(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Manual of the New Zealand mollusca"

X 

I 
I 
I 
I 
I 
I 
I 
I 



Marine Biological Laboratory Library 



Woods Hole, Mass. 



Presented by 

New Zealand Oceanographic 
Institution 
Sept. 1962 



I 
I 
I 
I 
I 
I 
I 
I 

J 



nj 
=o 



O; 



O 

m 
o 



MANUAL 






OF THE 



NEW ZEALAND MOLLUSCA. 



WITH AN ATLAS OF QUARTO PLATES. 



BY 

HENRY SUTER. 



PUBLISHED BY THE AUTHORITY OF THE GOVERNMENT 
OF NEW ZEALAND. 



WELLINGTON, N.Z. : 
JOHN MACKAY, GOVERNMENT PRINTER. 

1913. 




QVA 



PREFACE. 



IN May, 1873, the New Zealand Government published the late 
Captain F. W. Mutton's " Catalogue of the Marine Mollusca of 
New Zealand," which was followed in 1880 by his " Manual of 
the New Zealand Mollusca." In this latter work 595 species 
of Mollusca are enumerated, of which, however, about 148 
species are now known as not belonging to the New Zealand 
fauna ; others have been recognized as synonyms of New 
Zealand species, and a number are undoubtedly introduced 
molluscs. This brings the number of New Zealand species of 
Mollusca in the Manual down to about 447, whereas in the 
present Manual 1,079 species are dealt with, to which 108 
subspecies and varieties are to be added, making a total of 
1,187 distinct forms. This shows that during the last thirty- 
three years a considerable number of species have been added 
to our fauna, the descriptions of the species being published 
in the " Transactions of the New Zealand Institute," the 
" Proceedings of the Malacological Society of London," the 
" Journal of Malacology," the ' Journal de Conchyliologie," and 
a number of other scientific periodicals. It was therefore no 
easy matter for a student of New Zealand conchology to get 
together all the literature on the subject, and the necessity 
of a new Manual was advocated by all those interested in 
conchology and palseontology. Hutton's Manual of 1880 has 
one great drawback the want of illustrations, which deprives 
it to a considerable extent of its value, especially for those 
who want to take up conchology as a hobby. 

Having devoted much of my time to collecting and studying 
the New Zealand Mollusca since my arrival in 1887, I was 
prepared to undertake the work of writing a new " Manual 
of the New Zealand Mollusca " if the Government would kindly 
give me the necessary assistance. 



IV PREFACE. 



In January, 1906. I laid the matter before the New Zealand 
Institute, when the very gratifying resolution was passed re- 
questing the Government to consider favourably the desirability 
of issuing a new ' Manual of the New Zealand Mollusca." 
At the meeting in January, 1907, the late Sir James Hector, 
as President of the New Zealand Institute, stated that the 
Government had decided to publish a work on the subject, 
and had appointed me as editor. At my special request, the 
Government allowed the text of the Manual to be accompanied 
by an atlas of plates. 

I wish here to express my very best thanks to the Hon. 
George Fowlds, then Minister of Education ; Mr. Alfred Kidd, 
then Member of Parliament ; Mr. G. Hogben, Inspector-General 
of Schools ; Messrs. M. H. Browne and W. E. Spencer, of 
the Education Department. Beginning my work in January, 
1907. they all most kindly assisted me in my task. 

What Sir James Hector expressed in the preface to the 
Manual of 1880 should be repeated here : " Shells afford the most 
reliable data for palseontologists ; but before the extinct shell 
fauna can be utilized the Recent shells of the area must l>e 
thoroughly determined." 

The classification adopted in this Manual is that of l)r. 
Paul Pelseneer in the " Treatise on Zoology," part v, Mollusca, 
edited by E. Ray Lankester, 1906, with the exception that 
the Pteropoda are treated as a class, according to the investi- 
gations of P. Schiemenz. The Pteropods undoubtedly already 
appear in the Palaeozoic, and not first in the Mesozoic as 
Pelseneer's theory would have it. We therefore must conclude 
that the Gastropods were derived from Pteropods, and not 
from Opisthobranchs. The anatomical details of the higher 
groups are, to a large extent, copied from Pelseneer's excellent 
book. 

The Manual deals with the MoUxsca of the North and South 
Islands of New Zealand, Stewart Island, the Chatham Islands, 
and the subantarctic islands of New Zealand, including Macquarie 
Island, but not with those of the Kermadec Islands, which 
belong to a distinct province of the Australian subregion. Mr. 
Tom Iredale, who was a member of the scientific exploring 
expedition to the Kermadecs in 1908, has already published a 



PREFACE. 



preliminary part of the report on the Mollusca in the Proc. 
Mai. Soc., and further contributions may be forthcoming in 
the near future. 

Of the 322 genera recorded, the following twenty-one are 
precinctive to New Zealand : Eudoxochiton, Incisura, Realia, 
Neojancus, Atagema, Latia, Otoconcha, Gerontm, Thermia, Serpho, 
Therasia, Phenacohelix, Suteria, Ranfurlya, Schizoglossa, Athora- 
cophorus, Perrierina, Verticipronus, Pachykellya, Resania, and 
Pinnoctopus. Whether Phenacohelix is identical with Rhytidopsis, 
Ancey, from New Caledonia, is still uncertain, as the animal 
of the latter has not been examined. As far as shell-characters 
go, there is very little difference between the two. Otoconcha 
is no doubt very nearly allied to Vitrinopsis, Semper, of the 
Philippine Islands : externally the animals are similar, and the 
differences in the jaw, radula, and reproductive organs are 
very slight. The Tasmanian land - shells I classed in 1893 
under Gerontia ("' The Nautilus," vol. vii, p. 89) I now consider 
to belong to a new gemis, most likely allied to Trachycystis of 
South Africa. 

Of the 322 genera, thirty-seven are precinctive to Australasia 
(Australia, Tasmania, New Zealand), and of the 1,079 species 
about 140 occur also in Tasmania and Australia, whereas about 
sixty species have a more or less wide distribution. The 
following Pelecypoda are found in European and New Zealand 
seas : Area reticulata, Mytilus edidis, Lima lima, Cardita calyculata, 
Venericardia corbis, Thyasira flexuosa, Kellia si(borbiculans, Lascea 
miliaris, and Corbula gibba. According to Sir Charles Eliot's 
publication, the New Zealand Nudibranchs are composed of 
three elements 1. Tropical : Chromodoris, Doriopsis. 2. Forms 
characteristic of colder seas : Doris, Acanthodoris, Goniodoris, 
Rostaiiga. 3. Peculiar to Australasia : Alloiodoris and Atagenta. 

The following of our marine species have a wide austral 
distribution : Nacella fuegiemis - - Tierra del Fuego, Falkland, 
Kerguelen ; Monodonta nigerrima west coast of South America ; 
Argobucdnum argns St. Paul and Amsterdam Islands, South 
Africa, Tristan da Cunha, and Chile ; Siphonaria lateralis - 
Kerguelen, Falkland, Magellan, and Patagonia ; Mytilus edulis 
and M. magellanicus are circumaustral ; Modiolarca pitsilla - 
Tierra del Fuego; M. trapezina-- Patagonia, Tierra del Fuego, 



VI PREFACE. 



Falkland, South Georgia, Kerguelen, and Marion Islands ; Chione 
Stutchburyi Kerguelen ; C. mesodesma Tristan da Cunha. 

Of the non-marine Mollusca, Potamopyrgus has a remarkable 
distribution, extending from Australasia to tropical America and 
west Africa, whilst Melanopsis occurs in New Zealand, New 
Caledonia, Spain, north Africa, and Asia Minor. The Austral- 
asian genus Gundlachia occurs also in North America and on 
the Antilles. Curiously enough, Succinea has never been recorded 
from New Zealand, the 8. toitientosa, Pfeift'er, being a Limnoea, 
In the collection of shells left by the late Mr. Traill there 
were a few specimens of a Succinea which, I believe, were 
found in New Zealand. I sent a specimen to Mr. Edgar A. 
Smith, of the British Museum, and he informed me that it 
was unlike any form known to him. Not being quite certain 
whether Traill' s specimens were really collected in New Zealand, 
I refrained from describing them. Of the Phenacohelicidce, the 
genera Phacussa, Thalassohelix, Allodiscus, and Flam-muUna are 
also found in Tasmania, the second and third also in Australia, 
and some nearly allied forms occur on Lord Howe Island and 
in New Caledonia. Flammulina has spread to Lord Howe, 
Norfolk, and the Caroline Islands ; it is most likely an antarctic 
genus, being allied to Aniphidoxa and St&phanoda of South 
America, and. less so, to Tmchycystis of South Africa. The 
Australasian-Polynesian genus Endodoitta has quite recently been 
discovered in Natal ; Afrodonta, Melvill and Ponsonby, is very 
near the subgenera Thaumatadon and Ptychodon ; and undoubted 
species of Charopa have also been found, the animal and the 
dentition having been examined by the writer. The subgenus 
Helenocoiiritti from St. Helena I take to be nearly allied to the 
New Zealand subgenus Ptychodon. The subgenus Phrixgnathus of 
the genus Laoma occurs also in Tasmania and Australia. The 
fresh-water genus Diplodon, generally known under the name 
of Unio, is widely distributed in South America, New Zealand, 
the northern rivers of Tasmania, Australia, and one species is 
recorded from the Congo River, Africa. Highly interesting 
from the geographic standpoint is the discovery of Strutkiolaria 
papulosa at the Seychelles : and the occurrence of ( 'ryptoplax 
striatus, Lam... a Ckitoti found from Torres Strait to Tasmania (but 
not in New Zealand), at Zanzibar, Khor, Dongola, and Natal. 



PREFACE. Vll 



The principal contributors to our knowledge of the New 
Zealand Mollmca are the following : 

Sir JOSEPH BANKS and Dr. SOLANDER, on the first voyage 
of Captain James Cook, 1769-70, collected hi the Bay of Islands 
and Queen Charlotte Sound. 

Dr. REINHOLD and GEORGE FORSTER, on Cook's second 
voyage, 1773-74, visited Dusky Bay and Queen Charlotte Sound. 

On Cook's third voyage there was only a short stay of 
thirteen days' duration in Queen Charlotte Sound. 

The shells collected during these voyages, numbering about 
forty species from New Zealand, were enumerated, and some 
of them described and figured by VON ZORN in the German 
periodical " Neue Sammlung von Versuchen und Abhandlungen 
der Naturforschenden Gesellschaft in Danzig," 1778 ; by J. H. 
CHEMNITZ in the journal ' Der Naturforscher," 1783, and 
afterwards in different parts of his ''' Conchylien Cabinet," 
especially vol. v (1781), vol. x (1788), and vol. xi (1799) ; by 
Dr. SOLANDER himself in the " Catalogue of the Portland 
Museum," 1786 ; by THOMAS MARTYN in the ' Universal Con- 
chologist," 1784; and by PERRY, " Conchology," 1811. A 
critical review of the species described by the said authors, 
and referable to Cook's voyages, has been published by Dr. 
E. VON MARTENS in the German malacological journal, " Malako- 
zoologische Blatter," vol. xix, 1872. 

R. P. LESSON accompanied Duperry on the ship ''' Coquille " 
on the voyage round the world, 1822-25, and collected molluscs 
at the Bay of Islands in April, 1824. A number of species 
were described in the " Voyage autour du Monde sur la ' Coquille,' 
Zoologie," 2 vols., published from 1826 to 1832. 

The most valuable contributions to New Zealand conchology 
in the early days were made by QUOY and GAIMARD, naturalists 
of Dumont d'Urville's " Voyage autour du Monde de ' 1'Astrolabe,' 
1826-29, Zoologie," vol. ii, 1832-33 ; vol. iii, 1834-35 ; with 
atlas in folio containing beautiful illustrations. They collected 
molluscs in Queen Charlotte Sound, at the Thames, and some 
outlying islands. 

The Rev. W. YATE sent a collection of shells from the east 
coast of New Zealand to the British Museum in 1835, and the 
twenty-nine species were catalogued by Dr. J. E. GRAY in an 



viii PREFACE. 



appendix to Yate's " Account of New Zealand," 1835, and 
descriptions of ten new species were given. 

The New Zealand molluscs collected during the United States 
Exploring Expedition, commanded by Charles Wilkes, 1838-42, 
were obtained at the Bay of Islands, Akaroa, and the Auckland 
Islands. J. P. COUTHOUY was conchologist of the expedition, 
but was prevented through ill health from making notes after 
arrival at Samoa. AUGUSTUS A. GOULD described the molluscs 
in the " Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History," 
1846-50 ; also, as a separate volume, " Expedition Shells," 
1846. Later they have been more fully described, and also 
figured, in the official work, " United States Exploring Expedi- 
tion," vol. xii, Mollusca and Shells, 1852, with an atlas of 
plates in folio. 

The " Venus," under command of A. DU PETIT-THOUARS, 
paid a visit to the Bay of Islands in October, 1838 ; but 
few shells were collected. 

In 1840 Dr. E. DIEFFENBACH visited the North Island of 
New Zealand and the Chatham Islands, and brought back with 
him fifty-eight species of shells, which were enumerated and 
the new species described by Dr. J. E. GRAY in the appendix 
to Dieft'enbach's " Travels in New Zealand," vol. ii, 1843. 

The French ships " Astrolabe " and " Zelee " visited in 1841 
the Bay of Islands, Akaroa, Port Chalmers, and the Auckland 
Islands. The records' on the Mollusca of this voyage, extending 
over the period 1837-41, called " Voyage au Pole Sud," vol. v, 
1854, were written by HOMBRON and JACQUINOT, and accompanied 
by fine illustrations. 

In the same year (1841) H.M.S. '''Erebus" and "Terror," 
under the command of Sir James Ross, visited Campbell Island, 
the Auckland Islands, and the Bay of Islands. The Mollusca 
of the expedition were not published until June, 1874, by 
EDGAR A. SMITH, of the British Museum, the publication con- 
taining also illustrations of type specimens not figured before. 

In 1842 Dr. STANGER sent to the British Museum shells 
which had been collected in New Zealand by Dr. SINCLAIR. 

During the years 1847-49 H.M.S. ' Acheron ' was engaged 
surveying the coast of the islands, and in 1849 the couchologist 
FREDERICK STRANGE visited New Zealand in her, touching at 



PREFACE. IX 



Auckland, Wellington, and the Canterbury Settlement. He no 
doubt dredged in New Zealand waters, as he had already done 
so in the vicinity of Sydney. His collection of shells was evi- 
dently purchased by Hugh Cuming, and supplied material for 
several papers in the Proc. Zool. Soc. for the next few years 
by A. ADAMS and G. P. DESHAYES. 

Dr. GREENWOOD also collected shells in New Zealand, which 
he sent to the British Museum. These were partly described 
by Dr. J. E. GRAY in the Proc. Zool. Soc., 1849, and by 
Dr. L. PFEIFFER in the Malak. Blatter. 

In 1859 the Austrian frigate " Novara " visited Auckland. 

F. VON HOCHSTETTER, G. VON FRAUENFELD, and J. ZELEBOR 

were members of the expedition. Some land and fresh-water 
shells collected by the first-named during his stay in New 
Zealand were described by Dr. L. PFEIFFER and Professor W. 
DUNKER in the Malak. Blatter, vol. viii, 1861 ; concerning those 
collected by the other two scientists, only the apparent new 
ones have been described by DUNKER and ZELEBOR in the 
Verhandl. Zool.-bot. Gesellsch. Wien, 1866, and then, with 
figures, by FRAUENFELD in the official work, ' Reise der oester- 
reichischen Fregatte ' Novara ' um die Erde," 1857-59, Zoolo- 
gischer Theil, vol. ii, 1867. He later on published a list in 
Verhandl. Zool.-bot. Gesellsch. Wien, vol. xix, 1869, of all species 
of Mollusca collected during the expedition, many of which, how- 
ever, are wrongly assigned to New Zealand. 

H.M.S. '' Challenger " visited New Zealand in June and July, 
1874, and the Mollusca obtained mostly deep-sea forms were 
described in the "'Challenger' Reports." Vol. x contains the 
Nudibranchiata, by Dr. R. BERGH : vol. xiii the Lamellibranchiata, 
by EDGAR A. SMITH : vol. xv the Marseniadce, by Dr. R. 
BERGH ; Scaphopoda and Gastropoda, by the Rev. R. BOOG 
WATSON ; Polyplacophora, by A. C. H ADDON : vol. xvi the 
Cephalopoda, by Dr. W. E. HOYLE : and vol. xxiii the Pteropoda 
by Dr. P. PELSENEER. A few land-shells were described and 
figured by EDGAR A. SMITH in the Proc. Zool. Soc., 1884. 

In the same year (1874) Dr. H. FILHOL collected on Camp- 
bell Island, and subsequently in several parts of New Zealand. The 
results were published in the " Comptes Rendus," and later 
(1885) in a volume called " Mission scientifique a 1'ile Campbell." 



PREFACE. 



At the same time Dr. KRONE collected some land-shells on 
the Auckland Islands. 

The antarctic expedition under C. E. Borchgrevink, in the 
" Southern Cross/' brought one new species from Campbell Island 
and three from the Auckland Islands. They were described 
and figured by EDGAR A. SMITH in the " Report on the Col- 
lections of Natural History made in the Antarctic Regions 
during the Voyage of the ' Southern Cross,' : 1902. vii, Mollusca. 

With the " Catalogue of Marine Mollusca of New Zealand/' 
1873, Captain F. \V. HUTTON laid the foundation of a large 
amount of work which he afterwards did, including his " Manual 
of the New Zealand Mollusca.'" Captain Hutton greatly ad- 
vanced the knowledge of our Mollusca not only by systematic- 
work, but also by his numerous anatomical researches. He 
was at all times ready with his advice and assistance to other 
workers in science, and ever since arriving in New Zealand the 
writer of these lines was fortunate enough to enjoy the benefit 
of Captain Button's wide knowledge, and it was greatly due to 
his stimulus and help that the study of the marine Mollusca 
was taken up. 

Mr. T. F. CHEESEMAN did extensive collecting and dredging 
in Auckland Harbour. He published in the Trans. N.Z. Inst. 
lists of the Mollusca of the Auckland Harbour and of the vicinity 
of Auckland, followed by papers on new nudibranchiate and 
opisthobranchiate Mollusca. 

Of recent collectors, special mention should be made of 
Captain J. BOLLONS, of the Government steamer ' Hinemoa." 
For a number of years he has been collecting and dredging in 
many parts of New Zealand and its subantarctic islands, and has 
thus materially helped to increase the number of species, and to 
enlarge our knowledge of geographical distribution. 

Mr. A. HAMILTON, Director of the Dominion Museum, has also 
done very much to further New Zealand conchology by collecting 
in many parts of the Dominion, and also on Macquarie Island. 

Mr. CHARLES COOPER, of Auckland, has collected Mollnxrn 
in the vicinity of Auckland and the northern parts of New 
Zealand for many years, and has published in the Trans. N.Z. 
Inst., vol. xxxi, a useful list of the marine shells found at 
Whangarei Heads. 



PREFACE. XI 



Mr. R. MURDOCH, of Wanganui, devoted much time t<> 
collecting and dissecting non-marine as well as marine Mollusca, 
and has published a number of valuable papers in the Trans. 
N.Z. List., and the Proc. Mai. Soc. It is much to be regretted 
that he has been unable to continue his good work during 
a number of years. 

Mr. JUSTICE GILLIES, in 1881, took Dr. Sinclair's collection 
of New Zealand shells to the British Museum, and had them 
named by Messrs. G. B. SOWERBY, Jim., and EDGAR A. SMITH. 
The result was published in the Trans. N.Z. lust., vol. xiv. 

Mr. JAMES ADAMS published a valuable list of the land and 
fresh-water Mollusca of the Thames Goldfields in the Trans. N.Z. 
Inst., vol. xix. 

Amongst those who helped to advance our conchological 
knowledge the following should be mentioned : Dr. W. B. 
BENHAM, Major T. BROUN, Dr. CHARLES CHILTON, Messrs. R. 
HELMS. RICHARD HENRY, Miss M. MESTAYER, Messrs. SHANL>. 
W. W. SMITH, C. SPENCER, C. TRAILL, and W. H. WEBSTER. 
some of whom published papers on New Zealand Mollusca. 

Mr. T. \V. KIRK also did some collecting, and published 
a few short papers on Mollusca ; especially valuable are his 
communications on the large cuttlefishes. 

Dr. SCHAUINSLAND visited New Zealand and the Chatham 
Islands in 1896-97, and Dr. THILENIUS from 1897 to 1899, 
partly for the purpose of collecting specimens for the museums 
in Bremen and Berlin. Reports on the Mollusca were published 
by Dr. R. BERGH, Dr. L. H. PLATE, and Dr. KURT WISSEL. 

During the year 1902 Messrs. K. LUCAS and G. L. HODGKIN, 
of Cambridge, made a collection of the fauna of a typical 
series of lakes in New Zealand, most of the Mollusca being 
obtained by dredging. They were kindly handed over to me 
for description, and the result was published in the Trans. 
N.Z. Inst., vol. xxxvii. 

In January, 1904, a party organized by Mr. CHARLES HEDLEY. 
Conchologist of the Australian Museum, Sydney, dredged in 
110 fathoms east of Great Barrier Island, with good results. 
The shells obtained were worked out by Messrs. C. HEDLEY. 
W. H. WEBSTER, R. MURDOCH, and myself, and the results 
published in the Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xxxviii. 



xii PREFACE. 



Mr. T. IREDALE did a good deal of collecting during some 
time, and he published lists of the Mollusca found at Titahi 
Bay, Banks Peninsula, and Otago. He also described a few new 
species, unfortunately without figures, and up to the present day 
lie has failed to present the types to the Canterbury Museum, 
as promised in his publication. 

In vols. xliii and xliv of the Trans. N.Z. lust, there are 
two excellent papers on the anatomy of Siphonaria obliquata by 
Mr. A. J. COTTRELL, of Auckland. 

I wish to express my grateful thanks to all those who 
kindly assisted me in my work, either by giving me useful 
advice and information or assisting me with material viz., 
Captain J. Bollons ; Dr. W. H. Ball, U.S. Nat, Museum, Wash- 
ington ; Sir Charles Eliot, Sheffield ; Messrs. J. H. Gatliff, 
Melbourne ; A. Hamilton, Wellington ; Charles Hedley, Assistant 
Curator of the Australian Museum, Sydney; W. L. May, Sand- 
ford, Tasmania ; Miss M. Mestayer, Wellington ; Mr. J. H. 
Ponsonby, London ; Professor Dr. H. R. Simroth, Leipzig ; Mr. 
Edgar A. Smith, I.S.O., British Museum (Nat. Hist,). London ; 
Dr. H. Strebe!, Hamburg : Dr. J. Thiele, K. Zoologisches 
Museum, Berlin ; Dr. J. C. Verco, Adelaide. 

Finally, I have to express my obligations to the Government 
Printer and to the Supervisor of the Government Printing Office 
for the great care they have taken in passing the work through 
the press, and to Mr. A. Hamilton for his kind help in the 
production of the plates of the atlas. 

HENRY SUTER. 

Christchurch, September, 1913. 




CONTENTS. 



Errata 

List of Abbreviations 
Synopsis of the C4enera 
Phylum Mollusca . . 
Class I. Amphineura 
II. Pteropoda 
III. Gastropoda 
,, IV. Scaphopoda 
V. Pelecypoda 
VI. Cephalopoda 



PAGE 
xiv 

xv 

xvii 

1 

3 

al 

59 

816 

825 

1039 



APPENDIX. 

List of the Introduced Land and Fresh-water Mollusca of New Zealand . . 1071 

Brachiopoda . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1074 

Additions and Emendations . . . . . . . . . . 1077 

Index to Orders, Families, Genera, &c. . . . . . . . . 1087 

Index to Species, Subspecies, &c. . . . . . . . . . . 1101 



0190 



ERRATA. 



Page 12, line 12 from top. For " Arctic" read " Antarctic." 

18, line 20 from bottom. for " Plate 2 " read " Plate 3." 

18, line 21 from bottom. for " Plate 3" read " Plate 2.'' 

85, line 1 from top. Add " Plate 33, figs. 1, 1." 
93, line 26 from bottom. for " 323 " read " 322." 
95, line 21 from bottom. for " 323" read " 322." 

108, Trochus oppressus. There is no fig. 2a. 

127, Cantharidus rufozona.For " Plate 35, fig. 16," read " Plate 39. fig. 21 ." 

,, 287, Crepidula costata. There is no fig. 6a. 

., 289, Natica zelandica. There is no fig. la. 

302, line 15 from bottom. Omit " no sutural channel." 

,, 302, line 18 from bottom. Omit, " (a.) Aperture without a channel at the 
suture." 

361, line 6 from top. Add " Cape Maria van Diemen." 

404. To end of Trophon add " Vernacular Xame. Whelk." 

411, line 22 from top. After "subapical " add " (Plate 19, fig. 4.) " 

417, after line 22 from bottom. Add " Remark. I have not seen this 
species.'' 

478, line 1 from top. for " fig. 7 " read " fig. 9." 

482, line 15 from top. for " fig. 9 " rend " fig. 7." 

494, line 11 from bottom. for " deep " read " shallow." 

581, line 14 from bottom. for " ^Eolidiella " read " 1. JSolidiella." 

604, line 10 from top. for " Limnoea " read " Lymnoea." 

720, line 4 from top. After " (A. Hamilton) " add " ; Bealey." 

784. line 1 from top. for " Canterbury Museum. ( 'hristchurch," read " col- 
lection of Dr. (laze. Westport." 

827. line 13 from top. After " breadth " add " or height." 

,, 891, line 4 from bottom. Add " Chatham Islands." 

891, line 2 from bottom. for " September " read " October." 

899, line 6 from top. Add " C. Tmilli, Hutton, ( ( . Tert. M., 24." 

,, 942, line 10 from top. for " Dominion Museum, Wellington," read " Canter- 
bury Museum. Christchurch." 

NOTE. By an unfortunate oversight the greater part of the proofs were not 
sent to the author for final revision, hence the long list of corrections and additions. 



LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS. 



A.M.N.H. 
A.s.V. . . 
Ad., G.R.M. 

C.M.M. .. 

C. Tert. M. 

C. Tert. M.B.M. 

Cat. A.M. 
Chall. Rep. 

Conch. Cab. 
Conch. Icon. 
Crit. List 

Dieff. N.Z. 
Ereb. & Ter. 

Ess. Pal. Comp. 
Index 

J. de Conch. 
J.L.S. . . 

J.Mai. .. 
M.H. Viv. 

M.N.Z.M. 

Mai. Bl. 
Man. Conch. 
Mem. A.M. 
Miss. l.C. 



Annals and Magazine of Natural History. 

Histoire Naturelle des Animaux sans Vertebres. 

H. and A. Adams : The Genera of Recent Mol- 
lusca. 

F. W. Mutton : Catalogue of Marine Mollusca 
of New Zealand. 1873. 

F. W. Hutton : Catalogue of the Tertiary Mol- 
lusca of New Zealand. 1873. 

G. F. Harris, Catalogue of the Tertiary Mollusca 
in the British Museum. Part i, the Austral- 
asian Tertiary Mollusca. 1897. 

Catalogue of the Australian Museum, Sydney. 

Report of the Scientific Results of the Voyage 
of H.M.S. " Challenger " during the years 
1873-76. Zoology. 

J. H. Chemnitz, Neues Systematisches Conchy- 
lien Cabinet. 1769-95. 

L. Reeve : Conchologia Iconica, 1843-78 ; com- 
pleted by Sowerby. 

E. von Martens : Critical List of the Mollusca of 
New Zealand contained in European Collec- 
tions. 1873. 

E. Dieffenbach : Travels in New Zealand, vol. ii. 
1843. 

Edgar A. Smith : Mollusca The Zoology of the 
Voyage of H.M.S. " Erebus " and " Terror." 
1874. 

M. Cossmann : Essais de Paleoconchologie Com- 
paree, depuis 1895. 

F. W. Hutton : Index Faunae Novse Zealandi.-". 
1904. 

Journal de Conchyliologie. Paris. 

Journal of the Linnean Society, London. 

Zoology. 

Journal of Malacology ; edited by W. E. Collinge. 
L. Pfeiffer : Monographia Heliceorum viventium. 

4 vols. 1848-58. 
F. W. Hutton : Manual of the New Zealand 

Mollusca. 1880. 
Malakozoologische Blatter. 
Tryon and Pilsbry : Manual of Conchology. 
Memoirs of the Australian Museum, Sydney. 
Filhol : Mission scientifique a 1'ile Campbell. 

1885. 



XVI 



LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS. 



Mus. Bolten. 
N.D.M.G. 

N.Z.J.S. 
Noraencl. Hel. Viv 



P. Bost. S.N.H. . . 
P.L.S. N.S.W. 

P. Mai. S. 

P.R.S. Tas. 
P.R.S. Vic. 

P.Z.S 

Plioc. M. 

Q.J.M.S. 

Rec. A.M. 

Subantarct. Islds. 

N.Zeal. 
Syst, Nat. 
T.N.Z.I... 
T.R.S. S.Aust. 

Thes. Conch. 

U.S. Expl. Exp. . . 

Un. Conch. 
V.Z.B.G. Wieu . 

Voy. Astrol. 
Voy. Coq. 
Voy. P.S. 

Yate N.Z. 



J. F. Bolten : Museum Boltenianuni. 1798. 
Nachrichtsblatt der deutschen Malakozoolo- 

gischeu Gesellschaft. 
New Zealand Journal of Science. 
Pfeift'er Clessin : Nomenclator Heliceoruni vi- 

ventium. 1878. 
Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural 

History. 
Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South 

Wales 
Proceedings of the Malacological Society of 

London. 

Proceedings of the Royal Society of Tasmania. 
Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria. 
Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 
F. W. Hutton : The Pliocene Mollusca of New 

Zealand, in the Macleay Memorial Volume. 

1893. 
Quarterly Journal of the Microscopical Society 

of London. 

Records of the Australian Museum, Sydney. 
The Subantarctic Islands of New Zealand ; 

edited by C. Chilton, D.Sc. 2 vols. 1909. 
Linne : Systema Naturae. Ed. 10. 1758. 
Transactions of the New Zealand Institute. 
Transactions of the Royal Society of South 

Australia. 
Sowerby : Thesaurus Conchyliorum. 11 vols. 

1843-79. 
Augustus A. Gould : Mollusca and Shells of the 

United States Exploring Expedition, 1838-42. 

1 vol. and atlas. 1852. 

Thomas Martyn : The Universal Conchologist. 
Verhandlungen der Zoologisch-botanischen Ge- 
sellschaft in Wien. 
Voyage autour du Monde de " 1' Astrolabe,'"' 

1826-29. Zoologie par Quoy and Gaimard. 
Voyage autour du Monde sur " la Coquille," 

1822-25. Zoologie par Lesson. 1830. 
Voyage au Pole Sud et dans I'Oceanie sur les 

Corvettes " 1' Astrolabe " et " la Zelee," 1837- 

40. Zoologie par Hombron et Jacquinot. 

1854. 
W. Yate : An Account of New Zealand, &c., 

1835. Appendix : J. E. Gray, Catalogue of 

Shells collected on the East Coast of New 

Zealand by W. Yate. 



SYNOPSIS OF THE GENERA. 



PHYLUM MOLLUSC A. 

Class I. AMPHINEUEA. 
Ord. 1. POLYPLACOPHORA. 

Subord. 1. EOPLACOPHORA. 
Fam. Lepidopleuridce. Lepidopleurus. 

Subord. 2. MESOPLACOPHORA. 

Fam. Ischnochitonidce. Ischnochiton, Callochiton. 

Fam. MopaliidcB. Mopalia, Plaxipliora. 

Fam. Acanthocliitidce. Acanthochites, Spongiochiton. 

Subord. 3. TELEOPLACOPHORA. 

Fam. Chitonidce. Chiton, Eudoxochiton, Tonicia, Acauthopleura, 
Lorica, Onithochiton. 



Class II. P T E R P D A. 

Ord. 1. THECOSOMATA. 

Fam. Cymbuliidcp. -Cymbulia. 

Fam. Cavoliniidce. Cavolina, Cuvierina. 

Fam. Limacinidce. Limacina. 



Class III. GASTROPODA. 
Subclass I. STREPTONEURA. 

Ord. 1. ASPIDOBRANCHIA. 

Subord. 1. DOCOGLOSSA. 

Fam. Acuiceidce. Acmaea. 

Fam. Patellidce. Nacella, Helcioniscus. 

ii MoU. N.Z. 



XV111 SYNOPSIS OF THE GENERA. 

Subord. 2. RHIPIDOGLOSSA. 

Fam. Scissurellidce. Scissurella, Schismope. 

Fam. HaUotidcp. Haliotis. 

Fam. Fissurellidce. Fissurella, Incisura, Emarginula, Subemarginula, 

Scutus, Puncturella, Fissuridea. 
Fam. Trochidce. Trochus, Monoclonta, Cantharidus, Photimila, Gib- 

bula, Fossarina, Monilea, Calliostoma, Euclielus. 
Fam. LiotiidcB. Liotia. 
Fam. CydostrematidcB. Cyclostrema, Delpliinoidea, Cirsonella, Pseudo- 

liotia. 

Fam. Vitrinellidce. Lissospira, Circulus, Cyclostremella. 
Fam. TurVinidcB. Turbo, Leptothyra, Astrfea. 
Fam. PJiasianellidce. Pliasianella. 
Fam. Umboniidce. -Ethalia. 
Fam. Neritidop. -Nerita. 
Fam. CocculinidcB. Cocculina. 
Fam. Hydrocenidcs. Hydrocena. 

Ord. 2. PECTINIBRANCHTA. 

Subord. 1. T^NIOGLOSSA. 

Tribe 1. PLATYPODA. 

Fam. Cyclophoridce. Lagocliilus. 

Fam. Diplommatinidce. Palaina, Gastroptychia. 

Fam. Litorinidce. Litorina, Lsevilitorina. 

Fam. Risellidce. Risellopsis. 

Fam. Fossaridce. Coutbouyia. 

Fam. Planaxidce. Planaxis. 

Fam. Realiidce. Realia, Omphalotropis. 

Fam. RissoidcB. Rissoa, Amphithalamus, Anabathron, Rissoina, 

Skenella. 

Fam. Litiopidce. Diala. 
Fam. Omalogyridce. Omalogyra. 
Fam . Hydrobiidce.- Potamopyrgus. 
Fam. TJiiaridcB. Melanopsis. 
Fam. Cerithiidce. Cerithidea, Bittium. 
Fam. CerithiopsidcB. Cerithiopsis, Newtoniella, Seila. 
Fam. Triforidfr. Triphora. 

Fam. Vennetidfe. Serpulorbis. -Siphonium, Stephopoma, Siliquaria. 
Fam. C tedder. Cfecum. 
Fam. TurritellidcB. Turritella. 
Fam. Mathildiidn'. Math ilda. 
Fam. StrxtJt iolariida 1 .- 1 Struthiolaria. 
Fam. Xenophoridce. Xenophora. 
Fam. Capulidce. Capulus, Neojauacus. 



SYNOPSIS OF THE GENERA. XIX 



Farn. Hippo nicidce. Hipponix. 

Fam. Calyptrceidce. Calyptrsea, Crepidula. 

Fani. Naticidce. Natica, Polinices. Arupullina. 

Fam. Lamellar iidce. Lamellaria. 

Fam. Trichotropidce. Tricliotropis, Lippistes. 

Fam. Janthinidce. Janthina. 

Fam. CyprcBidce. Trivia. 

Fam. Septidce. Septa, Cymatium, Argobucciuum. 

Fam. Cassididce.- Phaliimi. 

Fam. Tonnidce Tonna. 

Fam. Architectonicidce. Architectouica, Henacus, Omalaxis. 

Fam. Epitoniidce. Epitonium, Crossea, Aclis. 

AGLOSSA. 

Fam. Pymmidellidw.- Pyrarnidella, Turboiiilla, Odostomia. 
Fam. Eulimidce. Eulirna. 

Tribe 2. HETEROPODA. 

Fam. Atlantidce. Atlanta. 
Fam. Carinariidce. Carinaria. 
Fam. Pterotracheidce. Pterotrachea. 



Subord. 2. STENOGLOSSA. 

Tribe 1. RACHIGLOSSA. 

Fam. TurbinelUdcB. Megalatractus. 

Fam. Fasciolariidce. Fusinus, Latirus. 

Fam. Mitridce. Mitra, Vexillum. 

Fam. ChrysodomidcB. Siplionalia, Euthria. 

Fam. Buccinidce. Cominella, Phos, Pisania, Cantliarus. 

Fam. AlectrionidcB. Alectrion. 

Fam. Muricidre. Murex, Trophoii, Typliis. 

Fam. ThaisidcB. Thais, Drupa. 

Fam. Cancellar iidce. Admete. 

Fam. Pyrenidce. Mitrella, Anacliis, Alcira, Atilia. 

Faai. Volutidce. Fulguraria. 

Fam. Olividce. -Ancilla. 

Fam. Marginellidce. Marginella, Cryptospira. 

Tribe 2. TOXOGLOSSA. 

Fam. Turritidce. Turris, Drillia, Spirotropis, Bela, Surcula, Mitro- 

morplia, Bathytoma, Mangilia, Daplmella. 
Fam. Terebridce. Terebra. 



XX SYNOPSIS OP THE GENERA. 

Subclass II. EUTHYNEURA. 

Ord. 1. OPISTHOBRANCHIA. 

Subord. 1. TECTIBRANCHIA. 

Tribe 1. BULLOMORPHA. 

Fam. Acteonidce. Acteon, Pupa, Leucotina, Bullina. 

Fam. Ringiculidce. Ringicula. 

Fam. Tornatinidce. Tornatina, Volvulella. 

Fam. Scaphandridce. Cylichnella. 

Fam. Bullariidce. Bullaria. 

Fam. Aceridoe. Acera, Haminea. 

Fam. Philinidce. Pliiline. 

Fam. Aglajidce. Aglaja. 

Tribe 2. APLYSIOMORPHA. 
Fam. Aplysiidce. Tethys, Notarchus. 

Tribe 3. PLEUROBRANCHOMORPHA. 

Fam. UmbracuUdce. -Umbraculum. 

Fam. Plewobranchidce. Pleurobranchus, Pleurobranchaea. 

Subord. NUDIBRANCHIA. 
Tribe 1. TRITONIOMORPHA. 
Fam. Tritoniidce. Tritonia. 

Tribe 2. DORIDOMORPHA. 

Fam. GoniodorididcB. Goniodoris, Acanthodoris. 

Fam. Dorididce. Doris, Rostanga, Alloiodoris, G-argamella, Atagema, 

Chromodoris, Aphelodoris. 
Fam. Doriopsidcs. Doriopsis, Doriopsilla. 

Tribe 3. EOLIDOMORPHA. 

Fam. Eolidid(B. Eolis, ^Eolidiella, Facelina, Eolidia, Hervia. 
Fam. Proctoitotidce. Antiopella. 
Fam. Fionidce. Fiona. 

Tribe 4. ELYSIOMORPHA. 
Fam. Hermceidce. Stiliger. 



SYNOPSIS OP THE GENERA. XXI 

Ord. 2. PULMONATA. 
Subord. 1. BASOMMATOPHOKA. 

Fam. AunculidcB. OpMcardelus, Marinula, Leuconia, Cremuobates. 

Fam. Amphibolidce. Amphibola. 

Fam. Siphonariidce. Siphonaria. 

Fam. GadinidcB. Gadinia. 

Fam. Lymno'eidce. Lymnoea, Amphipeplea. 

Fam. Planorbidce. Planorbis, Isidora. 

Fam. AncylidcB. Latia, Gundlachia. 

Subord. 2. STYLOMMATOPHORA. 
Tribe 1. HOLOGNATHA. 

Fam. Zonitidce. Fretum. 

Fam. Limacidce. Otoconclia. 

Fam. Phenacohelicidce. Phacussa, Thalassohelix, Gerontia, Allodiscus, 

Thermia, Serpho, Therasia, Phenacohelix, Suteria, Flammulina, 

Ranfurlya. 

Fam. Endodontidce. Endodonta, Laoma. 
Fam. Bulimulidce. Placostylus. 
Fam. Achatinellidce. Tornatellina. 



Fam. Rhytididce. Rhytida, Paryphanta, Schizoglossa, Delos. 

Tribe 3. ELASMOGNATHA. 
Fam. Athoracophoridce. Athoracophorus. 

Tribe 4. DIGONOPORA. 
Fam. Onchidiidce. Onchidella. 

Class IV. S C A P H P D A. 

Fam. Dentaliidce. Dentalium. 
Fam. Siphonodentaliidce. Cadulus. 

Class V. P E L E C Y P D A. 

Ord. 1. PROTOBRANCHIA. 

Fam. Solemyidce. Solemya. 

Fam. NuculidcB. Nucula. 

Fam. Ledidce. Leda, Malletia, Pleurodon, Poroleda. 



SYNOPSIS OF THE GENERA. 



Ord. 2. FILIBRANCHIA. 
Subord. 1. ANOMIACEA. 

Fam. Anomiidce. Anomia, Placuuanomia. 

Subord. 2. ARCACEA. 

Faru. ArcidcB. Area, Glycymeris. 

Fam. Liinopsidce. Limopsis, Lissarca. 

Fam. Philobryidce. Philobrya, Hochstetteria. 

Subord. 3. MYTILACEA. 

Fam. Mytilidce. Mytilus, Modiolus, Modiolaria, Lithophaga, Dacry- 
dium. 

Subord. 4. PECTINACEA. 

Fam. Pectinidce. Pecten. 

Ord. 3. EULAMELLIBRANCHIA. 

Subord. 1. OSTRACEA. 
Fam. LimidcB. Lima. 
Fam. Ostreidce. Ostrea. 
Fam. Pinnidce. Atrina. 

Subord. 2. SUBMYTILACEA. 

Fam. Modiolarcidce. Modiolarca. 

Fam. Crassatellitidce. Crassatellites, Cyamiomactra. Perrieriua, Cuua. 

Fam. Carditidce.G&Tdita,, Venericardia, Verticipronus. 

Fam. Condylocardiidce. Condylocardia. 

Fam. LucinidcB. Loripes, Divaricella, Moutacuta. 

Fam. Diplodontidce. Diplodonta. 

Fam. ThyasiridcB. Tliyasira. 

Fam. Leptonida. Erycina, Kellia, Neolepton, Lassea, Myllita, Pachy- 

kellya, Rochefortia, Cyamium. 
Fam. Sphocriidce. Sphserium, Corneocyclas. 
Fam. Unionidce. Diplodon. 

Subord. 3. TELLINACEA. 

Fam. Tellinidce. Tellina, Macoma. 

Fam. Setnelidce. -Leptomya. 

Fam. Mesodesmatidce. Mesodesma. 

Fam. Mactridce. Mactra, Spisula, Raeta, Zenatia, Resania. 

Subord. 4. VENERACEA. 

Fam. VeneridcB. Dosinia, Macrocallista, Cytherea, Chione, Gomphiua. 
Paphia, Venerupis. 



SYNOPSIS OF THE GENERA. XX111 

Subord. 5. CAEDIACEA. 
Fam. Cardiidcp. Protocardia. 

Subord. 6. MYACEA. 

Fam. Psammobiidce. Psammobia, Soletellina. 
Fam. Corbulidce. Corbula. 
Fam. SaxicavidcB. Saxicava, Panopea. 

Subord. 7. ADESMACSA. 
Fam. Pholad'idce. Pholadidea, Barnea. 
Fam. TeredinidcB. Teredo. 

Subord. 8. ANATINACEA. 

Fam. Thmciidce. Thracia. 
Fam. Periplomidce. Cochlodesrna. 
Fam. Myochamidce. Myodora. 
Fam. ChamostreidcE. Chamostrea. 
Fam. VerticordiidcB. Verticordia. 

Ord. 4. SEPTIBRANCHIA. 
Fam. Cuspidariidce. Cuspidaria. 

Class VI. CEPHALOPODA. 
Ord. 2. DIBRANCHIA. 

Subord. 1. DECAPODA. 

Tribe 1. OIGOPSIDA. 
Fam. Spirulidce. Spirula. 
Fam. Architenthidce. Architeuthus. 
Fam. Ommastrephidce. Ommastrephes. 
Fam. OnychoteuthidcB. Onychoteuthis. 
Fam. HistioteuthidcB.- -Calliteuthis. 
Fam. Cranchiidce. Taonidium. 

Tribe 2. MYOPSIDA. 
Fam. Sepiidce. Sepia. 
Fam. Sepiolidce. Sepiola. 
Fam. Loliginidw. Sepioteuthis. 

Subord. 2. OCTOPODA. 

Tribe 2. TRACHYGLOSSA. 
Fam. Polijpodidce. Polypus, Pinuoctopus. 
Fam. ArgonautidcB. Tremoctopus, Argonauta. 



MOLLUSCA OF NEW ZEALAND. 



PHYLUM MOLLUSCA, Cuvier. 

THE Mollusca are originally bilateral organisms in which signs of 
primitive segmentation are no longer evident. 

They possess a well-developed coelom (gonad and pericardium), 
enteron, and hsemocoel, quite distinct from one another. 

The alimentary tract exhibits (or has lost) a radular sac in its 
anterior part. 

The nervous system consists of a peri-cesophageal ring, whose 
supra-cesophageal (or dorsal) moiety is the cerebral commissure, and 
the infra-oesophageal (or ventral) moiety is the labial commissure. 
The former gives off chiefly sensorial nerves, the latter nerves to the 
digestive tract. From their union two nervous cords arise on each side 
a dorsal or pallial, and a ventral or pedal ; from the former arise the 
visceral nerves, whose main trunks are frequently joined together under 
the digestive canal to form the infra-intestinal visceral commissure. 

The general body-wall is differentiated into three regions : (1) the 
antero-dorsal or cephalic, on which are borne most of the special 
sense-organs, called the head ; (2) the postero-dorsal or pallial the 
mantle which forms a projecting fold around the body, and secretes 
on its external face a calcined cuticle or shell, and on its lower sur- 
face develops respiratory organs or ctenidia ; (3) the ventral or 
pedal the foot which is the organ of locomotion. 

A so-called " veliger," or free trochosphere larva, is nearly always 
present in embryonic development ; its preoral ciliated ring grows out 
to form a natatory velum, and at its formative pole there is a " pre- 
conchylian invagination," or shell-gland. 

The Mollusca are divided into six classes, which may be inter- 
preted by the following mostly well-known animals : (1) the mail- 
shell, or Chiton ; (2) the free and floating hyaline pteropods, with 
wing-like lobes as organs of motion ; (3) the snail and slug ; (4) the 
tusk-shell, or Dentalium ; (5) the mussel ; (6) the cuttlefish. 

Molluscs are essentially aquatic animals, but the most varied 
modes of existence may occur, even among members of the same 
class. The majority are inhabitants of the sea ; a few live in fresh 
water ; a single order of gastropods and a few isolated members of 
the same group are adapted to a terrestrial life. They are distributed 
over the whole surface of the earth, and in all latitudes. Terrestrial 
forms are found on the highest mountains, some Stylommatophora 
at a height of 15,000 ft. ; lacustrine forms are found at a depth of 

1 Moll. N Z. 



'2 MOLLUSCA. 



350 fathoms. The pelagic forms are not only distributed over the 
surface of the sea, but may descend to a depth of 2,600 fathoms with- 
out reaching the bottom. Abyssal molluscs are found in all oceans, 
extending to a depth of 2,800 fathoms from the .surface. 

The different classes of molluscs were already differentiated at a 
remote epoch of the Palaeozoic era. 

LITERATURE OF THE MOLLUSCA GENERALLY. 

I. Concholpgical. 

Adams, H. and A. " The Genera of Recent Mollusca." 1853-58. 

Cooke. " Molluscs." " The Cambridge Natural History," vol. iii. 1895. 

Fischer. " Manuel de Conchyliologie." 1887. 

Forbes and Hanley. " British Mollusca." 1853. 

Jeffreys. " British Conchology." 1862-69. 

Martini and Chemnitz. " Systematisches Conchylien Cabinet." 

Simroth. '' Mollusca." ' Bronn's Klassen und Ordnungen des Tier- 

reichs," vol. iii, from 1895. 
Taylor. :< Monograph of the Land and Fresh-water 'Mollusca of the 

British Isles," from 1900. 

Tryon-Pilsbry. " Manual of Conchology," from 1878. 
Woodward. " A Manual of the Mollusca." 1880. 

II. Morphological. 

Cuenot. " L'Excretion chez les Mollusques." Arch, de Biol., xvi, 1899. 
Geddes. " On the Mechanism of the Odontophore in certain Mol- 
lusca." Trans. Zool. Soc. London, x, 1879. 
Huxley. " On the Morphology of the Cephalous Mollusca." Phil. 

Trans., 1853. 

von Ihering. " Vergleichende Anatomic des Nervensystems und Phy- 
logenie der Mollusken." 1877. 

' Die Gehorwerkzenge der Mollusken." 1876. 
" Zur Morphologic der Niere der Mollusken." Zeitschr. 
f. wiss. Zool., xxix, 1877. 
Lankester. ' Mollusca." Encyclop. Brit., ed. 9 ; xvi, 1883. 

" Contributions to the Developmental History of the Mol- 
lusca." Phil. Trans., 1875. 

" Note on the Ccelom and Vascular Svstem of Mollusca 



and Arthropoda." Quart. Journ. Micr. Sci., xxxiv, 1893. 

Milne-Edwards. ''' Observations sur la Circulation chez les Mol- 
lusques." Ann. d. Sci. Nat. Zool., ser. 3, viii, 1847. 

Moynier de Villepoix. ' Recheches sur la Formation et 1'Accroisse- 
ment de la Coquille." 

Pelseneer. " Introduction a 1' Etude des Mollusques." 1894. 

- "Mollusca." Ray Lankester: "A Treatise on Zoology," 
part v, 1906. 

Lang. '' Lehbruch der vergleichenden Anatomic der wirbellosen Tiere," 
iii, 1900 : Mollusca von K. Hescheler. 



CLASS I. AMPHINEURA, von Ihering. 

(= Isoplenra, Ray Lankester'; Aculifera, Hatschek.) 

THE Amphiueura are a group of Mollusca characterized, firstly, by 
their more or less elongated and quite symmetrical body, with the 
mouth and the anus situated at its two ends ; and, secondly, by their 
mantle, which is always provided with numerous spicules imbedded 
in a cuticle. The nervous system consists of 2 lateral and 2 ventral 
parallel cords, meeting in a cerebral ganglion. Head without tentacles 
or eyes. 

All the Amphineura are marine in habit. They are found in all 
oceans and at nearly all depths. They existed in very ancient geo- 
logical ages, for they are already present in the Lower Silurian. 

There are two very distinct orders (1) Polyplacophora ; (2) Apla- 
cophora. None of the latter have been recorded from New Zealand. 

ORDER 1 POLYPLACOPHORA, de Blainville. 

Dorsal surface bearing 8 imbricating shelly plates ; head divided 
from the body ; gills numerous, occupying a lateral groove on each 
side between the foot and the encircling mantle ; foot adapted to creep- 
ing. They are unisexual, the genital organs and nephridia paired. 
The radula is well developed. 

Vernacular Name. Mail-shell. 

THE SHELL OF THE POLYPLACOPHORA. 

In the description of the Chitons technical terms are unavoidable, 
and the following definitions are copied from Pilsbry's excellent mono- 
graph : 

The shell in Chitons consists of 8 imbricating pieces or valves, bound 
together by a leathery girdle of connective tissue. The valves, when 
freed of the girdle by soaking a few hours in water, are seen to be of 
three forms : the anterior (or " head ") valve, semicircular in out- 
line, its apex elevated ; the intermediate (sometimes called " central ' : 
or " median") valves, squarish in shape; and the posterior (or "tail") 
valve, which is like the intermediate valves, with the addition of a 
sloping surface behind the apex or mucro. In structure, the valves are 
composed of two layers, generally quite different in colour and texture an 
outer layer, called by Middendorf the tegmentum ; and an inner, the 
articulamentum. 

The surface of the valves (tegmentum) is divided in nearly all Chitons 
into clearly defined or indistinct areas. The intermediate valves (I) 
are divided into lateral areas and a central area ; the latter being 
subdivided into a dorsal or jugal tract, extending t long the ridge of 
the valve, and two pleura or pleural tracts, occupying the side slopes 
in front of the diagonal line or rib. In some forms (II) the diagonal 
line is obliterated, the lateral areas and the pleural tracts being united 
into a single uniformly sculptured expanse, the latero-pleural area, on 
i* 



4 



AMPHINEURA. 



[Polyplacophora. 



each side, the dorsal or jiagal area remaining distinct. This modi- 
fication is characteristic of one great phylum of Chitons. As a rule, 
the head valve is sculptured all over like the lateral areas. The 
posterior valve (IV) is divided into a central and a posterior area, the 
former being precisely similar to the area so named in the intermediate 
valves, and the latter corresponding closely in sculpture to the lateral 
areas. In some genera the mucro is near or at the posterior edge of 
the valve, and the posterior area is then reduced to a narrow tract, 
or altogether absent. In position, the mucro may be either anterior, 
or median, or posterior ; and it may be either elevated or depressed, 
the last being sometimes called a flat or planate mucro. 

The inner layer of the valves (articulamentum) is larger than the 
tegmentum, projecting in front in two lobes called sutural laminae, 
which are separated by a median bay, the jugal sinus. At the sides of 
the intermediate valves, and around the semicircle of the end valves, 
most Chitons have projecting plates called insertion plates, to which 





I. INTERMEDIATE VALVE OF ISCHNOCHITON. 
1-3, central aares (1, jxigal tract ; 2, 3, pleural tracts) ; 4, 5, lateral areas ; 

6, sutural laminae. 

II. INTERMEDIATE VALVE OF ACANTHOCHITES. 
7, insertion plates ; 8, dorsal area ; 9, latero- pleural areas. 

III. INTERMEDIATE VALVE. 
10, sinus; 11, valve-callus; 12, slits ; 13, teeth ; 14, slit-rays ; 15, eaves. 

IV. POSTERIOR VALVE. 
16, central area ; 17, posterior area ; 18, mucro. 

the girdle is attached. These are commonly cut into teeth by trans- 
verse slits. From the slits to the apex of each valve inside run slight 
grooves and rows of pores, known as slit-rays ; often they are 
obliterated, but in forms having a highly developed system of sense- 
organs in the tegmentum the pores of the slit-rays serve as nerve- 
foramina. The teeth are sometimes finely cut or crenulated (technic- 
ally, " pectinated ") between the slits ; and in some forms the edges 
of the teeth are thickened outside, or " propped." Fig. Ill represents 
the interior of the fourth valve of an Ischnochiton, showing the slits, 
teeth, insertion plates, &c. 



Polyplacophora.] 



AMPHINEURA. 



KEY TO GENERA. 
a. Valves lacking insertion plates 

an. Valves possessing insertion plates, valves i-vii or i-viii 
having slits ; teeth smooth or but slightly roughened 
between the slits, never closely, finely pectinated. 
Valves lacking eyes (except Callochiton). 
b. Surface of intermediate valves divided into lateral 
and central areas by a diagonal (often indistinct) 
extending from beak to outer front angle of teg- 
mentum ; or, if this is not clearly the case, the 
posterior valve has an even, crescent ic series of 
well-developed teeth ; all valves having slits. 
c. Posterior valve having crescentic series of well- 
developed teeth. 

d. Valves porous at the eaves. Sutural plates 
connected across the sinus, side slits 
several (single in one species), girdle 
with compact diamond - patterned 
covering ; valves with minute eyes . . 
dd. Valves solid at eaves, girdle densely 
covered with flat imbricating scales, 
side slits single 

cc. Posterior valve having a sinus behind, with one 
slit or none on each side ; girdle hairy or 
nude, never scaly. 
d. Posterior valve having a slit on each side of 

the median sinus 
dd. Posterior valve having a median tail-sinus, 

but no slits 

bb. Surface of intermediate valves divided into a nar- 
row dorsal area and latero-pleural areas, the 
latter formed by the union of the lateral and 
pleural areas ; valves more or less covered by 
the naked spiculose or hairy (never scaly) girdle. 
c. Girdle provided with pores bearing tufts or 

bristles 
cc. Girdle spongy, produced forward 

aaa. All valves, or valves i-vii, possessing insertion plates 
cut into teeth by slits ; teeth sharply sculptured or 
" pectinated " outside by fine vertical grooves. 
6. Valves lacking eyes. 
c. Girdle scaly 

cc. Girdle leathery, with short bristles 
bb. Valves having eyes ; posterior valve not deeply 

sinused behind, its insertion plate developed. 
c. Girdle leathery, nude or nearly so . . 
cc. Girdle covered with calcareous spines 
bbb. Valves having eyes ; posterior valve having a deep 
sinus behind, or lacking the insertion plate alto- 
gether. No eyes on head valve, its ribs not cor- 
responding to slits ; girdle densely scaly, slit 
behind 

tibbb. Valves having eyes upon the lateral areas and 
head valve. Insertion plate of tail valve re- 
duced to a smooth ledge or ridge, having no 
posterior sinus. Girdle leathery, microscopic- 
ally velvety 



LEPIDOPLEURUS. 



CALLOCHITON. 
ISCHNOCHITON. 

MOPALIA. 

PLAXIPHORA. 



AC'ANTHOCHITES. 
SPONGIOCHITON. 



CHITON. 
EUDOXOCHITON. 



TONICIA. 
ACANTHOPLEURA. 



LOEICA. 



ONITHOCHITON, 



6 AMPHINEURA . [Polyplacopliora, 

SUBORDER 1. EOPLACOPHORA, Pilsbry. 

Tegmentum coextensive with articulamentum, or the latter pro- 
jecting in smooth unslit plates. 

Fam. LEPIDOPLEURID^-E, Pilsbry. 

Leptoidea, Carpenter. Leptochitonidce. Ball, " Blake " Gastrop., 1889. 414. 
Genus Holochiton, Fischer, Man.. 877. 

Chitons in which the head and tail valves are similarly articulated, 
and having the insertion plates either obsolete or, if present, without 
slits. Girdle finely scaly or bristly ; gills short, posterior. 

This family is readily known by the entire absence of insertion 
plates, or the simple unslit character of them when present. The living 
species are few in number, and mainly either northern in distribution 
or living at considerable depths. All of the Paleozoic Chitons yet 
known belong to this family, and this fact, together with the weak, 
imperfect articulation of the valves, causes us to regard the Leptoids 
as the most primitive of the existing groups. (Pilsbry.) 

Genus 1. LEPIDOPLEURUS, Risso, 1826. 

Lepidopleurus, Risso, Hist. Nat. de 1'Europe Merid., iv, 1826, 267 (in part). 
First species: L. cajetanus, Poli. Not Lepidopleurus of H. and A. 
Adams, Carpenter, Dall, &c. Leptochiton, Gray, P.Z.S., 1847, 127. 
Leptochiton, in part, of H. and A. Adams, G.R.M., i, 473 ; and of Chemi, 
Man., i. 381. (Pilsbry.) 

Insertion plates absent. Girdle with minute, gravelly, smooth or 
striated scales, usually with a marginal fringe of longer scales. 

From the Southern Hemisphere very few species are known : two 
from Tasmania, Australia, and New Zealand, and one each from 
the Kerguelen Islands, South Georgia, Straits of Magellan, and the 
Antarctic (Voy. du S.Y. " Belgica "). 

1. Lepidopleurus inquinatus, Reeve, 1847. Plate 2, fig. 1; Plate 3, 
fig. 1. 

Lepidopleurus inquinatus. Reeve, Conch. Icon., Chiton, pi. 23, f. 154; Man. 
Conch. (1), xiv, 90. L. liratus, Adams and Angas, P.Z.S., 1864, 192 
Man. Conch. (1), xv, 101 ; P. Mai. S.. ii, 86. 184. 

Shell oblong-ovate, small, yellowish-brown, longitudinally finely 
ridged. Anterior valve very finely radiately striate, with a few con- 
centric grooves. Intermediate valves with the central areas longi- 
tudinally finely grooved, the sculpture extending over the jugum : 
lateral areas slightly raised, with concentric fine wrinkles and a few 
distinct furrows near the margin ; valves broadly rounded. Posterior 
valve with fine longitudinally arranged ridges on the central area, 
fine concentric riblets and a few distinct furrows on the posterior 
area, mucro central, the posterior slope concave. Girdle covered 
with minute scales, which are rounded, convex, and strongly striated. 
Colour of the valves light yellow with a brown spot along the summit 



Lepidoplcuru*.] AMPHINEURA. 



of each valve, sometimes the upper part of the lateral areas is also 
brown, and the anterior valve has very often the same colour ; the 
girdle is dirty-white. The interior of the valves is white, the anterior 
central part of the intermediate valves is finely striate ; there are no 
insertion plates ; the sinus is very broad and smooth ; the sutural 
laminse are narrow, high, triangularly rounded, and semitransparent ; 
the valve-callus well developed. 

Measurement of a large specimen : Length, 12 mm. ; breadth, 
6-5 mm. Divergence, 90. 

Type, from Tasmania, in the British Museum. 

Hab. Coasts of the North and South Islands, under stones between 
tide-marks ; 25 fathoms, Hauraki Gulf. Found also in Tasmania, 
South Australia, and Victoria. 

SUBORDER 2. MESOPLACOPHORA, Pilsbry. 
Insertion plates well developed and slit. 

Fam. ISCHNOCHITONID^, Dall. 

All the valves with slits, and the inner layer well covered by the 
outer. Insertion plates sharp, smooth, with eaves. Posterior valve 
with a series of well-developed teeth. 

Subfam. 1. 1SCHNOCHITONIN.E. 

The slits of the anterior and intermediate valves do not correspond 
with external ribs. 

Genus 1. ISCHNOCHITON, Gray, 1847. 
Ischnochiton, Gray, P.Z.S., 1847, 26. Type : /. longicymba, Q. & G. 

Valves external, having sharp, slit, insertion plates, the teeth not 
buttressed. Eaves solid. Girdle covered with imbricating scales, 
either flat or convex, smooth or striated. Gills typically extending 
the entire length of the foot, but in some species they are short in front 
or at both ends. 

Ischnochiton is the typical or central point in development of the 
sharp-toothed division of Chitons, around which the other genera 
naturally group themselves. 

Distribution. World-wide. 

Subgen. 1. ISCHNOCHITON, Gray (restricted). 

Lepidopleurus (part), H. and A. Adams, and Carpenter, olim ; not Lepido- 
pleurus, Risso. 

Valves having sharp, non-pectinated insertion plates ; mucro 
median or anterior ; girdle covered with imbricating scales. 



8 AMPHINEURA. [Polyplacophora, 



Sect. 1. ISCHNOCHITON, S.S. 

Valves and insertion plates thin and smooth, 1 side slit in each 
median valve ; the scales of the girdle flat and striated, sometimes 
smooth. 

KEY TO SPECIES. 
A. Scales striated. 

a. Scales faintly striated, mingled with smooth scales . . longicymba. 

aa. Scales deeply grooved. 

b. Lateral areas with radial wrinkles, cut up into granules contractus. 
bb. Lateral areas with broad concentric ridges, radiate rib- 
lets present or indistinct. 

c. Shell with the margins subparallel, divergence 100 fulvus. 
cc. Shell oval, larger, divergence 110-120 .. .. Parkeri. 

AA. Scales smooth, shell small . . . . . . . . luteoroseus. 



1. Ischnochiton contractus, Reeve, 1847. Plate 2, fig. 3. 

Chiton contractus. Reeve, Conch. Icon., Chiton, pi. 15, f. 78. Ischnochiton 
contractus, Man. Conch. (1), xiv, 93, pi. 23, f. 81, 82 ; Suter, P. Mai. S.. 
vii, 293. Chiton decussatus. Reeve, Conch. Icon., pi. 18, f. 107. C. castus. 
Reeve, Conch. Icon., pi. 22, f. 145. Lepidopleurus speciosus, Ad. & Aug.. 
P.Z.S., 1864, p. *92 ; 1865, p. 187. 

Shell oval, subelevated, ashy, irregularly streaked with brown- 
olive. Anterior valve with close radiating wrinkles, broken into granules 
by concentric grooves. Intermediate valves broadly rounded, the central 
areas finely zigzaggedly wrinkled, this sculpture being somewhat 
effaced on the jugum ; lateral areas with radiating, slightly divaricating 
wrinkles, which also are sometimes cut up into granules by concentric- 
sculpture. Posterior valve with the same sculpture as the head valve, 
mucro median, posterior slope straight. Girdle with small, imbricating, 
and deeply striated scales. Colour yellowish-white or ashy, sometimes 
with longitudinal rows of brown spots in the centre or laterally ; girdle 
light brown. Interior white, anterior valve with 14 sharp teeth, 
intermediate valves with 1 slit on each side, posterior valve with 
13 slits ; sinus wide, smooth ; the sutural lamina? narrow, not high, 
rounded. 

Length, 37 mm. ; breadth, 17-5 mm. Divergence, 110. 

Type, from Tasmania, in the British Museum. 

Hob. Auckland Islands (Captain Bollons). Tasmania, Australia, 

Remarks. This species is, as far as I know, not in any New Zealand 
collection of our shells, and in 1897 I placed it amongst the species 
doubtfully occurring in New Zealand waters. In 1906, however, 
Captain Bollons brought me a small specimen (9 mm. long) which 
he had found at the Auckland Islands, and this proved to be the above 
species. The colour is yellowish-white, with 3 longitudinal rows of 
brown spots. The sculpture consists of the characteristic zigzag 
wrinkles, which are very delicate, as is to be expected in such a young 
specimen. 



Ischnochiton.] AMPHINEURA 



2. Ischnochiton fulvus, Suter, 1905. Plate 3, fig. 2, a-d. 

Ischnochiton fulvus, Suter, J. Mai., xii, 66, pi. 9, f. 5-10 ; Iredale, T.N.Z.I., 
xl, 373. 

Shell small, elongated oval, with the sides subparallel, obtusely 
angled, fulvous. In size, outline, and colour very much like Lepido- 
pleurus inquinatus. Anterior valve with a few concentric ridges, 
minutely quincuncially punctate ; the anterior margin white, the 
remainder uniformly fulvous ; there is a slight posterior median 
notch. Intermediate valves with the whole surface minutely punctate 
like the anterior valve, with a few concentric ridges on the central 
areas, extending over the slightly raised lateral areas, where they are 
considerably stouter ; no indication of radiate sculpture. Posterior 
valve punctate like the others, concentrically ridged, mucro subcentral, 
posterior slope slightly concave. Girdle covered with very small 
imbricating scales of somewhat unequal size ; they are flatly convex 
and deeply grooved, usually 4 grooves on a scale. Colour varies from 
light to dark fulvous, the dorsal and anterior parts being always lighter- 
coloured ; the anterior margin of the head valve, the anterior and 
lateral margins of the central valves, and the posterior margin of the 
tail valve have a narrow white border. Interior dirty-white ; anterior 
valve with 12 slits at unequal distances ; intermediate valves with 
1 slit on each side, the posterior tooth small ; posterior valve with 
12 slits, the teeth unequal in size ; sinus broad, deep, and smooth ; 
sutural laminae with the inner sides concave. 

Length, 12 mm. ; breadth, 7 mm. Divergence, 100. 

Type, from Te Oneroa, in my collection. 

Hob. Te Oneroa, Preservation Inlet ; Brighton, Otago ; Banks 
Peninsula (Iredale). 

Remarks. The very similar L. inquinatus has the intermediate 
valves longitudinally striated. According to Dr. Torr, this species 
is also found on the coast of South Australia. 

3. Ischnochiton longicymba, Qtioy and Gaimard, 1835. Plate 2, 

fig. 2 ; Plate 3, fig. 3, a, b. 

Chiton longicymba, Q. & G., Voy. Astrol., iii, 1835, 390. pi. 75, f. 1-18 : 
Conch. Icon., Chiton, pi. 19. f. 125; pi. 24, f. 163d. Ischnochiton 
longicymba, Q. & G., Man. Conch. (1), xiv, 87, pi. 22, f. 58-66 ; P. Mai. 
8., ii, 186. /. fruticosus, Gould. : Wissel, Zool. Jahrb., Syst., xx, p. 594, 
pi. 21, f. 5, 6 ; pi. 22, f. 7-10 (anatomy) ; not of Gould. 

Shell oblong, broadly arched, appearing smooth to the naked eye, 
colour very variable. Anterior valve with flat and numerous radiate 
ribleti?, cut up into granules by concentric furrows, which are strongly 
impressed near the margin. Intermediate valves with the central 
areas very closely and finely wrinkled in quincuncial pattern, extending 
over the jugum. Lateral areas slightly raised, with 4-12 radiating 
riblets, very often bifurcating, cut into nodules by growth-lines ; 



10 AMPHINEURA. [Polyplacophora. 

interspaces densely granulated. Posterior valve has on the central 
area the same sculpture as the intermediate valves on the same area, 
and the posterior area the same as the anterior valve ; inucro sub- 
central, posterior slope slightly concave. Girdle covered with imbri- 
cating, flatly convex, and feebly striated scales, amongst which smooth 
scales occur. Colour extremely variable, mostly light green mottled 
with dark green, brown, yellowish-white, &c. ; sometimes black with 
a broad light band along the back, or grey with a dark-green median 
band. Interior coloured in accordance with the ground-colour of the 
outer side ; anterior valve with 9-12 slits, intermediate valves with 
1 slit on each side, posterior valve with 1 1 slits ; the teeth thin, sharp, 
and smooth ; posterior tooth of the side insertion plates short, and 
terminating abruptly before attaining the posterior margin of the 
valve ; sinus very broad ; sutural lamina? narrow and rather high. 

Length, 40 mm. ; breadth, 18 mm. : mostly smaller. Divergence, 
about 95. 

Type in Mus. Hist. Nat., Paris. 

Hob. Throughout New Zealand and at the Chatham Islands ; 
under stones between tide-marks ; more common in the north. 

Remark. Nearly allied to /. crispus, Reeve, of Tasmania and 
Australia. 

Maori. Cara (fide Quoy and Gaimard). 

4. Ischnochiton luteoroseus, Suter, 1907. Plate 3, fig. 4. 
Ischnochilon luteoroseus, Sutev, P. Mai. S., vii, 293, f. 1 in text. 

Shell small, elongately oval, minutely granulate, uniformly pink 
or yellowish with longitudinal pink bands. Anterior valve with a 
posterior rounded sinus, finely granulated in quincuncial pattern, 
as is also the tegmentum of all other valves. Intermediate valves with 
the lateral areas hardly raised and not well defined, valves lightly 
beaked and sharply rounded. Posterior valve with a central mucro, 
a slight transverse impression below it, the posterior slope straight. 
Girdle with small, imbricating, roundish, flatly convex, and smooth 
scales of equal size. Colour pink, but mostly yellowish with concentric- 
pink bands on the head valve, longitudinal, usually 3 on each side, 
on the central valves, and mostly absent on the tail valve ; these 
bands are slightly undulating or zigzagging. Interior bright pink ; 
anterior valve with 11 slits at irregular distances, intermediate valves 
with 1 slit on each side, posterior valve with 8 slits : corresponding 
with the slits there are radiate fine white lines in all valves ; sinus 
broad and smooth ; sutural laminae broadly rounded. 

Length, 5 mm. ; breadth, 3 mm. Divergence, 80. 

Type in my collection. 

Hob. A few specimens and a number of valves in sand dredged 
in 50 fathoms, near the Bounty Islands, by Captain Bollons ; Dusky 
Sound, in 30 fathoms (R. Henry) ; Stewart Island. 



Ischnochiton.\ AMPHINEURA. 11 

Remarks. To judge from the valves gathered, the species will 
attain a slightly larger size, but most of my specimens are considerably 
smaller. The colour, smallness, and absence of radiating sculpture 
distinguish this species. It belongs to the group with smooth scales. 
A specimen from Dusky Sound is yellowish-white, mottled with brown 
triangular streaks and spots, crowded along the ridge, but otherwise 
it does not differ from Bounty Island specimens. 

5. Ischnochiton Parkeri, Suter, 1897. Plate 3, fig. 5, a-d. 

Isch)wr.hiton Parkeri, Suter, P. Mai. S., ii, 186, f. 1-6 in text. Lepidopleurus 
circumvallatus, Reeve: Hutton, M.N.Z.M., 113, not of Reeve. 

Shell oblong, angularly arched, yellowish to brown, lateral areas 
with feeble radial riblets. Anterior valve minutely decussate, with 
numerous radiate low riblets, which are more or less cut up into fine 
nodules by concentric growth-lines. Intermediate, valves angularly 
arched, beaked, the sutures distantly serrate, jugum and central areas 
finely granulated by longitudinal and transverse zigzag wrinkles ; 
lateral areas raised, with numerous broad, flatly rounded, concentric 
ridges, the interspaces faintly granulate; sometimes distinct radiate 
riblets, numbering 8-10, are present. Posterior valve with the central 
area finely granulate, posterior area with numerous unequal and 
rounded concentric ridges ; mucro central, low and obtuse, posterior 
slope slightly concave. Girdle covered by small imbricating scales, 
which are all of about the same size, convex, deeply grooved, 3- grooves 
on each ; margin of girdle with a fringe of minute spicules. Colour 
variable, from horny-yellow to chestnut-brown, mostly darker on the 
posterior margin of the valves, with more or less predominant black 
longitudinal stripes, assuming often a triangular shape, closer together 
or coalescing towards the girdle, jugum mostly without black mark- 
ings. Interior blue ; anterior valve with 11-13 slits, intermediate 
valves with 1 slit on each side, posterior valve with 12-13 slits ; teeth 
sharp and smooth, posterior tooth of intermediate valves short, as 
in /. longicymba ; sinus broad and smooth ; the sutural laminae rather 
low, broadly rounded ; valve-callus stout. 

Length, 21 mm. ; breadth, 12 mm. Divergence, 110-120. 

Type, from Campbell Island, in the Otago Museum, Dunedin. 

Hob. Campbell Island ; Auckland Islands ; Bare Island (Schauins- 
land). 

Remarks. It is no doubt this species which was taken for 1. lonyi- 
cymba, Q. & G., by Filhol and Hutton. According to Thiele, it is 
/. melanterus, Rochebrune. 

Subfam. 2. CALLOCHITONIN.E. 
With shell-eyes and united sutural laminae. 



12 AMPHINEURA. [Polyplacophora. 

Genus 2. CALLOCHITON, Gray, 1847. 

Callochiton, Gray, P.Z.S., 1847, 126, 168. Type : Chiton Icevis, Montagu. 
Not Callochiton of Carpenter's earlier writings (P.Z.S.. 1865, 276, &c.) 
= Callistochiton. Clathropleura, Thiele (part). Bull. Soc. Mai. Ital., iii, 
1877, 136. 

Valves exposed ; insertion plates rising out of porous or spongy 
eaves, and cut into numerous teeth ; sutural plates connected or 
continuous across the shallow jugal sinus. 

The species are not numerous ; they occur in the British seas, 
the Mediterranean, the Gulf of Manaar, Straits of Magellan, Chile, 
Australia, Tasmania, New Zealand, Cape of Good Hope, Reunion, 
Mauritius, Arctic station " Gauss." 

Littoral to 130 fathoms. 

Subgen. CALLOCHITON, s.s. 

Girdle covered with a smooth compact layer of very small diamond- 
shaped scales. 

KEY TO SPECIES. 

a. Entire surface delicately shagreened . . . . platessa. 
aa. Central areas distinctly sculptured. 

b. A row of deep pits in front of the lateral areas . . . . empleurus, 
bb. Central areas with 4-5 deep grooves on each side ; median 

valves with 2 slits . . . . sulculatus. 
bbb. Central areas with elevated separate longitudinal threads ; 

median valves with 1 slit . . . . puniceus. 

1. Callochiton empleurus, Hutton, 1872. Plate 3, fig. 6. 

Chiton empleurus, Hutton, T.N.Z.I., iv, 178. C. crocinus, Reeve : Pilsbry, 
Man. Conch. (1), xv, 67, not of Reeve. C. empleurus, Hutt., P. Mai. S., ii, 
185 ; J. Mai., xii, 65, pi. 9, f. 1-4. 

Shell small, elongated oval, subcarinated, slopes very slightly 
convex ; flesh-colour, with a squarish white patch on the posterior 
part of the jugal tract. Anterior valve almost smooth, but minutely 
punctate and with numerous small eyes, anterior margin with square 
white spots at irregular distances, and faint traces of radiate riblets ; 
posterior margin with a median notch. Intermediate valves with the 
central area minutely punctate, the jugum mostly smooth, with a few 
transverse shallow furrows, on the central areas in front of the anterior 
edge of the lateral areas 9-10 deep pits on each side, which are getting 
shorter and shallower towards the median part of the valve ; lateral 
areas raised, distinct, with well-pronounced concentric ridges : the 
eyes are very numerous. Posterior valve rather indistinctly minutely 
punctate, with a subcentral mucro, which is studded with minute 
eyes, posterior slope slightly concave. Girdle, with characteristic 
minute elongated glossy scales. Colour fleshy, lighter and with white 
streaks on the jugum ; a white squarish spot on each intermediate 
valve on the posterior part of the jugum, and on the tail valve in front 



Callochiton.} AMPHINEURA. 13 

of the mucro. Interior pink ; sinus rather broad, shallow ; inter- 
mediate valves with 4 slits on each side. 

Length, 22 mm. ; breadth, 9 mm. Divergence, 83. 

Type in the Dominion Museum, Wellington. 

Hab. Near Stewart Island, in about 15 fathoms. 

Remarks. A specimen found on oysters by Mr. C. Cooper, of Auck- 
land, and kindly presented to me, was used for the description and 
figures. As I did not want to disarticulate the only specimen, the num- 
ber of slits in the terminal valves still remain unknown. The habitat 
of this species was hitherto unknown. 

2. Callochiton platessa, Gould, 1846. Plate 3, fig. 7, a-d. 

Chiton platessa, Gould, P. Bost. S.N.H., ii, 143 ; U.S. Expl. Ex., 320, f. 434, 
434a. Callochiton platessa, Gould, Man. Conch. (1), xiv, 49, pi. 10, f. 1-5 ; 
P. Mai. S., ii, 184; T.N.Z.I., xl, 374. Chiton crocinus, Reeve, Conch. 
Icon., pi. 22, f. 146. Callochiton crocinus, Keeve, Man. Conch. (1), xv, 
67, pi. 10, f. 7. Chiton versicolor, Angas, P.Z.S., 1852, 92. pi. 16, f. 5. 
Leptochiton versicolor, Angas, P.Z.S., 1867, 223. 

Shell oval, surface delicately shagreened, no radial sculpture; 
colour orange or yellowish-white, with end valves and part of the 
central valves orange. Anterior valve with a few indistinct concentric- 
lines of growth. Intermediate valves rounded, beaked, the central 
areas with fine transverse lines, lateral areas elevated, with a number 
of distant low concentric ridges, very rarely an indication of a few 
radiate furrows. Posterior valve with the central area distinctly 
separated from the posterior area by a straight transverse line, pos- 
terior area with a few concentric growth-lines ; mucro median, very 
low, posterior slope but slightly convex. Girdle with delicate flat 
elongated scales. Colour very variable, orange with yellowish longi- 
tudinal bands, alternating orange and white spots on the sutures, or 
head and tail valve orange, the latter with a white triangular spot 
in the middle of the central area, the intermediate valves yellowish 
or reddish white, with orange spots on the beaks ; there are minute 
black dots (eyes) present, which are absent from the central areas ; 
the girdle brownish, with a few small white flecks and 5 large white 
spots, 4 very large spots extending from the first and sixth suture to the 
edge of the girdle. Interior : Anterior valve with 16 slits, intermediate 
valves with 3 slits on each side, posterior valve with 14 slits ; teeth 
solid, bifid or 3-shaped, propped outside ; eaves very spongy, simple, 
short ; sinus small, wide ; sutural plates united. 

Length, 19 mm. ; breadth, 13 mm. Divergence, 120. 

Type in the U.S. National Museum, Washington. 

Hab. Port Pegasus, Stewart Island, 18 fathoms (Captain Bollons) : 
Lyall Bay (W. H. Webster) ; Shag Point (Iredale). Australia. 

Remarks. There is one specimen, locality unknown, in the Do- 
minion Museum, Wellington. This is one of our very rare species. 



14 AMPHINEURA. [Polyplacophora. 

3. Callochiton puniceus, Gould, 1846. Plate 3, fig. 8, a-c. 

Chiton puniceus, Gould, P. Bost, S.N.H., ii, 1846. 143 ; U.S. Expl. Ex., xii, 
1852, 324, f. 412. Ischnochiton puniceus, Couthouy : Pilsbry, Man. 
Conch. (1), xiv, 81, pi. 8, f. 76, 77. Callochiton (Icoplax) puniceus, Gould, 
" Deutsche Siidpolar Expedition " ; Thiele, " Die antarktischen und 
subantarktischen Chitonen," 1908, 14. Chiton illuminatus, Reeve, 
Conch. Icon., iv, 1847, pi. 22, f. 147. Callochiton illuminatus, Reeve, 
Man. Conch. (1), xiv, 51, pi. 9, f. 92-94; Suter, P. Mai. S., ii, 185, vii, 
294 ; Melville and Standen, Scottish Antarct. Exp., Moll., 126. Chiton 
dimorphus, Rochebrune, Miss. Cap Horn, Moll., 142, pi. 9, f. 10. 

Shell oval, rather elevated, granulose, central areas with longi- 
tudinal threads, colour red or green. Anterior valve granulose, no 
radiate sculpture, numerous small black eyes. Intermediate valves 
wrinkle striate and granulose all over, the jugum acute, central areas 
with slender elevated separated threads, parallel to the jugum, 6-14 
on each side ; lateral areas granulose, with 2 rows of eyes, no 
radial sculpture. Posterior valve with numerous longitudinal threads 
on the central area, posterior area minutely granulose and with a 
fair number of eyes ; mucro a little in front of the middle, slightly 
elevated. Girdle, with small elongate scales. Colour of type red, 
New Zealand specimens sometimes greenish-grey ; girdle of the same 
colour, often spotted with paler at the sutures. Interior roseate or 
greenish, anterior valve with 15-16 slits, intermediate valves with 1 
slit on each side, posterior valve with 11-14 slits ; teeth acute, quite 
distant, scarcely propped ; eaves spongy ; sinus small, the sutural 
plates connected across it. 

Length, 16 mm. ; breadth, 10 mm. Divergence, 120. 

Type, from Tierra del Fuego, in the U.S. National Museum, 
Washington. Of C. illuminatus, from Straits of Magellan, the type 
is in the British Museum. 

Hob. One specimen, dredged near Kapiti Island, in the Canter- 
bury Museum ; another full-grown yellowish-red specimen from 
18 fathoms, Port Pegasus, Stewart Island, is in Professor Chilton's 
collection ; a young greyish-white specimen from 50 fathoms, near 
the Snares Islands, is in my collection. The latter two specimens 
were dredged by Captain Bollons. Common in the Magellan Province. 

Remarks. In having but 1 slit in the median insertion plates and 
in the want of props on the teeth this species is abnormal ; in other 
respects it agrees with Callochiton (Pilsbry). Thiele is of opinion that 
the green specimen from Kapiti Island may prove to be a distinct 
species. In many species of the Chitons the colour is not of specific 
value. 

4. Callochiton sulculatus, Suter, 1907. Plate 3, fig. 9. 

Callochiton sulculatus, Suter, P. Mai. S., vii, 294, f. 5 in text. 

Shell very small, oval, angularly raised, side slopes straight, central 
areas laterally grooved, colour light fulvous. Anterior valve with a 



Callochiton.] AMPHINEURA. 15 

few fine growth-lines, otherwise smooth, the whole surface dotted 
with small black eyes. Intermediate valves having the jugum sharply 
rounded, central areas microscopically longitudinally closely striate, 
4 to 5 deep grooves on each side, the innermost extending only over 
half the length ; lateral areas distinctly raised, microscopically radially 
striate, with numerous eyes, flatly and broadly nodulous by a few 
concentric furrows, more pronounced near the margins ; sutures 
crenate. Posterior valve smooth, with many eye-dots ; mucro in 
front of the middle, low ; posterior slope slightly concave. Girdle 
with elongated, pointed, and slightly keeled smooth scales. Colour 
light fulvous, darker on the end valves and lateral areas ; girdle 
white, with fulvous patches. Interior pinkish-white ; anterior valve 
with 14, median valves with 2 slits on each side, and posterior valve 
with 10 slits ; teeth blunt, propped up on the outside ; eaves spongy ; 
the low and broadly rounded sutural lamime continuous across the 
shallow sinus. 

Approximate dimensions : Length, 9 mm. ; breadth, 6 mm. 
Divergence, 105. 

Type in my collection. 

Hab. Dusky Sound, 30 fathoms (R. Henry). 

Remarks. With regard to sculpture, this species stands between 
C. empleurus and C. puniceus ; the former, however, has only deep 
pits on the lateral areas, and the median valves with 4 slits ; the 
latter has elevated longitudinal threads on the lateral areas, and the 
median valves with 1 slit only. 



Fam. MOPALIIDJE, Pilsbry. 

Placipho roidea (part) and Mo^aloidea (part). Carpenter. Not Mopaliidce, 
Dall. 

Chitons in which the valves are divided in the normal manner into 
lateral and central areas ; the teeth of insertion are not pectinated ; 
and the posterior valve has a posterior-median sinus, with 1 slit on each 
side, or none. The girdle is more or less hairy, never scaly. Gill- 
row as long as the foot. 

The normal number of slits in the anterior valve is 8 ; but this 
is often increased or diminished by splitting or fusion of 1 or 2 teeth. 
The slits correspond in position to external ribs. The intermediate 
and posterior valves have not more than 1 well-developed slit on each 
side, and even this is lacking in the tail valve of Plaxiphora. 

The girdle is frequently provided with pores at the sutures, each 
pore generally bearing 2 or several bristles or hairs ; but the pre- 
sence or absence of these pores is in no case of more than specific 
value, and in some cases I have found it to be a mutable feature among 
individuals of the same species. (Pilsbry.) 



16 AMPHINEURA. [Polyplacophora. 

Genus 1. MOPALIA, Gray, 1847. 

Mopalia, Gray, P.Z.S., 1847, 65, 69, 169 (exclusive of section xx). Type : 
Chiton Hindsii, Sowerby. Molpcdia, Gray, 1857 (err. typ. ). Osteochiton, 
Ball, 1886. 

Valves normally proportioned, transverse, not beaked, exposed, 
the girdle somewhat encroaching at the sutures. Sinus small ; in- 
sertion plate of anterior valve rather long, sharp, slit into nearly 
smooth teeth, which are somewhat thickened at the edges of the slits, 
the latter being normally 8 in number and corresponding in position 
to external ribs. Median valves having similar 1-slit insertion plates. 
Posterior valve depressed, the mucro post-median, insertion plate 
rather sharp, smooth or roughened, having an oblique slit on each side 
(rarely doubled) and a larger sinus in the middle behind. Girdle 
wider at the sides than in front, leathery, more or less hairy, the hairs 
simple ; with or without sutural pores. 

The genus is known only from the shores of the northern Pacific, 
extending from Lower California to Alaska and Japan. It may be 
regarded as the most primitive of the existing genera of Mopaliidce, 
Placiphorella and Plaxiphora being special modifications of the Mopalia 
type. The small additional slits occurring in some forms are cases 
of partial reversion to the multifissate ancestral form which gave 
rise to the family. (Pilsbry.) 

Our species is the first recorded from the Southern Hemisphere. 

1. Mopalia australis, Suter, 1907. Plate 3, figs. 12, 12a. 
Mopalia australis, Suter, P. Mai. S., vii. 215, pi. 18, f. 12. 

Shell very small, elongately oval, with a blackish leathery girdle 
and sutural tufts. Anterior valve with 8 slits, teeth smooth. Inter- 
mediate valves with a rounded central posterior projection, insertion 
plates with 1 slit on each side. Posterior valve depressed, with an 
oblique slit on each side and bisinuate in the middle behind. Girdle 
narrow, leathery, slightly broader on the sides, with a few sutural 
bristles. Colour probably ash-grey, with a few longitudinal brown 
stripes over the jugum. Interior bluish-grey, with a posterior brown 
margin ; on the intermediate valves the tegmentum forms a narrow 
band by passing beyond the articulamentum ; sinus broad and slightly 
pectinate ; the sutural laminae narrowly rounded ; the valve-callus 
is quite distinct. 

Length, 9 mm. ; breadth, 5'5 mm. Divergence, about 120. 

Type in my collection. 

Hob. Snares Islands (Captain Bollons). 

Remarks. I am indebted to Captain Bollons for two specimens 
he collected at the Snares Islands. Both examples are so much 
corroded that it is impossible to recognise any sculpture, if it was 
present. The side slits of the posterior valve leave no doubt about 
the generic position. 



Plaxiphora. ] 



AMPHINEURA. 



17 



Genus 2. PLAXIPHORA, Gray, 1847. 

Plaxiphora, Gray, P.Z.S., 1847, 65, 68, 169. Type : Chiton setiger, King. 
Placiphora, Cpr. MS. and Ball, 1881. Placophora, Dal) ; not Placophorus, 
Mulsant, 1873. Euplaxiphora, Shuttleworth. Chcetopleura (part), Roche- 
brune, not Chcetopleura, Shuttleworth. (Pilsbry.) 

Valves mostly exposed, all having insertion plates developed, that 
of the anterior valve normally with 8 (sometimes 7-9) slits. Median 
valves 1 slit. Posterior valve having the insertion plate smooth, 
unslit, interrupted behind by a median rounded sinus, which does 
not generally emarginate the tegmentum ; mucro posterior. Girdle 
bearing simple bristles or hairs, scattered or gathered into pores or 
tufts at the sutures. 



Subgen. 1. PLAXIPHORA, s.s. 

Slits of anterior valve normally 8, corresponding in position to 
external ribs ; the teeth long outside. Girdle widest at the sides. 
Mantle not fringed in front of the head. 

Distribution. Southern extremities of the southern continents : 
New Zealand, Australia, Tasmania, South Africa, Tristan da Cunha, 
and South America. 

KEY TO SPECIES. 

A. Valves exposed. 

a. Posterior valve not greatly reduced in size or altered in 

form. 

b. Central areas unsculptured save for growth-lines, 
c. Sutural pores or tufts distinctly developed. 

d. Lateral areas with 2 to 4 low, flat ribs ; shell 

large . . . . . . . . superba. 

dd. Lateral areas with 2 raised, rounded ribs ; 

shell small . . . . . . . . aucklandica. 

cc. Sutural pores absent, girdle densely covered with 

bristles . . . . . . . . . . glauca. 

bb. Central areas sculptured, at least at the sides, 
c. Sculpture rather coarse. 

d. Shell large ; sutural pores with bifurcating 

bristles ; girdle broad, reddish . . biramosa. 

dd. Shell small ; sutural pores with more than 2 
bristles ; girdle narrow, white or white 
and black . . . . . . . . ccelata. 

cc. Sculpture excessively fine . . . . . . Murdochi. 

aa. Posterior valve reduced to a narrow crescentic form, 

strongly arched upwards . . . . . . . . ovata. 

B. Valves partially immersed in the girdle, which encroaches at the 

sutures ; no sutural pores . . . . . . . . obtecta. 

Sect. 1. PLAXIPHORA, s.s. 
Euplaciphora, Shuttleworth, not Carpenter. 

Valves exposed. Entire shell normal in form ; posterior valve not 
greatly reduced in size or altered in form. 



18 AMPHINEURA. [Polyplacophora. 

1. Plaxiphora aucklandica, Suter, 1909. Plate 3, fig. 10. 

Plaxiphora aitcklnndicn, Suter. Subantarct. Islds. N.Zeal., i. 1909. 2. 
pi. 1. f. 1. 

Shell small, elongately oval, depressed, valves very fragile, dorsal 
ridge subangular ; colour light brown, jugal tract whitish, white 
dashes on the sides ; girdle wide, black, with sutural tufts of very 
long bristles. Anterior valve short and broad, flattish, with 8 granu- 
lated radial ribs. Intermediate valves wide, depressed, the jugum 
smooth, roundly angled ; pleural tracts smooth, with very fine growth- 
lines ; lateral areas not raised, with 2 narrow granulated ribs, the 
interspaces smooth. Posterior valve smooth, small, the mucro pos- 
terior, the hind slope nearly straight. Girdle broad, with very pro- 
minent sutural tufts formed by 3 to 4 very long light-brown bristles ; 
5 tufts round the anterior and a few round the posterior valve ; a 
second series of tufts with shorter bristles near the margin, which is 
beset with short brownish hairs ; remainder of the girdle quite naked, 
smooth. Colour of the valves light brown, intermediate and tail 
valves usually with a dorsal triangular white area with a longitudinal 
brown median line ; 1 or 2 white elongated spots are mostly present 
on the pleural, rarely on the lateral, areas ; girdle black. 

Length, about 15 mm. Divergence, 105. 

Type in the Canterbury Museum, Christchurch. 

Hab. Musgrave Harbour, Auckland Islands (Edgar R. Waite). 

Remark. The valves are so exceedingly brittle that it was impos- 
sible to disarticulate the specimen without completely destroying it. 

2. Plaxiphora biramosa, Quoy and Gaimard, 1835. Plate 3, fig. 4 ; 

Plate 2, fig. 11. 

Chiton biramosus, Q. & G., Voy. Astrol.. iii, 378. pi. 74. f. 12-16. Plaxi- 
phora biramosa, Q. & G., Man. Conch. (1). xiv. 319. pi. 68, f. 51-54: P. 
Mai. S-, ii. 188. P. setiger. King : Wissel. Zool. Jahrb.. Syst.. xx. 603. 
pi. 22, f. 16-18. not of King. 

Shell ovoid, elongated, flattened, valves very transverse, girdle 
red-brown, with bifurcating bristles at the sutures. Anterior valve 
with 8 radiate ribs, cut into nodules by zigzagging concentric shallow 
grooves. Intermediate valves much depressed, with the jugum keeled ; 
pleural areas densely longitudinally wrinkled, the wrinkles coarse in 
front of the lateral areas, finer in front, oblique on the jugum ; lateral 
areas concentrically wrinkled, 2 strongly nodulous ribs one in front, 
the other at the suture. Posterior valve small, slightly concave, trans- 
versely striated ; an elevated ridge runs to the terminal mucro, which 
forms a transverse ridge. Girdle vivid red, having 2 spaced series 
of rough, sparse, and bifurcating hairs, the inner series contiguous to 
the valves, the other near the periphery of the girdle, which is also 
hairy. Besides the sutural pores there are 5 in front and 2 behind. 
The girdle with a deep posterior slit, its depth, however, being variable. 
Colour mostly green, with longitudinal red-brown flamules on the 



Plaxiphom.] AMPHINEURA. 19 

anterior half of the central valves ; head valve with a brown spot on 
the umbo, and a few concentric brown lines near the anterior margin ; 
tail valve the same colouring as the central valves. Interior white, 
the anterior valve with 8 slits, intermediate valves with 1 slit on each 
side, posterior valve without slits ; sutural laminse not wide, separated 
only by a very obtuse sinus. 

Length, 45 mm. ; breadth, 31 mm. Divergence, 140-150. The 
largest specimen I found measured 60 mm. by 40 mm. 

Type in Mus. Hist. Nat., Paris. 

Hnb. French Pass (type) ; Cook Strait ; Te Onepoto, near Sumner. 

Remarks. This species is rare and local. It is found near low- 
water mark, on rocks in exposed situations, and mostly hidden between 
seaweeds. As the Chiton is almost always covered by Nulliporites and 
seaweeds, it is not easy to see it. The colour is subject to great varia- 
tion, but green and red-brown are always predominating. The pos- 
terior fissure of the girdle has formerly been overlooked ; very often 
it is extending to the tail valve, as in Lorica, but not affecting the valve 
in any way. Sometimes this fissure is reduced to a simple notch. 

Pilsbry makes P. superba, Carpenter, MS., a synonym of P. bira- 
mosa, but I cannot share his opinion. Carpenter's species is identical 
with the very variable P. subatrata, Sut. Mr. E. A. Smith, of the 
British Museum, kindly sent me a photograph of the type of the 
former, and there is not the least doubt that the two are conspecific. 

3. Plaxiphora caelata, Reeve, 1847. Plate 2, fig. 5. 

Chiton ccelatus. Reeve, Conch. Icon.. Chiton, pi. 17, f. 101. Plaxiphoia 
ccelaia, Reeve. Man. Conch. (1), xiv, 328, pi. 58, f. 21. 22; P. Mai. S., 
ii, 189. Tonicia ziczac, Button, T. N.Z.I., iv, 180. Chiton (Plaxiphora) 
terminalis, E. A. Smith, Ereb. & Ter.. 4, pi. i, f. 13; Man. Conch. (1), 
xiv, 326, pi. 51, f. 14. CJuetopleura Hahni, Rochebrune : Wissel, Zool. 
Jahrb., Syst., xx. 600. pi. 21, f. 12 : pi. 22, f. 13-15 (anatomy); not of 
Rochebrune. 

Shell elongately oval, roundly angled along the top of the valves, 
mostly dark brown or black with white markings, girdle hairy. An- 
terior valve radiately 8-ribbed, with diverging oblique striations on 
each side of them. Intermediate valves mucronated, the whole surface 
covered with distinct wrinkles, stouter in front of the lateral areas, 
diverging from both sides of the jugum, and like the webs from the 
shaft of a feather from the lateral areas, which are but little raised, 
with a high radiating nodulous rib in front, and 1 along the suture, 
which bears coarse concentric lamella? near the margin ; sutures 
crenulated. Posterior valve with concentric wrinkles, the mucro 
posterior, with a smooth triangular space in front. Girdle covered 
with rather sparse brown horny bristles, and with distinct sutural 
pores. Colour mostly brown, black, or bluish-black, with a white 
wedge-shaped stripe with a black one within it down the centre of the 
valves, sometimes a few short white dashes diverging from the radiating 
ridges ; very rarely ornamented with green and pink. Interior light 



20 AMPHINEURA. [Polyplacophora. 



blue ; anterior valve with 8, central valves with 1 slit on each side ; 
teeth sharp, lightly furrowed on the outer side ; tail valve with a strong 
smooth and sinuated insertion plate ; sinus deep, convex ; sutural 
laminae rounded, stout ; a strong valve-callus. 

My largest specimen is 45 mm. long by 22 mm. broad. An average 
specimen : length, 25 mm. ; breadth, 11 mm. Divergence. 100-110. 

Type in the British Museum (Cuming collection). 

Hab. Coasts of the North and South Islands, more common in 
the south ; Chatham Islands : under stones between tide-marks. 

Remarks. The ornamentation is very variable, and the ground- 
colour varies from white to dark brown and black. The green-and- 
pink colour-pattern mentioned by Reeve is very rarely met with ; 
I found it only on specimens living in kelp-roots. 

4. Plaxiphora glauca, Quoy and Gaimard, 1835. Plate 3, fig. 13. 

Chiton glaucus, Q. & C4., Voy. Astrol.. iii, 376, pi. 74. f. 7-11. Plaxiphora 
glauca, Q. & G.. Man. Conch. (1). xiv, 325. pi. 68. f. 68-72; J. Mai., 
xii, 66. ? Plaxiphora ciliata, Angas, P.Z.S.. 1865. 187; not Chiton 
ciliatus, Sowerby. 

Shell oval, widened at the sides, widely rounded, smooth ; greenish, 
with black markings. Anterior valve with 8 low radiate riblets, inter- 
stices smooth. Intermediate valves broadly rounded, with fine trans- 
verse lines of growth on the central areas ; lateral areas not raised, 
distinguished by a low rounded anterior rib ; sometimes 1 or 2 more 
radiate, but always indistinct, ribs may be seen. Posterior valve 
convex, with transverse lines, mucro terminal. Girdle of a beautiful 
green (brown when dry), covered with rigid but not acute bristles of 
the same colour. Colour brown, with longitudinal oblique and slightly 
undulating bands of bluish-green ; along the back there is a triangle 
of light brown, margined by bluish-green, on each of the central valves. 
Interior emerald-green, anterior valve with 8 slits, intermediate valves 
with 1 slit on each side, tail valve with a smooth insertion plate ; sinus 
wide, spongy, sutural laminae broadly rounded, light blue. 

Length, 50 mm. ; breadth, 37 mm. 

Type. Mus. Hist. Nat., Paris. 

Hab. Chatham Islands (Fougere). The type is from d'Entre- 
casteaux Channel. Tasmania. South Australia. 

Remarks. Specimens from the Chatham Islands are in my collec- 
tion. It is rather curious that such a large shell should not have 
been recorded before. 

5. Plaxiphora Murdoch!, Suter, 1905. Plate 3, fig. 16. 

Plaxiphora Murdoch!, Sut r, J. Mai., xii, 67, pi. 9. f. 11. 

Shell rather small, oval, slightly narrowed behind, roundly angled 
along the top of the valves, blackish-green, finely sculptured, inter- 
mediate valves mucronated ; girdle narrow, of a minutely scaly ap- 
pearance, and with sparse hairlets. Anterior valve radiately 8-ribbed, 



Plaxiphora.] AMPHINEURA. 



with fine diverging striae, which are coarser near the anterior margin 
and form elongated nodules on the posterior margin. Intermediate 
valves with a lighter-coloured posterior mucro, the whole surface 
sculptured with fine striae ; the lateral areas distinctly marked off 
by an elevated ridge descending from the mucro and dissolving into 
numerous fine striae, the striae of the lateral and central areas radiate 
from that ridge like the webs from the shaft of a feather ; sutures. 
with a row of nodules ; central areas with diverging riblets on the 
jugum, but straight and parallel to the jugum on the sides. Pos- 
terior valve small, slightly emarginate behind ; mucro terminal, slightly 
raised, from the elevated postero-lateral ribs the fine stria- diverge 
straight in front, obliquely on the posterior area. Girdle has, viewed 
with an ordinary pocket-lens, the appearance of being minutely scaly, 
but a more powerful lens reveals the fact that the whole surface is 
densely pitted ; near some of the sutures tufts of a few light-coloured 
bristles, and a few hairlets near the margin ; it seems probable that the 
bristles are deciduous. Colour blackish-green, girdle a little darker ; 
the anterior valve with a few concentric light-blue zigzag bands ; 
the intermediate valves have a number of wavy longitudinal blue 
streaks running over the lateral and central tracts ; the posterior- 
valve with an indistinct blue patch on each side ; anterior valve 
with 8 slits ; teeth strong, broadly grooved on the outside ; inter- 
mediate valves with 1 slit on each side ; posterior valve with a smooth 
insertion plate and a posterior median sinus. 

Length, 17 mm. ; breadth, 13 mm. Divergence, 108. 

Type in my collection. 

Hab. Near entrance to Kawhia Harbour, on rocks at half-tide, 
much exposed to heavy seas, type (R. Murdoch) ; Port Molyneux 
(Dr. Torr). 

Remark. Sculpture similar to that of biramosa and ccplata^ but 
much finer. 

6. Plaxiphora superba, Pilsbry, 1893. Plate 2, fig. 6 ; Plate 3, fig. 14. 

Plaxiphora superba, Pilsbry, Man. Conch. (1), xiv, 319, pi. 68, f. 55-61. 
P. subatrata, Suter, P. Mai. S-, ii, 1897, 190, f. 7-11. 

Shell large, oval, moderately elevated, dorsal ridge acute, rounded 
and worn off in old specimens, reddish-olive, brown, or olive, with a 
few transverse blackish bands, girdle with sutural pores. Anterior 
valve subangled by 8 radii, which slightly undulate the peripheral 
margin ; otherwise nearly smooth except for growth-lines, or strongly 
concentrically ridged and the ribs almost obsolete. Intermediate 
valves nearly rectangular, transversely elongate to very narrow, having 
a " false apex " in front, and more or less distinctly beaked behind ; 
the whole surface smooth except for growth-lines, and 2 flat, sometimes 
nodulous, ribs bounding the but-little-raised lateral areas ; the ribs 
may increase to 4. Posterior valve small, depressed, concentrically 
ridged, mucro subposterior to terminal, but little elevated. Girdle. 



22 AMPHINEURA. [Polyplacophora. 



broader at the sides, leathery, tan colour, dark brown or black when 
dry, with sutural pores with long corneous bristles, 2 to 6 in a tuft, 
and a second row of alternating tufts and bristles along the margin ; 
in front of the end valves 6, rarely 5, smaller pores. Colour reddish- 
olive, maculated with darker and paler ; or reddish-brown, the jugum 
dirty-pink or with a wedge-shaped white stripe with a brown one in 
the centre. Interior white tinged with blue, or distinctly blue ; 
anterior valve with 8 irregularly placed slits ; teeth sharp, striated 
on the outside ; intermediate valves with 1 slit on each side, the 
posterior tooth broad ; posterior valve with a rounded elevated in- 
sertion plate and a narrow sinus in the middle behind. Sinus narrow, 
short ; sutural laminae continuous over the anterior false apex. 

Length, 60mm.; breadth, 40mm.: divergence, 110. Length, 
75 mm. ; breadth, 45 mm. : divergence, 125 (subatrata). 

Type in the British Museum (Cuming collection, No. 2). 

Hal. Auckland Islands, Campbell Island (Captain Bollons) ; Mac- 
quarie Island (A. Hamilton). 

Remarks. The species was described in MS. by Carpenter, and pub- 
lished by Pilsbry, who considered it to be a synonym of P. biramosa. 
In 1897 I published a note (P. Mai. S., ii, 188) saying that I could not 
share Pilsbry's opinion, and that P. superba was much nearer P. sub- 
atrata. When describing the latter species I had only dry, badly pre- 
served specimens from Macquarie Island and one spirit specimen from 
Campbell Island at my disposal, and in all these the valves are much nar- 
rower than in the type. Captain Bollons has of late most kindly brought 
well-preserved specimens from Campbell and Auckland Islands, and 
the study of this material has convinced me that P. subatrata cannot 
be considered a distinct species not even a valid subspecies. The shape 
of the intermediate valves is subject to great variability, from very 
narrow and high to very wide and low, but all intermediate grades 
occur, and I found it perfectly useless and next to impossible to separate 
the two forms. The proportion of the longitudinal to the transverse 
width of the valves I found to vary from 1:2 to 1:3. 

This species may be P. CampbeUi, Filhol (Compt. Rend., xci, 1880, 
1095), which, however, is quite insufficiently described, and has never 
been figured. 

The specimens from Macquarie Island have the valves thickly 
covered by Nulliporites, those from Campbell Island by Polyzoa. 

Sect. 2. GUILDINGIA, Pilsbry. 

Gmldingia, Pilsbry, Man. Conch. (I), xiv. 1893, 312, 329; and Dall, U.S. 
Nat. Mus., 1881, 284. 288. Type : G. obtecta, Pilsbry. 

Shell and girdle like Plaxiphora, except that the valves are partly 
immersed by the encroachment of the girdle. 



Plaxiphora.} AMPHINEURA. 23 

Remarks. The validity of this section seems to me rather doubt- 
ful, as the encroachment of the girdle is an extremely variable cha- 
racter. The only species known is the type. Dried specimens very 
often show no encroachment of the girdle at all. 

7. Plaxiphora obtecta, Pilsbry, 1893. Plate 2, fig. 7. 

Plaxiphora obtecta, Pilsbry, Man. Conch. (1), xiv, 330. Mopalia ciliatcu 
Sowerby: Hutton, M.N.Z.M., 11(3, not of Sowerby. Plaxiphora Suteri. 
Pilsbry," "Nautilus," viii, 1894, 8 : Suter, P. Mai. S.. ii, 190. P. glauca. 
Q. & G. : Wissel, Zool. Jahrb., Syst,. xx, 606, pi. 21, f. 19 ; pi. 22, f. 20, 21 
(anatomy); not of Quoy and Gaimard. 

Shell large, oval, olive-brown, nearly smooth, broad, partly covered. 
Anterior valve smooth, with very fine growth-lines, but rarely with 
subobsolete radial ribs. Intermediate valves smooth, distinct growth- 
lines near the anterior margin ; lateral areas indistinct, but. there is a 
slight indication of a diagonal rib. Posterior valve transversely finely 
striated, mucro terminal, low. Girdle broad, narrower at the ends, 
sometimes encroaching at the sutures to a considerable extent, the 
girdle reaching to within a short distance of the jugal tract ; there 
are no sutural pores, but amongst the bristles scattered more or less 
densely there are a number of tufts with 2 to 3 larger bristles, and of 
these 1 may occasionally be situated near a suture. Colour as a rule 
olive-brown, a white ridge running down the centre, wedge-shaped 
on each valve, and with a central reddish-brown stripe ; head valve 
with small blue dots, sometimes with blue zigzag bands ; the other 
valves with blue zigzag markings of various size ; more often the 
whole surface is yellowish-brown, lighter upon the dorsal ridge. In- 
terior blue, fading to white on the sutural plates ; anteiior valve 
with 8-9 slits, teeth strong, sharp, finely striated on the outside ; 
intermediate valves with 1 slit on each side, posterior tooth pointed ; 
end valve with a broad, low, rounded insertion plate ; on valves 
1-7 the tegmentum is overreaching the articulamentum on the pos- 
terior margin ; the sinus is broad, slightly spongy ; sutural lamina? 
strong, high, rounded ; valve-callus stout. 

Length, 50 mm. ; breadth. 32 mm. : divergence, 120 (type). 
Length, 48 mm. ; breadth, 27 mm. (medium-sized specimen). Length, 
87 mm. ; breadth, 57 mm. (my largest specimen). 
Type in the British Museum. 

Hab. Coasts of both Islands, more common on the west coasts ; 
on rocks exposed to the full force of the surf. The very large speci- 
men was collected by Captain Bollons on Canoe Rock, in the Hauraki 
Gulf. 

Remarks. The species was described by Carpenter in MS., and 
published by Pilsbry. 

P. Suteri, Pils., is founded on a dry specimen showing almost no 
encroachment of the girdle. Carpenter says that the girdle is sinuated 



24 AMPHINEURA. [Polyplacophora. 



behind. This was, no doubt, produced when the specimen was dried ; 
in fresh examples I never observed a posterior sinus. The bundles 
of about 3 large horn-like hairs at the sutures, mentioned by Car- 
penter, are not shown in the photograph of the type, and are certainly 
not a regular feature. This character, now proved to be incorrect, 
has always prevented me from uniting the two species. 

Sect. 3. FREMBLYA, H. Adams, 1866. 
FnnMya, H. Ad.. P.Z.S., 1866, 445. Type : F. egregia, H. Ad. 

Shell and girdle like Plaxiphora, except that the former is short 
and broad, the tail valve very much reduced in size, strongly arched 
upward in the middle behind. Slits in intermediate valves posteriorly 
situated. Girdle having more or less obvious sutural pores. 

8. Plaxiphora ovata, Hutton, 1872. Plate 2, fig. 8 ; Plate 3, fig. 15. 

Acanthochcetes ovatus, Hutt., T.N.Z.I., iv, 182. Plaxiphora ovata, Hutt., 
Man. Conch. (1). xiv, 332, pi. 54, f. 34-40. 

Shell short-oval, very wide in the middle, very rapidly narrowing 
toward the ends ; moderately elevated, the dorsal ridge carinated, 
side slopes slightly convex. Surface lustreless, sculpture in herring- 
bone pattern. Colour buff. Anterior valve small, its width about 
that of one side slope of the fourth valve, its apex elevated and slightly 
recurved ; surface having 8 strong ribs, besides those at the sutural 
margins, the anterior rib strongest and wider apart ; ribs nodose, 
intervals obliquely corrugated. Median valves broadly V-shaped, the 
apices of the valves elevated and acute. Lateral areas narrow, a 
little elevated, the diagonal rib sculptured with a series of closely 
superimposed Vs, their apices directed toward the beak of the valve, 
one limb of each V directed outward, curving, and forming the sculp- 
ture of the pleura, the other limb forming an oblique corrugation of 
the lateral area. Sutural margin of each lateral area oblique, coarsely 
granose. Central areas having a nearly smooth band along the dorsal 
ridge, and numerous slightly curving and diverging riblets on each 
side. Posterior valve small, forming an extremely narrow crescent, 
strongly curved upward at the acute posterior mucro, the front 
(" central ") area narrow, concave ; viewed from behind, it presents 
the appearance of a wide inverted V. Girdle rather narrow, yellowish, 
bearing a pore-tuft of hyaline white bristles at each suture and a 
fringe of bristles at the edge. Colour buff along the ridge, pale olive- 
green on the side slopes, with a small curved dark spot or two on 
each valve. Interior bluish-white ; anterior valve having 8 slits, 
median valves 1 slit ; posterior valve having a keel-like insertion 
plate without slits on each side, and a broad sinus in the middle behind ; 
sinus exceedingly broad, rounded, the sutural plates widely separated ; 
insertion plates long, having the slit near the posterior edge of the 
plate. (Pilsbry.) 



Plaxiplwra.} AMPHINEURA. 25 

Length, 15 mm. ; breadth, 13 mm. Divergence, 112. 

Type in the Dominion Museum, Wellington. 

Hob. South Island and Wellington Harbour ; mostly found in 
kelp-roots. 

Remarks. The black spots on the valves are not always present. 
A specimen with 6 valves only is recorded by Iredale (T. N.Z.I., xl, 
375, pi. 31, f. 1). 

Fam. ACANTHOCHITID^J, Pilsbry. 

Chitons in which the valves are more or less immersed in the smooth 
or hairy (never scaly) girdle ; the tegmentum, or outer layer, therefore 
being much smaller than the articulamentum, or inner layer, and 
having the exposed surface (when present) divided into dorsal (or 
jugal) and latero-pleural areas, the latter formed by the union of 
lateral areas with the sides of the central areas. Insertion teeth sharp, 
nearly smooth. Body not vermiform. Posterior valve either slit 
similarly to the head valve or having a posterior median sinus ; the 
mucro submedian. 

Besides the positive and negative characters given above, the 
species of this family generally have 5 slits in the head valve, and 
median or short gills. (Pilsbry.) 

Genus 1. ACANTHOCHITES, Risso, 1826. 

Acanthochites, Risso, Hist. Nat. cle FEurope Merid., iv, 1826, 2(38. First 
species : A. communis, Risso. 

Valves partially buried in or covered by the girdle, the exposed 
part consisting of a smooth or striated dorsal band, and granulated 
side areas, the latter sometimes lacking. Anterior valve with 5 sym- 
metrically placed slits ; median valves with 1 slit on each side ; pos- 
terior valve with 2 or several slits. Girdle varying from densely hairy 
to naked, but always having 4 bristle-bearing pores around the head 
valve, and a single series of pores on each side placed at the sutures. 
Gills short, extending forward from one-third to three-fourths the 
length of the foot. (Pilsbry.) 

The girdle-pores seem to be a constant generic character ; they are 
normally 18 in number. 

Distribution. World- wide. 

KEY TO SPECIES. 

a. Anterior valve without radiating ribs ; not obviously lobed 

around the lower edge of tegmentum. 
b. Tail valve with one slit on each side ; girdle covered with 

spicules and having well-developed tufts . . . . zdandicus. 

bb. Tail valve with several slits ; girdle naked, leathery, cover- 
ing the valves except for a linear band at the ridge ; 
small tufts on tubercles . . . . . . . . porosus. 



26 AMPHINEURA. [Poly placophora. 

aa. Anterior valve having 5 radiating ribs, its lower margin 5-lobed ; 

girdle with 18 small pore-tufts. 
b. Girdle leathery, naked except tufts . . . . . . violaceus. 

bb. Girdle covered with white spic\iles, especially at the 

margin . . . . . . . . . . . . rubiginosus. 

bbb. Girdle leathery ; latero-pleural areas with elongated 

granules . . . . . . . . . . Marice. 

Sect. 1. ACANTHOCHITES, S.S. 

Acanthochetes, Gray, P.Z.S., 1847, 109. Acanthochiton, Herrmansen, Indie. 
Gen. Mai. Prim., i, 2. Acanthochistes, Costa, Faun. Reg. Nap., 2. 
Phakettopleura, Guilding, Zool. Journ., v, 28. Stectoplax, Carpenter, in 
Ball, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., 1881, 284, 288, 289, 291. 

Valves partly covered, the anterior lacking radiating ribs ; the 
posterior valve having the insertion plate with a single slit on each 
postero-lateral edge, and a wide toothless sinus in the middle behind. 
Girdle with large dense tufts of glistening spicules. (Pilsbry.) 

Type : Chiton fascicularis, L. 

In this, the typical section, the tail valve has been further differen- 
tiated from the primitive type than in the other sections. The hairs 
of the girdle, and especially the tufts, are more exuberantly developed 
than in any other group of Chitons. (Pilsbry.) 



1. Acanthochites zelandicus, Quoy and Gaimard, 1835. Plate 2, 
fig. 9 ; Plate -i, fig. 1. 

Chiton zelandicus, Q. & G., Voy. Astrol., iii, 400, pi. 73, f. 5-8. Acantlm- 
chites zelandicus, Man. Conch. (1), xv, 16, pi. 14, f. 9, 10 ; P. Mai. S., ii, 
192. Acanthochceies Hookeri, Gray, in Dieff. N.Z., ii, 262. Acantho- 
chites spiculosiis astriger. Reeve : Wissel. Zool. Jahrb., Syst., xx, 612, 
pi. 21, f. 25 ; pi. 23, f. 26, 27 (anatomy) ; not of Reeve. A. bisulcatits, 
Pilsbry : Wissel, t.c., 614, pi. 23, f. 28, 29 (anatomy), not of Pilsbry. 

Shell elongated, moderately elevated, hardly carinated ; greenish, 
grey, or yellowish. Anterior valve finely granulose, apex smooth, some- 
times carinated and beaked. Intermediate valves more or less distinctly 
beaked ; latero-pleural areas covered with closely crowded, ovate, 
flattened granules ; dorsal areas narrowly triangular, closely and finely 
striated longitudinally. Posterior valve with the tegmentum small, 
transversely oval, decidedly wider than long. Girdle rather narrow, 
greenish or yellowish, covered with short spicules, having a. marginal 
fringe of longer spicules, and 18 tufts of light-blue or white bristles. 
Colour brown, greenish, grey, or yellowish, sometimes dotted with 
brown, some valves with a brown or black line at the summit, margined 
with white. Interior dark blue-green or dark grey ; anterior valve 
with 5 not deep slits, teeth broad and sharp ; intermediate valves 
with a small posterior slit ; posterior valve with the post-median 
sinus shallow, insertion plate biangular behind, 1 small slit on each 
side, the edge between them often minutely crenulated ; sinus wide, 



Acanthochites.] AMPHINEURA. 27 

minutely crenulated, squarish ; sutural laminae low, flatly convex ; 
the tegmentum overreaching the articulamentum posteriorly. 

Length, 28 mm. ; breadth, 12 mm. Divergence, 105. 

Dentition. Button, T.N.Z.I., xv, 129, pi. 16. f. G. 

Type, from the French Pass, in Mus. Hist. Nat., Paris. 

Hab. Found almost everywhere along the coasts of New Zea- 
land ; more common in the south. Not found outside New Zealand 
waters. 

Remarks. The largest and finest specimens I found in Dunedin 
Harbour. Very variable in colour. 

Fossil in the Pliocene. 

Sect. 2. CRYPTOCOXCHUS, Blainville and Guilding, 1829. 

Cryptoconchus (Blainville MS. in Brit. Mus.), Guilding, Zool. Journ.. \, 
1829. 28. Type : C. porosus, Burrow. 

Valves entirely covered by the girdle, except a linear area at the 
ridge of each. Posterior valve having the insertion plate with several 
(5-7) slits, anterior valve with 5 slits. Girdle leathery, naked, bearing 
a series (18) of sutural tufts on tubercles or pores, sometimes sub- 
obsolete, along the sides of the valves. Gills extending along the 
posterior half of the foot. (Pilsbry.) 

Only two species of this section are known the type from New 
Zealand, and a species from the coast of Florida. 

2. Acanthochites porosus, Burrow, 1815. Plate 2, fig. 10; Plate 4, 
fig. 2. 

Chiton porosus. Burrow, " Elements of Conchology," 189. pi. 28, f. 1. Acan- 
thochites porosus, Man. Conch. (1), xv, 36, pi. 3, f. 57-62 ; P. Mai. S., ii. 
193. Chiton monticularis, Q. & G.. Voy. Astrol., iii, 406. pi. 73, f. 30-35. 
C. Leachi, Blainv., Diet. Sci. Nat., xxxvi. 554. ? Cryptoplax depressus. 
Blainv., I.e., xii, 124. ? Cryptoconchus Stewartianus, Rochebr., Bull. Soc. 
Philom. Paris, 1881-82, 194. C. zealandicus, Quoy : Mutton, T.N.Z.I.. 
iv, 183, not Q. & G. C. porosus. Burrow: Plate. Zool. Jahrb., v. 319 ; 
Wissel, op. cit., xx, 618 (anatomy). 

Shell elongated, all but a linear dorsal area of each valve covered 
by the integument continued upward from the girdle, but in the dried 
state showing through it the posterior outline of the valves ; colour 
olive. Head valve with a minute circular exposed apex, centre longi- 
tudinally grooved, a few concentric flat ridges around it, cut up more 
or less into flat granules. Intermediate valves with the tegmentum 
reduced to a narrow flat ledge, drawn out to a long and fine point 
anteriorly ; pleural areas consisting of elongate narrow triangular and 
flatly nodulous ridges, terminating at the middle of the jugum. The 
posterior valve shows a similar sculpture to that of the central valves, 
but it is very short and wedge-shaped. Girdle naked, smooth, leathery ; 
bearing a series of prominent tubercles, each with a tuft of short 



28 AMPHINEURA. [Polyplacophora. 

bristles, situated near the sutures upon the sides of the valves, and 
4 around the anterior valve. Colour of the exposed portions of valves 
yellowish-white ; girdle olive, often beautifully variegated with orange 
and light brown ; blackish-brown in dried condition. Interior bluish- 
white ; anterior valve with 5 slits, all except the median slit in- 
conspicuous, the upper surface radiately strongly striated ; inter- 
mediate valves with 1 minute slit on each side, posterior margin 
produced backward into 2 rounded lobes ; posterior valve with 2 
well-marked side slits, between them 2-5 minor ones, the upper 
surface radiately rugosely striate ; sinus narrow, sharp, and smooth ; 
the sutural laminase high, triangularly rounded ; valve-callus broad, 
strong. 

Length, 38 mm. ; breadth, 20 mm. (Q. & G.) 

Dentition. Mutton, T.N.Z.I., xv, 129, pi. 16, f. H. 

Type in the British Museum. 

Hob. Coasts of the North and South Islands ; in 15 fathoms near 
Stewart Island ; on rocks and under stones near low-water mark 
in sheltered situations. 

Remarks. This species grows to a larger size than the measure- 
ment given by Q. & G. ; the specimens from deeper water are small. 
I have not seen any specimens from the west coasts. It is by no 
means common. 

Maori. Karimoan (fide Quoy and Gaimard). 

Sect. 3. LOBOPLAX, Pilsbry, 1893. 

Loboplax, Pilsbry, Man. ('touch. (1), xv, 8, 38. Type: Acanthochites vio- 
laceus, Q. & G. Phacellopleura, Opr. MS. ; not Phakellopleura. Guilding. 

Valves partly covered, the anterior valve having 5 radiating ribs 
and the same number of lobes along the margin ; the posterior valve 
having the insertion plate grooved outside, notched and slit along 
the edge, between the usual postero-lateral slits. Girdle leathery, 
having minute sutural tufts. Gills (of violaceus) extending along the 
posterior two-thirds of the foot. (Pilsbry.) 

The number of species belonging to this section is small ; three 
species belong to New Zealand, four to Australia, and one to New 
Caledonia. 



3. Acanthochites Marije, Webster, 1908. Plate 4, fig. 3. 

Acanthochites JIarice, Webster, T.N.Z.I.. xl. 1907 (1908). 254. pi. 20, f. 1-11. 

Shell elongated, elevated, dorsal angle about 110. Colour greenish- 
grey, minutely freckled with dark. Latero-pleural areas crowded with 
flattened granules, strap-shaped or oval, as in A. zelandicus, all the 
valves being bordered with irregular, raised, white, pebble-like granules 
of the same type as those in A. violaceus, with which this species also 



Acanthochites.] AMPHINEURA. 29 

agrees in having 5 prominent lobes on the anterior valve, the ribs 
being of white raised elongated granules, the ribs of all valves similarly 
marked ; another characteristic feature is the presence of 3 almond- 
shaped white granules just within the posterior edge of each median 
valve. Dorsal areas wedge-shaped, the edges being serrated, sculp- 
tured with cuneiform lyrula?. The posterior valve has the tegmentum 
longer than the breadth, the hooked mucro being slightly post-median ; 
the area behind it is concave, white, composed of oblong granules, 
bordered on either side by others of longer form but the same colour. 
Anterior valve with 5 slits corresponding to the ribs ; median valves 
with 1 slit ; posterior with many slits, the denticles being mostly 
bifid. In the type these denticles are perpendicular, and not visible 
from above ; in other specimens they extend outwards, and may 
be seen beyond the tegmentum ; in such specimens the mucro is not 
so prominent, the white area narrower, and composed of long granules 
like those bordering the oblong granules of the type, these latter being 
altogether absent, as also are the raised white borders of the valves. 
It may be that these specimens have not attained their full develop- 
ment, as none of them approach the type in size. Interior blue-green, 
white towards the edges. Girdle grey-green, leathery, a minute pore 
at each suture, 4 on anterior valve. (Webster.) 

Length of dried specimen, 35 mm. ; width, 18 mm. 
Type in Mr. Webster's collection. 

Hob. Orua Bay, Manukau Harbour, on rocks at low tide ; Manu- 
kau Harbour, in 4 fathoms (Captain Bollons). 

Remarks. The type is unique ; seven of the less-developed speci- 
mens were found. The apparent hybridism is striking, especially 
as I have never found A. violaceus on the west coast, though a very 
small form of A. zelandicus is fairly common. (Webster.) 

4. Acanthochites rubiginosus, Hutton, 1872. Plate 4, fig. 4. 

Tonicia rubiginosa, Hutt.. T. N.Z.I., iv, 1871 (1872), 180. Acanthochites 
rubiginosus, Hutt., J. Mai., xii. 68, pi. 9. f. 12-17. A. costatus, Ad. & 
Ang. : Suter., P. Mai. S.. ii, 194. not Ad. & Ang. Plaxiphora terminates, 
Smith: Wissel, Zool. Jahrb., xx, (309, pi. 21, f. 22; pi. 23. f. 23, 24 
(anatomy) ; not of Smith. 

Shell oblong, small, subcarinate, the whole surface granular, mostly 
yellowish-pink, girdle with minute spines and sutural tufts. Anterior 
valve with 5 ribs, which are not very conspicuous ; the whole surface 
granulated, the granules being largest and sometimes unequal in shape 
near the margin, and decreasing in size toward the apex of the valve, 
which is slightly sinuated. Intermediate valves with the jugum sparsely 
longitudinally substriated ; the pleura! tracts are granular, divided 
into central and lateral areas by a low granular rib, the granules pebble- 
like near the margin, diminishing in size very rapidly toward the 



30 AMPHINEURA. [Polyplacopliora. 



jugum ; the valves are subcarinate and beaked. Posterior valve small, 
the mucro central, with a smooth triangular area in front, beyond 
which the whole surface is granular, the granules being comparatively 
large. Girdle thick, fleshy, beset with microscopic white spicules : 
there are sutural tufts of white spicules, 7 on each side, and 4 in front 
of the head valve. Colour very variable, adult specimens showing 
mostly a pinkish colour, yellowish on the back, but young shells have 
sometimes a most beautiful colour-arrangement, the granules being 
white, pink, light brown, and light blue. The jugum is mostly reddish- 
brown with triangular spots. The girdle is light fulvous with small 
patches and radiate bands of whitish-yellow. Interior white, but 
the centre of the valves except the head valve is pink ; anterior valve 
with 5 slits, intermediate valves with 1 slit on each side, teeth strong ; 
posterior valve with a low thick insertion plate and 4 short slits ; sinus 
rather narrow and deep ; sutural lamina? short and wide, rounded ; 
valve-callus stout. 

Length, 17 mm. ; breadth, 13 mm. Divergence, 100-105. 

Type in the Dominion Museum, Wellington. No locality men- 
tioned. 

Hob. Cook Strait ; Foveaux Strait, in 15 fathoms ; Hauraki 
Gulf, in 25 fathoms ; Auckland Islands (Captain Bollons) ; Bluff : 
Queen Charlotte Sound, in 6 fathoms (Captain Bollons). 



5. Acanthochites violaceus, Quoy and Gaimard, 1835. Plate 2, 
fig. 11 ; Plate 4, fig. 5. 

Chiton violaceus, Q. & G., Voy. Astrol., iii, 403, pi. 73. f. 15-20. Acan- 
thochites violaceus. Q. & G., Man. Conch. (1), xv, 39, pi. 3, f. 67-73 ; P. 
Mai. S., ii, 193. Chiton porphyreticus, Reeve, Conch. Icon., pi. 10, f. 56. 
Acanthochites violaceus, Q. & G. : Plate, Zool. Jahrb., v, 315: Wissel. 
op. tit., xx, 616, pi. 21, f. 30 ; pi. 23, f. 31, 32 (anatomy). 

Shell elongated, rather depressed ; the valves all of the same width, 
except the last, which is narrower ; colour purple-brown ; girdle 
very wide, but narrower behind. Anterior valve having 5 pro- 
minently projecting lobes, corresponding to radiating rounded ribs, 
the scale granules of the surface coalescing more or less on these ribs. 
Intermediate valves having the tegmentum trilobate, much narrowed 
in front, convex, polished, sculptured with elongated punctures along 
the sides ; latero-pleural areas sculptured with pebble-like low granules, 
coarser and often confluent along a diagonal line from the beak to the 
outer anterior angle. Posterior valve having the tegmentum slightly 
broader than long, the mucro low, slightly post-median. Girdle wide, 
leathery, smooth except for a minute pore at each suture and 4 around 
the head valve, each pore bearing a small tuft of white spicules, usually 
broken short. Colour typically a rich dark purple-brown, the girdle 
darker, varying to violet, with a buff triangle at the ridge of each 



Acanthochites.] AMPHINEURA. 31 

valve, enclosing a purple stripe or series of spots ; sometimes ashy- 
whitish, faintly tinged with purple along the middle. Interior light 
blue-green, fading on the sutural laminse ; anterior valve with 5 slits, 
median valves with 1 slit ; posterior valve having a deep mopaloid 
slit on each side, and about 4 shallower slits between ; the teeth ver- 
tical, deeply grooved outside and lobed at the edge ; sinus deep, 
angular. (Pilsbry.) 

Measurement of a large example : Length, 60 mm. ; breadth, 
35 mm. A common size is Length, 35 mm. ; breadth, 23 mm. 
Divergence, 130-140. 

Type, from Tasman Bay, in Mus. Hist. Nat., Paris. 

Hab. Bay of Islands, Hauraki Gulf, Great Barrier Island, Cook 
Strait, Wellington Harbour, Cape Egmont, Dunedin, and Chatham 
Islands. 

Remarks. There is a wide range of variation in colouring, angle 
of divergence of the valves, and to a less extent in the contours of 
the valves 

Maori. Etouani (fide Quoy and Gaimard). 



Genus 2. SPONGIOCHITON, Carpenter, 1873. 

Spongiochiton, Carpenter, "Table of Regular Chitons," 1873. Type and 
only species : S. productus, Cpr. Spongiochiton, Dall, Proc. U.S. Nat. 
is., 1882, 272, 283, 286, 289, 290 ; Man. Conch. (1), xiv, 26 ; xv, 7. 



Valves partly immersed ; insertion plates acute, ischnoid ; sinus 
large, smooth ; mucro median, flat ; girdle spongy, produced for- 
ward. (Cpr.) 

1. Spongiochiton productus, Pilsbry, 1892. 

Spongiochiton productus, Pilsbry, Man. Conch. (1), xiv, 26. 

Shell oval, the valves immersed two-fifths of their width ; exposed 
portion rubicund, flat, the jugum arcuate, paler. Lateral areas 
scarcely denned. Entire surface sculptured with prominent pebbles, 
worn at the jugurn. Mucro submedian, flat. Interior : Posterior 
valve with 6, central valve 1, anterior valve 5 slits ; teeth long, acute, 
scarcely serrate ; sinus wide, smooth, extremely deep ; eaves narrow, 
scarcely grooved. Girdle produced in front, spongy, sparsely covered 
with chaffy scales and translucent hairlets. 

Length, 25 mm. ; breadth, 16^ mm. Divergence, 130. (Cpr.) 

Type in the British Museum (Cuming collection, No. 50). 

Hab. New Zealand. 

Remarks. I have not seen it. The species was described by Car- 
penter in MS., and published by Pilsbry. 



32 AMPHINEURA. [Polyplacophora. 



SUBORDER 3. TELEOPLACOPHORA, Pilsbry. 

All the valves, or at least the 7 anterior, with insertion plates cut 
into teeth by slits. 

Fam. CHITONID^J, Pilsbry. 
Characters of the suborder. 

Subfam. 1. CHITONIN^. 
ChitonincB, Man. Conch. (1), xiv, 148. 

Regular Chitons, having the insertion plates well developed on 
all the valves, and closely grooved or pectinated outside and at edge. 

Genus 1. CHITOX, Linnaeus, 1758. 

Chiton, L., Syst. Nat., ed. x, 667. First recognisable species : C. tubercu- 
latus, L. Chiton, Man. Conch. (1), xiv, 149; xv, 88. Lophyrus (in part), 
Poli, Test. utr. Sicil., i, 2, 4. Lepidopleurus (in part), Risso. Hist. Nat. 
Eur. Merid., 267. Gymnoplax, Gray, London Medic. Repos.. xv, 234. 
(For genera established by Thiele, see Man. Conch., xv, 88.) 

Valves wholly external, the beak of the tail valve median or an- 
terior ; insertion plates longer than the eaves, slit into teeth which 
are deeply and finely pectinated, and typically project outward on all 
the valves. Girdle covered with closely imbricating, convex, smooth 
or striated scales. Gills extending the entire length of the foot. 

Distribution. World- wide. 

KEY TO SPECIES. 

a. Central areas having longitudinal riblets. 

b. Sides and ridge of central areas both sculptured. 

c. Lateral areas with numerous slightly crenulated 

threads. 

d. Intermediate valves carinated, divergence 120 Quoyi. 
cc. Lateral areas with 3 or 4 rows of distinct tubercles . . pellisserpentis. 
bb. Central areas with a smooth band or triangle on ridge of 

each valve, 
c. Lateral areas with 4-6, pleura with 16 or more, 

granose riblets . . . . . . . . canal ic it I at us. 

cc. Lateral areas with 48 divaricate riblets, pleura 

about 20 furrows on each side. 
d. Furrows on pleura extended over the whole 

length . . . . . . . . Huttoni. 

dd. Furrows on pleura extended only over half of 

the length . . . . . . . . cereus. 

ccc. Lateral areas with 2-4, pleura 814, nodulose rib- 
lets. 
d. Girdle-scales mucronated . . . . . . limans. 

dd. Girdle-scales not mucronated. faintly striated Stangeri. 
ddd. Girdle-scales not mucronated, quite smooth 



Chiton.] AMPHINEURA. 33 

. Central areas smooth ; no longitudinal ribs. 

b. Lateral areas with radiate granose ribs . . . . Sinclairi. 

bb. Lateral areas without radiate ribs . . . . . . Torri. . 

a. Group of Chiton pellisserpentis. 
Central areas with rather fine longitudinal sculpture, or smooth. 

1. Chiton pellisserpentis, Quoy and Gaimard, 1835. Plate 2, fig. 12; 
Plate 4, fig. 6. 

Chiton pellisserpentis, Q. & G., Voy. Astrol., iii, 381, pi. 74, f. 17-22 ; Man. 
Couch. (1), xiv, 173, pi. 37, f. 14-17 ; P. Mai. S., ii, 195. C. squamosus, 
L. : Wissel, Zool. Jahrb., xx, 619, not of Linne (anatomy). 

Shell oval, rather elevated, side slopes somewhat convex, olive or 
brown, marked with black along the ridge. Anterior valve larger and 
much more elevated than the posterior, with numerous regular rows 
of distinct tubercles, the rows sometimes increased by splitting, inter- 
spaces finely decussate. Of the intermediate valves, the first is larger 
longitudinally than the others, central areas with strong irregular 
growth-lines, and fine longitudinal riblets ; these are broader in front, 
stouter near the margins, extending over the jugum on the first valve, 
but usually leaving the ridge smooth on the following 5 valves ; lateral 
areas moderately raised, with 3 or 4 rows of distinct tubercles of various 
form, interstices minutely decussate. Posterior valve small, with 
regular rows of tubercles, depressed, mucro in front of the middle, 
low, posterior slope almost straight. Girdle moderately wide, banded 
with darker and lighter ; scales rather large and wide, convex, often 
subcarinated in the middle, microscopically very finely striated. 
Colour usually dull, dingy-olive or olive-green marked with black on 
the ridge and on the sides of the valves. Sometimes 2 or more valves 
are light grey, the others greenish or dark brown, rarely the ground- 
colour is orange ; one specimen I have is beautifully bluish-green 
marked with white ; the girdle is always of the same colour as the 
valves, but lighter. Interior blue, indistinctly blotched with olive- 
green ; anterior valve having 12, central valves 1, posterior valve 
12 slits ; teeth blunt, pectinated ; sinus broad and deep, smooth or 
hardly denticulate ; sutural plates rounded ; valve-callus heavy and 
smooth ; eaves broad. 

Length, 30 mm. ; breadth, 23 mm. Divergence, 95-120. 

Dentition. Hutton, T.N.Z.I., xv, 129, pi. 16, f. 1. 

Type, from Tasman Bay, in Mus. Hist. Nat., Paris. 

Hob. Throughout New Zealand the most abundant Chiton ; Chat- 
ham Islands. Tasmania. 

Remarks. Its sculpture is frequently obscured or lost by erosion. 
A specimen with 5 valves only is recorded by Iredale (T.N.Z.I., xl, 
375, pi. 31, f. 2). 

Fossil in the Pliocene. 

2 Moll. N.Z 



34 AMPHINEURA. [Polyplacophora. 

2. Chiton Quoyi, Deshayes, 1836. Plate 2, fig. 13. 

, Chiton Quoyi, Desh., in Lamarck, A.s.V., vii, 509 ; Man. Conch. (1), xiv, 
172, pi. 37, f. 6-8 ; P. Mai. S., ii, 194. C. viridis, Q. & G., Voy. Astrol., 
iii, 383, pi. 74, f . 23-28, not of Spengler. C. glaucus, Gray : Hutton, 
M.N.Z.M., 112. C. Quoyi, Desh. : Wissel, Zool. Jahrb., xx, 620. pi. 2?, 
f. 33-37 (anatomy). 

Shell oval, rather elevated, carinated, side slopes straight, surface 
very finely striated, colour usually dark yellowish-green. Anterior 
valve with numerous narrow, delicate, slightly crenulated, and occasion- 
ally bifurcated radiating threads. Intermediate valves have the first 
longer than the succeeding valves, all slightly beaked ; central areas 
very finely, obliquely longitudinally striated, the striae extending over 
the jugum ; the lateral areas slightly raised, with radiate riblets 
similar to those on the head valve. Posterior valve of about the same 
size as the anterior ; central area with fine longitudinal and posterior 
with fine radiate threads ; mucro a little in front of the middle, the 
posterior slope straight. Girdle with smooth, convex, imbricating 
scales, shining and of about equal size. Colour generally very dark 
olive-green, but sometimes yellowish-brown marked with olive on the 
sides and ends, or clear yellow with rays of olive or brown ; uniformly 
reddish-brown examples occur ; girdle mostly light blue, often with 
dark-brown scales mingled with the others. Interior light blue, the 
sutural laminae white ; anterior valve with 9, seldom 10, slits ; median 
valves with 1 slit on each side ; posterior valve with 13-14 slits ; teeth 
sharp, minutely pectinate ; sinus very broad, denticulate ; sutural 
laminae low, rounded ; valve-callus strong, dark green. 

Length, 37 mm. ; breadth, 22 mm. Divergence, 110-120. 
Dentition. Hutton, T.N.Z.I., xv, 129, pi. 16, f. F. 
Type. Mus. Hist. Nat., Geneva. 

Hab. Common throughout New Zealand ; under stones between 
tide-marks. 

Subsp. limosus, Suter, 1905. 

Chiton Quoyi, Desh., sub'sp. limoaus, Suter, J. Mai., xii, 69. Chiton cereus, 
Reeve : Suter, P. Mai. S., ii, 195, not of Reeve. 

It differs from the species in being smaller and narrower, the ridge 
generally less acute, colour mostly obscured by a black coating. The 
anterior valve has only 8 slits, the tail valve 15 ; the sinus is broader ; 
the sutural laminse slightly higher and much narrower. 

Length, 20 mm. ; breadth, 12 mm. Divergence, 95-100. 
Type in my collection. 

Hab. Manukau and Auckland Harbours, on mud-flats, under 
stones between tide-marks ; Lyall Bay. 



Chiton.] AMPHINEURA. 35 

3. Chiton Sinclair!, Gray, 1843. Plate 2, fig. 14 ; Plate 4, fig. 7. 

Chiton Sinclairi, Gray, in Dieff. N.Z.. ii, 263: Man. Conch. (1), xiv, 174, 
pi. 36. f. 1-3 : P. Mill. S., ii, 196 : Wissel, Zool. Jahrb., xx, 627, pi. 23, 
f. 38-44 ; pi. 24. f . 45-48 (anatomy). 

Shell oval, rather elevated, the dorsal ridge rounded, side slopes 
rather straight, brown-black, irregularly striped with white. Anterior 
valve with 15-18 granose ribs, through splitting increased to 24-30 in 
adult specimens ; a number of higher ridges near the anterior margin. 
Intermediate valves with the central areas smooth in the middle except 
for a few growth-wrinkles, but having fine short longitudinal riblets at 
the sides in front of the diagonal line ; these, however, are sometimes 
absent ; lateral areas raised, with 3-4 radiate granose ribs, often 
indistinct. Posterior valve with the central area smooth, posterior 
area with 10-14 strongly granose ribs, some of them occasionally 
bifurcate ; rnucro obtuse, in front of the middle. Girdle with im- 
bricating, broadly rounded, and shining scales, which are microscopic- 
ally very finely ridged. Colour brown-black, each valve irregularly 
and raggedly striped with whitish, the head valve rarely pale with 
dark rays ; sometimes the white predominates ; girdle banded with 
light blue and black, the inner rows of scales mostly light brown. 
Interior brownish-blue ; anterior valve with 10-13 slits, intermediate 
valves with 1 slit on each side, posterior valve with 13 (rarely with 14) 
slits ; teeth obtuse, very strongly crenulated ; sinus broad, distinctly 
denticulate ; sutural laminae low, very broadly convex, straight, or 
with a shallow concavity in the middle, white with a brown spot at 
the base ; valve-callus strong, brownish ; eaves broad, spongy. 

Length, 28 mm. ; breadth, 18 mm. Other specimens are 30 mm, 
by 16 mm. ; 19 mm. by 12 mm. 

Type in the British Museum. 

Hob. Both Islands, but rather local, and not common ; under 
stones between tide-marks : Chatham Islands. 

Remarks. The species has been recorded from Tasmania, but 
incorrectly. The short longitudinal riblets in front of the lateral 
areas are sometimes cut up into granules by strong growth-lines. 
Specimens are very often much eroded. 

4. Chiton Torri, Suter, 1907. Plate 4, fig. 8. 

Chiton Torri, Suter, P. Mai. 8., vii, 295, f. 2 in text. 

Shell small, elongate, smooth, dark brown. Anterior valve with 
11 indistinct riblets (obsolete in one specimen), crossed by fine growth- 
lines, the whole surface minutely wrinkled. Of the intermediate valves, 
the first is twice as long as the others, broadly rounded and smooth, 
beaked, the central areas with minute transverse zigzag wrinkles, 
jugum smooth ; lateral areas slightly raised, with concentric ridges, 
very distinct near the margin, but gradually disappearing towards 

2* 



36 AMPHINEURA. [Polyplacophora. 

the centre, the whole minutely wrinkled. Posterior valve with a few 
concentric ridges near the margin, surface wrinkled as on the other 
valves, mucro central, low, posterior slope strongly convex. Girdle 
with small, rounded, smooth, and imbricating scales. Colour dark 
brown, somewhat lighter on the central and lateral areas ; girdle 
darker, almost black. Interior light brown ; anterior valve with 
11 slits and intermediate valves with 1 slit on each side, posterior 
valve with a low insertion plate and 12 slits ; teeth thick and blunt, 
with 1 or 2 grooves outside ; sinus microscopically denticulate ; sutural 
laminae moderately high and broadly rounded. 

Length, 9 mm. ; breadth, 4-5 mm. Divergence, 100. 

Type in my collection. 

Hob. Bluff, South Island ; type (Dr. Torr). 

Remark. This species stands nearest to C. Sinclairi, but is easily 
distinguished by its almost total smoothness and the microscopic 
wrinkles. 

6. Group of Chiton canaliculatus. 

Central areas with stout longitudinal ribs and comparatively deep 
grooves. 

5. Chiton sreus, Reeve, 1847. Plate 2, fig. 15 ; Plate 4, fig. 9. 

Chiton wre,us, Reeve, Conch. Icon., pi. 7, f. 36 ; Man. Conch. (1), siv, 179, 
pi. 36, f. 96, 97 ; Ereb. & Ter., pi. 1, f. 9 ; J. Mai., xii, 70 ; T.N.Z.I., 
xl, 376. 

Shell oblong-ovate, angularly raised in the middle, valves rudely 
impressly striated ; colour greenish, red, or yellowish-white. Anterior 
valve with 20-30 but slightly nodulose radiate riblets, crossed by 
fine concentric lines of growth. Intermediate valves with the jugum 
sharply angled, smooth, microscopically shagreened, the central areas 
with about 20 furrows on each side, not deep, continuing until they are 
rubbed off in the middle ; lateral areas slightly raised, with 3 to 4 
divaricating riblets, broken up by the concentric ruga? of growth, 
smoothish ; crenate at the sutures. Posterior valve with 15 to 20 
radiate riblets extending from the mucro to the posterior margin, 
shorter ones between them ; riblets cut up into distinct oval granules 
by concentric lines of growth ; central area longitudinally furrowed ; 
mucro in front of the middle, pointed, posterior slope concave. Girdle 
with imbricating roundish and rather large scales, the rows on the 
inner and outer margins have smaller scales ; they are microscopically 
finely striate. Colour dull green, clouded with black on the sides, 
sometimes brick-red, with or without faint black or brown patches 
on the sides of the central valves ; rarely yellowish-white, sometimes 
beautifully marked with greenish zigzag bands, especially upon the 
lateral areas ; girdle mostly irregularly banded with white ; quite 
white specimens have the girdle dark brown. Interior light blue, with 
the sutural lamina' white; anterior valve witli 10, intermediate valves 



Chiton.] AMPHINEURA. 37 

with 1 on each side, and posterior valve with 10 slits, which are close 
together in the centre, wide apart on the sides ; the slits are not deep ; 
the teeth blunt, strongly pectinate ; sinus narrow and deep, denti- 
culate, ; sutural lamina* low, very broad, and flatly convex ; valve- 
Callus fairly strong, deep blue. 

Length, 39 mm. ; breadth, 23 mm. (type). The largest specimen 
I have seen was 46 mm. by 27 mm. Divergence, 94 (type) ; with 
the specimens in my collection it varies from 108 to 115, but in most 
examples is 110. 

Type in the British Museum. 

Hab. Throughout New Zealand, and a variety at the Auckland 
Islands ; rather local and not common : Hauraki Gulf (H. S.) ; Cape 
Egmont (R. Murdoch) ; Queen Charlotte Sound, in 6 fathoms (Captain 
Bollons) ; Russell (W. H. Webster) ; Cook Strait (Miss Mestayer) ; 
Lyttelton Harbour and Cape Saunders, Otago (T. Iredale) ; Shag 
Point and Bluff (Dr. Torr) ; Auckland Islands (Captain Bollons). 

Remarks. Red-coloured specimens are known from Hauraki Gulf 
and Cook Strait ; the white varieties are from the Bluff and Cape 
Saunders. The only specimen from the Auckland Islands is brownish- 
red ; the central areas are not shagreened, and more of the outer 
furrows extend the whole length than is usually the case. 

6. Chiton canaliculatus, Quoy and Gaimard, 1835. Plate 2, fig. 16 ; 
Plate 4, fig. 10. 

Chiton canaliculatiis, Q. & G., Voy. Astrol., iii. 1835, 394, pi. 75, f. 37-42; 

Man. Conch. (1). xiv, 177, pi. 36, f. 4-0; P. Mai. S., ii, 196. C. Slangeri, 

Reeve: Pilsbry, Man. Conch. (1). xiv, 177, not of Reeve. C. insculptus, 

A. Adams, P.Z.S., 1852 (1854), 91, pi. 16. f. 4: Wissel, Zool. Jahrb., 
xx. 655. pi. 21, f. 59-62 ; pi. 24, f. 63 (anatomy). 

Shell small, oblong, strongly elevated, carinated, side slopes straight, 
steep, pink, sometimes with black spots along the ridge. Anterior valve 
with 20 to 22 flatly nodulous ribs, some of them bifurcate, posterior 
margin crenulate, apex smooth, slightly sinuate. Intermediate valves 
beaked, the jugum with a narrow smooth space, sides with about 
16 strong longitudinal ribs, more slender near the centre, with deep 
narrow grooves between them ; lateral areas considerably raised, 
with 3 mostly bifurcating radiating ribs, which are cut up into low 
nodules by regular concentric lines ; posterior margins of valves 
strongly crenulated. Posterior valve with 12 to 16 granose radiating 
ribs, central area longitudinally costate ; mucro small, sharply pointed 
slightly in front of the middle, posterior slope a little concave. Girdle 
with compactly imbricating scales, which are small, convex, shining, 
and faintly microscopically striated. Colour of end valves and lateral 
areas pink, central areas yellowish, dorsal ridge pink with an olive- 
green or black stripe on each side ; sometimes olivaceous, or olive 
and rose. Interior whitish, microscopically punctate ; anterior valve 
with 9 (sometimes only 8) slits, intermediate valves with 1 slit on each 



38 AMPH1NEURA. [Polyplacoplwra. 

side, and posterior valve with 10 (rarely 9) slits ; teeth minutely pec- 
tinated ; sinus deep and narrow, denticulate ; sutural laminae very 
broadly convex ; valve-callus not very stout ; eaves solid. 

Length, 14mm. ; breadth, 11 mm. Divergence, 100-105. 

Type in Mus. Hist. Nat., Paris. 

Hob. --Tasman Bay, type (Q. & G.) ; Cook Strait; Dunediu ; 
Foveaux Strait ; Stewart Island. In deep water, on oysters or dead 
shells. 

Remark. The type of Adams's C. insculptus was collected in New 
Zealand by Strange. 

7. Chiton clavatus, Suter, 1907. Plate 4, fig. 11. 

Chiton clavatus, Suter, P. Mai. S., vii. 296, f. 3 in text. 

Shell small, elongated oval, acutely raised, surface of all valves 
minutely shagreened, with nodulous sculpture ; colour grey, some 
valves brown. Anterior valve with 8 radiate ribs, each consisting of 
3 flatly convex nodules, the uppermost small and round, the follow- 
ing large and squarish, the lowest a little smaller, oblong ; posterior 
margin crenulate. Intermediate valves have the first longer than the 
others, sharply angulate, slightly beaked ; central areas with 5-6 deep 
longitudinal furrows on each side, centre smooth ; lateral areas raised, 
with an anterior and posterior broad rib bearing flatly raised squarish 
nodules, which are more numerous on the posterior rib ; seventh 
valve having a few central nodules on the lateral areas, marking a 
third rib ; sutures strongly and bluntly crenulated. Posterior valve 
with 2 concentric rows of round nodules, representing 10 radiate ribs ; 
mucro slightly in front of the middle, small and pointed, posterior 
slope straight. Girdle with rather large, imbricating, convex, and 
smooth scales, smaller on the inner side. Colour of the first, second, 
seventh, and eighth valves ash-grey, the other valves greyish-brown 
with white spots along the ridge ; girdle uniformly grey. Interior : 
Anterior valve with 8, intermediate valves with 1. and posterior valve 
with 11 slits ; teeth pectinate. 

Length, 14 mm. ; breadth, 9 mm. Divergence. 95. 

Type in my collection. 

Hob. Rangitoto Island, near Auckland, between tide-marks ; a 
single specimen (H. S.). 

Remarks. Of the New Zealand species, C. limans is the nearest, 
from which, however, it is easily separated by the smooth not sharply 
raised tubercles, and the rounded not pointed smooth scales 

8. Chiton Huttoni, Suter, 1906. Plate 2, fig. 17: Plate 4, fig. 12 

Chiton Huttoni. Suter, T.N.Z.I., xxxviii, 320, pi. 18, f. 1-0. 

Shell oblong-ovate, angularly raised, valves striated throughout, 
jugum smooth, girdle with rounded scales ; colour yellowish-olive, 
dull to dark green or brick-red ; interior whitish. Anterior valve 



Chiton.] AMPHINEURA. 39 

having 17 to 24 subequal riblets reaching to the apex, and broken up 
by concentric growth-lines into roundish granules ; sometimes a few 
riblets are interspersed which do not extend to the apex ; the latter 
is smooth, and slightly sinuate. Intermediate valves with the jugum 
smooth, slightly beaked ; central areas with 20 to 25 longitudinal 
furrows on each side, narrower and less deep near the centre, but 
usually widening and deepening toward the margins ; sometimes they 
are in breadth equal to the riblets, but in some specimens they are 
narrower ; they extend the whole length of the areas. Lateral areas 
distinctly raised, with 3 to 5 strong nodulous ribs, which rarely bi- 
furcate ; sutures crenulate. Posterior valve with 18 to 20 strongly 
granose ribs ; central area with longitudinal grooves ; mucro slightly 
behind the middle, pointed, posterior slope concave. Colour mostly 
yellowish-olive or dull green with 1 valve blackish-green, rarely 
brownish-black or brick-red ; girdle of the same colour as the valves, 
with white or darker bands. Interior bluish-white, pinkish-white in 
red specimens ; head valve with 9, intermediate valves with 1, and 
tail valve with 15 slits ; teeth blunt and pectinate ; sinus deep and 
narrow, denticulate ; sutural laminae white, broad and low, median 
part of them nearly straight ; valve-callus rather prominent. 

Length, 34mm. ; breadth, 20mm. Divergence, 115. 

Type in my collection. 

Hob. Near Duneclin (A. Hamilton) ; Banks Peninsula (T. Iredale). 

9. Chiton limans, Sykes, 1896. Plate 2, fig. 18. 

Chiton limans, Sykes, P. Mai. S., ii, 93; Suter, P. Mai. 8.. ii. 197; Carpenter, 
MS. C. muricatus, A. Adams, P.Z.S., 1852 (1854), 91, pi. Hi, f. 6; Man. 
Conch. (1). xiv. 175, pi. 37, f. 12, 13, not Tilesius, 1824. C. sulcatus, 
Q. & G. : Button, T.N.Z.I., iv, 178, not Q\ioy and Gaimard. 

Shell oval, elevated, the jugum acute ; mucro median, subpro- 
minent ; olivaceous, maculated with paler ; entire surface minutely 
punctate. Anterior valve with 8 ribs bearing 3 high round nodules 
near the margin ; apex smooth, sinuate ; posterior margin strongly 
denticulate. Intermediate valves with 9 to 14 grooves on each side, 
jugum smooth ; lateral areas with 2 riblets, sometimes bifurcating or 
with another intercalated, furnished with strong acute tubercles, in- 
terstices smooth ; sutures denticulate. Posterior valve with 8 nearly 
obsolete radiate riblets, central area longitudinally grooved ; mucro 
median, distinct, posterior slope strongly concave. Girdle with large 
and small wide, distinctly striated, elevated, acutely pointed scales. 
Colour olivaceous or greyish, maculated with white; girdle banded 
with bluish-green and white. Interior: Sinus moderate, with about 
15 denticles ; anterior valve having 8, central 1, posterior valve 9 slits ; 
teeth pectinate. 

Length, 23-75 mm. ; breadth, 12-5 mm. Divergence, 100. 

Type in the British Museum. 



40 AMPHINEURA. \Polyplucophora 

Hob. Cook Strait. The type was collected by Strange in Port 
Jackson, N.S.W. 

Remarks. There are two specimens from Kapiti Island in the 
Dominion Museum, and these are the only examples known to have 
been found in New Zealand waters. 

10. Chiton Stangeri, Reeve, 1847. Plate 2, fig. 19 ; Plate 4, fig. 13. 

Chiton Stangeri, Reeve, Conch. Icon., pi. 22, f. 150 ; P. Mai. S., ii, 196. 
Not 0. canaliculatus, Q. & G., as suggested by Hutton, Man. Conch. (1). 
xiv, 177. 

Shell small, ovate-oblong, elevated, sculpture rather coarse, whitish 
with green. Anterior valve with about 20 radiate nodulous ribs, apex 
smooth, microscopically shagreened, sinuated. Intermediate valves 
sharply angled, side slopes straight ; central areas with the jugum 
smooth and shining, minutely shagreened ; sides with 6 to 8 longi- 
tudinal grooves on each side, very narrow near the middle, broader 
toward the margins, ribs broad and smooth ; lateral areas with 3 to 4 
broad radiate ribs, cut up by regular growth-lines into squarish nodules. 
Posterior valve with about 20 nodulous riblets, central area smooth, 
a few grooves on each side ; mucro in front of the middle, pointed, 
posterior slope concave. Girdle with imbricating, rounded, and con- 
vex scales, largest in the median rows, microscopically faintly striated. 
Colour yellowish-white, tesselated with green and grey spots ; girdle 
banded with light blue, green, and white. Interior greyish-blue ; 
sinus narrow, denticulate ; sutural lamina? broadly rounded, white. 

Length, 13 mm. ; breadth, 8 mm. Divergence, 120. 

Type in the British Museum. 

Hob. The type was collected in New Zealand by Dr. Stanger, 
exact locality not stated. Lyttelton Harbour (H. S., T. Iredale) ; 
Hauraki Gulf (H. S.) ; Bay of Islands (J. C. Anderson). 

Remark. This is one of our very rare species. 

Genus 2.jjEuDOXOCHiTON, Shuttleworth, 1853. 

Eudoxochiton. Shuttleworth, Berner Mittheilungen, 1853, 67. Type : 
Acanthopleura nobilis, Gray. Acanthopleura, sect. xxf. Gray, P.Z.S.. 
1847. 68, not Guilding. Maugeria, sect, f, Gray, Guide, 1857. 184. 
Chcetoplenra, Adams et al., not Shuttleworth. 

Valves entirely exposed, smoothish, lacking eyes ; mucro flat, 
the sutural plates broad and connected across the sinus ; insertion 
plates of all valves blunt, closely and deeply cleft ; the median valves 
with 3 or 4, end valves with many, short slits. Girdle leathery, setose. 
Gills extending the entire length of the foot. 

The valves, when eroded, are seen under the lens to be densely,, 
evenly, and regularly punctured all over. The interior is white, and 
of a dense porcellanous texture. The laciniated insertion plates, cut 
into many short teeth, combined with the harshly setose girdle and 
continuous sutural plates, are the most striking generic characters. 
(Pilsbry.) 



Eudoxochiton. \ AMPHINEURA. 4:1 



From Acanthopleura and Maug&ria groups, to which some authors 
have referred the type of this genus, Eudoxochiton is sundered by the 
lack of eyes in the valves, the multiplicity of slits, depressed mucro, &c. 
(Pilsbry.j 

This genus seems to be restricted to New Zealand. Pilsbry states 
that C. linter, Keeve, from the East Indies, may belong to this genus, 
but its generic characters are entirely unknowji. 

KEY TO SPECIES. 
a. Shell elevated, divergence 100-110, anterior valve with 30 slits, 

spinelets black . . . . . . . . . . . . nobilis. 

a. Shell depressed, divergence 135-140, anterior valve with 17 slits, 

spinelets brown . . . . . . . . Huttoni. 

1. Eudoxochiton nobilis, Gray, 1843. Plate 2, figs. 20, 25 ; Plate 4, 

fig. u. 

Acanthopleura nobilis, Gray, Dieff. N.Z., ii, 245. Eudoxochiton nobilis, 
Gray. Man. Conch. (1). xiv. 193. pi. 4(5, f. 88-95; Ereb. & Ter., 
pi. i, f. 8; P. Mai. S., ii, 197. 

Shell oblong, elevated, the valves well arched, and very obtusely 
angular on the dorsal ridge, side slopes convex, smooth, dark brown. 
Anterior valve with about 15 indistinct low radiate ribs. Intermediate 
valves broadly A-shaped, not beaked, the central areas smooth except 
for very fine close growth-lines ; lateral areas moderately raised, with 
3-5 indistinct radiate ribs. Posterior valve elevated in front, the 
mucro flat, central ; posterior margin gently emarginate behind. All 
valves microscopically punctured. Girdle leathery, rust-coloured, 
bearing short rigid black spinelets. Colour uniform dark brown, 
a little mottled toward the beaks and marked with scarlet there ; 
girdle rusty-brown. Interior porcelain-white, immaculate, smooth and 
poreless ; anterior valve having 30, median valves 3-4, tail valve 
24-25 short slits ; insertion plates with broad, blunt edges, irregularly 
and deeply pectinated ; sutural plates squared, continuous across the 
sinus, which is indicated by a median bay or notch ; eaves very narrow, 
deeply grooved along the teeth, and slightly spongy there. 

Length, 60 mm. ; breadth, 35 mm. Divergence, 100-110. Other 
measurements are 75 mm. by 45 mm. ; 110 mm. by 62 mm. ; 123 mm. 
by 70 mm. 

Type in the British Museum. 

Hab. East coasts of North and South Islands ; on rocks or under 
boulders in exposed situations, sometimes together with Plaxiphora 
biramosa and P. obtecta. A rather rare shell. 

2. Eudoxochiton Huttoni, Pilsbry, 1893. Plate 4, fig. 15. 

Eudoxochiton Huttoni. Pilsbry, Man. Conch. (1), xiv, 194, pi. 46, f. 96-100. 

Shell oval, depressed, with convex side slopes, brown, smooth, with 
microscopic punctulation. Anterior valve has no trace of radiate ribs, 
only very fine growth-lines. Intermediate valves broadly A-shaped, 



42 AMPHINEURA. [Polyplacophora. 

not beaked, but with a low posterior keel on the jugum ; central and 
lateral areas smooth, the latter a little raised, both with fine growth- 
lines. Posterior valve depressed, the mucro plane, central, posterior 
margin not emarginate. Girdle leathery, bearing numerous short, 
rigid, dark-brown spinelets. Colour dark brown ; sometimes the 
dorsal area is light greenish, with irregular transverse bands of brown 
spots, the posterior part of each valve broadly and vividly pink- 
coloured ; the girdle is in fresh specimens greyish-white with minute 
close brown dots, greenish-brown when dry. Interior white, smooth ; 
anterior valve having 17, central 3, posterior 19 short slits ; the in- 
sertion plates blunt, deeply pectinated ; sutural plates continuous 
across the sinus, which is indicated by a shallow wave or bay. 

Length, 50 mm. ; breadth, 34 mm. : a spirit specimen in my 
collection has a length of 55 mm. ; breadth, 44 mm. Divergence, 
135-140. 

Type. Mus. Acad. Nat. Sci., Philadelphia. 

Hob. North and South Islands ; Little Barrier Island ; Te One- 
poto, near Lyttelton (H. S.) ; Stewart Island (Otago Museum). A 
very rare species. 

Remarks. It is closely allied to E. nobilis, from which it differs in 
the proportions of the valves, depressed form, fewer slits, &c. 

Subfam. 2. TONICIIN.E. 

Eyes developed on end valves and lateral areas ; posterior valve 
not deeply sinused behind, its insertion plate developed. Girdle 
leathery, nude or nearly so. 

Genus 3. TONICIA, Gray, 1847. 

Tonicia, Gray, P.Z.S.. 1847, 65, 67. Type : Chiton elegans, Frembly. Tonicia, 
Gray, Guide Syst. Dist. Moll. B.M., 1857. 185. Lucia. Gould (pre- 
occupied). Lucilina, Dall, 1881. Toniciopsis (in part), Thiele, " Das 
Gebiss der Schneeken," ii, 371. Tonicia. Gray, Man. Conch. (1). xiv, 
Hit, 194 ; xv, 89. 

Valves external, all having pectinated insertion teeth ; sutural 
plates separated by a squared denticulate sinus ; lateral areas and 
end valves bearing radiating rows or bands of eye-dots. Girdle 
leathery, naked or sparsely hairy. Gills extending the whole length 
of the foot. 

The species of Tonicia inhabit mainly the shores of the southern 
and tropical Pacific, being found from middle America to Cape Horn, 
and from the Philippines to Australasia, 

1. Tonicia cuneata, Suter, 1908. Plate 5, fig. 1. 

Tonicia cimeata, Suter, T.N.Z.I., xl, 1907 (1908), 360, pi. 28, f. 1, 2. 

Shell oblong-ovate, rather small, valves much raised, the inter- 
mediate valves beaked, angled above, with cuneiform sculpture. 



Tonicia.] AMPHINEURA. 43 

Anterior valve with 4 low and smooth ridges with serrated margins, 
corresponding with the slits, anterior margin with the same number 
of slightly projecting lobes, posterior margin a little concave ; sculpture 
between the riblets consisting of deeply engraved grooves and punc- 
tures, leaving numerous wedge-shaped smooth patches of various 
size ; the whole surface dotted with minute eyes. Of the intermediate 
valves, the first is notably larger than the following 5, all are sinuated 
on the latero-anterior sides and narrowed, convex in front and pro- 
minently beaked behind ; dorsal area V-shaped, smooth, microscopic- 
ally transversely finely striate ; pleural tracts with a few narrow 
longitudinal and divergent serrated grooves ; lateral areas not raised, 
with an anterior obtuse diagonal ridge, sculpture similar to that of the 
head valve ; the small reddish eyes scattered over the whole surface. 
Posterior valve with a V-shaped dorsal area, its sides serrated, mucro 
at about the posterior fourth, posterior slope moderately concave, 
posterior margin slightly lobed, the lobes corresponding with the 
slits, sculpture beautifully wedge-shaped, with the postero-lateral ridges 
corresponding with the anterior slits ; the whole surface covered with 
minute eyes. Girdle moderately broad, leathery, yellowish, almost 
naked, with very few silvery fine hairs near the margin. Colour a 
dirty-white ; anterior valve with the riblets reddish- white, the grooves 
and punctures rusty ; intermediate valves with the central area light 
olive, bordered by white, ornamented with very fine longitudinal 
reddish lines ; grooves on the pleural and lateral areas rusty, a few 
light-blue spots scattered over the areas ; posterior valve having 
the central area coloured as the intermediate valves, the grooves rusty, 
the cuneiform nodules on the pleural tracts light blue ; white, with 
a few blue spots, posteriorly. Interior greenish-white, without any 
strong callosity. Anterior valve with 4 slits, the 2 central ones broader ; 
intermediate valves with 1 slit on each side, and posterior valve with 7 
inequidistant slits ; all teeth of the first 7 valves finely pectinated and 
sharp, but those of the tail valve are stout, deeply grooved, rather 
blunt-edged ; all insertion plates are high ; sinus flat, finely denticu- 
late ; sutural laminae angularly produced, rather thin ; valve-callus 
not much raised. 

Length, 22 mm. ; breadth, 11 mm. (dry specimen). Divergence, 78. 
Animal with the gills extending nearly the whole length of the foot. 

Type in my collection. 

Hab. Bay of Islands (J. C. Anderson). 

Remarks. This shell is distinguished by its peculiar cuneiform 
sculpture from all the other species of the genus known to me. A 
curious feature of this species are the minute punctures scattered over 
the whole surface of all valves, not confined to the lateral areas only 
on the intermediate valves. I took them for eyes, but I may be 
wrong. I have only one specimen, and it is highly desirable that 
more examples should be obtained and carefully examined. 



44 AMPHINEURA. [Polyplttcophorct. 

Genus 4. ACANTHOPLEURA, Guilding, 1835. 

Acanthopleura, Guilding, Zool. Journ., v, 1835. 28 (in part). Type : Chiton 
spinosus, Brug. Corephium, Gray, P.Z.S.. 1847, 65, 68; not Brown. 
1827. Maiigeria. Gray, Guide Brit. Mus., 1857, 183 (in part). Fran, 
cisia. Carpenter, in Ball, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., 1881, 284, 289. 290 (1882). 

Valves exposed, beaked, generally lustreless or eroded ; provided 
with eyes on the forward part of the latreal areas and the end valves ; 
mucro posterior ; interior coloured, the tegmentum broadly inflexed at 
the posterior margin of each valve. Insertion plates all conspicuously 
pectinated outside and directed forward. Girdle thick, covered with 
small or large calcareous spines. (Pilsbry.) 

A widely spread genus, being recorded from the West Indies, Strait 
of Magellan, west coast of South America, Galapagos, Tonga, Fiji, 
New Caledonia, north Australia, New Guinea, Java, Philippine Islands, 
Bismarck Archipelago, Mauritius, Reunion, Comoro Islands, Zanzibar, 
Cape of Good Hope, Cape Verde Islands, &c. 

Subgen. 1. MAUGERIA, Gray, 1857. 

Maugeria, Gray, Guide Syst. Dist. Moll. Brit. Mus., 183 (in part). Type : 
Ch. granulatus, Gmel. Acanthopleura, Carpenter, Table Reg. Chitons, 
1873 ; not Guilding. q.v. 

Exterior lustreless ; tail valve having numerous (7-12) slits in the 
short crenulated insertion plate, median valves 1 slit, the exposed 
coating or tegmentum wider than the articulamentum, or inner layer ; 
sinus not toothed, the sutural plates connected across it ; girdle thick, 
densely beset with calcareous spinelets. (Pilsbry.) 

1. Acanthopleura granulata, Gmelin, 1790. Plate 2, fig. 21 ; Plate 5, 
fig. 2. 

Chiton granulatus, Gmel., Syst. Nat., ed. xiii, 3205. Acanthopleura granu- 
lata, Gmel., Man. Conch' (1), xiv, 227. pi. 50; .1. Mai., xii. 70. Chiton 
'magellaniciis, Gmel. C. piceus, Gmel. C. occidentalis. Reeve. C. sala- 
mander. Spengler. C. tuberculatus, L. : Sohvoter, not Linnseus. C. itn- 
guiculatus et convexus, Blainville. C. blauneri et mucronulatus. Shuttle- 
worth. Tonicia corticata, Hutton, T.N.Z.I.. iv, 180. 

Shell oblong, moderately elevated or roundly arched, almost 
always eroded, cinereous, girdle with calcareous spinelets. Anterior 
valve closely granulated, the granules diminishing in size toward the 
apex ; interspaces with numerous small black eyes. Intermediate 
valves beaked, roundly arched, the jugum of the first median valve 
granulate, on the succeeding valves minutely wrinkled ; lateral areas 
having the granules disposed in longitudinal rows in front of the lateral 
areas, which are but slightly raised, granose, and interspersed with 
numerous eyes. Posterior valve with a few growth - ridges, closely 
granulated, eyes less numerous ; rnucro swollen, posterior. Girdle 
thick and fleshy, densely covered with short unequal spinelets, which 



Acanthopleura. | AMPHINEURA. 45 

are calcareous, and either black or white ; the black spines are fre- 
quently longer and straight, the white spines short, mingled with a 
few much larger ones, shaped like the shell of Cadulus. Colour dull, 
ashy, or brown, generally with a patch of brown on the ridge of each 
valve, with a pair of whitish, buff, or pinkish stripes. Interior sea- 
green or lead-blue, fading to nearly white on the sutural plates ; each 
median valve with a purple-black tract between the sinus and the 
summit of the callus, square or 2-branched at the ends, anterior valve 
having normally 8-10, central 1 (rarely 2), posterior valve 9 (occa- 
sionally 7-14) slits ; teeth long and very deeply pectinated outside ; 
teeth of tail valve short and obtuse, directed forward, very deeply 
pectinated outside and on the edge ; sinus slightly concave, or convex 
and notched at the sides, not denticulate. 

Length, 80 mm. ; breadth, 46 mm. Divergence, about 125. 

Type (?). 

Hob. New Zealand. Pitt Island, Chathams. 

Remark. This is the common Chiton of the West Indies. 

Subfam. 3. LIOLOPHURIN.E 

Median and anterior valves provided with eyes, and having well- 
developed insertion plates with slits, the teeth pectinated outside, 
not thickened at the edges of the slits. Posterior valve with the 
mucro posterior and terminal ; its insertion plate obsolete, reduced 
to a low ridge or flat ledge of callus, which is unslit (except in Schizo- 
chiton) and continuous posteriorly or interrupted in the middle by 
a caudal sinus. Gills as long as the foot. 

This group is closely allied to Chitonidce, and has doubtless been 
derived from the Tonicioid branch of that stock. It is separated from 
them on account of the degeneration of the posterior valve, and especi- 
ally of its insertion plate. (Pilsbry.) 

Genus 5. LORICA, H. and A. Adams, 1852. 
Lorica, H. and A. Adams, A.M.N.H. (2), ix, 355. Type : L. volvox, Reeve. 

Valves exposed, not beaked, the lateral areas and end valves with 
many fine riblets or pustules. Eyes confined to a single series along 
the summit of each diagonal rib. Insertion plates blunt, obsoletely 
pectinated, the slits in head valve not corresponding to external ribs ; 
sinus very small. Posterior valve having the mucro posterior and ter- 
minal, insertion plate unslit, obsolete, being reduced to a convex ridge 
of callus ; posteriorly cleft to the mucro by a deep rounded sinus, 
or waved. Girdle slit or waved behind, densely scaly. 

This is one of the few genera of " irregular " Chitons having a 
scaly girdle. The eyes seem to be nearly obsolete, and possibly are 
not functional, although they still are pigmented. In most speci- 



46 AMPHINETJRA. [Polyplacophora. 

mens a good hand-lens shows the series of ocular punctures along the 
diagonal ridge, immediately in front of the anterior row of pustules. 
(Pilbry.) 

Australia and New Zealand only. 

m 

Sect. 1. LORICA, s. str. 

Sinus in tail valve deep ; jugal sinus V-shaped ; girdle widest at 
the sides, cleft behind. 

1. Lorica volvox, Reeve, 1847. Plate 2, fig. 22 ; Plate 5, figs. 3, a, b. 

Chiton volvox, Reeve, Conch. Icon., Chiton, pi. 6, f. 31. Lorica volvox, 
Reeve, Man. Conch. (1), xiv, 237, pi. 52, f. 14-21 ; P. Mai. 8., vii, 297. 
C. cimolius. Reeve. Conch. Icon., pi. 21, f. 141. C. (Lepidopleurus) rudis, 
Hntton, T.N.Z.I.. iv. 1872. 179. 

Shell oblong, strongly elevated, the dorsal ridge angular, side 
slopes nearly straight ; surface lustreless, finely sculptured, variable 
in colour. Anterior valve strongly elevated, curving forward at the 
summit, the anterior slope being concave ; sculptured with many 
radiating riblets, which are pustulose when not eroded. The median 
valves are not beaked even when young, but they are falsely beaked 
or narrowly projecting at the sinus in front ; lateral areas raised, 
sculptured with 8-12 low radiating cords bearing rounded pustules, 
which are more or less entirely lost in adult specimens ; central areas 
sculptured with numerous narrow raised threads parallel to the dorsal 
ridge, their interstices wider than the threads, and closely latticed 
across. Posterior valve small, much depressed, with posterior terminal 
elevated mucro ; posterior lateral margin bounded by an elevated rib ; 
posterior area extremely small, vertical, perpendicularly ribbed, having 
a deep rounded excavation behind. Girdle wide, bluish with incon- 
spicuous dusky cross-bars, slit behind, its surface very densely covered 
with minute, closely imbricating, smooth, convex scales. Colour some- 
times buff, with chestnut streaks and darker angular blotches on the 
central areas, fewer on the lateral areas ; sometimes the lateral areas 
are olive-green, the dorsal region light, the sides of the central areas 
brown or olive. The dorsal ridge is sometimes stained with orange 
on each valve, and the same colour often clouds the sides also. In- 
terior white ; tegmentum reflexed and sculptured along the posterior 
margin of each valve ; anterior valve having 8 slits, central 1 slit ; 
the slits minute ; teeth short, blunt, finely but obsoletely pectinated 
outside, and crenulated at the edge. Posterior valve having a low, 
rounded callus ridge in place of the insertion plate, its edge unslit, 
finely and rather obsoletely striated, interrupted by a deep rounded 
sinus in the middle behind ; eaves narrow, solid ; sutural plates 
broad, separated by an extremely small V-shaped sinus in the middle. 

Length, 70 mm. ; breadth, 38 mm. Divergence, about 90 ; the 
young more depressed. (Pilsbry.) 



Lorica.] AMPHINEURA. 47 

Type in the British Museum ; of C. rudis, Hutt., in the Dominion 
Museum, Wellington. 

Hal>. Whale Rock buoy-moorings, 20 fathoms, one specimen 
(Captain Bollons) ; Channel Island, Hauraki Gulf, 25 fathoms, one in- 
termediate valve ; Dusky Sound, 30 fathoms (R. Henry). Australia. 

Remark. The specimen in the Dominion Museum, locality not 
stated, may now safely be considered as having been obtained some- 
where in New Zealand. 

Genus 6. ONITHOCHITON. Gray, 1847. 

Onithochiton, Gray, P.Z.S., 1847, 65, 68, 169. Type : Chiton undulatus, 
Q. & G. 

Valves exposed, polished, beaked, with indistinct lateral areas ; 
eyes present and disposed in a ray on the forward part of each lateral 
area and in numerous rays on the anterior valve. Interior porcel- 
lanous ; sinus denticulate, angular ; insertion plates pectinated out- 
side, that of the first valve with 8 slits, median valves 1 slit ; posterior 
valve depressed, triangular, with posterior terminal and marginal 
mucro, the insertion plate reduced to a low, smooth, and narrow 
callus. Girdle leathery, rendered velvety by very minute chaffy hairs. 
(Pilsbry.) 

The species are distributed from the Cape of Good Hope to New 
Zealand. 

KEY TO SPECIES. 

a. Lateral areas and anterior valve smooth or radially sculptured ; 

central areas smooth. 

b. Lateral areas smooth or with 4 or 5 low subgranose riblets undulatus. 
bb. Lateral areas closely sculptured with close subgranose 

striae . . . . . . . . - - - - semisculptus. 

00. Lateral areas having concentric sculpture ; central areas or 

pleura with forwardly converging sulci . . . . nodosus. 

1. Onithochiton nodosus, Suter, 1907. Plate 5, fig. 4. 

Onithochiton nodosus, Suter, P. Mai. S., vii, 297, f. 4 in text. 

Shell small, elongately ovate, shining, flesh-colour, variegated with 
white and brown, lateral areas with nodulous ribs. Anterior valve 
with about 20 radiate nodulous riblets, crossed by 4 concentric fur- 
rows ; about 14 radiate rows of minute silvery eyes. Intermediate 
valves slightly beaked, with the jugum sharply rounded ; central areas 
minutely punctate, longitudinal sulci in front of the lateral areas, 
short near the centre, but extending nearly the whole length on ap- 
proaching the margins ; several transverse furrows extend over the 
central areas. Lateral areas scarcely raised, with 3 nodulous ribs, the 
2 posterior ones close together ; sutures slightly crenulated ; one row 
of eyes between the first and second rib. Posterior valve with the 
mucro terminal, minutely punctate, a concentric marginal row of 



48 AMPHINEURA. [Polyplacophora. 

nodules, interspersed with eyes. Girdle narrow, leathery, with narrow 
white stripes below the sutures. Colour light pink over the jugum. 
minutely dotted with white, margined by rows of triangular white 
spots ; central and lateral areas reddish-brown, variegated with white 
on some of the intermediate valves. Interior reddish-brown ; anterior 
valve with 10 irregularly spaced slits ; teeth pectinate ; intermediate 
valves with 1 slit on each side ; posterior valve with a low, smooth, 
and rounded callus. 

Length, 17 mm. ; breadth, 7 mm. Divergence, 70. 

Type in the cabinet of Miss Mestayer, Wellington. 

Hob. Foveaux Strait, in 18 fathoms, one specimen (Captain 
Bollons), type ; Guard's Bank, Pelorus Sound (Captain Bollons). 

Remark. This species is nearly allied to 0. rugulosus, Angas, from 
Port Jackson, which, however, is much more depressed, the divergence 
being 125. According to Thiele, this is 0. marmoratus, Wissel, 1904 : 
see Appendix. 

2. Onithochiton semisculptus, Pilsbry, 1893. Plate 2, fig. 23. 

Onithochiton semisculptus, Pilsbry. Man. Conch. (1). xiv, 247, pi. 55, f. 10, 
11 : J. Mai., xii, 71 : Wissel, Zool. Jahrb., xx, 658, pi. 21, f. 64; pi. 24, 
f. 65, 66 (anatomy). 

Shell oblong, elevated, subaiigular, olive-green, white and brown, 
concentrically banded and sometimes longitudinally striped. Anterior 
valve with numerous close radiate riblets, distinct near the margin ; 
anterior half with small black eyes irregularly scattered about. In- 
termediate valves with a low keel on the jugum, beaked ; central area 
smooth, shining ; lateral areas slightly raised, indistinctly separated 
from the pleura, with fine and close radiate riblets, which are more or 
less distinctly granose, their number varying from about 12 to 20 : 
front of each lateral area with a small number of eyes. Posterior 
valve convex, smooth ; mucro terminal. Girdle rather broad, buff with 
numerous minute brown dots, brown when dry. Colour dark olive- 
green, with snowy angular lines and dots on the lateral areas, and 
closer more regular transverse lines on central areas ; sometimes 
beautifully ornamented with white and brown longitudinal streaks 
of various width. Interior white or light blue ; anterior valve with 
8 slits, median valves with 1 slit, on each side ; teeth very blunt and 
strongly pectinated ; sinus rather broad, denticulate ; sutural lamina 1 
broadly rounded, slightly higher near the sinus. 

Length, 27-5 mm. ; breadth, 16 mm. (type) : divergence, 95. A 
specimen in my collection : Length, 46 mm. ; breadth, 25 mm. 

Type in Mus. Acad. Nat. Sci., Philadelphia. 

#a&. Chatham Islands (H. B. Kirk). 

Remark. It is distinguished from all other known species by the 
sculpture of the lateral areas. 



Onithochiton.] AMPHINEURA. 49 



3. Onithochiton undulatus, Quoy and Gaimard, 1835. Plate 2, 
fig. 24 ; Plate 5, fig. 5. 

Chiton undulatus, Q. & G., Voy. Astrol., iii, 393, pi. 75, f. 19-24. Onitho- 
chiton undulatus. Q. & G., Man. Conch., xiv, 245, pi. 55, f. 1416; 
P. Mai. S.. ii. 199. Tonicia lineolata, Frembly : Button, M.N.Z.M., 
114. not of Frembly. 

Shell oblong, moderately elevated, the dorsal angle rounded, side 
slopes nearly straight, colour very variable, mostly olive with con- 
centric brown lines. Anterior valve with obsolete radiating riblets, 
and rays of eyes, the eye-rays variable in number, width, and degree 
of coalescence, the. individual eyes being very mutable in number 
and position. Intermediate valves beaked, central areas smooth and 
polished, lateral areas but little raised, and either smooth or sculp- 
tured with 4 or 5 low more or less obsolete beaded radiating riblets, 
and showing under a lens a band of eye-dots near the front margin. 
Posterior valve very shortly subtriangular, the distance from sinus 
to mucro being but little more than one-third the width of the valve's 
tegmentum. Girdle yellowish-white, with very minute brown dots. 
Colour extremely variable ; various shades of green, yellowish on 
the ridge, or buff, flesh-colour, light blue, &c. ; always with concentric 
darker lines, more distinct on the sides ; sometimes the first 2 valves 
of a light pink, the others dark olive on the sides, yellowish-white in 
the middle, &c. Interior white or light blue, chestnut under the beak 
of each valve ; anterior valve with 8 slits, intermediate valves with 1 
slit, on each side ; teeth obtuse, closely and sharply pectinated outside 
and on the summits ; posterior valve with a narrow convex ridge ; 
sinus deep, angular, finely denticulate ; sutural laminae broad, higher 
toward the sinus. 

Length, 25 mm. ; breadth, 16 mm. : a large specimen, 30 mm. 
by 19 mm. Divergence, 110. 

Type in Mus. Hist. Nat., Paris. 

Hob. Throughout New Zealand and the Chatham Islands ; under 
stones between tide-marks, and in kelp-roots. 

Var. subantarcticus, Suter, 1907. 

Onithochiton undulatus, Q. & G., var. subantarcticus, Suter. TNZI 
xxxix, 1906 (1907), 268. 

This colour variety is usually of uniform chocolate or purplish- 
brown colour, sometimes with white patches on the ridge, or, though 
very rarely, the second, the fifth, and sixth valves partly or entirelv 
white with, concentric lines of brown. One specimen I disarticulated 
had only 6 slits in the anterior valve, but others have the normal 
8 slits. 

Type, from the Auckland Islands, in my collection. 

Hob Auckland and Campbell Islands, Cook Strait, and New 
Brighton, but rare. 



50 AMPHINEURA. [Polyplacophora. 



LITERATURE OF THE POLYPLACOPHORA. 

Clark. " Reproduction in Chiton." A.M.N.H. (2), xvi, 446. 
Carpenter. " Generic Affinities of Chitons." Op. cit. (4), xiii, 119. 
Haddon. ''' On the Generative and Urinary Ducts in Chitons" Proc. 

R. Dublin Soc. (n.s.), iv, 1885. 

' Report on the Polyplacophora" Chall. Rep., part xliii. 
Heath, H. ' The Development of Ischnochiton." Zool. Jahrb., Anat., 

xii, 1899. 

Loven. " Development of Chitons" A.M.N.H. (2), xvii, 413. 
Metcalf. " Contributions to the Embryology of Chiton" Stud. Biol. 

Labor. Johns Hopkins Univ., v. 1893. 
Moseley. '' On the Presence of Eyes in the Shells of certain Chitonidce, 

and on the Structure of these Organs." Quart. Jou n. Micr. Sci. 

(n.s.), xxv, 1885. 

Tryon-Pilsbry. Man. Conch. (1), xiv, xv. 
Plate. " Die Anatomic und Phylogenie der Chitonen." Zool. Jahrb. 

Suppl. iv, v, 1897, 1899, 1901. 

Sampson. The Musculature of Chiton." Journ. of Morphol., xi, 1895. 
Sedgwick. :< On certain Points in the Anatomy of Chiton." Proc. R. 

Soc. London, xxxiii, 1881. 



CLASS II. PTEROPODA, Cuvier. 

Pelagic animals in which the mid-region of the foot in its primi- 
tive condition, is relatively largely developed, and drawn out into 
a pair of wing-like muscular lobes, which are used as paddles. The 
head is often rudimentary, but may be drawn out into one or more 

iS J J 

pairs of tentacles, simulating cephalic tentacles, and provided with 
suckers. The hind region is often aborted, but may carry an oper- 
culum. 

The visceral hump is not twisted, except in the Limacinidce. Jaws 
and a radula are present. Very few forms show cephalic eyes ; oto- 
cysts are universally present. The gonads are both male and female 
in the same individual. The genital aperture is single ; copulatory 
organs, often of considerable size, are present. 

A mantle-skirt and shell is present in one division of the Pteropoda 
(Thecosomata), and in these an extensive subpallial chamber is deve- 
loped, the walls of which, in the absence of ctenidia, have a branchial 
function. 

In a second division (Gymnosomata) the mantle-skirt is aborted, 
and there is no shell in the adult animal. 

The Pteropods inhabit the high seas, floating constantly in the 
water by means of the lateral fins. They are extremely vivacious 
in their movements, and are frequently together in prodigious num- 
bers. 

Fossil they first appear in the Palaeozoic. 

ORDER 1. THECOSOMATA, Blainville. 

Pteropoda provided with a mantle-skirt, and with a delicate hya- 
line shell developed on the surface of the visceral hump and mantle- 
skirt ; visceral hump, and consequently the shell, spirally twisted in 
one family, the Limacinidce ; shell often with contracted mouth and 
dilated body, its walls sometimes drawn out into spine-like processes, 
which are covered by reflexions of the free margin of the mantle. 

Earn. CYMBULIID^l, Cantraine. 

Hyalceidte, in. part, of authors. Alata, Wagner, 1885. 

Shell straight, bilaterally symmetrical, so-called cartilaginous, quite 
enveloped in the mantle. The animal^cannot completely retire within 



52 PTEROPODA. [Thecosomata. 



it. The animal has a ventral pallial cavity, and the fins form a broad 
disc, on the dorsal margin of which the cephalic portion is laid back. 

The shell of the adult is considerably elongated in a dorse-ventral 
direction. It is somewhat hollowed out in the form of a boot or 
slipper, and is more or less broadly open ventrally. It is not homo- 
logous with the calcareous shell of other Thecosomata. but is the 
result of thickening of the integument. 

The animal has its visceral portion relatively little developed, 
and the fin greatly predominates. The cephalic portion is distinct, 
the lip completely surrounding the mouth. The 2 tentacles are sym- 
metrical, and the right one is not enclosed in a sheath. The verge 
is situated on the dorsal surface of the head, in the median line in the 
adult. 

Genus 1. CYMBULIA, Peron and Lesueur, 1810. 

Cymbnlia, P. & L., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, xv, 00. Type : C. Peroni, 
de Blainville. 

The animal has a natatory disc of considerable breadth, and a 
ventral lobe on the foot. The cephalic portion is reflected on the 
dorsal margin of the fin. but is fixed throughout its length, and con- 
stricted towards its distal extremity. Jaws are present. Radula 
having the formula 1 + 1 + 1, the central tooth very broad, laterals 
with a moderately broad base, unicuspid. 

Shell, or " deutoconch," described as cartilaginous or gelatinous, 
is elongated in a dorso-ventral direction, and has a moderately elon- 
gated cavity and a pointed dorsal extremity. The external surface is 
covered with tubercles arranged in rows parallel to the main axis ; 
the dorsal extremity is always dilated, and projects more or less 
markedly. 

1. Cymbulia parvidentata, Pelseneer, 1888. Plate 6, fig. 1. 

Cyrnbulia parvidentata. Pelseneer, Chall. Rep., xxiii, 1888, 99, pi. 2. f. 12, 13. 

Shell slender, proportionally narrower and more elongated than 
C. Peroni, and exhibiting a constriction towards the middle of its 
lenoth, the dorsal portion long and pointed ; the spines on the surface 
of small size ard very uniform even on the borders of the aperture, 
where they are very large and distinct in C. Peroni. The 2 rows of 
spines which end in the" ventral points exhibit at their middle a re- 
entrant angle corresponding to the constriction of the shell. The 
cavity of the latter is very narrow and of little depth. 

Length, 35 mm. 

An : mal unknown. 

Type in the British Museum. 

Hab Cook Strait (" Challenger "). 



Cavolina.i P'JEROPODA. 53 



Fam. CAVOLINIID^E, d'Orbigny. 
HyalidcB, d'Orbigny. Cleodoridce. Gray. Cliidce, Jeffreys. Orthoconques, Fol, 

Shell external, calcareous, inoperculated. bilaterally symmetrical, 
not rolled up in a spiral, but at its apex often dorsally recurved. 
Animal with its pallial cavity ventral, and its columellar muscle dorsal ; 
the anus situated on the left. 

The shell has a variable form, which may always be referred to a. 
hollow cone, more or less modified, flattened dorso-ventrally or cir- 
cular in section. The apex is quite straight, recurved, or truncated ;, 
the mouth broad or narrow ; with longitudinal or transverse ribs, &c. 
The initial portion of the shell is generally distinct from the rest, 
and represents the embryonic shell. 

The animal may be entirely retracted within the shell. The form 
of the fins and of the posterior lobe of the foot varies considerably. 
The mouth, the lips, and the tentacles resemble those of. the Limacinidcs 
(except Peraclis). 

KEY TO GENERA. 

a. Shell larger at the aperture than just behind, constricted behind 

the aperture . . . . . . . . . . . . CUVIERINA. 

b. Shell narrower at the aperture than just behind . . . . CAVOLINA. 

Genus 1. CAVOLINA, Abildgaard, 1791. 

Carolina, Abildgaard, Skriv. Naturhist. Selsk., i, 1791, 173. Type : Anomia 
tridentata, Forskal. Rheda, Humphreys, 1797. Hyalcea, Lamarck. 1801. 
Archonta, Montfort, 1810. Tricla, Oken, 1815. Pleuropus, Eschscholtz, 
1825. Diacria, Gray, 1842. Orbignyia, A. Adams, 1859. 

The special characters of the animal chiefly consist in the breadth 
of the posterior lobe of the foot, and in the presence of lateral pro- 
longations of the mantle, which project from the lateral portions of 
the aperture (side clefts of the adult) and may cover a considerable 
portion of the shell. 

Shell generally of a horny-brown colour, especially characterized 
by its much-contracted aperture, which is, however, very broad trans- 
versely. The lateral portions of this aperture, which are narrower 
than the middle part, are almost separated from it by a more or less 
developed tooth rising from the ventral lip and fitting into a dorsal 
depression. The dorsal lip, which is longer than the ventral, is always 
more or less ventrally recurved ; the ventral lip, much recurved 
dorsally, is constricted a little in front of the aperture, and then reflected 
ventrally. The ventral surface is always bulging. The special form 
of Cavolinrt depends on the fact that the sides of the shell diverge 
abruptly outwards, so that the lips appear much prolonged anteriorly.. 
The sides of the shell are often prolonged into a more or less projecting 
point. The embryonic shell is not separated by a distinct constriction, 
except in C. trispinosa and C. quadridentata. 



54 PTEROPODA. [Thecosomata. 

KEY TO SPECIES. 

A. Dorsal lip thickened into a pad. 

a. Shell with lateral points . . . . . . . . trispinosa. 

B. Dorsal lip with a thin margin. 

a. Posterior portion of the ventral lip markedly projecting 

laterally . . . . . . . . . . . . longirostris. 

>in. Ventral lip not more developed than the dorsal. 

b. Shell without appreciable lateral points . . . . telemus. 

bb. Shell with distinct lateral points. 

c. Upper lip flattened posteriorly . . . . . . uncinata. 

cc. Upper lip directed straight forwards . . . . inflexa. 



1. Cavolina inflexa, Lesueur, 1813. Plate 6, fig. 2. 

Hyalcea inftexa, Lesueur, Nouv. Bull. Soc. Philom., iii, 1813, 285. pi. 5, 
f. 3. H. dongata, Lesueur, MS., in Blainville, Diet. Sci. Nat., xxii, 1821, 
82. H. vaginellina, Cantraine, Bull. Acad. d. Sci. Bruxelles, ii, 1835, 
380. H. labiata, d'Orbigny, Voy. Amerique merid.. v, 1836, 104, pi. 6, 
f. 21-25. H. uncinata, Hoeninghaxis, MS., in Philippi. Enum. Moll. 
Sicilise. 1836, 101. pi. 6. f. 18. not of Rang. Diacria inflexa, Lesueur : 
Gray, Cat. Moll. Brit. Mus., pt. ii, Pteropoda, 9. Hyalcea imitans, 
Pfeffer, Abhandl. Naturw. Ver. Hamburg, vii, 1880, 90, pi. 7, f. 9a. 
Cavolinia inftexa, Les. : Pelseneer, Chall. Rep., xxiii. 1888, 85 ; Hedley, 
T.X.Z.I., xxxviii, 1905 (1906), 76. 

Shell elongated, conical, compressed on each side, elongated pos- 
teriorly, terminated by a recurved point, laterally armed with a short 
point ; aperture ovately transverse, laterally deeply cleft. (Gray.) 

Hob. Off Great Barrier Island, in 110 fathoms. 



2. Cavolina longirostris, Lesueur, 1821. Plate 6, fig. 9. 

Hyahvo, longirostris, Lesueur, MS., in Blainville, Diet. Sci. Nat., xxii, 1821, 
81 ; Pelseneer, Chall. Rep., xxiii, 1888, 79. 

Shell ovate-globular, terminated anteriorly with a rather long, 
arched, channelled beak, posteriorly shortly truncate, laterally pro- 
vided with short hooked wings, inferiorly 3-ribbed ; aperture trans- 
verse, narrow. (Gray.) 

Var. strangulata, Hedley, 1907. Plate 6, fig. 8. 

Cavolina longirostris, var. strangulata, Hedley, Rec. A.M., vi, pt. iv, 1907, 
299, pi. 54, f. 13. Cavolinia, sp., Hedley, T.N.Z.I., xxxviii. 76. 

This differs from the typical form by the sudden lateral contraction 
of the rostrum, which distally expands in a spout. In the typical 
form the rostrum is produced more gradually from the anterior dorsal 
margin than in the variety. In var. strangulata the posterior lateral 
angles are less developed. 

Hob. Off Great Barrier Island, in 1 10 fathoms. 



Cavolina.] PTEROPODA. 55 

3. Cavolina telemus, Linne, 1758. Plate 6, fig. 3. 

Monoculus (?) telemus, L., Syst. Nat., ed. x, 1758, 635. Anomia tridentota, 
Forskal. Desoript. anim., &c., 1773, 124. Cavolina natans, Abildgard,. 
Skriv. Naturhist. Selsk., i, 1791, Heft 2, pi. 10. Hyalcea cornea, Lamarck, 
Syst. A.s.V., 1801, 140. H. papilionacea, Bory de St. Vincent, Voy. 
quatre prinoip. iles mers d'Afrique. i. 1804, 137, pi. 5, f. 1. Hyale 
tenuibranche, Peron and Lesuexir, Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, xv, 1810, 
pi. 2, f. 13. Hyalcea Peroni, Lesueur, Nouv. Bull. Soc. Philom., iii, 1813, 
284. H. Chemnitziana, Lesueur, ibid., 284. H. australis, Peron, Voy. 
terres australes, i, 1816, pi. 31, f. 5. H. Forskalii, Lesueur, MS., in. 
Blainville. Diet. Sci. Nat., xxii, 1821, 79. H. a/finis, d'Orbigny, Voy. 
Amer. merid., v, 1836, 91, pi. 5, f. 6-10. H. truncata, Krauss, Siid- 
afric. Moll., 1848, 34, pi. 2, f. 12, not of Lesueur. Diacria tridentata, 
Forsk. : Gray, Gat. Moll. Brit. Mus., pt. ii, Pteropoda. 8. Hyalcea 
Cumingii. Sower by. Conch. Icon., xx, Pteropoda, f. 5. Cavolinia tri- 
dentata. Forsk. : Pelseneer, Chall. Rep., xxiii, 1888, 83 ; Hedley. T.N.Z.I., 
xxxviii, 1905 (1906). 75. C. telemus, A. Adams, A.M.N.H. (3), iii, 
1859, 44. 

Shell globular, yellowish, pellucid, thin, very finely striated trans- 
versely ; hinder central process short, terminal tooth longer than the 
lateral ones. (Gray.) 

Hah. Chatham Islands ; Whangarei Heads (C. Cooper) ; off Great 
Barrier Island, in 110 fathoms. 

4. Cavolina trispinosa, Lesueur, 1821. Plate 6, fig. 4. 

Hyalcea trispinosa, Les., in Blainv., Diet. Sci. Nat., xxii, 1821, 82; Forbes 
and Hanley, Hist. Brit. Moll., ii, 380. pi. U, f. 3. Diacria trispinosa, 
Les. : Gray, Cat. Moll. Brit. Mus., pt. ii, Pteropoda, 10. Pleuropus tri- 
spinosus, Les. : Ad., G.B.M., ii, 611. Hyalcea trispinosa, Les. : Boas, 
" Spolia atlantica," 94, pi. 1, f. 3 ; pi. 2, f. 14. Cavolinia trispinosa, Les. : 
Pelseneer, Chall. Rep., xxiii, 76 ; Hedley, T.N.Z.I., xxxviii, 76. HyaJcea 
mucronata, Quoy and Gaimard, Ann. de Sci. Nat. (1), x, 231, pi. 86, 
f. 1, 2. Diacria mucronata. Q. & G. : Gray, i.e., 11. HyaJcea depressa 
Bivona, Efem. sci. Sicilia, 1832, 57, pi. 1, f. 4, 5. H. cuspidata, Delle 
Cliiaje, Descr. anim. senza vert. Napoli, 1841, pi. 180. f. 1, 2, not of 
d'Orbigny. H. Eeeviana, Dunker, Index Moll., 1853, 2, pi. i, f. 17-20. 

Shell depressed, straight, and kite-shaped ; anterior extremity, or 
the portion above the short but very acute lateral spines, is much 
shorter than the posterior end ; the latter produced into a very long 
and slender straight caudal spine, mostly broken off. Mouth short, 
narrow, semielliptic ; the marginal fissure extending to the lateral 
spines is linear ; both lips briefly and abruptly reflected. Colour 
transparent white, brownish near the lips and at the commencement 
of the tail. Upper and lower surfaces of nearly equal convexity, 
mostly devoid of marked concentric stria?. The former projects semi- 
circularly beyond the straightish labial edge of the latter. Upper sur- 
face with a broad rounded central longitudinal fold, generally divided 
in front into three smaller ones, flanked on each side with a strong 
narrower fold, leaving a flattish triangular space between it and the- 
end of the lateral spine. Lower surface with a slight fold adjacent to> 
each lateral spine. 



56 PTEROPODA. [Thecosornata. 

Length, 11 mm. 

Hob. Off Great Barrier Island, in 110 fathoms. Atlantic Ocean, 
Mediterranean, Indian Ocean, and Pacific Ocean. 

5. Cavolina uncinata, Rang, 1836. Plate 6, fig. 5. 

HyalcRa uncinata. Rang, in d'Orbigny, Voy. Amerique uierid., v, 1836 93, 
pi. 5, f. 11-15. Cavolina uncinata. Gray, Cat. Moll. Brit. Mus., pt. ii, 
1850, 7 : Pelseneer, Chall. Rep., xxiii, 84. Hyalosa uncinata, Rang and 
Souleyet, Hist. Nat. Moll.. Pteropodes, 1852, 37, pi. 2, f. 11, 14 ; Conch. 
Icon., xx. pi. 1, f. 1. H. uncinatiformis, Pfeffer, " Die Pteropoden des 
Hambnrger Museums." vii. 1880, 85. H. uncinata, Rang : Boas, " Spolia 
atlantica," 119, pi. 1, f. 10 ; pi. 2. f. 20. 

Shell much swollen ventrally, the surface delicately and regularly 
reticulated, with fine concentric ridges in front ; dorsal face with 
3 low, radiating ribs, turned downward and nearly evenly rounded 
at the aperture ; lateral spines compressed and curved slightly back- 
ward, central spine rather short, stout, and curved upward. Colour 
pale amber. 

Length, 9 mm. ; breadth, 6 mm. 

Hob. - - New Zealand. Australia ; Pacific, Indian, and Atlantic 
Oceans. 

Genus 2. CUVIERINA, Boas, 1886. 

Cuvierina, Boas, "Spolia atlantica," 1886. 131. Type : C. columnella. Rang. 
Cuvieria, Rang, 1825; not of Peron, 1807. Triptera of authors, not of 
Quoy and Gaimard. 

Animal with, the aperture of the mantle as large as that of the shell. 
Posterior portion of the foot slightly hollowed out in its middle region. 

Shell straight, elongated, with a smooth surface, with, ihe posterior 
half conical and pointed, generally caducous in the adult. The. anterior 
half is swollen medianly, but constricted behind the aperture. A 
partition, concave in front, is found towards the middle of the entire 
length of the shell, and close beside this the truncation is formed. 
The transverse section is circular, except towards the aperture, where 
it is a little compressed, and appears somewhat reniform. Behind 
the aperture the shell is contracted, but bulges out again towards 
the partition. The embryonic portion is separated from the rest of 
the shell by a shallow constriction. 

1. Cuvierina columnella, Rang, 1827. Plate 6, fig. 6. 

Cuvieria columnella, Rang, Ann. Sci. Nat. (1), xiii, 323, pi. 45, f. 1-3. / Cleo- 
dora obtusa, Quoy and Gaimard. 1824. Cuvieria oryza, Benson, 1835. 
Triptera columnella, Gray. 1850. Cuvieria urceolaris, Moerch. 1850. 
Triptera columnella and cancellata, Pfeffer. 1879. Cuvierina columnella, 
Rang : Pelseneer, Chall. Rep. xxiii, 67 ; Hedley, T.N.Z.I., xxxviii, 76. 

This is the only living species, and its characters are those of the 
genus. 

Length, 14 mm. 

Type (?). 

Hob. Off Great Barrier Island, in 110 fathoms. 



Limacina.] PTEROPODA. 57 

Fam. LIMACINID^E, Gray. 
Spirialidae, Chenu. 

Animal with, a dorsal pallial cavity, and a ventral columellar muscle ; 
anus situated on the right side. The animal is twisted like the shell, 
which it completely fills, and into which it may be completely retracted. 
The margin of the mantle bears, on the right-hand side, and some- 
what ventrally, a long extensile appendage. The posterior lobe of 
the foot, which bears the operculum, and is topographically ventral, 
is hollowed out on the middle of its free margin. The fins do not 
exhibit towards their distal extremity an area without muscular fibres. 

Shell very delicate, external, twisted into a left-handed spiral, small, 
translucent, with slight colouring. Operculum spiral, very delicate, 
glassy, and transparent. It is fixed by a portion of its surface to the 
posterior face of the ventral lobe of the foot. 

Genus 1. LIMACINA, Cuvier, 1817. 

Limacina, Cuvier, " Regne animal," ii, 1817, 380. Type : Clio helicina, 
Phipps. Heterofusus, Fleming, 1823. Spiratella, de Blainville, 1824. 
Heliconoides, d'Orbigny, 1836 (in part). Spirialis, Eydoux and Souleyet, 
1840 (in part). Helicophora, Gray, 1842. Scce-t, Philippi, 1844. Proto- 
medea, G. 0. Costa, 1861 (in part). Embolus, Jeffreys, 1869. 

Animal with an indistinctly defined head, which is only marked 
externally by the lips on the border of the mouth and by the tentacles. 
Fins elongated, enlarged, truncated at their free end. 

Shell umbilicate, with turns gradually increasing ; with a fairly 
large aperture, and with a columera not prolonged into a rostrum ; 
surface, smooth or striated. The height of the spire, the form of the 
surface and that of the aperture, and the size of the umbilicus vary 
according to the species. Operculum semilunar, with a right-handed 
spiral of a few whorls. 

1. Limacina australis, Eydoux and Souleyet, 1840. Plate 6, fig. 7. 

Spirialis australis, E. & S., Revue Zool., iii, 1840, 237. Limacina australia, 
E. & S. : Pelseneer, Chall. Rep., xxiii, 25. pi. 1, f. G ; Iredale, T.N.Z.I.. 
xl, 384. 

Shell smooth, milky-white, the spire- somewhat elevated with a 
blunted or obtuse apex, with 6 or 7 bulging whorls, separated by a 
very deep suture, with the last whorl much expanded and convex, 
and projecting more in proportion than all the foregoing. Aperture 
quadrangular, somewhat angled in front ; columella"straight, reflected 
to the right ; umbilicus broad. Operculum approximately oval, with 
an almost straight columellar margin, and with a spiral portion 
measuring barely two-fifths of the entire length. 

Diameter, maj.. 1-5 mm. ; height, 2-2-5 mm. 



58 PTEROPODA. [Thecosomata. 

Animal with a small lobe on the dorsal margin of each fin. 

Type (?). 

Rob. Lyall Bay, in shell-sand (Miss Mestayer). 

Remarks. The type is from Cape Horn (Souleyet). The species 
has a wide distribution round the South Pole. Living specimens were 
obtained by the " Challenger " from Marion Island to Crozets, at 
Kerguelen Island, Heard Island, and in the vicinity of antarctic ice, 
in latitude 63 30' S. 

The specimen from Lyall Bay was identified by Mr. C. Hedley, 
of Sydney ; I have not seen it. 

LITERATURE. 

Boas, D>. J. E. V. " Spolia atlantica." 1886. 

Eydoux et Souleyet. Descr. sommaire de plus. Pteropodes nouv., 

destines a etre publies dans le Voyage de la " Bonite." Rev. 

Zool. 1840. pp. 235-39. 

Forbes and Hartley. Hist, of Brit, Moll., ii, 1853, pp. 377-86. 
Gegenbaur, C. ' Untersuch. iiber Pteropoden und Heteropoden." 

' 1855. 
Huxley, Th. H. " Anatomy of certain Heteropoda and Pteropoda 

collected during the Voyage of the ' Rattlesnake.' ' Philos. Trans., 

cxliii, 1853, pp. 39-44. 
Lesueur. Mem. s. quelques nouv. esp. d'auim. mollusques, &c, 

Nouv. Bull. Soc. Philom. Paris, iii. pp. 281-85. 
Miiller, Joh. Bemerk. aus d. Entwicklungsgesch. d. Pteropoden. 

Monatsber. Berlin. Akad., 1857 (1858), pp. 180-204. 
Pelseneer, P. ' Challenger ' Reports," Zool., vols. xix, xxiii. 
Peron et Lesueur. Hist, de la fam. des Moll, pteropodes. Ann. Mus. 

Hist. Nat, Paris, xv, 1810, pp. 57-69. 
Pfeffer, G. ' Die Pteropoden des Hamburger Museums." Naturwiss. 

Verh. Hamburg, vii, 1880, pp. 67-99. 
Rang. Descr. de deux genres nouv. Pteropodes. Ann. Sci. Nat. (1), 

xii. 1827, pp. 320-329. 
Rang and Souleyet. Hist, Nat, d. Moll. Pteropodes. Monographic. 

Paris, 1852. 
Troschcl. Beitrage zur Kenntniss d. Pteropoden. Archiv f. Natur- 

gesch., 20 Jahrgang, 1854, pp. 196-241. 



CLASS III. GASTROPODA, Cuvier. 

( Paracephalophora, de Blainville ; Anisopleura, Lankester.) 

THE Gastropods are specially characterized, firstly, by their asym- 
metrical organization ; secondly, by their well-developed head ; and, 
thirdly, by their shell, which is formed of one piece, and coiled in a 
spiral, at least in the larval stage. The asymmetry of some of the 
principal organs of the body is the chief characteristic of the Gas- 
tropoda. The essential feature of this asymmetry is that the anus 
generally lies to one side of the median plane ; that the ctenidium 
(gill-combs), the osphradium (olfactory organs), the hypobranchial 
gland (or pallial mucous gland), and the auricle of the heart are single. 
or at least are more developed on one side of the body than the other ; 
and that there is only one genital orifice, which lies on the same side 
of the body as the anus. 

The Gastropoda are essentially aquatic animals, and the more 
archaic species are marine ; the stylommatophorous pulmonates 
Cydophoridce, &c. are terrestrial. 

The diet of Gastropoda varies according to the group under con- 
sideration. Generally speaking, the carnivorous habit is due to 
specialisation ; various forms live and feed on colonial invertebrates, 
such as Hydrozoa, &c. Some Gastropoda are parasitic, generally in or 
upon Echinoderrns. 

Some 30,000 species of Gastropoda have been enumerated, of which 
20,000 belong to the present epoch, and are distributed in every region 
of the globe. Some marine species are found at a depth of over 
2,500 fathoms, and some Puhnonata live in the Himalayas at a 
height of nearly 17,000 ft. above the level of the sea. Some fresh- 
water Gastropoda exist at a depth of 180 fathoms below the surface 
of certain lakes ; others live, in subterranean waters, and some 
Pulmonata are found in caverns into which daylight does not 
penetrate. Palaeontology shows that these animals were already 
in existence in the Cambrian period, at the commencement of the 
Palaeozoic epoch. 



GASTROPODA. 



[Streptoneura. 



dL-, 



TERMS EMPLOYED TO DENOTE VARIOUS PARTS OF THE UNIVALVE 

SHELL. 

The univalve shell is composed of one or a number of whorls, the 
whole series of whorls, except the last or body-whorl (b-c), forming 
the spire (a-b) . A whorl is a single 
revolution of the spiral cone round 
the axis. The apex consists of 
the embryonic shell or proto- 
conch (d). The line of junction 
between two successive whorls 
is the suture (h). The sculpture 
may consist of spiral lines or 
ribs (e), and of axial ribs (/) 
and varices (g), the latter ^ 
being marginal ribs of the 
aperture of an earlier stage of 
growth. The mouth or aper- 
ture (i) may have a posterior 
canal or channel (k) and an 
anterior canal (I) ; on the right 
side is the outer lip (m), and 
on the left the inner lip (n) 
spread over the pillar, or 
columeUa (o). At the base a 
a siphonal fasciole (p) and an 
umbilicus (q) may be present. The height of the shell is^given by the 
line a-c. 




--I-- W, 



SUBCLASS I. STREPTONEURA, Spengel. 
(= Prosobranchia, Milne- Edwards ; CochUdes, von Ihering.) 

These are dioecious (i<t*ti'<>poda. with the exception of a few aber- 
rant genera, and are characterized by the maxium torsion exhibited 
by the visceral mass and visceral commissure, the latter being always 
twisted into a figure of eight. The right moiety of this commissure 
is situated above the digestive tube, and is known as supra-intestinal ; 
the left moiety is situated below the digestive tube, and is known 
as infra-intestinal. 

The head of Streptoneura bears only a single pair of tentacles.^jThe 
radular teeth, when there is more than one on either side of the median 
tooth, are of several different kinds in each transverse row. The 
heart is almost always posterior to the branchia. 

The subclass includes two orders, Aspidobranchia and Pectini- 
branchia. 



Aspidobranchia.] GASTROPODA. 61 

ORDER 1. ASPIDOBRANCHIA. 

(= Diolocardes ; Scutibranchia.) 

These are Streptoneura in which, the nervous system is still but 
little concentrated. The pedal centres have the form of long gang- 
lionated cords, to the anterior end of which the pleural centres are 
attached ; the cerebral ganglia are widely separated from one another, 
and are united by a long commissure lying in front of the buccal mass 
and the salivary glands. The eye is open, or, if closed, has a very 
small pellucida. The central teeth of the radula are multiplied. 
Ctenidia are almost always present ; they are bipectinate, and free at 
their distal ends. As a rule, the Aspidobranchs exhibit well-marked 
traces of the original bilateral symmetry, having two auricles to the 
heart, and two kidneys (one only in the Neritacea). 

The order Aspidobranchia includes the most archaic Gastropods ; 
it includes two suborders, the Docorjlossa and Rhipidoglossa. 

SUBORDER 1. DOCOGLOSSA. 

(= Onychoglossa, 0. Sars.) 

The organs of respiration are represented either by a ring of laminae 
(secondary or pallial gills) beneath the mantle-margin, or by a comb- 
shaped trae gill in front, anterior to the heart, or by both true and 
secondary gills. The eyes are open, and devoid of a crystalline lens. 
There are two osphradia, but neither hypobranchial glands nor oper- 
culum. The radula is usually very long, bearing vertically elongated 
beam-shaped and hooked teeth, and there are at most 3 marginal 
teeth on either side. The heart has only 1 auricle, and neither it 
nor the pericardium are traversed by the rectum. The visceral mass 
is cone-shaped, without a spire. Shell symmetrical, non-spiral, conic 
or bowl-shaped. Cambrian to Recent. The suborder includes about 
1,400 species. 

Vernacular name. Limpets. 

Maori. Ngakihi. 



Fam. ACM.JEIDJS, Philippi. 

; Animal with a single bipectinate ctendium on the left side, iree 
for the greater part of its extent. Radula with 1 central tooth on 
each side, 2 lateral teeth (sometimes absent), and sometimes with 1 or 
2 marginal teeth. 

Shell patelliform, conical, the apex more or less anterior, the em- 
bryonic shell conical, not spiral. Cretaceous to Recent. 

They live on rocks and seaweeds, generally at very moderate 
depths. 



62 GASTROPODA. [Aspidobranchia. 

The shells, which are extremely variable, may be distinguished 
from Patellidce by their different texture and the more or less 
distinct internal border of the aperture ; they are never iridescent 
within. 

Genus 1. ACM^EA, Eschscholtz, 1830. 

Acmcea, Esch., " Appendix to Kotzebue's Neue Reise," vol. ii, p. 24, 
1830. Type: Acmcea mitra, Esch. Tecture, Aud. & Milne-Ed w., Ann. 
Sci. Nat., xxi, 1830 (1831), 326. Tectura of Gray, H. and A. Adams, &c. 
Patelloidea, Q. & G., Voy. Astrol., iii, 349. Lottia (in part), Philos. 
Trans., 1833, 800. Erginus, Jeffreys, A.M.N.H. (4), xix, 1877, 231. 
Collisella, Dall, Amer. Journ. Conch., vi, 1871, 245. Collisellina. Ball. 
I.e., 154. 

Tentacles rather long, cylindrical ; eyes situated on their posterior 
upper side. Foot semicircular ; ctenidmm large, directed from left 
to right ; anal orifice on the right side, and near the extremity of the 
adductor muscle. 

Shell patelliform, usually solid, oval or circular, summit an- 
teriorly directed and more or less in front of the middle ; interior 
not iridescent, and generally having an internal marginal border of 
colour. 

Pilsbry arranges the species into six geograpmcal divisions 
(1) North Atlantic and Arctic ; (2) western coast of North America : 
(3) western coast of South America ; (4) West Indies ; (5) Japan ; 
(6) Lido-Pacific. 

Tertiary to Recent. One species is known from the Cretaceous of 
America. 

KEY TO SPECIES. 

A. Shell distinctly ribbed, ribs visible to the naked eye. 
a. Colour white, light brown, seldom greenish. 

b. Ribs 8, shell star-shaped . . . . . . octoradiata. 

bb. Ribs more than eight. 

c. Ribs elevated, roughened. 

d. With 7 primary stouter ribs, margin 

laciniate . . . . . . . . stella. 

dd. With 14-22 subequal ribs, margin den- 
ticulate . . . . . . . . corticata. 

re. Riblets distinct, but lower, not roughened. 

d. Riblets 10-30, conspicuous, apex at the 
anterior third, inside usually rayed 
with pinkish . . . . . . rubiginosa. 

dd. Riblets 30-50, low, apex at the anterior 
fourth, spatula white, sometimes with 
a brown spot, inside with a pinkish 
pinkish border . . . . . . cingulata. 

ddd. Riblets 25-50, sharp, usually no inter- 
stitial riblets, spatula dark brown . . intermedia. 
<KI* Colour pink, numerous close riblets . . . . Campbelli. 

aaa. Colour brown, usually tessellated with white or green, 

riblets delicate or distinct and granulose . . . . septiformis. 



Acmcea.] 



GASTROPODA. 



63 



AA. Shell smooth to the naked eye, sculpture more or less micro- 
scopic. 

o. Shell small, whitish, with 10 radiate pinkish rays . . roseoradiata. 

aa. Shell small, laterally compressed, navicular, brown . . scapha. 
aaa. Shell usually larger, variegated. 

6. Shell flattened, membranaceous, with concentric 

brown and white or greenish bands . . . . jragilis. 

c. Shell thin, pellucid. 

d. Surface painted with a brown network . . dcedala. 
dd. Whitish, with brown radiate lines . . subtilis. 

cc. Shell more solid, not pellucid. 

d. Shell rather large, length to 30 mm., apex 
anterior, but sometimes removed to 
anterior fourth . . . . . . pileopsis. 

dd. Shell smaller, not exceeding 20 mm. in 

length. 

e. Apex mostly anterior, sharp and 
hooked, black, tessellated and 
blotched with white . . . . cantharus. 

ee. Shell high and rounded or couoidal. 
/. Central area variegated with brown, 

sometimes nearly white . . parviconoidea. 
//. Central area purplish-black, more 
or less distinctly stellate ; 
young shell white, with a 
central black star . . . . nigrostella. 

eee. Conoidal, with numerous radiate black 
rays. Interior bluish-white, spa- 
tula white, with a few brown spots, 
border yellow, with brown rays- . . Helmsi. 



Subgeii. 1. ACM.EA, s. str. 

Muzzle with lappets, no marginal teeth. Formula of teeth of 
ladula : 2 (1 + Oxl) 2. 

1. Group o] Acmaea cingulata. 
Teeth of radula typical, with short, rounded cutting-points. 



1. Acmaea cingulata, Hutton, 1883. Plate 5, fig. 6. 

Acmcea cingulata, Hutton, N.Z.J.S., i, 477 ; T.N.Z.I., xvi, 215 ; Man. 
Conch. (1), xiii, 53 ; P. Mai. S., vii, 316, pi. 27, f. 3-5. 

Shell oval, conoidal, moderately solid, white to yellowish-brown, 
with numerous radiating ribs, which are low, rounded, and varying in 
number from 30 to 50 ; there are usually 10 to 15 primary ribs, and 
numerous finer riblets in the interstices ; a number of concentric 
ridges sometimes render the ribs slightly crenate. Colour mostly 
white, sometimes light brown, the ribs nearly white. Apex at the 
anterior fourth, oval in shape and convex, mostly dark brown ; 
.anterior slope nearly straight. Inside white, porcellanous, central 




64 GASTROPODA. [Aspidobranchia. 

area white, rarely with a small brown spot underneath the apex ; 
margin indistinctly crenulate, with a narrow pinkish border. 

Length, 17 mm. ; breadth, 
13 mm. ; height, 6 mm. 

Dentition. --Hutton, T.N.Z.I., 
xvi, 215, pi. 11, fig. 5. A copy 
of the drawing is here repro- 
duced. It is typical, resembling- 
very much that of A. mitra, 

Esch., with short, stout, conical 

TEETH OP RADULA. 
cutting-points. 

Type in the Canterbury Museum. Christchurch. 

Hob. Dunedin and Lyttelton (Hutton) ; Lyall Bay (H. S.) ; East 
Cape Lighthouse. On rocks between tide-marks, not common : fre- 
quently found on shells of Haliotis. 

Remarks. -Distinguished from is nearest ally, A. rubiginosa, by 
the more anterior apex, the more numerous and lower ribs, the white 
interior, and the purplish or pinkish border. Always covered with a 
thick layer of Nulliporites. 

-. Acmaea intermedia, Suter, 1907. Plate 5, fig. 7. 

Acmcea intermedia, Suter, P. Mai. 8., vii, 1907, 316, pi. 27, f. 6-8. 

Shell oval to subcircular, conoidal, thin, light brown, finely ribbed. 
The fine, equidistant, equal, rounded riblets number from 25 to 50, 
interstitial riblets are mostly absent ; a few concentric distinct growth- 
lines are commonly present. Colour light brown, the riblets white. 
Apex at about the anterior third, near the centre in subcircular 
examples ; nucleus very small, oval, dark brown. Inside shining, 
with the central area dark brown, the border much lighter in 
colour. 

Length, 7-5 mm. ; breadth. 6 mm. ; height, 2-25 mm. (type). 
Other specimens measure 11 mm. by 9 mm. by 4'5 mm., and 8 mm. 
by 6-5 mm. by 3 mm. 

The dentition is unknown. 

Type in my collection. 

Hob. Near the Bounty Islands, in 50 fathoms (Captain Bollons). 

Remarks. This species has more equal, equidistant, and finer riblets 
than A. rubiginosa and cingulata ; there is an almost constant absence 
of shorter interstitial riblets ; no rays on the inside and no marginal 
border are present, and the sharply defined uniformly dark-brown 
central area is characteristic. It is probable that the shells were 
washed down from shallower water, as all the specimens I saw were 
empty, and more or less worn. 



Acmcea.] GASTROPODA. 65 

3. Acmaea roseoradiata, Suter, 1907. Plate 5, fig. 8. 

Acmcea roseoradiata, Suter, P. Mai. S., vii, 1907, 317, pi. 27, f. 9, 10. 

Shell very small, oval, conical, with broad pinkish radiate rays. 
The sculpture, which only a good lens will reveal, consists of 20 very 
indistinct low riblets on the lower half of the shell, each bordering 
one of the pinkish rays ; upper half with about twice the number 
of microscopic subobsolete radiate striae. The colour of the upper 
half is light pinkish-brown, of the lower part white, with 10 broad 
radiate pinkish rays, unequally distanced. Apex sharply pointed, 
very little in front of the centre. Inside with the central area pinkish, 
slightly lighter coloured in the middle ; border rayed like the outside, 
margin sharp. 

Length, 3-5 mm. ; breadth, 2*5 mm. ; height, 1-5 mm. 

The dentition is unknown. 

Type in my collection. 

Hob. The type is from 18 fathoms, Port Pegasus, Stewart Island 
(Captain Bollons) ; Dusky Sound, 30 fathoms (R. Henry) ; Tau- 
maki Island, west coast of the South Island, in 10 fathoms (Captain 
Bollons) ; Snares, in 50 fathoms (Captain Bollons). 

Remark. This pretty little shell is well characterized, and quite 
distinct from all the other known New Zealand species of the genus. 

4. Acmaea rubiginosa, Hutton, 1873. Plate 5, fig. 9. 

Fissurella rubiginosa, Hutton, C.M.M., 42. Glyphis rubiginosa, Hutt., Man. 
Conch. (1), xii, 216. Acmcea lacunosa. Reeve : Suter, T.N.Z.I., xxxiv, 
218, not of Reeve. A. rubiginosa, Hutton : Suter, P. Mai. S., vii, 1907, 
315, pi. 27, f. 1. 2 ; Iredale, T.N.Z.I., xl, 376. 

Shell oval, conoidal, white or light rufous, ribbed. The radiating 
ribs are very distinct, rounded, their number variable ; there are from 
10 to 20 ribs extending from the apex to the margin, besides a num- 
ber of shorter interstitial ribs, but the total number does not generally 
exceed 30. The encircling growth-lines are fine, and close together. 
Colour rufous, with the ribs white ; dead shells are pure-white, the 
apex brown. The apex is usually situate at the anterior third, some- 
times a little nearer the centre ; it is small, and has the aspect of a 
callosity filling up a fissurelloid perforation. Inside porcellanous, 
white, with radiating pinkish rays, corresponding to the interspaces 
between the ribs. Central area more or less clouded with brown, 
margin slightly crenate. 

Length, 18 mm. ; breadth, 13 mm. ; height, 6 mm. 

The dentition is unknown, but is most likely the same as in 
A. cingulata. 

Type in the Dominion Museum, Wellington. 

Hob. Chatham Islands (type) ; near Taumaki Island, west coast 
of the South Island, in 10 fathoms (Captain Bollons) ; Bay of Islands ; 
Lyttelton ; Shag Point (Iredale). 

3 Moll. N.Z. 



66 GASTROPODA. [Aspidobranchia. 



Remarks. The number of ribs and the height of the shell are 
very variable. Most specimens have a thick layer of Nulliporites. 
Our A. rubiginosa, cingulata, and corticata have been compared with 
the type of A. lacunosa, Reeve (habitat unknown), in the British 
Museum, and all of our three species are distinct. The late von 
Martens suggested that A. rubiginosa, Hutt., and A. lacunosa, Reeve, 
might be identical. 

Fossil in the Pliocene. 

2. Group of Acmsea fragilis. 
Teeth having the same formula, but the cutting-points hamate. 

5. Acmsea Campbell!, Filhol, 1880. Plate 5, fig. 10. 

Patella Campbelli, Filhol, " Comptes Reruhis," xei, 1880, 1095 ; Filhol, 
Miss. I.C., 1885, 530; Ac.mcea Campbdli, Filhol: Suter, P. Mai. S.. vii, 
321, pi. 27, f. 19, 20. 

Shell small, roundish-oval, conical, subpellucid, finely ribbed, pink. 
The radiate riblets are very numerous and close together, about 40 
reach from apex to margin and about 20 are interstitial ; they are 
broadly convex, and crossed by numerous very fine concentric growth- 
lines. The colour is uniformly pink. Apex small, rounded, situated 
at about the anterior third of the length ; anterior slope straight, 
posterior slope very little convex. Inside pinkish-white, with white 
radiating rays, corresponding to the riblets ; central area pink ; margin 
crenulate, with a narrow pink border. 

Length, 5 mm. ; breadth, 5 mm. ; height, 3 mm. (type). Length. 
5 - 75 mm. ; breadth, 4-75 mm. ; height, 3 mm. (from Auckland Islands). 

Dentition. Suter, P. Mai. S., vii, pi. 27, f. 21. 

Type in the Mus. Hist. Nat., Paris. 

Hob. The type was collected by the late Professor Filhol at the 
entrance to the north-east bay of Campbell Island ; Auckland Islands 
(Captain Bollons). 

Remark. - - This shell, insufficiently described and not figured by 
Filhol, seems to be rare, or easily overlooked. 

6. Acmaea cantharus, Reeve, 1855. Plate 7, fig. 1. 

Patella cantharus, Reeve, Conch. Icon., 1855, fig. 131. Acmaea cantharus, 
Reeve, Man. Conch. (1), xiii, 55, pi. 37, f. 1, 2 ; Vevco, T.R.S. S.Aust., 
xxx, 215, not of Reeve ; Suter, P. Mai. S., vii, 320 ; Iredale. T.N.Z.I., xl, 
376. 

Shell small, ovate, thin, apex anterior, blotched with white. The. 
sculpture consists of fine microscopic radiate striae ; one of my speci- 
mens shows a few well-marked distant riblets on the posterior side, 
but this is an exception ; concentric growth-lines are fairly conspicuous. 
Colour black or brown, blotched or tessellated with white. Apex very 
anterior, sharp, and hooked ; anterior slope concave. Inside light, 



Acmcea.\ GASTROPODA. (57 



blue, occasionally light brown, central area chestnut-brown ; the 
sharp margin having a rather broad brown border, often banded 
or dotted with yellowish-brown. 

Length, 17 mm. ; breadth, 13-5 mm. ; height, 4-5 mm. 

Dentition. Suter, P. Mai. S., vii, pi. 27, f. 17, 18. 

Type in the British Museum. 

Hob. The type was collected in New Zealand by Earl, no exact 
locality given ; Oamaru ; St. Clair, Dunedin (H. S.) ; Grey mouth ; 
Preservation Inlet ; Auckland Islands; Macquarie Island (A. Hamilton). 

Remarks. At first sight this species seems to be a young A. pileopsis, 
but there are some points which separate the two. First of all, 
A. cantharus never attains a much larger size than that indicated ; to 
the naked eye it is smooth, the radial sculpture being visible only 
under a good lens. If exceptionally a few ribs are present, they are 
much farther apart than those of A. pileopsis. The apex is much 
sharpe and more hooked, also much more constant in its anterior 
position. The inside between marginal band and central area is really 
light blue, not whitish or bluish-white as in A. pileopsis. It lives, 
like most other species, on rocks between tide-marks ; and I have 
never seen it high up, where only the spray of the sea could reach it. 

7. Acmaea dsedala, Suter, 1907. Plate 5, fig. 11. 

Acmaa dasdala, Suter, P. Mai. S., vii, 323, pi. 27, f. 30-32. A. flammea, Quoy 
and Gaimard: Hutton, T.N.Z.I., xv, 1882 (1883), 132; P.L.S. N.S.W., 
ix, 373, not of Quoy and Gaimard. A. dcedala, Sut., T.N.Z.I.. xl, 379. 

Shell small, oval, depressed, pellucid, radially netted with brown, 
apex anterior. The sculpture consists of numerous microscopic radiate 
striae, crenulated by fine incremental lines. Colour light yellow ; 
numerous light-brown radiate lines give, by anastomosing the whole 
surface a net-like appearance. Apex anterior, at about the anterior 
eighth, slightly pointed ; anterior slope concave. Interior bluish- 
yellow, showing the ornamentation of the outside ; central area in- 
distinctly marked ; margin sharp. 

Length, 7 mm. ; breadth, 5-5 mm. ; height, 2 mm. (type). 

Dentition, Hutton, T.N.Z.I., xv, 128, pi. 15, fig. N; P. Mai. S., 
vii, pi. 27, f. 32. 

Type in the Canterbury Museum, Christchurch. 

Hob. Auckland Harbour (type) ; Rakino Island ; Cook Strait ; 
Wellington Harbour ; Sumner ; Lyttelton ; Greymouth ; according 
to Hutton, it is found as far south as Dunedin ; Shag Point ; Cape 
Saunders (Iredale). 

Remarks. In this instance again the late Captain Hutton cannot 
have seen specimens of A. flammea, Q. & G., or he would never have 
assigned our small, fragile, and pellucid shell to that species, which 
is much larger and solid. This is one of our fairly constant species. 

Fossil in the Pliocene. 

3* 



68 



GASTROPODA. [Aspidobranchia. 



Subsp. subtilis, Suter, 1907. Plate 5, fig. 12. 

Acmaa dwdala, subsp. subtilis, Suter, P. Mai. S., vii, 1907, 324, pi. 27, f. 33. 

This subspecies has the same microscopic sculpture as the species, 
but it is more transparent, more fragile, smaller, whitish, ornamented 
with fine brown radiate lines. Interior whitish, showing all the brown 
lines ; central area slightly greenish, polished, but indistinctly circum- 
scribed. 

Length, 2-5 mm. ; breadth, 1-5 mm. ; height, 0-05 mm. (type). 
Length, 6-5 mm. ; breadth, -4-5 mm. ; height, 1-75 mm. (Taumaki 
specimen). 

Dentition unknown. 

Type in my collection. 

Hob. Between Little Barrier Island and Tiri Tiri Island, in 20 
fathoms, type (R. H. Shakespear) ; Taumaki Island, in 10 fathoms 
(Captain Bollons) ; Shag Point ; Cape Saimders (Iredale). 

8. Acmaea fragilis, Chemnitz, 1790. Plate 7, fig. 2. 

Patella fragilis, Cuemn., Conch. C.,b., xi, f. 1921. Patelloidea fragilis, Q. & G., 
Voy. Astrol., Zool., iii, 351, pi. 71, f. 28-30. Acmtei fragilis, Q. & G., 
Man. Conch. (1), xiii, 59, pi. 37, f. 14. 15. Patella ungvis-almte. Lesson, 
Voy. Coq., Zool., ii, 420. Patella Solandri. Colenso, Tasm. Journ. Nat. 
Sci., ii, 1844, 226, 250 ; T.N.Z.I., xiv, 168. .4. fragilis, Cheran., P. Mai 
S., vii, 317. 

Shell ovate, flattened, membranaceous, pellucid, with concentric 
bands of brown and greenish-white. The whole surface is sculptured 
by exceedingly fine, close, subequidistant radiate strise, cut up into 
minute oval nodules by growth-lines. Colour dark brown, lighter 
near the apex, banded with narrow white or light-green concentric 
lines. Apex anterior, submarginal, exactly in the middle line, sharply 
pointed, and directed forward. Inside with an emerald ring around 
the muscle-impression, margin sharp, with a 
brown border ; central area showing the con- 
centric bands of the dorsal part of the shell, 
and having an elongated patch of light 
emerald in the centre. 

Length, 15mm. ; breadth, 12mm. ; height, 

2 m * n> TEKTH OF RADULA. 

Dentition. The 2 central and 2 anterior 

inner lateral teeth are hamate, the outer posterior laterals small and 
conical. 

Anatomy. M. A. Willcox, " Jenaer Zeitschrift," xxxii, 1898, 
pp. 411-56, pi. 17-19. 

Dentition. Suter, P. Mai. S., vii, 318, pi. 27, f. 11. 

Type (?). 

Hob. Throughout New Zealand and at the Chatham Islands, 
under stones between tide-marks. It is local in distribution. 

Remark. This is one of our most constant species. 





Acmaxt.l GASTROPODA. 69 

9. Acmaa Helmsi, E. A. Smith, 1894. Plate 7, fig. 3. 

Acmceu Helmsi. E. A. Smith, P. Mai. S., i, 1894, 58, pi. 7, f. 4, 5; Suter, 
P. Mai. S., vii, 1907, 324. 

Shell small, depressed cap-shaped, almost smooth, bluish-grey, 
ornamented with numerous radiating reddish-black narrow lines. 
Apex subterminal, anterior slope slightly concave, posterior slope 
convex, arcuate. Interior greenish ; central area white, with a few 
rufous spots ; margin but faintly crenulate ; border narrow, yellow, 
marked all round with reddish-black rays. (Translation of E. A. 
Smith's diagnosis.) 

Length, 11-5 mm. ; breadth, 9 mm. ; height, 4 mm. 

Dentition unknown. 

Type in the British Museum. 

Hab. Grey mouth, type (R. Helms) ; Cape Egmont (R. Murdoch). 

10. Acmaea parviconoidea, Suter, 1907. Plate 5, fig. 13. 

Ac-mat parviconoidea, Suter, P. Mai. S., vii, 1907, 321, pi. 27, f. 22-25. 
A. conoidea, Quoy and Gaimard : Hutton, T.N.Z.I., xv, 132 ; P.L.S. 
N.S.W., ix, 373, not of Quoy and Gaimard. 

Shell small, thin, highly conical to depressed conoidal, oval, with 
very fine radiate strise and irregular brown bands. Good specimens 
show indistinct and very low radiate riblets, corresponding to the 
brown lines, and under a strong lens fine and close radiate threads 
can be distinguished, crossed by still finer concentric growth-lines ; in 
most examples this sculpture is lost, the shells being eroded. The 
colour of the type is light brown, with a few dark concentric bands 
and spots around the margin ; the much more common conoidal 
form is dirty-white, with radiate brown or black lines which reach 
up to the apex, or, more often, ornate only the lower half of the shell, 
the upper half being tessellated with black and white. Apex at about 
the anterior third, directed forward and sharply pointed, but very 
often rounded off by erosion ; the slopes are broadly convex posteriorly, 
straight or distinctly concave anteriorly. Interior light brown to 
white ; central area dark brown, with patches of lighter colour, 
sometimes quite white ; margin sharp, with brown dots and lines. 

Length, 4-5 mm. ; breadth, 4 mm. ; height, 3-5 mm. (type). 
Length, 9 mm. ; breadth, 7 mm. ; height, 4 mm. (the common form). 

Dentition. Hutton, T.N.Z.L, xv, 127, pi. 15, f. K ; Suter, P. Mai. S., 
vii, 322, pi. 27, f. 24, 25. 

Type in the Canterbury Museum, Christchurch. 

Hob. The type is from Sumner, near Christchurch, where it is 
found living on rocks between clusters of Modiolus ater ; Heathcote 
Estuary ; Lyttelton ; Oamaru ; Cape Saunders ; Greymouth ; Tau- 
maki Island ; Cook Strait ; Evans Bay, Wellington Harbour ; East 
Cape Lighthouse ; Auckland Harbour ; west coast, between Manukau 
and Kaipara ; Bay of Islands ; Chatham Islands. 



70 GASTROPODA. [Aspidobranchici. 



Remarks. The specimens selected as the type by the late Captain 
Hutton represent really an extreme form of the species, the high 
conical and rounded shape being no doubt due to environment ; it 
has a striking likeness to the figures given by Quoy and Gaimard, 
but when specimens are compared there can be no more doubt that 
the New Zealand form is quite distinct from the much larger, more 
solid, and somewhat differently coloured Australian species. 

I have specimens from Tasmania which correspond exactly with 
A. parviconoidea. The variability of this species in shape and colour- 
ing is considerable. 

Var. leucoma, Suter, 1907. 

Acmcea parviconoidea, var. leucoma, Suter, P. Mai. S., vii, 1907, 322. 

Shell small, thin, opaque, depressed conoidal. Sculpture, if any, 
lost by erosion. Colour white. Apex obtuse, at about the anterior 
fourth or fifth. Inside white ; central area greenish-white ; margin 
sharp, with a few small brown dots. 

Dentition unknown. 

Type in my collection. 

Hob. Heathcote Estuary, near Christchurch, type (H. S.) ; Dun- 
edin Harbour (Iredale). 

Var. nigrostella, Suter, 1907. Plate 5, fig. 14. 

Acmcea parviconoidea, var. nigrostella, Suter, P. Mai. S., vii. 1907. 322, 
pi. 27, f. 26-29. 

The young shell reveals under a good lens distant low radiate 
riblets and fine concentric growth-lines. The colour is white, the 
centre being occupied by a purplish-black 4- to 9-rayed star ; there are 
sometimes 2 short posterior marginal rays ; round the apex a few con- 
centric rows of small, oval, vivid blue spots. Inside white ; central 
area purplish-black, sending off 4 to 9 rays towards the margin. The 
adult shell has lost all its sculpture ; the colour markings on a whitish 
ground consist of 2 lateral and 2 posterior black rays, descending 
from the apex and extending over only a short distance ; the margin 
is adorned with numerous short black lines. Inside yellowish-white, 
the central area occupied by the now distorted star of purplish-black ; 
margin sharp, with a broad border rayed with black. 

Length, 10 mm. ; breadth, 7 mm. ; height, 5 mm. (adult speci- 
men). Length, 4mm.; breadth, 3mm.; height, 1-5 mm. (young 
specimen). 

Dentition unknown. 

Type in my collection. 

Hob. Titahi Bay, Cook Strait, type (Miss Mestayer) ; Banks 
Peninsula (Iredale) ; near Taumaki Island, in 10 fathoms (Captain 
Bollons) ; Bay of Islands (J. C. Anderson). 



GASTROPODA. 71 



Remarks. Only one adult specimen from the first-named locality. 
The very pretty small forms no doubt live in the laminarian zone, and 
very likely never attain a much larger size there ; but specimens 
reaching the littoral zone will no doubt grow to the full size of the 
species, with its most constant characters. 

11. Acmaea pileopsis, Quoy and Gaimard, 1834. Plate 7, fig. 4. 

Patelloidea pileopsis, Q. & G., Voy. Astrol., Zool., iii, 359, pi. 71, f. 25-27. 
Acmtei pileopsis, Q. & G., Man. Conch. (1), xiii, 57, pi. 37, f. 90-92. 
Patelloides antarctica, Hombron et Jacquinot, Ann. Sci. Nat. (2 ser.), 
xvi, 1841. 190 ; Man. Conch. (1), xiii, 157. Patella floccata, Reeve, 
Conch. Icon., 1855, fig. 106; Man. Conch. (1), xiii, pi. 69, f. 38, 39; 
E. A. Smith, P. Mai. S., i, 59; Suter, I.e., vi, 354. Acmcea pileopsis, 
Q. & G., P. Mai. S., vii, 319. 

Shell comparatively large, ovate-convex, radiately striated, blackish 
and dotted with whitish. The sculpture consists of very numerous 
fine thread-like radiate strise, crenulated by concentric growth-lines. 
Adult shells may show only the incremental lines, the radiate orna- 
mentation having been worn off. Colour greenish-brown, dotted and 
netted with white or light green ; specimens from the subantarctic 
islands are often uniformly brown. Apex anterior, extending as far 
as the margin, but occasionally situated as far back as the anterior 
fourth of the length, slightly hooked ; anterior slope concave, seldom 
straight. Inside white or bluish-white ; central area chestnut-brown ; 
a dark-brown band inside the margin, very often banded with yellowish- 
brown ; margin sharp. 

Length, 20-25 mm. ; breadth, 15*75 mm. ; height, 9 mm. (type). 
Length, 28 mm. ; breadth, 24 mm. ; height, 10 mm. (from Manukau 
coast). Length, 30mm.; breadth, 23 mm. ; height, llmm. (from 
Auckland Islands). 

Dentition. Hutton, T.N.Z.I., xv, 127. pi. 15, f. M ; P. Mai. S., vii, 
pi. 27, f. 15, 16. 

Type in the Mus. Hist. Nat., Paris. 

Hob. Both main islands of New Zealand ; Bay of Islands (Q. & 
G.) ; west coast of Manukau (C. Spencer) ; Kawhia (K. Murdoch) ; 
French Pass, type (Q. & G.) ; Lyttelton (H. S.) ; Snares (Captain 
Bollons) ; Auckland Islands (A. Hamilton) ; Campbell Island (Captain 
Bollons). 

Remarks. All the specimens I have found were fixed to rocks in 
excavations considerably above high-water mark, and protected against 
rain. There is considerable variation in the form of the shell, some 
being elongated oval, others more rounded ; again, they may be 
high or much depressed. The situation of the apex varies, and the 
whitish dots are often small and numerous, or larger, elongate or 
triangular, and fewer in number ; they may be present only near the 
margin, or altogether absent. 



72 GASTROPODA. [Aapidobranchia. 

12. Acmaea scapha, Suter, 1907. Plate 5, figs. 15, 15a. 

Acmcea scapha, Suter, P. Mai. 8., vii, 324, pi. 27, f. 34, 35. 

Shell very small, long and narrow, laterally compressed, sides 
parallel. Nearly the whole surface of my specimens is eroded, but 
near the margin traces of radiate fine riblets can be seen. Colour light 
brown, with a few concentric bands of darker. Apex situate at about 
the anterior fourth, rounded ; side slopes steep and straight, anterior 
slope straight, posterior slope convex. Inside with the central area 
dark brown, lighter under the apex, a narrow brown border on the 
margin ; space between this and the spatula covered by a whitish 
callus. 

Length, 4 mm. ; breadth, 1-75 mm. ; height, 1-5 mm. 

Dentition unknown. 

Type in my collection. 

Hub. Dunedin, type (A. Hamilton) ; Blind Bay, Nelson. 

Remarks. This curiously shaped species resembles somewhat the 
Californian species A. palacea, Gould, and A. depicta, Hinds. Whether 
in this case the narrow elongated form is an adaptation to life on fronds 
of seaweeds I am unable to say, but it seems very likely. 

13. Acmaea septiformis, Quoy and Gaimard, 1834. Plate 7, fig. 5. 

Patelloidea septiformis, Q. & G., Voy. Astrol.. Zool., iii, 1834, 362. pi. 71. 
f. 43, 44. Acmcea septiformis, Q. & G., Man. Conch. (1), xiii, 55, pi. 37, 
f. 93, 94. A. scabrilirata, Angas, P.Z.S., 1865, 154; Man. Conch. (1), 
xiii, 56. A. Petterdi, T.-Woods, P. Roy. S. Tasm., 1876(1877). 155; 
Man. Conch. (1), xiii, 54. A. septiformis, Q. & G.. P. Mai. S.. vii, 318 : 
Verco, T.R.S. S.Aust., xxx, 215. 

Shell oval, conical to depressed, radiating riblets distinct or nearly 
obsolete, sometimes tessellated with green and white. The sculpture 
is very variable ; typically the shell is delicately radiately striated, 
but specimens occur which have acute, distant, and slightly granulose 
radiating riblets, whilst others show almost no trace of sculpture. 
The colour is brown, tessellated with green or white, but uniformly 
dark-brown examples are also met with. The apex is at about the 
anterior fourth, but very often submarginal or even marginal ; it is 
pointed forward, and obtuse. Inside blue or whitish, lineolate with 
brown. In specimens from the Auckland Islands and Campbell 
Island the whole of the interior is bluish-black, a lighter band around 
the central area ; it is beautifully iridescent with dark blue, quite 
an exception in this family. Margin sharp, usually with a brown 
border, which is sometimes banded with yellowish. 

Length, 14 mm. ; breadth, 12 mm. ; height, 6 mm. Length, 
15 mm. ; breadth, 11 mm. ; height, 7 mm. (from Auckland Islands). 
Length, 16-5 mm. ; breadth, 12-5 mm. ; height, 4 mm. (from Chicken 
Island). 



Acmcea.] GASTROPODA. 73 



The dentition is very similar to that of A. fragilis, Suter. P. Mai. S., 
vii, pi. 27, f. 12- H. 

Type, in the Mus. Hist. Nat., Paris. 

Hob. Chicken Island (C. Cooper) ; west coast of Manukau (C. 
Spencer) ; Heathcote Estuary (Iredale) ; Dunedin ; Auckland Islands 
(Captains Hutton and Bollons) ; Campbell Island (Captain Bollons). 
On rocks between tide-marks. Found also in Australia and Tasmania. 
The type is from King George's Port, Western Australia. 

Remark. The variability of this species is very remarkable ; the 
sculpture, the colour, and the shape differ to such an extent that it 
is no wonder it has received several specific names. 



Subgen. 2. COLLISELLINA, Dall, 1871. 

Collisellina, Dall, Amer. Jouvn. Couch., vi, 1871, 154. Type : A. saccha- 
rina, L. 

Muzzle without lappets ; marginal teeth present, 2 on each side. 
Formula of teeth : 2 .2 (1 + 0+ 1) 2 .2. 

14. Acmaea stella, Lesson, 1830. Plate 5, fig. 16. 

Patella stella, Lesson. Voy. Coq., Zool., ii. 1830, 421. Acmcea stella, Suter, 
P. Mai. S., vii, 1907, 324, pi. 27, f. 36, 37. 

Shell solid, depressed, irregularly oval, strongly ribbed, whitish, 
margin laciniate. The sculpture consists of 7 radiating angular ribs, 
rounded above, thick, separated by wide depressions, 3 in front, 4 be- 
hind the apex ; in the interspaces between these main ribs there are 
1 or 2 smaller ribs ; all of these ribs strongly and irregularly denticu- 
late the margin ; strong concentric ridges are mostly present. Colour 
dirty-white or greenish, with black in double interrupted circles. Apex 
situate at the anterior third. Inside bluish- white ; central area light 
brown or blue dotted with brown ; the margin with a few dark-brown 
spots or a continuous brown border ; tips of rays white. 

Length, 21 mm. ; breadth, 19 mm. ; height, 6-25 mm. (type). 
Length, 21 mm. ; breadth, 18 mm. ; height, 5 mm. (specimen figured). 

The dentition (Plate 1, fig. 1) consists of short, broad, rounded 
median and lateral teeth, and on each side posteriorly 2 elongated 
denticulate marginals. 

Type (?) 

Hob. Heads of Wellington Harbour and Island Bay, Cook Strait 
(Miss Mestayer) ; Taumaki Island, in 10 fathoms (Captain Bollons) ; 
East Cape. 

Remark. This species is very closely allied to A. costata, Sow., 
of Australia and Tasmania. 




74 GASTROPODA. [Aspidobranchia. 

Subsp. corticata, Hutton, 1880. Plate 5, fig. 17. 

Acmrea corticata, Hutton, M.N.Z.M., 89. A. lacunosa. Reeve : Hutton, 
T.N.Z.I., xvi, 215; Pilsbry, Man. Conch. (1). xiii, 52, pi. 37, f. 7-11, 
not of Reeve. A. Stella, subsp. corticata, Hutt. : Suter, P. Mai. S., 
vii, 325, pi. 27, f. 38-41. 

Shell oval, conoidal, ribbed. There are 14 to 22 rounded, roughened 
radiate ribs, a few of them short, crossed by incremental ridges. Colour 
white, nearly always obscured by a layer of Nulliporites. Apex a 
little in front of the middle, obtuse ; slopes straight ; margin denti- 
culate. Inside bluish-white, spatula white or brown, sometimes 
faintly radiately streaked with black ; margin with a black border 
or dark-brown spots. 

Length, 14 mm. ; breadth, 13 mm. ; 
height, 9 mm. (type). Length, 13 mm. ; 
breadth, 9-5 mm. ; height, 5 mm. (speci- 
men figured). 

Dentition. Hutton, T.N.Z.I., xv, 127, 
pi. 15, f. L; P. Mai. S., vii, pi. 27, f. 41. 

Type in the Canterbury Museum, Christ- 
church. 

Hob. The type is from Dunedin ; North TEETH OP RADULA. 

and South Islands ; Chatham Islands. 

Remark. This subspecies is distinguished from the species by 
the usually smaller size, and the disappearance of the 7 primary, 
stronger ribs. The margin is not laciniate, and the ribs are more 
numerous and equal. 

Subsp. pseudocorticata, Iredale, 1908. 

Acmcea pseudocorticata, Iredale, T.N.Z.I., xl, 1907 (1908). 379. 

Shell small, conical, elongate-oval, sides almost parallel, closely 
ribbed, greenish, with brownish markings between the ribs, margin 
almost entire. The sculpture consists of about 17 ribs in the young 
shell up to 30 in the older shell, due to divarication. Apex situated 
at about the anterior third to subcentral ; almost always eroded, 
so that the sculpture is only distinct on the lower half of the older 
shells. Margin entire or feebly denticulate ; very irregular in some 
specimens, due to their station. The coloration of the outside is con- 
stantly greenish, the interstices between the ribs brownish. The 
spatula is distinctly marked, of a pinkish colour ; below is a darker 
shade of pink ; the margin is white, marked with bluish-black lines 
corresponding to the interstices between the ribs. This coloration 
is almost constant ; in some the spatula is whitish or yellowish-white 
or rarely spotted with black. 

Measurements of a fair specimen 1 are : Length, 13 mm. ; breadth,, 
9 mm. ; height, 6 mm. (Iredale.) 



Aemcea.] GASTROPODA. 75 



Animal unknown. 

Type in the Canterbury Museum, Christchurch. 
Hab. Lyttelton Harbour (type) ; Taylor's Mistake. Bay ; Shag 
Point, Otago ; Otago Peninsula. On rocks, almost at high-tide mark. 
I have not seen this shell. 

15. Acmaea octoradiata, Hutton, 1873. Plate 7, fig. 6. 

Patella octoradiata, Hutton, C.M.M., 44. P. stellaris, Q. & G. : Hutton, 
J. de Conch., xxvi, 37, non Quoy and Gaimard. Acmtea saccharina, 
L., var. perplexa, Pilsbry, Man. Conch. (1), xiii, 50, pi. 36, f. 69-71. 
A. octoradiata, Hutton : Heclley, P.L.S. N.S.W., 1904, 188 ; Suter, 
P. Mai. S., vii, 325 ; Verco, T.R.S. S.Aust., xxx, 209. 

Shell depressed, star-shaped, whitish. There are 5 large rounded 
ribs behind and 3 in front of the apex, reaching far beyond the margin ; 
they and their interspaces are all ornamented with fine radiate riblets. 
Colour white or creamy, with fine radiating reddish-brown lines. Apex 
at about the anterior third, obtuse. Interior white, with a few flesh- 
coloured spots ; border very narrow, dotted with rufous ; central 
area indistinct. 

Length, 16 mm. ; breadth, 14 mm. ; height, 3 mm. 

Dentition unknown. 

Type in the Dominion Museum, Wellington. 

Hab. West coast of the South Island (type) ; Bluff (A. Hamilton) ; 
Chatham Islands. Also Tasmania and Australia. 

Remark. There can be but little doubt that this species belongs 
to Collisellina. 

Fam. PATELLID^I. Guilding. 

Docoglossate Gastropods breathing by a cordon of branchial 
leaflets attached to the mantle between its thickened edge and the 
sides of the foot ; having no cervical gill-plume. Radula with 3 
marginal and 3 lateral teeth on each side, the central tooth being 
either present, rudimentary, or wanting ; jaw developed. They feed 
on algae, and live mostly on rocks. 

Shell conical, non-spiral even in the embryo. 

The Patellidce differ from the Acmceidce in the gills, which form 
a complete or interrupted cordon, not accompanied by a cervical 
branchial plume, and not homologous with the gills developed in 
other Streptoneura. 

The shells may generally be distinguished from those of the 
Acmceidce by their texture and the lack of a defined internal border. 
The apex is, as in the Acmceidce, subcentral or marginal, but always 
nearer the anterior margin ; the central area and the muscle-scar are 
also similar in the two families. 

Limpets. 

This family dates back to the Ordovician, but is still found in the 
littoral zone of most seas. 



76 GASTROPODA. [Aspidobranr.hia. 

KEY TO GENERA. 

a. Shell very large, solid, opaque, not iridescent 

(Kermadeo Islands) . . . . . . PATELLA (ANCISTROMESUS). 

da. Shell smaller, solid, interior iridescent or satiny. 
b. Branchial cordon complete, interior with 

a metallic lustre . . . . . . NACELLA (PATINIGERA). 

66. Branchial cordon interrupted in front, 
inner layer subtranslucent, more or 
less iridescent . . . . . . HELCIONISCUS. 

Subfam. 1. NACELLINyE. 
Developed lateral teeth, but 2 on each side, of which 1 is anterior. 

Genus 1. NACELLA, Schumacher, 1817. 

Nacella, Schumacher, Essai d'un nouv. Syst., 1817, 179. Type : Patella 
mytilina, Helb. Nacella, Dall. Arner. Journ. Conch., vi. 274; not Nacella 
of Carpenter, Sars, et al. 

The gill-cordon is continuous ; the foot is encircled by a scalloped 
epipodial ridge, interrupted in front. One inner lateral tooth on 
each side anterior ; central tooth none, or rudimentary. The shell 
has the apex subcentral or anterior, and is characterized by a pecu- 
liarly metallic texture, having the central area of the interior generally 
of a red-bronze colour. 

Cape Horn was evidently the birthplace of Nacella and Patinigera. 
Thence they have been distributed eastward to the Falkland, New 
Georgia, and Kerguelen Islands by the eastward-sweeping antarctic 
current carrying them upon seaweeds. (Pilsbry.) 

KEY TO SPECIES. 

a. Shell elevated conical, 20-25 distant radiate ribs, with 1-3 inter- 
vening striae . . . . . . . . . . . . illuminata. 

aa. Shell compressly raised, 30-60 radiate riblets, crossed by close 

undulating ridges . . . . . . . . . . fuegiensis. 

Sect. PATINIGERA, Dall. 1905. 

Patinella, Dall, Amer. Journ. Conch., vi, 1871, 272 (preoccupied). Patinigera t 
Dall, "The Nautilus," xviii, 1905. 113. Type: Patella magdlanica, 
Gmel. 

1. Nacella fuegiensis, Reeve, 1855. Plate 7, fig. 7. 

Patella fuegiensis, Reeve, Conch. Icon., Patella, f. 73. Patella (Patinella) 
fuegiensis, E. A. Smith, Trans. Roy. Soc.. 1879, 14, pi. 9, f. 14, 14a ; 
Rochebrune and Mabille, Miss. Sci. du Cap Horn, 95 ; Filhol. Miss. I.C., 
529 ; Deutsche Tiefsee Exp. l> Valdivia," A, 72. Nacella fuegiensis, 
Reeve: Pilsbry, Man. Conch. (1), xiii. 121, pi. 49, f. 28-31 ; Surer, P. 
Mai. S., vi, 353 ; Subantarct. Islds. N.Zeal.. i, <>. 

Shell oval, rather thin, semitransparent, compressly raised. Sculp- 
ture consists of 30 to 60 ribs, densely crossed by beautiful raised and 
undulating concentric ridges. Colour brown or greenish, more or 



Nacella.] GASTROPODA. 77 

less stained and blotched with chestnut-brown, apex bronze. Apex 
inclined anteriorly, situate at about the anterior fifth, anterior slope 
straight to concave. Interior iridescent bronze, radiately grooved, 
grooves sometimes partially obsolete. 

Length, 33 mm. ; breadth, 24 mm. ; height, 9 mm. : Length, 
31 mm. ; breadth, 23 mm. ; height, 13 mm. (specimens from Mac- 
quarie Island). 

Dentition. Teeth of the lingual ribbon slightly hooked, in pairs, 
scarcely diverging ; the central pair 2-pronged. the inner prong much 
larger, spear-head shaped ; the lateral pairs alternating with the 
central ones are 4-pronged, the innermost prong smallest, the next 
2 subequal, and the outside one situated nearly at right angles to the 
rest of the tooth, about the same size or a trifle larger. (E. A. Smith.) 

Type in the British Museum. 

Hob. Campbell Island (Filhol) ; Macquarie Island (A. Hamilton). 
Tierra del Fuego, Falkland Islands, Kerguelen Island ; everywhere 
common on the submerged fronds of floating kelp (Macrocystis). 

Remarks. The radiate ribs are very variable in size and number ; 
in one specimen I have they coalesce to broad ribs, having now and 
again a fine riblet between them. The crowded, strongly raised, and 
undulating concentric ridges are characteristic of the species. Most 
of the shells are covered with Nulliporites. 

2. Nacella illuminata, Gould, 1846. Plate 7, fig. 8. 

Patella illuminata, Gould, P. Bost. S.N.H., ii, 1846, 149. Nacdla illu- 
minata, Gould, U.S. Expl. Ex., 340, atlas f. 441. Patinella illuminata, 
Gould: Hutton, P.L.S. N.S.W., ix, 376. Helcioniscus illuminata, Gould : 
Pilsbry, Mean. Conch. (1), xiii, 142, pi. 70, f. 40-42. Nacella illuminata, 
Gould : Suter, P. Mai. S., vi, 353 ; Subantarct. Islds. N.Zeal., i, 6. 
Patella terroris, Filhol, Compt. Rend., xci, 1880 ; Miss. I.C., 529. 

Shell elevated conical, ovate, arched. Surface covered with 
numerous small obtuse radiating riblets, numbering 20 to 25, with 
from 1 to 3 intervening striae ; concentric lines of growth crowded, 
very faint. Colour sooty, with scattered yellowish spots, about 20 in 
number, somewhat regularly disposed, which are transparent when 
held up to the light, those near the margin elongated. Apex at about 
the anterior fourth or third, sharp, directed forward. Interior a very 
dark claret colour, with brilliant silky and golden reflections, and 
yellow spots, corresponding to those of the exterior ; central area 
dull buff colour. 

Length, 38 mm. ; breadth, 32 ; height, 16 mm. 

Dentition. Hutton, T.N.Z.I., xv, 128, pi. 16, f. C. Plate 1, fig. 2, 
is a copy. 

Animal. The foot has on its sides a scalloped frill, interrupted in 
front ; the branchial cordon is complete, not interrupted in front. 



78 GASTROPODA. [Aspidobranchia. 

and the branchial papillae are elongated conical, transversely foliated ; 
larger black lamellae are placed at regular intervals, leaving 2 or 3 
white papillae between them, and they have their base of insertion 
higher up, on the inner side of the mantle. 

Type in the U.S. National Museum, Washington. 

Hob. Antipodes Islands, Auckland Islands (type), Campbell Island, 
and Macquarie Island. 

Remarks. In specimens from the Auckland Islands the radiate 
ribs are sometimes quite obsolete. Very often this species shows a 
certain likeness with Helcioniscus strigilis by having the inside rayed 
with dark brown and yellow, but it may be separated by the presence 
of the metallic lustre. 

Genus 2. HELCIONISCUS, Dall, 1871. 

Helcioniscus, Dall, Amer. Journ. Conch., vi, 1871, 227. Type : Patella 
variegata, Reeve. Helcioniscus, Thiele, in Trosohel's " Gebiss der 
Schnecken," ii. 333 (full discussion and figures of the dentition) ; Man. 
Conch. (1), xiii, 80, 123, 172. Cellana, H. Adams, P.Z.S.. 1869, 274 ; 
type, Nacella cernica, H, Ad. 

The gill-cordon is interrupted in front, and there are no epipodial 
processes or ridge on the sides of the foot. The formula of teeth is 
3 (I 111 !) 3. The radula is long and spirally rolled. The central 
tooth is narrow, with a variously shaped forward appendage. The 
inner lateral has typically an outward wing, and a simple long cusp ; 
the outer lateral has an inner long point with an outer side cusp, 
besides a short mostly rounded longitudinal cutting-edge. The 
marginal teeth are characteristic, the posterior part being divided 
from the anterior, the connection thin and almost imperceptible. The 
inner marginal tooth has a cusp on its front end. 

The shell is conical, the apex subcentral or subanterior ; inside 
with a silvery and mica-like lustre. 

Distribution. Indian and Pacific Oceans, but not found on the 
American shores north of Chili. No species have been found in the 
Atlantic Ocean. 

KEY TO SPECIES. 
A. Ribs almost smooth. 

a. 2025 separated narrow principal ribs, with 1 or more 

interstitial riblets, cut up into fine granules in front 
of apex ; with divaiicating white or reddish-brown 
blotches, or uniformly yellow, olive, or grey ; apex 
anterior . . . . . . . . . . radians. 

b. Shell usually large, obliquely conical. 20-30 low distant 

ribs ; colour brown ; apex at anterior third to eighth ; 
interior blackish-ptirple or light brown, with dark- 
brown rays . . . . . . . . . . strigilis. 

c. Shell depressed to conoidal, ribs 20-30, brown, interstices 

often bluish-white ; apex anterior . . . . redimiculum. 



Helcioniscus.] GASTROPODA. 79 

B. Ribs distinctly granular. 

a. Ribs 22-30, scale-granose ; apex at anterior fourth ; 

spatula orange-brown . . . . . . . . denticulatus. 

b. Ribs crenulate to granose. about 40 principal ribs, 1 in- 

terstitial riblet, with radiate black stripes ; apex in 
front of centre ; interior with dark rays and spots ; 
spatula yellow to brown . . . . . . . . antipodum. 

c. Ribs granular ; colour reddish to black, white radiating 

rays form a star or extend to margin . . . . stelliferus. 

d. Ribs coarsely nodular ; apex at anterior third ; inter- 

mediate riblets sometimes dotted with black and 

white ; interior brown, with 1112 white rays . . ornatus. 

e. Shell small, subpellucid ; 24-30 granular ribs ; blackish- 

brown or yellowish-grey, and ribs alternately black 
or uniformly flesh-coloTir ; apex at anterior third. 
Kermadec Islands only . . . . . . . . craticulatus. 

1. Helcioniscus antipodum, E. A". Smith, 1874. Plate 7, fig. 9. 

Patella antipodum, E. A. Smith, Ereb. & Ter., Moll, 1874, 4, pi. 1, f. 25. 
P. tramoserica of authors, not of Martyn, 1784 ; Pritchard and Gatliff, 
P.R.S. Vic. (n.s.), xv, 191. Helcioniscus diemenensis, Philippi : Gatliff 
and Gabriel, op. cit. (n.s.), xxi, 382. 

Shell rotundately ovate, a little narrowed in front ; the apex much 
inclined anteriorly, placed at a distance of one-fourth of the entire 
length from the front margin ; radiately rather finely ribbed, ribs 
crossed by the fine concentric lines of growth ; orange-yellow, clouded 
with white around the middle, varied with 10 or 11 black narrow 
rays placed at nearly equal distances, those in front being rather 
more approximated than the rest ; the interior is brilliant pearly 
orange-yellow, the exterior black rays being visible, especially at the 
margin, which is finely crenulated. (E. A. Smith.) 

Length, 28 mm. ; width, 22 mm. ; height, 9 mm. Length, 31 mm. ; 
width, 24 mm. ; height, 16 mm. (Hauraki Gulf specimen). 

Type in the British Museum. 

Hob. New Zealand (Lieut. -Colonel Bolton) ; Hokianga ; Hauraki 
Gulf (H. S.) ; Wellington and Chatham Islands (fide Button) ; Ker- 
madec Islands (Haylock). Tasmania and Australia ? 

Remarks. Gatliff and Gabriel state that the Australasian species 
generally known as P. tramoserica, Martyn, is not the shell figured 
by Martyn, and that he mentions the north-west coast of America 
as the habitat of his species ; they therefore adopt the name P. die- 
menensis, Philippi, 1848. Replying to my inquiry, Dr. W. H. Dall 
most obligingly informed me that (1) Martyn' s figure, which is 
good, does positively not represent any north-west American species ; 
(2) that P. diemenensis is an unfigured and doubtful species ; (3) if 
bent on changing the name, it would be better to take Patella anti- 
podum, E. A. Smith, 1874, which is a synomyn of the tramoserica of 
authors, not Martyn. I follow here Dr. Dall's excellent advice, as in 



80 GASTROPODA. [Aspidobranchia. 

so doing we are dealing with a well-described and figured species 
which undoubtedly belongs to the New Zealand fauna. There is no 
absolute proof that our species is identical with the very similar shell 
from Tasmania and Australia. Species of the Patellidce have usually 
a very limited range of distribution. 

2. Helcioniscus denticulatus, Martyn, 1784. Plate 7, fig. 10. 

Patella denticulata, Mart., Univ. Conch., ii, f. 65 ; Hutton, M.N.Z.M., 109. 
Patinella denticulata, Mart. : Hutton, P.L.S. N.S.W., ix, 375. Hel- 
cioniscus denticulatus, Mart., Man. Conch. (1), xiii, 138, pi. 21, f. 49, 
50 ; pi. 68, f. 23, 24. Patella imbricata, Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 95, not 
of Linne. P. Reevei, Hutton, M.N.Z.M., 108. Patinella Reevei, Hutton, 
P.L.S. N.S.W., ix, 376. Helcioniscus denticulatus, Mart. : Suter, P. 
Mai. S., vi, 346. Patella margaritaria, Chemn. : Martens, Crit. List, 36, 
not of Chemnitz. 

Shell solid, oval elevated. The sculpture consists of 22 to 30 prin- 
cipal radiate ribs, and some smaller interstial riblets, all of which are 
closely scale-granose ; this character, however, is often lost in old 
shells through the dissolving action of the water. Apex more or less 
anterior, usually at the anterior fourth. Colour varies from light grey 
with brown ribs to dark brown. Interior bluish, central area well 
defined, orange-brown ; muscle-scar sometimes raised, bluish-white ; 
space between central area and margin bluish-white, with dark-brown 
bands corresponding to the ribs ; interspaces dotted with yellow 
spots ; margin with dark -brown triangular spots ; highly iridescent. 

Length, 55 mm. ; breadth, 43 mm. ; height, 24 mm. Length, 
45 mm. ; breadth, 37 mm. ; height, 15 mm. 

Dentition. The inner lateral tooth has a simple long cusp, and the 
outer lateral has one denticle at the outer edge. 

Hob. Cook Strait ; East Cape, Hutton also mentions Dunedin 
and the Chatham Islands. 

Remarks. Brought to England by Captain Cook. This species is 
very local, but plentiful where it occurs. 

3. Helcioniscus ornatus, Dillwyn, 1817. Plate 7, fig. 11. 

Patella ornata, Dillw., Descript. Cat. Rec. Shells, ii, 1029. Helcioniscus 
ornatus, Dillw., Man. Conch. (1), xiii, 137, pi. 19, f. 39, 40 ; pi. 68, f. 14-19 : 
Suter, P. Mai. S., vi, 351. Patella nodosa. H. & J., Ann. Sci. Nat. (2), 
xvi, 191. P. denticulata, Mart. : E. A. Smith, Ereb. & Ter., Zool, ii, 
Moll., 4, pi. 1, f. 26; Hutton, P.L.S. N.S.W., ix, 375, not of Martyn. 
P. margaritaria, Chemn. : Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 74. 

Shell solid, oval or oblong, low conical. Sculpture consisting of 
larger radiating coarsely nodular ribs, about 11 in number, with a 
somewhat smaller rib between each pair of larger ones, the intervals 
radiately striated ; growth-striae fine, often quite distinctly cutting 
the radial strise. The larger ribs are light, the intermediate ribs 



Helcioniscus.] GASTROPODA. 81 



Q 



are black dotted with white, especially in the young, this colourin_ 
being less obvious on large shells. Apex at about the front third, 
erect. Interior having alternating silvery and black rays, the latter 
usually 11 in number ; the large central area black, suffused more or 
less with cream colour in the depth of the apex. (Pilsbry.) 

Length, 32 mm. ; breadth, 25 mm ; height, 10 mm. 

Dentition. Button, T.N.Z.I., xv, 128, pi. 16, f. B (P. denticulata}. 

Type (?). 

Hab. Throughout New Zealand, but more common in the south. 

Remark. This species is very well characterized, and does not 
show any very great variability, except that the apex is sometimes 
quite anterior. 

Subsp. inconspicuus, Gray, 1843. Plate 7, fig. 12. 

Patella inconspicua, Gray, Dieff. N.Z.. ii, 244; Hutton, M.N.Z.M., 107; 
P.L.S. N.S.W., ix, 373. Helcioniscu-s ornatus, Dillw., var. inconspicua 
(Gray), Hutton, Man. Condi. (1), xiii, 138, pi. 68, f. 20-22; Suter, 
P. Mai. 8., vi, 351. Patella luctuosa, Gould, P. Bost. S.N.H., ii, 150, 
not of Hombr. & Jacq. 

Shell conical, high, the height often more than half the length. 
Sculpture similar to that in the species, about 20 radiating ribs. Colour 
light grey to dark brown, intermediate ribs without black and white 
dots. Apex subcentral to the front third. Interior dark brown, with 
1 1 white rays ; central area dark brown, much lighter under the 
apex. 

Length, 32 mm. ; breadth, 25 mm. ; height, 17 mm. Length, 
40 mm. ; breadth, 31 mm. ; height, 16 mm. Length, 24 mm. ; 
breadth, 19 mm. ; height, 16 mm. 

Animal Hutton, T.N.Z.I., xiii, 203. 

Type in the British Museum. 

Hab. Throughout New Zealand. One of the common limpets. 

4. Helcioniscus radians, Gmelin, 1790. Plate 7, fig. 13. 

Patella radians, Gmel., Syst. Nat., ed xiii, 1790, 3720 P. argyropsis. Lesson, 
Voy. Coq., 419. P. pholidota,liesson, I.e., 420. P. radiatilis, Hombron 
and Jacquinot, Ann. Sci. Nat. (2), xvi, 191. P. sturnus, H. & J., I.e., 191. 
P. fusca, L., Syst. Nat., ed. x, 784 (defined in an absurdly inadequate man- 
ner). P. sagittata, Donovan: Rees, Encyclop. Conchol., xvi. P. floccata, 
Reeve : Hutton, M.N.Z.M., 108, not of Reeve. Helcioniscus radians, 
Gmel., Man. Conch. (1). xiii, 139, pi. 23, f. 4-8; pi. 09, f. 25-39: 
Suter. P. M>xl. S., vi, 347. 

Shell ovate, depressed, thin but solid, slightly narrower in front. 
Surface sculptured with decidedly separated narrow radiating riblets, 
20 to 25, having a number of smaller riblets (sometimes obsolete) in 
each interval, and decussated by fine crowded growth-striae, also 
often obsolete, but usually cutting the surface just in front of the 



82 GASTROPODA. [Aspidobranchia. 

apex into fine granules. Colour bluish-white, usually buff around the 
apex, striped in a divaricating pattern, or irregularly blotched and 
rayed down the ribs with brown or olive. Apex not prominent, 
at the anterior fourth or fifth. Interior bufnsh-olive, with a silvery 
lustre, showing the colour-markings of the outside, having a white 
or brown central callus, often ill denned. (Pilsbry.) 

Length, 44 mm. ; breadth, 34 mm. ; height. 8 mm. (typical 
form). 

Dentition. Button, T.N.Z.I., xv, 129, pi. 16, f. E. 

Anatomy. J. A. Newell, T.N.Z.I., xix, 157, pi. 11. 

Hob. Throughout New Zealand, but more common on the east 
coast of the North Island. 

Remark. This also is a very variable shell, especially in the colour- 
pattern. 

Subsp. argenteus, Quoy and Gaimard, 1834. Plate 7, fig. 14. 

Patella argentea, Q. & G., Voy. Astro!., Zool., iii, 345, pi. 70, f. 16. 17. 
Nacella argentea. Quoy : Huttoii, O.M.M., 45. Helcioniscus radians, 
Gmel., subsp. argentea. Q. & G. : Suter, P. Mai. S., vi, 347. 

The shell has most of the characters of the species, but the interior 
has no brownish radiate bands. The surface is sculptured by about 
20 more or less elevated ribs, with several interstitial riblets. The 
main ribs are light brown, sometimes punctured with white ; the 
ground-colour is greenish or grey, often blotched with white ; the 
nacre is silvery-white, frequently with a yellowish tint ; central area 
greyish-white or cream colour, rusty in old examples. The shell is 
generally much more elevated than the species. 

Length, 24 mm. ; breadth, 22-5 mm. ; height, 6-8 mm. (type). 
Length, 50 mm. ; breadth, 41 mm. ; height, 21 mm. (specimen from 
Surnner). Length, 42 mm. ; breadth, 34 mm. ; height, 15 mm. (speci- 
men from Napier). Length, 53 mm. ; breadth, 44 mm. ; height, 17 mm. 
(specimen from Timaru). 

Dentition the same as in the species. 

Type in the Mus. Hist. Nat., Paris. 

Hob. Throughout New Zealand ; most common on the east coast 
of the South Island. 

Subsp. decorus, Philippi, 1848. Plate 7, fig. 15. 

Patella decora, Phil., Zeitschr. f. Malak., 1848, 162; Abbild.. pi. 3, f . 3 ; 
Martens, Grit. List., 35. Helcioniscus radians, Gmel., subsp. decora, 
Phil. : Suter, P. Mai. S., vi, 348. 

Shell mostly large, semiglobose. Apex much inclined to the an- 
terior, more rounded than in the typical species, with 20-24 distant 
reddish-brown ribs on a yellowish or greenish-olive ground. Interior 



Helcioniscus.] GASTROPODA. 83 



iridescent, with the brown radiating ribs shining through the pearly 
layer ; central area milk-white to greyish-olive. 

My largest specimen, from Tauranga, has the following dimen- 
sions : Length, 60 mm. ; breadth, 50 mm. ; height, 18 mm. 

The dentition is unknown. 

Hab. East coast of both Islands ; not common. 

Subsp. Earlii, Reeve, 1855. Plate 7, fig. 16. 

Patella Earlii, Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 71. Xacella Earlii, Reeve: Hutton, 
C.M.M., 45. Patinella Earlii, Reeve : Hutton, P.L.S. N.S.W., ix, 376. 
Helcioniscus Earlii, Reeve, Man. Conch. (1), xiii, 140, pi. 21, f. 51, 52. 
H. radians, Grnel., subsp. Earlii, Reeve : Suter, P. Mai. S., vi, 348. 
Patella flexuosa, Hutton, C.M.M., 45, not of Quoy and Gaimard. 

Distinguished from the species by the rounded-oval form, the 
convexly raised front, the broad blood-red blotches, and the milk- 
white central area. This is a very distinct and easily recognised 
subspecies. The altitude is generally not greater than in the species, 
but the breadth is much greater in proportion to the length. 

Length, 60 mm. ; breadth, 50 mm. ; height, 16 mm. (specimen 
from Tauranga). Length, 50 mm. ; breadth, 42 mm. ; height, 16 mm. 
Length, 47 mm. ; breadth, 39 mm. ; height, 11 mm. (both from Te 
Onepoto). 

Dentition the same as in the species. 

Type in the British Museum. 

Hab. Along the east coast of both Islands : Tauranga ; Te One- 
poto and Sunnier, near Lyttelton ; Akaroa ; Tirnaru ; Preservation 
Inlet. Chatham Islands. 

Subsp. affinis, Reeve, 1855. Plate 7, fig. 17. 

Patella affinis, Reeve, Conoh. Icon., f. 108. Helcioniscus affinis, Reeve, 
Man. Conch. (1), xiii, 140, pi. 69, f. 32, 33. H. radians, Gmel., subsp. 
affinis, Reeve: Suter, P. Mai. S., vi, 349. Nacella Earlii. Reeve: 
Hutton, C.M.M., 45 (according to specimens in the Dominion Museum), 
non Reeve. Acmcea chathamensis, Pilsbry, Man. Conch. (1), xiii, 1891, 
56, pi. 35, f. 43-46 ; Suter, P. Mai. S., vii, 1907, 326. 

Distinguished from the species by its smaller size, the elongated- 
oval form, the numerous simple, smooth, slightly waved radiate ridges 
and stride. The typical, close, divaricating colour-pattern is not 
always present ; sometimes there are only brown radiate bands visible, 
which, especially in Chatham Island examples, coalesce, forming 
broad dark-brown or black patches. The concentric striation is mostly 
very distinct. 

Length, 33 mm. ; breadth, 27 mm. ; height, 7 mm. (specimen 
from Stonyhurst). Length, 27 mm. ; breadth, 20 mm. ; height, 
6-5 mm. (specimen from Chatham Islands). 

Dentition the same as in the species. 



84 GASTROPODA. [AspidobrancMa. 

Type in the British Museum. 

Hab. Ngunguru Harbour ; Stonyhurst ; Te Onepoto ; Preser- 
vation Inlet ; Chatham Islands ; Disappointment Island, Auckland 
Group (Captain Bollons). 

Remarks. An exceedingly variable subspecies, but always more 
elongated than the species. Pilsbry's Acmcea chathamensis is one of 
the extreme forms of the subspecies. 

Subsp. flavus, Button, 1873. Plate 7, fig. 18. 

Patella flava, Hutt., C.M.M., 44. Patinella flava, Button. P.L.S. N.S.W., ix, 
378. Hdcioniscus flavus, Hutt., Man. Conch. (1), xiii, 142. H. radians, 
Gmel., subsp. flava, Hutt. : Suter, P. Mai. S., 349. 

This subspecies is best described as a conical, pale-yellow form of 
decor us, Phil. The apex is subcentral, sometimes nearly reaching the 
anterior third of the length. Small shells are, as a rule, depressed, 
but adult specimens have mostly a high conical form. The distant 
broadly rounded ribs number 20 to 22, and are almost always of the 
same colour as the shell ; specimens from Stonyhurst have sometimes 
one or several ribs dark brown. Interior light to orange-yellow, iri- 
descent, central area light orange to cream colour. 

Length, 55 mm. ; breadth, 46 mm. ; height, 26 mm. (specimen 
from Kaikoura). Length, 50 mm. ; breadth, 42 mm. ; height, 22 mm. 
(specimen from Stonyhurst). Length, 45 mm. ; breadth, 37 mm. ; 
height, 18 mm. (specimen from Napier). 

Type in the Dominion Museum, Wellington. 

Hab. South Island : Stonyhurst; Amuri Bluff (type) ; Motanau 
Island ; Kaikoura. North Island : Napier ; Gisborne ; East Cape. 
Chatham Islands. 

Subsp. olivaceus, Button, 1882. Plate 7, fig. 19. 

Patella olivacea, Hutt., N.Z.J.S., i, 1882, 69. Patinella radians, Gmel., 
var. olivacea, Hutton, P.L.S. N.S.W., ix, 377. Helcioniscus olivaceus, 
Hutt., Man. Conch. (1), xiii, 141, pi. 70, f. 46-48. H. radians, Gmel., 
subsp. olivacea, Hutt. : Suter, P. Mai. S., vi, 349. 

This subspecies is very much like the large conical form of argenteus, 
Q. & G., but distinguished from it chiefly by the very numerous 
(about 70) fine and uniform radiate riblets, the olive colour of the 
shell, and the black margin on the inner edge, which, however, is not 
a constant character. 

Length, 33 mm. ; breadth, 28 mm. ; height, 14 mm. 

Dentition. Button, T.N.Z.I., xv, 128, pi. 16, f. D. 

Type in the Canterbury Museum, Christchurch. 

Hab. From Sumner, near Lyttelton, along the east coast to 
Preservation Inlet, South Island. Rather rare, but always together 
with argenteus, Q. & G. 



Helcioniscus.} GASTROPODA. 85 

Subsp. Mestayerae, Suter, 1906. 

Helcioniscus Mestayerce, Sut., T.N.Z.I., xxxviii, 1905 (1906). 322, pi. 18, 
f. 7-9. 

Shell solid, oval, slightly narrower in front, depressed conical. 
Surface sculptured with numerous (about 50) broad depressed radiating 
ribs, which are crossed by fine concentric striae. Colour dark olive, 
with rather distant indistinct bluish-grey radiating bands. Apex 
at about the front fourth, sharply pointed. Interior bluish-grey, 
with a silvery lustre. There are at irregular intervals about 11 broad 
radiating areas, with chestnut-coloured spots and patches, sometimes 
arranged in divaricating pattern ; between these areas are several 
radiating bands of an alternately darker and lighter grey colour. 
These characters are very distinctly visible when the shell is held 
up against the light, and give it a very beautiful appearance. The 
central area is well defined ; the colour is reddish-orange, lighter near 
the margin, finely and minutely dotted with yellow. The muscular 
scar is about 3 mm. broad, but slightly impressed. 

Length, 49 mm. ; breadth, 39 mm. ; height, 14 mm. 

The dentition is unknown. 

Type in Miss Mestayer's collection. 

Hob. Stewart Island. 

5. Helcioniscus redimiculum, Reeve, 1854. Plate 7, fig. 20. 

Patella redimiculum, Bve., Conch. Icon. (1854), f. 50. Patinella redimi- 
culum, Rve : Hutton, P.L.S. N.S.W., ix, 375. Helcioniscus redimi- 
culum, Rve.. Man. Conch. (1), xiii, 136, pi. 23, f. 1, 2, 3, 5 ; Suter, 
P. Mai. S., vi, 351. Patella redimiculum, Rve. : E. A. Smith, Ereb. & 
Ter., ii, Moll., 4, pi. 1, f. 24. P. radians, Gmel., Conch. Icon., f. 25, 
not of Gmelin. P. Pottsi, Hutton, C.M.M., 1873, 44. 

Shell elongate to round oval, depressed to conical. Sculptured 
with 20 to 25 rounded, distant, and elevated radiate ribs, with a low 
interstitial riblet, the whole surface ornamented with fine close con- 
centric growth-lines, some of the growth-periods being usually strongly 
marked. Colour of the ribs brown, lighter towards the margin, in- 
tervals bluish-white ; having several darker concentric streaks, and 
marked near the apex with oblique brown stripes. Very frequently 
the colour is uniformly cinereous or brown, with the ribs more or less 
darker. Apex at about the front fourth, but sometimes it is sub- 
marginal ; inclined forward. Interior greyish to brownish-white, 
strongly iridescent, more or less distinctly rayed with chestnut-brown ; 
central area cream-white, bordered with olive behind, often light 
brown or bluish-grey to light blue. Margin broadly denticulate. 

Length, 41 mm. ; breadth, 32 mm. ; height, 12 mm. Length, 
49 mm. ; breadth, 40 mm. ; height, 20 mm. (specimen from Otago). 
Length, 58 mm. ; breadth, 47 mm. ; height, 23 mm. (specimen from 
Preservation Inlet). Length, 41 mm. ; breadth, 29 mm. ; height, 
12 mm. (specimen from Bounty Islands). 

Dentition very much like that of H. denticulatus. 



86 GASTROPODA. [Aspidobraiirhi't. 



Type in the British Museum. 

Hab. Eastern shores of the South Island, from Stonyhurst to 
Preservation Inlet ; Chatham, Bounty, and Auckland Islands. 

Remarks. This also is a variable species, the elevation of the 
apex sometimes approaching that of a somewhat depressed H . strigilis. 
The two are very nearly allied. 

6. Helcioniscus stelliferus, Gmelin, 1790. Plate 7, fig. 21. 

Patella stellifera, Grael.. Syst. Nat., ed. xiii, 3719. Patinella stellifera, 
Hutton, P.L.S. N.S.W., ix, 378. H. stellifera, Grael., Man. Conch. 
(1), xiii, 141, pi. 70, f. 43-45 ; Suter, P. Mai. S., vi, 350 ; Iredale, T.N.Z.I., 
xl, 380. Patella stellularia, Quoy and Gaimard, Voy. Astrol., Zool., 
iii, 1834, 347, pi. 70, f. 18-2(1. 

Shell depressed oval, reddish or black, with granular ribs. Sculp- 
tured by numerous radiate ribs, of which about 10 to 20 are more 
elevated than the others ; all the ribs are cut up into granules by 
strong concentric furrows. Sometimes the ribs are more equal, but 
the concentric sculpture is always prominent. Colour usually reddish, 
but often black, brown, or cinereous ; there are white rays at the 
apex, forming a star, but they frequently extend to the margin, and 
sometimes they are altogether absent. Apex at the anterior third 
or fourth. Interior white, cinereous or greyish-brown, showing all 
the white star-shaped rays ; iridescent in fresh specimens ; centra] 
area not well defined, chestnut-brown. 

Length, 25 mm. ; breadth, 19 mm. ; height, 7 mm. Length, 
.32 mm. ; breadth, 27 mm. ; height, 11 mm. 

Dentition unknown. 

Hah. Cape Maria van Diernen ; Bay of Islands (J. C. Anderson) ; 
Lyall Bay to Island Bay, Cook Strait ; Queen Charlotte Sound, in 
6 fathoms (Captain Bollons) ; Nelson ; New Brighton ; Campbell 
Island, on rocks (Captain Bollons). Brought to England by Captain 
Cook. 

Subsp. phymatius, Suter, 1905. Plate 5, fig. 18. 

Helcioniscus stelliferus, Gmel., subsp. phymatius, Suter, P. Mai. S., vi, 350, 

fig. in text. 

Distinguished from the species by the high conical form and the 
strongly nodulous ribs. The shell is solid, oval or oblong, high conical, 
the height somewhat less than half the length of the shell. Apex at 
about the front third, more or less denuded. There are about 24 
strongly nodulous radiate ribs, crossed by strong concentric lines of 
growth. As in the species, a white star or white bands extending 
to the margin are present, and the colour is yellowish-red. The an- 
terior slope is straight or slightly convex. Interior silvery-white ; 
central area white, sometimes tinged with light brown. 
Length, 27 mm. ; breadth, 21 mm. ; height, 12 mm. 
Type in my collection. 

C ok Strait ; Banks Peninsula (Iredale) ; Bay of Islands. 



Hdcioniscus.\ GASTROPODA. 



87 



7. Helcioniscus strigilis, Hombrou and Jacquinot, 1841. Plate 7, 
fig. 22. 

Patdla strigilin, H. & J., Ann. Sci. Nat. (2), xvi, 1841, 190. Patinella 
strigilis, H. & J. : Button, P.L.8. N.S.W., ix, 374. Helcioniscus 
strigilis, H. & J.. Man. Conch. (1), xiii, 137 ; Suter, P. Mai. S., vi, 351. 

Shell oval, convex, obliquely conical. Sculpture consists of 20-30 
low radiating ribs, with a short interstitial rib, often obsolete, crossed 
by distinct concentric growth-lines. Colour blackish-rufescent above, 
brownish-rufescent below ; very often greenish or grey, with the ribs 
light brown. Apex at the front third to eighth, obtuse, sometimes 
whitish. Interior typically blackish-purple, iridescent, sometimes 
greyish-brown, with brown rays corresponding to the exterior ribs ; 
central area well defined, cream colour to light brown ; muscle-scar 
sometimes much raised and tuberculate. Margin broadly denticulate. 

Length, 65 mm. ; breadth, 50 mm. (type). Length, 80 mm. ; 
breadth, 68 mm. ; height, 39 mm. (specimen from Campbell Island). 
Length, 64 mm. ; breadth, 51 mm. ; height, 34 mm. (specimen from 
Auckland Islands). Length, 42 mm. ; breadth, 35 mm. ; height, 
21-5 mm. (specimen from Preservation Inlet). Length, 60mm.; 
breadth, 48 mm. ; height, 24 mm. (specimen from Tauranga). 

Dentition. Hutton, T.N.Z.I., xv, 128, pi. 16, f. A (P. magellanica). 

Type in the Mus. Hist. Nat., Paris ? 

# a 5. From Tauranga to the Bluff. Chatham Islands ; Anti- 
podes Islands ; Auckland Islands (type) ; Campbell Island ; Snares. 

Remark. The elevation of the shell and the situation of the apex 
are variable, as is also the colouring of the interior. 



SUBORDER 2. RHIPIDOGLOSSA. 

Aspidobranchia with a pallio-visceral anastomosis ; eye with a 
crystalline lens ; a single osphradium, except in genera with 2 ctenidia ; 
1 or 2 hypobranchial glands. Mandibles paired, lateral. Radula 
characterized by (1.) The extraordinary development of the uncini, 
of which there are so many that they are always reckoned as inde- 
finitely numerous ; they are long, narrow, hooked, and often cusped 
at the top, and crowded together like the ribs of a fan, those at the 
extreme edge not being set straight in the row, but curving away 
backwards as they become smaller. (2.) The varying number of the 
laterals ; the average number of these is 5 on each side, varying from 
3 to 9 ; the lateral next to the uncini is specially large. Taking 5 
as the average number of laterals, the rhipidoglossate formula of teeth 
is oo 5 . 1 . 5 oo. Heart with 2 auricles ; ventricle traversed by the 
rectum, except in the Helicinidce. An epipodial ridge on each side of. 
the foot, and cephalic expansions between the tentacles often present. 



GASTROPODA. [Aspidobranchia. 

Fam. SCISSURELLID^I, Pilsbry. 

Animal with a rather long rostrum, long ciliated tentacles, the eyes 
at their outer bases ; foot rather narrow ; epipodium bearing 4 ciliated 
cirri on each side. Radula with 1 central and 5 lateral teeth with 
large expanded basal plates and finely denticulate recurved cusps, 
the outer laterals hooked ; uncini numerous, narrow, with serrate 
cusps. 

Shell minute, unicoloured, umbilicated, turbinate or depressed, 
few-whorled, thin, with a thin layer of pearl inside ; aperture oval, 
outer superior lip with a foramen or slit, and with a differently sculp- 
tured band or anal fasciole encircling the whorls. Operculum circular, 
corneous, thin, multispiral, with central nucleus. 

The foramen or slit corresponds to the end of the rectum, and 
serves for the expulsion of the faces. 

The fossil (Tertiary) species number about as many as the Recent. 
A group of very small shells, most of them living in deep water, and 
widely distributed. The shell has a considerable resemblance to that 
of Pleurotomaria, but the dentition and external anatomy of the 
animal is decidedly nearer Trochidce. 

KEY TO GENERA. 

a. Shell with an open anal slit . . . . . . . . SCISSURELLA. 

b. Anal fissure closed, forming a foramen . . . . . . SCHISMOPE. 



Genus 1. SCISSURELLA, A. d'Orbigny, 1823. 

Scissurella, d'Orb., Mem. Soo. Hist, Nat. Paris, i, 1823, 340. Type : 5. 
Itevigata, d'Orb. Anatomus, Ad., G.R.M., i, 439; not of Montfort, 1810. 
Schizotrochus, Monterosato, Nom. Gen. e Spec., 1884, 39. Scissttrella, 
Fischer, Man. de Conch., 846 ; Man. Conch. (1), xii, 49. 

Shell with an open anal slit, extending backward from the peri- 
stome ; slit fasciole extending nearly to the apex. Slit fasciole edged 
on either side by an upturned rim ; spiral sculpture is always present. 
The animal is active. 

From Tertiary to Recent. 

Vernacular Name. Slit-shell. 

KEY TO SPECIES. 

a. Shell turbinate, strongly keeled, surface decussate . . . . Mantelli. 

b. Shell auriform, with spiral threads . . . . . . . . rosea. 

1. Scissurella Mantelli, Woodward, 1859. Plate 6, fig. 10. 

Scissurella Mantelli, Woodward, P.Z.S., 1859, 202, pi. 46, f. 8; Button, 
M.N.Z.M., 103 ; Man. Conch. (1). xii, 54, pi. 57, f. 12. 

Shell small, turbinate. Spiral sculpture formed by a strong double 
keel at the periphery, enclosing the anal fasciole ; above and below 
it numerous close spiral striae, more distinct on the base ; there are 



Scissurella.} GASTROPODA. 89 

distant elevated radiating riblets, crossing the fascicle, and decus- 
sating the whole surface. Spire depressed, tabulated. Aperture ob- 
lique. Columella concave, slightly callous. Anal slit on the outer 
lip deep and narrow. 

Type in the British Museum. 

Hob. Found among ironsand from New Zealand (W. Mantell). 

I have not seen this species. 

Fossil in the Pliocene. 

2. Scissurella rosea, Hedley, 1904. Plate 6, fig. 11. 

Scissurella rosea, Hedley. Rec. A.M., v, 1904, 90, f. 17 in text. 

Shell auriform, thin, translucent, narrowly perforate, spire slightly 
elevate. Sculpture : Above, close fine spiral threads ; below, sharp 
distant spiral keels, both crossed by faint growth-lines. Colour white, 
with apex rose. Protoconch delicately longitudinally ribbed. Whorls 

3, last spreading and flattened above, earlier rounded. Aperture 
large, oblique, oval. Columella concave, broad, extending a median 
lobe over the steep and narrow umbilicus. Slit deep, situated well 
above the periphery, and leading to a fasciole, which is not crossed 
by lamella?, but edged with low smooth keels, and tapers to the ter- 
mination, half a whorl back. 

Diameter Maj., 1-35 mm. ; min., 0-7 mm. : height, 1-2 mm. 
(Hedley.) 

Type in the Australian Museum, Sydney. 

Hob. Lyall Bay, near Wellington, type (A. Hamilton) ; Snares, 
in 50 fathoms (Captain Bollons) ; Banks Peninsula (Iredale). Also 
Tasmania. 

Genus 2. SCHISMOPE, Jeffreys, 1856. 

Schismope, Jeffreys, A.M.N.H., xvii, 1856, 321. Type: S. cingulata, Costa. 
Woodwardia, Crosse and Fischer, J. de Conch., 1861, 160. Scissurella. 
d'Orb. (in part): A. Adams, A.M.N.H., 1862,346. Anatomus, H. and 
A. Adams, G.R.M , i, 439 (in part). Schismope, Fischer. Man. de Conch., 
846 ; Man. Conch. (1), xii. 49, 60. 

Anal fissure closed, forming a foramen in the outer wall of aperture ; 
slit fasciole shorter, not over li whorls in length. 

Schismope is a Scissurella in which the anal slit becomes closed in 
the adult, and transformed into an oblong perforation like one of the 
holes of a Haliotis. 

From Tertiary to Recent. 

KEY TO SPECIES. 
a. Shell turbinate. 

b. With distinct spiral keels, radiating riblets fine or obsolete Atkinsoni. 
bb. One strong keel, base with strong radiate folds . . . . Beddomei. 

aa. Shell depressed turbinate, nearly auriform, sculpture micro- 
scopic . . . . . . . . . . . . brevis. 



90 GASTROPODA. [Aspidobranchia. 

1. Schismope Atkinson!, Tenison-Woods, 1877. Plate 6, fig. 12. 

Scissurella Atkinsoni, T.-Woods, P.R.S. Ta,s., 1876 (1877), 149. Schismope 
Atkinsoni, T.-Woods, P.R.S. Tas., 1877 (1878), 43 ; Man. Conch. (1), 
xii, 66; Pritchard and Gatliff, P.R.S. Vic. (n.s.), xv, 181. S. carinata, 
Watson, Chall. Rep., xv, 1886, 119, pi. 8, f. 6; Man. Conch. (1), xii, 
65, pi. 65, f. 17-19. S. Atkinsoni, T. - Woods : Suter, T.N.Z.I., 
xxxix, 268. 

Shell small, tumid, but depressed, umbilicated, strongly keeled. 
Sculpture : There are above and below sharp, distant, curved radiating 
riblets, interspaces microscopically striate ; the spiral sculpture is 
formed by a strong, rounded, double keel, formed by the two edges 
of the canal-scar ; this canal is sunken, and strongly scored ; above 
the canal a few microscopic spiral threads ; below there are on the base 
3 strong threads, of which the highest is the strongest ; a still weaker 
thread encircles the umbilicus. Colour hyaline, dead shells white. 
Spire slightly exserted, whorls flat above, rising roundly from the 
suture. Apex very small, tabulated. Whorls 4, rapidly increasing, 
strongly keeled by the canal-ridge, angulated by the highest thread ; 
base very tumid. Suture rectangular. Aperture oval, very oblique. 
Outer lip runs in straight lines and angles, slightly curved on the base. 
Inner lip thin and short. Columella concave, often slightly reflexed. 
Umbilicus large, shallow, defined by a keel. Anal perforation long and 
narrow, rounded behind, drawn out into a long fine point in front, 
without a projecting lip on the inner side. 

Diameter, 2-5 mm. ; height, 2-25 mm. (type). Diameter, 1-5 mm. ; 
height, 1-25 mm. (" Challenger " specimen). Diameter, 2-6 mm. ; 
height, 2 mm. (Bounty Island specimen). 

Type in the Tasmania n Museum, Hobart. 

Hab. Whangaroa Harbour ; Snares and Bounty Islands, in 
50 fathoms (Captain Bollons). Australia and Tasmania. The type 
is from Blackmail's Bay, Tasmania. 

2. Schismope Beddomei, Petterd, 1884. Plate 6, fig. 13. 

Schismope. Beddomei, Petterd, Journ. of Conch., iv. 1884, 139 ; Man. 
Conch. (1), xii, 67 ; Tate and May, P.L.S. N.S.W., 1901, 407, pi. 24. f. 24 ; 
Pritchard and Gatliff, P.R.S. Vic. (n.s.), xv, 181 ; Hedley, Rec. A.M., v, 
1904, 89. 

Shell small, thin, turbinately depressed, umbilicate. The spiral 
sculpture is formed by a strong keel of the raised edges of the canal- 
scar ; above and below this keel the last whorl is distinctly concave 
and smooth ; there are a few short radiate riblets spreading from the 
suture on the upper side ; base with about 12 distant, sharp and strong, 
oblique riblets. Colour white, dull. Spire low, tabulated. Whorls 
3i, very rapidly increasing, flattened at the apex. Aperture ovate, 
oblique, of moderate size. Outer lip sharp, broadly convex. Inner 
lip spread a short distance over the body, and forming a sharp angle 
with the outer lip. Columella concave truncated below, slightly 



Schismope.] GASTROPODA. 91 



callous. Umbilicus rather large and deep. Anal perforation with 
raised margins, moderately long, rounded behind, pointed in front, 
with a very distinct callosity on the inner side. 

Diameter, 0-75 mm. ; height, 1 mm. (type). Diameter, 1-5 mm. ; 
height, 1-25 mm. (Snares specimen). 

Type in the Tasmanian Museum, Hobart. 

Hab. Foveaux Strait (A. Hamilton) ; Snares and Bounty Islands, 
in 50 fathoms (Captain Bollons). Australia and Tasmania. The type 
is from the north coast of Tasmania. 

Remark. The New Zealand specimens attain a larger size, and are 
more depressed, but otherwise there is no difference. 

3. Schismope brevis, Hedley, 1904. Plate 6, fig. 14. 

Schismope brevis. Hedley. Rec. A.M., v. 1904. 90, f. Hi in text ; Iredale. 
T.N.Z.I., xl. 381. 

Shell depressed, turbinate, openly perforate to imperf orate, solid. 
Sculpture : Distant longitudinal lamellate ribs cross the whorl from the 
suture to the umbilicus ; their interstices contain raised spiral threads, 
which grow coarser on approaching the umbilicus. Colour white. 
Protoconch of a whorl and a half, concluding with a prominent varix. 
Whorls 3, tabulate above, rounded below, the last rapidly descending. 
Aperture roundly ovate. Outer Up sharp, convex. Inner lip spreading 
as a distinct callosity over the body, and sometimes sealing the um- 
bilicus partly or wholly up. Columella concave. Umbilicus narrow, 
deep, bordered with a raised ridge, or closed up. The foramen is large, 
distant from the margin, to which a furrow joins it. The fasciole 
extremity short, terminating half a whorl behind the aperture, bordered 
by keels and traversed by lamellae, which correspond to the longitudinal 
ribs. 

Diameter Maj.. 1-14 mm. ; min., 0-9 mm. : height, 0-94 mm. 
(type). 

Type in the Australian Museum, Sydney. 

Hab. Lyall Bay, near Wellington, type (A. Hamilton) ; Snares, 
in 50 fathoms (Captain Bollons) ; Lyttelton Harbour (Iredale). Living 
on seaweeds. 

EemarTfs. All the specimens from the Snares I have seen have the 
umbilicus more or less closed up. Live shells from Lyttelton Harbour 
are cream-coloured, young ones very commonly brownish (Iredale). 

Subsp. levigata, Iredale, 1908. 

Schismope brevis, Hedley, subsp. levigata, Iredale. T.N.Z.I., xl, 1907 (1908), 
381. 

This subspecies differs from the type in the degree of sculpture. 
At first sight it would appear a very different shell, but when closely 
examined the sculpture is seen to be the same : the longitudinal ribs 
have greatly deteriorated in strength, whilst the spirals have gained ; 



92 GASTROPODA. [Aspidobranchia. 

the last whorl descends much more rapidly than in typical brevis, 
whilst the earlier whorls are smaller. This combination gives an 
entirely different appearance to the shell, which is further strengthened 
by the fact that the fasciole is very little longer than the foramen. 
Operculum thin, horny, multispiral. Colour cream ; dead shells pure- 
white. Measurement of a large specimen the same as the type of 
S. brevis, Hedley. (Iredale.) 

Type in the Canterbury Museum, Christ church. 

Hob. Sandfly Bay, Otago Peninsula (type) ; Lyall Bay. 

I have not seen this shell. 

Fam. HALIOTID^E, Fleming. 

Animal with a fleshy foot, a fleshy epipodial ridge fringed with 
cirri, a frontal veil connecting the short eye-stalks ; spire of the visceral 
mass much reduced ; the mantle-slit along the row of holes, branchial 
cavity containing a gill on each side of the slit, the right being the 
smaller ; no operculum. 

Shell nacrous, spiral, the. spire small, body-whorl very large and 
depressed, having a row of round or oval holes along the left side, 
aperture very large, occupying nearly all the lower face, columella 
(properly speaking) absent, the spire being open in the middle, seen 
from below ; but the columellar margin is produced into a flattened 
spiral plate. Muscle - impression horseshoe - shaped, the left branch 
narrow, inconspicuous, inside the columellar plate, the right branch 
very large, rounded, situated in the middle of the aperture. 

A few fossil forms not differing materially from the Recent ones 
have been discovered in the Pliocene and Miocene, and one in the 
Upper Cretaceous of Germany. The centre of distribution of Recent 
species is in the Australian and adjacent seas. Only one species is 
found on the east coast of North America. 

All of these molluscs are rock-lovers. The shells are much used 
as ornaments, for the manufacture of pearl buttons, buckles, and in- 
laying. Fine green pearls may be sometimes found under the mantle. 
The animal is used as bait for catching crayfish, and is sometimes 
used for food. 

Genus 1. HALIOTIS, Linnteus, 1758. 

Haliotis, Linn., Syst. Nat., ed. x, 1758, 779. Type : H. tuberculata, L. 
Padottus, Montfort, Conch. Syst., ii, 114. Sulculus, Ad., G.R.M., i, 443. 

Animal with a short, broad muzzle ; tentacles subulate, with the 
eyes on stout cylindrical peduncles at their outer bases. Foot 
moderate, not grooved, and produced posteriorly. Radula with a 
subpentagonal central tooth, constricted in the middle ; the 5 laterals 
are large, unequal in shape ; uncini numerous. 

Shell oval or oblong, nacreous ; spire small, much depressed ; 
suture well marked ; aperture with continuous borders ; columella 
border broad, compressed, and arched ; outer margin very oblique ; 



Haliotis.} GASTROPODA. 93 

muscular impression frequently rugose ; typically perforated near the 
periphery, the holes being numerous and in series. 

There are about eighty species known, inhabiting tropical and 
temperate seas : west coast of Europe, Mediterranean, east coast of 
Africa, Cape of Good Hope, Indian and Pacific Oceans, China, Japan, 
California, Australia, Tasmania, and New Zealand. 

Tertiary to Kecent. 

Vernacular Name. Ormer, or sea-ear. 

Anatomy. H. J. Fleure, " Zur Anatomie und Phylogenie von 
Haliotis," Jena. Zeitschr., xxxix, 1904, 245-322, pi. 9-14. 

KEY TO SPECIES. 

a. Peristome continuous . . ms - 

aa. Peristome not continuous. 

b. Right margin straightened. 

c. Surface strongly corrugated by radiating folds .. australis. 

cc. Surface pustulated and waved . . . . vana. 

bb. Both margins convex . . . . . . virginea. 

1. Haliotis australis, Gmelin, 1790. Plate 8, fig. 1. 

Haliotis australis, Gmelin. Syst. Nat., ed. xiii, 3689. H. ritgoso-plicata, Chem- 
nitz, Conch. Cab., x, 311, pi. 16(5. f. 1604 (not binomial); Reeve, Conch. 
Icon., f. 7 ; Sowerby, Thes. Conch., v, 21, f. 9, 10, 53 ; Man. Conch. (1), 
xii, 110, pi. 20, f. 12, 13. h. australis, Gmel. : Hedley, Colon. Museum 
Bull. No. 1, 1906, 49 ; Suter, T.N.Z.I., xxxviii, 323. H. plicata, Karsten, 
Mus. Leskeanum. 1789. H. cruenta, Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 56 : Man. 
Conch. (1), xii, 99, pi. 4, f. 17, 18 ; pi. 49. f. 24-26. H. costata, Swainson, 
Appendix Bligh Cat., 3. H. rnber, Leach, Zool. Misc., i, 54, pi. 23, 
teste Dillwyn. 

Shell oval, quite convex, distance of apex from margin one-eighth 
to one-ninth the length of the shell. Sculpture : The surface has 
almost obsolete spiral cords, and regular, close, radiating folds ; be- 
tween the row of holes and the columellar margin there are no radiating 
folds, but several (generally 3) strong spiral ribs. Colour light yellow- 
ish-brown, red on the spire, or light green flamed with red. Spire 
a little elevated. Whorls 3. The right margin a little straighter 
than the left ; back convex, not carinated at the row of holes. Inside 
corrugated like the exterior, silvery, with blue, green, and red reflec- 
tions, the latter predominating. Columellar plate narrow. Perforations 
circular, their edges elevated, 6 to 8 in number. 

Length, 94mm.; breadth, 71mm.; convexity, 30mm. Length, 
82 mm. ; breadth, 56 mm. ; convexity, 22 mm. 
Type (?). 

Hab. Throughout New Zealand ; Chatham, Snares, and Auckland 
Islands. 

Remarks. The corrugated exterior is quite constant and cha- 
racteristic. Young specimens are more ribbed spirally, and often 
have radiating stripes of red on a delicate green ground. 
Maori. Karariwha (fide Captain Bollons). 
Fossil in the Pliocene. 



94 GASTROPODA. [Aspidobranehict.. 



2. Haliotis iris, Martyn, 1784. Plate 8, fig. 2. 

Haliotis iris, Martyn, Univ. Conch., ii. f. 61 ; Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 37 ; 
Sowerby, Thes. Conch., v, 20. pi. 3, f. 24, 25 ; Man. Conch. (1), xii, 110. 
pi. 13. f. 65, 66. 

Shell oval, the two sides equally curved, convex. Sculpture con- 
sists of rows of low radially arranged nodules ; young shells are spirally 
lirate like H. virginea, with a few oblique rows of nodules ; surface 
pitted ; concentric growth-lines very distinct. Colour pale brown or 
olive-green. Spire short, with 2 whorls only. Protoconch smooth, 
consisting of half of a whorl. Back of shell convex, angled at the row 
of perforations. Lip continuous, produced beyond the body-whorl. 
Inside it is brilliantly pearly, prussian-blue and green predominating, 
but with reflections also of purple, orange, and a little red ; central 
muscle-scar roughened, copper-coloured. Columellar plate broad, pass- 
ing into the expanded continuation of the outer lip above, not 
truncate below ; its face, is flattened, and slopes inward ; cavity o 
spire small. Perforations round to oval, 5 to 7 open. 

Length, 95 mm. ; breadth, 70 mm. ; convexity, 25 mm. Length,. 
141 mm. ; breadth. 102 mm. ; convexity, 36 mm. 

Animal and Dentition. Hutton, T. N.Z.I., xv. 127, pi. 15. f. H. 

Hab. Rocky shore s of the North and South Islands ; Chatham, 
Snares, and Auckland Islands. Below low-water mark, in some 
localities very abundant. Brought to England by Captain Cook. 

Remarks. This shell has been much used by the Maoris for orna- 
menting their carvings and for fishing-hooks ; the animal was used as 
food. 

Maori. Paua. 

Vernacular Name. Mutton-fish. 

Fossil in the Miocene. 



3. Haliotis varia, Linngeus, 1758. Plate 7, fig. 24. 

Haliotis varia. Linn., Syst. Nat., ed'. x, 780: Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 4: 
Sowerby, Thes. Conch., v, 28, f. 5, 6. 7, 11. 12. 61 : Man. Conch. (1), xii, 
95, pi. 17, f . 91, 93, 99, 100 ; pi. 23, f. 53-55 : Suter, T.X.Z.I., xxxix, 
268. H. viridis. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 40. H. semi-stria ta, Reeve, 
Conch. Icon., f. 51 a, b, c. 

Shell oval or oblong-oval, convex, distance from apex to margin 
about one-eighth the entire length of shell. Sculpture : Numerous 
very unequal spiral cords, crossed by low radiating folds, forming 
tubercles on the cords ; the surface sculpture is excessively variable, 
but in the typical form consists of " swollen nodules ranging across 
the shell in oblique waves." Colour usually consists of broad white 
or greenish rays upon a dark-chocolate, olive-brown, or green ground. 
The spire is rather large. Protoconch flattened, consisting of 1 whorl, 
with a peripheral row of nodules, a few spiral striae above. Whorls 



Haliotis.] GASTROPODA. 95 

2J, the last convex. Aperture large, the right margin straighter than 
the left, but still convex. Inside silvery, generally with very little 
iridescent colour, and having slight excavations or pits at the posi- 
tions of the principal tubercles of the outer surface. Columellar plate 
rather broad and heavy, flattened, and in adult shells sloping inward, 
not truncated at the base ; cavity of spire visible from below. Open 
perforations 5, round to oval, situated on moderate tubercles. 

Length, 47 mm. ; breadth, 31 mm. ; convexity, 12 mm. Length, 
40mm.; breadth, 28mm.; convexity, llmm. (New Zealand speci- 
men). 

Type(l). 

Hob. South of Whangarei. This is a widely dispersed form- 
Australia and Philippines to China, Mozambique, Red Sea, Island of 
Bourbon, Mauritius, Ceylon, Nicobar Islands, Malay Archipelago, 
according to Man. Conch. 

Remark. In New Zealand specimens I found the number of open 
perforations to vary from 5 to 7. 

4. Haliotis virginea, Gmelin, 1790. Plate 7, fig. 23. 

Haliotis virginea, Gmelin, Syst. Nat., ed. xiii, 3690; Chemnitz. Cmoh. Cab., 
x, 314, pi. 166, f. 1607, 1608 (not binomial); Sowerby, Thes. Conch., v., 
20. H. gibba, Philippi : Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 42 ; Smith, Ereb. & Ter., 
Moll., 4, pi. 1, f . 16 : Button, M.N.Z.M.. 104, not of Philippi. H. virginea, 
Gmel. : Hedley, Colon. Museum Bull., i, 1906, 49 ; Sutev, T.N.Z.I., 
xxxviii, 323. 

Shell oblong-oval, very convex, spire almost terminal, spirally 
lirate. Sculpture : About 44 spiral lir?e between spire and perforations, 
sometimes unequal, slightly beaded by growth-lines ; there are some 
small folds radiating from the spire over the middle part of the back, 
but these are obsolete on some examples. Colour dark brown, marked 
with more or less perfect V-shaped green streaks, green sometimes 
predominating. Spire almost terminal, very small. Whorls 2^. 
Right and left sides equally curved, widest at about the middle ; back 
very convex, not carinated at the row of holes, but having a very 
shallow excavation ust below it. Inside spirally stiiate, somewhat 
corrugated obliquely, very brilliantly iridescent, the prevailing colours 
green and red. Columellar plate flattened or a little concave, de- 
cidedly sloping inward, subtruncate at base, concealing the cavity 
of spire above. Perforations 6 or 7, separated by spaces exceeding 
the length of the holes. 

Length, 54 mm. ; breadth, 35 mm. ; convexity, 13 mm. 

Type (?). 

Hob. North and South Islands ; Stewart Island : Chatham 
Islands ; Kermadec Islands. More common in the south. Brought 
to England by Captain Cook. 



96 GASTROPODA. [Aspidobranchia. 

Subsp. Huttoni, Filhol, 1880. Plate 8, fig. 3. 

Haliotis Huttoni, Filh., " Comptes Rendus," xci, 1094 ; Filhol, Miss. I.C., 
1885, 527. H. gibba, Pnil., var. Huttoni, Filh. : Hutton, P.L.S. N.S.W., 
ix, 370. 

The spiral lirge are stronger and slightly waved, the apex is less 
anterior, the shell more convex. The sculpture is much coarser, the 
spiral lirse stouter and less numerous, strong and much finer cords 
usually alternating. The colour is mostly light brown or greenish ; 
there are no V-shaped streaks. As a rule, the shell is not so elongate 
as the species. The prevailing colour of the interior is red. 

Length, 50 mm. ; breadth, 35 mm. ; convexity, 15 mm. Length, 
52 mm. ; breadth, 38 mm. ; convexity, 18 mm. Length, 62 mm. ; 
breadth, 43 mm. ; convexity, 21 mm. 

Type in the Mus. Hist, Nat., Paris. 

Hab. Campbell Island. 

Remarks. Captain Bollons told me that this mollusc is eaten by 
the seals, apparently without crushing the shell with the teeth, and 
when the animal has been digested the empty shells are disgorged. 
The shells lying about on the beach are pearly outside, having lost the 
epidermis through the action of the acid gastric juice in the stomach 
of the seals. 

Fam. FISSURELLID.^, Risso. 

Animal bilaterally symmetrical externally, the anal orifice on the 
median line either anterior, central, or posterior. Gills paired, one on 
each side of the back, their free ends extending to the neck ; muzzle 
stout ; eyes on peduncles of variable length at the outer bases of the 
tentacles ; mantle continuous or slit anteriorly ; foot fleshy, bearing 
generally a row of epipodial papillae. Adductor muscle horseshoe- 
shaped, open anteriorly. Radula with central, lateral, and uncinal 
teeth, the laterals usually 5 in number, narrow except the outer one, 
which is very large, with a strongly recurved and denticulated cusp ; 
uncini numerous. 

Shell conical, limpet-shaped, non-spiral (but with a spiral nucleus), 
having a perforation, anterior slit, notch, or emargination for the 
passage of the anus ; not nacrous ; having a horseshoe-shaped im- 
pression of the adductor muscle ; bilaterally symmetrical. 

Carboniferous to Recent. 



Subfam. 1. FISSURELLIX.E. Pilsbry. 

Central tooth of radula narrow. Shell wholly external, capable 
of containing the entire animal. Apex of shell wholly removed by the 
anal perforation, which is bounded inside by a callus with entire 
margins, not truncated or excavated posteriorly. 

This subfamily does not antedate the Pliocene. 



Fissurella.] GASTROPODA. 97 

Genus 1. FISSURELLA, Bruguiere, 1791. 

Fissurella, Brug.. Encycl. Meth. ; Lamarck, A.s.V., &c. Type: F. piclu. 
Gmel. 

The anatomy of the typical species is not thoroughly known. It 
appears that the mantle-edge is thick, crenulated above and below, 
granulate or papillose on its rather broad surface ; the anal pore is 
surrounded by slender processes or papillae, and the row of epipodial 
papillae is continuous. 

Summit of the shell near the middle ; basal margins level, not 
elevated at the ends ; form of shell elevated conoidal, with an apical 
perforation ; surface nodulous or decussate. 

Sect. 1. CREMIDES, H. and A. Adams, 1858. 
Cremides, Ad., G.R.M., i, 446. First species : F. alabastrites, Reeve. 

Fissurella with the orifice near the middle, the outer surface radiately 
ribbed or striated, the inside without a dark marginal border, and 
more or less crenulated on the edge. 

They inhabit tropical and subtropical coasts of America, with a 
few species from South Africa and the Mediterranean. 

1. Fissurella Huttoni, Suter, 1906. Plate 8, fig. 4. 

Fissurella squamosa, Bhitton, C.M.M., 1873, 42; M.N.Z.M., 105; P.L.S. 
N.S.W., ix, 370, not of Deskayes. Glyphis squamosa, Hutt., Man. Conch. 
(1), xii, 216. Fissurella Huttoni, Suter, T.N.Z.I., xxxviii, 322. 

Shell elongately oval, narrowed in front, conoidal, summit a little 
in front of the middle. Sculpture consisting of numerous more or 
less squarnose ribs, alternately larger and smaller, 4 anterior and 4 
posterior ribs more prominent than the others ; they are crossed by 
fine concentric growth-striae, much more distinct near the base. Colour 
light brown, most of the ribs lighter, cinereous. Dorsal orifice ojblong, 
becoming smaller as it penetrates ; its length measured outside is 2 mm. 
Inside white, porcellanous, muscle-scar distinctly impressed, perfora- 
tion callus strong, white, with a minute posterior incision, encircled by 
a light-brown line. Margin irregularly crenulated. 

Length, 23 mm. ; breadth, 15 mm ; height, 7 mm. 

The animal is unknown. 

Type in the Dominion Museum, Wellington. 

Hob. Foveaux Strait (fide Hutton). 

Remark. As far as I am aware, the type specimen is the only one 
in any of our collections. 

Subfam. 2. EMARGINULIN^E, Pilsbry. 

Apex of shell generally not removed, the anal tube occupying an 
anterior slit, notch, or sinuation, or if apex be removed by a perfora- 
tion the hole is provided internally with a shelf or septum projecting 

4 Moll. N.Z. 



98 GASTROPODA. [Aspidobranchia. 

forward and downward from behind it, or if bounded by a callus the 
latter is truncated or excavated posteriorly. Central tooth of radula 
broad. 

KEY TO GENERA. 

1. Apex in front of the middle, absorbed by the hole, the latter 

bounded inside by a distinct oval hole-callus, truncated 

behind . . . . . . . . FISSTJRIDEA. 

2. Apex central or post-median, persistent. Anal fissure a 

closed hole at summit . . . . . . . . PUNCTURELLA. 

3. No internal hole-callus or septum, apex not absorbed. 

A. Apex subterminal ; shell minute, subauriform, a short 

slit on upper part of outer lip . . . . . . INCISURA. 

B. A slit-fasciole or band in front, distinctly differentiated 

from the other radiating riblets, extending upward 

from the open anterior slit . . . . - . . EMABGINULA. 

C. No distinctly differentiated slit-fasciole or band ; ends 

of muscle-scar distinctly hooked inward ; shell 
having radiating ribs and erenulated edge, slit short 
or none. . . . . . . . . . . SUBEMARGINULA. 

D. No anterior slit or slit-fasciole ; muscle-scar near the 

edge of the shell, its front ends not hooked inward ; 
shell depressed, oblong, truncated or sinuous in 
front ; no radiating sculpture ; edge smooth . . SCUTUS. 



Genus 1. INCISURA, Hedley, 1904. 

Incisura, Hedley, Rec. A.M., v, 1904, 91. Type : Scissurella lytteltonensis, 
E. A. Smith. 

Shell minute, subauriform, smooth. Apex submarginal, few whorls, 
the last very large ; a short slit on the outer lip above the periphery, 
bounded by a callus on the inner side. There is no operculum. Teeth 
of radula similar to those of Emarginula. 

He.dley considers it as a member of the Fissurellidce in which de- 
velopment has been arrested ; the usual subsequent metamorphoses 
have not been enacted and the larval characters have persisted in 
adult life. 

The absence of an operculum removes it from the genus Scissurella, 
and the characters of the radula, which I have examined, show that 
it is nearly allied to Emarginula. The radula is asymmetrical. 



1. Incisura lytteltonensis, E. A. Smith, 1894. Plate 6, fig. 15. 

Scissurella lytteltonensis, E. A. Smith, P. Mai. S., i, 57, pi. 7, f. 1, 2. Incisura 
lytteltonensis, E. A. Smith : Hedley, Bee. A.M., v, 92, f. 18 in text ; 
Iredale, T.N.Z.L, xl, 381. 

Shell minute, subauriform. There is no sculpture, except fine 
growth-lines. Colour white, horny, or sometimes roseate. Protoconch 
not prominent, microscopically delicately radiately ribbed. Whorls "2, 



Emarginula.] GASTROPODA. 99 



very rapidly increasing, the last large. Suture deep. Aperture large, 
oval, the margins united by a strong callus. Outer lip sharp, simple. 
Inner lip broadly reflexed. The slit is situate above the periphery, 
short, not ridged or keeled, and strengthened by a fairly strong callus 
on the inner side. 

Diameter, maj., 1*3 mm. ; height, 1 mm. (type). Diameter, ma j., 
1-8 mm. ; height, 1*3 mm. (Snares specimen). 

Type in the British Museum. 

Hob. Lyttelton Harbour, on seaweeds, type (H. S.) ; Lyall Bay, 
near Wellington ; Snares, in 50 fathoms (Captain Bollons). 

Remarks. There is no operculum, and the radula approaches that 
of Emarginula. 

Genus 2. EMARGINULA, Lamarck, 1801. 

Emarginula, Lamarck, Syst. A.s.V., 1801, 69. Type : Patella fissura, L. 
Emarginula, Lamarck : Fischer, Man. de Conch., 858 ; Man. Conch. (1), 
xii, 202, 248. Semperia, Crosse, J. de Conch., 1867, 74. 

Animal having the snout large, tentacles long, eyes on distinct 
peduncles ; mantle forming a tubular process extending beyond the 
anterior anal slit in the shell ; having epipodial papillae, and the foot 
oval. Central tooth of radula large, quadrangular ; the inner 4 lateral 
teeth long and narrow ; the fifth large, bicuspid, its upper part bent 
horizontally ; uncini numerous. 

Shell oval, obliquely conical, the recurved apex directed backward ; 
front slope with a deep incision in the margin. A distinct anal fas- 
ciole extends upward from the fissure, sculptured differently from 
the other ribs of the surface ; surface latticed ; no septum or deck 
inside. 

From the Carboniferous to Recent ; many species are known from 
the Tertiary. The Recent species of Emarginula s.s. number about 
sixty, and are recorded from the Mediterranean, the Atlantic, the 
Gulf of Mexico, and the Indo-Pacific. They live from the upper 
laminarian to the coralline zone. 

Vernacular Name. Slit-limpet. 

1. Emarginula striatula, Quoy and Gaimard, 1834. Plate 8, fig. 5. 

Emarginula striatula, Q. & G., Voy. Astrol., Zool., iii, 1834, 332, pi. 68, 
f. 21, 22 ; Man. Conch. (1), xii, 259, pi. 64, f. 2. 

Shell ovate-conic, fragile and thin, apex oblique, recurved. Sculp- 
ture : Radiating ribs close together, granulate ; spiral ridges of growth 
prominent, irregular, producing with the -ribs subcancellation. Colour 
greyish or greenish-white. Margin crenulated. Slit deeply excavated. 
Intericr white to greenish. 

4* 



100 GASTROPODA. [Aspidobranchia. 

Length, 10 mm. ; breadth, 7 mm. ; height, 7 mm. (type). Length, 
24mm.; breadth, 19mm.; height, llmm. (Chatham Islands). 
Length, 22 mm. ; breadth, 15 mm. ; height, 13 mm. (Chatham 
Islands). 

The animal is unknown. 

Type in the Mus. Hist. Nat., Paris. 

Hob. In fairly deep water. New Brighton, in roots of Macrocystis ; 
Foveaux Strait, in 15 fathoms ; Port Pegasus, Stewart Island, in 
18 fathoms (Captain Bollons) ; Snares and Bounty Islands, in 50 
fathoms (Captain Bollons) ; Hauraki Gulf, in 25 fathoms ; Chatham 
Islands ; Bay of Islands. 

Remarks. This species is variable in size and shape ; the largest 
specimens I have seen are from the Chatham Islands, and they are 
fairly solid. The examples from 50 fathoms are small and very thin. 

Fossil in the Miocene and Pliocene. 

Genus 3. SUBEMARGINULA, Blainville, 1825. 

Subemarginula, Blainville, Man. de Malacologie, 1825, 501. Type : Emar- 
ginula emarginata, Bl. Subemarginula, Blainville, Man. Conch. (1), xii, 
202, 273. Hemitoma, Swainson, Malac.. 356. Siphonella, Issel, Mai. 
Mar. Rosso, 1869, 232. 

Mantle entire, not slit or tubular in front. 

Shell rounded-oval, conical, apex near the middle, curved back- 
ward ; surface radiately ribbed ; anal notch generally short, con- 
tinued upward as a groove inside, occupying the end of a slightly 
prominent anterior rib, which is not sculptured differently from the 
other ribs. The great muscle-scar exhibits a peculiarity diagnostic 
of this genus : its anterior terminations are recurved and produced in- 
ward toward the cavity of the apex. 

The genus is recorded from the Antilles, the Indo-Pacific, and 
Australasia. 

KEY TO SPECIES. 

A. Shell with an internal anterior groove, area within the muscle- 

soar in the shape of a mushroom . . . . . . rugosa. 

B. Shell without an internal anterior groove, oblong, depressed, 

apex posterior. 

a. Shell without an anterior emargination, sides subparallel parmophoidea. 

b. Shell with a distinct emargination in front, sides nar- 

rowed in front . . . . . . . . . . intermedia. 

Sect. 1. CLYPIDINA, Gray, 1847. 

Clypidina, Gray, Syst. Dist. Moll. Brit. Mus., 164; A. Adams,' P.Z.S., 
1851, 87. 

Internal groove distinct, ending in a short anterior notch ; area 
within the muscle-scar decorated with a dark figure in the form of a 
mushroom. 



Subemarginula.] GASTROPODA. 101 

1. Subemarginula rugosa, Quoy and Gaimard, 1834. Plate 38, 

fig. 1. 

Eni'iiri/hnihi rtigoxa, Q. & G., Voy. Astrol., Zool.. iii, 331, pi. (58, f. 17, 18. 
Subemarginula rugosa, Q. & G., Man. Conch. (1), xii, 278, pi. 64, f. 39-41 ; 
pi. 29, f. 10, 11. Clypidina Candida, A. Adams, P.Z.S., 1851, 88. C. 
I'lutullata. A. Ad., i.e., 88. C. scabricula, A. Ad., i.e., 88. Emargimtla 
fungina, Gould, P. Bost, S.N.H., ii, 1846, 154; Exped. Atlas, f. 491. 
E. conoidea. Reeve, Conch. Syst., ii, 23, pi. 140, f. 7. Clypidina acu- 
minata, A. Ad., I.e., 88, No. 10. 

Shell oval, conical, apex subcentral. Sculpture consisting of 13-17 
primary ribs, not split or double, which are narrow, raised, continuing 
to the apex, each interval occupied by 3 small riblets ; cancellated by 
close raised concentric threads, which form prickly scales where they 
cross the radiating ribs. Interior greenish or white, the area within 
the muscle-scar dark or outlined with dark green, usually distinctly 
mushroom-shaped. Anal groove deep, notch short. 

Length, 17-5 mm. ; breadth, 13mm.; height, 8-5 mm. Length, 
10-5 mm. ; breadth, 8 mm. ; height, 4-5 mm. (specimen from Foveaux 
Strait). 

Type in the Mus. Hist. Nat., Paris. 

Hob. Nelson ; the Brothers Islands, Cook Strait ; Foveaux Strait, 
in 15 fathoms ; Chatham Islands. Australia, Tasmania, and Samoa. 

Remarks. A rather rare shell in New Zealand seas, mostly found 
with E. striatula. 

Sect. 2. TUGALIA, Gray, 1843. 

Tugalia, Gray, Syst. Dist. Moll. Brit. Mus., 163. Type : Tugali elegans, 
Gray. Tugali, Gray. 

Shell oblong, depressed, apex posterior, front margin without a 
notch, either rounded or sinuous ; no internal anal groove ; no en- 
larged rib in front. 

2. Subemarginula parmophoidea, Quoy and Gaimard, 1834. Plate 39, 

fig. 1. 

Emarginula parmophoidea, Q. & G., Voy. Astrol., Zool., iii, 325, pi. 68, 
f. 15, 16. Subemarginula parmophoidea, Q. & G., Man. Conch. (1), xii, 
285 (pi. 43, f. 78-80 represent S. intermedia). 

Shell oval, rounded at the ends, apex near the margin, sides sub- 
parallel. Sculpture consisting of close radiating and concentric rib- 
bings of about equal size, granulated and cancellated. Apex obtuse. 
No emargination in front. Colour white or yellowish-white. Interior 
white ; margin denticulated. 

Length, 19 mm. ; breadth, 11 mm. ; height, 6 mm. (type). 

Type in the Mus. Hist. Nat., Paris. 

Hob. Cape Maria van Diemen ; Hauraki Gulf ; Chatham Islands. 
Australia. 

Remark. It is a much rarer shell than the nearly allied S. inter- 
media, but less local. 

Fossil in the Pliocene. 



102 GASTROPODA. [Aspidobranchia* 



3. Subemarginula intermedia, Reeve, 1842. Plate 8, fig. 6. 

Parmopkorus intermedius, Reeve, P.Z.S., 1842. 50 ; Conch. Syst., ii, pi. 139, 
f. 5, 6. Tugalia intermedia, Rve. : A. Ad., P.Z.S., 1851, 88. Tugali 
elegans, Gray, Dieff. N.Z., ii, 240. Tugalia cinerea, Gould : Sowerby, 
Thes. Conch., iii, 221, pi. 249, f. 15-17 ; Reeve, Conch. Icon., xviu 
f. 5, not of Gould. T. ossea, Gould: Sowerby, I.e., f. 18; Angas. 
P.Z.S., 1867, 219, not of Gould. T. ausiralis, T. -Woods, P.R.S. Tas., 
1877, 21. T. tasmanica, T.-Woods, i.e., 156. Subemarginula intermedia, 
Reeve, Man. Conch. (1), xii, 285, pi. 43, f. 83, 84. 

Shell oblong-ovate, broadly rounded behind, narrower toward the 
front, and having a shallow ernargination in the front margin. Sur- 
face finely latticed all over by numerous close fine radiating riblets 
crossed by close elevated concentric strise ; the posterior half near 
the margin sometimes with beautiful concentric zigzag bands. Colour 
light buff to blackish-green. Apex at the posterior fifth. Interior 
white, sometimes light-greenish. Margin obtuse, finely crenulated. 

Length, 21 mm. ; breadth, 12 mm. ; height, 6 mm. Length, 
43 mm. ; breadth, 26 mm. ; height, 11-5 mm. (Auckland specimen). 

Anatomy. --M. Tobler, Jena. Zeitschr., xxxvi, 1901, 229-74. 
pi. 13-15. 

Dentition. Q.J.M.S. (n.s.), viii, 1868, pi. 12, f. 57. 

Type in the British Museum. 

Hal. Hauraki Gulf (H. S.) ; Great Barrier Island (Dieff.) ; Banks 
Peninsula (Iredale). Australia. The type is from Port Jackson. 

Fossil in the Pliocene. 

Genus 4. SCUTUS, Montfort, 1810. 

Sculus, Montfort, Conch. Syst., ii, 1810, 58, 59. Type : Sciitus antipodes, 
Montfort. Parmophorus, Blainville, Bull. Sci. Soc. Phil., 1817, 25. 
Scutum of some authors. 

Snout of animal proboscidiform ; mantle ample, covering nearly 
the whole of the shell, with a simple margin, fissured in front. Tentacles 
thick, eyes at their outer bases. A row of short cirri on each side of 
neck and foot. Gills 2, symmetrical, outside the shell, under the 
mantle ; a round white renal opening at their apices. The whole 
body dark blue-black ; mantle paler below ; sole of the foot white. 
Radula as in Emarginula ; central tooth large, outer lateral tricuspid ; 
uncini not denticulate. 

Shell oblong, depressed, apex directed backward ; no anal groove 
or slit, but the front margin more or less truncated and sinuous ; 
surface without radiating sculpture ; anterior ends of the muscle- 
scar converging, but not hooked inward toward the apex. 

Distributed over the Indo-Pacific. 

Fossil in the Tertiary (Proscutum, Fischer). 

The animals are apathetic, and avoid the light ; they are found 
under boulders between tide-marks. 

E. A. Smith has thoroughly revised the genus in an excellent 
paper in the Quart. Journ. Conch., ii, 1879, 250. 



GASTROPODA. 103 



1. Scutus ambiguus, Chemnitz, 1795. Plate 8, fig. 7. 

Patella ambigua, Chemn., Conch. Gab., xi, 178, 181, f. 1918. Scutus 
ambiguus, Chemn. : Smith, Quart. Jouni. Conch., ii, 1879, 258, f. 1-3 ; 
Mm. Conch. (1), xii, 289, pi. 40, f. 9-11. Scutus antipodes, Montfort, 
Conch. Syst., ii, 1810, 58, 59. Parmophorus breviculus, Blainville, Bull. 
Sci. Soc. Phil., 1817, 28. Scutus unyuis, L. : A. Adams, P.Z.S., 1851, 
221 ; Hutton, M.N.Z.M., 106, not of Linna-us. Parmophorus auslralis, 
Lamarck : Hutton, C.M.M., 43, not of Lam. 

Shell oblong, length about twice the breadth, depressed, sides 
parallel, posterior end rounded, anterior end squarely truncated, 
sinuated. Surface concentrically striated. Colour brown, in adult 
large specimens often white, eroded. Apex low, at about the pos- 
terior fourth. Inside white, sometimes bluish or greyish inside the 
muscle-scar ; the latter is distinct, rugose. Margin callous, smooth, 
rounded. 

Length, 54 mm. ; breadth, 28 mm. Length, 63 mm. ; breadth , 
35 mm. (my largest specimen). 

Animal. Ration, T.N.Z.I., xiii, 203. 

Dentition. Ration, T.N.Z.I., xv, 127, pi. 15, f. I. 

Type (I}. 

Hob. North and South Islands of New Zealand, but more com- 
mon in the North. 

Maori. Rori (fide Captain Bollons). 



Genus 5. PUNCTURELLA, Lowe, 1827. 

Puncturella, Lowe, Zool. Journ.. iii, 77, 78. Type: Patella noachina, L. 
Cemoria, Leach (MS., 1819), Moll. Gr. Brit. (Gray's edit.), 1852, 213; 
Ad., G.R.M., i, 450. SipJio, Brown, 111. Conch. Gr. Brit., 1827, pi. 36, 
f. 14-16; not of Klein, Fabricius, Moerch. Puncturella, Man. Conch. 
(1), xii, 202, 228. 

Animal with a tubular process, surrounded by papillae, passing 
through the perforation, being formed by the mantle ; epipodial line 
with a series of conical tentacles ; a cirrus on the dorsal part of the 
foot. Jaws fibrous ; radula that of Emarginula. 

Shell small, conical, having a spirally recurved apex either per- 
sistent or absorbed in the adult, the fissure either lanceolate or oval, 
on the front slope or at the summit of the cone ; inside there is a 
plate extending forward, forming a conduit to the fissure or a " deck ' : 
over it. The spiral apex is inclined toward the right side, and 
the fissure is also a trifle to the right of a median line, when visibly 
excentric. The surface usually shows minute granules under a strong 
magnification. 

This is mainly a deep-sea group, living in the northern and southern 
cold seas. About thirty species are known. 

Fossil in the Tertiary of Italy. 



104 GASTROPODA. [Aspidobranchia. 

Sect. 1. PUNCTURELLA, s. str. 

Apex persistent ; the fissure at or near the summit ; the internal 
plate with or without side props. 

1. Puncturella demissa, Hedley, 1904. Plate 6, fig. 16. 

Puncturella demissa, Hedley, Rec. A.M., v, 1904, 93, f. 19 in text; I.e., vi, 
289, pi. 54, f. 3-5. 

Shell small, thin but opaque, low-arched, summit posterior, within 
the margin. Sculpture : Fine incremental threads, scarcely undulated 
by obsolete radial ribs. Colour white. Anterior slope gentle, arched ; 
posterior steep, straight. Nucleus persistent, set obliquely, exposing 
part of 2 spiral whorls. Slit on the summit linear-lanceolate, more 
than three times longer than broad. Aperture oblong, rather broader 
in front. Th.e septum drawn down to a third of the length of the 
shell, completely screening the interior from the slit, thickened at 
the margin. 

Length, 1-8 mm. ; breadth, 1-2 mm. ; height, 1 mm., type (Hedley). 
Length, 2*5 mm. ; breadth, 1-5 mm. ; height, 1-5 mm. (Hedley). 

Type in the Australian Museum, Sydney. 

Hob. Foveaux Strait, type (A. Hamilton) ; Snares, in 50 fathoms 
(Captain Bollons). Australia : 22 miles east of Narrabeen, in 80 
fathoms (Hedley) ; off Port Stephens ; off Port Kembla, in 63-75 
fathoms ; Wreck Bay, in 20 fathoms. 

Remarks. The comparative smoothness, persistent apex, narrow 
fissure, and long septum sufficiently characterize this minute species. 
The surface is clothed with a rather caducous ochraceous epidermis, 
disposed in oblong grains. When stripped of the epidermis the white 
surface of the shell shows no trace of these grains, and would readily 
pass for a different species. Towards the margin some specimens 
have broad, shallow, radial undulations (Hedley). 

Genus 6. FISSURIDEA, Swainson, 1840. 

Fissuridea, Swains.. Malacology, 1840, 356. Type: F. pileus, Swains. 
Lucapina (in part), Ad., G.R.M., i, 447. Cupiluna, Gray, 1857. Glyphis, 
Carpenter, P.Z.S.. 1856 (1857), 223; not of Agassiz, 1843 : Man. Conch. 
(1), xii, 175, 202, 203. 

Animal capable of being entirely contained in the shell, resembling 
Fissurella in external characters. Snout short, ending distally in an 
oval disc, with the mouth in the centre ; tentacles subulate, with 
black eyes on little projections at their outer bases ; epipodium consist- 
ing of a fringe of short filamentous processes altenately larger and 
smaller, becoming more obsolete posteriorly, where it is marked by 
little tubercles in place of the filaments. Mantle-edge smooth or 
papillose, usually rather broad. Central tooth of the radula wide. 

Shell ovate, conical, the orifice in front of the middle. The apex 
spiral, inclined backward in the young, wholly absorbed in the adult. 



Fissuridea.] GASTROPODA. 105 

Surface cancellated by radiating and concentric riblets or striae. In- 
ternal hole-callus truncated behind or having a pit there. Basal 
edges of the shell in a plane or the sides slightly elevated ; ends never 
elevated ; margin crenulated. 

Mediterranean, Atlantic, Indo-Pacific. 

Fossil in the Tertiary. 

The young Fissuridea has a recurved spiral apex with the fissure 
in front of it, exactly as in Rimula. The truncation and pit back of 
the hole-callus are homologous with the septum and pit back of the 
hole in Puncturella. 

]. Fissuridea monilifera, Hutton, 1873. Plate 8, fig. 8. 

L/icapina monilifera, Hutt., C.M.M., 42. Fissurella monilifera, Hutt., P.L.S. 
N.S.W., ix, 370. Megatebennus moniliferus, Hutt., Plioc. M., 72, pi. 8, 
f. 76. Glyphis (?) monilifera, Hiitt., Man. Conch. (1), xii, 227. 

Shell small, oval, slightly wider behind the foramen, depressed 
conoidal. Sculpture consisting of very numerous close and fine radiate 
riblets, distinctly wavy, crossed by very fine close concentric threads, 
nodulous at the points of intersection. Colour white, buff, or tawny. 
Anterior slope straight or slightly convex, posterior slope straight or 
lightly concave. Foramen keyhole-shaped, very little in front of the 
middle, its plane nearly horizontal. Interior white, smooth, only 
microscopically roughened, and with indistinct narrow radiate folds ; 
foramen surrounded by a triangular strong white callus ; muscular 
impression distinct. Margin smooth, sharp, sometimes finely denti- 
culate. 

Length, 15-5 mm. ; breadth, 11-5 mm. ; height, 5mm. (type). 
Length, 23 mm. ; breadth, 16 mm. ; height, 6 mm. (my largest speci- 
men). 

Type in the Dominion Museum, Wellington. 

Hob. Stewart Island, in 15 fathoms (type) ; Port Pegasus, Stewart 
Island, in 18 fathoms ; Snares, in 50 fathoms (Captain Bollons). 

Fossil in the Pliocene. 

Fam. TROCHID^l, d'Orbigny. 

Animal similar in general form to the Turbinidce. Visceral mass 
and shell spirally coiled. Epipodial line bearing 1, several, or 
many smooth or ciliated cirri on each side ; head with a short, broad 
rostrum ; intertentacular lobes simple or digitated, separate or united 
across the front, sometimes obsolete. A single ctenidium ; eyes open 
Jaws developed or absent. 

Shell nacreous within, conical, pyramidal, subglobose, turbinate 
or helicoid ; aperture entire, tetragonal or rounded ; persistome gene- 
rally not continuous. Operculum circular, thin, entirely corneous, 
formed of numerous gradually increasing whorls ; nucleus central. 



106 GASTROPODA. [Aspidobranchia. 

The Trochidce are like the Turbinidce in the possession of a nacreous, 
test and in the principal structural characters of the animal. They 
differ from that family in having a corneous, never calcareous, oper- 
culum, which is always multispiral. 

The animals are herbivorous. The family is represented by 
numerous species living in the littoral and laminarian zones, and 
many are deep-sea forms. 

Ordovician to Recent. 

The best works on the Trochidce are Dr. P. Fischer, Monogr. 
Genre Troque, in Kiener's " Coquilles Vivantes," Paris, 1880 ; H. A. 
Pilsbry, Tryon's Man. Conch. (1), vol. xi, 1889. 

Subfam. 1. TROCHININ.E. 

Animal with frontal lobes ; jaws wanting ; with 5 lateral teeth 
on the radula, a sixth obsolete tooth may be present. Shell pearly 
peristome disconnected. 

KEY TO GENERA. 

1. Shell conical, base flattened ; spire elevated ; last whorl 

generally carinated ; imperforate or false-umbilicate . . TROCHUS. 

2. Shell turbinate, base convex ; generally imperforate ; last 

whorl mostly convex . . . . . . . . MONODONTA. 

3. Shell ovate-conic or pyramidal ; imperforate ; aperture less 

than half the length of shell . . . . . . CANTHARIDUS. 

4. Shell small, conoidal. imperforate or perforate, fine spiral 

lirse ; inner lip callous ; last whorl subangled . . . . PHOTINULA. 

Genus 1. TROCHUS, Linnaeus, 1758. 

Trochus. L.. Syst. Nat., ed. x. 756. Type : T. Niloticiis, L. Pyramided, 
Swainson. Malacology. 1840, 350. RocJiia. Grav, Guide Syst. Distr. 
Moll. Brit. Mus.. 1857, 148. 

Animal with 1 to 4 pairs of cirri upon the epipodial line, which 
are not ciliated ; frontal lobes between the tentacles simple or foliated, 
distinct or united into a veil. The fornmla of teeth is oo 5 1 5 oo 
orl + 5.1.54-l oo. The central and lateral teeth have more or 
less expanded lateral margins, and bear cusps which are smooth on 
the cutting-edge, with minute denticles at the sides. A narrow oblong 
plate, lying between the fifth lateral and the inner marginal tooth, 
is sometimes present. The central tooth is always widest in the 
middle, tapering toward the cup and the base. 

Shell conical, strong, imperforate or false-umbilicated, the axis 
always solid, the spire more or less elevated, whorls numerous, gene- 
rally carinated at the periphery, sometimes rounded, more or less 
flattened beneath ; aperture rhomboidal. very oblique, columella 
twisted, its edge generally folded or dentate and toothed at base ; 
sculptured usually with spiral beaded ridges. 

Distribution. In all the warmer seas. 



Trochus.] GASTROPODA. 107 

The fossil forms appear in the Secondary formation, and have a 
wide distribution in the Tertiary. 

Vernacular Name. Top-shell. 

Remark. The genus is Indo-Australian, and not represented in 
the Tertiary of Patagonia. (Von Ihering.) 

Subgen. 1. INFUNDIBULUM, Montfort, 1810. 

InfundHmlum, Mft., Conch. Syst., 167. Type : Trochus concavus, Gmel. 
Infundibulum, Mft., Man. Conch. (1), xi, 7, 24. Polydonta, Schumacher, 
Essai d'un nouv. Syst., 1817, 231 ; Ad., G.R.M., i, 414, not of Fischer 
de Waldheim, 1807. Carinidea, Swainson, Treatise on Malac., 1840, 350. 
Lamprostoma, Swains., i.e., 350. 

Shell conical, false-umbilicate ; columella more or less folded 
above, its edge straight, oblique, toothed or simple, with or without 
a tooth at the base. 

Indo-Pacinc and Australasian province. 

Sect. 1. CCELOTKOCHUS, P. Fischer, 1880. 
Ccelotrochus, P. Fischer, Coq. Viv., 417. Type : Trochus tiaratus, Q. & G. 

The false umbilicus very deep and narrow, penetrating deeper than 
the columella, which is inserted upon its edge, not in the centre of the 
axis. 

KEY TO SPECIES. 

A. False umbilicus wide and very deep ; 5 to 8 beaded spiral 

cords on the penultimate whorl . . . . . . tiaratus. 

E. False umbilicus narrow and not very deep. 

a. Last whorl with a distinct peripheric keel . . . . chathamensis. 

b. Last whorl biang\ilate . . . . . . . . oppressiis. 

1. Trochus chathamensis, Hutton, 1873. Plate 33, fig. 2. 

Polydonta chathamensis, Hutt., C.M.M., 36. Trochus chathamensis, Hutt., 
Man. Conch. (1), xi, 43 ; Suter, P. Mai. S., ii, 260, fig. in text. Anthora 
chathamensis, Hutton, M.N.Z.M., 94. 

Shell small, conical, spirally striated, last whorl keeled, false 
umbilicus shallow. Sculpture consists of 5 to 6 low spiral threads, 
the lower and upper margins much elevated, especially the former ; 
crossed by broad nodulous radiate ribs, which, however, do not extend 
over the lower half of the whorl ; these ribs are often obsolete ; base 
with subequal spiral lirse. Colour white, buff, or pinkish, with oblique 
longitudinal brownish - purple stripes and spots. Spire conical, the 
sides straight or slightly convex. Protoconch regularly conical, pointed, 
of about 2 whorls, not marked off from the succeeding whorl, smooth, 
with 2 or 3 spiral red bands. Whorls 5, rarely 6, the last 2 rapidly 
increasing, flat to slightly convex above, concave below before reach- 
ing the strong and prominent cingulum ; last whorl strongly carinated ; 



108 GASTROPODA. [Aspidobranchia. 

base flat. Suture superficial, with a nodulous border below. Aper- 
ture oblique, rhomboidal. Outer and basal lip a little convex, form- 
ing a sharp angle where they meet. Columella oblique, slightly con- 
cave, with an almost imperceptible fold above. False umbilicus small, 
smooth, almost filled up. Angle of spire, 70. 

Diameter, 9 inm. ; height, 7-5 mm. (type). Diameter, 11 mm. ;. 
height, 8 mm. (Auckland Island specimen). 

Type in the Dominion Museum, Wellington. 

Hob. Chatham Islands (type) ; Foveaux Strait, in 15 fathoms ; 
Wet Jacket Arm, near Resolution Island, in 12 fathoms (Captain 
Bollons) ; Snares, in 50 fathoms (Captain Bollons) ; Bounty Islands, 
in 50 fathoms (Captain Bollons) ; Auckland Islands (Captain Bollons). 

Remark. - - The specimens from deep water have no longitudinal 
colour-markings. 

Fossil in the Pliocene. 

Subsp. dunedinensis, Suter, 1897. 

Trochus oppressus, Hutt., var. dunedinensis, Suter, P. Mai. S., ii, 261. 

Distinguished from the species by the lowest cord of the spire- 
whorls being much less prominent, the last whorl in consequence 
having no keel, but an angularly rounded periphery. The radiate 
broad ribs are either absent or reduced to nodules below the suture. 
The colour is greenish-brown, with indistinct oblique and olive-black 
stripes. Angle, of spire, 70. 

Diameter, 7-5 mm. ; height, 7-5 mm. (type). 

Type in my collection. 

Hob. Dunedin Harbour, under stones (H. S.). 

Remarks. On re-examining my specimens I found them to stand 
much nearer to T. chathamensis than to T. oppressus. The absence of 
the strong keel on the body-whorl gives it at first sight a closer re- 
semblance to the latter species, though there is no upper angle on the 
body-whorl. 

2. Trochus oppressus, Hutton, 1878. Plate 38, figs. 2, 2a. 

Gibbula oppressa, Hutt., J. tie Conch., xxvi, 1878, 34; Man. Conch. (1), xi, 
232, pi. 40, f. 4, 5. Trochvs oppressus, Suter, P. Mai. S., ii, 261. 

Shell small, conical, somewhat solid, lustreless, with a false um- 
bilicus. Sculpture : The entire surface closely finely spirally striate, 
the strise of the base becoming coarser toward the axis. Colour dark 
olive-brown or greenish, minutely tessellated all over with a slightly 
darker shade of the same hue. Spire conical. Protoconch conical, 
small, 2 slightly spirally striated whorls. Whorls 5, those of the spire 
keeled above the middle, body-whorl biangular ; base rather flattened. 
Suture slightly impressed. Aperture oblique, subquadrangular, irides- 
cent and slightly lirate within. Peristome sharp, discontinuous. Outer 
and basal lip convex, with a narrow opaque margin within, which is 



Trochus.} GASTROPODA. 109 



smooth. Columella oblique, straight, in adult specimens with a few 
inconspicuous plications above. Umbilicus filled with callus, leaving 
only a slight pit. 

Diameter, 6 mm. ; height, 5-5 mm. (type). 

Dentition. Hutton, T.N.Z.I., xv, 124, pi. 14, f. M. 

Type in the Otago Museum, Dunedin. 

Hob. Auckland (type) ; Hauraki Gulf (H. S.) ; East Cape ; Lyall 
Bay ; Taumaki Island, west coast of South Island, in 10 fathoms 
(Captain Bollons) ; Chatham Islands ; Bay of Islands. 

3. Trochus tiaratus, Quoy and Gaimard, 1834. Plate 39, fig. 2. 

Trochus tiaratus, Q. & G., Voy. Astrol., Zool., iii, 1834. 256, pi. 64, f. 6-11 ; 
Man. Conch. (1), xi, 42, pi. 12. f. 72-74; Suter, P. Mai. S., ii, 260. 
Anthora tiarata, Q. & G., M.N.Z.M., 94. Trochus delicatulus, Philippi, 
Zeitschr. Malak.. 1846, 105. Polydonta elegans, Gray, in Yate's N.Z., 
1835, 309. 

Shell depressed conical, rather thin, apex acute, with a deep and 
smooth false umbilicus. Sculpture above consisting of spiral lirae, about 
5 to 8 on each whorl, cut into close oblique beads, the interstices 
obliquely finely striate, one or two of the broader ones usually with 
a central riblet ; base with 8 to 12 spiral beaded cords, stronger 
and much finer ones usually alternating. Colour whitish, sometimes 
greyish-green, finely tessejlated with reddish -brown, the tessellations 
formed by the disintegration of narrow radiating stripes, which are on 
the base frequently continuous ; colour lemon - yellow when eroded. 
Spire conical, often depressed, the outlines slightly convex. Proto- 
conch small, convex, consisting of two smooth whorls. Whorls 5 
to 5J, nearly planulate, but the upper margin of each whorl pro- 
minent and projecting beyond the periphery of the preceding ; last 
whorl carinated or sharply angled at the periphery ; base nearly flat. 
Suture impressed. Aperture subrhomboidal, smooth within, pearly. 
Outer lip sharp, convex, margined inside with a narrow white callus ; 
basal lip straight. Columella oblique, nearly straight, with a dis- 
tinct fold above, inserted upon the side of the false umbilicus ; um- 
bilical area white or yellow, smooth, but partly filled by a white 
callus, not tapering to a point. 

Diameter, 13-5 mm. ; height, 10 mm. Diameter, 19 mm. ; height 
17 mm. 

Dentition. Hutton, T.N.Z.I., xiv, 165, pi. 7, f. N ; Man. uonch. (i), 
xi, pi. 50, f. 5 (top fig. on left side, should be 4). 

Type in the Mus. Hist. Nat., Paris. 

Hob. Coasts of the North and South Islands, on rocks near 
low-water mark ; Chatham Islands, where a much depressed form 
occurs ; Hauraki Gulf, in 25 fathoms. The type is from Tasmau Bay. 

Fossil in the Pliocene. 

Maori. Mimiti (fide Quoy and Gaimard). 



110 GASTROPODA. [Aspidobranchia. 

Sect. 2. ANTHORA, Gray, 1857. 

Anthora, Gray, Guide Syst. Distr. Moll. Brit. Mus., 148. Type : Polydonta 
tuberculata, Gray. 

Shell elevated, conical, more or less granulose above, lirate below ; 
base plano-concave or flat, false umbilicus shallow, with 1 to 4 ribs, 
outer and basal lips smooth within ; columella oblique, with, a small 
fold above, its edge simple. 

KEY TO SPECIES. 

A. Shell with 5 beaded spiral lirse on the penultimate whorl ; 

umbilicus with 3 to 4 distant spiral ribs . . . . riridis. 

B. Shell with 4 to 6 rope-like cinguli on the penultimate whorl ; 

umbilicus with 1 spiral rib, sometimes grooved in the 

middle . . . . . . . . . . . . camelophorus. 

4. Trochus camelophorus, Webster, 1906. Plate 33, fig. 3. 

Trochus camelophorus, Webster, T.N.Z.I., xxxviii, 1905 (1906), 309, pi. 39, 
f. 1, la. T. comis, Gmelin : Suter, T.N.Z.I., xxxviii. 323, not of Gmelin. 

Shell solid, conical, pink, false-umbilicate. Sculpture : Rounded 
cinguli of unequal thickness, with rope-like markings, 5 to 6 on the 
penultimate whorl ; regular radiate riblets cross the cinguli. slightly 
beading or granulating them ; base with 5 to 6 flat spiral ribs, sepa- 
rated by slightly narrower furrows, the whole ornamented with close 
and fine radiate striae. Colour rose, with darker markings above the 
periphery of the last whorl ; base yellowish-white, with radiate stripes 
and spots of light brown. Spire conical, with a rounded apex. Proto- 
conch 2-whorled, with traces of spiral sculpture. Whorls 5^, slightly 
shouldered above, flat, the last sharply angled at periphery. Suture 
marked by a deep groove behind the first roping of succeeding whorl. 
Aperture sub quadrangular, inside slightly pearly. Outer and basal lip 
slightly convex, forming an acute angle at their junction. Columella 
slightly oblique, with a distinct fold above, rounded, and smooth. 
The false umbilicus is not very deep, and with a strong spiral fold, 
which is sometimes distinctly grooved, thus havi the appearance of 
2 spiral ribs lying close together. 

Diameter, 12mm.; height, 10mm. (type). Diameter, 11-5 mm. ; 
height, 11 mm. (specimen in my collection). 

Type in Mr. W. H. Webster's collection. 

Hob. Cape Maria van Diemen. 

5. Trochus viridis, Gmelin, 1790. Plate 8, fig. 9. 

Trochus viridis, Gmel., Syst. Nat., ed. xiii, 3572 : Man. Conch. (1). xi, 43, 
pi. 3, f. 16, 17 ; x, pi. 40, f. 21 : Suter. P. Mai. S., ii, 261. Anthora 
viridis, Grnel. : Hutton, M.N.Z.M.. 94. Polydonta tuberculata. Gray, 
Dieff. N.Z., 239. Anthora tuberculata. Gray : Hutton, M.N.Z.M., 93. 
Trochus acinosus, Gould, U.S. Expl. Ex., 179. f. 217. T. /vlrolabris, 
Hombr. & Jacq., Voy. P.S., v, 56, pi. 14, f. 14-16. Polydonta tritonis, 
A. Ad., P.Z.S., 1854, 132. 

Shell conical, solid, false-umbilicate. Sculpture of upper surface 
consisting of 5 series to each whorl of rounded bead-like granules, 



Trochus.] GASTROPODA. Ill 

between which are visible numerous very minute spiral striae, in the 
interstices of which oblique incremental strise are prominently shown 
under a lens ; base concentrically striate, the striso unequal, disap- 
pearing toward the outer edge. Colour dull grey, whitish, or greenish. 
Spire conic, with nearly straight outlines, ,apex acute. Protoconch very 
small, H whorls, which have a slightly rugose surface. Whorls about 
7, nearly planulate, or sometimes a little bulging at the upper and 
lower margins, the last whorl strongly angled or carinate at the peri- 
phery ; base plano-concave. Suture rather deep. Aperture suboval 
to quadrangular, nacreous within. Outer lip convex, sharp, with a 
smooth marginal band inside ; the outer part narrow, white, and opaque ; 
the inner part broader, iridescent, and smooth ; further in lirate. 
Basal lip thickened, subdentate, uniting with the columella in a regular 
curve. Columella oblique, with a deep fold near its insertion, smooth 
within. Umbilical area with 3 to 4 spiral ribs, interstices nacreous, 
the umbilicus narrow and deep or partly filled up by a white callus. 
The parietal wall transversely striate or nearly smooth, with a light- 
brown callus. 

Diameter, 19 mm. ; height, 20 mm. 

The animal is yellowish-brown, foot reddish or purplish-brown ; 
filaments white, 3 on each side. The head-lobes are smooth and 
rounded, and joined together across the head. The eyes are on rather 
long white peduncles. 

Dentition. Rutton, T.N.Z.I., xv, 124, pi. 14, f. K. 

Type CO- 

Hob. North and South Islands ; Chatham Islands : on rocky 
ground near low-water mark. Brought to England by Captain 
Cook. Occurs also at Norfolk Island. 

Fossil in the Pliocene. 

Subgen. 2. CLANCULUS, Montfort, 1810. 

Clanculus, Mft., Conch. Syst., 191. Type : Trochus pharaonicus, L. Clan- 
culus, Mft., Man. Conch. (1), xi, 8, 47. Monodonta (in part), Lamarck 
and authors. Fragella, Swainson, " Shells and Shell-fish," 352. Otavia. 
Risso, Hist. Nat. Eur. Merid., iv, 1826, 132. Clanculopsis. Monterosato, 
Bull. Soc. Malac. Ital., v, 1879, 222. 

Shell conical, conoidal, or turbinate ; generally granose-lirate all 
over, periphery rounded or angular, base flat or convex, false-um- 
bilicate ; aperture oblique, usually obstructed by teeth, the outer 
lip usually lirate or dentate within, columella with a tooth-like fold 
above, terminating in a tooth at the base ; false umbilicus with a 
crenated border. 

The animal bears 4 pairs of tentacular filaments on the epipodial 
line. The dentition is similar to that of Trochus, but the body of the 
tooth is more expanded, the centrals and laterals bearing large lateral 
supporting-wings. 

Distribution. Mediterranean, Indian Ocean, and Pacific. 



112 GASTROPODA. [Aspidobranchia. 

KEY TO SPECIES. 

A. Shell elevated conical, cohimella with a strong biplicate tooth 

at base . . . . . . . . . . . . ringens. 

B. Shell depressed conoidal, cohimella with a small simple tooth 

at base . . . . . . . . . . . . takapunaensis. 

t 
6. Trochus ringens, Menke, 1843. Plate 38, fig. 3. 

Monodonta ringens, Mke., Moll. Nov. Holl. Spec., 14 ; not of Philippi, 1846. 
Trochus ringens, Mke. : Fischer, Coq. Viv., 213, pi. 71, f. 1 ; Man. 
Conch. (1), xi, 81, pi. 11, f. 49, 50 ; Suter, P. Mai. S., ii, 262. 

Shell false-umbilicate, conical, spirally cingulate. Sculpture : 
Spirally cingulate above, with 4 elegantly granulate ridges, the upper 
and lower larger ; base with 8-9 granose cinguli. Colour yellowish, 
maculate with chestnut and white. Spire conical, sides convex, 
sharply pointed. Protoconch sharply pointed, spirally lirate, of about 
2 whorls, white with pink spots. Whorls 7, planulate, the last 
acutely carinated ; base slightly convex. Suture canaliculate. Aper- 
ture rhomboidal, oblique, narrow. Basal margin sulcate-denticulate. 
Columella strong, callous, oblique, strongly plaited, terminating below 
in a large biplicate tooth. 

Diameter, 11 mm. ; height, 10 mm. Sometimes the height exceeds 
the diameter. 

Type (?). 

Hob. Cape Maria van Diemen (C. H. Robson) ; Mokohinau 
Island. 

Remarks. My specimen from Mokohinau has a slightly more acute 
spire ; the colour is light brown, with chestnut-brown spots ; the 
outer lip is distinctly lirate within ; the margins of the aperture are 
united across the body- whorl by a rather thick callus, bearing a few 
lirse. Diameter, 10-5 mm. ; height, 12 mm. Angle of spire, 62. 

7. Trochus takapunaensis, Webster, 1906. Plate 33, fig. 4. 

Trochus (Clancuhts) takapunaensis, Webst., T.N.Z.I., xxxviii, 1905 (190t>), 
309, pi. 39, f. 2, 2a. 

Shell small, depressed conoidal, spirally cingulate. Sculpture : 
Smooth rounded spirals, of which the 2 upper are closer together 
and the others far enough apart to admit a fine spiral thread in the 
radially striated hollow between them ; above the peripheral spiral 
on the body-whorl is a narrower one, which appeared in the suture 
of the third whorl ; base with 7 to 8 spirals, separated by furrows of 
the same width. Colour yellow-grey, with very dark irregular patches, 
all of which shade into white from left to right. Spire depressed 
conoidal, sides convex. Protoconch rounded, smooth, of H whorls. 
Whorls 5, slightly rounded, the last carinated at the periphery ; base 
convex. Suture canaliculate. Aperture rhomboidal, oblique. Prri- 
stomc with numerous irregular denticles, some of them extending far 
into the shell. Columella oblique, arcuated, having a blunt tubercle 



Trochm.} GASTROPODA. 113 

on the funnel side, and a long fold transversely wound over the anterior 
end and passing into the shell. False umbilicus deep, funnel-shaped, 
contracted at the margin by a spiral rib with occasional tubercles. 

Diameter, 7-5 mm. ; height, 5 mm. 

Type in Mr. W. H. Webster's collection. 

Hob. Takapuna, in shell-sand. 

Remark. The shell has a close resemblance to the Victorian 
C. plebejus. (Hedley.) 

Genus 2. MONODONTA, Lamarck, 1799. 

Jlonodonta. Lam., Mem. Soc. Hist. Nat.. 1799, 74. Type : M. labio, L. 
Manodonio, Lam. : Ad., G.R.M., i, 417 ; Man. Conch. (1), xi, 8, 86. Labio, 
Oken. Lehrbxich, 263. Monodontes, Montfort, Conch. Syst., ii, 195. 
Trocliidon, Swainson, Treat. Malac., 351. Odontis, Sowerby, Cat. 
Tankerville Coll., 53. Trochulus, Humphrey. Monodon, Schweigger 

Animal having long tentacles and 4 pairs of epipodial cirri. The 
radula has the formula ool.5+l + 5.1oo. The prominent character 
of the dentition is the development of the lateral basal angles of the 
central and lateral teeth into broadly projecting lobes imbricating 
over the adjacent tooth ; the cusp of the central is wide, shortly 
reflexed, its edge denticulate at the sides, smooth in the middle. 

Shell imperforate. turbinate, ovate or globose-depressed, the peri- 
phery rounded ; surface smooth or spirally ridged ; cqlumella simple, 
arcuate, and spread upon the base at its insertion, below tubercu- 
late, swollen, ending in a tooth, or simple ; outer lip smooth or lirate 
within. 

With the exception of several forms from the west coast of South 
America, the species are all Old World in distribution, mostly tropical. 

Geologically, the genus dates from the Trias. 

Subgen. 1. DILOMA, Philippi, 1845. 

Diloma, Phi]., Abbild., &c., i, 1845, 168. Type : Turbo nigerrimus, Gmel. 
Shell globose or depressed conic ; aperture large, very oblique ; 
columella not prominent, flattened, not cylindrical, generally con- 
cave, arcuate, and slightly denticulate at the base, or smooth. 

Sect. 1. DILOMA, s. str. 
Diloma, Phil., Ad. G.R.M., i. 419 ; Man. Conch. (1), xi, 9, 96. 

Shell globose, depressed or conic, imperforate, black ; smooth 
or spirally grooved ; columella wide, concave, porcellanous ; lip mar- 
gined with an iridescent band, which extends across the parietal wall. 

Diloma has been restricted by Fischer to the South American 
species, but two are found on the coasts of New Zealand. The only 
diagnostic character separating these from the other Australasian 
forms is the band of nacre extending across the parietal wall, con- 
necting the terminations of the peristome. 



GASTROPODA. [Aspidobranchia. 



KEY TO SPECIES. 

A. Shell without spots, colour mostly bluish-black, outer lip not or 

very narrowly black-margined within . . . . . . nigerrima 

B. Shell with or without yellow spots, colour purplish-black, outer 

lip conspicuously black-margined within . . . . coracina. 

1. Monodonta coracina, Troschel, 1851. Plate 38, fig. 4. 

Trochus cm-acinus, Troschel, in Philippi, Condi. Cab., 1851, 148, pi. 24, 
f. 13; Fischer, Coq. Viv., 357. pi. 110, f. 6. Monodonta 'coracina, 
Trosch., Man. Conch. (1), xi, 103, pi. 19, f. 94; pi. 31, f. 28: Suter, 
P. Mai. S., ii, 264. Labio porcifera, A. Adams, P.Z.S., 1851 (1853), 179, 
not of Watson. Diloma nigerrima, Chemnitz : Hutton. M.1ST.Z.M 96 - 
P.L.S. N.S.W., ix, 366, not of Chemnitz nor Gmelin. 

Shell small, imperf orate, orbicular-conoid, depressed, solid, lustre- 
less. Sculpture : Kather distant spiral liree, sometimes obsolete, 
crossed by oblique growth-lines. Colour purplish-black or black^ 
\micoloured, or sparsely dotted, especially on the base, with yellow. 
Epidermis solid, not easily eroded. Spire low and arched, or conical 
with rounded apex. Protoconch of 2 flatly convex whorls, which are 
finely spirally lirate with very distinct oblique growth-lines. Whorls 
4 to 5, slightly convex, the last large, concave below the suture, ob- 
tusely angulate at the periphery, eroded in front of the aperture ; 
base flatly convex. Suture linear, margined below by a low and 
rather broad pad. Aperture very oblique, reddish iridescent and 
lirate. Outer lip convex, sharp, black-edged inside, followed by a 
white opaque band which continues as a pearly stripe over the 
umbilical tract, parallel to the columella, and connects the termi- 
nations of the peristome. Umbilical tract bounded on the outer lower 
margin by green, grey, or brown. Operculum round, light brown, 
horny, multispiral ; nucleus central. 

Diameter, 8-5-10 mm. ; height, 6-9 mm. Diameter, 17 mm. ; 
height, 19 mm. (specimen from Kawhia). 

Dentition. Suter, P. Mai. S., ii, 265, fig. in text. 

Type (?). 

Hab. Coast near Kawhia (H. S.) ; Wellington Harbour (H. S.) ; 
Lyttelton Harbour (H. S.) ; Sumner, near Christchurch (H. S.) ; Pre- 
servation Inlet ; Chatham Islands ; Auckland Islands (Captain 
Hutton). 

Remark. This is the most variable species of the genus. 

2. Monodonta nigerrima, Gmelin, 1790. Plate 38, figs. 5, 5a. 

Turbo nigerrimus, Gmel., Syst. Nat., ed. xiii, 3597 : not Trochus nigerrimus, 
Gmel., a species of Chlorostoma. Diloma nigerrima. Ad., G.R.M., iii, 
pi. 47, f. 7, 7c ; Chenu, Man. i, 358, f. 2658. Monodonta nigerrima', 
Gmel., Man. Conch. (1), xi. 97, pi. 23, f. 77, 78 ; pi. 20. f. 18. Trochus 
araucanus, d'Orbigny, Voy. Amer. Merid., Moll., 410, pi. 55, f. 6. 
Turbo Quoyi, Kiener, Spec, et Icon. (Turbo), pi. 29, f. 2 ; not Trochus 
Quoyi, Phil. Monodonta porcifera, Watson: Suter, P. Mai. S., ii, 264, 
not of Adams nor of Watson. Trochus Gaiidichaudi. Hupe, in Gay' 
Hist. fis. Chile, Zool., viii, 1854, 146, pi. 4, f. 4. 



Monodonta.] GASTROPODA. 115 

Shell imperforate, depressed, globose, solid, black. Sculpture con- 
sists of numerous close spiral strise, sometimes nearly obsolete, crossed 
by oblique growth-lines, which, are often strongly developed. Colour 
bluish-black or black, beach-worn specimens reddish or brownish ; 
no spots. Epidermis fairly thick and solid, shining in fresh specimens. 
Spire short, conoidal to conical ; apex rounded or acute. Protoconch 
consisting of 2 spirally striate and lightly pearly whorls, sometimes 
reddish. Whorls 4 to 5, slightly convex, rapidly increasing, the last 
usually depressed or subconcave below the suture ; base rounded, 
eroded and iridescent in front of the aperture. Suture linear, margined 
below by a strong cord. Aperture large, oblique, greenish iridescent, 
and closely lirate. Outer lip convex, rather thin and sharp, bordered 
within by an extremely narrow black margin, followed by a broad 
opaque white band, sometimes brilliantly iridescent. Columella con- 
cave, obsoletely subdentate below, very broad and flattened or ex- 
cavated on the face, composed principally of an opaque white layer, 
which also lines the base, but does not extend to the edge of the lip. 
Parietal wall with a band of nacre, uniting the ends of the peristome, 
bounded on the outside with light brown or white. 

Diameter, 17-24 mm. ; height, 15-26 mm. 




TEETH OF RADULA. 

Dentition. Troschel, Das Gebiss d. Schnecken, ii, 236, pi. 24, f. 2 ; 
Suter, P. Mai. S., ii, 264, fig. in text (as porcifera, Watson). 

Type (?). 

Hob. Sumner, near Christchurch (H. S.) ; St. Clair, near Dunedin 
(H. S.) ; Preservation Inlet ; Pitt's Island, near Stewart Island (C. 
Traill) ; Chatham Island ; Auckland Islands (Captain Bollons). Also 
west coast of South America. 

Sect. 2. NEODILOMA, P. Fischer, 1885. 

Neodiloma, Fisch., Man. de Conch., 820. Type: Trochus cethiops, Gmel. 
Neodiloma, Fisch.., Man. Conch. (1), xi, 9, 98. 

Similar to Diloma, but without the parietal band of iridescent 
nacre ; surface smooth, grooved, or lirate ; unicoloured, spotted, or 
tessellated ; columella with one or two denticles at the base, or smooth. 

Australasia. 



116 GASTROPODA. [Aspidobranchta. 

KEY TO SPECIES. 
A. Whorls spirally sulcate. 

a. Columella backed by a distinct pearly band. 

b. Spiral grooves distant, intervening tracts often reticu- 
lated with black and white . . . . . . cethiops. 

bb. Spiral grooves close together, 7-10 on the penultimate 

whorl, 
c. Shell black, dull, with irregularly scattered white 

spots . . . . . . . . . . morio. 

cc. Shell greenish-black, shining, sometimes with 

yellowish spots . . . . . . . . atrovirens. 

aa. Pearly band wanting, or very short and but slightly iri- 
descent. 
b. Last whorl carinated, base concave . . . . excavate. 

bb. Last whorl rounded, base flat . . . . . . corrosa. 

B. Whorls spirally ridged. 

a. Spiral ridges nodulous, 3 on the penultimate whorl. Colour 

blackish, with whitish spots on the ridges . . . . litgubris. 

aa. Spiral ridges subnodulous, 3-5 on the penultimate whorl. 

Colour yellowish, with oblique radiate purple lines . . subrostrata. 

3. Monodonta aethiops, Gmelin, 1790. Plate 39, fig. 3. 

Turbo (vthiops, Gmel.. Syst. Nat., ed. xiii, 3596. Monodonta cethiops, GmeL, 
Man. Conch. (1). 3d, 98, pi. 19. f. 99, 100; pi. 20, f. 19: Suter, P. Mai. 
S., ii. 262. Trochits zelandicits, Q. & G., Voy. Astrol., Zocl., iii, 1834, 
257, pi. 64, f. 12-15. Monodonta retic-ularis. Gray, Wood's Suppl., f. 21. 
?Labio concolor. A. Ad.. P.Z.S., 1851, 180. 

Shell imperforate, globose - conoid, solid, thick. Sculpture con- 
sists of distant narrow spiral grooves, the intervening tracts orna- 
mented with close, fine, oblique, laniellose, radiate striae. Colour 
blackish or greenish, usually encircled by series of narrow white marks, 
formed by the interruption of numerous longitudinal white lines by 
narrow spiral black stripes. Epidermis lamellose. Spire conic, with 
the apex rounded. Protoconch mostly eroded, spirally lirate, flatly 
convex. Whorls 5, convex, rapidly increasing ; base convex, eroded 
and subconcave in front of the aperture. Suture impressed, linear. 
Aperture large, oblique and expanded, pearly, lirate. Outer lip regu- 
larly convex, sharp, with a black edge, often spotted with white ; then 
bounded by a rather broad pearly band, and this is followed by a 
broad opaque white callosity. Columella short, concave, white, ob- 
tusely bidentate at the base. The umbilical tract is very broad, sub- 
concave, bounded on the outer lower margin by a dark-brown streak. 
The pearly band of the outer lip is continued over the parietal wall to 
the middle of the umbilical tract, sometimes continuous with the pearly 
band of the basal lip, forming a complete circle. 

Diameter, 25-30 mm. ; height, 25-33 mm. Diameter. 26 mm. : 
height, 25 mm. (specimen from Kawhia). 

Dentition. Troschel, Das Gebiss d. Schnecken, ii, pi. 23, f. 3 ; 
Hutton, T.N.Z.I., xv, 125, pi. 15, f. A ; Man. Conch. (1), xi, pi. 50, f. 1 



Monodonta.] GASTROPODA. 117 



Type (?). 

Hob. Throughout New Zealand ; Chatham and Auckland Islands. 
Brought to England by Captain Cook. 

This is the most common species of the genus. 
Fossil in the Pliocene. 

4. Monodonta atrovirens, Philippi, 1851. Plate 38, fig. 6. 

Trochus atrovirens, Phil., Conch. Cab., 148, pi. 24, f. 12. Monodonta atro- 
virens, Phil. : Fischer, Coq. Viv., 373, pi. 114, f. 1 ; Man. Conch. (1). xi, 
110, pi. 22, f. 48-50 ; Sxiter, P. Mai. S., ii, 263. 

Shell orbiculate-conoidal, solid, imperforate, greenish-black. Sculp- 
ture consisting of spiral narrow sulci, 7 to 9 on the penultimate whorl, 
the flat cinguli crossed by close and fine lines of growth ; base with 
about 7 sulci, a little closer together: Colour greenish-black, very 
often with irregularly scattered yellowish dots. Epidermis shining, 
often eroded on the spire, but seldom rubbed off. Spire depressed 
conoidal, sides very convex, apex sharp. Protoconch conic, small, of 
2^ smooth whorls. Whorls 6, rapidly increasing, slightly convex and 
depressed above, last whorl rounded at the periphery ; base flatly 
convex. Suture impressed, margined below by a cingula much broader 
than the succeeding ones. Aperture subrhomboidal, pearly and lirate 
within. Outer lip convex, sharp, black-edged, then a broad silvery 
band, often followed by a broad white and opaque callosity. Columella 
oblique, nearly straight, nodulous at the base, the callus extending on 
the inner side of the basal lip. Inner lip broadly expanded, bounded 
by green or blackish-green ; a distinct tongue-shaped pit at the centre 
of the umbilical tract, extending downward to the basal lip. 

Diameter, 14-23 mm. ; height, 9-17 mm. 

Dentition unknown. 

Type (?) 

Hob. Tasman Bay (type) ; Hauraki Gulf (H. S.) ; west coast of 
the North Island ; Lyall Bay (H. S.) ; Te Onepoto, near Lyttelton 
(H. S.) ; St. Clair, near Dunedin (H. S.). 

Remark. This species is very nearly allied to M. morio. 

5. Monodonta corrosa, A. Adams, 1853. Plate 38, fig. 7. 

Labio corrow, A. Ad., P.Z.S., 1851 (1853). 180. Diloma corrosa. Ad. : 
Hutton, M.N.Z.M., 96. Monodonta melanoloma, Menke, Man. Conch. 
(1), xi, 104, pi. 22. f. 56, 57 ; Suter, P. Mai. 8., ii, 266. not of Menke. 
Trochus labio, L. : Chemnitz, Siidland. Conch., 199, not of Linnaeus. 

Shell globose-conical, solid, imperforate, surface dull, corroded. 
Sculpture consisting of subobsolete spiral cinguli, about 6 on the 
penultimate-whorl, about 7 on the base, much closer together ; the 
whole surface with oblique subobsolete growth-strise. Colour dark- 
purplish, overlaid by a more or less eroded yellowish-white layer, 
leaving sometimes zigzag bands of purple on the last whorl. Spire 
conic, apex much eroded. Whorls about 5, slightly convex, the last 



118 GASTROPODA. \Aspidobranchia. 



globose, not eroded in front of the aperture ; base slightly convex 
or flat. Suture impressed. Aperture oblique, nacreous and smooth 
within. Outer Up regularly convex, sharp, bordered by a narrow 
yellow or white followed by a black strip. Columella oblique, short, 
nearly straight, with 1 or 2 tubercles, white, dilated upon the parietal 
wall, but not extending to the upper lip. Umbilical tract slightly 
pitted, subconcave, no pearly band. 

Diameter, 16 mm. ; height, 15 mm. 

Dentition unknown. 

Type in the British Museum. 

Hob. On mud-flats of the South Island ; Heathcote Estuary, 
near Christchurch (H. S.) ; Dunedin (Captain Hutton). Brought to 
England by Captain Cook. 

Remark. Pilsbry wrote to me in 1897 : ' Your New Zealand 
species will stand as M. corrosa, A. Ad. It is perfectly distinct from 
the West and South Australian M. melanoloma. Of course, my descrip- 
tion and figures refer to corrosa, for at that time I had not seen the 
true Australian melanoloma." 

Fossil in the Pliocene. 

Subsp. undulosa, A. Adams, 1853. 

CJdorostoma undulosum, A. Ad., P.Z.S., 1851 (1853), 182. Monodonta cor- 
rosa, subsp. imdulosa. A. Ad., Man. Conch. (1). xi, 105, pi. 22. f. 45-47 ; 
Stiter, P. Mai. S., ii, 267. Trochus undulosus, A. Ad., Ereb. & Ter., 4, 
pi. 1, f. 15. T. attritus, Hombr. & Jacq., Voy. P.S., 57, pi. 14. f. 19. 20. 
Labio Hectori, Hutt., C.M.M., 37. Diloma Hectori, Hutt., M.N.Z.M., 95. 

Larger than the species, and the spiral sculpture more distinct. 
Colour yellowish, with undulating lines of dark purple. Aperture 
sometimes faintly lirate within. 

Diameter, 20-22 mm. ; height, 17-18 mm. : 19 mm. by 16 mm. 
(type). 

Dentition unknown. 

Type in the British Museum. 

Hob. From Sumner to Dunedin ; on rocks, not common. 

Subsp. plumbea, Hutton, 1883. Plate 38, fig. 8. 

Diloma plumbea, Hntt., T. N.Z.I., xv, 126. Monodonta melanoloma, Menke, 
subsp. plumbea, Hutt., Man. Conch. (1), xi, 105, pi. 20, f. 15-17; Suter, 
P. Mai. S., ii, 267. 

Shell globose-conic,' imperforate, solid. Sculpture consists of obso- 
lete coarse lirae on the last whorl only. Colour dull purplish, spire 
usually eroded, white. Spire conical, acute. Whorls 4 to 5, flatly 
convex ; base flat. Suture superficial. Aperture as in the species, 
but the outer lip margined within only by black. Inner lip spreading 
broadly over the lower part of the parietal wall and umbilical tract, 
bordered outside by black ; no pearly band. 

Diameter, 16 mm. ; height, 14-5 mm. 

Dentition.^ Hutton, T.N.Z.I., xv, pi. 15, f. E. 



Mn,i,t<li<nl<i.\ GASTROPODA. 



Animal like M. cethiops, the foot being margined with a band of 
black-and-white transverse stripes. 

Type in the Canterbury Museum, Christchurch. 

Hab. Sumner ; Lyttelton ; Banks Peninsula to Dunedin : under 
stones near low- water mark ; rather rare. 

6. Monodonta excavata, Adams and Angas, 1864. Plate 38, fig. 9. 

Trochocochlea excavata, Ad. & Ang.. P.Z.S., 1864, 37. Monodonta excavata, 
Ad. & Ang., Man. Conch. (1). 'xi, 101), pi. 35, f. 1-3 ; Suter, P. M.-il. S. 
ii, 265. Trochocochlea constricta. Lain. : Hntton, J. de Conch., 1878, 33, 
not of Lamarck. 

Shell small, depressed conical, imperforate, base concave. Sculp- 
ture consisting of numerous spiral sulci, crossed by distinct oblique 
growth-lines, the latter predominant on the last whorl ; base with 
3 to 4 very distinct spiral sulci. Colour light green, closely maculated 
and mottled in minute pattern with dark olive, the markings some- 
times assuming the form of obliquely descending dark bars. Spire 
conoidal, the apex mostly eroded, whitish. Whorls 4, the last conic 
above, flattened beneath, carinate at the periphery. Suture well im- 
pressed. Aperture occupying almost the entire surface of the base, 
large and very oblique, pearly and smooth within. Outer lip acute, 
arcuate, with a black edge followed by an opaque white band. Colu- 
mella subhorizontal, its edge arcuate, tbin, acute, extending below 
upon the base and forming a ledge within the basal lip. Umbilical 
tract very large, concave, white, bounded by light brown ; a tongue- 
shaped pointed short band, but slightly pearly, extends from the 
basal lip toward the centre of the umbilical tract. 

Diameter, 6 mm. ; height, 5 mm. Diameter, 11-5 mm. ; height, 
10 mm. (specimen from Greymouth). 

Dentition. Button, T.N.Z.I., xv, 126, pi. 15, f. F. 

Type in the British Museum. 

Hab. West coast of the North and South Islands ; Manukau 
Heads ; Cape Egmont ; Greymouth ; Chatham Islands. 

7. Monodonta lugubris, Gmelin, 1790. Plate 38, fig. 10. 

Trochus lugubris, Grnel., Syst. Nat., ed. xiii, 3583. Monodonta lugubris, 
GmeL, Man. Conch. (1), xi, 100, pi. 19, f. 93 ; pi. 35, f. 24, 25 : Suter, P. 
Mai. S., ii, 265. Trochus cingulatus, Q. & G., Voy. Astrol., Zool., iii, 
1834, 259, pi. 64, f . 16-20, not of Brocchi nor Menke. Monodonta angu- 
latum (misprint for cingulatum), Gray, Dieff. N.Z., ii, 238. Trochus 
Gaimardi, Phil., Conch. Cab., 211, pi. 31, f. 7-9. T. Bernardi, Recluz, 
J. de Conch:, 1852, 166, pi. 7, f. 5. T. sulcatus, Wood, Ind. Test. Suppl., 
pi. 6. f . 40, not of Martyn nor Lamarck. T. bicanaliculatns, Dunker : 
Philippi, Conch. Cab., 202, pi. 30, f. 6. 

Shell small, solid, thick, imperforate, depressed conic, blackish, 
with strong spiral ridges. Sculpture consisting of strong spiral nodu- 
lous ridges, 3 on the penultimate whorl, interstices with 3 to 4 fine 
cinguli ; base concentrically lirate, the lirse coarsely granulosc, about 



120 GASTROPODA. [Aspidobranchia. 

5 in number. Colour black or greenish-black, dotted upon the ribs 
with yellowish or white. Epidermis solid, dull, not easily rubbed off. 
Spire conic, more or less depressed, apex acute. Protoconch small, 
spirally lirate, regularly conoidal. Whorls 5, the last depressed, angu- 
late at the periphery ; base flat. Suture linear, indistinct. Aperture 
very oblique, iridescent, lirate. Outer lip convex, angled below, edged 
with black, then nacreous, and lined with opaque white, the thicken- 
ing sometimes slightly notched at the place of the periphery. Colu- 
mella oblique, slightly concave, flat, opaque white, backed by a nacreous 
band coming from the basal lip and reaching as far as the centre of 
the umbilical tract. 

Diameter, 13-15 mm. ; height, 9-13 mm. 

Dentition unknown. 

Type (?). 

Hob. From Bay of Islands to Stewart Island ; under stones be- 
tween tide-marks. Not common, but more abundant in Cook Strait 
than further north or south. Brought to England by Captain Cook. 

Fossil in the Pliocene. 

8. Monodonta morio, Troschel, 1851. Plate 39, fig. 4. 

Trochus morio, Trosch., in Philippi. Conch. Cab., 142, pi. 24, f. 3. Mono- 
donta morio, Trosch., Man. Conch. (1), xi, 102. pi. 35, f. 26, 27 ; Suter, 
P. Mai. S.. ii, 263. M. melaloma, var. guttata, Hutton, P.L.S. N.S.W., 
ix, 3(37 ; Man. Conch. (1), xi, 105. Trochus (Diloma) porr.ifer, A. Ad. : 
Watson, Chall. Re])., xv, 67, pi. 4, f. 12, not of Adams. 

Shell semiglobose to conical, solid, black, imperforate. Sculpture 
consisting of numerous spiral sulci, about 10 on the penultimate 
whorl, crossed by very fine growth-lines ; the same ornamentation, 
usually more distinct, upon the base. Colour black, with irregularly 
scattered white dots. Epidermis dull, easily worn off. Spire low and 
arched to elevated conoidal, sides strongly convex. Protoconch always 
eroded, flatly convex, smooth. Whorls about 5, rapidly increasing, 
slightly depressed below the suture, then convex, the last whorl rounded 
or subangled at the periphery ; base but little convex. Suture linear, 
not much impressed. Aperture very oblique, silvery with a greenish 
lustre, closely lirate. Outer lip convex, sharp, edged with black or 
blackish-green, followed by a narrow silvery lirate band, and inside 
this there is in quite adult specimens a broad band of opaque, white. 
Columbia oblique, nearly straight, nodulous, white, continued as a 
broad opaque white band inside the pearly edge on the basal lip. 
Umbilical tract broad, bounded by dark green, and with a pearly 
impression, the continuation of the band on the lower lip. 

Diameter, 14-19 mm. ; height, 12-20 mm. 

Dentition unknown. 

TypeQ). 

Hob. North and South Islands, as far south as Preservation 
Inlet ; rather common on rocks and under stones between tide-marks. 

Remark. This species shows a good deal of variation. 



Monodonta.] GASTROPODA. 121 

9. Monodonta subrostrata, Gray, 1835. Plate 38, fig. 11. 

Monodonta subrostrata. Gray: Yate, N.Z., 308; Man. Couch. (1). xi, 101, 
pi. 19, f. 89, 90 ; Suter, P. Mai. S.. ii, 266. TrocJiocochlea subrostrata, 
Gray : Hutton, M.N.Z.M., 96. 

Shell conical, suborbicular, solid, imperforate. Sculpture consist- 
ing of distant subnodulous spiral ridges, 3 to 6 on the penultimate 
whorl, interstices without spiral sculpture, the whole crossed by oblique 
fine and close growth-lines ; base with about 6 concentric close ridges. 
Colour yellowish, with undulating longitudinal purple lines. Epi- 
dermis thin, mostly rubbed off. Spire conoidal to conical, acute. 
Protoconch small, conic, acute, smooth, mostly eroded. Whorls 5, 
rapidly increasing, convex, the last slightly angled at the periphery ; 
base convex. Suture well impressed, margined below. Aperture ob- 
lique, silvery, distantly lirate. Outer lip convex, sharp, edged with 
yellowy and often dotted with black ; then a narrow band of opaque 
white. Columella oblique, opaque white, nearly straight, broad, and 
smooth, with an indistinct tooth below, mostly, however, obsolete. 
Umbilical tract rather broad, greyish or yellowish-grey on its outer 
lower margin ; a pearly band extends from the lower lip up to near 
the centre of the umbilical tract. 

Diameter, 13-15 mm. ; height, 11-14 mm. Diameter, 23mm.; 
height, 24 mm. (my largest specimen). 

Dentition. Hutton, T.N.Z.I., xv, 126, pi. 15, f. G. 

Type in the British Museum. 

Hob. Northern part of the North Island, as far south as Tauranga. 
Abundant on Zostera beds and on rocks. 



Sect. 3. CHLORODILOMA, Pilsbry, 1889. 

Cldorodiloma. Pilsbry, Alan. Conch. (1). xi. 10, 110. Type: M. crinita, Phil. 
Latona, Hutton, P.L.S. N.S.W.. ix, 368 ; not of Schumacher, 1817. 

Shell like Diloma, but rather more conical, less nacreous ; colora- 
tion variegated, consisting of fine lines of dark on a lighter ground ; 
columella generally green ; umbilicus perforate or subperforate. 

Australasia. 

10. Monodonta crinita, Philippi, 1848. Plate 38, fig. 12. 

Trochus crinit-us, Phil., Zeitschr. f. Mai., 1848, 103. Monodonta crinita. 
Phil., Conch. Cab.. 235, pi. 35. f. 9; Man. Conch. (1), xi, 111, pi. 22, 
f. 4144; Suter, P. Mai. S.. ii. 267. TrocJiocochlea mimetica, Hiitton, J. 
de Conch., 1878, 32. 

Shell globose-conic, narrowly perforate, solid. Sculpture consist- 
ing of shallow spiral grooves, about 5 on the penultimate whorl, 
sometimes distinctly spirally ridged ; about 7 grooves on the base, 
getting much closer on approaching the umbilicus ; the whole crossed 
by very fine and close growth-lines. Colour light cinereous, longitu- 



GASTROPODA. [Aspidobranchia. 

dinally marked with numerous narrow regularly spaced olive lines, 
the first whorls often bright-orange coloured. Spire conic, sides 
convex. Protoconch small, conical, consisting of 3 smooth convex 
whorls. Whorls 5, convex, the last subangled at the periphery ; base 
flatly convex. Suture linear. Aperture oblique, iridescent and lirate 
within. Outer lip convex, sharp, narrowly edged with black, followed 
by a white opaque band. Columella oblique, arcuate, not very thick, 
white-edged, obtusely dentate below. Umbilicus partly covered ; 
umbilico-columellar area bright green. 

Diameter, 16-18 mm. ; height, 17 mm. 

Dentition unknown. 

Type of the T. mimetica in the Otago Museum, Dunedin. 

Hab.Qu Zostera beds in Auckland Harbour ; scarce (T. F. Cheese- 
-tnan). Australian coasts. 

Genus 3. CANTHARIDUS, Montfort, 1810. 

Cantharidus, Mft., Conch. Syst., ii, 1810, 251. Type : Limax opalus, 
Martyn. Cantharis, Fer. Elenchits, Swainson, Treat. Mai., 1840, 351. 

Animal having the eye-bearing peduncles long and the tentacles 
ciliiform ; there are 3 pairs of epipodial cirri ; the foot is short, obtuse 
behind. Formula of teeth of radula oo 5 + 1 + 5 co. The central 
tooth has a body with broadly expanded supporting-wings, a narrowed 
neck, which bears a simple cusp ; this peduncle has on each side 
delicate wings, identical with those found in several species of Gibbula. 
The lateral teeth, 5 on each side, increase in size from the inner to the 
outer one ; this peculiarity, together with that of the central tooth, 
will enable one to recognise a radula of this genus at a glance. The 
inner lateral is slender, narrowed toward the cusp, like the centrals, 
and sometimes bearing a lamella behind the peduncle. The outer 
laterals are very broad, with one or several denticles on the cusp. 
There are no jaws. 

Shell ovate-conic or pyramidal, irnperforate, smooth or spirally 
sculptured outside, brillantly iridescent within ; colours generally 
bright and variegated ; aperture less than half the length of the shell, 
longer than wide, ovate ; columella usually more or less folded or 
toothed near the base. 



Distribution. Australasian seas. 

Fossil in the Pliocene. 

This genus is also Indo- Australian, like Trochus. 

Subgen. 1. CANTHARIDUS, Montfort. 
Sect. 1. CANTHARIDUS, s. str. 

Shell rather thin, ovate-pointed, whorls striated or smooth ; colu- 
mella rather straight, simple, not toothed. 



Cantltnriditx. } 



GASTROPODA. 



123 



KEY TO SPECIES. 

A. Spiral sculpture not conspicuous, subobsolete. 

a. Shell large, height to 45mm., obsoletely distantly grooved, 

whitish, with longitudinal zigzag markings of purple . . opalus. 

act. Finely densely spirally striate to nearly smooth. Deep 
purple, apex pink. Aperttire less than half the length 
of shell . . . . . . . . . . pruninus. 

aaa. Small, with fine spiral striae, last whorl expanded. Aper- 
ture half the length of shell . . . . - . dilatatus. 

B. Spiral scxilpture very conspicuous. 

a. Spiral cinguli adorned with fine spiral striae, growth-lines 

lamellose striate . . . . . . . . purpuratiis. 

aa. Spiral cinguli smooth or slightly beaded, growth-lines fine 

and close. 
b. Spire conical, elevated. 

c. Cinguli sometimes moniliform. grooves narrow ; 

greenish or white, with red spots on cinguli . . sanguinetis, 
cc. Distantly spirally lirate ; bluish or greenish black, 

no colour-markings . . . . . . tenebrosus. 

bb. Spire depressed conical. 

c. Globosely conical ; white, with pinkish-brown 

cinguli. Last whorl rounded . . . . rufozona. 

cc. Depressed conical, whorls a little shouldered, 
cinguli flat and broad, grooves deep ; cinereous, 
with white and red colour-markings. Last 
whorl angled . . . . . . . . pupittus. 

1. Cantharidus dilatatus, Sowerby, 1870. Plate 33, fig. 5. 

Eltnchus dilatatus. Sow., P.Z.S., 1870, 251. Cantharidus dilatatus. Sow., Man. 
Conch. (1), xi, 148 (copy of Sowerby's description) ; Suter, P. Mai. S. r 
ii, 272, fig. in text (not showing expansion of last whorl). Cbrysostoma 
simtilata, Button, C.M.M., 36. Gibbula simulata. Butt,, M.N.Z.M., 102. 
Cantharidus simulatus, Butt.. P.L.S. N.S.W., ix, 363. 

Shell small, conical, imperforate, spirally striated. Sculpture con- 
sisting of numerous fine and inconspicuous spiral strise, more distinct 
and a little further apart on the base. Colour cinereous, pink, or 
pinkish-brown, usually with white markings near the suture or tessel- 
lated with white ; sometimes a broad dark-brown band encircling the 
periphery of the whorls, and 1 on the centre of the base ; white zigzag- 
bands are sometimes adorning the last 2 or 3 whorls. Epidermis thin, 
slightly shining, easily worn off. Spire conical, as high as the aperture, 
a little convex, apex acute. Protoconch very small, consisting of 1-| 
smooth slightly convex whorls. Whorls 6, slightly convex, the last 
obtusely angled at the periphery, and considerably expanded ; base 
flat. Suture linear, but little impressed. Aperture subrotund, oblique, 
inside mostly highly bluish-reddish iridescent and finely lirate. Outer 
lip strengthened by an inner white callosity. Columella vertical, con- 
cave. Inner lip broadly expanded, covering the umbilicus, and spread- 
ing as a broad white callosity over the parietal wall. 

Diameter, 8 mm. ; height, 8 mm. 

Dentition unknown. 

Type in the British Museum. 



GASTROPODA. [Aspidobranchia. 



Hal. East and west coast of the North Island : Hauraki Gulf, 
East Cape, Hokianga, Manukau Heads, Cook Strait, Bay of Islands. 
South Island : Banks Peninsula (Iredale). Chatham Islands. 

2. Cantharidus opalus, Martyn, 1784. Plate 8, fig. 10. 

Umax opalus, Mart,, Un. Conch., i, fig. 24, not of 1769. Cantharidus 
opalus. Mart. : Hedley, Colon. Mus. Bull., i, 1906, 49. Trochus iris, Gmel., 
Syst, Nat., ed. xiii, 1790, 3580. Cantharidus iris, Gmel., Man Conch 
(1), xi, 122, pi. 34, f. 15; -Siiter, P. Alwl. S., ii, 268. C. zealandicus, 
A. Ad., P.Z.S., 1851, 169. 

Shell imperforate, elevated conical, angular at the periphery, 
solid, but not very thick. Sculpture consisting of spiral grooves, about 

7 on the penultimate whorl, mostly indistinct, crossed by more or 
less distinct oblique growth-lines ; base with about 5 spiral separated 
narrow ridges, often inconspicuous. Colour whitish, tinged with blue 
on the body-whorl and yellowish or pinkish on the spire, all over 
closely longitudinally marked with undulating purplish-red streaks, 
often zigzag, or interrupted into spiral series of articulations. Epi- 
dermis thin, shining, easily rubbed off. Spire elevated conic, sides 
straight or slightly concave, more or less eroded, and showing the 
iridescent green nacre at the tip. Protoconch conical, small, acute, 
consisting of 2| convex smooth and pinkish-brown whorls. Whorls 

8 to 10, first very slowly, then rapidly increasing, straight or slightly 
convex, the last distinctly angled at the periphery ; base flatly convex. 
Suture well impressed, sometimes subcanaliculate on the lower whorls. 
Aperture ovate-rhoniboidal, oblique, lined with iridescent green nacre 
with red reflections. Outer lip thin, slightly sulcate within ; there 
is often a broad opaque white callosity following a greenish edge 
inside. Columetta sub vertical, generally straight "in the middle or 
slightly projecting. Inner Up spreading as a broad white callus a little 
beyond the columella and over the parietal wall. 

Diameter, 30 mm. ; height, 40 mm. 

Dentition unknown. 

Hob. From Cape Maria van Diemen to Cook Strait ; Preservation 
Inlet ; Chatham Islands ; Snares ; Kermadec Islands. Brought to 
England by Captain Cook. 

Var. biangulatus, Suter, 1908. Plate 33, figs. 6, 6a. 

Cantharidus opalus, Mart., var. biangulatus, Suter, P. Mai. S., viii, 22, figs. 
in text. 

Differs from the species by the disproportional expansion of the 
last whorl, beginning after the first quarter of the volution ; it rapidly 
protuberates, getting broadly shouldered above, flat at the periphery, 
and having a biangulate outline. There are about 8 whorls. The 
suture along the swollen part of the last whorl is canaliculate. Aper- 
ture subpentagonal ; base flatly convex. 

Diameter Maj., 27 mm. ; min., 23 mm. : height, 37 mm. 

Type in my collection. 

Hob. Cook Strait (Captain Bollons). 



Cantharidus.] GASTROPODA. 125 

3. Cantharidus pruninus, Gould, 1849. Plate 39, fig. 5. 

Trochus pruninus, Gld., Proc. Bost. Soc. N.H., iii, 90, 1849 ; Expl. Exp. 
Moll., ISO, atlas f. 205. Cantharidus pruninus, Gld., Man. Conch. (1), 
xi, 122, pi. 46, f. 60, 61 ; Suter, P. Mai. S., ii, 268. Trochus capillaceus, 
Phil.. Zeitschr. f. Mai., 1848, 102. T. vpiscopus, Hombr. et Jacq., Voy. 
P.S.,pl. 14, f. 9-11. 

Shell ovate-conical, imperforate, nearly smooth, deep purple. 
Sculpture consisting of very fine dense spiral striae, leaving narrow 
and shallow grooves between them, sometimes nearly obsolete. Colour 
deep purple or reddish-grey, sometimes with a few white dots, apex 
usually pink. Epidermis thin, often shining, easily rubbed off. Spire 
conical, sides slightly convex, apex subacute. Protoconch conoidal, 
consisting of 3 convex spirally striate whorls. Whorls 6 to 7, slightly 
convex, the last rounded or obtusely angular ; base flatly convex. 
Suture linear, slightly impressed. Aperture less than one-half the 
length of the shell, ovate, oblique, iridescent within, lirate. Outer 
lip convex, effuse on meeting the basal lip, with a sharp, finely den- 
ticulate edge. Columella subvertical, with a slight swelling in the 
middle. Inner lip expanded in a callous pad over the umbilical tract ; 
a thin callus on the parietal wall. 

Diameter, 16-19 mm ; height, 19-30 mm. 

Type in the U.S. Nat. Museum, Washington. 

#a&. Auckland and Campbell Islands. The type is from the 
former. 

.Subsp. perobtusus, Pilsbry, 1889. Plate 39, fig. 6. 

Cantharidus pruninus, Gld., subsp. perobtusus, Pils., Man. Conch. (1), xi, 
123, pi. 34, f. 1 ; Suter, P. Mai. S., ii, 269. 

Spire short, very obtuse at apex ; whorls 5, the last large, de- 
scending anteriorly ; aperture as long as spire ; other characters as in 
C. pruninus. 

Diameter, 19 mm. ; height, 20 mm. 

Type in the collection Acad. Nat. Sci., Philadelphia. 

Hob. Auckland, Campbell, and Macquarie Islands ; Sandfly Bay, 
Otago Peninsula (T. Iredale). 

Var. minor, E. A. Smith, 1902. Plate 38, fig. 13. 

Cantharidus pruninus, GUI., var. minor, E. A. Smith, Voy. " Southern 
Cross," Moll., 207. 

Shell much smaller than the species ; not a quarter the size of other 
examples from the Auckland Islands. In form, colour, and sculpture, 
however, they are quite similar. 

Diameter Maj., 6f mm. ; min., 6 mm. : height, 8 mm. 

Type in the British Museum. 

Hob. Auckland Islands, in 10 fathoms (type) ; Campbell Island. 



12(i GASTROPODA. [Aspidobranchia. 

4. Cantharidus pupillus, Hutton, 1884. Plate 33, fig. 7. 

Cantharidus pupillus, Hutt., P.L.S. N.S.W., ix, 362; not Trochus pupillus T 
Gould (= Valmtdla pupilla, Gld.) ; Man. Conch. (1). xi, 130 ; Suter, P. 
Mai. S.,ii, 270, fig. in text. 

Shell conical, imperforate, solid, shining, of variable colour and 
markings. Sculpture consisting of rather broad and flat spiral cinguli, 
with narrow interstices, 5 to 6 on the penultimate, about 13 on the 
body whorl, crossed by fine oblique growth-striae ; below the suture 
and on the periphery of the last whorl 2 cinguli are usually fused 
together. Colour : Specimens from the North Island are cinereous 
or white, with broad red spots on the upper whorls and below the 
suture on the last whorl, the remainder being adorned with blood-red 
dots ; sometimes the whole shell is pink, with broad oblique white 
bands running down the 2 last whorls to the periphery. South Island 
examples are much duller, the first 3 or 4 whorls are mottled with 
dark grey and purple, whilst near the suture white spots are found 
at regular intervals, 6 to 7 on a whorl, forming longitudinal bauds on 
the second and third whorls ; the last whorls are dark purple or 
greenish-brown, with longitudinal narrow streaks of yellow or yellowish- 
grey. Spire depressed conical, usually lower than the height of aper- 
ture, sides slightly convex. Protoconch small, convex, mostly eroded. 
Whorls 5 to 6, slightly convex, mostly a little shouldered, the last 
angled at the periphery ; base convex. Suture impressed. Aperture 
oblique, subrhomboidal, inside pearly and lirate. Outer lip thick, 
with a white callus inside, which reaches often far into the aperture. 
Columella oblique, arcuate, slightly straightened in the middle. The 
inner lip spreading over the umbilicus, filling it completely, or leaving 
a small fissure. 

Diameter, 7 mm. ; height, 8 mm. 

Animal Hutton, T.N.Z.I., xiii, 202. 

Dentition. L.c., xiv, 165, pi. 7, f. K. 

Type in the Canterbury Museum, Christchurch. 

Hab. Banks Peninsula to Dunedin (Captain Hutton) ; Hauraki 
Gulf ; Manukau Heads ; East Cape ; Lyall Bay ; Lyttelton and 
Akaroa Harbours ; Bay of Islands. 

Fossil in the Pliocene. 

5. Cantharidus purpuratus, Martyn, 1784. Plate 39, fig. 7. 

Limax purpurata, Mart., Un. Conch., ii, f. 68 -. Cantharidus purpuratus, 
Mart.. Man. Conch. (1), xi, 124, pi. 45, f. 44 ; Suter, P. Mai. S., ii, 270. 
Trochus rostratus. Gmel., Syst. Nat., ed. xiii, 3580. T. elegans, Gmel.,. 
I.e., 3581. Phasianella rubella, Menke, Syn. Meth. Moll., 51 (teste Hutton). 
Trochus pallidus, Honibr. & Jacq., Voy. P.S.. v. 55, pi. 14, f. 12, 13, 
not of Forbes. T. texturatus. Gould, 'Bost. Soc. N.H., iii, 9ft; Expl. 
Exp.. Moll., 181. pi. 12. f. 20(5. T. rostralus. Kiener, Spec, et Icon., 
pi. 4G, f. 1. T. torosus, Kiener, I.e., 136, pi. 46. f. 3. 

Shell acutely conical, imperforate, fairly solid, whitish or rosy. 
Sculpture consisting of distinct broad and flat cinguli, which are finely 



Cantharidus.] GASTROPODA. 127 

spirally striate, 5 on the penultimate whorl, the interstices narrow, 
obliquely lamellose-striate ; base with 4 cinguli. Colour uniformly 
greenish or yellowish-white, without any markings, or the first whorls 
red or reddish-green, the remainder whitish, ornamented with rosy 
oblique longitudinal streaks. Spire usually high and conical, but 
sometimes a little less than the height of the aperture. Protoconch 
conic, acute, spirally striate. Whorls 8 to 9, somewhat convex, the 
last subangled ; base convex. Suture but slightly impressed. Aper- 
ture subtrapezoidal, reddish iridescent and sulcate within. Outer lip 
sharp, edged by a white opaque band. Columella nearly vertical, 
with a slight swelling below the middle. Inner lip consisting of a 
narrow white callus, which unites the extremities of the peristome 
over the body-whorl. 

Diameter, 16 mm. ; height, 22 mm. Diameter, 20 mm. ; height. 
32 mm. Diameter, 21 mm. ; height, 26 mm. 

Dentition and Animal. Hutton, T. N.Z.I., xv, 124, pi. 14, f. 0. 

Hob. From Ngunguru Harbour, in the north, to Banks Peninsula ; 
Kermadec Islands : on rocks and on floating seaweeds (Macrocystis). 
Brought to England by Captain Cook. 

Remark. Having examined a large series of specimens, I came to 
the conclusion that T. texturatus, Gould, cannot be separated as a 
variety. All well-preserved, not beach-worn, specimens show the 
secondary sculpture of fine spiral striae on the cinguli. 

Fossil in the Pliocene. 

^. Cantharidus rufozona, A. Adams, 1853. Plate 35, fig. 16. 

Cantharidus rufozona, A. Ad., P.Z.S., 1851 (1853), 170; Man. Conch. (1), 
xi, 150 (copy of Adams's description) ; Suter. P. Mai. S., ii, 273. %. in 
text. 

Shell globosely conoidal, small, rather thin, imperforate. Sculp- 
ture consisting of distant rounded spiral cinguli, 5 on the penultimate, 
13 on the body whorl, interstices smooth. Colour white or cinereous, 
the spiral riblets rufous or pinkish-brown. Spire conoidal, apex 
acute, sides but slightly convex. Protoconch small, conic, whorls 
about 2, convex and spirally lirate, mostly Eroded. Whorls about 5, 
the last rather large, rounded at periphery ; base convex. Suture 
impressed. Aperture subquadrangular, iridescent and lirate within. 
Outer lip slightly indented, sharp, articulated with pinkish-brown, 
with an inner opaque white band. Columella vertical, white, with a 
slight tubercle in the middle, often obsolete. Inner lip with a small 
expansion beyond the columella, but perfectly filling up the perforation ; 
a thin white callus on the parietal wall. 

Diameter, 5 mm. ; height, 6 mm. 

Dentition unknown. 

Type in the British Museum. 

Hob. Spirit Bay, not uncommon (C. Cooper) ; Hauraki Gulf 
(C. Spencer) ; Lyall Bay (H. S.). 



128 GASTROPODA. [Aspidobranchia. 

7. Cantharidus sanguineus, Gray, 1843. Plate 33, fig. 8. 

Trochus (Gibbimn) sanguineus, Gray, Dieff. N.Z., ii, 238. Cantharidus san- 
guineus, Gray, Man. Conch. (1), xi, 131, pi. 47, f. 92, 93; Suter, P. Mai. 
S., ii, 271. fit?, in text ; Ereb. & Ter., 4. pi. 1, f. 12. 

Shell small, conical, imperforate, greenish or whitish with blood- 
red spots. Sculpture consisting of spiral cinguli with very narrow 
grooves between them, 5 to 6 on the penultimate and 10 to 14 on the 
body whorl ; sometimes slightly moniliform ; base with about 5' 
cinguli. Colour green, with oblique longitudinal rows of blood-red 
spots on the cinguli ; the first 3 whorls sometimes reddish or brownish 
with radiate white streaks, below the suture very often tessellated 
with white, brown, and red. Spire elevated conical, acute, sides 
slightly convex. Protoconch conic, of Ii strongly convex smooth 
whorls, which are mostly pearly. Whorls 6, flatly convex, the last 
angled at the periphery ; base slightly convex. Suture impressed. 
Aperture oblique, iridescent and lirate within. Outer lip solid, ofteru 
strengthened within by a white callosity. Columella nearly vertical, 
arcuate. Inner lip spread a little over umbilical tract, which is im- 
pressed, concave ; the parietal wall with a more or less thick callus. 

Diameter, 7 mm. ; height, 9 mm. 

Type in the British Museum. 

Hob. East coast of the North Island to Cook Strait ; Chatham 
Islands : not common. 

Fossil in the Pliocene. 

Subsp. cselatus, Hutton, 1884. 

Cantharidus sanguineus, Gray, subsp. ccelattts, Hutt., P.L.S. N.S.W., ix, 363 ; 
Man. Condi. (1), xi. 131 ; Suter, P. Mai. S., ii, 272. 

Shell smaller, more deeply ribbed, and the ribs narrower, 5 to 7 
on the penultimate, 15 to 16 on the body whorl ; sometimes obsoletely 
granose through being crossed by growth-lines. Columella with a 
slight swelling in the middle. Imperforate. 

Diameter, 4-5 mm. ; height, 5-5 mm. 

Type in the Canterbury Museum, Christchurch. 

Hob. Foveaux Strait (type) ; Port Pegasus, Stewart Island, in 
18 fathoms ; Snares and Bounty Islands, in 50 fathoms (Captain. 
Bollons) ; Whangaroa Harbour (C. Traill). 

Subsp. elongatus, Suter, 1897. Plate 38, fig. 14. 

Cantharidus sanguineus, Gray, subsp. elongatus, Suter, P. Mai. S., ii, 272. 

Differs from the species in being narrower, the whorls of the spire 
slightly shouldered, the riblets more numerous and finer, 10-11 on the 
penultimate, 18-19 on the body whorl. Colour whitish or light grey, 
riblets light brown or reddish-brown, dissolved into spots on the 
base only. Outer lip edged with white and brown dots, followed by 



Cantharidus.] GASTROPODA. 129 

a broad white opaque band ; interior pearly. Aperture quadrangular. 
Columella nearly vertical, with a slight swelling in the middle. Im- 
perforate. 

Diameter, 5 mm. ; height, 7-5 mm. 

Type in my collection. 

Hob. Lyall Bay (A. Hamilton). 

8. Cantharidus tenebrosus, A. Adams, 1853. Plate 38, fig. 15. 

Cantharidus tenebrosus, A. Ad., P.Z.S., 1851 (1853), 170; Man. Conch. (1), 
xi, 123. pi. 34, f. 3 ; Suter, P. Mai. S., ii, 269. 

Shell conical, elevated, imperforate, rather thick, solid, spirally 
lirate. Sculpture consisting of fine and distant spiral lirae, 6 to 7 on 
the penultimate, 12 to 16 on the body whorl, crossed by fine close 
growth-lines. Colour dark-bluish or greenish-black, sometimes with 
a purplish shade. Epidermis dull, not very easily rubbed off. Spire 
elevated conical, apex acute or obtusely rounded, sides flatly convex. 
Protoconch small, conic, of about 2 smooth and convex whorls, mostly 
eroded. Whorls about 6, very slightly convex, body-whorl subangular 
at the periphery ; base very slightly convex. Suture slightly im- 
pressed. Aperture rounded quadrate, oblique, less than half the total 
length of the shell, slightly iridescent and lirate within. Outer lip 
convex, subangled at the base, narrowly black-edged, bordered by a 
series of short fine sulcations, beyond which there is a porcellanous 
thickening. Columella subvertical, slightly arcuate, rounded, covering 
the umbilicus above ; parietal wall with a very thin whitish callosity. 

Diameter, 9-5 mm. ; height, 11-5 mm. 

Dentition. Hutton, T.N.Z.I., xiv, 166, pi. 7, f. L. 

Type in the British Museum. 

Hob. Throughout New Zealand, mostly on seaweeds. 

Fossil in the Pliocene and Miocene. 

Subsp. Huttoni, E. A. Smith, 1876. Plate 38, fig. 16. 

Trochus (Cantharidus) Huttoni, E. A. Smith, J.L.S., xii, 558, pi. 30, f. 20. 
Cantharidus tenebrosus, A. Ad., subsp. Huttoni, E. A. Smith, Man. Conch. 
(1), xi, 123, pi. 34, f. 2; Suter, P. Mai. S., ii. 269. Gibbula plumb f a, 
Hutton. J. de Conch., 1878, 33. 

Shell short-conical, covered perforate, bluish-black, spirally lirate. 
Sculpture consisting of close spiral lirae, 8 to 11 on the penultimate, 
17 to 20 on the body whorl, crossed by fine growth-lines. Colour 
bluish or purplish black, the apex mostly worn white. The inner 
lip is more expanded than in the species, completely covering the 
perforation. All the other characters are the same as in C. tenebrosus. 

Diameter, 7-10-5 mm. ; height, 10-5-14-5 mm. 

Dentition. Hutton, T.N.Z.I., xiv, 165, pi. 7, f. M. 

Type in the British Museum. 

Hob. The same as the species, but more abundant. 

5- Moll. N.Z. 



130 GASTROPODA. [Aspidobranchia. 

Subgen. 2. BANKIVIA, Beck, 1848. 
Bankivia, Beck: Krauss, Die Siidafrik. Moll., 105. Type : B. varians, Beck. 

Shell imperforate, elongated, narrow, conical, thin, but slightly 
pearly ; aperture small, about one-third the length of shell ; columella 
slightly twisted, subtruncated toward the base. 

9. Cantharidus fasciatus, Menke, 1830. Plate 38, fig. 17. 

Phasianella fasciata, Mke., Synops. Meth. Moll., 141. Cantharidus fasciatus, 
Mke., Man. Conch. (1), xi, 139, pi. 40, f. 28-33; Suter, P. Mai. S., ii, 
274. Phasianella fulminata, Mke., and P. undatella, Mke., I.e., 141. 
Bankivia varians, Beck, in Krauss, I.e., 105, pi. 6. f. 7. B. purpurascens. 
A. Ad.. P.Z.S., 1851 (1853), 171. B. manor, A. Ad., I.e., 171. B. nitida, 
A. Ad., I.e., 172. 

Shell elongated, turreted, imperforate, thin, polished, and shining. 
Sculpture (under a lens) very dense, fine spiral striations ; base with 
a few concentric, separated, impressed lines. Colour white, creamy, 
or pink, with spiral bands of pink, purplish - red, or purplish- 
brown, or narrow oblique zigzag stripes of pinkish-brown, usually 
with a narrow subsutural band of dark or pinkish. Epidermis very 
thin, shining. Spire elevated, slender ; apex acute, dark. Proto- 
conch small, conical, of 2 convex smooth whorls. Whorls about 9, 
very slightly convex, a little impressed below the suture, the last 
rounded ; base convex. Suture linear, superficial, margined below. 
Aperture ovate, smooth and whitish within. Outer lip thin, acute. 
Columella sinuous, arcuate above, obliquely truncate below. Inner 
lip narrowly reflexed and spreading as a thin callus over the parietal 
wall. 

Diameter, 8 mm. ; height, 19 mm. 

Animal unknown. 

Type (?). 

Hob. Near Waiwera, Hauraki Gulf ; west coast of the North 
Island ; Cook Strait : in 3 to 4 fathoms, on sand ; not common. 
Australia. 

Sect. 1. LEIOPYRGA, H. and A. Adams, 1863. 
Leiopyrga, H. & A. Ad., A.M.N.H. (3), xi, 19. Type : L. picturata, H. & A. Ad. 

Shell perforate, elongated, narrow, somewhat turreted, thin, the 
whorls convex, rounded, or carinated ; aperture oval, small ; columella 
arcuate, not truncated at base. 

10. Cantharidus picturatus, H. and A. Adams, 1863. Plate 38, 
fig. 18. 

Leiopyrga picturata, H. & A. Ad., A.M.N.H. (3), xi, 19. Cantharidus pictura- 
tus, H. & A. Ad., Man. Conch. (1), xi, 140, pi. 45, f. 46-48; Suter, 
P. Mai. S., ii, 274. 

Shell turreted, slender, perforate, thin, shining. Sculpture con- 
sisting of a spiral ridge on the periphery of the whorls and around the 



Cantharidus.] GASTROPODA. 131 



umbilicus, sometimes, however, obsolete ; distant impressed con- 
centric grooves on the base. Colour white, with longitudinal undu- 
lating or zigzag pinkish or purplish lines, often uniting to form spots 
at the periphery, or prominently angled there. Spire elevated, narrow, 
sides straight. Protoconch small, consisting of 2 convex and nearly 
smooth whorls, mostly eroded. Whorls about 7, convex, more or 
less carinated at the periphery, the carina exserted above the suture 
on the spire ; base convex. Suture margined. Aperture oval. Outer 
lip thin. Columella thin, arcuate, not truncate. Inne Up slightly 
expanded above, but not covering the umbilicus. 

Diameter, 5-7 mm. ; height, 8-12 mm. 

Animal with a very large thin mantle ; the tentacles are large 
and very long, strongly ciliated with a long deep posterior channel 
running down their whole length. The eyes are very minute, on the 
end of rather long and fine tubercles. There are 4 pedal appendages 
on the right and 3 on the left, side, and there are also the 2 head-lappets 
common to Trochus. The teeth are like those of Margarita (Watson) 

Type in the British Museum. 

Hob. Stuart Island (Stewart Island ?), New Zealand. Australia. 

I have not seen any New Zealand specimens. 

Subgen. 3. THALOTIA, Gray, 1847. 
Thalotia, Gray, P.Z.S., 1847, 145. Type : Monodonta conica, Gray. 

Shell imperforate, elevated conical, thick, solid, granulated or 
spirally ribbed ; periphery rounded or obtusely angular ; aperture 
small, ovate ; outer lip thick, crenulated within ; columella toothed 
at base, subtruncated. 

11. Cantharidus conicus, Gray, 1827. Plate 39, fig. 8. 

Monodonta conica. Gray, in Captain King's " Survey of Australia," ii, 479. 
Cantharidus conicus, Gray, Man. Conch. (1), xi, 141, pi. 46, f. 73 ; Suter, 
P. Mai. S., ii. 275. Thalotia pictus, Wood, Index Test, Suppl., pi. 5, 
f. 28; A. Adams, P.Z.S., 1851 (1853), 172. Monodonta turrita, Menke, 
Moll. Nov. Holl., 15. Thalotia Lehmanni, Kiener, Spec., g. Trochus, 
pi. 46, f. 2, not of Menke. T. Woodsiana, Angas, P.Z.S., 1872, 611, 
pi. 42, f. 4, 5. T. dubia, T.- Woods, P.R.S. Vic., xiv, 58. T. Troschelii, 
Philippi, Conch. Cab., 131, pi. 23, f. 2. 

Shell elevated conical, imperforate, solid. Sculpture : Whorls of 
spire encircled by 5 or 6 more or less granose lirfe, last whorl with about 
13 or 14 ; growth-wrinkles more or less prominent, very distinct upon 
the base. Colour pinkish or greyish-white, with crimson apex and 
numerous close longitudinal dark-reddish-brown stripes, often cut 
into tessellations by the spiral grooves of the surface. Epidermis 
rather thin, dull, mostly rubbed off on the upper whorls. Spire 
straightly conical. Protoconch pink, bluntly conical, eroded. Whorls 
about 7, nearly planulate, the last obtusely angular at the periphery ; 
base flatly convex. Suture linear, not much impressed. Aperture 



132 GASTROPODA. [Aspiddbranckia. 

rhomboidal, reddish iridescent and lirate within. Outer lip thick, 
plicate within. Columclla straight, denticulate, with a strong basal 
truncation. 

Diameter, 13 mm. ; height, 20 mm. 

Type in the British Museum. 

Hob. Rangitoto Channel, near Auckland ( T. F. Cheeseman) ; 
Chatham Islands : scarce. Tasmania and Australia. 

Remarks. Rather variable in sculpture ; the spaces between the 
spiral ribs often occupied by lirulae. 

Genus 4. PHOTINULA, H. and A. Adams, 1854. 

Photinula. H. & A. Ad. : Ad., G.R.M., i, 1854, 427. Type : P. ccerulescens, 
King. Kingotrochus, von Ihering, 1902. 

Animal having an asymmetrical cephalic region, the left epipodial 
lobe usually absent ; there are 4 epipodial tentacles on each side. 
No jaws. Radula with the central tooth broadly oval and a small 
reflection, narrow or broad, sometimes minutely denticulate ; the 5 
lateral teeth increasing in size from the centre outwards ; they have 
a broad reflection with an inner stout cutting-point and 2 to 3 fine 
denticles on the outer side ; uncini with a strong pointed tooth. 

Shell imperforate or perforate, conoidal, subdepressed, whorls 
smooth, generally polished and with fine spiral lines. Aperture large ; 
outer lip sharp ; inner lip strongly callous and usually spreading 
outward and more or less covering the narrow umbilicus. Operculum 
multispiral. 

Distribution. Austral seas. 

Remarks. Thiele included in his genus Margarella our species 
P. nitida and P. antipoda because the dentition shows a close re- 
semblance. Margarella stands, no doubt, neaxer to Valvatella, the 
animal having jaws. 

KEY TO SPECIES. 

A. Shell narrowly umbilicated, with distinct spiral lira 1 , about 10 on 

the penultimate whorl . . . . . . . . . . nitida. 

B. Shell subperf orate or imperforate, a few distant tine spiral lirw . . antipoda. 

C. Shell imperforate. very finely and densely spirally striate, about 

30 striations on the penultimate whorl . . . . . . decepta. 

1. Photinula antipoda, Hombron and Jacquinot, 1854. Plate 38, 
fig. 19. 

Margarita antipoda, H. & J.. Voy. P.S., v, 58, pi. 14, f. 26-28. Photinula 
antipoda, H. & J., Man. Conch. (1), xi, 217, pi. 33, f. 102-104 ; Suter, P. 
Mai. S., ii, 277. 

Shell small, globosely conic, subperforate or imperforate, smooth, 
shining. Sculpture consists of a few distant fine spiral striae, visible 
only under a good lens, more distinct on the base, and very fine close 
growth-lines. Colour purplish-black, the upper whorls iridescent, 
mostly with dark-red spiral bands, 1 or 2 on the spire-whorls, 4 to 5 
on the body-whorl, sometimes a number of whitish zigzag bands near 



Photinvla.'] GASTROPODA. 133 

the aperture. Epidermis very thin, shining. Spire conoidal, sides 
convex, height a little less than that of the aperture. Protoconch 
small, depressed convex, of 2| smooth whorls, yellowish-white, with 
1 or 2 pink spiral bands. Whorls 4 to 5, the last large, convex, the last 
angled or rounded at the periphery ; base slightly convex, impressed 
in the middle. Suture linear. Aperture large, round, inside smooth 
and highly iridescent. Outer lip convex, sharp, edged with a narrow 
white opaque band. Columella subvertical, arcuate, simple, slightly 
expanded, and nearly covering up the umbilicus. 

Diameter, 8 mm. ; height, 8 mm. (type). 

Dentition. Thiele, in Das Gebiss d. Schnecken. 

Type in the Mus. Hist. Nat., Paris. 

Hob. Auckland Islands (type) ; Antipodes and Campbell Islands 
(Captain Bollons) ; Snares (Professor Chilton). 

Var. rosea, Hutton, 1873. 

Chrysostoma rosea, Hutt., C.M.M., 36. Gibbula rosea, Hutt., Man. Conch. 
(1), xi, 216 ; Sxiter, P. Mai. S., ii, 276. Margarita rosea, Hutt., J. de 
Conch., 1878, 35; M.N.Z.M., 103. 

Shell small, globosely conoidal, subperforate, white or greenish, 
with 4 to 5 spiral blood-red bands and spots of the same colour on the 
last whorl. All the other characters are the same as in the species, 
and it is absolutely nothing else but a colour variety of it. 

Diameter, 5-75 mm. ; height, 3-75 mm. (type). Diameter, 7 mm. ; 
height, 7 mm. (Auckland Islands specimen). 

Dentition unknown. 

Type in the Dominion Museum, Wellington. 

Hob. Stewart Island (type) ; Bounty Islands ; Auckland Islands ; 
Campbell Island (Filhol) ; Antipodes Island (Captain Bollons). 

Remark. Specimens from Antipodes Island are yellowish-white 
and the spiral bands purplish-brown, sometimes red on the spiral 
whorls. 

2. Photinula decepta, Iredale, 1908. 

Photinula decepta, Iredale, T.N.Z.I., xl, 1907 (1908), 382. 

Shell small, globosely conoidal, imperforate, thin, fragile. Sculp- 
ture : Very finely spirally striated, 30 striations on the penultimate 
whorl, obscured on the last whorl by growth-lines. Colour variable, 
typical ; the 2 apical whorls white or pinkish-white, on the third 
whorl 2 purplish bands equidistant from the sutures arise ; the 4th 
whorl is wholly purplish-black, as is the last whorl ; in some shells 
these bands persist on to the last 2 whorls, additional bands arising 
so that on the last whorl 5 distinct bands can be counted ; rarely 
additional minute bands can be seen between these principal bands : 
in some cases the purple on the last whorl breaks up into irregular 
dashes : the Shag- Point shells are[ mostly light-coloured ; somej; have 



134 GASTROPODA. [Aspidobranchia. 

almost a white ground-colour, with 5 separate distant bands ; others 
have a pinkish ground-colour, with darker markings between the 
principal bands ; whilst in some the bands on the last whorl are broken 
up into dots. Spire very short. Whorls 5, the last very large, rapidly 
descending. Suture distinctly marked. Aperture large, round. Outer 
lip thin, edged with a thin band of white, inside iridescent. Columella 
subvertical, semicurved, expanding as a callus over the umbilicus 
(Iredale). 

Diameter, 12mm.; height. 13mm. Diameter. 11 mm. ; height, 
11 mm. 

Animal unknown. 

Type in the Canterbury Museum, Christchurch. 

Hob. Sandfly Bay, Otago Peninsula (type) ; near Cape Saunders ; 
Shag Point, Otago. 

3. Photinula nitida, Adams and Angas, 1864. Plate 38, fig. 20. 

Gibbula nitida, Ad. & Aug., P.Z.S., 1864, 36; Man. Conch. (1), xi, 217, 
pi. 37, f. 25-27 ; Suter, P. Mai. S., ii, 277. Chrysostoma inconspicua, 
Button, C.M.M.. 36. 

Shell small, conical, narrowly umbilicate, rather thin, shining. 
Sculpture consisting of very delicate spiral lirse, more prominent on 
the base, about 10 on the penultimate whorl, 7 to 8 on the base, crossed 
by very fine, close, oblique growth-lines. Colour olive-yellow, grey, 
or purplish-brown, marked with numerous continuous capillary white 
spiral lines, and longitudinal olive or brown flames, generally broken 
into oblong quadrangular tessellations on the spaces between the 
white lines : sometimes the whole shell is uniformly purplish-brown, 
bluish-black, or black. Spire elevated, with a convex outline, usually 
a little higher than the aperture. Protoconch broadly convex, of 
2| smooth whorls. Whorls 6, rapidly increasing, convex, the last 
slightly angular around the periphery ; base flatly convex. Suture 
linear. Aperture rounded quadrate, iridescent and lirate within. 
Outer Up very finely creuulated, edged by a narrow border tessellated 
with black and olive, followed by a broad iridescent callosity. Colu- 
mella vertical, concave, a little expanded above. Umbilicus funnel- 
shaped, half-hidden by the expansion of the columella. 

Diameter, 5'5 mm. ; height, 6-5 mm. Diameter. 7 mm. ; height, 
8 mm. 

Jaws. None. 

Dentition. Hutton, T.N.Z.I., xv, 124, pi. 14, f. N. 

Type in the British Museum. The type of C. inconspicua is in the 
Dominion Museum, Wellington. 

Hob. Coasts of the North and South Islands ; on rocks near 
low-water mark, but local in distribution. 

Remarks. The peculiar white spiral striae and longitudinal flames 
are a fairly constant character. 



Qibbula.] 



GASTROPODA. 



135 



Subfam. 2. GIBBULIN^E. 

Frontal lobes and jaws present. Lateral teeth of radula fre- 
quently exceeding 5 on each. side. Shell pearly ; peristome incom- 
plete. 

KEY TO GENERA. 

A. Shell auriform, spire short, aperture oval, wide . . . . FOSSARINA. 

B. Shell conical. 

a. Shell small, perforate or imperf orate, whorls often gibbous 

near the suture, smooth or spirally ribbed . . GIBBULA. 

aa. Shell rather large, imperforate, with moniliforra spiral 

ribs . . . . . . . . . . . . CALLIOSTOMA. 

C. Shell depressed conical, form of Solarium. 

ft. Umbilicus partly filled by a prominent spiral funicle or 

rib . . . . . . . . . . . . MONILEA. 

aa. Umbilicus wide, without internal funicle . . . . MINOLIA. 

D. Shell globose-turbinate, small, whorls granose-lirate ; outer 

lip crenulate ; columella with a tooth or notch at base . . EUCHELUS. 



Genus 1. GIBBULA, Risso, 1826. 

Gibbula, Risso, Hist. Nat. Europe Merid., iv, 134. Type : G. magus, L. 
Gibbula, Risso, Man. Conch. (1), xi, 12, 195. Phorcus, Risso, i.e., 133. 
Forskulia, H. & A. Ad., G.R.M., i, 432. Magulus, Glomulus, Puteolus, 
Phorculus, Tumulus, Gibbulastra, Colliculus, Monterosato, Bull. Soc Mai. 
Ital., 1888, 169-177. Steromphala, Gray, P.Z.S., 1847, 146. Korenia, 
Friele. Eiirytrochus, Fischer, Icon. Coq. Viv., Trochus, 1880, 417. 
Calliotrochus, Fischer, I.e., 418. 

Animal having the tentacles long, annulate, ciliiform ; epipodial 
line with 3 pairs of cirri ; frontal lobes large, fringed ; the ocular 
peduncles rather short. The radula has the formula oo 1. 5 + 1 + 5. loo; 
the central tooth rhomboidal, constricted above ; the outer lateral 
irregular in form. 

Shell usually perforate or umbilicate, conical, the spire moderately 
elevated ; whorls often gibbous or tuberculose beneath the sutures, 
smooth or spirally ribbed ; the last generally angular at the periphery ; 
aperture subrhomboidal ; columella oblique, dentate or subsinuous 
at base ; outer lip acute. 

The species of Gibbula are very numerous, and are nearly all littoral 
or laminarian in station. The group is distributed through all seas, 
except upon the coasts of America, which have not a single species. 



KEY TO SPECIES. 
A. Shell umbilicated. 

a. Smooth or delicately spirally lirate ; pink or purplish, with 
white blotches and zigzag streaks below the suture and 
around the periphery . . . . . . . . fulminate. 

aa. Distinctly spirally lirate. 

b. Spiral lirse fine, numerous, about 18 on the penultimate 

whorl . . . . . . . . . . tasmanica. 

bb. Spiral lirae coarse, 7 to 8 on the penultimate whorl . . scamnata. 



136 GASTROPODA. [Aspidobranchia. 

B. Umbilicus closed. 

a. Last whorl angled at periphery ; aperture a little higher than 

the spire ; finely spirally lirate, tessellated with white . . Suteri. 
aa. Last whorl carinate at periphery ; spire higher than the 

aperture . . . . . . . . micans. 

Sect. 1. CALLIOTROCHUS, Fischer, 1880. 

Calliotrochus, Fischer. Icon. Coq. Viv., Trochus. 1880. 417. Type: G. 
phasianellus, De -\\. 

Shell small, globose, whorls rounded, smooth or spirally striate, 
thin ; aperture rounded ; outer lip and columella simple, thin, arcuate ; 
umbilicus narrow. 

1. Gibbula tasmanica, Petterd, 1879. Plate 38, fig. 21. 

Margarita tasmanica, Pett., Journ. of Conch., ii, 103. Gibbula tasmanica, 
Pett., Man. Conch. (1), xi, 236, pi. 40, f. 20 ; Suter, P. Mai. S., ii, 276. 

Shell small, perforate, globose-turbinate, rather thin, lustreless. 
Sculpture consisting of fine, regular, close spiral lirae, about 18 on 
the penultimate whorl, crossed by fine oblique growth-lines. Colour 
whitish, tinged with yellow, unicoloured, or marked with a few 
angular radiating maculations of brown. Spire short, outlines convex. 
Protoconch small, consisting of 2 convex and microscopically spirally 
striate whorls. Whorls 4J to 6, flatly convex, narrowly shouldered in 
New Zealand specimens, the last obtusely angular at the periphery ; 
base convex, impressed around the umbilicus. Suture impressed. 
Aperture oblique, rounded ovate, angular above, broadly rounded be- 
low, with a thin iridescent layer of nacre within. Outer and basal lip 
thin, inside with a narrow white callus. Columella oblique, slightly 
concave. Inner lip spread out over part of the umbilicus and the 
parietal wall. Umbilicus narrow. 

Diameter, 5-5 mm. ; height, 6 mm. Diameter, 7 mm. ; height, 
8 mm. (New Zealand specimen of 6 whorls). 

Dentition unknown. 

Type in the Tasmanian Museum, Hobart. 

Hab. Lyall Bay (A. Hamilton). 

Remarks. The two New Zealand specimens in my collection are 
distinctly shouldered, and the last whorl is more distinctly angled 
than in Tasmanian specimens, but otherwise there is no difference. 
These differences are too slight to separate the New Zealand form 
as a subspecies. 

jjSect. 2. CANTHARIDELLA, Pilsbry, 1889. 

' Fpantliaridella, Pils., Man. Conch. (1), xi, 197. Type: G. picturata, Ad. & 
Ang. 

Small forms with much the aspect of tiny Cantharidits ; usually 
polished, narrowly or not perforate, conical, elongated. 



Gibbitla.] GASTROPODA. 137 



2. Gibbula fulminata, Hutton, 1873. Plate 38, fig. 22. 

Chrysostoma fulminata, Hutt., C.M.M., 36. Gibbula fulminata, Hutt., Man. 
Conch. (1), xi, 216, pi. 43, f. 14-16; Suter, P. Mai. S., ii, 276. Mar- 
garita fulminata, Hutt., ,T. do Conch, 1878, 34. 

Shell small, globose-conoidal, perforate, solid, nearly smooth.. 
Sculpture consisting of very fine distant spiral strise, often obsolete, 
but always distinctly visible on the base, crossed by fine and close 
growth-lines. Colour pink, orange, purplish, or olive-brown, generally 
with a series of white blotches alternating with darker ones below 
the sutures, a girdle of white blotches around the periphery and often 
around the umbilicus ; the intervening spaces irregularly strigate 
with darker zigzag streaks or unicoloured. Epidermis thin, slightly 
shining. Spire short, the same height as the aperture, outline convex, 
apex blunt. Protoconch depressed conoidal, of 2 slightly convex 
smooth whorls. Whorls 4^ to 5, convex, the last large and angled 
at the periphery ; base convex. Suture linear. Aperture oblique, 
rounded quadrate, iridescent and faintly lirate within. Outer lip 
sharp, strengthened inside by a white callus. Columella subvertical, 
concave, slightly straightened in the middle. Inner lip spread as a 
white shining callosity into the umbilical funnel. Umbilicus small, 
nearly covered. 

Diameter, 7-5-8 mm. ; height, 7-5 mm. 

Dentition unknown. 

Jaws present. 

Type in the Dominion Museum, Wellington. 

Hob. Chatham Islands (type) ; Hauraki Gulf to Cook Strait, 
not common. 

3. Gibbula micans, Suter, 1897. Plate 33, fig. 9. 

Gibbula micans, Suter, P. Mai. S., ii, 279, fig. in text. 

Shell very small, subperforate or imperforate, conical, slightly 
iridescent, shining. Sculpture consisting of fine spiral lirse, about 15 
on the penultimate whorl, growth-lines inconspicuous. Colour light 
yellow with radiate oblique broad streaks of dark brown, the intervals 
with a few light-brown dots ; base tessellated with yellowish and 
brown. Epidermis very thin, the pearly inner layer shining partly 
through it. Spire conic, its height greater than that of the aperture, 
sides very slightly convex. Protoconch small, acute, of 2 convex, 
light-brown, and finely spirally striate whorls. Whorls 6, flatly convex, 
the last keeled at the periphery ; base convex. Suture very little 
impressed. Aperture slightly oblique, subquadrangular ; interior 
silvery and finely lirate. Outer and basal lip sharp, angled where they 
meet, margined with a white br- d. Columella subvertical, slightly 
arched, with a slight swelling in the middle. Umbilicus partly or 
completely covered by the columella expansion ; umbilical tract slightly 
impressed, white. 



138 GASTROPODA. [Aspidobranchia. 

Diameter, 3-5 mm. ; height, 4 mm. 

Dentition unknown. 

Type in my collection. 

Hob. Near Resolution Island (A. Hamilton) ; Blind Bay. Nelson. 

4. Gibbula scamnata, Fischer, 1878. Plate 38, fig. 23. 

Trochus (Gibbula) scamnatus, Fisch., J. de Conch., 1878, 66. Gibbula scam- 
nata., Fisch., Man. Conch. (1), xi, 220, pi. 30, f. 6 ; Suter, P. Mai. S., ii, 

278. 

Shell small, subperforate, conoidal, solid, dull, spirally lirate. 
Sculpture consisting of elevated spiral liree, 5 to 6 on the penultimate 
whorl, 5 to 8 on the base, crossed by very distinct oblique growth- 
striae, sometimes cutting up the liree into small nodules. Colour 
cinereo-olivaceous, with the ribs darker, or quite black. Spire conoidal, 
outline convex, apex acute. Protoconch convex, consisting of 2^ 
whorls, first smooth, then spirally lirate. Whorls 5, rapidly increas- 
ing, flatly convex, the last subangulate at the periphery ; base flatly 
convex. Suture linear. Aperture subrhomboidal, iridescent and lirate 
within. Outer lip sharp and slightly crenulate, edged by a broad 
white and sulcate callus. Columella subvertical, arcuate, a little re- 
flexed, and almost covering the small umbilicus. 

Diameter, 7-5 mm. ; height, 7 mm. (type). 

Dentition unknown. 

Type in the Mus. Hist. Nat,, Paris ? 

Hob. Oceanica (Fischer) ; Blind Bay, Nelson ; Te Onepoto, near 
Lyttelton ; Brighton, Otago. 

Remarks. The species closely resembles C. rufozona, A. Ad., from 
which it may be distinguished by its partly open umbilicus, its arcuate 
columella without the indication of a tooth, its larger size, and darker 
colour. 

5. Gibbula Suteri, E. A. Smith, 1894. Plate 33, fig. 10. 

Photinula Suteri, E. A. Smith, P. Mai. 8., i, 58, pi. 7, f. 3. Gibbula Suteri, 
Sutsr, P. Mai. 8., ii, 278. 

Shell small, turbinate, imperforate, rather thin, slightly shining. 
Sculpture consisting of numerous very fine spiral lirse, more distinct 
on the base, crossed by fine growth-lines. Colour uniformly black or 
grey, cinereous, pink, &c., longitudinally variegated and tessellated 
with white ; very often the colour-markings are very much like those 
of P. nitida. Epidermis thin, slightly polished. Spire conical, sides 
slightly convex, apex acute, lower than the height of the aperture. 
Protoconch very small, of a few smooth whorls, mostly eroded or 
covered with Nulliporites. Whorls 5, convex, rapidly increasing, the 
last angled at the periphery ; base slightly convex. Suture linear. 
Aperture oblique, rounded, highly bluish iridescent and finely lirate 
within. Outer lip sharp, edged by a silvery narrow and sulcate 



Gibbula.] GASTROPODA. 139 

callosity. Columella vertical, arcuate, its expansion completely cover- 
ing the umbilicus, leaving only a slight pit. Umbilical tract white, 
impressed. 

Diameter, 4 mm. ; height, 4 mm. (type). Diameter, 7 mm. ; 
height, 6 mm. (my largest specimen). 

Dentition. Suter, P. Mai. S., ii, 278, fig. in text. 

Type in the British Museum. 

Hob. Lyttelton, on seaweeds in tidal rock-pools, type (H. S.) ; 
Te Onepoto, near Lyttelton ; Akaroa Harbour (H. S.) ; Lyall Bay. 

Genus '2. FOSSARINA, Adams and Angas, 1863. 

Fossarina, Ad. & Ang., P.Z.S., 1863, 423, pi. 37, f. 9, 10. Type: F. patula, 
Ad. & Aug. Minos, Hutton, P.L.S. N.S.W., ix, 1884, 369. 

Shell auriform, depressed, narrowly umbilicated ; spire short ; 
aperture oval, large, and oblique ; interior porcellanous, somewhat 
iridescent ; peristome continuous ; operculum horny, multispiral, 
closing the aperture completely. 

The dentition resembles that of Cantharidus. The teeth of the 
type are figured by Kesteven in Rec. A.M., iv, No. 7, 318, f. 28a in 
text. 

Distribution. Australasia. 

1. Fossarina rimata, Hutton, 1884. Plate 33, fig. 11. 

Minos rimata, Hutt., P.L.S. N.S.W., ix, 369. Adeorbis (?) Petterdi, Brazier 
(Fossarina): Hutton, T.N.Z.I., xv. 1882 (1883). 132, not of Brazier. 
Fossarina, rimata, Hiitt., Index, 83. 

Shell small, depressed, auriform, subperforate, thin, slightly shining. 
Sculpture consisting of fine microscopical spiral striae, crossed by 
delicate oblique growth-lines. Colour reddish-brown, the last whorl 
with a white band around the periphery and 1 or 2 on the base, white 
zigzag bands or irregular spots above. Epidermis very thin. Spire 
low, conoidal, outline convex. Protoconch very small, obtuse, of 1^ 
smooth convex whorls. Whorls 3, very rapidly increasing, convex, 
the last broadly expanded ; base convex. Suture well impressed. 
Aperture oblique, very large, broader than high, oval, with a shining 
but faintly iridescent interior, the colour-markings of the outside 
distinctly visible. Peristome continuous, outer and basal lip edged 
by a thin white callus. Columella oblique, arcuate, white. Inner lip 
covering half of the narrow umbilicus, spreading as a thick, broad cal- 
losity over the narrow parietal wall, completely uniting the extremi- 
ties of the peristome. 

Diameter, 5 mm. ; height, 4 mm. 

Dentition rhipidoglossal. 

Type in the Canterbury Museum, Christchurch. 

Hob. Waiwera, type (T. F. Cheeseman) ; Omaha and Matakana 
(C. Mathews) ; Maloney's Reef (H. S.). 



140 GASTROPODA. [Aspidobranchia. 

Genus 3. MONILEA, Swainson, 1840. 

Monilea, Swainson, " Shells and Shell-fish," 1840, 352. Type : Trochus 
calliferus, Lam. Monilea, Swainson, Man. Conch. (1), xi, 12, 246. Talo- 
pia, Gray, 1842. 

Shell solid or thin, depressed conical, sharply striate and spirally 
lirate, umbilicated, having a more or less developed callous ridge 
or funicle revolving on the inner side of the whorl within the um- 
bilicus, and terminating at the columella, the edge of which is reflexed 
over it. Outer lip sharp, lirate within. Columella sinuous, more or 
less crenulate on its edge, terminating in a point or denticle at the 
base. 

The Indian Ocean is the habitat of most of the forms, but some 
are found in the Pacific. 

KEY TO SPECIES. 

A. Spiral lirse numerous, fine ; margin of umbilicus not crenulate : 

colour crimson . . . . - - . - . . carmesina. 

B. Spiral lirse few, sharply elevated ; margin of umbilicus cremilate ; 

colour whitish, with brown streaks . . . . . . egena. 

1. Monilea carmesina, Webster, 1908. Plate 38, fig. 24. 

Trochus carmesinus, Webster, T.N.Z.T., xl, 1907 (1908). 256, pi. 20, f. 16-18. 

Shell small, depressed trochiform, umbilicated, crimson, spirally 
striated, shining, rather solid. Sculpture of the post -embryonic whorls 
consisting of fine somewhat unequal spiral striae, with linear inter- 
spaces, about 20 on the upper surface of the body-whorl, and a similar 
number on the base ; a narrow smooth band round the peripheral 
angle ; umbilicus margined by a broadly rounded funicle. Colour 
pale pink, with radiate crimson streaks on the second and third whorls, 
the succeeding whorls are crimson with occasional lighter streaks, 
periphery of body-whorl with semicircular small white spots, usually 
2 together, and at subequal distances ; aperture, iridescent within ; 
umbilicus and columella white. Spire broadly conical, about H times 
the height of the aperture ; outlines lightly convex. Protoconch of 
1| smooth whorls, small and flattish. Whorls 5. first slowly, then 
more rapidly increasing, the upper half convex, the lower slightly 
concave ; periphery of body-whorl roundly angled ; base almost flat. 
Suture superficial. Aperture oblique, subrhomboidal. Outer lip de- 
scending, very lightly convex, and forming an acute angle with the 
faintly arched basal lip ; both strengthened inside by a thin callus. 
Columella oblique, straight, with a distinct tubercle above, and a 
small denticle at the base. Umbilicus moderate, deep, extending to 
the initial whorl, about one-sixth of the greatest diameter, the descend- 
ing cord distinctly visible. Opcrculum unknown. 

Diameter Maj., 8 mm. ; min., 6-25 mm. : height, 5 mm. 

Animal unknown. 

Type in Mr. Webster's collection. 

Hob. Russell ; Cape Palliser, found in shell-sand. 



Monilea.] GASTROPODA. 141 

2. Monilea egena, Gould, 1849. Plate 38, fig. 25. 

Solarium egenum, Gould, Proc. Bost. Soc. N.H., iii, 84 : U.S. Expl. Ex., 
196, f. 226. Monilea egena, Gould. Man. Conch. (1), xi, 253, pi. 37, 
f. 13 ; Suter, P. Mai. S., ii, 279. Monilea zealandica, Hutt,, C.M.M., 40. 
Margarita zelandica, Hutt. : Sow., Conch. Icon., f. 17. Torinia egena, 
Gould : Marshall, in Man. Conch. (1), ix. 22, pi. 6, f. 22, 2?. 

Shell small, low ovate-conic, thin, amply umbilicated. Sculpture 
consisting of 4 sharply compressed well-elevated spiral ribs on the 
last, 3 on the penultimate whorl, the two uppermost of which are 
beaded ; interspaces concave, smooth except for fine growth-lines ; 
base with fine broad lirse, 2 elevated cinguli encircling the umbilicus, 
the inner of them crenulate. Colour ashy-white, slightly iridescent, 
with light-brown radiating streaks, forming zigzag lines on the last 
whorl ; base white, with a brown band outside the 2 umbilical cinguli. 
Epidermis very thin, slightly shining. Spire globosely conical, apex 
blunt, about the same height as the aperture. Apex small, depressed 
convex, reddish-brown, of 2 smooth whorls. Whorls 6, convex, the 
last obtusely angled at the periphery ; base convex. Suture incon- 
spicuous. Aperture subcircular, oblique, iridescent and lirate within. 
Outer Up sharp, edged by a thin iridescent callosity. Columella slightly 
oblique, broadly expanded above, terminating in a small point at the 
base ; edge crenulate below. Umbilicus wide, one-third of the diameter 
of the base, tunnel-shaped, penetrating to the apex, with a few spiral 
sulci, crossed by longitudinal grooves ; the spiral volutions of the 
funicle distinctly visible. 

Diameter, 7-5 mm. ; height, 5-5 mm. (type). 

Dentition unknown. 

Type in the U.S. Nat. Museum, Washington. 

Hob. Bay of Islands ; Hauraki Gulf, in sandy places below 
low-water mark (T. F. Cheeseman) ; Lyall Bay ; Stewart Island, 
in 18 fathoms (Captain Bollons) ; Chatham Islands. Nowhere com- 
mon. 

Fossil in the Pliocene. 

Subgen. 1. MINOLTA. A. Adams, 1860. 

Minolia, A. Ad., A.M.N.H., iv, 1860, 336. Type : Minolia punctata, A. Ad. 
Minolta, A. Ad., Man. Conch. (1), xi, 13, 259. Solariella, H. and A. 
Adams, G.R.M., i, 431 ; Watson, Chall. Rep., xv, 72, not of S. Wood. 
Minosia, Dunker, Ind. Moll. Mar. Jap., 142. 

Shell widely umbilicated, delicate, thin, smooth ; whorls rounded ; 
spire depressed ; aperture circular ; the outer lip and columella thin, 
simple, acute ; umbilicus without an inner funicle or rib. 

The species belong to the Indian Ocean and western and south- 
western Pacific. 



142 GASTROPODA. [Aspidobranchia. 

KEY TO SPECIES. 

A. Shell elevated, conoidal. All spiral lirae crossed by strong 

radiate riblets, strongly beaded ' . . . . . . textilis. 

B. Shell depressed, turbinate or orbicular. 

a. Penultimate whorl with 4, the last with about 10 spiral cords plicatula. 
aa. Penultimate whorl with 6, the last with about 16 spiral 

cords . . . . . . _ semireticulata. 

3. Monilea plicatula, Murdoch and Suter, 1906. Plate 33, fig. 12. 

Minolia plicatula, M. & S., T.N.Z.I., xxxviii, 1905 (1906), 299, pi. 26, f. 47-49. 

Shell small, orbicular, widely umbilicate, thin and fragile, whitish 
with radiate purplish streaks, longitudinally plicate above, and 
spirally ribbed. Sculpture : There are rather distant oblique radiate 
plications extending on the body-whorl to the periphery only ; these, 
as well as the interspaces, are very finely longitudinally striate. On 
approaching the umbilicus equidistant straight broad and flat riblets 
are formed, slightly beading the revolving cords. The penultimate 
whorl has 2 spiral ridges close together, flatly beaded by the radiate 
plications, and 2 some distance down toward the suture. On the 
last whorl are 2 spiral cords, somewhat removed from the suture, 
followed by a smooth interstice and 3 spiral ridges with grooves of 
their own width between them ; 5 narrower cords follow from the 
periphery to the umbilicus, the grooves between which are first narrow, 
then getting broader ; there is a double beaded ridge margining the 
umbilicus. Colour whitish, with irregular radiate zigzag bands of 
purple. Spire low, with a blunt apex. Protoconch smooth, rather 
large, depressed globular, yellowish, of 1 whorl. Whorls 3J, shouldered, 
convex at the periphery ; base flatly convex. Suture subcanaliculate. 
Aperture subcircular, very little excavated above, the margins ap- 
proaching and nearly meeting, slightly nacreous within. Outer lip 
sharp, convex. Inner lip forming a very thin layer over the penulti- 
mate whorl. Columella regularly arched, slightly reflexed, produced 
at the base on joining the carina of the umbilicus. The latter is wide, 
carinate, perspective, with spiral ridges and longitudinal plications 
on the last whorl. 

Diameter Ma]., 4-5 mm. ; min., 3-8 mm. : height, 3 mm. 

Type in the Dominion Museum, Wellington. 

Hab.OS Cuvier Island, in 37 fathoms, type (Captain Bollons) ; 
off Great Barrier Island, in 110 fathoms. 

4. Monilea semireticulata, Suter, 1908. Plate 33, fig. 13. 

Minolia semireticulata, Suter, P. Mai. S., viii, 22, pi. 2, f. 1. 
Shell small, depressed turbinate, umbilicate, thin and fragile, 
spirally lirate. Sculpture consisting of numerous slightly elevated and 
rounded spiral cinguli, 6 on the penultimate, about 16 on the body 
whorl, those on the upper surface with a fine spiral thread in the in- 
terstices, which are of about the same width as the riblets ; the cinguli 
on the outer side of the base are finer and closer together ; on the 



Monilea.] GASTROPODA. 143 

inner side 3 broad slightly crenulated ribs surround the umbilicus, 
which is also prominently spirally ribbed. The 2 cinguli below the 
suture are crossed and beaded by strong and sharp equidistant radiate 
riblets, dividing the interstices into regular squares ; the remainder 
of the whorls with fine growth-lines. Colour whitish, light horny. 
Spire low, with convex outlines, very little higher than the aperture, 
apex rather blunt. Protoconch small, globular, of 1 smooth and 
convex whorl. Whorls 4, rather rapidly increasing, somewhat flattened 
below the suture, then convex ; base convex. Suture subcanaliculate. 
Aperture circular, slightly iridescent within. Peristome sharp, the 
ends approaching and nearly meeting, united by a white parietal 
callosity. Columella vertical, arcuate, slightly expanded. Umbilicus 
about one-third of the diameter, deep and scalar. 

Diameter Maj., 5 mm. ; min., 4 mm. : height, 3-2 mm. 

Type in rny collection. 

Hob. Near the Snares, in 50 fathoms, empty shells only (Captain 
Bollons). 

5. Monilea textilis, Murdoch andSuter, 1906. Plate 33, figs. 14, 14a. 
Minolia textilis, M. & S., T.N.Z.I., xxxviii, 1905 (1906), 298, pi. 26, f. 45, 46. 

Shell small, conoidal, widely umbilicate, fragile, exquisitely sculp- 
tured. Sculpture : There are numerous radiate sharp riblets at 
regular intervals, the interspaces about twice the breadth of the 
costee, crossing over broad rounded spiral cords ; on the third whorl 
there are 3 spirals, which are supplemented on the following whorl 
by a faint thread below the suture, and 1 between the first and 
second cords ; on the last whorl there are 2 rather unconspicuous 
threads below the suture, followed to the periphery by 5 strong spiral 
cords, the last 3 more prominent than the others ; on the base there 
are 5 narrow equal and close-set spiral riblets, and the umbilicus is 
margined by a stout beaded ridge ; all the spiral cords are strongly 
and sharply beaded by the longitudinal sculpture. Colour greyish- 
white. Spire conoidal, apex rounded. Protoconch globular, small, 
smooth, of 1 whorl ; the succeeding volutions show already distinct 
radiate riblets and spiral threads. Whorls 4^, tabulate above, flatly 
convex below the angulation of the shoulder ; base slightly convex. 
Suture canaliculate. Aperture subcircular, angled above, white, not 
nacreous inside. Outer lip sharp, convex, margined by denticles on 
the outside, produced by the spiral ridges. Inner lip spread as a thin 
callosity over the penultimate whorl, and connecting the margins ; 
columella sharp, arched. Umbilicus wide, scalar, margined by a strong 
beaded cord followed by 2 spiral ridges, beaded by longitudinal riblets. 

Diameter Max., 4-3 mm. ; min., 3-5 mm. : height, 3-8 mm. 

Type in the Dominion Museum, Wellington. 

Hab. Off Great Barrier Island, in 1 10 fathoms. 

Remark. The shell used for description (and the figures) is no 
doubt not adult, as was evidenced by fragments of a larger shell of 
the same species. 



144 GASTROPODA. [Aspidobranchia. 

Genus 4. CALLIOSTOMA, Swainson, 1840. 

Calliostoma, Swainson, " Shells and Shell-fish," 1840, 351: Type : Trochus 
zizyphinus, L. Calliostoma, Swainson, Man. Conch. (1), xi, 14, 332. 
Zizyphinus, Gray, Syn. Brit. Mus., 1840 (no description). Conulus, 
Nardo, 1840 ; not of Fitzinger, 1833. Lischkeia, Fischer, Coq. Viv., 
Trochus, 1880, 419. Eucasta, Ball, " Blake " Gastrop., 1889, 369. 
Jujubinus, Monterosato, Nona. Gen. e Spec., 1884, 46. Jacinlhinus, 
Monts., Bull. Soc. Mai. Ital., xiv, 1889, 79. Manotrochus, Fischer, 
Manuel, 827. 

Animal having the epipodial lobes large, with 3 or 4 pairs of cirri ; 
frontal lobes small, simple or fringed ; muzzle rather large, fringed at 
its extremity ; tentacles long, ciliiform ; ocular peduncles distinct, 
but short ; foot large, truncated in front ; the radula has the central 
and 4 to 5 lateral teeth with irregularly oval body, and rather long 
pointed cusps, their outer edges serrate ; marginals numerous, narrow, 
with narrow serrate cusps. 

Shell imperforate or rarely umbilicate, conical, rather thin ; whorls 
smooth, spirally ridged or granular, the last angulated at the periphery ; 
aperture quadrangular ; columella simple, usually ending in a slight 
tooth at the base. The operculum is thin, circular, corneous, many- 
whorled. 

The genus is found living in all seas. 
Fossil in the Secondary and Tertiary. 

KEY TO SPECIES. 

A. Shell small, height less than 10 mm., colour purplish-rose . . aucklandicum. 

B. Shell large, colour yellowish or brownish. 

a. Last whorl rounded et periphery, not angular . . punctulatum. 

aa. Last whorl sharply angled at periphery . . . . selectum. 

aaa. Last whorl subangular at periphery. 
6. With finely beaded spiral lirae. 

c. 16-20 spiral lirse on the penultimate whorl . . tigris. 

cc. 8-12 spiral lirse on the penultimate whorl . . pellucidum. 

bb. Spiral ribs coarsely granose, distant, 7-8 on the 

penultimate whorl . . . . . . . . spectabile. 



1. Calliostoma aucklandicum, E. A. Smith, 1902. Plate 33, fig. 15. 

Calliostoma aucklandicum, E. A. Smith, Report on the Collections of Nat. 
Hist., Voy. " Southern Cross," Moll., 1902, 207, pi. 24, f. 5. 

Shell small, conical, umbilicus covered, purplish, spirally lirate. 
Sculpture consisting of spiral threads, which increase in number upon 
the whorls with the growth of the shell ; there are 8 lira? on the pen- 
ultimate whorl, the uppermost, or that just below the suture, some- 
what nodose or subplicate ; body-whorl with 8 lira? above the angle, 10 
to 11 upon the base. Colour purplish-rose ; under the lens the narrow 
sulci between the spiral threads are seen to be of a dirty-whitish colour. 
Spire conical, much higher than the aperture, outlines straight. Proto- 



Cattiostomn.] GASTROPODA. 145 



conch small, of 1 whorl, which is smooth, pale or yellowish. Whorls 6, 
very slightly convex, the last angular at the periphery ; base flat, 
excavated and white in the centre. Suture not much impressed. 
Aperture subquadrate, pearly and smooth inside. Outer and basal 
lip acute, edged with rose, inside slightly callous. Columella sub- 
oblique, white, slightly reflexed above, subdentate below. Operculum 
thin, horny, multispiral. 

Diameter Maj., 8 mm. ; min., 7 mm. : height, 7-5 mm. 

Type in the British Museum. 

Hab. Auckland Islands, in 10 fathoms. 

I have not seen this species. 

2. Calliostoma pellucidum, Valenciennes, 1846. Plate 40, fig. 3. 

T rock us pellucidus, Veil., Voy. " Venus," Moll., pi. 4, f. 2. Calliostoma 
pellucidum, Val., Man. Conch. (1), xi, 334, pi. 65, f. 78 ; x, pi. 41, f. 36 : 
Suter, P. Mai. S.. ii, 281. Zizypkinus granatus, Chemr. : Reeve, Conch. 
Icon., f. 2 ; not Trochus granatum, Chemn. 

Shell conical, imperforate, solid, whitish dotted with brown, last 
whorl sub angular. Sculpture consisting of numerous closely beaded 
lira. 8 to 12 on the penultimate whorl, and the same number on the 
last whorl above the periphery, with a few smooth fine line inter- 
calated ; just at or just below the periphery there is a group of lirulee, 
closer, smaller than those of the upper surface ; the rest of the base 
is more or less regularly granose-lirate. Colour yellowish, with a few 
brown oblique longitudinal streaks ; large squarish brown spots 
above the suture, and just above the periphery are usually present ; 
the spiral lirre are closely and minutely dotted with brown and 
white. Epidermis thin, faintly shining. Spire conical, higher than the 
aperture, very acute, outlines concave above, slightly convex below. 
Protoconch small, sharply pointed, white, the first whorl smooth, the 
second granulose. Whorls 9 to 10, first slowly, then more rapidly in- 
creasing, flat, the last subangular at the periphery ; base flatly con- 
vex. Suture very slightly impressed. Aperture oblique, rhomboidal, 
iridescent and lirate within. Outer lip sharp, very slightly crenulate, 
edged by a broad white callosity. Columella. arcuate, greyish-white, 
shining, with a slight tubercle at the base. Inner Up forming a 
narrow white callosity on the outside of the columella. There is 
a slight umbilical depression, bounded by a strong rib. 

Diameter, 30 mm. ; height, 30 mm. 
Type in the Mus. Hist. Nat., Paris ? 

Hab. North Island Cape Maria van Diemen, Whangarei, Hau- 
raki Gulf, from low- water mark to 25 fathoms ; Cook Strait ; Ker- 
madec Islands. Often found attached to floating seaweeds. 

Fossil in the Miocene and Pliocene. 



146 GASTROPODA. [Aspidobranchia. 

3. Calliostoma punctulatum, Martyn, 1784. Plate 8, fig. 11. 

Trochus punctulatus, Mart., Un. Conch., ii, f. 36, not of 1769. Calliostoma 
punctulatum, Mart., Man. Conch. (1), xi, 334, pi. 65, f. 75 ; Suter, P. Mai. 
S., ii, 280. Trochus diaphanus, Gmelin, Syst. Nat., ed. xiii, 1790, 3580 ; 
Qnoy & Gaim., Voy. Astrol., iii, 254, pi. 64, f. 1-5. Turbo grandineus, 
Valenciennes, Voy. " Venus," pi. 4, f. 4. Zizyphinus punctulatus, Mart. : 
Button, M.N.Z.M., 98. 

Shell conoidal, imperforate, solid, not shining. Sculpture consist- 
ing of narrow spiral closely and conspicuously beaded ridges, 8 to 12 on 
the penultimate whorl, sometimes equal in size, sometimes alternately 
larger and smaller ; the interstices with fine crowded growth-lines ; 
the base has the very same sculpture. Colour yellowish or light 
fawn, unicoloured or dotted on the spirals with dark brown ; the 
granules are often white, the epidermis having been rubbed off. Epi- 
dermis thin, dull. Spire conical, outline convex, rarely a little con- 
cave toward the apex, about the same height as the aperture, apex 
acute, minute. Protoconch minute, globular, with 1 smooth whorl. 
Whorls 8 to 9, convex, first slowly, then rather rapidly increasing, 
the last rounded at the periphery ; base convex. Suture not deep. 
Aperture rhomboidal, oblique, pearly and lirate within. Outer Up 
solid, sharp, sulcate, basal lip sulcate or denticulate within. Columella 
subvertical, arcuate, pearly, not tubercled below. Inner lip forming 
a narrow white callosity over the impressed umbilical tract, ending 
below in a distinct tooth outside the columella. 

Diameter, 36 mm. ; height, 36 mm. 

Dentition. Hutton, T.N.Z.L, xiv, 165, pi. 7, f. H. 

Jaw. Rev. A. H. Cooke, " Molluscs," 1895, 212, f. 108c. 

Hab. North and South Islands and Stewart Island, at low-water 
mark and in deeper water, more common in the South ; Snares. 
Brought to England by Captain Cook. 

Fossil in the Miocene and Pliocene. 

4. Calliostoma selectum, Chemnitz, 1795. Plate 40, fig. 4. 

Trochus sdectus, Chemn., Conch. Cab., xi, 168, pi. 168, f. 1896-97. Callio- 
stoma selectum, Chemn., Man. Conch. (1), xi, 335, pi. 65, f. 73, 74; Suter, 
P. Mai. S., ii, 281. Trochus Cunninghami, Gray : Griffith's " Cuvier's 
Animal Kingdom." xii, 1834, pi. 1, f. 7. T. torquatus, Anton : Philippi, 
Conch. Cab., 1849, 261, pi. 38, f. 13. Zizyphinus articulatus, Reeve, 
Conch. Icon., f. 3, 1863. Z. decarinatus, Perry : Hutton, P.L.S. N.S.W., 
ix, 1884 (1885), 359, not of Perry. 

Shell large, solid, conical, imperforate, whitish, the last whorl 
sharply angled. Sculpture : Upper surface with numerous delicate 
spiral closely granulose ribs, numbering 10 or 11 on the penultimate 
whorl, more numerous on the upper surface of the last whorl because 
interstitial lirulae are intercalated ; on the antepenultimate whorl there 
are 5 and on earlier whorls 3 granose line ; on the base there are 
distinctly granose lira* in the middle, but toward the periphery they 
become smaller, narrower, and less distinctly grained. Colour pale 
fawn, almost white, with elongated brown dots on the spiral riblets. 



Calliostoma.} GASTROPODA. 147 

Epidermis thin, very little shining. Spire conical, its lateral outlines 
slightly concave on the upper part. Protoconch acute, of a few smooth 
and convex whorls. Whorls 8 to 9, flat, the last slightly convex above, 
sharply angular at the periphery ; base flat, very little convex. Suture 
superficial, not very distinct. Aperture subrhomboidal, oblique, pearly 
and iridescent within, the nacre showing by folds the positions of the 
principal lira* of the outside. Outer lip sharp, slightly crenulated, 
sharply angled at the junction with the basal lip, which is also crenu- 
late, horizontal and slightly convex. Columella arcuate, oblique, 
slightly pearly. The inner lip spreading as a broad white callus over 
the umbilical tract, sharply bounded by a circular ridge. 

Diameter, 47 mm. ; height, 37 mm. Diameter, 57 mm. ; height, 
50 mm. 

Dentition. Hutton, T.N.Z.I., xv, 124, pi. 14, f. L. 

Type (?). 

Hob. Auckland to Cook Strait, not common. Brought to Eng- 
land by Captain Cook. 

Fossil in the Pliocene. 

5. Calliostoma spectabile, A. Adams, 1855. Plate 40, fig. 5. 

Zizyphinus spectabilis. A. Ad., P.Z.S., 1854 (i, 1855). 37, pi. 27, f. 7. Callio- 
stoma spectabile, A. Ad., Man. Conch. (1), xi, 332, pi. 16. f. 12; Suter, 
P. Mai. S., ii, 280. 

Shell large, conical, solid but rather thin, imperforate, flesh- 
coloured. Sculpture consisting of spiral coarsely granose ribs, 7 to 8 
on the penultimate whorl, the 2 lowest of them small ; on the base 
there are about 8 to 10 concentric ridges, the inner 2 or 3 of them 
only are distinctly beaded. Colour flesh or yellowish, dotted with 
reddish-brown on the spiral ribs, more distinct upon the base. Epi- 
dermis very thin, not shining. Spire conical, much broader than 
usual in the genus. Protoconch small, pointed, consisting of 2 whorls, 
the first smooth, the second with 2 spiral and distant radiate riblets. 
Whorls 8 to 9, slightly convex, the last obtusely angled at the peri- 
phery ; base flatly convex. Suture slightly impressed. Aperture 
rounded quadrangular, nacreous and reddish iridescent within, broadly 
and strongly sulcate. Outer and basal lip sharp, slightly crenulate, 
edged within by a thin callosity. Columella arcuate, slightly pearly. 
Inner lip forming a narrow white callosity, spreading from the um- 
bilical tract to the base of the columella. 

Diameter, 42 mm. ; height, 43 mm. Diameter, 37 mm. ; height, 
35 mm. 

Type in the British Museum. 

Hob. Auckland Islands (Dr. H. Krone, Captain Bollons) ; Chat- 
ham Islands (fide Pilsbry) ; Foveaux Strait, in 18 fathoms (Captain 
Bollons). 

A rare shell in collections. 

Fossil in the Miocene. 



148 GASTROPODA. [Aspidobranchia. 

6. Calliostoma tigris, Martyn, 1784. Plate 40, fig. 6. 

Trochus tigris. Mart., Un. Conch., ii, f. 75. Callioslomn tigris, Mart., Man. 
Conch. (1), xi. 333 ; x, pi. 41, f. 30 : Suter, P. Mai. S., ii, 280. Trochus 
granatum. Lam., A.s.V., ix, 145. Zizyphinus granatum, Chemnitz : 
Hutton, M.N.Z.M., 98, not of Chemnitz. 

Shell large, conical, imperf orate, solid but rather thin, shining. 
Sculpture consisting of numerous delicate finely beaded lirulee. 16-20 
on the penultimate whorl, 18-25 on the upper surface of the body- 
whorl ; the whole of the base similarly sculptured. Colour light- 
yellowish, longitudinally painted with numerous rather narrow ir- 
regular chestnut-reddish stripes. Spire elevated, acute, concave above, 
slightly convex below, very little higher than the aperture. Proto- 
conch very small, pointed, finely decussate, but mostly worn smooth. 
Whorls 10-12, the first 6 distinctly shouldered and slowly increasing, 
the following whorls flatly convex, rapidly increasing, the last whorl 
large, angularly rounded at the periphery ; base convex. Suture in- 
conspicuous on the earlier, impressed on the later whorls. Aperture 
rhomboidal, slightly oblique, iridescent and lirate within. Outer lip 
sharply rounded on meeting the broadly convex lower lip, sharp, 
strengthened within by a thick and broad pearly layer. Columclla 
arcuate, oblique, pearly, bluntly tuberculate at base. Inner lip spread- 
ing very little beyond the columella ; a very thin transparent glaze 
spreading over the parietal wall. 

Diameter, 45-58 mm. ; height, 45-59 mm. 
Dentition unknown. 

Hob. Bay of Islands to Cook Strait ; Chatham Islands. Brought 
:o England by Captain Cook. 

Remark. This is a rather rare shell, living apparently below low- 
water mark. 

Genus 5. EUCHELUS, Philippi, 1847. 

Euchelns, Phil., Zeitsc.hr. fiir Malac., 1847, 20. Type: Monodonta tri- 
carinaia, Lam. = E. quadricarinatus, Chemn. Euchelus, Phil. : Fischer, 
Man. de Conch., 827 ; Man. Conch. (1). xi, 15, 429. Aradasia. Gray, 
Fig. of Moll. Anim., iv, 1850, 90. Hv.ttonin, T. W. Kirk, T.N.Z.I.. xiv, 
1882, 282. Monodonta and Trochus (in part) of authors. 

Animal with 4 pairs of cirri on the epipodial line, besides a number 
of long and thin filaments. The radula has a narrow central and 
5 lateral teeth ; jaws are present. 

Shell globose-turbinate. umbilicate or imperforate ; whorls rounded 
spirally granose-lirate ; aperture subcircular ; outer lip thick, crenu 
late within ; columella with a tooth or a notch at the base ; operculum 
with few whorls. 

Distribution. Indian and Pacific Oceania. 



Euchelus.} GASTROPODA. 149 

KEY TO SPECIES. 

A. Shell imperforate when adult . . . . . . . . bellus. 

B. Shell distinctly perforate when adult . . . . . . Hamiltoni. 

1. Euchelus bellus, Button, 1873. Plate 38, fig. 26. 

EutJielus Mliis, Hutt., C.M.M., 37 ; Man. Conch. (1), xi, 435, pi. 67. f. 80 ; 
Snter, P. Mai. S., ii, 282. Huttonia tricolor, T. W. Kirk. T.N.Z.I., xiv, 
1881 (1882). 282. 

Shell small, globose-conic, solid, thick, imperforate when adult. 
Sculpture consisting of spiral granose lirse, the interstices narrow ; 
there are 7 or 8 equal lirse on the penultimate whorl, 10 on the body- 
whorl. Colour brownish or bluish-black ; " dead shells " are pink, 
varied with darker. Spire short, conic, very little higher than the 
aperture ; outlines convex. Protoconch small, depressed, of li whorls, 
the first whorl smooth, the following half with 2 granose keels. 
Whorls 5, convex, the last globose, descending in front ; base con- 
vex. Suture canaliculate. Aperture rounded, lirate inside and nacreous 
with steel-blue and dark-red reflections. Outer Up convex, thick, 
denticulate, with a strongly wrinkled callosity inside. Columella con- 
cave, terminating in a tooth, below which there is a narrow notch, 
and another tubercle or tooth on the basal lip equal in size to the 
columellar denticle ; very often there is a second notch, followed by 
a smaller tubercle. There is a groove at the place of the umbilicus. 

Diameter, 6-5 mm. ; height. 6-5 mm. 

Dentition unknown. 

Type in the Dominion Museum, Wellington. 

Hab. Chatham Islands (type) ; Bay of Islands to Cook Strait, 
under stones near low-water mark. 

Remarks. This shell is mostly covered by a scarlet-coloured 
sponge. There is nothing to separate Kirk's species from E. bellus. 
Hutton founded the species on " dead shells " from the Chathams, 
in which the nacre of the aperture had been lost. I have compared 
the types of the two species, and there is absolutely nothing to separate 
them. 

2. Euchelus Hamiltoni, T. W. Kirk, 1882. 

Huttonia Hamiltoni, T. W. Kirk, T.N.Z.I.. xiv. 1881 (1882), 283. Euchelus 
Hamiltoni, T. W. Kirk, Man. Conch. (1), xi, 436 ; Suter, P. Mai. S.. ii, 

282. 

Shell small, globose, solid, perforate. Sculpture consisting of fine 
spiral granose liree, with the interstices of the same width, 8 lirse on the 
penultimate whorl, about 18 on the last. Colour of the beach-worn 
specimens white, or faint pinkish-white, with points of darker colour 
forming diagonal lines across the whorls. Spire short, conical, nearly 
the same height as the aperture, outlines convex. Protoconch depressed 
globose, of If whorls, the first smooth. Whorls 3J, rapidly increasing, 
convex, the last descending in front ; base convex. Suture canaliculate. 



150 GASTROPODA. [Aspidobranchia. 

Aperture rounded. Outer lip thick, toothed within. Columella sub- 
vertical, straight, with a tubercle at its base, followed by 2 notches 
and 2 or 3 teeth on the basal lip. Umbilicus narrow but deep, the 
basal lip continued as a rib and descending into the umbilicus. 
Operculum unknown. 

Diameter, 6 mm. ; height, 6 mm. 

Dentition unknown. 

Type in the Dominion Museum, Wellington. 

Hob. Wellington. 

Remarks. Pilsbry remarks : ' May prove the same as E. tas- 
manicus, T. -Woods." Tate and May make the latter a synonym of 
E. scabnusculus, Angas, which is the type of section Herpetopoma, 
Pilsbry, having a multispiral operculum. The latter species has usually 
a much coarser sculpture, the spiral lirae are less numerous, the um- 
bilicus is not so deep and partly covered by the inner lip. As the 
operculum of E. Hamiltoni is unknown, it is impossible to say whether 
the two species are really so nearly allied as the shell-characters would 
indicate. 

Fam. LIOTIID^, Gray. 

Animal with the head proboscidiform, epipodial line with a pair 
of conical lobes and 3 pairs of cirri. Dentition similar to that of 
Delphinula, Turbo, and Astrcea, with 5 lateral teeth. Jaws present. 

Shell turbiniform or discoidal, white, with longitudinal ribs or 
clathrate ; aperture feebly nacreous ; peristome continuous, thick, 
with a callous varix ; operculum multispiral, hispid, corneous, with 
a calcareous layer formed of pearly particles spirally disposed. 

Genus 1. LIOTIA, Gray, 1847. 

Liolia, Gray, Syn. Brit. Mus.. 1840 (no description) ; P.Z.S., 1847, 145. 
Type : Delphinula cancellata, Gray. 

Characters those of the family. Gray's type was a cancellated 
species, and the genus Liotia, in the most restricted sense, will comprise 
those species which have numerous varices or radiating circumambient 
ribs cancellated more or less by spiral sculpture. (Dall.) 

Distribution. Tropical and subtropical seas. 

Fossil. Lias and Eocene. Not known to occur fossil in New 
Zealand, but in Australia. 

KEY TO SPECIES. 

A. Shell fcurbinate, with axial riblets . . . . . . volt/pleura 

B. Shell discoidal. 

a. With radial riblets. 

l>. Riblets strong, the interstices microscopically spirally 

striate . . . . . . . . . . ,-otnhi. 

bb. Riblets very fine, periphery serrate . . . . strrata. 

aa. Without radial riblets, a few folds at suture and umbilicus, 

2 keels produced into processes at the peristome . . solitarin. 



Liotia.] GASTROPODA. 151 

1. Liotia polypleura, Hedley, 1904. Plate 33, fig. 16. 

Liotia polypleura, Hedley, Rec. A.M.. v, pt. 2, 1904, 93, f. 20 in text. 

Shell minute, thin, turbinate, widely umbilicate, spire slightly 
elevate. Sculpture : On the last whorl about 16 thick prominent 
riblets cross the whorl, slender on leaving the suture ; they slant 
forward, thickening rapidly, but turning they descend the periphery 
perpendicularly ; on the base they again bend, and, tapering rapidly, 
curve into the umbilicus, the margin of which they crenulate ; the 
interstices are smooth ; on the penultimate whorl the ribs gradually 
vanish. Colour white. Protoconch of li smooth whorls. Whork 
convex, 2|, the last descending in front ; base convex. Suture deep. 
Aperture subquadrate, almost free, peristome formed by one of the 
ribs. Umbilicus moderately wide, deep. 

Diameter Maj., 0-9 mm. ; min., 0-7 mm. : height, 0-6 mm. 

Type in the Australian Museum, Sydney. 

Hob. Lyall Bay, near Wellington (A. Hamilton) ; Banks Penin- 
sula (Iredale) ; Bounty Island, in 50 fathoms (Captain Bollons). 

Remark. This species appears to be related to such Australian 
forms as L. annulata, Ten.-Woods. (Hedley.) 

2. Liotia rotula, Suter, 1908. Plate 33, fig. 17. 

Liotia rot ul a, Suter, P. Mai. S., viii, 24, pi. 2, f. 6. 

Shell small, discoidal, umbilicate, rather solid, translucent, radiately 
prominently ribbed. Sculpture consisting of distant, elevated, and 
rounded radiate riblets, much closer together on approaching the 
aperture. Interstices distantly microscopically spirally striate. Colour 
white. Spire flat, the apex only slightly raised. Protoconch of 2 
narrow, smooth, convex whorls. Whorls 4, the last large, convex, 
the last rounded at the periphery ; base convex. Suture impressed. 
Aperture circular. Peristome continuous, thickened by the last radiate 
rib. Columella arcuate, not reflexed. Umbilicus wide, perspective, 
showing all the whorls. Operculum not seen. 

Diameter, 1-7 mm. ; height, 1 mm. 

Animal unknown. 

Type in my collection. 

Hob. Snares, in 50 fathoms (Captain Bollons). 

Remarks. Allied to L. annulata, Ten.-Woods, from Tasmania, 
which, however, has the radiate riblets more distant, and lacks spiral 
striation. L. corona, Hedley, is also nearly related, but it is much 
smaller, and the radiate riblets are less elevated. 

3. Liotia serrata, Suter, 1908. Plate 33, figs. 18, I8a. 

Liotia xerrata, Suter, P. Mai. S., viii, 23, pi. 2, f. 4. 5 

Shell small, discoidal, rather solid, umbilicated. Sculpture con- 
sisting of minute fine and slightly wavy radiate riblets ; periphery 



152 GASTROPODA. [Aspidobranchia. 

of the flat whorls adorned with distant sharp denticles ; base on the 
outside with a spiral carina, with low and rounded tubercles ; margin 
of umbilicus more or less crenulate. Colour white. Spire flat. 
Protoconch very small, of 1 whorl only, flat. Whorls 3J, rapidly in- 
creasing, flat above, with a pronounced angle at the periphery, and 
a rounded carina below ; space between them convex ; base flat. 
Suture impressed, the serrate processes extending over it. Aperture 
circular, slightly oblique. Peristome continuous, with a callous varix. 
Columella arcuate, with an outer tubercle at its base. Umbilicus 
rather large and deep. Operculum not seen. 

Diameter, 2-5 mm. ; height, 1 mm. 

Animal unknown. 

Type in my collection. 

Hob. Near Little Barrier Island, in 20 fathoms, (R. H. Shake- 
spear). 

Remark. This species is nearly allied to the foregoing, however 
distinct from it in several characters. 

4. Liotia solitaria, Suter, 1908. Plate 33, figs. 19, 19a. 
Liotia solitaria, Suter, P. Mai. S., viii, 23, y.1. 2. f. 2, 3. 

Shell small, discoidal, solid, umbilicated. Sculpture : The flat 
surface having a peripheral stellate carina, the processes triangular 
and directed forward ; base bordered by a smooth and sharply 
elevated carina ; a few radiate folds outside the suture and around 
the umbilicus. Colour yellowish-pink. Spire perfectly plane. Proto- 
conch minute, flat, indistinct. Whorls 3^, rapidly increasing, flat, 
the last very little convex above, slightly concave between the 2 
keels ; base convex inside the carina. Suture superficial, slightly 
margined. Aperture circular. Peristome continuous, slightly thick- 
ened, ornamented with 2 processes produced by the keels. Columella 
arcuate, thick. Umbilicus moderately wide, showing the apical 
whorls. Operculum not seen. 

Diameter, 2-75 mm. ; height, 1 mm. 

Animal unknown. 

Type in my collection. 

Hob. Near Little Barrier Island, in 20 fathoms (R. H. Shake- 
spear). 

Remarks. The only specimen in my possession is not an adult 
shell. The species is allied to L. stellaris, Ad. & Rve. 

Fam. CYCLOSTREMATID,, Fischer. 

Animal with ciliated, thread-like tentacles ; the eyes on short 
peduncles ; snout bilobed ; foot elongated, truncate in front, and 
extending at each angle into a filament ; sides with 3 or 4 pairs of 
ciliated cirri, and a pair of auricular appendages in front, between the 
cirri and the tentacles. Jaw scaly. Dentition oo 4 4- 1 -+- 4 oo. 



Cijdostrema.] GASTROPODA. 153 

Shell small, umbilicated, depressed, white, corneous or transparent, 
not nacreous ; aperture circular, with continuous sharp peristome ; 
operculum corneous, multispiral. 

KEY TO GENERA. 

A. Shell depressed, spiral and radial sculpture prominent, um- 

bilicus wide, bounded by a carina . . . . . . CYCLOSTREMA. 

B. Shell depressed, sculpture rather inconspicuous, umbilicus 

wide, without a carina . . . . . . . . DELPHINOIDEA. 

C. Shell turbinate, narrowly umbilicate, peristome continuous, 

double . . . . . . . . . . . . CIRSONELLA. 

D. Shell globose, thick, porcellanous. sub- or im-perforate. peri- 

stome thickened . . . . . . . . . . PSEUDOLIOTIA. 

Genus 1. CYCLOSTREMA, Marryatt, 1818. 

Cyclostrema, Marryatt, Trans. Linn. Soc., xii, 1818, 338. Type : C. canceUata, 
Marryatt. Cyclostrema, Marryatt, Man. Conch. (1), x, 14, 88. 

Shell depressed, suborbicular, distinctly spirally and radially 
sculptured, white or uniformly coloured ; aperture nearly circular ; 
peristome acute, continuous ; umbilicus deep, bounded by a carina ; 
operculum circular, horny, multispiral, each volution obliquely striated. 

Distribution. Nearly universal. 

Fossil. Tertiary. 

1. Cyclostrema eumorpha, Suter, 1908. Plate 33, figs. 20, a, b. 
Cyclostrema eumorpha, Suter, P. Mai. 8., viii, 25, pi. 2, f. 7-9. 

Shell very small, turbinate, umbilicate, translucent, white, spirally 
distantly ribbed, and radiately striate. Sculpture consisting of 5 pro- 
minent spiral riblets, the first just above the periphery ; a low and 
indistinct spiral riblet on the last whorl outside the suture, and some- 
times a fine riblet bordering the funnel-shaped umbilicus ; radiate 
sculpture formed by distinct threads, which are equidistant, slightly 
directed backward, the interstices wider than the threads. Colour 
white. Spire depressed conoidal. lower than the aperture. Proto- 
conch minute, sphasrical, of 1 whorl only. Whorls 3, regularly in- 
creasing, convex, the last flattened between the suture and the first 
spiral riblet, periphery rounded ; base convex. Suture impressed. 
Aperture oblique, circular. Peristome continuous, smooth inside, orna- 
mented outside by the spiral sculpture. Columella arcuate, strong, not 
reflexed. Umbilicus rather narrow, deep. Operculum not seen. 

Diameter Maj., 1-7 mm. ; min., 1-4 mm. : height, 1-3 mm. 

Animal unknown. 

Type in my collection. 

Hob. Snares, in 50 fathoms (Captain Bollons). 

Remark. This species is allied to the South Australian C. de- 
lectabile, Tate, in which, however, the spiral riblets are more numerous 
and less prominent ; the umbilicus is much wider, perspective. 



154 GASTROPODA. [Aspidobranchia. 

Genus 2. DELPHINOIDEA, Brown, 1827. 

Delphinoidea, Brown, Illustr. Conch. Gr. Brit., 1827, pi. 51. Type : D. ser- 
pnloides (Montagu). Delphinoidea, Brown : Katherine ,T. Bush, Trans. 
Connecticut Acad., x, 1897, 100. 

Shell small, white, consisting of a few convex whorls coiled nearly 
in the same plane, so that the spire is but little raised ; suture deep ; 
umbilicus rather large, deep, with rounded walls, showing all the 
whorls, and not denned by a carina ; aperture oblique, nearly circular, 
slightly angulated above, not modified by the body-whorl ; peritreme 
simple, thin, entire, but slightly attached ; columellar edge very slightly 
or not at all flattened. 

Distribution. Similar to that of Cyclostrema. The type is from 
Devonshire coast, England. 

1. Delphinoidea lissa, Suter, 1908. Plate 34, figs. 1, la. 

Cydostrema lissum, Suter, P. Mai. S., viii, 25, pi. 2, f. 10, 11. 
Shell minute, discoidal, thin, smooth, umbilicated. Sculpture : 
To the naked eye the shell appears to be quite smooth, but a powerful 
lens reveals subequidistant, strongly undulating, radiate threads ; 
no spiral sculpture is visible. Colour yellowish-white. Spire flat, 
the nucleus only being slightly raised. Protoconch of 1 smooth whorl, 
which is convex, and the first half very often slightly elevated. Whorls 

2, the last flatly convex above, periphery and base rounded. Suture 
impressed. Aperture subcircular, a little angled above. Peristome 
continuous, sharp. Outer Up advancing, and producing a distinct 
notch at the suture. Columella arcuate, slightly thickened. Um- 
bilicus moderate, open. Operculum not seen. 

Diameter, 1 mm. ; height, 0-6 mm. 

Animal unknown. 

Type in my collection. 

Hob. Lyttelton Harbour, on seaweeds, type (H. S.) ; Titahi Bay, 
Cook Strait (Miss Mestayer). 

Remark. This species is well characterized by its minuteness, 
the few whorls, and the microscopic radiate sculpture. 

Genus 3. CIRSONELLA, Angas, 1877. 

CirsoneUa. Angas, P.Z.S., 1877, 38. Type : C. austral is, Angas. Cirsonella, 
Angas, Man. Conch. (1), x, 16, 107. 

Shell minute, globosely turbinate, smooth, narrowly umbilicated ; 
aperture circular ; peristome continuous, slightly thickened. (Angas.) 
Distribution. Australasia. 

KEY TO SPECIES. 

A. Shell with microscopic fine spiral lira? ; perforation partly con- 

cealed . . . . . . . . densilirata. 

B. Shell smooth, growth-lines only. 

. Whorls 4 ; aperture subcircular ; perforation open ; heiuht. 

If mm. .. .. granum. 

(id. Whorls 5 ; aperture ovate ; umbilicus partly concealed ; 

height, 2| mm. . . . . . . neozelanica. 



GASTROPODA. 155 



1. Cirsonella densilirata, Suter, 1908. Plate 34, fig. 2. 
Cirsonella densilirata, Suter, P. Mai. S., viii, 26, pi. 2. f. 13. 

Shell small, turbinate, subdiaphanous, slightly shining, perforated. 
Sculpture consisting of numerous fine microscopic spiral lirse. Colour- 
white. Spire depressed conoidal, outlines convex, lower than the 
aperture. Protoconch of 2 convex smooth whorls ; yellowish-white. 
Whorls 3i, rapidly increasing, convex, periphery of last whorl rounded. 
base convex, with an impressed umbilical area. Suture not much 
impressed. Aperture circular, oblique, inside microscopically lirate. 
Peristome continuous, thick. Columella arcuate, slightly expanded to- 
ward the narrow perforation, sometimes partly concealing it. Oper- 
culum horny, multispiral ; nucleus central. 

Diameter, 2-25 mm. ; height, 1-75 mm. 

Animal unknown. 

Type in my collection. 

Hab. Snares, in 50 fathoms (type) ; Bounty Islands, in 50 fathoms 
(Captain Bollons). 

Remark. The species is very closely related to the Tasmanian 
C. Weldii, Ten. -Woods, which, however, is smooth, having a few 
spiral lira? around the umbilicus only. 

2. Cirsonella granum, Murdoch and Suter, 1906. Plate 34, fig. 3. 

Cirsonella <j>-rnnii. M. & S., T.N.Z.I.. xxxviii. 1905 (1906). 300, pi. 27. 
f. 50, 51. 

Shell minute, turbinate, umbilicate, smooth and glossy. Sculp- 
ture absent, except for the microscopic growth-striae. Colour white, 
fresh specimens vitreous. Spire conoidal. small, height a little less 
than that of the aperture. Protoconch consists of 1 whorl, which is 
smooth and rounded. Whorls 4, much rounded, the last propor- 
tionately large ; base convex. Suture deep. Aperture subcircular, 
broadly angled above, but little excavated by the body-whorl. Outer 
lip sharp, forming a half-circle with the basal lip. Columella concave 
and reflected, thickened. Inner lip spread as a thin layer upon the 
parietal wall. Umbilicus with its area small and with a somewhat 
sharply defined margin, the perforation narrow. 

Diameter, 1-75 mm. ; height, 1-75 mm. 

Type in the Dominion Museum, Wellington. 

Hab. About 15 miles outside Great Barrier Island, in 110 fathoms. 

Remark. It is a much smaller shell than C. neozelanica, more 
globular, with the aperture more circular, and better and differently 
defined umbilical area. 

3. Cirsonella neozelanica, Murdoch, 1899. Plate 34, fig. 4. 

Cirsonellfi iinr.ilnniro, Murdoch, P. Mai. S., iii, 320, pi. 1(5, f. 2-(5. 
Shell small, ovate, perforate, semitransparent. There is no sculp- 
ture, except microscopical fine close growth-striae. Colour horny- 
fuscous. Epidermis very thin, faintly shining. Spire conical, a little 



156 GASTROPODA. [Aspidobranchia. 

lower than the aperture, outlines convex. Protoconch rounded, shining, 
and quite smooth. Whorls 5, the last large and globular, the spire- 
whorls somewhat rounded ; base convex. Suture well marked. Aper- 
ture ovate, somewhat oblique. Outer lip thin and simple. Columella 
arcuate, solid, thickened, and slightly reflected ; a callus extends 
from the insertion of the outer lip to the columella, partially con- 
cealing the narrow umbilicus. Operculum horny, consisting of about 
2 rapidly increasing whorls. 

Diameter, 2-3 mm. ; height, 2-75 mm. 

Animal. Foot comparatively large, flat, and undivided ; tail 
abruptly rounded ; head produced into a retractile muzzle, emarginate 
anteriorly ; tentacles of medium length, expanding and uniting at 
the base so as to conceal the posterior portion of muzzle ; eyes im- 
mersed, and situate in the lower half of tentacles ; colour whitish 
throughout. 

Jaws forming 2 irregularly ovate objects, united by a narrow 
band ; they are dark in colour, and the surface, as it were, imbricate, 
with scale-like markings. 

Dentition. The formula is 23 + 2 -I- 1 + 2 + 23. The teeth are ar- 
ranged in numerous transverse curved rows, the rhachidian short and 
broad, with 11 minute cusps ; the laterals elongated, with the apex 
somewhat expanded and curved inwards, the first armed with 6 or 7, 
the second with 7 or 8 minute denticles ; marginals about 23, having 
a single rounded cusp, and becoming shorter as they proceed out- 
wards. 

Type in the Wanganui Museum. 

Hah. Inner Harbour, Napier ; found in considerable numbers 
around the margin of a brackish pool ; type (F. Hutchinson, jun.) : 
Titahi Bay, Cook Strait. 

Genus 4. PSEUDOLIOTIA, Tate, 1898. 

Pseudoliotia, Tate, T.R.S. S.Aust., xxii, 1898, 71. Type: Cydostrema 
micans, A. Ad. 

Shell somewhat like Liotia ; test thick and porcellanous ; aper- 
ture oblique to the axis, its margin thickened ; umbilicus reduced to a 
mere chink ; operculum horny, multispiral. 

It recalls Moelleria, which is differentiated by a calcareous oper- 
culum. 

Distribution. Australia, Tasmania, and New Zealand. 

1. Pseudoliotia imperforata, Suter, 1908. Plate 34, fig. 5. 

Pseudoliotia imperforata, Suter, P. Mai. S., viii, 26, pi. 2, f. 14. 

Shell small, globose, imperf orate when adult, thick, spirally costate. 

Sculpture consisting of prominent nodulous ribs, the nodules rather 

low ; there are 2 ribs on the penultimate and 6 on the last whorl ; on 

the latter a small nodulous rib appears on the last half of the volution, 



Pseudoliotia.] GASTROPODA. 157 

close to the suture, followed by 4 equally strong equidistant spiral 
ribs, the interspaces much broader than the ribs ; the whole crossed 
by fine, close, oblique incremental striae ; a sixth broad rib, more 
nodulous than the others, forms a half-circle around the strongly 
impressed umbilical area, which is ornamented with distant axial folds. 
Colour yellowish-white, the spiral ribs maculated with brown. Spire 
depressed, lower than the aperture. Protoconch white, of 2 spirally 
costate flat whorls. Whorls 4, the last large, flattened below the 
suture, then convex ; base rounded. Suture not impressed. Aperture 
oblique, nearly circular, white and porcellanous inside. Peristome 
thick, very little contracted, crenulated on the outside by the spiral 
ribs, regularly convex. Columella arcuate, shining white, thick. 
Inner lip spreading over the umbilicus, completely sealing it up, or 
sometimes leaving a minute chink ; a white callus unites the con- 
verging margins of the peristome. In young specimens the umbilicus 
is open, but very narrow. Operculum not seen. 

Diameter, 3-5 mm. ; height, 3-5 mm. 

Animal unknown. 

Type in my collection. 

Hob. Stewart Island. 

Remark. The species is distinguished from the type, P. micans, by 
the absence of radiate riblets, the discontinuous peristome, and the 
closed umbilicus. 



Fam. VITRINELLID^, K. J. Bush. 
Cyclostrematidce, auth., in part. Adeorbidce, Dall., in part. 

Shell small, more or less hyaline, spire varying from concave to 
moderately elevated ; umbilicus deep, narrow to wide ; aperture 
nearly circular ; peristome simple, more or less continuous ; colu- 
rnellar lip often flattened and angular below ; operculum horny, multi- 
spiral. 

KEY TO GENERA. 

A. Shell thin and delicate ; spire elevated ; umbilicus small, 

deep . . . . . . . . . . . . LISSOSPIRA. 

B. Shell nearly flat-spired, with wide, open umbilicus ; with 

spiral sculpture . . . . . . . . CIRCULTJS. 

C. Shell planorbiforrn, spire concavely depressed, umbilicus 

wide, nucleus turned downward . . . . . . CYCLOSTREMELLA. 

Genus 1. LISSOSPIRA, K. J. Bush, 1897. 

Lissospira, Bush. Trans. Connecticut Acad., x, 1897, 129. Type : Cyclo- 
strema proximo, Tryon. 

The radula consists of numerous rows of delicate teeth ; each row 
having 1 broad central or median tooth, with a broad, blunt, delicately 
serrate, curved tip, and on either side 4 more slender lateral teeth, 



158 GASTROPODA. [Aspidobranchia. 

also with blunt, curved, delicately serrate tips, beyond which is a 
series of numerous (between 30 and 50) long, very slender, some- 
what sickle-shaped hooks, sometimes with delicately serrate tips. 

Shell small, thin, of rather delicate texture, opaque white, slightly 
lustrous, of few convex whorls, forming an elevated spire, with rela- 
tively large prominent nuclear whorl and large body-whorl. Suture 
deep. Umbilicus small, deep, not showing any whorls. Aperture 
somewhat oblique, circular, with a slight sutural angle, not modified by 
the body-whorl, to which the simple, continuous peritreme is but 
slightly attached, often having an indistinct thread just within the 
inner lip, fading out above and below, so that it extends but about 
half-way round the aperture ; it is much nearer the edge along the 
columellar margin than at the ends, and is evidently to prevent the 
thin operculum being drawn in too far. The operculum is circular, 
thin, of a delicate horn-colour, with central nucleus, of about 7 whorls, 
defined by a distinct spiral thread ; often showing delicate microscopic 
transverse growth-lines. 

KEY TO SPECIES. 

a. Sculpture consisting of microscopic spiral striae only . . . . micro. 

b. Sculpture consisting of radiate riblets and microscopic spiral strife . . condum. 

1. Lissospira corulum, Hutton, 1885. Plate 34, fig. 6. 

Scalaria condum, Hutt., T.N.Z.I., xvii, 1884 (1885), 322, pi. 18, 1. 22 .(main) ; 
Hutt,, Plioc. M., 67, pi. 8, f. 72. Scala corulum., Hutt. : Suter, T.N.Z.I.. 
xxxix, 267. Cydostrema corulum, Hutt, : Suter, P. Mai. S., viii, 24 : 
Iredale, T.N.Z.I., xl, 382. 

Shell minute, elevated turbinate, perforate, translucent, white, 
shining. Sculpture consisting of fine equidistant radiate riblets, 
about 28 on the last whorl, the interstices finely, microscopically 
spirally striate. Colour white. Spire conical, higher than the aper- 
ture, outlines convex. Protoconch small, globose, of 1 smooth whorl. 
Whorls 5, rather rapidly increasing, convex, the last with the peri- 
phery and base rounded. Suture deep. Aperture roundly ovate, 
angled above. Peristome continuous, sometimes thickened by a 
radiate riblet. Columella arcuate, very little expanded. Perforation 
narrow, partly hidden by the columella. Operculum not seen. 

Diameter, 1 mm. : height, 1-5 mm. 

Animal unknown. 

Type, from the Pliocene, in the Canterbury Museum, Christchurch. 

Hab. Titahi Bay, Cook Strait, in sand (Miss Mestayer) ; Lyall 
Bay ; Te Oncpoto, Lyttelton. 

Remark. - - Cydostrema Angeli, T.-Woods ; C. conica, Watson ; 
and C. crebresculptum, Tate, are very nearly allied species. 
Fossil in the Pliocene. 



Lisaospira.] GASTROPODA. 159 

2. Lissospira micra, Tenison-Woods, 1877. Plate 34, fig. 7. 

Cydostrema micra, T.-Woods, P.R.S. Tasm., 1876 (1877), 147. C. (Tubiola) 
micra, T.-Woods, Man. Conch. (1), x, 95, pi. 33, f. 13. C. micron, 
T.-Woods : Tate, P.R.S. S.Aust., xxiii, 221. C. micra, T.-Woods : 
Pritchard and Gatliff, P.R.S. Viet. (n.s.). xiv, 101; Suter, P. Mai. S., 
viii, 24. 

Shell small, elevated turbinate, white, polished, umbilicated. 
Sculpture consisting of exceedingly fine microscopical spiral striae, 
more distinct on the umbilicus. - Colour white. Spire conical, out- 
lines convex, a little higher than the aperture. Protoconch minute, 
sphserical, of 1 smooth translucent whorl. Whorls 5, regularly in- 
creasing, convex, the last rounded at the periphery ; base convex. 
Suture deep. Aperture circular, slightly angled above. Peristome con- 
tinuous, sharp, not thickened. Columella arcuate, thin. Umbilicus 
narrow, deep. Operculum horny, multispiral. 

Diameter, 1-5 mm. ; height, 2 mm. 

Animal unknown. 

Type destroyed by accident. 

Hob. Snares, in 50 fathoms (Captain Bollons). The type is from 
Tasmania, and it has also been found in South Australia and Vic- 
toria. 

Genus 2. CIRCULUS, Jeffreys, 1865. 
Circulus, Jeffreys, Brit. Conchology, iii, 1865. Type : C. Duminyi, Requien. 

Shell small, circular, depressed, not nacreous, of few more or less 
convex whorls, usually more or less grooved and carinated ; aperture 
nearly circular, oblique, somewhat angulated below ; peritreme simple, 
more or less continuous, in the adult modified on the body- whorl into 
a very thin glaze, which is absent in the young ; umbilicus wide, the 
reverse of the spire ; operculum thin, light horn-colour, with central 
nucleus, multispiral (?). (Bush.) 

1. Circulus sub-Tatei, Suter, 1907. Plate 34, fig. 8. 

Cydostrema sub-Tatei, Suter, T.N.Z.I., xxxix, 1906 (1907), 258, pi. 9, f. 6-8. 

Shell minute, subdiscoidal, spirally lirate, broadly umbilicated. 
Sculpture consisting of broad and shallow spiral grooves, slightly 
broader on the periphery, leaving between them narrow and sharply 
raised ridges, 10 on the last whorl. Colour white. Spire very low. 
Protoconch flatly convex, smooth, formed by 1 whorl. Whorls 3, the 
last large, flat near the suture, rounded at the periphery, and descend- 
ing a little in front ; base convex. Suture not much impressed. Aper- 
ture circular. Peristome continuous, solid. Umbilicus wide and per- 
spective. 

Diameter Maj., 2-5 mm. ; min., 2 mm. : height, 1-5 mm. 

Dentition unknown. 

Type in the Dominion Museum, Wellington. 



160 GASTROPODA. [Aspidobranchia. 

Hab. Near Channel Island, Hauraki Gulf, in 25 fathoms (type), 
near Little Barrier Island, in 20 fathoms ; Lyall Bay ; Snares, in 
50 fathoms (Captain Bollons). 

Remarks. This species is nearly allied to C. Tatei, Angas, from 
South Australia ; but the latter is larger, has a more elevated spire, 
the spiral ridges are less numerous, more distant on the upper side, 
and the interstices are ornamented with close fine and oblique radiate 
striae, a feature totally absent in our species, there being only faint 
growth-striae. 

Genus 3. CYCLOSTREMELLA, Bush, 1897. 

Cyclostremella, Bush. Trans. Connecticut Acad., x, 1897, 140. iType : 
C. humilis, Bush. 

Shell minute, thin, semitransparent when fresh, planorbiform, of 
few convex whorls, nearly symmetrically coiled, forming a concavely 
depressed spire and large umbilical cavity. Epidermis thin, nearly 
colourless. Nuclear whorl relatively large, smooth, turned downward, 
seen only in a basal view, leaving a small pit above. Suture deep 
and channelled. Aperture triangular-ovate, expanded below, angu- 
lated above, with a relatively wide deep sinus just below the suture. 
Peritreme thin, simple, continuous, not modified, slightly attached. 
The operculum is very thin, almost colourless, broad-ovate, with the 
nucleus below the centre and represented by a small smooth space 
indefinitely defined by an indistinct line ; from this arise numerous 
raised lines in the direction of the lines of growth, which are at first 
near together, but diverge toward the outer margin, where they ter- 
minate just within the edge ; others arise between these, about two- 
thirds their length. 

Distribution. The type is from about 16 fathoms, off Cape Hat- 
teras, North Carolina. A second species, C. californica, Bartsch, has 
been recorded from the California!! coast. 



1. Cyclostremella neozelanica, Suter, 1908. Plate 34, fig. 9J 
Cyclostremella neozelanica, Suter. P. Mai. S., viii, 25, pi. 2, f. 12. 

Shell small, planorboid, radiately ribbed, broadly umbilicate. Sculp- 
ture consisting of close, sharp, radiate riblets, the smooth interstices 
of about the same width as the riblets ; they are finer and closer 
together near the aperture. Colour white. Spire sunken. Proto- 
conch very minute, of about 1 whorl, turned downward. Whorls 3, 
regularly increasing, leaving the apex considerably lower than any of 
the succeeding volutions, the last being the most elevated, and having 
a rounded periphery ; base convex, very broadly and openly um- 
bilicated. Suture strongly impressed. Aperture circular. Peristome 
discontinuous, thin. ColumcUa short, arcuate, not thickened ; the 
converging margins of the peristome connected by a thin parietal 



Cyclostremdla.] GASTROPODA. 161 

callosity. Umbilicus of the same aspect as the sunken spire. Oper- 
culum unknown. 

Diameter Maj., 2 mm. ; rain., 1-6 mm. : height, 0-7 mm. 

Animal unknown. 

Type in my collection. 

Hob. Snares, in 50 fathoms (Captain Bollons). 

Remark. The suture of this species is not canaliculated, hence the 
circular aperture, not angled above. 

Fam. TURBINID^C, Gray. 

Animal with an oval, broad, or narrow foot, truncated anteriorly ; 
rostrum rather short, truncate ; tentacles long, slender, cylindrical, 
the eyes on peduncles at their exterior bases. Across the front of the 
head, between the tentacles, extends the more or less developed " veil " ; 
and from a point below the tentacles a fleshy ridge (the " epipodial 
line ") extends backward parallel with the margins of the foot, and 
bearing usually several slender cirri on either side. 

Radula usually with the formula oo + 5+ 1 + 5 + , but some- 
times lacking the median and 1 outer lateral tooth. The lateral teeth 
are all of nearly the same form. Jaws usually present. 

Shell turbinate or trochiform, generally solid, smooth or rugulose ; 
aperture circular, oval, or subtetragonal ; peristome simple ; oper- 
culum calcareous, heavy, flat or concave, with a thin corneous layer 
internally, the nucleus multispiral and either subcentral or at the 
margin. 

Ordovician to Recent. 

They are mostly littoral in station, and inhabitants of tropical and 
subtropical seas. They are herbivorous. 

KEY TO GENERA. 

A. Shell turbinate, large, convex below ; operculurn convex 

outside, nucleus near centre . . . . . . TURBO. 

B. Shell trochiform, young carinated and spinose : operculum 

with submarginal or terminal nucleus, generally with ribs 

outside . . . . . . . . . . . . ASTR^EA. 

C. Shell turbinate or globose, small, solid ; operculum multi- 

spiral, concave in the centre outside . . . . . . LEPTOTHYRA. 

Genus 1. TURBO, Linnaeus, 1758. 
Turbo, L., Syst. Nat., ed. x, 761. Type : T. marmoratus, L. 

Head of animal proboscidiform, slightly extended in front ; ten- 
tacles long and cylindrical ; the ocular peduncles dilated, outside the 
base of the tentacles ; epipodial line with a small number of cirri. 

Shell turbinate or depressed, imperf orate or umbilicate ; young 
not carinated or spinose ; base convex. Operculum flat or concave 
inside, with 3 or 4 whorls and subcentral nucleus ; outside convex, 
smooth, tuberculate, or with concentric ribs. 

Numerous species in the Tertiary. 

Living in warmer or tropical seas. 

6-Moll.N.Z. 



162 GASTROPODA. [Aspidobranchia. 



Subgen. 1. MARMOROSTOMA, Swainson, 1840. 
Type : T. porphyr elicits, Mart. 

Shell depressed turbinate, very solid, umbilicate or imperforate, 
smooth, lirate or nodulose ; spire depressed, of few whorls ; aperture 
round, produced but not channelled at base ; operculum circular, 
nucleus subcentral, outside convex, smooth or granulose ; radula 
with a reflected simple cusp on the central tooth. 

1. Turbo smaragdus, Martyn, 1784. Plate 40, fig. 7. 

Helix smaragdus, Mart., Un. Couch., ii, f. 73, 74. Turbo smaragdus, Mart.. 
Man. Conch. (1), x, 217. T. helicinus, Bora. Index Mus. Cses. Vindob., 
1778, 355 ; not of Phipps, Voy. North Pole. 1774, 193. T. smaragdus, 
var. tricostatus, Hutton, P.L.S. N.S.W., ix, 1884, 355; Snter, T.N.Z.I., 
xxxviii, 323. T. (LuneUa) radina. Webster. T.N.Z.I., xxxvii, 1904 
(1905), 276, pi. 9. f. 1. 

Shell rather large, heliciform, imperforate. Sculpture : The first 
few whorls with small spiniform projections above the suture, on ;> 
narrow, slightly projecting ledge, which with further growth of the 
shell forms a smooth ridge, margining the suture. The second, third, 
and sometimes the fourth are spirally ribbed ; there is 1 rib on the 
earlier whorls, 3 on the fourth, followed by 2 low spiral ribs upon 
the base ; this ornamentation is lost with further growth, the whorls 
becoming smooth ; adult shells very seldom show any trace of sculp- 
ture, except strong oblique growth-lines and subobsolete spiral sulci, 
the whole of it being obliterated by erosion. Colour greenish-black. 
Epidermis thick, black, dull ; beneath it the shell is green. Spire 
conoidal or conical, outlines convex, always lower than the height of 
aperture. Protoconch of H whorls, depressed, white, smooth, mostly 
much eroded. Whorls 4 to 5, rapidly increasing, convex, the last large, 
depressed above and more or less concave below the suture ; base 
flatly convex. Suture not deep. Aperture large, rounded, oblique, 
pearly- white within. Outer lip sharp, strongly convex, black-edged . 
and with a broad white callous band inside. Columella subvertical, 
strongly concave, smooth, white above, pearly at its base. The inner 
lip broadly spread out as a thick white callus over the excavated 
umbilical area, edged with light yellow or orange down to the base, 
and uniting the margins by a broad, thin, and widespread callosity. 
Operculum flat inside, with 4 to 7 whorls, the nucleus more than one- 
third the distance across the face ; outside deep green, except on the 
side of increment, which is white ; very minutely remotely granose. 

Diameter, 50-60 mm. ; height, 40-50 mm. Diameter, 70 mm. ; 
height, 73 mm. (my largest specimen). 

Denttiion.--Tioschel, Das Gebiss d. Schnecken, vol. ii. pi. 19, f. 1 ; 
Hutton, T.N.Z.L, xiv, 165, pi. 7, f. G. 

Animal Hutton, T.N.Z.L, xiii, 202. 



Turbo.} GASTROPODA. 



Hob. - - Throughout New Zealand, common on rocks and sea- 
weeds between tide-marks. Kandavu, Fiji, on reefs (" Challenger ' 
Exped.). Brought to England by Captain Cook. 

Fossil in the Pliocene. 

Vernacular name. Cat's-eye shell. 

Maori. Akanakana (fide Quoy and Gaimard) ; korama (fide 
Captain Bollons). 

Subgen. 2. MODELIA, Gray, 1840. 
Type : Turbo granosus. Mart. 

Shell depressed, imperf orate, granulate all over ; operculum with 
a convex subcentral granular rib and a sharp-edged submarginal 
keel ; central teeth of radula without a cusp. 

2. Turbo granosus, Martyn, 1784. Plate 40, fig. 8. 

Trochus granosus, Mart., Uu. Conch., i, f. 37. Turbo granosus, Mart., Man. 
Conch. (1), x, 213. pi. 48, f. 39. T. (Modelia) rubicundus, Chemn. : 
Reeve, Conch. Icon., fig. 11. Liotia (Arene) Shandi, Button, C.M.M., 35 
(young shell) ; Suter, T.N.Z.I., xxxviii, 323. 

Shell subglobose, large, rather thin, imperforate, spirally granulose. 
Sculpture consisting of numerous subequal granose lirse, the upper 
3 usually more distant and with larger granules, the lower ones closer 
together with smaller granules, about 12 on the penultimate whorl. 
Colour pinkish-yellow, unicoloured, or clouded with purplish or brown ; 
umbilical depression bordered with pink on the outer side. Spire 
conoidal, with convex outlines, much lower than the height of aper- 
ture. Protoconch small, depressed, of 2 smooth whorls. Whorls 7, 
rounded, rapidly increasing, the last large and rounded, but slightly 
descending ; base convex. Suture not much impressed. Aperture sub- 
circular, a little oblique, iridescent and lirate within. Outer lip strongly 
convex, sharp, edged with purple. Columella high, concave, thick, 
smooth, white, nacreous on the inner side. Inner lip forming a thick 
white callous layer over the excavated umbilical tract ; a thin, shining, 
rose - tinted callus covers the parietal wall. Operculum ovate, flat 
within, with 5 to 6 whorls and subcentral nucleus ; outside white, 
thick, subgibbous, and minutely tuberculate at centre, subcanaliculate 
at the periphery. 

Diameter, 50-65 mm. ; height, 40-64 mm. 

Dentition. Hogg, Trans. Micr. Soc., 1866, pi. 11, f. 51. 

Hob. Cook Strait (Dr. Dieffenbach) ; Titahi Bay (Miss Mestayer) ; 
Bay of Islands ; Lyttelton ; Dunedin ; Preservation Inlet ; Foveaux 
Strait, in 18 fathoms (Captain Bollons) ; Stewart Island (C. Traill) : 
Chatham Islands ; Auckland Islands. Brought to England by Captain 
Cook. 

The species is found from low-water mark to about 20 fathoms, 
and is mostly covered with a thick layer of Nulliporites. 

Fossil in the Miocene and Pliocene. 

6* 



164 GASTROPODA. [Aspidobranchia. 

Genus 2. LEPTOTHYRA, Dall, 1871. 

Leptothyra, D.,11, Amcr. Journ. Conch., vii, 130. Type: Turbo sanguine us, L. 
Leptonyx, Carpenter and A. Adams, Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci., iii, 1864, 175 ; 
not of Gray, 1837 (Phocidce). Collonia, Philippi, Handbuch d. Conch., 
200, not of Gray. Collonia (sp.), H. and A. Adams, Gray, Watson, &c. 

Radula : The median teeth are oval, wide, with a narrow pro- 
jection above, and more or less narrowed toward the base ; the upper 
margin is in no case reflected, so that cusp, cutting-point, or edge, in 
any usual sense, there is none. 

Shell small or minute, globose-depressed, solid, compact, umbilicate 
or imperforate ; whorls 3-7, spirally sculptured, the last generally 
somewhat deflexed at the aperture ; aperture subcircular, white and 
nacreous within ; columella generally, but not always, bluntly den- 
ticulate near the base. Operculum subcircular, nearly flat or concavo- 
convex, inside with a very thin corneous layer, slightly convex, with 
many gradually increasing whorls, the nucleus subcentral, outside 
calcareous, subspiral, with a slightly convex concentric elevation or 
ridge around the margin, most prominent at its termination, the 
middle portion concave and more or less rugose. 

The species are numerous, inhabiting nearly all tropical and sub- 
tropical seas, but most numerous in the Pacific. 

Fossil. Tertiary. 

KEY TO SPECIES. 

A. Shell closely spirally lirate, the lirae numbering 25-35 on the 

last whorl . . . . . . . . . . . . fl,uctuata. 

B. Shell strongly spirally ribbed, the ribs numbering 1220 on the 

last whorl . . . . . . . . . . . . crassicostata. 

1. Leptothyra crassicostata, Murdoch, 1905. Plate 34, fig. 10. 

Leptothyra crassicostata., Murdoch, T. N.Z.I., xxxvii, 1904 (1905), 223, pi. 7, 
f. 11. 

Shell small, solid, turbinate, umbilicate, with strong variable 
spiral sculpture. Sculpture : The penultimate whorl with 3 to 5, 
the last with 12 to 20 spiral ribs. The ribs are very variable in size : 
there are 5 to 8 strong riblets between the periphery and suture on the 
body-whorl ; in front of the aperture 4 or 5 about equal to the breadth 
of the interspaces ; on and immediately below the periphery the 
cinguli are frequently small and crowded, and similar on the base, 
or there may be 2 or 3 more prominent cinguli intercalated with the 
smaller ones, or the basal riblets may generally be stronger than those 
on the periphery ; the growth-lines are strong and irregular, producing 
here and there a lightly costate appearance, frequently well pro- 
nounced in the umbilical area. Colour whitish or light brown, occa- 
sionally with irregular markings of brown, most distinct on and 
below the periphery. Spire low, rounded. Protoconch minute, smooth. 
Whorls 4, flattened below the suture, then convex, rapidly increasing ; 
base convex. Suture impressed. Aperture subrotund, white inside. 



Leptolhi/ra.\ GASTROPODA. 165 

Outer and basal lip acute, thickened inside. Columella arcuate, some- 
what produced and expanded at the base. Inner Up spreading as a 
thick callus over the parietal wall. Umbilicus small and deep. Oper- 
culum circular, somewhat calcareous, of 6 or 7 narrow whorls ; the 
nucleus central. 

Diameter, 3-2 mm. ; height, 2-5 mm. 

Dentition unknown. 

Type in the Dominion Museum, Wellington. 

Hab. Whangaroa Harbour (C. Traill) ; Snares, in 50 fathoms 
(Captain Bollons). 

2. Leptothyra fluctuata, Hutton, 1883. Plate 34, fig. 11. 

Cydostrenm fluctiicita, Hutt,, N.Z.J.S., i, 1883, 477 ; T.N.Z.I., xvi, 215. 
Leptothyra fluctuata, Hutt., Man. Couch. (1), x, 259, pi. 64, f. 47, 48; 
Murdoch, T.N.Z.I., xxxvij, 222, pi. 7, f. 10. 

Shell small, rather solid, spirally striated, umbilicate, not iridescent. 
Sculpture consisting of close spiral cinguli. 25 to 35 on the last whorl ; 
the umbilical area smooth or cut up with strong irregular growth- 
periods. Colour yellowish-white, pale brownish, or pink, with irregular 
waved longitudinal bands of brown extending across the base, but not 
reaching the umbilicus. Spire depressed, outlines convex. Protoconch 
of 1 smooth white whorl. Whorls 3 to 4, rounded, the last large ; base 
convex. Suture slightly impressed. Aperture subrotund, white within. 
Outer and basal lip convex, acute, thickened within. Columella 
vertical, concave, united by a thick callus with the basal lip. Inner 
lip forming a thin callosity upon the parietal wall. Umbilicus narrow, 
deep. Operculum, inside as usual in the genus, showing about 6 closely 
coiled whorls ; outside subvitreous and translucent, nearly smooth, 
calcareous, slightly concave in the centre. 

Diameter, 3 mm. ; height, 2-25 mm. 

Dentition unknown. 

Type in the Canterbury Museum, Christchurch. 

Hob. Foveaux Strait (type) ; Port Pegasus, Stewart Island, in 
18 fathoms (Captain Bollons) ; Hauraki Gulf, in 20 fathoms (R. H. 
Shakespear) ; Whangaroa Harbour (C. Traill) ; Bounty and Snares 
Islands, in 50 fathoms (Captain Bollons). 

Fossil in the Pliocene. 

Var. immaculata, Suter, 1908. 

Leptothyra fluctuata, var. immaculata, Suter, P. Mai. S., viii, 27. 

Distinguished from the species in being larger, having more 
numerous closer spiral cinguli, and no colour-markings at all. My 
specimens (empty shells) are white. 

Diameter, 4 mm. ; height, 2-5 mm. 

Type in my collection. 

Hob. Snares, in 50 fathoms (Captain Bollons). 



160 GASTROPODA. [Aspidobranchia. 

Genus 3. ASTR^A, Bolten, 1798. 

Astrcea, Bolten. Mus. Bolten. (2), 1798, 79. Type : A. imperialis, Gmel. 
Astralinm. Link, 1807. Calcar (Montfort), Fischer and other authors ; 
I operator (Montfort), Auct. ; Trochns (in part) of all earlier authors ; 
and Tvrlm (in part), Sowerby, jun., and others. 

Animal and radula the same as in Turbo. 

Shell trochiform, generally more or less flattened above or below ; 
imperforate or umbilicate ; young specimens always carinated and 
spinose at the periphery. Operculum oval or oblong, usually with 
submarginal or terminal multispiral nucleus ; the last whorl forming 
the greater portion of the operculum, usually with 1 or several ribs 
exteriorly, following the course of the spiral, and most elevated at the 
distal extremity. 

Inhabiting tropical and temperate seas. 

Fossil. Trias and Tertiary. 

KEY TO SPECIES. 

A. Shell umbilicate, with large spines at periphery .. heliotropium. 

B. Shell imperforate, with small spines at periphery . . . . sulcata. 

Siibgen. 1. ASTR.-EA, s. str. 

Type: A. imperialis, Gmel. Imperator, Montfort, 1810; Canthorbis, Sw<un- 
son, 1840; and (in part) Gtiildfordia, Gray, 1850. j.-*> 

The central and lateral teeth of the radula bear cusps ; the mar- 
ginals are not especially large toward the inside. 

Shell large, trochiform, concave and umbilicate below, carinated 
and spinose at periphery ; whorls convex and granulose above ; oper- 
culum oval, outside smooth, obsoletely unicostate. 

1. Astraea heliotropium, Marty n, 1784. Plate 41, fig. 1. 

Trochus heliotropium, Mart., Un. Conch., i, 30, not of 1769. Astralinm 
heliotropium. Mart., Man. Conch. (1), x. 2^S. pi. ."Hi, f. 87. Imperator 
aureolatus, Montfort, Conch. Syst., 1810. Canthorbix imperialis, Swain- 
son, 1840. Guildfordia heliophorus, Gray, 18f><>. 

Shell large, depressed conic, widely umbilic;itf. solid, with large 
triangular spines at the periphery. Sculpture consisting of numerous 
scaly spiral ribs, obliquely running out to the spines of the periphery 
on the lower half of the whorls ; base with 3 to 5 strong, scaly, spiral 
ribs of unequal size ; umbilicus ornamented with strong, oblique 
growth-lines, which unite on approaching the base, and form a distinct 
carina. Colour greenish- or bluish-grey, base mostly yellowish. Spire 
coiioidal, its elevation very variable, about the s;mn> height as the 
aperture, outlines convex. Protoconch of 2i smooth, flat, and strongly 
carinated whorls. Whorls 7, first slowly, then rapidly increasing, 
convex, acutely carinated and produced into long triangular spines, 
which are hollow, open on the anterior side, recurved, concave above, 
their number being exceedingly variable, as is also their shape ; base 



Astrcea.] GASTROPODA. 167 

excavated in the middle, then flatly convex, and with a circular de- 
pression inside the circle of spines. Suture rendered zigzag by the 
prominent spines. Aperture transversely oval, pearly within. Outer 
lip convex, sharp, channelled, and much produced at the junction 
with the slightly convex and denticulate lower lip. Columella con- 
cave above, oblique and straight below, white and smooth. Inner lip 
slightly dilated, and impinging upon the umbilicus ; parietal wall 
strongly iridescent, a thin glaze uniting the two margins. Umbilicus 
wide, deep, perspective. Operculum oval, with excentric nucleus ; 
outside smooth, obsoletely unicostate. 

Diameter, 100-120 mm. ; height, 50-60 mm. 

Dentition. Hogg, Trans. Microsc. Soc., 1866, pi. 11, f. 46. 

Hob. From the Bay of Islands to Stewart Island ; Cloudy Bay 
(Forster) ; Tasman Bay (Q. G.) ; Auckland (Frauenfeld) ; Chatham 
Islands. From low-water mark to about 20 fathoms. Found also at 
Lord Howe Island. Brought to England by Captain Cook. 

Fossil in the Pliocene. 

Subgen. 2. COOKIA, Lesson, 1832. 

CooJcia, Lesson, Illustr. Zool., 1832, pi. 15. Only species : A. sulcata, Mart. 
Median tooth of radula with a long basal plate and short body ; 
it bears no cusp, and has small supporting-wings. 

Shell large, conical, imperf orate ; periphery rounded or keeled ; 
base concave ; umbilical tract concave, smooth ; operculum ovate, 
narrowed toward the distal extremity, nucleus subterminal, outside 
with 2 convex smooth ribs. 

2. Astrasa sulcata, Martyn, 1784. Plate 41, fig. 2. 

Trochus sulcatus, Mart., Un. Couch., i, f. 35, not of 1769. AstraUum 
xuhatum, Mart., Man. Conch. (1), x, 242, pi. 64, f. 55. Trochus Cooki, 
imelin, Syst. Nat., ed. xiii, 1790, 3582. Cookia nobilis, Lesson, Illustr. 
Zool., 1832, pi. 15. Pachypoma (Cookia) Cooki, Chenu, Man. Conch., i, 
351, f. 2581. 

Shell large, conic, imperforate, rather thin, with oblique sub- 
tuberculose folds. Sculpture consisting of close lamellose growth- 
striae and obliquely descending subtuberculose folds, which are directed 
forward ; base with 5 to 6 slightly nodulous spiral ribs, crossed by 
close growth-lines. Colour purplish-grey or brown, centre of base 
fawn-coloured. Spire conoidal, more or less elevated, higher than 
the aperture. Protoconch small, depressed convex, of 2 smooth whorls. 
Whorls 7, well rounded, periphery convex ; base flattened, deeply 
concave in the centre. Suture deeply impressed. Aperture trans- 
versely oval, very oblique, pearly and corrugated within. Outer lip 
strongly convex, denticulate, edged with brown ; basal lip nearly 
straight, with an interior white callus. Columella arcuate above, 
straightened and very oblique below, thin, white above, pearly below. 



168 GASTROPODA. [Aspidobranfhia. 

Inner lip spread widely in a semicircle as a thin transparent glaze 
over the base, connecting the margins. Umbilical area deeply concave, 
bounded by a half-circular thread, which on reaching the lower part 
of the columella produces an indistinct tubercle. Operculum brownish 
or white outside. 

Diameter, 65-90 mm. ; height, 65-80 mm. 

Dentition. Troschel, Das Gebiss d. Schnecken. ii, 127, pi. 20, 
f. 14 ; Hutton, T.N.Z.I., xv, 125, pi. 14. f. P. 

Hob. North and South Islands, as far south as Oamaru ; Ch; it- 
ham Islands. At low-water mark, and down to a few fathoms, mostly 
in exposed situations. Spengler and Chemnitz give the habitat Dusky 
Bay and Cook Strait. Brought to England by Captain Cook. 

Maori. Toitoi ; ngaruru (fide Captain Bollons). 

Subsp. Davisii, Stowe, 1872. Plate 41, fig. 3. 

Imperator Davisii, Stowe, T.N.Z.I., iv, 1871 (1872), 218. Antrallum Hiilcntmii, 
Mart., subsp. Davisii, Stowe : Suter, T.N.Z.I., xxxviii, 325. Turbo Cooki, 
Lam., Voy. Astrol., iii, 224, pi. 60, f. 19-23. Risella Jcielmansegi, Zelebor, 
Verhaudl. Zool. Bot, Gesellsch. Wien, xvi, 1866, 913. R. aurata, 
Q. & G. : Hutton, J. dc Couch., 1878, 27, not of Q. & G. . melano- 
stoma, Gmel. : Hutton, M.N.Z.M., 79; Suter, T.N.Z.I., xxxiv, 215, 
not of Gmelin. Astralium pyramidale, Webster, T.N.Z.I., xxxvii, 276, 
pi. 9, f. 2. (The last four names refer to young shells of the subspecies.) 

Distinguished from the species by the high conical form and by 
the whorls being keeled at the periphery. 

Diameter, 3-25 in. ; height, 4-5 in. (type specimen). 

Type in the Dominion Museum, Wellington. 

Hob. The type specimen, much worn, was discovered at low 
water at the cliffs at Nelson by the late Mr. E. H. Davis, of the New 
Zealand Geological Survey ; Cook Strait ; Hauraki Gulf ; Banks 
Peninsula (Iredale). 

Fam. PHASIANELLID^, Troschel. 

Animal with long tentacles, and usually pectinated head -lobes ; 
epipodial line usually with cirri ; branchial plume long ; foot 
narrow, long, pointed posteriorly, rounded before, below divided 
longitudinally by a median groove. Jaws rhomboidal, covered with 
imbricating scales. Radula rather short ; formula of teeth typically 
oo+5 + l+5 + oo, but sometimes lacking the median and outer 
lateral teeth. 

Genus 1. PHASIANELLA, Lamarck, 1804. 

Pliasiant'Uci, Lam., Ann. du Musee, iv, 295. Type : P. australis, Gnielin. 
Shell imperforate, not nacreous, oval or oblong, polished ; aper- 
ture entire, oval, higher than broad, ungulate in front ; columella 
smooth, compressed, attenuated at the base ; outer margin simple, 
sharp. 



Phasianella.] GASTROPODA. 109 

Distribution. All tropical and subtropical seas. 
Fossil. Tertiary. 

The animals are very active, the foot is much elongated when 
crawling, and they usually live together in numbers. 
Vernacular Name. Pheasant-shell. 

Subgen. 1. TRICOLIA, Bisso, 1826. 

Tricolia, Risso, Hist. Nat. do 1' Europe Merid. Type : Phasianella speciosa, 
Miihlf. 

The head of the animal without frontal lobes. Shell small. 

1. Phasianella Huttoni, Pilsbry, 1888. Plate 34, fig. 12. 

Rissoa flammulata, Htitton, J. do Conch., 1878, 28. Phasianella Huttoni, 
Pils., Man. Conch. (1), x, 174. Barleeia flamulata, Hutt., M.N.Z.M., 81. 
Rissoa flammulata, Hutt., P.L.S. N.S.W., ix, 941. 

Shell small, ovate-elongate, thin, shining, impeiiorate, pink, smooth. 
Sculpture consisting only of subobsolete growth-lines, distinct only 
below the suture. Colour either uniformly bright rose, or rose with 
oblique rays of white ; these 1'ays are narrow and subequal, usually 
accompanied by broad white zigzag rays, situate between suture 
and periphery of the whorls ; the rays are never extending upon the 
base, which is uniformly rose. Epidermis thin and glossy. Spire 
elevated, conic, nearly twice the height of the aperture. Protoconch 
small, conic, rather obtuse, of about 2 smooth whorls. Whorls 7, 
slightly convex ; base convex. Suture impressed, sometimes sub- 
margined below. Aperture ovate, white within. Outer and basal lip 
rounded, with a rather blunt edge. Columella short, subvertical, white, 
broad, and smooth. Inner lip spread out very little beyond the 
columella, uniting the margins by a thick and white parietal callus. 
Umbilical area not depressed. 

Diameter, 3-75 mm. ; height, 6-75 mm. 

Dentition unknown. 

Type in the Otago Museum, Dunedin. 

Hob. Auckland (T. F. Cheeseman) ; Takapuna Beach (H. S.) ; 
Bay of Islands (J. C. Anderson). 



Fam. UMBONIIMJ, Adams. 

Animal with the rostrum rudimentary ; the frontal lobes greatly 
developed. 

Shell orbicular, flattened, not umbilicated, the umbilical region 
often covered with a callous deposit ; operculum horny, thin, of many 
gradually enlarging whorls, finely ciliated on the outer edge. 

Distribution. Indian and Pacific Oceans. 

Fossil. Devonian to Tertiary. 



170 "A STROPODA . [Aspidobranchia. 

Genus 1. ETHALIA, A. Adams, 1855. 

Ethalia, A. Ad., P.Z.fS., 1853 (1855), 189. Type: E. guamense, Q. & G. 
Liotrochus, P. Fischer, J. de Conch., 1878, 207. 

Shell orbicular, turbinately depressed ; whorls convex, smooth or 
transversely striated, the last rounded at the periphery ; umbilicus 
partly closed by a callus deposit ; columellar lip ending anteriorly in 
an obtuse dilated callus. 

The species are moderate-sized shells, depressed, the whorls con- 
vex, with a mottled or streaked colour-pattern. The callus emitted 
at the columellar-parietal angle of the aperture is tongue-shaped, 
closing the umbilicus except a rather narrow chink, or even entirely 
in some species. 

1. Ethalia zelandica, Hombron and Jacquinot, 1854. Plate 39, 
figs. 9, 9a. 

Rotdla zelandica, H. & J., Voy. P.S., v. 53, pi. 14, f. 5, 6. Ethalia zelandica, 
H. & J., Man. Conch. (1), xi, 459, pi. 58, f. 9, 32, 33; pi. 59, f. 66 : Suter, 
P. Mai. S., ii, 283. Rotella lineolnta (Lam. ?), Gray, in Dieff. N.Z., 238. 
Globulus anguliferus, Philippi, Conch. Cab. (1853 ?), 51, pi. 8, f. 3. Um- 
bonium chalconotum, A. Adams, P.Z.S.. 1S53 (1855), 188. V. zelandicum, 
A. Adams, i.e., 189. 

Shell depressed, imperforate, yellowish or pinkish. Sculpture : Sur- 
face smooth, base showing under a lens very fine, close, regular spiral 
striae. Colour yellowish or pinkish, radiately streaked with chestnut- 
brown or red above, base with a reddish or purple zone around the 
central callus, the outer part white, more or less striped radiately. 
Epidermis thin, shining, red and green reflections from the nacre are 
visible through it. Spire low, conoidal. Protoconch small, convexly 
depressed, brown, smooth, of 2 whorls. Whorls 6 to 7, first slowly, 
then more rapidly increasing, the last 2 whorls concave above, the 
compressed periphery of the last whorl encircled by 2 rather obscure 
carina? ; base slightly convex, with a narrow spiral groove bounding 
a central area, which is covered by a thin, radiately rugose, purple- 
and-white callus. Suture linear, not impressed. Aperture rounded 
quadrate, nacreous and iridescent within. Outn- ;md basal Up sharp. 
Columelln short, concave, thick, and heavy, its edge pearly. Inner Up- 
forming a pad of white callus over the body and the axis. 

Diameter, 19 mm. ; height, 11 mm. 

Dentition unknown. 

Type in the Mus. Hist. Nat., Paris. 

II no. Throughout New Zealand, in the laminarian zone ; Kawhia 
(Dr. Dieii'enbach) ; Spirit Bay, in 6 fathoms (C;i plain Bollons) ; Ker- 
madec Islands. 

Fossil in the Miocene and Pliocene. 

Fam. NERITID^S, Lamarck. 

Animal with a short broad muzzle and long slender tentacles, 
with the eyes on prominent peduncles at their outer bases ; foot 



Nerita.] GASTROPODA. 171 

oblong, wide in front, attenuated behind ; branchia long, triangular, 
pointed, free at the extremity, ventricle embracing the intestine, 
anus on the right side ; a cephalic male organ present. The formula 
of the teeth of the radula is oo 1 . (3 + 1 + 3) . 1 oo ; the central tooth 
small, subquadrangular ; second central tooth very large, transverse, 
subrhomboidal ; third and fourth central teeth very small ; lateral 
tooth with reflected, simple or denticulated margin ; marginal teeth 
numerous, narrow, curved, serrated. 

Shell imperforate, thick, semiglobose, porcellanous ; spire very 
small, internally porcellanous, the cavity simple from the absorp- 
tion of the internal portion of the whorls by the animal. Aperture 
semilunate, entire, the columellar lip flattened, septiform, with a 
rectilinear, plain, or dentate margin ; outer lip rounded, sharp, or 
thickened, not reflected. 

Operculum calcareous, usually subspiral, provided with projecting 
lobes on its inner face, the inner margin forming a pseudo-articulation 
with the columellar lip. 

These molluscs are aquatic, although some species can normally 
live out of water. They are herbivorous, and deposit their eggs on 
their own shell or on that of another animal. The eggs are round 
or oval, with a thick, coriaceous, subcalcareous envelope, which sepa- 
rates transversally when the embryo emerges, the upper part of the 
capsule remaining attached to the lower part like a capsule. 

Trias to Recent ; living in tropical and warmer seas. 

Genus 1. NERITA (L.), Lamarck, 1799. 

Xerita, Linne, Syst. Nat., eci. x, 1758. 77fi : Lamarck, Mem. Soc. H.X., 
Paris. Type : N. albicilla, L. Nerita, Lam. : Man. Conch. (1), x, 4, 18. 

Foot without anterior marginal groove, epipodial line consisting 
of a simple membranaceous duplication extending from the tentacles 
to the operculum ; mantle-margin usually festooned. 

Shell thick, smooth, or spirally ridged and grooved, porcellanous, 
under a corneous adhering epidermis sometimes wanting ; outer lip 
thick, usually denticulated within ; columellar lip flattened, its margin 
dentate, straight. Operculum calcareous, the outer face granulated 
or with a decurrent groove, paucispiral. with excentric nucleus ; inner 
face callous, the apical and claviform apophyses well marked, marginal 
apophysis more or less developed, corresponding with tne groove or 
the outer face. 

Animals living on rocks and stones, generally inactive by day, 
but said to be active at night, roaming about and feeding on alga?, &c. 
Gregarious, and littoral, and nearly exclusively marine. 

About 200 species have been described, inhabiting tropical and 
semitropical shores throughout the world. 

Fossil. Cretaceous and Tertiary. The earlier forms are sorae- 
what doubtful, and belong very likely to the genus Neridomus, M. & L. 



172 GASTROPODA. 



Sect. 1. PELORONTA, Oken, 1815. 

Peloronta, Oken, Zool., 1815, 360. Type : N. peloronta, L. Tenure, Gray. 
P.Z.S., 1858, 92. 

Columellar lip nearly smooth, its margin strongly dentate, outer 
lip dentate within. 

1. Nerita melanotragus, E. A. Smith, 1884. Plate 39, fig. 10. 

Nerita melanotragus, E. A. Smith, Zool. Coll., H.M.S. " Alert," 1884 (1, viii), 
69. N. nigra, Gray, DieiT. N.Z., 240, not of Dillwyn, 1817. N. atruta, 
Chemn. : Reeve, Conch. Icon., ix, 1855, f. 16, not of Chemnitz nor 
Deshayes. N. saturata, Hutton, P.L.S. N.S.W., ix, 1884 (19, viii), 354. 
N. punctata, Q. & G. : Watson, Chal. Rep., xv, 132, not of Quoy and 
Gaimard. N. alrata, Reeve : Tryon, Man. Conch. (1), x, 26, pi. 8, f. 40. 
A T . melanotragus, Smith: Hedley, P.L.S. X.S.W., 1900, 500; Suter, 
T.N.Z.I., xxxviii, 324. 

Shell moderately large, solid, globose-oval, black. Sculpture con- 
sisting of irregularly disposed spiral grooves, which are narrow and 
shallow, having much broader interstices between them ; growth- 
strife fine, but with more or less distant well-marked periods of rest. 
Colour uniformly black, sometimes bluish-black. Epidermis solid^ 
more or less shining. Spire low, rounded. Protoconch small, almost 
flat, smooth, greenish. Whorls 3, convex, very rapidly increasing,. 
the last descending in front ; base convex, no umbilical depression. 
Suture superficial. Aperture oblique, semicircular, white or bluish- 
white within. Outer lip solid, sharp, black-edged, more or less dis- 
tinctly denticulate. Columella oblique, slightly concave, with 2 or 3 
denticles in the middle. Inner lip forming a broad white and shining 
callus, which bears slight wrinkles and pustules. Operculum granulate 
on the outer face, pale purple, with 2 spiral bands of black. 

Diameter, 23-35 mm. ; height, 20-31 mm. 

Dentition. Kutton, T.N.Z.I., xv, 123, pi. 14, f. H. 

Type in the British Museum. 

Hob. North Island, under stones between tide-marks ; Ker- 
madec Islands ; Australia and Tasmania. Brought to England by 
Captain Cook. 

Maori. Ngarahutatawa (fide Captain Bollons). 

Fam. COCCULINID/E, Ball. 

Animal with a prominent head and muzzle, the males with an 
intromittant organ at the base of the right tentacle ; a single lamellose 
asymmetrical gill between the under-surface of the mantle and the 
upper surface of the body from a point above and behind the head, 
extending around toward the right, and even backward on the right 
side ; attached only at its base. Eyes wanting in the known species. 
Anus anterior, opening in a papilla above and behind the head. 
Mantle-margin and sides of foot plain, without epipodial papillae or 
processes, but they are sometimes present behind. Radula with a 



Cocculiim.] GASTROPODA. 173 

small or moderately raised central tooth, 3 moderate inner laterals 
with denticulate cusps, a larger denticulate major lateral with a stout 
and twisted stalk, and on each side a stout base from which spring 
numerous slender marginals hooked at their tips. There is no jaw. 

Shell patelliform, not nacreous, symmetrical, with an entire non- 
sinuated margin and a posteriorly inclined apex with a (usually 
deciduous) spiral nucleus ; muscular impression horseshoe - shaped, 
interrupted over the head. 

Genus 1. COCCULINA, Dall, 1882. 

Cocculina, Dall.. Proc. U.S. Nat, Mus., 1881 (1882), 402. Type: C. Kath- 
buni, Dall. Cocculina, Dall, " Blake " Gastropoda" 345 ; Man. 
Conch. (1), xii, 131. Tectura sp., Jeffreys, P.Z.S., 1882, 672. 

The shell is colourless, with radiating and concentric sculpture ; 
other characters are those of the family. 

Anatomy. Dr. Joh. Thiele, ' Die beschalten Gastropoden der 
deutschen Tiefsee Expedition." B. Anatom. Systemat. Untersuch. 
einiger Gastropoden, 149-56, pi. 6, f. 1-22. 

Distribution. North Europe, north-eastern and western Atlantic, 
Indian Ocean, Philippines, Australasia. Deep-sea forms. 

KEY TO SPECIES. 

A. Margin in one plane. 

a. Shell with minute concentric and radiate threads . . tasmanica. 
aa. Shell with the sides subparallel, surface distinctly cut 

up into granules by concentric and radiate sculpture craticulata. 

B. Margin raised at both ends. 

. Shell laterally compressed, summit anterior. . . . compressa. 

aa. Shell not laterally compressed, saddle-shaped, summit 

slightly posterior . . . . . . . . clypiddlceformis. 

1. Cocculina clypidellaeformis, Suter, 1908. Plate 34, figs. 13. 13. 
Cocculina clypidellceformis, Suter, P. Mai. S., viii, 27, pi. 2, f. 19, 20. 

Shell minute, having the shape of a Clypidella i.e., saddle-shaped 
the sides descending, and the anterior and posterior margin slightly 
elevated ; thin, translucent, smooth, apex slightly posterior. Sculp- 
ture consisting of concentric growth-lines only ; they are fine and 
microscopic on the upper half, more conspicuous and irregular to- 
wards the base. Colour white. In the young shell the nucleus is 
minute, globose, and polished ; adult shells have usually lost it. The 
summit is very little behind the middle in the adult roundish shell, 
but nearly at the posterior third in the young more oval shell ; it 
is slightly raised, the anterior, posterior, and the lateral slopes are 
uneven, moderately convex. Interior greenish- white ; muscular im- 
pression very distinct, forming a half-circle. 

Length, 2-8 mm. ; breadth, 2-5 mm. ; height, 2-2 mm. 

Animal unknown. 

Type in my collection. 

Hob. Snares, in 50 fathoms (Captain Bollons). 



174 GASTROPODA. \_AspidobrancJi in. 

2. Cocculina compressa, Suter, 1908. Plate 34, figs. 14, 14a. 

Cocculina compressa, Suter, P. Mai. S., viii, 27, pi. 2, f. 17. 18. 

Shell small, thin, laterally much compressed, the sides parallel, 
anterior and posterior end raised, navicular, the summit anterior ;nid 
considerably raised. Sculpture consisting of fine rather distant and 
indistinct radiate stria3, crossed by distant concentric growth-lines. 
Colour white. Nucleus minute, resting on the narrowly elevated sum- 
mit, situate at the anterior two-fifths of the length. Anterior and 
posterior slope straight, side slopes lightly convex. Margin sharp, 
smooth. Interior white. 

Length, 5 mm. ; breadth, 2 mm. ; height, 2-8 mm. 

Animal unknown. 

Type in the collection of Miss Mestayer, Wellington. 

Hal>. Flat Point, East Cape one specimen (type) ; a second 
example was obtained in 38 fathoms, 5 miles south of Cuvier Island 
(Captain Bollons). 

Remark. A nearly allied form is the Australian C. coercita, Hedley 
(Rec. A.M., vi, 289, pi. 54, f. 1, 2). which, however, has no radiate 
striation, and the apex a little behind the centre. 

3. Cocculina craticulata, Suter, 1908. Plate 34, figs. 15, 15a. 

Cocculina craticulata, Suter, P. Mai. S., viii, 27, pi. 2, f. 15, lf>. 

Shell small, thin, oval, the sides subparallel, elevated. Sculpture 
consisting of subequal, distinct, close concentric grooves, reticulated 
by radiate grooves, which are slightly slanting to the left on the an- 
terior slope, the surface being cut up into series of squarish granules, 
the summit having only concentric sculpture. Colour yellowish-green. 
Nucleus spiral, smooth, small, evidently deciduous, very little within 
the posterior margin. Posterior slope short, steep, concave ; anterior 
slope long, regularly rounded. Inside light green, shining. 

Length, 2-8 mm. ; breadth, 1-8 mm. ; height, 1-2 mm. 

Animal unknown. 

Type in my collection. 

Hal). Dusky Sound, in 30 fathoms (R. Henry). 

4. Cocculina tasmanica, Pilsbry, 1895. Plate 34, fig. 16. 

Acmcea parva, Angas, var. tasmanica, PiLs., ' The Nautilus." ix, 128. 
Cocculina tasmanica, Murdoch and Suter. T.'N.Z.I., xxxviii. 1905 (100*)), 
301. Nacella tasmanica, Tate and May, P.L.S. N.S.W.. 1901, 411, 
pi. 27, f. 89, 90. Cocculina meridionalis, Hedley, Mem. A.M., iv, pt. 6, 
1903, 331, f. 64 in text, 

Shell small, thin, elevated, slightly asymmetrical. Sculpture : 
Fine dense concentric threads, crossed by fine and close radiate stripe, 
minutely decussating the surface, and indistinct anteriorly. Colour 
opaque - white. Apex smooth, inrolled, deciduous; summit a little 
within the posterior margin. Posterior slope steep, a little concave ; 



Cocculina.l GASTROPODA. 175 



anterior slope long, arched. Inside white, shining, the posterior horse- 
shoe-shaped muscle-scar distinct. 

Length, 3 mm. ; breadth, 2 - 2 mm. ; height, 1-5 mm. (type). 
Length, 3-25 mm. ; breadth, 2-25 mm. ; height, 1-6 mm. (C. meri- 
dionalis, Hedley). 

Animal unknown. 

Type in the cabinet of Mr. YV. L. May, Sandford, Tasmania ; co- 
type in my collection. 

Hob. About 15 miles off Great Barrier Island, in 110 fathoms ; 
Port Pegasus, Stewart Island, in 18 fathoms (Captain Bollons) ; Auck- 
land Islands, in 85 fathoms (E. R. Waite). Australia and Tasmania. 
The type was dredged by Mr. W. L. May in 10 fathoms, Frederick 
Henry Bay, Tasmania. 

Fam. HYDROCENIDJE, Fischer. 

The animal having no gill, but a pulmonary cavity. Tentacles 
short, large ; eyes prominent, situate at the upper or outer base of 
the tentacles. Foot short, oval, obtuse. The teeth of radula have the 
formula ool. (1 + 1 + 1). 1; the central teeth are small, elongated ; 
the lateral tooth is rather large, straight, without a cusp ; the nume- 
rous lateral teeth are denticulate, and arranged in very oblique series. 

Shell imperforate, conic and globular ; whorls convex ; spire short ; 
peristome continuous ; columella callous ; lip not reflexed ; oper- 
culum calcareous, ornamented with stria? which are concentric to the 
nucleus ; inner side with a prominent apophysis arising from the 
nucleus. 

Genus 1. HYDROCENA, Pfeift'er, 1847. 

Hydrocena. Pfr., Zeitschr. f. Malak., 1847, 112. Type : H. cattaroensis, Pfr. 

Animal having the tentacles triangular, with large eyes at their 
upper base ; operculum attached to the posterior part of the foot. 

Shell imperforate, small, amber-colour ; whorls few, convex ; aper- 
ture oval, angled above, margins united by a thin callosity extending 
across the body-wall ; peristome not reflected, not thickened ; colu- 
mella slightly concave ; umbilical tract closed by a callosity ; Oper- 
culum subconcentric, with a nucleus showing sometimes an apparent 
spiral structure on its outer face. 

The type lives in the marine littoral zone, near Cattaro, Dalmatia. 

1. Hydrocena Purchasi, Pfeiffer, 1862. Plate 34, fig. 17. 

Hi/drocena Purchasi, Pfr.. Malak. Blatter, viii, 1862, 150; Hedley and Suter. 
P.L.S. N.S.W. (2), vii. 623; Suter. J. de Conch., xli, 227.' Assimine'i 
Purchasi, Pfr. : Hutton, M.N.Z.M., 40. 

Shell minute, globosely conical, translucid, imperforate. Sculp- 
ture consisting of very fine growth-stria; only. Colour horny-fuscous. 
Epidermis thin, shining. Spire conical, rather obtuse. Protoconch 
minute, strongly convex, smooth. Whorls 4 to 5, convex, the last 



176 GASTROPODA. [Aspidobrancliin . 

slightly exceeding one-third of the height of the shell ; base convex. 
Suture impressed. Aperture a little oblique, subcircular. Peristome 
simple, straight. Columella slightly concave, white. Inner lip spread- 
ing over the umbilicus, sealing it up more or less completely. The 
callus on the penultimate whorl unites the margins, and is con- 
spicuous. 

Diameter, 1 mm. ; height, 2 mm. 

Dentition. Suter, T.N.Z.I., xxiv, 301, pi. 23, f. 58. 

Type in the K.K. Hofmuseum, Vienna. 

Hob. North Island : Bay of Islands (Purchas, Hochstetter) 
Waro ; Whangarei ; vicinity of Auckland ; Wairangi, Waikato 
Hunua Range ; Mount Pirongia ; Forty-mile Bush. South Island 
Kenepuru Sound ; Nelson ; Wairoa Gorge ; Greymouth ; Riccarton 
Bush, near Christchurch. 

Found in native bush in very moist situations, near creeks or 
swamps, under stones, rotten wood, &c. 

ORDER 2. PECTINIBRANCHIA. 

(= Monotoccirdes ; Ctenobrcnichia.) 

These are Streptoneura with a somewhat concentrated nervous 
system ; without a labial commissure, except in Vivipara and Ai- 
puttaria. The nerve-collar is situated behind the buccal bulb, except 
in the latter genus. There is a single well-differentiated, independent, 
and often pectinated osphradium. The eye is always closed, and the 
internal cornea (pellucida) is extensive. Each otocyst contains a 
single otolith, except in some forms of Tcenioqlossa devoid of a pro- 
boscis. The central tooth of the radula is single or absent. There 
is no longer any trace of bilateral symmetry in the circulatory, re- 
spiratory, and excretory organs, the topographically right half of the 
pallial complex having completely disappeared. The ctenidium is 
monopectinate, and attached to the mantle throughout its whole 
length, except in Adeorbis and Valvata. The single kidney usually 
opens directly by a slit-shaped aperture, and never serves for the 
passage of the sexual products. The genital gland always has a sepa- 
rate orifice of its own. The male generally has an intromittant organ. 

The Pcctinibmnchia are divided into two suborders Tcenioglossa 
and Stenoglossa. 

SUBORDER 1. T^NIOGLOSSA, Troschel. 

In these Pectinibranchs the radula has nonnally 3 teeth on each 
side of the median tooth viz., 1 lateral and 2 marginals. The 
stomatogastric ganglia are situated behind the buccal mass, and are 
united to the cerebral centres by long connectives, which are in part re- 
current and deeply situated. The salivary ducts, when sufficiently long, 



Lagochilus.] GASTROPODA. 177 

traverse the nerve-collar. The oesophagus is nearly always devoid of 
an unpaired gland. Usually there is neither a proboscis nor a siphon. 

The suborder includes two distinct groups or tribes, which are 
respectively creeping and swimming forms- namely, the Platypoda 
and Heteropoda. 

Tribe 1. PLATYPODA. 

Normal Tcenioglossa, but slightly modified, and of creeping habit. 
The foot is flattened ventrally at all events, in its anterior part. 
The otocysts are situated close to the pedal nerve-centres. Accessory 
organs are rarely found on the genital ducts, but are present in Vivi- 
para. Cyclostoma, the Naticidce, Catyptrceidce, &c. Mandibles are 
usually present. The intestine is long. 

The Platijpoda form the largest group of the Mollusca, comprising 
nearly sixty families of unequal value, some of which are not thoroughly 
well known from an anatomical point of view. 

Fam. CYCLOPHORIDJE, Gray. 

Animal having long cylindrical tentacles, subulate toward the 
extremities ; eyes at their outer bases on very short peduncles ; foot 
long, attenuate behind. Pallial cavity devoid of a ctenidium and 
transformed into a lung ; pedal centres in the form of ganglionated 
cords ; otocysts with otoconia. Jaws reticulate. Radula having the 
formula 2.1.1.1.2; central tooth contracted in the tniddle, with 
3 to 5 cusps ; lateral and marginal teeth arranged in oblique rows 
curved, all of the same form, and with 2 or 3 cusps. 

Shell conical or depressed, usually covered with a horny epidermis ; 
aperture circular, peristome simple or reflexed ; operculum distinctly 
spiral, testaceous or horny ; whorls very numerous and subequal, or 
few and rapidly increasing. 

These molluscs are terrestrial, and appear first in the Cretaceous. 

Genus 1. LAGOCHILUS, Blanford, 1864. 

Lagochilus. Blauford, A.M.N.H. (3), xiii, 452. Type : L. tomotrema, Benson. 
Lagochilus, Blanford : Moellendorff. P.L.S. N.S.W. (2), vii, 1892. 385 ; 
P. and F. Sarasin, " Die Land-Mollusken von Celebes," 1899, 25. 

Animal having a glandular slit at the extremity of the foot. 

The teeth of radula are distinguished from those of Leptopoma 
by the sharply pointed cusps of nearly equal size, none of them being 
much broader than the others. 

Shell conoidal, subturbinate, thin, with an epidermis. Aperture 
circular ; peristome mostly reflected, forming a more or less distinct 
angle or slit at its insertion above. Operculum circular, thin, horny, 
with 7 to 9 volutions, the margins of which are sometimes slightly 
elevated upon the outer face. 

Distribution. The genus ranges from India and China to the 
Philippines, the Malayan Archipelago, New Guinea, and New Zealand. 



178 GASTROPODA. [PectinibrancJiia. 

KEY TO SPECIES. 

A. Spire of shell the same height as that of the aperture, or but 

little higher. 
a. Whorls spirally lirate. 

1. Base bicarinate . . . . . . . . bicarinatum. 

2. Subobsolete spiral striae on base only . . . . pannosum. 

3. Regularly decussate, hairs at intersections . . cytora. 

4. With membranous radiate plaits, getting gradually 

more distant on approaching the aperture . . Hedleyi. 

tin. Whorls without spiral sculpture. 

1. With irregular radiate threads ; rufous or brown . . lignarium. 

2. With regular growth-lines only ; horny . . . . Studeri. 

B. Spire considerably higher than the aperture. 

. Last whorl angled or subangled. 

1. No sculpture, except growth-lines . . . . calvum. 

2. Spirally lirate . . . . . . . . . . pallidum. 

an. Last whorl rounded. 

b. Perforation covered. 

1. Height of shell less than 2 mm. . . . . torquillum. 

2. Height of shell more than 2 mm. . . . . Chiltoni. 
bb. Subperforate, perforation partly open . . . . fasciatum. 

Subgen. 1. CYTORA, Kobelt, 1902. 

Cytora, Kobelt and Moellendorff, Nachrichtsblatt Deutsch. Malak. Gesellsch., 
1897. 85 (name only). Type: L. cytora. (Iray. Cytora. Kobelt, in 
" Das Tierreich," 10. Lief., 1902, (i5. Murdochia, Ancey, J. de Conch., 
xlix, 1901, 24. 

Shell small, thin ; epidermis usually smooth, rarely with mem- 
branous processes or hairs ; sutural notch of the peristome slight. 
Operculum horny, not calareous, with subcentral nucleus and few 
volutions. 

1. Lagochilus bicarinatum, Suter, 1907. Plate 11, fig. 10. 

Lagochilus bicarinatum, Suter, P. Mai. S., vii, 1907, 238, pi. 22, f. 10. 

Shell small, turbinate, umbilicate, base bicarinate. Sculpture con- 
sisting of fine, subequidistant, blunt, incremental axial striae, 2 carinse 
on the base, the upper one arising from the junction of the outer lip 
with the whorl, and terminating a little below the middle of the outer 
lip ; the lower rib departs from the middle of the body- whorl between 
the margins of the aperture, and ends at the distal side of the basal 
lip ; no spiral striation is present. Colour fulvous to brown. Epi- 
dermis thin, slightly shining ; there may be axial membranaceous 
plaits, but in the only specimen before me they have evidently been 
lost. Spire conical, of the same height as the aperture, apex obtuse. 
Protoconch consisting of 1 whorl, which is globular and smooth. Suture 
deeply impressed. Aperture circular. Peristome slightly reflexed and 
callous, but sharp ; notch at the suture very indistinct. Columella 
concave, partly concealing the umbilicus, which is deep and of about 
i mm. diameter. The umbilical tract immersed and margined by the 
lower carina. Operculum thin, circular, multispiral, with membranous 
outer and central processes. 



Lngnchilus.'] GASTROPODA. 179 

Diameter, 4-5 mm. ; height, 5 mm. 

Dentition unknown. 

Type in my collection. 

Hab. Kaino, North Island, type (C. Cooper). 

2. Lagochilus calvum, Hutton, 1883. Plate 35, fig. 1. 

Leptopomn calva, Hutt., T.N.Z.I., xv, 1882 (1883), 140. Lmjochilus calvum, 
Hutt. : Hedley and Suter, P.L.S. N.S.W. (2), vii, 621 ; Suter, J. de 
Conch., xli, 224. 

Shell conical, perforate, brown, periphery rounded. Sculpture con- 
sisting simply of numerous fine oblique growth-lines. Colour reddish- 
brown, with a narrow spiral pale band below the periphery. Spire 
acutely conical, muc'h higher than the aperture. Whorls 6|, rather 
flattened, the last subangled at the periphery ; base convex. Suture 
impressed. Aperture oblique, roundly ovate. Peristome sharp, regu- 
larly rounded. Columella subvertical, arcuate. Perforation narrow, 
but open. Operculum horny, thin, transparent, of about 5 gradually 
enlarging whorls ; nucleus subcentral. 

Diameter, 2 mm. ; height, 3-25 mm. 

Dentition resembling that of L. pannosum (Hutton). 

Type in the Canterbury Museum, Christchurch. 

Hob. Greymouth (R. Helms). 

Remarks. The only specimen I have ever seen is the type. The 
species would seem to be rare, and local in distribution. 

3. Lagochilus Chiltoni, Suter, 1896. Plate 10, fig. 1. 

Lagochilus Chiltoni, Suter, P. Mai. S., ii, 33, pi. 4, f. 1. 

Shell very small, turbinate, subperforate, rufous, slightly glossy, 
semitransparent. Sculpture consisting of nearly equidistant, rather 
close, radiate, and partly membranaceous riblets, about 5 to 6 per 
millimetre on the last whorl ; the whole surface faintly microscopically 
spirally striate. Colour uniformly rufous. Epidermis thin and horny, 
easily worn off. Spire conical, apex rather pointed, higher than the 
aperture. Protoconch small, papillate, shining, of 2 convex whorls, 
faintly spirally striate, the second reticulated bv additional close 

/ JL >/ */ 

radiate striae. Whorls 5, c-onvex, the first 3 slowly, the others more 
rapidly increasing, the last rounded at the periphery ; base convex. 
Suture impressed. Aperture slightly oblique, subcircular. Peristome 
simple, straight, notch at the suture very slightly indicated. Colu- 
mella arcuate, slightly callous, expanded and completely covering the 
small umbilicus. Operculum not known. 

Diameter, 2-25 mm. ; height, 3 mm. 

Dentition unknown. 

Type in my collection. 

Hab. Fern Flat, Buller River, South Island, type (Dr. Chilton) ; 
Wairangi, Waikato (A. Suter). 

Remark. The specimen from the latter locality is slightly more 
slender, and darker in colour. 



180 GASTROPODA. [Pectinibranchia. 

Subsp. septentrionale, Suter, 1907. Plate 11, fig. 9. 

Lagochilus Chiltoni, subsp. septentrionale, Suter, P. 3Lil. S., vii, 1907, 238, 
]]. 22, f. 9. 

Distinguished from the species by the following characters : It is 
considerably larger, the spiral striation is quite distinct, especially 
upon the base, and the umbilicus is a little larger and open, not covered 
over by the reflection of the inner lip. Operculum unknown. 

Diameter, 3 mm. ; height, 4 mm. 

Dentition unknown. 

Type in my collection. 

Hab. Cowes Bay, Waiheke Island, type (H. S.) ; Cape Camel, 
near the North Cape (C. Cooper). 

Remarks. The specimens from Cape Camel are slightly more 
slender, the umbilical tract is angled, and the last whorl has a whitish 
spiral band above the periphery in some examples. 

4. Lagochilus cytora, Gray, 1850. Plate 35, fig. 2. 

Cyclophora cytora, Gray, P.Z.S., 1849 (1850), 167; A.M.N.H. (2), vii, 08; 
Pfeiffer, Mon. Pneuni. viv., i, 86. Lagochilus cytora, Gray: Hedley and 
Suter, P.L.S. N.S.W. (2), vii, 621 ; Suter, J. de Conch., xli, 223. 

Shell minute, turbinate, perforate, rather solid. Sculpture con- 
sisting of distant regular spiral threads, crossed by oblique membran- 
aceous, subequidistant, hairlike riblets ; at the points of intersection 
short epidermal hairs arise. Colour brown or horny. Epidermis 
thin, easily rubbed oft', not shining. Spire short, slightly convex, 
acute, but little higher than the aperture. Protoconch of 3 dark- 
brown, shining, strongly convex whorls, the first 2 smooth, the third 
radiately ribbed. Whorls 5|, moderately convex, the last with a 
slight emargination at the upper end of the peristome ; base con- 
vex. Suture impressed. Aperture, oblique, nearly circular. Peristome 
simple, straight, thickened internally, with the margins approximate, 
united by a thin callus. Columella short, oblique, arched, half- 
covering the narrow but deep perforation. Operculum of a few 
whorls only. 

Diameter, 2-5 mm. ; height, 2 mm. 

Animal and dentition unknown. 

Type in the British Museum. 

Hab. Auckland, type (Greenwood) ; Howick ; Ohaupo ; Hunua 
Range ; Mount Pirongia ; Wairangi, Waikato. Living in damp places, 
of the bush, in mould, under rotten pieces of wood, sometimes on 
fronds of ferns. 

">. Lagochilus fasciatum, Suter, 1894. Plate 35, fig. 3. 

Ln!/r>i;/,t. l<i*ciatum, Suter, T.N.Z.I., xxvi, 1893 (1894), 132, pi. 19, f. 30, 31. 

Shell small, turbinate, subperforate, rufous, thin. Sculpture con- 
sisting of thin, close, membranaceous, white, slightly waved radiate 



LagncUlus.} GASTROPODA. 181 



plaits, often produced below the suture, about 11 or 12 per millimetre 
on the last whorl ; interstices with numerous fine but distinct spiral 
stria?. Colour rufous, with a pale band on the periphery, or horny 
with a brown peripheral band. Epidermis thin, horny. Spire conical, 
apex rather blunt, higher than the aperture. Protoconch papillate, of 
2 very convex, smooth whorls, the second with a few radiate striae. 
A magnifying - power of about 100 reveals faint spiral striation. 
Whorls 6, first regularly and slowly, the last rapidly increasing ; base 
convex. Suture impressed. Aperture, oblique, subcircular. Peristome 
simple, straight, strengthened inside by a narrow callosity ; notch at 
the suture slight but distinct. Columella arcuate, with a white cal- 
losity inside, which extends over the body, uniting the converging 
margins. Umbilicus narrow, pervious, partly covered by the slight 
columellar expansion. Operculum unknown. 

Diameter, 2-5 mm. ; height, 2 mm. 

Dentition unknown. 

Type in my collection. 

Hob. Near Manaia, Wairnate Plains, North Island (R. Murdoch). 

6. Lagochilus Hedleyi, Suter, 1894. Plate 35, fig. 4. 

Lagochilus Hedleyi, Suter, P.L.S. N.S.W. (2), viii, 184, pi. 22, f. \-\d, 

Shell very small, turbinate, perforated, rather thin. Sculpture 
consisting of radiate white membranaceous plaits, close together on 
the penultimate whorl, but gradually getting more distant on ap- 
proaching the aperture, where there are about 9 plaits per millimetre. 
Between the plaits a good lens reveals close fine spiral stria?, crossed 
by equally fine growth-lines. Colour rufous or pale horny. Epi- 
dermis thin, not shining, easily rubbed off. Spire conical, nearly as 
high as broad, a little higher than the aperture. Protoconch small, 
papillate, of 2 whorls, the first smooth, the second microscopically 
spirally striate. Whorls 5, rounded, the last rapidly increasing, 
rounded at the periphery ; base convex. Suture deep. Aperture 
nearly circular, diagonal. Peristome simple, straight, slightly callous 
inside, the margins approximating and united by a thin parietal callus ; 
notch at the suture very slight. Columella arcuate, callous inside, 
not reflexed. Umbilicus pervious, very narrow, deep, partly hidden 
by the last whorl. Operculum horny, slightly concave, of few whorls 
only, nucleus central. 

Diameter Maj., 2 mm. ; min., 1-75 mm. : height, 2-25 mm. 

Dentition unknown. 

Type in my collection. 

Hab. North Island only : Hunua Range, type (Major Broun) : 
Hillyer's Creek, near Auckland (C. Musson) ; Birkenhead (H. S.) ; Wai- 
takerei Range (H. S.) : Mount Pirongia (A. T. Urquhart). 



182 GASTROPODA. \Pectimbranchi 

1. Lagochilus lignarium, Pfeiffer, 1857. Plate 35, fig. 5. 

Cyclostoma lii/nnriinn, Pfr., P.Z.S., 1857, 112; Mon. Pneum. viv., ii, 44; 
Reeve, Conch. Icon., xiii, Cvclophorus, f. 94. Lagochilus lignarium, Pfr. : 
Medley and Suter, P.L.S. N.S.W. (2), vii, 621; Suter, J. de Conch., xli 
224; J. Mai., vii, 53. 

Shell small, umbilicated, turbinated, rather thin. Sculpture con- 
sisting of irregular, membranaceous radiate threads, extending to the 
umbilicus ; there is no trace of spiral sculpture. ( '<>Iour rufous to light 
brown. Epidermis rather thick, opaque. Spire conoidal, outlines 
s! raight, of about the same height as the aperture. Protoconch of 
2 whorls, papillate, dark brown, smooth, and shining. Whorls 5 
to 5J convex, the first 3 slowly, the others more rapidly increasing ; 
base flatly convex. Suture well impressed. Aperture oblique, ovately 
rotund. Peristome continuous over the parietal wall, mostly sharp, 
but sometimes double, the outer one membranaceous and narrowly 
expanded, with a slight notch at the suture ; callous inside. Columella 
oblique, arcuate, slightly callous, not reflexed. Umbilicus narrow, 
open, deep, about one-seventh of the major diameter of the shell. 
Operculum horny, thin, of few whorls. 

Diameter Maj., 5 mm. ; min. 4-6 mm. : height, 4 mm. : aper- 
ture height, 2-6 mm. Almost all the specimens I found were a little 
smaller. 

Animal with a distinct posterior glandular notch. 

Dentition unknown. 

Type in the British Museum. 

Hab. North Island : Near Wellington ; Forty-mile Bush. South 
Island : Wairoa Gorge ; Kenepuru Sound. 

This rare shell is living in moist places of the bush, sometimes in- 
side rotten logs. 

8. Lagochilus pallidum, Hutton, 1883. Plate 35, fig. 6. 

Leptopoma (?) pallida, Hutt,, X.Z.J.S., i, 1883. 477; T.N.Z.I., xvi, 1883 
(1884), 184, 210. Lagochilus pallidum, Hutt. : Hedley and Sutei, 
P.L.S. N.S.W. (2), vii, 621 ; Suter, J. de Conch., xli, 224. 

Shell small, conical, subperf orated, pale brown. Sculpture con- 
sisting of rather distant, irregular, and low spiral lirse, 2 to 3 on the 
spire-whorls, 5 on the last whorl above the periphery, and about 5 
upon the base, crossed by numerous oblique growth-lines and dis- 
tant membranaceous plaits, which are easily rubbed off. Colour pale 
brown, sometimes with a narrow pale band at the periphery of the 
last whorl and 1 around the middle of the base. E/iiiln -mis thin, horny, 
not shining. S/>irc acutely conical, the apex obtusely rounded, higher 
than the aperture. Protoconch small, papillate, of 2 convex, dark- 
brown and shining whorls, the first with a few faint spiral strife, the 
second closely radiately striate. Whorls 5, rounded, the last dis- 
tinctly angled at the periphery ; base flatly convex, depressed round 



Lagochilus.] GASTROPODA. 183 



the umbilicus, but not keeled. Suture impressed. Aperture slightly 
oblique, subcircular, angled above. Peristome thin, regularly arched, 
callous within, continuous over the parietal wall ; notch at the suture 
biit slight. Columella arcuate, subvertical, with a white inner callus, 
slightly expanded over the umbilicus, which is narrow and deep. 
Op&rculum thin, horny, with about 5 whorls ; nucleus subcentral. 

Diameter, 3-25 mm. ; height, 5 mm. 

Dentition unknown . 

Type in the Canterbury Museum. Christchurch. 

Hab. North Island only : Te Reinga ; Tom Bowline's Bay ; Wha- 
ngaroa (C. Cooper) ; Kaihu, Hokianga ; Waitakerei Range (H. S.) ; 
Waiwera ; Birkenhead ; Mount Pirongia. The type is from " Auck- 
land," exact locality not stated (T. F. Cheeseman). 

Var. albida, an almost colourless, translucent specimen from Broad- 
wood, Hokianga, is in my collection. 

9. Lagochilus pannosum, Hutton, 1883. Plate 35, fig. 7. 

Leptopoma pannosa, Hutt, T.N.Z.T., xv. 1882 (1883), 140. Lagochilus 
pannosum, Hutt. : Hedley and Suter, P.L.S. N.S.W. (2), vii, 621 : Siiter, 
J. de Conch., xli, 224. 

Shell conical, angled at periphery, perforate, brown, covered with 
a dark-fuscous, ragged epidermis. Sculpture consisting of oblique, 
very irregular, radiate, and rather distant plaits, produced into tri- 
angular membranaceous processes at and sometimes below the peri- 
phery ; base with fine radiate threads crossed by fine spiral striae, 
which, however, are mostly subobsolete. Colour uniformly brown. 
Epidermis thin, processes easily worn oft", dull. Spire acutely conical, 
very little higher than the aperture. Protoconch small, papillate, of 
2 smooth, strongly convex, and dark-brown shining whorls. Whorls 6, 
rather flattened, the last angled at the periphery ; base flattish. Suture 
impressed. Aperture rather oblique, broadly ovate. Peristome thin, 
regularly arched, or slightly angulated at the periphery, very little 
callous inside ; very slightly patulous. Columella slightly oblique, 
arcuate, callous inside, and slightly expanded toward the narrow but 
open perforation ; there is no parietal callosity. Opi-rculum horny, 
of 5 whorls ; nucleus subcentral. 

Diameter, 2-75 mm. ; height, 3-25 mm. 

Animal. Rostrum emarginate ; tentacles short, slightly tapered, 
and rounded at the ends ; the eyes on slight bulgings at their bases ; 
foot short, not produced much beyond the operculum ; tail rounded. 
Body and foot brown ; tentacles and a band on each side of the head 
purple ; rostrum broadly margined with white, and the tentacles 
minutely tipped with the same colour. (Hutton.) 

Dentition. Hutton. T.N.Z.I., xvi, 173, pi. 10. f. U. 

Tt/pe in the Canterbury Museum, Christchurch. 

Hab. Greymouth (R. Helms). 



184 GASTROPODA. {Pectinibranchiu. 

10. Lagochilus Studeri, Suter, 1896. Plate 10, fig. 2. 
Lagochilus Studeri, Suter, P. Mai. S., ii, 34, pi. 4, f. 2. 

Shell very small, globosely conoidal, perforate, whitish-horny, 
faintly glossy, fragile, translucent. Sculpture consisting simply of 
regular and close growth-lines. Colour uniformly whitish-horny. 
Epidermis very thin, glossy. Spire conoidal, rather short, h sight the 
same as that of the aperture. Protoconch globose, smooth. Whorls 
3|, rather rapidly increasing, convex, slightly flattened below the 
suture, the last with a rounded periphery ; base convex. Suture deep. 
Aperture ovate, higher than broad. Peristome simple, acute. Outer 
lip regularly arched ; basal lip acutely convex. Columella almost 
straight, vertical ; no callosity uniting the converging margins. There 
is no indication of a notch at the suture. Umbilicus pervious, very 
narrow. Operculum thin, horny, with a few whorls round a subcentral 
nucleus. 

Diameter, 2-25 mm. ; height, 3 mm. ; height of aperture, 1-5 mm. 

Dentition unknown. 

Type in my collection. 

Hob. Whangarei, type (Mr. Grosch). 

Remark. The only specimen I have is immature, and the generic 
position is somewhat doubtful. 

11. Lagochilus torquillum, Suter, 1894. Plate 35, fig. 8. 

Lagochilus torquillum, Suter, P.L.S. N.S.W. (2), viii, 485, pi. 22, f. 2-26. 

Shell minute, conical, subperforated, rufous, thin and fragile, semi- 
transparent. Sculpture consisting of close white membranaceous and 
oblique radiate plaits, directed slightly backward ; there are about 
15 per millimetre on the last whorl ; interstices microscopically spirally 
striate, more distinct on the base. Colour uniformly rufous. Epi- 
dermis thin, horny, not shining. Spire acutely conical, with a rather 
sharp apex, higher than the aperture. Protoconch papillate, of 2 whorls, 
which are finely spirally striate and strongly convex. Whorls 5, 
the last occupying nearly half of the total height, strongly convex, 
rounded at the periphery ; base convex. Suture deep. Aperture 
oblique, circular. Peristome simple, straight, the margins not meet- 
ing, but united by a thin parietal callosity, no notch at the suture. 
Columella arcuate, thin, a little reflected over the narrow perforation, 
which in adult specimens is entirely covered. Operculum unknown. 

Diameter, 1-25 mm. ; height, 1-75 mm. 

Dentition unknown. 

Type in my collection. 

Hab. Howick, type (Major Broun); Hunna Range; bush near 
Napier (A. G. Clark). 



Gastroptychia.] GASTROPODA. 185 

Fain. DIPLOMMATINID^l. 

Shell small, dextral or sinistral, umbilicated or subperforated ; 
whorls convex ; aperture subcircular ; peristome usually double, outer 
lip expanded, columclla sometimes with a spiral fold. Operculum 
horny or calcareous, concave, of few whorls. 

The metropolis of this family is the Oriental or Palaiotropical 
region. 

Genus 1. PALAINA, 0. Semper, 1865. 

Type : P. alntri, Semper. 

Suell mostly sinistral. The last whorl is constricted at its beginning 
or at the last fourth. Aperture without spiral fold. 

1. Palaina chordata, PfeiSer, 1855. 

Diplommntina chordata, Pfr., P.Z.S., 1855, 105; Moil. Pneura. viv.. ii, 12; 
Medley and Suter, P.L.S. N.S.W. (2), vii, 620; Suter, J. de Conch., 
xli, 223. 

Shell sinistral, deeply rimated, subfusiform, diaphanous, thin. 
Sculpture consisting of somewhat distant cord-shaped radiate riblets. 
Colour waxy-whitish. Epidermis very thin. Spire ovately conical, 
apex acute. Whorls 7, convex, the last attenuated, ascending an- 
teriorly. Aperture slightly oblique, subcircular. Peristome double. 
The outer lip shortly spread out, the inner lip continuous over the 
parietal wall, shortly adnate, otherwise rather expanded. 

Diameter, 2 mm. ; height, 4 mm. 

Type in the British Museum. 

Hob. New Zealand (Strange, fide Cuming). 

Remark. I have not seen this species, and its occurrence in New 
Zealand requires confirmation. 

Genus 2. GASTROPTYCHIA, Kobelt and Moellendorff, 1900. 

Gastroptychia, Kobelt and Moellendorff, Nachrichtsblatt d. Deutsch. Mai. 
Gesellsch., 1900, 186. Type : Paxillus adversus, H. and A. Adams. 
Paxillus, H. and A. Adams, A.M.N.H. (2), vii, 1851, 63, not of Michean. 

Shell pupiform, rimate, smooth ; spire acuminated ; aperture semi- 
ovate, ascending on the body-whorl ; inner lip adnate, spreading, 
flexuous, with a prominent tooth-like fold in the middle ; outer lip 
double, emarginate anteriorly ; umbilical region with a spiral elevated 
ridge ending in a notch at the fore part of the aperture; operculum 
orbicular, of many gradually enlarging whorls ; nucleus central. 

1. Gastroptychia peregrina, Gould, 1847. 

Balea peregrina, Gld., P. Bost. S.N.H., ii, 197; U.S. Expl. Ex., xii, 91, 
f. 105, n, b. Diplommntina (Paxillus) peregrina, Gld. : Hedley and 
Suter, P.L.S. N.S.W. (2), vii, 620 ; Suter, J. de Conch., xli, 223. 

Shell small, sinistral, elongated, subfusiform, solid, opaque, rufous- 
cinereous, hardly striated, perforated. Spire mamillated at the apex. 



186 GASTROPODA. [Pectinibranchia. 

Whirls 8, flattened, subtabulated. Suture linear, deep. Aperture sub- 
quadrate. Peristome entire, equal, slightly reflexed. 

Diameter, 2-5 mm. ; height, 10 mm. 

Type in the U.S. Nat. Museum, Washington. 

If fib. Nmv Zealand (U.S. Expl. Ex.). 

Remark. Like the foregoing, this species has not been found 
again. 

Fam. LITORINID.E, Gray. 

Animal having the proboscis wide and short ; tentacles long, 
cylindrical, with eyes on small swellings at their outer bases ; foot 
anteriorly truncate. Intromittant organ well developed, behind the 
right tentacle ; reproduction oviparous or ovoviviparous. Eadula 
long and narrow, formula 2+1+1+1 + 2. Central tooth of variable 
size, with a few short denticles ; lateral and marginal teeth in oblique 
rows, the lateral tooth large, tricuspid, marginals arcuate and denti- 
culate. 

Distribution. World-wide. 

KEY TO GENERA. 

A. Shell imperforate, solid ; outer marginals of radula with 3 

denticles . . . . . . . . . . LITORINA. 

B. Shell rimate, chitinous, fragile ; outer marginals of radula 

multidenticulate . . . . . . . . . . L^EVTLITORINA. 

Genus 1. LITORINA, Menke, 1828. 

Litorina, Menke, Syn. Meth. Moll.. 1828. Type : L. liltorea, L. Litorina, 
Menke: Ad., G.R.M., i, 312; Fischer, Man. de Conch., 707; Tryon, 
Man. Conch. (1), ix, 229; Conch. Icon., x. 

Animal having the foot obtuse behind, longitudinally divided, so 
that in walking each side advances alternately ; there are no append- 
ages. Intromittant organ flat and rugose. The lingual ribbon is very 
long, with a large number (up to 600) of rows of teeth. 

Shell imperforate, turbinate. coloured ; aperture rounded, not 
notched below, the outer lip not thickened ; columella flattened or 
excavated ; operculum horny, paucispiral ; nucleus more or less ex- 
centric. 

The species inhabit the sea, brackish or sometimes even fresh 
water, and are mostly littoral, feeding on algae. They are in a great 
measure amphibious, living on rocks and grasses, where they are 
washed by the high tide; they will consequently withstand depriva- 
tion of water for a period. 

Some of the species are the food of man in Europe, and they are 
also extensively gathered for bait. The best-known species, L. Uttorea, 
is very abundant <> ike coasts of northern Europe ; 1,900 tons of this 
mollusc are sold annually in the London market, employing a thousand 



Litorina.] GASTROPODA. 187 



persons in gathering it. It is extensively distributed by English fisher- 
men over the oyster-beds, in order to keep them clear of seaweed. 

Vernacular Name. -Periwinkle. 

About 150 species have been generally admitted, inhabiting all 
parts of the globe. 

Fossil they are rather numerous, commencing with Secondary 
forms ; there are also some older fossils of somewhat problematical 
position, which may perhaps belong in the family. 

Sect. 1. MELARAPHE, Muehlfeldt, 1828. 

Melaraphe, Mhfdt.. in Menke, Synopsis, 1828, 23. Type : L. scabra, L. 
Littorinopsis, Moerch, 1876, Mai. Blatt., xxiii, 135. 

Shell thin, imperforate ; spire acuminate, whorls flattened, usually 
spirally striated, and adorned with coloured markings ; aperture 
effuse anteriorly ; coluniella excavated. 

KEY TO SPECIES. 

A. Shell small, banded with white and blue, finely and narrowly 

spirally striated . . . . . . . . . . mauritiana. 

B. Shell somewhat larger, brown, with more distant spiral strife, 

which are whitish . . . . . . . . . . cincta. 

1. Litorina cincta, Quoy and Gaimard, 1833. Plate 38, fig. 27. 

Litorina cincta, Q. & G., Voy. Astrol.. ii. 1833, 481. pi. 30, f. 20. 21 ; Reeve, 
Conch. Icon., x, f. 53. L. anyuh'fera, Gould, Otia Conch., 1846, 55. 
L. luctuosa, Reeve, Conch. Icon., x, f. 65. 

Shell small, ovate-conical, imperforate, solid, slightly glossy, spirally 
striate. Sculpture consisting of very little impressed spiral grooves, 
the interstices much broader, but narrower on the base, crossed by 
numerous fine and oblique growth-lines. Colour brown, grooves 
yellowish-white, columella light brown, mouth dark brown, with 
narrow short yellowish bands on the outer lip, and a broad whitish 
band below. Epidermis rather thin. Spire conical, sharply pointed, 
about the same height as the aperture, outlines slightly convex. 
Protoconch acute, conic, of 3 slightly convex translucent and smooth 
whorls. Whorls 6^, first slowly, then rapidly increasing, moderately 
convex, the last subangled below the periphery ; base flatly rounded. 
Suture well marked. Aperture oblique, oval, angled above. Peri- 
stome sharp, not thickened. Columella subvertical, slightly concave, 
much flattened and excavated below, where it bends off toward the 
basal lip. Operculum of about 3 whorls, nucleus excentric. 

Diameter, 9 mm. ; height. 13-5 mm. (type). Diameter, 13-5 mm. : 
height, 20 mm. (large specimen) : angle of spire, 46. 

Dentition. Hutton, T.N.Z.I., xiv, 164, pi. 7, f. D. 

Type in the Mus. Hist. Nat., Paris. 

Hab. Throughout New Zealaiid, but more common in the south. 
Chatham and Snares Islands. 



188 GASTROPODA. [Pectinibranchia. 

2. Litorina mauritiana, Lamarck, 1822. Plate 38, fig. 28. 

Pfmxiiiiit'lfii iiiiiin-iliniKi. Lam., A.s.V., vii. 51. Lifurinn mauritiana. Lam., 
P.L.S. N.S.W., ix. !J42; Man. Conch. (1). ix, 247, il. 44, f. 71-73. 75; 
Pritchard and Gatliff, P.R.S. Vic., xiv (n.s. ). 90. L. unifasciatn, Gray, 
King's "Survey of Australia," ii, App., 483. L. diemenensis, Q. & G., 
Voy. Astrol., ii, 479, pi. 33, f. 8-11. L. ncutu, Menke, Moll. Nov. Holl., 
9, No. 24. L. coerulescens, Lam. : Hutton, M.N.Z.M., 79, not of Lamarck. 
And a good many more synonyms. 

Shell small, ovate-conic, imperforate, moderately solid, very often 
much eroded. Sculpture consisting of regular fine and shallow spiral 
grooves, more distant below the suture and subobsolete on the base ; 
crossed by irregular oblique growth-strife and folds. Colour : Apex 
brown, the succeeding whorls with the upper half white, the lower 
blue, the last whorl white with a peripheral blue band ; mouth and 
columella brown. Spire acute, conical, about the same height as tin 
aperture, outlines slightly convex. Protoconch acutely conical, of 3 
smooth, brown, flat, and polished whorls. Whorls 7, first slowly, the 
last very rapidly increasing, flatly convex, the last angled below the 
periphery ; base flatly rounded. Suture not deep. Aperture oblique, 
oval, angled above. Peristom.e discontinuous, sharp. Outer lip with 
a narrow yellowish margin inside. Columrlla oblique, arcuate, broad, 
and flatly excavated, a very narrow groove on the outside ; parietal 
wall with a thin white callus. Opcrcuhim normal. 

Diameter, 6 mm. ; height, 9-5 mm. Diameter, 6-5 mm. ; height, 
12 mm. : angle of spire, 43. 

Dentition. Hutton, T.N.Z.I., xiv, 164. pi. 7, f. E. 
Type in the Mus. Hist. Nat., Geneva. 

Hob. Common on rocks at and above high-water mark through- 
out New Zealand and at the Chatham Islands ; Lord Howe Island, 
Tasmania, Australia, Mauritius, Ceylon, Nicobars, Malay Archipelago. 

Genus 2. L^VILITOKINA, Pf offer, 1886. 

Lcevilitorina, Pfeffer, Jahrbuch Hamburg. Wissensch. Anst. iii, 1886, 81. 
Type : Hydrobia culiginosa, Gould. 

A genus distinguished from Litorina by the niultidenticulate outer 
marginal teeth of the radula. 

Shell chitinous, scarcely chalky, fragile, rimate. Per iconic thin, 
sharp, the extremities united by a thin callus. Efiidcrnn's smooth. 

. Antarctic Sea. 



KEY TO SPECIKS. 

A. Shell turbinatc. 

a. Last whorl with two spiral bands. .. .. .. bifasciaia. 

an. Without spiral bands. 

b. Spire slightly higher than the aperture .. .. caliginosa. 

bb. Spire a little lower than the aperture . . . . antipodum. 

B. Shell subglobose, last whorl very large .. .. .. Hamiltoni 



Lcevilitorina.] GASTROPODA. 189 

1. Laevilitorina antipodum, Filhol, 1880. Plate 35, fig. 9. 

Assiminea antipodum, Filh., Compt. Rend., xci, 1094 ; Miss. I.C., 1885, 523. 

Shell small, turbinate, rimate, smooth, rather fragile. Oblique 
fine growth-lines form the only sculpture. Colour black, olive-brown, 
or horn-colour. Epidermis thin, dull or very slightly shining. Spire 
conical, a little lower than the aperture, outlines convex. Protoconch 
small, globose, of 1J smooth, convex, and polished whorls, mostly 
eroded. Whorls 5, first slowly, then rapidly increasing, convex ; base 
rounded. Suture deep. Aperture broadly oval, oblique, angled above. 
Peristome discontinuous, but margins connected by a parietal callus, 
sharp, not thickened. Basal lip very slightly reflexed. Columella ob- 
lique, arcuate, brown, with a moderate white inner callus. There is 
a narrow umbilical chink, present also in young specimens. Oper- 
culum with, the nucleus near the inner margin. 

Diameter, 2-3 mm. ; height, 4 mm. (type). Diameter, 2-9 mm. ; 
height, 4 - 5 mm. (specimen in my collection). 

Dentition. Similar to that of L. caliginosa. 
Type in the Mus. Hist. Nat., Paris. 

Hab. Campbell Island (Filhol, Dr. L. Cockayne) ; Auckland 
Islands (Professor H. B. Kirk). 



2. Laevilitorina bifasciata, n. sp. Plate 35, fig. 10. 

Shell small, subperforate, globosely ovate, smooth, dark brown 
with two yellowish bands. Sculpture consisting of dense, retractive, 
and slightly sinuous incremental lines. Colour dark- or greenish- 
brown, the last whorl with a narrow and inconspicuous yellowish 
spiral band below the suture, and a broader and more distinct band 
on the base. Epidermis thin, waxy. Spire conic, its height about 
f that of the aperture. Protoconch broadly rounded, smooth. 
Whorls 3^, convex, the last large ; base flattish. Suture deeply im- 
pressed. Aperture higher than broad, ovate, vertical, angled above, 
rounded at the base. Peristome thin and sharp, the margins connected 
by a thin callus over the parietal wall. Columella subvertical, slightly 
arcuate. Inner lip a little reflexed, forming a narrow umbilical chink. 
Operculum thin, horny, light-yellowish, paucispiral. 

Diameter, 2-8 mm. ; height, 3-5 mm. 

Radula very similar to that of L. caliginosa,, the outer marginal 
tooth with about 12 small denticles. 

Type in my collection. 

Hab. Antipodes Islands, together with Cremnobates parva (Captain 
Bollons). Only a few specimens were found. 



190 GASTROPODA. [Pectinibranchia. 

3. Laevilitorina caliginosa, Gould, 1849. Plate 35, fig. 11. 

Hydrobia caliginosa, Gld., P. Bost. S.N.H., iii. 83. Lcevilitorina calirjinosa, 
Goiild : Martens and Pfeft'er, Jahrbnch Hamburg. Wissench. Anst., 
1886, 81, pi. 1, f. 8; Man. Conch. (1), ix, 2o4. pi. 46, f. 29. Lillornx, 
caliginosa, Gould, U.S. Expl. Ex., 198, pi. 14, f. 240. Hydrobia rn/ii/inosa, 
Gld/: Smith. Phil. Tr. Roy. Soc., clxviii, 1879, 173, pi. 9, f. 8. Pulu- 
destrina caliginosa, Gld. : E. A. Smith. P. Mai. S., iii, 22. 

Shell small, turbinate, thin and fragile, smooth, dull, rimate. The 
only sculpture fine, microscopic growth-stria?. Colour chestnut or 
olivaceous brown. Epidermis thin, not shining. Spire elevated conic, 
a little higher than the aperture, outlines convex. Protoconch globose, 
of 1| smooth, polished, and convex whorls. Whorls 4-5, ventricose, 
rapidly increasing ; base convex. Suture deep. Aperture oblique, 
oval, rounded above, flattened on the wall ; interior livid or chestnut- 
coloured. Peristome continuous, thin, and sharp. Columella oblique, 
arcuate, but little callous. Umbilicus represented by a narrow chink, 
absent in young specimens. Operculum as in Litoritxi. 

Diameter, 3-3 mm. ; height, 5 mm. 

Dentition. Martens and Pfeffer, I.e., 83, pi. 3, f. 10. 

Type in the U.S. Nat. Museum, Washington. 

Hob. Macquarie Island (A. Hamilton). The type is from Royal 
Sound, Kerguelen Island. Terra del Fuego ; South Georgia. 

4. Lffivilitorina Hamiltoni, E. A. Smith. 1898. Plate 35, fig. 12. 

Paludestriini HinniUoni, E. A. Smith, P. Mai. S., iii, 22, f. 1, 2 in text. 

Shell very small, subglobose, narrowly umbilicated, smooth, thiu 
and fragile. Incremental strife form the only sculpture. Colour fuscous. 
Epidermis thin, not shining. Spire short, obtuse. Protoconch small, 
flat, mostly eroded. Whorls 3, rapidly increasing, convex, the last 
predominant ; base rounded. Suture deep, obsoletely canaliculate. 
Aperture large, roundly ovate, fuscous. Peristome continuous, thin, 
and sharp. Columella vertical, long, slightly arcuate, not callous. 
Umbilicus very narrow, a small carina at the base of the area. 
Operculum of 2^ whorls. 

Diameter Maj., 3 mm. ; min., 2 mm. : height, 3 mm. (type). 

Dentition unknown. 

Type in the British Museum. 

Hob. Macquarie Island (A. Hamilton). 

Remarks. This shell recalls in some respects certain forms of 
the genus Lacuna. The dentition being unknown, the generic position 
is uncertain. 

Fain. RISELLID^E, Kcsteven. 

The formula of the teeth of the radula is 3 + 1 + 3 ; the central 
tooth quadrangular, longer, than broad, with 1 or several cusps ; 
laterals large, with long narrow bases, and bearing usually several 
cusps. 



Risellopsis.} GASTROPODA. 191 

Shell trochiform or depressed turbinate, solid, periphery ungulate 
or carinate, base more or less concave, perforate or imperforate. Aper- 
ture broadly oval or rhomboidal. Peristome sharp, porcellanous in- 
side. Operculum oval, corneous, subspiral, nucleus excentric. 

This family includes the genera Risella, Gray, and Risellopsis, 
Kesteven. 

Distribution. Australasia. 

Genus 1. RISELLOPSIS, Kesteven, 1902. 

Risellopsis, Kes., Rec. A.M., iv, No. 7 (25, viii), 1002, 319. Type : Fos- 
sarina varia. Hutton. 

Shell comparatively small, stomatiform or depressed trochoid, per- 
forate, rather solid, spirally ribbed or carinated, growth striate ; 
aperture oval, oblique, interior porcellanous ; outer lip sinuated ac 
cording to sculpture ; columella short, curved ; operculum corneous, 
subspiral. 

Distribution. New Zealand, Tasmania, and Australia. 

1. Risellopsis varia, Button, 1873. Plate 35, fig. 13. 

Adeorbis varius, Hutt., C.M.M., 35. Risella (?) varia. Hutt., J. de Conch., 
1878, 27. Fossarina varius, Hutt., M.N.Z.M., 79. Risellopsis varia, 
Hutt. : Kesteven, Rec. A.M., iv, 320, f. 30-32 in text. 

Shell rather solid, small, opaque with translucent spaces, turbinate, 
perforate. Sculpture : Superiorly there are 2 spiral riblets, the first 
and smaller at a short distance from the suture, the other median ; 
there are 2 equal-sized riblets on the periphery, the lower of which 
is seen just above the suture, on the whorls of the spire ; upon the 
base there are 3 equal ribs, and a smaller one around the umbilical 
tract ; oblique dense growth-lines cross the riblets and interstices, 
more distinct on the base. Colour brown, irregularly varied with 
yellow and grey ; umbilical tract white. Epidermis solid, not shining. 
Spire conoidal, about the same height as the aperture, outlines slightly 
convex. Protoconch of 2 whorls, smooth, flatly convex. Whorls 4J, 
first slowly, then more rapidly increasing, rounded ; base flatly con- 
vex, with concave umbilical area. Suture impressed. Aperture slightly 
oblique, broadly oval, interior dark purple with a few white lines. 
Peristome sharp, sinuated by the spiral riblets, margins approximating. 
Columella short, arcuate, white. Inner lip reflexed over the narrow 
perforation, and spreading as a very thin glaze over the parietal wall. 
Operculum horny, oval, subspiral. 

Diameter Maj., 8-5 mm. ; min., 7 mm. : height, 4-7 mm. 

Dentition. The central tooth is bluntly unicuspid. base broad. 
The first lateral with 3 blunt cusps, the middle one broadest ; the 
second has an outer cusp, and ends in a long curved and pointed 



192 GASTROPODA. [Pcctinil>i-<nirli:<i . 

blade ; the third is a, simple elongated blade ; all three have long, 
narrow bases. Hutton, T. N.Z.I., xiv. 164. pi. 7, f. B ; Kesteven, 
Rec, A.M., iv, 319, fig. 29. 

Type in the Dominion Museum, Wellington. 

Hob. Throughout New Zealand and at the Chatham Islands ; at 
and above high-water mark, on rocks, often hiding in clusters of 
Modiohts ater. 

Var. carinata, Kesteven, 1902. Plate 35, fig. 14. 

Risellopsis varia, Hutt., var. carinata, Res., Rec. A.M.. iv, 1902, 321, f. 33-35 
in text. 

Shell depressed trochiform, tabulate. Sculpture : Two prominent 
spiral carinse divide the shell into a superior, peripheral, and basal 
area ; there are on the superior area 2 small riblets one (the smaller) 
at the suture, the other a little less than a third of the breadth of the 
area from the suture ; on the base there are 3 spiral riblets of about 
equal size, and a smaller one round the umbilical tract. Seen from 
below, the mouth is somewhat rhomboidal, with one rounded side, 
the basal margin. Operculum and dentition, as in the species. 

Diameter Maj., 5 mm. ; min., 4-3 mm. : height, 3 mm. 

Type in the Australian Museum, Sydney. 

Hob. The same as the species. 

Remark. Differs from typical examples in the development of the 
2 peripheral keels, to which is due the difference in contour. 



Fam. FOSSARIDJE, Fischer. 

Animal having the head proboscidiform, with a median longi- 
tudinal sulcus ; tentacles thread-like, sharp, grooved ; eyes at their 
external base ; 2 frontal lobes between the tentacles ; foot obtuse 
at both ends. 

Central tooth of the radula with a triangular, finely dentate cusp ; 
lateral tooth transverse, with a strong cusp and a series of fine denti- 
culations its entire length ; marginals elongated, simple- 
Shell turbinated, rather solid, white, grooved or ribbed spirally ; 
aperture entire ; lip simple, undulated ; columella nearly straight ; 
operculum corneous, subconcentric or subspiral. 

Genus 1. COUTHOUYIA, A. Adams. 1860. 
Couthoinjia, A. Ad., A.M.N.H. (3), v. 18(50, 410. Type : C. tlccit^itft. A. Ad. 

Shell ovate, profoundly and widely rim ate ; spire acuminated ; 
whorls convex, decussated, with impressed suture ; aperture semi- 
ovate ; inner lip straight, dilated in front ; outer lip arcuate, simple. 

The type is from Japan. Indian Ocean and Australasia. 

Fossil in the Pliocene of New Zealand. 



Couilwuyia.~\ GASTROPODA. 193 

1. Couthouyia corrugata, Hedley, 1904. Plate 35, fig. 15. 
Couthouyia corrugata, Hedley, Rec. A.M., v, pt. 2, 95, f. 22 in text. 

Shell very small, fusiform, thin and fragile. Sculpture : Numerous 
growth-lines cross the whorl irregularly, and assume the aspect of 
varices ; the whorls are crossed by faint, shallow, close, spiral grooves. 
Colour white. Spire elevated, conical, about the same height as the 
aperture, outlines convex. Protoconch small, of 1^- convex micro- 
scopically obsoletely reticulated whorls. Whorls 4|, rounded, con- 
stricted at the sutures, last whorl finally free. Suture deep. Aper- 
ture slightly oblique, elliptical. Peristome continuous, separated from 
the body-whorl by a deep groove, thickened and reflected. Columella 
broad and excavate. Operculum unknown. 

Diameter, 1-55 mm. ; height, 2-58 mm. (type). 

Animal unknown. 

Type in the Australian Museum, Sydney. 

Hob. Foveaux Strait, type (A. Hamilton) ; Snares, in 50 fathoms 
(Captain Bollons) ; near Cuvier Island, in 38 fathoms (Captain Bollons). 

Fam. PLANAXID.E, Adams. 

Animal with a rather long rostrum, subulate tentacles and eyes 
on swellings at their base. Siphon very short ; foot simple. Central 
tooth of radula trapezoid ; lateral tooth broad in front, with a few 
denticles on each side of the cusp, much narrowed at the base ; mar- 
ginals straight, long, finely pectinate. 

Shell oval-conic, spire elevated, without varices ; columella flat- 
tened, truncate anteriorly ; lip rounded, simple, notched in front ; oper- 
culum corneous, subspiral. 

Genus 1. PLAN AXIS, Lamarck, 1822. 
Planaxis, Lam., A.s.V., vii, 50. Type : P. sulcatus, Born. 

Shell imperforate, oval-conic, solid, with epidermis, and elevated 
spire, usually spirally sulcate ; columella callous, flattened, truncate 
at base, with a narrow sinus ; interior of aperture ridged, base notched ; 
operculum paucispiral, with a nearly terminal nucleus. 

Amphibious, crawling on stones near the margins of pools left by 
the retiring tide, or adhering to mangrove-roots. 

About fifty species are known, tropical or subtropical. 

Fossil in the Pliocene of the West Indies. 

Sect. 1. HINEA, Gray, 1847. 

Shell smooth, covered by an epidermis ; whorls flattened ; outer 
lip thickened, and grooved within. 

7-Moll. N.Z. 



194 GASTROPODA. [Pectinibranchia. 

1. Planaxis brazilianus, Lamarck, 1822. Plate 38, fig. 29. 

Buccinum brasilianum, Lam., A.s.V., vii, 272. Planaxis brazilianus, Lam. : 
Hedley, P.L.S. N.S.W., 1904, 186; Conch. Icon., xx, f. 35. P. mollis, 
Sowerby, Gen. of Shells, pt. 12, pi. 219, f. 2; Man. Conch. (1), ix, 27!. 
pi. 52, f. 34, 35 ; Suter, T.N.Z.I., xxxviii, 328. Biiccinumlcevigatum, Wood, 
Index Test., sup. 13, pi. 4, f. 29a. Planaxis pigra, Forbes, P.Z.S., 1850, 
273, pi. 11, f. 5. P. fulva, A. Ad., P.Z.S., 1851, 271. P. mollis, Sow. : 
Pritchard and Gatliff, P.R.S. Vic., xiv (n.s.), 87. 

Shell small, oval-conic, solid, imperforate. Sculpture consisting 
of a few narrow grooves at the base around the neck. Colour yellow 
or yellowish-brown. Epidermis minutely pilose, dull, mostly worn off 
on the upper whorls. Spire elevated conical, a little higher than the 
aperture, outlines straight. Protoconch small, conic and obtuse, of 
2 smooth white whorls. Whorls 7, first regularly, then rapidly in- 
creasing, flatly convex, the last rapidly descending on approaching 
the aperture ; base slightly concave. Suture not impressed. Aper- 
ture oblique, oval, with a narrow sinus at the base. Outer lip rounded, 
much thickened inside by a white, shining, and grooved callus. Colu- 
mella slightly oblique, moderately excavated. Inner lip forming a 
white rounded callosity, which spreads over part of the body and is 
connected with the outer lip. Operculum normal. 

Diameter, 7 mm. ; height, 14 mm. (Kermadec specimen). 

Animal unknown. 

Type in the Mus. Hist. Nat., Geneva. 

Hob. Bay of Islands ; Kermadec Islands (Miss Robison). Aus- 
tralia and Lord Howe Island. 

Remarks. -The specific name is a misnomer, as this shell does not 
occur on the coast of Brazil. Personally, I am strongly opposed to the 
use of such names, but the rule of zoological nomenclature is very 
clear on this point, and we have to obey it, meanwhile hoping that it 
may be altered some day. 

Fam. REALIID^J, Kobelt and Moellendorff. 

Shell small, variously shaped ; operculum oval, horny, cartilaginous 
or calcareous, having an excentric nucleus and few whorls. 
Distribution. Indo-Pacific. 

Subfam. REALIIN.E. 

Realiince, Kobelt, " Synopsis der Pneumonopomen-Familie Realiida?," in 
Jahrb. Nassau. Ver. f. Naturk., lix, 1906, 45. 

Shell small, turriculate, globosely turriculate or conoidal ; oper- 
culum horny. 

This subfamily includes the five genera Realia, Gray ; Ompha- 
lotropis, L. PfeifEer ; Acmella, Blanford ; Cyclomorpha, Pease ; and 
Dacrystoma, Crosse and P. Fischer. 

Distribution.- Madagascar to New Zealand and Tahiti. 



Realia.] GASTROPODA. 195 

KEY TO GENERA. 

1. Peristome continuous, double . . . . REALIA. 

2. Peristome discontinuous, straight or expanded, a more or 

less distinct keel round the umbilicus . . . . OMPHALOTKOPIS. 

Genus 1. EEALIA, Gray, 1850. 

Realia, Gray, P.Z.S., 1849 (1850), 167. Type : R. egea, Gray. Realia, Gray : 
Hedley and Suter, P.L.S. N.S.W. (2), vii, 622; Suter, J. de Conch., 
xli, 225 ; Kobelt, Jahrb. Nassau. Ver. f. Naturk., lix, 49. Liarea, Gray. 
Cat. Phaneropn. Br. Museum, 1852, 217. 

Animal having the tentacles long, cylindrical ; eyes at the outej 
base ; mouth proboscidiform ; foot elongate, tapering posteriorly. 
There are no jaws. Radula with multicuspidate teeth. 

Shell small, turriculate, smooth or longitudinally plicate, the last 
whorl angled to keeled ; aperture oval ; peristome continuous, double ; 
operculum thin, horny, paucispiral. 

Distribution. New Zealand (North Island only). 

KEY TO SPECIES. 

A. Suture margined. 

a. Height, 7 mm. . . . . . . . . carindla. 

aa. Height, 9 mm. . . . . Hochstetteri. 

B. Suture simple, not margined. 

a. Whorls 6i, the last angled . . . . . . egea. 

aa. Whorls 7-7, the last indistinctly angled . . turriculata. 

1. Realia carinella, L. PfeifTer, 1861. Plate 38, fig. 30. 

Realia carinella, Pfeiffer, Malak. Bl., viii, 150; Hedley and Suter, P.L.S. 
N.S.W. (2), vii, 623 ; Suter, J. de Conch., xli, 226 ; Kobelt, Jahrb. 
Nassau. Ver. f. Nat., lix, 50. 

Shell perforated, turreted, rather solid. Sculpture : The third 
whorl closely and finely axially striate, the following whorls ob- 
liquely striated with small plait-like strise. Colour brown, faintly 
marbled, or with a few yellowish streaks. Epidermis thin, slightly 
shining. Spire elongated, outlines but little convex, a little more 
than twice the height of the aperture. Protoconch slightly bulbose, 
of 2 smooth convex whorls. Whorls 7, a little convex, the last 
carinated ; base slightly convex, with a compressed riblet around the 
perforation. Suture superficial, margined with a thread-like edging. 
Aperture vertical, oval, angulated above. Peristome fuscous, double, 
the internal one continuous, slightly raised ; the external flatly spread 
out, nan-owed at the penultimate whorl, but slightly reflexed. Per- 
foration very narrow, open. Operculum typical. 

Diameter, 3-25 mm. ; height, 7 mm. 

Dentition unknown. 

Type in the K.K. Hofmuseum, Vienna. 

Hob. Drury and Taupiri, type (Hochstetter) ; Tamkenga ; 
Ohaupo ; Tuakau ; Maketu, Hunua Range ; Waitakeri Range (H. S.) ; 
Omaha ; Whangaroa (C. Cooper) ; Rawene, Hokianga. 



196 GASTROPODA. [Pectinibranchia. 

2. Realia egea, Gray, 1850. Plate 38, fig. 31. 

JRealia egea, Gray, P.Z.S., 1849 (1850), 107 ; Martini and Chemnitz, Conch. 
Cab., ed. 2, i, 303, pi. 40, f. 17, 18; Medley and Suter, P.L.S. N.S.W. (2), 
vii, 622 ; Suter, J. de Conch., xli, 225, pi. 1, f. 1 : Kobelt, Jahrb. Nassau. 
Ver. f. Nat., lix, 50. 

Shell turreted, subperforate, rather solid. Sculpture formed -by 
rather distant axial folds. Colour brown with a chestnut-brown 
band upon the base, or yellowish with lighter or darker zigzag lines, 
or horny with broad whitish bands. Epidermis rather thin, the 
axial folds easily worn off, scarcely shining. Spire turreted, twice 
the height of the aperture. Protoconch small, papillate, of 2 smooth 
and convex whorls. Whorls 6J, slightly convex, the last distinctly 
angled below the middle ; base flatly convex, with a low keel round 
the umbilicus. Suture moderately deep, subplicate. Aperture some- 
what oblique, ovate. Peristome double, the inner continuous, very 
little expanded, slightly angled above ; the outer almost interrupted 
above, dilated, bell-shaped, incurved. Umbilicus very narrow, some- 
times partly hidden by the peristome. Operculum typical. 

Diameter, 4 mm. ; height, 7-5-8 mm. 

Dentition. Suter, T.N.Z.I., xxiv, 301, pi. 23, f. 57. 

Type in the British Museum. 

Hob. Auckland, type (Greenwood) ; Hunua Range ; Waiwera ; 
Hillyer's Creek, near Auckland ; Tuakau ; Waiheke Island ; Wanga- 

nui. 

r^Si 

m 

3. Realia Hochstetteri, L. Pfeiffer, 1861. Plate 38, fig. 32. 

Realia Hochstetteri, Pfeift'er, Malak. BL, viii, 149 ; Hedley and Suter, P.L.S. 
N.S.W. (2), vii, 623; Suter, J. de Conch., xli, 227; Kobelt, Jahrb. 
Nassau. Ver. f. Nat., lix, 51. 

Shell perforated, ovately turreted, rather solid. Sculpture con- 
sisting of fine and close radiate strise on the third whorl, the succeeding 
ones distantly axially plaited. Colour fuscous, sometimes with a few 
yellowish streaks. Epidermis thin, usually polished. Spire convexly 
turreted, twice the height of the aperture. Protoconch depressed 
globose, of 2 smooth and convex whorls, the last half-turn sometimes 
radiately striate. Whorls 7|, slightly convex, the last below the 
middle subacutely carinated ; base flatly convex, with a small keel 
around the perforation. Suture inconsiderable, bound with a thread- 
like margin. Aperture vertical, ovately rotund, subangulated above. 
Peristome double, the inner one scarcely elevated, the outer one 
broadly expanded, concentrically striated, narrow and adnate at the 
contiguous whorl. Perforation narrow, open. Operculum typical. 

Diameter, 4 mm. ; length, 9 mm. 

Dentition unknown. 

Type in the K.K. Hofmuseum, Vienna. 

Hab. Bay of Islands, type (Hochstetter) ; Whangarei ; Darga- 
ville ; Broadwood, Hokianga. 



Realia.] GASTROPODA. 197 

4. Realia turriculata, L. Pfeiffer, 1855. Plate 38, fig. 33. 

Realm turriculata, Pfeiffer, P.Z.S., 1854 (1855), 304; Heclley and Suter, 
P.L.S. N.S.W. (2), vii. 022 : Suter, J. de Conch., xli, 226 ; Kobelt, Jahrb. 
Nassau. Ver. f. Nat., lix. 51. . 

Shell subperforated, slender, turreted, rather solid. Sculpture con- 
sisting of close axial strife, the later whorls with distant fine mem- 
branaceous folds, much closer together on approaching the aperture. 
Colour blackish-brown with a lighter basal band, or with alternating 
dark-brown and yellowish-white streaks, the base brown. Epidermis 
thin, but little shining. Spire elongate, obtuse at the apex, more 
than twice the height of the aperture. Protoconch globose, of 2 
smooth and convex whorls. Whorls 7-7, moderately convex, the 
last indistinctly angled ; base flatly convex, keel round the um- 
bilicus absent or but slightly indicated. Suture impressed, slightly 
plicate. Aperture vertical, angularly oval. Peristome continuous, 
double, the inner one continuous, a little elevated, the outer one 
narrowly expanded, inflexed. Perforation a mere chink, or closed. 
Operculum typical. 

Diameter, 3-6 mm. ; height, 9mm. (4mm. by 8-5 mm. to 5mm. 
by 11 mm.). 

Dentition. Hutton, T.N.Z.I., xvi, 174, pi. 11, f. H. 

Type in the British Museum. 

Hab. Kakepuku (Hochstetter) : Papakura ; Whangarei ; Kamo ; 
Te Reinga (C. Cooper) ; Kaihu, Hokianga ; Waiwera (H. S.). 

Subsp. lepida, Suter, 1904. 

Realia turriculata, PL-., snb.sp. lepida, Suter. P. Mai. S., vi, 157. 

A most graceful small subspecies, of a much lighter colour and 
smaller dimensions than the typical form. The chestnut zigzag bands 
are narrower and less numerous, the spire is more elongate and more 
acute, its outlines not convex, but straight. The whorl;, 7|-8 in 
number, are more convex, and the suture is deeper. 

Shells of a cream tint and the zigzag markings devoid of colour 
also occur (mut. albina, Sut. 1892). 

Type in my collection. 

Hab. Forty-mile Bush, near Mauriceville, type (H. S.) ; Seventy- 
mile Bush, near Ormondville (Chadwick). 

Genus 2. OMPHALOTROPIS, L. Pfeiffer, 1851. 

Omphalotropis, Pfeiffer, Zeitschr. Malak., v, No. 8, 1851, 176. Type: 
0. hieroglyphica, Fer. 

Shell umbilicated or perforated, turreted to globosely turreted, 
with a more or less prominent keel around the umbilicus ; aperture 
oval ; peristome discontinuous, straight or expanded ; operculum thin, 
horny, paucispiral. 

Distribution. Islands of the Indian and Pacific Ocean. 



198 GASTROPODA. [Pectinibranchia. 

Subgen. EURYTROPIS, Kob. & Mlldff., 1898. 

Shell conically umbilicated, with very prominent umbilical keel, 
forming a wide semicircle around the umbilicus ; mostly brightly 
coloured, streaked or banded. 

1. Omphalotropis vestita, L. Pfeiffer, 1855. 

Hydrocena (Omphalotropis) vestita, Pfr., P.Z.S., 1855, 106. Omphalotropis 
vestita, Pfr., Monogr. Pneum. viv., ii. 166 ; Hedley and Suter, P.L.S. 
N.S.W. (2), vii, 1892, 622 ; Suter, J. de Conch., xli, 225 ; Kobelt, Jahrb. 
Nassau. Ver. f. Nat., lix, 84. 

Shell perforated, oblongly conical, thin, striated and spirally 
closely ridged, covered with a somewhat fuscous epidermis. Spire 
pyramidical, rather acute. Whorls 6, flat, the last armed below the 
middle with an acute keel, and about the perforation with a second. 
Aperture hardly oblique, subangularly oval. Peristome simple, straight, 
margins converging. Operculum fuscous. 

Diameter, 3 mm. ; height, 5 mm. ; length of aperture, 2 mm. 

Type in the British Museum. 

Hab. New Zealand (ex coll. Cumingiana). 

Remark. This species has never been found again, and it is doubt- 
ful whether the type was really found in New Zealand. 

Fam. RISSOID^], Gray. 

Animal with a more or less elongated muzzle ; elongated cylindrical 
tentacles, with the eyes on swellings at their outer bases ; verge ex- 
serted, situated at a considerable distance behind the right tentacle ; 
gills both pallial, the right one largest, rather short and broad, com- 
posed of few lamina, which are much broader than high ; epipodial 
filaments present ; 1 or 2 pallial tentacles ; foot oblong, punctate in 
front, rounded or pointed behind. Operculigerous lobe well developed. 
Jaws oval, reticulated. Dentition 2+1+1+1 + 2. 

Shell small, usually turbiuate or elongate, often more or less um- 
bilicated ; peristome continuous, more or less rounded, never truly 
channelled in front ; operculum corneous, paucispiral. 

The Rissoidce are small, often minute, phytophagous animals of 
marine habitat, found in all parts of the world, frequenting alga3, 
zostera, &c., from which they often suspend themselves by a mucous 
filament. 

KEY TO GENERA. 

A. Aperture entire, oval, peristome thick, simple or re- 

flected ; operculum corneous, paucispiral . . . . RISSOA. 

B. Aperture semilunar, mostly a little reflected, anteriorly 

effuse or faintly channelled ; operculum corneous, 

\vi1li a elaviform process on the internal face . . RISSOINA. 

C. Aperture separated from the body-whorl . . AMPHITHALAMUS. 

D. Shell scahiiiloi in, with a carinated shoulder .. .. ANABATHRON. 

E. Shell depi-essed, orbicular, umbilicated ; opcrculum with 

a large process, vertical to the nucleus . . SKENELLA. 



Rissoa.] GASTROPODA. 199 

Genus 1. RISSOA, Freminville, 1814. 

Rissoa, Frem., Nouv. Bull. Soc. Ph., vii, 1814. Type : P. ventricosa, Desmarest. 

Animal having long, slender tentacles, sometimes ciliated, with 
eyes on small prominences near their outer bases ; mantle with a 
tentacular appendage in front, on the right side, or on either side ; 
foot truncate in front, attenuated behind, with a glandular sulcus on 
its lower side ; operculigerous lobe with a wing-like expansion on 
either side, with 1 to 3 posterior filaments. Radula with the central 
tooth subquadrangular, multicuspidate, base broadened, incised and 
lobed laterally ; lateral and marginal teeth multicuspidate. 

Shell imperforate or subperforate, more or less oblong, turbinated, 
usually thick, white or corneous, smooth, libbed or cancellated ; aper- 
ture entire, oval ; peristome thick, simple or reflected ; operculum 
corneous, paucispiral. 

Over 400 species have been made known to science. From their 
minute size it is certain that a good many are synonyms ; but, on the 
other hand, it is probable that many more remain to be described. 

They inhabit all seas, from high water to about 1,100 fathoms, 
some species, therefore, belonging to the abysmal fauna. They abound 
most in shallow water, near shore, on beds of seaweed. 

The animal is active and bold, floats about, and spins a byssal 
thread instantly upon being detached from its foothold. The in- 
cessant play of the tentacular cilice is very striking. The epipodial 
filaments probably are, like the tentacles, tactile in function. 

There are a few Secondary species, but the genus is principally 
found fossil in Tertiary beds. 

Vernacular Name. Spire-shell. 

KEY TO SUBGENERA. 

A. Shell ribbed i.e., the striking features are axial ribs . . RISSOA, s.s. 

B. Shell reticulated i.e., ribs and spirals pretty equal in strength . . ALVANIA. 

C. Shell strongly spirally lirate i.e., the spiral threads being the 

striking feature . . . . . . . . . . ONOBA. 

D. Shell weakly spirally lirate i.e., there are spiral threads, but 

they are not strong . . . . . . . . . . CERATIA. 

E. Shell with flat and smooth whorls . . . . CINGULA. 

F. Shell with rounded and smooth whorls . . . . - - SETIA. 

Subgen. 1. RISSOA, s. str. 

Shell elongated conic, axially costate ; aperture oblong, with a 
thickened peristome bearing an exterior rib. 

KEY TO SPECIES. 

A. Shell with spiral sculpture. 

a. A spiral groove belowthe suture, costae extending over the base impressa. 
aa. A spiral thread on the periphery of the body- whorl, stopping 

the axial costse . . . . . . . . . . Hamilton*. 

B. Shell without spiral sculpture. 

a. Shell oval, riblets obsolete on the base, spire twice the height 

of the aperture . . . . . . . . . . Huttoni. 

aa. Shell elongate, riblets extending over the base, spire 2| 

times the height of the aperture. . . . . . . rufoapicata. 



200 GASTROPODA. (Pectinibranchia. 



1. Rissoa Hamiltoni, Suter, 1898. Plate 12, fig. 1. 

Rissoa Hamiltoni, Suter, P. Mai. S., iii, 2, f. 4 in text. 

Shell minute, ovate, rimate, costate. Sculpture consisting of rather 
distant rounded axial riblets, about 14 on the last whorl ; they 
are stopped on it by a spiral thread starting from the suture, leaving 
the base smooth ; interstices broader than the riblets, smooth. Colour 
dirty-white or cinereous ; there is sometimes a rufous band encircling 
the upper whorls above the suture, and extending on the body-whorl 
to within a short distance from the peristome. Spire elevated conic, 
about twice the height of the aperture, outlines slightly convex. Proto- 
conch papillate, brownish, of 1| smooth and convex whorls. Whorls 6, 
regularly increasing, convex ; the base flatly rounded. Suture im- 
pressed, margined by a fine thread. Aperture vertical, rotundly ovate. 
Peristome continuous, sharp. Columella oblique, rufous, rather con- 
cave, subtruncate at the base. Umbilicus marked by a very narrow 
chink. Operculum unknown. 

Diameter, 1-5 mm. ; height, 2-5 mm. 

Dentiton unknown. 

Type in my collection. 

Hob. Lyall Bay, in sand, type (A. Hamilton) ; Titahi Bay (Miss 
Mestayer) ; Foveaux Strait ; Maloney's Reef, Hauraki Gulf (H. S.). 
Banks Peninsula (Iredale). 

Remark. In young specimens the riblets extend over the base. 

2. Rissoa Huttoni, Suter, 1898. Plate 12, fig. 2. 

Rissoa nana, Button, C.M.M., 28, not of Philippi. R. Huttoni, Suter, 
P. Mai. S., iii, 2. Barleeia nana, Butt,, M.N.Z.M., 81. 

Shell very small, oval, imperforate, costate, white. Sculpture con- 
sisting of equidistant axial rounded riblets, about 25 on the 
penultimate whorl, usually getting obsolete below the periphery of 
the last whorl ; interstices of about the same width as the riblets, 
smooth. Colour white or yellowish. Spire elevated conic, higher 
than the aperture, outlines slightly convex. Protoconch small, papil- 
late, of 1| smooth convex and polished whorls. Whorls 5, regularly 
increasing, convex ; base rounded. Suture impressed. Aperture ovate, 
angled above. Peristome continuous, somewhat thickened. Basal lip 
slightly expanded. Columella arcuate, but little expanded. Umbilical 
area with a small narrow impression. Operculum unknown. 

Diameter, 1-25 mm. ; height, 2-5 mm. 

Dentition not known. 

Type in the Dominion Museum, Wellington. 

Hab. Stewart Island (type) ; Port Pegasus, Stewart Island, in 
18 fathoms (Captain Bollons) ; Otago Heads, dredged (A. Hamilton) ; 
Whangaroa Harbour (C. Trail!) ; near the Snares, in 50 fathoms 
(Captain Bollons). 



Risso't.] GASTROPODA. '20l 



3. Rissoa impressa, Hutton, 1885. Plate 12, fig. 3. 

Rissoa impressa, Hutton. T.X.Z.I.. xvii, 1884 (1885), 321 ; Plioc. M., 64, 
}il. 8, f. 64; Suter, T.X.Z.I., xxxix, 257. Rissoina agrestis, Webster, 
T.N.Z.I., xxxvii, 1904 (1905), 279, pi. 10, f. 10. 

Shell minute, ovate, imperforate, solid, costate, with a distinct 
groove below the suture. Sculpture consisting on the last 3 whorls 
of rather stout rounded axial riblets, about 20 on the last whorl, ex- 
tending over the base ; they are slightly oblique on the upper whorl, 
but distinctly so on the body-whorl, .directed backwards ; the in- 
terstices are slightly narrower and smooth ; the riblets are crossed 
by a distinct groove a little below the suture, and usually of the same 
depth as the latter, reducing the riblets between suture and groove 
to flat nodules ; the protoconch is microscopically minutely reticulated, 
the fine spirals distinct. Colour of a purple-brown, shading to cream 
colour on the body-whorl. Spire elevated conic, about twice the 
height of the aperture ; outlines slightly convex. Protoconch of 2 
convex whorls, dome-shaped. Whorls 5, the last 2 rather rapidly in- 
creasing, flatly convex ; base rounded. Suture not much impressed. 
Aperture roundly ovate. Peristome continuous, thickened, slightly 
expanded, with a sharp edge, white and shining. Columella short, 
arcuate, and thick. Operculum unknown. 

Diameter, 1-2 ram. ; height, 2*3 mm. 

Animal unknown. 

Type, from the Pliocene of Petane, in the Canterbury Museum, 
Christchurch. 

Hob. Takapuna Reef (W. H. Webster) ; near Little Barrier Island, 
in 20 fathoms (R. H. Shakespear) ; near Channel Island, Hauraki 
Gulf, in 25 fathoms ; Cape Maria van Diemeu. 

Fossil in the. Pliocene of Petane, Wanganui, and Waikopiro. 

4. Rissoa rufoapicata, Suter, 1908. Plate 12, fig. 4. 

Rissoa rufoapicata, Suter, P. Mai. S., viii, 28, pi. 2, f. 21. 

Shell small, elongately oval, rimate, solid, costate, shining. Sculp- 
ture : The embryonic whorls smooth, the succeeding ones closely 
Axially ribbed, the riblets, first faint and inconspicuous, are getting 
much stronger as growth proceeds ; they are flat, close together, with 
smooth and slightly narrower interstices, flexuous, nearly vertical 
on the upper whorls, but obliquely directed backward on the last 
whorl, and extending over the base. Colour : The first 2 or 3 whorls 
are rufous or purple, the following 2 dark grey, and the last whitish. 
Spire elevated conical, 2 times the height of the aperture ; outlines 
slightly convex. Protoconch papillate, of 2 . flatly convex whorls. 
Whorls 6, regularly increasing, flattish ; base convex. Suture deep, 
slightly uneven. Aperture oblique, oviform, white. Peristome con- 
tinuous, much thickened and expanded. Columella very short, arcuate. 
A distinct umbilical chink is formed by the reflection of the inner lip. 
Operculum unknown. 



202 GASTROPODA. [Pectinibranchia. 

Diameter, 1-9 mm. ; height, 4mm. 
Animal unknown. 
Type in my collection. 

Hob. Snares, in 50 fathoms (Captain Bollons). 
Remark. In general appearance this species recalls Rissoina sub- 
fusca, Hutton, which, however, is quite smooth. 

Subgen. 2. ALVANIA, Kisso, 1826. 

Alvania, Risso, Hist. Nat. Eur. Merid., iv, 1826, 146. Type : R. cimex, L. 
Acinus, Monterosato, 1884. 

Shell oval, turbiniform ; spire short, with sharp apex ; whorls 
rounded, nodulously cancellated ; aperture subcircular, crenulated or 
grooved within ; outer lip margined exteriorly by a varix. 

KEY TO SPECIES. 

A. Spirals not numerous, 3 to 4 on the penultimate whorl. 

a. Penultimate whorl with 3 spirals ; whorls 7 ; spire 2 

times the height of the aperture . . . . cheilostoma.. 

aa. Penultimate whorl with 4 spirals ; whorls 4^ ; spire 

little higher than aperture . . . . . . pingue. 

B. Spirals numerous, more than 4. 

a. Shell elongate, slender ; whorls slightly convex, the last 
not inflated ; spire li times the height of the aper- 
ture . . . . . . . . . . . . candidissima. 

aa. Shell ovate ; whorls strongly convex, the last somewhat 

inflated ; spire twice the height of the aperture . . exserta. 

5. Rissoa candidissima, Webster, 1905. Plate 12, fig. 5. 

Rissoa candidissima, Webster, T.N.Z.I., xxxvii, 1904 (1905). 278, pi. 10, f. 7. 

Shell thin, imperforate, semi transparent. Sculpture : About 12 dis- 
tant axial riblets on the body-whorl, crossed by 12 spiral liree. Colour 
white. Spire elevated conic, about 1-| times the height of the aper- 
ture ; outlines slightly convex. Protoconch of 2 smooth elevated and 
convex whorls. Whorls 4|, slightly convex ; base somewhat flattened. 
Suture deep. Aperture vertical, rounded. Peristome discontinuous, 
straight, slightly thickened. Operculum unknown. 

Diameter, 1 mm. ; height. 2 mm. 

Animal unknown. 

Type in Mr. W. H. Webster's collection. 

Hal). Takapuna (type). 

6. Rissoa cheilostoma, Tenison-W T oods, 1877. Plate 12, fig. 6. 

Rissoa cheilostoma, T. - Woods. P.R.S. Tasm., 1876 (1877). 152; Man. 
Conch. (1). ix, 306, pi. 68, f. 91. ^?. plicata, Hutton, C.M.M., 29; not 
of Deshayes, 1838. Rissoina plicata, Hutt., M.N.Z.M., 80. Eglisia 
plicata, Hutt., P.L.S. N.S.W., ix, 939. Rissoia plicata, Hutt. : Suter, 
P. Mai. S., iii. (i R. cheilostoma, T. - Woods. Pritchard and Catliff, 
P.R.S. Vic., xiv (n.s.). 107. 

Shell very small, turriculate, imperforate, clathrate, white. Sculp- 
ture consisting of 2 spiral line, increasing to 3 on the penultimate 
whorl, crossed by rather distant radiate riblets. about 15 on the 



Sissoa.] GASTROPODA. 203 

penultimate whorl, produced into small nodules at the points of inter- 
section ; 3 distinct and smooth, spiral riblets upon the base. Colour 
white or yellowish. Spire elevated conic, 2J times the height of the 
aperture. Protoconch papillate, the nucleus slightly tilted, of 1| spirally 
striate, strongly convex whorls. Whorls 7, regularly increasing, con- 
vex, bicarinate at the periphery, shouldered above, flatly receding 
below ; base flatly convex. Suture deep, lirate. Aperture oblique, 
oval. Peristome continuous, thick, double. Columella oblique, arcuate. 
Operculum unknown. 

Diameter, 1-5 mm. ; height, 3 mm. 

Animal unknown. 

Type in the Tasmanian Museum, Hobart. 

Hob. Stewart Island, in 18 fathoms (Captain Bollons) ; Foveaux 
Strait ; Hauraki Gulf ; Cape Maria van Diemen ; near the Snares 
and Bounty Islands, in 50 fathoms (Captain Bollons) ; Dusky Sound, 
in 30 fathoms (R. Henry) ; Taumaki Island, South Island, in 10 fathoms 
(Captain Bollons). The type is from Long Bay, Tasmania. Also re- 
corded from Australia. 

Subsp. Lyalliana, Suter, 1898. 

Rissoa cheilostoma, T.-Woods, subsp. Lyalliana, Suter, P. Mai. S., iii, 6. 

Shell slightly shorter, less distinctly clathrate, the spiral riblets 
being much more prominent, and the upper spiral riblet at a greater 
distance from the suture. Colour cinereous or rufous, occasionally 
yellowish- white, the base with a broad brown spiral band. 

Type in my collection. 

Hob. Lyall Bay, type (A. Hamilton) ; Titahi Bay (Miss Mestayer) ; 
Foveaux Strait ; Hauraki Gulf (H. S.). 

7. Rissoa exserta, Suter, 1908. Plate 12, fig. 7. 
Sissoa exserta, Suter, P. Mai. S., viii, 28, pi. 2, f. 22. 

Shell small, elongately ovate, imperforate, thin, semitransparent, 
but faintly shining, strongly axially costate and spirally striate. 
Sculpture consisting of distant, stout, axial riblets with a rather sharp 
edge, 10 to 11 on the upper whorls, 12 to 14 on the body-whorl, on 
which they vanish below the periphery ; the interstices and the riblets 
are crossed by distant spiral threads, about 14 on the body- whorl ; 
they are closer together upon the base. Colour white, the apex pinkish- 
brown in fresh examples. Spire elevated conical, about twice the 
height of the aperture ; outlines slightly convex. Protoconch small, 
globular, of 1 J microscopically densely spirally striate whorls. Whorls 
4, the last large in proportion, flattened below the suture, thence 
strongly convex ; base rounded. Suture deep. Aperture subvertical, 
oval. Peristome continuous, thickened inside, sharp. Outer lip with a 
varix formed by the last axial riblet. Basal lip slightly effuse. Colu- 
mella oblique, short, slightly arcuate. Operculum unknown. 



204 GASTROPODA. [Pectinibranchia. 

Diameter, 1-3-1-6 mm. ; height, 2-2-2-8 mm. 

Animal unknown. 

Type in my collection. 

Hob. Snares, in 50 fathoms (type) ; Bounty Islands, in 50 fathoms 
(Captain Bollons). 

Remarks. Allied to the. Australian R. devecta, Tate ( = gracilis, 
Angas), which, however, has more numerous axial riblets. 

8. Rissoa pingue, Webster, 1906. Plate 12, fig. 8. 

Bix.soa pingue, Webster, T.N.Z.I., xxxviii, 1905 (1906), 307, pi. 38, f. 7. 

Shell very small, oval, minutely clathrate, imperforate. Sculpture : 
Fine spiral lines, 3 on the third and 4 on the penultimate whorl ; 
the spirals are crossed by close-set longitudinal riblets as strong as 
the spirals, they die out on a level with the posterior angle of the 
aperture, and the base has 3 spirals only. Colour white. Spire 
conical, a little higher than the aperture, outlines convex. Protoconch 
globose, glossy, of 1^ whorls. Whorls 4|, regularly increasing, slightly 
flattened at the periphery ; base flatly convex. Suture much im- 
pressed. Aperture oblique, oval, slightly angled above. Peristome dis- 
continuous. Outer lip thickened externally, especially at the junction 
with the body, behind which there is a deep groove. Columella 
slightly oblique, arcuate. Operculum unknown. 

Diameter, 1-25 mm. ; height, 2 mm. 

Animal unknown. 

Type in the Dominion Museum. Wellington. 

Hob. Off Great Barrier Island, in 110 fathoms (type). 

Subgen. 3. ONOBA. H. and A. Adams, 1854. 

Onoba, H. & A. Ad.. G.R.M., i. 1854, 331. Type: R. striata, Montagu. 
T urbon ilia. Leach, not of Risso. 

Shell turbiniform or somewhat elongated ; whorls convex, conspicu- 
ously spirally striated, sometimes with short longitudinal plicae at 
the suture ; aperture oval ; peristome continuous, thin or slightly 
thickened. 

KEY TO SPECIES. 

A. Body-whorl with 5 broad .spirals, no axial sculpture, except growth- 

lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Svteri. 

B. Body- whorl with 4 spirals, and with dense axial foliations . . ioliata. 

9. Rissoa foliata, Suter, 1908. Plate 12, fig. 9. 

Rissoa foliata, Suter, P. Mai. S., viii. 28, pi. 2, fig. 23. 

Shell minute, turriculate, imperforate, solid, opaque-white, spirally 
ribbed. Sculpture : The first 1| whorls are microscopically distantly 
spirally striate ; the succeeding whorls have on the upper third a 
strong spiral cord, and below it 2 smaller ones, the lower of which 
margins the suture ; on the last whorl the whole of this sculpture 



Rissoa.] GASTROPODA. 205 

is more prominent, and on the base is a fourth cord parallel to the 
columella ; the entire surface is ornamented with dense axial folia- 
tions, crenulating the spiral riblets. Colour white. Spire graduate, 
much higher than the aperture ; outlines very little convex. Proto- 
conch conspicuous, globular, of 1^ whorls. Whorls 4^, regularly in- 
creasing, concave from the suture to the first cord, turned inward 
in a straight line to the suture below ; base convex. Suture not much 
impressed. Aperture subvertical, ovate, slightly angled above. Peri- 
stome continuous, thick, and blunt. Basal lip slightly expanded. Colu- 
mella very short, vertical, nearly straight. Operculum unknown. 

Diameter, 0-8 mm. ; height, 2 mm. 

Animal unknown. 

Type in my collection. 

Flab. Snares, in 50 fathoms (Captain Bollons). 

Remarks. Nearly allied to R. Suteri, Hedley, which, however, is 
much broader, has a smooth protoconch, 2 strong spiral cords on the 
third whorl, and lacks the foliated axial sculpture. 

10. Rissoa Suteri, Hedley, 1904. Plate 12, fig. 10. 

Rissoa Suteri, Hedley, Rec. A.M., v, 96, f. 23 in text. B. australis, 
T. -Woods : Suter, P. Mai. S., iii, 4, not of T.-Woods. JR. Tenisoni, 
Tate, Index, 77, not of Tate. 

Shell small, ovate, imperforate, very solid, gradate. Sculpture : 
The third whorl is belted with 2, the fourth with 5 broad spiral flat- 
topped bands, separated by deep sharp and equally broad interstices. 
The uppermost band of each whorl is the largest, thence to the base 
the others gradually diminish. Above the shoulder the concave sur- 
face slopes upwards to the suture, and a single small spiral thread 
interrupts this slope. Colour white. Spire conical, higher than the 
aperture ; outlines slightly convex. Protoconch papillate, of 2 smooth 
and rounded whorls. Whorls 4, rather rapidly increasing, gradate ; 
base convex. Suture impressed. Aperture oval, oblique. Peristome 
much thickened, externally polygonal from the junction of the spiral 
ribs, internally duplicated by a small raised rim. Operculum unknown. 

Diameter, 1-4 mm. ; height, 1-8 mm. 

Animal unknown. 

Type in the Australian Museum, Sydney. 

Hab. Foveaux Strait, type (A. Hamilton) ; near the Snares, in 
50 fathoms (Captain Bollons). 

Subgen. 4. CERATIA. H. and A. Adams, 1852. 
Ceratia H. & A. Ad., A.M.N.H., x, 1852, 358. Type: R. proxima, Alder. 

Shell subcylindrical, thin ; whorls weakly spirally lirate, flatly 
convex, with obtuse apex ; outer lip thin and sharp. 

Animal with flattened, mostly short and claviform tentacles, foot 
bifurcate posteriorly. 



206 GASTROPODA. [Pectinibranchia. 

KEY TO SPECIES. 

A. Shell subcylindrical ; about 10 spirals on the penultimate 

whorl, insterstices of the same width as the riblets . . fumata. 

B. Shell elongately oval. 

a. About 9 spii-als on the penultimate whorl, interstices half 

the width of the riblets ; suture deep . . . . foveauxiana. 

aa. About 16 spirals on the penultimate whorl ; suture im- 
pressed . . . . . . insculjiln. 

11. Rissoa foveauxiana, Suter, 1898. Plate 12, fig. 11. 

Rissoa foveauxiana, Suter, P. Mai. S., iii, 5, f. 2 in text; Murdoch, 
T.N.Z.I., xxxvii, pi. 8, f. 27. 

Shell minute, ovate, rimate, translucent white. Sculpture consist- 
ing of close, rather broad and flat spiral striae, about 9 on the pen- 
ultimate whorl, crossed by fine growth-lines, interstices about half the 
width of the lirae. Colour white. Spire high conical, higher than the 
aperture, outlines convex. Protoconch small, papillate, of 1J smooth 
whorls. Whorls 5, convex ; base rounded. Suture deep, but not chan- 
nelled. Aperture subvertical, ovate. Peristome continuous, sharp, 
very little thickened. Basal lip but slightly expanded. Columetta 
oblique, arcuate, moderately callous. Umbilical tract with a narrow 
chink. Operculum unknown. 

Diameter, 1-5 mm. ; height, 2-5 mm. 

Animal unknown. 

Type in my collection. 

Hob. Foveaux Strait, in 10-15 fathoms (type) ; Lyall Bay (Miss 
Mestayer) ; Whangaroa Harbour (C. Traill) ; near the Snares and 
Bounty Islands, in 50 fathoms, and Taumaki Island, South Island, 
in 10 fathoms (Captain Bollons) ; Dusky Sound, in 30 fathoms (R. 
Henry) ; Banks Peninsula (Ire-dale). 

12. Rissoa fumata, Suter, 1898. Plate 12, fig. 12. 

Rissoa fumata, Suter, P. Mai. S., iii, 5, f. 1 in text ; Murdoch, T.N.Z.I., 
xxxvii, pi. 8, f. 26. 

Shell minute, subcylindrical, thin, imperforate, translucent. Sculp- 
ture consisting of numerous fine and close spiral striae, about 10 on 
the penultimate whorl, interstices nearly the same width as the lirae. 
Colour white. Spire high, narrow, about twice the height of the aper- 
ture ; outlines slightly convex. Protoconch papillate, of 1 J smooth 
and convex whorls. Whorls 5, rather rapidly increasing, moderately 
convex ; base convex. Suture impressed. Aperture slightly oblique, 
ovate, angled above. Peristome continuous, sharp, slightly thickened. 
Basal lip slightly effuse. Columella short, subvertical, but slightly 
callous. Operculum unknown. 



Rissoa.] GASTROPODA. 207 

Diameter, 1 mm. ; height, 2 mm. 

Animal unknown. 

Type in my collection. 

Hab.--Tv Onepoto, near Lyttelton, type (H. S.) ; Lyall Bay 
and Titahi Bay (Miss Mestayer) ; near the Bounty Islands, in 50 
fathoms, and Taumaki Island, South Island, in 10 fathoms (Captain 
Bollons). 

Remark. The blackish-brown colour of the type specimen was 
no doubt produced by black mud, in which the specimen had very 
likely been lying for some time. All specimens I have seen later on 
were translucent white. 

13. Rissoa insculpta, Murdoch, 1905. Plate 12, fig. 13. 

Bissoa insculpta, Murdoch, T.N.Z.I., xxxvii, 1904 (1905), 229, pi. 8, f. 28. 

Shell small, elongate, slightly rimate, rather fragile. Sculpture 
consisting of minute spiral threadlets, about 16 on the penultimate 
whorl, and on the last about 25, of which 17-18 are in front of the 
aperture ; these are crossed by irregular growth-lines, here and there 
rather pronounced. Colour white. Spire elevated conical, higher than 
the aperture ; outlines slightly convex. Protoconch small, globose, of 
1^ smooth whorls. Whorls 5, lightly rounded ; base convex. Suture 
impressed. Aperture broadly ovate, slightly oblique, angled above. 
Peristome continuous. Outer lip slightly thickened, and projecting 
from the whorl above. Operculum unknown. 

Diameter, 1-35 mm. ; height, 2-56 mm. 

Animal unknown. 

Type in the Dominion Museum, Wellington. 

Hob. Whangaroa Harbour, type (C. Traill) ; Port Pegasus, 
Stewart Island, in 18 fathoms (Captain Bollons) ; near the Snares 
and Bounty Islands, in 50 fathoms, and Taumaki Island, South Island, 
in 10 fathoms (Captain Bollons) ; Dusky Sound, in 30 fathoms (R. 
Henry) ; Banks Peninsula (Iredale). 

Remarks. This form is near to R. foveauxiana, Sut. It differs 
in being more slender, more feebly rimate, sculpture much finer, suture 
less deep, and the whorls less rounded. 

Subgen. 5. CINGULA, Fleming, 1828. 

Cingula, Fleming, Brit. Anim., 1828, 297, 305. Type : R. cingillus, Montagu. 
Sabincea, Leach. 

Shell thin, smooth or microscopically spirally striated ; whorls 
flat, occasionally spotted or banded near the suture ; outer lip sharp, 
or slightly thickened. 



GASTROPODA. [Pectinibranchia. 



KEY TO SPECIES. 

A. Body-whorl with a narrow groove on the periphery, suture 

channelled .. .. .. .. .. .. incidata. 

B. Body-whorl without spiral groove, suture not channelled. 

a. Whorls with microscopic spiral striation. 

b. Protoconch microscopically spirally striate and punc- 
tate, suture not margined, colour purplish-red . . subfusca. 
bb. Protoconch smooth, sometimes microscopic spirals 
on the following whorls, suture margined, coloiir 
white .. -. .. .. .. lampra. 

aa. Whorls without spiral striation. 

b. Shell broadly oval, conical, pink. 

c. Outlines of spire straight, height of shell with 5 

whorls 2-3 mm., uniformly pink . . . . rosect, 

cc. Outlines of spire somewhat convex, height of shell 
with 4 whorls 1-5 mm., last whorl with pink 
bands . . . . . . . . . . roseocincta. 

bb. Shell elongately oval, fuscous, with a pale band below 

the suture . . .... zosterophila. 

14. Rissoa incidata, Frauenfeld, 1867. Plate 12, fig. 14. 

Sabancea incidata, Frfld., " Novara" Exped.. Zool., ii. Moll., 12, pi. 2, f. 19. 
Rissoa incidata, Frfld. : Suter. P. Mai. S., iii. 3 ; Man. Conch. (1), ix, 339. 
pi. 63, f. 65 ; Pritchard and Gatliff, P.R.S. Vic., xiv (n.s.), 103. 

Shell minute, conoidal, thick, smooth, brownish. Sculpture con- 
sisting only of a short spiral groove continued over the body-whorl 
from the suture ; this, however, is sometimes obsolete. ' Colour 
yellowish-brown. Spire conical, higher than the aperture, outlines 
almost straight. Protoconch small, globose, smooth. Whorls 5, flat- 
tened ; base rounded. Suture channelled. Aperture oval, slightly 
angled above. Peristome discontinuous, much thickened inside, blunt. 
Columella vertical, slightly arcuate, very callous. Operculum un- 
known. 

Diameter, 0-8 mm. ; height, 1-5 mm. 

Animal unknown. 

Type in the K.K. Hof museum, Vienna. 

Hob. Te Onepoto, near Lyttelton (H. S.) ; Lyall Bay and Titahi 
Bay (Miss Mestayer). The type is from Botany Bay, N.S.W. The 
species is also found in Tasmania. 

15. Rissoa lampra, Suter, 1908 Plate 12, fig. 15. 
Rissoa lampra, Suter, P. Mai. S., viii, 29, pi. 2, f. 25. 

Shell minute, ovate, imperforate, translucent, polished. Sculpture : 
Sometimes a few microscopic distant spiral lines are present on the 
upper whorls, but usually the surface of the shell is quite smooth. 
Colour white. Spire conic, higher than the aperture, the outlines 
slightly convex. Protoconch small, globose, and smooth. Whorls 5, 
slightly convex, the last rounded, but somewhat flattened below the 
suture ; base convex. Suture not much impressed, margined below. 
Aperture oval, vertical, angled above. Peristome continuous, slightly 
thickened and expanded. Columella short, arcuate. Operculum un- 
known. 



Rissoa.] GASTROPODA. 209 



Diameter, 0-8 mm. ; height, 1-5 mm. 

Animal unknown. 

Type in my collection. 

Hah. Titahi Bay, Cook Strait, type (Miss Mestayer). 

16. Rissoa rosea, Hutton, 1873. Plate 12, fig. 16. 

Rissoa rosea, Hutton, C.M.M., 29. Barleeia rosea. Hutton, M.X.Z.M., 81 ; 
Man. Conch. (1), ix, 393, pi. 71, f. 6 : Sut.-r. P. Mai. S., iii, 8. 

Shell minute, ovate, imperforate, smooth, polished. The only 
sculpture consists of very fine oblique growth-striae. Colour uniformly 
pink. Spire elevated conic, higher than the aperture, outlines 
straight. Protoconch small, globular, of 1J smooth rounded whorls. 
Whorls 5, regularly increasing, flatly rounded ; base slightly convex. 
Suture moderately impressed. Aperture roundly ovate, subangled 
above. Peristome continuous, very little thickened. Columella arcuate, 
vertical, slightly callous, white. Operculum unknown. 

Diameter, 1-8 mm. ; height, 2-3 mm. 

Animal unknown. 

Type in the Dominion Museum, Wellington. 

Hab. Stewart Island (type) ; Port Pegasus, Stewart Island, in 
18 fathoms (Captain Bollons) ; Whangaroa Harbour (C. Traill) ; near 
the Snares and Bounty Islands, in 50 fathoms, and Taumaki Island, 
South Island, in 10 fathoms (Captain Bollons) ; Dusky Sound, in 
30 fathoms (R. Henry) ; Auckland Islands (Professor Benham). 

17. Rissoa roseocincta, Suter, 1908. Plate 12, fig. 17. 
Rissoa roseocincta, Suter, P. Mai. S., viii, 29, pi. 2, f. 26 

Shell minute, ovate, rimate, thin, polished, translucent, with pink 
and white spiral bands. There is no sculpture, except for fine micro- 
scopic oblique growth-lines. Colour : The first 3 whorls are pink, the 
last whitish with a narrow pink band below the suture, a second just 
below the periphery, and a third upon the base ; sometimes the last 
whorl is also pinkish, and the lighter cinguli are only faintly visible. 
Spire conical, higher than the aperture ; outlines a little convex. 
Protoconch small, broadly rounded, smooth. Whorls 4, flatly rounded, 
the last rather large and somewhat inflated ; base convex. Suture not 
deep. Aperture vertical, roundly oval, slightly angled above. Peri- 
stome continuous in adult specimens, thin on the parietal wall, slightly 
thickened, sharp. Columella short, subvertical ; the inner lip slightly 
expanded, and giving rise to a narrow chink. Operculum unknown. 

Diameter, 0-9 1-0 mm. ; height, 1-6-1 -5 mm. 

Animal unknown. 

Type in my collection. 

Hab. Titahi Bay, Cook Strait, type (Miss Mestayer). 

Remarks. The nearly allied R. rosea, Hutton, is larger, more 
solid and opaque, uniformly pink ; the outlines of the spire are straight 
and the whorls flat. 



210 GASTROPODA. [Pectinibranchia. 

18. Rissoa subfusca, Hutton, 1873. Plate 12, fig. 18. 

Rissoa subfusca, Hutton, C.M.M., 28. R. purpurea, Hutt., C.M.M., 29 : 
Man. Conch. (1), ix, 344, pi. 71, f. 89. R. purpurea, var. subfusca, Hutt,. 
t.c., 344. R. subfusca, Hutt. : Suter, P. Mai. S., iii, 4. 

Shell small, subulately elongated, imperforate, solid, polished. 
Sculpture : The protoconch is microscopically finely spirally striate, 
the interstices minutely punctate ; the following whorls show traces 
of microscopic spiral striation, otherwise they are smooth ; the oblique 
close and fine growth-lines are distinctly visible under the lens. Colour 
of the upper whorls purple or purplish-red, the last whorl usually of a 
lighter colour, mostly yellowish ; a light band below the suture. Spire 
elevated conic, twice the height of the aperture, outlines straight. 
Protoconch small, globose, of 1^ convex whorls. Whorls 6, regularly in- 
creasing, flat ; base rounded. Suture not deep. Aperture rounded, sub- 
vertical. Peristome continuous, much thickened inside, and slightly 
expanded. Columella short, very callous and reflexed. Operculum 
unknown. 

Diameter, 1-25 mm. ; height, 2-5 mm. 

Animal unknown. 

Type in the Dominion Museum, Wellington. 

Hob. Stewart Island (type) ; Port Pegasus, Stewart Island, in 
18 fathoms (Captain Bollons) ; Foveaux Strait ; Cook Strait ; Omaha 
(C. Cooper) ; near the Snares Islands, in 50 fathoms (Captain Bollons) ; 
Dusky Sound, in 30 fathoms (R. Henry). Also Victoria. 

Subsp. micronema, Suter, 1898. 

Rixsoa subfusca, Hutt., subsp. micronema, Suter, P. Mai. S.. iii, 4. 

Shell more slender. Sculpture of the protoconch the same as in 
the species ; the following whorls are finely spirally lirate ; the growth- 
striee are oblique, rather distant and prominent, decidedly more so 
than the spiral sculpture. Colour pink or yellowish -pink, the last 
whorl getting yellowish-white on approaching the mouth. Spire sub- 
cylindrical, twice the height of the aperture. Suture submargined. 
All the other characters are those of the species. 

Diameter, 1-25 mm. ; height, 3 mm. 

Animal unknown. 

Type in my collection. 

Hab. Stewart Island, in 15 fathoms, type (A. Hamilton) ; Wha- 
ngaroa Harbour (C. Traill) ; near the Snares, in 50 fathoms (Captain 
Bollons) ; Banks Peninsula (Iredale). 

19. Rissoa zosterophila, Webster, 1905. Plate 12, figs. 19, a, b. 

Bwfta zosterophila, Webster, T.N.Z.I., xxxvii, 1!)04 (1905), 277, pi. 9, f. 5. 
R. ininulata, Hutton : Suter. P. Mai. S., iii, 3 ; Index, 77, not of Hutton. 
R. zosteropliila, Webst. : Suter, T.N.Z.I., xxxviii, 327. 

Shell minute, oval, subrimate, dull, smooth. There is no sculpture. 
Colour dark red-brown with a broad milk-white band below the suture, 
base of the same colour, thus leaving a brown peripheral band on the 



Rissoa.] GASTROPODA. 211 

body-whorl. Spire conical, higher than the aperture ; outlines very 
slightly convex. Protoconch globose, small, of 2 convex smooth whorls. 
Whorls 5| to 6i, rather rapidly increasing, flat, periphery subangled ; 
base rounded. Suture not much impressed. Aperture slightly oblique, 
oval, angled above. Peristome continuous, but slightly thickened, 
sharp, very little expanded. Columella short, arcuate, callous. Oper- 
culum colourless, and presenting a malleated appearance on the inner 
surface (fig. 196). 

Diameter, 1 mm. ; height, 2-25 mm. The usual height is 2 mm. 

Dentition. Fig. 19a. 

Type in Mr. W. H. Webster's collection. 

Hob. Devonport, near Auckland, type (W. H. Webster) ; Hau- 
raki Gulf (H. S.) ; Cook Strait ; Lyttelton, under stones between tide- 
marks (H. S.) ; Taumaki Island, South Island, in 10 fathoms (Captain 
Bollons). 

Fossil in the Pliocene. One specimen from Wanganui in my col- 
lection. 

Var. minor, Suter, 1898. 

Rissoa annulata, Hutt., var. minor, Suter, P. Mai. S., iii, 3. 

Smaller than the species, polished, no lighter band below the 
suture, but the last half- turn of the body- whorl light horn-colour ; 
the whorls are slightly convex, and the suture more impressed. 

Diameter, 0-75 mm. ; height, 1-5 mm. 

Type in my collection. 

Hab. Foveaux Strait, type (A. Hamilton) ; Banks Peninsula (Ire- 
dale). 

Subgen. 6. SETIA, H. and A. Adams, 1852. 
Setia, H. & A. Ad., A.M.N.H., x, 1852, 358. Type : P. pulcherrima, Jeffreys. 

Shell thin, obovate, oblong or subconic, subumbilicated or im- 
perforate ; whorls usually few, rounded and smooth ; spire short, 
apex obtuse ; aperture suborbicular, narrowed above ; columella 
somewhat straight ; outer lip thin, simple, acute. 

KEY TO SPECIES. 
A. Shell with microscopic spiral sculpture. 

a. Spire about twice the height of the aperture ; shell minute, 

pupiform ; suture margined . . . . . . lubrica. 

aa. Spire about 1 times the height of the aperture. 

b. Whorls rounded, suture marginate, imperforate . . microstriata. 
bb. Whorls faintly shouldered, suture not margined, 

rimate . . . . . . . . . . porceiiana. 

aaa. Spire but little higher than the aperture. 
b. Spirals on base only, suture margined. 

c. Imperforate, 3 spiral striae around the umbilical 

tract, suture subchannelled . . . . neozdanica. 

cc. Distinctly rimate, more than 3 spiral striae on 

base, suture only impressed . . . . infecta. 

bb. Spirals on the whole of the body-whorl, suture not 

margined . . . . . . . . . . stewartiana. 



212 GASTROPODA. [Pectinibranchia. 



B. Shell without microscopic spiral sculpture. 

a. Spire nearly twice the height of the aperture ; shell 

subcylindrical, suture margined . . . . . . leptalea. 

aa. Spire about 1 times the height of the aperture : shell 

oval, suture not margined . . . . . . micans. 

aaa. Spire of about the same height as the aperture, or but 

little higher. 
b. Suture deep, subchunnelled. 

c. Shell of 4^ whorls, oval, height 2-3 mm. . . vulgaris. 

cc. Shell of 3 whorls, globular, minute, height 

1-25 mm. . . . . . . . . . . atomus. 

bb. Suture only impressed ; shell oval, rimate . . verecunda. 

20. Rissoa atomus, Suter, 1908. Plate 12, fig. 20. 
Rissoa atomus, Suter, P. Mai. S., viii, 30, pi. 2, f. 27. 

Shell minute, globular, rimate, smooth, translucent, and polished. 
The only sculpture consists of microscopic growth-lines. Colour light 
yellow. Spire short, with a blunt apex, very little higher than the 
aperture ; outlines convex. Protoconch small, depressed, flatly convex. 
Whorls 3, convex, rapidly increasing, the last volution occupying 
about four-fifths of the whole height ; base rounded. Suture deep, 
sometimes deeply channelled on approaching the mouth. Aperture 
rotundly ovate, angled above. Peristome continuous, very little cal- 
lous, edge rather blunt. Columella subvertical, slightly arcuate. Inner 
lip a little reflexed, and producing an umbilical chink. Operculum 
unknown. 

Diameter, 1 mm. ; height, 1-25 mm. 

Animal unknown. 

Type in my collection. 

Hab. Bounty Islands, in 50 fathoms (Captain Bollons). 

Remarks. Nearly allied to R. micans, Webster, which, however, has 
3-| to 4 whorls, and is much less globose ; specimens from Hauraki 
Gulf measure 1-1 mm. bv 1-5 mm. 



21. Rissoa infecta, Suter, 1908. Plate 12, fig. 21. 
Rissoa infecta, Suter, P. Mai. S., viii, 31, pi. 3, f. 31. 

Shell minute, oval, rimate, translucent, thin, polished. Sculpture : 
A few faint spiral lines are sometimes present below the periphery 
on the last whorl ; growth-lines very fine, oblique or nearly straight. 
Colour light horny. Spire conical, a little higher than the aperture ; 
outlines slightly convex. Protoconch small, globose, smooth. Whorls 4, 
convex, the last large in proportion ; base rounded. Suture impressed, 
narrowly margined below. Aperture slightly oblique, oval, angled 
above. Peristome not continuous, not thickened, thin and sharp. 
Columella vertical, nearly straight. Inner Up slightly expanded, and 
forming a thin layer on the parietal wall. The umbilical chink is dis- 
tinct. Operculum unknown. 



Rissoa.'] GASTROPODA. 213 

Diameter, 1-1 mm. ; height, 1-6 mm. 
Animal unknown. 
Type in my collection. 

Hob. Lyall Bay, type (Miss Mestayer) ; near Taumaki Island, 
west coast of the South Island, in 10 fathoms (Captain Bollons). 

22. Rissoa leptalea, Murdoch, 1905. Plate 12, fig. 22. 

Rissoa leptalea, Murdoch, T.N.Z.I.. xxxvii. 1904 (1905), 228, pi. 8, f. 23. 24. 

Shell minute, slender, smooth, sublimate, rather fragile, shining, 
and semitransparent. Sculpture consisting of microscopic growth-lines 
only. Colour white. Spire subcylindrical, nearly twice the height of 
the aperture ; outlines rather convex. Protoconch minute. Whorls 5 
having a somewhat loosely coiled, and those of the spire swollen, ap- 
pearance. Suture impressed and lightly margined. Aperture oval- 
rotund. Peristome continuous, broadly expanded. Columella short, 
broad, and also expanded. Operculum unknown. 

Diameter, 0-66 mm. ; height, 1-94 mm. 

Animal unknown. 

Type in the Dominion Museum, Wellington. 

Hob. -Whangaroa Harbour, type (C. Traill). 

23. Rissoa lubrica, Suter, 1898. Plate 12, fig. 23. 

Rissoa lubrica, Suter, P. Mai. S., iii, 5, f. 3 in text ; viii, 29, pi. 2, f. 24. 

Shell minute, elongately oval, pupiform, imperforate, semitrans- 
parent, shining. Sculpture consisting of very fine and close micro- 
scopic lirse, crossed by fine oblique growth-lines. Colour white. Spire 
elevated, narrowly conical, twice the height of the aperture ; out- 
lines slightly convex. Protoconch small, dome-shaped, microscopically 
finely spirally striate, of 1^ convex whorls. Whorls 4 to 5, rather 
rapidly increasing, lightly convex ; base rounded. Suture not much 
impressed, margined below by a narrow band. Aperture subvertical, 
oval. Peristome continuous, somewhat thickened. Basal lip slightly 
expanded. Columella short, arcuate. Inner lip distinctly a little re- 
flexed. Operculum unknown. 

Diameter, 0-6 mm. ; height, 1-75 mm. (type). Diameter, 0-8 mm. ; 
height, 1-7 mm. (Bounty Island specimen). 

Animal unknown. 

Type in the Canterbury Museum, Christchurch. 

Hab. Foveaux Strait, in 15 fathoms (type) ; near the Bounty 
Islands, in 50 fathoms (Captain Bollons). 

Remarks. This species has much the appearance of E. fumata, 
Sut., and R. leptalea, Murd., but both are somewhat higher. The 
former is much more prominently spirally lirate and the suture is not 
margined, while the latter is quite smooth. It is a very rare shell, 
only two specimens being known. 



214 GASTROPODA. [Pectinibranchia. 

24. Rissoa micans, Webster, 1905. Plate 12, fig. 24. 

Rissoa micans, Webster, T.N.Z.I., xxxvii, 1904 (1905), 277, pi. 9, f. 4. 

Shell minute, oval, subrimate, smooth, polished. Colour light 
reddish-brown. Spire conical, higher than the aperture, outlines 
slightly convex. Protoconch minute, of 1J convex and shining whorls. 
Whorls 4, convex ; base rounded. Suture impressed. Aperture cir- 
cular. Peristome discontinuous, but the margins united by a parietal 
callosity, sharp, not thickened, whitish and semitransparent. Columella 
arcuate, very slightly reflexed. Operculum unknown. 

Diameter, 1 mm. ; height, 1-5 mm. 

Animal unknown. 

Type in Mr. W. H. Webster's collection. 

Hob. Takapuna, type (W. H. Webster) ; Maloney's Reef, Hauraki 
Gulf (H. S.). Hohoura Bay (R. Buddie) ; near Little Barrier Island, 
in 20 fathoms (R. H. Shakespear) ; Titahi Bay, Cook Strait (Miss 
Mestayer) ; near the Snares, in 50 fathoms (Captain Bollons). 

25. Rissoa microstriata, Murdoch, 1905. Plate 12, fig. 25. 

Rissoa microstriata,, Murdoch, T.N.Z.I., xxxvii, 1904 (1905), 229, pi. 8, f. 25. 

Shell minute, ovate-elongate, smooth, and white. Sculpture con- 
sisting of microscopic dense spiral striae, broken up into variable lengths 
by the irregular lines of growth. Colour white. Spire elevated conic, 
higher than the aperture, outlines somewhat convex. Protoconch 
minute. Whorls 5, somewhat swollen at the periphery, thence gently 
flattened to the suture above. Suture impressed and lightly margined. 
Aperture obliquely broadly ovate. Peristome discontinuous, but the 
margins united by a parietal callus, slightly thickened, and the basal 
lip somewhat reflected. Columella short, a little arcuate, callous, and 
reflexed. Operculum unknown. 

Diameter, 1-08 mm. ; height, 2-11 mm. 

Animal unknown. 

Type in the Dominion Museum, Wellington. 

Hob. Whangaroa Harbour, type (C. Traill) ; near the Snares 
and Bounty Islands, in 50 fathoms (Captain Bollons) ; Foveaux 
Strait ; Banks Peninsula (Iredale). 

Remarks. This little shell is perhaps near to Rissoina neozelanica, 
Suter, while the sculpture, though microscopic, may be compared with 
Rissoa emarginata, Hutton, a Pliocene form. (Murdoch.) 

26. Rissoa neozelanica, Suter, 1898. Plate 13, fig. 1. 

Barleeia neozelanica, Sut., P. Mai. S., iii, 8, f. 5 in text. 

Shell minute, ovate-conical, imperforate, subpellucid, white, thin, 
smooth, and shining. Sculpture consisting of fine oblique growth-lines, 
and a few (usually 3) spiral striae around the umbilical area. Colour 
white. Spire conical, a little higher than the aperture ; outlines 



Sissoa.] GASTROPODA. 215 

slightly convex. Protoconch small, globose, of 1J smooth and convex 
whorls. Whorls 5-5J, moderately convex ; base rounded. Suture 
impressed, slightly channelled, margined by a thin thread ; the 
sutural channel is very often continued on the body-whorl below the 
periphery. Aperture vertical, oval, angled above. Peristome discon- 
tinuous, sharp, not thickened. Basal lip slightly effuse. Columella 
vertical, slightly concave, and callous ; a thin callosity on the parietal 
wall. Opcrculum unknown. 

Diameter, 1-5 mm. ; height, 2-mm. 

Animal unknown. 

Type in my collection. 

Hab. Stewart Island, type (A. Hamilton) ; near the Bounty and 
Snares Islands, in 50 fathoms, and Taumaki Island, South Island, 
in 10 fathoms (Captain Bollons) ; Banks Peninsula (Iredale). 

27. Rissoa porcellana, Suter, 1908. Plate 13, fig. 2. 

Rissoa porcellana, Suter, P. Mai. S., viii, 30, pi. 2, f. 29. 

Shell minute, ovate, rimate, smooth, translucent white, whorls 
faintly shouldered. Sculpture consisting of fine growth-lines, crossed 
by a few microscopic spiral striae upon the base. Colour white. Spire 
conical, faintly gradate, 1| times the height of the aperture ; outlines 
but little convex. Protoconch small, globose. Whorls 4^ convex, 
slightly shouldered, the last large ; base rounded. Suture not deep. 
Aperture ovato-rotund, angled above. Peristome discontinuous, rather 
sharp. Columella vertical, arcuate. Inner lip not expanded, spreading 
as a thin callosity over the parietal wall. There is a distinct umbilical 
chink. Operculum unknown. 

Diameter, 1-3 mm. ; height, 1-8 mm. 

Animal unknown. 

Type in my collection. 

Hab. Near the Snares, in 50 fathoms (Captain Bollons) ; Dusky 
Sound, in 30 fathoms (E. Henry) ; dredged off Otago Heads (A. 
Hamilton). 

28. Rissoa stewartiana, Suter, 1908. Plate 13, fig. 3. 
Rissoa stewartiana, Suter, P. Mai. S., viii, 31, pi. 3, f. 30. 

Shell minute, ovate, rimate, smooth, and faintly shining. Sculp- 
ture consisting of fine oblique growth-striae, crossed on the last whorl 
by microscopic faint and distant spiral lines. Colour light horny ; 
dead shells are whitish. Spire conical, a little higher than the aper- 
ture ; outlines convex. Protoconch small, globose, of 1 smooth, white, 
and shining whorls. Whorls 4J, convex, the last large ; base rounded. 
Suture much impressed. Aperture oblique, oval, subangled above. 
Peristome continuous, slightly thickened inside, sharp. Columella 



216 GASTROPODA. [Pectinibranchia. 



short, vertical, a little arcuate. A distinct umbilical chink is present. 
Operculum, unknown. 

Diameter, 1-25 mm. ; height, 1-9 mm. 

Animal unknown. 

Type in my collection. 

Hab. Port Pegasus, Stewart Island, in 18 fathoms (Captain 
Bollons). 

29. Rissoa verecunda, Suter, 1908. Plate 13, fig. 4. 

Rissoa verecunda, Suter, P. Mai. S., viii, 30, pi. 2, f. 28. 

Shell minute, ovate, rimate, solid, slightly shining, smooth. Ther<' 
is no sculpture except fine growth-lines. Colour very light horny ; 
dead shells are cretaceous. Spire conical, very little higher than the 
aperture ; outlines slightly convex. Protoconch small, papillate, of 1% 
smooth and convex whorls. Whorh 4, the last high, lightly rounded ; 
base convex. Suture impressed. Aperture oblique, oval, angled above. 
Peristome continuous, thickened, with a blunt edge. ColumeUa short, 
arcuate. Inner lip slightly reflexed, forming a narrow umbilical chink. 
Operculum unknown. 

Diameter, 1-25 mm. ; height, 2 mm. 

Animal unknown. 

Type in my collection. 

Hab. Near the Snares, in 50 fathoms (type) ; and Queen Char- 
lotte Sound, in 16 fathoms (Captain Bollons). 

30. Rissoa vulgaris, Webster, 1905. Plate 13, fig. 5. 

Rissoa. vulgaris, Webster, T.N.Z.I.. xxxvii. 1904 (1905), 277, ]1. 9, f. 3. 

Shell minute, oval, rather solid, rimate, smooth, and somewhat 
shining. Sculpture consisting of fine oblique growth-lines. Colour 
pale horny. Spire short, conical, of about the same height as the 
aperture ; outlines slightly convex. Protoconch small, smooth, and 
polished. Whorls 4J, first slowly, then more rapidly increasing, 
moderately convex, the last subangled for a short distance in front 
of the suture ; base rounded. Suture deep, slightly channelled. Aper- 
ture oblique, semilunar, angled above. Peristome discontinuous, slightly 
thickened, sharp, somewhat expanded at the base. ColumeUa very 
short, arcuate, rounded. Inner lip veiy little produced over the 
narrow umbilical chink, spreading as a distinct white callosity over 
the parietal wall. Operculum unknown. 

Diameter, 1-25 mm. ; height, 2mm. (type). Diameter, 1-7 mm. ; 
height, 2-3 mm. (specimen in my collection). 

Animal unknown. 

Type in Mr. W. H. Webster's collection. 

Hab. Waipipi, Manukau, type (W. H. Webster). 

Remark. The type specimen has the last whorl much more flattened 
at the periphery. The description and figure are after a specimen 
obtained from Mr. Webster. 



Amphithalamus.] GASTROPODA. 217 



Genus 2. AMPHITHALAMUS, Carpenter, 1865. 

Amphithalamus, Carpenter, A.M.N.H., xv, 1865, 181. Type : A. inclusa, 
Carp. Scrobs, Watson, 1886. 

Shell pupoidal ; peristome duplicated, the inner lip produced 
forward, with a subbasal space behind it, outer lip joining it pos- 
teriorly, suddenly contracted in the adult. 

Distribution. California, Japan, Australasia. 

1. Amphithalamus Hedleyi, Suter, 1908. Plate 13, fig. 6. 
Amphithalamus Hedleyi, Suter, P. Mai. S., viii, 31, pi. 3, f. 32. 

Shell minute, oval, usually spirally sculptured, pinkish or white, 
imperforate. Sculpture consisting of fine spiral lines, distant or close 
together, with a keeled shoulder, and sometimes a cincture margining 
the suture below ; the shoulder may be ornamented by a few spirals 
only or by numerous fine spiral threads ; very often the sculpture is 
becoming obsolete or may be absent altogether, the shoulder only 
slightly angled. Colour uniformly pink, mostly yellowish-white near 
the mouth, but sometimes with a light-coloured band below the suture 
and the base whitish ; white specimens are also met with, on which 
the spiral sculpture may be pink-coloured. Spire conic, with blunt 
and rounded apex, a little higher than the aperture ; outlines convex. 
Protoconch rather large, of 1 flatly convex, smooth whorl, the nucleus 
large. Whorls 3, convex, the last shouldered ; base convex. Stiture 
canaliculate. Aperture oblique, ovato-semilunar, extended beyond the 
body-whorl, and separated from it by a broad white flat and slightly 
sunken callosity. Peristome very thick and rounded. Columella very 
short. Operculum unknown. 

Diameter, 0-7 mm. ; height, 1-2 mm. 

Animal unknown. 

Type in my collection. 

Hob. Mafoney's Reef, Hauraki Gulf, type (H. S.) ; Lyall Bay 
(H. S.) ; Titahi Bay, Cook Strait (Miss Mestayer). 

Remarks. Mr. Hedley has discovered this species also in Australian 
waters. With regard to sculpture, this is one of the most variable 
shells known to me ; all intermediate grades between quite smooth 
and distinctly spirally ridged forms occur, but the peculiarities of the 
aperture remain constant. 

Genus 3. ANABATHRON, Frauenfeld, 1867. 

Anabaihron, Frfld., " Novara, " Exped., Zool., ii, 1867, 13. Type: Rissoa 
contabulata, Frfld. 

Shell very small, oblong, thick, smooth, scalariform, with a carinated 
shoulder, imperforate ; aperture rounded ; peristome continuous. 
Distribution. Australasia. 



218 GASTROPODA. [Pectinibranchia. 

1. Anabathron gradatum, Suter, 1908. Plate 13, fig. 7. 
Andbathron gradatum, Suter, P. Mai. S., viii, 32, pi. 3, f. 33. 

Shell very small, ovate, graduate, rimate, solid, not shining. Sculp- 
ture consisting of irregular fine axial plications, crossed by fine micro- 
scopic spiral striae. Colour white. Spire conical, a little higher than 
the aperture ; outlines convex. Protoconch small, papillate, of 1^ 
convex and microscopically finely spirally striated whorls. Whorls 4, 
the last very large, shouldered above, angle not carinated, slightly 
convex below ; base convex. Suture impressed. Aperture oblique, 
oval. Peristome continuous, slightly thickened and expanded, sharp, 
thin on the parietal wall. Columella short and arcuate. Umbilical 
chink well marked. Operculum unknown. 

Diameter, 1-6 mm. ; height, 2-25 mm. 

Animal unknown. 

Type in my collection. 

Hob. Snares, in 50 fathoms (Captain Bollons). 

Genus 4. KISSOINA, d'Orbigny, 1840. 
Rissoina, d'Orb., Voy. Amer. Merid., 1840. Type : R. Inca, d'Orb. 

Shell rissoiform, ribbed, cancellated or smooth, whorls numerous, 
apex mamillated ; aperture semilunar, lip thickened within, a little 
reflected, anteriorly mostly effuse or faintly channelled ; operculum 
corneous, thick, semilunar, paucispiral, with a claviform process on 
the internal face. 

The form of the operculum and effuse character of the base of the 
aperture are distinguishing features of this group. 

The species inhabit warm and temperate seas, are world-wide in 
distribution, and over 100 good species have been characterized. 

There are some Secondary and Tertiary species. 

KEY TO SUBDIVISIONS. 

A. Shell axially costate, with or without spiral striae, aperture 

produced . . . . . . . . . . . . RISSOINA. 

B. Upper part of shell axially costate, lower part smooth or 

spirally striate . . . . . . . . . . MCERCHIELLA. 

C. Shell solid, white, polished, smooth or partly striate, outer lip 

thick . . . . . . . . . . . . ZEBINA. 

D. Shell smooth, aperture subcircular, peristome simple, not 

effuse below . . . . . . . . EATONIELLA. 

Sect. 1. RISSOINA, s. str. 

Shell axially costate, with or without spiral striae, aperture produced 
below, without funicular rib on the base. 

KEY TO SPECIES. 

A. Shell with fine spiral striae, spire twice the height of the aperture. 

a. Height of shell less than 8 mm. 

b. Axial riblets on body-whorl 22 to 25, 67 whorls . . Hartley i. 

bb. Axial riblets on body-whorl 15 to 16, 7-8 whorls . . rugulosa. 
aa. Height of shell more than 8 mm. Axial ri blots about 14 . . sonata. 

B. Shell without spiral striae, spire more than twice the height of the 

aperture, 5 whorls . . . . . . . . . . rufolactea. 



Rissoina.} GASTROPODA. 219 

1. Rissoina Hanleyi, Schwartz, 1860. Plate 13, fig. 8. 

Rissoina Hanleyi, Schwartz, " Familie der Rissoideu," 1860, p. 64, pi. 4, 
f. 28; Man. Couch. (1), ix, 370, pi. 55, f. 21; Tate, T.R.S. S.Aust., 
xxiii, 327 ; Pritchard and Gatliff, P.R.S. Vic., xiv (u.s.), 109. R. fasciata, 
A. Adams : Suter, P. Mai. S., iii, 7, not of Adams. R. Hanleyi, Schw. : 
Suter, P. Mai. S., viii, 32. 

Shell small, elongate, imperforate, strong, shining, closely costate. 
Sculpture consisting of close subsinuous and flattish axial riblets, 
about 22 to 25 on the last whorl, evanescent upon the base ; crossed 
by numerous fine spiral striae. Colour typically milk-white, with 
two orange-brown bauds ; but sometimes the shell is entirely white, 
or with 2 to 5 narrow brown bands on the body-whorl. Spire high, 
conical, about twice the height of the aperture ; outlines slightly 
convex. Protoconch small, papillate, of 1^ smooth and convex whorls. 
Whorls 6 to 7, slightly convex, the last a little more than half the 
total height ; base rounded. Suture impressed. Aperture oblique, 
semicircular, angled above, faintly channelled on the left side of its 
base. Peristome thickened, slightly expanded, edge blunt. Columella 
oblique, short, truncated. Inner lip forming a conspicuous callosity 
on the parietal wall, which is united with the outer margin. Oper- 
culmn unknown. 

Diameter, 2-8 mm. ; height, 6 mm. (type, 7 ram.). 

Animal unknown. 

Type (?) 

Hob. Bay of Islands ; Hauraki Gulf (H. S.). Australia, Philip- 
pine Islands (type). 

Remarks. Two specimens in the Canterbury Museum, collected 
by Mr. C. Spencer near Auckland, and determined as R. fasciata, A. Ad., 
by the late Captain Hutton, are undoubtedly R. Hanleyi. The New 
Zealand specimens taken for R. fasciata by Angas and Sowerby were 
no doubt varieties of R. rugulosa, which is nearly allied to the former. 
I am not aware that R. fasciata has ever been found in New Zealand 
waters. 

2. Rissoina rufolactea, Suter, 1908. Plate 13, fig. 9. 

Rissoina rufolactea, Suter, P. Mai. S., viii, 33, pi. 3, f. 35. 

Shell small, elongate, imperforate, solid, opaque, costate, not 
shining. Sculpture : The first 2 whorls are smooth, the succeeding 
ones axially costate, the riblets thick and rounded, interstices of the 
same width as the costee, about 15 on the last whorl, and stopped 
below the periphery, leaving the base quite smooth ; there is no trace 
of spiral sculpture. Colour : The first 3 whorls are rufous with a 
narrow darker band below the suture, the rest yellowish-white ; or 
the whole shell may be rufous ; or with a milk-white peripheral band, 
the base white. Swire elevated, a little more than twice the height 



220 GASTROPODA. [Pectinibranchta. 



of the aperture ; outlines straight. Protoconch small, dome-shaped. 
Whorls 5, flatly convex, the last volution high ; base convex. Suture 
not deep. Aperture oblique, oval, angled above. Peristome con- 
tinuous, slightly thickened, the edge rather blunt, thin on the parietal 
wall. Basal lip slightly expanded. Columella oblique, almost straight, 
very thin. Operculum unknown. 

Diameter, 1-5 mm. ; height, 3-3 mm. 

Animal unknown. 

Type in my collection. 

Hab. Hauraki Gulf (H. S.). 

Remark. A species allied to R. rugulosa, Hutt., but much smaller, 
and lacking spiral sculpture. 

3. Rissoina rugulosa, Hutton, 1873. Plate 13, fig. 10. 

Rissoa rugulosa, Hutton, C.M.M., 28. Rissoina rugulosa, Hutton, M.N.Z.M., 
80; Suter, P. Mai. S., iii, 6. Eulima chathamensis, Hutton, C.M.M., 23. 

Shell small, elongated oval, imperforate, solid, costate. Sculpture 
consisting of oblique rounded axial riblets, obsolete upon the base, 
15-16 on the penultimate whorl ; interstices a little wider than the 
riblets, finely spirally lirate, the lirae slightly stronger and more con- 
spicuous on the base. Colour yellowish-brown, rarely with a few 
lighter bands on the 2 lower whorls ; or white or yellowish-white, 
occasionally with a few light-brown spiral bands on the last 2 whorls ; 
apex and base of lighter colour. Spire high, conic, much higher than 
the aperture ; outlines slightly convex. Protoconch globose, of 2 
smooth, convex, and glossy whorls. Whorls 7-8, flatly rounded, 
regularly increasing ; base convex. Suture impressed. Aperture 
oblique, ovate, angled above and distinctly channelled below the 
columella. Peristome continuous, much thickened, white, rounded. 
Columella very short, oblique. Operculum typical. 

Diameter, 3 mm. ; height, 7-5 mm. 

Animal unknown. 

Type in the Dominion Museum, Wellington. 

Hab. Stewart Island (type) ; Bay of Islands ; Hauraki Gulf ; 
Chatham Islands ; Taurnaki Island, South Island, in 10 fathoms 
(Captain Bollons) ; Banks Peninsula (Iredale). 

Remarks. This species closely approaches R. Hanleyi, Schwartz 
( = R. variegata, Angas), R. lirata, Angas, and R. Angasi. Pease ( = R. 
turriculata, Angas), from Australia, but I do not think it is conspecific 
with any of them. It certainly is distinct from R. Hanleyi. Good 
series of the Australian species are wanted to settle the question, and 
these are not at my disposal. 

The shell is sometimes covered with a black coating. 

Fossil in the Pliocc.no. 



Rissoina.] GASTROPODA. 221 



4. Rissoina zonata, Suter, 1909. Plate 13, fig. 11. 

Rissoina zonata,, Suter, P. Mai. S., viii, 1909, 253, pi. 11, f. 1. 

Shell rather large, oblong, imperforate, indistinctly axially costate 
and minutely spirally lirats, body-whorl usually with a brown zone. 
Sculpture consisting of somewhat indistinct axial riblets, about 14 on 
the last whorl, and very fine microscopic spiral striae. Colour white, 
usually with a chestnut spiral band, beginning narrowly on the pen- 
ultimate whorl above the suture and broadening very rapidly on the 
body-whorl, but leaving the base white. Spire high, about twice 
the. height of the aperture ; outlines somewhat convex. Protoconch 
with a flat nucleus. Whorls about 7, lightly convex and somewhat 
flattened below the suture; base flattish. Suture not much im- 
pressed. Aperture semicircular, oblique, angled above, channelled 
below. Outer and basal lip regularly arched, thick, with a rounded 
edge. Columella very short, slightly twisted, and turned to the left, 
forming a distinct short channel with the slightly effuse basal lip. 
Inner Up very thick, connecting the margins over the slightly ex- 
cavated parietal wall. Operculum unknown. 

Diameter. 4| mm. ; height, ll^mm. Diameter, 5mm.; height, 
101 mra . 

Animal unknown. 
Type in my collection. 
Hab. Bay of Islands (J. C. Anderson). 

Remark. All the specimens at my disposal are beach-worn, and 
the axial sculpture mostly effaced. 

Sect. 2. MCERCHIELLA, Nevill, 1884. 
Mcercliiella, Nevill, Hand List Ind. Mus., 73. Type : R. gigantea, Deshayes. 

Upper part of shell axially ribbed, lower part smooth or spirally 
striate. 

5. Rissoina carnosa, Webster, 1905. Plate 13, fig. 12. 

Rissoia carnosa, Webster, T.N.Z.I., xxxvii, 1904 (1905), 278, pi. 9, f. 6. 

Shell very small, elongate-oval, imperforate, thin. Sculpture con- 
sisting of slightly oblique straight axial riblets, about 20 on the pen- 
ultimate whorl, absent on the first 2 whorls and getting obsolete on the 
body-whorl, crossed by fine spiral lirae which diminish in strength 
toward the apex. Colour flesh-brown, with a cream-coloured band 
above the periphery, some specimens being a darker brown without 
the band, others having the last whorl entirely cream-coloured. Spire 
elevated conic, higher than the aperture, outlines slightly convex. 
Protoconch of 2 smooth, convex whorls, dome-shaped and dark. 
Whorls 5|, the last proportionately large, slightly convex ; base 
rounded. Suture moderately impressed. Aperture oblique, oval, 
angled above ; the spiral sculpture plainly visible when looked at 



GASTROPODA. [Pectinibranchia. 

through the aperture. Peristome not continuous, thin and sharp, 
slightly effuse below. Columella oblique, nearly straight, but little 
callous, subtruncate at the base. Operculum unknown. 

Diameter, 1-3 mm. ; height, 3 mm. 

Animal unknown. 

Type in Mr. W. H. Webster's collection. 

Hob. Takapuna, type (W. H. Webster) ; Hohoura Bay (R. 
Buddie). 

Sect. 3. ZEBINA, H. and A. Adams, 1854. 

Zebina, H. & A. Ad., G.R.M., i, 1854. 328 Type : R. Icevissima, C. B. 
Adams. 

Shell white, solid, opaque, polished, smooth or partly striate ; 
outer lip rather thick, often with 1 or more anterior internal 
tubercles. 

KEY TO SPECIES. 

A. Surface smooth, sometimes with 4 spiral lines at the base ; aper- 

ture rounded anteriorly . . . . . . . . Coulthardi. 

B. Surface with microscopic spiral grooves ; aperture truncated at 

the base . . . . _ _ emarginata. 

6. Rissoina Coulthardi, Webster, 1908. Plate 13, fig. 13. 

Rissoina Coulthardi, Webster, T.N.Z.I., xl, 1907 (1908), 258, pi. 21, f. 30-32. 

Shell imperforate, milk-white, loosely coiled, especially the last 
whorl, the aperture and its posterior callosity occupying exactly one- 
half the entire length of the shell. Protoconch minute, shining, colour- 
less. Whorls 5, somewhat flat, extremely glossy, the body-whorl 
with a few longitudinal markings of pale brown ; in some specimens 
these stripes are transparent. Suture shallow. Base of one speci- 
men (not the type) with 4 spiral lines. Aperture pear-shaped ; a 
heavy callus at the juncture with the body, and a partly concealed 
arch in the angle. Columella nearly upright, with a wrinkled twist 
on the outside of the pillar. Operculum unknown. (Webster.) 

Diameter, 1-5 mm. ; height, 3 mm. 

Animal unknown. 

Type in Mr. W. H. Webster's collection. 

Hob Orua Bay, Manukau Harbour, in 3 fathoms.^ 

I have not seen this species. 

7. Rissoina emarginata, Hutton, 1885. Plate 13, fig. 14. 

Rissoa emarginata, Hutt., T.N.Z.I., xvii, 1884 (1885). 320, pi. 18 f 20- 
Plioc. M.. 05. pi. 8, f. 68; Iredale, T.N.Z.I.. xl. 383. Rissoina parvi- 
hrata, Suter, T.N.Z.I., xxxix, 1906 (1907), 257. pi. !. f. 5. 

Shell small, oblong, imperforate, polished, microscopically spirally 
hrate, base subtruncate. Sculpture formed by close, fine, spiral 
grooves, visible only under a good lens, the interspaces being broader 
than the grooves. Colour pure-white. Spire conical, about 1 times 
the height of the aperture. Protoconch minute, smooth, globularly 



Rissoina.] GASTROPODA. 223 

pointed. Whorls 5, lightly convex, the last large, occupying nearly 
three-fourths of the total height, slightly flattened below the suture. 
Suture superficial, submargined above. Aperture vertical, pyriform, 
truncated at the base. Outer lip strong, descending nearly straight, 
then turning at a narrowly rounded angle toward the straight and 
slightly notched basal lip. Columella concave and truncated below. 
Inner lip forming a strong but narrow callus on the body-whorl, 
broadening above, where it joins the outer lip ; on the columella it is 
much narrower, covering only the inner half of it. Operculum un- 
known. 

Diameter, 1-5 mm. ; height, 3 mm. 

Type, from the Pliocene, in the Canterbury Museum, Christchurch. 

Hob. Near Channel Island, Hauraki Gulf, in 25 fathoms ; near 
Little Barrier Island, in 20 fathoms (R. H. Shakespear) ; near Cuvier 
Island, in 38 fathoms (Captain Bollons) ; Queen Charlotte Sound, in 
16 fathoms (Captain Bollons) ; off Otago Heads, dredged (A. Hamil- 
ton) ; Purau, Lyttelton Harbour, and Lyall Bay (Iredale). 

Fossil in the Pliocene. 

Subgen. 1. EATONIELLA, Dall, 1876. 

Eatoniella, Dall, Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus., iii, 1876, 42. Type: R. kerguelensis, 
Smith. Eatonia, E. A. Smith, 1875 ; not of Hall, 1857. 

Shell smooth, aperture subcircular, peristome simple, continuous, 
not effuse below, lip-margin not thickened ; operculum paucispiral, 
with an interior claviform process. 

KEY TO SPECIES. 

A. Spire but little higher than the aperture ; shell thin, pellucid, 

microscopically very finely spirally striate . . . . cuvieriana. 

B. Spire about 1 \ times the height of the aperture. 

a. Shell with white spots and zigzag lines below the suture ; 

rimate . . . . . . . . . . . . limbata. 

aa. Shell without any colour -mar kings, black ; not rimate . . Chiltoni. 

C. Spire about twice the height of the aperture. 

a. Shell fairly solid, opaque, peristome lightly thickened . . olivacea. 
aa. Shell thin, semitransparent, with a brown band below the 

suture ; peristome thin and sharp . . . . . . fuscozona. 

8. Rissoina Chiltoni, Suter, 1909. Plate 13, fig. 15. 

Rissoina Chiltoni, Suter, Subantarct. Islds. N.Zeal.. i, 1909. 18, pi. 1, 
f. 2. 

Shell minute, elongated conic, imperforate, rather solid, smooth, 
black. There is no sculpture ; the surface in most specimens much 
corroded. Colour black, peristome white, interior of aperture bluish- 
black. Spire conic, obtuse, its height about 1^ that of the aperture ; 
outlines straight. Protoconch somewhat globular. Whorls 5, regularly 
increasing, very lightly convex ; base rounded. Suture not much 



224 GASTROPODA. [Pectinibranchia. 

impressed. Aperture subvertical, oval, angled above. Peristome con- 
tinuous, simple, straight and sharp, very little callous inside. Colu- 
mella short, arcuate. Inner lip slightly expanded towards the verv 
slight umbilical depression. Operculurn horny, rather thin, with an 
oblique claviform inner process. 

Diameter, 1-5 mm. ; height, 2-7 mm. (type). 

Dentition. Central tooth rhomboidal, with 5 denticles, the mesial 
larger than the others. Lateral tooth elongated, with a broad short 
reflection and 5 small cutting-points, the middle one largest. First 
marginal with 3 subequal denticles, the second with 2 sharp minute 
hooks at the apex, the upper one with a number of very small cutting- 
points. 

Type in the Canterbury Museum, Christchurch. 

Hob. Campbell Island, type (Professor Chilton) ; Auckland Islands 
(Captain Bollons). Specimens from the latter locality are also in the 
British Museum. 

9. Rissoina cuvieriana, Suter, 1908. Plate 13, fig. 16. 

Rissoina cumeriana, Suter, T.N.Z.I., xl, 1<>07 (1908). 345, pi. 27, f. 3. 

Shell small, ovate, imperforate, thin and fragile, pellucid, some- 
what shining. Sculpture consisting of very fine oblique growth-lines, 
crossed by microscopic fine and close spiral striae, very faint on the 
spire-whorls. Colour yellowish-brown, with a darker band below the 
suture and upon the umbilical tract. Spire conical, slightly higher 
than the aperture ; outlines almost straight, Protoconch small, whorls 
convex and smooth. Whorls 6, convex, the last of considerable size ; 
base rounded. Suture not much impressed. Aperture oblique, oval, 
angled above, distinctly effuse below. Peristome discontinuous, simple, 
sharp. Columella vertical, somewhat concave, white. Inner lip not 
reflexed, with a sharp edge, spreading as a thin white callosity over the 
parietal wall. Operculum unknown. 

Diameter, 3-5 mm. ; height, 5-8 mm. 

Animal unknown. 

Type in my collection. 

Hab. Five miles south of Cuvier Island, in 38 fathoms (Captain 
Bollons). One specimen. 

Remark. --In coloration this species resembles the much smaller 
R. fuscozona, Sut. 

10. Rissoina fuscozona, Suter, 1908. Plate 13, fig. 17. 

Rissoina fuscozona, Suter, P. Ma!. S., viii, 32. pi. 3. f. 3-i. 

Shell small, elongately oval, imperforate, thin, smooth, shining, 
semitransparent. Fine, oblique growth-lines form the only sculpture. 
Colour fulvous, a dark-brown band below the suture, peristome fuscous. 
Spire elevated conic, twice the height of the aperture ; outlines 



Rissoina.] GASTROPODA. 225 

slightly convex. Protoconch small, flatly convex, smooth. Whorls 5, 
convex, regularly increasing, the last high, rather ventricose and 
slightly contracted below ; base convex. Aperture oblique, oval, 
jingled above. Pcristomc continuous, not thickened. Basallip slightly 
expanded. Columella oblique, a little arcuate, subtruncate. Inner 
Up but little reflexed. Operculum unknown. 

Diameter, 1-7 mm. ; height. 2-8 mm. 

Animal unknown. 

Type in my collection. 

Hob. Hohoura Bay (Roger Buddie). 

11. Rissoina limbata, Button, 1883. Plate 13, fig. 18. 

Cingula limbata, Hutt., N.Z.J.S.. i, 477 ; T. N.Z.I., xvi. 214. Rissoa limbata, 
Hutt.. P.L.S. N.S.W., ix, 941. R. (Set-id) limbata, Hutt., Man. Conch. 
(1), ix, 355, pi. 71, f. 98. Phasianella limbata, Hutt. : Suter, P. Mai. S., 
iii. 8. Rissoina (Eatoniella) limbata, Hutt. : Webster. T.N.Z I., xxxvii, 
278, pi. 10, f. 8, 8a (operc. and dentition) ; Suter, T.N.Z.I., xxxviii. 327. 

Shell very small, elongately conical, slightly rimate, smooth, and 
polished. Colour ashy-brown, usually with a posterior row of white 
spots and brown zigzag lines at the suture ; last whorl often with 
angulated brown and white markings around the periphery. Spire 
elevated conic, higher than the aperture, outlines straight. Protoconch 
minute, globose, white, of 1^ smooth and convex whorls. Whorls 5-6, 
the last rather large in proportion, flatly convex ; base rounded. 
Suture impressed. Aperture ovate, angled above. Peristome con- 
tinuous, sharp, lightly callous inside, somewhat effuse at the base. 
Columella vertical, arcuate, a little callous and reflexed. Umbilicus 
indicated by a narrow chink. Operculum horny, with a claviform 
process (Webster, T.N.Z. I., xxxvii, pi. 10, f. 8a). 

Diameter, 1-5 mm. ; height, 2-7 mm. 

Dentition. Webster, T.N.Z.I., xxxvii, 278, pi. 10, f. 8. Very 
much like that of R. olivacea, Hutt. 

Type in the Canterbury Museum, Christchurch. 

Hab. Auckland, type (T. F. Cheeseman) ; Cook Strait ; Te One- 
poto, near Lyttelton ; Taumaki Island, South Island, in 10 fathoms 
(Captain Bollons) ; Dusky Sound, in 30 fathoms (R. Henry). 

12. 'Rissoina olivacea, Hutton, 1882. Plate 13, fig. 19. 

Dardania olivacea, Hutt., T.N.Z.I., xiv, 1881 (1882), 147, pi. 1, f. K, 1-4. 
Rissoina olivacea, Hutton, P.L.S. N.S.W., ix, 940; Suter, P. Mai. S., 
iii, 7; Webster, T.N.Z.I., xxxvii, 279, pi. 10, f. 9a (opercul. and teeth 
of radula). Jeffreysia (Dardania) olivacea, Hutt., Man. Conch. (1). ix, 
397, pi. 60, f. 95. 

Shell very small, ovate, imperforate, rather solid, smooth. There 
is no sculpture except fine growth -lines. Colour olive-brown when 
alive, purplish -black when dry. Spire elevated conical, higher than 

8 Moll. N.Z. 



226 GASTROPODA. [Pectiuibranchia. 

the aperture, outlines nearly straight. Protoconch minute, globular. 
Whorls 5, regularly increasing, flatly convex ; base rounded. Suture 
not deep. Aperture roundly ovate, slightly angled above. Peristome 
continuous, faintly callous and whitish, sharp, very thin over the 
parietal wall. Columella subvertical, arcuate, thickened but not re- 
flexed. Operculum ovate, subspiral, with a long shelly process from 
below the nucleus (Hutton, I.e., pi. 1, f. K, 4). 

Diameter, 1-5 mm. ; height, 2 mm. (type) : usually 2 mm. by 
3 mm. 

Animal light brown, foot and tentacles white. Eostrum emargin- 
ate at the extremity ; tentacles long, slender, smooth ; eyes large, on 
swellings at the outer bases of the tentacles. Foot large, rounded in 
front, and emarginate behind ; opercular lobe small, simple ; sole 
with a median longitudinal groove. (Hutton, I.e., pi. 1, f. K, 2.) 

Dentition. The central tooth is as broad as long, and with 5 cusps. 
The first lateral tooth has 5 denticles, the middle one larger than the 
others ; the second lateral with 3 denticles, the inner one the smallest ; 
the third lateral is narrow, abruptly bent and expanded near the 
base, it has 3 minute denticles. (Hutton, I.e., pi. 1, f. 3.) 

Type in the Canterbury Museum, Christchurch. 

Hob. The type is from Lyttelton Harbour. Throughout New 
Zealand, on seaweeds, mostly in rock-pools. 

Fossil in the Pliocene. 

Var. annulata, Hutton, 1884. 

Rissoina olivacea, var. annulata, Hutt., N.Z.J.S.. ii. 173; P.L.S. N.S.W., 
ix, 940 ; Webster, T.N.Z.I., xxxvii, 27'J. 

Distinguished from the species by the narrow white band below 
the suture. In all other characters it does not differ from the species. 

Diameter, 1-5 mm. ; height, 2 mm. 

Dentition the same as in the species. 

Type in the Canterbury Museum, Christchurch. 

Hob. Hauraki Gulf, together with the species ; Banks Peninsula 
(Iredale). 

Var. lutea, Suter, 1908. 

Rissoina olivacea, Hutt., var. lutea, Suter, P. Mai. S., viii, 33. 

Distinguished from the species by its light horn-colour, and in 
being a little more slender. 

Diameter, 1-4-1-5 mm. ; height, 2-5-2-7 mm. 

Dentition unknown. 

Type in my collection. 

Hab. Maloney's Reef, Hauraki Gulf, type (H. S.) ; Lyttelton 
Harbour, on seaweeds (H. S.) ; Titahi Bay, Cook Strait (Miss 
Mestayer). 

Remark. Mostly together with the species. 



Skenella.] GASTROPODA. 227 



Genus 5. SKENELLA, Pfeffer, 1886. 

Skenella, Pfeffer, '' Die Mollusken von Siid-Georgien," in Jnhrb. d. Hamb. 
Wissensch. Anstalten, 1886, 96. Type : S. georgiana, Pfeffer. 

Shell depressed, umbilicated ; peristome simple, connected over 
the parietal wall ; operculum subspiral, with a large process vertical 
to the nucleus. 

Shell resembling Skcnea in form. 

1. Skenella Pfefferi, Suter, 1909. Plate 13, fig. 20. 

Skenella Pfefferi, Suter, P. Mai. S., viii, 1909, 253, pi. 11, f. 2. 

Shell minute, globosely depressed, thin, pellucid, shining, smooth, 
umbilicated. There is no sculpture. The colour is amber on the 
first 2 whorls, light horn on the last whorl. Epidermis very thin, 
yellowish, slightly polished. Spire conoidal, very low, convex, its 
height about one-third that of the aperture. Protoconch flatly convex, 
rather large. Whorls 2| to 3, rapidly increasing, convex, the last 
not descending, ample, with a regularly rounded periphery ; base 
flattish, angled around the umbilicus. Suture deep. Aperture large, 
subcircular. Peristome convex, sharp, thin. Columella vertical, lightly 
arcuate. Inner lip slightly callous and reflexed, spreading as a distinct 
callosity over the convex parietal wall. Umbilicus open, about one- 
sixth of the diameter. Operculum thin, almost colourless, subspiral, 
the nucleus near the margin, with an elongated subvertical process. 

Diameter, 0-8 mm. ; height, 0-45 mm. 

Animal unknown. 

Type in my collection. 

Hob. Te Onepoto, near Lyttelton, on seaweeds, type (H. S.) ; 
Lyall Bay (Miss Mestayer). 

Remarks. This species is nearly allied to S. georgiana, PfefEer, 
from South Georgia, but it is much smaller, the spire more depressed, 
the parietal callus not so strong, and the aperture not semicircular. 

Fam. LITIOPID^J, Fischer. 

Animal having on each side 3 cirriform epipodial filaments, oper- 
culigerous lobe with 2 appendages posteriorly ; there is no siphon. 
Central tooth of radula subquadrangular, devoid of basal denticles ; 
lateral teeth as in the Rissoidce. 

Shell minute, thin, smooth, plicate or spirally striate. Columella 
truncated at its base ; operculum horny, spiral. 

Genus 1. DIALA, A. Adams, 1861. 

Diala, A. Adams, A.M.N.H., viii, 1861, 242. Type : D. varia, A. Adams 
= semistriata, Phil. 

Shell spirally striate, not varicose, sometimes a little nodulous 
around the middle; columella nearly straight, not truncate; lip 
simple. 

But few species are known. 

Distribution. Japan, Philippines, Australasia. 

8' 



228 GASTROPODA. [Pectinibranchia. 

1. Diala subcarinata, Murdoch and Suter, 1906. Plate 13, fig. 21. 

Diala subcarinata, Murdoch and Suter, T.N.Z.I.. xxxviii, 1905 (1906), 292, 
pi. 24, f. 29. 

Shell minute, subulate, smooth, narrowly perforate. Sculpture : 
The longitudinals consist of minute growth-striae, with a few growth- 
periods, subcostate in places. Colour porcellanous-white. Spire high, 
slender, and tapering. Protoconch consists of about 2 smooth rounded 
whorls, the second slightly swollen, the nucleus oblique. Whorls 7. 
slightly rounded ; the antepenultimate whorl is indistinctly feebly 
bicarinate ; this is better defined upon the next whorl, especially the 
superior angle which forms the subtabular sutural shelf ; upon the 
last 4 or 5 feeble carinpe, 3 of which are above the aperture ; base 
rounded. Suture deep. Aperture vertical, subtriangular. Outer lip 
sharp, regularly curved, effuse, and angled at the junction with the 
basal extension of the columella, producing a small spout-like canal. 
Inner lip forming a narrow thin callosity on the pillar, which is sub- 
vertical and slightly sinuated ; a thin callus extends above over the 
body to the outer lip. Umbilicus very narrow, open. Operculum 
unknown. 

Diameter, 1-04 mm. ; height, 2-9 mm. 

Type in the Dominion Museum, Wellington. 

Hab. Off Great Barrier Island, in 110 fathoms. 

A single empty shell was obtained. 

Fam. OMALOGYRID^EI, Sars. 

Animal having the body flattened, ciliated in front, no cephalic 
tentacles; eyes sessile. Radula having the formula 1+1+1, the 
central tooth with a quandrangular base with a large cusp, imbricated, 
one series on the other ; a lateral transverse plate replaces the lateral 
and marginal teeth. 

Shell planorbiform, spire involute, mouth clasping both sides of 
the periphery ; operculum corneous, few-whorled, nucleus central. 

The animals are very active, and feed on alg;r. 

Genus 1. OMALOGYRA, Jeffreys, 1860. 

Omalogyra, Jeffreys, J. de Conch., 1860. Type : 0. nitidissima, Forbes and 
Hanley. Ammonicerina, Costa, 1861. Homalogyra, Jeffreys, 1867. 

Shell small, discoid, flat, paucispiral ; whorls usually more or 
less angled ; aperture orbicular ; peristome continuous ; operculum 
circular. 

Distribution. Europe, Greenland, South Africa, and New Zealand. 

Remarks. The external characters of the animal and its dentition 
are peculiar, and its systematic position is uncertain. 

KEY TO SPECIES. 
a. Last whorl smooth, convex . . . . . . . . fusca. 

aa. Last whorl bicarinate . . bicarinata. 



Omalogyra.} GASTROPODA. 229 



1. Omalogyra fusca, Suter, 1908. Plate 13, fig. 22. 

Omalogyra fusca, Suter, P. Mai. S., viii, 33, pi. 3, f. 3(i. 

Shell minute, planorbiform, thin and fragile, slightly shining. 
Sculpture consisting of very fine microscopic spiral striae, faintly re- 
ticulated by growth-lines. Colour fuscous, with a few white radiate 
streaks and irregularly scattered spots. Spire depressed. Protoconch 
of 1 whorl, distinctly marked off from the next volution, spirally 
striate. Whorls 2f , rather rapidly increasing, convex ; base concave. 
Suture deep. Aperture circular. Peristome sharp, straight, slightly 
discontinuous through the intervening parietal wall. Operculum un- 
known. 

Diameter, 1 mm. ; height, 0-3 mm. 

Animal unknown. 

Type in my collection. 

Hob. Lyttelton Harbour, on seaweeds (H. S.). 

2. Omalogyra bicarinata, Suter, 1908. Plate 14, fig. 1. 

Omalogyra bicarinata, Suter, P. Mai. S., viii, 33, pi. 3, f. 37, 37a. 

Shell minute, discoidal, thin, not shining. Sculpture consists of 
2 fine keels only, 1 above and 1 below the periphery. Colour white. 
Spire depressed. Protoconch of 1 smooth whorl, marked off from the 
next. Whorls 2J, rather rapidly increasing, flattened above and below, 
convex at the periphery, bicarinate ; base slightly concave. Suture 
canaliculate. Aperture, subquadrate. Peristome continuous, thin, and 
straight. Operculum unknown. 

Diameter, 1-5 mm. ; height, 0-5 mm. 

Animal unknown. 

Type in my collection. 

Hob. Snares, in 50 fathoms (Captain Bollons). 

Fam. HYDROBIID^S, Fischer. 

Animal having a long rostrum ; tentacles elongated, with the 
eyes at their outer bases. Ctenidium monopectinate ; sexes separate ; 
the intromittant organ distant from the right tentacle, and generally 
appendiculated ; one otolith in each otocyst. Jaws are usually pre- 
sent. Formula of teeth of radula 2+1 + 1+1 + 2 ; the central tooth 
mostly with basal denticulations. 

Shell with a prominent spire, turbinate or turriculate ; peristome 
continuous ; operculum variable, horny or calcareous, concentric, 
spiral or subspiral. 

The Hydrobiidce are small oviparous molluscs, living in fresh or 
brackish water, some of them even, though branchiferous, out of the 
water. 

Subfam. LITHOGLYPHIN^E. 

Foot simple ; central tooth of radula with basal denticulations ; 
intromittant organ simple or bifurcate ; operculum corneous, spira 
or subspiral. 



230 GASTROPODA. [Pectinibranchia. 



Genus 1. POTAMOPYRGUS, Stimpson, 1865. 

Potamopyrgus, Stimpson, Amer. Journ. Conch., i, 1865, 53. Type : Melania 
corolla, Gould. Pyrgopkorus, Ancey, Bull. Soc. Mai. France, v, 1888. 
188, 192. 

The animal has long, pointed tentacles ; the eyes on the prominent 
tubercles. Stimpson's description of the dentition of the type is as 
follows : ' Ehachidian tooth trapezoidal ; inferior margin nearly 
straight, faintly trilobate ; basal teeth minute and close to the lateral 
margins. Intermediate tooth with the peduncle very long, three 
times as long as the body, and constricted at its juncture therewith ; 
body subrhomboidal and excavated in the middle ; cusp with numerous 
equal teeth. Lateral teeth constricted near the summit, and with tin- 
dorsal or outer margin of the shank reflexed or thickened ; outer 
lateral with a broad summit, shaped like a chopping-knife. Formula 

of the denticles : ^^- 11 - 15 - 20." (Stimpson's intermediate tooth 
is really a lateral, and his laterals are the marginals.) 

Shell ovate-conic, imperforate ; apex acute ; whorls coronated 
with spines ; outer whorl nearly two-thirds the length of the shell ; 
aperture ovate ; outer lip acute ; operculum corneous. (Stimpson.) 

Many species are polymorphic, and one and the same species may 
have a spinous angulate, an angulate espinous. and an acuminate 
ecarinate form. 

The genus is, according to Pilsbry, of great antiquity, extending 
at least as far back as the early Eocene. It now comprises all the 
fresh-water Rissoids of New Zealand, a majority of those of Australia 
and Tasmania, with species in West Africa and tropical America. 

Living in fresh and slightly brackish water. 

KEY TO SPECIES. 

A. The same species spinose. shouldered, or with smooth rounded 

whorls. 

a. Shell ventricose, last whorl swollen ; spines, if present, long, 
directed upward. Ratio of diameter to height 1 : 1-44 
to 1 : 1-7 . . . . . . corolla. 

aa. Shell smaller, much more slender, last whorl not ventri- 
cose ; spines, if present, short. Ratio of diameter to 
height 1 : 1-25 .. .. .. .. Badia. 

B. Shell never spinous or shouldered, smooth. 

a. Shell ovate. 

b. Height about 6mm., whorls flattish. outlines of spire 

straight . . . . . . . . antipodum. 

bb. Height less than 6 mm. 

c. Shell much elongated, height 4mm. to 5mm.. 

spire much higher than aperture . . . . egenus. 

cc. Shell shortly oval, height about 3 mm., spire li 

the height of aperture . . . . . . spelceus. 

aa. Shell subcylindrical, very thin and fragile . . . . sitbterraneus. 



Potamopyrgus.} GASTROPODA. 231 

1. Potamopyrgus antipodum, Gray, 1843. Plate 14, fig. 2. 

Amnicola antipodanum, Gray, Dieff. N.Z., 241. Hydrobia antipodum. Gray, 
Ereb. & Ter., 3, pi. 1, f. 19. above. Bythinella antipoda. Gray : Hutton, 
M.N.Z.M., 81. Potamopyrgus antipodum, Gray: Hutton, T. N.Z.I., xiv, 
145, pi. 1, f. C, except upper right figure; Suter, T.N.Z.I., xxxvii, 263. 

Shell small, ovate, acute, sometimes rimate, generally covered 
with a brown earthy coat, smooth. Colour dark brown. Spire ele- 
vated conic, higher than the aperture, outlines straight. Protoconch 
small, acute, very often eroded. Whorls 7, regularly increasing, flatly 
convex ; base convex. Suture not much impressed. Aperture ovate, 
angled above. Peristome continuous, black, with a white inner callus, 
Columella arcuate, very little reflexed. Operculum brown, horny, 
paucispiral ; nucleus subcentral. 

Diameter, 3-2 mm. ; height, 6-1 nim. 

Dentition. Hutton, T.N.Z.I., xiv, 145, pi. 1, f. G. 

Type in the British Museum. 

Hob. Throughout New Zealand, very often in brackish water. 

Remark. The statement made by Von Martens that " some 
specimens are bristly " is not correct. This species has never been 
found with spines or a carina. 

Subsp. zelandiae, Gray, 1843. Plate 14, fig. 3. 

Amnicola (?) zelandice, Gray, Dieff. N.Z., 241. Hydrobia zdandice, Gray, 
Ereb. & Ter., 3, pi. 1, f. 19, below. Bythinella zelandiae, Gray : Hutton, 
M.N.Z.M., 81. Potamopyrgus antipodum, subsp. zelandice, Gray: Suter, 
T.N.Z.I.. xxxvii, 263. 

This subspecies is distinguished from the species by its somewhat 
smaller size, more tapering form, the generally more convex whorls, 
and slightly deeper suture. 

Diameter, 2-5 mm. ; length, 5 mm. (type). 

Type in the British Museum. 

Hob. Nelson ; Wellington ; Wanganui ; Forty-mile Bush ; River- 
head, Waitemata Harbour. 

Remark. It is much rarer than antipodum, but shows also a good 
amount of variation. 

2. Potamopyrgus Badia, Gould, 1848. Plate 13, fig. 23. 

Amnicola Badia, Gould, P. Bost. S.N.H., iii, 1848, 75; U.S. Expl. Ex., 
xii. 126, f. 150. Hydrobia Fischeri, Bunker, Mai. Blatt., viii, 1862, 152. 
H. Beevei, Frauenfeld, V.Z.B.G. Wien, xiii, 1024. Bythinella Fischer i, 
Badia, Reevei, Hutton, M.N.Z.M.. 82. Potamopyrgus corolla, Gould: 
Hutton, T.N.Z.I., xiv, 145, pi. 1, f. B, not of Gould. P. Badia, Gld. : 
Suter, T.N.Z.I., xxxvii, 264, 249. 

Shell small, ovate - conical, acute, thin, very frequently with a 
black coating, imperforate. Sculpture consisting typically of a carina 
on the shoulder, but usually there is a row of short spines on the last 
3 whorls ; clean specimens show fine oblique growth -striae. Spire 



232 GASTROPODA. [Pectinibranchia. 

elevated conical, acute, outlines slightly convex. Protoconch minute, 
sharp. Whorls 6, regularly increasing, convex, rounded or shouldered, 
with or without spines ; base convex. Suture not deep. Aperture 
ovate, subangled above. Peristome continuous, thin and sharp, with 
a very thin inner callosity. Columella arcuate, thin, very little ex- 
panded. Operculum normal. 

Diameter, 2 mm. ; height. 5 mm. (type). Ratio of D : H= 1 : 2-5. 
The usual dimensions are 2-5-3 mm. by 5 mm. 

Dentition. Hutton, T.N.Z.I., xiv, 145, pi. 1, f. F. 

Type in the U.S. Nat. Museum, Washington. 

Hob. South Island of New Zealand, in lakes, rivers, and creeks. 
The type is from Banks Peninsula (Pickering). 

Remarks. The species attains a very large size, 4 mm. by 8 mm., 
in Lake Te Anau, and somewhat smaller in Lake Wakatipu, in depths 
from 20 ft. to 300 ft. Specimens of a very light brown colour have 
been found some years ago in meters connected with artesian wells at 
Suniner, near Christchurch. 

3. Potamopyrgus corolla, Gould, 1847. Plate 13, fig. 24. 

Mdania corolla, Gld., P. Bost. S.N.H., ii, 1847. 223. Melanin corolla. Old., 
Conch. Icon., f. 366. Amnicola corolla, Gould, I'.S. Expl. Ex.. xii. 129, 
pi. 9. f. 149, a c. Pahtdestrina Cumingiana, P. Fisdi., J. de Conch., 
1860, 208, pi. 4. f. 7. Hydrobia Crossei, Frfld., V.Z.B.G. Wieii, 1865. 
595. Bythinella corolla, Gld. : T. -Woods, P.L.S. N.S.W., iii. 135, 
pi. 13, f. 2, 3, 5. Hydrobia corolla, Hutt., M.N.Z.M., 83. Potamo- 
pyrgus Cumingiana, Fisch. : Hutton, T.N.Z.I., xiv. 144. pi. 1, f. A. F. 
P. corolla, Gld. : Suter, T.N.Z.I.. xxxvii. 260. 246. 

Shell small, ovate-conic, ventricose. thin, subpellucid, spinous, 
angulate espinous, or smooth and rounded. Sculpture, if present, 
consisting of numerous spines on a carina encircling the whorls a 
little above the periphery, 17-20 on the last whorl ; they are long, 
rather distant, curved, directed upward ; the first 3J whorls have no 
spines ; sometimes there is only a black thread present, or the whorls 
may be rounded and smooth. Colour light-yellowish, often covered 
with a black coating. Epidermis thin, slightly shining in some speci- 
mens. Spire elevated conic, a little higher than the aperture, out- 
lines straight. Protoconch small, acute, of about 2 convex smooth 
whorls. Whorls 6^, shouldered or rounded, the last large and some- 
what swollen ; base convex. Aperture ovate, oblique, angled above. 
Peristome continuous, strengthened by a white inner callus. Columella 
arcuate, very little reflexed. Operculum horny, subspiral. 

Diameter, 4-5 mm. ; height, 6-5 mm. Ratio of D : H == 1 : 1-44. 

Dentition. Hutton, T.N.Z.I., xiv, 144, pi. 1, f. E. 

Type in the U.S. Nat. Museum, Washington. 

Hab. North Island of New Zealand, in lakes, rivers, and creeks ; 
Chatham Islands. 



Potamopyrgus.} GASTROPODA. 233 

Subsp. Salleana, P. Fischer, 1860. Plate 14, fig. 4. 

Paludestrina Salleana, Fisch., J. de Conch., viii, 1860, 208, 209, pi. 4, f. 6. 
Potamopyrgus corolla, Gld., subsp. Salleana, Fisch.: Suter, T.N.Z.I., 
xxxvii, 247, 262. 

Shell horn-colour, conical, thin. The last 4 whorls are spinous ; 
the spines are short, black, directed upwards ; typically there is a 
chordate carina on the last whorl below the row of spines. Whorls 
7-7|, flatly convex. Aperture ovate. Peristome continuous, but little 
callous. 

Diameter, 3-5 mm. ; height 6 mm. Ratio of D : H == 1 : 1-7. 

This subspecies differs from corolla in being more slender, less 
ventricose, in having spines on the last 4 whorls (against 3 in the species), 
and a chordate carina below the row of spines, which, however, is 
quite an exceptional occurrence ; very often specimens are subangled 
below the periphery. 

Type. Collection of the " Journal de Conchyliologie," Paris. 

Hab. Widely distributed throughout the North Island ; Pelorus 
River, Nelson, and Collingwood, South Island. 

Remarks. All the specimens in my collection are yellowish-brown, 
thinner than corolla, mostly without spines, and some are larger than 
the type : diameter, 4-5 mm. ; height, 8 mm. The Nelson specimens 
are from brackish water. The only specimens with a slight chordate 
carina below the series of spines are from Lake Manapouri. 

4. Potamopyrgus egenus, Gould, 1848. Plate 14, fig. 5. 

Amnicola egena, Gld., P. Bost. S.N.H., iii. 1848, 75. .4. gracilis, Gould, 
U.S. Expl. Ex., xii, 127, f. 151, a, b. Bythinella egena, Gld. : Hutton, 
M.N.Z.M., 82 ; T.N.Z.I., xiv, pi. 1. f. 0, upper right figure. Potamo- 
pyrgus egenus, Gld. : Suter, T.N.Z.I., xxxvii, 265. 

Shell elongate, minute, turreted, delicate, smooth, with faint striae 
of growth. Epidermis thin, pale green. Spire acute, much higher 
than the aperture. Protoconch minute, globose. Whorls 5 to 7, regu- 
larly increasing, convex, the last one half the length of the shell ; 
base rounded. Suture impressed. Aperture ovate, one-third the 
length of the shell, angled above. Peristome continuous, acute, white 
and slightly callous inside ; there is an indistinct umbilical chink or 
the inner lip is separated from the body by a narrow groove. Oper- 
culum typical. No carinated or spinous forms are known. 

Diameter, 2-5 mm. ; height, 5 mm. (type). Diameter, 2-25 mm. ; 
height, 5 mm. (specimen with 7 whorls). Diameter, 1-75 mm. ; height, 
4 mm. (specimen with 6 whorls). 

Animal unknown. 

Type in the U.S. Nat. Museum, Washington. 

Hab. Banks Peninsula (type) ; Little River, Banks Peninsula 
(H. S.) ; Nelson ; Kaiwarrawarra River (H. S.). 

Remark. The species is rare and local, but well marked by its 
graceful elongated form. 



234 GASTROPODA. [Pectinibraitchia. 

5. Potamopyrgus spelaeus, Frauenfeld, 1862. Plate 14, fig. 6. 

Hydrobia spelcea, Frfld., V,Z.B.G. Wien, xiii, 1862, 1022 ; xv, 526. pi. 8. 
Bythinella spelcea, Frfld. : Hutton, M.N.Z.M., 82. Potamopyrgus spelceus, 
Frfld. : Suter, T.N.Z.L, xxxvii, 266. 

Shell very small, conical, rather solid, subtransparent, faintly 
shining, smooth, rimate. Colour of type yellowish-white, fresh speci- 
mens, however, are greenish or brownish yellow, mostly with a thin 
brown coating. Spire elevated conical, a little higher than the 
aperture, outlines convex. Protoconch minute, globular. Whorls 5, 
slightly convex, the last rather large ; base rounded. Suture deep. 
Aperture oval, angled above, oblique. Peristome continuous, slightly 
expanded, mostly brown, free above, thence connected with the body, 
leaving a narrow chink below. Operculum normal. 

Diameter, 1-6 mm. ; height, 3 mm. (type). 

Animal unknown. 

Type in the K.K. Hof museum, Vienna. 

Hob. In caves with Dinornis bones, together with P. Reevei, in 
Cuming's collection (type) ; salt springs, Te Mahia, Hawke's Bay 
(A. Hamilton) ; Wanganui River, tidal part (R. Murdoch) ; upper 
Wanganui River (Cbadwick) ; cold mineral pool, Rotorua (Lady F. 
Brown) ; Te Aroha, in hot - spring water (C. Cooper) ; Onehunga 
Springs. 

dbsp. pupoides, Hutton, 1882. Plate 14, fig. 7. 

Potamopyrgus pupoides, Hutt., T.N.Z.L. ~s.iv, 1881 (1882), 146, pi. 1, f. D. H. 
P. spelceus, Frfld., subsp. pupoides, Hutt. : Suter, T.N.Z.L, xxxvii, 266. 

It is distinguished from the species by its cylindrical form, the 
much flatter whorls, and the less impressed suture. 

Diameter, 0-9 mm. ; height, 1-5-1-75 mm. 

Dentition. Hutton, T.N.Z.L, xiv, 146, pi. 1, f. H. 

Type in the Canterbury Museum, Christchurch. 

Hob. Heathcote Estuary, type (Hutton) ; Parua Bay, Whangarei ; 
Onehunga Springs : in brackish water. 

6. Potamopyrgus subterraneus, Suter, 1905. Plate 14, fig. 8. 

Potamopyrgus subterraneus, Suter, T.N.Z.L, xxxvii. 1904 (1905), 267. fig. 
in text. 

Shell minute, subcylindrical, fragile, opaque-white, smooth. Spire 
pupoid ; apex blunt. Whorls 5, convex, the last whorl more than 
half the axis. Suture well impressed. Aperture very oblique, oval. 
Peristome very thin, membranaceous (specimen apparently not quite 
adult), continuous. Columella subvertical, slightly callous, very little 
reflexed. Umbilicus indicated by a narrow chink. Operculum un- 
known. 



Potamopyrgus.] GASTROPODA. 235 

Diameter, 1-25 mm. ; height, 2-75 mm. 

Animal unknown. 

Type in my collection. 

Hob. The only specimen was obtained by Mr. W. W. Smith, of 
Ashburton, in 1892, by pumping water from a well 48 ft. deep. 

Remarks. The shell is exceedingly fragile, and distinguished, like 
P. pupoidcs, by its subcylindrical form. The nearest allies are egenus 
and spelceus, but it differs considerably from both. It most likely has 
been derived from the latter species, and its subterranean habitat is 
no doubt a long-established one. 

Fam. THIARIDJE. 

Mdaniidce, Gray. 

Animal having the rostrum large, well developed, sinuate in front. 
Tentacles subulate, with the eyes on bulgings at their outer sides. 
Foot large and short, subtruncate, with a rudimentary siphonal fold 
in front, obtuse posteriorly. Mantle-margin generally fringed. In- 
tromittant organ behind the right tentacle ; reproduction viviparous. 
A single gill, composed of rigid, cylindrical plates. Central tooth of 
radula trapezoidal, margin multicuspidate ; lateral tooth narrow, with 
a broad anterior plate, and a number of cusps, the median one being 
larger ; marginals long and narrow, multicuspid. 

Shell spiral, generally fruireted, covered with a thick dark-coloured 
epidermis ; aperture often channelled or emarginate below ; outer 
lip simple, sharp ; operculum horny, ovate, spiral or sublamellate ; 
nucleus subcentral or marginal. 

These animals are fluviatile, being inhabitants of fresh-water lakes 
and rivers throughout the warmer parts of the world. 

Genus 1. MELANOPSIS, Ferussac pere, 1807. 

Melanopsis. Ferussac, " Essai d'une methods conchyliologique," 1807, 70. 
Type : M. costata, Fer. Faunus, Megerle, not of Montfort. Carnpeloma, 
Rafin. Ceneona, Gist. Bulliopsis, Conrad. 

Animal having the tentacles long and pointed. Mantle-margin not 
fringed. 

Shell ovate, last whorl elongated, smooth or longitudinally plicate ; 
spire short, acute ; aperture oblong, distinctly notched in front ; 
inner lip thick, with a posterior callus ; outer lip simple, acute ; oper- 
culum paucispiral or subspiral ; nucleus submarginal, terminal. 

Distribution. New Zealand, New Caledonia, Spain, northern 
Africa, Asia Minor. 

This genus dates back to the Cretaceous ; it is widely distributed 
in the Tertiary of Europe, and several species are known from the 
Miocene of the United States (Maryland). 



236 GASTROPODA. [Pectinibranchia. 

1. Melanopsis trifasciata, Gray, 1843. Plate 39, fig. 11. 

Melanopsis trifasciata, Gray, Dieff. N.Z., 263. M. zetandica, Gould, P. Bost. 
S.N.H., ii, 1843, 225; U.S. Expl. Ex., xii, 130, f. 146. a, b. M. Strangei. 
Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 3. M. ovata, Dunker, Malak. Blatt., viii. 150. 
M. trifasciata. Gray : Smith, Ereb. & Ter.. ii. pi. 1. f. 18-22 ; Hedley and 
Suter, P.L.S. N.S.W. (2). vii, 618 ; Suter. J. de Conch., xli. 220. 

Shell ovate, rather thin, smooth, the spire very often much eroded. 
Sculpture consisting of irregular growth-striae, very often developed 
into folds, giving the shell an irregularly costellate appearance ; some 
specimens are slightly wrinkled and malleated. Colour dark olive, the 
last whorl with 1 or 3, rarely 2, chestnut spiral bands, the first above, 
the second below the periphery, and the third at the base, the latter 2 
a little closer together. Epidermis solid, dull or only faintly shining. 
Spire short, conical, acute, about one-third the length of the shell ; 
outlines straight. Protoconch conical, of 1 very rapidly increasing 
costellate whorl. Whorls 3 to 4, very rapidly increasing, flat, the last 
very large, slightly ventricose ; base convex, depressed upon the neck. 
Suture superficial. Aperture large, elongately oval, sharply angled 
above, distinctly notched below. Interior light blue, with chestnut 
spiral bands. Outer Up simple, acute, sometimes sinuate toward the 
base, and roundly produced beyond the end of the columella. The 
columella is strongly callous above, the callus white near the margin, 
yellowish-brown inside, then excavated, concavely twisted at the 
base, and sometimes with a few short folds on the outer margin. 

Operculum obliquely striate, thin, horny ; nucleus terminal. 

Diameter, 11 mm. ; height, 18 mm. (medium-sized specimen). 
Diameter, 17 mm. ; height, 30 mm. (large specimen). 

Dentition. Button, T.N.Z.I., xv, 123, pi. 14, f. F. 

Type in the British Museum. 

Hob. Waitangi Falls (Dieffenbach) ; Henderson, near Auckland 
(H. S.) ; Whangarei ; River Thames ; Petane Creek, near Napier ; 
Wanganui River ; Collingwood ; Kenepuru Sound ; Greymouth ; 
Dunedin. 

Fam. CERITHIIDJE, Fleming. 

Animal with the rostrum broad, short, and contractile ; tentacles 
wide apart, subulate ; eyes on short peduncles united to the outer 
side of the tentacles. Mantle-margin with a rudimentary siphonal 
fold in front ; gill composed of a single series of plates. Foot broad 
and short, angulated in front. Radula long and linear; formula of 
teeth 2+1 + 1+1 + 2. Jaws cancellated. 

Shell usually turriculated, sometimes very large, many-whorled, 
frequently varicose, the surface usually tuberculated, spinose, or 
costulate ; aperture siphonostome, sometimes much expanded, always 
with a channel in front, which is more or less long and recurved ; outer 
lip generally expanded in the adult ; columella excavated, twisted 



Melanopsis.] GASTROPODA. 237 

in front, very often with parietal plications ; operculum corneous, 
spiral, with central or sublateral nucleus. 

The shell is very variable in form, and especially in the anterior 
canal of the aperture, which is always rather short, but sometimes 
disappears completely. 

The CerithiidcB occur principally about tropical and semitropical 
shores, on rocks or among marine plants, littoral or in shallow waters. 
Many of them are estuary molluscs, and some inhabit fresh waters. 

Subfam. 1. POTAMIDIN.E. 

Shells usually covered with a brown epidermis ; the fore part of 
the aperture more or less channelled, truncate, not produced into a 
beak ; operculum orbicular, polygyrate ; nucleus central. 

Inhabiting the mouth of rivers, or salt marshes. 

Genus 1. CERITHIDEA, Swainson, 1840. 

Cerithidea, Swainson, Man. Malac., 1840, 203, 342. Type : Murex decol- 
latus, L. Aphanistylus, Fischer, Man. de Conch , 682, 1884. 

Animal with the eye-peduncles very long and thick, connate with 
the tentacles nearly to their tips. 

Shell of moderate size, turriculated, conic ; spire varicose, very 
often with truncated apex. Whorls narrow, convex, with a rather 
deep suture, ornamented with axial costse, which are but little arcuate 
and sometimes crossed by spiral cords. Height of aperture one- 
third or one-fourth of the total length if the shell is not decollated. 
Last whorl generally carinated or angled at the periphery of the base, 
which is plane or oblique ; the axial ribs are not continued upon 
the base. Neck very short or subobsolete, slightly excavated. Aper- 
ture subcircular. Peristome reflexed, with a slight parietal channel. 
Siphonal canal reduced to a lateral beak. Outer lip broadly rounded, 
thickened. Columella smooth, neither twisted nor plicate, obliquely 
truncate. 

These molluscs are amphibious, crawling on the stones and leaves 
in the neighbourhood of brackish water in mangrove swamps, and 
at the mouths of rivers ; during the dry season they close the aper- 
ture with the operculum, and hang, suspended by glutinous threads, 
to small branches and mangrove-roots. 

Fossil in the Tertiary. 

KEY TO SPECIES. 

A 

A Spire-whorls without spiral sculpture, except an occasional 

narrow groove below the suture . . . . . . sitbcarinata. 

B Spire-whorls with spiral sculpture. 

a. Deep spiral grooves, a narrow ridge in each . . . . alternnta. 

aa. Base with 2 spiral ridges, both near the periphery ; whorls 

spirally lirate . . . . . . . . . . bicarinttta. 

aaa. Base with 3 spiral ridges, spire-whorls with 24 narrow 

spiral grooves .. .. .. .. .. tricarinata. 



238 GASTROPODA. [Pectinibranchia. 

1. Cerithidea alternate, Hutton, 1873. Plate 39, fig. 12. 

Cerithium alternatum, Hutt., C.M.M., 26. Cerithidea alternata, Hutt , 
M.N.Z.M., 74. 

Shell moderately large, turriculated, rather solid, costate, and 
spirally grooved. Sculpture consisting of distant broad and rounded 
axial ribs, 8 to 9 on the last whorl, cut up into broad and narrow 
nodules by the spiral grooves, which are deep and having a small 
ridge in the bottom of each ; there are about 10 of these grooves 
on the last whorl, 2 on the periphery of the base having 2 small ridges. 
Colour yellowish-brown. Spire elevated conical, twice the height of 
the aperture ; outlines straight. Protoconch eroded. Whorls about 1 1 , 
regularly and rather slowly increasing, slightly rounded ; base flat, 
oblique. Suture impressed, margined above, wavy below. Aperture 
oblique, ovate, channelled above, produced at the base into a very 
short oblique and truncated canal. Interior white. Outer lip convex, 
thickened but sharp, denticulated outside by the spiral sculpture, 
grooved inside, each groove corresponding with an outer spiral riblet. 
Columella vertical, excavated, truncated below. Inner lip sharply 
limited outside the columella, united with the outer lip over the 
parietal wall. Operculum unknown. 

Diameter, 10 mm. ; height, 24-5 mm. (type). Angle of spire, 23. 

Animal unknown. 

Type in the Dominion Museum, Wellington. 

Hob. Tauranga (type). 

2. Cerithidea bicarinata, Gray, 1843. Plate 39, fig. 13. 

Cerithium bicarinata, Gray, Diefi. N.Z., 241. Cerithidea (Pirenella) bicari- 
nata, A. Adams, P.Z.S., 1854, 83. Cerithium bicarinatum, Gray : 
Sowerby, Thes. Conch., ii, 288. Cerithidea bicarinata. Gray, Conch. 
Icon., xv, f. 27 ; Ereb. & Ter., pi. 1. f. 20 ; Man. Conch. (1), ix, 1(33, 
pi. 35, f. 15. Cerithium hitulentum, Kiener, Coq. Viv., 63, pi. 22, f. 3. 

Shell turreted, moderately solid, costellate. Sculpture consisting 
of rather distant axial plications, 12-15 on the penultimate whorl, 
slightly arcuate, prominent or subobsolete, crossed by numerous 
spiral cords, mostly visible only on the lower whorls ; base with a 
double ridge on its periphery, the lower one much stronger and sepa- 
rated by a groove from the upper ridge ; the latter margins the suture 
of the last whorl ; the lower ridge enters the aperture, forming with 
the outer lip a parietal channel ; base with distinct growth -lines. 
Colour blackish-purple or brown, often with a brown or whitish coat- 
ing. Spire very high, conic, about three times the height of the 
aperture ; outlines straight. Protoconch eroded. Whorls about 12, 
regularly increasing, convex ; base concave. Suture impressed. Aper- 
ture ovate, produced into a very short, open, oblique, and truncated 
canal. Interior blackish-brown. Outer Up convex, straightened above, 
very little thickened and expanded, sharp, with an interior orange 
margin. Columella light brown, slightly concave, smooth, base ob- 
liquely truncate. Operculum normal. 



Cerithidea.] GASTROPODA. 239 

Diameter, 10 mm. ; height, 29 mm. Angle of spire. 23. 
Dentition. Button, T.N.Z.I., xv, 122, pi. 14, f. D. 

Type in the British Museum. 

Hob. Bay of Islands, type (DierTenbach). Common in the North 
Island ; not found south of Banks Peninsula. 
Fossil in the Pliocene. 

3. Cerithidea subcarinata, Sowerby, 1855. Plate 14, fig. 9. 

Cerithidea subcarinata, Sowerby, Thes. Conch., ii. 1855, 889, f. 287. Ceri- 
thium australis, Gray, Dieff. N.Z., 241, not of Lamarck. Cerithidea 
nigra, H. & J. : Hutton, M.N.Z.M., 74, not of Hombron and Jacquinot. 
Potamides (Cerithidea) bicarinata, var. .subcarinata. Sow., Man. Conch. 
(1). ix, 163. pi. 35. f. 16. 

Shell small, elongated, longitudinally plicate, base bicarinate. 
Sculpture consisting of broadly rounded, slightly oblique axial ribs, 
about 12 on the penultimate whorl ; sometimes a narrow spiral groove 
below the suture is present ; the ribs are stopped at the periphery 
of the base by a spiral groove taking its origin at the suture ; base 
with 2 spiral ribs, the outer one strong and broad, the inner one, 
around the base of the neck, short and narrow ; they are often cut 
up into irregular nodules by incremental lines. Colour brownish- 
black, often with a light-brown coating. Spire elevated conical, 
about 2^ times the height of the aperture, outlines slightly convex. 
Protoconch eroded. Whorls about 10, regularly increasing, flatly con- 
vex ; base slightly concave. Suture impressed. Aperture oblique, 
ovate, channelled above, produced at the base in a very short, oblique, 
and truncated canal. Interior dark brown, sometimes with 1 or 2 
lighter bands. Outer lip convex, slightly thickened and expanded, 
not very sharp. Columella slightly concave, base truncated. Inner 
lip sharply marked off, and extending over the body to the outer 
lip, but prevented from reaching it by the narrow channel. Operculum 
normal. 

Diameter, 4-25-5-5 mm. ; height, 11 -5-14 mm. Angle of spire, 30. 

Dentition. Hutton, T.N.Z.I., xv, 123, pi. 14, f. E. 

Type in the British Museum. 

Hob. Throughout New Zealand, and at the Chatham Islands. 

4. Cerithidea tricarinata, Hutton, 1883. Plate 14, fig. 10. 

Cerithidea tricarinata, Hutton; N.Z.J.S., i, 1883, 477; T.N.Z.I., xvi, 214. 

Shell small, turreted, longitudinally plicate and spirally grooved. 
Sculpture consisting of strong, rounded, subnodulose, longitudinal 
ribs, 10 to 15 on the penultimate whorl, stopped on the body-whorl 
by a spiral sulcus on the periphery of the base ; spire- whorls and 
posterior half of the body-whorl with 3 or 4 spiral grooves, sometimes 
reduced to 2 ; base with 3 subequidistant well-marked spiral ridges, 
with occasionally others on the neck. Colour brown. Spire elevated, 
about three times the height of the aperture ; outlines faintly convex. 



240 GASTROPODA. [Pectinibranchia. 



Protoconch eroded. Whorls 9 to 10, flattened, regularly increasing ; 
base nearly flat, excavated round the neck. Suture impressed, some- 
times margined. Aperture oblique, broadly ovate, channelled above, 
produced at the base into a short, oblique, and truncated canal. In- 
terior brown, with a few lighter spiral bands. Outer lip convex, 
slightly thickened and expanded, sharp. Columella vertical, nearly 
straight, truncated at the base. Inner lip spreading over a short 
distance of the columella, sharply limited on the outside, extending 
over the parietal wall to the spiral ridge, which enters the aperture 
Operculum normal. 

Diameter, 5 mm. ; height, 14-5 mm. 

Animal unknown. 

Type in the Canterbury Museum, Christchurch. 

Hab. Katikati (type) ; Ngunguru Harbour ; Whangarei : Tiri 
Tiri Island ; Hauraki Gulf and Auckland Harbour ; Kawhia ; Go- 
vernor's Bay, Lyttelton ; Chatham Islands (Dr. Dendy). 

Subfam. 2. BITTIIN^. 

Basal lip extended beyond the truncature of the columella ; canal 
with its slightly expanded margins almost reduced to a sublateral notch. 

Genus 2. BITTIUM, Gray, 1847. 
Bittium, Gray, P.Z.S., 1847, 154. Type : Strombus reticulatus, Da Costa. 

Animal with a lanceolate foot, subtruncate in front ; eyes placed 
at the external base of the rather long tentacles ; operculigerous 
lobe with rudimentary expansions on the sides, siphon rudimentary. 
Central tooth of radula multicuspidate ; lateral tooth securiform, 
with the margin denticulate ; marginal teeth long and narrow, ex- 
tremity pectinate. 

Shell small, elongated, with numerous granular whorls and ir- 
regular varices ; anterior canal short, not recurved ; outer lip not 
reflected, usually with an exterior rib ; basal lip extended beyond the 
canal ; inner lip simple ; operculum 4-whorled, with central nucleus. 

Numerous species, inhabiting temperate waters. 

Fossil in the Cretaceous and Tertiary. 

KEY TO SPECIES. 

A. Aperture with a distinct but short canal. 

a. Body-whorl with 9 to 10 spirals, suture margined ; height 

about 17 mm. . . . . . . . . . . granariui 

aa. Body-whorl with 5 spirals, suture not margined ; height, 

about 4 mm. . . . . . . . . . . litreum. 

B. Aperture without a distinct canal. 

a. Penultimate whorl with 8 spiral grooves ; axial plications 

subobsolete or absent . . . . . . . . Lawleyanum 

aa. Penultimate whorl with 4 nodular spiral ridges . . exile. 

aaa. Penultimate whorl with 3 spiral threads, axial riblets 

distinct . . . . . . . . . . ci/lindricum 

aaaa. Penultimate whorl with 4 cinguli, crossed by about 

20 axial riblets . . . . . . . . retiferuin. 



Bittiuin.] GASTROPODA. 241 

1. Bittium cylindricum, Watson, 1881. Plate 14, fig. 11. 

Bittium cylindricum, Watson, J.L.S., xv, 118; Chall. Rep., xv, pt. 42, 
478. pi. 30, f. 5 ; Man. Conch. (1), ix, 156, pi. 30, f. 18. 

Shell small, high, narrow, pointed, cylindrically conical, reticulate, 
tubercled, strong, dark brown. Sculpture : Longitudinals there are 
on the last whorl about 25 narrow, posteriorly convex, curved riblets, 
which cannot be followed from whorl to whorl down the spire, and 
which hardly appear on the base amidst the strong curved lines of 
growth found there ; these riblets are parted by squarish furrows 
about as broad as themselves. Spirals there are on each whorl 3 
pretty equal, squarish, not prominent, spiral threads, which become 
prominent themselves and give prominence .to the longitudinals by 
expanding into round-topped tubercles as they cross the riblets ; they 
are separated by furrows, which are of about the same breadth as 
themselves ; the sutural furrow is slightly deeper and broader than 
the others. The edge of the base is squarish, and is defined by a 
narrow, sharpish-edged spiral thread. The base, which is flatly conical, 
is plain but for the lines of growth ; the pillar is defined by a minute, 
sharpish spiral thread, which runs round its top and meets the slit 
of the canal. Besides these the whole surface of the shell is micro- 
scopically scored with irregular lines of growth and fine spiral scratches. 
Colour dark ruddy -brown, uniform all over. Spire high, narrow, 
pointed, with straight but slightly angulated contour-lines ; the first 
8 whorls expand regularly, so as to form a minute cone, while the last 
4 expand more slowly, so at to give more of a cylindrical shape. Apex 
small, blunt, rounded, slightly oblique, and a little immersed. Whorls 
13, flat, except the last, which is slightly convex, with a somewhat 
flat but conical base. Suture in the bottom of a deep furrow is con- 
cealed by a projection of the inferior whorl. Mouth oval, with a small 
rounded sinus at the upper outer corner, and a largish and deepish 
canal running in behind the pillar. Outer lip not expanded, deeply 
corrugated by the ends of the spirals, a deep V-shaped fissure forming 
the canal. Pillar straight, not short, pretty strong, with a rounded, 
narrow, twisted edge, and a small but not sharp point, which is very 
slightly everted. Inner lip little more than a film on the body and 
pillar. (Watson.) 

Diameter, 1-6 mm. ; height, 6-75 mm. 

Type in the British Museum. 

Hob. Foveaux Strait (A. Hamilton). The type is from Port 
Jackson, 2-10 fathoms. 

2. Bittium exile, Hutton, 1873. Plate 14, fig. 12. 

Cerithium exilis, Hutt., C.M.M., 27. Bittium exilis, Hutt., T.N.Z.I., xvi, 214. 
Shell very small, elongated oval, spirally lirate. Sculpture : 2 to 
4 spiral nodular ridges, about 6 on the base ; between the ridges 
there is usually a fine spiral thread ; the axial sculpture is only in- 
dicated by the presence of nodules on the spiral line. Colour dark 



242 GASTROPODA. [Pectinibranchia. 



reddish-brown. Spire elongated conic, little more than twice the 
height of the aperture ; outlines slightly convex. Protoconch minute, 
of 1 smooth and convex whorl. Whorls 8, first very slowly increasing, 
flatly convex ; base nattish, oblique. Suture impressed. Aperture 
oval, minutely channelled above, narrowly effuse below, but no distinct 
canal, with a shallow notch. Outer lip sharp, thin. Columetta sub- 
vertical. Inner Up very narrow, forming only a very thin glaze on 
the body- whorl. Operculum normal. 

Diameter, 1-75 mm. ; height, 5mm. 

Animal unknown. 

Type in the Dominion Museum, Wellington. 

Hob. Stewart Island, in 30 fathoms (type) ; Hauraki Gulf. 

3. Bittium granarium, Kiener, 1842. Plate 39, fig. 14. 

Cerithium granarium, Kien., Icon. Coq. Viv., v, 1842, 72, pi. 19, f. 3. Bittium 
granarium, Kien., Man. Conch. (1). ix, 155, pi. 30, f. 98; Pritchard 
and Gatliff, P.R.S. Vic., xiii (n.s.), 153. Cerithium lacertinum, Gould, 
P. Bost. S.N.H., vii, 18(31, 386; Conch. Icon., 1865, f. 129. B. gran- 
arium, Kien. : Suter. P. Mai. S., viii, 34. 

Shell small, elongate, with granular whorls. Sculpture with axial 
riblets, about 20 on the penultimate whorl, crossed and cut up into 
numerous beads by spiral sculpture, 4 rows of beads on a whorl ; the 
interspaces have sometimes a fine spiral thread, and one of them 
is margining the suture above ; base with 5-6 subequidistant spiral 
riblets, close together on the neck ; varices mostly indistinct. Colour 
reddish-brown or dark, dead shells white ; sometimes the beads are 
chestnut-coloured on a light ground. Spire high, subulate, about 
three times the height of the aperture ; outlines slightly convex, 
Protoconch minute. Whorls 12 to 13, first very slowly increasing, 
flat ; base slightly concave around the neck. Suture impressed, mar- 
gined. Aperture oblique, channelled above, produced into a very 
short broad and open canal, which is oblique, sublateral, and notched 
at the base. Outer lip thin and sharp. Columetta short, arcuate. 
Inner lip rather narrow, limited by a narrow rim on the outside, spread- 
ing as a thin callosity over the parietal wall to the outer lip. Oper- 
cidum normal. 

Diameter, 5 mm. ; height. 17 mm. 

Animal unknown. 

Type (?). 

Hob. Hauraki Gulf (E. A. Annett). Australia and Tasmania. 

4. Bittium Lawleyanum, Crosse, 1863. Plate 14, fig. 13. 

Bittium Lawleyanum, Crosse, J. de Conch., 1863, 87, pi. i, t". 4 ; Man. Conch. 
(1), ix, 154, pi. 30, f. 5 ; Tate and May, P.L.S. N.S.W., xxvi, 387 ; Prit- 
chard and Gatliff, P.R.S. Vic. (n.s.), xiii, 154. 

Shell small, subulate, spirally grooved, thin. Sculpture con- 
sisting of subequidistant spiral grooves, about 8 on the penultimate 
\vhorl, sometimes with distant broad axial plications and numerous 



Bittium.] GASTROPODA. 243 

line growth-lines ; base with 1 or 2 grooves near the periphery, centre 
smooth ; some specimens show low varices. Colour bluish, white- 
banded. Spire high, a little over three times the height of the aperture ; 
outlines straight. Protoconch minute, mostly eroded. Whorls about 
11, flatly convex, slowly increasing ; base flatly convex. Suture 
deep. Aperture oblique, ovate, slightly channelled above, slightly 
notched and effuse below, but no distinct canal. Outer Up sharp, 
but slightly convex. Basal lip extending a little below the columella 
truncation. Columella straight. Inner lip very narrow, spreading 
over the body to the outer lip. Operculum normal. 

Height, 10 mm. 

Animal unknown. 

Type. Collection of the " Journal de Conchyliologie," Paris. 

Hob. New Zealand. Australia and Tasmania. 

5. Bittium retiferum, Suter, 1908. Plate 14, fig. 14. 

Bittium retiferum, Suter, P. Mai. S., viii, 34, pi. 3, f. 38. 

Shell very small, subulate, thin and fragile. Sculpture consisting 
of 3 cinguli on the upper whorls, 4 on the body-whorl, the uppermost 
close to the suture and slightly lower ; crossed by straight equidistant 
axial riblets, about 20 on the last whorl, interstices with microscopic 
fine growth-lines ; points of intersection ornamented with round 
gemmules. Colour yellowish-white. Spire high, conical, much higher 
than the aperture ; outlines almost straight. Protoconch papillate, 
of 2 convex smooth whorls, a little deviated from the vertical axis. 
Whorls about 7, regularly increasing, flatly convex ; base smooth 
and slightly concave. Suture impressed, channelled by the cinguli. 
Aperture ovate, vertical, angled above, produced below into a short, 
widely open, and basally emarginate canal. Outer lip sinuated by the 
spiral sculpture. Basal lip produced beyond the canal. Columella 
short, rounded, gently curved off toward the short margin of the 
canal ; parietal wall concave. Operculum unknown. 

Diameter, 1 mm. ; height, 3-2 mm. 

Animal unknown. 

Type in my collection. 

Hob. Snares, in 50 fathoms (Captain Bollons). 

6. Bittium vitreum, Suter, 1908. Plate 14, fig. 15. 

Bittium vitreum, Suter, P. Mai. S., viii, 34, pi. 3, f. 39. 

Shell small, elongate, thin and fragile, translucent, finely reticulated. 
Sculpture : The first 2 whorls smooth, the following 4 with 3 sub- 
equidistant fine spiral threads, and the body-whorl with 5, the two 
lowest a little stronger than the others ; they are reticulated by sub- 
equidistant, slightly oblique, and flexuous axial threads, slightly nearer 
together than the spiral lines ; interstices with fine microscopical 
growth-striae ; the axial sculpture extending over the base. Colour 



244 GASTROPODA. [PectinibrancUa. 

yellowish- white. Spire high, turriculated ; outlines Lightly convex. 
Protoconch of 2 convex, smooth, and polished whorls. Whorls 7, 
regularly increasing, convex, flattened towards the suture ; base 
slightly convex. Suture impressed. Aperture subquadrangular, pro- 
duced below into a short and open canal. Outer lip rounded, thin, 
and sharp. Basal Up bent almost straight over towards the canal. 
Columella vertical, straight, curving off at the base to form the inner 
margin of the canal. Operculum unknown. 

Diameter, 1-8 mm. ; height, 4-2 mm. (shell of 7 whorls). 

Animal unknown. 

Type in my collection. 

Hab. Foveaux Strait, in about 15 fathoms. 

Fam. CERITHIOPSID^3, H. and A. Adams. 

Animal with a short, broad head ; tentacles subulate, obtuse, 
wide at the base ; eyes placed centrally at their origin ; mouth with a 
retractile proboscis ; tongue armed with teeth resembling in arrange- 
ment those of Trichotropis. Mantle not reflected, furnished with a 
rudimentary siphonal fold. Foot oblong, subquadrate in front, where 
it is furnished superiorly with a mentum, grooved for half its length 
below, the groove terminating in a perforation ; operculigerous lobe 
well developed. 

The head is compressed and vertically cloven in front, and the 
tips of the tentacles are obtuse or very slightly clavate ; the eyes are 
placed rather close together towards the centre of the base of the 
tentacles. (H. and A. Adams.) 

Shell small, cerithiform, canal notched at its base ; there is no 
parietal channel. Aperture subquadrangular ; outer lip not produced 
in front. Columella smooth, more or less twisted below near the 
origin of the canal. Operculum suboval, paucispiral ; nucleus sub- 
lateral, near the inner side of the aperture. 

Fossil this family first appears in the Cretaceous. 

KEY TO GENERA. 

A. Form cylindro-conic, whorls tuberculate, columella intiexed 

towards the basal notch . . . . . . . . CERITHIOPSIS. 

B. Form conic, whorls cancellate, canal strongly curved back- 

wards, columella twisted and carinated . . . . NEWTONIELLA 

C. Form cylindrical, whorls with simple spiral ribs . . . . SEILA. 

Genus 1. CERITHIOPSIS, Forbes and Hanley, 1853. 

Cerithiopsis, Forbes and Hanley. " British Mollusca," iii, 1853, 364. Type : 
Murex tiibercularis, Montg. 

Animal with a narrow foot, subtruncated in front and attenuated 
behind, with a longitudinal sulcus on the sole ; tentacles cylindrical, 
the eyes sessile at their base ; opercular lobe simple, well developed. 
Kadula with an oval central tooth, its margin dentate, a large bi- 
cuspid lateral tooth, and unicuspid marginals with smooth margins. 



Cerithiopsis.] 



GASTROPODA. 



245 



Shell small, thin, cylindro-conic, narrow ; protoconch polygyrate, 
with a slightly deviated nucleus ; whorls numerous, tuberculate, 
not varicose, the last narrower in proportion ; aperture small, sub- 
quadrangular, with a short, truncate, nearly straight canal ; outer 
lip thin, not produced at the base ; columella smooth, straight, not 
twisted below, but simply inflexed towards the basal notch. 

Distribution. Mostly occurring in northern and temperate seas. 

Fossil. Cretaceous. 

KEY TO SPECIES. 

A. Shell with 2 cinguli on the spire-whorls. 

a. Axial riblet.s about 12. points of intersection with nodules. 

which are also present on the protoconch . . crenistria. 

aa. Axial riblets about 20, points of intersection with 

gemmules. protoconch smooth . . . . . . marginata. 

B. Shell with 3 cingiili on the spire-whorls. 

a. Canal notched at base. 

b. All cinguli with gemmules. 

c. Protoconch of 1^ whorls . . . . . . cessicus. 

cc. Protoconch of 3| whorls . . . . . . sarissa. 

bb Upper cinguli without gemmules, protoconch of 

li smooth whorls .. .. .. .. styliformis. 

aa. Canal not notched at base. 

b. Suture canaliculate . . . . . . . . canaliculata. 

bb. Sutxire not canaliculate, but deep. 

c. Suture margined, shell acicular . . . . acies. 

cc. Suture not margined, shell subulate . . subantarctica. 

1. Cerithiopsis acies, Suter, 1908. Plate 14, fig. 16. 
Cerithiopsis acies, Suter, P. Mai. S., viii, 35, pi. 3, f. 40. 

Shell very small, acicular, rather solid. Sculpture consisting of 3 
equidistant cinguli, the uppermost very thin and close to the suture, 
which is margined above by a fine thread ; the last whorl with a fourth 
spiral ridge emerging from the suture ; the spiral sculpture crossed 
by slightly oblique axial riblets, also equidistant and of the same width 
as the interstices, about 15 on the last whorl ; the points of inter- 
section raised into round gemmules ; the axial sculpture is less pro- 
minent than the spiral. Colour white. Spire high and narrowly 
conical, much higher than the aperture ; outlines almost straight. 
Protoconch polygyrate, cylindro-conical, of 4 slowly increasing, strongly 
convex, and smooth whorls. Whorls about 10, convex ; base slightly 
concave. Suture deeply impressed. Aperture subquadrangular, ver- 
tical, with a short and widely open canal. Outer lip sinuated by 
spiral sculpture. Columella vertical, slightly sinuate, pointed at the 
base. Operculum unknown. 

Diameter, 1-1 mm. ; height. 3-5 mm. 

Animal unknown. 

Type in my collection. 

Hob. Port Pegasus, Stewart Island, in 18 fathoms (Captain 
Bollons). 



246 GASTROPODA. [Pectinibranchia. 

2. Cerithiopsis canaliculata, Suter, 1908. Plate 14, fig. 17. 

Cerithiopsis canaliculata, Suter, P. Mai. S., viii, 35, pi. 3, f. 42. 

Shell small, subulate, solid, with channelled suture. Sculpture 
consisting of 3 spiral keels, equidistant, the uppermost weaker and 
close to the suture, the last whorl with an additional keel arising from 
the suture ; crossed by oblique straight axial riblets, about 20 on the 
body-whorl, their interstices narrower than those between the cinguli ; 
crossing-points raised into roundish gemmules. Colour light brown, 
the uppermost cincture of a darker colour. Spire high, conic, much 
higher than the aperture ; outlines straight. Protoconch of all speci- 
mens broken off, 1 smooth and convex whorl only left. Whorls 
about 7. regularly increasing, flatly convex ; base smooth and mode- 
rately concave. Suture deep, canaliculated by the cinguli. Aperture 
vertical, subquadrangular, produced below into a very short and open 
canal. Outer lip denticulated on the outside by the spiral sculpture. 
Columella subvertical, rounded, slightly sinuate, terminating in a blunt 
point below. Operculum unknown. 

Diameter, 1-4-1-6 mm. ; height, 4-4-5 mm. 

Animal unknown. 

Type in my collection. 

Hob. Bounty Islands, in 50 fathoms (Captain Bollons). 

3. Cerithiopsis cessicus, Hedley, 1906. Plate 14, fig. 18. 

Cerithiopsis cessicus. Hedley, P.L.S. N.S.W.. 1906, 529. Bittium minimum, 
T. -Woods, P.R.S. Tas., 1878, 123; 1879, 37: Hedley, P.L.S. N.S.W., 
1901, 722, f. 20. Cerithiopsis minima. T.-Woods : Tate and May, P.L.S. 
N.S.W., 1901, 385 : not of Brusina, 1864. C. cessicus. Hedley : Suter, 
P. Mai. S., -vnii, 35. 

Shell small, narrowly conic, solid. Sculpture consisting of 3 equi- 
distant cinguli. the uppermost close to the suture, crossed by nearly 
straight axial riblets, the interstices about as broad as the riblets ; 
the points of intersection raised into roundish gemmules ; there are 
about 18 to 20 riblets on the last whorl ; suture margined above by 
a very fine thread, which continues upon the body-whorl as a fourth 
keel. Colour yellowish-white. Spire elevated conic, much higher than 
the aperture ; outlines slightly convex. Protoconch papillate, of 1^ 
whorls, the first smooth and shining, the remainder distantly plaited. 
Whorls about 8, regularly increasing, somewhat convex ; base con- 
cave and smooth. Suture impressed, margined, sometimes very in- 
distinctly. Aperture vertical, ovate, angled above, produced below 
into a very short and wide canal with a notched base. Outer lip 
sharp, sinuated by the spiral sculpture. Columella slightly oblique, 
rounded and sinuate, truncated below. Inner lip spreading as a very 
thin callus over the parietal wall. Operculum unknown. 

Diameter, 2 mm. ; height, 5 mm. 

Animal unknown. 

Type, in the Tasmanian Museum, Hobart. 

Hob. Snares, in 50 fathoms (Captain Bollons). Tasmania and 
Australia. 



Cerithiopsis.] GASTROPODA. 247 



4. Cerithiopsis crenistria, Suter, 1907. Plate 14, fig. 19. 

Cerithiopsis crenistria, Suter, T.N.Z.I., xxx : x. 1906 (1907), 250, pi. 9, f. 4. 

Shell small, turriculate, imperforate, thin and semitransparent, 
ornamented with numerous nodules ; aperture small, terminating 
in a short and widely open canal. Sculpture formed by 2 low spiral 
ribs, which are crossed by equidistant axial costse, 12 on the last whorl, 
which do not reach the suture ; the crossing-points of the two kinds of 
ribs are raised to very distinct nodules, first round, oval on the later 
whorls. Colour very light brown, shining. Spire high, turriculate. 
Protoconch of a lighter colour, 1| whorls, top flattened, radially striate, 
and on the periphery with a row of elongated small nodules. Whorls 9, 
the second has a slightly greater diameter than the third ; sides bi- 
angulate, nearly straight ; base flat, depressed round the canal. Suture 
very distinctly impressed, margined below by a small thread. Aper- 
ture, subquadrate. produced into an open and short canal, which is 
a little turned to the left and backward. Outer lip sharp, but little 
convex. Basal lip concave. Columella slightly concave, the inner 
lip spreading as a very thin, narrow, and whitish glaze over it. Oper- 
culum unknown. 

Diameter, 3 mm. ; height, 8 mm. 

Animal unknown. 

Type in the Dominion Museum, Wellington. 

Hab. Hauraki Gulf, near Channel Island, in 25 fathoms, one speci- 
men (type) ; Snares, in 50 fathoms (Captain Bollons). 

Remarks. I do not think this specimen is adult. It is larger and 
less subulate than C. sarissa, Murd. 

5. Cerithiopsis marginata, Suter, 1908. Plate 14, fig. 20. 

Cerithiopsis marginata, Suter, P. Mai. S., viii, 36, pi. 3, f. 44. 

Shell very small, subulate, solid. Sculpture consisting of 2 broadly 
rounded cinguli, the last 2 whorls with a narrow thread margining 
the suture, and 2 additional narrow and smooth keels on the body- 
whorl bounding the smooth base ; axial sculpture formed by straight, 
equidistant, and rather broad riblets, about 20 on the last whorl ; cross- 
ing-points produced into rounded gemmules. Colour white. Spire 
elevated conic, much higher than the aperture ; outlines faintly convex. 
Protoconch papillate, the nucleus globular, of 1| smooth and polished 
whorls. Whorls about 8, regularly increasing, the upper ones some- 
what convex, the others flattish ; base slightly concave. Suture 
impressed, margined on the last whorls. Aperture subquadrangular, 
produced into a short and open canal, not notched at its base. Outer 
lip nodulous on the outside. Basal lip sinuate. Columella sub- 
vertical, straight, truncated below by the oblique upper margin of 
the canal. Operculum unknown. 



248 GASTROPODA. [Pectinibranchia. 

Diameter, 1 mm. ; height, 2-7 mm. 

Animal unknown. 

Type in my collection. 

Hob. Snares, in 50 fathoms (Captain Bollons). 

6. Cerithiopsis sarissa, Murdoch, 1905. Plate 1-1, fig. 21. 

Cerithiopsis sarissa, Murdoch, T.X.Z.I., xxxvii, 1904 (1905), 221, pi. 7, 
f. 8, 9. 

Shell small, narrow, tapering to a slender point, with spiral and 
slightly weaker axial riblets. Sculpture : Apical whorls smooth, the 
succeeding with 3 spiral and numerous slightly oblique longitudinal 
riblets forming rows of gemmules ; on the lower whorls the suture 
is margined with a minute beaded riblet ; this gradually strengthens, 
and on the last whorl forms a fourth spiral, with the headings less 
marked than on the rows immediately above ; beneath this a shallow 
groove, thence gently curved to the columella, and curving obliquely 
around the latter is a minute ridge which terminates at the canal ; 
of the 3 spiral rows of gemmules the 2 lower are the largest, and about 
equal to the interspaces ; on the last whorl there are about 17 to 20 
gemmules per row; they are somewhat oval, shining, and variously 
coloured. Colour light or dark brown, somewhat shining, the suture 
of the lower whorls, fourth spiral on the last, and base dark-purplish ; 
gemmules on the last whorl light brown, pale chestnut, and purple. 
Spire high and narrow, about three times the height of the aperture ; 
outlines nearly straight. Protoconch small, of 3J smooth convex 
whorls, nucleus oblique. Whorls 11-12, flatly convex, regularly 
increasing ; base slightly concave, smooth. Suture deep. Aperture 
ovate, angled above, with a very short, slightly oblique, and deeply 
notched canal. Outer lip thin and sharp, angled at the junction 
with the basal lip. Columella short, nearly straight, inflexed towards 
the canal. Operculum unknown. 

Diameter, 1-8 mm. ; height, 6-25 mm. 

Animal unknown. 

Type in the Dominion Museum, Wellington. 

Hab. Whangaroa Harbour, type (C. Traill) ; Kawhia Harbour, 
immediately within the entrance, on rocks at low tide (R. Murdoch) ; 
Plimmerton, Cook Strait ; off Otago Heads, dredged (A. Hamilton) : 
Bounty and Snares Islands, in 50 fathoms (Captain Bollons) ; Banks 
Peninsula, under stones and on seaweeds (Iredale). 

7. Cerithiopsis styliformis, Suter, 1908. Plate 14, fig. 22. 

Cerithiopsis styliformis, Suter, P. Mai. S., viii, 3(5, pi. 3, f. 43. 

Shell small, acicular, almost cylindrical, rather thin. Sculpture 

consisting of 3 cinguli, the uppermost close to the suture and less 

elevated ; a fourth smooth kee: on the last whorl, continued from the 

suture ; crossed by straight axial riblets, about 15 on the last whorl ; 



Cerithiopsis.\ GASTROPODA. 249 

the points of intersection raised to conspicuous rounded gernmules 
on the second and third keel, the first, however, remaining nearly 
smooth. Colour yellowish-brown, the first 3 whorls slightly darker. 
Spire high, subcylindrical, but tapering toward the apex, very much 
higher than the. aperture ; outlines straight. Protoconch papillate, 
of 1-| smooth, convex, and shining whorls. Whorls 8 to 9, regularly 
increasing, convex ; base slightly concave and smooth. Suture im- 
pressed. Aperture vertical, subquadrangular, produced below into a 
very short, open, and emarginate canal. Outer lip sharp, sinuated on 
the outside by the spiral keels. Columella vertical, straight above, 
bending over in a curve to the canal below. Operculum unknown. 

Diameter, 1-1 mm. ; height. 3-7 mm. 

Animal unknown. 

Type in my collection. 

Hob. Snares, in 50 fathoms (Captain Bollons). 

8. Cerithiopsis subantarctica, Suter, 1908. Plate 14, fig. 23. 

Cerithiopsia subantarctica, Suter, P. Mai. S., viii, 35. pi. 3, f. 41. 

Shell very small, subulate, rather solid. Sculpture consisting of 
3 cinguli. equidistant, with a fourth keel on the last whorl ; crossed 
by oblique axial riblets, 18 to 20 on the last whorl ; the points of inter- 
section raised into very prominent gemmules. Colour light brown. 
Spire elevated conical, much higher than the aperture ; outlines 
straight or faintly concave. Protoconch polygyrate, of 4 smooth 
and convex whorls. Whorls about 11, first slowly increasing, slightly 
convex ; base concave. Suture impressed, not margined. Aperture 
vertical, quadrangular, produced below into a short open canal. Outer 
lip sharp, denticulated on the outside by the gemmules. Columella 
vertical, sinuate, rounded, terminating in a point below. Operculum 
unknown. 

Diameter, 1-5 mm. ; height, 4-8 mm. 

Animal unknown. 

Type in my collection. 

Hob. Snares, in 50 fathoms (type) : Bounty Islands, in 50 fathoms- 
(Captain Bollons). 

Genus 2. NEWTONIELLA, Cossmann, 1893. 

Newtoniella, Cossmann, Mem. Soc. Roy. Malao. Belg., xxviii. 18. Type : 
Cerithium metula, Loven. Lovenella, Sars. 1878 ; not of Hicks, 1869. 
Geriihidla, Verrill, 1882 ; not of Morr. & Lye., 1850. Newtonia, Coss- 
mann, 18!U ; not of Schlegel, 1866. Cerithiolinum, Locard. 1003. 

Shell small, conical, with sharp apex ; spire long, subulate ; proto- 
conch mamillate, of 2 subglobose whorls ; whorls numerous, narrow, 
suture indistinct, with arcuate axial riblets, crossed by spiral unequal 
threads which crenulate the axial sculpture ; last whorl short in pro- 
portion, angular at the periphery of the base, which is plane, smooth 



250 GASTROPODA. [Pectinibianchia. 

or rayed by growth-lines to the excavation above the fasciole corre- 
sponding to the growth of the basal notch ; aperture small, quadrangu- 
lar, terminating at the base in an obliquely twisted canal, which is 
notched ; outer lip a little incurved, not produced below, but re- 
curved at the origin of the canal ; columella strongly excavated above, 
twisted below by a prominent and subcarinated fold which follows 
the inflection of the canal ; inner lip somewhat callous, well applied 
upon the base, and merging into the fasciole of the neck. 

Fossil from the Cretaceous. 

The columella is too much twisted and the anterior canal is too 
long to enable Newtoniella to be confounded with Cerithiopsis, which 
has, typically, merely a rudimentary notch on the anterior margin of 
the aperture. (Harris.) 

1. Newtoniella stiria, Webster, 1906. Plate 14, fig. 24. 

Newtonidla stiria, Webster, T. N.Z.I., xxxviii, 1905 (1906), 307, pi. 38, 
f. 5, , b. 

Shell acicular, pale yellow, vitreous, with numerous flat whorls. 
Sculpture consists of 3 faintly jewelled spirals to each whorl except the 
last, which has 4. Colour of dead shell pale yellow. Spire long and 
subulate, much higher than the aperture ; outlines straight. Proto- 
conch with 3 whorls, the first smooth and oblique, the 2 succeeding 
first radially finely ribbed, then cancellated by spiral striations ; the 
apex diminishes in diameter with the beginning of the definite sculp- 
ture. Whorls 20, flat ; base flat, concave at the base of the canal. 
Suture scarcely marked. Aperture quadrangular, canal sharply turned 
to the left. Columella white, twisted. Opcrculum unknown. 

Diameter, 2 mm. ; height, 9 mm. 

Animal unknown. 

Type in the Dominion Museum, Wellington. 

Hob. Off Great Barrier Island, in 110 fathoms (type) ; Hauraki 
Gulf, near Channel Island, in 25 fathoms. 

Genus 3. SEILA, A. Adams, 1861. 

Seila, A. Adams, A.M.N.H., vii. 1861. 130. Type: 8. dextroversa, Adams 
and Reeve. CincleUa, Monterosato, 1884. Viriola, Jousseanme. 1884 ; 
not of Tryon, 1887. 

Animal having a short, bror.d foot, indented in the middle line in 
front, with a square-edged mentum narrower than the foot and ex- 
tending beyond it. The tentacles are very short and stout, the pro- 
boscis seldom protruded ; there is no muzzle like that of Cerithium. 
The jaw is composed of spade-shaped, rather large, close-set horny 
plates, the points projecting. The central tooth of radula is sub- 
rectangular, wider than high, with 2 widely separated, strong, sharp 
cusps, and a much feebler, shorter, and smaller one in the middle line 
between them. The lateral is oblong, not very much wider than 
high, and has a strong recurved cusp with 1 large and 1 small denticle ; 



Seila.] GASTROPODA. 251 

the marginals, higher than wide, have 2 denticles at the point, which 
is less than half as wide as the base. Formula f + l+i+i+f- (Ball.) 

Shell small, fragile, subcylindrical, narrow. Spire long, subulate. 
Protoconch paiicispiral, with a mamillate nucleus, whorls imbricate 
anteriorly and spirally lirate. Whorls flat, with prominent spiral 
keels, trellised in the interspaces by fine, crowded growth-lines, which 
leave no trace on the keels ; last whorl but little elevated, carinated 
at the periphery of the base, which is flattened or even excavated ; 
ornamented with radiate sinuous plications, extending to the edge of 
the canal, which is formed by growth of the basal notch, and replacing 
the neck, which is completely absent. Aperture subquadrangular. 
with a short truncated canal below. Outer lip thin and sharp. Colu- 
mella very little arcuate. Operculum shaped like a Carinaria shell in 
outline, but somewhat narrower, with the apex free, pointed, and 
turned to the left. The attached surface is deeply concave. 

Distribution. Tropical, subtropical, and temperate seas. 

Fossil. From the Cretaceous. 

KEY TO SPECIES. 

A. Penultimate whorl with 3 cinguli. 

a. Body-whorl with 4 cinguli and 1 on the base. 

b. Protoconch of 1 whorls, bulbose . . . . bulbosa. 

bb. Protoconch of 4 whorls, not bulbose . . . . terebelloides. 

aa. Body-whorl with 4 cinguli, none on the base . . . . dissimilis. 

B. Penultimate whorl with 4 cinguli. 

. Body-whorl with 5 to 6 cinguli, and 1 on the base . . chathamensis. 

aa. Body-whorl with 5 cinguli, and 2 on the base . . cochleata. 

1. Seila bulbosa, Suter, 1908. Plate 14, fig. 25. 
Seila bulbosa. Suter. P. Mai. S., viii, 37, pi. 3, f. 46. 

Shell small, elongate, many-whorled, with a bulbose apex, rather 
solid. Sculpture : The first 1^ whorls smooth, the following volutions 
with 3 narrow and rather sharp spiral keels, the upper 2 closer together, 
last whorl with 5 keels, the lowest of which is upon the base ; in- 
terstices having fine, dense, straight growth-lines, sometimes oblique 
near the suture. Colour white. Spire much higher than the aperture ; 
outlines straight. Protoconch globular, of 1J smooth whorls, the first 
bulbose, of greater diameter than the next few whorls. Whorls 
about 14, slowly and regularly increasing, flat ; base slightly concave. 
Suture very little impressed. Aperture subquadrangular, produced 
below into a short and open canal. Outer lip sinuated on the outside. 
Lower lip horizontal, slightly ascending toward the canal. Columella 
short, nearly straight, bent over, and ending in a point below ; parietal 
wall lightly excavated. Operculum unknown. 

Diameter, 3 mm. ; height, about 13 mm. No perfect specimen 
available. 

Animal unknown. 

Type in my collection. 

Hob. Snares, in 50 fathoms (Captain Bollons). 



252 GASTROPODA. [Pectinibranchia. 

2. Seila chathamensis, Suter, 1908. Plate H, fig. 26. 

Seila chathamensis, Suter, P. Mai. S., viii. 37, pi. 3, f. 45. 

Shell small, elevated conic, solid. Sculpture : First whorl smootli, 
the succeeding 2 with 2 cinguli, the upper of which is inconspicuous, 
but the lower one is thick and prominent ; the following 5 whorls 
have 3 rounded cinguli, then there are 4 on the next volutions, and 
6 on the last whorl, the lowest being upon the base ; the uppermost 
cingula on the last whorl is usually grooved or divided into 2 narrow 
cinguli, increasing their number to 7. The interspaces are densely 
and finely longitudinally striated by growth -lines. Colour fulvous. 
Spire high conical, much higher than the aperture ; outlines slightly 
concave below the first 2 whorls, nearly straight further down. Proto- 
conch small, depressed, of 1 smooth whorl only. Whorls about 13, 
regularly increasing, the second and third convex, the others flattish ; 
base flat, concave round the canal. Suture not much impressed. 
Aperture vertical, subquadrangular, produced below into a very short 
and open canal, which is slightly turned to the left. Outer lip denti- 
culated outside by spiral sculpture, smooth inside. Basal lip nearly 
straight. Columella arcuate, bent over at a blunt angle toward the 
canal. Operculum unknown. 

Diameter, 3-2 mm. ; height, 10 mm. 

Animal unknown. 

Type in my collection. 

Hab. Foveaux Strait, in 15 fathoms (type) ; Chatham Islands ; 
Hauraki Gulf (H. S.). 

3. Seila cochleata, Suter, 1908. Plate U, fig. 27. 

Seila cochleata, Suter, T.N.Z.I., xl, 1907 (1908), 361, pi. 28, f. 3. 

Shell small, conic, solid, dark brown. Sculpture consisting of flat 
cinguli, 3 on the 2 whorls succeeding the embryonic shell, 4 on the 
following 4 whorls, and 5 on the body-whorl, to which are added 
2 narrower spirals on the base, the upper of which arises from the 
suture ; all are of about the same strength ; the interstices of the 
same width as the cinguli, ornamented with fine axial strife ; the in- 
tercalation of an additional spiral takes place between the first and 
second rib, and it is at first very thin, but gradually attains the same 
strength as the others. Colour chestnut-brown. Spire elevated conic, 
much higher than the aperture ; outlines faintly convex. Protoconeh 
broken off in the only specimen I have. Whorls about 10, regularly 
increasing, flat ; base somewhat excavated. Suture deep, canali- 
culated by the spiral sculpture. Aperture triangularly oval, angled 
above, produced below into a very short and open canal. Outer lip 
rather thick, denticulated on the outside by the spirals, angularly 
rounded on meeting the straight basal lip. Columella vertical, short, 
arcuate, thick and rounded, subtruncate below. Inner lip narrowly 



Seila.} GASTROPODA. 253 

and thinly spread over the columella and parietal wall. Opcrculum 
unknown. 

Diameter. 3-8 mm. ; height, about 10-5 mm. 

Anilnal unknown. 

Type in my collection. 

Hab. Bay of Islands (J. C. Anderson). 

Remark. In sculpture this species equals the Pliocene Bittium 
cinctum, Hutton (which is a Seila). but the fossil species has more 
whorls, is higher, and the outlines of the spire are perfectly straight. 

4. Seila dissimilis, Suter, 1908. Plate 14, fig. 28. 

Seila dissimilis, Suter, P. Mai. S.. viii. 37. pi. 3, f. 47. 

Shell minute, subcylindrical, rather thin. Sculpture : The first 2 
whorls are smooth, the succeeding ones have 3 prominent, unequal, 
equidistant, and flat cinguli, the uppermost narrower, lower, and close 
to the suture ; the last whorl has a fourth cingulum toward the base, 
but quite close to the upper one ; indistinct axial riblets and fine 
growth -striae are visible in the interstices ; the cinguli on the third 
to fifth whorl are faintly nodulous, but those on the later whorls re- 
main smooth. Colour light yellowish-white. Spire high, subcylin- 
drical. much higher than the aperture ; outlines straight. Protoconch 
paucispiral, globose, of 2 smooth and convex whorls. Whorls about 6, 
regularly increasing, very little convex ; base smooth, slightly con- 
cave. Suture not deep. Aperture sub quadrangular, with a short and 
open canal below. Outer lip sinuated by the spiral sculpture. Basal 
Up almost straight. Columella subvertical, nearly straight, narrow- 
ing to a point below. Operculum unknown. 

Diameter, 0-8 mm. ; height, 2-5 mm. 

Animal unknown. 

Type in my collection. 

Hab. Snares, in 50 fathoms (Captain Bollons). 

5. Seila terebelloides, von Martens, 1873. Plate 14, fig. 29. 

Cerithium (Bittium) terebelloides, v. Mts., Grit. List. 26. C. chictnm, Hutton, 
C.M.M.. 27. Bittium terebelloides, v. Mts. -. Hutton, M.N.Z.M., 74. 

Shell small, subcylindrical, thin and fragile. Sculpture consisting 
of 3 spiral keels of equal strength, and equidistant on the upper whorls, 
the last with 4 keels and a fifth below the periphery of the base, which 
is less elevated ; interstices with fine, sharp, and crowded growth.- 
lines. Colour brown or yellowish. Spire subulate, much higher than 
the aperture, sharply pointed. Protoconch long, cylindrical, of 4 con- 
vex and smooth whorls, the nucleus mamillate. Whorls 16, slowly 
and regularly increasing, flat ; base flattened. Suture inconspicuous, 
situate in a deep channel formed by the spiral keels. Aperture sub- 
quadrangular, with a very short, open, and slightly oblique canal, 
which is broadly notched. Outer lip thin and sharp, denticulated 



254 GASTROPODA. [Pectinibranchia. 

on the outside by the spiral keels, but little produced beyond the 
opposite margin of the canal. Columella nearly straight, bent to the 
left below to form the inner edge of the canal. Operculum unknown. 

Diameter, 3 mm. ; height, 12 mm. 

Animal unknown. 

Type in the Kgl. Naturalien Kabinet. Stuttgart. 

Hah. North and South Islands of New Zealand, in 10 to 20 
fathoms ; Foveaux Strait ; Whangarei Heads (C. Cooper). 

Remarks. Button's name has priority by one month, but the 
description is quite inadequate, and he himself adopted the name 
bestowed on the species by von Martens. The type of C. cinctum, 
Hutt., is in the Dominion Museum, Wellington. 

Fossil in the Pliocene. 

Fam. TRIFORID^J, Jousseaume. 

Shell generally sinistral, but very rarely dextral, elongate, subulate, 
ornamented with spiral keels, which are either plain, tuberculate, or 
gemmate ; aperture small, with a more or less recurved canal, gene- 
rally tubular ; outer lip notched near the suture, sometimes forming 
an isolated tube, which may be lateral or diametrically opposed to the 
suture, on the dorsal side. 

This family includes the fossil genus Triforis, Deshayes, 1834 : 
and the Recent genera Triphora, Blainville, 1828 ; Viriola, Jousseaume. 
1884 : and Sychar, Hinds, 1844. 

Genus 1. TRIPHORA, Blainville, 1828. 

Triphora, Blainv., Diet. Sci. Nat., Iv, 344. Type : T. yetnmata, Blainv. 
(= tristonifi, Blainv.). Mastonia, Hinds, 1844. Monophorus, Grille ; 
not of Q. and G., 1824. Biforina, Bucq., Dollf., & Dautzb., 1884. 
Mastoniceforis, Jousseaume, 1884. 

Animal with an elongated foot, truncated in front, where it forms 
a duplicature, the upper margin less developed than the lower ; ten- 
tacles long, cylindrical, united by a sinuated veil, eyes at their exterior 
base ; snout very short ; operculigerous lobe simple. The radula 
has the formula 4+1 + 1 + 1 + 4; the central tooth very short, 
transverse, multicuspidate ; lateral tooth also transverse and multi- 
cuspid ; marginals small, transverse, simple. P. Fischer remarks that 
the dentition is paradoxical, there being 4 instead of 2 marginal teeth ; 
but this multiplication of the marginals has also been observed in 
other genera of the Tcenioglossa, especially in Struthiolaria. 

Shell small, always sinistial, conic, sometimes ventricose ; spire 
high, subulate ; protoconch mostly smooth, elongate, with an obtuse 
nucleus. Whorls about 15, with 2 or 3 spiral keels, usually closely 
granulated, the axial ornamentation mostly not continuous from 
whorl to whorl. Suture usually not deep. Aperture small, with a 



Triphot-a.} GASTROPODA. 255 



tubular, short., basal canal. Outer lip sinuate near the suture, some- 
times produced into a canal at the fully gerontic stage. Columella 
smooth. Operculum paucispiral, with subcentral nucleus. 

Nearly two hundred species are now known, inhabiting the West 
Indies, Europe, Indian Ocean, Polynesia, and Australasia. 

Fossil. Tertiary. 

These molluscs often attain a considerable size before losing their 
larval characters, particularly when distant from the shore. 

KEY TO SPECIES. 

A. Keels smooth or but slightly nodulous ; colour light brown . . Huttoni. 

B. Keels more or less distinctly gemmate. 

a. All the adult whorls with 3 keels, axial and spiral sculpture of 

about equal strength . . . . . . . . lutea. 

an. Adult whorls first with 2 then with 3 keels. 

6. Outlines of spire convex ; shell chequered with brown 

and white . . . . . . . . . . ampulla. 

bb. Outlines of spire straight or but very slightly convex. 
c. Gemmules not prominent, 18 to 20 on a whorl; shell 

white . . . . . . . . . . infelix. 

cc. Gernmules very prominent, high, lower whorls with 

a median fulvous band, base fulvous . . . . fascelina. 

1. Triphora ampulla, Hedley, 1902. Plate 15, fig. 2. 

Tripliora ampulla, Hedley, P.L.S. N.S.W., 1902, 615, pi. 33, f. 38, 39. 

Shell small, narrowly conical, acuminate. Sculpture : On the first 
four adult whorls are 2 gemmule rows ; on the fifth a small median 
row is intercalated, which increases till at the last whorl it equals the 
others ; the gemmules are about 18 to a whorl, large and closely set, 
linked within the row but not vertically ; a suprasutural keel below 
the periphery of the last whorl ; 2 plain keels upon the base. Colour : 
Each whorl is chequered by alternate squares of white and chocolate ; 
apex white ; base chocolate. Spire high, a little less than five times 
the height of the aperture ; outlines moderately convex. Protoconch : 
First whorl smooth, the other three bicarinate, crossed by fine bars. 
Whorls about 13, regularly increasing, flattish ; base slightly concave. 
Suture distinct. Aperture subquadrate, angled above, produced below 
into a short, straight, and narrowly open canal. Outer lip sharp, with 
a simple sutural notch ; spur of the basal lip not reaching the pillar. 
Columella short, vertical, slightly concave, terminating in a point at 
the inner margin of the canal. Operculum unknown. 

Diameter, 1-6 mm. ; height, 5 mm. (type). 

Animal unknown. 

Type in the Australian Museum, Sydney. 

Hob. Takapuna and Narrow Neck Keefs (H. S.) ; near Little 
Barrier Island, in 20 fathoms (R. H. Shakespear). 

The type is from Watson's Bay, Port Jackson. 



256 GASTROPODA. [Pectinibranchia. 

2. Triphora fascelina, Suter, 1908. Plate 15, fig. 4. 

Triphora fascelina, Suter, P. Mai. S., viii, 38, pi. 3, f. 49. 

Shell small, slender, and narrow. Sculpture : The polygyrate proto- 
conch has the first whorl smooth, the second microscopically finely 
spirally striate, and the remaining three whorls axially plicated and 
slightly angled at the periphery ; the next seven whorls have two equal 
keels, but the later whorls have a fine spiral thread intercalated be- 
tween them ; all these keels are crossed by about 15 axial riblets, the 
points of intersection raised into rounded gemmules ; a fourth supra- 
sutural keel below the periphery of the last whorl, and 2 upon the 
base. Colour of protoconch light brown, the other whorls white with 
a central fulvous spiral band on the lower whorls ; base fulvous. 
Spire high, conical ; outlines slightly convex. Protoconch high, of 
5 convex subangled whorls, the nucleus globose. Whorls about 15, 
regularly increasing, flattish ; base flat. Suture impressed, sometimes 
lightly margined by the suprasutural keel. Aperture vertical, sub- 
quadrate, with a short, straight, and narrowly open canal below, 
its base slightly emarginate. Outer lip thin, sharp, sinuated by the 
spiral sculpture, with a shallow sutural sinus. Columella vertical, 
slightly arcuate, ending in a point upon the inner margin of the canal. 
Operculum unknown. 

Diameter, 1-6 mm. ; height, 4-8 mm. (shell of 15 whorls). 

Animal unknown. 

Type in my collection. 

Hob. Snares, in 50 fathoms (type) ; Bounty Islands, in 50 fathoms 
(Captain Bollons) ; near Cuvier Island, in 38 fathoms (Captain Bollons). 

Remarks. The species is nearly allied to T. innotabilis, Hedley, 
from Sydney Harbour, which, however, is brown, the gemmules white 
and more numerous, and the spur of the basal lip is crossing the pillar. 

3. Triphora Huttoni, Suter, 1908. Plate 15, fig. 1. 

Triphora Huttoni, Suter, P. Mai. S., viii, 38, pi. 3, f. 48. Cerithium (Ino) 
minimus, Hutton, C.M.M., 27. Triforis Angasi, Crosse : von Martens, 
Errata and Addenda to C.M.M., 1874, 2 ; Hutton, J. de Conch., 1878, 26. 
Triphoris Angasi, Crosse : Hutton, M.N.Z.M., 75 ; P.L.S. N.S.W., ix, 
936 : Index, 76, not of Crosse. 

Shell small, acicular, rather fragile, slightly polished. Sculpture : 
The first whorl smooth, the next one or two with 2 keels, succeeding 
whorls with 3, the last with 4 keels, and 1 upon the base ; sometimes 
the last two to four whorls bear 4 keels, the lowest of which, however, 
may be reduced to a suprasutural thread ; the axial sculpture is 
variable fine growth-lines in the interstices between the keels, or 
distinct threads passing over the keels, very often rendering them 
moderately nodulous. Colour light brown. Spire high, subcylin- 
drical ; outlines straight. Protoconch of 1 broadly convex whorl. 



Triphora.} GASTROPODA. 257 



Wkorls about 11, regularly increasing, almost flat. Suture not much 
impressed. Aperture broadly oval, vertical, angled above, produced 
below into a short, slightly recurved, and narrowly open canal, its 
base not emarginate. Outer lip sharp, sinuated by the spiral sculp- 
ture, with a shallow sutural sinus. Columella short, perpendicular, 
bent ofi and drawn out to a point upon the inner margin of the canal. 
Operculum unknown. 

Diameter, 1-5 mm. ; height, 5-25 mm. (one of the types with 11 
whorls). 

Animal unknown. 

Type in the Dominion Museum, Wellington. 

Hob. Stewart Island, in 30 fathoms (type) ; Whangaroa Harbour 
(C. Traill) ; Bounty and Snares Islands, in 50 fathoms (Captain 
Bollons) ; Whangarei Heads (C. Cooper). 

Remarks. The specific name minima being preoccupied in Triphora 
by Pease, 1870, I changed it to T. Huttoni. The nearly allied Aus- 
tralian T. Angasi, Crosse, has a much more prominent axial sculpture, 
the cinguli are gemmate, and the base has 2 keels. T. Kesteveni, 
Hedley, from Sydney Harbour, is another nearly related form. 

i. Triphora infelix, Webster, 1906. Plate 15, fig. 3. 

Triphora infelix, Webster, T.N.Z.L, xxxviii, 1905 (1906), 307, pi. 38, f. 6, 6. 
Triforis gemmulata, Adams and Reeve : von Martens, Grit. List, 1893. 
Triphoris yemmulalus, Ad. & Rve. : Hutton, M.N.Z.M., 75 ; P.L.S. 
N.S.W., ix, 937, Index, 76, not of Adams and Reeve. 

Shell small, subulate, rather fragile. Sculpture : The 5-whorled 
protoconch has the nucleus smooth, the other whorls acutely angled 
and axially microscopically striated ; the next four whorls have 2 keels ; 
on the ninth or tenth whorl a third keel is introduced between the 
other two, which at first is more slender than the others, but gradually 
increases in width ; these are crossed by 18 to 20 axial riblets, mostly 
slightly oblique, the crossing - points raised into roundish not very 
prominent gemmules ; the last whorl with a smooth suprasutural 
keel, at which the axial sculpture stops, and 2 keels upon the base. 
Colour white. Spire very high ; outlines almost straight. Proto- 
conch conic, nucleus small, globose. Whorls 15 to 18, regularly in- 
creasing, flat; base slightly concave. Suture impressed, sometimes 
margined above by a fine thread. Aperture subquadrate, produced 
below into a short and open canal, slightly bent to the right, with an 
emarginate base. Outer Up thin and sharp, sinuated, with a distinct 
sutural notch. Basal lip straight, nearly horizontal. Columella short, 
vertical, straight, terminating in a point at the margin of the canal. 
Operculum unknown. 

Diameter, 1-5 mm. ; height, 6 mm. (type, with 15 whorls). Dia- 
meter, 2-2 mm. ; height, 8-8 mm. (with 18 whorls, from Stewart Island). 

Animal unknown. 

Type in the Dominion Museum, Wellington. 

9 Moll. N.Z. 



258 GASTROPODA. [Pectinibranchia. 

Hab.Qft Great Barrier Island, in 110 fathoms (type) ; near Little 
Barrier Island, in 20 fathoms (R. H. Shakespear) ; near Channel 
Island, Hauraki Gulf, in 25 fathoms ; Whangaroa Harbour (C. Traill) ; 
Stewart Island. 

Remark. This species is very variable in size. 

5. Triphora lutea, Suter, 1908. Plate 15, fig. 5. 
Triphora lutea, Suter, P. Mai. S., viii, 39, pi. 3, f. 50. 

Shell small, slightly polished, fragile, slender. Sculpture : The 
protoconch is smooth, with 2 keels, the lower of which is much more 
prominent ; the adult whorls have 3 keels, the uppermost a little 
narrower ; these are crossed by about 16 axial riblets, with deep and 
slightly narrower interstices between them ; the crossing-points pro- 
duced into rounded, not very prominent, nodules ; on the last whorl 
there is a fourth suprasutural smooth keel, and 2 upon the base. 
Colour light orange, white toward the apex ; old dead shells are dull 
white. Spire subulate ; outlines straight. Protoconch consisting of 
3 whorls, the nucleus pointed and slightly oblique. Whorls about 10. 
regularly increasing, lightly convex ; base moderately convex. Suture 
deep, sometimes margined by a suprasutural thread. Aperture vertical, 
ovate, angled above, produced below into a straight, short, and open 
canal, but faintly emarginate at the base. Outer lip sharp, slightly 
sinuate, with a shallow sutural sinus. ColumcUa perpendicular, nar- 
rowed below to a point. Operculum unknown. 

Diameter, 1-8 mm. ; height, 5-5 mm. (shell of 10 whorls). 

Animal unknown. 

Type in my collection. 

Hab. Snares, in 50 fathoms (type) ; Bounty Islands, in 50 fathoms 
(Captain Bollons). 

Fam. VERMETID^!, d'Orbigny. 

Tubulibranchidta, Cuvier, 1830. Tubispir/ita, Deshayes, 1830. Protopoda, 
Gray, 1837. 

Animal vermiform, elongated, with short snout and 2 distant 
short pedal tentacles, one on each side of the suprapedal gland, bear- 
ing eyes at their outer bases ; foot small, discoidal ; a. single elongated 
branchia ; no copulatory organ ; 2 corneous jaws. Radula having the 
formula 2+1 + 1+1 + 2; the central tooth trapezoidal, multicuspidate, 
the median cusp large and pointed ; lateral teeth multicuspidate ; 
marginals with 1 or 2 lateral cusps. 

Shell tubular, sometimes septate within, attached or free ; some- 
times regularly spiral when young, always becoming irregular in the 
adult growth ; aperture rounded, usually entire, sometimes fissured. 
Operculum corneous, annular, sometimes spiral, rarely absent. 

These animals, generally attached upon stones, shells, or coral, 
or living in sponges, often gregarious in large colonies, although with- 
out copulatory organs are unisexual, oviparous or viviparous. The 



Serpulorbis.] GASTROPODA. 259 

eggs are often attached to the shell itself. The embryos are furnished 
with a spiral shell, and the young are often perforating. 

Fossil. Secondary and Tertiary. 

The Vermetidce are exceedingly irregular in growth, sculpture, and 
colouring, often reproducing the surface upon which they are fixed. 
There is a great resemblance of some of the forms to Annelids (Ser- 
pulidce), from which they may be distinguished by the spiral nuclear 
shell and interior septa of the tube. The tube of the Annelids is com- 
posed of 2 calcareous layers ; that of Vcnuctidcp- of 3. 

KEY TO GENERA. 

A. Shell-tube with a longitudinal fissure, simple or formed by a 

series of perforations . . . . . . . . SrLiQUARlA. 

B. Shell-tube without longitudinal fissure or perforations. 

a. Operculum present. 

b. Operculum concave, with plain margin . . . . SIPHONIUM. 

bb. Operculum slightly concave, with horny bristles . . STEPHOPOMA. 
aa. No operculum. Shell-tube with more or less distinct 

longitudinal lirse, sometimes decussated . . . . SERPULORBIS. 

Genus 1. SERPULORBIS, Sasso, 1827. 

Serpulorbis, Sasso, in " Giornale Ligurico," Genua, 1827, 482. Type : S. poly- 
phragma, Sasso. Thylacodes, Guettard, 1774. Serpulus, Montfort, 1810 ; 
not Serpula, Linn:, 1758. Linientina, Risso, 1826. Cellular ia, Schmidt, 
1833. Cladopoda, Gray, 1840. Hatina, Gray, 1842. Serpuloides, Gray, 
1850. Tetranemia, Morch, 1859. 

Shell adherent, frequently solitary, tubular, irregularly twisted, 
with 3 to 5 longitudinal nodulous Iira3 ; aperture rounded, without 
internal longitudinal plications, but frequently partitioned perpendi- 
cularly to the axis. No operculum, or minute when present. 

Guettard established his genus chiefly on account of the internal 
septa, the presence of which in his genus Campulotus was unknown to 
him. 

KEY TO SPECIES. 

a. Shell with distinct moniliforrn longitudinal ribs and transverse 

growth-lines; no internal septa. . .. .. .. sipho. 

b. Shell sometimes with longitudinal strife and rugose growth-marks ; 

internal septa present . . . . . . . . . . zelandicus. 

1. Serpulorbis sipho, Lamarck, 1818. Plate 40, fig. 9. 

Vermetus sipho, Lamk., A.s.V., v, 626. Serpulus sipho, Hedley, P.L.S. 
N.S.W., 1902, 602. Vermetus arenarius, Lamk. : Q. & G., Voy. Astrol., 
iii, 289, pi. 67, f. 8-10 ; not of Lamarck. F. dentiferus, Lamk. : Q. & G., 
f.c., 291, pi. 67, f. 27, 28 ; not of Lamarck. F. novoe-hollandice, Rousseau, 
in Chenu, Illustr. Conch., 1847, pi. 1, f. 4a ; Man. Conch. (1), viii, 179, 
pi. 53, f. 64. Cladopoda monilifera, Mutton, C. Tert. M., 13 ; Plioc. M., 
66, pi. 8, f. 70. Thylacodes sulcntus, Tate and May, P.L.S. N.S/W., 
1901, 377 ; not of Lamarck. Vermiculnria novce-hollandice, Rouss., 
Index, 76. 

Shell large, vermiform, subsolitary or agglomerated, irregularly 
twisted, brownish. Sculpture consisting of rugose growth - stride, 

9* 



260 GASTROPODA. [Pectmibranchia. 

crossed by unequal longitudinal lines and riblets, mostly distinctly 
moniliform ; the longitudinal sculpture is predominant, but very 
often the surface is irregularly reticulated by the distinct growth- 
marks. There are no internal septa, and no operculum. Transverse 
section subcircular. 

Animal having a long and oval cephalic shield ; tentacles short, 
with the eyes at a certain distance from the base ; 2 small and rather 
short tubercles in front of the mouth ; foot extending beyond the 
head, cross-shaped. The whole of the body is light brown, the foot 
with white spots in front ; the mantle is white, its margin brown. 
(Q. & G.) 

Type in the Mas. Hist. Nat., Geneva. 

Hob. North and South Islands, from between tide-marks to about 
25 fathoms ; Chatham Islands. 

The type is from Australia, and it occurs also in Tasmania. 

Fossil in the Pliocene and Miocene. 

2. Serpulorbis zelandicus, Quoy and Gaimard, 1834. Plate 40, 
fig. 10. 

Vermetus zelandicus, Q. & G., Voy. Astrol., iii, 293, pi. 67, f. 16, 17. 
Cladopoda zelandica, Q. & G. : Morch, J. de Conch., vii, 349. Ver- 
metus novce-zealandice, Q. & G. : Gray, Figs. Moll. Anirn., ii, 28, pi. 56. 
f. 6. Vermetus (Bivonia) neozelanicus, Q. & G. : Hutton, P.L.S. N.S.W., 
ix, 942. V. (Thylacodes) zelandicus, Gray, Man. Conch. (1), viii, 182, 
pi. 54, f. 81. Verrnicularia zelandica, Q. & G., Index, 76. 

Shell moderately large, vermiform, agglomerated, the first few 
whorls spirally coiled up, then more or less irregularly twisted ; the 
protoconch small, smooth, globular. Sculpture consisting of irregular 
transverse rugose growth-marks ; the longitudinal striae are incon- 
spicuous or absent altogether. Internal septa are present. Trans- 
verse section circular. No operculum. 

Animal with the head blackish, with red spots ; margin pale 
yellow ; foot spotted with red. The head is yellowish behind, brown 
and dotted with red in front ; mantle broadly bordered with 
orange. 

Type in the Mus. Hist, Nat., Paris. 

Hab.-Ea.-y of Islands, type (Q. & G.). 

Genus 2. SIPHONIUM, Morch, 1859. 

Siphonium, Morch, J. de Conch., vii, 1859, 353. Type : Vermetus moxinms, 
Sow. Stoa, de Series, 1855 (in part). 

Shell adherent, irregularly twisted, carinated, without internal 
armature. Operculum large, smooth, circular, concave externally, 
the scar of attachment central, with rugose concentric strife, and plain 
margin ; the whole surface covered with microscopic siliceous spiculse, 
not horny as in Stephopoma. 



Siphonium.] GASTROPODA. 261 

1. Siphonium lamellosum, Hutton, 1873. Plate 40, fig. 11. 

Siphonium lamellosum, Hutt., C.M.M., 30 ; J. de Conch., xxvi, 29 ; M.N.Z.M., 
85. Vermetus (Siphonium) lamellosus, Hutton, Man. Conch. (1), viii, 
184; P.L.8. N.S.W., ix, 942. Vcrnnodaria lamellosa, Hutt., Index, 76. 

Shell thick, irregularly twisted, with numerous imbricating trans- 
verse ridges, which are often reflexed, and obsoletely carinated. Aper- 
ture circular ; internal septa are present. Operculum hemispherical. 

Diameter of aperture, 5 mm. 

Type in the Dominion Museum, Wellington. 

Hob. Cook Strait, in deep water (type) ; Chatham Islands ; Bay of 
Islands (J. C. Anderson). 

Remark. May be attached to other bodies, or forming unattached 
large masses. 

Genus 3. STEPHOPOMA, Morch, 1860. 
Stephopoma, Morch, J. de Conch., 1860, 42. Type : Vermetus roseus, Q. & G 

Adult shell adherent, spiral, solitary or clustered ; aperture slightly 
inflexed above, very obsoletely effused below, without internal lamellae. 
Operculum slightly concave, multiannulate, furnished with long di- 
vergent multifid horny bristles. 

Recent and fossil. 

KEY TO SPECIES. 

a. Whorls not carinated, protoconch smooth ; bristles of oper- 
culum simple, multifid at base only . . . . . . roseum. 

b. Whorls carinated, protoconch minutely granular ; bristles of 

operculum multifid . . . . . . . . nucleogranosum. 

1. Stephopoma roseum, Quoy and Gaimard, 1834. Plate 15, 
figs. 6, 6a. 

Vermetus roseus, Q. & G., Voy. Astrol., iii, 300, pi. 67, f. 20-23. Siliquaria 
Icevicjata, Lamk. : Hutton, C.M.M., 31, not of Lamarck. Vermetus 
(Stephopoma) roseus, Q. & G. : v. Martens, Crit. List., 28. Stephopoma. 
roseum, Q. & G. : Hutton, M.N.Z.M., 85; Man. Conch. (1), ix, 185, 
pi. 55, f. 94. Vermicular ia rosea, Q. & G., Index, 76. 

Shell cylindrical, vertical; spiral sometimes very loosely coiled, 
or the volutions are close together, giving the shell a Cydostoma-]ike 
appearance ; surface rugose, nucleus smooth. Colour pink, dead 
shells white to brown, white in alcohol. Opi'in/Inui circular, brown, 
with numerous horny divergent and multifid corneous bristles. Ac- 
cording to the figure given by Quoy and Gaimard, the bristles are 
multifid at their base, with a long simple median bristle. 

Length of shell, 13-18 mm. 

Animal having the foot long, cylindrical, with the operculum at 
its extremity. In front of the snout is a median vertical funnel- 
shaped appendix, which can be stretched out. Foot with a small 



262 GASTROPODA. [Pectinibranchia. 



pointed tubercle on the right side. Head elongated, tentacles very 
short, eyes at their base outside. The respiratory cavity is ample, 
branchia yellow, extending exteriorly above the mantle. The whole 
animal black, with yellowish. 

Type in the Mus. Hist. Nat., Paris. 

Hah, Thames Kiver, in considerable depth, type (Q. & G.) ; 
Rangitoto Channel, in 4 fathoms (H. S.). 

2. Stephopoma nucleogranosum, Verco, 1904. Plate 15, figs. 7, a, b. 

Stephopotna mtcleogrunosum, Verco, T.R.S. S.Aust., xxviii, 1904, 143, pi. 26, 
f. 11-13 ; Suter, T.N.Z.I., xxxviii, 328. 

Shell attached, solitary, or conglomerate. Nucleus horn-coloured 
or white ; nautiloid, of 1 turns ; diaphanous, slightly effuse at its 
aperture ; covered with minute granules, arranged in crowded lines 
corresponding with the accremental lines. The shell springs from 
within the slightly trumpet-shaped mouth, which projects all round 
and marks off the embryonic shell from the next whorl : 2| of these 
follow in the same plane, rather rapidly enlarging, and attached to 
the surface on which the shell rests ; then come 1 or 2 whorls, coiled 
above and adhering to those below ; and, finally, a free more or less 
twisted tube, varying up to 1 in. in length, the attached whorls 
along their outer under-surface throw out numerous scales of attach- 
ment at irregular intervals. The adherent whorls have a pronounced 
rounded carfna along their upper outer part, which gradually be- 
comes less valid along the free tube, until it may be indistinguishable. 
From this carina the side is flat to the carina of the whorl below, 
so that a young shell has the shape of a short cylinder fixed by one 
end on the rock, &c. There are moderately developed accremental 
strife, which become ruder and rounder on the free tube. Aperture 
circular, or very slightly elliptical. Colour translucent white ; some 
are tinged more or less with pinkish-chestnut. Operculum horny, 
multiannulate ; nucleus central, setigerous. N. ire comparatively 
narrow beyond the base of attachment, then flatly expanded, with 
numerous (perhaps 8) fine setse on either side ; beyond these the 
seta bifurcates one part continues nearly in the same axis, and is 
the larger and longer ; the other stands out at an acute angle, and 
generally divides into two. Resting on the operculum, in the throat 
of the shell, may be 3 or 4 embryos, like minute nautilus. (Dr. Verco.) 

Cylindrical portion about 6mm. in diameter and 4mm. or 5 rnm. 
high ; aperture, 3-4 mm. in diameter. 

Type in the collection of Dr. J. C. Verco, Adelaide. 

Hab. Takapuna Reef, on the under-side of boulders ; Rangitoto 
Channel, in about 5 fathoms (H. S.) ; Bay of Islands. 

The type is from Blackstairs Passage, South Australia, in 16-23 
fathoms. 

Fossil in the Pliocene of Wanganui. 



Siliquaria.] GASTROPODA. 263 

Genus 4. SILIQUARIA, Bruguiere, 1789. 

Siliquaria, Brug., Encycl. Meth., i, p. xv. Ex. : S. australis, Q. & G. 
Tenagode, Guettard, 1774 : Guettard did riot adopt the Linnean nomen- 
clature, and it seems unsettled that he used any Latin name for the 
genus (Da II). 

Animal with rudimentary pedal tentacles ; mantle slit along the 
branchial cavity. 

Shell tubular, at first spiral, afterwards protracted and irregular ; 
tube with a longitudinal fissure, which is sometimes simple, sometimes 
formed by a series of perforations ; often both varieties exist in the 
same specimens. Aperture circular, without internal septa or lamella. 
Opcrculum corneous, subcylindrical or conoidal, formed of a spirally 
rolled band, with ciliated margin ; axis of the cone filled up internally 
by a series of spiral radiating cells. 

Distribution. Mediterranean, west Africa, tropical Pacific Ocean, 
Australasia. 

Fossil. One species from the Upper Cretaceous and about twenty 
from the Tertiary are known. The typical species, as well as several 
others, occur imbedded in sponges. 

The Recent species are tropical and subtropical in distribution. 
They live on rocks and corals, and sometimes in sponges. 

Sect. 1. AGATHIRSES, Montfort, 1810. 

Agathirses, Mtft., Conch. Syst., i, 398. Ex. : S. striata, Defrance. 
Slit composed of numerous isolated holes. 

1. Siliquaria Cumingi, Morch, 1860. Plate 15, fig. 8. 

Tewigodts (Siliquaria} Cumingi, Morch, P.Z.S.. 1SUO, 403. Siliquaria 
Cumingi, Morch, .Man. Conch. (1), ix, 190, pi. 57, f. 19; pi. 58, f. 21. 
Tenagodes Cumingi, Morch, Index, 76. 

Whorls 5, the first scalariform, angulated behind, the angle evan- 
escent in the last whorl, granularly lirate below, lime distant, the 
interstices with intervening lirulas, externally transversely lightly 
fissured, the fissure evanescent in the last whorl, umbilical region 
longitudinally undulately striate, decussated by sigmoid distant 
radiating sulci ; slit at first closed, afterwards with open round holes, 
which finally coalesce into a denticulated open slit (Tryon). 

Type in the British Museum (?). 

Hab. A specimen from Auckland is in the Canterbury Museum. 

The type is from the Philippines. 

Remark. I am inclined to consider the specimen in the Canter- 
bury Museum as a variety of the next species. 

Sect. 2. PYXIPOMA, Morch, 1860. 
Pyxipoma, Morch, P.Z.S., 1860, 409. Ex. : 8. multistriata, Defrance (Eocene). 

Slit closed by a lamella, but not filled up outside ; open near the 
mouth. 



264 GASTROPODA. [Pectinibranchia. 



2. Siliquaria Weidii, T.-Woods, 1876. Plate 39, fig. 15. 

Siliquariu Weidii, T.-Woods, P.E.8. Tasm., 1875 (1876)44; Man. Conch. (1), 
ix, 191, pi. 58, f. 28. Tenarjodes Weidii, T.-Woods, Index, 76. 

Shell graceful, smooth or very lightly longitudinally striated; 
whitish, yellowish, or very light rosy ; first three whorls with the slit 
filled below, afterwards it is open (Tyron), The first two or three 
whorls are scalariform, disconnected ; the well-marked growth-lines 
are very distinctly sigmoid on the outer side of the tube, and there 
are numerous narrow and fine transverse fissures on the outer margin 
of the slit, 

The longest specimen in my collection is 30 mm. 

Type in the Tasmanian Museum, Hobart. 

Hab. Chatham Islands (Dr. A. Bendy) ; Hauraki Gulf (H. S.) ; 
off Waipapa Point, in 25 fathoms (E. R. Waite). 

Fam. C^EICID^B, Gray. 

Animal with a long flat rostrum ; tentacles cylindrical, with 
sessile eyes at their outer base ; mantle thick, fleshy, circular, 
closely embracing the neck ; a single branchial plume ; foot short, 
narrow, truncated in front, attenuated and obtuse behind. Dentition 
2+1 +2(?). 

Shell tubular, with a spiral plane nucleus, which is caducous or 
persistent, then becoming cylindrical, curved, terminating in a simple 
circular aperture, the posterior portion of the tube usually divided 
by one or more septa. Operculum horny, multispiral, margin some- 
times fimbriated. 

There are usually three stages of growth in the shell of Ccecum 
first, the spiral or nuclear, soon lost by truncation, the end of the 
remaining tube closed by a septum ; second, the adolescent stage, a 
curved tube, also lost subsequently ; and, third, the adult tube, of 
similar curved shape, and again closed behind by a septum. 

Distribution. Temperate and warm seas throughout the world, 
but absent in cold water. About 200 nominal species have been 
described. 

Fossil. Tertiary. 

Genus 1. CAECUM, Fleming, 1817. 

Ccecum, Fleming, Encycl. Eclinb., vii, 1817, 67. Cornuoides, Brown, 1827- 
Brochus, Brown, 1829. Odontina, Zborzewsky, 1834. Odontidium, Philippi, 
1836. CcecaMum, Macgillivray. Corniculina, .Minister. Dentaliopsis* 
Clarke. Brochina, Gray, 1857. 

Shell when young discoidal, when adult decollated, tubular, cylin- 
drical, arcuated ; aperture round, entire ; apex closed by a mamillated 
septum, marking the point at which the original spire has been 
cut off. 

Vernacular Name. Blind-shell. 



GASTROPODA. 265 



1. Caecum digitulum, Hedley, 1904. Plate 15, fig. 9. 

Caecum digitulunt, Hc.lley, Rec. A.M., v, 94, f. 21 in text ; Iredale, T.N.Z.T., 
xl, 384. 

Shell small, smooth save for very slight growth-lines, thin, opaque 
dull white, slightly curved, tapering rapidly. Aperture circular, 
slightly everted. Septum subungulate. (Hedley.) 

Diameter Maj., 0-5 mm. ; min., 0-3 mm. : length, 2-3 mm. 

Animal unknown. 

Type in the Australian Museum, Sydney. 

Hab. Lyall Bay, Cook Strait (type) ; Foveaux Strait (A. Hamil- 
ton) ; Lyttelton Harbour, under stones at high- water mark (Iredale). 

Remarks. The rapidity with which this species tapers is an un- 
usual feature (Hedley). The majority of the shells do not taper as 
rapidly as Hedley's description would imply, nor as his figure shows 
(Iredale). 

Fossil in the Pliocene of Wanganui. 

Fam. TURRITELLID^J, Clark. 

Animal with a large and prominent head ; rostrum short and broad ; 
tentacles long, subulate, and diverging, the eyes slightly prominent 
at their external base ; mantle-margin fringed, with a siphonal fold 
on the right side ; no siphon ; branchial plume single, very long ; 
foot very short, truncate in front, attenuated and obtuse behind, 
grooved beneath ; operculigerous lobe simple. The lingual dentition 
is very variable ; the marginals may be absent, or their number vary- 
ing from 1 to 3. (Man. Conch. (1), ix, 192.) 

Shell long, attenuated, many-whorled, not umbilicated, sculptured 
with spiral stripe or ridges, lines of growth arched and sinuous ; aper- 
ture rounded or subquadrate, entire ; lip thin, externally flexuous, 
not thickened. Operculum multispiral. 

Distribution. Found in most seas, from low-water mark to deep 
water. 

Fossil from the Trias. 

Genus 1. TURRITELLA, Lamarck. 1799. 

Turritdlu, Lam., Mem. Soc. Hist. Nat. Paris, 1799, 4. Type: Turbo 
terebra, L. 

Shell pyramidal, the numerous whorls spirally striated or ridged, 
crossed by arcuated growth-lines ; spire very high, aperture oval or 
subquadrangular, entire, lip thin. Operculum with fimbriated margin- 

Over a hundred species are known, inhabiting all seas, but prin- 
cipally tropical and subtropical. The fossils number about 400 species ; 
the genus commenced in the Trias. 

Vernacular Name. Screw- shell. 



266 GASTROPODA. [Pectinibranchia. 



Sect. 1. COLPOSPIRA. Donald, 
Colpospira, Donald, P. Mai. S., iv, 51. Tj^pe : Turritella runcinata, Watson. 

Shell having the aperture subquadrate, rather longer than wide ; 
outer lip arched obliquely backwards above a deep sinus, then pro- 
duced prominently below the sinus, and curved round to meet the 
columella, where it is slightly canaliculated. 

Distinguished from the type and other sections of Turritella by the 
deep sinus in the outer lip, by the lower part of the lip being more 
produced forwards, by the columella being longer and nearly straight, 
and by the aperture being slightly channelled below. 

KEY TO SPECIES. 

a. Shell with 1 prominent spiral cord on the lower whorls. . . . pagoda. 

b. Shell with 2 prominent spiral cords on all the post-nuclear whorls ; 

angle of spire, 15-18 . . . . . . . . . . fulminata. 

c. Shell with 3 prominent spiral cords on a whorl . . symmetrirn. 

d. Shell with (> prominent spiral cords on a whorl . . . . chordata. 

e. Shell with 2 principal, 2 secondary, and some finer cords on the 

lower whorls ; angle of spire, 18 . . . . . . Carlottce. 

f. Shell with 4 principal cords on the fourth to seventh whorl, and 2 

strong cinguli on the lower whorls . . . . difftcilis. 

;/. Lower whorls with 2-3 principal and 2-3 secondary cords, besides 
fine threads ; sometimes all of nearly equal strength ; angle 
of spire, 20-22 ; shell large . . . . . . . . rosca. 

1. Turritella Carlottae, Watson, 1881. Plate 39, fig. 19. 

Tnrritell(i Carlottce, Wats., J.L.S., xv, 1881, 222 ; Chall. Rep., xv, 478, 
pi. 30, f. 5 ; Murdoch and Suter, T.N.Z.I., xxxviii, 292 ; Suter, I.e., 
327. T. vittaiu, Button, C.M.M., 29 ; M.N.Z.M., 84 ; Index, 76 ; not 
of Lamarck. 

Shell high, narrow, conical, thin, translucent, with fine ruddy 
spiral threads, a slightly impressed suture, and an angular flattened 
base. Sculpture : Longitudinals there are fine, thread-like, close-set, 
curved lines of growth ; spirals there are 2 principal, 2 secondary, 
and very many minor spirals, but the relative value of these varies 
a good deal ; they are little raised, but distinct ; the base is covered 
with line crowded spirals, of which those near the edge are stronger 
than the rest ; the microscopic system of spirals is fine, sharp, and 
distinct. Colour yellowish ashv-white, with a suffused ruddy-brown 

/ *J 

on the upper part of the whorls, and a stronger shade of the same 
colour defining the move important spirals; the colour becomes al- 
together paler up the spire, and the apex is white. The epidermis 
is a very thin and delicate calcareous membrane, obviously not ex- 
traneous ; it adheres to the top of the spirals and stretches across 
their furrows ; it is sparsely cleft by minute gaping rents in the direc- 
tion of the lines of growth, and the microscopic sculpture of the shell 
is traceable in it, but rather on its under than its upper surface. S}/'< 



Turritella. \ GASTROPODA. 267 

very perfectly conical, but the profile-lines are interrupted by the. 
impressed sutures. Protoconch small, rounded, smooth, and glossy, 
consisting of 1-J- embryonic whorls ; the next whorl is slightly angu- 
lated, after which the regular sculpture begins. Whorls 15, very 
slightly convex on the sides, contracting gradually upwards into the 
suture ; towards the bottom of the whorls the contraction into the 
suture is shorter, straighter, and more rapid ; they are of very gradual 
and regular increase : towards the upper part of the spire the curve 
of the profile-line of each whorl becomes increasingly stronger : the 
base is flat, very slightly conical, sharply angulated, and not contracted 
at the edge. Suture very slight, but well defined. Aperture small, 
angularly rounded, a little higher than broad. Outer lip is a little 
drawn in and advancing on the edge of the base, and a little patulous 
in front of the pillar-point. The generic sinus in the outer lip is para- 
bolic in form. Columella a little concave, rather direct, with a thin 
rounded edge. Inner Up : There is not (though the specimens are 
full grown) even a glaze across the body nor round the base of the 
pillar, but on older specimens this may probably exist. (Watson.) 

Diameter, 7 mm. ; height, 24-5 mm. (type). Angle of spire. 15-20. 
Penultimate whorl height, 3-75 mm. Mouth height, 4 mm.; breadth, 
3-5 mm. 

Diameter, 11 -5mm.; height, 41mm. (specimen of 13 whorls, 
Lyttelton). Diameter, 9 mm. ; height, 35 mm. (specimen of 14 whorls, 
Tauranga). Diameter, 7 mm. ; height, 25 mm. (specimen of 12 whorls, 
Auckland). Diameter, 14mm.; height, 52mm. (specimen of 15 
whorls, 25 fathoms, Channel Island). 

Animal unknown. 

Type in the British Museum ; of T. vittata, Hutt., in the Dominion 
Museum, Wellington. 

Hab. Queen Charlotte Sound, in 10 fathoms, type (' Challenger " 
Exped.) ; North and South Islands, from between tide-marks to 
110 fathoms ; Kermadec Islands (Captain Bollons). 

Remarks. The angle of the spire of the type, measured on the 
figure, is 18, but this varies to nearly 20. Watson says that the 
species resembles T. knysnaensis, Krauss, but I cannot agree with 
him. T. Hanleyana, Reeve, seems to be a very nearly allied form, 
but certainly not the young of T. rosea, Q. & G., as suggested by Tryon. 
The sinus of the outer lip is not quite so deep as in T. rosea. 

Fossil in the Miocene and Pliocene. 

2. Turritella chordata, Suter, 1908. Plate 15, fig. 10. 
Turritella chordata, Suter, P. Mai. S., viii, 39, pi. 3, f. 51. 

Shell small, subulate, moderately solid, spirally 1 irate, white. 
Sculpture : The first H whorls are smooth, the next has 3, the follow- 
ing 4, the fourth 5, and all the succeeding whorls 6 subequidistant 
prominent flatly rounded spiral cords, the suprasutuial cord being less 



268 GASTROPODA. [Pectinibranchia. 

distinct ; on the last whorl each of the fuirows between the cords is 
provided with a fine thread, and the carina bounding the base bears 
the suprasutural cord ; base with 6 fine cinguli. Colour dirty-white. 
Spire high, narrowly conical ; outlines lightly convex. Protoconch 
globose, smooth and polished. Whorls 8, regularly increasing, convex ; 
base nearly flat. Suture impressed. Aperture vertical, oval, higher 
than broad. Outer lip sharp, -with a broadly rounded not very deep 
sinus. Basal lip effuse. Columella vertical, almost straight. Inner 
lip slightly reflexed, spreading over the parietal wall as a thin white 
and shining callus. Operculum unknown. 

Diameter, 3-7 mm. ; height, 10-8 mm. (shell of 8 whorls). 

Animal unknown. 

Type in my collection. 

Hob. Dredged off Otago Heads (A. Hamilton). 

Remarks. The only specimen I possess has the outer lip damaged. 
The shell is, no doubt, not quite full grown. There is a very nearly 
allied form, still undescribed, from the Pliocene of Waikopiri, in my 
collection. 

3. Turritella difficilis, Suter, 1908. Plate 15, fig. 11. 
Turritdla difficilis, Suter, P. Mai. S., viii, 40 ; pi. 3, f. 52. 

Shell small, elevated conical, rather thin, lower whorls with 3 cinguli, 
the lowest suprasutural. Sculpture : The first two whorls smooth, the 
third with a spiral at the periphery and one below it, the next four 
whorls with 4 spirals, interspaces subequal, the lowest spiral close to 
the suture ; on the remaining whorls the second, median, spiral is 
becoming much finer, and at the same time another fine spiral thread 
appears ; very soon they increase to the number of 6 to 8. filling the 
interspace between the original first and third prominent spiral ; a 
few spiral threads develop between the suture and the first spiral, 
and 4 to 5 between the suprasutural and the spiral above ; the supra- 
sutural spiral forms a sharp keel bounding the base, which is finely 
spirally striated ; growth-lines indistinct, sinuate. Colour yellowish- 
white. Spire high, conical, with straight outlines. Protoconch of 2 
smooth strongly convex whorls. The number of tchorls may be 15 
or more ; the third and fourth gradate, the following two or three 
convex, and the rest flat, the interspaces between the spirals concave ; 
base excavated. Suture impressed. Aperture subquadrate. Outer lip 
sharp, with a moderately deep median rounded sinus. Columella 
vertical, arcuate. 

Diameter, 6 mm. ; height, 16 mm. (immature specimen of 10 whorls 
only). Angle of spire, 20. 

Animal unknown. 

Type in my collection. 

Hab. Near the Snares, in 50 fathoms (Captain Bollons). No 
oerfect specimens. 



Turritella.'} GASTROPODA. 269 

Remarks. Miss J. Donald mentions (P. Mai. S., iv, 50) that in the 
British Museum, Cuming collection, there are of T. sinuata, Reeve, 
six specimens from Stewart Island, and two from New Zealand. I 
have, seen a good many specimens of Turritella from all parts of New 
Zealand, but I never came across the Australian T. sinuata, nor the 
Tasmanian T. quadrata, Donald, either Recent or fossil. If the 
specimens in the British Museum mentioned by Miss Donald are really 
T. sinuata, then the locality stated is most likely wrong. 

4. Turritella fulminata, Hutton, 1873. Plate 39, fig. 18. 

Turritella fulminata., Hutt., C.M.M., 29 ; J. de Conch., xxvi, 29 ; M.N.Z.M., 
84 ; P.L.S. N.S.W., ix, 939 ; Index, 76 ; Murdoch and Suter, T.N.Z.I.. 
xxxviii, 292. 

Shell turreted, narrow and high, with 2 prominent spirals and 
undulating longitudinal brown markings. Sculpture : The first two 
whorls smooth, the third and fourth with 2 spirals ; on the succeeding 
whorls fine threads are intercalated, varying in number, but the two 
original spirals always remaining more prominent : these spirals divide 
the whorl into 3 subequal sections : body-whorl keeled ; base with 
numerous spiral lines : growth-lines very fine, close, sinuate on the 
middle of the whorls, more distinct and oblique upon the base. Colour 
cinereous, with longitudinal undulating markings of reddish-brown. 
Spire high, narrowly conic ; outlines straight. Protoconch consisting 
of 2 convex, white, smooth whorls. The whorls in large specimens 
number up to 20, but the specimens usually found have about 15 ; 
they are sloping from the suture to the first main spiral ; the following 
two sections are slightly concave ; base flat. Suture distinct, but not 
much impressed. Aperture subquadrangular, rounded above, flat at 
the base, and angled ; slightly effuse. Outer lip sharp, with a mode- 
rately deep inframedian rounded sinus. Columella vertical, a little 
arcuate, sharp. Inner lip spreading a little beyond the columella 
above, and forming a very thin shining callous layer on the parietal 
wall. 

Diameter, 7 mm. ; height, 24mm. (specimen of 14 whorls). Dia- 
meter, 7-5 mm. ; height, 31mm. (type). Angle of spire, 15-18. 

Animal unknown. 

Type, in the Dominion Museum, Wellington. 

Hob. Great Barrier Island (type) ; Auckland Harbour, on rocks 
near low-water mark ; near Channel Island, Hauraki Gulf, in 25 
fathoms ; off Great Barrier Island, in 110 fathoms ; Bay of Islands. 

Remarks. Von Martens thought this species to be near T. tas- 
manica. Reeve, but I am informed by Mr. Hedley that this is known 
only from a single worn shell h the British Museum. Tate and May 
exclude it from their catalogue, Possibly it is exotic. 

Fossil in the Pliocene. 



270 GASTROPODA. [Pectinibmnchia. 



5. Turritella pagoda, Reeve, 1849. Plate 39, fig. 17. 

Turritella pagoda, Reeve, Conch. Icon., v, f. 60; Man. Conch. (1), ix, 204, 
pi. 64, f. 95 ; Murdoch and Suter, T.N.Z.I., xxxviii, 292. 

Shell not very large, elevated, and many-whorled, with 1 prominent 
keel, thin and fragile. Sculpture : The first two whorls are smooth ; 
the next two have a sharp keel on the middle ; on the succeeding 
whorls this keel is gradually getting lower down, till it is situate 
at the lower third of the whorl, but it always remains the most con- 
spicuous of the cinguli ; from the fifth whorl down a number of fine 
spiral threads appear above and below the principal keel, and one of 
them, situate at the upper third of the whorl, is getting somewhat 
stronger than the others ; the fine threads are unequal in strength, 
usually the finer and thicker threads are alternating ; base with, very 
fine unequal spiral lines. Colour Avhitish. obscurely flamed with light 
fulvous. Spire high, narrowly conic ; outlines straight. Protoconch 
of 2 smooth, convex, and slightly angled whorls. Whorls 14 to 15, 
regularly increasing, slantingly flattened, but sometimes slightly 
concave above and below the keel ; body-whorl sharply angled ; 
base flattish. Suture impressed. Aperture sub quadrangular, vertical. 
Outer lip sharp and thin, with a rather deeply rounded sinus a little 
below the middle ; outer and basal lip slightly produced upon the 
keel bounding the base. Columella vertical, but little callous. Inner 
lip slightly spreading beyond the columella above, and as a thin and 
polished glaze over the parietal whorl. Operculum unknown. 

Diameter, 6-5 mm. ; length, 22 mm. (specimen of 10 whorls). 
Angle of spire, 18. 

Animal unknown. 

Type in the British Museum. 

Hob. Great Barrier Island ; off Great Barrier Island, in 110 
fathoms ; off Cuvier Island, in 37 fathoms (Captain Bollons) ; near 
Channel Island, Hauraki Gulf, in 25 fathoms. 

Fossil. Miocene and Pliocene. 



6. Turritella rosea, Quoy and Gaimard, 1834. Plate 39, fig. 16. 

Turritella rosca, Q. & G., Voy. Astro!., iii, 136, pi. 55, f. 24-26 ; Dieff. N.Z., 
242; Conch. Icon., v, pi. S, f. 41; Man. Conch. (1), ix, 199. pi. 62, 
f. 67, 68; C. Tert. M.B.M., 240; Kiener, icon. Coq. Viv., 1843, 32, pi. 12, 
f. 2. T. lineolatu, Kiener, t.c., 25, pi. 5, f. 2. 

Shell rather large, more or less irregularly spirally striated, body- 
whorl carinated, thin. Sculpture : The nucleus is smooth, the second 
whorl has a median keel and below it a faint spiral thread, the third 
to fifth whorl with 3 spiral threads, and on the succeeding whorls 
numerous close and much finer spiral lines are intercalated ; the 
upper and lower cinguli remain mostly more prominent on all the 



'I'nrritdlu.} GASTROPODA. 271 

whorls, but the median thread of the upper whorls usually diminishes 
in strength, and some of the intercalated cinguli are getting a little 
stronger ; sometimes, however, all the spiral lines are of nearly the 
same strength on the last few whorls ; the acute keel of the body- 
whorl is spirally striated ; base with about 15 flat spiral ribs, each 
with 1 or 2 fine grooves ; the fine and deeply sinuated growth-lines 
aie much more distinct on the lower whorls. Colour yellowish or 
reddish-brown, faintly marbled with dark brown, the raised cinguli 
usually of darker brown. Spire high, conic ; outlines straight. Proto- 
conch minute, of 1 smooth globose whorl ; the first few whorls are 
mostly broken off. Whorls about 16, first slowly then more rapidly 
increasing, flat or but slightly convex ; base flat. Suture deep, but 
sometimes it is not much impressed. Aperture subquadrate, interior 
polished, yellowish, with numerous brown spiral bands. Outer lip 
thin, sharp, with a deep and broadly rounded sinus in the middle, 
drawn out together with the basal lip towards the keel of the body- 
whorl, and forming a sharp point. Columella vertical, thin and sharp 
below. Inner Up reflexed over the columella above, and forming a 
thin polished glaze on the parietal wall. Operculum thin, horny, cir- 
cular, multispiral. 

Diameter, 18 mm. ; height, 60 mm. (type) : angle of spire, 20-22. 
Diameter, 20 mm. ; height, 69 mm. (specimen of 16 whorls). 

Animal with a proboscidiform muzzle, brown, spotted with black. 
Tentacles moderately long, obtuse, white, with the sessile eyes near 
their base. Foot quadrilateral, slightly broader in front, greenish or 
yellowish, spotted with brown. Mantle fringed, with regularly dis- 
posed whitish lunules. (Q. G.) 

Dentition. Hutton, T.N.Z.I., xv, 122, pi. 14, f. C. 

Type in the Mus. Hist, Nat,, Paris. 

Hob. Astrolabe Roads, Tasman Bay, in a depth of several fathoms, 
type (Q. & G.) ; North and South Islands ; Chatham Islands. 

In my collection the species is represented from the following 
localities : Port Pegasus, Stewart Island, in 18 fathoms (Captain 
Bollons) ; Preservation Inlet ; Timaru ; Lyttelton Harbour, in 4 
fathoms (H. S.) ; Tasman Bay, in 16 fathoms (Captain Bollons) ; 
near Wanganui ; Narrow Neck Reef, Hauraki Gulf (H. S.) ; near 
Channel Island, Hauraki Gulf, in 25 fathoms ; Bay of Islands. 

Remarks. Although the sculpture varies a good deal, the greater 
number of specimens that came under my notice have on the lower 
whorls 2 more conspicuous cinguli than the others, 1 above and 1 
below ; between them there are 2 less-prominent threads, and 1 below 
the suture ; the interspaces with unequal fine spiral threads. It is 
only by dredging that perfect specimens can be obtained. 

Maori. Takavi (fide Quoy and Gaimard) ; kukukuroaroa (fill 
Captain Bollons). 

Fossil in the Miocene and Pliocene. 



272 GASTROPODA. \_fectinilifi m l>i. 

1. Turritella symmetrica, Button, 1873. Plate 39, fig. 20. 

Turritella (Eyli&ia) symetrica, Hutt., C.M.M., 30. T. rosea, Mantell, Quart. 
Journ. Geol, Soc., vi, 1850, 331, pi. 28, f. l(i ; not of Quoy and Gaimard 
T. (Ztirin) tricincta, Button, C. Tert. M., 13 ; not of Borson and autb. 
Eglisia symmetrica, Hutt., J. de Conch., 1878, 29 ; M.N.Z.M., 8*. 
T. kanieriensis, Harris, C. Tert. M.B.M., 241 ; Index, 76. 

Shell rather small, elongated, narrow, with prominent spiral orna- 
mentation, thin and translucent. Sculpture : The first 1| whorls 
smooth, the following ones with 3 subequal and equidistant spiral 
keels, with a few fine spiral threads in the interspaces ; base with 
unequal, fine, flat, spiral lines. Colour light-yellowish. Spire high, 
narrowly conical ; outlines straight. Protoconch of 1| smooth, convex, 
white and shining whorls. Whorls about 14, regularly increasing, 
convex ; base flattened. Suture impressed. Aperture vertical, sub- 
quadrangular. Outer lip thin, sharp, with a deep, broadly rounded, 
median sinus, produced upon the keel of the body-whorl. Columella 
vertical, rounded, narrowed below, and connecting with the slightly 
effuse basal lip. Inner lip spreading as a thin polished glaze across 
the body-whorl. Operculum unknown. 

Diameter, 5-5 mm. ; height, 17 mm. (type). Diameter, 6-5 mm. ; 
height, 23-5 mm. (specimen of 14 whorls). Angle of spire, 18. 

Animal unknown. 

Type in the Dominion Museum, Wellington. 

Hob. Stewart Island (type) ; Port Pegasus, Stewart Island, in 
18 fathoms (Captain Bollons) ; Dunedin Harbour (A. Hamilton) ; 
Lyttelton Harbour, in 2 to 4 fathoms (H. S.). 

Fossil. Miocene and Pliocene. 

Fam. MATHILDIID^J. Dall. 

In form these shells recall Bittium and Turritella : they are small, 
turriculated, and slender ; the whorls spirally ridged and radially 
striated ; the blunt sinistral nucleus not or only partly immersed. 
Aperture entire, peristome sharp, columella smooth. Operculum 
horny, multi spiral. 

Genus 1. MATHILDA, Semper, 1865. 

Mathilda, Semper, J. de Conch., xiii, 1865, 328. Type : M. quadricarinata, 
Brocchi. 

Animal with very long thread-like, divergent tentacles, with rather 
large eyes on prominences upon their exterior side, about a quarter 
of their length from the base ; foot large, cut out in front, obtuse 
behind ; operculigerous lobe having a row of cilia in constant move- 
ment. Radula unknown. 

Shell turriculated, rather solid, apex heterostrophe, abruptly 
turned from left to right ; whorls in the typical species cingulated 
and reticulated by radiate striae. Aperture entire, subrotund, base 
sometimes subeffuse ; lip acute ; columella smooth. Operculum 



Mathilda.} GASTROPODA. 273 

corneous, rather solid, multispiral, the external face concave, nucleus 
central. 

Dr. W. H. Ball classes Mathilda as a synonym of Tuba, Lea, 1833, 
or at least as a section of it : Trans. Wagner Free Inst., iii, pt. 2, 
18 ( ,)2, 318. For the present, however, I prefer to consider Mathilda 
as a distinct genus. 

Distribution. - - Seas of Europe, China, Australasia, Strait of 
Magellan. There are a number of Tertiary and a few Secondary 
species. 

Remarks. Dr. P. Fischer writes, '' Mathilda has the shell of 
Turritella, with the sinistral embryonic whorls of Pyramidella. The 
exterior form of the animal, the position of the eyes, and the structure 
of the operculum relate it to the former." 

1. Mathilda neozelanica, Suter, 1908. Plate 15, fig. 12. 
Mathilda neozelanica, Suter, P. Mai. S., viii, 40, pi. 3, f. 53. 

Shell minute, turriculate, spirally ridged and radially finely striate, 
imperforate. Sculpture : The first, embryonic, whorl with 4 sharp 
spirals ; the second with a median spiral and 1 below it ; the third 
with an additional fine spiral thread upon the shoulder, increasing to 
2 on the following whorls ; the last whorl with a double keel bounding 
the base, which is finely spirally striate ; the spiral sculpture reticu- 
lated by radiate, subequidistant, straight threads, which do not extend 
upon the base ; interstices microscopically reticulated. Colour white. 
Spire elevated conic, much higher than the aperture, apex blunt ; 
outlines straight. Protoconch with the smooth nucleus almost com- 
pletely immersed in the spire. Whorls 5^, regularly increasing, the 
upper whorls distinctly shouldered, the last more convex ; base flat. 
Suture impressed. Aperture rotund, vertical, effuse at the base towards 
the columella. Outer lip simple, dentate by the sculpture. Columella 
vertical, slightly arcuate, rounded, very little expanded. Operculinn 
unknown. 

Diameter. 1-2 mm. ; height, 2-5 mm. 

Animal unknown. 

Type in my collection. 

Hob. Narrow Neck Reef, Hauraki Gulf ; one specimen in sand 
(H. S.). 

Remark.- The Australian M. decorata, Hedley (Mem. A.M., iv, 
pt. 6, 352, f. 75 in text), is an allied species, though larger and having 
a different protoconch. 

Fam. STRUTHIOLARIID^S, Fischer. 

Animal having rather short slender tentacles, with the eyes on 
short pedicels at their external bases ; foot oval, adapted for swimming ; 
proboscis long ; siphon scarcely perceptible. Dentition 2+1+1 + 1 + 2, 
but in some species the marginals increase to 5 ; the central tooth 



274 GASTROPODA. [Pectinibranchia. 



is sub quadrangular, with multicuspidate edge ; the laterals oblong, 
multicuspid, and the marginals falciform, sharp, narrow, with crenu- 
lated margins. 

Shell bucciniform, generally ornamented, the aperture angular, 
shortly subcanaliculated below, sinuate on the right side ; lip thickened, 
sinuous, not winged ; columella thick, polished, subtruncate below ; 
inner lip broadly expanded. Operculum short, unguiculate, nucleus 
apical. 

Genus 1. STRUTHIOLARIA, Lamarck, 1816. 

Struthiolaria, Lam., Encycl. Meth., Vers. Coq., Moll., &c., iii, 1816, pi. 431, 
f. 1 a, b. Type : S. nodulosa, Lam. ( = pnpnlosu, Martvn). Pelicaria, 
Gray, 1857. 

Animal with the outer mantle-margin simple, tentacles cylindrical ; 
eye-pedicels short, adnate with the tentacles externally ; foot broad 
and short. 

Shell oval-oblong, imperforate ; spire turreted ; aperture truncated 
in front ; h'p entire, thickened, sinuous, prominent in the middle ; 
inner lip callous, expanded. Operculum short, claw-shaped, with a 
sharp apical projection. 

Distribution. Australia, New Zealand, Magellan, Kerguelen, and 
Seychelles. 

Fossil. Tertiary. 

The genus is represented in the Eogene of Patagonia and Chile, 
but not in the Neogene of meridional America. Representatives of 
the family (Struthiolariopsis, Wilkens) occur in the Upper Cretaceous 
of Chile and Patagonia, thus proving the South American origin of 
the family. The Miocene species of Struthiolaria of New Zealand are 
of more recent origin than those of South America. (Von Ihering.) 

KEY TO SPECIES. 

A. Shell moderately large, spire-whorls with 1 carina . . . . papulosa. 

B. Shell smaller, spire-whorls bi- or tri-carinate. 

a. Suture deeply excavated .. .. .. .. vermis. 

tin. Suture not or hut very little excavated . . . . tricarinata* 

1. Struthiolaria papulosa, Marty n, 1784. Plate 40, fig. 1. 

IliK-i'/inuii papuloxiiin, Mart., Un. Conch., ii, 1784, f. 54. Struthiolaria 
papulosa, Mart., Conch. Icon., vi, pi. 1. f. 3 ; Ad. C.H.M., pi. 27, f. 6fe ; 
Chenu, Man. Conch., 2<i3, f. 1<>49 ; Man. Conch. (1), vii, 133, pi. 12, f. 34. 
Murex stramineus, Gmelin, Syst. Nat., ed. xiii, i, 1790, 3542. Struthiolaria 
nodulosa, Lamarck, A.s.V., vii, 1822, 147. Fischer, Man. Conch., pi. 4. 
f. 0. S. sulcata, Jonas, Arch. f. Nat,, i, 1839, 342. pi. 9, f. 5 ; Man. 
Conch. (1), vii, 134, pi. 12, f. 38. S. gigas, Sowerhy, Thes. Conch., i_ 
1842, pi. 5, f. 17 ; Man. Conch. (1), vii, 133, pi. 12, f. 37. S. papillosa, 
.Martyn : Gray, in Dieff. X.X., 231. 

Shdl moderately large, ovately acute, imperi'orate, turreted, solid, 
with a strongly callous peristome. Sculpture very variable ; the spiral 
threads are sometimes very close and regularly spaced, more often 
at irregular intervals, and occasionally far apart in bands of 2 and 3 ; 
the prominent angle at the shoulder may be faintly, distantly tuber- 
culosc. or the tubercles may attain to a great size ; the growth-lines 



Strttthiolaria.] GASTROPODA. 275 



are fine and flexuous. Colour cinereous, with close longitudinal waved 
stripes of purple ; interior of mouth light brown ; peristome yellow 
or white, the outer margin chestnut-brown. Epidermis very thin, 
horny, deciduous. Spire high, conic, turreted, somewhat higher than 
the aperture ; outlines slightly convex. Protoconch of 2^- convex, 
finely spirally striated whorls. Whorls 8 to' 9, regularly increasing, 
shoulder broad, flat or lightly convex, straight and subvertical below ; 
last whorl with a second angle bounding the base, which is flatly 
convex. Aperture oval, channelled above, produced into a short 
canal below. 1'crixloiiti' continuous. Oiiii r lij> thick, polished, sinuous, 
a light sinus at the middle and a deeper one on the base ; distinctly 
angled above on the continuation of the upper carina, and with a 
rounded projection below the lower angle of the whorl. Columella 
arcuate, rounded, subtruncate below, sometimes ending in a blunt 
point. Inner lip thick and polished, spreading far beyond the columella 
as a thinner callus over the concave parietal wall, but forming a thick 
tubercle at the upper end and forming a distinct channel with the 
outer lip. Operculuni oval, with a very sharp projection, dark brown, 
and concentrically striated. 

Diameter, 50 mm. ; height, 83 mm. Angle of spire, 55-60. 

Animal (Hutton, T.N.Z.I., xv, 117. pi. 12). --The oesophagus is 
long, the intestine passing through a loop of the aorta, anus on the 
right side. Gill single, attached to the mantle on the left side ; the 
plates long, stiff, free, and simple. Renal organ at the base of the 
gill, the duct opening at the base of the intromittant organ in the male, 
and between the right tentacle and the anus in the female. The intro- 
mittant organ is long, slender, non-retractile, situate at the base of 
the right tentacle. The oviduct of the female ends behind the right 
tentacle in an expanded fold of the skin. 

Dentition. The odontophore is small. (Hutton, T. N.Z.I., xiv. 163, 
pi. 6, f. H ; xv. pi. 12, f. 4.) 

Type lost. 

Hob. North and South Islands, Stewart Island ; more common in 
the north : Cheltenham Beach, Auckland, in sand at extreme low 
water (H. S.) ; Wellington Harbour (H. S.) ; Nelson (Enys) ; New 
Brighton, washed up after gales (H. S.) ; Port Pegasus, Stewart Is- 
land, in 18 fathoms, alive (Captain Bollons) ; Bay of Islands (Q. & 
G.) ; Kermadec Islands. Brought to England by Captain Cook. Also 
recorded from the Seychelles. 

Remarks. The operculum, with its free and sharply pointed end, 
110 doubt serves as a weapon of defence. On taking up a specimen 
the foot is extended to about 2 in. in length, and moved about in all 
directions. The Maoris are very fond of the animal of this species, 
and so are many white people. The peristome of the shell, after 
removal of the other parts, strung on flax-fibre, was used as an orna- 
ment by the Maoris. 

Maori. Takai (fide Quoy and Gaimard). 

Fossil in the Pliocene. 



276 GASTROPODA. [Pectinibranchia. 



2. Struthiolaria vermis, Martyn, 1784. Plate 40, fig. 2. 

Buccinum vermis, Mart., Un. Conch., ii, 1784, f. 53. Struthiolaria vermis, 
Mart., Conch. Icon., vi, f. 4 ; Ad. G.R.M., pi. 27, f. 6 : Chenu, Man. Conch., 
i, 263, f. 1653 ; Man. Conch. (1), vii, 133, pi. 12, f. 35, 36. S. australis, 
Cmel., Syst. Nat., ed. xiii, i, 1790, 3542. S. crenulata, Lamarck, A.s.V., 
vii, 1822, 148 ; Voy. Astrol., ii, 430, pi. 31. f. 7-9. S. inermis, Sowerby, 
Thes. Conch., i, 1842, 23, pi. 5, f. 12, 13, 19. 

Shell not very large, ovato-acute, not very thick, turreted, imper- 
f orate. Sculpture : The whorls are bicarinate ; the upper carina, 
limiting the shoulder, is more prominent, and ornamented with more 
or less distinct small nodules ; the lower keel is rounded, but faintly 
nodulous, and low and smooth on the last whorl ; the interspaces 
with unequidistant and subequal spiral lines, more distant and stronger 
upon the base ; the growth-lines are numerous, flexuous, and distinct. 
Colour cinereous or reddish-brown, with undulating streaks of darker ; 
interior of mouth mostly white, sometimes pale violet ; peristome 
yellowy margined with brown. Spire conical, turreted, very little 
higher than the aperture. Protoconch of 2 convex whorls, finely 
spirally striated, convex, the nucleus large and flat. Whorls 6 to 7, 
regularly increasing, shoulder oblique, flat, interspace between the 
upper and lower keel and between the latter and the suture concave ; 
base flattened and somewhat depressed. Suture deeply excavated. 
Aperture oval, higher than broad, with a rather wide channel above, 
and a very short canal at the base. Outer lip thick and rounded, with 
a shallow sinus on the middle and one at the base, where it is slightly 
effuse. Columella oblique, arcuate, subtruncate below. Inner lip very 
thick, broadly expanded on the base, spreading over the concave 
parietal wall, and forming a prominent callus near the outer lip. Oper- 
culutn small, unguiculate. 

Diameter, 29 mm. ; height, 45 mm. Angle of spire, 55-60. 

Animal Voy. Astrol., pi. 31, f. 8, 9 ; T.N.Z.I., xv, pi. 12. f. 6. 

Type lost. 

Hob. North Island ; very rare south of Cook Strait : Auckland 
Harbour (H. S.) ; Manawatu ; Tasman Bay (Q. & G.) ; Queen Char- 
lotte Sound, in 16 fathoms (Captain Bollons). Brought to England 
by Captain Cook. 

Fossil. Miocene and Pliocene. 

Subsp. tricarinata, Lesson, 1830. 



tricurinata, Lesson, Ann. Sci. Nat. (2), xvi, 256. Struthiolaria 
ii.f, subsp. tricarinata, Lesson, M.N.X.M.. (is. ,s'. xnitulata, Martyn: 
Cray, in Cleft'. N.Z., 232; not of Martyn; C.M.M., 24. wrongly as of 
Deshayes. 

Shell resembling very much S. vermis, but usually there appears 
a third keel above the suture on the penultimate whorl, the body- 
whorl having 3 keels, the uppermost distinct, the two lower ones 



GASTROPODA. 277 



much less prominent. Young specimens of 4 whorls show 3 very 
distinct rounded keels on the last whorl, the lowest arising from the 
suture. The protoconch is the same as in the species. Suture not 
excavated, well impressed, the whorl forming a narrow flat or very 
lightly concave band below it. Size the same as the species. 

Animal unknown. 

Type in the Mus. Hist. Nat., Paris. 

Hab. Auckland Harbour (H. S.) ; near Channel Island, Hauraki 
Gulf, in 25 fathoms ; South Island (teste Hutton) ; Little Barrier 
Island, in 20 fathoms (R. H. Shakespcar) ; Bay of Islands (J. C. 
Anderson). 

Fossil in the Pliocene of Wanganui. 

Fossil adult specimens show the 3 keels on the last whorl much 
more distinctly than I have seen it on Recent forms. 

Earn. XENOPHORID^E, Philippi. 
Onustidce, H. and A. Adams. 

Animal with long, annulated muzzle ; elongated, subulate ten- 
tacles, with sessile eyes at their external base ; foot small, used for 
jumping, not walking, with the anterior portion expanded, posteriorly 
tapering ; gill long, composed of narrow laminse and filaments. Den- 
tition 2+ 1+ 1 + 1 + 2; the central tooth subtrigonal, multicuspid ; 
laterals large, subtriangular, the margin reflected and multicuspid ; 
the marginals very narrow and long, arcuated. 

Shell depressed or conical, trochiform, with carinated periphery, 
not nacreous ; very often soldering shells, stones, &c., to its upper 
surface. Operculum large, horny, subannular, with lateral dextral 
nucleus, musciilar impression sinistral, semilunar. extending the 
whole length. 

These molluscs scramble along like the Strombs ; they extend 
and fix the front dilated part of the foot, and draw the posterior por- 
tion up to it, jerking the shell forwards at every movement ; this 
mode of progression is adapted to the nature of the surface on which 
they move, which is usually composed of the debris of dead shells. 
The peculiarity of this family is the habit of agglutinating foreign 
bodies to the upper surface of the shell, which is carried to such an 
extent in some instances as to conceal the volutions and give, the 
structure the appearance of a small pile of fragments of stones and 
shells. This imitation of its surroundings is no doubt protective 
in its nature. Of the shells attached, single valves of Lamellibranchs 
are preferred ; the interior of these is always turned up and free. 

The species Xenophora conchyliophora dates back to the Eocene 
of North America, and is still living in the West Indies, which is a 
strong testimony to the protective value of the device by which the 
members of this family defend themselves. (Ball.) 



"278 GASTROPODA. [Pectinibrancliia. 

Genus 1. XENOPHORA, G. Fischer, 1807. 

Xenophom, G. Fischer, "Museum Demidoff," iii, 1807, 213. Type: A". 
Icevigata, G. Fischer (Trochus conchyliophonis, Born). Phorus, Mont- 
fort, 1810. Pseudophonis, Meek. Astr&n, Bolten, 1798 (in part). 

Shell conical, trochiform. concave or flattened below ; whorls 
broad, commonly carrying pieces of stone, shells, or other objects, 
which are agglutinated to or imbedded in the upper surface of the 
shell, sometimes completely hiding it from view ; last whorl com- 
pressed, keeled at the periphery ; aperture large, oblique, outer 
margin very oblique and sharp ; umbilicate, narrowly rimate, or 
imperf orate. Operculum suboval or trapezoidal. 

Devonian to Recent. 

About twenty species are known, and they occur in the Indian 
and Pacific Oceans, China. Japan, Antilles, Africa, Mediterranean. 

Vernacular Name. Carrier-shell . 

1. Xenophora corrugata, Reeve, 1842. Plate 15, fig. 13. 

Phorus corrugatus, Reeve, P.Z.S., 1842, 163; Conch. Syst., ii, pi. 21-4, 
f. 5 ; Conch. Icon., i, pi. 2, f. 6. Xenophora corrugata, Reeve, Man. 
Conch. (1), viii, 159, pi. 45, f. 81, 82; Fischer, Coq. Viv., Trochus, 
pi. viii. Phorus onustus, Reeve : Button, C.M.M., 31 ; not of Reeve. 
P. conchyliophonis, Born : von Martens, Errata and Addenda to C.M.M., 
1874, 2 ; Hutton, J. de Conch., xxvi, 30. Xenophora conchyliophcra, 
Bom : Hutton, P.L.S. N.S.W., ix, 943 ; not of Born. X. pallidula, 
Reeve, Index, 79 ; not of Reeve. A', neozclanica, Suter, T.N.Z.I., xl. 
1907 (1908), 34(i, pi. 26, f. 1, 2. 

Shell large, trochiform, imperforate when adult (young shells being 
narrowly umbilicated), upper surface almost entirely concealed by 
agglutinated shells. Sculpture : Strong, oblique, irregular growth- 
lines are crossed by oblique, flexuous, and sometimes strongly curved 
stride, directed forward, usually more prominent near the periphery, 
which in places is produced into long, hollow, and deeply grooved 
spines, situated between the attached shells ; base with numerous 
inequidistant and sharp-ridged curved and granose ribs, the interstices 
with fine threads of growth or almost smooth ; crossed by rather 
distant spiral ribs, very distinct in young shells, but obsolete or wanting 
in adult specimens. Colour white or light-yellowish, the ridges upon 
the base yellowish to reddish-brown. Spire conical ; outlines mostly 
slightly convex. Protoconch small, conic, of a few convex smooth 
whorls, polished and white, with marks of agglutination of very small 
foreign bodies. Whorls about 9-10, first slowly then more rapidly 
increasing, the last whorl carinated ; base flat, concave towards 
the periphery. Aperture low and broad, inside porcellanous. highly 
polished. Outer lip very much produced along the periphery, the 
upper and outer wall forming a roof, the inside of which is porcel- 
lanous. Columella short, subvertical, arcuate, continued below into 
the horizontal, arcuate, sharp, and deflexed basal lip. Inner Up re- 
flexed over the umbilical tract, forming a thick white and shining 
callus, and extending in a thin layer over the parietal wall. Oper- 
subquadrangular, with a long and narrow muscular impression. 



Xenophortt.] GASTROPODA. 279 

Dimensions of shells from near Cuvier Island, without the ag- 
glutinated shells : Diameter, 68 mm. ; height, 35 mm. : diameter. 
70 mm. ; height, 58 mm. 

Dentition (Suter, T.N.Z.I.. xl, 346, fig. in text). Central tooth 
oval, with a strong median and 4 small cusps on each side ; lateral 
teeth sharply pointed on the inner upper side. 

Type in the British Museum. 

flab. Hauraki Gulf, in deep water ; near Tiri Tiri Island, in about- 
20 fathoms ; ten miles west of Cuvier Island, in 32 fathoms (Captain 
Bollons) ; near Little Barrier Island, in rather shallow water (Mr. 
Shakespear, jun.) ; off the Bay of Islands, in about 50 fathoms. 
Indian Ocean. Japan. 

Remarks. Two specimens, habitat unknown, are in the Dominion 
Museum. The New Zealand shell is neither A', conchyliophom, as 
suggested by von Martens, nor A', pallidula, as it was named by the 
late Captain Hutton ; it also is not a new species, as assumed by 
myself. Captain Bollons presented a specimen to the Australian 
Museum. Sydney, and on the 13th July, 1909, Mr. C. Hedley wrote 
to me, " Judging by Fischer (Coq. Vivantes, Trochus, pi. viii). the 
shell Captain Bollons sent me seems to be Xcnophora corrugata, Reeve." 
This is undoubtedly correct. Captain Bollons had meanwhile kindly 
given me a young specimen of our Xcnophora, and this shows the 
spiral ribs upon the base remarkably well. The absence of this sculp- 
ture in the two adult shells I have induced me to consider them to 
be a new species. The shells attached are usually Cliione mesodesma 
and C. Stutchburyi. 

Fossil in the Miocene and Pliocene. 

Fam. CAPULID.E, Fleming. 

Animal with a distinct head and lengthened muzzle ; eyes near the 
external base of the tentacles ; only one branchial plume is developed ; 
a tongue-shaped projection between snout and foot. 

Shell limpet-like, with a more or less spiral apex ; interior simple, 
with a horseshoe-shaped muscular impression. 

They are inhabitants of most seas, and date, back to the Silurian. 

KEY TO GENERA. 

A. Shell conical, with an inclined recurved apex . . CAPULUS. 

B. Shell flattish, with a not recurved apex . . . . . . NEOJANACTJS. 

Genus 1. CAPULUS, Montfort, 1810. 

Capulus (pars), Montfort, Conch. Syst., ii, 1810, 55. Type: Patella mi- 
garica, L. Galerita, Brongniarcl, 1808 ; not of Fabricius, 1801. Amal- 
thea fi, Schumacher, 1817 ; not Aialtheus, Montfort, 1810. Cabochon, 
Lamarck, 1812. Pilcopsis (pars), Lamarck, 1822. Actita, Fischer de 
Waldhcim, 1825. 

Animal with lengthened rostrum ; tentacles subulate, with the 
eyes at their outer bases ; mantle-margin fringed ; foot suborbicular, 



280 GASTROPODA. [Pectinibranchin. 



simple ; gill-plume placed obliquely across the mantle-cavity, tlie 
elongate linear laminae partly exposed. Central tooth of the radula 
trapezoidal, the reflected margin triangular, having long sharp median 
and very fine lateral cusps ; laterals multicuspidate ; marginals 
simple. 

Shell conical, provided with epidermis, apex posterior and directed 
to the right, more or less spirally curved ; aperture basal, the lip 
continuous, no inner process, the horseshoe-shaped muscular impres- 
sion on the inner wall. 

The few species inhabit the seas of Europe, the East and West 
Indies, western America, Australasia, &c. 

Fossil. The genus commenced with the Silurian. 

]. Capulus calcareus, Suter, 1909. Plate 15, fig. 14. 

Capidus calcareus, Suter, " Records Canterbury Museum," i, No. 2, 1901), 
122, pi. 12, f. 1, 2. 

Shell small, fairly solid, somewhat irregularly ovate, very little 
asymmetrical. Sculpture consisting of fine radiate striae, crossed by 
distinct concentric growth-hues ; most specimens I have seen had 
partly lost the epidermis and the radiate sculpture, the surface being 
quite smooth and chalky. Colour yellowish-brown ; white after 
having lost the epidermis, which is thin, horny, and peeling off very 
easily. Apex projecting far past the base. Protoconch well defined, 
of 1J smooth and convex whorls. Whorls If, the last half large, 
convex, expanded towards the aperture ; posterior slope below the 
apex short, concave. Aperture oval to subcircular, expanded, margin 
uneven, sharp ; inside white, polished. 

Breadth, 8-5 mm. ; length, 11-5 mm. ; height, 5mm. 

Dentition. Formula of radula 2+1+1+1 + 2. Central tooth 
trapezoidal, with a large median and 4 smaller cusps on each side. 
Lateral teeth with a large triangular reflection bearing 5 denticles 
on the inner side. Marginals unciform, the inner teeth with sharply 
pointed denticles on the posterior edge, outer marginals smooth. 

Type in the Canterbury Museum, Christchurch. 

Hob. Nine miles west of Cape Runaway, Bay of Plenty, in 105 
fathoms, on dead shells of Megalatractus maximus, Tryon (type) ; 
six miles east of Jones Head ; of! Lyttelton, in 100 fathoms (E. B. 
Waite). 

Genus 2. NEOJANACUS, Suter, 1907. 

Neojanacus, Suter, T.N.Z.I., xxxix, 1906 (1907), 26(i. Type : N. perplexus, 
Suter. 

Animal unknown. 

Shell having the appearance of the flat form of Crepidula contorta. 
Q. & G., without a basal plate ; small, flattened, oval or oblong scuti- 
form, with a minute subspiral apex and a horseshoe-shaped muscular 
impression. 

Known from New Zealand only. 



Neojanac/(x.\ GASTROPODA. 281 



1. Neojanacus perplexus, Suter, 1907. Plate 15, figs. 15, 15a. 

Neojanacus perplexus, Suter, T.N.Z.I., xxxix, 2(56. Genus (?), Murdoch and 
Suter, T.N.Z.I., xxxviii, 1905 (1906), 301, pi. 27, f. 52-54. 

Shell small, flat, convex when young, of very variable shape, mostly 
elongately oval, the posterior end with a broad inward cuive. Sculp- 
ture consisting of numerous small rounded and irregularly spaced 
concentric growth-periods, more distant anteriorly. Colour whitish. 
Epidermis very thin, horny, easily rubbed off. Protoconch terminal, 
distinctly marked off, smooth and polished, cap-shaped, with a slightly 
flattened rim-like margin ; it consists of one turn, somewhat oblique 
to the major axis. The margins slightly laminated, and usually with 
an upward curve, thus giving the dorsal surface a slightly concave 
aspect. Lower surface porcellanous, highly polished, with a horseshoe- 
shaped muscular impression, open in front, and extending over nearly 
half the length of the shell. 

Breadth, 4-66 mm. ; length. 7-76 mm. (type). 

Animal unknown. 

Type in the Dominion Museum, Wellington. 

Hab. Off Great Barrier Island, in 110 fathoms (type) ; Port 
Pegasus, Stewart Island, in 18 fathoms (Captain Bollons) ; Bounty 
Islands, in 50 fathoms (Captain Bollons). 

Remark. This shell, no doubt, lives in the aperture of other shells, 
like Crepidula contorta, Q. & G. 

Fam. HIPPONICIDJE, Fischer. 
AmaltheidcB, Dall. 

Animal without a foot, properly so called ; adductor muscle fixed 
to the interior of the shell above, and below either to the substratum 
excavated in the surface of the body on which the mollusc is attached 
or to a ventral calcareous opercular-like piece which completely closes 
the aperture ; inferior surface of the body encircled by a sort of ventral 
mantle with papillary margins, resembling the dorsal mantle, and 
morphologically corresponding to the epipodium ; muzzle long, deeply 
incised, and terminated by 2 lateral lobes ; tentacles long, subulate, 
the eyes sessile towards their base ; a spatuliform growth below the 
neck. Radula 2+1 + 1+1-1-2, the central tooth subquadrangular, 
the margin pectinated, the central cusp longer ; lateral teeth with 
denticulate margins ; marginals narrow, curved, denticulate. 

Shell conical, peristome simple, with or without an internal process 
attached at the apex, but an opercular piece normally forms the base 
to the shell, and is soldered to the surface of the body on which it lives 
attached. 

The HipponicidcB are such strange molluscs that they have been 
classed with the Rudistes by Sowerby and with the Brachiopods 
by Morris. They appear to be formed by two valves, one dorsal, the 
other ventral, but in reality the ventral valve is a curiously modified 
operculum, secreted by the epipodium. The embryos have a spiral shell. 



282 GASTROPODA. [Pectinibranchia. 

Genus HIPPONIX, Defrance, 1819. 

Hipponix, Defrance, Bull. Soc. Philom., Paris, Jan. 1819, 3 me ser, 8, 9. 
Type: H. cornucopice, Defr. Capulus (part), Montfort, 1810. Amal- 
thea a, Schumacher, 1817; not Atixilfln H*, Montfort, 1810. Pileopsis 
(pars), Lamarck, 1822. Hipponyx, Blainvillc, 1824. Krehsia, Mb'rch, 
1877. M alluvium, Melvill, 190(5. 

Animal oval or suborbicular, conical or depressed ; foot very thin, 
a little thickened towards the margin ; head globose, separated from 
the body by a, neck-like constriction ; eyes upon swellings of the 
tentacles. 

Shell thick, obliquely conical, non-spiial, apex somewhat posterior 
and directed backwards, surface rugose or longitudinally grooved or 
cancellated ; muscular impression horseshoe-shaped ; base of attach- 
ment (opercular piece), when present, thick. 

Distribution. Warm seas. 

Fossil. Cretaceous to Pliocene. 

Found fossil in New Zealand : H. mdiatus, Button, in the 
Miocene. 

1. Hipponix hexagonus, Suter, 1906. Plate 44, fig. 1. 

Amnlthea hexagona, Sut., T.N.Z.T., xxxviii, 19(.)."> (1906), -326. Hipponyx 
cornucopice, Lamarck : Hutton, C.M.M., 32 ; not of Lamarck. H. aus- 
tndis, Lam. : Hutton, J. de Conch., 1878, 30 ; M.N.Z.M., 88 ; not of 
Lamarck. 

Shell solid, conical or depressed, with a posterior apex. Sculpture : 
Young shells show strong radiate riblets, crossed by very numerous 
concentric lamelke ; adult shells have almost always a rugose surface, 
the sculpture of the young shell having been lost through corrosion, 
sometimes, however, traces of the riblets may be seen near the margin, 
and concentric ridges can be distinguished. Colour greenish-white ; 
the interior has a light-green central area, the margin light purple. 
Aperture more or less distinctly hexagonal, but rarely pentagonal ; 
margin sharp, uneven, sometimes slightly denticulate ; muscular im- 
pression distinct, horseshoe-shaped, rather narrowly open in front. 

Diameter, maj., of aperture, 22 mm. (large specimen) ; height vary- 
ing from about 6mm. to 10 mm. 

Dent ition unknown. 

Tt/ne in my collection. 

!/ L */ 

Hob. Tauranga (type) ; Chatham Islands ; South-west Point, 
Bluff (Captain Bollons). 

Remarks. Captain Bollons found the shells forming a cluster on 
a rock, closely in touch with one another, hence the more or less 
hexagonal outline of the shells. 



Fain. CALYPTR^IID^], Broderip. 

Animal with a distinct head and lengthened muzzle, slit at its 
extremity ; tentacles subulate, carrying eyes near their external base ; 
foot short, rounded oval ; the single branchia finely and deeply pecti- 



GASTROPODA. 283 



nated ; adductor muscle horseshoe-shaped or oval ; jaws rudimentary. 
Visceral mass spiral, lateral cervical lobes present, and there are acces- 
sory genital glands. Radula. with a sub quadrangular central tooth, 
the margin pectinated, the central cusp longer ; lateral teeth with 
denticulate margins ; marginals narrow, curved, denticulate. 

Shell conic, patelliform, the summit more or less spiral ; interior 
polished, porcellanous, chambered by a basal plate or variously shaped 
process, supporting the viscera ; peristome entire. No operculum or 
attached base. 

The CalyptrcsidcB are found adhering to stones and shells ; most 
of them appear never to quit the spot on which they first settle, as 
the margins of their shells become adapted to the irregularities of the 
surface beneath. The form and colour of the shell both depend some- 
what upon the situation in which it grows : those found on the inside 
of the mouth of dead shells are generally flat or even concave above, 
and white ; those attached to the outside of shells are convex, and 
coloured. The animal is supposed to feed on seaweeds and animal- 
cules. They sometimes cover and hatch their spawn under the fore- 
part of the foot. 

Vernacular Names. Bonnet, slipper, and cup-and-saucer limpets. 

KEY TO GENERA. 

a. Shell conical, trochiform ; interior with a spiral diaphragm . . CALYPTE.EA. 

na. Shell oval, limpet-like ; interior with a lamina, covering the 

posterior half of the aperture . . . . . . CKEPIDULA. 

Genus 1. CALYPTR.EA, Lamarck, 1799. 

Calyptrmi, Lam., Prodrome Nouveau Class., 1799, 78 : not Lamarck, 1801. 
Type: C. cliinensis, L. Inf-undibulunt, Sowerby, 1812. Trochita, Schu- 
macher, 1817. Galerus (Humphrey), H. and A. Adams, 1854. Lepto- 
notis, Conrad, 1866 (very young shell). (For full list of synonyms see 
W. H. Dall, U.S. Geol. Survey, Professional Paper 59" The Miocene 
of Astoria and Coos Bay, Oregon," 1909, 81.) 

Animal having a short head, the muzzle bilobed ; tentacles rather 
short, cylindrical, with the eyes on tubercles at their exterior base ; 
foot short, rounded, obtuse behind, angular in front. 

Shell conical, trochiform, with a lateral spiral apex ; aperture 
basal, circular, entire. ; interior furnished with a spiral basal plate, 
the coluniellar margin of which is twisted, forming a false umbilicus, 
free margin convex. 

The Recent species are tropical and subtropical in their distribution. 

Fossil. The genus first appears in the Lower Cretaceous. 

Siibgen. 1. CALYPTR^EA, s. str. 
Trochaiclla, Lesson, 1830. Clypeola, Gray, 1867. 
Summit central or subcentral. 

KEY TO SPECIES. 
a. Shell rather small, thin, conoidal, depressed . . . . . . scutum. 

aa. Shell large, thick, solid, conic, elevated .. .. .. ulta. 



284 GASTROPODA. [Pectinihfi nr!i,,i. 



1, Calyptrsea scutum, Lesson, 1830. Plate 44, fig. 4. 

Calyptrcea scutum, Lesson, Voy. Coq., Zool., ii, 1830, 395 ; Man. Conch. (1), 
viii, 122 ; Index, 79. Trochita scutum, Lesson : Hutton, J. de Conch., 
xxvi, 30 ; M.N.Z.M., 86. Calyptrcea (Cli/peola) tennis, Gray, P.Z.S., 
1867, 735. Trochita tennis, Gray, C.M.M., 32. 

Shell conoidal, with a nearly central elevated apex, circular or 
slightly oval, thin and fragile. Sculpture consisting of oblique fine 
radiate riblets, sweeping forwards in a long curve, and cut up into 
small elongated tubercles by the growth-lines. Colour light brown 
or cinereous. Epidermis very thin, horny. Spire conoidal towards 
the base, conic and elevated towards the apex. Protoconcli small, 
slightly oblique to the vertical axis, central or subcentral, consisting 
of 1J to 2 convex, smooth, and deeply sutured whorls. Whorls about 
4, very rapidly increasing, flatly convex. Suture inconspicuous. Aper- 
ture entire, rounded, porcellanous, and shining ; margin thin and sharp. 
Basal plate smooth and shining, with a few fine growth-striae, the 
edge slightly concave, loosely coiled up, so as to leave a free space in 
the centre, up which the apex can be seen. 

Diameter Maj., 23 mm. ; min., 20 mm. : height, 12 mm. (very 
large specimen). Diameter Maj., 13mm.; xnin., 12mm.: height, 
4 mm. (usual size). 

Animal unknown. 

Type in the Mus. Hist. Nat., Paris. 

Hob. Throughout New Zealand, in depths from 2 to 110 fathoms ; 
Stewart Island, in 18 fathoms (Captain Bollons) ; Lyttelton Harbour, 
in 2 to 4 fathoms (H. S.) ; Hauraki Gulf, in 4 to 25 fathoms (H. S.) ; 
off Little Barrier Island, in 110 fathoms. Also Victoria (Gatliff). 

Remark. Sometimes the radiate riblets are absent. 

Fossil in the Pliocene. 

2. Calyptrsea alta, Hutton, 1885. Plate 44, fig. 2. 

Trochita alta, Hutt., T.N.Z.L, xvii, 1884 (1885), 329. Cnh/ptrmi ttlfn, Hutt., 
Plioc. M., 62, pi. 7, f. 59 ; Suter, T.N.Z.L, xxxviii. 326. 

Shell rather large, solid, conical, high. Sculpture consisting of 
oblique, close, rugose, elevated growth-strife. Colour yellowish-brown, 
the summit sometimes purplish. Epidermis thin and horny. Spire 
conical ; outlines convex. Protoconch small, of 1^ convex, smooth, 
white, and polished whorls. Whorls 4, rapidly increasing, flatly convex. 
Suture distinct, not much impressed. Aperture entire, subcircular, 
polished. Basal plate white, shining, with oblique growth-lines ; margin 
thin, sharp. Columella short, arcuate, slightly reflexed, and forming 
a very narrow false umbilicus. 

Diameter, 25 mm. ; height, 16 mm. (type Miocene fossil). Dia- 
meter Maj., 32mm.; min., 29mm.: height, 20mm. (Recent speci- 
men). 



Calyptrcea.] GASTROPODA. 285 

Animal unknown. 

Type in the Canterbury Museum, Christchurch. 
Hob. Cape Maria van Diemen (McGahey) ; Manukau (fide W. H. 
Webster). 

Fossil. Miocene and Pliocene. 

Subgen. 2. SIGAPATELLA, Lesson, 1830. 

Sigapatella, Lesson, Voy. Coq., Zool., ii, 389. Haliotoidea, Swainson, 1840. 
' Trochdla, Gray, 1867. Calyptropsis, Tate, 1893. 

Shell oval, with lateral apex ; basal plate with submarginal axis ; 
the free margin concave. 

3. Calyptraea maculata, Quoy and Gaimard, 1835. Plate 14, 
figs. 3, 3a. 

Crepidtilit maculata, Q. & G., Voy. Astral., iii, 1835, 422, pi. 72, f. 6-9. 
Calyptrcea novce-zelandice, Lesson, Voy. Coq., 1830, ii, 395. C. dilatata, 
Sow. : Gray, in Yate N.Z., 308, and Dieff. N.Z., 243. Trochita maculata, 
Q. & G., Crit. List., 28. T. novce-zealandice, Less. : Hutton, J. de Conch., 
1878, 30 ; M.N.Z.M., 86 ; Conch. Icon., Trochita, xi, pi. 3, f. 15. Galerus 
neozelanicus, Less. : Hutton, P.L.S. N.S.W., ix, 938. Calyptrcea calyptrce- 
formis, Lam. : Tryon, Man. Conch. (1), viii, 122, pi. 35, f. 98, 99 ; not of 
Lamarck. C. novce-zeelandice, Lesson : Suter, T. N.Z.I., xxxviii, 326. 

Shell rounded, convex, rather thin, with a lateral summit. Sculp- 
ture consisting of well-marked, fiattish, and rugose growth-lines. Colour 
greenish-yellow to light brown ; interior white, a large spot of purple 
or purplish-brown near the centre. Epidermis thick, horny, lamellate 
in the direction of the growth-periods, and produced into rays and 
ragged processes. Spire small, conic, salient, lateral, and posterior. 
Protoconch small, of 1J convex whorls, the first smooth, the following 
half with a few microscopic growth-lines and spiral stria?. Whorls 
3 to 4, convex, the last very large. Suture superficial. Aperture 
roundly oval, entire, polished. Basal plate white, with very fine 
growth-lines, the free margin thin, sharp, lightly concave. Columella 
lateral, dilated at its insertion, and furnished with a triangular lamina, 
which partly hides the rather wide false umbilicus. 

Diameter Maj., 33 mm. ; rnin., 28mm.: height, 10mm. (large 
specimen). 

Dentition. Hutton, T.N.Z.I., xiv, 163, pi. 7, f. A. 

Type in the Mus. Hist. Nat., Paris. 

Hab. Throughout New Zealand and at the Chatham Islands. 
Brought to England by Captain Cook. 

Remarks. The species was first figured by Quoy and Gaimard, 
and their name therefore stands in preference to the earlier name of 
Lesson. Young shells have mostly the basal plate white, and the 
whole roof purplish-brown. The height of the shell is very variable. 

Fossil. Miocene and Pliocene. 



286 GASTROPODA. [Pectinibranchia. 



Genus 2. CREPIDULA, Lamarck, 1799. 

Crepidula, Lam., Mem. Soc. Hist. Nat. Paris, 1799, 78. Type : Patella for ni- 
cata,it. Proscenula, Perry, 1811. C'rypta, Humphrey, 1797 (name only). 

Animal with head depressed, laterally dilated, muzzle short, 
bilobed ; tentacles short, subulate ; foot short, subtruncate in front, 
rounded behind. 

Shell oval, patelliform, with a posterior generally lateral spiral 
apex ; interior with a basal plate covering the posterior half of the 
aperture. 

Adhering to shells or stones, and modifying the form and surface 
in accordance with the inequalities of their place of attachment. 

The distribution is world- wide ; the individual species have a 
wide range, which, added to their great variability, as in attached 
shells generally, has caused an enormous specific synonymy. 

Fossil. Cretaceous and Tertiary. In the Miocene the genus 
exhibits luxuriance both in size and variation. 

Vernacular XHHH-. Slipper-limpet. 

KEY TO SPECIKS. 

A. Upper surface nearly smooth, high convex or flattened, sometimes 

concave . . . . . . . . . . . . crepidula. 

B. Upper surface with radiating nodulous or spino.se ridges . . costata. 

1. Crepidula crepidula, Linne, 1764. Plate 44, figs. 5. 5a. 

Patdla crepidula, L., Mus. Lud. Ulricse, 1764, 689; Favanne, "Conchylio- 
logic," pi. 4, f. D. Crepidula unguiformis, Lamarck, A.s.V., vii, 1822, 642. 
Calyptrcp.a (Crepidula) monoxyla, Lesson, Voy. Coq., ii, 1830, 391. Crepi- 
dula monoxyla, Lesson, Man. Conch. (1), viii, 128, pi. 37, f. 35, 36 ; 130, 
pi. 39, f. 66-68. C. contorta, Q, & G.. Voy. Astrol., iii, 1835, 418, pi. 72, 
f. 15, 16. Crypta profunda, Hutton, C. Tert. M., 1873, 14. 

SkcU oval or oblong, high convex, flattened or concave above, 
often twisted, nearly smooth, but frequently somewhat lamellar. 
Sculpture consisting of close concentric growth-lines, slightly lamellar 
anteriorly ; crossed by fine and close microscopic radiate striae, dis- 
tinctly visible on the neanic part of the shell, but very often obsolete 
on the remainder of the upper surface. Colour white or yellowish- 
white. Epidermis very thin, horny, easily worn off. Protoconch of 
one-half whorl onlv, flatlv convex and smooth ; in voung shells it is 

t/ ^' ./ O 

at the posterior fourth, but in adult shells it is mostly terminal. Shells 
living on stones or other shells are flatly or very highly convex, those, 
however, living in the interior of dead gastropod shells are quite flat 
or concave above. Interior porcellanous, highly polished ; the pos- 
teriorly situated basal plate convex, with a sharp slightly concave 
margin, the length of the plate being about one-fourth of the length 
of the shell. 

Length of adult shell, 20-25 mm. ; the breadth and height are 
extremelv variable. 



Crepidula.] GASTROPODA. 287 



Dentition. Hutton, T.N.Z.I., xv, 122, pi. 14, f. B ; xvi, 214 : 
Gray, Guide Moll. B.M., 115. 

Hab. Throughout New Zealand, from low -water mark to about 
40 fathoms. The species is cosmopolitan. 

Remarks. The C. crepidula, L., and monoxyla, Less., were hitherto 
considered to be distinct species. Pritchard and Gatliff, however, 
united them under C. unguiformis, Lam. The dentition of the two 
does not show any marked difference, and the protoconch as well as 
the nepionic shells show the same characters. The shells are mostly 
found upon Turbo smaragdus, and in the mouth of Siphonalia, &c. 

Fossil. Miocene and Pliocene. 

2. Crepidula costata, Sowerby, 1824. Plate 44, figs. 6, 6a. 

Crepidula costata, Sow., Gen. of Recent & Foss. Shells, No. 23, f. 3. Patella 
aculeata, Graelin, Syst. Nat., ed. xiii, 3693. C. costata, Sow., Voy. 
Astrol., iii, 1835, 414, pi. 72, f. 10-12. C. nfuleata, Gmel., Man. 
Conch. (1), viii. 129, pi. 39, f. 61-65: Chall. Rep., xv, 458. 

Shell oval, moderately convex, solid, radiately strongly ridged. 
Sculpture consisting of strong radiating nodulose or spinose ridges, 
often interrupted by periods of rest ; interstices with more or less 
numerous radiate strise ; growth-lines prominent, and lamellar on 
the anterior part of the shell. Colour whitish, yellowish, or brownish, 
often chestnut-rayed ; interior often blotched or rayed with brown 
or purple ; basal plate white. Epidermis very thin, horny, deci- 
duous. Protoconch minute, oblique, of 1 smooth and flatly convex 
Avhorl, mostly with a few brown lines ; the nepionic shell has very fine 
concentric growth-lines, but no radiate sculpture. The shell is flatly 
to highly convex, with the apex lateral, posterior, and terminal. In- 
terior porcellanous, polished, the margin of the roof more or less 
denticulate. Basal plate flat or convex, free margin sharp, almost 
straight ; length of the plate somewhat over one-third of the total 
length of the shell. 

Length, 50 mm. ; breadth, 31 mm. ; height, 18 mm. (large specimen). 

Dentition. Hutton, T.N.Z.I., xv, 122, pi. 14, f. A. 

Type in the British Museum. 

Hab. North Island of New Zealand. Brought to England by 
Captain Cook. 

Remarks. Sowerby's species was first figured, and his specific 
name has to be adopted. This again is a cosmopolitan species. Gray 
(P.Z.S., 1867, 737) mentions the following species as synonyms : C. 
echinus and hystriz, Broderip ; C. californica, Nuttall. 

Fossil. Miocene and Pliocene. 

Fam. NATICIDJE, Swainson. 

Animal with small tentacles, which are lanceolate, wide apart, 
connected by a veil ; eyes absent or placed under the skin, behind 
the tentacles ; foot highly developed and provided with an aquiferous 



288 GASTROPODA. [PeclinibrancJiia. 

system, much produced in front, where it is furnished with a fold 
(propodium) covering the head and anterior margin of the shell ; oper- 
cuiigerous lobe very ample, partially enveloping the shell ; mantle 
enclosed. Jaws corneous, waved or tessellated, subtrigonal. Central 
tooth of the radula trapezoidal, generally tricuspidate ; lateral teeth 
with a central large and smaller cusps ; inner marginals simple or 
bifid ; outer marginals simple. 

Shell turbinate, subglobose or auriform, the spire usually short ; 
aperture entire, without canal or sinus ; the outer lip sharp, not 
reflected or margined ; the inner lip callous, more or less reflected 
over the umbilicus. Operculum calcareous or corneous, paucispiral. 

The animals of Naticidce, characterized by the cephalic disc forming 
the propodium, are completely retractile within the shell in the typical 
Natica, but not retractile in some other forms. The nidus is unlike 
that of any other mollusc in form and composition, being built up 
largely of the sand of the sea-bottom, agglutinated into a strap, form- 
ing part of a circle, and provided on one side with a constriction or 
rim ; the walls contain the eggs, arranged in quincunx order. 

The Natica is an active animal, carnivorous and very predaceous, 
living in sandy places, where it hides under the surface, and burrows 
for bivalves ; these it pierces with its tongue, boring a round hole,, 
generally near the beaks, where the shell of the victim is thinnest. 

KEY TO GENERA. 

A. Operculum calcareous . . . . . . . . . . NATICA. 

B. Operculum horny. 

a. Aperture not very large, columella nearly straight . . POLINICES. 

n/i. Aperture very large, columella curved, S-shaped . . AMPULLINA. 

Genus 1. NATICA, Scopoli, 1777. 

Natica, Scopoli, Introd. Hist. Nat., 1777, 392. Type : Nerita vitellus, L. 
Xatica, Scopoli: Bruguiere, Enc. Meth., i, p. xvi, 1789; Lamarck, 
Prodrome, 1799, 77. Cochlis, Bolten, 1798. Nacca, Risso, 1826. 

Animal with large cephalic lobe, truncated in front, sub- 
quadrangular. 

Shell oval-globular, porcellanous, solid, generally smooth, covered 
by a fine epidermis, which is transparent and generally not very 
persistent ; umbilicated, or umbilicus more or less filled with callus ; 
aperture semilunar, vertical, the outer lip simple. Operculum large, 
semilunar, paucispiral, calcareous. 

The species are numerous ; mostly inhabitants of the warm seas, 
in all quarters of the globe. The genus first appeared in the Jurassic 
formation. The fossil forms are remarkable for the persistence of 
their colours. 

Vernacular Name. Necklace-shell. 

KEY TO SPECIES. 

A. Umbilicus with a white, central, entering callus ; shell of moderate 

size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zdandica. 

B. Umbilicus partly covered by a brown not entering callus ; shell 

small . . australis. 



Natica.] GASTROPODA. 289 



1. Natica australis, Hutton, 1878. Plate 15, fig. 16. 

Lunatia australis, Hutt., J. cle Conch., xxvi, 1878, 23 ; T.N.Z.I., x, 295 ; 
M.N.Z.M., 72. Natica australis, Hutt., P.L.S. N.S.W., ix, 934 ; Plioc. 
M., 54, pi. 7, f. 38. 

Shell small, globose, fairly solid, polished, smooth, umbilicate. 
Sculpture consisting of very fine and close growth-lines, crossed by 
faint microscopical striae. Colour either uniformly brown with a few 
lighter blotches, or cinereous with radiate flexuous narrow brown 
bands, a series of triangular whitish spots revolving a short distance 
below the suture, and irregular-shaped white streaks issuing from 
the umbilicus ; peristome light brown. Epidermis thin, transparent, 
shining. Spire low, depressed conoidal, lower than the height of 
aperture ; outlines convex. Protoconch small, with a comparatively 
large nucleus, of 1| smooth flattish whorls. Whorls 3^, convex, the 
last large in proportion ; base convex. Suture lightly impressed. 
Aperture subvertical, semilunar, inside dark brown. Outer Up convex, 
with a rather blunt edge. Columella subvertical, thick and callous, 
curved below towards the basal lip. Inner lip strongly callous, tri- 
angularly produced over half of the umbilicus, and forming a thick 
brown and shining callus on the parietal wall. Umbilicus moderate, 
the outer half open. Operculum calcareous, paucispiral, with distant 
growth-lines and close spiral striae. 

Diameter, 7-5 mm. ; height, 7-5 mm. (type). 

Animal unknown. 

Type in the Otago Museum, Dunedin. 

Hab. Auckland Harbour, dredged in Rangitoto Channel, type 
(T. F. Cheeseman) ; off Great Barrier Island, in 110 fathoms ; Snares, 
in 50 fathoms (Captain Bollons). 

Remarks. The specimens from 110 fathoms are white, semitrans- 
parent, occasionally with a few radiate brown bands. The inner lip 
is by far not so strongly callous, and leaving sometimes the umbilicus 
quite open. 

Fossil in the Pliocene. 

2. Natica zelandica, Quoy and Gaimard, 1832. Plate 44, figs. 7, la. 

Natica zelandica, Q. & G., Voy. Astrol., ii, 1832, 237, pi. 66, f. 11, 12 ; Dieff. 
N.Z., 241; Conch. Icon, ix, pi. 20, f. 90; Man. Conch. (1), viii, 22, 
pi. 4, f. 70. 

Shell globose, rather thin, smooth and polished, with a funiculate 
umbilicus. Sculpture consisting of fine, close, subequal growth-lines, 
flexuous and stronger below the suture ; these are crossed by numerous 
microscopic undulating spiral strise. Colour yellowish-fawn, with 5-6 
whitish spiral bands painted with chestnut-coloured arrow-headed 
markings, a narrow whitish band margining the suture below ; base 
white. Epidermis very thin, shining. Spire lateral, conoidal, much 
lower than the height of aperture ; outlines convex. Protoconch de- 
pressed convex, of 2 smooth convex whorls. Whorls 5|^ to 6, first 

10 Moll. N.Z. 



290 GASTROPODA. [Pectinibranchia. 



very slowly then rapidly increasing, the last very large, convex ; base 
rounded. Suture well marked, not impressed. Aperture oval, sub- 
vertical, interior light brown with a few lighter bands, white and 
callous inside the margins. Outer lip convex, thin and sharp. Colu- 
mella oblique, porcellanous, arcuate below. Inner Up forming a 
strong semicircular white callus, entering the umbilicus, and sometimes 
nearly filling it up, leaving only a channel and a narrow chink above, 
spreading above as a thin white callosity over the parietal wall. Um- 
bilicus with a distinct yellow callus spreading over part of the base. 
Operculum semilunar, calcareous, paucispiral, nucleus near the lower 
inner margin, inside with a yellowish horny and polished epidermis, 
with radiate growth-lines and a few median spiral striae. 

Diameter, 21 mm. ; height, 24-75 mm. (type). Diameter, 26 mm. ; 
height, 28 mm. (large specimen). Diameter, 19 mm. ; height, 22 mm. 
(the usual size). 

Animal unknown. 

Type in the Mus. Hist. Nat., Paris. 

Hab. Throughout New Zealand and at the Chatham Islands ; 
near Resolution Island, in 12 fathoms ; Stewart Island, in 18 fathoms ; 
ofi Great Barrier Island, in 110 fathoms ; Hauraki Gulf, in 25 fathoms ; 
Kermadec Islands. 

Fossil. Miocene and Pliocene. 

Genus 2. POLINICES, Montfort, 1810. 

Polinices, Montfort, Conch. Syst., ii, 1810, 223. Type : Nerita mammilla, L. 
Natica, Risso, 1826 ; not of Lamarck, 1799. Albulci, Bolten, 1798 ; not 
of Gronovius, 1763. Neverita, Risso, 1826. Euspira, Agassiz, 1842 (in 
part). Lunatia, Gray, 1847. Cepatia, Gray, 1840. Velainia, Munier- 
Chalmas, 1884. Naticina, Fischer, 1885 ; not of Guilding, 1834. 
Sigaretopsis, Cossman, 1888. 

Shell oval-elongate, subglobular or depressed, generally smooth, 
umbilicated or having the umbilicus closed by a callus. Operculum 
corneous, paucispiral, semilunar, having the nucleus nearly lateral, 
concave externally. 

Fossil in the Tertiary. 

1. Polinices amphialus, Watson, 1881. Plate 46, fig. 1. 

Natica amphiala, Wats., J.L.S., xv, 1881, 260; Chall. Rep., xv, 1886, 437, 
pi. 27, f. 6. Natica vitrea, Button, C.M.M., 21. Lunatia vitrea, Butt., 

M!N.Z.M., 72. 

Shell thick, depressedly globose, with a small scalar rather elevated 
spire and a narrow obliquely pointed base, pale yellow, umbilicated. 
Sculpture : Longitudinals there are many fine close-set lines of 
growth ; spirals there are a few faint traces of obsolete lines and 
furrows, there is a slight angulation round the mouth of the umbilical 
pore. Colour is slightly brownish-yellow, but is pure porcellanous- 
white below the epidermis, which is thin, slightly puckered, smooth, 
not glossy, persistent. Spire short, but abrupt and scalar. Proto- 



Polin-ices.} GASTROPODA. 291 



conch rather large, depressed convex, of 1J smooth whorls. Whorls 
4|, narrow, flatly rounded, of gradual increase to the last, which is 
disproportionately large, especially toward the mouth. Suture strong, 
slightly channelled, almost quite horizontal. Aperture large, oval, 
very little oblique, and rather straight, scarcely pointed above ; it is 
more than two-thirds of the whole height. Outer lip sharp but strong, 
patulous throughout. Inner lip straightish, but slightly concave in 
its whole length ; it is expanded at the labial callus, which is thick, 
with a labial pad. The front of the columella is thickened and flattened 
back on the very indistinct circumumbilical carina. Umbilicus is a 
rather coarse, pervious, smallish, round hole, hardly encroached on 
at all by the inner lip ; it is barely funiculate. Operculum mem- 
branaceous, thinnish, of a yellow colour, with a dark-maroon outer 
edge, which does not quite coil into the centre. (Watson.) 

Diameter, 6-25 mm. ; height, 6-75 mm. (type). Diameter, 8-5 mm. ; 
height, 9 mm. (type of P. vitreus, Hutt.). 

Animal unknown. 

Type in the British Museum ; of P. vitreus, in the Dominion 
Museum, Wellington. 

Hob. North-east from New Zealand, in 700 fathoms, Chall. Stat. 
169 (type) ; Stewart Island (type of P. vitreus) ; Chatham Islands ; 
Bounty Islands, in 50 fathoms (Captain Bollons). 

Fossil in the Pliocene. 

Genus 3. AMPULLINA (Lamarck), Bowdich, 1822. 

Ampullina, Bowdich (as of Lam.), Elem. Conch., i, 1822, 31. Type : 
Ampullaria de-pressa, Lam. ; not of Sow. Ampullinopsis, Conrad, 1865. 
Megatyloius, Fischer, 1885. Amauropsis, Morch, 1857. Globulus, J. deC. 
Sowerby, 1835 ; not of Schumacher, 1817. Euspira (sp.), Desor and 
Agassiz, 1842. Globularia, Swainson, 1840. Crommium, Cossmann, 1888. 
Amauropsella, Chelot, 1885. Amaurdlina, Fischer, 1885. Ampullina, 
Bowdich : W. H. DaU, U.S. Geol. Survey, Professional Paper 59" The 
Miocene of Astoria and Coos Bay, Oregon," 1909, 89. 

Shell naticiform ; umbilicus without a funiculus, open or closed 
by a callosity ; aperture large ; outer margin sinuous, produced at 
the middle ; umbilical region generally limited by a spiral rib or Limb 
more or less developed ; columella-border curved, typically S-shaped. 

Fossil in the Tertiary. 

KEY TO SPECIES. 

A. Two low rounded ribs on the umbilical area . . . . . . venusta. 

B. Umbilical area without ribs . . . . . . . . . . undulata. 

1. Ampullina undulata, Hutton, 1885. Plate 15, fig. 17. 

Sigaretus undulatus, Hutt., T.N.Z.I., xvii, 1884 (1885), 318, pi. 18, f. 11 > 
Plioc. M., 55, pi. 7, f. 41 ; Webster, T.N.Z.I., xxxvii, 280. * 

Shell moderately large, subglobose, nearly smooth, thin and fragile, 
umbilicus sealed up. Sculpture : Fine oblique and flexuous growth- 
lines, crossed by delicate, close, undulating spiral lines, more distant 

10* 



292 GASTROPODA. [Pectinibranchia. 

and broader upon the base. Colour light-yellowish or white. Spire 
very low, arched, with the apex a little raised, less than one-third the 
height of the aperture. Protoconch consisting of 2J smooth flattish 
whorls. Whorls 4|, first slowly increasing, but the last very large, 
flatly convex ; base convex. Suture impressed. Aperture ovate, 
rather produced anteriorly. Outer Up convex, thin and sharp, slightly 
produced in the middle. Parietal wall and columella together are 
S-shaped. Columella vertical, arcuate, curved off towards the slightly 
convex basal lip. Inner lip spreading as a fairly thick callus beyond 
the columella, covering up the umbilicus, and extending over the 
parietal wall. Operculum unknown. 

Diameter, 21 mm. ; height, 21 mm. (type). 

Animal unknown. 

Type, from the Pliocene, in the Canterbury Museum, Christchurch. 

Hob. Cape Maria van Diemen (teste Webster). 

Remarks. I have seen no Recent specimen. The description is 
made from a fossil shell from Wanganui. 

Fossil in the Pliocene. 

2. Ampullina venusta, Suter, 1907. Plate 15, fig. 18. 

Euspira venusta, Suter, P. Mai. S., vii, No. 4, March, 1907, 215, pi. 18, f. 13. 

Shell large, globose, white, imperf orate, with 2 low spiral ribs 
round the umbilical region. Sculpture consists of close, unequal, 
spiral, slightly wavy lines, which are crossed by subequidistant fine 
growth-lines, interspersed with distant strong and flexuous radial 
folds, very likely marking periods of rest. Colour light bluish-white, 
porcellanous. Spire conoidal, about a quarter the height of the 
shell. Protoconch depressedly globose, formed by 2| smooth and 
convex whorls. Whorls 5|, first slowly then rapidly increasing, con- 
vex, the last whorl very large and rounded ; base convex ; 2 low 
and broadly rounded ribs encircling the umbilical region, the outer 
rib beginning at the lower third of the penultimate whorl and ter- 
minating at the junction of the outer with the basal lip. Suture not 
deep, on the last H whorls with a milk-white broad inferior band. 
Aperture large, broadly ovate below, much excavated above by the 
penultimate whorl. Outer lip broadly rounded, thin and sharp. Inner 
lip spreading as a thin and broad callus over the body- whorl, but 
forming a thick white and shining callus on the concave columella ; 
the columellar border and parietal wall regularly S-shaped. Basal lip 
narrowly rounded, not produced. The columella does not form a 
vertical solid pillar, but is wound up in a spiral, leaving, a free space, 
of about 3 mm. diameter at the base, up which the apex can be seen. 
Operculum unknown. 

Diameter, 37 mm. ; height, 40 mm. 

Animal unknown. 

Type in my collection. 

Hob. Near Cape Farewell. 



Ampulliiui.] GASTROPODA. 293 



3. Ampullina apora, Watson, 1881. 

Natica (Amauropsis) apora, Watson, J.L.S., xv, 1881, 265 ; Chall. Rep., 
xv, 454, p. 27, f. 11. Amaura apora, Wats., Index, 80. 

Shell conical-oval, thin, umbilicated, with a coarse brown epi- 
dermis and a channelled suture. 

Diameter, 16-25 mm. ; height, 18 mm. 

Hob. The type is from the Arron Islands, in 800 fathoms. 

There is a species of Natica from Chall. Stat. 169, north-east from 
New Zealand, 700 fathoms, which may perhaps be this species, but 
it is in too bad condition for identification. (Watson.) 

Fam. LAMELLARIID^, d'Orbigny. 

Animal having a short muzzle ; tentacles subulate, with the eyes 
at their exterior bases ; foot lanceolate, simple, without a cephalic 
disc. The mantle gradually grows over the shell until the latter be- 
comes, in some of the genera, completely internal. Intromittant organ 
falcate, on the right side of the body ; there are 2 unequal branchiae. 
Jaws are present. The radula has the formula 2+1+1+1 + 2 or 
1+1 + 1. 

Shell thin, more or less internal, sometimes reduced to a non- 
spiral lamella, generally spiral, with a short lateral and paucispiral 
spire ; aperture large, entire, oval. No operculum. 

The Lamellariidce are carnivorous, living upon Hydrozoa, Alcyonaria, 
and compound Ascidice. The eggs are deposited in the midst of 
colonies of the latter. The first embryonic shell is uautiloid, with 
spiral ridges ; the second is more simple, resembling a Carinaria. 
These shells are united at their margins by a thin membrane. The 
pelagic larval forms have received the names of Brownia, Echinospiia, 
Cakarella, and Jasonilla. 

Genus 1. LAMELLARIA. Montagu (pars), 1815. 

Lamellaria, Mtg., Trans. Linn. Soc., xi, 1815, 11. Type: L. perspicua, L. 
Coriocella, Blainville, 1824. Cryptothyra, Menke, 1830. Marsenia, Leach, 
1847. Chelinotus, Swainson, 1840. Cryptocella, H. and A. Adams, 1853. 
Ermea, Gray, 1857. 

Animal much larger than the shell, which is entirely concealed 
beneath the dorsal shield ; shield thick, verrucose, notched in front ; 
foot elongated, truncated anteriorly, acuminated behind ; eyes at 
the outer bases of the tentacles. Dentition 1+1+1, the central 
tooth subtrigonal, with the free margin denticulated and base in- 
curved ; laterals large, the summit lanceolate, the margins denti- 
culate ; no marginals. 

Shell internal, ear-shaped, thin, pellucid ; spire lateral, very small ; 
aperture large, patulous, both lips regularly arcuated ; axis imper- 
f orate. 

There are between twenty and thirty living species Atlantic, 
Indian, and Pacific Oceans. 



294 GASTROPODA. [Pectinibrnnchia. 



Fossil. A few species are known from the Miocene, but not in New 

Zealand. 

KEY TO SPECIES. 

A. Shell rather large, auriform ; axis widely open to the apex . . cerebroides. 

B. Shell small, oval ; axis narrowly open to the apex . . . . ophione. 

1. Lamellaria cerebroides, Hutton, 1883. Plate, 44 fig. 8. 

Lamellaria cerebroides, Hutt., T.N.Z.L, xv, 1882 (1883), 122 ; M.N.Z.M., 59. 
Marsenia cerebroides, Hutt., Index, 80. 

Shell moderately large, auriform, thin and fragile, shining, white. 
Sculpture consisting of fine growth-striae and folds, and there is just 
a trace of microscopic spiral striation. Colour a slightly yellowish 
white. Epidermis thin, transparent and rather iridescent, overlapping 
the peristome, and covering the inner lip. Spire very short, depressed. 
Protoconch minute, of 1J oval whorls, which are smooth and flatly 
convex. Whorls 3|, rapidly increasing, the last very large, convex, 
flattened below the suture. Suture impressed. Aperture broadly 
ovate. Outer lip membranaceous, broadly arched. Basal lip hori- 
zontal. Columella broadly arcuate, with a thin and rather sharp 
edge. Inner lip forming a narrow, wrinkled, and yellowish band. 
Axis widely open to the apex. 

Diameter Maj., 22 mm. ; min., 15 mm. : height, 14 mm. 

Animal with the mantle smooth, but much wrinkled, resembling 
the convolutions of the brain, the shell completely internal. Colour 
reddish-brown, marbled with yellowish-grey ; yellow when preserved 
in alcohol. The mantle is considerably expanded and waved laterally, 
trilobed in front. Tentacles short, subulate, with blunt tips ; eyes 
at their outer side, sessile. The intromittant organ is large, drawn 
out to a fine point. 

Dentition unknown. 

Hob. Near Dunedin, type (G. M. Thomson) ; Akaroa Harbour, 
at low-water mark (H. S.). 

2. Lamellaria ophione, Gray, 1850. Plate 46, fig. 2. 

Lamelluria ophione, Gray, P.Z.S., 1849 (1850), 169 ; A.M.N.H. (2), vii, 1851, 
69. L. Indica, Leach : Hutton, C.M.M., 21 ; not of Leach. Coriocella 
ophione, Gray, M.N.Z.M., 59. Marsenia ophione, Gray, Index, 80. 

Shell oblong, elongate, pellucid, thin, white. Sculpture consisting 
of fine growth-lines and folds, crossed by faint microscopic spiral striae. 
Colour white. Epidermis very thin, transparent, lightly iridescent, 
and shining. Spire very small and short. Protoconch of 1^ smooth 
flattish whorls, the nucleus oval and minute. Whorls 3, very rapidly 
increasing, convex, the last very large. Suture impressed. Aperture 
oblique, broadly ovate. Outer Up sharp and thin, the epidermis usually 
overlapping. Columella concave, parietal wall convex. Inner lip 
spread as a narrow band over columella and parietal wall. The whorls 
are centrally loosely coiled up, leaving a narrow opening through 
which, looking up from the base, the apex can be seen. 



Lamellar iu.} GASTROPODA. 295 

Diameter Maj., 11'5 mm. ; min., 8mm. : height, 10mm. 

Animal with the mantle smooth, covering the whole shell, not 
fissured at the back, notched in front ; yellowish or white, marbled 
with grey, and usually with 2 blackish patches. Foot small, square 
in front, tapering behind, entirely covered by the mantle. Top of 
the head dark grey or purple ; eyes at the outer bases of the ten- 
tacles, which are large and distant. (Hutton, T. N.Z.I., xv, 121.) 

Dentition 1 + 1 + 1 ; central tooth with the base produced into 
two long processes ; the anterior end slightly reflected and trilobed ; 
lateral teeth versatile, broad, situated at some distance from the 
central tooth, their apices acute, uncinate, and denticulated on the 
inner side. (Hutton, I.e., 121, pi. 13, f. W.) 

Type in the British Museum. 

Hab. Auckland, type (Greenwood) ; Narrow Neck Reef, Taka- 
puna, and Orakei (H. S.) ; Islet Reef, Cook Strait ; Cape Farewell ; 
Kermadec Islands (Haylock) ; Snares, 50 fathoms, one young shell 
(Captain Bollons). Found under loose stones at low-water mark. 
Victoria, South Australia, and Tasmania. 

Fam. TRICHOTROPID^I, Gray. 

Animal with a short broad head ; tentacles somewhat distant, 
with eyes about their middle ; foot elongated ; siphon very short, 
but evident. Radula 2+1+1+1 + 2; the central tooth sub- 
quadrangular, multicuspid ; laterals large, transverse, with finely 
crenulated margin ; marginals curved, sharp, simple. 

Shell thin, turbinated, carinated, the ridges bearing epidermal 
fringes in fresh or living specimens, umbilicated ; aperture angulated 
or subchannelled below, lip sharp, columella obliquely truncated. 
Operculum generally lamellar, with apical nucleus. 

KEY TO GENERA. 

A. Shell turbinate, umbilicus narrow or closed . . . . TRICHOTBOPIS. 

B. Shell discoidal, largely urnbilicate, the last whorl sometimes 

separated . . . . . . . . . . LIPPISTES. 

[Genus 1. TRICHOTROPIS, Broderip and Sowerby, 1829. 

Trichotropis, B. & S., Zool. Joum., iv, 1829, 373. Type : Turbo bicarinatus, 
Sow. Trichophora, Deshayes, 1830. 

Animal having the foot oval, lanceolate, rounded in front, angulate 
laterally, and attenuated behind. Intromittant organ falcate. 

Shell thin, rather small, turbinate, dilated below. Spire short, 
angular, and shouldered. Whorls not numerous, first convex, then 
angular, ornamented with spiral cords, crossed by finer radiate 
sculpture ; epidermis fringed upon the ridges, but very easily rubbed 
off. Last whorl large ; base with a carina around the umbilicus. 
Aperture auriform, angled above, and terminating below in an angular 
beak. Columella smooth, concave, narrowed below. 



296 GASTROPODA. [Pectinibranc.hia. 

Distribution. Mostly Arctic and Antarctic. 

Fossil in the English Crag, Pliocene of New Zealand, and Pleis- 
tocene of Canada. 

1. Trichotropis clathrata, Sowerby, 1874. Plate 44, fig. 9. 

TricJiotropis clathrata, Sow., Conch. Icon., six, pi. 2, f. 10 : Ereb. & Ter., 
ii, 3, pi. 1, f. 21; Man. Conch. (1), ix, 43, pi. 7, f. 51. T. inornata, 
Button, C.M.M., 26 ; M.N.Z.M., 69. 

Shell small, fusiform, thin, cancellate, narrowly umbilicate. Sculp- 
ture consisting of prominent spiral threads, 3 of them upon the shoulder 
of the whorls between suture and carina, and 3 more prominent threads 
on the keel and below it on the spire-whorls, about 10 on the body- 
whorl ; these are cancellated by slightly oblique and distant radiate 
riblets, much less prominent than the spiral sculpture ; granulate at 
the points of intersection ; a strong rounded carina bordering the 
umbilicus. Colour cinereous ; dead shells yellowish-white. Epidermis 
present only in fresh or living specimens, thin, horny, fringed upon 
the ridges. Spire more or less elevated, conical, mostly of about the 
same height as the aperture. Protoconch small, of I smooth and 
globose whorl. Whorls about 5, angled, carinated above, the last of 
very large size ; base slightly depressed around the beak. Suture 
canaliculated. Aperture very large, vertical, subtrigonal. Outer lip 
convex, slightly expanded in adult specimens, margin crenate. Basal 
lip oblique, forming with the anterior end of the columella a short, 
narrow, and open canal. Columella high, lightly concave, with a small 
projecting angle at the base, then narrowing and forming the inner 
margin of the canal. Inner lip strongly callous, narrowly reflected, 
and joining above the outer lip. Umbilicus narrow, channelled. 
Operculum horny, light brown, longitudinally striate ; apex anterior. 

Diameter, 10 mm. ; height, 16 mm. Angle of spire, about 40. 

Animal unknown. 

Type of T. inornata in the Dominion Museum, Wellington ; of 
clathrata, in the British Museum. 

Hob. Throughout New Zealand, in deep water ; Chatham Islands ; 
Bounty and Snares Islands, in 50 fathoms (Captain Bollons). 

Remark. Hutton's species having never been figured, Sowerby's 
name has to be used. 

Fossil in the Pliocene. 

Genus 2. LIPPISTES, Montfort, 1810. 

Lippistes, Mtft., Conch. Syst., ii, 1810, 217. Type : Argonauta cornu, Gmel. 

(= Grayi, A. Ad.). Separatista, Gray, 1847 (type, Turbo separatista, 

Dillwyn) ; Fischer, Man. Conch., 690 ; Ad. G.R.M., i, 136 ; Hedley, 
P.L.S. N.S.W., xxvii, 23. 

Shell subdiscoidal, with a short spire, the last whorl visually sepa- 
rated from its predecessors, forming a very large umbilicus ; aperture 
slightly channelled at the base. Operculum with apical nucleus. 



Lip-piste*.] GASTROPODA. 297 

Dentition 2+1 + 1+1 + 2; the central tooth with a multi- 
cuspidate margin ; laterals transversely quadrangular, with a multi- 
cuspidate border ; marginals arcuate and sharp. 

Distribution. West Indies, Japan, Philippines, Australasia, South 
Africa. Only a small number of species are known, and they live in 
depths from about 10 to 50 fathoms. 

1. Lippistes Benhami, Suter, 1902. Plate 15, fig. 19. 

Se-paratista Benhami, Sut., J. Mai., ix, 1902, 65, fig. in text. Lippiste* 
Benhunii, Sut., Index, 79. 

Shell small, fragile, subdiscoidal, with a very short spire and broadly 
expanded aperture, cancellated, and with deep umbilicus. Sculpture 
consisting of numerous distinct spiral threads, about 12 on the body- 
whorl, but bifurcating and thus increasing in number on reaching the 
outer lip ; in the shallow grooves between the threads there is a fine 
median line, recognisable only under a good lens ; the axial orna- 
mentation represented by numerous broad, rounded, sinuated costae, 
which become more pronounced and more distant towards the aper- 
ture ; points of intersection granulate ; fine equidistant and numerous 
growth-lines cross the spiral threads. Colour yellowish-white, semi- 
transparent, flinty. Spire very low, conoidal. Protoconch consist- 
ing of H smooth and glossy whorls. Whorls 3, rapidly increasing, 
body-whorl with a flat shoulder and distinct angle, the larger lower 
portion strongly convex. Suture first impressed, then, on reaching 
the aperture, channelled. Aperture widely expanded, oval, straight 
above, subangulated at the base. Outer lip patulous throughout, 
sharp, sinuated below the angle. Columella subvertical, slightly con 
cave. Inner lip broadly reflected, continuous with the outer lip, and 
very slightly detached from the penultimate whorl. Umbilicus not 
broad, but deep, and carinated by the lowest spiral riblet. Operculum 
unknown. 

Diameter, 7 mm. ; height, 6-5 mm. Aperture height, 6 mm. ; 
breadth, 6 mm. 

Animal unknown. 

Type in the Otago Museum, Dunedin. 

Hob. Cape Maria van Diemen, type (Rayner). 

Fain. JANTHINID^I, Fischer. 

Animal having a proboscidiform rostrum, tentacles bifid ; eyes 
absent ; foot short, provided with an epipodium, and secretes a float, 
which is an elongated vesicular body sustaining these pelagic animals, 
and to which the eggs are attached. The sexes are separate, and 
there is no copulatory organ. No jaws. Teeth of radula elongated. 

Shell thin, fragile, turbinated ; whitish or purplish ; aperture 
oval or subtetragonal ; the columella a little twisted ; lip simple, 
curved. No operculum. 



298 GASTROPODA. [Pectinibmnchia. 

These molluscs are carnivorous ; they secrete a purple fluid, which 
is ejected from the branchial cavity when irritated. Some species are 
viviparous. The float can be detached spontaneously. 

Genus 1. JANTHINA (Bolten), Lamarck. 1799. 

Janthina, Bolten, Mus. Bolten. (2), 1798, 75 ; Lamarck, Prodrome, 1799. 
75. Type : Helix janthina, L. 

Head large, muzzle-shaped ; tentacles forked, so that each appears 
like a pair ; foot rather short, the epipodial lobe somewhat elongated 
and ciliated ; branchial plumes 2, unequal. The radula is composed 
of a great number of elongated teeth ; there is no central tooth. 

The float is found in both sexes, and, whilst in the female the eggs 
are usually attached to the lower surface thereof, the animal in some 
species is viviparous ; embryos taken from the uterus are operculated ; 
the head has a ciliated velum ; the eyes are large and well pigrnented. 

Shell imperforate. without epidermis, fragile, trochiform or turbini- 
form ; nucleus small, styliform, oblique ; spire light purplish-white, 
base deeper purple ; whorls few. convex, with strife of growth, angular 
or gathered at the periphery ; outer lip with a sinus in the middle ; 
columella thin, twisted. 

About thirty species have been described from the Atlantic and 
Pacific Oceans, which Tryon reduced to three species and a few 
varieties. 

A species is found in the Pliocene of Italy. 

Vernacular Name. Violet snail. 

KEY TO SPECIES. 

A. Periphery subangled ; sinus not very deep, rounded. 

a. The whole of the base violet, spire elevated . . . . communis. 

aa. A white band round the columella, spire depressed . . balteata. 

B. Periphery rounded ; sinus deep, sharply angular. 

a. Shell plicately radially striated, polished . . . . . . globosa. 

aa. Shell sharply radially striated, not polished . . . . exigua. 

1. Janthina balteata, Reeve, 1858. Plate 44, fig. 10. 

Janthina balteata, Reeve, Conch. Icon., xi, 1858, pi. 3, f. 11 ; Thes. Conch., 
v, 1882, 50, pi. 443, f. 12 ; Man. Conch. (1), ix, 3<>, pi. 9, f. 1)8. J. fragili*, 
var. planospirata, Ad. & Rve., Index, 80 ; not of Adams and Reeve. 

Shell depressed globose, thin, with narrowly convex periphery. 
Sculpture consisting of oblique growth-striae, sinuated at the periphery ; 
crossed by inequidistant spiral lines, cut up by the radiate stria?, more 
conspicuous upon the base. Colour : Violet-white above, blue or violet 
beneath, with a conspicuous white band round the columella, which 
is very dark violet. Spire depressed conoidai, about one - third 
the height of the aperture ; outlines convex. Protoconch minute, 
pupiform, oblique, of 3 smooth whorls. Whorls 6, slantingly convex ; 
base flatly convex. Suture impressed. Aperture, transversely oval, 



Janthhut.] GASTROPODA. 299 



broadly angled above, effuse at the base o-f the columella. Outer lip 
sharply rounded, slightly sinuate. Basal lip slightly convex, de- 
scending. Columella vertical, twisted, expanded below, and forming 
with the basal lip a triangular rounded point. 

Diameter, 19 mm. ; height, 16 mm. 

Animal unknown. 

Type in the British Museum. 

Hab. North Island, more common on the west coast ; Kermadec 
Islands (Captain Bollons). 

The type is from the Cape of Good Hope. 

2. Janthina communis, Lamarck, 1839. Plate 44, fig. 11. 

Janthina communis, Lara., A.s.V., ed. Desh. & Edwards, iii, 504 ; Conch. 
Icon., xi, pi. 1, f. 5 ; Thes. Conch., v, 50, pi. 443, f. 7 ; M.N.Z.M., 71 ; 
Man. Conch. (1), ix, 36, pi. 9, f. 99. J. ianthina, L. : Hutton, C.M.M., 6 ; 
not of Linnaeus. L. f myth's, Lam., Index, 80 ; not of Lamarck. 

Shell rather large, turbinate, thin. Sculpture consisting of fine 
oblique growth-lines and low folds, sinuated over the angle of the 
whorls ; crossed by very inequidistant spiral stria?, very distinct upon 
the base. Colour purplish-white above, violet below the angle. Spire 
conoidal, with a blunt apex, outlines convex. Protoconch minute, 
pupiform, oblique to the vertical axis, of 3 faintly spirally striated 
whorls. Whorls 7, flatly convex, sometimes slightly depressed below 
the suture, periphery bluntly angled ; base flatly convex. Suture 
impressed. Aperture subtetragonal, large, slightly angular above, 
effuse below the columella. Outer lip angularly convex, thin and 
sharp, slightly sinuous. Basal Up almost straight, descending. Colu- 
mella vertical, thin, strongly twisted, flattened below, and produced 
with the basal lip into a point. Parietal wall slightly convex, with a 
very thin glaze spread over it. 

Diameter, 21 mm. ; height, 17 mm. Diameter, 28 mm. ; height, 
27 mm. (adult specimen). 

Dentition. Hutton,. T.N.Z.I., xiv, 164, pi. 7, f. F. 

Type in the Mus. Hist. Nat., Geneva. 

Hab. North Island, found washed up after gales. 

3. Janthina exigua, Lamarck, 1822. Plate 44, fig. 12. 

Janthina exiyua, Lam., A.s.V., vi, 1822, 206 ; Conch. Icon., xi, pi. 5, f. 21 ; 
Thes. Conch., v, 51, pi. 444, f. 23, 24 ; Chenu, Man. Conch., i, 118, f. 519 ; 
Man. Conch. (1), ix, 37, pi. 10, f. 17. 

Shell rather small, thin and fragile, radiately striated, with a deep 
sinus. Sculpture consisting of oblique, unequal, radiate, and flexuous 
striae, with a deep angular sinus, forming a peripheral groove ; a few 
faint spiral stria? upon the base. Colour light violaceous, darker in 
the smaller specimens, with a white band below the suture. Spire 
short, conoidal, not quite half the height of the aperture. Protoconch 



300 GASTROPODA. [Pectinibranchia. 

minute, pupiform, slightly oblique, of 3 convex and smooth whorls. 
Whorls about 7, slowly then rapidly increasing, convex ; base convex. 
Suture impressed. Aperture large, semioval, produced below. Outer 
lip convex, thin and sharp, with a deep, sharply angular sinus in the 
middle. Basal lip produced. Columella vertical, straight and high, 
not twisted, slightly expanded, leaving sometimes a narrow umbilical 
chink. Parietal wall with a very thin callous layer. 

Diameter, 10-15 mm. ; height, 10-15 mm. 

Animal unknown. 

Type in the Mus. Hist. Nat., Geneva. 

Hal). North and South Islands, but more common in the North ; 
Chatham Islands ; coast of Taranaki (Diefienbach) ; Auckland Har- 
bour (Cheeseman) ; Mokohinau Islands ; Ahipara Beach ; Banks 
Peninsula (Iredale). 

4. Janthina globosa, Swainson, 1822. Plate 44, fig. 13. 

Janthina globosa, Swains., Zool. Illustr., ii, 1822, pi. 85 ; Conch. Icon., xi, 
pi. 4, f. 18; Man. Conch. (1), ix, 37, pi. 10, f. 12. J. nitens, Menke, 
Synopsis, 1828, 84 ; Man. Conch., I.e., f. 11. /. tricolor, Reeve, Conch. 
Icon., xi, 1858, f. 23 ; M.N.Z.M., 71 ; Man. Conch., I.e., L 14. 

Shell globose, very thin and fragile, plicately striated, polished. 
Sculpture consisting of oblique growth-stride and plications, sharply 
sinuated below the middle of the last whorl, where there appear a 
few fine spiral lines ; base with a few distant spiral incisions. Colour 
light violaceous, whitish below the suture, but darker on the base. 
Spire short, slightly immersed ; outlines convex. Protoconch minute, 
pupiform. Whorls about 7, first slowly then rapidly increasing, con- 
vex, indistinctly biangulate ; base convex. Suture deep. Aperture 
large, oval, higher than broad, produced into a short open channel 
at the base, rounded above. Outer lip regularly convex, with an 
angular not very deep sinus. Columella vertical, very little twisted, 
terminating in a point below. Inner lip very little expanded beyond 
the columella, forming a thin callus on the parietal wall.- 

Diameter, 38 mm. ; height, 41 mm. (large specimen). 

Animal unknown. 

Hob. North Island, not common. 

Fam. CYPR^ID^E, Fleming. 

Animal having a short proboscis, the tentacles usually long and 
stout, the eyes situate on a thickened portion about one-third the 
distance from the base ; pallial aperture provided with a short anterior 
siphon ; mantle produced into two lobes capable of covering the shell, 
and furnished with warts, or forked or pointed filaments, sometimes 
papillose, as in Trivia. Anus posterior ; foot broad ; osphradium 
with three lobes. The animals are hermaphrodite, with a very large 
copulatory organ. Radula rather long, with 7 series of teeth, arranged 



Trivia.] GASTROPODA. 301 



2+1+1+1 + 2 ; the central and lateral teeth, tricuspidate or multi- 
cuspidate ; the marginals very variable, hooked, simple or denticulate. 
Jaws corneous. No operculum. 

Shell ovate, varying from cylindrical to pyriform, sometimes ribbed 
or pustulate, but mostly smooth, and possessing a high polish and 
brilliant colouring ; spire nearly, if not entirely, covered by the body- 
whorl, which envelops it ; aperture nearly central, narrow, and longi- 
tudinal ; lip and columella more or less toothed the entire length ; 
occasionally, but rarely, without teeth. 

Genus 1. TRIVIA, Sowerby and Gray, 1832. 

Trivia, S. & G., Conch. Illustr. & Descr. Cat. Shells, by Sowerby, jun., and 
Gray, 1832, 13. Type : Cyprcea europcea, Montagu. 

Animal with the mantle-lobes approaching on the back of the 
shell ; the ocular pedicels short. Radula with the central tooth 
multicuspidate, with a simple base ; lateral teeth arcuate, with a 
denticulate margin ; marginal teeth narrow, simple, slightly arcuate. 

Shell usually small, transversely ridged, and frequently marked 
by a depression running antero-posterioiiy across the dorsal region ; 
whorls of the spire submerged, but may often be traced through their 
thin outside covering ; anterior channel not prolonged, wide, and 
slightly reverted ; front of columella internally concave, ribbed. 

Distribution. Warm and temperate seas. 

Fossil. Tertiary. 

1. Trivia australis, Lamarck, 1822. Plate 46, figs. 3, 3a. 

Cyprcea australis, Lam., A.s.V., vii, 1822, 404. Trivia australis, Lam., 
Voy. Astrol., iii, 48, pi. 48, f. 19-26 ; Conch. Icon., Cyprsea, iii, pi. 24, 
f. 138 ; Chemi, Man. Conch., i, 270, f. 1734 ; Thes. Conch., iv, 45, pi. 325, 
f. 439, 440; Man. Conch. (1), vii, 206, pi. 23, f. 53, 54; Chall. Rep., 
xv, 427. Cyprcea rosea, Duclos : Potiez, Gall, des Moll., 1838, 477. 

Shell small, ovate, slightly narrowed in front, rather thin, with a 
few brown spots on the back. Sculpture consisting of fine transverse 
costse, interrupted on the dorsal surface by an impressed median line, 
more prominent near the aperture, and continued over the outer lip 
and the columella. Colour pinkish-white, with a few brown spots 
of various size on the back, the extremities tinted with rose, base 
white. Protoconch minute, usually hidden, but visible through the 
thin' covering, of 2 narrowly-coiled-up smooth and convex whorls. 
Aperture narrow, curved at both extremities. Outer lip rounded, 
elevated beyond the apex, denticulated. Columella flattened, deeply 
excavated in front. 

Diameter, 10 mm. ; length, 1-1 mm. 

Animal figured in Voy. Astrol. 

Type in the Mus. Hist. Nat., Geneva. 

Hob. Cape Maria van Diemen ; Whangarei Heads (C. Cooper) ; 
Hauraki Gulf ; Chatham Islands ; Te Mahia Peninsula ; Cook Strait. 
More common in Australia and Tasmania. 



302 GASTROPODA. [Pectinibranchia. 

Fossil in the Post-Pliocene of Victoria. 

Remarks. T. W. Kirk mentions a T. zealandica from the Tertiary 
beds near Petane, but in the very short diagnosis I fail to find any- 
thing that would separate his species from T. australis. Many Kecent 
specimens have the transverse strise passing only a short way up the 
sides of the shell. 

Fam. SEPTID.E, Ball. 
TritonidcB, Broderip. 

Animal having a short foot, broad and truncated anteriorly, tentacles 
subulate, with the eyes at their outer sides or bases ; siphon short. 
Jaw reticulated. Radula with the central tooth large, multi cuspidate ; 
lateral tooth with a denticulated margin ; marginals falciform, pointed, 
the inner ones usually with traces of denticulation. 

Shell solid, with an epidermis and continuous or irregularly dis- 
posed varices ; protoconch smooth, paucispiral, subglobose, nucleus 
not very prominent ; aperture oval, often excavated above by a deep 
channel ; canal of variable length, not closed, and but rarely sinuate 
at the base ; outer lip thickened exteriorly, denticulate inside, mostly 
vertical ; columella generally plicated, twisted with the canal. Oper- 
culum horny, with an apical or submarginal nucleus. 

The animals of this family are generally brilliantly coloured, and 
they possess a purple gland secreting a coloured liquid. The period 
of rest is marked upon the shell by a varix. 

KEY TO GENERA. 

A. Varices of shell not diametral i.e., directly opposed. 

a. Aperture without a channel at the suture. 

b. Canal short and truncated . . . . . . SEPTA. 

bb. Canal long and straight . . . . . . CYMATIUM. 

B. Varices diametral, no sutural channel . . . . ... AKGOBUCCINUJI. 

Genus 1. SEPTA, Perry, 1811. 

Septa, Perry, " Conchology, or the Natural History of Shells," 1811. Type : 
Murex tritonis, L. Tritonium, Bolten, 1798, and authors ; not of 0. F. 
Miiller, 1776. Triton, Montfort, 1810; not of Linne, 1768 (Crust.). 
Eutritonium, Cossmann, 1904. 

Animal having the foot truncated in front, large and rounded 
posteriorly ; tentacles long, cylindrical, eyes on tubercles at their 
bases. Copulatory organ large, recurved. Central tooth of radula 
short, transverse, with numerous denticles. 

Shell mostly large ; spire elongated, with angular whorls, ex- 
cavated above ; protoconch lisse, subglobose ; last whorl gibbous, 
with a strong axial varix, at about 120 from the labial varix ; base 
convex, excavated around the canal ; aperture oval, contracted and 
channelled above, narrowed below, and produced into a generally 



Septa.] GASTROPODA. 303 

short and truncated canal ; outer lip vertical, with an external varix, 
thickened and crenated or denticulated internally ; columella ex- 
cavated, slightly twisted below, inflected with the canal, surface 
rough or smooth, with a parietal tooth bordering the posterior channel. 
Operculum ovate, its growth annular either from a subapical or sub- 
marginal nucleus. 

The Tritons are distinctly tropical in distribution, no species in- 
habiting the colder seas. Fossil they appear first in the Cretaceous, 
and numerous species occur in the Tertiary. 

A number of species have a world-wide distribution, which is 
doubtless due to their free-swimming or pelagic larvae. These are 
very different at first from the adult both in animal and shell, under- 
going a metamorphosis at a period subsequent to hatching. 

Vernacular Name. Triton-shell. 

KEY TO SPECIES. 

. Shell with one varix only . . . . . . . . . . costata. 

fia. Shell with more than one varix. 

b. Spiral ribs broad, smooth, only those close to the suture 

nodulous ; interstices narrow . . . . . . tritonis. 

bb. Two spiral strongly nodulous ribs ; interstices broad, with 

fine spiral threads . . . . . . . . . . rubicunda. 

1. Septa rubicunda, Perry, 1811. Plate 1, fig. 3: Plate 43, fig. 1. 

Septa rubicunda, Perry, " Conchology," 1811, pi. 14, f. 4. Triton nodifer, 
Lam., A.s.V., vii, 1822, 179. T. nodiferus, Lam., Man. Conch. (1), 
iii, 10, pi. 1, f. 2, 3 : Conch. Icon., ii, pi. 3, f. 1). T. australe, Lam. : 
Button, C.M.M., 13 ; M.N.Z.M., 63, not of Lamarck. Lotorium rubicun- 
dum, Perry, Index, 75; Kesteven, P.L.S. N.S.W., 1902, 464, f. 2 in text 
(protoconch). 

Shell large, fusiform, varices in the same direction on alternate 
whorls, with nodular spiral ridges, whorls shouldered. Sculpture con- 
sisting of strongly nodular spiral ribs, 2 on the spire-whorls, 8 pro- 
minent spirals on the body-whorl, and numerous finer and closer 
ones on the lower half of the base ; shoulder with a number of close 
or distant subsequently strong spiral ridges, very little nodulous ; 
interstices between the strong spiral ribs finely spirally striate ; varices 
rounded on the spire-whorls, elevated and sharp on the body-whorl. 
Colour yellowish-brown, variegated with dark brown and white on the 
cinguli ; aperture white, teeth of the outer lip reddish-brown, inner 
lip light brown, the plications white. Spire high, conical, usually 
higher than the aperture. Protoconch of 3| whorls, semitransparent, 
delicate pink, smooth, shining. Whorls about 10, distinctly shouldered, 
with a nodular keel ; base convex, concave around the base of the 
neck. Suture deep, uneven, and wavy. Aperture oblique, ovate, dis- 
tinctly channelled above, with a short, open, and somewhat recurved 
canal below. Outer lip expanded, sharp, denticulate, with an outer 
varix, inside with long and strong teeth, sometimes arranged in groups 



304 GASTROPODA. [Pectinibranchia. 

of 2 or 3. Columella subvertical, faintly concave above, convex 
below. Inner lip produced far beyond the columella as a free plate, 
narrowed to a point below ; spreading as a thin polished glaze widely 
upon the body-whorl, with a prominent fold above, usually 2 smaller 
ones below it ; columellar border with numerous folds, stronger and 
more raised below. Sometimes an umbilical chink is present. Oper- 
culum thick, horny, dark brown, concentrically lamellate, nucleus 
apical. 

Diameter, 9-5 cm. ; height, 20 cm. (large specimen). 

Dentition. Troschel, Das Gebiss d. Schnecken, pi. 19, f. 11 a, b\ 
Man. Conch. (1), iii, pi. 2, f. 5 ; Atlas, pi. 1, f. 3. 

Hob. North Island, as far as Napier and Kawhia ; Chatham 
Islands. Mediterranean, Atlantic coast of Europe, British Channel, 
Canaries, Japan, Australasia. 

2. Septa tritonis, Linnaeus, 1758. Plate 42, fig. 1. 

Murex tritonis, L., Syst. Nat., ed. x, 754. Tritonium tritonis, L., Ad. G.R.M., 
pi. 11, f. Ic. Triton tritonis, L., Man. Conch. (1), iii, 9, pi. 1, f. 1 ; pi. 3, 
f. IB ; pi. 5, f. 25. T. variegatum, Lamarck, A.s.V., vii, 1822, 178 ; 
Conch. Icon., ii, pi. 2, f. 3, 6. Lotorium tritonis, L., Index, 75. 

Shell very large, fusiform, solid, with broad flat spiral ribs, yellowish, 
variegated with brown. Sculpture consisting of broad flatly convex 
spiral ribs, about twice as broad as the interstices, which are orna- 
mented with 1 or several smaller cinguli ; the whorls are usually 
slightly shouldered, and the shoulder bears 4 narrow rounded spiral 
ribs, slightly nodulous, the uppermost broader than the others, and 
margining the suture ; on the earlier whorls the spiral riblets, 3 to 4 
on a whorl, are narrow, distant, and distinctly nodular. The varices 
descend in the same direction on alternate whorls ; they are thick and 
rounded on the upper whorls, sharp and foliaceous on the last two 
whorls. Colour whitish or yellowish, variegated with semilunar mark- 
ings of dark brown arranged in axial rows ; inside of aperture deep 
orange, with double revolving reddish-brown bands ; the columella 
banded with white and dark brown. Spire elevated, conic, mostly 
somewhat higher than the aperture. Protoconch lost in most speci- 
mens, very likely of a few smooth convex whorls. Whorls about 9-12, 
the last very large, depressed convex ; base rounded, concave above 
the short canal. Suture impressed, uneven, wavy. Aperture very 
large, slightly oblique, ovated, channelled above, produced below into 
an open, broad and short, recurved canal. Outer lip expanded, sharp, 
denticulated at the margin, each denticle ending a double revolving 
brown band. Columella vertical, arcuate. Inner Up extending be- 
yond the columella as a free plate, forming a deep false umbilicus 
above and a deep oval fissure below ; the lip is spreading over the 
parietal wall, and is crossed throughout by numerous irregular white 
wrinkles or plaits. 

Diameter, 18 cm. ; height, 38 cm. Angle of spire, 40. 



Septa.] GASTROPODA. 305 



Dentition. Troschel, Das Gebiss d. Scbnecken, pi. 19, f. 12, a,b,c; 
Man. Conch. (1), iii, pi. 2, f. 4. 

Hob. Cape Maria van Diemen (Dr. Dieft'enbach) ; Ahipara Bay, 
thrown up after gales. Indo-Paciric and Atlantic regions. 

Subgen. 1. LAMPUSIA, Schumacher, 1817. 

Lampusia, Schumacher, Essai d'tin Nouv. Syst., &c., 1817, 250. Type: 
Murex pilearis, L. Simpulum, Klein, 1753, in Morch, 1852 ; not of 
Fabricius, 1822. 

Shell fusiform, large and solid, nodosely ribbed ; aperture ovate, 
more or less distinctly channelled above, with a somewhat elongated 
canal ; outer lip thick, varicose, plicate-dentate within ; inner lip 
plicate. Operculum with apical nucleus. 

3. Septa costata, Born, 1778. Plate 43, tig. 2. 

Murex costatus, Bom, Test. Mus. Cses. Vindob., 1778, 295. M. olearium, L., 
Syst. Nat., ed. xii, 1767 ; not of Linne, 1758. Tritonium olearium, L., 
M.N.Z.M., 64. Triton olearium, L., Conch. Icon., ii, pi. 10, f. 32 ; Man. 
Conch. (1), iii, 11, pi. 3, f. 19 ; pi. 4, f. 24 ; pi. 5, f. 27-29 ; pi. 6, f. 37. 
Lotorium olearium, L., Index, 75. Triton olearium, L., 1767 : Watson, 
J.L.S., xxvi, 321 ; Kesteven, P.L.S. N.S.W., 1901, 712, pi. 35, f. 4, 5 
(protoconch). Murex parthenopus, von Salis, 1790. Triton succinctum. 
Lamarck, A.s.V., vii, 181. T. (Simpulum) acclivis, Hutton, C.M.M., 
13, plate fig. 8. T. (Simpulum) costatus, Born : Watson. Chall. Rep., 
xv, 390. 

Shell moderately large, solid, broadly fusiform, with strong re- 
volving ribs. Sculpture consisting of strong nodulous spiral ribs, 2 on 
the spire-whorls and about 14 on the body-whorl, very frequently 
partially separated into approximate pairs by an incised line ; some- 
times they are partially broken up into revolving series of granules ; 
there are 2 or 3 fine cinguli on the shoulder, and usually 1 between 
the strong ribs ; on the body-whorl only 6 are stout, the remainder, 
upon the neck, low and narrow ; there is only 1, not much elevated, 
varix on the body-whorl, to the left of the aperture. Colour light 
brown, the varix and lip usually tessellated with dark brown, the 
columella frequently of the same colour between the whitish plications. 
Epidermis present in fresh shells ; it is thin, horny, developing at 
frequent intervals into longitudinal reflexed ridges, produced into 
long hair-like digitations. Spire more or less elevated, conic ; outlines 
convex. Protoconch a.ttenuately conical, corneous, of 6 microscopically 
reticulate whorls, separated from the succeeding whorls by a slight 
varix. Whorls 9 to 10, the last rather large, distinctly shouldered, 
slightly convex ; base flattish, depressed above the neck. Suture 
impressed, uneven. Aperture oblique, oval, with a distinct channel 
above, and a short, open, somewhat recurved canal below. Outer Up 
thick, with a strong nodulous varix on the outside, deeply grooved 
on the inside. Columella subvertical, almost straight, inflexed to- 
wards the canal. Inner lip extending over the parietal wall and the 



306 GASTROPODA. [Pectinibranchia. 

columella down to the canal, where it ends in a narrow and pointed 
lamella, leaving a narrow chink at the base. The parietal wall is 
sculptured by the continuation of the spiral ribs, the columella with 
oblique narrow plaits and wrinkles. Operculum with terminal nucleus. 

Diameter, 5-3 cm. ; height, 9 cm. Angle of spire, 70. 

Type in the K.K. Hof museum, Vienna. 

Hob. Northern parts of New Zealand : Hauraki Gulf ; Bay of 
Islands. 

The species is widely distributed. From the Mediterranean and 
the West Indies by Africa and Brazil to the Cape of Good Hope, Aus- 
tralia and New Zealand, Japan and Society Islands. 

Fossil from the Upper Miocene beds of Calabria onwards. Not 
known fossil from New Zealand. 

Genus 2. CYMATIUM, Bolten, 1798. 

Cymnttum, Bolten, Mus. Bolten. (2), 1798, 129. Type : Murex femorale, L. 
Lotorium, Montfort, 1810. 

Shell with triangular whorls, which are coronated ; aperture 
mostly longer than the spire, the canal rather long and generally 
straight ; outer lip dentated internally. Operculum with apical 
nucleus. 

Distribution. Similar to that of Septa. 

KEY TO SPECIES. 

A. Shell large, height more than 5 cm. ; body-whorl with 

8 to 10 cinguli . . . . . . . . . . Spengleri. 

B. Shell rather small, height less than 5 cm. 

a. Spire about the height of the aperture ; body- whorl 

with 5 strong prominent cinguli ; canal straight . . exaratum. 

aa. Spire higher than the aperture ; body-whorl with 4 low 

and narrow spirals ; canal oblique and recurved . . Parkinsonianum. 

1. Cymatium exaratum, Keeve, 1844. Plate 44, fig. 14. 

Triton exaratus, Rve., P.Z.S., 1844, 116 ; Conch. Icon., ii, pi. 13, f. 50; Man. 
Conch. (1), iii, 22, pi. 12, f. 102, 104. Lotorium cornutum, Perry, Index, 
75 ; Hedley, P.L.S. N.S.W., 1902, 26, not of Perry ; Kesteveii, P.L.S. 
N.S.W., 1902, 460, pi. 17, f. 10 (protoconch). 

Shell rather small, whorls flat-shouldered, canal moderately long. 
Sculpture consisting of 2 prominent cinguli on the spire-whorls at and 
below the shoulder, with a fine spiral thread in the groove, crossed 
by distant radiate ribs, about 8 on a whorl, the points of intersection 
raised into rounded nodules ; shoulder with 3 fine spiral threads ; 
body-whorl with 5 prominent cinguli, and a number of smaller ones 
upon the neck ; there are 2 high and rounded varices. Colour whitish, 
variegated or banded with brown, or brown with a white median 
band ; aperture white. Epidermis thin, horny, spirally striated. 
Spire conoidal, gradate, about the same height as the aperture. Proto- 
conch of 4- whorls, semitransparent, smooth. Whorls about 9, slowly 



Vynuitiiiw.] GASTROPODA. 307 

increasing, strongly keeled and flatly shouldered ; base excavated 
around the neck. Suture deep. Aperture slightly oblique, indis- 
tinctly channelled above, produced below into a moderately long, 
straight, and open canal. Outer lip with a strong outer varix, inside 
denticulate and distantly lirate. Columella vertical, nearly straight, 
wrinkled. Inner lip spreading as a thin white callus over the parietal 
wall and the columella, narrowly drawn out towards the margin of 
the canal. 

Diameter, 26 mm. ; height, 45 mm. 

Animal unknown. 

Type in the British Museum. 

flab. Tauranga. 

The type is from Australia. 

2. Cymatium Parkinsonianum, Perry, 1811. Plate 44, fig. 15. 

Septa Parkinsoniana, Perry, " Conchology," 1811, pi. 14, f. 1 ; Hedley, 
P.L.S. N.S.W., 1902, 26. Triton fusiformis, Kiener, Icon. Coq. viv., vii, 
1842, 36, pi. 5, f. 2; Man. Conch. (1), iii, 11, pi. 4, f. 2. Lotorium 
Parkinsonianum, Perry : Kesteven, I.e., 464 (description of protoconch). 

Shell small, solid, shouldered, nodulosely costate and spirally 
lirate. Sculpture : The whole shell, except the protoconch, finely 
spirally striate ; on the last whorl there are 2 distant and more pro- 
minent stride crossing the nodules upon the angle, and 2 upon the 
base, all being minutely granulose ; the lirse on the neck of the canal 
are alternately finer and stouter ; axial sculpture consisting of strong, 
rounded varices, almost in the same direction on alternate whorls ; 
between the varices are 4 to 6 large, elongate, rounded knobs. Colour 
yellowish-brown, the spiral strise articulated with brown and white, 
protoconch with brown radiate lines ; aperture white within. Epi- 
dermis thin, horny, yellowish-green, with short bristles upon the 
granules. Spire elevated conic, a little higher than the aperture 
(canal excluded) ; outlines straight. Protoconch of 3J whorls, smooth, 
convex, the nucleus very minute. Whorls 8 to 9, first rather slowly 
increasing, with a high shoulder ; base moderately concave. Suture 
impressed, undulating. Aperture a little oblique, ovate, angled above, 
produced below into a moderately long and narrowly open canal, 
which is turned a little to the left and curved backward. Outer lip 
strongly varicose, with a groove inside under the varix, margin sharp. 
Columella vertical, arcuate, narrowed to a point below. Inner Up 
thin, rather broadly expanded, and extending over the parietal wall, 
which has a minute plait below the angle of the aperture. 

Diameter, 12-5 mm. ; height, 22 mm. (specimen from the Bay 
of Islands). Specimens from Port Jackson, Australia, measure 
21-5 mm. by 36 mm. 

Animal unknown. 

Hob. Bay of Islands, one empty shell (J. C. Anderson) ; Ker- 
madec Islands (Captain Bollons). 



308 GASTROPODA. [Pectinibranchia. 

Remarks. The shell found by Mr. Anderson is in fairly good 
condition, though minus the protoconch. It is much smaller than 
Australian specimens I have seen. Considering the wide distribution 
of some species of Septa and Cymatium, and the smallness of this 
species, I do not think it to be too hazardous to claim it for our fauna. 
It may, of course, be an occasionally dropped shell, but the rather 
good preservation of the specimen seems to tell against this, as also 
its occurrence at the Kermadecs. 

3. Cymatium Spengleri, Chemnitz, 1795. Plate 43, fig. 3. 

Murex Spengleri, Chemn., Conch. Cab., xi, 1795, 117, pi. 141, f. 1839^0. 
Triton Spengleri, Voy. Astrol., ii, 538, pi. 40, f. 1, 2 ; Conch. Icon., ii, 
pi. 11, f. 36 ; Man. Conch. (1), iii, 16, pi. 9, f. 61 ; Chall. Rep., xv, 393. 
Tritonium Barthelemyi, Bernard!, J. de Conch., vi, 54, pi. 1, f. 1. Triton 
Waterhousei, Adams and Angas, P.Z.S., 1864, 35 ; Krister, Conch. 
Cab., iii, 257, pi. 69, f. 1, 2. T. Strangei, Ad. & Ang., P.Z.S., 1878, 
pi. 15, f. 16. Lotorium Spengleri, Chemn. : Pritchard and Gatliff, 
P.R.S. Vic., x (n.s.), 263 ; Kesteven, P.L.S. N.S.W., 1901, 713, pi. 36, 
f. 8, 9 ; I.e., 1902, 462, pi. 17, f. 19 (protoconch) ; Hedley, P.L.S. N.S.W., 
1904, 193, pi. 8, f. 19 (eggs). 

Shell large, thick and ponderous, fusiform, spirally costate and 
radially finely ribbed, with shouldered whorls, perforate. Sculpture 
consisting of large sulcated spiral carinpe, which are distinctly and 
regularly nodose, the whole ornament passing over the much ele- 
vated, compressed varices ; large and small carinse alternating ; 
shoulder with a few incised revolving lines ; the whole sculpture 
crossed by numerous, subequidistant, broadly rounded axial riblets, 
interrupted by the spiral narrow grooves. Colour yellowish-brown, 
the incised revolving lines chestnut-brown ; aperture white. Epi- 
dermis thin, horny, spirally regularly striate, with short bristles. 
Spire elevated conical, about the same height as the aperture ; out- 
lines almost straight. Protoconch of 4| horny, translucent, and very 
finely reticulated whorls, slightly oblique to the vertical axis. Whorls 
10 to 11, first slowly then more rapidly increasing, with an ob- 
lique flat shoulder ; base flattish. Suture deep, undulating. Aperture 
oblique, oval, with a distinct channel above, produced below into a 
short, open, somewhat recurved canal. Outer lip much expanded, 
rather sharp, very prominently denticulated by the spiral carinse, 
deeply lirate inside, sometimes with a radial row of tubercles, the 
elevated spirals with a broad median sulcus. Columdla vertical, 
straight above, convex below. Inner lip spreading as a thin white 
and polished callus a little beyond the columella, leaving the ele- 
vations of the cinguli still visible, and reaching across the parietal 
wall to the outer lip ; a small rounded tooth above ; towards the 
base the lip is drawn out to a point on reaching the inner margin of 
the canal, leaving a more or less open umbilical perforation. Oper- 
culum concentrically lamellate, nucleus subapical. 

Diameter, 8 cm. ; height, 13 cm. : angle of spire, 40. Diameter, 
5 cm. ; height, 9 cm. 



Cymatium.] GASTROPODA. 309 

Dentition unknown. 

Hob. Throughout New Zealand ; Chatham Islands ; Kermadec 
Islands : on rocky ledges near and below low- water mark. Australia 
and Tasmania. 

Fossil in the Miocene and Pliocene. 

Genus 3. ARGOBUCCINUM, Herrmansen, 1846. 

Argobuccinum, Herrmansen, Index Gener. Malac., 1846. Type : Murex 
argus, Ginel. Bufo, Montfort, 1810 ; not of Laurenti, 1768. 

Shell of medium size, spire short and conic, with spiral cords and 
more or less distinct axial ribs, sometimes with a nodulous angle 
on the whorl ; varices continuous or subcontinuous ; aperture rounded, 
without a posterior sutural channel ; canal short, recurved ; outer 
lip with an external varix, plicated inside. Columella but little ex- 
cavated above, distinctly ridged. 

KEY TO SPECIES. 

A. Shell oval, whorls convex, spirally subnodulosely striated, 

varices flattened . . . . . . . . . . argus. 

B. Shell fusiform, whorls shouldered, with a strongly nodose carina, 

varices elevated and rounded . . . . . . . . australasia.- 

1. Argobuccinum argus, Gmelin, 1790. Plate 43, fig. 4. 

Murex argus, Gmel., Syst. Nat., ed. xiii, 3547. Ranella argus, Grnel. ; 
Lamarck, A.s.V., vii, 151. Triton ranelliformis, King, Zool. Journ.. 
v, 1832, 347. Ranella vexillum, Sowerby, Conch. Illustr., 1841, pi. 1, 
f. 3 ; P.Z.S., 1843, 51. R. Kingii, d'Orbigny, Voy. 'Amer. merid., v, 
1841, 451. Bursa (Apollon) proditor, Frauenfeld, "Novara" Moll., 
1867, 4, pi. 1, f. 1. Randla argus, Gmel., Man. Conch. (1), iii, 44, pi. 24, 
f. 61-65. Apollo argus, Gmel., Index, 75. Bursa tumida, Dunker, 
Nov. Conch. 

Shell ovate, solid, slightly nodulous, varices subcontinuous. Sculp- 
ture consisting of fine and close spiral striae ; on the spire-whorls 
there are 4 more prominent spiral ridges, crossed by slightly oblique 
and numerous radiate riblets, the crossing-points raised into small 
tubercles ; on the last whorl there are indistinct broad spiral ribs, 
the whole surface finely spirally striate, and the axial ribs are almost 
obsolete. Colour : The spiral ridges are reddish - brown, the inter- 
spaces whitish, sometimes with a brown median thread. Epidermis 
thin, olivaceous, closely wrinkled, velvety. Spire rather short, conic, 
about the same height as the aperture. Protoconch small, conical, 
mostly much corroded. Whorls 8 to 9, the last large, convex ; the 
varices subcontinuous, flat, inconspicuous ; base slightly excavated 
at the neck. Suture not deep. Aperture oblique, ovate, channelled 
above by the teeth of the outer lip, and a strong thick and broad tooth 
on the parietal wall ; canal short, widely open, slightly recurved. 
Outer lip expanded, sharp, denticulate towards the base, grooved 
inside, and with a row of paired teeth. Columella vertical, somewhat 



310 GASTROPODA. [Pectintbranchia. 



concave, bent to the left on reaching the canal. Inner lip broad, 
extending far beyond the columella, with a sharp and free edge, nar- 
rowed to a point below, and spread thinly over the parietal wall. 
Operculum light brown, horny, obliquely striate, nucleus apical. 

Diameter, 62 mm. ; height, 103 mm Angle of spire, 62. 

Dentition. Troschel. Das Gebiss d. Schnecken, pi. 20, f. 11 ; Man. 
Conch. (1), iii, pi. 2, f. 12. 

Hob. Throughout New Zealand and at the Chatham Islands, 
usually in 10 to 20 fathoms ; Auckland Islands. 

The type is from the Cape of Good Hope. The species has been 
recorded from Tasmania, Australia, St. Paul and Amsterdam, Tristan 
da Cunha Islands, Natal, Cape Colony, and Chile. 

The description is drawn up from New Zealand specimens. 

Remarks. Von Martens is inclined to take R. arc/us and R. vcxillum 
as distinct species (Deutsche Tiefsee Exped., Gastropoden, 1903, p. 41). 
Its distribution is similar to that of Phalium pyrum ; but its presence 
in the Antarctic region, and the palreontological facts, prove that it 
has been spreading towards the Antarctic from the Cape of Good 
Hope. (Von Ihering.) 

2. Argobuccinum australasia, Perry, 1811. Plate 43, fig. 5. 

Biplex australasia, Perry, " Conchology,' 1 1811, pi. 4, f. 2,4. Ranella leu- 
costoma, Lamarck, A.s.V., vii, 1822, 150. Triton leucostomuin, Q. & G., 
Voy. Astrol., ii, 546, pi. 40, f. 3-5. Ranella leucostoma, Lam., Conch. 
Icon., ii, pi. 1, f. 4. R. (Argobuccinum.} leucostoma, Lam. : Watson, 
Chall. Rep., xv, 401. Lotorium (Argobuccinum} leucostoma, Lam. : 
Pritchard and Gatliff, P.R.S. Vic., x (n.s.), 268. Gyrineum australasia, 
Perry : Kesteven, P.L.S. N.S.W., 1901, 713, pi. 36, f. 1 (protoconch). 
Apollo australasia, Perry, Index, 75. Biplex australasia, Perry = Ranella 
leucostoma, Lam. : Hed'ley, P.L.S. N.S.W., 1902, 26. Ranella leucostoma, 
Lam., Man. Conch. (1), iii, 42, pi. 23, f. 53, 54. 

Shell of medium size, fusiform, shouldered, with a nodulous keel, 
varices subdiscontinuous. Sculpture consisting of subequal spiral 
threads, with finer ones in the interspaces, crossed by very close and 
fine growth-lines ; carina of the shoulder, and usually 1 or 2 cinguli 
towards the base, ornamented with strong rounded nodules, 5 to 6 
between the varices, which are not quite continuous, elevated and 
rounded. Colour reddish-brown, varices banded with white and 
dark brown ; the margin below the suture and the nodulous cinguli 
are of darker colour ; aperture white. Epidermis olive, velvety. 
Spire elevated conical, gradate, but little higher than the aperture ; 
outlines straight. Protoconch of about 5 smooth and convex whorls. 
Whorls 10 to 11, first rather slowly increasing, the sloping shoulder 
moderately concave, straight below the carina ; base flattish. Suture 
impressed, uneven, and wavy. Aperture slightly oblique, ovate, with 
an inner channel above, produced into a short open and slightly re- 
curved canal below. Outer Up with a thick varix on the outside, 
inside with 2 rows of rounded teeth, separated by a groove which 



Argobuccimun.] GASTROPODA. 31 1 

corresponds with the elevation of the varix. Columella vertical, 
very little concave. Inner Up spreading beyond it, smooth, narrowed 
below, and with numerous wrinkles on the inner edge of the canal ; 
extending over the parietal wall, with a prominent tooth above. 
Operculum oval, nucleus apical. 

Diameter, 42 mm. ; height, 74 mm. Angle of spire, 50. 

Animal with a yellowish, finely velvety epidermis. Head large ; 
tentacles long, cylindrical, distant, with the eyes prominent and 
near their bases. Foot large, quadrilateral, yellowish, and grooved 
in front. Muzzle cylindrical. Radula rather long, with 5 rows of 
teeth. There are 2 salivary glands. The male with a long and grooved 
intromittant organ. (Quoy and Gaimard.) 

Hab. North Island, and Martin's Bay in the South Island ; Bream 
Bay (Q. & G.) ; Cook Strait (Dr. Dieffenbach) ; Whangarei Heads 
(C. Cooper) ; Kermadec Islands (T. F. Cheeseman). 

Fam. CASSIDID^, Adams. 

Animal with large head, eyes at the exterior base of the tentacles ; 
proboscis cylindrical, extensible ; mantle and foot large ; siphon 
moderately long. Jaws reticulated. Central tooth of radula with 
several cusps, the median larger ; lateral teeth large, multicuspidate ; 
marginals falciform, simple or denticulate. 

Shell solid, subglobular or triangular, with short spire ; whorls 
sometimes varicose ; aperture terminating anteriorly in a short re- 
curved canal ; columella callous, spread out, usually plicate ; outer- 
lip margin thickened, dentate within. Operculum corneous, con- 
centric, elongated, semilunar, the nucleus at the centre of the inner 
margin. 

The varices of the shell persist in its interior. 

These animals are active and voracious, living in sandy localities, 
and preying on bivalve molluscs. 

Genus 1. PHALIUM, Link, 1807. 

Phalium, Link, Beschr. Rostock Samml., 1807, 112. Type : Cassis glauca, L. 
Cassidea, Perry, 1811. Bezoardica a, Schumacher, 1817. Cassis, Bow- 
dich, 1822. Semicassis, H. and A. Adams, 1853. Casinaria, Fischer, 
1844. 

Animal having an oval foot, extending beyond the shell, with a 
marginal groove and a small inferior aquiferous pore ; copulatory 
organ flattened, ending in a fleshy, hook-shaped appendix, and being 
grooved the whole length. 

Shell usually rather solid and thick, with the last whorl very large, 
often varicose ; aperture longitudinal, narrow ; outer lip with a thickened 
reflected margin, and dentate within ; inner lip rugosely plicate. 

About twenty-five species are known, inhabiting warm seas. 

Fossil in the Tertiary. 

Vernacular Name. Helmet-shell. 



312 GASTROPODA. [Pectinibranckia. 

Subgen. 1. CASSIDEA (Bruguiere), Swainson, 1840. 

Cassidea, Bruguiere, Encycl. Meth., i, 1789, p. xv ; 1792, 414 : Swainson, 
Malac., 1840, 299. Type : Cassis vibex, L. Casmaria (in part), H. and 
A. Adams, 1853. Cassidea, Swains. : W. H. Call, U.S. Geol. Survey., 
Professional Paper 59 '' The Miocene of Astoria and Coos Bay, Oregon," 
1909, 61. 

Shell ovate, smooth, polished, with only a terminal varix ; body- 
callus smooth and adherent throughout. 

1. Phalium labiatum. Perry. 1811. Plate 40, fig. 12. 

Cassidea labiata, Perry, " Concholog}^" 1811, pi. 34, f. 1. Cassis achatina, 
Lamarck, 1822; Conch. Icon., v, pi. 10, f. 28a ; Man. Conch. (1), vii, 
278, pi. 8, f. 94. 

Shell of moderate size, ovato-acute, ventricose, smooth, sub- 
perforate, polished. Sculpture : Quite smooth or ornamented with 
1 spiral series of nodules. Colour light brown or cinereous, longi- 
tudinally flamed with dark chestnut, often with narrow spiral bands 
of chestnut and white articulations ; mouth pale purple ; outer lip 
white, banded with brown. Spire not high, conical, a little more 
than one-third the height of the aperture ; outlines slightly convex. 
Protoconch small, obtuse, of 1^ smooth whorls. Whorls 6, first very 
slowly then more rapidly increasing, flatly convex ; base convex. 
Suture deep. Aperture subvertical, moderate, pyriform, narrowly 
channelled above, with a very short, deep, open canal at the base, 
which is sharply curved. Outer Up thick, with a sharp edge on the 
outside, inside rounded, smooth, subdenticulate towards the base. 
Columella subvertical, thick and rounded, with a few small folds, 
a groove, followed by an elevated ridge below. Inner lip spreading 
as a thick polished callosity far beyond the columella, bearing a few 
indistinct folds, and leaving only a narrow umbilical chink ; the basal 
lip is continued from the canal in the groove behind the neck, and 
enters the umbilicus as a narrow sharp ridge ; the inner lip forms 
a very thin callosity on the parietal wall below, but is getting thick 
and prominent on the outside on approaching the outer lip. Operculum 
as described for the family. 

Diameter, 40 mm. ; height, 60 mm. Angle of spire. 85. 

Animal unknown (?). 

Type of C. achatina in the Mus. Hist. Nat., Geneva. 

Hob. Northern parts of New Zealand, rare ; Omaha ; Whangarei 
Heads (C. Cooper) ; Kermadec Islands (Captain Bollons). Australia, 
Cape of Good Hope, &c. 

Subsp. pyrum, Lamarck, 1822. Plate 40, fig. 13. 

Cassis pyrum, Lam., A.s.V., vii. 1822, 226 ; Man. Conch. (1), vii, 278, pi. 8, 
f. 96-98 ; Conch. Icon., v, pi. 11, f. 29. C. nivea, Brazier, P.Z.S., 1872. 
616, pi. 44, f. 1. C. striatus, Mutton, C. Tert, M., 8. C. tumida, Petterd, 
P.R.S. Tas., 1885, 321. 

Shell moderately large, ventricose, ovate, with more or less dis- 
tinctly angled and nodulose whorls. Sculpture consisting of a row of 



Phalium.] GASTROPODA. 313 



nodules upon the angle of the shoulder, sometimes with a second row 
a little further down, a number of cinguli between the angle and the 
suture ; the upper whorls finely spirally striated ; from 6 to 8 shallow 
grooves on the base ; incremental lines distinct, reticulating the fine 
spiral stripe of the upper whorls : the prominence of the sculpture is 
subject to great variation. Colour uniformly bay or pale dun, with 
bands of chestnut-brown wavy spots ; outer lip banded with purplish- 
brown upon the outer edge. Spire low, conoidal, sharply pointed, 
about one-fifth the height of the aperture. Protoconch small, globose, 
of 2^ smooth and convex whorls. Whorls about 7, the last large 
and ventricose, angulate above, flatly convex below ; base lounded. 
Suture impressed. Aperture large, indistinctly channelled above, with 
a sharply recurved short and open canal below. Outer lip rounded, 
quite smooth. Columella slightly oblique, with a number of small 
folds above, and 1 or 2 large plaits below. Inner lip spreading as 
a thick white and folded plate beyond the columella, leaving the 
triangular umbilicus wide open. 

Diameter, 31 mm. ; height, 42 mm. : angle of spire, 102. Dia- 
meter, 60 mm. ; height, 87 mm. (very large specimen). 

Animal unknown. 

Type in the Mus. Hist. Nat., Geneva. 

Hab. North Island, and Martin's Bay in the South Island ; 
Hawke's Bay, in about 20 fathoms ; Kermadec Islands. Found also 
in Australia and Tasmania, &c. 

Remarks. Distinguished from the species in being thinner, more 
inflated, with a shorter spire, more or less distinctly noduled, and 
spirally sulcate above and on the base. 

This subspecies is of quite special interest. " I have found it on the 
coast of Rio Grande do Sul, and it is known from the Indian Ocean, 
New Zealand, meridional Africa, &c. It has been found fossil in the 
Pliocene of New Zealand. As no species of Cassidea has been found 
in the Tertiary of Argentina, it is evident that it is of tropic origin, 
adapting itself to the temperate zone in distant regions." (Von 
Ihering.) 

Fossil in the Pliocene. 

Fam. TONNHXE!. 

Animal very large ; the mantle dilated ; head wide, bearing 2 
elongated distant tentacles, dilated at the base, and having eyes near 
the base ; proboscis cylindrical, greatly developed, extensible and 
flexible ; foot lobed and dilated in front, with a horizontal groove. 

Shell thin, ventricose, ovate or subglobose, subumbilicate ; spire 
short, the body-whorl very large, with revolving ribs or decussated ; 
aperture large, sinuated at the base. No operculum in the adult. 

The shells are mostly of large size, and the species are few in 
number, inhabiting warm seas. 

Fossil. A Cretaceous form is known, with some Tertiary species. 



314 GASTROPODA. [Pectinibranchia. 

Genus 1. TONNA, Brunnich, 1772. 

Tonna, Fund. Zool., 1772, 248. Type : Buccinum galea, L. Cadu-s, Bolten, 
1798. Dolium, Lamarck, 1801. 

Animal having the foot very large, truncated in front, attenuated 
behind ; mantle not reflected over the shell ; tentacles cylindrical, 
distant, eyes at their outer base on distinct pedicels ; proboscis long, 
thick ; siphon long ; copulatory organ large, curved, with a longi- 
tudinal groove, ending in a fleshy hook. A jaw is present. Central 
tooth of radula with an elongated central and 2 shorter lateral cusps ; 
lateral and marginal teeth sharp-pointed, simple. 

Shell thin, ventricose, globosely oval ; spire generally short, whorls 
with spiral depressed ribs ; aperture very large, broadly sinuated at 
its base ; outer lip crenulated, lirate within ; columella twisted, with 
a fold corresponding with the basal fasciole, ending in a beak below. 

Vernacular Name. Tuns. 

1. Tonna variegata, Lamarck, 1822. Plate 47. 

Dolium variegatum, Lam., A.s.V., vii, 261 ; Dieff. N.Z., 234 ; Conch. Icon., 
v, pi. 5, f. 7 ; Mail. Conch. (1), vii, 202, pi. 3, f. 13. D. Kienerf, Philippi, 
Abbild. neuer Conch., iii, 36 (teste Tryon). 

Shell large, globose, spirally ribbed, umbilicate. Sculpture con- 
sisting of low rounded spiral ribs, 15 to 18 on the last whorl, the inter- 
stices nearly as wide, the upper ones bearing an intermediate smaller 
rib ; the oblique growth-lines distinct and passing over the ribs. 
Colour whitish or yellowish-brown, maculated with brown on the 
ribs, often with one or two ribs more yellowish in colour, upon which 
there are no maculations Epidermis thin, horny, easily peeling off. 
Spire short, conoidal. Protoconch small, globose, of 2j smooth and 
convex whorls, covered by a thin horny epidermis. Whorls 7, first 
rather slowly increasing, convex, the last very large ; base rounded, 
excavated above the fasciole. Suture excavated. Aperture large, 
oval, sinuated below. Outer lip flatly convex, sharp, crenulated by 
the spiral sculpture, lirate within. Columella vertical, slightly twisted, 
with a broad low plait above, produced by the descending fasciole, a 
few small plications further down. Inner lip spreading a little beyond 
the columella, but leaving the narrow umbilicus open. 

Diameter, 102 mm. ; height, 120 mm. (the height varies from 
100 mm. to 230 mm.). 

Animal unknown. 

Type in the Mus. Hist. Nat., Geneva. 

Hab. From the North Cape to T.-mnmga ; Cape Maria vari Die- 
men (Dieft'enbach) ; Whangarei Heads (C. Cooper) ; Great Barrier 
Island ; Tauranga (Dominion Museum). Found also in Austialia. 

Remarks. The animals live buried in muddy sand. In Australia 
the species has been found in depths from 22 to 66 fathoms. The 



Tonna.] GASTROPODA. 315 

New Zealand specimens are smaller, and but rarely so much spotted 
as Australian shells. 

In the Canterbury Museum there is a specimen of T. costata from 
the Bay of Islands. It is no doubt an accidentally dropped specimen, 
and does not belong to the New Zealand fauna. 

Fain. ARCHITECTONICID.E, H. and A. Adams. 
Solar i idee, Chenu. Architectonidce, Gray. 

Animal with very large oval foot, notched in front ; tentacles 
cylindrical, split throughout their length, thick, with eyes sessile on 
swellings near their outer bases. Dentition variable. 

Shell depressed conic, turbinate or planorbiform ; aperture entire, 
angular or subcircular ; lip and columella simple, interior without 
nacre ; umbilicus wide and deep, and usually with crenulated margins ; 
main sculpture usually spiral. Operculum corneous, spiral. 

KEY TO GENERA. 

A. Shell depressed conic, angular at the periphery, umbilicus 

with strongly crenulated margin . . . . . . ARCHITECTONICA. 

B. Shell turbinate, umbilicus moderate or wide, rounded at 

the periphery, margin of umbilicus slightly crenulated ; 

operculum elevated spiral . . . . . . HELIACUS. 

C. Shell subdiscoidal, flat or concave above, whorls carinated 

at the periphery, umbilicus keeled . . . . . . OMALAXIS. 

Genus 1. ARCHITECTONICA, Bolten, 1798. 

Architectonica, Bolten, Mus. Bolten. (2), 1798, 78. Type : Trochus perspec- 
tivus, L. Solarium, Lamarck, 1799. 

Animal with a large foot, notched in front, and having a very 
pronounced marginal fold ; head large, furnished with 2 tentacles, 
which are short, thick, and cylindrical ; eyes on swellings near the 
outer bases of the tentacles ; gill-cavity divided by a longitudinal 
fold. 

Shell depressed, conic, angular at the periphery ; aperture sub- 
quadrangular ; lip simple ; umbilicus with crenulated margins, spiral, 
wide, and perspective. 

Distribution. World-wide, inhabiting warm seas. 

Fossil. Tertiary. 

Subgen. 1. ARCHITECTONICA, s. str. 
Solar iorbis, Conrad, 1865. 

Surface of the shell strongly and closely sculptured longitudinally, 
spirally ribbed and sulcate. Operculum corneous, paucispiral, with 
the nucleus subexcentric. 

The teeth of the radula are long, spiniform, pronged, and without 
a central tooth. A jaw is present. 



316 GASTROPODA. [Pectinibranchia. 

1. Architectonica Reevei, Hanley, 1862. Plate 44, fig. 16. 

Solarium Reevei, Hani., P.Z.8., 1862, 204 ; Thes. Conch., iii, 234, pi. 250, 
f. 9, 10 ; Conch. Icon., xv, pi. 3, f. 20 ; Angas, P.Z.S., 1867, 201 ; Chall. 
Rep., xv, 136; Man. Conch. (1), ix, 12, pi. 4, f. 45, 46. Solarium 
modesta, Phil. : Cooper, T.N.Z.I., xxxi, 137 ; not of Philippi. 

Shell conoidal, solid, flesh-colour, with brown spots. Sculpture : 
Whorls spirally unisulcate or bisulcate near the suture, ribbed at the 
periphery, spirally sulcate and ribbed above and below the periphery 
and near the umbilicus, ribs finely crenulated, entire surface of the 
shell covered with close, obliquely radiating growth-lines. Colour 
pinkish-flesh with interrupted orange-brown bands below the suture. 
on the ribs about the periphery, and finer bands near the middle 
of the whorls. Spire conoidal, about twice the height of the aperture ; 
outlines slightly convex. Protoconch small, convex, reddish-brown, 
of 2 convex whorls, the first smooth, the second finely spirally striate. 
Whorls about 6, regularly increasing, but little convex, the last 
sharply carinated ; base flat. Suture inconspicuous. Aperture sub- 
quadrangular, slightly oblique. Peristome discontinuous, sharp. Colu- 
mella vertical, straight, rounded, and callous, truncate below. Um- 
bilicus rather narrow', diameter a little over one-fourth of the minor 
diameter of the shell, deep, perspective, with crenulated white margin. 

Diameter, 22 mm. ; height, 14 mm. 

Animal unknown. 

Type in the British Museum. 

Hob. Whangarei Heads (C. Cooper). Tasmania and Australia 
(Port Jackson). 

The " Challenger " specimens were found in depths from 2 to 10 
fathoms. 

Subgen. 2. PHILIPPIA, Gray, 1840. 

Philippia, Gray, in Philippi, Enum. Moll. Sicilian, i, 174 ; P.Z.S., 1847, 146. 
Type : Solarium luteum, Lam. Disculus, Deshayes, 1863. 

Shell without radial sculpture, spiral sculpture nearly obsolete. 
Operculum flattened ; whorls numerous, with the nucleus subcentral ; 
internal face bearing a subspiral calcareous process. 

2. Architectonica lutea, Lamarck, 1822. Plate 46, fig. 4. 

Solarium luteum, Lam., A.s.V., vii, 1822, 5 ; Thes. Conch., iii, 237, pi. 253, 
f. 52-54; Conch. Icon., xv, pi. 3, f. 14; Man. Conch. (1), ix, 16, pi. 5, 

f. 71, 72. 

Shell small, rather thin, conical, periphery spirally ribbed. Sculp- 
ture : A fine smooth spiral thread above the suture, and 2 cinguli on 
the periphery ; base spirally finely striated ; umbilical margin crenu- 
lated ; growth-lines oblique and fine. Colour yellowish, with bands 
of very fine brown dots on the cinguli above the suture and on the 
periphery ; umbilical crenulations white. Spire conical, a little higher 
than the aperture ; outlines a little convex. Protoconch minute, mostly 



Architectonicn.] GASTROPODA. 317 



consisting of the convex smooth nucleus only. Whorls 5, regularly 
increasing, flatly convex, the last keeled ; base flattish. Suture but 
little impressed. Aperture subquadrangular. Peristome discontinuous, 
sharp. Columella vertical, broadly rounded. Umbilicus small, deep. 

Diameter, 12 mm. ; height, 9 mm. 

Dentition. Troschel, Das Gebiss d. Schnecken, ii, 156, pi. 15, f. 5. 

Type in the Mus. Hist. Nat., Geneva. 

Hob. Whangarei Heads (C. Cooper) ; Mokohinau Group ; Hau- 
raki Gulf (C. Mathews) ; Wellington (T. W. Kirk) ; Chatham Islands. 

Genus 2. HELIACUS, d'Orbigny, 1842. 

Heliacus, d'Orb., "Mollusca Cubana," ii, 1842, 68. Type: Solarium Heberti, 
Desh. Torinia, Gray, 1840 and 1842 (list-name only). Teretropoma, 
Rochebrune, 1881. 

Shell turbinately elevated, or in some instances planorbiform ; 
umbilicus typically moderate to wide, perspective, its margins slightly 
crenulated ; lip and columella simple. Operculum corneous, typically 
conically elevated, externally spiral, of numerous volutions, margined 
by projecting edges ; internal face smooth, bearing a spirally twisted 
median projection. 

Distribution. World-wide, tropical and subtropical seas. 

Fossil. Tertiary. 

1. Heliacus variegatus, Gmelin, 1790. Plate 15, fig. 20. 

Trochus variegatus, Gmel., Syst. Nat., ed. xiii, 3575. Heliacus gyrus, 
Meusch., Gronov., 323. Trochus areolus, Gmel., Syst. Nat., ed. xiii, 3575. 
Heliacus perspectiviunculus, Dillwyn, Cat., ii, 783. H. tessellata, 
Deshayes, Encycl. Meth., 1830, 160. Torinia variegata, Gmel., Man. 
Conch. (1), ix, 16, pi. 5, f. 75-79. H. variegatus, Gm. : Suter, T.N.Z.I., 
xxxix, 266. 

Shell small, depressed, radiately and spirally sculptured, solid. 
Sculpture consisting of close and numerous cinguli, 5 on the upper 
whorls, 10 on the body- whorl, that below the suture, at the periphery 
and just below it, being the strongest ; they are cut up by fine oblique 
radiate narrow sulci ; umbilicus margined by a stout and crenulate 
cord. Colour radiating alternate stripes of white and brown. Spire 
low, depressed conoidal, of the same height as the aperture ; outlines 
moderately convex. Protoconch of 1 smooth whorl. Whorls 5, regu- 

\j o 

larly increasing, slopingly convex ; base slightly rounded. Suture in- 
conspicuous. Aperture subcircular. Peristome on the outside crenu- 
lated by spiral sculpture. Columella vertical, broad, with an outer 
denticle produced by the medial rib of the umbilical wall. Umbilicus 
moderately large, deep, perspective. 

Diameter, 13 mm. ; height, 7 mm. 

Animal unknown. 

Hob. Off Cuvier Island, in 37 fathoms (Captain Bollons). Red 
Sea, Indian Ocean, Pacific Ocean. 



318 GASTROPODA. [Pectinibranchia. 

Genus 3. OMALAXIS, Deshayes, 1830. 

Omalaxis, Desh., Encyclop. Meth., Tabl., 1830. Type : Solarium bifrons, 
Lam. Omaloxon (Desh. em.), Agassiz. Omalaxon (Agass. em.), Herr- 
mansen. Omalalaxis (Desh. ?), Herrmansen. Bifrontia, Deshayes, 1832. 
Orbis, Lea, 1833. Homalaxis (Desh. em.), Fischer, 1885. Homalaxon (as 
of Agassiz), Watson, 1886. Not Omalaxis, Tryon, Syst. Conch., ii, 219. 

Shell subdiscoidal. flat or slightly concave above, whorls carinated 
at the periphery, the last sometimes detached from the others ; peri- 
stome not continuous ; umbilicus wide and deep. Operculum circular, 
multispiral. 

Only few species are known New England, Brazil, Australasia. 

Fossil. Tertiary. 

1. Omalaxis amoena, Murdoch and Suter, 1906. Plate 15, 

figs. 21, a, b. 
Omalaxis amoena, M. & S., T.N.Z.I., xxxviii, 1905 (1906), 293, pi. 24, f. 30-32. 

Shell small, discoidal, bicarinate, beautifully sculptured, sides 
straight but oblique, umbilicus wide, carinated, perspective. Sculp- 
ture : Upper side with a beaded cord on each side of the suture, the 
outer one being more prominent ; between them are 3 fine elevated 
spiral threads, the whole crossed by numerous oblique elevated radiat- 
ing ridges, with equal interspaces, which continue over the periphery 
to the basal cord ; on the periphery is a third beaded and conspicuous 
cord, which is buried in the suture ; still another marginates the base, 
and between them are 3 small spiral ridges ; between the basal and 
umbilical ribs is a small beaded spiral, the whole reticulated by some- 
what irregular distant radiate ribs, interstices having now and again 
one or more fine ridges ; the umbilical rib distinctly beaded. Colour 
white. Spire flat. Protoconch dextral, smooth, consisting of 1J con- 
vex whorls. Whorls 3. flattened, regularly increasing, with the 
sides almost straight, subquadrate in section, the base somewhat 
excavated. Suture slightly channelled. Aperture subquadrate. Outer 
lip sharp, with 2 angles above and 1 below. ColumeHa short, concave. 
Umbilicus large, scalar, with the sides inclined. Operculum unknown. 

Diameter Maj., 3 mm. ; min., 2-5 mm. : height, 1 mm. 

Type in the Dominion Museum, Wellington. 

Hob. Off Great Barrier Island, in 110 fathoms (one dead shell). 

Remarks. This species is almost identical with DiscoJ/elix retifera, 
Dall, from the Pliocene of Florida. A similar form. 0. meridionalis, 
Hedley, was dredged in Port Stephens, New South Wales, but it is 
not so elaborately sculptured. 

Fam. EPITONIIDjE. 
Scalariidce. Scalidce. 

Animal having a retractile proboscis ; tentacles close together, 
long and pointed, the eyes on slight elevations near their outer bases ; 
mantle-margin simple, with a rudimentary siphonal fold ; foot trun- 



Epitoniun/.] GASTROPODA. 319 



cated in front, extending far in advance of the head. Jaws oval or 
semicircular, spiny, or denticulated only on the margin ; radula 
composed of elongated unciform or aciculated teeth, many in a series. 
Sexes distinct. 

Shell usually white and polished, turriculated, perforate, but the 
umbilicus frequently covered by an expansion of the inner lip ; whorls 
numerous, convex, usually loosely coiled, often barely or not at all in 
contact ; aperture entire, circular or oval. Operculum corneous, few- 
whorled, nucleus nearly central. 

The animals of this family are predaceous, and living in all seas ; 
they are somewhat closely allied to the JfottJiintr, of which they may 
be regarded as creeping representatives. The shells, remotely sug- 
gesting Turritella, are remarkable for the extreme elegance of their 
form and delicacy of sculpture. 

KEY TO GENERA. 

A. Shell turbinate, aperture channelled in front, umbilicate, 

umbilicus surrounded and restricted by a callus . . . . CROSSEA. 

B. Shell turreted, many-whorled. 

. Whorls longitudinally ribbed or lamellate ; peristome con- 
tinuous, thickened, and reflected ; umbilicate or im- 
perforate . . . . . . . . . . EPITONTUM. 

aa. Whorls smooth or with spiral riblets, peristome discon- 
tinuous, lip thin and simple ; perforate . . . . ACLIS. 

Genus 1. EPITONIUM, Bolten, 1798. 

Epitonium, Bolten, Mus. Bolten. (2), 1798,91. Type: Turbo scalaris, L. 
Scala (Humphrey) of authors. Cyclostotna, Lamarck, 1799. Scalaria, 
Lamarck, 1801. Scalatarius, Diimeril, 1806. Ac-iona, Leach, 1815. 

Animal having a short head ; tentacles subulate ; foot lanceolate 
behind, truncated in front, with an anterior marginal groove ; sole 
with a posterior longitudinal groove ; gill simple, pectinated ; intro- 
mittant organ large, curved, and pointed ; mantle forming a rudi- 
mentary siphonal fold at the anterior part of the branchial chamber. 

Shell usually white and polished, turriculated, perforate, but the 
umbilicus frequently covered by an expansion of the inner lip ; spire 
elongated, the apex more or less inflected ; whorls numerous, rounded, 
in contact or separated, ornamented with longitudinal ribs or thin 
lamellae, often continuous across the suture ; peristome entire, 
thickened, reflected. 

The genus commenced in the Trias, and has continued its develop- 
ment to the present time ; about 200 fossil species have been described, 
and not far from the same number Recent. They are found from low 
water to 80, 100, or 400 fathoms, and occur throughout the world, 
the Arctic seas furnishing representations of peculiar type ; but the 
largest, finest, and most typical species are tropical. The West Indian 
province appears to be the metropolis of the genus. 

Vernacular Name. Wentle-trap shell. 



320 GASTROPODA. [Pectinibranchia. 

KEY TO SPECIES. 

A. Shell without a basal spiral ridge. 

. Whorls a little separated ; urnbilicated. About 20 axial 

lamellae, interstices smooth . . . . . . tenellum. 

aa. Whorls united ; umbilicus covered. 

b. About 10 axial lamella? on body- whorl . . . . philippinarum . 

bb. About 20 axial lamellse on body-whorl . . . . Jukesianum. 

B. Shell with a basal spiral ridge. 

a. Axial ribs strong, 13-16 on body- whorl ; interstices 

spirally ribbed . . . . . . . . Zelebori. 

aa. Axial riblets numerous, filiform ; body-whorl tricarinate levifoliutuin. 

Sect. 1. EPITONIUM, s. str. 

Shell having the whorls a little separated, crossed by regular 
lamelliform axial ribs ; urnbilicated. 

1. Epitonium tenellum, Button, 1885. Plate 46, fig. 5. 

Scalaria lineolata, Kiener : Hutton, C.M.M., 22 ; not of Kiener. S. lyra, 
Sowerby : Hutton, M.N.Z.M., 70 ; not of Sowerby. S. tenella, Hutton, 
P.L.S. N.S.W., ix, 1885, 943. S. novoseelandica, Clessin, Conch. Cab., 
Scalariidse, 1897, 57, pi. 15, f. 4 ; Suter, J. Mai., vii, 1899, 54. 

Shell rather small, perforate, thin and fragile, translucent, 
acuminate, usually with a brown band on the anterior part of the 
body- whorl. Sculpture consisting of arcuate lamellar axial ribs, most 
of them discontinuous over the whorls, about 20 on the last whorl ; 
interstices smooth. Colour light horny, with a narrow brown band 
below the suture on the last few whorls, continued from the suture and 
bounding the base on the body-whorl ; a very faintly brown band is 
sometimes present on the periphery ; riblets white. Spire elevated, 
conic, about 1J times the height of the aperture ; outlines straight. 
Protoconch small, sharply conic, of about 3 smooth and convex whorls. 
Whorls 8 to 9, convex, very little shouldered ; base convex. Suture 
deep. Aperture slightly oblique, oval. Peristome continuous in adult 
specimens, thickened by an axial rib, edge blunt, slightly effuse below. 
Columella short, oblique, slightly arcuate. Inner lip very little ex- 
panded, with a free and sharp margin, leaving the narrow umbilical 
perforation open. Operculum unknown. 

Diameter, 5 mm. ; height, 11-5 mm. Angle of spire, 32. 

Animal unknown. 

Type in the Dominion Museum, Wellington. 

Hob. Auckland Harbour ; Bay of Islands. Also Tasmania and 
Australia. 

Remark. Perfectly white specimens are sometimes found. 

Sect. 2. CLATHRUS, Oken, 1815. 

Clathrus, Oken, " Lehrbuch der Zoologie," 1815. Type: Scalaria communis? 
Lam. 

Shell moderately thick, often coloured, whorls united ; longitudinal 
ribs usually numerous, aperture suboval, umbilicus covered by the 
inner lip, no basal rib. 



Epifonium.] GASTROPODA. 32 1 

2. Epitonium philippinarum, Sowerby, 1844.. Plate 46, fig. 6. 

Scalaria philippinarum, Sow., P.Z.S., 1844, 12 ; Thes. Conch., i, 86, pi. 32. 
f. 1-3 ; Conch. Icon., xix, pi. 4, f. 21 ; Man. Conch. (1), ix, 66, pi. 13. 
f. 18, 19 ; Pritchard and Gatliff, P.R.S. Vic., xiii (n.s.), 144. 

Shell rather small, fairly thin, sernitransparent, imperf orate. 
Sculpture consisting of distant, axial, sharp, and elevated lamellar 
ribs, angularly produced above, continuous over the whorls and the 
suture, about 10 on the last whorl, continued over the base ; interstices 
smooth and polished. Colour uniformly white or fulvous between the 
lamellae. Spire sharply conic, about twice the height of the aperture ; 
outlines straight. Protoconch small, of 1 convex and pointed whorl. 
Whorls 1 to 8, convex ; base rounded. Suture very deep. Aperture 
slightly oblique, oval. Peristome continuous, thickened outside by a 
strong varix formed by the last axial rib, pointed below the suture 
and the columella, broadened over the umbilical tract. Columella 
short, arcuate, and rounded. Operculum unknown. 

Diameter, 5 mm. ; height, 14 mm. Angle of spire, 27. 

Animal unknown. 

Type in the British Museum. 

Hob. - - Bay of Islands ; Waiwera ; Rangitoto Channel, in 
4 fathoms (H. S.). Found also in Australia, the Philippine Islands, 
Amboina, &c. 

3. Epitonium Jukesianum, Forbes, 1852. Plate 46, fig. 7. 

Scalaria Jukesiana, Forbes, Voy. " Rattlesnake," ii, Append., 383, pi. 3, f. 7 : 
Conch. Icon., xix, pi. 11, f. 80; Man. Conch. (1), ix, 66, pi. 14, f. 20; 
Button, P.L.S. N.S.W., ix, 943. Scala Jukesiana, Forbes : Pritchard 
' and Gatliff, P.R.S. Vic., xiii (n.s.), 143. Scalaria delicatula, Crosse and 
Fischer, J. de Conch., 1864, 347 ; 1865, 42, pi. 3, f. 9, 10 : Couch. 
Icon., xix, pi. 15, f. 115 : Man. Conch. (1), ix, 69, pi. 14, f. 39. 
S. wellingtonensis, T. W. Kirk, T.N.Z.I., xii, 1879 (1880), 307. 

Shell rather small, turreted, white, translucent, slightly polished, 
irnperforate. Sculpture consisting of numerous axial, lamellose, and a 
little reflexed ribs, slightly produced above, continuous over the whorls, 
about 20 on the last whorl, interstices smooth, the sculpture extending 
over the whole of the base. Colour pure-white. Spire high conic, 
about three times the height of the aperture ; outlines straight. 
Protoconch consisting of 3 slightly convex smooth whorls. Whorls 11, 
convex ; base rounded. Suture deeply impressed, the costse continued 
over it. Aperture oblique, orbicular. Peristome continuous, but thin 
over the parietal wall, thickened outside by the last riblet, edge blunt, 
rounded, expanded on the umbilical tract. Columella short, arcuate. 
Inner lip not reflexed, sharp. Operculum unknown. 

Diameter, 4 mm. ; height, 13 mm. Angle of spire, 28. 

Animal unknown. 

Type in the British Museum. 

11 Moll. N.Z. 



322 GASTROPODA. [Pectinibranchia. 

Hub. Auckland Harbour, among shell-sand (Cheeseman) ; Wha- 
ngarei Heads (C. Cooper) ; Gisborne (A. Hamilton) ; Cook Strait : in 
2 to 10 fathoms. Also Australia and Tasmania. 

Remark. Of E. wellingtonensis, Kirk, three type specimens are in 
the Dominion Museum ; they are not E. philippinarum, as suggested 
by Try on. 

Sect. 3. OPALIA, H. and A. Adams, 1853. 

Opalia, H. & A. Ad., Ad. G.R.M., i, 222. First species : Scalaria australis, 
Lam. Clathrus, Gray ; not of Oken. 

Shell turreted, imperforate ; whorls not disunited, the last with 
a conspicuous spiral ridge round the umbilical region. 

4. Epitonium Zelebori, Drinker, 1866. Plate 46, fig. 8. 

Scalaria Zelebori, Dkr., V.Z.B.G. Wien, xvi, 1866, 912. Scala (Opalia ?) 
Zelebori, Dkr. : Frauenfeld, " Novara " MoU., 1867, 7, pi. 1, f. 6. 
Scalaria intermedia, Hutton, Cat. Tert. M., 10. S. Zelebori, Dkr. : 
Button, C.M.M., 21 ; M.N.Z.M., 69. -S'. Reevei, Clessin, Conch. Cab., 
Scalariidse, 1897, 63, pi. 15, f. 9 ; Suter, J. Mai., vii, 54. S. Zelebori, 
Frfld., Man. Conch. (1), ix, 78, pi. 15, f. 75. 

Shell of moderate size, solid, white, imperforate, with axial and 
spiral sculpture, not shining. Sculpture consisting of rather distant, 
oblique, thick, and denticulate axial ribs, continuous over the whorls 
and extending over the base, angularly produced above, 13 to 16 
on the last whorl ; interstices with 6 to 8 rounded and prominent 
spiral ribs, with fine spiral striae between them ; base with a distinct 
spiral keel. Colour white. Spire elevated conic, about five times 
the height of the apertiire ; outlines straight. Protoconch of 2 smooth 
and strongly convex whorls ; apex sharply pointed. Whorls 10 to 11, 
regularly increasing, convex ; base slightly concave. Suture very 
deep, the costee passing angularly over it. Aperture almost circular, 
oblique. Peristome continuous. The outer lip outside varicose and 
denticulate. Basal lip slightly expanded below the pillar. Colu- 
mella short, arciiate, rounded. Inner lip not expanded. Operculum 
not known. 

Diameter, 8 mm. ; height, 24 mm. (type). Angle of spire, 28. 

Animal unknown. 

Type in the K.K. Hofmuseum, Vienna. 

Hob. Ahipara Beach ; Bay of Islands ; Whangarei Heads (C. 
Cooper) ; Auckland Harbour, and dredged near Waiwera (Cheese- 
man) ; off Great Barrier Island, in 110 fathoms ; Tauranga ; Stewart 
Island ; Chatham Islands ; Kermadec Islands. 

Fossil. Miocene and Pliocene. 

Sect. 4. ACRILLUS, H. Adams, 1860. 

Acrillus, H. Ad., P.Z.S., 1860, 241. Type : Scalaria acuminata, Sow. 
Shell moderately thick, turritelliform ; whorls united, with very 
numerous filiform ribs, last whorl with subcarinated periphery ; lip 
of aperture thin. 



Epitonium.] GASTROPODA. 323 



Page 322. Omit- 

"Sect. 3. OPALIA, H and A. Adams, 1853," 
and the succeeding four lines, and replace it by 

" Sect. 3. CIRSOTREMA, Moerch, 1852. 

Cirsotrema, Moerch. Cat. Yolcli. ]8r,-2. 4,8. Type; ScMlann varicosa. Lara. 
CaloKcnln.. Tate, 1885. 

"Axial lamellae frequently crisped; spiral threads occasionally 
very large ; outer lip with a thick crenate marginal varix ' 



Face page 322.] 

w uons iu, reguiariy increasing, witn straignt sides aoove tne Keei, 
concave between the encircling ribs. Suture deep and channelled, 
which character is partly hidden by the axial laminae passing over it. 
Aperture ovate, angled above. Outer and basal lip rounded, slightly 
effuse, sharp, and with flexuous projections corresponding to the spiral 
keels. Columella concave, very little callous, terminating in a minute 
sharp point. 

Diameter, 1-62 mm. ; height, 5-7 mm. 

Animal unknown. 

Type in the Dominion Museum, Wellington. 

Hob. Off Great Barrier Island, in 110 fathoms (type) ; Little 
Barrier Island, in 20 fathoms (R. H. Shakespear) ; near the Snares, 
in 50 fathoms (Captain Bollons). Also dredged in 80 fathoms twenty- 
two miles east of Narrabeen, New South Wales, by Mr. C. Hedley. 

Genus 2. CROSSEA, A. Adams, 1865. 

Crossea, A. Ad., A.M.N.H. (3), xv, 1865, 323. Type : C. miranda, A. Ad. 
Shell small, umbilicate, conical or turbinate ; whorls convex, re- 
ticulated, simple or varicose ; aperture rounded, prolonged anteriorly, 
where it is deeply notched and somewhat canaliculate ; umbilicus 
bordered by a long, curved, raised rim, which is often crenulated. 
Distribution. Japan, Australia, Tasmania, and New Zealand. 
Fossil in the Tertiary of Australia. 

KEY TO SPECIES. 

A. Shell smooth, except a prominent ridge on the base, and a second 

arising from the umbilicus . . . . . . . . glabella. 

B. Shell sculptured. 

a. Surface spirally lirate, a smooth zone above the umbilical rim labiata. 
aa. Body-whorl with 6 spiral lirae and a faint 7th on the base, 

the interspaces cancellated by axial riblets . . . . cancellata. 

11* 



322 GASTROPODA. [Pectinibranchia. 

Hab. Auckland Harbour, among shell-sand (Cheeseman) : AYka- 



-M. ^._i- .... i , i . . i t 



spiral sculpture, not shining. Sculpture consisting of rather distant, 
oblique, thick, and denticulate axial ribs, continuous over the whorls 
and extending over the base, angularly produced above, 13 to 16 
on the last whorl ; interstices with 6 to 8 rounded and prominent 
spiral ribs, with fine spiral striae between them ; base with a distinct 
spiral keel. Colour white. Spire elevated conic, about five times 
the height of the aperture ; outlines straight. Protoconch of 2 smooth 
and strongly convex whorls ; apex sharply pointed. Whorls 10 to 11, 
regularly increasing, convex ; base slightly concave. Suture very 
deep, the costse passing angularly over it. Aperture almost circular, 
oblique. Peristome continuous. The outer lip outside varicose and 
denticulate. Basal lip slightly expanded below the pillar. Colu- 
mella short, arcuate, rounded. Inner lip not expanded. Operculum 
not known. 

Diameter, 8 mm. ; height, 24 mm. (type). Angle of spire, 28. 

Animal unknown. 

Type in the K.K. Hofmuseum, Vienna. 

Hab. Ahipara Beach ; Bay of Islands ; Whangarei Heads (C. 
Cooper) ; Auckland Harbour, and dredged near Waiwera (Cheese- 
man) ; off Great Barrier Island, in 110 fathoms ; Tauranga ; Stewart 
Island ; Chatham Islands ; Kermadec Islands. 

Fossil. Miocene and Pliocene. 

Sect. 4. ACRILLUS, H. Adams, 1860. 

Acrillus, H. Ad., P.Z.S., 1860, 241. Type : Scalar in acuminate, Sow. 
Shell moderately thick, turritelliform ; whorls united, with very 
numerous filiform ribs, last whorl with subcarinated periphery ; lip 
of aperture thin. 



Ejritoniuin.] GASTROPODA. 323 

5. Hpitonium levifoliatum, Murdoch and Suter, 190G. Plate 16, 

fig. 1. 
Scala levifoliata, M. & S., T.N.Z.I., xxxviii, 1905 (1906), 295, pi. 25, f. 35, 36. 

Shell small, turreted, imperforate, longitudinally finely laminated. 
Sculpture : Spire-whorls bicarinate, the slope uniform from the suture 
to the upper carina, situate on the lower half of the whorls ; the lower 
carina is less conspicuous, and close to the suture ; last whorl tri- 
carinate with the basal keel microscopically granulate, below this is 
a well-marked furrow bounded by a small concentric rib, which margins 
the columella ; on the lower part of the shoulder 2 indistinct spiral 
threads, more obscure on the upper whorls ; the axial sculpture 
consists of oblique, close, delicate, undulating, and sharp laminations, 
extending over the suture, and terminating at the basal carina. Colour 
greyish-white. Spire elongate, turreted, sharply pointed, about four 
times the height of the aperture. Protoconch of 2 small rounded 
whorls, the nucleus with the initial half-turn smooth, the other half 
radiately delicately ribbed, the second whorl with sharp laminations. 
Whorls 10, regularly increasing, with straight sides above the keel, 
concave between the encircling ribs. Suture deep and channelled, 
which character is partly hidden by the axial laminae passing over it. 
Aperture ovate, angled above. Outer and basal Up rounded, slightly 
effuse, sharp, and with flexuous projections corresponding to the spiral 
keels. Columella concave, very little callous, terminating in a minute 
sharp point. 

Diameter, 1-62 mm. ; height, 5-7 mm. 

Animal unknown. 

Type in the Dominion Museum, Wellington. 

Hob. Off Great Barrier Island, in 110 fathoms (type) ; Little 
Barrier Island, in 20 fathoms (R. H. Shakespear) ; near the Snares, 
in 50 fathoms (Captain Bollons). Also dredged in 80 fathoms twenty- 
two miles east of Narrabeen, New South Wales, by Mr. C. Hedley. 

Genus 2. CROSSEA, A. Adams. 1865. 

Crossea, A. Ad., A.M.N.H. (3), xv, 1865, 323. Type : C. miranda, A. Ad. 
Shell small, umbilicate, conical or turbinate ; whorls convex, re- 
ticulated, simple or varicose ; aperture rounded, prolonged anteriorly, 
where it is deeply notched and somewhat canaliculate ; umbilicus 
bordered by a long, curved, raised rim, which is often crenulated. 
Distribution. Japan, Australia, Tasmania, and New Zealand. 
Fossil in the Tertiary of Australia. 

KEY TO SPECIES. 

A. Shell smooth, except a prominent ridge on the base, and a second 

arising from the umbilicus . . . . . . . . ijlabella. 

B. Shell sculptured. 

a. Surface spirally lirate, a smooth zone above the umbilical rim labiata. 
an. Body-whorl with 6 spiral lira? and a faint 7th on the base, 

the interspaces cancellated by axial riblets . . . . cancellata. 

11* 



324 GASTROPODA. [Pectinibranchia. 

1. Crossea cancellata, T.- Woods, 1878. Plate 16, fig. 2. 




P.R.S. Tas., 1881 (1882), 31 ; 1882 (1883), 169. 

Shell small, globosely turbinate, perforate, fairly solid, with con- 
spicuous axial and spiral ribs. Sculpture consisting of prominent 
spiral ribs, 3 on the upper whorls, 6 on the, body-whorl, 4 of which 
are above the suture ; there is a faint indication of a seventh spiral 
on the base ; the second, third, and fourth spirals are stronger than 
the others, smooth and rounded ; interstices broader than the spirals ; 
axial sculpture formed by equidistant, oblique, somewhat strong 
riblets, which do not pass over the spiral cords, but strongly can- 
cellate their interspaces, and extend over the whole of the base ; the 
umbilical rim very stout and finely crenulated by the axial riblets. 
Colour white. Spire depressed conoidal, about as high as the aperture ; 
outlines convex. Protoconch small, of 1 smooth whorl, flatly convex. 
Whorls 4, convex ; base rounded. Suture distinct. Aperture sub- 
vertical, almost circular, broadly angled above, typically canaliculated 
at the base, but my New Zealand examples show this very indis- 
tinctly. Peristome continuous, thick, and blunt. Columella vertical, 
somewhat arcuate, produced below into a tongue-shaped process, 
and leaving a deep groove between it and the umbilical callosity. 
Perforation narrow. Operculum unknown. 

Diameter, 2-5 mm. ; height, 2-6 mm. (specimen from Whangaroa). 

Animal unknown. 

Type in the Tasmanian Museum, Hobart. 

Hab. Whangaroa Harbour ; near Cuvier Island, in 38 fathoms 
(Captain Bollons). Also Tasmania and Australia, in 20 fathoms. 
The type is from Blackmail's Bay, Tasmania. 

2. Crossea glabella, Murdoch, 1905. Plate 16, fig. 3. 

Crossea glabella, Murcl., T.N.Z.I., xxxvii, 1904 (1905), 225, pi. 8, f. 16, 17. 

Shell minute, turbinate, smooth, and rather solid. Sculpture 
none, except a prominent ridge on the base bounding a broad de- 
pression, and a second ridge arising from the umbilicus. Colour 
white, somewhat shining. Spire depressed, less than the height of 
the aperture ; outlines convex. Protoconch consisting of U smooth 
and convex whorls, the nucleus rather large and globose. Whorls 3, 
convex ; base somewhat convex. Suture distinct, not deep, margined 
below by a narrow ridge, followed by a slight depression. Aperture 
subcircular, angled above, and slightly canaliculated below. Outer 
lip thin and sharp. Columella vertical, arcuate. Inner lip slightly 
reflected, covering only a small part of the umbilicus. Basal lip 
with 2 well-marked expansions, produced by the two basal ridges, 
Umbilicus narrow, deep. Operculum unknown. 



Crossed.] GASTROPODA. 325 

Diameter, 1-94 mm. ; height, 1-97 mm. (type). 

Animal unknown. 

Type in the Dominion Museum, Wellington. 

Hob. Whangaroa Harbour, type (C. Traill) ; Stewart Island and 
Foveaux Strait, in 15 fathoms ; off Otago Heads, dredged (A. Hamil- 
ton) ; Dusky Sound, in 30 fathoms (R. Henry) ; near the Snares, in 
50 fathoms (Captain Bollons). 

3. Crossea labiata, T.-Woods, 1876. Plate 16, fig. 4. 

Crossea labiata, T.-Woods, P.R.S. Tas., 1875 (1876), 151 ; Hedley, P.L.S. 
N.S.W., 1900, 500, pi. 26, f. 18 ; Tate and May, I.e., 1901, 379 ; Verco, 
T.R.S. S.Aust., 1906, 149. 

Shell small, globosely turbinate, narrowly umbilicate, somewhat 
solid. Sculpture consisting of equidistant spiral liroe, which are flat, 
with narrower interspaces, and crossed by very fine arcuate growth- 
lines ; there is a narrow smooth zone above the umbilical rim, but the 
spiral sculpture is present in the umbilicus. Colour horny, sometimes 
white. Spire conoidal, height a little less than that of the aperture ; 
outlines somewhat convex. Protoconch small, of 1J smooth whorls, 
obtuse. Whorls 5, convex, the last very large in proportion ; base 
flatly rounded. Suture distinct. Aperture ovate, angled above, and 
with a canaliculate angular projection below. Peristome continuous. 
Outer lip subreflexed, and in quite adult specimens with a fringe-like 
varix outside. Columella vertical, slightly arcuate, narrowed toward 
the base. Inner lip spreading only a short distance beyond the 
columella, and narrowing a little the small umbilical perforation. 
Umbilicus margined with a round smooth callus, sometimes subcrenu- 
lated by a few axial folds. Operculum unknown. 

Diameter, 2-5 mm. ; height, 3-5 mm. The type measures 2 mm. by 
4 mm. 

Animal unknown. 

Type in the Tasmanian Museum, Hobart. 

Hab. Near Little Barrier Island, in 20 fathoms (R. H. Shake- 
spear) ; Taumaki Island, west coast of the South Island, in 10 fathoms 
(Captain Bollons). Also in Tasmania and Australia, in 5 to 10 fathoms. 
The type is from Long Bay, Tasmania, 10 fathoms, sand. 

Genus 3. ACLIS, Loven, 1846. 

Aclis, Loven, Ind. Moll. Scand., 1846, 16. Type : A. supranitida, Wood. 
Ebala, Gray. 

Animal having a long retractile proboscis ; the tentacles close 
together at the base, slender, cylindrical, eyes sessile at their external 
bases ; foot truncate ; mentum narrower than the sole, and extending 
far beyond the head ; operculigerous lobe ample, unsymmetrical. 
Radula of numerous simple aculeiform teeth. 



326 GASTROPODA. [Pectinibranchia. 

Shell small, narrowly umbilicated or rimate, turreted, subulate, 
smooth or usually with spiral riblets ; aperture oval, entire, the peri- 
stome discontinuous ; lip thin, simple. Operculurn corneous, thin, 
ear-shaped, paucispiral, with marginal nucleus. 

Only a small number of living forms are known, mostly from the 

/ / 

European seas, and about a dozen fossil species, commencing with 
the Devonian, are referred to the genus. One species, Aclis costellata, 
Hutt., has been found in the Pliocene of Wanganui. 

Aclis resembles Turritella in form, but is much smaller and typic- 
ally umbilicated. 

KEY TO SPECIES. 

A. Whorls convex ; fine axial costse, obsolete on the base, which 

bears minute spiral stria?. Umbilical chink narrow or 

obsolete .. .. .. .. .. .. semireticulata. 

B. Whorls shouldered ; 4 spiral threads on the spire-whorls, 

interstices reticulated by finer axial threads. Perforation 

narrow, open . . . . . . . . . . succinctn. 

1. Aclis semireticulata, Murdoch and Suter, 1906. Plate 16, 
fig. 5. 

Aclis semireticulata, M. & S., T.N.Z.I., xxxviii, 1905 (190(i), 294, pi. 24, 
f. 33, 34. 

Shell small, subulate, with a rounded base, sublimate, longitudinally 
costate, and with a spiral thread on the last whorl. The spiral sculpture 
consists of some minute strise upon the base, occasionally extending 
above the periphery, and usually absent on the spire-whorls ; the 
axial ornamentation formed by small rounded costations, obsolete or 
absent on the base, and generally very variable, some fairly uniform 
throughout, others feeble on the last whorl, and others again more 
or less obsolete on all whorls. Colour light horny, hyaline. Epidermis 
very thin, glossy, membranaceous, present on a few specimens only. 
Spire conical, higher than the aperture, with a blunt apex. Protoconch 
formed by about 2 smooth rounded and vitreous volutions. Whorls 6, 
regularly increasing, rounded ; base convex. Suture deep, margined 
above by a minute threadlet, which strengthens upon the later whorls, 
and at last forms a distinct thread below the periphery upon the 
body-whorl. Aperture broadly ovate. Outer lip regularly rounded, 
slightly varicose, the varix usually set a little back from the edge. 
Columella excavated, mostly a little produced below, forming an 
angulation of the aperture. Inner lip forming a small callosity upon 
the parietal wall and the columella. Umbilical chink very narrow or 
obsolete. Operculum unknown. 

Diameter, 1-7 mm. ; height, 3'3 mm. 

Animal unknown. 

Type in the Dominion Museum, Wellington. 

Hab. Off Great Barrier Island, in 110 fathoms. 



Aclis.] GASTROPODA. 327 

Remarks. This species may represent the Aclis (Rissopsis) hyalina, 
Hutton (N.Z.J.S., ii, 1884, 173), the type of which seems to be lost. 
Mutton's species is unfigured, and the description scarcely sufficiently 
full to identify it with certainty. In any case, A. 'hyalina, Hutt., 
cannot stand, the name being preoccupied by Watson. 

2. Aclis succincta, Suter, 1908. Plate 16, fig. 6. 

Aclis succincta, Suter, T.N.Z.I., xl, 1907 (1908), 362, pi. 28, f. 4. 

Shell very small, turreted, perforate, hyaline and somewhat shining. 
Sculpture consisting of spiral threads, one upon the middle of the 
shoulder, the second (most prominent of all) on the angle of the shoulder, 
the third (slightly finer) a little below the periphery, and the fourth 
just above the suture ; base with a few additional lirse ; the whole 
crossed by oblique rather distant axial lines reticulating the interstices 
and extending over the base ; the axial sculpture by far not so con- 
spicuous as the spiral. Colour light horny. Spire turriculate, much 
higher than the aperture ; outlines straight. Protoconch small, obtuse, 
spirally sharply ridged. Whorls 6, regularly increasing, distinctly 
shouldered, and angularly narrowed again below the periphery ; base 
convex. Suture distinct, margined above by the fourth spiral. 
Aperture sub vertical, oval. Peristome discontinuous, sharp. Colu- 
mella vertical, somewhat arcuate, a little broadened and subtruncated 
below. Perforation narrow, open. Operculur/i unknown. 

Diameter, I'l mm. ; height, 2' 6 mm. 

Animal unknown. 

Type in my collection. 

Hab. Near the Snares, in 50 fathoms (Captain Bollons). 

AGLOSSA. 

The two following families of Tcenioglossa Platypoda have neither 
radula nor jaw, and are therefore called Aglossa or Gymnoglossa. They 
are suctorial animals, with a well-developed proboscis, and are often 
commensal or parasitic on Echinoderms ; some are abyssal. A third 
family, Entoconchidce, is included, but none of its members have 
hitherto been recorded from New Zealand. 

Fam. PYRAMIDELLIDJE, Gray. 

Animal with 2 flattened, subtriangular or elongate tentacles, 
grooved or auriform in the larger forms, the funicles with a ciliated 
area ; below the tentacles an oral orifice, from which extends a long, 
retractile, subcylindric proboscis, but there is no muzzle like that of 
Epitonium ; below the oral orifice is a distinct elongated projection, 
named by Loven the " mentum," which is usually more or less medially 
grooved or fissured. Foot short, moderately pointed behind, with a 
small opercuhgerous lobe above and sometimes a small tentacular 



328 GASTROPODA. [Pectinibranchia. 

appendix on each side, in front feebly auriculate or undulate ; mantle 
sfightly canaliferous on the right upper margin ; a single branchia ; 
verge subcylindric, elongate. 

Shell turreted, with a plicate axis ; the outer lip frequently 
internally lirate ; in the larger forms the aperture is obscurely 
channelled in front ; the larval shell is sinistral, the adult dextral, the 
former frequently set at an angle to the adult axis, or more or less 
immersed in the adult apical whorls ; it is usually helicoid and smooth ; 
the sculpture varies from nothing to ribbed, spirally sulcate or 
reticulate ; the coloration, when present, usually reddish, brownish, 
or yellow. Operculum ovoid, paucispiral, with the apex anterior, a 
thread-like arcuate ridge on the outer side, the inner margin notched 
in harmony with the plaits of the pillar when present. 

The distribution is world-wide, but the larger forms are mostly 
tropical. They occur first in the Cretaceous, are numerous in the 
Tertiary, but perhaps are most fully developed in the existing faunas. 

KEY TO GENERA. 

A. Shell elongate-conic, whorls usually inflated and regularly 

increasing ; the pillar with from 1 to 3 folds, but wanting 

in Eulimella .. .. .. .. .. PYRAMID ELLA, 

B. Shell cylindro-conic, many-whorled, generally slender ; no 

columellar fold ; shell usually smaller than in Pyramidella 

and larger than in Odostomia . . . . . . TURBONILLA- 

C. Shell usually short, few-whorled, subconic or ovate ; colu- 

mellar fold single, varying in strength . . . . ODOSTOMIA. 

Genus 1. PYRAMIDELLA. Lamarck, 1799. 

Pyramidella, Lam., Mem. Soc. Hist. Nat. Paris, 1799, 76. Type : Trochus 
dolabratus, L. Obeliscus, Humphrey, 1797 (fide Morch, 1852). 

Animal having the tentacles large, ear-shaped, the eyes at their 
inner bases ; mentum large, flattened, divided by a deep median 
longitudinal fissure ; foot obtuse. 

Shell with elevated sharp-pointed spire, many-whoried, smooth 
or axially ribbed ; aperture suboval, entire, rounded in front ; colu- 
mella straight, with prominent spiral plications ; outer lip sharp, 
often plicate within. Operculum semicircular, horny, subspiral, the 
nucleus at the front end, its columellar edge notched to fit the folds of 
the columella. 

Inhabits mostly tropical seas. 

Fossil. Cretaceous and Tertiary. 



KEY TO SUBGENERAi 






A. Shell without columellar plication . . . . . . EULIMELLA. 

B. Shell with 1 columellar fold . . . . . . . . SYENOLA. 



Pyramidella.} GASTROPODA. 329 

Subgen. 1. EULIMELLA, Forbes, 1846. 

Eulimella, Forbes, Ann. Nat. Hist., xiv, 1846, 412. Type : E. crass-ilia, 
Forbes = E. scillae, Scacchi. 

Animal with short tentacles ; mentum lobed in front ; anterior 
extremity of foot truncated. 

Shell small, elongated, subcylindrical, turriculate, rather solid, 
smooth, polished ; whorls numerous, apex sinistral ; aperture sub- 
quadrangular or suboval ; peristome discontinuous ; columella straight, 
without plications. Operculum with a spiral groove, columellar 
margin entire. 

KEY TO SPECIES. 

A. Shell microscopically spirally striate . . . . . . . . levilirata. 

B. Shell without spiral striation. 

a. Suture distinctly channelled . . . . . . . . limbata. 

act. Suture distinct, but not channelled ; submargined . . . . ccena. 

1. Pyramidella ccena, Webster, 1905. Plate 16, fig. 7. 

Eulimella ccena, Webster, T.N.Z.I., xxxvii, 1904 (1905), 279, pi. 10, f. 11. 

Shell, small, subulate, smooth and polished, imperforate. Sculpture 
none, except very fine growth-lines. Colour white. Spire high, the 
top sometimes slightly turned to the left, outlines straight. Protoconch 
heterostrophe, of 2 convex and smooth whorls, with the nucleus lateral. 
Whorls 8 to 9, regularly increasing, flatly convex ; base rounded. 
Suture well marked, submargined below by a smooth narrow band. 
Aperture vertical, suboval, angled above, oval and slightly effuse 
below. Outer lip slightly convex, sharp. Basal lip arcuate and some- 
what expanded. Columella subvertical, slightly twisted, subtruncate 
below. Inner lip rather broad, spreading sometimes a little beyond 
the pillar, but not reflexed. Operculum unknown. 

Diameter, l - 2 mm. ; height, 3'8 mm. (specimen of 8 whorls). 

Animal unknown. 

Type in Mr. W. H. Webster's collection. 

Hob. Takapuna Keef, in sand (W. H. Webster) ; Banks Peninsula 
(Iredale). 

Remarks. The height, 2J mm., is evidently wrong. If the figure 
is correct it should be 3-5 mm. I found the shell to be not uncommon 
in the locality mentioned. 

1'. Pyramidella levilirata, Murdoch and Suter, 1906. Plate 16, 
fig. 8. 

Eulimella leviliata, M. & S., T.N.Z.I., xxxviii, 1905 (1906), 296, pi. 25, f. 38. 
E. deplexa, Hutton, Index, 74 ; not of Hutton. 

Shell small, subulate, imperforate, many-whorled. Sculpture con- 
sisting of microscopic fine close and linear spiral grooves, crossed by 
very fine unequally spaced growth-lines. Colour white, glossy. Spire 
long and subulate. Protoconch smooth, with a heterostrophe, minute, 
rounded, and lateral nucleus. Whorls 1 to 8, slowly and regularly 



330 GASTROPODA. [Pectinibranchia. 

increasing ; sides flatly convex ; base rounded. Suture well im- 
pressed and distinct. Aperture vertical, subovate, sides nearly parallel, 
angled above, slightly effuse below. Outer and basal lip simple, sharp. 
Columella straight and vertical, rounded. Inner Up not broad, with 
a sharp edge, spreading as a thin layer over the parietal wall. Oper- 
culum unknown. 

Diameter, 1-4 mm. ; height, 6 mm. (type). Diameter. 1-4 mm. ; 
height, 4-8 mm. (specimen from Little Barrier, of 8 whorls). 

Animal unknown. 

Type in the Dominion Museum, Wellington. 

Hob. Off Great Barrier Island, in 110 fathoms (type) ; near 
Little Barrier Island, in 20 fathoms (R. H. Shakespear) ; Lyttelton 
Harbour (H. S.) ; dredged off Otago Heads (A. Hamilton) ; near 
Cuvier Island, in 38 fathoms (Captain Bollons). 

Remarks. The specimen I once found in Lyttelton Harbour, and 
which I took for E. deplexa, Hutton, shows distinct microscopic spiral 
striations, and has no callus on the umbilical tract. 

3. Pyramidella limbata, Suter, 1908. Plate 16, fig. 9. 

Pyramidella (Eulimella) limbata? Suter, T.N.Z.I., xl, 1907 (1908). 362, 
pi. 28, f. 5. 

Shell small, subulate, imperforate, polished, with channelled suture. 
Sculpture consisting simply of straight growth-lines, slightly plicate on 
some of the whorls. Colour white. Spire subulate, much higher than 
the aperture ; outlines straight. Protoconch heterostrophe, of 2 smooth 
whorls, the nucleus lateral. Whorls about 9, regularly increasing, 
flatly rounded ; base convex. Suture very distinctly channelled. 
Aperture vertical, suboval, the sides subparallel, the base angularly 
effuse. Peristome solid, but not thickened, rather sharp. Basal lip 
expanded. Columella straight, subtruncate below. Inner Up not re- 
flexed. Operculum unknown. 

Diameter, 1-5 mm. ; height, 5 mm. 

Animal unknown. 

Type in my collection. 

Hob. Bay of Islands (type) ; Takapuna Reef, in sand (H. S.). 

Subgen. 2. SYRNOLA. A. Adams, 1862. 
Syrnola, A. Ad., P.Z.S., 1862, 233. Type : S. gracillima, A. Ad. 
Shell small, subulate, polished ; whorls flattened, suture well 
marked ; columella with a single plication ; outer lip simple. 

KEY TO SPECIES. 

A. Shell smooth, without spiral microscopic striation ; with a 

narrow brown band . . . . . . . . . . pulchra. 

B. Shell with microscopic spiral striation ; not banded. 

a. Suture channelled, columellar fold feeble .. .. tmitiplicata. 

aa. Suture not channelled, but margined below by a smooth 

band ; columellar fold distinct . . lurida. 



Pyramidella.} GASTROPODA. 331 

4. Pyramidella lurida, Suter, 1908. Plate 16, fig. 10. 

Pyramidella (Syrnola) lurida, Suter, T.N.Z.I., xl, 1907 (1908), 347, pi. 27, f. 4. 

Shell small, subulate, imperforate, smooth and polished. Sculp- 
ture consisting of very fine and close microscopic spiral striae ; the 
fine and nearly straight growth-lines distinct. Colour white. Spire 
high, subulate, much higher than the aperture ; outlines but faintly 
convex. Protoconch heterostrophe, of 1 smooth globular and polished 
whorl. Whorls 7, regularly increasing, faintly convex ; base rounded. 
Suture well impressed, margined below by a distinct narrow smooth 
band. Aperture subvertical, elongate-ovate, angled above and nar- 
rowly rounded below. Outer lip thin and sharp. Columella sub- 
vertical, arcuate, with a distinct plait above, which is continued as a 
narrow ridge over the pillar down to the base, and uniting with the 
basal lip ; there is no callosity upon the parietal wall. Operculum un- 
known. 

Diameter, 1-6 mm. ; height, 6mm. 

Animal unknown. 

Type in my collection. 

Hab. Five miles south of Cuvier Island, in 38 fathoms (Captain 
Bollons). 

5. Pyramidella pulchra, Brazier, 1877. Plate 16, fig. 11. 

Syrnola pulchra, Braz., P.L.S. N.S.W., i, 1877, 261 ; Hedley, Rec. A.M., 
iv, No. 3, 125, pi. 16, f. 20. 

Shell small, perforate, fairly solid, and polished, with a narrow 
brown band. Sculpture consisting of fine straight growth-lines only. 
Colour cream-Avhite, with a fine dark-brown spiral band above the 
suture on the last four whorls, at the periphery on the body-whorl. 
Spire high, subcylindrical, tapering towards the apex, much higher 
than the aperture. Protoconch lost in the type as well as in my 
specimen. Whorls about 9 to 11, regularly increasing, sides almost 
straight ; base flattish. Suture deep, channelled. Aperture vertical, 
elongately oval, angled above, slightly expanded at the base, half-way 
down with 4 prominent lines of striae, the upper one thickest. Peri- 
stome thin and sharp. Columella subvertical, short, arcuate, with a 
distinct plait above. Inner lip spreading but little beyond the pillar, 
but covering the whole width of the parietal wall. Umbilical chink 
narrow, open. Operculum unknown. 

Diameter, 1-5 mm. ; height, 4-8 mm. (decollated specimen of 
7 whorls). 

Animal unknown. 

Type in the Macleay Museum, Sydney. 

Hab. Five miles south of Cuvier Island, in 38 fathoms (Captain 
Bollons). 



332 GASTROPODA. [Pectinibranchia. 

Remarks. The type, of the Chevert Expedition, is from Darnley 
Island ; it is adorned with an additional narrow band upon the base, 
which is wanting in my only specimen. 

6. Pyramidella tenuiplicata, Murdoch and Suter, 1906. Plate 16, 
fig. 12. 

Pyramidella (Syrnola) tenuiplicata, M. & S., T.N.Z.I., xxxviii, 1905 (1906), 
296, pi. 25, f. 39. 

Shell minute, subulate, irnperforate, white and porcellanous, with 
a high spire and pointed apex. Sculpture consists of some microscopic 
irregular spiral striae. Colour white, shining. Spire slender and 
tapering, much higher than the aperture. Protoconch heterostrophe, 
of 2 smooth whorls, the nucleus lateral. Whorls 7, regularly increas- 
ing, lightly convex, body-whorl with a minute thread-like carina 
only noticeable in front of the aperture ; base rounded. Suture 
channelled. Aperture ovato-quadrate, vertical, angled above, slightly 
effuse below. Outer lip sharp, curved. Basal lip sharp, produced, 
and somewhat flattened. Columella vertical, with an indistinct plait. 
Inner lip narrowly spread over the pillar, and lightly over the parietal 
wall. Operculum unknown. 

Diameter. 0-82 mm. ; height, 3-21 mm. 

Animal unknown. 

Type in the Dominion Museum, Wellington. 

Hob. Off Great Barrier Island, in 110 fathoms. One specimen. 

Genus 2. TURBONILLA, Bisso, 1826. 

Turbonilla, Risso, Hist. Eur. Merid., Moll., iv, 1826, 224. Type : T. typica, 
D. &. B. == T. plicatula, Risso ; not Turbo plicatulus, Brocchi, 1814. 
Chemnitzia, d'Orbigny, 1839, not 1850. Pyrgiscus, Philippi, 1841. 
Ortliostelis, Aradas. Euturbonilla, Semper, 1861. 

Animal with wide tentacles, mentum elongated, flattened, usually 
bilobed in front ; foot large, anteriorly auriculated. 

Shell slender, elongated, many-whorled, generally costulate, apex 
sinistral ; columella vertical, not plicate. Operculum horny, subspiral, 
the columellar margin entire, face with a spiral groove. 

Distribution. Universal. 

Fossil. Tertiary. 

The species are very small and graceful ; the shells usually white. 

1. Turbonilla zealandica, Hutton, 1873. Plate 16, fig. 13. 

Chemnitzia zealandica, Hutt., C.M.M., 22 ; J. de Conch., 1878, 24 ; JI.N.Z.M., 
72. Turbonilla neozelanica, Hutt,, P.L.S. N.S.W., ix, 934 ; Plioc. M., 
56, pi. 7, f. 44. 

Shell small, subulate, white and shining, semitransparent, im- 
perforate. Sculpture consisting of numerous, close, flattish, and 
somewhat flexuous axial riblets, with narrower interspaces ; the riblets 



Turbonitta.] GASTROPODA. 333 

are stopped below the periphery of the last whorl by a spiral thread 
arising from the suture. Colour white. Spire high, subulate, much 
higher than the aperture ; outlines very little convex. Protoconch 
heterostrophe, of 1 smooth and strongly convex whorl. Whorls 8, 
regularly increasing, but slightly convex ; base flatly rounded and 
smooth. Suture deep. Aperture subvertical, elongately oval, angled 
above and narrowly rounded below. Peristome discontinuous, thin 
and sharp. Basal Up slightly produced, sometimes effuse and sharply 
angular. Columella somewhat oblique, slightly arcuate. Inner lip 
but little reflexed, forming a very thin callosity on the parietal wall. 
Operculum unknown. 

Diameter, 2-5 mm. ; height, 5-75 mm. (type). Diameter, 1-5 mm. ; 
height, 5 mm. (specimen of 8 whorls). 

Animal unknown. 

Type in the Dominion Museum, Wellington. 

Hob. Throughout New Zealand, from shallow water to 50 fathoms 
(the type is from Stewart Island) ; Snares and Bounty Islands, in 
50 fathoms. 

Remarks. This species is exceedingly variable in size, approaching 
the Australian T. acicularis, A. Ad., but the costae are more numerous 
and closer together. Such slender forms as 1 mm. by 3-5 mm. and 
1 -1 mm. by 4 mm. are met with. 

Fossil. Pliocene. 

Genus 3. ODOSTOMIA, Fleming, 1813. 

Odostojnia, Fleming, Edinburgh Encyc., vii, 1813, 76. Type : Turbo pli- 
catus, Montagu. Odontostoma, Turton, 1829 ; not of d'Orbigny, 1841. 
Odontostomia, Jeffreys, 1839. Turritostomia, Sacco, 1892. 

Animal elongated, the head large and robust, bearing 2 conical 
tentacles, with eyes at their bases ; foot depressed, truncated in 
front ; mentum anteriorly bilobed. 

Shell small, perforate, oval, conoidal or turriculated ; columella 
with a feeble, oblique, more or less marked plait ; aperture oval or 
subrhomboidal ; peristome mostly discontinuous. Operculum horny, 
lamellar, subimbricated, with a median spiral groove, inner margin 
indented. 

Very small, usually smooth, shells, having the habit of Rissoce, 
and sometimes found in brackish water. The species are numerous, 
of universal distribution, from low water to about 700 fathoms. 

Fossil from the Eocene. 

KEY TO SUBGENERA. 

A. Shell without axial sculpture, except growth-lines. 

a. Spiral sculpture absent, or, if present, microscopic . . ODOSTOMIA. 

aa. Spiral markings more distinct, consisting of subequal im- 
pressed lines ; shell small . . . . . . . . EVALEA. 

B. Shell with axial sculpture. 

a. With axial ribs and a few impressed spiral lines. . . . PYRGULINA. 

aa,. With spiral cords, the interspaces with faint axial threads MENESTHO. 



334 



GASTROPODA. 



[Pectinibranchia . 



Subgen. 1. ODOSTOMIA, s. str. 

Shell without axial sculpture, spiral sculpture absent, or, if present, 
microscopical, polished ; whorls not tabulated, not inflated ; peri- 
treme discontinuous. Type : 0. plicata. Mont. 

KEY TO SPECIES. 

A. Spire of about the same height as the aperture. 

a. With distinct dense microscopic spiral striae . . . . denselirata. 

aa. With a few indistinct microscopic spirals on the body- 
whorl, spire scalar, last whorl very high . . . . dolichostoma. 
aaa. Without spiral sculpture, spire not scalar . . . . cryptodon. 

B. Spire about H times the height of the aperture, with indistinct 

spiral microscopic striae, suture margined. 
. Adult with 6 to 8 whorls, body-whorl angled, suture 

narrowly margined. 
b. Adult with 6 whorls ; height. 4'5 mm. . . . . stygia. 

bb. Adult with 8 whorls ; height, 7'5 mm. ; spire 

broadly conical . . . . . . . . bembix. 

mi. Adult with 5 whorls, bodj'-whorl rounded, suture broadly 

margined . . . . . . . . . . taumakiensis. 

C. Spire about twice the height of the aperture. 

a. Without any spiral sculpture. 
b. Spire subulate. 

c. Suture impressed, narrowly margined . . inornntn. 

cc. Suture channelled, whorls angular above the 

suture . . . . . . . . pudica. 

bb. Spire conical. 

c. Spire lightly scalar, umbilicus closed . . . . hyphala. 

cc. Spire not scalar, last whorl subangular, um- 
bilicus narrow but distinctly open . . takapunaensis. 
<in. With a few irregular microscopic spiral striae. 

b. Spire subulate, suture shallow . . . . . . vestalis. 

bb. Spire conical. 

c. Body-whorl rounded . . . . . . Murdochi. 

cc. Body-whorl acutely angled .. .. .. acutangula. 

D. Spire about 2^ times the height of the aperture, with a fine 

groove on periphery of body-whorl . . . . . . incidata. 

E. Spire more than three times the height of the aperture, sub- 

cylindrical, without sculpture . . . . . . fastigiata. 

1. Odostomia acutangula, Suter, 1908. Plate 16, fig. 14. 

Odostomia actuangula, Suter, T.N.Z.I., xl, 1907 (1908), 366, pi. 29, f. 13. 

Shell minute, elevated conic, rimate, solid, polished. Sculpture 
consisting of a few microscopic spiral stripe, crossed by vertical flexuous 
fine growth-lines. Colour white. Spire elevated conic, about twice 
the height of the aperture ; outlines straight. Protoconch hetero- 
strophe, oblique, small and rounded, of 1 whorl. Whorls 5, regu- 
larly increasing, flatly convex, the last acutely angled at the periphery ; 
base flat. Suture impressed between the upper whorls, channelled 
further down. Aperture subvertical. broadly oval, angled above and 
effuse below. Outer lip nearly straight, acutely rounded on meeting 
the basal lip, which is straight. Columella vertical, very little arcuate. 



Odostomia.] GASTROPODA. 335 

with a feeble and deep-seated plait above. Inner lip narrow. Um- 
bilical chink very small. Operculum unknown. 

Diameter, 14mm.; height, 2-7 mm. 

Animal unknown. 

Type in my collection. 

Hab. --Port Pegasus, Stewart Island, in 18 fathoms (Captain 
Bollons). 

Remark. The only shell at my disposal is hardly adult. 

2. Odostomia bembix, Suter, 1908. Plate 16, fig. 15. 

Odostomia lactea, Angas : Hutton, C.M.M., 22 ; J. de Conch., 1878, 24 ; 
M.N.Z.M., 73 ; P.L.S. N.S.W., ix, 935 ; Plioc. M., 57, pi. 7, f. 48, not 
of Angas nor of Dunker. 0. Anyasi, Tryon, Index, 74, not of Tryon. 
0. bembix, Suter, T.N.Z.I., xl, 1907 (1908), 362, pi. 28, f. 6. 

Shell small, ovato-conic, subperforate, slightly polished, sub- 
diaphanous, fairly solid. Sculpture consisting of irregularly spaced 
nearly straight growth-lines, crossed by fine, sometimes very indis- 
tinct, spiral striae. Colour white, occasionally tinged with yellowish 
or pink. Spire conic, about 1| times the height of the aperture ; 
outlines straight. Protoconch very small, heterostrophe, of 1 smooth 
whorl. Whorls 8 in quite adult examples, but the shells usually 
obtained have 6 whorls ; they increase regularly, are flatly convex, 
and the last whorl is usually distinctly angled at the periphery, but 
sometimes rounded. Suture impressed, submargined below. Aper- 
ture ovate, angled above, strongly effuse below. Outer lip sharp, 
slightly convex. Basal lip acutely convex and expanded. Columella 
oblique, with a prominent oblique plait above, concave below. Inner 
lip broadly reflected below, spreading as a very thin callus over the 
parietal wall. Base with a distinct umbilical fissure. Operculum un- 
known. 

Diameter, 3-5 mm. ; height, 7-5 mm. (type, of 8 whorls). Diameter. 
3 mm. ; height, 5 mm. (specimen of 6 whorls). 

Animal unknown. 

Type in the Dominion Museum, Wellington. 

Hab. Stewart Island (type) ; Lyttelton Harbour, in 2 fathoms 
(H. S.) ; Akaroa Harbour, in 6 fathoms (H. S.) ; Blind Bay ; Narrow 
Neck Reef, Takapuna (H. S.) ; near Channel Island, in 25 fathoms. 

Remark. The Australian 0. Angasi, Tryon (= lactea, Ang.) is 
a much more slender, subulate species, which has the body-whorl 
rounded, never angled. 

Fossil in the Pliocene. 

3. Odostomia cryptodon, Suter, 1908. Plate 16, fig. 16. 

Odostomia cryptodon, Suter, T.N.Z.I., xl, 1907 (1908), 365, pi. 29, f. 12. 

Shell very small, ovate, fairly solid, imperforate, smooth, slightly 
shining. There is no sculpture, except fine oblique growth-lines. 



336 GASTROPODA. [Pectinibranchia. 

Colour white, slightly yellowish. Spire conic, a little higher than 
the aperture ; outlines but faintly convex. Protoconch heterostrophe, 
oblique, of 1 smooth and convex whorl. Whorls 4, regularly in- 
creasing, flatly rounded ; base moderately convex. Suture impressed. 
Aperture a little oblique, oval, angled above, narrowly effuse below. 
Outer lip thin and sharp. Columella vertical, arcuate, with a small 
plait above, which is deep within the aperture. Inner lip extending 
a little beyond the columella, with a sharp edge, slightly broadening 
below ; not spreading over the parietal wall. Operculum normal. 

Diameter, 1-6 mm. ; height, 3 mm. 

Animal unknown. 

Type in my collection. 

Hob. Te Onepoto Bay, near Lyttelton, type (T. Iredale) ; Queen 
Charlotte Sound, in 16 fathoms (Captain Bollons). 

4. Odostomia denselirata, Suter, 1908. Plate 16, fig. 17. 

Odostomia denselirata, Suter, T.N.Z.L, xl, 1907 (1908), 364, pi. 28, f. 9. 

Shell minute, elongately oval, thin, semitransparent, slightly 
shining, imperforate. Sculpture : The protoconch and the succeed- 
ing whorl smooth, the others microscopically densely and distinctly 
spirally striate ; growth-lines fine, vertical, and somewhat flexuous. 
Colour white. Spire conical, very little higher than the aperture ; 
outlines moderately convex. Protoconch heterostrophe, of 2 whorls, 
smooth, polished, convex, nucleus lateral. Whorls 5, regularly in- 
creasing, flatly convex ; base flat. Suture impressed. Aperture sub- 
vertical, ovate, high, angled above, narrowed and produced below. 
Outer lip regularly convex, thin and sharp. Columella vertical, arcuate, 
with a small plait above. Inner lip extending very little beyond the 
pillar, but broadening towards the base. Operculum unknown. 

Diameter, 1-25 mm. ; height, 2-5 mm. 

Animal unknown. 

Type in my collection. 

Hob. Near Little Barrier Island, in 20 fathoms, type (R. H. 
Shakespear). 

5. Odostomia dolichostoma, Suter, 1908. Plate 16, fig. 18. 

Odostomia dolichostoma, Suter, T.N.Z.L, xl, 1907 (1908), 365, pi. 29, f. 11. 
Shell small, ovate, imperforate, faintly shining, opaque. Sculpture 
consisting of a few indistinct and distant spiral striae on the body- 
whorl ; growth-lines rather strong, oblique. Colour yellowish-white. 
Epidermis horny, very thin, easily wearing off. Spire conic, somewhat 
scalar, about the same height as the aperture ; outlines almost straight. 
Protoconch of 1 smooth and polished whorl, heterostrophe, oblique. 
Whorls 4, the last very high, flatly convex, projecting out of the suture, 
base faintly rounded. Suture deep. Aperture vertical, pyriform, high, 
sharply angled above, broadly rounded and effuse below. Outer lip 



Odostomia.] GASTROPODA. 337 

regularly arched, a little thickened inside, sharp. Columella sub- 
vertical, arcuate, with a feeble plait above, placed rather deep within. 
Inner lip spreading a little beyond the pillar, having a sharp outer 
edge, broadening towards the base, and extending as a very thin 
glaze over the parietal wall. Operculum horny, inner margin very 
little indented. 

Diameter, 2-1 mm. ; height, 4-2 mm. 

Animal unknown. 

Type in my collection. 

Hab. Cheltenham Beach, near Auckland, type (H. S.). 

6. Odostomia hyphala, Watson, 1886. Plate 16, fig. 19. 

Odostomia hyphala, Watson, Chall. Rep., xv, 483, pi. 31, f. 2. 

Shell strougish, oblong, broadly conical, very slightly scalar and 
subumbilicate, white, with a small upturned but not sinistral tip, 
flat-sided conical whorls, a slightly impressed suture, a rounded shortly 
produced base, and a largish oblong almost direct mouth. Sculpture 
none but flexuous strongish unequal lines of growth. Colour trans- 
lucent white, with a rather dull surface. Spire conical, broad, nearly 
twice the height of the aperture. Apex eroded, but apparently con- 
tracting rather suddenly to a small tip, which is slightly turned over 
on one side. Whorls 7, of rapid but regular increase ; they are broad, 
but not high ; each has a slight contraction at the bottom, and above 
this is faintly convex and then flat-sided ; at the top of the shell they 
project very slightly and sharply out of the suture ; the last is round, 
with a shortly produced base. Suture strongish from the contraction 
above it and the slight projection of the whorl below. Aperture rather 
large, oblong, pointed above and at the front of the pillar. Outer Up 
thin, patulous at the base, and slightly guttered at the point of the 
pillar. Columella arcuate, with a very slight plait, which is oblique, 
lies deep within the mouth and close to the top of the columella. Inner 
lip a mere gloss on the body, from which it runs on continuously into 
the columella ; here it is very thin and patulous, concealing the um- 
bilicus. (Watson.) 

Diameter, 3 mm. ; height, 6-25 mm. Aperture breadth, 1-75 mm. ; 
height, 2-5 mm. 

Animal unknown. 

Type in the British Museum. 

Hab. Challenger Station 169, north-east from the East Cape, in 
700 fathoms (type). 

7. Odostomia fastigiata, Suter, 1907. Plate 16, fig. 20. 

Odo-stomia fastigiata, Suter, T.N.Z.I., xxxix, 1900 (1907), 255, pi. 9, f. 3. 

Shell small, subcylindrically acuminate, imperforate, smooth, with 
a distinct columellar plait. There is no sculpture except distinct 



338 GASTROPODA. [Pectinibranchia. 

incremental lines. Colour white. Spire high, slowly tapering towards 
the small globular apex, more than three times the height of the aper- 
ture ; outlines somewhat convex. Protoconch heterostrophe, sub- 
central, smooth, the apex tilted up and globular, 1 whorl. Whorls 7, 
first slowly increasing, the last about half the length of the whole 
shell ; base narrowly rounded. Suture distinct, but superficial. Aper- 
ture vertical, ovate, truncated above by the parietal wall. Outer lip 
very little curved, broken off. Basal lip narrowly convex. Columella 
with a distinct blunt plait above, slightly concave below. Operculum 
unknown. 

Diameter, 1-5 rnm. ; height, 4-5 mm. 

Animal unknown. 

Type in the Dominion Museum. 

Hob. 'Near Channel Island, Hauraki Gulf, in 25 fathoms (type). 

8. Odostomia incidata, Suter, 1908. Plate 16, fig. 21. 

Odostomia incidata, Suter, T.N.Z.I., xl, 1907 (1908), 348, pi. 27, f. 6. 

Shell small, subulate, narrowly subperforate, with a fine groove 
on the periphery of the body-whorl, fairly solid, polished. Sculpture 
consisting of excessively fine dense microscopic spiral lines ; on the 
third whorl a very fine groove appears above and close to the suture, 
a little more distant and better marked on the next volution, and 
continued on the periphery of the last whorl ; growth-lines vertical, 
fine, but distinct. Colour white. Spire elevated conical, about 2| 
times the height of the aperture ; outlines almost straight. Proto- 
conch small, heterostrophe, tilted at a right angle to the axis, of 1 
whorl, smooth and shining. Whorls 6, regularly increasing, slightly 
shouldered and convex ; base rounded. Suture channelled, lightly 
margined below. Aperture oblique, oval, angled above and effuse 
below. Outer lip moderately convex, thin, and sharp. Columella 
short, strongly arcuate, with a very strong plait above. Inner lip 
very narrow. Umbilical chink a mere fissure. Operculum unknown. 

Diameter, 1-8 mm. ; height, 4-5 mm. 

Animal unknown. 

Type in my collection. 

Hab. Five miles south of Cuvier Island, in 38 fathoms, type 
(Captain Bollons) ; dredged off Otago Heads (A. Hamilton). 

9. Odostomia inornata, Suter, 1908. Plate 16, fig. 22. 

Odostomia inornata, Suter, T.N.Z.I., xl, 1907 (1908), 364, pi. 28, f. 8. 

Shell small, subulate, imperforate, fairly solid, lightly polished, 
smooth. Sculpture consisting of straight and fine growth-lines only. 
Colour white. Spire broadly subulate, twice the height of the aper- 
ture ; outlines straight. Protoconch heterostrophe, oblique, globular, 



Odostomia.] GASTROPODA. 339 

of 1 whorl, smooth. Whorls 6, regularly increasing, the last rather 
high, but slightly convex, body-whorl sometimes faintly angled at the 
periphery ; base flat. Suture impressed, narrowly and rather in- 
distinctly margined below. Aperture subvertical, narrowly pyriform, 
rounded and produced below. Outer lip slightly convex, sharp. 
Columella somewhat oblique, arcuate, with a distinct oblique and 
deeply placed plait above. Inner lip narrow above, but broadening 
towards the base, spread as a thin callus over the parietal wall. Some- 
times there is a very narrow umbilical chink present. Operculum 
unknown. 

Diameter, 2-5 mm. ; height, 6-1 mm. 

Animal unknown. 

Type in my collection. 

Hob. Near the Snares (type) and Bounty Islands, in 50 fathoms 
(Captain Bollons). 

Remark. This species is apparently nearly allied to 0. hi/phala, 
but the whorls are not slightly scalar, the suture is less deep, the 
columellar plait stronger, &c. 

10. Odostomia stygia, n. nov. Plate 16, fig. 23. 

Odostomia maryinata, M. & S., T.N.Z.I., xxxviii, 1905 (1906), 296, pi. 25, 
f. 37 ; not of C. B. Adams, 1852. 

Shell small, ovate, white and shining, almost smooth, with a mar- 
gined suture and angled body-whorl. Sculpture consists of distinct 
flexuous growth-lines, irregularly spaced, and with much finer incre- 
mental strise between them ; with a magnifying - power of about 
30 diameters distant fine spiral striation can be made out. Colour 
white ; fresh specimens semitransparent, but dead shells porcellanous. 
Spire elevated, conical, 1J times the height of the aperture ; outlines 
very slightly convex. Protoconch heterostrophe, of 2 smooth tilted 
whorls, nucleus lateral. Whorls 6, flatly convex, the last angled at 
the periphery, rather rapidly but regularly increasing ; base convex. 
Suture impressed, distinctly margined below. Aperture pyriform, 
angled above, rounded and slightly effuse below. Peritreme discon- 
tinuous. Outer lip sharp, flatly convex, acutely rounded at the base. 
Columella with a very distinct plait just below the junction with the 
parietal wall, concave belcw. Umbilicus represented by a distinct 
chink. Operculum unknown. 

Diameter, 2-3 mm. ; height, 4-5 mm. 

Animal unknown. 

Type in the Dominion Museum, Wellington. 

Hob. Off Great Barrier Island, in 110 fathoms (type) ; dredged 
off Otago Heads (A. Hamilton) ; near Channel Island, Hauraki Gulf, 
in 25 fathoms ; Port Pegasus, Stewart Island, in 18 fathoms (Captain 
Bollons) ; Banks Peninsula (Iredale). 



340 GASTROPODA. [Pectinibranchia. 

11. Odostomia Murdochi, n. nov. Plate 16, fig. 24. 

Odostomia proximo, Murdoch, T.N.Z.I., xxxvii, 1904 (1905), 226, pi. 8, f. 19 ; 
not of de Folin, 1872. 

Shell small, elongated, rather fragile, smooth. Sculpture con- 
sisting of irregular minute growth-periods, in places slightly pro- 
nounced, usually more marked on the spire ; these are crossed by 
minute spiral striae and scratches, very irregularly spaced, in some 
almost absent except for a few on the anterior half of the last whorl. 
Colour white or lightly yellowish, polished. Spire high, conical, not 
quite twice the height of the aperture ; outlines straight. Protoconch 
heterostrophe, minute, polished, the nucleus lateral. Whorls 6, some- 
what rounded ; base convex. Suture deep, not channelled, very simi- 
lar to that of 0. hyphala ; margined below by a narrow smooth band. 
Aperture small, ovate, oblique, angled above, slightly effuse below. 
Columella vertical, slightly arcuate. Inner lip slightly reflected, and 
spreading over the parietal wall ; base narrowly perforate. Oper- 
culum unknown. 

Diameter, 1-8 mm. ; height, 3-9 mm. 

Animal unknown. 

Type in the Dominion Museum, Wellington. 

Hob. Whangaroa Harbour, type (C. Traill) ; Banks Peninsula 
(Iredale). 

12. Odostomia pudica, Suter, 1908. Plate 17, fig. 1. 

Odostomia pudica, Suter, T.N.Z.I., xl, 1907 (1908), 366, pi. 29, f. 14. 

Shell small, elongate, imperforate, smooth, semitransparent, 
polished. There is no sculpture, except fine straight growth-lines. 
Colour white. Spire subulate, twice the height of the aperture ; 
outlines straight. Protoconch of 1 small and smooth whorl, hetero- 
strophe, oblique. Whorls 1, regularly increasing, flat, the lower ones 
angularly contracted above the suture, the angle continued on the 
periphery of the body-whorl ; base flat. Suture canaliculate. Aper- 
ture oblique, pyriform, angled above and narrowly produced below. 
Outer lip flatly rounded, thin and sharp. Columella vertical, slightly 
concave, with a low oblique plait above. Inner lip rather broadly 
expanded, spreading thinly over the parietal wall. Operculum un- 
known. 

Diameter, 2-4 mm. ; height, 5-6 mm. 

Animal unknown. 

Type in my collection. 

// a . Bay of Islands, type (J. C. Anderson). 

Remark. This species is evidently near 0. hi/phala, but it is shorter 
by the same number of whorls, and slightly more slender ; the whorls 
are angled above the suture, and the last whorl is slightly angled at 
the periphery ; the suture is channelled, and the whorls not projecting 
below it. 



Odostomia.] GASTROPODA. 341 

13. Odostomia takapunaensis, Suter, 1908. Plate 17, fig. 2. 

Odostomia takapunaensis, Suter, T.N.Z.I., xl, 1907 (1908), 305, pi. 28, f. 10. 

Shell small, conical, narrowly umbilicate, smooth, fairly solid, 
shining. There is no sculpture. Colour white. Spire conic, about 
twice the height of the aperture ; outlines straight. Protoconch 
heterostrophe, of 2 oblique whorls, nucleus lateral. Whorls 7, regu- 
larly increasing, flatly convex, the last angularly rounded at the 
periphery ; base flat. Suture impressed. Aperture subvertical, oval, 
broadly angled above, effuse below. Outer Up slightly arcuate, sharp. 
Columella subvertical, arcuate, with a distinct oblique plait above. 
Inner lip narrow, broadening a little below, thin over the parietal 
wall. Umbilicus narrow, but very distinct and quite open. Oper- 
culum unknown. 

Diameter, 2*2 mm. ; height, 4 mm. 

Animal unknown. 

Type in my collection. 

Hab. Takapuna Reef, in sand ; type (H. S.). 

14. Odostomia taumakiensis, Suter, 1908. Plate 17, fig. 3. 

Odostomia taumakiensis, Suter, T.N.Z.I., xl, 1907 (1908), 363, pi. 28, f. 7. 

Shell very small, elongately ovate, imperforate, smooth and 
polished, thin, translucent. Sculpture consisting occasionally of a 
few microscopic indistinct spiral striae on the body- whorl, but very 
often absent ; growth-lines fine, oblique. Colour white. Spire ele- 
vated conic, about 1J times the height of the aperture ; outlines 
somewhat convex. Protoconch minute, heterostrophe, but slightly 
tilted, of 1 smooth whorl, globular. Whorls 5, regularly increasing, 
lightly convex ; base flatly rounded. Suture impressed, margined 
below by a rather broad band. Aperture subvertical, oval, angled 
above, rounded and effuse below. Outer lip thin and sharp. Colu- 
mella slightly oblique, arcuate, with a deeply situated and not very 
prominent plait above. Inner lip but slightly expanded, forming a 
very thin and shining layer on the parietal wall. Operculum un- 
known. 

Diameter, 1-5 mm. ; height, 3-2 mm. 

Animal unknown. 

Type in my collection. 

Hab. Taumaki Island, west coast of the South Island, in 10 
fathoms (type) ; near the Snares and Bounty Islands, in 50 fathoms 
(Captain Bollons). 

Remarks. From 0. Murdochi this species is distinguished by being 
imperforate, having very faint or no spiral sculpture, the suture 
margined, and only 5 whorls ; from 0. stygia by the same cha- 
racters, except the margined suture, and the body- whorl not being 
augled. 



342 GASTROPODA. [Pectmibranchia. 

15. Odostomia vestalis, Murdoch, 1905. Plate 17, fig. 4. 

Odostomia vestalis, Murdoch, T.N.Z.I., xxxvii, 1904 (1905), 227, pi. 8, f. 20. 

Shell small, slender, smooth, polished, and having a somewhat 
loosely coiled appearance. Sculptured with minute irregular growth- 
lines, crossed by irregular microscopic striae, the latter only indi- 
cated here and there. Colour white. Spire subulate, about twice the 
height of the aperture, sometimes a little more ; outlines faintly 
convex. Protoconch heterostrophe, globular, slightly obliquely tilted, 
nucleus lateral. Whorls 6, rapidly but regularly increasing, lightly 
convex ; base flatly rounded. Suture impressed, shallow, and lightly 
submargined. Aperture pyriform, narrowed and effuse below. Outer 
Up thin, sharp. Columella arcuate, with a small oblique plait, rather 
deep within the aperture. Inner lip lightly reflected, and spreading 
thinly over the parietal wall. Umbilicus closed. Operculum un- 
known. 

Diameter, 1-6 mm. ; height, 4-3 mm. 

Animal unknown. 

Type in the Dominion Museum, Wellington. 

Hob. Whangaroa Harbour, type (C. Traill) ; near Channel Island, 
Hauraki Gulf, in 25 fathoms ; Banks Peninsula (Iredale). 

Subgen. 2. EVALEA, A. Adams, 1860. 

Evalea, A. Ad., A.M.N.H., vi, 1860, 22, 417. Type : E. elegans, A. Ad. 
Ondina, Folin, 1870. Auriculina, Gray, 1847. Ptychostomon, Locard, 
1886. 

Shell with the axial ribs absent, represented by lines of growth 
only, with spiral markings consisting of many usually subequally 
and universally distributed impressed lines. 

KEY TO SPECIES. 

A. Spire about twice the height of the aperture, whorls conspicuously 

spirally lirate . . . . . . liririncta. 

B. Spire about 1| times the height of the aperture, spiral sculpture 

not conspicuous. 

a. With numerous flat spiral threads, suture superficial. . .. impolite, 

aa. With fine microscopic spiral striae and a few more prominent 

spiral cords on the body-whorl, suture deep . . . . chordata. 

16. Odostomia chordata, Suter, 1908. Plate 17, fig. 5. 
Odostomia (Evalea) chordata, Suter, T.N.Z.I., xl, 1907 (1908), 348, pi. 27, f. 5. 

Shell small, elongate-ovate, subperforate, slightly scalar, rather 
thin, polished. Sculpture consisting of very fine and close micro- 
scopic striee, and in addition a few subequidistant flat spiral cords, 
distinct only on the body-whorl ; their number is about 9, and those 
on the middle of the whorl are less conspicuous ; the growth-lines 
are vertical, close and fine, but some are more prominent. Colour 
white. Spire elevated conic, about H times the height of the aper- 



Odostomia.] GASTROPODA. 343 

ture ; outlines straight. Protoconch small, heterostrophe, of 1 upright 
whorl, smooth and shining. Whorls 6, regularly increasing, flatly 
convex, somewhat contracted below at the suture, and slightly pro- 
jecting above out from the suture ; base flat. Suture deep, narrowly 
margined below. Aperture oblique, pyriform, slightly and broadly 
effuse below. Outer lip thin and sharp. Columella vertical, strongly 
arcuate, with a moderate plait above, situate rather deep within the 
aperture. Inner lip very narrow, spreading as a very thin callous 
layer over the parietal wall. Umbilical fissure narrow. Operculuw 
unknown. 

Diameter, 1-9 mm. ; height, 3-8 mm. 

Animal unknown. 

Type in my collection. 

Hob. Five miles south of Cuvier Island, in 38 fathoms, type 
(Captain Bollons). 

17. Odostomia impolita, Hutton, 1873. Plate 17, fig. 6. 

Rissoa impolita, Hutt., C.M.M., 29 ; J. de Conch., 1878, 28 ; P.L.S. N.S.W., 
ix, 941. Barleeia impolita, Hutt., M.N.Z.M., 81 ; Suter, P. Mai. S., iii, 7. 
Odontostoma impolita, Hutt., Index, 74. Odostomia impolita, Hutt. ' 
Murdoch, T.N.Z.I., xxxvii, 226, pi. 8, f. 18. 

Shell very small, ovato-conic, solid, slightly polished, imperforate. 
Sculpture consisting of numerous flat and rather broad spiral threads, 
with much narrower interspaces ; growth-lines oblique and very fine. 
Colour white, with a yellowish tinge, more distinct on the upper whorls. 
Spire conic, about 1 J times the height of the aperture ; outlines almost 
straight. Protoconch minute, slightly heterostrophe, of 1 smooth whorl. 
Whorls 5, regularly increasing, slightly convex ; base flattish. Suture 
linear, not much impressed, margined below by one of the spirals. 
Aperture subvertical, oval, angled above and effuse below. Outer 
lip moderately convex, fairly strong and sharp. Columella vertical, 
with a small plait above, concave below. Inner lip sometimes broadly 
expanded beyond the pillar, and produced below to a point. Operculum 
brown, horny. 

Diameter, 1-5 mm. ; height, 2-5 mm. (type, of 4 whorls). Dia- 
meter, 2-2 mm. ; height, 4-2 mm. (specimen of 5 whorls). 

Animal unknown. 

Type in the Dominion Museum, Wellington. 

Hob. Stewart Island (type) ; Foveaux Strait, in 15 fathoms : 
Taumaki Island, west coast of the South Island, in 10 fathoms (Captain 
Bollons) ; Banks Peninsula (Iredale). 

18. Odostomia liricincta, Suter, 1908. Plate 17, fig. 7. 

Odostomia (Evalea) liricincta, Suter, T.N.Z.I., xl, 1907 (1908), 367, pi. 29, 
f. 16. 

Shell very small, elongate-oval, imperforate, spirally lirate, slightly 
shining. Sculpture consisting of unequal flat spiral lirse, absent on 



344 GASTROPODA. [Pectinibranchia. 

the first two whorls, the interstices linear, the sculpture extending over 
the base ; growth-lines dense, oblique, distinct. Colour white. Spire 
elevated conic, about twice the height of the aperture ; outlines straight. 
Protoconch minute, heterostrophe, globular. Whorls 5, regularly in- 
creasing, flatly convex, the last not angled ; base flattish. Suture 
impressed. Aperture slightly oblique, angled above and narrowly 
produced below. Outer lip regularly rounded, thin and sharp. Colu- 
mella subvertical, almost straight, with a minute plait above. Inner 
lip extending a short distance beyond the pillar, and as a thin layer 
over the parietal wall. Operculum unknown. 

Diameter, 1-5 mm. ; height, 3-3 mm. 

Animal unknown. 

Type in my collection. 

Hab. Port Pegasus, Stewart Island, in 18 fathoms, type (Captain 
Bollons). 

Remarks. This species is nearest allied to 0. impolita, but it is a 
smaller and more slender shell, and the spiral sculpture is much more 
distinct. The fossil 0. fasciata, Hutt. == Huttoni, Sut., is also very 
similar, but has a differently arranged sculpture and an open um- 
bilicus. 

Subgen. 3. PYRGULINA, A. Adams, 1863. 

Pyrgulina, A. Ad., J.L.S., vii, 1803, 4. Type: Cliryscdlida casta, A. Adams. 
Parthenia, Lowe, 1840 (in part). Noemia, Folin, 1870. Parthcnina, 
Bucq., Dollf., Dautzenb.. 1883. 

Shell with axial ribs, the post-nuclear whorls sculptured similarly 
throughout ; spiral markings consisting of impressed lines, subequally 
spaced, present between the sutures and the base of the whorls. 

19. Odostomia rugata, Hutton, 1886. Plate 17, fig. 8. 

Odostomia (Parthenia) plicata,''H.utt., T.N.Z.I., xvii, 1884 (1885), 319, pi. 18, 
f. 17 ; not of Montfort, 1810. 0. rugata, Hutt., T.N.Z.I., xviii, 1885 
(1886), 353 ; Plioc. M., 58, pi. 7, f. 51. O. (Pi/rgulina) rugata, Hutt. : 
Murdoch, T.N.Z.I., xxxvii, 227. 

Shell small, ovato-elongated, imperforate, rather solid, somewhat 
shining, axially plicated. Sculpture consisting of numerous oblique 
flatly rounded axial riblets, usually stopped by a spiral thread below 
the periphery of the last whorl, but very often extending over the 
base ; the riblets on the last volution sometimes, though rarely, almost 
vertical ; interstices of about the same width as the riblets, and adorned 
with minute dense spiral striae ; the riblets number about 18 on the 
body-whorl. Colour white. Spire elevated conical, about twice the 
height of the aperture ; outlines almost straight. Protoconch minute, 
of 1 smooth whorl, heterostrophe, nucleus lateral. Whorls 6, regu- 
larly increasing, flatly rounded ; base convex. Suture impressed and 
slightly margined. Aperture subvertical, ovate, angled above, slightly 



Odostomia.] GASTROPODA. 345 

effuse below. Outer lip solid, sharp, somewhat convex. ColumeUa 
vertical, with a rather strong plait above, slightly convex below. 
Inner lip rather broad and strong, angularly produced below, and 
forming a distinct callosity over the parietal wall. Operculum un- 
known. 

Diameter, 1-8 mm. ; height, 3-7 mm. (specimen of 6 whorls). 

Animal unknown. 

Type, from the Pliocene, in the Canterbury Museum, Christchurch. 

Hob. Whangaroa Harbour (C. Traill) ; Hohoura Bay (R. Buddie) ; 
Takapuna (H. S.) ; near Little Barrier Island, in 20 fathoms (R. H. 
Shakespear) ; Cook Strait ; Queen Charlotte Sound, in 16 fathoms ; 
Taumaki Island, in 10 fathoms ; Stewart Island, in 18 fathoms ; Snares 
and Bounty Islands, in 50 fathoms (Captain Bollons) ; Banks Peninsula 
(Iredale). 

Fossil. Miocene and Pliocene. 

Subgen. 4. MENESTHO, Moller, 1842. 

Menestho, Moller, Ind. Moll. Groenl., 1842, 10. Type : Turbo albulus, Fabr. 
Pyramis, Couthouy, 1839 ; not of Schumacher, 1817. 

Shell having moderately well-developed spiral cords, usually equally 
spaced, and present between the sutures and on the base ; axial ribs 
indicated by faint threads between the spiral sculpture ; not um- 
bilicated. 

20. Odostomia sabulosa, Suter, 1908. Plate 17, fig. 9. 

Odostomia (Menestho) sabulosa, Suter, T.N.Z.I., xl, 1907 (1908), 367, pi. 29, 
f. 15. 

Shell small, elevated, spirally striate, thin, faintly shining, im- 
perf orate. Sculpture consisting of flattish spiral cords, 7 on the pen- 
ultimate whorl, and extending over the base ; interstices slightly 
narrower than the cords, ornamented with numerous equidistant axial 
threads. Colour white. Spire narrowly conic, twice the height of the 
aperture ; outlines straight. Protoconch heterostrophe, of 1 whorl, 
smooth, globular. Whorls 6, regularly increasing, but faintly con- 
vex ; base flattish. Suture canaliculate, but not very deep. Aperture 
subvertical, oval, angled above, narrowly rounded and effuse below. 
Outer lip slightly convex. ColumeUa vertical, almost straight, the 
columellar plait small and deep within the aperture. Inner lip narrow, 
not reflexed, forming a very thin glaze on the parietal wall. Operculum 
unknown. 

Diameter, 1-8 mm. ; height, 4-2 mm. 

Animal unknown. 

Type in my collection. 

Hab. Near the Bounty (type) and Snares Islands, in 50 fathoms 
(Captain Bollons). 



346 GASTROPODA. [Pectinibranchia. 

Remarks. The axial sculpture is in the majority of the dredged 
and more or less worn specimens almost completely lost. The species 
is more slender than 0. impolita, the spiral cords more distinct and 
mostly with wider interspaces, and the latter are, in well-preserved 
examples, reticulated by axial threads. 

Fam. EULIMID,E, Adams. 

Animal with slender subulate tentacles and eyes sessile at their 
outer bases; proboscis retractile, invaginate. when extended very 
long ; mouth without jaw or radula ; foot elongated, produced in 
front ; mantle with anterior rudimentary siphonal fold. 

Shell small, generally elongated, subulate or turriculated, shining, 
polished, with spire usually curved or distorted ; aperture oval, pyri- 
form, entire, with simple lip, the columellar margin more or less 
thickened. Operculum corneous, paucispiral, sometimes absent. 

But little is known of the animals of these little shells ; it is probable 
that the sexes are separated. They creep with the foot much in 
advance of the head, which is usually concealed within the aperture 
of the shell, the tentacles only protruding. They are more or less 
parasitic on sea-urchins, holothurians, &c. 

Genus 1. EULIMA, Risso, 1826. 

Eulima, Risso, Hist. Nat. Eur. Merid., iv, 1826, 123. Type : E. degantissima, 
Montag. Parithea, Lea, 1833 (in part). Balds, Leach, 1847. 

Animal having the body smooth, not ciliated, tentacles subulate, 
approaching at the base ; eyes very large, nearly sessile, above and 
slightly on the outside of their bases ; mantle not reflected outside, 
and forming a siphonal fold ; foot lanceolate, grooved, truncated in 
front, mention bilobed ; verge small, flattened, falciform ; opercular 
lobe winged on each side ; branchial plume single. 

Shell not umbilicate, subulate, composed of many whorls, polished, 
porcellanous ; commonly the spire is slightly twisted to one side ; 
varices not well marked externally, but forming small ribs inside the 
whorls, marking the position of successive mouths ; aperture ovate, 
entire, angulate posteriorly and rounded in front ; columellar border 
reflected. Operculum corneous, paucispiral, the nucleus near the 
inner lip. 

The species inhabit tropical and temperate seas. 

The genus is known from all the Secondary strata, and became 
abundant during the Tertiary period. 

KEY TO StIBOENERA. 

A. Shell subulate or subcylindrical, white, spire straight or curved EULIMA. 

B. Shell subulately turriculated, often with spiral coloured bands, 

varices on each side of spire more or less conspicuous . . LEIOSTEACA. 

C. Shell subulate, often coloured, with mucronate apex . . MUCKONALIA 



Eulima.] GASTROPODA. 347 

Subgen. 1. EULIMA, s. str. 

KEY TO SPECIES. 

A. Height of spire about three times that of the aperture. 

a. Spire straight, apex sharp . . . . . . . . vegrandis. 

act. Spire lightly curved, apex blunt . . . . . . titahica. 

B. Height of spire about twice that of the aperture. 

a. Sculptured with minute spiral incisions, body-whorl angulate infrapatula. 
aa. No spiral sculpture. 
b. Spire curved. 

c. Curved to the right . . . . . . . . Treadwelli. 

cc. Curved forwards . . . . . . . . aucklandica. 

bb. Spire straight. 

c. Shell subcylindrical, apex blunt. 

d. Aperture pyriform, columella not truncated.. paxiUus. 
dd. Aperture lanceolar, columella truncated . . truncata. 
cc. Shell subulate, apex very sharp, aperture lanceolar, 

columella pointed below ,. . . . . . oxyacme. 

1. Eulima aucklandica, Suter, 1909. Plate 17, fig. 10. 

Kulima aucklandica, Suter, Subantarct. Islds. N.Z., i, 1909, 24, pi. 1, f. 3. 

Shell small, subulate, lightly curved forwards, white, smooth, 
glossy. There is no sculpture, except very fine growth-lines and rather 
inconspicuous discontinuous varices. Colour white, the red remains 
of the animal shining through the upper whorls. Spire lightly curved 
forwards, about twice the height of the aperture. Protoconch globular. 
Whorls 8, gradually increasing, but faintly convex, the last slightly 
flattened below the suture, convex at periphery and base. Suture 
superficial, white-banded below. Aperture pyriform, subvertlcal, angled 
above, regularly arched and somewhat efiuse below. Peristome sharp, 
simple, the outer lip very little convex, slightly advancing at the 
middle. Columella subvertical, arcuate. Inner lip narrow, callous. 
There is a very slight umbilical depression. Operculum unknown. 

Diameter Maj., 2-4 mm. ; min., 2 mm. : height, 6-4 rnm. 

Type in the Canterbury Museum, Christchurch. 

Hob. Carnley Harbour, Auckland Islands, on shore (Professor 
Benham). 

2. Eulima infrapatula, Murdoch and Suter, 1906. Plate 17, 

fig. 11. 

Eulima infrapatula, M. & S., T. N.Z.I., xxxviii, 1905 (1900), 297, pi. 25, f. 42. 

Shell small, subulate, broadened at the base which is distinctly 
angulate, tapering to a sharp slender apex which is slightly curved, 
thin, smooth, polished. Sculpture consists of minute spiral incisions, 
scarcely noticeable or absent except upon the last whorl. Colour 
white. Spire narrowly conical, tapering rapidly to a subacicular 
apex which is oblique and somewhat distorted ; about twice the 
height of the aperture ; outlines straight. Protoconch of a few smooth 



,348 GASTROPODA. [Pectinibranchia. 



convex whorls, nucleus minute, rounded. Whorls 9, lightly convex 
and contracted at the suture, the first four whorls more rounded than 
the others ; varices few, interrupted, irregularly disposed, and not well 
marked ; base rounded. Suture very distinct, impressed. Aperture 
subvertical, rather large, obliquely quad.rate, broadly angled above, 
flatly expanded at the base. Outer Up not much strengthened, but 
slightly curved, and forming a broad rounded angle at the junction 
with the basal lip. Columella stout, nearly straight, rounded on joining 
the basal lip, both being distinctly everted. Inner Up broadly re- 
flexed over the pillar, and forming a thin callus on the parietal wall. 
Operculum unknown. 

Diameter, 2-1 mm. ; height, 5mm. 

Animal unknown. 

Type in the Dominion Museum, Wellington. 

Hob. Off Great Barrier Island, in 110 fathoms (type). 

Remark. This species is allied to the Australian E. munita, Hedley, 
from which it may be distinguished by its smaller size, fewer whorls, 
the less prominent varices, and more feeble sculpture. 

3. Eulima oxyacme, Suter, 1908. Plate 17, fig. 12. 

Eulima oxyacme, Suter, T.N.Z.I., xl, 1907 (1908), 349, pi. 27, f. 7. 

Shell small, subulate, sharply pointed, pellucid, polished, straight, 
thin and fragile. Sculpture formed by very fine straight growth-lines 
only. Colour white. Spire elevated conic, with a sharp apex, not 
quite twice the height of the aperture ; outlines perfectly straight. 
Protoconch, minute, globose. Whorls 8, regularly increasing, flat, the 
last high ; base flattish. Suture linear, superficial, false-margined 
below. Aperture subvertical, lanceolar, high and narrow, narrowly 
angled above, acuminate below. Outer Up slightly convex, very thin 
and sharp. Basal lip very narrowly rounded and a little produced. 
Columella vertical, straight, narrowed to a point below ; parietal 
wall concave below, convex above. Operculum unknown. 

Diameter, 1-8 mm. ; height, 5-1 mm. 

Animal unknown. 

Type in my collection. 

Hab. Five miles south of Cuvier Island, in 38 fathoms, type 
(Captain Bollons). 

4. Eulima paxillus, Hedley, 1904. Plate 17, fig. 13. 

Eulima paxillus, Hedley, Rec. A.M., v, 1904, 96, f. 24 in text. 

Shell very small, short, straight, subcylindrical, thin, semitrans- 
parent. There is no sculpture, except fine discontinuous varices. 
The shell is colourless. Spire subcylindrical, with a blunt apex, about 
twice the height of the aperture ; outlines straight. Protoconch 
minute, broadly rounded. Whorls 6, flattened, regularly increasing; 



Eulima.] GASTROPODA. 349 

base flattish. Suture linear, slightly impressed ; false-margined 
i.e., the base of each whorl seen indistinctly through the substance 
of the next appears as an impressed line beneath the suture. Aperture 
pyriforrn, acutely angled above. Outer lip curved, thin and sharp, 
its insertion high up. Columella subvertical, arcuate. Inner lip 
spreading rather broadly beyond the pillar. Operculum unknown. 

Diameter, 0-86 mm. ; height, 2-9 mm. 

Animal unknown. 

Type in the Australian Museum, Sydney. 

Hab. Foveaux Strait, type (A. Hamilton). 

5. Eulima titahica, Suter, 1908. Plate 17, fig. 14. 

Eulima titahica, Suter, T.N.Z.I., xl, 1907 (1908), 368, pi. 29, f. 18. 

Shell small, subulate, slightly curved, semitransparent, polished 
with a few discontinuous and inconspicuous varices. Sculpture con- 
sisting of a few indistinct varices and faint growth-lines. Colour 
white. Spire somewhat curved to the right, narrowly conic, three 
times the height of the aperture. Protoconch globular, obtuse. Whorls 
7, regularly increasing, flatly convex ; base rounded. Suture linear, 
not much impressed, false-margined below. Aperture pyriform, 
angled above, slightly effuse below. Outer lip but slightly curved, 
thin and sharp. Basal lip broadly convex. Columella vertical, in- 
distinctly arcuate ; parietal wall straight. Inner lip very little ex- 
panded, with a sharp edge. Operculum unknown. 

Diameter, 1-4 mm. ; height, 4 mm. 

Animal unknown. 

Type in my collection. 

Hab. Titahi Bay, Cook Strait ; type (Miss Mestayer). 

6. Eulima Treadwelli, Button, 1893. Plate 17, fig. 15. 

Eulima micans, Hutt., T.N.Z.I., xvii, 1884 (1885), 318 ; not of Carpenter, 
nor T. -Woods. E. Treadwelli, Hutton, Plioc. M., 55, pi. 7, f. 42 ; Suter, 
T.N.Z.I., xxxviii, 324. 

Shell small, subulate, slightly curved to the right, white and 
polished, translucent. Sculpture : None. Colour white, the upper whorls 
sometimes yellowish. Spire curved, high conical, a little more than 
twice the height of the aperture. Protoconch small, globose. Whorls 8, 
regularly increasing, rather high, flat ; base flatly rounded. Suture 
linear, superficial. Aperture pyriform, angled above and rounded be- 
low. Outer lip almost straight, thin and sharp. Columella subvertical, 
a little arcuate. Inner lip slightly reflexed beyond the upper part, 
and spreading as a thin layer over the flat parietal wall. Operculum 
unknown. 

Diameter, 2 mm. ; height, 6 mm. 

Animal unknown. 



350 GASTROPODA. [Pectinibranchift. 

Type, from the Pliocene, in the Canterbury Museum, Christchurch. 
Hob. Near Stewart Island, in about 15 fathoms (A. Hamilton) ; 
near the Snares, in 50 fathoms (Captain Bollons). 

Remark. The type has a height of 4 mm., and 6 whorls only. 
Fossil in the Pliocene. 

7. Eulima truncate, Suter, 1908. Plate IT, fig. 16. 

Eulima truncata, Suter, T.N.Z.I., xl, 1907 (1908), 368, pi. 29, f. 17. 

Shell very small, subcylindrical, thin and polished, semitrans- 
parent, straight. There is no sculpture and no varices. Colour white. 
Spire very narrowly conic, a little more than twice the height of 
the aperture ; outlines straight. Protoconch high, obtusely rounded. 
Whorls 5, regularly increasing, flat ; base flattish, elongated. Suture 
linear, superficial, false-margined below. Aperture subvertical, lan- 
ceolar, high and narrow, sharply angled above and acuminate below. 
Outer lip straight above, rounded towards the base, thin and sharp. 
Columella short, truncated at the base ; parietal wall slightly concave. 
Operculum unknown. 

Diameter, 1 mm. ; height, 3 mm. 

Animal unknown. 

Type in my collection. 

Hob. Cape Maria van Diemen, type (Captain Bollons). 

Remark. The specimen, of 5 whorls only, is no doubt not quite 
full grown. 

8. Eulima vegrandis, Murdoch and Suter, 1906. Plate 17, fig. 17. 

Eulima vegrandis, M. & S., T.N.Z.I., xxxviii, 1905 (1906), 297, pi. 25, 
. f. 40, 41. 

Shell small, subulate, straight, smooth and glossy. Sculpture 
absent, except an occasional interrupted varix. Colour white, por- 
cellanous. Spire straight, about three times the height of the aper- 
ture ; outlines straight. Protoconch of about 2 smooth whorls, very 
slightly curved from the axis of the shell, nucleus minute, rounded. 
Whorls 11, with straight sides, the last indistinctly angled at the peri- 
phery ; base convex. Suture linear, false-margined between the lower 
whorls. Aperture slightly oblique, pyriform, angled above, rounded 
and a little effuse at the base. Outer Up lightly curved and thickened, 
feebly sinuated below the insertion. Columella short, arcuate. Inner 
lip reflected and united with the basal lip, spread narrowly as a distinct 
callus over the parietal wall. Operculum unknown. 

Diameter, 1-9 mm. ; height, 6-9 mm. 

Animal unknown. 

Type in the Dominion Museum, Wellington. 

Hob. Off Great Barrier Island, in 110 fathoms (type). 



Eulima.] GASTROPODA. 351 

Subgen. 2. LEIOSTRACA, H. and A. Adams, 1854. 

Leiostraca, H. & A. Ad., in Sowerby's Thes. Conch., ii, 15, 1854. Type : 
Eulima subulata, Donovan. Subularia, Monterosato, 1884. 

Shell subulately turriculated ; whorls flattened, smooth, polished, 
often ornamented with spiral coloured bands ; a succession of slight 
varices on each side of the spire, not always apparent ; aperture 
oblong, narrow, entire ; inner lip thickened, a little sinuous in the 
middle ; outer lip sharp, flexuous. 

9. Eulima Murdoch!, Hedley, 1904. Plate 17, fig. 18. 

Leiostraca Murdoch! , Hedley, Rec. A.M., v, 1904, 97, f. 25 in text. 

Shell small, subcylindrical, with blunt ends, thin, translucent, 
glossy. Sculpture none, and no varices are apparent. Colour pale 
brown below, darkening to chocolate above ; on the last whorl is 
a broad peripheral and a narrow subsutural colourless band, the 
latter of which also reappears on the penultimate, and is overlined 
by a chocolate thread ; the peristome and a patch on the centre of 
the base are also chocolate ; the apex is colourless. Spire subcylin- 
drical, twice the height of the aperture ; outlines straight. Protoconch 
minute, broadly convex. Whorls 5, slightly tapering, the last exceed- 
ing the rest ; base flattened, the umbilical region impressed, not per- 
forate. Suture linear, false-margined below. Aperture oval, everted 
anteriorly. Peristome a little thickened and expanded. Columella 
slightly oblique, straight. Inner lip narrow, forming a thin callus 
on the parietal wall. Operculum unknown. 

Diameter, 0-9 mm. ; height, 2-6 mm. 

Animal unknown. 

Type in the Australian Museum, Sydney. 

Hab. Foveaux Strait and Lyall Bay, type (A. Hamilton). 

Subgen. 3. MUCRONALIA, A. Adams, 1862. 

Mucronalia, A. Ad., A.M.N.H., ix, 1862, 295. Type : M. exilis, A. 
Adams. 

Shell subulate, straight, often coloured, pupoidal, with mucronate 
apex ; aperture oval-oblong. 

10. Eulima bulbula, Murdoch and Suter, 1906. Plate 17, fig. 19. 

Eulima (Mucronalia) bulbula, M. & S., T.N.Z.I., xxxviii, 1905 (1906), 298, 
pi. 25, f. 43, 44. 

Shell small, subulate, white, smooth and polished. Sculpture 
consists only of the mostly discontinuous slightly marked varices 
on some of the whorls. Colour white, porcellanous. Spire long, 
subulate, straight, about 3J times the height of the aperture ; out- 
lines straight. Protoconch mucronate, the nucleus small, rounded, 



352 GASTROPODA. [Pectinibranchia. 

the second whorl relatively much enlarged, bulbous ; all smooth. 
Whorls 10, regularly increasing, flat, the last slightly angled at the 
periphery. Suture distinct, not impressed, irregularly indented on 
the lower part of the shell. Aperture small, vertical, pyriform. regu- 
larly arched below. Outer lip sharp, very slightly convex. Columella 
short, arcuate. Inner lip forming a slight callosity on the pillar and 
parietal wall, rounded off at the base toward the basal lip. Opff- 
culum unknown. 

Diameter, 3mm.; height, 13mm. Aperture breadth. 1-5 mm. ; 
height, 3 mm. 

Animal unknown. 

Type in the Dominion Museum. Wellington. 

Hob. Off Great Barrier Island, in 110 fathoms (type). 

Remark. The mucronate tip of this species somewhat recalls 
E. Coxi, Pilsbry. (C. Medley.) 

Tribe 2. HETEROPODA. 

These are free-swimming Tcenioglossa, with the foot flattened 
laterally and the otocysts situated near the cerebral ganglia. There 
are no mandibles, and the intestine is short. All the Heteropoda 
are pelagic, and are much modified in adaptation to this mode of 
existence. The foot is very large, and has the form of a fin com- 
pressed bilaterally ; it bears, in the male at least, a sucker at its ventral 
aspect. The visceral sac or " nucleus " and mantle form a progres- 
sively smaller and smaller part of the mass of the body, but the head 
always remains large, and forms a cylindrical snout. The eyes are very 
large and highly differentiated in structure ; they are placed at the 
sides of the cerebral ganglia and at the bases of the tentacles when 
the latter organs exist. The alimentary canal is furnished with a 
protractile pharynx containing a characteristic taenioglossate radula, 
with very powerful lateral and marginal teeth. 

They are transparent, and are generally found in dense bands 
in warm and temperate zones, swimming slowly in a reversed position 
that is to say, with the foot uppermost. They are all carnivorous. 

Fam. ATLANTID.2E, Rang. 

Visceral sac and shell spirally coiled in one plane ; foot divided 
transversely into two parts, the posterior part bearing an operculum 
with a sinistral coil, while the anterior part forms a fin provided with 
a sucker. Radula with the central tooth tricuspid, sometimes only 
with a median tooth ; inner lateral tooth large, bicuspidate, with an 
inner obtuse process ; the other laterals are curved and aculeate. 

Genus 1. ATLANTA, Lesueur, 1817. 

Shell discoidal, fragile, transparent, compressed, carinated through- 
out, and capable of containing the whole animal ; protoconch dextral. 



Atlnntti.} GASTROPODA. 353 

forming a small nucleus ; aperture oval, narrow, fissured ; peristome 
simple, sharp. Operculum subtrigonal, with a small apical nucleus, 
which is dextrally spiral. 

About forty species are known from the warmer parts of the 
Atlantic, the Mediterranean, the Pacific. &c. 

Fragments of Atlanta were obtained in 110 fathoms oft' Great 
Barrier Island, unfortunately too imperfect for specific determination. 
(Hedley, T.N.Z.I., xxxviii. 7<>.) 

Fum. CARINARIID^I, Grasset. 

Animal having the visceral sac conical and small in proportion 
to the rest of the body, which cannot be withdrawn into the shell : 
foot elongated, fin-shaped, with a sucker, but without an operculum. 

Shell small in proportion to the size of tho body, symmetrical, 
cup-shaped, thin and transparent. 

(Jenus I. CAR IN A ui A. Lamarck. 1801. 
f.'iiriiuirid, Lain., Syst. A.s.V., 1801, 98. Type: ('. vitrtn. Lain. 

Animal elongated, fusiform : body smooth or granulated, gela- 
tinous, semipellncid : head large, cylindrical, with 2 tentacles which 
are slender and elongated, eyes near their outer bases ; ventral fin 
rounded, with a marginal sucker ; posterior extremity of body laterally 
compressed and terminating with 2 unequal tegumentary prolonga- 
tions, one above and one below, which functionally are fins. Visceral 
mass protected by the shell. The. branchiee are Triangular, numerous, 
and extending beyond the margin of the shell. Anus and female 
genital orifice on the right side of the nucleus ; the male copulatory 
organ exserted on the right side of the body, immediately above the 
ventral fin. 

Shell thin, hyaline, glassy, symmetrical, conical, compressed, 
with a recurved apex, a minute dextrally-spiral nucleus, and a fim- 
briated dorsal keel ; aperture large, ovate, entire. 

Eight species are known from the Mediterranean, Atlantic, Indian 
Ocean, the seas of China, and Tasman Sea. 

Fossil. Two species from the Miocene of Piedmont. 

The food of the genus most likely consists of small Scyphomedwce 
and Pteropods. 

1. Carinaria australis, Quoy and Gaimard. 1833. Plate 17. 
fig. 20. 

Carinaria australis, Q. & <!., Vo\ . Astrol., ii, 1833, 394, pi. 29, f. 9-15 : Gray, 
in Dieff. N.Z., 244; Mutton, C.M.M., (i ; M.N.Z.M., 118; Crit, List. 
38; Verco, T.R.8. S.Aust.. xxix, 171. 

Shell thin, hyaline, with broad and rather deep concentric grooves : 
apex obliquely inclined ; dorsal keel undulated by the grooves extend- 
ing over it. Aperture oval, slightly angled anteriorly. 

12 Moll. N./. 



354 GASTROPODA. [Pectinibranchia 

Diameter and height, 6^ mm. ; length, 12J mm. (type). 

Animal figured by Quoy and Gaimard. 

Type in the Mus. Hist. Nat., Paris. 

Hab. Tasman Sea, between Australia and New Zealand ; type 
(Q. & G.). Mr. Hedley fixes the locality at about 158 E. longitude 
and 40 S. latitude. This is nearly half-way between Bass and Cook 
Straits, but somewhat nearer the former. 

Remark. It is not impossible that this rare mollusc inhabits 
New Zealand waters, and may be obtained some day with the surface- 
net. 

Fam. PTEROTRACHEIDJE, Gray. 

Animal having the visceral sac very much reduced, without shell 
and mantle ; anus on the posterior part of the body ; foot provided 
with a sucker in the male only. 

Genus 1. PTEROTRACHEA, Forskal, 1775. 

Pterotrachea, Forskal, Descript. Anim., 1775, 117. Type : P. coronata, 
Forskal. Firola, Bruguiere, 1791. Hypterv.s, Rafinesque. 

Animal elongated, fusiform ; head proboscidiform, without ten- 
tacles ; foot contracted at its base ; body carinated posteriorly, with 
a filiform appendage, considered to have the function of a caudal fin. 
Nucleus not terminal, covered by tegument, leaving only the posterior 
part open. Branchise numerous, triangular, arranged around the 
nucleus. Female genital orifice on the right side of the nucleus, near 
the middle ; orifice of the male organ on the right side of the body, 
between nucleus and ventral fin. 

Distribution. Atlantic, Mediterranean, Pacific. 

The embryos of Pterotrachea are protected by an operculate shell, 
spiral, but the second whorl disconnected, a character which ap- 
proaches them to the fossil genus Cyrtolithes. (Fischer.) 

These molluscs occur sometimes in great abundance, and Peron 
and Lesueur said that, of all the animals the Mediterranean was 
nourishing, there was perhaps no other genus more abundant than 
Pterotrachea ; it is by thousands that one sees them floating at the 
surface of the sea in calm weather, or thrown up on the beach after 
gales, and sometimes they are brought up in the same abundance in 
the nets of the fishermen. 

1. Pterotrachea coronata, Forskal, 1775. Plate 17, fig. 21. 

Pterotrachea coronala, Forskal, Descript. Anim., 1775, 117. E. A. Smith, 
('hall. Hep., xxiii, 12. Firola coron ata, Forskal : Cuvier, Regne Anim., 
t>d. 2, iii, 09 ; Vayssiere, MolL Heterop. provenant des campagnes des 
yachts " Hirontlelic " et " Princesse Alice," 1904, 33, pi. 3, f. 33-41 : 
Benham, T.N.Z.I., xxxviii, 245, pi. 40, f. 1-3. Biphore elephantin, 
Bory de St. Vincent. Pterotrachea umbilicata, Delle Chiaje. Firola 
Edwardsiana, Deshayes. Hypterns erythrogaster, Ratinesque. 



Pterotrachea.] GASTROPODA. 



Animal large, whitish, transparent : body smooth, except the 
medio- ventral and lateral parts, which possess small white opaque 
tubercles ; there are 6 to 8 distinct frontal tubercles, arranged in two 
series ; ventral fin very large, oval, rounded, inserted at a little behind 
the middle of the body. Visceral sac relatively large, with 16 gill- 
filaments of medium size ; posterior end relatively short, tricarinate 
above, bicarinate below, with a bilobate caudal fin. Upper part of 
the buccal orifice with 2 rows of unequal hooks. Radula having the 
formula 2+1+1+1 + 2. 

Length of New Zealand specimen, about 320 mm. 

Anatomy. Leydig. Zeitschr. f. wissenschaftl. Zoologie, iii, 328. 

Hal. Long Beach, north of Otago Harbour (W. Fels). Also 
Mediterranean. 

SUBORDER 2. STENOGLOSSA. 

Pectinibranchs in which the nervous system is much concentrated. 
The perioesophageal nerve-collar is always posterior to and is not- 
traversed by the salivary glands. A well-developed proboscis, an un- 
paired oesophageal gland (the gland of Leiblein, or poison-gland), a 
pallial siphon, and a verge are always present. The radula is narro\v. 
and in the majority of genera (Rachiijlossa) has a single lateral on each 
side of the median tooth ; in the remainder of the group (Toxoijlossa) 
there is no median tooth, and the radular formula is therefore 1 + 0+1. 

Tribe 1. RACHIGLOSSA. 

These are Stenoc/lossa with a highly developed proboscis, a pallia! 
siphon, and rudimentary jaws ; the radvlar formula is 1 + 1+1. 

Fam. TURBINELLID^E, Sowerby. 

Animal with a small head, tentacles convergent at the base, with 
the eyes on the outer sides ; proboscis long ; foot broad. Radula 
triserial, the central tooth always tricuspidate. the lateral teeth mostly 
bicuspidate, the cusps of unequal length. 

Shell solid, p) ^iform or fusiform, \\ith a rather long canal ; columella 
more or less tHckened, \\lth plaits or sometimes smooth. Operculum 
corneous, oval-unguiform, the nucleus apical. 

Genus 1. MEGALATRACTUS, P. Fischer, 1884. 

Megalatractus, P. Fischer, Man. tie Conch., 1884, 623. Type : Fusus pro- 
boscidiferv?, Lamarck = aruanus, Gmelin. Syrinx, Bolten, Mus. Bolten.. 
1798, 121 ; not of Bohadsch, 17(51. 

Shell large, fusiform, widened in the noddle, prominently spirally 
Hrate, narrowly umbilicated. 

Anatomy. Kesteven, Mem. A.M., iv, 1904. 
Distribution. Australia, Tasmania, and New Zealand. 
The genus is found in depths ranging from 20 to 10) fathoms. 
12* 



356 GASTROPODA. [Pectinibranchia. 



1. Megalatractus maximus, Tryon, 1881. Plate, 18, fig. 1. 



iiiu.riiiiu. Try on, Man. Conch, (i), iii, 135, pi. .34, f. 355 : Medley, 
Mem. A.M., iv, 1903, 374, pi. 38. Megalatractus maximus, Tryon : 
.Murdoch and Suter, T.X.Z.I.. xxxviii. 2!>l. pi. 24. f. 28 (protoconch); 
Suter, T.N.Z.I., xxxix, 254. ti>/rinz maxim.nx, Trvon : .Suter, Rec. 
Canterbury Mus., i, Xo. 2, 124. 

Shell large, narrow fusiform, narrowly umbilicated. whorls angled 
in the middle, canal long and open. Soil />//<,< consisting of flat-topped 
spiral riblets parted by wide and shallow furrows with 1 or 2 fine 
spirals ; the whorls of the spire sharply angled below the middle, on 
the last whorl above the flattened periphery, the angle cut into 12 
to 14 sharp projecting nodules ; the first two whorls below the nearly 
smooth protoconch are distinctly axially costate. Colour : The New 
Zealand specimens I have seen are uniformly light brown, but Aus- 
tralian shells are ornamented with dark-brown spots and lines. Spire, 
high, conic, gradate, a little higher than the aperture without canal. 
Protoconch pupoid, polygyrate, consisting of 4 convex whorls with fine 
spiral riblets, crossed by incremental lines, nucleus central, small. 
slightly raised. Whorls 10 to 12, decollated shells have usually from 
6 to 8 whorls, first slowly then more rapidly increasing, broadly 
shouldered, the spire-whorls straight above and below the angle, the 
body-whorl flatly convex below ; base excavated. Suture superficial. 
Aperture, slightly oblique, ovate, porcellanous within, sharply angled 
above, produced below into a long, broad, open canal, which is nearly 
straight or flexed in an 8 curve slightly bent backward. Outer lip 
distinctly angled, straight above, convex below, denticulate at the 
edge by the spiral sculpture, lirate within. Columbia excavated, 
broadly rounded, smooth. Inner lip spreading as a very thin glaze 
beyond the columella and over the parietal wall, sharply drawn out 
on reaching the inner margin of the canal, where there is a distinct 
narrow umbilical fissure. Operculum oval, pointed at the apex, 
with distinct growth-lines and a strong callus on the inner outer 
side. 

Diameter, 68 mm. ; height, 145 mm. (decollated specimen of 7 
whorls). According to Hedley. Australian specimens have a much 
larger size, 100mm. by 237 mm. being recorded. 

Anatomy. Kesteven, Mem. A.M., iv, 419 5o. 

Type in the Museum of the Academie of .Science, Philadelphia. 

Hal). Near Channel Island, Hauraki Gulf, in 25 fathoms : off 
Great Barrier Island, in 110 fathoms, one protoconch : New Brighton 
Beach, one dead washed-up shell (H. S.) ; east of Jones's [lead, in 
2<> fathoms ; west of Cape Runaway, in 105 fathoms (E. R. Waite). 

Remark. Sometimes the whorls are rounded, and there remains. 
only a trace of the keel. 

Fossil in the Pliocene of Waikopiro. 



.v.] GASTROPODA. 



Kam. FASCIOLARIIDJE, Adams. 

Animal having the foot rather broad and short, the head small anil 
narrow, with short tentacles, the eyes at their outer bases. Central 
tooth of the radula narrow ; lateral teeth large, multicuspidate. 

Shell fusiform, elongated ; spire short, conic ; canal long ; colu- 
mella smooth or with plaits near the base ; outer lip simple. Operculum 
corneous, oval, with the nucleus apical. 

KEY TO GENERA. 

A. Columella smooth . . . . . . . . . . FUSINUS. 

B. Coluniflla with a few l>asal plaits . . . . LATIBUS. 

(Jc.nus 1. FUSINUS, Rau'n<'st|iie. 1815. 

F-nsinux, Rafinesque, Anal, de la Nature, 1815, 145. Type : Murex coins, L. 
Fusus, Bni.tiuiere, 1789 ; Lamarck, 1709 ; not of Helbling, 1779. Pseudo- 
f us-us, Monterosato, 1884. Exilifusus, Gabb, 187<> ; not of Conrad, 186U. 

Foot short, quadrilateral, truncated, and \vith a transverse groove 
anteriorly. Tentacles short, conical, joined posteriorly. Male organ 
elongated, almost straight ; siphon not extending beyond the canal 
of the shell. Radula triserial ; central tooth small, narrow, multi- 
cuspidate ; lateral teeth large, pectiniform, multicuspidate. the cusps 
long and narrow. 

Shell imperforate, fusiform, elongated ; spire long, acuminate, 
many-whorled ; aperture oval, usually striate within ; outer lip 
simple ; columella smooth ; canal long, straight, open. Operculum 
ovate, acute, nucleus apical. 

Over sixty species are known, mostly from warm and temperate 
seas. 

Fossil in the Secondary and Tertiary. 

1. Fusinus spiralis, A. Adams, 1856. Plate 41, fig. 4. 

Fusus spiralis, A. Ad., P.Z.S., 1855 (185<i), 221; Mutton, M.N.Z.M., 50; 
T.N.Z.I., xvi, 227; Plioc. M., 40, pi. (5, f. 9; Tryon, Man. Conch. (1), 
iii, 08, 227. pi. 85, f. 593. F. pensum, Button, C.M.M., 1873, 8. 

Shell fusiform, thin and fragile, whorls carinated and spinous.- 
Sculpture consisting of 3 to 4 distant spiral threads upon the shoulder, 
one below the keel on the upper whorls, increasing to three on the lower 
whorls ; base and canal distantly spirally lirate ; growth-lines distinct, 
fine and dense, slightly flexuous ; the sharp peripheral keel is pro- 
duced into regular triangular spines on the spire-whorls, but they are 
absent on the body-whorl, small tubercles taking their place. Colour 
fulvous, with longitudinal flexuous bands of yellowish-white. Spin 
high, narrowly conic, more than twice the height of the aperture ; 
outlines gradate. Protoconch of 2 whorls, which are usually somewhat 
tilted ; the first whorl large, angled, flat above ; the second whorl a 
little narrower ; both smooth. Whorls about 10, sharply keeled at 
the periphery, shoulder flat or slightly convex, the last whorl more 
rounded, with the keel less prominent ; base contracted. Suture 



358 ' GASTROPODA. [Pectinibranchia. 

superficial, slightly uneven, margined above by a fine thread. Aper- 
ture broadly ovate, almost round, suddenly narrowed into the canal, 
which is much produced, narrow, quite straight, and of about the 
same length as the spire. Outer Up sharp, slightly denticulated by 
the spiral sculpture. Columella straight, smooth. Inner Up narrow, 
thin, extending over the parietal wall and down into the canal. Oper- 
culum unknown. 

Diameter, 22 mm. ; height, 73 mm. Angle of spire, 42. 

Animal unknown. 

Type in the British Museum. 

Hob. Cook Strait, near Kapiti Island ; off Great Barrier Island, 
in 110 fathoms. 

Fossil in the Pliocene and Miocene. 

Genus 2. LATIRUS, Montfort, 1810. 

Latirus, Mtft., Conch. Syst., ii, 1810, 531. Type : Murex gibbulus, flmel. 
Polygona, Schumacher, 1817. Plicatdla, Swainson, 1840. Eolatirus, 
Bell, 1883. Plesiolatirus, Bell, 1883. Taron, Button, 1883. 

Animal having conical tentacles, the eyes at their outer bases ; 
foot oval ; siphon short. Radula with the central tooth tricuspidate, 
laterals with about 10 denticles, broader at the base, not so long as 
in Fasciolaria. 

Shell turreted, fusiform, sometimes umbilicated ; spire produced ; 
whorls nodulous ; aperture oval-oblong ; outer lip thin, crenulated ; 
columella straight, with 2 or 3 small oblique plaits in front. Oper- 
culum oval, elongated, unguiculate. concave at the columellar border ; 
nucleus apical. 

The genus is represented in the Indian Ocean, the Philippines. 
Australasia, Pacific Islands ; also in the West Indies. 

Fossil. It appears first in the Cretaceous, and is not uncommon 
in the Tertiary. 

Button's genus Taron was founded on a supposed peculiarity of 
the operculum of his Trophon dubius namely, that of being sub- 
"concentric. This, however, is not correct, as the nucleus is distinctly 
apical ; but the muscular scar is subcentral, near the columellar border. 
The dentition of T. dubius is decidedly that of Latirus. (See also 
Melvill, Mem. & Proc. Manchester Lit, & Philos. Soc. (4). iv, 12.) 

1. Latirus Huttoni, Suter, 1908. Plate 18, fig 2. 

Trophon dubius, Hutt., J. de Conch., xxvi, 1878, 13 ; T.N.Z.I., x, 293 : 
M.N.Z.M., 49. Urosalpinx dubia, Hutt. : Tryon, Man. Conch. (1), 
ii, 156. Taron dubius, Hutt., T.N.Z.I., xvi, 227 ; Plioc. M-, 40, pi. 6, 
f. 10. Latirus Huttoni, Suter, T.N.Z.I., xl, 1907 (1908), 369, pi. 30, f. 3. 

Shell small, ovate-fusiform, solid, imperforate or with a light um- 
bilical chink. Sculpture consisting of prominent narrow and rounded 
spiral ribs, narrower than the interstices, 3 to 4 on the penultimate, 
about 12 on the body-whorl, crossed by about 12 distinct broadly 




Latirus.] GASTROPODA. 359 

rounded axial costse, usually marked by nodules only on the last half 
of the body-whorl ; growth-lines straight, fine and distinct, slightly 
lamellar. Colour dark reddish-brown, flesh-colour around the canal ; 
aperture dark purple inside ; columella white. Epidermis persistent, 
greenish-brown. Spire sharply conical, a little higher than the aper- 
ture ; outlines straight. Protoconch small, globular, axially costate. 
Whorls 6, first slowly then rather rapidly increasing, distinctly narrowly 
shouldered, convex below ; base contracted. Suture lightly impressed. 
Aperture vertical, oval, narrowly canaliculate above, produced below 
into a short slightly oblique open canal, rounded below. Outer lip 
convex, sharp, slightly thickened and denticulate inside, but sometimes 
smooth. Columella' vertical, almost straight, either smooth or with 
a distinct tubercle below and one or two much smaller ones above it. 
Inner lip narrow and thin, spread over the parietal wall, which bears a 
distinct plait close to the outer lip, and descending, narrowed to a 
long point, to the base of the canal, sometimes leaving there a slight 
umbilical chink. Operculum corneous, 
with apical nucleus. 

Diameter, 10-5 mm. ; height, 18 mm. 

(type)-. 

A nimal of a bright salmon-red colour. 

Dentition. Hutton, T.N.Z.I., xv, 119, 
pi. 13, f. E. TEETH OP RADULA'. 

Type in the Otago Museum, Dunedin. 

Hob. Auckland Harbour, between tide-marks in rocky places ; 
East Cape ; Bay of Islands. 

Fossil in the Pliocene. 

Fam. MITRIDj<E, Adams. 

Animal having a small narrow head ; tentacles close together at 
the base, elongated, bearing the eyes at their sides ; proboscis very 
long, cylindrical, flexible ; siphon moderately long, simple at the 
base ; foot small, triangular, usually truncate in front. Purple gland 
well developed ; verge narrow. The dentition presents several dis- 
tinct types. 

Shell fusiform and solid, the spire pointed, the aperture elongated, 
and the columella folded ; mostly destitute of epidermis, which is 
very thin, smooth, and translucent when present. Operculum absent 
or rudimentary. 

The Mitridce are abundant in the coral seas, and usually in a 
moderate depth ; small species are subtropical, and some are found in 
colder latitudes. 

KEY TO GENERA. 

A. Shell fusiform, thick ; aperture without a canal, notched at the 

base ; columella with 4 or 5 plaits ; outer lip smooth inside MITKA. 

B. Shell elongated, turreted, axially plicately ribbed ; aperture with 

a more or less recurved canal ; columella with 3 or 4 plaits ; 

outer lip internally striate . . . . . . . . VKXILLTTM. 



360 GASTROPODA. [Pectin ibranfMa. 



Genus 1. MITRA, Martyn. 1784. 

Mitra, Martyn, Un. ('onch., i, f. 19. First species : J/. tessellata, Martyn. 
Thiarelld, Swainsou, 1840. Mitmria, Rafinesque, 181o. Mitrolithe.s, 
Kriig, 1823 (fide Tryon). 

Radula triserial ; the central tooth narrow, multicuspidate ; the 
laterals very broad, multicuspidate ; the cusps sharp and subequal. 

Shell fusiform or oval, solid : spire elevated, pointed ; aperture 
narrow, notched at the base ; outer lip not reflected, thickened and 
smooth within ; columella transversely, somewhat obliquely plicate. 
No operculum. 

Over two hundred species, mostly from tropical, and temperate seas, 
have been described. The Philippine Islands are particularly rich in 
these elegant and beautiful shells. 

Fossil in the Tertiary. 

KEY TO Si'Ki IES. 

A. Shell fusiform, uniformly dark brown, without axial sculpture, 

spire higher than the aperture . . . . . . . . rurhnnaria. 

B. Shell shortly fusiform, fulvous with large white spots, upper 

whorls axially costate, spire lower than the aperture . . nlbopicia. 

( '. Shell very small, shortly fusiform, greyish-white, spirally grooved 

and axially plicate, spire half the height of the aperture . . Hfdhyi. 

1. Mitra albopicta, K. A. Smith, 1898. Plate 46. tig. 9. 

Mitra ulho[>irta, E. A. Smith, P. Mai. S., iii, 1898. 21. f. 5 in text. 

Shell shortly fusiform, solid, shining, fulvous with irregular white 
spots, upper whorls distinctly axially costate. Sculpture consisting 
of a few fine spiral grooves below the suture, and narrow oblique 
spiral riblets on the base : the three whorls below the protoconch with 
slightly oblique, close, broadly rounded axial costa? ; the intestices 
much narrower ; on the succeeding whorls the riblets are irregular, 
and disappear more or less. Colour fulvous, with short irregular zig- 
zagging white spots below the suture and upon the base, a revolving 
series of small elongate white spots on the lower third of the body- 
whorl, aperture light purple inside, inner lip white. Spire acutely 
conic, a little lower than the height of the aperture ; outlines lightly 
convex. Protoconch very small, the minute nucleus papillate, excentric. 
Whorls 7, slightly convex, first slowly increasing, the last a little more 
than two-thirds of the whole height ; base somewhat contracted on 
the side of the pillar. Suture moderately deep, impressed. Aperture 
oblique, high and narrow, angular above, a little narrowed below, 
truncated, and slightly notched. Outer lip subvertical. almost parallel 
with the columella. with a rather blunt edge, lightly thickened inside 
above, smooth. (Columella slightly oblique, with 4 equidistant elevated 
plaits, the uppermost almost horizontal, the others oblique ; the 
first is slightly smaller than the two in the middle, the lowest con- 
siderably less conspicuous. Inner lip verv thin, narrow, sharply 



M ///'. | GASTROPODA. 361 

defined on the outside, forming a very thin glaze upon the faintly 
excavated parietal wall. 

Diameter, 9-5 mm. ; height. '1 1-5 mm. 

Animal unknown. 

Type in my collection. 

Hab. Mokohinau Islands (type) ; Bay of Islands (J. (. Anderson). 

Remark. In form and general proportions resembling M. pica. 
Reeve, from Australia, but larger and differently coloured. 

2. Mitra carbonaria, Swainson. 1822. Plate 46, fig. HI. 

Mitra carbonaria, Swainson, Bli-h Cat. Append., 1822, 10; "Exotic 
Conchology," 1841, 37: Medley, P.L.S. N.S.W., xxxiii, 1908, 461. 
.)/. ntelaniaiid. Lamarck : Krister, Conch. Cab., 1841, 44, j>l. 8, f. 7, 8 : 
Man. Couch. (1), iv, 127. pi. 37, t'. 118: Index. 73. not of Lamarck. 
M. niynt, Chemnitz: Reeve, Conch. Icon., ii, 1844, pi. 5. f. 33; Sowerbv. 
Thes. Conch., iv, 1874, (i, pi. 352, f. 4; Annas, P./.S., 18(57, 193: not 
of Chemnitz. Volutomitra digna, A. Adams. P.Z.S., 1854 (1855), 135 : 
Thes. Conch., iv, Mitra, 0, pi. 361, f. 115. 

Shell moderately large, fusiform, solid, dark brown, polished. 
Sculpture consisting of unequal fiat cinguli with linear interstices, 
reticulated by straight growth-lines ; the cinguli at the base are nar- 
row, rounded, and distant. Colour dark olive-brown or dark chestnut. 
Spire elevated, narrowly conic, a little higher than the aperture : 
outlines straight or lightly convex. Protoconch broadly convex, 
smooth. Whorl* about (5, regularly increasing, flattish, the last two- 
thirds of the whole height ; base slightly contracted. Suture super- 
ficial, uneven. Aperture high and narrow, angular above, truncated 
and moderately notched at the base. Outer lip vertical, almost straight, 
edge blunt, smooth and slightly thickened within. Columetta sub- 
vertical, with 5 equidistant oblique plaits, decreasing in size from 
above. Inner lip narrow, well limited, spreading over the slightly 
excavated parietal wall. 

Diameter, 15 mm. ; height, 48 mm. (specimen, Bay of Islands). 

Animal unknown. 

Type in the Manchester Museum. 

Hab. Bay of Islands : East Cape ; Tauranga. Only worn and 
empty shells have hitherto been found. The type is from Port Jack- 
son, New .South Wales. 

3. Mitra Hedleyi, Murdoch. 1905. Plate 18, tig. 3. 

Vulpecula (Pusia) Hedleyi, Muni.. T.N.Z.I., xxxvii, 1904 (1905), 228, pi. 8, 
f. 21. 

Shell very small, shortly fusiform, rather thin, lightly polished, 
with minute ornamentation. Sculpture consisting of fine narrow 
and somewhat unequal spiral lira 1 , the interspaces linear, more pro- 
minent on the base ; crossed by numerous dense unequal and straight 
axial plications, regularly spaced on the third whorl only, and more 
distinct at the suture. Colour greyish-white or light brown, occasion- 



362 GASTROPODA. [Pectinibranchia. 

ally very faintly mottled with white ; aperture light brown, inside. 
Spire short, conical ; apex blunt, height about half that of the aper- 
ture ; outlines lightly convex. Protoconch small, papillate, of 2 smooth 
whorls. Whorls 4^ to 5, the last very high, faintly convex : base 
very little contracted. Suture lightly impressed. Aperture oblique, 
narrow, angled above, not contracted below, slightly notched. Outer 
Up uniformly moderately curved, sharp, slightly thickened inside. 
Columella subvertical, with 4 oblique plaits, equally spaced, slightly 
decreasing in size towards the base. Inner Up narrow, sharply bounded 
on the outside, forming a thin glaze on the slightly arcuate parietal 
wall. 

Diameter, 2-6 mm. ; height, 5-4 mm. 

Animal unknown. 

Type in the Dominion Museum, Wellington. 

//a&.^Whangarei Heads, dredged in shallow water, type (C. 
Cooper) ; near Little Barrier Island, in 20 fathoms (R. H. Shake- 
spear). 

Remark. The absence of regular axial costse on the body- whorl, 
and a canal, induce me to class this species under Mitra. 

Genus 2. VEXILLUM, Bolten, 1798. 

Vexillum, Bolten, Mus. Bolten. (2), 1798, 138. First species : Mitra 
plicaria, Lam. Tunis, Montfort, 1810 ; not of Bolten, 1798. !'/- 
pecula, Blainville, 1824. Tiara, Swainson, 1840. Turricula (Klein). 
Fischer, 1884 ; not Vexilla, Swainson, 1840. 

Animal similar to that of Mitra. Radula triserial ; the central 
tooth transverse, the upper margin slightly concave, with numero 
sharp denticles on the lower margin ; lateral teeth simple, with one 
cutting-point, elongate and curved. 

Shell elongate, turreted, axially plicately fibbed ; spire acumi- 
nated ; aperture narrow, with a more or less recurved canal at the 
base ; outer lip usually internally striated ; columella with 4 but 
slightly oblique plaits. The protoconch is papillate, paucispiral. 

This genus is exclusively tropical and subtropical in distribution, 
and it is abundantly represented in central Polynesia. 

Fossil in the Tertiary. 

KEY TO SPECIES. 

A. Columella with 3 plaits . . . . . . . . Waitei. 

B. Columella with 4 plaits. 

<i. Height of spire less than that of aperture ; spiral lira? 

distinct only below the suture and on the base . . obncururn . 
mi. Height of spire about equal that of aperture. 
li. Suture margined. 

c. Outer lip much contracted at the base ; 
whorls with about 14 large nodules on 
the angle of the shoulder . . . . marginatum. 

<<-. Outer lip but little contracted at the base ; 
axial riblets 14-15, prominent ; inti-i 
slices spirally lirate . . . . pseudomarginatum. 



Vexillum.} GASTROPODA. 3('3 



bb. Suture not margined. 

c. With distinct spiral lirae ; dimensions 4 mm. by 

8 mm. . . . . . . . . . . rubiginosum. 

cc. With obsolete spiral lirte ; dimensions 6 mm. by 

14 mm. . . . . . . planatiim. 

1. Vexillum rnarginatum, Button, 1885. Plate 18, fig. 4. 

Turricula nmrginuin. Hutton, T.N.Z.I.. xvii, 1884 (1885), 315, pi. 18, f. 4; 
Plioc. M., 47. Vvlpecula (Pusia) biconica, M. & S., T.N.Z.I., xxxviii, 
1905 (1906), 289, pi. 23, f. 22. 

Shell very small, biconical, imperforate, a row of nodules on the 
lower whorls, suture margined, aperture narrow, with 4 columellar 
plaits. Sculpture : On the third to fifth whorls there are oblique 
axial costse, produced into nodules on the angle of the whorls, below 
the sutuie a broad rim, under the nodules of the last whorl 2 fine 
spiral threads and several more towards the base. Colour white, with 
fulvous on the nodules of the first half of the last whorl, continued 
in broad zigzag lines down to the base on the second half. Spire 
conoidal, of nearly the same height as the aperture ; outlines straight. 
Protoconch of li whorls, papillate, smooth, glossy ; nucleus slightly 
excentric, broadly convex. Whorls 5, rather rapidly increasing, 
shouldered with about 14 short nodulous ribs, disappearing shortly 
before reaching the outer lip ; base distinctly contracted. Suture 
distinct, slightly impressed, broadly margined below. Aperture 
somewhat oblique, narrow, with subparallel sides, slightly channelled 
above, produced at the base into a distinct short open and recurved 
canal, not notched at the base. Outer lip thin and sharp, subangled 
above, contracted below. Columella subvertical, with 4 plaits, the 
first and second nearly horizontal, the others oblique, the basal plait 
very small. Inner lip narrow, forming a, white-enamel layer on the 
concave parietal wall. 

Diameter, 2-8 mm. ; height, 5 mm. 

Animal unknown. 

Type, from the Pliocene, in the Canterbury Museum, Christ-church. 

Hob. Off Great Barrier Island, in 110 fathoms; off Cuvier 
Island, in 37 fathoms (Captain Bollons) ; 21| miles north-east of 
Wreck Reef, Stewart Island, in 50-54 fathoms (E. R. Waite) ; Port 
Pegasus, Stewart Island, in 18 fathoms (Captain Bollons) ; Snares, 
in 50 fathoms (Captain Bollons). 

Remarks. This species is exceedingly variable in the develop- 
ment of the sculpture ; it is often very prominent and bold, but 
may become rather inconspicuous. The nodulous sculpture and the 
zigzag colour-markings are characteristic. The outer lip is some- 
times very much contracted at the base; the canal, therefore, very 
well marked. 

Fossil in the Pliocene of Wanganui. 



364 GASTROPODA. [Pectinibranckia. 



'2. Vexillum pseudomarginatum, 11. sp. Plat* 1 18. fig. 5. 

Yulpecula marr/inata, Suter, T.N.Z.I., xl, 1007 (1908), 349, pi. 27, f. 8: nut 
<if Hutton. 

Shell small, fusiform, rather thin, axially costate and spirally 
lirate. Sculpture consisting of fine spiral lira', usually 2 below the 
suture broader and much more prominent, about 7 on the penultimate 
whorl ; they are again more conspicuous on the base ; straight, angu- 
larly rounded axial riblets extend over all the whorls, the protoconch 
excepted, 14 to 15 on a whorl, and they vanish only on approaching 
the base, the interstices of about the same width as the riblets ; only 
the two stronger spirals below the suture pass over the axials. Colour 
white. Spire elevated conic, about the same height as the aperture ; 
outlines slightly convex. Protoconch small, papillate, of 1| smooth 
and convex whorls, the nucleus excentric. Whorls 5 to 6. the last 
high, moderately convex, the base distinctly contracted. Suture im- 
pressed, margined below. Aperture narrow, rather broadly angled 
above, with a short widely open and slightly recurved canal below, 
its base slightly notched. Outer lip thin and sharp, lightly convex, 
contracted below. Columella subvertical. with 4 equally spaced and 
slightly oblique plaits, which decrease in size towards the base : the 
uppermost plait continued as a strong riblet over the neck. Inner Up 
thin and narrow, spreading over the concave parietal wall. 

Diameter, 2-5 mm. ; height. 6-2 mm. (shell of 5 whorls). 

Animal unknown. 

Type in my collection. 

Halt. Five miles south of Cuvier Island, in 38 fathoms (Captain 
Bollons). 

Fossil in the Pliocene of Wangaimi. 

Subsp. angulatum. Suter, 1908. 

Vnlpcula mnn/inut ri>i</ulrtt(i. Suter, T.N./.I., xl, 1907 (1908), 350. 

Distinguished from the species by the following characters : the 
shell is slight!}' more ventricose, all the whorls below the protoconch 
distinctly shouldered ; the axial costa 1 somewhat nodulous upon the 
carina ; the spiral lir* are much more numerous, and consequently 
finer ; the suture is undulating, more or less distinctly margined 
below, but the 2 more prominent cinguli are wanting ; the outer lip 
is angled above. 

Diameter, 2-5 mm. ; height, 5-5 mm. (specimen of 5 whorls). 

Animal unknown. 

Type in my collection. 

Hab. Five miles south of Cuvier Island, in 38 fathoms, type 
(Captain Bollons). Apparently rarer than the species. 



\'i.f!lhun.\ GASTROPODA. ,'J6. r ) 



3. Vexillum obscurum, Hutton, 1873. Plato 4<i. fig. II. 

Mitru obtcuni. Hutl., C'.AI.M., J9 ; J. de Conch., 1878, 21 ; M.N./.M., i>0 ; 
Index, 73 ; S\iter, P. Mai. S.. ii. 201. fig. in text. 

*S'fo// small, ovate-conical, sliglitly turreted, axially costate, dark 
brown, banded or spotted with white. Sculpture consisting of more 
or less distinct spiral line with linear interspaces ; all the whorls 
below the protoconch have straight, elevated, and rounded axial 
ribs, about 20 on the penultimate whorl, extending on the body- 
whorl to the base, which is distinctly spirally striated. Colour blackish- 
brown, with white spots or a white band below the suture ; a light 
band on the middle of the last whorl is sometimes present ; the whole 
of the body-whorl has the brown zone minutely dotted with white ; 
base fuscous or light orange ; aperture purplish within. Spire low. 
flatly shouldered, conical, height a little more than half that of the 
aperture ; outlines faintly convex. Protoconch small, smooth, of 2 
whorls, papillate. Whorls 7, somewhat flattened below the suture, 
convex ; base slightly contracted. Suture superficial, undulating. 
Aperture narrow, the margins parallel, roundly angled above, produced 
below into a short, open, and lightly recurved canal. Outer lip angled 
and thickened inside above, edge blunt, smooth inside. Columella 
subvertical, with 4 but little oblique plaits, the uppermost transverse, 
the lowest minute. Inner lip inconspicuous. 

Diameter, 3-5 mm. ; height. 9 mm. Angle of spire. 60. 

Animal unknown. 

Type in the Dominion Museum. Wellington. 

Hob. Bay of Islands (type) : Mokohinau Islands. 

Remark. The somewhat turreted spire, prominent axial ribs ex- 
tending over the body-whorl, and the presence of a recurved canal 
clearly indicate the species to belong to the genus Vexillum. 

4. Vexillum planatum, Hutton. 1885. Plate 18, fig. 6. 

Tnrricula plrrnata. Hutt., T.N.Z.J.. xvii. 1884 (1885), 315, pi. 18, f. 3 ; 
Plioc. M., 47. Vulpecula planata, Hutt., Index, 74. 

Shell small, ovato-fusiform, solid, axially costate, black. Sculp- 
ture consisting of distant not very distinct spiral striae, the base with 
a few oblique rounded riblets ; all the whorls below the protoconch 
are prominently axially costate. the ribs beginning a short distance 
below the suture above, but extending to the suture below and nearly 
to the base on the body- whorl ; they number about 14 on a whorl, 
are angularly rounded, the interstices of the same width, and becom- 
ing obsolete on the last half-turn of the body-whorl. Colour black, shin- 
ing ; protoconch light purple ; base red. Spire elevated conic, acute, 
of the same height as the aperture ; outlines nearly straight. Proto- 
conch of 1^ smooth whorls, minute, papillate. Whorls 7, first slowly 
increasing, the last high, flatly convex, sometimes lightly shouldered : 



366 GASTROPODA. [Pectimbranchiu. 



base somewhat contracted. Suture impressed, undulating. Aperture 
narrow and high, angled above, with a short, open, and slightly re- 
curved canal below, which is distinctly notched at the base. Outer 
lip moderately arched, sharp, somewhat thickened and smooth inside. 
Columella subvertical, with 4 slightly oblique plaits, decreasing in size 
towards the base, the uppermost continued as an oblique riblet over 
the neck. 

Diameter, 6 mm. ; height, 14 mm. (type, from the Pliocene). Dia- 
meter,' 4 mm. ; height, 11 mm. (Auckland ; Recent specimen). 

Animal unknown. 

Type, from the Pliocene of Wanganui, in the Canterbury Museum, 
Christchurch. 

Hob. Hauraki Gulf. 

Remark. The type is a rather large form. Most of the fossil 
specimens I have, seen are smaller. 

Fossil in the Pliocene. 

5. Vexillum rubiginosum, Hutton, 1873. Plate 18, fig. 7. 

Columbella (Atilia) rubiyhiosa, Hutt., ('..M.M., 20. Mitra nibiginosa, Hutt,, 
J. de Conch., 1878, 22 ; M.N.Z.M., (id. Turricvla (Pusia) rubiginosa, 
Hutt,, T.N.Z.I., xvi, 226 ; Plioc. M., 46, pi. 6, f. 19. Colurnbella rubi- 
<iinos(i, Hutt. : Pace, P. Mai. S., v, 130. Vnlpecula rubiginosa, Hutt,, 
Index, 74. 

Shell small, fusiform, slightly turreted, axially costate, brown ov 
purple. Sculpture consisting of distant spiral grooves on the spire- 
whorls, usually 1 below the edge of the shoulder, sometimes cutting 
up the top of the axial ribs into nodules, and 2 above the suture ; the 
lower half of the body-whorl and the base are distinctly spirally lirate ; 
axial riblets begin to appear on the second whorl below the protoconch : 
they begin at the edge of the shoulder, and continue to the suture 
below ; they are straight, equidistant, rounded, with interspaces of 
the same width, incised by the spiral grooves ; on approaching the 
outer lip they are getting obsolete, and they also vanish on the base. 
Colour blackish-purple or reddish-brown, with a white spiral band on 
the periphery of the last whorl ; base usually orange. Spire conic, 
turreted, of the same height as the aperture ; outlines almost straight. 
Protoconch small, smooth, papillate, of li whorls, which are of a pinkish 
colour. Whorls about 7, the last high, with a flat and narrow shoulder, 
flatly convex below. Suture superficial. Aperture long and narrow, 
angled above, with a widely open and somewhat recurved canal, 
which is notched at its base. Outer lip subangled above, lightly curved, 
edge rather blunt, smooth within. Columella slightly oblique, with 
4 moderately oblique plaits, decreasing in size towards the base, the 
lowest minute ; they are usually continued as spirals on the neck. 
Inner lip thin, narrow, distinctly limited, extending over the concave 
parietal wall, which has a low tubercle below the suture. 

Diameter, 3-8 mm. ; height, 7-5 mm. (type). 



Vexillum.] GASTROPODA. 367 

Animal unknown. 

Type in the Dominion Museum, Wellington. 

Hab. North and South Islands ; Stewart Island ; Chatham Is- 
lands (type). From low- water mark to 25 fathoms. 
Fossil in the Pliocene. 

6. Vexillum Waitei, Suter, 1909. Plate 18, fig. 8. 

Vexillum Waitei, Suter, Rec. Canterbury Museum, i, No. 2, 1909, 124, 
pi. 12, f. 3. 

Shell small, fusiform, turreted, with strong axial ribs, rendered 
slightly nodulous by spiral line, with only 3 columellar folds. Sculpture 
consisting of strong and sharp spiral threads, 4 on the penultimate 
whorl, the interstices somewhat broader than the threads, a small 
and flat thread below the suture ; they are crossed by distant broadly 
rounded axial ribs, 10 to 11 on a whorl, and they are cut up into broad 
nodules by the spirals ; they vanish on approaching the base ; growth- 
lines very fine and crowded. Colour white. Spire elevated conic, 
turreted, about the same height as the aperture ; outlines slightly 
convex. Protoconch small, of li smooth whorls. Whorls 4 to 5, 
distinctly shouldered, lightly rounded below the keel ; base some- 
what contracted. Suture not much impressed, margined. Aperture 
high and narrow, angled above, with an open, short, and slightly 
recurved canal below, its base not notched. Outer lip convex, indis- 
tinctly angled above, and somewhat contracted below. Columella 
slightly oblique, with 3 plaits, the lowest a little smaller. Inner lip 
thin and narrow, forming a very thin layer on the concave parietal 
wall, drawn out to a long and fine point along the inner edge of the 
canal. 

Diameter, 2-7 mm. ; height, 6-5 mm. 

Animal unknown. 

Type in the Canterbury Museum, Christchurch. 

Hab. 21 J miles north-east of Wreck Reef, Stewart Island, in 50 
to 54 fathoms, type (E. R. Waite) ; Snares, in 50 fathoms (Captain 
Bollons). 

Fam. CKRYSODOMID^l, Cossmann. 

Animal with a rather large foot, truncated in front ; tentacles 
with the eyes at their outer sides. Radula triserial, lateral teeth 
with 2 to 4 cusps. 

Shell solid, rather thick, usually with an epidermis ; fusoid, oval, 
elongated ; protoconch smooth, well developed, with a papillate nu- 
cleus, which is always tilted ; whorls convex, ornamented by spiral 
ribs, and sometimes axial costse, which become nodulous in certain 
genera ; body-whorl ventricose, base excavated ; aperture oval, with 
or without a posterior channel, produced into a moderately long canal 
anteriorly, which is always inflected to the right or backwards, ex- 



368 GASTROPODA. [Pectinibrnnrftin. 



tremitv not sinuated ; outer lip simple or thickened and lirate within, 
slightly convex ; columella smooth, excavated above, twisted with 
the canal below. Operculum unguiform. with apical nucleus. 

KEY TO (TENBRA. 

A. Canal recurved ; spire nodose or carinated ; outer lip thin or 

but slightly thickened ; columella smooth . . . . SIPHONALIA. 

B. Canal distinctly obliquely recurved ; spire smooth or axially 

costate ; outer lip sinuated above, thickened, striate 

within: columella slightly ridged .. .. .. EFTHRIA. 

Genus 1. SIPHONALIA, A. Adams, 1863. 

tii.phon.alia, A. Ad.. A.M.N.H. (3). xi, 18(53. 202. Neotypc : Bix-n>nn>, 
cassidariaBform e, Reeve. 

Shell ovately fusiform, rather thin, with a very thin epidermis : 
spire shorter than the aperture ; last whorl ventricose, shouldered, 
usually nodosely plicate and spirally ribbed ; aperture large, oval ; 
outer lip thin ; columella smooth ; canal rather short and twisted. 
Operculum ovate, nucleus apical. 

This genus is principally of tropical and subtropical distribution : 
its metropolis is Japan, a few forms being found, however, on the 
opposite shores of the west coast of North America ; some species 
also occur in Australasian waters. 

The genus Siphonalia is well represented in the Eocene of Pata- 
gonia, Chile, and Australia, but it occurs neither Recent nor fossil in 
North America. It therefore must be considered as a tropical genus 
of the Indo-European Eocene sea which has not extended its migra- 
tions to Central or North America. (Von Ihering.) 

Vernacular Xtinic. Spindle-shell. 

KEY TO SUBGEXERA. 

A. Canal short, last whorl carinated . . . . . . SIPHONALIA. 

B. Canal long, last whorl carinated . . . . . . . . PENION. 

C. Canal moderately long, last whorl rounded . . . . AUSTROFUSUS. 

Subgen. 1. SIPHONALIA. s. str. 
1. Siphonalia nodosa, Marty n, 1784. Plate 44, tig. 17. 

Buccinum nodosum, Mart., Un. (.'ouch., i, 1784, f. o. Siphonalia nodosa, 
Mart., Man. Conch. (1), iii, 13(5, pi. f>(>, f. 37<>, 377 ; Hutton, T.N.Z.I., 
xvi, 229; Murdoch and Suter, T.N.Z.I., xxxviii, 202. Buccinum m- 
phanus, Lam., Vov. Astrol., ii. 428, pi. 31, f. f>, (5. B. triton, Lesson. 
Rev. Zool., 1841, 37 ; 1842, 237: Hutton, C.M.M., 11. Fusus nodosu*, 
Mart., Conch. Icon., iv. 1847, f. 41 ; Hutton, C.M.M., 11. Sept-unam 
nodosa, Mart. : Hutton, M.N.Z.M., .">(). A'M.S-M.S- (N&ptunea) nodosum, 
Mart., Chall. Rep., xv, 200. 

Shell not large, fusiform, ventricose, shouldered, rather thin, with 
a short and widely open canal. Sculpture consisting of equidistant 
unequal spiral Ime, us