two 
series, the outer densely tomentose. Ray -florets white; disc- 
florets purple. Achenes linear, grooved, silkv. — Handh. N.Z. Fl. 
124; Kirk, Forest Fl. t. 138; Students' Fl. 265. 

South Island : Puysegur Point, Kirk ; near the Bluff Hill, Aston. 
Stewaet Island : Sea-coast south of Paterson's Inlet, Lyall, Kirk ! Petrie !' 
Thomson ! Titi-a-weka. November-December. 



282 COMPOSITE. [Olearia. 

A very hixnclsome plant, distinguished from 0. operina by the larger size, 
narrower and longer leaves with .the veins evident beneath, large foliaceous 
bracts, and larger heads with deep-purple disc-florets. The flowers are highly 
fragrant. 

6. O. Traillii, T. Kirk in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xvi. (1884) 372.— A 
shrub or small tree 10-15 ft. high or more ; branches stout, densely 
clothed with soft white tomentum. Leaves crowded at the tips of 
the branches, spreading, 3-6 in. long, l-l|^in. broad, lanceolate or 
narrow obovate-lanceolate, acuminate, gradually narrowed into a 
short broad petiole, very thick and coriaceous, glabrous above or 
slightly cottony when young, clothed with white tomentum beneath ; 
margins irregularly doubly crenate - dentate. Eacemes terminal, 
erect, 4-10 in. long, 3-8-headed ; bracts large, leafy, 1-2 in. long; 
rhachis, peduncles, and under-surface of bracts white with ap- 
pressed tomentum. Heads lin. diam. ; involucral scales in 2-3 
series, linear, scarious, villous at the tips. Eay-florets shortly 
ligulate, white ; disc-florets violet-purple. Achenes linear, grooved, 
silky.— i^oresi Fl. t. 142 ; Students' Ft. 265. 

Stewart Island : Near the sea in the southern part of the island, rare and 
local, Kirk ! November-December. 

A very fine plant, closely allied to 0. Colensoi, but easily separated by the 
narrower leaves and rayed flower-heads. 

7. O. Colensoi, Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 115, t. 29.— A stout 
closely branched shrub 4-10 ft. high, more rarely forming a small 
tree 15-30 ft. or more, with a trunk 12-24 in. diam. Leaves spread- 
ing, variable in size and shape, 2-6 in. long, obovate or obovate- 
oblong to oblong-lanceolate or obovate-lanceolate, acute or rarely 
obtuse, narrowed into a short stout petiole, excessively thick and 
coriaceous, acutely irregularly serrate or doubly serrate, glabrous 
and shinitig above when mature, cottony when young, under-sur- 
face clothed with dense white appressed tomentum. Eacemes 
several at the tips of the branches, tomentose, 3-8 in. long, bearing 
4-10 pedicelled heads ; bracts loosely placed. Heads f-lin. diam., 
discoid, dark brownish-purple ; involucral scales in 1-2 series, 
linear, glabrous or villous at the tips. Florets all tubular ; female 
in a single row, corolla usually 3-lobed ; hermaphrodite broader, 
€ampanulate above. Achenes grooved, silky. — Handb. N.Z. FL 124 ; 
Kirk, Forest Fl. 102 ; Students' Fl. 265. 

North Island : Mount Hikurangi, Ruahine Mountains, Tararua Moun- 
tains, alt. 3000-5500 ft. South Island : Common on the mountains on the 
western side of the Island, descending to sea-level in the sounds of the south- 
west coast. Stewart Island : Abundant from sea-level to the tops of the hills. 
Tupari. December-January. 

A very handsome plant. On the mountains it usually forms a densely 
branched shrub, but at low levels on Stewart Island it attains the dimensions 
of a small tree. 



Olearia.] composite. 283 

8. O. Lyallii, Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zcl. i. 116.— A robust 
shrub or small tree, sometimes reaching the height of 30 ft., 
with a trunk 18-24 in. diam. ; branches stout, spreading, densely 
tomentose. Leaves 4-8 in. long (or more in young plants), elliptic- 
ovate or orbicular-ovate, abruptly acuminate, shortly petiolate, 
excessively rigid and coriaceous, white with floccose tomentum above 
but becoming glabrous when old, under-surface densely clothed with 
soft white wool ; margins irregularly doubly crenate. Racemes 
terminal, stout, 4-8 in. long ; rhachis, pedicels, and bracts clothed 
with snow-white wool. Heads large, discoid, lj-l|^in. diam., dark- 
brown ; involucral scales numerous, in 4-8 series, linear, villous at 
the tips. Achenes densely silky. — Handh. N.Z. Fl. 125; Kirk, 
Students' Fl. 266. Eurybia' Lyallii, Hook.f. Fl. Antarct. ii. 543. 

The Snares : Abundant, Kirk ! Auckland Islands : Apparently rare, 
Lyall, Bolton, Kirk ! 

A magnificent plant, nearly related to 0. CoUnsoi, but at once distinguished 
by the open and far more robust habit, larger and broader leaves, which are 
tomentose on the upper surface as well as beneath, and by the scales of the 
involucre being in several series. 

9. O. Buchanani, T. Kirk, Students' Fl. 267. — An erect shrub or 
small tree ; branchlets as chick as a goose-quill, reddish, glabrous. 
Leaves opposite, 2-4 in. long, elliptic-lanceolate, obtuse, gradually 
narrowed into a short petiole, quite entire, flat, glabrous above, 
clothed with thin appressed whitish tomentum beneath ; veins 
finely reticulated above, obscure beneath. Heads small, Jin. long, 
in rather loose branched axillary corymbs about equalling the 
leaves ; pedicels slender, pubescent. Involucral scales 8-10, pu- 
bescent at the tips. Florets of the ray 3-4, ligulate ; of the disc 
about 4, campanulate above. Achenes short, grooved, pubescent. 

North Island : Buchanan ! The exact locality not known. 

Founded on a single specimen in Mr. Kivk's herbarium stated to have been 
collected by Mr. Buchanan in the year 1870 in some locality in the North 
Island. It is evidently a distinct species, not closely related to any other. 
It and 0. Traversii are the only species found in New Zealand with large 
opposite leaves. 

10. O. Traversii, Hook.f. Handh. N.Z. Fl. 731.— A small tree 
15-30 ft. high, with a trunk 1-2 ft. diam.; bark pale, furrowed; 
branches tetragonous, clothed with appressed silky tomentum, as 
are the leaves beneath, branches of the inflorescence, and invo- 
lucres. Leaves opposite, l^-2|-in. long, oblong or ovate-oblong 
to broadly ovate, acute or apiculate, shortly petiolate, quite en- 
tire, flat, glabrous above or slightly silky when young. Panicles 
numerous, axillary, much - branched, shorter or longer than the 
leaves. Heads numerous, small, Jin. long, discoid; scales of the 
involucre few, linear-oblong, obtuse or subacute. Florets 5-15 ; 
outer ones female, with a minutfe tubular corolla with an oblique 
mouth ; central hermaphrodite, campanulate above ; style-branches 



'284 COMPOSITE. [Olearia. 

very short. Pappus 1-seriate. x\chenes striate, silky. — Kirk. 
Forest Fl. t. 34; Students' Fl. 267. Eurybia Traversii, F. 3IuelL 
Veg. Chath. Is. 19, t. 2. 

Chatham Islands: Abundant in woods. Akeake. October-Novem- 
ber. 

A well-marked plant, easily recognised by the opposite leaves, axillary 
panicles, and discoid heads. 

11. O. furfuracea, Hook. f. Handb. N.Z. Fl. 125.— A much- 
branched shrub or small tree 8-20 ft. high ; branches stout, spread- 
ing ; younger ones terete or grooved, velvety-pubescent. Leaves 
alternate, 2-4 in. long, 1^2-|- in. broad, variable in shape, oblong or 
elliptic -oblong to ovate -oblong or broad -ovate, obtuse or rarely 
acute, rounded and often unequal at the base, coriaceous, glabrous 
above, beneath clothed with densely appressed smooth and silvery 
tomentum ; margins flat or undulate, entire or remotely sinuate- 
toothed ; veins reticulated on both surfaces or obscure beneath ; 
petiole stout, ^-1 in. long. Corymbs large, much-branched, on long 
slender peduncles. Heads very numerous, ^ in. long, narrow- 
turbinate ; scales of the involucre in several series, imbricate, 
oblong, villous or fimbriate. Florets 5-12 ; ray-florets 2-5, with 
a short broad ray; disc-florets 3-7. Pappus-hairs often thickened 
and fimbriate at the tips, outer hairs short. Acheues small, faintly 
striate, pubescent. — Kirk, Stibdents Fl. 267. Eurybia furfuracea, 
D.G. Prodr. v. 267 ; Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 117. Haxtonia fur- 
furacea, A. Gunn. Prccur. n. 440. Shawia furfuracea, Baoul, 
Choix, 45. Aster furfuraceus, A. Rich. Fl. Xonv. Zel. 246. 

North Island : Abundant from the North Cape to Hawke's Bay and Tara- 
naki. Wharangipiro ; Akepiro. November-February. 

A very common plant to the north of the East Cape, varying greatly in the 
size, shape, and texture of the leaves, the size of the flower-heads, and the num- 
ber of florets. Two forms may perhaps be distinguished, one with broad heads 
containing 8-12 florets, the other with much narrower heads and 4 to 8 florets. 
To this state Mr. Kirk gives the varietal name of angustata. 

12. O. AUomii, T. Kirk in Trans. N.Z. Inst. iii. (1871) 179.— 
A dwarf sparingly branched shrub 1-3 ft. high; branches stout, and 
with the inflorescence and leaves beneath clothed with smooth and 
shining silvery tomentum. Leaves alternate, rather close-set, 1-2 in. 
long, f-liin. wide, oblong-ovate or elliptic-ovate, obtuse, truncate 
or rounded and often unequal at the base, shortly petiolate, exces- 
sively thick and coriaceous ; veins reticulated above, midrib pro- 
minent below. Corymbs longer than the leaves, branched. Heads 
large, |- in. diam., or even more when fully expanded; involucre 
broadly turbinate ; scales laxly imbricate, tomentose, obtuse. 
Elorets 15-20 ; rays about 8. Pappus-hairs unequal. Acheues 
grooved, hispid. — Students' Fl. 271. 

North Island : Great Barrier Island, not uncommon, ascending to 2500 ft., 
Kirk ! November-December. 



'Olearia.] composite. 285 

Differs from furfuracea in the much smaller size, smaller close-set 
excessively rigid and coriaceous leaves, and especially in the much larger heads 
v^ith twice the number of florets. I have a plant from Castle Hill, Coromandel, 
which resembles it in foliage, but forms a large shrub 12 ft. high. A similar 
form has been gathered by Petrie at Mercury Bay. But both of these have 
few-fiowered heads only slightly larger than those of the typical state of 0. 
furfuracea, and are best placed under that species. 

13. O. nitida, Hook. f. Handb. N.Z. Fl. 125. — A much-branched 
shrub 3-12 ft. high, rarely more ; branches stout or slender, often 
angular. Leaves alternate, variable in size, 1^3^in. long, broadly 
ovate or elliptic-ovate, acute or acuminate, rounded and often 
unequal at the base, coriaceous or almost membranous, clothed 
with appressed white and satiny tomentum beneath ; margins 
distinctly or obscurely sinuate-dentate, rarely entire ; petiole 
^1 in. long. Corymbs large, rounded, much-branched, very effuse ; 
branches slender, silky-pubescent. Heads numerous, ^— J in. long, 

• obconic ; scales of the involucre laxly imbricating ; the outer ovate, 
pubescent or villous; the inner linear, fimbriate or sparingly silky. 
Florets 15-20; ray-florets 7-10, with a short broad ray. Pappus- 
hairs unequal, dirty-white or reddish. Achenes short, broad, silky. 
—Kirk, Skidents' Fl. 268. 0. populifolia. Col. in Trans. N.Z. 
Inst. xvii. (1885) 213. O. suborbiculata, Col. I.e. xviii. (1886) 
263. 0. erythropappa. Col. I.e. xxii. (1890) 468. 0. multiflora. Col. 
xxvii. (1895) 387. Eurybia nitida. Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 117. 
E. alpina, Lindl. and Paxton, Floiu. Gard. ii. 84. Solidago ar- 
borescens, Forst. Prodr. n. 298; A. Fdch. Fl. Nouv. Zel. 252. 
Steiractis arborescens, D.C. Prodr. v. 345. Shawia arborescens, 
Baoul, Choix, 45. 

Var. cordatifolia, Kirk, Students' Fl. 2G8. —Leaves orbicular, cordate at 
the base, very coriaceous. Heads broadly obconic ; involucral scales densely 
woolly, inner villous at the tips. Florets about 20 ; those of the ray with long 

• and narrow ligules. 

Var. angustifolia, Cheesem. — Leaves 2-3J in. long, linear-lanceolate to 
lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, almost membranous, margins sinuate. Corymbs 
lax, much-branched. Heads large, Jin. long; rays long and narrow. 

Var. capillaris, Kirk. I.e. — Small, stout or slender, densely or sparingly 
branched. Leaves small, ;J-1 in. long, ovate or rounded, membranous or sub- 
coriaceous, silky above when young. Heads 3-12, in sparingly branched" corymbs 
longer than the leaves ; pedicels very slender ; involucral scales glabrate or 
slightly villous. Florets 8-12.— 0. capillaris, Buch. in Trans. N.Z. Inst. iii. 
1871) "212. 

NoETH AND South Islands, Stewart Island : Not uncommon from the 
East Cape and Taupo southwards. Sea- level to 4000 ft. November-Janu- 
ary. Var. cordatifolia: Stewart Island, Kirk! Var. angustifolia : Ohiue- 
muri Gorge, Thames Valley, T. F. C, Petrie! Var. capillaris: Mount Egmont, 
Adams and T. F. C. ; Nelson mountains, H. H. Trovers ! Ball ! source of the 
Poulter Kiver (Canterbury), Cockayne ! 

Perhaps the most variable species of the genus, but generalh* to be recog- 
nised in all its forms by the thin white and peculiarly satiny tomentum on the 
■under-surface of the leaves. 



286 COMPOSITE. [Olearia^ 

14. O. macrodonta, Baker in Gard. Chron. (1884) i. 604. — A 
shrub or small tree 5-20 fc. high, with a strong musky fragrance ; 
branchlets clothed with closely appressed tomentum. Leaves 
alternate, 2-4 in. long, 1-1|^ in. broad, ovate or ovate-oblong to 
narrow-oolong, acute or acuminate, rounded or rarely truncate at 
the base, rigid and coriaceous, silky above when young but 
becomiug glabrous when mature, beneath clothed with closely 
appressed white tomentum ; margins waved, coarsely and sharply 
toothed ; veins at an obtuse angle to the midrib. Corymbs large, 
rounded, much-branched. Heads numerous, j—J^ in. long, cam- 
panulate ; scales of the involucre few, pubescent or villous. Florets 
8-12 ; ray-florets 3-5, ligules short and narrow ; disc-fiorets 4-7. 
Pappus-hairs unequal, dirty-white or reddish. Achenes short, 
grooved, pubescent. — Bot. Mag. t. 7065 ; Kirk, Students Fl. 268. 
0. dentata, Hook. f. Handb. N.Z. Fl. 126 (not of Mcench.). Eurybia 
dentata -yar. oblongifoiia, Hook.f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 118. 

NoETH AND South Islands : In mountain districts from the East Cape 
and Taupo southwards. 1500-4000 ft. January-February. 

A distinct species, at once recognised by the large coarsely toothed leaves. 

15. O. ilicifolia, Hook. f. Handb. N.Z. Fl. 126. — Size and 
habit of 0. macrodonta, and with the same musky fragrance. 
Branchlets stout, sometimes almost glabrous. Leaves alternate, 
2-4 in. long, linear or linear-oblong or lanceolate, acute or 
acuminate, truncate or more rarely rounded at the base, rigid and 
coriaceous, usually clothed with thin yellowish-white tomentum 
beneath ; margins much and deeply waved, sharply serrate-dentate, 
teeth hard and spinous ; veins spreading at right angles. Inflores- 
cence and heads much as in 0. macrodonta. — Kirk, Students FL 
269. Eurybia dentata var. linearifolia, Hook.f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 118. 
0. multibracteoiata, Col. m Trans. N.Z. Inst. xvii. (1885) 242. 

Var. mollis, Kirk, Students' Fl. 269. — Young branchlets, inflorescence, and 
leaves beneath densely clothed with laxly appressed white or yellowish-white 
tomentum. Leaves rounded at the base, with much smaller, softer, and less 
spinous teeth ; veins more prominent beneath. 

North and South Islands, Stewart Island : In mountam districts from 
the East, Cape and Taupo southwards. Sea-level to 4000 ft. January- 
February. Var. mollis: 'Nelson, Dall ! Teremakau Valley, Westland, Peirie .' 
Cockayne ! 

In its oi'dinary state this has a very different appearance to 0. macrodonta, 
but intermediates are not uncommon. 

16. O. Cunninghamii, Hook. f. Handb. N.Z. Fl. 126.— A shrub 
or small tree 8-25 ft. high ; branches, inflorescence, petioles, and 
leaves beneath clothed with soft white or buiif tomentum. Leaves 
alternate, 2-6 in. long, very variable in shape, broadly ovate or 
elliptical to oblong or linear-oblong, acute or rarely obtuse, rounded 
or narrowed at the base ; margins irregularly coarsely toothed ;; 



Olearia.] compositje. 287 

petioles stout or slender, i— 1^ in. long. Panicles very large, wide- 
spreading, much-branched. Heads numerous, |~|- in. diam., cam- 
panulate ; scales of the involucre in several series, lanceolate or 
■ovate-lanceolate, obtuse or subacute, tomentose or villous or nearly- 
glabrous. Florets 12-24 ; ray-florets the most numerous ; ligules 
short, broad. Pappus-hairs white or reddish, unequal. x\chenes 
quite glabrous or rarely with a few scattered hairs. — Kirk, Forest 
Fl. t. 114 ; Students' Fl. 269. Eurybia Cunninghamii, Hook. f. Fl. 
Nov. Zel. i. 117, t. 30. Brachvglottis Eani, A. Cwin. Precur. 
n. 465. 

Var. colorata, ATm/c, Students' Fl. 269. — Leaves narrower, oblong-lanceolate 
to lanceolate. Otherwise as in the type. — 0. colorata. Col. in Trans. N.Z. Inst. 
xii. (1880) 362. 

North and South Islands : Abundant in woods from the North Cape to 
Marlborough and Nelson. Sea-level to 2500 ft. Heketara. October- 
November. 

A very variable plant. The leaves are sometimes coarsely toothed and ac 
other times almost entire ; the involucral scales vary from linear-oblong and 
densely tomentose to linear and almost glabrous. Mr. Kirk describes the var. 
colorata as having the scales nearly glabrous, but they are densely tomentose in 
Mr. Colenso's type specimens and in all others that I have seen. 

17. O. excorticata, Buck, in Trans. N.Z. Inst. vi. (1874) 241.— 
A small much-branched shrub or small tree 12-15 ft. high, with a 
■trunk 1ft. in diam.; bark loose, papery ; branchlets grooved, and 
with the panicles, petioles, and leaves beneath clothed with dirty- 
white or buff tomentum. Leaves alternate, 1^4 in. long, ^1 in. 
broad, lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, acute or acuminate, shortly 
petiolate, coriaceous, glabrous and finely reticulated above ; lateral 
veins spreading, but hardly at right angles ; margins flat, obscurely 
sinuate-dentate. Panicles longer than the leaves, branched, corym- 
bose ; pedicels slender, densely tomentose. Heads numerous, small, 
^-iin. long ; involucre narrow-turbinate ; outer scales small, ovate, 
tomentose ; inner linear-oblong, obtuse, villous at the tips. Florets 
about 12 ; ray-florets 5-7. Pappus-hairs slender, in one series. 
Achenes grooved, hispid.— Z'i'r A;, Students' Fl. 270. 

North Island : Tararua Mountains, Mitchell ! Mount Holdsworth, T. P. 
Arnold ! South Island : Mr. H. J. Matthews has sent specimens from a culti- 
vated plant raised from seed obtained in the Nelson District. 

18. O. suavis, Glieesem. in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xxiv. (1892) 409. 
— A densely branched shrub or small tree 6-18 ft. high; branches 
stout ; branchlets, panicles, and under-surface of leaves clothed 
with pale - yellowish or fulvous tomentum. Leaves alternate, 
f-li-in. long, ^-f in. broad, Imear-oblong or oblong to ovate, obtuse 
at both ends, shortly petiolate, coriaceous or almost membranous, 
entire or obscurely sinuate, glabrous above ; lateral veins conspi- 
cuous beneath, spreading almost at right angles. Panicles much 
longer than the leaves, slender, corymbose, much-branched; pedi- 



288 COMPOSITJE. [Oleaxia. 

eels slender, tomentose. Heads numerous, small, |-iin. long; 
involucre turbinate ; scales few, lax, linear-oblong or lanceolate, 
pubescent or villous. Florets 6-10 ; florets of the ray 3-6. Pap- 
pus-hairs in one series. Achenes linear, striate, pubescent. — Kirk, 
Skidents' Fl. 272. 

South Island: Nelson — Mountains behind CoUingwood, Dall! Mount 
Arthur Plateau, r.ii'.C. 3000 4500ft. January. 

A well-marked plant, distinguished by the pale fulvous tomentum, oblong 
obtuse leaves, and small heads collected in slender much-branched panicles. 

19. O. lacunosa, Hook. f. Hanclh. N.Z. Fl. 732. — A stout 
branching shrub or small tree 5-15 ft. high ; branchlets, panicles, 
petioles, and leaves beneath densely clothed with pale ferruginous 
tomentum. Leaves alternate, 3-7 in. long, ^1 in. broad, narrow- 
linear or linear-lanceolate to linear-oblong, acute or acuminate, 
shortly petioled, quite entire or obscurely sinuate-toothed, coria- 
ceous, glabrous and reticulated above ; midrib very stout and 
prominent beneath, lateral veins strong, spreading at right angles 
and dividing the under-surface into numerous sunken interspaces; 
margins recurved. Panicles towards the tips of the branches, 
branched, slender, forming a corymbose mass 4-8 in. diam. Heads 
numerous, small, ^in. diam., on slender pedicels; involucre tur- 
binate ; scales few, laxly imbricate, tomentose or villous. Florets 
small, 8-12, about half of them shortly raved. Achenes grooved, 
silky.— Kirk, Students Fl. 270. 

South Island : Nelson — Heaphy River and mountains at the source of the 
Aorere, Dall! source ot tlie Takaka, Mount Arthur Plateau, Mount Owen, 
T. F. C.; Mount Murchison, Townson! Lake Rotoroa, Travers. Canterbury — 
Harper's Pass, Haast ; Poulter River, Cockayne ! Westland — Teremakau 
Valley, Pc^rie .' 3000-4500 ft. January-February. 

A well-marked plant, easily known by the large linear leaves clothed with 
rusty tomentum beneath, and transversely rugose from the numerous main 
veins spreading at right angles to the midrib. 

20. O. alpina, buck, in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xix. (1887) 215. — A 
shrub or small tree 8-12 ft. high, with a trunk 6-8 in. diam.; 
branches, leaves below, and inflorescence covered with pale-buff or 
brown tomentum. Leaves 5-6 in. long, ^in. broad, linear, entire; 
midrib very stout, lateral veins close, diverging at right angles, 
forming a series of lacunje on each side of the midrib. Panicles 
large, much - branched. Heads numerous ; involucre turbinate. 
Flowers not seen. Pappus-hairs reddish. — Kirk, Students Ft. 270. 

North Island : Wellington— Tararua Mountains and hills towards Wa- 
nganui, Buclianan. 

I have seen no specimens of this, and the above description is adapted from 
Buchanan's. It is evidently near to 0. lacunosa, but appears to have narrower 
leaves. 



Olearia.] composite. 289 

21. O. moschata, Hook. f. Handb. N.Z. Fl. 127. — A much- 
branched shrub 4-12 ft. high, with a strong musky fragrance; 
branches stout, spreading ; branchlets, inflorescence, and leaves 
beneath clothed with soft white densely appressed tomentum. 
Leaves alternate, close-set, ■^— |in. long, obovate-oblong, obtuse, 
narrowed into a very short petiole, quite entire, coriaceous, glabrous 
•or slightly pubescent above, veins altogether concealed below ; 
margins flat. Corymbs small, lax or compact, on long axillary 
peduncles much exceeding the leaves ; pedicels slender, tomentose. 
Heads few, ^in. long, campanulate or broadly turbinate; scales of 
the involucre in few series ; the outer short, ovate, obtuse, tomen- 
tose ; the inner linear-oblong, obtuse, pubescent or nearly glabrous. 
Florets 12-20; ray-florets 6-12, rather long. Achenes ribbed, silky. 
—Kirk, Students' Fl. 271. 

South Island : Canterbury — Arthur's Pass, Kirk ! Upper Rakaia, 
Haast ! Rangitata Valley, Potts ; Mount Cook district, abundant, Haast, 
T. F. C. ; Lake Ohau, Buchanan ! Otago — Lake district, Hector and Buchanan ! 
Humboldt Mountains, Mount Tyndall, Clinton Saddle, Petrie ! 2000-4500 ft. 
January-February. 

A distinct species, easily separated from its immediate allies by the small 
obovate leaves, soft white tomentum, and broad many-flowered heads. 

22. O. Haastii, Hook. f. Handb. N.Z. FL 126.— A much- 
branched shrub 4-8 ft. high ; branches stout, hoary with white 
pubescence. Leaves alternate, crowded, ^-1-^in. long, oblong or 
oblong-ovate to elliptic-oblong, obtuse at both ends, shortly petioled, 
very coriaceous, glabrous and shining above, clothed with white 
appressed tomentum beneath ; lateral veins obscure, spreading, but 
hardly at right angles. Corymbs numerous, lax or compact, on 
long naked peduncles much exceeding the leaves. Heads nu- 
merous, J— ^in. long; involucre cylindric ; scales imbricated, pale 
straw-colour ; outer smaller, broadlj' ovate, slightly pubescent ; 
inner much larger, linear-oblong, obtuse, nearly glabrous. Florets 
8-10 ; ray-florets 3-5, short, broad. Achenes narrow, grooved, 
pubescent.— £oi. Mag. t. 6592 ; Kirk, Students' Fl. 272. 

Sooth Island : Canterbury— Kowai River, Petrie ! T. F. G. ; Upper 
Rakaia, Haast ; Rangitata Valley, Potts ! Ohau Glacier, Haast. 1500- 
4500 ft. December-January. 

23. O. oleifolia, T. Kirk in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xi. (1879) 463.— 
A much-branched shrub 5-8 ft. high ; branches crowded, erect or 
ascending ; branchlets grooved, hoary with fine appressed pubes- 
cence. Leaves alternate, 1^-3 in. long, |— ^in. wide, lanceolate or 
oblong-lanceolate, erect, acute or subacute, shortly petioled, very 
coriaceous, glabrous and finely reticulated above, clothed with 
white appressed tomentum beneath ; veins obscure. Corymbs 
broad, rather lax, on slender naked peduncles much exceeding 
the leaves. Heads numerous, J— ^ in. long ; involucre cylindric ; 
scales imbricate ; the outer smaller, slightly tomentose ; the inner 

10— Fl. 



290 COMPOSITE. [Olearia. 

longer, linear-oblong, almost glabrous or pubescent at the tips. 
Florets 4-8; raj'-florets 2-4, short, broad. Achenes grooved, pubes- 
cent. — Students' Fl. Til. 0. angustata, Armst. in Trans. N.Z. Inst. 
xiii. (1881) 337. 

South Island : Canterbury — Ashburton Mountains, Potts ! Upper Rangi- 
tata, Armstrong ! Otago — Eesolution Island and Preservation Inlet, Enys ! 
1500-3500 ft. January. 

Only differs from 0. Haastii in the more erect habit and longer and 
narrower leaves. Intermediate forms have been collected, but the usual aspect 
of the plant is distinct. 

24. O. (?) coriacea, Kwk, Students' Fl. 276. — A sparingly- 
branched rigid shrub 6-8 ft. high ; branches erect or ascending, 
rather stout, pubescent. Leaves alternate, -l-f in. long, ovate or 
orbicular-ovate, obtuse, shortly petiolate, excessively thick and 
coriaceous, glabrous above, white with appressed tomentum 
beneath ; margins recurved. Flowers not seen, but the peduncles 
of the previous year's inflorescence are about twice as long as the 
leaves, and are apparently branched at the top. 

South Island : Marlborough — ^Awatere Valley and Mount Fyfle, Kirk ! 

Apparently a very distinct species, the exact position of which must remain 
doubtful until flowering specimens have been obtained. 

25. O. nummularifolia, Hook.f. Ilandb. N.Z. Fl. 127.— A much 
and closely branched shrub 2-10 ft. high ; branches stout, woody, 
scarred ; younger ones often viscid, more or less clothed with 
whitish or yellowish stellate tomentum or almost glabrous. Leaves 
alternate, close-set, erect or spreading, i— |in. long, almost orbi- 
cular to broadly oblong or obovate, rounded at the tip, very shortly 
petiolate, excessively thick and coriaceous, shining and reticulate 
above, clothed with appressed stellate tomentum beneath ; margins 
recurved. Heads ^— |m. long, solitary, on axillary peduncles longer 
or shorter than the leaves. Involucre narrow-turbiuate ; scales in 
several series, closely imbricating, tomentose or pubescent or 
almost glabrous ; outer short and broad ; mner linear, obtuse. 
Florets 6-12 ; ray-tiorets 3-5, rather broad. Achenes pubescent. — 
Kirk, Students' Fl. 273. O. Hillii, Col. in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xx. 
(1888) 194. Eurybia nummularifolia, Hook.f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 118. 

Var. cymbifolia, Hook. f. Eandb. N.Z. Fl. 7-32. — Leaves spreading or de- 
flexed, oblong, obtuse, convex above, margins much revolute all round, hence 
boat-shaped with the cavity beneath ; more or less clothed with white stellate 
tomentum. Heads as in the typical form, but scales usually more tomentose. 

North and South Islands : Mountain districts from the East Cape and 
Taupo to Foveaux Strait, but local to the south of Lake Wanaka. Altitudinal 
range from 2000 ft. to 4500 ft., but descending to sea-level in Colac Bay, South- 
land. Var. cymhifolia : Mountain districts in the South Island, but local ; 
most plentiful in Nelson and Marlborough. 

A variable plant, especially in the size and shape of the leaves, the extent 
to which the leaf-margins are revolute, the size of the heads, and the number 
of florets. There is a specimen in Mr. Petrie's herbarium with the heads col- 
lected in 3-5-flowered corymbs. 



■Olearia.] coMPOSiTiE. 291 

26. O. angulata, T. Kirk in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xiii. (1881) 384. 
— A much-branched shrub 8-12 ft. high ; branches short, spreading, 
grooved, ahiiost hoary. Leaves alternate, 1|— 2|- in. long, 1 in. broad, 
oblong or broadly elliptic, rounded at the apex, truncate at the base, 
shortly petioled, coriaceous, clothed with appressed white tomentum 
beneath ; margins undulate. Panicles spreading, exceeding the 
leaves. Heads ^in. long; involucral scales laxly imbricating; the 
lower farinose ; the upper linear, obtuse, ciliate or pubescent. 
Florets 3-5. Pappus-hairs unequal. Achenes strigose. — Students' 
Fl. 273. 

North Island : Spirits Bay, North Cape district. Kirk ! April-May. 

This only differs from O. albida in the shorter and broader much more 
waved leaves, and, in my opinion, would have been best treated as a form of 
that plant. 

27. O. albida, Hook. f. Handh. N.Z. B'l. 128.— A small tree 
10-20 ft. high ; branchlets grooved, more or less hoary with white 
tomentum. Leaves alternate, quite entire, 2-4 in. long, oblong or 
ovate-oblong, obtuse or subacute, rounded or narrowed at the base, 
petioiate, coriaceous, farinose above when young, glabrous when 
old, clothed with soft white appressed tomentum beneath ; margins 
undulate or nearly flat. Panicles large, broad, with spreading 
branches ; pedicels short, tomentose or farinose. Heads numerous, 
J in. long, subcylindric; involucral scales imbricate, farinose or to- 
mentose ; the outer short, obtuse ; the inner linear-oblong, often 
ciliate. Florets 3-6 ; ray - florets 1-3. Pappus - hairs unequal, 
thickened at the tips. Achenes linear, grooved, pubescent. — Kirk, 
Students Fl. 273. Eurybia albida. Hook. f. FL Nov. Zel. i. 118. 

North Island : North Cape to Taranaki and the East Cape, usually near 
the sea, but not common. April-May. 

28. O. avicennisefolia, Hook. f. Handh. N.Z. Fl. 127. — A 
small branching tree 8-20 ft. high ; branchlets grooved and angular, 
more or less hoary with fine white tomentum. Leaves alternate, 
quite entire, 2-4 in. long, elliptic-lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, 
subacute, narrowed into a rather long petiole, coriaceous, glabi'ous 
above, clothed with thin closely appressed white or buff tomentum 
beneath ; veins finely reticulated, conspicuous on both surfaces ; 
margins flat. Corymbs large, much-branched, long-peduncled, 
usually exceeding the leaves. Heads very numerous, small, J— ^in. 
long, narrow ; involucre cylindric ; scales few, imbricate, glabrous 
or minutely pubescent. Florets 2 or 3, rarely 4 ; ray-florets 1 or 
rarely 2, sometimes wanting. Pappus-hairs in one series. Achenes 
silky.— Z^irA;, Forest Fl. t. Ill ; Students Fl. 274. Eurybia avi- 
cenuiaefolia, Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 120. Shawia avicenniaeiolia, 
Baoul, Choix, 19. 

South Island, Stewart Island : Abundant throughout, ascending to 
3000 ft. Akcake. January-February. 



292 coMPOSiTiE. [Olearia. 

29. O. Porsteri, Hook. f. Haiidb. N.Z. Fl. 127.— A much- 
branched shrub or small tree 8-20 ft. high ; branchlets grooved and 
angular, tomentose. Leaves alternate, 1^3 in. long, oblong or 
ovate-oblong or broadly ovate, obtuse, shortly petiolate, coriaceous, 
glabrous above, clothed with thin closely appressed vphite tomentum 
beneath ; veins finely reticulate ; margins usually strongly un- 
dulate. Corymbs branched, peduncles usually shorter than the 
leaves. Heads sessile and fascicled on the branches of the corymb, 
small, narrow, ^-lin. long. Involucre cylindric ; scales few, 
imbricate, glabrous or nearly so ; outer small, broadly ovate ; inner 
much longer, linear - oblong, obtuse. Florets always solitary, 
tubular, hermaphrodite. Pappus-hairs numerous, in one series. 
Achenes rather broad, pubescent. — Kirk, Forest Fl. t. 137. 0. 
uniflora. Col. in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xxii. (1888) 469. Eurybia 
Forsteri, Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 119. Shawia paniculata, 
Forst. Char. Gen. 95, t. 48; A. Rich. Fl. Nonv. Zel. 243; 
A. Cunn. Precur. n. 434; Baoul, Choix, 18, t. 13; Kirk, Students^ 
FL 217. 

Var. elliptlca, Kirk, I.e. — Leaves narrower, linear-oblong or elliptic-oblong. 

North and South Islands : From the East Cape southwards to Oamaru 
and Greymouth ; often local, usually near the coast. Sea-level to 1500 ft. 
Akiraho. April-May. 

The heads never contain more than one floret, which is invariably tubular 
and hermaphrodite. On account of the constancy of this character Mr. Kirk 
has proposed to revive Pcrster's genus Shawia, but, I think, quite unnecessarily. 
In O. avicennicBfolia the florets are sometimes reduced to 2, and occasionally 
there is no ray-floret, thus absolutely bridging over the gap between 0. Forsteri 
and the remaining Olearia. 

30. O. fragrantissima, Petrie in Trans. N.Z. Inst, xxiii. (1891) 
398. — An erect much-branched shrub 6-15 ft. high or more; bark 
dark red-brown or almost black ; branches rigid, flexuous or 
zigzag, finely grooved. Leaves distant, alternate, f-l|in. long, 
elliptic-lanceolate to elliptic-oblong or -ovate, acute, narrowed into- 
a rather slender petiole, membranous, glabrous above, clothed with 
rather lax silky tomentum beneath ; margins flat, quite entire. 
Inflorescence of alternate sessile glomerules -J-f in. diam., each con- 
taining 8-12 nearly sessile heads I in. long, each head with a 
woolly bract at its base. Involucral bracts in 2 or 3 series, 
oblong, obtuse, densely woolly. Florets 4-8, yellowish ; ray-florets 
2-5, short and broad. Achenes grooved, silky. — Kirk, Students' Fl. 
274. 

South Island : Canterbury — Lake Forsyth, Kirk ! Otago — Otago Heads, 
Buchanan! Petrie! near Dunedin, Catlin's River, Petrie! November- 
December. 

A very distinct species, remarkable for the heads being congested into- 
globose fascicles or glomerules. The flowers are deliciously fragrant, smelling 
like ripe peaches. 



Olearia.] composite. 293 

31. O. Hectori, Hook. f. Handb. N.Z. Fl. 128. — An erect 
much - branched deciduous shrub 5-15 ft. high ; branches slender, 
grooved, glabrous ; bark dark red-brown. Leaves in opposite fas- 
cicles, variable in size and shape, f- l^in. long, linear-obovate or 
linear-spathulate to oblong or obovate, obtuse, narrowed into a 
slender petiole, thin and membranous, glabrous above when mature, 
silky when young, beneath clothed with thin silvery tomentum ; 
margins flat, entire. Heads in opposite fascicles of 2-5 ; peduncles 
|— |in. long, slender, drooping, silky. Involucre broad and shallow, 
cup-shaped ; bracts in 2 series, lax, spreading, linear-oblong or 
-obovate, obtuse, woolly. Florets 20-25 ; ray-florets 12-17, small, 
with a narrow ray ; disc-florets about 8, much larger, mouth funnel- 
shaped. Achenes linear-obovoid, grooved, silkv. — Kirk, Students' 
FL 274. 

South Island: Marlborough — Pelorus Sound, Rutland! Canterbury — 
Bankrt Peninsula, J. B. Arjyistrong. Otago — Lake district. Hector and 
Buchanan ; Kaitangata, Catlin's River, Invercargill, Kawarau Gorge, Matuki- 
tuki Valley, Petrie ! Sea-level to 2500 ft. October-November. 

32. O. odorata, Petrie in Trans. N.Z. Inst, xxiii. (1891) 399.— 
An erect much -branched shrub 6-12 ft. high; branches divaricat- 
ing, stout, terete, grooved. Leaves opposite, usually fascicled, 
^1 in. long, linear-spathulate or linear-obovate, rounded at the tip, 
narrowed into very short petioles or almost sessile, coriaceous, 
glabrous or silky above, clothed with soft white tomentum beneath ; 
margins flat, entire. Heads in opposite fascicles of 2-5 on short 
arrested branchlets ; peduncles short, stout, silky. Involucre 
broadly campanulate ; bracts in 3-4 series, linear-oblong, obtuse, 
dark-brown, viscid and glandular. Florets numerous, 20-35 ; ray- 
florets 8-18, short ; corolla of disc-florets viscid and glandular. 
Achenes silky. — Kirk, Students' Ft. 275. 

South Island : Mountain districts in Canterbury, Westland, and Otago ; 
not uncommon. 1000-3000 ft. January-February. 

Closely allied to 0. virgata, but distinguished by the terete branchlets, 
larger leaves, many-flowered heads, and viscid and glandular involucral bracts. 

33. O, laxiflora, T. Kirk, Students Fl. 275. — A large erect 
much-branched shrub 6-12 ft. high ; branches slender, divaricating, 
sometimes almost pendulous, terete or obscurely tetragonous. 
Leaves opposite or in opposite fascicles, ^-lin. long, narrow linear- 
spathulate or linear-oblong, obtuse, narrowed into very short 
petioles, coriaceous, glabrous above, beneath clothed with closely 
appressed white tomentum. Heads numerous, 5-15, in opposite 
fascicles on short arrested branchlets ; peduncles slender, fin. long, 
glabrate or silky. Involucre campanulate ; bracts few, lax, linear- 
oblong, villous at the tips. Florets 6-8 ; ray-florets 3-4, broad. 
Achenes grooved, silky. 

South Island : Westland— Hokitika, H. Tipler ! 



294 COMPOSITE. [Olearia. 

Very similar to 0. odorata in habit and appearance, liut the fascicles are 
larger and much more lax, the peduncles longer, the involucral bracts not viscid 
nor glandular, and the florets much fewer in number. 1 have only seen two 
specimens. 

34. O. virgata, Hook. f. Handh. N.Z. Fl. 128. — An erect much- 
branched shrub 4-10 fc. high, often forming dense thickets ; branches 
spreading, stout or slender, tetragonous or ahnost terete, smooth or 
grooved, glabrous or pubescent when young; bark dark red-brown. 
Leaves opposite or in opposite fascicles, i-^in. long, linear-obovate 
or linear-spathulate, obtuse, narrowed into a short petiole or sessile, 
coriaceous, glabrous or silky above, clothed with white appressed 
tomentum beneath. Heads solitary or fascicled, on short arrested 
opposite branchlets, shortly pedunculate or almost sessile. In- 
volucre broadly turbinate ; bracts in about 3 series, linear-oblong, 
tomentose or villous or ahnost glabrous. Florets 5-12 ; ray- 
florets 3-6, short, slender ; disc-florets often with villous tips to 
the corolla-lobes. Achenes small, linear, glabrous or slightly 
pubescent. — Kirk, Students' FL 275. O. quinquefida, Col. in Trans. 
N.Z. Inst, xxviii. (1896) 596. 0. aggregata. Col. I.e. 597. O. par- 
vifoha, Col. I.e. 598. Eurybia virgata. Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 119. 

Var. ramuliflora, Kirk, Students' Fl. 276. — Leaves in opposite fascicles of 
2-6, rather larger, |-f in. long, flat. Heads more numerous, in fascicles of 2-6 ; 
peduncles slender, ofcen Jin. long or more, silky. Involucres tomentose or 
villous. Florets 7-12.— 0. ramuliflora, Col. in Trans. N.Z. hist. xxii. (1890) 
467. 

Var. lineata, Kirk, Sttcdents' Fl. 276.— Branchlets more slender, spreading, 
often s'lky- pubescent. Leaves ^-IJin. long, very n^irrow-linear, glabrate or 
silky above, tomentose beneath ; margins much revolute. Head^ fascicled ; 
peduncles slender, silky. Involucre villous or tomentose. Florets 12-20. 

North and Sodth Islands : From the Thames Valley and Kotorua south- 
wards ; not uncommon. Sea-level to 3000 ft. December-January. 

35. O. Solandri, Hook. f. Handb. N.Z. Fl. 128.— An erect 
much - branched shrub 5-15 ft. high ; branches stout, spreading, 
angled, often viscid, usually more or less clothed with pale-yellowish 
pubescence. Leaves of young plants opposite, -|^-| in. long, linear- 
obovate or -spathulate, narrowed into short petioles, membranous, 
flat, white beneath ; of mature plants in opposite fascicles, i— J-in. 
long, narrow-linear or linear-obovate, obtuse, narrowed into very 
short petioles, coriaceous, glabrous above, beneath clothed with pale- 
yellowish tomentum; margins recurved. Heads |— ^in. long, 
solitary, sessile, terminating short lateral branchlets. Involucre 
narrow-turbinate ; scales in 3-4 series, numerous, imbricate, obtuse 
or subacute, bright fulvous, pubescent or viscid. Florets 8-20; 
ray-florets 5-14, ray short. Achenes grooved, pubescent. — Kirk, 
Students' Fl. 276. O. fasciculifoha. Col. in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xxv. 
(1893) 330. 0. consimilis. Col. I.e. xxviii. (1896) 596. Eurybia 
Solandri, Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zet. i. 119. 



Olearia.] composite. 295 

North Island : From the North Cape southwards, plentiful near the 
coast. South Island : D'Urville Island, Bryant; Queen Charlotte and Pelorus 
Sounds, E^itland ! MacMaUon. Sea-level to 1000 ft. February-May. 

5. PLEUROPHYLLUM, Hook. f. 
Tall handsome silky robust perennial herbs. Leaves mostly 
radical, large, entire, many-nerved. Heads large, racemed at the 
top of the stem. Involucre broadly campanulate or hemispherical ; 
bracts in 2-3 series, herbaceous. Eeceptacle flat, pitted. Ray- 
florets female, ligulate, in 1-3 series ; ligule long or short. Disc- 
florets many, regular, tubular, campanulate at the mouth, 
4-5-toothed. Anthers shortly and obtusely auricled at the base. 
Style-branches of the disc-florets flattened, with lanceolate tips. 
Achenes compressed, striated, densely setose. Pappus-hairs in 2-3 
series, copious, rigid, scabrid, unequal. 

The genus is limited to the three following species, and is confined to the 
outlying islands to the south of New Zealand. It is very closely allied to 
Celmisia, from which it is separated rather by the very distinct and peculiar 
habit than by any structural characters of importance. 

Ray-fiorets with a conspicuous ray. Leaves large, 

6-18 in., sessile by a broad base .. .. .. 1. P. speciosum. 

Ray-florets short, inconspicuous. Leaves large, 1-4 ft., 

petiolate, green above .. .. .. .. 2. P. criniferum. 

Ray-fiorets short, inconspicuous. Leaves smaller, 6-12 in., 

petiolate, white and silvery on both surfaces . . . . 3, P. Hookeri. 

1. P. speciosum, Hook. f. Fl. Antarct. i. 31, t. 22, 23. — Leaves 
chiefly radical, spreading horizontally all round the base of the 
stem, 6-18 in. long, 4-10 in. broad, broadly ovate or obovate, 
sessile by a broad base, thick and coriaceous, quite entire, furnished 
with 15-20 stout longitudinal parallel ribs, villous and tomentose 
beneath, above slightly setose, with the bristles more or less mixed 
with moniliform hairs. Cauline leaves few, oblong-lanceolate. 
Flowering-stems several, 1^-3 ft. high, ending in a raceme of 8-20 
heads; bracts numerous, linear. Heads l|^-2^in. diara. ; disc- 
florets dai'k-purple ; ray-florets with a conspicuous ligule, light- 
purple or almost whitish. Achenes densely silky-strigose. Pappus- 
hairs not thickened at the tips. — Handh. N.Z. FL. 129; Kirk in 
Trans. N.Z. Inst. xxih. (1891) 433 ; Students Fl. 211. 

Auckland and Campbell Islands : Abundant from sea-level to nearly 
1000 ft. December-January. 

A truly noble plant, at once recognised by the large purple heads with 
conspicuous spreading rays. 

2. P. criniferum, Hook. /. Fl. Antarct. i. 32, t. 24, 25.— Eadical 
leaves variable in size and shape, 1-4 ft. long, 4-12 in. broad, 
orbicular-ovate or broadly oblong to ovate-lanceolate or obovate- 
lanceolate, acute, narrowed into a sheathing petiole of variable 
length, firm but membranous, clothed with thin white tomentum 



296 COMPOSITE. [Pleurophyllum. 

beueath, above setose with moniliform hairs intermixed ; principal 
nerves 8-16, parallel, but following the outline of the leaf ; margins 
remotely and minutely spinulose-serrate. Cauline-leaves smaller 
and narrower, sessile, clothed with thin white tomentum on both 
surfaces. Flowering-stem stout, 2-6 ft. high ; raceme of 15-30 heads 
or more. Heads subglobose, discoid, 1-1^ in. diam., purple; in- 
volucral bracts ovate-lanceolate, margins ciliate. Eay-florets with 
a very short and inconspicuous 2-3-fid ligule. Achenes siiky- 
strigose. Pappus-hairs slightly thickened at the tips. — Handb. 
N.Z. Fl. 129; Kirk in Trans. N.Z. Inst, xxiii. (1891) 434. 
P. Hombronii, Dene, in Voy. Aslrol. et Zel. 36. Albinea ori- 
segenesa, Homb. & Jacq. Voy. Astrol. et Zel. 37, t. 4. 

Auckland and Campbell Islands, Antipodes Island : Abundant from 
sea-level to over 1000ft. December-January. 

Separated from the preceding by the petiolate leaves and subglobose discoid 
heads. Kirk has pointed out that the plate in the " Flora Antarctica," excellent 
in most respects, is faulty in the leaf figured not being that of the present 
species, but of P. speciosum. 

3. P. Hookeri, Buch. in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xvi. (1884) 395 
(excl. t. 37). — Leaves all radical, 6-12 in. long, 3-4in. broad, obovate 
or oblong-obovate, acute or acuminate, narrowed into a short broad 
petiole, coriaceous, clothed on both surfaces with rather loose white 
and silvery tomentum; principal nerves 8-12, slender; margins 
entire or minutely denticulate. Flowering-stems 1-3, l^— 2 ft. high, 
strict, silky-tomentose, naked below excepting for 1-3 narrow-linear 
bracts; raceme of 12-24 heads. Heads subglobose, discoid, fin. 
diam.; involucral bracts narrow - linear, acuminate. Eay-florets 
few, with a very short and inconspicuous 2-lobed ligule. Achene 
silky. Pappus-hairs hardly thickened above. — Kirk, Students' Fl. 
278. P. Hookerianum, Kirk in Trans. N.Z. Inst, xxiii. (1891) 435. 
P. Gilliesianum, Kirk in Bep. Austral. Assoc. (1891) 220. 

Auckland Islands : Kirk ! Campbell Island : Buchanan ! Kirk ! Mac- 
QUARiE Island : Scott, Hainilton ! 500-1000 ft. December-January. 

Closely allied to the preceding, but sufficiently distinct in the smaller size, 
leaves silvery-tomentose on both surfaces, rigid scapes, and smaller heads, 

6. CELMISIA, Cass. 
Perennial herbs, usually tufted or with a short creeping rhizome, 
rarely with a procumbent or suberect branched stem. Leaves all 
radical and rosulate, or cauline and densely imbricated, narrowed 
into a sheathing base, usually clothed beneath with appressed 
white or buff tomentum. Scapes or peduncles long or short, rarely 
almost wanting, bracteate. Heads large, solitary, radiate. In- 
volucre broadly hemispherical ; bracts imbricated in several or many 
series, narrow, pubescent or cottony or glandular. Receptacle flat 
or convex, pitted. Eay-florets female, in a single I'ow, ligulate ; 



Celmisia.] coMPOSiTiE. 297 

ligule spreading, flat or revolute, often long, always white. Disc- 
florets numerous, hermaphrodite, tubular, 5-lobed. Anthers usually 
sagittate at the base, with short tails. Style-branches flattened, 
tipped with long or short appendages. Achenes linear, slightly 
compressed or angled, with 1-3 prominent ribs on each side. 
Pappus copious, of numerous unequal scabrid bristles. 

The genus Celmisia, which is confined to New Zealand, with the exception 
of one species found in Australia and Tasmania, forms one of the chief ornaments 
of the montane and alpine flora of the colony, the various species usually 
composing a large proportion of the vegetation, especially in the South Island, 
where the mountain slopes and valleys are often whitened for miles from the 
abundance of their large daisy-like flowers. With few exceptions, the species 
are exceedingly variable and difficult of discrimination. This is especially 
the case with C. longifolia, coriacea, discolor, petiolata, and spectabilis, all of 
which run into forms which are easily distinguishable by the eye, and which 
to some extent may be permanent, but which it is almost impossible to define in 
precise language, and which in most cases are connected by numerous intermedi- 
ates. As the flower-heads are very similar throughout the genus, except in size, 
the specific characters are almost wholly founded on the vegetative organs. The 
size, shape, and texture of the leaves, the nature of the tomentum clothing the 
under-surface, the differences in the leaf-sheaths, the length, stoutness, and 
indumentum of the scapes, and the peculiarities of the involucral bracts are all 
made use of. Of course, these are essentially variable characters, and can only 
be safely employed in combination. But in Celmisia, as in other large genera 
of the New Zealand flora, the species, such as they are, must be regarded as 
founded on an aggregation of several small prevalent characters rather than on 
conspicuous and important differences. 

A. Suffruticose. Stems tuoody, branched ; branches elongated. Leaves imbri- 
cated along the branches. 

Stems 1-4 ft., procumbent or suberect. Leaves spreading, 
1-lJ in., linear, acute ; margins flat .. .. 1. C. Walkeri. 

Stems 1-3 ft., prostrate. Leaves ^-lin., linear-spathulate, 
obtuse ; margins revolute . . . . . . 2. C rupestris. 

Stems 6-12 in., slender, sparingly branched. Leaves 
laxly imbricating, spreading or reflexed, ^-fin., lanceo- 
late, sparsely clothed with lepidote scales beneath . . 3. C Gibbsii. 

Stems 2-8 in., sparingly branched. Leaves erect, J-^ in. 
long, linear-oblong, white and cottony beneath . . 4. C. ramulosa. 

Stems 3-12 in., much-branched. Leaves J-Jin., linear- 
subulate, green on both surfaces, glabrous or glandular 5. C, lateralis. 

B. Herbaceous, sometimes woody at the base. Branches short. Leaves 
crowded, usually more or less rosulate. Disc-florets yellow, never purple. 

* Leaves more or less toothed or serrate, clothed with white or buff 
tomentum beneath (glabrate in C. prorepens). 

Leaves 6-12 in. x l^-2Jin., lanceolate, acutely serrate, 

white beneath. Scape 1-2 ft., with linear bracts .. 6. C. holosericea. 

Leaves 4-8 in. x 1-2 in., obovate-lanceolate, acutely ser- 
rate, bufi beneath. Scape 6-18 in., with broad leafy 
bracts . . . . . . . . . . 7. C. Dallii. 

Leaves 1-5 in. x ^-lin., obovate-oblong to linear-oblong, 
serrulate, buff beneath. Scape 2-10 in., with linear 
bracts . . . . . . . . ..B.C. hieracifolia. ■ 

Leaves 1^-3 in. x^-lin., linear-oblong to linear-obovate, 
green on both surfaces, rugose above . . . . 9. C. prorepens. 



298 



COMPOSITE. 



[Gelmisia. 



Leaves 3-7 iu. x|-l^in., linear-oblong, crenate-dentate, 
white beneath. Scapes 6-18 in. Involucral bracts very 
numerous . . . . . . . . . . 10. C. densiflora. 

Leaves ^-2Jin. x J-J in., spathulate to linear, viscid, 

coriaceous, white beneath. Scapes slender. . .. 11. G. discolor. 

Leaves 1-2^ in. x^-|in., obovate - spathulate, plaited 
above, clothed with lax soft wbite tomentum beneath 
or on both surfaces. . .. .. .. ..12. C. incana. 

Leaves lj-3in. x ^lin., oblong to oblong - spathulate, 
greenish-grey and plaited above, white beneath ; mar- 
gins revolute. Scapes with numerous hnear bracts . . 13. G. Haastii. 

Leaves 3-8 in. x ^lin,, linear-oblong or lanceolate, dark- 
green above, white beneath, coriaceous. Scape slender, 
flexuose, glabrate . . . . . . . . . . 14. C Lindsayi. 

Leaves 1-3 in. x ^| in., oblong or spathula.e, dull-green 
above, white with thin appressed tomentuQi beneath or 
glabrous, membranous . . . . . . . . 15. C. Sinclairii. 

** Leaves entire (or if toothed very obscurely so), clothed with white or 
buff tomentum bsneath (glabrate in C. Mackmii). 

f Leaves 3-16 in. x J-2^in., oblong or oblong - lanceolate or linear- 
oblong, coriaceous or almost membranous, not rigid. 

Leaves 6-16 in. x 1^2^ in., oblong or oblong- lanceolate, 

under-surface with velvety ferruginous tomentum ; 

sheaths snow-white . . . . . . . . 16. C. Traversii. 

Leaves 3-9 in. x 1-2 in., ovate-oblong or oblong, cordate 

at the base, under-surface with red - brown velvety 

tomentum; sheaths brown or purple. . .. ..17. G. cordatifolia. 

Leaves 4-14 in. x f-2in., oblong to oblong-lanceolate or 

linear- oblong, under-surface with appressed white 

tomentum or almost glabrous; midrib and petiole 

purple . . . . . . . . . . . . 18. C. petiolata. 

Leaves 3-12 in. x |-2Jin., oblong to oblong-lanceolate, 

under-surface with white satiny tomentum ; sheaths 

snow-white . . . . . . . . . . 19. C Rutlandii. 

Leaves 3-6 in. x J-lin., linear-oblong, under-surface with 

thick densely matted white or buff woolly tomentum ; 

sheaths snow-white . . . . . . . . 20. G. spectabilis. 

Leaves 1^-3 in., oblong or linear-oblong, acute at both ends, 

under - surface with soft white tomentum ; sheaths 

slightly cottony . . . . . . . . . . 21. C. dubia. 



ft Leaves 6-24 in. x 
but not rigid. 



-4 in., lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, coriaceous 



Leaves 8-20 in. x l§-3in., lanceolate or spathulate-lanceo- 

late, under-surface with soft white or buff tomentum. 

Achene glabrous 
Leaves 6-10 in. x 1-2 in., lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, 

under-surface with thin whitish tomentum. Achene 

silky 
Leaves 6-20 in. x 2-4 in., lanceolate, acuminate, glabrous 

on both surfaces, or very slightly cottony beneath 
Leaves 6-24 in. x f-3in., lanceolate, acute, above coated 

with a thin pellicle, beneath with appressed silvery 

tomentum. Achene pilose . . 



22. G. verbascifolia. 



23. C. Brownii. 

24. C Mackaui. 



25. G. coriacea. 



Celmisia.] 



COMPOSITE. 



299 



ttt Leaves 3-18 in. x j^-f in., narrow-linear to linear or linear-lanceo- 
late or linear-ensiform. 

a. Leaves very rigid and coriaceous. 

Leaves 6-18in. x J— Jin., ensiform, acute, ribbed above, be- 
neath with satiny appressed tomentum. Midrib very 
stout .. .. .. .. .. ..26. C. Armstrongii. 

Leaves 6-18 in. x ^-f in., dagger-shaped, narrowed to an 
acuminate rigid tip, upper surface with 2 stout longi- 
tudinal plaits, white and silvery beneath ; midrib not 
evident . . . . . . . . . . . . 27. C. Petriei. 

Leaves 9-18 in. x ^Jin., narrow-ensiform, tapering into 
an almost pungent point, even or finely grooved above, 
white beneath . . . . . . . . . . 28. C. Lyallii. 

Leaves .3-5 in. x ^in., linear, viscid, grooved on both sur- 
faces, white with appressed tomentum beneath. Scape 
and involucre viscid . . . . . . . . 29. C. viscosa. 

b. Leaves not rigid, coriaceous or almost membranous. 

Leaves 3-12 in. x J-|in., linear - lanceolate, coriaceous, 

grooved above, white with appressed tomentum beneath. 

Scape stout, and with the involucre woolly and cottony 30. C. Monroi. 
Leaves 6-18in. x ^-lin., linear-lanceolate, membranous, 

flat above, with soft white tomentum beneath. Scape 

slender, and with the involucre glabrate or slightly 



cottony 
Leaves 3-18 in. 
membranous ; 
slender 



x^-Jin., narrow-linear, 
margins recurved or flat. 



31. C. Adamsii. 



coriaceous 
Scape usually 



32. C. longifolia. 



tttt Small species. Leaves ^-3 in. x ^"s-Jin. (sometimes 3-4 in. in G. 
, linearis), variable in shape. 

Leaves 1-4 in. x ^-^in., narrow-linear ; margins recurved. 

Scape stout, densely woolly . . . . . . . . 33. C. linearis. 

Leaves J-1 in. x 2\yin., acerose, pungent, silvery beneath. 

Scape very slender . . . . . . . . 34. C. laricifolia. 

Leaves ^1 in. x ^-Jin., linear - spathulate, silky on both 

surfaces. Scape stout, tomentose and villous . . 35. C. Hectori. 

Leaves 1-1^ in. x |— Jin., linear-oblong, clothed with long 

silky hairs on both surfaces. Scape stout, densely 

villous . . . . . . . . . . . . 36. C. Macmahoni. 

Leaves J-1 in. x J— | in., lanceolate, acute, white beneath. 

Scape slender, glabrate or slightly cottony . . . . 37. C. parva, 

ttttt Small, densely tufted species. Leaves ^-1 in., very narrow-linear, 
densely imbricating round the stem and forming a hard rosette. Heads 
sessile among the uppermost leaves. 

LeavesJ-lin. x j^^ in., linear- subulate. Head J-1 in. diam. 38. G. sessiliflora. 
Leaves^-^in. x 3I5 in., narrow linear-subulate. HeadJ-^in. 39. G. argentea. 

*** Leaves entire or serrate, perfectly glabrous on both surfaces, or with 
minute glandular pubescence only. 

Leaves ^— f in. x J-Jin., linear - spathulate, obtuse, green 

and glabrous, narrowed into short cottony petioles . . 40. G. bellidioides. 

Leaves J-1^ in. x ^-^ in., oblong- spathulate, acute, serrate, 

glandular-pubescent .. .. .. ..41. G. glandulosa. 



coMPOsiTiE. [Celmisia 

C. Herbaceous. Leaves rosulate. Disc- florets purple. 
Leaves 1-4 in. x |-Jin., linear, coriaceous, shining, 

glabrous .. .. .. .. .. ..42. C. vernicosa. 

Leaves 3-5 in. x J-|in., lanceolate, grooved and sparingly 

tomentose beneath . . . . . . . . . . 43. C. Campbellensis. 

1. C. Walkeri, T. Kirk in Trans. N.Z. Inst. ix. (1877) 549, 
t. 30. — Stem stout, woody, much or sparingly branched, procum- 
bent or suberect, 1-4 ft. long ; branches spreading, densely leafy. 
Leaves very numerous, crowded, with broad imbricating sheathing 
bases wider than the blade, 1-1-^ in. long; blade spreading, linear, 
acute, subcoriaceous, glabrous and somewhat viscid above, clothed 
with soft white tomentum beneath ; margins fiat, serrulate. 
Peduncles 1-3 near the tips of the branches, 4-8 in. long, slender, 
glandular-pubescent ; bracts numerous, linear-subulate. Heads 
l-l|^in. diam. ; involucral bracts linear-subulate, pubescent and 
glandular, tips recurved. Eay-florets 30-40; ligule narrow, spread- 
ing. x\chenes linear, silkv, with 2-3 obscure ribs on each face. — 
Students' Fl. 280. 

South Island : Canterbury — Mountains above Arthur's Pass, 2'. F. C. 
Westland— Kelly's Hill, Petrie ! Otago— Mountains near Lake Harris, Kirk ! 
Mount Alta, Buchanan ! Mount Aspiring, Petrie ! near Mount Earnslawr, 
H.J.Matthews! 3000-5000 ft. December-February. 

A very remarkable plant, easily recognised by the stout branching stem, 
densely clothed with imbricating leaves. Its only near ally is the following 
species. 

2. C. rupestris, Gheesem. in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xvi. (1884) 
409. — Stems long, much -branched, stout and woody, prostrate, 
scrambling over rocks ; branches ascending at the tips, densely 
clothed with closely imbricating leaves. Leaves numerous, crowded, 
^1 in. long, narrow linear-spathulate, obtuse, gradually narrowed 
to the base and then expanded into a broad membranous sheath, 
silky above, beneath clothed with soft white tomentum, suberect 
when young, patent or deflexed when old ; margins strongly revolute. 
Peduncles 1 or 2 near the tips of the branches, 3-6 in. long, 
glandul9,r-pubescent. Heads about lin. diam.; involucral bracts 
numerous, narrow-linear, pubescent and glandular. Eay-florets 
numerous, narrow, spreading. Achenes not seen. — Kirk, Students' 
Fl. 281. 

South Island: Nelson — Ravines on Mount Peel, alt. 4000-5000 ft., 
T. F. C. 

Nearest to C. Walkeri, but distinguished by the smaller size, smaller 
narrower and more silky leaves with revolute margins, and by the smaller 
heads. 

3. 0. Gibbsii, Gheesem. n. sp. — Stems slender, woody, sparingly 
branched, creeping and rooting at the base, erect or ascending 
above ; branches few, short, leafy. Leaves numerous, laxly im- 
bricating, spreading or reflexed from an appressed sheathing base, 



Celmisia.] composite. 301 

^— |in. long, ^-^in. broad, linear-lanceolate, tapering from the 
base to a rather obtuse or subacute tip, coriaceous, somewhat 
rigid, green or glabrous above, beneath and on the sheaths 
sparsely covered with minute white lepidote scales ; margins 
thick, revolute ; midrib impressed above, much thickened and 
flattened beneath. Peduncles near the ends of the branches, 
solitary or more rarely 2 or 3, l-|-2|-in. long, slender, sparsely 
glandular-lepidote ; bracts 8-10, small, erect, linear-oblong, obtuse. 
Heads fin. diam. ; involucral bracts linear-oblong, acute, more or 
less clothed with white glandular scales, inner with a tuft of 
cottony hairs at the tip. Eay-florets numerous, spreading. 
Achenes grooved, hispid. 

South Island : Nelson — Mount Cobb (to the north of the Mount Arthur 
Plateau), F. G. Gibbs ! 

An interesting novelty, quite distinct from the other species of the sec- 
tion, and remarkable for the lepidote pubescence on the under-surface of the 
leaves, &c. 

4. C. ramulosa, Hook. f. Handb. N.Z. Fl. 738. — Stems woody, 
procumbent, branched, 2-8 in. long ; branches short, ascending or 
almost erect. Leaves numerous, densely imbricating, ^-^\n. long, 
linear-oblong, obtuse, coriaceous, with broad membranous sheathing 
bases, glabrous above, clothed with soft white tomentum beneath ; 
margins strongly revolute. Peduncles 1 or rarely 2 at the tips of 
the branches, short, slender, ^l^^in. long, glandular - tomentose ; 
bracts 1-3, small, narrow-linear. Heads f-lin. diam.; involucral 
bracts linear-oblong, acute, glandular-pubescent. Eays spreading, 
narrow. Eipe achenes not seen. — Kirk, Students Fl. 281. 

South Island : Otago — Mount Pisa, Petrie I Mount Cardrona, Goyen ; 
Mount Bonpland, H. J. Matthews ! mountains above Dusky Sound, Hector 
and Buchanan t Reischek ! mountains near Lake Hauroto, G. M. Thomson ! 
3000-6000 ft. January. 

A very distinct little plant, much smaller than the preceding, and with 
smaller appressed leaves wbich are white and cottony beneath, and show no 
signs of the peculiar lepidote scales of G. Gibbsii. 

5. O. lateralis, Buck, in Trans. N.Z. Inst. iv. (1872) 226, 
t. 15. — Stems 3-12 in. long or more, slender, procumbent, woody at 
the base, much and closely branched, often forming compact 
patches ; branches crowded, ascending or suberect. Leaves very 
numerous, densely crowded, spreading at the base but usually 
incurved at the tips, ^— |-in. long, linear-subulate, acute or apiculate, 
flat above but slightly convex beneath, green on both surfaces, 
glabrous or glandular-ciliate at the margins and apex, base with a 
short and broad membranous slightly cottony sheath. Peduncles 
slender, 2-3 in. long, often numerous, terminal and lateral, glandular- 
pubescent or cottony ; bracts linear-subulate. Heads^-f in. diam. ; 



302 COMPOSITE. [Celmisia. 

involucral bracts subulate-lanceolate, acute, glandular and silky, 
margins often scarious. Rays numerous, narrow, -J- in. long. 
Achene linear, silky. — Kirk, Students' Fl. 281. 

Var. villosa, Cheesevi. — Leaves densely clothed on both surfaces with soft 
spreading glandular hairs. 

South Island : Nelson — Mount Arthur, Rev. F. H. Spencer ! T. F. C. ; 
mountains near Lake Guyon, H. H. Travers ; Mount Eochfort, Townson! 
Westland — Mountains near Greymouth, Helms! Var. villosa: Mount Mur- 
chison, BuUer Valley, Toiunson ! 3000-4500 ft. December-January. 

A very singular species, quite unlike any other. 

6. C. holosericea, Hook. f. Fl. Antarct. i. 36. — Leaves all 
radical, spreading, 6-12 in. long, l|-2|-in. broad, lanceolate, oblong- 
lanceolate or spathulate-lanceolate, acute or acuminate, narrowed 
to the base, thinly coriaceous, glabrous above, clothed with thin 
appressed white tomentum beneatn, midrib and principal veins 
distinct on both surfaces; margins flat, distantly acutely serrate; 
petiole broadly sheathing, glabrous, smooth and shining, grooved. 
Scapes few, 1-2 ft. long, slender, glabrous ; bracts usually several, 
1-1^ in. long, linear, wiiite beneath. Heads large, 2-3 in. diam. or 
more; involucral bracts in several series, sometimes lin. long; 
inner narrow-linear, glabrous, usually viscid ; outer broader, lanceo- 
late, tomentose on the back. Eay-florets very numerous, with long 
narrow ligules. Achene pilose. — Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 121, t. 31 ; 
Handh. N.Z. Fl. 130; Kirk, Students' Fl. 282. Aster holosericeus, 
Forst. Prodr. n. 296; A. Rich. Fl. Nouv. Zel. 248; A. Gunn.Prodr. 
n. 438. 

South Island : Dusky Bay, Forster, Hector and Btichanan ! Jackson's 
Bay, Buchanan! Port Preservation, Lyall ; Clinton Saddle and mountains 
west of Lake Te Anau, Petrie ! Sea-level to 4000 ft. December-January. 

7. C. Dallii, B^ich. in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xiv. (1882) 355, t. 35.— 
Leaves numerous, all radical, spreading, 4-8 in. long, 1-2 in. broad, 
narrow obovate-oblong or obovate-lanceolate, obtuse or subacute or 
apiculate, narrowed to the base and then expanded into a broad 
grooved membranous sheathing petiole, coriaceous, glabrous above, 
clothed with appressed pale-buff tomentum beneath ; margins flat,, 
sharply minutely serrate. Scapes 1-6, 6-18 in. long, rather stout, 
glabrous ; bracts usually numerous, large, 1-2 in. long, leafy, clothed 
with buff tomentum beneath, usually several are aggregated under 
the head, forming a spurious involucre. Heads large, 1^2|-in. 
diam. ; involucral bracts in several series, narrow-linear ; inner 
cottony, outer slightly tomentose, viscid. Rays numerous, rather 
narrow. Achene pilose. — Kirk, Stiidents' Fl. 282. 

South Island : Nelson — Mountains at the head of the Aorere River, Dall ! 
Mount Arthur Plateau, Eev. F. H. Spencer ! T. F. C. ; Mount Rochfort, Spencer ! 
Toivnson ! 3000-5000 ft. December-January. 

A handsome plant, closely allied to C. holosericea, bat distinguished by the 
smaller size, more coriaceous leaves with buff, not white, tomentum, and especi- 
ally by the large leafy bracts. 



Celmisia.] composite. 303 

8. O. hieracifolia, Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 124, t. 34b.— Stems 
short. Leaves 1-5 in. long, ^lin. broad, obovate-oblong to linear- 
oblong, obtuse or acute, narrowed to the base, coriaceous, obtusely 
crenate or serrate, glabrous or slightly pubescent above, viscid, 
clothed with appressed buff tomentum beneath ; sheathing petiole 
strongly grooved, short, broad, glabrous. Scapes 2-10 in. long, 
stout, viscid, usually densely glandular-pubescent ; bracts 3-10, 
linear, pubescent. Heads f-1^ in. diain. ; involucral bracts linear, 
acuminate, viscid and glandular-pubescent ; inner often cottony, 
•outer recurved at the tips. Eays rather long, numerous. Achene 
silky, ribbed, longer than the pappus. — Handb. N.Z. Fl. 131 ; 
Kirk, Students Fl. 283. 

Var. oblonga, Kirk, I.e. — Much smaller than the tvpe. Leaves 1-2^ in. 
long, J-J in. broad, linear-oblong. Scapes 1-3 in. high. Heads J-f in. diam. 

South Island : Nelson — Dun Mountain Range, Bidwill, Monro, Sinclair, 
T. F. C. Var. oblonga : Mount Arthur and Mount Owen, T. F. C. ; Mount Stokes, 
Kirk! Mac Mah07i! 3500-4500 ft. December-January. 

Apparently rare and local. The buff tomentum separates it from all the 
allied species except C. Dallii, which differs in its much greater size and broad 
leafy bracts. 

9. C. prorepens, Petrie in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xix. (1887) 326. 
— Stems prostrate, much - branched, often forming large patches, 
densely clothed with the remains of the old leaf-sheaths. Leaves 
numerous, crowded, green on both surfaces, 1^-3 in. long, ^1 in. 
broad, linear-oblong to linear-obovate, acute or subacute, hardly 
coriaceous, longitudinally furrowed and wrinkled, viscid, glabrous 
on both surfaces or slightly cottony beneath, coarsely serrate, mar- 
gins slightly recurved ; sheathing petiole short, narrower than the 
blade, viscid. Scapes few, 3-8 m. long, slender, viscid, glabrous 
or nearly so ; bracts several, linear or lanceolate. Heads 1-2 in. 
diam. ; involucral bracts subulate-lanceolate, viscid ; inner slightly 
cottony, with scarious margins ; outer shorter and broader, puberu- 
lous. Eavs long, spreading. Achene silky. — Kirk, Students' Fl. 
283. 

South Island : Otago— Upper Waipori, Rock and Pillar Range, Old Man 
Range, Petrie ! 2000-4500 ft. December-January. 

A well-marked plant, at once recognised by the deeply wrinkled almost 
glabrous leaves, green on both surfaces. 

10. O. densiflora, Hook. f. Handb. N.Z. Fl. 130. — Leaves 
3-7 in. long, f- 1^ in. broad, narrow linear-oblong, obtuse or sub- 
acute, subcoriaceous, glabrous above, clothed with soft white 
tomentum beneath except the prominent midrib ; margins fiat, 
crenate-dentate ; sheathing petiole 1^-3|- in. long, membranous, 
glabrous or the margins slightly cottony. Scapes usually several, 
6-18 in. long, stout or slender, glabrous, viscid ; bracts few or 



304 COMPOSITE. [Celmisia^ 

many, linear, 1-2 in. long. Heads 1-2 in. diam. ; involucral 
bracts very numerous, in many series, linear-subulate, glabrous or 
pubescent, viscid ; tips recurved. Eays long and narrow, twisted 
when withering. Achene narrow-linear, equalling the pappus, 
silky, strongly ribbed. — Kirk, Students' Fl. 282. 

South Island : Canterbury — Mountains at the head of Lake Ohau, 
Haast ! Otago — Lake district. Hector and Buchanan! Kurow and Mount 
Ida Ranges, Mount St. Bathans, Mihiwaka, Petrie ! 800-3000 ft. De- 
cember-February. 

Best recognised by the obtuse linear-oblong crenate-dentate leaves and 
numerous involucral bracts and florets. It has been recorded from the Tararua 
Range, in the North Island, but I have seen no specimens from thence. 

11. C. discolor, Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. L23. — Stems branched 
below ; branches short or long, prostrate or suberect, usually densely 
clothed with the old persistent leaves. Leaves crowded, imbri- 
cating, very variable in size and shape, 1-2^ in. long, ;^-^in. wide, 
oblong-spathulate to linear, obtuse or acute, entire or serrulate, 
very coriaceous to almost membranous, viscid, glabrous or hoary 
above, clothed with appressed white tomentum beneath, broad or 
narrow at the base, sometimes almost petiolate ; sheaths \-\ as 
long as the blade, glabrous. Scapes 1 or several, 2-8 in. long, very 
slender, viscid and glandular-pubescent ; bracts usually several, 
linear-subulate. Heads f-1^ in. diam. ; involucral bracts linear- 
subulate, viscid, usually glandular-pubescent, outer with recurved 
tips. Eays narrow, spreading. Achene silky. — Handh. N.Z. Fl. 
131 ; Kirk, St2idents' Fl. 283. Erigeron novae-zealandiae, Buck, in 
Trans. N.Z. Inst. xvii. (1885) 287, t. 15. 

South Island : Abundant in mountain districts throughout. Altitudinal 
range 2500 ft. to 5000 ft. December-February. 

One of the most variable species of the genus. Large much-branched states 
approach C. Walkeri; short and broad-leaved forms come very near to C. incana; 
and states with large membranous leaves appear to pass directly into C. Sin- 
clairii. 

12. C. incana. Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 123, t. 34a. — Ehizome 
prostrate ; branches short, stout, densely clothed with the old per- 
sistent leaves. Leaves numerous, crowded, 1-2^ in. long, ^— | in. 
broad, oblong-spathulate or obovate-spathulate, obtuse or subacute,, 
coriaceous, entire or minutely serrulate, plaited or furrowed above, 
both surfaces or the lower alone thickly coated with lax snow-white 
soft tomentum ; sheaths ^ as long as the blade, thin and mem- 
branous, grooved, glabrous or slightly cottony. Scapes 1-3, stout, 
3-9 in. high, tomentose ; bracts many, linear. Heads f- 1-| in. 
diam. ; involucral bracts subulate-lanceolate, acute or acuminate, 
glandular-pubescent and viscid ; the outer often recurved. Eays 
numerous, spreading. Achene linear, silky, about equalling the 
pappus.— Ha/id6. N.Z. Fl. 131; Kirk, Students Fl. 284. C. ro- 
busta. Buck, in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xix. (1887) 215, t. 18. 



Gelmisia.] coMPosiTiK. 305 

Var. petiolata. Kirk, I.e. — Smaller in all its parts. Leaves with an oblong 
blade suddenly narrowed into a distinct petiole at the top of the expanded 
sheath, often quite glabrous above, the tomentum of the under-surface more 
silvery and appressed. Heads smaller, J-J in. diam. 

North Island : Summit of Moehau (Cape Colville), 4da)?is .' Mount Hiku- 
rangi, Colenso, Adams and Petrie ! Ruahine Mountains, Colenso ! Tararua 
Mountains, Buchanan. South Island : Not uncommon on the mountains as 
far south as Canterbury and the west of Otago. 2500-5000 ft. December- 
January. 

The typical state, with large broad plaited leaves clothed on both surfaces 
with snow-white tomentum, has a very distinct appearance ; but small forms, 
with smaller and narrower leaves almost glabrous above, are difficult to separate 
from G. discolor. 

13. C. Haastii, Hook. f. Hanclb. N.Z. FL 131.— Forming large 
patches. Ehizome creeping, putting up short erect branches. 
Leaves greenish-grey, l-|-3in. long, ^-1 in. wide, broadly oblong to 
oblong-spathulate or narrow obovate-spathulate, obtuse or acute, 
narrowed towards the base, subcoriaceous, glabrous and usually 
longitudinally plaited above, beneath clothed with thin whitish 
tomentum ; margins recurved, minutely denticulate ; sheaths ^^ 
as long as the blade, thin, membranous, glabrous. Scapes usually 
several, 2-6 in. long, stout, densely tomentose or almost glabrous ; 
bracts many, linear, acute or rarely obtuse, tomentose. Heads 
1-1-1 in. diam.; involucral bracts linear, acute or acuminate, mem- 
branous, softly tomentose or almost villous. Eays spreading. 
Achene linear, glabrous, longer than the pappus. — Kirk, Students' 
FL 284. 

South Island : Not uncommon in the central and western portions of the 
Southern Alps, from the Spencer Mountains southwards. 3000-6000 ft. 

December-February. 

Well marked by the greenish-grey foliage, stout usually tomentose scapes 
with numerous linear bracts, membranous involucral bracts, and glabrous 
achene. 

14. C. Lindsayi, Hook. f. Handh. N.Z. FL 132.— Often forming 
large rounded masses. Stems stout, woody, prostrate ; branches 
numerous, decumbent or suberect. Leaves numerous, crowded, 
3-8 in. long, -1—1 in. broad, linear-oblong or lanceolate, obtuse or 
subacute, coriaceous, obscurely and remotely denticulate or quite 
entire, glabrous above, clothed with appressed white tomentum 
beneath, midrib evident ; sheaths broad, glabrous, deeply grooved. 
Scapes usually numerous, 2-8 in. long, slender, flexuous, glabrous 
or pubescent above; bracts linear. Heads 1-2 in. diam.; invo- 
lucral bracts linear, acuminate, glabrate or pubescent. Eay-florets 
30-40, spreading, rather distant. Tube of the disc-florets some- 
what thickened ; anther-cells obtuse at the base. Achene linear, 
silky. — Lindsmj, Coyitrib. N.Z. Bot. 53, t. 3, f. 1; Bot. Mag. 
t. 7134 ; Kirk, Studejits' FL 284. Erigeron Bonplandii, Buck, in 
Trans. N.Z. Inst. xix. (1887) 213. 



306 COMPOSITE. [Gelmisia. 



South Island: Otago — Cliffs of the southeast coast, from the Clutha 
River to Waikawa, Lindsay, Buchanan ! Petrie ! Kirk ! Mount Bonpland, 
Martin ; Lake Harris, H. J. Matthews. January-February. 

A handsome species, which succeeds well in cultivation. Mr. Kirk con- 
siders that the Mount Bonpland and Lake Harris localities are erroneous. 

15. C. Sinclairii, Hook. f. Handb. N.Z. Fl. 132. — Stems 
branched at the base, prostrate ; branches suberect. Leaves 
1-3 in. long or more, -j— fin. broad, Hnear-obovate or obovate- 
spathulate to linear-oblong, obtuse or subacute, membranous or 
rarely coriaceous, obscurely toothed, glabrous above, beneath clothed 
with thin white appressed tomentum or rarely glabrous on both 
surfaces ; midrib evident ; sheaths membranous, glabrous or slightly 
cottony. Scapes 1 or more, slender, 3-9 in. high; bracts linear, 
white beneath. Heads l-l|^in. diam. ; involucral bracts linear- 
subulate, pubescent and viscid ; tips recurved. Eay-florets spread- 
ing. Achene silky. — Kirk, Students' Fl. 285. 

South Island : Not uncommon throughout in mountain districts. 
Stewaet Island : Summit of Mount Anglem, Kirk ! Altitudinal range 
2500-5000 ft. December-January. 

This comes very close to large forms of C. discolor, being only separable 
by the larger and much more membranous leaves, which are dull-green above 
and clothed with thin tomentum beneath. 

16. 0. Traversii, Book. f. Handb. N.Z. Fl. 134. — Eoot stout, 
tapering. Leaves 6-16 in. long including the petiole, 1-|— 2-|in. 
broad, oblong or oblong-lanceolate, subacute or obtuse, coriaceous, 
dark brownish-green and glabrous above except the silky midrib, 
under-surface and margins clothed with rich soft and thick velvety 
ferruginous tomentum ; midrib beneath glabrous, dark - purple ; 
petiole from one-half to as long as the blade, purple ; upper surface 
and sheaths with loose snow-white tomentum. Scapes stout, 
8-20 in. long, densely clothed with ferruginous tomentum ; bracts 
few or many, linear. Heads 1-2 in. diarn.; bracts of the involucre 
numerous, linear, clothed with ferruginous wool. Eaj^s narrow, 
spreading. x\chene glabrous. — Kirk, Students' Fl. 285. 

South Island : Nelson — Mount Arthur, Mount Peel, Raglan Mountains, 
T. F. G. ; Discovery Peaks, Travers ! mountains overlooking the Hanmer 
Plains and Upper Clarence Valley, 2'. F. C. ; Mount Captain and the Upper 
'Wa.ia.u, Ki7-k ! 3500-5500 ft. December-January. 

A magnificent species, remarkable for the bright ferruginous tomentum of 
the under-surface of the leaves, the purple midrib, and the snow-white tomen- 
tum of the sheaths. I have not seen specimens from the south of Lake Tenny- 
son. 

17. 0. cordatifolia, Bicch. in Travis. N.Z. Inst. xi. (1879) 427, 
t. 18. — Leaves