(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Children's Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "A manual of North American birds"

FORTHE PEOPLE 


FOR EDVCATION 


FOR SCIENCE 



LIBRARY 

OF 

THE AMERICAN MUSEUM 

OF 

NATURAL HISTORY 



If) a rid a 



k 



A liJanual of 
North American Birds 

by 

Robert Ridgway, 



J, B. Lippincott. 

Philadelphia. 

1887. 



l6-\oo.o-:>(o. 



PREFACE. 



The object of the present volume is to furnish a convenient 
manual of North American Ornithology, reduced to the smallest com- 
pass, by the omission of everything that is not absolutely necessary 
for determining the character of any given specimen, and including, 
besides the correct nomenclature of each species, a statement of its 
natural habitat, and other concomitant data. 

Originally projected by Professor Spencer F. Baird, and based 
essentially upon the grand National cabinet of American birds which 
his energy, ability, and enthusiasm have developed from an unpre- 
tentious nucleus into a collection unrivalled in extent and wholly 
unique in scientific value, this work may be considered as, in a 
measure, Hhe consummation of a plan conceived by that illustrious 
naturalist, vv^hose works represent the highest tyj)e of systematic orni- 
thology, and have furnished the model from which the younger gen- 
eration of ornithologists have drawn their inspiration. Professor 
Baird's great responsibilities and engrossing duties as Secretary of the 
Smithsonian Institution and Director of the United States National 
Museum precluded the possibility of his completing the work which 
he had so long cherished, and had even begun, when called to the 
high positions which he has filled with so much advantage to science 
and honor to himself. 

Honored with the privilege of continuing the work commenced 
by abler hands, the author has endeavored to fulfil his trust with 
careful attention to the hope of its originator that the Manual of 



IV 



PREFACE. 



North American Birds may serve as a handy book for the spprtsn^ar. 
and traveller, as well as for the resident naturalist, and that all niajn 
find it a convenient and satisfactory means of identifying any North 
American bird in all its variations of plumage. 



ROBEET EIDGWAY. 



Depaktment of Birds, 
United States National Museum, 
April 11, 1887. 



Spencer JT. Bairti. 



Just as this book is about to be issued, information has been re- 
ceived of the death of Professor Baird, at "Wood's Holl, Massachusetts. 

It is unnecessary here to make more than passing reference to 
Professor Baird's eminence as an ornitliologist, — an eminence attained 
through the inherent excellence of his published works rather than 
their extent. His influence in the development of American ornithol- 
ogy has been greater than that of any other person, and no one else 
has commanded so fully the respect, admiration, and confidence due 
to his high attainments, the sterling qualities of his mind and heart, 
and the integrity of his character. Indeed, it may with truth be said 
that every naturalist of eminence in the United States owes much of 
his success to a personal acquaintance with Professor Baird, whose 
sound advice, ready sympathy, and uniform kindness are reverently 
and afiectionately remembered by all who are so fortunate as to have 
enjoyed the privilege of his acquaintance. 



Special reference has been made in the Preface and Introduction 
to Professor Baird's intimate connection with the " Manual of North 
American Birds," a work planned by him many years ago, but w^hich 
he was prevented, by engrossing public duties, from personally exe- 
cuting. In spite of physical sufiering and harassing cares, he retained, 
almost to the last moment, a lively interest in the work, which was 
completed but a short time previous to his death. 

R. E. 

Washington, August 20, 1887. 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

INTRODUCTION' vii 

KEY TO THE HIGHER GROUPS 1 

Order Pygopodes — The Diving Birds 4 

Family Podicipidse — The Grebes 4 

" Urinatoridse — The Loons 6 

" Alcidse — The Auks, Murres, etc 8 

Order Longipennes — The Long-winged Swimmers 20 

Family Stercorariidte — The Skuas and Jaegers 20 

" Laridte— The Gulls and Terns 23 

" Rynchopida3 — The Skimmers 48 

Order Tubikares — The Tube-nosed Swimmers 50 

Family Diomedeidas — The Albatrosses 50 

" Procellariidse — The Fulmars and Shearwaters 53 

Order Steganopodes — The Totipalmate Swimmers 73 

Family Phsethontidaa— The Tropic Birds 73 

" Sulidffi— The Gannets 74 

" Anhingidse — The Darters 76 

" Phalacrocoracidas— The Cormoi-ants 77 

" Peleeanidte — The Pelicans 81 

" Frcgatida3— The Man-o'-War Birds 82 

Order Anseres — The Lamellirostral Swimmers 84 

Family Anatidie — The Ducks, Geese, and Swans 84 

Order Odontogloss.e — The Lamellirostral Waders 121 

Family Phoenicopteridie — The Flamingoes 121 

Order Herodiones — The Herons, Storks, Ibises, etc 122 

Family Plataleidse— The Spoonbills 122 

" Ibididffi— The Ibises 123 

" Ciconiida? — The Storks and Wood Ibises 124 

" Ardeidffi — The Herons and Bitterns 126 

Order Paludicol^ — The Cranes, Rails, etc 134 

Family Gruidffi — The Cranes 134 

" Aramidffi — The Courlans 135 

" Rallidts— The Rails, Gallinules, Coots, etc 136 

Order Limicol^ — The Shore Birds 143 

Family Phalaropodidse — The Phalaropes 143 

" Recurvirostridag — The Avocets and Stilts 146 

" ScolopacidaB — The Snipes, Sandpipers, etc 147 

" Charadriidffi — The Plovers 172 

" AphrizidaB — The Surf Birds and Turnstones 179 

" Hffimatopodidje — The Oyster-catchers 181 

" Jacanidse — The Jacanas 183 

V 



Vi CONTENTS. 

PAOE 

Order Galling — The Gallinaceous Birds 184 

Pamily Tetraonidte — The Grouse, Partridges, etc 184 

" PhasianidiB — The Pheasants, Turkeys, etc 205 

" CracidiB — The Curassows and Guans 207 

Order CoLUMBiE — The Pigeons 210 

Family Columbidse — The Pigeons 210 

Order Kaptorks— The Birds of Prey 218 

Family Catbartidas — The American Vultures 218 

" Falconida3— The Falcons, Hawks, etc 222 

" Strigidae— The Barn Owls 255 

" Bubonida;— The Horned Owls, etc 255 

Order Psittaci — The Parrots, Macaws, Paroquets, etc 268 

Family Psittacidse — The Parrots, etc 268 

Order Coccyges — The Cuckoos, etc 271 

Family Cuculida3 — The Cuckoos 271 

" Trogonidffi — The Trogons 275 

" Momotidse — The Motmots 277 

" Alcedinidffi— The Kingfishers .278 

Order Pici — The Woodpeckers, Wrynecks, etc 280 

Family Picida — The Woodpeckers 280 

Order Macrochires — The Goatsuckers, Swifts, etc 297 

Family Caprimulgidise — The Goatsuckers 297 

" MicropodidiB— The Swifts 302 

" Trochilid*— The Hummingbirds 303 

Order Passeres — The Perching Birds 321 

Family Cotingidaa— The Cotingas 323 

" Tyrannid;e— The Tyrant Flycatchers 326 

" Alaudidse— The Larks 346 

" Corvidse — The Crows, Jays, Magpies, etc 350 

" Sturnidse— The Starlings 364 

" Icteridae— The Blackbirds, Orioles, etc 365 

" Fringillidaj — The Finches, Sparrows, etc •. • • ^^2 

" Tanagridffi— The Tanagers 453 

" Hirundinida?— The Swallows 457 

" Ampelidte — The Waxwings, etc 463 

" Laniidffi— The Shrikes 465 

" Yireonidae — The Vireos 468 

" Coerebidfe — The Honey Creepers 479 

" Mniotiltidie— The Wood AVarblers 480 

" Motacillidre— The AVagtails 532 

" Cinclid;e — The Dippers 538 

" Troglodytid» — The Wrens, Thras^hers, etc 538 

" Certhiidje— The Creepers 557 

" Parida-— The Nuthatches and Tits 558 

" Sylviidie — The Warblers, Kinglets, and Gnatcatchers 566 

" Turdidaj— The Thrushes, Solitaires, Stonechats, Bluebirds, etc 571 

Appendix 583 

Index 595 



INTRODUCTION. 



In Classification, ISTomenclature, and Numeration the present work corre- 
sponds strictly with the " Check List of North American Birds" published b}' the 
American Ornithologists' Union/ which represents the joint labors of a " Commit- 
tee on Classification and Nomenclature" appointed by the Union during its first 
Congress, held in New York City, September 26-29, 1883. 

During the year which has elapsed since the publication of the A. O. U. Check 
List several species have been added to the North American fauna, while others 
have been for the first time described. These are of course included in the present 
work, being interpolated in their proper places." At the same time, it has been 
considered desirable, in the interest of the student of North American Ornithol- 
ogy, to include, for reasons stated farther on,^ certain extralimital species from 
contiguous countries. All such additional species have, however, been carefully 
distinguished typographically, in order that no confusion may arise, the method 
of discrimination being as follows : 

(1) All species which are undoubtedly North American, even though of doubt- 
ful validity, are in larger type, those given in the A. O. U. Check List proper being 
numbered as in that list, while eighteen of the twentj^-six species composing the 
so-called " Hj-pothetical List,"* and also those subsequently added to the fauna, are 
preceded by a dash ( — ) instead of a number. (2) All species which have not been 
established as North American (the majoi-ity never having been claimed as such) 
are printed in smaller type, and have neither a number nor a dash. 

The Geographical Limits are also, so far as numbered species are concerned, 
those of the A. O. U. Check List ; but practically these limits have been enlarged so 

1 The Code of Nomenclature | and ] Check List | of North American Birds | Adopted by the American 
Ornithologists' Union | Being the Report of the Committee of the Union on Classification and Nomenclature | 
(Motto) I I New York | American Ornithologists' Union | 1886 | [8vo.,pp. i-viii, 1-392.] 

2 For lists of these additional species, see Appendix, pages 591-594. 

3 See under " Geographical Limits." 

* " Consisting of species which have been recorded as North American, but whose status as North Ameri- 
can birds is doubtful, either from lack of positive evidence of their occurrence within the prescribed limits . . . 
or from absence of satisfactory proof of their validity as species." Of the twenty-six species constituting this 
list, eighteen are unquestionably North American (one of them having been recently established as such), while 
the remaining eight have very scant claims to a place in our fauna. 

vii 



yiii INTRODUCTION. 

as to include all the species known to inhabit Socorro Island, off the coast of north- 
western Mexico, which is decidedly Nearctic, or North American, in its zoological 
affinities, while in many cases other extralimital species have been included, for the 
sake of comparison and also on account of the greater or less probability of their 
occurrence within the southern boundary of the United States. In most cases this 
ignoring of geogi-aphical limits has been confined to the inclusion of only the Mexi- 
can,^ Cuban, and Bahaman species of charactei-istically North American genera, or 
of genei-a from the same regions belonging to North American Families, the Euro- 
pean analogues of certain North American species, and species of northeastern Asia 
which have been ascribed to Alaska, or which may from the close proximity of 
their habitat be expected to occur there. A notable departure from this general 
rule has, however, been made in the Order Tubinares, consisting wholly of species 
inhabiting the " high seas," whose more or less erratic or fortuitous wanderings 
render them specially liable to a place in the list of " accidental visitors" to any 
sea-girt country, for which reason it has been considered desirable, as an aid to 
future research, to include all known species belonging to genera of which repre- 
sentatives have been taken in North American waters. 

Material. — Although the unrivalled collection of American birds and their 
eggs forming part of the National Museum^ has furnished by far the greater por- 
tion of the material upon which this work is based, several other public museums, 
as well as rich private collections, have been carefully studied. Thus, the American 
Museum of Natural History, in New York City ; the Academy of Natural Sciences 
of Philadelphia ; the Boston Society of Natural History ; the Museum of Compara- 
tive Zoolog}^, in Cambridge, Mass. ; and the splendid private collections of Messrs. 
GeoT-ge N. Lawrence, of New York City, William Brewster, of Cambridge, Mass., 
and H. TV. Henshaw,' of Washington, D.C., have furnished indispensable material 
in the way of extralimital species or more extensive series of certain North Amer- 
ican species, for comparison, than had jet been secured by the National Museum. 
It is not, however, the large number of specimens alone that has furnished the sub- 
stantial basis of the following synoptical tables ; for, however much the proper dis- 



1 Under the head of " Mexican" are included not only Mexico itself, but also Guatemala and Honduras, 
(See page vii, regarding typographical distinction between extralimital and North American species.) 

2 The total number of specimens of American birds in the National Museum collection at the end of June, 
1886, was about .36,000, exclusive of duplicates and mounted specimens ; the North American " study series" of 
Passeres and " Picarim" {i.e., Macrochirea, Pici, and Coccyges) alone aggregating nearly 13,000, counting only 
those obtained from North America proper, as defined in the A. 0. U. Check List. At the same time, the collec- 
tion of North American birds' eggs numbered 38,400 specimens, constituting by far the most extensive and valu- 
able one in existence. Even before the addition of the magnificent private collection so generously donated by 
Captain Charles E. Bendire, U.S.A., no other was comparable to it, either in the number of species represented 
or in their careful identification, it having from the commencement been made a rule to destroy all specimens 
regarding which there appeared the least doubt or suspicion. Captain Bendire's celebrated collection, while 
representing fewer species, included far more extensive series of a large number of species, showing extreme 
variations of size, contour, and coloration, all perfectly identified, while it was wholly unique in the exquisite 
preparation of the specimens, 

3 Special mention should be made of Mr. Henshaw's valuable collection (embracing more than 7000 speci- 
mens and unusually complete series of many species), which through the owner's courtesy has been constantly 
accessible to the author. 



INTRODUCTION. ix 

crimination of species and subspecies may be a question of material, a great deal 
depends upon our knowledge of the birds in life, their natural sui'roundings, and 
other things which can be learned only out of doors. Fortunately, a very large 
number of accomplished field-naturalists have carefully observed the habits of our 
birds, and through their published records have together contributed a vast stoi'e 
of information which no single person could himself have gained. To the much 
that has been gleaned from this source have been added the author's field-notes, col- 
lected during the period extending from a recent date back to the year 1863, and 
embracing many measurements of fresh specimens, notes on location of nests, fresh 
colors of bill, eyes, feet, etc., and various other useful memoranda. 

Measurements are in English inches and hundredths, except when otherwise 
stated.^ Whenever practicable, they have been taken from large series of speci- 
mens, and the extremes given, as well as the average, which follows in parenthesis. 
Thus, 5.75-6.50 (6.12) would indicate the minimum, maximum, and average, re- 
spectively, of the measurements taken. In the case of closely-allied forms, or where 
distinctive characters are largely a matter of dimensions or the proportionate meas- 
urements of ditferent parts, care has been taken to measure, whenever possible, an 
equal number of specimens of the severa;! forms to be compared ; and specimens in 
abraded or otherwise imperfect plumage, as well as young birds, have been excluded. 
When there is any marked sexual difference in size, the number of males and females 
measured of allied forms has also been made as nearly equal as possible. Length 
is to be understood as meaning the total length (from end of bill to tip of tail) of 
the fresh specimen, before skinning, unless otherwise stated. This measurement is 
the least important of any for the purpose of determination of the species, being of 
any value at all only when taken from the fresh specimen, before skinning, and even 
then subject to much variation, according to the amount of stretching to which the 
bird is subjected. In a very large number of species the author's measurements 
from freshly-killed specimens are given, but in perhaps a majority of cases it has 
been necessary to take measurements made by others. Owing to the fact that all 
our leading authorities have been consulted on this point and only the extremes 
given, it has been found impracticable (even if desirable) to distinguish the latter 
from the former, but it may be remarked that nearly all of those in which 
the range of variation between the extremes is very great belong to the latter 
category. Length of wing is from the " bend," or carpal joint, to tip of longest 
primary, the rule being laid along the outer or convex side and the wing brought 
up close to it for its entire length. Length of tail is from tip of longest feathers to 
their apparent base, a point often very difiicult to determine, and subject to more 
or less variation according to the method of preparing the skin, the amount of 
shrinkage to which the flesh at the base of the tail has been subjected, etc. Length 
of culmen is the chord of the curve, measured with dividers, from the tip of the 
upper mandible to the extreme base of the culmen (this often more or less concealed 
by feathers of the forehead) — unless the qualif^'ing word " ex2:)0sed" is prefixed, in 
which case the measurement is similarly made to where the frontal feathers close 

1 See foot-note on page x., as to conversion of inches and decimals into millimetres. 



X INTRODUCTION. 

over the base of the culmen. Depth of bill is also measured with dividers, and is a 
measurement requiring extreme care. Length of tarsus is measured with dividers, 
one point resting in the tibio-tarsal joint, on the outer side, the other on the lower 
edge of lowermost tarsal scutella, in front (in Passerine and certain Picarian and 
Eaptorial birds), or to the more or less obvious transverse depression mai'king the 
line of separation between tarsus and base of middle toe (in most water birds and 
some others). Length of middle toe is always measured with dividers from the 
last-mentioned point to the base of the claw, on top, and not including the claw, 
unless so stated. * 

Measurements of eggs represent the average of six specimens (more or less, ac- 
cording to the extent of the series available for the purpose) which represent or 
approximate the average size and form as nearly as could be determined by the eye 
alone. 

The names op colors used in the diagnoses are adopted from the author's " No- 
menclature of Colors," ^ in which may be found an elaborate though concise treatise 
on the subject, designed especially for the uses of the naturalist, and in which 186 
colors, embracing all that are named in descriptive ornithology, are depicted, by 
hand-colored plates. 

Illustrations. — With the exception of those which have already appeared in 
the Review of American Birds^ History of North American Birds,^ and Water Birds 
of North America,*' the illustrations have been made specially for the present work 
by Mr. John L. Eidgway, under the author's supervision, and engraved by the cele- 
brated " Jewett" process of Messrs. Matthews, Northrupp & Co., of Buffalo, N.Y. 

Acknowledgments are specially due to Professor Baird, not only for the 



1 A I Nomenclature of Colors \ for Naturalists, | and | Compendium of Useful Knowledge | for Ornitholo- 
gists. I By I Robert Ridgway, | Curator, Department of Birds, United States National Museum. | With ten 
colored plates and seven plates | of outline illustrations. | Boston : | Little, Brown, and Company. | 1887. | 

[In this work is also embodied a " Glossary of terms used in descriptive ornithology," in which references 
are given to all the plates. The latter include, besides those representing the colors, three showing the exter- 
nal anatomy or " topography" of a bird, with special reference to the names used in descriptions, one illus- 
trating various egg-contours, one showing a comparative scale of standard measurements, and two upon which 
are depicted the various forms or patterns of feather-markings. There is also, among other things useful to 
the naturalist, a series of tables for the easy conversion of inches and decimals into millimetres, and vice versa.l 

2 Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections. | —181— | Review | of American Birds, in the Museum of the | 
Smithsonian Institution. | By | S. F. Baird. | —Part I. North and Middle America. | —[Medallion.] Wash- 
ington : I Smithsonian Institution. | 

One volume, Svo ; date of publication (by signatures), June, 1864, to June, 1866. 

» A I History | of | North American Birds | by | S. F. Baird, T. M. Brewer, and R. Ridgway | Land Birds 
I Illustrated by 64 colored plates and 593 woodcuts | Volume I [—III]. [Vignette.] | Boston | Little, Brown, 
and Company | 1874. | 

[This is the most recent work on North American ornithology, giving, besides technical descriptions, 
synonymy, etc., a general account of the history and habits of each species, as known up to date of publica- 
tion. The size is small 4to, and the total number of pages nearly 1800.] 

* Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard College, Vols. XII. and XIII. The Water 
Birds of North America. By S. F. Baird, T. M. Brewer, and R. Ridgway. Issued in continuation of the pub- 
lications of the California Geological Survey. J. D. Whitney, State Geologist. Boston. Little, Brown, and 
Company, 1884. 

[Two volumes, uniform in general style, typography, etc., with the " History of North American Birds," 
and in reality the conclusion of that work. Total number of pages 1104, embellished by numerous wood-cuts.] 



INTRODUCTION. xi 

privilege of consulting specimens and books so essential to the preparation of this 
work, but also for the friendly advice and valuable suggestions which have ren- 
dered comparatively easy the performance of a task which under less favorable 
auspices would have been far more difficult of accomplishment. For valuable 
aid, always most cordially rendered, the author is much indebted to Dr. Leonhard 
Stejneger, whose well-known thorough bibliographical knowledge and excellent 
judgment have greatly facilitated the settlement of many vexatious questions of 
synonymy and difficult problems of relationship. To the authorities of the several 
public museums and the owners of the private collections already mentioned, the 
author is glad to have this opportunity of publicly expressing his sense of obliga- 
tion for many courtesies, including, besides unrestricted access to the collections in 
question, the loan of valuable and unique type specimens. 

E. E. 



jNTorth American Birds. 



KEY TO THE HIGHER GROUPS. 

a\ Hind toe connected by web or membrane with the inner toe. 

Order Steganopodes. (Page 73.) 
a}. Hind toe not connected with inner toe. 

h^. Nostrils tubular Order Tubinares. (Page 50.) 

61 Nostrils not tubular. 

c^. Cutting-edges of bill more or less distinctly fringed or serrated. 

d}. Legs short, or but slightly lengthened ; bill not abruptly bent 

downward from the middle Order Anseres. (Page 84.) 

d}. Legs excessively lengthened ; bill bent abruptly downward from 

the middle Order Odontoglossae. (Page 121.) 

c^ Cutting-edges of bill not fringed nor serrated. 

d}. Legs inserted far behind the middle of the body, which in standing 
position is more or less erect, the toes webbed or conspicuously 

lobed Order Pygopodes. (Page 4.) 

d^. Legs inserted near the middle of the body, which in standing posi- 
tion is nearly horizontal, or else toes not webbed, 
e'. Anterior toes distinctly webbed, and tai'sus shorter than tail. 

Order Longipennes. (Page 20.) 
e^. Anterior toes not distinctly webbed, or else tarsus decidedly 
longer than tail, or else bill extremely small, with gape 
very broad and deeply cleft. 
p. Lower portion of thighs naked, or else bill lengthened 
and grooved along each side, the outer and middle toes 
separated for their entire length. 
g^. Hind toe well developed and inserted at same level 
with anterior toes, the claws never excessively 
lengthened ; loral or orbital regions, or both (some- 
times whole head), naked. 

Order Herodiones. (Page 122.) 

1 



NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

g^. Hind toe (if present) small and inserted above the 

level of the rest, or else size small or medium 

(never as much as 3 feet long) ; loral and orbital 

regions fully feathered, and middle claw with edge 

not pectinated. 

h}. If more than 3 feet long, the hind toe short and 

elevated ; if under 3 feet long, the hind toe on 

same level with anterior toes. 

Order Paludicolae. (Page 134.) 

h}. Never over 3 feet long (usually much less), the 

hind toe (if present) shoi't and elevated, or 

else the claws excessively lengthened and 

wings spurred. 

Order Lfimicolse. (Page 143.) 
/*. Lower portion of thighs feathered (or else middle and 
outer toes united for at least half their length), the 
bill if lengthened not grooved along the side. 
g^. Bill strongly hooked, with a distinct naked cere at 
base of upper mandible ; or if no naked cere, the 
toes 2 in front and 2 behind. 
h^. Toes 3 in front, or else outer toe reversible. 

Order Raptores. (Page 218.) 
/i^ Toes 2 in front, 2 behind (outer toe permanently 

reversed) Order Psittaci. (Page 268.) 

g*. Bill not strongly hooked, and without naked cere 
at base of upper mandible ; or if with a cere, the 
latter swollen and the bill straight. 
h}. Hind toe small and elevated, or else bill with- 
out soft swollen cere. 

Order Gallinse. (Page 184.) 

h"^. Hind toe (or toes) well developed and on same 

level with anterior toes. 

i^. Bill with soft swollen cere at base of upper 

mandible. Order Columbse. (Page 210.) 

I*. Bill without soft swollen cere. 

/. Wings very long, with 10 quills, tail 
of 10 feathers, and gape very wide 
and deeply cleft, or else bill long 
and slender, tongue extensile, and 
secondaries only 6 in number. 
Order Macrochires. (Page 297.) 
/. Wings not very long and gape not very 
wide nor deeply cleft, or else wing 
with only 9 quills and tail-feathers 
12 in number. 



KEF TO THE HIGHER GROUPS. 6 

k\ Toes only 2 in front, or if 3, the 
middle and outer toes con- 
nected for at least half their 
length. 
l\ Tail-feathers stiff and more or 
less pointed, and bill more 
or less chisel-like. 

Order Pici. (Page 280.) 
r. Tail-feathers neither stiff nor 
pointed, and bill not chisel- 
like. 
Order Coccyges. (Page 271.) 
k\ Toes 3 in front, 1 behind, the middle 
and outer toes not united for 
half their length, lower part of 
thighs feathered, and tarsus equal 
to or longer than lateral toes. 
Order Passeres. (Page 321.) 



NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 



Order PYGOPODES.— The Diving Birds. 

(Page 1) 
Families. 

a^. Tail-feathers wanting. 

Anterior toes lobed, the nails very broad, flat, and with rounded tips. (Sub- 
order Podicipedes) Podicipidae. (Page 4.) 

rt*. Tail-feathers present, but short. (Suborder Cepphi.) 

b^. Hind toe present Urinatoridae. (Page 6.) 

b\ Hind toe absent Alcidae. (Page 8.) 

Family PODICIPIDAE.— The Grebes. (Page 4.) 

JVest a thick matted platform of rushes, sedges, etc., usually floating upon the 
surface of the water in grassy or sedgy ponds or marshes. Eggs 2-5, dull white, 
bluish white, or very pale bluish green, usually stained more or less (often quite 
deeply) with light brown, by contact with decomposed vegetable matter. 

Genera. 

a\ Bill slender, the length of the culmen much more than twice the depth at the 
base. 
b^. Length of culmen five or more times as much as greatest depth of the bill ; 

neck nearly as long as the body .ffichmophorus. (Page 4.) 

b^. Length of culmen less than four times as much as greatest depth of the bill ; 

neck much shorter than the body Colymbus. (Page 5.) 

a^. Bill very stout, the length of the culmen less than twice as much as the greatest 
depth of the bill Podilymbus. (Page 6.) 

Genus iECHMOPHORUS Coues. (Page 4, pi. I., fig. 1.) 

Species. 

Common Characters. — Pileum and cervix slaty black ; rest of upper parts slaty, 
inner webs of remiges chiefly white ; entire lower parts, including lower half of 
head and all of neck except stripe down the cervix, pure satiny white. Downy 
young : Above uniform brownish gray, lighter anteriorly ; lower parts uniform white. 

a\ Length 24.00-29.00 inches; wing 7.45-8.50 (average 8.07); culmen 2.60- 
3.05 (2.78). Eggs 2-5, 2.40 X 1-54. Hah. Western North America 
(chicfl}^ the interior) from Mexico and Lower California to Manitoba. 

1. .ffi. occidentalis (Lawr.). Western Grebe. 

a\ Length about 22.00 inches ; wing 6.70-7.75 (7.31) ; culmen 2.10-2.48 (2.25). 
Eggs 2-5, 2.16x1-41. Sab. "Western North America, chiefly along Pacific 
coast — .JE. clarkii (Laavr.). Clark's Grebe. 



COLYMBUS. 



Genus COLYMBUS Linn^us. (Page 4, pi. I., figs. 2, 3.) 

Species, 
o}. Wing 5.00 inches or more. 

b^. Bill about as long as the head. Wing more than 6.00 inches. (Subgenus 
Colymbus.') 
c^. Feathers of lower parts pure white to the extreme base. Nuptial 
plumage : Throat and chin buffy white, passing posteriorly into rich 
ferruginous on the very prominent auricular frill, which is tipped 
with black ; top of head and elongated tufts on each side of occiput 
glossy black. • Length 22.00-24.00 ; wing 6.80-7.75 ; culmen 1.75- 
2.30. Sab. jSTearly cosmopolitan, but no authentic record for any 
portion of America. 

C. cristatus Linn. Crested Grebe.^ 
c^ Feathers of lower parts white only superficially, the concealed portion 
being distinctly grayish. Nuptial plumage : Top of head dull black, 
somewhat glossy ; rest of head ash-gray, bordered above and poste- 
riorly by whitish ; neck rufous. 
dK Length about 17.50 ; wing 6.45-7.00 (6.63) ; culmen 1.50-1.55 (1.53). 
Mab. Northern portions of eastern hemisphere. 

C. grisegena Bodd. Red-necked Grebe.* 
d\ Length 18.00-20.50; wing 7.30-8.10 (7.65) ; culmen 1.65-2.40 (2.02). 
Eggs 2-5, 2.23 X 1-37. Hab. North America, including Green- 
land, breeding far northward ; eastern Asia. 

2. C. holboellii (Eeinh.). Holbcell's Grebe. 

b'^. Bill much shorter than head. Wing not more than 6.00 inches. (Subgenus 

Dyfes Kaup.) 

c'. Bill compressed (deeper than wide) at base. Nuptial plumage : Lower 

neck and chest rufous ; sides of occiput with a very full dense 

tuft of soft, blended, ochraceous feathers. Downy young : Whole 

top of head dusky; sides of head whitish with two stripes and 

several irregular spots of duskj^ ; a dusky streak on each side of 

throat ; upper parts plain dusky grayish. Length 12.50-15.25 ; wing 

about 5.75. Eggs 2-7, 1.78 X 1-20. Hab. Northern portion of 

northern hemisphere, breeding in America chiefly north of the 

United States 3. C. auritus Linn. Horned Grebe. 

&. Bill depressed (wider than deep) at base. Nuptial plumage : Head, neck, 
and chest black ; sides of head, behind eyes, with a tuft-like or 
somewhat fan-shaped loose patch of slender ochraceous feathers. 
Downy young : Top of head dusky, with several white markings, the 
middle of the crown with a small naked, reddish space ; no dusky 



1 Colymbus cristatus LiNN., S.N. ed. 10, 1758, II'.S. 

2 Colymhus grisegena BoDD., Tabl. P. E, 1783, 55. 



NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

streak on side of throat, or elsewhere below level of eyes. Length 
12.00-14.00 ; wing 5.20-5.50. 
d}. Three or four inner quills mostly or entirely white. Hah. Central 
Europe and Asia. 

C. nigricoUis (Brehm). Eared Grebe.^ 

d?. Inner quills with inner webs wholly duskj^ Colors generally 
duller and bill more slender. Eggs 4-8, 1.75 X 1-19- Hah. 
Western North America, north to Great Slave Lake, south to 
Guatemala, east to Mississippi Valley. 

4. C. nigricoUis californicus (IIeerm.). American Eared Grebe. 
"Wing less than 5.00 inches. (Subgenus Podiceps Lath.) 

Tarsus decidedly shorter than middle toe without claw. Nuptial plumage: 
Top of head dull gi^eenish black; rest of head dark gray or dull plum- 
beous, the chin and throat dull black. Downy young : Top of head black, 
with a rufous spot in middle of crown, and various white markings ; 
sides and underparts of head and neck white varied with black lines. 
Length 9.00-10.50 ; wing 4.00. Eggs 1.35 X -94. Hah. Tropical America 
in general, north to southern Texas and Lower California. 

5. C. dominicus Linn. St. Domingo Grebe. 



Genus PODILYMBUS Lesson. (Page 4, pi. I., fig. 5.) ' 

Species. 

Erownish above, silvery white beneath, the feathers dark grayish basally. 
Nuptial plumage : Chin, throat, and anterior portion of malar region black; rest of 
head and neck brownish gray, darker above ; lower parts spotted with dusky ; 
bill whitish, crossed about the middle by a black band. Winter plumage : Black 
throat, etc., of nuptial plumage replaced by dull whitish, the rest of the head 
browner ; lower parts without dusky spots ; bill brownish (paler on lower man- 
dible) without black band. Young : Similar to winter adult, but sides of head more 
or less distinctly striped with brown. Downy young : Head and neck distinctly 
striped with white and black, the crown with a rufous spot ; a rufous spot on upper 
part of nape and on each side of occiput ; upper parts blackish, marked with four 
strips of grayish white. Length 12.00-15.00 ; wing 4.50-5.00. Eggs 4-5, 1.72 X 
1.99. Hah. The whole of America, except extreme northern and southern districts. 

6. P. podiceps (Linn.). Pied-billed Grebe. 

Family URINATORIDi©.— The Loons. (Page 4.) 

Genus. 
(Characters same as those given for the family) Urinator. (Page 7.) 

^ Podiceps nigricoUis Brehm, Vog. Deutschl., 1831, 963. Colymbus nigricoUis Stejn., Auk, ii., Oct. 1885, 340. 



URINATOR. 7 

Genus URINATOR Cuvier. (Page 6, pi. II., fig. 1.) 
Species. 
Common Characters.— Above blackish or slaty, beneath white. In summer, 
upper parts spotted or speckled with white, the throat and fore-neck blackish or 
chestnut. In ivinter, and in young, upper parts without white markings, and throat 
and fore-neck white like rest of lower parts. Downy young uniform sooty grayish, 
the belly white. JVest built on ground at edge of marsh or lake. Eggs 2, elongate- 
ovate, deep brown or olive, rather sparsely speckled or spotted with dark brown 
and blackish. 

a\ Tarsus shorter than middle toe without claw ; fore-neck blackish in summer. 
b\ Distance from base of culmen to anterior point of loral feathers, above 
nostrils, greater than the distance from the latter point to anterior bor- 
der of nostrils. Summer plumage with head and neck black all round, 
the middle of the fore-neck and sides of lower neck each crossed by a 
bar or transverse series of white streaks. 
c\ Tarsus shorter than exposed culmen; bill in adult blackish (almost 
wholly deep black in summer) ; head and neck glossed with velvety 
green ; white spots on scapulars broad as long ; length 28.00-36.00 ; 
wing 13.00-15.25 (14.06); culmen 2.75-3.50 (3.07); depth of bill 
thro'ugh base .90-1.05 (.96). Eggs 3.52 X 2.27. Hab. Northern 
part of northern hemisphere, breeding from northern United States 

northward 7. U. imber (Gunn.). Loon. 

c\ Tarsus longer than exposed culmen; bill in adult whitish (almost 
wholly yellowish white in summer) ; head and neck glossed with 
velvety violet-blue ; white spots on scapulars decidedly longer than 
broad; length about 35.00-38.00 ; wing 14.85-15.45 (15.11); culmen 
3.50-3.65 (3.59) ; depth of bill through base 1.00-1.20 (1.09). Bah. 
Western Arctic America and northeastern Asia. 

8. U. adamsii (Gray). Yellow-billed Loon. 
h\ Distance from base of culmen to anterior point of loral feathers, not greater 
than distance from the latter point to anterior extremity of nostril. 
Summer plumage with upper part of head and hind part of neck gray- 
ish ; throat and fore-neck black, without white streaks, but several lon- 
gitudinal series of the latter down the side of the neck, between the 
black and the gray. 
c\ Fore-neck and under side of neck glossed with velvety purple ; occi- 
put and hind-neck deep gray, almost plumbeous. Length 26.00- 
29.00 ; wing 12.15-13.20 (12.55) ; culmen 2.50-2.85 (2.60) ; depth of 
bill at base, .75-.80 (.78)! Eggs 3.09 X 1-96. Hah. Northern por- 
tions of northern hemisphere, breeding in Arctic regions; in North 
America, south, in winter, to extreme northern United States, east 
of the Eocky Mountains. 

9. U. arcticus (Linn.). Black-throated Loon. 



NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

c^. Fore-neek and under side of head glossed with dull bronzy greenish, 
sometimes inclining to purplish'; occiput and hind-neck very pale 
smoky grayish, sometimes neai'ly white. Wing 11.20-12.25 (11.54)5 
culmon 2.00-2.35 (2.15) ; depth of bill at base .55-.65 (.62). Eggs 
3.11 X 1-92. Hab. Pacific coast of North America, from Alaska to 
Lower California, breeding far northward. 

10. U. pacificus (Lawr.). Pacific Loon. 
Tarsus longer than middle toe with claw. Fore-neck rich chestnut in summer ; 
head and neck plumbeous gray, the top of head and hind-neck streaked with 
white ; upper parts speckled with white. Summer plumage : Throat and 
fore-neck plumbeous, like rest of head and neck, but marked down the mid- 
dle with a wedge-shaped patch or stripe of rich chestnut. Winter plumage 
and young : Throat and fore-neck white. Downy young : Above uniform 
dusky, or sooty slate ; lower parts paler and more grayish. Length 24.00- 
27.00 ; wing 10.00-11.50 ; culmen 2.25 ; tarsus 2.75. Eggs 2.82 X 1-76. Hah. 
Northern portions of northern hemisphere, breeding in Arctic regions ; in 
North America, south, in winter, nearly across the United States. 

11. U. lumme (Gunn.). Red-throated Loon. 



Family ALCIDiE.— The Auks. (Page 4.) 

Nest a cavity among rocks, usually on face of cliifs. Egg single, variable as to 
form and color. 

Genera. 

a'^. Inner claw much larger and more strongly curved than the others ; corner of 
mouth with a thick naked skin, or " rosette ;" bill excessively compressed, 
nearly as deep as long, the terminal portion transversely grooved (except in 
young), the basal portion with several accessory deciduous pieces, cast at end 
of breeding season. (Subfamily Fraterculince.) 
b\ Basal outline of permanent (terminal) portion of upper mandible convex ; 
lower mandible wholly destitute of grooves, in all stages ; grooves of 
upper mandible with concave side toward tip of bill. Nuptial ornaments : 
Deciduous nasal shield or saddle widest toward culmen, where forming 
an arched and much thickened ridge ; eyelids without horny append- 
ages ; on each side of head a large pendent tuft of lengthened, silky, 

straw-colored feathers Lunda. (Page 10.) 

¥. Basal outline of permanent (terminal) portion of bill concave, or nearly 
straight and very oblique ; pei-manent (terminal) portion of lower man- 
dible grooved (except in young) ; grooves of the upper mandible with 
concave side toward base of the bill. Nuptial ornaments: Deciduous 
nasal shield widest toward nostril ; basal outline of upper mandible con- 
cave; eyelids furnished with horny appendages; head without orna- 
mental tufts or plumes Fratercula. (Page 11.) 



ALCID^. 9 

Inner claw not obviously different in size or shape from the others ; corner of 

mouth without thickened naked skin or " rosette." 
b^. Angle of chin much nearer to nostril than to tip of bill. 

c'. Nostrils exposed, overhung by a more or less distinct horny scale, and 
feathers of lores never reaching to anterior end of nostrils; second- 
aries without white tips. (Subfamily Phalerince.) 
d}. Gonys occupying more than half the total length of the lower 
mandible, or else tip of upper mandible not abruptly decurved 
from a long, straight culmen. 
e\ Distance from anterior border of nasal hollow to nearest loral 
feathers equal to one half or more than one half the dis- 
tance from the same point to the tip of the bill. (Phalerece.) 
/\ Bill about as long as the head (culmen about 1.00) ; wing 

more than 6.50 Cerorhinca. (Page 11.) 

/*. Bill much shorter than head (culmen less than .75) ; wing 
less than 6.50. 
g^. Upper mandible broader than deep at base ; culmen 
nearly straight. (Wing about 5.00.) 

Ptychoramphus. (Page 12.) 

g^. Upper mandible higher than broad at base ; culmen 

decidedly curved. 

A\ Lower mandible very narrow, strongly and very 

regularly recurved, the tip acute ; edge of 

upper mandible very regularly convex. (AYing 

5.25-6.00.) Cyclorrhynchus. (Page 12.) 

h^. Lower mandible more than half as deep as the 
upper, not recurved, or else tip not acute ; 
upper mandible with edge nearly straight or 
else not regularly convex, (Wing 5.25 or 

less.) Simorhynchus. (Page 12.) 

e'. Distance from anterior border of nasal hollow to nearest loral 

feathers equal to not more than one-fourth the distance 

from the same point to the tip of the bill. (Brachyramphece.) 

p. Tarsi scutellate in front, much longer than the horny 

portion of the commissure. 

Synthliboramphus. (Page 13.) 
p. Tarsi reticulate in front, not longer than horny portion of 

commissure Brachyramphus. (Page 14.) 

(P. Gonys occupying less than half the total length of the lower man- 
dible ; culmen straight to near the tip, where abruptly decurved. 
{Cepphece.) 

Loral feathers forming an acute angle. (Wing 6.50-7.50 ; 

culmen 1.00 or more.) Cepphus. (Page 16.) 

&. Nostrils completely concealed or enclosed within a dense, velvety 
feathering, which extends from the lores to or beyond their an- 

2 



10 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

terior end ; secondaries sharply tipped with white. (Subfamily 
Alcince.^ 
d\ Bill narrow, the culmen slightly or gently curved, boith mandibles 
destitute of grooves ; tail rounded, the feathers not pointed. 

{Uriaece.) Uria. (Page 17.) 

d}. Bill very deep, much compressed, culmen strongly curved, and one 

or both mandibles transversely or obliquely grooved (except in 

young) ; tail graduated, the feathers pointed. (^Alcece.) 

&. Size medium (culmen less than 1.50) ; bill much shorter than 

head, the lower mandible with not more than two grooves, 

or none; wings well developed, admitting of sustained flight. 

Alca. (Page 18.) 

^. Size very large (culmen more than 3.00) ; bill as long as the 

head, the lower mandible with numerous grooves ; wings 

rudimentary, not admitting of flight.. Plautus. (Page 19.) 

y^. Angle of chin much nearer tip of bill than to nostril. (Subfamily AUince.) 

Bill very short and broad, the culmen much curved; size very small 

(wing less than 5.00) ; secondaries sharply tipped with white. 

Alle.^ (Page 19.) 

Genus LUNDA Pallas. (Page 8, pi. III., fig. 1.) 

Species. 

Above uniform sooty black, lower parts sooty grayish, the feathers of breast 
and belly grayish white beneath the surface, this color sometimes showing through, 
and breaking the continuity of the dusky. JVvptial plumage : Anterior portion of 
side of head white ; springing from each side of the crown, immediately above the 
eye, a thick pendent tuft of lengthened, silky, straw-colored feathers; terminal 
half of bill bright red, basal portion olive-yellowish ; feet bright scarlet (in life). 
Winter pilujiiage : Side of head wholly dusky, but lighter in region of insertion of 
the nuptial tufts, which are wholl}^ absent ; basal deciduous horny covering of bill 
replaced by soft, dusky brown skin; feet flesh-color (in life). Young, first lointer : 
Similar to winter adult, but upper mandible destitute of grooves, and nuptial tufts 
present in a rudimentary condition but of a light brownish color ; terminal portion 
of bill inclining to brownish orange-red. Young, first summer or autumn : Bill 
smaller, narrower, and browner in color ; nuptial tufts wanting. Doiony young : 
Uniform dark sooty grayish, or blackish. Length 14.40-15.60 ; wing 7.75 ; culmen 
1.30-1.45. Egg 2.86 X 1-92, more or less ovate, white (sometimes tinged with pale 
buffy, pinkish, or brownish), usually more or less mai-ked round larger end with 
faint spots, splashes or streaks of pale brown, or lavender-gray, or both. Hah. 
Coasts and islands of the North Pacific, from southern California to Alaska, and 
from Bering's Strait to Japan ; accidental in Bay of Fundy and Kennebec Eiver, 
Maine 12. L. cirrhata Pall. Tufted Puffin. 



1 Alle Link, Beschr. Nat. Samml. Univ. Rostock, i. 1806, 46 (not p. 17, as given in A. 0. U. Check List). 



FRATERGVLA. H 

Genus FRATERCULA Brisson. (Page 8, pi. III., fig. 2.) 

Species. 

Common Characters. — Upper parts, together with a band across fore-neck, 
uniform blackish ; sides of head grayish or white ; lower parts pure white. Downy 
young, uniform sooty blackish, or dark sooty slate, the belly white. Egg shaped and 
colored like that of Lunda cirrhata. 

a}. Grooves of the bill very oblique, broad, and distinct, the deciduous basal shields 

occupying less than the basal half of the bill. Nu])Ual j^lumage : Chin and 

whole throat grayish, the sides of the head gray ; horny process on upper 

ej^elid short, subconicalj length 11.50-13.75. 

l^. Bill and general size smaller: Culmen 1.60-1.90, gonys 1.40-1.50, depth of 

upper mandible at base .75-.90, of lower, .40-.50. Egg 2.46-1.74. Hah. 

Coasts of the North Atlantic, from southern Greenland south, in winter, 

in North America, to New Jersey, breeding as far south as the Bay 

of Fundy 13. F. arctica (Linn.). Puflan. 

b\ Bill and general size larger: Culmen 2.00-2.30, gonys 1.40-1.60, depth of 
upper mandible at base .85-1.00, of lower, .70.-80. Egg 2.65-1.82. Hab. 
Coasts and islands of the Arctic Ocean, from Spitzbergen to northern 
and western Greenland. 

13a. F. arctica glacialis (Temm.). Large-billed Puffin. 
o}. Grooves of the bill nearly vertical, narrow, and rather indistinct ; deciduous 
basal shields occupying much more than the basal half of the bill. Nuptial 
plumage : Whole throat blackish, the chin, onl}^, gray ; sides of head white ; 
horny process on upper eyelid elongated, horn-like. Downy young : Uniform 
sooty blackish, the belly, abruptly, white. Length about 12.50-14.00 ; culmen 
2.00-2.25, gonys 1.60-1.70, depth of upper mandible 1.15-1.25, of lower, .70- 
.80. Egg 2.74-1.84. Hah. Coasts and islands of the North Pacific, from 
British Columbia to the Kurile Islands. 

14. F. corniculata (Naum.). Horned Puffin. 

Genus CERORHINCA Bonaparte. (Page 9, pi. IV., fig. 1.) 

Species. 

Bill much compressed, longer than deep, the culmen regularly curved, but 
gonj's nearly straight ; upper parts uniform dusky ; under portion and sides of 
head and neck, down to the chest, together with sides, smoky plumbeous; rest of 
lower parts white, usually clouded with smoky gray ; a row of narrow, pointed, 
white feathers along each side of occiput, commencing just above and behind the 
eye; another row of similar but larger feathers across cheeks, from near corner of 
mouth. Nuptial plumage : Base of upper mandible surmounted by a compressed 
upright horn, the base of which clasps the mandible as a saddle, down to, and en- 
closing the nostrils. Winter plumage : Similar to nuptial dress, but breast more 



12 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

uniformly gva,y, the belly more uniform white, and the horn-like process at base of 
upper mandible entirely absent. Young : Similar to winter adult, but white fila- 
mentous feathers of head wanting, and bill smaller and darker in color. Downy 
young : Uniform sooty grayish brown, very similar to corresponding stage of Lunda 
cirrhata, but rather lighter in color and with more slender bill. Length 14.00- 
15.50, wing 7.25, culmen, from cere, or anterior edge of horn, 1.00. Egg 2.70 X 1-82, 
similar in form, color, etc., to those of Lunda and species of Fratercula. Hob. Coasts 
and islands of the North Pacific, from LoAver California (resident) to Japan. 

15. C. monocerata (Pall.). Rhinoceros Auklet. 

Genus PTYCHORAMPHUS Brandt. (Page 9, pi. YI., fig. 3.) 

Species. 

Above uniform slaty blackish, changing gradually into plumbeous on sides of 
head and neck, throat, and *fore-neck ; a white spot on lower eyelid ; lower parts 
white, the sides (beneath wings) plumbeous; length 8.00-9.50, wing 4.75-5.25, cul- 
men .75. Egg 1.83 X 1-34, ovate, pure white. Hab. Pacific coast of North America, 
from Aleutian Islands to Lower California. 

16. P. aleuticus (Pall.). Cassin's Auklet. 

Genus CYCLORRHYNCHUS Kaup. (Page 9, pi IV., fig. 5.) 

Species. 

Above uniform blackish slate, beneath white ; bill orange-red. Nuptial plu- 
mage : Throat, fore-neck, and sides dusky ; a line of narrow pointed white feathers 
starting just below the eye, and extending back across the ear-coverts. Winter 
plumage : Similar to summer dress, but throat, fore-neck, and sides partly or en- 
tirely white ; white feathers behind eyes wanting? Young (?) : Similar to winter 
adult, but bill duller red (or inclining to brownish), and entire lower parts, including 
throat and fore-neck, continuous white ;^ length 9.00-10.40, wing 5.40-6.00, culmen 
about .60. Egg 2.12 X 1-46, clear bluish white. Bab. Coasts of the North Pacific 
from Sitka to the Kurile Islands.... 17. C. psittaculus (Pall.). Paroquet Auklet, 

Genus SIMORHYNCHUS Merrem. (Page 9, pi. IV., figs. 2 to 4.) 

Species. 

Common Characters. — Upper parts blackish, the scapulars sometimes mixed 
with white. Adults with a series of slender, pointed white feathers commencing 
beneath the eye and extending backward across the ear-coverts. Eggs ovate, pure 
white, sometimes faintly tinged with bluish. 

a\ Wing more than 4.00 ; adult with a recurved frontal crest ; lower parts uniform 
sooty gray, the belly sometimes whitish ; no white on scapulars. 

1 The seasonal and other changes of plumage in this species are not well understood, and we have not the 
material with which to determine them. The above may, therefore, be not quite correct in some particulars. 



SYNTHLIBORAMPHUS. I3 

}?. Wing 5.00 or more; adult in breeding season with several conspicuous de- 
ciduous plates on basal portion of bill, including a roundish or semicir- 
cular piece at corner of mouth ; no white feathers between bill and eye ; 
belly never whitish. (Subgenus Simorhynchus.) Breeding plumage: 
Bill bright orange-red, the tip horn-colored. Winter plumage : Bill horn- 
colored, much smaller, through loss of the deciduous pieces. Young : 
Frontal crest and white feathers beneath eye wanting, or but slightly 
developed; bill much smaller, dusky brownish. Length 8.50-10.80; 
wing about 5.25. Egg 2.14-1.49. Hab. Coasts of the North Pacific 
from Kadiak, Unalashka, and the Prybilof Islands through the Aleutian 
chain to Kamtschatka and northern Japan. 

18. S. cristatellus (Pall.). Crested Auklet. 
61 "Wing less than 4.50 ; adult in breeding season without conspicuous deciduous 
plates on basal portion ; belly whitish ; a more or less distinct patch of 
narrow, pointed, white feathers between bill and eye (indistinct or ob- 
solete in young). (Subgenus Phaleris Temminck.) £reedi?ig plumage : 
Bill dull purplish red, the tip whitish. Winter plumage not materially 
different. Young : Frontal crest and white feathers on sides of head 
wanting or barely indicated ; bill dusky. Downy young : Uniform sooty 
slate, lighter beneath. Length 7.10-8.30, wing 4.10-4.25, culmen .35-40. 
Mab. Coasts of the North Pacific, from Unalashka through the Aleutian 
chain to Kamtschatka... 19. S. pygmseus (Gmel.). Whiskered Anklet. 
Wing not more than 4.00; adult without frontal crest; lower parts white, some- 
times blotched with dusky ; scapulars with more or less white ; base of bill 
with a small compressed knob on top. (Subgenus Ciceronia Reich.) Breed- 
ing plumage : Lower parts white, more or less spotted or blotched with 
dusky, this often forming a distinct band across the chest. Winter plumage : 
Lower parts, including sides of neck, entirely white ; white ornamental 
feathers of forehead, etc., usually less developed. Young : Similar to winter 
plumage, but bill smaller, scapulars more extensively white, and white orna- 
mental feathers of forehead, etc., wanting. Downy young : Uniform sooty 
slate, paler and graj^er on lower parts. Length 5.50-7.20, wing 3.50-4.00, 
culmen .35-.40. Eggs 1.58 X 1-10. Hab. Coasts] of the North Pacific, from 
Japan and southern Alaska to the Aleutian and Prybilof Islands. 

20. S. pusillus (Pall.). Least Auklet. 



Genus SYNT^HLIBORAMPHUS Brandt. (Page 9, pi. VL, fig. 1.) 

Species. 

Common Characters. — Above plumbeous, beneath white. Breeding plumage : 
Chin and part, or whole, of throat dusky ; top of head with a broad white stripe 
along each side ; sides, from neck to flanks, uniform sooty blackish. Winter plumage : 
Whole throat white, the chin plumbeous ; no white stripes on top of head ; sides 
and flanks white, striped with slaty. 



14 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

a}. Never crested. Breeding plumage : Chin, throat, and fore-neck, with top and 
sides of head, sooty black ; sides of neck and a broad stripe along each side of 
occiput, pure white ; white stripes on side of occiput not extending forward 
of the eye ; upper back streaked laterally with white. Winter plumage: Whole 
throat white ; stripes on sides of occiput and streaks on upper part of back 
wanting. Length 9.50-10.80, wing 5.25-5.50, culmen .60. Egg 2.42 X 1-55, 
elongate-ovate, buffy (variable in shade from nearly white to almost an 
Isabella-color), speckled or otherwise marked all over with deep brown and 
lavender-gray. Hab. Coasts of the North Pacific, from Japan and southern 
Alaska (Sitka) northward 21. S. antiquus (Gmel.). Ancient Murrelet. 

a}. Crested in the breeding season. Breeding jjlamage : Fore part of crown with a 
loose crest of slender, lengthened feathers slightly curved or nearly straight ; 
upper half of throat velvety plumbeous, with a truncated posterior outline; 
ear-coverts deep plumbeous ; 'white stripes on sides of top of head extending 
forward far beyond the eye ; upper back not streaked with white. Winter 
plumage : Whole throat and malar region white, the chin, only, plumbeous ; 
no white on top of head, and no crest. Downy young : Above brownish gray, 
the back and rump indistinctly streaked with grayish white ; lower parts, 
including chin, entirely pure white. Length about 9.50-11.00, wing 5.10- 
5.50. Hab. Coasts of the North Pacific, from Japan (and Washington Ter- 
ritory ?) northward. (Very doubtfully American.) 

22. S. wumizusume (Temm.). Temminck's Murrelet. 

Genus BRACHYRAMPHUS Brandt. (Page 9, pi. YI., fig. 2.) 

Species. 

Common Characters. — Size small (wing less than 5.50) ; bill small and slender, 
much shoi'ter than head (not longer than the short tarsus), compressed, and 
pointed ; culmen gently curved, gonys nearly straight ; plumage very plain, with- 
out ornamental feathers about head at any season. 

a^. Tarsus shorter than middle toe, without claw. 

6'. Exposed culmen about equal to inner toe, without claw ; secondaries and 
outer tail-feathers entirely dusky. 
d. Culmen .70 or less. Summer adult : Above dusky, barred more or less 
with deep rusty ; beneath mixed white and sooty brown, in varying 
relative proportion. Winter plumage : Above, interrupted by a white 
collar across nape ; scapulars mixed with white, and feathers of 
back, etc., tipped with plumbeous ; entire lower parts pure white, 
the orbital and superciliary regions dusky, like top of head, and 
outermost feathers of flanks striped with dark grayish. Young : 
Above uniform dusky, with indistinct white collar and scapular 
patches ; lower parts white, transversely mottled with dark sooty ; 
bill much smaller and weaker than in adult. Length 9.50-10.00, 
wing about 5.00, culmen .60-.70, tarsus .70, middle toe .92-1.00. Egg 



BRACHYRAMPHUS. 15 

2.14 X 1-42, ovate, ground-color buffy, speckled or otherwise marked 
with various shades of brown. Hah. Pacific coast of North America, 
from southern California to western Alaska. 

23. B. marmoratus (Gmel.). Marbled Murrelet. 

c\ Culmen .75. Summer adult : Similar to corresponding stage of B. rnar- 

moratus, but markings of upper parts buffy and dull whitish, instead 

of deep rusty. Wing 5.50, culmen .75, tarsus .70, middle toe .95. 

Eab. Coasts of northeastern Asia, from Japan to Kamtschatka. 

B.perdix (Pall.). Partridge Murrelet.* 

b\ Exposed culmen not more than two-thirds as long as inner toe without claw ; 
secondaries broadly tipped with white, and outer tail-feathers partly or 
wholly white. 
c\ Tarsus .60 or more. Summer adult : Above plumbeous, thickly marked 
with irregular, "taostly longitudinal, spots of buff; lower parts chiefly 
white, the chest and sides washed with buff and irregularly spotted 
and barred with dusky ; belly more faintly marked with more regular 
crescentic bars. Winter plumage : Above glossy plumbeous, the back 
and rump very narrowly and indistinctly barred with white; scapu- 
lars chiefly white ; sides of head (including lores and superciliary 
region), a narrow collar round hind-neck, and entire lower parts, 
pure white, the sides of the breast crossed by a broad band of slate- 
gray, narrowing toward the middle of the chest. Wing 5.10-5.80, 
culmen .35-.45, depth of bill at base .20-.22, tarsus .60-.65, middle toe 
.85-.95. Sab. Unalashka, through Aleutian chain to Kamtschatka 
and northern Japan. 

24. B. kittlitzii (Brandt). Kittlitz's Murrelet. 
c^ Tarsus .50. Wing 5.25, culmen .50, tarsus .50. Summer plumage : Above 
grayish brown, head and neck spotted with white ; beneath white, 
waved and spotted with brown. Hab. San Bias, western Mexico. 

B. brevirostris (ViG.). Short-billed Murrelet.^ 

Tarsus as long as or longer than middle toe without claw. 
b\ Lining of wing white ; above plain dark slaty, beneath entirely pure white ; 
length 9.60-10.50, wing 4.50-5.25, culmen .70-.80, tarsus .90-.95, middle 
toe .85. Sab. Southern California to Cape St. Lucas. 

25. B. hypoleucus Xantus. Xantus's Murrelet. 
b^ Lining of wing smoky gray, or slaty ; in plumage otherwise like B. hypo- 
leucus; length about 10.25, wing 4.60, culmen .78-.80, tarsus .88-.90, 
middle toe .80-.88. Egg 2.03 X 1-40, ovate, ground-color buffy, isabella- 
color, or fawn-color, thickly sprinkled, speckled, or otherwise marked 
with dark brown. Eab. Lower California (vicinity of Cape St. Lucas). 
26. B. craveri (Salvad.). Craveri's Murrelet. 



1 Cepphus perdix Pallas, Zoog. Rosso-As. ii. 1826, .351, pi. 80. Brachyramphiis 2)erdix Stejn. Zeitschr. 
Ges. Orn. iii. 1886, 21.3, p. 7. 

2 Uria brevirostris ViG., Zool. Jour. iv. 1828, 357. Possibly the same as B. kittlluii Brandt, 



16 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

Genus CEPPHUS Pallas. (Page 9, pi. II., fig. 3.) 
Species. 

Common Characters. — Summer adults uniform black, with or without white 
on wings. Winter specimens white, varied above (sometimes below also) with black, 
the wings and tail as in summer. Young similar to winter adults, but white of 
wings varied with dusky, the quills mai'ked at tips with white. Bill black ; feet 
bright red in summer, pinkish in winter. Egg varying from ovate to elongate- 
ovate, greenish white or buffy white, heavily spotted or otherwise conspicuously 
marked with dark brown and lavender-gray. 

a^. A large white patch on outer surface of wing. 
h^. Under wing-coverts pure white. 

c\ Greater wing-coverts white to the extreme base, sometimes a little 
dusky along the basal portion of the shafts. Adult in summer : Uni- 
form blackish, except a large roundish or oval patch of pure white 
on the wing, including the greater, middle, and posterior lesser 
coverts, these feathers all white to the base; axillars, under wing- 
coverts, and basal half, or more, of inner webs of quills, pure white. 
Winter plumage : Wings as in summer; rest of the plumage pure 
white, the upper parts varied with black. Young : Similar to winter 
plumage, but white wing-patch broken by blackish tij^s to all the 
feathers ; secondaries and primary covei'ts marked with white at 
ends, and lower jjarts indistinctly barred with dusky. Downy young : 
Uniform sooty blackish, paler and more grayish below. Length 
about 12.50-13.50, wing 6.25-7.20, culmen 1.00-1.20, gonys .50, depth 
of bill at nostril .35-.40. Egg 2.38 X 1-36. Hah. Circumpolar sea- 
coasts, south in North America, in winter, to New Jersey and 
Norton Sound, Alaska. (Breeding south to Hudson's Bay and coast 

of Labrador.) 28. C. mandtii (Light.). Mandt's Guillemot. 

cl Greater wing-coverts with at least their basal half black, this often 
showing as a narrow bar beyond tips of middle coverts ; plumage 
otherwise as in G. mandtii, and measurements nearly the same, but 
bill larger and stouter; length 12.00-13.80, culmen 1.20-1.30, gonys 
.55-.60, depth of bill at nostril .40-.45. Egg 2.25 X 1-55. Bah. 
Coasts of northern Europe; also from southern Greenland along 
Labrador coast and south, in wintci-, to New Jersey; breeding from 
Newfoundland and southern Labrador to vicinity of Eastport, 

Maine(?) 27. C. grylle (Linn.). Black Guillemot. 

h"^. Under wing-coverts smoky gray. 

Greater wing-coverts black basally, this increasing in extent toward 
edge of the wing, where occupying almost the whole extent of the 
outermost feather, thus producing a bi-oad black " wedge" between the 
two white areas ; plumage otherwise as in G. grylle, with similar 
seasonal chano;es, etc. ; lene;th 13.00-14.00, wing 6.90-7.30, culmen 



URIA. 17 

1.20-1.40, gonys .55-.60, depth of bill at nostril .40-.42. JEgg 2.41 X 
1.64. Mab. Coasts of the North Pacific, from southern California to 
the Aleutian Islands, and across to Kamtschatka and northern Japan. 

29. C. columba Pall. Pigeon Guillemot. 
al No white on wings. 

6^ A whitish area surrounding the eye ; plumage otherwise dark sooty. 
(Winter plumage and young unknown.) Length about 14.50, wing 
about 7.75, culmen 1.55-1.70, gonys .75-.80, depth of bill at nostril .50. 
ITab. Coa^s of northeastern Asia, from northern Japan to Sea of 
Okhotsk, Kurile Islands, and Bering Island (accidental?); Unalashka?? 

C. carbo Pall. Sooty Guillemot. 

b'^. No white anywhere, the plumage entirely dark sooty ; about the size of G. 

carbo. Hab. High north Atlantic (Iceland, Greenland, and west side of 

Cumberland Gulf). — . C. motzfeldi Benick. Black-winged Guillemot. 

Genus URIA Brisson. (Page 10, pi. II., fig. 2.) 
Species. 
Common Characters. — Culmen as long as or longer than the tarsus ; bill much 
compressed, the gonys more or less concave, and nearly as long as the culmen ; cutting- 
edge of upper mandible notched near tip, its basal portion more or less thickened or 
swollen ; a distinct longitudinal furrow in the feathering behind eyes ; upper parts 
uniform dusky, the secondaries sharply tipped witb white; lower parts white. 
Summer plumage : Sides of head and neck, chin, throat, and fore-neck, uniform 
velvety brown. Winter plumage : Chin, throat, fore-neck, and sides of head and 
neck white, with a dusky stripe behind eye. Young : Similar to winter plumage, 
but no white on side of occiput, and that of fore-neck faintly mottled with dusky ; 
bill smaller. Downy young : Head, neck, and upper parts smoky grayish brown, the 
head and neck finely streaked with dingy whitish ; lower parts whitish centrally. 
Egg as large as that of a goose, elongate or ovate pear-shaped, and excessively vari- 
able in color, the ground-color varying from white to cream-color, pinkish, pale 
blue, and yellowish green (the last two colors probably most common), and varie- 
gated with variously-formed marks of black and brown. 

a^. Depth of bill at angle less than one-third the length of the culmen ; top of head 

and hind-neck smokj^ brown ; basal portion of cutting-edge of upper mandible 

always dusky or similar in color to rest of the mandible. Summer plumage : 

Sides of head and neck, chin, throat, and fore-neck, velvety smoky grayish 

brown, sometimes marked with a narrow white postocular line, connected 

with a white ring around eye.^ (Length 15.00-18.00.) 

b\ Wing 7.75-8.30 (7.99), culmen 1.70-1.90 (1.81), gonys 1.05-1.20 (1.14), depth 

of bill through angle .50-.60 (.52), tarsus 1.40-1.60 (1.51), middle toe 

1.60-1.75 (1.70). Egg 3.26 X 1-99. ^ab. Coasts of the North Atlantic, 

1 Such specimens constitute the U. ringvia BrUnn., by some authors considered a distinct species, and pos- 
sibly entitled to such rank. Its proper status is a matter of doubt, and is a fit subject for special investigation. 
Such specimens are only known from the North Atlantic. 



18 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

south, in winter, to New England, on American side ; breeding from 

Nova Scotia northward 30. U. troile (Linn.). Murre. 

h\ Wing 7.85-8.80 (8.30), culmen 1.60-2.50 (1.86), gonys^ 1.15-1.40 (1.27), depth 
of bill through angle .55-.62 (.57), tarsus 1.35-1.60 (1.50), middle toe 
1.65-1.85 (1.74). Egg 3.24 X 2.01. Hah. Pacific coast of North America, 
south to southern California. 

30a. U. troile californica (Bryant). California Murre. 

a^. Depth of bill at angle more than one-third the length of the culmen ; top of head 

and hind-neck sooty black ; basal portion of cutting-edge of upper mandible 

thickened, and conspicuously light-colored in adult. Summer plumage : Sides 

of head and neck, chin, throat, and fore-neck, velvety snuff-brown. (Length 

14.50-18.50.) 

h\ Wing 7.45-8.80 (8.24), culmen 1.40-1.50 (1.45), gonys .75-.90 (.83), depth of 

bill through angle .52-.58 (.55), tarsus 1.40-1.55 (1.45), middle toe 1.65- 

1.75 (1.70). Egg 3.16 X 2.03. Hah. Arctic Ocean and coasts of the 

North Atlantic, south, in winter, to New Jersey ; breeding from Gulf of 

St. Lawrence northward 31. U. lomvia (Linn.). Briinnicli's Murre. 

h\ Wing 8.15-9.25 (8.71), culmen 1.45-1.75 (1.65), gonys .85-1.00 (.92), depth 
of bill through angle .55-.60 (.58), tarsus 1.45-1.60 (1.51), middle toe 1.70- 
1.90 (1.81). Egg 3.21 X 2.01. Hab. Coasts and islands of Bering's Sea, 
and Aleutian chain, from Kadiak to Kamtschatka. 

31a. U. lomvia arra (Pall.). Pallas's Murre. 

Genus ALCA Linn^us. (Page 10, pi. V., fig. 2.) 

Species. 

Upper parts uniform black, the secondaries sharply tipped with white ; lower 
parts pure white. Summer plumage : Head and neck (except top of head and hind- 
neck) uniform velvety snuff-brown ; a white line from the base of the culmen to the 
eye ; bill black, both mandibles crossed about the middle by a white bar. Winter 
adult : Whole under portion of head, fore-neck, and space behind ear-coverts, white ; 
no white line between bill and eye ; bill as in summer, but Avithout basal lamina. 
Young : Similar in plumage to winter adult ; but bill smaller, without grooves, and 
lacking the white bar. Downy young : Head, neck, and lower parts plain dull 
whitish, usually more or less tinged above with brownish buff; back, rump, and 
flanks varying from pale brownish buff (the down dusky immediately beneath the 
surface), more decidedly brownish posteriorly, to dark sooty brown ; posterior and 
lateral lower parts more or less tinged with sooty brownish or brownish buff. 
Length 15.00-18.00, wing 8.00-8.50, tail 3.50, culmen 1.25, greatest depth of bill .90. 
Egg 3.06 X 1-89, ovate or elongate pear-shaped, buffy, buffy whitish, pure white, or 
white faintly tinted with bluish or greenish, very heavily spotted with dark brown 
round larger end, and marked with smaller spots elsewhere, of brown and lavender- 
gray. Hab. Coasts of the North Atlantic, south, in winter, to southern New Eng- 
land ; breeding from eastern Maine northward, 

32, A. torda Linn. Razor-billed Auk. 



PLAUTUS. 19 

G-ENus PLAUTUS Brunnich. (Page 10, pi. Y., fig. 1.) 

Species. 

Upper pai'ts uniform black, the secondaries sharply tipped with white ; lower 
parts pure white. Summer plumage : Chin, throat, fore-neck, and sides of head and 
neck, velvety dark snuff-brown, or soft blackish brown ; a large oval patch of white 
covering the greater part of the space between bill and eyes ; bill black, its grooves 
whitish. Length about 28.00-30.00, wing 5.75, culmen 3.15-3.50, greatest depth of 
bill about 1.50. Egg (average size) 4.67 X 2.91, pyriform-ovate, pale olive-buffy, 
variously marked with brown and black. Hob. Believed to be now extinct ; for- 
merly (previous to 1844), coasts and islands of the North Atlantic, chiefly on the 
American side ; south to Massachusetts Bay, north to the Arctic circle. 

33.* P. impennis (Linn.). Great Auk. 

Genus ALLE Link. (Page 10, pi. VI., fig. 4.) 

Species. 

Head, neck, and upper parts black, the secondaries sharply tipped with white, 
and scapulars streaked with the same ; lower parts white, the flanks striped with 
dusky. Summer plumage : Sides of head and neck, with chin, throat, and chest, 
uniform dark sooty brown. Winter adult : Chin, throat, etc., white, this color ex- 
tending upward toward occiput ; feathers of chest dusky at base only. Young : 
Similar to winter adult, but bill smaller and weaker, and colors duller. Downy 
young : Uniform sooty slate-color, paler or more grayish below. Length 7.25-9.15, 
wing 4.50-4.75, culmen .50. Egg 1.90 X 1-29, ovate, very pale bluish green or green- 
ish white. Hab. Arctic Ocean and coasts of the North Atlantic ; on the American 
side south, in winter, to New Jersey ; accidental on Detroit Eiver. 

34. A. alle (Linn.). Dovekie. 



20 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 



Order LONGIPENNES.— The Long-winged 

Swimmers. (Page i.) 

Families. 

a}. Bill with the lower mandible not longer than the upper, and not excessively 
compressed. 
h^. Covering of the upper mandible composed of three distinct pieces — a ter- 
minal unguis, or hook, a lateral piece, and a cere-like piece saddled upon 
the culmen, its edge overhanging the nostril. 

Stercorariidse. (Page 20.) 
6^ Covering of upper mandible consisting of a single piece, through which the 

nostrils are pierced Laridae. (Page 23.) 

a^ Bill with lower mandible much longer than the upper, both mandibles excessively 
compressed, like a thin knife-blade, for terminal portion. 

Rynchopidae. (Page 48.) 

Family STERCORARIIDSE,— The Skuas and Jaegers. (Page 20.) 

Genera. 

a^. Size large (in bulk equal to the largest gulls), and form robust ; depth of bill at 
base equal to not less than half the length of the upper mandible, measured 
along the side ; tarsus shorter than middle toe with claw ; tail short, nearly 
even, the middle pair of feathers scarcely projecting beyond the rest ; color 
dull brownish, sometimes streaked (never barred) with paler, the base of the 
primaries with a whitish patch Megalestris. (Page 20.) 

a^ Size medium or rather small (not exceeding the medium-sized gulls), and form 
more slender and graceful ; depth of bill at base less than half the length of 
the upper mandible, measured along the side ; tarsus decidedly longer than 
middle toe with claw ; middle rectrices in the adult projecting far beyond 
the rest ; color plain slaty or dusky, often varied with white or yellowish, 
in the adult, dusky barred with paler in young; no white at base of primaries. 

Stercorarius. (Page 21.) 

Genus MEGALESTRIS Bonaparte. (Page 20, pL YII., fig. 1.) 

Species. 

Common Characters. — General color nearly uniform grayish brown or sooty, 
usually indistinctly streaked with light rusty, or cinnamon, especially around neck 
and on back ; quills whitish at base. Fggs olive, spotted with brown. 



STERCORARIUS. 



21 



a}. Axillars and under wing-coverts soot}^, with little or no rufous. 

6'. Below grayish brown, with more or less distinct lighter, more cinnamon- 
colored, spots or dashes on fore-neck and chest. Adult : Dull brown the 
scapulars, interscapulars, and wing-coverts striped medially with pale 
cinnamon, the neck streaked with the same; lower parts indistinctly 
striped with grayish brown and pale cinnamon, the former prevailino- 
(sometimes uniform). Sometimes (in melanistic specimens?) uniform 
dusky or sooty brown, except white wing-spot. Young : Similar to adult, 
but more distinctly streaked with yellowish, especially on head and neck. 
Downy young (of M. skua) : Uniform " brownish or cinnamon-gray . . . 
rather darker in color on the upper parts than on the under surface of the 
body." (Dresser.) Length about 22.00, wing 15.75-16.15 (15.91), cul- 
men 2.05-2.10 (2.06), depth of bill at base .80-.88 (.82), tarsus 2.40-2.75 
(2.63), middle toe 2.15-2.55 (2.40). IJggs 2-3, 2.74 X 1-96, ovate or 
short-ovate, light brown or olive, rather sparsely blotched and spotted 
with deep brown. Ilab. Coasts and islands of North Atlantic, south to 
Spain and (casually) Massachusetts ; California ? 

35. M. skua (Brijnn.). Skua. 
61 Darker colored, larger, and with stouter bill ; under parts uniform dark 
sooty, the neck however sometimes streaked with yellowish ; wing 
16.05-16.90 (16.29), culmen 2.20-2.85 (2.38), depth of bill at base .95-1.00 
(.98), tarsus 2.70-3.20 (2.95), middle toe 2.55-2.80 (2.67). Rab. Antarctic 
seas, north to Cape of Good Hope and Cape Horn. 

M. antarcticus (Less.). Antarctic Skua.* 
a^. Axillars and under wing-coverts chiefly deep cinnamon. 
Lower parts uniform dull rusty or cinnamon. 

M. chilensis (Bonap.). Chilian Skua.^ 

Genus STERCORARIUS Brisson. (Page 20, pi. YII., fig. 2.) 

Eggs 2-3, ovate or short-ovate, ground-color varying from pale greenish olive 
and pale brown to very deep olive, relieved by a greater or less amount of spotting 
of deep brown, usually mixed with stone-grayish. 

Species. 

d}. Culmen 1.45 or more, tarsus 2.00 or more, wing usually more than 13.50 ; length- 
ened middle tail-feathers broad and rounded at ends. LigM phase, ahult : Top 
and sides of head, with upper parts, sooty slate or dusky ; rest of head and 
neck, including nape, together with lower parts, white, the ear-covert region 
tinged with straw-yellow, and the lower tail-coverts slaty. Young : Head, 
neck, and lower parts dull buff", everywhere barred with dusky ; upper parts 
brownish dusky, the feathers of back, etc., tipped with buff, the rump and 
upper tail-coverts spotted with same. Dark phase, adult : Entirely dark sooty 

1 Lestris antarcticus Less., Traite Orn. 18.31, 616. Megalestris antarcticus Gould, P. Z. S. 1859, 98. 

2 Lestris antarcticus, var. b. chilensis BoNAP., Consp. ii. 1857, 207. 



22 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

slate, with a plumbeous cast in certain lights. Young : Entirely sooty slate, 
the lower parts more or less barred with buff. [Note. — The above so-called 
light and dai-k " phases" repi'esent the normal extremes of coloration. These 
extremes, which are represented in comparatively a small number of speci- 
mens, ai'e connected by every possible intermediate condition of plumage, 
specimens approximating to the lighter extreme, but differing in having the 
lower parts (especially chest and sides) and nape more or less barred with 
dusky, being most numerous.] Length about 20.00-23.00, wing 13.50-14.00, 
middle tail-feathers 8.00-9.00, culmen 1.45-1.75, tarsus 2.00-2.10, middle toe 
1.60-1.75. Eggs 2.35 X 1-63. Ilab. Northern portions of northern hemi- 
sphere, along sea-coasts and larger inland waters, breeding far northward ; in 
America, south, in winter, to New Jersey and the G-reat Lakes. 

36. S. pomarinus (Temm.). Pomarine Jaeger. 
fll Culmen less than 1.45, tarsus less than 2.00, wing usually less than 13.50 ; 
lengthened middle tail-feathers narrow and pointed at ends. 
b^. Length of nasal shield, from base of unguis to frontal feathers, decidedly 
greater than from the former point to tip of upper mandible. In freshly- 
killed or living specimens, tarsi black, like the feet. Light phase, adult : 
Top of head and lores grayish brown ; rest of head, neck, and lower 
parts white, the lower tail-coverts grayish, the head and neck tinged 
with straw-yellow ; upper parts uniform slaty. Young : Head and neck 
streaked with dusk}^ and buffy, the latter usually predominating ; lower 
parts barred or spotted with the same ; upper parts dusky, the feathers 
bordered terminally with pale fulvous or buff. Dark phase, adult : En- 
tire plumage uniform sooty slate-color, the quills darker. Young : Pre- 
vailingly dark brownish slate, wings and tail darker, the middle of neck, 
all round, indistinctl}^ streaked with whitish, and lower parts, except 
chest and upper breast, barred with the same ; feathers of upper parts 
narrowly tipped with buffy. Downy young (dark phase ?) : Uniform 
silky grayish brown, lighter on lower parts. Length about 15.50-21.00, 
wing ll. 80-13.50 (12.67), longest tail-feathers 4.90-6.25 (5.40), culmen 
1.15-1.40 (1.27), tarsus 1.50-1.85 (1.70), middle toe 1.20-1.45 (1.34). Eggs 
2.30 X 1-64. Hah. Northern portions of northern hemisphere, breeding 
toward Arctic regions ; south, in winter, to New York, Illinois, Colorado, 
and even coast of Brazil. .37. S. parasiticus (Linn.). Parasitic Jaeger. 
6*. Length of nasal shield, measured from base of unguis to frontal feathers, not 
greater than the distance from the former point to the tip of the upper 
mandible. In freshly -killed or living specimens, tarsi light bluish, in 
marked contrast with black of feet.^ Adult : ^ Top and sides of head 
sooty black ; rest of head and neck, including ear-coverts and nape, 
straw-yellow, paler on throat ; upper parts uniform smoky plumbeous or 

1 In dried skins this color usually changes to a light olive or yellowish, or in very rare instances becomea 
so darkened that the line of demarcation cannot be detected. 

2 So far as known, this species has no dark phase like S. parasiticus. 



LARID^. 23 

slate-color, more ashy on back ; quills and tail-feathers blackish toward 
tips ; chest (sometimes breast also), and more rarely the belly, white, 
shading into grayish, the under tail-coverts, sides, and flanks (usually 
belly also) uniform slate-gray. Length 20.00-23.00, wing 11.55-12.85 
(12.25), longest tail-feathers 10.50-14.50 (12.89), culmen 1.10-1.30 (1.19), 
tarsus 1.50-1.80 (1.66), middle toe 1.08-1.30 (1.20). Eggs 2.16 X 1.54. 
Hah. Northern parts of northern hemisphere, breeding in Arctic regions; 
south, in winter, to northern United States. 

38. S. longicaudus Vieill. Long-tailed Jaeger. 

Family LARIDiE. — The Gulls and Terns. (Page 20.) 

Genera. 

a\ Depth of bill decidedly greater at the angle than at the nostril ; terminal por- 
tion of culmen decidedly curved ; angle of lower mandible always distinct, 
often very prominent ; tail usually even, but sometimes slightly emarginate 
(Rissa), deeply emarginate or forked (Xema), or graduated (RJiodostethia). 
Size extremely variable (wing 8.75-20.00). (Subfamily Larince.) 
¥. Tarsus roughened or serrate behind. 

Tail even ; tarsus shorter than middle toe, with claw ; hind toe perfectly 
developed, but small ; size medium (wing about 13.25) ; color entirely 

white, the young scantily spotted with dusky Gavia. (Page 24.) 

b^. Tarsus not roughened or serrate behind. 

c\ Hind toe rudimentary or altogether absent. 

Tail slightly emarginate; tarsus shorter than middle toe, without 
claw ; size medium (wing about 12.00-13.00) ; adult white, with 
bluish gray mantle ;^ young, similar to adult, but hind neck with 
a blackish patch, and lesser wing-coverts sometimes (in one spe- 
cies) also with a black patch Rissa. (Page 24.) 

c^ Hind toe perfectly developed, though small. 

d^. Culmen decidedly more than two-thirds as long as tarsus. 

e\ Tail even ; size, color, and all other characters extremely vari- 
able Larus. (Page 25.) 

e*. Tail deeply emarginate or forked Xema. (Page 37.) 

d^. Culmen decidedly less than two-thirds as long as tarsus. 

Tail graduated, the lateral feathers .75-1.25 shorter than the 

middle pair Rhodostethia. (Page 37.) 

o^ Depth of bill at angle less than at middle of nostrils ; terminal portion of culmen 
straight, or but slightly curved, the bill being narrow and pointed ; angle of 
lower mandible seldom prominent ; tail more or less forked (except in Anous). 
Size extremely variable (wing 6.50-17.50). (Subfamily Sternince.) 

1 This is a special term used, chiefly in descriptions of birds of this family, to designate the back, scapu- 
lars, and wings, when together colored differently from the head, neck, rump, tail, and lower parts. 



24 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

b^. Tail more or less forked, the outer feather longest. 

c^. Tail much more than one-third as long as wing, usually (except in sub- 
genus Thalassevs) forked for more than one-fifth its total length, 
the outer feathers narrow and pointed at tips ; webs of feet occu- 
pying more than half the interdigital space. 
d}. Depth of bill at base equal to one-third the length of the exposed 
culmen ; gonys shorter than outer toe, without claw. 

Gelochelidon. (Page 38.) 
d}. Depth of bill at base less than one-third the length of the exposed 
culmen ; gonys longer than inner toe, without claAv. 

Sterna. (Page 39.) 
c^ Tail little more than one-third as long as wing, forked for less than one- 
fifth its total length, the outer feathers broad and rounded at tip ; 
webs of feet occupying less than half the interdigital space. 

Hydrochelidon. (Page 46.) 
y^. Tail graduated Anous. (Page 47.) 

Genus GAVIA Boie. (Page 23, pi. YIII., fig. 1.) 

Species. 

Adult : Entirely pure white, the shafts of the primaries pale yellowish ; bill yel- 
lowish ; feet black. Young : Similar to adult, but quills, primary coverts, and tail- 
feathers each marked with a spot of dusky at tip, the lesser wing-coverts spotted 
with same. Length 15.00-19.50, wing about 13.25, culmen 1.40. Hab. Arctic 
Ocean, south, in winter, along Atlantic coast of North America to Newfoundland 
and New Brunswick 39. G. alba (Gunn.). Ivory Gull. 

Genus RISSA Leach. (Page 23, pi. YIII., fig. 2.) 

Species. 

Common Characters. — Adults with head, neck, rump, upper tail-coverts, tail, 
tips of secondaries, and entire lower parts pure white ; mantle bluish gray, the 
quills varied with white and black ; bill yellowish, feet blackish or bright red in 
life. Young similar to adults, but hind-neck crossed by a blackish collar or patch, 
and sometimes (in R. tridactyla) a blackish patch on lesser wing-coverts and black 
band across tip of tail. Downy young white, tinged above with butfy and yellowish 
gray, but without spots or other distinct markings. Eggs 2-5, ovate, or short-ovate, 
olivaceous-white, grayish white, brownish white, or bufi*}^, blotched and sj^otted 
with brown and lavender-gray. 

rt\ Legs and feet black, or dusky. Summer adult: Pure white, the mantle deep 

pearl-gray ; five outer quills with terminal portion black, this decreasing from 

about 3.25 on the outer quill to .75 (more or less) on the fifth, the outer web 

_ of the first almost wholly black ; the fifth, and sometimes the fourth, tipped 

with white. Winter adult : Similar, but hind part of head and neck washed 



LARUS. 25 

Mnth gray, and n dark plumbeous suffusion before and behind ej-es. Young : 
Somewhat like winter adult, but lowei'part of hind-neck crossed by a black 
patch, the anterior lesser wing-coverts black, and tail with a broad black 
band at tip. Downy yoimg : Head, neck, wings, and lower parts immaculate 
white, the hind-neck and basal portion of wings more or less tinged with 
buff; back, rump, and flanks yellowish gray, the down darker at base. Length 
about 16.00-17.70, wing about 12.25, culmen 1.40-1,50, tarsus 1.30, middle toe, 
with claAV, 1.80. 
b^. Hind toe absent, or very rudimentary, ^ggs 2.26 X 1-61. Hab. North 
Atlantic, south, in winter, to middle Atlantic States and Great Lakes. 

40. R. tridactyla (Linn.). Kittiwake. 
61 Hind toe well developed, though minute, and usually armed with a distinct 
nail. Bggs 2.36 X 1-63. Hab. Bering's Sea and North Pacific. 

40rt. R. tridactyla pollicaris Stejn. Pacific Kittiwake. 
a^ Legs and feet bright red (becoming yellowish in dried skins). ■Summer adult : 
Pure white, the mantle dark bluish gray, or plumbeous ; five innermost quills 
plumbeous, the inner webs broadly edged with white, the outer tipped with 
the same; five outermost quills black toward ends, the third, fourth, and 
fifth tipped with plumbeous. Winter adult : Similar, but hind-neck and 
auriculars washed with plumbeous. Young : Similar to winter adult, but 
hind-neck crossed by a blackish band, ear-coverts crossed by a smaller black 
band, and a suffusion of same in front of eye. (iVo black or dusky on wing- 
coverts or tail.) Downy young : Not distinguishable from corresponding stage 
B. tridactyla {?). Length about 14.00-15.80, wing about 13.00, culmen 1.20, 
tarsus 1.25, middle toe, with claw, nearly 2.00. Eggs 2.28 X '^■G^- Hab. 
Coasts and islands of Bering's Sea. 

41. R. brevirostris (Bruch). Red-legged Kittiwake. 

Genus LARUS Linn^us. (Page 23, pi. VIIL, figs. 3, 4; pi. IX., fig. 3.) 

Species} 

Nest a rudel}^ constructed platform of rubbish (sticks, dried grass, etc. — the 
materials varying according to the locality and the species), slightly hollowed, 
placed among rocks, in marshes, or other localities near the sea-shore or other large 
bodies of water. Eggs 2-4, ovate, their ground-color some shade of pale brownish, 
olive, light bluish, greenish, or buffy, irregularly spotted or blotched with brown 
and lavender-grayish. 

a\ Head entirely white in summer. 

b^. Under wing-coverts entirely pure white ; head, neck, entire lower parts, 
tips of secondaries, rump, upper tail-coverts, and tail uniform pure white ; 
mantle {i.e.., back, scapulars, and wings, except primaries) uniform gray- 
ish, varying in shade from pale pearl-gray to deep slate, 
c^ Primaries uniform pale pearl-gray, fading gradually into white at tips. 

* The young birds of this genus seldom offering very obvious distinctive characters, this analysis is based 
on the adults alone. 

4 



26 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

d'^. Wing 16.25 or more, and not more than 2.36 times as long as the 

tail; exposed culmen 1.88 or more. Adult i?i sununer : Mantle 

very pale pearl-gray. Adult in winter : Similar, but head and 

neck streaked with pale brownish gray. Young: Grayish 

white, tinged with brownish gray on lower parts, the upper 

parts transversely mottled with same. Immature (second 

year ?) : Entirely white, including mantle and primaries. 

Downy young : Grayish white, paler below ; head and neck 

irregularly marked with scattered large spots of dusky, the 

back, wings, and rump irregularly clouded with dark grayish. 

e\ Length 26.00-32.00, wing 16.75-18.75 (17.99), tail 7.40-8.50 

(8.07), culmen 2.30-2.70 (2.52), depth of bill through angle 

.80-.95 (.88), through base .83-1.00 (.93), tarsus 2.60-3.05 

(2.85), middle toe (with olaw) 2.68-3.00 (2.84). IJggs 

3.13 X 2.14. Ifab. Coasts of the North Atlantic, and 

Arctic seas from Cumberland Gulf to Spitzbergen ; south, 

in winter, to Long Island and the Great Lakes. 

42. L. glaucus BRtJNN. Glaucous Gull. 

e\ Length about 25.00-28.00, wing 16.25-18.00 (17.12), tail 7.00- 

7.50 (7.28), culmen 1.88-2.30 (2.06), depth of bill through 

angle .72-.85 (.79), through base .70-.80 (.75), tarsus 2.40- 

2.78 (2.57), middle toe (with claw) 2.35-2.75 (2.55). Eggs 

3.05 X 2.03. Hab. Bering's Sea and adjacent waters, 

northeastward to Point Barrow, southwest (in winter) to 

Japan.... — . L. barrovianus Eidgw. Point Barrow Gull. 

d''. Wing not more than 17.00 (usually less than 16.00), and nearly 

2.50 (averaging 2.41) times as long as the tail ; exposed culmen 

not more than 1.70. In plumage exactly like L. glaucus and 

L. barrovianus. 

Length 24.00-26.00, wing 14.75-16.50 (15.41), tail 6.00-6.70 
(6.41), culmen 1.60-1.70 (1.67), depth of bill through angle 
.62, through base .55-.62 (.59), tarsus 2.10-2.40 (2.22), mid- 
dle toe (with claw) 2.10-2.35 (2.21). Eggs 2.79 X 1-89. 
Hab. Coasts of the North Atlantic; south, in winter, to 
Massachusetts and the Great Lakes. 

43. L. leucopterus Faber. Iceland GulL 
c^. Primaries mai"ked with distinct white tips and darker subterminal 
spaces. 
d^. Darker spaces of primaries gray. 

e^. Second quill very pale pearl-gray, or bluish white, very broadly 
tipped with white, the outer web with an elongated space 
of gvay, everywhere very sharply defined against the paler 
ground-color. 

' Larua barrovianus Eidgw., Auk, iii. July, 1886, 330, 



LARUS. 27 

f\ Wing 17.00, or less; culmen 1.90, or less. Adult : Exactly 
like Jj. leucopterus, except in the coloration of the pri- 
maries; length about 23.00-24.00, wing 15.00-17.00, 
culmen 1.60-1.90, depth of bill through angle .55-.66, 
tarsus 2.10-2.40, middle toe (with claw) 2.15-2.30. 
Hab. Western coasts of North Atlantic, from Cum- 
berland Gulf south, in winter, to New York. 

45. L. kumlieni Brewst. Kumlien's Gull. 

/^ Wing 18.25, culmen 2.35. Adult : In plumage exactly like 

Jj. kumlieni ; depth of bill through angle .80, tarsus 3.05, 

middle toe (without claw) 2.40. Hab. Norton Sound, 

Alaska 46. L. nelsoni Hensh. Nelson's Gull. 

e^. Second quill deep ash-gray, either to the extreme tip, or else with 
very small white tip and small white spaces some distance 
from the tip, on one or both webs. 

Adult: Mantle pearl-gray, darker than in any of the pre- 
ceding. In winter, head and neck clouded (not streaked) 
with sooty gray. Young : Prevailing color deep ash- 
gray, nearly uniform, and inclining to plumbeous, be- 
low, but above relieved by a coarse irregular spotting 
of grayish white or pale dull buff, the head and neck 
indistinctly streaked with the same. Immature {second 
year?): Similar, bvit mantle mixed with pearl-gray, 
and lower parts with whitish. Length 23.70-27.75, 
wing 16.25-17.30, culmen 2.20-2.60, depth of bill 
through angle .80-.90, tarsus 2.35-2.90, middle toe 
(without claw) 2.05-2.45. Eggs 2.88-2.03. Hab. 
Coasts of the North Pacific and Bering's Sea, from 
Japan northward, across through Aleutian chain, and 
south, in winter, to California. 

44. L. glaucescens Naum. Glaucous-winged Gull. 

Darker spaces on primaries black. 

e^ Shafts of primaries, in black subterminal spaces, white. 

Adult: Mantle dark slate, the primaries mostly black, 
with white tips and spots near end; rest of plumage 
pure white. In winter, top of head and hind-neck 
streaked with dusky. Young : Above dusky, the feath- 
ers bordered with pale buffy; quills blackish, with 
narrow whitish tips ; tail dusky, crossed by a narrow 
subterminal band of grayish, or brownish, white; 
head, neck, and lower parts white, the top of head and 
hind-neck streaked, the lower parts clouded or irregu- 
larly spotted with grayish brown. Downy young: 
Grayish white, the upper parts marbled or irregu- 
larly spotted with dull grayish ; head with numerous 



28 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

irregular spots of blackish, the principal of which are 
two on the crown (one behind the other), four across 
the occiput, about three (small ones) on lores, the rest 
irregularly distributed. Length 28.00-31.00, wing 
17.60-19.50, culmeu 2.40-2.60, depth of bill through 
angle .98-1.05, tarsus 2.70-3.10, middle toe 2.10-2.50. 
Eggs 3.05 X 2.12, the ground-color averaging deeper 
brownish and the spots larger than in L. glaucus. 
Hah. Coasts of the North Atlantic ; in America, south, 
in winter, to Long Island. 

47. L. marinus Linn. Great Black-backed Gull. 
el Shafts of primaries black, except within the white spaces. 
p. Two outer primaries without distinct gray " wedges" on 
inner webs. 
g^. Angle of lower mandible very prominent, the depth 
of the bill through the angle being decidedly 
greater than at base ; middle toe, with claw, as 
long as tarsus. Summer adult : Mantle deep plum- 
beous. Winter adult : Top of head and hind-neck 
streaked with dusky; otherwise as in summer. 
Young : Above brownish slate, irregularly^ varied 
with grayish white ; quills and tail-feathers uni- 
form dull black, narrowly tipped with white ; 
lower parts brownish gray, clouded or irregularly 
spotted with grayish white, the breast and belly 
nearl}^ uniform grayish. Downy yowig : Grayish 
buffy white, the head with distinct black blotches 
of indefinite arrangement ; upper parts clouded or 
irregularly blotched with brownish dusky ; lower 
parts, except throat, immaculate. Length 24.00- 
27.00, wing 15.75-17.00, culmen 2.00-2.35, depth 
of bill at angle .85-.95, tarsus 2.45-2.65, middle toe 
(without claw) 2.00-2.45. JS'^^s 2.87 X 1-94. Hah. 
Pacific coast of United States, south to Cape St. 
Lucas... 49. L. occidentalis Aud. Western Gull. 
g^. Angle of lower mandible not very prominent, the depth 
of the bill at angle being little if any greater than 
through base. In plumage not essentially different 
from L. occidentalis, but feet j^ellow, instead of flesh- 
colored, in life ; wing 16.00-17.00, culmen 2.00-2.10, 
■ depth of bill through angle .60-.68, through base 
.60-.72, tarsus 2.18-2.68, middle toe 1.65-1.95. Hah. 
Northern Europe, south, in winter, to Africa. 

L. fuscus Linn. Lesser Black-backed Gull.^ 

1 Larua fuscus Linn., S. N. ed. 10, i. 1758, 136, 



LARUS. 



29 



p. Second primary with a distinct gray wedge on inner web. 
g\ Dei^tli of bill through angle contained less than four 
and a half times in the length of the tarsus ; lower 
mandible with a red subterminal spot. 
h\ Mantle deep plumbeous -gray, inclining to slate- 
color. 
i\ Culmen 2.22 or more ; depth of bill at base 
.75 or more; third quill with a distinct 
white "mirror" or large spot on inner 
web between the black and the gray; 
mantle nearly the same color as in L. 
occidentalism but averaging a little darker ; 
rest of plumage (except primaries) pure 
white; feet dull purplish flesh-color in 
life ; length about 26.50, wing 16.75-18.00, 
culmen 2.15-2.35, depth of bill through 
angle .75-.90, at base .75-.82, tarsus 2.60- 
2.75, middle toe (without claw) 2.08-2.40. 
Hab. Coast of northeastern Asia, from 
Japan (?) to Kamtschatka and north- 
ward to Arctic Ocean north of Bering's 

Strait 48. L. schistisagus Stejn. 

Slaty-backed Gull. 
s!^. Culmen 2.15 or less; depth of bill at angle 
.65; third quill without white spot on 
inner web between black and gray; 
mantle same color as in L. occidentalis, 
but apparently averaging a little paler; 
rest of plumage (except primaries) pure 
white ; feet yellow in life ; length about 
20.00, wing 16.50-17.25, culmen 2.00-2.15, 
depth of bill at angle .62-.65, at base .65- 
.70, tarsus 2.60-2.72, middle toe 1.78-2.10.^ 
Hab. Northern Asia ; accidental in south- 
ern Greenland. 

50. L. affinis Eeinh. Siberian Gull. 
liK Mantle light plumbeous-gray, or lighter. 
i^. Bill without black spots in adult. 

/. Mantle plumbeous-gray, or very deep 
pearl-gray ; eyelids (in life) orange- 
red, and feet j^ellow ; otherwise ex- 
actly like argentatus and smithso- 
nianus, with the markings of the 



1 The specimens measured are all females. Males would somewhat exceed these dimensions. 



30 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 



primaries averaging intermediate ; 
length about 26.00, wing 15.15-18.30, 
culmen 1.90-2.20, depth of bill 
through angle .60-.80, tarsus 2.15- 
2.20, middle toe (without claw) 1.60- 
2.15. Hah. Southern Europe and 
central Asia, from the Mediterranean 
to Bering's, China, and Japan Seas, 
and down the North American coast 

to California, in winter 52. L. 

cachinnans Pall. Pallas's Gull. 
f. Mantle delicate pearl-gray, decidedly 
paler than in L. cachinnans ; eyelids 
(in life) yellow, and feet pale flesh- 
color. Young: Brownish gray, nearly 
uniform on lower parts, the head and 
neck streaked, and the upper parts 
irregularly varied with pale grayish 
buff or dull whitish ; quills, their 
coverts, and tail-feathers, dusky 
blackish ; bill blackish, paler basally. 
Downy young : Grayish white, the 
lower parts (except throat) immacu- 
late ; head marked with irregular 
spots of black ; back, wings, and rump 
clouded with dusky grayish. 
A\ White near end of outer quill usu- 
ally extending to extreme tip, 
without interruption by a sub- 
terminal black bar ; the latter, if 
present at all, usually very small 
and rarely continuous ; length 
about 23.00, wing 15.75-17.90 
(16.38), culmen 1.85-2.20 (2.07), 
depth of bill through angle .72- 
.80 (.77), tarsus 2.30-2.72 (2.50), 
middle toe 1.90-2.25 (2.07). Eggs 
2.91 X 1-98. Hab. Europe, etc.; 
casual in eastern North America ? 
51. L. argentatus BrxInn. 
Herring Gull. 
A^ White near end of outer quill always 
separated from the white tip by 
a distinct subterminal bar or 
spot of black, this rarely less 



LARUS. 31 

than .50 of an inch wide, and 
often extending to the extreme 
tip; length 22.50-26.00, wing 
16.25-17.50 (17.24), culraen 1.95- 
2.50 (2.24), depth of bill through 
angle .68-.85 (.79), tarsus 2.30- 
2.80 (2.57), middle toe (without 
claw) 1.85-2.25 (2.10). Eggs 
2.85 X 2.01. Hah. Whole of 
North America, south, in win- 
ter, to Cuba and Lower Califor- 
nia ; breeding from Maine, etc., 

northward 51a. L. argen- 

tatus smithsonianus Coues. 
American Herring Gull. 
i"^. Lower mandible with a black spot near end, 
the upper also sometimes with a black 
spot. 
Adult: Mantle deep plumbeous-gray, 
as in L. cachinnans ; bill yellow, with 
red spot near end of lower mandible, 
this enclosing, or adjacent to, a 
smaller black spot ; iris deep brown, 
and feet (in life) pale pea-green or 
sage-green. Young : Above coarsely 
spotted with brownish gray and pale 
grayish buff, or dull whitish, the 
quills and tail-feathers dull blackish ; 
head, neck, and lower parts mottled 
or clouded with grayish white or 
brownish gray ; bill dusky with black 
tip. Downy young : Grayish white, 
the head with irregular black spots, 
most numerous above; upper parts 
clouded with dusky grayish. Length 
20.00-23.00, wing 15.00-16.75, culmen 
1.65-2.15, depth of bill at angle .60- 
.75, tarsus 2.00-2.60, middle toe (with- 
out claw) 1.70-1.95. Eggs 2.61 X 
1.80. Hab. Western North America, 
chiefly in the interior, from Mexico 

to Alaska 53. L. californicus 

Laavr. California Gull. 
g'^. Depth of bill through angle contained at least four 
and a half times in the length of the tarsus. 



32 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 



Bill with a black band near tiji. 

Adult : Mantle pale pearl-gray (much as 
in L. argentatus) ; bill greenish yellow, 
crossed near end by a very distinct black 
band, the tip sometimes tinged with 
orange ; iris pale yellow, eyelids vermil- 
ion-red ; feet (in life) pale yellow, some- 
times tinged with greenish. Young : 
Above brownish dusky, the feathers 
broadly bordered and otherwise varied 
with pale grayish buff or dull whitish ; 
quills blackish, the shorter ones bluish 
gray basally and tipped with white; tail 
with basal half (or more) pale grayish, 
the subterminal third (or more) blackish, 
the tip narroAvly white ; lower parts 
white, spotted along sides with grayish 
brown; bill blackish, paler toward base. 
Length 18.00-20.00, wing 13.60-15.75, cul- 
men 1.55-1.75, depth of bill at angle .50- 
.65, tarsus 1.90-2.45, middle toe (without 
claw) 1.30-1.60. ^^^s 2.39 X 1.71. Hab. 
Whole of North America, breeding far 
northward ; south, in winter, to Cuba 

and Mexico 54. L. delawarensis 

Ord. Ring-billed Gull. 
Bill without black in adult. 

/. Gray " wedge" on inner web of third 
quill never tipped with white, and 
not carried definitely farther than 
tip of sixth, usually not much beyond 
tip of seventh, quill. Adult : Mantle 
pearl-gray (about intermediate in 
shade between that of L. californicus 
and L. argentatus) ; rest of plumage, 
except quills, pure white. Young : 
Head and neck soiled whitish, striped 
with grayish brown ; back, scapulars, 
and wing-coverts dull grayish brown, 
margined with grayish white ; basal 
half of tail white, terminal half 
blackish or dusky, narrowly tipped 
with white ; lower parts dull white, 
spotted and otherwise marked with 
dull brown. Downy young : " Gov- 



LARUS. 33 

ered all over with soft yellowish 
gray down, whiter in tint on the 
face, throat, and abdomen ; forehead 
blackish brown ; entire upper parts 
spotted here and there with large 
blackish spots, one or two spots be- 
ing also on the throat, under parts 
generally unspotted, except that on 
the flanks there are some irregular 
black marks. It may be distin- 
guished from the young of other 
Gulls by a large black spot which 
touches the base of the upper man- 
dible, and which is never absent, 
though often varying in size." 
(Dresser.) Length 17.00-18.50, 
wing 14.00-14.50 (14.30), culmen 
1.35-1.60 (1.45), depth of bill through 
angle .38-.50 (.44), tarsus 1.90-2.25 
(2.02), middle toe 1.32-1.65 (1.43). 
Eggs 2.29 X 1-59. Hah. Northern 
portions of eastern hemisphere ; ac- 
cidental in Labrador? 

56. Lr. canus Linn. Mew Gull. 
J^ Gray wedge on inner web of third quill 
always terminated with white, and 
this carried beyond tip of the sixth 
— often even beyond the tip of the 
fifth — quill ; even the second quill 
often with a white spot at end of the 
gray " wedge" on inner web ; plu- 
mage of adult otherwise as in L. 
canus, but black of primaries much 
more restricted. Nearly adult : Sim- 
ilar to the adult in every respect 
except coloration of the primaries, 
which have the dark spaces slaty or 
very dull blackish, instead of deep 
black, and more extended, the white 
tips of some of the quills wanting ; 
tail sometimes (in younger individu- 
als) more or less blotched with dusky 
at tip, and upper coverts sometimes 
(in still younger birds) faintly barred 
with grayish brown. Young : Above 



34 NORTH AMERICAN, BIRDS. 

grayish brown, the feathers bordered 
with pale grayish buff; rump and 
upper tail-coverts pale grayish buff 
or dull buffy white, marked more or 
less distinctly with irregular grayish 
brown spots ; basal half of tail gray- 
ish white, or pale grayish, trans- 
versely mottled with darker, the 
terminal portion dusky grayish 
brown, forming a well-defined broad 
band, the extreme tip whitish ; head, 
neck, and lower parts nearly uniform 
light brownish gray. Older: Similar, 
but light borders to feathers of back, 
etc., purer white ; basal half of tail 
uniform grayish white ; lower parts 
white, the breast and sides spotted 
with light grayish brown ; upper 
parts more or less tinged with the 
pearl -gray of the adult plumage. 
Length 16.50-18.00, wing 13.20-14.50 
(13.93), culmen 1.25-1.70 (1.45), depth 
of bill through angle .40-.50 (.45), 
tarsus 1.70-2.10 (1.94), middle toe 
' 1.30-1.55 (1.44). Eggs 2.29 X 1-61. 
Hab. Northwestern North America, 
breeding far north ; south, in winter, 
along Pacific coast to southern Cali- 
fornia 55. L. brachyrhynchus 

EicH. Short-billed Gull. 
h"^. Under wing-coverts entirely uniform brownish gray, like outer surface of 
wings; under parts, rump, etc., brownish gray, and tail black, at all 
seasons and ages. 

Summer adult : Head and upper neck white ; tail black, tipped with 
white ; quills black ; upper parts, uniform plumbeous-slate, the 
secondaries broadly tipped with white ; lower parts uniform deep 
ash-gray ; bill bright red in life. Winter adult : Similar, but head 
dusky (darker than body). Young: Sooty grayish brown, the 
feathers of the upper parts bordered with grayish white or pale 
buff. Immature (second year ?) : Entire plumage uniform sooty 
grayish brown, the tail and quills dusky. Length 17.50-21.00, 
wing 13.50, culmen 1.50. Hab. Pacific coast of North America, 
from British Columbia to Panama. 

57. L. heermanni Cass. Heermann's Gull. 
a'. Head uniform black or dusky in summer. (Lower neck, entire under parts, 



LARUS. 35 

rump, upper tail-coverts, and tail, uniform pure white, more or less rose- 
tinted in breeding season ; mantle some shade of gi'a}'.) 
¥. Tarsus much longer than middle toe, with claw. 

Summer adult : Head sooty slate-color ; mantle plumbeous-slate ; five 
outer primaries entirely black, or sometimes with a small terminal 
spot of white ; rest of quills plumbeous, tipped with white, the sixth 
sometimes with a subterminal black spot; bill and feet (in life) 
dark brownish red. Winter adult : Head and neck white, the oc- 
ciput and ear-coverts spotted or mottled with brownish gray, the 
eyes more or less surrounded by the same ; otherwise as in summer. 
Young : Head, neck, breast, and sides nearly uniform brownish gray, 
darker on occiput and hind-neck, tinged with buff beneath ; mantle 
grayish brown, the feathers broadly bordered with pale grayish buff; 
centre of rump light brownish gray; rest of rump, with upper tail- 
coverts and posterior lower pai'ts, white ; basal half of tail light 
gray, subterminal portion black, the tip narrowly white. Downy 
young : Above graj' ish fulvous, varying to umber-brown, the head 
irregularly striped or spotted, the back, wings, and rump marbled, 
with dusky ; lower parts paler, the breast and belly more ochreous, 
the fore-neck, sides, flanks, and ventral region faintly mottled with 
darker. Length 15.00-17.00, wing 13.00, tail 5.00, culmen 1.75, tarsus 
2.00, middle toe, with claw, 1.50. Eggs 2.18 X 1-55. Hab. Atlantic 
coast of United States, south, in winter, through West Indies and 
along both coasts of Middle America, and as far as the lower Ama- 
zon 58. L. atricilla Linn. Laughing Gull. 

6^ Tarsus not longer than middle toe, with claw. 

c\ Wing more than 10.00 ; culmen more than 1.00. 

d^. Bill brownish or reddish, its depth through the angle more than 
one-fourth the culmen. Summer adult : Bill bright red (in life), 
with more or less distinct darker subterminal band ; head deep 
plumbeous-black, with a white spot on each ej^elid ; mantle deep 
plumbeous; quills bluish gray, the shafts white, all broadly 
tipped with white, and the five outer ones marked with a sub- 
terminal space of black; lower parts deeply tinted (in fresh 
specimens) with rose-pink, and middle tail-feather tinged with 
pearl-gray. Winter adult : Similar, but head white, the occi- 
put, region round eyes, and ear-coverts, grayish dusky ; bill and 
feet duller red. Young : Top and sides of head (except forehead 
and lores), with back and scapulars, grayish brown, the longer 
scapulars bordered terminally with pale grayish buff; quills 
dusky (inner webs more plumbeous), tipped Avith white ; centre 
of rump bluish gray ; rest of rump, with upper tail-coverts, 
entire lower parts, forehead, lores, and eyelids, white. Length 
13.50-15.00, wing 11.25, culmen 1.30, depth of bill at nostrils .35, 
tarsus .60, middle toe, with claw, 1.60. Eggs 2.11 X 1-53. Hab. 



36 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

Interior of North America, breeding from Iowa northward ; 
in winter, south through Middle America and western South 
America, to Peru. 

59. L. franklinii Sw. & Rich. Franklin's Gull. 
cP. Bill deep black, its depth through the angle less than one-fourth 
the length of the culmen. Summer adult : Head dark plumbeous ; 
mantle delicate pale pearl-gray ; three outer quills chiefly white, 
the outer web of the first and terminal portion of all, black ; 
rest of quills pale pearl-gray, tipped with white, the fifth and 
sixth marked with a subterminal black space ; rest of plumage 
pure white ; feet rich orange-red in life. Winter adult : Head 
white, the occiput tinged with grayish, the ear-coverts marked 
with a dusky spot ; otherwise, as in summer, but feet (in life) 
pale flesh-color. Young : Sides of head and neck, with entire 
lower parts, upper tail-coverts, and basal two-thirds of tail, 
white ; top of head and upper back brownish gray ; a dusky 
spot on ear-covex'ts ; scapulars and feathers of back grayish 
brown, tipped with pale buff; central lesser wing-coverts dusky 
brownish gray; rest of wing-coverts, greater part of inner 
primai'ies, with upper part of rump, bluish gray ; band across 
end of tail black or dusky, the tip narrowly white. Length 
about 12.00-14.00, wing 10.25, culmen 1.20, depth of bill at 
nostrils .25, tarsus 1.40, middle toe, with claw, 1.40. Eggs 1.95 
X 1-34. Hab. Whole of North America, breeding far north- 
ward ; in winter, not yet recorded from south of the United 
States, though reported from Bermudas. 

60. L. Philadelphia Ord. Bonaparte's Gull, 
c'. Wing much less than 10.00 ; culmen less than 1.00. 

Summer adult : Head deep black ; mantle delicate pale pearl-gray, 
the quills similar, tipped with white and usually without black 
markings. Winter adidt : Head white, the occiput tinged with 
gray, and ear-coverts with a dusky spot ; otherwise as in sum- 
mer. Young : Forehead, lores, cheeks, entire lower parts, upper 
tail-coverts, and greater part of tail, white ; occij)ut, ear-coverts, 
and most of upper parts sooty blackish, the feathers (except 
on head and neck) bordered terminally with pale buff. Length 
10.40-11.50, wing 8.75-9.00, culmen .90, tarsus 1.00, middle toe 
(without claw) .90. Hab. Europe and parts of Asia and Africa ; 
accidental in Bermudas and eastern Arctic America ? 

Larus minutus^ Pall. Little Gull. 

1 Lams minutus Pall., Keis. Russ. Reichs, iii. App. No. 35, 1771, 702. 



XEMA. 37 

Genus RHODOSTETHIA Macgillivray. (Page 23, pi. VII., fig. 3.) 

Species. 

Slimmer adult : Mantle and under surface of wing uniform pale pearl-gray, the 
secondaries and innermost quills very broadly tipped with pinkish white, and 
outer web of first quill chiefl}^ black ; rest of plumage white, usually more or less 
(sometimes very strongly) tinged with delicate peach-blossom pink, the middle of 
the neck encircled by a narrow black collar. Winter adult : Similar, but black col- 
lar absent, a blackish spot immediately in front of eye, and top of head tinged with 
pearl-gray. Young, second summer f Similar to summer adult (including collar), but 
smaller wing-coverts, inner secondaries, primary-coverts, alulse, and adjacent small 
feathers, together with three outer quills, blackish, the inner web of the latter, how- 
ever, with marginal half pearl-gray ; remaining quills pearl-gray, becoming white 
on innermost quills, and all of them tipped with black ; third, fourth, and fifth tail- 
feathers broadly tipped with black. Young : Back and scapulars heavily spotted 
or clouded with dusky or sooty blackish, this color prevailing on lower back, where 
the feathers have bufliy tips ; top of head and hind-neck also clouded with dusky ; 
middle tail-feathers with the end sooty black for about .85, the succeeding feathers 
on each side tipped with black in decreasing extent to the third, which has but a 
slight mottling of dusky at extreme tij) ; wing-coverts dusky, or sooty, tipped with 
pale buffy; two innermost quills pure white, the rest parti-colored; head, neck, 
and lower parts chiefly white, marked anteriorly (except on chin and throat) with 
narrow bars of dusky; Length 11.50-14.00, wing 9.50-10.50, tail 4.00-5.50 (gradu- 
ated for .75-1.25), culmen .65-.75, tarsus 1.20-1.25, middle toe 1.00-1.05. Egg 
(single specimen) 1.90 X 1-30, in color like that of Xema sabinii (fide Seebohm. P. 
Z. S. 1886, 82). Hab. Arctic Ocean, south, in autumn or winter, to northern Alaska, 
Kamtschatka, Disco Bay, Faroes, Heligoland, and (accidentally) England. 

61. R. rosea (Macgil.). Ross's Gull. 



Genus XEMA Leach. (Page 23, pi. IX., figs. 1, 2.) 

Species. 

o}. Culmen much shorter than tarsus ; tail forked for not more than the length of 
the tarsus ; wing not more than 11.25 ; legs and feet black. (Subgenus 
Xema?) Summer adult : Head and upper neck uniform plumbeous, bordered 
below by a black collar; mantle deep bluish gray; quills black, the five in- 
nermost ones varied with white and plumbeous ; rest of plumage white ; bill 
black, tipped with yellowish. Winter adult: Similar, but head and neck 
white, except ear-coverts and back of head and neck, which are dull dusky 
plumbeous. Young : Mantle brownish gray, each feather darker subtermi- 
nally, and margined at tip with pale fulvous or buffy ; tail white, with a broad 
black band near end, this again narrowly tipped with white; upper tail- 
coverts and entire lower parts white. Downy young {fide Middendorff) ; 



38 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

Upper parts rusty yellow, spotted with black ; lower parts whitish gray. 
Length 13.00-14.00, wing 10.10-11.15, tail 4.50-5.00 (forked for about .60- 
1.00), culmcn 1.00, tarsus 1.25, middle toe, with claw, about 1.25. ^ggs 2-5, 
1.78 X 1-26, ovate, or short-ovate, deep olive (varying in intensity, however), 
rather indistinctly spotted or blotched with brown. Sab. Arctic regions ; 
in North America south, in winter, to New York, the Great Lakes, and 
Great Salt Lake (casually to Bermudas and Peru). 

62. X. sabinii (Sab.). Sabine's Gull. 
a^. Culmen nearly as long as tarsus ; tail forked for at least one and a half times 
the length of the tarsus; wing about 16.00; legs and feet red. (Subgenus 
Creagrus Bonap.). Summer adult : Head and upper part of neck sooty slate, 
with a whitish patch at base of bill ; mantle pearl-gray, the wing- coverts 
and outer webs of scapulars whitish ; quills black, the shorter ones tipped 
with white ; rest of plumage white ; bill black, with yellowish tip ; legs and 
feet bright red. Young : Plumage generally, including head and neck, 
white ; hind-neck, back, and scapulars, ashy brown, the tips of the feathers 
margined with white ; tail-feathers (except outermost) with a black subter- 
minal spot ; a dusky space immediately in front of eye, and another on ear- 
coverts. Length about 23.00, wing 16.00, tail 8.00 (forked for about 3.30), 
culmen 1.85, tarsus 1.90, middle toe, with claw, 2.00. Hah. Pacific coast of 
South America ; Monterey, California ? 

— . X. furcata (Neb.\ Swallow-tailed Gull. 



Genus GELOCHELIDON Brehm. (Page 24, pi. IX., fig. 4.) 

Species. 

Summer adult : Top of head and hind-neck deep black ; upper pai'ts pale pearl- 
gray, rest of plumage pure white ; bill deep black, feet blackish. Winter adult : 
Similar, but head and neck white, the hind-neck tinged with grayish, the ear- 
coverts and spot in front of aye darker grayish. Young : Similar to winter adult, 
but upper parts washed with buff or clay-color, the top of head, hind-neck, back, 
and scapulars sometimes streaked with dusky. Doiony young : Above light gray- 
ish buff, with several large and tolerably well defined dusky spots on hinder half 
of head, a distinct dusky stripe down each side of hind-neck and upper back, the 
wings, rump, and flanks with rather distinct large spots of dusky; lower parts 
white, tinged with grayish on sides of throat ; bill brownish, inclining to orange (in 
life) on lower mandible ; feet dull brownish orange (in life). Length 13.00-15.25, 
wing 11.75-12.25, tail 5.50 (forked for 1.50-1.75), culmen 1.40, depth of bill at base 
.45. Nest along sea-beach, in sand or shingle. Eggs 1.84 X 1-33, ovate, light buffy, 
varying to pale olive-buffy, distinctly spotted and blotched with deep brown and 
lavender-grayish. Hah. Nearly cosmopolitan ; in America, Atlantic side, from 
Brazil north to Long Island, casually to Massachusetts; very rare inland; both 
coasts of southern Mexico and Central America in winter. 

63. G. nilotica (Hasselq.). Gull-billed Tern. 



STERNA. 39 

Genus STERNA Linn^us. (Page 24, pi. X., figs. 1-3 ; pi. XI., figs. 1, 2.) 

Sjpecies. 
Wing more than 9.00. 
h\ VYing more than 12.00. 

&. Tail much less than half as long as wing, forked for less than one-fifth 
its total length ; feathers of occiput short, blended ; depth of bill at 
base equal to neai'ly one-third the exposed culmen ; inner webs of 
quills entirel}'- gray, or slaty. (Subgenus Thalasseus Kaup.) 

Adult in spring : Above pale pearl -gray, becoming white on tail, 
and more silvery gray on quills ; whole top of head, and nape, 
uniform glossy black ; rest of plumage pure white ; bill coral- 
red (drying orange-red) with dusky tinge near tip ; feet black. 
Adult immediately after pairing season : Similar to spring plu- 
mage, but black on top of head mixed with white. Winter 
adult : Similar to summer adult, but black of crown, etc., 
streaked, instead of speckled or flecked, with grayish white. 
Young : Above pale grayish, marked with a few roundish and 
more or less hastate spots of dusky, largest on tertials ; top of 
head grajnsh white, the crown flecked with black, this color 
increasing in extent posteriorly, until nearly uniform on occi- 
put ; tail-feathers marked with a dusky subterminal spot ; re^t 
of plumage white ; bill dull orange-reddish. Downy young : 
Above grayish white, the down of the head dusky gray beneath 
the surface ; back and rump finely and indistinctly mottled 
with grayish ; throat and fore-neck uniform pale grayish, rest 
of lower parts white. Length 19.00-22.50, wing 15.00-17.40, 
tail 5.30-6.75 (forked for about .75-1.60), culmen 2.48-3.10, 
depth of bill through base .75-.95, tarsus ,1.60-1.90, middle toe 
1.15-1.40. I^est (usually solitarj') a depression in sand near 
sea-shore. Eggs 2-3, 2.66 X 1-77, ovate or elliptical-ovate, pale 
grayish buff, varying to olive-buff or dull whitish buff, more or 
less spotted with brown and stone-gray or lavender-gray. Hab. 
North America in general, but rare on Pacific coast; breeding 
in isolated and widely separated localities throughout its range. 
(Also occurs in various portions of eastern hemisphere, includ- 
ing Australia.) 64. S. tschegrava Lepech. Caspian Tern. 

c^. Tail more than half as long as wing, forked for at least half its total 
length ; feathers of occiput lengthened, lanceolate, forming a dis- 
tinct crest ; depth of bill at base much less than one-third the length 
of the exposed culmen ; inner webs of quills with inner margin ab- 
ruptly and broadly white. (Subgenus Actochelidon Kaup.) 
d^. Bill deep orange, or orange-red. 

e^. Depth of bill at base more than one-fourth the length of the 
exposed culmen. Adult in spring : Above pale pearl-gray, 



40 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

paler (nearly white) on upper tail-coverts and tail ; whole 
top of head, including occipital crest, glossy black ; rest of 
plumage pure white ; bill deep orange, feet blackish. Adult 
just after pairing season : Similar, but forehead and forepart 
of crown white, only the occipital crest and hinder part of 
crown being uniform black. Winter plumage : Similar to 
summer plumage, but black of occiput also mixed more or 
less with white, and bill paler orange. Young : Somewhat 
like winter adult, but upper parts sparsely spotted with 
dusky brown, these spots largest on tertials ; tail-feathers 
brownish or dusky near tips ; top of head speckled white 
and dusky, the occipital crest but slightly developed; bill 
dull orange. Length 18.00-21.00, wing 14.00-15.00, tail 
6.00-8.00, forked for about half its total length ; culmen 
2.40-2.75, depth of bill at base .65-.75, tarsus 1.35-1.45. 
JS'est (usually many together) a depression in sand, near 
sea-shore. Eggs 1-3 or 4, 2.61 X 1-78, ovate, elongate- 
ovate, or subacute-ovate, buffy, cream-color, or whitish, 
handsomely spotted (sometimes lined) with dark brown or 
black, these markings usually suffused exteriorly with light 
brown and purplish gray. Hab. Coasts and larger inland 
waters of United States, and southward, breeding north to 

about 40° 65. S. maxima Bodd. Royal Tern. 

e*. Depth of bill at base less than one-fourth (about one-fifth) the 
length of the exposed culmen ; plumage same as that of S. 
maxima, but lower parts very deeply tinged with rose-, or 
peach-blossom, pink, and occipital crest more developed; 
length about 16.00-17.00, wing 12.40-12.50, tail 6.60-7.30, 
forked for about 2.60-3.50 ; culmen 2.25-2.55, depth of bill 
through base .45-.50, tarsus 1.05-1.25. Eggs 2.15 X 1-45, 
ovate, creamy white, boldl}^ spotted (chiefly round larger 
end) with black and various shades of rich warm brown. 
Hab. Pacific coast of Middle America, north to San Fran- 
cisco, California 66. S. elegans Game. Elegant Tern. 

(P. Bill deep black, usually with yellowish or whitish tip ; plumage 
the same as in *S^. maxima and S. elegans, but usually less pinkish 
beneath than the latter ; length 14.00-16.00, wing about 12.50, 
tail 6.00 (forked for about 2.35), culmen 2.25, depth of bill at 
base .48, tarsus 1.00. Nest a depression in sand by sea-shore. 
Eggs 1.99 X 1-38, ovate, white, buffy, or rich cream-color, 
handsomely but variously marked (often with zigzag lines) 
with different shades of rich brown, black, etc. Hab. South 
Atlantic and Gulf coasts of United States, north to southern 
New England; south, in winter, to "West Indies and Middle 
America (both coasts). 

67. S. sandvicensis acuflavidus (Cabot). Cabot's Tern. 



STERNA. 41 

U^. Wing less than 12.00 ; occipital feathers short and blended. 

c\ Mantle bluish gray, the tail chiefly white ; inner webs of quills largely 
white. (Subgenus Sterna.) 
d^. Top of head without any black at any season. 

Adult in summer : Head, axillars, lining of wing, and tail- 
coverts, white, the first with a dusky stripe along each 
side, entirely surrounding eye, and extending back over 
ear-coverts ; rest of plumage pale pearl-gray, the quills 
inclining to silvery white ; bill black in middle portion, the 
base and tip yellowish. Winter plumage : Similar, but lower 
parts white ; bill dusky, tij^ped with yellowish. Length 
15.00-16.00, wing 9.70-10.60, tail 4.60-6.00 (forked for about 
1.60-2.60), culmen 1.50-1.70, tarsus .92-.96. Hab. Atlantic 
coast of South America ; casual on Atlantic coast of United 
States (New Jersey). 

68. S. trudeaui Aud. Trudeau's Tern. 
d'^. Top of head chiefly or entirely uniform black in summer. 
e\ Top of head entirely black in summer. 

p. Only one web of outer tail-feather entirely white. 

g^. Inner web of outer tail-feather grayish or dusky 
toward end, the outer web entirely white. Smn- 
mer adult : Above pale pearl-gray, lower parts 
pure white ; entire toj) of head and nape uniform 
deep black ; bill (in life) dull orange, dusky at tip , 
feet fine orange-red. Winter plumage: Similar, 
but whole top of head white, tinged on occiput 
and nape with grayish, the side of the head with 
a dusky stripe surrounding eyes and extending 
across ear-coverts ; tail shorter and less deeply 
forked than in summer, the exterior feathers 
broader and less elongated ; bill duller orange, and 
feet much less intense red ; bill dusky or dull 
brownish orange, darker at tip. Young : Similar 
to winter plumage, but top of head, hind-neck, 
back, scapulars, tertials, and wing-coverts over- 
laid by a wash of umber-brown, nearly uniform on 
back and crown ; sides of head tinged with same; 
tail-feathers all distinctly dusky terminally, especi- 
ally on inner webs. Doivny young : Light brown- 
ish buff, the breast and belly whitish ; upper parts 
coarsely and irregularly marbled with black, the 
sides of the head with a few scattered small mark- 
ings of the same. Length about 14.00-15.00, wing 
9.50-10.30, tail 5.00-7.70 (forked for 2.30-5.00), 
culmen 1.50-1.65, tarsus .90-1.00. Nest of dead 
6 



42 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 



grasses, etc., in marshes (fresh- or salt-water), often 
upon " windi'ows" of sea- weed. Eggs 1.78 X 1-23, 
ovate or short-ovate, vaiying from olive-buff to 
olive-brown, coarsely spotted or blotched with 
dark brown or blackish. Hah. Temperate North 
America, north to Manitoba, south, in winter, 
to Brazil. 

69. S. forsteri Nutt. Forster's Tern. 
g*. Inner web of outer tail-feather entirely white, the 
outer web dusky, in abrupt contrast. 
/i,^ Summer adult : Lower parts pale lavender-gray, 
or grajash white ; whole top of head and nape 
deep black ; rest of upper parts deep pearl- 
gray, the rump, upper tail-coverts, and greater 
part of tail pure white ; bill bright vermilion- 
red, blackish at tip ; feet (in life) rich orange- 
vermilion. Winter adult: Similar, but fore- 
head, crown, and anterior part of lores white, 
mixed with black on crown ; entire lower 
parts pure white ; bill and feet less intensely 
red. Young : Orbital region, occiput, and 
nape, dull black; crown mixed blackish and 
grayish white ; forehead, lores, entire lower 
parts, upper tail-coverts, inner webs of rectri- 
ces, and tips of secondaries, white ; rest of 
upper parts pale pearl-gray, the scapulars, 
interscapulars, and tertials, tipped with pale 
buff, and marked with a subterminal cres- 
centic spot, or lunule, of dusky brown ; an- 
terior lesser wing-coverts dusky, forming a 
distinct bar across wing ; bill brownish dusky, 
the base of mandible paler and more reddish ; 
feet pale reddish. Downy young : Above pale 
fulvous or grayish buff (the precise shade 
very variable) coarsely and irregularly mar- 
bled with dusky, except on forehead ; lower 
parts white, more or less tinged with buff or 
pale fulvous on sides and flanks, the throat 
and cheeks distinctly dusky, or grayish. 
Length 13.00-16.00, wing 9.75-11.75, tail 5.00- 
7.00 (forked for 3.50, more or less), culmen 
1.25-1.50, depth of bill at base about .33, tar- 
sus .66-85. Nest usually a depression in 
sand or gravel near sea-shore. Eggs 2-4, 1.57 
X 1.17, averaging a little paler in ground- 



STERNA. ^3 

color and less heavily.blotched than those of S. 
forsteri. Hab. Eastern temperate North Amer- 
ica, and various parts of eastern hemisphere. 
70. S. hirundo Linn. Common Tern. 
A'. Summer adult : Lower parts deep lavender-gray, 
changing to white only on lower tail-coverts 
and on sides of head adjacent to the black 
cap ; upper parts deep pearl-gray, the tips of 
secondaries, rump, upper tail-coverts, and tail 
pure white, in marked contrast; bill rich car- 
mine, usually without distinct blackish tip; 
feet intense carmine. Winter adult : Similar, 
but lower parts white (sometimes tinged with 
grayish), and forehead, crown, and fore part 
of lores white, the crown streaked or mixed 
with black. Young : Orbital region, occiput, 
and hind part of crown dull black ; forehead, 
anterior part of lores, and crown white, the 
latter stained with brown and mixed with 
blackish ; feathers of dorsal region and wino-s 
tipped with pale buff and marked with a sub- 
terminal crescent or lunule of brownish dusky, 
these markings larger on tertials and longer 
scapulars, and smaller on back ; lower rump, 
upper tail-coverts, and entire lower parts, 
white, the chin, throat, and sides of jugulum 
and breast, stained with pale dull brownish ; 
basal half of bill dull orange-red, terminal 
portion blackish ; feet light reddish. Doiony 
young: Similar to that of S. hirundo, but 
usually darker colored. Length 14.00-17.00, 
wing 10.00-10.75, tail 6.50-8^50 (forked for 
4.00-5.00), culmen 1.08-1.40, depth of bill 
through base 30, tarsus .55-.65, middle toe, 
with claw, .80-.85. Eggs 1.62 X 1-15, not 
distinguishable with certainty from those of 
S. hirundo, but usually with darker ground- 
color and heavier spotting. Hab. Circum- 
polar regions, south, in winter, to Middle 
States and California; on Atlantic coast 
breeding south to Massachusetts. 

71. S. paradisaea Brunn. Arctic Tern. 
g^. Both webs of outer tail-feathers entirely white. 

Summer adidt : Above delicate pale pearl-gray, 
fading into silvery white on upper tail-coverts 



44 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

and tail ; lower parts exquisitely delicate pale 
peach-blossom pink, fading into pure white in 
dried skins ; entire top of head, with nape, uni- 
form deep black ; bill black, tinged at base (in 
life) with reddish ; feet bright red in life. 
Winter adult : Similar, but forehead and anterior 
part of crown white, the latter tinged with 
grayish and indistinctl}'' streaked with blackish. 
Young : Pileum and nape pale buffy grayish, 
finely mottled or spi-inkled with darker, and 
streaked, especial!}" on crown, with dusky ; or- 
bital and auricular regions dusky blackish ; 
remainder of head, and entire lower parts, white, 
the nape and sometimes side of breast finely 
mottled with buffy gray; pale pearl-gray of 
back and scapulars overlaid b}" pale buff, irregu- 
larly mottled with dusky, each feather with a 
submarginal dusky U-shaped mark; bill brown- 
ish dusky; feet dusky (in dried skins). Length 
14.00-17.00, wing 9.25-9.75, tail 7.25-7.75 (forked 
for 3.50-4.50), culmen 1.50, depth of bill at base 
.35, tarsus .85, middle toe .75. Eggs 2-4, 1.66 X 
1.21, similar to those of S. paradiscea, but ground- 
color averaging lighter and markings smaller. 
Hab. Atlantic coast of United States ; West 
Indies, and various parts of Old World. 

72. S. dougalli Montag. Roseate Tern. 
e^ Top of head black, with a broad white patch on forehead, ex- 
tending backward on each side of crown to above eyes ; a 
black stripe across lores. 

Summer adult : Above deep plumbeous-gray, beneath 
paler, more lavender-graj^ ; tips of secondaries, upper 
and lower tail-coverts, tail, sides of head, chin, under 
wing coverts and axillars pure white; bill and feet 
entirely deep black. Winter adult, unknown. Young : 
Forehead, lores, crown, and entire nape, smoky gray- 
ish brown, deepening on occiput into dark sooty, this 
color extending laterally nearly or quite to eye ; the 
smoke-color of nape extending laterally over side of 
neck and breast, or sometimes even tingeing the jugu- 
lum and fore-neck ; back, scapulars, inner wing-coverts, 
and tertials dull slate-blackish, broadly and sharply 
bordered terminally with yellowish ochraceous ; upper 
rump dark brownish slate, feathers narrowly tipped 
with pale fulvous, this preceded by a dusky subter- 



STERNA. 45 

minal bar; lower rump and upper tail-coverts plum- 
beous-gray, the longer feathers tipped with buff; ree- 
trices pale bluish gray, the feathers becoming dusky 
subterminally ; lower parts, except as described, white; 
maxilla dusky, mandible light reddish (brownish in 
dried skins), the terminal third or fourth dusky ; legs 
and feet light reddish. Length 13.25-15.00, wing 
9.75-10.75, tail 6.50-7.00 (forked for 2.40-3.75), culmen 
1.25-1.40, depth of bill at base .38, tarsus, .60-.75, 
middle toe .80-.85. Eggs 1.69 X 1-12, similar to those 
of *S^. paradiscea, but averaging rather deeper in ground- 
color, with larger markings. Hab. Eastern Aleutian 
Islands and northward along coast to or beyond 
Norton Sound. 

73. S. aleutica Baird. Aleutian Tern. 
c^. Mantle and six to ten middle tail-feathers slaty or blackish ; inner webs 
of quills entirely dusky. (Subgenus Haliplana Wagler.) 
d}. Adult: Upper parts, including hind-neck, continuously uniform 
sooty black, the outer pair of tail-feathers chiefly white ; fore- 
head, sides of head, and entire lower parts white, sometimes 
faintly tinged with bluish gray posteriorly ; bill and feet deep 
black. Young: Entirely dark sooty brown, more grayish on 
lower parts, the anal region and under wing-coverts white ; 
scapulars and wing-coverts narrowly but distinctly tipped with 
white. Downy young : " Head, neck, throat, and entire upper 
parts, dark gray with a silvery tinge, closely dotted with gray- 
ish white ; rest of under parts white." (Dresser.) Length 
15.00-17.00, wing 12.00, tail 7.00-7.50 (forked for about 3.00- 
3.50), culmen 1.80, tarsus 1.00. Eggs (deposited on rocks or 
ground, usually without nest) 2.02 X 1-40, white, creamy white, 
or cream-color spotted with rich chestnut, usually mixed with 
fainter spots of purplish gray. Hab. Tropical and subtropical 
sea-coasts of both hemispheres; in North America, north to 
the Carolinas and western Mexico, casually to New England. 

75. S. fuliginosa Gmel. Sooty Tern. 
d^. Adult : Lower hind-neck and upper back gi'ayish white, deepening 
into brownish slate on wings, etc., and deep black on top of 
head ; forehead, sides of head, and entire lower parts pure 
white ; two outer pairs of tail-feathers white ; bill and feet 
black. Young : Entire lower parts, with cheeks, forehead, and 
sides of crown, white, as in adult ; nape, occiput, and middle 
of crown brownish dusky ; the last streaked M^ith grayish 
white ; upper parts gi'ayish brown ; the scapulars, interscapu- 
lars, and tertials margined terminally with grayish white. 
Length about 14.00-15.00, wing 10.50, tail 6.00-7.00, culmen 



46 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

1.40-1. GO, depth of bill at base .35-.40, tarsus .85. Hah. Tropi- 
cal sea-coasts in general ; accidental on Florida coast. 

76. S. anaethetus Scop. Bridled Tern. 
a?. Wing less than 7.00. Tail about half as long as wing, forked for about half its 
length. (Subgenus Sternula Boie.) 
Swnwier adult : Above uniform pale pearl-gray ; lower parts, with forehead 
and stripe on each side of crown, back and above eyes, pure white ; 
stripe from bill to eye, with crown, occiput, and nape, uniform deep 
black ; bill bright yellow, usually with blackish tip ; feet bright orange- 
yellow (in life). Winter adult : Similar to summer plumage, but lores, 
forehead, and crown grayish white (pure white anteriorly) ; bill dull 
yellowish, or dusky ; feet pale yellow. Young : Somewhat like winter 
adult, but lesser wing-coverts chiefly dusky slate (forming distinct 
patch), scapulai's and interscapulars with submarginal V- or U-shaped 
marks of dusky, and quills darker. Downy young : Above grayish white, 
varying to delicate buff'-yellow, sometimes immaculate, but usuall}' finely 
mottled with dusky grayish, the head distinctly marked with irregular 
dots of blackish ; lower parts wholly immaculate white. Length 8.50- 
9.75, wing 6.60, tail 3.50 (forked for about 1.75), culmen 1.20, tarsus .60. 
Nest a depression in shingly beach. Eggs 2-4, 1.28 X 0.91, white, buffy 
white, or buff, spotted with brown and purplish gray. Hah. United 
States (rather southerly) south, in winter, through Middle America 
(both coasts) to northern coasts of South America. 

74. S. antillarum Less. Least Tern. 



Genus HYDROCHELIDON Boie. (Page 24, pi. XIL, fig. 2.) 

Species. 

a^. "Wing less than 9.00. Head wholly dusky or black in summer adult. 
h^. Tail and upper coverts deep gray or plumbeous. 

Summer adult : Head, neck, and lower parts uniform black or plumbeous, 
the lower tail-coverts, however, white ; upper parts uniform plum- 
beous. Winter adult : Head, neck, and lower parts white, the orbits 
and ear-coverts dusky ; above as in summer. Young : Similar to 
winter adult, but feathers of back, etc., tipped with dull brownish, 
anterior lesser wing-coverts dusky, and sides washed with plumbe- 
ous. Downy young : Above umber-brown, with a few coarse, irreg- 
ular mottlings of black ; forehead, crown, throat, and chest plain 
sooty brown ; side of head, including lores, dull whitish ; belly 
white centrally, sooty gray exteriorly, 
c'. Summer adult with lower parts (sometimes head also) plumbeous, little 
if any darker than upper surface. Hab. Europe, and parts of Asia 
and Africa. H. nigra (Linn.). Black Tern.i 



1 Sterna nigra Linn., S. N. ed. 10, i. 1758, 137. Hydrochelidon nigra Boie, Isis, 1822, 563. 



ANOUS. 47 

c^. Summer adult with lower parts always black or very dark plumbeous, 
much darker than upper surface ; length 9.00-10.25, wing 8.25, tail 
3.75 (forked for .90), culmen 1.10. Nest in marshes. Eggs 1.35 X 
0.98, brownish buff or olive-buff, heavily spotted and blotched with 
dark brown. Hab. Temperate North America, south, in winter, to 
South America, as far as Brazil and Chili. 

77. H. nigra surinamensis (Gmel.). American Black Tern. 
b^. Tail and upper coverts white, sometimes tinged with gray. 

Summer adult: Head, neck, and lower parts black, the under tail- 
coverts white ; upper parts plumbeous, more silver}^ on wings, the 
anterior lesser coverts being white; legs and feet bright red (diying 
brownish). Young : " Posterior portion of the crown, a patch on 
the side of the head, and one on the hind-neck dark sooty gray, the 
feathers with lighter margins, the patch on the hind-neck with 
brownish markings ; rest of the head, neck, and entire under parts 
pure white; back and scapulars blue-gray, broadly tipped with 
blackish gray ; wings as in the adult in winter, but the wing- 
coverts tipped with light reddish brown ; rump and upper tail- 
coverts white ; tail light French gra}^, becoming darker towards 
the tip." (Dresser.) Downy young : " Upper parts warm reddish 
buff, boldly marked with black on the crown, nape, back, wings, 
and rump ; under parts grayish buff with a sooty tinge, marked 
with sooty gray on the upper throat ; space round the eye nearly 
white." (Dresser.) Length about 9.50, wing 7.60-8.20, tail 2.80- 
3.25, culmen .90-.95. Nest in marshes. Eggs 1.36 X 0.99, essen- 
tially similar in coloration to those of H. nigr'a surinamensis. Hab. 
Europe, etc. ; accidental (?) in North America (Lake Koshkonong, 
Wisconsin). 

78. H. leucoptera (Temm.). "White-winged Black Tern, 
a*. "Wing more than 9.00. Head with a broad white stripe on each side, in summer 
adult. Summer adult : Top of head and hind-neck black ; broad stripe on 
side of head (from chin and corner of mouth to behind ear-coverts), lower 
tail-coverts, and under wing-coverts white ; rest of plumage uniform plum- 
beous. Hab. Europe, etc. ; accidental in West Indies. 

H. leucopareia (Natt.). Whiskered Tern.^ 

Genus ANOUS Leach. (Page 24, pi. XII., fig. 1.) 

Species. 

Common Characters. — Plumage uniform sooty brownish, becoming hoary on 
forehead or top of head. Nest on ti-ees or bushes around borders of oceanic islands, 
rather bulky, composed of sticks, etc. Egg single (usually, at least), buffy or buffy 

1 Sterna leucopareia Natt., in Temm. Man. 1820, 726. Hydrochelidon leucopareia Gould, Handb. B. Austr. 
ii. 1865, 406. 



48 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

whitish, sparsely speckled or spotted, chiefly round larger end, with brown and 
purplish gray. 

ai. Lores dusky, in abrupt and marked contrast with the hoary of the forehead. 
h^. Only the forehead distinctly whitish. 

Uniform sooty brown, becoming gradually grayer on neck, and pass- 
ing gradually through intermediate shades to white on forehead; 
quills nearly black. Young (?) : Similar, but head uniform grayish 
brown, the frontlet hoary grayish. Length 13.00-16.35, wing 10.00- 
10.50, tail 6.00, culmen 1.75, depth of bill at base .38. ^gg averaging 
2.06 X 1-37. Hab. Intertropical seas generally, also coast of south- 
ern Atlantic and Gulf States 79. A. stolidus (Linn.). Noddy. 

b^. Whole top of head distinctly whitish. 

c\ White of crown changing gradually into ashy on hind-neck ; plumage 
of body, etc., sooty brown. Hab. Intertropical seas and coasts 
generally, including Gulf coast of Mexico. 

A. melanogenys Gray. Black-cheeked Noddy.^ 
c^. White of crown abruptly defined against sooty brown of hind-neck ; 
plumage of body, etc., sooty black. Hab. Southwestern Pacific. 

A. leucocapillus Gould. White-crowned Noddy.* 

al Lores hoary whitish, like forehead. Hoary ash of occiput and hind-neck 

changing gradually into sooty brown on chin and throat, the cheeks being 

grayish. Hab. Indian Ocean. 

A. tenuirostris (Temm.). Slender-billed Noddy.^ 



Family RYNCHOPID^.— The Skimmers. (Page 20.) 

Genera. 
(Characters same as given for the Family) Rynchops. (Page 48.) 

Genus RYNCHOPS Linn^us. (Page 48, pi. YL, fig. 5.) 

Species. 

d^. Secondaries very broadly tipped with white ; tail white, only the middle pair 
of feathers grayish or dusky ; under wing-coverts white. Summer adult : 
Forehead, sides of head, and entire lower parts, white ; upper parts, including 
hind-neck, top of head, and ear-coverts, black, the secondaries and inner pri- 
maries broadly tipped with white ; tail white, the middle feathers chiefly 
gra5nsh brown ; basal half of bill, with legs and feet, bright vermilion-red 
in life (changing to dull whitish in dried skins) ; terminal portion of bill 

1 Anous melanogenys Gray, Gen. B. iii. 1849, 661, pi. 182. 

2 Anous leucocapillus Gould, P. Z. S. 1845, 103 ; Birds Austr. pt. vii. 1848, pi. 35. 

3 Sterna tenuirostris Temm., PI. Col. 202 (1838). Anous tenuirostris Saunders, P. Z. S. 1876, 670, pi. 61, 
fig. 1. 



RYNCHOPS. 49 

black. Winter adult : Similar as to plumage, but the black more brownish, 
and interrupted by a white collar across hind-neck. Young : Above light 
buff, each feather with a central spot of black, these largest on scapulars ; 
lores and beneath eye uniform pale buif ; lower parts white. Downy young : 
Above pale grayish buff, irregularly and sparsely mottled with blackish ; lower 
parts plain white. (Lower mandible not longer than upper in very young 
birds.) Length 17.00-20.00, wing 14.75-15.75, tail 5.50 (forked for about 
1.20), culmen 2.20-2.80, lower mandible 2.90-4.10. JVest a depression in sand, 
near sea-shore. Eggs 2-5, 1.74 X 1-32, ovate, or short-ovate, white, buffy 
white, or pale buff, marked with large bold spots of rich dark or deep brown, 
and smaller, fainter spots of purplish gray. Hab. Sea-coast of warmer parts 
of America ; on the Atlantic side, north, regularly, to New Jersey, casually 

to Nova Scotia 80. R. nigra Linn. Black Skimmer. 

al Secondai'ies without white tips ; tail dusky, the feathers with paler edges ; under 
wing-coverts brownish gray ; otherwise similar to R. nigra, but averaging 
larger, with longer bill and wing especially. Hab. Coasts of South America 
(Peru; Demerara, etc.). 

R. melanura Boie. Black-tailed Skimmer.^ 

1 Hyncliojis melanurus " BoiE," Swains. Anim. in Menag. 1838, 340. 



50 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

Order TUBINARES. — The Tube-nosed Swim- 
mers. (Page 1.) 

Families. 

a\ "Wings very long ; nostrils opening in anterior end of horizontal nasal tubes. 
¥. Nasal tubes widely separated by the intervening culmen ; size very large 
(equal to a large goose or larger); wing very narrow, with very nu- 
merous (39-50) remiges Diomedeidae. (Page 50.) 

¥. Nasal tubes united, and resting upon the basal portion of the culmen ; size 
and other characters extremely variable, but usually medium-sized or 
small, and remiges never more than 39 (usually 30, or less). 

Procellariidae. (Page 53.) 
a^. "VVings very short, and general appearance decidedly Auk-like ; nostrils opening 
upwards, as parallel longitudinal slits, at very base of culmen. 

Halodromidae. (Extralimital.) 

Family DIOMEDEIDi©.— The Albatrosses. (Page 50.) 

Nest a mound-like heap of grasses, etc., with depressed top, built upon the 
ground in open situations, on oceanic islands. Egg single, ovate, or elliptical ovate, 
white, sometimes speckled or sprinkled on larger end with reddish brown. 

Genera. 

a^. Sides of lower mandible without longitudinal groove ; wing three or more times 
as long as the short, rounded tail. 
b^. Upper division of the bill much broadest at base, where joined closely to the 

lateral division Diomedea. (Page 50.) 

6^ Upper division of the bill narrow, and of equal width from the middle of 
the culmen to the base, where widely separated from the lateral division 
by the interposition of a strip of naked skin extending from the nasal 

tubes to the forehead Thalassogeron. (Page 52.) 

a*. Sides of lower mandible with a distinct longitudinal groove, extending the entire 
length of the lateral division ; wing only about twice as long as the gradu- 
ated or wedge-shaped tail .- Phcebetria. (Page 53.) 

Genus DIOMEDEA Linn^us. (Page 50, pi. XIII., figs. 1, 2.) 

Species. 

a}. Culmen very concave ; feathers at base of upper mandible extending in an angle 
nearly or quite to the base of the nasal tube, those at the base of the lower 
mandible forming a still more decided angle. (Subgenus Diomedea.) 



DIOMEDEA. 51 

Wing 26.50-29.00 inches ; total length, 44.00-55.00, extent, 125.00-130.00. 
Adult : White, the remiges blackish. Young : Dusky, with fore part of 
the head whitish (older individuals with more white, according to age). 
Egg 4.95 X 3.15, white, minutely sprinkled over large end with brownish 
(adventitious stain in pores of shell ?). Hab. Southern seas in general, 
north, casually or very irregularly, to Florida (Tampa Bay) and coast 
of Washington Territory. 

— . D. exulans Linn. Wandering Albatross.^ 
Culmen slightly concave, the bill more compressed ; feathers at base of maxilla 
extending in a nearly straight obliquely transverse line far back of the nasal 
tube, those at the base of the lower mandible also extending nearly straight 
across. 
h^. Lateral division of the bill narrower at base than in the middle. (Sub- 
genus Phcebastria Eeich.^) 
c\ Length 28.50-36.00, wing 18.50-20.50, culmen 4.00-4.25, depth of bill at 
base 1.45-1.60, tarsus 3.50-3.70, middle toe 4.05-4.40. Adult : Uni- 
form dusky, more grayish below, the tail-coverts, base of tail, and 
anterior portion of the head white ; bill dusky purplish brown ; feet 
black. Young : Similar to adult, but upper tail-coverts dusky, and 
white of head more restricted (sometimes almost obsolete). Hab. 
North Pacific ; on the American side, from coast of California 
(very abundant) to Alaska. 

81. D. nigripes Aud. Black-footed Albatross. 
c\ Length 33.00-37.00, wing 22.00-23.00, culmen 5.50-5.G0, depth of bill 

at base 1.95-2.05, tarsus 3.80^.00, middle toe 4.65-4.90. Adult: 
White, becoming straw-yellow on head and neck ; tail-feathers, 
remiges, etc, slaty brown, the primaries with yellow shafts. Young : 
Uniform sooty or dusky, the head and neck nearly black ; shafts of 
primaries straw-yellow ; bill and feet pale brownish. Hab. North 
Pacific ; on the American side occurring from California to Alaska, 
but chiefly northward. 

82. D. albatrus Pall. Short-tailed Albatross. 
P. Lateral division of bill broader at base than in middle. (Subgenus Thalas- 

sarche Eeich.') 
c\ Lower parts white ; upper parts plain dusky. 

d^. Under wing-coverts chiefly, or in large part, white. Adult (and 
young f) : He.ad, neck, rump, upper tail-coverts, and entire 
lower parts white, the sides of the head with a more or less 
distinct grayish stripe, darkest near the eye ; back and scapu- 
lars brownish slate, more ashy anteriorly, the wings plain 
dusk}^ ; color of bill varying from pale 5-ellowish in adult to 
dark horn-color in young; wing 19.50-20.50, tail 8.00-8.50, 

1 Diomedea exulans Linn., S. N. ed. 10, i. 175S, 132. 

2 Phcebastria Reich., Syst. Av. 1S52, p. v. Type, Diomedea hrachyura Temm., = D. albatrus Pall. 
' Thalassarche Reich., Syst. Av. 1852, p. v. Type, Diomedea melano^ihrys BoiE. 



52 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

culm6n 4.50-4.60, tarsus 3.05-3.38, middle toe 3.90-4.32. Hah. 
Southern seas, especially South Pacific, casual off coast of Cali- 
fornia — . D. melanophrys Boie. Spectacled Albatross.^ 

d}. Under wing-coverts uniform dark slaty or grayish brown. Similar 
in plumage to D. melanophrys, except under wing-coverts, which 
are uniform dusky instead of partly white; bill olive-brownish, 
the nails dusky ; wing 20.00, tail 9.00, culmen 5.00, depth of 
bill at base 1.75, tarsus 3.00, middle toe (with claw) 4.75. Hab. 

(Unknown.) 

D. gilliana Coues. Gill's Albatross.'' 

c^ Lower parts partly grayish brown ; upper parts varied with dusky and 
white. 

Adult (?): Head and neck white, washed with yellow; belly 
grayish brown, freckled with white ; upper back and rump 
transversely varied with dusky and white. Hab. Pacific coast 
of South America (Callao Bay, Peru). 

D. irrorata Salvin. Speckled Albatross.^ 



Genus THALASSOGERON Eidgway. (Page 50, pi. XIY., fig. 1.) 

Species. 

Common Characters. — Adult: Upper parts chiefly uniform dark brownish 
slate, more plumbeous on back, especially anteriorly ; rump and upper tail-coverts 
white ; tail grayish, the feathers with yellowish white shafts ; lower parts white ; 
head and neck sometimes w^hite shaded with plumbeous on top of former and 
hinder part of latter, sometimes entirely light ash-gray, always with a darker space 
immediately in front of and behind eye, with a white spot on lower ej^elid. 

a\ Culmen 4.50 or less ; wing 21.00, or less ; bill blackish, with yellowish culmen. 
6\ Culmen continuing broad and flat to the extreme base, which is broad and 
slightly rounded ; tarsus more than 3.00 ; lower mandible with a yellow- 
ish stripe along lower edge, from base nearly to the nail ; culmen pale 
yellowish or greenish ; length about 35.00-37.00, wing 17.75-21.00, tail 
8.00-9.00, culmen 4.35-4.50, depth of bill at base 1.70-1.75, tarsus 3.25, 
middle toe (without claw) 4.30-4.35. Egg 4.18 X 2.63. Hab. Southern 
oceans (except South Atlantic?), north, casually, to coast of Oregon. 

83. T. culminatus (Gould). Yellow-nosed Albatross. 

b^. Culmen much compressed, narrowing to an acute angle at extreme base; 

tarsus less than 3.00; lower mandible without yellow along lower edge, 



1 Biomedea melanophrys " BoiE," Temm. PI. Col. No. 456 (1838). Gould, B. Austr. pi. 43. B. B. k R. 
Water B. N. Am. ii. 1884, 357. 

2 Bwmedea gilliana CouES, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phil. May, 1866, 181. Type in mus. Philadelphia Academy 
Natural Sciences. (Possibly young of D. melanophrys.) 

3 Diomedea irrorata Salvin, P. Z. S. 1883, 430. 



PRCEBETRIA. 53 

but with a transverse bar of yellow (orange in life) across the base ; 
culmen orange-yellow in life ; wing about 19.00, tail 7.00, culmen 4.50, 
depth of bill at base 1.50, tarsus 2.75, middle toe (with claw) 4.25. Hab. 
Indian, Antarctic, and South Pacific Oceans. 

T. chlororhynchus (Gmel.). Green-billed Albatross.^ 
«l Culmen 4.75 or more ; wing 22.00 ; bill light-colored (pale grayish, with pale 
yellowish culmen and nails in life), with black line across base of upper man- 
dible and yellow bar at base of lower. (" Clouded with dark gray" in 
young.) Culmen 4.75-4.90, depth of bill at base 1.90-2.00, tail 10.00, tarsus 
3.25, middle toe (with claw) 5.00. Hah. South coast of Van Diemen's Land. 

T. cautus (Gould). Cautious Albatross.'' 

Genus PHCEBETRIA Eeichenbach. (Page 50, pi. XIY., fig. 2.) 

Species. 

Adult (?) : Neck, back, and lower parts pale smoky gray ; sides of head, chin, 
and throat deep sooty, nearly black around eyes ; eyelids whitish ; wings and tail 
dark sooty slate, the shafts of primaries and tail-feathers yellowish toward base ; 
bill deep black, the grooves whitish; feet pale reddish or yellowish. Young {?): 
Entire head deep sooty blackish, fading gradually into deep smoky gray on lower 
parts, back, rump, and upper tail-coverts ; wings and tail sooty slate, the shafts of 
the quills and tail-feathers yellowish white; eyelids conspicuously white, except 
anteriorly ; bill and feet as in supposed adult. Length 34.00-37.00, extent 78.00- 
84.00, wing 20.00-21.50, tail 10.50-13.00, the outer feathers 3.00-5.50 shorter. 
Egg 3.96 X 2.63, white, minutely sprinkled with brown on larger end. Sab. South 
Pacific, north (casually ?) to coast of Oregon. 

84. P. fuliginosa (Gmel.). Sooty Albatross. 

Family PROCELLARIIDiE.— The Petrels. (Page 50.) 

JSfest a hole among rocks (usually on face of cliffs). JEgg single, white (unless 

adventitiously stained). 

Genera. 

a}-. Secondaries 13, or more. (Subfamily Proeellariince.) 

b^. Size very large (wing 17.00 or more) ; tail-feathers 16 ; bill longer than 

tarsus Ossifraga. (Page 57.) 

b^. Size medium or small (wing 15.00 or less) ; tail-feathers 12-14 ; bill shorter 
than tarsus. 
c^. "Wing more than 7.00. 

d^. Culmen more than half as long as middle toe, with claw. 

e^ Inner side of edge of upper mandible without distinct fringe- 
like processes. 

1 Diomedea cMororhyncha Gmel., S. N. i. 1788, 568. 

2 Diomedea cauta Gould, P. Z. S. viii. 1840, 177; B. Austr. pi. 40. 



54 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 



/'. Bill cylindrical or com2:)ressed at base, where not broader 
than deep. 
g^. Partition between nostrils very thin (very much nar- 
rower than width of a singl'e nostril), entirely 
within the nasal tubes. 
/i^ Gonys very slightly or not at all concave, the tip 
not distinctly decurved ; nasal tubes decidedly 
longer than gonys... Fulmarus. (Page 57.) 
/^^ Gonys very strongly concave, the tip distinctly de- 
curved ; nasal tubes not decidedly longer (usu- 
ally shoi'ter) than gonys (excej)t in Bulwerid). 
^^ Depth of bill at shallowest part more than 
one-fourth the length of the lower man- 
dible, measured along the side. 
/. Tail more or less graduated, and without 
white tip. 
k^. Tail less than half as long as wing, 
and graduated for less than one- 
third its length ; cutting-edge of 
lower mandible decidedly con- 
cave ; nail of lower mandible oc- 
cupying at least one-third the 
total length of the mandible, 
measured along its side ; plu- 
mage and size very variable. 

^strelata. (Page 63.) 
A'. Tail more than half as long as wing, 
and graduated for more than 
one-third its length ; cutting- 
edge of lower mandible straight, 
or very slightly concave ; nail 
of lower mandible occupying de- 
cidedly less than one-third the 
total length of the mandible, 
measured along its side ; color 
uniform dusky ; wing about 8.00. 
Bulweria. (Page 69.) 
/. Tail slightly rounded, and with a distinct 
white tip. 

Cutting-edge of lower mandible 
straight, and nail of lower man- 
dible occupying less than one- 
third its total length, as in Bul- 
weria ; plumage bluish above, 
and on sides of chest, the lower 



PROCELARIIDJE. 55 

parts, forehead, tips of longer 
scapulars and of tail white; wing 

about 8.00 Halohcena} 

i^. Dej)th of bill at shallowest part decidedly 
less than one-fourth the length of the 
lower mandible, measured along its side ; 
plumage bluish gray above, becoming 
white on forehead and blackish on wings ; 
beneath entirely white ; wing about 

9.00 Cookilaria} 

g^. Partition between nostrils very thick (as wide as or 
wider than nostril), ending anteriorly "flush" 
with, or but little behind, the anterior rim" of the 
nasal tubes. 
h}. Space between nasal tubes and base of unguis not 
greater than length of the latter ; nostrils not 
visible from above ; color uniform sooty black 
(browner below), with or without white mark- 
ings on head ; wing 13.50 or more.. Majaqueus? 
h?. Space between nasal tubes and base of unguis 
decidedly greater than length of the latter; 
nostrils partly (usually entirely) visible from 
above ; color and size very variable, but wing 
never more than 15.00 (usually much less). 

Puffinus. (Page 58.) 
p. Bill flattened, broader than deep at base. 

Branches of lower mandible bowed widely apart, the 
space between mostly unfeathered ; plumage spotted 
white and dusky above, entirely white beneath. 

Daption. (Page 69.) 
e\ Inner side of edge of upper mandible with distinct fringe-like 
processes ; color bluish above, the tail tipped with black- 
ish ; beneath white ; wing about 7.00-7.50, 
p. Culmen concave ; lateral outlines of bill straight. 

Pseudojprion} 
p. Culmen straight ; lateral outlines of bill decidedly convex. 

Prion.} 

d}. Culmen less than half as long as middle toe, with claw; tail 

even ; hind claw very large, equal in length to the nasal tubes, 

measured along the top ; color entirely pure white... Fagodroma.^ 

1 Halohstna " Is. Geoffr. 1836," Bonap. Consp. ii. 1857, 193. Type, Procellaria cierulea Gmel. 

2 Cookilaria BoNAP., Compt. Rend, xliii. 1856, 994. Type, Procellaria cooJcii Gray. 

3 Maj'aqtieus Reich., Av. Syst. 1852, p, iv. Type, Procellaria sequinoctialis Linn. 
* Psetidoprion CouES, Pr. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phil. 1866, 164. Type, Prion titrtur Gould. 

5 Prion Lacepede, Mem. de I'lnst. 1800-1801, 514. Type, Procellaria, vittata Gmel. 
^ Pagodroma BoNAP., Consp. ii. 1856, 192. Type, Procellaria nivea Gmel. 



56 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

c\ Wing less than 7.00. 

d}. Tarsus decidedly longer than middle toe, with claw ; tail much 
rounded, or slightly graduated ; plumage wholly dusky. 

Halocyptena. (Page 69.) 
d'. Tarsus not longer than middle toe, with claw ; tail emarginate, 
even, or at most only very slightly rounded. 
e^. Tail even, or very slightly rounded ; tarsus twice as long as 
the culmen ; color uniform dusky, with white upper tail- 
coverts Procellaria. (Page 69.) 

e'. Tail emarginate or slightly forked ; tarsus less than twice as 
long as the culmen ; color variable. 

Oceanodroma. (Page 70.) 
a\ Secondaries 10. (Subfamily Oceanitince.) 

6\ Tarsus exceeding middle toe, with claw, by less than the length of the bill 

(measured from forehead) ; basal division of middle toe shorter than 

rest of toe, including nail. 

c^ Culmen (from frontal feathers) less than half as long as middle toe, with 

claw. 

d}. Front of tarsus distinctly scutellate ; distance from tip of tail to 

end of longest upper coverts shorter than middle toe ; first quill 

shorter than third; lower parts white, forward to the chest; 

no white on upper parts Garrodia} 

d^. Front of tarsus not scutellate ; distance from tip of bill to end of 

longest upper coverts much greater than length of middle toe 

with claw ; lower parts dusky, or striped with dusky ; upper 

tail-coverts white. 

&, Claws narrow, pointed ; first quill much shorter than third ; 

belly and flanks uniform dusky... Oceanites. (Page 71.) 

^. Claws broad, flat, blunt; first quill longer than third; belly 

and flanks white striped with dusky Pealea? 

c*. Culmen (from frontal feathers) more than half as long as middle toe, 
with claw ; tarsus 2| times as long as culmen, appreciably scutel- 
late in front ; nails broad, flat, and blunt ; first quill much shorter 

than third Pelagodroma. (Page 72.) 

6'. Tarsus exceeding middle toe by more than the length of the culmen; basal 
division of middle toe longer than rest of toe, including nail ; culmen 
(from frontal feathers) more than half as long as middle toe, with claw ; 
tarsus 2^ times as long as culmen, the anterior scutellse sometimes ap- 
preciable, sometimes obsolete ; nails excessively broad (nearly as broad 
as long), flat, triangular ; first quill decidedly shorter than third. 

Cymodroma. (Page 71.) 



1 Garrodia Forbes, P. Z. S. 1881, 736. Type, Procellaria nereis Gould. 

"^ Pealea RiDGW., Auk, iii., July, 1886, 334. Type, Thalaasidroma lineata Peale. 



FULMARUS. 57 

Genus OSSIFRAGA Hombron & Jacquinot. (Page 53, pi. XY., fig. 1.) 

Species. 

Light phase : Head, neck, and lower parts white ; upper parts dusky, the 
feathers (especially scapulars) sometimes tipped with paler ; bill light yellowish. 
(Sometimes entirely white, relieved only by scattered brown feathers.) Dark 
phase : Uniform dark sooty brown, sometimes with whitish feathers round base 
of bill ; bill olive-yellowish or grayish white ; length, about 30.00-36.00, extent 
72.00-84.00, wing 17.00-21.00, culmen 3.50-4.00. Hab. Southern seas, north on 
Pacific coast of America (casually) to coast of Oregon. 

85. O. gigantea (Gmel.). Giant Fulmar. 

Genus FULMARUS Leach. (Page 54, pi. XVI., figs. 1, 2.) 

Species. 

a*. Bill short and stout, its greatest depth very nearly half the total length (meas- 
ured from frontal feathers) ; nasal tubes separated from the unguis hy a very 
narrow space, measuring much less than half as much in length as the former; 
tail-feathers 14. (Subgenus Fulmanis.) 
h^. Nasal tubes distinctly dusky, the whole bill sometimes olive-brownish. 

c^ Light phase : Head, neck, and lower parts white ; upper parts bluish 
gray, the quills darker. Lark phase : Entirely smoky gray. Length 
18.00-20.00, wing 12.50-13.75 (13.04), culmen 1.45-1.58 (1.50), depth 
of bill at base .65-.80 (.75). Egg 2.85 X 2.01. Mab. North Atlantic. 

86. F. glacialis (Linn.). Fulmar. 

c'. Similar in color to F. glacialis, but much smaller; wing 11.80-12.00 

(11.90), culmen 1.30-1.38 (1.33), depth of bill at base .60-.70 (.63). 

Hab. North Atlantic, south on American side to coast of New 

England 86a. F. glacialis minor (Kjaerb.). Lesser Fulmar. 

fe^ Nasal tubes light-colored ; bill never dark-colored. 

c^ Light phase : In plumage not with certainty distinguishable from the 
corresponding phase of F. glacialis. Lark phase : Much darker than 
the corresponding phase of F. glacialis, the color being a uniform 
deep sooty plumbeous in living and freshly-killed birds, changing 
to deep sooty brownish in very old skins. Length 17.00-19.00, wing 
11.90-12.35 (12.06), culmen 1.35-1.65 (1.48), depth of bill at base 
.65-.70 (.68). Egg 2.82 X 1-95. Hab. North Pacific, south along 
American coast to western Mexico. 

86b. F. glacialis glupischa Stejn. Pacific Fulmar. 

c*. Light phase : Similar to corresponding phase of the preceding, but the 

bluish gray of the upper parts broken by a more or less extensive 

admixture of white. No dark phase knoim. Wing 12.10-12.90 

(12.46), culmen 1.40-1.60 (1.49), depth of bill at base .65-.75 (.72). 

8 



58 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

Egg 2.83 X 1-91. Hah. Bering's Sea and portions of the North Pa- 
cific 86c. F. glacialis rodgersii (Cass.). Rodgers's Fulmar. 

rt^ Bill long and slender, its greatest depth much less than half the total length 
(measured from frontal feathers) ; nasal tubes sei^arated from the unguis by 
a space measuring much more than half as much in length as the former. 
h^. Bill cj'lindrical at base, or measuring as much in width as in depth ; space 
between nasal tube and base of unguis about equal to the length of the 
former; upper parts plain; head white; tail-feathers 14. (Subgenus 
Priocella Hombr. & J acq.). 
Head, neck, and lower parts white ; upper parts pale pearl-gray, the 
quills darker, with inner webs chiefl}^ white; length 18.00-18.50, 
wing 13.00, culmen 1.75-2.10, depth of bill at base .65. Jllab. South- 
ern seas, north along Pacific coast of America to coast of Washing- 
ton Territory... 87. F. glacialoides (Smith). Slender-billed Fulmar. 
b"^. Bill compressed, or higher than broad, at base ; space between nasal tube 
and base of unguis less than the length of the former; upper parts parti- 
colored ; head dusky ; tail-feathers 12. (Subgenus Thalassoica Eeich.^) 
Head and neck sooty grayish, darker on top ; back, scapulars, rump, 
tip of tail, primary-coverts, lesser wing-coverts, and greater part of 
primaries, sooty slate ; lower parts, secondaries, greater wing-coverts, 
inner webs of primaries, tail (except terminal band), and upper tail- 
coverts, white ; wing 12.50, culmen 1.40. Hab. Antarctic seas. 

F. antarcticus (Gmel.). Antarctic Fulmar.* 

Genus PUFFINUS Brisson. (Page 55, pi. XVI., figs. 3, 4.) 

Species, 
o}. Nostrils only partially visible from above, the nasal tubes elevated and inflated 
anteriorly, Avhere broader than at base ; under wing-coverts dusky, and 
lower parts white. (Subgenus Priofinus Hombr. & Jacq.) 
h^. Above ash-gray, more or less tinged with brown, darker on top of head, 
quills, and tail-feather ; lower parts white, except under wing-coverts 
and under tail-coverts, which are deep smoky grayish ; bill light yel- 
lowish, with deep black culmen and nasal tubes, the side of lower man- 
dible also mostly black ; wing 12.25-13.50, culmen 1.75-1.85, depth of 
bill in front of nostril .50-.55, tarsus 2.25-2.30, middle toe, with claw, 
2.90. Hah. South Pacific, north, casually, to coast of California. 

97. P. cinereus (Gmel.). Black-tailed Shearwater. 
fe^ Above brown, the upper tail-coverts tipped with white ; wings and tail 
blackish ; lower parts white, including under wing-coverts and tail- 
coverts ; bill yellowish, passing into dusky at tip ; wing 15.00, tarsus 
2.35, middle toe, with claw, 3.15. Hah. Antarctic seas. 

P. gelidus (Gmel.). Ice Petrel.^ 

1 Thalassoica Reich., Syst. Av. 1852, p. iv. Type, Procellaria antarctica Gmel. 

2 Procellaria antarctica Gmel., S. N. i. pt. ii. 1788, 565. Thallasoica antarctica Reich., Syst. Av. 1852, p. iv. 

3 Procellaria gelida Gmel., S. N. i. 1788, 564. 



PUFFINUS. 59 

a^. Nostrils completely visible from above, the nasal tubes depressed and bevelled 
anteriorly, where narrower than at base ; under wing-coverts white, or else 
lower parts also dusky. 
¥. Tail much less than half the wing, slightly rounded, or moderately gradu- 
ated (the graduation not more than two-thirds the length of the tarsus). 
(Subgenus Puffitius.) 
d. Lower parts white. 

d}. Wing more than 12.00. 

e\ No distinct line of demarcation between white of throat, etc., 

■ and smoky gray of top and sides of head and neck ; bill 

yellowish ; above brownish gray, feathers of back, etc., 

tipped with paler; sides of head and neck transversely 

undulated with ash-gray and white. 

/\ Lower tail-coverts entirely white. 

g\ Length about 18.00, wing 13.00-14.00, culmen 1.80- 
2.00, depth of bill through base .65-.70, tarsus 1.85- 
2.00, middle toe 2.10-2.25. Doivny young : Uni- 
form sooty grayish brown. Hab. Middle eastern 
Atlantic; a specimen from Greenland said to be 
in Leyden Museum (cf. Schleg. Mus. P.-B., Fro- 
cellarice, 1863, p. 24). 

P. kuhlii (Boie). Cinereous Shearwater.^ 
g\ Length about 20.00-22.00, wing 13.75-14.50, culmen 
2.10-2.25, depth of bill at base .75-.80, tarsus 2.20- 
2.25, middle toe 2.45. Hab. Western North At- 
lantic (off coast of Massachusetts). 

88. P. borealis Cory. Cory's Shearwater. 
/'. Lower tail-coverts uniform dark sooty grayish. 

Length 19.00, wing 12.50-13.25, culmen 1.60-1.70, 
depth of bill through base .65-.75, tarsus 2.05-2.12, 
middle toe 2.15-2.40. Hab. Eastern Pacific Ocean 
from California to Chili. 

91. P. creatopus Coues. Pink-footed Shearwater. 

e'. White of throat, etc., separated very abruptly from the dusky 

color of top and sides of head and neck ; bill blackish. 

Above smoky grayish brown, feathers of back, etc., with 

paler tips ; longer upper tail-coverts mostly white ; 

belly more or less clouded with smoky gray, the flanks 

and lower tail-coverts mostly grayish brown ; length 

19.00-20.00, wing 11.50-13.00, culmen 1.80-1.85. Hab. 

Atlantic Ocean generally. 

89. P. major Faber. Greater Shearwater. 
d\ Wing less than 10.00. 

e^. Above sooty slate, without white tips to wing-coverts, etc. 

1 For references, see A. 0. U. Check List, p. 350. 



60 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

p. Tarsus 1.75, or more. 
g\ Tail 3.10, or less. 

Above uniform sooty blackish, the head and 
neck not perceptibly paler; lower tail-coverts 
mixed white and dusky, in greatly varying 
relative amount ; length 13.00-15.00, wing 
8.50-9.25, tail 2.60-3.10, culmen 1.35-1.40, 
depth of bill at base .40-.45, tarsus 1.70-1.80, 
middle toe 1.65-1.70. Downy yoimg : Sooty 
brownish gray above, grayish white below. 
Egg 2.36 X 1-62. Hah. Northern Atlantic 
(chiefly the eastern side) and Mediterranean 

Sea 90. P. puffinus (Brunn.). Manx 

Shearwater. 
g^. Tail 3.25, or more. 

Above uniform sooty slate, appreciably paler on 
head and neck ; lower tail-coverts wholly sooty 
grayish; length 12.25-15.00, wing 9.00-9.10, 
tail 3.25-3.80, culmen 1.30-1.40, depth of bill 
at base .35, tarsus 1.75, middle toe 1.70-1.75. 
Egg 1.79 X 1-27. Hah. Pacific Ocean, from 

Lower California to New Zealand 93. P. 

gavia (FoRST.). Black-vented Shearwater. 
p. Tarsus 1.65, or less. 

g^. Lower tail-coverts with more or less of dusky. 

h^. Above uniform sooty black ; M^hite of under side 
of head extending upward nearly or quite to 
the eye, sometimes involving part of the lores ; 
length about 11.00, wing 7.60-8.40, tail 3.50, 
culmen 1.20-1.25, depth of bill at base .35, 
tarsus 1.50-1.65, middle toe 1.45-1.60. Egg 
2.05 X 1-45. Hah. Warmer parts of Atlantic 
Ocean, north, casuallj^, to coast of New Jer- 
sey 92. P. auduboni Finsch. Audubon's 

Shearwater. 
h^. Similar in color to P. auduboni, but smaller, the 
bill shorter and more slender, the wing longer; 
wing 7.00, tail 3.25, culmen .98, tarsus 1.44, 
middle toe 1.42. Hah. Pacific Ocean ? (" King 
George's Sound" ^). 

P. tenebrosus Pelz. Pelzeln's Shearwater.' 

1 Latham ("Synopsis," iii. pt. ii. p. 417) says "King George's Sound, on the American coast"; but von 
Pelzeln (Ibis, 1873, p. 47) thinks that this is a mistake, King George's Sound on the west coast of Australia 
being meant instead. 

2 Puffinus tenehroBus Pelz., Ibis, 1873, 47, 



PUFFINUS. 61 

(f. Lower tail-coverts entirely white. 

h}. Dusk}- of head extending far below the eye, the 
white being almost confined to throat and 
fore-neck ; wing 8.30, culmen 1.25, tarsus 1.55, 
middle toe, with claw, 1.85. Hah. Indian 
Ocean, and southeastward to New Zealand. 

P. obscurus (Gmel.). Dusky Shearwater.* 

/il Dusky of head not descending below the eye, the 

ear-coverts and greater part of lores being 

white ; wing 6.50, culmen about 1.00, tarsus 

1.25. Hab. Australian seas. 

P. assimilis Gould. Allied Shearwater. 
e*. Above plumbeous, the larger wing-coverts, scapulars, etc., nar- 
rowly tipped with whitish. 

Lower parts entirely white ; wing 7.30, tail 2.70, culmen 
1.07, tarsus 1.70, middle toe, with claw, 1.95. Hah. 
South Atlantic. 

P. elegans Gigl. & Salt ad. Elegant Shearwater.^ 
cl Lower parts uniform dusky, or sooty gray (the chin and throat some- 
times whitish). 
d}. Bill black or dusky. 

e\ Culmen much longer than the combined length of the first 
two divisions of the outer toe. 
p. Wing more than 11.00 ; bill horn-gray or dusky brownish ; 
under wing-coverts mottled with white and smoky 
gray, and with dusky shaft-streaks. 
g^. Under wing-coverts gray, transversely mottled with 
white at tips; length about 16.00, wing 11.15- 
12.00, culmen 1.60-1.75, depth of bill at base .50- 
.55, tarsus 2.05-2.15, middle toe 2.05-2.20. Egg 
2.58 X 1-78. Hab. North Atlantic, from the New- 
foundland Banks to South Carolina on the Ameri- 
can side. 

94. P. Strickland! Eidgw. Sooty Shearwater. 

g"^. Under wing-coverts white, transversely mottled with 

gray at tips; wing 11.15-12.00, culmen 1.55-1.70, 

depth of bill at base .45-.55, tarsus 2.12-2.35, 

middle toe 2.05-2.25. Hab. South Pacific, north, 

on American side, to California 95. P. griseus 

(Gmel.). Dark-bodied Shearwater. 

1 Procellaria ohscura Gmel., S. N. i. pt. ii. 1788, 559. Puffinus ohsmirus Reich., Novit. Synop. Av. Natat. 
Dec. 1850 (second page). 

2 Puffinw assimilis Gould, P. Z. S. 1837, 186; B. Austr, vii. pi. 59. 

3 Puffinus elegans Giglioli & Salvadori, Ibis, 1869, 67, 68. Saltin, Rowley's Orn. Misc. pt. iv. 1876, 256, 
pi. 34. 



62 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

p. Wing less than 10.00; bill deep black; under wing-coverts 
uniform deep sooty black. 

Uniform sooty black, the lower parts much darker 

and browner than in stricklandi and griseus ; wing 

9.80, tail 3.50, culmen 1.25, tarsus 1.70, middle toe, 

with claw, 1.98. Hah. Pacific Ocean (Christmas 

Island). 

P. nativitatis Streets. Christmas Island Shearwater.^ 

e^ Culmen less than the combined length of the first two divisions 

of the outer toe. 

Above dark sooty slate, beneath deep sooty gray, paler 

on throat, where sometimes inclining to whitish ; wing 

10.00-11.10, tail 3.20-3.60, culmen 1.20-1.28, depth of 

bill at base .35-.50, tarsus 1.90-2.00, middle toe, with 

claw, 2.18-2.42. Hah. Pacific Ocean, from Alaska and 

Kamtschatka to Australia 96. P. tenuirostris 

(Temm.). Slender-billed Shearwater. 
d?. Bill light-colored (pinkish or fleshy white in life), the nails black- 
ish. Hob. Off western coast of Australia. 

P. carneipes Gould, Flesh-footed Shearwater .^ 
6^ Tail nearly or quite half as long as the wing, graduated for about as much 
as the length of the tarsus. (Subgenus Theillus Gloger.^) 
c^. Lower parts uniform sooty grayish. 

d}. Bill dusky or brownish, with flesh-colored or reddish tinge in life ; 
wing 10.50-11.25, tail 5.00-6.00 (graduated for about 2.00), cul- 
men 1.60, tarsus 1.90, middle toe, with claw, 2.35. Hab. Aus- 
tralian seas P. sphenurus Gould. Wedge-tailed Shearwater.* 

d^. Bill "greenish orange," with black tip and culmen; rather larger 
than P. sphenurus. Hah. Indian Ocean, from western Australia 
to Cape of Good Hope. 

P. chlororhynchus Less. Green-billed Shearwater.^ 
c^ Lower parts white. 

Top and sides of head white, spotted and streaked with blackish ; 

wing 11.25-12.50, tail 5.85 (graduated for about 1.80), culmen 

1.85, tarsus 1.85, middle toe, with claw, 1.30. Hah. Japanese seas. 

P. leucomelas (Temm.). Streaked Shearwater.^ 

1 Pitffinus {Nectria) nativitatis Streets, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. No. 7, 1877, 29. 

2 Piiffimis carneipea GouLD, P. Z. S. 1844, 57. 

3 Theillus Glog., "v. Fror. Notiz. 1827, xvi. 279." Type, Puffinns chlororJii/nchns JjBSS. (?). 

* Puffinus sjyhenurus Gould, Ann. Mag. N. H. 1st ser. xiii. 1844, 366 ; B. Austr. vii. pi. 58. 

* Puffinus cJilororhynchiis Less., Traits, 18.31, 61.3. 

6 Procellaria leucomelas Temm., PI, Col. livr. 99, pi. 587 (1838). Puffinus leucomelas Bonap., Consp. ii. 
1856, 203. 



^STRELATA. 



63 



Genus ^STRELATA Bonaparte. (Page 54, pi. XVI., fig. 6.) 

Species. 

a^. Inner webs of primaries wholly dusky, except sometimes toward base. 
¥. Plumage largely or chiefly white beneath, 
c^ Upper tail-coverts same color as back. 
d}. Wing more than 9.00. 

e^. Tail ash-gray, the exterior feathers whitish, mottled with 
gray ; back, scapulars, rump, etc., plain ash-gray or light 
plumbeous; wings much darker; lower parts white, the 
sides of the chest and neck waved or barred with ash- 
gray. 
f\ Wing 11.50-12.00, tail 5.00-5.90, culmen 1.45-1.50, tarsus 
1.65-1.70, middle toe, with claw, 2.40-2.45; top of 
head almost entirely white. Hah. South Pacific and 
Indian Oceans. 

M. lessoni (Garn,). Lesson's Petrel.^ 
f\ Wing 9.50-10.50, tail 4.50, culmen 1.10, tarsus 1.33, middle 
toe, with claw, 1.75 ; top of head deep ash-gray, except 
anteriorly. Hah. South Pacific and Antarctic Oceans. 
JE.. mollis (Gould). Downy Petrel.^ 
e^. Tail uniform dusky, the exterior feathers sometimes mottled 
with whitish. 
p. Axillars and under wing-coverts uniform smoky gray or 
dusky. 
g^. Culmen 1.25, or more. 

h}. Width of upper mandible at base equal to the 
height of the closed bill at base. 

Head, neck, and chest uniform sooty grayish 
brown, darker above, where nearly the 
same shade as the uniform dark sooty 
color of the upper parts generally ; entire 
sides, flanks, and outer webs of exterior 
lower tail-coverts sooty grayish brown, 
like under surface of wing ; rest of lower 
parts white; wing 11.10, tail 4.70 (gradu- 
ated for 1.40), culmen 1.28, width of bill 
at base .65, depth .65, tarsus 1.75, middle 



1 Procellaria lessoni Garnot, Ann. Sc. Nat. vii. 1826, 54, fig. 4. ^Estrelata lessoni Cass., Proe. Ac. Nat. 
Sci. Phil. 1862, 327. 

* Procellaria mollis Gould, Ann. & Mag. N. H. xiii. 1844, 363; B. Austr. vii. pi. 50. ^strelata mollis 
CouES, Proc, Ac. Nat. Sci. Phil. 1866, 150. 



64 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

toe, with claw, 2.15. Hab. South Pacific 
(Tahiti). 

2E.. rostrata (Peale). Thick-billed Petrel.^ 
Al Width of upper mandible at base decidedly less 
than height of closed bill at base. 
i}. Under tail-coverts dusky. 

Head, neck, and chest smoky grayish 
brown, paler on chest (where feath- 
ers are white immediately beneath 
the surface), still paler on throat, 
where almost white ; sides and top of 
head, hind-neck, back, and scapulars 
deeper smoky brownish gray, the 
dorsal feathers with paler narrow 
tips ; wings, rump, and tail dusky ; 
breast and belly soiled white ; wing 
12.17-12.50, tail 5.15-5.40 (graduated 
for 1.60), culmen 1.42-1.60, tarsus 
1.65, middle toe, with claw, 1.95-2.42. 
Hah. Southern oceans, including vi- 
cinity of Tierra del Fuego. 
M. incerta (Schleg.). Schlegel's Petrel.'' 
i"^. Under tail-coverts white. 

Otherwise, much like ^. incerta, but 
throat and a superciliary space more 
distinctly white; wing 12.00-12.21, 
tail 5.00-5.50, tarsus 1.49-1.60, mid- 
dle toe, with claw, 2.20. Hah. South 
Pacific. 

JE,. magentse Gigl. & Salvad. Magenta 

Petrel.2 
g^. Culmen, 1.14, or less. 

A\ Tail 4.75, or more ; culmen 1.12, or more. 

Above uniform dusky, more grayish an- 
teriorly, especially on forehead ; chest, 
entire sides, and under surface of wing 
dusky sooty brown, more gray across 
chest ; throat whitish ; breast, belly, and 
greater part of under tail-coverts white ; 
wing 11.20-11.41, tail 4.75-5.50, culmen 
1.12-1.14, tarsus 1.30-1.35, middle toe, 

1 Procellaria rostrata Peale, Zool. U. S. Expl. 1848, 296, atl. pi. 41. j^strelata rostrata Codes, Pr. Ac. 
Nat. Sci. Phil. 1866, 144. 

2 Procellaria incerta ScHLEG., Mus. P.-B., Procellariie, 1863, 9. vEstrelata incerta CouES, Pr. Ac. Nat. 
Sci. Phil. 1866, 147. 

' ^strelata magentse GiGL. & Salvad., Ibis, 1869, 61. Salvin, Rowley's Orn. Misc. pt. iv. 1876, 251, pi. 30. 



^STRELATA. 65 

with claw, 1.83-1.90. Hah. South At- 
lantic (island of Trinidad). 

2E,. arminjoniana Gigl. & Salvad. Ar- 
minjon's Petrel,* 
h^. Tail 4.60, or less ; culmen 1.10, or less. 

Similar in color to u^. arminjoniana, but 
much darker above, the color inclining to 
uniform sooty black throughout, the fore- 
head and chest more brownish ; wing 
10.50-11.10, tail 4.40-4.60, culmen 1.08- 
1.10, tarsus 1.28-1.35, middle toe, with 
claw, 1.70-1.78. Hah. South Pacific 
(Hondon and Christmas Islands), 
2E,. parvirostris (Peale). Small-billed Petrel.^ 
/'. Axillars and under wing-coverts white. 

Upper parts, including hind-neck and upper tail- 
coverts, uniform brownish slate, darker on wings 
and tail and nearly black on head, the feathers of 
hind-neck and the upper tail-coverts (the latter 
very abruptly) white beneath the surface ; fore- 
head, lores, cheeks, and entire lower parts white, 
the sides and longer lower tail-coverts sometimes 
irregularl}^ barred with dusky ; wing 11.80-12.00, 
tail 5.50-5.75 (graduated for about 2.40), culmen 
1,22, tarsus 1.40, middle toe, with claw, 1.78. Hah. 
Middle Pacific, from Sandwich Islands to the 
Galaf)agos. 

JE.. phaeopygia Salv. Dark-rumped Petrel.' 
d\ Wing less than 9.00, 

Plumage much as in jE. pha;opygia, but back, scapulars, and 
upper tail-coverts decidedly plumbeous, the latter not white 
beneath surface ; wing 8.40-8.60, tail 3.80-4.00 (graduated 
for about 1.40), culmen .95-.98, tarsus .95-1.00, middle toe, 
with claw, 1.30-1.32. Hah. Southern oceans generally, 

^. leucoptera (Gould). White-winged Petrel,* 
c^. Upper tail-coverts plain white, in marked contrast with color of back. 

1 JEatrelata arminjoniana GiGL, & Salvad., Ibis, 1869, 62. Salvin, Rowley's Orn. Misc. pt, iv, 1876, 252, 
pi, 31, 

2 Procellaria parvirostris Peale, ZooI, U, S, Expl. 1848, 298, atl. pi. 40, JEstrelata parvirostris Coues 
Pr. Ac. Nat. Sci, Phil, 1866, 146, 

^ (Estrelata phscopygia Salvin, Trans. Zool, Soc. Lond. ix. pt. ix, 1875, 507, pi, 88, fig. 1. (Galapagos.) 
? (Estrelata eandwicJiensis RiDGW., Water B. N. Am, ii, 1884, 396, in text. (Sandwich Islands.) 

* Procellaria leucoptera Gould, P. Z, S. 1844, 57 ; B. Austr, pi, 51. (= ^Estrelata cookii CoUES et AuCT, , 
but, having compared specimens, I am able to say that Procellaria leucoptera Gould and P. cookii Gray are 
not only specifically distinct but belong to entirely different genera, the latter being the type of Cookilaria 
BoNAP,, distinguished from Estrelata, among other characters, by its lengthened, slender. Shearwater-like bill, 
as noted on page 55.) 

9 



66 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

Top of head, and upper parts generally, except upper tail-coverts, 
uniform dusky, the back and scapulars paler, with perceptibly 
still paler terminal margins to the feathers ; upper tail-coverts, 
basal half (approximately) of tail, head and neck, except top 
of the former (and sometimes the hind-neck also), together with 
lower parts, including axillars and under wing-coverts, pure 
white; the sides of the chest sometimes Avith a brownish gray 
wash; length 14.00-16.00, wing 11.40-11.75, tail 4.80-5.30 
(graduated for 1.25-2.00), culmen 1.22-1.38, tarsus 1.40-1.45, 
middle toe, with claw, 1.98-2.10. Hah. Middle Atlantic, strag- 
gling to coasts of North America (Florida and Long Island) 
and Europe.... 98. iE. hasitata (Kuhl). Black-capped Petrel. 
h"^. Plumage of lower parts chiefly or entirely dusky. 

c^. Upper tail-coverts pale smoke-gray or grayish white, in marked 
contrast. 

Entirely (except upper tail-coverts) uniform sooty brownish, 
rather paler and grayer below ; wing 10.80-11.00, tail 4.95-5.00 
(graduated for 1.18-1.20), tai'sus 1.38-1.40, middle toe, with 
claw, 1.95-2.00. Hab. Jamaica and adjacent portions of Carib- 
bean Sea. 

2E.. jamaicensis (Bancroft). Jamaican Petrel.* 
(?. Upper tail-coverts dusky, like rest of plumage. 
d}. "Wing more than 9.50. 

e^ Plumage sooty black above. 

Lower parts very dark sooty slate, the feathers white 
beneath the surface; wing 10.75-12.00, tail 4.50-5.60 
(graduated for about 1.20), culmen 1.35, tarsus 1.55- 
L60, middle toe, with claw, 2.20-2.40. Hah. Southern 
Atlantic, and Antarctic Ocean in vicinity of Kerguelen 
Island. 

IE. atlantica (Gottld). Atlantic Petrel.* 
e^ Plumage slaty or dark sooty grayish or plumbeous above. 

p. Larger (wing more than 11.00); wing 11.20, tail 4.55, 
culmen 1.10, tarsus 1.25, middle toe, with claw, 1.80. 
Hah. South Atlantic (vicinity of Trinidad Island). 

M. trinitatis GiGL. & Salvad. Trinidad Petrel.' 
p. Smaller (wing less than 11.00) ; wing 9.68-10.20, tail 4.17- 
4.35, culmen 1.05-1.08, tarsus 1.35-1.46, middle toe, 
with claw, 1.69-1.78. Hah. Southern oceans. 

JE. brevirostris (Less.). Short-billed Petrel.* 

1 Procellaria jamaicensis Bancroft, Zool. Jour. v. 1828, 81. CEstrelata jamaicensis A. & E. Newton, 
Handb. Jam. 1881, 117. 

2 Procellaria atlantica Gould, Ann. Mag. N. H. xiii. 1844, 362. 

3 yEstrelata trinitatis Salvad. & GiGL., Ibis, 1869, 65. Salvin, Rowley's Orn. Misc. pt. iv. 1876, 253 
pi. 32. 

* Procellaria brevirostris Less., TraitS, 1831, 611. CEstrelata brevirostris Saltin, Rowley's Orn. Misc. pt. 



^STRELATA. 67 

d}. Wing less than 9.50. 

Plumage sooty blackish ; wing 9.15, tail 3.82 (graduated for 
about .44), culmen 1.10, tarsus 1.46, middle toe, with claw, 
1.55. Hab. West coast of Africa; vicinity of Bourbon 
Island. 

/E. aterrinia (Schleg.), Black Petrel.^ 
o?. Inner webs of primaries abruptly white for at least the inner half 
b^. Wing more than 9.00. 

c'. Back uniform grayish, brownish, or dusky. 
d}. Top of head, back, etc., plain dusky. 

e^. Shafts of quills whitish ; head, neck, and upper parts plain 
dark brownish gray, paler (nearly white) on throat and 
fore-neck ; breast, flanks, and under tail-coverts brownish 
gray; rest of lower parts sometimes white, sometimes 
entirely dusky; wing 11.19-11.64, tail 3.91-4.17, culmen 
1.20. Hab. South Pacific, from Sunday Island to Juan 
Fernandez. 

2E. neglecta (Schleg.), Neglected Petrel.* 
&. Shafts of quills dark brown ; head, neck, and upper parts plain 
dark slaty (feathers of head and neck white beneath sur- 
face, those of back, etc., white at base) ; upper tail-coverts 
and tail brownish ash-gray ; lores, chin, throat, and under 
tail-coverts white, the first mixed with blackish ; breast, 
belly, sides, and flanks plain brownish plumbeous, the 
feathers pure white immediately beneath surface ; thighs 
and chest white irregularl}^ barred or vei^miculated with 
deep grayish ; wing 10.00, tail 4.00 (graduated for .90) 
culmen 1.02, depth of bill at base .50, tarsus 1.20, middle 
toe, with claw, 1.55. Hab. Antarctic Ocean. 

IE. gularis (Peale), Peale's Petrel.^ 
d^ Top of head white, spotted with grayish. 

Back and scapulars fine bluish gray, or plumbeous ; lesser 
wing-coverts slaty blackish ; greater and middle coverts 
slate-gray, broadly margined with white; tail mostly 
white, irregularly barred and vermiculated with gray; 
lores, cheeks, chin, throat, middle of chest, and under tail- 
coverts immaculate pure white ; a blackish spot imme- 
diately beneath eye ; sides of neck and chest densely 

V. 1876, 235 (in text). uEstrelata grisea Coues, Pr. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1866, 148 (ex Procellaria grisea Kuhl, 
nee Lath.). CEstrelata kidderi Coxjes, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. No. 2, 1875, 28 (Kerguelen Island). 

1 Procellaria aterrima " Verreaux," Schleg. Mus. P.-B., Procellarix, 1863, 9. ^atrelata aterrima 
CocES, Pr. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phil. 1866, 158. 

2 Procellaria neglecta ScHLEG., Mus. P.-B., Procellarise, 1863, 10. ^8trelata neglecta CouES, Proc. Ac. 
Nat. Sci. Phil. 1866, 147. 

' Procellaria gulnris Peale, Zool. U. S. Expl. Exp. 1848, 299. CEstrelata gularis Brewst., Bull. Nutt. 
Orn. Club, iv. 1881, 94 (part). 



68 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

mottled and vermiculated with ash-gray and white, but 
the former prevailing; lower breast, belly, sides, and 
flanks smoky plumbeous superficially, but the feathers all 
pure white immediately beneath the surface; wing 10.15, 
tail 4 (graduated for .90), culraen 1.00, tarsus 1.25, middle 
toe, with claw, 1.70. Hab. North Pacific, in vicinity of 
Alaska (Kadiak). 

100. JE.. fisheri Eidgw. Fisher's Petrel. 
c^. Back plumbeous or plumbeous-black, the feathers bordered with gray- 
ish, or whitish, producing a scaled appearance. 
d}. Above plumbeous-black, the feathers of back and scapulars mar- 
gined with gray; hind-neck white, with tips of the feathers 
pale gray; forehead and lower parts white; wing 11.50, tail 
5.00, tarsus 1.40, middle toe, with claw, l.t)0. Hah. Eastern 
South Pacific (island of Masafuera"! 

JE. externa Salt. Salvin's Petrel.^ 
d}. Above, including whole top of head, dark bluish gray, the feathers 
of back and scapulars broadly bordered terminally with ashy 
white, the middle and greater wing-coverts similarly marked ; 
chin, throat, chest, centre of breast, and iinder tail-coverts plain 
white ; rest of lower parts vermiculated and irregularly barred 
with slate-gray or plumbeous, this becoming uniform and some- 
what darker on bell}^; tail chiefly plain light brownish gray; 
wing 9.88, tail 3.95, culmen 1.03, depth of bill at base .46, tarsus 
1.37, middle toe, with claw, 1.70. Hah. Unknown; the single 
specimen obtained having been taken in Livingston Co., New 
York, in April, 1880. 

99. M. scalaris Brewst. Scaled Petrel.'' 
h^. Wing not more than 9.00. 

Above slate-gray or plumbeous, becoming more ashy anteriorly, this 
changing to white on forehead and over eyes ; outer surface of 
wings uniform ; lower parts entirely white, except sides of breast, 
which are ash-gray, like hind-neck ; wing 8.70-9.00, tail 3.80-4.00 
(graduated for about 1.00), culmen 1.04-1.05, tarsus 1.07-1.12, middle 
toe, with claw, 1.40. Hah. Eastern South Pacific. 

JE. defilippiana Gigl. & Salvad. De Filippi's Petrel.^ 

1 Qlstrelata externa Salv., Ibis, July, 1875, 373. 

2 (^ "^JJ. gularis " of the A. 0. U. Check List, but not Procellaria gularia Peale.) .lEstrelata scalaris 
Brewst., Auk, iii. July, 1866, 300. 

3 jEstrelata defilippiana Gigl. & Salvad., Ibis, 1869, 63. 



BULWERIA. 69 

Genus BULWERIA Bonaparte. (Page 54, pi. XIY., fig. 5.) 

Species. 

Common Characters. — Plumage entii'ely dusky sooty brownish darker on 
upper parts. 

a}. Greater wing-coverts rather light sooty grayish brown, like lower parts; above 
dark sooty brown, paler on greater wing-coverts, nearly black on lesser wing- 
coverts and quills ; lower parts uniform sooty grayish brown. Downy young : 
Uniform dark sooty brown. Length about 10.00, wing 7.70-8.00, tail 4.50- 
4.75, graduated for 1.45-1.75, culmen .85-1.00, tarsus .90-1.10, middle toe .95. 
Egg 1.73 X 1-22. Hab. Eastern Middle Atlantic, chiefly in the vicinity of 
the Canaries and Madeira ; accidental at Bermudas and near coast of Green- 
land 101. B. bulweri (Jard. & Selby). Bulwer's Petrel. 

a\ Greater wing-coverts blackish, like rest of wings. (" Like T. bulweri, but with 
bill rather larger; and it is without the sooty brown on the wings." — 
Gray.) 

B. macgillivrayi (Gray). Macgillivray's Petrel.^ 

Genus DAPTION Stephens. (Page 55, pi. XII., fig. 3.) 

Species. 

Lower parts (except chin and throat), rump, upper tail-coverts, and basal two- 
thirds of tail, together with greater portion of scapulars and secondaries, white; back, 
rump, and upper tail-coverts, marked with triangular spots of dark sooty plumbeous ; 
wing, except as described, chiefly sooty plumbeous, as is also the terminal third of 
the tail; bill deep black; length about 15.00, wing 10.25-11.00, culmen about 1.25. 
Hab. Southern seas in general, north, on Pacific coast of America (accidentally 
only ?) to California 102. D. capensis (Linn.). Pintado Petrel. 

Genus HALOCYPTENA Coues. (Page 56, pi. XII., fig. 4.) 

Species. 
Plain sooty blackish, lighter and more brownish on lower parts, middle and 
greater wing-coverts, and fore part of head ; bill and feet unifoi-m black ; length 
about 5.75, wing 4.80, tail 2.50, the outer feathers .40 shorter; culmen .45, tarsus 
.85, middle toe .60. Hab. Coast of Lower California. 

103. H. microsoma Coues. Least Petrel. 

Genus PROCELLARIA Linn^us. (Page 56, pi. XVII., fig. 4.) 

Species. 
Common Characters. — General color sooty blackish, paler or more sooty 
grayish below, the upper tail-coverts white ; bill and feet wholly black. 

^ Thalaesidroma {Bulweria) Macgillivrayi G. R. Gray, Cat. Birds Isl. Pacific, 1859, 56. 



70 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

o}. Longer upper tail-coverts broadly tipped with black; under side of wing with 
more or less of white; tail even, or slightly rounded ; length 5.50-5.75, wing 
4.50-4.90, tail 2.40-2.60, culraen .40-.50, tarsus .90, middle toe .60-.65. Egg 
1.09 X -83. Hab. North Atlantic, south to Newfoundland Banks and 
western coast of Africa 104. P. pelagica Linn. Storm Petrel. 

a?. Longer upper tail-coverts entirely white ; no white on under side of wing ; tail 
emarginated ; wing 5.20, tail 2.40, the middle feathers .20 shorter ; tarsus .85, 
middle toe (with claw ?) .70. Hab. Vicinity of the Galapagos Islands. 

P. tethys BoNAP. Galapagos Storm Petrel.^ 

Genus OCEANODROMA Eeichenbach. (Page 56, pi. XVII., figs. 1, 2.) 

Species. 

Common Characters. — Above dusky or grayish, with or without white on 
upper tail-coverts ; lower parts uniform bluish gray or sooty, or white interrupted 
by a grayish band across chest. 

a}. No white on upper tail-coverts. 

&\ A white collar round hind-neck. 

Lower parts white, with a gra5nsh collar across chest; upper parts 
grayish, the quills blackish, the forehead and sides of head white; 

length about 8.25, wing ?, tail 3.75, tarsus 1.00. Hab. North 

Pacific ("Northwest coast of America"). 

— . O. hornbyi (Gray). Hornby's Petrel. 
IP. No white collar round hind-neck. 

c* Color bluish gray, above and below. 

Uniform bluish gray, fading to white on chin, throat, and under 
tail-coverts ; orbital region, longer scapulars, innermost wing- 
coverts, anterior and outer lesser wing-coverts, together with 
quills, dusky ; other lesser coverts, middle and greater coverts, 
and tertials, broadly edged with ashy white ; length 8.00-9.20, 
wing- 5.90-6.40, tair3.75-4.00 (forked for about 1.00). Egg 1.37 
X 1-03. Hab. North Pacific, south on the American side to 

Oregon 105. O. furcata (Gmel.). Fork-tailed Petrel. 

c'. Color sooty brownish or dusky, above and below. 
0}. Wing more than 6.50 ; tarsus 1.00, or more. 

e\ Sooty blackish, lighter and browner beneath, the greater wing- 
coverts and outer webs of tertials light grayish brown ; 
wing 6.80, tail 3.90 (forked for about 1.20), tarsus 1.20. 
Hah. Coast of Mexico, north to Lower California. 

107. O, melania (Bonap.). Black Petrel. 

e^ Sooty slate-color, the head, including throat, appreciably paler 

and more plumbeous; greater wing-coverts light grayish; 

1 Procellaria tethys BoNAP., Comp. Rend, xxxviii. 1854, 662 ; Consp. ii. 1857, 197. Salv. Trans. Zool. Soo. 
Lond. ix. pt. ix. 1875, 507, pi. 88, fig. 2. 



OCEANITES. 71 

wing 6.90, tail 3.80 (forked for about 1.20), tarsus 1.00. 
Ilab. Coast of Peru, 

O. markhami (Salt.). Markham's Petrel.^ 
d^. Wing less than 6.00 ; tarsus less than 1.00. 

Smoky plumbeous, the wing-coverts lighter and more brown, 
quills and tail dusky, rump and upper tail-coverts ashy 
plumbeous ; wing 5.30-5.40, tail 3.30-3.50 (forked for .70- 
.90), tarsus .80-90. Hab. Coast of California. 

108. O. homochroa (Coues). Ashy Petrel. 
a}. Upper tail-coverts white. 

h^. Upper tail-coverts without black tips ; tail-feathers grayish at base ; uni- 
form sooty, darker above ; upper tail-coverts white, usually more or less 
mixed with grayish; length 7.50-8.90, wing 6.00-6.30, tail 3.50-4.00 
(forked for .80-.90), tarsus .90-95 ; feet (including webs) entirely black. 
Egg 1.33 X -97. Hab. Seas of the northern hemisphere. 

106. O. leucorhoa (Vieill.). Leach's Petrel. 
h^. Longer upper tail-coverts broadly tipped with black ; tail-feathers exten- 
sively pure white at base ; bill and feet (including webs) entirely black ; 
wing 5.80-6.30, tail 3.00-3.15 (forked for .20-.30), tarsus .85-.90. Hab. 
Sandwich Islands. 

O. cryptoleucura Kidgw. Sandwich Island Petrel.^ 

Genus OCEANITES Keyserling & Blasius. (Page 56, pi. XVII., fig. 3.) 

Species. 

Common Characters. — Sooty blackish, lighter beneath, the tail and quills 
nearly or quite black ; upper tail-coverts white. 

a}. Belly entirely dusky ; webs of feet mostly yellowish ; tail even or very slightly 
emarginated; length about 7.00-7.25, wing 5.70-6.20, tail 3.00-3.25, tarsus 
1.30-1.35. Hab. Cosmopolitan (on the high seas). 

109. O. oceanicus (Kuhl). Wilson's Petrel. 
«^ Belly white ; webs of feet apparently wholly dusky ; tail distinctly emarginated; 
wing 5.20, tail 2.30 (forked for about .30), tarsus 1.15. Hab. Coast of Chili. 

O. gracilis (Elliot). Graceful Petrel.* 

Genus CYMODROMA Eidgwat. (Page 56, pi. XV., fig. 3.) 

Species. 

Common Characters.— Head, neck, breast, and upper parts dusky, varying 
from brownish black to plumbeous, the feathers of back and scapulars sometimes 
(in fresh plumage) margined terminally with ashy whitish. 

1 Cymochorea markhami Salt., P. Z. S. 1883, 430. 

2 Cymochorea cryptoleucura RiDGW., Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. iv. 1882, 337 ; Water B. N. Am. ii. 1884, 406. 

3 Thalassidroma gracilis Elliot, Ibis, Oct. 1859, 391. Oceanitea gracilis Coues, Pr. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phil. 
1864, 85. 



72 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

a}. Lower tail-coverts and belly white. 

h^. Throat and collar round hind-neck white ; length 8.75-9.00 ; tail emarginated 
for about .75 ; tarsus 1.65-1.75, middle toe, with claw, 1.25, or more. 
Hab. Intertropical seas. 

C. tropica (Gould). Tropical Petrel.' 

V^. Throat usually with only concealed white, and without white on hind-neck ; 

length 7.50-8.00, wing 6.00-6.50, tail 3.00-3.30, even; tarsus 1.40-1.60, 

middle toe, with claw, 1.05-1.10. Hah. Intertroj^ical seas, north, 

casually, to coast of Florida. 

110. C. grallaria (Vieill.). White-bellied Petrel. 
a?. Lower tail-coverts and belly dusky. 

No white on hind-neck, but throat sometimes white, and feathers of 
forehead white beneath surface ; dusky of belly usually connected with 
that on chest ; length 8.50-8.75 ; tail usually emarginated for about .75 ; 
wing 6.25-6.75, tarsus 1.60-1.70, middle toe, with claw, 1.05-1.15. Hab. 
South Pacific. 

C. melanogaster (Gould). Black-bellied Storm Petrel.^ 

Genus PELAGODROMA Eeichenbach. (Page 56, pi. XV., fig. 2.) 

Species. 

Forehead, superciliary stripe, and lower parts, pure white; top of head, broad 
stripe behind eye, and upper parts generally, slate-color, sometimes inclining to 
plumbeous ; upper tail-coverts light ash-gray ; quills and tail-feathers blackish ; 
bill black ; tarsi deep black ; feet black, the webs mostly yellowish ; wing 5.90-6.40, 
tail 2.90-3.30 (forked for .25-.35), tarsus 1.52-1.70, middle toe, with claw, 1.37-1.40. 
Hab. Southern seas, accidental off coast of Massachusetts. 

111. P, marina (Lath.). White-faced Petrel. 

1 Thalassidroma tropica Godld, P. Z. S. 1837, 366. 

2 Thalassidroma melanogastra Gould, Ann. Mag. N. H. xiii. 1841, 367 ; B. Austr. vii. 1818, pi. 62. 



STEGANOPODES. 73 

Order STEGANOPODES.— The Totipal- 
MATE Swimmers. (Pagei.) 

Families. 

a}. Nostrils distinct ; lateral toes neai"ly equal, and nearly as long as the middle 
one; whole head feathered. 

Bill conical, compressed, pointed, without terminal hook, or unguis ; 
culmen curved ; edge of upper mandible very concave ; tail short, gradu- 
ated, the middle pair of feathers, in adults, very narrow and greatly 

elongated Phaethonlidse. (Page 73.) 

a^ Nostrils not perceptible ; lateral toes unequal, and one or the other of them 
much shorter than the middle one; head partly naked. 
b^. Bill conical, the tip of the upper mandible without distinct hook, or 
unguis. 
c^ Bill very thick through the base, the tip slightly curved; tail about 
half as long as the wing, gi*aduated or cuueate, the feathers narrow- 
ing toward the rather pointed tips Sulidae. (Page 74.) 

d. Bill slender, the outlines (culmen especially) nearly straight; head 
very small, the neck extremely long and slender; tail nearly as long 
as the wing, rounded (fan-shaped when spread), the feathers very 
broad, the middle pair transversely corrugated in the adult. 

Anhingidse. (Page 76.) 
b"^. Upper mandible terminated by a distinct hook, or unguis. 

c\ Tarsus moderately lengthened, much longer than the hind toe, including 
its claw. 
d\ Bill shorter than middle toe, compressed ; gular sac small, scarcely 
distensible ; outer toe much longer than middle. 

Phalacrocoracidae. (Page 77.) 
(P. Bill much longer than middle toe, much flattened ; gular pouch very 
large, and greatly distensible ; outer toe shorter than middle. 

Pelecanidae. (Page 81.) 
c^. Tarsus excessively short, hardly equalling the hind toe (including its 
claw) in length. 

Wings and tail excessively lengthened, the latter deeply forked ; 
middle toe much longer than the outer, its claw flattened and 
fringed on inner edge ; webs very small, occupying less than 
half the space between the toes Fregatidse. (Page 82.) 

Family PHAETHONTIDiE.— The Tropic Birds. (Page 73.) 

Genera. 

(Characters same as those of the Family) Phaethon. (Page 74.) 

10 



74 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

Genus PHAETHON Linn^us. (Page 73, pi. XVIII., fig. 1.) 

Species. 

Common Characters. — Plumage very compact, satiny; color white (sometimes 
tinged with pink or salmon-color), varied with blackish on upper parts; bill red, 
orange, or yellow in adults ; tarsi and base of toes yellowish, rest of feet black. Nest 
a cavity among rocks on sea-shore of oceanic islands. Egg ovate, dilute claret- 
brown or whitish speckled, sprinkled, spotted, or blotched with deep claret-brown. 

a}. Elongated middle tail-feathers with their webs very much broader than the 
moderately rigid shaft. 
Ip-. Bill yellow or orange. Adult : lengthened tail-feathers pinkish or salmon- 
colored, with black shafts ; no black bars on upper parts, the black being 
in form of patches on scapulars, etc. Young : Upper parts irregularly 
barred with black ; tail-feathers marked with a black spot near the end, 
the middle pairs not elongated. Length (of adult, including lengthened 
tail-feathers) 25.00-32.00, wing about 11.00, elongated tail-feathers 20.00, 
or less, culmen 2.25. Egg 2.21 X 1-54. Hab. Intertropical seas, chiefly 
middle western Atlantic, especially in vicinity of the Bermudas and 
throughout West Indies, north to Florida ; South Pacific (Samoan 
Islands) ; accidental in western New York. 

112. P. flavirostris Brandt. Yellow-billed Tropic Bird. 
b^. Bill coral-red. Adult: Lengthened middle tail-feathers pure white, with 
white shafts (except toward base) ; upper parts irregularly barred with 
blackish. Young : (Not seen.) Length (of adult with perfectly devel- 
oped middle tail-feathers) 30.00-35.00, wing 11.75-12.50, elongated tail- 
feathers 22.00, or less, culmen about 2.50. Egg 2.22 X 1-59. Hab. Coasts 
of tropical America (both sides), north to Lower California and West 
Indies ; casual at the Newfoundland Banks. 

113. P. sethereus Linn. Red-billed Tropic Bird. 
«*. Elongated middle tail-feathers with their webs much narrower than the very 
rigid shaft. 

Bill yellowish. Adidt : Lengthened middle tail-feathers dull reddish, with 
black shafts ; wing 13.00, or more, culmen about 2.50. JIab. South 
Pacific. 

P. rubricaudus Bodd. Red-tailed Tropic Bird.* 

Family SULIDi©,— The Gannets. (Page 73.) 

Genera. 
(Characters same as for the Family) Sula. (Page 75.) 

1 Phaeton rubricauda Bodd., Tabl. P. E. 1783, 67 {ex Buff. PI. Enl. 979). 



SULA. 75 



Genus SULA Brisson. (Page 74, pi. XIX., figs. 1, 2.) 

Nest a rude platform of sticks, etc., on rocks, trees, or bushes by sea-shore. 
Eggs 1-2, elliptical or elongate-ovate, chalk-white suj)erficially, but beneath the 
calcareous crust pale greenish blue. 

Species. 

a}. "Whole lower jaw, together with chin and entire throat, naked. (Subgenus 
Sula.) 
b^. Young with upper parts variegated. 

Young (?) : Head, neck, and lower parts white ; upper parts dark 
grayish brown, the feathers with white tips; bill purplish, the 
upper mandible grayish horn-color; feet dusky (in dried skins); 
wing 14.60, tail 7.75, culmen 3.60, depth of bill at base 1.20. Jfab. 
Coast of Peru. 

S. variegata (Tschxjdi). Peruvian Booby.^ 
b''. Young with uj^per parts unicolored. 

c^. Naked skin of face and throat blackish (dark bluish in life). 

Adult : White, the remiges, greater wing-coverts, primary coverts, 
and alulae dark sooty brown ; middle tail-feathers hoary whitish, 
dusky at tips ; rest of tail-feathers dark sooty brown, whitish 
basally ; feet reddish (drying pale brownish or yellowish). 
Young : Head, neck, and upper parts plain dai'k grayish brown, 
part of the back and rump streaked with white ; lower parts 
white, the flanks streaked with grayish ; length 25.50-29.00, 
wing 16.15-17.80, tail 7.75-9.10, culmen 3.95-4.15, depth of bill 
at base 1.40-1.60. Eggs 2, 2.46 X 1-74. Hah. Intertropical 
seas, espeeiall}^ the South Pacific and in West Indies, breeding 
north to the Bahamas ; southern Florida. 

114. S. cyanops Sund. Blue-faced Booby. 

c^ Naked skin of face and throat light colored (yellowish or reddish in 

life). 

d}: Feet greenish or yellowish. Adidt : Head, neck, breast, and upper 

parts dark sooty brown, the head and neck hoary grayish, in 

older (?) specimens, sometimes nearly white anteriorly ; lower 

parts, from breast backward, white. Young : Nearly uniform 

sooty brown, paler beneath. Length 30.00-31.00, wing 14.15- 

16.60 (15.72), tail 6.50-9.70 (8.23), culmen 3.25-3.95 (3.74), 

depth of bill at base .95-1.40 (1.24). Eggs 2, 2.24 x 1-58. Hab. 

Tropical and subtropical coasts of America, north to Georgia 

and northwestern Mexico 115. S. sula (Linn.). Booby. 

1 Dyaporiis varieffatus TscHUDi, "Weigm. Archiv. 1843, 390. Sula variegata ScL. & Salt., Nom. Neotr. 
1873, 124. 



76 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

d?. Feet always reddish. Adult : White, the head and neck tinged 
with buff, the shafts of the tail-feathers j-ellowish; remiges 
hoary slate. Young: Above sooty brown, the quills and tail- 
feathers moi'e hoary ; head, neck, and lower parts light smoky 
gi'ay. (Plumage extremely variable, scarcely two specimens 
being alike.) Length about 27.00-30.00, wing 14.00-16.10 
(15.04), tail 7.75-10.65 (8.93), culmen 3.05-3.50 (3.26), depth 
of bill at base .95-1.20 (1.07). Eggs 2, 2.56x1-80. Hab. 
Intertrojncal seas, north to Florida and Lower California. 

116. S. piscator (Linn.). Red-footed Booby. 
rtl Lower jaw {i.e., malar region), together with sides of chin and throat, densely 
feathered. (Subgenus Dysporus.) 

Legs and feet blackish. Adult : White, the remiges dusky brown, the 
head and neck above washed with buff. Young : Dusky, everywhere 
streaked or speckled with white. Downy young : Entirely covered with 
fluffy yellowish white down. Length 30.00-40.50, wing about 19.50, tail 
10.00, culmen 4.00. Eggs 1, 3.00 X 1-92. Hah. Coasts of the North At- 
lantic, south, in winter, to the Gulf of Mexico and northern Africa; 
breeding from Nova Scotia and British Islands northward. 

117. S. bassana (Linn.). Gannet. 



Family ANHINGID^.— The Anhingas. (Page 73.) 

Genera. 
(Characters as given for the Famil}-) Anhinga. (Page 76.) 

Genus ANHINGA Brisson. (Page 76, pi. XIX., fig. 3.) 

Species. 

Adult male in summer : Head, neck, and body glossy greenish black ; other 
parts deep black, the scapulars and lesser wing-coverts beautifully spotted (longitu- 
dinally) with light silvery gray ; exposed surface of middle and greater wing- 
coverts light silvery gray; tail broadly tipped with pale brown, passing into 
whitish terminally ; sides of neck and hinder part of head, ornamented with length- 
ened, loose-webbed, or hair-like feathers of a dirty whitish or pale grayish lilac 
color ; feathers of hind-neck also elongated and hair-like, forming a sort of mane, 
but black. Adult male in winter : Similar, but lacking all the elongated feathers of 
liead and neck. Adult female in summer : Head, neck, and breast grayish buff, darker 
on top of head, lighter on breast, where bordered below by a band of chestnut next 
to the black of the belly ; sides of upper neck with a few whitish loose-webbed 
feathers; otherwise, colored like the male. Adult female in winter : Similar to sum- 
mer plumage, but lacking entirely any ornamental, or lengthened, feathers on head 
or neck. Young in second year (?) : Similar to adult female, but lower parts duller 



PHALACROCORAX. 77 

black, the chestnut chest-band wanting, and upper parts much duller black, or 
dusky grayish brown, with the light markings indistinct. Young in first year : 
Similar to the preceding, but lower parts dull grayish buff, darker posteriorly; 
transverse corrugations on tail-feathers obsolete. Downy young : Entirely uniform 
buff. Length 32 25-36.00, wing about 14.00, tail 11.00, culmen 3.25. West a rude 
structure of sticks, etc., in trees or bushes overhanging or near fresh-water rivers, 
ponds, or lakes. J^ggs 2-4, 2.12 X 1-34, ovate or elongate-ovate, pale bluish green, 
with a more or less continuous white calcareous superficial covering. JIab. The 
whole of tropical and subtropical America, north to South Carolina, southern 
Illinois (vicinity of Cairo), and western Mexico. 

118. A. anhinga (Linn.). Anhinga. 

Family PHALACROCORACID^.— The Cormorants. (Page 73.) 

Genera. 

(Characters same as for the Family) Phalacrocorax. (Page 77.) 

Genus PHALACROCORAX Brisson. (Page 77, pi. XX., figs. 1, 2; pi. XXIL, 

fig. 1.) 

West a rude structure of sticks, etc., placed on trees, bushes, or rocks, near 
water. Eggs 2-5, elongate-ovate, pale bluish green, with a more or less continuous 
white chalky crust. 

Species. 

a\ Bill stout, with decidedly curved upper outline, the middle portion of the cul- 
men being appreciabl.y concave, the terminal nail, or unguis, more or less 
arched, strongly hooked, and occupying one-third, or more, of the entire 
length of the upper mandible, measured to the base of the culmen. (Sub- 
genus Phalacrocorax.) 
b\ Tail-feathers 14. 

Adult : A whitish patch adjoining base of gular pouch ; rest of head, 
neck, and lower parts blue-black ; back and wing-coverts grayish 
brown, each feather bordered with black. Nuptial plumage : Head 
ornamented with white filamentous feathers, occiput with a short 
mane-like crest, and flanks with a large white patch. Young in sec- 
ond year (?) : Head, neck, and chest dull grayish brown, becoming 
dusky on top of head and hind-neck, and brownish white on throat; 
rest of lower parts brownish dusky, mixed with white along the 
median line. Young in first year (?) : Upper part of throat, chest, 
breast, and middle of belly, white, streaked, except on throat, with 
grayish brown ; top of head, and greater part of neck, grayish 
brown. Nestling : Naked skin dull livid slate, feet purplish dusky, 
with yellowish brown legs, the gular sac and inside of mouth flesh- 
color. Length 34.00-40.00, wing 12.90-14.00, tail 7.25-7.75, culmen 



78 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

2.30-2.85. Eggs 2.50 X IGl. Hab. Europe, together with portions 
of Asia and Africa; Atlantic coast of North America, south, in 
winter, to coast of New Jersey. 

119. P. carbo (Linn.). Cormorant. 
h\ Tail-feathers 12. 

&. Wing more than 11.00. Adult : Greenish black; back and wings slaty 
brown, the feathers bordered with black. Nuptial plumage : On 
each side of the crown, behind eye, a tuft of lengthened, narrow, 
curved, somewhat loose-webbed feathers ; gular pouch bright 
orange (in life). Young in first year (J) : Head and neck grayish 
brown, lighter next to gular sac, darker on top and behind ; lower 
parts brownish, darker laterallj^ and j^osteriorly ; gular sac yel- 
lowish. Young, before moulting (?) : Similar to the preceding, but 
throat, foi-e-neck, chest, and breast paler, sometimes quite white, 
or much mixed with this color. 
d}. Nuptial crests chiefly or entirely black. 

e\ Length 29.00-3.3.50, wing 12.00-13.00 (12.50), culmen 2.00-2.45 
(2.25). Eggs 2.52 X 1-59. Hab. Northeastern North 
America, south, in winter, to Gulf coast, breeding from 

northern United States northward 120. P. dilophus 

(Sw. & Rich.). Double-crested Cormorant. 

e\ Length 21.25-30.00, wing 11.20-12.50 (11.75), culmen 2.00-2.40 

(2.17). Eggs 2.36x1-48. Hab. South Atlantic and Gulf 

States, and lower Mississippi Valley, north to southern 

Illinois. 

l\%a. P. dilophus floridanus (Aud.). Florida Cormorant. 
d"^. Nuptial crests chiefly or entirely white. 

e^ Length about 36.00, wing 12.50-14.00 (13 70), culmen 2.25-2.55 
(2.40). Hab. Northwest coast of North America, from 
. . Alaska south (in winter) to California... \l^b. P. dilophus 

cincinatus (Brandt). White-crested Cormorant. 
e\ Length about 25.00-31.00, wing 11.75-13.00 (12.23), culmen 
1.90-2.35 (2.15). Eggs 2.40 X 1-47. Hab. Coast of Cali- 
fornia, south to western Mexico (Socorro Island).. 118(7. P. 
dilophus albociliatus Ridgw. Farallone Cormorant, 
cl Wing less than 10.50. 

Adult : Brownish black, with a white line bordering the base of 
the gular sac ; mantle dull brownish slate, the feathers bordered 
with black. Nuptial plumage: Head, neck, and ventral region 
ornamented with scattered, small, short, white filamentous 
feathers ; pouch brownish in life. Young : Head, neck, and 
lower parts grayish brown, darker on top of head, hind-neck, 
sides, and under tail-coverts, much paler (sometimes whitish) 
on upper part of throat (adjacent to gular sac). Young, before 
moulting (f) ; Similar to the preceding, but throat, fore-neck, 



PHALACROCORAX. 79 

chest, and breast much jDaler, sometimes nearly white, or much 
mixed with this color. Length 23.00-28.75, wing 9.95-10.40, 
culmen 1.70-2.00. Eggs 2.21 X 1.42. Ilab. Mexico, Cuba, 
Gulf States, and lower Mississippi Yalley north to southern 
Illinois (vicinitj" of Cairo) and eastern Kansas. 

121. P. mexicanus (Brandt). Mexican Cormorant. 
rtl Bill slender, with upper outline nearly or quite straight, the nail small, not 
arched, and occupying not more than one-fourth the total length of the 
upper mandible, measured to the base of the culmen (except in P. perspicil- 
latus, in which, however, other characters than the last mentioned are as 
above). 
b^. Tail very short (less than half as long as the wing), slightly rounded, com- 
posed of 14 feathers; bill decidedly higher than broad at base; no 
crests or tufts on head or white patch on flanks in nuptial plumage. 
(Subgenus Compsohalieus Ridgw.) 

Adult : Head and neck glossy blue-black, with a patch of light brown 
or brownish white adjoining base of gular sac ; lower parts soft 
■ dark bottle-green ; scapulars and wing-coverts dark dull greenish, 
bordered narrrowly with black. Nuptial plumage: Uppermost 
scapulars and sides of neck ornamented with long, white or pale 
straw-colored bristly filaments ; gular sac blue. Young : Head, neck, 
and rump silky dark brown, nearl}'' black on hind-neck ; upper part 
of throat and median lower parts paler brown ; chest, breast, sides, 
and flanks, brown. Length about 35.00, wing 10.50-11.75, tail 5.50- 
6.50, culmen 2.60-2.95. Eggs 2 54 X 1-53. Mab. Pacific coast, from 
Cape St. Lucas to the Columbia Eiver. 
^'''' 122. P. penicillatus (Brandt). Brandt's Cormorant. 

b'^. Tail much longer than.wing, graduated, composed of 12 feathers (except in 
perspicillatus) ; bill oroader than high at base ; nuptial plumage orna- 
mented with double crests, or tufts (one on crown, the other on nape), 
of broad soft feathers, and flanks with a large white patch. (Subgenus 
Urile Bo NAP.) 
c\ Culmen less than 2.50 ; tail-feathers 12. 

d^. .Feathering on side of lower jaw forming a deep projecting angle, 
the point of which advances forward to beyond the anterior 
angle of the eye. 

Adult: Feathers of forehead advancing to base of culmen; 
gular sac and naked lores dull coral-red, or reddish brown ; 
head and neck rich, glossy, silky violet-black, more purplish 
toward head, the lower part of the neck inclining to steel- 
blue, changing gradually to silky dark green on lower 
parts ; rump also silky dark green ; scapulars and wing- 
coverts bottle-green, tinged more or less with bronzy 
purplish. Nuptial plumage : Neck and rump ornamented 
with narrow, pure white filamentous feathers, and flanks 



80 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

with a large patch of pure white. Young : Uniform 

brownish dusky, lighter and inclining to brownish gray on 

head, the uj^per parts darker and more glossy, with a faint 

greenish reflection. Nestling: Covered with down of a 

uniform dark sooty gray color. Length 25.00-29.00. 

e\ Wing 9.50-10.60 (10.10), tail 6.00-6.75 (0.30), culmen 

1.70-2.00 (1.85). Mab. Coast of Kamtschatka, and 

Aleutian Islands ; south, in winter, to Ivurils and 

northern Japan. 

123. P. pelagicus Pall. Pelagic Cormorant. 

e\ Wing 10.00-11.40 (10.80), tail 6.25-8.50 (7.00), culmen 

1.70-2,10 (1.95) ; bill much stouter than in pelagicus. 

^^^s 2.34 X 1-48. Hab. Coast of Alaska, from Norton 

Sound south to Washington Territory 123a. P. 

pelagicus robustus Eidgw. Violet-green Cormorant. 
€^ Wing 9.30-10.50 (9.79), tail 5.80-7.00 (6.30), culmen 
1.65-2.00 (1.81) ; bill more slender than in pelagicus. 
Eggs 2.29 X 1-49. Hab. Pacific coast, from Washing- 
ton Territory to western Mexico (Mazatlan and Cape 
St. Lucas)... 1236. P. pelagicus resplendens (Aud.). 

Baird's Cormorant. 

d?. Feathering on side of lower jaw forming a slight or very obtuse 

angle, the point of which does not advance farther forward 

than beneath the middle of the eye (usually not nearly so 

far). 

Adult : Feathers of forehead separated from the oase of the 
culmen by a strip of bare skin, connecting the naked lores ; 
gular pouch blue, bordered behind by pui'pHsh red corru- 
gations ; lores, orbits, and naked frontal skin bright orange 
(in life) ; plumage very similar to that of P. pelagicus, but 
neck decidedly more blue, the scapulars and wnng-coverts 
decidedly purplish. Young .• Uniform brownish dusky, 
with a faint purplish cast, the upper parts darker and 
more glossy. Doxony young : Covered with down of a 
uniform sooty grayish brown color. Length 31.00-35.00, 
wing 10.50-11.60, tail 6.30-8.00, culmen 2.05-2.30. Eggs 
2.44 X 1-49. Hab. Prybilof, Aleutian, and Kuril Islands, 
and coast of Kamtschatka, south, in winter, to northern 

Japan 124. P. urile (Gmel.). Red-faced Cormorant. 

c*. Culmen 3.75, or more ; tail-feathers 14. 

Nuptial plumage : Head rich, glossy, silky violet-purple, neck 
glossy greenish blue, body rich dark green ; head and neck 
ornamented with slender straw-yellow filamentous feathers, and 
flanks with a large patch of white; scapulars and wing-coverts 
deep purplish ; quills and tail-feathers black, the latter with 



PELECANUS. g, 

white shafts. (In life, eye surrounded by a broad white ring 
of naked skin ; naked skin round base of bill, and gular sac, 
mixed red, white, and blue.) Length about 36.00; weio-ht 
about 12-14 lbs.; wing 13.00, tail 9.00, culmen 3.75. Hab. 
Formerly, Bering Island, but now extinct there ; possibly still 
existing in some of the westernmost Aleutian Islands. 

— . P. perspicillatus Pall. Pallas's Cormorant. 

Family PELECANID^.— The Pelicans. (Page 73.) 

Genera. 
(Characters same as for the Family) Pelecanus. (Page 81.) 

Genus PELECANUS Linn^us. (Page 81, pi. XXL, figs. 1, 2.) 

Eggs 1-4, oval, ovate, or elongate-ovate, with rough chalky shell, pure white 
but usually much blood-stained. ' 

Species. 

a\ Tail-feathers 24; lower jaw densely feathered; color white, with blackish 
remiges. (Subgenus Cyrtopelicanus Eeich.') 

Adult: Entirely white, with quills entirely black, the secondaries also 
chiefly black. Nuptial plumage : Culmen with a median elevated horny 
ridge, situated a little forward of the middle portion ; a pendent occipital 
crest of white or pale straw-yellow ; lanceolate lesser wing-coverts and 
similarly formed feathers of chest, pale straw-yellow, or, rarely, purplish 
buff; pouch and bill chiefly reddish (in life), the former paler terminally ; 
feet intense orange-red. Post-nvj^ttal plumage : Similar in all respects to 
the preceding, except that the appendage to culmen and the occipital 
crest are wanting (having been shed), the latter replaced by a patch of 
short grayish feathers. Winter adult : Plumage as in the preceding, but 
gray occipital patch wanting, yellowish color of chest and lesser wino-- 
coverts paler, and colors of bill, face, pouch, and feet much less intense, 
a clear lemon-yellow being the prevailing tint. Young : Plumage white,' 
but lesser wing-coverts and feathers of top of head brownish gray cen- 
trall}^, chest-feathers short, blended, and pure white, the bill, pouch, face, 
and feet pale yellowish. Length about 4.i-nearly 6 feet, extent 8*- 
nearly 10 feet, weight about 17 lbs, wing 20.00-25.25, culmen 11.05-15.00. 
JVest a rude mound or heap of gravel and rubbish, flattened or slightly 
hollowed on top, on beach or bench usually of island in some lake or targe 



' The typical subgenus (Pelecanus proper), having for its type the P. onocrotalus of southern Europe is 
not represented in America. 



11 



82 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

inland body of water. Eggs 1-3 or 4, 3.34 X 2.22. Hah. Whole of tem- 
perate North America, north in the interior to about 61°, south, in 
winter, as far as Guatemala ; rare along Atlantic coast of the United 

States 125. P. erythrorhynchos Gmel. American White Pelican. 

a^. Tail-feathers 22 ; lower jaw entirelj" naked ; color chiefly grayish mixed with 
dusky. (Subgenus Leptopelicanus Eeich.) 

Nuptial plumage : Head, and feathers bordering base of gular pouch, all 
round, white, the top of the former sometimes straw-yellowish ; rest of 
neck rich velvety reddish brown, varying from light reddish chestnut 
to seal-skin brown, or nearly black ; upper part of hind-neck with a 
more or less distinct crest of chestnut; upper parts silvery gray, the 
feathers of back, rump, lesser wing-coverts, etc., edged with dark brown, 
producing a striped or streaked appearance ; lower parts dark brownish 
gray, the sides, etc., streaked Math silvery white. Winte?- adult : Similar, 
but whole head and neck white, except for a straw-yellow tinge on the 
former and on the lower part of the fore-neck. Young : Head and neck 
light brownish gray, somewha^t mottled with paler tips to the feathers; 
back, wing-coverts, etc., dull brown, the feathers tipped with pale ful- 
vous ; lower parts white, tinged with brownish gray laterally and pos- 
teriorly. 

b^. Smaller, with pouch always dull greenish dusky or olive-dusky; 
length about 4-4J feet, wing 18 50-21.00, culmen 9.40-12.20. JVest 
a slight heap or mound of gravel, etc., on or near sea-beach. Eggs 
3.01 X 1-95- Hab. Coasts and islands of Gulf of Mexico and Carib- 
bean Sea, including West Indies ; north, regularly, to North Caro- 
lina, accidentally (blown by storm?) to Illinois. 

126. P. fuscus Linn. Brown Pelican. 

b^. Larger, with pouch red during pairing season ; length 4J feet, or 

more, wing 20.50-23.25, culmen 12.25-14.75. Ilab. Pacific coast 

from Washington Territory to western Mexico (perhaps to Panama, 

or farther).. 127. P. californicus Eidgw. California Brown Pelican. 



Family FREGATIDiE.— The Man-o'-War Birds. (Page 73.) 

Genera. 
(Characters same as for the Family) Fregata. (Page 82.) 

Genus FREGATA Cuvier. (Page 82, pi. XVIII., fig. 2.) 

Species. 

a'. Culmen more than 4.15. 

Adiilt male: Entirely black, the lanceolate scapulars and interscapulars 
glossed with metallic bottle-green and reddish purple. Adult female : 



FREGATA. 83 

Dull black, the central lesser wing-coverts light grayish brown, the 
scapulars, etc., only slightly metallic, and not lanceolate ; breast and 
sides whitish. Young : Head, neck, breast, and belly, white ; otherwise, 
much as in the adult female. Downy young : Covered with very fluffy 
pure white down. Length 37.50-41.00, wing 22.00-27.10 (24.90), tail 
14.25-19.25 (17.73), forked for more than half its length; culmen 4.25- 
5.15 (4.62). Nest a rude structure of sticks on trees or bushes (usually 
mangroves) along sea-shore. Eggs (usually only 1), 2.70 X 1.83, pure 
white, oval, ovate, or elongate-ovate. Hah. Tropical and subtropical 
seas, chiefly north of the equator ; north regularly to Florida, Texas, 
and California, accidentally to Nova Scotia, Ohio, and Kansas. 

128. F. aquila (Linn.). Man-o'-War Bird. 
o}. Culmen less than 4.15. 

In plumage not very obviously different from F. aquila. Wing 20.50-25.25 
(21.53), tail 15.75-17.10 (16.27), culmen 3.65-4.10 (3.90). Hah. Tropical 
parts of the South Pacific. 

F. minor (Gmel.). Lesser Man-o'-War Bird.^ 

1 Pelecanus minor Gmel., S. N. i. 1788, 572. Fregata minor Ridgw., in B. B. & R. Water B. N. Am. ii. 
1884, 128. 



84 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 



Order ANSERES. — The Lamellirostral 

Swimmers. (Page i.) 

Families. 

(Characters same as for the Order) Anatidae. (Page 84.) 

Family ANATIDiE. — The Ducks, Geese, and Swans. (Page 84.) 
Eggs numerous, always unmarked, with a hard and usually smooth shell. 

Genera. 

i}. Keck shorter than body. 

b^. Tarsus shorter than middle toe, without claw. 

c\ Lower mandible without trace of lamellae along the side, but with a 
series of distinct, tooth-like serrations along the upper edge. 
(Subfamily Merginoi^ 
d}. Culmen longer than tarsus, and three times, or more, the depth of 
bill at base. 
e\ Serrations of both mandibles very conspicuously tooth-like, 
and strongly inclined backward at tips. 

Merganser. (Page 88.) 
e^. Sex'rations of both mandibles short, blunt, and not distinctly 

inclined backward at tips Lophodytes. (Page 89.) 

d'\ Culmen shorter than tarsus Mergus. (Page 90.) 

c^. Lower mandible with a very distinct series of lamellae along the side, 
in addition to the series along upper edge. (Subfamily Anatince.) 
d}. Lower portion of tarsus in front with a row of transverse scutellce. 
e^. Lores entirely densely feathered ; wing less than 12.00. 
f^. Tail normal. 

g^. Hind-toe without a distinct membraneous lobe. 
h^. Bill not spatulate. 

i^. Tail-feathers narrow and pointed at tip. 

/. Tail graduated for less than one-third its 
total length, or else consisting of only 
14 feathers, and culmen shorter than 
middle toe without tarsus. 

Anas. (Page 90.) 

j^. Tail graduated for more than one-third 

its total length, consisting of 16 



ANATID^. 85 

feathers, and eulmen longer than 
middle toe, without claw. 

Dafila. (Page 97.) 
f . Tail-feathers broad and rounded at tips. 

Aix. (Page 98.) 
A^ Bill spatulate (very broad near end and narrow 

at base) Spatula. (Page 96.) 

Hind toe with a broad, membraneous lobe. 
h}. Feathei'ing on lores or forehead not reaching 
beyond posterior border of nostril. 
i}. Graduation of tail less than length of bill from 
nostril. 
j^. Loral feathering with a decidedly convex 
anterior outline ; nail less than one- 
third as wide as width of bill across 
middle portion. Aythya. (Page 101.) 
p. Loral feathering with straight or even 
slightl}^ concave anterior outline ; 
nail more than one-third as wide as 
bill across middle portion. 

Netta. (Page 100.) 
^^. Graduation of tail much more than length of 
bill fi'om nostril. 
/. Distance from tip of bill to loral feather- 
ing less than graduation of tail. 
A'\ Distance from anterior end of nos- 
tril to loral feathers equal to or 
greater than width of bill at 
base. 
Z\ Distance from anterior end of 
nostril to tip of bill much 
less than from same point 
to loral feathers ; tail less 
than twice as long as tarsus. 
Glaucionetta. (Page 104.) 
P. Distance from anterior end of 
nostril to tip of bill much 
greater than from same 
point to loral feathers ; 
tail more than twice as 
long as tarsus. 
Charitonetta. (Page 106.) 
k^. Distance from anterior end of nos- 
tril to loral feathering much less 
than width of bill at base. 



86 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 



l^. Distance from posterior end of 
nostril to loral featliers 
equal to or greater than 
length of nostril ; anterior 
outline of loral feathering 
strongly convex. 
Histrionicus. (Page 107.) 
P. Distance from posterior end of 
nostril to loral feathers less 
than half the length of the 
nostril ; anterior outline of 
loral feathering forming a 
nearly straight line, run- 
ning obliquely backward 
and downward from near 
nostril to corner of mouth. 
Clangula. (Page 106.) 
f. Distance from tip of bill to loral feather- 
ing gi'eater than graduation of tail. 
k^. Distance fi'om posterior border of 
nostril to angle of mouth much 
less than half the distance from 
anterior border of nostril to tip 
of upper mandible. 
V. Width of bill at base equal to 
one-half the length of cul- 
men ; speculum plain white. 
Camptolaimus. (Page 
107.) 
l^. Width of bill at base much less 
than one-half the length of 
the culmen ; speculum dark- 
colored (steel-blue or violet 
in male), bordered before 
and behind by a white bar. 
Eniconetta. (Page 107.) 
k^. Distance from posterior border of 
nostril to angle of mouth equal 
to or greater than distance from 
anterior end of nostril to tit) of 
upper mandible. 

Oidemia. (Page 110.) 
Feathering of forehead or lores reaching anteri- 
orly to or beyond posterior end of nostril. 
i}. Feathering of forehead continuous with that 



ANATIDJE. 87 

of lores, and advancing quite to the 

nostril Arctonetta. (Page 108.) 

?'*. Feathering of forehead separated from that 
of lores by the interposition of a more or 
less extensive naked angle, or prolonga- 
tion of naked skin of the bill. 

Somateria. (Page 108.) 

/'. Tail more than half as long as wing, much graduated, the 

feathers with narrow webs and very stiff shafts, their 

bases scarcely hidden by the short coverts. 

g^. Nail of bill very small, hardly visible from above, and 

bent abruptly backward beneath the tip of the 

upper mandible; outer toe longer than middle. 

Erismatura. (Page 113.) 
g^. Nail of bill normal (i.e. large, almost Avholly visible 
from above, and not bent abruptly backward at 
tip) ; outer toe shorter than middle. 

Nomonyx. (Page 114.) 
e'. Lores wholly or partially naked ; wing more than 12.00. 

Cairina.^ (Page 100.) 
d}. Lower portion of tarsus in front without transverse scutellse. 

Dendrocygna. (Page 118.) 

Tarsus longer than middle toe, without claw. (Subfamily AnserincB.) 

c*. Serrations on cutting-edge of upper mandible visible from outside for 

greater portion of the tomium, the latter decidedly sinuated, or 

concave. 

d}. Bill very stout, its depth through base equal to much more than 

half the length of the culmen ; color of adults white, with 

blackish primaries, or else with head and part of neck white, 

the wing-coverts plain bluish gray Chen. (Page 114.) 

cP. Bill weaker and more depressed, its depth through base less than 
half the length of the culmen ; color of adults never white, or 
with white head, or bluish gray wing-coverts. 

Anser. (Page 115.) 

c'. Serrations on edge of upper mandible visible onl}^ near angle of mouth, 

the tomium very slightly or not at all sinuated. 

<rZ^ Nostril near middle of nasal fossse ; cutting-edge of upper mandible 

not appi'eciably or regularly sinuated ; bill and feet always 

entirely black ; head partially or entirely black ; tail-coverts 

and crissum white Branta. (Page 116.) 

(P. Nostril at lower anterior extremity of nasal fossse ; cutting-edge 
of upper mandible appreciably and regularly sinuated, or con- 
cave ; bill and feet light-colored ; head white (sometimes stained 

1 Cairina Flesiing, Phil, of Zool. 1822, 260. Type, Anas moschata Linn. 



88 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

with rusty) in adult ; tuil-coverts and crissum grayish, barred 

with dusky and whitish Philacte. (Page 118.) 

rt^ Neck as long as or longer than body. (Subfamily Cygnince.) 

Largest of Avaerican Anatidce (length more than three feet) ; color entirely 
pure white, with black bill and feet, in adult, grayish in young. 

Olor. (Page 120.) 

Genus MERGANSER Brisson. (Page 84, pi. XXL, fig. 4.) 

Species. 

Common Characters. — Adult male with head and upper neck greenish black, 
the occiput crested ; rump, upper tail-coverts, and tail, plain ash-gray ; rest of upper 
parts mainly pied black and whitish ; lower parts rich creamy white or pale salmon- 
color. Adult female, with head and upper neck cinnamon-brownish (occiput crested, 
as in the male), chin and part of throat white ; upper parts grayish, with some 
white on wings ; lower parts butfy white. 

a^. Distance between nostril and nearest feathering at base of upper mandible much 
greater than height of upper mandible at base ; feathering at base of upper 
mandible, on sides, projecting very slightly forward, and not forming a 
distinct angle. 
I/. Xo visible black bar across white of wing-coverts. Adult male: Head and 
upper neck greenish black, the top of the latter with a soft " bushy" 
crest, conspicuous only when erected; chest and other lower parts rich 
creamy white, or (especially in freshly-killed specimens) delicate pale 
salmon-color; wing 10.70-11.00, culmen 2.05-2.30, tarsus 1.90-2.00, 
middle toe 2.35-2.60. Adult female : Head and upper neck tawny brown 
or cinnamon, the chin and throat whitish, the occiput with a conspicuous 
pointed crest; upper parts chiefly ash-gray, with white on secondaries 
and greater wing-coverts; wing 9.75-10.25, culmen 1.80-1.90, tarsus 
L65-1.80, middle toe 2.35. Hah. Northern parts of the eastern hemi- 
sphere, from western Europe to Kamtschatka. 

M. merganser Linn. Merganser.^ 
6^ A very conspicuous black bar across white of wing-coverts. (Plumage 
not otherwise essentially different from that of M. merganser, but feath- 
ering at base of bill having a quite distinct outline.) Bovmy young : 
Upper half of head, and hind-neck, rusty brown, more reddish on the 
latter, where encroaching on sides of neck; remaining upper parts hair- 
brown, relieved by four white spots ; lower parts, including rest of head 
and neck, white ; a stripe on lower half of lores, white ; beneath this, a 
narrower stripe of deep brown, and a similai*, but broader, brown stripe 
on upper half of lores. Male: Length 25.00-27.00, wing 10.50-11.25, 
culmen 1.90-2.20, tarsus 1.90-2.00, middle toe 2.40-2.50. Female : Length 

1 Mergus merganser Linn,, S. N, ed. 10, i. 1758, 129. Merganser merganser Stejn., Bull. U. S. Nat. Mu3. 
No. 29, 1885, 176. 



LOPHODYTES. 89 

21.00-24.00, wing 9.60-9.75, culmen 1.80-2.00, tarsus 1.85-1.90, middle toe 
2.25-2.40. Eggs 2.63 X 1-82, ovate, or elliptieal-ovate, pale buff, or buffy 
white. Hah. Whole of North America, breeding south to northern border 
of United States.. 129. M. americanus (Cass.). American Merganser. 
g}. Distance between nostinl and nearest feathering on sides of base of upper man- 
dible decidedly less than height of upper mandible at base ; feathering on 
sides of base of upper mandible projecting far forward, and forming a very 
decided, though obtuse, angle. 

Adult male: Head dull greenish black, the occiput with a long pointed 
crest; neck and sides of chest dull brownish buff, or light cinnamon, 
streaked with black; other lower parts mainly white, usually tinged 
with cream- or salmon-color. Adult female : Very similar in coloration 
to the same sex of M. americanus, but smaller, and very readily distin- 
guishable by the different position of the nostrils, etc., as noted above. 
Downy young : Above hair-brown, the posterior border of each wing and 
a large spot on each side of the rump, yellowish white ; lower parts, 
including cheeks, yellowish white ; sides of head and neck rusty cinna- 
mon, paler on lores, which are bordered above by a dusky stripe, and 
beneath by a dark rictal stripe ; lower ej-elid whitish. Length about 
20.00-25.00, Aving 8.60-9.00, culmen about 2.50, tarsus 1.80-1.90, middle 
toe 2.40. Eggs ovate or elliptical-ovate, 2.57 X 1-79, light olive-buff. 
Hab. jN'orthern portion of northern hemisphere, breeding northward. 

130. M. serrator (Linn.). Red-breasted Merganser. 

Genus LOPHODYTES Eeichenbach. (Page 84, pi. XXL, fig. 3.) 

Species. 

Adult male : Head (except crest), neck, and most of upper parts black ; crest 
pure white with a sharply defined black border or rim ; lower parts white, the 
sides of the chest crossed by two black crescentic bars (projected from the black 
of the back), the sides light cinnamon, finely waved with black. Adidt female : 
Head (except crest), neck, chest, and upper parts grayish brown, darker above; 
crest reddish hair-brown or dull cinnamon, smaller and of looser texture than in 
the male; chin and upper throat, bell}^, etc., white. Young: Similar to adult 
female, but crest rudimentary, the sides and under tail-coverts more distinctly 
brown. Boiony young : Above deep hair-brown, darkest on back and rump; hinder 
border of arm-wing, a small spot on each side of back, and one on each side of 
rump, grayish white; lower half of head brownish buff or light fulvous, paler on 
chin and throat; chest light dingy brownish, sides darker; belly white. Length 
about 17.25-19.25, wing 7.50-7.90, culmen 1.50. Nest in boles in trees, usually at 
a considerable height. Eggs 6-10, 2.09 X 1-75, broadly oval, white. Hah. North 
America in general ; north to Alaska and (accidentally) Greenland ; south to 
Mexico and Cuba ; casual in Europe. 

131. Lr. cucullatus (Linn.). Hooded Merganser. 
12 



90 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

Genus MERGUS Linn^us. (Page 84.) 
Species. 

' Adult male : Prevailing color pure white, but this relieved as follows : A patch 
covering lores and narrowly surrounding eyes, deep black with a greenish reflec- 
tion ; under portion of crest glossy greenish black ; back, rump, some of the wing- 
coverts secondaries, and two narrow creseentic bars across sides of chest, deep 
black ; upper tail-coverts and tail ash-gray ; length about 16.50, wing 7.75, culmen 
1.10. Adult female : Upper part of head, including lores, reddish brown ; rest of 
head with neck (except behind), and lower parts, white; upper parts, sides, and 
flanks ash-gray, darker on back ; chest tinged with pale ashy ; smaller than the 
male, and crest less developed. Downy young : " Upper parts, including sides of the 
head below the eye, but only on the back of the neck, dark blackish brown, darkest 
on the crown and the lower part of the back ; at the base of the wing-joint a white 
spot, and another close to it, but rather lower down the back, and on each side of 
the rump another white spot ; below the eye a very small white spot ; underparts 
white ; breasts and flanks pale grayish or sooty brown." (Dresser.) Hab. Europe, 
etc. ; accidental or occasional in eastern North America (?). 

M. albellus Linn. Smew.^ 

Genus ANAS Linn^us. (Page 84, pi. XXII., figs. 2-5 ; pi. XXIII., fig. 1.) 

Species. 

a^. Culmen longer than middle toe, without claw, 

b^. "Width of upper mandible near tip more than one-third the culmen, the 
upper and lateral outlines of upper mandible more or less convex for 
terminal half. 
c\ Wing more than 8.00 ; scapulars and larger tertials broad, and without 
light-colored median stinpes in adult male. (Subgenus Anas.) 
d^. Smaller wing-coverts uniform grayish brown or brownish slate ; 
tertials without light edgings; sexes very diff'erent in plumage; 
wing with two distinct white bands. 

Adult male : Head and neck soft, brilliant metallic green ; 
chest rich dai*k chestnut, separated from green of neck by 
a collar of pure white ; speculum rich metallic violet, bor- 
dered anteriorly by a black bar, this preceded by a white 
bar, and posteriorly by a black subterminal and white 
terminal band. Adult female (and male in breeding season) : 
Wings as above ; elsewhere varied with dusky and ochra- 
ceous or buffy, the former on central or median portion of 
the feathers, and predominating on upper parts, the latter 
on edges, and prevailing on lower parts. Downy young : 

1 Jfer</Ms albellua LiNN., S. N. ed. 10, i. 1758, 129. 



ANAS. 91 

Above olivaceous, relieved by two pairs of j^ellowish spots, 
one pair on the back, just behind the wings, the other on 
each side of the base of the tail ; lower parts, including 
sides of head and broad superciliary stripe, yellowish buff, 
deepest on head, paler and duller posteriorly ; side of head 
marked by a nan-ow but very distinct stripe of dark 
brown, extending from upper basal angle of the maxilla 
to the eye, and thence to, and confluent with, the oliva- 
ceous of the occiput ; beneath this stripe an auricular spot 
of dusky ; sides crossed by two olivaceous patches, con- 
fluent with the olive of the back. Length about 20.00- 
25.00, wing 10.25-12.00, culmen 2.00-2.40, tarsus 1.50-1.80, 
middle too 1.90-2.15. Eggs 2.32 X 1-67, pale olive-buff, 
pale greenish buff, or pale buffy pea-green. Hab. Whole of 
northern hemisphere. 

132. A. boschas Linn. Mallard. 
<?. Smaller wing-coverts distinctly bordered or margined with buff 
or ochraceous, and tertials edged with same ; sexes alike in 
plumage. 
e\ Wing without any white bands. 

fK Cheeks, chin, and entire throat distinctly streaked with 
dusky ; dusky markings largely predominating in ex- 
tent over the lighter (buffy or ochraceous) ; lower 
basal corner of upper mandible without black spot; 
speculum usually deep violet. Downy young: Above 
olive-brow-n, slightly relieved by three pairs of light 
dull buff spots, as follows : One on posterior border 
of arm-wing (this sometimes indistinct), one on sides 
of back, just behind wing, and one on sides of rump, 
near base of tail ; top of head and hind-neck olive- 
brown, like back, etc. ; rest of head and neck, with 
lower parts, pale dingy buff, paler on belly; sides of 
head marked wnth a narrow^ dusky streak, from upper 
basal angle of bill to eye and thence back to occiput ; 
a dusky auricular spot, continued less distinctly back 
to nape. Length 21.00-24.50, wing 10.50-11.50, cul- 
men 2.00-2.35, tarsus 1.70-1.80, middle toe 1.90-2.10. 
Eggs 2.43 X 1-75, pale dull buff or pale greenish buff. 
liab. Eastern North. America, breeding from more 
northern United States to Hudson's Bay, including 
whole of Labrador. (Western and southern limits 
imperfectly determined.) 

133. A. obscura Gmel. Black Duck. 

p. Cheeks, chin, and throat plain buff; ochraceous or buff 

markings predominating in extent over the darker 



92 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

markings; lower basal angle of upper mandible with 
a triangular black spot ; speculum usually bluish 
green; about the size of ^. obscura. Eggs 2.15 X 1-61, 
pale dull buff or pale graj^ish buff. Hab. Southeastern 
United States, from Florida to Kansas. 

134. A. fulvigula Eidgw. Florida Duck. 
e^. Wing with one or more white bands. 

/\ Wing more than 8.75, with two white bands. 

Chin, throat, and lower part of cheeks plain buify ; 
dusky prevailing on upper parts, lower parts with 
dusky and ochraceous in about equal proportion ; 
wing 8.90-10.00, culmen 1.85-2.05, tarsus 1.60, 
middle toe 1.95. Hab. Southern Mexico (Puebla, 
etc.). 

A. diazi Eidgw. Mexican Duck.i 
p. Wing less than 8.75, with only one white band. 

Only the chin and upper part of throat unstreaked 
buff; dusky and ochraceous markings nearly 
equal in extent, the latter, however, rather pre- 
dominating on lower parts ; speculum dark metal- 
lic green, followed, successively, by a velvety black 
subterminal and a pure white terminal bar, each 
about .35 wide ; wing 8.50, culmen 1.65, tarsus 
1.30, middle toe 1.70. Hah. Western Mexico 
(vicinity of Mazatlan). 

A. aberti Eidgw, Abert's Duck.^ 
c^. Wing less than 8.00 ; scapulars and tertials lanceolate, and marked 
with buffy or whitish median stripes in adult males. (Lesser wing- 
coverts plain light bluish, last row of middle coverts white spotted 
or blotched with dusky, speculum bi'onz}^ greenish.) (Subgenus 
Qiierquedula Stephens.) 
d^. Culmen usually less than 1.65. Adult male: Head and neck dull 
plumbeous, with a large crescent-shaped patch of white in 
front of ej'e, faint gloss of metallic lavendei'-j^urple on sides of 
occiput, the crown dusky ; lower parts pale chestnut, spotted 
with black. Adult female (and adult male in breeding season) : 
Above dusky, varied with dull buffy ; head, neck, and lower 
parts dull brownish white, or pale dull buff, the head and neck 
streaked with dusky (except on chin and upper throat), the 
lower parts more or less spotted with same, the belly sometimes 
(especially in younger birds) immaculate. Young: Similar to 
adult female, but whole belly immaculate, and speculum dull 
grayish brown, without metallic gloss. Length 14.50-16.00, wing 

1 Anas diazi Rtdgtv., Auk, iii. July, 1886, 332. 

» Anas aberti Ridgw., Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. i. 1878, 250. 



ANAS. 



93 



7.00-7.50, culmeu 1.40-1.65, tarsus 1.20-1.30, middle toe 1.40- 
1.45. JEggs 1.84 X 1-34, pale buff. JIab. North America in 
general, but chiefly east of Eocky Mountains; in winter, whole 
of West Indies and Middle America, south to Ecuador. 

140. A. discors Linn. Blue-winged Teal. 
fP. Culmen usually more than 1.65. Adult male: Head, neck, and 
lower parts uniform rich glossy chestnut, the top of head 
blackish, the belly duller (sometimes blackish). Adult female 
(and male in breeding season) : Similar to corresponding stao-e of 
A. discors, but averaging larger (the bill especially-), the plumao-e 
darker, onl^^ the upper throat (sometimes chin only) unstreaked, 
the belly usually heavily spotted and the breast deeply tinged 
with light brown. Young : Similar to adult female, but mark- 
ings of lower parts much narrower, streak-like. Downy young : 
Above dark olivaceous, varied by a spot of deep greenish buff 
on each side of back (behind wings), and a spot of clearer yel- 
lowish on each side of rump, at base of tail ; top of head and 
hind-neck similar to back, but darker ; forehead, broad super- 
ciliary stripe, sides of head and neck, and lower parts generally, 
deep buff-yellow, the sides of the head marked with a distinct 
narrow stripe of dark brown. Length about J 5.50-17.00, wing 
7.20-7.75, culmen 1.65-1.85, tarsus 1.25-1.35, middle toe 1.40- 
1.50. Eggs 1.87 X 1-41, pale buff. Hab. Western America, 
from the Columbia Eiver to Chili, Argentine Eepublic, and 
Falkland Islands ; east, casually or irregularly, to Mississippi 
Yalley (Louisiana, Illinois, Nebraska, etc.). 

141. A. cyanoptera Vieill. Cinnamon Teal. 
Width of upper mandible near tip less than one-third the length of the cul- 
men, the upper and lateral outlines sti-aight for terminal half (Wing 
less than 8.00.) (Subgenus Nettion Kaup.) 
c^ Adult male : A broad white bar across side of breast ; inner webs of 
outermost scapulars vermiculated with dusky and whitish, the 
outer webs with a longitudinal spot of black, bordered internally 
by a white line ; head and upper neck chestnut-rufous, varied by 
a broad patch of bright metallic green from eye backward, this 
bordered beneath by a line of pale buffy or whitish ; a similar line 
on each side of forehead, continued backward, less distinctly, along 
upper edge of the green patch ; a short tuft or "'mane" of bluish 
black on upper hind-neck ; chin and uj^per throat dull black ; lower 
neck, upper back, scapulars, sides, and flanks, delicately waved 
with black and white ; speculum bright metallic green, the lower 
feathers black, tipped with white ; lower tail-coverts black medially, 
with a cream-colored patch on each side. Adult female : Wing much 
as in adult male ; upper parts grajnsh dusky, varied by dull buffy 
edgings and bars ; head, neck, and lower parts brownish white, 



94 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

the head and neck speckled with dusky, the markings enlarged 
and aggregated on pileum so as to form the prevailing color, and 
also along upper border of auricular region, producing 'a more or 
less distinct postocular stripe ; crop, sides, and flanks heavily- 
spotted with dusl^y ; belly sometimes plain whitish, but usually (?) 
speckled. Young male : Similar to adult female, but entire belly 
and sides immaculate white. Downy young : Above grayish brown, 
with a light grayish buff spot on each side of back and a similar 
pair on rump; wings crossed near end by a light grayish buff bar; 
head, neck, and lower parts dull light buff, the pileum and nape 
grayish brown, darker on top of head, where scarcely' reaching the 
forehead ; a dusky postocular streak, and an oblong dusky auric- 
ular spot. Length 12.50-15.00, wing 6.25-7.40, culmen 1.40-1.60, 
tarsus 1.25, middle toe 1.30-1.35. Eggs 1.75 X 1-28, pale dull buff. 
Hah. Whole of North America, breeding chiefly north of the United 
States, in winter, south to Honduras and Cuba. 

139. A. carolinensis Gmel. Green-winged Teal, 
c". Adult male : Similar to corresponding stage of A. carolinensis, but no 
white bar on side of breast, black and whitish undulations of sides, 
etc., much coarser, inner webs of outermost scapulars wholly and 
outer webs partly white, the exposed portion of outer webs mostly 
black ; other plumages not distinguishable with certainty from cor- 
responding stages of A. carolinensis (?) ; size about the same as A. 
carolinensis. Eggs 1.76 X 1-30, pale dull buff. Hah. Northern por- 
tions of eastern hemisphere ; occasional in eastern North America. 

138. A. crecca Linn. European Teal. 
a^ Culmen shorter than middle toe, without claw. 

b^. Distance from anterior border of nostril to tip of upper mandible more 
than three times the distance from same point to nearest loral feathers; 
lamellae numerous, fine, more than 30 being visible from outside ; tail- 
feathers 16. (Subgenus Chaulelasmus Bonaparte.) 

Adult male: Head and neck pale brownish or whitish, thickly speckled 
with black ; top of head sometimes plain light brown ; crop varied 
with crescentic bars of white and black, the latter predominating; 
sides, back, and scapulars finely undulated with slate-color and 
white; many of the longer scapulai's plain brownish gray, broadly 
edged with paler ; middle wing-covert region bright chestnut, the 
anterior lesser coverts broAvnish gray, and the postei'ior ones deep 
black, the last row deep velvety black; speculum white, the lower 
feathers ashy, narrowly tipped with white ; crissum and upper tail- 
coverts deep velvety black ; bill bluish black, iris brown, legs and 
feet dull orange-yellow, the M^ebs dusky. Adxdt male in breeding 
season : Similar to the winter male, but colors duller, crown dusky, 
rump and breast tinged with rusty, and under parts more spotted 
with dusky. Adult female : Colors chiefly brownish dusky and 



ANAS. 95 

brownish white, in longitvidinal streaks on head and neck and in 
irregular transverse spots and bars on other poi'tions; the dusky 
predominating above, the white helow ; wing nearly as in the male, 
but the chestnut absent or barely indicated, and the gray of the 
wing-coverts more or less barred and tipped with white ; belly and 
lower part of breast pure white, throat finely streaked with dusky. 
Downy young : Above dull dark brownish, with a spot of sulphur- 
yellow on each side of rump and back of each wing, the wings also 
marked with this color ; " forehead, space round the eye, throat, 
and chest pale sulphur-3'ellow ; abdomen white, shaded with sul- 
phur-yellow, on the lower part soot}^ gi'^J-" (Dresser.) Male : 
Length 19.25-21.75, wing 10.25-11.00, culmen 1.60-1.75, tarsus 1.45- 
1.70, middle toe 1.80-1.90. Female: Length about 18.00, wing 
10.00-10.25, culmen 1.55-1.G5, tarsus 1.60, middle toe 1.75-1.80. 
Eggs 2.09 X 1-57, pale buff or huffy w^iite. Hah. Northern hemi- 
sphere in general, breeding in temperate regions. 

135. A. strepera Linn. Gadwall. 
h"~. Distance from anterior border of nostril to tip of upper mandible less than 
three times the distance from the same point to nearest feathers of 
lores; lamellae coarser, less than 15 being visible from outside; tail- 
feathers 14, the tail much graduated. {Adult males with forehead and 
fore part of crown, posterior half of middle wing-covert region, and 
belly, plain white ; speculum metallic green anteriorly, velvety black 
posteriorly ; crop plain vinaceous ; sides, flanks, scapulars, and back, 
delicately waved with dusky upon a paler ground ; under tail-coverts 
plain black.) (Subgenus Mareca Stephens.) 
&. Adult male in iinnter : Head and upper neck plain rufous, the forehead 
varying from white to ochraceous ; crop and sides of breast vina- 
ceous ; sides, flanks, and whole back white, waved with blackish. 
Male after breedhig season : " Head and neck as in the old female ; 
back, scapulars, lesser wing-coverts, and wing dark ashy blackish 
gray; the fore parts of the back with indistinct whitish vermic- 
ulations, the rest of the back and scapulars edged with fulvous ; 
wings as in winter dress; but the larger coverts are ashy blue- 
gray, not white, the median coverts being darker with rather 
lighter edges ; tail as in the winter dress ; underparts white ; the 
upper part of the breast and flanks rusty brown ; under tail-coverts 
white with a grayish tinge, and having large blackish brown central 
blotches." (Dresser.) Adult female : Head and upper neck pale 
rusty, speckled and barred with dusky, especially on crown ; upper 
parts dusky brown, the feathers edged and more or less barred with 
pale brown and whitish ; white patch on wing-coverts merely indi- 
cated by white tips to featbers; speculum grayish, without lustre; 
crop, sides, and flanks indistinctly barred with grayish brown, and 
dull light rufous, or fulvous; rest of lower parts white, the lower 



96 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

tail-coverts barred with brown. Young male : Similar to adult 
female, but more richly colored. Length 18.00-20.00, wing 10.00- 
11.00, culmen 1.35-1.45, tarsus 1.45-1.60. Eggs 2.23 X 1-53, pale 
buff. Hab. Northern portions of eastern hemisphere ; occasional 
in eastern North America, and frequent in Alaska. 

136. A. penelope Linn. "Widgeon. 
c^ Adult male : Head and upper neck whitish, thickly flecked (except on 
forehead and part of crown) with blackish, the former ornamented 
on each side by a broad space of bright metallic green, extending 
from eye to occiput ; crop, sides, and flanks vinaceous, all except 
the first waved with black ; back and scapulars grayish white 
(usually tinged with vinaceous) waved with black. Adult female : 
Head and neck dull whitish, streaked with dusky ; crop, sides, and 
flanks dull vinaceous ; upper parts dusky grayish brown, irregularly 
and coarsely barred with dull white, or buffy; smaller wing-coverts 
dull dark grayish, tipped and edged with white. Young male : 
Similar to adult female, but colors more pronounced and pattei'n 
better defined, especially the wing-markings. Downy young : Above 
dark olive-brown, relieved by a spot of greenish buff on posterior 
border of each Aving, one on each side of back, and one on each side 
of rump ; top of head and hind-neck, dark olive, like back ; rest of 
head and neck, with lower parts, pale olive-buff or fulvous, the side 
of the head with a dusky streak, extending from bill, through eye, 
to occiput. Length 18.00-22.00, wing 10.25-11.00, culmen 1.30-1.50, 
tarsus 1.45-1.65. Eggs 2.06 X 1-48, pale buff. Jlab. North America 
in general, breeding chiefly north of the United States ; south, in 
winter, to Guatemala and Cuba. 

137. A. americana Gmel. Baldpate. 

Genus SPATULA Boie. (Page 85, pi. XXIII., fig. 3.) 

Species. 

Adult male : Head and neck dark metallic bluish green ; breast and outer 
scapulars white, the former sometimes spotted with dusky ; rest of lower parts 
uniform chestnut, the crissum dark metallic bluish green, bordered anteriorly by a 
band of finely undulated grayish white ; wing-coverts light grayish blue, the last 
row tipped with white, forming a nai'row band across the wing; speculum bright 
metallic green, very narrowly tipped with white ; bill deep black, iris bright yel- 
low, and feet rich orange-red in life. Adult female : Wings as in the male, but 
colors rather duller; rest of plumage grayish brown, varied with brownish white, 
above, the head and neck bi'ownish white, streaked with dusky, the lower parts 
similar but spotted instead of streaked ; bill brown, the mandible orange ; iris and 
feet as in the male. Young male : Similar to the adult female, but colors richer, the 
abdomen tinged with chestnut. Young female: Similar to the adult, but wing-cov- 
erts dull slate-gray with little or no blue tinge, the speculum dusky, faintly glossed 



DAFILA. 97 

with green, and rather broadly tipped with brownish white. Downy young : Above 
grayish brown, with a brownish white spot on each side of bade, and a correspond- 
ing pair on the rump ; pileum darker brown than nape ; rest of head and neck, with 
entire lower parts, pale grayish fulvous, or dull pale buff, shaded with graj'ish 
across jugulum ; side of head with a dark brown stripe, from upper posterior angle 
of bill to eye, and thence back about half way to occi]3ut ; beneath this a similar 
stripe crossing auriculars and extending back towards nape. Length 17.00-21.00, 
wing 9.00-10.00, culmen 2.60-2.90, width of bill at end 1.10-1.20, at base .60, tarsus 
1.40-1.50. IJggs 2.12 X 1-48, pale olive-buff or brownish buff. Hab. Northern 
hemisphere in general, breeding chiefly northward. 

142. S. clypeata (Linn.). Shoveller. 

Genus DAFILA Stephens. (Page 85, pi. XXIIL, fig. 4.) 

Species. 

a^. Lower half of head plain brown (male) or dull whitish streaked with dusky 
(female); tail dusky or grayish, the feathers (except middle pair) with paler 
edges ; lower parts white, sometimes streaked, but never spotted, with 
dusky ; secondaries narroAvly tipped with white or buffy ; bill lead-color with 
black stripe on culmen (in male) or entirely dusky (female). (Subgenus 
Dajila.) 

Adult male: Head and upper neck plain hair-brown, darker on crown, and 
faintly glossed on sides of occiput with metallic green and purple ; upper 
half of hind-neck black, with a white stripe on each side, confluent with 
the white of the crop and other lower parts ; back, sides, and flanks 
finely waved with white and dusky ; longer scapulars velvety black, 
edged with whitish ; tertials silvery gray, marked with a velvety black 
median stripe ; speculum varying from dull metallic green to bronzy 
purple, tipped with white, and crossed by a subterminal bar of velvety 
black ; wing-coverts uniform brownish gray, the last row broadlj^ tipped 
with cinnamon, producing a distinct bar; length about 26.00-30.00, 
wing 10.25-11.20, middle tail-feathers 7.25-9.50, culmen 1.85-2.15, tarsus 
1.55-1.85. Adult female: Above grayish dusky, varied w^ith irregular 
bars of yellowish white or pale ochraceous, these markings often XT- 
shaped ; wing much as in the male, but colors duller, the smaller cov- 
erts tipped with whitish ; head and neck dingy whitish, everywhere 
streaked, except sometimes on throat, with blackish ; lower parts chiefly 
white, the flanks and under tail-coverts streaked with dusky; length 
21.00-23.50, wing 9.60-10.10, middle tail-feathers 4.50-5.00, culmen 1.80- 
2.10, tarsus 1.65. Male in breeding plumage : Similar to adult female, but 
wings as in spring and winter plumage. Young male : Similar to adult 
female, but markings on upper parts more transverse, and belly some- 
times (always ?) streaked with dusky. Young female : Similar to young 
male, but speculum pale brownish, more or less marked with dusky an- 
teriorly ; lower parts everywhere thickly streaked with dusky. Downy 

18 



98 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

young : Above grayish olive, with a dull white stripe along each side of 
back, a white space on wing, and a j^ellowish white superciliary stripe ; 
below grayish white tinged with sulphur-yellow (this deeper in younger 
individuals) ; a brown stripe behind each eye, and an indistinct spot of 
same over eai's. Eggs 2.21 X 1-47, varying from pale brownish buff to 
pale grayish green. Hab. Northern hemisphere in general ; in North 
America, breeding from northern United States northward, and winter- 
ing south to Cuba and Panama 143. D. acuta (Linn.). Pintail. 

a^. Lower half of head, with upper fore-neck, plain white; tail creamy buff, fading 
into white at tip ; lower parts buff, marked everywhere with roundish spots 
of black, largest on sides; secondaries very broadly tipped with buff; basal 
half of bill, on sides, pale-colored (rose-red in life) ; sexes alike. (Subgenus 
Foecilonetta Eyton.^) 

D. bahamensis (Linn.). Bahama Pintail. ^ 

Genus AIX Boie. (Page 85, pi. XXIIL, fig. 5.) 

Species. 

Common Characters. — Adult males with the plumage strikinglj^ vainegated 
with boldly contrasted and brilliant colors ; head varied with rich metallic green 
and purple and pure white ; chest rich purplish chestnut ; sides of breast crossed 
by a broad bar of pure white immediately followed by one of velvety black ; sides 
and flanks buffy, delicately waved with black, the tips of the broad outermost 
feathers broadly barred with purest white and most intense black ; belly white ; 
upper parts varied with velvety black and various metallic hues, the outer webs 
of the primaries hoary, passing into white at tips. Adult females with head plum- 
beous or brownish gray, varied with white; chest brownish, spotted with white; 
uj^per parts without black, but with much metallic purple. 

a^. Feathering at base of upper mandible extending much farther forward below 

than above, the upper basal portion of the mandible forming a very deep 

angle between the feathering of the forehead and that of the lores ; depth of 

bill at base much greater than its width ; feathers on sides of head and neck 

short and velvety; innei-most tertial of normal form ; tail half as long as the 

wing, graduated, the feathers very bi'oad, and extending far beyond the 

coverts. (Subgenus Aix.) 

Adult male : Head metallic green, purple, and violet relieved by a pure 

white line extending backward from the angle of the upper mandible 

along each side of the crown and upper border of the crest ; another 

from behind the eye backward along the lower edge of the crest, and 

two much broader transverse bars crossing the cheeks and side of neck, 

respectively, and confluent with a white throat-patch ; upper parts chiefly 

velvety black, varied with metallic tints of bronze, purple, blue, and 

1 Poecilonetfa Eyton, Monog. An.at. 1838, 116. Type, Anas hahamensia Linn. 

2 Anas hahamensia Linn., S. N, ed. 10, i. 1758, 224. Dafila bahamensis Gray, Gen. B. ill. 1849, 615. 



AIX. 99 

green; chest rich ehestnut glossed with reddish purple, and marked 
with triangular white spots ; sides of breast crossed with a broad pure 
white bar and a broad deep black one immediately behind it ; sides and 
flanks delicately waved with black on a buff or pale fulvous ground, the 
outermost feathers beautifully ornamented with broad crescentic bars 
of pui-e white and velvety black ; belly white ; bill (in life) beautifully 
varied with jet-black, milk-white, lilac, red, orange, and yellow ; length 
about 19.00-20.50, wing 9.00-9.50, culmen 1.40. Adult female : Feathers 
round base of bill, around eye (and extending thence back to the occi- 
put), chin, and whole throat, white ; rest of head leaden gray, the crown 
and slightly developed occipital crest glossed with greenish; chest 
brownish, spotted with buff or whitish ; remaining lower parts chiefly 
white ; upper parts chiefly grayish brown, richly glossed on wings, 
scapulars, etc., with reddish purple and other metallic tints ; length 
about 17.00-19.50. Downy young: Above dark hair-brown, darker, or 
approaching clove-brown, on top of head and tail ; a dingy whitish bar 
along posterior edge of arm-wing, and a roundish spot of same on each 
side of rump ; lores, superciliary stripe, and sides of head generally, 
bright sulphury buff, crossed by a broad stripe of blackish brown, from 
eye to occiput ; lower parts dingy white, the sides more brownish, crossed 
on flanks by a whitish bar. West in holes in trees, often at a great height 
from the ground, ^ggs 2.08 X 1-58, pale buff, or buffy white. Hab. 
Whole of temperate North America ; Cuba ; accidental in Europe. 

144. A. sponsa (Linn.). Wood Duck. 
a^. Feathering at base of bill extending farther forward above than below, and 
forming a straight line from the side of the forehead to the lower basal cor- 
ner of the mandible ; depth of bill at base not greater than its width ; 
feathers on side of neck (in adult male) much elongated, forming a conspicu- 
ous ruff of soft narrow feathers ; innermost tertial with the shaft much bent, 
giving the outer web of falcate form, the inner (upper) web widened into an 
excessively broad sail-like ornament ; tail much less than half as long as wing, 
nearly even, and shorter than the lower coverts. (Subgenus Dendronessa 

SWAINSON.^) 

Adult male : Smaller than A. sponsa ; similar in general style of coloration, 
but middle upper portion of crest chestnut, lengthened feathers of sides 
of neck tawny chestnut, streaked with ochraceous, whole loral region 
buff, etc. Hab. Eastern Asia (domesticated extensively in China and 
Japan). 

A. galericulata (Linn.). Mandarin Duck.^ 

1 Bendronessa SwAiNS., F. B. A. ii. 18.31, 497. Type, Anas galericulata Linn. 

2 Anas galericulata Linn., S. N. ed. 10, i. 1758, 128. Aix galericulata <' Eyton, Mon. Anat. 1838." 



100 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

Genfs CAIRINA Fleming.^ (Page 87.) 

Species. 

Adult male: Head, neck, and lower pairts, uniform glossy brownish black; 

npi^er parts brilliant metallic blackish green, glossed with purple anteriorly and on 

rump ; wing-coverts, above and below, entirely pure white ; caruncles along sides 

of forehead, etc., bright pinkish red, or rose-red, in life ; bill varied with blackish 

and pinkish white or light rose-color; length nearly 3 feet, wing about 16.00, 

tail 9.00 tarsus 2.00, or more. Adult female : Entirely brownish black, except some 

of the upper greater wing-coverts, which are white; upper parts glossed with 

metallic green and purple; length about 2 feet, wing 12.50, tail 5.50, tarsus 

2.00. Hah. Tropical America, from Paraguay and southern Brazil to Mexico; 

Louisiana ? 

C. moschata (Linn.). Muscovy Duck.^ 

Genus NETTA Kaup. (Page 85, pi. XXIII., fig. 2.) 

Species. 

Adult male : Head and upper neck vinaceous-rufous, the full, soft, " bushy" 
crest paler, and more ochraceous ; lower neck, stripe along hind-neck, most of the 
lower parts, and rump, uniform brownish black ; back and scapulars light brown, 
with a broad transverse bar, or patch, on outer portion of scapular region ; specu- 
lum chiefly white ; anterior border and under side of wing, and a very large patch 
on flanks, white; bill and feet bright vermilion-red in life; length about 21.00, 
wing 10.20, culmen 2.00. Adult female : Crest much smaller than in male ; upper 
half of head and stripe down hind-neck, light hair-brown ; rest of head and neck, 
with loAver parts in general, pale grayish, the chest and sides more brownish ; 
rump dark brownish; no white scapular patch, and white anterior border to wing 
indistinct ; bill dusky or brownish, the tip paler (pinkish in life) ; wing 9.90, cul- 
men 1.90. Immature male : Much like the adult female, but crest still less devel- 
oped, and more reddish ; under part and sides of head interspersed with cinnamon- 
colored feathers ; breast, etc., mixed with black feathers ; white scapular patch 
distinctly indicated. Downy young : Upper parts dull olive-gray, lower parts and 
scapular spot pale yellowish gray ; lores with two olive-gray stripes, one ascending 
over eye, and bordering a yellowish gray superciliary stripe, the other passing 
below the eye, across cheeks and ear-coverts. Eggs 2.19 X 1-68, pale olive-buff. 
Hab. Southern and eastern Europe, together with portions of Africa and Asia; 
accidental in eastern United States (Fulton Market, New York City). 

145. N. rufina (Pall.). Eufous-crested Buck. 

1 Cciirina "Fleming, Phil, of Zool. 1822, 260." Type, Anaa moschata Linn. 

• Anaa moschata Linn., S. N. ed. 10, i. 1758, 124. Cairina moschata "Flem., Philos. Zool. 1822, 260." 



AYTHFA. 101 

Genus AYTHYA Boie. (Page 85, pi. XXIV., figs. 1-3.) 

Species. 

Common Characters. — Adult males with the head and part of the neck uni- 
form chestnut or black, the lower neck uniform black (except in a few exotic 
species) ; back and scapulars waved with white and black ; speculum bluish gray, 
or white, tipped with black ; lower parts white. Adult females with head, neck, 
chest, and upper parts plain brownish, the head paler or whitish next the bill ; 
speculum as in the male. 

a^. Culmen longer than inner toe, with claw ; bill not wider near end than at base ; 
head and neck reddish in adult males. 
b^. Bill much shorter than middle toe without claw, its greatest width nearly 
half the length of the culmen, the end moderately depressed, and the 
nail decidedly hooked. (Subgenus Aythya.) 

c^. Adult male : Head and upper half of neck rich chestnut-red, glossed 
with reddish purple ; lower neck, chest, upper back, rump, and tail- 
coverts (above and below) black ; back, scapulars, sides, and flanks 
waved or vermiculated with white and black, in nearly equal pro- 
portion ; belly immaculate white. Adult female : Head and neck 
grayish brown, darker above, the fore part of the former lighter, 
almost white on chin and upper throat; back, scapulars, chest, sides, 
and flanks dull grayish brown, the feathers tijDp^d with paler, or 
fulvous. Downy young : Above ochraceous olive-brown, with an 
indistinct yellowish spot behind each wing, another on the hind 
border of the arm- wing, and a third on each side of the rump ; 
whole sides of head and neck, with lower parts in general, deep 
buff-yellow, paler and duller on belly and ventral region ; no dark 
markings on side of head. Length 17.00-21.00, wing 8.50-9.25, 
culmen 2.05-2.25, greatest width of bill .75-.85. Eggs 2.42 X 1-73, 
pale olive-buff or pale dull greenish buff. Hab. Whole of North 
America, breeding from Maine and California northward. 

146. A. americana (Eyt.). Redhead. 

cl Adult male: Head and whole neck chestnut-rufous, without distinct 
purple gloss ; back, scapulars, and whole lower parts, except chest 
and under tail-coverts, white, everywhere finely waved or vermic- 
ulated with dusky ; otherwise like A. americana, but upper man- 
dible (in life) pale blue only between nostril and end, the basal por- 
tion being dusky. Adult female : Differing from the same sex of 
A. americana chiefly in the color of the bill (hardly appreciable in 
dried specimens) and in the different proportions. "Wing 8.00-8.50, 
culmen 2.20-2.40, greatest width of bill .70-.78. Hab. Europe, with 
portions of Africa and Asia. A. ferina (Linn.). Pochard.^ 

1 Anaa ferina Linn., S. N. ed. 10, i. 1758, 126. Aytliija ferina Boie, Isis, 1822, 564. 



102 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

h^. Culmen as long as middle toe, without claw, its greatest width not move 
than one-third the length of the culmen ; the end much flattened, and 
nail very slightly hooked. (Subgenus Aristonetta Baird.^) 

Adult male : Head and neck reddish brown, the former blackish on top; 
chest, upper back, lower rump, and upper and under tail-coverts, 
black ; rest of plumage (except quills, etc.) white, the upper parts, 
sides, flanks, and ventral region, finely waved or vermiculated with 
dusky. Adult female: Head, neck, chest, and upper back, raw- 
umber brown, the fore part of the head and fore-neck whitish ; 
scapulars, sides, and flanks similar, but tips of the feathers vermicu- 
lated with whitish. Length about 20.00-23.50, wing 8.75-9.25, 
culmen 2.10-2.50, greatest depth of bill .75-.80. Eggs 2.48 X 1-76, 
pale grayish drab or very pale grayish olive-green. Hab. Whole 
of North America, breeding far northward. 

147. A. vallisneria (Wils.). Canvas-back. 
a\ Culmen as long as outer toe, with claw ; bill wider at end than at base ; head 
and neck black in adult males. (Subgenus FuUgula Stephens.) 
¥. Speculum white, tipped with black. 

c\ Back and scapulars in adult male grayish white irregularly waved or 
zigzagged with black ; no pendent crest on occiput. 
d'^. Flanks immaculate white. 

e\ Six inner quills with a distinct white space on the inner web. 
Adult male : Head, neck, and chest uniform black, the first 
with a greenish gloss ; wing-coverts dusky, " grizzled" with 
grayish white; bill (in life) pale gra3'ish blue, or bluish 
white, with black nail. Adult male at end of breeding sea- 
son: "Plumage resembling that of the female, but the 
brown on the head and neck is blackish brown, the back is 
more barred with dirty white, the beak is lighter blue, and 
the eyes richer yellow." (Dresser.) Adult female : Head 
and neck snuff-brown, the former white round base of bill ; 
chest, ventral region, and lower tail-coverts pale grayish 
brown, fading into white on belly, etc. ; sides and flanks 
deeper brown ; upper parts nearly plain brownish dusky, 
the wings much as in the male. Downy tjoung : " Crown, 
nape, and upper parts imiform dark olive-brown ; throat, 
sides of the head, and fore part of the neck, yellowish 
white ; a dull grayish band crosses the lower neck, rest of 
the under parts dull yellowish, the flanks grayish yellow." 
(Dresser.) Length 18.00-20.00. wing 8.25-8.50 (8.42), 
culmen 1.95-2.05 (2.00), greatest width of bill .90-1.00 

1 Aristonetta Baird, B. N. Am. 1858, 793. Type, Anas vallisneria Wils. This subgenus, which was unani- 
mously accepted by the A. 0. U. Committee, was accidentally omitted from the Check List. 



AYTHVA. 103 

(.95), least width .70-.85 (.78). Hah. Northern portions of 
Old World, from western Europe to Kamtschatka. 

A. marila (Linn.). Scaup Duck.' 

^. Six inner quills without distinct w^hite spaces on inner wxbs ; 

otherwise not appreciably different from A. marila ; length 

18.00-20.00, wing 8.25-9.00 (8.63), culmen 1.85-2.20 (2.03), 

greatest width of bill .85-1.05 (.97), least width .70-.90 

(.79). Eggs 2.54 X l-^l, pale buffy olive-gray. Hah. North 

America in general, breeding far northward; soutb, in 

winter, to Guatemala. 

148. A. marila nearctica Stejn. American Scaup Duck. 

<P. Flanks vei'miculated or zigzagged with blackish. 

e^. Similar to A. marila nearctica (including absence of distinct 
white spaces on six inner quills), but black of head in male 
glossed with purplish instead of green ; length 15.00-16.50, 
wing 7.50-8.25 (7.81), culmen 1.58-1.90 (1.75), greatest 
width of bill .80-.95 (.89), least width .60-.78 (.69). Eggs 
2.25 X 1-58, same color as in F. marila nearctica. Hah. 
North America in general, breeding northward ; south, in 
winter, to Guatemala and West Indies. 

149. A. affinis (Eyt.). Lesser Scaup Duck. 
e^. Similar to A. affinis, but six inner quills with a distinct white 
space on inner webs, as in A. marila. Hah. Eastern Asia 
(Japan and southward). 

A. affinis mariloides (Vig.). Chinese Scaup Duck.^ 
c}. Back and scapulars, in adult male, black, sometimes minutely sprinkled 
with whitish ; a long, pendent occipital crest. 

Otherwise, in color, much like A. marila; wing 7.60-8.10, culmen 
1.85-1.90, greatest width of bill .75-.85. Hah. Northern parts 
of Old World, from western Europe to Kamtschatka. 

A. fuligula (Linn.). Crested Scaup Duck.^ 

Speculum bluish gray. 
Adult male : Head, neck, chest, under tail-coverts, and upper parts black, the 
head with a violet-purple gloss, and middle of neck with a more or less 
distinct collar of chestnut ; chin with a triangular white spot; bill trans- 
versely banded with black, grayish white, and plumbeous. Adult female :* 



1 Anas marila Linn., Faun. Suec. 2d ed. 1761, 39. Aythya marila Boie, Isis, 1822, 564. 

^Fuligula mariloides ViG., Zool. Blossom, 1839, 31 (in text). Aythya affinis mariloides Stejn., Orn. E.'cpl. 
Kamts. 1885, 161. 

3 Anas fuligula LiNN., S. N. ed. 10, i. 1758, 128. Aythya fuligula Stejn., Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. No. 29, 
1885, 160. 

*The female of this species resembles very closely in coloration that of the Red-head {A. americana), but 
may be readily distinguished by the very different proportions, the average measurements of the two being 
about as follows : 

A. americana. Wing 8.50, culmen 1.90, greatest width of bill .85, least width .75, tarsus 1.60, middle toe 
2.30. 

A. collaris. Wing 7.50, culmen 1.80, greatest width of bill .85, least width .65, tarsus 1.35, middle toe 2.00. 



104 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

Top of head and back of neck dark brown, rest of head and neck paler, 
becoming nearly or quite white anteriorly and on throat ; chest, sides, 
and flanks deep fulvous brown ; breast and bell}^ white ; upper parts 
nearly uniform dull dark bi'own, the speculum bluish gray, as in the 
male. Downy young : Above grayish brown, relieved by seven spots of 
light buff, as follows: A small spot in middle of upper back, a large 
patch on each side of back, another on each side of rump, and a bar 
across hinder border of each wing ; top of head and hind-neck deep 
grayish brown ; rest of head and neck, including forehead, with lower 
parts, light dingy buff, the flanks crossed by a brown transverse patch ; 
side of head without any markings, except a spot of grayish brown on 
earcoverts. Length 15.50-18.00, culmen 1.75-2.00, tarsus 1.30-1.45, 
middle toe 2.00-2.15. Eggs 2.23 X 1-57, same color as in nearctlca and 
affinis. Hah. North America in general, breeding northward ; south, in 
winter, to Guatemala and West Indies. 

150. A. collaris (Donov.). Eing-necked Duck. 

Genus GLAUCIONETTA Stejneger. (Page 85, pi. XXIV., fig. 4.) 

Species. 
Common Characters. — Adult males with head and upper neck black, glossed 
with green, blue, or violet, and relieved by a white patch between bill and eye; 
upper parts pied black and white, lower parts entirely white, the flanks streaked 
with black. Females ^y\i\l head and upper neck brown, chest and part of upper 
surface grayish, collar round neck and most of lower parts white ; wing dusky, 
with white on wing-coverts and secondaries. Young males similar to adult females, 
but white loral spot of adult more or less distinctly indicated, and gray of chest 
less extensive (sometimes quite obsolete). Male in post-nuptial plujnnge : Similar to 
young male, but wing-coverts more continuously white. 

a\ Height of upper mandible at base, measured from point of frontal angle to 
nearest point on cutting- edge, less than distance from anterior edge of loral 
feathering to anterior end of nostril, and usually little if any greater than 
distance from latter point to tip of upper mandible. Adult male : Head and 
upper neck glossy greenish black, with a large roundish or oval spot of 
white on lower part of lores ; white wing-patch uninterrupted by black 
bands or bars. Adult female : Brown of head (usually deep hair-brown or 
grayish umber) reaching down only to upper part of neck, and not so far in 
front as elsewhere ; gray of chest narrower, usually less deep, and white 
collar broader ; greater wing-coverts usually without distinct blackish tips ; 
nail of bill not more than .20 wide. Downy young : Upper parts, including 
upper half of head, to below eyes, broad band across chest, sides, and thighs, 
uniform deep sooty brown, lighter and moi'e grayish on chest, the upper 
parts varied by about eight white spots ; chin, throat, and cheeks pure 
white, in abrupt and decided contrast with the circumjacent brown; remain- 
ing lower parts (except chest) grayish white. 



GLA UCIONETTA. 105 

h^. Smaller, with relatively smaller bill. Male: Length about 18.00, wing 
8.00-9.00 (8.52), bill from tip to extremity of frontal angle 1.65-1.80 
(1.73), depth of bill at base .95-1.05 (.99), width .70-.75 (.74), width of 
nail .18-.20, tarsus 1.30-1.55 (1.43), middle toe 2.15-2.30 (2.22). Female: 
Wing 7.40-8.00 (7.72), bill from tip to frontal angle 1.40-1.60 (1.50), 
depth at base .75-.85 (.81), width .60-.68 (.65), width of nail .18, tarsus 
1.10-1.45 (1.32), middle toe 1.80-2.45 (2.05). Hah. Northern portions of 
eastern hemisphere. 

G. clangula (Linn.). Golden-eye.* 
Ir. Larger, with relatively larger bill. Male : Length 18.50-23.00, wing 9.00- 
9.30 (9.18), bill from tip to extremity of frontal angle 1.85-2.05 (1.95), 
depth at base 1.00-1.10 (1.03), width .82-.85 (.84), width of nail .25, 
tarsus 1.50-1.60 (1.57), middle toe 2.40-2.60 (2.45). Female: Length 
about 16.50, wing 7.90-8.30 (8.14), bill from tip to frontal angle 1.60- 
1.75 (1.64), depth at base .85-.90 (.89), width .70, width of nail .20, tarsus 
1.40-1.48 (1.44), middle toe 2.05-2.20 (2.12). Eggs 2.38 X 1-71, dull light 
pea-green, occasionally^ ranging to dull pale olive-buffy. Hab. North 
America generally, breeding from Maine and Canada northward ; in 
wintex', south to Cuba and Mexico. 

151. G. clangula americana (Bonap.).. American Golden-eye. 

a". Height of upper mandible at base, measured from extremit}' of frontal angle to 

nearest point on cutting-edge, equal to distance from anterior point of loral 

feathering to anterior end of nostril, and much greater than from latter point 

to tip of upper mandible. 

Adult male : Head and upper neck glossy blue-black, with a large vertical 
wedge-shaped patch of white across lores ; white wing-patch crossed by 
a broad bar or band of black; length 21.00-23.00, wing 9.00-9.40 (9.17), 
bill from tip to frontal angle 1.65-1.80 (1.75), depth at base .95-1.10 
(1.03), width .75-.85 (.81), width of nail .35, tarsus 1.50-1.60 (1.57), 
middle toe 2.45-2.50 (2.47). Adult female : Brown of head (usually a 
deep sepia or purplish snuflf-brown), descending to middle of neck, all 
round ; gray of chest broader, and usually deeper, and white collar nar- 
rower, than in same sex of G. clangula ; greater wing-coverts always (?) 
distinctly tipped with blackish; nail of bill not less than .23 wide; wing 
8.25-8.75 (8.46), bill from tip to frontal angle 1.40-1.70 (1.56), depth at 
base .80-.95 (.88), width .70-.80 (.73), width of nail .23-.30 (.26), tarsus 
1.30-1.60 (1.46), middle toe 2.10-2.25 (2.19). Eggs 2.47 X 1-77, dull pea- 
gi'een or pale grayish pea-green. Hab. Northern North America, breed- 
ing from Gulf of St. Lawrence and Eocky Mountains of Colorado north- 
ward ; Greenland ; Iceland ; south, in winter, to New York, Illinois, 
Utah, etc. ; accidental or occasional in Europe. 

152. G. islandica (Gmel.). Barrow's Golden-eye. 



1 Anns clanfjula LiNN., S. N. ed. 10, i. 175S, 125. Glaucionetta clangula Stejn., Proe. U. S, Nat. Mus. vii. 
1885, 409. 

14 



106 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

Genus CHARITONETTA Stejneger. (Page 85, pi. XXIV., fig. 5.) 

Species. 

Adult male : Head and upper neck rich silky dark metallic green, bronze, and 
violet-purple, with a large patch of pure white extending from behind the eye to 
and across the occiput; lower neck, lower parts, wing-coverts, secondaries, and 
outer scapulars, pure white ; upper parts, except as described, black ; length 14.25- 
15.25, wing 6.75-6.90, cuhnen 1.10-1.15. Adult female : Head, neck, and upper parts 
generally dusky grayish brown ; a spot on ear-coverts, inner secondaries, and some- 
times a portion of the greater wing-coverts, white ; lower parts white, tinged an- 
teriorly, laterally, and posteriorly with brownish gray; length 12.25-13.50, wing 
5.90-6.00, culmen .95-1.00. Eggs 1.98 X 1-46, dull light buff. Hab. Whole of North 
■America, breeding northward 153. C. albeola (Linn.). Buffle-head. 



Genus CLANGULA Leach. (Page 86, pi. XXY., fig. 4.) 

Species. 

Adult male in winter : Sides of head light smoke-gray, the eyelids and rest of 
head and neck, upper part of chest, and upper back, white ; a dusky patch on each 
side of neck ; breast and most of upper parts black, the scapulars pale pearl-gray or 
grayish white ; lower parts white, the sides tinged with pearl-gray. Adult male in 
summer : Fore part of head pale grayish ; eyelids and space behind eye white ; rest 
of head and neck, with upper parts generally, sooty blackish or dark sooty brown, 
the upper back varied with fulvous, and scapulars edged with same ; breast and 
upper belly dark sooty grayish, remaining lower parts -white, shaded on sides with 
pale pearl-gray. Adult female in winter: Head, neck, and low-er parts chiefly 
white ; top of head dusky ; chest grayish ; upper pai'ts dusky brown, the scapulars 
bordered with light brownish, sometimes tipped ■with grayish. Adult female in sum- 
mer : Head and neck dark grayish brown, with a whitish space surrounding the eye, 
and another on each side of neck ; otherwise much as in winter plumage, but scapu- 
lars chiefly light brown or fulvous, with dusky centres. Young : Similar to winter 
female, but much more uniform above, with scarcely any lighter borders to scapulars, 
the head and neck light brownish gray, darker on crown, and whitish before and 
behind eye. Downy young : Above dark hair-brown, relieved only by a few grayish 
white markings on side of head, about eye, beneath which is a distinct dusk}^ stripe 
running from the corner of the mouth to the hind-head ; lower parts white, inter- 
rupted by a dark brown band across chest. Length (of male) 20.75-23.00, wing 
8.50-9.00, middle tail-feathers 8.00-8.50, culmen 1.10; the female smaller (about 
15.00-16.00 long), with middle tail-feathers not conspicuously lengthened. JSggs 
2.05 X 1-49, pale dull grayish pea-green, varying to dull light olive-bufi'. Hab. 
Northern portion of northern hemisphere; in America, south, in winter, to nearly 
across the United States 154. C. hyemalis (Linn.). Old-squaw. 



HISTRIONICUS. 107 

Genus HISTRIONICUS Lesson. (Page 86, pi. XXY., fig. 3.) 

Species. 
Adult male in winter : Lores and broad stripe on each side of crown, spot over 
ears, short 8trij)e down each side of hind-neck, narrow colUir round lower neck, 
broad bar across each side of breast, middle portion (longitudinally) of outer scap- 
ulai's, greater part of tertials, spot near tip of greater wing-coverts, and spot at 
each side of base of tail, white ; broad stripe along each side of crown, together 
with entire sides and flanks, bright rufous ; rest of plumage chiefly bluish plum- 
beous, deepening into blackish along the margins of the white markings ; speculum 
dark metallic violet-blue. Adult male in summer : Colors very much duller than in 
the winter plumage, the pattern of which is imperfectly indicated ; speculum dull 
dusky brownish gray with little metallic gloss ; lower parts grayish white, spotted 
with grayish brown, the sides, flanks, and under tail-coverts nearly uniform gray- 
ish brown. Adult female : Much like the summer male, but the head, neck, and 
chest grayish brown, with a distinct white spot on the ear-covert region, and the 
fore part of the head (laterally) inclining to white. Young : Similar to the adult 
female, but browner and more uniform above, the chest, flanks, and under tail- 
coverts decidedly brownish. Length 15.00-17.50, wing 7.40-8.00, culmen 1.05-1.10. 
Eggs 2.30 X 1-62, buff'y white or pale buff? (Identification doubtful.) Hah. North- 
ern portion of northern hemisphere ; in America, south, in winter, to Middle States, 
Ohio "Valley, and coast of California, breeding south to Newfoundland, northern 
Eocky Mountains, and the Sierra Nevada, as far as lat. 38°. 

155. H. histrionicus (Linn.). Harlequin Suck. 

Genus CAMPTOLAIMUS Gray. (Page 86, pi. XXV., fig. 2.) 

Species. 
Adult male : Head, neck, chest, scapulars, and wings (except quills) white ; 
rest of plumage, including stripe on top of head and broad ring round neck, deep 
black; stiffened feathers of cheeks brownish white. Adult female : Uniform brown- 
ish gray, the wings more plumbeous ; tertials silvery gray, edged with blackish ; 
secondaries white, primaries dusky. Young male : Similar to the adult female, but 
chin and throat white, and white chest of adult male strongly indicated ; greater 
wing-coverts white. Length about 18.00-23.75, wing 8.50-8.90, culmen 1.60-1.70, 
tarsus 1.50-1.60, middle toe 2.25-2.40. Hah. Formerly, northern Atlantic coast of 
North America, south, in winter, to Long Island, New Jersey, and the Great Lakes. 
Believed to he now nearly if not quite extinct. 

156. C. labradorius (Gmel.). Labrador Duck. 

Genus ENICONETTA Gray. (Page 86, pi. XXV., fig. 5.) 

Species. 
Adult male : Head and upper neck satiny white, the stiffened feathers of lores 
and short occipital tuft olive-green j space round eyes, chin, throat, lower neck (all 



1Q8 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

round), middle of back, scapulars, tertials and secondaries glossy blue-black ; scapu- 
lars striped with satiny white, and tertials with inner webs wholly of this color ; 
all the wing-coverts, anterior scapulars, and sides of back, pure white ; speculum 
rich dark violet or violet-blue, tipped with white ; lower parts deep tawny, becom- 
ino- dusky or blackish on belly and fading into a more huffy or ochreous tint on 
chest, sides, and flanks. Adult female : Above dusky and fulvous, the former pre- 
vailino- ; head and neck light brownish, speckled with dusky ; chest and breast light 
rusty brown, irregularly spotted or barred with dusky ; belly uniform sooty browni ; 
wing-coverts dusky, tipped with brownish gray; falcate tertials mostly dusky, and 
speculum much less brilliant than in the male. Young : Similar to adult female, 
but tertials much less falcate, and speculum dull dusky, with little if any metallic 
lustre. Length 16.00-18.00, wing 8.00-8.50, culmen 1.40-1.45. Eggs 2.30 X 1-62, 
varying from pale olive-buff to pale grayish olive-green or pale dull pea-green. 
Hah. Arctic and subarctic coasts of northern hemisphere ; Aleutian Islands, east to 
Unalashka, Kadiak, and Fort Kenai on the Alaskan coast. 

157. E. stelleri (Pall.). Steller's Duck. 

Genus ARCTONETTA Gray. (Page 87, pi. XXVI., fig. 1.) 

Species. 

Adult male in winter : Satiny "pad" encircling eye, dull white, bordered ante- 
riorly and posteriorly by a vertical black line ; lores and forehead covered by a 
"cushion" of stiffened feathers (like the •' pile" of velvet plush), whitish anteriorly, 
shading into olive-green and this into light greenish buff; crown and occiput cov- 
ered by a cowl or hood of pendent, stiffened, hair-like feathers of a light olive- 
green color ; a broad stripe of darker green beneath the eye ; rest of head and neck 
white ; lower parts, rump, etc., plain plumbeous drab, or dark smoky gray; entire 
back, scapulars, wing-coverts (except greater), falcate tertials, and patch on each 
side of rumj), yellowish white ; bill orange (in life). Adult female : Above barred 
with light fulvous and black; lower parts similar, the abdomen, however, plain 
grayish brown ; head and neck light grayish buff, finely streaked with dusky, the 
throat, however, neai'ly immaculate ; wings grayish brown, the greater coverts 
and secondaries indistinctly tipped with Avhitish. Length about 21.50, wing 10.00, 
culmen 1.00. Eggs 2.57 X 1-77, pale olive-buff, varying to pale grayish olive-green 
or pea-green. Hah. Coast of Alaska, from Norton Sound to Point Barrow. 

158. A. fischeri (Brandt). Spectacled Eider. 

Genus SOMATERIA Leach. (Page 87, pi. XXY., fig. 6 ; pi. XXVI., fig. 3.) 

Species. 

Common Characters. — Adult males with the plumage pied black and white 
(the lower parts chiefly black, the upper surface mostly white), the breast more 
buff or cream-colored, the head varied with light green, black, etc. Females and 
young with the plumage barred with dusky and pale fulvous or rusty, the head and 



SOMATERIA. 109 

neck streaked with the same. Length about 20.00-26.00, Eggs pale olive-buff, pale 
dull olive-green or grayish pea-green. 

a}. Anterior point of feathering on forehead reaching only about half-way from the 
j)oint of the naked angle on side of forehead to nostril ; featherin"- of lores 
extending forward to at least beneath the posterior end of the nostril- 
adult males with scapulars and tertials white, the top of head chiefly black. 
(Subgenus Somateria.) 
h^. Distance from anterior point of loral feathering to extremity of naked angle 
on side of forehead, much greater than from same point to tip of upper 
mandible ; adult male without any black on throat. 
c\ Adult male Avith angle on side of forehead narrow and pointed ; black 
of head bordered beneath by pure white, except at posterior 
extremity only. 
d^. Adidt male with bill dull grayish olive in life, the breast deeper, 
more vinaceous, buff, the tertials less falcate; bill from poste- 
rior end of nostril 1.65, angle from anterior extremity of loral 
feathering to extreme point 1.46, depth of upper mandible (at 
frontal apex) .92. Adult female with bill much heavier than in 
the next, with nail larger and more strongly hooked ; bill from 
posterior l)order of nostinls 1.47-1.53, angle 1.38-1.43, depth of 
upper mandible .80-.90. Sab. Northern Europe. 

S. mollissima (Linn.). Eider.^ 
d^. Adidt male with bill orange-yellowish in life, the breast paler buff, 
the tertials more strongly falcate ; bill from posterior end of 
nostril not more than 1.55, angle 1.38-1.52, its width across 
middle not more than .30, depth of upper mandible .90-1.03. 
Adult female: Bill from nostril 1.30-1.50, angle 1.20-1.40, depth 
of upper mandible 0.78-0.95. Downy young : Above grayish 
brown, fading gradually into paler grayish on lower parts, the 
abdomen inclining to grayish white; chin and a broad super- 
ciliary stripe pale brownish, in strong contrast with a dark 
brown stripe on side of head. Eggs 2.97 X 1-97. Hab. Eastern 
Arctic America, including Greenland ; south to northern Lab- 
rador in summer and to northern border of United States in 
winter. 

159. S. mollissima borealis (Brehm). Greenland Eider.' 

c^. Adult male with angle on side of forehead broad and rounded ; black of 

head bordered beneath by pale green for nearly its entire length. 

Bill from posterior end of nostril 1.35-1.48, angle from anterior 

extremity of loral feathering 1.75-2.00, its width across middle 

1 For references, see No. 159, A. 0. U. Check List : the American bird proves to be not the true S. mollissima, 
however, but a fairly distinguishable race, characterized as above. 

2 Platypus borealis C. L. Brehm, Lehrb. Europ. Vog. 1824, 813. Somateria mollissima borealis A. E. Brehm, 
Verz. Samml. Eur. Vog. 1866, 14. 



IIQ NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

not less than .45, depth of upper mandible at frontal apex 
1.00-1.28. Adult female : Bill from posterior end of nostril 1.32, 
angle 1.87 (width .22), depth of npper mandible .78. Eggs 2.97 
X 2.01. Hab. Atlantic coast of North America, from Maine to 
Newfoundland and southern Labrador; south, in winter, to the 
Delaware and the Great Lakes. 

160. S. dresseri Sharpe. American Eider. 

b^. Distance from anterior extremity of loral feathering to extremity of naked 

ano-le on side of forehead, less than distance from same point to tip of 

upper mandible ; adult male with a V-shaped mark of black on throat. 

Plumage otherwise essentially as in S. mollissima and S. dresseri ; bill 

of adult male bright orange or orange-red in life, with paler tip. 

Male: Wing 11.75-12.75, culmen 1.80-2.20, length of bill to point 

of basal angle 2.50-3.10, greatest width of angle .20-.30, tarsus 2.00- 

2.30. Female: Wing 11.50-12.50, length of bill to point of basal 

angle 2.50-2.65. Eggs 2.96 X 1-96. Hah. Northwestern America, 

east to Great Slave Lake ; northeastern Asia. 

161. S. v-nigra Gray. Pacific Eider. 
a^. Anterior point of feathering on forehead reaching as far forward as posterior 
end of nostril, the loral feathering extending only about half as far. Adult 
male with scapulars and tertials black, the top of the head light bluish gray; 
lateral base of upper mandible, in adult male, enlarged into a very conspicu- 
ous broad lobe, the width of which at widest part exceeds the depth of upper 
mandible at anterior end of nostril. (Subgenus Erionetta Coues.) 

Adult male with a V-shaped mark of black on throat, as in >S'. v-nigra. Fe- 
male and young hardly different in plumage from other species, but very 
readily distinguishable by different outline of feathering at base of upper 
mandible, as pointed out above. AVing 10.50-11.25, bill to end of basal 
lobe 1.20-1.30 in male, about 2.00 in female, tarsus 1.80-1.86. Eggs 2.ri1 
X 1.83. Hab. Northern portions of northern hemisphere ; south, in 
winter, to New Jersey and the Great Lakes. 

162. S. spectabilis (Linn.). King Eider. 

Genus OIDEMIA Fleming. (Page 86, pi. XXVIL, figs. 1-4.) 

Species. 
Common Characters. — Adult males uniform black, with or without white 
speculum, and with or without white patches on head; bill brightly colored in life 
with tints of yellow, orange, or red, but partly black. Adult females plain brown- 
ish, lighter and more grayish beneath, the white head-markings of the male (if 
any) indistinctly indicated. 

a^. Length of commissure much less than inner toe, without claw ; adult males 
entirely uniform black ; bill of adult male much swollen on top at base ; 
distance from anterior end of nostril to nearest feathers of forehead greater 
than distance from same point to tip of bill. (Subgenus Oidemia.) 



OIDEMIA. 



Ill 



h^. Xail of bill much flattened, scarcely hooked at tip. Adult male: Bill black 
with a 3'ellow or orange spot on culmen immediately in front of the 
basal knob. Adult female : Above sooty brown, beneath paler, inclining 
to light grayish brown on breast and belly ; bill wholly dusky, the basal 
half of the culmen level, or scarcely if at all elevated at base. Wino- 
8.00-9.20, culmen 1.90, depth of upper mandible at base .98-1.00 in male 
.50 in female, tarsus 1.50-1.60. Kab. JSTorthern portions of eastern hemi- 
sphere. 

O. nigra (Linn.). European Scoter.^ 
b^. Nail of bill distinctly arched, and decidedly hooked at tip. Adult male : 
Basal half of upper mandible, including whole of knob, j'ellow or 
orange ; rest, including entire edge, black. Adult female : Above dusky 
grayish brown, the feathers of dorsal region with paler tips ; lower 
parts paler grayish brown, the lighter tips broader, though want- 
ing on the posterior portions ; lateral and undei--parts of head nearly 
uniform light grayish brown, in decided contrast with dark brown of 
pileum and nape ; bill uniform blackish. Yowig : Much like adult 
female, but lighter beneath, where indistinctly barred (mostly beneath 
the surface) with grayish brown. Length 17.00-21.50, wing 8.75-9.50, 
culmen 1.65-1.80, depth of upper mandible at base .85-.95 in male, .70 
in female, tarsus 1.65-2.00. Eggs 2.55 X 1-80, pale dull buff or pale 
brownish buff. Sab. North America, breeding northward ; in winter, 
south to New Jersey, the Great Lakes, and California. 

163. O. americana Sw. & Eich. American Scoter. 
Lenffth of commissure much more than length of inner toe without claw. 
b^. Feathering of head advancing much farther forward on lores than on fore- 
head ; sides of upper mandible at lower portion of base sunken ; wing 
with a white speculum. (Subgenus Melanitta Boie.) 
&. Loral feathers separated from nostril by a space neai-ly or quite 
equal to length of nostril ; male with lower pai't of swollen basal 
portion of upper mandible, on sides, unfeathered ; sides of bill 
orange-yellow in life ; basal portion of culmen elevated but not 
forming an abrupt knob ; plumage uniform black, or brownish 
black, relieved by a white wing-speculum and a white patch be- 
neath and behind eye. Adult feynale : Sooty grayish, or dusky 
grayish brown, darker above ; wing with a white speculum, but no 
white on head ; bill wholly dusky. Downy young : " Crown, nape, 
hind-neck, and sides of the head to a line from the base of the 
lower mandible deep brown ; a small white spot below the eye ; 
upper parts uniform dark brown with an olivaceous tinge; a small 
white patch of down on the wings ; under-parts white, the upper 
breast crossed by a dull brown band." (Dresser.) Length about 
21.00, wing 10.65-11.40, culmen 1.40-1.70, def)th of upper mandible 



1 Anas nigra LiNN., S; N. ed. 10, i. 1758, 123. Oidemia nigra Flem., Brit. Anim. 1828, 119. 



112 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

at base 1.10-1.30, tarsus 1.80-2.10. Eggs 2.87 X 1-92, pale cream- 
color. Hab. Northern portions of eastern hemisphere ; accidental in 

Greenland 164. O. fusca (Linn.). Velvet Scoter. 

cK Loral feathering separated from nostrils bj' a space much narrower 
than length of nostril ; male with swollen lateral base of upper 
mandible entirely feathered, the sides of bill bright red or orange- 
red in life. 
d'^. Width of bill at widest part equal to or greater than distance 
from nostril to tip, the lateral outlines strongly convex ; knob 
with anterior outline sloping backward ; distance fi*om frontal 
feathering to where outline of knob begins to incline down- 
ward not more than .45 ; sides of bill, in life, orange-red ; 
plumage as in 0. fusca. Length 19.75-23.00, wing 10.65-11.40, 
culmen 1.40-1.70, depth of upper mandible at base 1.10-1.30, 
tarsus 1.80-2.10. Eggs 2.68 X 1-83, pale dull buff, varying to 
cream-color. JTab. N'orthern North America ; south, in winter, 
to Chesapeake Bay, the Great Lakes, and southern California. 
165. O. deglandi Bonap. White-winged Scoter. 
cP. Width of bill at widest part less than distance from nostril to tip, 
the lateral outlines nearly parallel ; knob of male with anterior 
outline decidedly concave, the top forming a more or less con- 
spicuous projection ; distance from frontal feathers along top 
of knob to antei'ior .extremit}^ not less than .55 ; sides of bill 
bright red in life; plumage as in 0. fusca and 0. deglandi, but 
black usually much more intense. Hab. Northeastern Asia 
(Kamtschatka to Japan). 

O. stejnegeri Kidgw. Kamtschatkan Scoter.^ 

b'\ Feathering of head advancing much farther forward on forehead than on 

lores ; sides of bill at base with swollen portion entirely naked ; wing 

without white speculum. (Subgenus Pelionetta Kaup.) 

Adidt male : Uniform deep black, the lower parts more sooty ; a patch 

on forehead and another on hind-neck, pure white (one or the other 

of them occasionally absent) ; bill reddish in life, the swollen base, 

on each side, marked with a conspicuous large spot of jet-black ; 

length about 20.00-22.00, wing 9.25-9.75, culmen 1.30-1.60, tarsus 

1.55-1.85. Adult female : Top of head and hind-neck dusky; rest 

of head grayish brown, usually with an indistinct whitish patch 

near corner of mouth ; upper parts dusk}^, the feathers sometimes 

with paler tips; lower parts grayish brown, paler on belly, the 

feathers of breast and sides tipped with dull whitish ; bill wholly 

dusky, scarcely swollen at base; length about 18.00-19.00. Young : 

Similar to adult female, but side of head with two quite distinct 

whitish patches, one near base of bill, the other over ears ; color of 

1 New species. (=0. deglandii Stejn., Orn. Expl. Kamtsch. 1885, 174.) 



ERISMATURA. 



113 



upper parts more uniform, and plumage everywhere of softer 
texture. Eggs 2.47 X 1-70, pale buff, or pale creamy buff. Hab. 
North America in general, breeding far northward; south, in winter, 
to Jamaica, the Carolinas, Ohio Eiver, and Lower California ; acci- 
dental in Europe 166. O. perspicillata (Linn.). Surf Scoter. 



Genus ERISMATURA Bonaparte. (Page 87, pi. XXVI., fig. 4.) 

Species. 

Common Characters (of American species). — Adult males with upper paints 
uniform rich reddish chestnut ; head partly or entirely black, the bill fine light 
blue in life. Females and young, dull grayish brown above, finely mottled (some- 
times indistinctly barred) with paler; sides of head dull whitish, crossed by a 
longitudinal dusky bar or band. 

a\. Width of bill near end .90-.95. 

Adult male : Above, including neck, bright reddish chestnut ; top of head 
black ; entire side of head, below eyes, white ; lower parts, from chest back, 
whitish (the feathers dark brownish gray immediately beneath the sur- 
face, and this sometimes completely exposed by wearing away of the 
light-colored tips), sometimes overlaid by a bright rusty wash or stain. 
Adult female and young male : Above grayish brown, finely mottled and 
sometimes indistinctly barred with grayish buff; top of head darker; 
rest of head grayish white, crossed longitudinally by a stripe of mottled 
brownish, from corner of mouth to ear-coverts ; neck pale brownish 
gray, lower parts dull whitish (on surface). Downy young : Above dark 
smoky brown, darker on head ; a whitish spot on each side of back ; be- 
low eye, from bill to occiput, a stripe of brownish white, and beneath 
this a narrower one of dusky brown, confluent with the brown of the 
nape ; beneath, grayish white, shading into sooty brown on chest. 
Length about 13.50-16.00, wing 5.75-6.00, culmen about 1.50-1.60. 
Eggs 2A2 X 1-80, oval or ovoid, white or pale buffy, with finely but dis- 
tinctly granulated surface. Kab. Tempei-ate North America, south to 
New Granada and West Indies. 

167. E. rubida (Wils.). Ruddy Duck. 

a^ Width of bill near end only .70-85. 

Adult male : Head and neck (except lower half of latter in front) uniform 
black ; rest of plumage essentially as in corresponding stage of E. rubida. 
Adult female : Similar to same sex of E. rubida, but darker and very dis- 
tinctl}^ barred on the sides and upper parts with light fulvous or buffy. 
Sab. Southern South America. 

E. ferruginea Etton. Ferruginous Duck.* 

1 Eriamatura ferruginea Eyton, Mon. Anat. 1838j 170. 
15 



114 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

Genus NOMONYX Eidgway. (Page 87, pi. XXVI., fig. 2.) 

Species. 

Adult male : Fore-part and top of head, black ; rest of head, with neck, dark 
rusty cinnamon ; back and sides rusty, striped with black ; belly, etc., yellowish 
rusty, the feathers occasionally showing dusky centres ; wings brown, with a con- 
spicuous white speculum on greater coverts. Immature (?) inale : Top of head, two 
stripes on side of head, and general color of upper parts, dull black ; spaces between 
head-stripes, also cheeks and chin, dull white; neck and chest rusty chestnut, 
sometimes with a purplish tinge ; rest of lower parts dull ochraceous, the feathers 
with concealed dusky central spots ; middle and greater wing-coverts, basal portion 
of secondaries, and whole of axillars, white ; back and scapulars varied with bars 
and borders of rusty. Adult female : Similar to the preceding, but black less intense 
and more broken, the rusty paler (sometimes replaced by ochraceous) and spotted 
with black; belly dull ochraceous white, and wing-speculum smaller. Length 
about 12.00-14.50, wing about 5.50-5.75, tail 3.50-4.50, culmen 1.30-1.37. Hah. 
Tropical America in general, including the West Indies ; accidental in the eastern 
United States (Lake Champlain, New York, and Lake Koshkonong, Wisconsin). 

125. N. dominicus (Linn.). Masked Duck. 

Genus CHEN Boie. (Page 87, pi. XXYIII., figs. 1, 2.) 

Species. 

Common Characters. — Adult with whole head and at least part of the neck 
white ^' (in two of the three species the jDlumage entirely white, except quills, which 
are blackish) ; the bill dull purplish red (in life), with whitish nail, and feet pur- 
plish red. Young with head and neck grayish, the rest of the plumage either 
chiefly grayish bi"Own or else striped with grayish on a whitish ground ; bill and 
feet dusky. 

o}. Bill very robust, the commissure widely gaping, and enclosing a broad blackish 

space, extending from the corner of the mouth nearly to the tip of the bill ; 

feathering at base of upper mandible, along each side, having a very convex 

outline ; culmen 1.95 or more. 

6\ Plumage chiefly grayish brown, the rump (usually) and wing-coverts bluish 

gray. 

Adult : Head and part of neck, and sometimes rump and part of lower 

surface, white ; greater wing-coverts and secondaries (including 

tertials) edged with white. Young : Similar to adult, but head and 

neck uniform deep grayish brown, only the chin being white. 

Length 26.50-30.00, wing 15.00-17.00, culmen 2.10-2.30, tarsus 3.00- 

1 In some specimens the head more or less stained with bright rusty, or orange-rufous, from contact with 
ferruginous matter. 



ANSER. 115 

3.30, middle toe 2.15-2.50. Mab. Interior of North America, east of 
Eocky Mountains, breeding on the eastern shores of Hudson's Bay; 
migrating south, in winter, through Mississippi Valley to the Gulf 
coast ; occasional on Atlantic coast. 

— . C. caerulescens (Linn.). Blue Goose.^ 
¥. Plumage of adult entirely white, except primaries and their coverts ; young 
grayish white, the upper parts striped with dusky grayish. 

Adult : Uniform pure white, the head often stained with rusty ; pri 
maries black, becoming grayish basally, their coverts, and the 
alulae, ash-gray. Young : Head, neck, and upper parts pale grayish, 
the feathers of the latter with whitish edges and (especially wing- 
coverts and tertials) striped medially with darker; rump, upper 
tail-coverts, tail, and lower parts plain white, 
c^ Length about 23.00-28.00, wing 14.50-17.00 (16.36), culmen 1.95- 
2.30 (2.15), tarsus 2.80-3.25 (3.01), middle toe 2.00-2.50 (2.34). 
Eggs 3.13 X 2.12. Hah. Western North America, breeding in 
Alaska ; migrating south, in winter, to southern California and 
Mississippi Valley ; northeastern Asia. 

169. C. hyperborea (Pall.). Lesser Snow Goose. 
c\ Length about 30.00-38.00, wing 17.35-17.50 (17.42), culmen 2.55- 
2.70 (2.63), tarsus 3.15-3.50 (3.28), middle toe 2.60-2.80 (2.70). 
Hab. Eastern North America ; breeding grounds unknown, but 
probably arctic regions east of Mackenzie Eiver ; United States 
(Mississippi Valley to Atlantic coast) only during migrations 
and in winter. 
169a. C. hyperborea nivalis (Forst.). Greater Snow Goose. 
a}. Bill comparatively weak, the commissure not gaping, and not enclosing a dis- 
tinct blackish space ; feathering at base of upper mandible, along each side, 
forming a nearly straight, oblique line ; culmen 1.70 or less. 

Adult with basal portion of upper mandible often wrinkled and warty; 
plumage, at all ages, as in C. hyperborea., but young rather lighter in 
color, with the darker stripes of upper parts less strongly contrasted; 
length 20.00-26.00, wing 13.75-15.50, culmen 1.50-1.70, tarsus 2.30-3.00, 
middle toe 1.80-2.05. Hab. Interior of Arctic America in summer; mi- 
grating south, in winter, to southern California, and eastward to Mon- 
tana 170. C. rossii (Baird). Ross's Snow Goose. 

Genus ANSER Brisson. (Page 87, pi. XXVIIL, fig. 3.) 

Species. 

Common Characters. — Plumage brownish, the feathers of back, etc., with 
lighter tips ; lower parts pale brownish gray or grayish white, becoming pure 
white on under tail-coverts ; upper tail-coverts white ; tail dusky, tipped with white. 

1 References given on page 351 (" Hypothetical List") of the A. 0. U. Check List. It is, however, beyond 
question a good species. 



IIQ • NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

a^. Culmen not more than 2.30, tarsus less than 3.00. 

Adult : Fore part of head, all round, to about half way across lores and 
forehead, white ; rest of head grayish brown (darkest next the white), 
as are also the neck and upper parts, the latter varied by distinct gray- 
ish tips to the feathers ; lower parts grayish white, blotched or irregu- 
larly spotted with black ; anal region, crissum, and tail-coverts white ; 
greater wing-coverts ash-gray tipped with white ; secondaries blackish 
edged with white ; bill light colored (yellowish or orange in life), with 
white nail ; feet light-colored (orange or reddish in life). Young : 
Similar to adult, but fore-part of head dusky instead of white, lower 
parts without black markings, and nail of bill dusky. 
b\ Length about 28.00, wing 14.75-16.00, culmen 1.60-1.75, depth of upper 
mandible at base about .90, width .85-1.05, tarsus 2.25-2.80. J^ggs 
3.06 X 2.03. Hab. Northern portions of eastern hemisphere ; south- 
eastern Greenland?. 171. A. albifrons (Gmel.). White-fronted Goose. 
h\ Length 27.00-30.00, wing 14.25-17.50, culmen 1.80-2.35, depth of upper 
mandible at base .90-1.20, width .85-1.05, tarsus 2.60-3.20. Hggs 
3.16X2.07. Hab. North America, breeding far northward; in 

winter, south to Mexico and Cuba 171«. A. albifrons gambeli 

(Hartl.). American White-fronted Goose. 
a^. Culmen more than 2.30, tarsus more than 3.00. 

Adult : Head and neck grayish brown ; upper parts brownish gray, the 
feathers tipped with grayish white ; rump blackish brown, lower parts 
brownish gray, becoming white posteriorly, the upper tail-coverts and 
sides of rump also white ; bill chiefly light-colored (orange in life ?), the 
nail, culmen, and basal half of lower mandible black ; feet light-colored 
(orange-yellowish in life) ; length about 30.00-32.00, wing 18.50, or less, 
culmen 2.35, tarsus 3.10. Hab. Northern portions of eastern hemi- 
sphere ; said to have occurred in Canada and at Hudson's Bay (fide 
Nuttall). a. segetum (Gmel.). Bean Goose. ^ 

Genus BR ANT A Scopoli. (Page 87, pi. XXYIII., fig. 4.) 

Species. 

Common Characters. — Bill and feet entirely deep black, at all ages ; head and 
neck black, one or the other, or both, relieved by white patches ; tail-coverts 
white ; tail and quills uniform black ; upper parts brownish, the feathers with 
lighter tips; lower parts (from thighs forward) grayish white (in B. leucopsis only), 
grayish, brownish, or dusky. 

a\ Head partly white. 

&^ Head black, with a somewhat triangular whitish patch on each cheek, 
usually confluent on throat, but sometimes separated by a black throat- 
stripe ; chest grayish or brownish, like breast and belly. 

1 Anas segetum Gmel., S. N. i. 1788, 512. Anser segetum Meter, Taschb. ii. 1810, 554. 



117 

c\ Lower parts light brownish gray, fading gradually into white on anal 
region; white cheek-patches usually confluent on throat; white collar 
round lower neck usually wanting, rarely distinct. 
d\ Larger (wing usually more than 16.00, culmen usually more than 
1.75) ; tail-feathers usually 18-20 ; length about 35 00-43 00 
wing 15.60-21.00, culmen 1.55-2.70, tarsus 2.45-3 70 Eaqs 
3.55 X 2.27. Hah. Temperate ^orth America, breeding chiefly 
within the United States. '^ 

^, ^, ,, ^^2- ^- canadensis (Linn.). Canada Goose. 

a . bmaller (wing usually less than 16.00, culmen usually less than 
1.75) ; length about 25.00-34.00, wing 14.75-17.75 culmen 1 '^O- 
1.90, tarsus 2.25-3.20. Eggs 3.18 X 2.10. Hab. Arctic and sub- 
arctic America; south, in winter, through United States, chiefly 
west of Alleghanies; northeastern Asia (Japan to eastern 
^^^®^^^) 172a. B. canadensis hutchinsii (Sw. & Eich.). 

2 -r Hutchins's Goose. 

c . Lower parts deep grayish brown or brownish gray (often not con- 
spicuously paler than upper parts), abruptly defined against white 
of anal region ; white cheek-patches usually separated by a black 
throat-stripe, or black mottling on throat; white collar round lower 
neck usually very distinct. 
d\ Larger (wing more than 16.00, culmen more than 1.25) ; tail- 
feathers usually 18-20 ; length about 35.00 ; wing 16.25-^18.00 
culmen 1.40-1.65, tarsus 3.05-3.25. Hah. Northwest coast 
of North America, north to Sitka ; south, in winter, to Cali- 

^*^™^^ 1726- B. canadensis occidentalis (Baird). 

White-cheeked Goose. 
d\ Smaller (wing less than 16.00, culmen less than 1.25) ; tail-feathers 
usually 14-16; length about 23.00-25.00, wing 13.60-14.50, 
culmen 0.95-1.15, tarsus 2.40-2.75. Eggs 3.02 X 2.00. Hah. 
Pacific coast of North America, breeding chiefly about the 
shores of Norton Sound and the lower Yukon ; south, in winter, 
to California, and, more rarely, to upper Mississippi Valley (Wis- 
consin, etc.). 

173c. B. canadensis minima Eidgw. Cackling Goose. 

h\ Head mostly white, the lores, occiput, neck, and chest (sometimes back 
also) black. Above bluish gray, the feathers marked with a broad sub- 
terminal bar of black and a narrow terminal bar of white ; lower parts 
grayish white, the sides and flanks brownish gray, the feathers with 
whitish tips; length 23.50-28.00, wing 14.90-16.90, culmen 1.10-1.45, 
tarsus 2.50-3.00. Eggs 3.71 X 2.38. Hah. Northern Europe ; occasional 
on Atlantic coast of North America (Hudson's Bay to North Carolina). 
175. B. leucopsis (Bechst.). Barnacle Goose. 
Head entirely black. 

h^. Middle of neck with a patch of white streaks on each side ; upper parts 



118 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

brownish gray, the feathers narrowly tipped with grayish white ; lower 
parts pale grayish, in conspicuous and abrupt contrast with black of 
chest, and gradually fading into the white of anal region and crissum. 
Young : Similar to adult, but wing-coverts and secondaries broadly 
tipped with white, forming conspicuous bars ; white on sides of neck 
reduced to small specks ; lower parts paler and more uniform. Length 
23.50-30.50, wing 12.30-13.60, culmen 1.20-1.50, tarsus 2.10-2.40. Eggs 
2.92 X 2.02. Hah. Sea-coasts of Europe and eastern North America, 
breeding only within the Arctic circle ; casual or occasional in upper 
Mississippi Valley during winter. 

173. B. bernicla (Linn.). Brant. 
&^ Middle of neck encircled by a broad white collar, interrupted only behind ; 
upper parts nearly uniform dark sooty brown ; lower parts dark sooty 
slate, not distinctly, if at all, contrasted with black of chest, but 
abruptly defined against white of anal region and crissum. Young : 
Similar to adult, but collar indistinct or obsolete, the larger wing- 
coverts and secondaries broadly tipped with white, and feathers of 
sides and flanks uniform brownish gray, without white tips. Length 
22.00-29.00, wing 12.70-13.50, culmen 1.20-1.35, tarsus 2.20-2.50. Eggs 
2.87 X 1-87. Hab. Western Arctic America, migrating south, in winter, 
along Pacific coast to Lower California, and very rarely straggling to 
Atlantic coast (Long Island). 

174. B. nigricans (Lawr.). Black Brant. 

Genus PHILACTE Bannister. (Page 88, pi. XXVIIL, fig. 4.) 

Species. 

Adult : Head and hind-neck white, the former frequently stained with orange- 
rufous ; throat and neck (except behind) plain dusky ; basal half of tail slate-color, 
tei'minal half white ; rest of plumage bluish gray, handsomely barred with black 
and white, these markings very sharply contrasted on upper parts, but much less 
distinct on lower, which ai-e more or less tinged with fulvous. Young : Similar to 
adult, but with head and whole neck dusk}^, the former speckled, especially on top, 
with white; markings in general less distinct than in adult. Length about 26.00, 
wing 14.30-15.75, culmen 1.40-1.65, tarsus 2.60-2.85, middle toe 2.40-2.50. Eggs 
3.16 X 2.12. ITab. Coast of Alaska, north of the peninsula, chiefly about the shores 
of Norton Sound and valley of the lower Yukon. 

176. P. canagica (Sevast.). Emperor Goose. 

Genus DENDROCYGNA Swainson. (Page 87, pi. XXV., fig. 4.) 

Species. 

a^. Plumage much spotted or speckled, without large areas of uniform color. 

Above dull brown, the feathers paler at tips ; neck streaked with pale 



DENDROCYGNA. 119 

fulvous and dusky ; lower parts dull whitish, irregularly spotted with 
black. Hah. West Indies (Jamaica and St. Groix). 

D. arborea Linn. Tree-duck.* 
a^. Plumage chiefly uniform, in distinctly defined areas of different colors. 

b^. Belly plain light tawny-cinnamon, or fulvous, the flanks striped with 
paler. 

Adult : Back and scapular region black, the feathers tipped with ful- 
vous or cinnamon; upper tail-coverts white ; head and neck plain 
tawny, like lower parts, the top of head and hind-neck darker; 
bill black ; length about 20.00-21.00, wing 8.10-8.90, culmen 1.65- 
1.95, tarsus 2.10-2.40, middle toe 2.30-2.80. Hab. Tropical and 
subtropical North America, north to California, Nevada, and Louisi- 
ana ; also, southern Brazil, Paraguay, and Argentine Eepublic. 

178. D. fulva (Gmel.). Fulvous Tree-duck. 
6*. Belly uniform black. 

&. Under tail-coverts white, spotted with black ; bill light-colored (red in 
life) ; above reddish brown, the rump and upper tail-coverts 
black. 
d}. Adult : Lower part of neck, all round, and chest, reddish brown, or 
cinnamon, like the back. Young : Similar, but pattern of color- 
ation much less distinct, and colors duller ; the reddish brown 
replaced by dingy grayish, tinged with rusty, the belly, flanks, 
etc., grayish white, tinged with dusky; bill and feet dusky. 
Downy young : Above blackish brown, varied by large, sharply 
defined areas of sulphury buff; lower parts pale buff-yellow, 
the belly whitish. Length 19.75-24.00, wing 9.20-9.70, cul- 
men 1.90-2.15, tarsus 2.25-2.60, middle toe 2.25-2.70. Eggs 
2.12 X 1.56, white, sometimes tinged with pale olive greenish or 
buffy. Hah. Middle America, including Eio Grande Yalley in 
Texas. 

177. D. autumnalis (Linn.). Black-bellied Tree-duck. 
d}. Adult : Lower part of neck, all round, including chest, brownish 
gray, abruptly contrasted with the chestnut-brown of the back. 
Hab. Northern South America. 

D. discolor Scl. & Salt. Colombian Tree-duck.'^ 
c^. Under tail-coverts uniform black. 

Adult : Chest and lower part of neck, all round, rich chestnut ; 
sides yellowish white, barred with blackish ; fore part of head 
white ; rest of head, and upper part of neck, black, with a white 
patch on fore-neck. Hah. Eastern South America and western 

Africa. 

D. viduata (Linn.). Brazilian Tree-duck.s 

* Anas arborea Linn., S. N. ed. 12, i. IToO, 207. Dendrocyqna arborea Eyt., Mon. Anat. 1838, 110. 

2 Dendrocygna discolor ScL. <fe Salt., Nom. Neotr. IST.?, 161. 

3 Anas viduata Linn., S. N. ed. 12, i. 1766, 205. Dendrocygna viduata Eyt., Mon. Anat. 1838, 110. 



120 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

Genus OLOR Wagler. (Page 88, pi. XXIX., fig. 1.) 

Species. 

Common Characters. — Adults with whole plumage pure white, the head often 
stained with rusty ; bill either entirely black, or black and yellow ; iris dark brown ; 
feet black. Young ashy, sometimes tinged with brownish, the bill flesh-color (or at 
least partly of this color), and feet grayish, or whitish. Eggs white or buff'y 
w^hite. 

a^. Distance from the anterior corner of the eye to posterior end of the nostrils 
much greater than from the latter point to the tip of the bill. 
b^. Basal portion of bill and entire lores yellow in adult. 

&. Yellow of bill surrounding nostrils; wing 23.00 or more, and culmen 4.00 
or more; length about 4|-5 feet, extent 7-8 feet, wing 23.00-26.00, 
culmen (including naked space on forehead) 4.00-4.75, tarsus 4.00, 
middle toe 5.00-6.00. Eggs 4.28 X 2.88. Hah. Northern parts of 
eastern hemisphere ; occasional in southern Greenland. 

175. O. cygnus (Linn.). Whooping Swan. 

c". Yellow of bill not extending as far forward as the nostrils ; wing less 

than 23.00, and culmen not more than 3.50 ; length less than 4 feet, 

extent about 6 feet, wing 20.00, culmen 3.50, tarsus less than 4.00, 

middle toe 4.50. Hah. Northern portions of eastern hemisphere. 

O. bewickii (Yarr.). Bewick's Swan.^ 
61 Basal portion of bill, with lores, black, the latter usually with a small 
yellow spot. 

Length about 4| feet, extent 7 feet, wing 2L00-22.00, culmen 3.80- 
4.20, tarsus 4.00-4.32, middle toe 5.40-5.90. Eggs 4.19 X 2.72. Hah. 
North America in general, breeding far northward ; casual west to 
Commander Islands, Kamtschatka ; accidental in Scotland. 

180. O. columbianus (Ord). "Whistling Swan. 
a^ Distance from anterior corner of eye to posterior end of nostril not greater than 

from the latter point to the tip of the bill. 

Bill and lores entirely black ; length 5-5 i feet, extent 8 to nearly 10 feet, 
wing 21.00-27.50, culmen 4.30^.70, tarsus 4.54-4.95, middle toe 6.00- 
6.50. Eggs 4.46 X 2.92. Hah. Interior of North America, more rare or 
less generally distributed toward the Pacific coast, rare or casual along 
the Atlantic coast ; breeding from Iowa and Dakota northward. 

181. O. buccinator (Eich.). Trumpeter Swan. 



1 Cygnus hewickii Yarr., Trans. Linn. Soc. xvi. 1830, 453. Olor bewickii Stejn. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. v., 
1882, 201. 



PHCENICOPTER US. 



121 



Order ODONTOGLOSS^.— The Lamel- 

LIROSTRAL GrALLATORES. (Page 1.) 

Families. 
(Characters same as those given for the Order).... Phoenicopteridae. (Page 121.) 

Family PHCENICOPTERIDiE.— The Flamingoes. (Page 121.) 

Genera. 
(Characters same as those given for the Family).., Phoenicopterus. (Page 121.) 

Genus PHCENICOPTERUS Linn^us. (Page 121, pi. XXIX., fig. 2.) 

Species. 

Adult: General color light vermilion or pinkish, more intense (inclining to 
scarlet) on wings ; flanks rosy carmine ; primaries and secondaries deep black ; 
terminal third of bill black ; basal portion whitish or yellowish. Young : Grayish 
white, the wings varied with grayish and dusky. Downy young : Entirely white. 
Length about 42.00-48.00, wing 15.30-16.50, culmen 5.20, tarsus 12.00-14.50. Eggs 
3.55 X 2.18, elongate-ovate or cylindrical-ovate, pure chalk-white. Hab. Tropical 
and subtropical sea-coasts, from Florida Keys and coast of Gulf States to northern 

South America ; Galapagos? 182. P. ruber Linn. American Flamingo. 

16 



122 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 



Order HERODIONES.— The Herons, 
Storks, Ibises^ etc. (Pagei.) 

Families. 

a}. Sides of upper mandible with a deep narrow groove extending uninterruptedly 
from tlie nostrils to the tip. (Suboi'der Ibides.) 
b^. Bill very broad and excessively flattened, greatly widened toward end, only 

the extreme tip decurved Plataleidae. (Page 122.) 

b^. Bill slender, nearly cylindrical, or even narrower than deep toward end, 
gradually but decidedly decurved or bent downward for nearly the 

whole length Ibididse. (Page 123.) 

a^. Sides of upper mandible without any groove. 

¥. Hind toe inserted above the level of the anterior toes ; claws broad and flat, 
resting on a horny pad or shoe, the middle one not pectinated. (Sub- 
order Ciconice.) Ciconiidse. (Page 124.) 

i^ Hind toe inserted on the same level with the anterior toes ; claws narrow, 
arched, the under surface free, the middle one with its inner edge dis- 
tinctly pectinated. (Suborder Herodii.) 
c^. Bill lance-shaped, or compressed, narrow, and pointed, the lateral out- 
lines nearly straight, and the gonys several times longer than the 

width of the lower mandible Ardeidae. (Page 126.) 

c^ Bill shaped much like an inverted boat; excessively broad, the lateral 
outlines much bowed, and the gonys not longer than the width of 
the lower mandible = Cochleariidce.^ 

Family PLATALEIDAE.— The Spoonbills. (Page 122.) 

Genera. 
(Characters same as those given for the Family) Ajaja. (Page 122.) 

Genus AJAJA Reichenbach. (Page 122, pi. XXXI., fig. 1.) 

Species. 

Adult : Neck, back, and breast white ; tail orange-buff, the shafts deep pink ; 
rest of plumage pale rose-pink, the lesser wing-coverts and upper tail-coverts 
glossy intense carmine, hnmature (second year ?) : Similar to adult, but lacking 
the carmine of the wing-coverts and upper tail-coverts, and tail peach-blossom 
pink instead of orange-bufl*. Young: Head completely feathered, except around 
base of bill; plumage chiefly white, becoming delicate peach-blossom pink on 
wings, tail, and hinder lower parts ; outer webs of bastard wing, primary coverts, 

1 The Boat-bills, represented by the single genus Cochleariua BrissOxV (type, Caticroma cocMearia LiNN.). 



GUARA. 123 

and wide borders to exterior primaries (chiefly on outer webs), deep snuff-brown. 
Length about 28.00-35,00, wing 14.10-15.30, eulmen 6.20-7.15, greatest width of 
bill 2.00-2.20, tarsus 3.75-4.65, middle toe 2.95-3.35. Eggs 2.57 X 1-73, ovate, white, 
or buffy white, blotched, spotted, and stained with various shades of brown. Hah. 
Tropical America in general, north to southern Atlantic and Gulf States, and casually 
(formerly at least) to California and southern Illinois. 

183. A. ajaja (Linn.). Roseate Spoonbill. 

Family IBIDID^.— The Ibises. (Page 122.) 

Genera. "• 

o}. Head of adult wholly naked anteriorly ; feathers of crown short, close, and 
blended ; plumage of wings and tail pure white or scarlet in adult (the 
former with glossy black tips to longer quills), dull grayish brown or dusky 
in young Guara. (Page 123.) 

a^. Head of adult wholly feathered, except lores ; feathers of crown distinctly 
lanceolate and slightly elongated, forming a short rounded crest when 
erected ; plumage of wings and tail highly metallic, in both old and young. 

Plegadis. (Page 123.) 

Genus GUARA Eeichenbach. (Page 123, pi. XXX., fig. 2.) 

Species. 
Common Characters. — Adults with the plumage entirely uniform white or 
scarlet, except tips of the longer quills, which are glossy black. Young, uniform 
dark brownish gray, the belly white. Eggs greenish white, buffy, or pale brown- 
ish, stained, blotched, and spotted with brown. 

a}. Adult : Pure white (tinted with delicate pink in freshly-killed specimens), the 
tips of the longer quills glossy greenish black. Young : Uniform grayish 
brown, the rump, tail-coverts, base of tail, and under parts of body white. 
Length 21.50-27.50, wing 10.30-11.75, eulmen 4.15-6.30, tarsus 3.10-1.00, 
middle toe 2.15-2.70. Eggs 2.24 x I'-IS. JSab. Tropical America in general, 
including West Indies ; north, regularly, to North Carolina, southern Illinois 
and Indiana, and Lower California, casually to Great Salt Lake, Long Island, 
and Connecticut 184. G. alba (Linn.). "White Ibis. 

a". Adult : Pure intense scarlet, the tips of the longer primaries glossy blue-black. 
Young : Dark brownish gray, the belly white. Length about 28.00-30.00, 
wing 10.80-11.00, eulmen 6.00-6.50, tarsus 3.70-3.80, middle toe 2.55-2.60 
Eggs 2.12 X 1-46. ITab. Eastern coasts of tropical America, north, casually, 
to Florida, Louisiana, and Texas 185. G. rubra (Linn.). Scarlet Ibis. 

Genus PLEGADIS Kaup. (Page 123, pi. XXX., fig. 1.) 

Species. 
Common Characters. — Adults with head, neck, and (in some species) lower 
parts uniform chestnut, the upper parts metallic green, bronze, and purple, most 



124 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

brilliant on under surface of wings and tail. Youyig : Head and neck streaked 
with white and dusky, and lower parts uniform grayish brown or dusky, the upper 
parts much as in the adult. Eggs plain greenish verditer blue. 

a}. Legs and feet long and slender, the tarsus with a nearly continuous frontal series 
of transverse scutellse. Adult with neck, back, lesser wing-coverts, and 
lower parts rich chestnut. Young with lower parts dull grayish brown. 
¥. Adult : Lores greenish in life, blackish in dried skins ; feathers surround- 
ing base of bill blackish. Downy young : Blackish, " with a broad white 
band over the crown ; legs and bill yellowish, the latter black at the 
base and tip, and with a central black band." (Dresser.) Length 
about 22.00-25.00, wing 10.20-11.85, culmen 4.30-5.45, tarsus 2.90-4.30, 
middle toe 2.10-2.80. Eggs 2.01 X l-'l?. Hab. Warmer parts of the 
eastern hemisphere ; also, more southern portion of eastern United 
States, and West Indies.. 186. P. autumnalis (IIasselq.). Glossy Ibis. 
h^. Adult : Lores lake-red in life, pale brownish or yellowish in dried skins ; 
feathers surrounding base of bill white. Young not obviously different 
from corresponding stage of P. autumnalis. Downy young when newly 
hatched: Clothed with uniform blackish down, the bill whitish, with 
dusky base. Older : Similar, but base and tip of bill, and band across 
middle portion, blackish ; the intervening spaces pinkish white. Length 
about 19.00-26.00, wing 9.30-10.80, culmen 3.75-6.00, tarsus 3.00-4.40, 
middle toe 2.10-2.85. Eggs 2.05 X 1-41. Hab. Tropical America in 
general (except West Indies ?), south to Argentine Eepublic and Chili, 
and western North America, from Texas and Lower California to 

Oregon 187. P. guarauna (Linn.). White-faced Glossy Ibis. 

a^. Legs and feet comparatively short and stout, the tarsus with frontal scutellse 
more or less irregular and interrupted. Adult with head and upper neck 
dark chestnut- brown, the lower neck and lower parts violet- blackish ; lesser 
wing-coverts metallic green and bronzed purple, the back dark metallic 
green. Young with lower parts dusky, glossed with violet. Wing 10.15- 
12.00, culmen 3.40-5.10, tarsus 2.70-3.85, middle toe 1.80-2.30. Hab. Vicinity 
of Lake Titicaca, Peru ; Chili. 

P. ridgwayi (Allen). Peruvian Glossy Ibis.^ 



Family CICONIIDi©.— The Storks and Wood Ibises. (Page 122.) 

Genera. 

a^. Bill decurved toward end, with the tip blunt and rounded ; toes lengthened, the 
middle one at least half as long as the tarsus. (Subfamily Tantalince.) 
b^. Adult with whole head and part of neck naked, the skin hard and scurfy, 
except on top of head, which is covered with a smooth, nearly quadrate, 

^ Falcinellns ridgwayi Allen, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. iii. July, 1876, 355. Plegadia ridgwayi RiDGW., in 
B. B. & R. Water B. N. Am. i. 1884, 94. 



TANTALUS. 



125 



or somewhat shield-shaped, plate ; nostrils subbasal ; tertials longer than 
primaries, and with their webs compact or normal. 

Tantalus. (Page 125.) 
¥. Adult with only the front part of the head (all round) naked, the skin not 
scurfy or corrugated ; nostrils strictly basal ; tertials shorter than pri- 
maries, and with their webs somewhat decomposed Fseudotantalus} 

a}. Bill straight to the tip or else slightly recurved towai^d end, the tip pointed • 
toes short, the middle one much less tha«i half as long as the tarsus. (Sub- 
family Ciconiince.) 
¥. Entire head and neck feathered, except lores and a narrow strip on each 
side of throat ; bill straight to the tip ; tail very short and deeply 
forked, the broad and stiffened lower tail-coverts extending far beyond 

its tip Euxenura? 

6^ Entire head and neck (except occipital patch) naked ; bill enormously large, 
slightly recurved toward tip ; tail normal Mycteria. (Page 125.) 

Genus TANTALUS Linn^us. (Page 125, pi XXXI., fig. 2.) 

Species. 

Adult : Plumage white, the remiges and tail glossy greenish black, with purple 
and bronze reflections ; under wing-coverts pale rose-pink in breeding plumage ; 
bill and naked scurfy skin of head and upper neck dull grayish dusky. Young : 
Head covered, except anteriorly, with rather scant, somewhat " woolly," feathers, 
the neck also entii-el}'- feathered ; plumage of head and neck grayish brown, be- 
coming darker on occiput, where inclining to dark sooty ; rest of plumage as in 
adult, but white duller, or more grayish (said to be wholly replaced by dusky gray 
in very young birds), and black of remiges and tail less metallic. Immature (second 
year?) : Head entirely bare and scurfy as in adult, but whole neck feathered, as in 
young ; plumage intermediate. Length 35.00-45.00, wing 17.60-19.50, culraen 6.10- 
7.30, tarsus 7.00-8.50, middle toe 3.85-4.30. Eggs 2-3, 2.74 X 1-80, chalk-white, 
usually more or less stained, in streaks, with pale brownish. Ifab. Whole of tropical 
and warm-temperate America, north' to New York (casual), Ohio, Indiana, Wiscon- 
sin, Colorado, Utah, Nevada, and California.. 188. T. loculator Linn. Wood Ibis. 

Genus MYCTERIA Linn^us. (Page 125, pi. XXXII., fig. 1.) 

Species. 

Adult: Plumage entirely white; bill, naked skin of head and neck, with legs 
and feet, black, the lower part of the naked neck encircled by a collar of bright 
I'ed (in life). Young : Plumage entirely, or prevailingly, brownish gray ; occiput 
crested with a somewhat " bushy" tuft of blackish hair-like feathers. Length about 

1 Fseudotantalus Ridgw., Pr. U. S. Nat. Mus. v. 1883, 550. Type, Tantalus ihis Linn. 
"^ Euxenura Ridgw., Bull. U. S. Qeol. & Geog. Surv. Terr. iv. No. 1, 1878, 250. Type, Ardea maguari 
Gmel. 



126 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

4J feet, wing 24.50-27.00, culmen 9.75-13.00, tarsus 11.25-12.50, middle toe 4.20-4.80. 
Hob. Continental tropical America, north to Texas. 

189. M. americana Linn. Jabirn. 



Family ARDEIDiE.— The Herons. (Page 122.) 

Genera. 

a}. Tail-feathers 10, very short, scarcely more stiff than the coverts ; outer toe de- 
cidedly shorter than the inner; claws lengthened, slightly curved, (f^nh- 

f amily Botaurince.) Botaurus. (Page 126.) 

a^. Tail-feathers 12, more lengthened, and decidedly more stiff than the coverts ; 

outer toe as long as or decidedly longer than the inner; claws comparatively 

short and strongly curved. (Subfamily Ardeince.) 

h^. Bill comparatively long and narrow, the culmen longer than the tarsus, and 

equal to at least five times the greatest depth of the bill ; plumage of the 

young not conspicuously different in pattern from that of the adult. 

Ardea. (Page 128.) 

6*. Bill comparatively short and thick, the culmen not longer than the tarsus, 

and equal to not more than four times the greatest depth of the bill ; 

plumage of the young conspicuously different in pattern from that of 

the adult Nycticorax. (Page 132.) 

Genus BOTAURUS Stephens. (Page 126, pi. XXXIII., figs. 1, 2.) 

Species. 

a}. Size large (wing more than 9.50) ; sexes alike in coloration, and young not ob- 
viously different from adults. (Subgenus Botaurus.) 
b\ Neck plain ochraceous, or minutely freckled, the fore-neck striped with 
whitish ; wing-coverts minutely freckled with different shades of ochra- 
ceous and rustj^ ; a blackish or dull grayish stripe on side of neck ; 
lower parts distinctly striped. 

Prevailing color ochraceous, this much varied above by dense mottling 
and freckling of reddish brown and blackish ; quills and their coverts 
slate-color, tipped with pale cinnamon ; lower parts, including fore- 
neck, pale buff, striped with brown ; length 24.00-34.00, wing 9.80- 
12.00, culmen 2.50-3.20, tarsus 3.10-3.85, middle toe 2.90-3.60. BJggs 
1.88 X 1-43, pale olive-drab, or pale isabella-color. I£ab. Whole of 
temperate and tropical North America, south to Guatemala, Cuba, 
Jamaica, and Bermudas ; occasional in British Islands. 

190. B. lentiginosus (Montag.). American Bittern. 

6". Neck transversely barred with blackish and ochraceous ; wing-coverts 

coarsely variegated, in irregular, somewhat "herring-bone," pattern, 

with blackish on an ochraceous ground-color ; no black or grayish stripe 



BOTAURUS. 127 

on side of neck ; lower parts nearly immaculate ; wing 10.10, culmen 
3.25, tarsus 3.75, middle toe 3.75. Hah. Tropical America, north to 
Nicaragua. 

B. pinnatus (Wagl.). South American Bittern.^ 
o?. Size very small (wing less than 6.00) ; sexes more or less different in color (ex- 
cept in A. involucris ?), and young appreciably different from adults. (Sub- 
genus Ardetta Gray.) 
¥. Uj)per parts not conspicuously striped ; adult males with top of head, 
back, scapulars, rump, and tail uniform glossy black. 

&. Quills tipped with cinnamon-rufous, or pale cinnamon ; adult male with 
a distinct narrow stripe of buff along each side of back. 

Adult male : Sides of head and neck ochraceous, deepening into 
chestnut on hind-neck ; chin, throat, and fore-neck whitish, 
striped with pale buff; central portion of wing-covert region 
buff, surrounded by cinnamon-rufous ; lower parts buff-whitish. 
Adult female : Similar to the male, but black replaced by brown, 
and scapular stripes much broader. Young : Similar to adult 
female, but feathers of back and scapulars tipped with buff. 
Length 12.00-14.25, wing 4.30-5.25, culmen 1.60-1.90, tarsus 
1.50-1.75, middle toe 1.40-1.60. Eggs 1.20 X -93, white, or 
greenish white. Hab. "Whole of temperate Noi'th America, and 
tropical America south to Brazil. 

191. B. exilis (Gmel.). Least Bittern. 

c^ Quills without rufous or cinnamon tips ; adult males without trace of 

lighter stripe along sides of back. 

d^. Adult male : Lower tail-coverts dull black ; wing-coverts rich 

chestnut ; neck similar, the lower parts more rufous ; length 

(skin) 10.80, wing 4.30, culmen 1.80, tarsus 1.40. Hab. Southern 

Florida (Caloosahatchie River; near Lake Okeechobee). 

— . B. neoxenus (Cory). Cory's Least Bittern.'' 
d'^. Adult male : Lower tail-coverts white ; wing-coverts pale grayish 
buff, becoming nearly white on greater coverts; neck similar, 
but darker and more tinged with buff; lower parts pale buffy, 
becoming white medially and posteriorly. Adult female : 'Ba.c'k, 
scapulars, and rump umber-brown, streaked narrowly with 
buffy (except on lower back and rump) ; rest of plumage much 
as in adult male, but more decidedly buffy, the fore-neck con- 
spicuously striped, the sides, etc., more narrowly striped, or 
streaked. Length aboiit 12.00-13.00, wing 5.50-5.80, culmen 
1.75-1.85, tarsus 1.60-1.70. Hab. Europe, etc. 

B. minutus (Linn.). European Least Bittern.3 
b^. Upper parts conspicuously striped with black and ochraceous ; quills broadly 

1 Ardea pintiata "Licht." Wagl., Isis, 1829, 663. Botaurus pinnatus Gray, Gen. B. iii. 1847, 557. 

"^ Ardetta neoxena CoRV, Auk, iii. April, 1886, 262; ib. July, 1886, 408. 

^ Ardea minuta Linn., S. N. ed. 12, i. 1766, 240. Botaarua minutus Boie, Isis, 1822, 559. 



128 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

tipped with rufous ; wing about 4.85, culmen 2.00. Hah. Southern South 
America. 

B. involucris (Vieill.). Azara's Least Bittern.^ 

Genus ARDEA Linn^us. (Page 126, pis. XXXIY.to XXXYI.) 

Species. 

{Nest of coarse sticks, placed usually in trees. Eggs plain bluish green, vary- 
ing in depth of color.) 

a}. Culmen decidedly shorter than tarsus, the latter more than one and a half times 
as long as the middle toe (without claw). 
h^. Tarsus much less than twice as long as middle toe (without claw). 
c\ Wing more than 13.00. 

d}. Wing more than 17.00. Adult with scapular plumes narrowly 
lanceolate, with compact webs ; head crested, the occiput 
during pairing season with two or more long, slender, com- 
pactly webbed plumes ; plumes of lower neck stiffened, nar- 
rowly lanceolate, or acicular. (Subgenus Ardea.') 
e'. Color entirely pure white ; length 45.00-54.00, wing 17.00- 
21.00, culmen 6.00-7.00, tarsus 8.00-8.75. Eggs 2.60 X 
1.84. Hah. Southern Florida, chiefly on eastern side ; 
Cuba ; Jamaica ? 

192. A. occidentalis Aud. Great White Heron. 
e^ Color nearly uniform bluish gray above, lower parts strijDed 
with black and white. 
p. Thighs and edge of wing cinnamon-rufous. 

g^. Lower parts white, narrowly striped or streaked with 
black ; tarsus more than 8.50 ; legs and feet olive 
in adult. 
1\}. Adult with head entirely white, the forehead 
streaked with blackish. Young : Forehead 
and crown dull slate-color, narrowly streaked 
with white ; feathers of occiput white with 
dusky tips ; wing-coverts spotted with rusty, 
the lower and more posterior with large 
wedge-shaped white spots. Length 48.00- 
50.00, wing 20.00-21.00, culmen 5.95-6.50, 
tarsus 7.95-8.25. Eggs about 2.60 X 1-84. 
Hah. Florida Keys and Cape Florida; Ja- 
maica?; accidental in southern Illinois (Mount 
Carmel, Sept. 11-22, 1876)... — . A. wuerde- 
manni Baird. Wurdemann's Heron.^ 
^^ Adidt with occiput and sides of crown black (as 

1 Ardea involucris Vieill., Enc. M6th. 1823, 1127. Ardetta involucris ScL. &, Salv., P. Z. S. 1869, 634. 



ARDEA. 129 

in A. herodias), the forehead and middle of 
CTOwn pure white. Young not essentially 
different from same stage of A. wuerde- 
manni? Length about 48.00-54.00, wing 
20.00-20.50, culmen 6.50-7.00, tarsus 8.50- 
9.00. Eggs about 2.65 X 1-85. Hab. Western 
Florida. 

193. A. wardi Eidgw. "Ward's Heron. 

g^. Lower parts black or dusky, broadly striped with 

white (the two colors in nearly equal proportion 

in young, however) ; tarsus not more than 8.00 ; 

legs and feet black in adult. 

Adult: Occiput and sides of crown black; fore- 
head and centre of crown pure white (exactly 
as in A. wardi). Youtig : Whole top of head 
dusky, some of the feathers with paler shaft- 
streaks ; wing-coverts without white spots or 
distinct rufous spots. Length about 42.00- 
50.00, wing 17.90-19.85, culmen 4.30-6.25, 
tarsus 6.00-8.00. Eggs 3-6, about 2.50 X 
1.50. Hab. North America in general, north 
to Hudson's Bay and Sitka ; south thi'ough- 
out West Lidies and Middle America, and as 
far as Colombia and Venezuela ; Galapagos ? ; 
Bermudas. 
194. A. herodias Linn. Great Blue Heron. 
p. Thighs and edge of wing white. 

g\ Adult with occiput and sides of crown black, the 
forehead and centre of crown pure white (as in 
A. herodias and A. icardi) ; neck ash-gray ; length 
about 37.00, wing about 18.50, culmen 4.80, tarsus 
6.00-6.25. Eggs 2.40 X 1-71. Sab. Northern 
portion of eastern hemisphere; accidental in 
southern Greenland. 

195. A. cinerea Linn. European Blue Heron. 
g"^. Adult with entire top of head black ; neck pure 
white ; wing 18.50-20.00, culmen 5.85-6.75, tarsus 
7.20-8.00. Hab. South America. 

A. cocoi Linn. Cocoi Heron.^ 

^'. Wing less than 17.00. Adult in nuptial plumage with the scapular 

plumes excessively elongated, reaching far beyond end of tail, 

their shafts thick and stiffened, their webs decomposed ; head 

without crest or plumes, and feathers of lower neck (in Amer- 



1 Ardea cocoi LiNN., S. N. ed. 12, i. 1766, 237. 
17 



130 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

ican species) soft, broad, and not lengthened ; color always 
wholly pure white. (Subgenus Herodias Boie.) 
Length 37.00-41.00, wing 14.10-16.80, culmen 4.20-4.90, tar- 
sus 5.50-6.80. Eggs 2.28 X 1-60. Hab. Nearly the whole 
of America, north (casually at least) to British Provinces 
and Oregon, south to Chili and Patagonia. 

196. A. egretta Gtmel. American Egret. 
c\ Wing less than 11.00. 

d}. Adult with occipital, jugular, and scapular plumes greatly devel- 
oped, with much decomposed webs; the scapular plumes ex- 
tending to or beyond the tail and recurved at tips ; color 
always entirely pure white. (Subgenus Garzetta Kaup.) 

Length 20.00-27.25, wing 8.20-10.50, culmen 2.08-3.65, tarsus 
3.15-4.50. Eggs 1.68 X 1-34. Hah. Whole of tropical and 
warm-temperate America, north (more or less regularly) 
nearly across United States, and south to Chili and Argen- 
tine Eepublic. 197. A. candidissima Gmel. Snowy Heron. 
d^. Adult with scapular and jugular plumes elongated, narrowly lan- 
ceolate, compact-webbed ; occipital plumes slender, only a few 
of them much elongated ; color varying from uniform dark 
slate-blue, with maroon-colored head and neck, to wholly pure 
white. (Subgenus Florida Baird.) 

Adult usually uniform dark slate-blue, with maroon-colored 
head and neck, but not unfrequently " pied" with white, 
or even almost wholly white, with bluish tips to longer 
quills. Young usually pure white, with longer quills 
tipped with slate-blue. Length 20.00-29.50, wing 9.00- 
10.60, culmen 2.70-3.30, tarsus 3.15-4.00. Eggs 1.73 X 1-28. 
Sab. Whole of tropical and warm-temperate North Amer- 
ica (except western United States), north to Massachusetts, 
Illinois, Kansas, etc., south to Colombia and Guiana and 
throughout West Indies. 

200. A. caerulea Linn. Little Blue Heron. 
b^. Tarsus twice as long as middle toe, without claw. 

idult with feathers of entire neck (excepting throat and vipper fore- 
neck) elongated and narrowly lanceolate, most lengthened on occi- 
put and lower fore-neck ; scapular plumes much lengthened (ex- 
tending beyond end of tail), with shafts straight and stiffened, the 
webs decomposed, but with the hair-like fibrillae rather close to- 
gether; color uniform, or else irregularly patched with white and 
slaty. (Subgenus Dichrorrmnassa Eidgway.) 
c\ Adult plain slate-color, the head and neck cinnamon- or vinaceous-rufous. 
Yoimg plain grayish, tinged here and there with rusty. Length 
27.00-32.00, wing 11.90-13.60, culmen 3.30-4.00, tarsus 4.90-5.75. 
Eggs 1.97 X 1-46. Hab. Warmer portions of eastern United States, 



ARDEA. 13JL 

north to Florida and southern Illinois (vicinity of Cairo) ; Mexico 
(both coasts, including Lower California) and Guatemala ; Cuba ; 

Jamaica 198. A. rufa Bodd. Eeddish Egret. 

c^. Color entirely pure white, at all ages ; size of A. rufa. Hah. Gulf coast, 
from Florida to Texas, and south to Honduras and Guatemala (both 

coasts); Cuba — . A. pealei Bonap. Peale's Egret. 

a^. Culmen equal to or longer than tarsus, the latter less than one and a half times 
as long as the middle toe (without claw). 
h^. Wing more than 8.00 ; culmen and tarsus more than 3.00. 

Adult with an occipital tuft of several moderately lengthened lan- 
, ceolate, compact-webbed feathers; jugular feathers broadly lan- 

ceolate, with compact webs, and distinct outlines ; scapular plumes 
lengthened, straight and hair-like, extending to a little beyond the 
tail ; color never wholly white. (Subgenus Hydranassa Baird.) 
Adult : Head, neck, and upper parts bluish plumbeous, the lan- 
ceolate plumes with a chalky or glaucous cast, the color darker 
on head and neck ; plumes of occiput and nape rich maroon 
purplish, the longer feather among the former white ; jugular 
plumes rich maroon purplish and plumbeous-blue ; chin and 
upper part of throat pure white, continued in streaks, mixed 
with rufous and plumbeous, down the fore-neck; "train" (i.e., 
scapular plumes) light drab; lower parts plain white. Young : 
Head and neck chiefly light rusty, the malar region, chin, and 
throat pure white ; fore-neck streaked white and rusty ; lower 
parts, rump, and upper tail-coverts pure white ; upper parts 
(except rump, etc.) plumbeous, the back tinged and the wing- 
coverts spotted with rusty. Length 23.00-28.00, wing 8.35- 
10.80, culmen 3.30-4.15, tarsus 3.20-4.15. Eggs 1.78 X 1-29. 
Hob. "Warmer portions of eastern North America, north, casu- 
ally, to New Jersey, Indiana, etc. ; whole of Mexico (including 
Lower California) and West Indies. 

199. A. tricolor ruficollis (Gosse). Louisiana Heron. 
IP. Wing not more than 8.00; culmen and tarsus less than 3.00. 

Adult with scapular plumes and feathers of top of head moderately 
lengthened, lanceolate, soft, and with compact webs; jugular plumes 
broad, soft, and blended ; color never white. (Subgenus Butorides 
Blyth.) 
c^. Neck maroon-chestnut, rufous, or rusty. 

d^. Head and neck (except top of former) uniform chestnut-rufous, 
without white markings on throat and fore-neck ; wing-coverts 
ver}^ narrowly edged with rusty. Young : Plumage nearly 
uniform rusty brown. Wing 6.40-7.00, culmen 2.20-2.75, tarsus 
1.85-2.30. Hah. Cuba. A. brunnescens Gundl. Brown Heron.^ 

1 Ardea bnmnescens " GuMDL. MSS.," Lemb. Aves de Cuba, 1850, 84, pi. 12. Butorides brunnescens Baird. 
B. N. Am. 1858, 677 (in text). 



132 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

<P. Throat and fore-neck striped with whitish. 

Adxdt : Whole top of head glossy dark bottle-green or green- 
ish black; rest of head, with greater part of neck, rich 
chestnut, varying in tone from cinnamon to maroon ; scap- 
ular plumes plumbeous, or glaucous, glossed with green, 
and with whitish shafts ; wing-coverts metallic bottle-green 
distinctly bordered with buff or whitish ; innermost pri- 
maries tipped narrowly with whitish ; lower parts plain 
grayish. Young : Much like adult, but top of head usually 
streaked anteriorly with rusty ; sides of head and neck 
streaked with ochraceous or buflp, on a duller rusty ground ; 
lower parts whitish, striped with dusky ; light borders to 
wing-coverts broader, the two or three median rows of 
coverts marked with wedge-shaped spots or streaks of 
white. Length 15.50-22.50, wing 6.30-8.00, culmen 2.00- 
2.55, tarsus 1.75-2.15. Eggs 1.50 X 1.14. Hab. ^Yho\e of 
temperate North America, West Indies, Middle America, 
and northern South America, to Colombia and Venezuela; 
north to Ontario and Oregon ; Bermudas. 

201. A. virescens Linn. Green Heron. 
c^. Neck ash-gray. 

Otherwise much like A. virescens. Hah. South America, except 
northern portion. 

A. striata Linn. Streaked Heron. 

Genus NYCTICORAX Stephens. (Pago 126, pi. XXXVIL, figs. 1, 2; pi. 

XXXVIIL, fig. 1.) 

Species. 

Common Characters. — Adults : Prevailing colors bluish gray, black, and white, 
the head (except just after breeding season) ornamented with several very much 
lengthened narrow white plumes ; bill black, and iris reddish. Young, brownish, 
striped longitudinally with white. Eggs pale bluish green. 

a\ Culmen about as long as the tarsus ; gonys nearly straight, and lateral outlines 
of bill slightly concave ; tarsus but little longer than middle toe ; scapulars 
broad, blended. (Subgenus Nycticorax.') 

Adult : Top of head, back, and scapulars uniform glossy greenish black ; 
forehead, sides of head, chin, throat, and lower parts generally white, 
often tinged with delicate cream-j^ellow ; neck (except in front) and sides 
pale ash-gray ; wings, rump, upper tail-coverts, and tail, deep ash-gray. 
Immature (second year ?) : Similar to adult, but scapulars and interscapu- 
lars dull ash-gray, like the wings, and white of forehead obscured by 

1 Ardea striata Linn., S. N. ed. 10, i. 1758, lU. Butoridea striatm Ridgw., in B. B. & R. Hist. N. Am. B. 
i. 1884, 51. 



NYCTICORAX. I33 

blackish of crown ; colors generally more sombre, with median lower 
parts less purely white. Young : Above light brown, tinged with cin- 
namon (esjjecially on quills), each feather (except quills and tail- 
feathers) marked with a median tear-shaped or wedge-shaped stripe of 
white, the quills wnth small white spots at tips ; tail-feathers plain ash- 
gray ; sides of head and neck, and entire lower parts, striped with 
grayish brown and white, the chin and throat plain white medially. 
Jjength about 23.00-26.00, wing 11.00-12.80, culmen 2.80-3.10, tarsus 
3.10-3.40, middle toe (without claw) 2.65-3.10. Eggs 2.01 X 1-47. Hah. 
Nearly the whole of America, except Arctic regions. 

202. N. nycticorax naevius (Bodd.). Black-crowned Night Heron. 

«*. Culmen much shorter than tarsus (only a little longer than middle toe) ; gonys 

convex, and lateral outlines of bill straight, or sometimes even perceptibly 

convex ; tarsus much longer than middle toe ; scapulars lengthened, narrow 

(but not pointed), somewhat loose-webbed. (Subgenus Nyctherodius Eeich.) 

Adult : Top of head and elongated patch on side of head, w^hite, the first 

often stained with rusty brown, and in freshly-killed or living specimens 

deeply tinted with delicate primrose-yellow ; rest of head black ; plumage 

in genei'al bluish plumbeous, plain beneath, but on upper parts strij^ed 

with black. Young : Above sooty grayish brown, streaked with dull 

white or pale buff, the streaks more wedge-shaped on wing-coverts; 

lower parts soiled whitish, striped with brownish gray. Length 22.00- 

28.00, wing 10.50-12.65, culmen 2.50-3.00, tarsus 3.10-4.20, middle toe 

2.20-2.55. Eggs 1.96 X 1-42. Hab. Whole of tropical and subtropical 

America, including West Indies ; north regularly to Missouri, Illinois, 

Indiana, and North Carolina, irregularly or casually much farther. 

203. N. violaceus (Linn.). Yellow-crowned Night Heron. 



134 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 



Order PALUDICOLiE. — The Cranes, Rails, 

AND CoURLANS. (Page 2.) 

Families. 

a\ Size veiy large (wing 17.50, or more) ; head partly naked and warty in adult, or 
else with ornamental plumes ; hind toe small, much elevated ; middle toe 
less than half as long as the tarsus. (Suborder Grues.) 

Gruidse. (Page 134.) 

a?. Size medium to very small (wing less than 14.50) ; head entirely feathered, or 

else with only a frontal " shield" naked ; hind toe lengthened (nearly as long 

as the first division of the middle toe), inserted nearly on a level with the 

anterior toes ; middle toe nearly as long as the tarsus. (Suborder Ralli.) 

b^. Wing 11.00-14.20 ; first quill shorter than seventh, its inner web very narrow, 

except near end ; tail-feathers well developed, firm. 

Aramidae. (Page 135.) 

b^. Wing less than 10.00 ; first quill longer than sixth, its inner web normal ; 

tail-feathers almost rudimentary (nearly hidden by the coverts), soft ; 

bill and feet very variable in form Rallidse. (Page 136.) 



Family GRUIDiE.— The Cranes. (Page 134.) 

Genera. 
(Characters same as those given for the Family) Grus. (Page 134.) 

Genus GRUS Pallas. (Page 134, pi. XXXIX., figs. 1, 2.) 

Species. 

{Nest on ground in marsh or wet meadow. Eggs pale olive or olive-buffy, 
spotted with brown, reddish brown, and purplish gray.) 

a\ Tarsus 11.00, or more; bill stout, its depth through the base about one-fourth 
the length of the culmen ; distance from posterior end of nostril to base of 
upper mandible much more than one-half the distance from anterior border 
of nostril to tip of upper mandible. Adult with plumage white, and cheeks 
naked. 

Adult: Plumage pure white, the quills black. Young: General color 
white, but this overlaid by patches of light cinnamon or rusty, the 
upper parts chiefly of this color; head entirely feathered. Length 



ARAMUS. 23g 

50.00-54.00, extent 92.00, Ming 22.00-25.00, culmen 5.35-5.80, depth of 
bill at base 1.40, tarsus 11.00-12.00, middle toe 4.25, Eggs 4.04 X 2.50. 
Hab. Interior of North America north to the Saskatchewan, south to 
Florida and central Mexico. 

, 204. G. americana (Linn.). Whooping Crane. 
a^. Tarsus 10.00, or less ; bill more slender, its depth through base less than one- 
fourth the length of the culmen ; distance from posterior end of nostril to 
base of upper mandible less than one-half the distance from anterior end of 
nostril to tip of upper mandible. Adult deep slate-gray or brownish the 
cheeks normally feathered. 

Adult: Entire plumage slate-gray, varying from a bluish or plumbeous 
shade to brownish, sometimes tinged or even extensively washed with 
rusty, the primaries darker, the cheeks and throat paler, sometimes 
almost white. Young : Entirely brown, more or less washed, especially 
on upper parts, with tawny cinnamon or rusty ; head entirely feathered. 
h\ Larger: Length 40.00-48.00, wing 21.00-22.50 (21.83), culmen 5.15- 
6.00 (5.47), depth of bill at base .95-1.10 (1.01), tarsus 9.90-10.65 
(10.25), middle toe 3.40-3.60 (3.50), bare part of tarsus 4.60-5.00 
(4.78). Eggs 3.98 X 2.44. Hab. United States, chiefly from Mis- 
sissippi Yalley west to Pacific coast, south into Mexico, and east- 
ward along Gulf coast to Florida and Georgia. 

206. G. mexicana (Mijll.). Sandhill Crane. 
h'K Smaller: Length about 35.00, wing 17.50-20.00 (18.70), culmen 3.04- 
4.20 (3.61), depth of bill at base .70-.80 (.77), tarsus 6.70-8.44 (7.57), 
middle toe 2.60-3.36 (2.91), bare portion of tibia 2.90-3.50 (3.13). 
Eggs 3.66 X 2.28. Hab. Northern North America, from Hudson's 
Bay to Alaska, migrating south through w^estern United States, east 
of Eocky Mountains, to Mexico. 

205. G. canadensis (Linn.). Little Brown Crane. 

Family ARAM IDiE.— The Courlans. (Page 134.) 

Genera. 
(Characters same as those of the Family) Aramus. (Page 135.) 

Genus ARAMUS Vieillot. (Page 135, pi. XXXVIIL, fig. 2.) 

Species. 

Common Characters. — Prevailing color dark brown (the quills and tail- 
feathers glossed with purplish), the head and neck (sometimes back and lower 
parts also) striped with white. Nest on bushes or clumps of rank grasses or reeds 
along side of marsh or stream. 

a\ White stripes extending over back, wing-coverts, and lower parts. Young simi- 
lar to adult, but white stripes much narrower and less sharply defined, and 



136 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

the brown color lighter and duller. Downy young : " Covered with coarse 
tufty feathers of a black color." Length 25.00-28.00, wing 11.00-13.00, cul- 
men 3.50-4.75, tarsus 3.50-5.20, middle toe 3.30-3.50. Eggs 4-7 (sometimes 
as many as 15 ?), 2.32 X 1-70, pale dull buff, spotted, daubed, and stained with 
brown and purplish gray. JIab. Greater Antilles, Florida, coast of Gulf of 
Mexico, and south to Costa Eica (both sides). 

207. A. giganteus (Bonap.). Limpkin. 
al White markings confined to head and neck. Wing 12.50-14.20, culmen 4.30- 
4.70, tarsus 4.60-5.20, JIab. Eastern South America. 

A. scolopaceus (Gmel.). Brazilian Courlan.* 



Family RALLID2E. — The Rails, Gallinules, and Coots. (Page 134.) 

Genera. 

a^. No frontal process, or shield-like extension of bill over forehead. (Subfamily 
BaUina^.) 

b^. Bill slender, as long as^ or longer than, the tarsus Rallus. (Page 136.) 

P. Bill stout, not more than two-thirds as long as the tannus (usually much 
less). 
c^. Middle toe (without claw) not shorter than tarsus ; base of gonys not 

forming a decided angle Porzana. (Page 139.) 

c^. Middle toe shorter than tarsus; base of gonys forming a decided 

angle Crex. (Page 140.) 

a^. Forehead covered by a shield-like extension of the culmen. 

b^. Toes without lateral lobes or flaps. (Subfamily Gallinulince.') 

c\ Nostril small, oval ; middle toe (without claw) shorter than tarsus ; 
inner posterior face of tarsus covered by a single row of large 

quadrate scutellae lonornis. (Page 140.) 

c^. Nostril elongated, slit-like ; middle toe (without claw) longer than tar- 
sus ; inner posterior face of tarsus covered with several irregular 

rows of small hexagonal scales Gallinula. (Page 141.) 

h^. Toes provided with conspicuous lateral lobed membranes, or " flaps." {^wh- 
f&mily Fulicince.) Fulica. (Page 141.) 

Genus RALLUS Linnaeus. (Page 136, pi. XL., fig. 1.) 

Species. 

Common Characters. — Above brownish or grayish, strijoed, more or less dis- 
tinctly, with darker ; chin and upper throat whitish ; fore-neck, chest, and breast, 
plain cinnamon, varying to buffy grayish ; sides, flanks, and axillars barred with 
brown or dusky and whitish. Downy young : Entirely uniform glossy black. Nest 

^ Ardea scolo^acea Gmel., S. N. i. pt. ii. 1788, 6-i7. Ai-amua scolopaceus Vieill., Nouv. Diet. N. H. vii. 
1817, 301. 



RALLUS. j3y 

a platform-like structure of dried grasses, sedges, etc., supported in tufts of o-rass 
or sedges in marshes or ponds. Eggs 6-15, white, buffy white, dull buff, or pale 
brownish buff, rather sparingly spotted and speckled with rusty brown and 
purplish gray. 

a}. Larger (wing more than 5.00). 

b^. Ground-color of upper parts grayish (varying from ash-gray to olive- 
gray). 

&. Breast, etc., pale cinnamon-buff, tinged with ashy across chest ; darker 
stripes on back, etc., usually indistinct (sometimes almost obsolete) ; 
flanks, etc., grayish brown, broadly barred with white, but without 
darker bars ; length 13.50-15.60, wing 5.40-6.30 (5.79), culmen 2.10- 
2.60 (2.36), depth of bill at narrowest part .22-.30, at base .47-.50 
(.49), tarsus 1.85-2.27 (2.00), middle toe 1.70-2.00 (1.83). Eggs 1.72 
X 1-20. Hab. Salt-water marshes of Atlantic coast, north, regularly, 
to Long Island, casually to Massachusetts. 

211. R. longirostris crepitans (Gmel.). Clapper Rail. 
(?. Breast, etc., deeper cinnamon ; darker stripes on back, etc., very dis- 
tinct ; flanks, etc., darker or deeper brown, more narrowly barred 
with white, and with more or less distinct narrow dusky bars bor- 
dering tho white ones. 
d}. Above ash-gray, broadly and sharply striped with blackish brown 
or brownish black ; breast, etc., dull cinnamon, strongly shaded 
with olive-gray laterally; sides of neck olive-gray, shaded with 
ash-gray, this passing into slate-gray on sides of head, especi- 
ally behind eye ; ground-color of flanks, etc., darker brown ; 
length about 12.00-14.00, wing 5.60-5.70 (5 65), culmen 2.10- 
2.45 (2.27), least depth of bill .22-.28 (.25), tarsus 1.95-2.00 
(1.97), middle toe 1.75-1.80 (1.78). Hab. Coast of Louisiana; 

western Florida ? 211a. R. longirostris saturatus ITensh. 

Louisiana Clapper Rail. 
d?. Above olive-gray or grayish olive, broadly, but usually not sharply, 
striped with blackish brown ; breast, etc., uniform deep cinna- 
mon, not strongly shaded with gray laterally, the sides of the 
neck dull grayish cinnamon, and sides of head without pure 
gray ; ground-color of flanks, etc., lighter brown ; length 17.00- 
18.00, wing 6.20-6.70 (6.63), culmen 2.25-2.50 (2.40), least depth 
of bill .30-.35 (.33), depth at base .50, tarsus 2.10-2.30 (2.18), 
middle toe 1.90-2.15 (2.04). Eggs 1.75 X 1-24. Hab. Salt-water 
marshes of Pacific coast (Lower California to Oi^egon). 

210. R. obsoletus Ridgw. California Clapper Rail. 
b^. Ground color of u^^per parts distinctly brownish (varying from deep raw- 
umber brown or olive-brown to fulvous-brown), very distinctly, and 
usually sharply, striped with brownish black. 
&. Flanks, etc., with the lighter (pm-e white) bars very broad (averaging 

18 



138 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

.10 or nioro in width), the ground-color varjnng from clear brown 
(darker next to white bars) to brownish blacli ; upper parts vary- 
ing from fulvous-brown to an almost ochrey tint, the blackish stripes 
very shai'ply defined ; breast, etc., deep cinnamon, usually distinctly 
paler posteriorly and medially; length 17.00-19.00, wing 5.90-6.80 
(6.43), culmen 2.12-2.50 (2.35), least depth of bill .27-.35 (.30), depth 
at base .50-.55 (.52), tarsus 2.10-2.40 (2.28), middle toe 1.85-2.50 
(2.07). Eggs 1.63 X 1-22. Hah. Fresh-water marshes of eastern 
United States, north to Wisconsin, southern Michigan, Ohio, etc. 
(casually to Massachusetts, Maine, and Ontario), west to the Great 

Plains 208. R. elegans Aud. King Rail. 

&. Flanks, etc., with lighter bars very narrow (averaging decidedly less 
than .10 wide), the ground-color varying from clear hair-brown 
to cinnamon-brown ; upper parts umber-brown or olive, distinctly, 
but usually not sharply, striped with blackish brown ; breast, etc., 
uniform deep cinnamon, not distinctly paler posterioi'ly or me- 
dially. 
d}. Flanks hair-brown, distinctly barred with pure white, the white 
bars bordered on each side by a blackish bar ; ground-color of 
upper parts olive ; lores dark brown, bordered above by a stripe 
of pale cinnamon ; length about 15.00-16.00, wing 5.70-6.40 
(6.03), culmen 2.25-2.50 (2.37), least depth of bill .29-.35 (.31), 
depth at base .50, tarsus 1.88-2.10 (1.93), middle toe 1.75-1.90 
(1.81). Hah. Eastern coast of Lower California (La Paz; 
Espiritu Santo Island, etc.). 

209. R. beldingi Eidgw. Belding's Rail. 
d}. Flanks cinnamon-brown, indistinctly barred with pale cinnamon 
and rusty whitish, but without darker bars ; ground-color of 
upper parts umber-brown; lores rather pale brown, bordered 
above by a white stripe ; wing 5.90-6.00 (5.95), culmen 2.00- 
2.40 (2.17), least depth of bill .22-.30 (.26), tarsus 1.80-2.08 
(1.93), middle toe 1.70-1.92 (1.81). Hah. Central and western 
Mexico. 

R. tenuirostris (Lawr.). Mexican King Rail.^ 
«". Smaller (wing less than 4.50). 

Above olive-brownish, broadly striped with blackish ; wing-coverts deep 
rusty, or chestnut-rufous ; breast, etc., deep cinnamon ; flanks and axil- 
lars dusky, barred with white. Immature sj)ecimens with lower parts 
mixed more or less extensively with black. Length 8.12-10.50, wing 
3.90^.25, culmen 1.45-1.60, tarsus 1.30-1.40, middle toe 1.20-1.40. Eggs 
1.24 X -94. Hab. Whole of temperate IS'orth America, north to British 
Columbia and Hudson's Bay, south to Guatemala and Cuba. 

212. R. virginianus Linn. Virginia Rail. 

1 Hallua elegans var. tenuirostris Lawr., Am, Nat. viii. Feb. 1874, 111. 



PORZANA. 



139 



Genus PORZANA Vieillot. (Page 136, pi. XLI., figs. 1-3.) 

Species. 

a^. Secondaries without white. 

b^. Wing more than 4.00; above olive-brownish, striped with black. (Sub- 
genus Porzana.') 
c\ Neck and breast olive, speckled with white ; flanks brown, narrowly 
and irregularly barred with white. Adult: Broad superciliary 
stripe, malar region, chin, and throat, uniform grayish ; ear-coverts, 
neck, and chest light hair-brown, irregularly speckled with white. 
Young : Superciliary stripe finely speckled with white ; malar 
region, chin, and throat whitish, speckled with brown, the breast 
and belly washed with pale buff. Length about 8.50, wing 4.20- 
4.50, culmen .68-.72, tarsus 1.20-1.30, middle toe 1.25-1.35. Eggs 
8-12, 1.32 X .95, dull buflfy, spotted with vandyke-brown and pur- 
plish gray. Hab. Northern portion of eastern hemisphere ; occa- 
sional in Greenland 213. P. porzana (Linn.). Spotted Crake. 

(?. Neck and breast without white specks ; flanks broadly and regularly 
barred with white and slate-color. Adult : Anterior portion of 
head, with chin and throat, uniform black ; top of head olive-brown, 
with a broad median stripe of black ; rest of head and neck, with 
chest and breast, plain plumbeous. Young : Lores and superciliary 
stripe brownish, the chin and throat whitish ; rest of head and 
neck, with chest and breast, light brownish. Downy young : Uni- 
form dull black, the shorter down interspersed with numerous long, 
glossy black, hair-like filaments ; on throat, a tuft, directed for- 
wards, of stiff", coarse, orange-colored, bristle-like feathers. Length 
7.85-9.75, wing 4.15-4.30, culmen .75-.90, tarsus 1.25-1.35, middle 
toe 1.30-1.45. Eggs 8-12, 1.23 X -89, brownish buff", rather sparsely 
spotted with brown and purplish gray. Hab. Whole of temperate 
North America, breeding from northern United States northward ; 
in winter, south to West Indies, Middle America, and northern 

South America 214. P. Carolina (Linn.). Sora. 

h"^. Wing less than 3.75 ; above dusky, sometimes speckled with white. (Sub- 
genus Creciscus Gabanis.) 
c^ Wing 2.95 or more ; back speckled with white. 

Adult : Head, neck, and lower parts plain dark plumbeous, or 
slate-color, darker (sometimes nearly black) on top of head ; 
belly and under tail-coverts brownish black, barred with white ; 
hind-neck and back dark chestnut-brown, marked with small 
dots and irregular bars of white. Young : Similar to adult, but 
breast, etc., dull grayish, the thi'oat whitish, and top of head 
tinged with reddish brown. Downy young : " Entirely bluish 
black." Length 5.00-6.00, wing 2.50-3.20, culmen .50-60, 



140 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

depth of bill through base .20-.25, tarsus .85-.90, middle toe 
.80-1.00. Eggs about 9, 1.01 X -79, white, or buffy white, 
sprinkled, or finely speckled, chiefly on larger end, with dark 
reddish brown or chestnut. Hab. United States (north to 
Oregon, Kansas, Illinois, Massachusetts, etc.), and south through 
West Indies, Middle America, and greater part of South 
America, to Chili.. 216. P. jamaicensis (Gmel.). Black Rail. 
c^. Wing 2.50 ; back without w^hite markings. 

Wing 2.50, culmen .60, depth of bill through base .15, tarsus .75, 
middle toe .85. Hab. Farallono Islands, California. 
216a. P. jamaicensis coturniculus Baird. Farallone Rail. 
al Secondaries white. (Subgenus Coturnkops Bonaparte.) 

Head, neck, and breast ochraceous ; flanks dusky, barred with whitish ; 
under tail-coverts cinnamon ; under wing-coverts and axillars white ; 
upper parts ochraceous, broadly striped with black and narrowly barred 
with white; length 6.00-7.75, wing 3.00-3.60, culmen .50-.60, tarsus 
.95-1.00, middle toe .90-1.00. Eggs 6 or more, 1.12 X -83, creamy buff, 
densely sprinkled and speckled on larger end with rusty brown. Hob. 
Eastern North America, north to Nova Scotia and Hudson's Bay, west 
to Utah and Nevada ; Cuba ; Bermudas. 

215. P. noveboracensis (Gmel.). Yellow Rail. 

Genus CREX Bechstein. (Page 136, pi. XLI., fig. 4.) 

Species. 

Adult : Above light brown, striped with black ; wings rusty or reddish brown 
with a few whitish bars or spots on greater coverts ; axillars and under wing-coverts 
light cinnamon, the latter edged with white; head ash-gray, the crown and a 
broad stripe on side of head light brown ; throat, belly, and ventral region white , 
fore-neck and chest pale brownish or drab ; sides and under tail-coverts barred with 
brown and white. Young : Similar, but without any gray on head. Downy young : 
Uniform dark sooty brown, the head blackish. Length about 10.00-10.50, wing 
5.70-6.00, culmen .85-.90, tarsus 1.50-1.60, middle toe 1.30. Eggs about 11, 1.49 X 
1.07, light bufl*, or pale olive-buft", spotted, longitudinally, with cinnamon-brown, or 
rusty, and purplish gray. Hab. More northern portions of eastern hemisphere; 
accidental in eastern North America (Greenland, Bermudas, Long Island, etc.). 

217. C. crex (Linn.). Corn Crake. 

Genus IONORNIS Eeichenbach. (Page 136, pi. XLIL, fig. 1.) 

Species. 

Adult : Head, neck, and lower parts slaty bluish purple, darker on belly and 
thighs ; lower tail-coverts white ; upper parts bright olive-green, changing to bright 
verditer-blue toward the purple of the lower parts ; wings brighter green than back, 
shaded with bright verditer-blue ; frontal shield dusky or bluish ; bill bright red. 



OALLINULA. 141 

tipped with yellow. Young : Above light brown, tinged with gi-eeuish on wings ; 
beneath pale fulvous or buffj-, the belly whitish ; bill dull yellowish, and frontal 
shield much smaller than in adult. Downy young : Said to be entirely black. 
Length 12.50-14.00, wing 7.00-7.50, culmen (including frontal shield) 1.85-1.95, tar- 
sus 2.25-2.50, middle toe 2.25-2.35. Eggs 6-10, 1.55 X 1-13, pale cream-color, or 
creamy white, speckled (sometimes also sparingly spotted), chiefly round larger end, 
with brown and purplish gray. Hab. Nearly the whole of tropical and warm- 
temperate America, north, casually or irregularly nearly across the United States 
east of the Great Plains, but apparently wholly absent from the Pacific coast, in- 
cluding Lower California 218. I. martinica (Linn.). Purple Gallinule. 

Genus GALLINULA Brisson. (Page 136, pi. XLIL, fig. 2.) 

Species. 

Uniform plumbeous, sometimes mixed with whitish on lower parts and washed 
with brown on back, the edge of the wing, the lateral under tail-coverts, and broad 
stripes on flanks, white. Suminer adult : Bill and frontal shield bright vermilion- 
red in life, the former tipped with greenish yellow ; belly uniform plumbeous. 
Winter adult : Similar, but frontal shield smaller, and belly suff'used with whitish. 
Young : Similar to winter adult, but frontal shield rudimentary and, with the bill, 
bi'ownish ; whole extent of lower parts, including sides of head, suff'used with 
whitish, the throat sometimes almost wholly white ; white flank stripes less dis- 
tinct (sometimes nearly obsolete). Downy young : Glossy black, the lower parts 
sooty along the median line ; throat and cheeks interspersed with silvery white 
hairs. Length 12.00-14.50, wing 6.85-7.25, culmen (to end of frontal shield) 1.70- 
1.85, tarsus 2.10-2.30, middle toe 2.50-2.60. Eggs 8-13, 1.74 X L19, bufl^, pale bufl', 
brownish bufl^, or huffy bi'own, sparsely spotted with dark brown. Hah. Whole 
of tropical America and temperate North America, north to British Provinces. 

219. G. galeata (Light.). Florida Gallinule. 

Genus FULICA Linn^us. (Page 136, pi. XL., fig. 2.) 

Species. 

Common Characters. — Uniform slaty or plumbeous, the head and neck darker 
(nearly black in adults) ; edge of wing whitish ; bill whitish in adults. Eggs pale 
dull buff, finely dotted or sprinkled with brownish black and purplish gray. 

a\ Only the edge of the wing and a very narrow edge to first quill white; entire 
bill and frontal shield whitish ; length abotit 16.00, wing 7.70-8.80, culmen 
(including frontal plate) 1.70-2.00, tarsus 2.25-2.35, middle toe 2.85-3.15. 
Eggs 2.11 X 1-47. Bab. Europe, Asia, and northern portions of Africa ; acci- 
dental in Greenland 220. F. atra Linn. European Coot. 

a^. Lateral and posterior lower tail-coverts and tips of secondaries white; bill with 
a dark brownish spot near end of each mandible. 
h^. Frontal shield dark brown. Smnmer adult : Bill (in life) milk-white, tinged 



X42 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

•with bluish terminally, a spot near the end of each mandible and the 
frontal shield dark brown ; belly uniform slaty plumbeous. Winter 
adult : Similar, but frontal shield reduced in size, and the belly suffused 
with whitish. Young : Most like winter plumage, but lower parts much 
suffused with whitish, especially on throat and belly ; frontal shield rudi- 
mentary, and bill, in life, dull flesh-color, tinged with olive-greenish, the 
spots obsolete (dull light brownish in dried skins). Downy young : 
Blackish, the head and neck ornamented with orange- or salmon-colored 
crisp filamentous bristles, the upper parts more sparsely covered with 
similar but paler (whitish or pale orange-buff) filaments ; bill orange- 
red, the upper mandible tipped with black. Length 13.00-16.00, wing 
7.25-7.60, culmen (to commencement of frontal shield) 1.25-1.60, tarsus 
2.00-2.20, middle toe 2.45-2.65. Eggs 6-12, 1.91 X 1-32. Hab. Whole of 
North America, Middle America, and most of West Indies ; north to 
Greenland and Alaska, south to Veragua (and Trinidad ?). 

221. F. americana (Gmel.). American Coot. 
61 Frontal shield whitish (pale brownish in dried skins), like bill, oval or ellip- 
tical, much wrinkled ; bill more slender ; otherwise, very similar to F. 
americana. Hab. Lesser Antilles (Guadeloupe and St. John's). 

F. caribaea Kidgw. Caribbean Coot.^ 

1 Fnlica cariheea PaDGW., Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. vii. Sept. 17, 1884, 359. 



LIMICOLj^. 



143 



Order LIMICOLiE. — The Shore Birds. 

(Page 2.) 
Families. 

Tarsus more than twice as long as middle toe, with claw ; naked portion of thigh 

much longer than middle toe, with claw.... Recurvirostridse. (Page 146.) 

Tarsus less than twice as long as middle toe, with claw; naked portion of thigh 

shorter than middle toe, with claw. 
¥. Claws normal. 

c*. Toes with distinct, usually scalloped, lateral membranes ; tarsus ex- 
tremely compressed Phalaropodidae. (Page 143.) 

c". Toes without distinct lateral membranes ; tarsus not unusually com- 
pressed. 
d}. Pront of tarsus covered by a continuous row of transverse scutellaj. 
e^ Bill slender, with blunt and more or less rounded (sometimes 
expanded) tip, the exposed culmen longer than middle toe 

without claw Scolopacidae. (Page 147.) 

e^ Bill stout, culmen arched toward tip, its exposed portion 
shorter than middle toe (without claw), or else pointed and 

wedge-shaped at tip Aphrizidae. (Pago 179.) 

d^. Front of tarsus covered with small hexas:onal or irresrular 
scales. 
e\ Bill shorter than tarsiis, not compressed, the anterior portion 
of culmen more or less distinctly arched. 

Charadriidse. (Page 172 ) 
e^. Bill longer than tarsus, much compressed terminally, the 

culmen not arched Hsematopodidae. (Page 181.) 

1/. Claws excessively lengthened, straight, and acute, that of the hind toe 
longer than the toe itself. Jacanidae. (Page 183.) 



Family PHALAROPODIDi^.— The Phalaropes. (Page 143.) 

Genera. 

Bill broad, flattened, somewhat widened toward end ; nostrils separated from 
loral feathers by a space equal to the depth of the upper mandible at base. 

Crymophilus. (Page 144.) 

Bill slender, nearly cylindrical, not perceptibly widened toward end ; nostrils 
separated from loral feathers by a space equal to much less than the depth 
of the upper mandible at the base Phalaropus. (Page 144.) 



144 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

Genus CRYMOPHILUS Yieillot. (Page 143, pi. XLIIL, fig. 3.) 

Species. 

Adult female in summer : Entire lower parts deep purplish cinnamon ; sides of 
head white; fore part and top of head uniform dark plumbeous or blackish; hind- 
neck plain cinnamon and plumbeous; back and scapulars light ochraceous or buff, 
striped with black. Adult male in summer : Similar to the female, but top of head 
and hind-neck streaked with ochraceous (or buff}') and blackish, the white on side of 
head more restricted and less abruptly defined, and size somewhat less. Winter 
plumage : Head, neck, and lower parts pure white, the occiput and space about 
eyes dark plumbeous ; upper parts uniform pearl-gray, or light plumbeous. Young : 
Top of head, hind-neck, back, and scapulars dull black, the feathers edged with 
ochraceous ; wing-coverts, rump, and upper tail-coverts plumbeous, the middle cov- 
erts bordered with pale buff, the tail-coverts with ochraceous ; head and neck (ex- 
cept as described above) and lower parts white, the throat and chest tinged with 
brownish buff. Downy young : Above bright tawn}' buff, marked with broad 
irregular stripes of black ; broad superciliary stripes bright tawny buff, separated 
anteriorly only by a narrow and somewhat interrupted dusky streak ; crown bright 
umber-brown bordered with black ; chin and throat light fulvous-buff, changing to 
smoky buff on chest ; rest of lower parts dull whitish. Length 7.50-8.75, wing 
5.25-5.50, culmen .80-.95, tarsus .80-.85, middle toe .75-.80. :Eggs 3-4, 1.24 X -86, 
pale drab, olive-drab, olive-buff, or pale brown, heavily spotted with dark brown. 
Ifab. Northern portions of northern hemisphere, breeding far northward ; in 
America, south, in winter, to Middle States, Ohio Valley, and Cape St. Lucas. 

222. C. fulicarius (Linn.). Red Phalarope. 

Genus PHALAROPUS Brisson. (Page 143, pi. XLIIL, figs. 1, 2.) 

Species. 

a^. "Wing less than 4.50 ; tarsus less than 1.00 ; web between outer and middle toes 
extending to or beyond second joint of the latter ; lateral membrane of all 
the toes broad and distinctly " scalloped." (Subgenus Phalaropus.') 

Adidt female in summer : Above dark plumbeous, the back striped with 
ochraceous or buff; wings dusky, the greater coverts broadly tipped 
•with white; lower parts white; chest and sides of neck rufous. Adult 
male in summer : Similar to the female, but colors duller, the rufous 
almost confined to sides of neck, and less distinct, the chest chiefly 
mixed white and grayish. Winter plumage : Forehead, superciliary 
stripe, sides of head and neck, with lower parts generally, pure white ; 
top of head grayish, the feathers with duskj^ shaft-streaks and whitish 
borders ; a blackish spot in front of eye, and side of head, from beneath 
eye, across ear-coverts mixed dusky and grayish white; upper parts 
chiefly grayish ; sides of chest washed or clouded with graj^ish. Young : 
Top of head dusky, with or without streaks ; back and scapulars black- 



PHALAROPVS. 145 

ish, distinctly bordered with buff or ochraceous; middle wing-coverts 
bordered with buff or whitish ; forehead, supra-auricular stripe, lores 
and lower parts white, the chest and sides of breast sometimes suffused 
with dull brownish ; ear-coverts dusky. Downy young : Above bright 
tawny, the rump with three parallel stripes of black, enclosing two 
of paler fulvous than the ground-color; a triangular patch of brown 
on crown, bounded irregularly^ with blackish ; a black line over ears ; 
throat and rest of head pale tawny ; rest of lower parts white, be- 
coming grayish posteriorly. Length 7.00-8.00, wing 4.00-4.45, culmen 
.8O-.96, tarsus .75-.80, middle toe .65-.75. Eggs 3-4, 1.20 X .82, pale 
olive-drab or olive-buff, thickly speckled or spotted with dark brown. 
Hab. Northern portions of northern hemisphere, breeding far north- 
ward 223. P. lobatus (Linn.). Northern Phalarope. 

a^. Wing more than 4.50 ; tarsus more than 1.00 ; web between outer and middle 
toes not reaching to second joint of the latter; lateral membrane of all the 
toes narrow and not distinctly " scalloped." (Subgenus Steganopus Vieill.) 
Adult female in summer : Foi*ehead and crown pale bluish gray, the former 
with a blackish line along each side ; occiput and hind-neck white, 
changing to plumbeous-gray on back ; stripe on side of head and con- 
tinued broadly down side of neck deep black, changing gradually on 
lower portion into rich dark chestnut, this continued backward along 
each side of back ; short stripe above lores and ej^es, chin, cheeks, and 
throat, pure white ; fore-neck and chest soft buffy cinnamon ; rest of 
lower parts white ; length 9.40-10.00, wing 5.20-5.30, culmen 1.30-1.35, 
tarsus 1.30-1.35, middle toe .90-1.00. Adult male in summer : Smaller 
and much duller in color than the female, with the beautiful tints and 
pattern of the latter but faintly indicated ; length 8.25-9.00, wing 4.75- 
4.80, culmen 1.25, tarsus 1.20-1.25, middle toe .90. Winter plumage: 
Above plain ash-gray ; upper tail-coverts, superciliary 8tri2:)e, and lower 
parts white, the chest and sides of breast shaded with pale gray. Young : 
Top of head, back, and scapulars dusky blackish, the feathers distinctly 
bordered with buff; wing-coverts also bordered with pale buff or 
whitish ; upper tail-coverts, supei'ciliary stripe, and lower parts, white, 
the neck tinged with buff. Downy young : Bright tawny, paler beneath, 
■the belly nearly white ; occiput and hind-neck with a distinct median 
streak of black, on the former branching laterally into two narrow 
irregular lines ; lower back and rump with three broad black stripes ; 
flanks with a black spot, and region of tail crossed with a wide bar of 
the same. Eggs 3-4, 1.28 X -90, pale grayish buff varying to brownish 
buff, thickly speckled and spotted with dark brown or brownish black. 
Hah. Temperate North America, but chiefly the interior; north to 
eastern Oregon, the Saskatchewan, and Nova Scotia; south, during 
migrations, to Brazil and Patagonia. (Not recorded from Pacific slojDe 
of California, Oregon, or Washington Territory.) 

224. P. tricolor (Vieill.). Wilson's Phalarope. 
19 



146 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 



Family RECURVIROSTRID^.— The Avocets and Stilts. 

(Page 143.) 
Genera. 

a}. Hind toe present ; anterior toes all webbed ; bill decidedly recurved towai'd tip. 

Recurvirostra. (Page 146.) 

a^. Hind toe absent ; no web between inner and middle toes, and that between 
outer and middle toes occupying less than half the space ; bill very slightly 
or not at all recurved toward tip Himantopus. (Page 146.) 

Genus RECURVIROSTRA Linn^us. (Page 146, pi. XLIV., fig. 1.) 

Species. 

a*. Outer scapulars, rump, and upper tail-coverts, also part of secondaries and 
greater wing-coverts, white. 

Wings (except secondaries and terminal half of greater coverts), inner 
scapulars, and adjacent feathers of back, bi"ownish black ; lower parts, 
rumj), outer scapulars, and middle of back, white ; tail ashy white or 
pale ashy. Summer adult : Head (except anteriorly), neck, and chest 
light cinnamon. Winter plumage : Head, neck, and chest white, tinged, 
more or less, with pale bluish gray, especially on top of head and hind- 
neck. Young : Similar to winter plumage, but quills slightly tipped 
with whitish, scapulars, etc., tijjped or transversely mottled with buffy 
or pale fulvous, and hind-neck tinged with light rufous. Length 15.50- 
18.75, wing 8.50-9.00, culmen 3.40-3.65, tarsus 3.70-3.80, middle toe 
1.60-1.70. IJggs 3-4, 1.93 X 1-35, pale olive, olive-bufF, or drab-buff 
(rarely creamy buff), thickly spotted (sometimes sparsely lined also) 
with dark brown or black. Hab. Temperate North America, north, 
in the interior, to the Saskatchewan and Great Slave Lake ; south, in 
winter, to Guatemala, Cuba, and Jamaica. 

225. R. americana Gmel. American Avocet. 

a". No white on upper parts, except head, neck, and rump. Hab. Andes of Chili. 

R. andina Philippi & Landb. Chilian Avocet.^ 

Genus HIMANTOPUS Brisson. (Page 146, pi. XLIV., fig. 2.) 

Species. 

fl\ White of forehead not extending over the crown ; black of hind-neck continuous 
with that of the back. 

Adult male : Forehead, spot behind eye, lores, cheeks, entire lower parts 
(including fore-neck, throat, and chin), rump, and upper tail-coverts, 
pure white (sometimes tinged with pinkish in breeding season) ; rest of 

^ Recurvirostra andina Philippi & Landbeck, Weigm. Areliiv, 1863, 131. Harting, Ibis, 1874, 257, pi. 9. 



SCOLOPACID^. 147 

head and neck, back, scapulars, and wings, uniform glossy greenish 
black ; tail pale ashy ; iris crimson, and legs and feet delicate lake-red or 
rose-pink, in life. Adult female: Similar to the male, but back and 
scapulars brownish slate, and black of other portions duller. Young : 
Similar to adult female, but feathers of back, scapulars, and tertials bor- 
dered with buff or dull whitish, the blackish of head and neck finely 
mottled with the same. Downy young : Above light fulvous-grayish, 
mottled with dusky, the back and rump marked with several large black 
blotches ; head, neck, and lower parts fulvous-whitish, the top of head 
and hind-neck grayish, the crown with a median black streak and occi- 
put with several spots of blackish. Length 13.50-15.50, wing 8.50-9.00, 
culmen 2.50, tarsus 4.00, middle toe 1.37. JEggs 3-4, 1.79 X 1-23, similar 
in coloration to those of Recurvirostra americana. Hah. Temperate 
North America, from northern United States southward; south, in 
winter, to Peru, northern Brazil, and West Indies. 

226. H. mexicanus (Mull.). Black-necked Stilt, 
a'. White of forehead extending back to and including the occiput ; black of nape 
separated from that of the back by a white bar or " collar." 

OtherAvise, similar to H. 7nexicanus. Hab. Southern South America 
(Brazil, Argentine Eepublic, Chili, etc.). 

H. brasiliensis Brehm. Brazilian Stilt. 



Family SCOLOPACIDiE.— The Snipes, Sandpipers, etc. 

(Page 143.) 

{Nest usually on ground, in meadows, marshes, or along banks of streams. 
Eggs 2-4.) 

Genera. 

a^. Back of tarsus with a continuous row of transverse scutells. 

b^. Ears situated directly underneath the eyes ; tip of upper mandible thick- 
ened, with cutting-edges brought near together; plumage the same at 
all stages and seasons. (Subfamily Scolopacince.) 
c^. Thighs entirely feathered ; top of head with transverse bands. 

d^. First quill longer than second, and broad like the rest; outer webs 

of quills spotted Scolopax. (Page 149.) 

d'^. Three outermost quills abruptly much shorter and narrower than 
the fourth ; outer webs of quills plain. 

Philohela. (Page 150.) 
c^. Lower part of thighs naked ; top of head with longitudinal stripes. 

Gallinago. (Page 150.) 

b^. Ears situated decidedly posterior to the eyes ; tip of upper mandible thin, 

with cutting-edges far apart ; plumage very different in winter and 

* Himantopua brasiliensis Brehm, Vog. Deutschl. 1831, 684. 



148 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

summer, and young different in color from adult. (Subfamily 
Tringince.) 
c\ Bill only slightly or not at all widened at tip. 
d}. Hind-toe present. 

e\ No trace of web between anterior toes. 

/^ Exposed culmen longer than middle toe, with claw ; inner 
webs of quills and under primary coverts not mottled. 

Tringa. (Page 152.) 

p. Exposed culmen shorter than middle toe, with claw ; inner 

webs of quills and under primary coverts beautifully 

mottled Tryngites. (Page 169.) 

e^. Middle toe united at base to one or both of the lateral toes by 
a distinct web. 
p. Tail more than half as long as the wing, graduated for as 
much as the length of the culmen. 

Bartramia. (Page 168.) 
p. Tail not more than half as long as the wing, and if grad- 
uated, the graduation not more than one-half the 
length of the culmen. 
g^. Tail longer than the exposed culmen. 

h}. Wing less than 4.00. (All anterior toes webbed 

at base.) Ereunetes. (Page 161.) 

/i'. Wing not less than 4.00. 

^'^ Exj)osed culmen less than one-fifth as long as 

the wing Pavoncella. (Page 168.) 

i^. Exposed culmen more than one-fifth as long 
as the wing. 
/. Bill narrow at tip, where hard and 
smooth on top. 
k^. Wing less than 4.50. 

Actitis. (Page 169.) 
k^. Wing more than 4.50. 

l^. Axillars uniform grayish or 
dusk}^. 
m)-. Quills entirely dark-col- 
ored ; no web between 
inner and middle toes 
at base.. Heteractitis. 
(Page 167.) 
m^. Quills with a conspicuous 
white patch at base ; a 
distinct web between 
inner and middle toes, 
at base.. Symphemia. 
(Page 167.) 



SCOLOPAX. 149 

P. Axillars white, or barred with 
white and dusky. 

Totanus. (Page 164.) 
/. Bill slightly widened at tip, which (at 
least in dried specimen) is pitted or 
wrinkled on top. 

Micropalama. (Page 152.) 
g^. Tail shorter than exposed culmen. 

h^. Terminal portion of both upper and lower man- 
dibles grooved medially and pitted or wrinkled 
(as in Gallinago) ; wing less than 7.00. 

Macrorhamphus. (Page 150.) 

h}. Terminal portion of upper and lower mandibles 

entirely smooth and hard ; wing more than 

7.00 Limosa. (Page 162.) 

d\ Hind-toe absent Calidris. (Page 162.) 

c^ Bill excessively widened and flattened at tip, its greatest width equal to 
about half the length of the exposed culmen. 

Eurynorhynchus. (Page 160.) 
a^. Back of tarsus covered with small hexagonal scales. (Subfamily Numenince.) 
Bill decidedly arched or decurved ; wing 8.00 or more. 

Numenius. (Page 170.) 

Genus SCOLOPAX Linn^us. (Page 147, pi. XLY., fig. 1.) 

Species. 

Adult : Above rusty brown, everywhere variegated with dusky and light 
grayish and buffy, the middle line of the back and the scapulars marked with large 
irregular black spots or blotches, the scapulars much mixed posteriorly with light 
grayish and the sides of the interscapular region almost continuously light grayish, 
forming a pair of well-defined Y-shaped marks on each side of the rusty black- 
spotted areas ; quills with outer webs spotted with pale cinnamon in transverse 
series, the exterior quill broadly edged with pure white; forehead and fore part of 
crown brownish gi'ay ; hind part of crown with occiput black, crossed by two nar- 
row bands of light rusty or ochraceous, and bordered anteriorly and posteriorly, 
respectively, by two others ; a dusky stripe from corner of mouth to eye ; lower 
parts in general pale fulvous-grayish irregularly barred with dark brown. Downy 
young : General color rusty ochraceous, the upper parts marked with large blotch- 
like areas of deep rusty, and an indistinct band of the same across chest. Length 
about 13.50, wing 8.00, culmen 3.00-3.25, tarsus 1.50, middle toe 1.30. Eggs 1.71 X 
1.37, rounded ovate, pale dull buff or dull buffy white, spotted with raw umber and 
pui'plish gray. Hah. Northern parts of eastern hemisphere; occasional in eastern 
North America 227. S. rusticola Linn. European Woodcock. 



150 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

Genus PHILOHELA Gray. (Page 147, pi. XLV., fig. 1.) 

Species. 
Adult : Occiput with three transverse bands of black alternating with three 
much narrower ones of ochraceous, or yellowish rusty ; upper parts varied with 
pale ashy, rusty, and black, the latter in form of large spots ; quills plain brownish 
gray ; head, except as described above, chiefly plain cinnamon-ashy, relieved by a 
dusky line from corner of mouth to eyes and another across ear-coverts ; lower 
parts plain light cinnamon, much tinged with light ashy. Downy young : General 
color light rusty buff, unvaried on lower parts ; broad stripe down rump, and other 
markings on upper parts very dark chestnut, or seal-brown. Length 10.50-11.75, 
wing 4.80-5.70, culmen 2.50-nearly 3.00, tarsus 1.25, middle toe 1.37. Eggs 1.51 X 
1.14, short ovate or rounded ovate, buffy, spotted with rusty brown and purplish 
gray. Hah. Eastern United States, north to British Provinces, west to the Plains ; 
accidental in Bermudas 228. P. minor (Gmel.). American Woodcock. 

Genus GALLINAGO Leach. (Page 147, pi. XLV., fig. 2.) 

Species. 
Common Characters. — Tail with a subterminal band of rufous, succeeded by a 
black bar; top of head blackish, divided medially by a line of pale buff; feathers of 
back, etc., blackish, broadly edged exteriorly with pale buff; under wing-coverts, 
axillars, and sides sharply and broadly barred with slate-color on a pure white 
ground ; length 10.00-12.00. Eggs pale olive, olive-grayish, or pale olive-bi'own, 
heavily spotted, especially on larger end, with deep brown and purplish gray. 

a}. Tail-feathers usually 14 ; under Aving-eoverts with white prevailing, the dark 
bars everywhere narrower than the white interspaces ; culmen usually more 
than 3.80; wing 5.00-5.30, culmen 2.80-3.00, tarsus 1.25-1.45, middle toe 
1.15-1.40; outer tail-feathers much broader than in G. delicata. Eggs 1.57' 
X l.ll. Hah. Europe and northern Asia and Africa; accidental in Bermu- 
das, and occasional in Greenland. 

229. G. gallinago (Linn.). European Snipe. 

a*. Tail-feathers usually 16 ; under wing-coverts everywhere broadly barred with 
slate-color, these bars, as well as those on the axillars, nearly as broad as the 
white interspaces ; culmen usually less than 2.75 ; wing 4.90-5.60, culmen 
2.50-2.70, tarsus 1.20-1.30, middle toe 1.10-1.35. Eggs 1.55 X 109. Hah. 
"Whole of North and Middle America, and West Indies, and northern South 
America ; breeding from northern United States northward. 

230. G. delicata (Ord). Wilson's Snipe. 

Genus MACRORHAMPHUS Leach. (Page 149, pi. XLVL, fig. 2.) 

Species. 
Common Characters. — Eump and upper tail-coverts white, the former with 
U- or V-shajjed marks, the latter with transverse bars, of dusky ; tail grayish dusky, 



MACRORHAMPHUS. 151 

or slaty, barred with white. Summer adult : Sides of head and neck, throat, fore- 
neck, chest, breast, and sides (sometimes entire lower parts), light cinnamon, usu- 
ally more or less flecked, speckled, or barred with dusky ; top of head and hind-neck 
streaked with pale cinnamon, or buffy, and dusky; back, scapulai^s, etc., varied 
with dusky and light cinnamon, or buify. Winter plumage:^ Belly, anal region, 
and indistinct superciliary stripe, white ; rest of plumage plain ash-gray, intermixed 
more or less with white on breast and sides ; wing-coverts bordered with w^hitish. 
Young ^ Back, scapulars, and tertials varied with blackish and light brown or clay- 
color, the latter chiefly along edges of feathers ; lower parts soiled white, tinged, 
especially on breast, with pale brownish, the chest and sides indistinctly speckled 
with dusky. 

a^. "VYeb between inner and middle toes very indistinct ; culmen not more than 3.00, 
wing not more than 6.00, and tarsus not more than 1.75 ; lower back entirely 
white ; axillars barred to tips with dusky, and under wing-coverts much 
varied with same ; tertials, scapulars, etc., more or less barred with light 
cinnamon or buffy, in summer plumage. (Subgenus Macrorhamphus.) 
b\ Length about 10.00-11.00, wing 5.25-5.90 (average 5.65), culmen 2.00-2.55 
(2.30), tarsus 1.20-1.55 (1.35), middle toe .90-1.05 (.95). Summer adult 
with belly whitish, the breast and sides speckled with dusk3^ ^ggs 
1.65 X 1-13, light buffy olive, distinctly spotted and speckled, especially 
on larger end, with deep brown. Hab. Eastern North America, breed- 
ing far noi'thward ; Nushagak River, Alaska (straggler?). 

231. M, griseus (Gmel.). Dowitcher. 
b\ Length 11.00-12.50, wing 5.40-6.00 (average 5.74), culmen 2.10-3.00 (2.72), 
tarsus 1.35-1.75 (1.58), middle toe .95-1.15 (1.01). Summer adult with 
cinnamon-color of lower parts deeper and much more uniform, covering 
entire belly ; sides distinctly barred with dusky. JSggs 1.74 X 1-21, pale 
olive-grayish, boldly spotted, especially over larger end, with deep van- 
dyke-brown. Hab. North America in general (except northeastern por- 
tion), but chiefly the Western Province, breeding in Alaska, etc., north 
to Arctic Ocean... 232. M. scolopaceus (Say). Long-billed Dowitcher. 
a^. Web between inner and middle toes very large (almost equal in extent to that 
between outer and middle toes) ; culmen more than 3.00, wing more than 
6.00, and tarsus more than 1.75 ; lower back dusky, the feathers edged and 
margined with white ; axillars white, barred or spotted toward base only 
with dusky, and under wing-coverts almost entirely white ; tertials, scapu- 
lars, etc., edged, but not barred, with pale cinnamon, in summer plumage. 
(Subgenus Pseudoscolopax Bltth.*) 

M. semipalmatus (Jerd.). Semipalmated Snipe.' 

' Winter plumage and young of M. semipalmatus not seen by me, and perhaps different in style of colora- 
tion from the same stages of the American species. 

* Pseudoscolopax Blyth, Jour. As. Soc. Beng. xvii. 184S, 252, Type, Macrorhamphus semipalmatus 
Jerd. 

' Pseudoscolopax semipalmatus "Jerd." Bltth, Jour. As. Soc. Beng. xvii. 1848, 252. 



152 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

Genus MICROPALAMA Baird. (Page 149, pi. XLIII., fig. 4.) 

Species. 

Summer adult : Ui^per parts varied with black, pale gray, and light buff, the 
first prevailing on back and scapulars; wing-coverts grayish, margined with paler; 
upper tail-coverts white, marked with dusky streaks and bars ; top of head duskj", 
streaked with whitish ; ear-coverts and patch on each side of occiput, light rusty; 
streak of dusky from eye to corner of mouth ; rest of head, with neck, dull white, 
streaked with dusky, the lower parts whitish barred with dusk3\ Winter plumage : 
Upper parts uniform ash-gray, except tail-coverts, wings, and tail, which are as in 
summer ; superciliary stripe and lower pai"ts white, the chest, sides of neck, and 
lower tail-coverts streaked with grayish. Young: Back and scapulars dusky, all 
the feathers bordered with pale buff or buffy whitish ; wing-coverts bordered with 
pale buff and white ; upper tail-coverts nearly immaculate white ; lower parts 
soiled white, the chest and sides more or less strongl}^ washed with buff, and indis- 
tinctly streaked with grayish. Length 7.50-9.25, wing 5.00-5.30, culmen 1.55-1.75, 
tarsus 1.55-1.70. Eggs 1.42 X 1-00, pale grayish buff, or grayish buffy white, boldly 
spotted with rich vandyke-brown and purplish gray. Hah. Eastern North America 
breeding far northward ; south, in winter, to Brazil, Peru, and West Indies ; Ber- 
mudas during migrations 233. M. himantopus (Bonap.). Stilt Sandpiper. 

Genus TRINGA Linn^us. (Page 148, pi. XLYII., figs. 1-3; pi. XLYIII., figs. 1, 2.) 

Species. 

a^. Wing 6.00 or more ; middle pair of tail-feathers not longer than the rest. (Sub- 
genus Tringa.) 
¥. Wing less than 7.00 ; summer adult with lower parts uniform light cinna- 
mon. Summer adult : Above light grayish, irregularly varied with black 
and tinged with pale rusty ; rump and upper tail-coverts white, ii'regu- 
larly barred and spotted with dusky ; distinct superciliary stripe and 
lower parts generally, uniform pale vinaceous-cinnamon, paler on belly; 
under wing-coverts, axillars, flanks, and lower tail-coverts white, usually 
more or less marked with dusky. Winter plumage : Above plain ash- 
gray, the feathers with indistinct darker shaft-streaks ; rump and upper 
tail-coverts white, barred with dusky ; lower parts white, the throat, 
fore-neck, chest, and sides streaked and otherwise marked with dusky. 
Young : Above ash-gray, each feather bordered with whitish and with 
a subedging of dusky ; lower pai'ts whitish, sometimes tinged with dull 
buffy on breast, etc., the neck and chest streaked and flecked with duskj'-, 
the sides indistinctly barred and spotted with the same ; otherwise, like 
adult. Downy young : " Forehead warm buff, with a central black line ; 
over the eye a double black line ; crown, from centre backwards, black, 
slightly varied with rufous, and dotted with buff"; nape creamy buff, 
slightly varied with blackish; upj)er parts . . . black slightly varied 



TRINGA. 



153 



with reddish brown and profusely dotted with creamy white; under 
parts very slightly washed with warm buff." (Dresser.) Length 10.00- 
11.00, wing 6.50, tail 2.50. Hab. Sea-coasts throughout northern hemi- 
sphere and nearly throughout southern hemisphere in winter ; in North 
America, shores of the Great Lakes also. 

234. T. canutus Linn. Knot. 
i^ Wing more than 7.00; summer adult with lower parts white, heavily 
spotted anteriorly with dusky; wing 7.40, tail 2.80, culmen 1.60, tar- 
sus 1.35, middle toe .85. Hab. Coast of Eastern Asia (Japan, etc.). 

T. crassirostris Temm. & Schleg. Large-billed Sandpiper.^ 
Wing less than 6.00 ; middle pair of tail-feathers longer and more pointed than 
the rest. 
b^. Tarsus shorter than middle toe (with claw), the latter decidedly shorter 
than exposed culmen. (Subgenus Arquatella Baird.) 
&. Summer adult and young with little if any rusty on upper parts, the 
former without dusky patch or extensive clouding on breast. 

Summer adult : Top of head dusky streaked with dull light buffy ; 
scapulars and interscapulars blackish, irregularly spotted and 
indented with dull buff, and bordered terminally with whitish ; 
fore-neck and chest white, streaked with dusk}^ ; breast dull 
light grayish, spotted with darker. Winter plumage : Upper 
parts uniform sooty blackish, glossed with purplish, the scapu- 
lars, interscapulars, and wing-coverts bordered terminally with 
dark plumbeous-gray ; chest uniform mouse-gra}^, or brownish 
pluinbeous, other lower parts white. Young : Above dusky, the 
scapulars, interscapulars, and wing-coverts bordered with pale 
grayish buff. Downy young : Above hair-brown, lighter and 
grayer on hind-neck, the brown irregularly marbled with black, 
the wings, back, and rump thickly sprinkled with white downy 
flecks ; head grayish white, tinged with fulvous, variously 
marked with black, the lores having two distinct longitudinal 
streaks ; lower parts dull grayish white. Length 8.00-9.50, 
wing 4.85-5.40 (5.06), culmen 1.10-1.45 (1.20), tarsus .90-1.00 
(.99). Eggs 1.44 X 1-02, pale olive, varying to greenish or 
brownish or even buffy, spotted and clouded with various 
shades of brown. Hab. Sea-coasts and shores of larger inland 
waters of Europe and eastern North America, breeding far 
northward ; south, in winter, to Middle States and Great 

Lakes 235. T. maritima Brunn. Purple Sandpiper. 

c'. Summer adult and young with much rusty on upper parts, the former 
with a more or less distinct patch, or extensive clouding, of dusky 
on breast. 
d}. Smaller and darker colored. Summer adult : Upper parts dusky, 

1 Tringa crasairoetris Temm. & Schleg., Faun. Jap. Aves, 1847, 107, pi. 14. 

20 



154 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

with purplish gloss, the top of head streaked with rustj^, the 
scapulars and interscapulars widely bordered by a brighter 
shade of the same ; fore-neck and chest irregularly clouded 
with pale buff or soiled white and sooty plumbeous, the breast 
more coarsely clouded, with more or less of a blackish patch on 
each side. Winter plumage : Hardly distinguishable from corre- 
sponding stage of T. maritima, but lighter borders to feathers 
of ui)per parts of a clearer, more bluish plumbeous, and the 
grayish of the chest more varied or broken hy white. Young : 
Scapulars and interscapulars conspicuously bordered with bright 
rusty, ochraceous, and whitish ; wing-coverts broadly bordered 
with pale buff or whitish ; breast and sides buffy white, streaked 
with dusky. Downy young : Above bright rusty fulvous, irreg- 
ularly marbled with black, the ornamental velvety flecks coarser 
and less purely white than in T. maritima ; head light fulvous, 
marked as in T. maritima ; sides distinctly tinged with fulvous. 
Length 7.50-9.00, wing 4.50-5.15 (4.86), culmen .98-1.25 (1.13), 
tarsus .88-1.00 (.95). Eggs 1.46 X 1-00, pale olive-buff, varying 
to light brownish buff, spotted longitudinally, and somewhat 
spirally, with vandyke-brown, or deep umber, these darker 
markings sometimes prevailing over the ground-color. Hah. 
Aleutian Islands and coasts of Bering's Sea, north to Kowak 
River, Alaska, west to Commander Islands, Kamtschatka. 

236. T. couesi Eidgw. Aleutian Sandpiper. 
CP. Larger and lighter colored. Summer adult : Top of head broadly 
streaked with buff; scapulars and interscapulars widely bor- 
dered with bright ochraceous or ochraceous-rufous ; fore-neck 
and chest pure white, sparsely streaked with brownish gray ; 
breast white, streaked antei-iorly and clouded posteriorly with 
dusk}^, the latter forming more or less of a patch on each side. 
Winter plumage : Above light plumbeous or ashy, the scapulars 
and interscapulars darker centrally and with paler borders; 
wing-coverts edged with pure white ; chest with white pre- 
vailing. Young : Similar to corresponding stage of T. couesi, 
but colors much paler, with light borders to feathers of back, 
etc., broader, the dark centres correspondingly decreased. 
Downy young : Similar to that of T. couesi, but paler in color, 
the dark streaks on lores not reaching to the eye. Length 
about 9.50-10.00, wing 5.00-5.40 (5.16), culmen 1.15-1.45 (1.33), 
tarsus .95-1.00 (.98). Eggs 1.50 X 1-07, light brownish buff, 
heavily spotted with rich vandyke-brown and clouded with 
purplish gray. Ifab. Prybilof Islands, Bering's Sea; adjacent 
coast of Alaska, south of Norton Sound, in winter. 

237. T. ptilocnemis Coues. Prybilof Sandpiper. 



TRINGA. 155 

Tarsus longer than middle toe and claw, or else toes very slender, without 
distinct lateral membrane. 
c^ Exjjosed culmen not longer than tarsus (or else exceeding it by not 
more than half the length of the basal phalanx of the middle toe), 
and less than half as long as the tail. (>Subgenus Actodromas 
Kaup.) 
d^. Wing more than 4.50. 

e^. Eump and median upper tail-coverts plain brownish black or 
dusky. 
f\ Shafts of all the quills white for a portion of their length ; 
exposed culmen shorter than tarsus. Summer adxdt : 
Top of head bright rusty, streaked with black ; scap- 
ulars and interscapulars rusty, tipped with pale gray- 
ish brown and white, and broadly striped with black ; 
superciliary stripe, malar region, chin, and throat, 
white, streaked and flecked with dusky ; fore-neck and 
chest buif broadly streaked and' spotted with dusky; 
rest of lower parts white, with Y-shaped marks of 
grayish brown, except on belly. Winter 'plumage: 
Above grayish brown (more rusty on top of head), 
streaked and striped with dusky; superciliarj^ stripe 
and lower parts dull white ; chest and sides of bi'east 
pale grayish buff", the former indistinctly streaked with 
dusky, lower tail-coverts with dusky shaft-streaks. 
Young : Whole top of head bright rusty, sharply 
streaked with black; scapulars, etc., bright ochraceous- 
rusty, striped with blackish and boi-dered terminally 
with white; superciliary stripe, malar region, chin, 
throat, belly, and lower tail-coverts white, the first 
two finely streaked with dusky, the last with dusky 
shaft-streaks. Length about 7.50-9.00, wing 4.90- 
5.50, culmen .95-1.05, tarsus 1.10-1.25. Hah. Western 
coasts and islands of Pacific Ocean, from Australia to 
Kamtschatka and Alaska (numerous and probably 

breeding) 238. T. acuminata (Horsf.). 

Sharp-tailed Sandpiper. 
p. Shaft of outer quill, only, white ; exposed culmen longer 
than tarsus. Summer adtdt: Above light clay-color or 
brownish buff, broadly striped with black; fore-neck 
and chest light buffy grayish, broadly streaked with 
dusky ; chin, upper part of throat, and lower parts 
from breast backward, plain white. Winter plumage : 
Similar to summer dress, but upper parts more uni- 
form, with blackish markings less distinct, the lighter 
tints less rusty or bufiy. Young : Much like summer 



156 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

adult, but lighter tints above more rusty, the scapulars 
and outermost interseapvilars tipped extei'ioi'ly with 
white, the chest, etc., more buffy and more narrowly 
streaked. Length 8.00-9.50, wing about 5.00-5.50, cul- 
men 1.10-1.20, tarsus 1.00-1.10. JEggs 1.44 X 1-02, pale 
grayish buif varying to pale olive-greenish, boldly and 
heavily blotched with rich vandyke-brown and clouded 
with purplish gray. ITab. Nearly the whole of Amer- 
ica, but in summer confined to Arctic and subarctic 
districts ; occasional in Europe. 

239. T. maculata Vieill. Pectoral Sandpiper. 
e". Eump dusky, the feathers bordered with pale grayish, buffy, 
or whitish. 
f^' Upper tail-coverts all white, but sometimes marked with 
dusky. 
g^. Wing less than 5.50. Summer adult : Top of head 
buffy, broadly streaked with black; back and scap- 
ulars mixed light brownish gray and grayish buff, 
tinged more or less with rusty ochraceous, and 
broadly striped with blackish, these markings 
more wedge-shaped on scapulars; upper tail-cov- 
erts white, often nearly or quite immaculate, 
sometimes with a few, mostly concealed, sagittate 
or V-shaped, marks of dusky ; superciliary stripe 
and lower parts white; sides of head and neck, 
fore-neck, chest, and sides, streaked with dusky, 
these streaks broadest and most distinct on chest, 
sparser, larger, and more cuneate or V-shaped on 
flanks. TFmfer^^Mma^re.- Upper parts plain brown- 
ish gray, with indistinct narrow mesial streaks 
of dusky ; otherwise as in summer, but streaks 
on chest, etc., less distinct. Young : Scapulars 
and interscapulars blackish, margined terminally 
with white and laterally with rusty, those of 
middle of back (longitudinally) also tipped with 
rusty; feathers of top of head and rump, also 
tertials, margined with rusty; wing-coverts bor- 
dered with pale grayish buff; otherwise like winter 
plumage, but chest, etc., suffused with buffy. 
Length 6.75-8.00, wing 4.90-5.00, culmen .90-1.00, 
tarsus .95-1.00. Eggs 1.37 X -94, light olive or 
olive-brownish, spotted (usually rather finely) 
with deep brown and dull purplish gray. Hah. 
Eastern North America, breeding far northward ; 
in winter, south through West Indies and over 



TRINGA. 157 

eastern South America, to Falkland Islands; occa- 
sional in Europe 240. T. fuscicoUis Vieill. 

Bonaparte's Sandpiper. 

(f. "Wing more than 5.50. Summer adult : Similar to cor- 
responding stage of T. fuscicolUs, but ground-color 
of upper parts brownish gray, with only the least 
trace of ochraceous on some of the longer scapu- 
lars, and upper tail-coverts conspicuously varied 
with broad V-shaped marks of grayish dusky; 
length about 9.50, wing 5.80, culmeu 1.25, tarsus 
1.20. Hab. Long Island, New York (only one 
specimen known, obtained May 24, 1833). 

— . T. cooperi Baird. Cooper's Sandpiper. 
p. Median upper tail-coverts j)lain dusky. 

Summer adult: Crown pale grayish buff, broadly 
streaked with brownish black ; scapulars and in- 
terscapulars irregularly spotted with brownish 
black and pale grayish butf, the former largely 
predominating ; chest pale grayish buff, streaked 
and spotted with dusky grayish brown ; super- 
ciliary stripe, chin, and throat white, the first 
finely but sparsely streaked with dusky; lower 
parts posterior to chest plain white. Winter 
plumage: Above plain buffy grayish brown, the 
feathers with rather indistinct dusky mesial 
streaks ; feathers of rump and median upper tail- 
coverts dusky, bordered terminally with dull 
buffy ; lower parts dull white, the sides of neck, 
chest, and sides of breast strongly washed or suf- 
fused with dull buffy. Young : Above dull gray- 
ish buff, the scapulars and interscapulars dusky 
centrally and margined terminall}^ with white; 
top of head streaked with dusky ; otherwise much 
as in winter plumage, but chest streaked with 
dusky. Length 7.00-7.60, wing 4.60-4.85, culmen 
.90-1.00, tarsus 1.00. Eggs 1.30 X -93, light 
creamy buff, sometimes tinged with rusty, thickly 
speckled and spotted with deep reddish brown or 
chestnut. JIab. America in general, but chiefly 
the interior ; breeding along arctic coast, and mi- 
grating in winter south to Chili and Argentine 
Republic. 

241. T. bairdii Coues. Baird's Sandpiper. 
d'. Wing less than 4.00. 

e\ Middle toe, without claw, shorter than exposed culmen; shafts 



158 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

of all the quills white for greater j)ortion.* Summer adult : 
Scapulars and interscapulars bordered and irregularly in- 
dented with rusty ochraceous, these lighter markings some- 
times extended nearly or quite to the shaft, thus dividing 
the black into more or less completely separated spots ; 
tertials broadly edged with rusty ochraceous; rump and 
upper tail-coverts plain- brownish black, the outermost 
feathers of the latter jDartly or entirely white ; top of head 
rusty ochraceous, broadly streaked with black; fore-neck 
and chest dull brownish white, streaked with dusky ; rest 
of lower parts plain white. Winter plumage : Above plain 
brownish gray, with dusky shaft-streaks ; chest pale gray- 
ish, very indistinctly streaked with darker; rest of lower 
parts plain white. Young : Similar to summer adults, but 
scapulars and outermost interscapulars with white tips to 
outer webs, and lacking the concealed ochraceous bars; 
lower parts more as in winter plumage. Length 5.00-6.75, 
wing 3.50-3.75, culmen .75-.92, tarsus .75. Eggs 1.15 X -83, 
pale grayish buffy, varj^ing to pale brownish, thickly spotted, 
siseckled, or sprinkled with deep chestnut and dull purplish 
gray. Hob. America in general, but breeding only in arctic 
and subarctic districts. 

242. T. minutilla Vieill. Least Sandpiper. 
e^. Middle toe, without claw, longer than exposed culmen ; shafts 
of all the quills, except first, wholly dark brown. Summer 
adult : Very similar to corresponding stage of T. minutilla, 
but feathers of back more broadly edged with tawny 
ochraceous, and scapulars more broadly edged with a 
brighter, more rusty shade of the same, these feathers with- 
out any trace of bars or indentations of the lighter color. 
Winter plumage, not seen. Young, hardly distinguishable 
from summer adult. Length about 5.50-6.20, wing 3.45- 
3.65, culmen .70-.80, tarsus .85-.90. Hab. Asia, breeding 
toward arctic coast; accidental (?) in Alaska (Otter Island, 
Bering's Sea, June 8, 1885). 

— . T. damacensis (Horsf.). Long-toed Stint.'' 
c^ Exposed culmen exceeding tarsus by at least half the length of the 

middle toe, without claw, and more than two-thirds as long as 

tail. 
rP. Tarsus less than one and a half times as long as middle toe, with- 

1 To this section belong also the type of the subgenus, T. minuta Leisl. ; also, T. temmincldi Leisl., and 
T. ruficollis Pall., of the northern portions of the eastern hemisphere. 

* Totanus damacensis Horsf., Tr. Linn. Soc. xiii. 1821, 129. Tringa damacensis Swinh., P. Z. S. 1863, 
316. RiDGW. Auk, iii. 1886, 275 (Otter Island, Alaska; Chas. H. Townsend). Actodromas damacensis Stejn., 
Orn. Expl. Kamtsohat. 1885, 116 (Bering Island, Kamtsohatka^, 



TRINGA. 159 

out claw ; median tipper tail-coverts dusky ; lower parts white 
and blackish in summer adult. (Subgenus Pelidna Cuvier.) 
e^. Summer adult : Above light dull rusty or tawny, streaked and 
spotted with blackish ; anterior lower parts white, or 
grayish white, streaked with dusky ; belly covered by a 
more or less continuous patch of blackish. Winter plumage : 
Above plain ash-gray or brownish gray, sometimes with 
indistinct dusky shaft-streaks; an indistinct superciliary 
stripe and lower parts white, the neck and chest indis- 
tinctly streaked with grayish, the sides and flanks some- 
times also sparsely streaked. Young : Back and scapulars 
dusky, the feathers broadly bordei-ed with rusty, ochra- 
ceous, or bufty, this becoming paler (often whitish) on tips 
of some feathers ; wing-coverts bordered with buffy ; top 
of head light rusty, streaked with blackish ; sides of head 
and neck dull buff}^, indistinctly streaked with dusky; 
lower parts white, the breast and belly spotted with 
black. 
/^ Smaller and duller in color. Summer adult with back 
varied with dull ochreous or buffy, and blackish of belly 
not in strong contrast with speckled or otherwise va- 
ried dull grayish of breast. Downy young : " Covered 
with rather close down ; crown velvety black, this 
color narrowing to a point on the forehead, and mar- 
gined all around with buffy white ; hind crown slightly 
spotted with white; upper parts deep black slightly 
varied with rufous, and dotted here and there with 
white ; sides of the head white with a warm buffy 
tinge ; a dark streak passes from the base of the bill 
over the eye, and another below it, and behind the eye 
there is a dark patch ; rest of under-parts grayish 
white." (Dresser.) Length about 7.50, wing 4.30-4.75, 
culmen 1.15-1.40, tarsus .85-1.00, middle toe .70-.75. 
Eggs pale olive-buff, spotted, somewhat spirally (some- 
times speckled), with different shades of vandyke- 
brown and purplish gray. Hab. Europe, etc.; acci- 
dental or casual in eastern North America (west side 
of Hudson's Bay).... 243. T. alpina (Linn.). Dunlin. 
p. Larger and brighter colored. Summer adidt with back, 
etc., varied with bright rusty ochraceous, and black of 
belly conspicuously contrasted with nearly immaculate 
grayish white of breast ; length 7.60-8.75, wing 4.60- 
4.95, culmen 1.40-1.75, tarsus 1.00-1.15, middle toe .70- 
.80. Eggs 1.43 X 1-01, dull brownish or grayish buff or 
olive-buff, blotched, spotted, and stained with chestnut- 



160 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

brown. Hah. jSTorth America in general, breeding far 

northward; eastern Asia.... 243a. T. alpina pacifica 

(CouEs). Eed-backed Sandpiper. 

cP. Tarsus one and a half times as long as the middle toe, with claw ; 

upper tail-coverts entirely white ; head, neck, and lower parts 

rufous or chestnut in summer adult. (Subgenus Ancylocheilus 

Kaup.) 

Summer adult: Head, neck, and lower parts (except anal 
region and lower tail-coverts), deep cinnamon-rufous or 
chestnut ; upper parts varied with blackish and rusty. 
Winter plumage : Above plain brownish gray, with indis- 
tinct dusky shaft-streaks ; superciliary stripe, upper tail- 
coverts, and lower parts, white, the chest indistinctly 
streaked with graj^ish. Young : Back and scapulars 
dusk}", the feathers edged with dull huffy or light ochra- 
ceous, and bordered terminally with whitish ; lesser and 
middle wing-coverts bordered terminally with dull buff; 
otherwise much like winter plumage, but chest and sides 
of breast washed with dull buff. Length about 7.00-9.00, 
wing 4.80-5.20, culmen 1.38-1.60, tarsus 1.10-1.20. :Eggs 
1.50 X 1-04, pale grayish or greenish buffy, spotted with 
deep brown, etc. (hardly distinguishable from eggs of T. 
maculata or T. alpina pacifica'). Hah. Eastern hemisphere 
in general ; occasional in eastern North America and in 
Alaska 244. T. ferruginea BrDnn. Curlew Sandpiper. 

Genus EURYNORHYNCHUS Nilsson. (Page 149, pi. XLIV., fig. 3.) 

Species. 

Summer adult : Head, neck, and chest rusty, the crown streaked and the back 
spotted with dusky ; scapulars and tertials lighter rust}^, or ochraceous, the central 
portion of each feather black ; wing-coverts brownish gray, with dusky shaft- 
sti'eaks ; lower parts from breast back, white, the sides more or less spotted with 
dusky. Winter plumage : Forehead, cheeks, and entii'e^ under parts white ; upper 
parts (except forehead) dusky, the feathers margined with pale grayish. Young : 
Back and scapulars dusky, the feathers bordered terminally with dull whitish, 
these borders becoming rusty on anterior portion of back and scapulars ; wing- 
coverts dusky centrally, with still darker shaft-streaks, and margined with brown- 
ish gray, the greater tipped with white; top of head dull grayish, spotted Avith 
dusk}", the feathers edged with rusty; rest of head, neck (except behind), and 
lower parts white, clouded with light grayish brown, and suffused with dull buffy 
anteriorly. Length about 6.00, wing 3.35-3.90, culmen .80-1.00, width of bill near 
tip about .45, tarsus .80-90. Hab. Eastern Siberia in summer, straggling across to 
coast of Alaska (Choris Peninsula) ; in winter, south to India. 

245. E. pygmaeus (Linn.). Spoon-bill Sandpiper. 



EREVNETES. jgl 

Genus EREUNETES Illiger. (Page 148, pi. XL VIII., %. 3.) 

Species. 

Common Characters. — Eump slate-graj-ish ; upper tail-coverts and middle tail- 
feathers dusky, rest of tail-feathei's ash-gray; wing-coverts and tertials brownish 
gray, with dai"ker shaft-streaks, the greater coverts tipped with white ; superciliary 
region and lower parts white, the former finely streaked with du8k3^ Summer 
adults with feathers of back, scapulars, etc., blackish centrally, their edges more or 
less buffy or rusty ; chest streaked or spotted with dusky. Winter plumage with 
upper parts plain grayish, the feathers with darker shaft-streaks; chest nearly or 
quite immaculate. Young : Much like summer adult, but chest tinged with dull 
buif}', and without streaks, and the scapulars and feathers of back margined termi- 
nally with white. Downy yoking : Forehead whitish, divided medially b}^ a black 
line; crown chestnut, marbled posterioi-ly with black and white; occiput marbled 
whitish ; a line of black on lores, forking just in front of eye, the upper branch run- 
ning towai'd anterior corner of eye, the other inclining downward ; upper parts ful- 
vous-brown or rusty laterally, black centrally, the whole surface thickly bespangled 
with white downy tufts ; throat fulvous-whitish; other lower parts dull whitish, 
nearly pure on belly. Length about 5.25-6.75. 

aK Culmen .68-.75 (.72) in male, .80-.92 (.84) in female. Summer adult with little 
rusty on upper parts, the prevailing color above being grayish brown, tinged 
on sides of head (above ear-coverts), scapulars, etc., with pale buffy cinnamon, 
but this often nearly absent ; chest narrowly streaked with dusky. Young 
with little of rusty or ochraceous on upper parts. Male: Wing 3.65-3.90 
(3.69), culmen .68-.75 (.72), tarsus .80-.90 (.85), middle toe .55-.65 (.62). 
Feinale : Wing 3.85-4.00 (3.91), culmen .80-.92 (.84), tarsus .85-.95 (.90), 
middle toe .55-.65 (.61). Eggs 1.21 X 0.85, pale dull grayish buff, sprinkled, 
speckled, or spotted with dark brown and purplish gray. Hab. Northern 
and eastern North America, breeding from Labrador and western shores 
of Hudson's Bay to northei-n Alaska; west, during migrations, to Eocky 
Mountains 246. E. pusillus (Linn.). Semipalmated Sandpiper. 

«l Culmen .85-95 (.88) in male, 1.00-1.15 (1.05) in female. Summer adult with 
upper parts chiefly rusty, or bright rusty cinnamon, the feathers spotted cen- 
trally with black, the rusty or cinnamon sometimes uniform along sides of 
head (above ear-coverts), and a more or less distinct stripe of same on side 
of head; chest and breast thickly marked with broad streaks (sometimes 
widened into triangular spots) of dusky, the sides marked with sagittate 
spots of the same. Young : Upper parts, including top of head, with rusty 
ochraceous prevailing. Downy young : Eusty ai'eas of upper parts more ex- 
tended and brighter in color. Hale : Wing 3.60-3.75 (3.68), culmen .85-95 
(.88), tarsus .85-.90 (.87), middle toe .55-.60 (.59). Female : Wing 3.70-3.90 
(3.82). culmen 1.00-1.15 (1.05), tarsus .90-.95 (.93), middle toe .60-.65 (.61). 
Fggs 1.24 X 0.87, deep cinnamon-buffy, sprinkled, speckled, or thickly spotted 

21 



162 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS, 

with bright rusty brown or chestnut, the general aspect decidedly rusty .^ 
Hab. Western North America, breeding north to shores of Norton Sound, 
Alaska; during migrations occurring more or less plentifully along Atlantic 
coast 247. E . occidentalis L awr. Western Sandpiper. 

Genus CALIDRIS Cuvier. (Page 149, pi. XLIV., fig. 4.) 

Species. 

Lower parts white, immaculate on belly, sides, flanks, under tail-coverts, axil- 
lars, and under wing-coverts; greater wing-coverts broadly tipped with white, and 
inner primaries white at base of outer webs. Summer adult: Above light rusty, 
spotted with blackish, many of the feathers tipped with whitish ; head, neck, and 
chest pale rusty, streaked and speckled with dusky. Winter plumage : Above very 
pale uniform ash-gray, inclining to pearl-gray (the anterior lesser wing-coverts de- 
cidedly darker), varied only by slightly darker shaft-streaks to the feathei's ; throat 
and chest, like rest of lower parts, immaculate pure white. Spring plumage : Above 
light grayish, coarsely spotted with black (streaked on head and neck), and tinged 
here and there with rusty ; chest speckled with dusky. Young : Above pale gray- 
ish, spotted with black and whitish, the latter on the tips of the feathers ; chest 
immaculate white, faintly tinged with dull buff. Length 7.00-8.75, wing 4.70-5.00, 
culmen .95-1.00, tarsus .90-1.05, middle toe .55-.60. Eggs 1.41 X -91, light oHve- 
brown, finely spotted or speckled with darker, the markings larger and more 
blended on larger end. Hah. Nearly cosmopolitan, but breeding only in northern 
portion of northern hemisphere 248. C. arenaria (Linn.). Sanderling. 

Genus LIMOSA Brisson. (Page 149, pi. XLIX., fig. 1.) 

Species. 

«\ Wings without any white patch. 
6\ Tail distinctly barred. 

c\ Upper tail-coverts pale cinnamon, barred with black ; axillars and under 
wing-coverts cinnamon-rufous. 

Prevailing color pale cinnamon or ochraceous, the head and neck 
streaked, the remaining upper parts irregularly barred and 
spotted, with brownish dusky. Adult : Breast, sides, and flanks 
barred with dusky. Young: Breast, sides, and flanks im- 
maculate, and deeper ochraceous than in adult. Length 16.50- 
20.50, wing 8.50-9.00, culmen 3.50-5.06, tarsus 2.75-3.00, middle 
toe about 1.40. Eggs 2.27 X 1-60, pale olive, varying to light 
grayish buff'y, irregularly and rather sparsely spotted with 
dark brown and dull purplish gray. Hah. North America in 



1 The eggs of the two species of this genus differ constantly and very decidedly in coloration, as shown hy 
the above descriptions, which are based on a very large series of each. 



LIMOSA. 163 

general, breeding from Iowa, Dakota, etc., north to Alaska, 
migrating south in winter to Guatemala, Yucatan, and Cuba. 
249. L. fedoa (Linn.). Marbled Godwit. 
&. Upper tail-coverts white, spotted with dusky ; axillars and under wing- 
coverts white, marked iri*egularly with dusky. 
d}. Eump white, marked with broad, acuminate streaks of dusky; 
head, neck, and lower parts very deep cinnamon in summer 
adult; length about 17.00, wing 8.25-8.50, culmen 2.95-3.80, 
tarsus 2.00-2.15, middle toe 1.10-1.20. Hab. Northern portion 
of eastern hemisphere. 

L. lapponica (Linn.). Bar-tailed Godwit.^ 
d?. Eump duskjT^, the feathers margined with white ; head, neck, and 
lower parts paler cinnamon in summer adult. Summer adult : 
Head, neck, and lower parts, plain cinnamon-color; back and 
scapulars irregularly varied with blackish, whitish, and light 
rusty; wing-coverts light grayish, with dusky shaft-streaks 
and whitish margins. Winter plumage : Head, neck, and lower 
parts whitish, the head and neck streaked, the breast and sides 
scantily and irregularly barred, with grayish brown ; back and 
scapulars j^lain brownish gray ; otherwise, as in summer. Young : 
Above, including wihg-coverts, light buffy grayish, or dull clay- 
color, irregularly varied with dusky ; lower parts dull buffy 
whitish, shaded across chest with deeper grayish buff. Length 
14.60-16.00, wing 8.25-9.15, culmen 3.15-3.55, tarsus 2.00-2^20, 
middle toe 1.10-1.20, Eggs 2.25 X 1-45, similar in color to 
those of L. fedoa. Hab. Coasts of eastern Asia and across to 
Alaska, migrating south in winter to ISTew Zealand and Austra- 
lia; Lower California (casual, in winter). 

250. L. lapponica baueri (ISTaum.). Pacific Godwit. 
b^. Tail not distinctly barred, but uniform black, with white base and tip. 

Upper tail-coverts crossed by a broad band of pure white ; longer 
upper tail-coverts, rump, and axillars plain sooty blackish, or dusky ; 
Tinder wing-coverts chiefly dusky. Slimmer plumage : Head and 
neck pale chestnut, streaked with dusky ; lower parts deeper chest- 
nut, barred with dusky ; back, etc., blackish, irregularly varied with 
buffy. Winter plumage : Back, etc., plain dull brownish gray ; head, 
neck, and lower parts dull whitish, or pale grayish buffy, shaded 
with brownish gray anteriorly. Young : Back, etc., dull brownish 
gray, each feather marked with a submargiual dusky crescent and 
margined terminally with buffy ; beneath pale dull grayish buffy, 
the belly whitish and chest more grayish. Length 14.00-16.75, 
wing 8.10-8.60, culmen 2.85-3.45, tarsus 2.25-2.50, middle toe 1.15- 
1.30. Eggs 2.20 X 1-42, ovate, deep olive, hair-brown, or broccoli- 

1 Scolopax lapponica Linn., S. N. ed. 10, i. 1758, 147. Limosa lapponica Gray, Gen. B. iii. 1849, 570. 



164 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

brown (sometimes paler), usually more or less spotted with darker 
brown, but sometimes nearly uniform. Hah. Nortliern North 
America, east of Rocky Mountains (west to Pacific coast in 
Alaska), migrating south, in winter, through eastern United States, 
western Cuba, and Middle America to southern South America. 

251. L. haemastica (Linn.). Hudsonian Godwit. 
a^. Wing with two white patches, one at base of quills, the other occupying greater 
portion of secondaries. 

Upper tail-coverts, rump, and tail, much as in L. Jicemastica ; axillars and 
under wing-coverts pure white. Summer adult : Head, neck, and chest 
cinnamon or rusty, the first two streaked, the last barred, with dusky; 
rest of lower pai'ts white, the breast and sides barred with dusk}^ ; back, 
etc., mixed black, rusty, and whitish. Winter plumage : Head, neck, 
back, and scapulars plain dark brownish gray; chest plain pale grayish; 
rest of lower parts plain white. Young : " Head dull brownish, the 
feathers edged with rufous-buff . . . back earthy brown, with here and 
there a blackish bi'own feather, all being edged with dull rufous . . . 
sides of head, neck, and bi-east dark buff; flanks washed with buff." 
Downy young : " Rusty yellow, marked with black, especially on crown 
and rump ; a narrow streak through the eye, wing-joints, cheeks, and 
belly, light yellowish." (Dresser.) Length about 15.00, wing 8.00- 
9.80, culmen 3.70-4.95, tarsus 2.80-3.80, middle toe 2.00-2.12. Eggs 2.17 
X 1-50, deep grayish olive, indistinctly spotted with deeper olive-brown. 
Hah. Northern portion of eastern hemisphere ; accidental in Greeoiland. 

252. L. limosa (Linn.). Black-tailed Godwit. 

Genus TOTANUS Bechstein. (Page 149, pi. L., figs. 1, 2.) 

Species. 

Common Characters. — Above grayish or brownish, more or less varied with 
white or dusky, or both ; head and neck streaked, and tail barred, with white and 
grayish or dusky; lower parts white, the chest (sometimes other portions also") 
more or less streaked or spotted with dusky. 

a^. Bill longer than middle toe, with claw. 

¥. Taraus more than one and a half times as long as the middle toe, without 
claw. (Subgenus Totanus.) 
c\ Nasal groove occupying less than half the total lei;igth of the upper 
mandible ; exposed culmen as long as tarsus to base of hind toe • 
wing 7.00 or more. 
cl}. Bill decidedly recurved ; entire lower back and rump pure white ; 
flanks and lower tail-coverts without markings. Summer 
adult: Back and scapulars blackish, the feathers edged with 
light ash-gray ; fore-neck streaked with dusky. Winter plu- 
mage : Back and scapulars grayish, the feathers bordered with 



TOTANUS. jg- 

grayish white ; fore-neck plain white. Young : Back, scapu- 
lars, etc., light brownish gray, the feathers margined with 
paler, and with a subedging of dusky, in the form of an irregu- 
lar line inside the whitish border ; these markings changed'on 
tertials into short, zigzag, oblique bars along the edge of both 
webs; fore-neck, sides, etc., immaculate, as in wiiUer adult. 
Downy young : " Upper parts black and gray, with reddish 
tinge ; forehead, sides of head, and whole under-parts white ; a 
streak through the eye, a fine line along the forehead, a larger 
spot on the crown, a few lines or spots over the arm, sides of 
rump, and tail-down black, often mixed with reddish brown." 
(Meves, fide Dresser.) Length 12.50-14.50, wing 7.00-7.80, 
culmen 2.15-2.20, tarsus 2.25-2.65, middle toe 1.12-1.30. Hggl 
1.95 X 1-39, dull brownish butf, spotted with Vandyke- and 
madder-brown and purplish gray. Hab. Greater part of 
eastern hemisphere, but only far northward during summer; 
accidental in eastern ISTorth America (Florida) ? 

253. T. nebularius (Gunn.). Greenshank. 
d\ Bill very slightly or not at all recurved ; lower back and upper 
rump grayish, spotted with dusky ; flanks and lower tail-coverts 
barred with dusky. Summer adult : Above varied with blackish- 
pale gray, and white, the first predominating, the last in the 
form of spots along the edges of the feathers ; throat streaked 
with dusky ; rest of lower parts (except bellj^) spotted or barred 
with the same. Winter jyhimage : Above rather light ash-gray, 
without the blackish, but with the white, spotting of summer 
dress; fore-neck, etc., much more narrowly streaked, and mark- 
ings of other lower parts much sparser and less distinct. 
Young : Similar to winter adult, but darker and more brownish 
above, the whitish spotting tinged with light brownish buff. 
Length 12.15-15.00, wing 7.50-7.75, culmen 2.20-2.30, tarsus 
2.50-2.75, middle toe 1.35-1.50. Eggs 1.43 X 1-20, brownish 
buffy, distinctly but very irregularly spotted with rich van- 
dyke- or madder-brown. Hab. Nearly the whole of America, 
but breeding only in the more northern portions of the northern 
continent (south to northern Iowa and Illinois ?). 

254. T. melanoleucus (Gmel.). Greater Yellow-legs. 
c^. Nasal groove occupying more than half the total length of the upper 
mandible ; exposed culmen much shorter than tarsus to base of hind 
toe ; wing less than 7.00. 

Plumage essentially similar, in all stages, to that of T. melanoleu- 
cus; legs also yellow in life; length 9.50-11.00, wing 6.10- 
6.65, culmen 1.30-1.55, tarsus 2.00-2.15, middle toe 1.00-1.15. 
Eggs 1.69 X 1-15, buffy (variable as to shade), distinctly (some- 
times broadly) spotted or blotched with dark madder- or van- 



166 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

dyke-brown, and pui-jDlish gray. Hab. Northern North America 
in summer ; migrating southward (chiefly east of Rocky Moun- 
tains) to West Indies, Buenos Aires, Chili, etc. ; accidental in 

Europe 255. T. flavipes (Gmel.). Yellow-legs. 

¥. Tarsus much less than one and a half times as long as the middle toe, with 
claw. (Subgenus Melodramas Kaup.^) 
c^. Upper tail-coverts dusky, barred with white; middle tail-feathers 
dusky, spotted along edges with white. Summer adult: Above 
olivaceous-slate, rather sparsely speckled with white ; fore-neck 
distinctly streaked with dusky. Winter plumage : Above dark ashy, 
less distinctly speckled with white, the fore-neck less distinctly 
streaked. Young : Above grayish brown, thickly speckled with 
dull buff; sides of head and neck nearly uniform grayish. Length 
7.50-8.60, wing 5.00-5.40, culmen 1.15-1.30, tarsus 1.25-1.90, middle 
toe 1.00. J^gg (identification doubtful, but probably correct) 1.32 
X -90, dull light buffy, thickly spotted and clouded with rich mad- 
der-brown and purplish gray. Hab. Temperate North America in 
summer, southern United States and tropical America in general in 

winter 256. T. solitarius (Wils.). Solitary Sandpiper. 

c^. Upper tail-coverts pure white, nearly or quite immaculate ; middle 
tail-feathers widely barred with white ; otherwise, very similar in 
plumage, in all stages, to T. solitarius. Downy young : " Covered 
with close fine down; head grayish buif ; a black line passes through 
each eye from the base of the bill to the nape ; another broad line 
passes thi'ough the centre of the crown, and joins with one on each 
side of the crown at the nape, forming a patch, which is continued 
in a broad line to the rump ; upper parts grayish buff and rufous, 
variegated with black, the latter forming to some extent a broad 
line on each side of the body; chin, throat, and under-parts white." 
(Dresser.) Length about 10.00, Aving 5.40-5.70, culmen 1.30-1.40, 
tarsus 1.25-1.40, middle toe .95-1.00. Nest not built by this species, 
but the abandoned nest of some tree-building bird, as a thrush, jay, 
or pigeon, often at a considerable height from the ground. Eggs 
3-7, l^f-lf^ X 1^^^^' P^^® " gi'ayish sea-green, sparingly marked 
with . . . purplish gray . . . and dark brown." (Dresser.) Jlab. 
Northern portions of eastern hemisphere ; accidental in eastern 
North America (Nova Scotia). 

257. T. ochropus (Linn.). Green Sandpiper, 

al Bill much shorter than middle toe, with claw. (Subgenus Bhyacophilus Kaup.) 

Under wing-coverts white, the exterior ones spotted with dusky ; wing 

4.75-4.90, culmen 1.10-1.15, tarsus 1.40-1.45, middle toe 1.00-1.05. Hab. 

Eastern hemisphere. 

T. glareola (Linn.). Wood Sandpiper.^ 

J Helodromas Kaup, Naturl. Syst. 1829, 144. Type, Tringa ochroptis Linn. 

2 Trinf/r, rjlareola Linn., S. N. ed. 10, i. 1758, 149, Totanus glareola Temm., Man. d'Orn. 1815, 421. 



SYMPHEMIA. 167 

Genus SYMPHEMIA Eapinesque. (Page 148, pi. L., fig. 3.) 

Species. 

Largest of the family (except species of the genera Numenius and Liynosd), the 
wing measuring 8.00 or more ; quills blackish, with nearly the basal half white, 
producing a very conspicuous patch on the spread wing. Summer adult : Above 
brownish gray, irregularly varied with dusky ; lower parts white, tinged with 
grayish on fore-neck and buff along sides, the former, with chest, streaked or 
spotted with dusky, the latter barred with the same. Winter j^lumage : Above plain 
ash-gray ; beneath immaculate white, the fore-neck shaded with grayish. Young : 
Above brownish gray, the feathers margined with buff or pale ochraceous ; sides 
much tinged with the same, and finely mottled transversely with gra3nsh. 
Downy young : Above dull grayish white or pale brownish gray, tinged here and 
there with pale brown, coarsely and irregularly marbled with dusky; fore-part 
and sides of forehead plain dull whitish ; sides of bead, with entire lower parts, dull 
white, the lores crossed, from eye neai'ly to bill, by a very distinct line of dusky; 
behind the eye two dusky lines, a shorter and broader one running from eye into 
the dusky mottling of occiput, a longer and narrower one commencing immediately 
beneath, and running back into dusky mottling on nape. Length about 15.00- 
17.00, wing 7.50-9.00, culmen 1.90-2.60, tarsus 1.95-2.85, middle toe 1.35-1.40. Eggs 
2.13 X 1-53, jDale huffy, varying from a brownish to a graj'ish olive shade, spotted 
with various shades of brown (usually rich madder-brown or vandyke), and pur- 
plish gray. Hab. Temperate North America; south, in winter, to West Lidies, 
Brazil, etc. ; accidental in Europe 258. S. semipalmata (Gmel.). Willet. 

Genus HETERACTITIS Stejneger. (Page 148, pi. XLY., fig. 3.) 

Species. 

Common Characters. — Upper parts uniform, or nearly uniform, grayish ; lower 
parts white, more or less extensively barred with dusky in summer, washed with 
gray across chest and sides in winter, the young with gray of sides, etc., faintly 
mottled with whitish. 

a}. Nasal groove (measured from loral feathers) two-thirds as long as the exposed 
culmen ; upper tail-coverts uniform gray, or with merely a narrow edging 
of whitish. 

Summer adult : Above uniform plumbeous-gray ; lower parts white, 
shaded across chest and along sides with plumbeous, the fore-neck 
streaked, and other parts (including belly and lower tail-coverts) barred, 
with dusky. Winter plumage : Similar, but without any bars on lower 
parts. Young : Similar to winter plumage, but scapulars, tertials, and 
upper tail-coverts indistinctly spotted along edges with white, and 
plumbeous of sides, etc., faintly mottled with the same. Length 10.50- 
11.30, wing 6.50-7.30, culmen 1.50-1.60, tarsus 1.25-1.35, middle toe 1.00- 



168 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

1.05. Hab. Pacific coast of America, from the Galapagos and Lower 
California to Aleutian Islands and Norton Sound, Alaska, and Com- 
mander Islands, Kamtschatka ; also, the more eastern Pacific islands 
(Pomotu group, Marquesas, Tahiti, Tongatabu, Palmyra, Samoa, Upolu, 

Fiji, etc.) 259. H. incanus (Gmel.). Wandering Tatler. 

«^ Nasal groove (measured from frontal feathers) only about one-half as long as 
the exposed culmen ; upper tail-coverts distinctly barred with white. 

Summer adult : Belly and under tail-coverts immaculate white, the dark 
bars of other lower parts narrower than in S. incanus ; otherwise simi- 
lar to that species, but gray of a browner shade ; size smaller. Hab. 
Shores and islands of the western Pacific, from Australia, Borneo, etc., 
to Kamtschatka (mainland). 

H. brevipes (Vieill.). Polynesian Tatler.^ 

Genus PAVONCELLA Leach. (Page 148, pi. XLIX., fig. 3.) 

Species. 

Above varied with black, buff, and gray, the scapulars and tertials obliquely 
barred ; beneath white, varied on chest and throat ; inner webs of primaines finely 
mottled toward base ; three outermost tail-feathers plain, the rest barred ; sides of 
rump white. Adult male : Colors varj'ing with the individual, scarcely two being 
alike; the "cape" usually glossy black, ochraceous, or whitish, the "ruff" usually 
chestnut, glossy black, buff, whitish, or ochraceous, these colors either plain, 
streaked, or barred, according to the individual. Adult female: No "ruff" or 
"cape," and head completely feathered; plumage barred Avith blackish, buff, white, 
and rusty, the belly and lower tail-coverts usually immaculate white. Young : 
Back and scapulars brownish black, the feathers bordered with buff or ochraceous ; 
top of head ochraceous streaked with black ; lower parts plain buffy anteriorly, 
whitish posteriorly. Length 10.00-12.50, wing 6.40, tail 2.60, culmen 1.25, tarsus 
1.75, middle toe, with claw, 1.40. IJggs 1.71 X 1-20, light olive or olive-buff, spotted 
with vandyke-brown or bistre. Hab. More northern portions of eastern hemisphere ; 
occasional in eastern L^nited States (Maine, Massachusetts, Long Island, Ohio, 
etc.) i.. 260. P. pugnax (Linn.). Euff. 

Genus BARTRAMIA Lesson. (Page 148, pi. LI., fig. 1.) 

Species. 

Adult: Above light brownish, the feathers more ochraceous toward edges, 
spotted and barred with blackish ; crown blackish, divided by a median line of 
buff; rest of head and neck ochraceous or buffy, streaked with dusky, except chin 
and throat, which are plain whitish ; tail-feathers (except middle pair) light buff, 
broadly tij^ped with white, marked near ends with a broad black spot, and, anterior 

1 Tntnnus hrevipes YiEiLL., Nouv. Diet. N. H. vi. 1817, 410. Heteractitis brevipes Stejx., Orn. Expl. 
Kamt. 1885, 137. 



TRYNGITES. jgg 

to this, with a few irregular narrow dusky bars. Inner web of outer quill marked 
with broad bars of white, on other quills broken up into a confused mottling; axil- 
lars white regularly barred with clear slate-color ; belly and lower tail-coverts plain 
dull whitish or very pale buff (buff and ochraceous tints much deeper in winter). 
Young : Similar to adult, but buffy tints deeper, dusky streaks on fore-neck and chest 
much less distinct, and the back plain dusky, with distinct buff margins to the 
feathers. Downy young : Above coarsely and irregularly mottled with blackish on 
a grayish white ground tinged with light rusty; lower parts bufify white, with 
several blackish spots on flanks, one beneath eye, a smaller one on lores, and a 
larger, nearlj^ perpendicular one behind ears. Length 11.00-12.75, wing 6.50-7,00, 
culmen 1.10-1.15, tarsus 1.90-2.05, middle toe .90-1.05. Eggs 1.79 X 1-30, ovate or 
short-ovate, creamy buff or dull buffy white, speckled and spotted, chiefly round 
larger end, with dark brown and purplish gray. Hab. Eastern and central North 
America in general, west to edge of the Great Basin, north to the Yukon Valley and 
Nova Scotia ; south, in winter, to Brazil and Peru ; occasional in Europe, and 
accidental in Australia 261. B. longicauda (Bechst.). Bartramian Sandpiper. 

Genus TRYNGITES Cabanis. (Page 148, pi. LIT., fig. 2.) 

Species. 

Upper parts dull grayish buff or brownish, varied with blackish ; lower parts 
buff, streaked or speckled on chest with dusky ; axillars white ; under primary 
covei-ts and inner webs of quills beautifully mottled or speckled with dusky on a 
whitish ground. Adult : Feathers of back, etc., blackish centrally, and without 
whitish borders. Young : Feathers of back, etc., distinctly bordered with whitish, 
the black and brown less sharply contrasted ; mottling on inner webs of quills, and 
under primary coverts, much more minute and delicate than in adult. Length 
7.00-8.90, wing 5.10-5.50, culmen .75-.80, tarsus 1.15-1.30, middle toe .75-.85. Eggs 
1.53 X 1-OJ;, buffy grayish white, varying to pale olive-buff, boldly spotted, longitu- 
dinally (and somewhat spirally) with dark Vandyke- or madder-brown and purplish 
gray. Mab. North America in general, especially the interior, breeding far north- 
ward ; south, in winter, to Uruguay and Peru ; occasional in Europe. 

262. T. subruficoUis (Yieill.). Buff-breasted Sandpiper. 

Genus ACTITIS Boie. (Page 148, pi. LII., fig. 1.) 

Species. 

Common Characters. — Above plain grayish brown, with a faint greenish or 
bronzy lustre, in summer adults or young slightly relieved by more or less of dusky 
streaking or barring, or both ; outer tail-feathers barred with white, the rest (ex- 
cept middle pair) tipped with the same ; secondaries broadly tipped with w^hite, 
and with more than their basal half (abruptly) white ; inner webs of second to 
tenth quills (inclusive) with a longitudinal white patch, increasing in depth toward 
the tenth, on which it touches the shaft; superciliary stripe (sometimes not very 
distinct) and lower parts chiefly pure white. 

22 



170 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

a^. Summer adult with lower parts marked everywhere with roundish spots of 
blackish. Winter adult : Above plain grayish olive, with a faint bronze gloss, 
with no markings except dusky shaft-streaks, except on wing-coverts, which 
are more or less barred with dusky ; lower parts immaculate white, faintly 
shaded across chest with brownish gray, most distinct laterally. Young : 
Similar to winter plumage, but wing-coverts, scapulars, and upper tail-coverts 
more or less barred with pale dull buff and dusky. Downy young : Above 
yellowish gray, with a narrow black stripe down back, continued anteriorly 
to the bill ; a narrow black line on each side of head, through eye ; lower 
parts dull white. Length about 7.00-8.00, wing 4.05-4.60, culmen .90-1.05, 
tarsus .90-1.05. Eggs 2-5, 1.25 X -90, short-ovate, buffy, more or less thickly 
speckled and spotted with dark brown and black. Hab. Whole of North 
America ; south, in winter, through West Indies, Middle America, and northern 
South America to Brazil • accidental or occasional in Europe. 

263. A. macularia (Linn.). Spotted Sandpiper. 
a^. Summer adult with lower parts plain white, except chest, which is pale brownish 

gray, streaked with darker. 

Other plumages very similar to corresponding stages of A. macularia; 
length about 6.50-7.50, wing 3.80-4.40, culmen 1.00-1.05, tarsus .95-1.05. 
Hah. Northern portions of eastern hemisphere, east to Commander 
' Islands, Kamtschatka. 

A, hypoleucos (Linn.). Common Sandpiper (of Europe).^ 

Genus NUMENIUS Brisson. (Page 149, pi. XLIX., fig. 2.) 

Species. 
a}. Feathers of thighs without lengthened bristly points. 
V. Eump not white. 

c\ Secondaries and quills rusty cinnamon, the outer webs of latter dusky ; 
axillars deep cinnamon, without distinct bars ; lower parts pale cin- 
namon. 
Above pale cinnamon, tinged here and there with grayish, varied, 
transversel}^, with blackish, the top of head narrowly streaked 
with dusky, but without median light stripe ; secondaries and 
quills cinnamon-rufous, the outer webs of the latter dusky. 
Doiony young : Buffy yellow, deeper above, tinged with sulphur- 
3^ellow beneath ; upper parts coarsely and irregularly marbled 
with black; bill straight, about 1.40 long. Length about 20.00- 
26.00, wing 10.00-11.00, culmen 2.30 (young of year)-8.50, tar- 
sus about 2.25. Eggs 2-4, 2.59 X 1-81, ^^ght grayish buff or pale 
buffy brown, spotted, blotched, or speckled with umber-brown. 
Hab. Whole of temperate North America, migrating south to 
Guatemala, Cuba, and Jamaica. 

264. N. longirostris Wils. Long-billed Curlew. 

1 Tringa hyiioleiicos LiNN., S. N. ed. 10, i. 1758, 149. Actitis hypoleucoa BoiE, Isis, 1822, 560. 



NUMENIUS. 171 

c". Secondaries and quills mainly or entirely dusky brownish ; axillars pale 
dull cinnamon or buffy, distinctly barred with dusky ; lower parts 
pale dull buffy. 
d}. Crown with two broad lateral stripes of brownish dusky, enclosing a 
narrower median stripe of buffy ; breast, etc., narrowly streaked 
with dusky ; inner webs of quills spotted with buff toward 
edges; length 16.50-18.00, wing 9.00-10.25, culmen 3.00-4.00, 
tarsus 2.25-2.30, middle toe 1.35-1.40. Eggs 2.27 X 1-57, pale 
olive, spotted with dull brown. Hab. Whole of North 
America; south, in winter, through West Indies, Middle 
America, and greater part of South America ; breeding far 
northward.... 265. N. hudsonicus Lath. Hudsonian Curlew. 
cP. Crown narrowly streaked with dusky, and without lighter median 
stripe ; breast, etc., with V-shaped marks of dusky ; inner webs 
of quills entirely dusky ; length 12.60-14.50, wing 8.00-8.50, 
culmen 2.25-2.50, tarsus 1.70-1.80, middle toe 1.00. :Eggs 2.04 
X 1.43, pale olive-greenish, olive, or olive-brownish, distinctly 
spotted, chiefly on larger end, with deep or dark brown. Hab. 
Northern and eastern North America, breeding far northward ; 
migrating south, in winter, through Middle America to southern 
extremity of South America. 

266. N. borealis (Forst.). Eskimo Curlew. 
b^. Eump plain white. 

Similar to iV. hudsonicus, but plumage in general rather grayer, the 
rump white, and the axillars white, barred with grayish brown ; 
length about 17.00, wing 9.30-10.50, culmen 3.00-3.60, tarsus 2.30- 
2.50, middle toe 1.40. Eggs 2.39 X 1-66, light olive-brownish or 
buffy olive, spotted with bistre and vandyke-brown. Hab. Northern 
portions of eastern hemisphere ; occasional in Greenland. 

267. N. phseopus (Linn.). Wliimbrel. 
a\ Feathers of thighs terminated by long, bristle-like points. 

Upper tail-coverts and tail ochraceous, the latter crossed by regular narrow 
bands of dusky brown ; top of head plain dark brown, divided medially 
by a stripe of buff; axillars pale cinnamon or pinkish buff, widely barred 
with dark brown ; upper parts in general sooty brownish, coarsely and 
irregularly varied with buffy; lower parts dull buffy, the cheeks, neck, 
and chest streaked with brown, the sides irregularly barred with the 
same; length about 17.25, wing 9.50-10.40, culmen 2.70-3.70, tarsus 
2.00-2.40, middle toe 1.35-1.50. Hab. Islands of Pacific Ocean and coast 
of Alaska 268. N. tahitiensis (Gmel.). Bristle-thiglied Curlew. 



172 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

Family CHARADRIIDi^. — The Plovers. (Page 143.) 

Genera. 

(Nest on ground in meadow or near water, the nest itself often a mere depres- 
sion in ground. Eggs 2-4, more or less pyriform-ovate, light olive or huffy, more 
or less spotted or speckled with brown or blackish.) 

a}. Wing more than 8.00 ; plumage of upper parts partly metallic ; head crested. 

Vanellus. (Page 172.) 
a^. Wing less than 8.00 ; plumage without metallic tints ; head not crested. 

ft^ Plumage of upper parts much 8j)eckled or spotted ; lower parts uniform 

black medially in summer dress Charadrius. (Page 172.) 

b^. Plumage of upper parts plain ; lower parts always white medially. 

-ffigialitis. (Page 174.) 

Genus VANELLUS Brisson. (Page 172, pi. LV., fig. 1.) 

Species. 
Summer adult : Fore-part and top of head, chin, throat, and breast, uniform 
blue-black ; side of head and neck white, becoming grayish on hind-neck ; upper 
parts chiefly metallic bottle-green, bluish and coppery purple, the first predomi- 
nating ; upper tail-coverts rufous ; basal half and tij) of tail white, the rest dull black; 
bell}^, etc., white, becoming pale rufous on lower tail-coverts. Winter plumage : Simi- 
lar to summer plumage, but anterior part of lores, together with chin and throat, 
white, the white of side of neck, etc., tinged with buflF. Downy young : Top and sides 
of head and entire upper parts dull light brownish gray, mottled with black, the 
shoulders tinged with light rusty and the rump with large spots of deep black ; 
hind-neck, chin, throat, and entire lower parts except chest, white, the first tinged 
with light ashy; chest dusky grayish. Length about 13.00, wing 8.50-9.00, culmen 
1.00, tarsus 2.00, middle toe 1.00-1.10. Eggs 1.85 X 1-33, varying from dull light 
grayish buff to deep olive-buff, spotted with brownish black. Hah. Northern por- 
tions of eastern hemisphere; occasional in Greenland; accidental in Alaska and on 
Long Island? 269. V. vanellus (Linn.). Lapwing^. 

Genus CHARADRIUS Linn^us. (Page 172, pi. LIV., figs. 1, 2.) 

Species. 
Common Characters. — Summer adults with most of lower parts and sides of 
head (up to and including lores and ear-coverts) uniform black ; forehead, sides of 
crown, and sides of neck and chest, adjoining the black, plain white ; upper parts 
speckled or spotted with blackish and whitish or j^ellowish. Wiiiter adults without 
any black on lower parts, which ai'e whitish, the chest, sides of neck and head, etc., 
streaked with brownish gray ; the upper parts spotted with grayish and dusky 
(sometimes mixed with yellowish). Young similar to winter adult, but above 
speckled with yellowish. 



CHARADRIUS. I73 

«'. A very small rudimentary nmd toe ; axillars sooty blackish. (Subgenus Squata- 
rola CuviER.) 

Summer adult : Lower parts, except sides of chest, thighs, anal region, and 
lower tail-coverts (which are white), and sides of head up to and in- 
cluding lores and ear-coverts, uniform black ; ujjper parts irregularly 
spotted with dusky and whitish, except on forehead and thence back to 
sides of breast, which are immaculate white. Winter adult : Black of 
lower parts replaced by j^lain white, the fore-neck and chest, however, 
streaked and somewhat spotted with dusky ; upper parts with white 
spotting replaced by grayish. Young : Similar to winter adult, but 
upper pai'ts speckled with pale yellowish. Downy young: Above olive- 
yellowish, marbled with blackish, the hind-neck white ; a blackish line 
along sides of crown, another from bill to eye (across lores), and a less 
distinct, somewhat curved, streak beneath eye ; lower parts white. 
Length 10.50-12.00, wing 7.50, culmen 1.10, tarsus 1.95, middle toe 1.15. 
Eggs 2.04 X 1-43, light buffy olive, spotted and speckled with dark brown 
and brownish black, or deep black. Hab. Northern portions of northern 
hemisphere, breeding far northward ; nearly cosmoj)olitan during migra- 
tions 270. C. squatarola Linn. Black-bellied Plover. 

a^. No hind toe ; axillars grayish or white. (Subgenus Gharadrius.') 

h^. Axillars and under wing-coverts white. ■ ' 

Summer adult : Above dusky, speckled with bright ochre-yellow ; sides 
of head (up to and including lores and auriculars), chin, throat, and 
lower parts, uniform dull black, or dusky, that of the head and neck 
bordered behind by a broad pure white stripe, extending from fore- 
head to sides of chest. Winter adult : No black on lower parts, 
.which are white on throat and belly, elsewhere light brownish 
gray, streaked on chest, etc., with dai-ker ; upper parts less marked 
with yellow than in summer (?). Young : Similar to winter adult, 
but upper parts strongly marked and conspicuously speckled with 
yellowish, the chest, etc., strongly suffused with the same. Dowjiy 
young : Bright "golden," varied with black on the head and back, 
the hind-part of the head bright yellow; a spot under the eye and 
under surface of the body pure white. Length about 10.50, wing 
6.80-7.20, culmen .85-.90, tarsus 1.50-1.65, middle toe .95-1.00. Eggs 
2.07 X 1-40, dull light grayish buff, olive-buff, or brownish buff, 
spotted with brownish black. Hah. Northern Europe in summer, 
south into Africa in winter ; breeding also in eastern Greenland. 

271. C. apricarius Linn. Golden Plover. 

h"^. Axillars and under wing-coverts smoky gray. (Otherwise, in all stages, 

much like C. apricarius^ 

<?^ With longer wings, relatively shorter tarsi and toes, and less golden 

coloration, especially in immature and winter plumages ; length 

9.50-10.80, wing 6.80-7.40 (7.09), culmen .80-1.00 (.92), tarsus 1.55- 

1.82 (1.70), middle toe .80-1.05 (.90)- Eggs 1.90 X 1-30, pale buffy 



174 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

brown, light dull buffy, pale grayish buff, or olive-buff, spotted, 
chiefly round larger end, with black, the larger of these spots often 
confluent. Hab. Breeding in Arctic America, east of coast of 
Bering's Sea and Straits, migrating south, in winter, throughout 
nearly the whole, of America (except Pacific coast?), as far as 
Patagonia... 272. C. dominicus Mull. American Golden Plover. 
c^ With shorter wings, relatively longer tarsi and toes, and decidedly 
more golden coloration, especially in immature and winter plu- 
mages; length 7.80-10.00, wing 6.10-6.80 (6.40), culmen .85-1.00 
(.92), tarsus 1.55-1.85 (1.72), middle toe .85-.95 (.90). Eggs 2.02. X 
1.30, similar in coloration to those of C. dominicus. Hah. Breeding 
in northern Asia, and Alaskan coasts of Bering's Sea and Straits ; in 
winter, south through India, China, etc., to Australia and Polynesia. 
272a. C. dominicus fulvus (Gmel.). Pacific Golden Plover. 

Genus .ffiGIALITIS Bote. (Page 172, pi. LII., figs. 3-5 ; pi. LIII., figs. 1-3.) 

Species. 
a}. Tail at least half as long as the wing, extending half its length, or more, beyond 
tips of closed wings ; graduated for more than length of inner toe, without 
claw ; rump and upper tail-coverts ochraceous ; chest crossed by two black 
bands. (Subgenus Oxyechus Eeichenbach.) 

Adult : Upper parts generally, except rump and upper tail-coverts, grayish 
brown ; forehead, stripe over ear-coverts, chin, throat, collar round hind- 
neck, and lower parts, white ; fore-part of crown, stripe across lores, 
collar completely encircling lower part of neck, and broad band across 
breast, black ; tail chiefly pale ochraceous, varied with white, dusky, 
and grayish ; bill black ; eyelids bright orange-red in life. Young : 
Similar to adult, but feathers of upper parts more or less distinctly mar- 
gined with pale rusty or ochraceous. Doivny young : Top of head and 
upper parts generally grayish brown, the two ai'eas encircled with black, 
and separated by a white collar across nape ; lower parts white, inter- 
rupted by a black collar completely encircling the lower neck, and 
forming a broad band across chest; a narrow line of black across lores; 
sides and flanks light brownish buff; a broad bar of black along humeral 
region, and a narrow stripe of same along middle of rump ; hand-wing, 
and hinder edge of arm-wing, white. Length 10.00-11.25, wing 6.20-6.75, 
tail 3.60-4.10, culmen .70-.90, tarsus 1.40-1.55. Eggs 1.47 X 1-04, pale 
dull buffy, thickly speckled and irregularly spotted with black. Hab. 
Whole of temperate North America, migrating in winter to West Indies, 
Middle America, and northern South America; Bermudas. 

273. A. vocifera (Linn.). Killdeer. 

a^. Tail less than half as long as wing, reaching but little if any beyond tips of the 

latter when folded ; even, or graduated for much less than length of middle 

toe, without claw ; rump concolor with the back ; chest crossed by only one 

band (black, grayish, or rufous), or none at all. 



^GI A LITIS. j,^5 

Culmen equal to middle toe, with claw. (Subgenus Ochtliodromus Eeichen- 

BACH.) 

Adult male: Forehead, superciliaiy strii:)e, and lower parts white- 

upper parts brownish gray ; fore-part of crown, streak across lores 

(sometimes wanting), and band across chest, black. Adult female : 

Similar to the male, but black replaced by brownish gray, usually 

more or less tinged with ochraceous or light rusty. Young : Similar 

to adult female, but feathers of u^^per parts margined terminally 

with paler. Downy young : Crown and occiput light grayish buff 

irregularly marbled with black ; back and rump similar but more 

grayish, the mottling coarser and less distinct ; arm-wing light buflp, 

mottled with dusky; hand- wing entirely pure white; forehead, 

superciliary region, sides of head, collar round hind-neck, and lower 

parts white ; a post-ocular black streak. Length about 7.50-7.90, 

wing 4.50, culmen .80, tarsus 1.25, middle toe .75. 

c^ Nape and sides of occiput only slightly tinged with ochraceous. 

Female with lores chiefly or entirely white, and band across chest 

usually grajnsh, tinged more or less with ochraceous. Eggs 1.38 

X 1-02, dull light* huffy, very irregularly speckled and zigzagged 

with black or dark brown and purplish gray. Hab. Atlantic and 

Gulf coasts, north to Long Island (casually to Nova Scotia); 

both coasts of Mexico, north to Cape St. Lucas in winter. 

280. A. wilsonia (Ord). Wilson's Plover. 

c\ Nape and sides of occiput very deeply suffused with ochraceous 

or rusty. Female with lores chiefly or wholly brownish gray, and 

band across chest usually ochraceous or light rusty. Hab. West 

Indies and northern Atlantic coast of South America, to Bahia. 

A, wilsonia rufinucha Kidgw. Rufous-naped Plover.^ 

Culmen much shorter than middle toe, with claw. 

c\ Tarsus twice as long as bill, measured from anterior point of loral 

feathering ; no band across chest. (Subgenus Podasocys Coues.) 

Summer adult {sexes alike) : Upper parts light grayish brown, 

sometimes tinged with buff or ochraceous ; lower parts dull 

white, more or less shaded with pale buffy grayish across 

chest (more or less suffused with buff or ochraceous in spring) ; 

forehead and superciliary stripe purer white; fore-part of 

crown, and streak across lores, black. Winter plumage : Similar 

to summer dress, but black markings of head wanting, and 

plumage more strongly tinged with buff. Yoiing : Similar to 

winter plumage, but whole side of head and neck, and chest, 

deep creamy buff, and all the feathers of upper parts distinctly 

bordered with light buff. Downy young : Above brownish buff. 



1 ^giaUtis wlhomus var. n.finnchm Ridgw., Am. Nat. viii. Feb. 1874, 109. ? Charadrim crassiroetris 
bPix, Av. Bras. ii. 1825, 77, pi. 94. {Cf. Pelz., Orn. Bras. 1870, 297.) 



176 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

mottled with black, this forming a distinct marbling on crown 
and occiput, where the ground-color is lighter and clearer buff; 
lower i^arts immaculate pale buff. Length 8.00-9.10, wing 
6.00, culmen .80-.90, tarsus 1.50-1.60, middle toe .70. Eggs 1.47 
X 1.11, varying from light olive to deep cream-color, rather 
sparsely and irregularly speckled and lined with dark brown, 
black, and purplish gray. Hab. Western North America, east 
to the Great'Plains; accidental in Florida. 

281. JE.. montana (Towns.). Mountain Plover. 
c^. Tarsus less than twice as long as bill, measured from anterior point of 
loral feathering ; chest with a black, graj'ish, or rusty band, some- 
times interrupted in the middle portion. (Subgenus jEgialitis 
BoiE.) 
d\ Nape crossed by a more or less distinct white collar. 

e\ Bill decidedly shorter than middle toe, very stout (except in 
^. dubia), its basal half light-colored (orange or yellow in 
life), except in JE. dubia. 
p. A distinct web between base of inner and middle toes. 

Above grayish brown; forehead, ring round hind- 
neck, and lower parts white. Summer adult: 
Lores, fore-pai't of crown, and broad band across 
chest black (usually duller in female). Winter 
plumage : Similar to summer dress, but black 
markings replaced by grayish brown. Young : 
Similar to winter plumage, but feathers of upj)er 
parts margined terminally with light buff. Downy 
young: Above pale grayish brown, mottled with 
black ; frontal crescent, collar round hind-neck, 
and entire lower parts white. Length 6.50-7.50, 
wing 4.65-5.00, culmen .48-55, tarsus .95-1.05. 
Eggs 1.26 X -94, pale dull buffy or olive-buff, 
speckled or irregularly spotted, chiefly on or 
around larger end, with dark brown or black. 
Hab. Whole of North America, breeding far north- 
ward ; south, in Avinter, throughout West Indies, 
Middle America, and northern South America, to 
Brazil, Peru, and Galapagos... 274. IE. semipal- 
mata Bonap. Semipalmated Plover. 
/^ No web between base of inner and middle toes. 

g^. Upper parts deep grayish brown, as in jE. semipal- 

mata. 

h}. Bill stout, the basal half light-colored (j^ellow or 

orange in life) ; no whitish bar behind black 

patch on fore-part of crown. (Plumage very 

similar, at all stages, to that of uE. semipal- 



^GIALITIS. 177 

mata, but adult with black or grayish brown 
band across chest much broader.) Downy 
young : " Forehead white ; crown grayish 
brown, mottled with light stone-gray ; from 
the base of the bill around the nape a black 
band passes, and is broadest on the nape ; a 
broad collar round the neck and the under- 
parts pure white ; back and upper parts gen- 
erally grayish stone-brown, finely mottled 
with dirty white and blackish brown." 
(Dresser.) Length about 7.50, wing about 
5.00, culmen .50-.55, tarsus 1.00, middle toe 
.60-.65, Eggs 1.40 X 1-00, similar in colora- 
tion to those of v^. semipahnata. Hub. 
Northern portions of eastern hemisphere, 
and eastern portions of Arctic America. 

275. JE. hiaticula (Linn.). Ring Plover. 
h^. Bill slender, entirely black; a whitish bar im- 
, mediately behind black patch on fore-part of 

crown. (Otherwise much like yE. hiaticula, 
but much smaller.) Length about 6.00, wing 
4.35-4.70, culmen .50-.52, tarsus 1.00-1.05, 
middle toe .55-60. Hab. Northern portions 
of eastern hemisphere, including western 
Africa; accidental in California (?) and 

Alaska (?) 276. JE. dubia (Scop.). 

Little Ring Plover. 
g^. Upper parts pale brownish gray. 

Summer adult: Forehead, lores, collar round 
hind-neck, and lower parts pure white ; patch 
on fore-part of crown, and one across each 
side of chest (the two sometimes connected 
on middle of chest), black (duller or more 
grayish in female). Winter plumage : Similar 
to summer adult, but black or dusky replaced 
by light brownish gray. Young : Similar to 
winter plumage, but feathers of upper parts 
distinctl}^ bordered terminally with pale buif 
or whitish. Length 6.25-7.50, wing 4.50-4.80, 
culmen .45-.50, depth of bill at base .20-.22, 
tarsus .85-1.00, middle toe .55. 
h}. Black patches on sides of chest wholly sepa- 
rated or very imperfectly connected. Eggs 
1.27 X -96, pale buffy rather sparingly 
speckled with black and purplish gray. 
23 



178 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

Hah. Chiefly the Atlantic coast of the 
United States, north to southern Labra- 
dor ; West Indies in winter. 
277. M. meloda (Ord). Piping Plover, 
/t'''. Black patches on sides of chest more or less 
completely coalesced. Eggs 1.27 X -93, 
colored as in JE. meloda. Hah. Mississippi 
Valley, and north to Lake "Winnipeg. 
277a. JE,. meloda circumcincta Eidgw. 
Belted Piping Plover. 
e^. Bill much longer than middle toe (without claw), very slender, 
wholly black. 

Summer adult : Above light brownish gray, the crown 
and occiput often varying to light buff; forehead, 
superciliary region, lores, and lower parts pure 
white ; patch on fore-part of crown, ear-coverts, and 
transverse patch on each side of chest black, usually 
much duller, or dusky grayish, in female. Winter 
plumage : Similar to summer dress, but black mark- 
ings replaced by brownish gray. Young : Similar to 
winter plumage, but feathers of upper parts distinctly 
bordered terminally with whitish. Downy young : 
Above pale grayish buff, interrupted by a white collar 
across hind-neck, the whole colored portion mottled 
with black ; forehead, hand-wing, and lower parts 
white ; a dusky streak behind eye. Length 6.25-7.00, 
wing 4.20-4.30, culmen about .60, tarsus .90-1.05, 
middle toe .55-60. Eggs 1.21 X -87, pale dull buffy, 
speckled with dark brown and black. Hah. Western 
North America, south to Mexico, and, in winter, to 
Chili ; western Cuba ? 

278. JE. nivosa Cass. Snowy Plover. 
d'. Hind-neck without trace of white or dusky collar. 

e*. Bill very slender, the culmen equal to or longer than middle 
toe (without claw). 
Above grayish brown, the feathers with paler margins, 
more or less tinged with rufous, especially on crown, 
ear-coverts, and sides of neck ; forehead, cheeks, and 
lower parts pure white, interrupted by a black band 
across chest ; anterior half of crown and a distinct 
loral stripe black. Young : Black of crown and lores 
absent or barely indicated, and black chest-band nar- 
rower or even interrupted in middle portion. Wing 
3.70-4.15, culmen .60, depth of bill through base 
.15-.17, tarsus 1.00-1.10, middle toe .50-.55. Hab. 



APHRIZID^. 179 

Tropical America in general (except "West Indies) 
north to southern Mexico. 

JE. collaris (Vieill.). Azara's Ring Plover.^ 
e*. Bill stout, the culmen decidedly shorter than middle toe 
(without claw). 

Summer adult : Above grayish brown, beneath white ; 
hind-neck and broad band across chest clear cinnamon- 
rufous ; loi-es, orbital region, and ear-coverts black, the 
former bordered above by a white line, sometimes 
meeting on forehead. {Female usually with rufous 
paler and less abruptly defined than in the male, and 
black markings of head less distinct.) Winter plumage : 
Somewhat similar to summer dress, but rufous entirely 
absent, the chest crossed by an indistinct grayish 
brown narrow band, becoming broader and deeper in 
color laterally ; black of ear-coverts, loral streak, etc., 
replaced by dull grayish brown; forehead white. 
Young : Much like winter dress, but plumage more 
or less suffused with buff, and feathers of upper parts 
distinctly bordered with buff or dull ochraceous. 
Length 6.25-7.00, wing about 5.15-5.40, culmen .62, 
tarsus 1.15, middle toe .73. Eggs 1.43 X 1-05, pale dull 
olive, varying to buffy olive, rather sparsely and 
iiTegularly speckled with dark brown and black. 
Hab. Northern Asia, south in winter to Malay Archi- 
pelago, Philippines, Australia, etc. ; accidental on 
Choris Peninsula, Alaska. 

279. JE. mongola (Pall.). Mongolian Plover. 



Family APHRIZID^E. — The Surf Birds and Turnstones. 

(Page 143.) 

Genera. 

Tarsus decidedly longer than culmen; tail emarginate; terminal portion of 
bill somewhat swollen, with the upper outline decidedly convex (as in the 
Plovers, Charadriidce) Aphriza. (Page 180.) 

Tarsus not longer than culmen ; tail slightly rounded ; terminal half of bill com- 
pressed and pointed, with the upper outline straight, or sometimes even 
slightly concave Arenaria. (Page 180.) 



1 Charadrius collaris ViEiLL., Enc. Meth. ii. 1823, 334. ^Egialitis collaris ScL. & Salt., P. Z. S. 1869, 



252. 



180 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

Genus APHRIZA Audubon. (Page 179, pi. LV., fig. 2.) 

Species. 

Summer adult: Head, neck, back, and scapulars spotted and streaked with 
dusky and whitish, the scapulars with a few large, irregular spots of rufous ; 
upper tail-coverts, basal half of tail, a broad band across ends of greater wing- 
coverts, tip of tail, and lower parts from breast backward, white, the sides and 
under tail-coverts spotted with dusky. Winter adult: Head, neck, breast, and 
most of upper parts plain dusky, or brownish slate ; white areas as in summer. 
Young : "Upper parts (except upper tail-coverts, etc.) brownish gray, the feathers 
narrowly bordered with whitish ; throat, fore-neck, and breast white, streaked with 
dusky grayish ; lower parts and upper tail-coverts white. Length about 10.00, 
wing 7.00, eulmen .95-1.00, tarsus 1.20-1.25, middle toe .90-.95. Hab. Pacific 
coast of America, from Alaska to Chili ; Sandwich Islands ? 

282. A. virgata (Gmel.). Surf Bird. 

Genus ARENARIA Brisson. (Page 179, pi. LV., fig. 3.) 

(^Nest on or near sea-beach, consisting of little more than a mere depression in 
sand, gravel, or shingle. Eggs 2-4, more or less pyriform-ovate, light olive, speckled 
with brownish.) 

Species. 

Common Characters. — Lower parts (except chest), upper part of rump, upper 
tail-coverts, and greater wing-coverts, white ; rest of plumage chiefly dusky, the 
upper parts sometimes varied with white and rufous. 

a\ Throat white. Adidt : Upper parts varied, more or less, with rufous ; head 
mostly white ; chest uniform deep black. Young : Upper parts without 
rufous, but the feathers with ochraceous or buffy margins ; head mostly 
dusky; chest mottled dusky. Doiony young (about three days old, fide 
Colletf) : " Blackish gray, slightly washed with yellowish, and here and there 
tipped with black ; along the crown is a narrow black band reaching to the 
forehead, though not quite to the base of the bill ; a similar stripe extends 
from the base of the upper mandible to the eye; and there is a black spot at 
the gape; sides of the throat gray; belly white; wing and scapulars colored 
like the back." (Dresser.) Length 9.00-9.90, wing 6.00, eulmen .80-.90, 
tarsus 1.00. Eggs 1.58 X 1-13, light grayish olive, thickly sprinkled and 
speckled with vandyke-brown. Hab. Entirely cosmopolitan, but chiefly 
along sea-coasts 283. A. interpres (Linn.). Turnstone. 

a^. Throat dusky. Summer adult : Upper parts uniform bronzy brownish black ; 
head, neck, and chest similar, with white streaks on forehead and chest, and 
a large white spot on lores. Winter plumage : Similar to summer adult, but 
head, neck, and chest uniform brownish dusky. Young : Similar to winter 



H^MATOPUS. 181 

plumage, but head, etc., more grayish, and feathers of upper parts maro-ined 
terminally with pale huffy or whitish. Length about 9.00, wino- 5.80-6.10 
culmen .85-1.00, tarsus 1.00-1.10. Eggs 1.62 X 1-12, similar in coloration to 
those of A. intejyres. Hah. Pacific coast of North America, north to Aleu- 
tian Islands, south to Monterey, California ; accidental in India. 

284. A. melanocephala (Vig.). Black Turnstone. 

Family H^MATOPODIDyE.— The Oyster-catchers. (Page 143.) 

Genera. 

(Characters same as those given for the Pamily).. Haematopus. (Page 181.) 

Genus HAEMATOPUS Linn^us. (Page 181, pi. LL, fig. 2.) 

{Nest on or near sea-beach, consisting of a mere depression in sand, gravel, or 
shingle. Eggs 2-4, ovate, light olive or olive-buffy, speckled or spotted with dark 
brown, blackish, and purplish gray.) 

Species. 

Common Characters. — Bill bright red in the adult (drying to dull reddish or 
yellowish); head, neck, and upper parts blackish (plumage entirely blackish in 
some species). , 

a\ Plumage parti-colored or pied (white beneath). 

¥. Entire rump and lower back white. 

Adult: Head, neck, chest, and upper parts blackish; lower back, 
rump, upper tail-coverts, base of tail, greater wing-coverts, and 
lower parts white. Adult in winter: "Differs froni summer plu- 
mage in having a white patch on throat, and the white spot under 
the eye is rather larger." (Dresser.) Young : Similar, but black 
portions more brown, the feathers of back and wings with rusty 
borders, bill more brownish, etc. Downy young : " Head, neck, and 
upper parts generally sooty grayish, the down tipped with rusty 
buff, and variegated, especially on the crown and back, with black ; 
under-parts below throat black." (Dresser.) Length about 16.00, 
wing about 10.25, culmen 3.10, depth of bill at base .55, tarsus 2.00, 
middle toe 1.40. Eggs 2.23 X 1-54, deep dull buff, sharply spotted 
(sometimes lined also) with vandyke-brown, brownish black, and 
purplish gray. Hab. Sea-coasts of Europe, and of parts of Asia 
and Africa ; occasional in Greenland. 

285. H. ostralegus Linn. Oyster-catcher. 

b"^. Entire rump and lower back dusky. 

c^ Breast white, like belly, etc. ; bill very stout, its greatest depth forward 
of nostril exceeding .45 of an inch ; middle toe, with claw, more 
than 1.75. 



182 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

d}. Back, scapulars, and wing-coverts (except greater) grayish brown, 
or brownish slate ; upper tail-coverts entirely white in adult ; 
under primary coverts almost wholly white. Adult: Head 
and neck plumbeous-black ; bill bright red (in life). Young : 
Head and neck dull blackish, the top of the former speckled 
with pale brown ; feathers of upper parts bordered with dull 
buff; bill brownish. Downy young : Head and neck dull light 
grayish, finely mottled with darker, and with a narrow line of 
black behind eye ; rest of upper parts light fulvous-gray, finely 
mottled with darker, and relieved by two narrow stripes of 
black along the back ; lower parts white. Length 17.00-21.00, 
wing 9.80-10.25, culmen 2.85-3.50, greatest depth of bill for- 
ward of nostril .48-55, tarsus 2.05-2.55, middle toe (without 
claw) 1.20-1.55. IJggs 2-3, 2.21 X 1-58, light dull creamy buff, 
spotted with black, dark brown, and purplish gray. Mab. 
Coasts of America, from Nova Scotia and southern California 
to southern Brazil and Chili. 

286. H. palliatus Temm. American Oyster-catcher. 
d^. Back, scapulars, and wing-coverts sooty black ; shorter upper 
tail-coverts entirely black, the longer ones varied with black at 
ends ; under primary coverts chiefly black ; wing 10.00, culmen 
3.12-3.42, greatest depth of bill forward of nostril .50, tarsus 
2.12-2.20, middle toe, without claw, 1.65! Hab. Galapagos 
Islands. 

H. galapagensis Kidgw. Galapagos Oyster-catcher.^ 

c". Breast uniform black ; bill very slender, its greatest depth forward of 

nostril not exceeding .40 of an inch ; middle toe, with claw, much 

less than 1.75. 

Adult : Back, scapulars, and wing-coverts (except greater) sooty 

black, with faint greenish gloss; upper tail-coverts (except 

shorter median ones), entirely white ; nearly all the under 

wing-coverts uniform black; wing 10.00-10.60, culmen 3.00- 

3.05, greatest depth of bill forward of nostril .38-.40, tarsus 

1.75-1.95, middle toe 1.20-1.30. Hab. Tierra del Fuego. 

H. leucopodus Garnot. White-footed Oyster-catcher.^ 
a^. Plumage entirely blackish. 

Adult : Uniform brownish black, or dark sooty brown, the head and neck 
plumbeous-black. Young : General color more brownish, many of the 
feathers (especially wing-coverts and scapulars) having paler (dull buff 
or rusty) tips. 
b\ Length 17.00-17.50, wing 9.60-10.75, culmen 2.50-2.95, greatest depth of bill 
forward of nostril .45-.52, tarsus 1.85-2.25, middle toe 1.30-1.65. J^ggs 
2.18 X 1-52, light olive-buff or buffy olive, speckled or sparsely spotted 

1 Hmmatopus galapagensis RiDGW., Auk, iii. July, 1886, 331. 

2 Hmmatopus leucoptodua Garnot, Ann. des Sc. Nat. vii., 1826, 47. 



JACANA. 183 

with brownish black and purplish gray. Hah. Pacific coast of North 
America, from Lower California north to the Aleutian Islands and 
across to the Kurils — 287. H. bachmani AuD. Black Oyster-catcher. 
Length 18.00-20.00, wing 10.25-10.80, culmen 2.82-3.00, greatest depth of 
bill anterior to nostril .60, tarsus 2.10-2.20, middle toe 1.70-1.75. Hah. 
Coast of Chili. 

H. ater Vieill. Chilian Black Oyster-catcher.i 



Family JACANID^E. — The Jacanas. (Page 143.) 

Genera. 

(Characters same as those given for the Family) Jacana. (Page 183.) 

Genus JACANA Brisson. (Page 183, pi. LVL, fig. 6.) 

Species. 

Adult : Head, neck, chest, and upper back uniform greenish black ; quills and 
secondaries pale yellowish green, bordered at tips with dusky ; rest of plumage 
uniform rich purplish chestnut. Young : Top of head grayish brown, bordered 
along each side by a broad superciliary stripe of bufly white ; a dusky streak be- 
hind eye extending to hind-neck, which is also dusky or dull brownish ; rest of 
head and neck, with whole lower parts, except sides, buify white; upper parts 
grayish brown, the feathers more or less distinctly tipped with rusty buff (obsolete 
in older specimens), the quills pale greenish, as in adult. Length about 8.50, wing 
4.50-5.40, culmen 1.15-1.40, tarsus 1.90-2.35, middle toe 1.85-2.25. Eggs 1.22 X -94, 
olive-tawny or tawny olive, marked all over with confused " pen-lines" of black, and 
occasional ''blots" of same. Hah. Whole of Middle America, from northern Mexico 
(including the lower Eio Grande Valley in Texas) to Panama ; Cuba ; Haiti. 

288. J. gymnostoma (Wagl.). Mexican Jacana. 

1 ffxmatopus ater Vieill., Gal. Ois. ii. 1825, 88, pi. 220. 



184 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

Order GALLIN-^. — The Gallinaceous Birds. 

(Page 2.) 
Families. 

a}. Hind-toe small, short (much less than half as long as lateral toes), and inserted 
above the level of the anterior toes. (Suborder Phasiani.) 
¥. Tarsi without spurs; head entirely feathered (except sometimes over eyes), 

and tail not vaulted Tetraonidse. (Page 184.) 

b"^. Tarsi with spurs ; head naked, or else tail long and vaulted. 

Phasianidae. (Page 205.) 

a^. Ilind-toe well developed, lengthened (decidedly more than half as long as the 

lateral toes), and inserted on a level with the anterior toes. (Suborder 

Penelopes.) Cracidae. (Page 207.) 

Family TETRAONID^. — The Grouse, Partridges, and Quails. 

(Page 184.) 
Genera. ^ ^ ^ 

a^. Tarsi and nasal fossae entirely naked; sides of toes not pectinated; smaller 

(wing less than 6.00). (Subfamily Perdicince.) 

J^ Cutting-edge of lower mandible without serrations ; upper part of tarsus 

feathered below the joint ; first quill longer than seventh. 

c\ Tail very short, composed of 12 soft feathers entirely concealed by the 

coverts ; first quill longest, or at least longer than third ; small 

(wing not over 4.50) Coturnix. (Page 186.) 

c^ Tail more than one-third as long as wing, extending considerably be- 
yond coverts, and composed of 18 firm, broad feathers ; first quill 
shorter than sixth ; rather large (wing over 6.00). Perdix.^ 

b'\ Cutting-edge of lower mandible, toward end, more or less serrated ; upper 
part of tarsus not feathered below joint ; first quill shorter than seventh, 
c^ Tail at least half as long as the wing, the feathers normal, and very 
distinct from the coverts; claws normal, the middle one much 
shorter than exposed culmen. 
d^. Tail about as long as the wing ; very large (wing more than 5.50, 
tarsus about 2.00) ; plumage very plain, the head without a 

distinct crest Dendrortyx.^ 

d^. Tail decidedly shorter than wing; medium to very small (wing 
not more than 5.50, tarsus much less than 2.00) ; plumage 
much varied, the head more or less conspicuously crested. 

1 Perdix Brlss., Orn. i. 1760, 219. Type, Tetrao perdix Linn. 

This genus includes the Partridge of Europe (P. perdix), a handsome game bird, about as much larger 
than the American "Bob Whites" as the latter are larger than the Quail of Europe {Coturnix coturnix). 

2 Dendrortyx Gould, Mon. Odont. 1850, 20. Type, Ortyx macroura Jabd. & Selby. 



TETRAONIDM. 



185 



e\ Tail more than two-thirds as long as wing; bill small and 
weak, its depth at base less than length of middle claw. 

Callipepla. (Page 191.) 

el Tail less than two-thirds as long as wing ; bill stouter, its 

depth at base decidedly greater than length of middle 

claw. 

p. Head with a conspicuous crest of long narrow feathers 

exceeding tarsus in length ; plumage of upper parts 

plain olive ; wing more than 5.00. 

Oreortyx. (Page 190.) 
p. Head not conspicuously crested, or else with longest 
feathers much shorter than tarsus ; plumage of upper 
parts much varied with spots, bars, and other mark- 
ings; wing less than 5.00. 
g^. Head not distinctly crested... Colinus. (Page 186.) 

g"^. Head distinctly crested Eiipsychortyx} 

c*. Tail much less than half as long as wing, the feathers soft, narrow at 
tips, and hardly distinguishable from the coverts ; claws very large, 
broad, and blunt, the middle one nearly as long as the exj^osed culmen. 
Head with a full soft crest of blended feathers ; sexes exceed- 
ingly different in colors , Cyrtonyx. (Page 193.) 

At least upper half of tarsus feathered (usually feathered to toes) ; nasal fossaj 
densely feathered ; sides of toes pectinated in winter (the points deciduous in 
summer) ; lai'ger (wing more than 6.00). (Subfamily Tetraonince.) 
¥. Legs feathered down to base of. toes. 

cl Tail longer than wingSj graduated, the feathers narrow and pointed ; 

wing more than 10.00 Centrocercus. (Page 204.) 

&. Tail shorter than wings, not graduated (or else extremely short, with 
middle pair of feathers longer than rest), the feathers broad and 
rounded, or nearly truncated, at tips ; wing less than 10.00. 
d}. Tail about half as long as wing, graduated or much rounded. 

e\ Tail graduated, with middle pair of feathers projecting much 
beyond the rest ; no tufts or other elongated feathers on 

neck Pediocaetes. (Page 203.) 

el Tail rounded, middle pair of feathers not projecting beyond 
rest ; sides of neck with a conspicuous tuft of straight, 
rather stiff feathers, and beneath these an inflatable air-sac. 

Tympanuchus. (Page 202.) 

<P. Tail more than half as long as wing, rounded or nearly even ; no 

tufts, ruffs, or other conspicuous feathers on neck. 

e'. Toes feathered; tail less than two-thirds as long as wing; 

plumage becoming chiefly or entirely pure white in 

winter Lagopus. (Page 198.) 

1 Eupsychortyx Gould, Mod. Odont. 1S50, 15. Type, Tetrao cn'status Linn. 

24 



186 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

e*. Toes entirely naked ; tail two-thirds to four-fifths as long as 

wing; plumage never white. Dendragapus. (Page 194.) 

6^ Lower portion of tarsus completely naked ; tail nearly as long as wing, 

fan-shaped ;' sides of neck with a broad tuft or ruff of soft, broad-webbed 

feathers Bonasa. (Page 197.) 

Genus COTURNIX Bonnaterre.^ (Page 184.) 

Species. 

Adult male : Above light brown, the back, scapulars, rump, and upper tail-cov- 
erts broadly and sharply streaked with buff, each buff streak being bordered along 
each side by a narrow blackish streak ; in addition to these markings the feathers 
have narrow bars of blackish and pale buffy brown, the scapulars with irregular 
spots of the former; wing-coverts barred with dusky and buffy, and marked with 
narrow mesial streaks of buffy or whitish ; quills dull grayish brown, spotted or 
irregularly barred on outer webs with ochraceous-buft" ; a distinct superciliary 
stripe of buffy or dull whitish ; under-part and sides of head and neck whitish or 
buffy, the middle of the throat with more or less of a brownish or dusky longitu- 
dinal patch, connecting below with a dusky or brownish stripe extending obliquely 
upward to ear-coverts ; below and behind these brownish markings, and usually 
separated from them by a whitish or buffy space, another, usually interrupted line 
of dusky or brownish spots, these sometimes blended into a continuous stripe ; chest 
and breast light cinnamon-brownish, with paler shaft-streaks, the lateral portions 
more broadly streaked, the lighter streaks bordered along each side by blackish j 
rest of lower parts buffy, the sides and flanks streaked with dusky. Adult female : 
Similar to the male, but throat without dusky markings, and chest and breast 
buffy, spotted, longitudinally, with blackish. Downy young (partially feathered) : 
" Centre of crown dark brown, with a central buff stripe ; sides of the crown warm 
reddish buff; upper parts generally blackish brown, barred with warm buff, and 
marked with long buffy white stripes ; chin, throat, and sides of head buffy white ; 
rest of the under-parts buffy white, closely spotted with blackish brown." 
(Dresser.) Length about 7.00, wing 4.10-4.30, culmeu .25-30, tarsus 1.00-1.15. 
Hab. Northern portions of eastern hemisphere in general ; introduced into (and 
partially naturalized in ?) various portions of eastern United States. 

C. coturnix (LiN2sr.). European Quail.2 

Genus COLINUS Lesson. (Page 185, pi. LYL, fig. 1.) 

Species. 

Common Characters. — Upper parts mottled grayish, tinged more or less with 
rusty and more or less vermiculated with dusky and whitish ; quills plain grayish, 
and tail chiefly bluish gray; lower parts usually whitish, varied with black and 

1 Coturnix Bonnaterre, Tabl. Encyl. et M6th. i. 1790, 217. Type, Tetrao cotvrnix Linn. 

* Tetrao coturnix Linn., S. N. ed. 10, i. 1758, 161. Coturnix coturnix Light., Nom. Mus. Berol. 1854, 84. 



COLINUS. 



187 



rusty, the sides and flanks striped with rufous. (Adult males of some species with 
lower parts chiefly uniform cinnamon-rufous.) Adult males with head black, or 
striped with black and white, or brown and white. Adult females with head striped 
with brown and ochraceous or buif, the chin and throat entirely of the latter color. 
JSfest of dried grasses, etc. (sometimes arched over on top), embedded in ground or 
placed on ground, in meadows, grain-fields, etc. ^ggs numerous (12-upward of 
20), pyriform-ovate, white, usually more or less stained (adventitiously ?) with light 
brown. 

a^. Adult males with feathers of sides and flanks rufous edged with white and with 

black line between white and rufous, or else entirely rufous. Adult females 

(except in C. virginianus cubanensis) with feathers of sides and flanks rufous 

edged with white, the two colors separated by a blackish line. 

b^. Adult males with lower parts always whitish, varied with black and rusty 

as above described. 

Adult males : Broad superciliary stripe, and broad patch covering chin, 
throat, and malar region, white ; rest of head black, sometimes, 
especially in winter plumage, mixed with or overlaid by brown ;^ 
sides of neck spotted with white and black, the spots of triangular 
form. Adult females similar to males, but throat-patch and super- 
ciliary stripe buff or ochraceous, and the darker stripes of head 
chiefly brown or rusty. Young : Top of head and ear-coverts dusky 
slate, or dull grayish ; rest of head dull soiled whitish ; chest and 
breast dull grayish brown or brownish gray, streaked with whitish ; 
belly plain white ; back rusty brownish, more or less streaked with 
whitish and spotted with blackish. Downy young : Head dingy buff, 
paler, or nearly white, on throat, with a blackish line behind eye 
and a small spot of same above corner of mouth ; a patch of chestnut 
on occiput, gradually narrowing anterioi'ly to a line along middle of 
forehead ; upper parts nearly uniform chestnut ; lower jDarts pale 
grayish buff, deepening into dull brownish on sides. 
c^. Feathers of flanks with the black markings narrow, only occasionally, or 
not at all, interrupting the white edgings ; black markings on breast 
and belly narrow, always much narrower than the white inter- 
spaces ; chest usually chiefly, or entirely, light cinnamon. 
d\ Upper parts with much of rusty, usually with conspicuous large 
black blotches on scapulars, tertials, and lower back, and with- 
out very distinct light bars. Adult male usually without a well- 
defined band of uniform pale cinnamon across the chest, imme- 
diately beneath the black collar. 
e^. Larger, with colors averaging lighter, especiallj^ on lower 
parts, where black markings are narrow and usually de- 

1 Partially melanistic examples sometimes occur in which the throat is partly or even -wholly black. 
The Ortijx castaneus of Gould was probably based on a specimen of this character. 



188 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

cidedly V-shaped. Length 9.50-10.75, wing 4.30-4.70 (aver- 
age about 4.55), tail 2.40-2.90 (2.70), eulmen .55-.65 (.59), 
depth of bill at base .33-.40 (.35), tarsus 1.20-1.50 (1.38), 
middle toe 1.10-1.22 (1.18). Eggs 1.19 X -94. Hah. 
Eastern United States, west to eastern Minnesota, Ne- 
braska, Kansas, Indian, Territory, and Texas, south to 
Georgia, Alabama, and other Gulf States. 

289. C. virginianus (Linn.). Bob White. 
e'. Smaller, with colors averaging darker, especially on lower 
parts, where black markings are broader and usually more 
transverse. Wing 4.10-4.50 (average about 4.28), tail 2.60- 
2.90 (2.76), eulmen .57-.62 (.60), depth of bill at base .36- 
.42 (.38), tarsus 1.13-1.28 (1.19), middle toe 1.03-1.17 (1.09). 
Eggs "1.17 X -92. Hah. Florida, except extreme southern 

portion 289a. C. virginianus floridanus (Coues.) 

Florida Bob White. 
(P. Upper parts with little rusty (except anteriorly), an olive-grayish 
tint prevailing, the scapulars, tertials, and lower back usually 
without conspicuous black blotches, and the general surface 
usually distinctly barred with lighter ; black mai'kings of lower 
parts usually broad and nearly transverse, as in C. virginianus 
floridanus. Adult male usually with a very distinct band of 
uniform pale cinnamon across chest, immediately beneath the 
black collar. 

Wing 4.20-4.65 (4.39), tail 2.20-2.70 (2.44), eulmen .50-.60 

(.59), depth of bill at base .30-.40 (.36), tarsus 1.15-1.35 

(1.27), middle toe .95-1.15 (1.07). Eggs 1.17 X .91. Hah. 

Texas and northeastern Mexico, north to western Kansas. 

2896. C. virginianus texanus (Lawr.). 

Texan Bob White. 

(f. Feathers of flanks with black markings heavy, broken into irregular 

figures, often enclosing a white spot — the edge never continuously 

white ; black markings on breast and belly very irregular or much 

broken, with frequently a longitudinal tendency; chest usually 

chiefly or entirely black, or striped with black and rufous, in the 

male, coarsely spotted with black, dull white, and rusty in the 

female. 

Wing 4.00-4.15 (4.07), tail 1.91-2.20 (2.07), eulmen .58-.63 (.60), 
depth of bill at base .30-.35 (.32), tarsus 1.12-1.17 (1.14), middle 
toe 0.98-1.08 (1.04). Hah. Cuba and southwestern Florida. 
— . C. virginianus cubanensis (Gould). Cuban Bob White.^ 
P. Adidt males with lower parts chiefly uniform cinnamon-rufous or cinnamon- 
color. 



1 Orti/x cubanensis GouLD, Mon. Odont. 1850, pi. 2. 



COLINUS. 189 

c\ Adult males with throat-patch and broad superciliary stripe always 
white. 
d}. Very similar in color to C. virginianus texanus, but darker, the 
female hardly distinguishable from the same sex of that species, 
the male, however, very diiferently colored beneath, the lower 
parts being uniform cinnamon or cinnamon-rufous ; wing 4.10- 
4.50 (4.39), tail 2.50-3.00 (2.83), culmen .55-.60 (.58),°tarsus 
1.06-1.40 (1.23), middle toe 1.05-1.23 (1.12). Hab. South- 
western Mexico, from San Luis Potosi, Guanajuato, and Guada- 
lajara to Mazatlan ; Sonora ; southern Arizona ? 

290. C. graysoni (Lawr.). Grayson's Bob White. 
d^. Similar to C. graysoni, but still darker in color, with the black 
across fore-neck spread downwai'd over the chest, and the size 
decidedly smaller; wing about 3.80-4.00, tail 2.05, culmen .60, 
tarsus 1.10, middle toe 1.05. Hab. Southeastern Mexico (Vera 
Cruz). 

C. pectoralis (Goxjld). Black-breasted Bob White.^ 

c^. Adult males with whole under side of head black, the white superciliary 

stripe usually much reduced in width or sometimes obsolete. 

d^. Smaller and darker. Adult male with black of throat extended 

oyer the breast (as in G. pectoralis), and feathers of breast, etc., 

sometimes margined with black ; wing 4.00-4.20, tail 2.25-2.60, 

exposed culmen .50-.55, tarsus 1.10, middle toe .95-1.05. Hab. 

Southern Mexico (Tabasco and Tehuantepec). 

C. coyolcos (MtJLL.). Coyolcos Bob White.^ 
d"^. Larger and much lighter colored. Adult male with black of throat 
not extended over chest, which is entirely uniform cinnamon or 
cinnamon-rufous, like other lower parts. Female hardly dis- 
tinguishable from that of C. virginianus texanus, but usually 
with a more decided pale cinnamon band or patch across 
upper part of chest and the belly more distinctly and heavily 
barred. Wing 4.40-4.70 (4.49), tail 2.70-3.00 (2.81), culmen 
.52-.65 (.60), depth of bill at base .32-.40 (.35), tarsus 1.12-1.30 
(1.18), middle toe 1.00-1.10 (1.06). Hab. Sonora and southern 

Arizona 291. C. ridgwayi Brewst. Masked Bob White. 

al Adult male with feathers of sides and flanks white centrally, with broad rufous 
margins. Adult female with feathers of sides and flanks clear umber-brown 
centrally, this enclosed within a broad U-shaped mark of black, the edges 
broadly white. 

Adult male : Sides of forehead, superciliary stripe, lores, cheeks, and whole 
chin and throat, uniform black ; broad stripe along each side of crown and 

1 Ortyx pectoralis GouLD, P. Z. S. 1842, 182; Mon. Odont. 1850, pi. 5. 

2 Tetrao coyoleos {err. ty}}.) Muller (Ph. St.), Nat. Syst. Suppl. 1776, 129. Tetrao coyolcos Gmel., S. N. 
i. 1788, 763. Ortyx coyolcos Gould, Mon. Odont. 1850, pi. 6. Colinus coyolcos Buewst., Auk, ii. Apr. 1885, 
200 (in text). 



190 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

occiput, another from beneath eye across ear-coverts, and gi'ound-color 
of chest, dull white ; middle of crown and occiput rusty brownish, mixed 
with dusky; feathers of hind-neck and upper back rufous, each marked 
with, a central oval spot of rusty white ; feathers of breast and belly 
white centrally, broadly bordered with black. Adult female : Yery simi- 
lar to same sex of C. virginianus cubanensis, but smaller, the sides and 
flanks less barred with black, more white on breast, and ground-color of 
upper parts clearer grayish. Wing 4.00-4.20, tail 2.25-2.60, culmen .60, 
tarsus 1.12-1.20, middle toe 1.05-1.10. Hab. Yucatan. 

C. nigrogularis (Gould). Yucatan Bob White.^ 

Genus OREORTYX Baird. (Page 185, pi. LYI., fig. 3.) 

Species. 

Adult male : Upper parts plain brown or olive, the inner webs of the tertiala 
broadly edged with buff}^ or ochraceous, producing, when wings are closed, a dis- 
tinct stripe on each side of rump ; breast and part of head plumbeous ; crest black ; 
entire throat uniform rich chestnut, growing blackish along upper posterior border, 
and sending a blackish branch up to the eye ; chin, anterior portion of malar region, 
lower portion of lores, and distinct line bordering the throat-patch from the pos- 
terior angle of the eye downward, white ; flanks rich chestnut, broadly barred with 
black and white; thighs rufous, and under tail-coverts black. Adult female : Hardly 
distinguishable in color from the male, but crest usually smaller. Young : Head, 
neck, and back grayish brown, speckled with white ; breast more decidedly gray, 
with larger, more triangular, white spots ; throat and cheeks mixed whitish and 
dusky ; crest-feathers blackish, their tips speckled or zigzagged with pale fulvous ; 
scapulars, wing-coverts, tertials, and tail-feathers pale brownish, finely vermiculated 
with dusky, the first more or less blotched with black, and the tertials edged with 
the same, with a subedging of pale fulvous ; belly whitish ; flanks washed with 
chestnut ; a dusky patch on ear-coverts, with a whitish line just above. Downy 
young : Head and neck light brownish buff", deeper on lores, forehead, and a very 
broad superciliary stripe, the space enclosed between the two latter, of opposite 
sides, and also a broad stripe down middle of back and rump, dark chestnut, bor- 
dered along each side by blackish ; a broad pale buffy or dull whitish stripe along 
each side of rump, throwing off", at about midway of its length, a lateral branch 
obliquely across the flanks, this last also bifurcating at about the middle and throw- 
ing off posteriorly a broad stripe parallel with that of the rump, the space between 
the two, and also that bordering the outer side of anterior half of rump-stripe and 
anterior edge of main flank-stripe, brownish black, or dark seal-brown ; on side of 
head, behind eye, a broad Y-shaped mark of brownish black, having its apex at the 
posterior corner of the eye ; breast and belly dull grayish white. Length about 
10.50-11.50, wing 5.25-5.40, tarsus 1.18-1.40. Eggs 1.36 X 1-02, cream-color, or 
creamy buff, varying as to depth of color. 

1 Onyx nigrogularis Gould, P. Z. S. 1842, 181 ; Mon. Odont. 1850, pi. 4. 



CALLIPEPLA. 191 

2^. Above deep olive-brown or umber, this color usually continued uninterruptedly- 
over hind-neck to the crest ; inner edges of tertials deep buif or ochraceous ; 
forehead entirely ashy. Sab. Pacific coast district, from San Francisco 
north to "Washington Territory. 

292. O. pictus (DouGL.). Mountain Partridge. 

2^. Above grayish olive, the hind-neck usually partly or wholly plumbeous, like the 
breast ; inner edges of tertials light buff or buffy whitish ; forehead distinctly 
paler (often whitish) anteinorly. Hab. Sierra Nevada (both sides) from 
eastern Oregon southward; southern coast district of California?; Lower 
California? 292a. O. pictus plumiferus (Gould). Plumed Partridge. 

Genus CALLIPEPLA Wagler. (Page 185, pi. LVI., figs. 4, 5.) 

Species. 

i'. Tail three-fourths as long as wing, or longer ; flanks striped ; tail-feathers plain 
bluish gray ; tertials and scapulars without black spots ; inner webs of ter- 
tials edged with buffy or whitish, producing a conspicuous stripe along each 
side of rump when wings are closed ; wing 4.50, or more. 
b^. Crest short, blended with, or not separated distinctly from, general feather- 
ing of the crown; sexes essentially alike in plumage. (Subgenus 
CalUpepla.) 
Adult : Tip of crest white ; rest of head plain light brownish or gray- 
ish, paler and more buffy on throat ; hind-neck, upper back, and 
anterior lower parts bluish gray, each feather sharply bordered 
with black, producing a scaled appearance ; scapulars and wings 
.pale brownish; flanks streaked with white; other lower parts 
buffy, the belly sometimes with a patch of chestnut-brownish. 
Young : Upper parts brownish gray, becoming more decidedly 
brown on scapulars and wing-coverts, the feathers marked with a 
mesial streak of white, and (except on hind-neck) spotted with 
blackish ; lower back, rump, and upper tail-coverts ash-gray, some- 
times more or less distinctly spotted with white ; lower parts dull 
whitish, the breast brownish gray, marked with wedge-shaped streaks 
or spots of white, often mixed with dusky spots. Length about 9.50- 
12.00, wing 4.50-5.00, tail about 4.10-4.50, tarsus about 1.30. :Eggs 
1.24 X .94, white, buffy white, or pale buffy, usually more or less dis- 
tinctly sprinkled or speckled with brown. 
c\ Scapulars and wings pale grayish brown, or brownish gray ; belly 
pale buffy or whitish, usually without trace of chestnut or brown 
patch, in either sex. Hab. Northwestern Mexico and contiguous 
border of United States, from western Texas to southern Arizona. 
293. C. squamata (Yig.). Scaled Partridge, 
c*. Scapulars and wings deep grajnsh bi'own (sometimes hair-brown) ; 
posterior lower parts deeper buffy (sometimes decidedly ochra- 
ceous), the belly with an extensive patch of rusty chestnut 



192 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

in the male (sometimes indicated in the female also). Hah. 
Eastern Mexico (south to San Luis Potosi) and lower Rio 
Grande Valley of Texas. 

293a. C. squamata castanogastris Brewst. 
Chestnut-bellied Scaled Partridge. 
61 Crest lengthened, very distinct from general feathering of crown, very nar- 
row at the base, all the feathers enclosed between the more or less 
appressed webs of the anterior plume ; sexes very different in plumage. 
(Subgenus Lophortyx Bonaparte.) 
c^ Crest black ; throat uniform black in adult males, and tertials without 
chestnut. 
d}. Flanks olive-brown or grayish, streaked with white. Adult male : 
Belly with black scale-like markings, and a central patch of 
chestnut; forehead buffy whitish, with black shaft-streaks; oc- 
ciput olive, or smoky brown. Adult feynale : Head without 
black or white markings, the prevailing color plain smoky 
grayish or brownish ; belly without chestnut patch, and black 
scale-like markings less distinct. Young : Above finely mottled 
brownish, mai'ked with whitish mesial streaks, widening at tip, 
and bordered along each edge with blackish ; throat plain dull 
whitish ; belly dull white, faintly barred with grayish ; chest 
dull grayish, with triangular whitish spots. Downy young: 
Dingy whitish, the upper parts tinged with j^ale rusty, and 
irregularly mottled, longitudinally, with deeper brownish ; a 
broad stripe of deep brown from occiput down naj)e ; ear-coverts 
with an indistinct dusky s2:»ot ; lower parts plain dull whitish. 
Length about 9.50, wing 4.35-4.70, tail 4.10-4.70, tarsus 1.20- 
1.25. Eggs 1.23 X -94, white, buffy white, or pale buff, more or 
less distinctly sprinkled, speckled, spotted, or blotched with 
some shade of umber-brown. 

e\ Upper parts deep smoky brown, the inner edges of tertials 
deep buffy or ochraceous ; flanks deep olivaceous or smoky 
brown. Hab. Coast valleys of California, Oregon, and 
Washington Territory. 

294. C. californica (Shaw). California Partridge. 

e^. Ui)per parts grayish brown, with inner edges of tertials buffy 

or whitish ; flanks olive-grayish, or grayish brown. Hah. 

Interior districts of California and Oregon, south to Cape 

St. Lucas 294a. C. californica vallicola Eidgw. 

Valley Partridge. 
d^. Flanks rich chestnut, streaked with white. Adult 7nale. : Belly 
without scale-like markings, and with a central patch of black; 
forehead dusky; occiput rufous. Adult female : Similar to that 
of C. californica vallicola, but flanks chestnut, and belly without 
scale-like markings. Young : Above grayish brown, minutely 



CYRTONYX. 193 

mottled, the feathers with white shaft-streaks, widening at end, 
and with a dusky spot on each side ; belly dull white, without 
trace of markings ; chest brownish gray, the feathers tij^ped 
and streaked with whitish. Length about 9.50-10.00, win<i- 
4.45-4.70, tail 4.10-4.70, tarsus 1.20-1.25. Eggs 1.25 X -94, sinT- 
ilar to those of C. californica, but usually with deeper ground- 
color and larger and more distinct spots. Hab. Northwestern 
Mexico and contiguous poi'tions of United States, from Arizona 
to western Texas, north to southern Utah. 

295. C. gambeli (Nutt.). Gambel's Partridge. 
c*. Crest buffy or ochraceous ; throat white, spotted with black, and ter- 
tials blotched with chestnut, in adult male. 

Adult male : Sides of head streaked with black and white ; hind- 
neck broadly streaked or striped with bluish gray and rusty ; 
ujDper parts mainly grayish brown, the tertials and longer 
scapulars chestnut, broadly, edged on both webs with white; 
breast and belly bluish gray, the latter marked with roundish 
spots of white ; flanks mainly deep cinnamon-rufous, the 
feathers edged, or spotted along edges, with white ; wing 4.25- 
4.50, tail 3.50-3.60, tarsus 1.25. Hab. Western Mexico (vicinity 
of Mazatlan). 

C. elegans (Less,). Elegant Partridge.^ 

al Tail less than two-thirds as long as wing ; flanks broadly and sharply banded 

with black and white ; tail-feathers brownish, barred with dusky and 

whitish ; scapulars and tertials spotted with black, the inner webs of the 

latter without light edging; wing less than 4.00; sexes alike in plumage ; 

crest narrow, distinct from feathers of crown, but with webs not appressed. 

(Subgenus Philortyx Gould.'^) 

b\ Checks, chin, and throat white ; bill black ; wing 3.80-3.90, tail 2.40-2.60, 

tarsus 1.10-1.12. Hab. Southwestern Mexico (Plains of Colima, etc.). 

C. fasciata (Gould). Banded Partridge.' 
6^. Checks, chin, and throat black; bill brownish; wing 3.80, tail 2.00, tarsus 
1.00. Hab. Southeastern Mexico (Pueblo). 

C. personata Ridgw. Black-faced Partridge.* 

Genus CYRTONYX Gould. (Page 185, pi. LVI., fig. 2.) 

Species. 

Common Characters. — Adult males : Sides of head marked with bold black and 
white stripes, the chin and throat, and narrow collar across fore-neck (ascending to 
beneath crest), intense velvety black ; longer feathers of crest uniform brownish ; 

1 Ortyx elegans Less., Cent. Zool. 1832, pL 61. Callipepla elegans Gould, Mon. Odont. 1850, pi. 18. 

2 Philortyx GouLD, Mon. Odont. 1850, 17. Type, Ortyx fasctatus Gould. 

3 Ortyx fascintus GouLD, P. Z. S. 184,3, 133. 

* Philortyx personutua RiDGW., Auk, ill., July, 1886, 333. 

25 



194 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

upper parts brownish, more or less barred and spotted with black, and conspicu- 
ously streaked with whitish, buff, or rufous; outer webs of quills spotted with 
white ; anal region, thighs, and lower tail-coverts uniform velvety black. 

a^. Adult male without rufous or chestnut on flanks. 

Adult male : Crest plain brownish, spotted with black anteriorly ; sides of 
head chiefly pure white, relieved by a stripe (widening posteriorly) of 
dark plumbeous extending from corner of mouth backward to beneath 
ears, throwing off a branch (darker in color) on each side of forehead, 
and a postocular black stripe or elongated patch ; scapulars, etc., marked 
with broad medial streaks of buffy or whitish ; entire sides and flanks 
dark plumbeous, marked with numerous round spots of pure white ; 
belly and middle line of breast dark chestnut. Adult female : Prevailing 
color light pinkish cinnamon, the upper parts streaked and barred much 
as in the male ; head without white or black stripes ; sides with a few 
irregular streaks or bars of black. Young : Similar to adult female, but 
lower parts dull whitish, many of the feathers, especially on breast and 
sides, with transverse spots of blackish, on both webs. Downy young : 
Head pale brown, becoming gradually whitish on throat, the occij)ut 
with a broad patch of chestnut ; a blackish streak behind eye ; upper 
parts rusty brownish, indistinctly spotted with dusky, the rump bor- 
dered along each side by a whitish stripe ; lower parts nearly uniform 
dull white. Length about 8.75, wing 4.90-5.30, tarsus 1.05-1.10, middle 
toe .85-.90. Egg (identification very doubtful) : 1.21 X -90) plain white. 
Hah. Western and central Mexico, from Mazatlan and Valley of Mexico 
north to western Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona. 

296. C. montezumse (Via.). Massena Partridge. 

a*. Adult males with flanks varied with rufous or chestnut. 

h^. Adult male with flanks rich chestnut, slightly varied with black and 
plumbeous. Hah. Guatemala and southern Mexico. 

C. ocellatus Gould. Ocellated Partridge.^ 
h"^. Adult male with flanks plumbeous, barred and spotted with chestnut. Hah. 
"Mexico." 

C. sallsei Vebr. Salle's Partridge.^ 

Genus DENDRAGAPUS Elliot. (Page 186, pi. LYII., figs. 1, 2.) 

{Nest on ground in woods. Eggs about 8-15, buffy or pale brownish, sprinkled, 
speckled, or, more rarely, spotted with dark brown.) 

1 Ortyx ocellatus GonLD, P. Z. S. 1836, 75 (Guatemala). Cyrtonyx ocellatus Gould, Mon. Odont. 1850, 
pi. 8. 

Cyrtonyx sumichrristi Lawr., Ann. Lye. N. Y. i. 1877, 51 (Tehuantepec). 

Obs. — There are differences observable between two males from Guatemala on the' one hand, and one from 
Tehuantepec (the type of C aumicTirasti) on the other. If these should prove constant the latter bird would 
require recognition as a geographical race (C. ocellatus sumichraati). 

2 Cyrtonyx salleei Verreaux, Arcana Naturse, i. 1860, pi. 4. 



DENDRAGAPUS. 



195 



Species. 

Tail of 20 feathers ; sides of neck in inale with a distinct inflatable air-sac ; wing 
of male more than 7.00. (Subgenus Bendragapus.) 

Adult male : Above duskj- grayish or dull blackish, usually more or less 
mottled, especially on wings (sometimes distinctly and coarsely mottled 
over whole surface) ; tail black, with or without gray terminal band ; 
lower parts chiefly plain slate-gray, more or less varied with white on 
flanks, etc.; length about 20.00-23.00, wing 9.40-10.00, tail 8.00, weight 
about 2i to 3J lbs. Adult female : Similar to the male, but decidedly 
smaller and colors much less uniform, the upper parts more or less dis- 
tinctly spotted and barred with hnffy or brownish, the chest and anterior 
part of sides similarly marked; length about 17.50-19.00, wing about 
8.70, tail 6.00. Yoti?ig : Above yellowish brown, the feathers with con- 
spicuous shaft-streaks and terminal triangular spots of white, and rather 
large transverse roundish spots of black ; secondaries with broken or 
mottled bands of dusky and white ; lower parts dull whitish, the chest 
and sides spotted with black ; head buffy whitish, spotted with black on 
crown, and marked along side of head by a dusky stripe. Boivny young : 
Above mixed pale chestnut-brown and brownish white, mottled with 
blackish, this forming six rather irregular and indistinct stripes down 
rump, and an indefinite number of more confused stripes on top of head, 
where, however, the mottlings are sometimes broken into irregular 
spots ; on side of head behind eye several irregular spots of black ; lower 
parts plain dull white. Eggs buff or cream-color, more or less distinctly 
sprinkled or speckled (more rarely spotted) with umber-brown. 
b^. Tail tipped with a distinct ash-gray band. 

c\ Lighter colored, with broader tail-band (.50-.80 wide on outermost 
feather), distinct whitish space on side of neck, and throat mostly 
white. Adult male : Above dark slaty, everywhere finely mottled 
with gray and light brownish, the hinder scapulars usually with 
distinct shaft-streaks and terminal spots of white ; tail-band 1.00- 
1.50 wide on middle feathers, .50-.80 wide on outermost. IJggs 1.94 
X 1-39. Hab. Eocky Mountains, west to the Wahsatch, south to 
New Mexico (San Francisco Mountains) and Arizona (White Moun- 
tains), north to South Pass. 

297. D. obscurus (Sat). Dusky Grouse. 
c^. Darker colored, with narrower tail-band (not more than .40 wide on 
outermost feather), no distinct whitish space on side of neck, and 
throat dusky, bordered with white, in adult male. Adidt male : 
Above sooty blackish, sometimes nearly uniform, but usually more 
or less mottled with brownish, especially on wings ; scapulars usu- 
ally without distinct white streaks or spots ; tail-band less than 1.00 
(usually about .60) wide on middle feathers. Adult female much 
darker than in D. obscurus, the upper parts sometimes deeply washed 



196 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

■with dark rusty. Young : Similar to corresponding stage of D. oh- 
scurus, but darker colored and more rusty. Eggs 1.89 X 1-36. Hab. 
Mountains near Pacific coast, from California to Sitka. 

297(7. D. obscurus fuliginosus Eidgw. Sooty Grouse. 
b^. Tail without a distinct terminal band of gray. In other respects similar to 
D. obscurus, but tail-feathers broader, more truncated at tip, the tail more 
even, Eggs 1.84 X 1-30. Hab. Northern Eocky Mountains, from cen- 
tral Montana northward. 

2d7b. D. obscurus richardsonii (Sab.). Eichardson's Grouse. 
a-. Tail of 16 feathers ; no obvious air-sac on side of neck ; wing less than 8.00. 
(Subgenus Canachites Stejn.) 

Adult males : Above transversely varied with black and grajish ; beneath 
black, with a white border to the throat, and broad white tips to many of 
the feathers, the sides and flanks with wedge-shaped streaks of white ; tail 
black, with or without rufous tip. Adult female: Above barred with black, 
gray, and ochraceous, or butfy, the first predominating ; beneath whitish 
(more butfy or ochraceous anteriorly), distinctly and broadl}' barred with 
black ; flanks and scapulars usually streaked medially with white. Doivny 
young : Pale butf-yellow, the top of head, back, and wings pale rusty, or 
fulvous; stripe on side of head (from bill to end of ear-coverts), two 
spots on crown, and transverse spots on back and wings black. Length 
14.70-16.20, wing about 6.50-7.35, tail 5.00-5.75. Eggs butfy or pale 
brownish, more or less speckled or spotted with deep brown. 
6*. Adult male with tail tipped with ochraceous-rufous, the upper tail- 
coverts without white tips. Adult female with tail-feathers broadly 
ochraceous or ochraceous-rufous at tips. Downy young : Occiput, 
back, and rump uniform bright rusty, the first completely encircled 
with black, and the last sometimes marked with two stripes of the 
same ; rest of plumage, including forehead, fore-part of crown, and 
broad superciliary stripe, brownish buflf, tinged with lemon-yellow 
on lower parts ; two black spots on middle line of forehead, and a 
black line on side of head, sometimes interruj^ted in front of eye. 
(To be immediately distinguished from young of the Ptarmigans by 
naked toes.) Eggs 1.71 X 1-22. Hab. Northern North America, 
east of Eocky Mountains, from northern portions of New England, 
New York, Michigan, and Minnesota to Alaska (reaching coast at 
Kadiak, St. Michael's, etc.). 

298. D. canadensis (Linn.). Canada Grouse. 
5^ Adidt male with tail black to extreme tip (or else tip narrowly mar- 
gined with pui'e white), the upper tail-coverts broadly tipped with 
pure white. Adult female with tail-feathers narrowly white at tips. 
Eggs 1.68 X 1-24. Hab. Northern Eocky Mountains (chiefly north 
of the United States), and west to the coast ranges. 

299. D. franklinii (Dougl.). Franklin's Grouse. 



BONASA. 



197 



Genus BONASA Stephens. (Page 186, pi. LYIII., %. 1.) 

Species. 

Adult male : Above varied with black and different shades of brown or gray, 
the scapulars and wing-coverts with mesial streaks of buff or whitish, the rump and 
upper tail-coverts with cordate or oval spots of pale grayish or dull buffy ; tail gray 
or rust}", with several narrow, irreguUxr bands of a paler shade, each immediately 
preceded by a narrower zigzag blackish bar, and crossed near end by a broad sub- 
terminal band of black or dark brown, succeeded by a nari-ower terminal band of 
mottled light grajnsh, and preceded by a similar band; neck-tufts varying from 
deep black to light rufous, the feathers with glossy terminal margins; throat buffy 
or ochraceous, sometimes varied with dusky ; rest of lower parts mixed white and 
buffy (the latter chiefly beneath the surface), marked with broad bars of brown, 
broadest and darkest on flanks ; lower tail-coverts buffy, broadly tipped with white. 
Adult female : Essentially similar to the male in plumage, but smaller, and with the 
neck-tufts rudimentary or obsolete. Young : Scapulars, wing-coverts, and feathers 
of back pale brownish, marked with large black spots and a broad median stripe of 
buff; secondaries, including tertials, finely mottled pale bi-own, rather indistinctly 
barred, at rather wide intervals, with paler buffy brownish, each bar of this color 
immediately preceded by a narrower one of dusky, the outer webs of the tertials 
spotted along the edge with black ; quills dull grayish, irregularly, somewhat ser- 
rately, edged with dull buffy ; head buffy (chin and throat almost white), spotted 
on top with black, the ear-coverts dusky, streaked with pale buffy or dull whitish ; 
chest ochraceous-buff, gradually fading into white on breast and other lower parts, 
all the feathers of chest and breast spotted on edges with blackish, producing a 
coarsely and irregularly striped appearance ; sides and flanks marked with larger 
spots of black ; tail-feathers mottled grayish, more or less tinged with rusty, and 
crossed by several broad blackish bars separated by narrower grayish ones. Downy 
young : Above chestnut-bufl", deepening into pale chestnut on occiput, fore-part of 
wings, lower back, and rump ; rest of plumage very pale buff, deeper on sides of 
head, which are marked with a conspicuous black stripe commencing at posterior 
corner of eye and extending across ear-coverts. Length 15.50-19.00, wing 7.00-7.50, 
tail 5.50-7.00. JVest on ground in woods. J^ggs 6-10 or more, buffy, usually plain, 
but sometimes slightly speckled with brown. 

a^. Paler, with brown markings on lower parts rather indistinct (except on flanks), 
and more or less concealed on breast and belly by broad whitish tips to the 
feathers, these brown markings usually without distinct darker edges ; bars 
on flanks usually clear hair-brown. 
h^. Upper parts mostly or entirely rusty, the tail usually rusty ochraceous. 
^ggs 1.58 X 1-18. Sab. Eastern United States, west to edge of Great 
Plains (?), north to Massachusetts (lowlands), south to Georgia (up- 
lands), Tennessee, Arkansas, etc. 

300. B. umbellus (Linn.). Ruffed Grouse. 



198 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

b^. Upper parts mostly or entii'ely grayish, the tail always gray. Eggs 1.59 X 
1.15. Hab. Eocky Mountains and northward to Alaska (Yukon Valley), 
east to Manitoba. 

300^. B. umbellus umbelloides (Dougl.). Gray EufFed Grouse. 
a^ Darker, with brown markings on lower parts very conspicuous, everywhere ex- 
posed, and bordered by very distinct dusky bars ; bars on flanks very dark 
brown, or brownish black, 
¥. Upper parts with more or less of gray, often mostly grayish, the tail usually 
gray (sometimes tinged with ochraceous). JIab. Eastern Oregon and 
Washington Territory, east to Moose Factory, Nova Scotia, Maine, etc., 
southward on mountains of New England, New York, etc. 

300a. B. umbellus togata (Linn.). Canadian Ruffed Grouse. 
P. Upper parts dark rusty, with little if any admixture of gray, the tail usu- 
ally deep rusty (very rarely grayish). JEggs 1.64 X 1-20. Hab. North- 
west coast, from northern California to British Columbia. 

300c. B. umbellus sabini (Dougl.). Oregon Ruffed Grouse. 

Genus LAGOPUS Brisson. (Page 185, pi. LYIII., fig. 2.) 

Species. 

Common Characters. — Winter plumage pure white, the tail black in most 
species, and sometimes the lores black also. Summer plumage with upper parts 
(except part of wings) and chest varied with brown, buffy, or graj-ish and black. 
Nest on ground in open situations. Eggs about 10-16, more or less heavily spotted 
or marbled with dark brown or black on a buffy or light rust}^ ground. 

a\ Tail black. 

b\ Bill stout (depth at base .40 or more) ; length 14.00-17.00, wing about 7.00- 
7.50, bill, from nostril, .40-.42, depth at base, .40-.45 ; winter plumage 
never with black on head. 
c^. Shafts of secondaries white. 

Male in spring : Head and neck rich chestnut, usually becoming 
darker below (sometimes quite blackish) ; rest of plumage 
"white, the back, scapulars, and rump interspersed with feathers 
of deep brown or rusty, barred with dusky. Male in summer : 
Head, neck, and lower parts (except middle of belly, anal 
region, and legs) deep cinnamon-rufous, uniform on throat, 
fore-neck, and chest, barred with black on sides, flanks, and 
under tail-coverts, tinged with slaty on upper belly ; quills and 
outermost wing-coverts white ; rest of upper pai'ts (contanu- 
ously) irregularly barred with tawny brown and black, most 
of the feathers indistinctly tipped with whitish. Female in 
summer : Above coarsel}' and irregularly barred and spotted 
■with black and ochraceous or buffy (the former rather predomi- 
nating), many of the feathers margined terminally with white ; 



LAGOPVS. 199 

quills, secondaries, and outermost wing-coverts white ; lower 
parts varying from ochraceous to buffy whitish, coarsely and 
irregularly barred with black. Young : Above coai'sely and 
irregularly varied with black and ochraceous-buff, the latter 
mostly on or near margins of feathers ; chest, breast, and sides 
ochraceous-buff, coarsely barred with black ; other lower parts 
dull white. Downy young : General color olive-buff, tinged with 
sulphur-yellow on lower parts, and with rusty on chest and 
upper parts ; crown chestnut, bordei*ed all round by a black 
line, which is continued from occiput down hind-neck in a 
broad stripe ; two more or less distinct blackish stripes on 
rump, and other upper parts irregularly varied, more or less, 
with black ; a black streak on side of head (most distinct and 
continuous behind eye). Eggs 1.74 X 1-22, ground-color varying 
from pale buffy to deep brown, more or less speckled, sprinkled, 
spotted, or marbled with rich brown or black. Hob. l^orthern 
portions of northern hemisphere; south, in winter, in America, 
to Sitka, northern New York, etc. 

301. L, lagopus (Linn.). Willow Ptarmigan, 
c'. Shafts of secondaries black, and quills (sometimes a few of the wing- 
coverts also) more or less blotched or mottled with dusky. (Sum- 
mer plumages and young unknown.) Hah. Newfoundland. 

301a. L#. lagopus alleni Stejn. Allen's Ptarmigan. 
h^. Bill small and slender (depth at base less than .40) ; length 13.00-14.75, 
wing about 7.00-7.50, bill from nostril about .35, depth at base about 
.27-.35 ; winter plumage with lores deep black in male (sometimes in 
female also). 
c\ Summer males with upper parts coarsely vermiculated, the back and 
scapulars with large black blotches (occupying central portions of 
feathers). 
fZ'. Ground-color of upper parts in summer males grayish brown. 

e^. Summer male : Above graj^^ish brown coarsely vermiculated 
with black, the vermiculations having a general tendency 
to form irregular zigzag bars ; scapulars and interscapulars 
largely black centrally, producing large blotches or irregu- 
' lar spots ; outermost wing-coverts, quills, and secondaries 

(except tertials) white ; top of head blackish, the feathers 
tipped with light brownish ; lores black ; rest of head 
mixed dusky and white, the latter predominating on 
cheeks, chin, and throat ; chest and upper breast regularly 
barred with blackish and light umber-brown ; sides simi- 
larly marked, but bars finer and more confused ; rest of 
lower parts white, the lower tail-coverts with concealed 
portion dusky, or sooty slate. Summer female : Bright 
ochraceous, irregularly sjDOtted and barred above with 



200 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

black, beneath more reg-ularly and distantly barred with 
the same ; quills, secondaries, and bend of wing white. 
Fall plumage : Ground-color of upper parts pale brownish, 
mixed with grayish, very minutely freckled and more 
coarsely vermiculated with dusky, the latter having a ten- 
dency to form irregular spots and coarser bars on back and 
scapulars ; outermost wing-coverts, quills, and secondaries 
white ; head and neck more fulvous and more distinctly 
barred with dusky ; chest, upper breast, sides, and flanks 
colored and marked much like upper parts, but vermicula- 
tions more regular (forming distinct bars anteriorl}'), and 
black spots wholly wanting. Eggs 1.69 X 1-17, not with 
certainty distinguishable from) those of L. lagopiis, 'but 
usually less heavily spotted, or less densely speckled, the 
general aspect averaging lighter in color. Hab. Arctic 
America in general, except northern extremity of penin- 
sula of Labrador and region thence northward, Greenland, 
- and the Aleutian Islands ; southeastw^ard to Gulf of St. 
Lawrence (Anticosti). 

302. L. rupestris (Gmel.). Rock Ptarmigan. 
e^. Summer male : Similar to corresponding stage of L. rupestris, 
but less regularly and coarsely barred above. Summer fe- 
male : Above chiefl}^ black, this varied irregularly with 
pale grayish bufl", mostly in form of borders to the feathers 
and spots along their edges, or, occasionally, imjierfect 
bars, these latter most distinct on wings, where the two 
colors are in about equal proportion ; lower parts light 
grayish buff, everywhere coarsely barred with black. 
Young : Above light brown, irregularly barred and 
coarsely blotched with black, this prevailing on back, 
scapulars, and tertials ; chest, breast, sides, and flanks 
with ground-color more buffy, this more regularly and 
coarsely barred with black ; rest of lower parts dull white. 
Downy young : Similar to same stage of i. kigopus, and 
perhaps not alwa3'S distinguishable with certainty, but 
usually darker, with less of rusty tinge above, chestnut of 
crown darker, sides of head more strongly tinged wath 
olive-grayish, black markings behind eye broader, and 
usually a black streak or spot under eye, which is appar- 
ently wanting in .L. lagopus. Eggs 1.65 X 1-17, similar in 
color to those of JJ. rupestris. Hab. Greenland, islands 
on western side of Cumberland Gulf, and northern ex- 
tremity of Labrador (Ungava) 302c7. L. rupestris 

reinhardti (Brehm). Greenland Ptarmigan. 
d}. Ground-color of upper parts in summer male dark brownish gray. 



LAGOPUS. 201 

Summer male : Above dark brownish gray, vermiculated aud 
coarsely spotted with b]aclj:,''many of the feathers tipped 
with white ; chest, upper breast, and sides simiUir, but 
without the black central blotches to the feathers ; head 
and neck more coarsely barred with black, gra3'ish white, 
and pale grayish buff", the lores entirely black ; throat, 
wings (except tertials, etc.), belly, and lower breast white ; 
under tail-coverts dusky grayish, tipped with white. /Sum- 
mer female : More coarsely barred with black and grayish 
white, mixed with bulf, the light bars on chest and under 
tail-coverts more ochraceous. Hab. Newfoundland. 

303. L. welchi Brewst. Welch's Ptarmigan. 

c^ Summer males with upper parts very finely and densely vermiculated, 

the back and scapulars usually without black spots or blotches 

(never with these very conspicuous?). 

(P. Summer male: Ground-color of upper j»arts deep umber-brown; 

chest barred with bright tawny brown aud black, the lower 

portion frequently interspersed with uniform blackish feathers. 

Summer female : Not obviously different from the same sex of 

L. rupestris. Hab. Island of Unalashka. Aleutian chain. 

302^. L. rupestris nelsoni Stejn. Nelson's Ptarmigan. 
d^. Summer male : Ground-color of upper parts pale raw-umber brown, 
mixed with pale grayish ; chest and neck bai'red with pale 
brownish ochre and black, the lower portion of the former 
without admixture of dusky feathers. Summer female : 
Ground-color of upper pai-ts ochraceous, mixed with pale 
grayish buff, nari-owly and irregularly barred with black 
(but with very little of black spotting), many of the feathers 
tipped with white ; sides and flanks similar, but more regularly 
barred, and without traces of spots ; chest and neck coarsely 
barred with ochraceous and black. Hab. Island of Atkha, 

Aleutian chain 302c. L. rupestris atkhensis (Turner). 

Turner's Ptarmigan. 
Tail white. 

Summer male: Above pale fulvous or dull grayish buff, coarsely ver- 
miculated, barred, and irregularly spotted with black ; chest, upper 
breast, sides, and flanks very heavily spotted (transversely) and 
barred with black on a whitish ground, usually more or less mixed 
with feathers having a pale fulvous ground and more narrowly 
barred with black. Summer female : Similar to male, but usually 
more buffy(?). Fall male : Ground-color of upper parts pale fulvous 
or tawny, mixed with grayish, finely freckled, vermiculated, and 
irregularly barred with black, occasional feathers showing large 
irregular spots of the latter color; middle tail-feathers partly or 
entirely fulvous, finel}' freckled and vermiculated with dusky ; 
26 



202 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

head and neck more coarsely and regularly barred ; chest, breast, 
sides, and flanks nearly like uj)per parts. Fall female : Similar to 
male, but more ochraceous, with heavier black markings (?). 
Young : Above light brownish gray, or grayish brown, densely 
vermiculated with black, and with scattered irregular large spots 
of the same ; two outer quills partly white, four innermost ones 
entirely white, the rest dull grayish ; tail-feathers mottled brownish, 
like back ; anterior and lateral lower parts dull butfy, irregularly 
barred, vermiculated, and spotted with black ; rest of lower parts 
plain dull grayish buffy white. Length 12.00-13.00, wing 6.50-6.70. 
Eggs 1.68 X 1-15, cream-color or buff, speckled with dark brown and 
black. Hab. Alpine summits of Eocky Mountains, south to New 
Mexico, north into British America (as far as Fort Ilalkett, Liai'd's 
Eiver), west to higher ranges of Oregon, Washington Territory, 
and British Columbia. 

304. L. leucurus Swains. White-tailed Ptarmigan. 

Genus TYMPANUCHUS Gloger. (Page 185, pi. LIX., fig. 1.) 

Species. 

Common Characters. — Above brownish, barred (sometimes spotted also) with 
dusky and buff; beneath white broadly barred or banded with brown ; quills 
brownish gray, their outer webs spotted with buff or whitish ; chin, throat, and 
cheeks buff, the last marked with a cluster of brown or dusky spots ; a dark brown 
stripe on side of head, from corner of mouth beneath eye and across upper part of 
ear-coverts ; above this a buff stripe, interrupted above the eye. Adult male : Sides 
of neck with an erectile tuft of rather stiff elongated feathers, the longest of which 
are 2.50 or more in length ; tail-feathers without bars or other markings, except the 
narrow whitish tip. Adult female : Neck-tufts rudimentary, the longest feathers 
not more (usually much less) than 2.00 in length ; tail-feathers with numerous 
distinct bars of light brown or buffy. IVest on ground in meadows or other open 
situations. Eggs 8-12, or more, light drab, olive, or dull buffy, usually plain, but 
sometimes slightly speckled with dai'ker. 

a^ Darker bars of back and rump single, very broad, solid black ; brown bars on 
sides and flanks .30 or more wide, unicolored ; wing more than 8.50 in 
adult male, usuall}" much more than 8.00 in adult female. 
b^. Scapulars without conspicuous whitish terminal spots ; neck-tufts of male 
composed of more than ten parallel-edged feathers, with obtusely 
rounded or, sometimes, nearly truncated tips. Young : Above, includ- 
ing tail, light brownish, the feathers with conspicuous mesial streaks 
of white and large blotches of black ; outer webs of quills spotted with 
whitish ; top of head rusty brownish, with a median black patch or 
stripe ; a dusky patch on ear-coverts ; lower parts buffy whitish, with 
rather irregular broad bai's of grayish brown, these breaking up ante- 



PEDIOCjETES. 203 

riorly into spots ; chest tinged with bi'ownish. Doimiy young : Bright 
buff-yellow, tinged with lemon-yellow, washed on chest and sides with 
pale rusty; a nai'row streak behind eye, several irregular spots on crown 
and occiput, stripe across shoulder, and longitudinal blotches down back 
and rump, black. Male: Length about 18.00-19.00, wing 8.60-9.40 
(9.04), tail 4.00-4.30 (4.16). Female : Length about 17.50, wing 8.60-8.75 
(8.65), tail 3.60-4.00 (3.80). Eggs 1.66 X 1-24. Hab. Prairies of Mis- 
sissippi Valley, south to Louisiana and Texas, west to middle Kansas, 
Nebraska, and Dakota, north to Wisconsin, east to Indiana and Kentucky. 

305. T. americanus (Eeich.). Prairie Hen. 
If. Scapulars with large and very conspicuous terminal spots of buffy whitish ; 
neck-tufts of adult male composed of not more than ten lanceolate, 
pointed feathers. Male : Wing 8.60, tail 4.00. Female : Wing 8.00, tail 
3.90. Hah. Island of Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts. (Formerly, 
also Long Island, New Jersey, eastern Pennsylvania, Virginia, etc., but 
now apparently extinct except on Martha's Vineyard, and there in 

danger of extermination.) 306. T. cupido (Linn.). Heath Hen. 

a^. Darker bars of back and rump treble, consisting of a perfectly continuous brown 
bar enclosed between two nai'rower black bars ; darker bars of sides and flanks 
,25, or less, wide, bicolored, the broader light brown bar being enclosed be- 
tween two narrower dusky ones ; wing less than 8.50 in adult male, usually 
much less than 8.00 in adult female. 

Neck-tufts of adult male with feathers broad and rounded at tips, as in 
T. americanus. Male: Wing 8.20-8.30, tail 4.00-4.20. Female: Wing 
8.00-8.20, tail 3.50-4.00. Hah. Eastern border of Great Plains, from 
Nebraska (?), southwestern Kansas, southwestern Missouri (?), and 
western part of Indian Territory to Avestern Texas. 

307. T. pallidicinctus Eidgw. Lesser Prairie Hen. 

Genus PEDIOC-^TES Baird. (Page 185, pi. LIX., fig. 2.) 

Species. 

Common Characters. — Adult male : Above varied with irregular spotting and 
barring of black and brownish ; wing-coverts with large roundish white spots, and 
scapulars streaked medially with same ; outer webs of quills spotted with white ; 
beneath white, varied with mostly V-shaped marks of dusky, chiefly on anterior 
and lateral portions. Adult female : Similar to male, but somewhat smaller, and 
with middle tail-feathers shorter. Young : Above brownish, spotted and barred 
with black and conspicuously streaked with white ; outer webs of quills spotted 
with white ; lower parts dull whitish, the chest, breast, sides, and flanks spotted 
with dusky. Downy young : Bright buffy yellow, the upper parts tinged with light 
rusty and coarsely marbled with black ; a small black spot on middle of crown, 
and several larger black markings on occiput and hind-neck, but fore-part of head, 
all round, immaculate. Length 15.00-19.00, wing 8.50-9.00, tail 4.00-5.50. Nest 



204 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

on ground in open situations. Eggs about 6-12, or more, varying from olive-buffy 
to deep brown, often plain, but usually more or less speckled with dark brown. 

a}. Very dark-colored, with black or dusky largely predominating on upper parts, the 
Avhite scapular streaks and wing-spots showing in strong relief; feathering on 
legs deep brownish gray. Eggs 1.12 y^\.24,. Hah. Interior of British Amei-ica, 
north to Fort Simpson, Fort Eesolution, and Great Slave Lake, south to 
Moose Factory, Temiscamingue, Lake Winnipeg, and northern shore of Lake 

Superior 308. P. phasianellus (Linn.). Sharp-tailed Grouse. 

a~. Lighter colored, the general color of upper parts buffy grayish or light brownish 

of various shades, always predominating over black markings, the white 

markings on scapulars and wings not conspicuously contrasted with the 

general color ; feathering of feet pale brownish gray. 

}?. Ground-color above buify grayish or pale grajish clay-color, with little if 

any rusty tinge. Eggs 1.70 X 1-23. Hah. Northwestern United States, 

south to northern California, Nevada, and Utah, east to western edge 

of Great Plains in Montana, north, chiefly west of Eocky Mountains (?) to 

Fort Yukon, Alaska 308a. P. phasianellus columbianus (Ord). 

Columbian Sharp-tailed Grouse. 

VK Ground-color above more rusty or ochraceous. Eggs 1.66 X 1-23. Hah. 

Great Plains of United States, north to Manitoba (?), east to Wisconsin 

and northern Illinois, west to eastern Colorado, south to eastern New 

Mexico 3086. P. phasianellus campestris Eidgw. 

Prairie Sharp-tailed Grouse. 

Genus CENTROCERCUS Swainson. (Page 185, pi. LX., fig. 1.) 

Species. 

Achdt male : Above mixed grayish and buff}^, very irregularly varied with 
black, the tertials bordered terminally with white, and some of the feathers (especi- 
ally wing-coverts) having mesial streaks of the same ; quills brownish gray, some- 
times mottled along edges with paler ; cheeks, chin, and throat spotted black and 
white, the former usually predominating (sometimes uniform on first) — this blackish 
area bordered behind by a more or less distinct white crescent, the extremities of 
which reach upward to the eyes ; fore-neck black, the feathers sometimes bordered 
or edged with grayish white ; below this (on chest) dull grayish or whitish, the 
feathers with very stiff, wiry black shafts; belly uniform black, the surrounding 
portions chiefly white ; lower tail-coverts black, broadly tipped with white ; length 
about 26.00-30.00, wing 12.00-13.00, tail 11.00-13.00, weight 4i to 8 lbs. Adult fe- 
male : Similar to male, but much smaller, the chin and throat entirely white, black 
patch on fore-neck replaced by speckled grayish, etc. ; length 21.50-23.00, wing 
about 10.50-11.00, tail 8.00-9.00. Young : Somewhat like adult female, but much 
browner above, black abdominal area indistinct, and markings of lower parts gen- 
erally less distinctly defined. Downy young : Above brownish gray, coarsel^^ and 
irregularly marbled with black, these markings most conspicuous on head. JSfest on 



PHASIANUS. 205 



ground. Eggs 6-15, 2.19 X 1-48, varying from pale olive-buff to light olive-greenish, 
speckled, sprinkled, or spotted with deep brown. Hah. Artemisia or " sage-brush" 
plains of the Eocky Mountain plateau, north into British America, south to New 
Mexico, Utah, and Nevada 309. C. urophasianus (Bonap.). Sage Grouse. 



Family PHASIANID2E. — The Pheasants, Turkeys, etc. (Page 184.) 

Genera. 

a^. Head feathered, except sometimes on sides (around eyes) ; tail lengthened, 
gradviated, and vaulted, the feathers usually tapering to a point; plumage 
of sexes entirely different, the female much smaller than the male, and with- 
out brilliant coloring. (Subfamily Phasianince.)... Phasianus. (Page 205.) 

«^ Head naked, the skin wrinkled and warted, the forehead with more or less con- 
spicuous extensile appendage (smaller in females) ; tail moderately length- 
ened, rounded, not vaulted, the feathers broad and nearly truncated at tips ; 
plumage of sexes essentially alike, but females duller in color than males. 
(SuMamily Meleagrince.) Meleagris. (Page 206.) 

Genus PHASIANUS Linn^us.^ (Page 205.) 

Species. 

Common Characters. — Form elegant, carriage graceful, and plumage hand- 
some (that of the male exquisite). Adult males : Adorned with rich metallic colors, 
variegated by handsome markings or pencillings. Adult females : Brownish, more 
or less mottled, spotted, and otherwise varied with dusky, the lower parts, however, 
chiefly plain buffy brownish. 

a'. Adult males with neck metallic greenish or bluish ; sides of occiput with a more 
or less conspicuous tuft of elongated feathers. Adult females with all the 
tail-feathers barred, for their whole length, with blackish and whitish on a 
mottled brownish ground. 
I?-, Adult males with breast (sometimes sides and flanks also) rich coppery chest- 
nut, with metallic purple and coppery reflections. 
&. Adult male without white on neck ; length about 2\ feet, wing 9.50-10.50 
inches, tail 17.50-20.00. Adult female : Length about 20.00-24.00, 
wing 8.50, tail 11.00-12.00. Young male : Similar to adult female. 
Downy young : " Sides of head, throat, and under parts, yellowish 
white; forehead dull rusty yellowish, with a dark brown central 
stripe, which broadens towards the nape ; behind the ear is a black 
spot ; upper parts generally yellowish, variegated with rusty red 
and brown, and with blackish brown stripes." (Dresser.) Hah. 

1 Phaaianm LiNN., S. N. ed. 10, i. 1758, 158. Type, P. colchicua Linn. 



206 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

Europe in general, except colder portions ; introduced into (and 
naturalized in ?) eastern United States. (Introduced into Europe 

from western Asia.) 

p. colchicus Linn. Pheasant.^ 

cl Adult male with white collar round neck, much narrower (sometimes 

interrupted) before and behind; otherwise closely resembling P. 

colchicus. Hab. China. (Introduced into and partially naturalized 

in western Oregon?) 

P. torquatus Gmel. Ring-necked Pheasant.^ 
Ir. Adult male with breast, sides, and flanks rich dark green. 

Length about 24.00-27.00, wing 9.60, tail 16.00. Adult female very similar 
to same sex of P. colchicus and P. torquatus, but tail more numerously 
bai-red and with more reddish or purplish ground-color ; length about 
20.00, wing 8.25, tail 10.50. Hah. Japan ; introduced into and naturalized 
in western Oregon. 

P. versicolor Vieill. Green Pheasant.^ 

a^. Adult male with neck rich chestnut, with co^Dpery red and purplish reflections; 

sides of occiput without tufts. Adxdt female with tail (except four middle 

feathers) uniform chestnut, tipped with white, this immediately preceded by 

a subterminal black bar. 

Adult male : General color chestnut and rufous, glossed with coppery red 
and purplish, the rump broadly streaked with white ; tail light rufous, 
crossed at wide intervals by broad bands of deep chestnut, each of these 
preceded by a black bar, this again by mottled whitish ; length about 
36.00, wing 9.00, tail 28.00. Female: Length about 18.00-20.00, wing 
8.25, tail 8.50. Hah. Japan ; introduced into and naturalized in western 

Oregon. 

P. scemmerringii Temm. Copper Pheasant.* 

Genus MELEAGRIS Linn^us. (Page 205, pi. LXI., fig. 1.) 

Species. 

Common Characters. — Quills slaty, barred with white ; secondaries similar, 
but with more white ; tail brown or gray, barred with black ; plumage in general 
more or less brilliantly metallic. Nest on ground in woods. Eggs 10-18, or more, 
light huffy, thickly (but sometimes indistinctly) speckled or sprinkled with brown. 

a}. Tail and its coverts tipped with chestnut, rusty, or whitish ; ground-color of 
tail brown ; feathers of lower back, rump, and lower parts metallic, tipped 
narrowly with velvety black ; greater wing-coverts dull copper-color, tipped 
with velvety black. Adult males with a conspicuous beard-like tuft of stiff" 

1 PhasianuB colchicus Linn., S. N. ed. 10, 1758, 158. 

* Phasianus torquatus Gmel., S. N. i. 1788, 742. 

3 Phasianus versicolor ViEiLL., Gal. Ois. ii. 1834, 23, pi. 205. 

* Phasianus scemmerringii Temm., PI. Col. v. 1838, 82 livr. pis. 487, 488. 



CRACID^. 207 

coarse black bristles depending from centre of chest, and with leg-spur 

shorter than hind-toe, conical, and blunt. Adult male : Length about 48.00- 

50.00, wing 21.00, tail 18.50, weight 16-40 pounds. Adult female considerably 

smaller (average weight about 12 pounds), the colors duller. 

h^. Tail tipped with deep rust}^, its coverts and feathers of lower rump tipped 

with rich dark chestnut. Eggs 2.55 X 1-79. Hab. Eastern United 

States, north to southern Canada, south to Florida and eastern Texas, 

west to edge of Great Plains. 

310. M. gallopavo (Linn.). Wild Turkey. 

6^ Tail, tail-coverts, and feathers of lower rump tipped with buffy whitish. 

Eggs 2.35 X 1-79. Hah. Table-lands of Mexico, and north to southern 

border of United States (western Texas to Arizona) ; south to Vera 

Cruz (temperate region). 

310a. M. gallopavo mexicana (Gould). Mexican Turkey. 
Tail and its coverts tipped with intensely brilliant metallic copper-bronze; 
ground-color of tail ash-gray ; feathers of lower back and rump rich steel- 
blue, those of lower pai'ts bronzy black — all tipped with intensely rich metallic 
golden and coppery bronze ; greater wnng-coverts brilliantly metallic copper- 
bronze, without black tips. Adult male without beard-like tuft on chest, and 
with leg-spur longer (in older birds much longer) than hind-toe, thorn-shaped 
and very sharp. Size considerably less than in the more northern species. 
Sab. Yucatan and adjacent portions of Honduras (and Guatemala?). 

M. ocellata Temm. Ocellated Turkey.' 



Family CRACID^. — The Curassows and Guans. (Pago 184.) 

Genera. 

Cere wholly naked, the nostrils exposed ; tarsi entirely naked. (Subfamily 

Cracinm.) 
¥. Bill very stout, its depth through base equal to or greater than chord of 
culmen, the top of the cere elevated, distinctly arched; feathers of crest 
recurved at tips ; throat mostly feathered. (Very large : length 2^ to 3 

feet.) .. Crax.^ 

h^. Bill much weaker, its depth through base less than chord of culmen, the top 
of cere not distinctly elevated nor arched ; feathers of crest (if any) not 
recurved at tip ; throat naked, except a median narrow strip. 
&. Larger (length about 2i to 3 feet) ; throat with a more or less distinct 
median " dewlap." 
cP. Sexes alike in color, brownish above, striped with whitish be- 
neath Penelope.^ 

1 Meleagris ocellata Temm., PI. Col. livr. 19, 1838, pi. 112. 

2 Crax Linn., S. N. ed. 10, i. 1758, 157. Type, C. rubra Linn., = C. glohicera Linn, ct AncT. 

3 Penelope Merrem, Aves Icon, et Descr. ii. 1786, 40. Type, Meleagris cristata Linn. 



208 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

d}. Sexes unlike in color ; male uniform black, female black, vermicu- 

lated or irregularly barred with rufous Penelopina} 

c\ Smaller (length less than 2 feet) ; throat Avithout median " dewlap" ; plu- 
mage plain, the tail with whitish or rufous tip. Ortalis. (Page 208.) 
rt^. Cere densely covered with erect velvet-like feathers, concealing the nostrils ; 
upper part of tarsi feathered in front and on sides. (Subfamily Oreophasinoi.) 
Male with a tubercular vertical hoi-n on top of head Oreophasis? 

Genus ORTALIS Merkem. (Page 208, pi. LXI., fig. 2.) 

Species. 

Common Characters (of Mexican and Central American species). — Above plain 
olive-brownish or olive-grayish, the tail darker- and with a distinct greenish or 
bluish gloss; anterior lower parts colored like upper surface, the rest of lower parts 
different (chestnut-rufous, light brownish, or dull whitish). 

rt^ Head with a conspicuous crest, the anterior feathers of which incline forward, 
over base of bill ; posterior lower parts and tips of tail-feathers chestnut- 
rufous; length about 2 feet (or more), wing 9.50-10.50, tail 11.00-12.00. 
Hah. Western Mexico, north to Mazatlan. 

O. wagleri Gray. Wagler's Chachalaca.' 
fl'l Head not conspicuously crested, all the feathers reclining backward ; posterior 
lower parts and tijjs of tail-feathers pale brownish, light ochraceous, or 
whitish. 
h^. Quills olive, or olive-grayish. 

c\ Wing not more than 8.50 ; feathers of neck blended ; under tail-coverts 
isabella-color, or buffy brownish ; tip of tail varying from isabella- 
color to white. 
d^. Belly dull light brownish. 
e\ Tip of tail white. 

p. Belly pure white ; length about 16.50, wing 7.30, tail 8.00. 
Hah. West coast of Guatemala and Nicaragua. 

O. leucogastra (Gould). White-bellied Chachalaca.* 
p. Belly dull fulvous-brown, or isabella-color. Adult: Above 
plain grayish olive, faintly glossed with bronzy green- 
ish, more dull slaty on head and neck ; tail dusky bronzy 
greenish, changing to dull bluish, broadly tipped with 
white, except middle feathers ; middle line of throat 
blackish ; lower parts generally dull brownish, some- 
what paler on middle of belly, but deepening into more 
decided, or more fulvous, brownish on flanks and under 

1 Penelopina Reich., Tauben. 1862, 152. Type, Penelope nigra Fras. 
^ Oreophasia Gray, Gen. B. iii. 1844, 485. Type, 0. derhianus Gray. 
3 Ortalida wagleri Gray, List Gallin. Brit. Mus. 1867, 11. 

^Penelope leucorjaater Gould, P. Z. S. 1843, 105. Ortalida leucogastra Gray, List Gallin. Brit. Mus. 
1867, 13. 



ORTALIS. 209 

tail-coverts; length 19.75-24.00, wing 7.50-8.50, tail 
9.00-10.50. Nest in trees or bushes, usually 4-10 feet 
from ground, carelessly constructed of sticks, grasses, 
leaves, etc. Eggs usually 3, 2.34 X 1-60, creamy white, 
with very hard, distinctly granulated shells. Hah. 
Northeastern Mexico, from Vera Cruz north to lower 
Eio Grande Yalley (both sides). 

311. O. vetula maccalli (Baird). Chachalaca.^ 

el Tip of tail dull buify brown, or isabella-color; colors generally 

darker than in maccalli, and size decidedly less (length 

about 21.00, wing 7.70, tail 9.00). Hah. Guatemala and 

southern Mexico (Isthmus of Tehuantepec). 

O. vetula plumbeiceps Gray. Guatemalan Chachalaca.^ 
d\ Belly dull whitish. 

Tip of tail brownish white ; otherwise like maccalli, but 
smaller (size of plumheiceps). Hah. Yucatan. 

O. vetula pallidiventris Kidgw. (subsp. nov.). 
Yucatan Chachalaca. 
c'. "Wing 9.00, or more ; feathers of neck distinctly lanceolate ; under tail- 
coverts deep ochraceous, tip of tail pale ochraceous. 

O. poliocephala Wagl. Gray-necked Chachalaca.^ 
61 Quills chestnut. 

Otherwise very similar to 0. plumbeiceps, but much browner above. 

O. cinereiceps Gray. Costa Rican Chachalaca.* 

lit is possible that this may be the true 0. vetula of Wagler {Penelope vetula Wagl., Isis, 1830, 1112), 
which seems to agree exactly in color with 0. maccalli ; but the size is much smaller, the length being given 
as 18 inches, the tail 9.70. The locality is given as simply " Mexico," and it may be that a fourth local race, to 
which Wagler's name is strictly applicable, may exist in some portion of Mexico specimens from which have 
not come under my observation. 

2 Ortalida plnmheieeps Gray, List Gallin. Brit. Mus. 1867, 11. 

^ Penelope 2'>olioce2)liala Wagl., Isis, 1830, 1112. Orialida poliocephala Wagl., Isis, 1832, 1227. 

* Ortalida cinereiceps Gray, List Gallin. Brit. Mus. 1867, 12. 



27 



210 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

Order COLUMB-/E. — The Pigeons. (Page 2.) 

Families. 

(Characters same as those given for the Order) .. Columbidae. (Page 210.) 

Family COLUMBID^.— The Pigeons or Doves. (Page 210.) 

(Nest a flat frail platform of sticks, straws, etc., usually in trees. Eggs 2, plain 
white or buflPy white.) 

Genera. 

a}. Tarsus shorter than lateral toes, (Subfamily Columbince.) 

6^ Tail much shorter than wing, slightly rounded, the feathers broad and 

rounded, or nearly truncated, at tips Columba. (Page 211.) 

6". Tail nearly as long as wing, graduated, the feathers narrow and pointed at 

tips Ectopistes. (Page 212.) 

a^ Tarsus longer than lateral toes. (Subfamily Zenaidinai.') 
b^. Front of tarsus covered by transverse seutellse. 
c\ Wing more than 5.00. 

d}. Terminal portion of outer quill abruptly narrowed. 

Engyptila. (Page 214.) 
d"^. Terminal portion of outer quill not narrowed. 

e\ Outer webs of only second and third quills very slightly sinu- 
ated (sinuatlon scarcely perceptible). 
/^ Tail-feathers 12 ; tail rounded, less than three-fourths as 
long as wing, the feathers broad and rounded at tips. 
g^. Culmen longer than lateral toes, without claws ; tail 
nearly three-fourths as long as wing ; a white 
patch covering larger wing-coverts. 

Melopelia. (Page 214.) 
^^ Culmen shorter than lateral toes, without claws ; tail 
barely more than two-thirds as long as wing ; no 
white patch on wing-coverts. 

Zenaida. (Page 213.) 
/^ Tail-feathers 14 ; tail graduated, usually more than three- 
fourths (always more than two-thirds) as long as 
wing, the feathers more or less narrowed at tips. 

Zenaidura. (Page 212.) 
e^. Outer webs of second to fifth quills, inclusive, distinctl}^ sinu- 
ated ; tail less than two-thirds as long as wing. 

Geotrygon. (Page 216.) 



COLUMBA. 211 

cK Wing less than 4.00. 

dK Tail as long as or longer than wing, lateral feathers gi-aduated and 

narrowed at tips Scardafella. (Page 215.) 

d"^. Tail much shorter than wing, rounded, the feathers broad at ends. 

Columbigallina. (Page 214.) 
h''. Front of tarsus covered with hexagonal scutellse. 

Otherwise like Geotrygon, but tarsi decidedly longer than middle toe, 
with claw Starncenas. (Page 217.) 

Genus COLUMBA Linn^us. (Page 210, pi. LXII., figs. 1, 2.) 

Species. 

a^. Terminal third of tail abruptly lighter in color than the basal portion, the two 
shades (of grayish) separated by a blackish band ; lower tail-coverts white. 
Above plumbeous, browner on back, more bluish on rump, the wlng- 
coverts paler and narrowly edged with white; quills dusky. Adult 
male : A narrow half-collar of white across upper portion of hind-neck, 
the rest of the hind-neck dull metallic bronzy green ; head, fore-neck, 
and lower parts more or less purplish, or glaucous-vinaceous, or violet, 
becoming more pinkish on belly and plumbeous on sides ; bill yellow (in 
life) with black tip. Adult female : Similar to the male, but usually 
much duller in color, the white nuchal bar indistinct or even obsolete, 
the breast grayer, belly whitish, hind neck less metallic, and size rather 
less. Young : Somewhat like adult female, but feathers of upper 
parts narrowly and rather indistinctly margined with paler; head and 
neck dull plumbeous (in male) or light grayish brown (in female), with 
indistinct paler tips to feathers ; no trace of white bar on nape, and 
lower parts dull grayish, tinged with brown on breast. Length 15.00- 
16.00, wing 8.00-8.80, tail 6.00-6.50. Hab. Western United States, from 
Eocky Mountains to the Pacific coast, and south through Mexico to 
highlands of Guatemala 312. C. fasciata Say. Band-tailed Pigeon. 

rt". Tail of a uniform shade throughout; lower tail-coverts slate-gra3^ 

b^. Neck same color all round, and entirely destitute of metallic gloss. Adult 
male : Head, neck, and breast purplish chocolate, or vinaceous-chestnut, 
the lesser and upper middle wing-coverts similar, but brighter, or less 
vinaceous ; back, scapulars, and tertials grayish brown or olivaceous ; 
rest of plumage dark plumbeous or slatj^, clearest on rump and flanks, 
paler on under wing-coverts, darker on tail. Ad^dt female : Similar, but 
rather smaller and color duller. Length 13.75-14.60, wing about 7.50- 
7.80, tail 5.40-5.50. Eggs 1.47 X 1-06. Hab. Mexico and Central Amer- 
ica, south to Costa Eica, north to southern Texas and Lower Califoi'nin. 
313. C. flavirostris Wagl. Red-billed Pigeon. 
6^ Hind-neck ornamented by a " cape" of metallic brassy or bronzy green or 
purplish, each feather distinctly bordered with velvety black. Adult 
(sexes alike): Entire top of head white or pale grayish bufpy; ujjjaer 



212 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

part of hind-neck dark maroon ; rest of plumage uniform dark plumbe- 
■ ous; length 12.00-14.25, wing 7.00-7.80, tail 5.50-5.80. Eggs 1.41 X 1-02. 
Hob. Greater Antilles, Bahamas, and Florida Keys; also, Santa Cruz, 
St. Bartholomew, and coast of Honduras. 

314. C. leucocephala Linn. White-crowned Pigeon. 

Genus ECTOPISTES Swainson. (Page 210, pi. LXIII., fig. 1.) 

Species. 

Tail shading from dusky on middle feathers, through gradually lighter shades 
of gray, to white on outer webs of lateral pair, the inner web of each feather 
(except middle pair) with a transverse blackish spot preceded b}^ one of rufous. 
Adult male : Head, neck, rump, and under wing-coverts uniform plumbeous ; other 
upper parts grayish brown, or drab, the outermost scapulars, innermost wing- 
coverts, and tertials spotted with black; nape and sides of neck glossed with 
changeable metallic reddish purple ; chest and breast deep vinaceous-rufous, pass- 
ing gradually into soft pinkish vinaceous on sides ; belly and under tail-coverts 
white. Adult female : Similar to the male, but head brownish gray, gradually 
j)aler toward throat; chest and breast grayish brown, or drab, gradually changing 
to pale brownish gray on sides ; metallic gloss on neck less distinct ; size some- 
what less. Young : Somewhat like adult female, but wing-coverts and scapulars, 
also feathers of head, neck, and chest narrowly tipped with whitish, producing a 
mottled appearance ; rusty margins to quills more distinct, and bordering their 
tips. Length 15.00-17.25, wing 8.00-8.50, tail 8.20-8.75, the female somewhat 
smaller. Eggs 1.47 X 1-02. Hah. Deciduous forest-region of eastern North 
America, west, casually, to Washington Territory and Nevada ; Cuba. 

315. E. migratorius (Linn.). Passenger Pigeon. 

Genus ZENAIDURA Bonaparte. (Page 210, pi. LXIII., fig. 2.) 

Species. 

Common Characters (of North and Middle American species). — Tail-feathers 
(except middle pair) grayish, paler at tips, and crossed b}^ an irregular subterminal 
band of dusky ; upper parts plain brownish, the tertials, with adjacent wing-cov- 
erts or scapulars, or both, marked with a few roundish, oval, or oblong spots of 
black ; axillars and under wing-coverts bluish gray, or plumbeous. 

a^. Secondaries not tipped with white. 

b^. Lower tail-coverts light creamy buff. Adult male: Occiput light bluish gray, 
with a glaucous "bloom"; rest of head and neck vinaceous-cinnamon, 
paler on throat and forehead, the chin whitish ; sides of neck glossed 
with changeable metallic purple; a spot of blue-black beneath ears; 
chest and breast delicate vinaceous, changing to creamy buff posteriorly, 
paler on lower tail-coverts. Adult female: Similar to the male, but head 
light drab, paler on throat, and whitish on chin, the occiput scarcely 
if at all bluish ; breast light drab, or grayish olive-brown, changing to 



ZENAWA. 



213 



pale buffy on posterior lower parts ; metallic gloss on neck less distinct, 
the black ear-spot smaller and duller. Young : Much duller in color 
than adult female, with the tints more brownish; feathers of upper 
parts, head, neck, and chest, with distinct paler tips or terminal margins ; 
no metallic gloss on neck, or distinct black spot beneath ears. Length 
11.00-13.00, wing 5.70-6.10, tail 5.70-6.50, culmen .50-.55. Nest vari- 
ously situated; Eggs 1.10 X -Si. Hab. AVhole of temperate North Amer- 
ica, north to Canada, southern Maine, etc., south to Panama and West 

Indies 316. Z. macroura (Linn.). Mourning Dove. 

b-. LoAver tail-eovcrts cinnamon-coloi-. Young (adult unknown') : Much darker 
in color than Z. macroura, the entire lower parts, including under tail- 
coverts, uniform deep rusty cinnamon. Wing about 6.00, tail 4.80-5.00, 
culmen .80. Bab. Socorro Island, western Mexico. 

Z. graysoni Lawr. Socorro Dove.^ 
rt^ Outer webs of secondaries broadly tipped with white. 

Adult male (female and young unknoion') : Entire lower parts uniform deep 
vinaceous, somewhat paler on lower tail-coverts. (Plumage exactly that 
of paler-colored specimens of Zenaida amabilis.) Wing 6.00, tail 4.80. 
Hab. Yucatan (Merida). 

Z. yucatanensis Lawr. Yucatan Dove.'^ 

Genus ZENAIDA Bonaparte. (Page 210, pi. LXIII., fig. 3.) 

Species. 

Common Characters. — Above olive-brown or russet, the tertials and adjacent 
wing-coverts or scapulars spotted with black ; head, neck, and breast cinnamon-color, 
relieved by a spot or streak of blue-black beneath ear-coverts and reflections of 
changeable metallic purple on sides of neck; tail-feathers (except middle pair) 
plumbeous or slaty, broadly tipped with a lighter shade of the same, and crossed by 
a subterminal band of black ; outer webs of secondaries broadly tipped with white. 

a\ Under tail-coverts deep cinnamon ; head and neck purplish cinnamon or deep 
vinaceous; length 10.00-11.50, wing 6.00-6.25, tail 4.00^.40. Eggs 1.19 X 
.92. Hab. Florida Keys, Bahamas, Cuba, Jamaica, Porto Eico, Santa Cruz, 
Sombrero, and coast of Yucatan.. 317. Z. zenaida (Bonap.). Zenaida Dove. 

«l Under tail-coverts whitish, usually slightly tinged with vinaceous or grayish ; 
head and neck (especially the latter) cinnamon-rufous ; a little larger than 
Z. zenaida. Hah. Lesser Antilles (St. Bartholomew, St. Vincent, Barbuda, 
Antigua, Guadeloupe, Dominica, Martinique, Grenada, St. Bustatius, etc.). 

Z. castanea (Wagl.). Antillean Dove.' 



^ Zenaidura graysoni Lawr., Ann. Lye. N. Y. 1871, 17. 

2 Zenaidura yucatanensis Lawr., Ann. Lye. N. Y. ix. 1869, 208. (Perhaps a hybrid between Z. macroura 
and Zenaida amabilis.) 

^ Cohtmha castanea Wagl., Syst. Av. 1827, 289, Columba, Sp. 7f. {Z. martinicana Bp, et Auct., but not 
Columba martinica Linn.) 



214 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

Genus ENGYPTILA Sundevall. (Page 210, pi. LXII., fig. 3.) 

Species. 

Adult male : Above plain olive-brownish, the occiput, hind-neck, and sides of 
neck glossed with metallic reddish purple ; top of head bluish gray, fading into 
creamy white on forehead ; rest of head and neck, with lower parts, pale vinaeeous, 
or vinaceous-white, deeper on chest and upper part of breast, the chin, belly, and 
under tail-coverts pure white, the sides tinged with grayish brown or olive; axillars 
and under wing-coverts chestnut-rufous; middle tail-feathers like back, the rest 
slaty black, broadly tipped with white. Adult female: Similar to the male, but 
colors duller, with vinaeeous tints less pronounced, and metallic gloss on hind-neck 
less distinct. Length about 11.50-12.50, wings 6.00-6.50, tail 4.25-4.50. Nest in 
vines or bushes. Eggs 1.17 X -87, dull buify white. Hab. Mexico and Guatemala, 
north to lower Eio Grande Valley in Texas. 

318. E. albifrons (Bonap.). White-fronted Dove. 

Genus MELOPELIA Bonaparte. (Page 210, pi. LXIY., fig. 3.) 

Species. 

Two middle tail-feathers grayish brown, the rest plumbeous or slaty, with the 
terminal fourth white (tinged with gray toward middle feathers), the plumbeous or 
slate of basal portion darker next to the lighter terminal portion ; secondaries 
broadly edged terminally with white ; lai'ger wing-coverts white, producing a large 
white longitudinal patch on wing. Adult male : Above grayish brown or drab, 
grayer on wings, more plumbeous on rump ; head, neck, and chest light brownish 
gray, more or less tinged with pale vinaeeous, the occiput and hind-neck inclining 
to glaucous lilaceous ; sides of neck glossed with metallic golden green changing to 
purple ; a spot of blue-black immediately beneath ear-coverts ; other lower parts 
light pearl-gray, becoming whitish on lower tail-coverts. Adult female : Similar to 
the male, but colors duller, with little if any lilaceous or vinaeeous tinge to chest, 
etc. Young : Similar to adult female, but colors still duller, the feathers of upper 
parts with paler terminal margins, and the chest with a faint rusty tinge. Length 
11.00-12.25, wing 6.30-6.80, tail 4.80-5.25. Nest in bushes or low trees. Eggs 1.17 
X .88, very light creamy buff or buffy white. Hab. Mexico and Central America, 
south to Costa Rica, north to southern border of United States (Texas to Arizona 
and Lower California) ; Cuba ; Jamaica. 

319. M. leucoptera (Linn.). White-winged Dove. 

Genus COLUMBIGALLINA Boie. (Page 211, pi. LXIL, fig. 4.) 

Species. 

Common Characters. — Adult males with top of head bluish gray, or tinged with 
this color; rest of upper parts plain grayish "brown or chestnut, the uppermost wing- 
coverts (sometimes scapulars also) more or less marked with steel-blue or black ; 



COL UMBIGALLINA. 215 

inner webs of quills rufous ; tail (except middle feathers) blackish ; lower parts 
chiefly vinaceous. Adult females much duller, the lower parts dull light vinaceous- 
grayish, or light brownish. 

rt\ Axillars and under wing-coverts chestnut-rufous. 

Adult male : Head, neck, and lower parts pinkish vinaceous, the feathers 
of the breast dusky grayish brown centrally, and those of head and neck 
margined with a darker shade of the ground-color; occij^ut and nape 
bluish gray, or glaucous ; upper parts in general plain grayish brown, 
the innermost wing-coverts (which are often vinaceous, like lower 
parts) marked with small spots of dark metallic violet. Adult female : 
Similar to male, but colors much duller, the vinaceous replaced b}'- light 
brownish gray (sometimes slightly vinaceous). Young : Somewhat like 
adult female, but still duller, or more grayish, the feathers, especially of 
upper parts, nai'rowly margined terrainall}^ with whitish. Length 6.00- 
7.00, wing 3.10-3.60, tail 2.60-2.80, exposed culmen .41-48, tarsus .60- 
.66. Eggs .84 X -64. Hah. Whole of Middle America, West Indies, and 
northern South America ; north to southern Atlantic and Gulf States 
(casually to District of Columbia), Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, and 
Lower California 320. C. passerina (Linn.). Ground Dove. 

a^. Axillars and most of under wing-coverts black. 

Adult male: Above vinaceous-chestnut, becoming bluish gray on top of 
head, and light vinaceous on forehead ; lower parts plain deep vinaceous, 
paler on chin. Adult female : Above dull brownish, sometimes tinged 
with rusty; lower parts plain grayish brown, or brownish gray. Wing 
about 3.50-3.70. Hah. Middle America and northern South America, 
north to Orizaba and Colima, Mexico. 

C. rufipennis (Bonap.). Rufous Ground Dove.^ 

Genus SCARDAFELLA Bonaparte. (Page 211, pi. LXIL, fig. 5.) 

Species. 

Common Characters. — Grayish brown above, each feather with a terminal 
border or crescentic bar of dusky ; inner web of quills, except terminal portion, 
rufous ; under wing-covei'ts partly black ; lower parts pale grayish vinaceous, pass- 
ing into white or buff posteriorly, marked like upper parts ; lateral tail-feathers 
with terminal half white, the rest black. 

a^. Larger wing-coverts, belly, and lower tail-coverts white ; breast distinctly squa- 
mated with dusky ; wing about 4.00, tail 4.00. JIab. South America (Brazil, 
Venezuela, eastern Ecuador, etc.). 

S. squamosa (Temm.). Scaled Dove.' 

1 Tctlpacotia riijipennis BoNAP., Consp. ii. 1854, 79. 

* Columha squamosa Temm., Pig. et Gal. i. 1811, pi. 59. Scardafella squamosa Bonap., Consp. ii. 1854, 85. 



216 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

a^. Larger wing-coverts pale brownish gray, like rest of coverts ; belly and lower 
tail-coverts buff; breast very indistinctly squamated; wing 3.75 or less, tail 
more than 4.00. 

Adult: Lower parts pale grayish vinaceous anteriorly (nearly white on 
chin), passing into buff on belly, flanks, and lower tail-coverts ; chin, 
throat, and upper part of chest immaculate, but feathers of other por- 
tions tipped with blackish, these bars broadest on flanks ; upper parts, 
including all the wing-coverts, grayish brown, each feather tij^ped with 
a crescentic bar of blackish. Young : Similar to adult, but less pinkish 
beneath, and grayish brown of upper parts somewhat mottled by occa- 
sional whitish tips to feathers. Length about 8.00, wing 3.70-3.75, tail 
4.00-4.40. Eggs .82 X -64. Hab. Mexico and Guatemala, north to 
southern border of United States (southern Texas to southern Arizona.) 

321. S. inca (Less.). Inca Dove. 

Genus GEOTRYGON Gosse. (Page 210, pi. LXIY., fig. 2.) 

Species. 

Common Characters. — Upper parts mainly uniform chestnut, the back (some- 
times other portions also) with more or less of metallic gloss ; lower parts plain 
dull whitish, ochraceous or buffy, deepening into brownish or vinaceous on chest. 

«^ Quills rufous, on both webs, in adult (partlj'^ rufous in young) ; feathers of neck 
blended. 
b^. Belly and under tail-coverts whitish, or very pale buffy; back brilliantly 
metallic. 

Adult : Forehead and lores dull chestnut ; rest of upper head with 
hind-neck dull metallic bronzy green, changing to purj)lish ; back 
brilliantly metallic reddish purple ; rest of upper parts mainly dull 
chestnut, more or less glossed with metallic purple, especially on 
rump and lesser wing-coverts ; a broad whitish malar stripe, extend- 
ing back to occiput, across ear-coverts ; beneath this a narrower and 
less distinct stripe of brown or chestnut ; anterior lower parts pale 
vinaceous, becoming whitish on chin and throat; posterior lower 
parts dull white, or very pale buffy ; length 10.60-11.75, wing 6.00- 
6.50, tail 4.20-5.75. Hab. Haiti, Cuba, Bahamas, and Florida Keys. 
322. G. martinica (Gmel.). Key West Q,uail-dove. 
¥. Belly and under tail-coverts deep ochraceous ; back not brilliantlj'^ metallic. 
Adult: Above deep purplish chestnut, with metallic reflections (of 
purplish red) only in certain lights ; chin and throat buffy whitish ; 
bordered along each side by a dark purplish chestnut stripe, with a 
buffy malar stripe above it — neither very shai'ply defined ; fore-neck 
and chest vinaceous or vinaceous-brown ; rest of lower parts deep 
ochraceous-buff or ochraceous. Young : Above deep sepia-brown 
(with an olive cast in some lights), the wing-coverts sometimes 



STARNCENAS. 217 

mixed with rusty ; forehead, chest, etc., dull cinnamon-brown ; rest 
of under parts brownish buffy ; quills mainly dusky, but inner webs 
broadly edged with rufous, especially toward base. Wing 5.30-6.00, 
tail 3.10-3.60. Hab. Tropical America in general (including West 
Indies), north to Cuba and eastern Mexico (Mirador). 

G. montana (Linn.). Ruddy Quail-dove.^ 
a^. Quills entirely dusky, on both webs ; feathers of neck very distinctly outlined. 
Adult : Top of head slaty or plumbeous, becoming paler (sometimes whitish 
or pale vinaceous) on forehead ; hind-neck dull greenish bronze ; rest of 
upper parts nearly uniform dark chestnut, slightly glossed with violet- 
purple on back ; chin and throat pale buffy or buffy whitish ; chest vary- 
ing from dull brownish to buffy vinaceous or even grayish brown ; rest 
of lower parts buffy, deeper on sides and flanks; length (skin) about 9.50- 
11.00, wing 5.80-6.20, tail 3.50-4.40. JIab. Guatemala and southern 
Mexico, north to Mirador. 

G. albifacies ScL. Mexican Quail-dove.^ 

Genus STARNCENAS Bonaparte. (Page 211, pi. LXIV., fig. 1.) 

Species. 

Adult : General color plain olive-brown above and dull rusty beneath, the 
breast sometimes with a glaucous-purplish tinge ; top of head dull cobalt-blue, bor- 
dered below by black ; a wide white stripe running from chin beneath eye to 
occiput; throat and chest black, bordered below by a semicircular line of pure 
white, the feathers of the upper and lateral portions of the black area tipped with 
blue; length 10.75-12.50, wing 5.40-5.70, tail 4.00-4.25. Hab. Cuba and Florida 
Kej's 323. S. cyanocephala (Linn.). Blue-headed ftuail-dove. 

1 Colnmha montana Linn., S. N. ed. 10, i. 1758, 163. Geotryfjon montana Bonap., ConsiJ. ii. 1854, 72. 

2 Geotrygon albifacies ScL., P. Z. S., 1858, 98. 



28 



218 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 



Order RAPTORES. — Birds of Prey. (Page 2.) 

Families. 

i^. Head entirely naked, or else only partially covered with down (in young) ; nos- 
trils longitudinal ; a distinct web between inner and middle toes, at base ; 
hind-toe short, elevated, the feet wholly unfit for grasping. (Suborder Sar- 

corhamphi.) Cathartidse. (Page 218.) 

i^. Head entii-ely feathered or only partially naked ; nostrils vertical or roundish ; 

no web between inner and middle toes; hind-toe well developed, with large, 

sharp claw, inserted at the same level with anterior toes, the feet specially 

adapted for grasping. 

&\ Eyes lateral, not surrounded by disks of radiating feathers ; cere exposed ; 

outer toe not reversible (except in Pandion). (Suborder Falcones.) 

Falconidse. (Page 222.) 
b'. Eyes directed forward, surrounded by disks of radiating feathers ; cere con- 
cealed by loral and frontal bristle-like feathers; outer toe reversible. 
(Suborder Striges.) 
c\ Inner toe as long as middle toe ; inner edge of middle claw pectinated ; 
feathers on hinder part of tarsus recurved, or pointed upward; first 
quill longer than third, none of the quills with inner webs sinuated 

or emarginated Strigidse. (Page 255.) 

c^. Inner toe decidedly shorter than middle toe ; inner edge of middle claw 
not pectinated; feathers on hinder part of tarsus (if present) pointed 
downward ; first quill shorter than third, and at least one (one to 
six) quill with inner web sinuated or emarginated. 

Bubonidae. (Page 255.) 



Family CATHARTID^.— The American Vultures. (Page 218.) 

Genera. 

i\ Cere decidedly shorter than the upper mandible ; bill very strong, with all its 
outlines decidedly convex. Adult males with a fleshy " comb" or lobe sur- 
mounting the top of the cere. 
b\ Plumage of adult commencing on the neck with a very distinct collar of 
white cottony down ; primaries decidedly longer than secondaries ; 
throat with a median " dewlap" ; " comb" of adult male extending from 
near anterior border of cere to middle of the crown ; sexes very diff'erent, 
the female lacking entirely the " comb" or other fleshy appendages to 
the head ; very large (wing 30.00, or more) Sarcorhamphus.^ 

1 Sarcorhamphua Dumeril, Zool. Anal. 1806, 32. Type, by elimination, VulUir gryphua Linn. 



GYPAGUS. 219 

b"^. Plumage commencing on neck with broad, normally developed feathers; 
primaries not longer than secondaries ; throat without any " dewlap" ; 
" comb" of adult male attached only to middle of cere, above nostril ; 
sexes alike; size medium (wing less than 25.00). 

Gypagus. (Page 219.) 
a^. Cere decidedly longer than upper mandible ; bill comparatively weak. Adult 
males without fleshy " comb" or lobe surmounting cere. 
h^. Entire neck bare of feathers ; plumage commencing abruptly with lanceo- 
late or penicillate feathers, these continued over breast and belly ; head 
much elongated, the upper outline of the cere elevated posteriorly above 
the level of the flattened forehead ; very large (wing 30.00, or more). 
Nostril very small, occupying not more than the basal third of the 
nasal fossse, its anterior end acute ; bill small, the mandibles de- 
cidedly broader than deep, the lower as deep as the upper; skin of 
head and neck smooth ; tail even.... Pseudogryphus. (Page 220.) 
6^ Head only, or with only upper part of neck, naked ; plumage commencing 
gi-adually on upper part or middle of neck with broad, normal feathers, 
those of the breast and belly broad and blended ; forehead elevated 
above the upper outline of cere ; bill stronger, with hook of upper man- 
dible well developed ; much smaller (wing less than 25.00). 
c\ Nostrils very large and broad, occupying the whole of the nasal fossae, 
both ends broadly rounded ; wing lengthened, the quills reaching to 
or beyond tip of the much rounded tail... Cathartes. (Page 220.) 
c^ Nostrils small and narrow, occupying only the posterior half of the 
nasal fossse, the anterior end pointed ; wing short, rounded, the 
quills scarcely reaching to the middle of the even or slightly emar- 
ginated tail Catharista. (Page 221.) 

Genus GYPAGUS Vieillot. (Page 219, pi. LXIV., fig. 5.) 

Species. 

Adult : Upper neck (" ruff") plumbeous, the feathers white at base ; tertials, 
secondaries, quills, greater and primary coverts, rump, upper tail-coverts, and tail, 
black, the secondaries grayish exteriorly and edged with white; rest of plumage 
deep vinaceous-buff or pinkish cream-color above, white beneath ; naked skin of head 
and upper neck very brilliantly colored in life with yellow, orange, red, blue, etc. ; 
iris white ; bill dull red in dried skins, said to be orange and black in life. Young : 
Entirely plain blackish brown, the bill and naked skin of head dusky. Length 
27.00-34.00, wing 19.00-20.00, tail 9.50-10.00, culmen 1.30-1.40, tarsus 3.60-3.65, 
middle toe 3.00-3.30. Eggs 3.70 X 2.65, plain white. Hab. Whole of tropical America, 
except West Indies, north to southern Arizona ? 

G. papa (Linn.). King Vulture.' 

' Vulture papa LiNN., S. N. ed. 10, i. 1758, 86. Oypagm papa Vieill., Nouv. Diet, xxxvi. 1819, 456. 



220 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

Genus PSEUDOGRYPHUS Eidgway. (Page 219, pi. LXIV., fig. 4.) 

Species. 

Adult: Dull black, the outer webs of greater -wing-coverts and secondaries 
hoary grayish, the former tipped and the latter edged with white ; axillars and 
under wing-coverts pure white ; bill whitish or pale yellowish, and naked skin of 
head and neck yellowish or orange in life. Young : Similar to adult, but feathers 
of upper parts more distinctly bordered with brownish (producing a squamate ap- 
pearance), the outer webs of greater wing-coverts and secondaries dusky, and with- 
out any white on axillars or under wing-coverts; bill and naked skin of head and 
neck dusky, the latter more or less covered with soft sooty grayish down. Downy 
young : Dull white, the naked skin of head and neck dull yellow. Length 44.00- 
55.00 inches, extent 8J to nearly 11 feet, weight 20 to 25 pounds, wing 30.00-35.00 
inches, tail 15.00-18.00, culmen 1.50, tarsus 4.40-5.00, middle toe 4.00-4.50. Nest a 
cavity or recess among rocks or a hollow in stump, log, or tree-trunk. Eggs 1-2, 
4.46 X 2.48, elongate-ovate, plain pale dull grayish green or dull greenish white. 
Hab. Pacific coast of United States, north to the Columbia ; southern Utah ? (Now 
much reduced in numbers, and extinct in many localities where formerly abun- 
dant.) 324. P. californianus (Shaw). California Vulture. 

Genus CATHARTES Illiger. (Page 219, pi. LX., fig. 2; pi. LXIY., figs. 6, 8.) 

Species. 

Common Characters. — General color black, uniform on lower parts (sometimes 
on upper parts also) ; bill white, and naked slcin of head reddish or yellowish in 
adult, both dusky in young. 

a\ Upper portion of neck, all round, naked ; wing 20.00, or more. 

h^. Plumage of upper parts grayish brown, the feathers glossy blackish cen- 
trally, the secondaries edged with grayish or whitish ; naked skin of 
head (in adult) livid crimson in life. 

Adult : Neck and lower parts uniform dull black ; upper parts black- 
ish, with a greenish and violet gloss, the feathers of the back, the 
scapulars, and wing-coverts with margins broadly (but not abruptl}^) 
light grayish brown ; edge of secondaries light grayish brown, vary- 
ing to light ashy ; shafts of quills and tail-feathers pale brown, vary- 
ing to yellowish white ; bill chalk-white ; iris grayish brown ; naked 
skin of head and upper neck (in life) dull livid crimson, brightening 
to lake-red on cere, the lores and top of head sometimes with whitish 
wart-like papillae. Young : Similar to adult, but bill blackish, and 
naked skin of head and neck livid dusky, and the brownish margins 
to wing-coverts, etc., less distinct. Downy young : Covered with 
pure white cottony down, the head, however, naked, and sallow 
dusky. Length 26.00-32.00, extent about 6 feet, wing 20.00-23.00 



CATHARISTA. 221 

inches, tail 11.00-12.00, culmen 1.00, tarsus 2.25-2.30, middle toe 
2.50. Nest a cavity among roclfs or in hollow of a log, stump, 
or tree-trunk, without additional material. Eggs 2, 2.7-1 x 1-89, 
ovate or broadly ellijitical ovate, white, huffy white, or greenish 
white, more or less spotted or blotched with rich brown (madder or 
burnt-umber) and purplish gray. Hah. Nearly the whole of temper- 
ate and tropical America, including West Indies ; south to Falkland 
Islands and Patagonia, north, more or less regularly, to southern 
New England, New York, the Saskatchewan, and British Columbia. 

325. C. aura (Linn.). Turkey Vulture. 
¥. Plumage of upper parts entirely uniform dull black ; naked skin of head 
and upper neck of adult yellow in life. 
Wing 20.00, tail 12.00, culmen .82, tarsus 2.50, middle toe 2.40. Hab. 
Amazonian region of South America (Guiana to eastern Peru). 

C. pernigra (Sharpe). Amazonian Turkey Vulture.^ 
a*. Uj)per part of hind-neck feathered quite to the occiput ; wing less than 20.00. 
Adult : Entirely uniform black (as in C. pernigra), the shafts of the quills 
white ; " bill and cere reddish white ; crown and lower side of head pale 
violet or sky-blue ; side of head, neck, and throat beautiful graj^-orange ;" 
iris red ; bill white. Immature : " Iris blackish gray ; head in very 
young birds reddish gray, whitish on crown and over the eye ; neck 
bluish, subsequent to which the head becomes reddish violet, with a 
whitish blue patch on the occipital region." (Gurney.) Downy yoking : 
" The down is light rufous ; the bill, the lower part of the face, and the 
cheeks, are black ; the rest of the head light rufous washed with brown ; 
the iris chocolate ; the feet flesh-color, with blackish scales." '^ Length 
about 22.00-25.00, wing 18.00-18.50, tail 8.50-9.00, culmen .80-.90, tar- 
sus 2.10-2.40, middle toe 2.15-2.25. Hab. Eastern trojjical America 
(except West Indies), from Brazil to eastern Mexico (Vera Cruz) ; 

southern Texas? 

C. burrovianus Cass. Burroughs' s Turkey Vulture.' 

Genus CATHARISTA Yieillot. (Page 219, pi. LXIV., fig. 7.) 

Species. 

Adult : Entire plumage uniform dull black, the quills grayish basally (hoary 
whitish on under surface), their shafts pure white ; bill dusky with yellowish or 
whitish tip ; naked skin of head and fore-neck dusk3^ Young : Not obviously 

1 (Enops pernigra Shakpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. i. 1874, 26. Cathartes pernigra Ridgw., Bull. Nutt. Orn. 
Club, V. 1880, 83. 

2 Professor A. Duges, of Guanajuato, Mexico, in letter. I refer somewhat doubtfully the bird which he de- 
scribes to C. burrovianus, for the reason that it certainly is not C. aura nor Catharinta atrnta, and no other 
species besides these and C. burrovianus is known to inhabit Mexico. Drawings sent by Professor Duges, rep- 
resenting both the bird under consideration and the corresponding stage of Catkarista atrata, show conclusively 
that it is a true Cathartes. 

3 Cathartes burrovianus Cass., Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., ii. 1845, 212, 



222 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

different from the adult (?). Length 23.00-27.00; extent about 54,00; wing 16.50- 
17.50, tail 7.50-8.50, culmen .90-95, tarsus 3.00, middle toe 2.90. Nest a hollow in 
stump, log, or tree-trunk, or secluded spot among undergrowth of woods. Eggs 
1-2, 3.09 X 2.01, ovate or broadly ellij)tical-ovate, similar in coloration to those of 
Cathartes aura, but usually more sparsely marked. Jfab. Whole of tropical and 
warm-temperate America, south to Argentine Eepublic and Chili, north regularly 
to North Carolina and lower Mississippi Valley, irregularly or casually to Maine, 
New York, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Dakota, etc. (Apparently wanting in western 
Mexico and California) 326. C. atrata (Bartr.). Black Vulture. 



Family FALCONIDiE. — Vultures, Falcons, Hawks, Eagles, etc. 

(Page 218.) 

Genera. 

a^ Outer toe not reversible ; claws graduated in size from the largest (that of hind- 
toe) to the smallest (that of outer toe), broader and (except in Elanus') 
grooved on under side. 
b^. Nostril not circular, nor linear and oblique, with the upper end the posterior 
one, nor with central bony tubercle. (Subfamily Accipitrince.) 

c\ Tail deeply forked Elanoides. (Page 224.) 

c^. Tail not deeply forked. 

d}. Wing not more than 18.00. 
e'. Tarsi naked in front. 

/^ Front of tarsi covered with minute roundish scales ; claws 

not grooved beneath Elanus. (Page 224.) 

f^. Front of tarsus covered with large transverse scutellse; 
claws grooved beneath. 
g^. Cutting-edge of upper mandible notched. 

Ictinia. (Page 225.) 
g''. Cutting-edge of upper mandible not notched. 

A\ Tip of upper mandible produced into a conspicu- 
ous lengthened hook. 

Rostrhamus. (Page 225.) 
/il Tip of upper mandible not produced into a con- 
spicuous lengthened hook. 
i}. Face encircled by a "ruff" of short, stiffened, 
compact feathers, as in the Owls. 

Circus. (Page 226.) 
i^. Face not encircled by a ruff. 

f. Tail decidedly more than two-thirds as 
long as wing. 
k^. Depth of bill at base not decidedly 
less than chord of culmen ; mid- 
dle toe equal to or longer than 



FALCONWM. 223 

naked portion of tarsus in front; 
lores densely feathered. 

Accipiter. (Page 227.) 
k^. Depth of bill at base decidedly less 
than chord of culmen ; middle 
toe much shorter than naked 
portion of tarsus in front ; lores 
nearly naked. 

Parabuteo. (Page 228.) 

f. Tail not more than two-thirds as long as 

wing. 

k^. Primaries exceeding secondaries by 

less than length of naked portion 

of tarsus in front. 

Urubitinga. (Page 238.) 

A'^. Primaries exceeding secondaries by 

much more than length of naked 

portion of tarsus in front. 

l^. Wing less than four times as 

long as tarsus. 

Asturina. (Page 239.) 
l^. Wing more than four times as 
long as tarsus. 

Buteo. (Page 229.) 
el Tarsi densely feathered in front and on sides, down to base of 

toes Archibuteo. (Page 240.) 

d^. Wing more than 18.00. 

e^ Tarsus densely feathered, all round, down to base of toes. 

Aquila. (Page 241.) 
e*. Tarsus naked, all round, for lower third, or more. 

p. Wing much rounded (fifth to seventh quills longest, the 
first shortest), the secondaries very large and broad, 
reaching nearly or quite to tips of quills ; tail nearly 
as long as wing ; occiput conspicuously crested ; feet 

enormously developed Thrasaetus. (Page 242.) 

/^ Wing pointed (third to fifth quill longest, the first longer 
than ninth), the secondaries only moderately devel- 
oped, their ends falling far short of tips of quills ; tail 
less than two-thirds as long as wing; occiput not 
crested ; feet moderately developed. 
g^. Tail rounded, consisting of 12 feathers. 

Haliseetus. (Page 242.) 
g"^. Tail graduated, or wedge-shaped, consisting of 14 

feathers Thalassoaetus. (Page 243.) 

IP-. Nostril small, circular, with a conspicuous central bony tubercle, or else 



224 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

narrow, obliquely vertical, with the upper end the posterior one. (Sub- 
family Falconincv.') 
c*. Nostril circular ; cutting-edge of upper mandible with a strong tooth- 
like projection, separated from the strongly hooked tip by a distinct 

notch Falco. (Page 244.) 

c^ Nostril linear, obliquely vertical, the upper end posterior to the lower ; 
cutting-edge of upper mandible without distinct tooth or notch. 

Polyborus. (Page 253.) 

a^. Outer toe reversible ; claws all of the same length, narrower and rounded on 

under side Pandion. (Page 254.) 

Genus ELANOIDES Gray. (Page 222, pi. LXV., fig. 1.) 

Species. 

Head, neck, entire lower parts (including under wing-coverts and basal half of 
secondaries, underneath), and band across rump, pure white ; back, wings, and tail 
plain polished blackish ; tertials white, with blackish tips. Adult : White of head 
and neck immaculate ; back, scapulars, and lesser wing-coverts with a soft velvety 
gloss of dark bronzy purplish, the other black portions with a glaucous or chalky 
cast. Young : Head and neck narrowly streaked with dusky ; the black of back, 
etc., less glossy, more brownish, and with greenish instead of bronzy purple reflec- 
tions ; quills, tail-feathers, and primary coverts narrowly bordered at tips with 
white. Length 19.50-25.50, wing 15.40-17.70, outer tail-feathers 12.50-14.50, cul- 
men 0.70-0.80, tarsus 1.00-1.30, middle toe 1.00-1.20. Nest in tops of tall trees, 
usually near water-courses. Eggs 2-3, 1.87 X 1-49, white or buffy white boldly 
spotted or blotched, chiefly round larger end, with hazel-brown, chestnut, or rich 
madder-brown. Hab. Tropical and warm-temperate portions of continental 
America, north in the interior regularly to Iowa, Minnesota, Illinois, etc., along 
Atlantic coast casually to Pennsylvania and southern New England ; accidental in 
England 327. E. forficatus (Linn.). Swallow- tailed Kite. 

Genus ELAN US Savignt. (Page 222, pi. LXV., fig. 2.) 

Species. 

Adult : Above plain pale bluish-gray, becoming gradually white on head and 
tail, with a large patch of uniform deep black covering lesser wing-covert region ; 
lower parts entirely pure white ; a black spot in front of and partly surrounding 
eye. Young: Somewhat like adult, but tinged with rusty, and with indistinct 
dusky streaks, on upper parts, the wing-feathers narrowly tipped with white ; tail 
with an indistinct subterminal band of dusky ; breast stained, or indistinctly 
blotched or streaked, with yellowish rusty. Length 15.15-16.75, wing 11.50-13.30, 
tail 5.90-7.40, culmen .65-.80, tarsus 1.20-1.50. Nest on trees, near water. Eggs 
2-3, 1.71 X 1-31, handsomely marbled or clouded with various shades of rich mad- 
der-brown on a paler (sometimes whitish) ground. Mab. Tropical and subtropical 



ICTINIA. 225 

America (except "West Indies), north to South Carolina, southern Illinois (casual ?), 
and central California 328. E. leucurus (Vieill.). White-tailed Kite. 

Genus ICTINIA Vieillot. (Page 222, pi. LXV., fig. 3.) 

Species. 

Common Characters. — Adults : Uniform plumbeous, becoming lighter (whitish) 
on head and darker (blackish) on quills and tail ; inner webs of quills partly rufous. 
Young : Lower parts whitish, striped with brown ; upper parts varied with whitish 
and brown ; tail crossed by several narrow whitish bands. 

a^. Adult : Wings lighter than tail, the secondaries hoary whitish ; inner webs of 
quills with indistinct spots of rufous, and outer webs with very indistinct 
stripe of the same ; tail without white markings. Young : Head, neck, and 
lower parts white, sometimes tinged with buff (especially on thighs), longi- 
tudinally spotted or striped with brown; upper parts blackish brown, the 
feathers margined terminally with whitish, and with concealed spots of the 
same; tail blackish, crossed by several (about three exposed) narrow bands 
of dusky grayish, this changing to white on inner webs ; under wing-coverts 
buffy, spotted with rusty. Length 13.00-15.50, wing 10.60-12.30, tail 6.00- 
7.00. Nest in tops of trees, usually near rivers. Eggs 2-3, 1.63 X 1-32, white 
usually sparsely and very faintly marked (adventitiously stained?) with pale 
brownish. Hab. More southern United States, east of Eocky Mountains, 
north regularly to Georgia, southern Illinois, Kansas, etc., casually, or irregu- 
larly, to Pennsylvania, Wisconsin, and Iowa ; south, through eastern Mexico, 
to Guatemala 329. I. mississippiensis (Wils.). Mississippi Kite. 

a^. Adult : Wing concolor with the tail, the secondaries black ; inner webs of pri- 
maries almost wholly rufous, the outer webs with only a trace of this color ; 
tail with about three narrow bands of white, across inner webs. Young : 
Above blackish, the feathers bordered terminally with white ; head, neck, 
and lower parts whitish, striped with blackish. Wing 10.50-12.20, tail 5.60- 
6.80. Hab. Tropical America (except West Indies), north to southern 
Mexico, south to Paraguay. 

I. plumbea (Gmel.). Plumbeous Kite.^ 

Genus ROSTRHAMUS Lesson. (Page 222, pi. LXV., fig. 4.) 

Species. 

Adult : Uniform slate-color, becoming nearly black on quills and tail, the wing- 
coverts inclining to brownish gray, the head and neck with more or less of a glau- 
cous or chalky cast, the former nearly black anteriorly ; tail-coverts and base of tail 
white ; tip of tail light grayish brown ; bill black ; cere and feet rich orange or 
orange-red, and iris crimson, in life. Young : Tail much as in adult. Upper parts 

» Falco pi umbena GiiEi,., S. N. i. 1788, 283. Ictinia phanhea Vieill,, Nouv. Diet. 1816, 24. 

29 



226 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

blackish brown, each feather tipped or bordered terminally with rnsty or ochra- 
ceous ; head and neck streaked with the same ; superciliary stripe and lower parts 
ochraceous (varj-ing to buffy whitish), spotted or striped with dusky. Length 
16.00-18.00, extent 44.00-46.00, wing 12.90-14.25, tail 7.20-8.50, culmen 1.00-1.10. 
Nest built on top of bushes or tall rank grasses in open marshes. Eggs usually 2, 
1.70 X 1-43, blotched, marbled, and stained with various shades of brown on a paler 
(sometimes bluish white) ground-color. Hah. Whole of tropical America, except 
part of West Indies ; south to Argentine Eepublic and Ecuador, north to Florida 
and Atlantic coast of Mexico 330. R. sociabilis (Vieill.). Everglade Kite. 

Genus CIRCUS Lac^pede. (Page 222, pi. LXYII., fig. 1.) 

Species. 

Adult male : Head, neck, chest, and upper parts uniform light bluish gray, the 
occiput darker and streaked with whitish, tinged with rusty ; longer quills blackish 
toward tips ; upper tail-coverts plain white ; tail bluish gray, mottled with white 
toward base, narrowly tipped with white, crossed near end by a broad blackish 
band, and, anterior to this, by five to seven narrower and less distinct dusky 
bands ; the inner webs whitish, with the bands more distinct, and sometimes tinged 
with rusty ; under surface of wing (except terminal third, or more, of quills), and 
lower parts from breast backward, white, the larger under wing-coverts and lower 
parts with more or less numerous transverse (usually cordate) spots of rusty or 
brown. Adult female : Above dusky brown, the head and neck streaked, the lesser 
wing-coverts spotted, and feathers of rump edged, with rusty ; upper tail-coverts 
plain white; tail brown, paler at tip, and crossed by six or seven very regular and 
distinct bands of blackish ; the brownish spaces becoming gradually paler and more 
rusty to outer feathers, which are more ochraceous ; sides of head light dull buffy, 
with a dusky stripe behind eye ; feathers of " facial disk" buff, each with a median 
streak of dark brown ; chin, throat, and low^er parts generally, dull buffy whitish, 
varjdng to deeper dull buffy, striped (except on chin and throat) with brown, the 
stripes becoming gradually much narrower posteriorly. Young : Above blackish 
brown, the head and neck streaked and lesser wing-eoverts spotted with deep 
rusty; upper tail-coverts white, tinged more or less with ochraceous; tail crossed 
b}'' four broad bands of black, the interspaces being dark brown on middle feathers, 
changing gradually to ochraceous on outer feathers ; ear-coverts uniform rich dark 
brown ; feathers of " facial disk" dark brown, broadly edged with rufous ; lower 
parts rich rusty ochraceous, growing gradually paler posteriorly, the breast and 
sides narrowly and (usually) indistinctly streaked with darker, but elsewhere im- 
maculate. Downy young : Entirely pale cinnamon-buffj^, tinged with grayish on 
back, and becoming almost white on lower parts. Length 19.50-24.00, wing 12.90- 
16.00, tail 8.80-10.50, tarsus 2.85-3.25, middle toe 1.20-1.55. Nest on ground, in 
meadows, usually near ponds or marshes. Eggs 3-8, 1.80 X 1-41, white, or bluish 
white, usually plain, but often more or less spotted or blotched with pale brown. 
Hab. Whole of North America; south, in winter, to Panama, Bahamas, and Cuba. 

331. C. hudsonius (Linn.). Marsh Hawk. 



ACCIPITER. 227 

Genus ACCIPITER Brisson. (Page 223, pi. LXYI., figs. 1-3.) 

Species. 

Common Characters. — Adults uniform bluish gray above, the top of the head 
darker, feathers of occiput pure white beneath surface; tail crossed by several bands 
of blackish and narrowly tipped with white ; lower parts white, the breast, sides, 
and flanks barred with grayish, dusky, or rufous. Young : Dusky brown above, 
more or less spotted with lighter, the feathers bordered with rusty ; tail grayish 
brown, banded with blackish, and narrowly tipped with white ; lower parts white 
or buffy, striped with brown or dusky. 

rt^ Bare portion of tarsus in front longer than middle toe ; wing less than 12.00. 
(Subgenus Accipiter.) 

b^. Tail even or slightly emarginate ; wing not more than 8.80 ; top of head in 
adult not conspicuously different in color from back. Adult male : Above 
bluish gray, the top of the head darker but not inclining to black ; sides 
of head light rusty, streaked with darker; breast, sides, etc., mixed 
vinaceous-rufous and white, in transverse spots and bars, the first with- 
out ashy tinge laterally; length 10.00-11.50, wing 6.10-7.10, tail 5.80-6.10, 
tarsus 1.90-2.05. Adult female : Similar in color to the male, but uj^per 
parts less bluish, white of lower parts less pure and rufous spotting of a 
less vinaceous tint; length 12.50-14.00, wing 7.80-8.80, tail 6.60-8.20, 
tarsus 2.00-2.25. Young: Dusky brown above, the feathers bordered 
with rusty and more or less mixed Avith white spotting (mostly con- 
cealed) ; lower parts white, often tinged with buff, striped with clear 
brown or dusky, the sides, flanks, and thighs transversely spotted with 
same. JVest very variable in situation and character, but usually in 
trees — often in hollows among rocks or in trees. £^ggs 2-5, 1.47 X 1-16, 
white, greenish white, or bluish white, usually very heavily blotched 
with brown. Hah. Whole of North America ; south, in winter, to 
Guatemala 332. A. velox (Wils.). Sharp-shinned Hawk. 

61 Tail decidedly rounded ; wing not less than 8.85 ; top of head in adult black, 
in marked contrast with bluish gray of back. Adult male : Similar in 
plumage to corresponding stage of A. velox, but top of head blackish, 
sides of head more or less washed with bluish gray, and sides of breast 
tinged with the same; length 14.00-17.00, wing 8.85-9.40, tail 7.80-8.30, 
tarsus 2.30-2.60. Adult female : Colors duller than in male, the upper 
parts less bluish, the hind-neck and sides of head washed with dull 
rusty, top of head duller, more brownish, black, and sides of breast 
without ashy tinge; length 18.00-20.00, wing 10.10-11.00, tail 9.00-10.50, 
tarsus 2.60-2.85. Young : Similar to corresponding stage of A. velox, 
but rather less broadly striped beneath, with much less of transverse 
spotting on flanks, etc. Doiony young : Uniform white. Nest usually in 
high trees (often a deserted crow's nest). Eggs 1.93 X 1-50, usually plain 



228 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

bluish white, rarely faintly spotted with pale brownish. Hah. "Whole 
of temperate North America, including greater part of Mexico. 

333. A. cooperi (Bonap.). Cooper's Hawk. 
a'. Bare portion of tibia in front shorter than middle toe ; wing more than 12.00. 
(Subgenus Astur Lacepede.) 

6\ Adult : Above, including whole back, clear bluish graj", or plumbeous, with 
blackish shaft-streaks ; top of head deep black, the feathers pure white 
beneath surface ; tail bluish gray, crossed by about four dusky bands, 
these sometimes nearly obsolete on upper surface; lower parts white, 
the breast, belly, sides, and flanks thickly zigzagged or irregularly 
barred with slaty grayish, the feathers, especially on breast, often with 
dusky mesial streaks. Young : Above dusky grayish brown, more or less 
spotted with pale bufF or whitish, the feathers margined with buff, those 
of head and neck edged or streaked with same ; tail light grayish brown, 
narrowly tipped with white, and crossed by four distinct bands of dusky, 
with a fifth, less strongly marked, concealed by upper coverts ; lower 
parts whitish, or pale buff, with distinct narrow stripes of blackish, these 
more tear-shaped on bellj^, broader and more spot-like on sides and 
flanks. Male: Length about 22.00, wing 12.00-13.25, tail 9.50-10.50, 
tarsus 2.70-3.05. Female: Length about 24.50, wing 13.50-14.25, tail 
11.50-12.75, tarsus 2.70-3.05. Nest in trees. Eggs 2-3, 2.31 X 1-74, 
white, or glaucous-white, sometimes very faintly marked with pale 
brownish. Hah. Northern and eastern North America, bi'eeding chiefly 
north of the United States, except in higher mountains ; west to and 
including Rocky Mountains, where breeding as far south as Colorado. 

334. A. atricapillus (Wils.). American Goshawk. 

h"^. Adult : Above dark plumbeous, the back inclining to sooty blackish ; other- 
wise like A. atricapillus, but markings on lower parts much heavier, and 
darker in tint. Young : Above brownish black, this color predomi- 
nating largely over the lighter markings; stripes on lower parts much 
broader than in A. atricapillus, and deep black, the thighs with large, 
often cordate, spots of the same. Eggs 2.34 X 1-79. Hah. Pacific coast, 
north to Sitka, and breeding southward to at least 30° in Sierra Nevada. 
334r?. A. atricapillus striatulus Eidgw. Western Goshawk. 

Genus PARABUTEO Eidgw ay. (Page 223, pi. LXYI., fig. 4.) 

Species. 

Common Characters.— Wing 11.65-14.60, tail 9.00-11.00, culmen 0.82-1.10, 
tarsus 2.78-3.75, middle toe 1.52-2.00. Adidt : Prevailing color dark chocolate- 
brown, or sooty, sometimes uniform, sometimes varied by whitish or ochraceous 
spotting; lesser wing-coverts, and tibise, deep rufous; tail-coverts white; tail black, 
with white base and tip. Young : Plumage greatly variegated. Above dusky 
brown, the feathers edged with rusty, head and neck streaked with ochraceous ; 
lower parts pale ochraceous, or buffy whitish, the breast and belly with longitudinal 



BUTEO. . 229 

ovoid spots of blackish; tibiae with transverse bars of dark rusty; lower tail- 
coverts with black shaft-streaks; lesser wing-covert region merely washed with 
rufous ; tail grayish brown, whitish at tip, and crossed by numerous (about 19) 
narrow bands of dusky. 

a}. Adult never with the darker portions of the plumage uniform, but more or less 
broken, especially on lower parts, with whitish and buffy spotting and streak- 
ing ; tibiae barred with ochraceous; wing 11.65-14.60, tail 9.00-10.50, culmen 
.82-1.02, tarsus 2.78-3.40, middle toe 1.52-2.00. Hab. South America, as far 
as Chili and the Argentine Eepublic. 

P. unicinctus (Temm.). One-banded Hawk.i 

a?. Adult with the darker portions of the plumage perfectly uniform ; prevailing 
color uniform dark sooty brown ; lesser wing-coverts, under wing-coverts, 
and thighs plain rich chestnut-rufous ; middle wing-coverts dusky medially, 
rufous on edges ; tail black, the base and a broad band at tip, white ; tail- 
coverts white, the upper sometimes with blackish shaft-streaks. Immature: 
Similar to adult, but the blackish above broken by ochraceous edgings, the 
head and neck thickly streaked with the same; lower parts ochraceous, striped 
or longitudinally spotted with dusky ; thighs narrowly barred with rusty and 
dark brown ; tail as in adult, but white band at tip narrower and less sharply 
defined, and inner webs of feathers more or less distinctly barred with dusky, 
grayish brown, and white.'* Downy young : Above pale chestnut-buffj', paler 
(almost dull whitish) across hind-neck ; lower parts entirely dull whitish, 
tinged, more or less, with dull brownish buff. Male : Length 17.50-21.00, 
wing 12.35-13.75, tail 9.80-10.20, culmen .90-.95, tarsus 3.15-3.20, middle toe 
1.65-1.70. Female: Length 21.00-24.00, wing 14.25-14.50, tail 10.80-11.00, 
culmen 1.08-1.10, tarsus 3.40-3.75, middle toe 1.90-2.00. Nest on bushes or 
low trees. Eggs 2-3, 2.11 X 1-61, white, glaucous- white or buffy white, usu- 
ally more or less marked with light brownish. Hah. Middle America, north 
to southern border of United States (Louisiana to Lower California). 

335. P. unicinctus harrisi (Aud.). Harris's Hawk. 



Genus BUTEO Cuvier. (Page 223, pi. LXVIIL, figs. 2-5 ; pi. LXXIL, fig. 8.) 

Species. 

a^. Tail more than half as long as wing; tarsus much less than half as long as tail; 
primaries exceeding secondaries by much less than length of tail. 
¥. Wing more than 13.50. 

&. Outer webs of quills without white, buffy, or ochraceous spots. 

d'^. Four outermost quills with inner webs distinctly emarginated. 

1 Faho unicinctus Temm , PI. Col. i. 1824, pi. 31.3. Parahuteo unicinctus Ridgw. in B. B. & R. Hist. N. 
Am. B. iii. 1874, 249. 

2 In this stage much resembling the adult of P. unicinctus. 



230 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

e^. Middle toe decidedly longer than bare portion of tarsus in 
front ; length of cere on top less than depth of bill at an- 
terior edge of cere. 
p. Outer webs of quills (in adult) plain hoary grayish, palei', 
or more ashy, at tips ; naked portion of tarsus, in front, 
2.00. 

Adult : Head, neck, and lower parts white, the first 
streaked with dusky, these streaks more crowded 
across cheeks, where forming a rather distinct 
" mustache" ; throat very narrowly streaked, the 
sides, flanks, and lower part of belly (sparsely), 
more broadly streaked with dusky, and sides of 
breast with broader, somewhat wedge-shaped, 
markings of the same ; thighs tinged with buffy 
or ochraceous ; under wing-coverts white, with a 
large dusk}^ patch covering anterior portion of 
lesser covert region ; upper parts in general dark 
• slaty brownish, tinged here and there ashy and 
somewhat broken by irregular admixture of 
whitish, especially on scapulars and larger wing- 
coverts ; rump blackish ; upper tail-coverts white, 
tinged with rufous, and crossed by irregular, 
distant bars of dusky ; tail mostly light rufous, 
but this much broken by ii'regular longitudinal 
washes and " daubs" of ashy, and darker longitu- 
dinal mottlings or interrupted streaks, on both 
webs ; crossed near end by an irregular but dis- 
tinct band of blackish, the tip white, and the basal 
portion whitish ; length about 21.50, wing 15.75, 
tail 9.10, culmen 1.05, tarsus 3.25, middle toe 1.70. 
Hah. California (Santa Clara) ; only one example 
known. — . B. cooperi Cass. Cooper's Henhawk. 
p. Outer webs of quills grayish brown, marked with quad- 
rate dusky spots, producing bands; bare portion of 
tarsus in front less than 2.00. 
^^ Middle toe usually more than 1.60 (minimum 1.50, 
maximum 1.95) ; tail of adult usually with much 
of rufous, with or without darker bands ; young 
with tail grayish brown, crossed by nine or ten 
distinct narrow bands of dusky. 
}\}. Head and neck uniform dark sooty brown or 
blackish, or else streaked with white (very 
rarely, if ever, streaked with buffy or ochra- 
ceous). Adult: Tail confusedly or irregu- 
larly mottled with grayish, rusty, white, and 



BUTEO. 231 

dusky, either color predominating (except 
the last) according to the individual, crossed 
near end by a more or less distinct subter- 
minal band, and tipped with whitish ; upper 
parts chiefly (sometimes entirely) dark sooty 
brown or blackish (varying to deep black) ; 
lower parts varying from entirely deep sooty 
brown or black to pure white, but, if the lat- 
ter, always more or less streaked and spotted, 
especially across belly and on sides of breast, 
with dusky. Young : Tail banded with gray- 
ish brown and dusky, the two colors of about 
equal extent; otherwise, much like adult. 
Male: Length 20.00-21.00, wing 14.25-16.10, 
tail 8.80-10.00, culmen .98-1.00, tarsus 2.75- 
3.50, middle toe 1.50-1.70. Female: Length 
22.00-23.50, wing 15.75-16.50, tail 9.10-10.00, 
culmen .98-1.10, tarsus 2.85-3.50, middle toe 
1.60-1.80. Hab. Gulf States and lower Missis- 
sippi Valley, north, casually, to Kansas, Iowa, 
Illinois, and Pennsylvania, east to Georgia. 
338. B. harlani (Aud.). Harlan's Hawk. 
?i,'. Feathers of head and neck more or less distinctly 
edo-ed with ochraceous or rusty. Adult: Tail 
rufous, paler at tip, usually crossed near end 
by a narrow band or bar of blackish (rarely 
with more or less distinct narrow bands, or 
indications of bands, anterior to the subter- 
minal band) ; upper parts chiefly or entirely 
dusky grayish brown, sometimes irregularly 
broken by admixture of whitish and brownish 
gray ; lower parts varying from entirely pure 
white (usually with dusky streaks across 
belly) to w-holly sooty blackish, with or with- 
out rusty on breast. Young : Tail grayish 
brown, varying to dull ochraceous, crossed by 
nine or ten well-defined narrow bands of 
blackish; otherwise much like adult, but 
usually with much less of tawny or ochra- 
ceous. Male : Length about 19.00-22.50, ex- 
tent of wings 49.00-53.00, wing 13.50-16.50, 
tail 8.50-10.00, culmen .95-1.08, tarsus 2.40- 
3.20, middle toe 1.60-1.70, weight 2-3 pounds. 
Female: Length 23.00-25.00, extent 54.00- 
57.50, wing 15.25-17.75, tail 9.50-10.50, cul- 



NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

men 1.00-1.15, tarsus 3.15-3.40, middle toe 
1.60-1.70, weight 3-4 pounds. Nest usually 
in tall trees. Eggs 2-4, 2.30, or more, X 1-80, 
or more, dull white or bluish white, usually 
more or less spotted or blotched with brown. ' 
i^. Tail of adult always (?) with a subterminal 
black bar, or else prevailing color of plu- 
mage white. 
/. Plumage never chiefly blackish. 

h}. Deej)er colored, with dusky and 
grayish brown prevailing on 
upper parts, the lower parts 
more or less buffy, especially 
posteriorly ; adult with tail deep 
rusty rufous. Eggs 2.38 X 1-81. 
Hah. Eastern North America, 
west to border of Great Plains ; 
occasional in eastern Mexico ; 
Panama (casual?). 

337. B. borealis (Gmel.). 
Red-tailed Hawk. 
A^ Lighter colored, with much white 
en upper parts, tail pale rufous 
(usually without the dusky sub- 
terminal bai*), the lower parts 
entirely pure white, or pale 
buffy only on thighs, etc., with 
little if any spotting across belly. 
Eggs 2.31 X 1-80. Hah. Great 
Plains, from Minnesota to Texas; 
east, irregularly or casually, to 
Iowa and northern Illinois. 

337a. B. borealis kriderii 
HooPEs. Krider's Hawk. 
/. Plumage often chiefly blackish, some- 
times entirely sooty, except tail and 
its upper coverts. 

Adult : Varying, individually, from 
a light extreme which is scai'cely 
distinguishable from true B. bo- 
realis to a uniform dark sootj^ 
brown, through every conceiva- 
ble intermediate plumage ; some 
melanistic specimens have the 
whole chest and breast rusty 



BUTEO. 233 

or rufous (corresponding to the 
white area of very light-colored 
birds), but this is wholly obliter- 
ated in the complete melanism. 
Young : Darker throughout and 
more heavily spotted beneath 
than in true B. borealis, the plu- 
mage sometimes wholly dusky 
(except the tail), as in the adult. 
Tail of adult always with a 
black subterminal bar, and 
frequently with several, 
more or less complete, ad- 
ditional bars. Eggs 2.31 X 
1.80. Hab. Western North 
America, south into Mexico, 
east to Eocky Mountains 
(casually to Illinois). 
3376. B. borealis calurus 
(Cass.). Western Red-tail. 
i\ Tail of adult without any black bars ; other- 
wise, much like B. borealis calurus. Hab. 
Cape St. Lucas. 

337c. B. borealis lucasanus Eidgw. 
St. Lucas Red-tail. 
g'^. Middle toe not more than 1.55; tail of adult (and 
young) grayish brown, sometimes slightly touched 
with rufous, crossed by an indefinite number (but 
varying from about 10 to 13) of narrow bands of 
dusky, which become gradually indistinct and 
finally obsolete toward base. 

Plumage exceedingly variable, but usually a 
mixture of sooty brown and whitish, in vari- 
able relative quantity; sometimes entirely 
dusky (except tail) and rarely almost entirely 
white ; length about 20.00-23.00, wing 15.50- 
16.60, tail 8.80-10.00, culmen .85-.95, tarsus 
3.00-3.50, middle toe 1.40-1.55. Hab. Northern 
portions of eastern hemisphere ; accidental in 
Michigan ? 
336. B. buteo (Linn.). European Buzzard. 
e". Middle toe not decidedly longer than bare portion of tarsus in 
front ; length of cere on top greater than depth of bill at 
anterior edge of cere. 

Plumage uniform black, or blackish brown, the feathers 
30 



234 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

pure white at bases ; tail grayish brown or grayish, 
more or less banded with black, the inner webs, how- 
ever, chiefly white. Adult : Tail black, crossed by 
three broad zones, which arc ash-gray on outer webs 
and pure white on inner. Young : Tail dark grayish 
brown (the inner webs partly, sometimes entirely, 
white), crossed by numerous narrow, oblique bands of 
black. 3Iale : Length 18.50-19.60, extent 49.50, wing 
15.00-15.60, tail 8.50-9.15, culmen .73-.88, tarsus 2.40- 
2.70, middle toe 1.60-1.65. Female : Length 20.85-21.50, 
extent 53.10, wing 16.50-17.40, tail 9.00-10.75, culmen 
.90-1.00, tarsus 2.70-2.80, middle toe 1.80-1.85. Eggs 
2-4, 2.19 X 1-72, dull white, usually spotted or speckled, 
chiefly on larger end, with umber-brown. Hab. Mid- 
dle America, north to southern California, Arizona, 
Texas, etc., south to northern South America. 

340. B. abbreviatus Cab. Zone-tailed Hawk. 
d^. Only three outer quills with inner webs distinctly emarginated. 

Tail grayish brown, or brownish gray, sometimes with a hoary 
tinge, crossed by an indefinite number (about 9 or 10) of nar- 
row dusky bands, which toward base of tail become gradually 
indistinct and finally obsolete. Adult male, normal plumage : 
Above nearly uniform grayish brown; forehead, chin, and 
throat white, usually abruptly defined and forming a distinct 
patch ; chest and upper part of breast usually plain rufous 
or cinuamon (rarely mixed or broken with whitish) ; rest of 
lower parts buffy whitish, sometimes immaculate, but usually 
more or less barred or spotted with brownish ; length 19.50- 
20.00, extent 48.00-50.50, weight lJ-2i pounds, wing 14.40- 
16.00, tail 8.00-9.00, culmen .80-.90, tarsus 2.30-2.75, middle 
toe 1.40-1.60. Adult female, normal plumage : Similar to the 
male, but chest-patch grayish brown instead of rufous, or 
cinnamon; length 21.00-22.00, extent 50.50-56.00, weight 2\- 
3i pounds, wing 14.75-17.25, tail 9.00-10.00, culmen .80-.95, 
tarsus 2.50-2.90, middle toe 1.50-1.65. Melanistic phase, both 
sexes : Whole plumage uniform sooty brown, the under tail- 
coverts sometimes spotted or barred with rusty or whitish. 
(Note. — In diffei*ent individuals may be seen every possible 
intermediate condition of plumage between this complete 
melanism and the light-colored normal plumage described 
above.) Young : Tail as in adult; above blackish brown varied 
with buffy or ochraceous ; head, neck, and lower parts creamy 
buff (deeper in younger, paler in older individuals), the lower 
parts usually more or less spotted with blackish, the head and 
neck streaked with same, JVest on bushes or low trees, some- 



BUTEO. 235 

times among rocks. Eggs 2-4, 2.23 X 1-73, white, dull glau- 
cous white, or buffy white, usually more or less spotted with 
brown. Hah. Western North America, north to Alaska and 
western side of Hudson's Bay, east to Wisconsin, Illinois, and 
Arkansas (casuallj^ to Massachusetts), and south through Mid- 
dle America and greater part of South America to Argentine 

Eepublic 242. B. swainsoni Bonap. Swainson's Hawk. 

h\ Wing less than 13.50. 

&. Middle toe longer than bare portion of tarsus in front. (Subgenus 
Buteola Bonaparte.) 

Adult: Above sooty blackish or blackish brown, the feathers of 
occiput pure white beneath surface, and the frontlet usually 
more or less conspicuously whitish ; tail slaty grajnsh, varying 
to grayish brown, very narrowly tipped with white, and broadly 
banded with black, the black bands sometimes wider than the 
grayish interspaces, the latter 5-7 in number. Young with 
tail more narrowly banded, the grayish brown bands usually 
broadest, and 8-9 in number. 

d}. Lower parts black, or dark sooty brown, like the upper; 
young with feathers much spotted, beneath surface with 
white, the low^er parts sometimes slightly varied with 
white and ochraceous, the under wing-coverts sometimes 
spotted with same. Male: Wing 11.20-11.70, tail 7.00- 
7.30, culmen .70-.75, tarsus 2.05-2.25, middle toe 1.35-1.40. 
Female: Wing 11.90-13.10, tail 7.50-8.00, culmen .78-.85, 
tarsus 2.50-2.65, middle toe 1.50-1.60. Hab. Tropical 
America in general, except West Indies, north to north- 
ern Mexico and (casually ?) southwestern Florida. 

— . B. fuliginosus Scl. little Black Hawk.^ 
d^. Lower parts white. Adidt male: Forehead, anterior portion 
of lores, fore-part of malar region, and lower parts gen- 
erally, immaculate pure white ; sides of chest with a 
patch of rufous or cinnamon, the feathers with dusky 
shaft-streaks; wing 10.50-12.00, tail 6.00-7.00, culmen 
.68-75, tarsus 2.05-2.30, middle toe 1.35-1.40. Adult 
female: Similar to the male, but sides of chest grayish 
brown instead of rusty. Wing 12.70, tail 7.20, tarsus 
2.30, middle toe 1.55. Young : Above dull brownish, the 
scapulars, wing-coverts, etc., usually margined with buffy 
or light fulvous, the top and sides of head and neck 
sti'eaked with same ; lower parts white, sometimes 
streaked with brownish, the sides of chest without brown 
or rusty patch. Hah. Tropical America in general (except 

1 Buteo fuliginosus ScL. P. Z. S. 1858, 356. (Said to be the black phase of B. brachi/nrus Vieill.) 



236 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

West Indies), north to eastei-n Mexico and (casually ?) 
Florida (Palatka). 

344. B. brachyurus Yieill. Short-tailed Hawk. 
cl Middle toe shorter than naked portion of tarsus in front. (Subgenus 
Buteo, part.) 

Only three outer quills with inner webs emarginated. Adult: 
Tail blackish, crossed by 2^ broad bands of light brownish 
gray or brownish white, and narrowly tipped with whitish ; 
ujoper parts nearly uniform dusky brownish, darker on back ; 
beneath brownish (varying to dull rufous or rusty) anteriorly, 
usually more or less broken by white transverse spotting ; pos- 
terior lower parts white, barred or transversely spotted with 
dull rufous. Youjig : Tail graj^ish brown, crossed by 5-7 narrow 
bands of dusky, and tipped with whitish ; sides of head and 
entire lower parts dull white, or buflfy, marked longitudinally 
with blackish or dusky, on breast, sides, etc., the cheeks with a 
rather distinct " mustache" of dusky streaks. Male : Length 
about 13.25-15.00, wing 9.85-10.70, tail 6.50-7.00, culmen .70, 
tarsus 2.15-2.80, middle toe 1.20-1.38. Female: Length about 
16.00-18.00, wing 11.00-11.40, tail 7.00-8.00, culmen .70-.80, 
tarsus 2.20-2.70. Nest in trees (often a deserted crow's nest). 
Eggs 2-4, 1.93 X 1-56, buffy whitish, variously spotted and 
blotched with brown. Hah. Eastern North America, north to 
New Brunswick and the Saskatchewan, west to edge of Great 
Plains, south (in winter only?) through Middle America and 
West Indies to northern South America. 

343. B. latissimus (Wils.). Broad-winged Hawk. 
IP. Outer webs of primaries distinctly spotted with white, buffy, or ochraceous. 
Tail narrowly banded with white, buffy, or ochraceous, lesser wing- 
coverts more or less rusty. Adult : Head, neck, and lower parts more 
or less rusty, or cinnamon, the first two streaked with dusky, the 
posterior lower parts more or less barred or transversely spotted with 
whitish ; quills and tail black, the former spotted on outer webs with 
white, the latter crossed by about six narrow bands of and tipped with 
the same. Young : Head, neck, and lower parts buffy or dull whitish, 
streaked and striped or longitudinally spotted with dark brownish ; 
quills and tail dusky, the former extensively spotted on basal portion 
of outer webs with buffy or ochraceous, the latter crossed by numer- 
ous narrow bands of dull buffy or pale grayish brown (the more ante- 
rior ones more ochraceous). Downy young : Uniform dull grayish 
white. Nest in large or tall trees. Eggs 2-4t, white, glaucous-white, 
buffy white, or pale brownish, variously marked (spotted, blotched, or 
stained) with various shades of brown. 
c\ Adult with head and neck distinctly rusty. 

d}. Adult : Eufous or rusty of anterior lower parts (chest and breast) 



BTJTEO. 237 

usually distinctly barred or transverse! j^ spotted with white. 
Young : Lower parts usually with whitish predominating, and 
basal half of outer webs of quills extensively ochraceous, huffy, 
or whitish. Male: Length 17.50-19.50, wing 11.25-13.50, tail 
8.00-9.70, culmen .75-.90, tarsus 2.70-3.25, middle toe 1.30-1.50. 
Female : Length 19.00-22.00, wing 13.35-14.25, tail 9.00-10.00, 
culmen .80-.90, tarsus 3.10-3.20, middle toe 1.35-1.50. Eggs 
2.13 X 1-69. Hab. Eastern North America, north to Nova 
Scotia and Canada, west to edge of Great Plains. 

339. B. lineatus (Gmel.). Red-shouldered Hawk. 
(P. Adult: Eufous or rusty of anterior lower parts (chest and breast) 
usually (always ?) unbroken. Young: Lower parts with deep 
brownish or dusky prevailing; buffy or ochraceous spots on 
outer webs of quills much reduced in extent. Male: Wing 
12.00-12.50, tail 8.00-9.00, culmen .78, tarsus 2.90, middle toe 
1.40-1.52. Female: Wing 13.00, tail 9.50, culmen .90, tarsus 
3.00-3.12, middle toe 1.50. Fggs 2.19 X 1-71. Hab. Pacific 
coast of United States (and south into Mexico ?). 

3396. B. lineatus elegans (Cass.). Red-breasted Hawk. 
c'K Adult with head and neck grayish, with little if any rufous tinge. 

Adult : Head and neck brownish gray, the feathers with dusky 
shaft-streaks ; those of occiput white, with dusky tips ; back and 
scapulars dull ash-gray, the feathers with large terminal or sub- 
terminal spots of dusky (occupying most of exposed portion of 
each feather) ; lower parts (including breast) barred with white 
and pale ochrey rufous. Young : Similar to con*esponding stage 
of B. lineatus, but smaller and darker in color. Wing 10.90-12.75, 
tail 7.70-8.50, culmen .80-.90, tarsus 2.90-3.20, middle toe 1.25-1.45. 

Hab. Florida 339rt. B. lineatus alleni Eidgw. 

Florida Red-shouldered Hawk. 
«^ Tail less than half as long as wing; tarsus about half as long as tail ; primaries 
exceeding secondaries by nearly the length of the tail. (Subgenus Tachy- 
triorchis Kaup.^) 

Only three outer quills with inner webs distinctly emarginated. Adult 
male: Above (except rump) plain bluish gray (varying to slaty or even 
dusky), the anterior lesser wing-coverts rufous, the longer scapulars 
much tinged with the same ; tail white, crossed near end by a broad 
band of black, anterior to which are numerous narrow bars or lines of 
slate-gray or plumbeous, or dusky ; rump and lower parts pure white, 
the throat sometimes dusky or grayish ; flanks, rump, and under wing- 
coverts usually faintly barred with ash}-, dusky, or rufous. Adult female: 
Similar to adult male, but rufous patch on lesser wing-coverts more 

1 Tachytriorchia KArp, Class. Saug. u. Vog. 1844, 123. Type, Falco pteroclee Teism.,= F. albicaudatua 

ViEILL. 



238 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

extended, and colors generally darker. Young : Tail hoary grayish, 
growing gradually darker terminally, passing narrowly into dull w^hitish 
or rusty at tip, and crossed by numerous narrow and very indistinct bars 
of darker, these becoming gradually obsolete toward base of tail ; gen- 
eral color of plumage brownish black, the lower parts more or less varied 
with whitish, buffy, or ochraceous. Downy young : Upper half of head 
dark sooty brown, becoming nearly black around eyes ; hind-neck, upper 
back, and wings lighter sooty brown, fading gradually into dull brownish 
buff on posterior upper parts and buffy whitish on lower parts. Ifale : 
Wing 14.50-16.75, tail 7.50-9.00, tarsus 3.30-3.60, middle toe 1.55-1.80. 
Female: Wing 17.00-17.75, tail 8.25-10.30, culmen .95-1.05, tarsus 3.30- 
3.70, middle toe 1.60-1.80. Nest on low trees or bushes (usually a 
yucca). Fggs 2-4, 2.37 X 1-89, white, more or less blotched with reddish 
brown. Sab. Whole of Middle America, north to southern Texas ; por- 
tions of eastern South America. 

341. B. albicaudatus Vieill. White-tailed Hawk. 

Genus URUBITINGA Lesson. (Page 223, pi. LXX., fig. 2.) 

Species. 
Common Characters. — Adults, uniform plumbeous-black, the upper tail-cov- 
erts, band across tip of tail, and other white bands on tail, pure white. Young : 
Above varied with blackish brown and ochraceous, the former prevailing ; lower 
parts ochraceous or pale buffy, striped with dusky, the thighs barred with the 
same; tail crossed by numerous narrow bands of blackish and light grayish, mixed 
with white. 

a}. Tarsus 4.30 or more ; upper tail-coverts in adult plain white. 

b^. Tail, of adult, with only two to three white bands, the broadest one more 
than 2.50 (2.60-4.50) -wide ; thighs often without white bars, these when 
present never (?) conspicuous ; under wing-coverts destitute of white 
markings, or else raerelj^ speckled with white ; wing 16.50-18.00, tail 
11.75-12.00, culmen 1.30, tarsus 4.90-5.00, middle toe 1.90-2.10. Hah. 
Tropical America, north to Costa Rica (and Nicaragua ?), south to Chili, 
Paraguay, and the Argentine Republic. 

U. urubitinga (Gmel.). Brazilian Urubitinga.^ 

&^ Tail, of adult, with three to four (usually three) white bands, the broadest 
one not more (usually much less) than 2.00 (1.20-2.00) wide; thighs 
always marked (usually conspicuously barred) with white; under wing- 
coverts always (?) barred or speckled with white ; wing 15.15-16.50, tail 
10.50-11.50, culmen 1.10-1.35, tarsus 4.30-4.85, middle toe 1.60-1.90. 
Hab. Guatemala and southern Mexico, north to Yera Cruz, Tehuante- 
pec, and Mazatlan. U. ridgwayi Gurnet. Mexican Urubitinga.^ 

1 Falco urubitinga Gmel., S. N. i. 1788, 265. Falco zonurus Shaw, Gen. Zool. vii. 1809, 62. Urubitinga 
zonura ScL., Trans. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1858, 262. 

2 Urubitinga zonura /3. ? Rtdgw., Bull. U. S. Geol, & Geog. Surv. Terr. ii. No. 2, 1876, 169. Urubitinga 

ridgwayi Gurney, List Diurn. B. Prey, 1884, 77, 148, 



ASTURINA. 239 

a'. Tarsus 3.50 or less ; ujiper tail-coverts in adult black barred or tipped with white. 
Adult : Uniform black, with a chalky or glaucous cast in certain lights ; 
upper tail-coverts narrowly tipped with white ; tail black, the tip and 
base white, and crossed at about the middle by a broad band of white of 
variable width. Young : Above brownish black, varied by ochraceous or 
rusty edgings and spots ; head, neck, and lower^parts pale ochraceous, 
striped with brownish black ; thighs barred with the same ; tail crossed 
by about seven narrow oblique bands of black and whitish, of variable 
relative width. Downy xjoung : " Covered with dense woolly down, nearly 
white on head and breast, passing into grayish posteriorly upon the head, 
throat, sides of breast, tibia, and back." (Mearns.) Male: Length 
about 21.50, wing 13.15-14.90, tail 7.90-9.75, culmen 1.00-1.05, tarsus 
3.20-3.40, middle toe 1.60-1.70. Female: Length about 22.50, wing 
14.25-16.00, tail 9.25-11.00, culmen 1.05-1.10, tarsus 3.00-3.50, middle 
toe 1.65-1.80. Nest in large trees. Eggs 2-3, 2.10 X 1-75, j)lain white. 
Hab. Tropical America in general, north to southern Arizona. 

345. U. anthracina (Light.). Mexican Black Hawk. 

Genus ASTURINA Yieillot. (Page 223, pi. LXVIII., fig. 1.) 

Species. 

fl'. Adult with upper parts very indistinctly barred, or almost uniform. Young, 
with thighs distinctly barred with dusky, and lighter tail-bands grayish 
brown. 

Adult: Above deep ash-gray, the top of head and hind-neck with fine 
blackish shaft-streaks, the wing-coverts with indistinct paler bars; upper 
tail-coverts plain white ; tail black, tipped with grayish or white, and 
crossed by two to three narrow bands of white, the anterior one nar- 
rower and more or less interrujjted ; quills black, margined at tips with 
whitish ; lower parts white, everywhere, except on lower tail-coverts, 
very regularly barred with deep cinereous, these bars narrower, and the 
white interspaces correspondingly wider, on flanks and abdomen. Young : 
Above dark brown, the head and neck streaked, the middle wing-coverts 
and greater portion of outer webs of scapulars irregularly spotted, with 
ochraceous or buffy (usually of a pinkish cast) ; upper-tail-coverts white, 
marked near tips with one or two small spots of dusky ; tail grayish 
brown, tipped with paler (the extreme tip usually whitish), and crossed 
by six or seven narrow bands of black, these becoming gradually, but 
decidedly, smaller toward the base; lower parts white, more or less 
tinged (especially on sides and under wing-coverts) with pinkish buff, 
the breast, belly, and sides with large tear-shaped or wedge-shaped 
stripes or longitudinal spots of blackish, the thighs narrowly barred 
with the same. Length about 16.00-18.00, wing 9.50-11.70, tail 6.70- 
8.20, culmen .75-1.00, tarsus 2.50-2.85, middle toe 1.35-1.75. Nest in 
trees. Eggs 2-3, 1.99 X 1-59, white, usually very faintly and sparsely 



240 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

(adventitiously?) stained with pale brownish. Hah. Middle America, 
south to Panama, north to southei^n border of United States, straggling 
as far as southern Illinois. 

346. A. plagiata Schleg. Mexican Goshawk. 
a?. Adult with upper parts (including head and neck) very distinctly barred with 
grayish white. Young with thighs plain white or buflTj^, and lighter 
tail-bands whitish. 

A. nitida (Lath.). South American Goshawk.^ 

Genus ARCHIBUTEO Brehji. (Page 223, pi. LXIX., fig. 1.) 

Species. 

a}. Bill small and weak, the width of gape (from corner to corner of mouth) only 
1.35-1.45. 
Adult, normal phase : Head and neck whitish, streaked with dusky ; rest 
of upper parts irregularly varied with white, grayish, and dusky (the 
lighter tints predominating), usually mixed, more or less, with rusty or 
ochraceous ; rump with dusky prevailing ; upper tail-coverts and basal 
portion of tail (more or less extensively — sometimes for more than half 
its length) white; terminal portion of tail crossed by a broad subter- 
minal band of grayish or dusky, and, anterior to this, usually by several 
narrower, irregular, or sometimes broken bands; quills dusky grayish, 
more or less distinctly banded with darker, their inner webs, however, 
immaculate anterior to their emargination ; lower parts chiefly Avhitish, 
but this spotted or otherwise varied, chiefly on breast, by dusky, the 
thighs sometimes tinged with ochraceous or rusty. Young, normal 
phase : Very much like adult, but terminal or subterminal portion of 
tail plain grayish brown, the basal portion plain whitish ; lower parts 
whitish or buffy, crossed over belly, flanks, and anal region by a very 
broad belt or transverse area of uniform deep brownish or dusky. 
Downy yoimg : Plain grayish white. Male : Length about 19.50-22.00, 
wing 15.75-16.80, tail 9.00-10.00. Female: Length about 21.50-23.50, 
wing 16.15-18.00, tail 9.00-11.00. 

b^. Averaging lighter in color, with less (often with none) of ochraceous 
or rust}^ ; rarely melanistic. Hab. Northern portions of eastern 
hemisphere. 

A. lagopus (BRtJNN.). Rough-legged Hawk.'* 
P, Averaging darker in color, with more of ochraceous or rusty ; fre- 
quently melanistic, some specimens being entirely deep black, with 
the exception of forehead, inner webs of quills (anterior to eraar- 
ginations), and more or less distinct, usuall}' broken, narrow bands 
across basal portion of tail, which are whitish. (Note. — This 

1 Falco nitidus Lath., Index Cm. i. 1790, 40. Aaturina nitida Bonap., Consp. i. 1850, 30. 
* So far as evidence to date tends to show, the typical form of this species, if a distinctively American race 
bo recognized, must be expunged from the list of North American birds. 



AQUILA. 241 

condition affects both old and young, and is connected with the 
normal plumage by a series of specimens possessing, in every pos- 
sible degree, intei'mediate characters.) JVest variously situated. 
Eggs 2-3, 2.31 X 1-74, white, buffy white, or pale buffy, usually 
more or less marked (sprinkled, spotted, or blotched) with brown. 
Hab. Whole of North America, breeding chiefly north of United 

States 347a. A. lagopus sancti-johannis (Gmel.). 

American Rough-legged Hawk. 
(i^. Bill much larger and stronger, and broader at base, the width of gape (measured 
from corner to corner of mouth) 1.70-1.90. 

Adult, normal phase : Upper parts generally and thighs ferruginous, the 
former streaked, the latter barred, with dusky ; secondaries and quills 
plumbeous, the latter with a hoary east ; tail white, washed with pale 
ash-gray, more or less stained, usually longitudinally, chiefly along edges 
of feathers, with light rusty, and sometimes crossed near tip by an in- 
distinct subterminal bar or narrow band of dusky ; lower parts (except 
thighs) pure white, sometimes slightly streaked with dusky. Young : 
Above grayish brown, the feathers edged with rusty or ochraceous; 
thighs white, more or less spotted with dark brownish or dusky; tail 
with basal third (approximately) white (inner webs wholly white), the 
rest brownish gray, usually with several, more or less distinct, darker 
narrow bands. Melanistic phase {adult) : General color deep chocolate- 
brown, more or less varied above by rusty spotting and edgings ; lower 
parts mixed rusty and chocolate, either tint prevailing; tail as in nor- 
mal phase. Male : Length about 22.50, wing 15.90-17.00, tail 9.50-10.50. 
Female: Length about 24.00, wing 17.00-18.80, tail 10.50-11.00. Nest 
usually in trees. Eggs 2-3, 2.42 X 1-88. v\^hite, or buffy white, usually 
more or less spotted, blotched, or clouded with brown or grayish purple 
(or both). Hah. Western United States, east to across Great Plains 
(occasionally to Illinois), north to the Saskatchewan, south into Mexico. 
348. A. ferrugineus (Light.). Ferruginous Rough-leg. 

Genus AQUILA Brisson. (Page 223, pi. LXIX., fig. 2.) 

Species. 

Adult: Nearly uniform dark brown, the lanceolate feathers of hind-neck and 
feathers of tarsus of a paler or more tawny hue ; quills black ; tail blackish, more 
or less clouded, or veiy irregularly banded, with graj'ish. Young : Similar to 
adult, but basal half to two-thirds of the tail plain white, the feathers of breast, 
etc., white beneath surface, and feathers of tarsi paler (sometimes nearly white). 
Male: Length about 30.00-35.00, extent about 6J-7 feet; wing 23.00-24.70, tail 
14.00-15.00, culmcn 1.50-1.62, tarsus 3.65-3.80, middle toe 2.40-2.80. Female: 
Length about 35.00-40.00, extent about 7-7* feet, wing 25.00-27.00, tail 15.00-16.00, 
culmen 1.68-1.85, tarsus 4.15-4.25, middle toe 2.55-2.80. Nest usually on cliffs, but 
sometimes on trees. Eggs 2-3, 2.93 X 2.34, oval or rounded-ovate, whitish, usually 

31 



2J,2 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

speckled, spotted, blotched, or clouded with brown and purplish gray (rarely im- 
maculate). Hab. Northern portions of northern hemisphere, chiefly in mountain- 
ous regions 349. A. chrysaetos (Linn.). Golden Eagle. 

Genus THRASAETUS Gray. (Page 223, pi. LXX., fig. 1.) 

Sjyecies. 
Adult: Prevailing color of upper parts, with chest, black, the upper parts 
usually more or less mottled or marbled with gray ; head and neck grayish, 
darker on the crest, paler on throat; tail broadly banded with black and mottled 
ashy, the bands of the latter color about four in number ; lower parts, posterior to 
chest, pure white, the thighs, and sometimes other portions, narrowly barred with 
black. Young : Above light ash-gray, marbled with black, this forming about five 
broken bands on middle tail-feathers, but confused on other rectrices; quills mottled 
with dusky; head, neck, and entire lower parts white, the longer crest-feathers 
and the chest tinged with ash-gray. Male : Wing about 21.00, tail 16.00, culmen 
1.80, tarsus 4.50, middle toe 2.85, hind claw 2.25. Female: Length about 40.00, 
extent about 7 feet, wing 24.50, tail 18.50, culmen 2.20, tarsus 5.00, middle toe 3.80, 
hind claw 3.00. Kab. Tropical America in general, south to Bolivia and Paraguay, 
north to Mexico, or, rarely, even to the mouth of the Eio Grande (and in Louisiana?). 

350. T. harpyia (Linn.). Harpy Eagle. 

Genus HALI^ETUS Savigny. (Page 223, pi. LXXL, fig. 1.) 

Sjjecies. 
Common Characters. — Adults uniform dusky brown (the feathers with paler 
margins), the tail white ; head and neck also white, or else much lighter colored 
than body ; bill, cere, and feet deep yellow ; iris pale yellow (except sometimes in 
H. albicilla). Young : Prevailing color dusky, mixed more or less with brown and 
whitish, according to age ; bill and cere black ; iris deep brown. 

rt\ Adult with head and neck light grayish brown, or brownish gray, and tail-coverts 
dusky. Young with plumage largely light cinnamon-brown or Isabella- color. 
Adult: Head and neck light grayish brown, grajnsh fulvous, or brownish 
gray, not abruptly lighter than the body ; tail white ; rest of plumage 
dusky grayish brown (margins of feathers paler), the quills nearly black. 
Young: Prevailing color above light umber-brown, cinnamon-brown, or 
isabella-color, each feather with a median streak and terminal spot of 
blackish brown ; breast broadly striped with brownish black on a 
brownish white and isabella-eolored ground ; rest of lower parts nearly 
plain dull isabella-brown, each feather with a median streak and ter- 
minal spot of blackish, the thighs darker and more uniform. Downy 
young : " Covered all over with dull sooty down, with long tufts of 
whitish down shooting through . . . here and there." (Dresser.) 
Male: Length 31.00-34.00, wing 23.00-26.00, tail 11.50-12.00, culmen 
2.05-2.20, tarsus 3.30-3.S0, middle toe 2.50-2.85. Female : Length 35.00- 
40.00, wing 27.80-28.00, tail 14.00-16.00, culmen 2.20-2.45, tarsus 3.50- 



THALASSOAETUS. 243 

3.65, middle toe 2.95-3.50. Nest on cliffs near sea-shore. Eggs 2-3, 3.00 
X 2.30, Y>\a\n dead white. Hab. Northern portions of eastern hemi- 
sphere, and southeastern Greenland. 

351. H. albicilla (Linn.). Gray Sea Eagle, 
a*. Adult with head and neck pure white, in abrupt contrast with color of body ; 
tail-coverts also white. Young with plumage blackish, grayish brown, and 
white, without cinnamon-brown or isabella-color. Adult : Head, neck, tail- 
coverts, and tail entirely white; rest of plumage duskj' grayish brown, varying 
to brownish black (the margins of the feathers usually paler). Immature {sec- 
ond or third year) : Head and neck blackish, the lanceolate feathers of hind- 
neck tipped with pale brownish, all the feathers pure white beneath surface ; 
uj^per parts mixed grayish brown and blackish, usually with more or less 
admixture of whitish ; tail blackish, the inner webs of feathers more or less 
blotched or " spattered" with whitish ; lower parts mixed white and dusky, 
either color predominating, according to the individual. Young, first year : 
Whole plumage nearly uniform black, the feathers of lower parts, however, 
with their bases white, this more or less concealed in places, producing a 
somewhat spotted or blotched aj^pearance. Downy young : Uniform sooty 
gray. JVest on tall trees, usually near lakes or rivers, sometimes on cliffs. 
3Iale: Length 30.00-35.00, extent about 7 feet, wing 20.00-25.90, tail ILOO- 
15.25, culmen 1.85-2.25, tarsus 2.65-3.40, middle toe 2.35-2.90, hind claw 
1.68-1.90. Female: Length 34.00-43.00, extent about 7 to 8 feet, wing 
23.50-28.00, tail 12.50-16.00, culmen 1.90-2.35, tarsus 3.25-3.70, middle toe 
2.55-3.10, hind claw 1.60-2.00. West usually on large trees, Fggs 2-3, 2.90 
X 2.27, plain white. Ilab. Whole of North America, and across Aleutian 
chain to Commander Islands, Kamtschatka. 

352. H. leucocephalus (Linn.). Bald Eagle. 

Genus THALASSOAETUS Kaup.» (Page 223, pi. LXXL, fig. 2.) 

Species. 
Adult : General color dark grayish brown, the forehead, lesser and middle wing- 
coverts, thighs, rump, tail-coverts, and tail, pure white ; lanceolate feathers of hind- 
neck pale grayish brown, with lighter edges ; bill, cere, and feet intense yellow in 
life ; iris pale yellow. Young : Entirely dusky brownish, or with more or less ad- 
mixture of white, according to age, on those portions which are white in adult ; 
bill more or less obscured with dusky. Male: Length 37.60-38.00, extent 87.50, 
wing 23.25, tail 13.60 (graduated for 4.10), culmen 2.45. Female : Length about 
41.00, extent 93.00, wing 24.00-26.00, tail 14.25, culmen 2.60-2.75, hind claw 1.95. 
JDoiony young : Uniform smoky brownish gray. Hah. Sea-coasts and larger rivers 
of Kamtschatka and borders of Okhotsk Sea, south, in winter, to Japan ; occasional 

or accidental in Aleutian Islands ? 

T. pelagicus (Pall.). Kamtschatkan Sea Eagle.'* 

1 Thalassoaetus Kaup, Class. Saug. Vog. 1844, 12.3. Type, Aquila lielagica Pall. 

2 Aquila x)elagica Fall., Zoog. Rosso-As. i. 1826, 343, pi. 1. Thalassoaetus pelagicus Kaup, Mus, Senck, 
iii. 1846, 261. 



24-i NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

Genus FALCO Linn^us. (Page 224, pi. LXXII., figs. 1-5 ; pi. LXXIII., figs. 1-3.) 

Species. 

a}. Only one quill (the outermost) with inner web emarginated near tip ; first quill 
longer than fourth. 
6\ Tarsus decidedly longer than middle toe (without claw) ; first quill shorter 
than third. 
&. Tarsus densely feathered in front and on sides for the upper two- 
thirds, the edges of the feathering meeting on the posterior side. 
Nest usually on clifi's. Eggs 2-4, about 2.30 X 1-75, varying from 
pale cinnamon or tawny to buffy, more or less distinctly sprinkled, 
speckled, or marbled with deeper cinnamon-brown — sometimes 
almost uniformly cinnamon-color. (Subgenus Hierofalco Guvier.) 
d}. Lower tail-coverts immaculate white, the thighs also usually im- 
maculate; prevailing color of whole plumage white. Adult: 
Top of head and hind-neck usually narrowly strea,ked with 
dusky, but often immaculate ; rest of upper parts more or less 
barred, or transversely spotted, with slate-dusky; lower parts 
usually immaculate, or without well-defined markings. Young: 
Upper parts with longitudinal spots or stripes of dusky (this 
less slaty than in adult) ; lower parts usually distinctly striped. 
Male: Length about 21.00-22.50, wing 14.00-14.75 (14.49), tail 
8.50-9.50 (8.94), culmen .90-.98 (.92), tarsus 2.30-2.50 (2.43), 
middle toe 1.95-2.05 (1.98). Female : Length about 23.00-24.00, 
wing 15.50-16.50 (16.00), tail 9.00-10.00 (9.49), culmen .95-1.08 
(1.03), tarsus 2.30-2.50 (2.47), middle toe 2.05-2.15 (2.09). Eggs 
2.26 X 1-27. Hab. Circumpolar regions, breeding in Greenland, 
northeastern (and other?) portions of Arctic America, Com- 
mander Islands, etc. 

353. F. islandus Brunn. White Gyrfalcon. 
d\ Lower tail-coverts always more or less marked with dusky ; upper 
parts with little if any white, except, sometimes, on top of head 
and hind-neck. Adult with upper parts banded with dusky 
and bluish gray (sometimes uniform dusky anteriorly), the 
flanks and thighs barred, banded, or transversely spotted with 
dusky. Young without transverse bars on upper parts (ex- 
cept sometimes on tail), and lower parts with all the markings 
longitudinal. 
e\ Lighter colored : Top of head much streaked with white, often 
with white prevailing, the lighter tail-bands usually whitish 
and nearly as broad as the darker interspaces. Adult, with 
anterior upper parts everj'where more or less distinctly 
barred with very pale grayish, grayish white, or buffy 
whitish, these lighter bars sometimes nearly equal in 



FALCO. 245 

■width to the darker ones ; darker and lighter bands on tail 
usually very sharply contrasted, the former often slate- 
gray, the latter pale ash-gray or dull whitish ; flanks and 
thighs never very heavily banded or spotted with slaty, 
but always more or less marked with this color. Young : 
Dark stripes of lower parts usually decidedly narrower than 
white interspaces ; upper parts in general usually much 
spotted with whitish or light buffy, in addition to the 
lighter margins (often conspicuous) to the feathers ; outer 
webs of quills more or less distinctly spotted with whitish 
toward base. Male: Length about 20.00-21.00, wing 
13.40-15.00 (14.10), tail 8.00-9.30 (8.51), culmen .88-.98 
(.90), tarsus 2.10-2.65 (2.40), middle toe 1.80-2.20 (1.96). 
Female: Length about 22.00-24.50, wing 15.25-10.50 
(15.76), tail 9.10-10.50 (9.72), culmen .95-1.10 (1.01), tar- 
sus 2.30-2.60 (2.46), middle toe 1.98-2.15 (2.08). Eggs 
3.37 X 1-72. Hab. Extreme northern portions of Europe 
(except Scandinavia), Asia, and ISTorth America, including 
Iceland and southern Greenland ; south, in winter, to 
northern border of United States. 

354. F. rusticolus (Linn.). Gray Gyrfalcon. 
Darker colored : Top of head usually with dusky prevailing, 
often uniform dusky, lighter tail-bands bluish gray, and 
usually narrower than dusky interspaces. Adult with an- 
terior upper parts (back, scapulars, and wing-coverts) 
rather indistinctly barred with bluish gray, often nearly 
plain dusky ; flanks heavily banded or spotted with dusky, 
and thighs heavily barred with slaty (the white ground- 
color tinged with bluish gray posteriorly). Young : Dark 
stripes of lower parts usually about equal in width to 
white interspaces, sometimes much broader (under parts 
sometimes plain dusky) ; upper surface of tail never (?) 
continuously banded with whitish, sometimes almost plain, 
or, if barred at all, the bars interrupted, much narrower 
than the dark interspaces, and never (?) approaching white 
in color; upper parts usually plain grayish brown, the 
feathers more or less distinctly margined with paler, but 
usually with little if any whitish spotting. 
p. Lower parts with white prevailing, or at least equal in 
extent to the dusky. Male : Wing 13.75-14.25 (13.97), 
tail 8.00-8.75 (8.26), culmen .90-.92 (.96), tarsus 2.30- 
2.50 (2.35), middle toe 1.90-2.00 (1.96). Female : Wing 
15.25-16.00 (15.52), tail 9.00-10.50 (9.82), culmen 1.00- 
1.10 (1.03), tarsus 2.25-2.65 (2.48), middle toe 2.05-2.15 
(2.10). Eggs 2.31 X 1-76. Hab. Northern Europe and 



246 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

Arctic America, from northern Labrador and coasts 

of Hudson's Bay to Alaska... 354rt. F. rusticolus 

gyrfalco (Linn.). Gyrfalcon. 
p. Lower parts with dusky prevailing, sometimes entirely 
dusky, except on lower tail-coverts, which are always 
(?) spotted with white. Male: Wing 14.00-14.60 
(14.20), tail 14.75-16.25 (15.89), culmen .98-1.05 (1.02), 
tarsus 2.40-2.70 (2.47), middle toe 2.05-2.15 (2.11). 
Female: Wing 14.75-16.25 (15.89), tail 9.60-10.00 
(9.85), culmen .98-1.05 (1.02), tarsus 2.55-2.70 (2.62), 
middle toe 2.05-2.15 (2.11). Eggs 2.26 X 1-77. Hah. 
Coast of Labrador; south, in winter, to Maine, Canada, 

and New York] 3546. F. rusticolus obsoletus 

(Gmel.). Black Gyrfalcon. 
c^. Tarsus feathered for not more than upper half, the posterior side 
almost wholly naked. (Subgenus Gennaia Kaup.^) 

Toj) of head grayish brown, streaked with dusky ; outer web of 
tail-feathers without distinct lighter spots (usually quite plain), 
and outer webs of quills without trace of spots ; secondaries 
with lighter spots on outer webs ; under parts and nuchal collar 
white, the flanks heavily spotted or blotched with dusky, the 
under tail-coverts sparsely spotted with same. Adult male: 
Above j)ale grayish brown (usually tinged more or less with 
rusty), indistinctly but broadly barred with pale clay-color or 
dull grayish buffy anteriorly tind pale bluish gray posteriorly. 
Adult {?) female : Above grayish brown, without distinct or 
well-defined lighter bars, but feathers margined with pale 
rusty brown or dull whitish, both the ground-color and these 
edgings paler on posterior jjortions ; tail tipped with buffy 
whitish, the feathers edged with a paler tint of the ground- 
color. Young {both sexes) : Above grayish brown, the feathers 
distinctly margined with light rusty ; lower parts pale buffy or 
buffy whitish, with broader dusky streaks, the dusky flank- 
patch larger and more uniform than in the adult, and the ax- 
illars unbroken dusky. Young in first summer : Similar to the 
preceding stage, but ground-color above darker, with rusty 
margins to feathers more distinct, the ground-color of the lower 
parts light ochraceous or creamy buff. Male : Length about 
17.00-18.00 (weight about 1^ pounds), wing 11.60-12.50, tail 
6.40-7.50, culmen .70-.75, tarsus 1.85-2.15, middle toe 1.60- 
2.00. Female: Length about 18.50-20.00 (weight sometimes 4i 
pounds), wing 13.25-14.30, tail 8.00-9.00, culmen .85-.90, tarsus 
2.05-2.40, middle toe 1.85-2.15. Nest usually on cliffs. Eggs 2-5, 

1 Gennaia Kaup, Isis, 1847, 69. Type, Falco jugger Gray. 



FALCO. 247 

2.06 X 1-60, creamy white, vinaceous-white, or pale vinaceous- 
buffy, sprinkled, speckled, or irregularly spotted with madder- 
brown. Hab. Western United States, east to eastern border 
of Great Plains (occasional!}' to Illinois), south into Mexico. 

355. F. mexicanus Schleg. Prairie Falcon. 
Tarsus not decidedly longer than middle toe (without claw), often shorter ; 
first quill longer than third. 
c^. First and second quills equal and longest; second with inner web 
slightly sinuated near tip ; adult and young very different in color, 
the latter with stripes instead of bars beneath, and without bars on 
upper parts. Nest on cliffs or in hollows of giant trees. Eggs 3-4, 
2.20, or less, X 1-70, or less, varying in color from buffy to deep cin- 
namon- and hazel-brown, usually more or less broken into spotting 
or blotching, but sometimes nearly plain ; spots varying from hazel- 
to rich madder-brown. (Subgenus Bhynchodon Nitzsch.) 
cl\ Adult with toj) of head sooty black, or deej^ black, appreciably or 
decidedly darker than back ; chest creamy buff, buffy white, or 
pure white, often immaculate, never very heavily spotted with 
blackish. Young with lower parts ochraceous or buffy striped 
with dusky, the feathers of upper parts bordered with buffy, 
ochraceous, or rusty. Male: Length 15.50-18.00, wing 11.30- 
13.00, tail 6.00-7.50, culmen .75-.80, tarsus 1.60-1.90, middle toe 
1.78-2.05. Female: Length about 18.00-20.00, wing 13.00-14.75, 
tail 6.90-9.00, culmen .85-1.00, tarsus 1.95-2.20, middle toe 1.95- 
2.30. 
e\ Adult with chest usually distinctly streaked with, or marked 
with tear-shaped spots of, blackish. Young paler, with 
ground-color of lower parts pale buffy or buffy whitish. 
JIab. Europe and portions of Asia. 

F. peregrinus Tunst. Peregrine Falcon.^ 

e^. Adult with chest usually immaculate. Young more deeply 

colored, with ground-color of lower parts frequently deep 

ochraceous. Eggs 2.10 X 1-60. Hab. Whole of America, 

south as far, at least, as Chili ; eastern Asia? 

356. F. peregrinus anatum (Bonap.). Duck Hawk. 
d^. Adult with top of head dark slaty, or plumbeous-slate, uniform 
with back ; chest heavily spotted with blackish, and dusky 
bars of remaining under parts very broad. Young with lower 
parts sooty black, streaked with pale buffy or buffy white, the 
feathers of upper parts without rusty margins. 3fale : Wing 
12.90-13.00 (12.95), tail 6.60-6.90 (6.75), culmen .80-.88 (.84), 
tarsus 1.88-2.00 (1.94). middle toe 1.88-1.95 (1.91). Female: 
Wing 14.50-14.75 (14.66), tail 7.70-8.00 (7.84), culmen .95-1.00 
(.96), tarsus 2.00-2.25 (2.16), middle toe 2.05-2.21 (2.13). Hab. 

1 Falco peregrinus Tcnst., Orn. Brit. 1771, 1. 



248 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

Aleutian Islands, west to Commander Islands, and south along 
Pacific coast to Oregon. 

356rt. F. peregrinus pealei Eidgw. Peale's Falcon. 

c^. Second quill longest, but first longer than third ; second with inner 
web not appreciably sinuated near tip ; adult and young not very 
different in plumage, the latter not distinctly striped beneath ; size 
small (wing not exceeding 12.00 — usually much less). (Subgenus 
Neofalco Eidgav.^) 
d}. Wing 9.50, or more ; under tail-coverts ochraceous, or white and 
rufous, with large transverse spots of black ; upper tail-coverts 
barred with white or pale ashy. Adult: Above plumbeous 
black, distinctly bordered with bluish plumbeous ; throat and 
chest immaculate white centrally and anteriorly, rufous later- 
ally and posteriorly ; thighs plain rufous. Young : Above uni- 
form dull black, the feathers sometimes slightly margined with 
rusty ; throat and chest varying from white to ochraceous or 
rufous, this always deepest laterally and posteriorly ; thighs 
sometimes thickly sjiotted transversely with blackish. Male : 
Length about 12.50, wing 9.50-9.90, tail 5.40-5.50, culmen .72, 
tarsus 1.40-1.55, middle toe 1.75. Female : Length about 15.00, 
wing 10.90-12.00, tail 6.00-6.25, culmen .90, tarsus 1.50-1.60, 
middle toe 1.85-2.10. Hab. Tropical America in general (ex- 
cept West Indies), north to southern Mexico. 

F. deiroleucus Temm. Temminck's Falcon.* 
d'^. Wing not more than 9.00 ; under tail-coverts deep rufous, usually 
immaculate, but sometimes slightly barred with white and 
dusky ; upper tail-coverts indistinctly barred with plumbeous. 
Adult : Above plumbeous-black, the feathers with bluish 
plumbeous tips and edges, and, on rump, etc., more or less 
distinctly barred with same ; throat and chest buffy whitish, 
becoming deeper buffy or ochraceous posteriorly. Young : 
Similar to adult, but upper parts without plumbeous bars or 
tips, and sometimes having a slight brownish cast, the feathers 
usually with indistinct rusty margins ; throat and chest deep 
ochraceous, the latter usually with a few dusky streaks. Male : 
Length about 9.50-10.00, wing 7.20-8.80, tail 5.00-5.50, culmen 
.58, tarsus 1.25-1.50, middle toe 1.15-1.30. Female: Length 
about 11.00, wing 8.50-9.00, tail 5.00-5.50, culmen .58, tarsus 
1.48-1.55, middle toe 1.30-1.40. Hab. Tropical America in 
general (except West Indies), north to northern Mexico (Nuevo 
Leon and Mazatlan). » 

F. albigularis Daud. White-throated Falcon.^ 

1 New subgenus ; type, Falco albigularis Daud. 

2 Falco df.iroleucus Temm., PI. Col. i. 1825, pi. 348. 
^ Falco albigularis Daud., Trait6, ii. 1800, 131. 



FALCO. 249 

a^. Two outer quills with inner webs emarginated near tip ; fii'st quill shorter than 
fourth. 
h^. Tarsus not decidedly longer than middle toe ; basal segment of toes covered 
with small hexagonal or roundish scales. 

Adult males : Bluish gray above, with blackish shaft-streaks ; hind- 
neck spotted or mixed with whitish and buffy or ochraceous ; quills 
dusky ; tail crossed by a greater or less number of blackish bands, 
and tipped with whitish; lower parts whitish, buffy, or light rusty, 
striped with brownish or dusky. Adult females : Bi'ownish above, 
the tail usually with a greater or less number of lighter (usually 
narrow) bands ; top of head streaked with blackish, and feathers of 
back and rump with shaft-streaks of the same; lower parts much as 
in the male, but without rusty tinge. Young (both sexes) : Much like 
adult female, but darker, or else much tinged above with ochraceous 
or rusty. (Subgenus ^salon Kaup.) 
&. Middle tail-feathers of adult male crossed hj about six imperfect, mostly 
concealed, blackish bands, besides the broad and continuous subter- 
minal one ; that of adult female and young crossed by about eight 
light bands, including terminal band. Adult male with closed tail 
showing one black band, this a broad subterminal one ; inner web 
of longest quill with about ten white sjDots ; hind-neck, breast, and 
sides more deeply rusty than thighs; dark markings on breast 
linear, and streaks on cheeks crowded into a distinct "mustache"; 
length about 11.00, wing 7.60-8.00, tail 5.10-5.30, culmen .45-.50, 
tarsus 1.35-1.45, middle toe 1.15. Adult female : Tail with about 
eight narrow pale bands (more on lateral feathers), the first two 
or three concealed, however, by upper coverts ; upper parts usually 
much spotted with a lighter tint than ground-color ; length about 
12.00-14.00, wing 8.60-9.00, tail 6.00-6.30, culmen :52-.55, tarsus 
1.45-1.47, middle toe 1.20-1.25. Young : Similar to adult female, 
but more or less tinged with rusty, the lighter spots on upper parts 
more distinct. Hah. Europe, etc. ; accidental at sea near coast of 

Greenland. 

F. regulus Pall. Merlin.^ 

c^ Middle tail-feathers of adult male crossed by not more than four black- 
ish bands besides the broad subterminal one, that of female and 
young never with more than six light bands, including terminal one. 
Adidt males with closed tail showing more than one black band ; 
inner web of longest quill with less than ten white spots; hind-neck, 
breast, and sides less tinged with rusty than thighs ; markings on 
breast broad, stripe-like, and streaks on cheeks not crowded into a 
distinct "mustache." 
d^. Middle tail-feathers with not more (altogether) than four blackish 

or five lighter bands. 
* 

1 Falco regulus Pall., Keis. Russ. Reichs. ii., Anhang, 1773, 707. 
82 



250 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

e^. Inner webs of quills distinctly barred or transversely spotted 
with whitish ; tail-bands distinct, in both sexes, at all stages; 
outer webs of quills destitute of distinct grayish, buffy, 
or ochraeeous spots, and general color of plumage darker. 
Adult female and young with whitish or buffy jtrevailing on 
lower parts. Male: Length about 10.00-11.00, wing 7.40- 
7.80 (7.65), tail 4.65-5.20 (4.87), culmen .48-.50, tarsus 1.30- 
1.40, middle toe 1.15-1.25. Female: Length about 12.50- 
13.25, wing 8.35-8.60 (8.50), tail 5.30-5.50 (5.38), culmen 
.55-.60, tarsus 1.55-1.60, middle toe 1.35. JVest very va- 
riously situated (in cavity of cliff or in hollow of tree, 
on branches of trees, etc.). Fggs 2-4, 1.59 X 1-23, usually 
more or less spotted or blotched with deep rust}^ brown, 
hazel-brown, or cinnamon, on a paler (sometimes buffy 
whitish) ground-color. Sab. Whole of North America, 
breeding chiefly north of United States ; south, in win- 
ter, to West Indies, Middle America, and northern South 

America 357. F. columbarius Linn. Pigeon Hawk. 

e^. Inner webs of quills not distinctly barred or spotted, and tail- 
bands, except whitish tip, indistinct, or obsolete. Adult 
female and young : Above plain blackish brown ; lower parts 
very heavily marked with dusky. (Adult male unknown.') 
Male : Wing 7.35-7.70, tail 5.25-5.60, culmen .48-.50, tarsus 
1.30-1.45, middle toe 1.20. Female: Wing 8.25-8.50, tail 
5.70-5.80, culmen .55-.60, tarsus 1.50-1.60, middle toe 1.35- 
1.40. Hab. Northwest coast, from northern California (in 
winter) to Sitka. 

357a. F. columbarius suckleyi Eidgw. Black Merlin. 
(P. Middle tail-feathers crossed by (altogether) five darker and six 
lighter bands; outer webs of quills distinctly spotted with light 
grayish in adult male, and buffy or ochraeeous in adult female 
and young, and general plumage paler. Adult male : Above 
pale bluish gray (top of head usually more or less tinged with 
light rusty or ochraeeous) ; tail crossed, on middle feathers, by 
five blackish and six light bluish gray (or five bluish gray and 
one white — terminal) bands, the lighter ones often clouded or 
mixed with white; outer webs or quills distinctly spotted with 
light grayish ; wing 7.70-8.05 (7.94), tail 4.90-5.30 (5.11), culmen 
.50-.60, tarsus 1.42-1.55, middle toe 1.20-1.30. Adult female: 
Above rather light eai'thy brown, more or less distinctly barred 
or transversely spotted with a lighter shade ; tail crossed, on 
middle feather, by six very distinct and entirely continuous 
narrow bands of buffy whitish ; secondaries distinctly banded 
wii,h ochraeeous, and outer webs of quills distinctly spotted 
with a lighter tint of the same; length about 12.00-13.50, wing 



FALCO. 251 

8.80-9.10 (8.95), tail 5.70-6.30 (5.92), culmen .55-.60, tarsus 
1.30-1.40, middle toe 1.15-1.25. Young (both sexes) : Similar to 
adult female, but more decidedly buffy below, and upper parts 
more or less tinged with rusty. Egg (single specimen) 1.52 X 
1.22, buify white, handsomely marbled and irregularly spotted 
with maddei'-brown. Sab. Interior of North America, breed- 
ing from Rocky Mountains of Colorado (?) northward, and 
straggling west to Pacific coast ; south, in winter, to Texas and 
Arizona (probably into Mexico). 

358. F. richardsonii Eidgw. Richardson's Merlin. 
b^. Tarsus decidedly longer than middle toe ; basal phalanx of toes with trans- 
verse scutellse. 
c^ Bill robust, the length of the cere on top equal to about one-third 
the culmen ; transverse scutellffi on basal phalanx of toes large 
and almost uninterrupted ; second and third quills longest, first 
equal to or shorter than fourth ; sexes essentially alike in color, 
and young not very diff"erent from adults ; size medium (wing more 
than 9.00). (Subgenus Rhynchofalco Eidgw.) 

Adult : Above plain bluish gray or plumbeous, the secondaries 
broadly tipped with whitish ; tail darker towards end, tipped 
with white, and crossed by about eight narrow bands of the 
same ; a broad stripe behind eye, middle of ear-coverts, with 
entire chin, throat, and chest, immaculate white, the postocular 
stripe changing to orange-rufous on occiput, where the two of 
opposite sides are confluent ; sides and flanks slaty blackish, 
narrowly barred with white ; thighs and lower tail-coverts 
light rufous, or rusty ochraceous. Young : Similar to adult, 
but colors duller, the gray above less bluish, rufous or ochra- 
ceous of thighs, etc., paler, the chest more or less buffy and 
striped with dusky. Male : Length about 15 00, wing 9.20- 
10.70, tail 6.30-8.00. culmen .60-.68, tarsus 1.70-1.85, middle 
toe 1.35-1.50. Female: Length about 17.00-18.00, wing 11.00- 
11.60, tail 7.80-8.80, culmen .71-.80, .tarsus 1.80-2.00, middle toe 
1.55-1.70. Nest on low trees or bushes (usually yuccas or 
cacti). Eggs 2-4(?), 1.78 X L57, dull white or buflPy white, 
thickly speckled and irregularly spotted with vandyke-brown. 
Hab. Tropical America in general (except West Indies), north 
to southern Texas and I^ew Mexico. 

359. F. fusco-ccerulescens Vieill. Aplomado Falcon. 
c^ Bill small, the length of the cere on top less than one-fourth the chord 
of the culmen ; transverse scutellse interrupted at extreme lower 
part of tarsus and extreme base of toes ; tarsus much longer than 
middle toe (without claw) ; sexes very different in color, and young 
of both sexes (in American species) essentially like adults. Nest in 
holes, usually in dead trees. Eggs 2-5, 1.45, or less, X 1-16, or less, 



252 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

varying from pure white, Avith few markings (very rarely quite im- 
maculate), to deep cinnamon-buff (usually an intermediate shade) 
more or less sprinkled, speckled, spotted, or blotched with rusty 
brown or cinnamon. (Subgenus Tinnunculus Vieill.) 
Adult males with tail chestnut-rufous, crossed by a broad subter- 
minal black band (sometimes with more or less distinct nar- 
rower bands anterior to this, especially on lateral feathers), and 
tipped with whitish or rufous ; wing-coverts grayish blue, or 
plumbeous, usually moi-e or less spotted with black ; sides of 
head with one or two (usually two) black obliquely vertical 
stripes, the enclosed space whitish ; low^er parts varying from 
pure white (the throat and under tail-coverts always white), 
through shades of buff and ochraceous, to deep rufous, with 
or without black spots. Young males similar to adults, but 
feathers of upper surface more or less distinctly margined 
with whitish, the colors generally more suffused. Adult fe- 
males : Tail rusty, crossed by numerous narrow bands or bars 
of dusky ; wing-coverts also ferruginous, barred with dusky, 
like back and scapulars ; head marked as in male. Young fe- 
male: Similar to adult, but colors softer, deeper, and more 
blended. 
dK Back always entirely rufous or rusty, with or without black bars 
or spots ; breast, etc., varying from white to deej) ochraceous 
with or without dusky markings ; forehead and ear-coverts 
distinctly whitish. 
e\ Inner webs of quills barred entirely across with white and 
dusky ; " mustache" across cheeks always conspicuous ; no 
distinct white superciliary sti'ipe. 

Top of head varying from bluish gray to dark slate, the 

crown with or without a rufous patch.. Male : Length 

about 8.75-10.60, wing 6.55-8.05 (7.16), tail 4.20-5.45 

(4.73), culnien .50, tarsus 1.25-1.55, middle toe .95. 

Female: Length 9.50-12.00, wing 6.90-8.15 (7.57), tail 

4.50-5.60 (5.14), culmen .50-.55, tarsus 1.40-1.45,' 

middle toe .90-1.00. Eggs 1.38 X l-H- Hah. Whole 

of temperate North America, and south (in winter 

only?) through Middle America to northern South 

America. 

360. F. sparverius Linn. American Sparrow Hawk. 

e"^. Inner webs of quills white, merely serrated along the shaft 

with dusky ; " mustache" across cheeks indistinct or quite 

obsolete ; a conspicuous white superciliary strij^e. 

Otherwise like F. sparverius, but scapulars and wing- 
coverts usually with fewer black markings, and lower 
parts usually immaculate white in male, stained or 



POLYBORUS. 253 

tinged with orange-rufous, or salmon-color. Male: 
Wing 6.80-7.30, tail 4.90-5.20, culmen .46-.51, tarsus 
1.30-1.45, middle toe .90. Female: Wing 7.00-7.60, 
tail 4.70-5.60, culmen .50-.52, tarsus 1.40, middle toe 
.91. Hah. Cuba and Haiti. 

F. dominicensis Gmel. Haitien Sparrow Hawk." 
d}. Back rufous only in the female and young male, plumbeous or 
dark bluish gray in adult male ; breast, etc., deep rusty or 
rufous ; foi'ehead and ear-coverts dusky. 

Adult male : Above, except tail, entirely dark plumbeous, or 
, slate-gray, or else chiefly of this color; a blackish collar 

across hind-neck ; breast and sides deep rufous, sometimes 
inclining to chestnut ; throat grayish white, or light gray- 
ish ; inner webs of quills grayish, transversely clouded or 
mottled with dusky. Young male: Similar to adult, but 
back and scapulars mixed with more or less of rufous, 
rusty of breast paler, etc. Adidt female : Lower parts 
deep rusty ; inner webs of quills rusty, marked with about 
twelve transverse bars or narrow spots of dusky. Male : 
Wing 6.90-7.10, tail 4.80-5.10, culmen .50, tarsus 1.45-1.48, 
middle toe .90. Female: Wing 7.00-7.50, tail 5.00-5.15, 
culmen .50, tarsus 1.35-1.40, middle toe .88-.90. Hah. 
Cuba and Haiti ; accidental or casual in southern Florida. 
361. F. sparverioides Vig. Cuban Sparrow Hawk. 

Genus POLYBORUS Yieillgt. (Page 224, pi. LXVII., fig. 2.) 

Species. 

Common Characters. — Tail dull white, or pale isabella-color, narrowly barred 
with graj^ish or dusky, and crossed at end by a broad band of dark brown or black- 
ish. Adult : Whole top of head, together with greater portion of body and wings, 
blackish, or dark brown ; cheeks, neck, chest, and tail-coverts dull white or pale 
isabella-color; nape, back, and breast (sometimes wing-coverts and belly also) 
barred with whitish (or pale isabella-color) and dusky. Young: Plumage striped 
with dull brownish and dull whitish or dull buffy, the pileum plain dull brownish; 
tail as in adult. 

a\ Eump and upper tail-coverts, in adult, white (with or without bars) ; tail 

white, the narrow bars grayish, the terminal dark band 2.00, or more, 

wide. 

bK Scapulars, breast, belly, and middle wing-coverts barred with blackish and 

whitish in adult, striped in young; tail-coverts barred ; wing 16.00-17.70, 

1 Falco dominicensis Gmel., S. N. i. 178S, 285, 



254 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

tail 10.00-11.00, culmen 1.20-1.41, tarsus 3.70-4.70. Ilab. South America, 
excejit northern portions. p. tharus (Mol.). Caracara.^ 

U^. Scapulars, sides, belly, and middle wing-coverts jDlain black in adult, plain 
dull brownish in young; tail-coverts plain white. Adult: Upper half 
of head, scapulars, wings, lower back, rump, belly, sides, flanks, and anal 
region plain dull black, or brownish black ; upper back and breast black, 
barred with white ; lower portion of head, neck (all round), chest, and 
tail-coverts soiled white, the chest transversely spotted with black ; basal 
two-thirds (or more) of tail white, crossed by about 13-14 narrow bars 
of dusky, these growing less distinct basally ; terminal zone of tail uni- 
form black. Young : Black of adult replaced by dull brownish, darkest 
on top of head ; white and dusky areas gradually blended, those portions 
which are barred in the adult being striped with the two colors; tail as 
in adult. Length 20.50-25.00, wing 14.60-16.50, tail 8.80-10.00, culmen 
1.20-1.48, tarsus 3.20-3.75. Nest on trees, bushes, or cliffs. Eggs 2-4, 
2.30x1-74; ground-color cinnamon, pale umber, brownish white, or 
walnut-brown, variously marked (usually blotched or stained) with 
deeper brown (burnt-umber, chestnut, or claret-brown). Hah. Middle 
America and northei-n South America, south to Guiana and Ecuador, 
north to southern border of United States (Florida to Lower California). 
362. P. cheriway (J acq.). Audubon's Caracara. 
a^. Eump and upper tail-coverts dull brownish buff, or light isabella-color, broadly 
barred with dull brown ; tail brownish buff, or pale isabella-color, with broad 
bars of grayish brown bordered by narrower zigzag bars or lines of dusky, 
the terminal dark band less than 2.00 wide. 

Adult: Upper half of head, lesser wing-coverts, secondaries, primary cov- 
erts, terminal portion of primaries, under side of wing (including axillars), 
and terminal zone of tail, plain blackish brown; ear-coverts, cheeks, and 
throat plain dirt}" whitish or pale brownish buffy ; rest of plumage 
barred with dusky brownish and dull brownish buff or dirty brownish 
white. Young : Quills, tail, tail-coverts, head, and lesser wing-coverts 
much as in adult ; rest of plumage more or less distinctly striped with 
dull brown and dirty brownish white or dull buffy, the former prevail- 
ing, and sometimes nearly uniform, on upper parts. Downy young: 
Light brownish buff, with a brown patch covering arm-wing and scapu- 
lar region, and another covering top of head. Wing 15.00-16.40, tail 
10.50-11.65, culmen 1.25-1.35, tarsus 3.50-3.75. Hah. Guadalupe Island, 
Lower California 303. P. lutosus Eidgw. Guadalupe Caracara. 

Genus PANDION Savigny. (Page 224, pi. LXX., fig. 3.) 

Species. 
Adidt male : Above plain dusky grayish brown, the tail more grayish, narrowly 
tipped with white, and crossed by about six or seven narrow bands of dusky ; head, 

1 Falco tharus MoL., Sp. Chil. 1782, 264, 343. Polyhorua tharua Strickl., Orn. Syn. 1855, 19. 



STRIX. 255 

neck, and entire lower parts pure white, the chest sometimes slightly blotched or 
spotted with brown, but usually immaculate ; sides of head with a dusky stripe 
from lores across ear-coverts, and top of head usually more or less mai'kcd with 
dusky. Adult female : Similar to the male, but chest much more heavily spotted or 
blotched with brown (never immaculate). Young : Above blackish brown, each 
feather distinctl}^ bordered terminally with -white or buffy ; otherwise like adult, 
the sexes differing in same manner. Downy young : Dull sooty grayish or dusky 
above, more or less mixed or tinged with rusty or fulvous, relieved by a broad 
whitish stripe down middle of back and rump ; a dusky stripe on sides of head, and 
three others on top of head, separated by whitish stripes ; hinder portion of wing 
whitish, anterior portion dusky; lower parts dull whitish, the chest brownish or 
dusky. Length 20.75-25.00, extent about 65.00, wing 17.00-21.00, tail 7.00-10.00, 
culmen 1.20-1.45, tarsus 1.95-2.40. Nest on trees near water, very bulky, composed 
of large sticks, etc. Eggs 2-4, 2.44 X 1-77, the ground-color varying from buffy 
white through various shades of buff to pale cinnamon, boldly spotted or blotched 
with rich chestnut or maddei'-brown and purplish gra}". Hah. Temperate and 
tropical America in genei'al, north to Hudson's Bay and Alaska. 

364. P. haliaetus carolinensis (Gmel.). American Osprey. 

Family STRIGID^E. — The Barn Owls. (Page 218.) 

Genera. 
(Characters same as those given for the Family) Strix. (Page 255.) 

Genus STRIX Linnets. (Page 255, pi LXXIV., fig. 1.) 

Species. 

Ground-color of upper parts ochraceous-yellow, this overlaid, more or less con- 
tinuously, by a grayish superficial tint, finely mottled and speckled with dusky and 
white ; quills and tail-feathers with more or less distinct, distant, dusk}^ bands, of 
variable number; lower parts varying fi-om plain snowy white to bright tawny, 
speckled with dusky; face varying from pure white to tawny; length 15.00-21.00, 
wing 12.50-14.00, tail 5.70-7.50, culmen .90-1.00, tarsus 2.25-3.00, middle toe 1.25, 
or more. Nest in hollow trees, in towers, belfries, etc. Eggs 3-10, 1.65 X 1.31, 
ovate, plain white. Hah. United States generally (rarer northward) and Mexico. 

305. S. pratincola Bonap. American Barn Owl. 

Family BUBONID^. — The Horned Owls, etc. (Page 218.) 

{Eggs invariably plain white, usually oval, or broadly oval, sometimes nearly 
spherical.) 

Genera. 
rtl Wing more than 10.00. 

b^. Length of cere along top equal to or exceeding chord of culmen, the upper 
outline decidedly arched toward base. 



256 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

Ear-opening immense, extending almost the entire height of the skull, 

the two ears conspicuously asymmetrical Asio. (Page 257.) 

l)^. Length of cere alorig top less than chord of culmen, the upper outline not 

arched. 

&. Ear-opening very large, with a distinct anterior operculum or " flap," 

the two ears conspicuously asymmetrical. (No ear-tufts.) 

d\ Smaller (wing 12.00-15.00, tail less than 10.00) ; bill larger, more 

exposed ; at least the terminal scutella of each toe exposed ; 

eyes larger, with irides dark brown or nearly black ; feet larger, 

and facial disk relatively smaller Syrnium. (Page 258.) 

(P. Larger (wing 16.00-18.00, tail 12.00 or more) ; bill relatively much 
smaller, and nearly hidden b}^ feathers ; toes entirely covered 
with feathers ; eyes relatively much smaller, with irides yellow ; 
feet relatively much smaller, and facial disk much broader. 

Scotiaptex. (Page 259.) 

c^. Ear-opening small, without anterior operculum, or " flap," the two ears 

not distinctly asymmetrical. 

d}. Ear-tufts very conspicuous ; tail reaching beyond tip of longest 

lower coverts ; two or three outer quills with inner webs emar- 

ginated; toes covered with short but dense feathers, the claws 

wholly exposed ; bill exposed Bubo. (Page 262.) 

d}. Ear-tufts rudimentary ; tail not reaching beyond tips of longest 
lower coverts ; four outer quills with inner webs emarginated ; 
toes covered with long hair-like feathers, partly or wholly con- 
cealing the claws ; bill nearly concealed by the loral feathers. 

(Very large; wing 17.00 to 19.00.) Nyctea. (Page 264.) 

a\ Wing less than 10.00. 

6\ Tarsus less than twice as long as middle toe, and much less than half as long 
as tail, 
c^ Tail more than two-thirds as long as wing, grajduated. (No ear-tufts; 

. wing about 9.00.) , Surnia. (Page 264.) 

&. Tail less than two-thirds as long as wing, even, or slightly rounded. 
d^. Ear-opening very large (nearly equal to height of skull), with ante- 
rior operculum or flap, the two ears conspicuously asymmeti'ical. 

(No ear-tufts ; wing 5.25-7.20.) Nyctala. (Page 260.) 

d^. Ear-opening small, without anterior operculum, the two ears sym- 
metrical. 
e\ Nostril large, oval, opening in anterior edge of cere ; ear-tufts 
conspicuous; small (wing 5.40-7.80). 

Megascops. (Page 260.) 
e'. Nostril small, circular, opening near the middle of the inflated 
cere ; no ear-tufts ; very small (wing 3.50-4.40). 
p. Tarsus not longer than middle toe, densely feathered ; tail 
more than half as long as wing, rounded. 

Glaucidium. (Page 266.) 



ASio. 257 

/*. Tarsus loBger than middle toe, scantily haired; tail less 
than half as long as wing, even. 

Micrathene. (Page 266.) 

b''. Tarsus more than twice as long as middle toe, and about half as long as tail, 

(Wing 6.15-7.50) Speotyto. (Page 265.) 

G-ENUS ASIO Brisson. (Page 256, pi. LXXIV., figs. 2, 3.) 

Species. 

Ear-tufts very conspicuous ; upper parts finely mottled or vermiculated with 
dusky, bufty, and grayish white, the first predominating ; lower parts buffj', 
overlaid, more or less continuously, Avith whitish, and marked with ragged, 
or " herring-bone," strijDes of dusky. (Subgenus Asio.) 
5\ Ends of all the quills normal ; toes feathered ; face ochraceous. 

c^ Dusky of upper parts disposed in broad stripes, contrasting more or less 
conspicuously with the paler ground-color; lower parts ochraceous, 
conspicuously striped, but not distinctly barred, with dusky. (Size 
of A. wilsonianus.) Hah. Northern parts of eastern hemisphere. 

A. otus (Linn.). Long-eared Owl.^ 
&. Dusk}" of upper parts in form of confused mottling, not contrasting con- 
spicuously with the paler ground-color ; lower parts whitish (ochra- 
ceous beneath surface), marked with irregular dusky bars which are 
much broader than the mesial streaks with which they are conflu- 
ent ; length 13.00-16.00, wing 11.50-12.00, tail 6.00-6.20, culmen .65, 
tarsus 1.20-1.25. Nest, usually the deserted one of a crow, heron, 
magpie, or other bird of similar size. Eggs 3-6, 1.66 X 1-28, ovate 
or ovoid. Hah. Whole of temperate North America, south to table- 
lands of Mexico. 

366. A. wilsonianus (Less.). American Longc-eared Owl. 
61 Ends of longer quills narrow, that of the first almost falcate ; toes naked ; 
face dusky or with dull grayish prevailing. 

Above dusky, slightly broken by sparse mottling of yellowish white ; 
lower parts grayish white, coarsely barred and irregularly striped 
with dusky; wing about 13.00, tail 6.80, culmen .90, tarsus 1.55. 
Hah. Eastern tropical America, north to eastern Mexico and Cuba. 

A. stygius Wagl. Stygian Owl.^ 
Ear-tufts rudimentary ; color (above and below) ochraceous or buffy whitish, 
striped, but not barred, with dark brown. (Subgenus Brachyotus Gould.) 
Adult : Ground-color varying (individually) from bright tawny ochraceous 
to buffy white, this relieved by conspicuous stripes of dark bi-own, those 
of the lower parts growing gradually narrower posteriorly, and dis- 
appearing altogether on legs and lower tail-coverts ; wings irregularly 

1 Strix otus Linn., S. N. ed. 10, i. 1758, 92. Asia otus Less., Man. d'Orn. i. 1828, 116. 
' Nyctalops stygiua Wagl., Isis, 1832, 1221. Aaio atygiua Strickl., Orn. Syn. i. 1865, 207. 

33 



258 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

varied "with dusky and ochraceous, the quills with large (often partially 
confluent) spots of the latter ; tail ochraceous or butfy, paler on outer 
feathers, and crossed with about five dusky bands ; face blackish around 
eyes, the eyebrows whitish. Young : Above dark sepia-brown, the 
feathers broadly tijjped with ochraceous-buff ; face uniform brownish 
black; lower parts wholly plain pale dull butfy, tinged with smoky 
grayish anteriorly. Length 13.80-16.75, Aving 11.80-13.00, tail 5.80- 
6.10, culmcn .60-.65, tarsus about 1.75. Nest on ground, in open situa- 
tions, usually among bushes or tall grasses. Eggs 3-6, 1.59 X 1-23. Hab. 
Entire western hemisphere, except Galapagos and part of West Indies ; 
also, nearly throughout eastern hemisphere, excepting Australia, etc. 

367. A. accipitrinus (Pall.). Short-eared Owl. 

Genus SYRNIUM Savigny. (Page 256, pi. LXXYII., fig. 2.) 

Species. 

Common Characters. — Above deep umber- or sepia-brown, barred or spotted 
with butfy or whitish ; face dull gi'ayish or dingy grayish M-hite, usually with nar- 
row darker concentric rings; quills spotted with pale brown and whitish, and tail 
crossed by about six to eight narrow bands of the same ; lower parts whitish (bufiy 
or ochraceous beneath surface), barred and striped, or spotted, with brown ; iris 
brownish bkck ; bill yellowish. 

a\ Head, neck, and breast broadly barred with deep brown and whitish, or buffy ; 

sides, flanks, and other posterior lower parts striped with deep brown. 

h^. Top of toes feathered, except on terminal portion. 

c'. Face without darker concentric rings ; colors deep sepia-brown and 

grayish white, the latter with little or none of ochraceous on lower 

parts, where the stripes are very dark, almost blackish, brown; 

wing 14.80, tail 9.00, culmen .95. Hab. Eastern Mexico (Mirador, 

etc.). 

S. nebulosum sartorii Ridgw. Mirador Barred Owl.^ 

c?. Face with more or less distinct darker concentric rings ; colors deep 

umber-brown and buffy whitish (deeper buff, or ochraceous, beneath 

surface). Young : Head, neck, and entire lower parts broadly 

barred with rather light umber-brown and pale buffy and whitish, 

the brown and lighter bars about equal in width ; back, scapulars, 

and wing-coverts similarly marked, but the bars broader, the brown 

ones of a deej)er tint, and the terminal portion of each feather 

broadly white, producing a spotted appearance; quills, secondaries, 

and tail-feathers (when grown out) as in adult. Length 19.75-24.00, 

wing about 13.00-14.00, tail about 9.00. Nest in trees (usually in 

hollows). Eggs 2-3, 1.94x1-65. Hab. Eastern North America, 

1 Syrniiim nebulosum, var. sartorii, RiDGW., in Hist. N. Am. B. iii. 1874, 29. (This is possibly .a distinct 
species from S. nebulosum.) 



SCOTIAPTEX. 259 

north to more southern British Provinces ; south to Georgia and 

northern Texas 368. S. nebulosum (Forst.). Barred Owl. 

Jj^. Top of toes naked, except a small pointed strip on outer side of basal joint 
of middle toe. 
Plumage essentially as in S. nebulosum, but averaging slightly darker. 
Ilab. Gulf States, from Florida (and lower Georgia?) to Texas. 

368a. S. nebulosum alleni Eidgw. Florida Barred Owl. 
rt^ Head and neck deep brown, marked with roundish white spots ; whole of lower 
parts barred and transversely spotted with brown. 

Length about 19.00, wing 12.00-13.50, tail 8.50-9.00, culmen .90. Egg 2.05 
X 1-80. Hab. Highlands of Mexico, north to New Mexico, Arizona, 
California, and Lower California. 

369. S. occidentale Xantus. Spotted Owl. 

Genus SCOTIAPTEX Swainson.^ (Page 256, pi. LXXVIL, fig. 3.) 

Species. 

Common Characters. — Dusky grayish brown and grayish white, the former 
prevailing above, the latter predominating beneath ; the upper surface varied by 
irregular markings having a transverse tendency, the lower parts with the dark 
markings in the form of ragged longitudinal stripes, giving way to transverse bars 
on the flanks; face grayish white, with narrow concentric rings of dusky; bill pale 
j^ellow; iris yellow; toes very densely clothed with hair-like feathers; length 
25.00-30.00, extent 54.00-60.00, wing about 16.00-18.00, tail 11.00-12.50, culmen 
1.00. 

rt\ Plumage with dark sooty tints predominating, the inner webs of primaries with- 
out a distinct whitish patch on basal portion. Nest usually in trees. Eggs 
2-3, 2.16 X 1-71. Hab. Northern Noi'th America, breeding far northward ; 
south, in winter, to northei'n border of United States. 

370. S. cinereum (Gmel.). Great Gray Owl. 

a^. Plumage with light mottled brownish gray and grayish white prevailing, the 
inner webs of quills with distinct whitish patch on basal portion. Downy 
young : " Upper parts vqvj much darker than in the adult, dull (almost 
sooty) chocolate-brown ; the head covered with close dark feathers very 
slightly tijiped with whitish brown ; upper parts very little marked with 
white ; facial disk scarcely defined ; under parts sooty brown closely barred 
with dull white ; wings and tail much darker than in the adult, the outer 
primaries only indistinctly barred with dull grayish brown." (Dresser.) 

^ Scottaptex Swains., Classif. B. ii. 1837, 217. Type, Strix cinerea Gmel. 

Note. — The substitution of Ulula Cuv. for Scotiaptex Swains, as the name for this genus was an error. 
S/n'x uraleyisis Pall., the type of Ulula, I am now convinced, from recent very careful examination and com- 
parison with both .S". cinera and Stnx striduln Linn, (the latter being the type of the genus Syrnium Satign.), 
is much more nearly related, structurally and otherwise, to the latter, — so much so, in fact, that [//«?« can rank 
at most only as a subgenus of St/rnium. 



2(30 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

Hah. Northern portions of Europe and Asia, straggling to western Alaska 
(shores of Norton Sound). 

370a. S. cinereum lapponicum (Eetz.). Lapp Owl. 

Genus NYCTALA Brehm. (Page 256, pi. LXXV., fig. 1.) 

Species. 

Common Characters. — Adults: Above brown, more or less spotted with 
white; beneath white, broadly striped with brown. Yoimg : Above plain brown, 
the wings and tail as in adults ; face plain dusky, the " eyebrows" white, in con- 
spicuous contrast; lower parts plain brownish anteriorly, j)lain ochraceous pos- 
teriorly. 

a\ Wing 6.50, or more, tail more than 4.00. 

b^. Smaller and paler ; legs whitish, usually without spots ; lower tail-coverts 
with narrow brovvn mesial streaks or shaft-streaks ; wing 6.50-6.90 
(6.74), tail 4.20-4.40 (4.27). Hab. Northern portions of eastern hemi- 
sphere. 

N. tengmalmi (Gmel.). Tengmalm's Owl.^ 
6^ Larger and darker; legs and feet usually butfy, more or less (sometimes 
thickly) spotted with brovvn ; lower tail-coverts with broad mesial 
strii^es of brown ; length 9.00-12.00, wing 6.60-7.40 (7.12), tail 4.10-4.70 
(4.42). Nest in trees. Eggs 2-4, 1.35 X 1-14. Hab. Northern North 
America; south, in winter, to northern border of United States. 

371. N. tengmalmi richardsoni (Bonap.). Richardson's Owl. 
al "Wing less than 6.00, tail less than 3.50. Plumage much as in iV. richardsoni, but 
with less white on top of head and hind-neck, stripes on lower parts more 
reddish, and feet always (?) plain whitish or buffy ; length 7.25-8.50, wing 
5.25-5.90 (5.58), tail 2.80-3.25 (3.02). JSfest in holes in trees or in deserted 
nests of other birds. Eggs 3-5, 1.19 X 1-00. Hab. Northern United States 
and British Provinces, rarely south of 40° in eastern portions, but in moun- 
tainous western districts south to southern Mexico. 

372. N. acadica (Gmel.). Saw-whet Owl. 

Genus MEGASCOPS Kaup. (Page 256, pi. LXXV., fig. 2.) 

Species. 
Common Characters. — Outer webs of outermost scapulars mostly whitish, 
buffy, or pale rusty, with blackish terminal border, producing a more or less con- 
spicuous light-colored stripe along each side of back ; feathers of plumage in general 
with blackish shaft-streaks, or broader mesial streaks, the latter, especially on lower 
parts, usually throwing off narrow transverse bars ; outer webs of quills with con- 
spicuous, large, more or less quadrate whitish or buffy spots, and tail more or less 
distinctly (never sharply) banded with a paler tint than the ground-color; ground- 

^Strix tengmalmi Gmel., S. N, i. 1788, 291. Nyctala tengmalmi Bonap., Geog. &, Comp. List, 1838, 7. 



MEGASCOPS. 261 

color of upper surface in general usually moi-e or less broken by lighter and darker 
vermiculations. Young, with whole plumage, excepting remiges and tail-feathers, 
simply barred or narrowly banded with dull grayish or whitish, the longitudinal 
and other markings being wholly absent. Nestling : Entirely white. Nest in holes 
in trees. Eggs 2-6. 

a}. Toes more or less distinctly feathered or bristled on upper side. 

¥. Dichromatic ; the plumage presenting two totally distinct phases, one gray- 
ish, the other bright rufous, which have no relation to sex, age, or season. 
(Eastern races.) 
c^. Larger, the wing averaging more than 6.00. 

Length 7.50-10.00, wing 6.00-7.10 (6.43), tail 3.05-3.50 (3.26). 
Eggs 1.42 X 1-19- Hah. Eastern United States and British 
Provinces, except lower portions of South Atlantic (and Gulf?) 
States, west to Great Plains. 

373. M. asio (Linn.). Screech Owl. 
c*. Smaller, the wing averaging less than 6.00. 

d}. Much darker than M. asio, with markings on lower parts more 
numerous and more extended. Gray phase, deep grayish 
brown, varying to decided umber-brown, above; legs usually 
deep brownish, thickly barred with darker. Rufous phase, 
more richly colored than corresponding plumage of ilf. asio, the 
legs usually bright rusty. Wing 5.60-6.40 (5.98), tail 2.65-3.20 
(3.00). Eggs 1.30 X 1-10. Sab. Lower South Carolina and 
Georgia, and whole of Florida. 

373a. M. asio floridanus Eidgw. Florida Screech Owl. 
<P. Slightly darker than M. asio, with light mottlings on upper parts 
(in both phases) much coarser and more conspicuous. Rufous 
phase with rufous predominating on lower parts. Length 6.50- 
9.00, wing 5.60-6.30 (5.96), tail 3.10-3.40 (3.28). Eggs 1.34 X 
1.17. Hab. Southern Texas and eastern Mexico, south to Gua- 
temala... 373(^. M. asio mccallii (Cass.). Texan Screech Owl. 
i*. Monochromatic ; the plumage presenting in all individuals essentially the 
same character, corresponding to the grayish phase of the eastern races. 
(Western races.) 
c^ Smaller, the wing averaging less than 6.75. 

d}. Plumage nearly pure ash-gray above, the usually broad blackish 
mesial streaks in conspicuous contrast ; blackish bars on lower 
parts very numerous, narrow; black border to face Avithout 
admixture of brown, and black spots on breast usually without 
distinct brown exterior suffusion ; length about 6.50-8.00, wing 
6.10-7.00 (6.41), tail 3.10-3.70 (3.44). ^ Eggs 1.31 X l-H. Hab. 
Northwestern Mexico and contiguous border of United States, in 
Arizona and New Mexico, north to Colorado (Colorado Springs). 
373/. M. asio trichopsis (Wagl.). Mexican Screech Owl. 



262 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

d^. Plumage grayish brown, or decidedly brownish gray, above, the 
blackish mesial streaks usually narrower and less conspicuously 
contrasted ; bars on lower parts coarser and less crowded ; black 
border to face usually with distinct admixture of brown, and 
black spots on breast with distinct brown exterior suffusion ; 
length about 8.50-10.00, wing 6.30-7.20 (6.60), tail 3.30-3.90 
(3.58). JEggs 1.34 X 1-16. Hab. California. 

373c. M. asio bendirei (Brewst.). California Screech Owl. 
c^. Larger, the wing averaging more than 6.75. 

d}. The grayer specimens hardly distinguishable in plumage from M. 
asio bendirei, but size decidedly greater; plumage varj'ing to 
deep umber-brownish (especially in specimens from Pacific 
coast district); wing 6.92-7.80 (7.25), tail 3.65-4.60 (4.26). 
^ggs 1.50 X 1-27. Hab. Northwest coast, from Oregon to 
Sitka, and east to northern Montana (Hellgate). 
373d. M. asio kennicottii (Elliot). Kennicott's Screech Owl. 
d'^. Yery light-colored, pure white largely predominating on lower 
parts, the upper parts varying from pale buffy grayish to pale 
dull grayish cinnamon, with the white spots on outer webs of 
exterior scapulars and quills larger than in other forms, the 
latter sometimes more or less confluent ; wing 6.70-7.50 
(6.91), tail 3.30-4.00 (3.66). Hab. Higher Eocky Mountains, 
from Colorado to eastern Montana (Fort Custer).. 373e. M. asio 
maxwelliae (Eidgw.). Rocky Mountain Screech Owl. 
a''. Toes entirely naked, to extreme base. 

Adult : Above finely mottled grayish, relieved by irregular blackish mesial 
streaks ; outer webs of outermost scapulars bright ochraceous or orange- 
rufous (white beneath surface) ; outer webs of lower middle wing-coverts 
white, forming conspicuous spots ; lower parts whitish, marked with 
very distinct broad mesial streaks and narrower bars or transverse lines 
of blackish ; face and throat — sometimes whole upper parts — sometimes 
more or less tinged or washed with orange-rufous. Young : Above 
mottled transversely with grayish and whitish, but without any longi- 
tudinal markings ; lower parts similarly but more coarsely and regularly 
barred. Wing 5.10-5.60, tail 2.60-3.00. Eggs about 1.13 X -96. Hab. 
Highlands of Guatemala and Mexico, and northward to Colorado and 
northern California (Fort Crook). 

374. M. flammeolus (Kaup). Flammulated Screech Owl. 

Genus BUBO DumMil. (Page 256, pi. LXXVI., fig. 1.) 

Species. 

Common Characters. — Plumage irregularly varied with buffy, tawny, or whitish 
(or all together), and dusky, in variable relative extent. Nest in trees (often a 
deserted hawk's or crow's nest). Eggs 2-3. 



BUBO. 263 

Lower parts barred with dusky, but without strijDes ; anterior upj)er parts des- 
titute of stripes ; iris bright yellow. (Subgenus Bubo.) 

Adult : Above vermiculated with blackish on a dull grajnsh or grayish 

brown ground-color (sometimes almost white), the outer webs of quills 

marked with quadrate spots of lighter and darker, and tail crossed by 

about seven nai'row bands of mottled dusky ; eyebrows and lores whitish ; 

part of throat and middle of chest white ; rest of lower parts more or 

less ochraceous or tawn}^ (tips or exposed portion of feathers usuall}^ 

whitish), the sides, flanks, etc., distinctly and regularly barred with 

dusky. Young : Quills and tail-feathers as in adult ; rest of plumage 

dull butf}^ or ochraceous, everywhere barred with dusky. Male : Length 

18.00-23.00, extent about 49.00-52.00, wing about 14.50-15.25, tail 8.25, 

weight about 3? pounds. Female: Length 22.00-25.00, extent about 

57.00, wing 16.00, tail 9.00. 

h^. Darker colored, with dusky markings more extensive or more numerous (or 

both), the plumage usually with much mixture of tawny or ochraceous. 

&. Moderately dark-colored, the face usually more or less rusty, and the 

plumage usually with an excess of ochraceous or tawny rufous. 

Eggs 2.12 X 1-81. Hah. Eastern North America, south through 

eastern Mexico to Costa Eica. 

375. B. virginianus (Gmel.). Great Horned Owl. 

&. Extremely dark-colored, the face usually sooty brownish, mixed with 

grayish white, the plumage usually without excess of ochraceous 

or tawny — sometimes with none. Egg (single) 2.24 X 1-90. Hab. 

Northwest coast, from Oregon north to Alaska ; Labrador. 

375c. B. virginianus saturatus Eidgw. Dusky Horned Owl. 
b^. Lighter colored, with the light grayish and buffy tints of the ground-color 
largely prevailing over the darker markings, the lower parts purer white, 
c\ General aspect of plumage above grayish, with more or less of buffy 
admixture; dark markings of lower parts distinct. Eggs 2.13 X 1-78. 
Hab. Western United States (except northwest coast), eastward across 
Great Plains (straggling to northern Illinois, "Wisconsin, and western 
Canada), north to Manitoba, south over table-lands of Mexico. 
375a. B. virginianus subarcticus (Hoy). Western Horned Owl. 
c^. General aspect of plumage above white, through fading of the ground- 
color and restriction of dark markings ; beneath pure white, with 
dark markings, usually much restricted. Eggs 2.19 X 1-91. Hab. 
Arctic America, chiefly in the interior ; south,.in winter, to northern 
Eocky Mountains and Gi-eat Plains (Dakota, Montana, etc.). 

3756. B. virginianus arcticus (Swains.). Arctic Horned Owl. 
Lower parts striped with black, but without bars; anterior upper parts also 
striped with black (the ground-color, both above and below, ochraceous) ; iris 
deep brown. (Subgenus Rhinoptynx Kaup.*) 

1 RhiiioptytiK Kaup, Contr. Orn. 1S52, Hi. Type, Strix mexicana Gmel. 



264 ' NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

Wing 11.20-12.00, tail 6.00-6.50. Hah. Tropical America in general (except 
West Indies), north to Mexico. 

B. mexicanus (Gmel.). Striped Horned Owl.^ 

Genus NYCTEA Stephens. (Page 256, pi. LXXYL, fig. 2.) 

Species. 

Adult male : Plumage pure white, sometimes almost immaculate, but usually 
marked more or less with transverse spots or bars of clear slaty brown on top of 
head, back, and scapulars, the quills and tail-feathers with dusky spots near ends ; 
lower parts usually marked more or less on belly, sides, and flanks with narrow 
bars of clear slaty brown, but those markings sometimes altogether wanting; 
length about 20.00-23.00, wing 15.50-17.30, tail 9.00-9.70, culmen 1.00. Adult fe- 
male: Much darker colored than the male, only the face, fore-neck, middle of 
breast, and feet being immaculate, other portions being heavily barred with dusky, 
the top of head and hind-neck spotted with the same; length 23.00-27.00, wing 
17.30-18.70, tail 9.70-10.30, culmen 1.10. Downy young : Uniform dusky brown, or 
deep sooty grayish, paler on legs and feet. Nest on ground. Eggs 5-10, 2.24 X 
1.76. Hah. Extreme northern portions of northern hemisphere in summer, mi- 
grating southward in wintei' (in North America almost across the United States, 
and even reaching, accidentally, the Bermudas). 

376. N. nyctea (Linn.). Snowy Owl. 

Genus S URN I A Dum^ril. (Page 256, pi. LXXIII., fig. 4.) 

Species. 

Common Characters. — Adult: Top of head and hind-neck spotted with white 
and blackish, or dark brown, in varying relative proportion ; a patch of uniform 
blackish or dark brown on each side of hind-neck, and another across hinder por- 
tion of ear-coverts ; rest of upper parts brown, the scapulars heavilj^ spotted or 
blotched, wings more or less spotted, upper tail-coverts broadly and distinctly 
barred, and tail narrowly and indistinctly barred, with white; face and lower 
parts white, the lower breast, belly, sides, flanks, and under tail-coverts very regu- 
larly barred with brown. Young : Upper parts dark sepia-brown, the feathers 
of top of head and hind-neck tipped with dull grayish buff, which constitutes the 
prevailing color ; feathers of back, and scapulars, indistinctly tipped with dull gray- 
ish buff; lores and ear-coverts plain brownish black, rest of face dull whitish ; lower 
parts dull whitish, deeply shaded across chest with dark sooty brownish, other 
portions being broadly but rather indistinctly barred with brown, these markings 
narrower and more confused anteriorly, and on legs. Length about 14.75-17.50, 
wing about 9.00, tail 6.80-7.00. 

1 Strix mexicana Gmel., S. N. i. 1788, 288. Bubo mexicanus Ridgw., in Hist. N. Am. B. iii. 1874, 61. 



SPEOTYTO. 265 

Light-colored, with white largely prevailing on tof) of head, hind-neck, and 
scaj^ular region ; dark markings of head usually dark brown, much reduced 
in size ; bars on lower parts narrow, rather light brown. Hah. Northern 
portions of eastern hemisphere, from Norway to Kamtschatka and more 
northern Asiatic shores of Bering's Sea (Plover Bay) ; accidental in western 
Alaska (St. Michael's) ? 377. S. ulula (Linn.). Hawk Owl. 

Dark-colored, with black or brownish black prevailing on top of head and hind- 
neck, and deep brown on scapular region — the brown of back, etc., usually 
much darker than in S. ulula ; dark patches on sides of head, etc., more ex- 
tensive, and deep black or brownish black ; bars of lower parts much broader, 
and (usually) darker. Nest on pine or spruce trees. Eggs 2-6, 1.51 X 1-23. 
Hab. Northern North America; south, in winter, to northern border of 
United States ; British Islands ? 

377a. S. ulula caparoch (Mull.). American Hawk Owl. 



Genus SPEOTYTO Gloger. (Page 257, pi. LXXYIL, fig. 1.) 

Species. 

Common Characters. — Adults : Above brownish, spotted, barred, and some- 
times otherwise varied with white or buffy; lower parts white or buffy, broadly 
barred, or transversely spotted, with brown ; eyebrows, chin, and space on middle 
of chest plain white ; a collar of mixed brown and buffy across throat ; legs plain 
white or buffy. Young: Above plain brown, except wings and tail, which are 
marked as in adults ; upper tail-coverts, and large space on wing-covert area, with 
lower parts, plain buff; anterior lesser wing-coverts darker brown than back; upper 
throat, and broad space across chest, plain white. JSfest at extremity of hole or 
burrow in ground. Eggs 3-11. 

a^. Lower parts with ground-color distinctly buffy or much tinged with buff, the 
lower tail-coverts never (?) spotted ; upper parts earthy brown, with buffy 
spotting and barring; length 9.00-11.00, wing 5.80-7.20 (6.69), tail 3.15- 
3.50 (3.34), culmen .55-.60 (.58), tarsns 1.70-1.92 (1.80). Eggs 1.27 X 1-03. 
Hab. Western North America, north to or beyond northern boundary of 
United States, east to Great Plains, south to Guatemala ; accidental in New 
York (city) and Massachusetts. 

378. S. cunicularia hypogaea (Bonap.). Burrowing Owl. 

rt*. Lower parts nearly pure white, with little if any buff tinge, except on thighs 
and lining of wings ; upper parts clear sepia-brown, with nearly pure white 
spotting and barring; wing 6.30-6.70 (6.47), tail 3.00-3.50 (3.15), culmen 
.58-.68 (.61), tarsus 1.65-1.80 (1.75). Eggs 1.24 X 1.02. Hab. Florida and 
adjacent Bahama Islands (New Pi^ovidence). 

378a. S. cunicularia floridana Eidgw. Florida Burrowing Owl. 
34 



266 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

Genus GLAUCIDIUM Boie. (Page 257, pi. LXXV., fig. 3.) 

Species. 

Common Characters. — Upper parts grayish, brownish, or rufous, the wings 
and scajjulars more or less spotted with whitish, the tail barred Avith white or 
rufous, the top of the head (in adults) streaked or speckled with whitish (plain in 
young) ; lower parts whitish, striped with blackish, brown, or rufous ; eyebrows 
whitish ; face encircled by a dusky border. 

o}. Sides of breast and fore-part of sides brownish, more or less distinctl};- spotted 
with paler (spots sometimes indistinct, or partly concealed) ; tail-bands 
always white, the interspaces blackish ; top of head speckled or dotted with 
whitish in adult, plain plumbeous or slaty in young ; lower parts striped 
with blackish ; color of back varying from slaty grajnsh to deep umber- or 
sepia-brown ; length 6.50-7.50, wing 3.40-4.00, tail 2.40-2.80. Egg (single 
specimen, identification somewhat doubtful) 1.17 X -88. Hah. Western 
North America, north British Columbia, east to Colorado and New Mexico, 
and south through highlands of Mexico to Guatemala. 

379. G. gnoma Wagl. Pygmy Owl. 

«^ Sides of breast and fore-part of sides plain brown or rufous, without trace of 
lighter markings ; tail-bands varying from white to rufous, the intei'spaces 
varying from grajdsh brown to blackish or dark rusty ; top of head narrowly 
streaked with whitish or pale rusty in adult, plain in yoiing ; lower parts 
striped with brown or rufous ; color of back, etc., varying from grayish 
brown to bright rufous ; length 6.50-7.00, wing 3.50-4.60, tail 2.20-3.50. Hah. 
"Whole of tropical America (except West Indies), north to southwestern bor- 
der of United States (southern Texas to Arizona). 

380. G. phalaenoides (Daud.). Ferruginous Pygmy Owl. 

Genus MICRATHENE Coues. (Page 257, pi. LXXV., fig. 4.) 

Species. 

Common Characters. — Above grayish or brownish, finely mottled with darker, 
and indistinctl}" speckled with pale rusty ; an interrupted whitish collar across hind- 
neck ; outer webs of outermost scapulars white ; wings spotted with whitish and 
pale rusty ; tail brownish, crossed by 5-6 narrow, usually interrupted, bands of pale 
brownish or rusty; eyebrows, lores, and "cravat" under chin white; lower parts 
white, marked with ragged, rather longitudinal, blotches of pale brownish or rusty, 
finely mottled with darker. 

a}. Prevailing tint grayish, or grayish brown ; bands on tail narrower, always (?) 
interrupted on middle feathers; length 5.50-6.25, wing 4.00-4.40, tail 1.90- 
2.30. Nest in hole of giant cactus. Eggs 3-4, 1.01 X -87. Hah. Southwestern 



MICRATHENE. 267 

United States (southern Arizona and southeastern California) and Lower 
California, south to southern Mexico (Puebia and Guanajuato). 

381. M. whitneyi (Cooper). Elf Owl. 
Prevailing tint deep brownish, the spots and bands more decidedly rusty ; bands 
on tail broader, not interrupted on middle feathers; wing 4.05-4.25, tail 
1.90-2.20. Hub. Socorro Island, western Mexico. 

M. graysoni Ridgw. Socorro Elf Owl.i 

1 Micrathene gvaysoni Ridgw., Auk, iii. July, 1886, 333. 



268 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

Order PSITTACI. — The Parrots, Macaws, 
Paroquets, etc. (Page 2.) 

Families. 
(Characters same as those given for the Order) ... Psittacidae. (Page 268.) 
Family PSITTACIDAE. (Page 268.) 

North and Middle American Genera. 

a^. Tail graduated, the feathers narrowed toward tips. 

h^. Cheeks naked; tail longer than wing, graduated for more than half its 

length; very large (wing more than 12.00) Ara} 

IP-. Cheeks densely feathered ; tail shorter than wing, graduated for less than 
half its length ; small or medium (wing not more than 12.00). 
&. Wing more than 3.50 ; upper mandible very little if any broader than 
high at base. 
d^. Second or third quill longest. 

&. Tail more than two-thirds as long as wing ; wing more than 
5.00. 
p. Bill very large, much compressed, the tip of lower man- 
dible much produced, truncated, and flattened ; gonys 
flattened ; tail graduated for only about one-third its 
length; cere densely feathered, concealing the nostrils ; 

wing 8.00, or more Rhynchopsitta. (Page 269.) 

p. Bill smaller, less compressed, with tip of lower mandible 
less produced, and gonj^s rounded ; tail graduated for 
much more than one-third its total length ; cere naked 
in some species, densely feathered in others; wing less 
than 8.00 in all North American species. 

Conurus. (Page 269.) 
e^. Tail less than two-thirds as long as the wing ; wing less than 
5.00. 

Cere naked on top.... Brotogeris.^ 

d". First quill longest. 

Tail (in northern species) less than two-thirds as long as 

1 Ara Brisson, Orn. iv. 1760, 184. Type, A. brasiliensia Briss., = ^. chloroptera GeAY. For synopsis of 
Mexican species, see Appendix. 

'^ BrotoffeHa ViG., Zool. Jour. ii. 1825, 400. Type, Psittacus pyrrhoiiterus Linn. 

One Mexican and Central American species, B. tori (Linn.) ; color uniform green, paler below, upper wing- 
coverts olive-brownish, and spot on chin orange ; length about 6.50 inches. 



RHYNCHOPSITTA. 269 

wing; wing (in northern species) less than 5.00; top of 

cere feathered Myiopsitta} 

&. Wing not more than 3.50 ; upper mandible very much broader than 
high at base; tail scarcely more than half as long as wing; cere 

feathered on top Psittacula? 

a}-. Tail slightly rounded, the feathers broad at ends. 

Third or fourth quill longest ; cere always naked, with nostrils exposed. 

Amazona? 

Genus RHYNCHOPSITTA Bonaparte. (Page 268, pi. LXXIII., fig. 2.) 

S-pecies. 

Adult : Forehead, fore-part and sides of crown, lores, and anterior lesser wing- 
coverts, poppy-red ; under primary coverts lemon-yellow ; under surface of quills, 
secondaries, and tail olivaceous dusky ; rest of plumage uniform grass-green, rather 
paler and duller on lower parts, but much brighter on sides of head ; bill entirely 
blackish. Younger: Similar to adult, but bill whitish, with a triangular dusky 
space on each side (extending upward from cutting-edge about half-way to culmen 
and anteriorly as far as the notch) ; red of forehead not extending over eye ; red 
on thighs and along edge of wing interruj^ted and verj^ inconspicuous. (^Young in 
first plumage probably without any red, the plumage entirely green, except on under 
surface of wing and tail, and bill prohabl}' entirely whitish.) Length 16.00-16.75, 
wing 8.50-10.50, tail 6.30-7.00, graduated for 2.25-2.35, culmen 1.45-1.55, height of 
bill at base 1.65-1.75. Sab. Northern and central Mexico (pine region) ; south- 
western Texas and southern New Mexico.* 

— . R. pachyrhyncha (Swains.). Thick-billed Parrot. 

Genus CONURUS Kuhl. (Page 268, pi. LXXYII., fig. 1.) 

Species. 

Common Characters (of North American and Mexican si3ecie.s). — Prevailing 
color uniform green ; adults with or without yellow or orange on head. 

a^ Cere and nostrils entirely concealed by dense feathering; culmen rounded. 

Adult: Head and upper neck pure gamboge-yellow, the forehead, lores, and 
cheeks deep orange or orange-red ; upper parts rich parrot-green, the 
tertials, tips of greater wing-coverts, and basal portion of outer webs 

1 Myiopsitta Bonap., Rev. et Mag. Zool. 1854, 150. Type, Psittacus murinus Gmel. 

One Mexican and Central American species, M. lineola (Cass.) ; color uniform green, lighter beneath, more 
or less distinctly barred above and along sides with blackish; length about 6.00 inches. 

^ Psittacula Briss., Cm. iv. 1760, 382. Type, P. hrasiliensis Bniss.,^ Psittacus passerinus Linn. 

One species found in western Mexico as far north as Mazatlan {P. cyanojiyga Souance) is uniform green, 
lighter beneath, the male with rump and some of the under wing-coverts fine light blue; length about 4.50 
inches. 

3 Amazona Less., Traite, 1831, 189. Type, Psittacus pulverulentus Gmel. For synopsis of Mexican species, 
see Appendix. 

* Dr. R. W. Shufeldt, U.S.A., in epist. 



270 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

of quills yellowish green or greenish j-ellow ; rest of quills dark bluish; 
lower parts clear light yellowish green ; edge of wing and thighs tinged 
with orange. Immature : Similar to adult, but head and neck entirely 
green, except forehead and lores, which are dull orange-red. Young 
{first plumage): Similar to preceding, but with little if any orange on 
forehead or lores. Length 11.35-14.00, wing 7.00-7.60, tail 6.40-7.10. 
Nest in hole of large tree (usually cypress or sycamore). Eggs 1.39 X 
1.07, ovate, short ovate, or rounded ovate, pure white. Hah. Formerly, 
entire Mississippi Valley, Gulf States, and southern Atlantic States, north 
(casually?) to Michigan, Maryland, or even to Albany, New York, regu- 
larly to Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Nebraska, etc., west to eastern Colorado 
and Texas ; now nearly exterminated, and existing only in compara- 
tively restricted and isolated localities in lower Mississippi Valley and 

Gulf States 382. C. carolinensis (Linn.). Carolina Paroquet. 

fll Cere partly naked, the nostrils exposed ; culmen flattened. 

h^. Wing 6.50, or more ; quills and secondaries green. (Color uniform grass- 
green, including quills, paler on lower jjarts ; under surface of quills and 
tail-feathers yellowish olive.) 
&. Rather smaller, with weaker bill, relatively larger feet, and more yel- 
lowish green lower parts ; wing 6.70-7.00 (6.87), tail 5.40-6.30 (5.96), 
culmen 1.00-1.10 (1.03), depth of upper mandible at base .50-.60 
(.55), width .55-.65 (.60), tarsus .66-.75 (.71), middle toe .85-1.00 (.91). 
Hab. Southern Mexico to Nicaragua. 

C. holochlorus ScL. Green Parakeet. ^ 
c*. Rather larger, with stouter bill, relatively weaker feet, and more deepl}' 
green lower parts ; wing 6.50-6.70 (6.59), tail 6.10-6.50 (6.29), culmen 
1 00-1.12 (1.07), depth of upper mandible at base .57-.61 (.59), width 
.61-.65 (.63), tarsus .70-.72 (.70), middle toe .85-.89 (.86). Hah. 
Socorro Island, western Mexico. 

C. holochlorus hrevipes Baird, Socorro Parakeet.^ 
61 Wing 5.50, or less ; quills and secondaries partly blue. 

c^ Bill horn-colored, the ends of both mandibles whitish ; throat and chest 
dull olive or olive-brownish ; belly dull j^ellowish olive or olive-yel- 
lowish, in contrast with bright green of Sides and flanks ; top of 
head entirely green ; wing 5.00-5.40, tail 4.60-5.10. Hah. Southern 
Mexico, and south to Nicaragua. C. aztec Souance. Aztec Parakeet.* 
c^ Bill bufFy whitish (sides of lower mandible horn-colored in young) ; 
throat and chest j^ellowish olive ; belly clear yellowish green, like 
sides and flanks; top of head dull verditer-blue, the forehead buflj^ 
orange in adult; wing 5.10-5.50, tail 4.20-4.80. Hab. Southern 
Mexico, from Orizaba and Mazatlan south to Costa Rica. 

C. petzii (Waql.). Petz's Parakeet.* 

1 Conurit8 holochlorus ScL., Ann. Mag. N. H. 1859, 224. 

2 Conurua holochlorus var. hrevipes Baird, Ann. Lye. N. Y. 1871, 14. 

3 Conurus aztec Souance, Rev. et Mag. Zool. 1857, 97. 

* Sittace petzii Wagl., Mon. Psitt. 1832, 650. Conurus petzii Gray, Gen. B. ii. 1845, 413, sp. 13. 



CUCVLID^. 271 



Order COCCYGES. — The Cuckoos, etc. 

(Pages.) 
Families. 

Toes 2 before, 2 behind. 

b^. Bill as long as head, compressed, with cutting-edges smooth ; nostrils ex- 
posed; no distinct rictal bristles; tarsus nearly or quite as long as longest 
anterior toe (sometimes longer), naked for greater part of its length ; 
anterior toes separated to extreme base ; plumage without bright or 
metallic colors. (Suborder CucuU.) Cuculidae. (Page 271.) 

h^. Bill much shorter than head, thick and broad at base, with cutting-edges 
serrated ; nostrils concealed by antrorse bristles ; gape with strong bris- 
tles ; tarsus much shorter than longest anterior toe, chiefly or entirely 
feathered; anterior toes united for basal half; plumage with bright or 
metallic colors (except in young). (Suborder Trogones.) 

Trogonidae. (Page 275.) 
Toes 3 before, 1 behind. (Suborder Aleyones.) 

¥. Bill not longer than head, the culmen gently but decidedly curved, the cut- 
ting-edges serrated; tail (in typical genus) much longer than wing, with 
middle pair of feathers much longer than the rest, and usually with the 
webs interrupted near end ; tarsus longer than middle toe. 

Momotidse. (Page 277.) 

b'K Bill longer than head, with straight outlines, the cutting-edges smooth (in 
all American species); tail much shorter than Aving, with middle feathers 
(in American species) not longer than the rest; tarsus only about half as 
long as middle toe Alcedinidse. (Page 278.) 

Family CUCULIDiE.— The Cuckoos, Anis, etc. (Page 271.) 

Genera. 

Tail-feathers 8 ; bill nearly as deep as long, the culmen elevated into a much 
compressed convex crest; plumage (in typical genus) uniform blackish. 

(Subfamily Crotophagince.) Crotophaga. (Page 272.) 

Tail-feathers 10; bill less than half as deep as. long, the culmen not elevated nor 

compressed ; plumage more or less varied. (Subfamily Coccygince.) 

b^. Bill longer than head, straight to near the rather abruptly decurved tip ; 

loral feathers stiff, bristly, and plumage generally coarse or harsh ; tarsus 

much longer than outer anterior toe, with claw ; very large (wing more 

than 6.00, tail 12.00 or more), and plumage much striped. 

Geococcyx. (Page 272.) 

b*. Bill not longer than head, the culmen gently curved for the greater part of 

its length; loral feathers and general plumage soft and blended; tarsus 



272 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

shorter than outer anterior toe, with claw ; small (wing less than 
6.00, tail less than 8.00), and plumage without stripes. 

Coccyzus. (Page 273.) 



Genus CROTOPHAGA Linnets. (Page 271, pi. LXXIX., fig. 1.) 

Species. 

Common Characters. — Plumage entirely dull black, the feathers of head, neck, 
and body edged or bordered with dull metallic bluish, greenish, or bronz}^; wings 
and tail faintly glossed with metallic bluish or violet. Young, uniform dull sooty 
black. Nest usually on trees (sometimes in reedy marshes), composed of sticks, 
etc., lined usually with leaves. Eggs 5-8 — sometimes numerous (evidently de- 
posited by several birds) — dull glaucous-blue, but this usually covered by a super- 
ficial white chalky crust. 

o}. Upper mandible smooth, or with a few transverse wrinkles ; length 12.00-15.00, 
wing 5.50-6.00, tail 7.50-8.30. Eggs 1.35 X 1-01. Hah. West Indies and 
eastern South America ; rare or casual in southern Florida and Louisiana, 
and accidental near Philadelphia 383. C. ani Linn. Ani. 

0?. Upper mandible with several distinct longitudinal grooves, parallel with the 
culmen ; length 12.00-14.50, wing 5.50-6.50, tail 7^30-8.30. Eggs 1.26 X -94. 
Hah. Middle America (both sides) from lower Eio Grande Yalley in Texas 
and Lower California to Peru. 

384. C. sulcirostris Swains. Groove-billed Ani. 



Genus GEOCOCCYX Wagler. (Page 271, pi. LXXIX., fig. 2.) 

Species. 

Common Characters. — Plumage conspicuously striped with dull whitish or 
buffy and bronzed brown, the latter glossed with green ; naked skin before and 
behind eye brightly colored (blue, white, and red, or orange) in life. 

a}. Wing more than 6.00, tail more than 11.00; throat and chest light brownish, 
streaked with duskj^ ; above glossy blue-black anteriorly and metallic green- 
ish brown posteriorly, the feathers broadly edged with whitish ; lower parts 
whitish,- the chest and fore-neck tinged with pale brownish or dull ochraceous, 
and streaked with blackish; tail-feathers (except two middle pairs) broadly 
tipped with white, the outer webs glossy blue-black, the inner webs greenish ; 
length 20.00-24.00, wing 6.50-7.00, tail 11.50-12.00. Nest in bushes or low 
trees, rudely constructed of sticks, grasses, etc. Eggs 2-12, 1.54 X 1-17, ovate, 
white, or buffy white. Hah. Northern Mexico and contiguous portions of 
United States, north to western Indian Territory and Kansas, southern 
Colorado, and California; Lower California. 

385. G. californianus (Less.). Eoad-runner. 



COCCYZUS. 273 

Wing less than 6.00, tail less than 11.00; throat and chest plain buff or huffy 
whitish ; above metallic bronzy brown, becoming blue-black anteriorly, 
each feather broadly edged with whitish ; beneath buffy whitish or buff, 
including throat, fore-neck, and chest, the sides of the latter streaked with 
black ; two middle tail-feathers bronzy brown, the rest metallic greenish, 
broadly tipped with white ; wing about 5.50, tail about 10.30. Hab. Guate- 
mala and southern Mexico, north to Yucatan, Vera Cruz, and Mazatlan. 

G. affinis Hartl. Mexican Road-runner.i 



Genus COCCYZUS Yieillot. (Page 272, pi. LXXX., fig. 1.) 

Species. 

Common Characters. — Above plain brownish gray or grayish brown, with 
more or less of a faint -bronzy lustre, the color usually becoming more grayish on 
head, on side of which (over ear-coverts) is a darker stripe ; lower parts plain 
whitish, buffy, or ochraeeous ; tail-feathers (except middle pair) more or less dis- 
tinctly tipped with whitish. Nest a slight flat structure of sticks, etc., usually on 
small trees or lower branches of larger trees. 

a^. Basal half, or more, of lower mandible yellow ; adult with tail-feathers (except 
middle pair) black, broadly and abruptly tipped with white ; young with tail- 
feathers grayish dusky, broadly, but not sharply, tipped with dull white. 
6'. Inner webs of quills chiefly rufous, the outer webs more or less tinged with 
same toward base ; lower parts white tinged with pale ashy on fore-neck, 
chest, and thighs. 
c\ Smaller, with proportionally stnaller and weaker bill; length 11.00- 
12.70, wing 5.40-5.80 (5.61), tail 6.00-6.15 (6.07), exposed eulmen 
.97-1.01 (.99), depth of bill at base .32-.34 (.33). Eggs 2-4, 1.21 X 
.88, dull pale glaucous-green or glaucous-white. Hah. Eastern 
North America, north to New Brunswick, Canada, etc., west to 
edge of Great Plains, south, in winter, to West Indies, eastern 
Mexico, and Costa Eica. 

387. C. americanus (Linn.). Yellow-billed Cuckoo. 
c^ Larger, with proportionally larger and stouter bill ; length 12.30-13.50, 
wing 5.50-6.00 (5.84), tail 6.10-6.90 (6.59), eulmen 1.02-1.08 (1.05), 
depth of bill through base .37-40 (.39). Hah. Western United States, 
north to Oregon, east to New Mexico and Colorado, south over table- 
lands of Mexico — . C. americanus occidentalis Eidgw. 

Califomian Cuckoo.^ 
h"^. Quills without rufous on either web ; lower parts buffy or ochraeeous, paler 
anteriorly. , 

c\ Larger, with lower parts much more deeply colored ; lower parts deep 

1 Geococcyx affinis Hartlaub, Rev. Zool. 1844, 215. 
' New subspecies. 

35 



274 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

ochraceous, often including even the throat ; wing 4.95-6.05 (5.40), 
tail 6.45-7.95 (6.98), exposed culmen 1.00-1.22 (1.10), depth of bill 
near base .35-47 (.40). Hah. West Indies in general (except Ba- 
hamas) and borders of Caribbean Sea, from Guiana to Honduras ; 
Key West ; coast of Louisiana. 

386. C. minor (Gbiel.). Mangrove Cuckoo.^ 
(?. Smaller and with lower parts much paler in color ; posterior lower parts 
buff (sometimes quite pale, and never approaching the deep ochra- 
ceous tint of C. minor) ; anterior lower parts (chin, throat, and 
chest) pale ashy, or grayish white, paler antei'iorly, the throat usu- 
ally more oi- less tinged with buff; length 11.75-12.25, wing 5.05- 
5.35 (5.23), tail 6.25-6.90 (6.65), exposed culmen 0.98-1.15 (1.06), 
depth of bill near base 0.33-0.40 (0.36). Hah. Bahamas and 

Florida Keys — . C. maynardi Eidgw. Maynard's Cuckoo.'' 

a}. Bill without any yellow (basal portion of lower mandible leaden bluish in life) ; 
adult with tail-feathers (except middle pair) grayish brown (with bronzy 
green lustre on upper surface), narrowly tipped with white, this preceded 
by a less distinct subterminal bar of dusky; young with white tips to tail- 
fea;thers narrower and less distinct, the dusky subterminal bar obsolete. 
Adult : Above bronzy grayish brown, with an olivaceous cast, becoming 
grayish on forehead and lores ; chin and throat pale huffy grayish (some- 
times more distinctly buffy) ; rest of lower parts white, faintly tinged on 
breast and sides with grayish ; naked eyelids bright red in life. Young : 
Above dull brown, with a coppery bronze lustre, becoming more gray- 
ish or olivaceous on tail, but more rusty on wings, especially on quills ; 
lower parts much as in adult; naked eyelids pale yellowish in life. 
Nestling : Feathers of upper parts tipped with whitish. Length about 
11.00-12.70, wing 5.12-5.65, tail 6.25-7.00. Eggs 2-4, 1.11 X -78, deep 
glaucous-green or verditer-blue. Hab. Eastern North America, north to 
Labrador and Manitoba, west to Eocky Mountains, south, in winter, to 
West Indies, Middle America, and northern South America. 

388. C. erythrophthalmus (Wils.). Black-billed Cuckoo. 

1 Pure synonymes of this species are aenicidus Lath., helviventris Cab., dominicus Scl. (»iec Linn.), and nesi- 
otes Cab. Coccyzus senicnhis of AuDUBON also belongs here, the supposed Floridan specimen given him by Mr. 
Harris, and now before me, being this species and not the Bahama one (C. maynardi), which raises the suspicion 
that it, like the specimens of Lampornis "mango" (i.e., violicauda) obtained from the same source, probably 
came from Guiana. C. minor is divisible into several more or less strongly characterized local races, but I 
shall not attempt such subdivision here. 

2 Dedicated to Mr. C. J. Maynard, the accomplished author of the " Naturalist's Guide" and " Birds of 
Eastern North America," whose valuable descriptions of the birds of Florida — his special field of investigation — 
include an interesting account of the peculiar haunts of this species. 



TROGON. 275 



Family TROGONIDiE.— The Trogons. (Page 271.) 

Genera. 

a}. Middle wing-coverts and upper tail-coverts normally developed, blended ; head 

not crested nor "horned" Trogon. (Page 275.) 

r/'. Middle wing-coverts and upper tail-coverts unusually developed, more or less 
lanceolate or falcate, with very distinct outlines ; head crested or " horned." 

¥. Head with a bushy or compressed crest Pharomachrus} 

¥. Head with slender ear-tufts Euptilotis? 

Genus TROGON Linn^us. (Page 275, pi. LXXXI., fig. 1.) 

Species. 

Common Characters. — -Adult males: Back, scapulars, rump, and middle tail- 
feathers metallic green, sometimes varied with blue or coppery, the middle tail- 
feathers tipped with opaque black ; wing-coverts grayish, in some species finely 
undulated with white; breast, belly, and under tail-coverts fine red or yellow, bor- 
dered anteriorly by a white band across breast. Adult females similar to males, but 
metallic hues of back, etc., rejalaced by plain grayish or brownish. 

a^. Under parts red ; females and young brown above. 

6^ Inner webs of outer tail-feathers chiefly white, more or less barred with 
dusky or black, in both sexes. 
&. Adult male : Crown, occiput, hind-neck, back, scapulars, rump, and upper 
tail-coverts rich metallic bronzy green, varying to golden or coppery 
bronze (the rump and upper tail-coverts always more green than 
the back — sometimes pure green) ; middle tail-feathers deep metallic 
bronze, varying to rich copper-color, broadly tipped with black; 
wings (except primaries) delicately undulated with white and black, 
the two colors in nearly equal amount ; quills dusky, with outer 
webs chiefly grayish white ; forehead, lores, sides of head, chin, and 
throat, dull opaque black ; chest metallic greenish or coppery bronze, 
like back ; a pure white band across breast ; behind this, all the 
lower parts pure scarlet-vermilion ; exposed portion of outer tail- 
feathers white, with a broad terminal space immaculate, but rest, 
on both webs, irregularly and narrowly barred, or marked with 
zigzag lines, .of blackish. Adult female : Metallic colors of male 
replaced by light grayish brown, becoming more rufescent (some- 
times cinnamon-rufous) on middle tail-feathers ; forehead, sides 
of head, and throat, dull grayish ; outer tail-feathers much more 

1 Pharomachrus De LA LlAVE, Registro Trimestre, i. num. 1, 1832, 48. Type, P. mocinno De la Llave. 
One Mexican species {P. mocinno), the magnificent Quetzal, or royal bird of the Aztecs. 
* Euptilotie Gould, Men. Trog. pt. i. 1858, pi. vi. Type, Trogon neoxenus Gould. 



276 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

coarsely and regularly barred with black. Young male : Head, neck, 
and chest dull brownish gray, paler on chin, browner on chest and 
occiput, almost black on lores, beneath eyes, and terminal portion 
of ear-coverts; an orbital ring (interrupted on middle portion of 
upper ej^elid and anterior half of lower lid), and broad oblique bar 
across middle portion of ear-coverts, white ; back and scapulars 
grayish brown, becoming more russet on lower back, rump, and 
upper tail-coverts ; middle, and many of lesser, wing-coverts buffy 
white, bordered with black, producing conspicuous large spots ; 
greater wing-coverts and tertials pale grayish brown, finely sprinkled 
with dusky, and tipped with a large spot of buffy white ; lower parts 
grayish white, the breast and upper belly coarsely spotted or mottled 
with brownish gray ; tail much as in adult female. Length about 
11.25-12.00, wing 5.10-5.50, tail 6.50-7.20. Hab. Central and northern 
Mexico, north to southern Texas (lower Rio Grande Yalley) and 
southern Arizona. 

389. T. ambiguus Gould. Coppery-tailed Trogon. 

&. Adult male : Similar to same sex of T. ambiguus, but upper parts bronzy 
green, the middle tail-feathers golden green, wings more coarsely 
undulated, with white exceeding the blackish lines in width (?), and 
outer tail-feathers more broadly and regularly barred with black. 
Adult female : With black bars on outer tail-feathers broader and 
less numerous (?). Length about 12.00, wing 5.00-5.30, tail 7. Hab. 
Guatemala, southern Mexico, and Salvador (Libertad). 

T. elegans Gould. Elegant Trogon.^ 
b'^. Inner webs of outer tail-feathers uniform black, or black narrowly barred 
with white, in adult males, destitute of bars (except sometimes — in T. 
puella — a terminal white and narrower subterminal black bar). 

c\ Adult male : Upper parts and chest pure metallic green, more bronzy 
on back ; wings very minutely zigzagged and freckled with white, 
the markings hardly distinguishable at a little distance ; quills with- 
out whitish edgings ; outer tail-feathers entirely black, except the 
very broad and abrupt white tip. Adult female: Outer web of outer 
tail-feathers broadly barred with black and white, the inner web 
chiefly uniform black, without any bars. Length about 12.00, wing 
5.50-6.00, tail 7.40-7.50. Hab. Guatemala and southern Mexico. 

T. mexicanus Swains. Mexican Trogon.'^ 

cl Adult male : Upper parts and chest bronzy green, as in T. inexicanus ; 
wings very distinctly undulated with white, the quills edged with 
the same ; outer tail-feathers distinctly but narrowly barred across 
both webs with white, and rather narrowly tipped with the same. 
Adult female : Outer web of outer tail-feathers plain white, some- 



1 Trogon elegans GoULD, P. Z. S. 1834, 26. 

' Trogon mexicanus SwAiNS., Philos. Mag. n. s. i. 1827, 440. 



MOMOTUS. 277 

times minutely and indistinctly freckled with grayish ; inner web 
chiefly plain dusky grayish, with white tip and dusky subtei'minal 
bar. Length about 10.50-11.50, wing 5.10-5.50, tail 5.50-6.50. Sab. 
Central America, south to Veragua, north to tieri'a caliente of eastern 
Mexico (Vera Cruz). 

T. puella Gould. Xalapa Trogon.^ 
rt". Lower parts yellow ; females slate-color or plumbeous above. 

h^. Outer web of outer tail-feathers uniform black, except broad and abrupt 
white tip. Adult male : Head, neck, and chest dull black ; back, scapu- 
lars, and middle tail-feathers metallic green ; rump and upper tail-coverts 
metallic blue, sometimes inclining to violet. Adult female : Head, neck, 
chest, and entire upper parts uniform deep slate. Length about 11.00, 
wing 5.50-5.75, tail 5.80-6.00. Hab. Central America, north to Yucatan, 
south to Costa Eica. 

T. melanocephalus Gould. Black-headed Trogon.^ 
6^ Outer web of outer tail-feather white, except at base. Adult male : Head, 
neck, and chest slate-gray or plumbeous, glossed (except anteriorly) 
with metallic green ; back and scapulars bright metallic green, tinged 
with golden ; rump and upper tail-coverts metallic greenish blue ; middle 
tail-feathers metallic green. Adult female : Head, neck, chest, and entire 
upper parts uniform slate-gray. Length about 10.00-12.00, wing 5.40- 
5.70, tail about 6.00. Hab. Southwestern Mexico, north to Mazatlan. 

T. citreolus Gould. Citreoline Trogon.^ 

Family MOMOTID^E.— The Motmots. (Page 271.) 

Genera. 
(Characters same as those given for the Family) ... Momotus. (Page 277.) 
Genus MOMOTUS Brisson.* (Page 277, pi. LXXXL, fig. 2.) 

Species. 

Common Characters. — General color plain greenish, tinged more or less with 
olive ; rather lengthened and stiffened ear-coverts chiefly black, but partly blue ; a 
naiTOw tuft of rather lengthened and somewhat stiff'ened black feathers (sometimes 
edged with blue) in middle of chest ; lengthened and (usually) spatulate middle 
tail-feathers verditer-blue toward ends, their tips black. 

a*. Top of head bright blue or green, encircled with deep black ; lores deep black ; 
lower parts, including flanks, anal region, and under tail-coverts, olive-green- 

1 Trogon puella Goold, P. Z. S. 1845, 18. 

* Trogon melanocephalus Gould, Mon. Trog. 1838, pi. 12. 
3 Trogon citreolus GouLD, P. Z. S. 1835, 30. 

* Momotua Bbiss., Cm. iv. 1760, 465. Type, Ramphaetos momota Linn. 



278 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

ish, sometimes tinged with russet ; ear-coverts black, bordered above by a 

line of bright light greenish blue or bluish green (this sometimes almost 

obsolete). 

&\ Whole top of head bright verditer-blue, varying to verdigris-green, duller 

centrally ; length about 14.20-15.00, wing 5.30-5.70, middle tail-feathers 

8.80-9.15, exposed culmen 1.40-1.55. Hab. Eastern Mexico, north to 

Eio Grande Valley (Nuevo Leon). 

M. caeruleiceps Gould. Blue-crowned Motmot.^ 
6'. Top of head deep black centrally, this entirely surrounded by bright verditer- 
blue, the latter bordered exteriorly, from eyes backward, by rich pur- 
plish ultramarine-blue ; size about the same as in M. cceruleiceps. Hab. 
Central America, from Veragua to southern Mexico. 

M. lessonii Less. Lesson's Motmot.* 
a*. Whole top of head and hind-neck uniform rufous ; lores dull grayish, mixed 
with dusky ; lower parts pale glaucous-green (sometimes tinged with buflfy 
anteriorly), changing to dull whitish on flanks, anal region, and under tail- 
coverts ; a large spot of purplish smalt-blue underneath eye, on malar region, 
and ear-coverts usually largely ultramarine- or smalt-blue; length about 
12.00-13.00, wing 4.50-5.00, middle tail-feathers 6.50-7.50, exposed culmen 
1.40-1.60. Hab. Southwestern Mexico, north to Mazatlan. 

M. mexicanus Swains. Rufous-crowned Motmot.* 



Family ALCEDINIDiE.— The Kingfishers. (Page 271.) 

Genera. 

(Characters same as those given for the Family) Ceryle. (Page 278.) 

Genus CERYLE Boie. (Page 278, pi. LXXX., figs. 2, 3.) 

(West at extremity of horizontal burrow in earth-banks. Eggs usually 6, ovate 
or oval, pure white, with smooth, somewhat glossy surface.) 

Species. 

a*. Wing 6.00, or more ; tarsus about as long as hind-toe, much shorter than inner 
anterior toe ; plumage without metallic gloss. (Upper parts plumbeous-blue, 
or bluish plumbeous, more or less streaked with black, especially on top 
of head, the tail-feathers transversely spotted with white, these markings 
usually more or less hidden in closed tail; chin, throat, and collar round hind- 
neck pure white.) (Subgenus Streptoceryle Bonap.) 
b^. Wing more than 7.00, culmen more than 3.00 ; belly, sides, and flanks uni- 

1 Momotus cseruleiceps GouLD, P. Z. S. 1836, 18. 

2 Momotus lessonii Less., Eev. Zool. June, 1842, 174 (Realejo, Nicaragua). 
^ Momotus mexieamts SwAiNS., Philos. Mag. n. s. i. 1827, 442. 



CERYLE. 279 

form rufous ; outer webs of quills without white spotting at base. 
Adult male : Lower tail-coverts and anal region pure white, and rufous 
of belly covering breast, and reaching to white of throat. Adult female : 
Lower tail-coverts and anal region rufous ; breast plumbeous-blue, usu- 
ally bordered behind by white. Length about 15.50-17.00, wing about 
7.50. Hab. Tropical America in general (except West Indies), north to 
southern Mexico. 

C. torquata (Linn.). Great Rufous-bellied Kingfisher.^ 
b'^. Wing less than 7.00, culmen less than 3.00; belly white ; outer webs of quills 
spotted with white toward base. Adult male : Above bluish plumbeous, 
the tail transversely spotted with white, and basal half of primai'ies 
coarsely spotted with same ; a white spot on sides of forehead, above 
lores ; lower parts pure white, interrupted by a broad band of bluish 
plumbeous across breast ; white of throat encircling hind-neck. Adult 
female: Similar to the male, but sides and flanks, and a more or less 
strongly indicated (never complete?) band across belly, rufous. Young: 
Similar to adult, but the male with the breast-band and sides tinged with 
rusty. Length 11.00-14.50, wing 6.00-6.50, tail 3.80-4.30, culmen 2.00, 
or more. Eggs 1.36 X 1-05. Hab. Whole of North America, and south 
to Panama and the West Indies. 

390. C. alcyon (Linn.). Belted Kingfisher. 
a?. Wing less than 4.00 ; tarsus longer than hind-toe, and almost as long as inner 

anterior toe ; plumage metallic greenish above. (Subgenus Chloroceryle 

Kaup.) 

Adult male : Above dark metallic bottle-greea, interrupted by a white collar 
across hind-neck, the secondaries, primaries, and tail spotted with white, 
in transverse series ; lower parts pure white, interrupted by a band of 
dark metallic green across breast ; sides spotted with dark greenish, 
these spots continued as an interrupted band across belly. Adult female : 
Similar to the male, but green band across breast replaced by one of deep 
rufous ; no green spots across belly. Young male : Similar to adult, but 
breast more or less tinged with rusty. Length 6.75-8.50, wing 3.40- 
3.50, tail 2.70-2.75, exposed culmen 1.65-1.85. Eggs .96 X -75. Hab. 
Middle America and northwestern South America, north to south- 
western border of United States (southei-n Texas to Arizona), south to 
western Peru 391. C. cabanisi (Tschudi). Texan Kingfisher. 

1 Alcedo torquata Linn., S. N. ed. 12, i. 1766, 180. Ceryle torquata Bonap., P. Z. S. 1837, 108. 

36 



280 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 



Order PICI. — The Woodpeckers, Wrynecks, etc. 

(Page 3.) 

Families. 

(Characters same as those given for the Order) Picidae. (Page 280.) 

Family PICIDiE. — The Woodpeckers. (Page 280.) 

Genera. 

a'. Outer hind-toe longer than outer anterior toe. 
6^ Two hind-toes. 

c^ Conspicuously crested, and size very large (wing 7.00, or more). 

Campephilus. (Page 281.) 
c'. Without crest, and size small (wing not more than 5.00). 

d}. Nasal groove extending nearly to tip of bill; terminal half of bill 
not distinctly compressed. 
e\ Tongue greatly extensile ; plumage much varied with black 
(or brown) and white, the latter prevailing on lower parts. 

Dryobates. (Page 281.) 
e*. Tongue very slightly extensile ; plumage uniform black, with 
white'head and white spotting on basal portion of quills. 

Xenopicus. (Page 286.) 

d}. Nasal groove running out on cutting-edge of upper mandible, about 

half-way to tip ; terminal portion of bill distinctly compressed. 

Tongue scarcely extensile Sphyrapicus. (Page 288.) 

h^. Only one hind-toe. 

Bill broad and much flattened Picoides. (Page 286.) 

a*. Outer hind-toe not longer than outer anterior toe. 

h^. Head conspicuously crested ; large (wing not less than 7.25 — usually 

much more) CeophlcEus. (Page 289.) 

¥. Head not crested ; small or medium (wing less than 7.25 — usually much 
less). 
&. Upper mandible with a distinct lateral ridge and nasal groove, the tip 
more or less truncated ; plumage of lower parts without spots, the 
under surface of quills and tail-feathers without yellow or red. 

Melanerpes. (Page 290.) 

c*. Upper mandible without distinct lateral ridge or nasal groove, the tip 

scarcely or not at all truncated ; plumage of lower parts spotted 

with black ; under surface of quills and tail-feathers chiefly yellow 

or reddish, the shafts brighter yellow or red. 

Colaptes. (Page 295.) 



CAMPEPHILUS. 281 

Genus CAMPEPHILUS Gray. (Page 280, pi. LXXXIL, fig. 1.) 

Species. 
Common Characters (of North American species). — Bill ivory-yellow or 
whitish ; pluraage mainly black, with a white scapular stripe and other markings, 
the occipital crest scarlet or glossy black. 

a}. Plumage glossy black, with scapulars, secondaries, ends of shorter primaries, 
and under wing-coverts pure white ; crest of female entirely glossy blue- 
black. 
&\ A white stripe down each side of neck ; nasal tufts white. 

c^ White neck-stripe not extending to the bill ; black feathers of crown as 
long as or longer than undei'lying scarlet ones of crest ; length (fresh) 
19.75-21.00, extent of wings 30.00-32.00, wing 9.00-10.00, tail 6.25- 
6.80, culmen 2.60-2.80. Eggs 1.31 X -86. Hah. Formerly, southern 
Atlantic and Gulf States and lower Mississippi Valley, north to 
North Carolina, eastern Missouri, southern Illinois and Indiana, 
and west to eastern Texas ; now apparently confined to restricted 
localities in Gulf States (including Florida) and lower Mississippi 

Yalley 392. C. principalis (Linn.). Ivory-billed Woodpecker. 

c". White neck-stripe continued to base of bill ; black feathers of crown not 
reaching to tip of scarlet crest ; wing 9.50-9.70, tail 6.50-7.00, ex- 
posed culmen 2.30-2.40. Hah. Cuba. 

C. principalis bairdi (Cass.). Cuban Ivory-billed Woodpecker.^ 

h". No white stripe on side of neck ; nasal tufts black ; length about 23.00- 

24.00, wing 11.70-13.20, tail 8.00-9.50, exposed culmen 2.70-3.60. Hah. 

Western Mexico, north, along Sierra Madre, nearly if not quite to 

United States boundary ; southeastern Arizona ? 

C. imperialis (Gould). Imperial Woodpecker.^ 

a". Plumage chiefly dull brownish black, the lower parts, except breast, barred with 

black and pale fulvous ; crest of female bright red (whole head red in male). 

Length about 12.00-13.00, wing 7.50-8.00, tail 4.80-5.20, exposed culmen 

1.85-2.20. Hah. Southern Mexico, and south to Costa Eica. 

C. guatemalensis (Hartl.). Guatemalan Ivory-billed Woodpecker.' 

Genus DRYOBATES Boie. (Page 280, pi. LXXXIIL, figs. 1-2; pi. LXXXVL, 

fig. 1.) 

Species. 
Common Characters. — Above black or brown, more or less spotted or 
otherwise varied with white ; lateral tail-feathers white, with or without black 

1 CamjjepMlus bairdi Cass., Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1863, 322. C. principalis, var. bairdi B. B. & R. 
Hist. N. Am. B. ii. 1874, 496. 

* Picus imperialis GocLi), P. Z. S. ii. 1832, 140. CnmpepTiiliis imperialis Baird, B. N. Am. 1858, 83. 

' Picus guatemalensis Hartl., Rev. Zool. 1844, 214. Campephilus guatemalensis ScL., Cat. Am. B. 1862, 
331. 



282 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

bars; sides of head striped with black and white; lower parts whitish (some- 
times stained a light brownish or smoky tint), usually more or less varied with 
dusky. Adult male with more or less of red on head, usually on occiput. Adult 
female without any red on head. Young with crown more or less extensively 
red or yellow. 

a}. Back varied with white. 

6\ Back striped or marked longitudinally with white ; lower parts without 
black markings, except sometimes on sides of breast or, more rarely, 
on flank. 
&. Lateral tail-feathers without black bars; culmen 1.00, or more; wing 
usually more than 4.00. 
d^. Middle and greater wing-coverts and tertials conspicuously spotted 
with white. 
e\ Lores partly or entirely black, the white supercilinry stripe 
being thus cut off from the white or palo brownish of the 
nasal tufts. 
/^ Wing more than 5.00, culmen 1.40, or more. 

Length about 10.00-11.00, wing 5.02-5.40 (5.25), tail 
3.60-3.80 (3.70), culmen 1.40-1.62 (1.49). Hah. 
Northern North America, west to Alaska and 
British Columbia, south, in winter, to northern 
border of United States. 

393a, D. villosus leucomelas (Bodd.). 
Northern Hairy Woodpecker. 
p. "Wing not more than 5.00 ; culmen not more than 1.35. 

g^. Larger: Length about 8.50-9.00, wang 4.50-5.00 
(4.70), tail 3.10-3.60 (3.37), culmen 1.18-1.35 
(1.24). Eggs .93 X -69. Hah. Eastern United 
States, except south Atlantic and Gulf States. 
393. D. villosus (Linn.). Hairy Woodpecker. 
g"". Smaller: Length about 8.00-8.75, wing 4.40-4.80 
(4.51), tail 3.00-3.20 (3.04), culmen 1.12-1.24 
(1.14). Hah. South Atlantic and Gulf States, 
north to Georgia and Tennessee. 

3936. D. villosus audubonii (Swains.). 

Southern Hairy Woodpecker. 

e^. Lores chiefly or entirely white, thus connecting the white 

superciliary stripe with the white or light brownish of the 

nasal tufts. 

Length about 7.00-8.00, wing 3.95-4.85 (4.12), tail 2.85- 
3.10 (2.95), culmen 1.00-1.22 (1.10). Hah. Bahamas. 

D. villosus maynardi Eidgw. Bahaman Hairy 

Woodpecker.^ 

1 Picua inaularia Maynard, The Nat. in Florida, i. No. 4, 1885; not of Gould, 1862. 



DRYOBATES. 283 

d\ Wing-coverts and tertials plain black, or else with very little of 
white spotting. 
e\ Larger, with lower parts usually white (frequently pure 
white, rarely smoky grayish); length about 9.00-10.00, 
wing 4.70-5.30 (5.00), tail 3.20-3.75 (3.43), culmen 1.12-1.40 
(1.26). Eggs .96 X -75. Hab. Western United States, east 
to Kocky Mountains, south to table-lands of Mexico. 

393c. D. villosus harrisii (Aud.). 
Harris's Woodpecker. 
e^ Smaller, with lower parts usually deep smoky brown (rarely 
smoky gray); length about 7.00-8.00, wing 3.80^.90 
(4.24), tail 2.45-3.20 (2.75), culmen .95-1.18 (1.00). Hah. 
Central America, south to Yeragua, north to eastern 
Mexico (Puebla and Vera Cruz). 

D. villosus jardinii (Malh.)- Jardine's Woodpecker.i 
(?. Lateral tail-feathers witli a greater or less number of black bars ; cul- 
men not more than .80 ; wing usually less than 4.00. 
d} Middle and greater wing-coverts conspicuously spotted with white ; 
leno-th about 6.25-7.00, wing 3.40-4.05 (3.72), tail 2.25-2.90 
(2.51), culmen .68-.82 (.73). Eggs .77 X .58- Hah. Northern 
and eastern Nortb America, and, sporadically, western North 
America (Colorado, California, etc.) also. 

394. D. pubescens (Linn.). Downy Woodpecker. 
d}. Middle and greater wing-coverts plain black, or else but slightly 
spotted with white; length about 6.25-7.00, wing 3.55-4.15 
(3.76), tail 2.30-2.70 (2.51), culmen .70-.80 (.75). Eggs .74 X 
.56. 'llah. Western United States, east to Eocky Mountains, 
north to British Columbia, south to New Mexico. 

394a. D. pubescens gairdnerii (Aud.). 

Gairdner's Woodpecker. 

Back barred with white; sides and flanks spotted or streaked (or both) 

with black. 

c\ Ear-coverts entirely white ; lores black ; male with a narrow (usually 

concealed) streak of red along each side of occiput. 

Length about 7.50-8.50, wing 4.50-5.00, tail 3.20-3.50, exposed 
culmen .75-.85. Eggs .91 X -68. Hab. Southeastern United 
States, north regularly to North Carolina and Tennessee 
(irregularly to New Jersey), west to Indian Territory and 
eastern Texas. 

395. D. borealis (Yieill.). Red-cockaded Woodpecker. 
c". Ear-coverts black or brown, bordered above and below by a white 
stripe ; lores whitish, dull grayish, or dusky ; adult males with a 
patch of red extending entirely across the occiput. 



^ Picua jardinii Malh., Rev. Zool. 1848, 374. 



284 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

d\ Back barred with black and white; wings black, spotted and 
barred with white ; middle line of breast unspotted. 
e^. Forehead smoky brownish, like nasal tufts (the ground-color 
sometimes nearly hidden, however, by whitish spotting) ; 
crown often speckled, but not streaked, with white ; lateral 
tail-feathers with inner web (sometimes outer web also) 
barred for entire length, or at least for all of exposed por- 
tion ; gi'ound-color of lower parts usually smoky white, or 
pale smoky brownish. Adult male with whole crown red, 
or spotted with red (unless the red tips to feathers happen 
to be worn off), the red immediately preceded by a white 
speck or spot. 
/^ Outer tail-feathers barred regularly with black, on both 
webs, for whole length. 
g^. Smaller (length about 6.00-6.75, wing less than 
3.90). 
h\ Wing 3.80-3.85 (3.82), tail 2.30-2.40 (2.33), ex- 
posed culmen .70-79 (.74) ; black stripes on 
side of head narrower, the malar stripe usu- 
ally whitish anteriorly ; black bars on back 
usually appreciably narrower than the white 
ones ; scarlet on head of male lighter. Ilab. 
Southeastern Mexico (Vera Cruz, Puebla, 
etc.). 

D. scalaris (Wagl.). Ladder-backed 
Woodpecker.^ 
h\ Wing 3.30-3.55 (3.44), tail 2.10-2.20 (2.14), ex- 
posed culmen .60-75 (.69) ; black stripes on 
sides of head broader, the malar stripe usu- 
ally dusky or blackish anteriorly ; black bars 
on back usually a little broader than the 
white ones ; scarlet on head of male darker. 
Sab. Yucatan. 

D. scalaris parvus (Cabot). Cabot's Ladder- 
backed Woodpecker.* 
g\ Larger (length 7.00-7.75, wing 3.90-4.25). 

Wing 3.90-4.25 (4.06), tail 2.45-2.75 (2.59), ex- 
posed culmen .83-.93 (.87); in coloration 
not constantly different from true scalaris, 
except that the black stripes on sides of 
head are usually broader, the lower one 
usually more extended toward sides of 
breast. Eggs .80 X -62. Hab. Table-lands 

' Picus scalaris Wagl., Isis, 1829, 511. 

* Picus parvus Cabot, Bost. Jour. N. II. v. 1849, 90. 



DRYOBATES. 285 

of Mexico, and southern border of United 
States, from Texas to Arizona. 

396. D. scalaris bairdi (Scl.). 
Texan Woodpecker.^ 
p. Outer tail-feather barred with white only on terminal 
half or less, except sometimes on inner web. 
g^. Primary coverts with at least one row of small white 
spots. 
h}. Larger, with slenderer bill and much broader 
black bars on back (bars about .15-.20 wide) ; 
length about 7.25-7.75, wing 3.95-4.10 (4.02), 
tail 2.70-2.90 (2.81), exposed culmen .91-.94 
(.93). Hab. Southern portion of Lower Cali- 
fornia 396«. D. scalaris lucasanus 

(Xantus). Saint Lucas Woodpecker. 
h"^. Smaller, with stouter bill and much narrower 
black bars on back (bars only about .10 wide); 
length about 6.25-6.50, wing 3.70-3.75 (3.72), 
tail 2.20-2.40 (2.30), culmen .70-.80 (.75). Hab. 
Western Mexico (vicinity of Mazatlan). 

D. scalaris sinaloensis Kidgw. Mazatlan 

Woodpecker.'' 

g"^. Primary coverts plain dusky, without trace of white 

on outer webs ; black bars on back broad, as in D. 

lucasanus ; length about 6.75-7.00, wing 3.80-3.95 

(3.88), tail 2.45-2.55 (2.50), exposed culmen .74-.88 

(.82). Hab. Tres Marias Islands, western Mexico. 

D. scalaris graysoni Baird. Grayson's Woodpecker.' 

e^. Forehead deep black, abruptly defined against the white, smoky 

white, or dull buif of nasal tufts ; crown often streaked, 

but not speckled, with white ; lateral tail-feathers with not 

more than two distinct black bars, these near end (a third 

occasionally indicated); ground-color of lower parts nearly 

pure white ; adult male with whole crown black, or black 

streaked with white, the red being confined to occiput and 

nape. 

Length about 7.00, wing 3.90-4.20 (4.06), tail 2.60-3.05 
(2.78), exposed culmen .77-.82 (.80). Eggs .82 X -61. 
Hab. California. 

397. D. nuttallii (Game.). Nuttall's Woodpecker. 

d}. Back and wings brown, the former barred or transversely spotted 

with white, and primaries spotted with same ; whole breast 

^Pictin bairdi " (Sclater)" Malh., Mon. Pic. i. 1S61, 118, pi. 27, figs. 7, 8. 

' New subspecies. 

' Picus sccdaria var. graysoni Baird, Hist. N. Am. B. ii. 1874, 515 and 517 (in text). 



286 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

spotted or broadly streaked with dark brown. Hob. South- 
eastern Mexico (Jalapa, etc.). 

D. Strickland! (Malh.). Strickland's Woodpecker.' 
a?. Back without any white. Upper parts plain brown or light sepia, the quills, 
also inner webs of secondaries, spotted with white; whole breast and sides 
spotted with dark brown, the flanks and under tail-coverts barred or trans- 
versely spotted with the same. Adult males with a rather narrow occipital 
band of red, as in D. villosus and D. pubescens ; young males with nearly 
whole toj) of head red. 
b\ Larger: Length 7.40-8.40, wing 4.40-4.65 (4.49), tail 2.55-2.95 (2.81), exposed 
culmen .90-L05 (.98). Hab. Southern Arizona and adjacent portion of 
northwestern Mexico. 

398. D. arizonae (Hargitt), Arizona Woodpecker.'' 
il Smaller: Length 6.25, wing 4.10, tail 2.60, exposed culmen .78. Hab. South- 
western Mexico (Sierra Madre of Colima). 

D. arizonae fraterculus Kidqw. Colima Woodpecker.' 

Genus XENOPICUS Baird. (Page 280, pi. LXXXIV., fig. 1.) 

Species. 

Adult male: Head, neck (except hinder part), upper part of chest, and basal 
portion of quills white ; occiput with a transverse patch or broad band of bright 
red ; rest of plumage uniform black. Adult female : Similar to the male, but with- 
out any red on head. Young male : Similar to adult, but black of a duller shade, 
and red of head consisting of a squarish patch on middle of crown, instead of a 
band across occiput. Length about 8.90-9.40, wing 5.00-5.10, tail 4.00-4.05. Eggs 
.94 X -70. Hab. Mountains of Pacific coast, including Sierra Nevada (both slopes), 
from "Washington Territorj^ to southern California. 

399. X. albolarvatus (Cass.). White-headed Woodpecker. 

Genus PICOIDES Lac:§pede. (Page 280, pi. LXXXII., fig. 2.) 

Species. 

Common Characters. — Above black (head glossed with bluish), the quills 
spotted with white (back also varied with white in some species) ; a broad white 
stripe on side of head beneath eye and ear-coverts, and beneath this a more or less 
distinct black stripe ; lower parts white, the sides and flanks barred with black j 
lateral tail-feathers white (without distinct bars in American species) ; adult male 
with yellow patch on crown. 



1 Picus {Lenconotopicus) stricklandi Malh., Rev. Zool. viii. 1845, 373. (Not Dryohates stricMandi of the 
A. 0. U. Check List, No, 398.) 

2 Picus arizonm Hargitt, Ibis, April, T886, 115 ( = No. 398, '• Drijohatea stricklandi Malh." of the A. O.U. 
Check List, but not Picus stricMandi Malh.). 

8 New subspecies; type, No. 30105, 9 ad., U. S. Nat. Mus., Sierra Nevada of Colima, April, 1863, J. Xantus. 



PICOIDES. 287 

a\ No white on back nor on top of head. 

Length about 9.50-10.00, wing 4.85-5.25, tail 3.60, culmen 1.40-1.60. Eggs 
.95 X -71. Mab. Northern North America, south to northern border of 
United States, and farther on high mountain ranges, especially westward, 
where breeding on Sierra Nevada south to at least 39°. 

400. P. arcticus (Swains.). Arctic Three-toed Woodpecker, 
a^. Back (especially along middle line) varied with white, and top of head also usu- 
ally more or less mixed with white. 
b^. Back with detached white bars, always less in width than the black inter- 
spaces; white postocular streak or stripe usually indistinct, black bars 
on sides usually broader, and adult female frequently with whole toj) of 
head solid black — never very conspicuously varied with white. 

Wing-coverts always uniform black; length about 9.00, wing 4.40- 
4.60 (4.37), tail 3.10-3.75 (3.34), culmen 1.10-1.25 (1.17). Eggs .92 
X .70. Hab. Northern North Amei'ica east of Eocky Mountains ; 
south, in winter, to northern border of United States. 

401. P. americanus Brehm. American Three-toed Woodpecker. 

b^. Back with more or less confluent white bars, always broader than black 

interspaces, or else longitudinally blotched or striped with white; white 

postocular streak usually broader and more conspicuous; black bars on 

sides usually narrower, and adult female usually with top of head much 

varied with white. 

c^ Back usually distinctly barred with black (rarely continuously white 

along middle line), secondaries more distinctly spotted with white 

(sometimes wing-coverts also spotted, more or less numerously, with 

white), white spots on quills larger, and female sometimes with 

white prevailing on top of head ; length about 9.50, wing 4.50-4.70 

(4.58), tail 3.10-3.75 (3.41), culmen 1.10-1.25 (1.22). Hab. Alaska, 

north of the mountains, south to Nushagak, and eastward through 

arctic British America to Fort Eeliance, Great Slave Lake. 

401a. P. americanus alascensis (Nelson). Alaskan 

Three-toed Woodpecker, 
c*. Back continuously white along the middle line, with few if any black 
bars, the markings being mostly longitudinal ; secondaries less dis- 
tinctly spotted with white, white spots on quills smaller, wing 
coverts never (?) spotted or speckled with white, and adult female 
never (?) with much white streaking on top of head ; length about 
9.50, wing 4.65-5.00 (4.93), tail 3.20-3.65 (3.49), culmen 1.1.5-1.30 
(1.26), the bill more slender than in alascensis. Hab. Eocky Moun- 
tains, north to Fort Liard, Fort Simpson, Fort Kenai, and Kadiak, 

south to New Mexico 4016. P. americanus dorsalis Baird. 

Alpine Three-toed Woodpecker. 



288 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

Genus SPHYRAPICUS Baird. (Page 280, pi. LXXXIII., fig. 3.) 

Species. 

Common Characters. — Belly plain yellowish or white; upper parts black, more 
or less varied with white, the inner webs of middle pair of tail-feathers largely or 
chiefly white. 

a^ Eump mixed black and white ; belly pale sulphur-yellow, or Avhitish ; sexes not 
very different in color. 
}?. Chest with a black patch, and sides of head with white stripes in adult. 
Adult male with crown, forehead, chin, and throat crimson -red. Adult 
female with chin and at least part of throat (entire throat in *S^. varius) 
white, the forehead and crown sometimes (in individuals of S. varius) 
glossy black. 
c\ Nape brownish white. Adult male with red of throat separated from 
the white stripe on cheeks by a distinct and continuous black malar 
stripe, connecting with the black patch on chest. Adult female with. 
chin and throat entirely white, and red sometimes wanting on top 
of head. Young : Black, red, and white of head, neck, and chest 
nearly or quite wanting, the general color being a dull light 
mottled brownish tint, the pattern of the adult but faintly indi- 
cated. Length 7.75-8.75, wing (male) 4.80-5.00 (4.92), tail 2.90- 
3.20 (3.07), culmen 1.00-1.08 (1.04). Eggs .86 X -66. Hab. North- 
ern and eastern North America, breeding from northern United 
States northward ; south, in winter, to West Indies, Mexico (both 
coasts), and Guatemala. 

402. S. varius (Linn.). Yellow-bellied Sapsucker. 
cl Nape more or less tinged with red (often with a distinct red band or 
transverse patch). Adult male with red of throat extending, in 
middle portion, quite to the white cheek-stripe, the black malar 
stripe being thereby obliterated, except at extremities. Adult 
female with lower part of throat (sometimes nearly whole throat) 
red. Length 8.00-8.75, wing (male) 4.92-5.10 (5.03), tail 3.10-3.40 
(3.26), culmen .95-1.02 (.99). Eggs .87 X -65. Hab. Eocky Moun- 
tain district of United States, west to eastern slope of Sierra Nevada 
and Cascade ranges, south into mountains of Mexico. 

402a. S. varius nuchalis Baird. Red-naped Sapsucker. 
i^ Chest without black patch, and sides of head without white stripes. 

/ Adult {sexes alike) : Head, neck, and chest uniform red, or with white 

markings and black chest-patch of S. varius and S. nuchalis showing 
indistinctly through the plumage. Yoimg : Similar to same stage 
of S. varius and S. nuchalis, but darker, the head, etc., usually with 
a pronounced dull purplish red suifusion. Length about 8.50-9.25, 



CEOPHLCEUS. 289'r'-. 

wing (male) 4.70-5.05 (4.88), tail 3.10-3.50 (3.28), culmen 1.00-1.08 
(1.03). £ggs .94 X -60. Mab. Pacific coast district, south to Fort 
Tejon, California, north to southern Alaska. 

403. S. ruber (GxMel.). Red-breasted Sapsucker. 
a'. Eump plain white ; belly bright sulphur-yellow or lemon-yellow (except in 
young) ; sexes extremely dissimilar in plumage. 

Adult male: General color glossy black (with blue gloss, except on wings 
and tail), relieved by two white stripes on side of head, a large white 
patch covering middle and greater wing-coverts, and small white spots 
on quills ; throat with a median stripe of bright red. Young male : 
Similar to adult, but black duller and everywhere without gloss, belly 
whitish, or very faintly yellowish, and throat-stripe white. Adult 
female: Head nearly uniform light brown, the throat sometimes (but 
rarely) with a red stripe ; sides, flanks, and upper parts regularly barred 
with black and white; no white patch on wing-coverts; chest usually 
with more or less of a black patch. Young female: Similar to adult, but 
markings less sharply defined, colors duller, the belly whitish, and chest 
without black patch. Length 9.00-9.75, wing 5.25-5.50, tail 3.80-3.90, 
culmen 1.00-1.20. Eggs .96 x M. Hah. Western United States, from 
(and including) Eocky Mountains to Pacific coast. 

404. S. thyroideus (Cass.). "Williamson's Sapsucker. 



Genus CEOPHLCEUS Cabanis. (Page 280, pi. LXXXIY., fig. 2.) 

Species. 

CoMJiON Characters. — General color dull brownish black, or dark sooty slate, 
the under wing-coverts, throat, and one or more stripes on side of head (including 
one down side of neck) whitish ; male with whole toj) of head, including occipi- 
tal crest, and a broad malar stripe, bright red ; female with only the crest red, the 
forehead, crown, and malar stripe being brownish or dusky. 

a^. No white scapular stripe ; lower parts uniform dusky, the flanks usually indis- 
tinctly barred with whitish ; wing 8.90, or more. 
Adult male : Uniform dull dusky slate, varjdng to sooty blackish, the chin 
.and throat, two stripes on side of head, one on side of neck, under 
wing-coverts, and basal half of quills, white, more or less, especially on 
hidden portions, tinged with sulphur-j^ellow ; whole top of head, including 
occipital crest, and a broad malar stripe, bright red. Adidt female : Sim- 
ilar to the male, but malar stripe, forehead, and crown brownish gray 
or grayish brown. Length about 15.15-19.00, extent of wings 25.00- 
29.25, wing' 8.90-10.00, tail 6.60-7.40. culmen 2.10-2.65. Eggs 1.27 X -96. 
Hah. Whole of North America, in heavily-wooded districts. 

405. C. pileatus (Linn.). Pileated Woodpecker. 
a'. A white scapular stripe ; lower parts, posterior to breast, barred with blackish 

37 



290 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

t. 
and pale fulvous, or brownish white ; wing less than 7.50. Hah. Central 
America and Mexico, north to Mirador and Mazatian, south to Panama. 

C. scapularis (Vig.). Delattre's Woodpecker.^ 



Genus MELANERPES Swainson. (Page 280, pi. LXXXV., figs. 1-3.) 

S'pecies. 

cC-. Back, scapulars, and wing-coverts plain glossy blackish (grayish, indistinctly 
barred with dusky in young of M. erythrocephalus). 
b^. Lower parts, rump, and upper tail-coverts white ; plumage of neck and 
lower parts soft, blended ; wing less than 6.00. (Subgenus Melanerpes.) 
c\ Adult male : Whole head, neck, and chest uniform rich crimson, bordered 
below, against Avhite of breast, by black (this sometimes concealed) ; 
wing-coverts, back, and scapulars glossy blue-black ; lower back, 
rump, upper tail-coverts, lower parts, and whole exposed portion of 
secondaries uniform pure white, the belly usually tinged with orange 
or reddish. Adult female: Similar to the male, but with inner secon- 
daries more or less spotted, in transverse series, with black, and black 
collar between white of breast and crimson of chest more conspicu- 
ous. Young : Head, neck, and chest brownish gray, streaked with 
dusky ; secondaries crossed near- ends by one or more black bands ; 
wing-coverts, scapulars, and back dull grayish, barred with dusky. 
Length about 9.25-9.75, wing 5.30-5.70^ tail 3.60-3.75. Eggs .97 X 
.75. Hab. Eastern United States, west to Rocky Mountains (occa- 
sionally still farther westward) ; rare or casual east of Hudson River. 
406. M. erythrocephalus (Linn.). Red-headed Woodpecker. 
c^. Adult male : Upper parts in general, ear-coverts, and broad band across 
chest, glossy greenish blue-black ; feathers round base of bill, 
including chin and upper part of throat, dull black ; lower parts 
generally, rump, tail-coverts, patch on base of primaries, forehead, 
and thence to lower part of throat, white, the last more or less 
tinged with sulphui'-yellow (sometimes bi-ightly of this color) ; 
crown and occiput crimson-red. Adult female : Similar to the male, 
but fore-part of crown glossy blue-black. Young : Similar to adults, 
with same sexual difference in color of crown, but colors duller. 
d^. AVidth of white or j-ellow frontal patch and black crown-patch 
in female together decidedly greater than width (longitudi- 
nally) of red occipital patch ; white or yellow frontal band not 
less than .30 wide ; wing averaging decidedly more than 5.50. 
e\ Greater part, or whole, of chest streaked with white ; wing 
5.30-5.90 (5.54), tail 3.10-3.60 (3.42), culmen, 1.10-1.22 
(1.16). Ifab. Central America and Southeastern Mexico, 

1 Picua ecapularia ViG., Zool. Jour. iv. 1828-29, 354. 



MELANERPES. 291 

south to Costa Eica, north to Jalapa, Cordoba, Tehuante- 
pec, etc. 

M. formicivorus (Swains.). Striped-breasted Woodpecker.^ 
e^. Greater part of chest uniform glossy black, the white streaks 
being confined to posterior half, or less ; length about 
8.50-9.50, wing 5.30-6.00 (5.61), tail 3.00-4.00 (3.64), cul- 
men 1.00-1.40 (1.16). Eggs .91 X -71. Hab. Central, 
northern, and western Mexico and contiguous border of 
United States, from western Texas to California, and north 
along Pacific coast to British Columbia; south, through 
western Mexico, to Jalisco (Tonila) and Sierra Nevada of 
Colima (?) ; northern Lower California 407. M. formi- 
civorus bairdi Eidgw. Californian Woodpecker. 
(P. "Width of white or yellow frontal band and black crown band in 
female together decidedly less than width (longitudinally) of 
red occipital patch ; white or yellow frontal band less than .30 
wide ; Mnng averaging decidedly less than 5.50. 

Greater part of chest streaked with white ; throat usually 
decidedly brighter sulphur-yellow than in other forms ; 
length about 8.25-9.00, wing 5.20-5.55 (5.38), tail 3.30-3.50 
(3.37), culmen 1.15-1.25 (1.20). Hah. Southern portion of 
Lower California.... 407rt. M. formicivorus angustifrons 
Baird. Narrow-fronted Woodpecker. 
1?. Lower parts chiefly pinkish red (in adult) or grayish (in young), rump and 
upper tail-coverts glossy blackish ; plumage of lower parts harsh, hair- 
like ; wing more than 6.00. (Subgenus Asyndesmus Coues.) 

Adult (sexes alike) : Upper parts, lower tail-coverts, and thighs uni- 
form dark metallic greenish, or greenish black ; fore-part of head, 
including cheeks, dark crimson ; chest and collar round hind-neck 
light hoary grayish ; breast, belly, sides, and flanks pinkish red, 
lighter anteriorly. Young : No red on head, which is dull blackish 
above and on cheeks, and dusky grayish on throat; chest dirty 
light grayish ; sides dusky ; belly dull reddish. Length 10.50-11.50, 
wing 6.50-6.80, tail 4.40^.70. Eggs 1.08 X .79. Hab. Western 
United States, east to Black Hills and Eocky Mountains. 

408. M. torquatus (Wilson). Lewis's Woodpecker. 

a''. Back, scapulars, and wings barred with white. (Subgenus Centiirus Swainson.) 

¥. Sides distinctly barred with blackish ; lesser wing-coverts not varied with 

white. Hab. Central America, north to southern Mexico, south to 

Veragua. 

M. pucherani (Malh.). Pucheran's Woodpecker.'* 
b^. Sides without bars ; lesser wing-coverts varied with white. 

1 Picus formicivorus SwAiNS., Philos. Mag. i. 1827, 439. Melanerpes formicivorua Bonap., P. Z. S. 1837, 
109. 

2 Zehrapicus pucherani Malh., Rev. Zool. 1849, 542; Mon. Pic. ii. 1862, 227, pi. 10.3, figs. 1, 2. 



292 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

&. A blackish patch above or surrounding eye, or else (in female of M. 
hypopolius) entire occiput and hind-neck smoky brownish gray. 
d}. Hind-neck red or yellow ; middle of belly red or yellow. 
e^. Middle of belly yellow. 

Adult male : Crown and occiput bright red, the hind-neck 
rich orange or yellow ; orbits surrounded with black, 
broader above and behind the eye ; rest of head smoky 
grayish, more or less tinged anteriorly with bright 
yellow. Adult female : Similar to the male, but red of 
crown and occiput replaced by grayish, sometimes mixed 
with black posteriorly. Wing 4.50-4.90, tail 3.10-3.60, 
culmen .95-1.10. Hab. Southern and western Mexico, 
from Puebla north to Mazatlan. 

M. elegans (Swains). Elegant Woodpecker.* 
e*. Middle of belly red. 

/^ Larger (wing 5.50 or more) ; plumage much tinged or 
stained, above and below, with ochraceous-yellow. 
Hab. Cuba. 

M. superciliaris (Temm.). Superciliary Woodpecker.' 
f^. Smaller (wing less than 5.50) ; plumage not distinctly 
stained with ochraceous-yellow. 
g^. Darker, the forehead dull white or pale smoky gray- 
ish or brownish, the nasal tufts only partly red- 
dish or yellowish, the white bars of back, etc., 
stained with pale brownish. Hab. Abaco Island, 
Bahamas. 

M. blakei Eidgw. Blake's Woodpecker.* 

g^. Paler, the forehead pure white, the nasal tufts wholly 

bright red, white bars of back, etc., very slightly 

if at all tinged with brownish, lower parts paler, 

etc. Sab. Watling Island, Bahamas. 

M. nyeanus Kidgw. Nye's Woodpecker.* 
d'^. Hind-neck soft smoky brownish gray ; middle of belly whitish. 

Adult male with a patch of red on crown and a tinge of red 
on cheeks; adult female without red on crown, and with 
red on cheeks more distinct. Hab. Southern Mexico (Pu- 
ebla, etc.). 

M. hypopolius (Wagl.). Gray-breasted Woodpecker.^ 
c". No black over or around eye. 
d\ Middle of belly red. 



1 Picus elegans SwAiNS., Philos. Mag. i. 1827, 439. Centurua elegans Gray, Gen. B. ii. 1849, 442. 

^ Pictia superciliaris Temm., PI. Col. livr. 73, 1827, pi. 433. Centurua auperciliaria Bonap., Consp. i. 1850, 

lis. 

3 Centurua blakei Ridgw., Auk, iii. July, 1886, 337. 

* Centurus nyeanua Ridgw., Auk, iii. July, 1886, 336. 

^ Picua hypopolius Wagl., Isis, 1829, 514. Centurua hypopoliua Licht., Nomencl. 1854, 76. 



MELANERPES. 293 

e\ Larger (wing 4.85 to more than 5.00) ; frontlet (nasal tufts) 
red. 
p. Middle tail-feathers varied with white ; red of crown in 
male confluent with that of nasal tufts ; belly paler 
red, or pinkish red. Adult male : Whole top of head 
and hind-neck bright red. Adult female: Similar to 
male, but crown ash-gray. Young : With colors much 
duller than in adult, and all the markings less sharply 
defined ; the red of the head indistinct, that of the 
belly often replaced by dull buffy. Length (fresh) 
9.00-10.10, wing 4.85-5.50, tail 3.50-3.95, culmen 1.00- 
1.20. Eggs .96 X -71. Hab. Eastern United States, 
west to eastern base of Eocky Mountains, south to 
Florida and central Texas ; rare or accidental east of 
Hudson Eiver. 

409. M. carolinus (Linn.). Red-bellied Woodpecker. 

f\ Middle tail-feathers entirely uniform black; white bars 

of back, etc., very much narrower than black ones ; 

red of crown in adult male separated from that of 

nasal tufts by a white band ; middle of belly intense 

red. 

g^. Eump and upper tail-coverts immaculate white ; 

lower parts paler. Hab. Yucatan. 

M. dubius (Cabot). Uxmal Woodpecker.^ 
g'^. Eump and upper tail-coverts more or less barred or 
otherwise marked with black; lower parts darker. 
Sab. Cozumel Island, Yucatan. 

M. leei Kidgw. Lee's Woodpecker.' 
el Smaller (wing less than 4.50) ; frontlet (nasal tufts) yellow. 
(Otherwise similar in color to M. dubius, but middle tail- 
feathers more or less varied with white toward base.) 
p. Larger and lighter colored, with less white on middle 
tail-feathers ; wing 4.20-4.40. Hab. Yucatan. 

M. rubriventris (Swains.). Swainson's Woodpecker.' 
/I Smaller and darker, with more white on middle tail- 
feathers; wing 3.80-3.95. Hab. Cozumel Island, 
Yucatan. 

M. pygmaeus Kidgw. Pygmy Woodpecker.* 
Middle of belly yellow or (rarely) orange. 
e\ Hind-neck yellow, orange, or orange-red. 

/\ Bars on back, etc., narrow, the white ones decidedly nar- 



1 Picua dubius Cabot, Jour. Boston Soc. v. 1845, 91. 

» Centnrus leei RiDGW., Descr. N. Sp. B. Cozumel, Feb. 26, 1885, 2. 

' Centurus ruhriventria SwAINS., Anim. in Menag. 1S38, 354. 

* Centurus rubriventris pygmxus RiDGW., Proc. U. S. Nat. Mas. viii. Oct. 17, 1885, 676. 



294 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 



rower than the black ones; breast, etc., deep smoky- 
gray, or olive-gray ; adxdt male with red crown-patch 
usually confluent with orange or orange-red of nape ; 
middle tail-feathers usually varied with white. Hab. 
Salvador, Honduras, Guatemala, and southern Mexico, 
north to Jalapa and Mirador. 

M. santa-cruzi (Bonap.). Santa Cruz's Woodpecker.^ 
• /^ Bars on back, etc., broader, the white ones equal to black 
ones in width ; breast, etc., pale brownish gray or dull 
gi*ayish white ; adult male with red crown-patch usu- 
ally entirely surrounded by ash-gray — rarely confluent 
with the orange, orange-red, or yellow of nape ; middle 
tail-feather always (?) entirely black. 

Adult male : Crown with a bright red patch, usually 
surrounded by pale grayish (paler, sometimes 
nearly white, across forehead), but sometimes con- 
fluent posteriorly, along the median line, with the 
orange of the hind-neck ; frontlet bright yellow. 
Adult female : Similar to the male, but crown en- 
tirely light gra3'ish (paler anteriorly), the yellow 
of frontlet and belly and orange or j^ellow of hind- 
neck paler. Young : Much duller in colors than 
adult, the markings much less sharply defined, 
and the bright colors of head but faintly indi- 
cated ; breast indistinctly streaked with dusky. 
Wing 5.20-5.65, tail 3.40-3.75, culmen 1.20-1.40. 
Eggs .99 X -75. JTab. Northeastern Mexico and 

southern Texas 410. M. aurifrons (Wagl.). 

Golden-fronted Woodpecker. 
Hind-neck soft light grayish brown, or smoky drab. 

Eump and upper tail-coverts regu'larly barred with black. 
Adult male : Head, neck, and most of lower parts uni- 
form soft smoky drab or light grayish brown, the 
middle of the crown with a crimson patch. Adult 
female : Similar to the male, but no red on crown. 
Young : Not essentially different from adult, but 
markings less sharply defined, and colors duller. 
Wing 5.00-5.30, tail 3.50-3.90, culmen .95-1.25. Eggs 
.98 X -70. Mab. Southern Arizona, southeastern Cali- 
fornia, Lower California, and western Mexico, south 
to Mazatlan. 

411. M. uropygialis (Baird). Gila Woodpecker. 

1 Centurus santa-cruzi BoNAP., P. Z. S. 1837, 116. 



COLAPTES. 295 

Genus COLAPTES Swainson. (Page 280, pi. LXXXVI., fig. 2.) 

Species. 
Common Characters. — Back, scapulars, and wing-coverts brownish, barred 
with black ; rump and upper tail-coverts white, the latter broadly barred or 
otherwise marked with black; outer surface of quills and upper surface of tail- 
feathers black, the shafts of these feathers bright yellow or red ; under surface 
of quills and tail-feathers paler yellow or reddish, the latter with a broad black 
terminal band ; lower parts pale vinaceous, marked with small roundish or 
cordate spots of black, the chest with a large transverse, somewhat crescentic, 
patch of black. Adult males with a broad malar stripe, or " mustache," of black or 
red. 

a}. Shafts, etc., yellow. 

¥. Occiput with a red patch ; throat light pinkish cinnamon, or vinaceous ; top 

of head grayish ; male with the " mustache" deejD black. 

c\ Eumj) immaculate white; length 12.00-12.75, wing 5.50-6.60 (6.15), 

tail 4.00-4.95 (4.45), exposed culmen 1.25-1.40 (1.33). Eggs 1.10 X 

.85. Hah. Eastern North America, north to Hudson's Bay and 

Alaska (Yukon Valley, to Sitka), west to Great Plains. 

412. C. auratus (Linn.). Flicker. 
cl Eump thickly spotted with black ; wing 5.35-5.75, tail 4.30-4.80. Hab. 

Cuba. 

C. chrysocaulosus Gundl. Cuban Flicker.^ 
¥. Occiput without any red; throat ash-gray; top of head cinnamon-brown; 
"mustache" of male bright red; length 11.20-11.70, wing 5.35-6.15 
(5.75), tail 3.75-4.30 (4.05), exposed culmen 1.30-1.55 (1.38). Eggs 1.10 
X -83. Hab. Southeastern Califoi'nia, Lower California, southern Ari- 
zona, and Sonora 414. C. chrysoides (Malh.). Gilded Flicker. 

a^. Shafts, etc., red. 

6^ Top of head dull brown, graj'ish brown, or brownish gray, becoming per- 
cejjtibly grayer (or less distinctly brown) on hind-neck, more rusty or 
cinnamon-colored on forehead, lores, and superciliary region ; rump usu- 
ally immaculate white ; back, etc., grayish brown, varying to a burnt- 
umber tint, narrowly barred with black, these bars always much nar- 
rower than the brown interspaces; "mustache" of male bright scarlet, 
c^ Exposed culmen usually much less than 1.60 ; wing averaging decidedly 
more than 6.25 ; crown grayish brown, or brownish gray, becoming 
browner anteriorly ; rump pure white, or slightly tinged with deli- 
cate pinkish ; shafts pure orange-vermilion, or scarlet, the inner 
webs of quills and under surface of tail deep pinkish red, varying 
to orange-red. 
d}. Lighter colored, with back grayish brown, lower parts pale vina- 

1 Colaptes chrysocaulosus GuiJdl., Ann. Lye. N. Y. vi. 1858, 273. 



296 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

ceous, or vinaceous-wbite, throat ash-gray, and crown light 
grayish brown or brownish gray ; length 12.75-14.00, wing 
6.45-7.15 (6.66), tail 4.40-5.20 (4.86), exposed culmon 1.34-1.53 
(1.46). Eggs 1.13 X .88. Hah. Whole of western United 
States and table-lands of Mexico, except northwest coast and 
Lower California; east to Eocky Mountains (occasionally 
across Great Plains to Kansas). 

413. C. cafer (Gmel.). Eed-shafted Flicker.' 
d^. Darker, with back deeper brown (sometimes of a warm burnt- 
umber tint), lower parts deeper vinaceous, throat deeper ash- 
gray (sometimes almost plumbeous), and top of head deeper 
brownish; wing 6.35-7.00 (6.63), tail 4.70-5.20 (5.01), exposed 
culmen 1.35-1.60 (1.47). Hah. Northwest coast, north to 
Sitka, south to northern California (chiefly in coast district). 
413a. C. cafer saturatior Eidgw. Northwestern Flicker. 
c^. Exposed culmen not less than 1.60, the bill slenderer and more curved ; 
wing averaging less than 6.25 ; crown cinnamon-brown, becoming 
deep cinnamon anteriorly; rump vinaceous- white ; shafts red-lead 
color, the under surface of quills and tail a paler shade of the 
same. 

Wing 5.90-6.25 (6.05), tail 4.50-5.00 (4.72), exposed culmen 1.60- 
1.85 (1.70). Hab. Guadalupe Island, Lower California. 

415. C. rufipileus Eidgw. Guadalupe Flicker. 
l)^. Entire top of head and hind-neck uniform deej) cinnamon, strongly and very 
abruptly contrasted with ash-gray of ear-coverts, etc. ; rump distinctly 
spotted with black ; back, etc., light cinnamon-brown, broadly barred 
with black, these bars about the same width as the lighter interspaces ; 
" mustache" of male carmine-red ; size about the same as in C. cafer. 

Hah. Guatemala. 

C. mexicanoides Lafr. Guatemalan Flicker.^ 

1 It may hereafter prove expedient to separate the birds of the United States from those of Mexico as repre- 
senting a geographical race. Eight specimens from Mexico (Valley of Mexico, Mirador, Saltillo, Puebla, etc.) 
are much smaller than northern examples, and with a single exception (an example from Saltillo, Coahuila) 
have the black bars on the back, etc., much narrower. The extreme and average measurements of this scries 
are as follows: wing 5.90-6.50 (6.13), tail 4.00-4.70 (4.41), exposed culmen 1.20-1.40 (1.30). If separated, the 
United States bird would have to be called C. cafer coUaris (ViG.), the ColajHes collaris of Vigors (Zool. Jour, 
iv. 1829, 384; Zool. Beechey's Voy. 1839, 24, pi. 9) having been based on specimens from Monterey, Cali- 
fornia. 

2 Cohqnea mexicanoides Lafr., Rev. Zool. 1844, 42. 



CAPRIMULQID^. 297 



Order MACROCHIRES. — The Goatsuckers, 

Swifts, etc. (Page 2.) 

Families. 

a}. Secondaries more than six ; bill short, very broad at base, the gape deeply cleft ; 
plumage not metallic. 
6^ Middle toe much longer than lateral toes, its claw with inner edge pecti- 
nated ; gape more or less distinctly bristled ; plumage much spotted, 
the feathers soft, with downy or moth-like surface. (Suborder Capri- 

7nulgi.) Caprimulgidse. (Page 297.) 

b^. Middle toe not distinctly longer than lateral toes, its claw with edge not 
pectinated ; gape without bristles ; plumage plain and compact, the 
feathers with smooth surface. (Suborder Cypseli.) 

Micropodidse. (Page 302.) 
a'. Secondaries only six ; bill long as head, or longer, slender, the gape not deeply 
cleft ; plumage more or less metallic. (Suborder Trochili.) 

Trochilidse. (Page 303.) 



Family CAPRIMULGIDiE.— The Goatsuckers. (Page 297.) 

{Eggs deposited on bare ground, dead leaves, gravel, or sand, 2, broadly ellip- 
tical-oval, plain or spotted.) 

Genera. 

a^. Gape without conspicuous bristles ; tail emarginated. 

Chordeiles. (Page 300.) 
a^. Gape with conspicuous bristles ; tail even or rounded. 

b^. Tarsus shorter than middle toe, and feathered in fi'ont almost to the toes ; 

first quill longer than fourth Antrostomus. (Page 298.) 

¥. Tarsus longer than middle toe, entirely naked in front ; first quill shorter 
than foui'th. 
&. Tail even, much shorter than wing, the latter less than 6.00 ; quills 

without white patch Phalsenoptilus. (Page 299.) 

c^ Tail much rounded, neai'ly equal to or longer than wing, the latter 6.00 
or more; quills with a white patch... Nyctidromus. (Page 300.) 



298 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

Genus ANTROSTOMUS Gould. (Page 297, pi. LXXXVII., fig. 1 ; pi. 

LXXXVIII., fig. 1.) 

Species. 

Common Characters. — Upper parts brownish and grayish, much mottled and 
otherwise varied with blackish ; outer webs of quills spotted with ochraceous, but 
(in North American species) without any white spot ; lower parts pale fulvous or 
butiy, mottled or barred with dusky ; throat with a white, ochraceous, or buffy 
transverse patch ; tail of male with white on terminal portion of inner webs. 

rt\ Bristles of gape with lateral filaments. 

Adult male : Terminal third, or more, of three outer tail-feathers white, 
or buffy. Adult female : Outer tail-feathers without any white or buffy 
patch; length about 11.00-12.00, wing 8.70-8.90, tail 6.25-630. Eggs 
deposited on ground or dead leaves in woods, 1.39 X 1-01, pale pinkish 
butf, marbled with pale brown and lilac-gray. Hab. Southern Atlantic 
and Gulf States and lower Mississippi Valley, north to North Carolina and 

southern Illinois 416. A. carolinensis (Gjiel.). Chuck-will' s-widow. 

rt^ Bristles of gape without lateral filaments. 

b^. Nostrils large, opening vertically from out a nearly circular tubular case ; 
rictal bristles very large and much lengthened, extending nearly half 
their length beyond tip of bill; top of head with ground-color distinctly 
brownish, the whole surface marked with broad, serrate-edged streaks 
of black; adult males with white tail-patches occupying less than ter- 
minal third of three or four outer feathers, and decreasing in extent 
from exterior feather. 
c\ Wing 7.00, or more ; four outer tail-feathers tipped with white in male, 
three outer ones tipped with buff in female ; length about 10.50- 
11.00, wing 7.00-7.25, tail 5.50-5.70, longer rictal bristles 1.80-2.00. 

Hab. Cuba. 

A. cubanensis Lawr. Cuban Whippoorwill.* 

c^ Wing less than 7.00 ; three outer tail-feathers tipped with white in 
male, with buff in female ; length about 10.00, wing 6.60-6.70, tail 
5.20-5.35, longer rictal bristles about 1.20-1.40. Hab. Eastern Mexico 
(Mirador, La Parada, etc.). 

A. macromystax (Wagl.). Mexican Whippoorwill.^ 
b^. Nostrils small, inconspicuous, not distinctly raised above general level of 
base of bill ; rictal bristles much weaker, reaching less than half their 
length beyond tip of bill ; top of head more or less distinctly grayish, 
narrowly streaked laterally, and very broadl}^ streaked medially, with 
black; adult male with white tail-patch occupying more than terminal 



1 Antrostomua cnbanenaia Lawr., Ann. Lye. N. Y. vii. May, 1860, 260. 

* Caprimulgxia macromystax Wagl., Isis, 1831, 533. Antrostomus macromystax ScL., P. Z. S. 1866, 137. 



PHALJENOPTILUS. 299 

third of three outer tail-feathers, and increasing in extent from exterior 

feather. 
c^. Smaller, with white tail-patch of male more extended, throat-bar 
chiefly or wholly white in adult male, the lores and auriculars less 
tawny. Young : Scapulars, wing-coverts, sides of neck, etc., bright 
ochraceous-buflf", the first marked with large roundish spots of 
black ; top of head finely mottled grayish, spotted, instead of 
marked longitudinally, with black, the spots larger in centre of 
crown ; lower parts almost plain light bufi'y ; otherwise, essentially 
like adult. Length about 9.50-10.00, wing 5.80-6.70, tail 5.10-6.50, 
longer rictal bristles about 1.40-1.70 (but much slenderer than in 
A. macromystax). Eggs deposited on ground or dead leaves in woods, 
1.12 X -8-4, creamy white or pure white, spotted or blotched with 
lilac-gray, or lilac-gray and pale brown. Hah. Eastern United 
States, north to British Provinces (Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, 
Manitoba, etc.), west to edge of Great Plains ; south, in winter, 
through eastern Mexico to Guatemala. 

417. A. vociferus (Wils.). Whippoorwill. 
c^ Larger, with white tail-patch of adult male less extended, throat-bar 
largely or entirely ochraceous in adult male, the lores and auriculars 
(whole plumage, in fact) more tawny; length 9.60-10.20, wing 6.27- 
6.65, tail 5.03-5.45, longer rictal bristles about 1.40-1.80. ^a&.Table- 
lands of central Mexico, north to southern Arizona. 

417a. A. vociferus arizonae Brewst. Stephens's Whippoorwill. 



Genus PHALiENOPTILUS Eidgway, (Page 297, pi. LXXXIX., fig. 1.) 

Species. 

Adult male : Top of head soft velvety grayish, barred with dusky ; under tail- 
coverts plain buff; upper parts in general soft brownish gray, with a very velvety, 
moth-like surface, relieved b}^ irregular spottings and zigzags of black, the outer 
webs of the quills spotted with deep buff^, or ochraceous ; throat with a large trans- 
verse patch of white ; other lower parts (except tail-coverts) barred with blackish 
and light buffy ; tail-feathers (except middle pair) broadly tipped with white. 
Adult female : Similar to the male, but usually with white tips to tail-feathers nar- 
rower. Young : Much like adult, but colors above more silvery gray, mixed more 
or less with bright rusty or ochraceous, the black markings smaller and less dis- 
tinct, the white of throat and tail reduced in extent, and tinged with ochraceous 
or rusty. Length 7.25-8.50, wing 5.60-5.75, tail 3.70-3.90. Eggs deposited on 
ground in open places, .99 X -78, plain dead white, usually with a faint buffy or 
pinkish tinge. Hab. Western United States, east to across Great Plains, south to 
southern Mexico 418. P. nuttalli (Aud.). Poorwill. 



300 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

Genus NYCTIDROMUS Gould. (Page 297, pi. LXXXYIII., fig. 2.) 

Species. 

Adult male : Above finely mottled brownish gray or brownish, the crown with 
a central series of broad black streaks, the scapulars handsomely variegated with 
black and buff in large, somewhat V-shaped, markings; base of six outer primaries 
white, forming a large patch over both webs, the rest of the quills plain dusky ; 
outer tail-feathers nearly uniform blackish ; next mostly white, with outer web 
chiefly dusky ; third also mostly white, the outer web edged with dusky ; four 
middle tail-feathers without any white, their ground-color mottled brownish gray, 
relieved by irregular "herring-bone" blotches of dusky along the shaft; low^er parts 
buffy, regularly barred with dusky, the throat crossed by a distinct collar of pure 
white; length 12.00-13.50, wing 6.75-7.50, tail 6.75-7.40. Adult female : Similar to 
the male, but smaller, more brownish, the colors duller and less handsomely con- 
trasted, the white of quills and tail-feathers more restricted, that of former occu- 
pying only four outer quills, of latter occupying only terminal portion (for .75- 
1.75) of the inner webs of second and third feathers, the blackish basal portion of 
which is broadly, though more or less irregularly, barred and mottled with ochra- 
ceous; length about 10.50-11.50, wing 6.00-6.30, tail 5.80-6.00. Young: Much 
paler than adult, the lower parts nearly immaculate pale dull buffy, the wung- 
coverts and tertials with this color prevailing; dark markings on top of head in 
form of somewhat triangular, drop-shaped, or diamond-shaped spots, each imme- 
diately surrounded by a paler tint than the general surface ; sexes distinguished as 
in adult stages. Eggs deposited on ground or dead leaves in woods or thickets, 
1.16 X -84, deejD pinkish buff, or salmon-buff, sparsely speckled or spotted with rusty 
or cinnamon. Hah. Whole of tropical America (except "West Indies), north to 
lower Eio Grande Yallej^ in Texas 419. N. albicoUis (Gmel.). Parauque. 

Genus CHORDEILES Swainson. (Page 297, pi. LXXXVII., fig. 2.) 

Species. 

Common Characters. — Above mottled with blackish and grayish (sometimes 
varied, more or less, with ochraceous), the tail more or less distinctly banded with 
dusky ; quills chiefly plain dusky, several of the longer ones marked near the 
middle portion with a more or less extensive white or buffy spot; lower parts 
whitish or buffy, barred with dusky, the throat with a more or less conspicuous 
A-shaped white or buffy patch ; adidt males with a broad bar of white across tail 
near tip (except on middle feathers). Young : Much more finely and profusely 
mottled than in adults, with less of dusky above and dusky bars on low^er parts less 
distinct ; upper parts often more or less suffused or mixed (especially in C. texensis 
and C. virginianus hem'yi) with pale cinnamon or rusty buff. 

a^. White or (rarely) buffy spot or patch on quills situated mainly or wholly 
anterior to tip of seventh quill, the space between this white patch and the 



CHORDEILES. 301 

primary coverts unspotted dusky ; secondaries not distinctly, if at all, 
spotted with buffy or oehraceous ; general color above very variable, but 
with dusky markings rarely distinctly longitudinal, or streak-like; first 
quill usually longest. 
h^. Darker, with dusky markings pi'edominating above. 

c\ Larger: Wing 7.30-8.25 (7.79), tail 4.30-4.75 (4.52). Eggs deposited in 
open situations (fields, etc.), 1.19 X -85, pale olive-buff, buffy white, 
grayish white, etc., thickly speckled and dashed, in varying char- 
acter and quantity, with deep brown, olive, or even blackish, usually 
mixed with clouding or marbling of pale purplish gray. Hab. 
Eastern North America, north to Hudson's Bay, west to edge of 
Great Plains (to Pacific coast along northern border of United 
States) ; south, in winter, to Bahamas, Cuba, Jamaica (breeds ?), 
Middle America, and portions of eastern South America. 

420. C. virginianus (Gmel.). Nighthawk. 
c\ Smaller: Wing 6.60-7.25, tail 3.85~4.30.i Eggs 1.13 X -80, the markings 
averaging bolder and darker than in C. virginianus. Hab. Southern 
Florida, Cuba, and Jamaica. 

4206. C. virginianus minor (Cab.). Cuban Nighthawk. 
¥. Paler, with light grayish, buffy, or oehraceous markings predominating 
on upper parts; length 9.15-10.00, wing 7.65-8.50 (7.89), tail 4.25-4.95 
(4.59). Eggs 1.19 X -86, averaging paler than those of true C. virgini- 
anus. Hab. Western United States, east, occasionally, to western and 
northern Illinois, south to table-lands of Mexico. 

420a. C. virginianus henryi (Cass.). Western Nighthawk. 
a*. White (or buffy) spot or patch on quills situated usually mainly or wholly pos- 
terior to tip of seventh quill, the space between this patch and the primary 
coverts usually distinctly spotted with buff or oehraceous ; secondaries con- 
spicuously spotted with oehraceous ; general color above dull graj'ish, mot- 
tled and streaked with dusky ; fii'st quill usually shorter than second ; length 
about 8.00-9.00, wing 6.60-7.30 (7.11), tail 4.10-4.75 (4.37). Eggs 1.08 X 
.77, dull white, grayish white, etc., finely speckled with olive or vandyke- 
browu (averaging much paler in coloration than eggs of C. virginianus henryi). 
Hab. Southwestern border of United States (Texas to southern California), 
and south to Costa Eica 421. C. texensis Lawr. Texan Nighthawk. 

1 Florida specimens are not quite typical, being larger than those from Cuba or Jamaica, and, as a rule, with 
less oehraceous in their plumage. Four Florida specimens (Miami, Marco, and Clearwater), compared with four 
from Jamaica and two from Cuba, measure as follows : 

Florida specimens : Wing 7.00-7.25 (7.15), tail 4.10-4.30 (4.13). 

Cuban specimens : Wing 6.75-7.00 (G.88), tail 4.00-4.30 (4.15). 

Jamaican sjyecimens : AVing 6.60-7.00 (6.80), tail 3.85-4.00 (3.95). 



302 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

Family MICROPODID^.— The Swifts. (Page 297.) 

Genera. 

a}. Tarsi and part of toes feathered, the hind-toe directed either forward or laterally, 

not backward. {^nMaxmlj Mlcropodince.) Micropus. (Page 303.) 

a^. Tarsi and toes naked, the hind-toe directed backward. (Subfamily Chcetiirince.) 
6\ Tail rounded, or even, the feathers usually with distinct spinous points; 

wing less than 5.50 Chaetura. (Pago 302.) 

b'^. Tail slightly forked, or emarginate. 

c^. Tail-feathers without spinous points ; wing less than 7.00 ; no white 

collar Cypseloides. (Page 302.) 

c^. Tail-feathers with distinct, though small, spinous points ; wing 8.00 or 
more ; a white collar Hemiprocne} 

Genus CYPSELOIDES Streubel. (Page 302, pi. LXXXIX., fig. 2.) 

Sjjecies. 

Adult : Uniform dusky or blackish, becoming more sooty grayish on head and 
neck, the forehead more hoary. Young : Similar, but feathers bordered terminally 
with whitish. Length about 7.00-7.50, wing 6.50-7.50, tail 2.30-3.00. Hab. 
Western United States (north to Colorado, Nevada, and British Columbia), and 
south to Costa Eica; Jamaica, Haiti, and other West India islands. 

422. C. niger (Gmel.). Black Swift. 

Genus CH^TURA Stephens. (Page 302, pi. LXXXIX., fig. 3.) 

Species. 

Common Characters. — Plain dusky, or dark sooty grayish, above, the wings 
darker, the rump, upper tail-coverts, and tail usually paler ; lower parts plain sooty 
grayish, darker posteriorly, paler (sometimes dull whitish or whitish gra}^) ante- 
riorly. Or else, uniform sooty, the throat not paler (C. brunneitorques, 9), or black- 
ish, with broad collar of rufous round neck (C. brunneitorques, %). 

(7\ Throat distinctly paler than other parts ; male without rufous collar. 
6^ Wing 5.00, or more. 

Length about 4.75-5.50, wing 5.00-5.25, tail (including spines) 1.90- 
2.15. Nest a shallow half-saucer-shaped structure of dried twigs, 
glued together with the bird's saliva, and with the same adhesive 
substance fastened to the inside of a hollow tree (with the entrance 
from above), a disused chimney, or similar place. Eggs 4-6, ellip- 



1 Hemvprocne Nitzsch, Pterylog. 1840, 12.S. Type, by elimination, Hirundo zonaris Shaw. 
This genus includes two Mexican species— the largest members of the family— either of which may possibly 
occur as a straggler within our southwestern border. 



MICROPUS. 303 

tical-ovate, plain pure white. Hob. Eastern North America, north 
to Labrador and to 50° in the interior, west to edge of Great 

Plains 423. C, pelagica (Linn.). Chimney Swift. 

¥. Wing decidedly less than 5.00. 

c^. Eump, upper tail-coverts, and tail light sooty grayish, very much 
lighter than the olive-dusky back ; breast and belly light sooty 
graj^ish ; length about 4.15-4,50, wing 4.30-4.75, tail (including 
spines) 1.50-1.90. Nest like that of C. pelagica, but oji\y (?) in hol- 
low trees. Eggs .71 X -49. Hab. Western United States (chiefly 
Pacific coast), north to Bx-itish Columbia ; south, in winter, to 

Guatemala 424. C. vauxii (Towns.). Vaux's Swift. 

c'^. Upper parts entirely blackish (very slightl}^ paler on rump, etc.), glossed 
with olive-greenish on back and with bluish on wings ; breast and 
belly deej) sooty gi'ayish brown ; wing 4.20-4.60, tail (including 
spines) 1.70-1.75.^ Hab. Southern Mexico (Yucatan, including 
Cozurael, Tehuantepec, etc.), Guatemala, and south to Costa Pica. 

C. gaumeri Lawr. Gaumer's Chimney Swift.^ 
rt*. Throat not paler than rest of under parts ; male with a broad collar of rufous 
round neck ; length about 4.75-5.00, wing 4.80-5.20, tail 1.80-2.10. Hab. Cen- 
tral America, north to eastern Mexico (Orizaba), south to Ecuador. 

C. brunneitorques Lafr. Lafresnaye's Chimney Swift.' 

Genus MICROPUS Meyer & Wolf. (Page 302, pi. LXXXIX., fig. 4.) 

Species. 

Above dull blackish, usually becoming lighter and grayer on forehead ; sides 
and under tail-coverts also dull blackish; other lower parts, tips of secondaries 
(outer webs onl}^), and a patch on each side of rump, white; length 6.50-7.00, wing 
5.30-5.90, tail 2.50-2.70. Hab. Western United States (in mountains), and south to 
Guatemala 425. M. melanoleucus (Baird). White-throated Swift. 



Family TROCHILID^E. — The Hummingbirds. (Page 297.) 

(Nest a beautifully felted cup-shaped structure, composed of plant-down, 
spiders' webs, lichens, etc. — the last exteriorly, the first internall}". Eggs 2, ellipti- 
cal-ovate or elliptical-oval, large in proportion to size of the bird, plain pure white.) 

Genera.* 
a\ Anterior toes united for basal half; bill much compressed (except at base), about 



1 These spines usually worn entirely off in Yucatan specimens. 

2 Chectura gaumeri Lawr., Ann. N. Y. Ac. Sci. ii. No. 8, March, 1882, 245, 
' ChiFtura brunneitorques Lafr., Rev. Zool. 1844, 81. 

* Characters of all the Mexican genera are given, for the reason that almost any species of Hummingbird 
found on the table-lands or mountains of Mexico may reasonably be expected to occur within our borders. In 



304 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

two-thirds as long as wing, decidedly ai'ched ; tail graduated, the middle pair 
of feathers much longer than the others, all tipped with white. 

Plumage very dull, almost devoid of metallic colors Pha'tJwrnis} 

«*. Anterior toes all cleft to the base ; bill never much compressed (usually broader 
than deep), less than two-thirds as long as wings (except in Calothorax and 
some species of Doricha), usually nearly straight (distinctly curved only in 
Campyloj^terus, Lampornis, Calothorax, and some species of Doricha) ; tail va- 
riable in form, but, if graduated, the middle pair of feathers neither elongated 
nor white-tipped. 
b^. Inner webs of two outer tail-feathers white, except at end. 

Secondaries rufous, tipped with darker; wing about 2.10-2.40. 

Eupherusa.^ 
h^. Inner web of two outer tail-feathers without white, except sometimes 
at tip. 
c\ Exposed eulmen not more than ,45; tail even, two-thirds as long as 

wing, the latter 1.75-2.00 AbeilUa? 

&. Exposed eulmen decidedly more than .45. 

d}. Tail nearl}' as long as wing, wedge-shaped, with feathers broad and 
rounded at tips ; shafts of three outer quills much (sometimes 

enormously) thickened; wing about 2.60 Sphenoproctus} 

d}. Tail much shorter than wing; if wedge-shaped, the feathers narrow 
and pointed at tips. 
e\ Exposed eulmen less than one-fourth as long as wing. 

Quills and secondaries rufous, with darker tips or termi- 
nal mai'gins ; tail plain dark pur^^lish, tipped with dull 
light grayish in female ; male with throat purplish 
red, the remaining under parts rich purplish blue ; wing 

about 2.65-3.20 Lamprolaima.^ 

e^. Exposed eulmen more than one-fourth as long as wing. 
/^ Exposed eulmen one-half as long as wing, or longer. 

g^. "VVing 2.20, or more ; tail rounded, the feathers 

fact, at least two of them {Lnmprolaima rhami ? and Campylcqilerua henu'leucurus ?) have probably already been 
seen by ornithologists. (See last foot-notes on pages .304 and 305.) 

1 Phiethornis SwAiNS., Zool. Jour. 1827, 357. Type, Trochiliis siipei-cilioaus Linn. (One species in southern 
Mexico, and numerous species f.arther south.) 

2 Eupheriisa GouLD, Mon. Troch. pt. xiv. 1857. Type Onnamya exhnia Delattk. (One species in southern 
Mexico, another in Guatemala, a third in Costa Rica and Veragua.) 

3 Aheillia Bonap., Consp, i. 1850, 79, Type, Oniiamya uheillei Delattr. (One species in southern 
Mexico and Central America.) 

* Sphenoproctus Cab. & Hein., Mus. Hein. iii. 1860, 11. Type, Ornwmija prtmpa Less. (One species in 
southern Mexico, another in Guatemala.) 

5 Lamprolaima Reich., Aufz. der Colib. 1853, 9. Type Ornismi/a rhami Less. (One species in highlands of 
Mexico and Guatemala. This is possibly the species referred to in " Birds of the North-West," p. 27.3, but 
erroneously identified by Dr. Coues as Eugenes fulgem, as follows :— " Mrs. Maxwell, of Boulder [Colorado], 
. . , informs me that she has seen on two or three occasions a Hummingbird with a flaming-red throat and 
breast, much larger than the present species [Selasphorua platt/cercus], a straggler from Mexico, perhiips, as yet 
undetected within the limits of the United States,") 



TROCHILID^. 305 

broad ; bill long, stout, and straight, nearly as 
long as tail ; outer tail-feathers tipped with white 

in both sexes Floricola} 

g\ Wing less than 2.00 (1.30-1.70) ; tail forked in males, 
double-rounded in females ; bill slender, distinctly 
curved (excej)t in two or three species of Doricha) ; 
outer tail-feathers tipped with white only in fe- 
males ; wing about 1.30-1.70. 
h}. Tail shorter than wing or exposed culmen, the 
feathers pointed in adult males. 

Calothorax. (Page 316.)' 
A^ Tail longer than wing, or else longer than ex- 
posed culmen, the feathers not pointed in 

either sex Boricha? 

Exposed culmen less than half as long as wing. 
g^. Tail 2.25, or more, rounded, feathers very broad, the 
three outermost broadly tipped with white in both 
sexes ; shafts of three outer quills very strong, 
often enormously thickened ; wing 2.90-3.20 ; 
adult male (of the Mexican species) with head, 
neck, and lower parts rich metallic violet or 
violet-blue, the female gi'ay beneath, with blue 

throat Campylopterus.*' 

g\ Tail less than 2.25. 

h}. Tail more than three-fourths as long as wing, 

forked for more than one-fourth its length, 

the feathers broad and rounded at tips; adult 

males wholly bright green beneath, the tail 

blue-black, or bronze-black. 

i}. Middle tail-feathers blue-black, like the rest 

(tipped with dull grayish in Mexican 

species) ; females and young males with 

outer tail-feathers grayish white, or pale 



1 Floricola Elliot, Class. & Synop. Troch. Sept. 1878, 82. Type, Trochilus longiroatris Vieill. (Two 
species inhabiting pine forests of Mexican higlilands, another in Guatemala, two or three others in mountains 
of northern South America.) 

' As a subgenus of Trochilus, in accordance with the A. 0. U. Check List, but in reality a very distinct 
genus. 

» Doricha Eeich., Aufz. der Colib. 1853, 12. Type, Trochilus enicunts Vieill. (One Mexican, one Guate- 
malan, and two Bahaman species.) 

* Cavtjrt/lopterus SwAiNS., Zool. Jour, 1826, 328. Type, Trochilus larr/ipennis Bodd. (One Mexican species, 
— a splendid bird, — one peculiar to Guatemala, and several in northern South America. The first, C. hemileu- 
ciiriis (Light.), is the largest hummingbird found north of the Isthmus of Panama, being nearly six inches in 
length. It is very possibly the species to which Dr. E. W. Shufeldt, U.S.A., refers in a letter dated June 9 , 
1886, as having been seen by him the day before, near Fort Wingate, New Mexico, and which he described as 
being "fully large enough for Eufjenes fulgens, and whirred like an old quail." 

39 



306 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 



grayish, at tip and base, blue-black in 

middle portion Chlorostilbon} 

■p. Middle tail-feathers bronzy ; females and young 
males without grayish base or tip to outer 

tail-feathers Sporadinus} 

A". Tail less than three-fourths as long as wing, 
variously shaped, but never forked for more 
than one-fourth its length ; adult males vari- 
ously colored, but never entirely green, 
beneath. 
■)}. Lower parts pure white, the sides sometimes 
green, or spotted with green ; sexes 
alike. 
/. Exposed culmen decidedly more than 
half as long as tail; top of head 
usually metallic blue or violet. 

Uranomitra? 

f. Exposed culmen not more than half as 

long as tail ; top of head never blue 

or violet Agyrtria* 

f. Lower parts never pure white. 

/. Tail bright bluish green or greenish blue, 
crossed near end by a broad band of 
blue-black. 

Breast and sides of head deep blue ; 
throat brilliant green, the centre 
of each feather darker; sexes 
alike ; wing 2.60-2.80. 

Petasophora} 
f. Tail not bluish green, etc. 

k\ Feathering of forehead extended 
forward as far as anterior end 
of nostrils, and partly or en- 
tirely covering the scale over 
nostrils. 



1 Chlorostilbon Gould, Mon. Troch. pt. v. 1853. Type, Trochilus pucherani BouRC. & Muls. (Three species 
in Mexico, one in Porto Rico, and about six in South America.) 

2 Sporadinm Bonap., Rev. et Mag. Zool. 1854, 255. Type, Trochilus riceordi Gerv. (One species in Haiti, 
one in Cuba and Bahamas, and apparently one peculiar to Bahamas.) 

3 Uranomitra Reich., Aufz. der Colib. 1853, 10. Type, Trochilus francim BouRC. & MuLS. (Four species 
in Mexico, one in Honduras, one in Colombia, and one in Peru.) 

* Agyrtria Reich., Troch. Enum. 1855, 7. Type, Trochilus hrevirostris Less. (Two Mexican and numerous 
South American species; some of the latter with lower parts mostly green; one of the former with buffy or 
rufous belly and flanks.) 

5 Petasophora Gray., List Gen. B. 1840, 13. Type, Trochilus scrrirostris Vieill. (One species in Mexico 
and Guatemala, several in Central and South America.) 



TROCHILID^. 307 

V-. Wing more than 2.40, 

m}. Tail partly rich chestnut, 
glossed with bright pur- 
ple ; bill rather dis- 
tinctly curved. 

Lampornis} 
m?. Tail without chestnut or 
bright purple. 
m}. Tail wholly (male) or 
partly (female) 
greenish bronze. 
Adult male with 
throat brilliant 
emerald-green, 
breast black- 
ish, and crown 
rich violet or 
violet-blue. 
Eugenes. 
(Page 309.) 
n*. Tail wholly or chiefly 
blackish. 

Outer tail-feath- 
ers sometimes 
broadly tipped 
with white, or 
grayish ; lower 
parts deep dull 
grayish, tinged 
with green on 
sides, or dull 
white medially 
and green lat- 
erally; a con- 
spicuous white 
streak behind 
eye ; adult 
males with 
throat blue, 
reddish pur- 
ple, or light 
emerald-green. 



J Lampornis SwAixs., Zool. Jour. iii. 1827, 35S. Type, TrocUlua mango Linn. (One Mexican, several West 
Indian, and several South American species.) 



308 NORTH AMERICAN BTRDS. 

not very bril 
liant; wing 
about 2.50- 
3.20. 

Coeligena. 
(Page 310.) 
l\ Wing less than 2.25. 

Adult males with a brilliant 
gorget of metallic red 
or purple... Trochilus. 
(Page 310.) 
k^. Feathering of forehead scarcely ex- 
tended beyond posterior end of 
nostrils, the scale over latter 
therefore for the greater part, 
or entirely, naked, and the bill 
very broad at base ; wing about 
1.90-2.15. 
l^. Tail blue-black in male, deeply 
emarginated, and with mid- 
dle feathers tipped with dull 
grayish ; in female shallowly 
emarginated, green basally, 
blue-black terminally, the 
outer feathers tipped with 
grayish white; adult males 
metallic green beneath, the 
throat bluish. 

lache. (Page 319.) 
f . Tail not blue-black. 

m\ Exposed culmen more than 
half as long as tail, 
n^ Tail rufous, or chest- 
nut, the feathers 
usually with dusky 
or bronzy terminal 
margins. 

Amazilia. 
(Page 316.) 
n^ Tail dull greenish, 
with dusky sub- 
terminal band (ex- 
cept on middle 
feathers), the outer 
feathers broadly 



EUGENES. 309 

tipped with dull 
light grayish 
brown; plumage 
in general very- 
dull, the lower 
parts dull brown- 
ish gray. 

Phceoptila} 
m". Exposed culmen not more 
than half as long as 
tail. 
Adult males with 
cheeks black, bor- 
dered above by a 
white stripe or 
spot ; forehead and 
chin deep blue, or 
blue-black ; throat 
brilliant emerald- 
green.. Basilinna. 
(Page 318.) 

Genus EUGENES Gould. (Page 307, pi. XC, fig. 1.) 

Species. 

Common Characters. — Adult males with top of head rich metallic violet or violet- 
blue, the chin and thi'oat brilliant emerald-green or light bluish green ; upper parts 
dark bronzy green ; lower parts (except throat and lower tail-coverts) plain dusky 
greenish or dull bronzy ; lower tail-coverts paler greenish or bronzy, bordered with 
paler. Adult females with top of head dull brownish gray or grayish brown, rest 
of upper parts bronzy green ; lower parts pale brownish gray, the sides and flanks 
tinged with green ; a small white postocular spot. 

a^ Adult male : Breast very dark bronzy green, appearing nearly black in some 
lights ; length about 5.00, wing 2.90-3.10, tail 1.90-2.00, culmen 1.00-1.20. 
Adult female : Outer tail-feathers very broadly (for about .35-45) tipped with 
pale gray or dull grayish white ; wing 2.60-2.75, tail 1.80-1.90, culmen 1.00- 
1.15. Young : Similar to adult female, but feathers of upper parts bordered 
terminally with pale buffy. Hah. Highlands of Mexico and Guatemala, 
north to southern Arizona.. 426. E. fulgens (Swains.). Eivoli Hummingbird. 

a^ Adult male: Breast dull bronzy, or bronzy green, the feathers dull brownish 
gray immediately beneath surface ; lower tail-coverts green margined with 

1 Phseoptila Gould, Intr. Mon. Troch oct. ed. 1861, 169. Type, Cyanomyia (?) aordida Gould. (The single 
known species peculiar to Mexico.) 



310 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

pale buify; wing 3.00-3.15, tail 1.90-2.00, culmen 1.20-1.30. Adult female: 
Outer tail-feathers more narrowly (for about .20-25) tipped with darker 
brownish gray ; wing 2.90, tail 1.85-1.90, exposed culmen 1.40-1.50. Hah. 
Highlands of Costa Rica. E. spectabilis (Lawr.). Admirable Hummingbird.^ 

Genus CCELIGENA Lesson. (Page 308, pi. XC, fig. 3.) 

Species. 

Common Characters. — Above rather dull metallic greenish, changing to pur- 
plish black on upper tail-coverts and tail ; ear-coverts dusky, bordered above by 
a conspicuous white streak ; lower parts deep dull grayish, tinged with green 
on sides, or dull white medially and green laterally ; outer tail-feathers sometimes 
broadly tipped with white ; adult males with throat blue, reddish purple, or pale 
emerald-green, not very brilliant. 

a^. Lower parts dull grayish, glossed with green on sides. 

¥. Outer tail-feathers broadly and abruptly tipped with white in both sexes; 
adult male with throat dull metallic azure-blue ; length about 4.50-5.00 
(of male before skinning, 5.40), wing 2.90-3.20, tail 1.85-2.20, exposed 
culmen .90-1.00. Hah. Highlands of Guatemala and Mexico, north to 
southern Arizona. 

427. C. clemencise Less. Blue-throated Hummingbird. 
¥. Outer tail-feathers more narrowly and indistinctly tipped with dull brown- 
ish gray ; adult male with throat metallic reddish purple, the feathers 
narrowly bordered with light brownish gray ; length about 4.50, wing 
2.60, tail 1.80. Hah. Highlands of Guatemala and Mexico, north to 
Jalapa. C. henrica (Less. &, Delattr.). Henri Delattre's Hummingbird.^ 

a^. Lower parts dull white medially, metallic green laterally. 

Adult male with throat pale emerald-green, the feathers bordered with 
white; length about 4.25, wing 1.40-1.70, tail 1.65-1.75, exposed culmen 
.85-.90. Hah. Highlands of Guatemala. 

C. viridipallens (BouRC. & MuLS.) Pale -green- throated Hummingbird.' 

Genus TROCHILUS Linnaeus. (Page 308, pi. XC, figs. 4, 7-10; pi. XCL, 

figs. 1-7.) 

Species. 

Common Characters. — Upper parts metallic greenish, varying from nearly 
pure green to bronzy ; median lower parts whitish.. Ad,ult males with a portion, or 

1 Heliomaster spectabilis Lawr., Ann. Lye. N. Y. viii. 1867, 472. Eugenes spectabilis MuLS., Hist. Nat. 
Ois. Mouch. ii. 1876, 215, 

2 Orniamya henrica Less. & Delattr., Rev. Zool. 18.39, 17. Coeligena Tienrici Cab. & Hein., Mus. Hein. iii. 
1860, 15. 

3 Trochilus viridipallens BoURC. & MuLS., Ann. Soc. Lyons, 1846, 321, Coeligena viridipallens MuLS., Hist. 
Nat. Ois. Moucli. i. 1877, 185. 



TROCHILUS. 311 

the whole, of the throat brilliant metallic (sometimes top of head similar), the 
tail-feathers (except middle pair) without white tips ^ or green bases. Adult females 
and young with chin and throat dull Avhitish, or pale grayish (sometimes spotted 
centrally with the metallic color of the male), the rectrices (except middle pair) 
greenish basally, black subterminally, and tipped with white. 

a^. Exposed culmen less than half as long as wing, the bill straight. 
h^. Middle tail-feathers narrower near end than at base. 

c\ Exposed culmen .60, or more ; outer tail-feathers without white tips in 
adult males. 
d}. Outer tail-feather not decidedly shorter than middle pair, and not 
conspicuously nai'rower than the next ; adult males with six in- 
nermost quills abrujDtly much smaller and narrower than the 
rest, the top of head greenish like back, or dusky, the tail- 
feathers (except middle pair) pointed. (Subgenus Trochilus.) 
e^ Adult male : Chin, only, opaque velvety black, the rest of the 
gorget intense metallic crimson, changing to golden red ; 
tail forked for about .30-.35 ; length about 3.07-3.25, wing 
1.60, tail 1.25, exposed culmen .55-.65. Adult female : Tail 
double-rounded, the outer feathers about as long as middle 
pair (sometimes a little shorter), the middle pair wholly 
green, the rest green basally, then black, the three outer 
pairs broadly tipped with white ; length about 3.50-3.85, 
wing 1.80, tail 1.20, culmen .70. Young male : Similar to 
adult female, but throat streaked with dusky, feathers of 
upper parts more or less distinctly margined with pale 
buffy, and tail more forked. Young female: Similar to 
young male, but throat without streaks, and tail more 
rounded. Eggs .50 X -31. Hab. Eastern United States, 
north to Canada, west to Great Plains, south, in winter, to 
Cuba, eastern Mexico, and Central America, to Yeragua. 
428. T. colubris Linn. Ruby-throated Hummingbird. 
e^. Adult male : Chin and throat opaque velvety black, bordered 
below by a broad band of metallic violet, changing to 
green and blue ; tail slightly forked, or emarginated (depth 
of fork onl}" about .10 of an inch) ; length about 3.30- 
3.75, wing 1.70-1.75, tail 1.25, culmen .70-.75. Adidt 
female : Tail much rounded, the middle feathers about the 
longest ; plumage not essentially different from that of 
female T. colubris; length about 3.90-4.10, wing 1.90-2.00, 
tail 1.25-1.35, culmen .78-. 80. Young : Similar to adult 
female, but feathers of upper parts margined terminally 
with light buffy or pale rusty, the male with throat 

' Except in species of Atthis. 



312 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

streaked Avith dusky. Eggs .49 X -31. Hah. Western 
United States, east 'to Rocky Mountains, south over table- 
lands of Mexico 429. T. alexandri Bourc. & Muls. 

Black-chinned Hummingbird. 
d}. Outer tail-feather decidedly shorter than middle pair, or else de- 
cidedly longer, abruptly narrower than the next,^ and top of 
head colored like the gorget. 
e\ Tail without any rufous; adult males with tail forked (but feath- 
ers not j3ointed), and top of head brillia'nt metallic reddish 
purple, or violet, like gorget. (Subgenus Calypte Gould.) 
/\ Outer tail-feather in adult male abruptly much narrower 
than the others ; rump and middle tail-feathers metallic 
green or bronze, like back. 
g^. Adult male : Head, including ruff, brilliantly burnished 
metallic amethyst-violet, changing to blue and 
green ; length about 2.75-3.20, wing 1.75-1.90, tail 
1.10, culmen .65-.68. Adult female : Lower parts 
grayish white, ver}'- faintly tinged with green on 
sides and flanks ; centre of throat usually more or 
less spotted with metallic violet-purplish ; length 
about 3.55-3.70, wing 1.70, tail 1.05, culmen .70. 
Young : Similar to adult female, but metallic 
colors rather duller, and feathers of upper parts 
narrowly tipped or margined with buffy whitish. 
I^est about 1.50 wide bj^ 1.00 deep externally, the 
cavity about 1.00 wide by .80 deep, composed of 
grayish lichens, small strips of thin bark, sjDiders' 
webs, etc., lined with down}^ materials, including 
(usually) a few soft feathers. Eggs .45 X -30. 
Sab. Lower California, southern California and 
Arizona, and western Mexico, south to Mazatlan. 
430. T. costse (Bourc). Costa's Hummingbird. 
g"^. Adult male : Head, including ruff, brilliant metallic 
changeable purplish red, with violet reflections; 
length about 3.40-3.60, wing 1.90-2.00, tail 1.30- 
1.45, culmen .65-.70. Adult female : Lower parts 
pale grayish, glossed on sides and flanks with 
green ; centre of throat usually more or less 
spotted with metallic reddish purple; length about 
3.80-4.15, wing 2.05, tail 1.30, culmen .75. Eggs 
.48 X -32. Hab. Valleys of California, and south 
through Arizona to table-lands of Mexico. 

431. T. anna (Less.). Anna's Hummingbird. 

1 Except in Calypte helenm, which see. 



TROCHILUS. 313 

p. Lateral tail-feather in adult male not distinctly narrower 

than the rest; rump and upper tail-coverts metallic 

blue (in both sexes). 

Adult male : Head, including ruff, metallic purplish 

red; length about 2.50, wing 1.15-1.40, tail .90, 

culraen .50. Hah. Cuba. 

T. helenae (Gundl.). Princess Helena's Hummingbird.^ 
el Tail with more or less of rufous, more or less graduated (mid- 
dle feathers longest, or equal to longest) in both sexes; 
adult males with top of head greenish or bronzy, totally 
different from color of gorget (except in T. floresii). (Sub- 
genus Selasphorus Swains.) 
f\ Middle pair of tail-feathers entirely green ; gorget of adult 
male soft, rather light, rose-purple, or solferino ; wing 
more than 1.90. 

Adult male: Tail-feathers, except middle pair, dull 
purplish black, the next to middle pair distinctly 
edged with rufous (the next pair sometimes nar- 
rowly edged with same) ; length about 3.50-4.00, 
wing 1.92-2.05, tail 1.40-1.60, exposed culmen .62- 
.70. Adult female: Three outer tail-feathers rufous 
at base and broadly tipped with white, the inter- 
vening space blackish, with some green next to 
rufous on second and third feathers; fourth feather 
green to extreme base, but edged with rufous and 
marked by a large terminal or subterminal spot 
of black ; length about 4.10-4.25, wing 2.00-2.10, 
tail 1.45-1.50, exposed culmen .70-.72. Eggs .50 
X .33. Hah. Eocky Mountains of United States, 
north to Wyoming, Montana, and Idaho Territo- 
ries, west to Sierra Nevada (?), south over table- 
lands of Mexico to highlands of Guatemala. 

432. T. platycercus Swains. 
Broad-tailed Hummingbird. 
p. Middle tail-feathers partly rufous ; gorget of adult male 
intensely brilliant metallic fire-red, changing to orange, 
brassy green, and crimson, the feathers much length- 
ened laterally and posteriorly; wing less than 1.90. 
g^. Adult males with top of head dull bronzy or green- 
ish, the middle tail-feathers rufous, marked on ter- 
minal portion with a duskj^ mesial streak, the outer 
feather with inner web entirely rufous, the belly, 



1 Orthorhynchns helense " GuNDL., sus manuscritos," Lemb., Aves de la Isla de Cuba, 1S50, 70, pi. 10, fig. 2. 
Calypte hele/ix GouLD, Mon. Troch. iii. pi. 136. 



314 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 



sides, and flanks also rufous. Adult females with 
all the tail-feathers rufous for basal half (but green 
on middle pair running along median portion 
nearl}'' to base), the three outer feathers broadly 
tipped Avith white and marked by a subterminal 
broad band of blackish ; belly white, but sides, 
flanks, and under tail-eoverts light rufous. Young 
males : Similar to adult female, but feathers of ujDper 
parts bordered with pale rusty, the rump show- 
ing much rufous, and thi'oat usually with one or 
more feathers (new moult) of bright metallic red. 
Young females : Similar to young males, but rump 
entirely green, and throat showing only dull green- 
ish specks. 
h\ Adult male: Tail-feathers broad, the second (from 
middle) with a deep notch near end of inner 
web, and outer web sinuated near tip ; outer 
feather more than .10 broad ; upper parts 
rufous, the crown (and, rarely, the back) 
glossed with dull metalHc green; length about 
3.25-3.70, wing 1.50-1.60, tail 1.30-1.35, cul- 
men .60. Adidt female : Outer tail-feather 
more than .10 wide ; length about 3.50-3.90, 
wing 1.75-1.80, tail 1.25-1.30, culmen .65-.70. 
Eggs .48 X -31. Jfab. Western North Amer- 
ica, north beyond northern border of United 
States (to or beyond Sitka on Pacific coast), 
east to Eocky Mountains, south over table- 
lands of Mexico 433. T. rufus Gmel. 

Rufous Humming-bird. 
h^. Adult male: Tail-feathers narrow, the second 
(from middle) without notch or sinuation ; 
outer feather much less than .10 broad ; whole 
back, as well as crown, bright metallic green ; 
length about 3.25-3.30, wing 1.50-1.55, tail 
1.10-1.20, exposed culmen .60-.65. Adult fe- 
male : Outer tail-feather not more than .10 
wide ; length about 3.40, wing 1.65-1.70, tail 
1.05-1.15, exposed culmen .68-.70. Eggs .48 
X .32. Hab. Coast district of California, 
north to British Columbia, south to Arizona. 
434. T. alleni (Hensii.). 
Allen's Hummingbird. 
Adidt male with top of head brilliant metallic red, 
like gorget, the middle tail-feathers green bordered 



TROCHILUS. 315 

with rufous, the outer tail-feather wholly dusky, 
the belly white, the sides and flanks green. Adult 
female unknown. Length 3.25, wing 1.75, tail 1.40, 
exposed culmen .65. Hab. Mexico (Bolanos) and 
southern California (San Francisco). 
— . T. floresii (Gould). Floresi's Hummingbird.^ 
c\ Exposed culmen not more than .50 ; outer tail-feathers broadly tipped 
with white in both sexes. (Adult males bronzy green or bronzy 
above, the middle tail-feathers broadly edged with rufous on inner 
web, the other tail-feathers with basal half rufous, then purplish 
black, the two or three outermost broadly tipped with white ; gor- 
get rich metallic purplish; chest and other median lower parts 
white, the sides and flanks rufous, tinged or spotted with greenish 
or bronzy. Adult females similar to males, but throat dull white, 
spotted with dull greenish or bronzy ; under tail-coverts pale ru- 
fous ; four middle tail-feathers without rufous edgings.) (Subgenus 
Atthis Eeichenbach.) 
(f . Adult male : Outer quill narrow, abruptly attenuated at tip ; gor- 
get brilliant metallic reddish violet, with decided violet tints 
in certain lights ; basal half (approximatelj^) of tail rufous, ter- 
minal half black, the three outer feathers broadly tipped with 
white ; chest and middle line of belly white, sides and flanks 
light rufous, tinged with green. Adult female : Whole throat 
whitish, but otherwise similar to the male. Length about 
2.75, wing 1.30-1.50, tail .95-1.10, culmen .48-.50. Hab. 

Eastern Mexico and southern Texas 435. T. heloisa 

(Less. & Delattr.). Heloise's Hummingbird. 

d\ Adult male with outer quill broad, not attenuated at tip ; gorget 

metallic reddish purple, without violet tints; otherwise much 

like T. heloisa; wing 1.35, tail 1.00-1.05, culmen .38-.40. Hab. 

Highlands of Guatemala. 

T. ellioti KiDGW. Elliot's Hummingbird.^ 

b\ Middle tail-feathers broader near end than toward base. (Subgenus Stellula 

Gould.) 

Adult male : Feathers of gorget narrow, elongated, pure white basally, 
metallic purplish terminally ; tail-feathers plain dusky, edged with 
rufous toward base; sides and flanks tinged with rufous; length 
about 2.75-3.00. wing 1.50-1.60, tail .90-1.10, exposed culmen .55- 
.58. Adult female: Tail more rounded than in male, feathers dull 
green basally and tipped with white (except middle pair) ; throat 



1 Selasphorus floreau GotJLD, Mon. Troch. pt. xxiii. Sept. 1, 1861 (vol. iii. pi. 139). 

This is possibly a hybrid between T. anna and T. rufus. The capture of the San Francisco specimen (in 
May, 1885) is recorded, by Mr. Walter E. Bryant, in "Forest and Stream," vol. xxvi. No. 22, July 24, 1886, 

p. 426. 

2 Atthis ellioti RiDGW., Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. i. July 1, 1878, 9. 



316 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

whitish, sometimes spotted centrally with dull metallic purple ; 
otherwise much like adult male; length about 3.50, wing 1.75-1.80, 
tail 1.10-1.15, culmen .58-.60. Eggs .47 X -31. Hah. Western 
United States, north to British Columbia, Idaho, and northern 
Montana, east to Eocky Mountains, south to table-lands of Mexico. 
436. T. calliope Gould. Calliope Hummingbird. 
a}. Exposed culmen more than half as long as wing, the bill decidedly curved. 
{Adult males with tail deeply forked, uniform purplish black, except four 
middle feathers, which are green, like upper parts; gorget (the feathers of 
which are much elongated laterally and posteriorly) brilliant metallic ame- 
thyst-purple, changing to violet-blue ; median lower parts white, sides and 
flanks mixed bronzy green and pale rufous. Adult females green above, 
light cinnamon-buffy beneath (but belly and under tail-coverts white), tail 
much less deeply forked than in male, with broader feathers, the three outer- 
most of which are broadly tij)ped with white and rufous at base.) (Subgenus 
Calothorax Gray.) 
b^. Adult male with outer tail-feather much narrower than the next and taper- 
ing to a narrow point; length about 3.40-3.60, wing 1.40-1.60, tail 1.25- 
1.35, exposed culmen .85-.90. Adult female : Wing 1.65-1.80, tail 1.20- 
1.25, exposed culmen .75-.90. Hab. Table-lands of Mexico, north to 
southern Arizona.... 437. T. lucifer (Swains.). Lucifer Hummingbird. 
h"^- Adult male with outer tail-feather not narrower than the next, and not 
tapering to a narrow point ; length about 3.10-3.25, wing 1.50, tail 1.50, 
exposed culmen .75. Adult female : Wing 1.65, tail 1.15, exposed culmen 
.75. Hah. Southwestern Mexico (Oaxaca). 

T. pulchra (Gould). Beautiful Hummingbird.* 

Genus AMAZILIA Lesson. (Page 308, pi. XC, fig. 2.) 

Species. 

Common Characters. — Above green, bronze-green, or bronzy, the tail rufous, 
chestnut, bronzy, purple, or blue-black ; lower parts green anteriorly, or entirely 
light cinnamon ; sexes alike. 

a\ Lower parts partly green. 

6\ Secondaries entirely dusky. 

&. Belly and flanks dull brownish gray, the latter glossed with green; 
outer tail-feather with outer web chiefly or entirely dark bronzy ; 
upper tail-coverts uniform chestnut ; tail deep chestnut, feathers 
bordered terminally with bronz}- ; lower tail-coverts deep cinna- 
mon-rufous. Young similar to adult, but rump tinged with rufous, 
and forehead washed with rusty ; length about 4.00, wing 2.00-2.35, 
tail 1.45-1.70, exposed culmen .70-.90. Hah. Whole of Central 

* Calothorax pulchra GouLD, Ann. & Mag. N. H. ser. 3, iv. 1859, 97. 



AMAZILIA. 317 

America and eastern Mexico, north to southern Texas, south to 
western Ecuador. 

438. A. fuscicaudata (Fraser). Rieffer's Hummingbird. 
c^ Belly and flanks cinnamon-rufous, cinnamon, or ochraceous ; outer tail- 
feather entirely rufous, except sometimes a narrow margin (of dull 
bronzy) to outer web ; upper tail-coverts chiefly green or bronzy ; 
tail light chestnut, or chestnut-rufous, the feathers (except outer) 
broadly margined terminally with bronzy or violet-dusky, the 
middle feathers sometimes entirely bronzy or violet-dusky. 
(P. Lower breast, belly, sides, and flanks pale cinnamon, or cinnamon- 
buif, not abruptly defined against green of more anterior por- 
tions; length about 4.00-4.50, wing 2.15-2.30, tail 1.50-1.70, 
exposed culmen .70-.80. Hab. Eastern Mexico, north to lower 
Eio Grande Yalley in Texas. 

439. A. cerviniventris Gould. Buff-bellied Hummingbird. 
dK Lower breast, belly, sides, and flanks deep cinnamon, or cinnamon- 
rufous, abruptly contrasted with green of more anterior por- 
tions ; wing 2.20-2.25, tail 1.40-1.60, exposed culmen .70. JSab. 

Yucatan. 

A. yucatanensis (Cabot). Cabot's Hummingbird.^ 
b^. Secondaries rufous or chestnut at base. 

c\ Tail mainly chestnut, or rich purple-bronze. 

d}. Outer webs of quills (except longer ones) chiefly chestnut or 
rufous ; secondaries chestnut or rufous tipped with dusky ; 
outer tail-feathers deep chestnut; wing 2.10-2.20, tail 1.30- 
1.40, exposed culmen .70-75. Sab. Southern Mexico, north 

to Jalapa. 

A. beryllina (Light.). Berylline Hummingbird.^ 

d^. Outer webs of quills with rufous only at extreme base, and some- 
times concealed or nearly obsolete ; secondaries dusky for at 
least terminal half of exposed portion ; outer tail-feathers very 
dark chestnut, bordered terminally with bright purple or 
bronze; middle tail-feathers usually richer bronze or purple 
than in A. beryllina; wing 2.10-2.25, tail 1.30-1.40, exposed 
culmen .65-78. Hab. Guatemala. 

A. mariae (Bottrc). Maria's Hummingbird.' 
c^ Tail neither chestnut nor purple-bronze. 
d}. Tail greenish bronze. Sab. Mexico. 

A. ocai Gould. D'Oca's Hummingbird.* 

1 Trochilus yucatanensis Cabot, Proc. Nat. Hist, Soc. Bost. 1845, 74. Amazilta yucatanensis Gould, Mon. 
Troch. pt. xxiii. 1861 (vol. v. 1861, pi. 308). 

2 Trochilus heryUinvs Licht., Preis-Verz. 1830, No. 26. Amazilia beryllina Gould, Mon. Troch. pt. xxii. 
1861 (vol. V. 1861, pi. 312). 

' Trochilus maria BouRC, Ann. Soc. Ag. Lyon, ix. 1846, 319. Amazilia marix Elliot, Class. & Synop. 
Troch. 1879, 222. 

* Amazilia ocai Gould, Ann. Mag. N. H. ser. 3, iv. 1859, 96; Mon. Troch. v. 1861, pi. 289. 



318 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

(P. Tail rich blue-black. Sab. Guatemala and Nicaragua. 

A. cyanura Gould. Blue-tailed Hummingbird.^ 
a'. Lower parts entirely uniform cinnamon. 

b\ Smaller: Wing 2.15-2.25, tail 1.40-1.50, exposed culmen .80-.88. Sab. 
Nicaragua, Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and southern Mexico, north 
to Yucatan and Mazatlan. 

A. cinnamomea (Less.). Cinnamomeous Hummingbird." 
b\ Larger: Wing 2.50-2.70, tail 1.75-1.85, exposed culmen .90-1.05. Hab. 
Tres Marias Islands, western Mexico. 

A. graysoni Lawr, Grayson's Hummingbird.* 

Genus BASILINNA Boie. (Page 309, pi. XC, fig. 6.) 

Species. 

Common Characters. — Above metallic green, darker or duller on top of head ; 
tail mainly chestnut or blackish, the middle feathers, however, with more or less 
green ; a broad and very conspicuous white stripe behind eye, with a black, dusky, 
or brownish one immediately beneath it, across ear-coverts. Adult males with fore- 
head and chin black or deep blue, the throat and upper part of chest brilliant 
metallic emerald-green. Adult females with top of head dull brownish (sometimes 
tinged with green), and lower parts pale cinnamon, with or without green spots on 
throat, or dull grayish white, with sides green. 

a\ Tail mainly chestnut ; posterior lower parts pale cinnamon. Adult male : Fore- 
head and chin opaque black, or dull blue-black ; middle tail-feathers chestnut 
centrally, metallic green exteriorly, the rest without dusky subterminal bar 
or spot. Adult female : Lower parts pale cinnamon, with or without green 
spots on throat ; middle tail-feathers entirely green, the rest marked by a 
more or less distinct subterminal spot of dusky. Length about 3.30-3.50, 
wing 2.00-2.10, tail 1.30-1.45, exposed culmen. 65-70. Nest about 1.50 in 
diameter by about .80 in height, the cavity about 1.00 X .55-.60; composed 
of various soft vegetable fibres (especially raw cotton, spiders' webs, etc.), and 
attached to small twigs. Eggs .47 X -31. Sab. Southern portion of Lower 
California 440. B. xantusi (Lawr.). Xantus's Hummingbird. 

al Tail mainly blackish ; posterior lower parts dull whitish, mixed with grayish 
brown and greenish. Adult male with forehead and chin deep rich blue; 
middle tail-feather entirely metallic green or bronze, the others tipped with 
green or bronzy. Adult female : Lower parts dull light grayish, or grayish 
white, more or less spotted with green, the sides almost continuously of this 
color; middle tail-feathers entirely green or bronzy, the others black, the 
two or three outer ones tipped with dull grayish. Length, about 3.25-3.40, 



1 Amazilia cyanura GouLD, Mon. Troch. pt. xviii. 1860 (vol. v. pi. 315). 

2 Ornismya cinnamomea Less., Rev. Zool. 1842, 175. Amazilia cinnamomea Elliot, Class. & Synop. Troch. 
1879, 219. 

^ Amazilia [Pyrrhojihxna) graysoni Lawr., Ann. Lye. N. Y., 1867, 404. 



lACHE. 319 

wing 2.00-2.30, tail 1.30-1.50, exposed culmen .65-.68. Ifab. Highlands of 
Guatemala and Mexico. 

B. leucotis (ViEiLL.). White-eared Hummingbird.^ 



Genus IACHE Elliot. (Page 308, pi. XC, fig. 5.) 

Species. 

Common Characters. — Adult males metallic grass-green above, the tail-feathers 
blackish, with dull gray tips (broadest on middle feathers) ; downy thigh-tufts pure 
white; under tail-coverts whitish or light grayish, mixed with darker; rest of 
lower parts metallic green, bluish green, or blue; bill pale brownish (red in life) on 
basal portion, blackish at end. Adult fe..ialcs metallic grass-green abjve, pale gray- 
ish beneath, the two exterior tail-feathers tipped with pale brownish gray, and all 
with the basal half green. 

a}. Under tail-coverts in adult males white or grayish, with or without darker 
centres. 
6^ Under tail-coverts whitish on margins, darker in centre ; upper tail-coverts 
blue or green. 

&■. Under tail-coverts white with dull gray centres in adult male, entirely 
white in young. Ad It male: Upper pials gras. -green, sometimes in- 
clining to bronzy green; chin and throat rich metallic blue, passing 
gradually into rich green on breast and belly ; length about 3.50- 
3.75, wing 2.00-2.20, tail 1.35-1.50 (forked for .25-.35), culmen .75-.85. 
Adult female : Above grass-green, becoming dull gray on forehead ; 
lower parts uniform pale ash-gray ; basal half of tail, with whole 
extent of its middle feathers, green, the two outer feathers tipped 
with dull gray; a whitish streak behind eye, with a dusky space 
immediately beneath it and extending beneath eye ; length 3.88- 
4.10, wing 2.00-2.15, tail 1.25-1.30 (forked for about .15), culmen 
.78-85. Young male : Similar to adult female, but tail as in adult 
male ; lower tail-coverts uniform white ; feathers of upper parts 
margined with pale buff; new feathers appearing on throat bluish 
green (instead of blue, as in adult), becoming more bluish toward 
chin. Young female : Similar to adult, but feathers of upper parts 
bordered with pale buff. Hab. Western Mexico, south to Colima, 
north to southern Arizona. 

441. I. latirostris (Swains.). Broad-billed Hummingbird. 

c^ Under tail-coverts entirely white in adult (?) male. Adult {?) male: 
Upper parts " reddish bronze" ; throat and upper parts of breast 
metallic bluish green ; under parts bronzy green with a coppery 



1 Trochilus leucotis ViEiLL., Nouv. Diet. ed. 2, xxii, 1818, 428. Basilinna leucotis Reich., Aufz. derColib. 
1853, 13. 



320 ' NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

lustre; length 3.25, wing 1.90, tail 1.15, culmen .75. Hab. Western 
Mexico (Mazatlan). 

I. magica (Muls. & Verr.). Magic Hummingbird.^ 
V^. Under tail-coverts in adult male dusky gray, glossed with green, and bor- 
dered with grayish white ; upper tail-coverts dull smoke-gray, like tips 
of middle tail-feathers. 
Adult male : Above bronze-green or greenish bronze ; chin and throat 
metallic emerald-green (with a bluish cast only in certain lights) ; 
remaining under parts bronzy green or greenish bronze ; wing 
2.10, tail 1.40 (forked for .25-.35), culmen .70. Hab. Tres Marias 
Islands, western Mexico. 

I. lawrencei Berl. Lawrence's Hummingbird.' 
«^ Under tail-coverts in adult male uniform blue-black. 

Adult male : Above metallic bronze-green, including upper tail-coverts ; 
the hind-neck more grass-green, and the forehead brilliant metallic 
greenish blue, passing into shining green on crown ; entire chin and 
throat rich deep metallic blue, with a purplish cast in certain lights; 
breast and bell}^ deep bluish green, the sides more bronzy ; wing 1.90- 
2.00, tail 1.30 (forked for .50), culmen .65. Hab. Southern Mexico 
(Tehuantepec). 

I. doubledayi (BouRc). Doubleday's Hummingbird.' 

1 Hylocharis magica Muls. & Verr., Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon, xviii. 1872, 110. lache magica Elliot, 
Synop. Troch. 1879, 235. [Possibly the young male of /. latiroatria.'] 
' lache latcrencei Berlepsco, MS. 
3 Trocliilus doubledai/i BouRC, P. Z. S. 187-1, -16. lache doubledayi Elliot, Synop. Troch. 1879, 235. 



PASSE RES. 321 

Order PASSERES. — Perching Birds. (Pages.) 

Families. 

\ Tarsus cylindrical, or with hinder portion rounded ; encircled with a single 
horny envelope (divided into scutellse anteriorly and on outer side), this 
sometimes extending all round (though separated by a seam along inner 
side), but often widely separated on inner side or behind (or both), the 
intervening space occupied by granular scales, reticulations, or plain naked 
skin. (Suborder Clamatores.) 
b^. Inner toe with basal phalanx united to that of middle toe ; posterior face of 

tarsus reticulate Cotingidae. (Page 323.) 

6'. Inner toe entirely free at base from middle toe ; posterior face of tarsus not 

reticulate Tyrannidse. (Page 326.) 

'\ Tarsus compressed behind, with comparatively sharp posterior edge (or else 
hind-claw longer than its digit, and straight), the enveloping membrane 
divided into two or three longitudinal segments, which may be either divided 
into transverse segments, or scutellse, or fused into continuous plates. (Sub- 
order Oscines.) 
b^. Posterior half of tarsus not compressed, but rounded, and divided into dis- 
tinct segments, or scutellaB, like the anterior half 

Alaudidse. (Page 346.) 
&l Posterior half of tarsus compressed, with two lateral plates uniting behind 
in a comparatively sharp ridge, and for the most part undivided. 
c^. Primaries apparently only 9 (the 10th being exceedingly rudimentary), 
the tip of the bill not hooked. 
d}. Bill variously formed, but gape never twice as long as culmen; 
outer primary never twice as long as innermost, 
e*. Bill straight. 

/\ Bill conoid ; if slender, the angle of the gonj^s forward of 
the nostril. 
g^. Bill without notch, and without bristles at gape. 

Icteridse. (Page 365.) 
g''. Bill notched, and with bristles at gape. 

h^. Nostrils concealed by feathers, or pointed an- 
teriorl}^ and overhung by a distinct scale 
or horny membrane, or else base of cutting- 
edges forming a distinct angle. 

Fringillidae. (Page 382.) 

h'^. Nostril exposed, rounded anteriorly, without 

distinct overhanging scale or membrane, and 

cutting-edges of bill not forming a distinct 

angle at the base.. Tanagridae. (Page 453.) 

41 



322 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

p. Bill not couoid ; angle of gonys not forward of the nostril. 
g^. Tertials not elongated, but with their tips falling far 
short of the ends of the longest primaries ; hind- 
claw much shorter than its digit. 

Mniotiltidae. (Page 480.) 
g"^. Tertials much elongated, their tips reaching nearly to 
end of longest primary ; hind-claw nearly as long 
as, or longer than, its digit. 

Motacillidse. (Page 532.) 
e^. Bill curved downward to the very acute tip. 

Ccerebidae (Certhiola). (Page 479.) 

(P. Bill very short, very broad at base, and deeply cleft, the gape more 

than twice as long as the culmen ; outer primary more than 

twice as long as the innermost Hirundinidae. (Page 457.) 

c^. Primaries obviously 10, or else tip of bill hooked. 
d}. Tarsi distinctly scutellate. 

e^. Bill onlj'- moderately or very slightly hooked at tip. 

/\ Tarsus not longer than middle toe, with claw ; bill short, 
depressed, its width at base exceeding length of the 

gonys Ampelidse. (Page 463.) 

/^ Tarsus longer than middle toe, with claw, or else the bill 
elongated, not depressed, narrower at base than length 
of the gonys. 
g^. Bill not hooked at tip. 
h^. Tail-feathers normal. 

i}. Nasal feathers erect or inclined backward. 
/. Bill linear, but often curved, the culmen 
always more or less so ; first pri- 
mary well developed, extending be- 
yond tips of coverts. 

Troglodytidae. (Page 538.) 
/. Bill elongate-conical, the culmen straight ; 
first primary minute, not reaching 
to tips of coverts. 

Sturnidae. (Page 364.) 
■p. Nasal feathers directed forward. 

f. Larger (wing more than 4.00 inches). 

Corvidae. (Page 350.) 
/. Smaller (wing less than 4.00 inches). 

k^. Bill without notch, more or less 
conoid... Paridse. (Page 558.) 
Jc^. Bill notched, very slender. 

Sylviidae {Polioptilince). (Page 566.) 
K^. Tail-feathers stiff, pointed at tip. 

Certhiidae. (Page 557.) 



COTINGID.^. 323 

(f. Bill slightly hooked at tip.. Vireonidse. (Page 468.) 

e'. Bill strongly hooked and toothed Laniidae. (Page 465.) 

Tarsi not divided into scutellse, except at extreme lower portion. 
e\ Without rictal bristles ; nostrils linear ; tail excessively short. 

Cinclidse. (Page 538.) 
e^. With distinct rictal bristles; nostrils oval; tail normally de- 
veloped. 
p. Smaller (wing less than 3.00 inches) ; young not spotted. 

Sylviidse {Sylviince, Regulince). (Page 566.) 

p. Larger (wing more than 3.00 inches) ; young distinctly 

spotted Turdidse. (Page 571.) 



Family COTINGIDiE.— The Cotingas. (Page 321.) 

Genera. 

a}. Nostrils wholly exposed ; lores and orbits naked Tityra} 

a*. Nostrils more or less hidden by bristly feathers ; lores and orbits feathered. 

h^. Tip of bill very slightly hooked ; tail decidedly rounded or graduated ; 
males with second quill very small or rudimentary. 
&. Tail graduated for only about half the length of the exposed culmen ; 
tarsus stouter, the inner side (posterior half) with a series of large 

scutella3 ; bill more cylindrical Platypsaris. (Page 324.) 

&. Tail graduated for about as much as full length of exposed culmen ; 
tarsus slender, the inner side (posterior half) covered by naked 

skin; bill more flattened Pachyrhamphus. (Page 325.) 

If. Tip of bill very distinctly hooked ; tail nearly even ; males with second 

quill larger than first. 

c^. Color uniform tawny (darker above) ; wing six times as long as exposed 

culmen, more than four times as long as tarsus ; culmen more or 

less distinctly convex, cutting-edge of upper mandible straight or 

slightly concave, and tip of bill gradually decurved. 

(Z\ Tarsus stout, very little longer than middle toe, with claw, the 

upper third feathered in front ; culmen curved throughout, and 

^ cutting-edge of upper mandible slightly concave ; wing 5.00, or 

more Laniocera} 

d?. Tarsus slender, "decidedly longer than middle toe, with claw, en- 
tirely naked ; culmen nearly or quite straight to near tip, and 
cutting-edge of upper mandible straight ; wing less than 5.00 
(in Mexican species) Lipaugus? 



1 Tityra Vieillot, Analyse, 1816, .39. Type, Lanius cayanus Linn. (One species in Mexico, with others 
in Central and South America.) 

^ Lnniocera Less., Rev. Zool. 1840, 353. Type, Z. sanguinaria Less., = ^jnpeZ!'s lypopyrrha ViEiLL. 
(One species in Mexico.) 

3 Lipangus {err. typ.) BoiE, Isis, 1828, 318. Type, Muscicapa simplex Licht. (One species in Mexico.) 



324 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

(?. Color brown above (usually streaked with darker on top of head), the 
rump yellowish or tawn}^, in marked contrast ; lower pai-ts more or 
less distinctly streaked anteriorly, on a light grayish or olive-yel- 
lowish ground ; wing not more than four times as long as exposed 
cvilmen, decidedly less than four times as long as tarsus; culmen 
more or less distinctly concave in middle portion, and cutting-edge 
of upper mandible correspondingly convex, the bill being thus 
somewhat recurved ; tip of bill very abruptly and strongly hooked, 

Attila} 

Genus PLATYPSARIS Sclater.* (Page 323, pi. XCV., fig. 3.) 

8'pecies. 

Common Characters. — Adult males : Above nearly uniform grayish or black- 
ish, the top of head always darker than back (or else the latter black also) ; beneath 
varying from deep slate-gray to nearly pure white, the chest (sometimes lower 
throat also) usually with a patch of pure rose-red. Adult females and young males : 
Above with more or less of tawny, the back and rump in some species mixed with 
grayish; top of head varying from dull slate-gray to glossy black; lower parts 
varying from dull ochraceous to buify white. 

a^ Adult males with rose-colored patch on chest (rarely replaced by patch of 
whitish, faintly tinged with rosy) ; adult females and young males with back 
and rump dark rusty, rusty grayish, or nearly pure gray. 
b^. Adult males with breast, belly, flanks, etc., distinctly, or very decidedly, 
ash-gray. 
c\ Adult male : Top of head glossy blue-black, passing gradually into dull 
sooty slate on forehead ; rest of upper parts uniform slate-gray, 
sometimes decidedly darker on back. Adult female : Top of head 
blackish slate, becoming paler and browner on forehead ; rest of 
upper parts dark rusty, duller on back, where sometimes approach- 
ing a deej) hazel or burnt-umber tint. Youiig male : Similar to adult 
female, but top of head glossy black, as in adult male ; in older in- 
dividuals, the black of adult plumage appearing on back, sides of 
head, etc., and rose-color tinting the throat. Length about 6.50- 
6.75, wing 3.30-3.75, tail 2.60-3.00, exposed culmen .60-.68. Ifab. 
Eastern Mexico (north to Eio Grande Valley), south to Salvador. 

P. aglaiae (Lafr.). Rose-throated Becard.^ 
c". Adult male: Top of head dull slate-black posteriorly, gradually be- 
coming deep smoky gray on forehead ; rest of upper parts uni- 

1 Atfila LESf?ON, Traite Dm. 1831, .360. T3'pe, A. hrasiliensis Less. (Two, possibly three, species in 
Mexico and Guatemala.) 

2 Platypmris ScL., P. Z. S. 1857, 72 (ex Bonap., 1854, nomen midum). Type, PacJiyrhamphua lati- 
rostris Bp. 

3 Pachyrhynclius aglaim Lafr., Rev. Zool. 1839, 98. Platypaaria aglaise Sujiichr. Mem. Bost. Soc. i. 
1869, 558. 



PACHYRHAMPHUS. 325 

form deep ash-gray. Adult female : Top of head dull slate-gray 
(but little darker than back of male), becoming lighter and more 
brownish on forehead ; back, scapulars, and upper part of rump 
uniform brownish gray ; collar across hind-neck, lower rump, and 
upper tail-coverts pale tawny, tinged with gray ; lower parts buffy, 
nearly white on chin, but much deeper (almost tawny) on ear- 
coverts. Length about 6.70, wing 3.40-3.50, tail 2.75-2.80, exposed 
culmen .52-.55. Hab. Tres Marias Islands, western Mexico. 

P. insularis Ridgw. Grayson's Becard.^ 
¥. Adult males with breast, belly, flanks, etc., buffy whitish or very pale gray- 
ish, sometimes neai-ly pure white. 

Adult male: Above similar to P. insularis, but back, etc., decidedly 
lighter, more ashy, gray. Adult female: Top of head slate-black 
posteriorly, gradually passing into ash-gray on forehead ; back, 
scapulars, and rump dull brownish gray or grayish brown, the 
wings and tail more rusty ; usually a more or less distinct collar of 
dull ochraceous across hind-neck ; lower parts varying from deep 
ochraceous-buff to buffy white. Length about 6.50-6.75, wing 3.40- 
3.65, tail 2.70-3.00, exposed culmen .58-.65. Hab. Western and 
southern Mexico (Mazatlan to Yucatan). 

P. albiventris Lawr. Xantus's Becard.'' 
al Adult males without rose-colored patch on chest or throat; adult females with 
upper parts, except top of head and tips of quills, uniform clear tawny rufous. 
Adult male: Top of head slate-black, deeper and somewhat glossy poste- 
riorly, duller and more slaty on forehead ; rest of upper parts uniform 
slate-gray ; lower pai'ts uniform ash-gray, rarely paler and very slightly 
tinged with rosy on chest. Adult female : Top of head dark slaty, in 
very abrupt and conspicuous contrast with rufous of back ; lower parts 
pale buffy, paler (sometimes nearly white) on belly and chin. Length 
about 6.25, wing 3.50-3.70, tail 2.60-2.85, exposed culmen .62-.65. Hab. 
Nicaragua and western Costa Eica. 

P. latirostris (Bonap.). Gray-throated Becard.^ 

Genus PACHYRHAMPHUS Gray.* (Page 323, pi. XCV., fig. 2.) 

Species. 

ft\ "Wings and tail parti-colored ; sexes very different in color. Adult male: Top of 
head glossy blue-black ; hind-neck, lower back, rump, and upper tail-coverts 
uniform ash-gray ; back glossy black superficially, but feathers ash-gi-ay be- 
neath the surface ; scapulars mostly white ; wings black, with white tips to 

^ New species ; three specimens examined. 

* Hcidrostomvs albiventris Lawr., Ann. Lye. N. Y. viii. 1867, 475. (Sixteen specimens examinefl.) 
^ Pachyrhamphus latirostris Bonap., Compt. Rend, xxxviii. 1854, 658. 

* Pachyrhamphus Gray, List Gen. B. 1838, 41. Type, Pachyrhynchus cuvieri Spix, = Tityra viridis 

ViEILL. 



326 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

middle coverts and broad white edgings to greater coverts and tertials ; tail 
black, the feathers broadly tipped with white (decreasing in width toward 
middle pair) ; sides of head and entire lower parts plain light ash-gray, nearly 
white on throat, middle of belly, and under tail-coverts. Adult female : Top 
of head glossy black, mixed with rusty, especially on forehead ; wings dusky, 
the middle and greater coverts broadly tipped, and other wing-feathers edged, 
with tawny ochraceous ; rest of upper parts plain bright tawny, or taM'ny 
ochraceous, the tail-feathers with a broad subterminal patch of black ; sides 
of head and entire lower j^arts uniform buffy ochi-aceous. Young male : Simi- 
lar to adult female, but paler and more yellowish beneath. Length about 
6.25-7.00, wing 3.10-3.25, tail 2.60-2.70, exposed culmen .50-.60, tarsus .70-.80. 
Hab. Eastern Mexico (north to Eio Grande Yalley) and south to Guatemala. 

P. major (Cab.). Thick-billed Becard.^ 
a^. Wings and tail unicolored (plain rusty or tawny rufous) ; sexes alike in color 
(the adult male being distinguished by rudimentary second primary). 
Above uniform deep tawny rufous, darker on top of head ; lower parts 
entirely plain tawny ochraceous, paler on chin and middle of belly ; length 
about 5.25-5.50, wing 3.00-3.10, tail 2.45-2.60, exposed culmen .45-.50, tar- 
sus .75-.80. Hab. Central America (Guatemala to Colombia). 

P. cinnamomeus Lawk. Rufous Becard.'' 



Family TYRANNIDiE.— The Tyrant Fylcatchers. (Page 321.) 

Genera. 

a\ Tail much longer than wing, very deeply forked Milvulus. (Page 327.) 

a^ Tail not longer than wing, not deeply forked. 

b^. Bill from nostril more than half as long as tarsus, the culmen straight for 
most of its length, 
c^ Adults with a bright-colored (yellow, orange, or red) concealed patch 
on crown ; tarsus not longer than middle toe, with claw, 
c?. Plumage not striped. 

e\ Bill broad at base, its width at nostrils much more than half 
the distance from nostril to tip ; adults with outer quills 

abruptly narrowed at tip Tyrannus. (Page 328.) 

e^ Bill narrow at base, its width at nostrils not more than half. 
the distance from nostril to tip ; adults with outer quills 

not narrowed at tip Pitangus. (Page 330.) 

cp. Plumage cons2)icuou8ly striped. (Wing about 4.50.) 

Myiodynastes. (Page 331.) 
c^ Adults without bright-colored patch on crown ; tarsus longer than 

1 Bathmidurm major Cab., Weigm. Archiv, 1847, i. 24.3. Pachyrliamphus major ScL., P. Z. S. 1857, 78. , 

2 Pachyrhamphua cinnamomeus Lawr., Ann. Lye. N. Y. vii. 1861, 295. 



MILVULUS. 327 

middle toe, with claw (or else a conspicuous white cottony patch on 
each side of rump'). 
d^. Tail-feathers partly rufous ; lower parts uniform ashy for ante- 
rior half (approximately), pale yellowish for posterior portion. 

(Wing- about 3.25^.50.) Myiarchus. (Page 332.) 

(P. Tail-feathers without any rufous ; lower parts not colored as in d^. 
&, Wing at least six times as long as tarsus. (Wing about 3.00- 

4.25.) Contopus. (Page 336.) 

^. Wing not more than five times as long as tarsus. 

p. Sexes alike in coloi', the plumage without any red, and 
destitute of streaks on lower parts. 

cf. Wing more than 3.25 Sayornis. (Page 335.) 

g". Wing less than 3.25 Empidonax. (Page 339.) 

p. Sexes very different in color, the adult male with whole 
top of head and lower parts scarlet, the female and 
young distinctly streaked beneath. (Wing about 

3.25.) Pyrocephalus. (Page 345.) 

6^ Bill from nostril less than half as long as tarsus, the culmen much curved, 
&. Wing more than 3.00 ; lower parts, except throat, pure lemon-yellow ; 
a broad white superciliary stripe ; middle of crown, in adult, with a 

concealed orange patch Myiozetetes. (Page 331.) 

&. Wing less than 2.50 ; lower parts dull whitish or yellowish white ; no 
superciliary stripe, and top of head without concealed colored 
patch Ornithion. (Page 345.) 

Genus MILVULUS Swainson. (Page 326, pi. XCI., fig. 8.) 

Species. 

Tail-feathers black, the outer one edged with white ; top of head deep black ; 
axillars pure white. Adult male : Back light bluish gray ; entire lower parts 
pure white; middle of crown with a concealed patch of bright lemon-yellow; 
length about 12.00-14.50, wing 4.10-4.75, tail 9.00-10.00. Adult female: 
Similar, but rather smaller, with tail shorter, and j^ellow crown-spot shorter. 
Young : Similar to adult, but tail much shorter (sometimes scarcely forked), 
colors duller, the wing-coverts bordered with pale rusty, and no yelloAV on 
crown. Hab. Tropical America in general, including Lesser Antilles ; north, 
normally, to southern Mexico, accidentally to Mississippi, Kentucky, and 
New Jersey 442. M. tyrannus (Linn.). Fork-tailed Flycatcher. 

Tail-feathers chiefly white; top of head ash-graj^; axillars red or orange. Adidt 
male : Above light bluish gray, the back tinged with red ; lower parts white, 
faintly tinged with bluish gray anteriorly, the sides, flanks, and under tail- 
coverts strongly washed with salmon-pink ; axillars and concealed- spot in 
middle of crown scarlet; length about 12.00-15.00, wing 4.40-5.15, tail 

1 In " Contopus" {i.e., Nuttallornia) borealia. 



328 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

7.00-10.00. Adult female : Similar to the male, but rathei* smaller, the tail 
shorter, axillars less intensely red, the flanks, etc., paler salmon-color, and 
crown-spot indistinct. Young : Similar to adult female, but crown-spot 
wanting. ISfest of sticks, etc., lined with feathers and other soft materials, 
built in trees. Fggs 3-5, .88 X -66, pure white, or creamy white, boldly 
but sparingly spotted with rich madder-brown and lilac-gray. Sab. 
Eastern Mexico and southwestern prairie districts of United States, north 
to Indian Territory, southern Kansas, and southwestern Missouri ; acci- 
dental at Key West, Florida, at Norfolk, Virginia, New Jersey, New Eng- 
land, Manitoba, and even at York Factory, Hudson's Bay Territory ; south 
to Costa Eica 443. M. forficatus (Gmel.). Scissor-tailed Flycatcher. 

Genus TYR ANNUS Cuvier. (Page 326, pi. XCIL, fig. 1.) 

Species. 

Common Characters. — Uniform grayish or blackish above, the middle of the 
crown with a concealed patch of yellow, orange, or orange-red (excej)t in young) ; 
lower parts white, shaded with grayish on sides of chest, or else ashy anteriorly and 
pale yellow posteriorly. Nest bulky, built in trees. Eggs handsomely spotted with 
various shades of brown on a white or cream-colored ground. 

a^. Lower parts white. 

¥. Tail slightly rounded, deep black, with abrupt white tip ; upper half 
of head deep black ; bill small, its length from nostril to tip less than 
length of tarsus. 

Adult : Middle of crown with a concealed patch of orange-red ; wing- 
coverts edged or bordered with pure w^hite or grayish white. 
Young : No colored patch on crown ; wing-coverts and upper tail- 
coverts bordered with pale rusty or fulvous, white tail-band and 
chest tinged with same, and colors duller generally. Length 8.00- 
9.00, wing 4.45-4.75, tail 3.40-3.75, bill from nostril .50-.57. Nest 
of sticks, rootlets, etc., lined with wool, feathers, etc., built upon 
trees. Eggs 3-5, .95 X -69, white spotted with rich madder-brown, 
or chestnut, and lilac-gray. Hab. Temperate North America 
(chiefly east of Eocky Mountains and rare on Pacific coast) ; south, 
in winter, to Middle America and western South America to Bo- 
livia; Cuba; Bahamas 444. T. tyrannus (Linn.). Kingbird. 

61 Tail decidedly emarginate, without abrupt white tip; bill very large, its 
length from nostril to tip exceeding length of tarsus. 
&. Above grayish brown, the head brownish dusky or dark brown ; crown- 
patch orange-red; wing 5.20-5.30, tail 4.00-4.25, bill from nostril 
1.00-1.05. Hab. Cuba and Bahamas. 

T. magnirostris D'Orb. Great-billed Kingbird.^ 
c^ Above, including top of head, plumbeous-gray. Adult: A concealed 



Tyrannus magnirostris D'Orb., La Sagra's Cuba, Ois. 1839, pi. 13. 



TYRANNUS. 329 

orange-colored patch in middle of crown ; wing-coverts and upper 
tail-coverts without rusty or buffy margins. Young: No crown- 
patch ; wing-coverts and upper tail-coverts more or less distinctly 
bordered with pale rusty, ochraceous, or buffy. Length about 8.90- 
9.80, wing 4.45-4.80, tail 3.50-4.05, bill from nostril .75-.82. Nest on 
horizontal branches of (usually small) trees, loosely constructed of 
twigs, roots, etc., with little if any lining. Eggs usually 3, 1.00 X 
.71, deep cream-color or pinkish buff, spotted or dashed (or both) 
with madder-brown and purplish gray. Hab. West Indies and 
coasts of Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico, north to Florida, 
Georgia, and South Carolina ; accidental in Massachusetts. 

445. T. dominicensis (Gmel.). Gray Kingbird. 
a?. Lower parts yellow, the throat and chest grayish or whitish. 

h^. Bill excessively stout, all its outlines convex, its depth at base .38, or more, 
width .53, or more. 
Above olive-gray, wings and tail brownei-, head darker ; crown-patch 
lemon-yellow; chin and throat white, chest more ashy, rest of 
under parts sulphur-yellow ; wing 5.00-5.50, tail 4.00-4.50, bill from 
nostril .75-.81, depth at base .38-.43, width .53-.60. Hah. Mexico, 
north to Orizaba and Mazatlan. 

T. crassirostris Swains. Thick-billed Kingbird.^ 
h^. Bill much less stout, its outlines straight, depth at base less than .38, width 
less than .53. 
&. Tail decidedly emarginate ; length of bill from nostril nearly or quite 
equal to length of tarsus. 

Adult male : Head, neck, chest, and back light ash-gray, the last 
tinged with olive-greenish ; wings and tail dusky brownish 
gray, with paler brownish gray edgings ; lower parts, in- 
cluding breast, rich lemon-yellow (the breast tinged with 
olive), the chin and throat grayish white. Adult female: 
Similar to male, but rather smaller, with tail less deeply 
emarginate, orange-red crown-spot more restricted, and quills 
less conspicuously narrowed at tips. Young : Similar to adult, 
but no colored crown-patch, wing-coverts bordered with pale 
buffy, and yellow of lower parts paler. Length about 9.00- 
10.00, wing 4.40-5.00, tail 3.75-4.40, bill from nostril .60-.75. 
Nest on trees, composed of small twigs, fine roots, etc., and 
lined with the latter, together with "the black bair-like heart 
of the Spanish moss." (Sennett.) Eggs 4, .98 X -75, buff, 
spotted with rich brown, chiefly round larger end. Hab. Mex- 
ico and Guatemala, north to southern border of United States 
(southern Texas to Arizona). 
446. T. melancholicus couchi (Baird). Couch's Kingbird. 



1 Tyrannua a-assirostris Swains., Quar. Jour. Sci., xx. 1826, 278. 
42 



330 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

&. Tail even ; length of bill from nostril much less than length of tarsus. 

d}. Head, neck, and breast light ash-gray, paler on chin and throat ; 
wings dusky, with indistinct paler edgings ; tail deep black, 
the lateral feathers with outer webs abruptly white. Adult 
male : Longer quills with tips contracted into lengthened nar- 
row points. Adult female: Similar to male, but tips of longer 
quills less distinctly attenuated, and orange-red crown-spot more 
restricted. Young : similar to adult, but colors paler and duller, 
the wing-coverts bordered with pale buffy, yellow of belly, etc., 
much paler, and coloi-ed crown-spot wanting. Length 8.00- 
9.50, wing 4.75-5.25, tail 3.65-4.00, bill from nostril .50-.55. 
JV^est and eggs like those of T. tyrannus, the latter averaging 
.97 X -68. Hab. Western North America, east across Great 
Plains (accidentally to Maryland, New Jersey, New York, 
Maine, etc.), south, in winter, through western Mexico to 
Guatemala 447. T. verticalis Say. Arkansas Kingbird. 

d'^. Head, neck, and breast dark ash-gray or plumbeous, the chin and 
fore-part of malar region abruptly whitish ; wings light brown- 
ish gray, with broad paler edgings ; tail dull black, indistinctly 
tipped with pale brownish gray, the lateral feathers with outer 
webs indistinctly pale grayish. Young : Similar to adult, but 
colors much duller, the wing-coverts bordered with pale fulvous 
or rusty buff, yellow of belly, etc., paler and duller, and colored 
crown-patch wanting. Length about 8.75-9.00, wing 5.00-5.40, 
tail 3.70-4.20, bill from nostril .55-60. JVest and eggs not es- 
sentially different from those of T. tyrannus and T. verticalis. 
Hub. Mexico and Guatemala, north to along eastern base of 
Eocky Mountains to southern Wyoming, and coast district of 
southern California to about lat. 37° ; south to Costa Rica. 

448. T. vociferans Swains. Cassin's Kingbird. 

Genus PITANGUS Swainson. (Page 326, pi. XCII., fig. 3.) 

^ Species. 

a^. Forehead, superciliary stripe, and band across nape white ; crown with a large 
partially concealed patch of bright lemon- or gamboge-yellow ; back, scap- 
ulars, and rump plain light olive-brown ; outer webs of greater wing- 
coverts, secondaries, primaries, and tail-feathers, broadly edged with rufous, 
the inner webs of quills and tail-feathers almost entirely of this color ; lores 
and ear-coverts deep black, producing a conspicuous broad stripe along side 
of head ; chin, throat, and malar region pui-e white ; rest of lower parts, in- 
cluding under wing-coverts, continuous deep sulphur- or pale lemon-yellow; 
length about 10.00-11.00, wing 4.90-5.10, tail 3.90-4 00, exposed culmen 1.15- 
1.25, tarsus 1.05.' Nest very bulky, dome- or oven-shaped, with entrance on 
one side, composed of coarse straws, lichens, etc., lined with finer materials, 



MYIOZETETES. 33 1 

and placed in thorny trees. Eggs 3-5, 1.18 X -80, buffy white speckled and 
spotted (the markings mostly longitudinal), chiefly on larger end, with 
madder-brown and purplish gray. Hab. Middle America and northern 
South America, north to lower Eio Grande Valley in Texas. 

449. P. derbianus (Kaup). Derby Flycatcher. 
a}. "Whole top and sides of head plain brownish slate, or dusky, becoming lighter 
and more ashy on forehead ; middle of crown with a rather small concealed 
patch of brownish orange-yellow, or orange-rufous; back, scapulars, and 
rump plain slate-gray or dull ash-gray, slightly tinged with olive ; wings 
dusky, the middle and greater coverts and tertials conspicuously margined 
with dull whitish, the quills narrowly edged with the same ; tail dull black- 
ish, or dusky, tipped with dull light grayish, the outer web of lateral feather 
also dull light grayish ; lower parts dull whitish, purer on throat and bell}', 
faintly shaded with ashy on breast, and passing into pale sulphur-yellow on 
axillars, under wing-coverts, flanks, and under tail-coverts ; upper tail-coverts 
broadly but rather indistinctly margined with rusty; length (skins) about 
8.00-8.50, wing 4.15-4.40, tail 3.40-3.90, exposed culmen .95-. 1.00, tarsus .85- 
.90. Hab. Bahamas P. bahamensis Bryant. Bahaman Petarchy.i 

Genus MYIOZETETES Sclater. (Page 327, pi. XCV., fig. 1.) 

Species. 
Adult : Crown and occiput dull brownish gray, enclosing a concealed patch of 
bright orange-red ; forehead and broad superciliary stripe white ; lores, malar and 
suborbital regions, and ear-coverts deep brownish gray (darker than top of head), 
producing a very broad stripe along side of head ; hind-neck and sides of neck like 
crown, but tinged with olive-green ; back, scapulars, lesser wing-coverts, and rump 
plain olive, or dull olive-green, brighter posteriorly ; upper tail-coverts duller (some- 
times more grayish) olive, occasionally margined with rusty; wings and tail dusky 
grayish brown, the feathers edged with paler — the secondaries (especially tertials) 
with distinct olive-yellowish margins ; chin and throat white ; rest of lower parts 
pure gamboge-yellow. Young : Similar to adult, but crown without the concealed 
orange-patch, white portions of head more or less tinged with yellowish, and larger 
wing-feather and tail-feather margined with light rusty. Length about 6.50-6.75, 
wing 3.65-4.00, tail 2.20-2.40, exposed culmen .50, tarsus .80. Mst similar to that 
o{ Pitangus derbianus, hnt sma]\er. (Eggs unknown.) Hab. Middle America, south 
to Colombia, north to northern Mexico (and southern Texas ?). 

450. M. texensis (Giraud). Giraud's Flycatcher. 

Genus MYIODYNASTES Bonaparte. (Page 326, pi. XCIII., fig. 1.) 

S2:>ecies. 
Common Characters. — Above brownish, striped with black, the lower rump, 
upper tail-coverts, and tail rufous, streaked medially with black ; wings dusky, with 

1 Pitangus bahamensis Bryant, Proc. Bost. Soe. N. H. ix. 1864, 279. 



332 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

consiJieuous light edgings ; a broad dusky stripe on side of head, involving lores 
and ear-coverts ; above this a superciliary stripe of white or yellowish, and below 
it a broad white or yellowish malar stripe ; chin and throat (at least medially) 
white, narrowly streaked with dusk}^ ; rest of lower parts yellowish or whitish, 
the chest, breast, and sides broadly streaked with dusky. Adult with a concealed 
crown-jiatch of lemon- or gamboge-yellow. 

a\ Chin and a broad stripe on each side of throat duskj^, forming a conspicuous 
yy-shaped inark ; lower parts, except middle of throat, clear sulphur-}- ellow ; 
superciliary and malar stripes white; length about 7.75-8.00, wing 4.25^.60, 
tail 3.30-3.60, culmen .80-.90. Hab. Mexico and Central America, north to 
southern Arizona, south to Panama. 

451. M. luteiventris Sol. Sulphur-bellied Flycatcher. 
o?. Chin and whole throat white, the latter bordered laterally by a brownish and 
dusky stripe along lower half of malar region ; lower parts whitish, tinged, 
more or less, with sulphur-yellow, chiefly on sides j superciliary and malar 
8trij)e8 pale dull yellowish. 
l)^. Darker, the prevailing color of the upper parts grayish olive-brown ; wing 
. 4.40-4.50, tail 3.65-3.75, exposed culmen .85-.90. Hah. Cayenne, Trini- 
dad, Tobago, etc. 

M. audax (Gmel.). Bold Flycatcher.^ 

il Paler, the prevailing color of the upper parts light olive, mixed, more or 
less, with huffy yellowish. 
c\ With longer bill, and plumage more rufescent above, especially on top 
of head ; wing 4.10-4.45, tail 3.40-3.75, exposed culmen .90-1.05. 
Hah. Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, and north to Costa Eica. 

M. audax nobilis (Scl.). Noble Flycatcher.^ 
&. With shorter bill, and almost total absence of rustj^ tinge to upper 
parts; wing 4.25-4.40, tail 3.50-3.60, exposed culmen .80-.90. Hah. 
Southeastern Mexico (Yucatan to Mirador). 

M, audax insolens Kidgw. Insolent Flycatcher.' 

Genus MYIARCHUS Cabanis. (Page 327, pi. XCIII., fig. 2.) 

Species. 

Common Characters. — Above plain grayish brown or olive (the top of head 
sometimes much darker), the wings dusky, with more or less distinct lighter 
edgings ; tail-feathers sometimes uniform dusky, but usually with more or less 
rufous, especially on inner webs, which are sometimes entirely of this color ; quills 
(occasionally adjacent secondaries also) sometimes edged with rusty; anterior lower 
parts plain ashy or ashy white (the breast obsoletely streaked in M. flaynmulatus), 
the posterior lower parts (from breast back) varying from deep sulphur-yellow to 

1 Muscicnpa audax Gmel., S. N. i. pt. ii. 1788, 934. Mijiodynnntes audax ScL., P. Z. S. 1859, 43. (The 
above diagnosis based on examination of two specimens only, these from Tobago.) 
^ Myiodynastes nohilts ScL., P. Z. S. 1859, 42. 
3 New subspecies. Type, No. 27977, U. S. Nat. Mus., Mirador (Vera Cruz), Mexico ; Dr. C. Sartorius. 



MYIARCHUS. 333 

yellowish white. Young with more rufous on tail, etc., than adults. Nest usually 
in holes of trees. Eggs 3-6, curiously marked with fine " pen-lines" and intricate 
pencillings of black and various shades of rich purplish brown over a buffy or 
creamy brown. 

a^. Inner webs of tail-feathers chiefly rufous. 

h\ A broad dusky stripe, of uniform width, along inner side of shaft of outer 

tail-feathers. (Above olive, browner on top of head, and more or less 

tinged with rusty on upper tail-coverts ; outer webs of quills edged 

with rusty; chin, throat, and breast pale ashy, sometimes almost 

white on throat ; rest of under parts pale sulphur-yellow.) 

c' Smaller: Length about 8.50-9.00, wing 3.80-4.20(4.01), tail 3.80-4.25 

(4.04), bill from nostril .62-.75 (.66), tarsus .82-.92 (.90). Eggs .87 

X .68, averaging much paler than those of M. crinitus. Sab. 

Eastern and southern Mexico, north to lower Eio Grande Yalley 

in Texas, south to Guatemala and Salvador. 

453. M. mexicanus (Kaup). Mexican Crested Flycatcher. 

c\ Larger: Length about 9.40-10.00, wing 4.04-4.60 (4.30), tail 4.10-4.60 

(4.29), bill from nostril .68-.82 (.73), tarsus .97-1.02 (1.00). Hab. 

Western Mexico, north to southern Arizona; south, in winter, to 

Tehuantepec 453^. M. mexicanus magister Eidgw. 

Arizona Crested Flycatcher. 
bl "Without a broad dusky stripe along inner side of shaft of outer tail- 
feather, except sometimes near tip. 
c\ Throat and chest deep ash-gray, belly bright sulphur-yellow, back, 
etc., decidedly olive. 

Length about 8.50-9.00, wing 3.90-4.40, tail 3.50-4.20, bill from 
no'stril .55-.65, tarsus .78-.82. Eggs .88 X -66. Hab. Eastern 
United States, north to southern Canada, west to edge of 
Great Plains; south, in wintei-, through eastern Mexico and 
Central America to Costa Eiea. 

452. M. crinitus (Linn.). Crested Flycatcher. 

c'. Throat and chest very pale ashy, sometimes almost white on former ; 

belly pale sulphur-yellow ; back, etc., grayish brown. 

d\ Inner web of outer tail-feather dusky at tip (excepting in young, 

in which tail-feathers are rufous, Avith median dusky stripe), the 

outer web distinctly whitish. 

Length about 8'.00-8.50, wing 3.80-4.25, tail 3.65-4.20, bill 
from nostril .52-.60, tarsus .88-.95. Eggs .87 X -65, colored 
and marked like those of M. mexicanus. Hab. Western 
United States, east to Eocky Mountains, south over high- 
lands of Mexico (to lowlands of Tehuantepec in winter). 
454. M. cinerascens Lawr. Ash-throated Flycatcher. 
d"^. Inner web of outer tail-feather without dusky at tip, and outer 
web not distinctly whitish. 



334 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

e^. Smaller ; tail not decidedly, if at all, shorter than wing ; upper 
tail-coverts not distinctly tinged with nisty ; wing 3.40- 
3.70 (3.57), tail 3.35-3.80 (3.56), bill from nostril .40-.56 
(.50), tarsus .80-.88 (.85). Hah. Southern Mexico (Guana- 
juato, Tehuantepec, Chiapas, etc.), and south to western 
Costa Eica (La Palma). 

M. nuttingi Kidgw. Nutting's Flycatcher.^ 
e^. Larger ; tail decidedly shorter than wing ; upper tail-coverts 
decidedly tinged with rusty (sometimes with rusty pre- 
vailing); wing 3.65-3.90 (3.74), tail 3.45-3.60 (3.52), bill 
from nostril .60-.62 (.61), tarsus .85-.90 (.87). Hah. 
Nicaragua. 

M. brachyurus Ridgw. Nicaraguan Crested Flycatcher.* 
a^. Inner webs of outer tail-feathers chiefly (sometimes entirely) dusky or dull 
grayish brown. 
h^. Width of bill at frontal feathers decidedly less than length of gonys ; no 
trace of streaks on breast. 
&. Bill verj^ little flattened, its depth through middle nearly equal to 
width at same place. 
d^. Belly and flanks sulphur-j^ellow ; middle wing-coverts tipped with 
dull grayish brown ; quills very distinctly edged with rusty. 
Wing 3.40-3.50, tail 3.50-3.60, bill from nostril .52-.55, tarsus 
.81-.85. Hab. Yucatan. 

M. yucatanensis Lawr. Yucatan Crested Flycatcher.' 

d}. Belly and flanks white or j^ellowish white ; middle wing-coverts 

tipped with pale brownish gray or grayish white ; quills very 

indistinctly, if at all, edged with rusty. 

e\ Middle wing-coverts tipped with light brownish gray ; top of 

head deep sepia-brown ; wing 3.20-3.45 (3.33), tail 3.20- 

3.40 (3.33), bill from nostril .55-.58 (.57), tarsus .78-.80. 

Hab. Cuba. 

M. sagrse Gundl. Cuban Crested Flycatcher.* 

e^. Middle wing-coverts tipped with grayish white ; top of head 
hair-brown ; wing 3.35-3.55 (3.46), tail 3.25-3.50 (3.40), bill 
from nostril .58-.60 (.59), tarsus .85-.86 (.85). Hab. Ba- 
hamas. 

M. lucaysiensis Bryant. Bahaman Crested Flycatcher." 

c^ Bill much flattened, its depth in middle portion not moi-e than two- 
thirds its width at same place. 

1 Myiarchtis nuttingi RiDGW., Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. v. Sept. 5, 1882, 395. (Type, No. 87391, U. S. Nat. 
Mus., La Palma, Costa Rica, Apr. 27, 1882 ; C. C. Nutting.) 

2 New species; type, No. 91057, U. S. Nat. Mus., 6ad., Ometepec, Nicaragua, March 7, 1883; C. C. 
Nutting. 

3 Myiarchna yucatanensis Lawr., Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phil. 1871, 235. 

* Muscicapa sagrse Gundl., Jour. Bost. Soc. N. H. vi. 1852, 313. Myiarchus sagrm Gundl., J. f. 0. 1872, 
424. 

5 Tyrannula (Myiarchus) stolida (var. lucaysiensis) Bryant, Pr. Bost. Soc. N. H. xi. 1866, 66. 



SAFORNIS. 335 

d^. Tail with distinct rufous edgings to inner webs, or else without 
distinct rusty edgings to outer webs. 
e^. Darker, the top of head more or less sooty, decidedly darker 
than back ; quills, secondaries, and tail-feathers conspicu- 
ously edged with rusty, and upper tail-coverts strongly 
tinged with same; inner webs of tail-feathers usually 
broadly edged with rufous; length about 7.00, wing 3.10- 
3.40 (3.24), tail 3.00-3.40 (3.24), bill from nostril .50-.58 
(.52), tarsus .75-80 (.77). Sab. Eastern Mexico, north to 
lower Eio Grande Valley in Texas ; Guatemala. 

455. M. lawrenceii (Giraud). Lawrence's Flycatcher. 

e^. Paler, with top of head haii--brown or olive, very little darker 

than color of back ; quills, secondaries, and tail-feathers 

usually without distinct rusty edgings — often without any 

rusty ; inner webs of tail-feathers usually without rufous 

edges; length 7.00-7.30, wing 2.90-3.25 (3.11), tail 3.00- 

3.25 (3.14), bill from nostril .48-.55 (.51), tarsus .70-.75 (.73). 

Hab. Western Mexico, north to southern Arizona, south, in 

winter, to southern Mexico, including Yucatan .. 455a. M. 

lawrenceii olivascens Eidgw. Olivaceous Flycatcher. 

(P. Tail-feather without rufous edgings to inner webs, but outer webs 

very distinctly edged with rusty, and upper tail-coverts strongly 

tinged with same ; belly and flanks very pale sulphur-yellow. 

Top of head dull sooty, but scarcely broAvnish ; back dull 

grayish hair-brown ; wing 3.00, tail 3.00, bill from nostril 

.50, width at base .33, tarsus .80. 

M. platyrhynchus Eidgw. Cozumel Flycatcher.^ 
J^ "Width of bill at frontal feathers very little, if any, less than length of gonys ; 
breast very indistinctly clouded or streaked with pale grayish. 

Top of head olivaceous, hke back ; middle, greater, and last row of 
lesser wing-coverts tipped with buffy or light rusty ; length about 
6.00, wing 2.90-3.00, tail 3.00-3.10, bill from nostril .40, width at 
base .40, tarsus .70-.72. Hab. Southwestern Mexico (Mazatlan to 
Tehuantepec). 

M. flammulatus Latvr. Flammulated Flycatcher.'^ 

Genus SAYORNIS Bonaparte. (Page 327, pi. XCIV., fig. 3.) 

Species. 

Common Characters. — Above plain olive-grayish or blackish, the tail black or 
dusky, its lateral feathers with outer webs edged with whitish ; lower parts vary- 
ing in color according to species. Young : Similar to adults, but wing-coverts 



1 Myiarchus platyrhynchus Ridgw., Descr. N. Sp. B. Cozumel, 1885, 3. 
^ Myiarchue flammulatus Lawr., Ann. Lye, N. Y. xi, July, 1874, 71. 



33G NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

tipped with light rusty. Nest a compact and bulky felted mass, decorated exteri- 
orly with mosses, etc., and lined with soft feathers, attached to rocks, to beams 
of buildings, bridges, etc. Eggs 3-6, pure white, sometimes finely but sparsely 
speckled round larger end with dark brownish. 

a}. Belly white or very pale yellowish. 

l^. Above olive-grayish, darker on top of head ; lower parts entirely whitish, 
more or less strongly tinged posteriorly with pale yellowish, the sides 
of the breast tinged with olive-grayish ; length about 6.25-7.00, wing 
3.25-3.55, tail 3.00-3.40. Eggs .84 X -55. Hah. Eastern North America ; 
south, in winter, to eastern Mexico and Cuba. 

456. S. phoebe (Lath.). Phoebe. 

U^. Above, together with anterior and lateral lower parts, slate-black ; belly 

and lower tail-coverts white ; length about 6.25-7.00, wing 3.55-3.80. 

tail 3.45-3.75. Eggs .74 X -55. Hah. Mexico and northward, along 

Pacific coast to Oregon, eastward to southern Texas. 

458. S. nigricans (Swains.). Black Phoebe. 
a^. Belly light cinnamon, or tawny ochraceous. 

Above light brownish gray, the tail black ; anterior lower parts light 
brownish gray, posterior portions light cinnamon or tawny ochraceous ; 
length about 7.50-8.05, wing 3.90-4.25, tail 3.35-3.75. Eggs .76 X -59, 
always immaculate (?). Hah. Western United States, eastward across 
Great Plains, north to the Saskatchewan, and south into Mexico. 

457. S. saya (Bonap.). Say's Phoebe. 



Genus CONTOPUS Cabanis. (Page 327, pi. XCIV., figs. 1, 2.) 

Species. 

Common Characters. — Above plain gi-ayish brown or olive-grayish, usually 
darker on top of head, lighter on rump ; wings and tail dusky, the wing-coverts 
with more or less distinct paler (usually dull grayish) tips, the secondaries edged 
with the same (these edgings broader and more whitish on tertials) ; lower parts 
paler than upper, the throat and belly usually whitish or pale yellowish ; upper 
mandible black, lower light-colored, except at tip ; feet blackish. Young : Similar 
to adult, but wing-coverts narrowly tipped with buflFy, ochraceous, or light rusty. 
Nest on trees (usually on a stout horizontal branch), very compact, saucer-shaped. 
Eggs 2-4, pale cream-color, handsomely wreathed round larger end with spots of 
rich brown and lilac-gray or lavender. 

a\ Tarsus shorter than middle toe, with claw ; primaries exceeding secondaries by 
two and a half times the length of the tarsus ; wing exceeding tail by about 
half the length of the latter; first quill much longer than fourth, often 
longer than third ; a very conspicuous white cottony patch on each side of 
rump ; median lower parts white, or very pale yellowish (scarcely inter- 



CONTOPUS. 337 

rupted on breast), the lateral portions deep gi-ayish brown, or brownish 
gray, in strong contrast. (Subgenus Nuttallornis Eidgw.^) 

Adult : Above brownish slate, some of the feathers usually with darker 
shaft-streaks ; wings and tail dusky blackish, the wing-coverts tipped 
with brownish gray and tertials edged with whitish ; a conspicuous tuft 
of white cottony feathers on each side of rump (usually concealed by 
wings) ; middle line of body beneath, from chin to crissum, white, the 
lateral portions brownish gray (usually with darker shaft-streaks), this 
sometimes extending across the chest, thus interrupting the white. 
Young : Similar to adult, but tips to wing-coverts (narrowly) dull buify 
or fulvous. Length 7.10-7.90, wing 3.90^.50, tail 2.80-3.50, exposed 
culmen .58-.70, tarsus .55-.60. Eggs .82 X -61, creamy buff, spotted, 
usually in more or less of a distinct ring round larger end, with deep 
rusty brown or chestnut and purplish gray. Hab. Higher mountain 
districts of United States, and coniferous forests of lowlands from 
northern border (New England to Michigan, etc.) northward, and south 
through higher mountains to Colombia. 

459. C. borealis (Swains.). Olive-sided Flycatcher. 
a^. Tarsus longer than middle toe, with claw ; primaries exceeding secondaries by 
less than twice the length of the tarsus ; wing exceeding tail by less than 
one-fourth the length of the latter ; first quill much shorter than fourth, 
sometimes shorter than fifth ; no conspicuous white cottony tuft on side of 
rump ; median lower parts not abruptly lighter than lateral portions. 
(Subgenus Contopus Cabanis.) 
b^. Wing more than 3.75. 

Above plain grayish brown, tinged with olive, the wings without very 
distinct lighter markings ; beneath plain light olive grayish, the 
chin whitish, the belly and under tail-coverts pale dull yellowish ; 
length 7.70-8.00, wing 3.80-4.45, tail 3.60-3.90. Hab. Highlands of 
Guatemala and Mexico, north to southern Arizona. 

460. C. pertinax Cab. Coues's Flycatcher. 
b\ Wing less than 3.75. 

c^ Belly and under tail-coverts white or pale sulphur-yellowish ; under 
wing-coverts dull light olive-grayish, sometimes tinged with 
yellowish. 
d}. Exposed culmen much less than twice the width of bill at nostrils. 
e^. Second quill decidedly longer than third, and fourth quill much 
longer than fifth ; wing 3.00, or more (usually more than 
3.15). 
p. Lores dull grayish, not distinctly or abruptly different 
from color of forehead and ear-coverts ; throat not 
pure white. 

1 New subgenus; more properly a distinct genus, so numerous and positive are the differences from all the 
species of Contoj>us proper. 

43 



338 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

g^. Lighter and more olivaceous above, the median lower 
parts more distinctly whitish, or less extensively 
interrupted with olive-grayish on breast ; wings 
and tail shorter; length 5.90-6.50, wing 3.00-3.45 
(3.27), tail 2.50-2.90 (2.71), exposed culmen .43- 
.52 (.48), width of bill at base .24-.30 (.28), tarsus 
.48-53 (.51). West a veiy beautiful saucer-shaped 
structure covered exteriorly with green and gray 
lichens, built usually upon a thick horizontal 
branch. Eggs .71 X -53, pale creamy buff or 
creamy white, spotted, usually in ring round 
larger end, with rich madder-brown and lilac-gray. 
Hab. Eastern North America, north to Canada, 
etc., west to edge of Great Plains ; south, in winter, 
to eastern Mexico and Guatemala. 

461. C. virens (Linn.). Wood Pewee. 
g'^. Darker and less olivaceous above, the median lower 
parts les;^ distinctly whitish, or more extensively 
interrupted with olive-gi'ayish across breast ; wings 
and tail longer ; length 6.20-6.75, wing 3.15-3.55, 
(3.34), tail 2.50-2.95 (2.74), exposed culmen .44- 
.51 (.48), width of bill at base .27-.32 (.29), tarsus 
.49-.56 (.52). JSfest composed chiefly of plant- 
fibres (sometimes, though rarely, ornamented with 
lichens), often built in forks of branches. Eggs 
.69 X -54, colored like those of C. virens. Ilab. 
Western North America, east to Great Plains, 
north to British Columbia and interior of British 
America, south, in winter, through Mexico and 
Central America to Costa Eica.. 462. C. richard- 
sonii (Swains.). Western Wood Pewee. 
f^. Lores whitish, in strong contrast with color of forehead 
and ear-coverts ; throat pure white ; otherwise very 
similar in color to G. virens, but bill much longer, 
broader, and more flattened ; length (skin) 5.60, wing 
3.20, tail 2.60, exposed culmen .55, width of bill at 
base .35, tarsus .50. Hah. Yucatan. 

C. albicollis Lawr. White-throated Wood Pewee.^ 
€^. Second quill not conspicuousl}^ (if any) longer than thii'd, and 
fourth not conspicviously longer than fifth ; wing not more 
than 3.05 (usually less than 3.00). 

Above dull olive, decidedly darker on top of head, lighter 
on rump ; wings and tail dusky, the former varied by 

1 Contopus albicollis Lawr., Ann. Lye. N. Y. Ac. Sci. iii. No. 5, Jan. 5, 18S5, 156. 



EMPIDONAX. 339 

dull olive-grayish tips to wing-coverts and paler (some- 
times nearly white) edges to tertials ; chest and sides 
of breast olive-grayish, the sides and flanks much 
tinged with same; chin and throat whitish, sometimes 
tinged with sulphur-yellow; belly pale sulphur-yellow; 
under wing-coverts dull buffy, tinged or mixed with 
olive-grayish ; length (skins) 5.30-5.50, wing 2.80-3.05, 
tail 2.60-2.75, exposed culmen .47-.50, tarsus .50-.55. 
Hab. Yucatan (including Cozumel) and southern 
Mexico (Cordova, etc.). 

C. brachytarsus Scl. Schott's Wood Pewee.^ 
(P. Exposed culmen about twice as long as width of bill at nostrils. 

Colors much as in C. schottii, but grayer ; length (skins) 5.25- 
5.70, wing 2.65-2.90, tail 2.40-2.70, exposed culmen .55-.60, 
width of bill at nostrils .25-.30, tarsus .60-.65. Hab. Ba- 
hamas. 

C. bahamensis Bryant. Bahaman Wood Pewee.'^ 
c^. Belly, under tail-coverts, and under wing-coverts light ochraceous. 

Otherwise in color much like C. brachT/tarsus, but bill shaped as 
in C. bahamensis; length (skins) 5.60-6.00, wing 2.75-2.80, tail 
2.70-2.80. JIab. Cuba. 

C. caribaeus (D'Orb.). Cuban Wood Pewee.^ 



Genus EMPIDONAX Cabanis. (Page 327, pi. XCIV., fig. 4.) 

Species. 

Common Characters. — Above plain brownish, grayish, olive, or olive-greenish, 
the wings with two lighter bands (across tips of greater and middle coverts), the 
secondaries edged with the same color as the wing-bands, except toward base, there 
being always a more or less distinct dusky bar behind tips of greater coverts ; lower 
parts whitish, yellowish, or buffy, shaded with grayish, olive, or ochraceous across 
chest ; upper mandible black, or dark brown, lower mandible pale-colored ; legs and 
feet black. 

a\ Lower parts whitish or sulphur-yellowish, shaded, more or less, across breast 
with grayish or olivaceous. 
b\ Width of bill at nostrils decidedly greater than half the length of the ex- 
posed culmen. 

1 Empidonax brachj/tarsus ScL., Ibis, 1859, 441. Contopus brachytarsus ScL., Cat. Am. B. 1862, 231. Cov- 
topus schottii Lawr., Ann. Lye. N. Y. ix. 1869, 202. (Types of both compared, also additional specimens of 
C. schottii.) 

' Empidonax- bahamensis Brtant, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H. vii. 1859, 109. Contopus bahamensis CORY, Bds. 
Bahama Is. 1880, 101. 

3 Muscipeta carbaea D'Orb, La Sagra's Cuba, 1839, 77. Contopus caribxus B. B. & R. Hist. N. Am. B. ii. 
1874, 351. 



340 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

&. Upper parts umber-brown, the top of head sometimes much darker 
(sooty). 

Above dull brown, darker on top of head, the wing-bands varying 
from dull light brownish buff to tawny ; chin and throat white ; 
rest of lower parts pale smoky buff, shaded with smoky brown 
across breast (whole lower parts dull whitish in much worn 
plumage) ; under Aving- coverts and thighs deep buff or ochra- 
ceous; wing 2.35-2.40 (2.37), tail 2.15-2.32 (2.24), culmen .60- 
.67 (.64), bill from nostril .32-.35 (.33), width at base .30, tarsus 
.67-68 (.67). Hah. Southeastern Mexico (Vera Cruz) to high- 
lands of Guatemala. 

E. albigularis ScL. White-throated Flycatcher.^ 
c*. Upper parts olive, olive-greenish, or olive-grayish. 
d}. Lower parts 'distinctly yellowish. 

e^ Under wing-coverts pale buff, deepening into ochraceous on 
edge of wing. (Length 5.50-6.00.) 

Adult : Above dull grayish olive (more brownish in win- 
ter), the wing-bands dull light buffy grayish (more 
buffy in winter) ; lower parts pale dull yellowish, in- 
clining to sulphur-yellow on belly and under tail-cov- 
erts, and faintly shaded with dull grayish brown across 
breast. Young : Similar, but browner above, with wing- 
bands ochraceous, or rusty buff, the sulphur-yellow of 
belly, etc., replaced by dull white. 3fale : Wing 2.50- 
2.90 (2.65), tail 2.35-2.60 (2.43), culmen .57-.63 (.61), 
bill from nostril .29-.33 (.31), width at base .25-.28 
(.27), tarsus .64-.69 (.68). Female: Wing 2.30-2.60- 
(2.44), tail 2.20-2.45 (2.32). JVests in clefts of old 
stumps or logs, or similar situations, bulky, composed 
of mosses, etc. Fggs .69 X -51, buffy white or pale 
buff, speckled, chiefly round larger end, with rusty 
brown, or cinnamon. Hab. Western United States, 
north to Sitka ; south, in winter, to western Mexico. 
464. E. difficilis Baird. Western Flycatcher.'^ 
e'. Under wing-coverts yellowish white, or pale sulphur-yellow. 
/^ Wing-bands not darker (usuallj^ paler) than lower parts. 
(Length 5.10-5.80.) 
Adult : Above dull olive-green, the wing-bands pale 
olive-yellowish ; beneath pale dull sulphur-yellow, 
shaded with olive across breast. Young : Similar, 
but duller, with wing-bands buffy or ochraceous. 
Male: Wing 2.55-2.75 (2.64), tail 2.10-2.30 (2.18), 

1 Empidonax albigularis ScL., Ibis, 1859, 122. Empidonax axillaris Ridgw., in Hist. Am. B. ii. 1874, 363. 
* Called "Baird's Flycatclier" in the A. 0. U. Check List, but this name belongs properly to E. bairdii 

SCL. 



EMPIDONAX. 341 

culmen .48-.59 (.54), bill from nostril .30-.32 (.31), 
width at base .25-.28 (.26), tarsus .64-.68 {.QQ). 
Female: Wing 2.40-2.50 (2.45), tail 2.00-2.25 
(2.11). Nest embedded in mossy bank, stump, or 
log, composed of green moss, dry leaves, fine 
sticks, etc., lined with fine black rootlets, dried 
grass-blades, etc. ; external diameter about 4.00- 
4.50, depth about 2.25-4.00; cavity about 1.25- 
1.50 deep by 2.00 across. Eggs usually 4, .73 X 
.51, colored like those of E. difficilis. Hah. East- 
ern North America, breeding from northern 
United States northward ; south, in winter, 
through eastern Mexico and Central America 

to Panama 463. E. flaviventris Baird. 

Yellow-bellied Flycatcher. 
p. "Wing-bands darker than lower parts. 
g^. Above dull olive. 

Adult: Above dull olive, the wing-bands dull 
light olive, sometimes inclining to russet ; 
lower pai-ts pale olive-yellowish, more de- 
cidedly olivaceous on breast; edge of wing 
dull ochraceous or fulvous ; wing 2.60-2.80 
(2.72), tail 2.40-2.55 (2.49), culmen .58-.60 
(.59), bill from nostril .32-.33 (.32), width at 
base .25, tarsus .65-.70 (.68). Hah. Southern 
and eastern Mexico (Oaxaca, Cordoba, Mira- 
dor, etc.). 

E. bairdii ScL. Baird's Flycatcher.^ 
^^ Above bright olive-green. Adult : Above bright olive- 
green, the wing-bands similar, but paler, some- 
times inclining to ochraceous; lower parts green- 
ish sulphur-yellow, distinctly shaded across breast 
and along sides with olive-green ; edge of wing 
clear sulphur-yellow; wing 2.50-2.90 (2.75), tail 
2.15-2.65 (2.44), culmen .60-.63 (.61), bill from 
nostril .32-.35 (.34), width at base .28-.30 (.29), 
tarsus .68-72 (.70). Hah. Highlands of Guatemala. 
E. salvini Kidgw. Salvin's Flycatcher.^ 
d^. Lower parts not distinctly yellowish, 
e^ First quill longer than seventh. 

p. First quill usually equal to or longer than fifth ; color uni- 
form olive-green or greenish gray above. (Length 
5.50-5.90.) 

1 Empidonax bairdii ScL., P. Z. S. 1858, 301. 

2 Empidonax salvini Ridgw., Ibis, Oct. 1886, 459. 



342 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 



Adult: Above varying from greenish gray to olive- 
green, or even (in some winter specimens) almost 
russet-olive, the top of the head similar to the 
back; wing-bands buff or huffy whitish; lower 
parts white, more or less strongly tinged with sul- 
phur-yellow laterally and posteriori}-, and (usu- 
ally very faintly) shaded across breast with olive 
or grayish. Young : Similar to adult, but with 
wing-bands deeper ochraceous, and feathers of 
upper parts (especially crown and rump) nar- 
rowly tipped with paler, pi'oducing an inconspic- 
uous mottling. Male : Wing 2.75-3.10 (2.83), tail 
2.30-2.70 (2.49), culmen .62-.69 (.66), bill from 
nostril .32-.39 (.35), width at base .28-.30 (.30), 
tarsus .59-.67 (.62). Female: Wing 2.55-2.70 
(2.65), tail 2.25-2.35 (2.32). Nest a very thin, flat 
structure secured between forks near the ex- 
tremity of a (usually depending) branch, com- 
posed of fine rootlets, tree-catkins, etc. Fggs 
2-4, ,71 X -53, pale creamy buff or creamy white, 
sparsely speckled or spotted, chiefly on larger end, 
with deep rusty brown or madder-bi'own. Hab. 
Eastern United States ; south, in winter, through, 
eastern Mexico and Central America to Ecuador ; 
Cuba. 
465. E. acadicus (Gmel.). Acadian Flycatcher. 
f. First quill usually shorter than fifth ; color olive or 
grayish brown above — never distinctly greenish. 
^^ Tail even, or very slightly rounded ; wing averaging 
more than 2.60. (Length 5.50-6.50.) 
h^. Adult: Above olive, usually decidedly graj'er 
on head ; wing-bands varying from dull 
brownish gray, or grayish brown, to nearly 
white ; lower parts white, tinged more or 
less with sulphur-yellow posteriorly, and 
shaded with olive-grayish on sides of breast ; 
under wing-coverts very pale huffy yellow. 
Young : Similar, but rather browner above 
and more distinctly tinged with yellow be- 
neath, the wing-bands deep buff, or ochra- 
ceous. Male : Length about 5.80-6.25, wing 
2.70-2.85 (2.75), tail 2.35-2.60 (2.51), culmen 
.64-.73 (.69), bill from nostril .35-.40 (.38), 
width at base .27-.31 (.29), tarsus .65-. 72 
(.68). Female : Length about 5.55-6.00, wing 



EMPIDONAX. 343 

2.55-2.65 (2.60), tail 2.20-2.50 (2.38), other 
measurements about as in male. Nest deep 
cup-shaped, bulky, usually built between forks 
of an upright twig or branch, in bushes, com- 
posed of plant-down, straws, etc. Eggs 2-A, 
.71 X -53, similar in color to those of E. aca- 
dicus, but averaging paler, both in ground- 
color and in markings. Mab. Western North 
America, north to Sitka and Fort Simpson ; 

south, in winter, into Mexico 466. E. pu- 

sillus (Swains.). Little Flycatcher. 
h\ Similar to E. pusillus, but averaging more de- 
cidedly olivaceous above and more distinctly 
tinged with yellow beneath, the bill shorter 
and broader, and tarsus shorter. Male : Wing 
2.60-3.00 (2.81), tail 2.40-2.60 (2.48), culmen 
.60-.64 (.62), bill from nostril .32-.37 (.34), 
width at base .29-.30 (.30), tarsus .64-.67 (.66). 
Female : Wing 2.50-2.65 (2.58), tail 2.25-2.35 
(2.30). Nest and eggs as in E. pusillus, the 
latter averaging .73 X -53. Hab. Eastern 
North America ; south, in winter, through 
Middle America to northern South America. 
466a. E. pusillus traillii (Aud.). 
Traill's Flycatcher. 
g\ Tail slightlj^, but decidedly, emarginated; wing av- 
eraging less than 2.60. (Length 4.90-5.50.) 

Hardly distinguishable in color from E. pusillus 
and E. traillii, but wing-bands usually whiter. 
llale: Wing 2.30-2.60 (2.49), tail 2.10-2.40 
(2.30), culmen .53-.59 (.56), bill from nostril 
.27-.31 (.29), width at base .23-.27 (.25), 
tarsus .59-.68 (.65). Female : Wing 2.20-2.40 
(2.33), tail 2.10-2.25 (2.18). Nest very com- 
pactly felted, cup-shaped, composed chiefly of 
grayish plant-fibres, placed in fork of upright 
branches of bushes or small trees. Eggs 2-4, 
.64 X -49, plain buffy white. Hab. Eastern 
North America, breeding from northern 
United States northward ; south, in winter, 
through Middle America, to Panama. 
467. E. minimus Baird. Least Flycatcher. 
b\ Width of bill at nostrils less than half the exposed culmen. 

c\ Outer web of outer tail-feather not abruptly paler than inner web; 
culmen .55, or less ; tarsus less than .70. (Length 5.25-5.75.) 



344 NORTH AMERICAN BTRDS. 

Adult : Above olive, usually more grayish anteriorlj^, especially 
on hind-neck ; wing-bands dull light grayish, more or less tinged 
with olive; lower j^ai'ts varjdng from dull grayish white, 
faintly tinged with yellowish on flanks, etc., to decided olive- 
yellowish, the breast always strongly shaded with olive or 
olive-grayish, and the throat never distinctly whitish (usually 
distinctly grayish), llale : Length about 5.50-5.75, wing 2.60- 
2.80 (2.72), tail 2.30-2.50 (2.38),'culinen .53-.59 (.56), bifl from 
nostril .26-.29 (.27), width at base .22-.24 (.23), tarsus .60-.68 
(.63). Female : Length about 5.25, wing 2.45-2.75 (2.61), tail 
2.15-2.40 (2.25). JVest and eggs like those of E. minimus (?). 
Hab. "Western North America, north to Lesser Slave Lake ; 
south, in winter, to southern Mexico. 

468. E. hammondi (Xantus). Hammond's Flycatcher. 

c^. Outer web of outer tail-feather abruptly paler than inner web (usually 

distinctly dull whitish) ; culmen .58, or more ; tarsus usually more 

than .70. (Length 5.75-6.40.) 

d}. Colors otherwise much as in E. hammondi^ but averaging grayer, 

with paler (often distinctly whitish) throat. Male : Wing 

2.70-2.95 (2.83), tail 2.55-2.80 (2.67), culmen .62-.69 (.65), bill 

from nostril .32-.38 (.36), width at base .24-.27 (.26), tarsus .71- 

, .77 (.74). Female : Wing 2.55-2.75 (2.64), tail 2.50-2.65 (2.52). 

Nest usually in aspen bushes, similar in composition, etc., to 

that of E. minimus. Eggs .69 X 51, plain buffy white. Hab. 

"Western United States, south to southern Mexico, east to 

Rocky Mountains. 

469. E. obscurus (Swains.). Wright's Flycatclier. 
d^. Deep brownish olive above, the wing-bands varying from olive 
to pale olive-grayish ; lower parts dull yellow, shaded across 
breast with olive-brown ; wing 2.92-3.00, tail 2.65-2.75, culmen 
.60, bill from nostril .30, width at base .22-25, tarsus .68. Hah. 
Southern Mexico (Orizaba ; city of Mexico). 

E. fulvipectus Lawk. Narrow-billed Flycatcher i 
a^. Lower parts deep buff, deepening into ochraceous on breast and sides. 
¥. Upper parts deep hair-brown, tinged w^ith umber. 

c^ Lower parts soft pinkish buff, inclining to isabella-color on breast, paler 
on throat and belly, the under tail-coverts nearly white ; wing 2.70, 
tail 2.45, culmen .52, bill from nostril .28, width at base .21, tarsus 
.60. Hah. Eastern Mexico and southern Texas (?). 

470. E. fulvifrons (Giraud). Fulvous Flycatcher. 

cl Lower parts bright ochraceous-buif, inclining to deep ochraceous on 

breast, and pale buffy yellow on belly, the throat buffy whitish and 

lower tail-coverts yellowish white ; wing 2.35-2.55 (average 2.43), 

1 Empidonax fulvipectus Lawr., Ann. Lye. N. Y. x. Feb. 1871, 11. 



PYROCEPHALUS. 345 

tail 1.90-2.15 (2.05), culmen .48-.50 (.49), bill from nostril .25-.27 
(.26), width at base .20, tarsus .52-.58 (.56). Hab. Southern Mexico. 
E. fulvifrons rubicundus (Cab. &, Hein.). Ruddy Flycatcher.^ 
V. Upper parts dull grayish brown. 

Lower parts pale buff, brightening into ochraceous-buff on breast and 
anterior portion of sides. Young : Wing-bands buff (instead of 
light grayish brown or dull grayish white), the lower parts much 
paler and duller buff, without ochraceous tinge. Length about 4.75- 
5.10, wing 2.20-2.45 (2.34), tail 1.95-2.14 (2.06), culmen .50-.55 (.52), 
bill from nostril .25-.27 (.26), width at base .20-.22 (.21), tarsus .51- 
.60. Hah. Southern Arizona and New Mexico, south into western 
Mexico. 
470(2, E. fulvifrons pygmaeus (Coues). Buff-breasted Flycatcher. 

Genus PYROCEPHALUS Gould. (Page 327, pi. XCIL, fig. 2.) 

Species. 

Adult male : Whole top of head and entire lower parts bright scarlet ; ear-cov- 
erts and upper parts (except top of head) brownish gray, the wings and tail dai'ker 
(sometimes nearly black). Adult female : Above brownish gray, including crown ; 
lower parts whitish, more or less tinged with pale red or salmon-color posteriorly, 
the breast more or less streaked with grayish. Immature male : Similar to adult 
female, but with red feathers intermixed on crown and anterior lower parts. 
Young: Above grayish, the feathers bordered with whitish; beneath whitish, 
without any reddish tinge posteriorly. Length about 5.50-6.25, wing 3.20-3.40, 
tail 2.60-2.80. Nest shallow and very compact, somewhat like that of Contopus 
virens. Eggs 2-4, .68 X -52, pale olive-buff or dull buffy (rarel}^ nearly white), 
boldly and heavily spotted, chiefly in wreath round larger end, or near middle, 
with dark vandyke-brown or brownish black and purplish gray. Hah. Mexico 
and Guatemala, and north to southern border of United States (southern Texas to 
Arizona) 471. P. rubineus mexicanus (Scl.). Vermilion Flycatcher.'^ 

Genus ORNITHION Hartlaub. (Page 327, pi. XCV., fig. 4.) 

Species. 

Common Characters. — Above plain brownish gray, or olive-gray ; wings more 
dusky, the covei'ts tipped with light brownish gray or brownish, the tertials, sec- 
ondaries, and quills edged, more or less distinctly, with the same, the secondaries, 
however, with the basal fourth, or more, of exposed portion uniform dusk}- ; lower 
pai'ts dull grayish white, or yellowish white, tinged with grayish laterally, es- 
pecially on sides of breast ; sides of head hght grayish, without distinct mark- 

1 Empidonax rubicundus Cab. & Hein., Mus. Hein. ii. Sept. 1859, 70, foot-note. Empidonax fulvifrons 
rubicundus Ridgw., Pr. Biol. Soc. Wash. ii. 1885, 109. 

^ A rare melanistic plumage is uniform sepia-brown, tinged in male with wine-purple on crown and lower 
parts. This con4ition is comparatively frequent in the common South American form, or true P. rubineus 
(Bodd). 



346 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

ings, though lores and orbits are more or less distinctly paler. Young with wing- 
bands ochraceous or pale rust}', and lower parts more buffy whitish. 

a}. Smaller and browner, with lower parts more tinged with sulphur-j^ellowish, 
the bill smaller and more slender; length about 4.50, wing 2.10-2.15 (2.12), 
tail 1.70-1.95 (1.84), culmen .39-.40 (.40), exposed eulmen .28-.30 (.30), depth 
of bill at base .13-14, tarsus .55-.60 (.57). Hab. Central America and eastern 
Mexico, north to lower Eio Grande Yalley in Texas. 

472. O. imberbe (Scl.). Beardless Flycatcher. 

a^ Larger and grayer, with little if any sulphur-yellow tinge to grayish white 
lower parts, the bill larger and thicker; length 4.30-4.80 (4.50), wing 2.04- 
2.28 (2.18), tail 1.78-2.04 (1.89), culmen .40-.42 (.41), exposed culmen .30-.35 
(.32), depth of bill at base .14-.15, tarsus .52-58 (.56). Hab. Ws^tern Mexico, 
north to southern Arizona, south to Mazatlan. 

472a. O. imberbe ridgwayi Brewst. Ridgway's Flycatcher. 



Family ALAUDID2E. — The Larks. (Page 321.) 

Genera. 

a^. A spurious primary ; tail deeply emarginate ; crown with a blunt erectile crest 
of soft, normal feathers ; plumage of adult mainly dull brownish, much 
streaked above and below Alauda. (Page 346.) 

al No spurious primary ; tail even or slightly rounded ; crown without crest, but 
on each side of occiput an erectile, narrow, horn-like tuft of lengthened 
black feathers; plumage of adult with plain brownish or vinaceous tints pre- 
vaihng above, the lower parts mainly plain white, the head and chest with 
bold black markings (less conspicuous in females)... Otocoris. (Page 347.) 

Genus ALAUDA Linn^us. (Page 346, pi. XCVI., fig. 1.) 

Species. 

Common Characters.— vlfZuZ^s : Above light brownish, everywhere streaked 
with black, most broadly on back ; wings dusky, the feathers with pale brownish 
edges and borders ; lower parts and superciliary stripe whitish, the chest pale 
brownish or tawny buff, distinctly streaked with brownish black ; sides and flanks 
also tinged with pale tawny, and usually more or less distinctly, but narrowly, 
streaked with deeper brownish or dusky ; ear-coverts light brownish or tawny, 
becoming darker (sometimes blackish) along upper margin; outer tail-feathers 
white, with more or less of dusky along edge of inner web, especially toward base. 
In winter, the plumage generally more tawny, and feathers of crown, back, etc., 
with more or less distinct whitish terminal margins. Yoxing : More tawny than 
winter adults, with more conspicuous white terminal margins to feathers of upper 
parts, which instead of having a mesial blackish streak are marked with a sub- 
terminal spot of dark brown ; "tertials light tawny brownish, widely bordered with 



OTOCORIS. 347 

pale dull buffj, surrounding a narrow submargin of dark brown ; chest oehra- 
ceous-buffy, indistinctly sti-eaked or spotted with bright tawny brownish. Nest on 
ground in meadows or open grassy places. Eggs 3-6, dull buffy whitish, pale 
grayish brown, etc., thickly speckled or sprinkled with umber-brown, the latter 
color sometimes nearly uniform. 

a}. Duller or grayer in color, the upper parts, chest, etc., with tawny tinge less 
pronounced, black spots or streaks on back averaging narrower, and bill 
shorter ; length about 7.00-7.75, wing 4.35-4.60, tail 2.90-3.10, exposed cul- 
men .45-.50, tarsus .90-1.00. Eggs .90 X -61. Hab. Europe and portions of 
Asia and Africa ; accidental in Greenland and Bermudas, and introduced, 
though not successfully naturalized, in eastern United States (Long Island, 
near Cincinnati, etc.) 473. A. arvensis Linn. Skylark. 

a*. Brighter or more tawny in color, black spots on back averaging larger, and bill 
longer; length 6.80-7.80 (7.30), wing 4.25-4.70, tail 2.85-3.00, exposed cul- 
men .43-52, tarsus .95-1.10. Hah. Commander Islands, Kamtschatka, Kurils, 
and northern Japan ; western Aleutians (?). 

A. blakistoni Stejn. Kamtschatkan Skylark.^ 

Genus OTOCORIS Bonaparte. (Page 346, pi. XCVL, fig. 2.) 

Species. 

Common Characters. — Adult males in spring and summer : Above varying from 
vinaceous-gray to tawny cinnamon, the back and scapulars grayer or bi'owner, and 
more or less distinctly streaked with darker ; a broad patch covering fore-part and 
sides of crown, lores, patch beneath eye (covering also anterior and lower portion 
of ear-coverts), and patch across chest, uniform black ; bar or band across forehead 
and extending backward as a broad superciliary stripe, middle portion of ear- 
coverts, malar region, chin, throat, and sides of neck, varying from pure white to 
deep primrose-yellow, the hinder portion of ear-coverts more or less distinctly gray- 
ish ; sides (especially of breast) vinaceous or cinnamon, like nape, etc., the flanks 
usually somewhat streaked ; rest of lower parts usually white, but sometimes (in 
0. giraudi and 0. strigata") pai'tly or even wholly pale yellow ; wings (except lesser 
and middle coverts) grayish brown, the feathers edged with paler; tail (except 
middle feathers) black, the outer web of exterior feather chiefly white, and that of 
next feather edged, toward tip, with same. Adidt males in fall and winter : Essen- 
tially like the foregoing, but black markings of head more or less obscured by 
light-colored tips to feathers, the plumage generally softer and colors more blended, 
the chest often streaked, clouded, or washed with grayish. Adult females: Similar 
to males, but decidedly smaller, with black head-markings much less distinct (that 
on top of head never well defined or continuous), the bold pattern of these mark- 
ings as seen in the male seldom more than merely indicated ; vinaceous or cinnamon 
tints of males much less pronounced (sometimes almost wholly wanting), and 
plumage generally more extensively streaked. (Seasonal differences as in males.) 

1 Alauda blakistoni Stej.v., Proc. Biol. Soc. AVasli. ii. Apr. 10, 1834, 98. 



348 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

Young : Above mixed dusky and light brownish (in variable relative quantity), 
conspicuously speckled or dotted with white or pale buffy ; wing-coverts conspicu- 
ously margined with pale dull buffy ; lower parts whitish, the chest more or less 
tinged with pale brownish buff and speckled or clouded with dusky ; no distinct 
head " pattern." Nest composed of fine dried grass-stems, etc., embedded in ground, 
under shelter of tussock of grass, a stone, etc. Eggs 3-5, pale olive, pale dull 
buffy, dull olive-whitish, etc., finely but usuall}^ densely speckled or sprinkled with 
olive-brown (rarely, pale cinnamon-buff, speckled with cinnamon-rusty). 

a}. Wing of male averaging more than 4.40, that of female averaging 4.12, or more. 
¥. Darker, the hind-neck, rump, etc., deeper vinaceous-einnamon, the throat 
and superciliary stripe usually deep primrose-yellow. Young with sooty 
blackish prevailing on upper parts, the chest and sides distinctly tinged 
with brownish buff and speckled or mottled with dusky. Male: Length 
about 7.50-8.00, wing 4.20-4.60 (4.41), tail 2.70-3.10 (2.98). Female: 
Wing 3.95-4.55 (4.19), tail 2.50-3.10 (2.78). Hah. Northeastern North 
America (region about Hudson's Bay, including Labrador), Greenland, 
and northern Europe ; in winter, south to the Carolinas, Illinois, etc. 

474. O. alpestris (Linn.). Horned Lark. 
}/. Paler, the hind-neck, rump, etc., lighter, more ashy, or lilaceous, vinaceous, 
the throat usually white or but faintly j^ellowish, the superciliary stripe 
pure white. ( Young unknown.) Male : Length about 7.50-8.00, wing 
4.30-4.65 (4.43), tail 2.85-3.20 (3.10). Female: Wing 4.00-4.20 (4.12), 
tail 2.60-2.80 (2.73). Eggs .91 X -65. Hah. Northwestern North 
America, breeding from Alaska southward, east of Eocky Mountains, 
nearly to United States boundary ; in winter, south over more northern 
Great Plains and Great Basin of United States, as far as Kansas, Utah, 
and Nevada. 

474rt.^O. alpestris leucolsema (Coues). Pallid Horned Lark. 
a^. Wins; averao-inff less than 4.20 in males, less than 4.00 in females. 

¥. Wino; avera'nno; more than 4.10 in males, more than 3.80 in females. 

c^ Dark-colored, as in O. alpestris (but rather paler), with young very dark, 
as in that form. Male: Length about 7.00-7.50, wing 4.00-4.30 
(4.13), tail 2.90-3.10 (2.99). Female: Length 6.75-6.85, wing 3.70- 
4.00 (3.84), tail 2.60-2.90 (2.73). Eggs .85 X -62. Hah. Upper Mis- 
sissippi Valley and region of the Great Lakes (especially within 
United States), east, locally, to New York ; south, in winter, to 
Virginia and northeastern Texas. 

474;>. O. alpestris praticola (Hensh.). Prairie Horned Lark. 
cl Paler colored, like 0. leucolcema, but with throat usually distinctly (some- 
times strongly) primrose-yellow. Young very pale-colored, with 
prevailing color of upper parts light grayish buff, or pale buffy gray- 
ish. Male: Length 7.00-7.50, wing 4.05-4.30 (4.16), tail 2.75-3.15 
(2.99). Female : Length about 6.50-6.75, wing 3.70-4.00 (3.84), tail 
2.50-2.80 (2.68). Eggs .86 X -60. Hab. Great Plains and Eocky 



OTOCORIS. 349 

Mountain district (including Great Basin) of United States, south 
to New Mexico and northern Arizona. 

474c. O. alpestris arenicola Hensii. Desert Horned Lark. 
Wing averaging less than 4.00 in adult males, less than 3.80 in females, 
c'. Back not broadly or conspicuously streaked with dusky, and median 
lower parts never wholly pale yellowish. 
d}. General aspect of ujiper parts grayish (decidedly so in female) ; 
male with breast, as well as throat, superciliaiy stripe, etc., 
usually pale yellow, the breast usually flecked with grayish 
brown in both sexes. Male : Length about 6.50-6.75, wing 
3.80-3.85 (3.83), tail 2.60. Female: Length about 5.80-6.00, 
wing about 3.50, tail 2.35. Hab. Eastern and southeastern 
Texas. 

474(i. O. alpestris giraudi Hensh. Texan Horned Lark. 
(P. General aspect of upper parts decidedly ruddy (more brownish in 
female) ; breast usually pure white, without markings, in both 
sexes. 
e^. Larger and less brightly colored, the male with hind-neck, 
rump, etc., vinaceous-cinnamon. Male : Length about 
6.75-7.25, wing 3.80-4.15 (3.99), tail 2.80-3.00 (2.91). Fe- 
male: Length about 6.50-7.00, wing 3.75-3.80 (3.78), tail 
2.70-2.80 (2.75). Hab. Table-lands of Mexico, north to 
southern New Mexico and Arizona, and westward across 

southern California to the coast 4746'. O. alpestris 

chrysolaema (Wagl.). Mexican Horned Lark. 
e*. Smaller and brighter colored, the male with hind-neck, rump, 
etc., rich tawny cinnamon. Male : Length about 6.50-7.00, 
wing 3.70-4.10 (3.88), tail 2.60-2.90 (2.74). Female : Length 
about 6.00-6.50, wing 3.50-3.70 (3.61), tail 2.35-2.65 (2.49). 
Fggs .80 X -59. JIab. Interior valleys of California. 

474/. O. alpestris rubea Hensh. Ruddy Horned Lark. 
c". Back broadly and conspicuously streaked or striped with (fusky, and 
median lower parts usually partlj^, sometimes wholly, pale yellow. 
Otherwise much like 0. rubea, but dull olive-brown or grayish 
brown ground-color of back and scapulars much more strongly 
contrasted with vinaceous-cinnamon of hind-neck, rump, etc., 
the female with upper parts more olivaceous and much more 
shai'ply and conspicuously streaked. Male : Length about 
6.75-7.25, wing 3.70-4.10 (3.94), tail 2.70-3 05 (2.88). Female: 
Length about 6.25-6.50, wing 3.60-3.85 (3.69), tail 2.50-2.80 
(2.62). Hab, Coast district of Oregon, Washington Territory, 
and British Columbia; south, in winter, to portions of Cali- 
fornia and western Nevada 474^. O. alpestris strigata 

Hensh. Streaked Horned Lark. 



550 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 



Family CORVID^.— The Crows, Jays, Magpies, etc. (Page 322.) 

Genera. 

'}. Tail equal to or longer than wing ; wing short, rounded, the primaries exceed- 
ing secondaries by much less than length of tarsus, the fourth, fifth, or sixth 
quills longest. (Subfamily Garrulince.) 
h^. Tail much longer than wing, graduated for half its length or more, the 
feathers becoming narrower toward tips. 
&. Nostrils covered by bristles ; head not crested ; orbits partl}^ naked ; 
wings and tail metallic bluish and greenish, the latter without 

white tips ; scapulars pure white Pica. (Page 351.) 

c^ Nostrils exposed ; head conspicuously crested ; orbits entirely feath- 
ered ; wings and tail plain cobalt-blue, the latter with broad white 

tips; scapulars blue, like back, etc Calocitta.^ 

V^. Tail not much longer than wing, not graduated for more than about one- 
third its length (usually much less), the feathers not becoming narrower 
toward tips. 
&. Head, neck, and chest uniform deep black; back glossy bright blue, in 

abrupt contrast with the black Glssolopha.^ 

&. Head, neck, and chest not uniform deep black, or else top of head con- 
spicuously crested ; back not bright blue, or else top of head same 
color. 
d^. Nostrils exposed ; large (wing more than 7.25, tail more than 
7.50). (Color chiefly dull brownish.) 

Psilorhinus. (Page 352.) 
d}. Nostrils covered ; smaller (wing less than 7.00, tail less than 7.00). 
&. Color chiefly blue or green. 



1 Calocitta Gray, List Gen. B. 1841, 50. Type, Pica formosa Swains. 

This genus contains two well-known species, one, C. colliei (Vic), belonging to western Mexico (north 
to Mazatlan), the other, C. formosa (Swains.), inhabiting southern Mexico, and southward to Costa Rica. A 
third species probably exists in the wooded districts in the interior of Lower California. C. coUlei is perhaps 
the finest of all Garrulinc birds, measuring two to two and a half feet in total length (of which the tail consti- 
tutes about two-thirds) ; the colors are bright and boldly contrasted, while the crown is ornamented by a very 
conspicuous recurved crest. 

2 Cissolopha BoNAP., Consp. i. 1850, .'^SO. Type, Pi'ca gnnhlasinna Lafr. 

This genus includes two very beautiful species which come close to our limits, both occurring in the state 
of Sinaloa, western Mexico. The type of the genus, C. snnhlnsiana, has the head, neck, upper back, and lower 
parts uniform deep black, changing to dull blue on under tail-coverts, the upper parts bright cobalt- or azure- 
blue, becoming ultramarine blue on the tail ; on the forehead there is a slender, hair-like crest, and the nostrils 
are partly— sometimes wholly— exposed ; bill and feet usually "deep black, sometimes bright yellow ; length 
about 12.00, wing 5.2.5-5.50, tail 6.00-6.50. Hab. Western Mexico, north at least to Mazatlan. 0. beecheii 
{Pica beecheii ViG., Zool. Jour. iv. 1828. ^h?i) is a larger and still finer species, of similar coloration, but with 
the blue of a rich smalt shade; it lacks the frontal crest and has the nostrils completely covered, and may pos- 
sibly require generic or subgeneric separation from Cis%olophn ; length about 15.00-19.00, wing 7.00, tail 7.50- 
8.50. Hab. Western Mexico (vicinity of Mazatlan, and on Tres Marias). 



PICA. 351 

p. Color chiefly blue. 

g^. Head with conspicuous crest. 

Cyanocitta. (Page 353.) 

g'\ Head without crest Aphelocoma. (Page 355.) 

/-. Color chiefly green, with outer tail-feathers yellow. 

Xanthoura. (Page 358.) 

e^ Color dull slaty or grayish above, dull graj'ish or brownish 

beneath, the head partly white in adults. ( Yoting wholly 

dusky.) Perisoreus. (Page 358.) 

a^. Tail much shorter than wing; wing long and pointed, the primaries exceeding 
longest secondaries by more than the length of the tarsus, the third, fourth, 
and fifth quills longest. (Subfamily Corvince.) 
b^. Wing 9.00, or more ; plumage entirely glossy black (in North American 
species) ; bill compressed, much higher than broad. 

Corvus. (Page 360.) 

b^. Wing less than 9.00 ; plumage mainly grayish or blue ; bill cylindrical, 

scarcely or not at all higher than broad. 

c\ Kostrils concealed by an antrorse tuft of feathera ; color ash-gray, with 

black on wings and tail, the latter mainl}- white, and secondaries 

broadly tipped with white Picicorvus. (Page 364.) 

c^. Nostrils wholly exposed ; color uniform dull blue, brighter on head. 

Cyanocephalus. (Page 364.) 

Genus PICA Cuvier. (Page 350, pi. XCVIIL, fig. 2.) 

Species. 

Common Characters. — "Wings metallic greenish blue, varied with greenish or 
violet (sometimes both), the inner webs of quills chiefly white ; tail rich metallic 
green varied with brOnze, purple, and violet near end ; scapulars, belly, sides, and 
flanks pure white ; other parts blackish. Adult : Head, neck, breast, back, tail- 
coverts, and thighs deep black, the top of the head more or less distinctly glossed 
with metallic greenish or bronzy. Young : Head, neck, etc., dull black, without 
metallic gloss on crown. West of coarse, often thorny, sticks, lined with finer 
twigs and rootlets, and protected by a loose canopy of coarse, often thorny, twigs, 
the entrance through the latter on one side. Eggs 3-10, pale olive-buffy, dull 
white, or very pale greenish, thickly speckled, clouded, sprinkled, or dashed with 
brown. 

a^. Bill deep black, and naked skin of orbital region blackish. 

6\ Feathers of throat without white beneath surface ; wing 6.90-7.55 (7.24), 
tail 8.40-10.30 (9.36), exposed culmen 1.10-1.25 (1.21), tarsus 1.57-1.80 
(1.68). Hab. Noi'thern and central Europe. 

P. pica (LixN.). Magpie.^ 

1 Corvus pica Lixx., S. N. ed. 10, i. 1758, 106. Pica pica Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. iii. 1877, 62. 



353 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

¥. Feathers of throat spotted with white beneath surface ; averaging larger, 
the bill especially; iris with an outer ring of grayish blue; length (fresh) 
17.40-21.75, wing 7.30-8.40 (7.93), tail 9.30-11.95 (10.65), exposed cul- 
men 1.15-1.42 (1.26), tarsus 1.70-1.92 (1.82). Eggs 1.30 X -91. Hah. 
"Western North America (except California), from New Mexico and 
Arizona to Alaska, east to Eocky Mountains (casually to Michigan 
and northern Illinois?). 

475. P. pica hudsonica (Sab.). American Magpie. 
rt^ Bill and naked skin of orbital region bright yellow. 

Othei'wise like P. hudsonica, but averaging decidedly smaller ; length 
about 16.00-18.00, wing 7.20-7.70 (7.38), tail 9.30-10.30 (9.68), exposed 
culmen 1.04-1.17 (1.11), tarsus 1.63-1.89 (1.82). Eggs 1.23 X -87. Hah. 
California 476. P. nuttalli Aud. Yellow-billed Magpie. 

Genus PSILORHINUS EOppell.' (Page 350, pi. XCYII., fig. 2.) 

Species. 

Common Characters. — Above uniform brown, darker on head, and becoming 
grayish on tail ; chin, throat, and chest uniform brown, the remaining lower parts 
varying from pale brown to white. 

a}. No white on tail. 

Adult: Head, neck, and chest uniform dark brown, gradually changing 
into a lighter shade of the same on upper parts, and into still paler 
grayish brown, brownish gi'ay, or isabella-color (rarely whitish) on 
lower parts; bill , and feet varying from black to yellow. Young: 
Scarcely different from adult, except in texture of plumage. Length 
about 16.00-18.00, wing 8.00-8.50, tail 8.25-9.30. Hah. Eastern Mexico, 
north to the Eio G-rande Yalley, south to Tehuantepec. 

P. morio (Wagl.). Brown Jay.' 
a^. Tail-feathers, except middle pair, broadly tipped with white. 

h^. A distinct malar patch of light bluish gray; belly and under tail-coverts 
whitish; length about 16.00-18.00, wing 7.60-8.40, tail 8.50-8.90. Hah. 
Eastern Mexico (Mirador) and coast of Honduras (Pearl Bay, Mosquito 

coast). 

P. cyanogenys Gray. Blue-cheeked Brown Jay.' 

h"^. No grayish blue malar patch ; otherwise like P. cyanogenys ; length about 
15.00-16.00, wing 7.30-8.20, tail 7.60-8.80. Hah. Southern Mexico to 

Costa Eica. 

P. mexicanus KtJPP. White-tailed Brown Jay.* 

1 Psilorhinus Rijpp., Mvis. Senckenb. 1837, 188. Type, P. mexicanus Rtfpp. 

2 Pica morio Wagl., Isis, 1829, 751. Psilorhinus morio Gray, Gen. B. ii. 1849, 308. 

3 Psilorhinua cyanotjenys Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. ill. 1877, 140, pi. 9 {ex Gray, Hand-list, ii. p. 6, descr. 
nulla). 

* Psilorhinus mexicanus RUpp., Mus. Senckenb. 1837, 189, pi. 11, fig. 2. 



CYANOCITTA. 353 

Genus CYANOCITTA Strickland. (Page 351, pi. C, fig. 1.) 

Species. 

Common Characters. — Upper parts mainly blue, the secondaries and tail 
(sometimes greater coverts also) barred with black; head black or varied with 
black ; lower parts uniform blue, or whitish with a black collar across chest. 

rt'. Lower parts whitish ; greater wing-coverts, secondaries, and tail-feathers (ex- 
cept middle pair) broadly tipped with white. (^Adidt : Crest and back light 
purplish blue; wings and tail bright cobalt-blue, the greater coverts, sec- 
ondaries, and tail barred with black; sides of head, chin, and throat purplish 
whitish, bordered posteriorly by a black collar, commencing under the crest, 
widening into a crescent across chest, and sending forward a streak to the 
eye ; lores and narrow frontal band also black ; breast and sides smoky 
grayish, belly and under tail-coverts white. Young: Similai', but colors 
duller and less sharply contrasted.) 
&\ Larger, with more white on tips of secondaries and tail-feathers (on outer 
tail-feather 1.00, or more, in extent) ; length 11.00-12.50, wing 5.00-5.70 
(5.28), tail 5.05-5.70 (5.36), exposed culmen .93-1.06 (1.00), tarsus 1.24- 
1.45 (1.37). JVest of dried twigs, rootlets, etc., built usualh^ in trees, often 
in orchards or about houses, ^ggs pale olive, isabella-color, greenish, or 
buffy, rather sparsely spotted or speckled with brown. Hab. Eastern 
North America, except Florida, north to Fur Countries, west to Great 

Plains 477. C. cristata (Linn.). Blue Jay. 

b^. Smaller, with less white on tips of secondaries and tail-feathers (that on 
outer tail-feather less than 1.00 in extent) ; length 10.00-11.50, wing 4.80- 
5.30 (5.02), tail 4.80-5.50 (5.08), culmen .93-1.03 (.98), tarsus 1.26-1.42 
(1.34). Hab. Florida. 

477a. C. cristata florincola Coues. Florida Blue Jay. 
al Lower parts blue ; wing and tail without any white. 
b\ No whitish spot over eye. 

c\ Head (including crest), neck, and back deep black, or brownish black, 
the forehead not conspicuously (often not at all) streaked on fore- 
head with blue ; blue of secondaries and tail a deep Berlin-blue shade, 
that of rump and lower parts paler ; length about 12.00-13.00, wing 
5.55-6.20 (5.86), tail 5.30-6.35 (5.74), culmen .96-1.18 (1.09), tarsus 
1.55-1.81 (1.72). Nest in coniferous trees. Eggs 3-5, 1.30 X -90, usu- 
ally pale bluish green, speckled with clove-brown, sometimes pale 
greenish gray, speckled with reddish brown. Hab. Northwest 
coast, north to Sitka, south to northern California (on coast only). 

478. C. stelleri (Gmel.). Steller's Jay. 

c^. Head, neck, and back brownish slaty, the crest more or less strongly 

tinged with blue, and forehead conspicuously streaked with the 

same ; blue of secondaries and tail much lighter (deep azure), that 

45 



354 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

of rump and lower parts a dull turquoise tint; length 11.75-13.00, 
wing 5.50-G.lO (5.67), tail 5.10-5.75 (5.41), exposed culmen 1.00-1.20 
(1.07), tarsus 1.53-1.73 (1.G4). Nest in coniferous trees (often in 
holes), 10 to 50 or more feet from ground, bulky, " made loosely of 
sticks, stems of weeds, and lined with fibrous rootlets and grasses." 
Eggs 3-4, 1.19 X -67, "light blue, speckled and spotted with dark 
brown." (Goss.) Hob. Sierra Nevada (both slopes) from Fort 
Crook to Fort Tejon ; southern coast ranges of California (?). 

478a. C. stelleri frontalis (Eidgw.). Blue-fronted Jay. 
6^ A whitish spot over eye. 

c\ Head and fore-neck black. 

d}. White spot over eye smaller (sometimes indistinct) ; streaks on 
forehead light blue, sometimes indistinct. 

Back dusky, and blue very deep, as in C. stelleri; length 
about 12.50-13.75, wing 5.90-6.60 (6.14), tail 5.80-6.65 
(6.07), exposed culmen .97-1.08 (1.01), tarsus 1.60-1.68 
(1.66). Hab. Northern Eocky Mountains, south to Wah- 
satch range (near Provo, Utah), west to eastern Oregon 
and Washington Territory. 

— . C. stelleri annectens (Baird). Black-headed Jay.^ 

(P. White spot over eye very conspicuous, never indistinct ; streaks on 

forehead bluish white, or pure white. 

e\ Chest dull smoky bluish ; blue of rump and lower parts a light 

dull turquoise hue (as in G. frontalis) ; length about 11.75- 

13.75, wing 5.65-6.40 (5.93), tail 5.25-6.25 (5.72), exposed 

culmen 1.03-1.14 (1.07), tarsus 1.57-1.72 (1.65). Nest in 

trees (usually conifers). Eggs 3-6, 1.25 X -86, colored like 

those of C. stelleri. Hab. Southern Eocky Mountains, north 

to southern Wyoming, west to Uintah Mountains, Utah and 

higher mountains of Arizona, south to northern Mexico. 

4786. C. stelleri macrolopha (Baird). Long-crested Jay. 

e^. Chest deep blue; blue of rump and lower parts of a greenish 

azure hue ; otherwise similar to C. macrolopha, but back 

darker, more tinged with blue, and size somewhat smaller; 

wing 5.55-6.00 (5.82), tail 5.45-5.75 (5.59), exposed culmen 

1.00-1.12 (1.06), tarsus 1.63-1.76 (1.70). Hab. Highlands 

of central Mexico, east to Mirador. 

C. stelleri diademata (Bonap.). Diademed Jay.* 

c^ Head (except on sides) and fore-neck deep blue. Plumage entii-ely 

blue, except sides of head, the lores, nasal tufts, and postocular 



1 ICyanoura stelleri] var. annectena Baird, in Hist. N. Am. B. ii. 1874, 281 (in text). Cyanocitta stelleri 
annectens Ridgw., Norn. N. Am. B. 1881, No. 2905. 

* Cyanogarrulus diadematus Bonap., Consp. i. 1850, 377. Cyanocitta diademata ScL., Cat. Am. B. ISfil, 
143. 



APHELOCOMA. 355 

region deep black ; white spot above eye larger than in other 
forms ; wing 5.50-5.95 (5.73), tail 5.00-5.75 (5.57), exposed culmen 
.97-1.07 (1.02), tarsus 1.60-1.72 (1.67). Hah. Portions of southern 
Mexico (Mirador, Orizaba, Xalapa, near city of Mexico, Oaxaca, 
Sierra Madre of Colima, etc.) and south to Guatemala and Honduras. 

C. stelleri coronata (Swains.). Coronated Jay.^ 

Genus APHELOCOMA Cabanis. (Page 351, pi. C, fig. 2.) 

Species. 

Lower parts chiefly light grayish or whitish. 
h^. Tail longer than wing. 

c^ Forehead and nasal tufts hoary whitish. 

Adult : Head, neck, chest, wings, rump, upper tail-coverts, tail, 
and under tail-coverts dull azure-blue ; forehead, nasal tufts, 
and superciliary region pale hoary grayish blue; back and 
scapulars light brownish gray; chin and throat light ash- 
gray, or grayish white, finely streaked with darker, the ash- 
gray continued in broad stripes on chest ; rest of lower parts 
light brownish gray ; length 10.50-12.50, wing 4.25-4.50 (4.40), 
tail 5.30-5.90 (5.73), culmen .90-.99 (.94), tarsus 1.35-1.60 
(1.47). Nest of twigs, rootlets, etc., in thickets or low trees. 
Eggs 1.13 X -79, pale greenish, spotted with pale reddish brown 
or rusty. Hab. Florida. 

479. A. floridana (Bartr.). Florida Jay. 
c'. Forehead and nasal tufts bright blue, like crown. 

d}. Lower tail-coverts bright blue, markedly different from color of 
belly. 
e\ Back and scapulars dull slaty grayish, tinged with blue ; breast, 
sides, and flanks light ash-gray; blue of upper parts, etc., 
a light dull azure hue ; length 11.50-12.75, wing 4.70-5.35 
(5.02), tail 5.20-6.20 (5.68), culmen .93-1.06 (1.01), tarsus 
1.45-1.59 (1.55). Nest in thickets or low trees. Eggs 3-6, 
1.10 X .79, pale green, pale greenish buff, or pale grayish 
green, rather sparsely marked with very distinct dots or 
small spots of deep madder-brown. Hah. Middle Province 
of United States, north to eastern Oregon, Idaho, Montana, 
and "Wyoming, west to western Nevada and Arizona, east 
to Coloi-ado and New Mexico, and south into northwestern 
Mexico.. 480. A. woodhousei (Baird). Woodhouse's Jay. 
e^. Back and scapulars dark sepia-brown, without blue tiuge; 
breast, sides, and flanks brownish white, or very pale 



1 Garruhis coronatus SwAiNS., Philos. Mag. i. 1827, 437. Cyanocitta coronata Strickl., Ann. N. H. 1845, 
261. 



356 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

brownish gray; blue of upper parts, etc., a very deep 
azure — almost Berlin-blue — shade; length about 11.50- 
12.25, wing 5.20-5.30 (5.27), tail 6.05-6.25 (6.15), culmen 
1.15-1.30 (1.22), tarsus 1.70-1.80 (1.75). Hah. Santa Cruz 
Island, southern California. 

— . A. insularis Hensh. Santa Cruz Jay.^ 
d}. Lower tail-coverts white, or else very slightly tinged with blue. 
e^. Sides of head blackish, with little, if any, blue tinge ; breast 
grayish white or very pale grayish, like belly ; back and 
scapulars brownish gray, without blue tinge. 
p. Sides of chest bright blue, the middle portion streaked 
with blue ; white superciliary stripe very distinct. 
g^. Larger, with smaller bill and feet, the blue darker, 
the lower parts less purely white ; length about 
11.50-12.25, wing 4.70-5.20 (4.93), tair5.45-6.10 
(5.71), culmen .87-1.03 (.96), tarsus 1.50-1.94 
(1.62). Nest in thickets or low trees. Eggs 3-6, 
1.13 X -81, pure bluish green, speckled with clove- 
brown ; dull greenish white, speckled or spotted 
with chestnut, or light buffy spotted with rusty 
brown and lilac-gray. Hah. Pacific coast of United 
States, from southern California to Oregon, east to 
western Nevada. 

481. A. californica (Ym.). California Jay. 
g'^. Smaller, with larger bill and feet, the blue lighter, the 
lower parts more purely white; length 11.50-12.00, 
wing 4.55-5.00 (4.63), tail 5.20-5.80 (5.53), culmen 
.94-1.07 (1.03), tarsus 1.43-1.60 (1.50). Hab. Lower 
California (vicinity of Cape St. Lucas). — A. cali- 
fornica hypoleuca Eidgw. Xantus's Jay.* 
p. Sides of chest dull brownish gray, the middle portion 
dull white, streaked with brownish gray or light 
grayish brown ; white superciliary stripe less distinct 
(though always apparent). 

Otherwise scarcely different in color from A. cali- 
fornica ; length (skins) about 11.00-11.50, wing 
5.40-5.55 (5.48), tail 5.95-6.10 (6.00), culmen .98- 
1.01 (1.00), tarsus 1.60. Hab. Southern Mexico 
(Orizaba, Oaxaca, Atlisco, etc.). 

A. sumichrasti (Ridgw.). Sumichrast's Jay.^ 



1 Apheloeoma insularis Hensh., Auk, iii. Oct. 1886, 452. 

2 New subspecies ; based on many specimens from Capo St. Lucas, La Paz, and contiguous localities, collected 
by J. Xantus and L. Belding. 

S Gyanocitta californica var. sumichrasti Eidgw., in Hist. N. Am. B. ii. 1874, 283. Apheloeoma sumichrasti 
Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. iii. 1877, 114. 



APHELOCOMA. 357 

e^ Sides of head uniform bright blue, like crown, etc. ; breast 
deep brownish gray, changing rather abruptly to pure 
white on belly and lower tail-coverts ; back and scapulars 
dark slaty gray, strongly tinged with blue. 

Adult : Chest light grayish blue, broadly streaked with 
white (as in A. calif ornica) ; superciliary streak very 
indistinct, or obsolete ; length (skin) about 11.50, wing 
5.40, tail 5.70, exposed culmen .95, tarsus 1.60. Hab. 
" Mexico" (locality unknown). 

A. cyanotis Ridgw. Blue-eared Jay.' 

b\ Tail shorter than wings. 
c\ Tail 5.50, or less. 

Adult : Above bright light azure-blue, including whole side of 
head, down to throat, the back and scapulars dull grayish blue, 
or plumbeous ; chin and throat dull white, deepening into dull 
light brownish gray on breast, this again fading into pure 
white on lower belly and under tail-coverts; length (fresh) 
11.50, wing 5.80-5.90, tail 5.30-5.40 (graduated for only about 
.30), culmen 1.05-1.10, tarsus 1.60. Hab. Lower Eio Grande 

Valley, and southward. 

A. couchi (Baird). Couch's Jay.'* 

c^ Tail more than 5.50. 

d^. Tail even, or very slightly rounded. 

Colors of A. couchi ; length 13.00, tail 7.00. Hab. " Mexico." 
A. ultramarina (Bonap.). Ultramarine Jay.^ 

d^. Tail decidedly rounded. 

e^. Colors of A. couchi, but rather paler above, the chest rather 
more decidedly ashy, and throat more grayish; length 
about 11.50-13.00, wing 6.10-6.50 (6.34), tail 5.65-6.10 
(5.80), graduated for .50-.60, culmen 1.00-1.08 (1.02), tarsus 
1.58-1.66 (1.60). Nest a loose, frail structure of dry twigs 
and rootlets, built in small trees. Eggs 2-5, 1.17 X -84, plain 
greenish blue, very similar in color to those of the Eobin 
{Merula migratoria). Hab. Northwestern Mexico, and con- 
tiguous portions of Arizona and New Mexico. 

482. A. sieberii arizonae Eidgw. Arizona Jay. 

e'. Colors much darker and brighter than in A. arizoncB, the back 

more or less strongly tinged with azure-blue (sometimes 

almost uniform with head, etc.) ; length about 11.50-13.00, 

wing 6.70-7.40 (7.06), tail 6.30-6.75 (6.58), culmen 1.00-1.08 



1 New species ; type, No. 8465, U. S. Nat. Mus. ; " John Taylor, Esq., Mexico, Sept. 1836." 
« Cyanocilta couchi Baird, B. N. Am. 1858, 688 ; ed. 18G0, pi. 60, fig. 2. Aphelocoma couchi Sharpe, Cat. 
B. Brit. Mus. iii. 1877, 116. 

3 Corvus nltramarinus BoNAP., Jour. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phil. 8vo, iv. 1825, 387. Aphelocoma ultramarina 

Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. iii. 1877, 115. 



358 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

(1.02), tarsus 1.58-1.66 (1.60). Hah. Southern Mexico 
(Vera Cruz and southward). 

A, sieberii (Wagl.). Sieber's Jay.i 
a^. Lower parts entirely uniform rich blue, like upper parts. 

Plumage entirely uniform rich azure-blue, except lores, which are deep 
black, and under surface of wings and tail, which are dull black ; size of 
A. sieberii. Sab. Highlands of Guatemala and southern Mexico. 

A. unicolor (Du Bus). Unicolored Jay.' 



Genus XANTHOURA Bonaparte. (Page 351, pi. XCIX., fig. 3.) 

Species. 

Common Characters. — Adults uniform bright green above, becoming more 
bluish toward tips of middle tail-feathers ; nasal tufts, triangular patch covering 
anterior portion of malar region (reaching uj)ward to eye), and whole top of head 
(except anteriorly), rich campanula-blue ; anterior part of forehead white, changing 
gradually into blue of crown ; tail, except four middle feathers, pure primrose-yel- 
low ; sides of head (except as described above), chin, throat, and chest, uniform deep 
black, with abrupt semicircular outline against breast ; rest of under parts light 
green or j^ellow. Young: Similar to adult, but colors duller, the blue of crown 
tinged with green, white of forehead stained with, or replaced by, yellow, black of 
head much duller, and lower parts pale creamy yellow. 

a^ Lower parts pale verdigris-gi'cen, more or less tinged, especially beneath sur- 
face, with pale primrose-yellow; length 11.00-12.00, wing 4.40-4.80, tail 5.10- 
5.80. JVest in small, usually thorny, trees or in thickets. Eggs 2-4, 1.08 X 
.79, pale buff or pale grayish buff, thickly speckled with umber-brown, Hab. 
Eastern Mexico, north to lower Eio Grande Yalley in Texas, south to Vera 
Cruz and Puebla 483. X. luxuosa (Less.). Green Jay. 

a^. Lower parts chiefly or entirely primrose-yellow ; otherwise like Jl. luxuosa. 
Hab. Southern Mexico (Colima, Tehuantepec, etc.), Yucatan, and Guate- 
mala. 

X. luxuosa cyanocapilla (Cab.). Yellow-bellied Green Jay.' 

Genus PERISOREUS Bonaparte. (Page 351, pi. XCVL, fig. 3.) 

Species. 

Common Characters. — Adults with forehead, nasal tufts, sides of head, throat, 
and chest white, or whitish ; occiput (sometimes nearly whole top of head) grayish, 
dusky, or blackish ; upper parts uniform dusky grayish or brownish, the tail-feathers 

1 Pica sieberii Wagl., Syst. Av. 1827, Pica, sp. 23. Aphelocomn sieheri Cab., Mus. Hein. i. 1851, 221. 

2 Cynnocorax unicolor Du Bus, Bull. Ac. Roy. Brux. xiv. pt. 2, 1847, 103. Aphelocoma nnicolor Sharpk, 
Cat. B. Brit. Mus. iii. 1877, 118. 

* Cynnocorax cyanocapillits Cab. in Tschudi Fauna Per. 1844—46, 233. Xanthura cyanocapilla Sharpe, 
Cat. B. Brit. Mus. iii. 1877, 131. 



PERISOREUS. 359 

indistinctly (though sometimes broadlj-) tipped with whitish ; lower parts plain 
grayish or whitish. Young, entirely plain dusky, varjang from a slaty to a brown- 
ish tint. JSfest in coniferous trees, bulky, composed of dried twigs, shreds of bark, 
etc, lined with softer materials. IJggs 2-5, with pale ground-color (often dull 
whitish) speckled with brown and i^urplish gray. 

a\ Feathers of back without distinct paler shaft-streaks ; breast, belly, sides, and 
flanks grayish, much darker than throat and chest. 
b^. Adult with whole occiput and hinder part of crown (sometimes whole 
crown) blackish or dusky grayish, this touching (sometimes surround- 
ing) the eye ; young with top of head uniform dusky, like back. 
d. Blackish of hood scarcely bordering eye underneath ; occiput dull sooty 
blackish, or dark sooty slate, the white on forehead usually extend- 
ing back to or beyond posterior border of eye. 

Breast, etc., light brownish gray, always much paler than back. 
Young, uniform sooty slate, with nasal tufts, lores, and chin 
deep black ; a whitish rictal stripe (usually indistinct). Length 
11.00-12.10, wing 5.60-5.90 (5.75), tail 5.65-6.35 (6.00), culmen 
.95-1.08 (1.00), tarsus 1.33-1.47 (1.39). Eggs 1.12 X -81, dull 
white, drab-white, or ver}^ pale grayish buff, speckled with hair- 
brown or grayish brown, and lilac-gray. Hab. Northern New 
England and New York, northern Michigan and Minnesota, 
northward to Hudson's Bay and interior arctic regions. 

484. P. canadensis (Linn.). Canada Jay. 
c'. Blackish of hood broadly bordering eye ail round ; occiput deeper black, 
the white (or pale smoky) of forehead usually not reaching as far 
back as posteinor border of eye. 
d\ Colors extremely dark, the breast, etc. (except in much worn or 
faded plumage), deep slate-gray (sometimes nearly as dark as 
back), almost abruptly contrasted against white of chest; fore- 
head usually pure white, or but faintly tinged with smoky yel- 
lowish. Young, uniform deep slate-color, without sooty tinge, 
the nasal tufts and lores deep black, the throat nearly black ; 
an indistinct grayish rictal stripe. Length about 11.00-12.00, 
wing 5.30-5.80 (5.53), tail 5.30-5.85 (5.64), culmen .95-1.09 
(1.02), tarsus 1.35-1.47 (1.40). JIab. Coast-region of Labrador 
(interior also ?), north to Hudson's Strait. 

484c. P. canadensis nigricapillus Eidgw. Labrador Jay. 
d^. Colors almost equally dark, but more dingy, the white of forehead 
usually much obscured by a smoky brownish or yellowish wash, 
and gray of breast, etc., more or less tinged with same. Youjig, 
uniform brownish slate-color, the lores, nasal plumes, and orbits 
blackish ; an indistinct rictal sti'ipe of light grayish brown, or 
smoky gray (sometimes whitish). Length about 10.00-12.00. 
wing 5.20-5.75 (5.54), tail 5.20-6.00 (5.66), culmen .94-1.08 



3G0 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

(1.01), tarsus 1.30-1.42 (1.37). Hab. Alaska, except southern 
coast-district. 

4846. P. canadensis fumifrons Eidgw. Alaskan Jay. 

h^. Adult with whole head white, except occiput, which is plumbeous gray, this 
color not reaching anteriorly to the eye; young with top of head dull 
white, tinged with grayish brown. 

Adult : Head and neck pure white, the occiput and upper hind-neck 
deep plumbeous-gray; back and other upper parts lighter plumbeous- 
gray ; breast, belly, sides, and flanks light brownish gray. Young : 
Nasal tufts, lore's, and orbits blackish dusky ; whole crown, and a 
broad malar stripe, dull whitish, tinged with pale brownish gray ; 
throat dusky grayish; rest of lower parts more brownish gray, the 
feathers of belly, etc., tipped with paler. Length about 11.25- 
13.00, wing 5.90-6.30 (6.10), tail 5.80-6.35 (6.07), culmen .97-1.08 
(1.03), tarsus 1.35-1.44 (1.40). Nest in coniferous trees, bulky 
(about 7.00 across b}' 4.00 in height), composed of dead twigs, 
pine-needles, dried grasses, strips of bark, etc., lined with finer vege- 
table materials, feathers, etc. ; cavity about 4.00 across b}^ 2.00 deep. 
Eggs 3-5, 1.15 X -86, grajnsh white, speckled with various shades of 
brown. Hah. Eocky Mountains, south to Arizona (White Moun- 
tains) and New Mexico, north into British America. 

484rt. P. canadensis capitalis Baird. Rocky Mountain Jay. 
a^ Feathers of back with distinct paler shaft-streaks ; breast, belly, sides, and 
flanks white, like throat and chest. 

Adtdt : Upper half of head, except foi-ehead and nasal tufts, sooty black ; 
forehead and nasal tufts white, sometimes tinged with brownish ; back 
and scapulars varying from dull brownish gray to sepia-brown, the 
feathers with distinct though narrow whitish shaft-streaks ; wings and 
tail brownish gray, the wing-coverts, tertials, and tail-feathers narrowly 
(sometimes indistinctly) tipped with whitish ; lower parts entirely 
white, sometimes very faintly tinged posteriorly with pale brownish or 
brownish gray. Young : Dull grayish sooty brown, paler and more 
decidedly brownish below, darkest on top of head. Length about 9.50- 
11.00, wing 5.15-5.75 (5.53), tail 5.20-5.90 (5.56), culmen .84-.99 (.92), 
tarsus 1.23-1.40 (1.30). Eggs 1.04 X -79, gra3'ish white, greenish white, 
or very pale grayish green, speckled with hair-brown and lilac-gray. 
Hob. Northwest coast, from northern California (Humboldt Bay) and 
northern Sierra Nevada (both slopes) north to British Columbia. 

485. P. obscurus Eidgw. Oregon Jay. 

Genus CORVUS Linn^us. (Page 351, pi. XCYII., fig. 1; pi. XCYIII., fig. 1.) 

Species. 

Common Characters. — Entirely black, the plumage more or less glossy. Nest 
a bulky structure of coarse sticks, etc., in trees or on cliff's (according to the 



CORVUS. 361 

locality), ^ggs 2-7, pale bluish green, pale olive, or olive, spotted or dashed (or 
both) with olive-brow a (sometimes nearly uniform olive, from density of 
markings). 

a\ Feathers of throat lanceolate, distinct from one another. (Ravens.') (Nest usually 

among rocks.) 

b^. Feathers of neck dull gray at base ; nasal tufts covering not more than 

basal half of upjier mandible ; exposed culmen 2.40, or more, wing more 

than 15.00. 

c'^ Third quill equal to or longer than fifth. 

d}. Bill relatively shorter and higher, lanceolate feathers of throat 

less developed, more purplish in color, and plumage usually 

less lustrous; wing 16.75-18.00 (17.25), tail 9.40-10.00 (9.60), 

exposed culmen 2.65-3.00 (2.81), depth of bill through nostril 

1.05-1.12 (1.08), tarsus 2.78-2.95 (2.86). Hah. Europe and parts 

of Asia. C. corax Linn. Raven.i 

cP. Bill relatively longer and shallower, lanceolate feathei-s of throat 

larger, more violet or bluish, and plumage usually more 

lustrous. 

e^. With smaller or slenderer bill, the tarsus more slender, with 

• ■ 
less of upper portion concealed by feathering of lower 

part of thighs; length about 21.50-26.00, wing 15.10-18.00 
(16.87), tail 9.00-11.00.(9.86), exposed culmen 2.40-3.05 
(2.80), depth of bill through nostril .82-1.05 ''(.94), tarsus 
2.60-3.00 (2.78). Eggs 1.98 X 1-29. Hab. Western United 
States, and south to Guatemala. 

486. C. corax sinuatus (Wagl.). Mexican Raven. 
e^ With larger or stouter bill, tarsus shorter and stouter, with 
more of upper portion concealed by feathering of lower 
part of thighs ; length about 22.00-26.50, wing 16.50-18.00 
(16.99), tail 9.20-10.50 (9.86), exposed culmen 2.65-3.45 
(3.03), depth of bill at nostrils .95-1.12 (1.04), tarsus 2.50- 
2.80 (2.65). Eggs 2.02 X 1-38. Hab. Northern North 
America, from Greenland to Alaska, south to British Co- 
lumbia, Canada, New Brunswick, etc." 

— . C. corax principalis Eidgw. Northern Raven.' 
c^. Third quill decidedly shorter than fifth. 

Otherwise like G. corax principalis, but still larger; wing 16.75- 
18.10 (17.44), tail 10.00-10.85 (10.49), exposed culmen 3.00-3.40 

1 Corvus cornx LiNN., S. N. ed. 10, i. 1758, 105. 

2 From lack of specimens, I am unable to determine which form Ravens from the eastern United States 
belong to. 

* New subspecies, for which there is unfortunately no older name available. Corvns camivorus Bartr. and C. 
higuhria Agass. are purely nomina nuda ; C. corax var. litioralis HoLB. (1843) is preoccupied (C. ??7#o/'a^/s Brehm, 
1831) ; while C. vociferna Cabot, quoted by CouES and others as a synonyme of C. corax, is in reality Psilorhinus 
mexicanxia Ritpp., and is described from Yucatan. 

46 



562 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

(3.20), depth of bill at nostrils 1.05-1.10 (1.08), tarsus 2.60-2.85 
(2.75). Hub. Commander Islands, Kamtschatka. (Probably 
also westernmost Aleutians.) 

C. corax behringianus Dybowski. Bering's Raven.^ 

6^ Feathers of neck, all round, pure white at base ; nasal tufts covering much 

more than basal half of upper mandible ; exposed culmen less than 2.40, 

wing less than 15.00. 

Length 18.75-21.00, wing 13.10-14.25 (13.67), tail 7.50-8.G0 (8.10), 

exposed culmen 2.00-2.35 (2.15), depth of bill at base .85-.90 (.87), 

tarsus 2.20-2.50 (2.35). Eggs 1.74 X 1-21, with markings averaging 

finer and more longitudinal than in other 8j)ecies. Hah. Southwestern 

United States and table-lauds of Mexico; north to Indian Territory, 

Kansas, Colorado, and southern California, south to Guanajuato and 

Puebla 487. C. cryptoleucus Couch. "White-necked Raven. 

a}. Feathers of throat short, blended. (Crows.) (Nest usually in trees.) 

b^. Nostrils completely hidden by the fully-developed nasal tufts ; corner of 
mouth feathered. 
c^. Tarsus 2.15, or more; lower parts glossed with violet (on margins of 
feathers) like upper parts; wing averaging more than 11.75, tail 
averaging more 1jian 7.00. 
d}. Larger, with relatively larger and thicker bill. 

e^ Wing and tail averaging longer, but bill and feet decidedly 
smaller; length 17.00-21.00, wing 11.90-13.25 (12.36), tail 
6.90-8.00 (7.43), exposed culmen 1.80-2.05 (1.92), depth of 
bill at base .72-.82 (.76), tarsus 2.20-2.40 (2.27). Eggs 1.69 
X 1-17- Hab. Eastern North America, except southern 
Florida and arctic districts. 

488. C. americanus Aud. American Crow. 

e^. Wing and tail averaging shorter, but bill and feet decidedly 

larger; length about 20.00, wing 11.50-12.30 (12.15), tail 

7.00-7.70 (7.23), exposed culmen "2.00-2.20 (2.08), depth of 

bill at base .75-.85 (.80), tarsus 2.40-2.50 (2.45). Hab. 

Southern Florida. 

488^. C. americanus jBoridanus Baird. Florida Crow. 

cF. Smaller, with relatively smaller and more slender bill. 

Length about 18.50-19.25, wing 11.10-12.75 (11.95), tail 6.45- 
7.80 (7.10), exposed culmen 1.60-1.95 (1.78), depth of bill 
at base .62-.70 (.68), tarsus 2.15-2.40 (2.23). Hab. Western 
United States, north to Washington Territory (Puget 
Sound), Idaho, Montana, etc., south to northern Mexico, 
east to Eock}^ Mountains. 

— . C. americanus hesperis Eidgw. California Crow.' 



1 Corvu8 corax hehringiaiins Dybowsk. Bull. Soc. Zool. France, 1883, 363. 

2 New subspecies ; a very strongly characterized race which also differs markedly in habits and notes from 
the eastern bird. 



CORVUS. 363 

c^ Tarsus less than 2.10; wing averaging less than 11.00, the tail aver- 
aging less than 7.00. 
d}. Plumage glossed with violet or purple above, lustreless black or 
very faintly glossed with purplish beneath. 
e^. Larger and less glossy, the lower parts dull dead black (some- 
times with barel}' perceptible violet gloss), the upper parts 
glossed with dull violet (as in C. americanus) ; length about 
16.00-17.00, wing 10.10-11.10 (10.72), tail 6.00-6.90 (6.43), 
exposed culmen 1.60-1.90 (1.75), depth of bill at base 
.65-.72 (.70), tarsus 1.80-2.05 (1.93). Eggs 1.56 X 1-08. 
Hab. Northwest coast, from Washington Territory (and 
Oregon ?) to Kadiak, Alaska. 

489. C. caurinus Baird. Northwest Crow. 

e^. Smaller and more glossy, the lower parts glossy black, with 

slight (?) purple reflections, the upper parts more distinctly 

glossed with pui-ple ; length about 15.00, wing 10.35, tail 

6.00, "bill" 1.80, tarsus 2.00. Hab. Cuba. 

C. minutus Gundl. Cuban Fish Crow.^ 
(P. Plumage glossed with violet-bluish, greenish blue, or steel-blue 
above, with greenish on lower parts. 
e^. Larger and less glossy, the upper parts glossed with violet- 
bluish, changing to a more greenish blue tint on head, 
neck, and lower parts ; length about 15.00-17.50, wing 
10.20-11.40 (10.88), tail 6.00-7.00 (6.37). exposed culmen 
1.60-1.80 (1.71), depth of bill at base .58-.65 (.61), tarsus 
1.70-2.00 (1.87). Eggs 1.47 X 1-04. Hab. Atlantic and 
Gulf coasts of United States, from Long Island to Louis- 
iana 490. C. ossifragus Wils. Fish Crow. 

e^. Smaller and much more glossy, the upper parts soft steel-blue, 
changing to violet on crown, the lower parts rich soft 
greenish blue; length about 12.00-14.50, wing 9.20-9.60 
(9.32), tail 5.80-6.40 (6.11), exposed culmen 1.50-1.65 
(1.55), depth of bill at base .50-.58 (.54), tarsus 1.50-1.70 
(1.62). Hab. Western Mexico (vicinity of Mazatlan). 

C. mexicanus Gmel. Mexican Crow.'^ 
b'^. Nostrils scarcely concealed by the shoi't, imperfectly developed nasal tufts ; 
corners of mouth naked. 

Entirely violaceous-black, the feathers everywhere smoky gray be- 
neath surface ; wing 11.00, tail 7.75, culmen (to base) 2.45, depth of 
bill at base .80. Hab. Cuba. 

C. nasicus Temm. Cuban Crow.' 

"^ Gorvua mimiUis Gundl., Jour. Bost. Soc. vi. 1S52, 315. 

2 CorvuK mexi'cnnun Gmel., S. N. i. 1788, 375. 

3 Corvus nasicus TEMAr., PI. Col. ii. 183S, pi, 413. 



364 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

Genus PICICORVUS Bonaparte. (Page 351, pi. XCIX., fig. 1.) 

Species. 

Adult: Uniform ash-gray, becoming white on fore-part of head; wings and 
two middle tail-feathers glossy black, the secondaries broadly tipped with white ; 
tail, except middle feathers, mainly white. Young : Similar to adult, but colors 
duller and browner. Length about 12.00-13.00, wing 7.10-8.00, tail 5.10-5.40. Nest 
in coniferous trees (sometimes in cavities), bulky, composed of dried twigs, lined 
with rootlets, etc. Eggs 1.27 X -S-l, dull white, sparingly speckled, chiefly on larger 
end, with brown and purplish gray. Hah. Higher coniferous forests of western 
North America ; north to Putnam Eiver, Alaska, south to Arizona, east to (and in- 
cluding) Eocky Mountains... 491, P. columbianus (Wils.). Clarke's Nutcracker. 

Genus CYANOCEPHALUS Bonaparte. (Page 351, pi. XCIX., fig. 2.) 

Species. 

Adult : Uniform grayish blue, becoming deeper blue on head, the throat bright 
blue, streaked with white. Young : Uniform dull grayish blue, lighter beneath. 
Length about 10.00-11.75, wing 5.70-6.00, tail 4.80-4.85. Mst in pinon trees, 5-10 
or more feet up, bulky, composed of shreds of pinon, cedar, and sage-brush bark, 
grass- and weed-stalks, small twigs, etc. Eggs 3-5, 1.16 X -85, pale greenish blue 
or bluish or greenish white, thickly but finely speckled with olive-brown. Hab. 
Plateau region of western North America, chiefly between Eocky Mountains and 
Sierra Nevada, entirely aci'oss United States. 

492. C. cyanocephalus (Wied). Pinon Jay. 

Family STURNIDiE. — The Starlings. (Page 322.) 

Genci'd. 
(Characters same as those given for the Family) Sturnus. (Page 364.) 

Genus STURNUS Linn^us. (Page 364, pi. C, fig. 3.) 

Species. 

Adult in Slimmer (sexes alike) : Glossy greenish and purplish black, speckled, 
more or less extensively and conspicuously, with light buffy brown and whitish ; 
greater wing-coverts, secondaries, quills, and tail-feathers edged with light brown- 
ish buff; bill yellow. Adult in winter: Light brown (on upper parts) and whitish 
(on lower parts) spotting much more conspicuous than in summer, often obscuring 
or nearly concealing the underlying glossy green and purple ; bill blackish. Young : 
Plain gi-ayish brown, the throat whitish, edges of greater wing-covei'ts, secondaries, 
quills, and tail-feathers light dull buffy. Length about 7.50-8.50, wing 5.00-5.10, tail 



ICTERIDJE. 365 



2.60-2.90, exposed culmen .95-1.00, tarsus 1.15-1.25. Nest in holes of trees, about 
buildings, etc. Eggs 4-7, 1.17 X -83, plain pale greenish blue or bluish white. Hab. 
Europe and northern Asia ; accidental in Greenland. 

493. S. vulgaris Linn. Starling". 



Family ICTERIDiE. — The Blackbirds, Orioles, etc. (Page 321.) 

Genera. 

'. Outlines of bill nearly or quite straight, the tip not decurved, the commissure 
neither inflected nor sinuated. (Subfamily Icterince.) 
¥. Bill stout, conical, its depth through the base equal to at least one-third the 
length of the culmen. (Agelaice.) 
c\ Tail-feathers shat'ply pointed at tips ; middle toe, with claw, longer 

than tarsus Dolichonyx. (Page 366.) 

c^ Tail-feathers not pointed at tips ; middle toe, with claw, not longer than 
tarsus. 
d}. Bill much shorter than head, its depth through base equal to 
about half the length of the exposed culmen, the latter dis- 
tinctly convex ; plumage uniform blackish or dusky, streaked 

only in young Molothrus. (Page 367.) 

(P. Bill nearly as long as head, its depth through base less than half 

the length of the exposed culmen, the latter very straight ; 

sexes remarkably different in size. 

e^ Claws smaller, the latei-al ones scarcely reaching to base of 

middle one ; first quill shorter than fourth ; plumage of 

male uniform black, with bright red lesser wing-coverts ; 

of female, dusky, more or less streaked with white. 

Agelaius. (Page 368.) 
e^ Claws larger, the lateral ones reaching to beyond base of mid- 
dle one ; first quill longer than fourth (sometimes longest) ; 
plumage of male uniform black, with 5'ellow head, neck, and 
chest, and white wing-patch ; of female, dusky, with yel- 
lowish throat and chest... Xanthocephalus. (Page 368.) 
6^ Bill slender, its depth through base decidedly less than one-third the length 
of the culmen, 
c^ Tail less than two-thirds as long as wing, the feathers sharp-pointed ; 
wing short, the tertials lengthened (reaching almost to tips of pri- 
maries) ; bill long (longer than head), slender, the culmen much flat- 
tened ; feathers of top of head with stiffened, glossy shafts ; out- 
stretched feet reaching beyond tip of tail ; color above brownish, 
barred and streaked with black, beneath yellow, with a black 
crescent on chest, the sexes not essentially difi'erent. 

Sturnella. (Page 371.) 



366 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

c^. Tail nearly or quite as long as wing, the feathers not pointed at tips; 
wing moderate, the tertials not lengthened; bill shorter than head, 
the culmen narrow, not flattened ; feathers on top of head without 
stiffened shafts ; outstretched feet falling far short of tip of tail ; 
color black and yellow, orange, or chestnut in adult males (some- 
times in females also), usually with more or less of white on wings. 

Icterus. (Page 372.) 
a^. Outlines of bill distinctly curved, the tip distinctly decurved, the commissure 
distinctly inflected and sinuated. (Subfamily Quiscalince.) 
b^. Tail much shorter than wing, nearly even, not folded laterally ; bill shorter 

than head, slender Scolecophagus. (Page 378.) 

b\ Tail longer than wing, graduated, and folded laterally ; bill as long as or 
longer than head, stout Quiscalus. (Page 379.) 

Genus DOLICHONYX Savainson. (Page 365, pi. CI., fig. 1.) 

Species. 

Common Characters. — Adult male in spring : General color black, the occiput 
and hind-neck, scapulars, rump, and upper tail-coverts whitish or buffy. Adult 
female: General color ochraceous, tinged with graj^ish brown, paler (more buffy 
yellowish) beneath ; upper parts and flanks streaked with dusky ; crown divided 
by a median buffy stripe. Adult male in fall and lointer : Similar to adult female, 
but colors rather darker, or deeper. Young (not seen). JVest in tussocks of grass 
or among weeds in meadows. Sggs 2-5, dull white or brownish white, heavily 
spotted or blotched with vandyke-brown, usually with a few fine lines or irregular 
markings of blackish. 

a^. Adult male with hind-neck usually deep buff, inclining to ochraceous ; streaks 
on back also deep buff or ochraceous ; lower back rather deep ash-gray. 
Adidt female with ground-color of plumage deep olive-buffy. Length 6.30- 
7.60, wing 3.70-4.00 (3.88), tail 2.60-2.90 (2.83). Eggs .83 X -61. Hah. East- 
ern North America, west to edge of Great Plains, breeding in northern 
United States and more southern British Provinces; in winter, south to 
West Indies and South America 494. D. oryzivorus (Linn.). Bobolink. 

a". Adult male with hind-neck and streaks on back paler buff, often nearly pure 
white; lower back very pale ashy, or grayish white. Adult female with 
ground-color of plumage pale grayish buff. Length (male) about 7.00-7.25, 
wing 3.75-4.10 (3.94), "tail 2.75-3.00 (2.89). Hah. Great Plains, east to Da- 
kota, north to Fort Garry and Manitoba, west to Salt Lake Valley and 
eastern Nevada (Euby Yalley). 

494a. D. oryzivorus albinucha Eidgw. Western Bobolink. 



MOLOTHRUS. 367 

Genus MOLOTHRUS Swainson. (Page 365, pi. CL, fig. 2.) 

Species. 

(JVb nest^ but eggs deposited in nests of other species.) 

Culraon not more than .72 ; adult males with head brown. Adult males : Head, 
neck, and chest uniform brownish (varying greatly in tint) ; rest of plumage 
glossy black, with a greenish reflection, changing to purplish next to the 
brown of the neck, especially on upper back. Adult females : Plain brown- 
ish gray, darker on upper parts, paler on chin and throat, the feathers, 
especially on back and breast, with indistinct darker shaft-streaks. Young : 
Above dull brownish gray, the feathers bordered with pale buffy ; lower 
parts dull light buffy, broadly but rather indistinctly streaked with dull 
brownish gray. 
b\ Larger: Length (male) about 7.75-8.25, wing 4.00-4.60 (4.31), tail 2.90-3.35 
(3.08), culmen .61-.72 (.66), tar.sus .98-1.12 (1.05); female considerably 
smaller, ^ggs .87 X -66, dull white, greenish white, or brownish white, 
speckled or spotted, more or less densely, with brown. Hab. L^nited 
States and more southern British Provinces; south, in winter, to southern 

Mexico 495. M. ater (Bodd.). Cowbird. 

b\ Smaller: Length (male) about 7.00-7.50, wing 3.70-4.15 (3.93), tail 2.85- 
3.00 (2.91), culmen .57-.63 (.60), tarsus .93-1.00 (.96) ; female smaller. 
Eggs .76 X -59, colored like those of M. ater. Hab. Mexico and con- 
tiguous portions of United States, from Texas to Arizona and Lower 

California 495a. M. ater obscurus (Gmel.). Dwarf Cowbird. 

Culmen .75, or more ; adult male with head black. Adult male : Head, neck, 
back, and lower parts uniform glossy black, with a soft bronzy lustre, duller 
on head ; lesser and middle wing-coverts, outermost scapulars, and rump 
glossed with violet ; wings in general, upper tail-coverts, and tail glossy 
blue-black, changing to greenish ; iris bright red ; length about 9.00-9.50, 
wing 4.60-4.80, tail 3.70-3.80, culmen .85-.90, tarsus 1.15-1.25. Young male: 
Entirely blackish, with distinct gloss only on wings, etc., the lower parts, 
back, etc., without bronzy lustre. Adult female : Above dark brownish gray, 
the feathers of back, etc., with darker, somewhat glossy centres, the wing- 
coverts, etc., with paler margins ; lower parts lighter brownish gray, the 
feathers sometimes showing distinct dusky shaft-streaks ; length about 
8.00-8.50, wing about 4.10, tail 3.25, culmen .75, tarsus 1.05. Eggs .88 X -72, 
plain greenish white or dull bluish white. Hab. Mexico and Central 
America, south to Panama, north to lower Eio Grande Valley in Texas. 

496. M. seneus (Wagl.). Bronzed Cowbird. 



368 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

Genus XANTHOCEPHALUS Swainson. (Page 365, pi. CI., fig. 3.) 

Species. 

Adult male in summer: Head, neck, and chest yellow, varying in tint from a 
lemon to an orange (rarely to pinkish saffron) shade; primary coverts and lower 
greater coverts white; rest of plumage uniform black; length about 10.60-11.10, 
wing 5.65-5.80, tail 4.50-4.85. Adult male in winter: Similar to summer plumage, 
but yellow of top of head obscured by brownish tips to the feathers. Adult female : 
Brownish dusky, the throat and chest dull yellowish, and breast mixed with white ; 
length about 9.00-10.00, wing 4.40-4.65, tail 3.50-3.70. Young male, first winter : 
Similar to adult female, but larger and deeper colored. Young (nestling) : General 
color isabella-brown, lighter beneath ; wings and tail blackish. Nest fastened to 
upright reeds or similar supjDorts in marshes, composed of dried grass, sedges, reeds, 
etc. Eggs 2-6, 1.05 X -71, dull white, grayish white, pale grayish brown, or (more 
rarely) pale grayish green, thickly speckled or sprinkled with umber-brown or 
olive, occasionally with a few " pen-lines" of black. Hab. Western North America, 
in marshes, east, regularly, to Wisconsin, Illinois, Kansas, and Texas, accidentally 
to Massachusetts, South Carolina, and Florida. 

497. X. xanthocephalus (Bonap.). Yellow-headed Blackbird. 



Genus AGELAIUS Yieillot. (Page 365, pi. CI., fig. 4.) 

Species. 

Common Characters. — Adult males uniform deep black, ornamented by a patch 
of bright red covering lesser wing-coverts, the middle coverts (except in A. guber- 
nator) buffy, ochraeeous, or white, forming a conspicuous band along posterior bor- 
der of the red patch ; in winter, with uniformity of the black more or less broken 
by rusty terminal borders to the feathers, especially on back and scapulars, and 
color of middle coverts more pronounced. Adult females : Above more or less con- 
spicuously streaked with dusky, and brownish or grajnsh (sometimes mixed with 
rusty), the wing-feathers with distinct lighter edgings ; a distinct light superciliary 
stripe, with a dusky one immediately beneath it ; lower parts distinctly sti'iped, or 
broadly streaked, with dusky and whitish, the chin and throat usually more or less 
tinged with buffy or pinkish ; in winter, the colors much browner, with more or less 
of rusty above, and white of lower parts less pure. (In the two Cuban species, the 
females uniform black, like the males.) Young : Essentially like adult females, but 
ground-color of lower parts never (?) white, the lighter streaks being some shade 
of buffy, markings more suffused, and textui'e of plumage different. Nest attached 
to upright stems of sedges, reeds, etc., or to branches of bushes or small trees, in 
marshes or swamps, compact, composed chiefly of dried grasses. Eggs 3-5, pale 
bluish, varying to olive, variously marked with black, brown, and purplish gray, 
usually in irregular " pen-lines" and blotches. 



AGELAIUS. 369 

«^ Wing exceeding tail by length of tarsus ; sexes decidedly different in color, the 
lesser wing-cover Ls of adult male bright red. 
b^. Adult males deep black, with very faint dull bottle-greenish gloss, the lesser 
wing-coverts bright vermilion-scarlet, the middle coverts never pure 
white ; adult females with texture of plumage comparatively harsh, but 
with colors extremely variable. 
c^. Adult females much streaked below, and never uniform above. 

d^. Adult males with middle wing-coverts wholly buffy or ochraceous 
(feathers nearly white at tips in midsummer plumage) ; adult 
females with white predominating on lower parts, and with a 
very conspicuous white superciliary stripe. 
e^ Adult female darker colored ; lower parts with white and dusky 
in about equal amount, or else the latter predominating ; 
chin and throat often tinged, more or less, with cream-color 
or buffy; lighter markings on upper parts less conspic- 
uous. 

Male: Length about 9.00-10.00, wing 4.60-5.05 (4.88), 
tail 3.55-3.95 (3.84), culmen .88-1.00 (.94), depth of 
bill at base .45-.50 (.49), tarsus 1.12-1.20 (1.14). Fe- 
male: Length about 7.50-8.50, wing 3.80-4.25 (3.99), 
tail 3.10-3.40 (3.12), culmen .72-80 (.79), depth of bill 
at base .40-.50 (.42), tarsus 1.00-1.05 (1.03). Eggs .97 
X -67. Sab. Temperate North America in general, 
except western Mexico and lower Colorado Yalley; 
north to Great Slave Lake, south to Costa Eica. 

498. A. phcEniceus (Linn.). Red-winged 

Blackbird. 
e^ Adult females lighter colored; lower parts with white de- 
cidedly prevailing over dusky; chin and .throat often 
tinged with delicate pale pink, but not with buffy or 
cream-color; lighter mai'kings on upper parts very con- 
spicuous. 
/^ Larger, with smaller bill, and upper parts lighter colored. 
Male : Length about 9.00, wing about 5.05, tail 4.00, 
culmen .90, depth of bill at base .45, tarsus 1.20. Fe- 
male : Prevailing color of upper parts light grayish 
brown (more clay-colored and much mixed with rusty 
in winter), the top of head narrowly streaked with 
dusky, but with scarcely any indication of lighter 
median stripe (often with none at all), the back and 
scapulars broadly streaked with dusky ; length about 
7.50-8.50, wing 4.00-4.25 (4.10), tail 2.95-3.20 (3.09), 
culmen .72-.85 (.78), depth of bill at base .38-.42 (.39), 
tai^sus 1.00-1.12 (1.04). Jlab. Northwestern Mexico 
and lower Colorado Valley, in southern California and 
• 47 



370 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

Arizona; south to Mazatlan — . A. phceniceus 

sonoriensis Eidgw. Sonoran Red-wing.* 

p. Smaller, with hirger bill, aud upper parts darker. Male: 

Length about 8.00-8.50, wing 4.50, tail 3.40-3.70 (3.55), 

culmen 1.00-1.05 (1.03), depth of bill at base .40-.42 

(.41), tarsus 1.10-1.20 (1.15). Female: Ground-color 

above mixed grayish brown and rusty (the latter 

chiefly on back and scapulars), the toj) of head 

streaked with black and divided by a very distinct 

lighter median stripe ; back and scapulars broadly 

streaked with black and bufty whitish ; length about 

6.50-7.00, wing 3.60-3.80 (3.67), tail 2.70-2.90 (2.81), 

culmen .75-.85 (.79), depth of bill at base .38-.40 (.39), 

tarsus .95-1.05 (.99). Hab. Bahamas and southern 

Florida (Miami, Key "West, etc.)... — . A. phceniceus 

bryanti Eidgw. Bahaman Eed-wing." 

d^. Adult males with the middle wing-coverts more or less extcnsivel}' 

black terminally, the basal portion buff or ochraceous (but 

usually concealed by lesser coverts) ; adult females with dusky 

largely prevailing on lower parts (often nearly uniform dusk}^), 

and with superciliary stripe not sharply defined (often very 

indistinct). 

Male: Length about 9.00-10.00, wing 4.90-5.65 (5.17), tail 
3.50-4.05 (3.83), culmen .81-1.02 (.89), tlepth of bill at 
base .40-.49 (.46), tarsus 1.20-1.30 (1.23). Female: Above 
nearly uniform brownish dusky, the top of head, back, 
and scapulars more or less distinctly streaked with paler, 
and the wing-feathers with narrow paler (sometimes 
whitish) edgings ; lower parts brownish dusky, more or 
less distinctly streaked (never conspicuously) with dull 
brownish gray, the chin and throat pale buify or pinkish, 
the latter marked with triangular spots of dusky, in lon- 
gitudinal series ; length about 7.50-8.50, wing 4.05-4.35 
(4.21), tail 2.90-3.25 (3.04), culmen .75-.78 (.76), depth of 
bill at base .38, tarsus 1.05-1.10 (1.07). Eggs 1.00 X -69. 
Hah. Valleys of California and western Oregon, and south 
into Mexico. 

499. A. gubernator (Wagl.). Bicolored Blackbird. 
&. Adult female entirely uniform deep black, including lesser wing-coverts. 
{Adult male exactly like that of A. phceniceus in color.) 

1 New subspecies ; twelve females and one male examined. 

2 New subspecies. The adult male is not appreciably different in plumage from either the common A. 
phoemeetia or the Cuban A. assimiUs, but differs in proportions from both. The National Museum possesses, 
besides Bahaman specimens, an adult male and a female from Miami, Florida (C. J. Maynard, collector), and 
an adult female from Key West (" Albatross" collection). 



STURNELLA. 371 

Male: Length about 8.50, wing 4.15-4.30, tail 3.30-3.60, culmen 
.92-.95, depth of bill at base .48, tarsus 1.10-1.15. Female: 
Length about 7.00, wing 3.70-3.80, tail 3.05-3.25. Hab. Cuba. 

A. assimilis Gundl. Cuban Red-wing.i 

h^. Adult male glossy blue-black, the plumage wuth a soft silky texture, the 

lesser wing-coverts deep crimson or burnt-carmine, the middle coverts 

white (tinged with buff in winter plumage) ; adult females with the 

plumage very soft or silky in texture. 

Adult male : Glossy blue-black, the lesser wing-coverts rich burnt- 
carmine, red posteriorly (next to white or pale buffy middle coverts), 
pure rich scarlet toward the shoulders) ; middle coverts white, 
more or less tinged with buff; in winter, feathers of back and 
under parts bordered terminally with dull light brown (not rusty), 
and middle wing-coverts more decidedly tinged with buff; length 
about 8.50-9.00, wing 4.70-4.90 (4.83), tail 3.50-3.85 (3.67), culmen 
.90-.98 (.93), depth of bill at base .38-.40 (.40), tarsus 1.10-1.20 
(1.13). Adult female : Very similar in color to same sex of A. guber- 
nator, but decidedly grayer in general cast of plumage (correspond- 
ing stages being compared), and texture of plumage decidedly 
softer or smoother;^' length about 7.00-7.50, wing 4.10-4.40 (4.23), 
tail 2.95-3.60 (3.16), culmen .78-.82 (.80), depth of bill at base .31- 
.38 (.35), tarsus 1.00-1.08 (1.04). Fggs .96 X -55. Hab. Valleys of 
Pacific coast, from southern California to western Oregon. 

500. A. tricolor (Nutt.). Tricolored Blackbird. 

a^ Wing exceeding tail by decidedly less than length of tarsus ; sexes not appreciably 

different in color, the lesser wing-coverts (in both sexes) tawny ochraceous. 

Plumage entirely glossy black, except lesser wing-coverts. Male: Length 

about 7.25, wing 4.00, tail 3.35, tarsus .95. Female: Length about 6.77. 

wing 3.80, tail 3.10, tarsus .90. Hab. Cuba. 

A. humeralis (YiG.). Vigors's Red-wing.^ 



Genus STURNELLA Vieillot. (Page 365, pi. CIV., fig. 1.) 

Species. 

Common Characters. — Adult : Above brownish or grajMsh, striped and barred 
with black ; crown divided medially by a whitish or buffy stripe ; side of head 
whitish, with a dusky streak behind eyes; throat and breast bright yellow; a black 
crescent on chest ; flanks and under tail-coverts whitish, streaked with dusky ; 

'^ Arjelaiua assimilis (Gundl. MSS.) Lemb., Aves de Cuba, 1850, 64, ]il. 9, fig. 3. 

2 I have been unable to discover any infallible or positive difference in plumage between the females of A. 
tricolor and A. guhernator, except that in the texture, which can only be depended on as a test after one has 
become used to comparing specimens ; the female of A. cjuhernafor averages decidedly browner, however, with 
relatively shorter and stouter bill, usually more rounded tail, and slightly shorter tarsus. 

Leistes humeralis ViG., Zool. Jour. iii. 1828, 442. Agelaius humeralis Bonap., Consp. i. 1850, 430 



372 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

lateral tail-feathers partly white. Young : Colors much duller, and markings less 
distinct ; black mark on chest only faintly indicated. Length, males, about 9.50- 
11.00, females, 8.00-10.00. Nest on or embedded in ground, in meadows, composed 
of dried grasses, sometimes ai'ched over on top. Eggs 3-6, white, speckled with 
reddish brown, blackish brown, and lilac-gray. 

o}. Yellow of throat not encroaching laterally on malar region ; color darker and 

browner above, with heavier and more confluent black markings, the flanks 

and under tail-coverts distinctly butfy. 

h^. Larger, with larger bill and smaller feet. Adult male: Wing 4.40-5.00, 

(4.74), culmen 1.20-1.52 (1.29), tarsus 1.54-1.71 (1.63). Adult female : 

Wing 3.95-4.30 (4.11), culmen 1.04-1.17 (1.12), tarsus 1.40-1.49 (1.42). 

Eggs 1.10 X -78. Hah. Eastern North America, west to edge of Great 

Plains, north to Canada 501. S. magna (Linn.). Meadowlark. 

b'K Smaller, with smaller bill and larger feet. Adult male: Wing 4.20-4.80 
(4.40), culmen 1.13-1.30 (1.22), tarsus 1.50-1.72 (1.62). Adult female: 
Wing about 3.90-4.10, tail 2.70, culmen 1.05, tarsus 1.50. Hah. Eastern 
and central Mexico and south to Costa Eica ; north to southern Texas 
(lower Rio Grande "Valley) and southern Arizona. 

501a. S. magna mexicana (Scl.). Mexican Meadowlark. 
a^. Yellow of throat sjDread laterally over the malar region ; color paler and grayer 
above, with black markings less conspicuous, those on tertials and middle 
tail-feathers in form of isolated narrow bars, not connected along the shaft, 
as is usual in magna and mexicana ; flanks and lower tail- coverts white, very 
faintly, if at all, tinged with buff". 

Adult male: Wing 4.85-5.30 (5.01), culmen 1.20-1.36 (1.29), tarsus 1.50- 
1.60 (1.54). Adult female: Wing 4.30-4.60 (4.41), culmen 1.10-1.22 
(1.17), tarsus 1.33-1.43 (1.41). Eggs 1.15 X -81. Hah. Western North 
America, north to British Columbia and Manitoba, east regularly to 
Dakota, Nebraska, Kansas, and Texas, sparingly to Illinois and Wis- 
consin ; south through western Mexico. 

5016. S. magna neglecta (Aud.). Western Meadowlark.^ 



Genus ICTERUS Brisson. (Page 366, pi. GIL, figs. 1-3.) 

Species. 

o\ Depth of bill at base decidedly less than half the length of the exposed culmen. 
6\ Bill not decurved terminally. (Subgenus Icterus.') 

1 Without much doubt a distinct species. The occurrence of both S. neglecta and .S'. mnrjna together in 
many portions of the Mississippi Valley, each in its typical style (the ranges of the two overlapping, in 
fact, for a distance of several hundred miles), taken together with the excessive rarity of intermediate speci- 
mens and the universally attested radical difference in their notes, are facts wholly incompatible with the theory 
of their being merely geographical races of the same species. 



ICTERUS. 



373 



c^. Feathers of thi-oat slenderly lanceolate; orbits naked. 

Adult (sexes alike): Head, neck, chest, back, scapulars, wings, 
and tail uniform black ; middle and part of greater wing-cov- 
erts, and broad edgings to secondaries, white ; rest of plumao-e, 
including lesser wing-coverts and broad collar across hind-neck, 
yellow or orange; length about 9.00-10.00, wing 4.10-5.00, tail 
3.80-4.30, culmen 1.25-1.50, tarsus 1.25-1.35. ^Hab. Caribbean 
coast of South America ; West Indies (introduced ?) ; accidental 
at Charleston, South Carolina. 

502. I. icterus (Linn.). Troupial. 
c^. Feathers of throat normal (short and blended); orbits feathered. 

d}. Tail shorter than wing, graduated for less than length of culmen. 
Adult male: Head, neck, chest, breast, back, scapulars, 
greater wing-coverts, secondaries, primaries, and terminal 
(or subterminal) portion of tail (including nearly whole 
length of middle feathers) uniform deep black; tips of 
greater wing-coverts and tail-feathers (except middle pair), 
and narrow edgings to quills and secondaries (sometimes 
worn off), white ; rest of plumage bright lemon-yellow 
(duller in younger birds), the middle wing-coverts fadino- 
into whitish at tips. Adult female : Above olive-greenish, 
the back and wings grayer, the first with more or less dis- 
tinct dusky shaft-streaks ; middle and greater wing-coverts 
broadly tipped with white, forming two distinct bands; 
tail dull olive terminally and on middle feathers, the rest 
olive-yellow; lower parts entirely olive-yellow. Young 
male: Variously intermediate in plumage between the 
adult male and female, according to age. Young of year : 
Similar to adult female, "but with all the wing-feathers 
edged and tipped with white, the wing-bands yellowish, 
the tail tipped with yellow, the breast obscured by brown- 
ish, and the yellow of the under parts paler and greener." 
(Brewst.) Length about 7.70-8.50, wing 3.80-4.20, tail 
3.30-3.90, culmen .95-1.00, tarsus .90-.95. (Female aver- 
aging smaller than male.) Nest pensile or semi-pensile, 
usuall}^ built in yuccas, composed of fibres of the j'ucca, 
dried grasses, etc., lined with softer materials. Eggs 3-4, 
.97 X -67, bluish white, speckled and finely pencilled round 
larger end with black, and faintly clouded with lilac-gray. 
Hah. Central Mexico, and north to southern border of 
United States (southemi Texas to Arizona) ; Lower Cali- 
fornia 504. I, parisorum Bonap. Scott's Oriole. 

d"^. Tail longer than wing, graduated for much more than length of 
culmen. (Adult with head, upper neck, chest, wings, except 
lesser and middle coverts, and tail, black; rest of plumage 



374 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

yelloM^, more or less tinged with olive-greenish on upper sur- 
face.) 
e^. Scapulars entirely olive-greenish or yellowish, like back ; 
middle wing-coverts yellow ; outer webs of greater wing- 
coverts tipped Mith whitish (sometimes inclining, more or 
less, to yellow or grayish), and tertials broadly edged with 
same. Young : Without any black, the upper parts entirely 
olive-green, the lower parts wholly yellow, tinged laterally 
with olive. Length about 8.75-10.50, wing 3.75-4.25, tail. 
4.15-4.40, culmen .90-1.10, tarsus .95-1.10. JVest semi-pen- 
sile, fastened usually between upright twigs, composed of 
dried grasses, etc. Eggs .89 X -65, M'hite, finel}- speckled 
or " dusted," chiefly on larger end, with brown, usually 
mixed with stains of lilac-gray. Hab. Central and north- 
ern Mexico, north to lower Eio Grande "Valley in Texas. 
503. I. audubonii CIiraud. Audubon's Oriole. 
e^. Scapulars and middle wing-coverts partly (sometimes entirely) 
black ; wings without any white markings ; otherwise very 
similar to I. audiibonii, but averaging a little smaller. Hab. 
Southern Mexico (tierra caliente) north to Yera Cruz. 

I. melanocephalus (Wagl.). Black-headed Oriole.^ 
61 Bill distinctly decurved terminally. 

c\ Tail longer than wing, graduated for at least as much as length of 
tarsus ; adult males yellow, or orange, and black. 
d^. Tail graduated for much more than length of tarsus ; adults with 
entire head and neck black. (Adult males : Head, neck, chest, 
back, scapulars, wings, except lesser and middle coverts, upper 
tail-coverts, and tail, uniform deep black ; rest of plumage yel- 
low, or orange, the lower tail-coverts sometimes black. Adult 
females similar, but colors duller. Young males : The black first 
appearing on wings, chest, throat, cheeks, and forehead, the 
black of head and neck at one stage occupying precisely the 
same area as in adult male of I. cucullatus. Older : Head, nape, 
fore-part and sides of neck, and chest entirely black, but lower 
hind-neck, back, and scapulars olive-yellow, like lower back and 
rump.'^ Still older : Similar to the last, but back and scapulars 
mixed with black. Young of year: Without any black, the 
upper parts dull olive, duller and browner on back, the 
wings and middle tail-feathers dusky, with olivaceous edgings, 
rest of tail-feathers olive, with yellowish edges, and lower 



1 Paarocolius melnnoccphnlus Wagl., Isis, 1829, 756. Icterus melanocephalus Hahn & Kuster, Yog. aus 
Asien, Lief. vi. 2, pi. .3. 

2 In this stage exactly resembling in coloration the fully adult plumage of /. melanocephalus and /. audu- 
bonii, except that the secondaries, etc., lack the white edgings of the latter, while in /. wagleri the tail-coverts 
are black. 



ICTERUS. 



375 



parts entirely light yellow, tinged with olive laterally and 

across chest.) 
e\ Larger (wing 3.85, or more). Adult with tail-coverts entirely 
black; greater wing-coverts abruptly white at base (this 
concealed by middle coverts, however) ; length about 8.80- 
9.50, wing 3.85-4.25, tail 4.00-4.60, culmen .90-1.00, tarsus 
.90-1.00. Hah. Mexico and Guatemala, north to Mexican 

side of Eio Grande. „,,,«•, i 

I. wagleri ScL. Wagler's Oriole.^ 

e\ Smaller (wing not more than 3.55). Adult with tail-coverts 

chiefly (sometimes entirely ?) yellow ; greater wing-coverts 

black to extreme base ; upper part of breast sometimes with 

more or less of chestnut next to black of chest ; wing 3.25- 

3.55, tail 3.50-4.00. Hah. Southern Mexico, and south to 

Costa Eica. 

I. prosthemelas (Strickl.). Strickland's Oriole." 

Tail graduated for not more than length of tarsus ; adult males 
with black of head and neck confined to frontlet, lores, cheeks, 
malar region, chin, throat, and chest; wing with two white 
bands. {Adult males: Back, scapulars, wings, and tail black, 
the wings with white markings ; other portions yellow, orange, 
or orange-red. Adidt females: Above light olive-greenish, 
more grayish on back; wings dusky grayish, with lighter 
brownish gr^^^y edgings, the middle and greater coverts tipped 
with white ; tail yellowish olive ; lower parts entirely yellow, 
tinged with olive on flanks, etc. Young males, second year: 
Similar to adult females, but chin, throat, chest, malar region, 
and lores black more or less continuously, as in adult. Young 
in first year : Similar to adult female, but colors paler and 
duller, the plumage generally, especially on upper parts, suf- 
fused with pale brownish. Length 6.50-8.50, wing 3.30-3.60, 
tail 3.50-4.20.) 
e^. Adult males with breast, etc., orange or orange-red. 

p. Adult male with breast, etc., orange or dull orange-red. 
iVesf usually composed of the "Spanish" moss {Tilland- 
sia), often built inside of hanging tufts or tresses of 
this parasite. Eggs 3-5, .86 X -58, white, speckled, 
chiefly on larger end. with hair-brown, usually mixed 
with a few small black specks or lines. Hah. Southern 
and eastern Mexico, north to lower Eio Grande Yalley 
in Texas. 

505. I. cucuUatus Swains. Hooded Oriole. 



1 Icterus wagleri SoL., P. Z. S. 1S.57, 7. 

^ Xanthornus prosthemelas Strickl., Contr. Orn. 1S50, 120, pi. 62. Icterus prosthemelas ScL., P. Z. S. 

1856, 301. 



376 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

p. Adult male with breast, etc., intense orange-red, some- 
times almost scarlet. Hab. Yucatan. 

I. cucullatus igneus Ridgw, Fiery Oriole.* 
e^. Adult male with breast, etc., saffron-yellow, varying to gam- 
boge (never orange). Nest exceedingly variable in form 
and composition, but usually pensile or semipensile, and 
comj)Osed of grass-stems (often gi"een) and various plant- 
fibres. Eggs .89 X -62, averaging with decidedly darker 
and heavier markings than those of true I. cucullatus. Hab. 
"Western Mexico, north to Arizona, Lower California, and 
southern California.. 505a. I. cucullatus nelsoni Eidgw. 

Arizona Hooded Oriole. 
■cl Tail shorter than wing (the latter less than 3.25), graduated for much 
less than length of tarsus ; adult male chestnut and black. 

Adult male: Head, neck, middle of chest, back, scapulars, wings 
(except lesser and middle coverts), and tail deej^ black, the 
greater wing-coverts, quills, and secondaries edged, more or less 
distinctly, with pale chestnut or whitish ; rest of plumage uni- 
form rich dark chestnut or bay, deepest on breast. Adult fe- 
male : Upper parts yellowish olive, much duller and grayer on 
back and scapulars ; wings grayish dusky, with two white 
■ bands, all the feathers with paler brownish gray edgings; tail 
yellowish olive, like rump, etc. ; lower pai'ts entirely light olive- 
yellow. Young male, second year : Similar to adult female, but 
lores, chin, and throat black. (The chestnut and rest of the 
black appearingrin patches, increasing in extent, during suc- 
cessive seasons.) Young of year : Similar to adult female, but 
suffused with brownish, especially on upper parts. Length 
6.00-7.25, wing 2.90-3.25, tail 2.65-3.20. Nest composed of 
green wiry grass-stems, interwoven into a firm basket-like 
structure usually supported between upright twigs near the 
extremity of a branch (but sometimes parti}' pendulous), lined 
with softer materials. Eggs 3-5, .79 X -57, pale bluish, bluish 
white, or greenish white, speckled and " pen-lined" with brown 
and black, usually mixed more or less with lilac-gray. Hab. 
Eastern United States, west to Great Plains ; south, in winter, 
through Middle America to Panama. 

506. I. spurius (Linn.). Orchard Oriole. 
a\ Depth of bill at base equal to half the length of the exposed culmen. (Sub- 
genus Yphantes Yieillot.) 
b\ Wing usually not more than 3.80, tail not more than 3.15 ; adidt male with 
whole head black, lesser wing-coverts wholly orange or yellow, white 
of wings confined to tips of greater coverts and narrow edgings of 



1 Icterus cucullatus igneus RiDGW., Pr. U. S. Nat. Mus. viii. April 20, 1885, 19. 



ICTERUS. 377 

quills and secondaries (the middle coverts sometimes whitish), and tail 
black across middle poi'tion. 

Adult male: Head, neck, middle line of chest, back, scapulars, wings 
(except lesser and middle coverts), and greater part of tail black ; 
broad tips to gi'eater wing-coverts, and narrow edgings to some of 
the quills and secondaries (these sometimes worn away), white ; rest 
of plumage, including lesser and middle wing-coverts, base and tip 
of tail (except middle feathers — but on outer feathers occupying 
nearly half their total length), rich cadmium-orange, sometimes 
varying to intense orange-red, very rarely to lemon-yellow. Adult 
female : Very variable in color, but usually (?) with upper parts 
olive, indistinctly streaked or spotted with black, the wings dusk}', 
with two white bands, and light grayish edges to most of the 
feathers ; rump dull ochraceous-orange ; tail duller, more olivaceous, 
orange ; lower parts dull orange, paler on flanks, the throat usually 
with more or less admixture of black. [iVbfe. — The adult female 
often has the black pattern of head, neck, and back as in male, but 
the color much duller and less uniform. The j^oung male also varies 
between the two extremes (adult male and female) as described 
above, and cannot in any stage be with certainty distinguished 
from the adult female except b}^ dissection.] Young of year : Simi- 
lar to adult female, as described above, but colors softer and more 
blended, and upper parts suffused with brownish. Length about 
7.00-8.15, wing 3.50-3.90, tail 2.85-3.35. Mst more or less purse- 
shaped and pensile, suspended from extremity of drooping branches, 
composed of various textile substances, as various natural plant- 
fibres, strings, etc., compactly interwoven, the nest j^roper com- 
posed of softer materials arranged within the supporting pouch. 
£^ggs 3-5, .89 X -60, dull white, greenish white, or brownish 
white, curiously streaked or irregularly^ "pen-lined" with brown 
and black, sometimes mixed with brown spots or stains. Hab. 
Eastern North America, north to New England, Ontario, and the 
Saskatchewan, west across Great Plains ; south, in winter, thi-ough 
eastern Mexico and Central America to Panama. 

507. I. galbula (Linn.). Baltimore Oriole. 
b''. Wing not less than 3.80 (in adult), tail not less than 3.10 (averaging de- 
cidedly more) ; adult males with whole malar region yellow or orange, 
an orange streak over lores (sometimes prolonged into a superciliary 
stripe), lesser wing-coverts entirelj'-, or for the greater part, black, white 
of Avings covering whole of middle and outer webs of greater coverts, 
besides very broad edges to tertials and secondaries, and tail yellow or 
orange, with middle feathers and tips of the others black, 
c^ Adult male : Forehead, distinct superciliary stripe, ear-coverts, sides, and 
flanks yellow or orange ; lower back, rump, and upper tail-coverts 
yellow or orange, more or less tinged with olive. Adult female : Top 
48 



378 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

of head and hind-neck yellowish olive, becoming brighter yellowish 
(sometimes distinctly orange or yellow) on forehead and superciliary 
reo-ion ; back olive-grayish, streaked with black ; wings dusky, the 
middle coverts white, the greater coverts tipped with white and 
broadl}'' edged with light grayish, the other quills and secondaries 
also edged with light grayish ; lower back light olive-grayish ; rump, 
upper tail-coverts, and tail bright yellowish olive, sometimes in- 
clining to ochraceous-orange ; sides of head, with anterior loM^er 
parts, dull orange or orange-yellow, the throat usually with more or 
less of black ; flanks (sometimes sides and belly also) pale dull 
grayish ; under tail-coverts light yellowish. Young male in second 
year, similar to adult female. Young of year : Similar to adult 
female, but colors paler and duller, suffused more or less with pale 
brownish, and no trace of black on throat (and 3^ellow sometimes 
almost wanting). Length 7.50-8.60, wing 3.80-4.15, tail 3.10-3.70. 
Nest and eggs hardly distinguishable from those of I. galbula, the 
latter, however, averaging slightl}^ larger (.95 X -64). Hah. West- 
ern United States, east to and including Eocky Mountains ; south, 
in wintei', into Mexico. 

508. I. bullocki (Swains). Bullock's Oriole. 
cl Adult male: Forehead, superciliary region, ear-coverts, sides, flanks, 
lower back, rump, and upper tail-coverts black. Adult female: 
" Above gray, mixed with yellowish and variegated with black ; 
wings blackish, edged with white ; below yellowish, middle of 
belly whitish, flanks grayish; tail yellowish olivaceous, with 
darker tips." Wing 4.20, tail 3.20-3.50. Hah. Central and southern 

Mexico. 

I. abeillei (Less.). Abeille's Oriole.^ 

Genus SCOLECOPHAGUS Swainson. (Page 366, pi. CIV., fig. 2.) 

Species. 

Common Characters. — Adult males uniform black, more or less glossy ; females 
uniform brownish gray or slaty. Nest a bulky structure of dried tAvigs, shreds of 
bark, mosses, etc., placed in trees. Eggs 2-7, pale bluish green, pale olive, or dull 
rusty brownish, variously speckled, spotted, or blotched with brown (sometimes 
nearly uniform deep rusty brown). 

a\ Bill slender, its depth through base much less than half the lateral length of 
lower mandible. Adult male in summer : Uniform glossy black, with a faint 
dark bluish gloss on head and neck and of bluish green elsewhere. Adult 
male in winter : The black more or less extensively overlaid by rusty brown 
above and huffy below. Adult female in summer : Uniform dusky brownish 
slate, without gloss, the lower parts inclining to plumbeous. Adtdt female 

1 Xanthornua abeillei Less., Rev. Zool. 1839, 101. Icterus aheillii ScL., P. Z. S. 1860, 252. 



qUISCALUS. 379 

in winter : Much washed or overlaid by rusty on upper and buffy on lower 
parts. Young : Similar to winter female, but colors duller and more uni- 
form, and texture of plumage looser. Length 8.20-9.75, wing 4.25-4.75, tail 
3.65-4.20. Eggs .99 X -73. Hab. Eastern and northern ISTorih America, west 
to Bering's Sea and Great Plains ; breeding from northern iTnited States 

northward 509. S. carolinus (Mull.). Rusty Blackbird. 

a^. Bill stout, its depth through base nearly equal to half the lateral length of 
lower mandible. Adult male in summer : Uniform glossy greenish black, the 
head and neck glossy violet-black. Adult male in winter: Similar to sum- 
mer plumage, but head, neck, back, and breast more or less — generally very 
slightly — obscured by grayish brown tips to feathers. Adult female : Uni- 
form brownish slate, more brownish anteriorly, posteriorly more slaty, and 
with a soft, silky gloss. Length 8.75-10.25, wing 4.65-5.25, tail 3.85-4.50. 
Eggs 1.03 X -74. Hah. Western North America, east to Great Plains (occa- 
sionally to Illinois, etc.), north to the Saskatchewan, south to table-lands of 
Mexico 510. S. cyanocephalus (Wagl.). Brewer's Blackbird. 



Genus QUISCALUS Yieillot. (Page 366, pi. CIII., figs. 1, 2.) 

Species. 

Common Characters. — Adult males : Uniform glossy blackish, often with varied 
metallic hues. Adult females : Decidedly smaller than males, the colors duller 
(sometimes markedly different). 

a^. Tail not decidedly longer than wing (usually decidedly shorter) ; adult males 
with varied rich metallic tints (the head and neck rich, silky steel-blue, 
violet, or brassy green) ; adult females similar, but duller. Nest a coarse and 
bulky but compact structure composed of coarse dried grasses, built in trees 
(often in cavities). Eggs 3-6, pale green or greenish blue, pale olive, or dull 
olive-whitish, coarsely spotted and irregularly lined with brown and black 
(sometimes dull rusty brown, mai'ked with darker). (Subgenus Quiscalus.) 
b^. Plumage of body above and below, with mixed metallic tints (usually sev- 
eral on each feather, especially on back and scapulars), the color of head 
and neck usually not abruptly defined against the color of the body ; 
wing-coverts usually with mixed metallic tints ; wings and tail usually 
bluish violet or bluish. 
c^. Larger, with smaller bill ; length about 11.00-13.50, wing (male) 5.45- 
6.05 (5.71), tail 5.05-5.70 (5.46), graduation of tail 1.00-1.60 (1.26), 
exposed culmen 1.13-1.23 (1.17), tarsus 1.35-1.45(1.40). Female: 
Length about 11.00-11.50, wing about 5.00, tail about 4.80. Eggs 
1.18 X -84. Jlab. Atlantic coast of United States (except southern 
Florida), north to Massachusetts, west to eastern Tennessee. 

511. Q, quiscula (Linn.). Purple Grackle. 
c^. Smaller, with larger bill ; length about 10.40-12.00, wing (male) 5.20- 



380 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

5.40 (5.29), tail 4.60-5.20 (4.93), graduation of tail 1.00-1.35 (1.10), 
exposed eulinen 1.19-1.30 (1.24), tarsus 1.35-1.47 (1.40). Eggs 1.12 
X .78. Hab. Florida (chiefly southern portion), and west along 
Gulf coast to Louisiana. 

511a. Q. quiscula aglaeus (Baird). Florida Grackle. 
V. Plumage of body, above and below, perfectly uniform brassy olive or bronze, 
never with mixed tints, and always very abruptly defined against the 
color (steel-blue, violet, purple, or brassy green) of neck ; wing-coverts 
never with mixed metallic tints ; wings and tail always purplish or 
violet-purplish, never bluish. 

Length (male) about 12.00-13.50, Aving 5.45-5.95 (5.65), tail 5.25-5.90 
(5.52), graduation of tail 1.15-1.60 (1.36), exposed culmen 1.12-1.26 
(1.17), tarsus 1.40-1.46 (1.44). Female: Length about 11.00-11.50, 
wing 5.00-5.05, tail 4.80-4.90. Eggs 1.18 X -81. Hab. Eastern North 
America, west of Alleghanies, including w^hole of New England 
(except coast of Long Island Sound) ; north to Hudson's Bay, west 
to Eocky Mountains, south to Louisiana (?) and Texas ; occasion- 
ally east of Alleghanies, from Virginia northward. 

5116. Q. quiscula aeneus (Eidgw.). Bronzed Grackle.^ 
a^. Tail decidedly longer than wing; adult males without varied metallic tints, the 
plumage being uniform glossy blue-black, or dark steel-blue, becoming grad- 
ually more purplish anteriorly, or greenish, changing anteriorly to blue ; 
adult females exceedingly different from males, being very much smaller, the 
plumage dusky brownish above, light brownish beneath. Nest a very bulky 
structure of dried grasses, Spanish moss, etc., usually compacted together 
with an internal plastering or stiffening of mud, built in low trees, or bushes, 
in swampy situations. Eggs 3-5, ovate or conic-ovate, pale bluish or green- 
ish, pale drab, pale olive, dull purplish gray, etc., grotesquely hned Avith 
black and brown. (Subgenus Megaquiscalus Cassin.) 
1?. Bill stouter (greatest depth at base of gonys more than .40 in male, .35, or 
more, in female), the tip decidedl}^ decurved ; adidt females dull dusky 
browm above, the lower parts similar posteriorly, becoming paler an- 
teriorly ; no distinct superciliary stripe. 
c\ Adult male with tail 8.30, or more. 

Adidt male with metallic gloss violet over all anterior portions, 
including whole back, scapulars, lesser wing-coverts, and all of 
lower parts except flanks and under tail-coverts ; length 17.00- 
18.75, wing 7.35-8.00 (7.59), tail 8.30-9.35 (8.80), exposed cul- 
men 1.47-1.69 (1.60). Adult female : Above dusky brown, with 
a metallic greenish gloss, becoming more decidedly brown and 
less glossy on head and neck ; superciliary stripe (sometimes 
indistinct) and lower parts dull fulvous-brown, becoming more 
buffy on chin and throat and dusky on flanks and under tail- 

1 AVith scarcely a doubt, a distinct species from Q. quiscula. 



qUISCALUS. 381 

coverts; length about 11.50-13.50, wing 5.70-6.50 (5.94), tail 
5.40-6.30 (5.98), exposed culmen 1.20-1.42 (1.34). Mjgs 1.31 X 
.87. Mab. Eastern Mexico, north to southern Texas, south to 
Nicaragua. 

512. Q. macrourus Swains. Great-tailed Grackle. 
c^. Adult male with tail not more than 7.50. 

d^. Plumage (both sexes) essentially as in Q. macrourus, but size very 
much less. 

Adult male : Length 14.00-15.70, wing 6.25-7.05 (6.62), tail 
6.20-7.60 (6.92), exposed culmen 1.36-1.43 (1.40). Adult fe- 
male : Length about 11.00-11.75, wing 5.15-5.50 (5.32), tail 
4.80-5.20 (5.00), exposed culmen 1.15-1.18 (1.17). Hab. 
Western Mexico (north to mouth of Colorado Eiver?). 

Q. graysoni Scl. Grayson's Grackle.^ 
d^. Adult male with metallic gloss greenish, changing through steel- 
blue on back, scapulars, lesser wing-coverts, and lower breast to 
violet on head, neck, chest, and upper breast ; length about 
15.00-17.50, wing 7.00-7.50 (7.22), tail 6.80-7.55 (7.14), exposed 
culmen 1.48-1.68 (1.59). Adult female : Similar in color to 
same sex of Q. macrourus, but lighter, and more tawny beneath, 
and much browner above, the head and neck of an umber tint ; 
length about 11.50-13.00, wing 5.55-5.75 (5.61), tail 5.10-5.55 
(5.31), exposed culmen 1.14-1.30 (1.24). Eggs 1.26 X -89. Hab. 
South Atlantic and Gulf coast of United States, north to Vir- 
ginia, west to Texas. 

513. Q. major Vieill. Boat-tailed Grackle. 

b'K Bill more slender (greatest depth, at base of gonys, not more than .35 in 

male or .30 in female; adult female with top of head, hind-neck, and 

upper back bright rusty brown, the lower parts bright tawnj'-, becoming 

buffy on belly and dusky on flanks and under tail-coverts. 

Adult male : " Uniform dark purplish black, with slight metallic reflec- 
tions; wings and tail dark shining black . . . length 13 inches, 
wing 6.7 ; tail, middle rectrice 7, external 4.3." Adidt female : 
Length about 10.00-10.50, wing 5.20, tail 4.40-5.10, exposed culmen 
1.12. Hab. Central Mexico. 

Q. tenuirostris Swains. Slender-billed Grackle.^ 

1 Quiscaltts palustfis " SwAiNS.," of authors, but not of Swainson. Quiscalus graysoni ScL., Cat. B. Brit. 
Mus. xi. 1886, 307. 

* Quiscalus tenuirostris SwAiNS., An. in Menag. 1838, 299. 



382 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 



Family FRINGILLID^. — The Finches, Sparrows, etc. (Page 321.) 

Genera. 

a^. Mandibles falcate, crossed at tips Loxia. (Page 392.) 

a^. Mandibles not falcate nor crossed at tips. 
^^ Conspicuously crested. 

c\ Culmen strongly curved, and cutting-edge of upper mandible deeply 

sinuated or concave in middle portion.. Pyrrhuloxia. (Page 443.) 

c^ Culmen only slightly curved, and cutting-edge of upper mandible more 

or less convex in middle portion Cardinalis. (Page 441.) 

h"^. Not crested. 

c^. Width of bill at base equal to its length, and basal outline of lower man- 
dible, underneath, dou])ly concave Pyrrhula. (Page 388.) 

c}. Width of bill at base decidedly less than its length, and basal outline 
of lower mandible, underneath, simply concave. 
rP. Depth of bill at base greater than length of hind-toe, with claw, 
and more than three-fourths as long as tarsus. 

Coccothraustes. (Page 386.) 
d?. Depth of bill at base less than length of hind-toe, with claw, and 
less than two-thirds as long as of tarsus. 
e\ Nasal plumules covering nearly basal half of upper mandible. 

Pinicola. (Page 387.) 
e'. Nasal plumules covering very much less than basal half of 
upper mandible. 
/\ Base of gonys midway between tip and lateral base of 

lower mandible Plectrophenax. (Page 402.) 

p. Base of gonj-s decidedly nearer to lateral base than 
tip of lower mandible. 
g^. Gonys slightly convex ; a light brownish spot or 
speculum at base of quills.. Passer. (Page 401.) 
g^. Gonys not appreciably convex ; no light spot or 
speculum at base of quills. 
h}. Primaries exceeding secondaries by more than 
length of tarsus. 
i^. Wing at least five times as long as tarsus. 
/. Wing less than 3.50. 

k^. Tail three-fourths as long as wing ; 
nasal tufts conspicuous. 

Acanthis. (Page 395.) 

A'^ Tail less than two-thirds as long as 

wing ; nasal tufts inconspicuous. 

Z'. Exposed culmen decidedly 

shorter than tarsus ; adults 

without red on head, and 



FRINGILLID^. 383 

with under parts either yel- 
low or else conspicuously 
streaked. 

Spinus. (Page 398.) 
Z^ Exposed culmeu not decidedly, 
if at all, shorter than tar- 
sus ; adults with front part 
of head (all round) red, and 
lower parts neither yellow 
nor streaked. 

Carduelis. (Page 400.) 

/. "Wing more than 3.75 Leucosticte. 

(Page 393.) 

f . Wing less than five times as long as tarsus. 

/. First quill decidedly longer than fourth. 

W-. Depth of bill at base equal to or 

greater than length of exposed 

culmen. 

Carpodacus. (Page 389.) 
/c^ Depth of bill at base decidedly less 
than length of exposed culmen. 
IK Tail emarginate, the middle 
feathers narrow and pointed 
at tip. 
m^. Gonys shorter than hind- 
toe (without claw) and 
less than depth of bill. 
Calcarius. 
(Page 404.) 
m^. Gronys longer than hind- 
toe (without claw) and 
greater than depth of 
bill. Rhynchophanes. 
(Page 406.) 
P. Tail rounded, the middle feathers 
broad and rounded at tip. 
Chondestes. (Page 414.) 
/. First quill decidedly shorter than fourth, 
Habia. (Page 444.) 
h?. Primaries exceeding secondaries by less than 
length of tarsus, 
f . Depth of bill at base equal to length of hind- 
toe, with claw.... Guiraca. (Page 445.) 
f. Depth of bill at base much less than length 
of hind-toe, with claw. 



384 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 



Tail-feathers narrow, the middle ones, at 

least (sometimes all), acuminate. 

li^. Distance from bend of wing to tips 

of longest greater wing-covcrts 

greater than from latter point to 

tip of longest quill. 

Spiza. (Page 451.) 
k^. Distance from bond of wing to tips 
of longest greater wing-coverts 
less than distance from latter 
point to tip of longest quill. 
l^. Middle toe, with claw, decidedly- 
shorter than tarsus. 

Poocaetes. (Page 406.) 

V. Middle toe, with claw, not 

shorter than tarsus.... Am- 

modramus. (Page 407.) 

Tail-feathers broader, not acuminate. 

k^. Wing more than 2.25. 

l^. Hind-claw decidedly longer than 
its digit, 
m'. Bill tapering very rapidly 
to the acute tip, the 
cutting-edge of upper 
mandible distinctly con- 
vex or lobed toward 
base ; nosti'ils concealed 
by small antrorse feath- 
ers Passerella. 

(Page 433.) 
m^. Bill tapering gradually to 
the rather obtuse tip, 
the cutting-edge of the 
upper mandible not 
convex or lobed toward 
base ; nostrils exposed. 
Pipilo. (Page 435.) 
Zl Hind-claw not longer than its 
digit. 
m\ Tertials elongated much 
beyond secondaines, 
nearly equalling long- 
est primaries. 

Calamospiza. 
(Page 452.) 



FRINGILLIDj^. 385 

m\ Tertials scarcely, if at all, longer than secondaries, 
and much shorter than longest primaries. 
?i,i. Outer tail-feather largely (sometimes wholly) 

white Junco. (Page 422.) 

n^. Outer tail-feather with little or no white. 

o\ Lower mandible much deeper than upper; 
adult males very brightly colored, with 
more or less of blue in plumage. 

Passerina. (Page 446.) 

0^ Lower mandible not deeper than upper; 

adult males not brightly colored, and 

without any blue in plumage. 

y. Tail plain blackish or dusky, with or 

without whitish edging to outer 

feathers. 

Amphispiza. (Page 425.) 
f. Tail brownish, grayish, or olive-green- 
ish, usually without markings. 
5^ Tail olive-green ; first quill much 
shorter than secondaries. 

Embernagra. (Page 434.) 
q^. Tail bi^ownish or grayish ; first quill 
not shorter than secondaries. 
?-\ Primaries exceeding secondaries 
by moi-e than length of ex- 
posed culmen; distance be- 
tween tip of outer and mid- 
dle (or longest) tail-feathers 
much less than length of 
hind-toe, without claw. 
s^. Tail more or less rounded, 
the middle feathers 
longest, or equal to 
longest ; wing 3.00, or 

more Zonotrichia. 

(Page 414.) 
5". Tail emarginate or double- 
rounded, the middle 
feathers shorter than 
the longest ; wing less 
than 3.00. 

Spizella. (Page 417.) 

7'^ Primaries exceeding secondaries 

by not more than length of 

exposed culmen ; distance 

49 



386 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

between tip of outer and 
middle (longest) tail-feathers 
equal to or greater than 
length of hind-toe, without 
claw, 
s'. Tail double-rounded, but 
outer feathers much 
shorter than middle 
pair ; graduation of tail 
less than length of ex- 
posed culmen, and tail 
exceeding wing by 
much less than length of 
bill from nostril... Me- 
lospiza. (Page 430.) 
s^ Tail simply, but very much, 
rounded, the middle 
feathers longest or equal 
to longest, its gradua- 
tion greater than length 
of exposed culmen ; or 
else tail exceeding wing 
by more than length of 
bill from nostril. 
Peucaea. (Page 427.) 
A-l Wing less than 2.25. 

Z'. Culmen strongly curved ; bill broad as high at base. 

Sporophila. (Page 449.) 

l\ Culmen nearly straight ; bill much narrower than high at 

base Euetheia. (Page 450.) 

Genus COCCOTHRAUSTES Brisson. (Page 382, pi. CV., fig. 1.) 

Species. 

a}. Tips of four innermost primaries much widened at end, the inner webs emargi- 
nate at tips, the outer webs somewhat recurved, or semifalcate. (Subgenus 
Coccothraustes} ) 
a". Tips of four inner primaries of normal form. (Subgenus Hesperiphona Bonap.) 
b\ Adult male with head smoky olive, relieved by a yellow frontal crescent and 
blackish patch on crown ; adult female with crown dull grayish brown, 
throat bordered along each side by a blackish streak, and upper tail- 
coverts tipped with white. 

Adult male : Crown blackish, bordered anteriorly and laterally by a 

1 The typical subgenus not represented in America. 



PINICOLA. 387 

yellow patch covering forehead and superciliary region ; rest of 
head, with neck and back, uniform deep olivaceous, changing grad- 
ually to yellow on scapulars and posterior portions of body, above 
and below ; wings, tail, and upper tail-coverts black ; tertials uni- 
form dull white, the secondaries and inner webs of tail-feathers 
sometimes tipped with the same. Adult female: Whole top of head 
dull bi'ownish or brownish-gray ; rest of head, with neck and most 
of the body, lighter grayish, tinged more or less with olive-yellow, 
the throat bordered along each side by a dusky streak ; a whitish 
patch at base of inner j)rimaries. Young : Similar to adult female, 
but colors much duller and more brownish, with markings less 
sharj)ly defined, the dusky streak on sides of throat sometimes 
nearly obsolete ; lower parts paler and more buffy, with little or 
none of gray; bill dull horn-color, or brownish instead of yellowish, 
green. Length about 7.00-8.50, wing 4.20-4.50, tail 2.75-3.20, cul- 
men .75-80, depth of bill at base .55-70. Hab. Western North 
ji\merica, north to British Columbia and the Saskatchewan; east 
(irregularly, in winter) to Michigan, Wisconsin, Illinois, and Iowa; 
casually to Ohio and Outax'io ; south over table-lands of Mexico to 
highlands of Vera Cruz. 

514. C. vespertinus (Coop.). Evening- Grosbeak. 
b^. Adult male with head entirely black ; adult female with top of head black 
(sharply defined), no dusky streak on sides of throat, and upper tail- 
coverts without white tips. Jfab. Highlands of Guatemala and southern 
Mexico. 

C. abeillii (Lkss.). Abeille's Grosbeak.^ 

Genus PINICOLA Yieillot. (Page 382, pi. CY., fig. 2.) 

Species. 

Common Characters. — Adult males : General color dull rose-pink or madder- 
pink (rarely varying to a light vermilion tint), changing to ash-gray on scapulars, 
flanks, belly, and under tail-coverts, the plumage everj^where being of this color be- 
neath the surface ; scapulars and feathers of back dusky centrally, causing a spotted 
appearance ; wings and tail dusky, the middle and greater coverts broadly tipped 
with white (this sometimes tinged with pink) and tertials broadly edged with same ; 
secondaries, primaries, and tail-feathers narrowly edged with light grayish. Adult 
females with wings and tail as in the male, but rest of plumage gi'ayish, without 
any red, but changing to a more or less bright olive-tawny tint on head and lower 
rump, the breast sometimes tinged with same. Young : Similar to adult female, 
but colors duller and more blended, the wing-bands dull buffy instead of pure 
white, and texture of plumage very different. \_Note. — Apparently adult males are 
occasionally found in which the plumage is not distinguishable from that of the 



1 Guiraca abeillii Less., Rev. Zool. 1839, 41. Coccothraicstes abeillii Scl. & Salt., Ibis, 1859, 19. 



388 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

female ; in others, the general plumage is that of the female, except that the 
olivaceous or tawny color on head, etc.,. is replaced by a more reddish tint (varying 
from light dull orange-red to deep madder-brown).] Nest a rather flat thin struc- 
ture, of fine rootlets, etc., in coniferous trees. Eggs greenish or bluish, spotted with 
brown and blackish, 

a}. Smaller (wing not more than 4.30. and averaging less than 4.28), with relatively 
larger bill and shorter tarsi, and colors much duller, the females with 
plumage chiefly olivaceous. 

Length about 8.00-8.50, wing 4.20-4.30 (4.25), tail 3.60-3.70 (3.G5), ex- 
posed culmen .55-65 (.61), tarsus .80-.90 (.84). Hab. Northern Europe 
and Asia. 

P. enucleator (Linn.). Pine Grosbeak.^ 
a^. Larger (wing very rarely less than 4.30, and averaging more than 4.40), with 
relatively smaller bill and longer tarsi, and colors much brighter, the females 
with plumage usually chiefly grayish. 
h^. Larger, with proportionally much smaller bill and longer tail ; length 8.25- 
9.00, wing 4.50-5.00 (4.68), tail 3.70-4.45 (4.10), exposed culmen .53-.59 
(.56), tarsus .87-92 (.90). Eggs 1.01 X -74, deep greenish blue or bluish 
green, rather sparingly spotted with dark brown and black. Hab. 
Northern North America in general, breeding from northern New Eng- 
land, Labrador, etc., to Alaska (except coast south of the peninsula), and 
south in higher Eoeky Mountains to Utah and Colorado ; in winter, 
south to northern United States. 

515. P. enucleator canadensis (Cab.). American Pine Grosbeak.^ 

h"^. Smaller, with proportionally much larger bill and shorter tail ; length about 

8.00-8.50, wing 4.25-4.60 (4.45), tail 3.60-3.80 (3.70), exposed culmen 

.57-.62 (.60), tarsus .88-.92 (.90). Hab. Kodiak to Sitka, Alaska. (Also 

probably southward to higher Sierra Nevada of California.) 

— . P. enucleator kodiaka Eidgw. Kodiak Pine Grosbeak.* 

Genus PYRRHULA Brisson. (Page 382, pi. CV., fig. 3.) 

Species. 

Adult male : Whole top of head, with feathers around base of bill, glossy blue- 
black ; hind-neck, back, scapulars, and lesser and middle wing-coverts uniform 
ash-gray; rump plain white; upjoer tail-coverts, tail, and tertials glossy blue-black, 
inclining to dark violaceous steel-blue ; greater wing-coverts black, very broadly 
tipped with light ash-gray, passing into white terminally ; quills dull blackish ; 

1 Loxia enucleator Linn., S. N. ed. 10, i. 17.')8, 171. Prnicola enucleator Cab., Mus. Hein. i. 1851, 167. 

2 Pinicola canadensis Cab., Mus. Hein. i. Aug. 1851, 167. 

' New subspecies. In Cabanis's Journal fur Ornithologie, 1880, page 156, Von Homeyer describes a Pinicola 
fiammida from " northwestern America," which may possibly be this form, though that it is more likely to be 
the ordinary Alaskan bird would appear from the statement that the tail is longer than the ordinary American 
bird, which is exactly the reverse of the Kodiak bird. It may be, however, that "longer" is an error, or slip 
of the pen, for " shorter." 



CARPODACUS. 389 

sides of head, throat (but not chin), and rest of lower parts, except lower tail- 
coverts, uniform pale ash-gra}', lighter on cheeks ; lower tail-coverts and under 
wing-coverts white. Adult female : Similar to male, but low^er parts and sides of 
head vinaceous-gray, or cinnamon-gray, instead of clear ash-gray. Length about 
6.50, wing 3.50-3.55, tail 3.00-3.25. Hab. Northern Alaska (Nulato) and portions 
of Siberia 516. P. cassini (Baird). C as sin's Bullfinch. 



Genus CARPODACUS Kaup. (Page 383, pi. CVI., figs. 2, 3.) 

Species. 

Common Characters. — Adult males with the plumage partly or chiefly red- 
dish ; adult females olivaceous or grayish above, streaked with darker, beneath 
whitish, conspicuously streaked with dusky or brownish gray. 

a}. Tail very much shorter than wing, deeply emarginated ; adidt males with wing- 
feathers edged with reddish. Nest a rather flat, thin structure, composed of 
fine dry rootlets, grasses, etc., on horizontal branches of trees. £^ggs 2-4, 
greenish blue or bluish green, finely speckled, chiefly on larger end, with 
black and dark brown. (Subgenus Carpodacus.) 
bK Lower tail-coverts without distinct dusky streaks; depth of bill through 
base equal to or greater than length of gon^'S. Adult males: Above dark 
dull madder-pink, clearer on rump, deeper and brighter on top of head, 
the back more or less obscured by darker centres to feathers, and often 
(especially in winter) by grayish edgings; feathers of back streaked me- 
dially with dusky; low^er parts, except belly and lower tail-coverts, 
dull madder-pink, the sides strongly tinged or washed with this color. 
Adult females : Above olivaceous, mixed with grayish, and streaked with 
darker; sides of head with two distinct brownish stripes, or patches, one 
covering ear-coverts, the other on each side of throat, the two sepa- 
rated by a whitish maxillary stripe ; lower parts dull white, conspicu- 
ously streaked with dusky. Young : Similar to adult female, but colors 
duller, markings less distinct, and edgings of w^ing-feathers more buffy 
or tawny. 
c^ First quill usually longer than fourth. Adult male with sides and 
flanks usually not tinged with brown, and not distinctly streaked ; 
if streaked, the streaks usually narrow, and sharply defined ; back 
more distinctly streaked, red of crown brighter, and that of rump 
paler and clearer. AdiUt female : Top of head and back distinctly 
streaked ; streaks of lower parts broader, darker, and more sharpl}'- 
defined. Length 5.50-6.25, wing (males) 3.15-3.40 (3.27), tail 2.30- 
2.50 (2.40). Eggs .80 X -57. Hab. Eastern North America, breed- 
ing from northern United States northward. 

517. C. purpureus (Gmel.). Purple Finch. 
c*. First quill usually shorter than fourth. Adult male with sides and flanks 



390 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

usually strongly suffused with brownish and broadly though not 
sharply streaked with darker ; back veiy indistinctly streaked, the 
central portion of the feathers being less dark and the edges darker 
than in C. purpureus ; red of crown darker and that of rump much 
darker and duller than in C. purpureus. Adult female with upper 
parts more uniform, and streaks on lower parts rather narrower, 
less sharply defined, and paler than in C. purpureiis. Length 6.00 
-6.50, wing (male) 3.10-3.20 (3.13), tail 2.40-2.60 (2.49). Eggs 
.77 X -56. Hab. Pacific coast of United States, from southern 
California to British Columbia, breeding in mountains. 

517a. C. purpureus californicus Baird. 
California Purple Finch. 
b^. Lower tail-coverts with distinct streaks of dusky ; depth of bill through 
base less than length of gonys. Adult male : Top of head bright crim- 
son ; back and scapulars pinkish brown, the feathers edged with light 
grayish and streaked medially with dusky ; rump nearly uniform dull 
pinkish ; throat and breast pale dull rose-pink ; rest of lower parts 
white, the sides scarcely tinged with pinkish, and lower tail-coverts 
conspicuously streaked with dusky. Adidt female : Above olive-graj'ish, 
streaked with dusky ; sides of head nearly uniform grayish olive, finely 
streaked with dusky ; lower parts white, conspicuously streaked with 
dusky. Young : Similar to adult female, but streaks on lower j)art8 
narrower and less distinct, and wing-edgings more ochraceous. Length 
6.50-6.95, wing 3.60-3.95, tail 2.60-3^.00. Eggs .86 X -60. Jfab. Western 
United States, north to British Columbia, east to Eocky Mountains, 
and south over highlands of Mexico. 

518. C. cassini Baird. Cassin's Purple Finch. 
a"^. Tail not decidedly shorter than wing, not distinctly emarginated ; adult males 
with wing-feathers edged with pale grayish. Nest a well-built, compact 
structure, composed of dried grass-stems, plant-fibres, etc., built in ti*ees or 
about houses (often within deserted nests of other species). Eggs 3-6, bluish 
white, or very pale greenish blue, sparsely speckled, chiefly round larger end, 
with black, (Subgenus Burrica Eidgw.^) 

Adult males : Above brownish gray (this sometimes overlaid or replaced by 
a wash or suffusion of reddish), without distinct streaks on back ; rump, 
forehead, superciliary stripe, malar region, chin, throat, and chest reddish 
— these reddish ai'eas sometimes running together, the red thus covering 
the greater extent of the plumage; rest of lower parts whitish, more or 
less extensively streaked with dark grayish brown ; wings and tail dusky 
grayish brown, the feathers edged with a paler shade of the same. Adult 
females : Above entirely grayish brown, indistinctly streaked with darker ; 
beneath everywhere white, broadly streaked with dark grayish brown. 
Young : Similar to adult female, but back more distinctly streaked, 

^ New subgenus. Type, Fringilla mexicana MUll. 



CARPODACUS. 391 

streaks on lower parts narrower and less distinct, and wing-coverts 
tipped with dull butfy. 
¥. Bill from nostril not more than .35, its depth at base not more than .35 ; 
tarsus not more than .70. 
c\ Adult male with the red absolutely restricted within very definite and 
sharply-defined limits, its area including only the forehead and a 
broad superciliary stripe (reaching back to occiput), the malar 
region, chin, throat (sometimes chest also), and rump; its tint a 
very intense carmine or crimson. Otherwise, not obviously different 
from true C. frontalis. Wing (male) 3.05-3.10 (3.08), tail 2.60-2.80 
(2.70). Hab. Eastern and southern Mexico (Vera Cruz, etc.). 

C. mexicanus (MtJLL.). Crimson-fronted House Finch.' 
c". Adult male with the red spreading at least over breast (sometimes over 
whole lower parts, except anal region and lower tail-coverts, and 
occasionally even tingeing the latter), and also invading, more or less, 
the crown, hind-neck, back, etc. ; or else, if absolutely restricted 
within very definite limits, the tint not an intense carmine or crim- 
son. Length about 5.75-6.25, wing (male) 2.85-3.30 (3.08), tail 
2.40-2.80 (2.57). Eggs .80 X -55. Hab. Western United States, 
from Eocky Mountains to Pacific coast (chiefly south of 40° in 
the interior), and south through western and central Mexico to 
Colima and Guanajuato ; Lower California. 

519. C. mexicanus frontalis (Say). House Fincli.' 
¥. Bill from nostril .40, or more, dejith at base .40, or more, tarsus .75, or 
more. 

In plumage similar to C. frontalis (verus), but darker ; length about 
6.00-6.50, wing 3.10-3.35 (3.27), tail 2.60-2.90 (2.83), bill from nos- 
tril .40-.45 (.43), depth of bill at base .40-.50 (.46), tarsus .75-.85 
(.80). Mab. Guadalupe Island, Lower California. 

520. C. amplus Eidgw. Guadalupe House Fincli. 

^ Fringilla mexicana MiJLL., Syst. Nat. Suppl. 1766, 165. Carpodacus mexicanus Ridgw., Pr. Biol. Soc. 
Wash. ii. 1885, 111. 

2 After a very careful comparison of more than a hundred adult males (in red or partially red plumage), I 
am now quite convinced that the supposed race named Carpodacus rhodocolpus by Cabanis (519a. C. frontalis 
rhodocolpua, Crimson House Finch, of the A. 0. U. Check List) is entirely untenable. The easily recogniza- 
ble differences of color (maximum extension of the red) which have led to its recognition prove to be, in the 
light of this abundant new material, not correlative with locality, as supposed, but are evidently an individual 
peculiarity, perhaps dependent upon age. I am not at all certain, however, that the Lower-Californian bird 
should not be separated. A considerable percentage of the specimens which I have been able to examine are 
so peculiar that nothing approaching them can be found in the very large series from other localities. These 
peculiarities consist, (1) in the smaller general size, (2) rather more swollen bill, and (3) greater extension 
of the red. This last peculiarity is carried to such an extreme that in all of the " Cape St. Lucas" specimens 
the under tail-coverts are deeply tinged with pink, while in some even the wing-bands are pinkish-; in several 
the pure deep madder-pink of the breast is continued backward over the belly and flanks, where the usual 
dusky streaks are entirely obliterated. From the insufficient material at my command I am unable to form a 
decided opinion in the matter, but the indications appear very strong that a local race, peculiar to the southern 
portion of Lower California, will eventually have to be recognized, in anticipation of which I propose the name 
Carpodacus frontalis ruherrimua. 



392 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

Genus LOXIA Linnaeus. (Page 382, pi. CVI., fig. 1.) 

Species. 

Common Characters. — Adult males chiefly reddish, with dusky wings and tail, 
the former sometimes marked with white ; females plain olive, tinged with grayish 
or yellowish, sometimes more or less streaked with darker; young light olive- 
grayish, everywhere streaked with dusky. 

«^ Wings without white markings. Adult males dull red (usually brighter on 

rump), the wings and tail uniform dusky. Adult females olivaceous instead 

of red, the olive varying in shade from a grayish to a j^ellowish cast, often 

strongly tinged, in places, with the latter color. Young : Pale dingy grayish 

or light olive, paler beneath, everywhere (except on wings and tail) streaked 

with dusky. 

h\ Smaller: Length 5.50-6.25, wing 3.20-3.60 (average about 3.40), tail 1.85- 

2.40 (average about 2.15), culmen .50-.68 (average about .62), depth of 

bill .30-.40 (average about .35), tarsus .58-68 (average about .63). Nest 

a rather flat structure, in coniferous trees, composed externally of spruce 

twigs, shreds of soft bark, etc., lined with horse-hair, fine rootlets, etc. ; 

cavity about 2.50 across by 1.25 deep, external diameter about 4.00. 

Eggs usually 4, .75 X -57, pale greenish, spotted with various shades of 

brown, mixed with purplish gray. Hab. North America in general, but 

chiefly far northward, and east of Great Plains ; breeding, sporadically, 

south to Maryland and Virginia near coast, and to northern Georgia, 

Tennessee, and Kentucky in mountains. 

521. L. curvirostra minor (Brehm). American Crossbill. 
fe'. Larger : Length about 6.80-7.25, wing 3.85-4.10 (average nearly 4.00), tail 
2.50-2.60 (2.54), culmen .72-.82 (.78), depth of bill .45-.50 (.49), tarsus 
.65-.72 (.70), lower mandible averaging heavier, compared with the 
upper, and colors brighter, than in L. minor. Hab. Southwestern United 
States, from western Kansas, Colorado, and Arizona, south through 
highlands of Mexico. 

521a. L. curvirostra stricklandi (Eidgw.). Mexican Crossbill.^ 
rt^ Wing with two broad white bands (on tips of middle and greater coverts), the 
two confluent at upper portion. Adult male : General color purplish red or 
dull rosy, occasionally tinged with yellow or orange ; scapulars, wings, and 
tail deep black, the former varied with white, as described above ; back 
clouded with blackish. Adult female : Olive-greenish or grayish above, paler, 



1 A large majority of the specimens from western North America, north of Colorado and Arizona, and a 
" sprinkling" of those from eastern North America (especially in New England and the British Provinces), are 
intermediate between L. minor and L. stricklandi, as defined above. This connecting series, which in the north- 
western portion of the United States is sufficiently uniform in its characters to be worthy of recognition as a 
geographical race, has already been named by me L. curvirostra bendirei. (See Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 
ii, 1884, 101 ; author's extras published April 28, ISS-l.) 



LEUCOSTICTE. 393 

often more yellowish, beneath ; wings and tail as in male, but duller black. 
Young : Pale olivaceous, more dingy whitish, tinged with yellowish, be- 
neath, every\vhere streaked with dusky ; wings and tail much as in adults. 
Length 6.00-6.50, wing 3.50, tail 2.60. JTab. Northern North America, 
bi'eeding from northern New England and higher northern Eocky Moun- 
tains northward; south, in winter, to or beyond lat. 40°. 

522. L. leucoptera Gmel. White-winged Crossbill. 



Genus LEUCOSTICTE Swainson. (Page 383, pi. CVI., figs. 4, 5.) 

Species. 

Common Characters. — Adult: Plumage uniform brownish, above and below, 
(sometimes slightly broken by whitish or reddish tips to the feathers) ; tail-coverts 
dusky, broadly tipped with rose-pink, or else pale hoary gray or silvery -white, 
with darker shaft- streaks. In summer, bill entirely deep black, feathers of anterior 
lower parts without paler tips or margins, and red tints brighter. In winter, bill 
yellow, tipped with blackish, feathers of anterior lower parts tipped or margined 
terminally with whitish, the red tints of a pinkish hue. Young : Plain brownish, 
without black or gray on head or rosy tips to tail-coverts, etc. JVest built among 
rocks, bulky, composed of grasses, etc., lined with soft feathers. I^ggs pure white, 
without markings. 

a'-. Sides of lower mandible with a distinct oblique ridge near base ; tail-feathers, 
primaries, secondaries, greater wiug-covert3, and primary coverts dusky, 
edged with paler ; tail-coverts dusky, broadly tipped with rose-pink in adults. 
(Subgenus Leucosticte.) 
b^. Nasal tufts white. 

c\ Head of adult partly ash-gray. 

d^. Tarsus .85, or more, culmen .50, or more ; wing usually more than 
4.30, tail usually more than 3.30. 

Adult: Forehead and fore-part of crown black; throat dusky; 
rest of head uniform ash-gray ; general color of plumage 
dark chocolate-brown, with a chestnut cast on breast, the 
feathers of posterior portions tipped with rose-pink. 
Young : Uniform grayish brown, more or less washed 
with a more umber tint ; wings and tail dusky slate, the 
feathers bordered with paler; edges of greater wing-coverts 
and tertials dull buflfy ; no trace of pink on tail-coverts, 
etc., or of gray or black on head. Length about 7.50-8.50, 
wing 4.20^.85 (4.49), tail 3.15-3.90 (3^49), culmen .50-.62 
(.57), tarsus .85-1.00 (.95). Uggs .95 X -67. Hab. Aleutian 
and Prybilof Islands, Alaska ; west to Commander Islands, 
Kamtschatka, east to Kadiak. 

523. L. griseonucha (Brandt). Aleutian Leucosticte. 
50 



394 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

(P. Tarsus not moi'e than .85 (usually much less), culmen not more 
than .50 (usually less), wing usually much less than 4.30, tail 
usually less than 3.00. 
e^. General color deep cinnamon-brown. 

/^ Gray of hind-head strictly limited to that portion above 
the ear-coverts; length 5.75-6.85, wing 3.80-4.40 (4.11), 
tail 2.75-3.30 (3.00), culmen .40-.50 (.46), tarsus .75- 
.86 (.79). Hab. Interior of British America, near 
Eocky Mountains ; south, in winter, through Eocky 
Mountain district of United States (chiefly eastern 
slope) to Colorado ; east, occasionally, to western 

Iowa 524. L. tephrocotis Swains. 

Gray-crowned Leucosticte. 
/^ Gray of hind-head spread more or less extensively below 
upper margin of ear-coverts, sometimes involving en- 
tire head, except the black frontal patch; length about 
6.30-7.00, wing 3.80-4.30 (4.03), tail 2.70-3.30 (2.95), 
culmen .40-.50 (.46), tarsus .75-.85 (.77). Hab. Pacific 
coast ranges of northwestern North America, from 
Oregon (?) northward; in winter, coast, from Ka- 
diak southward, and southeastward through moun- 
tains of the Great Basin to western Nevada and 

eastern Colorado 524(7. L. tephrocotis litto- 

ralis (Baird). Hepburn's Leucosticte. 
e\ General color sooty blackish (male) or sooty slate (female). 

Adult male : Pattern of head exactly as in L. tephrocotis ; 
the cinnamon-brown of that species replaced in the 
male by sooty black (more brownish on back) and sooty 
grayish in female ; length about 6.50-7.00, wing 3.80- 
4.25 (4.05), tail 2.80-3.15 (2.98), culmen .40-.45 (.43), 
tarsus .75-.80 (.78). Hab. In winter, central Eocky 
Mountains, in Colorado and Wyoming, west to Uintah 
Mountains, Utah ; summer range unknown. 

525. L. atrata Eidgw. Black Leucosticte. 
&. Head of adult (and young) without any ash-gray. 

Adidt male : General color light tawny brown (much less rufes- 
cent than in L. tephrocotis and Z. littoralis), deeper on throat, 
where sometimes tinged with purplish ; top of head blackish 
anteriorly, grayish brown or brownish gray posteriorly (not 
markedly different from the general color of head and body), the 
edges of the feathers more grayish, sometimes producing a 
somewhat scaled appearance. Adult female : Similar, but very 
much paler and duller, the pinkish tints much less distinct, 
sometimes almost obsolete. Young: Plain light brownish, the 
wing-coverts more buffy; no pinkish on tail-coverts, etc., nor 



ACANTHIS. 395 

black on forehead. Length about 6.50-7.25, wing 4.00-4.40 
(4.15), tail 2.80-3.35 (3.09), culmen .40-.48 (.45), tarsus .70-.80 
(.77). Hab. High mountains of Colorado in summer (10,000 
feet and upwards) ; lower districts, and south to northern 
Mexico, in winter. 

526. L. australis (Allen). Brown-capped Leucosticte. 
6^ Nasal tufts black. 

Adult : Head blackish ; hind-neck light rusty ; general color of body 
dark chocolate-brown ; otherwise, much like L. tephrocotis, and 
allies, the size about the same. Ifab. Northeastern Asia, from 
Kamtschatka to northern Japan. 

L. brunneinucha (Brandt). Japanese Leucosticte.' 
a*. Sides of lower mandible without oblique ridge ; tail-feathers, primaries, second- 
aries, primary coverts, and greater coverts light hoary gray or silvery 
white, with darker shaft-streaks ; tail-coverts without rosy tips. (Sub- 
genus Hypolia Eidgway.'^) 

Adult : General color plain sepia-brown, paler, and sometimes more tawny, 
on hind-neck, the tail, etc., silvery whitish, as described above ; length 
about 6.00-6.50, wing 4.60, tail 3.15. ITab. Northeastern Asia (Siberia, 
etc.) ; accidental on Aleutian Islands (?) 

L. arctoa (Brandt). Silvery-winged Leucosticte.' 



Genus ACANTHIS Bechstein. (Page 382, pi. CVII., fig. 1.) 

Species. 

Common Characters. — Adult males : Above streaked with dusky upon a 
brownish, graj'ish, or whitish ground, the rump sometimes immaculate white or 
pinkish ; top of head bright red (except in A. brewsterii) ; wings and tail dusky, the 
feathers edged with paler, the middle and greater wing-coverts tipped with whitish 
or pale brownish ; superciliary region and lower parts chiefly whitish, but antei'ior 
lower parts (except in A. brewsterii) more or less tinged with red, and sides usually 
more or less streaked with dusky; a more or less distinct dusky spot on chin and 
upper part of throat (except in A. brewsterii). Adidt females : Similar to the males, 
but without any red on breast, etc., the crown, however, red as in male. Young : 
No red whatever on crown or elsewhere ; whole head streaked with dusky and 
grayish or brownish white, the latter color prevailing on under portions ; other- 
wise much as in adult female, but plumage of much softer, more " woolly" tex- 
ture and markings less sharply defined. {Note. — Both sexes have in summer a 

1 rrinrjiUa {Linaria) brunneinucJia Brandt, BulL Ac. St. Petersb. Nov. 1841, 35. Leucosticte brunneinucha 
Caban., Mus. Hein. i. 1851, 151. 

2 HypoUa RiDGW., Bull. U. S. Geol. & Geog. Surv. Terr. No. 2, sec. ser. May 11, 1875, 67. Type, Passer 
arctous Pall. 

' Passer arctous, var. o, Pall., Zoog. Rosso-As. ii. 1826, 21. Leucosticte arctoa Bonap., Consp. i. 1850, 
537. 



396 NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

blackish bill, the red of a brighter tint and the colors darker than in winter, during 
which season the bill is yellow tipped with black, the lighter markings more pro- 
nounced, and the plumage in general more or less strongly suffused with buffy or 
light ochraceous-brown.) Nest a rather bulky structure composed of small twigs, 
straws, etc., mixed with feathers, warmly lined with soft feathers, etc., placed in 
bushes or small trees. Eggs 2-5, pale bluish green, speckled, chiefly round larger 
end, with reddish brown, sometimes mixed with a few black specks or lines. 

a}. Adults with top of head (crown) bright red (usually crimson), and a dusky spot 
covering chin and upper part of throat ; plumage without sulphur-}- ellow 
tinge in any part. 
h^. Wing exceeding tail by less than length of tarsus ; rump plain white or 
pinkish ; sides very narrowly or sparsely, or not at all, streaked ; under 
tail-coverts with darker shaft-streaks narrow and indistinct, or some- 
times altogether wanting; inner webs of tail-feathers very broadly 
edged with white ; plumage in general very light, with whitish or light 
grayish prevailing on upper parts, the lower parts almost entirely white ; 
adult males with chest and sides of breast merely tinged with delicate 
peach-blossom pink. 
c^ Larger (length about 5.50-6.50), with proportionally thicker and less 
acute bill. Male : Wing 3.35-3.45 (3.37), tail 2.70-2.85 (2.75), ex- 
posed culmen .32-.37 (.35), depth of bill at base .30-.32 (.31), tarsus 
.62-.70 (.66), middle toe .32-.37 (.35). Female: Wing 3.25-3.35 
(3.31), tail 2.65-2.80 (2.74), exposed culmen .35-.38 (.36), depth of 
bill at base .30-.32 (.31), tarsus .62-.68 (.64), middle toe .32-.37 (.35). 
JIab. Northern Greenland (breeding from 69°-73° N. latitude) and 
eastern Arctic America, south to Labrador in winter. 

527. A. hornemannii (Hole.). Greenland Eedpoll. 
c^. Smaller (length about 4.50-5.25), with proportionally smaller and more 
acute bill. Male : Wing 2.95-3.10 (3.02), tail 2.50-2.55 (2.52), ex- 
posed culmen .30, depth of bill at base .22-.25 (.23), tarsus .52-.58 
(.55), middle toe .30-.32 (.30). Female : Wing 2.80-3.05 (2.87), tail 
2.30-2.60 (2.46), exposed culmen .28-.32 (.29), depth of bill at base 
.20-.25 (.22), tarsus .50-.57 (.54), middle toe .28-.30 (.29). Eggs .68 
X -51. Hab. Circumpolar continental regions ; in North America, 
south, in winter, rarely, to northern border of United States. 

527«. A. hornemannii exilipes (Coues). Hoary Redpoll. 
b'^. Wing exceeding tail by more than length of tarsus ; rump distinctly 
streaked ; sides distinctly, often broadly and heavily, streaked with 
dusky ; under tail-coverts with very distinct dusky mesial streaks ; inner 
webs of tail-feathers very slightly, if at all, edged with white ; plumage 
in general darker, with darker markings prevailing on upper parts, the 
lower parts never entirely white ; adxilt males with chest and sides of 
breast deep madder-pink. 
c\ Smaller (length 4.50-5.25), with proportionally longer and more acute 



ACANTHIS. 397 

bill. (Wing averaging less than 3.00 in males, less than 2.95 in 
females.) 
d}. Smaller (length about 4.50-5.00), with proportionally smaller bill. 
Male : Wing 2.80-3.05 (2.91), tail 2.20-2.50 (2.33), exposed cul- 
men .32-.38 (.35), depth of bill at base .22-.27 (.24), tarsus .55- 
.60 (.57), middle toe .33-.35 (.34). Female: Wing 2.75-2.90 
(2.84), tail 2.20-2.40 (2.31), exposed culmen .30-.37 (.34), depth 
of bill at base .20-.25 (.22), tarsus .55-.60 (.58), middle toe .30- 
.32 (.31). Eggs .69 X -48. Hah. Northern portions of northern 
hemisphere, except Greenland and certain sea-coast districts ; 
in North America migrating south, in winter, to about 40°. 

528. A. linaria (Linn.). Redpoll. 
d^. Larger (length about 5.00-5.25), with proportionally larger bill. 
Male : Wing 2.85-3.05 (2.96), tail 2.25-2.45 (2.34)